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Full text of "Bean's history and directory of Nevada County, California. Containing a complete history of the county, with sketches of the various towns and mining camps ... also, full statistics of mining and all other industrial resources"

UMON HOTEl 

Main Street, Nevada City, Cal., 

EATON &- '■'■''SON. PTOprietors. 



MU \ \ r \T<>' 



ivAAC WII.I.I AMK(»\. 




'^^W^' 



♦. . » 



•■ ! ». ' .'.' 



Hundred Large, Aif^ Booms, 

.\\i> i> IN i:\ i';i:i i ' - 1 '■' I .. ■ ■> 
MOST ELEGANTLY FURNlSHtD HOTELS 



xrr -^ PTTJ c^TA-Ti: 



0/?r 



C. nil 1 \IH.I. IS SI I'-'i I' ! VM. ilA U.I < 

DKLiriCltS Ok THE HEAMU>.~u • 

THE JiARJ^MS eiLilART '.QOMS 



US' 



EICiUNGE HOT! 



Iflaiii Street, Oraiis Valley^ 



i? 



O. W^- SMITH, PROPRIETOR, 




The Proprietor of this well known Hotel informs the public 'chaf, lie 
has just ADDED TWENTY-FIVE NEW AND WELL-VENTILATED 
rooms, and that he has spared neither pains or expense to make hisHonr.e 
cne of the best in the Mountains. 



ONE OF THE FINEST OF BARS ATTACHED TO THE HOUSE, j 



CONTAINING FOUR OF 

PHELANS IMPROVED TABLES. 



H. S. CROCKER & CO., 



AND 



STA_TIO]N"ERS, I 

w 







4^0,. ^^^ ..x^- i 



%s'SDm^^^^ 



Q 

HI 
O 



H. S. CROCKER & CO., S 

IMPORTERS OF | ^ 

PRINTERS' MATERIALS, 

ETO-, ETC., 

42 and 44 J Street, Sacramento. 



II 



SACRAMENTO BUSINESS DIRECTORY. 



HERMANN WACHHORST, 

maker and Jeweler, 

No. 79 J Street, between Third and Fourth, 

(The only Jeweler on Nonli side of r Street I, SACRAMENTO. 

JEWELRY AND DIAMOND WORK DIADE TO ORDER. 

All kinds of Watches and Clocks carefully Repaired 
and Warranted. 



METROPOLITAN SALOON, 

Corner of J and Third Streets^ 

THE REST OF 

WIFES, LIQUORS, CIGARS, 

AND A TIP TOP LUNCH ALWAYS READY. 

FRED. ENGELHARDT Proprietor. 




Occlilijnlal Saloon, 



ts .1 sriii;i;T, 

ACR A M K.\TO. 






w. A. hedi:nberg & co., 

Sacramento^ California^ 

IMPORTERS AND DKALERS IN ALL KINDS OF 

H. W. BRAGG, Sacramento, California. 
W. A. HEDEJ^BERG, Js^ewarh, JVew Jersey. 



SACRAMENTO BUSINESS DIRECTORT. HI 



C. T. WUKKLKEl. I. T. OLOVKK. NEWTON BOOTH. 

33€>€>'X'X3C «fi3 OO., 



\{. lUELAND, 
WOOD AND WILLOW WARK 

AM" MAM 1 .Mil 111. K <>1' 

CALIFORNIA BROOMS AND BRUSHES, 



TKLKCIHAPIT FRICTION MATCHES, 

No8. 200 and 202 J Street, Sacramento. 




Successor to MdssoU M'crii'iii cj- 6'o., 
82 and 84 J Street, Sacramento. 



DEUELL, GRIFFITTS & CO., 

iMi>ouTi:ics A.M> i»i;ai.eu.s IV 

SMALL WARES AND YANKEE NOTIONS, 

WHOLKSALE AND RETAIL, 
S4S J STREET, SA.CE.A.lVEEI^TO. 



IV SACRAMENTO BUSINESS DIRECTORY. 



ADAMS, McNeill & CO., 

IMPORTERS AND WHOLESALE DEALERS IN 

QUICKSILVER, GROCERIES, 

OILS, I^LOXJR, 

AND ALL KINDS CALIFOBNIA PRODUCE, 
No. 95 Front Street, corner of L. 

A.G'EilsTTS or TKE 

CALIFORNIA POWDER WORKS. 

A. LAR^OE STJPPL^^ OF 

BLASTING AND SPORTING POWDER, 

Constantly on hand and Sold at San Francisco Prices, adding 

Schooner Freights. The above Powder is Guaranteed 

Fresher and Stronger than any imported article. 

PIONEER UVERYInD SALE STABLES, 




T. D. SCRIVER. I^roprietor, 
FOURTH STREET, BET. I AND J, SACRAMENTO 

BERNARD DENNERY, 

Importer and Tl'^holesale and Retail I>oaler in 

QUEEN'S WARE, GLASS WARE, 

L^IVEI^S, T^BLE CUTLERY, &C., 

166 J STREBT, 

(Between Sixth and Seventh,) S-A.OI?».A-]^w^IB]SrTO- 



SACRAMENTO BUSINESS DIRECTORY. 



EXCHANGE AND BANKING HOUSE 



OF 



CORNER OF SECOND AND J STREETS, 



tJ A /"^ IJ .V X/T'L,-' VTrn/' \ /^ 



LVLII ORNIA. 



SAN FRANCISCO 
HISM||r^tt^TER 



SAN FRANCISCO 
PUBLIC LIBRARY 

ROOM CASE 

REFERENCE BOOK 

Not to be taken from the Library 

3 1223 ^0\^^ [ff^o 



sonahle Terms, Gold 
Bought and Sold, 
or Assay or Coin- 
tint , Advances 
I Security J 

COLD OR CURRENCY, 

Mm Boiglit an! Soli. 

ng Business done. 

I BREWERY, 

niGISGO. 



E AND PORTER, 

SOLD AT SAN FRANCISCO PRICES BY 

WM. HADWICK, 

sole: agsht^ 

Front Si reet, bet^veen M and N Sts., 

SA.OR^]Sd:EisrTO. 



IV 



SACRAMENTO BUSINESS DIRECTORY. 



ADAMS, McNeill & CO., 

IMPORTERS AND WHOLESALE DEALERS IN 

UICKSILVER, GROCERIES, 

OILS, T^LOTJR, 

AND ALL KINDS '"-'"'^'*"' 

No. 95 Front 

CALIFORNIANA 
*979.437 
B378 68-68 



CALIFORNIA 

BLASTING AND 

Constantly on hand and S 

Schooner Freights. 1 

Fresher and Strong 

S -A. T I S F A. C T I 



PIONEER LIVERY 



Bean's history and direc- 
tory of Nevada County, 
California, 
v.l. 




T. D. sor: 

FOURTH STREET, B 

BERNARii ui^jiMMiKi, 

Importer and Wholesale and Retail Dealer in 

®M@©K®M¥, ©HIMA WAmm, 

QUEEN'S WARE, GLASS WARE, 

16G J STREST, 

(Between Sixth and Seventh,) S-A.OI^uA_IM[IE3!N'TO 



SACRAMENTO BUSINESS DIEECTORT. 



EXCHANGE AND BANKING HOUSE 

O F 

CORNER OF SECOND AND J STREETS, 

SACliAMKNTO, CALIFORNIA. 



SXGHANGQ FOR SALX:^ 

Collections made on reasonable Terms, Gold 
and Silver Bullion Bought and Sold, 
Gold Dust received for Assay or Coin- 
age at the U. S. Mint, Advances 
made on Good Security, 

DEPOSITS RECEIVED IN COLD OR CURRENCY, 

Govemiieiit Bonis aii Lepl Teiflers Botiglit ani Soil 

And a General Banking Business done. 

LYON COMPANY BREWERY, 

SAIff FRANCISCO. 



XXX ALE, PALE ALE AND PORTER, 

SOLD AT SAN FRANCISCO PRICES BY 

WM. HAD WICK, 

SOLE ACS^EIUT^ 

Front Si reet, bet^veen M and N* Sts.^ 

sa.ora.m:ei^to. 



VI 



SACRAMENTO BUSINESS DIRECTORY. 




'ee 

BETWEEN B 

FRONT 



AND 



SECOND, 



AND THE 



TraTeliiPnlilic 



NEAR THE STEAMBOAT I.AXBIXG AS1> RAIEKOAD DEPOT. 



T. M. LINDLEY. 



T 



I. LOHMAN. 



Importers and Wholesale Grocers, 

ISTos. 46 and 48 K Street, 

(betwee:s' second and third,) 

San Francisco Office : Corner Clay and Front Streets. 



Importer and ]>ealer in 



CARPETS, OIL CLOTHS, Mi 

Damask, Lace and iVluslin Curtains, 

PAPER HANGINGS, MOULDINGS, 

AND EVERYTHING IN THE 

115 and 117 J Street, north side, Sacramento. 

Agency for the Howe Machine, also the New England Sewing Machine. 



:o 3ES .^ 3Nr ' s 



HtSTORY ANO CtRECTORV 



OF 



NEVADA COUNTY, 



CALIFORNIA. 



CONTAINING A COMPLETE HISTORY OF THE COUNTY, WITH 

SKETCHES OF THE VARIOUS TOWNS AND MINING 

CAMPS, THE NAMES AND OCCUPATION OF 

RESIDENTS ; ALSO, FULL STATISTICS 

OF MINING AND ALL OTHER 

INDUSTRIAL RESOURCES. 



COMPILED BY EDWIN F. BEAN. 



IPJE-^T-A-XJ-A.. 



PKINTED AT THE DAILY GAZETTE BOOK AND JOB OFFICE, 

1867- 



TABLE OF CONTENTS, 



Statk and Judicial Officeks, etc. 

State Otlicers 4 

Judicial Districts 4 

CouDty Olflcere 5 

Courts 6 

Revcnuo U. S. Oflicers 6 

Post Ottices 6 

Notaries Public 6 

Military Orjxanizations 7 

Quartz Miniu<^ Laws 8 

HiSTOIUCAL SkKTCII OF COUNTV 9 

Dfclaratory 9 

Description 10 

Historical 11 

Meteorology 19 

Qeolofjical 22 

Natural History 24 

Indiauology 25 

Patriotic 29 

Mines and Products 30 

Improvements in Mining 32 

Political 33 

The Press 40 

Vines and Wines 43 

Quartz Mining, (by T. H.Rolfe,). 48 
Cement Mining. '• " . . 57 
Placer Mining, " " . . 61 
Canals and Ditches 65 

Historical Skktcu of Nevada City 

AND Township 73 

B. P. Avery's Letter 74 

Table of Distances 97 

Nevada City Otficers 98 

Fire Department 98 

Civic and Religious Societies. ... 99 

Schools 107 

Mines of Nevada Township 108 

Industrial Establishments 133 

County Hospital 135 

Directory 137 

Advertisements 153 

Historicax. Sketch op Grass Val- 
ley 185 

Hungry Convention.by Old Block 190 
Grass Valley Townsliip OflBlcers.193 



Organizations 193 

Schools 198 

Press 200 

Sketch of Mills 201 

Mines 204 

Notes on Grass Valley District, 

by Prof B. Silliman 233 

Sulphuret Reduction Works 247 

Iron Foundries 247 

Directory 249 

Advertisements 273 

Sketch of Meadow Lake Township 

(bv Frank Tilford) 305 

M'ills 318 

Minos 319 

Directory 321 

Advertisements 326 

Sketch of Bridgeport Township.. 335 

Directory 346 

Advertisements 352 

Sketch of Rough and Ready 353 

Directory 364 

Sketch of Little York Township..367 

Directory 373 

Advertisements 389 

Sketch of Washlngton Township 

Omega 378 

Alpha 378 

Rocky Bar 379 

Gaston Ridge 383 

Director}' 385 

Advertisements 300 

Sketch of Bloomfield Township. 

North Bloomfield 395 

Lake City 396 

Relief Hill 396 

Columbia Hill 396 

Directory 397 

Sketch of Eltieka Township 

Eureka 401 

South Fork 402 

The Flats 402 

Product of the Mines 452 

Eureka Quartz District 403 

Directory 405 



CLASSIFIED LIST OF ADVERTISERS. 



Accountant : 

Ellis Edwards 329 

Apothecaries : 

J. F. Bussenius 181 

Wm. Loutzenlieiser. . . . 282 
E. F. Spence, bot'm lines 
Nevada Township & 394 

Smith. & Ross 273 

Winham & Clark 333 

Assay ers: 

Hill&Farnham 297 

Hentsch & Berton 418 

Wm. Luebbert & Co.. . .331 

J. J.Ott 184 

G. W.Kidd&Co 180 

Findley&Co 277 

Auctioneers : 

W.C.Pope 274 

Amalgamating Pan : 

Stewart's Grinder & 
Amalgamator 412 

Attorneys at Law : 

A. C. Niles 1(57 

J. C. Palmer 166 

Hawley & Williams 167 

J. I. & John Caldwell. .167 

David Belden 168 

W. W. Cross -167 

Sargent & Reardon. . . .168 

J. R. McCounell 168 

C.Wilson Hill 177 

Dibble & Byrne 294 

E. W Roberts 294 

J. C. Deuel 295 

Kirkpatrick & Maslin. .295 

MylesP. O'Connor 295 

Frank Tilford 326 

J. B. Johnson 352 

H. G. Rollins 326 

Jas. Galloway 326 

O. P. Stidger 352 

Artificial Limbs: 

A. Folleau 413 & 414 

Bakeries : 
Davis W.J 164 

Dreyfuss Julius 158 

Hollywood Jos 176 

Campbell & Stoddard. ..279 
Anderson G. W 288 

Banks and Bankers : 

Findley &Co 2T, 

G. W. Kidd&Co 18C 

H.Mackie&Co 161 

Hentsch & Berton 418 

B. F, Hastings & Co. . . . v 



Blacksmiths: 

A. Barton 169 

Avery, Crocker & Co . . . 287 

Denman & Sparks 301 

James & English 301 

Bedding : 

Jas. E. Johnston 184 

W. C. Pope 274 

Ole Johnson 286 

Halleck&Co 300 

Bill Poster : 

Wm. King 174 

Billiard Saloons : 

Union Hotel, 1st cover 

Carley & Beckman 153 

Exchange Hotel, inside 
cover 

Wisconsin Hotel 284 

Behrisch Chas 289 

A- Friedman 334 

Flagg & Harrison 392 

Book Binders : 

Hermann Ernst 

Booksellers & Stationers 

Geo. R. Crawford 421 

Geo. W. Dixon, top lines 
Grass Val'y Township 

Spencer & Hobart 278 

Catholic Bookstore 281 

C. C. Townsend 282 

Smith & Ross 273 

Boots & Shoes : 

Wm. R. Coe 173 

Banner Brothers,bottom 
line Nevada Tp 

J. Sanders 281 

G. C.King 300 

J. Newman «&Co 303 

L. Samuel & Brothers. .285 

Smith & Perkins 329 

Mason & White 392 

S. Zerga 334 

M. J. HeydlaufiF. 389 

Combs &McGoun 390 

Brass & Iron Foundries 

Heugh& Thom 175 

J. M. Lakenan 293 

Moynihan & Aitken 409 

Hanscom & Co 415 

Franklin Foundry 416 

M. C.Taylor 420 

Brewers : 

JohnBlasauf 172 

Goldkoffer & Braun 296 

J.Frank 281 



Smith & Hodge 286 

Binkleman & Richards. 288 

B. Kerkhoff. 332 

Lyon Company Brewery v 

Butchers : 

Wm. Stone 158 

J. Naffziger 165 

Jas. Davis 165 

Jas. Monro 165 

F. Bulacher 165 

Jas. Colley 169 

J. W. Johnston 171 

Wood & Pierce 290 

M. FitzGerald 298 

Fox & Co 332 

B.F. Snell 391 

H. Hays& Co 332 

Carpets : 

A. Goldsmith, top lines 
Nevada Township. 

Cline tSi Novitzsky 162 

M. Rosenberg & Bro. . .162 

L. Samuel & Bro 285 

J. Newman & Co 303 

M. J. Heydlauff. 389 

Mason & White 392 

W. Sharp vi 

Car. & Wagon Makers: 

A. Barton 169 

Avery, Crocker & Co . . . 287 
Denman & Sparks 301 

Cigars and Tobacco : 

J. Greenwald 176 

N. Slocovich 163 

Chapman & Briggs 179 

Harrington & Senner. . . 181 
Geo. W. Dixon, top lines 
Grass Valley Towns'p 

C. C. Townsend 282 

Adams & Johnson 334 

Clothing Dealers: 

Banner Broth'rs, bottom 
lines Nevada Town. 

M.J. Heydlauff. 389 

Mason & White 393 

B. Gad & Co., bot'm lines 
Grass Valley Town. 

J.Sanders 281 

Adams & Johnson 334 

S. Zerga 334 

C. A. Kellogg 329 

Smith & Perkins 329 

Combs & McGoun 390 

Com. & For. Merchants: 

J. Worrill&Co 387 

Davenport & Weaver. . .420 



Crockery & Glass Ware:! Fumiturne Dealers: ' Hay Grain & Feed : 

Bliven&Everingham. .181|J. E. Johnston 184 E W Bigelow 163 

Gregory &Waite ITSlW. C. Pope 2<^;K R. West 290 

Geo. E. Turner 157 Halleck & Co oW] Insurance Agents : 

W. C. Pope 274010 Johnson r^»b j, ^ gpeuce 394 

Campbell & Stoddard. . . 279 j Groceries : IG. W. Ividd & Co 180 

John Johnston '^^^iGreo-orv & Waite 178 H. Mackie & Co 161 

John Bennett & Co 296!^y^ g^^j^^ 158 S. B. Davenport 171 

Halleck & Co 300 j ^y^^' Woif 1(32 J. F. Bussenius, see Occi- 

Mason & White '^^'^' Baker & Martin 172 dental Insm-ance Co. .159 

M. J. HeydlaufF. 389:,, Keenev " ' " ". . ..174iW. K. Spencer 278 

C. A. Kellogg 325lcampbell & Stoddard. .279lW. F. Brandreth. .345&287 

Adams & Johnson '^'^^ijohn Johnston 286' Insurance Companies: 

Finnie & Kinsey ^93 p^^^jfj^. 419 

C. A. Kellogg. 329 ^^^^j^^ 378 

L & Perknis o2b piremans' Fund 273 

J. H. Tenncnt oo': Home Mutual 171 

!^- Zerga i^:j* Mutual Life 171 

Adams & Johnson '^'^4 North America.. . .345&387 



B. Deunery iv 

Constables: , 

E.J. Markhara 32918™;*'^, 

Milt. Combs 390 

Dentists : 



389 



Phcenix 161 



A. Chapman 179 M. J. Heydlautt'. 

Wm. Kent 177|comb8 & McGoun 390 yvenwoV, London, and 

C. E. Davis 302 ; Mason & White 392 ^j^Ji^g 

Booth & Co iii 

Adams. McNeill & Co 



Doors, Sash & Blinds 

Geo. M. Hughes l^'^lLhTdiey & Lohman. 

W.C. Stiles 422' 

Geo. E. Turner 158 



Gun & Gunsmith 



Globe 180 

Jewelers : 

vi'Otto Wiedero 280 

H. Wachhorst II 

Justices of the Peace : 

John Kendall 164 

J. C. Palmer 166 



P. Brunstetter 376 [T. Knodercr 

Dress Maker &Milliner:! Hardware: 

Mrs. A. F. Junrs 299 Geo. E. Turner lojAL P. O'Connor 245 

i(feo. Keenev 1741 Wm. S. Byrne 294 

Drugs & Medicines: 

E. F. Spence 394 

J. F. Bussenius 181 Bennett & Co 296 



Gregory & Waite 178! J. E. Jones 326 

Peter Johnston 285 D. E. Sykes 226 



Smith & Ross 273 

W. Loutzenheiscr 282 

Winham& Clark 333 

Mason & White 392 

M. J. Hevdlauff. 389 

Combs & McGoun, 390 

Dry Goods: 

A. Goldsmith, top lines 
of Nevada Township. 

Cline & No\'itzsky 162 

M. Rosenberg & Bro. . .162 

J. Newman & Co 303 

L. Samuel & Bro 285 

Mason &Wliite 392 

M. J. Hevdlauff. 389 



H. Merwin "i 

Harness & Saddler: 
W. G. Jenkins 162 

Hose Manufacturer : 

S.Howard 411 

Hotels : 

Union, 1st cover 

Exchange Hotel, Grass 
Val'y, inside 1st cover 

Miners 160: J. H. Tennent 

New York 163!S. Zerga 



Laundry : 

Libbey & Kaiser 298 

Liquor Dealers : 

Gregory & Waite 178 

A. Isoard 159 

R. Fininger 160 

Wm. Stone 158 

Campbell & Stoddard.. .279 

John Johnston 289 

C. A. Kellogg 329 

Smith & Perkins 329 

332 

....334 



Wisconsin 284! Adams & Johnson 334 



Golden Eagle 286 

International 289 



Combs & McGoun '^^^ILake House 328 



Deuel, Griffitts & Co. . . iii 

Engraver & Designers : 

Van Vleck& Keith.... 416 

Express Company : 

Gregory & English 182 

Fancy Goods & Toys: 

Chapman & Briggs 179 

N. Sloco%'ich 163 

Geo. W- Dixon' top line 
Grass Val'y Township 



McAran & Co 416 

Livery Stables : 

Saxby & Lancaster 170 

Place & McCowen 173 

Mason «& Byrne 275 

HenrvPoUey 298 

„ . . rr , T 00, T. W'. McCue & Co. .. .304 

Excelsior Hotel 334: ^ -r^ Qnrivpr tv 

Bear Vallev House 388 ^- ": ^^m^r.^. iv 



Crystal Lake House. . . .327 

Tinker's Station 333 

Coburn's Station 333 

Donner Lake House. . . .333 



Globe Hotel 391 

Starr's Exchange 393 

Ebner's Hotel vi 

German board'g House 285 

Hat Store : 



C. C. Townsend 282iS. Novitzky 281 



Lumber Dealers: 

H. Southard & Co 183 

P. Brimstetter 276 

W. A. Hedenberg & Co . li 

Metallurgical Works : 

HiU & Farnham 297 



Merchant Tailors: 

A. Rosenthal 164 

Jas. II. Downing 184 

Mining Secretaries: 

Ellis Edwards 829 

Ed. Fowler 331 

Music and Pianos : 
A. Koliler 410 

Newspaper Offices; 

Daily Gazette 154 

Daily Transcript 153 

Dailv Union 408 

Daily National 291 

Meadow Lake Sun 330 

H. S. Crocker & Co i 

Notaries and Comm'srs : 

Edwin Fowler 321 

D.E. Svkes 326 

H.G.Rollins 326 

E.W.Roberts 294 

J. C. Deuel 295 

J. I. Caldwell 167 

Hawlev & Williams.. . .167 
W. K.'Spencer 278 

Paper Hanging : 

F. A. Potter 159 

Parffine Oil Lubricator • 

Geo. Fletcher 283 

PhotograpMc Galleries : 

Chas. Ferrand 168 

D. Cobb 293 

Physicians & Surgeons : 
J. W.Talbott 166 



R.M.Hunt 166 

C.M.Bates 166 

S. Kisfy 177 

Tucker & George 301 

Jas. Simpson 302 

W. Bergman 329 

Xoble Martin 390: 

Planing Mills : 

Geo. M. Hughes 169i 

P. Bruustetter 276, 

W. C. Stiles 422, 

Restaurants : j 

AlesGault, "Antelope" 157 
W Stokes, "Occideutal" 2881 

C. E. Powers, Red Dog 392 1 

Saloons : 

Flagg & Harrison 392 : 

Jack McXally 392&393' 

Union Hotel, first cover. I 

Carley & Beckmau 158 

Schmittburg & Co 157 j 

Blaze 156 

F. Stumpf 160 

J. Bla.sauf. 172} 

Jenkiu & Sloan 177 

Harrington & Senner.. .181 

John Frank 281 

W. C. Stokes 285 

W.H.Mitchell 284 

Smith & Hodge 286; 

J. L. Clapp 286; 

Chas. Behrisch 287 

Bruneman & Co 288 

Samuel Hodge 289 

John Doling 299 

D. Meaghar 293 



E. McSorley 203 

R.Crver 299 

GoldkoflFer &Braun 296 

John Corbett, Mazepj)a.298 

J. D. Pollard 328 

Joseph Burtin, 331 

B.Kerkhoff 332 

E. S. DreAv 333 

S.Zerga 334 

A. Friedman 334 

John Heinson 393 

Sewing Machines : 

Florence, back cover. . . 
Grover & Baker, 184 & 185 

Shaving Saloons : 

G. H. Clav 303 

T. C. Lampe 163 

Stage Lines : 

Telegraph Stage Co 157 

Gregorv & English. . . .182 
G. V. &"Xev. Stage Line 292 

Stone & Brick Mason ; 
S. L. Brooks 290 

Stoves & Tin Ware : 

Geo.E. Turner 157 

Peter Johnston 285 

W. A. Begole 390 

Bennett & Co 296 

Holbrook, Merrill & Co 411 

Undertakers : 
W.C.Pope 274 

W. C. Stile.s 422 

W.C. Groves 171 

Wood & Willow Ware : 

R. Ireland ill 



INTRODUCTORY. 



The size and importance of Nevada among the mining counties of Cal- 
ifornia ; its mines of gold of enormous product, eclipsing all others in the 
world ; its extensive gravel ranges, in which lies imbedded wealth to 
enrich the nation ; its thousand ledges of gold-bearing rock that stripe its 
territory, inviting the capital of other lauds, and which are destined at no 
distant day to cause its valleys and uiouutaius to resound with the din and 
clatter of machinery; its fertile soil on which can be grown all the pro- 
ductions of the temperate zone; its perfect adaptability to the production 
of the generous wines that are to rival those of France and Hungary ; its 
vast extent of surface that entices the agriculturist to come and clothe its 
hill sides with orchards and vineyards ; its nearness to the great Pacific 
railway, rendering it accessible to the commerce and travel of the world, 
and the attention it is attracting among the scientific and moneyed circles 
of the globe — all these would seem to call for some compendious exhibit of 
its boundless resources, its products and its prospects. Accordingly, the 
task has been undertaken, and the result may be found in the following 
pages. Therein are contained a concise history of the county, as full as 
the limits of the volume would allow ; an account of all the notable mines, 
their location, yield, etc., as far as can be ascertained; of the canals of the 
county, cost of construction, capacity, etc.; statistics of every branch of 
industry ; besides a complete directory of the county. To the citizens of 
Nevada county the following pages will be of interest, presenting as they 
do in preservable shape, the evidence of the wealth and material resources 
of a portion of the earth's surface, which they call *' home," and which is 
unexcelled by any other portion of like extent on the habitable globe; and 
as a work of reference for business men generally, I flatter ourself, it 
must prove to be of far greater value than its cost. 

To E. G. Waite I am indebted for the history of the county and other 
valuable contributions for the work. Much valuable information has been 
obtained from two historical sketches of the county written by Hon. A. A. 
Sargent, one published in a Directory of the county by Brown & Dallison 
in 1856, the other in a Directory of Nevada, published by H. B. Thompson 
in 1861 ; also, from W. S. Byrne, Esq., and his Directory of Grass Valley, 
published in 1865. To Judge Frank Tilford I am indebted for the sketch 
of Meadow Lake township, and to Captain E. W. Koberts for the sketch 
of Rough and Ready. Other gentlemen have contributed new facts, whose 
names will appear in the history as it comes from the pen of the writer. 

EDWIN F. BEAN. 

Nevada, 1867. 



STATE EXECUTIVE AND JUDICIAL OFFICERS. 



STATE OFFICERS. 



[Terms expire first Monday in December, 1867.] 

Residence. Salary. 

FREDERICK F. LOW Governor Yuba S7,000 

T. N. MACHIN Lieutenant Governor Mono 4,000 

B. B. REDDING Secretary of State Sacramento 4,000 

GEORGE ODLTOX Controller Siskiyou 4,000 

R. PACHECO Treasurer San Luis Obispo 4,000 

J. G. McCULLOUGH Attorney General Mariposa 4,000 

J. F. HOUGHTON Surveyor General Sacramento 3,000 

JOHN SWETT Supt. Pulilic Instruction. . .San Francisco 3,000 

GEO. S. EVANS Adjutant General Sacramento 3,000 

O. M. CLAYES State Printer San Joaquin Fees. 

W. D. HARRIMAN Clerk Supreme Court Placer Fees. 

W. C. STRATTON State Librarian Sacramento 2,.500 



JUSTICES SUPEEME COURT. 



Residexce. 



Salary- 



JOHN CURREY Solano $6,000 

LORENZO SAWYER San Francisco 0,000 

A. L. RHODES Santa Clara G.OOO 

O. L. SIIAFTER San Francisco (i.OOO 

S. W. SANDERSON El Dorado 0,000 

Regular terms held at Sacramento on first Monday in January, April, 
July and October, 



JUDICIAL DISTRICTS. 



1st. Los Angeles, San Bernardino, San 
Diego, San Luis Obispo, Santa Barbara. 
Pablo de la Guerra, Judge. 

2d. Tehama. Butte, Plumas and Lassen. 
Warren T. Sexton, Judge. 

3d. Alameda, Monterey. Santa Clara 
and Santa Cruz. Sara'l B, McKee, Judge. 

4th. Northern part of San Francisco. 
E. D. Sawyer, Judge. 

5lh. San Joaquin and Tuolumne. Jos. 
M. Cavis. Judge. 

6th. Sacramento and Yolo. John H, 
McKune, Judge. 

7th. Marin. Mendocino, Napa, Solano, 
Sonoma and Lake. J. B . Southard, Judge. 

8th. Klamath, Del Norte and Humboldt. 
Walter S. Brock, Judge. 



9th. Shasta, Si-skiyou and Trinity. E, 
Garter, Judge. 

lOtb. Sutter, Yuba, Colusa and Sierra. 
Isaac S. Belcher. Judge. 

11th. El Dorado, Amador and Calave- 
ras. S. W. Brockway, Judge. 

12th. Southern part of San Francisco 
and San Mateo. Orville C.^Pratt, Judge. 

13th. Fresno, Mariposa. Merced, Stan- 
islaus and Tulare, J. M. Bondurant, 
Judge. 

14th. Nevada and Placer. Thomas B. 
McFarland, Judge. 

loth. San Francisco and Contra Costa. 
S. H. Dwinelle. Judge. 

16th. Mono, Alpine, Inyo and Kern. 
Theron Reed, Judge. 



]SrE V A.13^ O OUjSTT Y. 



COUiVTY OFFICERS. 



DAYS, H. A. ASHBUPtN, ] ^ ^ 
3IAS0N, C. E. MULLOY, J ^""- Collectors. 



THOxMAS B. McFARLAND District Judge. 

A. C. NILKS County Judge. 

JOHN CALDWELL District Attorney. 

JOHN I. CALDWELL Deputy District Attorney. 

R. H. FARQUHAll Clerk, ex officio Auditor. 

G. K. FAIlQUHAll Deputy Clerk. 

E. F. SPENCE Treasurer. 

E. F. BEAN Assessor. 

C. E. iMULLOY, A. F. MASON Deputy Assessors. 

CHxVKLES BARKER Collector. 

W. J. ORGxVN, J. M. 
E. F. BEAN, A. F. 

J. C. GARBER Recorder. 

IRA STANLEY, W. H H. COFFMAN, G. PL FERRE,...Dep. Rec's. 

R. B. GENTRY Sheriff. 

R. B. PATTEN Under Sheriff. 

A. W. POTTER, STEVE VENARD Deputy Sheriffs. 

H. S. BRADLEY Surveyor. 

W3I.C. STILES Coroner. 

W. W. COZZENS Public Administrator. 

G. K. FARQUHAR Deputy Puplic Administrator. 

M. S. DEAL SuPT. Common Schools. 

R. M. HUNT County Physician. 

The terms of tlae elected officers will expire on tlie first Wednesday in 
March, 18GS. 



SUPERVISORS. 

JONATHAN CLARK, President First District. 

J. J. DORSEY Second District. 

J. B. JOHNSON '. Third District. 



COURTS, TOWNSHIP OFFICERS, ETC. 



COURTS. 

Didrict Court, 14th Judicial District. — 
Regular terms held at Court House, Ne- 
vada City, first Monday in March, June, 
September and December. Hon. T, B. 
McFarland, Judge ; John Caldwell. Attor- 
ney ; R. H. Farquhar, Clerk ; G. K. Far- 
quhar. Deputy; R. B. Gentry, Sheriff; 
A. W. Potter, Deputy. 

County Court. — Regular terms held at 
Court House, Nevada City, first Monday 
in February, May, August and November. 
Hon. A. C. Niles. Judge ; John Caldwell, 
Attorney ; R. H. Farquhar, Clerk ; R. B. 
Gentry, Sheriff. 

Probate Court. — Terms on first Monday 
in each month, at Court House, Nevada 
City. Hon. A. C. Niles, Judge; R. H. 
Farquhar, Clerk, 



TOWNSHIP OFFICERS. 

Nevada Township. — Justices — John C. 
Palmer. John Kendall. Constables — Jos. 

B. Gray, John H, Gray. 

Grass Valley. — Justices — W. S. Byrne, 
M. P. O'Connor. Constables — J. Allison, 
John D. Meek. 

Rough and Ready. — Justices — William 
Curran. E. L. Melbourne. Constables- 
Lucius Pomeroy, John Perkenpine. 

Bridgeport. — Justices — Moses F. Hoit. 
George B. Newell. Constables — Robert 
Huckins, J. A. Ros.=!. 

Bloomfield. — Justices — Levi Ayres, W. 

C. Carter. Constables — G. F. Hutchinson, 
E. H. Henry. 

Eureka. — Justices — John H. Young, J. 
W. C. Coleman. Constables — 0. A. Pierce, 
J. C. Eastman. 

T'Fas/ii?ig'to?i.'- Justices — Geo. Roberts, 
. Constables — A. G. Hender- 
son, E. J. Markhand. 

Meadow Lake. — Justices — J. E. Jones, 

D. E. Sykes. Constables— Steve Venard, 

Little York. — Justices — R. McGoun. A. 
P. Scbutt. Constables — Milt. Combs, John 
Fuller, 



U. S. REVENUE OFFICERS. 

S. B. Davenport, Deputy United States 
Collector. OfBce in Masonic Building, 
Commercial street, Nevada City. 

J. B. Richmond, Deputy United States 
Assessor. Office in Masonic Building, 
Commercial street, Nevada City. 

W. H. Davidson, Deputy United States 
Marshal. Gflice at National Exchange 
Hotel, Nevada City. 



POST OFFICES. 

Following is a list of the PostofiSces of 
the county, with the name of the Post- 
masters, and the salaries of those we have 
been able to obtain. Nevada and Grass 
Valley are rated as second class oflSces ; 
North San Juan and Moore's Flat as 
fourth class, and the others belong to the 
fifth class : 

Nevada City F. G. Guild. .$3,200 

Grass Valley D. B. Nye 2,200 

North San Juan R. Longhead. 370 

Moore's Flat S. Caldwell. . . 190 

French Corral S. B. Caswell. 100 

Little York N. Dodge 71 

Rough and Ready.. .S. H. Sheffield 08 

Washington A, F, Mason. . 64 

Sweetland Wra. Menuer. 57 

North Columbia. . . .Levi Ayres. . . 52 

Omega A.C. Henniken 48 

Patterson M. W. Martin. 33 

Painsville J, M. Quiue. . IG 

Meadow Lake. M. W. Wilson. 

Red Dog .W.F.Heydlauf 

Indian Springs H. L. Hatch. . 

North Bloomfield. . .Caleb Nash 

NOTARIES PUBLIC. 

Nevada county is entitled by law to 
sixteen Notaries Public. The following 
are the names of those officers, with their 
places of residence, on the 1st of January, 
1867: 

John I. Caldwell Nevada City 

John Caldwell Nevada City 

Thomas P.Havvley Nevada City 

A. A. Sargent Nevada City 

L. W. Williams Nevada City 

John C. Deuel Grass Valley 

E. W. Roberts Grass Valley 

W. K. Spencer Grass Valley 

John M. Abbott Meadow Lake 

Edwin Fowler Meadow Lake 

H. G, Rollins Meadow Lake 

D. B. Sykes Meadow Lake 

J. E. Squire Meadow Lake 

Wm. M. Eddy French Corral 

J. B, Johnson North San Juan 

0. P. Stidger North San Juan 



MILITARY FIFTH REGIMENT, FOURTH BRIGADE. 



MILITARY ORGANIZATION. 



Nevada City is the heaclquartevs of the Fifth Infantry Kegimcnt, Fourth 
Brigade of the National Guard of California, The Kegimeut was organ- 
ized on the 25th of August, 1866, under the law passed that year, with 
the followino- officers : 



Field and Staff. 

N. AV.KNOWLTON. 

CM. KOPP 

REUBEN LEECH.. 

E.G. WAITE 

E. F. SPENCE 

G. SCHMITBURG.. 
LN. WALLING.... 
A. W. POTTER.... 



Grade, 



Commissioned. 



Colonel 

Lieutenant Colonel. 

Major 

Adjutant '. . . 

Assistant Surgeon . . 

Quartermaster 

Sergeant Major 

Quartermaster Serg, 



August 2.5. 1806.. .. 

August 25, 18(if) 

August 2,5, 18G6 

September 22, 186G. 
September 22, 18G6. 
September 22, 18GG. 
September 22. 18GG. 
September 22, 1866. 



Residence, 



Nevada 

Dutch Flat 

Grass Valley 

Nevada 

Nevada 

Nevada 

Rougb and Ready. 
Nevada 



COMPANIES. 

GRASS VALLEY UNION GUARD— Company A. E. W. Roberts, 
Captain; John D. Meek, First Lieutenant; William Rule, Second Lieu- 
tenant. 

NEVADA LIGHT GUARD— Company B. J. A. Lancaster, Captain; 
M. S. Deal, First Lieutenant ; Joseph R. English, Second Lieutenant, 

LITTLE YORK UNION GUARD— Company C— You Bet. Wm. 
Cuvillie, Captain ; Arthur Keeler, First Lieutenant ; F, A. King, Sec- 
ond Lieutenant. 

AUBURN GRAYS— Company D— Auburn, Placer county. S. B. 
Woodin, Captain; W. H. Hubbard, First Lieutenant; E. L, Craig, 
Second Lieutenant. 

HOWELL ZOUAVES— Company E— Grass Valley, J. H. Stebbins, 
Captain; Robert Flanders, First Lieutenant; Charles S. Wells, Second 
Lieutenant. 

PACIFIC GUARD— Company F— Dutch Flat, Placer county. S. 
Wardner, Captain ; J. T. Staples, First Lieutenant ; Thomas Teaff, Sec- 
ond Lieutenant. 

YANKEE JIMS RIFLES— Company G— at Yankee Jims, Placer 
county. John Keiser, Captain; J.. C Parsons, First Lieutenant; S. M. 
Jamison, Second Lieutenant. 

YUBA LIGHT INFANTRY— Company H— at Camptonville, Yuba 
county. J. P. Brown, Captain ; J. G. McLellan, First Lieutenant ; J. R. 
Rideout, Second Lieutenant, 



QUARTZ MINING LAWS. 

The quartz miners of Nevada county 
were the first to perceive the necessity of 
some general regulations to govern the 
location and holding of ledges, differing 
from those that had been adopted by the 
placer and river miners. For this pur- 
pose, a convention of the quartz miners 
of the county was called, which met at 
Nevada early in the fall of 1852, and was 
attended by parties interested from all 
parts of the county. At this meeting, a 
full discussion and interchange of opinion 
was had, as to the charaeter of regulations 
needed, and a committee was appointed 
to draft the laws, with instructions as to 
the size of the claims, the amount of work 
to be done to hold them, etc. The con- 
vention then adjourned to meet on the 
20th of December following, and invited 
all the quartz miners of the county to 
attend. At the adjourned meeting the 
committee presented their report, and the 
appended laws were adopted. These have 
proved eminently satisfactory, never hav- 
ing been changed or abrogated, and have 
been respected and enforced by the courts 
of the State, It was the first attempt, so 
far as we are aware, to lay the foundation 
of a code of quartz mining laws ; and 
although they do not, and were never 
intended to, provide for every case that 
may arise in practice, they are the basis 
of the quartz mining customs that have 
obtained the force of law on this coast : 

Article 1. The jurisdiction of the follow- 
ing laws shall extend over all quartz mines 
and quartz mining property within the county 
of Nevada. 

Art. 2. Each proprietor of a quartz claim 
shall hereafter be entitled to one hundred 
feet on a quartz ledge or vein ; and the dis- 
coverer shall be allowed one hundred feet 
additional. Each claim shall include all 
the dips, angles and variations of the vein. 
Art. 3. On the discovery of a vein of 
quartz, three days shall be allowed to mark 
and stake off the sSme, in such manner, by 
name of the owner and number of the claim, 
or otherwise, as shall properly and fully 
identify such claims. Parties having claims 
may cause a map or plan to be made, and a 
copy filed with the Recorder, if deemed re- 
quisite, to more particularly fix the locality. 



Art. 4. Wor^ to the extent of one hun- 
dred dollars in value, or twenty days faithful 
labor, shall be performed by each company 
holding claims, within thirty days from the 
date of recording the same, as provided for 
in Article sixth of these laws ; and the duly 
authorized representative of a company mak- 
ing oath that such money has been expended, 
or that such labor has been performed, shall 
be entitled to a certificate from a County Re- 
corder or Deputy, guaranteeing undisputed 
possession of said claim for the term of one 
year; and for a like sum of money or amount 
of labor expended or performed within the 
first twenty days of each succeeding year, 
duly acknowledged as herein named, shall 
entitle the claimants or company, from year 
to year, to further certificates of undisputed 
proprietorship and possession ; and a com- 
pany having a mill contracted for in good 
faith, to the amount of five thousand dollars, 
for the working of its claim or claims, the 
proper representative of the company making 
oath of the same shall be entitled to receive 
from said County Recorder a title deed to 
said claim or claims, guaranteeing to the 
claimants or company, their successors and 
assigns, undisputed possession and proprie- 
torship forever under these laws ; provided, 
that nothing in this Article shall be, at any 
time, inconsistent with the laws of the United 
States. 

Art. 5. Whenever the requisite amount of 
money or labor, as provided for in Article 
fourth, has not been expended within thirty 
days from the adoption of these laws, the 
claim or claims thus neglected shall be con- 
sidered abandoned, and subject to be re- 
located by any other party or parties. 

Art. 6. Any person, a citizen of the United 
States, or any person having taken the nec- 
essary steps to become a citizen of the United 
States, shall be entitled to hold one quartz 
claim as provided for in Article first, and as 
many more as may be purchased in good 
faith, for a valuable consideration, for which 
certificates of proprietor.ship shall be issued 
by the County Recorder. 

Art, 7. The regularly elected County Re- 
corder of Nevada county shall serve as Re- 
corder for this county in quartz claims, 
authenticating his acts by the county seal ; 
he shall appoint as his Deputy such person 
for Grass Valley as may be elected by the 
district of Grass Valley ; and he shall pass 
his records to his successor. 

Art. 8. The fees of the Recorder and 
Deputy shall be the same as the statute fees 
for recording per folio. 

Art. 9. No title to a claim hereafter taken 
up, or purchased, shall be valid unless re- 
corded in the books of the aforesaid County 
Recorder or Deputy within ten days of its 
location or purchase. 

Passed December 20th, 1852, at Nevada, 
California. 



HISTORICAL SKETCH 



— OF— 



NEVA.I3A. COTJ]N^TY, 



CALIFOKNIA. 



BY E. G. WAITE 



DECLARATORY. 

The part I am to contribute to the sketch of Nevada county makes no 
pretension to the dignity of a history. The limited space and time by 
which I am circumscribed, beside the scope and object of the work of which 
the sketch is to form a part, would preclude the possibility of a complete 
history of Nevada county, did no other obstacle prevent. Indeed, to write 
a full history of our county would involve, in a great degree, the history 
of the State of California. I am not called to so broad a field of enterprise. 
Yet I hope, in a humble way, to aid the future historian by gathering up 
the scattered fragments of history and placing them in a concise and pre- 
sentable shape for his use. 

Although I sec the moving events of a grand drama, which tells how a 
mountainous wilderness was conquered in spite of its manifold obstacles, 
and made to become, in a few brief years, the abode of civilization and 
refinement, and to contribute more wealth to the nation than any like 
portion of its territory ; although the theme is inspiring and tempting to 
the pen, be mine the lot to tell in the briefest way, the order of the most 
prominent events as they have occurred; give some accouut of the appear- 
ance of the country that man has subdued from nature ; collect such 



10 SKETCH OF NEVADA COUNTY. 

memorials as I may of the autoclitlions of the soil ; and, in short, present 
such facts hearing upon various subjects as may be of interest to the general 
reader. 

DESCRIPTION. 

Nevada county, California, extends from near the eastern edge of the 
Sacramento valley to the top of the Sierra Nevada, and, in general terms, 
has for its northern boundary the Middle Yuba, and its southern Bear river. 
Its area is about 1,200 square miles, or about the size of the State of Rhode 
Island; and few parts of the United States can compare with it for variety 
of scenery or climate. Its highest elevation reaches to over 8,000 feet, while 
its lowest is but a few feet above the level of the ocean. The upper region 
is covered with snow more than half the year, and at the foot hills snow or 
frost is comparatively unknown. Several deep channels cut the county 
longitudinally, in which flow the rivers and streams from the high Sierra. 
These, with their tributary canons and gorges, are intervened by high and 
ofttimes precipitous ridges, the main ones running at right-angles with the 
mountain chain. As is natural, sheltered, sunny spots occur frequently 
among these ridges and deep depressions where the productions of a warm 
climate are grown to perfection, and the grape and the fig are cultivated 
generally on all exposures to an altitude of two thousand five hundred 
feet. 

No large valleys of arable land are found in No,vada county. The largest 
do not comprise above a few hundred acres, and even these are rare. The 
entire soil is of a reddish ferruginous, ochre, or gray color, and consists of 
side-hill or table land. It is, ujader favorable circumstances, however, 
highly productive, and is yet to develop agricultural wealth equal to any 
other portion of the world. 

When first seen by Americans, Nevada county presented the appearance 
of a rough mountain region, clothed in the upper part with forests of pine, 
oak, spruce, fir, and other trees, intermixed with manzanita, chamiso, 
privet, and several other varieties of shrubs in places. The timbered re- 
gion extended from the summit down to about an elevation of fiifteen 
hundred feet, when the trees became stunted, and new varieties of pine 
began to appear, while scrubby shrubs became more prevalent. Occasion- 
ally a small valley of grass was seen among the hills, and near the summit 
were many small lakes, clear and cold. It was a wild, romantic region, 
the lowermost half inhabited by a few hundred Diggers, a subsequent 
acquaintance with whom has shown to be a harmless and inolfensive people 
in the lowest stage of development. 

Such was the general aspect of the country now comprised within the 
limits of Nevada county, when the hordes of adventurous Americans, 



SKETCH OF NEVADA COUNTY. 11 



excited by tlie reports of discoveries of gold in California, came pouring 
over tlie Sierra Nevada, and swarmed along tlie rich, streams and over the 
undeveloped hills of this region. 

HISTORICAL. 
Probably the first settlement ever made within the boundaries of Nevada 
county was between the Anthony House and Bridgeport, and called Rose's 
Corral, from the trader who built an adobe building there in the Summer 
of 1848. But, it is probable mining was done to a limited extent shortly 
before that time low down on the Yubas, and during the same Summer a 
few whites had penetrated as far as the middle region of the county. In 
1849, with the great influx of population, came crowds of miners, who 
spread rapidly over the territory of Nevada county, as far up as Wash- 
ington, even as early as in the Spring. A few men worked on the Middle 
Yuba, and on the South Yuba during the early part of the Summer of 1849, 
and some with good success. 

A store was established in August, of tlie same year, on a point of land 
that overlooks Bear river, near the mouth of Greenhorn, on the old 
Truckee trail, by an Orcgonian named Fiudlcy. The object of establish- 
ing the post was to trade with the emigrants, and for a time it was the only 
store between Bear river and Salt Lake at which emigrants could obtain 
supplies. Here bacon was sold for two dollars a pound, and shoe tacks at 
ten cents apiece. Brooks & Peasley became successors to Findley, keeping 
up the store, and it may as well be observed, the prices also. 

In September of 1849, David Bovyer established himself in Rough and 
Ready township, at White Oak Springs, where he traded with the Indians, 
who dwelt there in considerable numbers. They had learned to collect 
gold, which they spent with an abandon scarcely excelled by the whites. 

During the same Summer, a party of Oregonians creviced for gold along 
the South Yuba, or Juba, as it was called, as far up as Washington. The 
success of this party, and of others who followed in their wake, was the 
means of bringing, the next Spring, a large crowd to the river from Jeffer- 
son, then called Greenwood's Camp, from the leader of the Oregon party, up 
to Washington, then named Indiana Camp, from a company of Indianians 
who pitched their tents there first. 

It is not certain who first prospected the rich ravines about Nevada. A 
gentleman who grazed his stock in the valley in which Grass Valley now 
stands, and who came to the site of Nevada in August, 1849, saw three 
men at work on Gold Run, near where the stone bridge now crosses it. 
There may have been others working in the vicinity. About that time a 
few men were at work on Deer Creek, somewhere in the neighborhood of 
Pleasant Flat.. Dr. Caldwell had a store in that vicinity, as early as Sep- 



12 SKETCH OF NEVADA COUNTY. 

tember, and this fact goes to show there must have been more parties at 
work in the region round about than at this time we can obtain any infor- 
mation of. 

In the same month, or a little later, Captain John Pennington and party 
built a cabin on Gold Eun, and in October Dr. Caldwell built a store near 
the site of the present High School building, in Nevada. The place was 
known for a time, from this circumstance, as " Caldwell's Upper Store -j" 
" Deer Creek Drj^ Diggings " was another name by which the locality was 
called. 

A settlement was also effected in 1849 in Boston Kavine, and also on 
Badger Hill, at Grass Yalley, and in several of the ravines round about. 
A trading post was started in the Fall of that year in Boston Kavine, by a 
Frenchman, Jules Kosiere. The same year, in November, Judge Walsh 
and two brothers (Holt) commenced building sawmills four miles below 
Grass Yalley, from which it is clear that there were a great many miners 
in the vicinity, creating a demand for lumber, which uj) to that time had 
been obtained by whip-saws, and at extravagant prices. 

A Captain Townseud and party built a cabin at Eough and licady in 
September, 1849, and mined there successfully. Other parties followed, 
and quite a number of miners passed the Winter of 1849-50 there. With 
the addition of French Corral, the places before mentioned are the only ones 
that we can find which d^ite their settlement back to a period as early as 
the year 1849. 

The 3'ear following was one of uncommon discovery and activity. Towns 
were built up at Nevada, Grass Valley, Rough and Ready, and Newtown, 
all of which yet remain except the last, which has fallen to decay. Per- 
manent camps were established at Sweetlands, Cherokee, Kentucky Flat, 
and on several bars of the Yubas. Hotels were opened at Nevada, Grass 
Yalley and Eough and Ready. Sawmills were put in operation in these 
places. A hall was opened in Nevada for dramatic and other entertain- 
ments. A church was organized in the same place. The town took a 
permanent name. The first discovery of gold in the old river beds of the 
pliocene era was made in the hills above the town. The first ditches were 
projected and constructed. The long-torn was brought into use and soon 
after the sluice, superseding the rocker. Gold was discovered in quartz at 
Grass Yalley and a crushing mill erected there. 

The people of the region organized politically and put themselves 
within the control of law by their own option, electing officers and pro- 
viding for their support. Gambling saloons arose in splendor and numbers, 
and were thronged. Liquors were sold and fights were common. Claims 
were jumped; pistols and knives were worn and drawn; murder was com- 



SKETCH OF NEVADA COUNTY. 1 



mittedj lawyers came into use, aud, in brief, the whole paraphernalia of 
civilized life gradually cauie to he adopted. It was uot necessity alone that 
prompted the early settlers of California to place themselves within the 
dominion of law. Self-government may be counted as one of the instincts 
of the American people. Wherever a few of our countrymen come to- 
gether organization and order arc sure to follow. Every American is a 
lawo-iver aud a statesman, and must put his kuov>'ledge and theories into 
practice. Hence new ideas, conflicts of opinion, new States, the growth 
and progress of our great country. 

The year 1851 was marked by great changes. Nevada county was or- 
ganized out of Yiiba, by an act of the Legislature of May 18th, of that 
year. A great fire destroyed the town of Nevada on March 11th. More 
ditches were surveyed and dug. Several quartz mills were erected in 
Grass Valley and about Nevada, and a career of prosperity in that branch 
of industry begun at the former place. General laws were better executed 
because the Courts were nearer at hand and the expense of obtaining jus- 
tice had been cheapened by a county organization. Local regulations con- 
cerning (luartz claims began to take shape, and a great impulse was given 
to that branch of mining. A newspaper was started in Nevada. More 
churches were organized aud edifices erected. Families were added to the 
few who had taken up their residence before. Children made their appear- 
ance in numbers sufficient to justify employing teachers. Schools were 
opened. Comfortable residences began to appear on the hills. The people 
had commenced to see the truth of the aphorism : "a rolling stone gathers 
no moss," aud began to cease "to fold up their tents, like the Arabs, and 
as quietly steal away" — and to settle down into the habits of fatherland. 
Up to this time as in the French there was no word in the California 
vernacular with the exact meaning of "home," except as applied to the 
dear old spot the miner had left behind him in the country far away. 

During the few succeeding years there were rapid strides made in social 
progress, in improvements in mining, and in discoveries in various parts of 
the county. Excitements, inseparable from the ruling occupation, were 
frequent ; hopes were often elevated and as often depressed. Brick build- 
ings arose, gardens were planted, orchards began, families gathered around 
them the comforts aud elegancies of life, and a character of permanence 
became more and more apparent. The failure of several adventures in 
quartz miniug about Nevada in 1852 had a disheartening influence for a 
time, many predicting that flush times had forever passed away; but confi- 
dence wa^ soon restored, and the county increased steadily in population 
and wealth, although millions of dollars were shipped away annually, or 
went to adjoining counties to develop new localities. 



14 SKETCH OF NEVADA COUNTY. 

In October 1853, Nevada county had for the first time telegraphic 
comniuDicatiou with the cities below, and two years after with Downieville. 
Grass Yalley about this tiaie took the lead of all the other quartz districts 
in the State and has maintained her superiority to this day. 

As an evidence of the increase of population of the county, we may . 
mention, the vote at the first election in 1851 was twenty-nine hundred, 
while in 1856 it was seven thousand three hundred, the city of Nevada 
alone casting; of the number two thousand and eighty-one. 

It was in the latter year that a terrible tragedy occurred at Nevada, in 
which the Sheriff of the county and his deputy were killed by mistake. 
Sheriff "W. ^Y. Wright, and Special Deputy David Johnson, went to Gold 
Flat on the night of the 3d of November to watch for some prisoners 
who broke jail the night previous. Other parties were on the watch 
at the same place unknown to the Sheriff's party. They came in contact, 
and each supposing the other to be the scoundrels for whom they were 
lying in wait, resorted to their arms. Wright and Johnson were shot. 

The Fraser lliver excitement in 1857-58 had a telling effect upon the 
population of our county as well as upon the valuation of property Hun- 
dreds sold out their possessions for what they could get and hurried off to 
British Columbia, to a cold and inhospitable region, not one of whom can 
we recall to recollection who was gainer by the step. Many returned to 
theii old haunts, sadder if not wiser meu; many are yet buffeting the 
waves of fortune in ihose northern climes, and many are beyond the reach 
of excitements forevermore. 

Nevada has had her share of all the many excitements that have so often 
stirred the people of the coast to abnormal action. But, that -.vhich carried 
away more people and capital than any other was the Washoe or silver 
mania of 1859. The first notice of the silver discovery near Virginia City 
was in the Nevada Journal of July 1st of that year. That article an- 
nounced the fact to the world, and the first specimens of silver ore from 
the mines ever distributed in California were by the editor of that paper. 

On the 24th of June, Mr. J. F. Stone, who had been living for a time 
beyond the Sierra Nevada, brought a bag of specimens to the Journal office 
and related the facts in connection with their discovery. About the same 
time pieces of the ore had been left for assay with J. J. Ott of Nevada, 
and Mr. Attwood of Grass Valley. The result of the assay created a sud- 
den excitement. The specimens brought by "Stone, distributed about, 
served to highten the interest in the discovery. Mr. Arthur Hagadorn, of 
the firm of Mulford & Hagadorn, bankers in Nevada, without a moment's 
delay, proceeded to dispatch some one to the new mines, and A. E. Head 
was selected for the enterprise. Judge Walsh and others from Grass Valley 



SKETCH OF NEVADA COUNTY. 15 



made a siiimltaaeous start, and the Nevada aud Grass Valley parties came 
together before crossing the Sierra. In a few days others were on the 
route; more soon followed, and within two years, it is probable one-third 
of the male adults of Nevada county had gone to the silver region, either 
to try their fortunes or visit the scenes that had created so intense an 
excitement. It is proper to add, that of the fortunate adventurers our 
county contributed a very generous proportion. 

In the rovings of the Americans over the country in quest of more silver 
lodes, they came in collision with the natives. A party, among whom was 
Henry Meredith of Nevada, was ambushed by the Pi Uutes, routed and 
Meredith aud many others were slain. An alarm was created at Viro-inia 
City, which extended over California, and nowhere was the excitement 
more intense than in Nevada county, whose citizens by hundreds were 
supposed to be in peril on the other side of the mountains. A large sub- 
scription was raised — larger than in any other county of the State — and 
a company of men volunteered and were on their way over the mountains 
to the relief of their friends with promptness and dispatch. The company 
took part in the defeat of the Indians. Not many days after the departure 
of the company, the citizens of the county were urged to do more. A 
meeting was called and another body of men volunteered. It is related 
that an ex-official, not being pleased with the smallness of the number of 
volunteers, made a short speech in which he declared it was a dis"-race to 
send such a miserable squad. " Let us make up a company consistent with 
the pride of the county and the danger to be encountered. Yes, gentle- 
men," said he, '' let us at least raise enough to make a respectable corpse!" 
It is said many of the company did not like the ghastly allusion and aban- 
doned the expedition. 

The silver developments on the eastern slope of the Sierra induced a 
tremendous emigration to the new region, and called for large and long con- 
tinued supplies. Our county, occupying a central position, and almost on 
a line between the Bay of San Francisco and Virginia City, and having 
one of the best natural passes across the mountains, received a generous 
share of the travel to and from the land of silver. 

I should not forget to mention that the silver discoveries gave an impulse 
to the Pacific Eailroad movement. The project of constructing a trans- 
continental railway had long been a favorite theme among politicians of all 
parties. Sooner or later the enterprise must have been undertaken. But, 
the enormous prices paid for freight to the silver mines, and the grand 
prospect that seemed to be opening for rich and extensive mines of silver 
all over a wide extended region on the eastern border of California, held 
out a prize for railroad men quite as tempting as the visionary carrying 



16 SKETCH OF NEVADA COUNTY. 

trade of tlic Indies. A railroad was deemed a necessity to tlie people of 
V»^aslioe, and a ricli investment to tlie builders. To obtain the trade of a 
region rich in silver, but poor in all other resources, therefore, became an 
object, and hightened the zeal of men anxious to associate their names with 
one of the greatest enterprises of modern times. A feasible route for a 
railroad was discovered by Theodore J). Judah, in October, 1860, which 
runs up the divide between Bear river and the American, through Placer 
and entering Nevada county near the high Sierra. On this route a first- 
class railroad has been built, at this time as far as Cisco, along the southern 
border of the county, and thus rendering our mines and productions of easy 
access has brought us into intimate connection with the men and the capital 
of the older countries of the globe. The importance of the road to Nevada 
county, in this regard, can scarcely be over estimated. 

I am now to approach one of those extraordinary events that live in the 
annals of a community while time endures. The fitful fever after fortunes 
in silver being over with the disappointed multitude, and reports being cir- 
culated of many recent and rich discoveries of quartz in our county, hun- 
dreds of desperate men came among us and highway and other robberies 
became common. On the 15th of May, 1866, the stage from North San 
Juan to Nevada was stopped at 42 o'clock in the morning, near the top of 
the hill on the south side of the South Yuba, above "Black's Crossing, by three 
men in disguise, and $7,900 taken from Wells, Fargo & Co.'s coin chest, 
which is a fixture in all the stages wherever the company have a route. 
The passengers, seven in number, were ordered to get out, and the driver 
commanded to take the horses from the wagon without delay. As the rob- 
bers were armed with revolvers, there was no alternative but to obey. The 
robbers then proceeded to blow open the chest with powder, with which 
they came prepared. Their object was accomplished at the second attempt. 
The coin was taken and the driver was ordered to drive on. 

The stage drove quickly into Nevada, a distance of five miles. The 
news was made public. Sheriff E. B. Gentry rallied a posse and repaired 
in all haste to the scene of the robbery. This posse consisted of Steve 
Venard, James H. Lee, Albert Gentry, and A. W. Potter. 

An examination of the spot showed that the robbers had turned out of 
the road and gone down the river on a line parallel with it. Yenard and 
Lee got on the trail of the robbers and followed it over the roughest of all 
imaginable ground for the distance of a mile and a half. It was evident 
which way the robbers went. Lee went back to take the horses around 
to the road of the crossing below, the rest of the Sheriff's party having 
previously gone in that direction. Venard, left alone, followed the trail. 
He came to Myers' Eavine, at its debouchure into the Yuba. He saw that 



SKETCH OF NEVADA COUNTY. 17 



the pursued had gone up the ravine to a crossing. Pie ^vas alone in cie of 
the wildest, and roughest of spots in that wild and rugged region. The hills 
hung steep above. Rocks, trees, brush and logs there were in profusion on 
every hand. Ycnard was armed with a Henry rifle. The waters of the 
ravine came tumbling down its steep bed of bowlders, w'ith a rush and a 
noise which rendered no other sounds audible. The hero of the hour pro- 
ceeded with caution. A huge rock rose twenty feet in bight in the midst 
of the muddy water; other smaller rocks surrounded it, alto'^-cther formino' 
an Inland. A tree or two grew upon the lower end of the island in the 
midst of the rocks, their branches and foliage partially covering the rocky 
rampart above. ]3elow the island, at a few feet distance, was a precipice 
of fifteen feet or more over which the waters of the ravine tumbled. 
Venard attempted to cross the stream at the bead of this fall. He walked 
on a short log to a rock. Above him rose the huge mass of granite, but- 
tressed in front by two smaller rocks. Between these latter was an alley 
which led up to the base of the Titan. His position was such as to look 
up this alley. At the ba?o of the great rock Ycnard discovered the object 
of his search. The leader of the gang was sitting on the ground and in 
the act of drawing his revolver. Venard instantly leveled his rifle upon 
the robber, who was not more than twenty feet distant. At the same mo- 
ment he saw another of the gang pointing a pistol at him over the edge of 
a rock. There was no time to change his aim. He fired; the leader fell 
back shot through the heart. The other robber attempted to shield himself 
farther behind a rock, leaving the point of his pistol exposed over the top 
The exposure was fatal; Venard covered the spot with his unerring Henry. 
No sooner did the head of the robber peer above the rock to take aim than 
his brain was pierced with a bullet. There was yet another, but he was 
not to be seen. His pistol might at that moment be pointing at Venard. 
The latter, quick as thought, clambered up to the lair to beard him in his 
den. He found the treasure, took the pistols from the dead, covered quickly 
the former with earth and leaves, and proceeded to hunt up the missing 
robber. Crossing the stream and ascending the steep mountain beyond, he 
discovered the robber running up the acclivity sixty yards or more ahead. 
Venard fired and the robber fell. Another bullet, and the last robber rolled 
down the hill — dead. 

Venard now sought his companions. They all proceeded to the scene of 
the tragedy, recovered the money, and by two o'clock of the same day the 
Sheriff's party deposited the cash with Wells, Fargo & Co., in Nevada. If 
this be not an example of summary justice and remarkable heroism I know 
not where one may be found. Aftei- the Sheriff's party had left Nevada, 
Wells, Fargo & Co. offered a reward of three thousand dollars, which was 



18 SKETCH OF NEVADA COUNTY. 

paid. The Company also presented Steve Venard with a magnificent Henry 
rifle^ gold mounted and'beantifully inscribed, and Goyernor Low appointed 
him on liis staff with tiie rank of Lieutenant Colonel, " for meritorious 
services in the field." 

The bodies of the robbers were brought to town, washed and fully iden- 
tified. Upon them was found property they had taken from the passen- 
gers in stages they had stopped before. The names of the robbers were 
George Shanks, alias Jack Williams, the leader. Bob Finn, alias Caton, and 
George W. Moore. 

I have thus far abstained from mentioning the various Ifbmicides that 
have occurred in the county, from a feeling that too much prominence has 
been already given to such events in the newspapers of the day. Such 
tragedies are inseparable from life in California ; or in any other country 
of great excitements and disappointments. But, a murder of such atrocity 
as characterized the butchery of Cooper and Kile, at the upper crossing of 
the South Yuba, deserves special mention. On the evening of the 26th 
of November, 1866, J. L. Cooper and Joseph Kile, the former a part owner 
of the bridge known as Cooper's, were attacked by some j)erson or persons 
unknown, with an ax, and both slain and most horribly mangled. A safe 
was opened and a few hundred dollars taken. Trunks were burst in with 
the bloody ax, but money and specimens in one were left untouched. Kile 
was found the next morning inside the house, and Cooper was lying on the 
bridge where he had been chopped down in his attempt at flight. Governor 
Low offered a reward of one thousand dollars for the apprehension of the 
murderers ; the Board of Supervisors of the county added two thousand 
more, and T. J. Manchester and James Patten, the former an owner in the 
bridge, and the latter a relative of Cooper, also increased the amount to 
three thousand five hundred dollars. The whole affair is shrouded in 
mystery. 

On the evening of the 27th December, 1866, a hurricane of great fury 
passed Nevada, which broke down the strongest trees, unroofed buildings, 
blew down chimneys, and left other proofs of its violence. Its course 
was from the southwest to the northeast, and left its traces through 
Rough and Eeady township, and on to the summit of the mountains. 
Its track was not more than five hundred feet wide, and luckily it passed 
where but little damage to property could be done. Hailstones of great 
size fell along the track and for a few miles on each side, alternating 
with torrents of rain. A gentleman who was on the edge of the hurricane 
says it was impossible to keep his feet, and that wMle lying flat on the 
ground the current of air against the top of his head was strong enough to 
push him lengthwise upon the ground 



SKETCH OF NEVADA COUNTY. 19 

I have tlius given a brief compilation of the historical events and their 
dates — pertaining to the county at large — so far as the design of the work 
for which this is written, will allow. Many other circumstances of interest 
will appear in the sketches of towns; hut many incidents of secondary im- 
portance will have to go unnoticed, as beyond the limits and scope of the 
present sketch. Other facts in connection with the history of Nevada 
county are related in directories heretofore published, and still others may 
be found in other parts of this work. 

Let it suffice, in closing this division of iny subject, to remark, that a 
wild and rugged region has, in loss than two decades, been subjugated from 
nature ; that it has been made to yield more gold than any other spot of 
like extent on the globe ; that from a handful of people, witliout law, has 
grown a population of probably more than twenty thousand souls, where 
the rights of the citizen are maintained by as incorruptible a judiciary as 
can bless a people ; that from a roving, restless population, intent on filch- 
ing the gold from the soil and abandoning the country, we have settled 
down content in the belief that the region is incomparable as a home, and 
have surrounded ourselves with the comforts of a high civilization; that 
schools arc established and a rising generation are garnering up the pleas- 
ant incidents of youth, which, associated with the scenes around us, will 
attach them to Nevada forever. 

Furthermore, that late developments are opening to us and the world the 
truth, that the career of prosperity of Nevada county has but just begun. 
At this writing new lodes of quartz are being worked in all parts of the 
county; capital and enterprise are enlisted in earnest; and the year 1867 
promises to be extraordinary in happy results. 

In another branch of industry there are strong incentives to enterprise. 
Experiments so far conducted show that a large share of the soil of the 
county and the climate, are specially adapted to the production of the finest 
kinds of table wines. Articles of the kind have been produced that sold 
to good judges at from S-J 50 to S3 00 per gallon- An interest has been 
awakened in this branch of culture, and ere long the sides of these moun- 
tains will flourish with the vine, whose juice will rival the most generous 
productions of a foreign soil. There is room for indefinite expansion. 



METEOROLOGY. 



The subject of my sketch, having every altitude from a few feet to eight 
thousand above the ocean level, must necessarily have a variety of climate. 



20 SKETCH OF NEVADA COU^'TY. 



Near the plains frost is rare, while at Meadow Lake scarcely a night passes 
without leaving traces of frost in the morning. 

In the tipper part of the county snow, if not Winter, reigns one-half the 
year, while a snow fall at Rough and Ready and below is an uncommon 
occurrence. The fall of snow is light over that portion of the surface of 
the county having an altitude of 2,500 feet or less. At Nevada City, 
which has an elevation of about 2,350 feet, it rarely falls to the depth of 
two feet, and it seldom lies on the ground more than two or three days. 
Sleighing about Nevada and Grass Valley is not persisted in beyond a few 
hours, the ground never freezing so as to give a sound base for the snow to 
rest on for that purpose. At Bear Valley, snow fell during the "Winter of 
1858-59, tv/enty-four feet, by actual measurement, falling on April ]9th 
of that season eighteen feet deep. Further up, in the region of Meadow 
Lake, the fall is heavier and the Winters more severe. Rut, the Winter 
in any part of Nevada county is not so cold by far as in the same latitude 
on the eastern side of the continent. This is due, to a large extent to the 
latent heat set free by the condeosation of the vapors on our mountains 
which come from the South Pacific ocean. The sun, during our rainy sea- 
son, pours down his ferved rays upon the Southern hemisphere, which is 
largely of ocean, and an immense amount of moisture is taken to the clouds 
which, borne along by the southeast trade-winds till transferred to the south- 
west trades, are driven against the Sierra Nevada chain of mountains. The 
cold of the elevated region condenses the moisture into rain or snow, and 
the heat borrowed in a latent state in the South Pacific is set free to amel- 
iorate our Winter climate. 

From a few observations it would seem that some parts of the county are 
subject to heavier falls of rain than other parts, and the rain fall of the 
county is much heavier than in the valley regions of the State. 

I am indebted to James Whartenb}^, Esq., who has kept a rain-guage at 
the office of the South Yuba Canal Company, in Nevada City, and, also, a - 
thermometrical register, during many years, for interesting facts. The de- 
structive fires that have so frequently visited Nevada, have consumed some 
of the journals of Mr. Whartenby, but what have been spared will serve 
to give some idea of the climatic changes experienced in the county, par- 
ticularly in the central part, that portion having an altitude of from two 
thousand to three thousand feet. From these journals it appears that 
during the rainy season of 1861-62 the fall of water was 109 inches; 
1862-63, 27.87 inches ; 1863-64, 17.26 inches ; 1864-65, 54.49 inches ; 
1865-66, 59.26 inches. That part of the rainy season of 1866-67, ending 
on the 1st of January, 1867, was extraordinary, for the amount of water 
fallen; 42.39 inches are reported at the office of the Canal Company. 



SKETCH OF NEVADA COUNTY. 21 

Mr. Wliartenby estimates the average rain fall since the settlement of the 
county by Americans, at from fifty to fifty-five inches. The above figures 
have been called in question heretofore as being too large, and it has been 
supposed that the rain-guage kept at Nevada could not be correct. To 
settle the question, Mr. Whartenby has had a new guagc made by Tennent, 
of San Francisco, and the tests show the new guage to give rather more 
water than the old one, both standing side by side. The figures above are, 
therefore, too small. 

It is proper to remark that the rain fall here is not unusual, the mean 
annual fall on the globe being estimated at sixty inches, and in the north- 
ern hemisphere at about ninety inches. In the tropics of the eastern con- 
tinent it is computed at seventy-seven, and in the western tropics at one 
hundred and fifteen inches. The latter is about the fall at Nevada City 
during the rainy season of 1861— 02. 

But there arc other places on the globe subject to still greater deludes 
from the clouds. According to Maury, rain fell at Parimaribo, in South 
America, in one season, to the depth of two hundred and twenty-nine inches, 
or nineteen feet. Brazil has had ii rain fall in a season of twenty-three 
feet, and twenty-five feet have fallen in a year at South Bombay. In forty- 
one days a hundred and fifty-three inches, or thirteen feet of water fell on 
the west coast of Patagonia. From the facts before us, it is safe to say 
that the fall of rain annually in Nevada county is not above the averao-e on 
the surface of the globe. 

A late fall of snow occurred at Nevada and Grass Valley May 21, 1861, 
which broke down and damaged fruit-trees. It was very moist and heavy 
and in a few hours was dissolved in water and gone. 

It has been observed by, those in the employ of the South Yuba Canal 
Company, that when the thermometer at Nevada is at 37° to 38° Fahren- 
heit, snow falls instead of rain. If the thermometer shows 43° to 44° it 
rains further on about twenty miles above Nevada, and snows beyond. At 
50° to 51° it rains to the summit. These observations apply, of course, to 
times when vapors of the clouds are condensing in the form of rain or 
snow. 

"We can give only some general idea of the changes in the thermometer 
as observed at the oflice of the South Tuba Canal Company. The coldest 
day was January 20, 1854, when at seven in the morning the mercury 
stood at 1° above zero, while the hottest day ever known at the same point 
was 142]° in the sun. 

For extraordinary changes of weather, the fact may be cited that on 
April 12, 1859, the thermometer indicated at 2} o'clock p. M., 94°; seven 
and a half hours later, at 10 o'clock, the mercury had fallen to 27°. The 



22 SKETCH OF NEVADA COUNTY. 

temperature in the Vv'inter season, in tlie morning, ranges from 12° to 40°, 
and in Summer, the hottest weather in the sun is usually from 110° to 130°. 
These remarks are only intended to show the extraordinary extremes of 
heat and cold. Generally Nevada county has a pleasant and ecjuable cli- 
mate; in fact, all who have enjoyed it for a time are captivated, and if 
away, long to return to it again. The Summers are all sunshine and are 
quite warm, but the nights are cool and refreshing inducing sound and in- 
vigorating sleep, while the Winters are not severe except at the highest 
altitudes, and even there the degrees of cold are not to be estimated by the 
depth of the snow. A large number of persons and some families passed 
the "Winter of 18G5-6G, very pleasantly at Meadow Lake, and while this 
volume is going through the press, a great many more are following the 
example of their predecessors. 



GEOLOGICAL. 



Nevada county is entirely mountainous, lying wholly on the western 
water-shed of the Sierra Nevada, and extending almost from the Sacra- 
mento valley to the summit. The avei age descent of the surface from the 
top of the mountain range to the vallej'- is about one hundred feet to the 
mile. 

The strata, which strike north and south, corresponding with the direc- 
tion of the range, are generally of granite alternating with slate. Of the 
latter there seems to be three distinct ranges at least. Besides rock of the 
slate and granite order, syenite, serpentine, trap, limestone, talc and quartz, 
occur frequently, as an examination of the banks of the rivers that cut 
these rocks at right angles, and the various mines that have been opened, 
will show. Gold is found in a talcose slate in the extreme lower part of 
the county. In Grass Valley it occurs in quartz, sandwiched ia greenstone 
or trap generally. About Nevada the cab or country rock is granitic, and 
in the irpper quartz belt, in the vicinity of Meadow Lake, it is syenite. 

Lying upon the primitive strata, and extending over a good share of the 
central portion of the county, are immense gravel ranges, the beds of 
ancient streams, the date of whose formation is referred to the pliocene age. 
Out of the gravel of these old river beds, up to this time, a large share of 
the gold of the county has been extracted. Immense basins still exist 
untouched for want of adequate drainage, and long reaches of the ancient 
streams are supposed to be yet unexplored. 

The big blue lead of Sierra county is known to cross the Middle Yuba, 



SKETCH OF NEVADA COFNTY. 23 

tlie ncwthern boundary of the couuty, at or about Snow Point. From there 
it is thouglit by some to run soutliwardly; and to connect vrith the blue 
cement diggings at Quaker and Hunt's hills. Others suppose the lead to 
follow down the ridge between the South and Middle Yubas, and to show 
itself in the gravel ranges at Humbug, North San Juan and on to French 
Corral, terminating finally in the very rich deposits worked by Piei*ce & Co.. 
at Smartsville, in Yuba county. It is more probable, however, that the 
grand range of North San Juan is a continuation of another river bed 
formerly coming down thovugh Sierra county, at Camptonvillc. The gravel 
range above the town of Nevada, and but a half mile distant, is thought to 
have some connection with the San Juan range by way of Bound Mountain 
and Montezuma Hill ; but it is not impossible that it may continue beneath 
the ridge between the South Yuba and Deer Creek, as that ridge is demon- 
strated to -rest on a bed of gravel, overlaid on the surface with lava to the 
depth of from eight}'^ to one hundred feet: But it is not possible to recon- 
struct the ancient map of the county v/ith the data thus far obtained. 
Undoubtedly when the region has been thoroughly examined by Professor 
Whitney and his corps, much light will be thrown upon this interesting- 
subject. It is understood that Nevada couuty will be thoroughly explored 
the coming season by the Professor and his scientific coadjutors. 

Unlike the counties of Amador, Calaveras and Tuolumne, farther south, 
whose gravel ranges are ascribed to the same era, Nevada furnishes no 
fossil shells, or any organic remains whatever. In the former counties have 
been discovered bones of the mastodon, elephant, rhinoceros and horse, and 
the scientific world has been startled with the report of the discovery of 
even the remains of a man who is supposed to have walked the earth ante- 
rior to or coeval with the filling of these ancient river beds. Not a bone 
of an animal has been so far found in the gravel drifts of Nevada county 
of which any report has been made. Why not here as well as in other 
parts of the State ? The most ready answer would be, its more northern 
latitude. But this is not satisfactory, when it is known that teeth of the 
mastodon have been discovered in the auriferous gravel of Idaho, hundreds 
of miles still farther north, and the deposits in which these remains were 
found are supposed to date their origin in the same era as the gravel ranges 
of California. 

It seems to me that more untenable positions have been taken by geolo- 
gists than that which would ascribe the gravel ranges of California to 
causes now in force. Why may not the present rivers running down the 
western declivity of the Sierra Nevada, before their present deep channels 
were formed, have coursed along those old channels now filled up with 
gravel ? There are some reasons for believing that no great climatic changes 



24 SKETCH OF NEVADA COUNTY. 

have occurred since these old deposits were made. The existeDce. of petri- 
fied wood -uDdoubtedly of the coniferss family, oak and manzanita, and of 
wood cither lignite or in almost its natural state, in these auriferous gravel 
drifts, would seem to indicate that our mountains were, at the time these 
ancient river beds were filled, covered with pine and oak as at the present 
day. And if so, why were they not inhabited ? Indeed, the discovery of 
the fossil remains of man further south, coupled with the fact which seems 
to be well authenticated, of the washing out of a stone arrow-head, sixty 
feet from the surface, and onthe bedrock, in the claims of Major Lewis, at 
Buckeye hill, near Swectland, would seem to prove that a race inhabited 
our mountains at a period before the present river chasms were channeled, 
and before the last run of lava from the upper Sierra. And if the cli- 
mate of this region has undergone no radical change, why may not the 
existence of the mastodon further south be attributed to local attractions, 
which did not and do not present themselves in this county ? The pro- 
ductions of the county at present are not calculated to give sustenance to 
large numbers of such animals, and it may be that their scarcity, from like 
causes, precludes the possibility of their remains being found here, and in 
but limited quantities, in places most congenial to their habits. But these 
are questions we leave for geologists. 

High up in the Sierra granite or syenite mountains rise to an altitude 
of a little more than 8,000 feet above the sea level, leaving gorges between 
of fearful depth, the walls of which are often of ragged and bare rock. 
Sometimes the declivities of the mountains, and the valleys present exten- 
sive beds of detritus that may haA^e been deposited when the mighty gla- 
ciers of the Sierra were melted — abundant evidence of glacial action being 
frequent at that altitude The detrital deposits are of sedimentary lava, 
pebbles and bowlders of the material of the primitive rocks, and sand. In 
some cases large beds of sand appear, and sometimes deposits of angular 
gravel, which have the look of ancient moraines. 

The geological character of Nevada county is yet to be studied by com- 
petent men. The time will come when the ancient map of the county will 
be made for the benefit of students, and fortified with such evidences of 
truth as to leave little if any doubt of its correctness. 



NATURAL HISTORY. 



My remarks under this head will be brief. I propose to give a list of 
the animals found in the county, by the names known among hunters and 
people generally, without any attempt at scientific classification. When 



SKETCH OF NEVADA COUNTY. 25 



specimens shall have been collected and examined by the State Geological 
corps the proper scientific name will be given to each. 

Quadrupeds- — Grizzly bear, cinnamon bear, panther, or California 
lion, large yellow wolf, coyote, Indian dog, lynx, or catamount, wild cat, 
mountain or civit cat, gray, black, silver and cross fox, fisher, badger, marten, 
weasel, mink, large striped skunk, small spotted skunk, large gray, ground, 
pine and flying squirrel, chipmuck, otter, raccoon, woodchuck, gopher, 
mole, wood-mouse, and rat like a kangaroo in its motions. Besides these 
the black-tailed deer is found, and a small fur animal of the size of the 
muskrat. A porcupine was shot last Fall near Nevada. 

Birds. — The list of birds is somewhat large. I have probably not 
obtained the names of many. The following are the common names of all 
that can be called to recollection : Condor, or king vulture, bald eao-le 
golden eagle, turkey buzzard, raven, crow, several kinds of hawk, road 
runner, several varieties of woodpecker, grouse, mountain and valley quail, 
pigeon, meadow lark, magpie, blackbird, flicker,'robin, snipe, sand snipe, 
plover, curlew, red-winged blackbird, bluebird, oriole, gray sparrow, small 
sparrow, cherrybird, crossbill, linnet, cheewink, California canary, mar{jn. 
swallow, blue crane, or heron, sand-hill crane, wild goose, small Canadian 
goose, wood duck, mallard, teal, dipper duck and mud-hen, pelican, and 
two varieties of humming bird. 

Fish. — Salmon, salmon trout, brook trout, lake trout, perch, whitefish, 
sucker, chub, and two varieties of eels. 

Reptiles. — Two kinds of rattlesnake, long striped, brown, pilot, green, 
purple, small garter, milk and water snakes. Four kinds of lizzard, horned 
toad, common toad, frogs. 

Of insect life there is too great a variety to be specified in the limit 
allowed us. 

The botany of the county is yet to be classified. Very many plants are 
here not known to the botanists of the East, and until examined and prop- 
erly described the flora of the region can not well be studied by the young 
student. 



INDIANOLOaY. 



It was my intention to make rather an extended notice of this subject, 
but on investigation I find the material much more scanty than I at'first 
was led to suppose. 

The Indians of Nevada county are but a handful. The whole tribe 
speaking the same language, and having the same habits, extends from 
Eabbit Creek on the north, to Yankee Jim's on the south, and from Em- 



26 SKETCH OF XEYADA COUNTY. 

pire Ptancli to Nevada, inclusive of ail these places, and probably does not 
number to exceed five hundred persons. Their numbers Tvere formerly 
much larger, but the old tale of contact with civilization destroying the 
Indian is to be told. Whisky, the great leveller, has laid them low ; be- 
sides diseases unknown until the advent of Americans, have taken fearful 
hold upon the aborigines here as well as in the more eastern regions of the 
United States. 

The habits of the Indians here are filthy. They usually resided in Sum- 
mer in the open air or under temporary shelter of bushes. In Winter they 
erected conical frames of wood, and covered them with earth, leaving a hole 
in the top for the smoke to escape. The Avhole presented the appearance 
of a smoking coal pit. Yery lately, some Indians have constructed small 
cabins of boards with roofs of shakes, and having doors and chimneys, 
which are but little inferior to the cabins of miners. The food of the In- 
dians was formerly acorns, the nut of the pine, seeds, grasshoppers, and 
whatever they could command by the chase. At the present time they 
purchase of the whites, flour, sugar and potatoes, and some few other artl- 
ess of food- 
Like the Eastern Indian, the Digger is a polj'gamist. There is no re- 
striction upon him in Digger law which prevents him from having as many 
wives as he wants, though it is rare to see a man with more than one ; but 
it is probably owing more to his want of means than want of inclination. 
When marriage is contemplated the parents are propitiated with presents. 
The union is understood to be for life, or good behavior. The Indian takes 
his bride for better, but not for worse. 

He has no tradition about coming to this country ; but says most decid- 
edly that he grew here as well as his ancestors before him. When asked 
who made the movable stone mortars that have been dug up from the soil, 
he says they were not made by his tribe, but were given them by the one 
who made the acorns, and since then the Indians have learned to make 
their own mortars in the solid and immovable rock. 

The Nevjida Indians burn their dead like the ancient Komans, and bury 
the ashes. The only exception to this custom is with the dead bodies of 
their dreamers. These are buried for one year, when the bones are dug up 
and burnt. The women put on mourning for relatives, by covering their 
heads and smearing their faces, shoulders and breasts with a black pitch, 
which is suffered to remain many months. The corpse is dressed in the 
best it possessed while living ; beads, bows and arrows, blankets, and every 
thing belonging to the deceased, are laid upon the pyre. The relatives and 
friends dance, howling around the flames till the body is consumed. 

The Indian here has a very correct notion of right and wrong, and can 



SKETCH OF NEVADA COUNTY. 27 



give » list with precision of what he deems wrongs, such as to stamp the 
perpetrator as a bad Indian. He sajs the Indian always had such ideas, 
and did not obtain them from the whites. 

Their religious rites are very few, and their ideas of a future life rather 
confused. Like all undeveloped minds, they easily imbibe the mystic 
notions of others, and it is impossible to say what the former belief of the 
Indian was. If they ever had a general belief, it seems to be clouded by 
what they have learned from the whitCvS. 

The Indian of this region has many points of resemblance with his 
Eastern brother. The same arrow-head, the same council house, where the 
chief receives his friends, the same taciturnity and gravity, the same 
medicine man, the same respect for dreamers or prophets, and the same 
improvidence belong to the race. But he differs widely in other respects. 
The Nevada Indian is not migratory; he practices no torture on his ene- 
mies ; the rite of adoption of wives and children of enemies is not known, 
but all arc killed indiscriminately ; chiefs are not hereditary or selected for 
prowess, but are chosen for other qualities, principally, it would seem, for 
ability to entertain or reward their friends. There is no regular chief to 
the tribe at present. Like all barbarous races, the Indian is addicted to 
games of chance. 

The mechanical skill of the tribe was not great. The women wove 
baskets so compactly qs to hold water, and the men made their arrows and 
a very superior bow, having a covering of sinew along its back, which 
retained the elasticity of the instrument. 

The Indian doctor has but few and simple remedies. He applies poultices 
of plants to bruised flesh ; but for fever and other pains the disease is pre- 
tended to be sucked out. 

I have been able to gain but little information respecting the language 
of the " Oustomah Midah," as the Nevada Indians call themselvel 
Philologists count the frequent recurrence of vowel sounds as indicative of 
the long influence of a warm climate on the language of a people. The 
language of the Indians here has its full share of vowels, and beyond this 
fact I am unable, at this writing, to say much concerning the tongue spoken 
by the Indians. 

They have their story-tellers, who entertain their hearers the whole night 
long with weird and fanciful tales, like the Arabs of the desert. As a 
specimen of the kind of stories pleasing to the Indian ear, I give one that 
was related me by an Indian, in broken English. He received it from an 
old man who dreamed it, he said. Here it is : 

_ It was a long lime ago. A California lion and bis younger brother, the wild cat, 
lived in a big wigwam together. The lion was strong and fleet of foot. He was 



28 SKETCH OF NEVADA COUNTY. 

more than a match for most of the aaimals he -wanted to eat. Bat he could not cope 
with the grizzly, or the serpent that crawled on the earth. His young brother was 
wise. He had a wonderful power. From a magical ball of great beauty, he derived 
an influence potent to destroy all the animals bis older brother was afraid of, They 
hunted together, the cat going before. One day — it was a long time ago — the two 
went out to hunt. •' There is a bear,'' said the lion. The cat, pointing to the bear? 
said, " die," and the bear fell dead. They next met a serpent, and he was killed in 
like manner. They skinned the snake and took along bis skin for its magical power. 
A little farther on tv/o large and very beautiful deer were found feeding together. 
"Kill one of these for yourself," said the boy brother to his man brother, " but catch 
me the other alive." The lion gave chase, and at night he returned to his wigwam. 
"Did you bring me back one of the beautiful deer?" said the cat. "No," said the 
lion, "it was too much work. I killed them both." Then the cat was sorry, and did 
not love his brother. They were estranged. The cat would not go out to slay the 
bear and the snake any more, and the lion would not go out for fear of the bear and 
the snake. He thought he would use the medicine ball of his brother, the cat, and 
learn to kill the bear and the snake himself. One day — it was a long time ago — the 
lion was playing with the ball, and tossing it up, he saw it go up and up, and out of 
sight. It never came down. Then the deer scattered all over the earth and the 
hunting has been poor ever since. The cat was disconsolate for the loss of the mag- 
ical ball. He left the wigwam to wander alone. He sorrowed for his loss and 
looked to fiod the ball again. It was a long time ago. Big water run all round 
from " Lankee " Jims to Humbug, and away up to the high mountains. The wild 
cat went north. He climbed a tree by the water. He wished for the lost ball. By 
and by he saw a beautiful ball hanging, like a buckeye, on a limb. He picked it 
ofif. It was very pretty. He put it in the snake-skin to keep it so it would not get 
away. He went along the shore of the big water till he could see across it. Two 
girls were on the other side cooking. The ball jumped out of the snake-skin and 
rolled over in the water. It went across the river. One of the girls came down to 
the stream to get some water in her basket, and saw the beautiful ball rolling and 
shining in the water. She tried to dip it up in her basket. But it would roll away. 
She said, "sister, come and help me catch this beautiful ball." The sister came. 
They tried a long time, but finally caught it in the basket. It was bright and very 
pretty. They were afraid it would get away. One held it for a time, and then the 
other. They were very glad. At night they put it between them in the bed. They 
kept awake a long time and talked about their prize. But, at last they fell asleep. 
They woke in the morning — the ball was gone — there was lying between them a full 
grown young man. And that was the first man that ever came on the earth. This 
was a long time ago. 



Note. — Since writing the above, my friend, J. E. Squire, informs me 
that a strange inscription is found on the rocks a short distance below 
Meadow Lake. The rocks appear to have been covered with a black coat- 
ing, and the hieroglyphics or characters cut through the layer and into the 
rock. This inscription was, probably, not made by the present tribe 
inhabiting the lower part of Nevada county. It may have been done by 
Indians from the other side of the mountains, who came to the lake region 
near the summit to fish ; or it may have a still stranger origin. 



SKETCH OF NEVADA COUNTY. 29 



PATRIOTIC. 

Besides giving a heavy majority at the polls for the maintenance of the 
integrity of the Union, Nevada county contributed liberally of men and 
money in the war of rebellion. Four companies were enlisted, and did 
service in the field. Captains Greene, Thayer, Atchisson and Kendall 
raised and commanded these companies, which altogether numbered about 
two hundred and fifty men. They all served in Arizona, or on the southern 
borders of the United States and Mexico. All these companies were 
assisted by the citizens of the county to enter the service of their country. 
The distance to the scenes of heaviest conflict was so great as to prevent 
extensive enlistments in California, tliough the people of no portion of the 
Union had more fervid desires for the fray. 

In the way of contributions to the Sanitary Fund, Nevada county has 

left a noble record. The California Branch of the Sanitary Commission, 

in a published pamphlet, gives statements of the amounts contributed by 

each town and county of the State, which passed through the hands of the 

Commission, and also the amounts sent through Dr. Bellows. The follow- 

in<' is a compilation of the amounts raised by the various places in Nevada 

county : 

BridKopovt $1,000 00 

Birchville 1,089 00 

Chulk Bhifr 127 50 

Columbia llill 149 00 

French Corral , 300 00 

Grass Valloy ; 8,523 85 

Lake City 101 00 

Moore's Flat 332 50 

Nevada 4,938 95 

North Sau Juan 3,390 56 

North Bloomfield 140 00 

Omega 21 25 

Patterson 38 50 

Red Dog 1,034 00 

Rough and Ready 624 00 

Svveetland 226 37 

Washington 329 00 

County at Large 522 35 

Total $22,887 83 

To this amount is to be added ^G,500 raised in Nevada City and sent by 
Hon. A. A. Sargent, while a member of Congress, direct to New York. 
Of the amount contributed by the county at large, |355 00 was taken at 
the polls in Nevada City. All of the above amounts were in coin. There 
was, also, contributed ^58 in currency. The total amount given by Nevada 
county to the Sanitary Fund during the war, for which receipts can. be 
shown was, therefore, ^29,387 83 in coin, and the above named sum in 
greenbacks. 



30 SKETCH OF NEVADA COUNTY. 



THE MINES AND THEIR PRODUCT. 



It is au easy matter, comparatively, to obtain tlie statistics of mines at 
present worked iu the county. The curious will find much valuable infor- 
mation in this respect in other parts of this volume. But, to go back and 
o-ather up the facts in relation to the product of the mines now exhausted ; 
to obtain even the names of the ravines, river-bars, gulches, hills, etc., from 
which thousands have been enriched ; to approximate the amounts of gold 
that have been extracted in all the various localities of the county, is too 
laborious a work for a volume of this character, if it were practicable. 

The mines of Nevada were, when first discovered, exceedingly rich and 
easy of development. The first claims were on river-bars or in ravines, 
where men with a common rocker, without more than from a few hours to 
a day or two of preparation could proceed to collect from a half ounce to 
two ounces per day, and iu frequent cases hundreds of dollars per day to 
the man were extracted. Men in a few weeks were known to return to 
the Eastern States carrying from ten to fifty, and as high as a hundred 
and sixty pounds of gold dust each, as a reward for their enterprise. Gold 
Run^ near Nevada City, and Gold Flat, were extraordinarily rich. They 
must have been so, for the claims allowed by the early aiuing laws were 
small, fifteen feet in length, and yet some of the reported results of single 
claims are scarcely credible. The ravines falling into Deer Creek on the 
site of the present City of Nevada, were also rich beyond precedent. Deer 
Creek, below the town, afi"orded splendid claims. Sclby Flat was another 
magnificent locality for miners, and Brush and Kock creeks also. Wood's 
Ravine yielded immensely. The mines about Newtown, for a time, 
were extremely profitable. The region about Grass Valley was one of 
enormous product. The ravines of Rough and Ready could scarcely be 
excelled, yielding gold, it is said, by the pound daily. The bars of the 
South and Middle Yubas were splendid ground for the early miners. The 
ravines about French Corral yielded magnificently. Shady Creek and other 
localities in Bridgeport Township, were excellent, and good mines were 
worked at Humbug and Eureka. Some fine claims were worked on Green- 
horn Creek, by emigrants in 1S49. 

But the discovery of the ancient river bed near Nevada opened a new 
class of mines, that required a large outlay and more risk to work than the 
river or ravine claims that engaged the attention of the pioneer miners. 
These ancient gravel drifts were soon found in many parts of the county, 
and from these the bulk of the gold has been extracted. We have no 
means of knowing the amount taken from the " Coyote diggings," above 
Nevada, but from the fact that all the gravel hills were rich, and the Live 



SKETCH OF NEVADA COUNTY. 31 

Oak and Nebraska claims, tlie last ones worked on the uortlisrn end of the 
range, yielded, probably, a million and a quarter dollars, it is presumed that 
not less than eight or ten millions were extracted, in half a mile on the 
lead. The sums taken from the gravel range extending from North S?n 
Juan down to French Corral must have been immense. At Grass Valley 
a very large amount was obtained from the same class of mines. Randolph 
Flat, in Rough and Ready, yielded handsomely. Orleans, Moore's and 
Woolsev's Flats, in Eureka township, have been nearly washed away, and 
immense sums taken. Alpha and Omega, Quaker Hill, Hunt's Hill, Little 
York, and many other places, have yielded their share to reward the miners. 

It is variously estimated that the basin in which Nevada is situated, has 
produced from fifteen to thirty millions in gold, and by some the whole 
gold product of the county is placed at not less than seventy-five millions 
of dollars. I am disposed to believe that a higher figure is warranted ; but 
at this time the facts cannot be obtained and statements in regard to the 
question must be based on conjecture only. One assertion we may safely 
venture, that no part of California, or the world, has produced a richer 
auriferous section than Nevada county. 

The ancient river beds of the section are not yet exhausted. Indeed, 
the gravel deposits are as yet comparatively unworkcd. Gold is still ob- 
tained in ravines and on river bars that have been worked over repeatedly, 
the decrease in wages and improved modes of mining enabling miners to 
obtain compensation for their labor. But, the reliance of the miners is on 
the old drifts of gravel and quartz for gold. The latter source is almost 
unlimited, gold-bearing rock being found in several distinct districts in the 
county. Formerly Grass Valley came near reckoning quartz mining as an 
industrial interest peculiarly her own. Now, Nevada has a few quartz 
mills. Eureka is fast developing into an excellent locality for rock mining, 
and Meadow Lake promises, from its large and numerous ledges, to become 
the chief quartz-crushing district in the county, if not the State. The 
spirit of enterprise and discovery is so active, that no danger is apprehended 
that Nevada county will lose any of its character as the first gold producing 
section on the coast. 

The mines of our county yield, in combination with gold, a small quan- 
tity of silver. Some excitement was manifested in the Summer of 1866 
by the discovery of copper mines on the Greenhorn creek, near Bear river. 
Some very rich specimens were exhibited, taken from the cupriferous ledges, 
and strong hopes are entertained that mines of copper will be opened in 
that section which will prove valuable. 

A belt of copper bearing rock crosses the county through Roiigh and 
Ready township, in which various efforts have been made to open remuner- 



32 SKETCH OF NEVADA COUNTY. 

ative mines, but, since the active year for prospecting for copper, 1863, the 
hopes of those who had an interest in the enterprise have been depressed. 
The " Well Mine " developed a solid mass of sulphurets full fifty feet 
thick, inclosed in metamorphic slate. A portion of the ore was shipped to 
Swansea and yielded, it is said, from nine to ten per cent. It is the opinion 
of many that this mine will yet prove a valuable one, though work upon it 
at present is suspended. The "Last Chance," and "Green" ledges, in 
the same general district, as well as the " Distillery Mine," are by many 
thought to show indications of value. It is predicted, from the results of 
the prospecting after copper, that Nevada county will in the future possess 
copper mines of great importance. 

Manganese is found near Sweetland in considerable quantities. Ledges 
of galena have been discovered near Meadow Lake Nickel, arsenic and 
antimony exist in combination with gold in the quartz of that section 
rendering the ores, in some cases, refractory by the ordinary processes. 
Limestone, in a metamorphic state, is found on Wolf Creek, on the South 
Yuba, six miles from Nevada, on the same stream above Bear Valley, and 
in several other parts of the county. 



IMPROVEMENTS IN MINING. 



Nevada county is entitled to the credit of introducing or inventing most 
of the improvements in mining. Here the loug-tom was first introduced 
in 1850. The sluice came next, and was first used in the ravine near the 
African Church in Nevada City. E. E. Mattison soon after adopted a 
mode of washing down high banks, which gave a great impetus to mining, 
rendering immense ranges of gravel productive that could be worked in no 
other way profitably. This was to throw a large stream of water compressed 
through a small nozzle, upon the bank, as water is thrown through a hose 
upon fires in cities, and now known as the hydraulic mode. Improvements 
have been frequently made on the hydraulic pipes, one of the best of which 
was suggested by Macy of Little York township, which prevents the water 
whirling when passing through the pipe, thereby scattering and losing its 
force before striking the bank. Several improved couplings for hose origi- 
nated in the county. Mattigon applied hydraulic power to the derrick, 
causing a vast saving of eX'pense where a derrick is much employed. A 
hose sewing machine was invented aid put in operation here. French 
invented a machine for drilling rocks. Dunning's under-current sluice was 
first used at North San Juan. The Crall, or waltzing pan, was originated 
in that place, and the practice of blowing up and pulverizing gravel banks 



POLITICAL SKETCH. 33 



by gunpowder was adopted there also. As many as five liundred and fifty 
kegs of powder have been used at North San Juan in one blast. The 
hurdy-gurdy wheel is another of the simple machines to save expense. It 
would be a tedious task to name all the little contrivances for saving gold 
that have been produced by the genius and experience of the people of our 
county. 



POLITICAL. 



Upon the organization of the county, in 1851, the voters were about 
evenly divided between "Whigs and Democrats, and in this regard Nevada 
was an index of the State. Sectional feelings were rife at first, and it 
generally happened that Southern men, or those sympathizing with South- 
ern views, obtained the offices. An effectual mode of ruining a candidate 
was, to raise a suspicion that he was not " sound," or, in other words, he 
was suspected of having an idea that slavery was not a divine institution. 
Ultimately the charge of abolitionism became to the candidate the passport 
to success. Latterly Nevada has bscn one of the most advanced of counties 
as well in political sentiment and action as in material development. 

At the first election, hold in the Fall of 1851, the Whigs elected J. N. 
Turner and E. F. TV. Ellis, who fell while acting as Brigadier at the battle 
of Shiloh, to the Assembly. Burton and Lindsey were elected to the 
Assembly as Whigs in 1853. But generally, the Democrats were able to 
carry the county by small majorities, till their power was broken by the 
Know Nothings in 1855, though the year previous the Whigs elected their 
first Senator, with two Assemblymen. After the decline of the Know 
Nothings the Democrats swept the county and State till the Republican 
party broke in upon them in 1860, and the next year won the field main- 
taining their ascendency to the present hour. 

There was an early misunderstanding between Northern and Southern 
Democrats in the county, which sometimes contributed to the success of 
Whigs. There was, also, a want of harmony between Northern and Southern 
Whigs. The antagonism between Northern and Southern men destroyed 
party lines to some extent and disposed some of the most sectional to vote 
for the men from their part of the Union. Gamblers had a powerful influ- 
ence in the early elections, and being numerous and generally Democrats, 
they contributed greatly to the success of their party at the polls. The 
party with the most desperate men was likely to succeed. Hundreds of 
unnaturalized foreigners voted at the fii-st elections, and even down to a 

D 



34 POLITICAL SKETCH. 



very late day, and being generally attracted by tlie name of Democracy, 
the weiglit of their influence went to swell the tide of victory for the Dem- 
ocratic party. The national administration being generally Democratic, 
also, helped the organization and power of that party in California, having 
all the spoils of office, and, therefore, the material power to drill and keep a 
party together. Democratic orators perambulated our county, the speeches 
of some of whom are remembered for ignorance and vulgarity, and, indeed 
the times was not remarkable for any great dcgi'ee of refinement on the 
part of political speakers to whatever party they might belong. Uoth the 
Whig and Democratic parties were loosely held together in 1854,. on account 
of sectional feelings. The advent of a secret organization in that year 
helped to disrupt the parties still more. The Know Nothings polled that 
year more than twelve hundred votes, although they were unknown in the 
county till a few weeks before the election. Their influence was marked in 
that canvass, and became more so the next year, sweeping the Whig name 
from the political field, and under the name of American party, overthrow- 
ing the Democrats signally at the polls. Their triumph was, however, 
temporary. Southern influence procured the indorsement of the Kansas- 
Nebraska Bill and other Democratic notions, and left no distinctive difi"er- 
ence between the parties on which to make an issue, except the question 
of proscription or liberality to foreigners. As hundreds of the members of 
the American party had joined its ranks more out of opposition to the 
Democracy and its principles and tendencies than because of prejudice 
against foreigners, there was little to attach them to the party any longer. 
The indorsement of the cardinal principles of Democracy would have de- 
stroyed the party, if ideas of national importance had not conspired to 
bring into the field a new party whose aim was the restoration of the rights 
of man over the whole Union, and more particularly the saving of the 
virgin soil of the territories from the curse of slavery. 

In 1856 the Republican party took the field, and for a new organization, 
exhibited great strength in the canvass. The earnestness and energy of 
its leaders, and the soundness of its principles insured ultimate success. 
But not in the contest of that year. Nevada county went for Buchanan, 
and indorsed all the Kansas iniquities, border rufiiauism, the prostitution 
of the National Government to the slave powei', and all, by a tremendous 
vote. For four years the Democrats maintained their power in the county, 
divided, however, in 1857, when an issue was made by Douglas with tha 
Administration. The debris of other political organizations in the county 
took sides with the Douglas and Broderick wing, or the Buchanan and 
Gwin faction, as interest, feeling or personal relations seemed to dictate, till 
the opposition to Democracy in general began in earnest in the National 



POLITICAL SKETCH. 35 



canvass of 1860. Then a separation of the progressive elements from all 
others was made, and the first decisive battle fought for freedom. The 
county was carried for Lincoln, and three members of the Assembly elected 
out of five. The next year the Republicans swept everything before them, 
electing their whole ticket, county and legislative. Before, however, going 
into the canvass of that year the licpublican County Central Committee 
proposed to the Douglas wing of the Democrats, which professed to be for 
the Union, a fusion of all the elements opposed to secession, and placing 
all, of whatever political antecedents, on equal grounds. The offer was 
rejected, and that wing of the Democracy as well as the other, nominated 
a distinct ticket. Three sets of candidates were in the field. Conness, re- 
garded as the exponent of the Douglas faction, took the stump, and in a 
speech at Nevada occupied the same position he did in his speech of the 
IGth of August at Folsom, which was as essentially copperhead as any 
delivered during tlie war. The same sentiments, condemnatory and abusive 
of the Administration of Lincoln, were retailed over Nevada county, but 
without success. The llepublicans were victorious, electing their entire 
ticket. On the 12th of March, S. II. Chase, State Senator from Nevada, 
introduced certain resolutions into the Senate of a very facile character. 
He proposed the adoption of the Crittenden compromise, the plan of adjust- 
ment suggested by Mr. Rice of Minnesota, the Border State plan, or, if the 
people of the South were for a separate Government, to allow them the 
privilege. Undoubtedly he spoke the sentiments of a large number of the 
weak hearted of his constituency, in his speech supporting his resolutions. 
But, there were true Union men in the county determined to sustain the 
Grovernment in any emergency. A meeting was called to assemble at the 
theater in Nevada for the purpose of declaring the sense of the Union men 
of the county. Niles Scarls, District Judge, was chosen Chairman. The 
secessionists were on hand iu force. By the appointment of the chairman, 
a number of uncertain men were put upon the committee on resolutions. 
John R. McConnell was there to sow the seeds of Calhounism and taint 
the Union sentiment of the meeting. Others were there to assist. On the 
other hand A. A. Sargent was for vigorous action on the side of the Union. 
He, also, had worthy supporters. But, the resolutions passed were not 
entirely satisfactory to the uncompromising foes of secession. Union clubs 
were soon formed, to obtain admission to which was a matter of more diffi- 
culty than to attend a public Union meeting, and the work of organization 
for the support of the Government began. The county had three presses, 
the Journal, Democrat, and North San Juan Press, that were bold and 
unmistakably Union, and the cause advanced rapidly. Some parts of the 
county were too hot for disunionists before the year closed. 



36 



POLITICAL SKETCH. 



The defeat of the Union Democracy left some of that party in bad humor 
with the Republicans, from which thej never recovered ; but most of the 
party, seeing no prospect of success with their old organization, fused with 
the Republicans in 1862 and some of the leaders immediately set about 
controlling the entire party to their own purposes. Their pretensions were 
resisted, but the majority of the fusion party wanted peace in the ranks for 
the sake of the Union, and in 1863 the most important offices in the county 
were bestowed upon the late opposers of the Administration of Lincoln. 
Taking advantage of their positions as officers of the county, they started 
a press to assail the men who had been first in all the movements to sustain 
the Government in its defence against treason. In 1865 these men, 
attempting to perpetuate their offices two years longer, were driven from 
authority by the strong hand of the people, and most emphatically rebuked. 

It is proper to remark that the course of John R. McConnell at the outset 
of the war of rebellion was such as to recommend him to the Breckinridfre 
or secession Democracy, and he was nominated in 1861 for Governor of the 
State. Nevada county, however, gave her vote for Stanford, the Republi- 
can and successful candidate. 

We append to this political sketch a list of the persons who have been 
elected to various positions in the county since its organization. The fol- 
lowing Representatives of the county in Senate and Assembly were elected 
in the years given, except the Senators holding over : 



1851- 



Sexate. 
-James Walsh, Democrat. 



1852— Wm. H. Lyons, Democrat. 



1853- 



-"Wm. H. Lyons, Democrat, 
J. T. Crenshaw, Democrat. 



1854 — J, T. Crewshaw, Democrat, 
E. F. Burton, Whig. 



1855— E. F. Burton, Whig, 

E, G. Waits, American, 



1856 — E. G. Waite, American, 
S. H. Chase, Democrat. 



1851- 



1852- 



1853- 



ASSE>n3LY. 

•E. F. W. Ellis. V-'hig, 
J. N. Turner, Whig, 
Wm. n. Lyons, Democi-at. 
J. T. Crenshaw, Democrat, 
Phil. Moore. Democrat, 
J. H. Bostwick, Democrat. 
■E.F. Burton, Whig, 
I. N. Dawlcy, Democrat, 
Wm. H. Lindsey, Whig, 
H, P. Sweetland, Democrat, 
J. H. Bostwick, Democrat. 
185'4— E. G. Waite. Whig, 

E. H. Gaylord, AVhig, 
W.J.Knox, Democrat, 
Jonathan Phelps. Democrat, 
H. M. C. Brown. Democrat. 
■T. B. McFarland, American, 
Daniel Dustin, American, 
V. G. Bell, American, 
G. A. F. Reynolds. American, 
S. W. Boring, Democrat. 
■E. M. Davidson, Democrat, 
W. H. Wood, Democrat, 
Parker H. Pearce, Democrat, 
Phil. Moore, Democrat, 
Michael Cassin, Democrat. 



1855- 



1856- 



POLITICAL SKETCH. 



37 



Assembly. 

1857— W. n. Hill. Democrat, 

Jno. Caldwell, Democrat, 
J. B. Warfield. Democrat, 
G. A. Young, Democrat, 
J. K. Smith, American, 

1858 — Jno. Caldwell, Donglas Democrat, 
C. Callahan, Buclianan Democrat, 
G. A. Young. Buchanan Democrat, 
I'bil. Moore, Buchanan Democrat, 
W. R. Armstrong, Buchanan Dem. 

1859— Phil. J[oore, Buchanan Democrat, 
Chas. F. Smith. Buchanan Dem , 
Henry Hayes. Buchanan Democrat, 
M. P. O'Connor. Douglas Democrat, 
S. T. Curtis, Buchanan Democrat. 

18C0— E. F. Spence, Ptepublican, 
J. M. Avery. Republican, 
E. W. Councilman, Republican, 
N. C. Miller, Douglas Democrat, 
J. C. Eastman, Douglas Democrat. 

1861 — James Collins, Republican, 
J. M. Avery, Republican, 
W. H. Sears, Republican. 
Reuben Leech, Republican. 

18C2 — James Collins, Republican, 
W. H. Sears, Republican, 
Selh 3[artin, Republican, 
J. W. Rule, Republican. 

1863— W. H. Sears, Republican, 
Seth Martin, Republican, 
A. A. Smith. Republican, 
J. AV. Rule, Republican. 

1865 — John Puttison, Republican, 
G. D. Dornin. Republican, 
Reuben Leech, Republican, 
H. L. Hatch, Union. 

A new apportionment was made by the Legislature of 1853, by which 
Nevada county was given two Senators instead of one, and five Assembly- 
men instead of three. This representation was maintained till the Legis- 
lature changed it in 1861, when Nevada lost one Assemblyman. 

Birdseye held his ofl&ce but one year, a change in the Constitution having 
been made. Roberts, under the new order of things, held his office one 
year, drawing the short term as Senator. The term of a Senator since the 
Constitution was changed and biennial sessions inaugurated, is four years, 
and that of Assemblymen two. 

The following list of officers of the county will be valuable for reference : 

District Judges — 

"W. T. Barbour, 1850 to November 1855 — Democrat. 
Niles Searls, 1855 to No-^ ember 1861 — Democrat. 
T. B. McFarland, 1861, (present incumbent,) — Union. 
Barbour was Judge of the Eighth District, composed of the counties of 



Senate. 

1857— S. H. Chase, Democrat, 

E.F, Burton, Independent. 



1858— E. F. Burton, Independent. 

C. J. Lansing, Buchanan Dem. 



1859 — C. J. Lansing, Buchanan Dem, 
S, II. Chase, Douglas Dem. 



1860— S. IT. Chase, uncertain Democrat, 
Wm. Watt, Douglas Democrat. 



1861— Wm. Watt. Democrat. 

Joseph Kuiz, Republican. 



1862— Joseph Kutz, Republican. 
J. C. Birdseye, Republican. 



1863— Joseph Kutz, Republican. 
E. W. Roberts, Union. 



1865 — Joseph Kutz. Republican, 
D. Belden, Union. 



38 



POLITICAL SKETCH. 



Yuba, Sutter, Nevada and Sierra. Nevada and Sierra and Plumas were 
erected into a new Judicial District, in 1855, and Niles Searls was elected 
to the Judgeship. Plumas and Sierra were afterward lopped off, and 
Nevada became a District of itself. When the constitutional change took 
place the Judicial Districts of the State were reorganized, and Nevada and 
Placer were associated in one District, and so remain. 

County Judges — 

Thomas H. Caswell, Democrat, 1851 to 1859. 

David Belden, Democrat, 1859 to 1863- 

Addison C Niles, Ilepublican, 1863 — present incumbent. 

John Gallagher, Whig, 1851 to 1853. 
William H. Endecott, Democrat, 1853 to 1855. 
W. W. Wright, Democrat, 1855 to Nov. 3, 1856.* 
William Butterfield, Democrat, 1856 to 1857. 
Samuel W. Boring, Democrat, May 1857 to Nov. 1859. 
J. B. YanHagen, Democrat, 1859 to 1861. 
N. W. KuowUon, Republican, Nov. 1861 to March 1864. 
Charles Kent, Union, 1SG4 to 1866. 
Eichard B. Gentry, Republican, 1866 to 1868. 
-Wright was killed and Butterfield appointed to fill the vacancy. 

District Attorneys — 

John R. McConnell, Democrat, 1851 to '53. 

William M. Stewart, Democrat, 1853 to '54 — resigned. 

Niles Searls, Democrat, 1854 — appointed. 

S. W Fletcher, Democrat — elected to fill vacancy. 

A. A. Sargent, Whig, 1855 to '57. 

W. F. Anderson, Democrat, 1857 to '59. 

E. W. Maslin, Democrat, 1859 to '61. 

E. H. Gaylord, Republican, 1861 to '64. 

Thomas P. Hawley, Union, 1864 to '66. 

John Caldwell, Union, 1866 to '68. 

County Clerks and Recorders — 

Theodore Miller, Whig, 1851 to '53. 
W. S. Patterson, Democrat, 1853 to '55. 
J. H. Bostwick, Democrat, 1855 to '57. 
Rufus Shoemaker, Democrat, 1857 to '59. 
John S. Lambert, Democrat, 1859 to '61. 

County Clerks — 

R. H. Farquhar, Rep., Nov. 1861 to March '68 — twice elected. 

County Recorders — 

J. I. Sykes, Republican, Nov. 1861 to March '64. 

Gerry Morgan, Union, 1864 to '66. 

John Garber, Republican, 1866 to '68. 
Note. — The ofdce of Recorder was separated from that of Clerk by the 
Legislature of 1861. 



POLITICAL SKETCH. 39 

County Treasurers — 

H. C. Hodge, Dfimocrat, 1851 to '53. 

AVilliam Bullington, Pemoerat, 1853 to '55. 

John Weber, Democrat, 1855 to '57. 

T. W. Sisrourney, Democrat, 1857 to '59. 

J. W. Cbinn, Democrat, 1859 to 'Gl. 

E. a. Waite, Kcpublicau, Nov. 1861 to Marcli '64. 

James Collins, Republican, March 1861 to July '64.* 

W. H. Cra^vford, Republican, July 1864 to March '66. 

E. F. Spence, Republican, 1866 to '68. 
♦James Collins died and Crawford was appointed to fill the vacancy. 

Looking over the above list, I find the following names should receive 
especial mention ; E. F. W. Ellis would have been prominent for Governor 
or Congressman had he not left the State ; he fell at Shiloh, giving his life 
for his country. Phil. Moore was Speaker of the House of 1860, and left 
the State for Confederate service in 1862. Crenshaw left the same year for 
the same purpose; was blown up on the ramparts of Vicksburg and his 
body never found. T. S. McFarland is at present Judge of the District 
composed of Nevada and Placer counties. Dr. Daniel Dustin did efficient 
service for his country, leading an Illinois regiment as Colonel during the 
war of rebellion. S. H. Chase is District Judge at Aurora, in the State 
of Nevada. James Collins led the Second Illinois Regiment in the Mexi- 
can war, as Colonel, and received from the Legislature of that State a sword 
for meritorious services. He, also, took an active and important part in the 
Black Hawk war. W. H. Sears was Speaker of the House in 1863. J. 
R. McConnell was Attorney General of the State in 1854, and candidate 
for Governor in 1861. W. M. Stewart was acting Attorney General in 
place of McConnell during the absence of the latter from the State, and is 
now United States Senator from Nevada. A. A. Sargent was a member of 
Congress in 1862 and 1863. 

Appropriate to this subject, I may add that Governor Fairchild of Wis- 
consin, and Governor Oglesby of Illinois, once resided in Nevada, and 
Governor Murphy of Arkansas, once was a citizen of Grass Valley. Lorenzo 
Sawyer, one of the Supreme Judges of the State, formerly resided in 
Nevada, and Stephen J. Field, Supreme Judge of the United States, 
obtained his first political position, as member of the Assembly, by the 
vote of Nevada county before its separation from Yuba. The county has 
furnished one State Treasurer, Thomas Findley, and one Clerk to the Su- 
preme Court, J. R. Beard. James Churchman was sent by Lincoln as 
Consul to Valparaiso, and L. S. Ely as Consul to Acapulco. Lola Montez, 
the Countess of Landsfeldt, resided at Grass Valley in 1855. 



40 THE PRESS. 



THE PHESS. 



The Nevada Journal, tlie first paper published in tlie county, and one of 
tlie first ever published in the mountains of the State, made its appearance 
at Nevada in April, 1851, under the auspices of W. B. Ewer & Co. It 
was always controlled by Whigs, or men of Whig antecedents, down to its 
suspension in the Fall of 1861. Perhaps, I may say no paper ever pub- 
lished in the mountains had a better support or more influence during the 
ten and a half years of its existence. 

Ewer did not long remain in the concern, being succeeded as editor by 
A. A. Sargent, who, except at short intervals, furnished its editorials tijl 
July, 1855, when he was succeeded by E. Gr. Waite as editor, who generally 
directed the course of the paper down to October, 18G1. 

In September,- 1853, appeared at Nevada, the Young America, a Demo- 
cratic organ, under the control of. E. A. Davidge. It soon changed its 
name and proprietors^ becoming, the Nevada Democrat — a name retained 
under various changes of ownership and editors down to its decease in the 
Spring of 1863. After Davidge, Niles Searls was editor for a time being 
succeeded in June, 1861, by T. H. Rolfe, he in turn by Henry Shipley in 
1855, who was soon succeeded by W. F. Anderson. T. II. Rolfe again, in 
January, 1857, became editor and remained as such till the suspension of 
the paper. 

The Journal was published the first year semi-weekly, and afterward as 
a weekly. The Democrat was published weekly until the Fall of I860, when 
it was changed to a tri-weekly,' continuing such till the end. 

About simultaneously with the appearance of the Young America at 
Nevada, Oliver & Moore started a paper called the Telegraph, at Grass 
Valley. W. B. Ewer and Henry Shipley succeeded in 1851. It was 
published as a weekly till it changed its name to The National in 1861, 
when it became a tri-weekly, appearing as a daily in 1861 and ever since. 
W. S. Byrne became editor upon the change of name, and was succeeded 
by John R. PJdge, both being associated for a time in the editorial depart- 
ment of the paper. The office was totally destroyed by fire in June, 1862. 

In 1857 J. P. Olmstead began the publication of a paper at North San 
Juan, called the Star. The concern was purchased and a paper called the 
Hydraulic Press succeeded, edited by B. P. Avery, afterward State Printer. 
Avery was succeeded by Wm. Bausman, who edited it till near the time of 
its suspension in 1861. 

The daily Nevada Transcript was started in September, 1860, by N. P. 
Brown & Co., and is still flourishing. It was the first daily ever published 
in the mountains. Gen. James Allen, once State Printer, edited the paper 



THE PRES3. 



41 



till October, 1861, wliea he was succeeded by E. Gr. Waite, wbo ceased liis 
conaectiou witb the paper in January, 1864, and was succeded by M. S. 
Deal. 

The material of the old Journal was purchased in the Spring of 1862, 
by B. Brierly & Co., and a tri- weekly paper started, called by the old name. 
It maintained an existence till the fire in November of the next year de- 
stroyed the ofl&ce entire. Like disasters befel the Journal and Democrat 
offices in the fire of 1856. The tri-weekly Journal was edited by Eev. B. 
Brierly. 

The Nevada Daily Gazette began its career iinder the auspices of 0. P. 
Stidger & Co., in the Spring of 1864. Stidger is understood to have done 
most of the writing for the paper. "W. H. Sears was the editor the year 
after. T. H. Rolfe was writing its articles down to November, 1866, when 
E. F. Bean purchased the concern and hoisted his name as editor and pro- 
prietor. 

In October, 1864, Blumenthal & Townsend started the Daily Grass Yalley 
Union. It was edited by H. C. Bennett for a time, and followed by W. H. 
Miller. Latterly it fell into the hands of Democrats and is conducted in an 
enlarged form by W. S. Byrne. 

In June, 1866, a paper was started at Meadow Lake, by William B. 
Lyon & Co., called the Sun. It was published at first as a daily, but as the 
excitement over the new discoveries of quartz in that region subsided, it 
became a weekly, and so continues to this moment. 

In the above account we have not given all the changes of proprietorship 
and temporary editors, our space not allowing all the minutias. The curious 
will find more details in the newspaper history of the State published in 
the Sacramento Union, on Christmas, 1859. Down to that date the changes 
in the various papers of the county are set forth with precision in that 
paper. 

In the political contests of the times, some of the above papers took im- 
portant parts. The Journal, though conducted by Whigs, took no decided 
partisan ground till the appearance of the Democratic organ, the Young 
America. It was thereafter regarded as Whig, till the appearance of the 
American party, in 1855, when it became the county organ of that party, 
remaining so till the party, in State Convention, indorsed the Kansas Ne- 
braska Bill, when it measurably became neutral, espousing, however, 
somewhat the cause of Douglas and Broderick, when the issue with the 
administration of Buchanan was made. But it was always opposed to the 
Democratic party per se or its principles, only supporting some of its mem- 
bers as a miiter of policy or for personal reasons when it had no party of 
its own to uphold. As the Douglas wing of the Democratic party grew 



42 THE PRESS. 



strong, the Journal opposed it, and finally took up the Republican cause, 
defending it with earnestness to success. "When the war of rebellion was 
about to begin, the Journal took its stand by the Government, and during 
the entire contest, till the suspension of the paper and transfer of its editor 
to the Daily Transcript, the Journal was foremost in the advocacy of all the 
measures that the administration of Lincoln was forced ultimately to adopt. 
Its radicalism on the questions of confiscation, emancipation, the draft and 
more vigorous prosecution of the war, was prominent and fearless. 

The Democrat, after it passed from the hands of its founder, was generally 
in the hands of Northern men and not sectional. While edited by Shipley, 
in 1855, its articles were characterized, at times, by subserviency to Southern 
sentiment, but less so under his successor, though a Southern man. After- 
ward it became conservative, but always Democratic. While conducted by 
Kolfe it was the devoted champion of "Broderick, took sides with Douglas, 
and against Buchanan, and finally when the war had begun, it supported 
the administration of Lincoln in a moderate way, till the suspension of the 
paper. 

The couree of the Transcript under its first editor was neutral or con- 
servative. But in October, 1861, a change took place and the Transcript 
became vigorous for the war and all the advance measures of the times. It 
was the first newspaper on the coast to declare its want of confidence in 
McClellan, and at first received the anathemas of many of its cotemporaries 
for demanding the removal of that Greneral from the command of the army 
of the Potomac. It has remained under its present management the same 
organ of progress, supporting with zeal the cause of Congress to the present 
moment. 

The revived Journal affected conservatism, vacillated considerably, and 
was soon left without influence in the cause of the Union it had avowedly 
espoused. 

The Gazette was started as the organ of a faction of the Union party, 
and distinguished itself by bolting the regular nominees of the party in 

1865, and denouncing the men of the county who were first and most 
efficient in the support of the war for the maintenance of the Government, 
making an onslaught on impartial suffrage, and affiliating with Copperheads, 
and at a later period supported Johnson and his policy. la November, 

1866, it changed hands and promises to be an efficient ally in the cause of 
Congress. 

The Grass Valley Telegraph was neutral, or not a very forcible exponent 
of political opinions. The National, its successor, was for a time a supporter 
of Buchanan's administration, but changing hands, it suppoited Douglas 
as the regular nominee of the Democratic party, yet it went with the op- 



J 



VINES AND WINES. 43 



posers of Lincola's admiuistration^ and has remained on tlie same tack to 
this day. 

The Union, as its name denotes, was started as a Union paper, and until 
it passed into its present hands was not supposed to be tinctured with 
Democracy. The paper was enlarged in December, 1866, and seems to be 
in a prosperous state. 

The papers published at North San Juan took little part in politics till 
the rebellion broke out, when Bausman, the editor of the Press, became a 
vigorous and out-spoken friend of the administration of Lincoln. The 
paper remained so till its suspension. 

The Meadow Lake Sun has been always a radical Union sheet. Its editor 
at present is understood to be Judge Tilford, to whom the public is indebted 
for the interesting sketch of 31eadow Lake township which forms a part 
of this history. 



VINES AND WINES. 



One of the most important of the industrial interests of our county is 
raising grapes and making wines. I rank it among the most prominent 
branches of industry, not because of the amount of capital invested or the 
number of men employed in the business, but because the experiments 
made have pi'oven conclusively that gi'apes can be grown successfully on 
thousands of unoccupied acres that now invite the labors of the culturist, 
and that wines of a noble quality can be produced, equaling the best table 
wines of foreign lands. It is an important interest because the field is so 
large and the inducements so great ; the kinds of wines which the soil 
and climate arc adapted to produce being such that no other parts of the 
State can compete with them in the market. But, the business of wine 
making in our county is yet in its infancy. Four years ago probably not a 
barrel of wine was produced in the county. The Assessor's Report of 1866, 
a paper gotten up with more accurate data than any of its predecessors, 
gives the number of vines in the county at 124,000, and the number of 
gallons of wine produced that year 10,000. The tax upon wines has 
decreased their production, besides giving a motive to the producers for not 
reporting to the Assessor all they have made. It is thought by men con- 
vei'sant with the subject that at least 20,000 gallons of wine were made in 
the county last year. 

Since it has been demonstrated that wines of good quality can be made 
in the mountains of the county, an interest has been awakened in the 



44 



VINES AND WINE3. 



business of vine planting, and ere long tlie Assessor -will report a million 
vines instead of the number given in his communication of last year to the 
Surveyor General. All that is required is the planting of the right kinds 
of grapes upon the proper soil for them, and crops wll come that would 
astonish any country in Europe. Four tons on an acre of vines five years 
old is not an uncommon yield. And grapes are produced here with far less 
expense than in the best grape growing regions of France and Italy. The 
land can be had for nothing, and the country being the home of the grape 
no extreme artificial system is needed calling for constant labor to mature 
a crop. Land being plenty, the vines can be planted far enough apart for 
horse cultivation^ and the soil being dry in the Summer no exertion is 
required to keep down weeds as in countries having a moister climate. The 
vines need irrigation the first year, but after that on most soils they will 
take care of themselves. It has been found that working the gound in 
Summer with a plow or cultivator renders it moist and supersedes irrigation 
in many localities. 

The vineyards of the county arc yet small. Probably there is not one 
of more than 10,000 vines. Generally they are but experimental patches 
of from one to three thousand vines. The French have tried the cultivation 
of the grape about French Corral, and with good success. Their wines of 
last year's vintage are already disposed of and at fair rates. Mr. Ponco 
has 4,000 bearing viaes ; Mr. H. Poulinier 3,000 ; Mr. Monier 2,500, and 
Mr. Freschot 1,500, at that place. The wine produced was a sort of claret, 
2,000 gallons of which found a ready market. The grape cultivated is the 
Mission and Black Hamburg. General Evens has 3,500 vines of the 
Mission variety at Sweetland, and Mr. Strahline 1,100, of the same sort. 
Eight hundred gallons of white wine were produced from these vines. 

At North San Juan, Louis Buhring,.to whom I am greatly indebted for 
information concerning the grape culture and wine making in Bridgeport 
township, and who is a successful experimentalist in the business, has 
2,000 vines — half Mission, and the other half of Hamburg, Catawba and 
white Muscat of Alexandria. George D. Doniin has 1,000 vines, and P. 
Bush 500. Buhring has made several varieties of wine, some of which I 
have sampled, that promise well. The grape in that section of the county 
developes a great deal of sacharine matter, which by fermentation is trans- 
formed into alcohol. The wines are, therefore, of considerable strength — 
too much, perhaps, for table wines. However, the introduction of grapes 
of other varieties may enable that part of the county to produce the light 
wines for dinner use, which is the great desideratum, since Los Angeles 
can produce the strong wines in excess, and the counties north of the Bay 
of San Francisco, the Hocks and sparkling kinds. 



VINES AND WINES. 45 



At Nevada, Josiali Rogers has 10,000 viues, mostly of the Los Angeles 
or Mission variety. His is probably the largest bearing vineyard in the 
county. R. R. Craig has 5,000 vines, of many varieties, but mostly Mis- 
sion. Mr. Scibcrt has a vineyard of 2,000 vines, of forty varieties, E. 
Gr. Waite has a thousand vines, all foreign, with the exception of a few 
Catawbas and Isabellas. The wines produced by Craig have been sold at 
two dollars per gallon by the cask. Scibert's wines are sold readily at fine 
prices; his brandy has, also, commanded a ready sale. He has attempted 
several varieties of wine, and generally with good success. Good judo'es 
pronounce some of his wines equal to any produced on the coast. Waite 
has made wine which is said to be the only approach to a good article of 
French claret yet produced in the State. The late Wilson Flint, whose 
judgment in such matters will not be disputed, said it was the best wine of 
its age he ever sampled. [This is not an advertisement; there is not a 
bottle of it left fur sale.] It sold readily at good prices, and gave universal 
satisfaction. All the wines above mentioned have been thrown into market 
young, but such is their character that it is confidently predicted they will 
develop splendidly. 

P. Bergantz has a vineyard of 3,500 Mission grapes, three miles below 
Grass Valley, which yields a white wine unlike any I have tested that came 
from that variety of grape. It resembles some of the Rhine wines strongly. 
The yield for 186G was 1,300 gallons. This wine seems to be a favorite 
with many persons of various nationalities. 

There are quite a number of vineyards in Grass Valley township and, 
also, several in the vicinity of the Anthony House, in Rough and Ready 
township, which produce wines; but we have no knowledge of their quality 
or character. The grape culture has begun in Little York township. The 
few vines in bearing in that part of the county arc said to give promise of 
good results from enterprises on a larger scale. Vines are also grown in 
small numbers, by way of experiment, in Bloomfield and Washington 
townships. The hardier sorts will flourish in those sections of the county. 

