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TUB 

or 
E N i;LAN D AND WALE S ; 

OR. 

D K LIN£A TJ O y S 

TorooKAriiirAL iiistoricai. 

anil 
DKSrRIPTI%"E. 

Vol.^'. 



THE 

BEAUTIES 

OF 

England and Wales; 

OR, 

'TOrOOILAPUtClL, MlftTOKlCAL, AKD DBlCRtrTITS, 
or 

EACH COUXT\'. 

LUBELLISHEb WITH ENCRAVINCS. 

■ r 

SDWARD WKDLAKE BUaVLEY ABO JOHN DRITTON. 



VOL. V. 



Baitr KM of iclmcr, iHi, and a^iial iw»yl 
FtniiMn'i flit llitnne, Mn<i| (lie iiibjitl t<l| 

Tbw fn'ring llc^Tot Jcii^'tl, 
Fran «Ud drjpMio np. ihcrnitim Dfmink.ail. 
For thii ht nit'd iliy tockf mound, 
AnJ poor'd Ihy KMiiMg biiloin raun^ 
FVon sutwrtold Ofcw hiwitU roagh North nvc. 
To whsra Boleiium hiawi ihc wtUfra w»t. 

H. Uooii. 



LONDON: 
fan ritvoa ft HOOD, toNCMHH ft ati«, cuthili. A wAStix, 

|. & A. IklCII, W. J. A J. aiCHAKOIOM, 

J. HAaaii, ASQ a. ci.oii( 



LIBRARY OF THE 
ilLAfiD STA.VF'--pr ;f . , -r.9S/TY. 



OCT J mo 



13 RESPECTFULLY IVSCKIBED TO 

THE iMOST NOBLE 

GEORGE NUGENT-GRENVILLE-TEMPLE, 

Marquis of Buckingham; 

WHOSE PATRONAGE, AND LIBERAL COMMUNICATIONS. 

■ AVE TINOSD TO IHPKOVI AND ■NKICH 

THIS WORK, 

AHB THEREBY EXCITED THE MOST LIVELY SENTIMENTS 
OF GRATITUDE 

IN 
Mtt OMLIGMD JSD OMSDISST SVMBIM lEltrj^TI, 

E. W. BRAYLEV, 

AND 

J. BRITTON. 



Mmtaitrist, 1803. 



* 4_' • 



BEAUTIES 



or 



€nskn& and WBdt^. 



DURHAM. 



'CniiAM, as we liave alreadjr noliwd in ihe dwcription of 
.Cumbcrliuid, was iDcluded io tiie country of the Urioa ntes, whu 
progmsivcly pci)]ilcd the vast tract ul land vxtciiditig imrthwards 
from tbv river Don in Vorkahire; and being an " ortivc and spl- 
ritrd iribe," obwrres Mr. WhiLikcr, " scis^l all the fortresses that 
guarded the pawcs of the Yorkshire hills; and hnd subdued, W the 
commrncemcut of tlic Cbri:^tian era, all the country thxt lay be- 
tdnxl the hilU and the sea: tliey appear to have curriod their vic- 
torious arms to tlie south and to the north, to have cro$»ed the 
rircr of Mcdiray, and the frith of Sotway, and lo have cnnquered 
equally the Selgove of Anandale, and the Carnabii of Che&hire." 
Tacitus relalcA, rbat the naliun of the Drigantes urere the most po- 
pulous of the whule province. liriganlej Livilaa BHmerotsunnnf 
tvtiia prminda.' 

In the " gradual progression of the Cclta; along the broad baae 
of the triangle uhich Britain forms, and al'urwards across the 
wide plaiw to the tapcrmj* summit of it, die counties of York and 
Durham were the 6nt lohahited by the nriganles.*'t Aftenrarda, 
on an increaw of [K^pulalioiif th^y adviuiced into the country of 
the Sithmtii, and ValanUi: these naiioin tieitig unitble to mist 
ibe incunions of their Brignntian neighbours, vnlervd iiidi an nlh- 
ance with ibcni, yet their independence viva won lo»t: uiid though 
Ptolemy places Lhc Sistuntii ucruu the Wcatuu OceoD, yet he 

A 3 describes 



Ajrio. ViL C. IT* 



t Or Hiikimkti, m Vol. Ill- p. «■ 



t)UJLU«.M. 



dc»cnbes tbe trrritory .bclpitgiiig to thp D.i:igiQtcs oa ext 
Irom sea to sea. 

On tlie couquest of Dritain by the Itomang, Durham wu in- 
cluded in the division, Maxima CesARiRwais: but after the 
rvtablitihniriit of thc.SoxoDs, It became part .of t1^ kingdom of 
North urn bciltnd, .with -which k wnaiuAd OiMW^jried 4HI the onion 
of the SaxoD Sltiies under Egbert. 

Tills county hu not unusuall>' becD tcrrnct) the Biihoprk, from 
tfaii! gicul power which ihe Bt&bojt nf the diocese foimcrly poB- 
Kssed. It is n County J^alHtiije; iuid appears tn have, dcrirpd its 
original prLvilc.^e!i from the grant mode to St. Cuthbert, the Apo»- 
tic of the North, by Egfiid, King of Northumberland, iu the 
jiMir 6W, uf all the land between the " river* WVare and Tyne,** 
to hold in as full and iitnpk manner m the King himself b«ld the 
same. Thow privileges, <>ays Camden, wcrt lint brt^cn through 
by Edward ihc Kirvl, whuae awnrd, o& arbitrator on a dispntc be* 
Iween Bishop Anthony Bcc and the Prior about their lands, not 
bniig executed, " he seized the Bishop's liberties into bis own 
hands, and made strict cntjuiry, and offered great violence to pri- 
vilege." Afterwards, however, chc See recovered, and held in 
rights inviolate till tbe time of Ldwurxi the Sixth, to whuin all iti 
revenues and privileges were granted by ]',irlianient. Que^n 
Mary rc-csIaUi&hcd llie See In its former aulhority, and, though 
many of ilB righli have since been abrogated, it still pu9M:^aM» pc- 
culinr inimunitics and power. 

*' 'I'hc Faktine rij^liC of the Bishop of Durham is founded on 
immcmoiiol prescription, iboic being no record of its l)elng 
Erenled by any Princes, hefure or sitico the Connue*!, whiTcin it 
is not supposed to have U-en granted also hy their predecvjaors. 
It proceeded at firat from a principle of devotion to Si. Cuthh«rft, 
that (vliatever lands weie given to him, or bought with bis money. 
he should hold with the !>amc freeduiu that the Princes who gave 
thrm held llie rest of their ffttnle^. But this picly to the Saint was 
Tiot ■without its prudential purposes, both for the service of the 
Crown in its wars against ScotUmI, nnnl of the county, bemuse of 
its dlstuuce (1*001 the couiu above. It consisted of all manner o[ 

S ; roj-al 




DtTftHAH. 



r 

^K topi jui'ailic^on, both civil and military, by Uod nnd sea. Ftrr 

IP br rxerciw thereof, iJw BtibofM bad th«r proper courts of all 

nrt> held in ibeir iuiik*. and by their authority ; their Chancery, 

Ildoquer, aad Court of Plea», as well a» ixf [he Cruwn, as uf tho 

ICouoI^i and iJl other plos ond u^iscv, o^rtiAcntioiis ubotsonvc-r; 
■Kf «ll ofticers belonging to ihcm, a* Cbaiiccllor^, Jmtict*, Ht^b- 
Sbenff, Corooers Eachcator, and otbi-r mioistcn; as well such aa 
lCiilgftfaa*e i>evn wont to have elsewhere in the said kingdoDi, m 
^ mA m the hoid Kiajp have becu woot to dqiutv according la th« 
H tcigcacy ol eaergpnt caani or for the special executiou of bcIh of 
Pariiametit, Tbtu by tbenuelves, and their olTiccrs, they did ju&* 
tice to all prrwDs in all cases, without the King or any of bit 
oAcen ioterfeiitig ordinarily in any thing. The King* writs did 
■M run iu this county, but were directed U> the Bishop; orj in th« 
WBory of the See, lu the Chancellor of the Falatinaif. 

" VVheA Henry the Second sent his Justices uf Assitc hither, 04 
M Mtnordinary occasion of murder and robbery, be d«clared by 
bit Chartirr, that he did it by licence of the Bishop, and prv Ji«e 
met oolyi and l\ial it should not be druwii iitto t-ustoin, either itf 
bit timCt Ar ia (be time of bj« heirs, nw being done but upon ah- 
•olute nAHaiiy; and that lie sbouM nevertheless have the Und of 
6c jCulhh«t to enjoy its liberties and ancii^nt customs as amply «# 
mntm By rirluc of these privileges, there issued out of the 
ftdbop's courts all soru of wriu, original, judicial, and coramoD; 
vnts of proclamation, 6tc As all writs u>cnt out in his luiHic, W 
^ad a register uf writs of as murb authority as that in tb*: King's 
coans; an«l all recogniances wiered upiui his c1i>se rolls m l>i« 
_ Chaocrry, and luade to bim, or iu bis name, wen? as vnlid in tJi^ 
B couaty, as [hu»e ja«de to the Kiiijg uut of it. But now, lite A£t 
Iweolyfteyuutb Ifcnry the iiiigblh* fur tlte rc-coutinuiug oiccTiuio 
libc[ilie» taJieo from ibe Crown, directs, that ull writs, indittncou, 
•od all nuuioer of prooMH in Counties I'alatiiie, •iLii.W be made only 
^m in the King's naine; and Aince that time all the difference in tlao 
#Cyle of prorcrdin^in this county from otlien m, that the t(ttt 
uf the nht M 111 the name uf tJie Uii>bu|), lUXordiiD}' 10 Uie ditec- 
41011* of Uut act. ilill he is perpetual JiKticc of Peace uitbin 

A4 ii 



DUKHilX. 



his territories, (and ran sit only as surb,) and ts aim perpdonl 
Chancfllor, iKMrnttw ih*- chief acts nf ibc «jrmpt joriscliction 
used to run throu{>h his rourt. All the ofTirrr^ of the coun% 
e%'en the Jiitlgw of A^hizc thpmselves, have still their ancient sata- 
rio, or something analogous, from the Bishop; am) all ili« stand- 
ing cflicers of the courts sro comlituti-d hy his patents. When he 
comes in prrson to auy of ihc cuurts of jutliratuic, he sits chief iii 
them, those of astiw not eTcrepted; atid rvon when judgmrat of 
blood Is giwn, though the Canons forbid any clergyman to be pr«- 
seiit, the Ui^^hopiA of Dtirliam ilid, and may, sit in their purple 
robes on the sentence of dvuth, whence is uied to be said, tabim 
Difrtelmeitie ituhjui dicit ft aisr. 

" All dues, uincrceiueiits, and forfeited rrcogniznnees, in the 
courts of the Palatinate, and all dcodancis, belong to the Bishop. 
If any forfeits arc made, either of war, or by irwison, oullawryt 
or felony, even lliough the soil be the King's, lliey fell to the Tl 
Bijtiyp Ijcrc, ac to the King in other places: and though the fiwt 
grflat wound whicU the Palutiiiate receirvd, was given on the alie- 
fiation of Barnard Castle, and IlartleiHiol, on the forfciturn of 
BaJiol and Bruce, yet (he BishopN right was declared to them on 
full hearing; and though the possession of them ccnld not be nv 
trieved, they still resort to the courts of Dtirbam us ulher parts of 
the county dv. 

" Lands were hcid under the Bisiiop pcrforimecum iervitium; 
which is defined by Bracloti to be a badge of r^gal ngbt, and was 
& service only beloii^ng to thcCTOwn: the tenure mfojritewaA 
common under a subject. The former occurs very often in the 
.-records; indeed, all the tenures of land here originate from the 
Ushop as lord paramount in chief. IJencc he grants charters for 
erecting borou^s and incorporations, market* and fairs, inclonng 
forests, rhace!>, and wartknis; licviien lu t-nibuille culles, build 
chapels, tifund i-baiilrics and hospitals; and dispen^tions, with tJie 
■Utute of Mortmain. All inclosed estates, as well as moors, 
or wastes, (o which no tille can be made, c^cheal lo liim. He 
grants the ciutody of idcots and lunniics; and had the custody 
~o( minon while the custom of wards aiid liveries uiUistrd, Bo> 

odes 




I 



* 



BCRHAM. 



lUn tltP tlrpendeocv of IraKhold or copyhold lenanti onlilm, it 
my tnthoUen Kltrnatcd ilu^ir land without his licrrwv, they wrre 
flUijed to sue our bis pfli^nt of [wnlun; and al) monty pM for 
ndi Ikcncn brloiif!» to him. 

** (b the article ol' military power, (he Biifaop of Dorlism had 
urienlly his Hum*, and ariervrard; his BBrans, who hdd of him 
bf Knights' spTTici*, ss ihn mt of the Halnacrk ftjk held nrilirm 
bgr itifitiar tmnns. On alnnns, he convuifd ihrm as a Pnrlia- 
DHBt, with advice fi>r thtm loaKslM with ihcirpcrsons, dopendanh, 
and monry, for l!ie public «rvice al home and abroad; and all 
kncs of men and mo(i«y were made by the Bishop's commisiiun, 
or by writs tn bis name out of the Cbancer%' at Durham: for he 
liad power both to coin money, and levy ta\es, and luiae and arm 
nldien, io the Bi&faopric, from sixteen lo eiKiy years old. Ac- 
Hrfng as he iViund thrir strcn^h, be had pow«r to niarch aeaiiist 
tike Scoti, or to coiirlude a truce with titem. One of tbc Bishops 
buih B strong ensile in bis tt^rritory, on the border, to defend it 
i^iM ihem ; thungb no other person could have done this with- 
out hs IfBvr, nor ihc grrslFsl penon in the Palatinate einhattto 
his mansion. As the praple di*peiided uo bim in tiiese mattery 
they wvte free from every body else : and when iho Lord Warden 
(if ihf! Marrhos would hare summnned mme of the UifibitpV ini-n 
to bi» coflrt, a letter was sent from tlic Kinjc to ioriiid bin), under 
pain of fotfeidng 1000). But now the ntibtia of this county has 
been long on the tanve footiiia vriih the ntc nf ilie kingdom, under 
the Lord Lirutenant: the only diAVrence here, is, ihtit that office 
hM grnersUy, ihouoh not alwayv, been borne by the Bishop. 

*• The admiralty jurisdiction in lhl« county bclonjt* alio to the 
Bishop, who holds the proper ctiurt by bis Judges: and uppoints 
\j hit patents, a Vicc-Adinint, IlegiBler, Hn4) Marsha), or Water- 
BaUiff, and other officors; nnd hi» nil ihc pnvilexes, forteilurffl, 
and profits, incident to this power, as royal dnh*s, «oa wrecks, 
duties for hbips arriving in his pi>m, aiichoni^e, beaconii;^, u-har^ 
%B, nonrage, buttem^, nln:<ge, t&c. yt> him also belongn the 
rrvancy of wnttr* within bi-t district; in putsirance vi uliicb, 
1 to imio comioiibiuiis for prohibiting, limiting ur n-ducing 

■■' * wcire. 



1» 



BCmHAM. 



vein, or f>(bcr cicctioii* in prejudice of bis men. AU Aips of 
w were arrejed wiUiin Ui« eounly Wbline by UU comiuisEwn, 
VuJ wrila to bu ShcriiT; sikI wbeti tiw King i&uuJ out wrils rrom 
liu admimlly to thr Shrrifls of olheir oiantitne c<>unti«-i>] 1)« wl- 
imted « pHrlicuIur Ictlcr U) the Bi»ho{> bvM for liis concurrence, 
Lwbo gave commiHiotm to his own Sii(>nir, With cxpmt cojnmand( 
'that tiutLiitig tlioulij be done hy thv tkiiigV cunuuiMioDb wilUout 
iiioi. I[ ie hut laid; liM any in»Uincp& iiavc beeu inowa of (he 
■^Binilty being teparatcd from ihe Buthi>prir, aud it in puw n>> 
ifumit tbuu^ with 60BK diminution in cbc honor. 

** Ittwccat privilef^M of Uiis fiuhofwic io tmi|ibral jurtodictiofia 
ksd vne to iipa«nM> thiU its spiritwU uiuuuoiUuv nKfv equally ex- 
UBonlmuty. After I'auliiHU deparUnd from Votk, ijie Uialiops 
who retiiorcd Clinstianily iu Noith umber land, placod their bee 
•t Liodisfaniet though nut with Uk tiUe uf Mutxopolitiiti, yvl witJi 
ali (he ecclesiastical powrr that was t)na\ in those couttlic«. I'bia 
•ccasioned a great veucnition IW tiieirtuccenon amunj; the buMuis, 
beudcs Uue fwrlicular lercreiice paid to St. Cutiiberl. Wjieo th« 
See was' eMablishod at Durbuiii, iu the liuw uf the Conqueror, 
Tbomas, tike elder Archbiabop«fYorti| baving been nuraculuuiiJy 
TDCovcrcd of a fcvec at the ebrinc of the Saint, granted to Uu* 
Church several iinniuuilie^ relating to jurisdictiun, visitations, &c. 
wbtcb being coufirmcd by the Kin§ nnd I'aJ lijuortil, ami tlie Pope, 
and by kvbibI Muxeeding Kjugs, iould iicwr be ncaJlod, uot- 
' vithit&iidiiig many fitru^gles and contcttis."* 

Tic figure of Durham is triangular: on its eaiileni side, from 
the mouth of tiie hvcr Tees to Tynanouth, it is bojuided by tbi 
Cermnn Oceaii; on the north, it is lepawied from Norlhuinber- 
Iftud, by the riven Tyuo and i>er»ent, and »oiae aitilicial bouD' 
ilariea: on the west, it is divided fruiti Cutuburland aud Wublmore- 
land by tlie Crook-buru, and the Tees; the latter river forms tlw 
«bole of its soulh-uabt and suutborn boundary. The greatest ex- 
tent of the couiiiy, fivm Sliu-lds on the north, to Sockburue on 
tb« Htulh, H aboia thirty-six jniles; iti grualcst Icjtgtb, fjviq tW 

paiiuHil* 



* Consli'i Cun<l«ii, Vol. IlL p. lOa, 



DU It 11 AM, 



11 



• 



penignh o( HEitlepool on tfaecaet, to Ibe aKHitln of Ate Craolt-faum 
pa cfcewoC, at the point uf utuun of Durbam^ Curoborland, sikI 
tfoknaidaed, » about iatty-^re mil«9 ; and its circumilsnnce is 
mdy UO. ItsaapcrftciaJ ana includes about 6l0,000acr«,caii- 
tmiaa% odc city, 120 perishes, t>?a markvt-towits, 28,366 liotues, 
mi l60,a6l inbabiiantt. Itis4iyidedintoiciuraurrfi,atlderiviD( 
ibor tMOBCs from fiiacai wUcb ate rwn (tf iaferiaf oomidentbon. 
Tic fcpnaoDtaiiwa an four, via. two for the. couaiy, and two 
foTftltc citjr. Dutfaatn pa.v5 tlir4« parts of lUr Lukd-tax, and pn>> 
rndcs 400 men for tbo laibtia : tlicnritulu county it included wilh- 
hlbcSee. 

TIk xeocral aapect of this aiiutty it hilly and mountainoiu ; and 
ymJctflarly the wealcm angle, whtdi is a Ueak, nak<^, and Iwr- 
im region, cro»ed by the ridge otf" hills t«nncd (he Knglish A]t- 
^mwiw: though they do not in this fiart riic lo any rtmkider- 
4Ut fcwjg''' Frutn the cuUth sode of ihit ndfgt imw ntUDeroui 
•MCMDS, which Aow toward) the sea; and lewer raoffH of hills, 
banehing off ftoin this district, RfUTod in various dirccrioos over 
■he witoie county. The voslcin and centra] pam of Uurhaaa-tn- 
Ade soQiQ beaotiful «i>d (ertilr nillirs; and are plr^uxnlly waned 
■miA bill and dale, alt«nmt«Jy apiiroprialed tu the growth ufcom, 
«Bd of fMluraee. 

1W iofla Bcr forioui. " Near lb« rirerTces, and in soine spots 
iMrdcriag tha other rirers and brodcs in this couuy, the soil is 
Isatay, AT a rich day; at a further distature from these riven and 
faaaoka, the sui) i* uf a poorer nalure, ronim<inly tcTnird wsler- 
rinkun, «itb her« and Ib^-n: spots of grarci iQtmpi-rM*d ; but these 
ire of smaU extent, the middle of none of then being half a mile 
from clay. Hie hills heiweeii iliu s«a, and an imajinary line 
diaaii fttm BamaDi Castle an tittt Tcm, to Atam-funl on the 
DcrwenI, or* for the muM pait <«rered with a dry loom, lb* fer- 
tility of which varies ia prc^rlion to its depth: from this live 
MiidMuxd, the sttiBinits at well as the sides of tha hillit arc lauorilb 



CrsBitr'i G<Mral Vio^ nf-itv Afriealtar* •( Dai^iai. 



1£ 



DOBUAM. 



In a country povnsing Rtich a Tsriety of soil, tho prolun is of 
courset pmportiunably vuriuus. 1'bn usual rotation of crom is, 
after summor fttliow, nh«at, mts, boans, or pra^e ; and occa- 
sionall^r a crop ot bn«d clov«, in li«u o4' the tlirw ttu>l. On some 
icw ^uti uf gravelly soil, turnips and burlcy arc grown in almost 
perpetual tuccissiou, a crop of clovrr being Mimvlimos interposed. 
The produce of wbcat on good land, is from twenry to thirty 
bushels per acre; in inferior laud, from ten to twenty bmhrts per 
acre: the produce of barley is from thirty to funy bushels ; of 
ont», from twenty to torty. 'I'lie iniinurn arr chietly lime, nnd 
tfac pTvduce of the fold-yard ; and though abundance of tca-weej 
tnigfat be collected on the wu coast, and, properly applied, would 
coimilutc valuable inatiurr, yet tiic furmL-m in geiwrnl neglect^ or 
remain umtrrjuainted with, its 11%. 

The farmt ure principally of a middling size, few of them ex- 
ceeding SOU acres. The largest portion of ea^fa farm is generally 
appropriated to tilhi^e ; but towards the wetem extrrjiiiiy uf tfao 
county, the whole is applied to posture. About one-third of the 
land M supposed to be of ecclesiastical tenure; the remainder is 
|>osBcsscd by various propricion: the lenses seldom exceed ux 
yean); and are too fret^uenlly rendered of little value by itijodi'- 
ciouB restrictiuns. I'he Ica'M^ held of the See of Durham are for 
longer terms ; getierally for lives, or for twenty-one years, renew- 
able every seven }*can, on payment of an arbitmry fine. The 
brm-houses are in general well situated, and commodioiu j but 
the tbld-yards are ton fcn-, and small; and, for want of granaries^ 
the corn is frequently threshed before it is dry. Threshing ma- 
chines have been lately introduced ; and machineii for Ute drill 
bukbandry are u*ed in many parU ol the county. 

Tile caillc of Durham are in great rxipuie; as for form, weight, 
proilurc of tnilk, and butter, and quicknct« of fattening, they are 
not iiilerior to any in Kngland. The sheep arc mostly large, and 
covered with long wool: thoso denominated the Tees^water breed, 
are most celebralcd. In Wenr-dKle, ihu breed is small, but the 
meat finely flavoured : when fal, the quarters Kldoiu ucigh more 
ibaii (loni louitoui to eighteen pounds each. 

1 The 



suanAM. 



13 



Th« msfa! lands ue of comiclcrablc extent in the wesicni parte 
q( tbo county, bring mppnsed to occupy nearly 1 30,000 ncm. 
Id tfav lower parts, many hundred mctr* have bc«n inckwed, and 
culunitaJr widiiu the lost thirty yean. The common fields, ex- 
ceptiog ia the instcrn di&liici, are but few ; the laiuU bekiiiging 
to towmbips having been principally incluacd soua afiL-r the RtstU' 
ntioou The wster-^halcFii grounds cover a verj- larj^* proportioo 
of the county : those bordering on the 1'eesr f"/^ other riven, are 
drained by meiuis of wide diuli«>s, proviitcially called atdlt. " In 
other purts, wliere uptirigs bunt from tbe sides of llie bills, endan- 
gtriag tbe ground bduw, obli<]Ue cuts are made to iiiti-rccpt the 
milcr : and conduits of stone, ur brick, laid along the bottoio of 
them to convey it to a miui) conduit, whicli rairiei U down the 
bill : the csrth is then thrown in again, and the surface- b;vell«d[ 
for the putpoM of culture.''* Somelitnn, in the Hal grounds, 
noder-drainB arc made-, and when half tilled nith (lebUc stuncs, 
are levelled again with earth and turfl The woodlands are not of 
any conuderable extent ; and chiefiy conGned la the pnrks and 
teats of the nobility, IV banks of the riven and brooks, how< 
eser, particularly in the vidoily of Dutliain, are fringed with 
wood of long growth, and much value. Tbe public roadi are^ in 
gcncrali Rood ; but those belonging to townships, are in many 
parts extremely narrow, dangeraus, and irregular. 

'* Durbam," observes Sir WilUatn Appleby, '* taking its small 
dimeoBioiiB into oomideration, is not to be equallnl by any other 
coanty in Great Britun, except ^Middlesex, ior its numerous and 
important coal, lead, and iron minct ; its large cast tnetal fioun* 
dcriea, and iron-manufactories, |Ml(enni, gUss'liuusm, copperas* 
works, coal*tsr and salt-works, quarnca of marble, fire and free- 
Mom; lime, biick and tile-kilns; grind-stone, .and mill-Btone; 
liiwa and woollen manufactories; trade, agriculture, and popula- 
lian.''t 

The MINERALOGICAL substances found in Durham are 
Bttmerous and valuable. The east and north-east parts of lbs 
muljr are particularly lauioiu for their exleiisive cwiZ-itiincs; and 

tb« 
* Cnaget't Comal View, p. 45. 4 Ibid. p. 1$. 



1« 



VULirAW. 



tbe qwinlity uf tliit iuporlant articU* is so ;rea1, as to «c«d «]1 
calculation. Tilr sntm (or ttrnia) now vK>rk«d, are Are in ttat» 
ber: the>e pxiem! horizontslly for many miles, and are (Vom 
twenty to one hufldn-d falboms Ijctwalh the snrfacn;, «u:h strattint 
n from lli»« to ux ar eight f«et llitrk. Below ditsa avc s»«erai 
olhcr scDftis nf roal ; and many pArls of the county, bnidf-i ihoa* 
where the jtits are nltMt«d, abound with thik rabtUnco. Ol 
JDany cf tli« mines, steam-tfn^nes have been enctdd for ratnag 
the coal with gtvatt'r dispatch, ibaii could be obtained by tfa« on 
of hor!it!3; thr rxppim is also muc)i [i.>ss. In iho gnat «vt-sfllr 
colliericc, many hones srt eoniinuaily kept und«r ground, for the 
purpMe nf drawing th« caeXs to ili£ mouth of th(> (Vtb: in the 
laud-saU collieries, the ta«a« kind of work n [K-rruflftd' by men or 
boys. 

In the vicinity of WsUjinghara. a beaotiftil black-spottvd Uitte'* 
HoHt a procured, for hennhs, rhimney- pieces, and other omo- 
mfhli. This nrighbourhood tXw abounds with fine miW-i/oMl 
ftlany occrlknt quarries of slalp fur building' have been opetkerf in 
dilVerent parts of the county; and Gateshead Fell » peculiarly fe> 
nous for producing what ate vulgarly termed Ncwcattle grimi* 
timtet, from being shipped off at that port. Fire-ittmt, of high 
ution- ill tbc building of ovens, furnaces, &r. '» obtained in 
iriotu parts of Durham, and exported in immttniw quantities. 

Hio principal Lrtfi/. Mines of Durham are liitttatcil in ToK^dale, 
um] Wemr-dak: those of the fomier place ars not pttrticitlarty me* 
cenful; but tho produce of the lattrr ik of more coiviidurable 
vdue. the gMwnl method of wgriiing them is similar to that 
punued in the adjacent rountirs of CarabNln^ snd Wesunore- 
land, Great improvements tvf late yran ftawhieii' mode hy in> 
trodocing waggon'le?eJi, whtch» Ht the same time tliat they carry 
off liw water, tave the m<M. fatiguing part of moniial> labor. Tb« 
method of smelting the ore in Wear-dale, is by the blast ticaithf 
but in Tccs-dalf, air furnacua have been inttoducoil wttJi mnch 

tUCCCSR. 

Several extensive works tot manufiKtmiivif salt (imitt> san-watBr 

luin% long been cttublibLcd at Suuth ^hklds^ but Lhu produce of 

tbew 



: 



DVBHAU. 15 

these works is not at present so considerable &s formerly, owing to 
Ihe discovery of a very singular salt-spring at Birttcy, in this 
coonty, which has been thus described by Sir William Appleby. 
*' It arises at the depth of seventy fathoms, in an engine-pit con* 
stmctcd for drawing water out of coal-mines, at the extremity of 
a stone drift, drove 200 yards north-east therein; and what is 
morfi extraordinary, springs only in such drift in every direction; 
though the pit, and every other contiguous, has been excavated 
both above and below it many fathoms. Its mixing with the fresh 
water in the same pit, would have occasioned it remaining totally 
unnoticed, but for an accident which happened to the boiler of the 
en^ne soon after its erection. One morning the bottom of tha 
boiler suddenly dropt out: the engineer, amazed thereat, informed 
the undertakers, who, upon examination, found tt incrmtcd with 
a vast quantity of strong salt, and the iron wholly corroded. 
Upon tasting the water, though incorporated with immense tjuan- 
tities of fresh, it was found exceedingly brackish and salt, on which 
the workings were explored, and the above-mentioned very valua- 
ble salt spring was discovered to arise in such drift only; and 
has for these nine years produced 30,000 gallons per day, four 
times stronger than any sea-water whatever. In consequence of 
this important discovery, a large and extensive munufactury of 
salt has been established by a company of gentlemen, uho, after 
encountering many diiEciiUies, have brouglit it to very great per- 
fection, the quality being most excellent,"' At Buttcrby, near 
Durham, is another salt-spring, which issues from a rock in tlie 
river Weare, anil is only visible when the water is low; it coutaiiiJ 
somewhat more of the sulphate of magnesia, or Epsom salt, than 
the spring at Birtley. 

The maimfactures of Durham are numerous and important. 
The south side of the Tyne is fringed with manufactonL-s and coal 
slaiths. At Swalwell, and Wiiilaton, are some of the (iiit iron- 
works in England; anil at Lumley is a manufaciory for converting 
8crap>iroQ into engine-builer plates, and ca:>t mutul into nialleabitt 

iron. 

* Cnnger't CnKial View, p. oa. 



i6 



DVftnAjf. 



2^^ 
•^1^^ 



iron. Steel-woi)is ba»« been wlnl>lt»hpd at Shotlf^'-bridf^, Swa>»^ 
veil. Team, and Gati-shcad. Tummies, carpets, and naiBtcoat- 
pivcn, arr manurBCturnJ nt Duibuia ; tammies and huckabacks ait 
■Iso made lit Darliiigion; whrrc a machine has been e&tablisihecl 
Jor spinning flax itito yarn; and another for grinding 5[>cci&£)c 
^UsMS, Cottonsi are mantifnclured ut Castle Eden, Slucklon, end 
Bishop's Aucklnnd; and Mil-clulh*, ti^iua, and other article a. rt 
StocLtim, Sunderland, and Suuth Shields. 

The principal lUien of Durham, are the T«ei, llie Weare, 
the UtTwciit. The Tert rins in tbe vast moon* wliicli form the 
dblrict whcrHn the coun'ie of York, Cumberland, Westmoreland, 
I)iirham, nnd Northumberland, nearly nnitc. After issuing frorii 
the moors, ibc iticam flows south -eastward, through the romantic 
valley of 1'ccvMJale, for nearly thirty miles, wheuimddenly ttirnit^ 
to the niirlb-ei*iit at Sockburne, il faLlA into llie German Ocean A^| 
some dittunce below Stockton. 'Hie river, through the whole of ™ 
its ri'UrWf assimilates with its external nilendRnts of rocks, moorsi 
anrj mountains; being broad, ihallcw, and rapid, frequently rava^ 
giiig the valley uritli its inundations, and precipitacinK itself in valt 
calaracl*. Afier emerging from llic deep dell beneath the Abbey 
of t^T«iiti>ne, it nons with rapidity through tlic rich demesne of 
Uoieby, below which it receives the Greta from Yorkshire, ami 
another small strram from the moors of Durhum. In the higb^ 
ornamenled territory which fturrouiids the majnttr n-ntls and lonren 
of Uaby Casile, it forms a fine feauire, and preserves its romantfc 
and striking cliaracter itirough great part of its uftcr progress (a 
the »<«.* ^H 

The fi'rarc dwives ils waters from the s»me wild range of moor»^^ 
which jiro<!ute» ihc Tces; but flowing coiisiJerably to the north of 
ibul river, it crosses the ccnli^l part of the county, and falls into 
llio sea War SuJiderlaiid. Wear-dale, like Tees-dale, is a vetj 
wild aiid,r(imiiniic district, and, like thaialMS, is pipasaiiily tnterspei^-.! 
ted with towns and tillages: emerging fnim its recesses, ibe rirt^H 
pastesBishop'iAufkland, wbenassuminga north-eastemdirection.it 



* SkriiK^ Hiilory of Riven In CrtaC Biitiln. 



» •• 



i 




iowi oowird to the city of Durham, which it nearly surrounds, 
Thr. : noi'ltiiviit J, it runs near tlie »ull* of Luiiik-y Cai- 

llf, I -: .,■; tiUilclctily III ihr. «.oul!i w&t Birtlej, fli>w>> tuvrarJi 

^uliJcfliinil. 

Til* Deru-fHt ri«« Dorthwnril of ihe UVarc, in llip same rango 
J nnon, Bftd ptir^uin^ nmily a pnmUcl cooru with tbnt river, 
J^munulioo and intci-ol tun wild aiul inouiibiincu'i tract on 
iW bortbrm bordcn or the county, till it iitXW iniu the Tyne near 
Snalwdl. 



DUnilAM. 

Tvi: City of Durham i& situated oii a singular rocky eminence, 
ninjiirar the central jinit nf the county, and aiino»t surruundcd 
by the rnrr Weaif . Fruiu nil Uic neigh buuimj; |>oiitU i^f view, its 
iffonuKv i« uui'iitR, and striking; iis pubhc cdiiice» exliiljiting 
■ di)Mur magnificifncc unrxprck'd at a distiince ho remote from 
uicHetnipaln; and iu titualinn iiivd (i^uri^ L<-ing »> |)rculiur as 
'■bttt occaakiriicd ita bt'ing nnphattcaily dcnuminutcd the Kiigtui 
fi". The ccnite wf the eminence ii occ«pie<l by the Calhwiral 
wrfCwtl*, Hlirth. Willi (lie iin-eli atlled the Baileys, nrc inclu- 
M»)lkio tiic n-ntsuiu of the andent city n-alU. l!clun' the walls 
oi aw lUe, the slope i& omarocntcd with han^ng gardens and 
'. detcciidin;* to the river; on the other, the accli- 
.:■!, rc»cVy, aiiil hteep. 'Jlie rich meailuuK, llie cultiiatt^ 
I of the adjacent hills, and Ilic Turious seats ia Uie vicinity, 
to Ibe beiiuty of (be prtnpecl. 
dctivc« its tmma Iroin its siluatiuu, the lerni being a 
tiiiQ from the Saxon wunis Dui^ a bill ; aixl thJme, a river 
lly th« Latins, obwnes CHtndcn. it is CalM Uvvtt.- 
li aad by ti»c common people, Uiirham, or Durewne: the 
Vftu V. B Ifllicr 



In m «nc-«nt Sixon Poen, in<«nr4 in Hickri't Crj««. Anfl«-Saxm, mhI 
■btnl by Aiiflunj lo the Dtnuh-Suo^i ficriod, ^htcb Uiii v/iMt fix«t be* 
lb van ;8o aad ihc tlmcof ihc Con^uot, ibe tQpagn|>liy, &g. of 




DURIIAV, 



Ijttter apiwlladon is <)cnved, by Bishop Gibson, from the NotiDUi 

Tho rHrlicst bisloriciil notice of this city is contained in tbt 
uookiib li^Dcl of St. Cutlibert, from nboK votaries Duiiltolmc, 



Tbi* ciiy it rt)«brate<l 
In the whole empire of tiu Britont. 
The road lo it i> iMcp. 
]t i>igiiuun()<d wilh roclu, 
And wilh cuilaiu plaau. 
The War flaw* round it, 
A rtvcr of npid luarfi t 
And Uier< live In it, 
Fukca of vatioui ktiidi 
lli»tllag with ih« (toodi. 
And Uwrc grow 
Gicrt fotMUi 
Thcic Ijic in ibe rcceuu 
Wild aiiimtU of many lotti; 
In tlw deep valley* 
Dm iiRiumctable, 
ThcTC it in thu cit/ 
Alio well known lo men 
The vtneiable Si. Cmlbtrlht 
And (he Imd of the ehaat Xlnf 
Oiwild^ ihe linnof ihe Anjlij 
Aod Aidcn, the Bithopi 
A«db<nwd A«d[nd. 
The nabk auocUte*. 
Thert ii in il alio 
Ac'^Mlwold, ihefiUtiOpi 
And the cclfbnittl wrtlcf Qede ; 
And the Abbot Bonil, 
Br whom ibe chuie Cudbtnh 
Wu in hit ]iiulh gtitu itulcucied; 
Who alto well mreived the intliuciiow. 
There leai wich thue taintt. 
In the inner part cvf the Miiutcr, 
Kellikt innutiieralHlf, 
U'hich perfoTm mioy minckti 
At ihe Chionicirs l[]] ut, 
And [wlilch]) iwtit wilh ihem 

The judgmcat of the Lord. 




u h wu tb(?n ciiI1««), accumulated all iu rrbbrUy and riches. 
Accurtiing lo The tc^ncl, il appears thiit tlic Suiiit tiqianed ibit 
life OB (]]«■ lu(-niii.-tb uf ttte calvntU of Muicli, 6&7t and was bu- 
ried in the Churcb at LiudiHfarnc, at ihnt period iht- Soe of a 
BUlop. The btidy WH« aftci^nnlH rrihuiixil in n new •r^ittlchro 
cn rebuilding the Cathednil, wtivrc it lay uiimoloited for a ccinU' 
dcrablc lime. 

Bui in ibe year 876, tlairdvn, baviitg Itrought ovur a rrinrorce- 
wnt of DanMb advpiituren, mvagcd this part of [he country in a 
■M inhuman mantKr-, ami Konltilf, then Cishnp nf Lindi^lainCf 
kniti^ remntknl the siivago practices of the invtidiT*, piirticul<>rly 
to He clcTg)', colwull<^l will) Kadivd, the Abbnl, nnd ihc other 
mciMicn of the monastcrrj', wbut mcusurcj lliey should pui^ue (uf 
comaioD tafeiy ; when tcvcml j^-ined the Hi»hop ajid Abbui in a 
nKlntioa, not only to quit lliu place, ibi' p-culiiir sanctity of 
vkki among ChristJuns only cxn'lrd proporiionuble rruotty in the 
Duiih Pagani, but also to remove the ivmaiiu of thc-ir bo]ovc<t 
S<iM, that bii rvltct might not be exposed to tlic- rude insults of 
Ac profane, la (lunuuiice of ihi> rcHdve, iliuy giiihi'itKl ttie holy 
idks, sacred vcaarls, ornaments and jcucIb of the oltan and 
shriiHs, tocclher with St. Klhrlwold's sioo? crucifix, and (led 
fan the l«landof Lindisfanic, where the epi^co^Ml Ste bad con* 
^mti 741 ymn. 