Probably, estimating the quantity of land in Nevada county at the lowest 
figure, there are not less than sixty thousand acres, about one-twelfth of the 
whole surface, capable of producing grapes, for the market, for wine, for 
brandy and for raisins. The soil fit for the growtli of the grape is of vol- 
canic ash or sedimentary lava, or is of decomposed granite enriched with 
the potash and soda set free by the decomposition of feldspar, and impreg- 
nated with oxide of iron. The tops of the ridges coming down from the 
high Sierra is of the volcanic character, pretty generally, and the volcanic 
materials have been washed down and mixed with the soil of granitic origin 
m some localities, forming a combination favorable for grape cultivation. 



46 



VINES AND WINES. 



But the soils of granitic or volcanic origin, are not objectionable to the 
vine grower. Of ground proper for grape cultivation, the county is not 
deficient. 

It has been demonstrated that in a climate where the grape grows so 
naturallv, the highly artificial system of pruning and training vines which 
is in vogue in some parts of Europe, Avill not do. In a country of cloudy 
skies, and where the high price of land induces the crowding of as many 
vines as possible upon an acre, there must be considerable Summer pruning 
required to give the grape the requisite amount of heat and light from the 
sun. But, under our brazen skies, that labor had better be spared. There 
are none too many lungs to the vine to condense moisture and gather from 
the atmosphere the elements to perfect the fruit. The more foliage the 
better, provided it be not so dense as to prevent the free circulation of air 
among the vines and around the fruit. The grapes grown upon vines let 
alone by the pruner during the Summer, have been found to be the largest 
and best, and the more lungs to the plant the greater its capacity to bring 
to perfection a large crop. After the vines have been cut back, the " let 
alone " practice is best, till the cutting back process is again required for 
another year. 

The theory of low pruning will not do for all localities. If the vineyard 
has a northern exposure and the soil retains moisture, the clusters of grapes 
near the ground and subject to its humid influence, after the rains in the 
Autumn, will be liable to mold and rot, while those on the same vine 
higher up exposed to the warni currents of air, will soon dry and remain 
sound. The practice of heading the vine low in vinej'ards with northern 
exposures is therefore pernicious, particularly when the clusters of grapes 
are large and compact. Small or open clusters may dry when near the 
damp ground, but large and close ones may not. 

The French and Germans have brought with them from the vineyards of 
Europe the mode of pruning the vine very short, that is, leaving but few 
spurs of two or three buds each. I think my experiments demonstrate 
that a vine in California should not be pruned as closely as in Europe, and 
should be treated according to its vigor, age and variety. To cut back a 
vine without reference to its strength and its variety is absurd. Why 
should not an Isabella five years old produce as many pounds of grapes as 
a Black Hamburg, both being of equal vigor and the same age ? Yet if 
both be pruned alike, they will produce about an equal number of clusters. 
But the Hamburg, with its large bunches, will either overbear or the 
Isabella, with its small ones, will not bear according to its capacity. 

Our vines are so thrifty in California that the short pruning system is 
destructive. If too few buds are left there is not room for the ascending; 



TINES AND WINES. 47 ! 



sap in the Spring, and it breaks out along tLe body of the vine, destroying 
its vitality. Better leave more wood and cut away a portion of the incipi- 
ent clusters of grapes afterward, than ruin the vines with short pruning. 

lit the way of wine making, there is little new to be said. Most of the 
white wine of the country is made as near as possible after the process of 
making cider in the older States of the Union. Ked wine is made from 
fermenting the pulp of mashed grapes. The color comes from the skins. 
Sometimes the pulp is partly fermented when the wine is pressed out and 
finishes its fermentation in a clean cask. Sweet wine is made by boiling 
the must to one-half its original quantity, and afterward treating it as white 
wine. I have adopted the mode of fermenting wine by the use of iron 
tubes, like a syphon. One end is inserted in the barrel of must; the other 
in a bucket of water. Fermentation is by this mode retarded, and com- 
pensation is found for the deep, cool cellars of Europe. 

But, I am not writing a guide to vine growers and wine makers. The 
object of the above observations is, to notice some facts which experiments 
have shown to be useful in this region in connection with a few others 
which are known but which could not well be passed in silence. 

I cannot well express in language the prospect I see spread out in the 
future — a county teeming with agricultural life ; hillsides clothed in vine- 
yards opulent with purple clusters ; happy, vine-embowered homes and the 
joys of the vintage; leaping rivulets of wine and cellars stored with liquid 
ingots, more valuable to the nation than mines of gold, because the source 
is inexhaustible and perpetual. This is the aspect of our county to be. It 
is not a vision, but a coming reality. The time is not far distant when as 
a people we shall look no longer to France, Spain and Italy for our wines, 
and silks, and raisins, and figs, and olives, but will resort to Hesperiaii 
gardens for them all, and Xevada will supply the American Chambertins, 
Burgundy's and clarets for American palates and American commerce. 



INES AND MINING. 



QUARTZ MININQ. 



It was not until tLe spring of 1850, wlien the placer mines of California 
had been worked two seasons, that attention began to be directed to quartz 
veins as the matrix in which the gold was originally formed, and the sources 
from which that found in the surface diggings was derived. The early 
settlers, and those who first flocked to this coast on the announcement of 
the discovery of gold, had no knowledge of vein mining, and were too mi;ch 
absorbed in collecting the precious particles which were found mixed with 
the gravel on the bars and in the beds of the streams to give any attention 
to the sources whence they came. The discovery of gold imbeded in quartz 
pebbles led to an examination of the ledges, and the first quartz location in 
the State, probably, was made in Butte county, not far from the present 
site of Oroville. 

At that early date there had been no excitement about quartz in Nevada 
county. The first quartz location in the county, of which we now have any 
information, was at Gold Hill, near Grass Valley. This was early in the 
summer of 1850. Quartz was discovered on Massachusetts Hill soon after, 
and in October of the same year the Gold Tunnel ledge was located at 
Nevada. The latter was struck by four young men from Boston, while 
engaged in their first day's work at mining. Other locations were made 
the same season, both at Grass Valley and Nevada, but the three above 
mentioned have become especially famous for their immense yield of gold, 
amounting in the aggregate to nearly, if not quite, double the present prop- 
erty valuation of the county. The first mill erected in the county, and 
probably in the State, was built by two Germans, the following winter, at 
Boston Ravine. This was a poor affair, and of course was a failure. 

In 1851, we date the first quartz excitement. The shallow surface dig- 
gings were beginning to show signs of exhaustion, or at least were not so 
readily found as in the preceding years, and prospectors were running over 
the hills in -every direction in search of ledges. Numerous mills were 



QUAETZ MINING. 49 

projected, and during the fall and winter eight or ten were erected in Ne- 
vada and vicinity^ and as many more at Grass Valley. All the Xevada 
mills, with the exception of the Gold Tunnel, and the most of those built 
at Grass Valley, proved disastrous failures, and in 1853 the quartz interest 
had fallen to its lowest ebb. With our present experience in quartz mining, 
■^e can readily perceive the causes of the early failures in the business. 
The mills were erected at enormous expense, in many cases the projectors 
paying an extortionate interest for money; they had been deceived by pro-' 
fessed assayers, or deceived themselves, as to the amount of gold the quartz 
would yield, had no knowledge of amalgamating, and there were no miners 
in the country who knew how to open or work a quartz ledge. 

The disappointments and ruin occasioned by the quartz failures led to 
some deplorable results. Captain Peck had located a ledge, and in connec- 
tion with other parties erected a mill, at the place now known as Peck's 
Kavine. With other quartz operators he failed, haying expended his own 
fortune, and become deeply involved. Driven to distraction, and aggravated 
beyond endurance by the complaints of his partners, he put a pistol to his 
head and discharged it. The unfortunate man lived twelve hours, though 
the ball had passed through his brain. A still more shocking tragedy was 
enacted at Grass Valley some years later. Michael Brenan, the superin- 
tendent and part owner of the Mount Hope Company, on Massachusetts 
Hill, had involved the company beyond redemption, and the piioperty was 
levied upon by creditors. Of a sensitive disposition, and lacking the 
courage and fortitude to face poverty and endure the reverse of fortune, 
the unhappy man poisoned his wife and three children, and then himself. 
Prussic acid was the poison used, but by what means he succeeded in 
administering the fatal drug to his victims could not be ascertained. 

In Grass Valle}', where some Eastern and English capital had been in- 
vested, a number of companies continued operations on their ledges, several 
mills were kept running, and the quartz interest slowly revived. "But in 
Nevada, where the failure was more decided, the business was almost 
entirely abandoned, and miners turned their attention to the hill diggings, 
then just beginning to be prospected. The Gold Tunnel mill was kept 
running, and the Wigham and Canada Hill mills were run at intervals, the 
former yielding good returns, though the amount produced by all was quite 
insignificant compared with the yield of the placer mines. Still, at the 
period of lowest depression, the pioneer quartz miners had faith in the 
speedy revival of the business, and predicted that the veins would be worked 
successfully, long after the placer mines were exhausted. The present gen- 
eration will not live to verify the truth or falsity of the prediction, for late 
developments indicate an extent of placer mining ground that will require 



50 QUARTZ jVUNING. 



centuries to exhaust, and of wliich the miners at that early day had no 
knowledge. 

By 1857, the Grass Valley mines were in a flourishing condition, and the 
business was beginning to revive in Nevada. The Allison Eanch and other 
mines in the former district had begun to pour forth their treasures, and 
the Soggs and Oriental mills were erected in the vicinity of Nevada, both 
of which proved successful. The former mill has been in operation with 
little interruption nearly ten years, yielding in that time some $600,000 in 
gold ; and although the yield of the rock probably has not averaged over 
ten dollars a ton, at times it has afforded the owners large profits. In the 
succeeding two or three years, the business continued to prosper in Grass 
Yallc}', becoming the leading interest of the town, while it steadily im- 
proved at Nevada. 

The development of the quartz interest, however, was destined to expe- 
rience another period of depression, though by no means so disastrous and 
discouraging as that of 1852. The discovery of silver in Washoe was first 
made public in this county in the summer of 1859, and quite a number of 
our most energetic quartz operators hastened to the new mining field. The 
wonderful richness of the Comstock lode was fully determined that fall, and 
the next spring witnessed the exodus of many of our best working miners, 
who abandoned their claims here for what appeared to be the more promis- 
ing field of enterprise east of the Sierra Nevada mountains. For three 
years there was a constant drain of population and capital from the county 
— the capital, especially, being much needed in the development of our 
own mines. Added to this drain upon our resources, the most of the best 
paying mines of Grass Valley were flooded during the severe winter of 
1861-62, requiring many months to place them again in working condition, 
during which time the expenditures were heavy and no returns. From 
these causes, business of all kinds was depressed, and for two or three years 
Grass Valley and Nevada were among the dullest of the mining towns of 
the State. 

In 1863, the population of the county had decreased nearly one-third, 
and in the fall of that year, when Nevada, for the fourth time, was destroyed 
by fire, many were of the opinion that the town would never recover. But, 
in 1864, the adventurers who had left for distant mining regions began to 
return, satisfied that this county presented the best field for mining enter- 
prise on the coast, and the tide of emigration has since been in our favor. 
At the present time, Grass Valley is the largest and most prosperous mining 
town in the State — probably on the coast — and her prosperity is due entirely 
to the surrounding quartz mines. Nevada stands second to Grass Valley, 
depending about equally on the quartz and placer mines of the vicinity. 



QUARTZ MINING. 51 



We have now in Nevada towusliip, including one cement mill and another 
recently completed, seventeen mills, running an aggregate of 13-1 stamps, 
yielding about a million dollars annually, and giving direct employment to 
some six hundred men. In Grass Valley township there were, in October 
last, some thirty mills, with 284 stamps, and sixteen or eighteen hundred 
men were employed in the mills and mines. The annual gold yield of the 
township is estimated as high as four million dollars. "While Nevada is 
behind Grass Yalley in the development of the quartz interest, it is far 
ahead of any other town in the State. 

In reviewing the progress of quartz mining in the eoiTuty, we have thus 
far confined our remarks to Grass Yalley and Nevada, for the reason that 
but little attention has been given until recently to the development of the 
quartz veins in other parts of the county. The discoveries in the vicinity 
of Meadow Lake, in the spring and summer of 1865, created considerable 
excitement throughout California and in Nevada State, causing a rush of 
adventurers to that locality. Numerous ledges were discovered and located, 
in some of which ore of extraordinary richness was found. 

The real work of developing the Meadow Lake mines was commenced in 
the summer of 18GG, and considering the many drawbacks, including the 
deep snows of winter, has progressed as rapidly as could have been antici- 
pated. The ledges are inclosed in a belt of syenite, are of large size as 
compared with those at Grass Valley and Nevada, but much of the gold is 
contained in sulphurets, which will require practical experience before it 
can be economically reduced. The U. S. Grant Company have kept a five- 
stamp mill running since September, 1866, and are making rapid progress 
in the development of their property. Some other companies have also 
been working their mines during the past winter, but operations on the 
most of the claims were suspended last fall. The history of Meadow Lake, 
and the progres§ made in the development of the mines of the district, will 
be given more fully in another part of this work. 

Lying half-way between Nevada and Meadow Lake, is another belt of 
gold-bearing veins, extending through Eureka and TTashington townships. 
The veins are numerous and of good size, run nearly north and south, cor- 
responding with the range of the mountains, and the country rock is a 
compact granite, which greatly enhances the cost of prospecting and opening 
mines. The ledges, or at least many of them, are "spotted,'^ containing 
large amounts of gold in places, while the most of the quartz is barren. 
Some years ago a ledge was discovered on Gaston ridge, the owners of which 
made enough money, by crushing the rock in a hand mortar, to erect a 
mill. But the mill was a failure, the rich pocket having been exhausted. 

In 1863, a mill was erected on the Tecuniseh ledge, in Washington 



52 QUARTZ MINING. 



township, by a company organized in Nevada. Wonderful reports were 
circulated of the richness of this ledge; but the ore, by mill process, 
yielded only about twenty dollars a ton, and in consequence of the great 
cost of mining the rock, and perhaps bad management, the enterprise was 
not successful. The mill was kept running for a year or more on rock from 
the Fidelity ledge, near by, but is now idle. The mill of the Star Company, 
in the same township, was built a little later. This company hare seyen 
ledges in the vicinity of their mill, two of which have been prospected and 
found to contain gold in paying quantities, and are still canning on opera- 
tions, with a fair prospect of developing a good mining property. 

Within the past year or two, considerable interest has been taken in the 
development of the quartz mines of Eureka township. The mill of the 
Jeffersonian Company was erected near Bowman's, in 18G4, on a ledge 
supposed at the time to be remarkably rich, but either from bad manage- 
ment, or some other cause, the enterprise has not been successful, though 
the company are still carrying on operations. A mill was erected last fall 
by K. C. Black on the Young ledge, and another by James M. Pattee, 
superintendent of the Eagle Company, on the Grizzly ledge, three miles 
below the town of Eureka. These mills have been in operation only a 
short time, but the first crushings were favorable. The Eagle Company 
have several ledges in the vicinity of their mill, one or two of which, if 
they hold out equal to the anticipations of experienced miners, will take 
rank among the most valuable mines of the county. Two other mills,- one 
on the Jim ledge and the other intended as a custom mill, have also been 
erected in the township within the past year, and there is evei-y indication 
that Eureka will soon become an important quartz mining district. 

Last summer, the Hawley Brothers erected a mill at Grizzly Eidge, in 
Bloomfield township, where they have, beyond question, a remarkably rich 
mine. The ore, however, is refractory, and they have not yet been able to 
work it successfully. There is but one quartz mill in Eough and Ready 
township, which is now idle. No progress has been made in developing 
quartz mines in Bridgeport or Little York townships. 

The quartz business, notwithstanding the many failures and drawbacks, 
has been gradually improving since 1853, and the yield of gold from that 
source has steadily increased. The operations have generally been con- 
ducted by practical men, who have successively discovered and brought 
into use all the improved methods of reducing the ore, and amalgamating 
and collecting the gold. Yery little foreign capital has been invested in 
the development of our mines, although there is not a mining district in 
the world that oilers better inducements for judicious investment. The 
comparatively small amount that has been invested by capitalists in our 



QUAUTZ MINING. 53 



county has geuevally been ia dividend-pajiag mines, and which of course 
was no assistance in developing our resources. 

At no period in the history of our county, since the wild speculations of 
1852, has quartz mining been in more favor than at present, or the pros- 
pects more flattering, A number of new mills will be erected during the 
present season ; many of the ledges formerly abandoned will be re-opened, 
and new discoveries are of almost daily occurrence. There are now in the 
county over sixty quartz mills, having an aggregate of about five hundred 
and fifty stamps. The most of these arc kept steadily in operation. 

The country rock around Grass Valley is slate, and the ledges run in 
every direction, though the principal mines that have been opened and 
worked usually approximate an east and west or a north and south course. 
Tunnels and drifts have been run for considerable distances on ledges lying 
nearly at right angles, yet hardly an instance is known in which two ledges 
have crossed each other. In some instances, where two ledges would 
intersect if both were continuous, one has been found perfect, while the 
other disappears for a greater or less distance on each side of it. In other 
cases, both ledges are broken and disappear before reaching the point of 
intersection. Perhaps a further and more careful examination of the inter- 
section of cross ledges may lead to a plausible theory of the formation of 
mineral veins. The Grass Valley ledges would be called small — varying 
in size from a mere scam to five or six feet in width. They are rarely 
found of the latter size, and those that have been worked the most success- 
fully probably will not average over ^ foot in width. The most of the north 
and south ledges have an easterly dip — the inclination being at all angles, 
from nearly horizontal to perpendicular. Some of the best mines, however, 
like the Allison Kanch, dip to the west. An impression has obtained 
among many miners, that ledges situated in skte are more even and reliable 
than those in granite, and that those having a westerly dip are richer than 
those dipping easterly. But the facts brought to light by the quartz 
development thus far, will hardly sustain these theories. The miners have 
an expressive adage, that the '* gold is where you find it," and it is some- 
times found in the most unexpected places. 

From a very full review of the operations of the Grass Valley mines, for 
1866, which appeared in the San Francisco Mercantile Gazette of January 
9th, ISB^T, we condense the following : 

The Eureka is now universally conceded to be a mine of extraordinary merit, and 
is one of the most valuable in California. The gross yield of bullion for the past 
year amounted to $596,053, and the dividends declared 8360,000, an average of 
$30,000 per month. The company have now on hand seventy five tons of sulphurets, 
worth at least 830,000, and a large amounbof wood, timber, and other supplies, valued 
at 815,000. In addition, 827.000 were expended a short time since for new machinery 



54 



QUARTZ MINING. 



and other improvements. It will thus be seen that the earnings of the mine, including 
actual dividends paid, have amounted to $432,000 for the- year 1S6G. During that 
period 12,200 tons of ore were reduced, giving an average yield of more than S48 per 
ton. The Eureka has thus far been v/orked to a perpendicular depth of only 300 
feet, and a length of 725 feet on the vein in sloping from the lower level. A new 
level is now being opened at 100 feet greater depth, and a new shaft is also under 
way. A one fortieth interest in this property was recently sold for S17,500. 

The North Star has the advantage of being not only very thoroughly opened, but 
is also a mine of great prospective value. The main shaft is now down 750 feet, 
with a vertical depth of some 210 feet. The third level from the bottom extends 850 
feet east, on the vein, the next above about 600 feet in the same direction, and the 
lowest or new level is just being drifted upon. The width of the vein throughout 
the mine will perhaps average two feet, and a very considerable portion above the 
three lower levels is virgin ground, Extending to the surface. It is estimated that 
fully 30,000 tons of ore remain untouched in the reserves or backs, opened by means 
of drifts from the main shaft. This company has declared dividends at irregular 
intervals since 1852, and during the past five years a net profit of more than $500,000 
has been realized. The gross product from their new IG stamp mill for the past five 
months has exceeded $100,000, and the net profits, in dividends, now range from 
$12,000 to S14,000 per month. 

The Allison Ranch mine has not been very judiciously or profitably worked the 
past year, owing to a lack of harmony among some of the owners ; but of late, certain 
discordant elements have been overcome, and a more vigorous policy may now be 
anticipated. The gross yield of this mine during the past ten years, since it was first 
opened, has been about $2,300,000 — the product for the three years ending December 
30th, 1865, being $1,000,000, and for the past year less than $200,000. 

The Ophir mine, from 1S52 to 18G4, yielded about $1,000,000, and since it came 
into possession of the present owners— the Empire Company— more than $300,000 
have been extracted. During the past ye^r some 3,750 tons of ore were reduced, 
producing about $175,000, or an average of $47 per ton, A magnificent 30-starap 
mill was erected last summer, involving an outlay of more than $100,000, and $50,000 
additional was expended upon a new shaft, hoisting works, etc. 

The basin of Nevada is situated on a granite formation, extending soutli- 
westerly into the slate, somewhat in the form of a horse shoe. In this 
formation is a series of quartz veins, nearly parallel with each other, and 
having many points of resemblance. Their general course is about fifteen 
degrees east oi south, and all dip easterly, at angles not varying far from 
thirty -five degrees. At irregular distances along the ledges are "ore 
chutes," or " chimneys," containing rich rock, while in other places the 
rock will barely pay for working. The ore chutes extend in length from a 
few feet to several hundred feet, and downward indefinitely, inclining at 
various angles with the plane of the ledge. 

The Ural, or Cornish mine, is situated on tlie northwesterly rim of the 
granite belt, and the Union mine on tne southeasterly rim — the two mines 
being about three miles apart, and both of them in places cutting into the 
slate formation. Between these, are the Gold Tvinnel, Soggs, Pennsylvania, 



QUARTZ MINING. 55 



and other well known mines The Grold Tunnel yielded upward of ^300,000 
previous to 1855. In that year Captain Kidd sold it to a company of 
Cornish miners, who worked it with little interruption for eight years 
longer. The mine has been re-purchased by Captain Kidd and some San 
Francisco capitalists, but is not now worked. The California claim, now 
owned by the Eagle Company, is an extension of the Grold Tunnel, on the 
south side of Deer Creek. The Providence mine, which has been worked 
many years, is the southerly extension of the Soggs. 

South of the above mentioned series of ledges, and near the apex of the 
granite formation, is another series having the same general characteristics, 
with the exception that they dip to the west. The most noted of these are 
the Sneath and Clay, and Mohawk. The former lias been worked steadily 
since 1863, and at times has yielded immense returns. It is now owned 
and worked by the New York and Grass Valley Company. The same 
company has invested a large amount in erecting hoisting works and open- 
ing the Union mine. 

Among the best mines in Nevada township are the Wigham and Banner, 
both of which have yielded large returns during the past year. The former 
is situated south of the town and the latter southeast, both being in the 
slate formation, near its junction with the granite. The Lccompton mine, 
which in the course of two years yielded a profit of $00,000' to its owners, 
is situated between the granite and slate, in places passing from one rock to 
the other, and retaining its course and dip. 

In the north and south veins that have an easterly dip, the ore chutes, 
or chimneys, generally incline to the north, and in ledges dipping west they 
incline to the south. There are probably exceptions, but this is the rule 
with the mines around Nevada. The chutes are more or less irregular^ 
sometimes expanding in length, and again contracting, at different depths. 
In opening mines managers now make it their first business to ascertain the 
position and course of the ore chutes, and when found follow them down. 
A neglect of this, through ignorance of the character of mineral veins, was 
the cause of many of the early failures in quartz mining. 

In the Ural mine the ore chute at the surface is sixty feet in length, and 
at a depth of a hundred and twenty feet its length is nearly a hundred feet. 
The mine is now opened by a tunnel at a depth of over three hundred feet, 
but the length of the chute at that depth is not ascertained. In the Soggs 
mine several distinct chutes of rich ore have been worked to the lower 
level. The Gold Tunnel paid very largely from the mouth of the tunnel, 
at Deer creek, for a distance of six hundred feet north — averaging, proba- 
bly, fifty dollars a ton. Beyond that, the yield was only six or eight dollars 
a ton. The mine has never been worked below the level of the creek. 



56 QUAETZ MIXING. 



There are two or three extensive and rich chutes in the same ledge south 
of Deer creek, which is now being opened in a systematic manner by the 
Eagle Company, of Hartford. In the Sneath and Chy mine, the ore chute 
in the upper level is a hundred and fifty feet in length ; it contracts to a 
hundred feet in the lower levels, and possibly will again expand at a still 
greater depth. The Wigham mine has a rich chute of about two hundred 
feet in length, and on either side the rock will scarcely pay for crushing. 
The Eureka mine et Grass Yalley is worked for a distance of over seven 
hundred feet along the ledge, and the Allison Ranch about four hundred. 
Large amounts of money have been sunk in endeavoring to find pay rock 
in other places on the Allison Ranch ledge. 

An important consideration connected with the mining interest, and upon 
which in a measure depends the permanent prosperity of the mining dis- 
tricts, is the question of the quarts veins carrying suflicient gold to pay for 
working to great depths. The gold mines of Europe are understood to 
decrease in richness the deeper they are worked. Some geologists have 
laid it down as a rule, founded upon a thorough examination of the mines 
in the Ural mountains and, in Hungary, that gold-bearing veins will not 
pay for working at a greater perpendicular depth than thi'ee hundred and 
fifty feet. The developments in California are not sufficient to enable us as 
yet to form a decided opinion on this question ; but so far as developments 
have been made, they tend to show that our mines will prove an exception 
to the rule laid down for the gold mines in Europe. 

The deepest mine in California, and probably the deepest of any gold 
mine in the world, is the Hayward mine in Amador county. This is now 
being worked to the depth of twelve hundred feet below the surface, and 
the ore has steadily improved with the depth. The Jefferson and Pennsyl- 
vania companies, at Bx'own's Valley, Yuba county, are working their mines 
at the depth of nearly five hundred feet on the incline of the ledges, where 
the ore pays much better than neai'er the surface; what the perpendicular 
depth is we do not know. Notwithstanding the length of time the mines 
have been worked in Nevada county, we believe there are none that have 
been opened to the depth of three hundred and fifty feet. The deepest 
that we know of is the Eureka, which is three hundred feet. This is now 
regarded as the leading mine in the county, and the ore has steadily im- 
proved from a yield of four and five dollars a ton, near the surface, to fifty 
dollars a ton at the depth above stated. The Banner mine, near Nevada, 
has also improved with the depth, as well as some others that might be 
named. But in other instances the reverse has been the case. ^ 

It is the opinion of some who have carefully investigated the subject, 
that, taking the average result of the developments in this county, the 



CEMENT MINING. 57 



mines show a slight improvement in quality of ore, with the depth reached, 
and the ledges also increase in size and become more regular. Others con- 
tend that the increased yield of the ore is due to the improved methods of 
working and amalgamating; that where changes occur in the character of 
the rock it is occasioned by striking upon, or leaving, the ore chutes, and 
that by following the incline of the chutes the ore on the whole will vary 
but little in value for an indefinite depth. The latter theory is plausible, 
and many facts could be cited tending to sustain it. A large number of 
mines in this county have been opened and worked to the depth of two 
hundred feet and over; and these, taken as a whole, certainly show no in- 
dications of decline in the quality of the ore, but if there is any change 
with the depth, it is for the better. If decrease of yield with the greater 
depth is the rule with gold mines, wo have good reason to believe that those 
of California will prove an exception, and that like the silver mines of 
Spain and the tin and copper mines of Cornwall, our gold-bearing veins 
will continue to yield their treasures in undiminished quantities long after 
the pioneer workers shall have been forgotten. 



CEMENT MINING. 



Cement mining, properly, is a branch of placer mining, and the term is 
applied to the reduction of the cemented gravel foimd in the ancient river 
channels. .In this county, the business has become of leading importance, 
requiring skillful engineering in mining the gravel, and expensive machinery 
in reducing it and collecting the gold. Little York township has taken the 
lead in this branch of mining, where capital to a considerable amount has 
been invested in the business. Cement mills have also been erected in 
Washington, Nevada, Grass Valley and Bridgeport townships, but the yield 
from this source is small, as compared with that from other branches of 
mining. In Little York, however, it is the leading business. 

When the rich deposits along the margins of the streams had been worked 
out, and the shallow surface diggings were impoverished, the miners directed 
their attention to the deep hills and ridges in search of the precious metal. 
The cost and labor required to open the claims was much greater than in 
the shallow diggings, but the reward frequently more than counterbalanced 
the risk and preliminary outlay. At first, extensive tunnels were run, and, 
where practicable, deep shafts were sunk, and the rich gravel on the bed- 



68 CEMENT MINING. 



rock drifted out ; afterward, when the hydraulic hose came into use, the 
hills were washed down entire, sometimes to a depth of several hundred 
feet. Gold in gi'eater or less quantities was found in the earth from the 
surface down, in some claims beiug suihcient to pay running expenses; but 
for their profits the miners depended on striking rich pockets in the gravel 
beds at the bottom. Numerous channels were found under the high ridges 
where ancient streams had once coursed their way toward the ocean, leav- 
ing deposits of gravel containing gold, similar to those found in the existing 
streams. Some of this gravel was found to be cemented, requiring more 
or less force to pulverize it, in order to save the gold by the sluicing pro- 
cess. For this purpose, various expedients and appliances have been 
devised, among which is the erection of stamp mills, similar to those used 
in crushing quartz. 

Blue gravel, rich in gold, was found in diiferent places in Little York 
township in the summer of 1852, and in the winter of the following year 
it was found in the claims of Eogers & Co., cemented so compactly that it 
had to be blasted and gadded out. The method adopted by this company 
to work the cement was to run it through sluices, save the tailings and allow 
them to remain some months until the action of the elements had partially 
decomposed them, then sluice them again. In this manner each lot of 
tailings was run through the sluices six or eight times, requiring, probably, 
two or three years in the operation. The Chinamen work the cement in 
the same manner now, and some are of the opinion that it is the most 
economical and effectual method of working it. 

The first stamp mill for crushing cement was erected by the Massassauga 
Company, on Albany Hill, near Little York, in the summer of 1857. This 
company sunk several shafts that year, one of which is now used by Curran 
& Buckman, the present owners of the claim. The first mill had no 
screens, but the cement was thrown into the battery and carried off by a 
stream of water. The tailings from this mill were saved for a year or two 
and allowed to slack, and on being run through a sluice yielded some 
$4,000. In the spring of 1858 a cement mill was erected by Begole & 
Johnson, on the old Rogers & Co. claims, at Little York, which was a con- 
siderable improvement on its predecessor, and mills have since been built 
at You Bet, Bed Dog, Hunt's Hill, Gougeye, Quaker Hill, and other places 
in the township. The screens now used are nearly as fine as those used in 
crushing quartz, and it is well determined that the finer the cement is 
crushed the more gold will be saved. 

Cement mining, like every other branch of the business, has had its ups 
and downs, but on the whole has exhibited a steady progress, and been in- 
creasing in importance, since the first mill was erected in 1857. Almost 



CEMENT MINING. 59 



every claim, at times, lias paid largely, and again the receipts would fall 
below the expenses. The blue gravel channels in Little York township 
usually vary in width from fifty to a hundred feet, and wherever the position 
of the rock or other circumstances were such as to form riffles large deposits 
of gold are found, the same as they were found at an early day of placer 
mining in the existing streams. For this reason, the business must be 
subject to vicissitudes, while the hope of making big strikes will always be 
an inducement to perseverance. 

The theory- formerly in vogue, that there was but one blue cement gravel 
lead is now generally discarded by miners. There is no evidence that the 
blue lead at Little York is the same as that worked at You Bet, and it is 
quite certain that there are two separate leads at the latter place. The 
claims of Neece & AVest, Brown & Co., and Cozzcns k Garber are nearly 
in a line — Brown & Co. being in the middle, and distant from Neece & 
West a quarter of a mile, and a mile from Cozzens & Garber. It has been 
ascertained by actual leveling, that the channel which Brown & Co. are 
working is forty feet higher than that in the claims of Neece & West, and 
six feet higher than that of Cozzens & Garber, This, we think, establishes 
the fact that the three companies can not be working in the same channel. 

Another idea has obtained, that the channels containing the blue cement 
arc more ancient than, and belong to a different river system from, those 
containing gray and light-colored gravel, and which is successfully worked 
in sluices. We arc not aware that there is any substantial reason for this 
opinion. It may not necessarily require a long period of time for the gravel 
to become a compact cement; the cementing material, as well as the blue 
color, was probably derived from the bed-rock, and exists only in certain 
localities. The petrifactions found in the blue cement gravel, as well as 
those in other ancient channels, are the pine, manzanita, and other varieties 
of wood now growing in the mountains — indicating that no great geological 
changes have taken place since the ancient channels were filled up. The 
channels of the streams may have been changed by avalanches, earthquakes, 
volcanoes, and other causes now in force, and without any extraordinary 
convulsion, such as the upheaval or sinking of a mountain range. 

The developments thus far made, by the mining operations in this county, 
indicate that the ancient streams did not differ materially from those now 
existing, and that their general course was nearly the same. This, at least, 
is the opinion now entertained by the most intelligent and observing miners. 

In general, the old channels are at a higher altitude than the beds of the 
adjoining streams. There are, however, exceptions. At Scotch Flat, six 
miles above Nevada, shafts have been sunk to the depth of a hundred and 
fifty feet below the present bed of Deer creek, without finding the bed-rock. 



60 CEMENT MINING. 



At Sailor Flat, a mile and a half above Scotcli Flat, deep sliafts hare also 
been sunk, witliout reaching the bottom, and the two places are believed to 
be situated on the same channel. Some company, with well-appointed 
machinery and sufficient means, may yet take out hundreds of fortunes 
from this deep channel. It is probable that the channels of the streams 
have been changed over and over again, while the mountains have been 
slowly wearing away, and that the deeper channels were made by the more 
modern river systems. 

The facts thus far brought to light are not sufficient to enable us to form 
any definite conclusions as to the old river channels. At present we can 
merely theorize on the subject; and in doing this we should be careful not 
to become so attached to theory as to lead us to disregard facts that may 
hereafter be brought to light tending to controvert our preconceived opin- 
ions. The miners are slowly developing facts, which will in time enable 
scientific men to construct a map of the old river system and write the 
geological history of the California gold fields. 

Whether cement mining is to increase until it becomes a leading branch 
of the business depends upon the character of the deposits yet to be opened 
in the ancient channels. A vast amount of placer mining ground, and 
channels for great distances, are yet to be explored, and should a consid- 
erable proportion of the gravel therein be found cemented so compactly as to 
require crushing, numerous mills will be erected for the purpose, otherwise^ 
it will be worked by the more economical process of sluicing. 

At the present time, there are sixteen cement mills in Little York town- 
ship, having one hundred and thirty-six stamps; two mills in Washington, 
with eight stamps; one in Nevada, with fifteen stamps; one in Grass Valley, 
with eight stamps; and one in Bridgeport, with ten stamps. These make 
an aggregate in the county of twenty-one cement mills, with one hundred 
and seventy-seven stamps. More than half of these have been running 
steadily during the past year, while the others have been idle a portion of 
the time for want of gravel to crush and other causes. Aboiit five hundred 
men are directly employed in the mills and cement mines. We have no 
accurate statistics of the amount of cement gravel worked during the year. 
In some cases as much as a hundred tons is run through a ten-stamp mill 
in twenty-four hours, while in other cases not more than thirty tons is 
worked in the same time by the same number of stamps. The great differ- 
ence is owing to the difference in the gravel worked — at times being merely 
soil and loose gravel, which is ordinarily worked in sluices, while at other 
times the cement is compact and as difficult to crush as the hardest quartz. 
In some eases the loose gravel is run through a mill for the purpose of 
saving the gold contained in the small quartz pebbles. 



PLACER MINING. 61 



Cement mills are not usually provided with the appliances for amalga- 
mating and saving the gold that are now connected with the quartz mills. 
Copper plates and riffles are mostly used, and the immense amount of cement 
crushed renders it impracticable in most cases to work it in pans. The 
improvement most needed is an effectual method of separating the sulphur- 
ets. These are found in considerable quantities with the cement gravel, 
and generally contain sufficient gold to yield a good profit when worked 
by the chlorinizing process. If machinery, not too expensive, could be 
devised to separate them from the mass of pulp it would add largely to the 
profits of cement mining. 



PLACER MINING. 



It would be impossible in the limits assigned to this paper to give any 
thing like a history of the rise and progress of placer mining in this county, 
and "we can only hope to sketch some of the leading improvements and 
note the present condition of the business. The placer mines have been 
worked steadily in the county for seventeen years, and have yielded an 
amount of treasure that, could the figures be procured, would stagger belief, 
and as yet show no signs of exhaustion. True, the rich pockets in the beds 
of the running streams, and the shallow diggings that required no capital 
and but little preliminary labor to mine successfully, have been mostly 
worked out, and capital and skill are now indispensable to success, yet there 
is no perceptible diminution in the yield. As claims are worked out in one 
place new ones are opened in other localities, and although failure in any 
given enterprise is about as likely as success, yet the prospect of big strikes, 
and the hope of acquiring a fortune or a competency by one or two years 
of well-directed labor, are incentives that can not fail to enlist the skill of 
the most energetic of our population. 

Mining commenced in Nevada county in 1849, the rocker being the 
principal machine used in washing the auriferous sands. It had been used 
early in the summer of 1848 on the bars of the American, Ytxba and 
Feather rivers. The rocker gave place to the long-torn, a machine called 
the "grizzly,'' and the sluice, all of which were first brought into use in 
Nevada county. The grizzly, which was a sort of huge rocker, proved to 
be less serviceable than the long-tom and was soon discarded, while the 
long-torn in turn gave place to the sluice. This was a most important im- 



62 



PLACER MIXING. 



provement, euabliug claims to be worked tliat would not pay witli the 
rocker and long-tom, and gave a decided impetus to mining. 

Ditches at length were constructed, and as the miners were compelled to 
leave the river beds and shallow ravines and take to the deeper diggings, 
the process of shoveling the earth into the sluices became unprofitable, and 
the practice of ground-sluicing came into use. By this process, the surface 
soil being loosened up was washed away by a stream of water, leaving only 
the heavv gravel at the bottom to be shoveled into the sluice. Ground- 
sluicing was carried on very extensively in this county in 1851 and 1852, 
the use of the sluice proper at that time being well understood, and having 
superseded other methods. With most of the mining improvements thei-e 
was no especial invention, but the different appliances came into use gradu- 
ally, as they were needed -by the changing character of mining, and may 
be considered as the result of the combined skill and ingenuity of the 
mining population. Perhaps to M. F. Hoit, now residing in Bridgeport 
township, but then a miner at Nevada City, more than to any other one 
person, is due the introduction of the sluice. It is used now in all placer 
mining operations, and is undoubtedly the most essential of any one contri- 
vance in placer mining. It can hardly be called a machine. 

The hydraulic hose came into use in 1853, and enabled miners to work 
with profit a vast amount of ground that would never have paid for sluicing 
by the ordinary process. About April, 1852, a Frenchman named Chabot, 
mining on Buckeye Hill, had a hose made to work his claim. This was 
some four or five inches in diameter, and between thirty-five and forty feet 
in length. There was no pipe or nozzle at the end, but by concentrating 
the water and leading it into the diggings through the hose, it was found 
convenient to sluice off the earth and gravel that had been picked down, 
and a great help in cleaning up the bed-rock. "VTe can not learn that a 
hose was used that season in any other claims, and it does not appear that 
Chabot discovered the great advantage that would result by directing the 
stream of water against the bank. This discovery was made by E. E. 
Matteson, a year later. In April, 1853, Matteson and his partners, who 
were working a claim on American Hill, rigged up a hose, attached a nozzle 
at the end, and directing it against the bank, found that a small stream of 
water would do the labor of a hundred men in excavating the earth. Very 
soon after this the hydraulic hose came into general use throughout the 
county, giving renewed impulse to placer mining. 

Successive improvements have been made in hydraulic mining, until the 
appliances now in use resemble but little those of 1853 , but the principle 
is the same, and to Matteson is due the credit of the important discovery. 
At present, the water is usually conducted into the diggings through large 



PLACER MINING. 63 



irou pipes, at tlie end of wliich the hose is attached. In some of the larger 
operations, five or six streams of water are kept playing upon the bank 
undermining the ground and melting away the hills at an incredible rate. 
In this manner acres of gi'ound, frequently from one to two hundred feet 
deep, arc washed away in a single season, and the bed-rock left bare. The 
hydraulic is the most effectual method ever yet devised for excavating laro-e 
quantities of earth, and the process was employed to some extent last season, 
by the Pacific Kailroad Company, in cutting through the deep hills near 
Dutch Flat. 

^Thc placer mines liave been worked longer and more steadily than the 
quartz mines, and their yield has been more regular. At an early day of 
mining it was supposed the placer diggings would soon be exhausted, and 
in 1852 the prediction would have been regarded a? wild, that they would 
hold out for fifteen years with no material decrease of yield. But the longer 
they have been worked the more extensive they appear to be, and the labor 
and developments of the fifteen j-ears have barely been sufficient to give us 
an idea of their vast extent. The old channels are very numerous and 
extend from the foot hills to near the summit of the Sierra, all containins* 
gravel deposits, with gold in greater or less abundance. The long ridges, 
like the Washington and Chalk BluiF, are believed to have been the chan- 
nels of ancient streams, which were filled with volcanic material, that sub- 
sequently cemented and became more impervious to the action of the 
elements than the surrounding bed-rock. Men of good judgment are con- 
fident they can trace the course of the old channels by surface indications, 
and quite extensive operations have been commenced at Chalk Bluflf and 
Bear Yalley on the probability of the correctness of this theory. 

Thus far the old channels have only been opened and worked at the more 
favorable localities — where there are bi-washes, or where they are cut 
transversely by more modern streams, as is the case in the Nevada basin. 
The old claims of the Young America, Live Oak, Nebraska and Harmony 
Companies, are situated on the same channel, which, beyond question, 
extends far up the ridge, and will eventually be traced to its source. All 
of these claims, except the Harmony, yielded immense profits ; but the 
latter company were so unfortunate as to commence operations on the north 
side of the ridge, when the channel, at their location, swept around on the 
south side, thus greatly enhancing the cost of working. The result was, 
that they took out about 370,000, at a cost of 885,000, when the work was 
suspended. Latterly, the owners have been arranging to resume work, and 
expect to commence operations on the south side of the ridge this season. , 
In the former operations, they had merely tapped the edge of the channel. 
The Cold Spring Company, whose claims adjoin the Harmony above, will 



64 PLACER MINING. 



probably also commence operations this season. Some years ago tbe channel 
was tapped about ten miles above Nevada, and the gravel found to be rich, 
but in consequence of the pumping machinery being inadequate to free the 
shaft of water, the work was suspended before reaching the bottom of the 
channel. A dozen or more owners in the Nebraska, Live Oak and Young 
America claims realized snug fortunes in working less than half a mile 
along the lead, and from this some idea may be formed of the prospective 
yield of the lead for twenty miles or more above. 

The ridge between Deer creek and Greenhorn, and the Eureka ridge, 
also present almost inexhaustible fields for mining enterprise. The ancignt 
channels following the course of these ridges, together with the Washington 
ridge, it is pi'obable join together at some point below Nevada, and have 
their outflow at Smartsville. From that point to the summit, the channels 
will eventually be traced out and made to disgorge their stores of treasure. 

Placer mining is carried on more or less in every township in the county, 
except Meadow Lake. Bridgeport takes the lead, and the hydraulic works 
of the American Company, at North San Juan, are the most extensive of 
the kind in the county. The flumes and sluices of the company extend 
from Manzanita Hill to the South Yuba, a distance of nearly a mile, a 
tunnel having been run through the bed-rock for a thousand feet to drain 
the claims. 

Taking the county at large, the placer mines still retain their importance, 
and the longer they are worked the more confidence is entertained in their 
durability. 



CANALS AND DITCHES. 



The first mining in California was upon river-bars and in gulclies, where 
the gold was deposited from the encroachments on the placers of an older 
era. These deposits, from their proximity to water, were easily exhausted. 
But early in 1850 the gravel hills above the city of Nevada were found to 
be rich, and from this fact came the investigation of other hills of like 
character, until it was found that the bulk of all the gold washings of the 
State were in the deep drifts of gravel that crossed the country in many 
places. These, from their elevation above the modern water channels of the 
country, could not be worked by the ordinary modes. "Water must be 
brought to the hills, and hence the ditches and canals, that have run in 
every direction where there was auriferous gravel to wash, until the interest 
has become one of the most prominent on the coast. To obtain water in 
quantities adequate to the demand, and at sufficient elevation to command 
the mining ground, required an aggregation of capital and the joint enter- 
prise of miners in considerable numbers. Companies were formed and the 
work of supplying the gravel ranges with water began. 

The first enterprise of the kind was projected at Nevada in March, 1850. 
It brought water from Musketo creek to Coyote Hill, a distance of a mile 
and a half. It was closely followed by other enterprises of a similar char- 
acter about Nevada, and as the old river beds were explored water companies 
were formed in all parts of the county. 

At the present time, there are but two really grand canal companies in 
the county ; the one supplying nearly the whole region lying between the 
Middle and South Yuba, and the other mainly all the remaining portion 
of the county. The first is acting under a charter granted by the State of 
New York in December, 1865, and is called The Eureka Lake and Yuba 
Canal Company Consolidated. It has a capital of §2,250,000, and an office 
in New York City, but the whole concern is under the efficient general 
superintendence of Eichard Abbey, Esq., of North San Juan. In general 
terms, the works of the company consist of one grand trunk canal, com- 
mencing near the summit of the Sierra in four small lakes, and extending 



66 CANALS AND DITCHES. 

to North San Juan, a distance of sixty-five miles, and several side ditches 
that have been purchased and consolidated into one system. 

The principal reservoir to supply the main canal is Eureka or Canon 
Creek lake. This lake, when first surveyed, had an area of about one 
square mile, but a substantial dam of granite rocks has been thrown across 
the' outlet to the average bight of forty-two feet. Its base at the bottom is 
one hundred and twenty feet long, its hight in the deepest place seventy 
feet, and length of dam on the top two hundred and fifty feet. This arti- 
ficial work gives the lake double its original surface, it being now two miles 
long and one wide, with an average depth of sixty-five feet. The supply 
of water in this lake is estimated at 933,000,000 cubic feet. Another res- 
ervoir is Lake Faucherie, a few miles below Eureka Lake, which has a 
wooden dam thirty feet high, flooding about two hundred acres. This, in 
addition to other smaller reservoirs, is computed to add 300,000,000 
cubic feet of water to the amount stored in Eureka Lake. The storage 
supply of the main canal in the dry season is estimated to equal a run of 
one hundred and fifty days, allowing three thousand inches, miner's meas- 
ure, per day of ten hours. 

The main canal which conducts the water from these reservoirs is eight 
feet wide by three and one-half feet deep, and has a fall of sixteen and one- 
half feet per mile. Its capacity is somewhat more than three thousand 
inches. The Magenta and National aqueducts, a short distance below Eu- 
reka, are, probably, the finest works of the kind in the State, reflecting 
great credit upon Mr. Faucherie, the engineer. The National and Magenta 
are separated only by a small hill, and in fact may be counted almost as one 
aqueduct. The National is 1,800 feet in length. Its greatest hight is 
sixty-five feet. The Magenta is 1,400 feet long, and its greatest hight a 
hundred and twenty-six feet. The flume is seven feet wide by one foot 
three inches high, and has a grade of one foot in a hundred. The aqueduct, 
standing on tall posts hewn from the trees that grew near the spot, and 
winding about in graceful cwrvcs, to give it more strength to withstand the 
winds that sweep through the gap that the structure crosses, is a conspicu- 
ous and admirable object. 

The great enterprise of damming the lakes high up in the mountains, and 
constructing the canal above mentioned, was projected by B. Faucherie, P. 
Obert, Louis Lay, P. Pelletier, P. Poirsou, Louis Leliot, L. Watier, M. W. 
Irvin, and John McNulty, in 1855, and was finished in 1860. The Magenta 
flume was constructed in 1859. It is estimated that the whole, canal, flume 
and dams, cost §950,000. The company became hopelessly involved by 
borrowing money to complete the enterprise, and the whole work fell into 
its present hands, who proceeded to absorb the entire canal interest of the 



CANALS AND DITCHES. 67 



section, by the purchase and consolidation of the ditches we are about to 
describe, under the control of one head. 

The Miners' Ditch was commenced and completed by John Hays, George 
Fellows, James Crecgan, llobert Curran, Rose Warner, L. A. Sackett, and 
others. Work began upon it in 1855 and ended on the year following. It 
heads on the Middle Yuba, two miles above the junction of the south, fork 
of that stream, and running generally along the southern bank of the gorge 
in which the Middle Yuba flows, in twenty miles, it gains an elevation to 
supply Snow Point, Orleps, Moore's and Woolsey's Flats with water. 
These Flats have an altitude above the river of 1,500 feet, the auriferous 
drift that underlies the volcanic tufa spread over the entire upper portion 
of the llldge, crop out at these points, revealing rich gravel, and calling 
for tho water of the Minora' Ditch to wash it. This ditch, or canal, is five 
feet wide by three deep, has a running capacity of seven hundred and fifty 
inches, from its source to its debouchure into Bloody Run it is twenty-six 
miles in length, aind its original cost, including reservoirs, branches and 
feeders, is given at §175,000. 

The Middle Yuba Canal was located in 1853, by M. F. Iloit, and work 
began upon it in December of that year, and the ditch completed to Grizzly 
Canon in 1S54. The enterprise was pushed on to the Yuba and completed 
in 1856. It takes water from the Middle Y'uba, a short distance above the 
mouth of Bloody Eun, and carries it in a canal, seven feet wide by four 
and a half deep, to Badger Hill, San Juan, Sobastopol, Sweetland, Birch- 
ville, and French Corral, a distance of forty miles. On its way this canal 
takes in the waters of Grizzly Canon and other small streams. Its capacity 
is 1,500 inches, and its cost originally §400,000. 

The Poorman's Creek ditch takes water from Doorman's Creek, below. 
Eureka, to Orleans, Moore's and Woolsey's Flats. It, also, has a branch 
conveying water from the Middle Yuba. Total length, twenty-two miles ; 
capacity, three hundred and fifty inches ; cost, §90,000. Its projectors 
were llichard Berryman, John Cowger, J. P. McGuire, G. K. Barry, Ed. 
Craddockj John P. Brenton, and others. Ground was broken for this ditch 
in 1853, and the work completed in 1855. 

The Memphis Race was begun in 1853, by Dr. James Weaver. It took 
water from the south fork of the Middle Yuba, at the same point as the 
Poorman's Ditch, and bore it to the Flats before mentioned, and on to 
Columbia Hill, a distance of thirty miles. Its capacity was about five 
hundred inches. , Weaver had a larger enterprise commenced, to take water 
from the Middle Yuba, which failed. It is thought he must have expended 
a half million dollars upon his canal projects. 

The Grizzly Ditch, or ditches, were commenced in November, 1851, by 



68 CANALS AND DITCHES. 



Charles Marsli; Pettibone and Stewart, The object lyas to carry the -fraters 
of Bloody Run and Grizzly Canon to North San Juan, which was accom- 
plished in 1852. The ditch had a capacity originally of seven hundred 
and fifty inches, and was forty-five miles in length. Its cost was a little 
more than 850,000. 

The Spring Creek ditches were projected by Charles Marsh, George 
Rocheford and William L. Tisdale, in 1853, and carried the waters of 
Humbug Canon and Spriog Creek to Columbia Hill^ Montezuma Hill and 
intei'mediate mines- Its length was sixteen miles, and its capacity eight 
hundred inches. Cost 320,000. 

Captain Irvin had two or three small ditches, one of which carried water 
from Poorman's Creek to Ptelief Hill and on to Lake City and Columbia 
Hill, where it falls into the main trunk. It was commenced in 1851, and 
completed to Humbug and Lake City in 1857. 

The McDonald ditch brought water to Eureka from "Weaver Creek, a 
distance of five miles. Its cost was about §7,000; and its capacity about 
one hundred and fifty inches. 

In addition to the above mentioned ditches, there are several others of 
little note, all of which have become incorporated under the control of the 
Eureka Lake and Yuba Canal Company Consolidated, forming one of the 
most stupendous and costly systems of canals in the mining districts of the 
State, and commanding as rich and extensive a section of auriferous gravel 
as has been discovered on the planet. The selling capacity of the grand 
canal and branches equals 5,500 inches every ten hours, and the length of 
all the canals exceeds two hundred miles. The cost of all to the company 
now controlling it is reported at more than $1,000,000, and the net receipts 
about 81,000 per day. The ability of the region watered by the canals of 
the company to produce the computed average of the last ten years, two 
millions per annum, is not doubted. 

When it is taken into consideration that the company has a perpetual 
monopoly of all the water that can be made available for mining purposes 
in the region, it must be admitted that it is one of the grandest pieces of 
property in which capital can be with entire security invested. But a small 
per centage of the ancient gravel deposits are yet washed in the districts 
traversed by these canals, and only those portions most exposed and easiest 
to work. The great labor is yet to come, and the water of the canals before 
named is the great agent to do it. 

The only canal of any considerable importance on the Ridge between the 
Middle and South Yuba, not owned by the consolidated company, is that 
of the Eddys, formerly called the " Shady Creek Ditch," which takes the 
water from Shady creek, a distance of twelve miles to French Corral. It 



CANALS AND DITCHES. 69 



was constructed in 1851. Its capacity is 2,500 inches, and its cost, in- 
cluding reservoirs, $140,000. This canal is in the hands of some of its 
projectors and original owners. 

One of the most extensive canals of the State is that owned by the South 
Yuba Canal Company, taking water from the South Yuba river, and several 
lakes as feeders, and distributing it to Dutch Flat, in Placer county, as well 
as over the extensive region lying between the South Yuba and Bear Eiver, 
as far down the western slope of the Sierra Nevada as Grass Valley. The 
canals of the company are remarkable for their cost, their substantial nature 
and the fact that they are in the hands of the original projectors and 
builders. While nearly all the canal enterprises of the country have passed 
from the control of the men who conceived and executed them, the South 
Yuba Canal remains a triumph as well of the engineering as financial ability 
of its managers, still remaining in the possession of the fiithers of the en- 
terprise, and owned without an incumbrance or an enemy, all the men who 
assisted in any degree in the construction of the works having long-ago 
been paid to the uttermost farthing. 

The history of the South Yuba Canal Company is interesting. After 
the discovery of gold in the gravel hills above the town of Nevada, for a 
time the auriferous earth was hauled to Deer Creek to be washed. In Sep- 
tember, 1850, William Crawford, Charles Marsh, John and Thomas Dunn, 
and C. Carrol, conceived the idea of digging a ditch, nine miles in length, 
from the gravel hills to Rock Creek. The work was completed in Decem- 
ber following, and was productive of splendid results — paying its cost, 
$10,000, in six weeks. While this ditch was in the course of building, in 
November, two rival companies, "The Deer Creek Water Company" and 
« The Coyote Water Company," began the construction of canals to take 
the waters of Deer Creek to the new diggings. Law suits ensued, which 
terminated by the consolidation of the two into one. 

In 1853 Rich and Fordyce began the construction of a canal which was 
to bring the waters of the South Yuba to Nevada. Law suits arose between 
the companies, and finally another consolidation took place, and from this 
consolidation grew the magnificent system of canals controlled by the South 
Yuba Canal Company. 

The main canal of this company is sixteen miles in length, commencing 
on the South Yuba and passing through a tunnel sixty feet in length, which 
cost $6,000, the waters enter a flume, seven miles in length, set on solid 
wall-rock for one and a half miles through the canon on the South Yuba, a 
shelf having been blasted through the solid precipice rock, in places a 
hundred feet high, to receive it, the workmen at first being let down from 
the top by means of ropes to begin the drilling and blasting. Another 



TO CANALS AND DITCHES. 

tunnel, 3,800 feet long, at tte Lead of Peer Creek, enables the "waters of 
the South Yiiba to mingle with those of Deer Creek. This tunnel was 
finished at a cost of $112,000. The capacity of the canal is 8,500 running 
inches, miner's measure, its size is six feet wide by five deep, and work 
commenced upon it in April, 1853, ending October, 1858. The cost of the 
main canal snd tunnels was not far from §000,000. A branch ditch runs 
from the lower end of the grand tunnel, eighteen miles, to Chalk Bluff, 
Red Dog and You Bet. From the same point another branch runs to 
Omega, Alpha, Gold Hill and Blue Tent, also eighteen miles in length ; 
while the supply for Nevada and Grass Valley is thrown into Deer Creek 
and taken out six miles below to fill the Cascade ditch, leading to Quaker 
Hill and Scotch Flat, and going farther on supplies Gold Flat and Grass 
Valley. 

The Dutch Flat branch commences a mile and a half below the head of 
the main canal and runs a distance of twenty -three miles to Dutch Flat. 
It was commenced in 1864 and completed the following year, at a cost of 
$108,000. The capacity of this branch is 3,000 running inches, which 
amount finds a ready market in the rich auriferous distinct to which it runs. 

It might have been supposed that the control and use of the waters of 
the South Yuba, Deer and Bock creeks, would besufacicnt for the demand, 
or that at least money enough had been spent upon canals and ditches to 
supply the mines which the waters of these streams could reach. But not 
so. The company commenced in earnest in 1800, and compbted in four 
years, the damming of five lakes near the summit of the mountains as 
feeders to the canals in the months of summer. A dam of solid masonry, 
one of the most substantial structures of its kind ia California, forty-two 
feet high and eleven hundred and fifty feet long, was thrown across the outlet 
of Meadow Lake, increasing its capacity ten fold. This lake, when full, is 
more than a mile and a quarter long by half a mile wide. Seven miles 
distant, in a southeasterly direction from Meadow Lake, are the White Bock, 
Devil's Peak and two other small lakes, the united capacity of which will 
equal that of Meadow Lake. The dam at Meadow Lake cost, in round 
numbers, S50,000, and the dams of the other lakes as much more. The 
Devil's Peak lakes lie in close proximity to the Pacific Bailroad. 

In the summer, when the supply of water is limited in the streams, these 
lakes are resorted to for their stores of water laid up in the rainy months, 
and the yield is generally sufficient to last through the year. The waters 
of Meadow Lake are emptied into the South Yuba, and taken into the main 
canal nine miles below, and before finally running to waste pass over fifty 
miles in artificial channels. 

The books of the company show that they have constructed and purchased 



CANALS AND DITCHES. 71 



about two hundred aud soventj-five miles of canals and ditches, at a cost 
of more than a million dollars. In twelve years, the expense account of 
the company reaches 61,130,000, and its receipts Sl,400,000. 

The owners of this immense property are James AYhartenby, who is gene- 
ral managing agent of the company, Charles Marsh, G. W. Kidd, Thomas 
and John Dunn, TV. J. Knox, and several others. The stock of the com- 
pany is divided into three hundred shares, and is almost entirely in the 
hands of the gentlemen above named. 

It is proper to remark that, in addition to the ditches named, the company 
own one-half of a ditch sixteen miles in length, from the South Yuba to 
Omega, projected and partiallybullt by Culbcrtson, Riley, and others, the 
other half being owned individually by George W. Kidd. This ditch cost 
about S80,000. 

Some of the ditches owned by the company have passed into disuse from 
the exhaustion of the mines to which they ran, so that the number of ditches 
actually employed of late years is lessened. But, taking the capacity of the 
reservoirs of the company, which can greatly be increased, into consideration, 
and the vast territory the canals of the company are capable of watering, 
the property of the company .vill yet, and for long years to come, remain 
among the most desirable of acquisitions. I may be laughed at for my 
convictions, but I do not hesitate to assert that nearly all, if not all, of the 
ditches of the South Yuba Canal Company, and I go farther, and say nearly 
all the ditches of Nevada county, that have ceased to run water to exhausted 
mines, will yet, and not many years hence, be useful and valuable to irri- 
gate the vineyards and gardens of the mountains. It is impossible that 
such a magnificent field should long remain unoccupied. 

Besides the ditches belonging to the South ^uba Canal Company, there 
are a few others, on a small scale, that water portions of the same region. 
The Little York, or Gardner, ditch was begun by General A. M. "Winn, 
Captain Chapman and others, in February, 1852, and conveys the waters of 
Bear Kiver from Bear Yalley, a distance of eighteen miles, to Little York. 

The Walloupa, or Williams, ditch is fifteen miles in length, commences 
on Steep Hollow aud conveys water to Walloupa, Bed Dog and other mining 
camps. It was projected by Churchman, McConnell, Marsh and others. 
Work began on it in 1852, and ended three years after. 

A small ditch, eight miles long, takes water from Steep Hollow to You 
Bet and Bed Dog. It is known as the Irish Ditch, and is owned by 
Derham, Hussey & Co. 

Jacobs & Sargent have two ditches, one known as the Old Hotaling Ditch, 
which has one of the oldest water rights in the county, leading from Green- 
horn to Hunt's Hill; the other, a ditch of considerable capacity, being four 



72 



CANALS AND DITCHES. 



feet wide by three feet deep, and conveys the -waters of the north branch 
of the Grreenhoru to Quaker Hill, Hunt's Hill and Scotch Flat. William- 
son, Churchman & Co,, projected the latter ditch in 1855. It is eight 
miles long. 

W. H. Duryea has a ditch supplying Buckeye Hill with water from the 
south branch of the Greenhorn. Tt is sis miles long, three feet wide and 
two feet deep. 

In the lower part of the county is another system of ditches, belonging 
to the Excelsior Canal Company. The property cost, originally, 8900,000, 
but the capical stock of the company is §330,000. The ditches of the 
company consist as follows : The Tri-Union, began December, 1850, by 
Montgomery, Dickenson and others, taking water from Deer Creek to 
Sucker Flat, a distance of fifteen miles, cost 860,000 ; the Newtown Ditch, 
five miles in length, leading from Deer Creek to Xewtown; the Williams 
ditch, taking water to Rough and Ready from Deer Creek, and the Bovyer 
and Slate Creek ditches. Besides these, the company tap the Yuba above 
Hoit's crossing, obtaining a large supply of water, most of which is used 
at Smartsville, in Yuba county, and the mining camps round about. 

In the above sketch, I have endeavored to give a faithful account of all 
the ditches and canals of importance in the county. If the notice of any 
be too briefly and imperfectly given, it must be attributed to the difficulty 
of obtaining information that could be called reliable. As near as can be 
estimated, the value of the canals in Nevada county, at the present time, is 
not far from three and a quarter million dollars. In Eastern markets, 
where the rates of interest are lower, their value would probably considera- 
bly exceed that figure. 



HISTORICAL. SKETCH 



OF- 



NEYADA CITY AND TOWNSHIP 



Nevada City, tlie sliirc town of Nevada countj; and her twin sister, 
Grass Valley, are the two most prosperous and populous mining towns in 
the State of California. They have long enjoyed this reputation, and give 
evidence of sustaining it in the future. Grass Valley, by reason of her 
rich and extensive mines of quartz, has gathered a larger population of late 
years, but the local position of Nevada, and the advantage of being the 
county seat, have made her a brisk competitor in the race. 

Nevada has had an eventful history. The story of her experience would 
well illustrate the history of the State. Born amid wild excitements and 
fostered by men from every clime, who chose to ignore many of the customs 
and laws of civilized society ; almost abandoned at times by the allurements 
of other and overpraised localities ; destroyed by fires, and her people 
ruined ; depressed by the failure or exhaustion of mines, what scenes has 
she witnessed, what miseries undergone, what heroic struggles has she 
made, what triumphs has she gained ? 

The migratory character of a mining population has left few to relate the 
incidents of Nevada's early life. Men came and went, made few acquaint- 
ances, were absorbed in the pursuit of wealth, paid little attention to other 
matters, and treasured up but few facts interesting in the making up of a 
history. From the few items of interest that come to us from the early 
period of 1849, we learn that in September of that year. Captain John 
Pennington, Thomas Cross and William McCaig built the first cabin in the 
basin in which Nevada now stands, somewhere on Gold Eun. Other parties 



E. F. SPENCE, DRUGGIST AND APOTHECAKT, BROAD STREET, NEVADA CITY, CALIBORNIA. 



A. GOLDSMITH, CORNER OF BROAD AND PISE STREETS, NEVADA CITY, CALIFORNIA. 



74 SKETCH OF NEVADA TOWNSHIP. 

must soon have worked in tlie vicinity, since it is well attested that Dr. A. 
B. Caldwell built a log store near the site of the brick school house in 
October, and a Mr. Stamps, with his wife, her sister, and the family, an-ived 
the same month and passed the winter. Madam Peun was the name of 
another woman, who wintered here during that worst of all winters, 1849—50. 
Mrs. Stamps and sister were the first ladies who ever cheered the region 
with their presence. Madam Penn is remembered for her determination to 
make money if hard word would do it. She took her turn with her husband 
carrying dirt to wash and rocking out the gold. In the spring of 1850 she 
built a boarding house, on the site of the present Union Hotel. John 
Truesdale built one of the first houses ever erected in Nevada. Its site 
was somewhere in the rear of StuDipf 's Hotel, on Broad street. Quite a 
number of buildings were erected in the spring of ]S50. Truex & Black- 
man put up one on or about the site of the office of the South Yuba Canal 
Company. Womack & Kenzie built a hotel, of cloth, on the site of the 
brick store of William R. Coe. It was the first hotel ever opened in the 
place. Robert Gordon built a store on the other side of Commercial street, 
a little further up. J. N. Turner established the Nevada Hotel, just above 
the present Union Hotel, in April. Several cabins and canvas houses were 
occupied on upper Main street, in the spring of 1850, and an occasional 
cabin, with tents, might be seen early about the ravines that concentrate 
on the site of Nevada and discharge themselves into Deer Creek. 

But, to give an impression of the appearance of Nevada at a very early 
day, and a picture of life in the mining regions, we append a letter from an 
eye-witness, Benjamin P. Avery, Esq., late State Printer, but now one of 
the editors of the San Francisco Bulletin. It is but just to say that evi- 
dently the letter was not prepared for publication, but, as it gives a graphic 
view of the childhood of Nevada, and of California, which I have not so 
far attempted, I can not forbear transcribing it here. It may not be unin- 
teresting to add that Messrs. Avery and Franchere, the latter now of North 
San Juan, worked in the ravine that comes down from the site of old 
Coyoteville, and camped between the two huge bowlders that still left their 
high heads near the-residence of Mr. C. Beckmau, in the northwestern part 
of the town : 

Sa\ Fraxcisco, December 20th, 1866. 
Friend Bean : Yours is at hand. I was in Nevada county early, and saw some- 
thing of its first growth", but my recollections are not of that precise nature which 
will make them useful to you. They would make an entertaining story by them- 
selves, if I had time to write them carefnlly, but possess little historic value. Possi- 
bly a fact or two may be gleaned for your purpose from what follows. I started 
from Mormon Island on a prospecting trip to Reading's Springs, (Shasta) in October,- 
1849, ■ Eode a little white mule along with pork and hard bread and blankets packed 



BANNER BROTHERS, CLOTHING EMPORIUM, COR. BROAD AND PINE STREETS, NEA'ADA CITY. 



GO TO A. GOLDSMITH'S DRY GOODS STORE. 



SKETCH OF NEVADA TOWNSEIP. 75 

behind me. On the way from Sacramento to Vernon — a trading station just stai'ted 
at the junction of the Sacramento and Feather rivers — I encountered a party on 
horseback who were coming from Deer creek, and who told me big stories about 
"pound diggings" in Gold Run. As "pound diggings'" — t. e. claims, that would 
yield 12 oz. of gold per day to the man — were just what I was in search of, I in- 
quired the direction of this El Dorado, followed the old emigrant road up Bear river 
to Johnson's Ranch, at the oJge of the foothills, and there took a trail for the creek, 
missing the road, or thinking I could take a shorter course. The first night in the 
foothills I had company — Caldwell, who was after a winter stock for his store on the 
creek, at a point seven miles below the site of Nevada, and several Southern and 
Western men. There was an encampment of United States troops near Johnson's 
at that time, and the Indians were troublesome, some times putting an arrow through 
a lone sleeper or driving off cattle and horses. la my lonely journey through the 
mountains for a week afterward I was somewhat afraid of the Indians, concerning 
whoso character I then hud very incorrect notions, based on youthful memories of 
the scalping savages of the East. My first encounter with a party of them did not 
tend to reassure me. They gathered about my mule with threatening gestures, one 
fellow motioning as if he would like to put an arrow through me. Hereupon I drew 
a pair of double-barreled pistols from the holsters and leveled them cocked at the 
head of the red devil, aflecling to be in joke. He saw the point and slunk away 
while the rest laughed. 1 divided my biscuits with them, ordered them to trot off, 
and rode along myself when they had proceeded some distance. Arrived at Cald- 
well's store — the only trading post on Deer creek at that time — I found it a square 
canvas shanty, stocked with whisky, pork, mouldy biscuit and ginger bread ; the 
whisky four bits a drink, the biscuits a dollar a pound. A few tents were scattered 
over the little flat and about a dozen parties were working the bars with dug-out 
cradles and wire or raw-hide hoppers, only one or two persons having cradles made 
of board and sheet iron. 1 prospected with good success in a claim that had just 
been abandoned by the notorious Greenwood, carrying dirt in a pan to a dug-out 
cradle. Went with shovel and pan seven or eight miles up the creek, testing several 
ravines as high up as the top of the ridges, seldom, in my ignorance, going deeper 
than a few inches, and always getting gold. A preacher, whose name I forget, was 
then hauling dirt from one big ravine back of Caldwell's in an ox cart, and washing 
it at the creek with good success. A few other men were carrying dirt from other 
ravines in sacks on their own backs or those of mules. All were close mouthed 
about yields, and regarded me as an interloper. They were Southwestern men, ap- 
parently, and mixed with their jealousy was a bit of contempt for the smooth-faced 
" Yorker," whose long brown hair lying on his shoulders ought to have conciliated 
their prejudice, since it looked like following a fashion set by themselves. In my 
prospecting I somehow failed to get on the Gold Run side of the creek, and so missed 
my objective point, but I struck the conjunction of ravines in the little flat known 
afterward as the site of " Dyer's store ; " and in " Rich Ravine," winding about 
American Hill, got a prospect that satisfied me to return immediately to Mormon 
Island for my companions. That locality was then (about October 10th) completely 
unworked ; I saw no •' prospect holes " any where in the vicinity. The dirt I tried 
I carried" a long distance to find water to wash. While camping out alone in the 
thick forest that covered the place, I woke one night oppressed for breath, and saw 
a small gray wolf at my feet ; fired at his eye's gleaming among the rocks, but missed 
him, It was a lonely scene, and the echo of my shot through the woods startled me. 

AYER'S MEDICINES AT SPENCE'S 



MILLINERY ANP FANCY G00D3, AT GOLDSMITH'S. 



76 



SKETCH OP NEVADA TOWNSHIP. 



The scamp was attracted by the bit of pork which I had hung in the tree above me. 
I fancied he might have been smelling about my face, and thus caused the feeling of 
oppression. Before returning to Mormon Island I went over to the South Tuba, fol- 
lowed it to the main stream, and prospected the latter as low down as Owsley's Bar, 
which, as well as most of the river bank below Rose's Bar, was then nnworked. Only 
one of my partners (Franchere, now at North San Juan) was willing to accompany 
me from Mormon Island (on the American river,) to the wilds of Deer creek. He 
and I reached Sacramento on our way to a fortune just as the heavy storms of that 
memorable winter set in. These detained us. Then the roads, which bad never 
been packed, were frightfully muddy ; the sloughs were full of water and unbridged, 
and many packers with their animals were drowned trying to cross them. I could 
not swim, and preferred to take no risks ; so we waited in Sacramento, engaged in 
one speculation or another, until the first fiood drove us at nigbt out of our tent be- 
tween Front and Second streets, and compelled us to take refuge on the bark Orb, 
whose hulk still lies in the same place and is used as a steamer landing. Nine days' 
board on that vessel, which was improvised into a " hotel," cost us seventy-two dol- 
lars, and we slept in the forecastle among the rats at that. The first regular San 
Francisco steamboat, the old propeller McKim, received and discharged her freight 
on the Orb, and I earned a dollar an hour assisting at this ; but it was dreadful hard 
work, and the regular " salts " made it harder for me by way of joke. We finally 
took a steamer for Nye's Landing on the Yuba— the original name of the site of 
Marysville— intending to go thence to Deer creek ; but on reaching Crosby's Bar — 
by this time (January) a smart mining camp — we learned that the snow was two feet 
deep at the creek, that thousands of men had crowded in the ravines about " Cald- 
well's new store," and that provisions were scarce and high. We did not stock our- 
selves and reach the creek until February, working a quicksilver machine meanwhile 
on the bar, and packing the dirt to it in half-kegs suspended from a yoke on our 
necks. We also made a small cradle (valued at seventy-five dollars in those times) 
which we packed to the creek on a mule with flour, pork, coffee and hard bread. To 
my intense disgust I found that my ravine was occupied from one end to another by 
long-haired Missourians, who were taking out their " piles." They worked in the 
stormiest weather, standing in the yellow mud to shovel dirt into cradle or torn ; 
one of them had stretched a canvas awning over their claims, which were only thirty 
feet along the ravine. All the other ravines leading into the flat at the foot of Ameri- 
can Hill, were occupied almost as thickly. Dyer had a log cabin store in the midst* 
where whisky and brandy were sold at S6 and §8 a bottle, molasses at $8 a gallon, 
flour $1 a pound, and pork $2. Caldwell's '• new," or " upper," store was on the 
high bank of the ravine, above the little flat where the city of Nevada afterward 
sprang into existence. 

It appears there bad been great discoveries in this locality after my visit, the first 
of October, and as the streams rose in November the miners flocked in from the 
rivers. American Hill was covered with their tents and brush houses, while a few 
had put up log cabins. At night, the tents shone through the pines like great trans- 
parencies, and the sound of laughter, shouting, fiddling and singing startled those 
primeval solitudes strangely. It was a wild, wonderful scene. Gambling, of course, 
was common, and fatal affrays were frequent. We pitched our tent by a big pine, 
using its trunk for a fire place and cooking our pork and coffee out of doors. The 
woods looked grand when white with snow. Sometimes we had to rap it off the can- 
vas roof at night to keep it from pressing upon our faces, or breaking down the tent. 



BANNER BROTHERS SELL CLOTHING CHEAPER THAN ANY OTHER HO¥SE IN NEVADA COUNTY. 



CARPETS AND OIL CLOTH, AT GOLDSMITH'S. 



SKETCH OF NEVADA TOWNSHIP. 77 

I think a larger quantity of snow fell during ibe winter of 1849-50 than has ever fallen 
since in that locality. The subsequent destruction of timber must hare had an influ- 
ence ia modifying the climate. Other considerable settlements had gathered at Gold 
Pain, Grass Valley and Uough and Ptcady, on tbe other side of the creek. I think the 
Nevada miners were the first to use the long torn— which was made of split boards— 
as well as wooden sluices. The latter were suggested as a continuation of the torn, 
for convenience to receive the dirt when shoveled up from below. We worked with 
rather poor success, in the vicinity, until the ravines began to dry in April, and then 
laid the beginning of that extensive and costly system of mining ditches that haS' 
since made Nevada pre eminent in this, as in every other department of mining in 
dustry and invention. Small ditches were dug to bring the water from springs and 
brooks into the rich ravines about Dyer's, and were gradually extended as the water 
supplies retreated. The mines yielded wonderfully. From an ounce to twelve ounces 
a day was common, with cradles ; while many a long torn party took home to their 
cabins at night a quart tin pail full of gold, much of which was as coarse as wheat 
grains. Many a lucky fellow left with a fortune in the spring, and at the same time 
the embargo of mud and snow was lifted, so that teamsters and packers arrived with 
supplies from the lower country, and flour fell to thirty cents a pound, while boots 
that had been worth si.x ounces a pair could be had for one. It was not long before 
wagon loads of provisions sold for freight. AVith this rush of goods, accompanied by 
fresh crowds of fortune hunters, Nevada city sprang into being. My first sight of the 
embryo place was a surprise. I had been camping and working some distance lower 
down the creek, coming over to Caldwell's about once a fortnight, for supplies we 
did not have — say for pipes, tobacco and molasses, or to pay an expressman two 
dollars to inquire if there was a letter for me at Sacramento. 

One Sunday, in rounding the point of a ravine running down to the creek from 
American Hill, (since named,) I saw a big round tent on the little flat, with a flag 
streaming above it, muffled music resounding within, while around' were several 
canvas stores, and wagons loaded with flour and other supplies — and, in fact, all the 
signs of a bran-new mining town. Franchcre and I christened it "Mushroom City," 
on the spot. It was afterward called Nevada, and when the first election for local 
oflBcers was held we were importuned at our cradles, by genteel looking gamblers, 
who were the " leading men," to vote for their candidates. The population would 
have scattered rapidly but for the discovery of the famous coyote or drift diggings, 
which were first opened by a drift run in from Rich Ravine, by miners who supposed 
they were following a ravine lead for a short distance. I sank a shallow shaft on the 
slope of American Hill, toward the ravine, during the winter, believing that the 
gravel bed might be rich, but struck water, and was obliged to desist, though I got 
a "good color," all the way down. You know how the entire hill has since been 
stripped to the bed-rock. It was at Nevada that I saw the first ground sluicing in the 
State, which led by insensible degrees to hydraulic mining. 

Not being one of the lucky, I left Deer Creek just after the birth of Nevada, and 
packing my blankets and some bacon and biscuit on my back, and carrying a pan, 
pick and shovel, started with two companions for the Middle Yuba, reaching it at a 
point about fifteen miles above Nevada. The snow was still deep on the top and 
Tipper flanks of the ridge, and we walked on its top, the breaking crust making walk- 
ing very hard labor. The Middle Yuba region was then a terra incognita. None of 
the bars were named, so high up, and we saw only two small parties working, who 
refused to give us any information. There was of course no trading post. The deep 



E. F. SPENCE, INSURANCE AGENT. 



GOLDSMITH ALWAYS KEEPS THE BEST DRY GOODS. 



78 SKETCH OF NEVADA TOWNSHIP. 



chasm was in its native wildness, and lieavd no sound but the roar of its own pines 
and the dash of the foaming rapids. We had to fell trees to cross creeks, and the 
feat was often difflculi and dangerous. Threading our way through the canons was 
often extremely hazardous. The water was too high to prospect the bars, but we 
found gold in paying quantities on the shelving rock, and thought we might go back 
in the summer. On our return to Deer creek we got out of food, traveling thirty-six 
hours on empty stomachs, mostly over the snow, and without water, being on top of 
the snow-covered ridge. Yet I enjoyed with a sense of grandeur the Arctic scenery 
»f those magnificent pine forests, and the stars at night through the tops of the moan- 
ing trees had for me a thrilling fascination. When I again reached my tent near the 
yugar Loaf I reeled like a drunkard. How^Nevada county and city developed and 
obtained a nomenclature after this I need not say. Suffice it to add that after May, 
1850, 1 did not visit that section until 1856. How little I dreamed while on my foolish 
prospecting trip through the savage solitudes of the Middle Yuba that in eight years 
I should be publishing a newspaper for a populous and intelligent town in that very 
region ; that carriers and expressmen would be scattering it where only the grizzly 
and wild cat roamed then ; and that the lofty ridge, drawing its purple line against 
the sky four thousand feet above the sea, would be dotted with villages, with 
churches and school houses, with orchards, vineyards and gardens ; that three or four 
daily newspapers would proceed from the town on Deer creek, and that the untamed 
reo'ion generally would be one of the most prosperous, intelligent and patriotic in the 

State, 

Looking back on the foregoing necessarily hasty scrawl, I find it very slovenly, 
imperfect and egotistical. But it is the best the. pressure of other duties will permit 
me to do, and it will certainly convince you— if you have the patience to wade 
through it— that I was right in saying I could not help you. I had no idea of writing 
so much. Old memories thronged on me after beginning, and now I regret that I 
cannot find time to make a connected and full narrative of the wildest and most stir- 
ring period of my California experience. 

^ ^ ^ Yours, truly, B. P. AVERY, 

The winter of 1849-50 was an exceedingly severe one, snow falling fonr 
feet deep. The roads were new and bad, and provisions and goods of all 
kinds sold for fabulous prices. Pork and beef commanded 80 cents a 
pound; flour 44 cents; potatoes 75 cents; onions ^1 50; saleratus |1 per oz.; 
boots ^40 ; shovels S16; candles 50 cents each. The cost of getting a letter 
from Sacramento was ^2 50, and a newspaper $1. 

The site of Nevada was a remarkably rough and unpromising one at 
first, and it has " held its own " very well ever since. It consisted of several 
tongues or ridges of land lying between ravines, all converging to one point 
on Deer Creek. These ridges were covered with pines and oaks, intermixed 
with bushes about the margins of the streams. A thick clump of small 
pines stood on the spot now occupied by the Court House and yard. The 
site of lower Main street, and where the buildings on both sides now stand, 
was wet and swampy, and covered with hazel and other brush. It was a 
locality that produced no insignificant number of rattlesnakes, if the reports 
of early settlers are to be credited. 



BUY YOUR CLOTHING AT BANNER BROTHERS, CORNER OB BROAD AND PINE STREETS. 



GOLDSMITH ALWAYS KEEPS TUE BEST GOODS. 



SKETCH OF NEVADA TOWNSHIP. 79 

Up to March, 1850, Nevada went by the appellation of " Caldwell's 
Upper Store/' or " Deer Creek Dry Diggings." But, some excesses hav- 
ing been committed, it was determined to establish authority to punish 
violations of the rights of others, and an election for an Alcalde, under 
Mexican law, was called, and Mr. Stamps was chosen. About 250 votes 
were cast. On that day it was proposed, in the crowd, that a better name 
should be given to the place, and it was christened " Nevada." The ac- 
counts of how the name came to be chosen, differ somewhat; but as the 
mountains were called "snowy," and the winter had been a "snowy" one, 
it is not very strange that the idea was suggested by calling the place 
" snowy," or " Nevada," as the word is in Spanish. 

Stamps acted as Alcalde till May, when the discovery of rich deposits 
in the old gravel hills to the north of the town, created an excitement and 
filled the Nevada basin with miners, when a new order of things began. 
The authorities jit Marysville, the county seat, ordered an election for 
Justice of the Peace, and a man named OIney, who had been Secretary of 
State of llliode Island, under the revolutionary government of Dorr, was 
chosen. Olney was a singular man, of capability, but disposed not to be 
bound by any old forms of dispensing justice. His decisions were often 
original and sui generis. He is remembered as a person with the right arm 
but half the length of the other, a good penman, and a man after his own 
pattern. He died of consumption a few mouths after his election, and 
when called on, in extremis mortis by a clergyman, he indicated a wish 
that the " boys " might take what money he had over and above funeral 
expenses and have, as he expressed it, "a jolly good time with it." He 
may be set down as the representative of a large class of the times. 

The discovery that the gravel range above the town was remarkably rich, 
was made by some miners working up to the head of a ravine and finding 
the dirt paid into the hill. The whole range, wherever gravel was seen on 
the surface, was immediately staked off in claims, and shafts went down by 
the hundred. A town called Coyoteville sprang up on the gravel hills, 
well endowed with saloons and monte-banks, and flourished for a year or 
two exceedingly. Its site was on the eastern end of Lost Hill, and is now 
almost washed away; but here miners growing rich congregated, politicians 
flocked, and noisy demagogues brayed to indifferent or ignorant listeners. 

Coyoteville did not take its name from the coyote, but from the new mode 
of* mining just then adopted, which was that of drifting or "coyoteing" 
put the richest of the dirt, leaving holes in which an unsophisticated stran- 
ger might have supposed animals burrowed. The yield of the old river 
bed was immense, and scarcely credible at the present day, and such was 
the reputation of the place, that it is variously estimated from six to sixteen 



BRISTOL'S MEDICINES AT SPENCE'S. 



THE ONLY PLACE TO GST CHEAP DKT GOODS IS AT A GOLDSMITH'S. 



80 SKETCH OF NEVADA TOWNSHIP. 

thousand miners came to Nevada during the year 1850. The rush was so 
great that a large town grew up as if by magic. Hundreds of stores and 
other buildings were erected, and the Americans; knowing little of the 
seasons of the country, except as the previous winter gave them experience, 
prepared for another rainy season of severity. Lai'ge quantities of goods 
purchased at high rates were packed and hauled to the town ; but, no rain 
came. The mines could not be worked for want of water. One ditch had 
been completed early in the year, from Musketo Creek to old Coyote Hill, 
and another from Little Deer Creek to Phelps Hill. The supply of water 
was limited. The Rock Creek ditch, completed in December, 1850, was 
nine miles in length and, for the times, a tremendous enterprise. Without 
water from the clouds the ditches could furnish but little. A dry season 
was, to use an Irishism, the rainy season of 1850-51. Hundreds of miners 
became disgusted and left the place. There was general depression ; goods 
went down in price, and merchants " went up " for all they were worth. 

During the summer of 1850, the rush of population to the place made 
a lively demand for lumber, and two or three mills were erected. The 
price of lumber was ^200 per thousand feet. The same summer, a Metho- 
dist society was organized by Rev. Isaac Owens, and a shell of a building 
erected for religious and other public purposes, somewhere above the site 
of the present Congregational Church. Before that time, and even after, 
street preaching was not uncommon. In Mr. Sargent's sketch of Nevada, 
published in 1856, we find the following lively account of an incident which 
brings up early scenes with remarkable freshness : 

Before the erection of the church, the preachers often held service on the streets, 
to an attentive crowd; who left their work almost invariably on the Sabbath, and 
congregated in town. A large crowd, drawn from the gambling and driaking saloons, 
then iQ full glory, and from the stores and hotels, would respectfully listen to the 
exhortations of the preachers, and then disperse to their business or pleasures. We 
remember a singular scene in October, 1850, which illustrates the manners of the 
times. An earnest exhorter was singing his opening hymn to a crowd. A short dis- 
tance below an auctioneer was expatiating on the merits of a mule to a smaller 
audience. A few rods up the street a Swiss girl was turning a hand organ, accom- 
panied by another with a tamborine. A drunken fellow was attempting " auld lang 
syne," in the style of the preacher. Some ten wagoners, from Sacramento, were 
dispensing their goods at retail in the short street, and the varieties of the day were 
otherwise embellished by a savage dog fight, that appeared for a few moments to be 
the greatest attraction. 

The gambling saloons of that period were the most popular places of 
resort. If one desired to meet an acquaintance, in one of these saloons 
would he most likely find the object of his search. They were the foci of 
the mining and trading population, and particularly on the Sabbath. All 
the games of chance ever invented were tried in these saloons, but monte, 

PINE CLOTHING, ( CALIFORNIA MAKE) AT BANNER BROTHERS. 



FASHIONABLE MILLINERY GOODS ALWAYS ON HAND AT GOLDSiHTH'S. 



SKETCH OF NEVADA TOWNSHIP. 81 

faro, roulette, vingt-et-un and poker were the favorite games for gamblers. 
Thousands worked hard during the day and with success, only to spend the 
last grain of dust at the tables or bars of the alluring gambling hells at 
night. Conspicuous objects in one of these places were rows of tables, on 
which were heaped Mexican doubloons and dollars, with an occasional 
nugget and bag of dust to top oflF the pilo. Around these tables were 
crowded men in gray or blue shirts, pants more or less begrimed with 
auriferous mud, boots with ample length of legs drawn over the pants, and 
slouched hats, staking their dust and intensely awaiting the turn of a card 
that should double their fortune. An occasional woman of easy virtue 
was seen sandwiched in among the rough miners and trying too her luck at 
monte. The ring of the money on the tables, the announcements of the 
man at the roulette wheel, the cursing of the disappointed at their bad 
fortune, and the continual calls for "■ bar-keep," rendered the scene one 
rarely to be met with except in California. Now and then a row would 
suddenly break out, pistols were drawn and bar tumblers flew with an 
abandon only surpassed by the shooting meteors of November, 1833. And 
then, such a getting out of doors, and such swift forgetfulucss that the 
saloon would be again thronged and the games going on in fifteen minutes, 
as if nothing had occurred ! 

The town of Nevada had grown so much during the year 1850, that not 
less than two hundred and fifty buildings were occupied when the following 
year commenced ; not to mention the cabins and tents that were spread 
over a space two miles in diameter, having the town for its center. The 
winter of 1850-51 was marked by considerable activity in mining the 
gravel hills, water having been supplied in fair quantities by the Musketo, 
Kock and Deer Creek ditches. Long toms and sluice extensions were 
brought into use and with desirable results. 

It was while Nevada seemed on the high road to prosperity, that on the 
11th of March, 1851, incendiaries applied the torch to the young city of 
the forest, and laid one-half its stores and houses in ashes. The business 
part of the town was entirely consumed. The stocks of goods were large, 
but the flames were so rapid that but little could be saved. The pine trees 
standing among the buildings caught and flamed to the tops, casting brands 
over the town, spreading the conflagration. The fire commenced at two 
o'clock in the morning, and before the sun rose, property estimated in value 
at a half million dollars was swept away. 

As in the case of all burnt California cities, the ashes of Nevada only 
acted upon her growth like guano upon vegetable life. Scarcely were the 
embers cold when buildings went up on every hand, and so rapid was the 
progress that in one month scarcely a vestige of the fire remained. In 



SPENCE'S SEIDLITZ POWDEKS, AT SPENCE'S, NEVADA. 



SATINGS BANK, DEPOSIT FOR DRY GOODS AT A. GOLDSMITH'S. 

82 SKETCH OF NEVADA TOWNSHIP. 

April, appeared in the new-built town a newspaper, tlie Journal, the first 
publication of the kind in the mining region of the State except the Sonora 
Herald. 

About the same time an election for officers of a grand city goYernment, 
which had been provided for by an act of the Legislature, was held, and 
the city began its career with a Mayor, ten Aldermen, and a liberal supply 
of all other officials. Moses F. Hoit was elected the first Mayor. The 
city government was maintained loss than a year, when the people, almost 
to a man, demanded a change — they had had King Stork long enough — and 
the Legislature came to. their relief. The city was more than 08,000 in 
debt, which was never paid. The excitement about quartz which prevailed 
early in this year and until the collapse of some magnificent enterprises the 
year after, had some influence in the organization of an extensive city gov- 
ernment. It was thought that the fountain head of all the gold had been 
struck in two or three veins of quartz, below the town on Deer Creek, and 
while the lucky proprietors were growing wild over anticipations of tons of 
gold to be taken from the rock by new and effective processes, the men of 
the town who had no interest in Gold Tunnels and Bunker Hills proceeded 
to obtain for themselves the next best thing, an office each, which, by a 
fiction of courtesy, was called honorable, but designed to be principally 
noted for emolument. The government was tried, while the quartz schemes 
were on trial, and all collapsed together, leaving half the community indulg- 
ing in gloomy forebodings about the fate of the whole. 

The hopes of the quartz operators were based on the pretended discoveries 
of one Dr. Rogers, who maintained that quartz was of a porous or cellular 
structure, but that the interstices between the crystals were not large 
enough in the natural state to allow the particles of gold to drop out. By 
the expansion of heat the pores were opened and the metal had free egress 
either in its cooled or melted form. A large chimney, or furnace, was con- 
structed at great expense, a mammoth wheel erected, and on Deer Creek, 
about a mile below the town, on the present site of what is known as Soggs's 
mill, the grand experiment of extracting gold from the rock by the new 
process was conducted. Wood and coal in large quantities were procured. 
A large iron reservoir, filled with water, laid at the bottom of the chimney 
to receive the precious metal as it loosened and fell from the rock. The 
chimney was filled with alternate layers of fuel and quartz of a beautiful 
skimmed milk color. The fire was kindled at the bottom of the furnace, ■ 
and as the mass lowered, more wood and rock were added at the top. The 
millionaires, in expectancy, were on hand night and day, for who can sleep 
when such a princely fortune is to be harvested ? The savant who was 
testing his discovery on a large scale, for a snug salary, rode up occasionally 

BANNER BROTHERS KEEP EVERY VARIETY OF CALIFORNIA MADE BLANKETS- 



OOLDSMirn ALWAYS KEEPS THE BEST ASSORTMENT OF LADIES' UNDERWEAR. 

SKETCH OF NEVADA TOWNSHIP. 83 

and gave his orders with the air of a General of Division. His employers 
bowed obsequiously and obeyed his high behests. At last, after tons upon 
tons of rock had passed through the fiery furnace, one night when the 
vulgar crowd who had no soul for science or pluck for mighty enterprises, 
had departed, there was a congregation of Astors in expectation around the 
blazing monument of Nevada's " Bunker Hill." The cauldron beneath 
must be about running over, they suggested, and it would be well to take 
out a few millions to give place for more. A stout armed individual soon 
made way to the precious deposits. He scraped the bottom and returned 
with a pan of cinders and ashes ! The bubble had burst, and so had a 
number of the richest men, a few hours before, the world had ever seen. 

Dr. lingers left the place, and so did a great many others, in complete 
disgust. Quartz was pronounced a humbug, and the fate of Nevada sealed. 
Houses were deserted, clap-boards hung dangling by one nail, and men went 
about the comparatively lonely streets congratulating themselves that they 
were not so poor as to own property in such a doomed city. 

While the quartz excitement was up, in 1851, Hamlet Davis fixed up an 
upper story, on the corner of Broad and Pine streets, where Captain Kidd's 
huge brick building now stands, for theatrical uses. Here a Dr Robinson, 
whose forte was making up songs with local hits, and a dramatic company, 
first held forth to a crowded room, week after week. It was the first 
attempt at tragedy in the mountains, unless we count the bear and bull 
fights borrowed of the Mexicans, as such, and drew amazingly. Mr. and 
Mrs. Stark gave the miners a taste of their quality in August, but for one 
night. The place was then, and for years after, a sort of paradise for actors. 
So great was the popularity of dramatic entertainments, and so small 
" ])ramatic Hall," that another theater was erected in the Autumn on 
piles over Deer Creek, and called the Jenny Lind. It was a pretty looking 
structure for its time, and well patronized during the winter. But in the 
March of that gloomy year, 1852, on the Gth day of the month, after a terrible 
storm of several days of wind and rain, a log came down the swollen torrent 
of Deer Creek, carried away the Main street bridge, which, in turn knocked 
the theater from its foundations, together with a boarding house, and all 
took a voyage down the creek together, a mass of floating lumber. 

During the flush times of 1851, early in the year, a postoffice was estab- 
lished in Nevada, and mails arrived at stated periods. Benjamin Blanton 
was the first postmaster. His oflice was on the site of Mrs. Maria Hill's 
brick dwelling, near the Court House. Nevada became the center for the 
distribution of mail matter, and here, when the Atlantic mail arrived, might 
be seen crowds in line awaiting their turn to inquire for a letter from 
friends " at home." The office of postmaster was supposed to be a fat one 

E. p. SPENCE, PRACTICAL DRUGGIST, NEVADA. 



GOLDSMITH UNDERSELLS ALL OTHER DRY GOODS HOUSES, 



84 SKETCH OP NEVADA TOWNSHIP. 

in those early days, the perquisites and stealings being on a liberal scale. 
It is not known how much the first postmaster came out of the ofl&ce -with, 
but the importation of fast stock soon after his short term of a few months 
closed, seemed to show that the means for his temporal comfort had been 
well supplied. " Wake-up-Jake " was a celebrated horse in his time, 
brought to the State under the auspices of the first postmaster of Nevada. 

After the fire of 1851, for several years, the prominent gambling saloons 
of the town were the " Empire " and " Barker's Exchange," both located 
on lower Main street, and facing each other. They were large, and for the 
period, very good wooden buildings. These places were occupied for legiti- 
mate business before the fire of 1856 came and swept every thing before 
it. The Court House was a small wooden building near Sanford's store, on 
Broad street, till 1854, when the present site was purchased. The jail was 
a log structure nearly opposite the old Court House, and nearly on the site 
of the city calaboose. The selection of the sit€ of the present Court House 
was owing to rivalry of streets. Broad street was supposed to desire the 
Court House located somewhere near the Methodist Church. To thwart 
the wishes of Broad street, a number of persons on Main street raised 
nearly all the money to purchase the plot of ground on which the Court 
House and jail now stand. 

Mining being considered the paramount interest of the county, the miners 
indulged in great latitude of action, sluicing away roads and bridges, cutting 
channels impassable for teams, undermining houses, washing away yards, etc. 
It is remembered that a couple of miners commencing sinking a shaft in 
Main street nearly in front of the South Yuba Canal Company's office, then 
the great business point of the town ; a citizen expostulated with them, 
but only received for answer, that there was " no law against digging in 
the streets," and they were going to dig. " Then I'll make a law," said 
the citizen, and walking into his store he brought out a revolver, and a 
precedent was established then and there, that miners could not dig up the 
streets of Nevada. 

About this time (it is of little importance the exact date) Nevada elected 
a Justice of the Peace in the person of one Ezekiel Dougherty, " Uncle 
Zeke" has left on the memory of men several of his remarkable sayings, 
one or two of which we will relate. A fellow was examined before Uncle 
Zeke, charged with horse stealing. Several witnesses were sworn who tes- 
tified against the prisoner quite strongly. It looked like a plain case. The 

counsel for the prisoner. Judge B , rose and addressed the Court, " May 

it please your honor," said he, " I now propose to introduce a few witnesses 
to establish the good character of my client." " What the h — 1," said 
Uncle Zeke, "is the use of trying to prove his good character when it is 



BANNER BROTHERS, BUY THEIR GOODS FOR CASH, AND CAN AFFORD TO SELL CHEAP. 



BRUSSELS, TWO AND THREE-PLY CARPETS AT GOLDSMlTlI S. 

SKETCH OF NEVADA TOWNSHIP. 85 

already proven he is a d — d thief!" On another occasion, under like cir- 
cumstances, in a criminal case, the evidence was all in, the prosecution had 

spoken and Uncle Zeke was fatigued. Judge B arose, and hanging his 

right hand to his left by means of hooks made of the little fingers, prepared 
for an argument. " Your Honor," said he in opening, " Your Honor, it 
is a presumption of law that a man is innocent until he is proven guilty." 
Uncle Zeke, uneasily twisting in his chair, interrupted : " Yes, but Judge 

B there is another presumption of law, that a Justice of the Peace is 

not bottomed with cast iron. You can go on with your speech, but I am 
going after my bitters right now !" 

Judge B was an honest old man, perfectly innocent of a joke and 

incapable of severity. On one occasion a young lawyer had given him an 
excoriation in Court. AVhen the Court adjourned the County Clerk, sitting 

by the stove with Judge B at a hotel, remarked in a sympathizing 

way, that "counsel was rather severe in bis remarks." "Yes," replied 
the Judge, "but wasn't I severe on him in reply ?" The Clerk, who was 
present in Court all the time, did not remember of hearing any caustic 

remarks from Judge B , and inquired : " Did you come back at him ?' 

"I rather think I did," said the Judge ; "you know he called me a petti- 
fogger." " Yes, and Judge, what did you say to that ?" " I just emphat- 
ically told him I wasn't !" So kind and amiable was the old man that to 
dispute the assertion of his opponent relative to his own character was, in 
his view, remarkable severity. 

While relating anecdotes, I may as well mention, that at a little later 
period there came to Nevada the excentric Francis J. Dunn, and run out 
his shingle as Attorney and Counselor at Law. " Frank " was good in his 
profession, praticing at two kinds of bars with equal distinction. He is 
dead now, poor fellow, but his monotonous way of speaking still lingers in 
the memories of many, and is often imitated. Frank was one day address- 
ing a Justice in Court, who has recently figured in San Francisco as a 
prisoner accused of extortion in office. The rulings of the Justice did not 
suit Frank, and staring in the face of the Court, he said in his peculiar 
drawl, " Your Honor's a fool," but suddenly he apologized with, " your 
Honor, I take that back, for in the language of a celebrated poet, the truth 
shouldn't be spoken at all times!" "In the language of a celebrated 
poet" was a favorite phrase with Frank. On another occasion, Frank was 
earnestly endeavoring to make the same Court comprehend some proposition 
of law, and warming up he worked himself to the Justice's desk, and pick- 
ing up a law book he emphasized his sentences by pounding said book 
furiously upon the desk. The Court, with great seriousness and an air of 
injured dignity, interrupted : " Mr. Dunn, you musn't pound my desk 



LUBIN'S EXTRACTS AT SPENCE'S, NEVADA. 



BEST ASSORTMENT OF OIL CLOTH AT GOLDSMITH'S. 



86 SKETCH OF NEVADA TOWNSHIP. 

so!" ''I loill pound your desk/' drawled Frank ; "you're an old man, 
Ibut you can send around some of your big boys for satisfaction \" and Frank 
went on making a tilt-hammer of tlie law volume. Yfe have had some 
extraordinary Justices in Nevada, but not more remarkable, perhaps, than 
the town adjoining the one of my boyhood, one of whose 'Squires decided 
that oats were not grain, and brought up his wife on a charge of contempt 
for calling him '^ an uld leather-head." 

I must not sti.p relating anecdotes till I have paid my respects to a cer- 
tain Constable, of ten or more years ago. Fred. Burmeister was not the 
most brilliant genius that ever filled a Constable's office even. His Dutch 
modes of expression rendered him interesting. One day he returned an 
execution with "satisfied " written on the back. The Justice called his 
attention to the fact and demanded the muney. ^'De man didn't bay me 
no money," said Fred. " But, you have written on the back of this paper 
'satisfied,' and I want the money that satisfied it," said the Justice. 
"Veil, now Chudge, dat ish all wrong; it should have been cZtssatisfied !" 

Blue Tent was of more importance at this early period than since, as a 
point for supplies. The firm of Lindsay k Dick was established there, and 
by the use of a pack train distributed an immense amount of goods all over 
the remoter mining districts <jf the county. 

Twelve buildings were consumed by fire in Nevada on the 7th of Sep- 
tember, 1852. The fire originated in the kitchen of the National Hotel, 
which was located on the site of Dingley's marble ehop, at the fi-ot of Main 
and Broad streets. Luckily, the fire did not communicate with the build- 
ings across Deer Creek, or the whole town might have been consumed. The 
storms in December of that year rendered the roads so impassable that 
goods rose to about the highest rates knuwn before. Freight was worth 
from Marysville ten cents a pound. The year closed one of the remarkable 
ones in the history of Nevada, for mining had been brnught to son\ething 
of a science, nearly all the improvements known in placer mining having 
been introduced. 

The year 1853 is noted for the building of the first brick structure in 
Nevada. This was a store, erected by Hamlet Davis on part of the site 
now occupied by the large building of Captain Kidd, on Broad street. The 
next year, the brick building known as Mulford's old banking house, and 
several others, were built. On the 5th of October, 1853, the first tele- 
graphic message flashed along the wires to Nevada. 

The town was again incorporated, under a general incorporation law. 
Concert Hall was erected by L. P. Frisbie, on the site of the present gas 
works, and in that building, and its successor after the fire of 1856, appeared 
nearly all the celebrated actors who visited the coast. -. 

THE LEADING CLOTHING STORE IN THE MOUNTAINS IS BANNER BROTHERS, NEVADA. 



A. GOLDSMITH KEEPS THE VERY BEST KTDD GLOTES. 



SKETCH OF NEVADA TOWNSHIP. 87 



The liistory of those days would not be complete without mentioning 
"Bourbon Lodge" and its inhabitants. James Fitz-James built the 
" Lodge " and surrounded himself with a few congenial spirits, some of 
whom are around to tell their own tales in far more complete style than I 
am able to do. Fitz-Jamcs's library was a remarkable one, every volume 
having a cork in it. We can never forget the nights made melodious by 
the inmates of tlie "Lodge" singing "John I. Sherwood," and that 
melancholy ditty about "an old woman and her three sons, Jeffrey, Jeemes 
and John. "Good things" happened in those days. "We cannot refrain 

from mentioning one of the many. Ned B was a candidate. One 

Colonel R , during the canvass, was quite thick with Ned's opponent. 

Being an old-line Whig, he apologized to Ned, and intimated that on the 
score of old acquaintance alone he was running with the Democratic candi- 
date. But, when the time for action came, he said with a wink, they 
would find he couldn't forget his old principles. The Colonel professed to 
be very adroit and successful in managing tho Irish. Ned made a "rap" 
with the Colonel to go up to Pooling's Point, where were congregated about 
a hundred Irishmen, and furnished a horse and spending money — so the 

story goes. Accordingly, Colonel II was seen on election day astride 

of one of the best nags in town, setting out early for Pooling's Point, 
twenty miles distant, to control the Irish vote in that precinct for a Whig 
candidate. It was a exciting day, and along one to those interested. Ned 
stationed himself in the outskirts of the town to watch for the return of the 

Colonel in the evening. The tired steed was seen to approach. B 

shouted in the dark : " Colonel, is that you ?" The horse stopped, and the 
Colonel recounted the events of the day. It was an up-hill job, he said, 
at Pooling's. The thing had been fixed up mighty strong there. However, 
he made a pretty good day's work of it considering. He stayed there till 
all was " to rights," he said, and then rode over to Orleans Flat to set the 
boys right there. " At which place did you vote ?" inquired Ned, " Well, 
to set the boys a pattern, I voted at Pooling's," replied the Colonel. The 

returns came in the next day — ninety-eight straight votes for P , 

Ned's competitor, and "nary one" for Ned, whereupon the joke was on 
him for understanding human nature so poorly in election times as to em- 
ploy a man to make Whig votes among the Irish, who hadn't influence 
enough to control his own. 

Puring tke years from 1853 to 1S56, better roads were constnicted, better 
buildings erected, and mining was generally prosperous. A great deal of 
capital left Nevada for the Atlantic States and to develop new mines in 
other localities. In 1855 the telegraph was extended" to Pownieville. A 
fire broke out on the south side of Broad street, on the 20tli of February, 

GRASS VALLEY IS ABOrX FOUR MILES FROM SPENCE'S DRUG stotj^' 



A. GOLDSMITH'S DRY GOODS STORE, CORNER OF BROAD AND PINE STREETS. 
88 SKETCH OF NEVADA TOWNSHIP. 

and destroyed the row of buildings from the Methodist Church down. 
Loss, $40,000. The town government was destroyed by a decision of the 
Supreme Court. The city was soon organized by an act of the Legislature, 
and still maintains its organization under the same act. The Court House 
and jail were built in the summer of 1855. 

While in the hight of her prosperity, when new buildings were going up 
on every hand, when merchants had large stocks of goods, when daily the 
streets were crowded with a busy throng, on the 19th of July, 1856, a day 
memorable in the annals of Nevada, a conflagration swept the city and laid 
the whole business portion in ruins. The fire originated in a blacksmith 
shop, in the rear of where Goldsmith's store now is, on Pine street, and so 
rapid were the flames that in a few minutes the whole town was in a blaze. 
Nothing could be saved. Perhaps no swifter destruction of a town was ever 
witnessed. It was as much as the women and children could do to escape 
without saving an article of furniture or clothing. More than four hundred 
buildings, twenty-two of which were supposed to be fire proof, were de- 
stroyed. The loss in buildings and personal property exceeded a million 
dollars. The district laid in ashes extended up Broad street as far as the 
residence of Dr. Bates on one side, and the Womack residence on the other. 
Its limits on upper Main street were Caswell's lot. Its southern boundary 
was Spring street, except that the Baptist Church, on the other side, was 
consumed, and the flames destroyed a few buildings across Deer Creek, and 
a few in the rear of the present National Hotel. All the churches, and 
the Court House were consumed. 

But the loss of property was trifling compared with the loss of life. Ten 
persons perished in the flames, and nearly all acting upon the belief that 
the brick buildings would withstand the fire. Peter Hendrickson perished 
in his store, that now occupied by Fininger, on Broad street. Jay Johnson, 
a surveyor, A. J. Hagan, a banker, S. W. Fletcher, who had been District 
Attorney, and W. B. Pearson, of the Democrat office, lost their lives in 
the brick building that stood on the site of Crawford, Leavitt & Co's gro- 
cery establishment, and John Yates, of the firm of Tallman & Yates, 
hardware merchants, was lost in one of the buildings on the north side of 
lower Commercial street. A man named Thomas, who kept a saloon on 
Broad street, and "William "Wilson, a plasterer, were so badly burned that 
they died the next day. In addition to these, the remains of two unknown 
persons were found, one in Kelsey's brick building, on^ Commercial 
street, and the other among the ruins of a wooden building on Broad 
street. 

The fii'e of 1856 was a heavy blow to Nevada, wrecking, irretrievably, 
many of her most ene]:getic and prosperous business men. Yet, never was 

WARD'S PERFECT FITTING SHIRTS, FOB SALE AT BANNER BROTHERS, NEVADA CITY. 



rillNTS, LAWNS, POPLINS, IN PACT, EVERY VARIETY OF DRESS GOODS, AT GOLDSMITH'S 



SKETCH OF NEVADA TOWNSHIP. 89 

more energy displayed than in rebuilding the city. But four brick build- 
ings were left standing after the conflagration. By the commencement of 
the rainy season a stranger could scarcely discover a vestige of the disaster 
left. The ruins of the brick buildiugs were repaired, more were erected, 
•and better wooden buildings than over before took the places of those de- 
stroyed. 

The disastrous year xif 185G had scarcely closed, when on February 15, 
1857, Laird's dam, on Deer Crcek, six miles above the city, when nearly 
full and flooding two hundred acres, gave way early in the morning and a 
deluge was precipitated upon Nevada. The torrent of water came down 
Deer Creek with resistless force, bearing everything before it. The two 
bridges at the foot of Broad and Main streets, BosvrcU (Jc Hanson's store, a 
part of the Monumental Hotel, and several other buildings on both sides of 
the creek, were swept away. The loss was probably about 850,000. 

In July of the same year, the first steam engine entire was constructed at 
the Nevada Foundry. It was for E. F. Burton & Co., and was used at the 
celebrated Live Oak diggings. 

The next event of importance was an earthquake, which occurred on 
the evening of September 2d, the day of" the general election. Dishes 
were shaken, the walls of the Court House cracked from top to bottom, and 
quite a little scare produced. It Avas no great shake, and remarkable only 
from the fact that earthquakes are of rare occurrence in this region. 

In December, 1857, a meeting was called to assemble at the Court House, 
for the purpose of taking some steps for the formation of a City Library. But 
few were in attendance, yet the Nevada Library Association was formed, 
and a hundred volumes contributed, of which number Rev. J. H. Warren, 
the pastor of the Congregational Church, gave sixty. This library has now 
more than two thousand volumes of excellent works, and is a credit to the 
city. 

On Sunday, May 2d, 1858, the stage for Sacramento, having on board 
the treasure box of Wells, Fargo & Co., was stopped about a mile out of 
town, and 821,000 taken by five robbers in disguise. I. N. Dawley had 
820,000 with him belonging toBirdseycct Co., which by adroit management 
the robbers did not get. There were two stages and twenty-six passengers. 
A reward was ofFei-ed by Wells, Fargo & Co., promptly, but the robbers 
escaped with their booty. 

The summer of 1858 was enlivened by the Fraser Biver excitement, 
which took off, to a cold distant land, a number of our citizens, depressed 
property in value, and deadened trade. To add to the depression, on the 
23d of May, another of those sweeping conflagrations for which Nevada 
is remarkable, visited the city, and laid the whole business portion in ruins. 



E. 1\ SPENCE, AGENT lOa PACmC INSURANCJS COMPANY. 



COLLARSGLOVJiSHANDKBRCHIEESSKIRTSANDCARPETS AT GOLDSMITU'S. 
90 SKETCH OF NEVADA TOWNSHIP. 

The fire originated in a Cbine<ge house near where the Pennsylvania Hose 
House now stands. It was a very slow fire^ and might have been subdued 
by efficient organized action. The slowness of the flanaes allowed time for 
the saving of goods, and thus, although the district burned over was almost 
as large as in the great fire of 1856, the loss was small in comparison. 
More than two hundred tenements were destroyed, but the loss did not foot 
up more than ^230,000. The brick buildings, of which there were thirty, 
withstood the flames in this fire, and all the Churches and the Court House 
were saved. Frisbie's Theater was the only really fine wooden building 
destroyed. The loss was principally in wooden buildings which were easily 
supplied. Little suffering resulted from the fii-e^ and in a few months 
Nevada was in as good condition as ever. 

About this time, the great capacity of the soil for fruit raising about 
Nevada began to be appreciated. Previously, but few had attempted the 
cultivation of fruit trees, and these few had the satisfaction of seeing their 
trees in bearing. The Nevada Journal, of September 24:th, mentions the 
presentation of a peach by John Dunn to the editor, measuring thirteen 
inches around it and weighing eighteen ounces. Six peaches, in the same 
basket, weighed six pounds and two ou.nccs. The spring of 1859 was 
marked by the large number of fruit trees of all kinds planted about Ne- 
vada, yet for two years previous to that time there was considerable activity 
witnessed in horticultural pursuits. Horace Greeley visited our town in 
August, 1859. About the same time, in the absence of the editor, the 
" boys " in charge of the Journal imitated the trick of Squibob, and 
hoisted the Democratic ticket, Buchanan and all, issuing a couple of capital 
burlesque papers that furnished a great deal of merriment to all parties. 

Perhaps, up to this time, no event ever filled Nevada with such gloom 
as the reported death of Broderick, Senator of the United States, who died 
on the 16th of September, from wounds received in a duel with David S. 
Terry, on the 13th. Broderick had many friends among nearly all profes- 
sions of political faith in Nevada, and large numbers of houses were draped 
in mourning and closed. 

The efforts of the press and of a few individuals proving unavailing, the 
ladies undertook to raise money to protect the town somewhat against fires. 
By their exertions, a ball was gotten up, near the close of the year, which 
yielded about one thousand dollars. In April, 1860, the Nevada Water 
Company, so called, laid a large pipe to the corner of Broad and Pine 
streets. . It. was furnished with two or three small hydrants, and for a small 
fire was rendered serviceable. The reservoir of the company was a small 
one, on the southeastern slope of Lost Hill. Water for house use had been 
previously supplied from the same point by small lead pipes, to most of the 

BUSINESS SUITS OF EVERY STYLE AND QUALITY, FOR SALE AT_BANNER:BR0THER3. 



WHO KEEPS THE LARGEST STOCK OF »RY G03DS IN NEVADA CITY? A. GOLDSMITH. 
. SKETCH OF NEVADA TOWNSHIP. 91 

inhabitants in town, the lower part of the town being supplied from a spring 
on Gold Flat, by the same means. A fire broke out in Sullivan's Ball 
Court, May 24th, 18G0, which destroyed four buildings, with a loss of 
^12,000. The -fire occurred near the junction of Broad and Commercial 
streets. The Keystone Hotel, the Ball Court, and residences of Thomas 
Buckner and J. A. Cross, were consumed. The water in the new water pipes 
was of essential service in checking the further progress of the flames. 
But, it was made evident that the works of the Nevada Water Company 
were not sufl&cient to give security against fires, and soon after, Charles 
Marsh, Esq., made a proposition to supply the city with an abundance of 
water in heavy cast iron pipes, from a large reservoir four hundred feet 
above the lowest part of the town, in accordance with a law passed in 1857 
for the purpose. The proposition came up for acceptance or rejection, and 
a vote was had on the 7th of July, which resulted in the acceptance of the 
proposition. The pipes of the works, nearly two miles in length, were 
immediately ordered, and in June, 1861, the town was as well supplied 
with water for fire and other purposes as, perhaps, any town of its size in 
the world. The main pipe is ten inches in diameter, and the branches four 
and six inches. Twenty-eight hydrants were purchased with the pipes in 
Philadelphia. The whole cost of the works, when completed, was aboiit 
^30,000. The franchise extends to twenty years. It is proper to add that 
a proposition from the Nevada Water Company to supply the town with 
water from their reservoir on Lost Hill was previously rejected, the propo- 
sition coming in a very indefinite shape, and the works contemplated being 
of too temporary a character. Two hose carts were purchased in August, 
18G0, by Companies No. 1 and No. 2, the companies having been organized 
on June 2d, previousl}'. A hook and ladder company was also organized 
twenty days after. Both the hose companies are in service still, but the 
hook and ladder company recently sold their house, declared a dividend, 
and disbanded. The foundations of the house of Pennsylvania Hose Com- 
pany, No. 2, were laid in October, 1860. Nevada No. 1 built theirs a year 
after. 

The citizens of Nevada raised money during the summer of 1860 for the 
purpose of procuring a survey of a railroad route from Auburn to Nevada. 
S. Gr. Elliot was employed and the survey completed. It amounted to 
nothing further than to demonstrate the practicability of a railroad between 
the two places. 

In September of the same year, appeared the first daily paper in Nevada^ 
the Transcipt, under the auspices of N. P. Brown, John P. Skelton, Andrew 
Casamayou, and General James Allen, the latter gentleman being the editoY. 

Soon after the completion of the water works, in August, 1861, the town 

BOWMAN'S HORSE MEDICINES, AT SPENCE'S, 



GOLDSMITH, CofiNER BROAD AND PINE S'TS, fiAS A J'.ARGE gTOClJ OF SHEETINGS <i LME?fv 



92 SKETCH OF NEVADA TOWNSHIP. 

was permanently lighted with gas, by the present gas works. An attempt 
was made to supply the town with gas three jears earlier. A company was 
formed, works erected, and a small qnantity of poor gas was introduced 
into a few buildings, when the fire of 1858 destroyed the gas works and 
the company dissolved and the project was abandoned. 

The Legislature of 1861 passed an act levying five-eighths of one per 
cent, tax on the property of the city for the purpose of constructing a 
bridge on Pine street across Deer Creek. The tax was levied and collected, 
some persons paying it under protest. A suit ensued; the case was carried 
through the homo and Supreme Courts, and it was decided the tax was 
legal. The Board of City Trustees immediately entered into a contract 
with A. g. Halladie & Co., of San Francisco, to construct a wire suspension 
bridge, for 09,000. The summer had been wasted in waiting for the decis- 
ion of the Supreme Court, and the contract was not let till October. The 
contractors went rapidly into action, but before the work was far advanced 
the extraordinary rains of the season set in and delayed the construction 
of the bridge till the following May, when it was completed arid thrown 
open to the public. Before the hea^y rains came the towers were up and 
the cables placed, being fastened to logs at each end, the bad roads pre- 
venting the permanent cast iron anchors from being brought from San 
Francisco. In consequence of the unparalleled rains, the ground was 
softened so that the log fastenings were moved and the cables sagged in the 
center below their proper position. To remedy the defect, the architect 
resorted to wrought iron rods, three and a half inches in diameter, with 
screws at the ends, which passed through cast iron bulkheads. By means 
of these screws he was enabled to raise or tighten the cables. One of the 
cast iron bulkheads proved to be defective, for in July, 1862, about six 
weeks after the bridge had been thrown open to travel, the structure gave 
way when a heavy ox team with a load of hay was fairly on the bridge and 
the oxen of another team was entering upon the suspended platform, and 
the bridge, three men, and ten yoke of cattle with the loads of hay were 
precipitated into the chasm below, a distance of more than fifty feet. Two 
men* and fifteen oxen were killed. Mr. Halladie came promptly to the 
scene of the disaster, and proceeded to repair, as far as was in his power, 
the loss. The bridge was reconstructed, and still stands the most promi- 
nent object about Nevada. The cost of the bridge from first to last to the 
contractors was about S15,000. It is the largest structure of the kind in 
the State, having a suspended surface of 4,700 feet. The span is 320 feet, 
and width of roadway fourteen feet. The towers from roadway to top are 
thirty-three feet high. Fifty-nine cross timbers hold up the platform, 
suspended by one and one-eighth inch rods from the cables. One hundred 



OUR BANNER FLOATS AT THE CORNER OF BROAD AND PINE STREETS, NEVADA CITY. 



dOLbSMITH HAS A COMPLETE SfOCK O^- SHA-rt^LS AN6 CLCJAKS. 



SKETCH OF NEVADA TOWNSHIP. 93 

thousand feet of lumber were employed. The wire cable?, made from 
No. 12 best charcoal bridge-wire, have in each 1,050 wires; the etibles are 
four inches in diameter, and consumed 3G,000 pounds. They have a 
deflection of twenty-five feet, and arc each 503 feet long. They are 
fastened in the banks to immense cast iron girders, twelve feet long with 
eliptic backs, each weighing 2,500 pounds. Those on the south side lie 
behind solid cemented masonry, and are thirty-five feet from the spot where 
the cables enter the ground. The bridge at Folsom is ten feet longer, but 
is two feet nine inclws narrower, consequently the bridge at Nevada has 740 
square feet of suspended platform more than the former. 

During the war of rebellion no town in the United States was more 
earnest for the right than Nevada. Ilcr people were bold and staunch 
adherents of the Government in every emergency, giving nine votes out of 
ten for the party supporting the integrity of the nation, and contributing 
to the Sanitary Fund with great liberality. "When the clouds of war began 
to gather, the patriotism of her people became intense. In times of peace 
little notice was taken of the 4th of July, but, when the nation was 
threatened Nevada celebrated the day in ISGl with a spirit that showed the 
depth of her feeling. It was the first time the National Anniversary was 
observed in becoming style in the place. 

Soldiers' Aid Societies were formed in the town, as soon as an appeal was 
made, and the ladies assembled collecting and making lint and bandages, 
■^yhich were sent to the seat of war. The contributions of the city to the 
Sanitary Fund arc elsewhere noticed. When disaster came upon the Union 
forces, there was gloom depicted on the faces of almost every citizen, and 
many a spell of sadness was experienced during all that long and cruel war. 
How hopes were elated and depressed I Sometimes the heart of the patriot 
almost gave way to despair ; but how wild was the enthusiasm when we 
could see and feel triumph in the closing hours of the conflict. The cap- 
ture of Vicksburg and Port Uudsou, and the opening of the Mississippi, 
and the result of the battle of Gettysburg, almost drove Nevadans mad 
with joy, but the delirium of the moment when it was announced that 
Richmond, the rebel capital, had -fallen, was never equaled in the Sierra 
Nevada. But soon again was the joy of the people changed to the most 
poignant grief; Abraham Lincoln, the beloved of the nation, fell by the 
hand of an assassin. The city was draped in mourning and sorrow settled 
like a pall upon patriotic Nevad. 

A fire broke out on the site of Stumpf 's Hotel, on Broad street, in No- 
vember, 1863, which laid the whole heart of the town again in ashes. The 
fire companies were promptly on the ground before the flames had gained 
any headway, but, from some unascertained cause, the water did not come 

RICHARD'S RHUEMATIC REMEDY, AT SPENCE'S. 



HOSIERY AND TRIMMINGS, AN IMMENSE STOCK, AT A. GOLDSMITH S, NETADA CITY. 
94 SKETCH OF NEVADA TOWNSHIP. 

■with force enough to throw upon the burning buildings. The fire quickly 
crossed Broad street, and through negligence of the Chief Engineer of the 
Fire Department, no efficient stand was made on the line of Pine street. 
The fire was thus enabled to cross Pine street, consuming the lower part of 
the town, which might have been saved by efficient management. A few 
men took their stand by the hydrant at the corner of Commercial and Pine 
streets, and with a piece of hose succeeded in preventing the flames from 
crossing Pine street all the way from Broad street to the street in front of 
the Court House. That part of Pine street between. Broad and Spring, 
was much easier defended, but the fire was allowed" to cross and to consume 
the best part of the town. Let it pass into history that the Chief Engineer 
at that time, when his services were needed, was engaged in saving the 
duds of his strumpet. The Court House again fell a prey to the devouring 
element, and every hotel in the place. Perhaps the fire was a good agent 
in the end, for to it we owe in great measure the splendid hotels and thea- 
ter, and the magnificent new Court House, which is perhaps the finest 
structure of its kind in the State. It us built, the lower story of granite 
and upper of brick, with a granite jail contiguous, in a raised yard set with 
trees, and cost more than fifty thousand dollars. It is a highly ornamental 
object, besides being well adapted to the purposes for which it was built. 
It was finished in the autumn of 1864, from architectural designs furnished 
by Butler of San Francisco. The fire passed over nearly the same grounds 
as in 1856 and 1858, destroying the Methodist, Congregational, Episcopal 
and Catholic Churches, the gas works and theater, and ruining many brick 
buildings as well as all the wooden ones but two in the whole territory 
traversed by the flames. The entire loss was estimated at S600,COO. The 
Baptist Church was the only edifice of its kind left, and this was used as a 
Court House until a new one was built and ready for occupation. 

In the way of hotels, Nevada and the public were great gainers by the 
fire. The Union Hotel is one of the best constructed buildings for hotel 
purposes in the State, has large and handsome rooms and plenty of them, 
and the National Exchange was improved by the remodeling of the inte- 
rior. 

In the spring of 1864, another daily paper made its appearance, the 
Gazette; 0. P. Stidger and I. J. Eolfe were the paternal ancestors of the 
concern, the former doing the writing. 

The arrival of Schuyler Colfax, Governor Bross and Samuel Bowles, on 
a visit to Nevada, in the summer of 1865, was one of the events of the 
season. The party was given a public dinner at the National Exchange, 
which was largely attended. 

The latter years of our town are almost barren of historical interest, or 

RUBBEE CLOTHING AND GUM BOOTS AT BANNER BROTHERS. 



BABY TENDERS— SOLD BY DIVER-AT GOLDSMITH'S. 



SKETCH OF NEVADA TOWNSHIP. 95 



perhaps, time has not given the iucidents importauce. The developments 
in quartz mining about the town have largely increased the population and 
business of the place, but nothing has been done under the influence of 
excitement. Bat few buildings have been erected, and no advancement 
been made except so far as necessity required. The growth of Nevada has 
been healthy, moderate, and promises to be of a permanent character. 

I must not close this sketch of Nevada without alluding to what is known 
as the "Big Scare," which occurred on the night of January 17, 1865. 
" Ah ! night of all nights in the year !" 

Sheriff K. had received information during the day, from one of his 
attaches, who had visited the famous locality of Allison Eanch, that the 
secessionists of that place and Grass Valley contemplated a raid on Nevada. 
The direful news was whispered about among the brave and faithful, and 
the stifled cry of "to arms" passed from mouth to mouth. The Sheriff 
was sure his information was correct. The city was to be sacked, the banks 
were to be robbed, the arms of the Nevada Light Guard were a prize for 
lawless men intent on raising the standard of insurrection on the Pacific 
Coast. 

" Ah ! then and there was hurrying to and fro, 
And gathering tears, and tremblings of distress, 
And cheeks all pale, that but an hour ago 
Blushed at the praise of their own loveliness : 
And there were ^^udden partings, such as press 
The life from out of young hearts, and choking sighs. 
Which ne'er might be repeated ; who could guess 
If ever more should meet those mutual eyes." 

Some families were removed to other quarters. It is said a few women 
and children were urged to flee to the fastnesses of the Sugar Loaf, and com- 
plied in the greatest consternation. The Sheriff was indefatigable in 
mustering forces to defend the city to the last extremity. He proceeded 
without hesit£\^ion to fortify — himself with old Democratic whisky. The 
Nevada Light Guard assembled at their armory, and the Sheriff attempted 
to take supreme command, by not allowing a soldier the privilege of going 
out to bid his wife the last adieu. He informed the warriors assembled that, 
like Jackson at New Orleans, he was going to make the property of the 
city defend it. Captain Kidd, a banker, was forthwith, for one,^ pressed 
into the service, and harnessed with the military accoutrements of Mark 
Rhineberger. Now, Rhineberger was slightly less than twice the hight of 
Kidd, and consequently as the gallant Captain marched to the field of Mars 
the cartridge box pendant on one side, at every one of his martial steps 
struck the ground. It was probably such an apparition as is rarely to be 
met with in the light of day. Yet, as the opportunity had come of dying 
for one's country and fireside, and glory is supposed to be won by expiring 
with the harness on, and as war harness was scarce, the thought could not 

E. F. SPEXCE, LIFE INSURANCE AGENT. 



CALL ON QOLDSMlTn, CORNER OF BROAD AND PI.VE STREETS. NETAD V CITY. 
96 SKETCH OF NEVADA TOWNSHIP. 

be entertained a moment^ of taking it off, and time would not allow of 
taking it up. For it was expected the bugle blast for a charge would be 
heard at any moment. Guards were set, and the measured tread of senti- 
nels was heard during the suspense of that awful night. The stars shone 
out as beautifully and bright as if they were not soon to have their light 
reflected from a mirror of blood. Silent, unconscious witnesses of many a 
midnight tragedy ! The Court House was surrounded by a cordon of 
braves, some prepared for the most desperate encounters with sixteen 
shooters, revolvers, hatchets and knives. The night slowly wore away. No 

enemy appeared. Judge B , a distinguished lawyer, took the attache 

of the Sheriff, who had been in the camp of the enemy, and gave him a 
searching cross examination in private. He returned, shook his head omin- 
ously, and looked unhappy. Scouts, armed to the teeth, were sent out by 
authority, to examine every foot of ground on the way to G-rass Valley, to 
reconoiter the enemy and return, if possible, to give warning to the 
beleaguered city. The weary guards, chilly with night watching, paced to 
and fro, the points of their bayonets gleaming in the starlight over their 
heads, while occasional dialogues were spoken, one of which is remembered. 
A new hand at the trade of death approached an old soldier, both on duty, 
"I suppose," said he, "Uncle Billy; that you have done your share in 
this bloody business in your time." " Yes," said the veteran, " I have 
seen some service." " You must have killed some men in your long mili- 
tary career." "I don't know; I have fired in the direction of the enemy 
several times," said Uncle Billy. " Well, this will be the first time I ever 
pointed a gun at my fellow man, and I would give a great deal that I could 
wipe this night out of my memory I" 

"Blaze" was kind hearted and considerate, as he always is when his race is in 
distress. He sent up to the Court House a bottle of cock-tails. " Who comes there," 

gaid Joe K , the Senator, on guard. '' Friend, with a bottle of cocktails," was the 

answer. "Advance, friend, with the cocktails," said Joe, promptly, " d— n the 
countersign !" 

The " wee sma hours ayont the twal " came and went, but no enemy. Suspicion 
crept in that the town was to be spared a day or two longer. As Captain Lancaster 
of the invincible Guard would not surrender entire command to the Sheriff, the lat- 
ter announced in stentorian voice, that the county was to be deprived of his valuable 
6«rvices as an ofScer, and retired to a game of "seven up," in superlative disgust, 
resigning the city of Nevada to a fate deserved by the insubordination of its inhab- 
itants. In the midst of the game, the gas light v/as suddenly extinguished, and the 
Sheriff retired in not very good order to other quarters. And thus ended the " Big 
Scare." that will live in the memory of men of Nevada many generations to come. 
It passed, leaving au opportunity for some of our people to die quietly in their beds, 
ftn opportunity but few have so far availed themselves of, and at this writing, 
(February 10, 1867.) while crazed by the clamor for copy, I finish up these concluding 
lines to the sketch of Nevada, leaving her people undisturbed by war's alarms* 
prosperous and happy. 

FINE CLOTH SUITS OF THE LATEST STYLE, AT BANNER BROTHERS. 



SILK UMBRELLAS AND PARASOLS, AT GOLDSMITn'S. 



TABLE OF DISTANCES. 



97 



TABLE OF DISTANCES 



FROM NEVADA CITY TO ALL TOWNS AND VILLAGES IN NEVADA COUNTY. 



Allison Ranch 6 miles, 

Alpha 18 " 

Anthony Hou3e 11 '• 

Bannerville 3 " 

Bear Valley 24 " 

Birchville, (by North San Juan) 16 " 

Blue Tent 4 " 

Bowman's Ranch 30 " 

Boston Ravine 4 J " 

Brandy Flat 19 " 

Bridgeport, (by way Newtown,) 13 " 

Cardwell's Station 42 " 

Carlisle 37 " 

Coburn's Station 52 " 

Columbia Hill 11 " 

Crystal Lake 28 " 

Donner Lake, (Pollard's,) 48 " 

Donner Lake House 51 " 

Eureka 26 " 

Forest Springs 7J " 

French Corral 20 " 

Gold Flat 1 " 

Gold Hill 14 " 

Grass Valley 4 '• 

Henerfauth's 10 " 

Holt's Station 36 " 

Hunt's Hill 7 " 

Indian Springs 15 " 

Lake City 11 " 

Liberty Hill 20 " 

Little York .13 "^ 



Lytton's Station 46 miles. 

Meadow Lake 40 " 

Moore's Flat 19 " 

MooneyFlat 17 " 

Montezuma Hill 8 " 

Newtown 5 " 

North San Juan 12 " 

North Eloomfield 14 " 

Omega 20 " 

Orleans Flat 20 " 

Proser Creek, (via Bear Valley)58 " 

Pierce's Station 28 " 

Patterson 12 " 

Quaker Hill 6 " 

Rough and Ready 8 '' 

Red Dog 9 " 

Sebastopol, (by way of San Juanl3 " 

Sweetland, " " " " " 15 " 

Soda Springs 43 " 

Spenceville 20 '• 

Scotch Flat 6 " 

Selby Flat 2 " 

Soggs ville 1 " 

Tinker's Station 38 " 

Tecumseh 24 " 

Washington 20 " 

Woolsey's Flat 17 " 

Willow Valley 3 " 

Webster's Station 37 " 

Woodworth's Station 24 " 

TouBet 10 " 



AJIAIXJAMATING CUBinCALS, AT SPENCE'S. 



FRENCH AND AMERICAN PRINTS, AT GOLDSMITH'S. 



98 NEVADA CITY GOYERNMENT. 

NEYADA CITY GOYERNMENT 



MUNICIPAL OFFICERS. 

L. W. WILLIAMS, } 
J. A MARTIN, I 

G. K. FARQDHAR, [- Trustees. 

RICHARD KELSEY, | 
JAMES J. OTT. J 

L. W. WILLIAMS President of tne Board of Trustees. 

G. K. FARQUHAR Clerk " " " " " 

CHARLES W. CORNELL MarshaL 

W. G, JENKINS Assessor. 

WILLIAM r. E^ENS Treasurer. 

WILLIAM SCOTT Special Policeman 



FIRE DEPARTMENT. 

Nevada Fire Department — Organized June 2d, I860, and is now 
composed of Nevada Hose Company No. 1, and Pennsylvania Fire Com- 
pany No. 2. 

BOARD OF DELEGATES: 

A. D. TOWER President. 

D. S. BAKER Secretary. 

A. D. TOWER, ) 

H. H. HASKINS, y : From Hose Company No. 1, 

A. B. GREGORY, ) 
WILLIAM HEUGH, ) 

W. F. BACIGALUPI, V From Fir4 Company No. 2. 

D. S. BAKER, ) 

NEVADA HOSE COMPANY NO. 1. 

E. F. SPENCE President. 

WM. R. COE Foreman. 

W. H. KENT Ass't Foreman. 

J. R. ENGLISH Secretary. 

W. H. CRAWFORD. Treasurer. 

PENNSYLVANIA FIRE COMPANY NO. 2. 

C. W, CORNELL President. 

T. C. CANFIELD Foreman. 

CHARLES MILLER Ass't Foreman. 

WILLIAM SCOTT Secretary. 

JAMES MONRO Treasurer, 

LET EVERY MAN WHO WANTS CLOTHING APPLY AT BANNER BROTHERS, 



HOSIERY AND TRIMMINQSi AT GOLDSMITH'S, CORNER OP BROAD AND PINE STREETS. 



CIVIC AND RELIGIOUS SOCIETIES. 



99 



CIYIC km RELIGIOUS SOCIETIES. 



MASONIC. 

The first Masonic Lodge in Nevada county was instituted in November, 
1850, by a dispensation from the Grand Lodge of Wisconsin, Jeffrey F. 
Halsey, Master. This Lodge continued in existence until its records and 
Lodge room were destroyed by the fire of March, 1851. A new place of 
meeting was provided, and a Grand Lodge having then been instituted in 
California, a charter was procured from that body in May. 1851, for Nevada 
Lodge No. 13. On two subsequent occasions, in July, 1856, and Novem- 
ber, 1863, the records and other property of the Lodge were destroyed by 
fire. After the last dipaster, a joint stock company was organized under 
the auspices of the Lodge for the erection of a Masonic Hall. The build- 
ing was completed in 1804, at a cost of about ^10,000, the majority of the 
stock being owned by the Lodge and other Masonic bodies of Nevada. As 
showing the great changes in our population, it may be remarked, that of 
seventy-six members whose names appear on the roll in 1853, only five are 
on the roll of 18G7. The following gentlemen have served as Masters of 
the Lodge, in the order named : J. R. Crandall, John R. McConnell, 
James Fitz James, Isaac Williamson, William G. Alban, Thomas P. Hawley, 
Addison C. Niles, and William C Eandolph. The last named is now 
serving his sixth term. The stated meetings are held at Masonic Hall 
corner of Pine and Commei'cial streets, on the second Wednesday evening 
of each month. The officers for 1867 are as follows : 

WILLIAM C. RANDOLPH, Master, 

EDWARD F. SPENCE Senior Warden. 

WILLIAM VAN ALSTINE Junior Warden. 

ADDISON C. NILES Treasurer. 

ALONZO D. TOWER Secretary. 

ISAAC WILLIAMSON MarshaL 

E. K. Kane Lodge, No. 72, was instituted under a dispensation from 
the Grand Master, in January, 1855, and a charter procured from the 
Grand Lodge in the May following. This Lodge continued in existence 
four years, the Masters being Charles H. Seymour, Charles Marsh, Clement 
C Green, and Tallman H. Rolfe. At the close of the latter's term, the 
Lodge surrendered its charter, turning over its funds and property to the 
Grand Lodge. 

Nevada Chapter No. 6 — Royal Arch Masons — was instituted in 



KEROSENE FOR SALE BY E. F. SPENCE. 



FLORDE LANES AND EMPRESS CLOTHS, AT GOLDSMITH'S. 



100 CIVIC AND RELIGIOUS SOCIETIES. 

October, 1854. Meetings every MoDclay eveaiQg, at Masonic Hall, corner 
of Pine and Commercial streets. Officers foi 1867 : 

THOMAS H. CASWELL High Priest. 

ADDISON C. NILE3 King. 

CICERO M. BATES Scribe. 

TALLMAN H. ROLFE Captain of the Host. 

WILLIAM C. RANDOLPH Principal Sojourner. 

ALLEN CHAPMAN Royal Arcb Captain. 

NATHANIEL H. STOWERS Master of 3d Veil. 

EDWARD DUNSCOMBE Master of 2d Veil. 

JAMES DAVIS Master of 1st Veil. 

ABRAHAM GOLDSMITH Treasurer. 

JAMES H. HELM Secretary. 

JOSEPH B. GRAY Guard. 

Nevada Commandert No. 6 — Knights Templar. — ^Instituted No- 
vember, 1858. Meets at Masonic Hall, corner of Pine and Commercial 
streets, on Friday evenings. The officers for 1867 are 

THOMAS H. CASWELL Eminent Commander. 

CICERO M. BATES Generalissimo. 

JAMES H. HELM Captain General. 

THOMAS P. HAWLEY , Prelate. 

WILLIA^il C. RANDOLPH Senior Warden. 

ADDISON C. NILES , Junior Warden. 

ISAAC WILLIAMSON Treasurer. 

AARON A. SARGENT Recorder. 

WILLIAM McCORMACK ,. .Standard Bearer. 

ALEXANDER B. BRADY Sword Bearer, 

ALLEN CHAPMAN AYarden. 

NATHANIEL H. STOWERS 1st Guard. 

MARTIN L. MARSH 2d Guard. 

JOSEPH B. GRAY Sentinel. 



ODD FELLO\VS. 

OusTOMAH Lodge, No, 16.— Wben tbe tide of population poured from 
tbe East into California, in 1849, by steamers and sailing vessels, and over 
tbe plains, tbe adventurous gold- seekers soon found tbat tbe spot wbere Ne- 
vada now stands was ricb in gold. The famous Coyote lead was discovered, 
and the bills and ravines around it yielded ricb returns for tbe first crude 
essays at mining, A population of thousands soon gathered here. In 
1851, tbe first association of Odd Fellows was formed, which met in a log 
cabin, and organized for mutual relief and social intercourse. Most of the 
members of the association were ancient Odd Fellows, whose feet could not 

COMPLETE SUITS OF CLOTHING FOR SALE AT BANNER BROTHERS. 



MERINOES rOPLIXS, ETC., AT A. GOLDSStrTS S, NEVADA CITY. 

CIVIC AND RELIGIOUS SOCIETIES. . 101 

pass the portal of any "well regulated Lodge;" but they kept warm in 
their hearts a love for the Order, and years after, wheu the great reform 
worked by the nou-affiliated law went into operation, they renewed their 
regular connection with the Order. This association had many pleasant 
meetings, and finally led to the organization of a regular Lodge. 

In November^ 1853, Oustomah Lodge, Nn. IG, was instituted by that 
noble apostle of Odd Fellowship, S. H. Parker, with A. A. Sargent, J. B. 
Van Ilagan, H. J). King, L. B. Austin, and B. H. Ferrell, as charter 
members, and the follovring as its first officers : A. A. Sargent, N. G.; L. 
B. Austin, V. G.; H. D. King, Treasurer, and J. B. "\"an Hagan, Secretary. 
The increase of membership was very rapid, and the Lodge rapidly grew in 
strength and wealth. 

In 1856 a sweeping fire destroyed the entire city. In that fire, the Lodge 
lost a handsomely furuLshcd hall, all its regalia, records and furniture; but 
it soon recovered from the diisastor. Another sweeping fire occurred in 
iSGo. In the meantime, the Lodge had completed and occupied a fine 
hall, costing, with its furniture and regalia, .some 811,000, This was swept 
away by the fire, and uothiug was saved but the charter. The property 
was insured for $7,500. This was a severe bloAV to the financial prosperity 
of the Lodge, but it did not totally di.-^courage the resolute men who com- 
po.sed it. A temporary hall was immediately furnished, which was occupied 
until the Masonic fraternity erected a building adapted to the wants of the 
two Orders, which is now occupied by both, and in which Oustomah Lodge 
owns stock. 

The seal of Oustomah Lodge is a shield, on which is emblazoned the bow 
and arrows surmounted by the three links; above the shield are crossed 
keys surmounted by the eye enveloped in rays, while around are circum- 
scribed the words " Oustomah Lodge, No. 16, 1. 0. 0. F.^ Nevada. Inst. 
Nov. 4, 1853." 

Oustomah Lodge, in spite of repeated calamities, is one of the most stable 
and prosperous Lodgps in the State. It is situated in the center of a 
thriving and enterprising mining section, where perseverance is taught by 
success. In the fourteenth year of its existence, it shows no signs of decay, 
.but, like the town in which it is situated, it has been tried, not destroyed, 
by fires, and the drain of its numbers by mining excitements in other 
quarters. Its prosperity has never been greater, its promise for the future 
never brighter. 

While this Lodge has always faithfully discharged its duty to the dis- 
tressed brother, whether traveling or resident, the call upon its charities 
has been surprisingly small in proportion to its membership ; which is a 
tribute not only to the salubrious climate in which it is located, but to the 

PAINTS AND OILS, AT SPENCE'S, 



GOLDSMITH RECEIVES NEW GOODS BY EVERY STEAMER 



102 CIVIC AND RELIGIOUS SOCIETIES. 



temperance and good conduct of its members. During its whole history, 
but one expulsion for misconduct has occurred, and no appeal from its <leci- 
sions has ever been taken to the Grand Lodge. Grand Masters visiting it 
have repeatedly borne testimony of the excellence of its work, and the 
intelligence of its officers. It is a good illustration of the vigorous growth 
and characteristics which have distinguished Odd Fellowship on this coast. 
Eegular meetings on Tuesday evening of each week, at Masonic Hall, 
corner of Pine and Commercial streets. The following are the list of 
officers for the first term of 1867 : 

JOHN F. HOOK Noble Grand. 

B. DWIGHT HERPJCK Vice Grand. 

ANDREW H. PARKER Recording Secretary. 

EDWIN W. BIGELOW Treasurer. 

OLE C. TORSON Warden. 

GEORGE SHAW Conductor. 

JONATHAN CLARK R. S. to Noble Grand, 

WILLIAM R. COE L. S. to Noble Grand. 

JOHN R. STONE R. S. to Vice Grand. 

EDWIN F. BEAN L. S. to Vice Grand. 

WILLIAM EDDY Inside Guard. 

JOSEPH B. GRAY Outside Guard. 

AARON A. SARGENT Sitting Past Grand. 



aOOD TEMPLAKS. 

Nevada Lodge, No. 201, I. 0. of G. T.— Organized January 16th, 

1866, with thirty-three charter members- Number of members at present 
writing, March, 1867, about one hundred and twenty. Lodge meets every 
Friday evening, at Masonic Hall, corner of Pine and Comm-ercial streets. 
List of officers for the first quarter of the year 1867 : 

WILLIAM COOMB Worthy Chief Templar, 

Miss SARAH PRATT Worthy Right Hand Supporter. 

Miss JOSEPHINE GREELEY Worthy Left Hand Supporter. 

Mrs. M. A. HILL.. Worthy Vice Templar. 

ALEXANDER I. ZEKIND Worthy Recording Secretary. 

Mrs, R. K. PEIRCE Worthy Assistant Secretary. 

FRANK M. CRAWFORD Worthy Financial Secretary. 

FRANKLIN BATES Worthy Treasurer. 

JAMES P. DAVENPORT Worthy Marshal. 

Miss ALICE MURCHIE Worthy Ass't Marshal. 

Miss HATTIE PEABODY Worthy Inside Guard. 

SAMUEL NOVITSKY Worthy Outside Guard. 

Rev. D. A. DRYDEN Worthy Chaplain. 

DO YOU WIcH TO PURCHASE A GOOD SUIT OF CLOTHES, GO TO BANNER BROTHERS. 



FTNfi LINEN TABLE CLOTHS, NAPKINS, ETC., AT GOLDSMITH'S. 



CIVIC AND RELIGIOUS SOCIETIES. 



103 



BENEVOLENT SOCIETIES. 

Nevada Hebrew Benevolent Society. — Organized in November, 
1863. Prompted by the feelings of cliarity and benevolence, the Jewish 
citizens of Nevada City formed the above named Society, for the purpose 
of assisting the sick and needy, and the interment of the dead. Its officers 
are : 

A. BARUH President. 

S. ROSENTHAL Vice President. 

A. BLUMENTIIAL Secretary. 

L. PHILLIPS Treasurer. 

J. JACOBS, ) 

J. ROSENTHAL, [ Directors. 

J. GREENWALD, ) 

Nevada Benevolent Society. — Organized January 22d,1867, for the 
purpose of aiding and relieving the sick and needy, and especially such as 
do not come within the scope of public charities. Officers : 

G. K. FARQUHAR President. 

E. F. SPENCE Vice President. 

E. F. BEAN Secretary. 

E. G. WAITE Treasurer. 



G. K. FARQUHAR, 
E. F. BEAN, 
G. V. SO II. MITT BURG, 
A. GOLDS.MITH, 
JONATHAN CLARK, 
JAMES MONRO, 



. Directors. 



The following is the Constitution and By-Laws of the Society: 



CONSTITUTION. 

Article 1. This Society shall bo known 
as the Nevada Benevolent Society. 

Art. 2. The solo object of this Society 
shall be charitable and beneficial, to relieve 
the sick and destitute. 

Art. 3. It shall consist of not less than 
twenty nor more than fifty active members, 
residents of the City of Nevada, and an 
unlimited number of subscribing members. 
Each active member shall be elected at a 
regular meeting of the society, and shall pay 
an initiation fee of two dollars and fifty cents, 
and monthly dues to the amount of fifty 
cents per month. 

Art. 4. The officers of this society shall 
be a President, Vice President, Secretary, 
Treasurer and four Directors, who shall be 
active members, and shall be elected an- 
nually at a meeting held for that purpose on 
the tbird Monday of January of each year, 
and continue in office until their successors 
are elected. All vacancies shall be filled by 
a majority of the Directors. 



Art. 5. The President, Directors and 
Secretary shall constitute a Board of Direc- 
tors, who shall have charge, management 
and control of all the affairs and property 
of this Society, and shall be empowered to 
appropriate its funds to the charitable pur- 
poses thereof. 

Art. 6. Special meetings may be called 
at any time by the President and Secretary, 
or any five members. At the annual meet- 
ing it shall be the duty of the Board of Di- 
rectors to make a full report of all the trans- 
actions of the Society during the preceding 
year. 

Art. 7. This Constitution shall not be al- 
tered or amended, except by a two-thirds 
vote of all the active members at a meeting 
called for the purpose, after one written no- 
tice. 



BYLAWS. 

Section 1. It shall be the duty of the Di- 
rectors to supervise all the affairs of the As- 
sociation, audit all accounts, and publish 



CRUCIBLES, FOR SALE BY E. P. SPENCE. 



CARPEfS ANC EtJGS, (NEW DESIGNS,) AT GOLCSMITH'S. 



104 



CIVIC AND RELIGIOUS SOCIETIES. 



monthly a statement of the receipts, dis- 
bursements, and balance in the treasury ; 
also of the dispensations and number of per- 
sons relieved. They may appoint soliciting 
and disbursing committees to dispense the 
charity and examine into the necessities of 
applicants. 

Sec. 2. The President shall preside at the 
meetings of the Association and of the Di- 
rectors and see that all ofiBcers and members 
perform their duties promptly. He shall in- 
dorse all orders upon the Treasurer, or in 
the event of the absence of the President, or 
his inability to act, his duties shall be per- 
formed by the Vice President. 

Sec. 3. The Secretary shall keep a record 
of the meetings of the Association and of 
the Directors, and prepare a monthly state- 
ment as required by Section 1st. He shall 
draw all orders upon the Treasurer and per- 
form such other duties as may be required, 

Sec. 4. The Treasurer shall receive and 
keep the funds of the Association, and pay 
out the same upon the order of the Secretary, 
indorsed by the President or Vice President. 
He shall submit a report in writing to the 
Directors of the moneys received and dis- 
bursed, and perform such other duties as 
may be required. 

Sec. 5. Applicants for aid must state their 
necessities and the cau-e of their distress, 
which, if not vouched for by responsible par- 
ties, shall be investigated by the Directors 



or some one appointed by them, and such 
relief afforded as their wants require and the 
stores of the Association will permit. All 
cases of imposture shall be published. The 
Directors shall not delay investigation of any 
case brought to their notice more than half 
an hour. 

Sec. 6. The Board of Directors shall ap- 
point a collector whose duty it shall be to 
collect all the dues and pay the same to the 
Treasurer within one week thereafter, taking 
his receipt therefor. He shall receive for his 
services such compensation as the Board 
may direct, and shall be at any time subject 
to removal by the Board of Directors. 

Sec. 7. K'o religious or political subject 
shall be introduced or discussed at any of 
the meetings of the Association or Directors, 
and nothing shall debar the sick and desti- 
tute from the charitable aid of the Society. 

Sec. 8. Any member, guilty of conduct 
unfitting him for membership, may be ex- 
pelled by a majority of all the members. 

Sec. 9. At all meetings of the Association 
one-third of the members shall constitute a 
quorum, and at all meetings of the Directors 
three members shall constitute a quorum. 

Sec. 10. A vacancy in the office of Presi- 
dent shall be filled b}' election, at a special 
meeting called for that purpose. 

These by-laws may be altered or amended 
at any meeting of the Association by a ma- 
jority of the members. 



Nevada Library Association — Organized January 1st, 1858. Now 
contains about two thousand volumes. The officers are : Charles Marsh, 
President; I. J. Eolfe, M. L. Mar.sh, R. H. Farquhar, Trustees; Geo. R. 
Crawford, Secretary, Treasurer and Librarian. Rooms at Greo. R. Craw- 
ford's Book Store, corner of Broad and Pine streets. 



Nevada Theater Company. — Incorporated in 1864; building on 
Broad Street. Its officers are, John Cashin, President; James Monro, 
Secretary and Treasurer; John Cashin, James Monro, W. C. Stiles and 
John Blasauf, Trustees. -^ 



Nevada G-erman Glee Club. — Organized in May, 1866. G. Y. 
Schmittburg, President; A. Goldsmith, Vice President); John H. Godje, 
Secretary; John P. Bussenius, Director and Treasurer. Meets every 
Thursday evening, at Blasauf 's brewery, on Spring street. 



Nevada Brass Band, (colored,) Dennis Carter, Leader. 



IF CLOTHnG IS CHEAP ANY WHERE IT 13 AT BANNER BROTHERS 



SILKS AND POPLINS OF ALL DESCRIPTIONS, AT GOLDSMITH'S. 

CIVIC AND KELIQIOUS SOCIETIES. 105 

RELIGIOUS. 

Congregational Church. — Tliis Cliurcli was organized September 
28th, 1851, with twenty-one members, all of whom were males, excepting 
Mrs. Emily A. Warren. Rev. James H. "Warren, as missionary under the 
American Home Missionary Society, had labored in the field since the pre- 
vious April. A small house, built of shakes, on the lot where the present 
church stands, sufficed for the purpose of worship through the summer and 
fall, and was replaced soon after the organization of the Church and Society, 
with a plain frame structure. This building was thoroughly renewed in 
the autumn of 18.55, and quite neatly fitted up, but was burned down in 
the general fire of July 19, 185G. At the same time, a sweet-toned bell 
was destroyed, the only one the Church has ever possessed, and its loss is 
seriously felt on every Sabbath. 

The Church being deprived of its Christian home by this calamity, services 
were held in Temperance Hall until a brick house of worship was erected, 
the corner-stone of which was laid July 4, 1857. It was opened for use 
the following January. This substantial building escaped the fire of 1858, 
but fell a prey to the flames in the conflagration of November, 1863. The 
alarm of fire in the city was given just as the morning service was closing, 
and the minister called after the hastily retreating congregation with the 
announcement that worship would be held in the evening as usual, but in 
one hour from the time he spoke the church was little more than a mass of 
rubbish. The walls, however, remained standiug and have place in the 
present edifice. The ravages of the fii'C were repaired by the summer of 
1864, at a cost of $5,000, which amount was raised by the energy of Rev. 
H. Cummings, mostly in Sacramento and San Francisco. 

From the earliest days, a Sunday School gave scope for a prominent and 
interesting part of the Christian efi"ort of this Church. In the fire of 1863 
the school suffered the loss of a valuable library of one thousand volumes. 
The school at the present time numbers one hundred and seventy-five 
scholars, sixteen teachers, six officers, and has connected with it a mis- 
sionary and temperance organization. The library numbers four hundred 
volumes, most of them recently purchased. J. B. McChesnoy is the 
Superintendent. 

Since the organization of the Church there have been connected with it 
one hun-dred and eighteen persons, some of whom have died, and some 
removed to other places of residence. The present membership, February, 
1867, is sixty-one. In the sixteen years which have passed since the 
foundation of the Church, its spiritual interests have been cared for by two 
Pastors and two Supplies : James H. Warren, Pastor, April, 1851, to 
July, 1858 ; W. C Bartlett, Supply, 1860, four months ; H. Cummings, 
M 

HALR KESTORATIVE, PREPAREDBY E. F. SPENCE, 



GOLDSMITH SELLS DOMESTIC GOODS CHEAPER THAN ANYBODY ELSE. 

106 CIVIC AND RELIGIOUS SOOIETIES- 

Supply, March, 1862, to April, 1865; R. Bayard Suowdeo, present Pastor, 
began June 17, 1865. The Church has three Deacons, E. "W. Barnumj 
Robert Stuart, A. Downie. The officers of the Society, constituting a 
Board of Trustees, are James Monro, P. Sutton, George H. Farquhar, 
John H. Chesnut and D. B. Frink. 

The service of song in Sabbath worship is aided by a very good cabinet 
organ, E. D. Herrick, organist. In June, 1865, the Church and Society 
first became independent of the Home Missionary Society, and as a self- 
supporting Church in the mining region of California enjoys a fair degree 
of prosperity. 

Methodist Episcopal Church. — Corner of Broad and Mill streets. 
This Church has been twice destroyed by fire, first in July, 1856, and again 
in 2iovember, 1863, and was re-built in 1861. Rev. D. A. Dryden, present 
Pastor. A. A. Sargent, E. F. Spence, W. C. Stiles, John Bluett, John 
Pascoe, Trustees. 

The Sabbath School connected with this Church has twenty teachers, 
one hundred and fifty scholars, 507 volumes in the library, and 117 copies 
of the Sunday School Advocate taken. Rev. D. A. Dryden, Superin- 
tendent. 



Baptist Church — Corner of Pine and Spring streets. Organized in 
September, 1854, by Rev. 0. B. Stone. The first church built by this 
society was destroyed by the fire of 1856, and was rebuilt, but not completed 
until 1861, when, through the exertions of Rev. Benjamin Brierly, a neat 
edifice was finished and dedicated on the 13th of January of that year. 
Rev. J. A. Wirth, present Pastor. Joseph Richardson, Deacon; I. R. 
Rumery, Clerk ; Joseph Richardson, I. R. Rumery, Thomas ShurtlifiF, 
Frederick Dean, D. F. Hartman, Trustees. 

Baptist Sunday School, Thomas Shurtliff, Superintendent; nine teachers 
seventy-five scholars, and 325 volumes in the library. Fifty Young Reapers 
taken. 



St. Canice Church, (Catholic,) Corner of Coyote and Washington 
streets. First dedicated in the summer of 1857 ; destroyed by fire No 
vember 8th, 1863 ; rebuilt in 1864. Present Pastors, Rev. Fathers 
Dalton and Griffin. 

The Sabbath School has thirteen teachers, ninety scholars and a library 
of 220 volumes. J. C. Robinson, Superintendent. 

African Methodist Episcopal Church — On Pine street. Dedicated 
in 1864. Present Pastor, Rev. Mr. Green. 

Sabbath School, Oscar D. Montelle, Superintendent; two teachers, 
twenty-five scholars, and 180 volumes in the library. 



GENT'S nOSE AND UNDERCLOTHING AT BANNER BROTHERS. 



COME ONE, COME ALL, TO A. GOLDSmin'S CHEAP DRY GOODS STORE. 



PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SCHOOLS. 107 



SCHOOLS. 

E. F. SPENCE, ) 

A. B. GREGORY, } School Trustees. 

E. G. WAITE, ) 

Nevada High School. — The sclioolhouse is pleasantly located on the 
corner of Nevada and "Water streets, and is shaded by fine locust trees. 
The building is partly of brick and partly of wood, and the rooms are fur- 
nished with modern school furniture, a geological cabinet and other im- 
provements. This school was instituted in 1862, and has been successfully 
conducted by J. B. McChesney. Miss Sarah Pratt is assistant, appointed 
in 1866. The average attendance seventy. 

Intermediate School. — Located on the north side of Pine street. 
Schoolroom furnished with modern improvements and apparatus. Number 
of scholars sixty; average attendance fifty-five. Frank Power, teacher. 

Primary School, No. 1. — Organized in 1864. Located on south 
side of Pine street. Miss S. N. Jewett, teacher. Number of scholars, 
eighty-three; average attendance, sixty-eight. A model school under its 
present teacher. 

Primary School, No. 2. — In basement of the High School building, 
corner of Nevada and Water streets. Miss McCormack, teacher. Whole 
number of scholars, sixty; average attendance, fifty-four 

Piety Hill District. — Located on Piety Hill. Miss Annie S. Irwin, 
teacher. Whole number of scholars, 40 ; average attendance, 30. 

Oakland District. — This is a new district, organized in 1866, and 
located at Gold Flat. W. S. Frink, Daniel Holmes and John B. Byrne, 
trustees. Mr. McCauslin, teacher. Wholenumber of scholars, thirty-five; 
average attendance, thirty. 

Mrs. C. Hibbard's ScHOOt, (Private,) Located on the south side of 
Bowlder street, and is succes.sfully conducted by Mrs. Hibbard. In this 
school the English branches, modern languages, and vocal and instrumental 
music are taught. Number of names on roll, forty ; average attendance, 
thirty-five. 

Catholic School — Attached to St. Canice Church — J. C. Kobinson, 
Principal ; Miss Flora A. Cornell, x\ssistant. Number of scholars, sixty-five. 

Miss Olive Litchfield's School, (Private,) Located at junction of 
East and West Broad streets. Number of scholars, twenty-four. 

Colored School. — A building was purchased last fall, on Pine street, 
foi a colored school, and has been neatly fitted up for that purpose. The 
school was commenced on the first of January, (x. A. Cantine, teacher. 
Number of pupils, 18; average attendance, 14. 

AQEKCT or THE POPULAR PATENT MEDICINES AT SPENCE'S. 



ALL aOODS WARRANTEE AT GOLDSMITH'S. 



108 MINES OF NEVADA TOWNSHIP. 



THE MINES OF NEVADA TOWNSHIP. 



BANNER MINE. 

This mine, doubtless one of the best in the State^ is situated about three 
miles southeast of Nevada, in the slate formation. It was first located in 
March, I860, by Jeffery, Rolfe, Withington, and others, under the name 
of the Douglas Company, and a shaft sunk to the depth of seventy feet, 
at a point six hundred feet north of the present works of the Banner Com- 
pany. The Douglas Company suspended operations in May or June, 1860, 
and some of the members leaving for Washoe soon after, the work was 
never resumed by that company. The mine was subsequently located by 
Robert and J. Q. A. Bowley, and a tunnel commenced ; but the work was 
again suspended, and the ledge again re-located by Pressey and others, 
under the name of the^ Liberty Company. The first crushing taken out by 
the latter company yielded only four or five dollars a ton, but the owners 
persevered and took out another lot of rock which paid about twenty dollars 
a ton. This established the reputation of the ledge, and early in 1865 it 
was purchased by Messrs. Tisdale, Kidd, Tilton and Stiles, for ^15,000. 
About the time of the purchase the Bowleys commenced a suit for the 
ledge, and obtaining an injunction from the Court, the work on the mine 
was suspended for some months. The ease was compromised in November,' 
1865, by Kidd and the other owners purchasing the Bowley claim. Since 
that time, the mine has been worked with little intermption, yielding, up 
to February 1867, 5,000 tons of ore, which has averaged over twenty dollars 
a ton. Steam hoisting works were erected in the winter of 1865-66, and 
a mill the following summer — the former costing $9,000 and the latter 
018,000. The mill has ten stamps, of 650 pounds each, eleven Knox pans, 
and works about fifteen tons of ore every twenty-four hours. The ore being 
composed almost entirely of sulphurets, is difficult to reduce, and the amal- 
gamating machinery in the mill has been remoddeld several times, in order 
to adapt it to the working of the ore. The mine is opened by an incline 
shaft, twelve feet in width and six in hight, having three compartment?, in 
the middle of which is the pump and stairway, with a car track on each 
side. The incline has been sunk to the depth of 240 feet, and the work of 
sinking is kept up without interruption. Three levels have been run at 
different depths, in both directions from the shaft. The upper north level 
has been run 210 feet, and the south level sixty feet; the middle north 
level is 190 feet, and the south 200 feet; while the lower level is now 

BBNKART'S BOOTS, AT BANNER BROTHERS. 



A. GOLDSMITH, CORNER OP BROAD AND PINE STREETS, SELLS CHEAP. 

MINES OF NEVADA TOWNSHIP. 109 

about 100 feet each way from the shaft, and is still being run. The width 
of the ledge will average about four feet, its course is nearly north and 
south, and it has an easterly dip of about forty-five degrees. While the 
average yield of all the rock taken from the mine has been twenty dollars 
a ton, that from the incline in the last sixty feet run has paid thirty dollars, 
showing an improvement in the quality of the ore with the depth. In the 
fall of 18CG Captain Kidd sold his interest in the mine, amounting to five- 
twelfths, for ^G2,500, which is at the rate of §150,000 for the whole. The 
mine is now Avorked under the superintendence of William L. Tisdale, who 
owns five-twelfths of the property, the other owners being Charles Marsh, 
who has two-twelfths, and W. C. Stiles, D. A. Rich, A. E. Head, C. A. 
Land and D. Crittenden, who have a twelfth each. When the mine was 
purchased from Prcssey, it was christened the " Star Spangled Banner," 
but is popularly known as the " Banner." Of the ore affbrded by this 
mine, some 3,000 tons have been reduced at Stiles's mill, in Nevada, which 
has yielded better returns than the company's own mill, until quite recently. 
The Banner has not been worked as long nor explored to the depth and 
extent of some others, but taking into account the size of the vein, and the 
improvement in quality of ore with the depth, we know of no mine in the 
State that has a greater prospective value. 

CALIFORNIA MINE. 

The mine is situated on the south side of Deer creek, below Nevada, and 
is on the same ledge as the Gold Tunnel — the first quartz vein discovered 
and opened at Nevada. The Illinois claim, also on the same ledge, lies 
between the Gold Tunnel and California. The latter location was made by 
Graham, Stone and others, early in 1851, and comprises 1,500 feet, com- 
mencing 600 or 800 feet from Deer creek, and running south. In the 
summer of that year the owners made a contract with Frothingham and 
Hull of San Francisco, for the erection of a mill to crush the rock. By 
the terms of the contract, the owners of the mine were to furnish the rock 
at the mill, and to pay sixteen dollars a ton for crushing. The mill was 
commenced about September, 1851, under the superintendence of Warren 
B. Ewer, now editor of the San Francisco Mining Press, and was com- 
pleted and started up some time during the following winter. The rock 
yielded very large returns, though it by no means came up to the extrava- 
gant expectations of the owners of the mine. The writer of this remembers 
hearing one of them complaining that a lot of rock, which had just been 
crushed, only paid thirty dollars a ton. Half that yield would now be 
considered excellent rock. The fault of what was considered a small yield 
was attributed to the mill; and with the little that was then known of 
amalgamating, it would have been strange, indeed, if half the gold had 

LIFE INSURANCE AGENCY AT SPENCE'S. 



THE BEST ASSORTED STOCK IN THE COUNTY, AT GOLDSSHTH'S. 
110 MINES OF NEVADA TOWNSHIP. 

been saved. During the spring and summer of 1852 a considerable amount 
of rock was crushed at the mill, from the California, Illinois and other 
claims in the neighborhood, but the stamps were idle the most of the time, 
and the next season the engine of the mill was taken off and used for a 
saw mill. A year or two later, the site of the mill was sluiced off by miners, 
who are said to have made a snug sum from the gold lost by the process 
the quartz was then worked. After this the ledge was considered of little 
value, the original owners disposed of their interests^ which ware subse- 
quently bought up by Horace Ferre, who was satisfied that the mine would 
eventually become valuable. It was worked for some months by David 
Hunt, in 1857, and by other parties in 1863, the yield of the rock varying 
from §10 to $60 a ton. About the beginning of 1866, Ferre made an 
arrangement with J. M. Pattee, the agent of the Eagle Company, of Hart- 
ford, Connecticut, for the erection of hoisting works and the opening of the 
mine in a systematic manner. The hoisting works were completed and the 
work of sinking an incline shaft commenced in the summer following, and 
a fine mill has since been added, the whole costing about $35,000. The 
mill has ten stamps, of 750 pounds each, and is capable of reducing about 
twenty tons of rock in twenty-four hours. The pulp, after leaving the 
batteries, runs over copper plates, after which the sulphurets are concen- 
trated by means of Bradford's ore separators. The free gold being saved 
in the batteries and on the plates, the sulphurets will be worked by the 
chlorinizing process. The mill, together with the hoisting and pumping 
machinery, is driven by an eighty-horse power engine, and the rock as it 
comes from the mine in the cars is dumped in front of the stamps. Every 
thing connected with the works has been constructed with the view of con- 
venience and economy. The incline is fourteen feet in width, has three 
compartments, with tracks for the cars on each side and the pump and a 
stairway in the middle, and has been sunk to the depth of 248 feet, being 
about 170 perpendicular, and seventy-five feet below the old works in the 
mine. From the bottom of the incline a level has been run south a distance 
of 230 feet, and ninety feet north. Some two hundred tons of ore has 
been taken from the mine in sinking the incline and running drifts, and 
the vein will soon be opened so as to keep the mill constantly supplied. 
The ledge is in the granite formation, its course is a little east of south and 
north of west, and dips to the east at an angle of about forty degrees. It 
varies in width from one or two inches to four feet, but will probably aver- 
age two feet. The mine is worked under the superintendence of Horace 
Ferre, who also retains an interest in the property. The hoisting works 
are situated a little over half a mile from the center of town, and just 
outside the corporation limits. 

CRAVATS, NECKTIES, ETC., AT BANNER BROTHERS. 



DOMESTIC AND nOUSEIIOLD FURNISUINO GOODS, AT GOLDSMITH'S. 



MINES OF NEVADA TOWNSHIP. Ill 

CDilNISH, OR URAL MINE. 

The Cornish, or Ural mine, is situated a mile and a half below Nevada, 
on the north side of Deer creek, at the junction of the granite and slate 
formations. It was located in 1851, as the Ural ledge, and a mill com- 
menced the following winter and completed in the spring of 1852. Some 
rock had been found in the ledge showing free gold, and assays of choice 
specimens yielded an enormous rate per ton, inducing the owners to believe 
that they had a mine of fabulous wealth. The rock, however, failed to 
pay in the mill, and the owners becoming discouraged the work was sus- 
pended. The mill and mine was subsequently leased by a scientific gentle- 
man, but his science proved of no avail in extracting the gold from barren 
rock, for his first and only crushing failed to show the " color." The limine 
was then abandoned, and the mill and machinery taken away and used for 
other purposes. The ledge was subsequently relocated by Muller, Buckner 
and others, who opened it in a new place, where they found a body of 
remarkably rich ore, which they worked out to the water level. The rock 
was crushed at the Soggs mill, and yielded large profits ; but the owners, 
not being disposed to risk the expense of a long draiu-tunuel or pumping 
machinery, sold the mine to Soggs and his partners. The vein, however, 
was worked but little by the latter company, and in 1859 it was sold to 
Philip and John Richards and Samuel Adams, and has since been known 
as the Cornish mine. Richards & Co. had previously erected a six-stamp 
mill in the Lecompton district, three miles above Nevada, which they 
removed and rebuilt near the site of the old Ural. They commenced a 
tunnel on the ledge, at a point near the mill, and have been working with 
the most untiring perseverance for seven years. Last fall they struck the 
rich chute which had been worked at the surface by Muller and Buckner, 
having driven the tunnel a distance of between twelve and thirteen hundred 
feet. They expected to find chutes of pay rock before reaching the point 
where they are now working, but they got only a small amount which was 
considered worth running through the mill. But doing the labor them- 
selves, and occasionally crushing a few tons of custom rock, they have 
succeeded in opening the mine, which ordinarily would have involved an 
outlay of ^15,000 or $20,000. The chimney worked by Muller and Buck- 
ner extended some sixty feet along the ledge, at the surface, and had 
increased to a hundred feet at the depth of a hundred and twenty feet, the 
vein being from two to five feet in width. The tunnel strikes the chimney 
about two hundred feet below the old works, and in all probability will 
furnish ore above the present level to keep the mill supplied for several 
years. The gold is mostly contained in the sulphurets, the richest of which 
the owners are saving with the intention of shipping them to England for 



THE BEST AND PUREST DRUGS AT SPENCE'S. 



PEOPLE ARE ALWAYS RUSHING TO GOLDSMITH'S DRY GOODS STORE. 



112 MINES OF NEVADA TOWNSHIP. 

reduction. A considerable quantity of second-class ore was run through 
the mill last winter, which yielded good returns. The course of the vein, 
like the other main lodes in the Nevada basin, is nearly north and south, 
with an easterly dip, and cuts through from the slate into the granite 
formation. The owners, by their energy and perseverance under the most 
discouraging circumstances, are deserving a rich reward, and have the 
prospect of achieving it. 

CUNNINGHAM MINE. 
This mine is situated about a mile and a half southeast of Nevada, on 
the slope of the hill above Grold Flat, and in the slate formation. It was 
located by Wigham, Cunningham, Byrnes, and others, about 1852 or '53^ 
though but little work was done on it, and having changed hands several 
times, was purchased by Horace Ferre in 1858. Ferre employed a man 
named George TV". Baldwin to work on the mine, and the latter set up a 
claim to the ownership of the ledge. A lawsuit ensued, which was decided 
in favor of Ferre in 1861. He afterward erected a small engine, and sunk 
a vertical shaft to the depth of seventy feet, being about a hundred feet on 
the incline of the ledge. About five hundred tons of rock was taken out 
by Ferre, which yielded all the way from nine to thirty-five dollars a ton. 
But the vein having run down to a mere seam in both drifts, and the engine 
being insufficient to pump and hoist at a greater depth, the work was 
stopped, and the mine fell into the hands of H. Mackie & Co., who had 
advanced money to open it, and held a mortgage on the property. In 1866 
Mackie and Philip made an arrangement with San Francisco men for the' 
erection of hoisting works and opening the mine. The machinery was 
erected and work commenced in October of that year, and has since been 
prosecuted without interruption. The engine is rated at twenty-two horse 
power, and the cost of the works was about $8,000. The mine is being 
opened by an incline, which, at the time of writing this, is down 160 feet, 
being sixty feet below the old workings in the mine. Work is also being 
prosecuted in the levels worked by Ferre, an-d a ledge of good size, and 
yielding rich ore, has been found in the south drift. When the incline 
reaches a depth of 100 feet below the old works, drifts will be started in 
both directions on the ledge. The incline is eight feet in width, six in 
hight, having two compartments, in one of which is the track for the cars 
and in the other the pump and a stairway. The ledge is about two feet in 
width, and increasing in size with the depth. It dips east at an angle of 
about thirty-five degrees, and its course is nearly north and south, being 
parallel with the Wigham and other veins in the vicinity. The present 

owners are H. Hackie, H. Philip, L. L. Bobinson, F. L. A. Pioche, S. P. 

Butterworth, and Charles Bever. John Pattison is the superintendent. 



BOYS CLOTHING, ALL SIZES, AT BANNER BROTHERS. 



ONLY ONE REGULAR PRICE AT GOLDSMITH'S. 



MINES OF NEVADA TOWNSHIP. 113 

DEADWOOD LEDGE. 

This ledge is situated near the Oriental mill; two and a half miles from 
Nevada, and was located in 185G by C C. Green, Allen and Chandler. The 
mine was worked for a year or more by the original locators, yielding a 
large profit, when they sold out for a handsome sum The purchasers, 
however, left for Washoe, and abandoned the mine, and about 18G1 it was 
relocated and has since been worked with success. The vein is about a 
foot in width, and is so situated that a large amount of rock could be mined 
without going below the water level. The mine has afforded, since ifc was 
first opened, about 1,000 tons of rock, the average yield of which amounted 
to about ^20 a ton. In 18GG, the owners erected a small water wheel, for 
pumping and hoisting, and commenced an incline. The ledge is now owned 
by Parker, Lucy and Curtis. 

FEDERAL LOAN LEDGE. 

This ledge is situated three miles above Nevada, on the south side of 
Deer creek, and is owned by IJachtul, Ilccker and others. It is a large 
ledge, in the slate formation, and the rock has been worked in a small, 
two-stamp mill erected by the owners in the vicinity of the mine. The 
mine afibrds some very rich ore, but the most of it, whore the vein is opened, 
is of a low grade, but would probably pay well if the mine was thoroughly 
opened, and the rock worked on a large scale. 

FOKEST MILL. 

The Forest mill is situated ou Little Deer creek, three miles above Ne- 
vada, and was erected by William Buttcrfield, in 18G0 or '61. It was built 
for the purpose of working a ledge in the vicinity, but the enterprise proved 
a failure, and the mill was idle for some j^ears. In 1865 it was purchased 
by the New York and Grass Valley £)ompany, and has been used for working 
the rock from the Union mine. The mill has five stamps, and is run by 
steam power. It was originally a poor concern, but has been greatly im- 
proved and mostly rebuilt by the New York Company, 

FRENCH MILL. 

This mill is situated at Canada Hill, about a mile and a half southeast of 
Nevada, and was built in 18G1, by Charonnat, Michel and others. It has 
a single battery of six stamps, is furnished with shaking' tables to concen- 
trate the sulphurets, pans, etc., and is one of the best mills in the county 
for saving gold. The owners of the mill have expended considerable sums 
in endeavoring to open a ledge in the vicinity, but did not succeed, on 
account of the softness of the granite, and the large quantity of water in 
the ground. After several unsuccessful attempts to drive a tanuel on the 



FLUID EXTRACTS PREPARED BY E. i'. SPENCE. 



riiOKEIs'CE SEWING MACHINE AGENCY, AT A. GOLBSMIXH'S. 



114 MINES OF NEVADA TOW]S^SmP. 

ledge, the work was abaudoced. and the niiii has since been niostly engaged 
in custom work. In reducing the refractory ores of Meadow Lake town- 
shipj it has been uniformly successful F. L. A. Pioche, of San Francisco, 
is the principal owner^ L. Charonnat, the resident partner, being the super- 
intendent. 

GOLD TUNNEL MINE. 

The Gold Tunnel quartz mine was the first one discovered in Nevada 
township, has been the longest worked, and yielded the most gold. It is 
situated on the west side of town, the location being mostly in the corpora- 
tion limits, commencing at Deer creek and running north. It was discov- 
ered in October, 1850, by Joseph Wiggins, Horace Holt, and two brothers 
named Barker, vrhile engaged in their first day's work at mining. At that 
time nothing was known by the California miners of the position of mineral 
veins, and the location was made in claims of thirty feet^quare, in accord- 
ance with the regulations of the placer miners. Subsequently, the owners 
purchased the adjoining, claims, to enable them to follow the dip of the 
vein. At first, the decomposed rock was ta'ken out and washed in a rocker, 
yielding large profits, notwithstanding the crude and expensive system 
adopted in working it. Captain O'Connor afterward purchased an interest 
in the mine, and commenced a tunnel on the ledge in the spring of 1851, 
whence it took the name of '' Grold Tunnel," which it has ever since re- 
tained. A mill was erected the following summer near the mouth of the 
tunnel, and although it saved nothing but specimen gold, it yielded large 
returns. In 1852 the m.ine was owned and worked by Kidd, Van Doren 
and others. Captain Kidd afterward obtaining a controlling interest, and 
working it steadily tmtil 1855, when he sold out to a company of Cornish 
miners. Up to this time the mine had yielded over ^^300,000 in gold. 
The Cornishmeu worked it with little interruption for eight years, but we 
have no knowledge as to the amount realized by the company. A tunnel, 
commencing at high water mark on the bank of Deer creek, has been run 
a distance of fourteen hundred feet north, and the rock 'paid very largely 
for a distance of six hundred feet — probably averaging fifty dollars a ton. 
Beyond this, the rock paid only eight or ten dollars a ton, and the rich 
chimney having been worked out above the tunnel in 1863, the work was 
suspended. The mine was repurchased in 1864 by Captain Kidd, who 
now owns it in partnership with W. C. Ralston and Llojd Tevis, of San 
Francisco. Tevis was an owner in the mine at an early day — in 1853 we 
believe. The mill attached to the mine was carried off in February, 1857, 
by the flood in Deer creek, caused by the breaking of Laird's dam at 
Scotch Flat ; but another six-stamp water mill was erected in its place the 
following spring, which is still standing, though it has been used but little 



THE PLACE TO PURCHASE EUBBES CLOTHING IS AT BANNER'S, COSNEE BROAD & PINE STS. 



TO SAVE MONEY, BOY YOUR DRY GOODS OF G0LD3MITII. 



MINES OF NEVADA TOWNSHIP. 115 

for some years. In 1865, steam hoisting and pumping works were erected 
on the hill north of the creek, and an incline sunk to a depth of fifty feet 
below the old level, but from some cause the work was stopped. "We be- 
lieve it is the intention of the ownera to resume operations this summer. 
The Gold Tunnel was not only the first mine opened iu Nevada township, 
but is the only one among those worked at an early day that did not prove 
a disastrous failure. There is no doubt that it will again be worked with 
profit. 

ITALIAN MINE. 

This ledge is in the heart of the city of Nevada, and was discovered by 
accident, iu the summer of ISGG, by Debonardi, while digging a cellar for 
his hous3. The discovery was kept secret until the ledge was staked off 
and leases taken from the owners of the town lots through which it run. 
Two crushings of some fifty tons each were taken out, paying about fifty 
dollars a ton, and upon learning the value of the mine, a claimant forthwith 
appeared, and pending the determination of the case in the District Court, 
very novel but eflectual injunctions were iuforced by the respective parties 
against each other. The Italians, in the upper works, dumping out and 
running water upon their opponents in the tunnel bclovv', and they returning 
the compliment by burning gum boots, flannel shirts, old horns, brimstone, 
and whatever else would make a stifling stench, for the benefit of their 
neighbors above. These little courtesies efi'ectually stopped the working of 
the claim until the decision, which was in favor of the Italians, and since 
then they have taken out rock to the water level, the ledge increasing in 
size and the rock improving iu character as they descend. The ledge is 
now about three feet wide, and, when the necessary hoisting and pumping 
works are erected, promises to become a valuable and permanent mine. It 
is owned by J. J. Ott, Debouardi, Sanguiuetti and Judge Belden. 

LECOMPTON MINE. 

The Lecomptou ledge was located in the spring of 1857, by George 
Hearst, Joseph and Jacob Clark, and George D. Eoberts, and is situated 
three miles above Nevada, in what is now known as the Lecomptou district. 
A half interest was soon after sold to McLane and Givens, and in the 
course of two years the mine yielded a profit of over §60,000 to the owners, 
the rock being worked at the Oriental mill. The various interests in the 
mine were afterward bought up by the owners of the mill, and the whole 
property was purchased by J. J. Ott, in 1863. Up to this time the gross 
yield of the mine was over 8220,000, the rock paying on the average about 
^40 a ton, and the mine having been worked out to near the water level. 
Ott erected pumping machinery and sunk an incline to the depth of 175 

PRESCRIPTIONS ACCURATiSLY COMPOUNDED BY E. P. SPJENCE. 



ALL KINDS OF TABLE LINENS AT GOLDSMITn'S. 



116 



MINES OF NEVADA TOWNSHIP. 



feet below the bed of Deer c-reekj taking out a hundred tons of rock which 
yielded about the same as that in the upper levels. A tunnel has also been 
run through solid granite^ a distance of 350 feet, striking another very rich 
chute in the ledge. A crushing made abou.t the first of February last, 
yielded $125 a ton in free gold, without counting the sulphurets, which are 
very rich. The ledge varies in width from three and four inches to two 
and a half feet, averaging a little over a foot. It lies near the junction of 
the granite and slate, cutting through from one formation into the other, 
without changing its course or dip. 

MOHAWK MINE. 

This mine is situated on Gold Flat, a mile south of Nevada, and was 
located by Henry Stede and others in 1857. Stede and his partners worked 
the mine for some years, hoisting the rock by means of a one-horse whim, 
and with as favorable results as could have been anticipated with limited 
means. In 1863, Captain Kidd purchased the mine, erected steam hoisting 
and pumping Works, and commenced an incline; but the work was several 
times interrupted by reason of the large quantity of water with which the 
miners had to contend. William L. Tisdale subsequently purchased half 
the mine, and a perpendicular shaft was sunk to the depth of a hundred 
and eighteen feet, and drifts run each way on the ledge. About five hun- 
dred tons of rock was taken out and crushed by Kidd & Tisdale, which 
averaged thirty-four dollars a ton; but the work was suspended last year, 
on account of the machinery not being of sufficient capacity to work the 
mine. It is the intention to put on heavier machinery this summer, and 
resume operations. The ledge appears to be full of rich pockets of free 
gold, in which many fine specimens have been found. The Mohawk is in 
the granite, its course is nearly north and south, and, like the Sneath and 
Clay, which is a parallel vein, dips to the west. 

MUECHIE MILL AND MINE. 

The mill of the Murchie Brothers is situated two and a half miles above 
Nevada, on Deer creek, was built in 1861, has eight stamps, and is run by 
water power. The MiTrchie mine, which is near the mill, is quite a large 
vein, and the rock has yielded, in the different crushings, from five to 
seventeen dollars a ton — oftener the smaller than the larger sum. This 
would not pay espouses, in the manner in which the mine was worked, and 
the mill has been employed a portion of the time on custom work, and 
much of the time has been idle. In 1866, the Murchies made an arrange- 
ment with Charles Bever and others to sink a shaft on the mine, in expec- 
tation that the ore would improve at a greater depth. A small engine was 
erected, a shaft sunk to the depth of about a hundred feet, and considerable 

BOOTS AND SHOES, A COMPLETE STOCK, AT BANNER BROTHERS. 



A.. GOLDSMITn'S DRY GOOM STOTlE IS AL'tt'AYS CROWDED WITH CUSTOMERS. 



MINES OF NEVADA TOWNSHIP. 117 

rock was taken out and crushed, wliicli yielded about the same as that 
nearer the surface. This was not considered sufficient to justify a continu- 
ance of operations, and the niice is not worked at present. 

NEVADA MINE AND MILL. 
The ruiue of the Nevada Quartz Mining Company is situated about a 
mile below Nevada, on the north side of Deer creek, and was located early 
in 1851, by Charles Marsh, E. E. Mattison, Dr. Mclntyre, and others. It 
was known then as the Bunker Hill ledge, and it was here that the grand 
and disastrous experiment of Dr. Rogers was made, the particulars of which 
are detailed in the historical sketch of the township. The experiment cost 
the stockholders over S80,000, and beyond question it was the wildest 
experiment ever made in quartz. After the failure of the Eunker Hill 
Company, the mine was considered of no value, and few persons would 
have accepted it as a gift. Some years later, the ledge was located at a 
point further north, by II. R. Craig, P. N. Edwards and J. A. Mattingly, 
where some rich rock was found, but at the time they were not aware that 
it was the same as the Bunker Hill ledge. In 1857, Craig and his partners 
made an arrangement with Captaiu D. YanPclt, Nelson Soggs, S. W. Green 
and others, who erected an eight-stamp steam mill for a half interest in the 
Icdjre. The mill was situated on the west side of American Hill, and was 
run successfully for two or three years, the parties who built the mill, in 
the mean time, having bought out the interests of the locators of the ledge, 
and paying for the same from the profits of the mine. The fact having 
been ascertained that the ledge was the same as that of the old Bunker 
Hill, the mill site, water wheel and flume of that company were purchased, 
and a new mill was erected in 1860, near the site of the Bunker Hill 
furnace. About this time the company was incorporated under the name 
of " Nevada Quartz Mining Company.'' Nelson Soggs was the superin- 
tendent from the time the first mill was erected up to 1864, when he re- 
signed on account of ill health ; but the mine is still known as the Soggs 
mine. At times, very large profits have been realized from the working of 
the mine — about 5,000 tons of rock being crushed yearly since the present 
mill was erected, and the gross yield ranging from 840,000 to 670,000 a 
year. About 1861, six of Bradford's ore separators were attached to the 
mill, for the purpose of concentrating the sulphurets, and by means of which 
from three to five tons have been saved weekly. These have mostly been 
reduced by the chlorinizing process, at Maltman's sulphuret works, and 
have largely contributed to the success of the enterprise. William M. 
Eatcliff has been the superintendent for the past two or three years. From 
him, we learn that from January 1, 1866, to January 1, 1867, about 5,000 
tons of rock was crushed, which yielded in the mill §42,000 ; while the 



PAISIS, OILS, TARNISH, AND DYE SXUFfS AT SPENCE'S. 



SKATTLS, CLOAKS, BASQUES Or THE LATEST STYLES, AT GOLDSMITH'S. 



118 MINES OF NEVADA TOWNSHIP. 

returns from ore shipped to Swansea, and of concentrated sulphurets, netted 
18,000. The concentrated sulphurets average SlOO a ton, and the sulphuret 
ore sells at the mill for 887 a ton. The mill has twelve stamps, eight of 
them weighing 750 pounds each, and four of 1,000 pounds each. The 
amalgamating machinery consists of four Chile mills, two Bannan arastras, 
and two of Crall's waltzing pans. The machinery is driven by an over-shot 
wheel of thirty-five feet in diameter, the water being taken from Deer creek. 
The ledge has been opened and worked by three tunnels, commencing above 
the mill and running north. The upper tunnel has been run a distance of 
2,900 feet, being over half a mile in length. The middle tunnel has been 
ran 1,900 feet, and the lower 1,800. The lower tunnel starts in just above 
the mill, being fifteen or twenty feet above high water mark, and 133 feet 
below the middle tunnel. The ledge is one of the largest in the township; 
varying from three to sixteen feet in width:, and averaging about five feet. 
It has yielded not less than 40,000 tons of ore, and has never been worked 
below the level of the creek. Since the company was incorporated but one 
assessment has been levied, and that amounted to only one-half of one per 
cent, on the capital stock. 

ORIENTAL MILL. 

The Oriental mill was erected by Rowland, Gray and others, of San Fran- 
cisco/ in 1857. It was built for a custom mill, and A. B. Paul was the 
superintendent until 1860. In 1863, it was purchased, together with the 
Lecompton and otlier mines, by J. J. Ott, who entirely remodeled it, and 
added pans and ore separators. Ott sold the mill, together with a number 
of undeveloped ledges, to a New York company, and latterly it has been 
mostly used for custom work. It is run hj steam power, has eight stamps, 
four pans, three Bradford ore separators, and a Crosby desulphurizer and 
amalgamator. 

ORO FINO MILL AND MESSES. 

The Oro Fiuo mill i? situated on Rush creek, about four miles west of 
Nevada, and was built in 1862 by Eobert Hanly and others. Work was 
commenced and rock crushed from several ledges in the vicinity, but the 
enterprise was not successful, and operations were suspended. In the 
spring of 1866, the property was purchased by parties from Virginia City, 
and considerable work has been done in the past year by way of opening 
the ledges belonging to the company. These are the Oro Fino, the Middle 
and the John Bull; in addition to which the company has leased the Yellow 
Diamond ledge, in the vicinity. A tunnel of over four hundred feet in 
length has been run on the John Bull, the ledge being about two feet in 
width, and furnishing considerable good ore. The mill has six stamps, is 



EVERYBODY VISITS BANJTER BKOTHEES' CLOTHING BMPOEIUil. 



A. OOLBSMITU SELLS THE MOST FANCY AND DTIY GOODS. 

MINES OF NEVADA TOWNSHIP. 119 



run by water po^Yor, and has been almost entirely rcbuilf since tlie present 
company counuenced operations. A considerable quantity of rock has been 
crushed from the different ledges in the past year, generally yielding good 
returns. The owners, are Messrs. Morris. Hale, Hinds, Collins and Brown 
— William 11. Morris being the superintendent. 

PALMER'S MILL. 

This mill I'i situated on Sacramento street, in the town of Nevada^ and 
was built by Oscar Palmer in 1862. It has four stamps, a Williams pan, 
and is run by steam power. It has been mostly employed in custom work, 
being erected for that purpose, and has generally yielded good returns from 
the rock worked. The AYilliams pan was first introduced in this mill, and 
is one of the best pans for grinding now in use. 

PENNSYL^^\XIA MINE. 

This mine is situated northwest of Nevada, and but a short distance 
outside the corporation limits. It was located in 18G3, auda mill built the 
next year by Simmons, Gates and others. The mine was opened by a 
perpendicular shaft, to a depth of about a hundred feet, and yielded excel- 
lent returns. The operations were suddenly suspended in November, 1865, 
by a deplorable accident. Through the carelessness of the person who was 
acting as engineer, a flue collapsed, throwing the boiler a distance of over 
three hundred feet, demolishing a house standing near the mill, and killing 
a Mrs. Hutchinson, who was the only person that happened to be in the 
house at the time. During the preceding spring and summer the profits of 
the mine had amounted to some ^5,000 or s?6,000. The company, however, 
being still somewhat involved, and there being also a lack of harmony 
among the owners, they sold out the property soon after the accident to 
Messrs. J. H. Helm, T. P. Hawley, T. T. Davenport, A. C. Niles and G. 
Morgan — the latter subsequently selling his interest to S. B. Davenport. 
A new boiler was put in the mill, the necessary repairs made, and opera- 
tions commenced again in the spring of 1866. Finding, however, that the 
mine had been mostly worked out to the depth of the old shaft, the com- 
pany erected new hoisting works, and opened the ledge in a systematic 
manner by means of an incline. This has been sunk to a depth of about 
eighty feet below the old works, and levels ran in each direction, from 
which a considerable quantity of good ore has been mined. The mill, 
which had been idle the most of the summer and fall, was started up again 
about the middle of December, and is understood to have been yielding 
good returns. The hoisting woi'ks cost about 87,000, are of sufficient ca- 
pacity to work the mine to a great depth, and are well and conveniently 
arranged. The mill has only four stamps, but is arranged so that another 



COKKS OF ALL SIZES AT SPENCE'S. 



KO BETTER PLACE TO BE FOUND TIIAX GOLDSMITH'S FOR DRESS TRIMMINGS. 
120 MINES OF NETADA TOWNSHIP. 

battery of four stamps can be added, wliieli will probably be done wben 
the mine is further developed. The ledge will average about a foot in 
width, its course is nearly north and south, has an easterly dip, and lies 
between the Soggs and Gold Tunnel. J. H. Helm is the superintendent. 

PROVIDENCE MINE. 

The Providence mine is an extension of the Soggs, or Nevada Company's 
ledge, being situated on the south side of Deer creek. It was located by 
T. F. Dingley, and the next year a si s-stamp mill was erected and the ledge 
opened under his superintendence, having associated with some parties in 
San Francisco, when the company was incorporated. In 18G1, the capacity 
of the mill was increased by the addition of six stamps, and it now has 
three Williams and five Knox pans. The ledge is opened by means of 
tunnels, starting in above the mill, and running south. The pay rock is 
taken from large chimneys, situated at unequal distances, while the ledge 
between the chimneys is quite small, in places running down to a mere seam. 
Some remarkably rich sulphuret ore has been taken from the mine, but the 
average will probably not exceed ten or twelve dollars a ton. .We have no 
statistics as to the amount of rock that has been taken out and reduced, 
but the mill has been kept in operation the most of the time. Attached 
to the mill are four of Bradford's ore separators; but these were allowed to 
get out of order, and have not been used for some years. The mill is run 
by a steam engine, and is situated on the opposite side of the creek, and a 
little below, the mill of the Nevada Company. The principal office of the 
Providence Company is in San Francisco — J. M. Buffiugton, secretary, 
and T. F. Dingley — who is a large stockholder — has been superintendent 
from the beginning. 

SNEATH AND CLAY MINE. 

This mine is situated on Gold Flat, a mile from Nevada, and was discov- 
ered by the Sneath Brothers and G. W. Clay, in the winter of 1861-62. 
They had placer diggings in the ravine and were induced to look for the 
ledge by finding rich quartz specimens in their sluice. The quartz near 
the surface, where the ledge was first struck, was very much decomposed, 
showing free gold in abundance, and the owners were considerably elated 
with their prospects. The first crushing, which was made at the Soggs 
mill, in the spring of 1862, yielded thirty-two dollars a ton. This was far 
less than the owners anticipated, still it was good pay, and they persevered 
with the work, commencing an incline on the ledge, and pumping by means 
of a small water wheel The second crushing, made in the summer fol- 
lowing, yielded some eighty dollars a ton. The owners then made arrange- 
ments for the erection of a mill, continuing operations at the same time in 

THE PRI^^CIPAL CLOTH IXG HOUSE IN NEVADA CITY IS BANNER BROTHERS. 



THAT LOVE OP A BONNET CAME FROM GOLDSMITH'S STORE. 

MINES. OF NEVADA TOWNSHIP. 121 

the mine. In tlic course of tte summer, several otlier crusliings were made 
from the ledge, one of which paid as high as $180 a ton. An engine re- 
placed the water wheel for pumping and hoisting, the incline was sunk to 
the depth of 150 feet, drifts run, and by the time the mill was completed, 
in the spring of 1863, they had out some eight hundred or a thousand tons 
of rock ready to be crushed — the owners, up to this time, doing a good 
share of the labor in the mine themselves. For several months after the 
mill started, the rock paid on the average $70 a ton, yielding better, prob- 
ably, than any mine in the county at that time, an^ the mine was considered 
the most valuable. Clay, who owned one-third, sold half of his interest to 
J. C. Birdseye, who paid $15,000 down, in coin, and was to pay $45,000 
more from the first profits accruing to the interest. Birdseye subsequently 
transferred the interest back to Clay for the balance due, losing the amount 
paid. In running the drifts along the ledge, it was found that the rich 
chimney extended only about 150 feet, and in the northerly drift the rock 
run down to five or six dollars a ton. The work, however, was continued, 
and the mill kept running the most of the time ; but the owners were not 
able to agree, the Sneaths managed to spend more money than they made, 
and we believe mortgaged their interests, and finally, in May, 18G5, the 
mine and other property was purchased by the New York and Grass Valley 
Company, for $27,000. The mill and hoisting works had cost $45,000. 
Of the original owners, Clay was the only one who had any money when 
they disposed of the property, though the yield up to that time had been 
nearly $200,000, of which over half had been profits. The mine has been 
worked steadily and systematically by the New York Company, the past 
two years, S P. Leeds being the superintendent until May, 1866, and since 
then under the superintence of Edward Dunscomb. It has never paid as 
well as during the first few months after the mill was started, but has always 
returned a fair profit, the rock at times yielding betvreen $40 and $50 a ton. 
The ledge has a westerly dip, its general course being nearly north and 
south, and lies very flat, tlie angle of inclination being only twenty-three 
degrees. The incline has been run 400 feet down the slope of the ledge, 
being a vertical depth of 150 feet. "We have no knowledge as to the extent 
of the levels and drifts underground; but if the ledge retains its present 
angle of inclination it can be worked 4,000 feet and the perpendicular depth 
would only be 1,500 feet. It is thought by many, however, that the west- 
erly dip of the ledges on Gold Flat has been caused by a convulsion and 
displacement of the surface, and that when the workings extend to a certain 
depth the dip will change to the east, conforming to that of the other min- 
eral veins in the Nevada basin. The mine is irregular in size, but will 
probably average something over a foot in width. It has yielded, during 


LT.>'N C. DOYLS FOR SALE BY E. F. SPENC3, 



WHERE DTD TOU GET THAT BEAlTTIFUL SILK DRESS-PATTERN 



122 



MINES OF NEVADA TOWNSHIP. 



tlie past year, abotit 400 tons of ore per month, and tlie average number of 
men employed in tbe mine and mill is forty-eight. The mill has three 
batteries of four stamps each, and is siipplied with ore separators for con- 
centrating sulphurets, with pans, Chile mills, and the most approved appli- 
ances for amalgamating. The engine and machinery were manufactured in 
a foundry at Grass Yalley. 

THE STILES MILL AND MINE. 

The mill of W. C. Stiles is situated on Deer creek, at the south end of 
the suspension bridge, and was built by Stiles and D. A, Eieh, in 1862. 
The mill was built for the purpose of working a ledge lying east of an-d 
parallel with the Gold Tunnel, and which had been located by Stiles in 
1853, and at times has afforded good ore. The vein has been opened by a 
tunnel commencing near the mouth of Koger Williams ravine^, and extend- 
ing north toward the junction of East and West Broad street. The rise 
of the ground, however, is not sufficient to enahle the ledge to be profitably 
worked by means of a tunnel, though it has yielded in all about 1,000 tons. 
The mill has been mostly employed on custom work, and has been very 
successful in reducing refractory ores. It is run by water power, has eight 
stamps, and five waltzing and four Knox pans. The pulp is run from the 
battery into tanks, whence it is shoveled out and worked in the pans — the 
process being similar to that used in the reduction of the second-class silver 
ores in Washoe. Chemicals are used while working the pulp in the pans, 
the treatment varying to suit the different character of ores. Some 3,000 
tons of ore from the Banner mine has been worked at this mill in the last 
two years, and uniformly with good results. The mill is now owned by W. 
C. Stiles. 

UNION MINE. 

This mine is situated three miles above Nevada, on Little Deer creek, and 
was located in 1863 by N. M. and R. P. Barnett, J. H. Sharp, and others. 
It was opened by means of a tunnel, starting in at the creek, and was worked 
for a year or two, the rock being reputed to have yielded largely. In the 
spring of 1865, the mine was sold to the New York and Grass Yalley 
Company for 125,000 — probably the largest price ever paid for a mine in 
this county so little developed. The New York Company erected expensive 
and very complete hoisting works, and have opened the mine hj means of 
an incline shaft to the depth of 325 feet — the angle of inclination being 
thirty-four degrees. Some 3,000 tons of rock was taken from the ledge 
and worked during the year 1866, but the yield was not sufficient to cover 
the expenses. During the heavy rains in January last, the lower drifts in 
the mine were flooded, and the work was suspended. The ledge is of large 



BOYS COMPLETE SUITS, THE LARGEST STOCK IN NEVADA, AT BANNER BROTHERS. 



■WHY, DONT YOU KNOW THAT COLDSMITn SELLS THOSE SILKS. 

MINES OF NEVADA TOWNSHIP. 123 

size, rangiug from one to four feet in width, and gives the most unmistaka- 
ble evidence of being a true fissure vein. At tlic surface, the led,ge is in 
th3 granit-c formation, but at the depth of 200 feet on the incline, it cuts 
into the shite, without a break or fault, and retaining its regular dip. We 
presume operations will be resumed in the mice this spring. The hoisting 
works and preliminary cost of opening the mine, amounted to about $30,000. 
Edwai-d Dunscomb is the superintendent, who is also superintendent of the 
Sneath and Clay, belonging to the same company. 

WIGHAM MINE, 
The Wigham mine is situated a mile and a-half southeast of Nevada, on 
the slope of the hill beyond Gold Flat. It was located in 1851 by R. S. 
Wigham, the agent of a company organized in Pittsburg, who erected a 
mill the same year. It was called the Pittsburg mine, a name ever since 
retained by the owners; but it is popularly known as the Y/igham, taking 
the name of the first owner. The location is 2,000 feet. The mine was 
worked for a year or two, the rock at times yielding largely, but on the 
whole not paying. The company finally became involved and disorganized, 
when Wigham took the mine and mill and assumed the outstanding debts. 
It was worked in 1855 by J. A. Mattiugly and others on a lease, and again 
in 1857 by David Hunt, but with indifferent success. In 1858 the prop- 
erty fell into the hands of some San Francisco capitalists, who had advanced 
money on the mine. In 1862 it was leased to Weeks and Thomas, who 
worked it fifteen months successfully. They took from the mine 3,700 tons 
of ore, which yielded an average of S23 a ton, and the profits to the lessees 
amounted to not far from §40,000. At the expiration of the lease the work 
was suspended, and no effort was made to develop the mine in a systematic 
manner until January, 1866. The owners then made arrangements for 
further explorations, with the view of ascertaining the extent of the pay 
ore, and, if the developments continued favorable, to erect more substantial 
and permanent hoisting and reduction works. S. D. Merchant took charge 
of the work, and in the course of the year 1,700 tons of ore was taken from 
the mine, which yielded in the ■ aggregate $102,000 — being an average of 
ZQO a ton. In that time the mine was opened for a distance of 800 feet 
along the vein, and to a depth on the incline of 380 feet, showing an average 
width of vein of two feet. In that part of the vein opened it is estimated 
that the ore for a distance of 400 feet is worth ^8 a ton, and the remain- 
ing 400 feet is estimated at §50 a ton. Yfithout taking into account the 
1,200 feet of vmprospected ground in the location, the value of the ore in 
the present open levels is put at $300,000. The pay chimney is of no 
great extent near the surface, but increases rapidly with the depth, being 
what is termed an " A chute,'' as distinguished from a " Y chute.'' The 

WATEIi STAINS TOE SALE BY E. F. SPENCE. 



NO WONDER THAT ALL LADIES RUSH TO GOLDSMITH'S. 



124 MINES OF NEVADA TOWNSHIP. 

mine already ranks as one of the best in tlie State, and there is every indi- 
cation that it will continue to improve as the explorations are extended. The 
erection of new hoisting works and mill was commenced last fall, the former 
being completed and started in operation about the first of Febriiary, and 
the mill will probably be running some time in May. T-he hoisting works 
are of the most improved character, and of sufficient capacity to work the 
ledge to a great depth. The mill, which adjoins the hoisting works, has 
ten stamps, of 700 pounds each, and the works are so arranged that the 
rock as it comes from the mine will be dumped in front of the battery. 
Two powerful engines are placed in the same room, one being used for 
hoisting and pumping, and the other to run the mill. The new incline is 
five and a half feet high, fourteen feet wide at the bottom and thirteen at 
the top, is secured by heavy timbers, and has three compartments, the 
outer compartments being used for car tracks, with the pump and stairway 
in the middle. The estimated cost of the hoisting works and mill, with 
other improvements, is $60,000. Several hundred tons of first-class ore 
that has been taken from the tunnels and drifts is now lying at the dump 
of the old works, and by the time the mill is ready to start it is calculated 
that the mine will be opened so as to keep it running without interruption. 
A few years ago the Wigham mine was not considered of much value; and 
the late developments afford a striking illustration of what capital, under 
competent management, can accomplish for the benefit of the capitalist and 
the community. 

WILLOY\^ VALLEY MINE, 
This, ledge was discovered by A. Burrington, in May^ 1865, and located 
by A. and D. Burrington, McCowen, Barton, Pierce and Mchler. It is 
situated near Willow Valley, in the immediate vicinity of where mining 
operations had been carried on for years, the rock cropping out boldly" and 
showing free gold. Prospectors had walked over it time and again, sup- 
posing it to be a ledge of granite bowlders, and never taking the trouble to 
knock off a piece of the rock, which would at once have shown it to be 
quartz. The first crushing yielded large returns, but the water being 
troublesome, a tunnel was projected and run at great expense, which, how 
ever, tapped the ledge at a depth of only fifty or sixty feet. Hoisting 
works were erected in 1866, at a cost of some 18,000, the engine and 
machinery, with the exception of the boiler, being manufactured at the 
Nevada Foundry. An incline has been sunk to the depth of 180 feet, and 
rock to the amount of 800 tons was taken out and worked last year, which 
yielded an average of $22 a ton. The mine, however, has never paid ex- 
penses, and operations were suspended last fall in consequence of the failure 
of some of the owners to pay assessments. The ledge dips at an angle of 



BANNER BROTHERS NEVER TIRE IN SELLING GOODS TO THEIR PATRONS. 



THE REASON IS, IIB KEEPS THE FINEST AND BEST 



MINES OF NEVADA TOWNSHIP. 125 

forty-five degrees, and its average size is from twelve to fourteen inclies. 

The present owners txvQ Messrs. Tallman, Yx^'elch, Marsellus, Cronise, Eddy 

and Barton. It is probable that operations will be resumed on the mine 

this summer. 

OTHER LEDGES. 

We have gone through the list of the more prominent quartz mines now 
being worked in Nevada township, including three or four in which opera- 
tions are temporarily suspended. But there are numerous other ledges in 
the township, which are considered valuable, and some of which have 
yielded large amounts of gold, and been extensively worked. 

The Mattingly ledge is situated on the ridge a mile and a half southeast 
of Nevada. It was first located iu 1852, considerable rock crushed, some 
of which paid ^18 a ton. It wa.s finally abandoned, but re-located in 1861, 
and several crushings taken out, the yield ranging from four to ten dollars. 
In 1866, steam hoisting works were erected under the supervision of Major 
Murdock, and an incline shaft is now being sunk on the ledge. 

The Grant mine is situated on the ridge, between the Mattingly and 
Canada Hill. Steam hoisting works were erected in 1865, and an incline 
sunk to the depth of eighty feet. But the owners became involved, the 
property was attached and sold by the Sheriff in 1866, Crawford & Co. 
being the purchasers. 

The Best Chance ledge is situated on the ridge near Canada Hill, and 
the location includes 1,600 feet. Steam hoisting works have been erected 
at the ledge, and an incline sunk to the depth of eighty feet — the vein 
being three feet in width. It is owned by Barnett, Thompson, Taft, and 
others. 

The North Star ledge adjoins the Best Chance, and is also a large vein. 
It is owned by Gentry, Allison, Power, and others. 

The ledge of Kobinson and McCutchan lies west of Canada Hill. An 
engine for hoisting and pumping was put up in 1865, and an incline started 
on the vein, but the work was suspended for want of means. 

The Potosi mine is near the Wigham, and has yielded considerable rich 
ore. It is owned by Thomas, Byrnes and others, who erected steam hoist- 
ing works in 1865. Work will probably be resumed this season. 

The Union No. 2 is on the ridge a mile east of Nevada, and is an old 
location. Steam hoisting works were put up last year and an incline com- 
menced ; but the work was suspended on account of the owners lacking the 
means to carry it on successfully. It is owned by Ferre and Phillips. 

The Eagle ledge is half a mile east of town, and was worked in different 
places, at an early day, and by two or three different companies. In that 
part of the ledge running through Gallows Flat rock was taken that yielded 

BEAD SPENCE'S ADVERTISEMENT, ON PAGE IV. 



ASSORTED STOCK OF DRY GOODS IN THE COTJNTIT; 



126 MINES OF NEVADA TOWNSHIP. 

over a hundred dollars a ton. The owners failed from bad management. 
A tunnel, commencing at Deer creek, has since been run a distance of 500 
or 600 feet, but it cuts the vein only a few feet below the old works. The 
ledge is now owned by S. B. Davenport. 

The first north extension of the Banner is a location of 300 feet, owned 
by Tisdale and Stiles. It has been opened by a shaft to the depth of sev- 
enty or eighty feet, and the rock yielded some ^18 and $20 a ton. The 
owners intend to put up first-class hoisting works this season. 

The second extension north of the Banner is owned by Niles, Halladie, 
Tilton, Bean, Graves, Sherman and Grilleland. The company run a tunnel 
last fall and struck the vein at a depth of eighty feet, but took out no rock. 
They will resume operations this season. 

The extension of the Banner south has -never been traced, unless it may 
be the Belle Oro, a promising claim, situated 2,000 feet south of the Banner 
works, and owned by Mattingly and others. 

The Railroad ledge, on Gold Flat, has furnished considerable very rich 
ore, but has never been worked systematically, and the owners are unable 
to put on pumping and hoisting machinery, the only way by which it can 
be worked. 

The Mammoth is a large ledge, owned by Hirschman, Nicholson and 
others, situated on Deer creek, about a mile above the Oriental mill. The 
ore is of the sulphuret character, and if the vein was opened and worked 
ou a large scale would probably yield good profits. 

The Magnolia, owned by Carr and Doud, near Willow Valley, has furn- 
ished considerable good ore but has never been worked below the water 
level. 

The Slate Creek ledge, above Willow Valley, has also turned out very 
rich ore, though not a very large amount. The vein can not be opened 
except by expensive machinery. 

The Harvey ledge, near Wood's ravine, has been worked at different 
times, and generally with good results. The ledge is of good size, and the 
different lots of rock crushed have yielded from twelve to twenty-five dollars 
a ton. 

The Home mine, at the mouth of Wood's Ravine, has furnished many 
fine specimens, and one or two crushings made at the Cornish mill have 
yielded excellent returns. It is owned by Thomas Findley and others, who 
intend to erect steam hoisting works this summer. 

In the foregoing hastily written and imperfect sketches of the quartz 
mines of Nevada township, the writer has endeavored to give the leading 
incidents connected with the location and first attempts to develop the prin- 
cipal mines. Being compelled to rely mostly upon memory, it is very 

GENTS' PUNISHING GOODS, AN EKDLBSS VARIETY, AT BANNER BROTHERS, 



AND ms LOW PRICES WILL SUIT ETSRY ONE. 



MINES OF NEVADA TOWNSHIP. 127 

likely that some of the statements are inaccurate, and that many facts of 
interest have been left unnoticed. Every mine has its history, and tradi- 
tions which beconie more interesting with the lapse of time. It is quite 
probable that some of our quartz veins will be yielding their treasures cen- 
turies hence, and no greater boon can be conferred on those who succeed 
us than the preservation of authentic records of the early workings of the 
several mines. The most the writer can hope is, that the meager details 
relate€[ above may induce mine owners and superintendents to gather up 
and preserve such records. 



SULPHURET REDUCTION WORKS. 

The sulphuret reduction works of Oscar Maltman are situated a mile from 
Nevada, on the Grass Valley road, and were erected in the latter part of 
1858. It was the first practical attempt on the coast to reduce auriferous 
sulphurets by the chlorinizing process, and to Maltman and G-. F. Dcetken 
is due the credit of its success. It was known that the sulphurets concen- 
trated from tlie quartz pulp, as crushed in the mills, contained gold in con- 
siderable quantities, and Maltman and Deetken had been experimenting 
with the view of extracting the metal by a process cheaper than smelting. 
Their first experiments were not successful, and after repeated failures they 
went to Washoe and engaged in silver mining. Here they gained new 
ideas in relation to the working of metals, and in 1860 they returned to 
resume their experiments, and the first attempt was a success.. From that 
time all the various kinds of sulphurets from the quartz and cement mines 
of the county have been reduced at the works, and no serious difiiculty has . 
been encountered. In 1862, Deetken sold out his interest in the business 
and reduction works to Maltman, who has since continued to enlarge the 
works and improve himself in the art of reducing the refractory ores. 
Since the business was commenced, 1,400 tons of sulphurets have been 
reduced at the works, producing an average of §140 a ton, making an aggre- 
gate of near §200,000. The average working of the sulphurets has come 
up to ninety-five per cent, of the fire assay. The charges for working sul- 
phurets varies from §40 to §50 a ton, some being more difficult to reduca 
than others. Maltman at present has facilities for working fourteen tons a 
week, his establishment being the most extensive in the State, and the 
amount saved by our quartz miners has been steadily increasing for several 
years. The profits derived from the sulphurets has materially contributed 
to the success of quartz mining in this county. After Deetken sold out 
his interest in the Nevada establishment, he erected works on a similar 
plan in San Francisco, regarding that as the most central point for procuring 

PAMILY MEDICINES CAREFULLY PREPARED BY E. F. SPENCE. 



GOLDSMITH SELLS DRY GOODS TWENTY-FIVE PER CENT. CHEAPER THAN ANY BODY ELSE. 



128 MINES OF NEVADA TOWNSHIP. 

^ ___ _ 

sulplmrets from different parts of the State. There is no especial secret in 
the process; but to beneficiate the ores successfully requires practice and 
skill, the same as in any mechanical occupation or art. In Kustel's work 
on the processes of gold and silver extraction, he describes the chlorinizing 
process, as employed by Maltman and Deetken : 

The tailings are subjected first to calcination in a roasting furnace, witliout being 
sifted. No salt is used, as it sometimes causes a loss of gold. The roasting is 
performed ia tbe usual way by stirring the mass at a lov/ temperature till Ml the 
sulphurets or arseniurets are decomposed. An addition of charcoal powder favors 
the roasting. After six or eight hoiu'S, when no odor of sulx^hurous acid is observed, 
the ore is discharged, spread on a proper place and cooled. The tailings or ore is 
then sprinkled with water and shoveled over several times. A little too dry or too 
wet has a great influence on the result of chlorination. 

When moistened, the stuff is introduced into wooden tubs about seven feet in 
diameter and twenty-five or thirty inches deep. These tubs have a prepared bot- 
tom, which allows the entrance of chlorine gas from beneath into the mass of tail- 
ings. Near the bottom are two holes, one for the discharge of the solution, the 
other communicates by a lead pipe with a leaden gas generator. The generator is 
filled to a certain height with perosyd of manganese and salt. Sulphuric acid is 
introduced by a lead pipe. As soon as the mixture becomes hot, by the fire imder- 
neath the generator, the chlorine gas commences to be evolved and enters the tub 
through the connecting lead pipe. 

After some hom-s the whole mas is strongly penetrated and the greenish gas lies 
heavy on the tailings. The tub is closed by a wooden cover. In this condition it 
remains for ten or fifteen hours, when the cover is removed and clean water intro- 
duced. As soon as the water reaches the surface of the tailings, the discharge pipe 
is opened, and the water, containing the dissolved chloride of gold, is led into glass 
vessels. An addition of suli)huret of iron, precipitates the gold in metallic condi- 
tion as a black-brown powder. If there are silver sulphurets in the ore, they, by 
roasting without salt, are converted mostly into sulphates, and in subsequent con- 
tact with chlorine, into chlorides which are not soluble in water, and remain in the 
tailings. The gohi is therefore 995 fine. 



PLACER MINES. 

The placer mines of Nevada township, though not yielding as much gold 
as in former years, are still worked quite extensively, and are the main re- 
liance of a large proportion of the population. There are a few companies 
conducting operations on a large scale, and generally with success, besides 
numerous independent miners working the gulches and ravines in a small 
way, and with varied success. 

The Brush Creek diggings are perhaps the most extensive and productive 
of any now being worked in the township. The ground in the locality was 
originally located in claims of sixty feet square, in 1851, each owner work- 
ing his own claim. Sixty-one of these claims are now consolidated in one 



IF YOU WISH A FINE DKESS SUIT CALL ON BANNER BROTHERS, 



GOLDSMITn'S JIOTTO IS QUICK SALES AND SMALL PROFITS. 



MINES OF NEVADA TOWNSHIP. 129 

body, and owned by Hall & Pcabody ; and a gentleman wbo lias long re- 
sided in the vicinity, and had tlie best means of knowing, estimates that 
the claims have yielded an aggregate of three million dollars. Lones & Co., 
who owned part of the ground, took out of their claims $300,000, and in 
18G3 sold out to Eall & Peabody for 628,000. The yield of the claims in 
1866 was 832,000, the profits to the owners being §12,000, and it is ex- 
pected that the yield will be much larger in 1867. The work is carried on 
entirely by ground-sluicing, the diggings being shallov/, and sixteen men 
are employed the most of the year. 

The Shively diggings extend from Sclby Hill to Brush creek, and include 
about a section of ground. It was taken up in 1851, in claims of sixty feet 
square, and the yield of the ground is estimated at about a million dollars. 
The richest of the ground was worked out many years ago, the original 
locators selling out the portions of their claims that would not pay for 
working by the methods adopted in early days. But by consolidating the 
claims, and working by the hydraulic hose, the present owners have been 
deriving regular incomes from the diggings for some years. The yield of 
these ciaims in 1865 was 630,000. In 1866 the yield was only 613,000, 
the decrease being occasioned by a failure to obtain water a portion of the 
season ; but the claims have always yielded a profit. It is calculated that 
the ground owned by the company will not be worked out under ten years. 
The claims are owned by Henry Shively, Niles, Dunn, and somo others. 

The Lost Hill diggings are situated in the corporation limits of Nevada, 
on the westerly side of the town proper, and were located early in the spring 
of 1853, by Amos T. Laird, I. Williamson, I. N. Dawley, Ferguson, and 
others. The gold was found on the surface, among the grass roots, but the 
ground had not been located on account of the supposed difficulty of getting 
water on the hill. The locators overcome this difficulty by constructing, at 
a trifling cost, a small a("{ueduct to convey the water across a depression in 
the ground. Some forty or fifty men were employed the first season, and 
the work was carried on that year by ground-sluicing. The next season. 
Laird, who was superintendent of the work, attempted to use the hydraulic, 
but from some defect in the apparatus it was a failure, and he thrsw it 
aside, declaring the hydraulic a humbug. A deep cut having been made 
in the hill, the work was carried on in 1851 by what was known as " bench- 
ing,'' and at one time a hundred miners were employed in the claims. The 
claims paid remarkably well the first two seasons, worked in the primitive 
style of mining. In 1855, Laird was compelled by his partners to put up 
a hydraulic apparatus, by which means the claims yielded a much larger 
profit to the owners. The work was continued that season and until the 
middle of the summer of 1856, when operations were suspended, and in 
p 



B. F. SPENCE, BROAD STREET, NEVADA, KEEPS TUB BEST AND PUREST OE DRUGS. 



ALL OBDEES FEOM THE COUNTRY WILT, BE PROMPTLY FILLED AT GOLDSMITH'S, 



130 MINES OF NEVADA TOWNSHIP. 

consequence of the claims being in litigation, and tlie higli price of water, 
the work was not restimed until 1865. In tlie spring of tlie latter year, 
Williamson made arrangements to resume the work, which has been con- 
tinued ever since when water could be had. The water is now conducted 
to the diggings through thirteen-inch iron pipes, for a distance of 4,000 
feet, and having a fall of 160 feet. Some twenty-five or thirty acres of 
ground has been sluiced off, the hill in some places being a hundred feet 
deep. The claims have paid a profit every year, with the exception, per- 
haps, of 1865, when the outlay for pipes and other preliminary expenses 
had been unusually heavy. The diggings have yielded about $150,000 in 
all. The claims now belong to William B. Ferguson, who was one of the 
original owners, and is working them successfully this season. 

The claims on American and Wet Hills were located at a very early day, 
and worked by means of shafts sunk to the bed rock. In this manner large 
amounts were taken out, though the work was difficult and expensive on 
account of the superabundance of water. Subsequently tunnels were r^in 
and outlets made to Deer creek, and the ground was sluiced off from the 
surface down by the hydraulic. The most of the ground at length fell into 
the hands of a single company, and finally became the property of Josiah 
Rogers. He worked the claims some years with varying success ; and an- 
other company are now running a tunnel from the upper part of the dig- 
gings, with the view of striking the channel in Oustomah Hill. We have 
no reliable information as to the yield of the claims on American and Wet 
Hills, as the most of the workers and former owners have left, but a gen- 
tleman who was interested in some claims on Wet Hill at an early day, says 
it will count up in the millions. 

The claims of R. E. Craig & Co., and of the Onc-Horse Company, on 
Oustomah Hill, have recently been opened into the channel. The One- 
Horse. claims were taken up in 1853, John T. Crenshaw and W. B. Ewer 
being among the locators. The company sunk a shaft to the gravel, by 
means of a hand windlass, and by hard bailing were able to get out a bucket 
or two of the gravel, which prospected rich, and encouraged the owners to 
go to a heavy expense in draining the ground. The company was not able, 
or at least thought they were not, to put up a steam engine for pumping, 
and so adopted the far more expensive project of running a tunnel. This 
■ was done in partnership with the Craig Company, the tunnel being intended 
to drain both diggings. It has been run a distance of 700 or 800 feet, 
mostly through blasting rock, and at an immense cost — the One-Horse 
claims changing owners over and over again. Last fall the Craig claims 
were drained, and that company are now reaping the reward of their perse- 
verance. The drain has recently been extended to the One-Horse claims. 



IE YOU WANT A FINE SUIT OF CLOTHING GO TO BANNER BROTHERS. 



BOYS AND MISSES UNDERWEAR AT GOLDSMITH'S. 



MINES OF NEVADA TOWNSHIP, 131 

and botli companies have splendid prospects. It is probable an effort will 
be made during tlie present season to trace the channel eastwardly from the 
ground of the One-Horse Company. Its course is supposed to be not far 
from the west gap of Sugar Loaf and through Selby Flat. 

The ground at present comprised in the Mauzanita diggings, and owned 
by Marsellus & Maltman, was located in 1852 by four different companies 
— Eversall & Womack, Tuett, Craddock & Co., the Mountain Summit, and 
the Pacific Company. Shafts were sunk to the bed rock by the different 
companies, and the gravel drifted out and raised to the surface by hand 
windlasses and whims. The claims were worked in this manner for some 
years, and at length were consolidated and known as the Tomlinson dig- 
gings, when a bed-rock tunnel was run for draining, and the ground sluiced 
off by the hydraulic from the surface down. Previous to the consolidation, 
it is estimated that the four companies had taken out gold to the amount 
of ^750,000. How much the ground yielded subsequent to the' consolida- 
tion, we have no knowledge, but it must have been up in the hundred 
thousands, as the working was expensive and a number of the owners real- 
ized snug fortunes. Further up the ridge, and on the same channel, were 
the celebrated Young America, Live Oak and Nebraska claims. The 
Young America ground yielded in all §110,000, and that of the Live Oak 
Company $475,000. The gross yield of the Nebraska ground can not now 
be ascertained with exactness, but from November, 1858, to June, 1860, 
while the woi'k was conducted under the efficient superintendence of C. H. 
Seymour, the yield was ^353,000, and $30,000 was taken out subsequently. 
It was estimated, at the time the work was suspended, that the diggings 
had yielded, previous to the time Seymour took charge, not less than 
$250,000, making $633,000 in all, and the total of the three companies 
$1,218,000. Add to this the yield of the other four companies, and we 
have within a fraction of two million dollars, without counting that taken 
out by the Tomlinson Company, and by the Bourbon, United States, Irish, 
Nevada, Keystone, and other companies, which were mostly working on the 
outwashes of the main lead, and which must have amounted to another 
million. Here we have a yield of three million dollars from one channel, 
within a distance of but little over 3,000 feet, and some four hundred feet 
of this ground, between the Pacific and Live Oak diggings, yielded no pay, 
there being a break in the channel. There is the best reason to believe 
that the Nebraska channel extends far up the ridge, perhaps ten or fifteen 
miles. The Harmony Company got into the same channel a mile and a 
quarter above the upper workings of the Nebraska Company, and took out 
some $60,000, bu.t having started in on the wrong side of the ridge they 
could not work the ground profitably. There are two or three locations 

E. j!\ SPBNCE, DRUOGIST AND APOTHECARY, BROAD STREET, NEVADA CITY. 



THE ONLY PLACE TO GET THE BEST GOODS IS AT GOLDSMITH'S. 



132 MINES OF NEVADA TOWNSHIP. 

between the Nebraska and Harmony, and the ground of the Cold Spring 
Company adjoins the Harmony above. It is expected that some of these 
companies will commence operations, under favorable auspices, this season. 

Considerable mining was carried on at Scotch Flat, seven miles above 
Nevada, at an early day. The work was mostly done by sluicing, and so 
far as known no very rich strikes were made, though the claims are under- 
stood to have yielded fair returns. In the course of the mining operations, 
it was ascertained that there was a deep channel, having its course under 
the flat, and repeated efforts were made to reach the bottom, but without 
success. Several shafts were sunk — one to the depth of 150 feet — but 
they were unable to go to the bed rock on account of the water, and inad- 
equate pumping machinery. Gravel, containing fair prospects of gold, 
extended as deep as they went. The owners of the claims, however, had 
not the means to erect powerful machinery, and the locality was pretty 
much abandoned by the miners for some years. In 1865, a number of the 
old claims having been purchased, and additional ground located, arrange- 
ments were made by several companies to work into the hills by hydraulic 
process. The companies had some difficulty last year in procuring water, 
but this we understand has now been overcome. The principal companies 
are Baker & Ashmun, Morrow & Cobb., Jacobs & Sargent, and Holmes, 
Osborn & Co. Merrow & Cobb made considerable money last year, which 
enabled them to purchase additional ground, and greatly increase their 
facilities. The prospect is favorable for all the companies this season. 

At Sailor Flat, a mile and a half above Scotch Flat, there is also a deep 
channel, the bottom of which has never been reached, and is believed to 
be a continuation of that at Scotch Flat. This was undoubtedly the bed 
of an ancient stream, which had cut a deep gorge in the mountains, and so 
far as our knowledge extends, is the only ancient channel in the township 
which is deeper than the channels of the present running streams. . 

There are numerous other placer mining companies carrying on operations 
in the township, some of which are yielding largely, and others only mode- 
rate returns ; but we have not space to enter further into details. Two or 
three companies are still working on Gold Flat, and the diggings of H. 
McCormick, on Hitchcock ravine, have been yielding a fair profit for many 
years. The owners of the flumes in Little Deer creek and Coyote ravine, 
which conduct the tailings from the diggings above into Deer creek, have 
derived steady incomes therefrom, the cleaning up of the flumes once or 
twice a year being theprincipal labor. The Mammoth Company, further 
up Deer creek, are working their claims quite extensively this season, and 
with good prospects. The general supposition that the surface diggings 
are worked out, though it has had the effect to deter miners from pros- 

TILE LAKGEST STOCK OF CLOTHING IN THE MOUNTAINS IS AT BANNER BROTHEItS. 



OOLDSJlItli fiEFIES ALL COMPETITION, 



INDUSTRIAL ESTABLISHMENTS. 133 

pccting, is far from being correct. Several gravel claims have been opened 
in the township this spring, which are paying remarkably well at the pres- 
ent rate of wages. The big strikes, however, are not so common now as in 
the early days of mining, and generally are only made after a considerable 
outlay in opening the deep hill diggings, requiring steam engines for 
pumping, or extensive drain tunnels. 



INDUSTRIAL ESTABLISHMENTS. 



NEVADA FOUNDRY. 

The Nevada Foundry, Heugh & Thorn proprietors, is situated on the 
corner of Spring and Bridge streets, and is the most extensive industrial 
establishment in the township. The foundry was started on a small scale 
in 1855, by E. Coker, who rented for the purpose a building on Spring 
street, in the rear of the present National Exchange. The establishment 
was destroyed by the fire of 185G, after which the present site was selected. 
Coker sold out the same year to Thoni & Williams, and since 1859 Heugh 
& Thorn have been the proprietors. The business of the foundry consists 
mostly in the manufacture of steam engines, for hoisting works and mills, 
coatings for quartz mills, pans for amalgamating, and other machinery con- 
nected with mining. The largest casting made at this foundry was the 
mortar of a quartz mill, weighing 5,600 pounds, and is believed to be the 
heaviest mortar in the State. They have facilities to make castings of 
8,000 pounds, or four tons. Twenty-two hands, on the average, were em- 
ployed at the foundry last year, and the value of the castings and other 
work turned out yearly is about §50,000. The business has been gradually 
increasing since the foundry was started, and parties erecting quartz mills 
or hoisting works in the vicinity, usually prefer having the castings made 
here, under their own supervision, and where they can readily obtain du- 
plicates if needed. 

NEVADA CITY FLOURING MILLS. 

This establishment was erected by Bennett & Tilley, in the spring of 
1856, and is situated on the south side of Deer creek, in the corporation 
limits. It is a large, three-story building, having four run of stones, two 
engines and boilers, with the capacity of turning out 150 barrels of flour 
iu twenty four-hours. The engines used in the mill were manufacturned 

IF YOU WANT PURE DRUGS AND MEDxCINJSS YOU CAN FIND THEM AT SPENCJi'S. 



IF YOU WANT THE LATEST STYLE OP HOOP SKIRTS GO TO GOLDSMITH'S. 



134 " INDUSTRIAL ESTABLISHMENTS. 

V 

by Dickinson & Clark, at Grass Valley, and were probably tbe first engines 
made in the mountains. The mill is not worked up to its full capacity, as 
market for tlie flour is limited, but for some years past it has turned out 
15,000 barrels annually, besides grinding large quantities of corn, barley, 
etc. The wheat ground at the mill is brought up from Eear river, Coon 
creekj Feather river, and some from as far as Cache creek, and the flour 
has the reputation of being the best made in the State, selling at a better 
price in this county and also in Nevada State. Formerly, a considerable 
proportion of the flour was sent across the mountains, but the most of it is 
now consumed in this county. There was formerly a flouring mill at Grass 
Valley, also owned by Bennett & Tilley, but it was not run regularly, and 
was destroyed by fire some four years ago. 0. C. Torson and Jonathan 
Clark are the present owners of the Nevada Mills. 

STILES'S CABINET FACTORY. 

This establishment is situated on the south side of Deer creek, near the 
suspension bridge, and was erected, in connection with the quartz mill, in 
1861. The building is three stories high, the quartz mill being in the 
basement and the upper stories appropriated to the manufacture of furni- 
ture, sash, doors, blinds, planing and dressing lumber, and all kinds of wood 
"work. The factory is supplied with planing machines, circular saws, turn- 
ing lathes, a variety of molding machines, etc., all of the latest improve- 
ments. The machinery is propelled by a large water wheel, and the 
establishment, we believe, is the largest of the kind in the county. From 
eight to twelve men are ordinarily employed in the various kinds of work. 
It is now owned by W. C. Stiles. 

HUGHES'S PLANIXG MILL. 
The establishment is situated on Washington street, in the rear of Court 
House Block. It was started soon after the fire of 1856, and was purchased 
early in 1857 by Black & Hughes, the latter becoming the sole proprietor 
in 1863. In the fall of the latter year the building, together with most of 
the machinery, was destroyed by fire, but was immediately rebuilt, and 
supplied with new and improved machinery. Since that time there has 
been annually about 250,000 feet of lumber planed and dressed at the 
establishment, much of it finding a market east of the mountains. The 
machinery is driven by steam power, a new and larger engine and planing 
raackine having lately been added. 

MACHINE SHOP." 

The machine shop of Frank H. Fisher occupies a room in Stiles's cabinet 
factory, and was started about the beginning of the present year. He has 
two engine lathes — one a self-feeder and the other a hand-feeder — for 



GO TO BANNER BROTIIERS CLOTHING EMPORIUM, CORNER OF BROAD AND PINE STS. 



GOLDSMITH'S DIIYGOODS STORE IS THE PLACE TO GET GOODS CUEAP. 



COUNTY HOSPITAL. 135 



working in iron, brass and other metals. The work mostly consists in 
cutting and fitting machinery of quartz mills, hoisting works, pans, etc. 
NEVADA TANNERY. 
In the year 1862 Kelsey & Butler erected an establishment for tanning 
leather, on the outskirts of the town, near the county hospital. About 
S2,000 worth of leather was turned out last year, mostly harness and sole 
leather, and of a very good quality. They have a steam engine for grinding 
the bark, thirty-two vats, and the facilities for tanning and working 1,200 
hides annually. The bark of the black oak has heretofore been mostly 
used for tanning; but from some experiments made it is believed that the 
live oak bark is better for the purpose, and this will probably be substituted 
in future. As large quantities of hides are sent below from this county, 
for shipment, and the most of the leather used here is imported, there is a 
wide field for increasing the tanning business. 

PACIFIC SOAP WOIJKS. 
This establishment, for the manufacture of soap for family and other use, 
was started last winter, under the superintendence of J. B. Henry. A 
considerable quantity has been manufactured, but the works being started 
at a time when the merchants had full supplies of goods on hand, the sales 
thus far have been limited, amounting, up to the 1st of March, to 5,000 
pounds. The house and works are situated on Coyote street, above the 
gas works. 



COUNTY HOSPITAL. 

The Nevada County Hospital is situated three-quarters of a mile north- 
cast of the town proper, and was erected in the spring of 1860. Previous 
to that time, a building had been rented in the town, where the indigent 
sick of the county were cared for ; but being compelled to pay a high rent 
for an inconvenient and badly-arranged building, and there being much 
objection to having the hospital in the immediate vicinity of residences, 
the Supervisors purchased the present hospital lot in the outskirts of town. 
The cost of the original building, with the kitchen and dining room, was 
^2,300, and including the amount paid for the lot, the fencing, digging 
well, etc., the total cost was ,^2,600. It was undoubtedly the cheapest job 
ever done for the county. Two or three years later a wing, two stories 
high, was erected at a cost of S800. The cost of the improvements and 
repairs has not exceeded ^50 a year. The main building is seventy by thirty- 
feet ; the kitchen and dining room forty by thirty feet, and the wing twenty 



GO TO SPBNCE'S FOR YOUJi DRUGS, PAINTS, OILS, VARNISHES, ETC., HE KEEPS THE BEST. 



ALL GOODS SOLD AT GOLDSMITH'S ARE WARRANTEDi 



136 COUNTY HOSPITAL. 



by thirty feet. The accommodations at the hospital are sufficient for fifty 
patients. Dr. R. M. Hunt was appointed County Physician in February, 
1859, and has held the position ever since. During that time there have 
been 967 indigent patients treated, and eighty-seven deaths in all — the 
deaths averaging eleven in a year. Since the present hospital was erected, 
the number of patients have ranged from fifteen to forty, the average being 
about twenty -five. Among' the patients are a number who have received 
incurable injuries in the mines, disqualifying them from earning a living, 
and have become objects of public charity. The hospital is supported by 
a tax levied on the property of the county, and which is annually collected 
with the other taxes. The supervisors are authorized to fix the tax as high 
as thirty cents on the hundred dollars, but the levy for tho present year is - 
only eighteen cents. The hospital building is insured against accidents by 
fire, in the sum of S3,000. 



BANNER BROTHERS, CORNER BROAD AND PINE STREETS, KEEP THE BEST OLOTniNG. 



THE LARGEST VARIETY OF DRESS TRIMMINGS ARE TO BE FOUND AT GOLDSMITH'S. 



THE 



NEVADA TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY, 

For the Year commencing January 1st, 1867. 



-flL3S:B3Ft3E:T7"I-A.TI01!^St. 



ag't Agent 

av Aveuiie 

bda. Boards 

Co Company 

cor Corner 

E East 

inak Maker 

N North 

Nat Ex National Exohango 

prop Proprietor 

r Road 



res Resides orRosidcnco 

S South 

at Street 

sup't '. Superintendent 

W .' West 

STREETS. 

Com Commercial 

Br'd Broad 

Nov Nuvada 

Wash Washington 



Abbott J. C. carpenter, res Lost Hill 
Adair Issac, minor, res Prospect Hill 
ADDAJVIS J. P. Now York IIotel,Broad st 
Adams John, laborer, Broad street 
Adams Saninel, miner, Deer creek 
Adsit Hyman, miner. Willow Valley 
Ahern Michael, miner. Lost Plill 
Alexander Preston, laborer, Main street 
Alford M. fanner, Kock creek 
Allen A. M. gas factor. Gas Works 
Allen B. T. carpenter, Gas Works 
Allen D. W. miner, bds Nat Ex Hotel 
Allen John, miner, Canada Hill 
Allen Thomas, miner. Rock creek 
Allen William, miner 
Allin Richard, miner 
Allison Samuel, farmer, Bom-bon Hill 
Allyn Geo. W. miner, 
Alty Mathew, miner, Coyote street 
Anderson B. miner, Selby Flat 
Anderson Cyrus, miner, at Pennsylvania 

mine 
Anderson Isaac, miner, Selby Flat 
Anderson James, miner, Selby Flat 
Anderson John, lawyer, bds Union Hotel 
Anderson Jennie, housekeeper. Pine st 
Angove William, miner, Gold Flat 
ANTELOPE RESTAURANT, A. Gault, 

Broad st 
Antonio Joseph, miner. Rush creek 
Antonio J. miner. Rush creek 
Arnstett Michael, gardener. Water street 
Arbegast Joseph, miner, Oregon Hill 
Arbegast Jacob B. miner, Rock creek 
Arbegast Jacob P. miner, Rock creek 
Armour F. G. miner. Blue Tent 
Q 



Arnold Abuer, miner, 
Ashor Wm. C!. miner. Black's bridge 
Ashburn H. A. miner, Scotch Flat 
Ashmim Wells, miner. Providence mill 
Atwood B. J. miner. Park avenue 
Austin L. B. miner, Selby Flat 
Austin Silas, miner. East Broad street 

B 

Babeock F. A. clerk, Soggsville 
BACIGALUPI G. B. grocer. Broad street 
BACIGALUPI J. B. grocer. Broad street 
BACIGALUPI W. F. grocer. Broad st 
Baechtal Jacob, miner, Oriental mill 
Baechtal W. S. miner. Oriental mill 
Bailey Nathaniel, miner. Broad st 
Bailey W. H. laborer, Park avenue 
BAKER & MARTIN, grocers. Broad st 
BAKER D. S. (of B. & Martin) res Mill st 
Baker M. D. miner. Piety Hill 
Baker Sherman, miner, Scotch Flat 
Baker Otis, miner, Scotch Flat 
Baldridge E. C. miner. East Broad street 
Baldridgc J. H. miner, East Broad street 
Bahh^an Jack, miner. Gold Flat 
Bakhvin William, 
Ball W. S. 

BALTZ & GUNTHER, saloon, Com'l st 
BALTZ PHILIP, saloon keepr, residence 

Bowlder street 
BANNER BROTHERS, Clothing Mer- 
chants, corner Broad and Pine streets 
BANNER A. (of Banner Brothers) 
BANNER P. (of Banner Brothers) 
BANNER S. (of Banner Brothers) 



HAIR RESTORATIVE PREPARED BY B. F. SPBNCE. 



138 



GOLDSMITH KEEPS ON HAND A LARGfE ASSORTMENT OV gAN FRANCISCO 



NEVADA TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY, 



Banner Extension, W. C. Stiles agent, 

Bannei'\"ille 
Banner Extension Xo. 3, E. F. Bean ag't, 

Bannerville 
Baptist Churcli, W. J. Wirtli, pastor, cor 

Pine and Spring streets 
BARKER CHARLES, County Collector, 

office at Court House 
Barker Julius, carpenter, Nevada street 
Barnett R. P. miner, Canada Hill 
Barniun E. W. farmer, WasMng-ton road 
Barr T. M. blacksmith. Gold Flat 
Barrett James, miner, Oriental mill 
Barrett Micliael, laborer, Gregory's mill 
Barry Richard, butcher, Sacramento st 
BARTON ARTHUR, horseshoer. Coyote 

street, bds Union Hotel 
Barton F. E. blacksmith, foot Broad s-t 
Barton William, blacksmith, Coyote st 
Barton W. B. blacksmith. Main st 
Barton M. miner, Soggs^dlle 
BARUH A. saloon keeper. Commercial 

street, residence Main street 
Bassah John, miner, UniouA'ille 
Bastian James, miner, Union\ulle 
Bates Franklin, miner, Main sti-eet 
BATES C. M. physician, office Masonic 

building, res Broad st 
Bates Thomas, miner. Gold Flat 
BAZLEY JOHN, saloon keeper, corner 

Pine and Commercial sts 
Baxter L. niiner, Scotch Flat 
BEAN E. F. County Assessor, Publisher 

Daily Gazette, res Bowlder st 
Beatty John, teamster, Union^^ille 
Beckhanr Alfred, 

BECKIMAN C. saloon keepr, res E Br'd st 
Beffii Fortuna, farmer. Willow Valley 
BELDEN DAVID, lawyer, res Piety "Hill 
Belden John, clerk, res Broad street 
Belt Thos. D. farmer, Washington road 
Belle Oro Mining Co., J. A. Mattingly 

agent, Bannerville 
Bemis 0. S. butcher, 
Bennett C. niiner, 

Bennett J. B. tinsmith, at Geo. Keeney's 
Bennenger Charles, miner. Oriental mill 
Bentley David, cl'k with Gregory &Waite 
Benton R. S. teamster. Gold Flat 
Benard J. 

Beagle Thomas M. muier, Canada Hill 
Berry James, 
Berry E. S. miner. 
Best Chance Mining Co. R. P. Barnett 

agent, Canada Hill 
Bethel J. D. miner, Unionville 
BIGELOW E. W. grain and feed store. 

Main street, residence Piety Hill 
Bigelow L. G. engineer, Bannerville 
Binsley Jas. water ditch. Deer creek 
Binsley John, miner. Deer creek 
Birdsall D. H. miner, Cunnino-ham mine 



BLACK & HURLBUT, bootmakers, shop 

on Broad street 
Black C. E. bootmaker, res Broad street 
Black John, miner, WilloAv Valley 
Black J. M. bridge, South Yuba river 
Black William, miner. Blue Tent 
Blair William, miner, Blue Tent 
Blake H. 

Blake Jere, miner, Selby Hill 
Blackemcre Thos. J. minex, Blue Tent 
BLIVEN & EVERINGHAM, crockery 

merchants, Commercial st 
BLIVEN S^IJMUEL N. (of B.&Evering- 

ham) res cor Pine and Cottage st 
Bhun Mrs. N. Temperance Hall 
Blum Marcus, musician. Temp Hall 
Blue Tent Lumber Comijany, Cooper a^t 

Blue Tent 
Blumentlial A, tailor. Commercial st 
Blmnenthal S, peddler. Commercial st 
Bluett John, miner, Washington road 
Boardiuan J. H. printer. Transcript office, 

res Broad st 
Bond Erastus, miner, Nevada street 
Bolton C. 11. ranclmian, Bhie tent 
Bolton A. J. miner. Blue Tent 
Boomhower Elias, teamster. Ice Co 
Booth Elijah, jobber. East Broad street 
Bost John, gardner, Mud Flat 
Bowker V/illiam, hostler, Tel Stage Co 
BoA-ier Charles, miner, Gold Flat 
B(jv.'en Horace, capitalist. Broad street 
Bowden Richard S. miner, Cornish mill 
Bradford N. B. miner. Palmer's mill 
BRADLEY H. S. Coimty Surveyor, res 

Maiden Lane 
Bradley W. H. miner, bds Dickennan's 
Brainard Chas. H. miner, Gold Flat 
Brannigan John, miner. West Broad st 
Brannigan Thos. miner. West Broad st 
Bremer H. clerk, v/ith J. Neffzigar ' 
BRIGGS A. K. merchant, Pine street 
Briggs Anson, carpenter. Water street 
Briscoe Louis, gardener. Spring street 
Brock Thomas, miner. Gold Flat 
Brodie John, butcher, at J. Monro's 
BROV' N & DEAL, publishers Transcript 
Brown Raymond G. saddler, bds Pine st 
Brown Alba, Theater saloon 
BroAvii E. W. mas(jn. Piety Hill 
BROWN J. EARL, sup't City Water 

Works, bds Nevada street 
Brown James, clerk, with E. W. Bigelow 
Brown J. W. miner, Oro Fino mill 
Brown Michael, miner, Washington road 
BROWN N. P. (of B. & Deal) res East 

Broad st 
Brown \^^illiana, teamster. Park avenue 
Bryant J. H. miner. Round Momitain 
Buchanan Joseph, carpenter, 
Buckner Thomas, miner, res cor Broad & 
Commercial sts 



BANNER BROTHERS ARK IN THE KIDD & KNOX BLOCK, COR. BROAD AND PINE STS. 



CrSTOM-MABK OAITEIIS AND BALMORALS, llUE BEST IN MARKET. 



NEVADA TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 



139 



Buckley M. miner, Wasliington road 
Buhiclier Fred, butclicr. Commercial st, 

Ti'S East Broad st 
Biim<rardnpr J. II. miiiei', Selby Flat 
BuuiiL'lly W. 

Biunell E. S. amalp-amator, Cto]t\ Flat 
Barnes J. miner, jNIanziuiita llill 
liuriies Tim, miner, 
BuriK.-ttC. F. miner, 
Jiiiriuitt E. mJJier, 
Burbridffe J. L. barber, Commercial st, 

res Washington road 
Burrinfjton A. miner, One-IIorse Co 
B L'SSEN 1 LIS J. F. dru^-gist, cor Pine and 

C(jnnuereiaJ st 
Biissenius Robert, miner, res Broad st 
Bush John, miner. Blue Tent 
Butler Samuel A. mini-r, Calilbniia mine 
Butler T. J. tanner, bds Li. Kelsey's 
Butterfield H. W. min(M-, Park avenue 
Byrne John, 
Byrne J. B. farmer. Gold Flat 

C 

CariA' Samui^l, miner, Ponn inline 
CALDWELL JOHN, District Attorney, 

bds Nat Ex Hotel 
CALDWELL J. 1. lawyer, office Broad st 
Callaway J. F. miner 
Calkins D. L. miner. Piety Hill 
California Mine, J. M. Pattee agt, near 

HiUf Mile House 
Calvert Jackson, miner. Gold Flat 
Campbell Alex, miner, Wigham jMine 
Canuveho Jno. G. Barkeeper, Blaze's 
Cantield C. T. team.ster. Broad street 
Cannon Eugene, miner. Foundry street 
Cantine Marv, Cottage street 
CARLEY &:"BECIvMAX, saloon, comer 

Broad and Pine sts 
CARLEY A. B. saloon keeper, res Sacra- 
mento st 
Carey Thomas, miner, bds Nat Ex Hotel 
Carpenter Fred, minor. Gold Flat 
Carxienter Jacob, miner, bds f nion Hotel 
Carr J. F. miner. Willow Valley 
Carter D. D. musician. Lost Hill 
Carter T. S. carpenter, Nevada st 
Caruthers E. miner. Gold Flat 
Caruthers Thomas, miner. Gold Flat 
Carver George, miner, Cayoteville 
CASHIN, DAVIS & CO., butchers. Sac. st 
CAS HI N JOHN, (of Cashin, DaAis & Co.) 
Casper K. clerk, Avith Hass & Co 
CASWELL THOS. II. lawver,res Main st 
CENTER MARKET, F. Bulacher, Com- 
mercial st 
Chandler Richard, hostler, with Saxby & 

Lancaster 
CHAPilAN & BRIGGS, fruit and fancy 
goods. Pine st 



CHAPMAN A. dentist, Kidd & Knox 

block, res Sacramento st 
Charonnat E. (piartz mill, Canada Hill 
Charounat L. quartz null, Canada Hill 
CHASE C. H. musician, Niles st 
Chadwick C. A. printer. Gazette Office 
Chalmers John, miner, Canada Hill 
Chesnut J. A. cariienter, res Piety Hill 
Chester Geo. miner. Commercial st 
Cliinn George, miner. Gold Flat 
CJiloessey Pat, miner. Deer creek 
Church G. A. wagon maker, res Sac. st 
Clark A. C. 

CLARK JONATHAN, flom-ing mill, Pi- 
ety imi 
Clark Joseidi, mine^, res Bridge st 
Clark D. C. miner 

Clark H. W. (of Nevada Ice Company) 
Clark J. W. miner, Eagle ravine 
Clark L. B. 

Clark Sam'l, hide dealer, Half-Mile House 
Clancy Daniel, blacksmith, Broad st, res 

Coyot(! st 
Clancy Pat, blacksmith, Broad st, bds on 

Cayole st 
Clay G. ^V. miner, bds on Sacramento st 
Cleveland A. rancher, Stocking Flat 
Clt;veland Cha.s. farmer, Keyes's ranch 
CLINE & NOVITSKY,drygoods dealers. 

Commercial st 
CLINE B. (of C. & Ntjvitsky) Com st 
Cline Michael, laborer. Pine st bridge 
Clooney Pat, miner; Pietv Hill 
Clooney Bridget, Piety Hill 
CLUTTER Sx\3IL, wagon maker, Cayote 

st, bds Nati(jnal Exchange Hotel 
Cobb J. A. miner, Scotch Flat 
Cobb L. D. miner, Scotch Flat 
Coe A. carpenter, res Red Dog road 
Coe W^ells L. miner, bds Uni(jn Hotel 
COE WM. R. shoe dealer, junc Main and 

Commercial st, res Main street 
COFFilAN W. H. H. Dep Recorder, bds 

Nati(nial Exchange Hotel 
Coghlan IMichael, miner, Nimrod st 
Coleman R. F. miner, 
Coleman Sanford, enginer, Wigham mine 
Coleman J. 
COLLEY JAJIES, butcher, Broad st, res 

Nevada st 
Colley ^V. H. butcher. Broad st, bds Ne- 
vada st, with Jas. CoUey 
Collier B. H. millwi-ight, res B]j<)ad st 
Collins Isaac, laborer. Mill st 
Collins Richard, miner 
Colter Jno. A. miner, Deer creek 
Conlon Royce, miner, French mill 
Connolly Mike, miner. Broad st 
Cook Jerome H. carpenter, res Water st 
Cook John, miner, Hitchcock ra^-ine 
Coombe William, ditch agent, res Bowl- 
der st 



K. F. SPENCB, AGENT FOR S. T. 1S60— X. 



LADIES AND CHILDREN'S SHOES, THE BEST, AT GOLDSMITH'S. 



140 



NEVADA TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 



Cooper Geo. A. millman. Blue Tent 
Cooper Geo. F. ininer. Brush creek 
Cooper Harvey, miner, Bliie Tent 
Cornell Clias.'W. City Marshal, Water st 
CORNISH MILL, P. Richards agent, 

Deer creek 
Coutard Mary, Broad st 
Covel A. L. teamster, Cayote st 
Covvey Abraham, shoemaker. Broad st 
Craig R. R. rancher, head of Wood's rav 
Craig L. D. miner, head of Wood's ravine 
Craig John J. miner, Selby Flat 
Craig Walter R. miner, head Wood's rav 
Cranston Thos. J. miner, Willow Valley 
Cranston Wm. miner. Gold Flat 
Craft Mrs. C. Bowlder st 
CRAWFORD, LEAVITT & CO., g-roce- 
ries and hardware. Broad and Pine sts 
CraAA'ford F. R. clerk, res Nevada st 
CRAWFORD GEO. R. stationer, Com- 
mercial st, res Piety Hill 
Crawford William, miner, Selhy Flat 
CRAWFORD W. H. merchant, res on 

Bowlder street 
Cristhfield D. R. miner 
Crittenden D. miner, bds Union Hotel 
Crocker Charles, rancher, Camp Srings 
Crocker S. S. rancher, CamiJ Springs 
Cronin John, miner, Manzanita Hill 
Crooker D. C. miner, res Water st 
Cross E. W. miner, Gold Flat 
Cross J. A. plasterer, res Bowlder st 
CROSS W. W. law^-er, res Bowlder st 
Cuddeback L. miner. Blue Tent 
Cnllen Peter, feeder, Soggs^-ille 
Cumming L. S. physician. Main st 
CUNNINGHAM MINE, John Pattison 

sup't. Gold Flat 
Curliss J. miner, Gold Flat 
Curry Pat, miner, Pine st 
Curtis Jas. H. engineer, Prospect Hill 
Curtis Thalea, engineer. Gold Flat 
Curtis Thomas, miner, Deadwood 
Cusic John, miner. Gold Flat 

D 

Daly John, miner 

Daniel Benjamin, 

Daniel Jolm, 

Daniel Thomas, 

Davenport A. P. miner, res Piety Hill 

Davenport I. N. Blue Tent 

Davenport J. P. engineer, res Piety Hill 

DAVENPORT S. B., United States Rev- 
enue Collector, res Piety Hill 

Davenport T. T. forwarding merchant, 
res Nevada street 

DAVIDSON W. H. stage agent, res on 
Bowlder st 

Davis George, miner, Unionville 

Davis John, wdth W. J. Da^ds 



DAVIS JAS. butcher. Pine st, res Main st 

Da^is Jerry, 

Davis John, fanner 

Da'sis John C. jobber, Coyote st 

Da^•is Josiah, 

Davis N. 

Da^ns Sharfer, Spring st 

DAVIS W. J. baker,"Broad st, res corner 

Pine and Spring sts 
DAVIS Z. P. gimWith, Broad st, res on 

Spring st 
Dean Charles, 

Dean E. D. miner, Myers raA'ine 
Dean Fred, washman, African Flat 
DEADWOOD MINE, Tim Parker ag't, 

Deadwood 
DEAL M. S., Editor Transcript, Broad st 
Debernardi J. charcoal dealer, Spring st 
Delaney ]\Iich. miner 
DelcAine J. H. moulder, bds at Stumpf 's 
DeLong T. D. miner 
Deman^E. >■■ 

DemarayA. T. fanner, Rock creek 
Denier Jacob, miner. Gold Flat 
Devolt James, blacksmith. Main st 
Dickerman J. C. upholster, Chm'ch st 
Dickerson S. 

Diehl Jacob, wagon maker, foot Broad st 
Dielil D. 

Dillingbeck J. S. miner. Blue Tent 
Dillon Richard, miner, res Spring st 
Dingley T. F. quartz miner. Deer creek 
DIVER R. A. clerk at Goldsmith's, Brd st 
Dole R. K. merchant, Broad st 
Doliver E. miner, Bannerville 
Donahue John, laborer. Spring st 
Donald James, 
Donnelly John, 

Donnan Peter, teamster, Pine street 
Donnell W. C. school teacher, Scotch Flat 
Donnelly John, miner, California min'e 
Dorr Franklin, miner 
Dorsey Henry, jobber, cor Washington 

and Chtirch sts 
Doty Manuel, miner, Niles st 
Doud E. S. miner. Willow Valley 
Doud G. W. miner, Willow Valley 
Doughty A. R. harness maker. Broad st 
Dougherty John, x^ainter, Broad st 
Do'^\Taie John, miner, Selby Flat 
DOWNING J. H. tailor, Pine st, res Sac- 
ramento street _ 
DOWNING J. W. tailor, Commercial st, 

res Bowlder st 
DREYFUSS JULIUS, baker, Pine st, 

res Vv^ater st 
DREYFUSS L. W. brewer. Spring st 
Driver John, moulder. Foundry st 
Drumm Hugh, farmer, G. V. ridge 
Dryden D. A., pastor M. E. Church, res 

Piety Hill 
Duca Philip, barber. Broad st. res Spng st 



NECKTIES, HANDKEECUIEFS AND GLOVES AT BANNER BROTHERS. 



GOLDSMITH'S DRYQOOBS STORK IS ON THE CORNER OF BROAD AND PINE STREETS. 



NEVADA TOWNSHIP DIRECTOEY. 



141 



Ducraj J. B. miner, Oregon Hill 

Ducrav I. C. miner, Oregon Hill 

Duffy "H. 

Dundon Ilugli, minor, Unionvillo 

Dunn A. J. niim-r, Miin/.iuiiUi Hill 

Dunn Hugh, miner, (iold Flut 

Dunn John H. miner, Brush creek 

Dunnevan John, 

Duiinevan liichard, 

Dunscombe E. mining snp't, N. Y. & 0. 

V. Co., bd.s Union Hotel 
DUXZ CHAS. assayer at Ott's, Main st 
Dusson Frank, 

Dy(T A. (f. teamster, Hall-Mile House 
Dyer Cluirles, miner 

E 

Eagle Mining Co., S. B. Davenport ag't, 

(hillows Flat 
EAOLE COMPANY, of Hartford, Conn., 

Jas. M. Pattee ug't, H. K. Ferre sup't, 

n(!ar Half Mile HouHe 
Eagleaon Thos. miner, Broad street 
Eames Jame.'^, 
Eatou H. F. blacksmith 
EATON & WIldJAMSON, proprietors 

Union Hotel, Main st 
EATON IRA A. ((.f Eaton & Williamson) 
Ebaugli C. B. miner, Oriental mill 
Ebaugh D. B. miner. Oriental mill 
Ebaugh J. P. miner, Oi'iental mill 
Eden John, miner, Indian Valley 
Eddy John, miner, Deer creek 
Eddy Mattliew, miner. Deer cx'cek 
Eddy S. J. miner, Selby Flat 
Eddy Wm. miner, .Lost Hill 
Eddy Mi's (widow) Mill street 
Edmonds John 
Edwards E. \V. miner 
Edwards Wm. miner, S Yuba bridge 
Elliot Thos. E. miner 
Ellis J. W. peddler, Commercial st 
Ellison J. W. miner, Canada Hill 
Ellison R. miner, African Flat] 
Emery John, miner, Deadwood 
Englebreclit John, miner, Commercial st 
ENGLISH JOS. R. (of Gregory & Eng.) 
Enos Frank. 

Euright M. miner, Canada Hill 
Ernest J. S. miner, bds at Oault's 
ERNST HERMAN, book binder, Mam st 
Erskine Jos. miner, Selby Flat 
Erskine Wm. miner, Mazanita Hill 
Erviug E. clerk 
Ester Thos. 

Evens Owen, miner, Cahfornia mine 
EVENS WM. F. City Treasurer, at W. 

F. & Co. Main street 
EVERINGHAM S. M. (of Bliven & E.) 

res Piety Hill 
Ewing J. b. miner, Selby Flat 



F 



Fabcr John 

Fairclo Cf. 

Faidiin Henry 

Farnham Alfonzo G. miner, Little Deer 

creek 
Farnham E. P. metallurgist, res Bowldr st 
Farnham W. K. miner. Lit Deer creek 
Faro Robert, laborer, Commercial st 
FARQUHAR G. K. Dep. County Clerk, 

res Broad st 
FARQUHAR R. II. County Clerk, res 

Piety Hill 
Farrell Owen, miner, INIud Flat 
Federal Loan Mining Company, S. Ilcck- 

er ag't. Deer creek 
Felt Alncy O. laborer, Broad st 
Felton D. miner. Blue Tent 
Ferguson W. R. miner. Lost Hill 
FFRRAND CHAS. photographer,Pine st 
Ferre G. H. clerk, bds Union Hotel 
FERRE HORACE R. mining sup't at 

California mine, res Park avenue 
Field James, miner. Gold Flat 
Findley Henry, laborer, Cayote st 
Findlev Mrs. J. C. (widow) Main st 
FININ(JER R. litiuor dealer. Broad st, 

res Pine st 
FIREMANS FUND INSURANCE COM- 
PANY, W. F. Evens, Agent 
FISHER F. H. machinist, at Stilcs's mill, 

res Sacramento st 
Flaugher C. P. toUkeeper, S Yuba bridge 
Flack Joseph, 

Fleming J. D. miner. Deer creek 
FLORENCE SEWING MACHINE, R, 

A. Diver agent, at Goldsmith's 
Flovd William, miner 
FOG ELI C. at U. S. Brewery, Main st 
Fogarty C. 
Folsom F. T. engineer. Providence quartz 

mill. Deer creek 
Folsom J. 

Foot M^Ton, miner, bds Nat Ex Hotel 
Forbes 'W. H. manager N. Y. & G. V. 

Mining Company, bds Union Hotel 
Ford Chauncey, mason. Coyote st 
Ford Nat. barlaer, Union Hotel, res Com- 
mercial st 
Ford William, 

Forest Mill, E. Dunscombe sup't, Uninvil 
Forsyth Thomas, at foundry 
Foster B. F. engineer, Pemisj^lvania mine 
Foster Charles, miner, Deadwood 
Foster E. miner, Pennsylvania mine 
Foster John, 

Fowler J. L. teamster, Bannerville 
Fox L. tinsmith, with Stoakes, Main st 
Foy J. P. 

Francis Antone, miner. Rush creek 
Francis J. res E Broad st 



GARDEN SEEDS AX SPENCE'S. 



Tns TIXESf ASSORTMEN'T OI" ALL KINDS OIVFLAXNELS AT GOLBSMtflt'g, 



142 



NEVADA TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 



FraTvler Win. M. carpenter, Broad st 
Fraser James, ranciier, Rock crsck 
FREXCH MET^iLLUiiGICAL ^V'EKS, 

Canada Hill 
FRENCH QUARTZ' MILL, F. L. A. Pi- 

oclie, Canada Hill 
Frick J. B. miner, Deer creek 
Frink D. B. printer, at Welcli's, Broad st 
Frink W. S. farmer, Gold Flat 
Frjberger Fred, teamster, Scotcli Flat 
Fuller A. 
Funston James, miner. Prospect Hill 

G 

Gaojlien Edward, miner, bds N. Y. Hotel 
Gallaijher Jolm, butclier, at Collev's 
Gallagher Cliarles, miner, 'Wet Hill 
Gallaglier J. B. miner, Selby Flat 
Gallan Henry, 

Gamble I. S. miner, Soggs^•ille 
GARBER J. C, County Recorder, bds at 

Nat Ex Hotel 
Gardner Aug. Half Jlile House 
Garrett Lot, miner, Rock creek 
Garver M. engineer, Pennsylvania mine 
Gasclilin Frank, miner, Nevada st 
Gaugbenbaugli Isaac, miner, Bowlder st 
GAULT ALEX., Antelope Restaiu*ant, 

Broad st, res Maiden Lane 
GAZETTE PRINTING OFFICE, E. F. 

Bean, xn'ox^rietor, ]\Iaiu st 
Genassi Carlo, 

Gentry Albert, miner. Piety Hill 
Gentry Martin, feeder at Stiles's mill 
GENTRY R. B., Sheriff, res Piety Hill 
General Grant ilining Co., Canada Hill 
Getcliell G. S. S. miner. Gold Run 
Getcliell D. B. miner. Gold Run 
Gibson Miss Mary, dress maker. Spring st 
GifiFord Charles, 

Gilbert Joseph, teamster, Coyote st 
Giles Tim. engineer, res Sacramento st 
Gillespie A. C. miner, Mud Flat 
GILLET FELIX, barber, Pine st 
Gilliland W.H. miner, Cunningham mine 
Gilloon M. miner, Rush creek 
Gilmore James, laborer 
Glasson J. miner. Deer creek 
Glenn J. F. miner. Gold Flat 
Godair Henry, teamster. Cottage st 
Godfrey J. N. 

Goetje Henry, carpenter, Spring st 
GOLDSMITH ABjI. drygoods dealer, cor 

Broad and Pine sts, res Main st 
Gold Timnel Company, Geo. V/. Kidd 

agent. Deer creek 
Goodman E. H. miner, Gold Flat 
Goodman J. R. miner. Prospect Hill 
Gore Peter, miner, Bowlder st 
Gorhl John, miner. Bowlder st 
Gove A. C. mason, High st 



Gove H. L. mason. Park avenue 
Graeber A. carpenter. Broad st 
Graham James, miner, Selliv Hill 
Gray Geo. F. miner, Piety Hill 
Gray John H. miner, Woodpecker ravine 
GRAY JOS. B., Constable, Spring st 
Gray W. E. millwright, Nat Ex Hotel 
Greeley W. 0. carpeutei". Wash road 
Green M. 51. miner. Rush creek 
Green P. R. 