** With their holy charge, the Bibbop and hi^ company passed 
kHo the muunlaitvous parts of the country, stiU changing ihuir 
ibodr, as inldJigtiicc of the rncmy's proyrna scorned tu thrc-aten 
tbcir Mfely. 1 heir pious ardor miiht have bi-rn equal lo any toil, 
andniperior to every danger, encumbered as they wen? with the 
icnaim of SuCuthbcrt; the bead of St. Oswiild; the bonei of 
Saints Aulan, Eadbert, Eanfred, and Ethelnold, inckKied in on« 
ark or ifartnc; aad ihc )>oudc-rou» cross uf St. Elbclwold borue be* 
loit lii«a."' 

n2 On 

* lOidwold wn Abbot of Melrnu, ili* nicimitr fri«ad of .Si. Cuthbert, muL 
OIK of hi* Mcccseri la the BUhopnck- He c»u«cd a ponderoui ci««i of Oan* 
SalMcncvd hi Uh potwd *diauuuB iIk CtiuichoE LimlitUiuc. TtiEicKktt, 




99 



DOttllAir. 



On lh« rcronval of St. CuthLert's relics, the inhalntnnti or Lin* 
diaiariM' \v(t llu-ir luict> nnd f|(XKls, and fuHowrt} |hc Uithop anil 
liii> Iruiii, whti, wi-nrird with InivclLmg, endeavored privaielv lo 
depart to Ireland, ihst they might deposit the Siutu's hones in 
grratcr aUny : but a uiddci) storni aioM, and ibc ship wherein 
ibc}' had colli inciiccd thHr voyage, mhh ilriven hock, und forced 
upon the shore ; the tempest l>cing so strong, ihnt three aatta vtre 
wiracuioiut^ coH\erttd into bUtod; nnd the ship hwled so much, 
thut tho Book ut' the Holy EvangdJais, which wns curiously writ- 
ten, nnd ttdorct-Ll nilh (told aud precious stones, k*ll out uf tU« 
%'CMiCl, and sunk to tho bollotn of llic sea. In tliu uiidit uf their 
pcrplcxiiy, St. Ctithhcr), unwilling to sec his devotees in such 
feutrow, Appeared lu HumLredus, ono of ihe inonk^. nnd com- 
Dmiidod that the book might he sought for on the neigh hourtiijj 
COSKls. Ac thrve mil<4 distance it was recovered; and, mi fnr 
from U'ing Injured by the salt-water, thut it appean-il ituttv bciiu- 
litill than heforc. Gladly did tlie conipuny receive bnci> this prc- 
riuu> meniuriiil: hut the patron Saint bdugin a good humor, 
wa» litilcratined not lu oblige them by halves ; a bridle n|f]>ivred 
upon a tree, ami a horse prancing to receive it, fur ihc puipoee 
of carrying the relics, gave a joy inexpressible lo the wearied ira- 
vellets. This hone conducted the chctt to Crake-Minuter, and 
here it rested fuur oioiLtht; iheitce it ua^ taken to Cuue»ge>tcr, 
(nuw ChcHtcr-lc-fti recti) aud rested during the Danitb wart, buing 
A p(;Tiud of loily-chree years; nl (he end nf Hhich, Aiduiie, lh« 
ItiAl I'lishup of Chcatcr-lc-screct, upon ihc Danes again inlesiinv 
.the northern coast, removed tlic relics to Ilipon. In, an Interval 
ol jvcitce, the huty romniuitity Intending to rclum, left Uipon, 
with all Lhtrii' |iariij)hcrnuliii, ancc un abode of luur niuiilhs. In 

Ibcir 

•r faol-tlonc, in whicK it wu morliMd^ mniini itill ■ few paC«i to ihe u>t or 

ihe ruiiittl cliuich. ti wai held in siich vcimalion, that, i(ui iKiP); broLcii by 
iW Djnn, in iheir <im dcicenl on [Iw Iiiard, the tcutrirrt |>*'U were c^iefully 
put together, byikiltul woilinicii, wilhlciidanclfcment Thrt it itow ctlied Tht 
fali'g SlMiei Mrl whenever ■ marriij^c ii tolcinnixcd il the chufch, tiltt tht 
CMcmony, the bride ii to iiep upoD jc, ind if ihc cuDol uildc to i:he end, U m 
.t»i<i ihit tlie mairuge will prove utuucceMfuK UuiiiiniM'i JiurAtm, i-'tf. J, 



KS^b 



^ 




ttt'ItUAH. 



licit pn^r^ another nintclc bapjienctt: the holy rrlie* uiuil<l 
not nMVc rciiMBixi : lliis was nt a [>lacc then CHlIeil WrdcUii. At. 
Itft, aUer niucli G»ling and pmj-er, and the aMittancu of art uhl 
•OfBiu) and ha cuvr. DuiilioUtic, '* ii place strong by luiturr, but 
lot rsuly reiickRd habitahU*, as it was overgrown hy n thick fo- 
KStt in the raid^tof which wa^i a small pimn, uhkli had bcL*D 
inc<l in tillage,*' Wiis ih« place fixed ctt for the lusting abodi* uf- 
St Cothbert'a nAla, bimI the further utalhshmcnt of his huly 
litatcrnily. 

Hie ant work in which Ihc pious laborers engaged, wrs U> erect 
> wicker lubenmclu, as a reliquury for their itacred depuititi this 
vu deoominoied the Hani^h Ckurch; but &ui-h a ^^iiuallon not 
udlini tJic winhn of the tievnul, another lemple, ciillH It'lile 
Uvrut, was con&tnjcted in the yenr 535, also of wicker, SytneoD 
Dnnrhnemii *a)'*, /acta diiitime ile l'irgi$ eceUntfla. But it 
doo not appear that t)ic poor waudervr^ erected for theniM-Iv^ 
vy liabitalinns on ihc Mount for a CDnsiilemblc lime after their, 
awiing tn Dunholme; " f«r we are lolil, iii thi- course of thrpo 
yean from the dale of th<.- fint tnbi'rnacle, ihai v. church of stoiic 
work Mas begun, and dedicalcd by Hishop Aldun, wherein tho. 
Sainl't retnainn weor d<i)c«iied. According lo the coiirac- of evcuts 
enlulMtcd by titc ancient wrtlen, it wiu not till itfter ihr founda- 
tktn of Aldun's Church wa» liuil, thul ihc forest by which it was 
sUTTOiiiidcd was cut down, ami the »kirts of the hill rendered Jit 
fiir habitation. Much lubuur was expended; and all Ihc iuliahi- 
tantt l«lwe<>n the rivers Cuqupt uml Tcrs, tn the extent of fifty 
ini)M, are aaid lo have been employed at the command of Uthrcd^^ 
Earl of Northumberland. Trom the above circum^ances, w(> itre 
led to date the riw of the town ol Durham in the opening of ibe 
clrrvnib century."* 

Durliaro seems to have been Eufficienlly fortified when Duncau, 
Kii^ of Scotland, Uiacked it m 1040; fur the towmnii-ii !>us- 
taincd the ctiemy 'ft assaults (or a coibidcrable time; and at length, 
hy Dcam of a vigorous snily, totully touted the a&aailanl». nnd 

1) 3 beheaded 



Hutcluiuon'i Duitum, Vol W. p j. 



i 




■ « 



«i 



DVRltAM. 



behntdc^ the leaden, which were their prisoners, to tfa« nutket- 
plttCe. 

WiUinm I. in llic year 10(i(), sent Robert Cumin, whom be 
had cn.-u[L>(l t'uil uf NurlLuLciibLTlmid, mul TOO veteran Xorroan 
•olilirrs, to DuHiiun, to cnforcp his Hutlionty; but thrse warrion 
dcgmdiiig ibcmsclvra into frrcbotrters, conimittod mnny cnonni- 
tifs, and reJucc(] the inhiiLitnnt!( to the cxtrcmc^l despair. In 
thi» temper, ihcy formed as^oriationii, which coming to the Urnhop's 
krii>wK-(igr, he ncqnainlfii Fnrl Cumin Qftii^ wpprchcnsiuns of an 
iusurreclioti' The ICarl Irvatcd the BishopKcaullon wilhcontempt; 
nnd, sgrt'cably to the Monarch's writ, Cumin prowribed and 
munlered wvi*ral of the landholders. The death of the pvitsiints 
acted as a summon to unshenlh the sword: mul ihnngh this wasin 
the icvrra season of February, 'nt the decline of dsy, the town 
irU »iit rniind with multitudes of Brniecl mm. " The Catl'* 
guar^l^ hiid tiiken furctt>le (HiSMwion of the houu*^ u tlieir wan- 
tonness incited; nnd being dispersed through the town, in contempt 
of dnnger, gave themselves wp to case and enjoyment. Just nt 
the dftun uf day, the assailiints brole open all the gates of the 
town, and flying in jmrlie* through every iCrcet, mnd»* a dn'adful 
tlaughlcr of the Nonnnns; iniwimuch, that, Sj^Tueon »ay», the 
Etrcels were filled with ljlo<)d and carco^e^. Muny were shut up 
in the house where the Earl lodged, and defending it bravely, the 
enraged populace could not force an cnlmncc; therefure throwing 
in fircbr;! nds., they set the edifice in flames, Wlien ihate within 
MW the inuniiieiit peril tt> uhii-h they wcm rvducrd, limy furcnl 
opfn the dvun, and attempted to escape the fury of the fire, but 
were vliiln m they cunc out. At length tlic building was mlucctl 
to Bshes, witii every tiling within its walla, Tbc fire was so vchc- 
nont, that the flames were seen to take bold of the western Unvtr 
of the Church. Tliiji »miciin{E circumatance alnrmed the multi- 
lude: the religitms inhnbi'iuits of (he city, and even those in armn, 
ceasing fruni &l»ughtcr, fell upon their knees, with eyes filled with, 
tears, and elcxuted Uand5, peiitiuning heaven, that, by the as^s- 
t&ncc of tlieir holy Saint, and through hiH iMter|)05ition, the sa- 
cred edifice might be fpaxcd from i lest ruction, t^uickly the wind 

shifted, 



DVRBAM. 



23 



I 



I 
I 



I 



^ftod, mi ban ibe flatnn from the Cburcli. Thm tlic Earl, 
on tbe Mcond of iW Oil. uf February, A. D. Iuti9, Mjth hit 
700 goands, (one man excepted, wtro earaped with his wouridk,) 
were put lo tleaUi.*" William, tk-icrmiwd on revenge lorCumin'a 
dtatb, delacfaed a party of bis trrxjja to >cour tiic country*; but 
(key had out proceeded farlher than Alverton, when a thick fug 
larrounded tbcm; so tJm(, instead of pursuing thcirjourmry, ihey 
CQuU »carc«ly tec each other: this (ipcratiiig upon stipcrsiiitms 
mindi, ami adding to the repons of St. Cuihbcrt's miinclcs, so 
aUrmed ihcm, ihnt thoj- leiarned with prccipiution, le>t they 
^ould incur the Saint's (>xecratton. Hut William wa« nut Co be 
to tDtimidatcd : he marched furvnint, and iiiduli;cd the malignity 
uf lib heart in the tpuil and bkod of his subjcci'i, and dev»latvd 
the country ia tucb a manner, that, " for »JMy milc«, btiween 
Vork and Durham, he did not leave a houM; sriindin;;; ivduciit; 
the whole district, by fire and sword, lo a horrihle desan, snok- 
tng with hlood, and in a&hes."t Churches and nionastories were 
Hut »pnred; and it is tnipoMiblc to describe the miseriffi in contc 
i{ucncc of this waiiton net of cructty, A dreadful famine ensued; 
and a mortality, unequallpd in iheannals uf this cuuntry. The 
peuplu wore reduced td cut ibe llobh of horiies, ilogSt and cat», and 
at last hntnan carcases. The lands Uy untilled for nine ycar«, 
infected by rolibers and bl*n*t^ uf pwy; and the poor remnanl of 
tbeinhabitanti)S|>iired from the sword, died, ovcrwlitlmed wild want 
and misery. Jn tbe fields. " llovedcn relates, that, ou the ly 
rant's approach to Durham, bo fauiid the town cvacualt.-d, the 
ccdrsiaslica fled, and llic Chuch left without u minister tuprrfumi 
any tacred oifice. The Kini^'s army being diKpicrspd in de»lructrve 
parties orer ihc country between the Tyne nnd the Wearp, beheld 
the rillagcs deserted, the whole country a dismal iva-^te; and the 
inbatalaats, with their tiucks and other pru[>i;rty, dvd into the 
nut ircret recesses of tlic foresle and tnounlains. But, not moved 
to compassion by a scene so truly wretclicl, the barbarians set 
£rr to the mona&tery of Jarrow, nnd tniidc a^oicings over its 
aihes.'! B 4 llicto 



I 



*I|al£hinoor*Duihim,VoI. It. 103. Syitxon Duo.— Ld. Col. V. It. p. 38*. 

f UuuhLiwKi's DurtuiD, Vot. tt. 1 Ibiii- 




r 



WltVATBt 

1V« caliimitics induced another Jiiitui-bancc of St. Ciitbbert'f 
btiliMt which hni) now rcpuMNl for wvciily-livej'eani. The Biiiliop, 
vitli ihi- coiiciirruicc of tlic iiniicipHl iiihvbitunlit, mnovcil ihcai 
Bo LiiulblBriie ; where fiuutlipr inirack is rcporlc^ tu bare occurred* 
"On thr fourth diiy, in the evening, tUe Bishop, wich m \ast coo- 
coursc of people, arrived on the shore oppoMtctothc Ilnly Inlands 
when they foiiiid the kca at liigli-watrr. Tlift 5cverily of the win- 
ter rendered ihe tii);ht tt'iv iiitnltTubtc to the u^ed as well as the 
teiikit'i-, and caused jtrcit lanK-iitution ; when^ by a particular in- 
tcr{io»iliuii, ibv sea reliml, and left a dry piueagc fur the poor 
WHiKleivn;, wlin, witli loUd lluink*^ivin^f and holy joy, passed 
over to ihc Uhind. But nhat compleied the miracle, was, M 
Sytnrun auerts ihute uho rarried ihe Suini'i remains, p\xe evU 
dence, tlidt, as Mjuii ns ihrniultilude hadpflssfd, ihesca i-elumed, 
and cluM'd u|> tlie vitc^ncy, uhich a feu ntunHiit* bclucr hiid d^ 
vidud th« wilier."" 



* Symcen Duiirinicwli, p. 194, rclatei, '* ttut tlw King. whlUi lie ibod« 
in Diiitiaio, ri>t« ruining * daubt o( the incotnipiiblt tUicufSL CuLbbcrt's 
body, foquWcil il>tig«nlty cnr-ecming ill •nd, aolwilhiUni)ing the aurvcralioiu 
of Kven] uf ibc mm! ploui and *Fiiec.i1>le tnrn thcr«, he Uitl pretended 10 di^ 
bdievc it> and iniitit-J on hivinf an inip^ctiun of lh« aipulchte tiiittulf, Ste 
vcr»l Bikhupt ai^d Al'boii (lien piooit aucntcd lu hi> wi<l, and ihou^hc it pr^ 
ptr ibt Xi'>£'t plniDit ihculJ iKcuinplieii with. WIuhIici pTOMjVed by the 
driajr, or hia luapicion of f»ii4l wat iiKrcaiftl by the nluctanic of the recite 
liatttct (0 comply with hit ilnirr, \i not |>oiril«ii out : but ihc Kitij; uArraaty 
VOW«<l, if h« w» decriv«d in the relaiiatu h« h»l hard, il iheincoiiuptibitity 
of theS«im'i Ttmarm wai tncr«Iy a uU to woik upon thcinpcntinoii af the 
vu%ar, and llic lioiiy mai not Fi)u<id in the stiiU ii ptoentcd 10 him, he would 
put to deuh all thcuc al tupctior laak. ihroughuul die city, who had prnumcd 
to impoM on hmi. A ter'Ot fell on lurh m hnrd hia mcnarn, and \l>ey de- 
voutly imj^torcd t^c mcicy of Gud, l)irouj{h the mtiiUurihe bIciMct Si. Cuth> 
bert, whiiii ibe Biihi^p, «)ioin, ih«- Ring hid appointed, pi^irortntd ih« Kr- 
viu of high taau. The Kin^, ^cieiiniiied id latltfy hii cuiiuity imnncdiauly 
alter the c^icinoay, roninianiird the ofHcera of the Cliurch to open ibe w- 
puUhic; and whilii lie iload hy. he found liimicli amitieii on a luddni with a 
bommj f»*«T, which didncicd him in an iTitDtcTibtrnnnaei. Scied with 
(uch angiii-ih and diKatc, he ruahtd ontol the Church, leaving untaticd aaump* 
ttiout banijuet, which [tie eccletiastici had ptcpated for hioii aad initant^ 

mauniiag 




I 



I 



I 



Oq die restoration of traiujuilliu-, ami liic King% d«fiarrun', ihc 
Ushop, and bu cbti)|)anium in udlictiuii, ri-iurnctl tu their licso- 
Ulnj counliy, after an absence of four monlbs, and rrpUccd tlie 
HCrtd remains of Si. Cnlhbrrt in his shrine, (n iheir Higlit ibcy 
iad left a ricli aiul mawy crucifix, furmcrly given by Earl 'i'o»)t 
■nd bn wife, in ibc bop? tbat common veiicratiun iniglu prcMsrvu 
it imiulablc; bui tUe crucifix wot tbrutvn duwn by ilie Nurnium, 
and slripprd of all its urnamciLts uf^uld, bilvcr, aiid jewellery. 
On tbc partitio*! of iamls by iIip Cnnqucror, the Churcli of Dur- 
ban Miflcrc-d its shatc uf pfculution; but the Bishtjp having w» 
cun^d ibe tnoet raluablv articles af the ircBsurj-, n>tired tu Isly, 
aod joined tbv Mu|;li^i who mvtv tbcrv in unii* a[r-itnst the King, 
Soou afterwards, by the Iix-acberj* of the Abbot, whom be tbougbt 
bb friend, be was ddivcred to ibe Sovereign, ubo confiiii-d liiin in 
linian, whca* be ditd lui^eRlbly; and ibu Svc conlinutil vacant 
about a jrear, when Walcber, a person of tuiblc birth, iTiim I^or* 
tain, was appoinitMl ni>hKp. 

On William's return from his expedition agnint MRlcolm, King 
of ScDilatid, bo comidvrcd ibat Uurhuin was a proper burner 
•pilut the Soittisb incursi'Mu; and ruv^Ivcd u> cri-ct a Cantle here, 
which might serve also lu awe tlic ni>igbbourboo<l ; nr, as he ex* 
plained it, " to secure hi» Larl of that province Irom tumults and 
imuriTctiom, tu aim to protect the Buhop of tlie See and Mm 
CWrJl." 

After the dcfi-ctioit of Waltbcof, £ail of XorthumberlatLd, and 
Im consequent execution at Wincbc&ter, Uisbop Walclit^r purtlia- 
■ed of ibe King, iIh; earldom uf North umbcrbind. 'l'bl^ bi-ins the 
ii^t inaloncv of the crclniustirul ami tempural power of the Stb 
beii^ vested tn one person, rifritcd thn utmiist niHlevoIencc in the 
|ieople. IVy looked with ubborrencc on a prelate, who, uuiikc 

tbeir 

wosouflg lit* hmtt, kc fled rrnm the city wlihllie utmoti hint, n*irr tbucing 
tW ipeed of kit coancr, (ill lie itriveJ nn die bmki oT ihc Ten, An indica- 
liea ol pfcfemMunl tnirflercnce, it \u(h a iiine, ovc-r*w(d tht pcopV, and 
(KMly conldtMlrd to ihc vrnrndoa piiil to ihe Soini'i ihriiic" Tudilion myi, 
■h>( Uk King, io hii knny, look hii wiy down [h« n>ni>W wed calkil King** 
Cjlr, laaitbg la Uk BtUcy, aod daw calUtl Du>i>Cow-Laii«. 






their patron, St. Cotlibert, subverted the mild mandatos of Chrb- 
tiBnily, by tt union of tcmpornl seventy; and from liieir abhor- 
Ktice o( fata latlLT characlir, Iwt nil reverence of Wis cpiicop«l 
ofGcc; at length an act of injusrirr, tn whirb he dm^snot apprarlo 
lisTpltcm privy, but ^vliichlic- fJid not rxi^it lii* HUtliority lopiiuiifht 
r.ii»cd aucli an in^urrectitm in his territory, as was only alla^-ed by 
hit nturder io ttic must stt\agc and cruel manner.' 

The 



• The citcumWmcn »r« ihui r«l*l«(l : Symfon My*, '* [hat the Blthip mm a 
man of monl life, tad, for virtui and good miuiieri, wonhy the ilTcctiMi of 
tim bed ol men ; but it u ccrtiin. tium every >uthuiily, iiikt ht ilclq^iud hia 
piiwcr to uDworcliy minUter) and favorUEi; ihit Le^fwin, hit aichilcKon, 
^rloined the iitjiurc of die Church in favor of hit ; and that Cilbcn, hit lcim> 
man, lo whom the care of [h« csildniri haJ berti li-clrgalrd, h*d lutTtrcd bit tol> 
4ieri not only to oppfcu the catnmnn pcnple in variout wiyi, IauI lo initilti 
wb, and immolate thoic of highei rank. A Saxon ntibleniia. nitiiEd Liulph, 
Mninenl Uh hu penonal vittufi, poMtMioiu, and jitti alliance, (lie hiving niar- 
tied Algitha, aialcr at Elilcdi, wife of Cai] Siwird, and mother of WaLiheof, 
Ihc late Lai',) wai in gitti (avnur with the Biihnp, l>ein£ rrn^uenily at hit 
council, and *t hii ubie. When Cillieit iHlicted the provinre by frequeni r»* 
fine and vppreiaion, tt la-ai ccFDCeived, liii evil aciiont were tupponed by llit 
coiuiivanM of ihc Biihep, Amidu the indiicriminiie drptedatioiu of the dfr 
puty, Liulph'a citjtci tutfcfcd part ai die marka of ihc dtipoilrr'i land, oa 
«ih!c)i lie applied lo the Bithop, with renianacriincet againit hit mct-<t*t> and 
■rchdacon. The featouiy and tufn!menl of the Norman (avoiilcs thcnecfotth 
were gfievDuiIy excited; anil Leofwln thinking hiiRKlf paniculaily affcanled 
by Litilpli'i rqicatcd efcaigei to the Bithop, toliciied ttii coadjutor Cilbcn IQ 
nmdcf him. Thia, fcom an equal ipiiil ol leaentment, the deputy readily un* 
^rtooL; and buctting the houie in the ni^lit.limc, inhummLy butchered LU 
ulpti, and the (;fcaicit pan of tm fttnily. Tim act of viDlcnce eiicieaied tbe 
tumalT of (h* NoiihuinbnaM, by wkoin Liulph wa» greatly revered and belOf 
vcd; and (hey anxiouily wailed a pruper opportunity to revenue the boriid 
mauirteorihii illutttioni and ioa<ac<m family. It wu in vain for ilit Bishop 
to attempt appealing the inflamed popnlKC, by the moat aalcinii aucvcraCiona 
of hit innocence, and delcnaiion of the crime, He did nut bring the perpcira- 
latilo juaLice, ootwiihaiainding the ai>g«f which he cxpreucd agiinti ihc of- 
fence; but, nigligcct of the iighti of the injured, lie tufTered t>ie guilty pcrioiu 
lltll U) go at Urge, and cKeciU* ike high oHicti iJiey htid ; which appeajaneei 
^ftrrtnincd th? jitdgment of the prupl'P, iJaii the crimca were perptuaied by 
kia coiuutanct, aiad vriik tty piiviiy. It i> ptobaMc be iMighl not be aasioua 




vtrntrAi^. 



sr 



» 



I 



•pic King, bighly incensed, sent his brother Odo, Blihop of 
Baimx. into ilie North, «ilh orders lo punish the imurt^cnts, and 
to tttie vpngcance for the iimswicrR of the Blihop mid hi* n-imue. 
Odo perfonnrd his task not bs & Bishop, but as a Norman «»ldirr, 
(h* being at that time Earl of Keiil,) uiid made Durham u-c-l the 
exifflt of bis power, hy rubbcri-, diwiiluiion, nnd murder, lie 
rtained his Mvred wwlurc by ibp innoct-nt blood of the rrlaiiom of 
Ibe rebellioiB; he robl)ed the church tif Durham nf k rich pa*|.iral 
itaff, which be pretended nas talkcn by tlw eoldiery; ami reduced 
the pn«ince to a solitary ili^rt. 

About this time the Domreday Book was mndo; and ils Our- 
hara dort not occur in it, a supposition ari<ics, that the cuunty was 
wasted, as not to be worth ihc expence of a ^urvcy, Malcidm, 
King of Scotbind, now entered llic county, tu revenue on Odn, 
Ibc mermitics he had commiticdi but WillLirn, ncndin^; his eldest 

ton, 

lo Miss mf piit ©r (he tcveiTiiM of hit (fivcrammi, di'inking he ibould lli*re- 
by bruig thi NarUmmb riant oiliei to Mbiinuion. 

Not laHjt •Ftci lh« foTTipiing iriritKliitii, ll>e Biihup. inorrciicof hiirikil 

JNindiciiea, held ■ pablic aMcnihly of hii <a>.ntd *pd nimuirri H C)(ol><Ji!, 
vbiAirtlK ution Kpancd. Taihii piKc be Kid com* w.tlMut a ikHi^uiA 
fnrd lj»«ectt re bim flora injury, Jrpcndirgnn ihc vpncnKian hiTh-aa p.id i.>ihe 
■cndacM of hti iH&cc. rhrifpmsnccof ihe pjpul^tc, however, inLtncd laitly 
ifldKKcd their diipmUioa fat iniKhicf; ikcy one itui lo ha rcsiiMxrd, »e(c iii. 
tritfa >nil uf'KtoTf. The Bohop wm ■■ Imijih tUimcd l'<ir Kit oFny. wtirn 
il wa too htt U> pnxur« •necour. He uuw<i Hit ofBccrt <o Mtn'c ih« p<:"-|>tr, 
Mm part of the btwiMU of the auenibly wm to in«kc iniiiulin.r) In the icUiioim 
ti (he deecMBd. The rage of the (xtptilicc tncrmied to wieJi a bnghl, ihai he 
■ffrrcJ IS brtag Leofwia U tria!, that ibe Uw mi^hi detcniine bii Talc fiut 
dtt BMh, tumeltinMt and inn^mci), refuted ti> luhmit to itit cuminon Eormi nf 
3«t>f«. The 8(il»rp perceived it wit too Ul« id tppesM ihtrn ; tb'ir fcii>c:<()r 
ef Icffipef diipUyed * lotil contempt i>( hit oAciiJ uilliority ai E^rl, or of 
■mtity ai Btthop; ihcy bod the haute wilh i clMnoui which iiriitk. ilic wl<o1a 
HmUy wilb terror: and, on • watch-wtKcl bcinn pruiiuunced trom uvny 
^«ner, whicb aftme of ike naoaUrt Mihori have rccardrd. ■• iiorl tti. foU 
ttd^ tittyr tkl Biik/fft." Implying Htutl riJdntt. gteJ lOdtttt, Ac. Thcjr 
dinovwid [bdr ami, which hiihetto weic c-jncetled unHrr iV'ieif i;j'nm<ti. 
TIk few {Qirdt the Bidxip broii'bi wtib him, dreadiuf ns lawchicr, on their 

■fiitalf 




fy I>1)I1UAV. 

tan, Robert, against Malcolm, n scene or warCirr rnmrnMicvd, 
liiglily ut)nuxiou& lo liumanii^'i liut con^ciuKl to ibc radc pviiuil 
wliclrin it vns tninsacirtl, 

Williflin de Ciinlcpbo, (he next Biiliop, in 1080, wu among 
(h« nwli-conlcnts on the ucccuion of William Uulw, and flvici" 
into Nurmatuly, hit ttfmi>ontlili« were tcixcd iiilu the handsof the. 
Cruwu. JoUii dc Tailboit, and brmsiiK de fiun>nc, w^'ir niudA 
|p}vcrium uf the CfUlle aiHl I'ltlutiniicc; and it wiu nut till ibr ^icar 
1091 iHut the Biilirp was rcit-ireJ. Soon aiicr the icsumption uf 
his dignity, " he grunted lo ili« coorrnt, Elvct, in tlie urtlvr uf « 
borough, wbrrc the roonkii should have forty iiicKlianIs' boUKSi 
or tradckmeirftihopj, dislincl and »ep&rulu (rum the Uishgp't tra- 

tuugh 

nrinl.diipcned itiemtelvn, md wirr rtpocinginanrdcumniiier; luc)! wtfl 
ntrrfruiHled, and put ut the iword. The Biihoj> pnvjidy itticMrd to the 
(hurcb. Mhithcrhciummoncd * frw of (he (Yici mtn uf c*i:h pi'ty, to ptupou 
tttaa of iraiiy titi lUiifNtion. Thott who conMivtd (key couli iniflncnc« tbe 
nob. w«il oui to anprnc ihcm 1 bui, w itboul rnprct of pciMMia, mtaj were 
(I*in, Thr Biihcp tWn rominiMlcii Cilbcn to go fnnh, tai tndnvor to re- 
concile their wnth; bet he wm an immrili*ie victini tu ihrir vcogcasM. Sonc 
of ihe ilattn new ki (ire to ibe churth, wbiUt <Khcn gvuded the door, mmI 
pal cTciy one lo dr^th ihit (iicmpied to deptrt. Thoic ih>i rcmtiiied wtthia, 
no longer ililc lo ceil .iic ibc loicc of ihc fliinn, luthed oui, ukI wne intlanlly 
lUin. 'I he lilt of the ■uemhiy wu the venerable ftcltcr 1 hit heart evertahclm> 
cd with tl^iciiod for the death or hi* ^plc. WhiLtt hU beflcvulcorc UomiiC- 
ed ihe.r nnhjppy dntlu, bcwii dtnied all tbe fectingt bii own upprpxhinf r*le 
nighl h>vc inipred in moie geneiom botoim; (m he coald not hope thai hii 
lift would be ipirfd by lh« nvi^e ind mad multitude. Uctweeo Ox inipiad- 
htg evila, for ■ moment, he wu indelirniiiiaic what ilcaifa he thould die. Th* 
iir« urged him lo the iwotd of the meiiiyi the eneny drove hint back lo tile 
flinxt, At length no tim* wat IrTi to iiKMflucii^n. The fiie b:aicd all rouud 
him. Putting lip ■ thoil prayer to HeavTO. he advanced toward* the hoMluig 
and ebmorotM muliiluilt. Wiih one huu) h« miiile a (luiittai ligiul la eon^ 
lnaod illci>ee; with tbe other, he HncdlWd bimietf wtth the ikgn of tbe ciout, 
ai.d fiildiftj himulf in hit rote, he veiled hU t*er, and wh inaiaaiJy pierced 
lo the hem with a Iidcc; aod hi* liuiiy wm ilt^»afda iokuniiaty maitglej. 
Thi* ci'MltDphc hippened on the luuilKiith ol Miy, lOSOi llic Bithop hav>ti( 
held tbe See niE« ynn and ten tnotnht. Tbe leidei ol ttw not wa* Ladulf* 
Mnumed Rut, i^ieal grandtoei of tail Uchued, wd cocuctiueiuly ol a&otty 
whh Liulph. //iUiA:ui»'« DtrUim, I'U, A /. 1 jO, 





I 



rofll^ of Durhtm, ibnl they miglil traile iherr, freed frorn duties 
injahtc (o ilie B(h1i<>|i ami his surccvion- 'i'liougb mv iiav<; oo 
pniious account uf ihr horougk t^ Duriaat, yet, by 1 1 LtVrciu'«, 
nemay dctermttir, ibal ^ucti borou^b existeil, with exdu-ttvc pri- 
iilq;in, cvra till the iiu>iiiutiun of iW borough ul' Klvcl UvM nn 
■mire triuJc. How thi« diminution uns rolnhcd, or hti» the iicw 
boroojih su|ip»rlcil itk uuihority, we arc not inrorincd."* 

Durhnm iu>tutt>cd gruit injury by dte in llic lime of Hi»Titkp 
FlaiiiUutl, «>hil»t tb« IrmpotaUlivS wen.- iii the hunJi of the Cn>uii, 
to iiH—|lliiiiii of hia Higtit lu Robert, Duke of Norinnntly. 'J'lii* 
BniMipt to ingraliuiL- hiiitu-if nt Court, opprescd ifac Litsho|>tic 
with tous^ bui wiibiHit ••ucrcv, Kini; Henry having an invinriUo 
Lsrrrd lo ihe pnt>ripl«3 of iJic I'lvliiie. Ib IIJS, Ibc bishop 
iMModcd ll>e buafiilnl ol' Kcpicr, Mliicb he drdicutt-d to St. Ki^i.liu*, 
or Gik4, and amply rmli>wf«l it : alier hi* rvntuiuliun lo Ihr Si-e, 
be tnipioiTil Ibc fortifications, by exti-ntling cbc nulls bvtwcvn the 
Catbffdml and Cutlr, rnno^in;; thf hou»rs <in llic area betiv(>cn 
tboH cdilica, and Iwclling the ground ; fortified ihc C-ustIc uith a 
mcM, inproTcd tltc banks uf ibc liver, and built Fmmwcll-gaNi 
Bridge. 

When Stephen uiurped ibe Crown, DaWd, King of Scotland* 
kiviitg oaken an osih on bdialf oi his nivce Matilda, <Juugliicr of 
Henry the Kmt, levied an ai'tny, sad tuuk puuctsiun of H.-veruI 
tottmats in North urn he rhind. On this orcuMon Stcphon ciinh" to 
Darbaiii, concluded u |>cace, which not bnng Itialin^, the court- 
Uy again expericiicetj all Ihc liormn uf war. 'I'ho Kin^ ot Scot- 
Wad, after coiDinitiini; Uie gruwieiit enunnitie^ adranci-d to tho 
DaghhoQifiood of the city ; but hero bis army, o>inpuM-d of tlm 
nftne of ibe Buiruunding nations, pioving scditionv, he uus com* 
pelled lo rvlrrat : takin;^, in his way, tlir Bjxhnp's Cubilc of Nor- 
laun, 00 ihc bunk* of the Tweed. By ihc imcrpt»ition of Allw-ric, 
Bahof at Ostiar aitd legate from the Holy Sco, a peace wba c»ta- 
bUkhfid bcln«cn the two luiliniu; luid tlif city of Ouihani wna 
hooOMd with Ih* prt-wncc of the in<*mhcr» of this Convention, in 
April, 1139; Maud, Qucon of England, uith many southrni 

Buroits 

* HMKhlaKHi'i Duiluin, Vol II. p- ^ 





90 BUKHAM. 

B«roi», on IW part of the Kni;li>li Crown; anil Prince Henry* 
vilb iL'vcrul 5ci>ttj*Ji Uurum, uii tbu piirt of D»m<J. About tbU 
period a. coinage wus utabh^biMl sL IJurliacit. 

Thu Uisliup, Galfrid Rufiu, » not said to havtr tfikcn any ac- 
tive part duiin^ thrsc troufalvd ; be u^ims rather lo liavc occupied 
hia tiuie tntirc itert-cnbly to his cbaracti^r, in tbe oriiAmcni Kitd 
(irrcnce of li» Set^. Ihiring tlir Prclatc'ii last illrwM, (■»> chaplain, 
William Cumin, i^iiiiied the co[ilidvitc<* t>( ht« houscbald, and par- 
ticulurly »iicb u had ihv custody ol the castle, vrlin eulercd tatO 
& confnlenicy lu deliver up to biin tlie pulace uud tower, innncdi' 
ately upon ilir llishtip's decease. Ilavini; obtiiincd alsn ihc osuit- 
ancc of the Kin;; of .Scotland, tn whom tie styled hitiucif Chan* 
ctlior, he inductrd the people tu lubmit to bis authority, wbidi, 
by m«iti» iif the mt»t iiiK^tittouii melbudn, be rndmvureil to eola- 
bliah ; but bc-itig fnikd in \m mejituto, hr ri.w>rtcd to the sword. 
Alter desolating the countty, bitioldiers reduced the Hospital and 
Church of bt. Uilis, Miiii tbcwhiile ^ill[)^e, to ubvs ; oitd liuviiig 
burnt » jwirt of the bomugh of Klvol, the luirl t,i Nortliuiiiber- 
land, »ith uboni the Bi»bop, William de St. Uarfaara, »-» in 
1cH](UC, completed the tlc&ti uction, by buriiitig llic reniBtuder of 
the ijutuu±;li. 

Alter Mi-nry tbc Second succeeded, be bad a dispute with 
Bibbop Ptidsfy; und, during his displeasure, took pueBtHion of 
the casitle «»d city of Duihunt, and un variuus pivtrxts, dcprirad 
the Ui>bc>p of the custody of so stronx u pmt.* This Uiidiop 
** )(^an^cd to the bur;gi;Mr>, that tlicy shuuld be lor ever exempt 
from the cii«t<iin» c^lU'd in latl and ou'.-toli, and Iroiu tnarcbett 
and lieriutftr u)^ tu L>'^^c t^c bke IVee cuMonu as Ncwcii»tl«. 

Tbii 

* It wii ■ cwtatn foi ilw buTg«tM, on «Tw dcmiw of ■ PteUte, to dep««iu 
the kryt of ilic cit)-')[>ta »i ihi ihiiue of St. Cuihburt. On the Aeaih of 8<ihup 
Pik1*cj', the oHiccn of the Ciown, wbohsd uized thctcmpr^ialititfi, look vj(»« 
Iti.c piitKuiofi (if (ho kcyt, [Diitriry (o the aiicii^nl uM)(e A> ^he (I«i.lio» nF ■ 
pidiie w» tiii<Iioutly Jcbycd, and much opprcKioii hayptticd duiioj Ui< «*• 
ctricv of ih< See, under iht inilucucc of ih<- Ciown olTiMri, and «* a ciniurc 
oi Ihc King'i lucuidcd, it it n<it to hr ikOddrml. ihii we hcii no iiinhcl ttun 
the mere iiDfiinan oF Ut<i ttifrLngimcnl of die piivilt{ei of ibecoorait. Hah- 




PtTKITdM. 



31 



* 



I 



lb ckartrr be gflt confinncd by Pope Alexander the Third, when 
be amted, wilh Uiflv utiter Kngli«Ii BUii(>|Ki, at tli« cntiiicil of 
L«IU«n, A. n. 1 17t>." He «t»o took {<iVHt paim, braiiick hi» ele* 
piOt additiuta to the catbcdml, to oniument (he city by M>veral 
pablic ummires: he buitr Elvct Uridge, tuid rebuilt lUe borough 
of that Dsint, which hod bcca dcitroyed by Cumia and hU adhe- 
reaXt: he cunatnict^ the cily wall fiuin the Gaul-Qute l« th« 
Waicr^iatc, part of which it slill n'niaining ; ami re-edified the 
ca«llei which had bcfii <lntro_vvil by lire: the BoIJan Hukt, now 
mmining in the auditor's uDice, was coiupiled by his unlcr, anJ 
hu been sdtiiitted as evidence in all cawii, to aacvriaia llie cccle- 
liiBiail property of the Diocese. 

Ilie Castle acems to have leniaiiicd in libe Crown ; ibr when 
HeoTj- tl>e lltird grantdii b» consent to line vk-clioii of llicliard 
Couiv. Bikhopuf Saiumi to this See, hcexceptcd ihi-potM'M.ioiiur lb* 
Cwtlesof DurbatnanJNoiliani. Tliis piou&and Irarned rreUte, by 
anagreeDicni wiih the cunvi-iit, made ttcvrral rrgulutiuns concerning 
the pnvilrg<4 of the two b((r<MiKli« of Duihain and E.U'oI, uirli re- 
gret to civil aulliorily, weigtits, measures, &c. In the reii^ of 
Henry the Third, it appean, (hat Durham had a royal and pala- 
time mintagcwiibin itwlf, which Edward the Kjrtt, uu hit acces- 
liua to the Crown, made a point nf a>rornitng. 

After the deatli of Robert dc In<>ulu, Bishop of the See from 
iti^ttt 1283, William Wickwane, Archbishop of Yoik, during 
ibc vacancy, allemptvd to liairHK tbc convent by vikiCorial preten* 
lioDi, which be carried to kucli a height of iirrogaiicr, a» to *cat' 
dthx bn office and character. On bis arrival at ihc cily, the 
•ightb of July, t«i exercise bit) su))|)Oied right of visitaliun, the CS' 
thedral door* were ahul again!>l him; and bo pruceedcd to ihe 
Church of St. Nlci>ola«, (o prunounce exCommunicution ngaiiot 
the Pnor and his breibreii ; but «ume youtiis of Ibc city hav injt in- 
tcl&geoce of his proceedings, retorted lo tlie church, and opposed 
(dm in so clamorous and viuleni u manner, that the Archbishop, 
■nicmtr, receded firom bii purpuw, and was put in such appre- 
hcmion for bn pcr^m, that, CM-aping from ihc pulpit, he (IlhI 
domi the ilain which led to the schooii, and used every expo<li- 

tioD. 