Green Wm. butcher. Piety HLIl 
GREENWALD JULIUS, tobacconist, 

Broad st 
Greenwell John, 

GREGORY & WAITE. gTOcers, Broad st 
GREGORY & CO., saw niill, Crystal Sp 
GREGORY & ENGLISH, Moore's Flat 

ExDress and Stage Line 
GREGORY A. B. (of G. & Waite,) res 

Prospect Hill 
GREGORY J. S. (of G. & English, res 

Water st 
Griffith John, miner 
Griiiin James, engineer, Gregory's mill 
Groves S. J. miner, Blue Tent 
GROVE Vv'M. C. car[ienter and underta- 
ker. Broad st, res \Vater st 
GUNTHER PIENRY, (of Baltz & G.) 
Guibhart F. miner, Pennsylvania mine 
Guild F. G., Postmaster, res High st 
GUISCETTI L. milkman. Fly creek 
Gwin A. miner, Gold Flat 

H 

HAAS ABRAHAM, res West Broad st 
HAAS S. & CO. clothyig, cor of Com and 

Pine st 
Hackley James, miner, Selby Hill 
Hagadorn A. H. miner. Main street 
Hahn John, saloon keei^er Pine street 
Hahn Jacob, saloon keei:)er, Main street 
Hale Horace, miner. Blue Tent 
Hale Theo. A. miner, Oro Fino mill 
Hall Jolm A. broker. Commercial st 
Hall J. E. C. miner. Brush creek 
Hall J. H. miner. Brush creek 
Hallowell Frank,miner, Nat Exchange 
Halpin P. painter. Pine street 
Hamilton John, miner Canada Hill 
Hamilton J. H. restaurant. Com street 
HA]MILTON M. S. (of Cra^vford, Leavitt 

& Co) 
Hamlin H. H. engineer. Banner mill 
Hanly John, printer. Gazette Office 
Hanly Michael, miner, Fly creek 
Hanmins Mrs. (-svidov/) Piety Hill 
HANSON A. H. & CO. ffi-ocers, Broad st 
HANSON A. H. res Water st 
Hanson Frank, bds Water st 
Harrison J. H. miner, Selby Hill 
HARRISON I. R. physician. Broad st 



GENTLSMEN^S' FURNISHING GOODS AT BANNER BROTHERS. 



THE CHEAPEST AND BEST DRYQOODS CAN ALWAYS BE FOUND AT GOLDSMITH'S SHOM. 



NEVADA TOWNSHIP DirxECTORY. 



. 143 



Iliirris John 

UARRIXOTON & SEN NER, Bank Ex- 

clian<C(i saloon, iNluin st 
IIAR1MX(;T0N W. p. res Spring st. 
Iliirrioran B. bootmaker, Main st 
Hart Jai-ol), niinur, (ioplicr Hill 
Hai-t J. W. miniT, Manzanita Hill 
Hartnian 1). F. min<'r. Wash road 
Hurt man W. W. niiniT, I'nion Hotel 
Ihirvcy Ed. miner, V/ood'a ravinci 
Hurvey Minino: Ctnnpany, Ed. Harvey 

a<'-('nt. Wood's ravine 
HA8EY S. L. (of Lancaster & H.) Nat. 

Ex. Hotel 
Hasev A. (f. miner, bds National Ex 
llaskins H. H. elerk at (}. E. Tiumut's 
HASI.E'l'T W. F. miner, Cement Hill 
Hassell John barber, Broad 6t 
Hasson John 

Haven 1). J. wood raneh, ^^'oll' creek 
Haven Elisha, wood raneh, Wolfereek 
Haven Elija, wood ranch, Wolfereek 
Hawke John, minor, Deer creek 
Hawkins A. 

H A Wf.EY & WILLIAMS, lawvors, Bd st 
HAWLICY THOS. P. (of H. & ^Villiam8) 
Hayden E. W. ])rinter, Tran.script oUko 
Hazel James, miner, So<r<.>\sville 
Head W. S. miner, IkIs Nat Ex Hotel 
Heald J. L. teamster. Blue TcMit 
llebbard J. J. teamster. Bowlder st 
Helhviy Chas. vine j^rower, liawson rav 
UEIjM J. H. sup't Pennsylvania mine, 

res Water st 
Ileneka J. feeder at Oriental mill 
Henry Patrick, laborer, S]'rin<>- st 
Heutze H. miner. Wood's ravino 
IIentz(^ (i. H. miner. Wood's ravino 
HERRK'K E. D. ditch ajrent, Gold Flat 
Ih'rsant F. o-ardner, French o-arden 
HEHZ1N({ER JOHN, bootmaker Br'd st 
HEUCUI & THOM, Fonndry, Sprinjr st 
Heuo-h Wm. (of H. Sc Thomjres Spring st 
Hibbard Joseph, miner, Scotch Flat 
HILL lV' CASWELL, lawvers. Broad st 
HILL C. WILSON, (of Hill & Caswell) 
Hill Mrs. Maria, Bowlder st 
Hilderbrand Wm. clerk with H. M. Levy 
Hinds H. M. miner Water st 
HINDS JAS. M. oTocer, bds Nat Ex 
HINDS J. W. bank(>r, res Hio-h st 
Hinds L. B. miner, Oro Fiuo mine 
Ilitchcofk E. milkman, Boiu'bou Hill 
Hitchcock William, miner 
HIXSON J. M. merchant, Com st 
Holmrt J. P. miner, (iold Flat 
Hoffman A. miner, Wasliin.n-ton road 
Hoflfman Tony, butcher, -with Cashiu,Da- 

vis & Co. 
Hoo'ue T. Gr. charcoal bnrner 
Holbrook J. S. ranch. Bed Dog road 
Holbrook Otis, miner, Cal mine 



Holbrook 0. S. miner, Cement Hill 
Holbrook A\'m. miner, Cal mine 
Holconib J. P. clerk, with Wm. Stone 
IIOLIA'AVOOD JOSEPH, Confectioner, 

Commercial st 
Holmes Daniel, o-ardncr, Mud Flat 
Holmes E. K. car\)enter, bds U'n Hotel 
HOLMES T. K. cUtch agent, Scotch Flat 
Holmt>s Wm. teamster. Bowlder st 
HOME MINING CO. T. Findley agent, 

month of Wood's ravine. Deer cretdc 
HOOK J. F. bootmaker, Couimercial st, 

res High st 
Hooper William, 
Horton William, miner 
Hoskins Richard, miner, Deer creek 
Houghton James, miner. Cold Flat. 
Ilousman Lord, amalgamator at Snoatli 

and Clay mill 
Hf)u.ston R. F. miner, Si^lby Hill 
Houston W. W. miner. Rush creek 
Howe Joel, miner, Selby Flat 
Howell T. C. miner, 
IhifVman W. miner. Broad st 
HLtHIES GEO. M. builder. Pine st 
Hughi's T. L. rancher, near Camp Spring 
Humes T. miner, Gold Flat 
Humes T., Jr., deputy ])ostmaster, 
Humphreys C. E. wheelwright. Mill st 
Hunuefauth P., Cent'l House, \^'ash road 
Hunter Robert, miner, 
Hunter S. A. miner, BriLsh creek 
Hunt Alexander, ])rinter. Broad st 
HUNT R. ISI., County Pliysician, office at 

Spence's drug store, res Nevada st 
Ilurlev John, miner. Washing-ton road 
HURLBUT DAVID, (of Black & H.) 
HURST JOHN, baker. Broad st, res on 

Bowlder st 
Huston W.S. wood dealer. Willow Valley 
Ilutchings V. miner, Canada Hill 
Hutchinson D. miner, California mine 
Hutchinson John, miner, California mine 
Hyde John, miner, 



Ion Susan, Commercial st 

Irwin James, carpenter, city 

Irwin Thomas, miner, Gold Flat 

ISOARD A. li<iuor merchant. Broad st 

Iswald J. miner 

ITALIAN QUARTZ MINE,J.Debernardi 



ag't, Spring st 



Jacinto John, miner, Rush creek 
Jack3 John, miner, Brush creek 
Jackson A. hostler, at Saxby & Lancaster's 
Jackson J. W. clerk at Lademan's 
JACOBS CHAS. cigar dealer. Broad st 



FLORIDA WATER (GENUINE) AT SPENCE'S. 



GOLDSMITH RECEIVES NEW GOODS EVERY WEEK. 



144 



NEVADA TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 



Jacobs C. S. engineer, Quaker liill 
Jacobs Geo. F. miner, Quaker Mil 
Jacobs flenrv, teamster, Park avenue 
JACOBS L. cigar dealer, Broad st 
Jacobs W. X. miner. East Broad st 
James W. H. miner. Pine st 
JefFery Ricliard, engineer. Gold Flat 
JefFery Thomas, miner. Gold Flat 
JefFerr Ricliard, ]t., engineer. Gold Flat 
JEXKIX & SLOAX, Gem Saloon, Br'd st 
Jenlvin Alfred, saloon keeper. Broad st 
Jenkin Jon. D. miner. Broad st 
Jenkin Joseph, harnessmaker, Broad st 
JEXKIXS A. R. saloon keeper, Main st 
JEXKIXS W. G. harnessmaker, Broad 

st res Bowlder st 
Jennings A. E. 

Jennings il. F. tinsmith, Broad st 
Jennings James, miner 
Jennings Walter, miner, 
Jewett Ira, miner. Broad st 
Johnson A. J. miner. Gopher Hill 
Johnson C. E. miner, Sclby Flat 
Johnson D. S. teamster, Xevada st 
Johnson G. S. miner, Union ville 
Johnson J. L. miner, Gold Flat 
Jolmson Samuel, rancher, Scotch Flat 
Johnson Thomas A. teamster. Main st 
Jolmson Geo. S. miner, 
Johnston J. E. fiuTuture dealer. Broad st 

res Xevada st 
Jones Benjamin, miner, Gold Flat 
Jones Byron S. miner, Wigham mine 
Jones J). S. miner, Gold Flat 
Jones G. H. ranch. Willow Valley 
Jones John, miner, 
Jones James, miner, Selby Flat 
Jones Ximrod W. cook, Ximrod st 
Jones Sealiorn, miner, 
Jones W. H. laborer, Gregory's mill 
Jose Antonio, miner, Illinois rapine 
Jose M. mmer. Rush creek 
Joseph Autonio, miner, Kentucky Flat 
Judkins William, carjDenter, 
Justice John A. miner, Myers' ravine 
Justice J. C. miner, Myers' ravine 

K 

Kalahor Patrick, laborer, Cottage st 
Keeler F. 

Keenan John, miner, Soggsville 
KEEXEY GEO. groceries and hardware 

Com St. res Main st 
KELLER L. auctioneer, (at H. M. Levy's) 

res Broad st 
KeHer X. baker, (at \J. S. Bakery) res 

Pine st 
Kelley John, miner. Wet Hill 
Kelly T. P. ranch. Ridge 
Kellogg A. B. miner, Canada Hill 
Kelsey R. Tanner, Main st 



Kelsev S. B. miner, Wigham mine 
KEXDALL JOHX, Justice of the Peace, 

office cor Broad and Pine sts 
Kendrick James, miner. Gold Flat 
Kendrick, S. ranch. Deer creek 
KEXT CHARLES, butcher, res Xev st 
Kent W. H. miner, Cunningham mine 
Kent William, dentist. Commercial st 

res Vrashington road 
Kent Edson, miner, Manzanita mill 
Kent Peter, carpenter, Broad st 
Kerr William, miner 
Ketcham J. A. 
Key J. J. 

KIDD GEO. W. & CO. bankers. Broad st 
KIDD G. W. (of Geo. W. Kidd & Co.) res 

Xevada st 
Kieffer Joseph, miner, Selby Flat 
Kicback C. 

Killberry A. M. miner. Deer creek 
King George, laborer. Bowlder st 
KIXG XAPOLEOX, biU poster. Pine st 
Kinsman John, miner. Deer creek 
Kirkham Wm. miner, M't Vernon House 
Kirkham Th's, miner, M't Vernon House 
Kistle &■ Gates, Miners Arms Saloon, 

Broad st 
Kistle John, saloon keeper, Broad st 
Kistle Wm. Jr. saloon keeper. Main st 
Kistle Wm. miner. Red Dog road 
Kistle R. miner. Red Dog road 
Kistle Charles, rancher. Red Dog road 
Kite Jacob, miner, Cayoteville 
Klibbuck C. shoemaker. Commercial st 
Klienhaui^t A. J. tailor 
EJingenspor C. barber, at Lampe's 
Knecttle D. B. miner. Rock creek 
Knickerbocker Company R. R. Craig 

agent, East Wood's ravine 
Knowlton X. W. miner, High st 
Koliler Wm. baker, Broad st 
Kosta Manuel, miner 
Koster Fred, blacksmith, Pennsylvania 

mine, res Selby Flat 
Koster Joseph, miner 
Koster Thomas, miner 
Kreiss Heniv, Xev. flour mill. Piety Hill 
KUTZ JOSEPH, Lawyer, Broad st 



LACmiAX D. & B. clothing. Commer- 
cial st, res Main st 
Lademan A. grocer, Commercial st 
Lake W. H. carpenter. Gold Flat 
Lampe T. C, Xationol Exchange shaving 

saloon, res Broad st 
Lanme W. A. miner, bds Broad st 
LAXC ASTER & HASEY, Xat Exchange 

Hotel, Broad st 
LAXCASTER JOHX A. (of L. & Hasey) 
Last Chance Mining Company, Blue Tent 



WOOL, SILK AND MEPJNO UNDEBSHIKTS AND DRAWEES AT BANNER BROTHERS. 



LADIES' EMPORIUM OF FASHION KEPT BY A. GOLDSMITH. 



NEVADA TOWNSHIP DirvECTORY. 



145 



Lfitta I?. W. Btafr<^ proprietor, res Wash st 
La^-ton Hrnry, miner, Deer creek 
Ijazaricli E. barkeeper at Stumpf s Hotel 
Ijeatlie E. A. miner, Deer creek 
LEAVITT C. C. (of Crawford, L. & Co.) 

res Sacramento st 
Locompton Mininj; Companj', F. Gascli- 

lin atrent. Deer creek 
Loo J. H. clerk at Nat Ex Hotel 
Leeme Joseph, rjardner, French garden 
liefTfj Thoma.s, team.ster. Slill st 
Lciglilor W. H. miner, Deer creek 
Leonard J. C. teacher of penmanship, bds 

Nat Exchange Hotel 
Lester A. W. cl<,-rk, with Crawford, Lea- 

vitt &• Co 
LEUT.JE F. C. jeweler. Broad st 
licvinrrs J. K. miner, Gold Flat 
Jjevin<rs O. P. miner, tiold Flat 
Lewis William, cigar deaU'r, Broad st 
Lewis Joel, miner, (iold Flat 
Lindsi'V L. W. carjienter, Main st 
Litchfield W. K. carpenter, Broad st 
Jiithgow Wm. miner, Bourbon Hill 
Lloyd I. saloon keeper, Main st 
Locklin Benjamin, miner. C'ourt st 
Long J. F. painter. Pine st 
Long W. S. miner, (lold Run 
Lones IT. A. miner, W Broad st 
Lones William, miner, W Broad st 
Lord A. I?, miner, Wood's ravine 
Lord D. W. miner. Wood's ravine 
LORIXa GEO. H. jeweler. Broad 8t, res 

Washing-ton road 
Tioughead John, Avood dealer, Gold Flat 
Lovie (t. W. miner. Piety Hill 
Lovie William, gardener. Piety Hill 
Low Fred, miner. Blue Tent 
Luchsinger Nicolas, farmer, Swiss ranch 
Ludby William, butcher, Sacramento st 
Luey S. S. miner, Deadwood 
Lund John S. miner, Soggsville 
Lutz -B. bootmaker. Broad st 
Lynd Robert, miner, Gold Flat 

M 

MacGoldrick A. J. barkeeper, fnionHotcl 
MACKIE H. & Co. bankers. Main st 
MACKIE HENRY, (of M. & Co.) res on 

Nevada st 
Madden Samuel, farmer. Blue Tent 
Madigan John, miner, Washing-ton road 
Mag-nolia Mining Company, .J. F. Carr 

agent, Willow Valley 
Maguire E. miner, Gold Flat 
Maguire G. miner, A\ith Kidd & Co 
MAGUIRE JOHN, saloon keeper. Pine st 
Malcomb William 
Mallory A. P. carpenter 
Malouey James 
^laloy Hugli, miner, Coyote st 



MALTMAN OSCAR, sulphuret works, 

Grass Valley road 
Maltman C. S. with O. Maltman 
Maltman William, bds Union Hotel 
Mammoth Jliuing Company, L. Hirsch- 

man agent, Deer creek 
Mammoth INIining Company, (gravel) at 

Canada Hill 
Manchester T. J. Illinois Bar bridge 
Mannix D. teamster, Pros]iect Hill 
Manuel Philip L. miner. Gold Flat 
Manzanita Mining Company, W. Malt- 
man agent, Manzanita Ilill 
MARSH CHAS. ditch proprietor, res Ne- 
vada st 
Marsh D. sup't Gregory & Co's mill 
Mai-sh M. L. (of (Gregory & Co.) Park av 
Marshall W. A. miner, Bannerville 
Marselus E. P. miner. Nevada st 
MARTIN J. A. (of Baker & M.) Piety Hill 
Masonic Hall, cor PinciS: Commercial sts 
Massie John, miner, Washington road 
Mathev Henry, sup't French mill, Cana- 
da liill 
Mathews W. II. WilloAv Valley 
Matthews Frank, 
Matthews J. 
Mattingly Mine, A. II. Murdock sup't, 

Hitchcock ra\inc 
Mattingly J. A. amalgamator, Pcnn mill 
Matteson E. E. macliinist, Soggsville 
McAra Moses, miner, Musketo creek 
McArthur Jolin, l^lacksmith, Monro st 
McCabe John, feeder, SoggsAille 
McCabe Robert, miner, Soggsville 
McCamish D. miner, Wood's raA*ine 
McCan John, 

McCauley Dan, amalgamator, Soggsville 
McCauley Hugh, miner, Soggsville 
McCauslin S. rancher, Scotch Flat 
McCauslin P Gold Flat 
iNIcCaw Alex, miner, Selby Flat 
McCaw John, miner, Brush creek 
McChesney J.B. school teaclier,Cottagc st 
McClafferty H. gardener, Mud Flat 
McClennahan H. laborer, Washington st 
McClotid W. D. carpenter, Pine st 
McConlev James, 
McCONNELL JOHN R. lawyer. Broad 

st, bds L'^niou Hotel 
McCormack D. 

jMcCormick H. miner, Hitchcock ravine 
McCOWEN I. T. (of Place & McC.) bds 

Union Hotel 
McCurnin James, miner, Oregon Hill 
McCutchau R. G. miner, Canada Hill 
McDERiNIOTT C. pattern niak. Spring st 
McDonald D. clerk at Nat Ex Hotel 
McDonald E. miner. Sugar Loaf 
McDonald J. R. wagon maker. Main st 
]McEh'j' Charles, miner. Park avenue 
McEnenny P. with Saxby «& Lancaster 



TRUSSES AND SHOULDER BRACES AT SPENCE'S. 



GOLDSMITH EXHIBITS NO PARTIALITY TO CUSTOMERS. 



146 



NEVADA TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY, 



McEwen D. miner, 
McFall Arcli. feeder, Soggsville 
McFarland J. F. ranclier, Eock creek 
McFAELAXD T. B. District Judge, res 

Nevada st 
McGribbin Jolin, miner, Deer creek 
McGill H. R. blacksmith, foot Broad st 
McGraw Jolm, miner, Scotcli Hill 
McGuilland James, miner, Union^-ille 
McGruire T. druggist, Commercial st 
McHemy Ed. -vritli Place & McCowen 
McHugli Charles, miner. Deer creek 
McHugh William, miner. Deer creek 
Mcllvaine A. J. carpenter. Spring st 
McKelvej H. C. carpenter, bds Xat Ex 

Hotel 
McKeon D. ranch, old Grass Valley road 
McLane B. teamster, High st 
McLau-ghlin A. miner. Deer creek 
McLaughlin Luke, miuer, Coyote st 
McLaughlin John, blacksmith, Cimning- 

liam mine 
McLaughlin T. miner, Cunningham min 
McXaller H. miner. Main st 
McXally John, -with Sasby & Lancaster 
McXally James, miner, Maiden Lane 
McNeai D. merchant. Broad st 
INIcXeeley A. carpenter, res Piety Hill 
McROBERTS W. S. clerk. Union Hotel, 

res Broad st 
Meacham J. J. millman. Piety Hill 
MEAD CHAS. H. clerk, res "Xevada st 
IMeagher Thomas, miuer, Soggsville 
Meek George, printer, Gazette Office 
Mein Thomas, foreman Wigham mine 
Mellon C. miner, Unionville 
Mennhannant W. miner. Gold Fiat 
MERCHANT S. D. sup't Wigham mine 
Meredith William, miner. Blue Tent 
Mernon M. 

Merrow L. miner, Scotch Flat 
Merrovr J. miner, Scotch Flat 
Merrow W. C. blacksmith, Scotch Flat 
METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH, 

D. A. Dryden pastor. Broad st 
Milliken M. S. toll house. Wash road 
Miller Charles G. jobber, Pine st 
Miller C. F. cook. Union Hotel, res Pine st 
Miller F. A. miner, Nevada st 
Mills Henry, 
MILLS H. C. livery stable, cor Pine and 

Spring sts, res Sacramento st 
Mills T. E. rancher. Round Mountain 
filitchell Johnson, pattern maker, res W 

Broad st 
Mitchell William, miner, Unionville 
MOHAWK QUARTZ MINE, W. L. Tis- 

dale sup't, Gold Flat 
Mohler M. miner, Willow Valley 
MONRO JA:»IES, butcher. Broad st, res 

Scotch Hill 
Monroe W. A. miner. Rock creek 



Monroe W. C. miner, Rock creek 

Mooney Thomas, teamster, Selby Flat 

Moore B. F. teamster, Piety Hill 

Moore C. H. Soggsville 

MOORE ROBERT B. clerk Union Hotel 

INIorgan J. M. miner, Cmmingham mine 

Morgan- William, miner. Gold Flat 

Morhous D. W. wood dealer,Nat Ex Hotel 

Morin Peter, saAvyer, Gregory & Co's mill 

Morris James, miner, Cunningham mine 

Morris T. 

Morris William R. sup't Oro Fino mine 

Morris William T. miner, 

Morrish John, miner. Gold Flat 

Morrish Martin, miner. New York mine 

Morrison Robert, carpenter. Piety Hill 

Morrison R. B. teamster, Gregory & Co 

Morse C. E. G. barkeeper, Jenkins's saloon 

INIorse Ezra, shoemaker, res Selby Flat r 

Mosier A. miner, Scotch Flat 

Mowbray J. F. miner, 

Moyle William, miner 

iNluller Ed. miner, Commercial st 

]\Iullin Charles, 

Mullin L. teamster, Covote st 

MULLOY' C. E. Dep'ty Coimty Assessor, 

Gazette Office 
Mulloy James, miner. Coyote st 
MuUoy Joshua, miner. Bowlder st 
Murcliie Andrew, miner. Red Dog road 
Murchie John, miner. Red Dog road 
Murcliie J. C. miner, Red Dog road 
Murchie S. T. miner. Red Dog road 
Murchie W. H. miuer, Red Dog road 
Murchie Mill, (quartz) Deer creek 
ilm-dock A. H. sup't Mattingly mine 
jNIurphy Daniel, miner, SoggSA-ille 
Murphy John, miner. Cement Hill 
Murphy J. M. miner. Willow Valley 
IMurray John, carpenter, bds L^'nion Hotel 
Murry Wm. vnth Cashin, Da^-is & Co 
INIushaway P. L. laborer, Broad st 
Myers W. A. miner, Oriental mill 

N 

NATIONAL EXCHANGE HOTEL, on 

Broad st, Lancaster & Hasey, props 
Nay Jacob, engineer. Palmer's miU 
Navlor William, miner, Selbv Flat 
NEFFZIGAR JACOB, Empire Market, 

Commercial st, res Bowlder st 
Nelson F. W. laborer, Bowlder st 
Nelson John, miner, Bannerolle 
NEVADA FOUNDRY, Heugh & Thom, 

proprietors, Spring st 
Nevada Flouring ISIill, Sacramento st 
Nevada Gas Works, Coyote st 
Nevada Gold Quartz Mining Company, 

W. M. Rat cliff sup.'t. Deer creek 
Nevada Ice Company, depot at Em^jire 

Market, Commercial st 



VISIT BANNER BROTHERS CLOTHING EMPORIUM— ADMITTANCE FREE. 



GOLDSMITH'S MOTTO IS LAHaS SALES AND SMALL PROFITS. 



NEVADA TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 



147 



Nevada Theater, Broad st 
Ncvin Arcliy, at Nevada Foundry 
Neviu Pat, miner, 
Newberry llenry, barber. Broad st 
Newton \Y. millinery, Connnercial st 
New York and (irasrf Valley Mining; Com- 
pany, E. Dunscombo Bup't, Gold Flat 
and Uniouvillc 
Niehols R. 

Nicholss Samuel, carpenter. Cement Hill 
Nicliolrion T. L. miner, Deer creek 
Nick(!l B.'uj. cal)inet maker, Piety Hill 
Niliel L. carpenter, Nevada st 
Nihind Tlios. miner, (Vasliinjjton road 
NILES A. C. Couufy Judii:e, otlico corner 

Broad and Pino st, res Niles st 
Niles II. miner, Rock creek 
Nilou Thomas, njiner, Pine st 
Niman A. P. blacksmith. Prospect Hill 
Niveas Archibald, miner, African Flat 
Nolan James, host'ier, Puio st 
Noonan li. W. 

N(n-t!i Star Minin<? Company, J. W. Elli- 
son a/ient, Canatla Hill 
Northy Samuel, miner, (iold Flat 
Novitzky Samuel, (of Cline & N.) 
Nunes Joseph, miner. Rush creek 
Nunes Thomas, miner. Rush creek 
Nyo (i. A. teamster, Gold Flat 



Gates Sani. T. saloon keeper, res Nov. st 

Oats Richard, Liiner, Gold Flat 

Oats James, miner, Gold Flat 

Olitt John, 

One Horse Co. A. BuiTiugton sup't Ous- 

tomah Hill 
Ordway J. S. miner, Scotch Flat 
Ordwav L. J. miner, Scotch Flat 
ORGAN W. J. Deputy County Collector, 

res Piety Hill 
Oriental Jlill, (cpiartz). Deer ci'eek 
Oro Fino JNIill, (ipiartz), Rush creek 
Osboru Wm. N. miner, Scotch Flat 
Oskison John, miner, Gold Flat 
OTHEMAN A. H. minin;v sec'y & ins 

ag't. Main st, bds Uni(m Hotel 
Ott Charles, engineer. Oriental Mill 
OTT J. J. assay er. Main st, res Nev. st 
Owens Frank J. miner, Uuion\-ille 
O'Conner P. miner, 
O'Neal D. teamster, Casliln, Davis & Co. 



PALMER J. C. lavrjcv and Justice of the 

Peace, Commercial st, res Bowlder st 
Palmer J. A. C. student with J. C. Palmer 
Palmer's Mill, (quartz) Sacramento st 
Palmer L. 0. builder, Nevada st 
Palmer Oscar, quartz mill, Sacramento st 



Pardee R. G. miner, One-IIorse Company 

Pare C. A. engineer. Willow Valley^ 

Parent George, miner. 

Park John, miner, Banner^ille 

Parks A. S. limit's Hill 

Parker A. D. miner, 

PARliER A. 11. clerk, (with Crawford, 

Leavitt & Co.) res Park avenue 
Parker T. M. miner, Deadw(jod 
Parker T. A. miner. Blue Tent 
Parker ^V'illiam, miner, Park avenue 
Parry William, 

Parsons Chas. L. painter, Commercial st 
Pascoe John, miner, California mine 
PATTEE JAilES M., manager Eaglo 

Comi'anv of Hartford, Connecticut 
PATTEN 'R. B. Under-Sheriti; bds Nat 

Exchange Hotel 
PATTTSON J. sup't Ciuiningham mine 
Pat ton S. H. teamster, 
Peabody Geo. II. blacksmith, at Barton's 
Peabody Geo. F. miner. Rock creek 
Peard John, miner, Soggsville 
Peasley J. G. millnum. Blue Tent 
Peeters Geo. L. miner, ^^'illow Valley 
Peeters J. miner, tJold Flat 
Peirce Geo. S. carjjenter, Main st 
PEIRCE Mrs. R. K. divssmaker, Main st 
Penberthy J, 
Pengallv iM. 
PENNSYLVANIA MINING COMP'Y, 

((piartz) African Flat 
Penrose David, 

Perkey D. J. carpenter. Broad st 
Perron John, 

Perrv Commodore, jobber. Spring st 
PERRY S. R. (of Gregory & Co.) res 

Coyote st 
Perry Thomas, miner, Manzanita Hill 
Pettit TlKjmas, miner, Prospect Hill 
Peyran Pliilip, trader, res Foundry st 
PlilLlP HENRY, (of H. Mackie & Co) bda 

Union Hotel 
PHILLIPS G. K. grccer, at Keeney's, res 

"\yater st 
PHILLIPS L. cigar dealer. Broad st 
Phillips Mrs. Jil. A. (widow) Water st 
Phillips William L. engineer. Piety Hill 
Pidge ^^'intlu•op A. miner, Selby Flat 
Piei- A. G. miner, E Broad st 
Pier T. J. tailor. Commercial st 
Pierce A. x^roprietor Nevada Gas Works 
PIERCE J. A. grocer, Main st, bds Union 

Hotel 
Pierce H. 
Pierce J. R. 

Pin<'-ree I. O. miner, Canada Hill 
PIONEER SAW MILL, Niles st 
PITTSBURG MINING CO. (quartz), S. 

D. Merchant sup't. Gold Flat 
PLACE & McCOWEN, Union Livery 

Stable, Main st 



MRS. ALLEY'S UAIR PUJiPABATIONS AT Sl'ENCE'3. 



ORDERS FOE THE COUNTRY CAREFULLY AND PROMPTLY ATTENDED TO AT GOLDSMITH'S . 



148 



NEVADA TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 



PLACE H. (of P. & McCov^'cn) res Sac st 
Polkingliorn J. miner. Gold Flat 
Pollard C. J. miner, Manzanita Hill 
Pooler J. R. miner, liead Wood's raAine 
Porter F. C. miner. Rock creek 
Porter O. miner. Rock creek 
Poston G. IST. rancher, Oustomali Hill 
POTTER A. W. Deputy Slieriff, Ixls Xat 

Exchange Hotel 
Potter F. A. x^aper hang-lngs, Pine st 
Potosi Minino- Company W. Thomas 

ag't. Gold Flat 
Powell John, miner. Rock creek 
Power Frank, school teacher, Water st 
Powers Seavy, miner, Gold Flat 
Prescott Warren, miner, Rock creek 
Price Samuel, clerk, with Goldsmith 
Prosper A. gardener. Blue Tent 
Prouse F. A. miner, Rock creek 
Providence G. and S. Mining Co. T. F. 

Dingley sup't. Deer creek 
Pryor F. miner. Willow Valley 
Putney Mrs. Mclntire (^ddow) Coyote st 
Pyrmont H. restaurant, Commercial st 

Q 

Quick Stephen, miner, California mine 

Quigley John, miner, Coyote st 

Quill Patrick, miner, 

Quintana John P. miner. Central house 



Rabb William, miner, Selby Flat 

Rafael S. 

Rail Road Mining Co. J. Thompson ag't 

Gold run 
Ramsey E. T. miner, 
Randall T. C. miner. Blue Tent 
RANDOLPH Wji. C. jeweler, Masonic 

building 
RATCLIFF W. M. minmg sup't Soggsv'l 
Raymond J. S. carpenter. Piety HIR 
Reagon A. J. miner, Moimt Oro 
Reagon G. W. miner. Main st 
REARDON T. B. lawyer, (of Sargent & R.) 

bds Union Hotel 
Reed Ben 
Reed J. P. 
Reed P. Gold Flat 
Reed William, 
Reese Charles, 

Reese George, saloon keeper, Broad st 
Reidy M. miner, old Grass Valley road 
Reuter Peter, rancher. Rock creek 
Reynolds James 
Rhineberger J. M. carpenter. Half Mile 

House 
Ribault R. F. 

Rice Quartus, millwright, Stilcs's mill 
RICH D. A. foreman, S. S. Banner mine 



RICH J. C. hotel keeper, Half-Mile House 
Richards Charles, miner. Deer creek 
Richards Harry, miner. Deer creek 
Richards Henry, miner, Soggs^'ille 
Richards John, miner, Cornish mill 
Richards Josiah, 
Richards L. bds Stumpf 's 
Richards Philip, miner, Cornish mill 
Richardson Joseph, farmer, Selby Flat 
Richardson Jos. jr. teamster, Selby Flat 
Richaud Eugene, miner. Peck's Flat 
RICHMOND J. B. Deputy U S. Assessor, 

office Masonic building, bds Bowlder st 
Ridley D. W. engineer, Willow Valley 
Rigondet Charles, miner. Mill st 
Robinson John, Miner 
Robinson Chas. F. clerk rath J. Johnston 
Robinson Mining Co. (quartz) Canada Hill 
Rodda Samiiel, miner 
Roderick John, 
Rodgers Henry, 

Rogers Josiah, rancher, American Hill 
ROLFE I. J. printer, Gazette office, res 

W Broad st 
ROLFE T. H. printer, Gazette office, bds 

Union Hotel 
Root W. H. miner, Soggsville 
Rose B. F. miner. Deer creek 
Rose George, miner, California mine 
Rose Manuel, miner, Merrimack mine 
Rose Peter, miner. Gold Flat 
ROSENBURG M.&BRO. drygoods deal- 
ers. Commercial st 
Rosenberg Marcus, of Rosenberg & Bro. 
Rosenberg Morris, of Rosenberg & Bro. 
ROSENTHAL A. tailor. Commercial st, 

res Wasliing-ton road 
ROSENTHAL & BRO. drygoods dealers, 

Kidd's building. Broad st 
ROSENTHAL JACOB, (of R. & Bro.) res 

E Broad st 
ROSENTHAL SIMON, (of R. & Bro.) res 

E Broad st 
ROTHSCHILD S. tobacconist, Masonic 

building. Pine st 
Rowe David, miner, American Hill 
Rowe Richard, painter. Broad st 
Rowe John A. miner, American Hill 
Rumery I. R. miner 
Russ J. A. 
Ryan James, miner 
RYAN P. L. carriage painter, E Broad st 

s 

Sailor Flat Mining Comnany, (gravel) 

Blue Tent 
Sairs & Bridgeman, carpenters, Broad st 
Sanford Abraham, feed store. Broad st 
Sanguinetti B. grocer, cor Spring&Pine st 
SxiRGENT & REARDON, lawyers, office 

Kidd's building 



PEOPLE ASK, "WHEitE SHALL WE BUY CLOTHING ?" AT BANNER BROTKBRS, OF COURSE. 



A. GOLDSMITH WAKRANTS ALL HIS GOODS TO BE AS REPRESENTED. 



NEVADA TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 



149 



SAIIOENT A. A. (of S. & Roardon,) res 

Broad st. 
Saulsbuiy O. W. iiiiiicr, ^^'illo\v Vulk-y 
Savai2;o Alexander, restaurant, C'oyoto st 
Sawyer W. F. farmi-r, Roek creek 
SAXJiY & J.ANCASTER, livery stable, 

Rroad wt 
SAX BY I. T. (of S. & Lancaster) res Sac- 
ramento st 
Sclieinier B. miner, res Soring st 
Seliniidt John, gardener, Broad st 
Sclimitz Petcn", 

Scliolf Jcjscpli, miner, Deer creek 
Schofield A 
Sc(jtt L. N. miner 
Scott \Vn\. City Policeman, Pino st 
SC'IIMITTBURXi (i. vox, Chief Engineer 

Fire Department, Bnnid st 
Scriver C. D. at Hitchcock's ranch 
Scroyer J. W. C. miner. Gold Flat 
Scuitti Peter, grocer, cor Pine and Com- 
mercial st, res E Broad st 
Scullen Patrick, miner 
S(;ars 11. W. miner, Oold Flat 
Sears Joseph, 
Scare Mrs. Susan, boarding house, Cim- 

ningham mine 
Seibert Frank, wine maker, Woodpecker 

ravine (Deer creek) 
Selignuin Moses, clerk witli Wm. Lewis 
Senner Fredk. barkeeper, Nat Ex Hotel 
Senm-r John, miner. Mud Flat 
SENNER JOHN jr. of Harrington & S. 
Settle Ed. laborer. Main st 
Settle T.B. foreman at Saxby& Lancaster's 
Shafer i\iark, tt'amster. Gold Flat 
Shaetfer U. butcher, Sacramento st 
Shallenberger A. miner, Blue Tent 
Sharkey John, miner, 
Shari) J. II. miner, Uniouvillo 
Shaw Geo. rope maker, lialf-3Iile House 
Shay Michael, 

Shetf Samuel, miner, Nevada 
Shepp Samuel, miner, Bald moimtaiu 
Sherman Elias, 
Sherman T. 

Sheridan Frank, teamster. Park avenue 
Sherwood W. F. bar keeper, res High st 
Shively Henry, miner, Selby Flat 
Shurtlitf Thos. clerk at G rcgory&Waite's, 

res Piety Hill 
Siebert L. miner, Deer creek 
Sigler W. L. miner, French mill 
Sigler William, miner, Selby Flat 
Sigourney T. W. miner, res Xevada st 
Sigoiu-ney W. A. miner, Selby Flat 
Silva Antone, miner. Deer creek 
Silva IManuel, miner, Nimrod st 
Simmons Robert, miner. Lost Hill 
Simons J. 
Simons R. 
Simons Scott H. miner, Blue Tent 



Skaggs S. D. miner, Scotch Flat 

Skehan Pat, miner, Niles st 

Skinner Asa, miner 

Slaver D. miner, old Gass Valley road 

SLOaN ALEX, of Jenkin & S. 

SLOCOVICH N. fruit and fancy goods, 

Pine st 
Slover James, mini'r, I'ark avenue 
Small John, miner Coyotevillo 
Smith A. 
Smith A. D. 
Smith A. II. 

Smith Erastus, miner, Hitchcock ravine 
Smith INIrs. E. W. (widow) Park avenue 
Smith Fred. 

Smith Henry, miner. Willow Valley 
Smith John, miner, Park avenue 
Smith John, miner, Mt Vernon House 
Smith John M. 

Smith Nathan, bootmaker at W. R. Coo's 
Smith Otis, miner. Red Dog road 
Smith V. miner, Kentucky Flat 
Smith V. L. miner, Gold Flat 
Smith W. II. miner, Hunt's Hill 
Sneath and Clay null, (([uartz;) Gold Flat 
Sneath Edlin, miner, Nevada City 
Sneath John, miner. Foundry st 
Snider \^^ R. engineer, Unionvillc 
SNOWDEN R. BAYARD, pastor Con- 
gregational Church, res Nevada st 
Southard E. CJ. miner, Scotch Flat 
Southard II. lumbernum, Scotch Flat 
S(nithard M. teamster, Scotch Flat 
Southworth L. S. miner, Rock creek 
SOUTH YUBA CANAL COMPAJNY, 

office INIain st 
Si)ayth A. M. with Nevada Ice Co. 
Spayth Jolm, miner. Cascades, Deer creek 
SPENCE E. F. di-uggist, Broad st, res 

Main st 
Speusley James, sawyer, Gregory & Co. 
Stanley' Ira, Deputy Co. Recorder, bds at 

Gault's restaurant 
Stausfield II. carpenter, Wet Hill 
Stauger D. W. miner, 
Stajip Howard, miner, 
STAR SPA^N^GLED BANNER COM- 

Px\NY, ((^uartz) Banncrville 
Steele Robert, farmer, Rock creek 
Stenger A. engineer. Gold Flat 
Stephens George, miner. Green Mountain 
Stephens Nathan, 
Stephens Thomas, Gold Flat 
Stevens Charlotte, housekeeper, Com st 
Stevens R. 
Stewart G. W. clerk, with Levj-, bds at 

Union Hotel 
Stewart John, 
STEWART ROBERT, upholsterer, Main 

st bds Union Hotel 

Stewartson , miner, Coyote st 

Stcwig J. C. steward. Union Hotel 



RISLEY'S RUCUU FOR SALE BY E. F. SPENCE. 



REMEMBER THAT THE ONE-PRICE DRY GOODS STORE IS KEPT BY A. GOLDSMITH. 



150 



NEVADA TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 



STILES W. C. Co. Coroner, Stiles st 
STILES LULL, (fxuartz and planing) 

Suspension Brido-e 
STILES A. J. amalgamator, Banner mine 
Stiles W. (1. amalgamator. Stiles Jiiill 
Stilwell Josiali, miner, Cunniugliam mine 

res Gold Flat 
Stoakes B. F. tinsmitli. Main st, res V/ 

Broad st 
Stockdale Moses, miner, Xc^vto-'.vn 
Stoddard S. W. slioeniaker, Broad st 
Stokes Gfeoi-ge, miner. Blue Tent 
STOXE J. li. butclier, with. J. >7effzigar 
STONE Wsr. grocer, Com st, res Broad st 
Stotit Solon L. painter, Piety Hill _ 
Stuart Thomas, 

Stubbs E. R. miner, Washington road 
STUMPF F. Miner's Hotc],''Broad st 
Sullivan J. 

Sulphurct Works, O. Mailman, Mud Flat 
Summers Hans, teamster. Park avenue 
Summers Henry, Hotel keeper. Willow 

Valley 
Swain William 
Sweet L. "VMllow Valley 
Sweet H. H. engineer. Gold Flat 
Swift Miss. Jane, B. Lachman 
Swift Wm. kostler. Union livery stable 
Swiss Ranch, Willow Valley 

T 

Tabb John, 

Taft C. C. carpenter, Canada Hill 

Taggart J. T. chairmaker, Coyote st 

Talbert Alvah, Nevada City 

Talbott A. carpenter, Nevada City 

Talbott J. W. pliysician, office Com st, 

bds Union Hotel 
Tallman Thomas Y. clerk, with Spence 
Tallman G. W. miner, bds Union Hotel 
TALMAGE I. N. Dep SheritF, Piety Hill 
Taylor A. miner, Canada Hill 
Taylor R. LI. milkman, -with Sutton 
Taylor V/. M. miner. Bridge st 
Tepie Francais, miner. Peck's Flat 
Terkune G. W. miner, Blue Tent 
Terry W. D. liosomaker, Broad st 
Terry D. B. miner, Selby Flat 
Thirwell John, miner, Bourbon Hill 
TPIOM DAVID, (of Heugh & T.) bds at 

Stumpf 's 
Thomas B. Gold Flat 
Thomas C. miner, Nevada City 
Thomas John, Gold Flat 
Thomas Joseph, miner, Banner\-ille 
Thomas T. Gold Flat 
Thomas Thomas, 
Thomas Wm. miner, Potosi mine 
Thomas W. M. miner, Potosi mine 
Thompson A. stonecutter. Broad st 
Thompson Clara, liousekeeper. Broad st 



Thompson Isaac, miner. Blue Tent 
Thompson John, miner, Scotch Flat 
Thonii)Son Joseph, printer. Prospect Hill 
THOMPSON J. S. (of Nevada Ice Co.) 

BovNdder st 
Thompson Lewis, 

Thompson R. E. miner, Canada Hill 
Thom};son Thos. 
Thompson AVm. 

Thorn Nathaniel, miner, Selby Flat 
Tibbetts John, 
Tickle John, Willov/ Valley 
Tickle William, Willow Valley 
Tischer P. Bannerville 
Tisdale W. D. miner. Broad st 
Tisdale Yi. L. manager S S Banner mine, 
■ res Broad st 

Todd Joseph, carpenter, res Nevada st 
Tompkins John, 

Tomi.kius Solomon, city crier. Com st 
TonkoA\'ich Ilenrv, saloon, Broad st 
TOESON O. C.(of Nevada Flom-iug Mills) 

res Piety Hill 
TOWER A. D. ag't W.F.&Co. res Main st 
Towle E. V/. miner, bds Union Hotel 
Towle H. D. ditch ag't. Sugar Loaf 
Towle W. W. ditch agent, Bear Valley 
Townsend G. A. miner, Selby Flat 
Townsend W. A. miner, Selby Flat 
Trainer William, carpenter 
Trask J. 'W. miner. Rock creek 
Trask Lewis, miner. Rock creek 
Trelevcn Charles, miner. Gold Flat 
Tregless E. miner, 
Tredway Mrs. BannerAullo 
Trezise Henry, miner, Lost Hill 
Trigloue Joseph, miner, Gold Flat 
Trudan James, miner 
Tucker John, miner 
Tully Miss C. Nevada City 
Tullv N. C. miner. Piety Hill 
TULLY R. W. (Kidd & Co) Prospect Hill 
Turner E. N. 
TURNER GEO. E. hardware, Pine st, 

res Nevada st 
Turner G. W. 

Turner I. N. farmer. Piety Hill 
Turner John, miner. Gold Flat 
Turnliam William, miner, Deer creek 

u. 

UNION HOTEL, Eaton & Williamson 

proprietors, Main st 
Union Gravel Mining Comi^an}', Deer 

creek and Wood's ra%dne 
Union Quartz Mine, (N. Y. &G. V. M. Co) 

E. Danscf.mbe sup't, Union^'ille 
Union Qiiartz Mining. Company No. 1, 

Coe's ranch, Red Dog road 
Ural Quartz Mine, P. Richards ag't, Deer 

creek and Vv'ood's ra^'ine 



WHY DJ PEOPLE PATR02^I2;E BAN^sER BROTHLRS? BECAUSE THEY SELL CHEAP. 



NEW GOODS RECEIVED EVERY STSAMER BY A. GOLDSMITH. 



NEVADA TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 151 



y 

VanAlstine Wm. miner, bds Union Hotel 
VsxnEmon J. IT. Lliicksmith, Cal mine* 
Vanlluok James, miner, (Jnlil Flat 
VanTilhurn: Ira, miner, Wood's raA-inc 
Vanee 0. ljootm»l<er. Broad st 
Vanderlioef E. B. printer, Gazette office, 

res Coyote st 
Vaii^flin J. U. 

Vickfsry G.S. eng-incer, C'unninpcliammine 
Victor Georfje, miner, Pecli's Flat 
Vivian J. Deer creek 

w 

Wadsworth A. R. farmer, at Cliapman's 

ranch 
"^^'a^ner Cliarles, Deer creek 
^VaJrne^ J. X. l)rewer witli Dreyfnss 
^Va^rner Thomas, miner, (iold Flat 
AVaitc B. C. miner, Stockin<>: Flat 
WAITE E. G. (of Grepjory & W.) res 

Pi.-ty Hill 
Walker O. blacksmith. Gold run 
^Vallace William, miner, Soo-frgville 
^Valtel•s Henry, miner, Mill st 
Walters Thomas, 
^^'alton J. X. miner, Nevada City 
AA'anamake Earl, at Southard's sa-mnill 
^Vanamake Geo. at Southard's sawmill 
^^'ard Dennis, miner, 
^^'ardner J. S. bookkeeper with Cashin, 

Davis & Co 
Warinn; John L. miner, Coyote st 
^^'arren James, 

Warren R. G. miner, Chapman's ranch 
Wash Henry, 

Watson Tliomas, machinist. Spring st 
Webber Nic, miner, Indian Flat 
Weiss E. brewer, Sacramento st 
WEtCH GEO. W. stationer, Broad st, 

res Nevada st 
Welch Isaac, 

Welsh James, laborer. Coyote st 
Went worth J. H. farmer, Gold Flat 
Weutworth J. P. teamster. Gold Flat 
Wetmore E. A. carpenter,bds Nat ExHotel 
Whaley J. A. at Grejrory & Co's mill 
Wheeler & Dole, fancy ffcjods. Broad st 
Wheeler D. E. of W." & Dole 
Wlialan M. Bannerville 
Whildcn Edward, miner, Gold Flat 
^^liilden John, miner. Gold Flat 
WTiilden Teddy, miner, Gold Flat 



White E. A. carpenter, Nevada st 
White John, miner, Bannerville 
\Anute LcAvis, 

White William, miner, Bannerville 
Whitinor S. O. teamster, Gold Flat 
Whitc(jmb Samuel, miner 
'VMiittus Georfje, miner. Gold Flat 
Wicksor M. farmer, Swiss ranch. Willow 

Vallev 
WIGlLbl MINE, (quartz) S. D. Mer- 
chant ajj't. Gold Fiat 
Wilkinson W. Willow Valley 
Williams Ben. teamster, Gokl Flat 
Williams Georp:e, teamster, Bnnnerville 
Williams John, miner. Prospect Hill 
Williams John L. farmer, ^Vilcox ravine 
Williams J. B. 

WilTuims John W. miner, Sacramento st 
WILLIAMS L. W. (of Ilawley & W.) res 

Prosjiect Hill 
WILLLUISON ISAAC, (of Eaton & W.) 

Union Hotel 
Williamson Joseph carpenter, bds Union 
Williamson Le^^, miner. Blue Tent 
Willoby W. teamstf-r. 
Willow Valley JNIinino; Co. G. W.Welch 

ao't, Willow Valley 
Wilsey M. II. miner, Rock creek 
Wilson James, 

Wilson L. JI. miner. Deer creek 
Winir Rodnev, miner, \Vood's ravine 
WlliTII W. 'j. pastor Baptist Church 

res Piety Hill 
Wolcott d. J. miner. Rock creek 
WOLF WILLIAM, fji-occr, Main st 
Wood Asa. miner. Soofo-sville 
Wood ^Villiam, carpenter. 
Wood William, miner, Scotch Flat 
Worminp,1on H. 
Wormwood H. C. barkeeper, Nat Ex 

saloon 
Worrell Joseph, forwarding merchant 

res Eagle ra^vine 
Wright B. 



Toung Benjamin laborer. Spring st 
Tomig James, miner. Coyote st 
Young William, carpenter, 



z 



Zedow Louis, butcher. Commercial st 
ZEKIND A. I. clerk, ^^ith Greenwald 



rELEiCOPIO TUMBLERS AT SPENCE'S. 



NEW GOODS RECEIVED EVERY STEAMER BY A. GOLDSMITH . 

NEVADA TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 153 

" TRANSCRIPT " 



Nevirspaper and Job 

CORHEB OF BHOAQ AHD PIHB STREETS. 

NEVADA CITY. CALIFORNIA. 



N. P. BROWN & M. S. DEAL, 

PUBLISHERS AND PROPRIETORS. 

CARDS, OF EVERY KfND. 

PROGRAMMES, BILLS OF FARE, POSTERS, LABELS, 
Anl eyerytMng else iu Itie PrMni line ueatly eiecntel. 



Published in the Nevada Daily Transcript at reasonable rates. 

s 



RISLEY'S BUCHU FOR SALE BY E. F. SPENCB. 



UEMEMBEP THAT THE ONE-PRICE DRY GOODS STOKE IS KEriBY A. GOLDSMITH. 



154 



NEVADA TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 




ISTE'WSP^PEIl, BOOK 



■AND- 



OFFICE, 



Main Street, Kevada City, California. 

EDWIN F. BEAN, EDITOE AND PEOPHIETOR. 




^^^ 



RATES OF SIJ.ESOaiPTION': 



One Year, (in Advance) |10 00 

Six Montlis, " " 6 00 

Three Montlis, " " 3 00 

City Subscribers, per Week. 25 



Advertisements Inserted on tlie Most Eeasonable Terms. 



PEOGRAMMES, 

POSTERS, 

LABELS, 

BILL. HEADS, 



BILLS OF FARE, 

CIRCULARS, 

CARDS, 
LEGAL BLANKS, 



and every description of JOE WGSX neatly and promptly done. 

12^= For further Particolars, subscribe for the GAZETTE. 



PEOPLE ASK, "WHEKE SHALL WE I^y CLOTHING ?" AT BANNER BROTHERS, OF COURSE- 



ORDERS FOR THE COUNTRY CAREFULLY AND PROMPTLY ATTENDED TO AT GOLDSMITH'S. 



NEVADA TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 



155 



mEfiMFI STARE UNE 



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AGENTS: 

W. H. DAVIDSON, Agent at Nevada. 

J. H. H. MATHENY, Agent at Grass VaUey. 

C. J. SHAW,. Agent at CoKax and Sacramento. 

A. J. PITTNUM, Agent at North San Juan. 

TRUSSES A^-I> SHOULDER BRACES AT SPENCB'S. 



GOLDSinTH EXHIBITS NO PARTIALITY TO CUSTOMERS. 



156 



NEVADA TOWNSHIP DIRECTOEY. 



GO TO 




Corner of Pine and Commercial Streets, 

NEVADA CITY. 



TELESCOPIC TUMBLERS AT SPENCERS. 



GO TO A. GOLDSMITH'S FOR YOUR DRY GOODS. 



NEVADA TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 



157 



ANTELOPE 



RESTAURANT. 



PROPRIETOR. 
No. 64 BROAD STEEET, NEVADA CITY. 

The reputation enjoyed by tliis cstablisliment is second to none in tlie City, and 
shall bo full}" sustained. 

Every LUXURY the market affords will be foiuid on its tables. Game of all 
kinds in season. 

Board by the Week, Day or Sij^Ic meal. 

IW Suppers provided for Balls and Parties. „^]I1 



SCHMITTBURG & HEINNEMAN, 

[Next door to Levj-'s Auction Room.] 
Broad Street, Nevada City. 

WINES, LIQIRS & CIGARS 

Lager Beer of Superior Cluality, 

WHOLESALE AND RETAIL. 



Ever)i,hing about the SALOON is of the best, and designed for the Comfort of 
those visiting it. 

G. VON SCHMITTBURG, 
A. IIEINNEMAX. 



GEO E. TURNER, 



DEALER IX 




CROCKERY, 

Stoves, Iron, Steel, Nails, Blacksmith's Tools, Lead Pipe, Hydraulic Pipes, 

Lamps, Lanterns, Pumps, Tin and Copper Ware, and House Furnishing Articles. 

TIN ROOFING, JOBBING AND REPAIRING. 

Pine Street, Nevada City. 

"WHY DO BANNER BROTHERS SELL GOODS CHEAP ? BECAUSE THEY CAN AFFORD TO. 



GOLDSMITH'S MOTTO iS LARGE SALES AND SMALL PHOFITS. 
158 NEVADA TOWNSHIP DIEECTORY. 

No. 37 Commercial Street, Nevada City. 

DEALER IX 

GROCEMIES ANI> PROVISIONS, 

Twines, IL.iquors, Misiers' g«i>pl{eSj Etc., Etc. 



A Eirst-Class MEAT MAEKET connected with the Establishment. 



^^° Goods Delivered ■mtliin a Reasonable distance Free of Charge. ,^^2 
A. B. CAELEY. C. BECKMAN. 

THE OLD CORNER 

BROAD AN& PIjVE STREETS, WEVAOA CITY. 
THE FINEST 

Wines, Liquors, Ales and Cigars. 

33 X Xji XLi X j^ XI. X> ^ . 

TWO OF THE FINEST, NEW STYLE TABLES, IN THE MOUNTAINS 

No better Managed. Provided and Attended BAR can be found than 

CARLE Y A BECKMAN' S. 

"iJNITED STATES BAKERY- "" 

No. 48 Pine Street, Nevada City, 

JULIUS BHBTF^SS, 

PEOPSIETOR. 

Bread, Cakes and Confectionary of Every Variety, 

FAIILES AND PAETIES SUPPLED. 

. WEBDma CAKE MADE TO (mDER. 

^^ Bread, etc.; delivered daily in all parts of tlie City. JgH 



VISIT BAK>rEIl BEOTIIERS CLOTHING E^IPOEIUM— ADMITTANCE FEBE. 



A. GOLDSMIin WARRANTS ALL mS GOODS TO BE AS REPRESENTED. 

NEVADA TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 159 

A . I S O A R D , 

No. 61 Broad Street, Nevada City, 

DEALER IN 

FRENCH AND AMERICAN 

BRANDIES, 

Wines, Liquors, Cordials, Syrups, Bitters, Etc. 
O^^LIPORi^IA. "WinSTES 

Of Every Variety, and of the Best Quality. 



F. ^. POTTER, 

MASONIC ETJILDING, Pine Street, NEVADA CITY, 

_ ^^ Duakr iu Eevery Variety and Quality of 

WmDOW SHADES AND FIXTUEES, 
FRAMES, CORDS, TASSELS, MOULDINGS, ETC. 

FRADIES MADE TO ORDER. 

Painting and Paper Hanging done in a Workman-like Manner. 




INDIVIDUAL LIABILITY. CAPITAL STOCK $300,000 
Oceideiit^i Iii§itraiice Conapaiiy, 

OF SAN FRANCISCO, 

S. ROTIISCIIIB, RESIDENT AGEiM, 

DEALER EN 

Masonic Building. • ^ • • • -Pine Street Nevada City. 

i:^" All Losses Promptly Paid in Gold Coin. =^ 



MRS. ALLEN'S HAIR PREPARATIONS AT SPENCE'S. 



160 



LADIES' EMPORIUM OF FASHION KEPT BY A. GOLDSMITH. 



NEVADA TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 



A^^D 








BROAD STREET, [above Pine,] NEVADA CITY. 
GOOD ROOMS, 



5 



GOOD MEALS, 



GOOD COOKS, 



GOOD LiaiJORS, 



^^0'^U%r 2*E^XOE3^. 



FREICH, EIGUSH AIB GERMAN SPOKEN IN THE HOUSE. 

111^° APARTMENTS POR LADIES neatly furnislied, and tlie best of ac- 
commodations provided. 

The Proprietor invites a visit from all Travelers ; and Ms best endeavors will be 
given to insure satisfaction to Ms i^atrons. 



WHOLESALE AND RETAIL DEALERS IN 



F 



f 






BRICK STORE, Ho. 76 BROAD STREET, 



NEVADA CITY. 



WHY DO PEOPLE PATKONIZE BANNER BROTHEES? BECAUSE THEY SELL CHEAP. 



SAN FRANCISCO C03T0M-MADB SHOES AX QOLfiSMlTn'S. 



NEVADA TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 161 

HENRY PHILIP. HENRY MACKIE. 



H. M^OKIE & CO., 

f) 




^ 



Main Street, Nevada City, California. 
Make Advances on Gold Dust for Coinage or Assay at the U. S. Mint. 

I>RAW^ CHECKS 

ON 

San Francisco* Sacramento and Virginia City. 

Slglit antl Time l^rafts 

ON 

THE BANK OF DRSXEL, WINTHROP 8l CO., STATE OF NEW YORK. 

Excliiiugc ou Lioudon aud otber Uraropeau Cities, 

RESIDENT A,aENTS 

OF THE — ■ — 

Pii«eiiix ^ii'e Iiastifsaiice C@Mip«tiiy 

OF HARTFORD, CONNECTICUT. 



COLLECTIONS MADE OH BEASOITABLS TEEMS. 

DEPOSITS, GENEEAL AND SPECIAL, RECEIVED 



T 



INSURANCE EFFiiCIJED AND L0SSK3 PIIOMPTLY ADJUSTED BY E. T. SPJENCJi;. 



GOLDSMITH'S DRY GOODS STORE IS THE PLACE TO BE SUITED BEST. 



162 



NEVADA TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 



DEALER 12 



MAIN STPvEET, NEVADA CITY. 

[Opposite tlie Union Hotel.] 
COXSTAXTLY OX HAXD, A LARGE SUPPLY OF 

Also.-DEALEH, IN SHAKES AND SHINGLES. 

W. G. JENKINS, 

BROAD STREET, [opposite National Exchange Hotel,] NEVADA CITY, 

MANUFACTHREK OF AKD DEALKR IN 

California Saddles and Harness. 

MAKES TO ORDER 

HARNESS AND COLLARS, 0? ALL PATTERNS AND STYLES REQUIRED. 

Constantly on Hand, a Large assortment of Custom-madG V/ork, including 
BRIDLES, HALTERS AND BLANKETS. 



^ PI 

Commercial Street, Wevada City. 

Always on L.and, a Full Assortment of 




lUi 



m 



T. 



SlA 



DRY GOODS. 



The Attention of the Ladies is Partieularlv called to onr well filled Store. 

B. GLIXE. " H. XOVITZSKY. 



. MOBENBEKG- & B 

DEALERS IN 





€oii(imerclal Street, Ne^-ada City. 



Have always on hand a well selected Stock of Dry and Fancy Goods, ancl will 

SELI. AT THE LOWEST PRICES. 

Give us a call and examine our Stock. ,^g3 



FULL SUITS OF CLOTHING, FROM FIFTEEN TO FIFTY DOLLARS, AT BANNER BROTHERS 



THE REASON WHY GOLDSMITH SELLS MORE DRY GOODS THAN ANY ONE ELSE IS 

NEVADA TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 163 



NEW YORK 



J. P. ADDAMB, FB.OPRIETOH, 

BROAD STREET,. .[Opposite tlie Theater,]. . -NEVADA CITY. 



Tlie Proprietor takes pleasure in iufuniiiiig the Public tliat he is prepared to 
accouimodatc his patrons in as f^ood a style as any House in the Mountains. 

The BEDS and FURNITURE are all New, and the TABLE spread 
with the Best the market affords. 



I¥I€IIOL,AS SliOCOVICH, 



DEALEK IN 



FRUIT, ITS, TOIUl COiraOlRY, 

PINE STREET, NEVADA CITY. 



Nick always has the LARGEST SUPPLY of every thing in his line. 



«iiTio«^t BXCHJiNGE zmvim zmoUf 

BROAD STREET, NEVADA CITY. 

HAIR CUTTING, SHAVING AND SHAMPOOING, 

IN THE BEST STYLE. 



HOT AND COLD BATHS AT ALL HOURS. 

Any one requirinpf any serrice in the above line can be as well attended as at any 
similar establishment in the State. T. C. LAMPE. 



E. W. BIGELOW, 

WHOLESALE AND RETAIL DEALER IN 

OF ALL DESCRIPTIONS. 



A large supply of all kinds of Bran, Shorts, Middlings, Ground Barley and 

Mixed Feed^ on hand and for sale. 

Main Street, j^evada City. 

CONCENTBAXED LYE AND POTASH AT SPENCB'S. 



BECAUSE HE SELLS HIS GOOrS CHEAPER jTHAN ANY OTHER DRYGOODS HOUSE 



164 



NEVADA TOWNSHIP' DIRECTOEY, 



MEKOH^TsTT TA.ILOR 

No. 29 COMMEECIAL STEEET, FEVAEA. 



DRESS OR BUSINESS SUITS, OF THE MOST PERFECT FIT, 

Made to Order in tlie Most Substantial manner and in tlie Latest Style. 

A fine stock of Erench Clotlis, Doeskin, Beaver, Pilot Cloths, Velvets, etc. 

WMcIl I wll Manufacture to Order at Loyi' Prices. 



PET 



N 



Broad Street- -[Opposite Pennsylvania Engine House]- -ITevada City. 

'ILL ATTEND STPJCTLY TO BUILDING OE EEPAIEING HOUSES, JOB 
Work, Etc., by tlie Day or Contract. 
Picture Frames Made to Order, of the latest style of Moldings, 
either Gilt, 'Walnut oi Eosewooci. 



No. 78 Broad Street, Nevada City. 

BREAD, PIES, CAKES, CRACKERS AND CGNFE 

of every description. 
Families and Parties Supplied at the Shortest Notice. 



JOHN KENDALL, 



OPFICE— Becknian's Corner, Broad Street, Nevada. 



Collections Promptly attended to. 



Conveyancing in all its brandies. 



SUMMER SUITS, SHIRTS, SHOES AND SOCKS, SOLD AT BANNER BROTHERS. 



IN THE COUXTY, AXD ALWAYS KEEPS THE BEST AND FINEST ASSOTITED STOCK. 



NEVADA TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 



165 



L] J: 111 .Jj it 



ii ii 




Commercial Street, Nevada City, 



JACOB I7AFFZIGER> Proprietor. 



A 



T THIS OLD AND POPULAR ESTABLISIDIEXT MAY ALWAYS BE 
found tlie veiy best qualities of Beef and Pork, fresh and corned, Mutton and 
Sausaf?c. Smoked Meats of our own curinof. Head Cheese and Lard. 



Pine street Market^ 

JAMEiS DA'irzS, PHOPRIETaR, 

Pine Street,- • -[between Broad and Commercial,]- • -Nevada City. 



KEEPS CONSTANTLY ON HAND, BEEF, PORK and MUTTON, 
Fresh and Corned, which he is detennined to dispose of 
AT PRICES DEFYING COMPETITION. 



©EF2- Sa^BSIl^ 



3 



Broad Street, [opposite the Theater,] Nevada City. 
nONTINUES TO OFFER, AS HE HAS FOR YEARS PAST, 

Tlie Best qualities ot MEATS of All Kinds, 

1^^^ At Prices as Low as Any. „^3 



Centre 



Commercial Street, [opposite Masonic Building,] Nevada City. 

iHB^j ' --Froprietor, 



DEAXER IN 



BEEF,iPORK, MUTTON, VEAL. SAUSAGE, CORNED BEEF, ETC. 

Every thing in the line sold at the Lowest Cash i^rices. 



rACIFIC INSURANCE COMPANY, THE M0ST_RELIABLE IN THE STATE, SPENCB AGBXT. 



TUB FINEST SILK DRESS -PATTERNS ARE TO BE FOUND AT GOLDSMITH'S. 
166 NEVADA TOWNSHIP DIEECTORY. 



OFFICE, 

At Spence's Brug Store, Broad Street. 

Residence — Nevada Street, Aiistocracy Hill, 

NEVADA. 



pig^icint anil ^nt'H^Dtt, 

Office at Kent's Drug Storey 

Corner Main and Commercial Streets, Nevada. 
Residence — Union Hotel. . 



I>i% €e Me BATES, 



Office— Masonic Building, Pine Street, 

NEVADA. 

Residencej on Upper Broad Street. 



J . C. PALMER, 

JUSlfcS ©F THE PEACE. 
Will Practice in all tlie Courts in tlie County and the 14tli Judicial District. 

OFFICE— Brick building on Commercial Street, next door to the comer 

of Pine, up stairs. 

BUY YOUR BOOTS, BLANKETS AND BUSINESS SUITS AT BANNER BROTHERS . 



CARPETS AND OIL CLOTUS, AN ENDLESS VARIETY AT OOLDSMITU'S. 

NEVADA TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 167 

T. P. HAWLEY. L. W. WILLIAMS. 

HA^YI^EY & WII.I.IAMS, 

ATTOPiiys Ai mmm at law, 

NEVADA CITY. 



L. W. WILLIAMS, Commissioner of Deeds for the State of Nevada. 
OFFICE— Beckman's Corner, Broad Street, up stairs. 

A. C . jSTILES, 

ATToaMV hm muzmn at uw, 

NEVADA CITY. 



OFFICE— Beckman's Corner, up stairs. 



J. I. & J01Ii\ CALI>lVEl,Ii, 

ATTORNEYS Al COIWLORS AT LAW, 

OFFICE-No. 42 BROAD STREET, 

NEVADA CITY. 



J I C -VLDWELL ^ ^'-*t^ry Public and Deputy District Attorney for Nevada Co, 
■ ■ ' i Commissioner for tlie State of Nevada. 

JOHN CALDWELL, District Attorney and Notary Public for Nevada County. 

"W. "VV^. CHOSS, 

ATTon«BV hm mmmm^ hr tm, 

Nevada City. 



OFFICE— In Kidd & Knox Block, comer of Broad and Pine Streets. 

CONCENTRATED ARNICA PREPARES BY E. F. SPENCE. 



GOLDSMITH'S STOCK OP MILLINERY GOODS IS THE LARGPIST IN THE MOUNTAINS, 



168 



NEVADA TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 



D^VID BELDBN. 



Nevada City. 



OFFICE— Kidd & Knox Block, comer Broad and Pine Streets. 



A. A. SAHGENT. 



T. E. REARBON. 



ATTORNEYS A^ COUNSELORS AT LAV, 



OFFICE— In Kidd's Block, corner of Broad and Pine Streets. 



NEVADA CITY. 



Having returned to Nevada City, I will practice in the several Courts of tlie 14th 
Judicial District, the Supreme Court of the State, and in the Federal Courts. 
Business in the State of Nevada yvHI also be properly attended to. 

OFFICE— In Sidd's Block, with W. W. Gross. 



p I Ig ip Ig 






No. 48 Pine Street, — [over tlie United States Bakery,] — Nevada City. 



O IS -^ St. Xa IHl ^ IF^ 

PHOTOGEA-PHEK, 

Is prei^ared to execute, in the highest style of the Art, 

PHOTOGRAPHS, GARTES0EV1SIT£,AS^BR0TYPES, ETC. 

Of all Styles and Sizes. 



Pictures taken in Clear or Cloudy weather — • • -Call and see Specimens. 

[J^" Assignee for the Bromide Patent, for Nevada County, ,^^1 



BANNEK BROTHERS BUY ANB SELL CLOTHING FOR CASH. 



LADIES' WORK BOXES AND SATCHELS, OP EVERY VARIETY, AT A. GOLDSMITH'S. 



NEVADA TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 



169 



K BL^CKS]VIITII 



AND 



IS O E^ 

COYOTE STREET, [above Gas Works,] NEVADA CITY. 

Is prepared for any description of work in liis lino. 



Particular attention paid to 'interfering' Horses 

WAGONS mOIED AID REPAIRED IN THE BEST MANNER. 



If tlicrc is any thing that A. B. prides himself on, it is knowing just how to 
Shoe a Horse and there arc just two ways to do it, a right and a wrong way, 
and any one trying him once will be convinced that he knows the one from the 
other. 



]¥EVA1>A 8T1^AM FliAMMO MII1I4, 
SASH, DOOR AND BLIND FACTORY. 



GEOKGE M. HUGHES, 
CARPENTER and BUILDER, 




pine Street, (in rear of Court House,) Nevada City, 

(j M \ Eeeps constantly on hand and manufactures to order Doors, Windows, 

v-* ^-f \ Tilinrlj nnrl \f r>l rlinc-a. nf fiverv varietv. 



Blinds and Moldings, of every variety. 
Dressed Flooring and Siding, and Finishing Material 

of every description, for Building purposes. 



J^MES OOLLEY, 




Adjoining Crawford, Leavitt & Co's Grocery, 
Broad Street, Nevada City, 




On hand, and for sale at the lowest living rates, the best of 



FRESH BEEF, PORK, MUTTON, VEAL, CORN 

Fresli-Smoked Hams and Bacon, 

LEAF LARD, ETC. 

IJ 

FLORIDA AND MAGNOLIA WATER FOR SALE BY E. F. SPENCE. 



BEEF, SAUSAGE, 



FIKE ENGLISH THREE-PLY CARPETING, IN GREAT VARIETY, AT A. GOLDSMITH'S. 



170 



NEVADA TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 



I T, SAXBY. 



J, A. LANCASTER. 



[Opposite the National Exchange,] 



v^ 



( 



^^1^^ 5|iy^^=^::^^^<^ 



^ 



^A^ ^-* r=ff^~ 



SAXIi¥ S& IiAM€AST12M 

Having prtrcliased the Livery-Stock and Business of J. H. Helm, in the Empire 
Stable, and nnited the same with the stock of the old Union Livery Stable, now 
have the largest lot of 



to be found in any Livery Stable in this part of California. 

TEAMS, WITH ELEGANT BUOeiES, WAGONS & HACKS, 

to let at the shortest notice and on the most reasonable terms. 



OUR HORSES are free from Vicioas Habits, of fine style, and capable 
of going as fast as any gentleman cares to drive. 



With Careful Drivers, will be furnished on short notice. 



Good Saddle-Horses, for either Ladies or Gentlemen, always on hand. 



HORSES BOARDED BY THE DAY, WEEK OR MONTH, 

|i^° And the best of Care Guaranteed. _^!B 



EVERY WELL-DRESSED MAN IN NEVADA TRADES WITH BANNER BROTHERS. 



SIMILAR CARPETS, WITH A SLIGHT VARIATION, AT GOLDSMITH'S. 

NEVADA TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 171 

MUTUAL Li E IMRAIE COMPANY, 

NEW YORK. 

Cash Assetts, $1,800,000. 

Home Mutual Fire and Marine Insurance Co., 

San Francisco. 
Capital , $350,000. 

S. B. DAVEN'POBT, Agent for Nevada County. 

Office — In Masonic Building, Commercial street, Nevada City. 



iriI.I.IA]?I C. OROVE, 



BROAD STREET, 




NEVADA CITY, 



A SUPPLY OF PLAIN, WALNUT, MAHOGANY AND ROSEWOOD COPFINS 

always on hand, and furnished at short notice 

C^ Interments in all parts of the Comity promptly attended to. =^ 



TERMS REASONABLE. 



ALSO — PROPEIETOR OF THE 



Where LOTS of any size desired may be obtained at a moderate price. 




BROAD STREET, [next door to Baker & Martin,] NEVADA CITY. 
3»- O :mC O T^ O 3P O Xj TT - 



This Market will keep the very best MEATS, of all kinds, to be had in the 

country, and the prices are such as to entitle it to the decided preference of those 
who have an eye to luxury and economy. 

Meats of aU Kinds by the Side or Carcass, sold at Slaughter-house Prices. 

J. W. JOHNSTON. Proprietor. 



ALMANACS GIVEN AWAY (ADVICE GRATIS) AT SPEJJiCE'S. 



GOLDSMITH MAKES NO CHARGE POK EXHIBITING HIS GOODS TO CUSTOMEKS. 



172 



NEVADA TOWNSHIP DIRECTOKY. 



D. S. BAKER. 



J. A. MARTIN. 



TrnOLESALE AND RETAIL DEALERS IjST 



Call FFMltg stiid Slielf ^©ods, 

of all kinds. Also^ 
WHEAT, CORN, BARLEY AND GROUND FEED. 



^VOOD, ^WOOJJ, "W^OOD, 

?Sj Bliingles^ Etc=j, Etc. 

No- 73 Broad Street. Nevada City. 



^^ 



i 



III l^ 






Spring Street, Nevada City, 
PROPRIETOR. 



An iuesliaustible supply of 



THE VEEY BEST LAGER BEER 

constantly on hand, and for sale 

BY THE BAKREL, KEO OB, BOTTLE. 



FAMILIES AND SALOONS supplied -with fi-esli Beer every day, if desired, at 
their Residences or Place of Business. 



SALOONS AND HOTELS, in any part of tlie Couuty, supplied regularly 
■with draught or bottle beer, on the most reasonable terms. 



All .orders left at the iJrewery will be promptly attended to. 



READ BANNER'S ADVERTISEMENT AT THE BOTTOM OE EACH PAGE. 



LADIES- AND CHILDUEN'S MERINO HOSE AT GOLDSMITH'S. 



NEVADA TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 



173 



-W 



111 



i LI¥E11 



MilU'l^! 



PROPRIETORS, 

MAIN STREET,. • • .[opposite Union Hotel,]. • • .NEVADA CITY. 



GOOD BUGGY HORSES. KW. 

The best in the Mountains. 




FINE SADDLE HORSES 

For Ladies or Gentlemen. 



HORSES, CARKIAQES AND BUGGIES 

to let on the most REAS0N.iU3LE Terms. 



iW Carriages for Funerals will be furnished on short notice. ,M^ 



HORSES BOARDED BY THE DAY, WEEK OR MONTH. 



^WILLIAM R. OOE, 

Corner of Main and Commercial Streets, Nevada City 

MANUFACTUllER OF AKD DEALER IN 

BOOT^ and ^HOEIN. 

Has on htim.!, at all times, a large stock of 

GENTS' BOOTS, ftiiBi. LADIES', 



SHOES 



and 




MISSES' 



and 



GAITERS ;*^^^ "" • CHILDREN'S 

Balmorals, Gaiters, Shoes, Slippers, Etc., 

From the best maniLtacturers of New York, Philadelphia and Boston. I also have 

A FULL ASSORTMENT GF SHOE FINDINGS: 

French Calf, Ivii3, Lining Skins, Sole Leather, Pegs, Nails, Awls, Thread, Lasts, and 
in fact everything to be found in a iirst-class Shoe and Finding store. 

Boots and Shoes Made to Order, and a good fit warranted in every case. I 
keep Boots of uiy own manufacture alv.^ays on hand. 



A FINE ASSORTJUENT OF COMBS AND BRUSHES AT SPENCE'S. 



174 



FINE IKien-LINEN TABLE CLOTHS AND NAPKINS AT GOLDSMITH'S. 



NEVADA TOWNSHIP DIRSCTOKY. 





, "WHOLESALE AND RETAIL DEALER IN 









CUTIEEY, STOVES, lEOI, STEEL, NAILS, FOWBEE AIB FUSE. 

SHEET-IRON AND DUCK HOSE, 

AND EVERT VAEIETY OF MINING TOOLS, 



m 



JISFIIIKX AN] 



t: 



4%^ 1^ 4^ 



Of every description, and of the very best quality for family use. 

K'os. 7 and 9 Commercial Street, Nevada City. 




BANNBE BROTHERS TAKE THE LEAD IN THE CLOTHING TRADE OF NEVADA. 



aOLDSMIin'S CLERKS ARE ALWAYS ATTENTIVE AND OBLIQING TO CUSTOMERS. 



NEVADA TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 



175 




u w 



AND 



iriTFir^^^ 






MACHINE SHOP, ^B 



Spring Street, Nevada City. 

— -— - —iitaw • — - — ~ 



HEUaS ii THO 



MANUFACTURERS OF 



STEAHI El 



B 



QUARTZ MILLS OF ALL KiNDS ANO STYLES OF MACHINERY. 

Havin/T onlarft-ed our cstabljsliiucnt, wc arc now prepared to furnish, at the ehortcst 
notice and at the most reasonable rates, every kind and description of Castings, 

INCLUDING 

STEAM ENGINES, 

MINING PUMPS, 

HOISTING GEAE, 

SAW, GRIST, QUARTZ, AND CEMENT MILLS. 

Arcliitectiiral and Ornaraental Castings. 



S'te^/ZXl. DOO XXOX^Stg — Locomotive, Flue, Tubular and Cylinder. 



AMALaAMATINa MACHINERY, 

Of all Required Kinds, with aU the Latest Improvements. 

Done in its various forms, and satisfaction given. Every kind of Brass and Iron 
Castings furnished. Our Stock of Patterns is very large. 



EEPAIRIHG DONE IS TEE BEST JIIAMES, AT THE LOWEST PRICES. 
BLACKS MITHING, 

In all its Different Branches, from the Lightest to the Heaviest kind of 
v/ork, done in a Ifeat and Substantial manner. 

WILLIAM HEUGH. • DAVID THOM. 

CHEVALIER'S LIPE FOB THE HAIR FOR SALE BY E. F, SP3NCE. 



FINE LINEN COLLARS AND GUFFS, OF THE LATEST STYLE, AT GOLBSMITn'S. 



176 



NEVADA TOWNSHIP DIKECTORT. 






Successor to 
Samuel Lewis, 






2^/ 



c^ Adjoining 

Eeckman & Carley, 



BEOAB STREET 



WHOLESALE AND ^--^ 



'4 i " 



HEVADA CITY. 






.-^J 



k'^ KETAIL DEALER 



■IN 



Oia^RS A^D TOBACCO, 

The choicest brands of Cigars and Tobacco, Meerschaum Pipes, Etc., 

for Sale at San Francisco Prices. 

|^° Orders from tlie Country solicited and promptly attended to. „^]11 

NEW YORK 



COMMERCIAL STEEST, NEVADA CITY, 



JOSEPH 



I.I. Y1^00I>, 



MAXTJFACXmiER, "VTHOLSSALE AND EETAIL DEALER IN 

Confectionery, Bread, Pies, Cakes and Crackers. 

AGENT EOS PESSTON'S GELEBEATED CEACKEES. 



m CONisECTION WITH THE ABOVE ESTABLISHMENT IS A 

FIRST-CLASS ICE CREAM SALOON, 

Expressly fitted up for Ladies. 



SUPPERS FOR PARTIES MB BALLS FURMBHED ON SHORT NOTICE 

Orders left at the Bakery -will be promptly attended to. 



BOYS' SUITS, AND UNDERCLOTHING OP ALL SIZES, AT BANNER BROTHERS. 



LADIES SHOULD PURCHASE THEIR RIBBONS, BUTTONS AND TRIMMINGS AT GOLDSMITH'S. 



NEVADA TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 



177 



C. lVIIiSO]\ Hllil., 



Al COWIOR AT LAW, 



NEVADA CITY. 



OFFICE— Over Beckman's, comer Broad and Pine Streets. 



I>r. S. KISFY, 

fhjj^ician, gicrouchcut mil ©culissi 

LATE SURGEON OF THE UNITED STATES REGULAR ARMY, GRADUATE 
of the Universities of Hungary and of New Orleans. Also, member of difterent 
Medical Societies, n-spect fully tenders liis services to the citizens of Nevada and 

vicinity. The Doctor can be Consulted in Ten Different Languages. 

Offce — In Mackie & Tower's building, junction of Main and Commercial streets. 

»r. WItlilAM KEIVT, 
SUEGICAL Md MICHAHICAI. DIHTIST 



No. 1 Commercial Street, Nevada City. 

\ OVER KKIVT'S DRUG STORE, 

7 

Operates in every department of DENTISTRY. Work 

done in the best possible manner, and all Operations 

guaranteed to give perfect satisfaction. Will pay his 

whole attention to the practice of the profession. 




AL. JENKIN. 
BROAD STREET, 



ALEX. SLOAN. 




NEVADA CITY. 



Having Purchased this Old, WeU.kno^Ti and Popular Saloon, we are now ready 
to deafout the best Brandv, "^Miiskv, Gin, Wine and Lager^Beerto be found in the 
Citv. Open dav and night. " Ji^XKIN & SLOAjST. 

v * 



KIDDS BANK IS NEXT DOOR TO SPBNOE'S DRUG STORK. 



GO TO GOLDSMITH'S FOR TOFR DRY GOODS, HE KEEPS THE BEST. 



178 



NEVADA TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 



A. B. GREGORY. 



E. G. WAITE. 



St 






WHOLESALE AIOD EETAIL DEALERS LN 



^i 










'^ 



A H. E^ 



M I I^ 



AJSTD ALL KINDS OF 

T^ C3- T O O Ij S 



A GENERAL ASSORTMENT OF 






Bl \<^ 




WHS, lltORS, SYRUPS, AliS, PORTERS, 



Kerosene, 



Lard, 



Lubricating, 



^•ORDERS PROMPTLY ATTENDED TO, AT THEIR OLD STAND,-^ 

BROAI> STREET, WEITAKA CITY. 

THE LEADING TOPIC NOW IS THE SPLENDID ASSORTMENT OF GOODS AT BANNER'S. 



QOLDSJUTH'S STOCK OF D05IESTIC GOODS IS VERY LARGE. 



NEVADA TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 



179 



Dr. A. ^Jli^JL ±^J!Lxm.A.^ 9 

SURaiCAL AND MECHANICAL 




Office— Comer of Broad and Pine Streets— up stairs, 

Nkvada City. 



I would inform my friends, and all ^vishinw my services, that I am prepared to 
attend those favoring me with a call at any hour. Teeth, after having become 
sensitive by the exposure of the nerve, will be filled without causing iDain. 

I WILL WARRANT ALL WORK DONE AT THIS OFFICE 

to be performed in a more skilirul manner, and better satisfaction given than else- 
where in this vicinity, otherwise no charge will be made. 

IW My Charges are Moderate, and to Suit the Times. M^ 

I am permanently located in this city. Residence on Sacramento Street, third 
house from Temperance Hall. 

Tulcanite Worfc. promptly and neatly done at this office. 



GENEBAIi VARIETY STORE. 

amooe t mhmm, 

PINE STREET, NEVADA CITY, 

keep constantly on hand a splendid stock of 

TOYS m nm urn. 

Fruits, Nuts and Confectionery. 

Apples, Pears, and all kinds of Fruits— the Best in the Market. 

The prime juice of the Apple, manufactm-ed at Chapman's Ranch. A splendid 
article for Mince Pies. Also, Pure Cider Vinegar. 

NUTS AND CONFECTIONERY, aTaRGE STOCK OF EVERY VARIETY. 

A good stock. A thousand other articles, too numerous to mention. 
pW Now is the time to buy at very low prices. 




WHITE PINE COMPOUND, SPENOE AGENT, 



THE BEST STOCK OF MILLINERY GOOBS IN THE MOUNTAINS IS AT GOLDSMITH'S. 
180 NEVADA TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 

GEO. W. KIDD. J. W. HINDS. R. W. TULLY. 

BANKffiG HOUSE AND ASSAY OFFICE. 




l^ M 



GEO. W. KIDD & CO., 

i) 






In the Granite Building, Broad Street, Nevada City, 

THE HIGHEST PRICE PAID FOR GOLD DUST. 

GOLD BULLION DISCOUNTED AT THE LOWEST RATES. 
Liberal Advances Made on Gold Dust or Bullion for Assay or Coinage at tlie Mint. 

on good Collateral, at a low rate of interest. 

REGISTERED COUNTY SCRIP BOUGHT AT PAR. 

Legal Tenders Bought and Sold at the Regular Rates. 
DEPOSITS RECEIVED. 

Checks on San Francisco, Sacramento and Virginia City. 

Drafts on tlie Eastern Cities, London, and Dublin, Ireland. 

AGENTS FOR OVEEPOOL, LOIDOI, AID GLOBE INSURANCE GO'S. 

^^° Gold and Ores of every description Melted, Refined and Assayed. „^^ 

cokrespondents : 

San Francisco The Bank of California. 

Sacramento City D. O. Mills & Co. 

Virginia City Agency Bank of California. 

the eighth wonder ojf the world 13 banner's stock of clothms, 



IF YOU WANT CARPETS OTl OIL CLOTHS GOLDSMITH HAS THEM. 



NEVADA TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 181 



Commercial Street, — [opposite A. Lademan's Grocery,] — Nevada City. 



WHOLESALE AND RETAIL DEjVLERS IN 




|3^ Families, IIf)t('ls and Saloons supplied witli all tlio articles in our line on the 
Most Reasonable Terms, and parties wialung to purchase are invited to call and 
examine our o'oods. 



J. F. BUSSEWIUS, 
APOTHICARY E.BD CHEMIST, 

Corner Commercial and Pine Streets, Masonic Building, Nevada City. 



DEALER IN 



DRUGS, 

^ MEDICINES and CHEMICALS; 

Fancy and Toilet Articles, 

SPONGES, BRUSHES, PERFUMERY, FRESH GARDEN SEEBS, ETC. 




Physicians' Prescriptions carefully compounded, and orders answered with 
care and dispatch. 

Dealers and Physicians from the coimtry will find my stock of Medicines 
complete, warranted genuine, and of the best quality. 

W. P. IIARRINGTOX. JOHX SENNER, Jr. 

PROPRIETORS 

Bank €xc\)anQt Baioon, 

Main Street, [opposite Gazette Office,] Nevada City, 

Keep constantly on hand the First Quality of Liquors and Cigars. If you want a 
good Drink or a good Cigar, go to the Bank Exchange Saloon. 

HAAS'S AUCTION STORE IS TWO DOORS ABOVE SPENCE'S DRUG STORE. 



GOLDSinTH'S STORE IS ON THE CORNER OP BROAD AND PINE STREETS, NEVADA. 



182 



NEVADA TOWNSHIP DIEECTORT. 



JOraS^^^EEGORY. JOSEPHRJENiMISH. 

C^MMUOMY & ENGLISH, 

Proprietors 



!¥ADA, 






IK. 




AXD 



EXPRESS LIISTE. 

DAILY EXPRESS AND STAGE LINE, CARRYING THE 

VIA 

LAKE CITY, fjORTH BLOOMFIELD, ^qore-s FLAT, 

Orleans Flat. Woolsey's Flat, and Enreka. 

Pony Express leaves Nevada City on Thursdays and Saturdays of each 
week, for the same points. 

BOTH STAG:fiS AJN'D EXPRESS CONNECT WITH 

TELEGRAPH STAGES FOR SACRAMENTO 



With Marysville and Dutch Mat Stage Lines. 



CAREY WELLS, FARGO & GO'S EXPRESS TO ALL POINTS ON THE LINE 
PACKAGES DELIVERED, COLLECTIONS MADE, 

and all Express Business promptly attended to. 

AGENTS FOR THE 

Sacramento Union, San Francisco Bulletin and Alta, Nevada Daily Gazette, and 

an otlier leading California papers. Also — Harper's, Leslie's, Atlantic, 

and other Eastern Publications. 



BANNER BROTHER'S SUPPLY EVERY BODY WITH CLOTHlJfG AT TEKIR E.MPORIUM. 



GOLDSMITH IS THANKFUL FOR PAST PATRONAGE, AND 



NEVADA TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 183 



HORATIO SOUTHARD. L. MERROW. E. G. SOUTHARD. 



SAW mil c 



SCOTCH FLAT. 



DEALERS IN 



PINE, SPRUCE AND OAK LUMBER, 



ALL KINDS OF 



Dressed and L^ndressed Floorings 

CONSTANTLY ON HAND 



SIDII^a ^iTD SHAKES. 



Particular attention paid to furnisliing lumber for Flumes and IMining Boxes. 
Contracts taken for from 1,000 to 500,000, to be delivered on short notice 

BEST QUALITY OF DRY FENGSNQ ALWAYS ON HAND. 

Either at oxvc Mill or at our CITY LUMBER YARD, near the Half-Mile House, 



HORATIO SOUTHARD can always be found either at the Half-Mile House or 
National Exchantre Hotel. 

C^ Terms Cash, or ai^proved credit for thirty days. ^^ 



" FORGET MB NOT " PERFUME AT SPENCE'S, 



SOIICITS EVERT ONE TO CALL AGAIN.— AMEN. 



184 



NEVADA TOWNSHIP DIEECTORY. 



JA.]Sd:ES EC. DOl^VITIIsrQ-. 



Pine Street, Hevada City. 

FASHIONABLE DRESS AND BUSINESS SUITS MADE TO ORDER, 

AND WARRANTED TO FIT. 

Always on liand a large and well selected stock of French, and German Clotlis, 

Doeskins, Beaver, and Velvets. 
GR^E ME A CALL AND EXA3,IINE MY GOODS. 

FASHIONS RECEIVED REGULARLY FROM NEW YORK. 






iW 






I 
ESTABLISHED I^ 1853 



Ko. 30 Main Street, Ifevada City. 



Fi 



[^ 






Gold and Ores of every description INIelted, Refined, and Assayed, vi-itli Correctness 
and Dispatcli. ^;W Correctness of Assays fullj' giiai'anteed. 




!To be iGniid this side of San Francisco is kept at the Store of 

J^MES E. JOHHSrSTOI^, 

BEOAD STEEET, [nearly opposite National Exchange.] NEVADA. 



^ tcTK^aasKEs^si 




EVEEY TBIEGr GOES CHEAP TOS CASH. 



Done at tlie sliortest notice. 

E^° Call and Examine the Stock. =^ 



EVERY BODY WONDEKS UOW CLOXHINU CAN BE AFFORDED SO CHEAP AT BANNER BROS. 






a 









TiT©H 

ines /^^ 




For lOiiilirfiidery 

Are Exclusive. 

F^»r lli'aicliiig 

Are Unexcelled. 

For fluilliiijs; 

Are Unequalled. 

For Hem III in^ 

Are Superior 

For Tucking 

Are Unapproachable. 

For fiialhering 

Are Unsurpassed. 

ForKUlehiiig 

Are Faultless 

For Coriliiig 

Are Incomparable 

For Fell ills 



NEW 

SHUTTLE 

STITCH 

FOK 

MANUFACTUEmG. 



Particular Attention 

Ts desired from all who require a 
FAST. DURABLE. AND IMPROVED 

SHUTTLE 

riNG MACHINE 

IX A\Y BRANCH OF 

'MANITFACTURING 

To our Ne"W Styles which possess un- 
^nistakable advantages over the N"oisy and 
Cumbrous styles of other makers. 

CUtii and W!,vnMiine. 

B. G. BROWN, Agent, 

116 Montjromery Street. 
For sale by CLIKE & KOVITSKY, Nevada. 
NEWMAN & CO., Grass Valley. 



::^^3)|^^^IT^^^^^ 



,LASTIC STiTCIH 



F'.A.lVEI 




For Eiiibroiclery 

Are Exclusive. 

For Braiding 

Are Unexcelled. 

F^^r Quilliitj 

Are Unequalled. 

For He Hinting 

Are Superior. 

For Tucking 

Are Unapproachable 

For Oatiierins; 

Are Unsurpassed. 

For ^Oteliing 

Are Faultless. 

For Cording 

Are Incomparable. 

For Felling 

Are Admirable, g tS^ 



NEW 

SHUTTLE 

STITCH 



MANUFACTURING. 



Particular Attention 

Is desired from all who require a 
FAST. DURABLE. AND IMPROVED 

SHUTTLE 

^SEWING MACHINE 

IN ANY BRANCH OF 

'MANUFACTURING 

To our New Styles which possess ua- 
^mistakable advantages over the Noisy and 
Cunil)rous styles of other makers. 

B. G. BROWN, Agent, 

116 Montpromery Street. 
For sale by CLIKE & KOVITSKY, Nevada. 
NEWMAN & CO., Grass Valley. 



g^^^^^^S^^^^^^^ 



HISTORICAL SKETCH OF GRASS VALLEY. 



BY WILLIAAI S. BYRNE. 



The history of Grass Valley is not unlike that of the very few prosperous mining 
towns of our Golden State. Early in the days of California's American history, 
Avhen the p^ildod story of Marshall's discovery of ffold at Coloma startled the New 
as well as tin; Old World, a portion of th(! tide of immigration from the East, which 
had set in toward these shores, carried to this picture.sque portion of the Sierra Ne- 
vada, a liberal share of adventurous jjold-seekers. A verdant valley, coursed by a 
beautiful stream then unrulHed by the labor of the prospector, presented a truly 
invitinf? restinrr place to the spirit-weary traveler over the plains. Here the stock 
of the immifjrant, wearied from a dull trip of nearly two thousand miles, rested 
as it had not rested since the passajro of the Missouri river ; and man, ever keen 
to observe Nature's advantages, saw here, with prescient eye, a local habitation 
worthy of him and his. 

Sliortly after the discovery of gold in El Dorado county, in 1848 — as soon there- 
after as American enterprise could reach this part of the world — the search for gold 
in California became general. The only capital required in placer mining in thoeo 
days, which, by the way, was the only gold mining then known, was a pair of 
willing hands. Gulches, canons, creeks and rivers, and hillsides were prospected 
by the American pioneer ; and it is not at all strange that tliis auriferous region 
should have been among the first to substantially reward the brave gold hunter. 
Many there are ready to declare that Grass Valley was settled early in 1849, but 
none can definitely give the name of, or any particulars concerning, the early 
" Forty-niner." We have it on undisputed authority that some immigrants who 
crossed the plains in 1849 located, in the fall of that year, on Badger Hill, about 
one-half mile east of our present tovra site. The company consisted of a Dr. 
Saimders, a Captain Brandon and his two sons, Alexander and Greenbury. The 
parties erected a cabin on the hill, in which they remained for some time. During 
the winter, one of the Brandons died of scurvy, and was buried on the hill where 
now stands the Grass Valley cemetery. Jolin Little, (still a resident of Grass Val- 
ley,) John Barry and the Fowler brothers, also lived in the fall of 1849 on Badger 
Hill, near the Brandon cabin. Dr. Saunders left Grass Valley, for Missouri, early 
in 1850 ; the elder Brandon left this place in the winter of the same year, and his 
other son subsequently died in the upper portion of this county, on Poorman's 
creek. 

In the fall of 1849, as well as in the spring of 1830, placer mining was carried on 
with good results at Ohio Flat, Rhode Island, Boston and Woodpecker Ravines, 
and at other points in this neighborhood. 
w 



186 SKETCH OF GRASS VALLEY. 

Boston Ravine was named by a Boston company, who mined very successfully in 
tnis portion of town in 1849, leaving in December, 1850. 

Jules Eosiere opened a sort of trading post in Boston Ravine in December, 1849, 
selling to B. L. Lamarque in May, 1850 ; this really being the first store opened in 
this place. The second store was established by the Fowler Brothers in June, 1850,. 
and was purchased by Thomas Fielding and William Pattingall in the fall of the 
same year. 

Quartz, which has made Grass Valley wo^ld-reno^vQed, was not discovered until 
June, 1850, seven or eight months after the opening of placer mines here. The 
earliest discovery of quartz bearing gold was made, as we have already stated, in 
June, 1850, on Gold Hill, but, owing to a general ignorance of quartz reins, the 
discovery created little or no excitement among the miners, who were satisfied "ndth 
their yields from the placer mines. In October, 1850, a man named MeKniglit, who 
had come from Newtown to Boston Ravine, camped on the summit of Gold Hill, 
overlooking Boston Ravine, and there discovered the Gold Hill ledge, wliich has 
proved one of the richest mineral veins ever opened. He made the discovery at a 
point known as the "Elbow," where the lode cropped ont quite prominently, 
showing an average width on the surface of two feet. This discovery set the camp 
in the wildest excitement, and soon hundreds flocked to Gold Hill. Claims, origi- 
nally thirty by forty feet, Avere staked off immediately, and prospecting at once 
commenced. Among those who successfully worked Gold Hill in its incipient days 
were Thomas Cracklin, William Hugunin, and others, who are still residents of 
Grass Valley. The first Gold Hill mill was erected in 1851. In 1852, the majority 
of the Gold Hill Company's stock was purchased by the Agua Frio Company, (an 
English Company,) for .$50,000. 

FoUoAving the Gold Hill quartz excitement came the discovery of quartz on 
Massachusetts Hill, in the same neighborhood, the vein being quite rich but not so 
wide on the croppings as the Gold Hill ledge. 

The first family located in Grass Valley was a Mr. Scott and wife, who came 
her^ in the spring of 1850. The first families in Boston Ravine were John R. Rush 
and Peter Mason. 

As forming a thrilling feature in the early days of this section's historj', we give 
the following account of an adventure with Indians, written by Mr. Sargent : 

Early in jSTovember, 1849, Samuel and George Holt, and James Walsh, came A\'ith 
wagons, tools, machinery, etc., to a place about four miles below Grass Valley, for 
the purpose of erecting two saw mills — ^the one by the Messrs. Holt, a water mill, 
and Judge Walsh's, a steam mill. Zenas Wlieeler was of the party. The Holts 
finished their mill in March, 1850, and were sa-\%dng lumber on the 3d of May. 
While working in the mill they were attacked by Indians, of whom there were a 
great number in the vicinity. The elder Holt (Samuel) was pierced and at once 
killed by their arrows. George Holt escaped with life, fighting eight or ten Indi- 
ans up the hill between the two mills, with only a small pocket knife in his hand, 
and fell into the arms of Judge Walsh, covered with blood and wounded in tliirteen 
places Avith arrows. Only three of the com]iany were at home at the time of the 
attack, Mr. Wheeler haA^ing gone below for the engine, and two others to the Yuba. 
The property was plundered and burnt the night after the attack on the Holts, and 
the camp of Judge Walsh was threatened. A few friendly Indians gave their 
assistance during the night, and Captain Day (stibsequently County Surveyor of 
Nevada County) and another man came in on noticing the fires and disorder. Old 
Chief Wemeh brought the dead body of Holt to the camp. The next morning 
Captain Day and his friend started for camp " Far West," on Johnson's Ranch, at 
Bear River; and the morning after, tv,'enty-four United States soldiers arrived, 
supplied by ]Major Day, commanding at that station. One hundred miners from 



SKETCH OF GRASS VALLEY. 187 

Dcor Creek also jwured in, and in a couple of days tlxey killed and run off all tlie 
Indians. Mr. (i. Holt was removed to Stocking's store, on Deer Creek, and recov- 
ered in ten days. 

In our early times, Judge Lynch jjresidcd, and if his rulings Avere not always 
dif^nificd or legally correct, his iiromptness was certainly never brought into ques- 
tion. The miner knew no such tiling as the " law's delay." The punishment was 
generally in ratio to the crime committed. In November, I80O, a man named 
Nai>oleon Collins, who had stolen a mule, was taken up, tried by His Honor Judge 
Lynch, was found guilty of the crime, and was sentenced to receive tliirty-sis lashes, 
which he did, and he soon afterward left. 

Following the discovery of quartz in Grass Valley, a demand came for qixartz 
mills. The first erected, an exi>erimeutal aflair, was in I80O, by Dr. Wittenbach, 
for J. Wriglit. It stooil in the rear of the pre.sent Lady Franklin mill. The second, 
known a.s the AbJ)y mill, was built by the Boston company in the spring of 1851, 
of wliicli Abbey was superintendent, and the late Louis R. Sowers was machinist. 
It occupied the site on which the Sebastopol mill now stands. The third mill, in 
Boston Kavine, was built by Wright & Hansard, the same spring, the late James 
Harper being machinist. 

The first saw mill in Grass Valley was constructed by Judge Walsh, in July, 
1800, of which G. P. Clark was engineer, and Zenas Wheeler, wheelwright. It 
was built in Mill street, on the ground now occupied by the City Brewery. 

The first quartz mining, like the same branch of business in later daj's, resulted 
not altogether in Midas-like realities. Ledges were touched, aye, roughly handled, 
but they turned not into gold. Fortunes came speedily to the favored few, but 
tardily, and in too many instances not at all, to the unlucky many. Prices of 
crushing were disastrously high ; the processes for saving gold were imperfect, and 
men were financially wrecked in working quartz which would now prove a fortune 
to its owners. 

In the fall of 1850 the first hotel was erected by Tliomas Beatty, on the south 
side of Main street, the present location of the Senate Saloon, and was named the 
Beatty House. 

The town was early supplied ■svith ditches, tho first, the Centerville, being dug 
in tho fall of 1850, by Ormsby and others, who obtained their water supply from 
Wolf Crock. The nest, known as Murphy, O'Connor & Co's Ditch, was built in tho 
fall of 1851, tho principal projectors of this work being Judge Isaac Murphy, late 
Governor of Arkansas, and Judge M. P. O'Connor, still of Gi-ass Valley. Day, 
Fouso & Co. brought in a ditch from Wolf Creek tho same year ; and tho Empire 
Ditch, built by L. L. Whiting, J. P. Stone and othei-s, and tho Union Ditch, the 
latter being supplied from Little Deer Creek, were constructed in 1853. 

Boston Ka^•ine was the pioneer settlement of the valley, having a A-igorous exist- 
ence before even the cloth shanty of the danger-braving gold-seeker had been 
pitched m Grass Valley. 

In the early pai-t of 1851 Grass Valley coutiiined but two or three cabins, but its 
growth during this and the subsequent year was almost marvelous. 

In 1851 the first school was opened by Miss Rosanna Farrington, (now Mrs. J. P. 
Stone, of this jflace,) in a little building which stood on the lot now owned and 
occupied by S. D. Bosworth, on Mill street. 

A PostolEce was established in this place in the year 1S51, under the adniiuistra 
tion of Millard Fillmore, and Dr. C. D. Cleveland was appointed Postmaster. 

The first homicide, but, untbrtunately, not the last, was committed in Grass Valley 



188 SKETCH OF GRASS VALLEY. 

in January, 1851. A desperado known as Jack Allen, who came to California witli 
Colonel Stevenson's regiment, intruded at a ball given at tlic Grass Valley House , 
lie became boisterous and abusive, made several threats, and v>'hen about to carry 
out his wicked designs, he Avas shot down. His slayer was never positively known. 
A Dr. Vaughan, who went up and examined the head of Allen after the homicide, 
remarked : "Why, what a head ! He ought to have been killed years ago." This 
phrenological opinion, gratuitously given by Vaughan, came very near costing him 
his own head. 

The reader's patience is taken into consideration in not detailing the common, or 
even all the uncommon events, connected with the history of our town. Grass 
Valley has had her mining excitements, her murders, homicides, her eras of profli- 
gacy, her days of fortune-making and fortune-losing ; in fine, all of that strange 
commingling of pleasure and pain only realized in California. 

A historical sketch of Grass Valley without a passing word at least for Lola 
Montez, would be a sort of Hamlet with the demented Dane left out. In 1854 and 
'55 the erratic Lola lived in this place, occtipjang the residence now owned by Mr. 
Bosworth, which building the " Limerick Countess " had erected for herself. Her 
eccentricities here — that being, perhaps, inconsistently mild — would add none to 
the encomiums lavished upon her memory hj mawkish scribblers. Her most noto- 
rious adventure here was her street attack on Henry Shipley — who at that time 
was editing the Grass Valley Telegraph. Shipley, long connected with the j^ress 
of California and Oregon, and who fills a suicide's grave, had published sometliing 
severe on one of Lola's ballet friends. The irate actress provided herself with a 
whip, found Shipley, made a few belligerent passes at him, but was taken away 
before doing any serious damage to her surprised victim. 

On Jime 27th, 1857, a horrible tragedy occurred at Osborn Hill, near tliis place, 
in which four men were killed, among others, James McMm-try, an estimable gen- 
tleman, whose tragic death threw a mantle of mourning over all who knew him. 
The battle — for it assumed the proportions more of a pitched battle than an ordinary 
fight — had its origin over the ownership of what was known as the McMurtry and 
Larrimer ground. The dispute had been virtually settled. The so-called Griffin 
party, headed by Alexander Griffin, who plied his congeners with liquor nntil they 
were drunk to the quarrelsome degree, were on the " disputed territory," all armed 
to the teeth. When McMurtry and his friends, who had supposed that their affair 
had been or was about to be settled civilly, appeared on the ground, the Griifin 
party in force opened the attack, with guns and pistols. A large number were 
engaged in the fight, which is described by participants as a terrible one. McMur- 
try and a man named Collins were killed almost instantaneously. One Garvey, 
and a man known as " Coyote Jack," received wounds from which they subse- 
quently died. Richard Kemble and Patrick Casey received frightful injuries, but 
both recovered. Kemble was insane for some time after the fight, and was sent to 
the Asylum at Stockton. Five of the Griffin crowd, including Alexander Griffin, 
John McCabe, Daniel McGee, Casey and Patrick Harrington, were sent to the 
Penitentiary, where they served out a portion of their time and were pardoned. 

The first brick building in town was erected by Adams & Co., in the fall of 1854, 
and was used for a banking house and express office. The first brick store, which 
has successfully contended against numerous fires, was built the same year by Sil- 
vester & Salaman. 

The saddest mining accident hereabout (and such things have been painfully 



SKETCH OF GRASS VALLEY. 189 

frequent,) occurred on January 28tli, 1860, in tlie mine of the Boston Ba\'ine Com 
pany, on New York Hill. Fom- men, Frank Lampsliire, Alex. Jcffery, Cornelius 
McGraw, and A, man named Peters, ^vllo weri; \v(jrking in a breast of tlie mine, 
were drowned. An iimnensc voluuie of water, which had been tapped from the old 
works, burst tlu-ough on the unftjrtunate men, filling up the breast in which they 
were working, and also filling the shaft of the mine to a liight of forty feet. The 
accident occurred on Saturday, and so great was the amount of water in the mine, 
that Captain Powning, the superintendent of the works, was unable to recover the 
bodies until the following Monday. 

Of conflagi-ations Grass Valley has certainly had its quota. The most disastrous 
fire occurred on September 13th, 18.j5, when over three hundred buiklings, covering 
an area of thirty acres, were ransumed. This wholesale destruction of property 
was accomi)lislied in the brief space of one hour and fifteen minutes. Loss esti- 
mated at over $:]50,000. The fire originated in the LTuited States Hotel, kept by 
Madame Bonhore, and owned by Oakly & Hall, the latter now being Police Judge 
of Sacramento. The town was quickly rebuilt. A very destructive fire, of which 
we have failed to obtain particulars, occurred in 1860. On June llth, 1862, a fire, 
which originated in a carpenter shop on upper Main street, destroyed the National 
Office, Engine House, ILxige's Hotel, Aurora House, and other buildings. Loss, 
$25,000. On August loth, of the same year, property to the amoimt of $40,000 
was consumed. Fire originated in the old Center Market, on Main street. 

While quartz has been the chief mining interest of Grass Valley, it is well to 
remember that our placer, cement, gravel and creek diggings have paid as well, 
taking the labor into consideration, as similar mines in other portions of California. 
The Slide, Alta Hill, Woodpecker Kavine, Kate Hayes Hill, Pike Flat, and other 
mining localities in and about this place, have turned out falnilous amounts of free 
gold. Several of these old mines, as, for instance, the Alta No. 1, owned by Jolm 
Jeflfree, John lloberts and Henuan Kruse, are now yielding well. 

The township of Grass Valley embraces Grass Valley proper, Boston Ravine, 
Allison Ranch, Massachusetts Hill, New York Hill, Forest Springs, Union Hill, 
Ophir Hill, Hucston Hill, Eureka Hill, Buena Vista, Sebastopol Hill, Osborne and 
countless other hills, as well as a host of prefixed ravines, at all of which localities 
quartz mining is conducted, and, in most instances, vrith highly satisfactory results. 
In the township there arc at least thirty dividend-pa}-ing quartz mines, and twenty- 
eight quartz mills, running in the aggregate over three hundred stamps ; besides, 
we have three establishments in which sulphurets are reduced. The number of 
men engaged in and about the quartz mills and extensive mines of this township, 
together -with those working on a smaller scale, will approximate three thousaiid; 
a larger number than any other township in California can show. 

The town of Grass Valley (this we give for those unacquainted ^^-ith our geograph- 
ical position,) is located fom- miles southwest of the comity seat of Nevada, thirty- 
five miles from Marysville, sixty-five miles from Sacramento, and is eleven mil6s 
from Colfax— the nearest station on the Central Pacific Railroad. During the past 
two years Grass Valley has grown wonderfully, proving one of the very few excep- 
tions, in this respect, to California's interior towns. Our chief interest is quartz, 
and with the development of this very important branch of mining, business of all 
kinds has rapidly increased, the town has enlarged its dimensions, and it is safe to 
estimate that during the past eighteen months at least five hundred houses have 
been erected in Grass Valley and the vicinity. 



190 SKETCH OF GRASS VALLEY. 

Following is a list of the number of business establishments, organizations, pro- 
fessions, etc., in Grass Valley : Drygoods stores, five ; clothing, five ; grocery stores, 
ten ; hotels, four ; bakeries, five ; breweries, tlrree ; markets, eight ; livery stables, 
three ; lumber yards, five ; banks, two ; boot and shoe stores, three ; boot makers, 
ten ; tailor shops, five ; hardware and tin stores, five ; furniture establishments, 
three; jewelry stores, three; flour and feed stores, three; blacksmith shops, six; 
carpenter shops, eight ; wagon shops, five ; drug stores, four ; cigar and tobacco 
stores, three ; foundries, two ; variety stores, four ; restaurants, five ; lapidaries, two; 
paint shops, five ; stationers, two ; shaving saloons, seven ; auction stores, two ; 
Cheap John, one ; gunmaker, one ; soda factory, one ; laundries, two ; saloons, about 
fifty ; photographers, two ; churches, seven ; benevolent associations, seven ; mili- 
tary companies, two ; daily papers, two ; fire companies, three ; schools, eight — 
three public and five private ; brass band, one ; physicians, eleven ; lawyers, ten ; 
dentists, four ; surveyor, one. 

Grass Valley, in its history of sixteen years, has never seen a more prosperous 
time than the present. Many of its old mines are yielding better than ever before; 
new mines, full of promise, and opened within the past year, are already paying 
handsome dividends, while a large number of lodes, located during the year 1866, 
will be extensively and energetically worked during the present season. Quartz 
mining, conducted judiciously, is no longer a dangerous experiment, but a golden 
reality. Quartz has made Grass Valley the wealthiest of California's inland towns, 
and this interest alone, leaving out our agricultural wealth, will enable us, for this 
generation at least, to rank high among the favored places on this coast. 



THE HUNGRY CONVENTION AT GRASS VALLEY. 

BY OLD BLOCK. 

The winter of 1852-53 was very severe. The roads, being new, were at times 
impassable on account of mud, the sloughs were full of water and unbridged, and 
at one time, a period of ten days elapsed when communication between the mines 
of Nevada county and Sacramento City was totally suspended. In consequence of 
this forced non-intercourse, provisions and supplies failed to arrive, while the stocks 
on hand, of the merchants, were dwindling down " to the shortest span," and 
anxiety was manifested on all hands for future supplies, provisions advanced to 
nearly starving prices. Flour went up from twenty-five to sixty cents per pound, 
potatoes could scarcely be had for thirty cents, bacon was scarce at seventy-five cents ; 
and as hungry stomachs increased in number the necessaries of life grew less. The 
country was in fact mud-bound. Questions were asked, wliich none could answer — 
" What are we to do ?" The prospect of open roads was distant, and scarcity was 
present, which seemed fast relapsing into absolute want. 

In times of great emergencies great men always arise. Circumstances seem to 
develop greatness, and so in this case, the exigencies of the times brought out bold 
spirits. A hurried consultation among individuals resiilted in a proposition to call 
a public meeting to consult upon what was best to be done tmdcr the circumstances. 
Among the most active patriots for the occasion was a gentleman who held, by 



SKETCH OF GRASS VALLEY. 191 

gome form of law or courtesy, I do not know which, the title of Judge, who, since 
the great rebellion, was appointed Military Governor of Alabama, and another 
])rominent citizen of Grass Valley who had acquired the soubriquet of " Blue Coat." 
Both were particularly active in getting up and managing the meeting to devise 
" ways and means." 

A public meeting was therefore called, to be held at Beatty's Hotel, on Main 
street, and when the eventful evening came the house was filled to overflowing by 
our excited and interested miners. Judge Murphy was called to the chair, and if 
he has discharged the office of Governor Avith as much z(!al and ability as he did 
that of the i)residing officer of the Hungry Convention, he deserves the thanks of 
unborn millions, and probably will get it. 

After a Secretary was appointed, the meeting was declared duly organized, and 
nmiarks in order. Our old friend, Blue Coat, was eloquent in describing the start- 
ling condition to which we were reduced liy the \vill of God and the flood-gates of 
heaven, and declared that desj^erate diseases required desperate remedies, a trrrism 
which none could deny. Others made telling speeches, and even the honorable 
Chairman waved his autliority to free his mind, and say that if it became necessary, 
rather than starve, we might be forced to help ourselves to the meager suppVies 
still left with merchants ; at all events, they must be curtailed in asking the ruin- 
ous prices which they were demanding, and should be required to extend a general 
credit to those who were unable to produce the quid pro quo. While a few dissented 
from this view of the case, the majority appeared to think that rather than starve 
they would go in for the " loaves and fishes." Finally, a committee was appointed 
to draw up resolutions and report to the meeting — five lionorablc gentlemen were' 
accordingly named by the Chairman. They withdrew to another room, and in 
about five minutes returned with a paper ha\ing a long preamble and resolutions, 
which it seemed must require not less than an hour to prepare, leaving the unjust 
conclusion to bo inferred that the resolutions and committee were all cut and dried 
before the meeting was organized ; but we will not be so uncharitable as to think 
BO. Upon signifying that the committee were ready to report, their Chainnan, 
with the dignity which the solemn occasion demanded, slowly opened liia docu- 
ment and began — a portion of wluch we transcribe : 

At a meeting of the miners and citizens of Grass Valley, in Convention assembled, 
tlie following Preamble and Resolutions were adopted : 

Whereas, When, in the course of human events, it becomes necessary for a 
people to protect themselves against want and starvation, when they are at the 
mercy of soulless speculators, who demand all their earnings for the support of life, 
we deem it right to act in self-defence, and demand provisions for our need, and at 
prices which we are able to give. A decent respect for the opinions of the world 
induces us to give a catalogue of our grievances, in order to show the justice of our 
cause. Therefore, we declare — 

That in consequence of impassable roads we are short of supplies necessary to 
the support of human life. That the merchants refuse to sell at reasonable prices. 
That there are abundant supplies of flour and other necessaries in San Francisco, 
which soulless speculators, taking advantage of our condition, are holding for ex- 
orbitant prices, and refuse to sell. Therefore, be it 

Besolved, That appealing to High Heaven for the justice of our cause, we will go 
to San Francisco and obtain the necessary supplies — " peaceably if we can, but 
forcibly if we must." 

Gracious Heaven ! here was San Francisco, with a population of only forty or 
fifty thousand souls, threatened with sack and ruin by a hungry band of miners, 
amounting to the overwhelming force of, perhaps, one hundred able-bodied men, 



192 SKETCH OF GRASS VALLEY. 

aniied witli picks, sliovels and long-toms. Alas ! poor San Francisco, what a vol- 
cano you was reposing on. The wave of revolution was hanging over you from 
the mountains. Was there no escaj)e ? 

Both i)reamble and resolutions met with strong opposition, but the eloquence of 
the Judge, of the sage Blue Coat, of members of the committee, and a few appre- 
ciating wretches, who enjoyed the fim, fearless of the consequences, prevailed, and 
they passed by a decisive vote. A committee was named to proceed forthwith to 
San Francisco, to see if the flour speculators would come to terms, and send up 
supplies — mud or no mud ; in short, if she vv'ould capitulate vsathout shedding 
blood, and consent to loose her flour and bacon ; but it was discovered the next day 
that the committee had no funds to pay traveling expenses, and then the roads 
were impassable and they could not get there. So the committee bided their time 
and San Francisco was saved, for the rains ceased by providential dispensation, and 
in two or three days thereafter a report reached to"\vn that several teams loaded 
with stipplies lay mud-bound at or near Rough and Ready, and would be up as 
soon as they could move. A few days more brought them in, San Francisco was 
saved, and at this moment stands, nest to Grass Valley, the i^ridc of the Pacific 
Coast. 



00 TO DIXON'S NEW VARIETY STORK, NO. 4r MILL STREET, GRASS VALLEY. 



GRASS VALLEY TOWN GOYERMENT. 



MUNICIPAL OFFICERS. 

G. HAMILTON, ^ 
JAMES JAMES, | 

J. J. DORSEY, y Town Trustees. 

IIEUBEN LEECH, 
WILLIAM BETTIS,. 

(i. HAMILTON, President of tlie Board. 

E. W. EOBERTS Town Attorney. 

MATT H. FUNSTON, Town Clerk. 

HANK J. SNOW, Town jMarslial. 

S. I). LEAVITT Fire Marshal. 

JOHN K. SALE, Watchman. 

Board meets in Town Ilall on the first and third Tuesdays of each mouth. 



ORGANIZATIONS: 

RELiaiOUS. SECRET, MILITARY, ETC. 



A. M. E. CHURCH. 
Tlie African Methodist Episcopal Church was erected in the summer of 1854, at 
a cost of $1,400. Tlie Church has been sustained by ten devoted members, with a 
congrt'gation varying from twenty-five to thirty. The Church was dedicated by 
Rev. T. M. D. Ward, a colored Presiding Elder, assisted by Rev. J. B. Hill, of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church of Grass Valley, and also Rev. J. G. Hale, of the Con- 
fjregational Church of this place. The first clero-yman who had the Church in 
charge was Rev. Emory Waters. The Trustees of the Church are : Isaac Sanks, 
Joseph Thomas, Isaac Buhner. John Hicks, Henry Blackburn. Rev. Peter Green, 
present minister in charg-e. Tliis society, during the past year, has erected a small 
but comfortable school house on the Church lot. 

CATHOLIC CHURCH. 
St. Patrick's Church, the wooden edifice on Chapel street, and now occupied as a 
school house by the Sisters of Mercy, was built by Father Slieuaghan, now of 
Brooklyn, New*^York, in the fall of 18o3, at an original cost, for the bare building, 
of $1,700. The site was selected by Da\ad Fitzgerald, now of Allison Ranch ; and 
James Irish, of Irish's Ranch, staked off" the ground. Father Dyart, now of Napa 
City, succeeded Father Shenaghan as Pastor. St. Patrick's Church, the magnifi- 
cent brick building at the corner of Church and Chapel streets, was built under the 
management of Father Dalton, in 1858. The biuldmg, the finest church edifice 
above San Francisco, is of the modern Gothic style of architecture, and has cost 
upward of $35,000. Father Dalton is Pastor, and Father Grifl&n Assistant Pastor, 
who supply Nevada, Moore's Flat, Cherokee and other towns in Nevada county. 
The lots adjoining the church, together with the late residence of Captain James 
Powning, form a portion of the property belonging to the Orphanage. St. Patrick's 

X 



r., GAD'S, COBXEK MAIN AND MILL STREETS, GRASS VAJjLEY. 



rOS SCHOOL BOCKS GO TO DIXON'S. 



194 GRASS VALLEY TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 

Church has been plastered, during the past summer, and its interior is now as beau- 
tiful as its exterior is imposing. 

CHRISTIAN CHURCH. 
This Church was organized May 9, 1858. The Society's meeting house, on east 
side Church street, between Neal and Walsh streets, was built in March, 1859, at a 
cost of $3,000. First Trustees, P. H. Lee, Josiah Royce and Levi Sanford. Last 
Pastor in charge. Elder L. J. Correll. None at present. 

CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH. 
This Church was organized October 16, 1853, under the ministry of Rev. J. G. 
Hale. Its original membership was fifteen, of whom three are still connected with 
it. It has numbered in all one hundred and ten. The present membership is 
seventy-sis. The Church has been served by the follo"\ving acting pastors, namely : 
Rev. J. G. Hale, from October, 1853, to March, 1857 ; Rev. M. Kellogg, from June, 
1857, to September, 1859 ; Rev. W. Patten, from January, 1860, to November, 1860 ; 
Rev. J. Kimball, from November, 1860, to February, 1863 ; Rev. W. Frear, from 
February, 1862, to February, 1864 ; Rev. W. F. Snow, from May, 1864, to August, 
1865 ; Rev. C. H. Pope, from September, 1865, to March, 1866 ; Rev. M. J. Savage, 
from March, 1866, to present time. The house of worship was erected in 1853, and 
is situated on the corner of Neal and Church streets. The Trustees of the Church 
and Society for the cm'reut year are, Messrs. H. Scott, M. W. Ross. J. C. Coleman, 
J. P. Stone, and R. Flnnie. The Sabbath School has an average attendance of one 
hundred and eighty, and is superintended by the Pastor. 

EMMANUEL CHURCH. 
This Church was organized April S7th, 1855, At that time services were held 
at Masonic Hall, on Main street. TMs Hall was destroyed by fire in the disastrous 
conflagration of the follovdng autumn, and the Hall of the Sons of Temperance, on 
Church street, was subscqu.cntly used as a place of worship. In December, 1856, 
the Gold Hill Quartz Mining Company donated the Parish a valuable lot of land, 
bounded by Church, Walsh and Mill streets, on condition that a church edifice 
should be erected tliereon witliin eighteen months after the acceptance of the gift. 
The edifice, although not finished, was ready for occupancy in the summer of 1858. 
and the first service within its walls was held on the 1st of August of that year. 
The entire cost of the building and furniture is about $'6,000, nearly one-half of 
which has been paid during the last two years. The parish is free from debt, and 
the enterprising congregation feel well assured of a promising future. The church 
is of Gothic style, chaste and beautiful in design and finish, and when the ample 
grounds are adorned with trees and shrubbery and walks, the premises will be an 
ornament to the town. The first clergyman of this i>arish was the Rev. Wm, H. 
Hill, now of Sacramento. He was succeeded by the Rev. E. D. Cooiser, who re- 
signed the Rectorship in February, 1858. The Rev. Henry O. G. Smeatliman en- 
tered upon his labors in the follov/ing May, and had charge of the parish until July, 
1859. His untimely death at the hands oi" hostile Indians, at Surprise Valley, Ne- 
vada, was deeply lamented by Ms numerous friends, who cherish his memory in 
affectionate remembrance. The Rev. John Chittenden, formerly President of San 
Francisco College, and now residing near London, had charge c^ the church about 
nine months. He was succeeded by the Rev. R. F. Putnam, who commenced his 
labors here in January, 1863. Mr. Putnam resigned the Rectorship in February, 
1866, and was succeeded by the Rev. D. D. Chapin, who is the present Rector. 
Since Mr. Putnam took charge of the parish services have regularly been held, and 
at present the church is in a very flourishing condition. The officers of the Parish 
for the current year are : R. A. 'Fisher, M. D., Senior Warden ; Wm. G. Millar, M. 
T>., Junior Warden ; Thomas Fiudley, Wm. M. McCormick, M. D., Wm. K. Spen- 
cer, A. B. Brady, G. G. Tryrell, M. D., S. M. Cole, G. R. Clarke, Vestrymen. 

EPISCOPAL METHODIST CHURCH. 
Situated on Neal, between School and Church streets. Paine Chajjel was erected 
in the fall of 1851, and dedicated May 26th, 1852, by Bishop Soule. First minister 
in charge, Rev. J. F. Blytlie, who died in San Joaquin coimty, April 3d, 1862. This 
chui-ch has been greatly improved diu-ing the past year, and is now one of the 
neatest chui'ch cdiS.ces in Grass Valley. Rev. B. F. Eurris, Minister in charge. 

ai;NTI?' CLOXniKG AJCr rUKKISIIIKG Q@Gi)6 AT B. GADS. 



FOR GOLD PENS GO TO LIXON'S. 




METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH. 
Tliis Church was oi-ganizccl in 1853, mider the labora of Rev. J. D. Blain. The 
liouso of worship is situated on the south side of Church street, between Walsh and 
Neal streets, and was erected in 1854, at a cost of $5,000, enlarged in 186<5 at an 
additional cost of !{;1,000, making it at present the largest Protestant church edifice 
ill the town. In 180G a vestry was also erected in the rear of the church, at a cost 
of $1,300. The parsonage on the same lot with the church, and fronting on Church 
street, was erected in 185(>, at a cost of $8,009. The church membership at present 
is one hundred and eighty-four, and twenty-six probationers. The Sabbath School 
numbers two hundred members, Sol. Kinsey, Superintendent. Present Pastor, J. 
N. Martin. 

MADISON LODOE, NO. 33, F. AND A. M, 
The first meeting of Free and Accepted Masons, acting under dispensation of 
Most Worthy Grand Lodge of California, was held in Grass Valley (or " Ccntre- 
ville," as the rewards read,) on Tuesday, May 35th, 1853. The Lodge worked un- 
der dispensation until May Oth, 185o, at which time a charter was <jbtaiaed from 
" The Grand Lodge of B'ree and Acciiptod Masons for the State of California," the 
following brethi'ea being charter members: Zeuas Wheeler, W. M.; Jacob M. 
Fouse, S. W.; Goorgo N. Crandall, J. W.; W. McCormick, Treasurer ; G. W. 
Macrca, Secretary ; J. Waldower, S. D. ; R. Tibbals, J. D. ; J. W. McClure, Tyler ; 
Rev. J. Simmons, Chaplain. Present otUcers : John C. Coleman, W. M.; Patrick 
Nocman, S. W.; Jame:^ A. Farrell, J. W.; Alonzo Morehouse, Secretary; Thomas 
Findley, Trejisurer ; R. Leech, S. D.; Joseph Lawrence, J. D.; D. Binkleman and S. 
Glass, Stowardij. Trustees : Wm. McCormick, Philip W. Roberts, A. B. Brady. 
Number of members, one hundred. 

GRASS VALLEY CHAPTER, No. 18, R. A. M. 
Organized under disponsation of Deputy Grand High Priest, T. H. Caswell, June 
Gth, 1857. Charter obtained May 7, 1858, the following being chai-ter members : A. 
B. Dibble, Wm. McCormick, J. U. Boardmau, W. S. Inskip, Zenas Wheeler, James 
Walsh, Morris Evans, S. M. Gilham, Joseph Heritage, G. N. Crandal, and Richard 
Musgrove. The hret olScera were, A. B. Dibble, M. P.; Wm. McCormick, K.; S. M. 
Gilham, S. Present oliicers of Chapter: A. B. Brady, H. P.; E. Coleman, K.; C. 
W. Smith, S.; John C. Goad, C. IL; Patrick Noonan, P. S.; Wm. Watt, R.A.C.; 
Wm. U. Rodda, M. 3d V.; Thomas R. Walkar, M. 3d V.; J. Morris, M. 1st V.; B. 
Nathan, Guard ; W. K. Spencer, Treasurer. Number of members, fifty. 

GRASS VALLEY LODGE No. 13, I. O. 0. F. 

Was instituted by Right Wort.hy Grand Secretary, T. Rodgers Johnson, on July 
28, 1853. Night of Meeting, Thursday. Officers for the first term : J. S. Lambert, 
N. G.; E. McLaughlin, V. G^; Chas. R. Edv»'ards, Secretary and Treasurer. Oliicers 
for the present term : E. W. P^borts, N. G.; B. F. Harris, V. G.; Jas. S. McCleary, 
Secretary ; C. C. Smith, Treasurer ; Piail. W. Roberts, John Webber and C. R. Clarke, 
Trustees. Number of members in good standing, at this date, eighty-three. Num- 
ber of Past Grands, twenty-seven. Amount in widow and orphan fimd, about 
$1,300. Cash in general fund, about $3,000. 

GOOD TEMPLARS. 

Sylvania Lodge, No. 13, I. 0. of G. T., was organized May 6th, 18G0, with twen- 
ty-seven charter members. Meets every Tuesday evening at the Hall, Salaman's 
building. Mill street. Following is a list of the officers for the present term : G. 
B. Katzeustein, W. C. T.; Miss Mary Collins, W. V. T.; H. D. Tovmsond, Secre- 
tary ; G. L. Bennett, A. S.; William James, F. S.; C. E. Davis, Treasurer; J. F. 
Nye, M.; Miss E. Carothers, D. M.; W. D. Hand, C; Miss Angle Griifin, W. R. H. 
S.; Mis3 Kate Campbell, W. L. H. S.; Miss Mary Blundell, I. G.; C. C. Scott, O. G.; 
W. H. Scott, P. W. C. T. Sylvania Lodge is in a highly prosperous condition, and 
claims to be the Banner Lodge of the State. 

Home Lodge, No. 193, 1. 0. of G. T., was instituted December 31st, 1805, by L. 
V. Coon, D. D. G. W. C. T. fleets every Friday evening at their Hall, in Sala- 

fOOa MiliES jr&OM IUB COUUT house 13 B GAD'S CORXEK. 



FOR BLANK BOOKS GO TO DIXON'. 



19G GKASS VALLEY TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 

man's huikling, on Mill street. At tliis date it lias a niemliersliip of one linndred 
and thirty-six. Tlie present officers are Jolm C. Goad, W. C. T.; Miss C. A. De- 
Bolt, W. R. H. S.; Miss Clara Merrow, W. L. H. S.; Miss Joey Barker, W. V. T.; 
Lorenzo Fellers, Secretary ; Miss Mary Bennett, A. S.; J. E. P. Williams, Treas- 
urer ; S. D. Leavitt, F. S.; J. L. Ringo, M.; Miss C. Runnels, A. M.; Miss Francis 
Gibson, I. G.; J. M. Wolf, O. G.; C. Chester, C; Samuel H. Dille, P. W. C. T. 

BENAI BERITH. 
Garizim Lodge, No. 43, Independent Order of Benai Berith, (Sons of the Cove- 
nant,) was organized October 6th, 1860, with twenty charter members. The Order, 
which meets every Sunday night at the Hall, west side of Mill street, numbers 
forty-five members, and is working under the jurisdiction of San Francisco Grand 
Lodge, No. 4, I. 0. B. B. The Order is of Jewish origin, its chief aim being benev- 
olence. Officers of the present term : B. Nathan, President ; J. Heyman, Vice 
President ; L. Zacharias, Secretary ; J. Hirshfield, Treasurer ; W. Samuel, Assist- 
ant Monitor ; A. Samuel, Warden ; B. Wood, Guardian ; J. Newman, O. W. Sam- 
uel and C. Nathan, Trustees. 