I 



S3 



DunnAM. 



tinn, till he got to die ri\-cr «iclc near Kypier. The ArchbiUioi> 
.C*mwi his rrapiiimcnt so far, thai, at ilie coiisi*c ration of Bishop 
Bi'Ck, on the ninth of Jftminry fnllnwing, Ii.r obligpil ilic Prior to 
kave Yurk Cathedral; and cnJMncc) lb« new Bishop, upon his 
(J«cta nitron of cuiioiiicul obedience, to excoinmmiicate the Prior, 
nnd the heads of the conveiil ; but Beck refused ; observing, " I 
ynts coitM*rniltNJ tlicir Rifihop ytstcrday, bikI shall J Fxcominuui- 
ratc ihem to day i No profc»)un of obedience shall induce me to 
30 inconsistent an act." 

On Brucc's JncutMon, in llie r»ign of F,dward the Second, a 
liarty of his army surprised ibe suburbs of Durhiim whilst the in- 
tiabitonts weri; in ihoir buds, and reduced them to aiihes. 

This city exhibited a singular sceiiL- of feMtvity on the promo- 
tlnn of Richard de Bury, or Aungemllo, to the HtBho|)ric in 1333. 
He entertained, on this occasion, in the gTent hall of hw palace^ 
Edward the Third, nnd hi« Qiici'ii, the Queen Dowager, King of 
Smiland, the two Metropolitans, and five Kisliupi, «ven Eorb 
and their ludicfi, nil (he Nobility norlh of Trrnt, with a vast con- 
roarsc (jf Knights, Abbots, Priors, (tc. tt was in this year that 
Kdward giiined the famous battle of Ilallidown Hill. This Mo- 
nnrch u^tin vititcil the city in !:!>(), -iiid iwMioii sumn^otUf^ for the 
military trnaiiti to atlmd him, previously to the siege and surrcn- 
^r of Berwick. 

Bishop Hallield, succosor to De Bury, was a great benefactor 
to the church nnd city. In 1377, he granied n loll on certnin 
merchandise brought to Durham, to defray the charge* of paT* 
Ing, hkkI rejiaiitn;* the city oralis. Letters patent were likewise 
grMtiled bj- him *' to William de Elmedon, gaoler and porter of 
the Caslle, «ith certain prufilaniinexed to the oflicc, among which 
are fee* for scaling the measures to be used in the city. 

In the third year of the reign of Henry the Sixlli, Durhnm 
ai^in becLifur a scene of festivity, on the miirringe of James, Ktrg 
«f Scotland, with Jano of Somenet, grand- d»ughler of John of 
OaunI, Duke of Lnnca^lc^, ua vrcll usJuiui's's cousin, in 14^4. 
In March, this yciir, the royat pairarrived, niii'mlod by u number 
Cif ihc English nobility of the lirst rank^ and were met'by a vur 




BL^RRAll. 



»S 



I 



P 
* 



I 



InuQ of the most illtulrious pcnoDages from Scotlaad. The King 
and Queen ttaid here till the hcsinJiing of April. 

On (be annircrsary of llie imtiiiltition of Bi»hop Fox, July 2Jd. 
}J03, be rntprtHinn], in his palace at Durham, tlic IVinccs Mar- 
^rrt, <bngbTer of Henry the Seventh, who wits on Iter prugresB 
into ScoUuid, lo eipouM Kin}( Jumrs. John V'imiig, Somer- 
Kt [lenU, who Btlcudod the I'rinccM, ha> rctnlcil, amoog odier 
circutDsluiires, the pArticuUn of her reoeptioB in this city: ** The 
Xxfh <Uy of the vud monncth tht- Qucttc drpurted from Damlon 
in b^r aray, and wiUi the prrcedente conipau^« went to the low-tie 
of Diuham. A mylie qui of the said luwiic. cam befun; liyr Syr 
Rkbard Stanlcty and my lady his wyBe, acrompanyd of gcntyltnca 
lad geotylwoinra vury well appoyntrJ, hys folks araycd in hy« 
hvffay. to the nombre of I. hor^-ii, well mounted. 

"Tien the Quenc prqmred hcrsclJc to ciiIlt into the said 
tanDC, and every ycboo in l^k w)-», in ftiyr amy, ^nd ryclily, after 
iIm naocre actsloaiMl. In spccyall (he Erlv of Nurihuinbcrluad 
wut on a jtoodly gowac of tyn<-itl fuurrcd wiiti hermynes. Il« 
w« mountod upon a ftiyr courwr, hyb hamuys of ^oldsmyth 
wulu, and through (hat Huin wq» fjiuoii Mimll belli that maid a 
Wflodyooa no>-«e, without *pariag gambads, 11^^ gvntyltuefl of 
knor aod hyi company wer well a|>p'jyiilccl. 

" At lite imr^ng gf the Mid towni', oiid within, in the stn^Uft 
aad in the wyndown, was so innunirrablc people, (hat it wels a fnyr 
ihiag fi>r lo se. And in fayr ordre she was convcyd to the church, 
tlie offioen of armes, icrgcants of amies, tromprlt», and inynstrdU 
gninj; before hyr. 

" At Ikv gatt of the cliurcli wa» my lord the Ryachop of th« 
Myd place, himI my lord the Trior, revested in puiititicHli%, nith the 
cumeni at) revested of rych« coppe, in procrss^'on, with ihi 
cnatjft. And iher vias opoytitcd a place for to krtse them. 

** Then the sayd procc»^uii de^iarled in ordrc, and all the no- 
Uaie in lyke wys, lo the Church, tn whicho way to the foant 
•»* a ryche awter, adorned of riches, jwell), and prwyowses re- 
bko, the vicb the said llyschop ddirered to the said Qneiie to kiu : 
ud by t)ie Erie of Surrey was j^lfyn hyr offryngc. Alter this 
VflL. V. J AS. 1804. C sclw 





9% 



DtTR&AM. 



fiche was noble conTcyd to tbe cmtott, wher hyr lodging was pre- 
pared and drcsl hoiipstty. And every j-clion retcnimed agayn to 
;kj« rqwijrw. 

** The xxist, xxiid, und xxiird tUyt of ihc said moonetli 

telle Kjoarped in the said )>lace of Durham, whcr sche was w«ll 

elicrj'schl, Biid iiyr costs burnt- by the said B^-Jchop; who on tbe 

• xxiiid day held hullc hall, and dowbk dyiiiH-rand dowblcsuup- 

'per to all commen worl!iy for to be ther. And in the said ball 

was set all lti>^ noblesse, &s well spiritualls as tcmpomtls, grcit atul 

■mall, the nich was welcome; for thi« was hysdny of installacyon. 

" The xxiiiilh day of the said mcnoctfa ibc Qwi-np departed 

from Durham, Kcomimnied of hyr noble contpany, as she bad 

becne in the duy« )HUt, In fayr manereandgoodordre, fortocome 

lo the tnwnff of the Ncw-Castde." 

The suppreadon of the rebellion of the NeviUcs', in the ragn 
of Queen Erual)oth, occarioneil a scene nf horror in Durhain ; not 
fewer Ibsn sJxty-sL\ penoni being executed tosatisfythe brutality of 
Sir George Bowes, who boasted, thai in a tract of country, uxly 
miles in length, mid forty in breadth, betwixt Ncwco&tlc and 
Wctherby, there was scarcely a towti or village wberein he liad ooc 
aaeriflced some of llic inhabitants! 

In the years 14l6 and lbH9, Dtirhnm was visited by that 
drradful »cuui-ge, tin- jdanuis which mgcd for a cumidcrsblc time. 
In 1^97, it again retunied, with such rJoleuce, that the poorer 
uibabitaiits were compelled lo live in huts on Klvet Moor, utul 
the adjoining commons, where ttie raark& of armngemrut of the 
cells were to be traced till very lately. 

In the year ltiQ3, Charles the First resided nt Durhom, on his 
progress to Scotland, and was entertained by the amiable and 
pious Bishop Morton, whose expences in one day amounted to 
J300I. The virtuous life, and extensive charities, of Utis learned, 
cotaipaiuonuU: and persecuted Bishop, arc still rvmembcred with 
respect and gratitude. After a variety of siifTeniig!>, and unjust 
accusations, by the Parliament adherent, during the Ciril Wan, he 
found an asylum in the family of Sir Christopher Yclvcrton^ bu 
political enemy, to whose son he became tutur. 

9 During 



' 




Dl-XUAM. 



35 



DiniRf tbe time of Ifao Commonwcgillli and Protectorate, an 

attempt wm made to Mtoblish a Univrntty at DurhaiTi; ihr par- 

ticttlan cunceroing which have been tlius related by Mr. rcnmint. 

•• On the ihirteentli of April, 164$, th« PaHiiinn:iil passed an act 

lot aboliihing of Deans, D«ans and Chapter*, Canons, Preljcads, 

\tmA all other titU's and uffice; of oi bolun^ing to any Cnllinlral nr 

Coflegiale Church, or Chnprl, within England and Wales; and 

ibe name and function of Denn, Sub-Dcon, Chapter, &c. are 

tbeneby taken away; and all their banon, mnnon, Ifinds, &c. to' 

getber with their charlcrt, Afttlf, books Court-rotU, &c. tuljudged 

and taken to be io tbe real and actual po^ses!Iion and seizure of 

TrwaMa, tlicrein naiuol, iu inial, tu be dia[iosrd o{ by Parlifltncnt. 

*• May the seventh, j6M>, a pclition was presented to the Pnr- 

Uimem, from the gentlemen, frcehoiden, and inhabitants of the 

CDunty of Durham, prating, that ' an establishment of Courts of 

Joitice miiiht be had there; and Ihal the Colle»v or Hniiii«i of tHe 

Deui and Chapter, being then empty, and in decay, might be em- 

jlajti in erecting a College, Sl^hool, or Academy, fur the benefit 

oltheNorthernCountii^, which were «^ far from the Uiiirersitieij 

iad that paii of the L^nds of iht- said Dean and Chnpler near the 

dij, might be frt out by TruMees for ptoui uses.' 

" Besides this petition, others of a tsiniilttr kind were Kn( from 
the county of Northumberland, and from the town and county of 
Newceatle upon Tyne; which were referred lo a Committee, to 
itkle the bu<iiieM, and lo report their o[>iiiioai touching Ihn de- 
lires of the county. The Coinnitltec reported, ' that they so f;ir 
approved thereof, as that they were of opinion, that iho said 
Houses were a fit place to erect a Collr^, or School, for all the 
■Qmces arkl literature; an<l that it would be u pious and hiudable 
work, and of great use to the norlhern purls.' 

*■ In I6i6, uu order was made, by Oliver Cromwell, the Lord 
Protector, and his Privy Council, for founding and endowing a 
College al Durham, out of the Dean and Cbnplcr'b Lands there. 
OTdui schrme OUrcr had been a strenuous promoter, ns appears 
lgr» ktlcrof hj»y«t extant, dated March the llth, l650, ad- 

C3 drcased 




S5 



DURHAM. 



dressed to WiiUam Lenthol), tUe Speaker, in which he greatly and 
earnestly recommcncls thr pn)!>rculiuii of the husincs to him. 

" The U'ttrre Paten: for fouiiditig the College, arc dated May 
ihc IJlh, I')57, by which Ibc IIouh-s Ule belwijjiug to the Deaa 
aud ?rebeiidRne», are converted into a Universily, to be called hy 
the UEDic of ' tlie Mentor, or Provost, [ellows, and Scholars, of 
the Co I luge of Durliun, of ifiv IVuiidatiuii of Oliver, l.(ird Pro- 
tector of the Commonwealth of F.nj^laod, Scollnml, and Irclund, 
&c.' By the fame LcKers Patent, tent charges, to Ihc annual 
fttuount of <JUOl. were assigned for the support of the pcnons be- 
longing to llic fouQiiaiion i and leave wvx ulao given Uicm to pur- 
ch'iue and cnyoy luiids aad revenues to the amount of (JOOOl. a 
year: und tu take and use all the manuicripls, library books, anJ 
other buukis and nmlliemiuical ini^lruiDcitu, luid all other inslru- 
meitts whiitsiifver, late Itelunging to the Dean and Chapter, &c,* 

"Scarcely was the new Uniwr«iiy sctileil, wlien Oliver died; 
and, that they luiglit not be wantinjf in gratitude to the memory 
of their benefactor, they presented an address to KicbunI, imme- 
diately after his accession, in which they Lompared Oliver to Au- 
gustus, and gave him (he pmwe^ of Henry the Fil'tli, the prudence 
of Henry the Sc wnth, and tlie piety of Edward the Sixth ; wiid re- 
commended to the vital beams of the piteous aspect of the >on» 
his new erection, an oqjiiuii tcarcv bound up in lU kMuddiii^ 
clothes. 

" 'file new University soon bo^n to lljrive so much ok to ex- 
cite the jealousy of her sisters of Oxford and Cambridge, who UoiIl 
presented petitions against it to the new Protector, and sent some 
pei-K>ns ftum both plnccs to jiivL- reasmis ngain^t a tiird Uiiiver> 
ijty, and etpecially ugainit conferring any degrees there. But ia 
a khoit time after, llicbard, being deprived of the FrotcctonUc, ifao 
ill-pieced machine of govcnimenl fell to pieces, and involved iu its 
niiib this new seminary of learning." 

It 

* The otigiAil chirtcr ii ytl in th« Dun uid C^pln'* librtry. bf W ttfiiHy 
vrttMDon vdlum, and adomcd wiUiOltvci'i picture iad simt, »>d tevenltnia 
UcRMtic^ dntgni. 




OI'RIIAM. 



sr 



if s tuigular fact, obseirn Dran<I, in his History of NVau* 
nstif, that George Fox, (he founder of the Qualccn, has HAumrd' 
! to hinudf the consequence, and, what he thought, the mrrit, of 
liavtn|> been the mt-am of supfirt^uog tbii laudable inuiiulion.* 

Tie present tnagiiificent Catukdrai. of Durhfiin is iiKlubtr-d 
for its ori^n to Bi^op, William de Cariiepho, who, having pro* 
jected a cfaac^ iu the government of this Church, wliitb bad 
hitbcrto been directed by the secuUir clergy, and their Provost, 
obtaiiml under the authority of the Cmwn, and by permission of 
the I'ope, a licetise to introduce regular cunons. Conceiving also, 
tbat the Church built by hn predrceuoi-s was unsuitable to the 
digmty and incrtating poircr of tlie See, ije fiTiiied a plan for 
erecting a structure nmtlar to the superb fabrics be had seen dur- 
ing bit exile on the Continent. In pursuance of this design, the 
ImnilBCion was laid on the Eleventh of August, 10<; 3, with a so- 
lemnly suitable to so vast an undertaking; Atalcoltn, King of 
Scothfld, and Turgot, Abbot of Durham, aviating at Uie cer«< 

SSSf- 



r 



C3 



The 



* TV Kcoant given by Pox of thii rma it ai (ollowi *• We fame to Dur- 
tm, vitMfE n/ci J nrun cone ilown from London, [a Mt up • College there, la 

ikc miniittn at Cfaiiii, *i ihty uid. I went wiih mmt when to tcikxi 
wilh lite RMO. nd lo lei hJtn tee, ihal to teich men Mcbnw, Grcfl:, and t.ntQ, 
nd iha Mva tiu, wkich wm all but ^c tiMchingi of ilie niiunt niui, w» not 
Ibt Wif for to make ihmi miniitcrtor Oiiiil; fa. the laB^tngeiltr^tn at Biliel I 
Md lo ih* Grteki, ih»i tpoke Cr«i h ihpii moilief-loriKue, the croM of Chtiu 
wtilooluhacu: aim) to the Jew*, that t|Mke Hebrew ii their mailicf-tongMf, 
Chha VM • numb ling, block; and at for the Ronum, who itad ihc L»in iiii] 
lulitn, tkff perMcgtcd the Ctiriiiiam i tmi pJUtc, one of ihc Kotnani, wi U«. 
1w«r. Crack, mi Latin, »-L>p of Ctirit vihen he ciucificd him : and J»hii t)ie 
IkviM, who prcaclied the woid ili>t wm in the beginning, uid, ilix the Bc«ic 
imI the Whore had power ovet lanifuti anrl tani^iMgei, md ihey arc u vtuit, 
TIlw 1 I4>I4 him be might lec the Wborc an<l Heart hive power over the tanguct 
mi ihe tnaav kti^agea which arc in Balij'Ion. Nawr, uiid I lo ihr rrtaii, doii 
tlvolhtnlL k) make ininiMciiof Chi lit, by ihc naliirjl cgnfuied language* which 
tpoag from Babct, ate sdniired In Btbd, and ta a-iop q{ C hriii by a jKitccu- 
lor? Oh, no. So ibe man confcti to many of thcic ibmgi; mJ when we ht<l 
iWdtiCouncd with him, be b(«Mii* very lovii^arui tender; mi afier be had 
hmUmmI fMitUct ol It, Iu never Kt up ha CaLlege." 




J 



3S 



SVKnAH. 



Tbe BUIiop cuiiii>elle<l the monks to l&bour in tKe holy woik 
daily, excepting at meul*ttnies, aitd during prayvr and divioo Ber- 
■vicr; but no coosiderablc progress had b«cn made at tba time of 
hi&doatb, which happened within two years after the comracnccnent 
of the structure, llto iiucccMor, Ralph Flambard, wbu rnjoytd 
the bishopric for twenly-nitic yrun, and vtau etiually an vncoun^r 
of ihc pious vrurk, Bnished the building nearly to lh« roof. This 
Pn-Iatcbcfuruhi* promotion to the See of Durhsoi, had giveu proof 
of bi& ability in architcctuit, by llic erection of the Colk^atc Chun^ 
of Tuinani bourne, or Christ Church, in Ilamptihirr. The Ca- 
thcdral ciccttd by thcM rrelalis, wm of the form universally 
adopted by the- Norman archilccls; a long cnMa, with two turret* 
at the u'c»t end, aud bL-tweeii (lieui, a large und richly ornamented 
arched door of entrance: llic ea^t end probably tcxrainalal in 
a uoiicirculur form, as the liiic& of union of the original work with 
the Chipclof the Nine Allan strongly indicate. The side nifles, both 
of the nave and choir, were vaulted with Mmicircular arches, 
groined, and the ribs of the groins carved ; but the nave and tho 
choir were open to tbe timber roof. Tbe nave exhibits the next 
change of style. Diahop Toure Iiuving already given a qiccirocn 
of his taate in tiie couitruction of Salisbury Calhedra.1, indticcd 
Prior Melsonby to cotiform (o a more ornamental mode of ar> 
chitecture in the roof, which he wns then building. Under hb 
direction the whole vault was iircotnrnoihiti'd to the pointed arch, 
(hough tho Norinan zig-tag is umkI along the ribs of tbe groins. 
Successive additions huve rendered ihb Church as it now aifpean; 
not only an enlarged s|)cciroen of Norman building, but a "most 
instructive series of e.\umplc9, illustrating the gradual change of 
i^li^ which took place during the reigns of the three tint Ilenriea, 
till, by degree^ the jniinled had completely superceded the semi- 
ciKular arch; and the heavy clusters of the Norman pillars were 
polished into the light shafts of the early l^nglith."* 

Bishop Flambard translated the remains of St. Culhbert into 
the New Church, and erected a stately shrine, called ihcFcrrfory, 

near 

* Accpvtu oF the'CKbrdral Church orDurh4m, publitlied by the Society of 



DUnUAU. 



3D 



near &e choir; this was fomnHJ with great cltgancr; being com- 
pottd of costly marble, littcd and gilt: and by meaiu of the addi- 
tional donuliuinciftltc numerous pilgrims, it «u reridcrctl coeof 
the nciiDt altan in England. 

CaDtiitfring that, in the diligence of bis predecessors, to itnniur' 
talizc tbc memory of ihfir favorite and bene'/icent Sikinr, they baJ 
fi>rgoUcn due homage to tlic Vir^n Mary, Bishop Hujh Pudwy, 

IPatTurcb of Jeriualem, bcf^i to erect, at the tail end ofthcCa* 
tbednl, a Chaprl to her honor, to which female* might bare frM 
aCCCH for devolioaal exertixs: but tbc work had nul proccrdol 
yaj far, when it was ditcovered that vait clefts appeared, which 
ihrcaiened an early demolition. This manifestation, as it wan coii- 
sdercd, of the pairon Saint's displeasure at the innovation, induced 
tbe Bitbup to rcli&quiiih his purpose, as to that part of tlic Church; 
but he ajtprupriated a part at the vest end for the ^'i^gin'l Cha- 
pel, which he named the Gu/iVrc: into this saiictu^ir^- female* were 
tUowed to enter without oflence;* hut they were not on any ac- 
esnnt to be admitted within the Caibt^-dral. 

4 The 



7W roum of ff male eiccliuion it diiu accoonud for. " BUiud St. Cuik> 
ben, for ■ long line, led ■ mail tulitif y ti(« in the borilera of the Picu, rt 
«b()iplKegiu[c4ncoan«af prr>pl((l*ily uttd to vwitbimt >n^ from wbotp, 
bf the prov»lrate iiid put of Cod, nevcf loy Kturncd without potcoow 
Imi. Thit caucil both young *i>d old la rciorl unto bim, takia({ gmt plei> 
MibMh lo Kc Hm, xid lo Inr him ipak. [n wbirhtimi ir happmed, ihM 
Iht dM^iMr of the Ktnf of ibc province, hiving illicit commerce with one of 
ba hilwr'* donxslic*, tU dftcit were p<rctivcd by thf King, «nd be nimincd 
bd ceaccmu^ the auihot of bet dit£iM.c. Sbc, inui^pud by am evil tnind, 
bumdv MMwcrcd, ■' Tbc toliury young tnto, wbo dwdldh Itird by. U lie 
vha hub ovcTCOCDc mc, and by wbo« buuty 1 in that icKcif ed," Wbcic- 
iir«adieJCiD^furwiMlr«nnged, pmcfltly reptlivd to ihc hnmil'iplice, with 
hii i»uff»et, ttlouleil by wvcnl knightt, wbtrc he Initantly »ccMfed tlw uiw 
out at Cod in the fbllowing muincr: " Wbit *il (huu be, who, uiiJct tin 
cvlout of ttUglon, profineu ilw temple and tniEiuary of Cnd f Alt thott he, 
wbo, gadcj the cloab and piatciiiao of ui Lrrmit. ck«nt(eki ihyMlf in all (iU 
tliiaaaf Behold my daughter^ whom ihau by thy wilts hail cotmpted: ther^ 
(«« oow. at |jal, coitlcM thii tity (aiUl, and plainly drclaie Jxre bcFore iJiit 
owifiMy, in wbn ton Aau hau uduccd her," The King'a dwighUf mark- 
i^lbc Km ipcftlt of hci fitbci, impudniily itcppcd ibrwatd, and baldly 
lAistd, "thai it vrw be who lad doss the wiclud bet," AiwIiUh ihs 

yoBOj 



40 UURHAV. 

Tlic Strength of the pn-jodirc by which females K-ere prccludoi 
admi»ii>n, may be estimated from the following ar»*cdotes. 

In the ycnr 1333, on Thursday in Kftstcr Week, Edward tlte 
Third came tu Durhum, and lodged in ibc Prioiy. Ou the Wed- 
nesday f<^lov(ing, Queen Philippa came from Knaresborough in 
one day to mccl him, and being unacquainted with the cu^'tom of 
thio Chitrch, wont ihrou^ ihc Abbey gates to the Priory, and, 
after suppini; with the King, rdirrd to mL Tliii alarmixl the 
Monhsi one of whom went lo the King, and infurmrd him> that 
St. Culhbert bad a inortnl avet«ion tu the presence of a vroman. 
irnwUlidg to give any otfenw to the Church, Edward iinmediatoly 
ordered t)ie Queen to ante, who, in her under garmrnrs onlj, 
(hi>r ronnlte, &c. being burial,) reiunied by the gale thmu^ 
which she hdd entered, and went tn ihfl Castle; after most de- 
voutly )>raying that St. Cuthberl would not avenge n fiiult which 
ahv had through ignorance committed.— /^ir^/ia Sacra. Vul. I. p. 

r6o. 



y«Bn{ mm. pvaUy kntaccd, ud perceiving tlui thii ealumn)- proceeded froia 
the iattijiiinn of the dcril, (wherewith ho w«i braughi Into gial ptrpkxUy,) 
■ppljeil hi) whole heart unio Alm's'^iy G^id, nyi"g ii firllowmh : " My Loid« 
tny God, who only knowat, ind in the ditcovcrer, of il] ttcteti, make niA> 
ni&jt alia (hit Vinrk of iniijuity, anil by tome tnkcn diiprovc ihc iime, which, 
ihoiigk it rannoi te done by humin policy, mikc it known by tome divine 
iDkcB." WbcH theyannx nun, wilh great tameiilation, and mtf DnuReiabte. 
had ipokeo Ihric vtord), cvcn luddenly, and in the tame [lUcc where tha 
•lood, ihe earth m^ingahiMinsnoiM-, pmcnlly opened, and iwillowed hef 
up in the praencvof all tlw «p>cuior«. Ai *win aithcXii^ perceived thU 
niraele to htppcn In the ptaeiKe of all his compiny, h« be^n to he greatly ior> 
aentcil iii hi* iriind, feaiiog Im, foi hit futiutit ihieaii, Ytt thould incur tha 
ttme puDuhraenL ^%'here1lpon be, with hit company, humbly cravinf pudoA 
of Almighty Go'), with a ruilbet petition tn iIim f^ooA m*n St. Cuihlicrt, that 
by hb jwaycK he woald crave of God la huve hi) dauphin apifi ; which peli- 
llon the holy father ftniaed, upon condition, tbai from ihtncc no wonua 
ihMlld CdrMiwar him- Whence it cane in pati, the King d>d not autTeTany 
woman Id otter into any church dedtcaird Id that Si>nt, which to diit day i| 
dulyohieiAcd in all ihe chaTctie* of the Pictf , which were dedicnted to that 
hoJy man." Dmu'i tuirta tf ikt <tmi»f tj Si. C*!ttitrt iU« SittUnJ, itieaJfUk 
^iht SMttiti MiirwT, p. te. 



1 





'^ 






DtTKtlAH. 



41 



^L In Ibe )*«ir Itl7. 'wo women of NVwcw^le, Wtnz ilrtcrminnl 

^H to approach lb« blirine of M. CuOil>crt nuarer than wm Icj^lly 

^^ penaitted, tlisgiii*«i ih^mM'Ucs iti man's appare], lui wi-ic antor- 

tutmifly discuvcred in (hr fiiu-m])! to conipktc their piirpoftc, nitd 

taken into custody. Ily u-ay DrpiirM»litn«nl for thvir intended pro- 

phanariuii, they w#re adjudft^d to walk, on thrw festiml diiys, 

bHiiTv the procc«»on in St. Nicliolst'tChorch, Newcastle, aiM) on 

^L three oUwr bt^duys, at tlio Cliurcb of Alt Saints, in ihcMnie 

towD, (iibiU^ ill the dn-sHn in which they committed the oflenee; 

prT>cJainaiion being br^t nuidoj as to the cause of this penance. 

TIk mule r >nd miitrcM of the« curious femuln were »t the wune 

lilBe ordered lo Attend the S;iiritunl Cuuil at Durham, to answer 

IUk chargQ of Lciiig cuuiucUuni aiid abt^iiun in Hia mis- 
dtmeaDur.* 
The peat, or central Towrr, is more mwlem than the other piim 
«C ihr Cathedml, it hartn;E hcen proj'eeted, and partly built, by 
Pfimt MrUonby, who acce«Ied iit liie yr.ir 133J. Ilissuccestors, 
Pnor Middleton, and 1'rit.r Hugh, of Darlinaton, who wa* 
^K\ti m 1SA8. finisltcd ihc work. Pritir Mi'bnnby is aUf) ru- 
pUleilM the builder of the &iarie roof ol' this noble Mnicture; and 
^ eommraremcnt of the ChaptI of' tie A'ljie AUan has bnii 
Bniee aitribiited to him; though ili completion ■> atcribed by 
nottliiuoii, to Rtchucd de Hotouo, who uccedetl to the priory 
1111389. 

Kg material nlicnitinns, or iidditinns, nfre mndt* in tiie Cai(»e< 
■fnl, rioBi the above jicTiod fill about the year l77(*i nhen R 
Wtn' being taken, and the fabric adjud|;ed in a slate of inwcuriiy, 
■i"i tnpid dceuy, a syhtein of irjmir wa* immediately commenced, 
Bn^f llw piilromigv uf ihi- Dean and Chupter, iind has been coii- 
tiMKj, with little intermission, lo the present time. Whatever 
*TWi»n amy Ic cnlcriniried of the prc'fe^iunnl Iiilrnts<n"lhcrDspcr- 
ti»e arlisu by whom the reptiirs have been conducted, orof their 

abilities 



* A tofj of lltf BimilMe, dimting llir fh,ip|jiDt nf tlv ibovt (liflKh« ta 
M Ik ptnuKit porfnrifiril, & ptncfvrd an Doufnr't H'ltoiy oT Ncwraulei wd 
•Wityj-aftbc tcttim Biad<by tbcrhifliun of All Siiati. 



m 



DVRUAM. 




abitilies in rcfltoriDg the archileclunil adornments of former da^-s, 
tbe attention of the Dean and Chapter to the preserralion nt' this 
Ktigust jtilv, rnuat indutiitiibly be allowed to mcfil the highest 
fniix. Uuring tlit: last twelve or fourteen years, a vim, mmount'- 
ing to not less tbati frutn lAOOl, to SOOOl. uimuully, hot been 
expended in ils iinprovemenl ; and by a judiriouR apprnprialion of 
the means provided for this purpose, an income has been weured 
of suflkicnt value to defray all ^neral charges of ^turc repair. 
By the ungiiial bcnc&iclur», (he woods growing cu the Church 
lands were appropriated for ils preservation; and uncc the pre* 
aeni iLliemliuns were commenced, a coixudcrable (luaniily oi 
bcr has been fclkv], und its produce rested in ih^Jmiiit in order 
to provifle a constant revenue for the ncecwary reporations. The 
munificence of the present Dean and Chapter is also evinced by ibe 
donation of 3001. annually suhsciibi'd in aid of the sums deemed TC* 
quiute to defray the chargctof the late, andpmjected improvements. 
The situation of this wnerable pile is equally bold and singular. 
EWatcd on a rocky emincnoe that forms the highest part of th« 
city, it bursts on the sight with uncommon grandeur; the basts of 
the rocks which support its west <.-nd, bcin;- hived by the waters of 
ibc! Wear. Trom the squaie called the Place Green, by which it b 
generally approached, the whole of the north front is at once be- 
held. 1'hts entile range preM.-rvcc ils original Nonnaii characlor, 
vilb uccnsjoiittl introductions of windows and trarery Id lh« 
pointed arch manner: but viirious incongruities in the style And 
oniamenu are oW'rvoble, and may be traced to the late repartt> 
tMM. The Parch forming the principal entrance, may, in fw* 
ticillar, be rcmuiked us one of most burbaruus comnuxturcs of 
the Saxon aiul pointed styles that ever disgraced modern architec- 
ture. On the door within ihe Porch is a curious metallic rin^ 
or knocker, sculptured with a tcrridc visage, in bold relief, and 
well executed, with which persons chiimingsanctuary* in tlie night- 
ttme were accustomed to alarm tbe inmates of tbe Cathedral. 

Abuvo 

* " In sDcimt lirau, before the hoviM wu lupprnt, tbe abbey ehutch^ the 
chnrcl^yjid, wnd til the circuit thereof, vri* aHnctiMty Tor til mnner of tnca 
tlitf coisinilKd injr fftti vfltticc, or any ptaoctn who had broken oflt of ptU 

toor 



. 




SVBnAW. 



43 



Above the grut window of the north transept, werr ronnerlvt 
ID two roumlctt, the fi^un-s uf Uenrtlictiiip Muukt, carvvd in n~ 
lief; t bt, whicli tluplHyc-d the state of the art at the periud wlim 
Dal dtvinoD of tbe building wai erected, have been removed, and 
ihdr phccs occupied hy two new figura ; one, a Prior, seated in 
liii installation chair; tlie oth^r, an effigy of Btkhrip Pud-ie^', as 
portrayed on the qiiiropnl seiU attached to his charter to the city 
of Durham, On the oclansular rower, at the vol angle of the 
Oupdof tbeNine Altars, which forms the- eastern extremity of (he 
Catludral, is the invmorablc hasto rclJcvo repn><)(-niing the (-vent 
vhidb occasioMd the latter to be foondeil on this spot. Acconl* 
ing lo tbe legend, the monks who had removed Si. Ciithberl'ii re- 
lics from Ripou, in hopes ufdiK-uverin^ a mure pracvful residence, 
were by • vision diicctcd to Dwikolmc, a place Cfai^y were then 
onicqoaintcd with; but M'hile tmvelling through thcroumry tviih 
uncenun steps, a wmnun, in qunt of a siruyrd cuw, %ni in- 
fbftnedt in their bearing, that slic would tiixl it in Dunholmr, 
(Durliain,) whither, with grateful hparls, they acroropaniert their 
Cnnale guide. Tbe figuics which reprrfteni the cow, the woman, 
and tutnc other pcrtonage, appear in a rccns of the stnne-H-ork ; 

but 



aon* wti fled IS the chufcli door, knocliiiis to have It opened : slw, unsia 
Wm hy in two chtmbm ovn iIk north door For tli<( t>iirpinr. lli»t. Mhcnever 
•Mch o0ad<n c4in<, hmI knockrd, thty iiuumly let them in ii my hout at 
ihe night ; and iid tjuiclcly to the CjIiIm bell, *ad totted it, [)iji whouxever 
heaid it, tm^ht know ilut tome lud (jktn Mnc(u«ry. Wbcn the Tiioc had a»* 
•foe themf, lie tent otitn fnt them lo keep within [ti« lanctuary; ititt it, wUV 
la the cbuKh, »<! church-ystd ; nd ihtt every one ahould hive * ^own ef 
Uxtt (loth, wilb a yellow crou, called Sr Cuihben'icrau, at llu; lefCthtruJdM; 
tlui every KK ni^bt tee Lhe privilege gneied at S>. Cudiben't %)i'iue, (m ot- 
fenden lu Qy unto for »uecour arid uleguard of ibeii Ilvu, till the)' could ol^ 
tain their Piicce'i piidon: and itiu they should lie wiUiin (Ik thurchofl ■ 
grate, nude only fat that purpo*e, adjoining lo the Galilee louiti door. They 
had likcwiae neat, drink, bedding, and other necetutla, it ihe coit of the 
Aoine far ibirty-jevcn day*, bcUi^ onlyiucli u were ntiwMary for lurb oSenderi 
MMJl the Prior and con*nU could get dicin coAK'ytd ogt of the diocoeL Tbia 
^iTilcgc wsi coa6finid not only by King Cuiiiiid, but by Kiug AluieJ 
JikcwiM." i/akAiatcn. CmJ.fr»m LMtu, Sir Jtii* LtaiiM'i Uii. iiaJ Mr. 




c 



prEiiAif, 



but wera re-iculpturf^ a few j-can ago, and tbrir ori^nal forms 
luBicwiiat altcn-tl. 

The cost front bus been rpj>uire(l and modernized: lliu windows, 
forming a double ningr, arc hII of the lancet shape, excepting 
the centre window uf the upper tier, which b circular, and ra- 
dtnted wilt stone-work. These windows were originally onia- 
metited with a profuUou of pointed glass, which, from various 
accidents, became so dciuccd and mutihited, ihai the subjects 
could not be traced; it is now entirely removed. The south front 
prcserrcs much of its ancient diameter, though some partbiiavo 
been chisseled over lo moke way for the new facings. Only a 
jiu-ilini view run be oblaiiied uf this fide of the Cnthedrxl, as the 
cloiiten, domiitor}', and other buildings, conceal nearly tho 
whole of the lower part. The west front, comisting of two highly 
ornaini'iilod !.quiirr Tuwent. wiih the Galilee between, appean to 
great acivanlagc from ihc opposite side of the river. "The base- 
ment line of ibc elevation," observes Mr. Carter, " presents th« 
projecting Chapel of the Galilee, flanked by huge buttresses and 
archcc. spiinging out of the rock, to contribute due support to 
its wulb, which form one vast combiiiatiuii of security to tho 
main cdititc itself." Above ihe GHlilee is the great west win- 
dow, with inrioii» riirirhcd compartmencs springing up to the 
roof. The arcbiicciural adornments of the towers arc modem; 
and the atlempl to make Iliein arconi with the original forms, 
hai<, in many instances, proved un»uccc»ful: their summits are 
bounded by pinnacles and open worked battlements. The great 
centre tower rises from the inierseciion of the nave and cnmtcpt, 
and is singulaily rich and flej;ant. Round it is a profusion of 
line tracery, poinred arches, and other nrnnnirnt-'i; and its but- 
tresses are graced with niches, canopied, and decorated with tra> 
cvry, within which various statues arc placed, representing the' 
original founders oikI patrons of the Sec. The lidght of litis 
lower is 314 feet. 

Tho interior of this nngust building is highly interesting to ihosa 
who wish to trace ihc contipction between Saxon and Nornuti ar- 
chitecture, or to observe the latter in, perhaps, ita highest %ti*g« 

•r 




DC H RAW. 



43 



I 



b 



dl perCertion. Tbe compBrison of thrw ntAtn with the IjigliJi, 
or {Mn'nlnl styles, mny nlw be mul«; as the Cbajic) of thf Nine 
Allan pitrUkcs, in its general ennclimcots antl pmporlign, i>t' the 
•fchiiedurml character of Saliibury Catb«(iniJ; and, ftom ill 
siagulorly li^t appraratLCc, funm a atriking runsiraat uith the 
maive Nonnan work prevalent ia ihc ohcr |ism of the liubric. 

" In tbe inside of this struciuri'," olnpn-es Mr. PoJinunt. " it 
ptesenrrd much of the ponderous, yet vcnoraLIc, macnilicwtcc <.*f 
tbe early Norman style: the pillars arc vast rylciiitii'*, Iwrntyo 
titree tret iti circumteietice; some adorned wiib xi^xag furrowst 
DtlietT, lo2cngc->lwpcd, wiifa narrow ribs, or witb spiral; the 
aicbes round, carved nilh ^i^a^i abuve arc two rows of gidle- 
lies, each vsith round urchis or openingn: a row of small piiastrrt 
rtua round the sides of the church, with rounded nrches inter- 
secting each other." A more particular description lia& been 
gmm by Mr. Hutcbinson, iu tbe following wortis. 

*' The (wo extreme culumris to Ibc uest, nse from bases of the 
fonn of a complicated cross, having pointed projections from the 
initfior angles: tbe dimensions oi eatb baw are filieeii feet every 
«iy, being exactly similar to those which support the columns 
of the tower and dome, vulgarly called the lantern: the pllltin 
tre clustered, having three semicircular pilnstci's in euch front, 
divided by an angular projection. The next column, easlwardi 
riHt from a base ol the form of u cross, twelve feet every wny, 
Kipporting a clustered pillar, the pila<tler!> of which townrds the 
nave, nm up to the roof through the feciit, belween the upper 
irindows. The next nua from a square baM> of ei)jbl lcL<t, and is 
nchly ilutcd, terminaiing with a plain capital, which tuppoiU (he 
^lety above the side aisle. Eticb intermediate pillar b clufrtereft 
Idte those dncnbed in tbe tt-conil pbice, stretching up to the roof; 
iboie in the intervals arc circular, milking the; succnsiou consist 
cf a duUercd pillar and • nmnd one alternately. TlieHnt round 
pillar is fluted, lu before doscri bed; (he second covered with lh« 
ng'tag figure; and the third grooved with the figure of a not, 
The pilUn opp<»ite to each other brc cjuctly ^milar in ornameiiu 
ud dinensioiis^ and it is also to be observed, that (he bases of ili« 
t cluilcrcd, 




M 



BUBIIAX. 



ruaiid ihe iiwide nf ihr lanlrrn : llio snoce from th« ^llery to lfa« 
window is filli'il with ricli rom|»!rtmenls, wbich, with ihc wiiuiuir 
itSffSi, lire wdl imigiiicd: gruiiKt) urclieii fotm Uk; Icrmitiatioii of 
tb« Uinlern; and wlian viewed from below, the inaguitudc and 
gmrulrur of its several parts arc cMrvtiK^ly Unking."* 

At «tcb did of the middle, irdit.sfpt, on tlio cist side, n an u$l« 
•eparaicd from the body of the trauKpt, by one clmtcrcd aiui two 
round pillan; one of the latter is groorcd in the s^inl ftinn; the 
other, in the t'lt^'xag manner: in cadi lusle was formerly thn-v nl- 
Urs. The window* of this transept were once richly ornaroctttcU 
witb painted gtnsi, of which little rvmaiiu, hut a figure c»f St. 
Bode it) a blue hubil, und some imperfect mcmoriabi of the cni- 
cifixion. At the ar)uth end of the transept is a curious dock, 
erected by the Dcini and Chapter in ikc ycttr ItiJZ. 