KNIGHTHOOD. 

Tomocliichi Camp, No. 4, (originally No. 27,) I. 0. of K., was organized December 

31, 1858, with twenty-one charter members. The Camp, which is in a flourisliing 

condition, now numbers fifty-six members. Order meets every Monday evening at 

the hall, on Mill street. Present officers: C. R, Williams, C. R.; Thos. Dobbins, 

D. R.; B. Israel, Sec; Thos. Burgan, A. S.; Thos. Hodge, P. B.; Thos. Loyd, Treas.; 
M. McLaughlin, W.; John Perry, H.; J. K. Williams, 1st G.; James Williams, 3d 
G.; James Davey, P.; John Mills, D. M. 

Grass Valley Camp, No. 8, I. 0. of K., was organized December 19, 1866, Avitli 
tliirty charter members, by H. J. Snow, D. D. G. R. The i^resent officers are, Wm. 
M. Stephenson, C. R.; John C. Goad, D. R.; George B. Katzenstein, Sec; Charles S. 
Wells, A. S.; J. E. P. Williams, Treasurer; J. F. Beckett, F. R.; S. D. Leavitt, M.; 

E. T. Lake, H.; G. H. Soule, 1st G.; R. G. Cardwell, 2d G.; S. H. Dille, P.; C. P. 
Bush, D. M. Meet on Wednesday night of each week, at their Hall, in Salaman's 
building, on Mill street. 

FIRE DEPARTMENT. 

A fire company, imperfect in its organization, and of which we can obtain no 
accurate history, was organized in Grass Voiley in 1853, and soon afterward dis- 
banded. The first perfect fire organization, under Act of May 5th, 1854, was effected 
June 7th, 1858, the first company being knoA^Ti as the " Grass Valley Fire, Hook 
and Ladder Company." It organized with forty-one members, the folio-wing being 
the officers for the first year : S. M. Smith, Foreman ; J. J. Dorsey, First Assistant ; 
C. R. Edwards, Second Assistant ; E. C. Cheek, Secretary ; G. A. Montgomery, 
Treasurer. A. B. Dibble tendered the use of a building of his, at the corner of Main 
and School streets, for a hose house and place of meeting ; wMcli offer, according 
to the records, was accepted. The company, which rendered excellent service on 
numerous occasions, was re-organized June 17th, 1861. A short time prior to this, 
a proposition was made to organize a hook and ladder comi^any, the new organiza- 
tion to take the hook and ladder apparatus of the old company, while the latter 
would be exclusively a hose company. The proiDOsition was accepted, a fire depart - 
ment was formed, and " Union Hook and Ladder Company, No. 1," sprung into life 
for a brief existence. The officers were, N. C. Hammersmith, Foreman; John 
Blake, Assistant Foreman ; Charles Glassen, President ; Sol. Crown, Treae-urer. 
Hammersmith stole about two Imndred dollars of the Company's money, suddenly 
departed for quarters unknown save to himself, and the company, unable to stand 
such financial pressure, burst up. The old company re-organized under the name 
of "Protection Hose, No. 1," with the follo\A'ing officers: S. D. Leavitt foreman; 
G. Hamilton, First Assistant ; T. J. Cook, Second Assistant ; J. M. Days, Secretary ; 
H. Silvester, Treasurer. The first Cliief Engineer, C. A. Laton, now of San Fran- 
cisco, was elected June 19, 1861. The old engine house was destroyed by the great 
fire of June 11, 1862. Soon after the fire, two lots were purchased of Sam. Hodge 

PURCHASK YOUK CLOXHING OF B. GAD. 



FOK MEERSCHAUM PIPES 00 TO DIXON'S. 



GRASS VALLEY TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 197 

and W. S. Byrno, and tlie present fine and snhstantial brick enp^ine lioiisc — built at 
the expense of tlie town — was erected the followin<a: year. Two ele^jant j iimpers, 
wbicli cost two hundred and fifty dollars each in San Francisco, were purchased by 
Protection Company, for tlie use of the Department. The first nieetino- in the new 
engine house was held March 2d, ISO:}. S. D. Leavitt, was second Chief of the 
Department, and was re-elected in INIarcli last, " Eureka Hose Company, No. 2," 
was or<;anized Marcli, 1808, ^vith the followinf;^ officers : iSchenck Glass, Foreman ; 
C. R. Clarke, First Assistant ; John Blake, Second Assistant ; W. J. O'Douplierty, 
Secretary ; Ed. McSork^y, Treasurer. Disbanded same year. The Dtjpartnient at 
])resent consists of Protection Hose Company No. 1, Tio-er Hook, Ladder and Bucket 
Company No. 1, (orij^inally an independent company,) and Eaji'le Hose C(mi]mny 
No. 2. Officers of Protection Hose Company No. 1, for year i-ndin^ May 81, 18G7, 
are, John C. (load. President ; A. Hooper, Foreman ; C. E. Miller, First Assistant ; 
Daniel Kendifif, Secf)nd Assistant ; John P. Skelton, Secretary ; Charles C. Smith, 
Treasurer; 11. D. Brown, Steward. Tijrer Hook and Ladder Com])any No. 1, was 
orfranized as an independent company, Auoust 25, 18G8. Numl)er of members at 
present, thirty. Oilicers for the present year : R. Flanders, President ; P. O'Keefe, 
Foreman ; J. G. Carter, First Assistant ; W. O. Warnf)ck, Second Assistant ; Chas. 
Chester, Secretary ; L. Zacharias, Treasurer ; Gale Compton, Steward. Honorary 
members, John R. Ridfre and Wilham S. Byrne. Eaft'le Hose Company No. 2, was 
organized Jiily 18, 1800. The com])any numbers twenty-three members. The fol- 
lowing named gcnitlemen are its (jtlicers : C. E. Davis, President ; John R. Crocker, 
Forenum ; E. R. West, First Assistant ; John W. Hobby, Second Assistant ; George 
Murpliy, Secretary; Peter Brunstetter, Treasurer; R. H. Daley, Steward. 

FruE DETiEf4.\TE9. — The following named gentlemen compose the Board of Del- 
egates to Fire Department : From Protection Hose Co. No. 1, John C. Goad, C. R. 
Clarke and Zenas Dennan ; from Eagle Hose Company No. 2, S. D. Avery, William 
Judkins and \A'illiam IMontgomery ; from Tiger Hook and Ladder Company No. 1, 
James H. Stebbins, C. S. Wells and A. McKinley. Present ofiacers are J. C. Goad, 
President ; J. II. Stebbins, Secretary ; C. R. Clarke, Treasurer. 

FENIAN BROTHERHOOD. 

Grass Vali.ey Ctocle — Organized May 29, 1805, with thirty members, and now 
numbers three hundred and eleven members in good standing. Meets every 
Monday evening, at Mazepi)a Hall, corner of Mill and Neal streets. Present offi- 
cers : P. Englisli, Center ; E. McSorley, Secretary ; M. McDonugh, Treasurer. 
Committee of Safety — Con. Reilley, Dan. Collins, James A. Bulger, J. W. Smith, 
and Edmond Dooley. 

Allison Ranch Circle — Organized June 1st, 1865, Avith one hundred and 
forty-six members, and now numbers one hvindred and sixty in good standing. 
Meets on Sunday evenings, in Hennessey's Hall. James Clancey, Center ; D. J. 
Delay, Secretary ; Phil. Gallwey, Treasurer. Committee of Safety — Jas. Butler, 
Chairman, Jamea Casey, Patrick Fields, William Ahearu, Martin Ford. 

GRASS VALLEY GAS LIGHT COMPANY. 

The works of this Company are situated on the south side of JIain street, below 
the Wisconsin Hotel. For the construction of the Gas Works the people of Grass 
Valley are mainly indebted to our late townsman, E. McLaughlin, who originated 
the project and carried it to a successful termination, receiving but little assistance 
in this stupendous enterprise. The constructing of the works commenced in July, 
1802, and our town was illuminated with gas for the first time on the evening of 
Saturday, September 27th, 1862. Cost of construction, upward of $25,000. The 
main pipe runs through Main to School street, through Mill to Mill Street Foun- 
dry, and through Church to Neal street. The gas is made of pitch pine and stone 
coal. 

MILITARY COMPANIES. 

Grass Valley Union Guard, the oldest military organization in the county, was 

organized February 11, 1863, with the follo\%ang officers : E. W. Roberts, Captain ; 

James H. Wilcox, First Lieutenant ; C. Moslier, Second Lieutenant ; J. J. Doty, 

Junior Second Lieutenant — they numbered sixty-four, officers and men. The Guard 



GENTS' rUlVNISUING GOODS AT B. GAD'S. 



ron POCKET CUTLERY GO TO DIXON'S. 



198 GRASS VALLEY TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 



is Co. A., Fifth Regiment, Pourtli Brigade, N. Q. C, and now numbers one hundred 
and two active members. They are fully uniformed and equipped, armed with one 
hundred Springfield rifled muskets. The present officers are, E. W. Roberts, Cap- 
tain ; J. M. Days, First Lieutenant ; William Rule, Second Lieutenant ; E. W. 
Nash, O. S.; B. F. Welch, Clerk. Ajmory in second story of Othet's brick building, 
east side of Mill street. 

Howell Zouaves. — This company was organized July 27, 18G5. The oiScers 
for the first year were, Jas. H. Stebbins, Captain ; Joseph Hollywood, First Lieut.; 
Hank J. Snow, Second Lieutenant ; Charles S. Wells, Third Lieutenant. The 
Zouaves are Company E, Fifth Infantry Regiment, Fourth Brigade, N. G. C. The 
Comi)any is now under the command of the follo'wing ofBcers : Jas. H. Stebbins, 
Cajitain ; Robert Flanders, First Lieutenant ; Charles S. Wells, Second Lieutenant. 
They have eighty stand of rifled muskets, with uniforms and accoutrements com- 
plete. Armory on lower Main street. 

ORPHAN ASYLUM. 
This Asylum, the first of its kind in the interior of California, has been completed 
for the last eight months. It is located on Church street, and measures one hundred 
feet in length and forty in width ; it is three stories high, the basement is of stone 
and the other stories of brick. The building has cost about twenty thousand 
dollars, and the interior, which is well and conveniently furnished, has cost from 
five to six thousand dollars. The institution is conducted on the plan of the Cath- 
olic Orphan Asylum of Market street, San Francisco, and is imder the management 
of the Sisters of Mercy. Orphans, as well ai3 half-orphans, of ail creeds, are re- 
ceived, and the total number admitted since the opening of the Asylum is eisty- 
nine. The building formerly occupied by Fathers Dalton and GriSn has been 
taken by the Sisters, for the recei^tion of orphan boys under the age of seven years, 
fourteen of whom have been already admitted. There is no charge for tuition in 
the Orphan Asylum, but, where parents or guardians can afford it, the children 
boarding at the Orphanage will be charged for board, at a rate not exceeding fifteen 
dollars per month. The building is from the plan of Peter Kent, an excellent 
architect, the interior being arranged according to the wishes of the Sisters and 
under their supervision. On the lower flower are store rooms, kitchen, dining hail, 
laundiy, lavatory, robery, and primary school. On the naiddle floor are the princi- 
pal school, class rooms, library, parlors, and a chajael for the use of the Sisters and 
children. On the third floor are the children's dormitory, or rather dormitories, 
infirmary and other sleeping apartments, which are thoroughly ventilated. The 
schools, under the management of the Sisters, have been well attended. The 
school register shows two hundred and forty, but the daily attendance does not 
exceed one hundred and fifty. 

GRASS VALLEY BRASS BAND. 
This Band was re-organized in 1866, under the leadership of John Coad, an ex- 
perienced musician. It is composed of ten pieces. 

GRASS VALLEY QUADRILLE BAND. 
This Band, consisting of four pieces, was organized in 1860, under the leadership 
of J. F. Beckett, and furnishes the best music in the mountains for parties and 
balls. The members are, Messrs. Beckett, Lamarque, Flanders and Dewey. 



SCHOOLS OF GRASS VALLEY TOWNSHIP. 



The Trustees of Grass Valley School District are Wm. K. Spencer. C. Conaway 
and E. W. Roberts. They contemplate the erection of a school building the pres- 
ent season, at a cost of $7,000. It is their pmrpose to transfer the High School to 
this building, when completed. The rapidly increasing demand for admission to 

B. OAD HAS ALWAYS ON nAND A 



FOR STATIONERY GO TO DIXON'S, 



GRASS VALLEY TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 199 

the public scliools, keeping pace witli the increasing facilities offered by tlie School 
Trustees, in the construction of buildings and in the cmplojTnent of efficient and 
competent teachers, promise to place the public schools of Grass Valley, by another 
year, second to none in the State. 

High School. 
The High School building was erected in 1856, at an expense of $5,000, and is 
])]ea8antly located on School street, and the grounds inclosed contain about four 
acn>6 ; B.'P. Welch, principal. Number of names on school roU, fifty-five ; average 
daily attendance, forty-five. 

Winchester SchooL 

This is the Intermediate School. The building is pleasantly located on Win- 
chester street ; was erected in 1864 at a cost of $1,500, including grounds, which 
contain about three-fourths of an acre ; M. B. Potter, teacher. Has on the echool 
roll one hundred names, with an average daily attendance of eighty. 

Primary SchooL 

This school is kept in the same Ijuilding as the High School ; Miss INfarion Marsh, 
teacher. Wlioio number of scholars on the roll, ninety ; average daily attendance, 
sixty-five. 

Pike's Point SchooL 

The building is located on Union Hill street, and was erected in 1866, at a cost 
of $1,800. The grounds inclosed contain about one acre ; Augustus Moore, teacher. 
Eighty-three names on the roll, with an average daily attendance of fifty. 

Mrs. Coleman's SchooL 

This is a Buccessfully conducted private school, located on Church street, where 
all the principal English branches, and music, arc taught ; Mrs. Coleman, teacher. 
Average daily attendance, thirty. 

Mrs. aider's SchooL 

On the south side of Main street, near Gas Works ; Mrs. J. V. Rider, principal, 
and Mrs. M. A. Thompson in charge of Primary Department. Higher English 
branches and also music taught. Number of names on roll, sixty -five ; average 
attendance, sixty. 

Mrs. Alderse^s SchooL 

At the family residence, on Mill street, near Gold Hill mill. Number of pupils 
on school roE, thirty, and average attendance about the same. English branches 
taught, also the languages and instrumental music. 

Mrs. Harvey's Select SchooL 

This school, on School street, is successfully conducted by Mrs. Harvey, assisted 
by Mi83 Florence Edwards. Music and all the principal English branches taught. 
Average daily attendance, thirty. 

AlHson Eanch SchooL 

This School District was organized in 1865, and the building erected the same 
year at a cost of §2,000. Number of children enrolled, seventy-eight ; average 
daily attendance, sisty-five. All the English branches taught. The school is un- 
der the control of Mr. and Mrs. F. K. Startsman. Moses Remington, District Clerk, 
PostolSce address. Grass Valley. 

Forest Springs SchooL 

ITiis district school, unclassified, is under the management of B. J. Watson. The 
school house was erected in 18G4, at an expense of $1,500. Number on roU, thirty- 
seven ; average daily attendance, thirty-five. District Clerk, W. H. Stephens, Post- 
office addi-ess. Grass Valley. 

SPLENDID ASSORTMENT OF FINE CLOTHING. 



FOR PHOTOGRAPH ALBtTiVIS 00 TO DIXON'S, 



200 GRASS VALLEY TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 



THE PRESS OF GRASS VALLEY. 



Tlie first number of tlie Grass Valley Telegraph, the pioneer journal of tlie town, 
and a weekly paper, was issed in 1853, by Oliver & Moore, and was purchased in 
September, 1854, by W. B. Ewer, now of the San Francisco Mining and Scientific 
Press. Henry J. Shipley edited the Telegraph about eight months, after which 
Mr. Ewer had editorial control till the paper merged into the Nevada National ; 
Rufus Shoemaker and George D. Roberts purchasing half the establishment in 
July, 1858. Shoemaker filled the position of editor until May 7th, 1859, and was 
editorially succeeded by Roberts, who continued his editorial connection with the 
paper till September 10th, 1859. J. H. Boardman was editor till November 26th of 
the same year, when C. S. Wells and C. Farleman purchased Boardman's interest, 
the style of the firm being C. S. Wells & Co., -with G. D. Roberts as editor till 
August 25th, 1860, C. F. Smith succeeding Roberts editorially, and retaining his 
position till September 15th, 18G0. At the latter time, William Watt purchased 
the interest of Wells and Farleman, W. B. Ewer again assuming editorial man- 
agement, which he retained till April 24th, 1862, when W. S. Byrne and John P. 
Skelton purchased Mr. Watt's interest. The finn was changed from W. B. Ewer 
& Co. to Byrne & Co., with W. S. Byrne as editor. The National made its appear- 
ance as a tri-weekly August 10th, 1861. The office, to which important additions 
were made under the new management, was totally destroyed by fire June 11th, 

1862. No insurance. The generous people of Grass Valley immediately extended 
to the proprietors of the National a loan of nine hundred dollars ; a new and an 
excellent office was piirchased, and the x^aper re-appeared as a tri-weekly on July 
19th, 1862. C. S. Wells purchased the interest of W. B. Ewer on August 18th, 

1863. John R. Ridge bought a one-fourth interest in the paper on June 17th, 

1864. and, in connection with W. S. Byrne, edited the paper. On Monday, August 
1st, 1864, the National appeared as a daily evening paper, the first daily published 
in Grass Valley. On April 8th, 1865, Byrne disposed of his interest to C. S. Wells. 
The paper. Democratic in politics, is now published by the " National Printing 
Company," consisting of C. S. Wells, who owns one-half, John P. Skelton and John 
R. Ridge, the two latter owning one-fom*th each of the concern. Ridge is editor 
and Skelton business manager. 

The Grass Valley Daily Union was started on the 28th of October, 1864, by 
Blumenthal & Townsend. The latter got out of the establishment after a brief 
and inglorious career, and the firm was changed to Blumenthal & Bennett. Ben- 
nett soon left, and a short time afterward the paper went into the hands of Shane 
& Shearer. Shane & Miller became proprietors April 1st, 1865. Miller conducted 
the paper for a time, and took in B. F. Gwynn as a partner, the latter purchasing 
Miller's interest in the fall of 1866. Gwynn sold the Union to C. H. Mitchell and 
Wm. S. Byrne in October, 1866, since which time to the present it has been con- 
ducted under the firm name of Byrne & Mitchell. The Union is the largest daily 
in Nevada county, has one of the best job offices in the interior, and the paper is 
independent in politics and devoted to local interests. 



00 TO B. GAD'S CLOTHING KIPORIUM. 



00 TO NO. 4 MILL BTKEBT, GRiVSS VALT,EY, ANO SKE DIXON. 



MIiYES A^TD MILLS OF GRASS VALLEY. 



SKETCH OF THE MILES. 



Allison Ranch. 

Situated on the Allison Ranch nnu((, was erected in 185G and commenced running 
in October of tliat year, with eight stamps, to which four more wen; added in 18G3. 
Thi' mill now runs twelve stami)8, is run by a 35-horsc ])ower engine, and when 
employed crashes for its owners, the Allison Ranch Mining Company. Blanket 
process. This is an excellent mill. 

Byers. 
Owned by John Byers, and erected on South Wolf Creek, three miles and one-half 
southeast of Grass Valley, this year. lias eight wooden-stem stamps, which are 
run by water power. 

Cambridge. 

Located on Howard Hill, at the Canil)ridge mine. Erected in 1866, at an expense 
of about $13,0^)0. Runs ten revolving, !JOt)-pound stamps, the motive power of the 
engine being o.>-horse. Ca])al)le of crushing nineteen tons of (juartz in twenty-four 
hours. Bhuiket process. Owned by W. E. Dean, D. W. C. Rice, W. H. V. Cronise, 
A. C. Peachy, Con. Reilly, and others, who also own the Cambridge mine. The 
Cambridge mill crushes exclusively tor the company. 

Coe Company's, 
This mill wa,s completed on the Coe mine in 1865. The crushing is on a new 
])lan — new at least for this place, being on the centrifugal principle. The amalga- 
mating process is the Ryerson. The mill, owned by Messrs. Coe & Davis, of San 
Francisco, has not been tested to any great extent, and wc are consequently unpre- 
pared to speak of its merits. 

Empire Company's. 

This magnificent mill, which is unquestionably the finest quartz mill in Northern 
California, was erected in 180G, on 0])lur Hill, at a cost of $100,000. Runs thirty 
stamps, is jiropolled by an engine of eighteen inch cylinder and forty-two inch 
stroke, and the capacity of the mill is sixty tons per day. The main building is 
one hundred feet in length and ninety feet in ^^ndth, with a boiler house eighteen 
by thirty feet. All the improvements in gold-saving, such as the newest styles of 
pans, settlers, etc., are here used. The Empire mill is owned by the Empire Min- 
ing Company, consisting of Captain S. W. Lee, of Grass Valley, J. P. Pierce, A. L. 
Morrison and A. H. Houston, of San Francisco. 

Eureka. 

This mill, situated on the Eureka mine, and owned by the Eureka Company, 
was put up in 1865 at a cost of about !$20,000. It runs twenty revolving stamps, 
is capable of crushing fifty tons per day, and crushes exclusively for the Eureka 
mine. This is an excellent mill. 

Gold HiU. 

This mill, situated on the west bank of Wolf Creek, Grass Valley, vras erected 

in 1852, by the Gold Hill Company. It has twenty revolving stamps, (substituted 

in 1863 aiid 1864 for old sqtuire stamps,) being propelled by a one hundred-horse 

power engine, and is capable of crushing from forty to fifty tons of rock in twenty- 

Y 



LAMBS WOOL ANI> COTTTON nOSli— ENGLI3U MANUi'ACIURE— AX B. GAD S. 



FOR CONFECTIONERY GO TO DIXOX'S, 



202 GRASS VALLEY TOWNSHIP DIRECTOHY. 

four hours. L'^'nder the new management, hnportant improvements have been 
made in the mill, such as adding new boilers, introducing rotary stamps, etc. This 
mill, which bears a first-rate reputation, is novvr o'wiie'd by Hooper, Cronise, and 
others, and crushes rock from the owners' ledge, on Gold and Massachusetts Hills, 
and also does an extensive business in crushing custom rock. 

Kartery, 

Located on the Hartery ledge, about two miles south of Grass Valley. Erected 
in 1866 at an expense of about $10,000. Runs eight stamps, by steam power, and 
can crush ten tons of rock in twenty-four hours. Amalgamating done in the bat- 
teries. Built for the purpose of crushing the rock of the Hartery Company. Mill 
owned by E. McLaughlin, Joseph O'Keefe and William Loutzenheiser, who also 
own the Hartery mine. 

lone. 

Erected in 1866, at an expense of $10,000. Runs ten revolving stamps, is run 
by a 40-horse power engine, and is capable of crushing eighteen tons of rock in 
twenty-four hours. Blanket process, and copper plates and pans used. Situated 
on the lone Company's mine, about two miles in a southeasterly direction from the 
town of Grass Valley, and is employed in crushing rock for the lone Company. 

Lady Franklin. 

Located in Boston Ravine ; was erected in 1856 by Rush & Laton, and is now 
owned by John R. Rush. Runs eight wooden stamps, is propelled by a 35-horse 
power engine, and can crush twenty tons of rock in twenty-four hours. Does 
custom work. 

Larimer's. 

Situated on Wolf Creek, a short distance below Grass Valley. Erected in 1851. 
Runs nine sqiiare-stem stamps, is propelled by water povv-er, and is capable of 
crushing fourteen tons of quartz every twenty-four hours. Amalgamating princi- 
pally done in the batteries. This mill does custom work, and is owned by John 
W. Larimer. 

Laton & Son's. 

On Union Hill, north bank of Middle Wolf 'Creek,, about two miles in an easterly 
direction from Grass Valley, was built in 1865, and cost about $10,000. Runs 
eight stamps, propelled by a 20-hor8e power engine. Capacity, fifteen tons of rock 
every twenty-four hours. Blanket process in use, though the ]irincipal part of the 
gold is saved on copper plates. This mill, which is owned by B, B. Laton of Grass 
Valley, and C. A. Laton of San Francisco, is a custom mill. 

Lucky. 
On Howard Hill, on the Lucky mine, about two miles east of Grass Valley. Erected 
in October, 1866, at an expense of |13,000. iiims fifteen revoMng stamps, of about 
nine hundred pounds each, and can crush thirty tons of quartz in twenty-four hours. 
Amalgamating done in the batteries, and blankets also used. Run by a 50-horse 
power engine^ Crushes for the company. Owners, Bamilton McCoitnick, E. A. 
Tompkins, W. D. Goldsmith, D. E. Osborn, G. W. Topliffe, Michael Williams, Ed- 
ward Nuttall, and W. R. Taylor, who also own the Lucky mine. 

Merrirjaac. 
Located on Merrimac Hill, about two miles and a qua.rter from Grass Valley, on 
the Merrimac mine. The mill was erected in 1864, and the first crushing was done 
in January, 1865. It has ten revolving stamps, v.^eighing about eight hundred 
pounds each ; is propelled by a 80-horse power engine, and is capable of crushing 
fifteen tons of rock in twenty-four hours. The amalgamating is done in the bat- 
teries. The mill crushes for its owners, Thomas Findley, Henry Scadden, Joseph 
Woodworth, George D. Roberts, and A. E. Head. Cost of mill, about $15,000. 

Horambagua. 

Situated on Wolf Creek, near the Norambagua mine, four miles south of Grass 
Valley. This mill, which is moved by v.^ater power, running ten stamps, and capa- 



aUEBER CLOTIIIN'G, OF BVEF.T DESCRIPTION, AT B. GAOS. 



FOll CIGAKS AND TOSACCO QO TO DIXON'S. 



GRASS VALLEY TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 203 

blc of crushing fifteen tons of quartz in twenty-foiir hours, was built in 1851. 
Crushes rock from tli(>, Comjiany's ledires — the Noramba<;ua and Lone Jack. The 
amalfi'aniating is done princiijally in the batteries, copper plates and riffles also 
being used. The sulphureis here have paid as high as two hundred dollors a ton. 
Norton's pans are used for grinding tailings. It is oAvned by A. C. Peachy, Judge 
Hottinan, W. li. V. Cronise, William Campbell, Alexander Stoddard, and others, 
who purchased the Norambagua mill and mine, last summer, for $100,000. 

North Star. 

At the French Lead, about two miles south of Grass Valley. Erected in 186G, on 
the mine of tlie Nortli Star Company, at a cost of $30,000. Runs sixteen stamps, 
witli a 50-horse power engine, and is capable of crushing twenty-four tons of (;[uartz 
every tAventy-four hours. Crushes for the Nortli Star Company. Owners, John C. 
Coleman, Edward Coleman, William Hoskin, W. H. Hodda, John Kodda, Josiah 
Rodda, James Dodds, Richard Kitto, William Duuston, and Tliomas Harper, who 
arc owners of the North Star mine. 

Osborn Hill. 

This mill, on Osborn Hill, about two miles southeast of Grass Valley, was erected 
in 18G4, at an expense of about $33,000. It has three batteries of five stamps each, 
and is run by a 50-lior.se power engine, which is capable of running double the 
present numbe.r of stamps. The mill can be used either for dry or wet crushing. 
Capacity, twenty tons of (]uartz (wet crushing) in twenty-four hours, and ten tons 
by the dry crushing process. Owned by the Osborn Hill (Jomi)any, who ]nachased 
this mill and the Osboru Hill mine, from Joseph Woodward and George Voges, last 
winter. 

Perrin's. 

Owned by Joseph Perrin, and situated near Wolf Creek Station, about five miles 
south of Grass Valley, is a saw and quartz mill combined, and is propelled by water 
l)ower. Was built in 1804 ; the stamps, five in number, being added in 1865. 
First crushing in January, 1865. This mill, capable of crushing twelve tons of 
I'ock in twtnity tour hours, is engaged on quartz from the Slate ledge, owned by 
Perrin & C'olvin, and located near Forest Springs. 

Rocky Bar. 
Erected in 1856, on Massachusetts Hill, l)y the Mount Hope Company, of which 
Mic])ael Brennan was agent at tlie time. Is a sixteen-stamp mill, being run by two 
engines, each 35-liorse power. The mill, which is now crushing rock for the New 
York Hill Company, is capable of crusliing forty tons of rock in twenty-four hours. 
Blanket process used. The Rocky Bar mill cost upward of $20,000. Owned by 
the Rocky Bar Mining Company. 

SebastopoL 

This mill, originally located at Sebaetopol Hill, was removed to the present lo- 
cality, Boston Ravine, in October, 1863. It runs twelve revolving stamps, is pro- 
pelled by a 30-horse power engine, and can crush twenty-five tons of rock in 
twenty-four hours. The Sebastopol mill — one of the best custom mills in the 
toAvnship— cost aljout $35,000. It is owned by Benjamin McCauley, the Watt 
Brothers, and Mrs. John Connolly. Blanket process used in this mill. 

Smith & E"orthey's. 
On Little Wolf Creek, about one mile and one-half from Grass Valley. Erected in 
1864. Runs eight square-stem stami:*, each weighing nine hundred and fifty 
pounds, the motive power being a thirty-horse power horizontal engine. Blanket 
process adopted, the interior arrangements being similar to those of the Sebastopol 
mill, with the exception that arastras are tised for grinding sulphurets and amal- 
gamating rusty gold instead of pans. The mill is capable of crushing sixteen tons 
of rock in twenty-four hours. Principally engaged on custom work. Owned by 
Robert Smith, John Smith, Edward Northey, and Henry Morgan. 

Stockton's. 

On South Wolf Creek, about twelve miles from Grass Valley, is the ledge of 
NiSOK TIKS, SILK AND LINJiN HANDKBIlCUllfiFS, AT B. GAD'S. 



FOK PAPER COLLARS GO TO DIXON'?. 



204 GRASS YALLEY TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 

Stockton & Co., wlio criisli their ovm rock x\-iTli an arastra, tlie macliinory being 
propelled by water power. 

Union Hiil. 

On Union Hill, abont two miles from Grass Valley, erected in July, 1800. Runs 
twenty stamx^s, baving- a foiu-teen incb engine A\dtli two boilers. Capacity, forty 
tons of qnartz in twenty-four hours. Tliis mill, one of the best in Xevada county, 
cost $21,000. Crushes rock for the owners of the Union Hill mine and mill, con- 
sisting of G. D. Roberts, William McCormick, J. H. Gashwilder, and T. Findley. 



SKETCH OF THE MINES. 



Eni-eka EiU. 

This liill, through which the Eureka vein runs, is about one mile and one-fourth 
from the town of Grass Valley. It was originally known as Eureka Mountain, the 
first location being made February 7th, 1851. T^he Eureka, which, as far as devel- 
oped, has proved ItseK the richest gold mine in the world, is among the earliest 
quartz locations of this township, but its richness, notwithstanding it had been 
worked by various pai-ties for a number of years, was not fully developed until the 
winter of 18G3. The mine was owned at various times by B. L. Lamarque, Geo. D. 
Roberts and William Chollar, who failed to find it ijrofitable ; Lamarque, who had 
purchased the interests of the other pai-tners, finally selling the mine in 1857 to 
Fricot, Ripert and Pralus, for a comparatively small sum. During the years from 
1857 to 1863, the ledge was worked to a jserpendicular depth of forty-eight feet, 
and during this period large quantities of quartz were taken out, none of which 
paid largely, while the greater portion of the rock failed to pay crushing esj)enses. 
Becoming satisfied at last that the ledge was really a good cne, Fricot & Co. com- 
menced sinking a vertical shaft in 1863, completing it to a depth of one hundi'ed 
feet in 1864. The vein at this depth was large and well defined, showing an ex- 
cellent quality of cpiartz. The comj^any in sinking tliis shaft took out sufficient 
money to pay the expenses of erecting hoisting and ptraiping works, building the 
present magnificent mill, all at an expense of over $60,000, besides giving numer- 
ous handsome dividends to the tliree partners. From 1863 up to the sale of the 
mine, in the fall of 1865, the Eureka continued to pay largely, but the figures we 
have not been able to obtain. The vein runs in a southeasterly and northwesterly 
direction, pitching west of south at an angle of about seventy-eight degrees, the 
upx^er wall being syenite, the lower wall greenstone. The lowest level reached, 
which is now beiug worked, is at a perpendicular dej)th of four himdred and twenty 
feet, on which drifts have been run from the foot of the shaft about three hundred 
feet, one hundred and fifty feet each way, showing a vein averaging three feet in 
width and yielding rock which averages $48 per ton. The Eureka sulphurets, 
which are among the richest in Nevada county, are sa,ved by the company, and are 
worked by Mr. Deetken, for the owners, who uses the Plattner, or as it is more gen- 
erally called, the chlorination process. The sulphujets are di-s-ided into three grades 
or classes, being numbered 1, 3 and 3; No. 1 paj-ing at the rate of $400 per ton. 
No. 2, |300, and No. 3, §314. The sulphm-ets are worked to within five per cent, 
of fire assay. Since the present owners purchased the Eureka, in the fall of 1865, 
as already stated, when they paid $-100,000 in gold coin of the United States for it , 
to Fricot & Co., new machinery has been added, the v^^orking greatly increased, and 

IF YOV WANT A FI.VE DRKSS SUIT GO TO B. GAD'S. 



DJXON'S NEW VARIKTY STORE. No. 4 MILT, STEET:?. 



GRASS VALLEY TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 205 



an immense amount of first-class ore has been taken out. Tlie f^ross yield of the 
mine for 18GG amoiinted to ^.TOO.OSS.tlie dividends during tlie same period being at 
the rate of $80,000 per month, or $300,000 for the year. With sulphurets on hand 
unworked and with expenditures for machinery and improvements about the mine, 
the figures show actual dividends paid by the Eureka in 18-36 amounting to 
.$433,000, or $32,000 over the jiurchase money. A one-fortieth interest sold in 18GG 
for $17,500. The mill has crushed on an average one thousand tcjus of qunrtz per 
moutli during the present year, and the monthly dividends have averaged $30,000. 
The monthly expenses of rmniing the Eureka, not including repairs of machinery, 
etc., are $18,000. Working at the present time about one hmidred and sixty men. 
A new incline shaft was recently commenced, which will be completed during the 
present season, and which v/ill gTcatly facilitate the working of this extraordmaiy 
mine. The shaft is being raised from the three hundred foot level, and is being- 
sunk from the surface at the same time. There are eighteen hundred feet in the 
claims. The owners of the Eureka, the best gold mine we have heard of in modern 
tiuK^s, are J. B. Dickinson, Thomas Hope and Benjamin Silliman, of New Y'ork, 
Edwin Hull, W. II. V. C'ronise, John C. Winans, jSIilton Bulkley, James Fi-eeborn, 
A. J. Pope, Robert F. Morrow, N. J. Hall, CJeorge W. Beaver, L. S. Adams, and 
Francis Berton, of San Francisco, William Watt, Robert Watt, J. Fricot, A. Pralus 
and S. Ri[)ert, of Grass Valley. * 

The Idaho Company's claims, consisting of thirty-one hundred feet on the vein, 
begin at the eaist line of the Eureka, on tlie left bank of Wolf creek. At the west 
line of the Idaho the lode crosses the creek and runs into a spur of the ridge divid- 
ing Little and Middle Wolf creeks, and thence into the main ridge. The lode has 
been distinctly traced for about one thousand feet, and can afterward only be traced 
by the country formation. Located in 1803. A law suit prevented the development 
of the mine ftn- more than a year. Late in the fall of 1SG4 the company commenced 
sinking a shaft (m the creek, near the line of the Eureka, and developed a large 
vein of quartz, twenty inches in thickness, which increased as depth was attained. 
This was merely a prospect shaft. Under the superintendency of Edward Coleman 
the plant for the permanent shaft and machinery were made on the south side of 
the creek thirty feet above vertically south from the croppings. This shaft v/as 
sunk to a perpendicular depth of almost one hundred and thirty feet, and a level 
was run almost twenty feet to^^•ard the lode, which has not yet been struck. The 
company stopped work when mnter set in, but will resume operations this season. 
They will undoubtedly find a largo vein, as the croppings immechately opposite 
the shaft are two feet in wddth, sho>\'ing free gold. The Idaho is owned by Thomas 
Findley, M. P. O'Conner, Edward Coleman, Wm. Young, Capt. L. W. Coe, and 
others. 

The Maryland claims begin at the east line of the Idaho, running two thousand 
feet on the lode. A cliimney of the Eureka appears on these claims, at which 
point the company have sunk a shaft forty-five feet deep, and have also made sur- 
face excavations. The lode in the Maryland claims only crops out for about two 
hundi-ed feet, and then disappears. Owned by R. A. Fisher, E. W. Maslin and S. P. 
Dorsey. n 

Beyond the Maryland, on the line of the Eureka, is the Grass Valley Consolidated 
Company's mine, more generally known as the O'Connor, a history of which will 
be found under the head of " LJ^nion Hill." 

BUSINESS SUITS OJF TUB LATEST STYLE AT B. GAD'S, 



VOli FANCY GOODS fiO TO LIXON'S. 



206 GRASS VALLEY TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 

One feature of tlie Eureka vein is tlie directness of its conrse, never varying, so 
that aside from the formation of the country indicating its course, it may be traced 
by compass. 

On the west of the Eureka are the Roanuaise chdms, embracing two thousand 
feet on the lode, commencing at a large out-crop on the flat west of the Eureka 
Hill, at the west line of the Eureka claim. The lode maintains its size. An eighty 
foot shaft sunk, but no rock crushed. Quartz liighly charged with sulphurets. 
Sold by Fricot, Ripert and the Pralus brothers to a New York company, about one 
year ago, for $25,000. No machinery erected yet. The conformation of the country 
is such, after the Roannaise croppings disappear, as to prevent the lode from being 
traced distinctly. 

The Coe Company, the Pendleton and the Moss companies, each having a large 
ledge on their claims, are supposed to be on the line of the Eureka lode. 

North of tiie Eureka lie the Hay ward or Richardson lode, the (Jolden Rule, Golden 
Gate, Alabama, Baltimore, Last Chance, Mobile, and other quartz veins. 

Massachusetts Hill, 

That the distant reader, unfamiliar with the magnitude of our early mining en- 
terprises may understand, if rjossible, the amount of labor expended, the weary 
years consumed in opening, developing and carrying oxit to a successful termination 
the working of a larg-e quartz mine, we reproduce, with a few alterations, the his- 
tory of the Massachusetts Hill, or as it is commonly known, the Watt mine, which 
app)eared in the Directory of Grass Valley Townsliip for 1805. The Massachusetts 
Hill having been a representative mine, and having yielded, up to the time Watt, 
O'Keefe & Co. worked out the vein to their square boundary lines, a little more 
than one year ago, three million dollars, and its general history being the history, 
save in minor details, of other first-class quartz mines in this township, we give it 
witliout further excuse or expranation : 

The hill lies about three-fourths of a mile southwest of Grass Valley. The first 
quartz discovery on Massachusetts Hill was made early in January, 1850, a short 
time after the first quart discovery on Gold Hill. Massachusetts Hill was named 
by William Cliollar, who figured extensively in its early history. M. E. Baxter 
was the first Recorder, and the name of Wm. Chollar is the first on the records of 
Massachusetts Hill. The first records of the hill bear the date of January 13th, 
1851, from which we quote : 

The lot shall be staked off with one stake at each corner, and the fifth one in or 
near the center, with the number and name of owner, and said lot shall be recorded 
when taken up ; and if sold, shall be transferred to the purchaser, and if any lot or 
lots are not worked by May 1st, 1851, they shall be considered forfeited. 

These formed all the laws of Massachusetts Hill which existed up to April 23d, 
1851, when at another miners' meeting the laws were revised and these amend- 
ments added: 

Voted — That all new claims located may be one hundred square feet, not to in 
terfere with ijresent claims. 

Voted — That all old claims be recorded by the lOtli of May, or be forfeited. 

At another meeting the laws were more fully elaborated, and in the re^dsed code 
the claims were laid out thirty by forty feet ; and till April 13th, 1851, no alteration 
was made. The laws enacted on April 13th, 1851, allowing each, claimant or 
claimants one hundred square feet to the claim, remained unchanged till the gene- 
ral district laws were passed in 1852, at which latter period claims were authorized 
to be one hundred feet on the ledge, "with all the dips and angles. 



B. GAD'S, CORNEK MAIN AND MILL STREETS, GRASS VALLEY. 



i\1R FINK HAVANA CIQAR3 00 TO DIXON'? 



GRASS VALLEY TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 207 

In the Avi liter of 18i)0 the first quartz mill was erected by tv.'o G'ormans. It was 
a small, rude affair, run by water power, and stood near the site now occupied by 
the Lady Franklin mill, in Boston Ra\ine. It scarcely saved "rold from specimens, 
and was, of cc^urse, 60<}n abandoned. ITie next mill, a decided improvement on its 
predecessor, was built by Bacon and others, and stood where the Sebastopol mill 
now stands. Considerable gold was saved, but not enough to satisfy the too san- 
guiiio hopes of the quartz miners. Bacon's mill crushed custom rock, charging at 
the rate of twenty dollars per ton. 

Massachusetts Hill was worked at an early day to the water level, by several 
])arties. Delano & Co., who were extensively interested on the hill, sold out in 1851 
to Dr. J. C. Delavan, an agent of a New York company, known as the Ilocky Bar, 
this company sujiplanting the Sierra Nevada Company. Delavan, as agent of the 
new company, erected a small mill on Wolf Creek, at the base of Slassachusetts 
Hill. This mill wa.s a system of wheels running in a circular box, crushing the 
rock on the principle of an old-fashioned bark mill. It proved a failure. Dr. Del- 
avan was succeeded as superintendent by a Mr. Whitney, totally inexperienced in 
milling and mining matters. lie was soon succeeded by Mr. Seyton, who opened 
the mine and took out a large quantity of gold. Michael Brcnnan, whose tragic 
history we give below, succeeded Seyton as superintendent in 185G. In June, 1855, 
the Company took out a large quantity of ore which averaged seventy dollars to 
the ton. The name was clumged to Mount Hope Company, an iucori)orated concern- 
Brennan, a meralier of the original company, haxing been sent out from New l''ork 
as BU])erintendent. In sinking on a stringer he took out enough gold to pay the 
stockholders a dividend of one per cent, on a million dollars. Elated with his suc- 
cess, he built the liocky Bar mill, put on expensive mining machinery, and sunk 
the celebrated Brennan shaft, which last piece of work cost over thirty thousand 
dollars. Brennan worked the stringer down to a depth of about two hundred and 
sixty feet, finding it, on the whole, a very \mprofitable job. In addition to the 
investments made on Massachusetts Hill, he had erected machinery on New York 
imd Cincinnati Hills, both of which enterprises proved failures. He had borrowed 
large sums of money from Andre Chavanne, giving Mr. C. a mortgage on the 
property. At last, driven to desperation by a combination of business reverses, and 
in a morbidly insane mood, he committed the crime of murdsr and suicide. On 
Sunday, February 21, 1858, Brennan, his \vife and three children — embracing the 
entire family — were found dead at the family residence. The corpse of the mur- 
derer and suicide, Brennan, lay on the floor of his pai-lor, that of his wife on a sofa 
in the same room, while the tkree lifeless children were in adjacent rooms. Prussic 
acid, which Brennan had procured in San Francisco and Sacramento, had been the 
agency in this wholsale life destruction. By Brennan's side was found a loaded 
pistol, cocked, with, which, it is reasonable to suppose, he either intended to take 
his life in case he failed with the poison, or designed using should any parties 
detect him in his fien^lish act and attempt the fi'ustration of his horrible scheme. 
He left a letter explaining the cause of his terrible act, complaining of his bad 
luck, asserting that he could not bear the thought of leaving his wife and children 
to buffet disgrace and poverty, also expressing regret that he was imable to take 
his mother and a sister in Europe, who were dependent upon him for a mainten- 
ance, with him on his long journey. Brennan, who was an Irishman by birth, 
was a man of extensive erudition, and for several years was connected editorially 

B. GAD KKErS A yULL ASSOKTMES'T OF BOYS' CLOTniNG. 



FOR GIFT B0CK3 GO TO DIXON'S. 



208 GRAPS VALLEY TOWNSHIP DIRECTOKY. 

^vitIl tlie press of ISTcw York City, officiating at one time as plionograpliic rej.X)rter • 
for tlie New York Herald. 

In December, 1857, Cliavanne, who liad purcliased a judgment against tlie Eocky 
Bar Company, came in possessi'on of tlie property — abont two months before Bren- 
nan's deatli. After Brennan's demise, Chavanne worked the m i ne nnprofitably 
until April, 1858, when the Massachusetts Hill Company leased the pumijing and 
hoisting machinery wliich had been used by Brennan on the Pratt shaft. This 
company, consisting of William and Robert Watt, Joseph O'Keefe and the late 
John Judd, commenced work in the latter part of 1855, imder a lease from Josejjh 
Woodworth. In jSTovember, 1856, the comj^any prnxhased Mr. Woodworth's inter- 
est on Massachusetts Hill for $20,000. They had struck the ledge in April, 1856, 
and had had their mine drained by the Mount Hope Company, under contract from 
Brennan, paying for drainage at the rate of one dollar and one-half per ton of 
quartz from the time of striking the ledge to leasing the machinery from Chavanne. 
Their levels being worked out, and the machinery proving incompetent to do the 
required work at a greater depth, operations were suspended in this portion of the 
mine in September, 1858. The company then commenced operations in the north- 
ern portion of their ground, on Boston Eavine Flat, sinking a shaft, and pumping 
the mine by horse power. Worked successfully here till May, 1859. This year 
the company leased the Brennan shaft from Chavanne, and commenced the expen- 
sive work of connecting their mine 'with the shaft, consuming nine months in rtm- 
nlng tunnels, opening up new levels, and putting on machinery — completing tliis 
extensive job in February, 1860. During the remainder of this year, and up to 
January, 1862, when the mine became flooded, an average force of one htmdred 
and sixty men was daily em]3loyed. While negotiations were pending for a renewal 
of the Chavanne lease,, and while preparations were being made to erect large 
pmnping machinery, the Moimt Hope Company, of New Y^'ork, brought suit against 
Chavanne for possession of the Eocky Bar niiue and mill. This proved for a time 
a severe blow to the interests of Grass Valley, as work was suspended by the 
Massachusetts Hill Comj)any, and a large force of laborers was thus thrown out of 
employment. Owing to the tardiness of htigation, the Massachusetts Hill Company 
remained comparatively idle till June, 1863, when (Chavanne having beaten the 
Mount Hope Company,) the lease was renewed, and preparations were at once made 
for erecting machinery at a cost of $30,000. In November, 1863, the Massachusetts 
Hill Company commenced taking out ore, and worked almost constantly up to 1865-. 

In April, 1864, the Massachusetts Hill Company struck the ledge in the bottom 
of the Brennan shaft, at a point but a few feet from where Brennan had hopelessly 
• abandoned work. 

The lowest perpendicular depth attained in the Massachusetts Hill Company's 
mine has been about three hundred feet. An idea of the immensity of the work 
performed in this wonderful mine may be found in the fact that the company have 
run over two miles of tunnels. Since November, 1863, about one thousand tons of 
ore on an average were extracted monthly from this mine, three hoisting en- 
gines being employed a portion of the time, while two were constantly at 
work. The ledge, like all master mineral veins, varied in size, pitch, and quality 
of quartz, yielding enoiinously at times, and again not paying the expense of ex- 
tracting the ore. Taken as an entirety, however, the ledge proved itself one of the 
best in tliis State. The expenses of this mine, since November, 1863, averaged one 

SILK, MKKINO AND COTTON liND^JKCLOTHING ^AT B. GAD^S. 



THE CENTER OP ATTRACTION— DTXON'S VARIETY STORE. 

GRASS VALLEY TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 209 

thousand dollars per day. The ground was taken up in square claims, and not, as 
now, with the dips, angles and variations of the ledge. 

After the ledge was struck in the Brennan shaft, which we have already men- 
tioned, the Rocky Bar Company commenced to work their mine thoroughly, contin- 
uing the work until a few months since. During the past two years between 5,000 
and 6,000 tons of rock have been taken from this mine, a large quantity of which 
was first-class ore. The Rocky Bar Company o%vn six hundred by three hundred 
feet on the lode, the mine being under the management of A. B. Brady. The 
Rocky Bar, which is not being worked at tne present writing', is owned by the 
Chavanne Brothers, of Paris, Heutch & Berton. Abel Guy* John B. Felton, and 
others, of San Francisco. 

The Stockbridge claims are on the east extension of the Massachusetts Hill lode, 
embracing six hundred and sixty -three feet on the vein, including dips, angles and 
variations. Located in August, 1800. The work of sinking a perpendicular shaft 
commenced in November, 18G4, is now down 242 feet, and will have to be sunk 
about forty-five feet further before the ledge is struck. Tliis shaft, when completed, 
will cost upward of .$2.'5,000. The sinking of this shaft was suspended when the 
company purchased the ground and hoisting works of the Massachusetts Hill 
Company, about one year ago. Shortly after this, work was commenced on an in- 
cline shaft, through which Watt & Co. worked, and the shaft was continued to the 
lowest level of the Rocky Bar claims. After having made arrangements with the 
last mentioned company for drainage, the incline shaft was completed and a level 
was run in about fifty feet, when the stoppage of the Rocky Bar Company's pump 
brought the labors of the Stockbridge Company to a premature conclusion. The 
ore taken out in sinking the perpendicular shaft paid at the rate of twenty-two 
dollars per ton. Owners of the Stockbridge are, Henry Silvester, John Trenberth, 
M. Langstaff, W. H. Rodda, Henry Fuchs, L. B. Clark, George Gephard, Robert 
Patterson, James James, and W. II. Mitchell. 

The Boston Ravine Company's claims, which are also on the Massachusetts Hill 
ledge, Were located in March, 1864, by Dan. Collins and others. These claims, 
which are in an excellent locality, embrace two thousand feet, taking in dips, 
angles and variations. Not yet opened. 

The Discovery claims, recently located by Con. Reilly, are also on Massachusetts 
Hill, and consist of ten square claims of one hundred feet each. Bounded on the 
east by the Boston Ravine Company, on the west by the Massachusetts Hill Com- 
pany, and on the south by the Donald Da\-idson ground. 

The Ford and Reilly Company's claims, on the Massachusetts Hill ledge, bound 
the Massachusetts Hill Company on the north, Scadden, Northey & Co. on the Avest, 
and the Stockbridge on the south. On April 1st, 1864, the owners, having deter- 
mined to work their mine in a complete manner, commenced sinking a perpendic- 
ular shaft, which was continued to a depth of one hundred and fifty feet, where 
the vein was struck. It was worked on the Massachusetts Hill Company's line for 
a distance of about one hundred and ninety feet, from which six hundred tons of 
good quartz were extracted. The company have worked to a point below Watt & 
Co.'s level. This mine is owned by Con. Reilly and Martin Ford, of Grass Valley, 
and Patrick Riley, of San Francisco. 

The Shanghae claims, on tliis hill, are in liigh favor, and during the past year 
liave paid several handsome dividends. 
z 



B. GADS, CORNER MAIN AND MILL STREETS, GRASS VALLEY. 



THE COUST HOUSE IS FOUR MILFS FROM DIXON'S, 



210 GRASS VALLEY TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 

Boston Ravine Flat. 

This section lies between Massachusetts and Gold Hills, north of the former and 
south of the latter, and about one-half mile south of Grass Valley proper. The 
principal mine in this flat, which is a continuation of the Massachusetts Hill lode, 
is generally known as the Scadden, being owned by Thomas and Henry Scadden, 
John Trenberth, W. H. Clift, and Edward Northey. Located, in square claims, in 
1852, by Conaway, Woodworth and others. The mine has been worked extensively 
since 1857, during which time it has turned out immense sums of money. 

East of the Scadden mine are the Pratt claims, consisting originally of thirteen 
claims of one hiuidred feet each, the owners subsequently purchasing five hundred 
feet from the Dubuque Company. This mine has not been worked extensively, as 
compared with other quartz mines in the vicinity, yet it has paid well for the labor 
performed, showing a vein of excellent quartz wherever it has been stripped. The 
Pratt ground is owned by Medcalf Pratt, William Edmonds, and others. 

The Eeilly claims adjoin the Pratt gromid, and consist of six himdred feet on 
the ledge. Xot opened yet. Owmers, Con. Reilly, Dr. G. G. Tyrrell and David 
Murray. 

West of the Reilly gTound are the claims of Joseph Williams & Co. 

New York EiU. 

This hill, two miles south of Grass Valley, is on the west side of Wolf Creek, on 
the Massachusetts Hill range, and is one of the earliest quartz locations in this dis- 
trict. The New York Hill Mining Company, whose claims embrace nearly the 
entire hill, is the result of a consolidation of the Larimer, Wilde, Fricot and Chrys- 
opolis claims, giving to the company between three and four thousand feet on the 
New York Hill ledge, including dips and angles. From the claims, since 1852, not 
less than $500,000 have been taken. The present company purchased the ground 
about twenty months ago, and have been engaged ever since in pumping out the 
mine, erecting hoisting and pumping works, sinking a new incline shaft, and 
opening levels for future work. This shaft is now down to a depth of five hundred 
and seventy -five feet, the average grade being thirty-three degrees, the vertical 
depth being three hundred and ten feet. Dimensions of shaft, six by twelve feet 
in the clear, giving a double track. The company have a twelve inch pumicing 
engine, a ten inch hoisting engine, a ten inch plunger-pump, and two bucket 
pumj)s, one an eight and the other a six inch. The company are now opening their 
tliird level, giving three sets of " backs " on each side of the shaft, and will soon 
be in condition to take out five hundred loads of rock monthly. Over thirteen 
hundred loads of quartz have already been taken ou.t, jaelding on an average $45 
per load. The New York Hill rock is rich in sulphurets, giving at least three per 
cent., and the sulphurets range in value from $100 to $220 per ton. The mine is 
now pretty well opened, is paying handsomely, and from the extent of ground in 
the claims, together with the excellent facilities for working, it is justly ranked 
among the first quartz mines of Grass Valley township. Working at present aboxit 
forty-five men. The owners are J. I. Sykes, John Anderson, A. B. Brady, George 
Johnston, P. H. Ford, R. Leech, Donald Fraser, H. Vignon, J. Vignon, L. MolRo- 
guier, A. B. Dibble, and James K. Byrne, of Grass Valley, and E. G. Waite, fc)f 
Nevada. John Anderson, superintendent. 

Between New York Hill and Massachusetts Hill is South Massachusetts, through 

B. GAD KEEPS A FULL ASSORTMENT OF BOYS' CLOTHING. 



FOR BEAUTIFUL DOLLS GO TO DIXON'S. 



GRASS VALLEY TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 211 

wliich runs the Black ledge, tlie property of David Watt and otliers. On tiiis mine 
is extensive machinery, but the mine is not being worked at present. In sinking 
an incline shaft on the Black ledge, excellent quartz was found, and from this mine 
were taken some of the richest quartz specimens ever exhibited in tliis district. 

Running in a southerly direction, a half or three-fom-ths of a mUe from New 
York Hill, and on the west side of Wolf creek, are a number of quartz veins, none 
of which have been thoroughly developed, but the conformation of the country is 
such that there can be little or no doubt that some of these ledges ^^•ill one day be 
extensively and profitably worked. 

Wisconsin Flat- 

About three-fourths of a mile south of New York Hill, and lying between the 
latter and Wisconsin Hill, west side of Wolf creek, is Wisconsin Flat, in wliich is 
the celebrated Wisconsin ledge, located in 1854 by Joseph Davison, who gave it its 
name. Soon after the location the Wisconsin mine was purchased by Con. Reilly. 
In 1856, Mr. Reilly, Joseph Woodworth and three others erected a nine-sfamp 
quartz mill, a pump and hoisting machinery on the ground, which cost ^11,000. 
The same year a perpendicular shaft was sunk to the depth of sixty feet, and a drift 
was run for the ledge, from wliich seven hundred tons of quartz were taken out, 
yielding the splendid average ef sixty-eight dollars per ton. In 1857, the shaft 
was continued to a depth of one hundred and ten feet, the expense of sinking a 
portion of it being as high as one hundred dollars per foot. The ledge was again 
found in the bottom of this shaft, and three hundred tons of quartz were extracted 
at this point. The following year work was temporarily abandoned on the Wis- 
consin. The mine became entangled in the meshes of litigation, and E. McLaugh- 
lin, George A. Montgomery and William Loutzenheiser, who had bought a 
judgment against it from one Woodville, came in possession of the Wisconsin in 
185G. It was leased the same year to T. W. Campbell, of the Lone Jack, who, 
owng to the vast quantities of quicksand and water with which he had to contend, 
gave up the contract. For several years the Wisconsin, like other good quartz 
mines in this vicinity, was left comparatively imworked, the OA^-ners performing 
only sufficient labor on it to hold the mine imder the quartz laws of Nevada county. 
Last year (1866) it was sold to Charles Leech, Nathan & Hoffman, Wm. Launder, 
George B. McKee, and Robert Smith, of Grass Valley, Col. Geo. A. Montgomery, 
now of Canada, retaining an interest in it. A one-eighth interest was sold in the 
Wisconsin, about eight months ago, for $10,000 cash. The owners have erected 
hoisting and pumping machinery, in the present year, at an expense of about 
$9,000. The mine was recently leased to a party of twelve experienced miners, for 
a term of three years, the lessees doing all the work, defraying all the expenses of 
mining and reducing the quartz, and giving the owners forty per cent, of the nett 
proceeds of the mine. The contractors have sunk an inclined shaft to a depth of 
two hundi-ed and twenty-five feet to the lowest level, drifting three hundred feet on 
the lode, from which they are now taking out rock which averages $100 per ton. 
The vein in this level is eighteen inches in width on an average, and the ore is 
first-class. The ledge has given an average yield of $45 per ton since the mine 
was first opened. The company own thii'ty-four hundred feet on the lode. In the 
last twelve months, the books of the company show that 1,400 tons of ore have 
been taken from the mine and worked, the different crushiugs ranging from 
$18 50 to $76 25 a ton, the average being $51. The sulphurets were sold at the 
mill, where the rock was crushed, at $90 a ton. 



BUSINESS SUITS OF TUH LATEST STYLE AT E. GAD'S, 



FOK RUBBER TOTS GO TO DIXON. 



212 ,GRASS VALLEY TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 



MissoTiri Hill. 

A short distance above Allison Eancli is Missouri Hill, tlie principal mine of wMcli 
is the Harter}', consisting of nine hnndi-ed feet on the lode. Located in 1853 by 
Thomas Hartery and others. The mine was worked to a perj^endicular depth of 
one hundred feet along the entire length of the ledge, paying well and regularly. 
Hartery pui-chased the interests of his partners, erected a mill, at an expense of 
$20,000, in 1857, put on extensive hoisting and pumping niacliinery, and by thus 
iavolving himself, and through general mismanagement of the business, he failed 
in 1858. William Loutzenheiser and Edward McLaughlin, of Grass Valley, who 
were among Hartery's creditors, attached the property soon after the failure. The 
mine was subsequently leased to George Lord & Co., who found the pump insuffi- 
cient to drain the mine, upon which discovery the pumping project was abandoned. 
The contractors nest commenced running a drain tunnel, which they abandoned, 
and -nrhich was completed by Messrs. Loutzenheiser &, McLaughlin to a length of 
seventeen hundred feet. The Hartery mill was destroyed by incendiaries in 
August, 1860. Over $200,000 was taken from the mine proAaous to Hartery's 
failure. In 1865 McLaughlin and Loutzenheiser commenced Avorking the Hartery 
on an extensive scale, and in that and the following year they erected a quartz mill 
and pimaping and hoisting works, at an expense of about $15,000. In November, 
1865, Loutzenheiser sold a one-fourth interest in the Hartery to Joseph O'Keefe, for 
$15,000, the former retaining a one-fourth interest. During the years 1865-6 the 
company reached a perpendicular depth on the lode of one hundred and forty -seven 
feet, drifting from their incline about four hundred feet. The rock was found to 
be unusually hard, very heavy expenses attending the taking out of quartz, and 
the company suspended operations last fall. The Hartery is now owned by Edward 
McLaughlin, William Loutzenheiser and Joseph O'Keefe. 

In the neighborhood of the Hartery are the Wigwam, Potosi, Omaha, Homeward 
Bound, and John Doran (Sf Co.'s claims. 

Lafayette Hill. 

About two miles below Grass Valley, in a southerly direction, lies Lafayette Hill, 
through which runs the lode of the North Star Company, on which are erected 
very extensive mining and milling works. A history of this wonderful mine, 
which is certainly a first-class one, deserving to rank at least as the second quartz 
mine in this district, will prove interesting to the readers of this work, for which 
reason we re-produee a few facts concerning its earlier history, which have already 
appeared in print, as well as giving a few new particulars kindly furnished us by 
the superintendent of the works. The lode was discovered in 1851 by a party of 
Frenchmen, H. Pellatier, now bf Grass Valley, being of the number, and was early 
known as the French Lead. The vein was remuneratively worked by these parties 
until the fall of 1852, when six-elevenths of it were jjurchased by Messrs. Conaway 
& Preston, who at that time owned a twenty-four stamp mill on Boston Ravine 
Flat, which had been erected in the fall of 1851. In the fall of 1852, immediately 
after the purchase, Conaway & Preston formed a joint stock company of the con- 
cern, imder the name of the " Helvetia and Lafayette ilining Company." Into this 
company all of the shares in said mine, as well as the mill of Conaway & Preston, 
together with several of their claims on Gold and Massachusetts Hill, passed. The 
mine was worked by tliis Company fi-om 1852 to September, 1857, in which latter 

BKNKERT'S BOOTS, ALL SIZES, AT B, GAD'S CLOTUING EMPORIUM. 



POU FINE VIOLIN STRINGS GO TO DIXON'S, 



GRASS VALLEY TOWNSTHP DIRECTORY. 213 



year, owin<r to heavy expenditures, the company became deeply involved, their 
jiroiierty pussintj out of their hands by SlieritF's sale, E. McLauo;hlin, of this ])lace, 
being the purchaser. From 1853 to 1857, as we have been infonncd by one of the 
early owners of the mine, the yield was about $250,000. In February, 1860, the 
mine was purchased from Mr. McLaughlin by J. C. and Edward Coleman, J. C. 
Pascoe, and others, representing twenty shares, for $15,000. At the same time the 
name was changed to tlic North Star Company. Since 1860 u]) to the present time, 
embracing a period of nearly seven years, the North Star mine has been extensively 
worked, has had large sums of money expended in developing it, and has paid its 
owners large dividends. An inclined shaft, through which the greater part of the 
work has been done, has been sunk to a depth of seven hundred and fifty feet, giv- 
ing a vertical depth on the lode of about three hundred feet ; a drain tunnel, com- 
menced in 18G3 and finished in 1804, running a distance of twenty-five hundred 
feet, was completed at a cost of $15,000 ; and to increase the working facilities of 
the mine a peri)endicular shaft is now being sunk at a distance of five hundred feet 
from the incline, to strike the Icnlge, which will reach the vein at a distance of 
about one hundred and forty feet from the surface. This shaft will be completed 
in a very short time, and will enable the company to increase their force of miners 
about twenty. On the mine is a magnificent sixteen-stamp mill, now running 
twelve stamps, but which will run to its full ca])acity on the completion of tlu; 
verticiil shaft ; besides which then; arc several engines, one sixty-horse jwwer, for 
pumping, one ten-horse power, for hoisting, one twelve-horse power for hoisting 
and pumping, and a twenty-five horse power engine, erected recently, for hoisrting 
at the new shaft. [To the credit of the owners of this mine be it said that all their 
machinery was furnished by Grass Valley foundries.] The machinery and works 
erected during last and the present year cost about $25,000. The lode runs in 
what our miners call greenstone, jjitching at an angle of about twenty-seven de- 
grees, the vein varying in width from one foot to six feet, showing an average width 
of about two feet. The North Star Company, for over six years, crushed at the 
rate of one hundred tons of quartz per week, using their old mill, but since the 
completion of the new mill, in August last, the average weekly crushings have 
been one hundred and fifty tons, or six hundred tons per month. The company 
own twenty-one himdred feet on the lode, with the angles and variations, besides 
one hundred claims on Weimar Hill, south of and adjoining Lafayette Hill ; and 
they have sixteen hundred feet east of the new shaft, on the lode, nearly all of 
which is new ground. Now working five levels, and in the fifth or present lowest 
level, whicli, as already stated, is down three hundred feet perpendicularly, a drift 
has been rim one hundred and fifty feet in an easterly direction from the inclined 
shaft. It is estimated that fully 30,000 tons of ore remain untouched in the reserv^es 
or backs, opened by means of drifts from the main shaft. For the five years pre- 
ceeding January last the uett profit of the mine was over $500,000. The gross pro- 
duct for the last five months of 1866 exceeded $100,000, the yield for December of 
the same year being $26,000. The mine is now yielding a monthly average of 
$24,000, the expenses being $12,000 a month, showing a monthly profit of $12,000. 
About one hundred and fifty men are employed about the mill and mine. The 
sulphurets are saved by rockers and sold by the North Star Company to sulphuret 
workers at from $80 to $120 per ton. FolloAvdng is a list of the owners of this 
most excellent mine : J. C. and Edward Coleman, Wm. H. Rodda, Josiah Rodda, 
John Rodda, Richard Kitto, ^V^illiam Hoskin, James Hoskin, and Thomas Harper. 

11? YOU WANT A FINE DRESS SUJT GO TO B. GAD'S. 



FOR SHBET MtJSrO GO TO DIXON' 



214 GRASS VALLEY TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 

Edward Coleman is general superintendent of tlie Xortli Star Company, and Wm. 
Iloskin has charge of the underground department of the mine. 
Other mines in this vicinity will be found mentioned elsewhere. 

Allison Eaiich. 

About two miles and one-half south of Grass Valley, on Wolf creek, is the village 
of Allison Ranch, noted the world over for having one of the richest quartz mines 
3'et discovered. The village itself, for which we now have room only for a passing- 
notice, contains two stores, one meat market, two boot and shoe making establish- 
ments, three or four saloons, the Avorks of the Allison Ranch Mining Company, and 
an excellent public school. The business of the village is supported, or rather has 
been supported in the past, by the laboring force of the mine. The mine itself is 
at present under a cloud, and owing to questionable management, as well as a lack 
of harmony among the owners, work was suspended early last fall, leaAing the 
Ranch in a languishing condition. What policy the present owners of the mine 
may pursue, we have no means of knowing, but it is more than probable that 
under some management Allison Ranch will again resume its place among the 
representative mines of this district ; for a ledge from which millions of dollars 
have been extracted, which has been worked for years with great profit, and which 
has never been lost even in the lowest depth attained^ must again prove rich and 
extensive unless every theory of geology is incorrect, every practical principle of 
quartz mining at fault. We will give an epitome of the history of the Allison 
Ranch mine from its discovery up to 1865, together with a few later items of interest 
famished us by Philip Gallwey, late superintendent of the works : 

As early as 1853, John and William Daniel, and four others, who subsequently 
returned to Missouri, worked in the creek adjoining the present town. In 1853, in 
digging a tail-race, which was done by several of the present company, the ledge 
was found, but no particular attention was paid to the discovery. In July, 1854, 
Michael Colbert and James Stanton bought into the creek claims. The ground at 
this time was worked with " long toms " and paid well. During the same year, 
while working toward the upper end of the claims, the ledge was again struck. At 
this point, the ground was found exceedingly rich, but the owners, somewhat inex- 
perienced in quartz mining, failed to attribute this to its true cause, the immediate 
vicinity of an extensive quartz ledge. One day in the fall of 1854, two of the 
partners traced the ledge a short distance down, but on losing it became discour- 
aged, and all the company, excepting Colbert and Stanton, ceased work for the day. 
These two, having again fomid the ledge, took out during the day, from the open- 
ing their i^artners had left, about a ton of quartz. An extensive " cave " occurred 
during the night, covering the ledge as well as a portion of the mass of rock thrown 
out. Work was now resumed on the creek, the exhumed quartz remaining un- 
touched, until exposed by the action of the fall and winter rains, when, on exami- 
nation, the rock was found studded with free gold. This pile of quartz, together 
with fragments forked from the toms, amounting to about one and one-half tons, 
was crushed at Lee & Simpson's mill, about a mile below Allison Ranch, and yielded 
about three hundred and seventy-five dollars. Con. Reilly was employed to open the 
ledge, and at once erected a water-wheel and sunk an inclined shaft, following the 
ledge, to a de]jth of eighteen feet, in doing which, he demonstrated the correctness 
of his own views by taking out enough gold to erect the present Allison Ranch 
quartz mill. In October, 1855, a lot of rock, about eighteen tons, which was crushed 

IF CLOTHING IS C£IEAP ANY WHERE IN TUK UOUNTY IT IS AT B. GAD'S. 



EVERY BODY GOES TO DIXON'S V ' RTETY BTOKE. 



GRASS VALLEY TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 215 



at the Gold Hill mill, yielded ubout $G,000 ; and in December of the same year, 
sixt}--t\vo tons produced !j;3;3,000. 

From 1855 up to last year the mine proved wonderfully rich, during which time 
large sums were expended in erecting machinery, sinking shafts, etc., the owners, 
the meanwhile, ^ecei^^ng liberal dividends. The gross jdcld. of Allison Ranch from 
its opening to the close of 1860, as the books of the company demonstrate, Avas 
between $3,300,000 and $3,400,000. The product for the three years ending De- 
ceml)er 80, 1865, was $1,000,000, and in 1866 about $200,000. [It should be borne 
in mind that only eight months work was performed in 1866, the company virtually 
suspending operations in S(!ptember last, and entirely abandoning work early last 
winter.] The lowest depth reached on the incline is four hundred and seventy-five 
feet, giving a vertical depth on the lode of three hundred and forty feet. In this 
level the vein was drifted on a distance of four hundred and thirty-four feet, north- 
erly and southerly, two hundred aiul twenty feet in a northerly direction, and two 
hundred and fourteen feet southerly. In the south drift the vein showed an aver- 
ago widtli of f>)urteen inches, and in the north drift eighteen inches. The ledge, 
which had been considerably broken up in this level, in fact showing for a time 
what appeared to be two veins, came together in the bottom of the level. A jwrtion 
of the quartz in this level prcjved very rich, but the greater part was found barren, 
running the company in debt. Assessments were required to defray the expenses 
of sinking for another level, but such assessments came not, and a majority of the 
owners concluded to suspend work, carrying their conclusifm to an unfortunate end. 
The mine, as already intinuited, must at no distant day be re-opened. The owners 
of the Allison Ranch property are Michael Colbert, William Daniel and John Fahey, 
of Grass Valley, James Stanton, of San Francisco, and James O'Donahue and Chas. 
Field, of Bangor, Maine. 

The first extension north of the Allison Ranch ledge (recorded as the Stanton 
ledge,) was located on February 23d, 1855, by the Franklin Company, consisting of 
twelve hundred feet. The mine was leased in 1860, by Orlando Jennings, who soon 
afterward erected hoisting works and two pumps on it. An inclined shaft was 
sunk to a depth of two hundred and thirty-four feet on what was then supposed to 
be the ledge, but which, according to the opinion of experienced miners, was in 
reality only a stringer. Work was continued until June 1st, 1862, from which time 
to the present, the mine has been idle. The sum of $34,000 was taken from the 
ledge, which amoimt fell greatly short of the expense of working the mine. 

The south extension of Allison Ranch (Stanton ledge) was located in 1858, by 
George Wallace and others, who took up eight hundred feet. Several prospecting 
shafts have been simk, the lowest perpendicular depth of any being about seventy- 
five feet. The croppings of the ledge were struck in the bottom of the deepest 
shaft, and about the same time, water was found, which caused a temporary aban- 
donment of work. A drain tunnel, commenced in 1861, from the west bank . of 
Wolf creek, has been run a distance of three hundred feet, and will be continued 
during the present season two hundred and fifty or three hundred feet further. The 
present proprietors are, George D. Roberts, Con. Reilly, David Watt, Wm. Daniel, 
and Samuel Wittengensteiu, the latter being an owner by purchase. Not being 
worked. 

In Vail's Ranch is the Phoenix ledge, which runs parallel with the Allison Ranch 
ledge, at a distance of about fifty rods. The Plicenix was located in 1861, by P. 

LET EVERY MAN WHO WANTS CLOTHING APPLY AT B. GAD'S. 



DIXON'S NEW VARIKTY STORE, No. 4: MILL STREET. 



210 GRASS VALLEY TOWNSHIP DIRECTOKY. 

Hennessy and others, claiming one thousand feet. Several cruslungs' of the Phoenix 
rock have been made, the lowest perpendicular depth from which ore has been 
extracted being thirty-five feet, and the average j^eld has been twenty-five dollars 
per ton. The owners of the Phoenix are, P. Hennessy, P. Gallwey, John Colbert, 
Richard Barry, John Fahey, and Thomas O'Eourke, 

l3'oraml)agua Mine. 

This mine is situated at Forest Springs, one mile south from tl'ie celebrated Alli- 
son Ranch mine, and three and a quarter miles from the town of Grass Valley. 
The vein runs nearly north and south, and dips to the east at a very low angle-- 
from twelve to seventeen degrees. It is incorporated as the " Forest Springs Quartz 
Mining and Limiber Company." This company now own 4,300 feet on the Noram- 
bagua vein, and 2,000 feet on the Bourbon, a parallel lode, which lies a little west 
of the Norambagua. 

The inclosing rock is a very large-jointed variety of green stone syenite, which 
drills and breaks readily in mining — a very fortunate circumstance in the economy 
of working. This rock is considerably decomposed at surface, but assumes its true 
character below water level. 

The Norambagua vein has been extensively explored since 1855. It is a narrow 
vein, being rarely over ten inches and averaging, perhaps, four oi*' five inches. W 
is composed of a blueish-white quartz, seamed and banded with arsenical and whilte' 
iron pyrites arranged in parallel zones, producing a ribbon-like structure. The gold 
is seen in delicate parcels interspersed in the mass, requiring careful observ^ation to 
detect it ; but sometimes it is seen more conspicuously, as a thin fibre wire cleaves 
in the vein. Its tenor of gold is high, ranging from $40 to $100 to the ton. This 
vein is unlike the general character of the Grass Valley veins, wliich, as a rule, are 
destitute of arsenic and white iron pyrites. Similar ores are seen, however, in 
Osborne Hill. 

The Xorambagua vein has been opened by an incline shaft, sunk to a depth of 
five hundred and sixty-seven feet (to the fifth level) and is now going down, but the 
extremely low angle of easterly dip (12° to 17°) gives only about one hundred and 
fifty feet of vertical hight over the level named. The levels have heen extended 
about one thousand feet south and five hundred feet north of the incline, or in all, 
fully one thousand and five hundred feet on the horizon of the main tunnel. The 
lower level was, in March, 1867, about two hundred and thirty feet north and two 
hundred and twenty feet south of the incline. The ores, especially on the south, 
were remarkably rich, pelding in mill over $70 per ton, and assaying very mueh 
more. 

The drain tunnel, which connects Avith the vein at four hundred and ninety feet 
from its croppings, was opened through on the 7th of March, 1867, eleven hundred 
feet in length, and four hundred and sixty feet north of the incline, having been in 
process of driving for four years, or since 1862, and at a cost of over $40,000. This 
is an important work, offering an exit for all the ores in nearly five hundred feet of 
backs, and a passage for the waters above and below this level, thus reducing the 
task of the pump to hoisting from the lower levels to the drain level. From this 
level the ores can be delivered by gravity to the proposed new mill site. 

The mine is furnished with a new 60-horse power hoisting arid pumping engine. 
The ore is hoisted up the incline on a tram way by wire ropes. Most of the dead 

EVJiRY VARIETY OF CALIFORNIA MADE BLANKETS CAN BE FOUND Ai'S B. GAD'S. 



INK STANDS. PENS AND PAPER, AT DIXON'S. 
GRASS VALLEY TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 217 



rock broken in taking up the vein is used to fill up tlie old stopes, thus saving the 
ilsi) of timber. The levels of this mine are walled up in solid stone in the most 
substantial and workman-like manner. The cost of mining and milling the ore is 
about $30 per ton. The reserves of ore appear to be very great in the Noramba- 
gua. The vein has exhibited remarkable constancy in its general characteristics 
and gold tenor, but is said to have grown richer to the south in descending. The 
mine has been worked in former years in a Very unsystematic and temporizing 
manner, exhausting all the available ores and then pausing for some months while 
the incline was sunk and new levels were driven. A short time since the property 
changed hands, and now, under the energetic management of Mr. W. H. Rodda, 
formerly superintendent of the North Star, the incline is being vigorously sunk, 
the drain level has been opened through, and the levels are being extended both 
ways to explore new ground. 

Tlie Bourbon lode, which is some five hundred feet in front (west) of the Noram- 
bagua vein, has remaincil, until lately, quite unexplored, except that from a shaft 
sunk upon it for a short distance, the ore was found of a promising character. 
Recently, work luis been commi-nced on the Bourbon by tribute, the miners fur- 
nishing tlieir own supplies and dividing the product with the owners. This is evi- 
d(;ncc that the miners cuttu-tain a favorable opinion of the value of the ledge, or 
they would not risk their labor and expenses on it. 

The Norambagua ores arc reduced at the mill belonging to the Forest Springs 
Company, situated on Wolf creek, near the mine, and driven by a water wheel of 
twenty-eight feet diameter and four feet breast. This mill was built in 1851, has 
ton stamps, in two l)atteries, square heads and wooden stems. Amalgamation in 
battery is used, with copper plates and concentration of the tailings on Bradford's 
vanning tables or concentrators ; also with Norton's pans, to grind the sulphurets. 
The copper pans of these machines arc found to act well in saving floating mercury 
and amalgam, as well as in effecting a satisfactory concentration of the sulphurets. 
It is surprising that tliey do so good word, for they are charged far beyond the car 
pacity for whicli th(?y were designed, are very poorly attended, and by neglect have 
become miich worn and disarranged. It is a machine which, with good manage- 
ment, is capable of doing excellent work. Although this mill is one of the most 
venerable in California, it has lately been repaired and its performance in treating 
gold seems more satisfactory than its rude exterior would indicate. The pile of 
tailings collected near the niill, carefully averaged yielded only about $7 per ton 
in gold. The concentrated sulphurets are worth about $oO per ton. The amount 
of sulphurets in the Norambagua ores is considerable, probably as much as three 
per cent. The capacity of this mill for treatment is about fifteen tons per day. It 
is run on custom work when not fully occupied on Norambagua ores. Now that 
the Norambagua mine is opened by its drain tunnel, and has also ample hoisting 
power, it will be the policy of the company to mine ores to the full capacity ol the 
mill. A new mill site has been selected and a new mill is talked of. 

The product of the Norambagua mine from September, 1864, to the same month 
in 1885, was $80,643. About four months of the year very little ore was crushed ; 
eight men on a shift being all the force employed in taking out ore. It is the pol- 
icy of the present owners to develop the mine in such a way as to have the explora- 
tions well in advance of the work of extraction, and at the same time to bring their 
mill up to its full capacity. 

A3 

IF YOU WANT A FINE DRESS SUIT GO TO B. GAD'S. 



___^^^ DIXON'S, ONE MILE ^KOM EUREKA MINE. 

218 GRASS VALLEY TOWNSHIP DIRECTOKY. 

Not one-foiirtli jiart of the ore-ground owned by tlie company on the ]Sfof ambagua 
has been prospected, and the Bourbon ledge is as yet hardly opened,- and yet the 
work of exploration on the former mine has been in progress for about twelve years. 
There is hensce good reason to belie^-e that this fine property -v^all soon be productive, 
more productive than ever before. The advantage possessed by this mine in respect 
to drainage and the amount of ore available within a moderate depth, will be un 
derstood when it is remembered that (if the mean dip of 15° is preserved) before a 
vertical depth of five hundred feet under the drain tunnel is reached the incline 
shaft must be sunk over twenty-one himdred feet from the mouth of the shaft, 
measured on the slope; We find in this peculiarity as well as in the high tenor of 
gold, a compensation for the small thickness of the vein, which, it should be added, 
has all the characteristics of a true fissure vein, likely to continue Unchanged in 
depth. 

The Shamrock ledge runs parallel with the Norambagua, being southeast of the 
latter about twelve hundred feet ; located in 1860. Two thousand feet in claiffl'. 
Vertical depth reached on vein, about thirty feet, and the ledge worked at various 
points for an entire distance of thirteen hundred feet. About seven hundred 
tons of quartz have been extracted, paying from $14 to $50 per ton ; average pay, 
|26 per ton. Ledge averages about ten inches in width. Owned by John Tierney, 
James Harrigan, Patrick Eeilly, Patrick Hayes, and Anthony Copeland. 

The Perrin ledge, owned by Joseph Perrin and B. F. Colvin, runs parallel with 
the Shamrock, and is now being profitably worked. Water wheel used for pimip- 
ing and hoisting purposes. 

The General Grant, same course as Shamrock, is a narrow vein, but is rich in 
gold. Last crushing, a few weeks since, showed an average jaeld of $50 per ton'. 
Owned by George Little, James Harrigan, and' others. 

Gold Hill Mine. 

This mine is on the hill after which it is named, and the claim calls for one 
thousand feet upon the vein. Tliis mine has been celebrated for the large amount 
of gold which at various times since 1850 it has returned. It has had more than 
its share of the vicissitudes attending gold mining, but its history has not been re- 
corded. At times the quartz has been knit together with gold which seemed to be 
distributed in this portion of the Massachusetts Hill vein in pockets. Those best 
able to know assert that there is a continuous communication in quartz between 
the workings on Massachusetts Hill and Gold Hill, leaving, apparently, no doubt 
of the identity of the vein. Mr. Attwood, who worked the Gold Hill mine for a 
length of time, informed the writer that at times the quartz was completely barren 
or contained less gold than would return the costs of mining in one thousand tons, 
which, without any assignable reason, would again yield an almost fabulous pro- 
duct. Vast sums in " specimens " are known to have been stolen by the miners 
during the run of these bonanzas, in spite of all vigilance. It was this mine that 
supplied the quartz for the so-called Gold Hill mill, memorable and venerable 
among the quartz mills of California. It is a popular belief that Gold Hill, during 
the fourteen years of its history prior to 1865, had returned not less than four 
millions of dollars in gold bullion. From September, 1865, until September, 1866, 
this mine was idle. Since then explorations have been resumed with good unvary- 
ing result. 

This mine is explored by an incUne shaft, which descends south 861" E (magnetic) 



B. GAD S, CORNEE MAIN AND MILL STREETS, GRAES VALLEY. 



GO TO No. 4 MILL STREET, GRASS VALLEY. 



GRASS VALLEY TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 219 



to a depth, on the slope, of three hundred feet. For the first one hundred and forty 
feet this sliaft dips at an angle of forty-five degrees, until it strikes the vein, which 
it follows for one hundred and sixty fuet more at an average dip of twenty-eight 
degrees. There is an adit or drain tunnel at tlie depth of ninety feet from the 
mouth of the shaft. The former explorations of this mine appear to have been 
extremely unsystematic and irregular, producing the impression to an experienced 
eye that tlie ups and downs which have attended it may be, in part at least, charge- 
able to want of skill and good judgment on tlie part of those who worked it. The 
older workings above two hundred and twenty-four feet are mostly filled up or in- 
accessible, and no trustworthy tradition of them are preserved. 

At two hundred and twenty-four feet deptli on the incline is a drift running 
northerly one lumdred and fifty-nine feet from the shaft; at two hundred and thirty- 
five feet dcipth is another drift running south three hundred and seventy-seven feet 
from the shaft ; and at two hundred and eiglity-seven feet is another, south eighty- 
six and a half feet, and north fifty-nine feet. Course of the vein and ore very 
crooked. In the two hundred and twenty-four feet drift north the vein is irregular, 
all the drifts below varying in size from a mere stringer at points near the shaft 
to six feet at one hundred and eight fec!t from it — but 8i)lit into two parts with a 
mass of bedrock between — making an average of about two and a half feet of 
quartz. Over this drift it is believed the ground is mostly unbroken to the surface 
north of one hundred and eiglit feet from the shaft. The end of this drift is pretty 
wet. The two hundred and eighty-seven feet drift north shows stringers of quartz 
having bodies at times of considerable extent, and averaging about fifteen inches, 
the walls of the vein being from five to eight feet apart. Xo stoping has been 
done in this drift, whicli is very M'et. South on the same drift, passing a block of 
twenty-five feet of ground from the shaft, believed to be of no value. The vein 
curves in irregular, mixed \\ith perhapes eighteen inches of quartz, and some 
stoping has been done, averaging twenty inches from the bottom of the vein. 
About twelve feet from the end of this drift, or two himdred and seventy-five feet 
from the shaft, there is a JavJt, called by the miners, a " cross course," beyond 
which there is no vein matter, so far as explored, the hanging wall of the vein 
liaving dropped on the foot wall, which retains its position. This fault is nearly 
northwest and southeast, and dips steeply at about seventy degress. It contains no 
ore, being a mere seam, and the end of the drift is dry. 

The vein in the two hundred and thirty -five feet level south shows some good 
stoping ground, and the vein varies from two to tliree feet in thickness, being, in 
some places, as much as four and a half feet thick and very highly impregnated 
wth sulphurets — as is also the hanging wall for a considerable distance over the 
vein. The vein carries in its wider portions a good deal of rock but is there also 
more highly sulphuretted. 

The tenor of gold in the vein at present is not very high, averaging about |lo. 
The books show that 2,887 tons of ore, crushed from September, 1862, to March, 
1867, gave an average yield of $13 05 per ton, the yield from the indi-vidual crush- 
ings varjnng greatly. 

This mine is fm-nished with an engine, rated at 100-horse power, for pumping, and 
a hoisting engine rated at 25-horse power ; both supplied from the same boiler at a 
consumption of about three and a half cords of wood in twenty-four hours. The 
pump is eight inch to the adit level, above that point to surface it is ten inches. 



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220 GRASS YALLET TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 

Tlie strength of tlie Gold Hill vein and its well known rickaess in former times, 
encourage explorations in depth and extent, with the reasonable expectation that 
the mine will at an early day resume its place as a di^-idend pajing mine. There 
are now reserves standing in the stopes of about eight hundred tons of ore, and it 
is reputed that a considerable amount of good ore remains available also in the 
upper workings, which may swell the reserves to one thousand or twelve hundred 
tons. Meanwhile the incline is being sunk under the present management. 

TJnion HilL 

This h i ll is two miles east of Grass Valley, and is separated from Howard Hill, 
with which it is parallel, by Middle Wolf creek. The Hill was made a matter of 
record Januarj' 30, 1851. The first and chief location on the eastern end of Union 
Hill ledge, was made by Dr. Mcilurtry, David Brooks, G. W. Woodward, and others, 
who afterward purchased several other claims. The company erected a Mexican 
arastra mill, and took out enough rock to defray all expenses. The mine was badly 
managed, as nearly all other mines were at that time. With heavy expenses and 
no experience in quartz mining, the company became involved. Judgments were 
obtained, executions were issued, and the mine was sold on April 6th, 1854, to Dr. 
Wm. McCormick, H. Hannah, and others. But little work was done on the mine 
beyond enough to hold it under the mining laws. Dr. McCormick, in 1865, became 
sole owner, selling interests the same year to Geo. D. Roberts, Thomas Findley and 
John Gashwilder, who are now the owners of the property. The latter part of 
1865 the company put up hoistmg and pumping works, and in the winter of 1868 
sunk an inclined shaft one hundred and ten feet, and during the summer run drifts 
at that depth about seven hundred feet, two hundred feet west and five hundred 
feet east, the lode varying in width from one to six feet, averaging about two and 
one-half feet in width, the rock paying from $12 to $80 per ton by mill process. In 
June and Jtdy of the same year the company built a twenty-stamp mill, which was 
kept running during the day time, from August 1st, the mine not being sufficiently 
opened to run the miU day and night. In September last they started the incline 
and sunk eighty feet deeper, and the tunnels were run on the lode east and west 
about one hundred and fifty feet each way, the rock being richer and the ledge 
■wider— averaging nearly three feet. The company, at this time, were making 
preparations to run the mill day and night. When the severe winter set in they 
were obliged, on account of water and some of the machinery giving way, to 
temporarily abandon the mine about February 1st, 1867, until spring. They have 
now resumed oiaerations at the mine and will run a drain tunnel, connecting with 
the upper level, which will take off all surface water and save the mine from being 
filled with water another winter. The average pitch of the ledge, which runs in 
slate, is at an angle of fifty degrees. The lowest perpendicular depth attained has 
been about one hundred and thirty feet. The company own three thousand feet on 
the ledge, with all its dips, angles and variations ; in addition to which they own 
three hundred square claims ; and they also own Wolf creek, for mining purposes, 
the entire length of their claims. They have on their claims, besides the engine 
for running the mill, one 12-inch engine for pmnpiag and an 8-inch engine for 
hoisting, and two pumps, one eight inch and the other fourteen inch, plunger and 
bucket. The machinery erected and attached to the mine cost about |40,000. The 
proceeds from this mine since starting the mill until work was suspended last 
winter, by water, were $74,413 41. 

BUSINESS SUITS OF THE LATEST STYLE AT B. GAD'S., 



tlXOXS V >urETY STOrtK, FOUH MIT.ES FJIOM NKVADA. 



GHASS VALLEY TOWNSHIP DIRECTOUY. 221 



Near the aummit of Union Hill, and runninff in a northwesterly and sontlieastcrly 
direction, is the mine of the Grass Valley Consolidated Mining Company, now 
solely owned by Col. William O'Connor Sidney. This lode runs in hornblende, 
dippinpr westerly A\'ith an averajje inclination of aljout fifty degrees. The claim 
embraces twenty-five hundred feet on the vein, including, of course, all the dips, 
angles and variations of the lode. This is an early location, and was known at 
ditr.'rent periods as the McUrann, and the Murphy and the Bulger ledge. Colonel 
Sidney purchased the mine in January, 18GG, from George D. Roberts, who had 
bought it from the original owners. A number of years ago the ledge was super- 
ficially worked by its locators, paying from 1^13 to §30 per ton, the rock having 
been crushed at the Gold Hill, the Lady Franklin and Latou & St)n's mills. A 
tunnel was started about seven years since, and was run a distance of five hundred 
and twelve feet, where the vein, wliich was here narrow, was struck at a perpen- 
dicular depth of one hundred and twelve feet from the surface. In October of last 
year, an inclined shaft was started on the summit of the hill, at a distance of about 
five liundred feet northwesterly from the end of the tunnel. 'J'iie incline is twelve 
feet by five in the clear, is splendidly timbered tliroughout, having a double track, 
and affording ample room for a large pump. The shaft pitches at an angle of fifty- 
five degrees, not varying tlie least in the inclination from the head to its present 
terminus, which is about one hundred and eiglity-six feet from the surface. 
At the foot of the incline, where a splendid looking ledge was exposed, 
the water came in with discouraging rapidity, and ha\ing no pumping facil- 
ities, work was temporarily abandoned. That no time should be lost, the labor of 
cleaning out the old tunnel, referred to above, was commenced. The tunnel, as 
already stated, had reached a distance of five hundred and twelve feet, under the 
old ownersliip, when the owners, who, by the way, were poor men and unable to 
thoroughly work the mine, became discouraged. Under the present management 
work was recently resumed at the end of the tunnel, the needed repairs were made, 
and upon putting in the first set of timbers, the ledge, showing a width of ten 
inches and looking very well, was discovered. The vein has been f(jllowed in this 
drift about four hundred feet in a southeasterly direction, the lode increasing in 
width and improving in the character of the ore as the work has progressed. A 
drift, started by the original owners, had been run about one hundred and eighty 
feet in a northwesterly direction from the head of the tunnel, and along this drift 
are several "chutes," from which the crushings already spoken of were taken. 
The northwest drift has been connected with the incline shaft, leaving the vein 
exposed for a distance of about nine hundred feet. The lode for the entire distance 
will average about two feet and one-half in width, sho^^■ing generally a good char- 
acter of quartz, and in the southeast drift is presented an excellent quality of ore, 
strongly resembling the Eureka rock, and strengthening the long accepted belief 
among practical miners that this is really the Eureka vein. The rock in the soutli- 
easit drift is liberally filled with fine sulphurets, a portion of which sulphurets -will 
yield at the rate of $430 to the ton. The vertical depth of the present level will 
not average more than eighty feet. The work of sinking for another level, to a 
depth of one hundred and fifty feet below the present one, was commenced a few 
weeks since, and will probably he completed before this work reaches the public, 
©rifts will of course be run on the lode on this level for the entu-e length of the 
Consolidated Company's claims. A splendid 10-stamp mill, which can be increased 



IF CLOTHINS IS CHEAP ANY WHERE IN THE COUNTY IT IS AT B. GAD'S. 



GO TO DIXON'S FOR MEMORANDUM BOOKS. 



222 GRASS VALLEY TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 

five stamps when occasion requires, and extensive hoisting and pumping machinery 
have been erected within the jiast few mouths at an expense of $20,000. In the 
first level an immense amount of quartz, which could only be roughly estimated at 
thousands upon thousands of tons, is exposed — enough to keep a large, first-class 
quartz mill crushing for years. The second level, when thoroughly opened, will 
undoubtedly reveal another splendid body of quartz. Colonel Sidney has expended 
a large sum of money iu purchasing this mine, erecting machinery, sinking shafts 
and doing what our miners call " dead work," but we believe that he is in posses- 
sion of a first-class quartz mine, which will soon prove itself such. Dan. Collins is 
superintendent of the Grass Valley Consolidated Mining Company. 

The Pike Tunnel Company have one thousand and eight limidred feet on their 
claims. Located in 1862. Tunnel in a distance of one thousand feet, and the lode 
drifted on for one hundred and fifty feet, showing an average two foot ledge in 
Avidth. Incorporated August 4th, 1865. Owned by E. Caldwell, Frank Gr. Beatty 
J. Xewman, Nathan & Hoffman, and others. 

On the same hill are the claims of the Burdett Company, concerning which we 
can candidly say nothing of a favorable character, hence we prefer to dismiss the 
Burdett v/ith the simple remark that it was sold for an enormous sum in the East, 
about two years ago, and the general impression is that the mine sold for every 
dollar it was worth. 

Howard Hill. 

This hill lies opposite Union Hill, on the south of Middle Wolf Creek, the western 
end being but a short distance east of Grass Valley, and it is a gravel, cement and 
quartz deposit. The first mine on the east end of Howard Hill is the Town Talk 
(gravel claim) which has paid handsomely in the past. 

East of this are the Independent claims, which have paid well as gravel diggings, 
and through which runs a quartz lode, on which the Independent Company claims 
two thousand feet. Incorporated December 10th, 1864. Owned by B. Nathan, H. 
Hoiiman, J. Newman, Frank G. Beatty, H. Robitscheck and E. Caldwell. 

Traversing the hill easterly we next come to the Lucky Mining Company's woiks, 
situated on the company's ledge, the Cambridge. This location consists of about 
fifteen hundred and fifty feet. The vein, which was reached through a four hundred 
foot tunnel in 1862, rmis in an northeasterly and southwesterly direction. In 18C5 
an incline shaft was sunk, and hoisting works were erected at a cost of $9,000. In 
1806 a 15-stamp mill was erected at an expense of $13,000. The total amount of 
quartz taken from this mine has been 10,800 tons, and within the past two years 
the mine has turned out ninety-six hundred tons. About forty men are employed 
in the works. The company reduce about seven hundred and eighty tons of ore 
per month, at a monthly expense of $4,500. The inclined shaft, to which we have 
above referred, is down two himdred and seventy-five feet, the vertical depth being 
about two hundred and forty feet. In the lower level the lode averages three and 
a half feet in Avidth. The Lucky is owned by Dr. E. A. Tompkins, D. E. Osbom, 
W. P. Goldsmith, M. Williams, E. Nutall, W. R. Taylor, and Major Topliff, of 
Grass Valley, and H. McCormick, of Nevada. W. R. Taylor, superintendent. 

Adjoining the Lucky on the east is the Cambridge mine, in which the former 
company first discovered their ledge. The Cambridge, this being the name of the 
lode running through both claims, was discovered in 1852. The Cambridge Com- 
pany own sixteen hundred feet on the lode under the quartz laws of Nevada county 



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GRASS VALLEY TOWNFUIP DIRECTORY. 223 



of 1852. Prior to 1865, up to which period this mine was but superficially worked, 
and without the aid of machinery, fifteen hundred tons of quartz were extracted and 
crushed, showinpf an averajje yield of $2'i per ton. The mine was sold to the pres- 
ent owners in February, 1806, at the rate of $."),000 a one-sixteenth interest. Since 
the chanjTc of owners the mine has been systematically and successfnlly worked. 
An inclined shaft has been sunk one hundred feet on the vein, at which point drifts 
Were extended on the lode, easterly and westerly, for a distance of about six hundred 
feet, showin^y an average width of vein of twenty inches. The shaft is now going 
down for another level, one hundred feet deqier than the present one, and at a point 
now reached l)y this shaft, u splendid three-foot ledge shows itself. During the 
past year a substantial 10-stamp mill, together with pumping and hoisting works, 
have been put up at an expense of $22,000. Since December, 18(50, (making allow- 
ance for 8top]>ago by water, in February of the present year,) up to the present, 
about twelve hundred and fifty tons of rock have been taken from the mine. The 
mill is now crushing seventy-five tons of rock per week. The quartz has averaged 
$30 per ton. Lowest vertical depth from which cru.shings have been obtained, 
about one luindred and seventy feet. Working at present forty-seven men in the 
mine and mill. Tlie Caml)ridge Mining Company was incorporated in April, 1807^ 
with a capital stock of !i;2.")0,000, divided into two hundred and fifty-six shares. 
Trustees, D. W. C. Rice. William Blanding, W. IL V. Cronise, W. E. Dean, jNIilton 
Bulkley and W. B. C'ummings. 

The Oxford, consisting of eight hundred feet, and owned by Thomas Loyd and 
others, all of Grass Valley, runs i)arallel with the Cambridge. In these claims a 
tunnel is now jjiercing tlie hill for the lode. 

South of the Cambridge, on the summit of Howard Ilill, is tiie ledge of tlio 
Frankfort Quartz Mining Company, consisting of two thousand feet. Located in 
July, 1802. Lowest perpendicular depth reached on the vein, through a tunnel, 
seventy feet. Now in with another tunnel five hundred and twenty-five feet, which 
will be continued sixty feet further to strike the lode. This will tap the vein at a 
vertical depth of two hundred feet from the surface. About two hundred tons of 
rock have been crushed, including croi)pings, showing an average yield of ,$14 to 
the ton. Work will be vigorously prosecuted in this mine during the present 
season. Owners, J. J. Dorsey, G. D. McLean, J. M. C. Walker, William Hobby and 
Charles T. Duval. 

OpMr Hill. 

This mining locality, one of the most generally known quartz sections in Xevada 
county, lies about one niile east of Grass Valley ; and the principal lode, the OpMr 
Hill, Avhich is now owned by the Empire Mining Company, was located by George 
D. Roberts and others in 1850. The vein runs in greenstone, in a northwesterly 
and southeasterly direction, dipping westerly with an incline of 30 degi'ees. The 
ledge was purchased by Woodbury, Park and others, in 1851, who owned a quartz 
mill where the Sebastopol mill now stands. Ophir Hill j-ielded liberally, but, ow- 
ing to mismanagement, its owners failed in 1852. A short time after, this mine 
was sold at auction to John R. Rush, who bought one-half the concern, the remain- 
ing half being purchased by the Empire Mining Company. They built their first 
mill on Wolf Creek, in the winter of 1851 and '52, a short time before purchasing 
the Ophir Hill mine. Rush sold his interest in the mine for $12,000, to his late 
partners, on May 4th, 1854. The Empire Company worked the mine -with gratify- 
ing success from 1852 to 1864, during which time it jielded over $1,000,000 ; and 

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MUSIC BOOKS. A FULL SUPPLY, AT DIXON'S. 



224 GRASS VALLEY TOWNSHIP DIRECTOEY. 

since it came in possession of the present o%yners, in July, 1864, (-work being com- 
menced by tliem in September 26tli of tlie same yea?,) up to the close of 1806, 
$300,000 was e:!:tracted. In the same year 3,750 tons of quartz were reduced, pro- 
diicing $17.5,000, or an average of $47 per ton. A magnificent thirty-stamp mill 
Avas erected last summer, invoh-ing an outlay of more than $100,000, and $50,000 
additional was expended upon a new shaft, hoisting works, etc. This shaft was 
unfortunately sunk In the T^Tong place, and the development of the mine thereby 
much retarded. Another shaft, sunk in the right place, has now attained a depth 
of four hundred and sixty feet on the incline, and drifts rimning along the lead six 
hundred feet— two hundred and twenty feet northerly from the old shaft, and three 
hundred and eighty feet southerly— connecting ^"ith the new shaft, show a splendid 
reserve of tine ore, the vein averaging three feet wide for the length of the drift. 
The present lowest level is four hundred and sixty feet deep on the incline, giving 
a vertical depth of about two hundred and sixty feet ; and from here a shaft is be- 
ing sunk one hundred feet deeper, to strike another level in the mine. Tlie design 
is to keep sinking tliis shaft, opening other levels from time to time, thus supphing 
large quantities of reserve ore, and consequently increase the working force of this 
immense mine. The new thirty-stamp mill, of wliich we have given a description 
in another department of this book, has been crushing night and day for the past 
two months, reducing ore at the rate of forty tons every twenty-four hours, the 
rock yielding from $44 to $49 per ton. Xotwithstanding the facilities aiforded by 
the reduction works of the Empire Mining Company, which are unquestionably 
the best and most extensive in Xorthern California, the rock is now accumulating 
on the dump-pile, or in plainer language, the mine is daily turning out more quartz 
than the mill can crush. The force of men now employed about the mill and mine 
is one hundred and tliirty. The mine of the Empii-e Mining Company ranks, and 
justly, too, among the first-class quartz mines of Grass Valley townsliip. The com- 
pany own about 1,500 feet on the ledge with its dips, angles and variations. The 
sulphurets pay from $80 to $100 per ton. The owners of this valuable property 
are J. P. Pierce, A. L. Morrison, A. H. Houston and Captain S. W. Lee. 

The Ophir Hill Mining Company's claims, hang north of the Empire Company's 
ground, and adjoining the latter, consist of five ledges, having one thousand feet 
on each in length. The company consists of sixteen shares, which are principally 
OAvned by George M. ISTorton ann Thomas Hardy. A vertical shaft, two hundred 
feet in depth, has been sunk by the present owners, striking the Ophir Hill vein. 
Drifts have been run about three hundred feet on the lode from this shaft, in 
northerly and soutlierly directions. The vein in the drifts averages eighteen inches 
wide, is of blue-ribbon rock, heavily sulphureted, and showing free gold. jSTo 
crushings made at the present writing, but ore is now being extracted for reduction 
purposes. Messrs. Norton and Hardy have expended over $48,000 in opening this 
mine, and will have at least $10,000 more to lay out before the Opliir Hill is thor- 
oughly opened. The mine is in an excellent locality, and we expect before 1867 
closes that the energetic and enterprising owners will be well paid for their invest- 
ment of m.oney and time. 

Adjoining these cla:ims on the north is the Donahue grovoid, which consists of 
eight thousand feet on the Ophir Hill lode. From their claim, which has only been 
superficially worked, and vs-ithout machinery, to a depth of thirty-six feet, over 
$60,000 has been taken out. Owned by Thomas Donahue & Co. 



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GRASS VALLEY TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 225 

In the same neighborhood are a number of square locations, but we have found 
it difficult, impossible even, to obtain anv reliable data of Ophir Hill beyond what 
is given above. 

Hneston Hill 

Lies about midway between Ophir and Osboru Hills, being on the same range ^vith 
these well known quartz localities. Ilueston Hill, named after thellueston Broth- 
ers, was located by Messrs. Stackhouse, Montgomery, the Hueston Brothers, and 
others, on December 14th, 1853. It was worked to the water level, pajing well 
from the year of its discovery up to 1855. E. L. Tuttle, now of Grass Valley, 
purchased the mine in 1859, and in 1861 he sold to John Trenberth and others, who 
soon afterward erected machinery on it. William Clift and the Smith Brothers 
bought a one-third interest in tlie Hueston Ilill in 1803. The exi)l()rations on the 
mine were shallow up to 1861, from which iH-riod the new owners began to go deep 
on the vein, their labor being rewarded by rich returns of gold bullion. The lode, 
of which the Ilueston Hill Company own twenty-eight hundred feet, runs in hard 
blue slate, is small, not averaging over eight inches in width, but is exceedingly 
rich. The course of the vein is northerly and southerly, ^^^th a westerly dip ot 
about thirty-five degrees. A depth of three hundred feet on the incline has been 
reached, in which level drifts have been run about five hundred and fifty feet. The 
vein Ix-ing narrow, and the i-ncasing rock very hard, the cost of extracting and 
reducing the ore amounts to about $45 p»;r ton, notwithstanding which the com- 
pany, in 1860, erected new hoisting works at an expense of !fe30,000, besides dividing 
about $60,000 among the members of the company. Since June, 1864, up to the 
present writing, (April, 1867,) the Hueston Hill mine has jielded upward of 
$500,000. In the lower level, ore worth from $160 to $170 is now exposed. "Work 
ing sixty men. The Hueston Hill Company has had several tilts at litigation, but 
has be^n victorious in each case. The Hueston Hill is justly included among the 
first-class mines of this district. It is OAvned by Robert and John Smith, S. D. 
Bosworth, the Colemau Brothers, and S. W. Lee, of Grass Valley, and A. H. Hous- 
ton, of San Francisco. 

North of Hueston Hill is the Madison Hill ledge, consisting of eight hundred 
feet, and owned by Rush & Laton. "Worked but superficially, yet the quartz ex- 
tracted, amounting to about one thousand tons, showed a gross yield of $80,000, or 
average peld per ton of $80. 

Osborn Hill. 

Osborn Hill, which lies about two miles southeast of Grass Valley, may be de- 
scribed as an immense spur or mountain ridge running north and south, being 
parallel with Wolf Creek, and covering an area of about one mile square. Through 
it run a number of quartz veins, the principal one of wMch is the Osborn Hill, 
located in 1851. The lode has been traced farther, perhaps, than any other in this 
district, preserving its characteristics through a distance of nearly two miles in 
length. The Osborn Hill mine proper has turned out as much moifey in proportion 
to explorations made on it as any of our quartz mines — paj-ing almost fabulously 
for years wlien the quartz interest of this section was considered on the wane — but 
we have been unable to obtain any reliable figures as to its gross yield. It was 
B2 

FULL SUITS OF CLOTHING, FROM $1& TO $75, AT B. GAD'S. 



FANCY DRESSING CASKS AT DIXON'S. 



226 GRASS VALLEY TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 

tolerably well opened in 1853, from wMch period up to 1857 it annually brought 
its owners large returns. But bad management ran tbe company in debt, tbere 
was a want of harmony among the managers, costly machinery had been erected, 
the mine became mortgaged, and in June, 1864, it was sold to Joseph Woodworth. 
The new proprietors erected a splendid mill on the mine in 1865, which, together 
with other improvements, cost $34,000. The ground has been extensively tun- 
neled, shafts have been sunk on the lode, but the mine has not even to this day 
been well opened. The lowest perpendicular depth reached on the vein by an in- 
clined shaft has been four hundred feet, giving a vertical depth of about two hundred 
feet, at which depth a drift was run one hundred and seventy-five feet, showing a 
lode of an average v.'idth of two feet, and of a good quality of quartz. The Osborn 
Hill Company own two thousand feet, according to the locations of 1852, on the 
lode, which runs in a northerly and southerly direction, with an average inclination 
westerly of forty degrees. Woodworth sold the mine, a few mouths since, to 
Robert and John Smith, Campbell & Stoddard, S. W. Lee, W. H. Hooper, and 
others, who will doubtless soon work it to good advantage. 

North of the Osborn Hill mine is the " Wheal Betsy," being on the Osborn Hill 
vein, and consisting of five himdred feet. This mine was purchased about six years 
since for $9,000. Several thousand tons of ore have been extracted at a compara- 
tively superficial depth, showing an average yield of $40 per ton, some of the 
quartz reacliing the high figure of $90 per ton. Hoisting and pumping machinery 
on the mine. Owned by John Byers, S. W. Lee and A. H. Houston. 

The Orleans claims, owned by the Smith Brothers, Edward Xorthy and others, 
lie north of the Betsy, and are in good repute, although not extensively Avorked at 
present. 

On the summit of Osborn- Hill are the claims of the Wide Awake Company, em- 
bracing four hundred feet. Four himdred tons of ore from this mine have yielded 
$26,000. On the mine there is an engine, also a pump, as well as an inclined shaft 
two hundred and seventy-five feet in depth, running with the ledge at an angle of 
forty-five degrees. The ore is of a bluish color, and is rich in sulphurets and galena. 
The vein has varied in width from four inches to four feet, and at the bottom of the 
incline it is five feet in width. Jlacliinery put on in 1859. Owners, A. Salaman, 
B. McCauley, D. Watt and J. Brown. 

On Osborn Hill proper are a number of other claims, including the McCauley and 

Lee, Greenhorn, Alleghany, Jeflferson, Lafayette, Cariboo, Daisy, etc., all of which 

have been more or less worked, several of them being regarded as full of promise. 

The Redan, owned by Dewey, Robinson & Co., is on Redan Flat, Ipng at the 

eastern base of Osborn Hill. 

The Sebastopol ledge runs parallel with the Osborn Hill, lying several hundred 
feet east of the latter. This mine, owned by the Watt Brothers, Mrs. Ellen Con 
noUy and Ben. McCauley, was worked for several years quite profitably, and would 
probably be worked at the present time were not its principal owners engaged in 
other extensive yiining enterprises. 

Before proceeding to the next division of this part of Grass Valley township, we 
will inform the reader that in the vicinity of Osborn and Opliir Hills are a number 
of other quartz veins, including the Lawrence Hill, Prescott Hill, Franklin Hill, 
Daisy Hill, and countless others. 



WHO KEEPS THE GRJ5AT CLOTHING KMPORIUM, CORNER OP 






PH TOORAPII ALBUMS AT DIXON'S. 



GRASS VALLEY TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 227 



South Osborn Hill. 

Following is a brief account of mines on the Colfax road from Grass Valley, 
running parallel '>\-itli the West sides of Ophir and Osborn Hills : 

Ontario Mining Company — On Smith's ranch, one mile south of Grass Valley. 
Located in 1864 ; length of claims, twelve hundred feet : ave'rage size of ledge, 
fifteen inches. Owned by W. K. Spencer, Dr. McCormick and Reuben Leech. 
Located on the west side of the Colfax road. 

Ori-KANs Ledge — Was located in 18.58. Length of claims, thirteen hundred 
feet ; average size of ledge, eighteen inches. Several tons crushed yielded $15 per 
ton. Situated on the west side of the Ontario Mining Company. 

Fairpi.ay Mining Company — Formerly owned by Julius Fricot, is an early lo- 
cation ; now owned l)y the New York Hill Mining Company. Several thousand 
tons of ore worked at a i)rofit to water level. 

CuES.\PKAKE Company— Is a southern extension of the Fairplay. Size of claim, 
twelve hundred feet ; hjcated in 1865. Several tons of ore worked at a profit to water 
level. Size of ledge, six feet. 

The Diamond Ledge — Located in 1865 ; size of claims, one thousand feet ; steam 
engine and pum[) at work. Work progressing favorably. 

Utah Mining CVjmpany — Located in 1858 ; size of chvims, eighteen hundred feet; 
several tons of rock crushed ; contains a long drain timnel, steam engine and pump. 
Owned by Nathan & llottinan, and others. 

Baton Rouge Ledge — Located in 1806 - size of claims, sixteen himdred feet ; 
average width of vein, one foot. Prospects rich. 

State of M.\inb Company — Is a north extension of the Galena claims ; size of 
ground, one thousand feet ; located in 1805. 

(Jalkna Company — Adjoinintr claims to the lone ; located in 1856. Size of claim 
eight hundred feet ; ])artially worked to the depth of ninety leet ; several thousand 
tons of rock mined. Now owntnl by the Watt Brothers. 

The Ione Mining Company. — The lone ledge is a tolerably early location, dating 
back some teu years ; was formerly owned by the Empire Mining Company, and 
sold with the Ophir Mine to Messrs. Lee & Co., in July, 1865. Captain Lee sold the 
lone ledge to Messrs. Curtis & Hunt, for $10,000. A vertical shaft was sunk in 
August, 1805, and the vein struck at a depth of one hundred and forty feet, and 
several thousand tons of ore were crushed, averaging $20 per ton, the vein varj-ing 
trom one to five feet. In March, 1866, a 10-stamp, first-class mill was erected, and 
an inclined shaft sunk at the bottom of the downright shaft to the depth of one 
hundi-ed and sixty-five feet, carrying a body of ore tliree feet thick. The mine is 
now ownied by Messrs. Sloss & Co., of San Francisco. 

The Union Jack Compajsy — Is the first southerly extension of the lone ; was 
located in January, 1865. Size of claims, sixteen himdred feet ; Avorked profitably 
to water level, twenty-one feet ; one thousand tons of ore crushed ; ledge averaged 
four feet ; Avas sold in April, 1860, for $50,000. The ledge is at present being 
mined to the depth of eighty feet, shoAAing a continuous strong vein. Rock is now 
being crushed at the lone mill, at a profit. Its present owners are Castle Brothers, 
Sloss & Co., and C. Felton, of San Francisco, and Judge Sykes, of Grass Valley. 

MAIN and mill fcTREEXS, GRASS VALLJfiY ? B. UAD. 



FANCY STAtlONERY AT DlXON'S, 



228 GRASS VALLEY TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 

Railroad Mining Company — Is the south extension of the Union Jack ; located 
in 1865 ; size of claims, one thousand feet ; hut little work done — onlj' sufficient >to 
hold the claims according* to the laws of the county. 

Presque Mining Company — Is situated on Le Bar's ranch, south of the Railroad 
Company, Size of claim, one thousand feet ; was located in 1853, and has heen 
mined to water level— a depth of thirty feet from the surface ; carries a well defined 
ledge of one foot thick, and is pitching east into Osborn Hill. The last crushing 
paid $49 per ton. 

Extending farther south, to the southern boundary line of Nevada county, are 
veins or quartz lodes without number, some of which have been but superficially 
worked, while in others even the croppings have not been disturbed, and all these 
appeal eloquently to capital and labor. 

The Ben. Frankmn — An early location, is on South Massachusetts Hill, the 
lode running northeasterly and southwesterly, dipping westerly at an average angle 
of forty-five degrees. This mine was formerly owned by the Empire Mining Com- 
pany, who, from 1855 to 1857, according to the company's books, extracted 
$75,371 83 in gold bullion. It was purchased by George D, Roberts, who, in May, 
1866, sold four-fifths of the mine to W, H. Bivens, W. H. Howland, W. H. Graves 
and 0. F. Giffin, Roberts retaining the other fifth interest. The money taken out 
by the Empire Company ($75,871 83) was mined out without the aid of machinery, 
the hoisting being done with mndlass. During the past year, under the superin- 
tendency of Mr. Bivens, a tunnel has beeji driven six hundred feet, leaving about 
one hundred feet to be run before the lode is tapped. Tlie lowest vertical depth 
attained on the mine has been but seventy-five feet. The rein, on Avhich the com- 
pany own twenty-two hundred feet, varies in width from ten inches to four feet. 
The last ore extracted, taken from the old works, paid $90 a ton. Machinery will 
probably be erected on the lode dui-ing the present season, and a systematic and 
extensive development of the mine may be expected diiring 1867. 

Adjoining this mine on the north is another Ben, Franklin, a later location, and 
on the same vein. It has yielded well in the past, is now being explored on con- 
tract, and promises to give a good return. Owned by Michael Casey and others. 

The Washington Company's claims, which are also in this neighborhood, have 
been satisfactorily prospected during the past and the present years, and the owners 
have every reason to be satisfied with the result. Owned by Michael Colbert, 
Martin Ford, Dan. Collins & Co, 

Lone Jack. 

This mine, on Missouri Flat, about one mile south of Grass Valley, was located 
in 1855. In 1856 the lode was reached by a tunnel at a depth of fifty feet from the 
surface. It was purchased from the locators in 1857, by Lee and Simpson, who, in 
the following year, erected machinery on it. In the same year, 1858, it was incor- 
porated under the name of the " Wisconsin Gold Mining Company," becoming a 
portion of the " Forest Springs Quartz Mining and Lumber Company." The 
Lone Jack was not included in the sale of the Xorambagua, made a few months 
since, but is now principally owned by C. T. Wheeler, of Sacramento, one of the 
former members of the Forest Springs Company. It has been explored to a vertical 
depth of aboiit three hundred feet, or six hundred and twenty five feet on an in- 

AN IMJMENSJ!! STOCK OF CLOTHING— WaKRli ? AT B. GAD'S GREAT 



DIXOX'S VAUIKTY STOilE. No. ■* MILL STREET, GRASS VALLEY. 



GRASS VALLEY TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 229 



cllned shaft, whero the lode averarres ei{?hteen inches wide. A small engine. 
25-hor8e power, was found insufficient to perform hoisting labor, being able only to 
do the pumping of the mine ; and work has been temporarily abandoned, to be re- 
sumed when heavier machinery is erected on the mine. The Lone .Jack is under 
the management of A. H. Murdock. A crushing of thirteen hundred tons of rock, 
made in 18G3, paid at the rate of $62 per ton ; and the gross yield of the Tione Jack 
up to the present time has been upward of $500,000. 

Greenhorn District. 

This district lies about five miles east of Grass Valley, on the right bank of 
Greenhorn Crtu'k. There arc; quite a number of largt; and prominent ledges 
in this district, the principal one being the Monroe, probably more generally known 
as the Grirenhorn lode. Located in 186L The Monroe was worked for silver, 
assaying largely, but returning meagcrly. In fact, it has been hinted that a liberal 
supply of silver half dollars came into requisition in forming a Greenhorn silver 
brick, but this is evidently an invention of the evil-minded, and we give the report 
without indorsing it. The claims adjoining the Monroe — Greenhorn proper — were 
worked for gold, one hundred tons of (piartz yielding $6,000. None of the owners 
being practical miners, the claims were leased to A ughey Brothers, who commenced 
a tunnel, and sunk an incline forty feet from the bottom of the tunnel, taking ont 
a cxmsiderable (juautity of gold. It is in contemplation to erect machinery on this 
mine during the present season. The country is virgin forest, is well supplied 
with water, presents excellent mill privileges, and offers rare inducements to capi- 
tal and labor. The Greenhorn lodes lie south of the celebrated Banner mine, 
which is in Nevada township, the Banner and Greenhorn Districts being separated 
from each other by a cement and gravel hill. 

General Mention of Mines. 

Below we notice briefly, and with less order and regularity than would be shown 
were we not now crowded for time, a number of quartz ledges in this township, 
some of which have been explored with gratifying success, Avhile others have 
yielded prospects such as to warrant their owners in investing liberally in money 
and labor to develop them : 

The Bowery claims, on Lafayette Hill, consist of thirteen hundred feet, were 
located in 1864, the lode running parallel with the North Star Company's, being 
seven hundred feet north of the latter. The owners are erecting hoisting works 
on the Bowery, and intend to thoroughly explore the mine through an incline 
shaft, which has reaphed a depth of over one hundred feet. Vein averages twenty 
inches in width. A crushing of three hundred tons of ore showed an average yield 
of $15 per ton. Owners of the Bowery, Childers, McGuire, Blodgett, and others. 

The Inkerman, on the same hill, is a modern location, (1864,) is near the North 
Star, and is favorably regarded by quartz men. Claim consists of thirteen hundred 
feet. Worked through a vertical shaft to a dei)th of sixty feet, and also pierced by 
a tunnel, opening the mine for a length of four hundred feet, showing a well de- 
fined vein of an average width of twelve inches. The Inkerman, which will soon 
be extensively worked, has turned out some beautiful specimens. The Inkerman 
is owned by Joseph Clark, William K. Spencer, A. W. Campbell, W. H. Bailey, Dr. 
W. G. Miliar, M. W. Eoss, C. C. Smith, L. Childesr, of Grass Valley, and H. P. 
Jones, of San Francisco. 



CLOTIUNO EMPORIUM, CORNER MAIN AND MILL STREETS, GRASS VALLEY. 



PAPER COLLARS AT tlXON'S!. 



230 GRASS VALLEY TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 



The La Crosse mine, situated in Rhode Island Ravine, was located in April, 
1866. An inclined shaft was snnk to the depth of twenty feet, showing a splendid 
lode of free gold and being rich in sulphiirets. Had to abandon the working of 
the claims on account of too great a volume of water issuing from the vein. The 
claims embrace fourteen hundred feet, and run in a northeasterly and southwesterly 
direction. The owners are Wm. K. Spencer, Samuel Lock, H. J. Paine, M. Perru- 
sich, J. H. McCrory, S. W. Gamble, Isom Smith and Thomas Cassin. The company 
have recently incorporated tinder the name of La Crosse Mining Company, with a 
capital stock of $140,000, di\*ided into fourteen hundred shares of $100 each. The 
company have entered into articles of agreement with San Francisco parties to put 
up pumping and hoisting machinery on the claims, to be running by the first of 
July, 1867. 

The Diamond Company's claims, located on the southwest side of Osborn Hill, 
and consisting of one thousand feet, were relocated by the Norton Brothers in 1866. 
Discovered in 1859, when some prosjiecting Avae done, but operations were suspen- 
ded on account of the mine becoming filled vritli water. A drain tunnel was run a 
distance of three hundred feet, striking the lode at a depth of sixty feet ; forty tens 
of quartz, extracted from this tunnel, paid, at the rate of $22 per ton. Encouraged 
by this yield, the owners last season put up machinery at an expense of $6,000, 
purchasing the machinery — from the Watt Brothers— formerly used on the Galena 
mine. An inclined shaft is now being simk, showing a splendid vein two feet 
Avide,the quartz being well filled with free gold. The owners contemplate erecting 
a 10-stamp quartz mill as soon as the mine is well opened. The members of this 
company are persevering, practical miners, who do all their own work, and the 
prospect is good for giving them a good return for their investment of time, mo^iey 
and labor. Members of the Diamond Company are, John Norton, "William Norton, 
Reuben Norton, H. H. Rollins, Silas Wliiting, E. Richer, — Power, and William 
Noble. 

The Homeward Bound, located in 1854, is the south extension of the Lone Jack, 
and the claims embrace eleven hundred feet. Not develo]ied below forty-five feet 
from the surface, where a well defined lode of two feet in width shows itself. The 
Homeward Bound is in an excellent quartz range, and as an evidence of the high 
favor in which it is held by experienced quartz men, we mention the fact that its 
recent owners, A. D. Tuttle, C. C. Smith, M. W. Ross, W. H. Bailey, C. C. Townsend 
and Albei-t. Shepherd, have made a conditional sale of the mine to D. B. Himt, late 
of the lone, for $15,000. Hunt is to open the Homeward Bound as soon as ma- 
chinery can be got on the ground and erected. 

The Golden Rock Mining Company's claims, consisting of oiie thousand feet, are 
situated about one-fourth of a mile north of the village of Forest Springs, on the 
range between the lone and the Norambagua mines. Almost $2,000 worth of work 
has been performed on this mine. Explorations have been made on the lode to a 
depth of eighty feet, showing $30 ore, the vein at this deirth being about three feet 
wide. Machinery to be erected this season. Owned by A. H. Murdock, P. H. Bro- 
gan, and a party of San Franciscans, the latter being owners by purchase. 

The King Bee ledge, situated near the head of French Ravine, two miles 
southward from Grass Valley, was located in 1864, and embraces twenty -five him- 
dred feet on the ledge, running northerly and southerly. This is a large sulphuret 
vein. At a depth of sixty feet, the ledge is three feet thick and solid, between good 



BOYS SUITS, AJ<D XJNDKR-CLOTHIKG, ALL SIZKS, AT B. GAD'S. 



LADIES WORK BOXKS AT DIXON'S. 



GRASS VALLEY TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 231 



walls ; the rock is very seamy, and may be denominated ribbon rock. The princi- 
pal owners are Wm. K. Spencer, Thomas Loyd, M. P. O'Connor and E. R. West. 
The company intend puttino- up pumping and hoisting works during the present 
year. 

The Pacific Company's claims, Dromedary ledge, are on Wolf Creek, in the town 
of Grass Valley. Paid well formerly, but are not being worked at present. 

Union Company No. 2, consisting of twelve himdred -feet, adjoining the original 
Union Hill. A shaft is now being sunk to strike the vein, and arrangements are 
being madi; to put up machinery. Owned by Joseph Reed, C. M. Willard, G. A. 
Jordan and Con. Murphy. 

Tlie Badger Hill lode is half a mile east of Grass Valley. Located in 1853. Has 
paid syjlendidly at times, but has never been extensively explored. The lode is 
" spotted," and has yielded an immense amount of the richest of gold specimens. 
Owned by E. C. Webster, P. J. Brogan, Lind Brothers, A. Morehouse, B. Nathan 
and others. 

The (lood Ilojje Com])any's ledge, on Rhode Island Ravine, a short distance from 
Grass Valley, on tlie west, was located in 18G1. It lies onivfourth of a mile north 
of Gold Hill, and the ojjinion obtains that it is an extension of the Gold Hill. 
Several crushiugs have becin obtained from the Good Hope, which have yielded 
from $2.") to $30 ptn- ton. Owned by a company of Germans, consisting of F. 
Schrakamp, J. Brunenum, and others. 

The Cincinnati Hill claims are located about one mile southwest of the town, 
embracing twenty-six hundred feet on the lode. Leased to William Chollar, John 
Bennett & Co,, who are running a drain tunnel. Are taking out ^40 rock. 

Th(! Narragansett Company's mine, owned by Thomas Hardy, E. V. Hathaway, 
II. B. Potter, of San Francisco, and II. Woodcock, of Grass Valley, lies directly 
west of Kate Hayes Hill, Purchased, a few months since, from Fred. Jones. Hoist- 
ing works erected on the mine this season at a cost of $13,000. 

Hope Company's claims, thirteen hundred feet, situated on Echo Hill, and owned 
by William Beal, R. Simonds, E. JeflTery and R. Sampson. Will be thoroughly 
prospected this summer. Last crushing of Hope rock showed a result of $25 per 
ton. 



CONCLUDING REMARKS. 

Before concluding this department of the Directory, the compiler feels it incum- 
bent on him to offer a few Avords of explanation to the readers and friends of the 
work. The history of the Grass Valley mines, which, if given in detail, Avould fill 
a volume much larger than Bean's Histoky of Nevada County, have been 
collected and written at intervals stolen from pressing business, and our mining 
sketches have been necessarily condensed, partly from a want of time to elaborate 
on om- wonderful mineral greatness, and partly in consideration of Mr. Bean, whose 
volume already contains more reading matter than is usually given in a business 
directory, and more than is profitable to furnish. The compiler is aware that all 
the mines of Grass Wiley Township are not mentioned in these pages, but the 
fault is not Ms. An efibrt was made to get' a history of every mine in this district ; 
invitations were extended to quartz men through the columns of the local press, as 
well as through other channels, and a majority of our quartz operators cheerfully 



B. GAD ALWAYS KEEPS THE BEST BOOTS AND SHOES. 



GIFT ANNUALS AT DIXON'S, 



232 GRASS VALLEY TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 

answered tlie in%-itations, and gave such, information as tliey possessed, while oth- 
ers, either through ignorance or some selfish motive, preferred reticence in regard 
to their mines. The object of giving a mining history of Grass Valjey Township 
was to let people abroad know something of our real quartz wealth, and not to 
distort facts, or "write up " mines for speculation ; and this object has been, as far 
as our personal knowledge extends, honestly carried out. The mines not included 
in our histories were probably not worth mentioning, and perhaps it is better that 
composition was saved by ha\ang them left out. In the followng able article, by 
Professor Silliman, three of our principal mines, the Eureka, North Star and Alli- 
son Ranch, are treated scientifically and practically ; and the careful reader 'VAdll 
probably detect some discrepancies between the Professor's article and our briefer 
sketches of these mines, which were written before Professor Silliman's manuscript 
reached us, or before we were aware that he intended to contribute a paper to this 
work. In justice to Professor Silleman, we here publish the fact that he personally 
examined the mines alluded to, made his examinations carefully and correctly, and 
liis article, which was submitted to experienced qiiartz men. of this place, is correct 
in every particular. W. S. B. 



B. GAD'S IS THE PLACE TO FIT YOURSEL? WITH FINE CLOTHING. 



VIRGINIA TOBACCO, AT DIXON'S. 



NOTES ON THE GRASS VALLEY DISTRICT. 



BY PROFESSOR BENJAMIN SILLIMAX. 



Its Character and Productiveness, 

Tliis ]>laco has olrtaincd a wcjll-oarnod celebrity as the most prosperous of all tlic 
<;ol(l (luartz niinin<i; distriets in Calitbrnia. Quartz niiniu<r was begun here as early 
as 1850, and has been continued on tlie Avhole, with a steadily increasing success, to 
thv. ])r(!sent time. 

It is difficult to obtain exact statistics of tlic total ])roduct of the Grass Valley 
quartz mines, but it is believed by tluwe best able to form a trustworthy o[)inion on 
this subject, that the product in 18GG was prolxibly not less than $3,000,000, wliilo 
for the whole period from 1851 — say fourteen years — it was probably in excess of 
$23,000,000. 

Wm. Ashburner, Esq., in his reniarks on the gold mining interests of California, 
in J. Ross Brown's Report on the Resources of the States and Territories west of the 
Rocky Mountains, sjieaks of the Grass Valley region (page 46) thus : 

When we consider the richness of the veins, the length of time some of the mines 
have been worked, and the amount of gold annually produced, the most important 
(]uartz mining region of California is, without any doubt, that of Grass Valley, in 
Ni^vada county. Here mines have been worked uninterruptedly since 1851. It is 
true there have been pc^riods when the interest was more than usually depressed, 
and several of the mines, which are now regarded as among the best, were thought 
to be exhausted and were abandoned for the time being, but in many instances 
where work was resumed new bodies of gold-bearing quartz were opened up, whiclx 
])roved rich and valuable. The veins in this district, and particularly those which 
have been most productive, are noted for their narrowness, as well as for the rich- 
ness of the quartz. They are encased in a hard metamorphic rock, and the expenses 
of mining are, as a general thing, higher here than any where else in California, 
amounting as they do in some instances, to from $30 to $36 per ton. Within the 
last fourteen years the total production from the quartz mines of Grass Valley 
District has been not far from $33,000,000. The most prolific vein has been that 
situated upon Massachusetts and Gold Hills, which alone has produced more than 
$7,000,000 worth of gold during this time from a lode which mil average only a 
foot or fourteen inches in A^ddth. 

General Geological Character of the Grass Valley District. 

The gold bearing rocks at this place are mostly highly metamorphic schists or 
sandstones passing into diorite or greenstone syenite. These greenstones seemingly 
crystalline, are probably ouly highly altered sedimentary rocks, containing a large 
amount of protoxide of iron with sulphuret of iron. In some parts of the district. 



FULL SUITS OP CLOTHING, FROM $10 TO $75, AT B. GAD'S. 



WOODS' PAPER COLLARS, AT DIXON'S. 



234 GRASS VALLEY TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 

slaty rocks occur, more or less talcose or claloritic in character, masses of seriDentine 
also aboimd, forming at times one wall of tlie quartz veins. This serpentine is 
probably metamorpliic of the magnesian rocks last named. The red soil, seen 
almost eA'erywhere in the Grass Valley district, has its origin from the peroxidation 
of the iron contained in the greenstones and diorites, and set at liberty by its de- 
composition. 

The line of contact between the gold-bearing and metamorjihic rocks of Grass 
Valley and the granites of the Sierra Xevada is met on the road to the town of 
Nevada, about a half mile before coming to Deer Creek. The talcose and chloritic 
slates are seen to the north, in the direction of the Peck lode, and in the slate dis- 
tricts of Deer Creek. 