The CAoir is divided from the transept by an oak screen, de- 
corated with feiitouRs of ftULt and flowers, carved in a very bold 
style, and havini; an ealabluiuru of a rich tijliaj<epalt«rn. Above 
the screen is a large and fine toned oi^an. The length of tho 
Choir t:t I'iO feet: the tloor is paved with bludi and white marble. 
The prebendftl slalU are finiitlied with tiilM^madc work, in which 
tbo Xiideiit Mvle i» hut indilfcrcnlly tiuitiilcd, but their funeral 
' effect it not un|)lt-ii>itig. On the sotith siJc ie the cpi«:opul Tlirone,t 
au elegant structure, ci-cctvd about the year 17^0* by Ui»bop Hat- 
field, over ibc vstuh wherein he lies iuu.*rrcd. The throne is con- 
siderably elevuu^l; in the centre is a chair of slate, having a ca- 
nopy of ornamental tabernacle work; it was re|)Bircd by Bishop 
Crewe in the jear UOO, and new-painted and gilt by Bishop 
.Lgcrtoii in lt7~' The pulpit which m on the utitili ude, is 
sdonied with li{;urc» of soint* of ihe Apostles, ucutly inlaid o» the 
patincls, and nearly us large a% life. " Thu Choir cumprcheiidg 
four pillars on each bide; two of ihcra clustered, nnd two round; 
the hitler aro cut in ihc spiril liglire. The roof was repaired, or 

nihec 

* Aecounlof the Cathedral oFDutham, (Ktbliihcdby theSocktyaf Ant'><)u»i(*. 

t When tlie Bithop f^att cd the tkronc, he >i (Iwayt prcocedeil by a penoa 
buiiif 1 lostiy gilded mice, ta diitlauioo of hi» KCuUr pmrcr. /fiikAw**. 





DCROAV. 4^ 

mthcT now vaulted, by Prior Hutoun, who sccecded in 1339: 
it ii of elegant Goihic work, tbo rihs of tltt arckci tcriiiinaliit]; in 
points oroumcdied with ruMs; ihe fiUeti pierceil iii n>M-a and 
aomea: some of ibc decorations of ibc centre n»ci arc liiigular; 
one next to the organ ctiittaim a tiumati Hjjiurc, with tlim; round 
balk in «n apivo. From ilie attar-ruiU ea^twuid, ilic uliole woik 
tpiwars nearly of Ibe same date ; and by tbe arcbitecture of ihU 
put, it leeou tbai tlic building urigiiially tcrminittcd here, and 
was opened fuitlicr eastward to (urm a cuiincclion with the eatt 
tmaept, or CbB|)cl of the Nine Altaic The columru which riie 
at the altar-rail, arc Utile more than thcplainlucinguf a comtnoa 
vail, on)aiuented with lung unaJI pilmten, single and belted in tba 
middle; their capitali piercL-d, drconiira uiUi figures of aiiiinuhf 
and fiiirshed above with tiilcmacle work. The opi>mn^ of the 
gallery io this part is diircrcnt troin the rc^t of the church, and 
consists of throe pointed archm, suppnrinl by columns, wlio«c 
capimUarc richly pierced; ihc lillrts of the arches arc pierced, 
and kighly ckcoratvd ; and there u alKj nn inloiior pillar luppurt- 
isg s gruined vaulting. Here the building appears to bare been 
brahco off, and the ottl wall rcrao\ied; yet the vaulting or the 
roof a continued, and orcr the altar-t:ible finbhed with a fine 
poiolcd arcb, supported on clustered- pillurs, ningjng with the 
«de of tbe east tranKpt: the capitals, attd the fillets or mouldings 
L of tbn arch, are hi^ly fiutsticd witlt pierced work, and bv.ir no 
fdmffte of (imiUtude to any of the mure western parts of the edi- 
fice Within tlie altar-rail* are fourwuts on each side of tbe ol- 
UxHable* for the officiaUng prints to rvst, formed of pillars sup- 
pociing pinnacle wurk, oi ibu lanie materials and design as ilie 
work behind the altar, and mott probiibly were erected ai tba 
■ane tioie."* 

Tbe Scrten, which forms the eastern termination of Ihe choir, 
Biad divirlei it from tbe Feretory, and Chape) of the Nine Altars, 
of my elegant wurkinansbip. but has been greatly muiiluktl at 
periods liitce ill erection, *' It was gircn by John Lord 
Vol. V. O Nevillt 

■ ifuUkiassa'* Ouihtn, VoL II. p. 144. 






DUEUAlr. 



Neville tt th« etpcnce of 400l. (a vast cum in tbow lim««;) the 
Prior and Convent contribaling largely, by ^ving towards its com- 
plction, 1?3I. 6s. Sd. the work of it hanng been previously 
wrought in London, and sfnt hither by •«&. Robert B<^rrington, 
Ae Prior, cmplo)Td seven expert maaom, who were almost a 
year in erecting it, and to whom, besides their wage*, hr &)tow«d 
meat and drink till ihc^ work wa^ finished, in 13S0. The design 
is divid>i;d into tiirec Utn, or stories. The h^west, or basement, 
is solid ; the second and third are open, so UjsI the statues wbickj 
lillcd the niches, or rather cano|iiet, were seen through in a bade' 
view from the ea&t side. The light and airy pinnacles, rising in 
a pyramidical form, tier above tin, in splendid ronfusion, cannot b« 
too much ailmired."* Under three grand centre rano|Hes on th« 
west side, were urigpually whole length statues of oor Lady, St. 
Culhbert. and St. Oswald; and all the others vrcn; likvwtsv onii 
mcMled uilh statues of great and holy per^una^. The vr 
mchta on the east side were also filled with hiitioric statuet 

Immediately behind the Screen, projcctiHg into the Cbapvl 
the Nine Altars, uiid on a k-vrl with the choir, is theCbapel called' 
ibe Ftretuty, where the gorgeous shrine of St. Cutfabert was ao- 
cienlly dcpusiled. This shrine, through " llic godly devotion 
Kiiig^ Qucetis, and other estatvs," is reported to have becomgr 
the richest in the kingdom; but its ancietit splendor is vantsfaed, 
and the only marks of its former reputation, arc to be fuund in 
the hollow impressions worn in the stone RtKiring, by ibe feet of 
the numerous pilgrims who visiiL-d tlie sbrine in the ages of supcr- 
ttitioD. So inentorious wa« this last act considered, that, in tha 
year 1284, William, Bishop of Dumhlain, grouted a remission of 



* Account of Durliim Cilhed nl, publiihcd by llw Sociccy of Amiquariei 
In which *lMiiiiobKtvc4, thn. '*tnt>(Icin juiho'i, in dcKriEriogihiiKncn, ny» 
that it it made of pluur of Pjrii; to jiiilgiii;, no ilaubt, from one of the 
■unci by which il it knowni Uul lithe Ficnch Purtt: but Ind thry cAnildercd 
i\* impauibitiiy of it) bting contiiucted in ihai Diiniier, ur made ilie iligkUM 
abacrviiion on iii maicjulf dicy would Juve found it wrought in thea>ual 
aUdial, ffcc-Honc" 



urieii 
a, «y» I 
oflbe I 




DURHAM. 



Si 



I 



I 



fort>- <Uy» penance to ereiy votary who performed it.» The re- 
mum of SU Cuthbert are said lo have been deposited he^(^, in a 
** dkat vcQ /artifiett vtlh nt^fa antiUttther,"^ which was after- 
wardb {ncloied in a marble sepulchre at the expence of John Lord 
Nerillc, bot tbeae have long been retnovedi the thrioe having 

DS been 

* Ttx oitfiiul Indiil][enca ii ytt proencd id the LibnTy of the Dno and 
Cfa>fnv( lod a copy of it it appended lo Dr. Siniih't edition of Sedci No. tfi, 

t Hcyge'i Lefcnd : in Uiii work U Uw following telatien of ihc iMcimpiiU/iry 
oT St. CutJibcn. '' Befoie ihf day of trantlition cinte. Prior Taigot, with 
tome of hu brcihroii doemiiKd to open hit toinb«, wKii inteni to 4I10W his 
body lo the pmpir, K they found it attire. An nisliti ihertfoie, they tciclt at 
bit Mpulchre, *im1 tcvci«ntly l«kiu|[ otF [he itune, they found a chat well for* 
uficd with mylct and l»iiwr, tod in it uioih«r, wnpl iti clMh thrice double, 
km which lh«Y foand ibc Book* of (he Evan^iiti* which had fillfD into iha 
Mat ibafeaitref altar, a goblet of fHIc* gold, with in dh/x itonp, aadta ivory 
coMib : Iwly, opnkf tbi third cbett, ihcy found the body of the Saint (which 
the £rt*c ID «o BUOf ftta bad not di£sH«d) lyinf upm the lijht tidf, to j>v« 
lima a t^ the rMt of ihc rtliqun : foi in the ttmt corHit were the booct of vcitca 
nfcia Bid* t iha hctd of St, Oiwald ; part of the booei of Aidimii, Eadftid, 
ami DfetfwoM, fttilMpa of Linditfame: all which (cliques they placed wiib 
doc reiereace in other parti of the Church; and l*yui|SL Cathbcrt on hii back, 
Ibcy placed St. OiwaU'* bead between hi» haada. At the day of bil iruula* 
tioo, Rmtlpbua, the Biihop. puhliahcd in hi* Mrmon 10 ih< pcopU, the incor> 
npciaa ol St. Cutbbtrt't body, which w»* nexiblc, aiid aow migbc pkad ptop 
aeriptiaa with ibtgim W be Immotal. And Lhut in great wleiniuiy cliey 
^aaMoad him hai iitb thi hi|h altar, in the prcscae* of the Abbot of SL Albaiu, 
ibo Abbot of Si, Utriwt in Yorlu, th< Abhoi of Sc Gvtmtu, FtiM Tufot, 
wtab rbtrMWi't of people ipeciaiori of the mmcle." 

* Tif Baai *J Ikt Hiangriiili wu originally written by Edfrid, a Monk, who 
i» 69I wa>ad*Hced to the Seeof Ltndiifkme, inddunng hit rditcmcnt iti iFiai 
finmmitty nMaliird the Coepcii into Latin. After hit deceaie, it wai dceo- 
fwtad wUhgild aod jcwds by Etbdwold, bii auccoMt; and with aomc can> 
mt /M'abV' by Klfrid, an AMhoriM. Prafixad to it, an the Pi^mu and 
Cimni if tuMbiuafid Hieronyraiu; beiidea ao inUrllneary Saxon Venion 
br AJdred tbc Prie« At the cod of SL John't Gotpel aic thcae Unet added 
km a cctneaiponry hnd: 



^ LUm mt pudit, Scrmonltfidimlniun, Omnoalnc mcoi frairca 
Cum vote ululA. 




And 




53 



DvanAUi 



l)«en tiefaced and plandcreil by the Cummi-isionors of Henry the 
Eighth, who Kinuc^lf ordered the soncu^od relics of Sl Cuthbert 
*' to be buried in (hi> [^rtitind umlcr tin:; place where his ihriite was 
exttlicd."" A large blue Hoik, placed in llic centre of Ibe floor, 
is reported to cover the olkn-rcniuwcii buiia> of llio venerated Saint. 

The 

Aai ■furwardi; 

^ T'inui « Uiili Dcm Eviopllura hoc mte Mccult cooilStulL 
•^ Miuhciu ex orr Cliriili acriptil. 
4> XltrcuicN OM Petri Kriptic 
•^ Larai A< oic Fciri AputoU icripiit. 

•f- Jukannci in priKheinio dcinile CTucuvit VCrblUB, Dm dooanle, «t 
Spiritu laiicta, *cnp*iL 

Th(i> firllowt B Sixaa wriuoK> I'lTniryins <^i< •> ^** l^« woik of the ibove 
Kdftii], tlhelwold, BiUiid, uii ALdrcd. Tliit Uuly vmerabit piece uf anii- 
q»hy wu pnatnti in the Cubednl till che Rcfuimatiuti. It klunnrdB fell 
into the tund* ot Sit Robcil Cotton, and U yd pnMCvcd In hit CollcUkia in th« 




■ Djvict'* AncttrH Ri|;ht( nid Monummttr Ac. p. ijg, tA. 1671. Th« 
tdc or the inrDriuptibillty «( M. Cuihbfn'i body I) tlto pKterved by ihii ni. 
thnr, n fvllown " The »Krcd thrmc of hoiy St. Culhbert wn dcf«ud at ibe 
viiiiatioa vbich Di. I.oc, Dr. Moilty.ind Mi. Bliihmjn, hdd at DuilniB,ror 
th« »ubvcitins iiwb tnonumcnu, in the time af Henry cbe Eighth, •■ hi* ni|k 
prmicin of ib< Afibcyi, There ucre found many worthy «iid goodly jewctij 
but «ptcially one pftcioiiiUonc, wliicb, by tttc ullwitc of choic thm vitttorif 
•lid iheii aViUul lifidactes, wm of vilucaolliciciil 10 nniuia ■ pTinee. After 
Uk ipoil of hii ortnmcnu tnd jcwdi, coning nar unto hii budy, ihinking to 
have fuunii nut hill g hui duitiod boon, ind bading Uic cbai iImi he Uy mvary 
Itiongly bound Willi i(0», ibc goldimiili, liking • gfcjt foigi: Juntmci of a 
«mith, brake the laid chtit : and when ihcy had o{icned it, tiKy found bim 
lying wbulc, uncoinipl, with b» face bate, and hii bctrd, u it wef«, of ■ fort' 
night*) KTuwih, ifid all liii veUfnend about bini at he wu acciiitomed to My 
nuM, and hii mctwand of gold lyiof by hurt. When the guldtmilb pcrrrived 
he bad broken one of hit kga, m be biolic open the cheat, he <wat trouhlcd it It 
■nd cried, '* A'aal I \av* biokenaiMoF hit lep." Dr. Henley, hearing him 
ny M, called upon himi and hid him cut down hit bonm. Whtirta ibc otlier 
•Aiwelcd, that he could nol get them asunder; for the liocwi ind the ikin held 
ihan M ihu dxy would DM COOK SMUulct. Then Dr. 1^ tupped up to >« 

whctbci 




J 



duuhaU. 



53 



I 



The Ckaptl ofthr Nine Allan, which terminates ihc Cathedral 
easbnrd, is entrivd frnm the side aisles of (lie Choir, by u dcs^ 
ctat at sevcrul steps. Its lenirth is 1:^0 feet; its breadth, from 
IbcfCTVOD of the high attJir, SI leel ; lliin cnnking the entire length 
of the burldiog 411 feet> llie pilasters of this transept, froin 
which lise the groiia of the roof, arc uf un nn^ulur pro- 
jertion, light »nd elegant: on each side of the gre-&i window tha 
[lilssicn consist of « clititer of small circular columns, one of 
larger dimensions in front, and six on each side, to form the pn>- 
jectiog angle. " The several columns composing (h^-clnsten, are 
beautifully contrived to relieve the cy« from the general mua; 
they standing in part clear of the body of llic cluster, but con- 
nerted to it by their buse», baiid^f, and capitab, wtiicli, with the 
jibs of the groins qiringing from them, arc enriched with foliage 
and flowers."* Every other column " is of black marble, the 
tolerroediate ones of white free-stone, which had a beautiful ef- 
fect before they were, from the mistaken jteul of Kcfurmatioo, 
daobed over, anil concealed as tticy now remain, with washing and 
oker.t" This portion of the Cathedral received its name from the 
Nine Altars erected beneath the windows on the cast side, and 
dedicated to raiious saints. The decorations uf these Hll»n, us 
d>ey appeared previous to (hv neformution, Ijhv-c been thus 
described. " The Nine Altars had Uieir several scnvns, and co- 
ven of wmnscot over-head; having likewise bciweeti every altar, a 
■wtxy hirand large partition of wainscot, all rurnishcd over with 

D A fine 



I 



wbetbR H vrcrc w, and turning ibaut, ipikf in Latin li Dr. Ilfnie)-, ihtt he 
^n> nxtrt j yet Dr. Hrnlcy Mcmcd not tu );i«c ctcdit to hit votAt, bol itlll 
cticd M have bit bobcicati dawn. Thm Dr. Lm in*di aiuwcr, "If ynu will 
pol bcltnc mt, tome up youiKlf, «[iil >ce hini." Whtccupnn Df. Ileiil*y did 
•tcp up, led Ktadlc him, >nJ Fouml ihzi lii; lay wliole, Th«n li« touimjoded 
th^m to tak< him down; and lo ii happened, contnry toihcir fKpe<-taiiAa, ihil 
oeiaalf hit body wm whole, aad uncatiupCCil, hut >lu> thai the vcMmoitf, 
^rhcroa hit body lay, and Mbercin he waa accuuoRwd lo aay mu», w«ic fitth« 
Ml«t and not cociumcd." 

* Acoeauil of Dutham Calhedtal, publiahed by Che SociHy of Anciquariet, 

t Hatchiosoa'i Duf ham. Vol. 1 1. p. s^f. 





M DURHAM. 

fioe branches and flowen, and other inuj^ry wori, coDtauuogUi* 
Mveral Igckyers and ambcrin fur tbe safe keeping of tli« re^UnenU 
aiid ora&ments belonging to tlie altar, vith three or four little 
atnberifis in the wall, for the same use and purpose." BcTofc th« 
grcAt centre window, it appMrs also, that niae creaseti, or lamps, 
were suspended, whoM ligbl was so grcut, as to malfe every part 
of the Cburch visible during the vhule time th^ were kept 
burning. 

Many distinguished prelates, aod oibcr eminent peiunG, have 
bf€-n interred In this Cathedral, and their remains covered with 
beautiful tnmbs and hreues, which have mostly been swept away 
by the hands of sacrilege or fanstici^m, sinc« [lie duys of H«nry 
the Eighth : the principal monument now remaining, is that to the 
memory of Bishop Hatfield, on the svuth side of tlu choir. The 
basement story of the episcopal throne serves as a canopy to the 
aJisT'tomb of this prelate, whose effigies is i n tine preservation, 
and has been thus described by Mr. Carter. *' This beautiful 
statue has fortunately been preserved in a nearly perfect state to 
this time; a few of the most prominent parti bkving outy suffered. 
The Biihop is habited in hie epncopal dresi^, richly adorned with 
sculpture, painting, and gilding, iii iuiitaliun of embroidery. The 
outer garment is the chasuble in iu ancient ample form, and 
much ornamented. On his hands are the episcopal gloves, em- 
broidered on the back; on his left arm is the maniple. Beneath 
the rha&uble is the lineu alb, or surplice; and under that appears 
another garment or tuiu'c, on which are richly embroidered three 
shields of arms. On the central shield are the arms of England; 
in the two liLlt-ral ones, the Bishop's own coat. The honor of 
bctiring the arms of England in ibis manner, soems a proof of the 
high estimation in which this Dumnantmotn prelate was held by 
his sovereign, and perhaps might have been granted to him in cort- 
sequence of the distinguished part be bore in the signal victory or 
Nerjtie's Crow. 'Jlie feet of the Bijihop are covered with rich, 
embroidered shoes; and on his bead is the mitre, of its ancient 
low form." The painting and gilding which ndomcd the statue, 
as well as the eniblacontncats and arms which ornamented the 

wbO'le 




-i 



DCEKAH. 