The dip and strike of the rocks in the Grass Valley region is seen to vary greatly 
in diflFerent parts of the district. Following the course of Wolf creek, a tributary 
of Bear river, it will be observed that the valley of this stream — which is Grass 
Valley — as well as of its principal branches, follows in the main the line or strike 
of the rocks. In the absence of an accurate map of the region, it may not be 
easy to make this statement evident. But all who are familiar "VAdth the chief mines 
of this district, will recall the fact, that the course of the veins in the Forest Springs 
location, at the southern extremity of the district, is nearly north and south — N, 
about 20° E — with a very flat dip to the east, while at the Eureka mine, on Eureka 
Hill, about four miles to the northward, the course of the vein is nearly east and 
west with a dip to the south of about seventy-eight degrees. Again, commencing 
at North Gold Hill and folloAving the course of the famous vein which bears the 
names of Gold Hill, Massachusetts Hill and New York Hill, we find the veins con- 
forming essentially to the southerly course of the stream with an easterly dip. The 
North Star, on Weimar HilL, has likewise the same general direction of dip. Near 
Miller's ravine, at El Dorado mill. Wolf creek makes a sudden bend to the left, or 
east, leaving the Lone Jack, Illinois, Wisconsin and Allison Ranch mines to the 
west. All these last named mines are found to possess a westerly dip, shomng the 
existence of a synclinal axis running between the base of New York Hill and the 
mines having westerly dips last named, along wliich probably the veins mil, if 
explored in depth, be found "in basin." The dip at Lone Jack is aboiit 30 W., at 
Allison Ranch it is about 45° west. Just below the Allison Ranch mine. Wolf creek 
again makes a sharp turn to the left, nearly at a right-angle, and then resumes its 
former course Avith the same abruptness. A mile lower down, where it strikes the 
Forest Springs locations, we find the Norambagua inclosed in syenitic rocks, dipping 
at a very low angle to the east ; a dip seen also at still less angle in the Shamrock, 
yet further south. There is probably a saddle or anticlinal axis below the Allison 
Ranch mine, due to the elevation of the syenitic mass, which it seems probable sets 
in at the sharp bend in the stream, before alluded to, and where the ravine trail 
joins it. The stream probably runs pretty nearly in the basin of the synclinal. 

The rocks on the east side of Wolf creek, and above Forest Springs locations, dip 
westerly. Such is the case at Kate Hayes and Tvath the veins on Osborn Hill. The 
middle branch of the creek sweeps around to the east, forms its junction with the 
north fork, and the veins explored there near its npper waters, as at Union Hill, the 
Burdett grotmd, Murphy vein, Lucky and Cambridge, all dip southwest or south, 
conformably to the Idaho and Eureka, and at a pretty high angle. The Eureka 
vein going Avest faults in the Whiting ground, and having previously become al- 

AN IMMENSE STOCK OF CLOTHING— WHERE ? AT B. GAD'S GREAT 



LADIES WORK BOXRS, AT DIXON'S. 



GRASS VALLEY TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 235 



most vertical has, wo»t of the fault, a noiihm-ly dip at a high angle. At the Coe 
ground, this northerly dip is also found at an angle of about 50°. At Cincinnati 
Hill the vein dips southcrlj-, in a direction exactly opposite to that of the North 
Star, there being a valley between the two, and a saddle or anticlinal between 
Cincinnati and Massachusetts Hills. 

These facts, wliich by a more detailed statement could be easily multiplied, seem 
to warrant the conclusion that the cour.se and dip of the Grass Valley veins is es- 
pecially conformable to that of the rocks, and that the streams have, in general, 
excavated their vani^^s in a like conformalde manner. 

Of the Gold-Bearing Veins of Grass Valley. 

The quartz veins of Gra.ss Vullf-y I)istrict are not generally large. Two feet is 
probably a full average thickness, while some of the most productive, and those 
which have given, from the first, a high reputation to this region, have not aver- 
aged over a foot or pos.sibly eiglitcou inches in thickness. There are some exceed- 
ingly rich veins which vn\l hardly avi-rage four inches in thickness, and which 
have yet been worked at a pnjfit, while at the same time there ai-e veins like the 
Eureka whicli have averaged three feet in thickness, and the Union Hill vein over 
four feet. The Grass Valley veins are often, perhaps usually, imbedded in the 
inclosing rocks, with seldom a fluccan or clay selvage or jiarting, although this is 
sometimes found on one or both walls. The walls of the fissures and the contact 
faces of the veins are often seen to be beautifully iwlishod and striated. 

The veins are, as a rule, highly mineralized, crystalline and affording the most un- 
mistakable evidence of an origin from solution in Avatcr, and aff )rd not the least 
evidence of an igneous origin. Calcedonic cavities and agatized structure are very 
conspicuous features in many of the best characterized and most productive of the 
gold-bearing veins of this district. These indisputable evidences of an aqueous 
origin arc seen in Massachusetts Hill, Ophir Hill, Allison Ranch, Kate Hayes and 
Eureka. 

The mdallic contents of the Grass Valley veins vary extremely, some carry but 
very little or no visible gold or sulphurets, although the gold tenor is found in 
working in mill to be satisfactory, and the sulphurets appear on concentrating 
the sands from crushing. This is the case in the Lucky and and Cambridge mines, 
for example. But in most cases, the veins of this district abound in sulphurets, 
chiefly of iron, copper aad lead, the suli)hureted contents varying greatly in the 
same vein — zinc and arsenic are found also, but more rarely. The most noted ex- 
ample of arsenical sulphurets being in the Xorambagua and on Heuston Hill ; lead 
abounds in the Union Hill lodes, (as galena,) and the same metal is found associated 
with the yellow copper in parts of the Eureka mine. The gold, when visible, is 
very commonly seen to be associated with, the sulphurets — this was particularly the 
case in Massachusetts Hill, wliile in Rocky Bar and Scadden Flat, on the same vein, 
the gold is found sometimes in beautiful crj'stalized masses, binding together the 
quartz and almost destitute of sulphurets. Mr. William Watt informs me that in 
working some seventy thousand tons of rock from Massachusetts Hill vein, the 
average tenor of gold was about $80 ; but at times this vein was almost barren, 
while again the gold was found in it so abundantly, especially where it was thin, 
that it had to be cut out with chisels. It is matter of notoriety that in the Gold 
Hill vein (continuation of the vein in Massachusetts Hill) portions of the lode were 

CLOTUING EMPORIUM, CORNER MAIN AND MILL STREETS, GRASS VALLEY. 



BEAUTIFULLY DRES3KD DOLLS, AT DIXON'S. 



236 GKASS VALLEY TOWNSHIP DIRECTOEY. 

so liiglily cliarg^ed with gold that tlie amount sequestered by the miners in a single 
year exceeded $50,000. On the otlier hand, in the Cambridge and Lucky mines, 
ha\dng a tenor of about $35 to $60 gold to the ton, the precious metal is seldom 
visible. In the Eureka, where the average tenor of gold in 1866 was $50 per ton, 
it seldom exhibited what may be called a " specimen " of gold. 

The structure of the veins in Grass Valley varies, in different portions of the dis- 
trict, especially in respect to the distribution of the pyrites and of portions of the 
adjacent walls. On Eureka Hill, the veins possess a laminated structure parallel 
to the walls, enclosing portions of the diorite or talcose rocks, forming closm-es or 
joints in which the vein splits easily. On these surfaces of cleavage minute scales 
of gold may often be detected by close inspection. The sulphurets are also seen to 
be arranged in bands or lines parallel to the walls. In many other cases, this kind 
of structm-e is found to be wholly absent, while the sulphurets and gold appear to 
follow no regular mode of distribtition. In a few mines the sulphurets are arranged 
very distinctly in bands or zones, parallel to the walls, forming " ribbon quartz." 
This is especially distinct in the Korambagua, where, as before mentioned, the sul- 
l^hurets are arsenical, and the gold very finely disseminated. 

The average tenor of the gold in the Grass Valley veins is believed to be considera- 
bly in excess of what is found in most other portions of California. In Allison 
Ranch, Massachusetts Hill, Eocky Bar, Ophir Hill, and Eureka, this average has 
probably reached $50 to the ton. In many other mines it has been considerably 
less, but on the whole, $30 may not be far from the general average tenor of the 
whole district; meaning, of course, the amount actually saved by milling ope- 
rations. 

The loss of gold is very various, but is probably nearly always greater than owners 
are willing to confess, if indeed they know, which is doubtful. It is certain, in 
one well known mine, my own samples of quartz sands, and sulphurets from 
" pans," assayed respectively $23 and $57 per ton — a result which was later con- 
firmed by the researches of another very competent mining engineer, quite inde- 
pendently. In other cases, as at Eureka and Norambagua, my own researches 
show the loss in the tailings to be very small, not exceeding seven dollars to the 
ton in the latter and less than that in the fonner. 

The gold in many of the Grass Valley mines is very easily worked, being clean, an- 
gular and not very small, hence it is readily entangled in the fibre of blankets, 
together with a considerable portion of sulphurets, naturally leading to the method 
most commonly in use in Grass Valley for treatment of the gold ores. 

The Grass Valley Method of Amalgamation. — What may properly be called the 
" Grass Valley mode " consists in the use of heavy stamps, seven hundred or a 
thousand pounds, crushing usually two tons, sometimes two and a half tons of ore 
each in twenty-four hours— through screens not exceeding No. 6, rarely so fine. 
Amalgamating in battery and copper aprons are usually united. In some mills, 
murcurial riffles are placed in front of the discharge, biit more commonly the whole 
body of crushed stuff is led at once over blankets, wliich are washed out every few 
minutes into tanks where the free gold and sulphurets are allowed to collect pre- 
paratory to being passed through the " Attwood amalgamators." These simple 

B. GAD'S IS THE PLACE TO FIT YOUKSEL? WITH FINE CLOTHING. 



I 



DIXON'S VARIETY STOUT), NO. 4, MILL ST 



GRASS VALLEY TOWNSTHP DIRECTORY. 



237 



iiiachiiics are designed to briufr the gold into tlioroiiglx contact with mnrcnry con- 
tained in littlo vats svmk in tlie siirl'acu of an inclined table, over which the stuff 
is fed to the vats in a regulated manner by a stream of water, while iron blades 
slowly revolve in the vats to cause a mixture of the sands and quicksilver. By this 
apparatus, at tbp Eureka mill ninety per cent, of ail the gold is obtained which is 
saved from the Are. Beyond tlic; amalgamators, the sands are carried over amal- 
gamatic copper sluices, and arc i)ut through various ore-saving processes with a 
vi(!W especially to concentrating the sulphurets. These processes vary much in 
dlllerent mines. In some mills, especially the Ophir, much more elaborate me- 
chanical ap\)aratus has lately been introduced — with what results still remains to 
be seen. It is certain that if the method of treatment jitst sketched seems imper- 
fect, (as it undoubtedly is,) it is the method wliicli has hitherto yielded the large 
returns of gold for which (Jrass Valley has obtained its well-deserved renown. As 
tlie d(!velopment of the district goes forward, cases will occur of veins c(jntaining 
gold in a state of very fine division, to which other methods of treatnu-nt must be 
applied. Such examples indeed alrtwly .exist, and the; problems which they offer 
will be met by the use of other systems of amalgamation — or by suitable modifica- 
tions of the existing system. 

Value of the Sulpluirets. — The sulphurets occurring in the Grass Valley District 
are usually rich in gold — sonic of them remarkably so. In quantity they probably 
do not on an average amount to over one per cent, of the mass of the ores, although 
in certain mines they are found more abundantly. For a long time there was no 
better mode known of treating them thau the wasteful one of grinding them in 
pans and amalgamating. In this way rarely was sixty per cent, of the gold tenor 
saved. After many abortive efforts, at length complete success has been met with 
in the use of Plattner's chlorination process. INIr. Deetken, now connected with 
the reduction works of the Eureka mine, is entitled to the credit of having over, 
come the difficulties which formerly prevented the successful use of this process 
in Grass Valley, a more detailed description of which will be found in our notice 
of the Eureka mine. 

Lcmjth aud Depth of rrodudh-e 0)C Ground.— OH the leng-th of the productive 
portion of quartz veins and the depth at wliich they commence to become produc- 
tive. Grass Valley offers some instructive examples : 

The North Star vein, on Weimar Hill, has been i>roved productive on a stretch 
of about one thousand feet, while the tenor of gold has gradually increased with 
the depth, from an average of twenty dollars in the upper levels to nearly double 
that in the lower levels. The limits named are rather those of exploration than 
the known extent of the productive ore. In the vein on Massachusetts aud Gold 
Hills, on the contrary, the distributi(m of the " pay " has been found much more 
capricious, being at times extremely rich and again with no apparent reason yield- 
ing scarcely tlie cost of milling. The Eureka mine offers the most remarkable 
example, however, of a steady increase from a non-paying tenor of gold near the 
outcrop to one of uncommon productiveness. An opinion has found advocates, and 
has been perhaps generally accepted by most writers on the subject of gold-bearing 
quartz veins, that they were richest near surface and in depth became gradually 
poorer. There is nothing in the nature of the case, as it seems to me, to justify 
such a generalization, more than there is to sustain an opposite opinion. If we 



BOYS SUITS, AND UNDER-CLOTHING, ALL SIZES, AT B. GADS. 



PORTFOLIOS, AT DIXON'S. 



238 GRASS VALLEY TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 

accept facts as a guide, we find in California that the deepest mines, for example, 
Haj'ward's Eureka, in Amador, 1,200 feet, Xortla Star, 750 feet on tlie slope,Princeton, 
in Mariposa county, 800 feet. Eureka (Grass Valley) 400 feet, Allison Ranch, 525 
feet, etc., as a riile have had an increasing tenor of gold. If the Allison Ranch, the 
Princeton mine, and some others ajjpear to be exceptions, the answer is, we may 
reasonably expect the same variations of productiveness in depth which are known 
to exist in linear extent. The Princeton, after an excellent riui of good ore, be- 
came suddenly poor, at a depth of over six hundred feet, in 1865 ; but I am informed 
by Mr. Hall, the i^resent superintendent, that the good ore came in'agaiu in a short 
distance. Mr. Laur, the French engineer, whose pajiers of California mines is 
often quoted, cites the Allison Ranch mine in e\idence of the theory of a decreasing 
tenor of gold in depth, but it is in proof that since the date of Mr. Laur's A-isit 
(1863-3), this mine has been at work on ores which have yielded over one hundred 
dollars value, its present suspended acti-\-ity being due to causes quite unconnected 
with the intrinsic value of the mine. The rich " chimneys," or productive zones of 
ore ground, are kno^vn to be of various extent in c[uartz veins, from a few feet to 
many hundreds of feet, and it is impossible to assign any valid reason why we may 
not expect the same changes in a vertical direction which we find in a horizontal. 
As the ore-bearing ground or shoots of ore have in many, if not in most cases, a 
well-determined pitch off the vertical, it is self^vident that a vertical shaft, or in- 
cline at right angles to the vein must, in descending, pass out of the rich into poor 
ground, at certain inter\'als, and it is j)erhaps due to an ignorance of this fact that 
miners have abandoned sinking because they found the " j)ay " suddenly cease in 
depth, when a short distance more would probably bring them into another zone 
of good ore. The experience of every gold mining district offers examples in illus. 
tration of these remarks. In quartz veins containing a considerable amount of 
sulphurets, it is evident that the out-croppmgs should offer much better returns 
to mining industry than will follow after the line of atmosi)heric decomposition 
has been passed, because above this line nature has set free the gold formerly en- 
tangled in the sulphurets, leading it available for the common modes of treat- 
ment, with the added advantage often times that the particles of free gold formerly 
distributed through a considerable section of the vein, are found concentrated in a 
limited amount of ore. It is easy to reach the conclusion in such cases, that the 
tenor of gold in the vein is less in depth, after the real average tenor is reached, 
while in fact it is neither greater nor less ; but the metal is no longer available by 
common methods of treatment. 



Not wishing to extend these general considerations to an undue length, let us turn 
our attention to a very limited number of the most characteristic and successful 
Grass Valley mines. It will not be considered invidious if we confine our attention 
specially to the Eureka, North Star and Allison Ranch mines, acknowledged by all 
to be, at present, perhaps the most important mines in this district. JWassachusetts 
Hill rests on its past history, but it is is to be hoped that all the separate owner- 
ships on that hill may at no distant day be consolidated, when systematic work 
with reference to the best exploration of the whole lode can be resumed with the 
expectation that it may again become as i^roductive as in former years. The mines 
of the Ophir Company are also worthy of honorable mention, and are said to be 
rapidly coming to the front rank. 



WHO KEEPS TUE GREAT CLOTHING EMPORIUM, CORNER 0*' 



PARLOR GAMKP, FULL SUPPLY AT DIXON'S. 



GRASS VALLEY TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 239 

The Eureka Mine. 

nisi07-lcaL— From, tlie date of its location, February 7, 1857, to the close of 1858, 
this mine proved only a source of expense to its owners, and its liistory is instruc- 
tive as sufrprestinp: that shallow surface explorations, in gold mining, may be as 
unsatisfactory as they are known to be in other mininir enterprises. So late as 
1858, it is said, that five thousand tons of quartz taken from above the drain level, 
or tliirty feet from the surface, yielded in mill li'ss than ten dollars per ton in 
gold, not returning expenses. A shaft sunk to a depth of about fifty feet afforded 
quartz, however, which yielded about fifteen dollars per ton, and its tenor of gold 
rapidly increased to twenty-eight dollars at one hundred feet. Between the one 
hundred and two hundred feet levels the average yield was about thirty-seven dol- 
lars per ton, and between the two hundred and three hundred feet levels the aver- 
age has been aboiit fifty dollars per ton, rising to sixty-four dollars in the last four 
months of 180G. 

Description of the Mine. — This mine is distant about one and a fourth miles from 
the town of Grass Valley, and is opened on a vein Avhich runs nearly east and 
west, dipping south at an angle of about seventy-eight degrees. The vein varies 
from a few inches in thickut-ss to nearly six feet, and over the whole extent of some 
seven hundred feet wliich has been worked the average is nearly three feet. It is 
opened by a vertical shaft which cuts the vein at three hundred and seventeen feet 
from surface, and then follows the pitch of the vein to the fourth level four hun- 
dred feet from surface. There is a ladder way, independent of the shaft, following 
the inclination of the vein, for the use of the miners in ascending and descending 
the mine. A new shaft, five by twenty feet, is now being raised from the third level to 
surface, on the slope of the vein, and one hundred and seventy feet west of the hoist- 
ing shaft, designed to explore the mine to a great depth. It will have four com- 
partments — one for pumjis and pit work, one for a bucket and two for safety cages, 
adapted to hoisting tram wagons of ore, and for the accommodation of the miners 
in reaching and ascending from their work. All the hoist-ways will be actuated 
by a powerful hoisting engine, with reels and flat steel ropes for the cages, making 
it the most completely furnished mine in the gold regions of California. The mine 
is not wet, nearly all the water coming in at the upper levels, while in the 
lowest level no pump has yet been required. This new shaft, it is expected, will 
be ready for work in the autumn of this year (1867), after which more active explo- 
rations, both in depth and extent, will be possible than the present limited hoist- 
ing capacity of the mine will permit. 

Xature of the Vein. — There are in fact two distinct veins in the Eureka mine, 
separated from each other by a mass of greenstone or metamorphic sandstone, about 
twenty-eight or thii-ty feet in tliickuess. The smaller of these A-eins is on the South 
and has not been explored, but is a Avell-defined vein at the points where the shaft 
and cross cuts have exposed it. The greenstone forms the hanging wall of the 
main vein, and is particularly regular and smooth, in some places beautifully pol- 
ished. The foot wall consists in some parts of soft serpentine, and when the vein 
pinches it appears to be from swelling of the foot wall. No other mine in this 
region has such a structure as the Eureka, so far as I know, and there is very much 
in the peculiarities here described to favor the highest confidence in the perma- 
nence of this great ore channel, both in depth and extent. 



MAIN AND MILL STREETS, GRASS A'ALLEY ? B. GAD. 



BLA.>:K hooks, full supply at DIXON'S, 



240 GRASS VALLEY TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 

Extent of Exploration. — Tlie extent of exploration on tlie tliree litmdred and sev- 
enteen feet level is over eight Imndred and tliirty feet, viz : west of tire lioisting 
Bliaft three hundred and eiglity-five feet, and east of the same point four hundred 
and forty-seven feet, and the ore still holds good. The whole of this distance was 
not found equally productive, beirig divided into two niaiii ore bodies or chimneys, 
■ndth about one hundred and twenty feet of grou.nd between them, with a tenor of 
gold of about twenty dollars to the ton. Xear both the tlu-ee hundred and seven- 
teen and four hundred feet levels a " horse " of slate or greenstone, (" cab " of the 
miners,) Avas found in the body of the vein splitting it into two parts, but of limited 
extent. The vein stone carries, as its characteristic feature, seams of slate matter, 
giving a structure somewhat laminated, the mass splitting more easily in these 
lines. The snlphurets of iron, copper and lead, which are found in the Eureka 
.vein, are also often arranged in ribbon-like order, and form probably about two 
per cent, of its mass. The amount actually saved by concentration from the tail- 
ings and in milling, is about one and one-fourth of the whole mass worked. 

Product of the 3l'ine Under Present Ou-?;er.s/ii^).— Early in October, I860, Messrs. 
Fricot & Co., the former owners, sold the Eureka mine to its present owners for 
^'400,000, which simi was increissed to about $500,000 by st;bsequent purchases. 
The x^ropert^v is held in twenty shares, the market value of which has steadOy in- 
creased imder the able administration of the Messrs. Watt Brothers, in whose 
hands all details of management have been Avisely left. 

By the books of Messrs. Hentsch & Berton, the bankers of the Eureka mine, I 
find the bullion received by them from this mine, from October 25, I860, to April 
17, 1867, amoimted to $825,936 15, to which properly belongs the value of a cer- 
tain accumiilation of sulphurets, still on hand, estimated to be worth' in round 
numbers $10,000 ; and the month of April being estimated at a total of $50,000, we 
shall have the grand total in roimd numbers, for nineteen months, of $885,000. 
Deducting the month of October, 1865, when but little work was done, we find the 
monthly average for the eighteen months, to May 2d,no be $47,000 ; the largest 
monthly return in any one month being in June, 1866, $65,841 39, without the 
sulphurets, which would make the aggregate for that month over $70,000. The 
monthly expenses have averaged about $16,000, including all costs of machinery, 
supplies, and permanent improvements. 

Progressive Increase in Gold Yield.— It is interesting to analyze a little more in 
detail the returns of this mine, as illustrating a point already alluded to, viz— its 
progressive increase of gold tenor with an increase of depth. 

From October, 1865, to December 31, 1865, the quantity of quartz crushed was 
twenty-four hundred and forty-five tons, pelding an average of $33 87 per ton, and 
costing to mine and reduce $13 51. 

From January 1st to June 1, 1866, the crushing Avas forty-seven htmdred and 
three tons, averaging $42 67 per ton, at a cost of $12 52 per ton. 

From June 1st to September 30, 1866, the amount of quartz crushed Avas forty- 
two hundred twenty-seven and three-fouiths tons, giA-ing an average A-ield of 
$60 33 per ton, at a cost of $15 78 per ton. 

For the whole year ending September 30, 1866, the total crushing was eleven 
thousand, three hundred and seventy-five and three-fourths tons, yielding a general 
average per ton of $47 15, at a mean cost per ton of $13 75. 



B. GAD ALWAYS KEEPS TUB BEST BOOTS AND SHOES. 



GUITAR AND VIOLIN STRINGS AT DIXON'S. 



GRASS VALLEY TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 241 

The net profits for the year ending September 30, 1866, were $368,042 18. The 
ratio of costs of mining to the gross product was, for the three periods named 
above, respectively, 40i, 29^ and 26^ per centum. In the mining costs are included 
all charges for dead work, machinery, etc. The profits of the Eureka mine have, 
therefore, for the period named, averaged in round numbers from sixty to seventy- 
four per cent, of the gross product of the mine. The earnings of the mine are di- 
vided every twenty-eight days, making thirteen annual di\-idends. 

The bullion of the Eureka mine is about 8o0-thousandths fine, worth $17 57 per 
ounce. This value is, of course, slightly variable, say within five-thousandths. 

The Eureka Mill. 

The mill on the Eureka mine was built by Fricot & Co., in 1864, at a cost of about 
$30,000. It has twenty stamps, weighing eight hundred and fifty jiounds each, 
and making sixty blows each minute, crusliing two tons daily to each stamp, or 
about one thousand tons of quartz per month. The mill is driven by an engine of 
sufficient power to carry forty stamps. The mortars weigh forty-five himdred 
pounds each, and are provided Avith a frame for holding the screens in place, the 
invention of Mr. W. W. Boston, the engineer and designer of the mill. 

Amnhjamation, — The system of amalgamation in use at the Eureka mine has al- 
ready been sketched in its main features. The screens used on the batteries are, 
if of i)erforated iron, number five, giving one hundred and forty-foiu- holes to the 
square inch. If brass wivo cloth is employed, it is number forty mesh, giving 1,600 
openings to the S(piare inch. As no mercury is used in the batteries wire cloth 
may be, and is often employed \\\t\\ advantage. Two stamps deliver to one apron, 
with a supplemental one to aid in changing the blankets, which are constantly 
washed out into tanks to collect the sulphurets and free gold caiiglit by the blank- 
ets. The blanket sands are found to contain ninety per cent, of all the gold wluch 
is saved by the mill. These sands are treated in three of AtwOod's amalgamators, 
and the " skimmings " from these are groimd in two of Knox"s pans. The sands 
from the amalgamators are passed over Himtcr's Eureka Rubber, a table pro%-ided 
with oscillating rubbers suspended over an amalgamated copper surface, and with 
mercurial riffles, and designed to catch particles of amalgam that might otherwise 
escape. These machines eflect a small additional saving of gold, and are approved 
by Mr. Watt. The muddy water, from all sources, runs over a considerable extent 
of copper plates amalgamated. The labor required to manage tliis mill is, for each 
period of twentj'-four hours, as follows : Rock-breakers, four ; feeders of stamps, 
four ; washers of blankets, four ; engineers, two ; amalgamator, one. Total, nine- 
teen men. 

Sulphurets. — The sulphurets are concentrated chiefly by hand, with rockers and 
sluices, and after the mine abandons them are worked on shares by ore dressers or 
tributers, who employ cliiefly the Cornish methods. 

The treatment of the sulphurets has been attended vnih. better results at this 
mine than at any other in California, so far as I am informed, by the use of Platt- 
ner's chlorination process. This department is imder the direction of Mr. G. F. 
Deetken, who has introduced uuportant improvements in its management, enabling 
him to obtain results very closely approaching the actual value of gold present. 

Plattner^s Process. — Tliis process depends on the fact that metallic gold is die- 

D2 

B,.GAD ADWAXS KEEPS THB BEST BOOT§ AND" SH.OES, 



GIFT ANNUALS AT DIXON'S. 



242 GRASS YALLEY TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 

solved by moist cUopine gas, wliile the metallic oxides or chlorides with which it 
is associated in the roasted ore, are mostly luiacted upon. In using this process, 
the concentrated sulphui-ets containing gold are first roasted " dead " on the hearth 
of a rererberatorj' furnace, which for a charge of one ton of sulphtirets has an area 
of about one hundred and forty square feet, the dome rising about twenty-five 
inches over the heai-th. The charge of sulphurets is delivered tlirough an open- 
ing in the top of the dome, where a hopper receives them from a tram wagon. 
From the time of charging to the completion of the roasting and the arrival of an- 
other charge on the hearth is twenty-four hours. The labor reqxured is that of 
two roasters, or furnace men, one laborer to tm'n and handle the exhausted ores, 
and one superintendent. The materials consumed are, for each ton of ore roasted, 
ten pounds of manganese oxide, foiirteen pounds of common salt, and the equiva- 
lent of sulphuric acid. The fuel required for roasting is from one cord or less of 
dry wood in dry Aveatlier to over two cords if the wood and atmosphere are damp. 
A small proportion of salt is used on the hearth with the roasting ore. A dust 
chamber is placed between the furnace hearth and the chimney to catch the parti- 
cles of ore carried over by the draft. The roasted charge is moistened after it is 
sufficiently cool, and is then transferred to a large wooden tub-shaped vat, capable 
of holding the product of roasting of three tons of suljDhurets. This vessel is y>vo- 
vided with a false bottom leaA^ing a small void space for the introduction of the gas. 
The roasted ore is supported on a bed of quartz sand, or tailings, and is sifted in 
gradually and evenly, care being had that it is neither too dry nor too moist. The 
gas is started as soon as a few inches of ore are in the vat, the ore being added as 
the gas follows, imtil the vessel is filled to within a few inches of the top, when a 
wooden top is luted on with flour paste or dough, and the dose of chlorine gas is 
kept up for about eight hours. Each ton of sulphurets yields about fourteen hun- 
dred and fifty pounds of the roasted ore. The chlorine is produced from the ac- 
tion of oil of -vitriol (sulphuric acid) on common salt in j^resence of i)eroxide of 
manganese, in a leaden vessel set over a small furnace. This apparatus is provided 
with means of agitating the charge during the process, to avoid caking and the 
melting of the lead. The gas is carried by a lead pipe to an opening left in the 
lower part of the vat, being washed on its way by water. When the time men- 
tioned has expired, the vessel is permitted to remain until the next morning, when 
the cover being removed, spring water is suffered to pass through the mass of 
oxides as long as it washes out any chloride of gold. This solution is conducted to 
another Avooden vat set at a lower level. The first solution which comes over is 
colored quite strongly yellow with chloride of gold, and so long as the solution, as 
tested from time to time with a solution of green vitriol, produces therewith the 
well known greenish-blue color and cloudiness of precipitated gold, the washing 
is continued. A freshly prepared solution of green -s-itriol — proto-sulphate of iron 
— ^is then permitted to flow into the lower vat until all the gold is precipitated, 
which settles as a snuff"-brown powder on the bottom of the vat, and is finally col- 
lected on a paper filter and washed Avith water until all traces of the iron solution 
are washed out of it, when its color is blue black, giving an excellent illustration 
of the change of color in metals due to difterences in their physical condition. It is 
then fused with borax, and gives an ingot of 992 to 996|^-thousandths fine. A small 
trace of gold yet remains in the efiete mass of metallic oxides, which is saved by 
cansingthis waste material to flow with a stream of w^ater over an inclined plane 



WHO KEEPS THE GREAT CLOTHING EMPORIUM , CORNER OF 



RUBBEa NECK-TIES AT DIXON'S. 



GRASS VALLEY TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 



243 



covered with, mercurialized copper plates. Tlio proportion thus saved is not over 
two dollars per ton of sulphids, and results from particles of gold haAaug a sensible 
size and wliicli the chlorine had not dissolved. The sulphids of the Eureka mine 
run from $350 to .$425 per ton in gold. The silver, amounting to ten or twelve 
dollars per ton, is lost by the Plattner process, as it is in quantity too small to 
justify the use of strong brine to Siive it from the waste as might be done, if it 
were worth while . 

The cost of the whole process, including the salary of the superintendent, does 
not exccK'd twenty dollars jx-r ton of the sulphiirets treated. With only a single 
furnace the chlorination at the Eureka mine is conducted but twice a week, three 
days' roasting going into one day's chlorination. If the work was conducted on a 
somewhat larger scale the cost Avould be a little less. It is believed that the chlo- 
rination ])rocess as now' conducted will prove of innneuse benefit to the gold mines 
of California, among which there are many having abundant auriferous sulphurets, 
from which only a very snuill proportion of the gold is saved by the mechanical 
methods commonly in use. Great credit is due to Mr. Deetken for his skill in 
bringing this process to its present perfection, a result which has cost much labor 
and a prolonged and varied experience.-. 

Jfoshciiner's Fanidcc. — It is proper to state in this connection that Mr. Joseph 
Mosheimer, ol San Francisco, a well known metallurgist, has introduced a form of 
reverberatory furnace for preparing ores for the Plattner chlorination in which the 
charge of ore is distributed on ten or more shelves, or tile terraces, set in the 
upright shaft over the furnace, one fourth only (500 pounds) of the charge being on 
the hearth or sole of the furnace at one time, for live or six hours ; the portion on 
the shelves being nu-antime exposed to a constantly diminishing heat to the top 
one, over which is a ho])per containing the amount of one charge. When the ore 
on the hearth is finished and withdrawn, its place is supplied by those portions 
next the fire which are already partly desulphurized. The advantages claimed for 
this furnace are a more perfect roasting, as a stoker can rake five or six hundred 
pounds more faithfully than he can a ton ; while there is less risk of fusing the ore 
by exposing it raw to a high temperature, and also that the work is accomplished 
with an important saving of fuel.. This furnace is about to be tried on a consider- 
able scale (six tons daily) on tlie arsenical ores of Kern river. 

Jfr. Edward Kent's method of salt roasting, for gold and silver ores, also deserves 
mention in this connection. Tlie ground (jre, which should not contain over twenty 
or twenty-five per cent, of sulphurets, is mingled with three per cent, of common 
salt and made into l)ricks of the ordinary size, without the addition of clay or any 
other substance than salt. When air-di'ied, these are calcined in a kiln fired by 
wood, very moderately, the combustion of the sulphur in presence of aii- and salt 
carrying the bricks up to a dull red heat, the end of the operation being known 
when this color ceases. These bricks, in the few trials I have made, I find to be 
perfectly desulphurized, and not vitrified. They can be amalgamated by any of the 
usual forms of amalgamating apparatus, or they can be treated by chlorine. In 
the latter case they would require to be run tlu-ough rolls like a Cornish crusher 
or sugar mill, but they do not require grinding. This process has worked well 
with me in a small way — is economical and easily managed, and deserves a trial 
on a large scale. 

MAIN AND MILL STKEET5, GRASS VALLEY ? B. GAD. 



GO TO DIXON'S VABIETY STORE, NO. 4 MILL STREET, GRASS VALLEY. 



244 GRASS VALLEY TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 

Conclusion — Its Future. — The unexplored ground in tlie Etireka mine, above the 
400-feet level is as great in extent west as the portion already explored, and there 
is good reason to believe that it will be found productive throughoiit a large part 
of its extent. In depth, we really knoAV nothing beyond the level of four hundred 
feet ; but in view of the magnitude of the fisstu-e between the two outer walls of 
serpentine and slates and the combination of all the essential features of a perma- 
nent vein, there are reasons of the most substantial character for expecting this 
vein to hold in depth to any extent to which we may be able to follow it. 

The North Star Mine. 

This mine is situated on Lafayette Hill, and the company also own locations on 
Weimar Hill, adjoining and south of the former. The North Star vein has an east 
and west course, with a dip of about twenty-three degrees to the north. This is, 
beyond doubt, one of the most valuable mines in Grass Valley, or in California. It 
has been worked since 1851, with the usual ups and downs of early quartz enter- 
prises, first by a party of Frenchmen, as the " Helvetia and Lafayette Company." 
It changed hands in 1855, and again in 1857 was purchased under a forced sale for 
the nominal sum of $15,000, at which time it passed into the hands of the present 
company, and its style was changed to the name it now bears, the " North Star 
Company." Under the present management, the mine has been developed in the 
most skillful manner, and offers a case quite too rare in American mining, of a mine 
with vast reserves of ore opened up and standing ready for extraction. The amount 
of these reserves is believed to be not less than thirty thousand tons, worth in the 
aggregate probably $900,000. This mine is opened by an incline shaft sunk on 
the course of the vein to a depth of nearly seven hundred feet, which is about two 
hundred and seventy feet vertical. It is opened by seven levels, and the vein 
varies in tliickness from a few inches to four or five feet, with an average of about 
two feet. The explorations in the fifth level extend about seven hundred feet east 
of the shaft, the pay rock extending as far as explorations have gone. The total 
known extent of the pay has already been stated to be about one thousand feet. The 
lower level has been driven about five hundred and fifty feet east of the shaft ; above 
the three lower levels the ground is virgin to surface, and but little has been extracted 
from the two next the bottom. The ore is raised by tram wagons on the incline, 
with a wire rope. The vein is enclosed in greenstone. A new vertical hoisting 
and ventilation shaft has been sunk eight hundred feet east of the incline, by aid 
of which the mine can be exposed at points now completely virgin, and which it is 
believed may be as valuable as any ground yet opened. This shaft was set to cut 
the mine on the level of the fourth gallery. The shoots of ore in this gTound have 
an easterly pitch. The ore has had a gradually increasing tenor of gold, from 
about $20 in the upper levels to abovit $40 in the lower. It is the policy of the 
excellent administration of this mine to keep the works of exploration well in ad- 
vance and to hold great reserves of ore. With this view, the incline shaft is sinking 
for another level, while the vertical shaft just named explores a portion of the mine 
hitherto unknown. The company own twenty-one hundred feet upon the course 
of the lode. It is encouraging to find a mine thus worked Avith an eye to the 
future, while at the same time the OAvners have drawn ample returns from its cur- 
rent crushings. Since 1861, the date of the present Avell earned prosperity of this 
mine, the net returns for four years were, in round numbers, $500,000, about one- 



AN IMMENSE STOCK OF CLOTHING— WHERE ? AT B. GAD'S GREAT 



- 



CHESS MEN, A LARGE SDPPLT, AT DIXON'S. 



GRASS VALLEY TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 



245 



fourth of which was expended in permanent improvements on the property, of 
which the drain tuzmel, half a mile lon^?, was the most considerable item, and a 
new mill of sixteen stamps, new hoisting and pumping' works. About $375,000 
of the net savings were returned to the owners in dividends, and this considerable 
sum was obtained from the use of a mill of only six stamps, during 1862-63, and 
subsequently enlarged to nine stamps. The returns for the year 1866 were $315,000, 
derived from the crushing of six thousand tons of ore. The ores of this mine are 
considerably «ulphuretted, but the value of the sulphurets in gold is understood to 
be much less than in the Eureka mina The North Star possesses no chlorination 
works, but dress their tailings by hand rockers for sale. The ores show free gold, 
often in very fine masses, implanted in beautiful quartz, which resembles that of 
the Rocky Bar and Massachusetts Hill, 

The preseat mill, of sixteen stamps, erected in 1866, has a capacity of crushing 
about two tons to the stamp daily. The amalgamation employed is the usual 
Grass Valley system, already described. Every thing about this mine speaks of 
economy, thrift and the wise management of resident owners, all of whom take an 
active part in the management, thus reducing the cost of superintendence and 
ensuring success. For a long time the active superintendent was Mr. W. H. Rodda^ 
now of the Norambagua ; its administrator at present is Mr. Edward Coleman. 

The water in this mine is very light, a supply for the use of the amalgamation 
works being derived from a neighboring ditch company. This circumstance, as 
well as the low angle of the dip of the vein, favors very greatly the economy of 
development of the North Star to a great depth. 

Allison Eanch Mine. 

This mine, the situation of which, on the west side of Wolf Creek, about three 
miles below the town of Grass Valley, has already been alluded to, has obtained 
probably a more wide-spread fame than any other gold mine in California. The 
vein was discovered in 1851, by one of the present owners, in the bed of the creek, 
while washing for gold. The quartz was so rich in gold near the surface that it 
furnished all the means required to fully explore the mine and erect the mill. 
The first crushing — about one and a half tons — is said to have yielded $375 per 
ton, and the upper portion of the vein was undoubtedly extremely rich. The 
records of the Gold Hill mill show that in 1855 one lot of eighteen tons of ore from 
this mine yielded over $333 per ton, and another lot of sixty-two tons yielded over 
$370 per ton. It is, however, worthy of remark that this vein runs in the valley 
of Wolf Creek, and has been subject to the same degradation which has cut away 
the valley, so that the actual surface was very much below the original surface, as 
it is now seen in the hill south of the mine, on what is called the " southern ex- 
tension." It is also true that this mine has again and again encountered rich 
bodies of ore with poorer ground between, yielding at times over $100 per ton and 
again hardly paying expenses. On the whole, it is in proof, from a careful exami- 
nation of the records of the mine, that the yield has averaged about $50 per ton. 
The gross yield of the mine since 1855 has been, in round numbers, $2,300,000, of 
which one million was produced in the three years ending with 1865. In the year 
1866 the product was under $200,000. It has always been a costly mine to wot\, 
partly because at times the vein was small and the enclosing syenite hard, but 
quite as much, perhaps, from injudicious management in not keeping the work of 
explorations well in advance of the immediate wants of the mine. It is generally 



CLOTHING BMPORIXIM, CORNEE MAIN AND MILL STREETS^ GRASS VALLEY. 



CHESS BOARDS AT DIXON'S. 



246 GRASS VALLEY TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 



understood that there has been a want of systematic exploration. The mine was 
idle from flooding with water from December, 1861, to May, 1862, and it has been 
idle again from January, 1867, to the present time — May, 1867. It is a wet mine, 
and is provided with powerful pumping machinery. The current expenses of the 
mine in 1865 were stated at $500 per day, the force of men employed averaging, 
since 1856, one hundred and fifty. 

This mine is opened to a depth of over five hundred feet, and the vein in the 
lower level is said to be of good size and productive. The present suspension of 
work in the mine is understood to have been dpe to a want of good understanding 
among the owners, and that work is to be resumed at an early day. 

The mill on this mine is of the old Cornish model, twelve heavy stamps, (1,000 lbs) 
square heads with wooden lifters, crushing about thirty tons of ore daily. The 
blanket system of treatment has been followed, and that the saving of gold was 
net very good may be inferred from the fact that the mill has been profitably 
engaged in working over the accumulated mass of tailings, since the suspension 
of work in the mine. When work is resumed it is imderstood that an improved 
method of treatment will be adopted. 

. There is a large amount of unexplored ground in the Allison Ranch mine. It 
for a long time deserved the reputation of being the richest gold mine in Califor- 
nia, but there are now several others which have won for themselves the distinction 
ofexcelling it in product of bullion ; but it is believed that a judicious and energetic 
development may cause it to challenge again its fomier fame. 



B. GAD'S IS THE PLACE TO FIT YOURSELF WITH FINK CLOTHINU. 



SHEET MUSIC AT DIXON'S. 



GRASS VALLEY TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 247 



SULPHiraET REDUCTION WORKS. 

Quite a number of establishments have been erected in Grass Valley township 
for the reduction of sulphurete by the chlorinizing process. The most extensive as 
well as most successful of these are the Metallugical Works of Hill & Farnham, 
erected in 18()2, and situated a quarter of a mile east of town. This was the first 
(establishment of the kind erected in the township, and situated convenient to the 
best mines, and the owners beinpr enorf2:ctic business men, they have built np a 
hir/jfe and profitai)le l)usiness. Since the works were started they have reduced 
1 ,350 tons of sulphurcts, mostly from the ]!s orth Star and Rocky Bar mines. The 
North Star sulphitrets have yielded an average of $95 a ton, and the Rocky Bar 
about $80. The last worked from the North Star, in May, 1867, yielded $156 a 
ton. The (■a])acity of the establishment for reducing sulphurets is about one ton a 
day, being the largest of the kind in the county, except lliat of Mailman, near 
Nevada. The ordinary charge for working sulphurets is forty dollars a ton, which 
affords a fair prolit. The owners are adding to their facilities for working, and 
increasing the capacity of their establishment as fast as required by increasing bus- 
iness, and at the same time are constantly improving the method of working. 

The sulphuret works of Pettijean, situated about a mile from Allison Ranch, 
were erected in 1804. A man named (xeorge erected sulphuret works half a mile 
east of town, on Ihe Ncn^ada road, in 1865, l)ut they Avere destroyed by fire the same 
year. The site was ]iurchased by Aaron Burr, who put vip another establishment 
at the beginning ot the ]iresent year. 

The reduction works of Robert Cash, a mile and a half northeast of town, on the 
Union Hill road, were built in 1860, at a cost of some $3,000. He had been at con- 
siderable expense in experimenting with refractory ores, and studying the best 
processes of reduction ; but his establishment was destroyed by fire on the 9th of 
May, 1867. 

In 1866, the Eureka Company put up works designed more especially for the re 
duction of the sulphurets trom their own mine. These- were erected under the 
supervision of G. F. Deetkcn, to whom, more than any other one man, is due the 
success that has been attained in the reduction of sulphurets by chlorinizing. The 
sulphurets obtained while working near the surface of the Eureka mine were 
treated successfully at the establishments of Maltman and of Hill & Farnham ; but 
as a greater depth was reached in the mine, the nature of the sulphurets changed, 
and they proved more refractory than usual, though carrjang a larger amoimt of 
gold than those from nearer the surface. The company then secured the services 
of Mr. Deetken, who, by patient and laborious experiments, has at length succeeded 
in working the sulphurets tip to within five or six per cent, of the fire assay. 

IRON FOUNDRIES. 

There are two iron foundries in Grass Valley, both of which are carrying on an 
extensive and profitable business, in manufacturing castings for quartz mills, amal- 
gamating pans, etc. The Mill Street Foundry is owned by M. C. Taylor, and was 
erected in 1862. The establishment was destroyed by an incendiary fire in 1865, 
but rebuilt the same year. The work turned out by this foundry in the year 1866, 
amounted to $69,000, and twenty-two men are employed. 

The Grass Valley Foimdry is owned by J. M. Laknan, and was built in 1865. 

The establishment turned out about $40,,000 worth of work in 1866, and employs 
fifteen men. 



BOYS SUITS, AND UNDER-CLOTHING, ALL SIZES, AT B. GAD'S. 



CHESS MliX, ETC , AT DIXON'S. 



T II E 



GRASS VALLEY TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY 

For the Year commencing January 1st, 1867. 



-A-:i3:^n33"\7-X-A.TI03NrjS ! 



ag't Apint. 

bds Kourds. 

cor Corner. 

E Eiiet. 

m Mine. 

N Nwrtli. 

res lleaiilence. 



Rest Kestanrant. 

S South. 

s Side. 

6t Street. 

siip't Superinteniieat. 

U Union. 

W West. 



Al)bc'v (loortrc. Pleasant street 
ADAMS, McNEIL & ("O. frn,cers, Main st 
Ahearn David, clrifter, Allison Hunch 
Ahearn J. ^I. UVrnfj house, Allison Kaneh 
Aheru William, drit'tcr, Allison Kanch 
ALDEKSEV ELLEN, school teacher, res 

and school near Gold Hill mill 
Aldersey John, miner, near ({old Hill mill 
Aldersey K. miner, near (iold Hill mill 
Alt'ord Samuel, miner, Xorambairua mine 
Allen Edward, carpenter for Empire Co., 

bds International Hotel 
Allen E. miner, bds luteruatioual Hotel 
Allen Elijah. 

Allen .John, brakeman. Lucky mine 
Allen John, res Main street 
Allen Michael, miner, bds Wisconsin Hotl 
Allen Robert, res Sebastopol Hill 
ANDERSON G. W., Main Street Bakery 
Anderson John, eno-ineer. New York Hill 
Anderson L. carpenter. Eureka Hill 
Andrew Jas., miner, Massachusetts Hill 
Andrews Henry, laborer, Ophlr Hill road 
Andrews Thomas, miner Wisconsin mine 
Andrews "William, res Aviburn street 
Andrews W . J. painter, res N Auburn st 
Anduran Charles, miner, Howard Hill 
Angly Jerry, drifter, Allison Ranch 
Angore John, miner, Xorambagua mine 
Angove John, miner. Eureka mine 
Angove Thomas, miner. Eureka mine 
Angove W. miner, Boston Ra%ine 
Arnold L. carpenter, Union Hill 
Argoll William, miner, French Lead 
Arrangton Arthur, miner, Scaddeu Flat 
Arthur Richard, miner, Lucky mine 
Ashton E. 
Ashton William, 
Asken James, teamster, Boston Ravine 



Atchison L. E. metallurgist, with Empire 

Com])any, res Ophir Hill 
Atkinson H. L. barkeeper. Fashion saloon 
Atkinson T. J. laborer. Church street 
Atwell Thomas, teamster, Ophir Hill 
AUMER & CO.. butchers, Allison Ranch 
Aumer Frank, (of A. & Co.) Allison Ranch 
Autery William, Race street 
Authur Francis, blacksmith,ScaddenFlat 
Authur Henry, miner, French lead 
Authur W. Cannan, Union Hill 
Axford Saml, miner, Norambagua mine 

B 

Babbitt H. F. match factory, EMainst 
Baggs Isaac, lawyer, f)ffice Mill street 
Baikw John, miner, French lead 
Bailey Thomas, miner, French lead 
Bailey Wm. H. of Inkerman mine, res 

Gras,s Valley 
Baine George, miner, Colfax road 
Bales Chas. S. clerk at Loutzenheiser's 
Ball Erastus, laborer, Sutton's ranch 
Baldwin T. L. miner, near Glenbrook Prk 
BARE E. J. millwright and contractor. 

Church street 
Barclay Frank, miner. Eureka mine 
Barker D. M. ranchman. Wolf creek 
Barlow A. S. saw^-er, G V lumber yard 
Barnat G. miner. Lucky mine 
Barnat R. miner, Luckj' ixdne 
Barnet James, miner. Lucky mine 
Barney P. T. carpenter. Union Hill 
Barrett Wm. miner, Norambagua mine 
Barrett Alfred E. saloon, Boston Ravine 
Bartle William, miner. Union Hill 
Bartle Wm. F. miner, Gold Hill 
Barrv John, miner, Allison Ranch 



BOYS SUITS, AND UNDER-CLOTHING, ALL SIZES, AT B. GAD'S. 



FANCY DRESSING CASKS AT DIXOX'S. 



250 



GRASS VALLEY TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY, 



Barry Richard, drifter, Allison Rancli 
Barry Thomas, miner. Union Hill 
B a-iill Z. 

Bastin Richard, miner, French lead 
Bastin Thomas, miner, French lead 
Bashton Henry, miner, French lead 
Bath A. L. wagon maker, res Richard's st 
Bayne George, Colfax road 
Bays James, ranchman, Bajis's ranch 
Bays Washington, at Bays's ranch 
Beadle W. H. blacksmith. Union Hill m 
Beal Wm. machinist, Boston Ra^dne 
Beaman A. F. express wagon, res Rich- 
ardson street 
Beaman G. W. engineer -with Empire Co, 

res Richardson st 
Beath J. M. foreman with Empire Com- 
pany, Ophir Hill 
BEATTY FRANK G. clerk at Findley 

& Co's bank 
Beatty Find, amalgamator, U Hill mine 
Beatty M. T. amalgamator, U Hill mine 
Beatty N. H. amalgamator, U Hill mine 
Bee Wm. fouudryman, G V foundry 
Beetle W. miner. Union Hill Company 
Beckus Jacques, miner. Union Hill 
BEHRISCH CHAS. saloon, Boston Rav 
Belding 0. millwig-ht. Empire C j's works 
Belisle P. broom maker, Bostcn Ra^dne 
Beleman Henry, Bledsoe street 
Bell John, store, res Forest Springs 
J^ell William, Main street 
BENDER J. C. painter, res on Nevada 

and Grass Valley road. 
Benoit S. wood ranch, Allison Ranch 
Bennallack James, miner. Gold Hill, res 

Boston Ra\'ine 
Bennett Gilbert L. clerk with J. Bennett 

& Co., res Bennett street 
BENNETT J. & CO. hardware, corner 

Main and Auburn streets 
BENNETT JOHN, (of J. B. & Co.) res on 

Bennett street 
Bennett John T. (of J. B. & Co.) res on 

Bennett street 
Bennett William, orchardist, Bennett's 

orchard. 
Bennett Joseph, Neal street 
Bennet George, miner. Gold Hill Flat 
Bennett John, miner, Eureka mine 
Bennett Thomas, miner. Eureka mine 
Bennett Thomas, miner. Grass Valley 
Bensley Thomas, miner, French lead 
Benney Richard, miner, French lead 
Benny James, miner, Norambagua mine 
Benson Henry, Maiden Lane 
Bergan M. P. miner. Lower Mill street 
Bergan M. J. res Mill street 
Berriman Nich. engineer. Grass Valley 
Berriman R. engineer, Houston Hill mine 
Berriman T. H. engineer, Houston Hill m 
Berry William, ranchman. Berry's ranch 



Berry Z. brickmaker, Empire street 
Bertrand A. concentrator. Eureka mine 
Besanka James, miner. Lucky mine 
Bettis J ohn, j v. miner, Richardson street 
Bettis William, architect, Richardson st 
Bice N. res Main street 
Bigelow Wm. miner, Norambagua mine 
Biggs William, orchardist, res corner of 
Grass Valley st and Lincoln avenue 
Billsboro Richard, wood turner, at Grass 

Vallev lumber yard 
BINKLEMAN & CO. Grass Valley Brew- 
ery, N Auburn street 
Binkleman D. (of B. & Co.) N Auburn st 
Bishop James, miner, Lucky mine 
Biviau John, blacksmith, New Y'ork Hill 
Bixlar F. plasterer, Auburn street 
Bixlar Marion F. plasterer, N Auburn st 
Blackford J. Main street 
Blake Edward, drifter, Allison Ranch 
Blake Frank, fireman, Allison Ranch 
Blake P. miner, Colfax road 
Blanc Hugh, Union Hill 
Blanks & Miller, phvsicians. 
Blanks J. P. (of B. & Miller,) bds Neal st 
Blaze A. B. laborer, bds at McNeil's 
Bledsoe John B. tailor. Mill st, res Bank st 
Blewett Joseph, miner, Union Hill 
Blight Jcxmes, miner, Norambagua mine 
Bluett Henry, miner. Eureka mine 
Blundell Le\'i J. teamster, Hillsburg 
Boase Thomas, miner, New York Hill, res 

Gold Hill 
Bodeu Thomas, engdneer -with Empire Co 
Bogan Owen, miner, Cambridge mine 
Boile C. miner. Lucky mine 
Bolan James, grocer. Main street 
Bolitho Sampson, miner. Lucky mine 
Bolton AJfred, laborer. Auburn street 
Banataux X. ranchman, four miles east of 

Grass Valley 
Bonney Alexander, saloon, Boston Ra^sdne 
Boston W. W. machinist, N side Main st 
Bosworth S. D. miner. Lower Mill street 
Bovey William, miner, Em'eka mine 
Bowe Richard, molder, Taylor's foundry 
Bowden J. blacksmith,Norambagua mine 
Bowden Joseph, miner. Eureka mine 
Bowden Thomas, Boston Flat 
Bowden William, miner, Boston Flat 
Bowen John, miner, Eureka mine 
Boweu James, miner. Eureka mine 
Boyle C. saloon, S Mill street 
Boyle C. laborer, Taylor's foundry 
Bracelan D. miner. Empire Company 
BRADY A. B. sup't Rocky Bar Company, 

res Boston Ra\dne 
Brady Charles, drifter, Allison Ranch 
Bradley John T. miner, S Auburn street 
Bradley Frank, miner, Allison Ranch 
Branch Ed-\^dn, miner, Scadden Flat 
Brannel James, miner. Gold Hill 



CLOTUlNa EMPORIUM, CORNER MAIN AND MILL STREETS, GRASS VALLEY. 



PUOTCGRAPII ALBUMS AT DIXON'S. 




lirass Jolm, tinsmitli with Peter Jolmston 

iiUAUN JUSTIN, brewer, BostouKavine 

Bree John, Uichurdson street 

Bree Williiini, Main street 

Breslin C. briekiiialc(!r, Empire street 

Breslin D. miner, Oj)hir Hi II, res Boston 

Ravine 
Breslin Ccjrnclius, hxl)orer, Allison Ranch 
Breslin Dennis, blacksmith's hel[)er, z'es 

Boston Ravine 
Briarty \\ Mill street 
Brittintrham W'm. laborer, lone road 
iJritI in<j;'ham W. T. laborer, AUisonRanch 
Brock i'. miner, Jimpire Comiuuiy 
. Broderick B. miner, Biirdett mine 
Brog'an John, cal)in(;t maker, at Pope's 
BRO(ji AN P. J. merchant & hotel keeper, 

Forest S])rin<;'s 
Broo-an T. V. cleric at P. J. Brooran's 
BRuUlvS S. L. stone mason, Boston Rav 
Brofiks Thomas, enf>'ineer, iScadden Flat 
Browe John, stewanl. Pacific Hotel 
Brown B. F. dentist, office at Dr. Ivibby'e, 

bds Exchan<ri! Hotel 
Brown Edward, miner, bds Union Rest 
Brown J. A. miner, near Jjone Jack sliop 
Brown J. miner, Empire Company 
Brown Jolm, miner, Empire (Nmipany 
Brown John, miner, Allison Ranch 
Brown .Josiaii, miner, Kate Hays Hill 
Brown Patrick, miner, S Mill street 
Brown Samuel, miner, Lucky mine 
Brown William, miner. Eureka mine 
Brown ^V''illiam, nuner, S Auburn street 
Brown W. miner, Eureka mine, res Kate 

Hays Hill 
Brown W. S. machinist, Taj'lor's foundry 
Brosmer Jas. miner, bds Western Hotel 
Brule W. miner, French lead, res Lower 

Mill street 
Brufl' James, (^ast side AA'olf (;reek 
BRUNEMAN E. A., Harmouie Saloon 
BRUNSTETTER PETER, proprietor o' 

Grass Valley lumlier yard and plan- 
ing mill 
Bryan John, carpenter, Hillsburg 
Bryan J. A. engineer, Eureka mine 
Bryant W. H. engineer, New York Hill 
Bryant W. M. miner, E side ^Volf creek 
Brydon R. miner, Little Wolf creek 
Bucher George, miner. Forest Springs 
Bucher John, carjienter, Bean street 
Bucket Thos. miner, Norambagua mine 
Buckley Ephraim, shoemaker, Auburn st 
Buckley Ed. shoveler, Allison Ranch 
Buckley Michael, miner, Allison Ranch 
Buckley Patrick, drifter, Allison Ranch 
Bulger Jas. L engineer, Cambridge mine, 

bds with Hastings 
Bulger William, miner, Andrew's mine. 

Union Hill 
Burgin John, miner, Norambagua mine 



Burke John, miner, Allison Ranch 
Burke Michael, drifter, Allison Ranch 
Burke James, miner, S Auburn street 
Burke Cerrence, foreman Ophir Hill mine 
Burke T. with llalpen & Son, Union Hill 
Buriis James, drifter, Allison Ranch 
Bu)-ns John, laborer. Forest Springs 
Burns John, lander, Eureka mine 
Barns Thoiiias, carman. Union Hill mine 
Burnie Alexander, mer tailor, Auburn st 
Barnie C. W. clotlung, 72 Mill street, res 

Auburn street 
Burnett Jolin, miner, bds Hotel de France 
Burnett John, miner. Grass Valley 
Burt A. foreman Norambagua mine, bds 

at Bo\\'deii's 
Burton Saml. miner, Norambagua mine 
Bush Charles P. butcher, E Main street 
Bush William, carpenter, E Main street 
Bush A. F. Union Hill 
Bush Mrs Jane, cor Main & V\'ashinton sts 
ButkT Jas. amalgamator, Allison Ranch 
Buttle James, 4 miles E of Graes Valley 
Butts E. P. mincn-, Eureka Hill 
Buz/.a John, miner, bds E Main street 
Byers Quartz Mill, South Wolf creek 
Uvers John, ])ro]>rietor B.'s cpuirtz mill 
bVrNE JAS. K. lawyer, (of Dibble & B.) 

otHce Main street, res Church st 
BYRNE M., jr. (of Mason & B., Empire 

stables) res School street 
BYRNE W. S., Justice of the Peace and 

editor Grass Valley Union, res W side 
Church street 

c 

Cadden James, drifter, Allison Rancli. 
Cadden John, miner, Boston Ravine 
Cady Mrs Joseidiine, widow, cor Auburn 

and Baidc streets 
Cahill P. shoveler, Allison Ranch 
Callaghan P. laborer, E Main street 
Callion P. laborer, S Mill street 
CAMBRIDGE CO. (quartz) Howard Hill 
CAxMPBELL & STODDARD, grocers, 

Boston Ravine 
CA:MPBELL a. W. feed store, S Auburn 

street, res Auburn street 
Campbell James, carman, Allison Ranch 
Campbell J. C. amalgamator, Grass Valy 
Campbell J. M. blacksmith. Mill street 
CAMPBELL T. W. sup't Lone Jack, res 

Missouri Flat 
CAMPBELL Wm. (of C. & Stoddard,) res 

Boston Ra-\dne 
Cann William, laborer, Grass Valley 
Cann Wm. miner, Massachusetts Hill 
Candler Wm. engineer. Union Hill mine 
Candler W.M. engineer, UnionHill works 
Cantield C. L. clerk, Hillsburg, 
CANFIELD JOHN G. clothing merchant 

Exchange Building 



FULL SUITS Oe CbUTIllNG, FKoM $10 TO §75, AT 6. GAD'S. 



FANCY STATIONERY AT DIXON'S, 



252 



GRASS VALLEY TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY, 



CARR LEVI M. builder, Ricliardson st 
Carral D. fruit store, Boston Ra^^ne 
Carril P. carman. Empire Company 
Carringer D. J. blacksmith, bds Wiscon- 
sin Hotel 
Carbery William, miner, S Mill street 
Cardan Peter, miner, Empire Company 
Carkeek T. miner, Houston Hill 
Carland Daniel, laborer. Eureka mine 
Carney T. miner, Emynre Company 
Carsen F. teamster at Binckleman & Co's 
CARSON GEO. saddle and liaruess ma- 
ker, op gas works, res Wood st 
Carter Frank, miner, Frencli lead 
Carter Francis, miner, Gold Hill 
Carter Frank, miner, Scadden Flat 
Carter George, miner, French lead 
Carter George, miner, Gold Hill 
Carter James, miner, Gold Hill 
Carter J. G. bootmaker, bds Pacific Hotel 
Carter R. C. barkeeper. City Brewery 
Caruana Frank J. amalgamator, bds at 

Pacific Hotel 
Casey James, drifter, Allison Ranch 
Casey John, drifter, Allison Ranch 
Casey John, jr. shoveler, Allison Ranch 
Casey W. miner, Kate Hays Hill 
Casey Wm. miner, Kate Havs Hill 
CASH ROBT. metallurgist. Union Hill r 
Catcherick Thos. miner, Eureka mine 
Catran A. shoemaker. Forest Springs 
Cavanaugh Jas. miner, Cambridge mine 
Cavanaugh John, miner, Opliir Hill mine 
Cavanagh John, miner, Allison Rauch 
Cavanagh T. foreman AllisonRanch mine 
Cavillon Jules, miner, Vail's ranch 
Chabraus A. feeder at Eureka mine 
Chabrol Silvin, blacksmith and wagon 

maker, Ophir Hill 
Chambers J. M. carpenter, Ophir Hill 
CHAMBERS THOS. J. saloonkeeper, 

bds Union Restaiu-ant 
Champion James, miner. Gold Hill 
Champion Palk, saloon. Forest Springs 
CHAPIN Rev. D. D. Rector Emmanuel 

Church, res Neal street 
Chaplin C. S. wood dealer. Pike Flat 
Chapman John, miner. Eureka mine 
Chappell H. miner, Kate Hays Hill 
Chappelon G. feeder at Eureka mill 
Chase Robert H. miner. Grass Valley 
Chasnaw F. watchman at Eureka mine 
Chava A. restaurant, Boston Ravine 
Chervial James, miner at Eureka mine 
CHERVOILLOT JOHN, wagon maker, 

Boston Ravine 
Chester Charles, carpenter. Maiden lane 
Childers H. laborer. Empire Company 
Childers Laton, sup't for Bowery Compa- 
ny, Forest Springs 
Chollar Wm. sup't, Cincinnati Hill, bds 
Brighton House 



Christy J ohn, miner, Eureka mine 
Chynowath W. miner, L'nion Hill mine 
Civin James, miner, Forest Springs 
CLANCY PETER, saloon, Allison Ranch 
CLAPP J. S. Golden Eagle Hotel, Lower 

Main street 
Clancj' James W. saloon, Allison Ranch 
Clark Aaron, sup't Gas Works Race st 
Clark A. R. engineer. Lucky mine 
Clark E. W. carj)enter, bds Scott's,Boston 

Ra\ine 
Clark George, miner. Empire mine 
Clark George, miner, Howard Hill 
CLARK J. H. Empire Restaurant, corner 

Main and Church streets 
Clark L. engineer, LTnion Hill mine 
Clark L. W. engineer, LTnion Llill mine 
Clark William, miner.Norambagua mine 
Clarke Cahiu R merchant, res Auburn st 
Clarke Edward, miner, S Auburn street 
Clarke John, brakeman, Allison Ranch 
Clansman Mrs. Mill street 
Clauser John, miner, Empire mine 
CLAY GEO. H. barber. Cosmopolitan Sa- 
loon, Main street 
Cleburn J., M. D. office at Loutzonheiser's 

drug store 
Clements A. lumberman. Union Hill 
Clemole T. miner, Norambagua mine 
Cleophar LeCoq, cook. Hotel de France 
CLEVELAND Dr. C. D. physician and 

surgeon, res Chxirch street 
Cleveland Frank, Auburn street 
Clifford Timotli}', shoveler, Allison Ranch 
CLIFT WM. miner, Race street 
Cloonan M. miner, Boston Ravine 
Clowly M. miner, Allison Ranch 
CLOL'GH J. C. sup't Placer and Nevada 

Turnpike Co, G. V. township 
Coad James, miner. Eureka mine 
Coad James, miner, Houston Hill 
Coad J. musician, bds Wisconsin Hotel 
Coan M. miner, Cambridge mine 
Coartes R. miner, Gold Hill 
Cobb C. H. clerk vnth Garland & Co, bds 

Wight's restaurant 
COBB CHARLES H. proprietor Cobb's 

Restaurant, Mill street 
COBB D. photographer, Mill st 
Cocconower John, engineer, French lead 
Cock George, miner, Bennett street 
Cocking N. J. miner, Norambagua mine 
Cocking William, miner, Eureka mine 
Cocking W. H. miner, Ophir Hill mine 
Coe Mining Company, T. Findley, ag't 
Coffer E. teamster at Greenhorn sawmill 
CofFman John, rock breaker. Lucky mine 
COHN AARON, clerk vdth Cohn Bros 
COHN BROS, merchants. Main street 
COHN H. clerk, Avith B. Gad & Co 
COHN M. (of C. Bros) res corner Auburn 

and Bennett streets 



B, GAD ALWAYS KEEPS THE BEST BOOTS AND SHOES. 



DIXON'S VARIETY STOilK, No. 4- MILL STREET, CRASS VALLEY. 




COHX J. (of C. Bros) res Auliuru street 
Colbort John, blarksinith, Allison Kuucli 
COLBERT ]\IICHAEL, owner in Allison 

liancli mine 
COLE S. M. apothecary atLoutzonheiser's 
Coleman C. L. cai'penter, Emi)ire street 
Coleman IL Gr. carpenter, Empire street 
Coleman Jan'ies, miner, Eureka mine 
COLEMAN J. C. miner, res Chm-ch st 
COLEMAX E. min:^r, res corner Neal 

and Church streets 
Coliver VVm. under-oround foreman at 

Wisconsin mine 
Collegen John, 

Collier J. H. teamster, Ilillsburn: 
COLLINS DAN, sup't O'Connor mine. 

Union Hill, res Collins street 
Collins James, ininei-, Kate Hays Hill 
Collins John, miner, Tnion Hill mine 
Collins John, miner, Allison Hanch 
Collins John, carman, Noranihafiuamine 
Collins John, forenuui, Wisconsin mine 
Colliu.s J. J. miner, Rhode Island Ravine 
Collins J. M. foreman, Illinois iniue, res 

Pike Flat 
Collins Peter, drifter, Allison Rancli 
Colman John, miner, Union Hill mine 
Colmer Caleb, miner. Eureka mine 
COLMER CHAS. brewer, Washington 

Bnnvery 
Colnlin Frank, laborer. Eureka mine 
Colvin B. F. miner, Perrin's ranch 
Comb John, miner, Noi'ambagua mine 
Compstock O. P. carpenter, Pike Flat 
Compton A. Xeal street 
Conaway C. teamster at Mohawk lumber 

yard. Auburn street 
Conawav G. \V. engineer, Raceville 
'CONAWAY JAS. C. (of Paterson & Co) 

res Auburn st 
Condon INI. milkman, Avon ranch 
Conelius Wm. blacksmith, G. V. foundry 
Condron Jas. laborer, Kate Hays Hill 
Conklin Oilbei-t H. carpenter, bds Golden 

Eagle Hotel 
Conlan M. miner. Empire mine 
Conley Wm. miner, Empire mine 
Conlin Francis, Mill street 
Connell John, drifter, Allison Ranch 
Conners J. miner. Empire mine 
Connin B. miner. Empire mine 
Connoly John, miner, Boston Ra%-ine 
Connolly Patk. shoveler, Allison Ranch 
Connor James, drifter, Allison Ranch 
Connor John, drifter, Allison Ranch 
Connor John jr. miner, Allison Rancli 
Connor Maurice, drifter, Allison Ranch 
Connor P. miner, Allison Ranch 
Connor P. jr. miner, Allison Ranch 
Connor Tim, drifter, Allison Ranch 
Couoly Patrick, nliner, Empire mine 
Conway James, miner, Cambridge mine 



Conroy Eugene, miner, Eureka mine 
Conroy John, miner, Ophir Hill mine 
Conroy Mrs. R. Bennett street 
Comob \V. miner, res near Gold Hill mill 
Cook A. J. miner, Larimer's mine 
Cook Edgar, machinist, S Mill street 
Cocjper A. engineer. Union Hill mine 
Cooper VV. mmer. Union Hill mine 
Coraii George, miner, Norambaguamine 
C(;rah Henry, miner, Norambagua mine 
Corbett John, drifter, Allison Ranch 
(.'ornelson John, Mazep[)a livery stable 
Cornish Edward, tinsmith, bds at Phil- 

li[)'s on Bennett street 
CORNISH EDW^ARD, hardware dealer, 

res Auburn street 
Costeno M. carman. Union mino 
C(jta Nelscm, res near Eureka mine 
Cota IMadame, saloon, near Eureka mine 
Cfuiglien Tlionias, miner. Eureka mine 
Coughlin Daniel, miner, L'nion Hill 
Courts Jlrs. E. A. Mill street 
C(jwaii R. 11. bookkeeper with T. S.Smith, 
Cowell Richard, miner, Scadden Flat 
Cowen Stephen, teamster with W C Pope 
Cox Levi, farmer, near Eureka mine 
Coyle E. miner, Empire mill 
C()}'le Pat, miner. Empire mill 
Coyle Patrick, carman, French lead 
Cracklen Thomas, miner, Boston Ravine 
Crane Thomas P. Rocky Bar 
Craudell George, miner, Gold Hill 
Crase Wm. J. amalgamator, res Chapel st 
Cratreu Thomas, miner, iS'ew York Hill 
Cresa James, Bennett street 
Cristman H. amalgamator, Eniiiire mill 
Crize James, miner, Luckv" mine 
CROCKER JOHN R. blacksmith, Rich- 
ardson street 
Croniii D. blacksmith, bds Union Rest 
Cronin P. drifter, Allison Ranch 
Cross Thomas, miner. Union Hill 
Crowley John, Rose Hill 
Crowley Den. blacksmith, Allison Ranch 
Crown Sol. miner. Grass Valley 
Crumra John E. laborer, bds at Chaplin's, 

Pike Flat 
CRYER ROBERT, saloon. Mill street, 
Cunningham J. M. Race street 
Ciu-ry John E. teamster, Kate Hays Hill 
Curtis Mrs. E. Mill street 
Curtis D. S. cor Pleasant and Neal sts 
Curtis Francis, miner. Gold Hill 
Curtis Thomas, miner. Gold Hill 

D 

Dabb Jas. miner. Eureka mine 

DAILY NATIONAL OFFICE, corner 

Main and Church streets 
DAILY UNION OFI< IGF, Mill street over 

Johnston & Co. 



WHO KEEPS THE GKKAX CLOTHINQ^JiIMPORIUJI, CORNER Oi 



PAPER COLLARS AT DIXON'S. 



254 



GRASS VALLEY TOWxXSHIP DIRECTORY. 



Divley P. saloon keeper, Allison Ranch 
Daley P. J. biker, Allison Ranch 
Daley R. H. carpenter. Bennett street 
Dally Richard, saloon keeper, near Pa- 
cific Hotel 
Dalv P. rockbreaker. Norambagua 
Dal ton Geo. P. 

DALTON REV. T. J. pastor Catholic 
! Church, res Chapel street 

{ Dalton Peter, miner, Allison llanch 
I Damon Mrs. Hillsburo; 
j l->anie! Blufrord, drifter. Tone inlne 
I Darlinj? Geor<je, Union Hill 
I Darnell Chas, miner, Cambridge mine 
j Daucher A. Sr. shoemaker. Boston Ravine 
Dancher A. -Jr. shoemaker, Boston Ravine 
Davey W. miner. Lncky mine 
I DAVIS ROBERT, butcher, City Market, 
I corner Main and Auburn streets 

DAVIS C. E. dentist, Lower Main street 
Davis Edwin, miner Union Hill mine 
DAVIS HENRY, Eureka drug store res 

West Neal street 
Davis Henry, miner. Eureka mine 
Davis John, miner Eureka mine 
Davis John L. miner Frankfort mine 
DAVIS JOHN T. butcher. Market street 
Davis Joseph, miner. Auburn street 
Davis L. L. book keeper. Richardson st 
DAVIS MAT. butcher, bds Pacific Hotel 
Davis M. B. miner, Auburn street 
Davis Richard, miner, N. Y, Hill, res Gold 

Hiil 
Davis S. H. saloon keeper. Forest Springs 
Davis Warren, carpenter, bds' Union Res- 
taurant 
Davidson M. Boston Clothing Store, res 

San Francisco 
Daws John, miner, Scadden Flat 
Daws John, miner, French lead 
Daws AY. miner. Union Hill mine 
Day H. H. mining sup't. Spring Hill 
Dean John, rockbreaker. Eureka mine 
DeBoyce Thos H. barber 
Dedor Henry, carpenter. Empire st 
Delay Edward, drifter, Allison Ranch 
Delay Daniel, private tutor at M. Colbert's 

Allison Ranch 
Delay Dennis, amalgamator, assistant, at 

Allison Ranch 
Delay R. H. carpenter. Bennett st 
DELANO A. banker. Main st 
Delary Geo. miner, Burdett mine 
Dempsey Pat. drifter. Allison Ranch 
Denan John, concentrator, Allison Ranch 
Denman Z. H. blacksmith, res Mill st 
Denner John, res Auburn st 
Dennin John, miner. Auburn st 
Depp John, teamster. Pike Flat 
Dermott John, engineer. Empire mill 
Desmon M. miner, Scadden Flat 
DEUEL J. C. AttV at Law, ofifice W side 
Mill st 



Devvar John, saloon keeper. Union Hill 
Uevvev J. H. musician, bds City Rest 
DIBBLE & BYRNE, Att'ys at Law, office 

Exchange building 
DIBBLE A. B. of Dibble & Byrne, res cor 

JMain and School sts 
DIBBLE & WANZER, butcliers. Forest 

Springs 
DIBBLE A. B. of Dibbie & Wanzer, For- 
est Springs 
Dickson \Vm. engineer Orleans mill 
[ Diffendertfer B. H. city express and job 

vvag(m, res Alta Hill 
Dille S II. carpenter S Auburn st 
Dinan Jerry, blanket washer. Al'n Ranch 
Dinan John, miner, Allison Ranch 
Disley C. brickmaker Empire st 
DIXUiN GEO. \V. variety store. Mill st 

res Wood st 
Dobbins Jas. moulder, Taylor's foundry 
Dobbins Thomas, M. D. office Mill st, res 

Wood st 
Dobson A. teacher. School st 
DOBSON MRa, S. A. milliner, No.. 4(1 

Mill st 
DODGE DAVID F. dealer in Yankee 

notions, res Maiden Lane 
Dodge Josiah, ranchman. Forest Springs 
Dodge Win. miner. Gold Hill 
Doe H. D. carpenter. Empire st 
Doige Jas. miner, Scadden Flat 
Dolau D. carman. Empire mine 
DOLING JOHN, Fashion Saloon 
Donahoe M. miner. Empire Co. 
Donahoe F. carman, Empire Co. 
Donahue Thos. engineer, Empire Co. 
Donahue Moses, miner, Allison Ranch 
Donahue Thos. G. Wolf creek 
Donald Alfred, miner. Gold Hill 
Donaldson C. W. engineer, bds City Rest 
Donavau Dan. drifter, Allison Ranch 
Donavan John, feeder, Allison Ranch 
Donavan Patrick, shoveler, Allison Ranch 
Donavan P. Scadden Flat 
Donolly E. W. engineer. Ophir Hill mine 
Donovan P. miner, Ophir Hill 
Donvan P. miner. Empire Company 
Dorr Edward, feeder. Larimer's mill 
DORSEY & WALKER, feed store, No. 50 

Mill street. 
Dorsey G. Y. joiner, Church street 
DORSEY J.J. (of D.&Walker,) res Church 

s trot^ t 
DORSEY S. P. agt W. F. & Co.. res Church 

street. 
Dougherty Philip, laborer. Pike Flat 
Dougherty Wm, drilter, Allison Ranch 
Dow Aaron M. D. Main street 
Dowd R. book-keeper. Empire stable 
Dowling D. miner, lower Mill street 
Doyle Thomas, carpenter, bds Pacific 

Hotel 
Dragan Dennis, miner, Allison Ranch 



MAIN AND MILL SaREhTS, bRASS VALLEY ? B. UAK. 



LADIKS WORK liOXKS AT DIXON'S. 



GRASS VALLEY TOW^'SHIP DIRECTORY, 



255 



Drew Thos. miner. French Lead 
Drew Win. niiticr, Fiencli Lead 
Driscoll M. miner, Allison liancli 
Drysdale Alexr, workman at Ole Jobn- 

sun'.s 
Dnffe \Vm. wagon maker at Denman's 
Dutl'y I'alk. shoveler, Allison Kancli 
Diitty Micbi. 'A m E oC Grass ValU-y 
Dnjran Gbas. machinist, Taylor's I'oundry 
Diirnpliry J no. carman. Rocky Bar 
Dnnciisilen J. brickman, Main street 
Dunkley Thos. engineer, Norambaga 
Dunler F. barber, Opbir Hill 
Dnnn Henry, o m E ot'Cirass Valley 
Dunn John, fireman, Allison Ranch 
Dunning E. D. amalgamator, Finpire mill 
])iinston \V. miner, Lninn Hill 
Dnnlon Frank, Ahiin street 
Durgom Patrick. Ghnrcli street 
DUTY VV. L. collector G. \. and Nevada 

toll road, res (ilenbrook I'ark 
Duval G. P. miner, Gambridge mine 
Duval G. T. Union Hill 
Duval W. H. G. miner, Cambridge mine 
Dwire Jno. miner. Empire mine 
Dwire M. miner, Empire jnino 
Dwire Patrick, miner. Empire mine 
Dvvyer Thomas, miner, Gambridge mine 

E 

Early J. miner. Empire mine 
Early J. I), miner, res School street 
Easley Thomas, miner, Eureka mine 
Easley Mrs. S. P. widow, Anljurn street 
Eaton G. F. carpenter. Hillsburg 
Eccles William, barkeeper, at Stokes's 

saloon 
Fdgar W. M. engineer. Wood street 
Edmonds Edward, miner. Eureka mine 
Edmonds Samuel, miner, French Lead 
Edmonds Wiliiam. miner. Scadden Flat 
Edmonds Walter J. barber, at Cosmopoli- 
tan saloon 
Edward George, miner, Union Hill 
Edwards Garter, Pleasant street 
Edwards Edward, miner, Kate Hays Hill 
F]dwards Edward, miner. Eureka mine 
Edwards George, miner. Union Hill mine 
Edwards James. AVolf Greek 
Edwards J. J. miner, Boston Ravine 
Edwards John, miner. Lucky mine 
Edwards John K. sup't. Gold Hill mine 
Edwards Thomas, laborer and sick nurse, 

res head of Neal street 
Edwards William, Walsh street 
Edwards William, stone mason. School st 
Egan John, drifter, Allison Ranch 
Eichel F. boot and shoe maker, Mill street 
Elliot George, miner. Eureka mine 
Elliot Samuel, miner. Lucky mine 
Elliot Thomas E. express wagon, Richard- 
son street 



Ellis George, miner. Wisconsin mine, bds 

lower Mill street 
Ellis James, uiiner, Massachusetts Hill 
Ellis James, miner. French Lead 
Ellis J. AV. fruit peddler. Pike Flat 
LIlis J. S. Pacific street 
Ellis John, miner, Ophir Hill mine 
Emmons E. moulder. Tayloi's l<oun'lry 
EMPIRE MINING GO, S. Vv'. Lee, sup't, 

Ophir Hill 
Empire Water Company 
ENGLISH PATRICK, blacksmith. Au- 
burn street 
English Thomas, drifter, Allison Ranch 
Eslate John, miner, Grass Valley 
Euslis John. Union saloon and store. Union 

Hill 
EUREKA DRUG STORE, Main street, 

next to Find ley it Go's bank 
EUREKA MININ.; CO. William W^att, 

sup't, Eureka Hill 
Eva James, blacksmith, Huston Hill, res 

Sebastopol Hill 
Evans Thomas. miner, Massachusetts Hill 
Everett J. A. carpenter, lower Mill street 
EXCHANGE HOTEL, corner Main and 

Church .streets 

F 

Faden A. plasterer 
Fair James, cai'penter. Maiden Lane 
Fairbanks Wilson, miner, Scadden Flat 
FAHEY JOHN, of Allison Ranch Mining 

Co., res Church street 
Fahey Michael, fireman, Allison Ranch 
Farlaman John, carpenter. Church street 
Falkner James, miner, boards Exchange 

Hotel 
Farlin D. A. book-keeper, res cor Main 

and School streets 
FARNHAM E. P. sulphuret works, Hills- 
burg 
Farrar AV. K. blanket washer, Orleans 

mill 
FARRELL JAMES A. soda factory, cor 

School and Richardson streets 
Farrell Joseph, miner, Boston Ravine 
Farrell Peter, drifter, Allison Ranch 
Farrington Daniel, carpenter. Pike Flat 
Faucett Alexander, miner. Gold Hill 
Fawcet Richard, miner, Scadden Flat 
Fay John R. AVashington st 
Feeney James, miner, Opbir Hill mine 
Feeney John, drifter, Allison Ranch 
Feigs Fred. Grass Valley Lumber-yard 
Fellers Dr. E. dentist. School st. 
Fenner A. teamster, Norambngua mill 
Ferguson James, ensineer, Boston ravine 
Ferguson James, miner, Ophir HiJl 
Ferrell James, miner, Bennett st 
Ferrell James miner. Eureka mine 
F'errell John, miner. Eureka mine 



AN IMMENSE STOCK 01' CLOTHING— AVHERE ? AT B. GAD'S GREAT 



01 FT ANNUALS AT DIXON'S. 
256 GRASS VALLEl' TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 



Ferris James, miner, Eureka mine 
Field Patrick, teamster, Allison Ranch 
Field Timotliy. feeder. Allison ilanch 
Fielding Tliamiis, miner, Boston Kavine 
Fierney Daniel, miner, Allison Rancli 
Fierney Pliilip. miner, Allison Ranch 
Finchley. Thos. S. boarding house, (J Hill 
FIMOLEY THOMAS, baDker,Main sL res 

tjchool St 
Finnegan Michael, drifter, Allison Ranch 
FJNNIE KINSEY! grocers. Mill st 
FINNIE ROBERT, [of Fiunie & Kinsey.] 

res Riuhardsen st 
Fisher John, miner. Empire mine 
Fisher Samuel, tinsmith, urp. Johnston's 
Fisher R. A. sup't Bardett Mining Co. res 

Loyd St 
Fitch G. A. rancher, Hillsburg 
Fitch J. M.butcner, Union Market 
Fitzgerald David, watchman, Al Ranch 
Fitzgerald George, fireman. Allison Ranch 
Fitzsimmons D. laborer. Pike Flat 
Fuzsimmons D, carriage washer, Empire 

stable 
Fitzsimmons Jere. Irish Ranch 
FLANDERS ROBERT, saddler, at R. 

Linds 
Flanders Z. Maiden Lane 
Flannigan M. miner. Empire mine 
FLETCHER GEORGE, book keeper, Tay- 
lor's Foundry, agt Stringer's Paraf- 

fine Machinery Oil 
Fletcher John, Main street 
Flint Levi, shoemaker. Forest. Springs 
Flood James, hostler. Empire stable 
Floyd John H. miner. Union Hill 
Flynn John, miner. Wisconsin mine 
Foley J. M. miner, Allison Ranch 
Foley Jeremiah, laborer. AUisoa Ranch 
Foley T. miner, Empire mine 
Forbes J. A carpenter, bds Western Hotel 
Forbes Robert, miner, Vail Ranch 
Forbs Robert, miner. Forest Springs 
Ford John, chief fireman, Allison Ranch 
Ford John Jr., fireman, Allison Ranch 
Ford Martin, amalgamator, Allison Ranch 
FORD MARTIN, urerchant, Boston Ravine 
FORD P. H. merchant, Boston Ravine 
Ford Richard, miner, bds Gold Hill 
Ford Sylvester, butcher, bds City Rest 
Forest Demos, miner. Kate Hayes Hill 
FOREST SPRINGS COMPANY 
Forney Wm C, saddler, bds Golden Eagle 

Hotel 
Foster A. J. painter, Richardson street 
Foster Peter, miner, Allison Ranch 
Fouse W. P. gas binder. Soda Factory 
Fpwler C. C. teamster, Ophir Hill 
Fox John, miner, French Lead 
Fox P. T. engineer, bds at Mrs, Aldersey's, 

Lower Mill street 
Francis James, miner, Eureka mine 
Frary M. P. laundry, North Church street 



FRANK JOHN, Washington Brewery, 

Main street 
Eraser Donald, miner, Boston Ravine 
Frazier R. miner, Lucky mine 
Freeman H. T. Auburn .street 
Prowling John, miner, Frankfort mine 
Fry Pleury. miner. Eureka mine 
Fiichs Henry J. clerk, at Sylvester's 
Fuller John E. clerk. Grass v alley 
FUNSTON MAT H. general book keeper, 

res Auburn street 
Furauson W. J. gas maker, bds Wisconsin 

^Hotel 

G 

Gabe R. B. engineer, New l^ork Hill 
GAD & CO. cor Main and Mill st 
GAD B. (of B. G. & Co) res Bcliool street 
Gale A. teamster at Bromstetter's 
Ga'iigan Jas. liod carrier, Boston Ravine 
Galigan H. miner, Empire mine 
Gallager E. miner, Ophir Hill mine 
Galligar John, laborer, Empire Company 
Gailaty P. teamster at Campbell & Co's 
GALL WAY P. snp't Allison Ranch mine 
Gangove H. miner. Lower Mill street 
Ganger e Wm. miner, Lower Mill street 
Ganson Jas. Cemetery Hill 
Ganoung Mrs. M. (widow) Pleasant st 
Gard Francis, miner, Gold Hill 
GARDNER L. hair dressing saloon, cor 

Mill and Bank sts 
GARLAND & CO. merchants, Main st 
GARLAND F. A. (of G. & Co.) res Rich- 
ardson st 
Garvey M. drifter, Allison Ranch 
GAS WORKS, Main street 
Ganthier A. blanket washer, Eureka Hill 
Gavin John, miner, Burdett mine 
Geard Francis, miner, Gold Hill 
Gellathy A. miner, Colfax road 
Gemmi Clias. cook at City Restaurant 
GENILLER GALVIN, Franco American 

billiard saloon, Main street 
GEORGE R. W. T. physician, Main st 
GEORGE T. M. proprietor Union Hill 

stage line, res Washington st 
George Wm. cor Neal and Auburn sts 
GEPHARD GEO. of Union Turnpike Co. 

res School st 
Gerety Patk. miner, Boston Ravine 
Getz Max, barber, bds Hotel de France 
Gibb B. engineer, New York Hill 
Gidley Mrs. J. G. variety store, Mill st 
Gilford C. E. teamster, Lopez ranch, three 

miles east of Grass Valley 
Gilbeath H. laborer. Empire Company 
Gilbert John, miner, Scadden Flat 
Gilbert Josiali, miner, Scadden Flat 
Gilbert Joseph, miner, French lead 
Gilbert Thomas, miner, French lead 



MAIN AND MILL STREETS, -GRASS VALLEY ? B. GAD. 



GENUINE MEERSCHAUM PIPES AT DIXON'S, 




(iildcrsleuve Oco. caqientcr, Xeal st 
(iill M. macliiiKist, Taylor's foundry 
(Till W. miner, (inUl Hill 
GILLIES DUNCAX, ornamental pain- 
ter, Pleasant street 
Oillroy John, miner, Illinois mine 
Oilman J. P. dry pfoods, Main street 
(ULMORE S. F. nieclianical engineer, in 

(rrass Valley 
(xILPIX L. physician, Ilillsburg 
(iil])in W. P. miner, Hillsburg 
(lilpin Z. miner, llillsburf); 
(filroy John, carman, Wisconsin mine 
( I lass A. tailor, Main st, bds Pacific Hotel 
GLASS SCMENCK, jeweler, Mainst, res 

(!harch st 
(jJlasscock G. wook chop])er. Union Hill 
Glassett J. miner, Ophir Hill 
Glassin John, miner. Union Hill mine 
Glasson James, miner, (lold Hill 
Glasson W. blacksmith, Taylor's foundry 
Glesson Joseph, miner, (Jold Hill 
Glidden F. blacksmith, Auburn street 
GlostiT D. M. miner, Allison Ranch 
Ghiyas John, miner, Ophir Hill mine 
(Tluvas James, miner, Scadden Flat 
GLYNN JOHN, bakery. Union Hill 
Glynn M. drift(;r, Allison Panch 
Goad James, miner, Norambagua 
Goad John C. foreman Eureka mine, bds 

Exchange Hotel 
Goddard J. machinist, G. V. foundry 
Godfrey I. L. carpenter. Main street 
Goff" D. miner. Empire mine 
Goiue Francis, miner, Main street 
GOLD MARKS, clerk at B. Gad & Co's 
GOLD HILL MILL, ((piartz) Mill street 
GOLDBERG PHILIP, Boston clothing 

store, res ^V'est Main st 
GOLDEN EAGLE HOTEL, J. L. Clapp 

proprietor. Main street 
GOLDKOFFER & BRAUN, brewers, Bos- 
ton Ravine 
Goldkotfer Wni. (of G. & Braim) res Bos- 
ton Ra\'ine 
Goldsmith W. P. south end Bennett st 
Goldsworthy W. miner, Lucky mine 
Goldsworthy Jos. miner, French lead 
Goldsworthy W. miner. Pike Flat 
GOODMAN ISADORE, variety store. 

Mill St. bds Cobb's Restaurant 
Gorhani John M. blacksmith, Mass. Hill 
Gordan P. engineer. Pike Flat 
Gore A. A. clerk at W., F. «Si Co's, bds at 

Neal's, Neal st 
Gourdon R. French laundry. Mill street 
Goyen \Vm. miner. Forest Springs 
Grace Mrs. Mary, (-widow) 
Grady P. miner, Empire mine 
Granville John, miner, Eureka mine 
Granville T. miner, Norambagua mine 
Graves A. G. miner, res Ophir Hill 
r2 



GRASS VALLEY MILLINERY STORE 

No. 3 Main st. Mrs. A. F Jones 
GRASS VALLEY BREWERY, Binkle- 

man & Richards, No. Auburn st 
GRASS VALLEY & NEVADA LAUN- 
DRY, Lower Mill st. Grass Valley 
GRASS VALLEY NATIONAL PRINT- 
ING OFFICE, Main street 
GRASS VALLEY UNION PRINTING 

OFFICE, Mill street 
Graves D. teamster. Pike Flat 
Graves 0. S. miner, res Ophir Hill 
Gray James, miner. New Y'ork Hill, res 

South Auburn st 
Greaney Thos. drifter, Allison Ranch 
Greaves J T, butcher, Main st 
Grearson Jas, miner, Spring Hill 
(Treelev G W, millwright, Ophir Hill 
GREEN CHAS E. boots and shoes. Mill 

street, res Church st 
Green Mrs. (widow) Pleasant st 
Greenbank John, teamster, Grass Valley 
Gnnifil Chas. O. saloon. Mill st 
<«rey W. A. barber, Grass Valley 
G'ribble James, miner. Gold Hill 
(inl)l)l(> John, miner. Gold Hill 
(h'ibble Josiah, miner. Eureka mine 
Gribble ^Vm. miner. Eureka mine 
(Jrieve John, miner, Massachusetts Hill 
Griffin Jere, Church st 
G riffin John, stone mason, Lower Mill st 
Griffiths Thomas, Pacific st 
Crrimes 0. engineer. Empire mine 
Grimshaw Henry, toll-house keeper on 

Placer and Nevada turnpike 
Grimfall John, Miner, Pike Flat 
GRINNAGE Z. W. Golden Eagie hair 

dressing saloon 
GROVE CHAS. butcher, Boston Eavine 
Grundy R. miner. Lucky mine 
Guerin P. boarding house, Ophir Hill 
Guest J. W. Wolf Creek 
Guirard Frank, laborer, Main street 
Guirard A. C. San Francisco market 
Gundry Geo. miner. Union Hill mine 
Gundry Joseph, miner, Boston Ravine 

H 

Hadigan M. rock-breaker, Allison Ranch 
Hadlen M. laborer. Auburn street 
Hagewood Jno. carpenter, Hillsburg 
Haley J. miner, Kate Hays Hill 
Haley John, laborer. Empire mill 
Hall Joseph B. Grass Valley 
Hall N. miner, Utah mine, res Colfax 

road 
Hall P. carman, Allison Ranch 
Halloran M. drifter, Allison Ranch 
HALPHEN & SON, store keepers, Union 

Hill 
HALPHEN E. (of H. & Son) Union HiU 



FULL SUITS OF CLOTHING, FROM SIO TO $75, AT JB. GAD'S. 



HAVANA CIGARS AT DIXON'S, 



258 



GRASS YALLEY TOVrXSIlIP DIRECTOIIY. 



HAJLPHEX F. (of TI. & Son) Union Hill 
Hambes' Frank, bakerv, Allison Kancb. 
HAMILTON GAliVEX, Town Trustee, 

res Cbnrcli street 
Hamilton J. F. ranclier, one mile -west of 

Grass Vallcv 
HAilMIL JAMES, sup't Union Hill mine 
Hamniil John, foreman, Union Hill mine 
Hanimil Thomas, miner, Union Hill mine 
Hammil ^Vm. miner, Union Hill mine 
HAXAX S. hardware merchant, corner 

Mill and Xeal streets 
Hancock Kichard, miner, Eureka mine 
HANCOCK S. H. saloon keeper, ^^lain st 
Hand, W. D. teamster, bds Wisconsin 

Hotel 
Handing- Thomas, saloon, JIain street 
Hanglev Jerry, drifter, Allison Eanch 
Hanlin M. laborer, South Auburn street 
Hanley Michael, Auburn street 
Hanna W. Pacific street 
Hannan Jacob, Wolf Creek 
Hannah Wm. carpenter, Eureka mine 
Hannin M. foreman, Empire mine 
Hansen Peter X. rancher and teamster, 

near Biiena Vista Ranch 
Hanson C. brick mason, Washington st 
HAXSOX JOHX, City Restaurant, ISIiH 

street 
Harlin Thomas, miner. Town Talk mine 
Harmon J. C. store keeper. Union Hill 
Harmon Hug-h, shoveler, Allison Ranch 
HARMOXIE SALOOX, :\Iain street, un- 
der Xathan & Hoflfinan 
Harper John, miner, Boston Ravine 
Harper John, miner. Gold Hill 
Harrigan John, teamster. Forest Springs 
HARRIS S. M. dentist and druggist, Xo. 

58 ]Mill street 
Harris A^lfred, miner, Kate Hares Hill 
HARRIS AJSIASA H. clerk, at P. John- 
ston's 
HARRIS B. T. cronk beer maker, res 

Xorth Church street 
Harris John, miner, bds Pacific Hotel 
Harris John, miner. Gold Hill 
Harris John, miner, French Lead 
Harris 0. F. Alta street 
Harris Samuel, tailor, with Ben Wood 
Harris Samuel, miner. Gold Hill 
Harris Thomas, miner. Union Hill 
Harris W. miner, Kate Hayes Hill 
Harris Wm. miner. Eureka mine 
Harris AYm. miner, Gold Hill 
Harrington Arthur, Gold Hill 
Harrington Caleb, mason and plasterer, 

east side of Mill street 
Harrington D. miner. Empire mine 
Harrington Dennis, miner, Allison Ranch 
Harrington H. shoveler, Allison Ranch 
Harrington John, blacksmith, res Xorth 
Bloomfield 



Harrington M. drifter, Allison Ranch 
Harrington P. miner, Allison Ranch 
IIARRISOX JACKSOX, barber. Main st 
Harry Joseph, miner. Union Hill 
Harry R. miner. Union Hill 
Hart Samuel, miner. Gold Hill 
Hartnett L. machinist, Taylor's Foundry 
Hartnett M. carpenter, AJlison Ranch 
Hartnett W. carpenter, Allison Ranch 
Harvey Henry, miner. Union Hill 
Harvey James, miner, Allison Ranch 
Harvey John, miner, French Lead 
Harvey Martin, miner, French Lead 
Harvey Richard, miner. Union Hill 
Haselton Jas. L. miner, Hope Company's 

mine, bds Wisconsin Hotel 
Haskell Chas. carpenter. Lucky mine 
Hastings Geo. miner. Grass Valley 
Hastings John, teamster, Kate Hays Hill 
Hastings ]Mrs. Mary, boarding: house, at 

Union Hill 
HATHA^^'AY 0. W. & CO. tinsmiths. 

Main street 
HATHAWAY O. W. (of H. & Co.) res 

Pleasant street 
Haven J. H. Little Wolf Creek 
Hawkins Benj. Main street 
HAWKIXS THOS. Golden Eagle hair 

dressing saloon. Main st 
Hawkins Edmond, miner. Grass Valley 
Hays John, miner, Boston Ra\ine 
Havs*:- P. miner, Allison Ranch 
HAYWOOD E W. saloon, main st, bds 

Hotel de France 
HEADMAX E. clerk with S. Hanks 
Healey I. old Auburn road 
Healey John, bootmaker, Boston Ra\Tne 
Healev 0. V. amalgamator, bds National 

Hotel 
Hegarty Wm. drifter, Allison Ranch 
Henderson A. miner, Race\alle 
Henderson Jas. carpenter. Union Hill 
Henderson J. H. carpenter, L'nion Hill 
HEXDERSOX J. H. Pioneer boot & shoe 

store, res West Main street 
HEXDERSOX M. M. millwright. Pike F 
Hennessv John, feeder, Allison Ranch 
HENNESSY P. merchant, Allison Ranch 
HEXXIXGER J. Union Restaurant, cor 

Mill and Banks sts 
Herbet Jas. saloon keeper, Mill st 
HERCHBERY S. clerk at H. Le^y & Co's 
Hering D. miner. Empire mine 
Heslip R. miner, Empire mine 
HEYMAX J. dry goods, bds International 
Hicks J. blacksmith, res Boston Ra\-ine 
Hicks Mrs. boarding house. Gold Hill 
HICIijMAN A. clerk at P. Johnstons, res 

Main st 
Higgins J. laborer. Empire Company 
Higgins W. jiattern maker,BostouRavine 
HILL C. R. rancher. Auburn street 



AN IMMENSJi; STOCK OJ CLOTHING— WHEKE > AT B. GAD'S GREAT 



Portfolios at dixon's. 




HILL O. W. rancher, Hillsburo- 
HILL S. at suli)lmret works, Hillsbur<^ 
Hill S. H. laborer, button's j'ancli 
HI LL &. FA UNII AM,iiR-tall iirgical works 

llillsburt.- 
IHLL \VM. (of H. & Farnham) Hillsburg 
Hiller J. A. hartlwaro, res Mill st 
Hinds M. barkoL'iHT, Military saloou 
Hinlov J. saloon. Boston Kavine 
HIKSCHFELU J. drv ^foods, mill street 
H()(iLAXD A. (r. ckn-k at Ole Johnson's 
llobart W. W. (of Spencer & H.) res on 

Scliool street 
Hobart E. nuichinist, (J. V. foundry 
HOIJBV WM. proprii'tor Western Hotel, 

Main street 
Hobby G. \V. barkeeper. Western Hotel 
Hobby John, teamster. Western Hotel 
Hocking- J. miner, bds Western Hotel 
Hi)(;kin«r William, miner (iold Hill Flat 
Hockino- Thonjas. Massachusetts Hill 
Hockiufi' W. H. niiuiT. Wisconsin nune 
Hockins Thomas, miner, Scadden Flat 
Ho(l;j;e John, miner, Faireka mine 
Hodye P. H. miner. Union Hill, res cor 

Main and Church sts 
HODGE SAMUEL, International Hotel, 

Mill street 
Hodjjfe Tlionuis, Mill street 
Hodyes James, miner, Piureka mine 
Hodkins Jasper, mini'r. French Lead 
Ho<>an Micliael, shoveler, Allison Ranch 
H()i>-an M. miner, Empire mine 
HULBRUOK I). P. saloon, :Main street 
Holden A. teamster, Boston Ravine 
Holden J. E. miner, bds Hotid de Franco 
Holland John, drifter, Allisim Ranch 
HoUis Benj. F. i)ainter. Mill street 
HOLLI\\'UOD A. sttnvard at Union Rest 
Holmes C. clerk at A. Salaman's 
Holmes (reorije, miner. Masschusetts Hill 
Holman John, miner, Frencli Lead 
Hood Thomas, mason, Washino-ton st 
Hooker C. H. butcher, Ophir Hill 
HOOPER AAROX, saloon. Main st 
Ht)oper C. H. Colfax road 
Hooper Peter, miner. Gold Hill 
Hooper Thomas, miner. Gold Hill 
Hooper Thomas, miner, French Lead 
Hoover John, hostler. 
H(jran James, Main street 
Horan M. miner, French Lead 
Horau M. drifter, AllLson Ranch 
Horman M. miner, Allison Ranch 
Hornel John, brewer at Binklenian & Co's 
Hornbach A. coolc at L'nion Restaurant 
Hoskius R. miner, Gold Hill 
Hoskius Ed. miner. Lucky mine 
Hoskius Joliu, enoineer, French Lead 
Hoskins Joseph, miner. Lucky mine 
Hoskius William, foreman French Lead 
Hoskins J. F. miner, Lucky mine 



Hotalinof C. K. cor Mill & Washington st 
Hong-hton W. A. teaclu-r of i)emuanship, 

res cor Auburn and Richardson st 
HOUSTON A. H. & CO. Betsev mine, on 

Osborn Hill 
HOUSTON HILL MIXING CO., J. F. 

Xesmith, a;jent 
Howard A. cook at Cobb's Restaurant 
Howard G. teanist«r at Grecm Horn saw 

mill 
Howe (i. S. clerk at Exchano-o Hotel 
Howe H. blacksmith. Auburn st 
Iloyle J. machinist at Taylor's foundry 
Ilodson W. G. moulder, G. V". smelting 

works, res JIain st 
Hu<rlies Jas. drifter, Allison Ranch 
Iluyhes Jolin, liod carrier. Gold Hill 
Huo;hcs John, nuner, (iold Hill 
Huo-hes William, laborer. Empire mine 
llufi-uenon AV. cariH'uter. Winchester Hill 
Humiston Mrs. R. nus Auburn st 
Hunt I). B. miner, bils Exchan<j:e 
Hunter W. W. en<iineer,Pacific ore works 
Huntley D. B. dairyman, cor Auburn and 

Neal streets 
Huntli'y P. C. dairyman, cor xVuburnand 

Neal streets 
Hurley J. miner, Eureka mine 
Hurley Patrick, miner, Allison Ranch 
Hnse A. P. butcher. Forest Sjjrinys 
Huss F. cabinet maker, Grass Valley and 

Nevada rt-ad 
Huss J. cabinet maker, at O.Johnson's 
Hussey M. miner, Cambridge mine 
Hussey M, miner, Emjnre company 
Hutchinson J. K. Pleasant st 
HYDE WM. clerk, Forest Springs 



Idaho Mining- Co., near Eureka mine 
Imhotf Saml. G. tinsmith, Avith Loyd, res 

Neal street 
Ingram Wm. prop'r Boston Ravine Hotel 
lone House, near lone mill 
lone Mining Co. 2 miles S of Grass Valley 
Ismert Peter, rancher, Glcnbrook 
Isi'ael Beuedix, dry goods, res Church st 
Israel & Hirschfield, dry goods,»Mill st 
Irish James, miner, Scaddeu Flat 
Ivory John, Neal street 



Jacks J. M. teamster, Aitbiirn street 
Jacobs G. laborer, Mohawk lumber yard 
Jacobs T. miner, Kate Hays Hill 
Jago E. B. miner. Forest Springs 
James & English, blacksmiths. Auburn st 
James Edwin, miner, Eureka mine 
James J. miner. Lucky mine 
James J. G. miner, cor Race&Auburn sts 



CLOTllINa EMfOKlUM, CORNER MAIN AND MILL STRKIOTS, CJRASS VALLWY. 



FANCY GOODS AT DIXON'S. 



260 



GRASS VALLEY TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY, 



James James, Union Hill mine 

James James, (of Engllsli & J,) Auburn st, 

near main 
James John, miner, Eace^ille 
James Joiiu, miner, Frencli lead 
James Jolm, miner, L'nion Hill 
James Jokii W. miner, Scadden Flat 
James Peter, miiier, L^nion Hill mine 
James Tliomas, miner. Lucky mine 
James Thus. E. engineer, Auburn st 
James Wm. miner, Bennett street 
James Wm. miner, L^nion Hill mine 
James Wm. farmer, E main street 
Jansin A. S. miner. Pike Flat 
Jetfary Edward, miner, S Auburn street 
Jeifree Jolin, miner, Alta st 
Jelfry Robert, miner, Eiu'eka mine 
Jefli'ey Silas, miner, Xorambagua mine 
Jenking — , miner. Eureka mine 
Jenkins E. miner, Norambaguamine 
Jenkins H. miner, Union Hill mine 
Jennings Ben. miner, Xorambagua mine 
Jennings Hugh, miner, Freeh lead 
Jennings M. H. miner, New York Hill 
Jennings N. miner, Massachusetts Hill 
Jewell John, miner. Eureka mine 
Job Jerry, miner, Xorambagua mine 
Job William, engineer, Gold Hill mill, 

res Chapel street 
John Peter, miner, Scadden Flat 
Johns James, miner, tTnion Hill mine 
Johns James, miner, Xorambagua mine 
Johns Stephens, miner, French lead 
Johns John, miner, French lead 
Johnson B. cabinet maker, with Wohler 

& Halleck 
Johnson J. H. groom. Empire stable 
Johnson John, teamster, soda factory 
Johnson John G. barber, cor ilain and 

Church streets 
Johnson L. P. barkeeper, Boston Rapine 
JOHXSOX OLE, furniture ect. Main st 
Johnson Wm. miner, bds Western Hotel 
Johnston George, miner. Eureka mine 
Johnston John, miner, Eureka mine 
JOHXSTOX JOHN, grocer, mill street, 

res Xeal st, bet Mill and Auburn 
JOHXSTOX PETER, hardware dealer, 

Xo. 18 Mill street, res Auburn st 
Jones A. F. millinery, Xo. 3 Main street 
JOXES Mrs. A. F. milliner, Main street 
Jones Charles, miner, Chapel street 
Jones Charles, miner. Lone Jack 
Jones David, miner. Eureka mine 
Jones David A. wood choper, cabins on 

Worthington's ranch 
Jones Ed. carman, Allison Ranch 
Jones Edward, miner. Eureka ixuue 
Jones Frank, miner, Massachusetts Plill 
Jones Fred, miner, Massachusetts Hill, 

bds at Scott's, Boston Ravine 
Jones John, Massachusetts Hill 



Jones Peter, miner. Eureka mine 
Jones Robert, miner, Massachusetts Hill 
Jordan G. A. sec'y Union Xo. 2 mine 
Joseph Morris H. variety store, Main st, 

bds Wisconsin Hotel 
Joyce Patrick, fireman, Allison Ranch 
Judkins W. carpeuter,bds Western Hotel 
Juliff Francis, miner, Bennett street 
Julian H. miner, res E side Boston Ravine 

K 

KAISER €. H. laundry. Mill street 
Kahalelier Wm. miner, Allisen Ranch 
Kaiu Thomas, miner, Allison Ranch 
Kane M. rancher, ridge road to G. V. 
Kasten F. teamster, Biukleman's brewery 
Kate Hays Mining Co. Kate Hays Hill 
Katzenstein G. works at Hotel de France 
Kavanaugh Mioses, drifter, Allison Ranch 
Kay W. miner, Eureka mine 
Kearvin Pat, Xorambagua mine 
Keefe Owen, drifter, Allison Ranch 
Keefe Joseph, miner, Allison Ranch 
Keefer J. S. carpenter, bds Golden Eagle 

Hotel 
Keen an Pat, miner, French lead 
Iveefe Timothy, 

Keefe Dennis, miner, Allison Ranch 
Keleher Wm. brakeman, Allison Ranch 
Kelley B. hostler. Empire stable 
Kelley John, miner, Xorambagua mine 
Kelley Peter, carman, Xew York Hill 
Kelley P. T. clerk at King's shoe store 
Kelley Peter, miner, Allison Ranch 
Kellog J. E. blacksmith, bds at Chaplin's, 

Pike Flat 
Kellogg Jesse H. blacksmith with Avery 

& Crocker, Main st 
Kelly C. miner. Main st 
Kelly Mathew, miner, Raceville 
Kelly Mathew, fireman, Empire miill 
Kelly Michael, feeder, Xorambagua mine 
Kelly Patrick, grocer, Main street 
Kelly Peter, miner. Empire mine 
Kelly Wm. feeder. Empire mill 
Kemp John, miner. Union Hill mine 
Kemp Thomas, miner. Union HUl mine 
Kempsey James, drifter, Allison Ranch 
Kendall R. miner, Xorambagua mine 
Keudig Daniel, wagon maker, bds Golden 

Fagie Hotel 
Kennedy R. Rocky Bar 
Kennedy S. miner. Rocky Bar 
Kenuey J. T. Boston Ravine 
Kenney Michael, Forest Springs 
Kenueily John, drifter, Allison Ranch 
Kcnsley 51. miner. Empire mine 
Kervan Patrick, miner, Allison Ranch 
KIBBE T. R., M.D. School street 
Kilroy Patrick, miner, Allison Ranch 
King A. miner. Union Hill mine 



a. GAD'S IS TUE PLACE TO FIT YOUilSiSLi' WiTU h'LNii CLOTHING. 



FAMILY BIBLES AT LIXONS. 




KIN(J GEO. C. shoe dealer, 18 Mill st 
Kiiij.^ H. miner, Scacklcn Flat 
Kiii<>' Will. luJuiT, N()raml/a<i"ua mine 
Kiii<>'8li-y F. carpenter, ivn (iraiss Valley 

and Ne\a<la routl 
Kinu VVm. miner, bds Town Talk House 
Kiiiseia Jolui, drifter, Alliwou Kancli 
Kinsela M. driller, Allison Kanch 
K INSFY S. (of Finnie&K.) llichardson st 
Kin«iuui A. miner, Kate liays Hill 
Kinsman Joal, miner, Lower Mill tit 
ivinsmaii John, miner, K;ite llavrfllill 
KIiiKPATl{l('K ^iMASLIN, attornevK 

at law, iSlain st, op Exchane'(! lIoti;l 
Kirk pat rick Frank, carman. Union Hill 
KIKKFATUIC'K M. (of K. & Maslin) res 

Wood street 
Kite \Vm. carpenter, Hillsburg 
Kitto James, French lead 
Kitto Jolm, foreman, French lead 
Kitto Richard, miner, French lead 
Kitto 'J'homas, Kate Have; Hill 
Kline C. Wood street 
Kiiiyht John, miner. Union Hill mine 
Kni<>-ht l*eler, miner, Scadden Flat 
KNODFIUCH T. yunsmith, Mill at, bds 

(liolden Ea<;le Hotel 
KosminsJcy S. nuTchant, Ms Exchaniye 
Kriss (.ieo. bds at \\'ashin<^ton Brewery 
Kruse H. miner, Alta Hill 
Kuley John, miner. Eureka mine 
Kute K. miner, Canibridire mine 



Ladruc Timothy, miner, Sebastopol Hill 
Laclu-y Martin, miner, Allison Ranch 
Laity (Jet)r(>v, miner, Boston Ravine 
Lake Edwin, macliinist, bds Union Rest 
LAKENAN JAMES M. (ilrass Valley 

foundry, res Church sti'eet 
Lambert 1). miner, Union Hill mine 
Lauiar(]ui! B. L. musician, Mill street 
Lana<>"er Jacob, 

Lane Charles, lal)orer, S Auburn st 
Lane J. laborer, Em])ire nrill 
Landers M. miner. Empire mine 
Landers Richard, miner, Eureka mine 
Landlan M. carman, Empire mine 
Landlon John, laborer, Em])iro mine 
Landolt Frank, butcher at City Market 
Lanji'dou James, Bennett street 
Lanji^lois T. 

Larcut W. miner. Empire mine 
Larcy Con. carman, Empire mine 
Larimer J. W. ^jroprietor Larimer's q^uartz 

mill, Boston Ravine 
Larkin tVm. drifter, Allison Ranch 
Larv Tliomas, miner, Scadden Flat 
LATllROP S. jeweler, S Mill street 
Latliu John, miner. Empire mine 
Latta S. N. carpenter. Auburn st 



LATON B. B. ]iroprietcr Laton'smill, ree 

corner Church and W'alsh streets 
Lawrence E. miner, Unicjn Hill mine 
Lawrence Edward, miner, Eureka mine 
Lawrence James, miner, Eureka mine 
Lawrence J. moulder, (irass Valley foun- 
dry, res Hillsburfr 
Lawrence M. Hillsbur^' 
Law,sou A. merchant, lJillsburf>' 
Law.sou E. teamster, llillsburn;- 
Layer P. carpenter, bds Wisconsin Hotel 
Leahey M. miner, Norambayua mine, res 

x\lli.sou Ranch 
Leamey T. miner, Allison Ranch 
Lean Ricliard, en^^ineer, Wisconsin mine 
Leary James, miner, ]S'oramba<rna mine 
Leary Jolm, miner, Allison Ranch 
Leary Patrick, miner, Allison Ranch 
Leavitt S. D. mason, bds Enqiire Rest 
LEE S. W. sup't Empire Mininjj: Com- 
])any, res corner Main and lliffh sts 
LEECH ('HAS. proprietor Mohawk lum 

l)er vard, ns Auburn st 
LEECH 'REUBEN, miner, res W side of 

Auburn street 
Lcnmaville Mrs. Martjaret, Mill st 
Leon Breaut, tailor, res Mill st 
Leribaux J. miner. Union Hill mine 
Letcher James, miner. Eureka mine 
1>EVIX(jST0X E. variety store, Mainst 
LEVY H. & CO. tobaccoiusts, Main st, 

opposite Mill street 
LEW H. (of 11. L. &'Co.) res Church st 
LEVY H. drv yoods, res Church st 
LEVY JULIUS, shoe store. Mill st 
LEVY S. & BROS, dry o-<jods, 47 Mill st 
Lewis J. shutter maker, Tayhjr's foundry 
Lewis Richard, miner, Allison Ranch 
LIBBEY J. O. laundry. Mill street 
Lilly John, tinsmith, at Ilatheway & Co's 
Lind Alexander, miner. Badger mine 
LIND JAMES, clerk at Pioneer boot and 

shoi' store, res Bennett st 
LIXD ROBERT, harness maker, Main st 
Linehan Patrick, miner, Allison Ranch 
Linch James, miner. Empire mine 
Linch Wm. rock breaker, Allison Ranch 
Lincock J. miner. Union Hill mine 
Little 1). S. mechanic, E Main st 
LITTLE GEO. merchant. Forest Springs 
Lloyd A. D. engineer, Opliir Hill mine 
Lloyd John, blacksmith, Union Hill mine 
Loiseau L. teamster, lone mine 
LoiscU — , feeder. Eureka mine 
Loney T. amalgamator, Noranibagiia mill 
Looney James, drifter, Allison Ranch 
Looney Jerry, carman, Allison Ranch 
Looney Jerry, miner, Church Hill 
Looney John, drifter, Allison Ranch 
Ijooney Patrick, drifter, Allison Ranch 
Looney Pat, carman, Allison Ranch 
Lopez J. M. ranchman, Glenbrook 



liOYS SUITS, AND UNDER-CLOrUING, ALL SIZES, AT li. GADS. 



ETJ RY r.ODY'S FRIEND, DIXON. 



262 



GRASS VALLEY TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 



Lord George, miner, Gold Hill Flat 
LORD JOS. (of T. Lord & Co.) Main st 
Lord T. H. carpenter, AVood st 
Loviruev James, miner, Allison Ranrli 
LOUTZEXHEISER WM. cbuggist, cor- 
ner IMain and Aiibnrn sts 
Lovy C. H. blacksmith, Arery&Crockcr's 
Low Setli, miner, Boston Ravine 
LOYD T. & C(j. hardware, Jlain st 
Lncas A. 

Lnce R. miner, Empire mdnc 
Lucky Mining Co., AV. A. Taylor, snp't 
Luke Henry, miner. Town Talk House 
Luke Wm. Town Talk House 
Luke \Vm. miner, Rhode Island Ravine 
Lusch. R. laborer, Empire mine 
Lutje Otto, 

Lyda P. clerk. Western Hotel 
Lyford W. G. miner, International Hotel 
Lynch Daniel, Mill street 
Lynch John, Race street 
Lynch John, miner, Ophir Hill 
Lynch Thomas, miner, Empire mine 
Lynch ^^'illiam, laborer, Union Hill 
Lynch William, miner, Allison Ranch 
Lynn S. book keeper at T. Loyd & Co"s, 

bds Hotel de France 
Lyon S. M. blacksmith at G V foundrv 
Lytle William, Hillsburg 
Lyttle Thomas, miner, Allison Ranch 

M 

Mackenzie W. S. jeweler vdth. S. Glass 
McAnnally R. engineer, Cambridge mine 
McAulilfe"M. blacksmith, Allison Ranch 
McBreen T. butcher, lone Road 
McBriarty P. miner, S Mill street 
McCabe Barnet, miner, Forest Springs 
JNIcCabe J. miner, Enijiire mine 
McCabe J. miner, res S Auburn st 
McCabe James, miner, Boston Ravine 
McCall J. feeder. Empire mill 
McCain Seth, ranchman, 4 miles S of G V 
McCan John, miner, Empnre mine 
McCane Thomas, miner, AJhson Ranch 
McCann Jas. miner, Massachusetts HsU 
McCann John, miner, Gold Hill 
McCardel Bernard, miner, A^'ashington st 
McCart E. washman, G V laundry 
McCarthy Daniel, miner, Allison Ranch 
McCarty J. L. shoveler, Allison Ranch 
McCarthy John, carpenter, Allison Ranch 
iSIcCarthy Tim. drifter, .tUlison Ranch 
McCarthy T. miner. Gold Hill 
McCarty JNIrs. rooms to let, 3 Auburn st 
McCarty Henry, res Auburn st 
McCarty J. carman, Xorambagua mine 
McCALXEY BEX. sup't of Sebastopol 

mill, res Boston Ravine 
McCleary J. S. apothecary, W Main st 
McCormick John, drifter, Allison Ranch 



McConneny D. miner. Empire mine 
McCUE J. S. stables, res Church st 
Mc'CFE T. W. livery stable. Main st, res 

Auburn st 
ilcCUE & CO. livery stable, on Main st 
McDermott J. miner, Empire mine 
McDermott P. miner, S Mill st 
^McDonald Arthur, miner, Boston Ravine 
McDonald James, fireman, French lead, 

res Massachusetts Hill 
McDonald R. millwiight, Auburn st 
McDonald T. miner, Massachusetts Hill 
McDonald Thos. sulphuret cleaner, res 

Massachusetts Hill 
McDonald Owen, miner, Allison Ranch 
McDonald Phil, miner, Allis(yn Ranch 
McDonel T. miner, Emigre mine 
McDonnell Hugh, diifter, Allison Ranch 
McDonnel Granville, Auburn st 
McDoninigh I\I. book keeper at M. Ford"s 
McEllin D. laborer. Auburn st 
McFadeu W. C. miner, Chapel st 
McFate Thomas, miner, Lone Jack 
McGa'dn John, miner, Gold Hill 
McGowin Jcjhn, lab(;rer. Empire mill 
McGRATH B. miner, res jNlill st 
McGourey Jas. minei, Ophir Hill mine 
McGuiness James, miner, Allison Ranch 
McKEE GEO. B. pro}) Wisconsin mine, 

bds at E. McLeods, ^Vashiugton st 
Mc'KEE S. bookkeeper at J. Johnston's 
McKeefry D. laborer, E Boston Ravine 
McKeefry J. L. laborer, Mohawk lumber 

yard 
McKelvy B. laborer, Empire mill 
McKenna J. miner. Lucky mine 
McKinnon Peter, labtn'er, Gold Hill 
McKenuev Abel, Hillsburg 
McLAIX "GEO. D. clerk at Adams, Mc- 

Xeil & Co's 
McLaughlin M. miner, S Auburn st 
McLaughlin ISL drifter, Allison Ranch 
McLaughlin Pat, shoveler, Allison Ranch 
McLean Daniel, res Wood street 
McLeod F. blacksmith, ^A"ashino•ton st 
McMahon Tim, blacksmith,Allson Ranch 
McMrJIin James, 

McPeak Charles, laborer, at Watt Bros 
ilcPherson W. miner. Empire mine 
McSORLEY ED. saloon on Mill st, bds 

Hotel de France 
jMcSweeny D. rock breaker, AlliscnRanch 
Maden John, miner. Town Talk House 
jNIadden John, miner, Eitreka mine 
Madden Mrs. C. res at Bennett's 
Madiil Mrs . (widow) res Bennett st 
Magher D. miner, Boston Ra\ine 
Magitire B. miner, Allison Ranch 
MAHER DEXXIS, proprietor Militarj- 

Saloon, res X'eal street 
Mahoney T. brickmaker, jes Badger st 
Man John, miner. Eureka mine 



WHO KEEPS THE OKEAT CliOTIIIXCI EMPORIUM, CORNER On 



FOR FIN'E PO"KET CUTLERY GO TO DIXON'S. 




MAIN STREET BAKERY, Main st, G. 

W. Andt-rson, proprietor 
Mais Charles, watclinuin, Brimstetter's 

lunilier yard 
Mann Jolui. miner, Gold Hill 
M:uin V. carjii'iiter, lJ^)rest Springs 
Mrtiiioii Micliui'l, miner Allison Ranch 
Mankcrvi.s H. miner, Scadden Flat 
Mansaw Z. en<rin'j:'r, Cambridge mine 
Maimel L. miner, Frencli Lead 
Marcoux Romiiald, clerk miners' Hotel 
Ijarch J. B. expressman, Delleuderttl-r's 

Express, ri'S cor Alta and Bean st 
Marjreson A. miner S Aaburn st 
Marion J. ]nittern maki-r, Ci V Fonndry 
Markes Thos. miner, French lead 
Mark Will John, rancher, 8 m E ofCf V 
MAIJSIIALL J. E. oardner. Marshall st 
Marshal Jos. clerk at S. llanak 
MARSHALL MARK T. orcliardist, res 

Marshall st 
Martell C. enjrineer. Lucky mine 
Martin Alex, tinsmith, Bennett st. 
Martin Darius, ^^'inchcste^ Market 
Martin John, Main si 
Martin John, miner. Eureka mine 
Martin John, miner, (fold Hill 
Martin Timothy, miner, Camb'dprf* mine 
Martin Tiios. mint-r, Cambridjre mine 
Martin Thos. en<jinei'r, Emi)ire mill 
Martin Nrs. widow, Hillsburs' 
MASON & BYRNE, Empire Liverv Sta- 
bles, Mill st 
MASON JAMES B. (ofM. & Brrne) 
MAS(JN J. B. (of M. & Byrne,) res East 

Main street 
Mason T. en<;ineer, Luckvmiue 
MASLIN EDWIN W. (of Kirkpatrick & 

M.) res Auburn st 
Masson L. Grass Valley 
Matchet R. teamster, Buena Vista Rancli 
Matteson A. ranchman. Union Hill 
Mattesou C. ranchman. Union Uill 
Maurer JT. res Richardson st 
Mav James, miner. Eureka mine 
May W. H. miner, Kate Hays Hill 
May W. H. carpenter, Kate Hays Hill 
Mazeppa Liverv Stable. 
MAZEPPA SALOON, cor :Nmi & Neal sts 
MEEDS D. G. baker, cor Main & Churcli 
Meek B. miner. Pike Flat 
Meek E. E. L. miner. Grass Valley 
MEEK J. D. constable, office at Judge 

Byrne's, res Churcli street 
Mellin Thomas, miner. Eureka mine 
Melville G. F. musician, bds Hotel de 

France 
Menhenick R. niason, Boston Ravine 
Menjar J. miner. Eureka mine 
Merril Wm. miner, Norambairua mine 
Merrimack Minino- Co. near Glenbrook 
Micliael A. Mill street 



MICHAEL H. tobacconist, bds Exchange 

Hotel 
Michael James, saloon, Colfax road 
Michell Thomas, miner. Gold Hill 
Michel L. R. laborer, ]Moha\vk lumber 

yard 
Miclidas John, miner, Norambaga mine 
Middleton John, teamster, Hillsbiirtr 
MILITARY SALOON, Main st. H. S. 

Hancock , pr( )pr! et ( )r 
Millar Wm. G. ])hysician, Mill st 
Miller Clias. carman. Union Hill mine 
Miller C. E. wagonmaker, bds Union 

Restaurant 
Miller E. miner, Em]>ire mine 
Miller H. carman. Union Hill niin« 
Miller Peter, ranchman Forest Sprinpfs 
Miller P. S. boardintf house, F Springs 
Miller R. feitler, Em[)iri' mill 
Miller Thimias L. miner, res near Lari- 
mer's mill 
Miller W. miner, Emjnre mine 
Miller John, Schfxd st 
Miller Thomas, School st 
Millman (feorge, miner, Eureka mine 
Mills Edgar, mined, Cambridge mine 
Mills (ieorge, miner, Norambaga 
Mills John, miner, French Ivo-ad 
Mills John, pitjutrr, bds restaurant 
Mills Michael, miner, South Auburn st 
Mills Mrs. Pleasant street 
Minners John, miner,, bds Lower Mill st 
Mitchell John, Sc1i(K)1 street 
ilitchell Charles, brewerv, Neal street 
Mitchell J. min-r. Kate Hayc-s Hill 
Mitchell John, miner, Gold Hill 
Mitchell John, engineer, Union Hill mine 
Mitchell Josiah, miner, Kate Hays Hill 
Mitchell Luke, miner. Eureka mine 
Mitchell M. miner, Camljridge mine 
Jlitchell Micliael, drifter, Allison Ranch 
Mitchell W. H. miner, Kate Hays Hill 
Mitchell W. H. miner. Auburn street 
:MITCHELL W. H. proprietor Wisconsin 

Hotel, cor Aubui'u and Main streets 
Mitchell Thomas, miner, Fi-ench Lead 
Mock P. B. rancher, one half mile from. 

Grass Valley 
Mogan Michael, blanket washer, Allison 

Ranch 
MOHAWK LUMBER YARD, C. Leech, 

proprietor. Auburn street 
Moil S. miner, Union Hill mine 
Molloy J. C. wood-chopper, French I^ead 
Monnie Alexis, rancher, Kate Hayes Hill 
Montgomery John W. Union Hill saloon 

and store 
Montgomery W. H. barkeeper at Pacific 

Hotel 
Mooney B. L'niou Hill 
Moony R, carman, Empire mine 
Moony T. rock-breaker. Union Hill mine 



MAIN AND MILL STKEETS, GKASS VALLEY ? B. GAD. 



264 



DIXON'S VARIETY STOKE, Jfo. 4: MIJOL STREET, GHASS VALLEY. ' 



GRASS VALLEY TOWJfSHIP DIREGTOET. 



Moore Tliomas H. blacksmith, IVIill st 

Morau Mrs. Margaret, Main street 
Moran, Peter, miner, Opliir Hill mine 
Moran Thomas, barljer, W Main street 
Morateur A. saloon keeper, Boston Eav 
Morcon R. miner, Gold Plill 
More Israel, teamster, bds Chaplin's, Pike 

Flat 
MOREHOUSE A. ranchman, Pike Flat 
Morehouse J. miner, Pike Flat 
Morehouse .Joseph, carman, Xoramljag'a 
Morey L. L. blacksmith, bds at Gilpin's, 

Hilsburf^ 
MORRIS & XATIIAX, dry goods mer- 
chants. Mill street 
MORRIS JACOB, (of M. & Xathan) res 

Auburn street. 
Jlorris J. W. Grass YaileT 
MORRIS MRS. R. variety store, iliil st 
IVIorrissey T. shoveler, Allisim Ranch 
Morrison A. baker ^^dth Cami^bell & Stod- 
dard 
MORSE E. F. pup't Esses mine, Lov.-er 

Mill street 
Morton .John, amalgamator, TJ Hill mill 
iNIorton R. H. boarding house. Union Hill 
MOSHER MRS. dress maker, cor Auburn 

and Bennet streets 
Mosher Charles, Winchester street 
Moss W. J. engineer, Xorambaga 
Mott George M. bds International Hotel 
Moulton John, miner. Union mine 
Moyle Bennett, miner. Union Hill 
Mulcahy John, drifter, Allison Ranch 
Mullen A. miner, Boston Ravine 
Mullen James, laborer, Bennett street 
ilullen John, miner. Empire mine 
Mullen P. miner. Empire mine 
Mullen T. stone mason. Bennett street 
Mullen T. B, miner. Pike Flat 
Muller Tim, miner, Rocky Bar 
Midlin A. miner, Cambridge mine 
Mullin J. miner, Emx)ire mine 
^Mulligan P. miner. Empire mine 
Mullarkey W. ranch, five miles south of 

Grass Valley . 

Mulloy Daniel, Church street 
Muncev M. E. Xeal street 
MURBAR MARTIX, butcher, Fulton 

market, res Auburn st 
Murley Henry, miner. Lucky mine 
jSIurney J. miner. Pike Flat 
Murray M. millright, Empire mill 
Murrish H. miner, Kate Hays Hill 
Mixrrish H. miner, Eureka mine 
MURRY D. hotel keeper, Boston Ravine 
Murry ^Mike, miner. Alhson Ranch 
Murphy C. miner, L'nion Xo. 2 
Murphy Daniel, miner, Allison Ranch 
Murphy D. miner, Boston Ravine 
Murphy G. p)ainter, sho^i next to L'nion 
stables. Main st 



Murphy M. miner. Empire mine 
Mitri)hy Mrs. M. milliner, Xeal st 
Murphy Peter, miner, Lucky mine 
Murphy Patrick, carman, Xorambagua 
>lurphy T. miner, Opliir Hill 
]Muri)]iy \V. miner. Empire mine 
-Murton Peter, miner. South Ai;burn st 
Miisgrove R. miner, Lower -Alill st 
Mutton Chas. miner, X'orambagua 
jMiittou Thos. miner, Wisconsin mine 
Myers Fred, miner, Eureka mine 
Myers James, miner, Massachusetts Hill 
M viand John, miner, Allison Ranch 

N 

Xagar W. miner, Scadden Flat 

Xagle D. carman, Allison Ranch 

Xankavin R. miner, Xorambag-iia 

Xankar\is R. miner, Xoraml)f!gua mill 

Xankervis Wm. miner, Pike Flat 

Xash E. W. shoe maker. Mill st 

X'athan C. clerk at Xathan & Hofihian's 

Xathan B. Auburn st 

Xathan D. drvgoods, res Auburn st 

Xathan M. clerk. Mill st 

Xathan & Hoffiuan, clothing merchants, 

cor Main and Mill sts 
Xatress Thos. miner, E Main st 
Xeely S. miner. Chapel st 
Xeese E. miner. Forest springs 
Xelson C. engineer, Ophir Hill mine 
Xelson C. L. blacksmith, bd-s Wood st 
Xelson W. miner. Empire mine 
Xelson W, W'. miner, Ophir Hill 
Xesedale Peter, Collins st 
Xesmith J. F. book keeper at Delano's 
Xettle John, miner. Kate Hays Hill 
Xevan Pat, miner, French Lead 
Xe^TJi James, blacksmith. Empire Co 
Xewkirk R. teamster, Hillsburg 
XEWMAX J. & CO. drygood.s; Mill st 
Xevrman Joseph, (of J. X. & Co.) bds Ho- 
tel de France 
XevTuan J. A. 

Xe^^^nan John, miner. Forest Springs 
Xew Orleans -Mill Co., Little Wolf Creek 
Xew Y'ork Hill Mining Company 
Xicholas J. rainer. Eureka mine 
Xichols John, Washington st 
Xilan John, miner. Empire mine 
Xilan John, miner, Allison Rancn 
Xinnis W. miner, Kate Hays Hill 
Xixon R. works at HiU's siilphuret works 
Xolan Patrick, drifter Allison Ranch 
Xole James, miner, French Lead 
Xoonan E. W. clerk, res Church st 
Xoonan P. miner. Rocky Bar 
Xorthey E. miner. Gold Hill 
Xorthy G. miner. Eureka mine 
Xorthey H. miner, Eureka mine 
Xorthey Wm. miner. Gold Hill 



B. GAD ALWAYS KEEPS THE BEST BOOTS AND SHOES. 



GUITAR AND VIOLIN STRINGS AT DIXON'S. 




Northup Rev. C. H. minister, Pike Flat 
Northup C. W. blacksmith, bds Golden 

Eagle Hotel 
NORTH STAR MINING Co.Frencli Lead 
Norton J. G. wood ranch, bds at Chap- 

11 ns, Pike Flat 
Norton M. miner, Union Hill 
NORTON M. S. postmaster, res Church st 
Norton Michael W. teamster, Pike st 
Notter Jolm, barkeeper, Oasis saloon 
NOVIT SKY SIMON, hatter. Mill street 
Noy Jas. miner. Eureka mine 
Nuffont P. miner. Empire Co 
• Nuttall John, miner. Lucky mine 
Nve James F. miner, Kate Hayes Hill 
NYE D. B. Church street 
Nye L. miner, Kate Hayes Hill 



OBrian J. minor. Empire Co 

O'Brien Michael, slioveler, Allison Ranch 

O'Brinc \\'m. miner, Gold Hill 

OlConnor J C. Sprino; Hill 

O'CONNOR M. P. Justice Peace, West 

Main st 
0'(!'onor, miner, Union Hill 
O'Conor T. teamster, Grass Valley 
O'Oonel W. brickmakei'. Auburn st 
O'Farrel John, carman, Empire Co 
O'Farrel M. brakeman, Empire Co 
O'Hearn Jas. miner, Boston Ravine 
O'Keefe, P. brickmason, Boston Ravine 
()"Keefo D. miner, Mill st 
O'Keafe Bart, minor, Allison Ranch 
O'Neal J. miner, Empire mill 
O'Neal Jerry, miner, Allison ranch 
O'Rear Wm'. C. Wymore res Richards'n st 
O'Rourke Michael, min?r, Allison ranch 
O'Rourke Patrick, drifter, Allison ranch 
O'Rourke Thos. drifter, Allison ranch. 
Oakley, J. F. miner, E Main st 
Oats Georfre, miner, Norambaga mine 
Oates Richard, bootmaker. Mill st 
OCCIDENTAL SALOON, W. C. Stokes, 

prop'r. Main st. 
Odge John, miner. Gold Kill 
Odge W. fl. miner, Gold Hill 
Odgers J. E. miner, S Auburn st 
Odgers Josiah, miner, Eurekr mine 
Odgei-s Joseph, miner, S Auburn st 
Odgers Samuel, miner, Opliir Hill mine 
Odgers W. H. miie;, S Auburn st. 
Odgers Jlrs. Hannah, Boston Rax-ine 
Old Wm. miner, bds at Mrs. Williams 
Olds Henry W. Auburn st 
Oliver Richard, miner, lone road 
Opia James, miner. Union Hill mine 
Opia John miner, Union Hill mine 
Opia Bjuuett, miner. Eureka mine 
Opia Wm. miner, Earska mine 
Ophir Hill Mining Co 

G2 



Ophir House, Schafer, prop'r, Ophir Hill 
Orr James, butcher, Allison ranch 
Osborn C. H. Glenbrook Race Track 
Osgood Wm. H. miner, bds at Scott's, 

Boston Ravine 
Osgood W. H. carpenter 
Oskins Thomas, miner, S Auburn st. 
OTilET T, miner, Feed store cor Neal 

& Mill st, res Auburn st 
Otte Hy, Boarding Plouse, No. 9, Main st 
Otwell "Thos, clerk, Wisconsin hotel 
Ousley Green, laborer, Washington st 
OusleV Jonlan, wheelright, Bost. Ra^^ne 



PACIFIC ORIC CO. works on G. V. & 

Nevada road. 
Packard Elijah, carpenter, Hillsburg 
Paddock R. teamster. Leech's mill 
Papin Leaudro, laborer, N. Church st 
Parker John, lumber dealer, res cor Neal 

& High sts 
Parks Richard, carpenter. Union Hill 
Parkhui*st Edwin, Main st 
Parmalee Henry, miner, bds at Martin's, 

Union Hill 
Parr Ed. miner. Union Hill mine 
Parr Edward, miner, E Main st 
Parr Wm. miner, Ncrambagua mine 
Parron \V"m. 

Parry George, steward City Rest 
Pascoe Jolm, miner, Scadden Flat 
Pascoe Jno. Jr, miner, French Lead 
Pascoe Jno. sen. miner, French Lead 
Pascoe N. miner, French Lead 
Pascoe Nicholas,blacksmith,French Lead 
Pascoe \^"alter, blacksmith, French Lead 
Patterson H. lumber dealer, S Auburn st 
Patterson E. J. (of P. & Conoway) bds at 

Pacific Hotel 
PATTERSON JAS. R., clerk at McSor- 

ley's, Rest. Wood st. 
Patterson Thos. miner, Last Chance mine 
Patton John A. saloon keeper. Forest 

Springs 
Paul Geo. miner, Eureka mine, res lower 

Mill st 
Paul Heniy, miner. Eureka mine, res 

lower Mill st 
Paul Jas. miner. Eureka mine, res lower 

Mill st 
Paul J. feeder, Empire Co 
Paul Jas. F. foreman Burdett mine 
Paul Samuel miner, res E Main st 
Paul Sam'l F. miner, res E Main st 
Paul Wm. miner. Eureka mine 
Paynter P. A.miner,bds at Mrs. Williams 
Peacock J. Sebastopol Saloon, Boston R. 
Pearce Jas. blacksmith, Eureka mine 
Pearce Jas. miner, French Lead 
Pearce John, miner, French Lead 



B. GAP'S 13 THE PLACE TO FIT TCTOBSELr 'YITH FINE OLOTHIKG'. 



CHESS 3IEJf, A LARQE SUPPLY, AT DTX0N"3. 



266 



GRASS VALLEY TOAVNSHIP DIRECTORY. 



Pearce Jolin, miner, Eureka mine 
Pearce Richard, miner, Xorambaoftia 
Pearce Thos. J. butcher, People's Market 
Pearce Wm. miner, Mass. Hill 
Pearce W. J. boiler msker, G.V. Foundry 
Pearson EVd, engineer, Spring Hill 
Peaslee Z\I. P. teamster, cor Pacific & 

Masrhall sts 
Peeres J. blacksmith helper. Eureka mine 
Peeters J. W. res Auburn st 
Pellamontain J. miner. Union Hill 
PELLATIER H. prop'r Hotel de France 
Peller F. miner, French Lead. 
Peller H. miner, French Lead 
Pelham R. O. rancher, Dry Creek, R. & 

Ready tp 
Penaluna R. miner. Union Hill mine 
Penberth H. miner. Union Hill mine 
Penberth Edward, miner, res Auburn st 
Penberthy Plarry, miner, Hueston Hill 
Penberthy Henrj'. miner, Bennett st. 
Penbertby John, bds at Mrs. Williams 
Penberthy Thos. B. miner, Houston Hill 
Pendleton A. M. cai'i^euter, bds S Bost. R 
Penglase Geo. miner, res Scadden Flat 
Parker John, miner, Mass. Hill 
Perkins Bradbmy, miner, Union Hill 
Perkins Josiah, wagon maker, Pike Flat 
Perkins Thos. res Bean st 
PERRIN JOSEPH,of Perrin's quartz mill 
Perry John, miner, res Houston Hill 
Perry John, blacsmith, res lower Mill st 
Perry Richard, miner, les School st 
Petary B. res Washington st 
Peters James, miner, Eureka mine 
Pett Charles, blacksmith. Eureka mine 
Phillip])ic H. concentrator. Eureka mine 
Phelps T. E. miner, bds Scott's, B. Ravine 
Phen Joseph, miner, res Boston Ravine 
Phillips Gregory, miner, Bennett st 
Phillips Henry ,miner,Norambagua mine 
Phillips John, eno-ineer, res Boston Rav 
Phillips John, blacksmith. Empire Co 
PHOTOGRAPHIC GALLERY, D. Cobb, 

proprietor. Mill st 
Pic Frank, carpenter, res L^nion Hill 
Picard A. rock breaker, Eureka mine 
Picard L. feeder. Eureka mine 
Pierce Jos. res cor Main & High sts 
Pillow Nicholas, miner, Eureka mine 

Pinneo G. D. res G. V. 

P.per Huo'h, miner, Norambiguamine 
Planer Ernst, upholster at Ole Johnson's 

bds at Wisconsin Hotel 
Pogue Peter, blacksmith, res Auburn st 
Poirier, Oliver, shoemaker, res Boston R 
Polglase Jno. miner. French Lead 
Polkinghorn Jno. miner, Eureka mine 
Pollard John, miner. Eureka mine 
Pollard John O. miner. Eureka mine 
Pollard Richard, miner, Norambagua 
Pollard Thos. miner, Eureka mine 



Pollard C. miner, Bennett st 

POLLEY H. Union livery stable, East 

Main st 
POLLEY R. D. at Polley's stable. East 

Main st 
Ponce Thos. blacksmith, Allison ranch 
Poolev Jas. H. storekeeper, Union Hill 
POPE WM. C. Auction & Com. Mer- 

hant, Undertaker & Furn't store, Millst 
Porter Jerry, miner, Xorambagua mine 
Potter M. B. schoolteacher, Winchester 

Hill, bds Wright's club house 
POWERS MRS. LUCY, boarding house 

Allison ranch 
Powers Edward, res Mill st 
Powers Robert, cook at G. Eagle Hotel 
Powers Mrs. (widow) res Mill st 
Power Henry, res Richardscn st 
Power Richard, shoveler, Allison ranch 
Powuing Ambrose, res Auburn st 
Powning John, miner. Gold Hill 
Powniug John, miner, S Auburn st 
j Powning, Joseph, mining sup't, Loyd st 
I Powr^rio- Jrp foreman Huetton Hill mine 
I res Race'\"ille 
Powning James, sup't Cambridge mine 
Poyzer Thos. res Lincoln Avenue 
Pratt Metcalf, res Boston Flat 
Prentice Frederick A. ag't Cal. State Tel. 

Co. office at Edwards & Co. Main st 
Price Lawrence, miner, Allison ranch 
Priedaux Hy, miner, Lucky mine 
Prior Richard, miner, Lucky mine 
Prisk Wm. miner, French Lead 
Pritchard Jas. carpenter, res School st 
Probis Wm. miner, French Lead 
PRODGER JXO. H. jeweler, 54 Mill st 

res Auburn st 
Prout G. miner. Union Hill mine 
Front J. miner. Gold Hill 
Prout Thomas, miner. Eureka mine 
Prot Thomas, miner, res Bennett st 
Provines M. amalgamator. Empire Co 
Pro^^s Wm. miner, Boston Ravine 
Purcell M. miner, Allison ranch 
Pryor James, miner, res Bennett st 
Pryor John, miner. Lucky mine 

Q 

Quick Martin, teamster, res Empire st 
Quigley M. miner, Eureka mine 
Quinn E. melter, Taylor's Foundry 
Quirk Phil, miner. Empire Co 

R 

Rabb Elias, res Washington st 
Radchff Philip, engineer, Gold Hill mine 

res lower Mill st 
Radicou B. feeder. Union Hill mill 
Ragan Con. miner, Cambridge mine 



AK IM3IE>Si: STOCK OF CLCa:Hl^■G— ■REIEE ? AT B. GAD'S GBEAI 



00 TO DIXOJTS VARIETY SrORE, NO. 4 JtILL STRKKT. GRASS VALLEY. 




Randal S. P. brakeman. Empire Co 
Randall Henry, miner,Norambao;ua mine 
Rav W. W. groom, Empire Stable 
Rjed Joseph, miner. Union No. 2 
Rjod J. C. boot & shoemaker, Boston R 
Rjed Newell 

Reed Patrick, res Hillsburg 
Rjod Richard, miner, Union Hill 
Redan Mining Co. Osiborn Hill 
Regan Con. drifter, Allison ranch 
Regan Timothy, miner, Allison ranch 
Reiley Henry, engineer, res Chapel st 
Reiley James, miner, E side Boston Rav 
Reiley M. carman, res Boston Ravine 
Reiley Pat'k, laborer, res Forest Springs 
REILLET CON. sup't Cambridge mine 
Reilv Patrick, miner, Shamrock mine 
RELLEY JNO. W. carpenter, bds Golden 

Eagle Hotel 
Rentshler J no. G. Eagle Bakery,S Mill st 
Remiuton M. S. chief engineer, Allison R 
Rerdon Eugene.miner.Norambagaa mine 
Reseigh \\'illiam, miner, brickyard 
Revel Joseph, 

Reydet Jolin, lish dealer, Bennett et 
Revnolds B. F. res Winchester Hill 
Reynold II. H. res Mill st 
Reynolds James, miner, Allison ranch 
Reynolds Michael, miner, Allison ranch 
Reynolds Wm. miner, Eureka mine 
Rhodes Geo. teamster. Greenhorn S mill 
Richard John, helper, French Lead 
Richard Wm. miner. Union Hill 
Richards Alt', miner, French Lead 
Ricliards Beuj. miner. Norambagua mine 
Richards Benj. miner, res Main st 
Richards Edward, miner. Eureka mine 
Richards Francis L. brewer, N Auburn st 
Richards Jas. miner, French Liad 
Richards Tbos. blacksmith helper H. Hill 
Richards Wm. miner, French Lead 
Ricliards W. H. miner, French Lead 
Richardson C. miner, res Eureka Hill 
Ridiardson C. R. miner, Ophir Hill 
Richardson M. carpenter, bds West'rn H 
Richardson Mrs, (widow.) Richardson st 
RIDER MRS. J. V. Grass Valley Semi- 
nary, E Main st 
Rieley John, mi.ier. Allison ranch 
Rightmyer H. moulder, Taylor's foundry 

Riley Jas. Wolf creek j 

Riley M miner. Empire mine i 

Riley Michael, carman, Eureka mine 
Riordan M. carman, Allison ranch 
Ripert Sidoene, Eureka ixiine,bds at Cotas 
Raach John, res Main st 
Roach M. miner. Empire mine 
Roach M. carman, Norambagua mine 
Roach Patrick, carman, Norambagua m 
Robins John saloon keeper lower ilill st 
Robbins A. miner. Pike Flat 
Robbins John, miner, French Lead 



Robert Stephen, miner, Pike Flat 
Robcr C. emploved on G. V. & N. T. road 
ROBERTS E. Vv. Notary Public & Att'y 

at Law, res near Coe mine 
Roberts Harr;son,bntcher,bds Pac. Hotel 
Roberts Henrv.Brighton House Mass Hill 
ROBERTS H'.C. bookkeeper, Findlev's 

Bank. 
Roberts Hugh, miner. Eureka mine 
Roberts Jolm, miner, Mass. Hill 
Roberts J. S. woodchopper, bds at Peas- 
ley's, Boston Ravine 
Roberts Philip W. miner, Sebastopol 
Roberts R. Storekeeper, res L'uion Hill 
ROBERTS ROBERT G. blacksmith, res 

G. V.St 
Roberts Mrs. S. Brighton Hotel Mass Hill 
Robinson E. carpenter, Washington st 
Robinson James, caiix*nter, Rocky Bar 
Robinson John, carman, Union H. mine 
Robinson R. barber, Boston Ravine 
Robinson Wm. miner. Town Talk mine 
Robinson ^^'m. F. minor, Houston Hill 
Robinson Mrs. (widow) res ]Mill st 
Roche Michael J. dril'ter, Allison ranch 
Roche Michael, sen. drifter.AUison ranch 
Roche Patrick, shoveler, Allison ranch 
Rochel Francisco, miner, Boston Ravine' 
Rocaser}' Peter, res near Eureka mill 
ROCKY BAR MINING CO. A. B. Brady 

sup't, Mass. Hill 
Rodda James, miner, Norambagua mine 
Rodda John, nurseryman, Pike Flat 
Rodda John, carpenter, res Bennett st 
Rodda Joseph, miner, French Lead 
Rodda Thos. miner, Union Hill 
Rodda W. boilermaker, Taylor's foitndiy 
RODDA WM.H.sup't Norambagua mine, 

res Boston Ra^^ne 
Rodgers John, miner, res Union Hill 
Rodgers John, miner, Eureka mine 
Rodgers Jolm, miner, Coltas road 
Rodgers John, bookkeeper, res Hillsburg 
Rodgers John, engineer, French Lead 
Rodgers P. miner. Eureka mine, res 

Auburn st 
Rodgers P. Colfax road 
Rodgers Thos. miner, Eureka mine 
Rodgers AVm. miner, Eiu'eka mine 
Rodgers ^Vm. miner, lower Jlill st 
Rodgers AVm. engineer, French Lead 
Rodgers Thos. miner, Eureka mine 
Rolf Almon, miner. Mill st 

Rogers J. J. E Main st. 

Rogers J. W. engineer, Houston Hill, bds 

Wisconsin Hotel 
Rogers Patrick, res Auburn st 
Rogers Manuel, rancher, Glenbrook 
Roland S. J. butcher, res Empire st 
Roland AV. A. butcher, res Empire st 
Rollins John, miner, lower Mill et 
Rollins John Jr, miner, lower Mill st 



CLOTHING EMPORIUM, CORNER MAIN AND MILL STREETS, GRASS VALLEY. 



GirT ANNUALS AT DIXO.S'?. 



268 



GRASS VALLEY TOWNSHIP DIEECTORT. 



Rondoni & Orse, charcoal burners 
Rondoni Antonio, (of R. & Orse) B. Alley 
Roscoro James, miner, French Lead 
Roscrow James, miner, French Lead 
Rose Xumar, miner. Eureka Hill 
Rescrer L. laborer, res Auburn st 
Rosevere John, miner, Eureka mine 
Rosevarn H. miner, Empire Hill 
Rosewell James, miner, Mass. Hill 
RD£S MOSES W. (of Smith & Ross) res 

Richardson st 
Roster James, miner, Ophir Hill 
Roth Philip, shoemaker, Union Hill 
Rourke M. drifter, Allison ranch 
Rourke Patrick, miner, Allison ranch 
Rowe David, miner, res Grave Yard Hill 
Rowe George, miner, lower Mill st 
Rowe Henry, blacksmith. Eureka mine 
Rowe Richard, miner, French Lead 
Rowe F. miner Frtnch Lrad 
Rowe Wm. miner, Union Hill, bds at 3. 

Hodges 
Rowe Wm. helper, Xorambag'ua mine 
Rowland R. miner. Union Hill 
Rowland T. 0. brickmaker, Boston Rav. 
Rubert D. H. carpenter, res School st 
Ruck Anton, baker, res E Main st 
Rule Francis, miner, Boston Ravine 
Rule Joseph, miner, Boston Ravine 
Rule Wm. minor, French Lead 
Rule W. teamster, Kate Hayes Hill 
Runnels Mrs. Mary A. res Mill st 
Runnels W. res Union Hill 
Runnels W. H. clerk at Monitor lumber 

yard, res Empire st 
Rush John R. miner, Boston Ravine 
Russell J. A. phvsician & siu-geon, office 

Mill St. 
Ryan John, miner, Empire Co 
Ryan jNI. miner, Ophir Hill 
Ryan M. E. (of Garland & Co.) bds at G's 
Ryan Patrick, drifter, Alhson ranch 
Ryan Pat. Jr. barkeeper Allison ranch 
Ryan Wm, woidmar, Ophir Hill 
Ryder D. A. teamster, Hiilsburg 
R,yder Geo. miner. Eureka mine 

s 

Sabin F. cigar manufacturer, jSIill st 
Salaman A. grocer, Mill st, res School st 
SALE JOHX K. detective, res Main st 
Salyer John, engineer, Hiilsburg 
Sampson Edward, miner, Gold Hill 
Sampson John, carpenter, Scadden Flat 
Sampson Richard, miner. Gold Hill 
Sampson Wm, miner, Gold Hill 
Sampson Walter, French Lead 
Samuel A. drygoods, bds Pacific Hotel 
Samuel M. (of H. Levy & Co)res Church st 
Samuel W. drygoods, "Dds Union Rest 
Samuels E. miner, G. V. & Nevada road 



SANDERS J. clothing, res Church st 
Sanders S. clothing, res Mill st 
Sandoz A. barber, res Richardson st 
Sanford E. P. teamster, res High st 
Sanfoid J. H. tar keeper at Exchange 
banfcrd J, X. blacksmith, Neal st 
Sanks Isaac, res Cliurch st 
Sannatt Francis, labrrer, Boston Ravine 
Sauvee F. gardener. Wolf Creek 
Savage Jolin, drifter, Allison Ranch 
Savage Wm. drifter, Allison Ranch 
Sawyer L X. cabinet maker, at Pope's 
Saxon Edv/in, engineer, Eureka mine 
Saxon James, engineer, Eureka mine 
SCADDEX H. sup't icne m, res Chapel st 
SCADDEX T. miner, Massachusetts Hill 
Scandlin W. miner. Empire mine 
Schadel J. W. sawver, Entei-prise mill 
SCI-IAFER A. B. prop. Ophir House 
SCHAFFER & SWITHEXBAXKS, old 

Union market, Xo. 6 Mill st 
Schafifer F. cabinet maker, with Kohler & 

Halleck 
SCHAFFER GEO. butcher, res Pike st 
Schmadeke R. miner, Bennett st 
Schnall Wm. miner, Allison Ranch 
Schnider G. shoemaker. Mill st 
SCHRAKAMP F. Harmonie Saloon, un- 
der Xatlian & KoSman's 
Schofield E. ranchman, Bennett st 
Schoiieid R. teamster, Bennett st 
Scovel John, miner, Eureka mine 
Scofield C. machinist, G. V. foundry 
Scofield Jas. ranchman, old Auburn road 
Scolari Eugene, 

Scoville T. A. miner, Bennett st 
Scovoir J. brickmaker 
Scott Andrew, miner, Icne mine 
Scott Harrison, carpenter, Boston Rapine 
Scott Robert, stage driver. Grass Valley 
Scott V7m. H. amalgamator at Empire 

mill, res Mill st 
Scriver W. M. miner, Georgia mine 
Semmens James, miner, French Lead 
Semmens John, miner, French Lead 
Seville Geo. D. Pleasant st 
Seymoui" John, miner, Xorambagua mine 
Shadduck J. H. teamster, Allison Ranch 
Shaoder A. miner, Eui'eka mine 
Shanon T. laborer, Larrimer mill 
Shanghnessy J. miner, Allison Ranch 
Shea D. shoveler, res Kate Kays Hill 
Shephard A. carpenter, Walsh st 
Shepherd J. W. laborer, bds at Hobby's 
Sheridan J. miner, Allison Ranch 
Sherridan P. miner. Empire company 
Sheilock D. C. painter, bds International- 
Sherman F. laborer, res East Main st 
Sherman Fred, cook at Western Hotel 
SheiTQan I. blacksmith. Lucky mine 
Sherman J. T. Hiilsburg 
Shlenke C. bar keeper, Washington Rav 



FULL SUITS OF CLOTIIIXG, FROM SIO TO $75, AT B. GAD'S. 



* 



RlTKBEn XSCK-TIES AT DIXON'S. 



g:7ass valley town^piip directomy. 



269 



Shi3l P. drifter, ros Kato Hayes Hill 
Sh .fvoll \V. fjardi.'ner at JJcnncti's 
SILVESTER n. merchant. Man st 
Simmons C. wood ranCii, f ike i^'Jut 
Simmons Ueo. wood ranch, Pike Flat 
Simons E. miner, Eureka mine 
Simons N. minor. Gold Hill 
Simons R. miner, Cultux road 
Sinnott Wm. i'eedcr, L^nion Hill mine 
Sinnott W. carman, Allison Rancli 
SKELTON J. P. i^rinter. Grass Valley 

National oilice, ras liiffh st 
Slielton J. blacksmith, Em oirc Company, 

res Auburn st 
Skelton Wm. miner. Union Hill 
Skuys l)avid, niin ir. Union Hill mine 
Skeys Wm. minar, Union Hill mine 
Sleep Wm. feeder. Eureka mill 
Sloan e Jolin, painter, Boston Ravine 
SMITH & ROSS, druggists. No. 24 Mill et 
Smith A. feeder. Lufky mine 
Smith Chas. miner, Fi-ench Lead 
Smith C. jr. machinist, Taylor's foundry 
Smith C. A. cari)cnter, Hillsburo- 
SMITH C. C. (of S. & Ross) res Richard- 
son street 
Smith Chas. H. minor, res S Auburn st 
SMITH CHAS. W. E.^chan^re Hotel, 

Main st 
Smith Edward, milk ranch, French Lead 
Smith Edwin, carriage maker. Wash, st 
Smith Erastus, miner, Colfax road 
Smith F. moulder, Grass Valley foundry 
Smith Henry, butcher, Union market 
Smith H. H. blacksmith, Wisconsin mine 
SMITH H. P. butcher, Scadden Flat 
Smith Ira. res Mill st 
Smith Isoni, carpenter, Richardson st 
Smith James, drifter. Lone Jack mine 
SMITH J. S. sup't Orleans mill, res 

^Voodpecker Ravine 
Smith J. W. boots and shoes. W Main st 
Smith Nathan, teamster for J. Johnston 
Smith Nicholas, milk ranch. French Lead 
Smith P. T. variety store. Mill st 
Smith Pat. T. miner, bds Wisconsin Hotel 
Smith Robert, miner. New York Hill 
SMITH^ ROBERT L. of Wisconsin mine. 

res Woodpecker Ravine 
Smith Robt. R. teamster for Adams, Mc- 
Neil & Co 
SMITH T. S. Intelligence offics. Mill st 
Smith Wm. farmer, \Voodpecker Rapine 
Smith W. D. engineer. Gold Hill 
Smith W. D. jr. brewer 
Smitherau Tiios. miner, French Lead, res 

Kate Hays Hill 
Sneath Ediin, miner. Union Hill, bds at 

Saml Hodges 
Sneed J.N.blacksmith at Campbell's shop 
Snell John, miner, Norambagua mine 
Snail Wm. miner, Norambagua mine 



Sn-^-ll Wm. rain '•. I-'I'j Pa'-jfie Hotel 
SNOW n. J. cicy marshal, Richarcs jn st 
ciuiaer Jac^u, barber at A Saudoy's 
Souacu John, miner, Norambagua mine 
Soule G. H. tinner, bds at Pacihc Hotel 
Souther G. miner. Lucky mine 
Southern Jos. miner, tiold Hill 
Southey G. miner, Lucky mine 
Spaulding Jonas.laborcr, bds Western H 
Sparks Wm. blacksmith, bds Int. Hotel 
SPENCER W. K. cor Neal & School std 
ajjiegcl Norris, variety sto j. jyt-.uu nt 
Spiker A. Oasis saloon, bds at Ottes 
Sprecker Aug. saloon cor Main & Mill sts 
opraugh Joim, miner, Ophir Hill nuue 
Sprague John, miner, Kate Haves Hill 
tet. Louis Fred, painter, bds at Finchley's 
Statibrd James, miner, Allison ranch 
Stamp M. engineer, Larrimer's mill 
Startsman F. K. school teacher, Allison R 
Siead Wm. black:.miith, Bostcm Ravine 
Stebbins F. saloon keeper, Union Hill 
STEBBINS J. H. printer, G. V. National, 
^ bds at F. McLeods 

Sterling Jas. amalgamator, Eureka mill 
Stephens D. miner. Union Hill 
Stephens Sam'l, miner, Frencli Lead 
Stephens S. C. school teacher. Pike Point 
Stephenson V.'.cor Rich'ds'n & Church sts 
Stevenson A. N. c<mfectioner. Main st 
Stevens David^ miner. Union Hill mine 
Stevens F. P. tlnsmifh at P. Johnston's 
SrEVENS G. V\^. (of S&Vogdmau-s) res. 

School st 
Stevens P. Pratt & Co'smine Scad'n Flat 
Stevens \Ym. clerk at Loyd & Co's, res 

Boston Ravine 
STEVENS & VODGMAN, boots & shoep. 

Mill st 
Stewart J. feeder. Empire mine 
Stewart Wm. feeder, Empire mine 
Stoddard Alex. W. (of Campbell & Co.) 

Boston Ravine 
Stoddard Orlando,carpenter,Eurcka mine 
Stokes John, helper, French Lead 
Stokes Wm. C. Occidental Saloon, Main 

St. res Church st near Main st 
Stockbridgc Mining Co. ^slass. Hill 
Stockford J. helper, Norambagua mine 
Stone Dwight B. bookkeeper. Church st 
Stone D B. clerk, bds Hotel de France 
Stone Jerry, res Church st 
Stone John L. carpenter, res Loyd st 
Stover N. C. laborer, Worthington ranch 
Stroniley M. brickmaker, Empire st 
Strelman H. Oasis saloon, bds at H. Ottes 
Strj-pe Jas. plasterer, lower ilill st 
Swain J. M. res Main st 
Swaringen Z. stable keeper at Policy's, 

res Main st 
Sweetman Pat. saloon keeper, S Mill st 
Sweetman R. feeder. Lucky mine 



BOYS SUITS, A^D UNDKR-CLOmi^iG, ALL S17.KS, AT li. GADS. 



CHESS BOAKDS AT BIXOK'S, 



270 



GRASS YALLEY TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 



Sweet Tlios. miner, Frencli Lead 
Sweet Wm. ass't. foreman, French Lead 
Sweetland Eolrt, miner, Lucky mine 
Sugar Pine Lumber Yard, J as. Parlier 

prop'r. Main st. 
Sullivan C. carpenter, Boston Ravine 
Sullivan D. drifter, Allison ranch 
Sullivan D, brakeman, Empire mine 
Sullivan D. laborer, Cambridge mine 
Sullivan Dennis, miner. Pike Flat 
Sullivan Dennis, blacksmith, Camb. mine 
Sullivan Edward, miner,Cambridge mine 
Sullivan Edv,-'d, carman, Allison ranch 
Sullivan Humphrey, drifter,Allison ranch 
Sullivan H. shoemaker, S Auburn st 
Sullivan J. miner, Bof,ton Ravine 
Sullivan Jerry, drifter, Allison ranch 
Sullivan Jerry, Jr. drifter, Allison ranch 
Sullivan Jeremiah, teamster at M. Ford's 
Sullivan J. F. miner. Empire mine 
Sullivan Matt, drifter, Allison ranch 
Sullivan M. drifter, Kate Hayes' mine 
Sullivan Owen, drifter, Kate Playes' Plill 
Sullivan P. miner. Forest Springs, 
Sullivan F. miner, Allison ranch 
Sullivan Tim, shoveler, Allison ranch 
Sullivan T. concentrator, Allison ranch 
Sullivan T. A. res rear AVestern Hotel 
Sutton P. Dairy ranch bet G. V. & Nevada 
Sweeney D. rockbreaker, Allison ranch 
Sweeney Pat. shoveler, Kate Hayes' Hill 
Swift John, baker. Main st bakery 
Switthenbunse J. butcher. Mill st res 

Richardson st 
SYKES JOHN I. miner 
Symons Jno. miner. Union Hill 
Symons Richard, CoLas road 

T 

Tackney John, drifter, Allison ranch 
Taafe John, watchman. Eureka mine 
Tarleton B, nriner. Empire mine 
Tary P. laborer, bds Eagle Hotel 
Taylor B. Main st 

TAYLOR C. Att'y at Lav/, res Alta st 
Taylor F. L. millright, bds G, Eagle H. 
Taylor James,macliinist,Taylor's fomidry 
TAYLOR M. C. prop'r Mill st Foundry, 

res Church st 
Taylor R. M. laborer, Sutton's ranch 
Taylor Thos. laborer, res School st 
Taylor W. R. sup't Lucky mine 
Teel Charles C. miner, N Church st 
Temby Sam'l, miner, G. V 
Terrell Wm. miner, Norambagua mine 
Thomas Andrew, miner. Eureka mine 
Thomas John, miner, French Lead 
Thomas John, miner, Gold Hill 
Thomas Joseph, miner, Mass. Hill 
Thomas Joseph, cor Neal & Pleasant sts 
Thomas Mrs. M. A. saloon. Mill st 



Thomas Reuben, miner, N Chui'ch st 
Thomas Robert, miner, French Lead 
Thomas Sampson, miner. Rocky Bar 
Thomas Thos. miner, French Lead 
Thomas T. foreman Norambagua mine 
Thomas W. H. miner, Eureka mine 
Thompson A. C. butcher, Union Hill 
Thompson Chris, laborer, bds Finchley's 

Union Hill 
Thompson C. P. res Main st 
Thompson H. F. blacksmith, bds at Pa- 
cific Hotel 
Thompson John, carman, Eureka mine 
Thompson Mrs. M. A. teacher in primary 
department G. V. Seminary 

Thoi'asen Hans, 

Thurston Miss Nellie E. dress maker, 

Mill St. 
Tigart N. miner. Empire mine 
Tilley Edwin, miner,Norambagua mine 
'I'ierney Peter, miner, Allison ranch 
Timby C. miner, Hiilsburg 
Timby John, miner, Hiilsburg 
Timby S. miner, Gold Hill 
Timby Wm. miner, Hiilsburg 
Tobiu Thos. miner, Allison ranch 

Thomasseer F. 

TOMPKINS DR. E. A. M. D. res cor 

Church & Neal sts 
Tomkins G. millman, Lucky mill 
Tonkin M. miner. Eureka mine 
Tonkin Thos. miner, Boston Ravine 
TOOTHAKER W. H. rancher, Colfax 

road 
ToplifFe G. W. miner, Ambrose st 
Totten W. H. woodchopper. Eureka Hill 
Town Talk Co. Howard Hill 
TOWN SEND C. C. variety store, 38 Mill 

St. res W. Main st 
Tow^nsend W. D. clerk, Bennett st 
Townsend John A. foreman Empire mine 
Towusend W. S. pattern maker. Taylor's 

Foundry 
Tracy Geo. bookkeeper' Tracy's saloon 
Tracy Matt, saloon keeper. S Mill st 
Trainer W. miner, Ophir Hill 
Traybilcox John, miner, Union Hill, rea 

E Main st 
Trederick Jas. miner, Chapel st 
Trederick Jos. miner. Gold Hill 
Tregloan Jas. miner. Eureka mine 
Tremaiu Chas. miner, French Lead 
Tremain John, miner. Eureka mine 
Tremain James, miner. Eureka mine 
Tremain John, miner, Mass. Hill 

Trenberth John, miner, ■ 

Trevillian Francis, miner, Eureka mine 
Tr -sdllian T. miner, Norambagua mine 
Trevillian Wm. miner, Norambagua 

mine 
Trewella Henry, miner, loveer Mill st 
Trewella J. F. miner. Chapel st 



WHO KEEPd TUB GKiCAT CLOTHING KMP0RIU31, COR^'ER Ok 



SnUET MUSIC AT DIXON'S. 



GRASS VALLEY TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY, 



271 



Trezise Henn', miuer, Eureka mine 
Trezise Philip, miner, Colfax road 
Trezise Philip Jr. miuer, Colfax road 
Trezise Wm. miner, Colfax road 
Trezise Wm. miner, Kate Hayes Hill 
Trudgeon T. miner, Noraml)agua mine 
True James, harness maker, Boston Rav 
Traukiel P. teamster. Greenhorn S mill 
Truscott Jas. miner, Xorambagna mine 
Truscott tVm. miner, French Lead 
TUCKER & GEORGE, physician & sur- 
geon, office next door to Wis. Hotel 
Turner Mrs. Kate, saloon, Main st 
Tattle Dan'l, res Pleasant st 
TUTTLE E. L. bookkeeper, Delano's 

Bank 
Twaddel Jas. miner, Boston Ravine 
Tweedy David, miner, Mass Hill 
Twidy D. miner, French Lead 
Tyler Xat. A. carpenter, res Wood st 
TYRRELL G. G. physician & surgeon, 
office Eureka drug store 

u 

Udv Thos. foreman, Eureka mine 

UNGER ELIAS, Saloon, res Washing- 
ton st 

XJnger Frank, clerk, L'nger's saloon 

Union Hill Saloon & Store, Montgomery 
& Eustis prop'rs 

UNION HILL MIXING CO 

UNION LIVERY STABLE, H. Polley 
prop'r, E Main st 

UPHAM F. F. dentist, Main st. res Ati- 
burn st 

UPHOFF H. saloon Mill stbdsCity Res- 
taurant 

Uren George, miner, French Lead 

Uren James, miner, Gold Hill 

Uren John, miner. Chapel st 

Uren Thos. blacksmith, Forest Springs 



Van Antwerp C. T. carpenter, bds at 

Western Hotel 
Van Arsdale A. B. carpenter. Forest 

Springs 
Van Bergen Mai"tin,hostler,Empire stable 
Van Bibber J. F. moulder, Taylor's 

Foundry 
Van Dwver, S. V. R. clerk. Golden Eagle 

Hotel' 
Van Hoetter, soap factory. Main st 
Vaughn Wm. miner, bds Union Rest 
VERDELLET CHARLES, saloon keeper 

Boston Ravine 
Vermange C. blanket washer. Eureka 

mill 
Vetter John, laborer. Empire mine 
Vial John, miner, Raceville 
Vial Mrs. (widow) Raceville 



Vieguere P. concentrator. Eureka mill 

Vignon H. Main st 

Vincent Joseph, miner, Scadden Flat 
Vincent Sam'l, miner, S Auburn st 
Visick James, miner, Norambagua mine 
Visriene Peter, steward, ^Miners' Hotel 
Vi^■lan A. miner, Eureka mine 
Vivian Frank, miner, Scadden Flat 

Vivian Tucker, Auburn st 

VOGLEMAN H. saloon, Mill st 

w 

Wahlheim Philip, shoemaker at J. New- 
man & Co's 
Wait H. O. miner, res Pleasant st 
Wales James, miuer, Colfax road 
^^'ales Thomas, gardener, S Auburn st 
Walker John, miner, Luckv mine 
WALKER J. M. C. Mining Sup't 
Walker J. T. carpenter, Pike Flat 
Walker Thos. R. miner, N School st 
Wallace John, feeder, Norambagua mill 
Wallace Matthew, feeder. Gold Hill mill 
Wallis M. miner, Scadden Flat 
Walwork Richard, miner, Scadden Flat 
Walsh John, carman, Allison ranch 
Walsh Matt, drifter, Allison ranch 
WALTERS & GETY, hair-dressing & 

bath rooms, X o. 5 Mill st 
WALTERS WM. (of W & Gety) res. 

Church .st 
\^''al worth, S. L. brickmaker, res Richard- 
son st 
Wanzer Sidney, butcher. Forest Springs 
Ware Jas. res Alta Hill 
Ware Barney, drifter, Allison ranch. 
Ward Geo. H. watchmaker. Mill st 
Ward James, laborer, Larrimer's mill 
Ward John, miner, L'nion Hill mine 
Ward John, carpenter. Union Hill 
^^"ard "\^"m. W. W. painter. Church st 
Warner Charles S. blacksmith, bds at 

Cobb's Rest. 
Warren John, miner. Eureka mine 
AVasley John, miner, Heuston Hill mine, 

res Wolf creek 
Wasley Walter, miner, Wisconsin mine 
Waters Geo. L. cook International Hotel 
WATERS GEO. L. Att'y at Law, Main st 
Waters Rich'd, miner, Norambagua mine 
Watkins J. W. ranchman, French Lead 
WATSON B. J. school teacher, Forest S 
Watson J. miner, Kate Hays Hill 
Watson P. H. miner, Shamrock mine 
WATT DAVID, of Eureka iVIining Co., 

res Gold Hill 
WATT ROBT. of Eureka Mining Co., 

res Gold Hill 
WATT WILLIAM, of Eureka Mining 

Co., res Gold Hill 
Wear James, miner, Norambagua mine 
Wear William, miner, Norambagua mine 



MAIN AND MILL STREETS, GRASS VALLEY ? B. GAD. 



BF.AOriFULLY D?.KSS:;T) DOLL?', AT DIXT.VS. 




WEBBER JOHN jr. clerk at Dixon store, 

bds Hotel de France 
Webster E. C. res Auburn st 
Webster T. miner, Union Hill mine 
WELCH B. F. teaclier, G. V. High Scliol 
Welcli P. miner, Boston Ea'i^ne 
Weeks Ja,s. miner, Frencli Lead 
Weed Q. N. miner, Alta Hill 
WELLER L. B. clothing, bds Exchange 
Wells C. S. cook, Boston Ravine 
WELLS C. S. printer. National office 
Welsh John, millman, Allison Ranch 
Welsh John, laborer, Boston Ravine 
Werarss Robt, laborer, Eureka mine 
WEST E. R. teed store. East Main st, 

res Richardson st 
Westjohn H. carpenter, Boston Ra-vdne 
Whaler Thomas, laborer. Forest Springs 
Whelan T. carpenter, Allison Ranch 
Wheeler F. clerk with Garland & Co 
Whelden R. millright. Mill st 
Whetstone J. miner. Lucky mine 
White Jas. feeder, Lucliy mill 
White J. miner, Norambagua mine 
White John, shoveler, Allison Ranch 
White Mich, drifter, Allison Ranch 
White Mich, jr, shoveler, Allison Ranch 
Whitaker R. clerk at Monitor saw mill 
Whiteside G. W. book-keeper at Mohav/k 

lumber yard 
Whiteside Wm. res Church st 
Whitford J. M. miner. Eureka mine 
Whiting E. H. res Neal st 
WHITING L. L. water ag't for Empire 

Ditch Company, res Auburn st 
Whiting N. wood sawver, res Pleasant st 
WIEDERO OTTO, watchmaker and jevr- 

eler, res cor Main and School st 
Wilbur P. R. artist, gallery op theater 
WILCOX J. H. supiEmpire Mining Co, 

res Ophir Hill 
Wilcox John, laborer. Union Hill 
Wilcox J. G. teamster, Washington st 
Wilde Mrs. Boston Ravine 
Wilder R. miner, Norambagua mine 
Wills James, miner, Spring Hill 
Wills W. miner, Gold Hill 
Wills William, miner. Eureka mine 
Willard Charlev, miner. Union No. 2 
Willard C. M. of Union No. 2 
Williams W. miner. Eureka mine 
Williams Alf. miner, bds Wiconsin Hotel 
Williams Allen, carpenter, Hillsburg 
Williams Chas. miner. Gold Hill 
Williams E. miner. Lucky mine 
Williams Edward, res Bennett st 
Williams G. M. cook. City Restaurant 
Williams Mrs. H. boarding hoiise, Racevl 
Williams Jas. miner. Gold Hill 
Williams John, miner, French Lead 
Williams John, miner, Norambagua 
WilUams J. H. miner, Norambagua 



WILLIAMS J. E. P. Winchester mr rket 
William^s Johnson, miner, res E Main st 
Williams M. feeder. Lucky mine 
Williams Owen miner. Eureka mine 
Williams R. miner, Gold Hill 
Williams Richard, miner, Eureka mine 
Williams R. m.achinist, G. V. foundry 
Williams Thomas, miner. Union Hill 
Williams Tlics. miner, Wisconsin mine 
Williams T. miner, Allison Ranch 
Williams T. Vv'. miner. Eureka mine 
WILLIAMS W. A. sup't Pacific Ore Co 
Williams W. H. miner, res S Auburn st 
WiJlniach J. book keeper at Lucky mine 
Wilson G. ranchman, Wilson's ranch 
Wilson Jam.es, miner, Allison Ranch 
Wilson M. H. brakeman, Empire mill 
WILSON S. D. & Co. merchants, Mill st 
Wilson T. boct and shoe maker. Mill st 
Wilson Wm. blacksmith, Mill st 
Wilton John, miner, Eui-eka mine 
Wineborry Jas. barber. Mill st 
Winkins J. T. miner, res A ubnrn st 
WISCONSIN MINING COMPANY, on 

"Wisconsin Hill 
WOHLER HENRY, furniture, Main st 
WOLF M. U. Miner's Hotel, Boston Rav 
WOLF J. M. L. Grass Vallev Laundry 
WOLF SIMON, clerk at J. "Newman & 

Co's, I'ds nt Excliange Hotel 
WOLF JOHN, Catholic Bock Store, Main 

st opposite Mill st 
Yv'ood A. A. rancher & teamster,Pike Flat 
Vv'ood B. tailor, cor Mill st & Bank alley 
WOOD H. V. butcher, res Auburn st 
WOOD WM. butcher. People's Market 
Wood W. W. res Church st. 
Woods W. T. grocer, West Main st 
Woodbury J. G. m^achinist, G. V. foundry 
Woodbury J. carpenter, bds Pacific Hotel 
WOODCOCK H. of Narragansett mine, 

bds Scott's, Boston Ravine 
WoodfieM H. shoemaker. Forest Springs 
Woodruff John, miner, Irish Ranch 
Woodruff S. laborer. Main st 
Woodward E, laborer, Sutton's ranch 
Woodworth F. res Main st 
Worthington J. G. ranchman, Pie Plant 

ranch, Grass Valley & Nevada road 
Wright A. tinsmith with Loyd & Co 
Wright J. boarding house, W Main st 
WYMORE & O'REAR, grocers. Mill st 
Wymore C. C. of W. & O'Rear 

Y 

Yeates John A. miner. Spring Hill 
Yendell Wm. miner, res Chapel st 
Yotile Geo. miner, bds at Parr's 
Young Henry, miner. Spring Hill 
Young Johni miner, Houston Hill mine 
Young William, clerk Union Hill mine 
ZACHARIAS L. clerk with H. Michael 



B. GAD 75J,.W*.V,S KEEP? THE- BEST BOOTS ANI» SHOES. 



i 



GUITAR AND VIOLIN STRINGS AT tlXON'S. 



GRASS VALLEY TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 



273 



C. C. SMITH^ M. W. ROSS. 

SMITH & MOSS 

No. 26 MILL STEEET, GRASS VALLEY, 




WHOLES^iLE 



AND RETAIL 




m m HEmciN 

CHEMICALS, 

PATE]¥T MEBICIIVES, 

ALCOHOL, 

KEROSENE, 

TURPENTINE. 

Paints, 



Oils, 



Vamisbies, 



PA.i]srTEES ]m:a.teria.ls 

WINDOW GLASS. 



Perfumery, Toilet and Fancy Articles, 

BOOKS, STATtOMRY, 

Slank fiooks, l^cliool Books, 

DEPOSITORY OF BIBLE SOCIETY. 



AGENTS FOR 



! 



FIREMAN'S FUl IMRAIE COMFAE 

ALSO 

OARDEN. FIELD AND FLOWER SEEDS. 

Jt^ Physicians Prescriptions Carefully Compounded. =^ 

B. GAD'S IS THE PLACE TO FIT YOITESELV WITH FINE CLOTHING. 



CHESS MEN, A LARGE SUPPLY, AT DIXON'S. 



274 



GRASS VALLEY TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 



WHOLESALE DEALER IN 




OILS, L^MPS, BEDDI^a, 

Nos. 56 & 58 MILL STREET. ...GEASS VALLEY. 



•\p%z . c:? 




O© AND OO 

MILL STREET, GRASS VALLEY. 

^W^ . O . POPE, 

Nos. 56 & 58 MILL STREET, • GRASS VALLEY. 



Out-door Sales promptly attended to, and 

UBERAL CASH ADVANCES MADE ON CONSIGNMENTS. 

W C. POPE, Auetieneer 

AH IMMENSE STOCK OP CLOTHING— TTHEKE ? AT B. GAD'S GRBAT 



60 TO DIXON'S VARIETY STORE, NO. 4 MILL STREET, GRASS VALLET. 



GRASS VALLEY TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 



275 



JAS. B. MASON. 



M. BYRNE, Jr. 



T 



m 

1 



F 



[ib 



11 




NOS. 17 & 19 MILL STREET, 

o i^ -A. js ® "^ j^ Ij Xji Es "sr . 



Splendid Matclaed Carriage Teams. 

STYLISH BUGGY HORSES. 

WELL THAIHEB SADDLE HORSES. 



CAREFUL DRIVERS FURNISHED WHEN DESIRED. 



THE BEST 



CARRIAGES, BUGGIES AND CONCORD WAGONS. 



I ♦ *Ui> <^ <ltl> * BWi— 



Having recently piircliased the above Stable from Mr. FAULKNER, we assure 
the public that the reputation it gained under his management will be sustained 
by us. 

MASON & BYRNE. Proprietors. 



CLOTHING EMPORIUM, CORNER MAIN AND MILL STREETS, GRASS VALLEY. 



6IFT ANNUALS AT DIXON'S. 



276 GRASS YALLET TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 



T 











MAIN STREET, OPPOSITE WESTERN HOTEL. 



EVERY KIND OF 



Flooring Lumber Constantly on Hand. 



THE BEST OF 



STJG^R-PI]^3E LUMBER. 



Connected witli tlie Lumber 1 ard is a 



TmiKi; urn. 



FLOORING, 



SIDING 

SUGAR-PINE LUMBER, 

ROUGH LUMBER, 

LATHS. Etc. 

Furnished on Short Notice. 



DRESSED AND UNDRESSED. 

P. BRUNSTETTER, Proprietor. 



FULL SUITS or CLOTHING, FKOM $10 TO $76, AT B, GAD'S. 



RtBBER NECK-TIES AT DIXON'S. 



GRASS VALLEY TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 



2r 



THOS. FINDLEY & CO., 









9) 



Main Street, 



OPPOSITE MILL STREET. 



PURCHASE GOLD DUST. 



Jft^KE ^DT**1J\*CES 



m Goto OUST Foa k^zm on mm^i 



AT UNITED STATES MINT. 



DRAW CHECKS ON SAN FRANCISCO, SACRAMENTO AND VIRGINU. 



Our Sight and Time Drafts on the Bank of the State of New York. 



ROTHSCHILDS & SONS' DRAFTS FOR SAIE ON EUROPE. 

BOYS SUITS, AND UNDER-CLOTHING, ALL SIZES, AT B. GAD'S. 



CHESS BOARDS AT DIXON'S, 



278 



GEASS VALLEY TOWNSHIP DIEECTORY. 



WM. K. SPENCER. 



W. W. HOBART. 



SPE 



WHOLESALE AND RETAIL DEALERS IN 

SfJBOOIi Al MISDMliANlOUS BOOKS 












Legal, Foolscap, Letter and Note Paper, 

BUM' 

PASS BOOKS, 



TIME BOOKS, 



GOLD PENS AND POCKET CUTLERY, 

A_ L B XJ ]m: s . 

ARNOLD'S FLUID; MAYHARD, AND NOYES & DAVID'S INKS. 

Mucilage, 

Sheet Music, 

Music Paper, 

Musical Paper, 

STATI©MBE.f ®F ALL SIMBS. 

Agents for the Daily and Weekly Union, Bulletin, Alta, Times, Courrier de San 

Francisco, ISTevada Daily Gazette, Abend Post, Golden Era, Police Gazette, and 

all other California Papers. Also, Atlantic Papers and Periodicals. 



NOTAl 



FOR THE STATE OF NEVADA. 
AiiSO — Agent for tlie Union Insurance Company, of San Francisco. 



WHO KEEPS THE GREAT CLOTHING EMPORIUM, CORNER OF 



SHEET MUSIC AT DIXON'S. 



GRASS VALLEY TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 279 



WM. CAMPBELL. 



ALEX. STODDARD. 



CA 



BosToisr i^^"viisrE. 



DEALERS IN 





Al 










anoctCEnv hut ot/ies WAaSt 



Mining Tools of Every l>e§€i*iptioii, 

ROPE OF ALL SIZES, POWDER, CAPS, Etc. 

With, a wagon to deliver goods at any reasonable distance Free of Charge. 



In Connection with their Grocery Business they have a 

L^RGE BAKERY, 

Furnislimg Bread, Pies, Cakes and Crackers. 

MAIN AND MILL STREETS, GRASS VALLEY ? B. GAD. 



BEAUTIFULLY DRESSKD DOLLS, AT DIXON'S. 



280 



GRASS VALLEY TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 




WIEDERO, 



^^^'^ /^ pP'^ *, )Ji| 



%y^ 



A2sD 




[IN SALAMAN'S BTJILDING.] 

No. 28 Mill Street, Oras§ Valley. 

DIAMONDS AND SIIVIR WAR! 

OF ALL KINDS. 

I^IM"3E3 <^XJ-A.IiTSZi J" All W ESIjoI^fX" 

ox HAND AND CUT TO ORDER. 
Every Kind of Jewelry Mamifactured, Set and Repaired. 

WATCHES CAREFULLY REPAIRED AND GUARANTEED FOR ONE 

YEAR. 



B, GAD ALWAYS KEEPS THE BEST BOOTS AND SHOES. 



GUITAR AND VIOLIN STRINGS AT DIXON'S. 



GRASS VALLEY TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 



281 



J" - S ..^ r^ 13 E3 S=L S, 

No. 36 MILL STREET, CORNER OF BANK ALLEY, 



Every Variety of 

CLOTHING, BOOTS, SHOES, AND GENTLEMEN'S 

FURNISHING GOOBS. 



llSHIi@TON BEEWEBY 



BY 



OPPOSITE THE CITY GAS WORKS, MAIN STREET, 

Car i:- £%> S 25 "V «; 1 1 O y ■ 



CATHOU0 BOOK STORE, 



PROPRIETOR, 

HAS FOR SALE ALL KINDS OF 



nff ii I 



n 1/ .r^ 



ti\^ 



m 



TiTI 



IER¥. 



MAIN STREET, OPPOSITE MILL STREET, 




>jli 



Corner? of Mill Street and Bank Alley, 
C3t-I^-^®^ ■'^ j^k. Xa Xi ]E3 IST 5 



H2 



B. GAD'S IS Tna PLACE TO MT YOURSEL? WITH FINE CLOTHING. 



CHESS MEN, A LARGE SUPPLY, AT DIXON'S. 



282 



GRASS VALLEY TOWNSHIP DIRECTOEY. 



il^>i 



CORNEE OF MAm AND AUBURN STEEETS, 




AVHOLESALE AND EETAIL DEALEE IN 



"iiUii %i mi 



\M ^ \ 



i^y '"111111.11* ''''Miiiiii Wwi w '• ^ 



Cliemlcals. Patent Medicifscs, and Ferftimeries. 

In fact Every Article usually kept in a First-Class Drug Store. 




PEOPRIETOR, 
' MILL STEEET, [opposite Smitli & Eoss' Drug Store,] GEASS VALLEY. 

SUN, 1IFLE& PISTOL MANUFACTUS 

B^= ALL KIXDS OF EEPAIELSi a DONE. „^ 

C. C. TCWInSEISTD'S 




m. 38 MILL STEEET, GEASS VALLEY, 

Wliere all kinds of 

BOOKS, ewTio^sat Km Qmmmmm 

CAN BE HAD CHEAP FOE CASH. 



AN i.v:\ii::,£i; stock up cxoTniisG— \\"ni;UE ? at b. gad'S gkeai 



GO TO DIXON'S VARIETY STORE, NO. 4 MILL STREET, GRASS VALLEY. 



GRASS VALLEY TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 



283 




THE ABOVE LUBRICATOR HAS BEEN IN CONSTANT USE FOR THE 

last ten years in the largest Iron, Saw, Cotton and Woolen Mills in tlie 

Eastern States and Enrope, and lately by tlie Railways and 

principal Mines and Mills of this State. 



EC' 






To Consumers, both in Price [BEING LESS THAN HALF THE COST OF 

LARD OIL,] and quantity used, the 



AND 



Reduced C<{>si§i^iBiptlo]i of Fuel ^ 

In the ratio of lessoned loss of motive power by Friction, will, we hope, be con- 
sidered of sufficient importance to induce Proprietors of Machinery to become 
familiar with its many valuable LUBRICATING QUALITIES. 

SOLD IN CASES AND BARRELS, BY 



;ent for 1^^^^^^^ ^^^**«_y, 

Mill Street Eouiidry, Grass Valley. 



CLOTHlNa EMPORIUM, CORNER MAIN AND MILL STREETS, GRASS VALLEY. 



GIFT ANNUALS AT DIXON'S. 



284 



GRASS VALLEY TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 



im li 



Pfl 



J 



^s^ 



,11 



CORNER OF 



Mill and AiiIjmfii StFeet§9 ^i'a§§ Yelley, 



WILLIAM H. MITCHELL, 

PROPEIETOa^ 

Informs the Public tliat lie has spared neither Pains or Expense to make this 

House one of the 



be: 




T 231 E3 ^.^L'FL 

Is well supplied with the finest brands of 

WINES, LIQUORS AND CIGARS 



Adjoining the Bar, I have a fine 



BILLIA-ED S^LOOlSr 

"With two of Phelan's Improved Cushion Tables. 

WILLIAM H. MITCHELL. 



FULL gUITS OF CLOTHING, FROM $10 TO $75* AT B. GAD'S. 



RUBBKR NECK-TIES AT DTXON'S. 



GRASS VALLEY TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 



285 



AND 

CHOP HOUSE, 6 

Main Street, Grass Valley, 

STAFFORDSHIRE STONE ALE ON DRAUGHT. 

FRESH OYSTERS IN EVERY STYLE. 



PETEM JOHNSTON, 

GRASS VALLEY. 



li. SAMUEI^ & BROTHER, 

DEALERS IN 



|i|i '( 



l_ 



nil 



uhi 



No. 48 MILL STREET, GRASS VALLEY. 



i 



ill 



n B 111 to n 



1 






No» 9 Main Street, Orass Valley, 

H. OTTE, PROPRIETOR. 

BOYS SUITS, AND UNDKE-CLOTHING, ALL SIZES, AT B. GAD'S. 



CHESS BOARDS AT DIXON'S, 



286 



GRASS VALLEY TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 



W. A. SMITH. 



THOMAS HODGE. 




SMITH & HODa 

PROPRIETORS, 

liOT^er Mill. Street, CR-Fa§§ 

E^=BIIEWXRS OF PALE ALE.»^ 

GO TO OI^E JOHN 

TWO STORY 



.E? 





IF I'OU WANT TO GET 




\mm% mt nmmu mm 



Having a NEW HEARSE, I am prepared to attend to UNDERTAKING on 

tlie shortest notice. My prices are sucli as to defy competition. 

OLE JOHNSON, Proprietor, 
Corner Main and Mill Streets, Grass Valley. 



M 



* 



J* J^a 



Proprietor. 

Located opposite the City Gas "Works, Main Street, 




J. L. CLAPP lias recently fitted up the house btiilt by Rellet, and 
is now prepared to furnish all who may call upon him with comfortable 
Rooms and the Best of Accommodations. 

E^^The Table will be Supplied with the Best the Market Affords.,^ 



WHO KEEPS THE GREAT CLOTHINa EMPORIUM, CORNER OF 



SitKET MUSIC At DIXOIf'S. 



GRASS VALLEY TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 



287 



U SAL 



A^-D 



Wj?l(f^W^ 



i^al 






'Sff 



uw IV 



h 



LUCinS GAEBH2R, Pro 

Corner of Mill Street and Bank Alley, 
aRASS VALLKY. 



BLACIvSMITHIISrG 

AND 




IN THE BEST STYLE, OF THE BEST MATERIALS, 

AXD 

WITH THE GREATEST DISPATCH, 

♦ AT THEIK SHOPS, 

East Main Street, €rra§s Talley, 

Opposite the Grass Valley Foundry. 



CHAHLES Bl^HKlSCH^S 



R^ 



[opposite maktin ford's,] 
Is kept Supplied with the Best Wines, Liquors and Cigars. 



MAIN AND MILL STREETS,. GRASS VALLEY ? B. GAD. 



EEAUriFDLLY DRB3SKD DOLLS, AT DIXON'S. 



288 



GRASS VALLEY TOWNSHIP DIRECTOEY. 



^ ^f t^ 



iflM W 1 



^ 



44\ 



MAIH STREET, UHDEE i^ATIIA^'S CLOTHIKG STOES, 

Constantly on liand, tke Best of 



Oysters in every Style, served up at all times, 

i)AY OR NIGHT. 



D. SmKLEMAN. 



FEAITCIS EICHAEDS. 



GE^SS ^^ILLEY 




PROPRIETORS. 

BEICK BUILBIHG, HOETH AUBUEIJ STEEET, 



One door West of tlie ^Exchange Hotel, Grass Valley, 

AMBEHSOM. rrorarietor, 



The Proprietor of the Main Street Rakery would inform the Public that he is 
prepared to furnish Wedding Parties or Balls with every variety of Fancy Cakes 
and Confectionery, at the shortest notice. 

^W Manufacturer of all kinds of Crackers. =^ 



B, GAD ALWAYS KEEPS THE BEST BOOTS AND SHOES. 



GUITAR AND A'lOLIN STRINGS AT MXON-S. 



GRASS VALLEY TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 



289 



JNTERNATtOKAt 80T«t. 

CORNER OF MAIN AND CHURCH STREETS, 

SAMUJSIi HODGE, 

PROPRIETOR. 





The attention of Visitors to Grass Valley is called to this new and splendid 
Hotel, which contains a large number of well ventilated, connnodious and hand- 
somely FURNISHED ROOMS, otierinpr the Best of Accommodations to Regular 
Boarders and Transient Custom. The TA.Bijii]i '^^'il^ always be supplied with 

the Best the Market Afiords. 



T ^T E! 



jA. :ol 



Connected with the House is fitted up in good style, and its contents are of the 
choicest kinds. I hope, by strict attention to business, to receive a liberal share of 
patronage from the Traveling Public, as well as from my friends in Grass Valley. 

JOHN JOHNSTON, 

No. 14 Mill Street, CJras§ Valley, 

WHOLESALE AND RETAIL DEALER IN 




FROVISIOM 






Paints. 



Varnishes, 



THE LARGEST STOCK IN THE MOUNTAINS. 



12 



B. GAD'S IS THE PLACE TO TIT YOURSEL? WITH FINE CLOTHING. 



CHESS MEN, A LARGE STIPPLT, AT DIXON'S. 



290 



GRASS VALLEY TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 



E . E . "WEST, 



"WnOLESAIiE ANT) EETAIL DEAXER IN 



^ 



^S&^i: 



Mo. 88 M^ifii street, 

Gr^LJ^^^ ■'^ -^ 3Ls Xj E3 "K" 5 



fiilicF 



'b 




WOOD 4- PIERCE, 

Corner of Main and Auburn Streets, Grass Valley. 

&TJC3rj^iEt. ou:£^:h2z> ^l.a.:r/l&, 

BOLOGNA SAUSAGE, 

TONGUES AND 

SMOKED BEEF, 

Constantly on hand and for Sale Clieap. 



S. L. BROOKS, 

|[^° All Kinds of Stone-Cutting done. „^ 
Can be found at all times at 

BOSTON RAVINE. 



AN IMMENSE STOCK OF CLOTHING— WHERE ? AT B. GAD'S GREAT 



60 TO DIXON'S VARIETY STOllE, NO. 4 MILL STREET, GRASS VALLEY. 



GRASS VALLEY TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 



291 



Wi 



mwt 



"mm 






the: G-I?.^\.SS ^^.A.LLE2"5r 



9SaU. 'iv^ v>3 






<ftA ^•ASa ^sSaSbs ^sSsL v9 



IKT E TTU^ JS X» -lA. S» DE3 DFl -(Su 3?«ar 33 



JOB 




^BOVE EXCHAlNGrE HOTEL, 

NO. 104 MAIN STREET 



EVEIiY VARIETY OF 



DONE fJEATLY AWD PROMPTLY 



AT 



Terms of Sxil^scription, i>ei' year, ^10,00 

Six: MIoixtlxs, ^5, ±o l»e paiii in. advance. 



Bills to be Paid Monthly. 



JNO. R. EIDGE, Editor) 

CHA.S. S. WELLS, V PROPKS. 

JNO. P. SKELTON, Business Manager ) 



CU)TaiNG EMPORIUM, CORNER MAIN AND MILL STREETS, GRASS VALLEY. 



GIFT ANNUALS AT DIXON'S. 



292 



GRASS VALLEY TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 



.^!L Xji Xj J^ 



J^FLJ^ 



FOR 




Patronize tlie Old Line. 



epBEO, eAFETV hnt HGO«OMVt 



Not to be Run Off, Bought Off or Bluffed Off! 



The Proprietors, liaving succeeded the late poptilar OMTiers, CLEVELAKD & 
ROYS, assure the Public that no falling oif in the stock or aecommodations need 
he apprehended. 



HOURS OF DEPARTURE ! 

• Leave Grass Valley at 8 and 11 o'clock a. m., and 4 o'clock p. m. 
Leave Nevada at 9 o'clock a. m., and 2 and 5 o'clock p. m. 

With one of the Largest and Finest Concord Coaches now running on this Coast* 

HANK S4 KEN BROIXTN, 

Proprietors- 

FULL SUITS OF C.WTHING, FROM $19 TO $75, AT B. GAD'S. 



RtJBBER l^ECK-TIES AT DIXON'S. 



GRASS VALLEY TOAYNSHIP DIRECTORY, 



293 



D . COBB'S 

CELEBRATED 



^ 



Mill Stfeet, (near Neal St.) €^fsi§§ Vsilley, 



Produces finer Pliotograplis than any other Gallery in the County, and second to 

none in the State. 




JAMES M. LAKEHAM^ L.^j... ^, 

Msilii Steet^ €Sf^§§ T^IIey. 

Steam Engines and Boilers built to order. All kinds of Quartz Machinery con- 
structed, fitted up or repaired, on the shortest notice. 



DEALERS m 




WHOLESALE Al^D EETAIL, 

Mill street, Ci-re§§ 



JVo. 81 Main SiFeetg ^Ffi§§ Talley. 



Having opened a Saloon at the above place, I am now prepared to furnish the best 

WINES, LiaUOES, ALES, CIGARS, ETC. 

Call and see me if you desire a good drink. 

UEWWIS MEAGHAR. 



BOYS SUITS, AND UNDER- CLOTHING, ALL SIZES, AT B. GAD'S. 



CHESS BOAKDS AT DIXOX'S, 



294 GRASS VALLEY TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 



JUSTICE OF THE PEACE 



OFFICE : 
MAIN STREET, [UP STAIES,] KOHN'S BUILDING, 

CONVEYANCING PROMPTLY EXECUTED. 

Collections made ^^'itll dispatch, and prompt return rendered. 



DIBBLE & BYRNE, 

ATTOMEIS m COUNSELORS AT lAW, 

Office— Next door to Post Office, in Exchange Building, Main Street, 



E. ^W' ROBERTS, 

ATTORIY AND COUNSELOR AT LAW, 

WEST SIDE OF MILL STKEET, 



a>a-0'37-A.E^T2- X*TJ^XjXO- 



Records Searched, Abstracts of Titles to Quartz Mines in Nevada 
County furnished, and Correctness Guaranteed. 

WHO KEEPS THE GREAT CLOTHING EMPOKIUM, CORNER OF 



SHEET MUSIC AT DIXON'S. 



GRASS VALLEY TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 295 

J. O. DEUEL, 

ATTORl! m COUNSELOR AT LAW, 

AND 

No. 18 MILL STREET, GRASS VALLEY. 



M. KIRKPATRICK. E. W. MASLIN. 



KIRSFATRICE & MASLIN, 

fTORlfS AND COUNSEiORS AT LAW 

OFFICE: 

Up Stairs, opposite Exchange Hotel, south side Main Street, 

1;^° Mining Titles Investigated, and Abstracts thereof prepared. _^3 



MYLES p. O'CONlsOTl^ 

ATTORNEY mt GOU«$EtOn AT tm, 

JUSTICE OF THE PEACE, l^EVADA COTOTY. 

OFFICE-No. 42 MILL STREET, 
Residence— No. 127 Main Street. 

MAIN AND MILL STREETS, GRASS VALLEY ? B. GAD* 



BEAUTIFULLY DRESSED DOLLS, AT DIXON'S. 



296 • 



GRASS VALLEY TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 



BOSTOlSr ]RA.A^INE 




Tlie best of Lagar Beer manufacttired, and delivered in all parts of tlie County 
in quantities to suit customers. Saloons and Families supplied every day at tlieir 
residences or places of business. Orders left at the Brewery will be promptly 
attended to. 



JOHN BENNETT. JOHN T. BENNETT. 

BEl^^N'ETT & CO., 

Street, €^FSfi§s Talley, 

WHOLESALE AND RETAIL DEALERS IN 




Cutlery, Stoves, Iron, Steel, ]\^ails, Powder, Fuse, 



Doors, Blinds and Windows; 

Paints, Oils and Varnishes; 

Farming and Mining Tools ; 

O 3E1. <0 O ^S. E3 IFL "^ = 



B. GAD ALWAYS KEEPS THE BEST BOOTS AND SHOES. 



GUITAR AND VIOLIN STRINGS AT DIXON'S. 



GRASS VALLEY TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 



297 



WILLIAM HILL. 



E. P. FARNHAM. 



E§T4BMSHED M 1863. 





[HALF-MILE EAST OF GRASS VALLEY,] 

ill & EMMSMMfil' 

PROPRIETORS. 



SULPHMETS 




PURCHASED 



BY SAMPLE ASSAYS. 



SULPHURETS AND EEFRACTOHY ORES 

Worked on Contract, and Returns Promptly Made. 



This Establislimeiit lias been in successful operation for five years, having worked 
in that time over twelve hundred tons of sulphurets, extracting therefrom an 
average of ninety-five per cent, of the gold, as shown Ly fire assays. 

J2 . . . . „ 

B. GAD'S IS THE PLACJiJ TO FIT YODRSELJ' WITH FINE CLOTHING. 



CHESS MEN, A LARGE SUPPLY. AT DIXON'S. 



208 



GRASS VALLEY TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 



TJNIO]^ 




PEOPRIETOR, 

IVo. 43 Main Street, €irass Valley. 

Stylisli Horses, Good Buggies and Well Trained Saddle Animals always on Land. 



CENTER 



M. FITZ GEHALB, 

Mo. ©3 Main Street CJrasj 



KET, 

Proprietor, 



The Proprietor of the CENTER MARKET continues to offer, as he has for the 
past year, the best quality of Meats of all kinds. 

iW Prices as Low as any. =^ 



GO TO THE 




CORNER OF MILL AND NEAL STREETS, 
JOHH CORBETT, Proprietor. 



G-MASS VALI.EY AM© HEVADA 






h 



Mill Street, (feelow the Foundry,) Grass Valley. 

All kinds of garments done up in San Francisco Style. 

LIBBEY & KAISER, Proprietors. 



AN IMMENSE STOCK OP CLOTHING— WHERE ? AT B. GAD'S GREAT 



GO TO DIXON'S VARIETY STOKE, NO. 4 MILL STREET, GRASS VALLEY. 



GRASS VALLEY TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 



299 



cm 






m^};n 



No. 8 MILL STREET, GRASS VALLEY, 



m 



h 



JOHN BOLIMa, Proprietor. 



THE FINEST WINES, LiaUORS, ALES AND CIGARS. 



The "reputation of this Saloon is second to none in tins Connty. Every thing is of 

THE BEST. 



i^ X Xji Xji X 3sr :£3 xt. 



No. 3 Main Street, Grass "Valley, 

Constantly on hand a very Choice Selection of 

Ml^MllRY GOODS, 

CONSISTING OF 

Bonnets, Flats, Ribbons, Flowers, 
Laces, &c., &c. 

Also— ^Bleaching, Pressing and ColoriDg, Straw 
Work in all its branches. 



DRESS MAKI]V€} 

Neatly Executed. 



CftySR'S 8At 



Adjoining Wiedero's Jewelry Store, 



^ 



jVo. 84 Mill Street, Gvslss Valley, 

Keeps constantly on hand the very hest 
LiaUORS, LAGER, WINES, ALES AND CIGARS. 

Call on Bob if you want a " niagnif " drink. 

R. CRYER, Proprietor. 



CLOTHING EMPORIUM, CORNER MAIN AND MILL STREETS, GRASS VALLEY. 



GIFT ANNUALS AT DIXON'S. 



300 



GRASS VALLEY TOWNSHIP DIRECTOEY. 



JOS. HALLECK. 



FEANK HALLECK. 



GEO. B. MAY. 



No, 61 Malii 8treet^ Crrass Yalley, 



WW 



WHOLESALE AND EETAIL 
DEALERS IN 









3 



FARLOH AND BEDROOM B 

CURLED HAIR MATTRESSES 

Picture PrameSj Crockery 




.]¥o. 18 Mill Street, €^ra§§ Tsilley. 



rULL SUITS OF CLOTHING, FKOM $]0 TO $75, AT B. GAD'S. 



RUBREU NECK-TlES AT DIXON'S. 



GRASS VALLEY TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 



301 



PHYSICIANS AND SlilKllONS 

Office and Residence next door to Wisconsin Hotel, 

liowcr Main Sti'ect, (Grass Valley. 



'? 



Z. H. DENMAII. 



WM. SPARKS. 




DENMAN & SPARKS, 
Mill Street, Grass Valley, 



»..«re .|]j ^11 



Made and repaired on the Shortest Notice; 





Of all kinds done with Neatness and Dispatch. 

ALL KIKDS OF CARRIAGE PAINTING DONE IN THE BEST OF STYLE. 

All Work Warranted to give Perfect Satisfaction. 



J. W. JAMES. P. ENGLISH. 

JAMES & EM€JI.ISM, 



No. 22 ATJBUEN STREET, GRASS VALLEY. 
All kinds of Blacksmithing done with Neatness and Dispatch. 



BOYS SUITS, AND UIJDJiR-CLOTHING, ALL SIZES, AT B. GAD'S. 



CHESS BOAKDS AT DIXON'S, 



302 



GRASS VALLEY TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 



DENTISTRY. 




AT Tl LOWEST M lAlISCO PEl 

SECOND DOOR EELOW THE WISCOKSm HOTEL, 



3E=» :E=i. IL G ^S iS i 

Extracting Teeth 50 cents, i Extracting for Children.. -25 cents. 

Nerve Killed in Aching Teeth, without pain $1.00 

Filling with Gold, per Cavity $1.50 to $2.50 

Other Fillings $1.00 

Making Full Tipper or Lower Set, on Vulcanite $25.00 

Making Full Upper or Lower Set, on Silver $25.00 to $35.00 

Making FuU Tipper or Lower Set, on Gold $50.00 to $75.00 



«^ CHLOROFORM ADMINISTERED WHEN DESIRED, ^©a 



Any dissatisfaction resulting from Avork done at tliis Office 'will be rectified by 
the return of tlie monev. All Work Warranted. 



Come and see me. 



Dr. C. E. DAVIS. 



BK. JAMES SIMPSON, 

PHYSlCtASt AStO SORG60M, 

Office — On Main Streetj Ijrress Telley. 

OPPOSITE EXCHAXGE HOTEL. 
12^^ Residence — 2s 0. 4 Scliool Street. 



WHO KEEPS THE GREAT CLOTHING EMPOKIUM, CORNER OF 



SHEET MUSIC AT DIXON'S. 



GRASS VALLEY TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 



303 



J. NE\^MA]^ & CO., 

No. 34 MILL STREET, GRASS VALLEY, 

Wholesale and Retail Dealers in Foreign and Domestic 

STAPLE m Um DM GOODS, 

CARPETS, OIL CLOTHS, WALL 

PAPER, GENTS FURNISHING GOODS, ETC. 

The Largest Assortment in the Market, at the Lowest Eates. 



No. 13 Main Street, Grass Valley. 

Next door to the Empire Stable. 

His friends and the public ^vill always find 
him prepared to administer to their wants. 



J. NE^VMi^^^ & CO., 

^Miolesale and Eetail Dealers in 

MEN'S, WOMEN'S AND CHII^DREN'S, 



«^' 



M'll^-^ "' 



m 



'^ 



Gentlemen's Fine Dress Boots, Ladies Balmorals and Gaiters, 
Children's Boots and Shoes in Great Variety. 

IVo. 46 Mill Street, Grass Valley. 



O O C IDE:^rT A.L 




One door west of Lontzenheiser's Drug Store, 

Main Street, €}rass Valley. 

Hair Cutting, Shaving and Shampooing done in the Latest Style. 

GEORGE H. CLAY, Proprietor. 



MAIN AND MILL STREETS, GRASS VALLEY? B, GAD. 



EEAUTIFtTLLX DP.ESSKD DOLLS, AT I»IXO^'S. 



304 



GRASS VALLEY TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 





Wm TMMS 



AND 



DKIVERS FURNISH:EIi> WHEN DESIRED. 



The best Carriages and Buggies always on liand, at either of our Stables, in 



a 



Carriages leave Grass Valley for Colfax daily, connecting with all the trains. 

Carriages, Buggies and Saddle Horses Fiirnislied 

For Passengei-s going to or from any of the Trains at Colfax, at prices but little 
above Stage fare ; and Baggage carried Free of charge. 

We have an Omnibus Line running between NEVADA and GEASS 
VALLEY, making three trips a day ; leaving Grass Valley at 9 a. m. 
and 1 and 5 p. m. Returning, leave Nevada at 10 a. m. and 3 and 6 p. m. 

T. W. McCUE, Grass VaUey, 
J. S. McCUE, Colfax. 



B, GAD ALWAYS KEEPS THE liEST BOOTS AND SHOES. 



SKETCH OP MEADOW LAKE TOWNSHIP. 



BY F. TILFORD. 



Tlie tcnvnsliip of Meadow Lake, or as it is more popularly, and jierliaps more 
appropriately termcid, " Excelsior," is bounded on the nortli by the county of 
Sierra, on the south by Placer, on the east by the boundary line of the States of 
(California and Nevada, and on the west by the townships of Eureka and Wash- 
in<^,on. These limits contain an area of 884 square miles, and were organized, as 
the ninth township of Nevada coimty, by the Board of Supervisors, in the month of 
February, eighteen hundred and sixty-sis. 

Until a very recent period, the district was almost Avholly unknown to the public 
of California. Travelers over the Henness Pass and Donner Lake routes returned 
to their homes in the lowlands and described in glowing language the wild and 
picturesque scenery which skirts these highways as they approach the summits of 
the Sierra. Now and then, an adventurous tourist, who had Avandered from the 
great thoroughfares of travel, among the solitudes of the mountains, published a 
sketch from his note book descriptive of a somber forest, through whose shadowy 
glades reigned an awful silence, a crystal stream whose banks were fringed with 
the loveliest of flowers, or some magnificent sheet of water, in whose clear waves 
he had seen reflected the fleeting clouds of a summer sky, or the starry firmament of 
night. Yet a large majority even of the reading community had no very definite idea 
of the climate, scenery, or resources of the mountainous region included in the bounda- 
ries of the present township of Meadow Lake. In their minds it was associated in 
the vision of a dreary winter, extending over nine months of the year, and a rocky, 
inaccessible wilderness, closed to the approaches of society by impenetrable barriers 
of snow and ice. The remembrance of the ill-fated Donner party cast a shade of 
deeper gloom over the picture which imagination had drawn. 

Still Excelsior did not remain entirely unexplored. The demand for water 
wherewith to work the auriferous claims scattered through the valleys and foot- 
hills of Nevada and Sierra counties, had at an early period attracted the attention 
of capitalists to these snow-crowned and exalted regions. Here, it was evident 
might be obtained at the proper elevations, an inexhaustible supply of the coveted 
element, which could be collected in reservoirs, and conducted by aqueducts to less 
famed localities. Action speedily followed the conception, and in the Simimer of 
eighteen hundred and fifty-eight, the first permanent structure was erected in the 
district by the South Yuba Canal Company. It consisted of a stone wall projected 
across a ravine, the banks of which were some three hundred yards apart. This 
wall forms the dam of a reservoir, or artificial lake, from which -Nevada City and a 
large section of country in the southwestern part of Nevada county, obtain in the 
summer and fall months, their principal supply of water. It measures in some 
K2 



306 MEADOW LAKE TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 

places fifty feet in Hght ; is at tlie apex fifteen feet wide, and is "built of solid 
granite, witlioiit a particle of wood or cement entering into its composition. 

The sheet of water, thus collected and discharged by a small gate at the dam, 
is called Meadow Lake, and lies within the corporate limits of the town designated 
by the same name. The reservoir or lake is about two miles long from north to 
south, and between three hundred yards and three-fourths of a mile "oide, with a 
depth in places, ranging with the season, of from ten to thirty fathoms. Other enter- 
prises of a similar character followed in the line indicated by the South Yuba 
Company. About two miles west of Meadow Lake, another reservoir has been 
formed, called French Lake, of about the same depth and dimensions as the one 
described. To the east of the former, and some three miles distant, is still another 
sheet of water styled " English Lake." French Lake is tapped by the great 
Magenta flume, and supplies the country lying around Eureka South. Forest City, 
in Sierra county, and the mining region in its vicinity, obtain their supijlies of 
water from the " English " reservoir. 

Whether these attempts to subject to man's dominions, the snows of the Sierra, 
have been a pecuniary success to their projectors, the writer is unable to state, but 
they have undoubtedly proved of incalculable benefit to several cities, and a multi- 
tude of miners and agriculturalists in Sierra and Xevada counties. 

Xo discovery, and not even a susiiicion of the existence of mineral treasures fol- 
lowed the labors of the first exi')lorers of the district. They passed over ledges, 
since i^roven to be exceedingly rich, without a dream of the wealth beneath their 
feet. A fact, at first view so remarkable, can only be accounted for in the peculiar 
appearance of the country', differing in almost any respect from what is presented 
in any other portion of California. Elsewhere, the gold-bearing ledges rise above, 
or can be unmistakably traced upon the earth's surface. "SMiatever may be the 
character of the country rock, whether porphyry, slate or granite predominates, the 
quartz ledges may be easily discovered by the practiced eye of an experienced 
miner. The geological formation of Excelsior presents great difiiculties to the 
prospector. In some places immense forests cast their shadows over the ground, 
which is carpeted with luxuriant grasses ; in other localities huge bowlders, or vast 
masses of granite — among which it was once a favorite theory that true fissure 
veins of gold and silver were never found — are the prominent features of the land- 
scape. The ledges, lying even with the masses of granite around them, and capped 
mth a species of mineral which is neither pure quartz nor covmtry rock, are trace- 
able only by broad stains of a dark, reddish hue. It is not then, on reflection, sur- 
prising that parties whose attention and energies were directed to other purposes 
than the search for gold, should have failed to discover the existence of treasures 
so strangely concealed by nature. The time for the discovery of the wondrous 
riches of the Sierra summits was not far distant. It was, however, made like that 
of Marshall in 1848, under circumstances, , and by a person apparently the most 
unlikely to accomplish such an event. 

Sometime in eighteen hundred and sixty, Henry Hartley, an Englishman, wan- 
dered to these mountain solitudes. He came partly, as the writer has been 
informed, with a view to the improvement of his health, threatened somewhat with 
consumptive tendencies, and partly to trap the wild game of the mountains, when 
the deep snows of winter should have fallen. Xo idea of gold hunting seems to 
have occurred to the hardy trapper as he plunged into sohtudes more dreary and 



MEADOW LAKE TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 307 

desolate tlian the lonely island of Selkirk. The long winters of the mountains were 
his choice seasons. Thus it was, when not imprisoned in his cabin by the furr of 
the storm, the adventui-er glided -vritli his snow shoes over the frozen expanse which 
surrounded him. In the spring the trapper resorted with the rewards of the chase 
to the lowlands, lingered there during the Summers, and returned \vith his sup- 
plies when the snows first announced the approach of winter. Th\is passed three 
years of his sojourn in the wilderness, when in June of 1863 Hartley first observed, 
with some surprise, a number of ledges about half a mile distant, in a southeasterly 
direction, from the site of the present to^vn of Meadow Lake. In August of the 
same year. Hartley, accompanied by John Simons and Henry Feutel, to whom he 
had communicated the news of his discover}", visited the newly found ledges, and 
in September made the first locations in Excelsior — then forming a part of Wash- 
ington township. They located under the title of " Excelsior Company," two thou- 
Band feet on each of the parallel ledges, named " L'niou Xo. 1 and 2." These lodes 
were about seventy-five feet apart, and could be distinctly traced northwesterly and 
southeasterly for the distance of a mile. The quartz on the surface is stained a 
dark, reddish brown by the action of oxyde of iron, derived from the gold-bearing 
pyrites which it contains in great abundance. In many places the decomposed sul- 
phurets of the ledge were resplendent with fijie gold. Every experiment which 
these prospectors made with their pans and horns — an invariable portion of a miner's 
equipment — strengthened their first impressions of the richness of their discovery. 
The writer is happy to have it in his power to state that assays since made, as well 
as results of milling on a large scale, have confirmed the judgment of the original 
locators, and demonstrated that these claims are among the foremost of the district. 
The Excelsior was for a long time the only mining association in the newly dis- 
covered region. It was not until the summer of 1864, that the CaMornia Company 
discovered and located their ledges, claiming seventeen hundred feet in each of four 
very prominent lodes — the California, Knickerbocker, Indian Queen and Indian 
Boy. The first named resembles in every respect the Union ledges of the Excelsior 
Company, ha\-iug the same direction, northwesterly and southeasterly, and is in 
fact considered by many as the same ledge formation. The '-California" was 
iacorporated in February I860, under the law of the State of Xevada, and after- 
ward, in the month of June 1866, owing to some irregularities attending its first 
organization, incorporated again under the statutes of California. It is now a 
thriving association, with a valuable mill, a shaft that strikes one of their ledges 
(the Knickerbocker) at a depth of seventy-five feet, and bids fair at no distant day 
to become as prosperous as any mining company in the county of Nevada. Xot 
however, imtil the summer of 1865, was public attention attracted to the auriferous 
region, where the adventurous Hartley had dwelt so long amidst the solitude 
of nature. 

The first movement was from Virginia City in the State of Nevada. Faint 
rumors had been carried to that place of " rich prospects struck " on the summits 
of the Sierra, and of vast ledges showing anywhere on their surface free gold. 
Specimens of a superior quality were exhibited as indications of the mineral wealth 
of the Eldorado which nature had located more than eight thousand feet above the 
level of old ocean. Times were exceedingly dull around Virginia, and indeed 
throughout Washoe. The great Comstock, at the depth then explored, wore 
threatening appearances of failure. Humboldt, Reese River and Esmeralda had, 



308 MEADOW LAKE TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 



in tlie expressive language ol the mining regions, teen " played cut !" Idalio, al- 
tliougli rich, was too far distant ; Montana was then almost unknown ; in fine, the 
new field of Excelsior had no competitor in popular favor, and was hailed by a 
large crowd of restless and discontented miners, dwelling in or near Virginia City, 
as another chance which propitious fortune had thrown in their way. With such 
characters to resolve and act, when action consists merely in a transition from one 
locality to another, means substantially the same thing. 

From June until late in the fall of eighteen hundred and sixty-six, hundreds came 
in — an eager and excited crowd — over the roads from Washoe into Nevada county. 
In the meantime a similar excitement, although in a less degree, had sprung up in 
Placer, Sierra, the lower portions of Nevada, and indeed through all northern Cali- 
fornia. Miners with their prospecting and working implements strapped to their 
shoulders, traders with their wares, and adventurers of every character ; many with 
no definite idea of how a subsistence was to be made, much less how a fortune was 
to be acquired, spread over the hills and valleys of the promised land. In the 
month of July, a public meeting, the first one held in Excelsior, was called at the 
site of the present town of Meadow Lake. Even then a few cabins had been con- 
structed on the western banks of the reservoir, and the place was known as Sum- 
mit City. The assemblage was convened as a miner's meeting, and proceeded to 
adopt boundaries for the new district, which then formally received its title of 
" Meadow ,Lake." The mining laws of Nevada county were adopted by acclama- 
tion, and the County Recorder's office was designated as the proper place for the 
filing of notices of locations, claims and transfers. No time was lost in the work of 
prospecting. Stakes, with notices, clothed the whole region, and every mass of 
rocks which bore the slightest resemblance to a ledge, was claimed and located. 
It is estimated that dmiug the summer of eighteen hundred and sixty-five, twelve 
hmidred locations were made in the district, containing in the aggregate more than 
one million two hundred thousand feet of so-called auriferous ledge rock. In the 
feverish excitement which prevailed, locations were made over the whole country. 
Bowlders, masses of granite, rocks of every description assumed to the distempered 
fancy of the prospector, the shape and outlines of a quartz ledge, and were duly 
entered, under glittering titles, upon the Recorder's books. To one who had ever 
resided in Washoe in the flush times of the silver land, it was the old scene 
repeated on a new stage, and with a slight difference in the cast of the characters. 
In the month of July, Meadow Lake was surveyed and laid out as a town. It was 
included within the limits of a survey of one hujidred and sixty acres, made and 
filed by Erick Prahm, xmder the Possessory Act of eighteen htmdred and fifty-two. 
Prahm had been a locator of the California claims the previous year, and his pre- 
emption entry was in trust, and for the benefit of the California Company. The 
new town was laid out into spacious streets, eighty feet wide, and the blocks divi- 
ded into lots -with, a frontage of sixty and a depth of eighty feet. Through the 
center of the blocks ran alley ways sixteen feet wide. A spacious plaza was 
reserved and dedicated for public use in the northern part of the futui'e city. Lots 
were sold by the California Company, to actual settlers, for the small consideration 
of twenty-five dollars in cash, and upon the condition that they should be inclosed 
and improved. 

The village was originally styled " Summit City," which name it retained until 
its incorporation, by Act of the Legislature, in the spring of eighteen hundred and 



J 



MEADOW LAKE TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 309 



eixty-six. When the fall of eigliteen liundred and sixty-five closed, the village had 
made considcraljlo advauciis in population and improvement. Not less than one 
hundred and fifty houses had Leon erected, and others were in the course of con- 
struction. Stores were established, driving a brisk traffic with the settlers and vis- 
itors to the town ; hotels, three in number, were crowded to excess, and drinking 
saloons, with their bars and gambling tables, reaped a rich harvest. From June 
until October it is probable that more than three thousand people visited the dis- 
trict, and each bringing with him some money for investment, created a season of 
fiatteriug but transient prosperity for the place. 

While undoubtedly the large majority of locations made during the exciting 
summer of eighteen hundred and sixty -five were wholly without merit, entered 
without the slightest judgment, and in many instances with no expectation of ever 
developing a mine, there were several claims located which have since been worked 
successfully, and are unquestionably of more than ordinary richness. Among them 
were the " Confidence," " jNIohawk & Montreal," " Comet," "Enterprise " and "U. S. 
Grant." The first named is situated in the southwestern part of the town, on the 
Pacific ledge. It contains one thousand feet, has a shaft or incline sunk to a depth 
of some seventy feet, with well defined walls nine i'eet apart, and has yielded be- 
tween eight hundred and a thousand tons of ore, w(n-th on an average in free gold 
not less than twenty d(jllars to the ton. The company has erected a substantial 
frame building over its shaft, and is pusliing its incline downward with comncnd- 
able energy. 

The Pacific ledge runs southeast and northwest, aiid within the limits of the 
Confidence claim, shows on the surface a well developed ledge, varying in width 
from five to seven feet. The upper rock is composed of decomposed sulphurets, and 
is studded with free gold, plainly visible to the miaided eye. Within a few feet 
from the surface the great mass of the vein rock changes in character and appear- 
ance. The gold in the quartz is combined with sulphm-ets of iron, copper, arsenic 
and zinc. The proportion of sulphurets in the rock ranges from twenty-five to for- 
ty-five per cent., and when concentrated, yields by the chlorine treatment, about 
one hundred dollars per ton. 

The Mohawk & Montreal Company, claiming eleven hundred feet, is located on a 
ledge of the same name. It is one of a series of lodes or great veins which have 
their center in a prominent elevation some two miles to the south of Meadow Lake, 
called the " Old Man Mountain." The course of the ledge is almost due east and 
west, and can be traced by unmistakable croppings the entire leng-th of the com- 
pany's claims. The rock from these claims, carefully selected from the mass and 
carried by pack mules a distance of some six miles, has been worked at the " Win- 
ton mill," ;j'ielding on the average by the ordinary mill process thirty dollars per 
ton in free gold. The mine has been penetrated by a tunnel, and its character 
tested at a depth of more than two Imndi-ed feet below the apex. Here it presents 
every appeai-ance of a well defined ledge, containing sulphurets similar to those of 
the Pacific, except perhaps in the absence of zinc among the base metals. The ore 
at the depth mentioned gives, under the clilorine process, twenty-seven dollars per 
ton. 

The U. S. Grant, another fine claim, contauiing sixteen hundred feet, is situated 
at the southern base of " Old Man Mountain." It was located by Thomas Carlyle 
and others, in the month of August, on a ledge styled the " Ohio." The mine has 



310 MEArOW LAKE TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 

been energetically and successfully worked, and lias done more, perhaps, than any 
claim in Excelsior to sustain the reputation of the district. Rock from it has 
yielded as high as one hundred dollars to the ten, and the avcrjige ore may he 
safely estimated at not less than thirty dollars in free gold. To the extent ■which 
the Grant has been prospected, it contains less of the sulphurets than any other 
ledge in that section. The ore is consequently easily and cheajjly worked by the 
ordinary crushing and amalgamating process ; a fact which has materially aided 
the company in prospecting and developing its claim. 

Still further to the south, and seven miles from the town, is situated the Enter- 
prise mine. The company owning it has fifteen hundred'feet on the ledge. Their 
location was made in July, and commenced under the most flattering auspices. 
Specimens of surpassing richness, showing everywhere on the surface, indicated a 
deposit of vast mineral wealth. Twenty-four hundred poimds of selected rock were 
sold, and yielded to the fortunate purchasers a profit of four thousand dollars. 
Subsequent explorations have disclosed a body of bright sulphurets ^yiih nearly 
forty per cent, of arseniurets, Avorth on an average twenty-eight dollars per ton. 

Later in the season, some time in the month of October, a location was made four 
miles to the west of the town of Meadow Lake, called the Comet Company, on the 
Shooting Star ledge. A shaft has been sunk on it to the depth of forty-two feet, 
disclosing a well defined ledge eight feet in width. The rock also diflfers materialy 
from the ores of the other claims wliich have been described. Frequent assays 
show the presence of a considerable j)roportion of silver. The writer is not aware 
of another ledge in Excelsior in which more than a trace of argentiferous ore can 
be detected. 

A large number of claims located and partially prospected in the summer and 
fall of 1865, have, during the i^ast season, been sufficiently developed to deserve the 
name of mines. Many of them give promise of future excellence, but as the space 
allotted to a sketch like the present does not permit a particular description of all, 
the author has selected those named as the representative mines of the district. 
The large amount of work performed upon them, the important fact that they 
belong to different series of ledges, and the quantity of pay ore taken from their 
shafts and tunnels, fairly entitle them to the distinction. Very little labor, beyond 
what was necessary to hold a claim for twelve months, under the liberal mining 
laws of the county, was done on any ledge in the district during the year. , The 
task of development was deferred to a later period. Before the first storms of No- 
vember, the crowd of adventurers scattered over the hills and valleys of Exlelsior, 
had dejDarted for a more genial clime. A few remained in Summit City, deter- 
mined to watch through the -ninter over their newly acqxiired claims, to guard 
them against trespassers, and be prepared for the tide of fortune that was exj)ected 
to set in, with a golden current, on the return of spring. About two hundred 
persons, among whom were a few families, sojourned through the winter in the 
little village. 

The season was one of severity and almost unjjrecedented duration. The first 
fall of snow occurred on the 24th of September. Early in October it disappeared, 
and for the remainder of the month the weather was comparatively mild and pleas- 
ant. In November, violent winds from the southwest swept over the district, bring- 
ing Tvith them dense dark masses of clouds, sure precursors of snow and wintry 
storms. The signs, so familiar and well understood by the experienced dwellers 



MEADOW LAKE TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 311 

in tliese mountainous regions, did not fail on this occasion. Tlie storms continued 
almost without cessation tlirougb tlie month of November. By the first of Decem- 
ber the country was covered wth snow to a depth of five feet. From New Year's 
day until March 1866, the weather was, as is usually the case in this section, free 
from storms — the skies clear, and the atmosphere, never intensely cold, was fre- 
quently so moderate that fires were not requisite for comfort, except in the night 
time. The Excelsior climate in the winter time is far more moderate than the 
weather on the eastern slope of the Sierra, within a distance of less than one hvm- 
dred miles. It comes not within the proA-ince of this sketch to discuss the philoso- 
phy of a fact which can be attested by hundreds who have ^vintered in Washoe and 
on the summit. In the month of March, the southwest -winds which had prevailed 
in November, again appeared, accompanied by their invariable attendants — snow 
and sleet. Spring, as it is seen in other portions of California, is unknoA^ii in these 
high altitudes. The transition from winter to summer is almost immediate. As 
the period for the ine^■itable change draws near, it would seem that the storm 
king, throned in the frozen recesses of the mountains, becoming conscious that his 
tempestuous reign must soon dissolve under the genial sunshine of summer, exerts 
all his remaining strength, and makes a last determined effort to retain his domin- 
ion over nature. 

The montlis of March, April and May, 1866, will long be remembered in the 
mountains for their unprecedented severity. All marks of the narrow trails which 
traverse the summit were obliterated by the drifting snows, and even the highways, 
in many places, were lendered difficult of passage. As an illustration of the char- 
acter of the season, it may be mentioned, that from the 20th of May until the first 
day of June, there was almost constantly a snow storm in and around Meadow 
Lake. The first summer month opened with a strange aspect in this mountainous 
region. Instead of fragrant fiowers. murmiiring streams, the hum of bees, and 
carol of birds, so familiar to the denizen of the plains on the approach of the sum- 
mer months, here were seen mountains capped with snow, streams held fast with 
frozen chains, and icicles pendant from the branches of the giant pines, whose lofty 
heads towered grandly among the clouds of the Sierra. Still traveling was not 
interrupted to any serious extent. The tide of emigration set in toward Excelsior 
about the first of May, and continued without abatement through the month of 
June. During these mouths it may be safely estimated that no less than four thou- 
sand people visited the new district. It appeared for a time that the exciting scenes 
which had been witnessed in Yirginia City a few years previously, were destined 
to be repeated in Meadow Lake. In the town all was excitement and activity. 
The bar-rooms of the public houses, three in all, and the saloons, were crowded to 
overflowing with strangers who had been attracted to the village. Every sleeping 
place and corner were in demand, and from twenty-five to thirty persons were often 
crowded together at night in a room aptly styled a corral. There was nothing 
talked of but " feet," " ledges," stocks and town lots. The latter were held at fig- 
ures that seemed to a cool observer, not merely extravagant, but absui-dly high. 
For a lot sixty by eighty feet, on any of the principal streets, from $1,500 to $2,500 
were asked, and actually, in some instances, paid. Eents were advanced in the 
same proportion. A small tenement on "C " street, with a frontage of 18 feet and 
a depth of 24 feet, rented for $200 per month. The possessor of a few corner lots 
considered himself a millionaire, and talked of liis thousands of ^ dollars with more 



312 MEADOW L\KE TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 

nonchalance tlian lie would liave exliibitedj at some former period of Ms life, in dis- 
cussing tlie details of a bargain wMcli involved as many dimes. Tliere was but 
little building undertaken until tlie latter part of Jime. Altliougli tliere were four 
saw-mills in tlie district, wliich liad been constantly in operation during tlie spring, 
yet o^ving to tlie inclemency of tbe weather and the almost impassable state of tlie 
roads leading from them to the town, lumber was scarce, and held at prices ranging 
from $50 to $75 per thousand feet. The only supplies of the much needed article 
came from Sierra Valley, a distance of some fifteen miles. As soon as materials 
could be obtained, building commenced on an extensive scale, and during the 
months of July and August from four to tive hundred frame houses were erected. 
Some of these tenements were really handsome and substantial edifices, and remain 
as useful and ornamental structures, giving to the town an appearance decidedly 
more aristocratic and city-like than is usually seen in a mountain village. 

In the month of June a Stock Board, with thirty-nine members, was established. 
Considering that there was not at the time a mine developed, or ledge visible, 
in the whole district, the transaction was unique and refreshingly cool. With sol- 
emn ^dsages, night after night the members assembled, a long roll of stocks was 
called, and no bids made. Verily the sellers were many, but alas ! purchasers were 
few! In the town the whole afiair was regarded as a farce, which all enjoyed, and 
none, perhaps, more than the actors who assumed a leading part in the perform- 
ance. Tet the effect of the movement was decidedly prejudicial to the interests of 
Excelsior ; abroad it created, not unreasonably, an impression that the people of the 
district had no confidence in, nor intention of developing their claims, but held 
them simply for speculative purposes. Tlie excitement which prevailed in the town 
and district was fictitious, and destined, after a brief existence, to find an inglorious 
collapse. A reaction followed, and Excelsior experienced a descent from its exalted 
pinnacle in pubhc estimation, almost as rai^id, and quite as unreasonable as its fa- 
mous rise. 

Hundreds had rushed to a mountain region when the snow was ten feet deep on 
the groimd — ^into a village with only a few rudely constructed tenements, and 
lastly, into a mining district, new, and of course undeveloped, and then, forsooth, 
were surprised and chagrined at not finding the ample accommodations of a city, 
the serenity of a summer climate, and mines and mills in active operation ! All 
such \-isitors returned to their homes sadder, and it is to be hoped, somewhat wiser 
than before their departure. There was yet another class of emigrants who favored 
Meadow Lake for a brief season ^uth their presence, and left in deep disgust with 
the district. It consisted of a lot of idle, needy and profligate adventurers, who 
had neither capital nor industry, but expected to live by sharp practices, by prey- 
ing on the unwary— in fine, by any methods other than the exercise of an 
honest and useful industry. Men of this character were sadly disappointed in Ex- 
celsior, and retm-ning to their wonted haunts in the cities, decried T\dth eager 
voices the mines and prospects of the new district. Fortimately there were among 
the residents of the township, a few persons of sound, practical judgment, who 
clearly foreseeing the inevitable result of the fictitious excitement prevalent in the 
spring, had resisted its iaifiuence, and pursued the even tenor of their way. Such 
men, enlightened by experience, and well knowing that labor and capital only — 
more potent when imited than the wand of Prospero — could open roads, level for- 
ests, develop mines, or erect mills, had gone persistently to work upon their claims. 



MEADOW LA.KE TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 313 

Their example had a salutary and encoiiraging effect upon the majority of the commu- 
nity. The results made evident what energetic work could accomplish. Four 
good roads were opened from the town — one to Bowman's Station, situated on the 
South Eureka branch of the Henness Pass, another to Jackson's, a few miles dis • 
tant, on the same road ; a third to intersect the main Henness Pass at a point near 
Truckee Lake, and intended to accommodate the Washoe travel. A fourth, was 
completed to Cisco, and connects by a line of daily stages with the Central Pacific 
railroad, thus bringing the district A^-ithin a day's ride of San Francisco. 

Some thirty claims, situated in different parts of the township, Avere developed to 
depths on the ledges varying from twenty to two hundi-ed and forty feet. The 
results in all cases have been eminently satisfactory. They have demonstrated 
beyond any reasonable doubt that the ledges of Excelsior are true fissure veins, and 
not mere superficial deposits of aviriferous quartz. 

Seven mills have been erected, or are in the course of speedy construction, for 
the reduction of orss, with an aggregate capacity of seventy-two stamps. Two fur- 
naces for the roasting of rock have been finished, and Plattner's chlorine process used 
successfully at one of them. Experiments have proved that the gold in the sulphurets 
can be saved within five per cent, of their assayed values. In addition to this and 
other achicvm3nts, they have built and paid for a handsome and substantial town. 
Although the building of the latter, in advance of the development of the ledges 
of the country, may seem an unusual and unwise departure from the established 
order of improvement, it has not be.'U without its advantages. Any one who lias 
over residi'd in a mining region will understand the substantial benefits which 
must accrue to the mill-men, and workmen in a mine, from having in their vicinity 
a permanent depot, where sui^plies can be obtained at all seasons, u^wn moderate 
terms. 

Meadow Lake is not the only town laid out in the district. About two miles to 
the south of it, and at the intersection of the Cisco trail and the Yuba river, stands 
the present village and embryo city of Ossaville, a name that seems not altogether 
iuapropriato, when one looks at the huge bowlders which cover much the greater 
portion of the town site. Following down the Y'uba in its tortuous course, the trav- 
eler comes in about an hour's walk to Carlyle, a little village with a score of 
houses, situated at the base of Old Man Mountain, and near by the Grant mine. 
Still further to the west is Paris, a small cluster of deserted cabins, built appar- 
ently for no other purpose than to demonstrate the folly of its projectors. There 
is yet another town called Mendoza, located near the Enterprise works, quite flour- 
ishing at one time during the summer, but abandoned at the approach of winter. 
As none of these places are more, at present, than minings camps, any description 
of them is deemed superfluous. 

When wa remember that this vast amount of work, which has been stated in a 
summary manner, was the product of one brief season of exertion ; that it was 
undertaken in the face of predicted failure, and accomplished with no aid from 
extraneous capital, it must be conceded that the residents of Excelsior have shown 
a degree of energy which affords the best guarantee of future success. 

The first storm commenced on the morning of the third of November. It was 
ushered in with the usual gales from the southwest, and on their wings came the 
lowering clouds of winter, frowning darkly as they gathered around the mountain 
tops. Rain and snow cams down in heavy showers during the day ; by night the 

L2 



314 MEADOW LAKE TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 

former element liad disappeared, and tlie snow flakes descended with noiseless fall 
upon forest, Mil and glen. At sunrise, on the fourth, the face of nature was cov- 
ered with a veil of spotless wliite. No one, unless he has been an eye-^vitness of 
the scene, can appreciate, from description, the wondrous change which a few hours 
of a winter's storm vnl'i eflect in the apj)earance of a mountain landscape. At eve 
the sun sinks in j)ui'ple splendor beneath the horizon ; no sign in the heavens indi- 
cates to the inexpeiienced observer the coming storms. The old mountaineer, 
however, reads natm-e with a different power of perceptives, and readily discerns 
the portents of the tempest. He sees them in the light clouds which hover in the 
western sky ; he hears them in the southwest "winds' melancholy sighing through 
the forests. The last glance at sunset takes in the evergreen i^ines, the stream 
dancing along its narrow channel and dashing its spray over the grim old rocks 
which stand in its wayward coiirse — the lakes whose crystal waves reflect the gol- 
den hues of departing day ; the next morn the scene is changed. The icy hand of 
winter has been laid on the landscape, and the behoHer, dazzled and astonished, 
finds scarcely a trace of the loveliness which enchanted his senses the previous eve- 
ning. The stillness and repose of death now reign where only a few weeks before 
all was life and animation. The moimtain tops are slirouded in robes of white ; 
the tall pines, mth their snowy wreaths and pendant icicles, wear a strange and 
spectral appearance ; the babbling brook is frozen into silence, and the lake lies 
cold and motionless, its polished surface gleaming like burnished steel in the light 
of day. The scene, now weird and desolate, is no longer beaiitiful — it has become 
subhme. The first snows of November soon disappeared, leaving the country open 
and accessible to travel in every direction. Toward the last of the month the 
weather became somewhat stormy, and as it closes, at the date of this sketch, the 
district is covered by snow to the depth of ten or twelve inches. 

The writer feels that he cannot, injustice to the subject which he has ventured 
to present to the public, conclude this description without an allusion, at least, to 
the magnificent scenery and glorious summer and autumn climate of Excelsior. 
He has for several months past been a dweller in the mountains, far removed from 
the luxurious ease of the cities, and subject to all the privations of life in the wil- 
derness. He finds an am^jle compensation for any sacrifice of social enjoyment, in 
the wondrous pictures which memory \vill retain of Excelsior to the last syllable of 
recorded life. 

Within the limits of the district are Conner and Crystal lakes. These are on the 
line of the Central Pacific Eailroad, and have been so often described by tourists, 
that no further sketch is required to attract public attention to their beauties. 
Some four miles distant from the line of railroad travel, and in the immediate 
vicinity of the beautiful lake of the meadows, the visitor can find a scene of loveli- 
ness and sublimity not surpassed on the habitable globe. Let him, on some dewy 
morn, climb to the top of Old Man Mountain, or the hights which to the westward, 
overlook the pleasant village of Meadow Lake. From those rocky battlements the 
soul exi^ands as it contemplates the beauty and grandeur of nature. Look well — 
for the picture which spreads before you has been drawn by the hand of an 
Almighty Artist. In one direction repose a cluster of lakes, Avhose clear waves 
mirror the fleeting, fleecy clouds of day — the star-lit firmament of night. Their 
shores, rising into gentle hills, are crowned with stately forests, and decked 
with flowers as fair as the dews of earth ever nourished. Down the motintain 



MEADOW LAKE TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 315 

sides roll in silvery threads a thousand tiny streams, finding rest in the bosom of 
some placid lake, or mingling with the sparkling waters of the rapid rolling Yuba. 
Glancing in another course, at the base of Old Man INIoiintain, the dazzled eye 
beholds a landscape of a sterner character. Huge bowlders of everlasting granite, 
trees standing assart and in solitary majesty, and frightful, yawning chasms make 
up a picture, mid, weird and desolate, but grandly sublime. The writer has 
looked upon the scene at all hours of the day, and at all seasons of the year, and 
never yet Avithout a feeling of solemn awe pervading his whole being. Perhaps 
the most appropriate time to view the landscape is when the storm is raging, and 
the darkness of twilight has cast a somber mantle over th^face of nature. At fit- 
ful intervals, when the lightning's glare illumes the scenery, and the harsh thun- 
der rolls along the granite peaks of the mountain, one catches for a moment an 
inspiration which tempts him to exclaim — 

' ' The sky is changed ; and such a change 1 night 
And sterm and darkness, ye are woudrous strong — 
Yet lovely is your strength, as is the light 
Of a dark eye in woman." 

The beauty of the scenery is not the only, nor perhaps the chief, attraction of 
Excelsior. The delightful summer and fall climate of the district has excited the 
notice of all who have visited it dui'ing these seasons. In August and September, 
when the heat of the plains is sultry and oppressive, the temperature of the sum- 
mit is most refreshing. The jihysical character of the country contributes to this 
result. The altitude of the district, placed between seven and eight thousand feet 
above the level of the ocean, secures it alike against the assaults of pestilence, or 
the miasmatic vapor of the lowlands. On the other ha?id, its numerous lakes, rip- 
pling streams, and dense forests, not only afford pleasing contrasts to the eye, but 
difiFuse an agreeable moisture through the atmosphere, and thus take from it that 
rarity so generally prevalent in mountainous regions. To the invalid in search of 
vigorous health ; to thetourist, longing to sojuurn awhile amid scenes of unsur- 
passed grandeur ; to the weary dweller in the city, or on the plains, who would 
exchange, for a brief season, the conventional restraints of society for the free life 
of the mountains, Excelsior oflFers inducements to a visit, beyond any spot in Cali- 
ifornia. 

The reader must pardon tliis digression. He may at least be assured that the 
author has no selfish object to subserve in descanting on the merits of a region 
which none have yet seen without carrjing away ^dth them a feeling of true 
enjoyment. The author has no town lots to sell — no mines in which a " few feet 
may yet be purchased at a low figure " — not even a desire to see or mingle with 
the gay denizens of the fasluonable world who might be attracted to Excelsior. 
His avocations and tastes lead him to other pleasm-es, and far different pursuits. 
He has written this sketch, because in the first place it pleased him to write of a 
theme vnth which circumstances have made him familiar ; and secondly, it will 
gratify certain friends, whose interests are identified with those of Excelsior, and 
who naturally wish the district placed in its proper character before the world. 
The writer has no solicitude as to the future of Meadow Lake district. The period 
of its prosperity may be delayed ; but it will come sooner or later, as certainly as 
night follows the day. The unreasonable prejudice wliich ignorance and envy 
have created against it, are already disappearing before the light of acknowledged 



316 MEADOW LAKE TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 

facts. One more, and yet another season of toil, of continued and well directed 
application of skill to the development of its magnificent ledges, and Excelsior -will 
assuredly rank among the richest mining regions of the Pacific coast. 

The mineral region popiilarly called the Excelsior district, extends over an area 
some eight miles from north to south, and fi-om five to six miles, between its east- 
ern and western boundaries. The town of Meadow Lake is a prominent point 
near the northern line of the district. At this place the summit of the Sierra 
Nevada attains an altitude of some eight thousand feet. Two miles to the south- 
west of Meadow Lake, a rocky eminence called " Old Man Mountain," raises its 
bald and storm-beaten |Jifis of granite to an elevation of not less than one thousand 
feet above the surrounding country. Along the canyon, at the eastern base of Old 
Man Mountain, a branch of the Yuba river finds it way, in a southwesterly course, 
to the lowlands. The district to the north of Meadow Lake, and indeed in any 
direction except to the south, is covered with a dense forest, consisting of every 
variety of pine and cedar. The supply of timber and fuel derivable from this 
som'ce is deemed, if not inexhaustible, at least am^ily sufficient for many years to 
come. 

In the district there are about twenty artificial or natural lakes, and the number 
could be increased almost indefinitely at a trifling expense. All that is reqidred 
to form a reservoir is the cost and labor of erecting a stone dam across some val- 
ley or ravine. The snows of winter, melting into torrents at the approach of sum- 
mer, furnish in abundance whatever water is desired. Thus nature has gener- 
ously supplied the two principal wants of a mining popvilation. 

The gold bearing ledges of Excelsior have been exposed by the soil washuig 
away, leaving them ^yitb. distinct traces, in many instances, for more than a mile. 
The general course of the principal lodes is northwest and southeast, although the 
exceiotions are numerous, forming in some instances a vast net work of ledges, as 
difficult to thread as the labyrinths of ancient Egypt. They all occur in a strati- 
fied granitic formation, at many localities devoid of mica or its substitute. The 
gold bearing vein stone is of the same mineralogical character as the country rock, 
and is highly charged with iron pyrites, sometimes intermixed with sulphtu-ets of 
copper, zinc and lead. Auriferous arseniurets of iron also occur in the ledges on 
the ridge terminated by the eminence called " Red Mountain," a prominent point 
opposite to the town of Cisco, on the Central Pacific Railroad. Near the same 
locality, on the road leading from Cisco to Meadow Lake, a nickel and cobalt vein, 
bearing arseniuret of iron, intermixed with copper pyrites, is found imbedded in 
a granitic formation, close to its contact with the slate. The selected ore from this 
vein is reported to assay, in copper, 14 per cent.; in nickel 3 per cent.; in cobalt 1-^ 
per cent, Auriferous copi^er ores assajing up to 15 per cent, of the latter metal are 
also found in the district, and it is proposed by competent i^arties to erect, at an 
early day, an experimental furnace on the Rachette plan for their reduction to crude 
copper. Some four miles to the west of Meadow Lake, in a ledge known as the 
"Shooting Star," at the depth of forty .feet, auriferous ore has been found which 
assays as high as 15 per cent, of copper, and yields by chemical analysis $40 per 
ton in silver. 

While the general direction of the Excelsior ledges, as before stated, is north- 
westerly and southeasterly, and their characteristics are similar, yet for the purpose 
of classification they may be divided into five series, namely : the California, the 
Pacffic, the Baltimore, the Old Man Mountain and the Enterprise. 



MEADOW LAKE TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 317 

The California series consists of a few prominent ledges wliose course is more 
nearly north, and south than any others in the district ; among them the Excelsior, 
California and Empire are very generally and favorably known to the residents of 
Excelsior. The Pacific series, in which the Knickerbocker, Wisconsin and Pacific 
are the most prominent ledges, has a course alraost due northwest and southeast, 
and seems, in some instances, to terminate in the Cahfornia ledge, in other cases 
to pass on uninterrupted through it and the parallel lodes. The Baltimore series 
appears to radiate from a point near the canyon in the vicinity of Ossaville, on the 
Yuba, and is embraced within an angle from the point of radiation of about forty 
degrees, running from north forty deegrees west to north eighty degrees west. 
The ledges of the Old Man Mountain division radiate from a point near the western 
extremity of Phoenix Lake, a beautiful sheet of water Avhose shores are near the 
base of the mountain, several hundred feet above the altitude of Meadow Lakej 
In this group are the Mohawk and Montreal, U. S. Grrant, Montana, Gold Run, 
Crescent, and other promising claims. The ledges of Old Man Mountain, Avith a 
slight deflection to the north and south, are very nearly in a due eastern and west- 
ern course. To the southward occurs the Enterprise series of ledges, not yet suffi- 
ciently developed to determine with accm'acy its course or mineral character. Ar- 
senuirets of iron are found in abundance in the lodes of this di\'ision — as high in 
some instances as 40 per cent. 

The Excelsior ledges are easily traced by an experienced miner in the district, by 
the dark, reddish appearance of the outcroppings, caused by the oxidation of the 
iron pyrites encased in them. In width, they range on the surface from five to 
nine feet, and have, in almost every instance, been found to enlarge as they 
descend. It is a remarkable fact that not a ledge which can be traced downward 
twenty feet has yet pinched out below that depth. 

Contrary to the idea generally prevalent, no difSiculty is experienced in extract- 
ing the gold from the sulphurets. The only difficulty ever encountered originated 
from the inexperience of the men intrusted in the first mills of the district with the 
amalgamation of the ores. Their entire knowledge was derived from, and confined 
to, the quartz mills of the State of Xevada. They were novices in the treatment of 
auriferous rock, and made their first essays in Excelsior. At present the vein stone 
is treated for free gold by the common mill process in battery, and on copperplates, 
and the sulphurets, concentrated from the tailings, are subsequently worked by the 
chlorine process. The metallurgical works of Messrs. Deetkin & Chappellett, in 
the vicinity of the town, are the pioneer establishment of the district, and have by 
repeated expertments, made on different ores, demonstrated that by Plattner's chlo- 
rine process the gold can be e^iracted from any rock in Excelsior, within five per 
cent, of its assayed value, "phe principal and most serious difficulty, so far, consists 
in the want of proper conc0ntrators, that will perform a close concentration cheaply, 
and with a minimum loss. Sulphurets abounding in the ores of this district, and 
averaging by assay from $50 to f 60 per ton in gold, yield scarcely a profit on 
account of the cost of concentration by manual labor, as practised in other quartz 
mining districts of California, in which sulphurets, better in quality, but less in 
quantity, are produced. This difficulty, however, as it is only of a mechanical 
character, will soon be remedied. 

Allusion has been made to the i^roportion of sulphurets in the vein stone of 
Excelsior, and herein consists one of its most remarkable features. While in the 



318 MEAEOW LAKE TOWNSHIP DIRECTORT. 

mines around Grass Valley and Nevada City ten per cent, is considered a large pro- 
portion of sulpliurets, in this section from 25 to 35 per cent, is tlie average propor- 
tion. Their is no doubt but that the reduction of ores can be effected as economi- 
cally in Meadow Lake as in any other mining district of the county or State. 
Owing to the abundance of wood and water, the milling iirocess can be carried on 
at a cost of fi'om two to two and a half dollars per ton. Competent parties who 
have resided in the district, and are thoroughly conversant with the subject, esti- 
mate the cost per ton of working concentrated sulphurets, by the chlorine process, 
at from six to seA'en dollars. 

The Central Pacific Railroad, by its proximity to the mines, ^^ill greatly facili- 
tate all milling and mining operations. What then can prevent the rapid and suc- 
cessful progress of Excelsior ? Broad ledges of auriferous rock permeate the dis- 
trict in every direction ; magnificent forests crown its mountains ; spacious lakes 
nestle in its valleys, and himdreds of streams dash through its canyons. With all 
these natural advantages, if the residents of Excelsior will continue the good work 
of development, so auspiciously commenced diu'ing the i^ast summer, a golden 
harvest of prosperity assm*edly awaits them. 

[The winter of 1866-7 was imusually severe in the mountains, and the depth of 
snow in Meadow Lake district was about twenty-five feet on the level. But not- 
withstanding the great depth of snow, work was prosecuted in several of the mines 
without interruption, and communication was kept open with the railroad at Cisco 
the most of the time.] 



LIST OF MILLS IN MEADOW LAKE DISTEICT. 

No. Engines. No. Stamps. 

Winton 1 9 

U. S. Grant 1 5 

California 1 8 

Excelsior 1 20 

Meadow Lake Reduction Works 1 10 

Golden Eagle 1 5 

Mohawk & Montreal 1 5 

In addition to the above, the district has furnaces for roasting ores at the Winton 
mill and the Metallurgical Works, established by Mr. Deetkin, in which the 
chlorine process has been successfully applied to every variety of ore in Excelsior. 



MEADOW LAKE TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 



319 



LIST OF THE PRmCIPAL MINES OF MEADOW LAKE. 



NAME OF COMPANY. 



Bragg 

Columbia. . 

Camp 

Crescent .... 

Comet 

Confidence. 
Cisco 



Date of Location 



Name of Ledge. 



California Consolida- 
ted Mill & Mining 
Company 

Daniel Webster 

Dutch Flat 

Dutcli Flat 

Empire 

Enterprise 

Excelsior 

Excelsior 

Gold Run 

Golden Eagle 

Hidden Treasure 

Idaho & Imperial. . . . 
Idaho & Imperial .... 

Kentucky 

Jersey 

Mayflower 

Meadow Lake M & M ('o 
Mechanics' M. & M. Co 

Montana 

Mountain Queen 

Mohawk & Montreal 

Mountain View , 

New Brunswick 

Occidental ■».... 

Pacific 

Potosi 

Rigby 

Roebuck 

San Francisco 

Susquehanna 

U. S.Grant 

Virginia , 

Western 

Wisconsin 

Yosemite . ........... 

Lexington 

Texas 

Rattlesnake 

Washington 

Lightfoot 

Peacock 



September 1865 
August 23, 1805 
April 27, 18G6 

June 1866 
July 1865 
June 1866 
July 1864 
July 1864 
July 1864 
July 1864 
September 1865 
September 1863 
September 1863 
July 1865 
July 1865 
September 1863 
September 1863, 
July 1865 
September 1866 
Atigust 1865 
August 1865 
August 1865 
August 1865 
June 1866 
September 1865 
Juno 1865 
September 1864 
July 1st, 1865 
May 1866 
July 1865 
August 1865 
August 1864 
July 1863 
July 1865 
August 1864 
August 1865 
August 1865 
June 1865 
June 1866 
August 1865 
Jime 1865 
September 1865 
Jiily 1865 
June 1866 
August 1865 
October 1866 
August 11, 1863 
August 28, 1865 
September 1866 
July 11, 1866 



Mohawk & Montreal 
Mammoth 
Shooting Star 

Shooting Star 

Pacific 

Cooper 

California 

Knickerbocker 

Indian Boy 

Indian Queen 

Webster 

Union No. 1. 

Union No. 2. 

Empire . 

Enteprprise 

Union No. 1. 

Union No. 2. 

Phoenix 

Golden Eagle 

Crescent 

Idaho 

Imperial 

Ohio 

Alabama 

Mayflowor 

Mead 

California 

Montana 

Mountain Queen 

Mohawk & Montreal 

Alabama 

California 

California 

Pacific 

Potosi 

Cummings 

Roebuck 

Empire 

Susquehanna 

Ohio 

Eclipse 

Pennsylvania 

Wisconsin 

Yosemite 

Alabama 

Texas 

Washington 

Wasliing-ton 

Golden Eagle 

Peacock 



No. ft. 



800 
1200 
1200 

1200 

1000 

1600 

1700 

1700 

1700 

1700 

1200 

12501 

1250 J' 

1000 

1500 

2000 

2000 

100 

850 
1200 
1100) 
1100 )" 
1600 
1200 
1600 
1000 
lOOO 
1100 
1400 
llOO 

800 
1000 
1300 
1000 
2000 
1200 
1200 
1000 
1200 
1600 
1300 
1000 

700 
1000 
2300 

800 
2200 

600 

400 
2700 



Superintend 



— Bragg 

N. Chandler 

W.McBarny 

P. Williams 
Riclithofen 



I. Biggs 

P. Stoner 

Kelsey 

W R Morris 
Warr'n Rose 

J. Simons 

— Ross 
S. Fair 
E. A. Teass 

W. D. Knox 

H. S. Mather 
J. M. Starr 

A. Otheman 
J. Harris 



Chappelett 
L. Heath 



F. Stech 

Cummings 
Davielwize 

S. D. Yoimg 
J. E. Squire 



L. Johnson 
S. C. Ems 
J. M. Starr 
Culbertson 



A. Grant 



THE 



MEADOW LAKE TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY 



For the Year commencing January 1st, 1887. 



ng't Agent. | Rest Restaurant. 

cor C(.rner. | res Residence. 

1). L. K Conner Luke Ro:uI. I st Street. 

M Miue. I sup't Superintendent. 



Abbott J.M. Commissioner of Deeds, 2d st 
Adams & Johuson, Dry Goods & Urocci'- 

ies, 3d st, bet B & C. 
ADAMS A. .J. (of A. & Jolmson) 3d st. 
Adler F. butcber, B st. 
Adler Jobn, in'ewer, Alder st. 
Albrecht Fred, miner, B st. 
ALEXANDER D. clotliinir, A st. 
Alexander H. K. carpenter, B st. 
Allen W. H. miner, res C st. 
Allen R. K. notary public, res C st. 
Andrews R. carpenter, res Ast. 
Andrews P. miner, Mohawk & Montreal 

mine. 
Arpin L. liverv stable, B st. 
Asher T. T. Ranch on Webber Lake 

Turnpike road 
Atkinson W. D. carpenter, ]Market st. 

B 

Babcock O. D. saloon keeper, res B st. 

Barnum W. S. teamster, cor Market & 
A sts. 

Bates J. laborer, Excelsior mine. 

Baton A. miner, Meadow Lake. 

Beasley B. F. miner, res C st. 

BECK H. S . clothing & provisions, cor. 
B. & 3d sts. 

Began L. amalgamator, Mohawk & Mon- 
treal Con. Mill & Mining Co. 

Benitz A. dairyman, res A. st 

Bennett J. S. miner, res B st. 

BERGMAN W., M. D. office 3d st. 

Berry B. F. carpenter, res A st. 

Berry Thomas, miner, res A st 

Biggs John, sup't California mill 

Blackman T. H. Painter, res C st. 

Blais A. 2d feeder, Mohawk & Montreal 
Con. M. & M. Co. 

Blithen James, carpenter. Meadow Lake 
Reduction Works. 

Blue Thos. butcher, Mendoza. 



Boniface , laborer. Excelsior mill. 

Bourne Wm. A. miner, Cal. mill. 

Bratton N. B. saloon, Prosser Creek Sta- 
tion, Donner Lake Road. 

Bradley J. H. amalgamator, Excelsior M 

Brier G. A. reporter, res C st. 

Briggs C. blacksmith, Colburn's station, 
Donner Lake road. 

BRILLIANT SALOON, Joslyn Para- 
zctte & Co. prop'rs, B st bet. 3d & 3d. 

Brinkman John, miner, res 3d st. 

Brokaw Isaac, engineer, res C st. , 

Brown Adam, grocer, jNIeudoza. 

Brown Jno. W. miner, res 3d st. 

Bro\\Ti J. W. miner, B st. 

Brown Lewis, miner. Meadow Lake. 

Brown P. D. miner, res A st. 

Brumsey J. A. civil engineer, office 3d st 

Bulger John, miner. Excelsior mill. 

Burns Andrew J.meclianic,Prosser creek, 
Donner Lake road. 

Burns & Thompson, ranchers, Donner L. 
road. 

Burns J. W. laborer, Donner L. road. 

Burns Robert, tailor slioj) C st, 

BURTON JOSEPH, saloon B st. 

Butler N. barber, 3d st. 

Butts John, Bradley's ranch, Donner L. 
road. 

c 

Cain Daniel, painter, shop on A st. 

Calderwood J. F. prop'r Stage line, C st 

Calderwood Capt. M. H. grocer. Excel- 
sior mill. 

Caprero G. clerk, B st. 

CARD WELL JAMES, Cardwell station, 
Donner Lake road. 

Cary Thos. M. clerk Pierce's station, 
Donner Lake road. 

Casteel F. D. barkeeper, C st. 

Chambers S. carpenter, res C st. 



322 



MEiNDOW LAKE TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 



Chappellet F. sup't Moliawk & Montreal 

M. & M. Co. 
dieever Wm. H. miner, B. st. 
Churcli & Hawlev merchants, Coburn 

station, Doiiner Lake road. 
Cliurcli E. W. (of C. & Hawley, Cobnrn 

station, Donnqr Lake road. 
Chubb 0. miner, M. L. Reduction works 
Cisco House, P. XeAvman, prop'r, B. st, 

bet. 1st & Market sts. 
Clasey James, barber, shop 2d st. 
Clark W. H. druggist, 2d st. 
Clinch Geo. miner, 2d st. 
Clough M. E. engineer. Meadow Lake 

Reduction works. 
Coburn S. S. blacksmith, Coburn station, 

Donner Lake road. 
Cole E. miner, res A. st. 
Coombs C. P. carpenter. Mountain View 

House, Donner Lake road. 
Connell Sam'l, mining sup't, A st. 
Connell S. D. bookkeeper, A st. 
Covalt A. tailor, shop on C st. 
Cramona J. dairyman, 3d st. 
Crase Jas. miner. Excelsior mill. 
Crooks E. H. miner, D. st. 
Cross Wm. teamster, M. L. Reduction W 
CRYSTAL LAKE HOUSE, E. S. Fogg 

prop'r. Crystal Lake, Don'r Lake road. 
jCiilver Frank, hotel, Mendoza. 
Cummings A. M. miner. Excelsior mill. 
Cutler Sam'l, merchant, B st. 

D 

Daley James, carjienter, A st. 

Darling R. C. miner, B. st 

Dayid ilark, merchant, Cobum's station 

Donner Lake road. 
Dayis "Wm. saloon on C st. 
Deardoff John, miner, Excelsior mill 
Deininger F. brewery C st. 
Denton G. saloon on A st. 
Denton G. miner, California mine. 
Dewey E. S. butcher, Donner Lake hotel 
Dimick E. B. miner, "Wisconsin mine. 
Doling James,carpenter, California mine, 

res Market st. 
DOXXER HOUSE, T. Phillips, prop'r, 

Donner Lake road. 
DOXXER LAKE HOTEL, E. S. Drew, 

prop'r, east end of Donner Lake. 
DREW E. S. prop'r, Donner Lake hotel. 
Drift Jacob, miner, res C st. 
Duiford J. carpenter, B st. 
Dunn John, miner, C st. 
Dyre A. res Fred. & Dyre's mill. 

s 

EDWARDS ELLIS, mining sec'y, office 

on C St. 
Edwards Joseph, printer, Meadow Lake 

Sun office. 



Edwards John, miner, res C st. 
Ed^yards Wm. res toll house Meadow 

Lake Turnpike Co. 
Egbert R. S. merchant. Mountain View 

House, Donner Lake road. 
ELLIXWOOD C. X, M. D. office on A st. 
Elster H. miner, B st. 
Emerson L. hotel keeper. Mountain V. 

House, Donner Lake road. 
Emery H. carjjenter, res A st. 
Eureka Saloon, Wm. McCoy prop'r, cor. 

2d & C sts. 
Eye T. J. miner, res A st. 
Excelsior Hotel, B. F. Whittemore prop. 

cor C & 2d sts. 

F 

Fair Sam'l, amalgamator, res C st. 
Farnsworth W. yegetable stand,' A st. 
Fenton Thomas,Tinker's station, D. L. R 
Ferguson J. W. ag't Meadow Lake Sun. 
Figuere J. mining sec'y, Mohawk & 

Montreal M. & M. Co. office A st. 
Fink Wm. miner, res Market st. 
Finsterer G. 1st feeder Mohawk & M. M. 
Fisher H. oyster saloon, B st. 
Fletcher Geo. T. car^senter, shoj) on A st. 
Flood M. & Co. wholesale liquor dealers, 

B st, bet. 1st & 2d. 
Flood M. (of M. F. & Co.) B st. 
Foote A. C. teamster, res C st. 
Forbes J. M. laborer, res B st. 
Foreman John, butcher, shop Ast. 
Ford Wm. newsman, res A st. 
Fordyce Jerome, res Fordyce Valley. 
Fountain John, laundryman, A st. 
FOWLER EDWI^^Xotarj- Public, office 

cor 4th & B sts. 
Fox Thomas, butcher shop on B. sts. 
Frttdenthal J. bakery on B st. 
Fry's Station, Dormer Lake road. 
Fry M. A. prop'r Fry's station, D. L. R. 

G 

Gallagher J. Tinker's Station, Donner 

Lake road. 
Gibson Robert, Webster's station, Donner 

Lake road. 
Giilig Mott & Co. hardware & tin shop, 

east side of plaza. 
Goldsmith A. & Bro. dry goods, C street, 

bet. 1st & 2d sts. 
Goldsmith A. (of A. G. & B.) res C 8t, 
Goldsmith S. (of A. G. & B.) res C st. 
Goss R. J. M. D. office C st. 
Grant A. stable & hay yard^ C st. 
Gray Joseph, hotel Donner Lake road. 
Gray's Ranch, Donner Lake Road. 
Green C. C, M. D. office B st. 
Grimes G. C. Webster's station, Donner 

Lake road. 



MEADOW LAKE TOWNSHIP DIRECTOKY. 



323 



H 

Hager George, saloon keeper, res A st. 

Hall Sam'l, miner, res B st. 

Hall T. saloon Coburn's station, Donuer 

Lake road. 
Hall Thos. A. engineer, California mill. 
Hannah Tlios. miner, res C st. 
Harris John, miner, res C st. 
Harris Wm. miner, res 2d st. 
Hartley H. H. miner, Excelsior mill. 
Hawley B. F. (of Churcli & H.) Coburn's 

station, Donner Lake Road. 
Hawlev A. J. laborer, F. & Dyrc's mill 
Head Wm. miner, res. 3d st. 
Healing F. wholesale butcher, res A st. 
Hearty Jas. carpenter. Excelsior mill 
Hedger Wm. batcher, C st. 
Hericourt H. miner,Mohawk & Mont. C'o. 
Herberger Wm. carpenter. ExceLsior mill 
Hewittlieo. T. Barnum Rest. B st. 
Heyman B. Eureka saloon, cor 3d & C sts 
Higgins C. B. ag't W. F. & Co. & Moore, 
Miner & Co. cm- B. & 4th sts. 

Higgins F. att'y at law, office cor B & 
4th sts. 

Hill Robert, stable keeper B. st. 

Hill Wm. fruit dealer, A st. 

Hines H. Tinker's station, D. Lake road. 

Hines S. hay yard, Market st. 

Hogan D. miner. Excelsior mill. 

Holland James, laborer, res C st. 

Holt Henry, Holt's station, D. Lake road. 

Holt John, Holt's station, D. Lake road. 

Holt Sam'l, Holt's station, D. T-akc road. 

Holt Wm. Holt's station, D. Lake road. 

Howard Sam'l, miner, California mine- 
Hunter Cxeorge, miner. Excelsior mill. 

Hunter James, miner. Excelsior mill. 

Hard W. H. saloon keeper, res Alder st, 



Jackson R. clerk, A st. 
Jacoby P. K. miner, res C. st. 
Jarrett James, teamster, res A st. 
Jefferis P. E. livery stable, C st. 
Jeffrey J. B. City Marshal, office A st. 
Johns David, Prosser Creek station Don 

ner Lake road. 
Johns Wm. miner. Excelsior mill. 
JOHNSON WxM. (of Adams & J.) 2d st. 
Jolley Wm. A. barkeeper, C. st. 
Jones' station, Donner Lake road. 
Jones H. M. prop'r Jones' station, Donner 

Lake road. 
Jones James, miner, res B st. 
JONES J. E. Justice of the Peace, office 

on A st. 
Joslyn J. saloon keeper, B st. 

K 

Kane M. Neff's station, Don'r Lake road. 
Keddie Jas. miner, res 2d st. 



Keddie John, miner, res 3d st. 
Keddie Robert, miner, res 2d st. 
Kcenau J. J. saloon keeper, Mountain 

View House, Donner Lake road. 
Kellogg Charles, groceries & provisions, 

B st"bet. 3d & 4th sts. 
Kerkhoff B. brewery & saloon, B st. 
Kermikle J. Gr. barkeeper, A st. 
King Sam'l, Don'r House, Don'r L. road. 
Kinney S. blacksmith & boarding house 

keeper, California mill. 
Knapp E. carpenter, res D st. 

L 

Lake David, Bradley's ranch, Donner 

Lake road. 
LAKE HOUSE, head of Donner Lake, 

J. D. Pollard, prop'r. 
Lake House, cor 2d & B sts. Meadow 

Lake, J. A. Mayer, prop'r. 
Lambert John W". laborer, res C st. 
Lamberton E. miner, Excelsior mill 
Lamolle B. rest. A. st. 
LamoUe J. cook, A st. 
Larc(mibc John, merchant, cor B. & 2d 

streets. 
Lavies ^Vm. miner, res C st. 
Lee S, miner. Excelsior mill. 
Leebcs S. merchant, A st. 
Leichter A. laborer, res D st. 
Leonard J. miner, Wisconsin mine. 
Litton's station, Donner Lake road. 
Llovd J. S. amalgamator, Excelsior mill. 
Long J. S. ranchman, Fordyce Valley. 
Lucas J. S. miner, Meadow Lake. 
Luebbert Wm. assayer, res D st. 

M 

JilcCaffery E. rancher, Musgrove Valley. 
McCart P. A. miner, res A st. 
McCarter D. blacksmith. Excelsior mill. 
McCoy Wm. saloon keeper, res C st, 
McGittigan Ed. barkeeper, res A st. 
McKay J. engineer, Meadow Lake Re- 
duction Works. 
McKenzie R. millwright, Meadow Lake 

Reduction Works. 
McLennan Frank, clerk, with Egbert & 

Co. Donner Lake road. 
IMcPherson A. Donner Lake hotel, Don'r 

Lake road. 
McPherson G. W. blacksmith. Alder st. 
McQuinn Thos. Tinker's station, Donner 
Lake road. , 

McWilliams Jos. hotel keeper, Coburn s 
station, Donner Lake road. 
Magnolia Saloon, A. Friedman, prop'r, 

cor B & 2d sts. 
Man Charles, miner, res B st. 
Mann A. P. laborer, res Meadow Lake. 
Mann J. D. butcher, shop on B st. 
Martell F. blacksmith, Mohawk & Mon- 



324 



MEADOW LAKE TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 



treal Mill & Minino^ Co. 
Markham E. J. constable, office on A st. 
Mather H. S. miner, res C st. 
Matliews M. laborer, Excelsior mill, res. 

on A St. 
Matliews X. slioemaker, sliop on A st. 
Matliieu X. trustee Moliawk & Monteal 

Mill & Mining Co. 
Masey X. R. mercliaut, Donner Lake 

hotel, Conner Lake road. 
Mayer J. A. hotel keeper, Lake House, 

MeadoAv Lake road. 
Meeker Wm. Don'r House, Don'r L. road 
Mehegan W. H. laborer, Excelsior mill. 
Metropolitan Hotel, J. B. Jeffery prop'r, 

cor A & 2d sts. 
Meyers Chas. miner. Excelsior mill. 
Meyers John, sec'y Excelsior M. & M. Co 
Miller A. B. miner, res Meadow Lake. 
Miller B. H. clothing merchant res 3d st. 
Miller Frank, rancher, Fordyce Valley. 
Mitchell A. broker, otiice B st. 
Mitchell Jas. C. Webster's station, Don'r 

Lake road. 
Mitchell Thos. miner, res E. st. 
Moore P. R. hotel keeper, res E. st. 
Morgan A. carpenter, res A st. 
Morris Chas. carpenter, res A st. 
Moth Chas. clerk, res A st. 
Mulligan Thos. laborer, Excelsior mill. 
Murray Mrs. Mary, Pierce's station, Don- 

ner Lake road. 

N 

Naler John, saloon, summit Donner Lake 

road. 
Xalle A. miner, Mohawk & ]\iont. Co. 
Xeagle R. W. clerk, res cor 2d & C sts. 
NEFF D. S. prop'r XefTs station, Don'r 

Lake road. 
Xelson X. merchant, Mendoza. 
Xevada Exchange hotel, W. H- Hurd 

prop', C st bet. 2d & 3d. 
Xewman Peter ,hotel keeper, Cisco House, 

B st, Meadow Lake. 
Xoland Pierson, miner, res 2d st. 
Xoyes J. W. hotel keeper. Excelsior mill. 



Ordway Clias. miner, res A st. 

Orndorff James, laborer, res east side of 

Meadow Lake. 
Orndoi-ff J. W. barkeeper, res B st. 
Orsi G. clerk, res B st. 
Osorio F. printer, res A st. 
Ozborn J. J. prop'r Litton's station, Don 

ner Lake road. 
O'Rook, saloon keeper, Donner L. road. 



Painter David, miner, res D st. 
Parsons M. lumberman, yard on C st. 



Palmer J. 2d engineer, Mohawk & Mon- 
treal Con, G. & S. M. Co. 

Peacock J. F. carpenter, shop on C st. 

Peitreman Wm. miner, Excelsior mill. 

Penhall John, miner. Excelsior mill. 

PERKIXS WM. (of Smith & P.) res cor 
C & 2d sts. 

Persons Asa, contractor, tes MeadoAv L. 

Peters John, engineer. Excelsior mill. 

Peters John, saloon, tes B st. 

Plu]li])S A. L. merchant, Mendoza. 

PHILLIPS T. prop'r Donner House Don- 
ner Lake road. 

Picking T. P. l>lacksmith. Excelsior mill 

PIERCE GARRETT, Pierce's station, 
Donner Lake road. 

Perkins F. 1st eugineer,Moliawk & Mon- 
treal Con. G. & S. M. Co. 

POLLARD J. D. prop'r Lake House, 
Donner Lake road. 

Preston R. carijenter, res A st. 

Pri chard Jas. stable keeper. Alder st. 

Prosser Creek station, Don'r Lake toad. 

Putzar L. painter, res C st. 

Q 

Quiun Wm. Tinker's station, Donner 
Lake road. 

R 

Rablin John, miner, Excelsior mill. 
Randall W. H. laborer. Excelsior mill. 
Raveil Joseph, miner, res B st. 
Rawley Thomas, miner, Excelsior mill. 
Raynold J. Barnnm rest, B st. 
Redican P.P. prop'r Excelsior hotel, 
Redman J. D. hay yard, 1st st. 
Reiiinger H. cigar store B st. 
Rhoads A. cariienter, res at Tiger mill. 
Rhoads H. D. liutcher, res A st. 
Rhodes W. miner, Mohawk & Montreal 

Con. G. & S. M. Co. 
Rice Chas. butcher, shop on A st. 
Richard J, M. teamster. Excelsior mill. 
Richards Wm. Jones' station, Donner } 

Lake road. 
Richardson E. engineer. Excelsior mill. 
Richardson J. Miner's rest. 2d st. 
Richthofen F. v. miner, res D st. 
Riggs Isaac, saloon keeper, B st. 
Roach Thos. miner, res A st. 
Robinson P. laborer, res C st. 
Robinson AVm. carpenter, res E st. 
Rodgers Wm. Bradley's ranch, Donner 

Lake road. 
Rohrs H. laundrjmian, res B st. 
ROLLIXS H. G.'att'y at law, office C st." 
Ross Chas. miner, res 2d st. 
Ross D. miner, res Old Man Mountain. 
Rouke John, miner, res Meadow Lake. 
Rowley T. H. miner, California mine. 
Rulie Henry, saloon keeper, res A st. 



MEADOW LAKE TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 



325 



Rassell Clias. carpenter, shop on A st. 
Russell Fred, miner, res B st. 
Russell J. ranclnuau, Masgrorc Vallej. 
Rvne J. clerk, res A st. 

s 

Salisbury E. W. stage ag't at Lake house 

Sargent F. D. miner, res on A st. 

Sawyer F. A. att'y at law, office C st. 

Shatter & Keffer,',saw mill, Cob urn's sta- 
tion, Donner Lake road. 

Schlatter L. butcher, res B st. 

Schmittdiel Peter, carpenter,res Meadow 
Lake. 

Shuster Jolm, prop'r Union hotel, A st, 
bet. ^d & 4th sts. 

Simms Clav, l)arkeeper, res B st. 

SMITH & PERKINS, wholesale grocer- 
ies, provisions & clothing,cor 3d & C sts 

Smitli J. C. miner, res A st. 

Smith J. W. miner, res A st. 

SMITH THOMAS, (of S. & Perkins,) cor 
3d & C sts. • 

Smith W. K. merchant, A st. 

Snyder D. H. Prosser Greek station, Don- 
ner Lake road. 

Snyder J. Musician, res D st. 

Spauna H. jeweler, shop on A st. 

Sprague Jas. teamster. Excelsior mill. 

Sprague John, miner, Excelsior mine. 

Spinard C. miner, Mohawk & Montreal 
Con. a. & S. M. Co. 

Starks W. whip sawyer, res A st. 

St. Cliarles Hotel, Davis & Ryan prop'rs, 
cor 4th & A sts. 

Stech Baron F. res Winton's mill. 

Stein A. miner, res B st. 

Stewart J. K. miner, California mine. 

Stewart Jos. lumber merchant, res C st. 

Stewart Sam'l, Tinker's station, Donner 
Lake road. 

Stille D. C. bookkeeper, res B st. 

Stoey C. D. miner, res C st. 

Strauss S. butcher, shop on B st. 

Sykes D. E. Justice of the Peace, office 
on C St. 

Symonds Henry, miner. Excelsior mine. 

Symonds John, sup't Excelsior mine. 

T 

Talbei-t T. A. att'y at law, office C st. 

Tajdor Peter, engineer. Excelsior mill. 

TEXXEXT J. H. groceries & provisions, 
Ast, bet. 2d&..3d. 

TEXXEXT WM. merchant, res A st 

Thompson E. clerk, res on B st. 

Thompson R. miner, California mine. 

Tibbetts R. Gr. news ag't. res B st. 

TILFORD F. Attorney at Law, Office 
on C street. 

Tinker & Fenton, Tinker's station, Don- 
ner Lake road. 



Tillow C. blacksmith, Excelsior mill. 
Tinker James A. (of 1'. & Fenton) Don,r 

Lake, road. 
Towsley E. D. carpenter, res B st. 
Tregoing H. miner, Exeelsior mill. 

u 

f nion Hotel, J. Shuster prop'r, A st. bet. 

3d & 4th. 
Uren Wm. blacksmith, Excelsior mill. 

V 

Van Meter, Woodworth's station, Don'r 

Lake road. 
VEXARD STEPHEX, Constable, office 

A St. 
Vosburg Geo. broker, office on 2d st. 

w 

Wadsworth Isaac, stage driver, res B st. 
Wallace W. H. merchant, Donner Lake 

road. 
Washburn S. amalgamator, Excelsior M. 
^^'atson A. H. carpenter, res C st. 
WEBSTER'S STATIOX, Donner L. road 
Webster Wm. prop'r W. station, Donner 

Lake road. 
Welch T. saloon, Coburn's station, Don- 
Wells, Fargo & Co. C. B. Higgins agent, 

office cor B & 4tli sts. 
Welton J. A. milwright, res B st. 
Witherspoon's Station, Don'r Lake road. 
Witherspoon J. H. prop'r W. station, 

Donner Lake road. 
Whipple S. J. rauchman,Fordyce Valley 
White Martin, att'y at law, res Excelsior 

mill. 
WIllTTEMORE B. F. prop'r Excelsior 

Hotel, cor 3d & C sts. 
Wightman A. C. broker, office C st, 
Wilbert F. shoemaker, shop on B st. 
Wilkins S. milwright, Meadow Lake 

Reduction works. 
Wilcox A. O. shoemaker, shop on C st. 
Williams Edward, William's ranch, 

Donner Lake road. 
Williams Guernsey, Williams' ranch, 

Donner Lake road. 
Williams 'Peter, miner. Shooting Star 

ledge. 
WIXHAil & CLARK, Druggists, 2d st, 

bet. B & C sts. 
Winters R. carpenter, res Excelsior mill. 
Winton X. W. sup't Winters' mill. 
Witt Wm. miner, res A st. 
Witty W. W.saloon keeper, res Alder st 
Wood D. A. miner, California mill. 
Woods A. R. saloon keeper, res C st. 
Woodworth John J. Woodworth's sta- 
tion, Donner Lake road. 
Wooster J. M. contractor. Meadow Lake 

Reduction works. 



326 



MEADOW LAKE TOWKSHIP DIRECTORY. 



Y 

York Carl, musician, res F st. 
Young C. W. ree Enterprise mine. 
Young George, tinner, «liop on C st. 



z 

ZEEGA STEPHEN, Groceries, ProAis- 
ions & Liquors, cor B & 3d sts. 



czan^ssoa 



FMAWK TII^F0M®9 

mmhl Km wmWJM M 

OFFICE : 

On € street Meadow Lake. 



ATTOHNHV mt GOUKSHtoa AT UWt 

AND NOTARY PUBLIC. 

Office — West side of A Street, between 2d & 3d, Meadow Lake, Xevada County. 



r. E. 



ffiS, 



JUSTICE OF THE PEACE, MEADOW LAKE TOWNSHIP, 

NEVADA COUNTY, CALIEORXIA. 
Office — East side of A Street, between Second and Third. 
General Conveyancing done, and all Legal Instruments acknowledged. ..^31 



JAMES I^Atil^O^WAY, 

Office — On A Street, Meadow Lake, California. 



JUSTICE m THE PEACE, MEADOW LAKE, 

NOTARY PUBLIC FOR NEVADA COUNTY, & GENERAL CONVEYANCER. 
Has, also, the fullest and most complete County Record Abstracts of all Meadow 
Lake Mining locations. Mining and Real Estate Deeds, Mortgages, Pre-emptions, 
Mechanics Liens, etc. 
Office — Excelsior Stock Board Building, corner of C and 2d Sts., Meadow Lake, 



MEADOW LAKE TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 



327 



^^ 



I I liF mmm 



iJjV^'i^-; 



Crystal Lake, A^evada Coiiuty, California, 
E. G. FO&&9 Fi-oprietor. 




The Proprietor would respectfully inform the Public that this House, 
having been recently rebuilt and new furnished, now affords as fine ac- 



commodations for Travelers and Pleasure Seekers as any in the mountains. 



The TABLE is always supplied with the Best the Market aifords. 



PKICES MODERATE. 



A Livery Stable in Connection with the House. 



This House, being situated immediately on the Lake, also on' the Central Pacific 
Kail Road, and Dutch Flat and Donner Lake wagon roads, affords an accessible 
and converdent, as well as pleasant place of resort for Pleasure Seekers. 



BOATS AND OTHER FACILITIES, HOUSES AND CARRIAGES, 

Furnished to Parties. 



5,9SS FEET ABOVE THE SEA. 



From Crvstal Lake House to 



Cisco 2 miles 

Alta 18 miles 

Sacramento 90 miles 



Donner Lake 20 miles 

Nevada City 34 miles 

Lake Tahoe 38 miles 



Meadow Lake 13 miles. 



328 



MEADOW LAKE TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 




- HEAD OF DOIOER LAKE, 

J. D. FOLLA.riI3, 

PROPKIETOR. 

Distance from Pollard's Station to 



Sacramento 110 miles. 

Colfax 54 " 

Meadow Lake 14 " 

Crystal Lake 20 " 

Prosser Creek 9 

LakeTahoe 18 " 



Alta 37 miles. 

Cisco 17 " 

Coolbroth's 16 " 

Tinker's 6 " 

Nevada City 48 " 

Grass Talley 52 " 



Virginia City 60 miles. 



LAKE THREE AND A HALF IfflLES LONG AND ONE MILE WIDE. 



5,965 FEET ABOVE THE I^EVEt. OF TOE SEA. 



Bar Room, Reading Room, Billiard Tables, and Bowling Alley. 

SAIL AND ROW BOATS, HORSES AND CARRIAGES TO LET. 

Office of Pioneer Stage Company, and "Wells, Eargo & Go's Express. 



The Proprietor has no hesitation in pledging himself to spare no exertion to 
make this one of the most desirable places of Summer Piesort on the Pacific Coast. 

The reputation already attained shall be fully maintained in the future. 



MEADOW LAKE TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 



329 



1>R. IF. BEROMA]¥, 

Over Winliam & Clarke's Drug Store. 
SECOND STREET, MEADOW LAKE. 

£. J. MARKKAH, 

CONSTABLE OF MEADOW LAKE TOWNSHIP, 

NEVADA COUNTY, CALIFORNIA. 

Office — Corner B and Fourth Streets, Meadow Lake. 

It^^ Attends to tlie Collection of accounts, etc. ^^^^^ 



EI.I.IS EI>TI^ARDS, 

ACCOUNTANT AND GENERAL BUSINESS AGENT. 

Office On Second Street, between B & C Streets, 

MEADOW LAKE, CALIFORNIA. 



O. 7^. KELLOGG, 



DEAXER m 



CROCERIES, pROVt$llI«$, 

CLOTHING, BOOTS, SHOES, HARDWARE, WINES AND LIQUORS, 

B Street, East Side, between Third and Fourth, 
MEADOW LAKE, CALIFORNIA. 



SmiTM & PERKI]¥S, 

WHOLESALE AI^D RETAIL DEALERS IN 

EilEl PBOf ISION: 



CLOTHING, BOOTS, SHOES, " 

FINE WINES AND LIQUORS, 

MINERS SUPPLIES, Etc. Etc. 

Fire-proof Store Building, Corner of C and Second Streets, 
MEADOW LAK:E, CALIFORNIA. 

N2 



330 MEADOW LAKE TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 

E. B. BOUST. W. LYON. 

THE 

IhKt SON, 

PUBLISHED EVERY SATURDAY MORNING, 

BY 

"^7^. 31. "sr o i»«a" cfc GO. 
OFFIGE-HORTH SIDE SECOND STREET, MEADOW LAKE. 

TEEMS OF BUBSCKIPTION: 

Per Year, [by Mail or Express,] $5 00. 

Six Months 3 00. 

Three Months 2 00. 



m M£k 



We KespectfuUy inform the citizens of Meadow Lake and adjacent towns, that we 
are now prejoared to execute all work in our line 

IN THE BEST STYI^E OF THE ART. 



Programmes, 

Bills of Tare, 
» BiU-Heads, 



Posters, 



Circulars, 

Letter-Heads, 



BUSINESS AND VISITING CARDS- 



BMEFS AMB TKAIVSCRIPTS 

EXECUTED NEATLY, PROMPTLY AND HANDSOMELY, 

In accordance with, the new rules of the Supreme Com-t-, 
STOCK BOOKS FfJRKISMED TO ORDER. 



MEADOW LAKE TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 331 

WM. LUEBBERT. E. PRESTOK 

ASSAY AND MINING OFFICE 

MEADOW LAKE, NEVADA COUNTY, CALIFORNIA. 
Metallurgical Ciemists and Mining Engineers. Gold and Silver Bullion 

Melted and Assayed, and values guaranteed ; Ore Assays and Analyses of Minerals 
of every description carefully attended to. Mines and Mineral Properties Inspected 
and reported on, -vvith advice as to Construction of Furnaces and Method of Work- 
ing Ores. 



EI>1VIM FOTFI.ER, 

NOTARY PUBLIC & COMMIIOIR OF DEEDS 

FOR THE STATE OF NEVADA. 
County Recorder's Agent for Meadow Lake District. 

General Conveyancer and Searcher of Records. 

AGENT FOR THE NEVADA DAILY GAZETTE. 

Keeps a Perfect and Complete Abstract Record of all Mining Claims, Deeds, 
Mortgages and other evidences of Title to Property within the District and Town- 
ship of Meadow Lake ; and is prepared to furnish Abstracts on the shortest notice. 

Office— Corner of B and Fourth Streets. 
MEADOW LAKE. 

nwtTo umn mn imim mmt, 

B STREET, (between 2d & 3d, joining Larcombe's Store,) MEADOW LAKE. 

JOSEPH BURTIN, Proprietor. 



332 



MEADOW LAKE TOWNSHIP DIRECTOEY. 



JOHIV H. TEIVNENT, 

Wholesale and Retail Dealer in 

iGEilES. PlOllSIOi 

HAEDWAEE, IRON, STEEL, POWDER AND FUSE. 
Barley and Ground Feed always on hand. 

A Street, East side, between Second and Eighth. Streets, 
MEADOW LAKE. 



EXCELSIOR 






jss^==-^n.m^s^^i=:m^s=~=-,^ ilX 



B STREET, [between 3d & 4th,] MEADOW LAKE. 

B. RERKOFF, Proprietor. 



H. HAYS & C 



WHOIESALE Al RlTAIl BUTCHERS 



AT 



MOOEE'S FUT, EUREKA, MENDOZA, OSAVILLE AND MEADOW LAKE. 



NEVADA COUNTY, CALIFORNIA. 



EXCEIiSIOir MARKET, 

THE BEST BEEF, PORK and MUTTON ALWAYS ON HAND, 

Wholesale or retail, at the above Market. 



B Street, between 3d and 4th. Meadow Lake. 

FOX & CO., Proprietors. 



MEADOW LAKE TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 333 

W. P- L. WINHAM . W. H. CLARK. 

WINMAM & CI^ARK, 
1^ FL TJ C3r €3r IL & 'T' S^ 




DEALERS IN 

DRUGS, MEDICINES, PAINTS, OILS, GLASS, VARNISHES, 
Stationery, Kerosene Lamps, etc. Also— Fancy Articles and Perfumes. 

Physicians' Prescriptions and Family Receipts carefully prepaired, and 
from good materials. 

2d Street, between B & C, Meadow Lake. 

DONJVEK LAKE HOUSE, 

FOOT OF DONNER LAKE, 

E. S. DREW, Proprietor. 

Three miles East of Pollard's Station, California. 

Fifty-seven miles from Virginia City, Nevada. 

Seventeen miles from Meadow Lake, California. 

Horses fvirnislied for Pleasure Parties visiting any of the vallies or mountains. 

Board Per Week $14 I Single Meals 75 cents. 

ti:n'keii's STA.Tioisr, 

CONNER LAKE ROAD,; 

TINKER Sl FENTOK, Proprietors. 

Nearest point for the Celebrated Soda Springs. 

A Bar, with the best of Liquors, connected with the House* 
Board per Week $10. I Single Meals 75 cents. 

Horses and Carriages furnished to Pleasure Parties. 
Twelve miles from Crystal Lake, ten miles from Cisco, and six miles from Pollard's 

Station. 

DONNER LAKE ROAD, 

JOSEPH McWILMAMS, Proprietor. 



Fifty-six miles from Virginia City, 

Six miles from Pollard's Station, 



Ten miles from Lake Tahoe, 

Two miles from foot of Donner Lak.e» 



Board per Week $10. 1 Single Meals 75 cents. 

Horses furnished for Parties visiting Lake Tahoe and other places of Eesort. 



334 MEADOW LAKE TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 



STEPHEN^ ZERa^, 



"WHOLESALE AND EETAIL DEALER IN 



FINE WINES AND LIGUORS-Foreign and Domestic. 

CLOTHING, BOOTS AND SHOES, CHINA GOODS, Etc. 

Corner of B and Third Streets, 

MEADOW LAKE, CALIFORNIA. 

WHOLESALE AND EETAIL DEALERS IN 

CLOTHING, HOSIERY, BTTCK GLOVES, BOOTS AND SHOES, HATS, 

Crockery Ware, Cigars and Tobacco, Wines and Liquors, Case Goods, etc. 

Near the corner of C and Second Streets, 
MEADOW LAKE, CAL. 

"WASHII^OTOM BIl^I.IAiri> SAI^OOIV. 

CORNER OF B & SECOND STREETS, MEADOW LAKE. 



TWO FIRST-CLASS BILLIARD TABLES. 

Also — The best quality of Wines,' Liquors and Cigars, constantly on hand. 

A. FRIEDMAN, Proprietor. 



EXCELSIOM HOTEL 

AND 

CORNER OF C & SECOND STREETS, MEADOW LAKE. 

The Largest, the most Convenient, and the Proprietor is determined it shall be the 
Leading Hotel of the Place. Give BEN a call, and you will become convinced 
that at tne Excelsior your wants and comforts are strictly attended to. 

B. F. WHITTEMORE. Proprietor. 



SKETCH OF BRIDGEPORT T0¥:NTSHIP. 



BY GEORGE D. DORXIX. 



Bridgeport Townsliip is embraced in tliat portion of the county lying between 
the Middle and Soiitli Yuba, being all that portion of the " Ridge " extendino- 
from a short distance above Cherokee, southeast to the junction of these rivers, and 
is the third townsliip in the county in point of population and wealth. Mining is 
the leading industrial pursuit, but attention is being paid to the horticultural 
and agricultural resources of the township. The soil is admirably adapted, 
andfavorably located for the successful culture of vines and fruits. Figs, grapes, 
apples, peaches, and all the smaller fruits are grown here of superior size and 
flavor, and being below the snow, come to maturity, and are seldom injured by 
frosts. The village residences are generally surroimded by tasty gardens and 
thrifty orchards, while in every direction land is being brought under cultivation, 
entirely supphing the home demard for hay, grain, fruits and vegetables, 

A large quantity of ^vine has been made during the past few years, and special 
attention is being directed to this branch of industry. In addition to the amateurs in 
North San Juan, there are a number of Frenchmen from the wine countries of 
Europe, located near Empire and Kate Hays' Flat, who are making this a specialty 
and with excellent success. The soil abounds in the elements necessary for a wine 
grape, and we may well anticipate the time when this portion of our county will 
be noted for its vine-clad hills, and when its wines shall excel the famous vintages 
of the Rhine. 

North San Juan is the principal town of the series of villages and mining camps, 
situated at intervals of two or three miles along the north side of the rido-e, and 
from its central position has enjoyed a great degree of prosperity. In the spring of 

1853, Jeremiah Tucker and Kentz developed rich diggings on the west end of 

what is now known as " San Juan Hill." The news of their success caused a great 
influx of adventurers, and the entire surface of the hill was soon covered by the 
eager locators 

The origin of the name of the embryo town, suggestive as it is of the early Span- 
ish missions, has several traditions, of which the follo\^'ing is perhaps the most 
reliable : Kentz, the pioneer miner, had been a member of the Mexican expedition 
under General Scott, which landed at Vera Cruz. At the time of his mining oper- 
ations on San Juan Hill, he resided in Sweetland. On one occasion, while approach- 
ing the scene of his labors, he was impressed with the fancied resemblance of the 
bluff hill to the castle of San Juan d'UUoa, which guards the entrance to the port 
of Vera Cruz, and expressed his opinions accordingly, and gave the name of " San 
Juan " to a hotel afterward erected by him, about half a mile east of the present 
town. Another version is, that being forcibly struck -^^dth the beauty of the grassy 
flelds and simny slopes of that portion lying between the " Hill " and Sweetland, 
and being a fervent Catholic, he ejaculated "San Juan !" (The latter version is 



336 BRIDGEPORT TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 

susceptible of a great degree of doubt, as tlie ejaciilation would more probably liave 
been " Howly Moses !") The name was adopted for the Hill, and extended to the 
village wbicb soon after sprang up. Several years afterward, in 1857, when appli- 
cation was made for a post office to be established, in view of tlie fact that the name 
bad already been claimed by the mission settlement in Monterey county, and in 
order to avoid the miscarriage of letters, and the confusion incident to a similarity 
of names, the Post Office Department required a new name. A public meeting was 
called, at which A. T. Search j)resided. Several names were suggested, more or 
less appropriate, but all were discarded, and the old one retained, with the prefix 
" North." 

Tucker & Kentz, whose claim was known as the " Gold Cut," were followed by 
Nat Harrison and associates on the east end of the Hill, known as the " Harrison 
Diggings," and the " Deadman Cut," on the west end ; the latter taking its name 
from the fact that two men, Chadburn and Western, were caved on and killed in 
the narrow cut or ground sluice. 

In 1853 a few straggling cabins and stores gave birth to the future metropolis of 
the Ridge, several points struggling for the position of business center. Kentz, 
who owned and occupied a ranch and boarding house below the east end of the 
Hill, had the most favorable position for a town site. John A. J. Ray, a baker and 
storekeeper at French Corral, had opened a canvass store on the corner of Main and 
Flume streets, while Israel Crawford and John S. Stidger dispensed " miners' sup- 
plies " on the hill at the north end of Flume street. The three localities had their 
adherents ; but the interest chiefly centered around the two last named — the Main 
street store gradually gaining upon its rival, and gathering around it accessory 
building establishments. The land upon which the to-vvn was built was claimed 
by H. P. Sweetland as a ranch, by purchase from John B. Stafford. A portion of 
the claim, adjoining the town site, containing the cabin of the proprietor, was tmder 
fence. Several of the settlers recognized the claim, and purchased Sweetland's 
title. Others demurred, and in 1855 suit was brought by Sweetland against 
Thomas L. Frew for trespass. Meanwhile, to give the growing town elbow- 
room, a street was opened by the proprietor through the enclosed ranch, lots being 
sold at one dollar per foot front, having a depth of 100 feet. The District Court 
decided adversely to the plaintiff, upon which all the land yet unoccupied was 
immediately " squatted upon." An appeal was taken to the Supreme Court, whose 
decision sustained that of the lower Court so far as related to land outside the inclo- 
suxe, but avowed the claim of the original proprietor to all land under fence. 
Many of the "jumpers " thereupon purchased titles ; the more contumacious being 
made parties to a suit by Sweetland, which resulted in his favor, and settled the 
question of title. 

The difficulty of procuring water in sufficient quantities prevented much imme- 
diate progress, and the attention of miners was directed to efforts to obtain a sup- 
ply. In July, 1853, Moses T. Hoit located the Middle Yuba Ditch, and surveyed 
the route from San Juan Hill and Grizzly Canyon. The Grizzly Ditch Company, 
at that time supplying the Cherokee miners with water, extended their works to 
San Juan Hill, their reservoir occupying the south side of the present town site. 
Of these, and kindred entrprises, we shall refer to at length. 

The new town grew rapidly, and at the Presidential election, in 1856, polled 580 
votes. In 1857, Messrs. J. P. Olmstead & Co. removed the stock and materials of 



BRIDGEPORT TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 337 

the " Iowa Hill News " to tMs place, and commenced tlie publication of tlie San 
Juan Star. Tke proprietors were succeeded by Messrs. B. P. Arery (at present the 
able editor-in-ciiief of the San Francisco Bulletin) and Thos. "Waters, who re-cbrist- 
ened tbe paper the " Hydraulic Press." Mr. Avery having taken charge of the 
Marysville Appeal, was succeeded by Mr. WilKani Bailsman, who in turn gave way 
to Judge 0. P. Stidger, who, while managing the paper, was the first to hoist the 
name of Andy Johnson for Vice President. In the spring of 1865 the establishment 
was removed to Nevada, and " re-constructed " as the Nevada Gazette. From the 
foundation of the village, its people bestowed much attention upon the horticul- 
tural and floral development of their homes ; the admirable facilities for irrigation 
presented by the cordon of ditches, reaching to the tops of the highest hills, gave 
them excellent opportunities of which they availed themselves. The result is seen 
in the neat gardens, thrifty orchards and vineyards, and pleasant, home-like fea. 
tures of the town, which first arrests the attention of the visitor, and have created 
an attachment for the place which has not only deterred many from following the 
headlong rush to new localities, but has caused the return of many to the cosy 
little village, to which their thoughts so often reverted in their travels through 
sage brush flats and alkali deserts. 

North San' Juan has been noted for the staunch loyalty and patriotism of its peo- 
ple. The few who formed the " Rocky Mountain Republican Club " in 1856, and 
whose vote for Fremont in the Presidential election of that year made but a meager 
showing, gained steadily in their efforts to spread the true political faith until they 
became the controlhng element, exceeding in 1860 the aggregate vote of all other, 
parties. Always firm and consistent in their determination to uphold the govern- 
ment, the people of North San Juan have manifested their zeal by word and act ; 
and when our suffering soldiers, through the sanitary commission, cried for help, 
were among the first to respond. The secretary of the California branch of the 
sanitary commission, in his report, says : " The interior has already been excited to 
admiration at the spontaneous liberalities of this city (San Francisco), and soon 
caught this wonderful fever of charitable giving. Money, in all sums, soon came 
pouring into the treasury from every portion of the State. Pacheco, in Contra 
Costa coimty, sent $100 on the 20th of September ; San Andreas $404, on the 22d ; 
Georgetown, $200, and North San Juan, Nevada comity, $242 on the 23d, before the 
circular was issued." This sum was swelled to $3,390 56 during the existence of 
the commission. The other towns in the township responded not less liberally. 
Bridgeport township stands credited on the books of the sanitary commission with 
$6,144 43. A library association was established ui 1857. The society has since 
been dissolved, and the books donated to the district school. 

Fire Department. 

North San Juan possesses a well organized Fire Department, with excellent facil- 
ities for the extinguishment of fii'es. In the summer of 1862 a fund was created by 
the voluntary contributions of citizens for the erection of waterworks for this pur- 
pose, and on August l8th, of that year, Messrs, Charles Schardin, W. H. Sears and 
I. T. Saxby were elected as trustees to carry out the work ; George D. Dornin being 
clerk to the Board. A reservoir, supplied from the Eureka Lake Ditch, was built 
at a sufficient elevation, with pipes of large capacity, supplying hydrants at con 
venient points. On October 13th, 1863, Hydraulic Hose Co. No. 1 was organized ; 
02 



338 BRIDGEPORT TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 

C. Schardin, Foreman ; H. H. Pearson, Assistant ; George D. Dornin, Secretary ; D. 
Furth, Treasui-er, followed by Union Hose Company Xo. 2, on tlie 29tli day of 
October, 1862, with, the following officers : C. H. Hays, Foreman ; 0. Tufts, Assist- 
ant ; H. Pratt. Sec'y, and R. Reamer, Treasurer. The department has had several 
opportunities to prove its effectiveness. The most extensive fires which have visi- 
ted the town, occurred Oct. 6th, 1864, and September 19, 1865, each originating in 
the Chinese quarter, and by the energy of the fij'e boys were confined to the com- 
bustible buildings of the vicinity. The present officers of the companies are : 

Hydraulic Hose Xo. 1 ; Foreman, Peter Brust ; Ass't, Jacob Gilbei-t ; Sec'y, J. B. 
Cooke. Union Hose Xo. 2 ; Foreman, J. C. Tribelhorn ; Ass't, E. V. Hatfield ; 
Sec'y, A. Toennis ; Treasurer, P. S. Murphy. 

Benevolent Orders. 

Manzanita Lodge Xo. 129, F. A. M., organized May 8, 1856 ; the first officers were 
A. T. Search, W. M.; W. P. L. Winham, S. W.; W. H. Sears, J. W.; Jas. H. Moore, 
Treasurer ; H. Collins, S. D.; J. H. Effinger, J. D.; P. Zacharias, Tyler. In 1858 
this Lodge was the recipient of a donation of real and personal property, for a spe- 
cific, charitable purpose, from P. Zacharias, the fund for which has reached the 
sum of $1,500, and is known as the Zacharias Fund. The Order has recently pur- 
chased a two-story brick building, on Main street, which they design fitting and 
furnishing for the j)urposes of the Order. The present membership is 55. The 
officers are John B. Hunter, W. M.; 0. X. Wagar, S. W.; M. V. Chapman, J. W.; 
Jas. H. Moore, Treasurer ; L. Buhring, Sec'y ; J. B. Cooke, S. D.; P. H. Butler, J. 
D.; W. Dunning, A. W. 0^ntt, Stewards ; W. B. Noblett, Tyler. 

Manzanita, R. A., Chapter Xo. 29, F. and A. M., organized May 10, 1861, with 
the following officers : W. Wilmot, H. P.; John A. Seely, K.; Francis Smith, S.; 
J. H. Effinger, C. of H.; Chas. J. Houghtailing, P. S.; Lewis X. Cole, R. A. C; W. 
J. Westerfield, M. 3d V.; J. B. Henry, M. 2d V.; V. G. Bell, M. 1st V.; G. W. Guth- 
rie, Treasurer ; W. H. Sears, Sec'y ; D. Raymond, Guard. The present member- 
ship is 40 ; the officers, J. A. Seely, H. P.; J. H. Effinger, K.; E. M. Preston, S.; E. 
Franchere, P. S.; O. X. Wagar, R. A. C; J. B. Cooke, M. 3d V.; A. Denneston, M. 
2d v.; Jas Treanor, M. 1st V. 

San Juan Lodge Xo. 67, 1. 0. 0. F., organized January 22, 1857, with the follow- 
ing officers : M. Craddock, X. G.; Geo. D. Dornin, V. G.; D. W. Clegg, Sec'y ; J. L. 
Gaskill, Treasurer The present membersliip is 105 ; revenue for 1866, $2,850. 
The value of the Lodge property is over $6,000 ; the officers are John Stotlar, X. G.; 
T. Tweedale, V. G.; J. B. Johnson, Sec'y ; T. R. Powell, Treasurer ; James Chis- 
holm and J. A. Ross, R. and L. S. to X. G.; P. Brust, and — Johnson, R. and L. S. to 
V. G.; F. M.Keny and 0. Tufts, R. and L. S. S.; J. Gilbert, I. G.; CM. Davis, Cond.; 
John Pryor, Warden. This Lodge erected a fijie two-story brick haU, which was 
dedicated to the purposes of the Order April 29th, 1860. 

Montana Lodge Xo. I. 0. of Good Templars, organized Sept. 2, 1865, num- 
bers 45 members; H. 0. Hiscos, W. C. T.; Miss Mary Melbourne, W. V. T.; R. W. 
Sterling, Sec'y ; David Bowen, Treasurer ; Jas. E. Beard, Marshal. 

Xorth San Juan supports two excellent graded schools, with an average daily 
attendance of 112 scholars. The High school is under the charge of E. M. Pres- 
ton, B. A., a graduate of the ilichigan State Agricultural College. The Primary 
branch is in charge of Mrs. Mary Watkins. The last school census shows the num- 
ber of children, between 5 and 15 years of age, to be 149 . 



BRIDGEPORT TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 339 



Stage Lines. 

TelegrajDh Line, Wm. Hamilton, proprietor, leaves Nortli San Jnan every morn- 
ing at 2 o'clock, for Nevada, Grass Valley and Colfax, connecting with the Central 
Pacific Railroad. ■• 

Wheatland Line, ISIontgomery & Cunningham proprietors, leave North San Juan 
for Wheatland, \aa Empire Ranch, connecting with the Calf ornia Central Railroad. 

Dornin's Express Line, Geo. D. Dornin, proprietor, leaves North San Juan daily 
at 8 A. M., for Cherokee, Columbia Hill, Lake City and North Bloomfield ; also at 
8 A. M., and 3 P. M., for Sweetland, Birchville and French Corral. 

Green & Palmer's Line leaves San Juan daily for Campton\'llle and Downieville. 

Clark & Kibbe's Line — tri-weekly for Forest City. 

Eureka Lake and Yuba Canal Company. 

The Eureka Lake and Yuba Canal Company is a consolidation of the various water 
ditches and canals, supplying the mining region of Bridgeport, Bloomfield and 
Eureka townships, and being interwoven with the history of these townships, and 
upon which the successful prosecution of their mining enterprises depend, deserves 
a minute description at our hands. Through the courtesy of Richard Abbey, Esq., 
the superintendent of the company, we are enabled to use the report of Prof. B. 
Silliman, of New Haven, and Chas. Black, civil engineer, who visited these town- 
ships in the fall of 1864, xn-ofessionally, and whose \iews and suggestions relative 
to the geological formation and capacity to support a large working po]Dulation of 
the tract under consideration, will be found to be of deep interest : 

" The ridge of land embraced between the South and Middle forks of the Yuba 
is from six to eight miles in width, and to the limits of auriferous gravel, as thus 
far explored, about 30 miles, forming an area of about 200 sqiiare miles. The ele- 
vation of this '• Ridge " above the sea is, at its western extremity, near French 
Corral, about 1,500 feet, from whence it gradually rises into the high Sierras, the 
Yuba Gap Pass being 4,570 feet above the sea. This Mesopotamia is cut up by 
ravines descending from a central axis both ways into the valleys of the two rivers, 
forming gulches, with steep sides, often beautifully wooded. The more elevated 
portions of the land are covered by a heavy bed of volcanic ashes and breccia, Avhicli 
evidently at an earlier day formed a continuous sheet over, not only the tongue of 
land under consideratioii, but over the adjacent region, as is conspicuously seen in 
the sections afforded by the various rivers. 

This mass of volcanic ashes contains numeroiis angular fragments of cellular 
lava, thracl)i;e, basalt, porphyry, and volcanic mineral aggregates, quite foreign to 
the general geology of the country. Its thickness varies with the topography and 
drainage of the surface, but it forms the summits of all the hills above a certain 
horizon, and in places reaches an elevation of from 2,000 to 3,000 feet above the 
level of the rivers. Below Columbia Hill the denudation of the surface has removed 
the volcanic matter, leaving the auriferous gravel exposed as the upper surface. 
The volcanic deposit receives from the miners the general name of " Cement," a 
term it well deserves, from its compact and tenacious character, much resembling 
pozzolane or Roman cement. ***** The auriferous gravel varies in 
thickness from 80 to 100 feet, where it has been exposed to denudation, to 250 feet 
or more, where it is protected against such action. Probably 120 feet is not an over- 
statement for its average thickness in the marginal portions, where it has been 
exposed by working the deep diggings or hydraulic claims. This vast gravel bed 
is composed of rounded masses of quartz, greenstone, and all the metamorphic 
rocks which are found in the high Sierras. 

It is often locally stratified, but I could find no cAidence of continuity in its bed- 
dings. The lower portions are composed of larger boulders than the iipper, as a 
general rule, but this does not exclude the occasional presence of huge boiilders in 
the central and upper portions. In a fresh fracture of the whole thickness of these 



340 BRIDGEPOKT TOWNSHIP DIRECTOEY. 



■.deposits, such, as may be seen daily in the "claims" which, are being actively 
worked, a striking contrast of coloi- is seen between the lower and upper portions 
of the gravel mass, consequent on the percolation of atmospheric waters and air, 
oxydizing the iron resulting from the decomposition of pyrites, and staining the 
gravel of a lively red and yellow color in wa-sdng lines and bands, contrasting 
boldly with the blue color of the unoxydized portions. A close examination of the 
blue colored portion of the gravel shows it to be highly impregnated with sulphu- 
ret of iron (iron pyrites), forming, in fact, the chief cementing material which holds 
the pebbles in a mass as firm as conglomerate, requiring the force of gunpowder 
to break it up. * * * * - The gold is disseminated throughout the entire 
mass of this great gravel deposit, not uniformly in value, but always in greater 
quantity near its base, or on the bed rock. The upper half of the deposit is found 
to be always less in value than the lower part, sometimes so poor that it would be 
unprfitable working by itself, but inasmuch as there is no practicable mode 
of working the under stratum without first moving the ux^per portion, in practice 
the whole is worked. * * * * 

The course of the ancient current, where I had an opportunity of measuring it, 
appears to have been about 20°-25° west of north (magnetic), which it will be 
observed is nearly at right angles to the mean course of the ]Middle aiid South 
forks of the Yuba ; but it is not far from parallelism A^dth the axis of the Sacra- 
mento River Valley, or of the great valley between the Coast Range and the Sierra 
Nevada. I have noted the same general direction of the scratches elsewhere in the 
great gold region, but additional observations are required to justify any compre- 
hensive generalization. This much appears to be clearly shown, however, by the 
present state of our knowledge on this subject, viz : that the spread of the ancient 
gold-bearing gravel was produced by a cause greatly more elevated than the exist- 
ing river system, or, which is more probable, at a time when the continent was 
less elevated than at present, and moving in a direction conformable to the course 
of the valleys of the Sacramento and San Joaquin. We find it impossible to admit 
the existing river system as a cause adequate to the spreading of such vast masses of 
round materials. The facts point to a much greater volume of water than any now 
flowing in the valley. * * -x- * ^i^g phenomena here described are 
on a grand and comprehensive scale, and referable to a general cause long anterior 
in date to the existing river system ; a cause which has been sufficient to breal^ 
down and transport the gold-bearing veins of the Sienras, vriih. their associated metj 
amorphic rocks, thus laying up in store for human use deposits of the precious 
metals in amount, and on a scale far beyond the notions generally ]3revailing of the 
nature of placer deposits. * * * " 

The extensive mining operations which, since 1853, have been carried on upon 
the ridge of land between the South and Middle Yuba rivers, have supplied the 
data requisite for a pretty accurate estimate of the average value of gold actually 
saved in mining and washing a given quantity of auriferous gravel. The mining 
ground in this area stretches along both margins of the delta from French Corral, 
near its western extremity, in a line closely parallel to the Middle Yuba, skirts by 
the claims known as Birchville, Sweetland, Sebastopol, North San Juan, Badger 
Hill, through Grizzly Gulch to Wolsey's, Moore's and Orleans' Flats and Snow 
Point to Eureka ; thence crossing to the South Yuba slopes, it includes Mount 
Zion, Belief Hill, Bloomfield, Lake City, Columbia Hill and Montezuma — the entire 
circuit being over sixty miles. 

The various canals and water ditches wliich supply this region, and which 
became consolidated under the title of the " Eureka Lake & Yuba Canal Conpany," 
on the 5th of December, 1865, are the Eureka Lake Canal, 65 miles long ; Miner's 
Ditch, 25 miles ; Grizzly Ditch, 14 miles ; the two Spring Creek Ditches, each 12 
miles long, and the Middle Y'uba Canal, 40 miles long. In addition to these 
canals, there are numerous lateral and distributing branches, which in the aggre- 
gate will exceed 60 miles in length, making a grand total of about 228 miles, the 
actual cost. of constructing which exceeds $1,500,000. 



BRIDGEPORT TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 341 

The great advantages of this consolidation of interests, and increased economy of 
expenditures, are such tliat under the present prudent and efficient management, 
the property is yielding a handsome revenue to its jiroprietors without increased 
cost to customers. 

The Grizzly Ditch, commencing at a point on a creek called " Bloody Run," was 
constructed in 1851-53, and supplied the mining district of Cherokee, and being 
emptied into Shady Creek, waa again taken up and conveyed to French Corral ; the 
latter portion was sold to Pollard & Co., since which time it has fallen into disuse. 
In 1858 the ditch AVas extended to San Juan Hill, and was purchased by the Middle 
Yuba Canal & Water Co. in 1856. Its proprietors Avere Messrs. E. Turney, F. Wil- 
der, W. B, Churchill and others. 

The Middle l''uba Canal was located by IMoses F. Hoit, on the 7th of July, 1853 ; 
work was commenced on the 10th of December, and completed to Grizzly Canyon 
in 1854. During the year 1855, an acquisition of capital enabled the company to 
extend their works to the Middle Y^uba, about three miles below Mooney's Flat. 
The waters of the Y^'uba were introduced into the mines at San Juan in 1856, cross- 
ing the town in a substantially built Hume, or aqueduct, 1200 feet long, at a hight 
of 48 feet, and supplying the diggings at North San Juan, Manzanita, Sweetland 
and Birchville. 

The principal office of the company is in Xew Y^ork city, and the officers are, 
John Parrott, esq. of San Francisco, President ; L. A. Von Hoffinan, Vice President ; 
Messrs. W. Butler Duncan, Henry Cohen, H. Stursbery and M. Zellerbach, trustees. 
The local office of the company is at Xortli San Juan ; general superintendent, 
Richard Abbey, esq.; secretary, John B. Hunter. The average number of officers 
and permanent employees (water agents, ditch tenders, &c), is 40 men. 

Mines and Mining. 

Throughout the entire mining district the work is prosecuted on a scale of great 
magnitude. A careful estimate would indicate that the yield of gold has approached 
two million dollars annually, diu'ing the past ten years. The present monthly 
yield from Bridgeport township, as obtained from the offices of the express compa- 
nies and bankers, will average $80,000. The reticence of owners of claims at pres- 
ent being worked, renders it difficult to approximate the present results of individ- 
ual claims. A page from the history of claims which have been worked out, may 
not prove uninteresting. 

The Eureka Tunnel Company, on San Juan Hill, commenced its timnel to reach 
the inner basin in August, 1855, and got in in October, 1860, at a cost of $84,000 
in actual assessments. The expenses incurred before a diA-idend was declared, were 
$142,000. The entire yield of gold from these claims was $530,000. During the 
existence of the company, the average number of men employed daily, was 25. 

The Deadman Cut Claims, having a superficial area of 94,623 square feet, was 
entirely worked out in February, 1859, having yielded $156,307 73, at a cost of 
$71,433 29. 

On Manzanita Hill, the McKeeley & Co's claims, containing 28,240 square yards, 
yielded $368, 932 78, from 1855 to 1864, paying its owners in diAddends $126,660 00. 

The mines in operation at present, in Bridgeport township, are as follows : 

Paulsen & Co., on Badger Hill, employ three men ; Nesleny & Co., three men ; 
DriscoU & Co., three men. The English Company have recently acquired the 



342 BRIDGEPORT TOWNSHIP DIPvECTORY. . 

entire mining ground, and employ tliirteen men ; tMs company are the owners of 
a small ditcli of 800 inches, supplying the necessary hydraulic power. 

In Cherokee district, the Pioneer Company, consisting of eight men, have been 
engaged during three years past in sinking a shaft, designed to reach the bed rock 
and test the value of the deposit. They have reached a depth of 155 feet, passing 
60 feet of blue, auriferous gravel. The company are without capital, other than 
that saved by their daily labor, but feeling confident of future success, are disin- 
clined to dispose of their property at a sacrifice. The successful completion of this 
work will give a great impetus to operations in the "\dcinity, and restore the old 
mining town of Cherokee to its former standing. 
. On Chimney Hill, Hunter & INIcCarty employ ten men, using 700 inches of 

water. 

The Star mine, on San Juan Hill, employ six men ; tunnel 1,400 long, wMch was 
completed in 1860, using 400 inches of water ; has ground enough for five years to 
come. Geo. Yates, foreman. 

Golden Gate Company's tunnel, 800 feet ; employs six men, under the superin- 
tendence of F. Banks. This company iises 350 inches of water, and has ground 
enough for three years. 

D. Borren & Co., riuming through the Winham ti^nnel, employ eight men, using 
300 inches of water. 

New England Company, runs through the Eureka tunnel, 1,000 feet in length ; 
uses 300 inches of water ; has ground for six years, and employs five men, under 
the foremanship of J. H. EflSnger. 

Wyoming Company, employing six men, uses 300 inches of water, through a 
thirty inch flume in a tunnel 1,000 feet long. H. Dencke, foreman. 

The Knickerbocker Company has a tunnel 2,000 feet long. The comijany had 
suspended work at present writing. 

The Dutch Cut Company, using the above tunnel, has ground for four years' 
washing with 200 inches of water; employs four men. John McBrown, foreman. 

The American Company, iinder the superintendence of John H. Brown, employs 
twenty-four men ; uses 475 inches of water, and has a tunnel 1,800 feet long, with 
ground enough for four years working. This company has adopted all the im- 
provements in hydraulic mining ; has a sand mill for grinding the black sand and 
saving the free gold therein. Also, a cement mill with eight stamps, on the bed 
rock. These claims jdeld from seven to ten thousand dollars to each three weeks 
run. 

The Badger Company's tunnel is 700 feet in length ; iises 250 inches of water, 
through a thirty inch flume, and employs four men. John Perry, superintendent. 

Geo. C. Spooner's tail flume and sand mill, collecting the tailings from the Amer- 
ican, Badger and Dutch Cut mines, employs four men, yielding a handsome revenue. 

George Blufi" Company has 1,800 feet of tunnel ; run 450 inches of water through 
a forty inch flume, and has groxmd sufiicient for twenty years work. This com- 
pany are engaged in running a new tunnel, at a lesser grade. Has five men em- 
ployed. 

The Yuba Tunnel Company have just completed their tunnel, 1,500 feet in length, 
after eleven years' labor, and are now preparing for washing ; will use 400 inches 
ef water, and have ground enough for ten years. J. Chisholm, superintendent. 

SEBASTOPOL. 

The little village of Sebastopol, Ij^ing one mile east of North San Juan, is com- 



BRIDGEPORT TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 343 

posed entirely of tte residences of tlie owners of the American and Gold Bluff mines, 
on Junction Bluff and JIanzanita Hills. It contains one store, McBride & Frew, 
proprietors. 

SWEETLAND. 

Sweetland is one of tlie oldest settlements on the Ridge, and derives its name 
from one of the earliest residents, H. P. Sweetland, who still resides there. It has 
an excellent public school, under the management of Mrs. H. Lyon. 

BIRCHVILLE. 

The cosy village of Birch^-ille, manifesting the excellent tastes of its people in 
the construction of their dwellings and cultivation of pleasant gardens, lies four 

miles east of North San Juan. The mines Avere discovered by Johnson, in 

1851, and were known as Johnson's Diggings till 1853, when, by common consent, 
the name of Birchville was substituted. In 1851 the " Miners' and Mechanics' 
Steam Saw Mill " was built, and continued in operation till 1853, Avhen it was de- 
stroyed by fire and never rebidlt. 

The Ii-ish claims were worked by means of drifting, and paid largely for a num- 
ber of years. Water was furnished by the Shady Creek and Grizzly ditches, but in 
such limited quantities that but little progress was made in hydraulic mining until 
in 1857 the Middle Yuba Canal and Water Company extended their ditch, furnish- 
ing water in abundance, which gave a degree of prosperity unknown before. 

In 1859 four bed rock tunnels were commenced, and completed in 1864, at an 
aggregate cost of $130,000. Tliese tunnels drain the channel in the upper portion 
of the district ; the lower portion aa-III be reached by another tunnel, now in course 
of construction, a distance of twenty-foui* hundred feet, through which about four 
hundred claims will be worked. 

The folloAAdng claims are now in successful operation, and their yield for 1865-6 
was about as follows : 

Granite Tunnel Companv. , ■ $ 82,000 net proceeds $ 24,000 

Don Jose Companv '. . 100,000 " " 72,000 

Irish American and Woodpecker Ra\Tne Co.. . 180,000 " " 133,000 

San Joaquin Company 134,000 " " 68,500 

Kennebec and American Company 85,000 " " 30,000 

Though the best portion of the mines are exhausted, not more than one-half of 
the mining ground is washed, and the amoimt of water required will be equal to 
all that has ever been used here. 

Birchville precinct polled eighty-seven votes in 1865. Its contributions to the 
Sanitary Fund amounted to $1,089. 

French Corral. 

French Corral lies at the lower terminus of the gold-bearing gravel range that 
is foimd between the South and Middle Yuba rivers. Its altittide is about 2000 
feet above the sea. Its temperature ranges from 25 degrees in winter to 105 in 
summer. Snow seldom falls, and never to the depth of more than a few inches. 
Many fruits of the tropical, and all of those of the temperate zone, flourish. 

In 1849, a Frenchman, living at Frenchman's Bar, on the Yuba river, biult an 
inclosure for his mules on the present site of the village. This inclosure was 
known as the French Corral, and the circumstance gave the village its name. 
Once upon a time, the citizens, moved no doubt by a laudable spirit, called a meet- 



344 BRIDGEPORT TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 

ing and resolved that from that time the place shotild be called Garrolton, a name 
suggestive of better memories than French. Corral ; but like many other commend- 
able resolves, this one came to naught, and the ^Tillage is likely to live in history 
(Beau's Directory) by its original name. 

Some little ravine mining was commenced here in 1849, and a trading post (in a 
tent) was established in the same year by a man named Galloway, afterward well 
known as the proprietor of " Galloway's ranch," near Downieville. Galloway was 
succeeded by an English sailor called Jack, who in September, 1850, sold his tent 
and trade to Robert and John Bussenias. They erected the first house (of logs) 
near the present site of the " Corral House." In 1851, surface diggings were dis- 
covered, and in the spring of 1853, Messrs. I. P. Twist, J. Wadsworth, J. Williams, 
J. Si)urry and A. H. and W. M. Eddy, brought in a ditch from Shady Creek. 

The rich surface mines, when there was water to work them, brought together a 
goodly nttmber of miners and traders, and the Aallage soon had a population of 
three or four hundred. In 1853, hill diggings were discovered, and another ditch 
was brought from Shady Creek by the Grizzly Water Company. Messrs. Charles 
Marsh and W. M. Stewart were the projectors and principal owners. In June, 

1853, about one half of the village was destroyed by fire, and again in September 

1854, another disastrous fire occurred. By this time the hill diggings were con- 
siderably developed and proven to be extensive. Tunnels and cuts were run into 
the hills Avherever fall could be found ; ditches were enlarged, and every prepara- 
tion made for extensive work. Profitable mining soon followed. In 1855 another 
ditch was brought in by Simpson & Co. Subsequently deeper tunnels were run in 
order to reach the bottom of the lead, which was found to be from one to 200 feet 
in depth. The total cost of the various cuts and tunnels of this locality, cannot be 
less than a quarter of a million of dollars, and the amount of gold taken out must 
be among the millions. 

A large extent of valuable mining ground remains to be Avorked. In addition 
to the hydraulic mines, there is a broad, deep stratum of " blue cement," so called* 
imderlying the red gravel, Avhich is rich in gold. This will have to be worked by 
the mill process, as is already being successfully done in other parts of the county. 
This, tmdoubtedly, Avill give remunerative work to seA'eral mills for years. 

There are good indications of valuable quartz lodes in the vicinity, but very 
little, however, has been done to develop them. The principal placer mines are 
now owned by the Empire Flat Co., Messrs. Bird & Smith, Messrs Black & Alger, 
H. French, W. Glaislee, G. Ryan and the Nevada Water Co. The two ditches 
brought in in 1852 and 1853, are now owned by the Nevada Water Co., and the 
Simpson & Co. ditch by the Empire Flat Co. yaluable tail sluices are owned by 
the Caledonia Co., T. P. Otis & Co., Keenedy & Neville, Dr. Farrelly, Alexander & 
Smith and C. P. McClelland. The present population is between three and four 
hundred. 

CHEROKEE. 

The first prospecting done here was in 1850, by some Cherokee Indians, on what 
is called, at present, the Cherokee ranch. The earliest mining wilh rockers was 
done by the Sack brothers, on Shady Creek, just below the village of Cherokee. 
The first sltiice mining was done by Dr. Wm. Patterson, our former County Clerk, 
and John McGraw, in 1851, and the same year the Grizzly ditch was surveyed, by 
Charles Marsh and others, and a company formed to bring water to this flat from 



BRIDGEPORT TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 345 

Grizzly Canon, and was finislied in tlie fall of 1853, proving a very profitable in- 
vestment, furnisMng water about five montlis of the year, and causing a rapid 
growth, of the present village of Cherokee. The Avhole flat was staked off, and 
yielded large returns, some companies making as high as fifty dollars a day to the 
hand. 

The vote of this precinct in 1854 was three hundred and ten. The citizens of 
this place built a comfortable school house, by subscription ; the first teacher was 
J. B. Johnson, now of North San Juan. The present number of scholars is about 
fifty-five ; the whole number of children enumerated in the School Marshal's report 
was sixty-eight. 

The present mining companies are John Ryan & Co., Hunter & McCarthy, Gill, 
Quick & Co., on Badger Hill, R. Nelson & Co., Wm. Kilevy & Co., John Poulson & 
Co., Martin, Yauch & Co., and others. 

There is one church edifice here, Catholic, with a large congregation. The other 
denominations have free access to the school house for religious worship. There 
are three stores, two hotels, one shoe shop, one blacksmith shop, and one saw mill, 
with a capacity of 10,000 feet of lumber per day. The first post office established 
here was in 1855, and was called Patterson, after Dr. Patterson, as he was one of 
the first miners in the place. As there was a tOTVTi in Butte county called Cherokee 
the name of the post office was called Patterson, as the rules of the Department 
would not establish two offices of the same name in the State. 

There is a company engaged in sinking a shaft six by twelve feet. They have 
a steam engine for hoisting purposes, and are down now one himdred and seventy 
feet, and it prospects from the top to the bottom. The company, as soon as they 
reach the bed rock, contemplate running a tunnel to the Middle Yuba, for fall. 
When completed, the best and richest diggings in California will be opened. 



i\. D. MORGAIV, President, 

T. T. MERWIN, Vice-President, I J. W. MERRILL, Secretary. 

I.IFE I]VSUR-A:^<DE compajvy, 

OF NEW YORK. 

pNIUTUAL.] 

Its POLICIES are INDISPUTABLE from time of issue. POLICIES 

granted, the Payment of which is GUARANTEED by NEW YORK 

STATE. THIRTY DAYS GRACE given on all renewal payments. 



Cash Assets, January 1st, 1867 $1,539,019 

Cash Income for 1866 $1,303,566 

Dividend, January 1st, 1867 — 40 percent. 

J. A. EATON & CO., General Managers, 

302 Montgomery Street, San Francisco. 
WM. F. BRANDRETH, Traveling Agent. 

P2 



THE 



BRIDGEPORT TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 



For the Year conunencing January 1st, 1867. 



ag't Agent. I Rest ....Restaurant. 

cor Corner. | res , rResidence. 

p , French. I st Street. 

N North. I sup't Superiutendent. 

ABBEY RICHARD, sup't Eiireka Lake 
& Middle Yuba Canal Co. 

Abbott & Bailey, butchers, French Cor- 
ral & N. San Juan. 

Abbott Charles, meat market, French C. 

Abrahams Lewis, miner, Birchville. 

Abrahams E. merchant, N. San Juan. 

Adams Theo. carpenter, Hoit's Crossing. 

Ahart J. W. miner. Shady Creek. 

Ahart S. K. miner. Shady Creek. 

Alexander & Smith, miners, Empire F. 

Alexander David, miner, F. Corral 

Allen J. S. farmer, Shady Creek 

Allison Edward, rancher, Allison ranch 

Allison James, miner, Allison ranch 

Anderson Benj. miner, F. Corral 

Anderson Harry, miner, !?. San' Juan 

Andress James, laborer, N. San Juan 

Angier P. J. teamster, Sweetland 

Armstrong John, laborer, Sweetland 

Arnold W. H. miner. Shady Creek 

Arthur Henry, miner, Jones' Bar 

American Co. hydraulic mining, Manza- 
nita BLill 



B 

Badger Co. hydraulic mining, Manzanita 

Hill 
Banks Fred, miner, N San Juan 
Barbarie G. miner, Sweetland, 
Bart Henry, miner, N San Juan 
Basilaiske A. miner, Empire Flat 
Baudoin Chas. merchant, Empire Flat 
Beach Chas. miner, N San Juan 
Beach Erastus, miner, N San Juan 
Bean Edwin, laborer, Cherokee 
Beard J. E. miner, N San Juan 
Bee John, miner, Empire Flat 
Beck Harmon, miner, Sebastopol 
Behrens F. H. miner, Cherokee 
Bell Solomon, rancher, near Cherokee 
Bell V. G. ditch ag't, Birchville 
Benjamin R. P. miner, Sweetland 



Besancon B. miner. Empire Flat 
Bickford L. H. carpenter, N San Juan 
Billings John, miner, N San Juan 
Billings J. A. livery stable, F Corral 
Bird Edward E. miner, Manzanita Hill 
Bird W. H. miner, F Corral 
Bird & Smith, hydraulic miners, Empire 

Flat 
Black & Bro. hydraulic miners, Empire 

Flat 
Black A. miner, Empire Flat 
Black H. miner, Empire Flat 
Black Matthew, ranchman, N San Jnan 
Blake John, shifemaker, Cherokee 
Block & Furth, merchants. Main st. N 

San Juan 
Bloss A. A. teamster, Cherokee 
Bonham A. J. driver meat wagon,Frencli 

Corral 
Boure Jules, miner. Empire Flat 
Bowden Joseph, miner. Badger Hill 
Bowen & Morgan, hydraulic mining, N 

San Juan 
BoAven David, miner, IST San Juan 
Bowles Caleb, miner, Birchville 
Bowles Geo, M. miner, Birchville 
Bradford C. E. miner, F Corral 
Bradbury Da^dd, miner N San Juan 
Braucher A. miner. Buckeye Hill 
Briggs James, miner, N San Juan 
Brindeau Adrian, miner. Empire Flat 
Broderick J. C. lumberman. Shady Creek 
Brophy James, laborer, Cherokee 
Brounkhorst F. miner, Cherokee 
Brown A. J. miner, Sweetland 
Brown J. H. foreman American Co. Man 

zanita Hill 
Brown J. S. miner, Sweetland 
Brown M. miner, Manzanita Hill 
Brust Peter, (of Schardin & B.) saloon 

keeper, N San Juan 
Bryan Wm. miner, F Corral 
Buchel Antone, miner, N San Juan 



BRIDGEPORT TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 



347 



Buhring Lewis, N San Juan 

Burke P. mercliant, F Corral 

Burnett Clias. lumberman, N San Jnan 

Burnett Wm. carpenter, F Corral 

Burth Martin, miner, Cherokee 

Bush Philip, miner, N San Juan 

Butler P. H. (of Franchere & B.) druggist, 

N San Juan 
Bynon Benj . miner, Birch ville 
Bynon Joseph, miner, Birch ville 

c 

Cadwallader N. miner, Birchville 
Callahan H. stable keeper, Cherokee 
Campbell James, butcher, N San Juan 
Campbell Joseph, laborer, N San Juan 
Campbell, J. R. miner, Sebastoiwl 
Campbell Pat. miner, F Corral 
Carey John, rancher, near Cherokee 
Carion & Fitter, brewers, N San Juan 
Carion Adolph, (of C. & F.) N San Juan 
Cariot Joseph, miner, Empire Flat 
Carmack F. J. laborer, Birchville 
Carmichael James, shoemaker,Bircliville 
Carmichael John, shoemaker, F Corral 
Carpenter, J. C. painter, N San Juan 
Carrol Anthony, miner, N San Juan 
Carrol Geo. miner, F Corral 
Cazneau Mons. miner. Empire Flat 
Chadwick J. L. carpenter, N San Juan 
Chapman & Dunning, blacksmiths, N 

San Juan 
Chapman M. V. B. (of C. & Dunning) N 

San Juan 
Charbonnae F. miner, Empire Flat 
Chisliolm James, miner, Sebastopol 
Clark O. F. rancher, N San Juan 
Cline Sam'l, miner, Mauzanita Hill 
Cloke Thomas, miner, Sweetland 
Coffey Frank, miner, F Corral 
Colby F. J. lumberman, Shady Creek 
Collins Pat. miner, Sweetland 
CoUodie George, confectionery, San Juan 
Cook Joseph, foreman Gold Bluff Co. 

Manzanita Hill 
Cook Willard, woodman, N San Juan 
Cooke & Dade, livery stable, N San Juan 
Cooke J. B.(of Cooke & Dade)N San Juan 
Corkry C. miner, Cherokee, 
Cox Connor, miner, Badger Hill 
Crall S. M. miner, Cherokee 
Crandall Lyman, teamster, N San Juan 
Crane A. N. jeweler, N San Juan 
Cull Henry, butcher, Cherokee 
Curtis Henry, rancher, F Corral 
Cushman L. S. carpenter Cherokee 

D 

Dade H. C. (of Cooke & D.) stable keeper, 

N San Juan 
Dailey Matthew, stage driver, N San 

Juan 



Dalton George, miner, Birchville 
Daniels Henry, miner, N San Juan 
Dannals & Menner, merchant, Sweetland 
Dannals C.W.(of D. & Menner)Sweetland 
Darneal E. M. miner, Sweetland 
Davey Henry, miner. Badger Hill 
Davidovitch S. merchant, N San Juan 
Davis C. M. miner, Sweetland 
Davis G. G. miner, Sweetland 
Da"\is C. W. miner, Sweetland 
Davis David, miner, Birchville, 
Davis David G. miner, Birchville 
Davis J. D. miner, Birchville 
Davis Moses, miner, Sweetland 
Davis 0. F. rancher. Oak Tree ranch 
Davis T. H, miner, Birchville 
Davis Wm. miner, Birchville 
Davis W. M. miner, Birchville 
Dempsey John, miner, F Corral 
Dempsey Simon, miner, Grizzly Hill 
DenekerH. miner, N San Juan 
Desgrippes Ed. miner, N San Juan 
Dixon John H. miner, N San Juan 
Dockum Co. hydraulic mine, F. Corral 
Dods Hubert, miner. Empire Flat 
Dohrman Henrj^, carpenter, N San Juan 
Don Jose Co. hydraulic mine, Birchville 
Donnelly John, miner, Cherokee 
Donnelly Peter, miner, Cherokee 
Donovan Jerry, miner, Cherokee 
DORNIN GEO. D., ag't Wells' Fargo 

& Co. & Dornin's Ex. N San Juan 
Doucher Peter, miner. F Corral 
Downey John, carpenter, N San Juan 
Driscol J. D. miner, Cherokee 
Dunn Thomas, miner, Cherokee 
Dunn Thomas H. miner, Shady Creek 
Dunning R, H. prop'r Under Cm-rent 

Sluice, N San Juan 
Dunning Wm. blacksmith, N San Juan 
Dutch Gap Co. hydraulic mine, N San 

Juan 
Dwyer Pat. miner, Sweetland 

E 

EDDY A. H. Sup't Nevada Water Co. 

French Corral 
EDDY S. A. Water Ag't F Corral 
EDDY W. M. Sup't Nevada Water Co. 

French Corral 
Edwards & Mallich, blacksmiths Birch- 
ville 
Edwards E. W. miner, N San Juan 
Edwards M.R. (of E.& Mallich)Birchville 

Edwards Wm. 

Effinger J. H. foreman Eureka Co. N. 

San Juan 
Eichel Lewis, laborer, N San Juan 
Ellis George A. saloon keeper, Birchville 
Ellis J. J. ditch ag't Kate Hayes' Flat 
Ellis Peter, miner, N San Juan 
Empire Ditch Co. F Corral 



348 



BRIDGEPORT TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 



Empire Tunnel Co. hydraulic mine, F. 

Corral 
Englisli Co. hydraulic mine, Badger Hill 
Ensign Co. hydraulic mine, N San Juan 
Ensign A. M. miner, F Corral 
Eureka Co. hydraulic mine, N San Juan 
Eureka Lake & Middle Yuba Canal Co. 

Consolidated, R. Ahbey President,office 

N San Juan 
Eurich Adam, miner, X San Juan 
Evans J. A. miner, N San Juan 
Evans J. J. miner, Sebastopol 
Evans Noah, miner, N San Juan 
Evans Orlando, miner, Buckeye Hill 
Evans S. D. saloon keeper, F Corral 
Evans E. D. miner, Birchville 
Everett Henry, miner, Birch\'ille 

F 

Fagg Geo. merchant, F Corral 
Faherty T. miner, Shady Creek 
Fant Thomas, miner, F Corral 
Farley Geo. S. physician, X San Juan 
Farrelly M. miner, F Corral 
Fatdkner J. H. miner, F Corral 
Fisher Archibald, laborer, X San Juan 
Fitter John, (of Carion & F.) brewer, X 

San Juan 
Fitzgerald P. miner, Sebastopol 
Fitz Patrick M. clerk "with Burke, F 

Corral 
Fitzsimmons P. B. rancher. Shady C 
Fitzsimmons T. rancher. Shady C'reek 
Flanders A. J. miner, Birchville 
Fogarty John, miner, Birch\411e- 
Fogarty Thos. miner, Birchville 
Fogarty Wm. foreman, Irish American 

Co. Birchville 
Folsom Freeman, miner, French Corral 
Folsom Wm. miner, F Corral 
Foster C. D, teamster, Cherokee 
Foster Thos. miner, X San Juan 
Fowler Isaac, miner, Sweetland 
Franchere & Butler, Druggists, Main st 

X San Juan 
Franchere E. (of F. & Butler,) druggist, 

N San Juan 
Francis Wm. miner, Birchville 
Frazier Benj. shoemaker, X San Juan 
French A. R. blacksmith, X San Juan 
French M. miner, F Corral 
Frew T. L. miner, Sebastopol 
Frichot T, gardener, Kate Hays' Flat 
Furth Daniel, merchant, (of Block & F.) 

X San Juan 
Furth Simon, merchant, (of Block & F.) 

X San Juan 

G 

Gale James, miner, X San Juan 
Galyan A. B. laborer, X San Juan 
Gangloff Geo. miner. Empire Flat 



Gaskell C. miner, Sebastopol 
Gaskill J. L. miner, X San Juan 
Garrity John, miner, X San Juan 
Gavard A. jeweler, X San Juan 
Gayner Pat. W. saloon keeper, X San 

Juan 
German John, miner, X San Juan 
Gilbert Jacob, shoemaker, X San Juan 
Gill Thos. miner. Badger Hill 
Glaister "Wm. miner, F Corral 
Gobert Louis, merchant, F Corral 
Gold Bluff Co. hydraulic mine, Manza- 

nita Hill 
Golden Gate Mining Co. X San Juan 
Gorman James, miner, F Corral 
Graham Peter, saloon keeper, Sweetland 
Granite Tunnel Co. Birchville 
Grider T. S. farmer, X San Juan 
Griffith David, miner, X San Juan 
Groves J. 0. miner, Birchville. 
Guffin J. A. physician, X San Juan 
Gurley D. miner, Manzanita Hill 

H 

Hadley John, miner, Sebastopol 
Hall Patrick, mine?( Badger Hill 
Hanrahan John, miner, Montezuma Hill 
Harlow George, drives Dornin's Ex. X 

San Juan 
Harmon & Co. merchants, Birchville 
Harmon J. R. (of H. & Co.) Birchville 
Harris & Co, merchants, X San Juan 
Harris A. (of H. & Co.) X San Juan 
Hartley Sam'l, miuer, X San Juan 
Hatfield E. V merchant, X San Juan 
Hatfield W. H. clerk with E. & H. X^ 

San Juan 
Haymaker Edwin, miner, Sweetland 
Heath Silas, miner, F Corral 
Heath Stephen R. hotel keeper F Corral 
Helfi'ich C. E. saloon, X San Juan 
Helm Adam E. miner, F Corral 
Henderson & Bro. blacksmiths, F Corral 
Henderson D. (of H. & Bro.) F Corral 
Herrott John, miner, Sebastopol 
Hertwick J. miuer, X San Juan 
Hervey Thos. miner, Jones' Bar 
Heyer T. W. miuer, X San Juan 
Hill John, rancher, X San Juan 
Hill Mark, carpenter, Cherokee 
HUlards, S. R. carj)enter, X San Juan 
Hiscox H. 0. water ag't, Sweetland 
Hofiinan F. miner, F Corral 
Hoing B. H. miner, X San Juan 
Hoit Moses F. Justice of the Peace, X 

San Juan 
Holey Rodey, miner, Birchville 
Holland Dan. miner, X San Juan 
Hollingshead T. W. painter, X San Juan 
Hollow Thomas, miner. Badger Hill 
Hopkins Ed. miner, X. San Juan 
HouseU C. (of H. & P.) X San Juan 



BRIDGEPORT TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 



349 



Housell & Putnam, hotel keepers, N San 

Juan 
Howels Tlios. miner, Bircliville 
Hoyt David, miner, Bircliville 
Huckins Robert, constable, N San Juan 
Hudson Abram, miner, Swcetland 
Huggius Jolin, miner, F. Corral 
Hughes Harry, miner, N San Juan 
Hughes John, miner, N San Juan 
Hughes Robert, saloon, Shady Creek 
Hunter J. B. ininer, X San Juan 
Hunter D. R. farmer, Sweetland 
Hussey S. S. shoemaker, N San Juan 
Huston John, miner, N San Juan 
Hutcherson R. miner, Badger Hill 
Hyde W. H. miner, Birch ville 

I 

Ipsom Hans, hose maker, X San Juan 
Irish American Mining Co. Birch ville 
Isbester John, carpenter, Sweetland 

J 

James W. H. miner, N San Juan 
Janson Wm. miner, N San Juan 
JOHNSON J. B. lawyer, N San Juan 
Johnson J. J. miner, Sweetland 
Johnson John P. miner, N San Juan 
Johnson Wm. miner, N San Juan 
Johnson Cris, miner, N San Juan 
Johnson Robt. blacksmith. Buckeye Hill 
JoUey E. gardener, Kate Hayes Hill 
Jones David J. miner, Bii-chville 
Jones Griffith, miner, N San Juan 
Jones John C. miner, Sebastopol 
Jones J. J. miner, N San Juan 
Jordan John, miner, N San Juan 
Joyce Wm. stage driver, N San Juan 
Judd M. S. lumberman. Shady Creek 
Judson 0. water agent, N San Juan 

K 

Kanouse Jacob, laborer, Cherokee 
Keegan Wm. miner, N San Juan 
Kellan Michael, miner, Birchville 
Kellenberger Gr. D. barber, N San Juan 
Kelley Patrick, rancher, Cherokee 
Kemp Joseph, miner, Sebastopol 
Kennebec & American Company, hy- 
draulic mine, Birchville 
Kennedy M. miner, Montezuma Hill 
Kennedy Stephen, miner, French Corral 
Kent Richard, miner, Sweetland 
Keough Patrick, miner, Sweetland 
Kilderry Patrick, miner, Cherokee 
King P. M. miner, Sebastopol 
King H. L. miner, Cherokee 
Koch G. W. brewer, N San Juan 
Koeh Christopher, miner, N San Juan 
Kraemer George, barber, N San Juan 



Lahay D. miner, French Corral 



Lahay M. miner, French Corral 

Lane John, miner, Cherokee 
Laramie Louis, miner. Empire Flat 
Lay James, miner, Sweetland 
Lehey Thomas, miner, Birchville 
Levey L. dry goods peddler, N San Juan 
Lewellyn Wm. miner, Sebastopol 
Lewis A. H. miner, Birchville 
Lewis Evan, miner, N San Juan 
Lilley D, R. miner, N San Juan 
Lisson Joseph, clerk, N San Juan 
Lvttle Robert, speculator, X San Juan 
LOUGIIEAD R. Postmaster, N San Juan 
Loveridge 0. M. miner, French Corral 
Lovitt 0. C. stage driver, X San Juan 
Loyd Hugh, miner, X San Juan 
Lumlev Robert, miner. Sweetland 
Lvuch'Christopher, miner, Birchville 
Lyncii Jerry, miner, French Corral 

M 

McBride J. S. merchant, Sebastopol 
McBrown John, miner, X San Juan 
jNIcCarthy Wm. shoemaker, X San Juan 
McCaulliflFe Pat, miner, Birch^^Llle 
McClelland C. P. min(?r, French Corral 
JlcCracken T. M. miner, Sweetland 
McCullough Jas. miner, Sebastopol 
McDonald J. B. clerk, Birchville 
McEarchern R. miner, French Corral 
IMcGowen M. laborer, X. San Juan 
McGurk H. miner, French Corral 
Mcintosh Alex, ranchman, Sweetland 
ISIcKinlev Wm. miner, Yuba Tunnel 
McManuus J. miner, Birch^-ille 
McMichael H. G. carpenter, X San Juan 
Mc^NIullin Jas. miner, Sweetland 
McMurrv J. D. carpenter, French Corral 
McXamara James, miner, Sweetland 
McXeil Wm. miner, X San Juan 
Mackhn H. min.n-, Sebastopol 
iNIadden Anthouv, miner, French Corral 
Madline Emile, clerk. Empire Flat 
Mao-uire Thos. merchant, X San Juan 
Mahonev Thos. miner, French Corral 
Maillet Edrien, miner, Empire Flat 
ISIahch S. B. blacksmith, Birchville 
Mardon T. miner, French Corral 
Mardon W. miner, rrench Corral 
Marks & Co. drv goods, X San Juan 
ISIarks J. of M. "& Co. 
Maroney M. hotel keeper, Birchville 
Marr J.'M. B. laborer, Sweetland 
Marsh Leonard, rancher, X San Juan 
Martin M. W. merchant, Cherokee 
Martin Wm. O. H. clerk. Cherokee 
Matterson J. E. miner, X San Juan 
Mittson Harry, miner, X San Juan 
Meehan Martin, miner, Shady Creek 
Menner Wm. (of Dannals & M.)Sweetland 
Meridith John, janchman, X San Juan 
Meridith Tim, ranchman, X San Juan 



350 



BRIDGEPORT TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 



Meyers August, laborer, Cherokee 
Miller Jas. L. farmer, Manzanita Hill 
Miller N. C. water agent, Manzanita Hill 
Miller Plailip, butcher, N San Juan 
Mitten John, teamster, French Corral 
Mobbley F. F. ranchman, Sweetland 
Mochague John, baker, Kate Hays Flat 
Moore Archer, miner, Sweetland 
Moore Geo. W. ranchman, N San Juan 
Moran Thomas, saloon, Cherokee 
Moreau August, miner. Empire Flat 
Morgan Abe, saloon, San Juan 
Morgan Henry, merchant, Cherokee 
Morgan Jenkin, miner, San Juan 
Morgan John T. blacksmith, San Juan 
Morrel Ephraim, miner, Sweetland 
Morris Isaac, miner, BircliA-ille 
Morris D. W. miner, San Juan 
Morris John D. miner, Birchville 
Morris John T. miner, Birch\i.lle 
Morris John F, miner, Sebastopol 
Morris Wm T. miner, San Juan 
Morrisey Pat, miner, Birchville 
Morrison Jerry, blacksmith, Cherokee 
Morse F. A. miner, San Juan 
Moulton Wm, miner, French Corral 
Moynier Philip, gardener, Kate Hays Fit 
Mull E. W. miner, Sweetland 
Murphy E. K. saloon, San Juan 
Murphy John, miner, Cherokee 
Murphy J. B. merchant, Cherokee 
Murphy P. S. saloon, San Juan 

N 

Nancervis Thomas, miner, Badger Hill 
Nancervis Wm. miner. Badger Hill 
NancoUas Wm. miner. Badger Hill 
Nash James, miner, Birchville 
Neslin Robert, miner, Cherokee 
Netter N. (of Harris & Co.) San Juan 
Nevada Water Co. (ditch&mine) F Corral 
Neville Richard, miner, French Corral . 
Newell & Co. merchants. Birchville 
Newell Geo. B. (of N. & Co.) Birchville 
New England Co. (mining) San Juau 
Nobblet'W. B. miner, San Juan 
Norrie David, miner, French Corral 
Northu^:) E. ranchman, San Juan 



O'Brien Dan. miner, Cherokee 
O'Brien John, miner, Cherokee 
O'Connor John, miner, Birchville 
O'Connor M. miner, Cherokee 
O'Meara James, miner, Birchville 
O'Meara Pat. miner, Birchville 
O'Niel James, clerk with Morgan, Cher- 



O' Sullivan T. W. miner, F Corral 
Oliver H. R. carpenter, Cherokee 
Ovitt A. W. Stewart, San^Juan 
Owens Owen, miner, San 'Juan 



Padleford John, water ag't, P Corral 
Parshley & Evans, saloon keeper, P 

Corral 
Parshley G. W. (of P. & Evans) F Corral 
Pascoe Wm. miner. Badger Hill 
Pease Elijah, gardener. Badger Hill 
Peck J. E. blacksmith, San Juan 
Perkins G. W. miner, San Juan 
Perry A. P. shoemaker, San Juan 
Perry J. H. miner, Sweetland 
Peters F. C. carpenter, Birchville 
Peterson Chris, miner, San Juan 
Pfister Andre, gardener, San Juan 
Phalen & Co. miners. Shady Creek 
Phalen Kerr, miner. Shady Creek 
Phalen Kenny, miner. Shady Creek 
Phalen Michael, miner. Shady Creek 
Phalen Thos. miner. Little Grass Valley 
Phillips Henry, miner, San Juan 
Phillips P. rancher, San Juan 
Phillips Richard, miner, San Juan 
Phillips Wm. rancher, San Juan 
Pierce John, miner, Birchville 
Pisley Mark, road overseerS, an Juan 
Pixley Marshall, miner, San Juan 
Plunkett C. M. miner, F Corral 
Pollard C. J. miner, F Corral 
Ponce Jos. gardener, F Corral 
Pool Zebiilon, laborer, San Juan 
Potter S. W. miner, San Juan 
Poulinier H. miner, San Juan 
Powell Da-\id, miner, Pirchville 
Powell Harry, miner, Birchville 
Powell Hiram L. -R'ater ag't, Badger Hill 
Powell Geo. N. S. miner, Sebastopol 
Powell John, gardener, Sebastopol 
Powell R. T. butcher, San Juan 
Powell Sidney,water ag't.Grizzly Canyon 
Powers C . E. butcher, F Corral 
Pratt E. S. merchant, San Juan 
Pratt Swell, miner, Birchville 
Preston E. M. teacher, San Juan 
Bridgeon F. M. miner, Kate Hays' Flat 
Prior John, miner, San Juan 
Pryor B. A. express ag't, San Juan 
Pryor John, express ag't, San Juan 
Puckett C. M. miner, F Corral 
Purdon Peter, miner, S"weetland 
Purcell Peter, miner, Sweetland 
Putnam A. J. (of H. & P.) San Juan 
Putnam V. C. teamster, San Juan 

Q 

Quick James, miner. Badger Hill 
Quick John, miner. Badger Hill 
Quick Paul, miner. Badger Hill 
Quinn John, Sebastopol 
Quinn M. miner, F Corral 
Quinn Pat. miner, Birchville 



BRIDGEPORT TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 



351 



Ransom E. B. miner, Manzanita Hill 
Ratliburn H. B. rancher, Cherokee 
Rathburn S. D. rancher, Cherokee 
Reader J . H. lumberman, Shady Creek 
Reed F. S. miner, Sebastopol 
Reese David, miner, Birchville 
Reese Thomas, miner, San Juan 
Rich H. H. miner, San Juan 
Richards Evan, miner, San Juan 
Ricolie J. miiier. Empire Flat 
Ritchie J. H. teamster, Sweetland 
Roach J.clerk with Mrs Tierney.Cherokee 
Roberts Dan. miner, F Corral 
Robertson John, miner, San Juan 
Rodgers John, miner, Sebastopol 
Roncier Felix, miner. Empire Flat 
Roscart B. miner. Empire Flat 
Rosendale C. E. F Corral 
Ross J. A. constable, San Juan 
Ross John, miner, F Corral 
Rourke Dan. miner, Birchville 
Rower John, miner, San Juan 
Ryan Dennis, miner, Sweetland 
Ryan George, miner, F Corral 
Ryan Ned. miner, Birchville 
Rjan John, miner, Cherokee 

s 

San Joaquin Co. (mining) Birchville 
Salter Job, butcher, San Juan 
Salter John, butcher, San Juan 
Salter Wm. butcher, San Juan 
Schardin Chas. (of S & Brust) San Juan 
Schmidt F. tailor, San Juan 
Schmidt J. P. hotel keeper, Cherokee 
Schuman A. miner, San Juan 
Scott James, miner, French Corral 
Scott M. M. teacher, French Corral 
Seely J. A. teamster, San Juan 
Sharp Wesley, miner, San Juan 
Sharp James, miner, San Juan 
Sharp William, miner, San Juan 
Sherman Charles, baker, San Juan 
Simons J. G. miner, San Juan 
Simpson S. V. miner, French Corral 
Simpson Wm. gardener, San Juan 
Slack P. S. miner, Sweetland 
Sloan John, miner, Birchville 
Smith A. (of Bird & S. miners) F Corral 
Smith Bernard, hostler, San Juan 
Smith Charles, miner, French Corral 
Smith Francis, merchant, San Juan 
Smith T. G. ranchman, San Juan 
Smith W. G. miner, Sweetland 
Snow Jesse, miner, Sweetland 
Solverson A. miner, San Juan 
Soule Martin, teamster, French Corral 
Spooner A. S. miner, Sebastopol 
Spooner F. P. miner, Sebastopol 
Spooner G. C. miner, Sebastopol 



Spooner Nathan, miner, Sebastopol 
Spooner O. P. miner, Sebastopol 
Stanton N. R. tinsmith, French Corral 
Staples Roscoe, farmer, San Juan 
Star Company, (mining) San Juan 
Stevens John, washman, San Juan 
Stevens I. H. miner, San Juan 
Sterling R. W. dentist, San Juan 
Stewart James, miner, San Juan 
Stidger James A. lawyer, San Juan 
Stidger John S. miner, San Juan 
STIDGER O. P. Att'y at Law, San Juan 
Stiles George, miner, French Corral 
Stilwell J. P. miner, Sweetland 
Stone John, butcher, Cherokee 
Stotlar John, physician, San Juan 
Stotlar Organ, miner, San Juan 
Stotlar T. F. miner, San Juan 
Stott James, miner, Sebastopol 
Stover Peter, miner, Birchville 
Strahline Antone, miner, Sweetland 
Swan A. B. miner, Sebastopol 
Sweeney M. miner, Sweetland 
Sweetland H. P. miner, Sweetland 
Sweetland J. 0. miner, Sweetland 
Sweetzer John, miner, Sweetland 

T 

Tackitt A. J. farmer, Shady Creek 
Talbott James, miner, Birchville 
Tarbox David, farmer, Cherokee 
Taylor B. miner, Manzanita Hill 
Taylor J. N. miner, Sweetland 
Thomas David, miner, Birchville 
Thomas H. W. miner, Kate Hays Flat 
Thomas Richard A. miner, Birchville 
Thomas Sampson, miner. Badger HUl 
Thomas W. T. miner, Birchville 
Thompson C. miner, Sweetland 
Thompson John,, hotel keeper, Birchville 
Thompson T. W. M. toll col. Wood's Cros 
Toennies August, miner, San Juan 
Tracy John, miner, Birchville 
Tracy Thomas, miner, Birchville 
Treanor J. M. farmer. Shady Creek 
Tribblehorn J. C. saloon keeper, San Juan 
Tripp Samuel, miner, French Corral 
Tufts 0. H. carpenter, San Juan 
•Turner C. W. teamster, French Corral 
Twamley Richard, teamster, San Juan 
Tweedale T. G. miner, Sebastopol 

u 

Union Company,(mining,)Manzamta HiU 

y 

VanZandt Amos, miner, Sweetland 
Villain J. miner. Empire Flat 
Villain J. B. miner. Empire Flat 
VonFrigt N. miner, San Juan 



352 



BRIDGEPORT TOWNSHIP DIRECTOET. 



w 

Wao-ar G. A. ditch, ag't, San Juan 
Walker Wm. miner, San Jna^ 
Wanless J. H. miner, San Jnau 
Warner F. C. clerk with E. S. Pratt 

San Juan 
Warner Wm. carpenter, Sweetland 
Waters Thos. miner, San Juan 
Waterman J. S.fm-niture maker,San Juan 
Weil Isaac, (of Harris & Co. San Juan 
Wells L. H. expressman, San Juan 
Weston Geo. B. Tvlieelwrlglit, San Juan 
White Elon, tinsmith, F Corral 
Wliite J. V. farmer, Cherokee 
Williams A. D. butcher, San Juan 
Williams Daniel, miner, Birchville 
Williams Da^id H. miner, Birchville 
Williams Evan, saloon keeper, San Juan 
Williams Owen, miner, Sweetland 



Williams Pliilo, miner, Birch^-ille 
Williams Tlios. miner, San Juan 
"Williams Wm. R. miner, Birchville 
Williamson Geo. miner, Frencli Corral 
i Wilson A. L. miner, San Juan 
: Wilson W. X. miner, Sehastopol 
j Winans Steph, road overseer, SAveetland 
i Wineman Jacob, miner, San Juan 
I Wodel P. C. fanner. Oak Tree Eanch 

Wood F. & J. W. merchants, Sweetland 

I Wood Frank,(of F. & J. AV. W.)Sweetland 

I Wood J. W. (of F. & J. W. W.) Sweetland 

Wood S. D. miner, Sweetland 

Wyoming Company, (mining) San Juan 

Y 

Yates Geo, E. miner, San Juan 
I Young John, miner, San Juan 
i Yuba Tunnel Co. Manzanita Hill 

1 



<J» s3m 



ATTORIY Al COlllOR AT MW. 



Office on Hain Street 



NORTH SAN JTIAN, NEVADA COUNTY. 



O. p. STIDGER, 

ATTOMl Al mmOR AT MW. 

Office on Main Street, 
NORTH SAN JUAN, NEVADA COUNTY. 



SKETCH OF ROUGH km READT TOV^tSHIP. 



BY E. W. ROBERTS 



Rough and Ready To-\%TisMp comprises all that portion of the county lying west 
of Nevada and Grass Valley townships, having the Soiith Tuba river as the north- 
erly boundary, Bear river on the southerly side, and the line of Tuba county on the 
west. Upon extreme lines, its extent is about sixteen miles, road measurement, 
from east to west, and from the Tuba to Bear river, somewhere about twenty miles, 
and contains about two hundred square miles of land. The general topography 
presents quite a hilly appearance, much broken by the head branches of Penn 
Valley and Negro creeks, which two are confluents of Deer Creek, Little South 
Yuba, or Kentucky Flat ravine, running northerly into the South Tuba, and by 
Dry creek and Rock creek, tributaries of Bear river, whose course is westerly. 
Dry creek cuts through the entu-e length of the to wnship, from east to west, cross- 
ing the county line near the Round Tent House. The general contoiu- of the hills 
is gentle and rolling, with but few prominent points ; the only peaks that rise to 
the dignity of special note being known as Pilot Knob, at Indian Springs, and Deer 
Hill and Mineral Hill, on the north branch of Dry creek, commonly called Steep 
Hollow creek. Although the general character of the soil might be termed agri- 
cultural, as contra-distinguished from mineral lands, yet but few arable vallies of 
any considerable extent present themselves — the most extensive being Penn Valley, 
lying three miles west of the village of Rough and Ready, containing nearly 2,000 
acres of good soil, well watered, and originally timbered with magnificently grand 
and giant oaks, which have been almost entirely destroyed by the vandalism of a 
mistaken husbandry. The whole township lies in the foothills, and in what might 
be termed the second section in elevation ; the rolling knolls and gentle slopes of 
which are mostly susceptible of cultivation, producing, with ordinary care and 
proper attention to early sowing, fair crops of grain and hay — the natural grasses 
in some cases still furnishing evidence of the native strength of the soil, after suc- 
cessive hay crops cut off the same ground since the earliest settlement of the 
country, without any addition of nutriment by manuring. Tlie soil itself is gen- 
erally of a red color, usually indicative of the iron oxides produced by the decom- 
position of the sulphurets contained in the mineral rocks. This whole section is 
plentifully supplied with living springs of excellent water, and generally fairly 
timbered, the growth being medium in stature, hardly sufficiently dense to justify 
the lumberman in profitable returns for the heavy outlay necessary in California 
successfully to carry on the sawmill business. The timber consists mostly of white. 
Mack and live oak, of several varieties, with pitch pine, and blue or nut pine, the 
G2 



354 ROUGH AND EEADY TOWNSHIP DIRECTOEY. 

latter niucli sought after for cutting into "blocks for flume "bottonas ; in the canons 
of some of the streams may also be found cedar, madrono, alder, and a peculiar 
variety of live oak, very hard and tough, useful for manufacturing purposes, and 
"which should have long since a.ttracted the attention of our wagon and cabinet 
makers ; while the hills and ravines alike are thickly covered with manzanita, 
syringia, ceanotha, and the usual shrubbery or chapparal so well known through- 
out the State. 

In mineral characteristics, this portion of our county, in the early days of gold 
mining, held a distinguished place for the richness and accessibility of its placer 
deposits — in locality it appears to cover the lower or westerly edge of the second 
or middle gold-bearing belt of the western slope ; the lowest profitable workings 
of which belt appearing to extend no further west than the vicinities of the line of 
the Anthony House and Indian Springs, and across a few head branches of Dry 
creek ; (in this respect the river bed workings of South Yuba, Deer creek and Bear 
river are not to be considered as placer diggings proper, those deposits clearly 
being the result of mechanical causes from the wearing away of the great gravel 
beds above ;) leaving a blank space of surface in which mere traces of gold may be 
found, from the vicinity of Indian Springs to the Round Tent, a distance of about 
nine or ten miles ; this, I presume, is about the average distance existing between 
the edges of the lower and second, or intermediate, gold-bearing belts of the whole 
State. 

The climate of this portion of our county is, without doubt, the most equable, 
healthy and delightful to be found in the whole State. The range, extending in 
width some twelve miles, from the head waters of Penn Valley creek to the Zinc 
House, is, at all seasons of the year, delightful and comfortable ; mild and pleasant 
both in- winter and summer, suffering neither the sudden and extreme changes 
which occur higher up in the mountains, nor the excessive heats of the plains — 
while the days of midsummer rarely show a heated term marking over 96°, (and 
even then for a very few days) the pleasant breeze from the south invariably mode- 
rates the air in the middle of the day, while sultriness at night is almost unknown; 
so, in the winter, or more properly speaking during the wet season, the formation 
of ice is of equally rare occurrence. Above Penn Valley, in the tipper portion of 
this belt, snow sometimes falls, but rarely lies on the ground more than twenty-four 
hours — below Penn Valley, snow may be seen in the air, but scarcely more than 
whitens the groimd for a few hours. As a consequence, almost every kind and 
quality of fruit may be grown successfully in the open air ; the apple, peach, pear, 
plum, cherry, nectarine, fig, almond, orange and pomegranate, as well as every 
variety of imported grape and small fruits, have been sticcessfully cultivated ; the 
only risk being that once in a few years a cold snap might possibly nip some of the 
more delicate varieties. The same contingency has destroyed the orange groves of 
Florida, and cuts the sugar cane of Louisiana. Cotton and tobacco have also been 
successfully experimented on in several portions of the township, and planters from 
Georgia, Tennessee and Texas have gladdened their hearts with the rich bolls of 
the white fleece of their own growing here, equal in beauty, excellence of staple, 
strength of growth, and quantity of production, to the upland of either of the 
States named, as they have frequently declared to the writer whilst showing the 
results of their experiments. The climate is right without doubt, the soil is excel- 
lent in quality, and with proper application of the facilities for irrigation, and the 



ROUGH ^ND READY TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 355 



right kind of farming, use of mamires, and correct treatment of the soil, there 
seems no reason why many himdreds of acres of cotton and tobacco might not be 
grown in our small valleys. The writer vtas derided in 1851 and '52 for advocating 
the growing of wheat on our red hills, and for urging the building of a flouring 
mill at Grass Valley to grind the grain for home consumption. 

The Copper Region. 

In that portion of the township, heretofore referred to as being devoid of gold 
placers, lying in the range between Penn Valley and the Round Tent house, and 
extending north and south across the whole breadth of the county, (and also ex- 
tending further to the south and we.5t into Placer and Y'uba counties,) indications 
of mineral deposits had been observed by the earlier settlers, of a character which 
balfled ordinary prospecting, and gave rise to wild speculation as to the nature of 
this particular region. In the winter of 18G2-o prospecting for copper in this 
vicinity was suggested, and many straggling parties expended, in the aggregate, 
enormous amounts of time and money in vain researches. Some promising lodes 
were fomid, among the best of which is the " Well Lede," so called from the cir- 
cumstance that it was first discovered, long before any value was attached to it, in 
the sinking of a well for family purposes, on Purtyiuan's Ranch, at what is now 
Spenceville. This lede, however, although an enormous body of ore, being about 
seventy feet in width, is of too low grade to justify working at the present cost of 
labor and materials ; the time may come when it wiU prove a fortune to the own- 
ers. The ore is said to range from five to twelve per cent, of copper. 

In April, 1863, the " Last Chance " mine was discovered, by James Downey, who 
had devoted the most of liis time for many months in prospecting the section be- 
tween the Zinc House and the Empire Ranch, on a large number of " crevices," and 
wherever there seemed any favorable croppings, but without any flattering results. 
Finally, when discom-aged and about to abandon all further work, a friend sug- 
gested that this spot seemed to promise the most favorably, and Downey exclaimed, 
" Well, this is the last chance — and if I don't strike it here I'll give it up "—jump- 
ing into the prospect shaft, a few feet in depth then, he worked vigorously for the 
day, and at evening struck a solid ledge of glittering sulphurets of copper, about 
three feet in thickness. The excitement became intense, as usually has been the 
case under similar circumstances throughout the State, and the rush to the copper 
reo-ion became as great as in earlier times it had been to Fraser River and Washoe: 
Thousands of claims were taken up, hundreds of shafts were sunk, and hundreds 
of thousands of dollars were uselessly expended in prospecting for copper. The 
whole region for ten miles in width, and twenty miles in length, was filled with 
people searching for " crevices," and talldng copper ; new towns arose like magic, 
and Spenceville, Hacketville, Queen City, Wilsonville, etc., etc., became familiar 
as town sites, and even became pretentious as permanencies. But the tide soon 
ebbed, and the streets of the " cities " I have mentioned are now occasionally en- 
livened only by the hunter of game who may find it convenient to camp in one of 
the deserted houses, and who can start a hare, a be^^ of quail, or even a deer, from 
the taU grass or thick chapparal around the spring which furnished the former 
inhabitants with water. " Sic' transit." During the hight of the fever, specula- 
tion became rampant, and it is said that shares in some of the most promising 
claims, such as the Last Chance, Well Lede, T\Tiisky Diggings, and others, were 



356 ROUGH AND READY TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 

actually sold at $100 per foot. However that may be, if not true, it might well be, 
for I know that half that amount was paid for some claims. The Last Chance still 
gives hopes that a good, paying copper mine may be developed by the proper appli- 
cation of skill and perseverance with capital. While the original locators, consist- 
ing of the Downey family, still retain a portion of their interests severally, other 
parties have become interested by purchase, and a considerable portion of the stock 
is now held by D. O. Mills & Co., H. Miller, Thomas Gardner, and others, of Sacra- 
mento, A. Delano, J. M. C. Walker, Frank Beatty, S. D. Bosworth, E. W. Roberts, 
and others, of this county, and it is the intention now expressed by the share- 
holders, to put up machinery to work the vein effectually. The working shaft has 
been sunk to a depth of two hundred feet, showing a vein about twelve feet thick, 
rich in sulphurets of good quality, averaging twenty three per cent, and indicating 
a strong vein of good mineral. One shipment, made to Swansea, realized $35 per 
ton nett, above all expenses ; and mth proper machinery for pumping and hoisting 
purposes, as well as apparatus for preparing and reducing the ore on the ground, 
there is no doubt that this mine would give emplojonent to a large number of 
people, and perhaps stimulate others to develope good mines of copper now un- 
known. This mine consists of 2,400 feet on the ledge ; the company is incorporated, 
and have their office at Sacramento. Thomas Gardner is the present Secretary. 

There are other good mines in the vicinity, such as the Green Ledge, the Emerald, 
the Mammoth, etc., but work does not seem to be actively progressing at present, 
and nearly all operations have ceased in the copper regions at this time. Whether 
it will ever be generally resumed again depends entirely u]Don the successful eflforts 
of some one or more companies pushing ahead their own work with faith, and 
money to carry them through. 

Placer Mining. 

The placer mining of this region, in the early days, was confined to the beds of 
the small streams, ravines, gulches, flats and side hills adjacent ; in some instances 
the extent of gold-producing surface being broad, shallow and remarkably rich, 
gave emplojTnent to large numbers of men, whose claims were so situated on the 
i gentle slopes that one tom-head of water would supply half a dozen or a dozen 
companies successively ; the quantity thus furnished would be about six or eight 
inches of miner's measure at the present day, and cost $16 per day during the first 
season for the first or head company, the price being then graduated off to each 
company succeeding, at a discount of $2 each, until the price would come down to 
$4, after which there was no deduction. The scarcity as well as the excessive cost 
of water therefore caused men to crowd as closely as their numbers and location 
would allow, and most cheering and animated sights were thus presented on Butte 
Flat, Rich Flat, Squirrel Creek, Texas Flat, Deer Creek, and other places, where 
twenty and thirty companies of men, numbering from one hundred to three hundred 
persons could be seen at one view, busily engaged in " sluicing surface." And as 
another and more fatal, as well as more irremediable result, the diggings around 
Rough and Ready being so accessible and so easily worked, were very soon 
" worked out." No extensive deijosits were found in any of the hills, although a 
streak or range extends from Alta Hill, near Grass Valley, along Randolph Hill, 
Sugar Loaf, Spanish John, Goshen Hill, and Texas Flat, toward Timbuctoo, as if it 
were a branch of the old river bed which caused the famous " blue gravel " deposit 



ROUGH AND READY TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 



357 



at the latter place, but wMcli seems to have been cut off in the vicinity of Pleasant 
Valley and Anthony House, in a manner nnaccountable. In this range of hill dig- 
gings, Randolph Hill was the only portion of the whole that paid largely— one 
company, in less than two years, took out over $400,000 clear of all expenses, which 
was done by ground sluicing, before the hydraulic pipe came into use. The other 
points, however, have not produced so encouragingly, and biit few attempts have 
been made in this part of the county to establish regular hydraulic diggings, and 
to trace any gravel lede into the deep channels of the hills. The principal mining 
operations of that character now carried on are those of Barker & Res, on Grub 
Creek, Painter, Barnhard & Co., on Whitesell's Ranch, Binsley Brothers, on Ken- 
tucky Flat, Hamilton, Brown & Brown, at Butler's Flat, head of Squirrel creek, H. 
Q. & E. W. Roberts, on Bunker Hill, and Ladd"s diggings, on Squirrel creek, now 
owned by a company of Portugese. The flume in the last named is about a mile 
and a quarter long, in two compartments, and five feet wide in the Avhole. 

Q,uarts Mining. 

Quartz mining operations have never been cither extensively or successfully car- 
ried on in this township, and although numberless ledges of fine looking quartz, 
richly charged with sulphurets, and in many instances showing free gold in tempt- 
ing quantities, interlace the hills in every direction, in no instance as yet has there 
been established a paying mine. Indeed, the work of prospecting in this vicinity 
is only in its infancy, consisting mostly of mere prospect shafts—" gopher holes "— 
and abortive tminels. In 1851 the Kentucky Ridge ledge was struck, by Abel, 
Porter and others, and a large amount of exceedingly rich specimen-rock was taken 
out with comparatively small expenditure of labor. A contract was made by them 
with Colonel Wm. F. English for the erection of what was called, in those days, a 
quartz mill. This consisted of two large-sized Chile mill wheels and pan, driven 
by water power, with a capacity of reducing about two or two and a half tons in 
twenty-four hours. Of course, the affair proved a failure, and was disastrous to all 
parties concerned. Not only, litigation ensued, which stopped the work, but Col. 
English was found dead on the road between the mill and IS evada, killed by a 
charge from his own shot-gun, but whether accidentally, or intentionally done by 
his own hand, was never satisfactorily ascertained. The ledge was finally jumped 
or relocated in after years, by others, and a small, four-stamp mill, run by water 
power, is now erected on the premises and occasionally makes a fair clean up on 
assorted rock from this ledge. It is novf owned by Greenbanks and Co. 

In the fall of 1855, the Osceola ledge, about one mile south from the town of 
Rough and Ready, was prospected by John Eudey, Thos. Euren and Jas. Trm-an^ 
under contract with E. W. Roberts. A remarkably rich pocket or " bunch " was 
found in this ledge, and in addition to several thousands of dollars taken out in 
solid specimens, a lot of several loads, worked by mill process, returned an average 
of $225 per ton. The company was immediately incorporated, and caused a 24-stamp 
mill to be erected, with all necessary houses, etc., and commenced crushing rock in 
April. 1856 ; but as no other rich lot of specimens had been found, and no researches 
made for any, except on a straight line of tunnel into the hill, and the main body 
of the ledge did not pay over $10 a ton, a huge disgust very naturally affected 
the San Francisco capitalists who had "bought in" at a large price, and who now 
held the controlling interest. After crushing about 120 tons and finding the 



358 ROUGH A^'D READY TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 

maciiineiy too crude to save tlie gold, all operations Avere suspended and tlie ma- 
cMneiy was removed to Sucker Flat, v/liere it was erected and put in operation to 
crusli cement : this proving also non-remunerative, it was removed to Hansonville, 
tlience finally to Reese River. The ledge having been sold to pay dehts of the 
company, it has been lately purchased by ilessrs. Tew & Morgan, who arc proceed- 
ing to work upon and develop the mine in a proper m.anner, and will erect such 
machinery as may be necessary to reduce the refractory suli)huret6. The old com- 
pany expended $36,000 upon this mine uselessly, and the experiment proved con- 
clusivelv that while very few men know how to " keep a hotel " a still fewer 
number knovv^ how to work a mine and run a quartz mill successfully. The mana- 
gers in this experiment were nearly all sea-captains, and.a few years later the same 
men, back again at their proper business, gallantly carried their vessels right np to 
the enemies batteries at Vicksbnrg, Mobile Bay, Xew Orleans, and Port Royal. 

In 1865, an eight^stamp mill was erected at the loAver end of the town of Rough 
and Ready, by A. A. and John Smith, worked by an overshot wheel, but as the 
people in the vicinity had not carried on the work of opening the mines to such an 
extent as to supply a sufficient quantity of rock to keep the mill running, but little 
benefit has been derived by the owners of the mill or by the miners, from this com- 
mendable enterprise ; like many other improvements, it was in advance of the times 
and now stands idle with little prospect of enough work to keep the machinery 
from falling to decay. These, with a few arastras erected here and there for pros- 
pecting purposes, constitute the quartz miU enterprises projected and carried out in 
this township. 

It has been already said that the ledges in this portion of the coimty are number- 
less — it is impossible to give even a list of their names and location — but it is 
evident to the most superficial observer that gold-bearing quartz veins exist in every 
direction, many of which give large promise of rich pelds. Some have been pros- 
pected to a slight degree, rarely to a depth exceeding one hundred feet — mere 
surface scratching — and by mill process have given good returns. In that section 
along the head of Penn Valley creek, including Osceola ra^dne. Grub creek. Clear 
creek, etc., copper sulphurets predominate largely, which apparently causes the 
rock to be difiicult to work by the ordinary mill process. Such are the Osceola, 
South Star, West Point, Legal Tender, 7-30 Loan, McCauley & Go's, and a large 
number of others, which have jielded from the same pile of rock, worked at the 
same time, in different mills, all the way from $7 50 to $40 per ton, with no per- 
ceptible difference in the ore. It is well settled that such ores must be reduced by 
some special process, directly applicable to their nature, the precise character of 
which can only be ascertained by analysis and practical experiment. There is not 
the slightest doubt that if such a process be discovered and disclosed that Rough 
and Ready would present as many good paying ledges as now are successfully 
operated in the ^iicinity of Nevada or Grass Valley. Time will show, if capital can 
be induced to enter the field. 

Settlement. 

The earliest Avhite settler was most probably a man named Rose, who built 
" Rose'^ Corral," and kept a small trading post in Pleasant Valley, about midway 
between the Anthony House and Bridgeport. The next, I think, was David Bovyer, 
who established himseK with a small stock of goods, principally for the Indian 
trade, at a place named by him " White Oak Springs," about midway between 



ROUGH AXD SEADT TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 359 



Xewtown and Jones's Bar, and on tlie trail, as it tlien was, between Marjsville and 
Nevada City, neither of whicli localities were tlien known by tlie names they now 
bear. The two locations of Rose and Bovyer must have been made in the summer 
or early in the fall of 18-19, but I have not been able to procure the precise dates. 

In the fall of 1849, the " Rough and Ready Companj- " of emigrants, under 
Captain Townsend, composed of some dozen men, from Shellsburg, Wisconsin, 
arrived by the Trucliee route at a point on Deer Creek, near mouth of Slate Creek ; 
they mined successfully there a few weeks in the bed of the creek ; one of their 
number went out to kill some game, deer and grizzly being plentiful, and in quench- 
ing his thirst at the clear stream of the ravine below Randolph Flat, discovered a 
piece of gold on the naked bed-rock. Consequent prospecting by the company sat- 
isfied them that the nevv^ found diggings were rich, and removing their camp, they 
prepared winter quarters by building two log cabins on the point of the hill east 
from and overlooking the present town of Rough and Ready. Two of their num- 
ber struck out through the woods "on a bee line" for Sacramento, to procure 
provisions, and thus made the first wagon tracks on what afterward became the 
Telegraph road. From the name of this company, the settlement and town after- 
ward derived its designation. About the same time, or shortly after, the Randolph 
Company, consisting of Wm. Gambrel, Jas. Patterson, Wm. D. Malone, two Dam- 
erons, and others, from Randolph coimty, Missouri, located on Randolph Flat, and 
built two log cabins, and the two companies di^-ided the ground on the main ravine 
between them. Main Ravine, Red and Blue ravines were incredibly rich, in gold. 
The work Avas all done in that day with the pick and shovel, crevicing knife or 
spoon, pan and rocker, only, as the implements of mining; the long tom came 
afterward in 1850, and the sluice box still later. Captain Townsend and his two 
brothers took out over $40,000 before the water failed in the spring of '50, (no 
ditches then conveyed water from any large stream to the smaller ones, or to dry 
ravines,) and the captain then returned hastily by steamer route to Wisconsin to 
procure a large number of Avorking men " on shares," whom he brought out with 
him, at his own expense, forty in number, early in the fall of 1850, each of whom 
had contracted in -m-iting to work for his employer one year, in consideration of 
Avhich the employer paid the cost of the journey, was to pay them "States' wages" 
and support them during that time. Upon his arrival, his astonishment was great 
to find a town, or aggregated settlements of tents fast growing into clapboard 
houses, containing some four or five hundred inhabitants, instead of his two cabins; 
every foot of mining ground, for miles aroimd, taken up, and scarcely room left for 
him to pitch his tents, where he had left an almost unbroken wilderness less than 
six months l^efore. Forty men to feed, flour fifty cents a pound, and not a place to 
put them to work. He was compelled to hire out his men in gangs to the new 
comers— who now owned the ground— to which course all of them consented, and 
he had then to " buy into a claim " to get a place to work himself. Such was the 
change of one season. 

Early in January, 1850, the first family arrived at these diggings ; these were 
James S. Dunleavy and wife, who came from Oregon iipon news of the gold dis- 
covery. Dunleavy was sent out a year or two before from the East as a missionary 
to Oregon, and it may be that the spii-it Avas Avilling but the flesh was weak, for he 
opened the first whisky shop in this settlement, just about where Major Wood's 
store now stands, and he had so far advanced in civilization and refinement a few 



i 



360 KOUGH AND READY TOWNSHIP DIRECTOEY. 

months after that I had the honor of a special invitation from him, in the fall of 
that year, to dedicate his new teu-pin saloon, the first in this part of the country, 
by rolling the first game on his 90-foot alley. The finale of his career was conso- 
nant with this bright promise, and he died some years later at Mazatlan. In Feb- 
ruary, H. Q. Roberts arrived at Rough and Ready diggings — the population around 
there numbering some thirty or forty vsdthin a few miles — and after working a 
few weeks in the mines, he brought in a pack train of j)rovlsions, tools, etc., and 
opened the first regular store in the place, although it was not even a place as yet. 
The " store " consisted, walls and roof, of a m^ainsail of some large vessel, origi- 
nally brought lip to the Anthony House by some sailors, and was supported by 
pine poles cut on the spot. The fame of the rich diggings reached the Sacramento 
paper, people began to crowd in, and thus commenced the town, about the first day 
of April, 1850. This section of country was then in the jurisdiction of Yuba county, 
but neither Alcalde, nor Justice, nor any other peace officer, was in all that region. 
The population rapidly increased, and soon numbered hundreds, finally thousands, 
the necessities of some kind of government became painfully apparent, for thefts 
and robberies, as well as high handed deeds of violence and outrage, and murders, 
became common ; the people assembled in mass, and ajjpointed a committee of 
three, consisting of H. Q. Roberts, James S. Dunleavy and Emanuel Smith, who 
*"^ere authorized to assume the reins of government as a Committee of Vigilance 
and safety, whose powers were almost absolute and from whose decision there was 
no appeal. They had no la'wyers then, with technicalities, and as their power was 
supreme, there was no body to appeal to, in fact, there was ]io established tribunal 
of justice nearer than Marysville, which place was then known as Nye's Landing, 
and the people of the mountains neither knew nor cared whether an Alcalde lived 
there or not, and there was no court of higher jurisdiction nearer than the Bay. 
This provisional tribunal accordingly, and j ustly, as all accounts go to show, ad- 
ministered justice with an equitable hand, laid out the town, marked off each 
man's lot or premises, decided all disputes concerning town lots and mining claims, 
appointed a Constable, issued writs, heard and decided causes, calling a jury when 
the parties desired it, took bonds for appearance from persons charged with crime, 
(I have one in my possession given by a man charged Avith horse stealing, and the 
person appeared and stood his trial,) and punished criminals convicted before them. 
One man was whipped, thirty-nine lashes, for stealing, escorted to the lower edge 
of town and Avith a parting kick notified ,never to appear again, under penalty of 
death. 

The town of Rough and Ready increased very rapidly, and was for a while the 
principal place in what now constitutes NTevadia county, and at the election held in 
October, 1850, polled a little less than 1,000 votes. At that time. Rich Flat, Ran- 
dolph Flat, Texas Flat, Kentucky Flat, Newtown, Bridgeport, Indian Flat, Anthony 
House, Gass Flat, and Lander's Bar, besides other minor localities, were also settle- 
ments of importance, crowded with miners, and a new county was much talked of 
during the year 1850, of which Rough and Ready was to be the county seat, and a 
subscription was started for the purpose of establishing a newspaper ; a church was 
built by donations of the people, and a hospital was erected by Dr. Wm. McCor- 
mick, now of Grass Valley. The cholera extended into the mountains, but in a 
modified form, and a few fatal cases occurred at Rough and Ready and in the 
vicinity, not exceeding, however, seven in number. The members of the orders of 



Odd Fellows and Masons organized themselves in Sei^tember, int o associations for 
benevolent purposes, not merely to assist their own, but other cases of distress, of 
which the number was legion. The reputation of Rough and Ready for richness 
had gone abroad throughout the East, and immense numbers of the emigration of 
1850 poured into the neighborhood, worn out, broken doAvn, penniless, destitute 
and diseased, and it is reasonably estimated that the citizens of Rough and Ready 
were equally as heavily taxed per capita, that year from the causes just named, as 
were the people of San Francisco or Sacramento. 

Extraordinary preparations had been made for the approaching mining season ; 
great piles and long lines of dirt had been thrown up for washing, in anticipation 
of early and heavy rains ; the old mining law in the first place had limited claims 
to fifteen feet square, this had been extended, in the summer of '50, to thirty feet 
square. In the fall of '50, to enable those who remained in the " dry diggings " to 
keep constantly employed, it was made a regulation that all might "throw up" 
dirt to any extent, and the dirt thus thrown up and the ground thus covered could 
be held by the man doing the work until water came. But no water came ; the 
winter Avas dry and warm ; a few light showers and some damp fogs in November 
constituted the " rainy season " until the end of February, 1851, and but a few 
weeks of rain followed then, so that the mining season was almost an entire fail- 
ure. Some of the miners turned their attention to bringing in water by ditches ; 
the Squirrel Creek Ditch was projected by the miners on Rich Flat for their own 
use, in November, 1850, and the work being all done by labor shares was complete 
and the water run through about Christmas day ; a company was formed to bring 
water from Deer Creek, at Nevada, by means of a large ditch, and their surveyor 
running the preliminary line was met by a Nevada party viewing the route for a 
similar purpose ; this resulted in the union of the two parties, and in the construc- 
tion of the Rough and Ready Deer Creek Ditch, completed in the fall of '51; but as 
these projects provided no means of work to the miners then waiting, the great 
majority sought new locations, and the town became a]3parently deserted. Buildings 
that had cost $5,000 were sold for less than ten per cent, of the cost, were torn 
down, removed, and reconstructed into boarding houses, stores, hotels and ten-pin 
alleys on the river bars, and into road-side hotels and barns on ranches ; provisions 
were sold for less than the freight from Sacramento; merchant after merchant 
failed, house after house closed, and the town became a skeleton of itself. It still 
continued, however, to be a considerable village, the center of a rich and val- 
uable mining country, which was well developed and worked after the various 
ditches were brought in, viz : the Squirrel Creek, the Rough and Ready Deer 
Creek, and the Slate Creek ; with good hotels and stores, a fine Masonic hall, a 
very neat church, and was thriving fairly, when, in July, 1853, the whole town was 
destroyed by fire, save only a few buildings on the outskirts. The town was par- 
tially rebuilt, in a more concentrated body, the citizens and business men showing 
commendable energy and enterprise ; but again on July 8, 1859, a fire occurred 
which swept away every frame building in the main body of the town. At this 
time the placer diggings around the vicinity had become exhausted to a great ex- 
tent, the palmy days had passed, and no quartz veins had, as yet, been opened 
successfully; therefore this last blow j)roved too heavy, and the town, as such, seems 
to have become among the things that were. About twenty-five or thirty houses 
now occupy the place where once stood abotit three hundred, some of which were 

R2 



362 ROUGH AND READY TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 



then among the finest buildings in the monntains. At one time, during the years 
1855 and '56, there were established in Rough and Ready a Masonic Lodge, an Odd 
Fellows Lodge, an Odd Fellows Encampment, and two Divisions of the Sons of 
Temperance, all of which -were large in numbers, prosperous, and in a highly 
flourishing condition. - At this present time, there is a large and flourishing Lodge 
of Good Templars, who occupy the Odd Fellows' Hall, but no other association or 
organization exists. 

I have not sketched the local excitement arising from quartz discoveries, com- 
mencing with the discovery on Kentucky Ridge, and continuing on late into '52, 
when every man, woman and child (what few there were of the two last) rushed 
furioxisly after a fortune by " taking up " and recording every seam of white rock, 
or quartz bowlder, visible above ground, as a ledge, and bought stock and 
paid assessments until every body became, just as the bubble did, flat broke; 
nor of the quartz epidemic in 1855 and '56, following the discovery in 
Osceola, when every body again went and did likewise, or rather like-foolish ; 
nor of the repetition of the same old story, now in fact, in 1865 and '66, become a 
" thrice told tale ;" nor of the discovery on Sailor's Flat, and the building of New- 
town, in September, 1850 ; nor of the great Ripple Eos Tunnel ; nor of the curious 
mingling of civil authority and lynch law in the hanging of the Indian " Collo " 
for killing a y.oung man, whose name is forgotten ; nor of the terrible affair at Bridge- 
port, committed by a drunken crowd who tried, (or enacted the farce of a trial,) by 
a lynch court, and hung an innocent man in March, 1851, on pretense that he was 
Knowlee, a noted Oregon and California horse thief, . and concerning those who sat 
as jurors and officiated actively otherwise, I have been told by one who was present, 
and afterward noted the facts as they occurred, that not one of them died otherwise 
than by sudden and violent death, \\% : by shot, or stab, or bludgeon, or drowning 
or cholera, or by fire ; nor of the killing of Campbell, by Larue ; nor of the murder 
of Scobey, and our midnight raid, en-masse, horse and foot, to surround and capture 
his murderers ; nor of the scout, by your humble servant as J. P., with a posse comi- 
tatue, and capture of Wemah and his beautiful boy " Lulu," to hold as hostages for 
the surrender of certain murderers of his tribe ; nor of the inglorious defeat of another 
posse in the same campaign, by Walloupa and his naked, breech-clout warriors, 
much to the chagrin of said posse and to our satisfaction ; nor of the " Hounds," 
the " forty thieves," who took and tied up an innocent man and gave him fifty 
lashes, on a charge of stealing, while the actual thief stood by and encouraged the 
Hounds in their work ; nor of the fiend, Jim Lundy, and his murderous duel at 
Industry Bar, with the young and gallant Dibble, his victim — nor of those 
who seconded him in as fotil murder as was ever perpetrated ; nor of Gen. Green 
and his famous Indian expedition through our hills ; nor of our plank road survey 
from Marysville to Nevada, in 1852 ; nor of our great Landers' Bar Irish wing-dam 
lawsuit, in the spring of 1851, for a piece of ground valued at $100,000, with 
Sawyer, now Supreme Judge, Buckner, Freeman, Whitesides, Si. Brown, Tom. 
Bowers, etc., as counsel, in which we were thirteen days trying the case with a jury, 
and with coat bill paid by defendants, (after a day's argument re-taxing costs,) to 
the tune of $1,992, paid in gold dust at |16 per oimce ; nor of our high-cock-a- 
lorum Justice's Court, in the fall and -wanter of 1850, with W. G. Ross, lately killed 
by Charley Duane, as our first Justice of the Peace, and Steve Ford as Constable, 
the proceedings in which discounted Judge Olney's injunction case ; nor of the 



ROUGH AND READY TOWNSHIP DIRECTORY. 363 

robbery of Jack Elder, Constable, caught imder Ms cMn and lifted out of his saddle, 
pistol in hand, by the limb of a tree ; nor of the shooting of his partner, Wilson, 
while stealing a wagon load of barley left on the road ; nor of Brundage's mass 
meeting of the i^eople, called in 1850, to organize the State of Rough and Ready, 
adopt a constitution, secede from the United States, and set up on our own hook an 
independent government ; nor of the preacher who wanted " a show " when the 
boys staked off the grave yard into mining claims whilst he was saying the last 
prayer over the corpse, the prospect having been discovered " rich " in the loose 
dirt thrown out of the grave ; nor of the fight between Smock and a certain limb 
of the law ; nor of the first appearance of Lee & Marshall's Circus, at Rough and 
Ready, in March, 1851 ; nor of Fordyce's first contract for carrying the mail from 
Nevada to Marysville, in 1850, on mule-back ; nor of the stage ride in the first 
Marysville coach, one day to Empire Ranch and all next day to get into Marysville ; 
nor of the grizzly that chased Robinson into Deer Creek, when it was cold enough 
to freeze the ears oif a brass monkey ; nor of the first sermon in Rough and Ready, 
when the " boys " rolled up their moute and faro banks — fifteen tables going — on 
a Sunday afternoon, listened to an eloquent sermon, preached' in the gambling 
saloon, took up a collection of $200 and presented it to the preacher ; nor of the 
first ball or dance given in our town, where we had six women to two hundred and 
fifty men, more fights than you could count, and six pistol shots fired through the 
floor of the ball room from below, nobody hurt ; nor of our prospecting trip to 
Grass Valley after night, blankets, pick and shovel on each man's back, when gold 
quartz was fii'st discovered on Gold Hill, in October, 1850, and of our getting there 
at daylight, among the first on the ground, to the chagrin and surprise of the 
Grass Valleyans, who thought they had it all to themselves. And so on, and so on, 
through a thousand of wild scenes and strange incidents that would, in this day, 
sound, perhaps, more like shadows from Baron ISIunchausen's adventiu-es than sober 
truth ; but you have told me to " cut it short," and you see I have done so. 

dmrches. 

There are three Church organizations in Rough and Ready township, all of the 
Methodist persuasion ; one at Rough and Ready, one at Pleasant Valley and one at 
Spenceville. All under the cliarge of Rev. E. W. Rusk. 

Sabbath. Schools. 

The Sabbath Schools in the township are as follows : One at Rough and Ready, 

A. A. Smith, Superinte