55 



I 



whole tomb, ore now caUrely bidden and dei'iiccd by a ifaick coal 
gf Jtglit yellow. 

Seme beaucifaUy ornainRnied Doorwsyi, in the Norman stylo, 
ue connected wiih different parts of the Cathedral; two of them 
iiftve been tfaiu described in ifae account published by the Society 
of Antiqasno, which is ftl»> ftccompwued by elcvatiuns and 
giound'plsot. *' The proportion of the door entering into tlie 
north cloister, from the west end of the touch aisle, is very strik- 
ing uid it has mncb the air of a Roman arch. On each side the 
opening are three columns: the tu-o exterior ones are united in tui 
oncoiamon mode. They are covered with diagonal mouldingB, 
which, by meeting at the union of the column, form diamond pan- 
dHs, The tingle column on the left has losengc pannels p1iice>d 
alternately, and each filled with a flower. That on the ri^t faaa 
larger diamonds, filled with flowers, and divided by beads: the or- 
nanenls of both the capitals are varied. Tli« architrave is divi- 
drd into three parts ; the 6r«t and second have the diagonal or 
signg: the exterior division is of uncommon form; it con«sts of a 
tort of temi*oclagoniil band. The two oblique faces are hollowed 
like cavetiosr (he middle face is flat, and enricliod with leaves. 
Over alt arc laid large patems, ornamented with flowers and 
foliage." 

The second door opens from the north side of the dotsCen in> 
to the east end of the »oaTh nisle of the nave, and is equally rich 
aad singular in its decorations with the fnrmer. '* The three co- 
latana on each side stand oti a snrbasc : thi-ir shafU are plain, and 
Ihflit capitals rslher of a simple form ; they ar« detaclicd from the 
wall in the manner of the esirly English style: within ihcm is a 
flat groutK), in whicli is the opening uf the doorway. I'his gmund 
is hi^ly enriclted with an uncommon Tartety of the diagonal 
moulding, edged with b<-xd«, and with rosM in the punnels. An 
unaccoantable irreguUrity of design occurs in the teft-hund of the 
arch: the architrave is divided into four parts; the first, a ca- 
vetto, with dcuched rosw. the second is a bold convex, cowred 
with a double frctt, beaded ; the tliird is also convex, with n luriied 
bftitd, also beaded i the exterior is likewise convcjt, and resembles 

U 4t a bundle 





s6 




DUKHJkM. 



ft bundle of tvigt, with tbe young shoots or stalks of \eana cnl off 
short : these twigs nre tiso beaded. This omammt scrnvs hy some 
»n»ll parts yet rcmAining, to have been coiirinued on each side> 
o«er ultier arches." 

T1m9 Clou(eri udjoin tbe Cathnlrol on the south, and were 
[«rfctfd Itctwenii the yeiirs 13S9 nncl U38, at the cxpcnce or 838U 
^•]7s. '>d. ux hutulred of which wa^ paid by BUhop. Skirlaw, and' 
ihc rrnmindcr by Cardinal Langley. They form a quadrangle 
of 147 itvtt hftvinft eleven open windows in each front, the mulliona ' 
tKiid tracery of which were rf|>air<'d in itie pointwl styic »(>inc yean ' 
afft. Tb«y are ceiled with pannels of Irish oak, originally oma- 
JUcatcd with cuibtiiEoncd i>hields uf the arms of varuntK illustrioits 
poriioiiag^ who ronlributud tu einicii the Chun? ii by thi-ir broevo- 
lencc or piety: scarcely any of these embellish menu arc now dis- 
tingui<iKftble. 

On the west Mdc thccloiilen is the Dormitory, wbicb is entered 
by a flight of stone steps, and is an apaitnient of very lurgo pro- 
portioiuL, but ill limited, and desolate in its asppct. Under the 
dormitory were the bonf^ school and trrasury; in which, according 
,to Mr. Hutchinson, arc lodged, '* about ninety royal chertera 
and grants, fifty-two deeds by nobles end barons, and 26fi by in- 
ferior gentrj-; about 131 by pojx-s, bishops, priors, &c. and 130 
iftber urigiuul deeds uiul copies: altogether 670. 
, On the cast sido of tlie ctoistcn was llic Frater-house, or 
Slonk's Hull, which Dcaii Sudburj- convened into an elegant 
JJlrary fur the Dran iind Cbapler about the year |6\^0. Tbb 
apartment bas just been repaired ; and the excellent cullcrlioD of 
bookii destined lo fill its shelves are at present in confuMun. V«- 
riuui Roman in&ciiptions, found in the bivivopric, iiml in the ad- 
joining county of NonhumbcrlanJ, are lierv deposited; as well as 
many records and curiusides. auJ ainung them a copy of Mugna 
Cbarta, dated I'Jth November, \'llO; another, dated llth Fcbrit- 
Eiy* 1^24; (from thnc Judge Blackstone made his collatioDs;) 
a manuscript copy of tbe Bible, in lour volumes futio, 600 yeiin 
oldi and Bcdc's fi%c books of History, of the same dale, 

? Tilt 



DUnilAH. 



JT 



The CiaptefUov9ff wliitli utood on (lie e«l >i<Ir of llw clois- 
tcrS) wu [DDStly pulled down during the IhIc rrpain of ihc Csihe' 
dni iti Ibnn \ras an oblong square, trrminalifig in a somi- circle 
toirards ttic cut. tu i[il€ina1 arnuiscnenl is B['»Vrn of at bvflring 
*' * rtriking rcwit.blaiicc to the ino?t ancifni Cbristinn churdic*.'* 
In lliii building tnuiy of the andrnt Prrlnics* were entombed ; uid 
agaimt the rut end wu4 llie ston« chair or Lhrune in \ttiicb the 
Dew Ditbnpt wp^■^ intlullfd. 

From Itie cloiftcn is s ptLSsagr leading to « specious oblong 
tqiatv, cmlled Ibe t otltge, wbicli occupies ihe tnosi plewaut part 
of ihe ciiy, and it cbii-fly inbRbiicd by penmns wlxwe offices' at- 
lach ibetn to lb« CtllufJral. Here is ihr Dtantr^ and Prthrii- 
Atthr^u*^: th« tatter L^in;* well hntit, and pnrtly modern, haw a 
TMy respectable aji^ieflrsncc. The Doancry wbs lormi-rly tlie 
foot'* iud^iigs; but tcurccly any of tb« apartmcntj rcmaiti tin- 

altered : 



■ TV gtornl bari«t-p1«c# oF (ht Monfct wm the CtmHcry. or Cc'Ury Catth, 
«ihieb exTfflded nttwird f*sni ihe Claptvi H':iux: ind in vrhlrh wu pbccd 
dnStoae Ctou of St. Etbclwvld, uid u» hive been imioveit Irnm Uie chuirb 
St [.iadMbme. In the IdtlUdral chore Ik^td, which niigr't an I'nc north itde, 
naoof natMeioui other owmonvli of depanrU me'it. ■• in ilur-toinii co th« 
fBcmory of the rapecud «iithor of The tcononiy of Hledui t^ft.'tni other 
eitfamed wotki; Milh lh>t inwr-plion, eontiiatcd by Jot«ph Spcncc, A. M. 
Pralcuorof Modem }IUior>' >l Oxford. 

If yoo h«*e iny mptct 

For luieecnmon Induitry lod Mttit, 

'^ ReiC*rd thi» Plwe; 

Is wtiftfa ire uucrrtd the SeauiM 

Of 

M& Roamt DoDiiiy I 

Whoii M u Aalhoi, raited hitnieir 

Hack aboM whtt could h«vc bten cxpeUcd 

From one in hit Sauk ol Lifie, 

And withoHt leinied Educ-ilion t 

And wlio, u I Mid. wu icaiccly 

Lieceded by my, m Integrity of Hewt| 

And Pority of UuiDcii, mil CuamtUion. 

He IcU ihi» life fi^r » belief 

Scptcaberajd, t;64,uithe&itt \'tti oS hit Agt. 





A8 



DUKHAK, 



•Jtered : the kitchen «as origfnnWy ihe kitchen of the moruutery, 
ant) has bri-ii cliarsctorisctJ by a modern srtisi, at a ** master- 
piece of masonry:" its form » ociangular, aiMl its iHincmions very 
lar^c:. The roof ii laulipd, and, in ita general coiisiniction, it rc- 
Bcmblo the Abbot's kitchen at Gtu>tonbury. At ihe upprr end 
of the square is a nciit fountain, or revrivoir, for nqpplying the 
neighbounng fanulica with water, wliich U biougiit in jtipe* from 
Elvct Moor, about u mile distimt. 

The sloiic Gutcwny at llie entnicice of the Cnllege from the 
Bailej-B was erected by Prior Caiti-ll, about ihc ywir J 5 IS. 
Above it vas the Chape) of St. Helen, and lite old BxcbequcFa 
vhcrc all the rents reserved in the chapter hases are tuade poy- 
ablf. 

^'hcn the poswsiiom of the Qeccdictlne Priory, eslahlished here 
liy Bishop C'arilcpho, wvrc stirrendered lu Henry the Kigblh, in 
the yeur IMO, the whole ciiiJuwn>eiit of the Sec* aiuuunii-d lo up- 
wards of 3SC1I. annually: "^nd thoUj^h iit ibc lime of iho Com- 
momrailth, episcopal t^tata lo the uiuoiint of Cis,l!;il. 15$. «id. 
were told by the PaHiBincm's ConiinitSionci^ the rc\ciiues ol this 
Church Are still of greater value than ibosr of any other bisliop- 
ric in Englntiil. In 1541, Henry the Kiphtli gninled a neiv 
futltidatiun charter, directin;;, that thvCuthi^lnl Chutch.t instead 
of being dedicated, as before, to the Bku<d Maty tAi P'ir' 
pn, and St. Cuthhrt ihc Buiup, should tbencefurth bear the de- 
nomination 



* The miHiil revenun oT th« Convmt, Kcordirtg to DupUle* w«« vducd it 
1366). lOi jd. xcordiii; to SpMd, 11 i6ijl. 14V. lod. 

-t A* t^e diinfntioni a( the virious pam of ihc Caihediil hne hittttrta bt^ 
onlf ineiiitflttlly nmtioned, il in»y W (Xprdiwit iq jpic a conimoi] view of 
the ditftrent admsuuremcnU. The cncif* l<iij;ih of iIk iiiuciurc. (xclutive af 
ihe G*lil«, 11 %i)^fCt:lhF teaGih of the nive it >6o (eci: «ti wiiltli 74:uul iit 
height 69 foH, lie inchci: lh« (ro<« litle >l iht wnt <iid of the n*it, i% 90 fMt 
long, lad iSwidcfroni theetnimof ihecolumat; ibe length of iht middle 
ifMitrpi 4 170 fed : «nd tti width, indudiog nt ndc tn\n, 57 : liic length of 
the ctinir 11 no fctl. 111 width 74 -, tW rur innfcpt, OT ChiJMl uf ihe Nine AU 
nri. it 13O fnt tong, ind 51 wide; the ticght of the glut louet ii ai^ Net t 
|}Mt of cKh of (ht wnl lowen, 138: ilw vhUoI of Ibc CaltJec, from u>t U» 
WMti U fp feet; from nonh to MUth, flo foct. 



bUftHAtf. 



S9 



I 



I 



ODiaiMlion of tbe Ctthtdral ofChrut and hlctud Mary the Virgin ; 
and duit it should be gorrmed by a Dvan uid twelre Prcbenda- 
no. llie olabiisbmmt, bcudcs the Deao and Prebendarin, con- 
•bttof two Arch-d«acons, twelve minor Canom, a Dmcun, Sub- 
dMCon, cisteea Singin^-meD, a Ma&tcr ot' the Chorutert, ten Cho> 
n»4rn, « Divinity Kcader. «Rbt Alrej-incn. two Mulere of the 
GnuoiQU Scbool, dgbteen Scholar*, two Vergen, two Porten, 
two Se&tunt, and two Barben.* 

in iha tavtatk year of Edward thw Sixth, an act of ParliAnmt 
«■» obtained, through tlte inHuence of the Uuke of Northumber- 
liod, by which the Bitltopric of Duiham waa diMolrcd, and all 
** titv ]aticb and po«enions thereof were given to tlie King, with 
nifaoritj, by Letters Patent, to erect two new btthoprict; one at 
Dnrfaatn, with 3000 marka revenue; and the other it NcwcuMle, 
with 1000 nuuks revenue; toother with a deanery aiid chsjitn- 
lfaere."t Thia act wu procured by llir Duke under the pica, 
that the Biibopric wua loo Ui^e, and th*il one Prelate was ioauN 
6cltnl for iti proper govermneat; but the King dying aooa after- 
wardi, it was never curhcd into execution; and alter the acccojon 
of Queen Mary it was repeuled, and the Bishop ** reinetaied in his 
See* and all the county palatine regalities, and juritdictlom, both 
tccletisstical and temporal."] From 

* WJlu inrorau ni, ■' th« ih( K>0{. coBVcrtinK the Priory iato * Caltegcof 
S«caUn, uiigned hii new Uun »aA PrtbrndiriM Ihdr tcap«<tiv( ipintnenu 
oiUaf thcoM MiHMiUi)-, within llic piMincU of which itn: Biahop, Unn, Pte> 
boidffiMt, cod oihtr member*, hi«a my goo^ bouici. the bat of toy ulhcdnl 
in fj\0nA, Kcerdii^ vt itw di^iiy of the Piebcndi. which irt tcpuud oion 
vichijr oidowtd lh«n tay olhel chutch, owlnj (o ihc lncntb«n alloUing tbcro- 
fdvci, it firu, lbc!r rtipcctivc diriilcndi at iliare* out of tlie cluptn laiidi. ind 
•at hiving ihcm in comman ; by which pncticc (in itiu tc\< church o{ tlie new 
ioaa^ttjD) KNne Prebend* irc of more vatur liwi olhcrt; whcreu in the reu 
llwy •tr ill equ«I, u ihty might }x hoc potiibly ii Irnt, though the iraprovt- 
•Kiat ef Mtuei have nude ■ dlipropoitloo, »i it now coatinuu," 

Sunxy ofOHtdrtii, FtL 1. f. xit, 
+ Haw't Aniuli. 

t ** TUi aa fnr TBiofMig the Bitbopric and County Paluuw to iu kicmu 
«*tC( net with gTcM opp^ttiao, KiOf> Edwiid h<Ting grinled iwiy great part 
«r trw landi of ibc Btihoptick, many whereof wcic couKmed by Farliment ; 

but, 





€0 DUABAM- 

From the Cathedral on the north extends an open area, callnl 
the Place, or Palace Grvcn, on the oortb side of which is th« 
Castle, now the tcsidencc of tiie Uisiinp whenever he visits Dur- 
hain. This structure siauds nn tiic continuution of the wme 
jticlty cminetiro on whidi the Calhrdnil » built, mnd From ils tip- 
per apHitments coniiuamh mtnv vory fine views of the city, and 
kurn>uo<ling cuunlry. Whether this f>pot was fortilied bcl'ore ihc 
time of William the Conqueror, is uncertain; but its favorable «- 
tuotion for tlefence rcndcn ihe afSrmacirc exirumHy probable. 
The fonitications which orit;inally suiroundrd the ciiy included 
the whole luniiiHt of the hill, the outward wall extendinj( along 
(he tery brinlt of the rcninMice, and funninj; ilii otitl li^ure, 
ahrujilJy icnniiiHled »t ilt nortlieri] vxtrrmity by Ihe CuUc. Tlie 
most ancient |iart of this structure a the keep, or tower, which oc* 
rupies the top of an artificial mount, and is }.uppu«cd to have been 
of Nonntin curwlruciion ; tljuugh Hutchinson, from " the macs 
nhich orntfincnt liie »umniil» Af the hulla->»eit, and the form of the 
windows,"* is more inclined to leler its erection to Biibop Hat- 
field. 'Hie form "f the keep is that of an irregular octagon; its 
diametiT, in the widvit part, bixly-thrrc feet, ux inches; and in 
iha narrowBst, si&ty-ono feet. It is now a mere shelt; but appears 
to have contained originally, four stories, or tiers of apartment*, 

exclusive 

but, afur rnanj- wirm <lehalci, ii at kiigih piutd by ■ diviur'ii of sOt (gainit 
laO. The pianil>!e to Ae bill >ct> fonh, ' thit ccriaiu ambitiou* pcrioia, q- 
kioj idvuiute ofihc laie Kii>|{*i miioiily, mide an inlemi by liniatcr pncucM 
n> pracuit a diiioluiion of lh( aiihopricli: that iiwai^anc eut ai mitaituy 
vicwa, to cniifb iIicniMlvfi ttiA friend*, by umag ihe tandi of ihe Sec, tadier 
than upon jiut occaiion and godly xeali ili4l CttdibcTi TuntlaU. Biihop of 
Durhana, wuilfprivrd upon undue ■uttnix*, and fiJi« aECuMtioni, and that die 
pTOCCM again*! dim wu (ilte and itkEil, &c That the Quen had new fouod- 
cd (ht Biihoprkk by htr Lcticti Patent, and raioKd all the landt in her jia*. 
SAaioni but thai at ntithci the lentmfc of dcprivatinn, nor itie Queen *> Letten 
PiEcni. w«re oi luffioeiil (oiee in rKovrr thr hnnourt, lanilt, &c. to (Ik Sre of 
Du'barn, tfacirfurc, to ictioic ibc Buhnjirick. lo kit foimer inleicil, privilrgu. 
■fldre^tnuca, ihciwodiuolutiantuiiiiraoichelMt icign were thereby rcpcakd." 

Sltlrlu at /jn]g(, i. Jl. C. $. 

" Hiitoryof Duibain, Vol. II. p. s96. 




DltKHJtH. 



CI 



I 

I 



I 
I 



of a series of -raulti, which rise fVom the foiiiulHl>on< 
The angles nre suppoitcU by buttrewcv; stid n pamper, defended 
bf Rn pmhalilcd brcul-wrtrk, has niti munil the summit uf tlic whole 
UiildiDft; but (his baring bocofiic very ruinous, was ukcn down 
by (he dirct-tton of Buhop Thurlow, in ibe year I7d>>: the ]iTinct> 
pal eiilrnnce wa» on ibt v,cn «cic. 'Vhe p'*rj>cmlicular height of 
the imouiiE on wtticli it stands, is foTtyfour Tret : round (hii space 
three plmsuiil terraces hare bwn formed, eoch ten feet vridc, and 
CDOiniuntcsting \^ilh nicb oibiT by flights uf ^teps. 

The buildinfp which now conMitule the Cvtlr, have been erec- 
ted at various times, and by different persons, and bare cotne- 
qoently but very httic uiiirormity. Some parts, which had tuf- 
feitd bj- fire, were restonil by Bishop fuclsey, who acceded to 
the UiUiopnc io tlie yeur 1153. He is also BUpposed to hare 
ctecirij the Gr»i ball; but this, with other pAnKof itieCusllc, going 
to decay, a new hii<I more mn<^ii6cetit hall naa built hy Riiihop 
Hatfield, the original ienf^lh of tkbich it recorded to have been 
190 yards.* Frorn this apartroviit the present Hall hat been 
fomted, which is of exletiftive pn>portioiis ; its length being ISO 
feel, its height lbir(y-HX, uiid its breadth fifty. Within it are 
tone ca^ts <»j btuts from tbeanttfjue; and whole-length portraits 
of the ArchbidiofM, CaASMBH. Parkkr, WiiixoirT, Bav- 
CJtorr, and Lacd; and nl' Joiilii Ovrrall, ltiihupt>r Norwich; 
JouM CustK, BiAhop of Uurhnm; ajid LAUKCtLOT Akukk^ts, 
Biitiop of Winchester, Many additions and alterations were made 
by succoediDg pixrlaies, and panicului'ly by Bishop 'IXiintall, who 
erected a galcway and tower en (he aide of the Place Gn-cn, and 
lanjied it on each side with a simnj; wall: he also built a smnll 
cbspel, and made various other impmvemcnts. Additional apart- 
nenU were erecteiJ by Bishop Cn*in; and further nlternli'ins have 
been sitKu cffrctL-d, by which the internal arrBngemeiit and appear- 
ance 

* In thli ■ptnmcm, on i1k emtiTonitition of BiUiop Btxy, ilnt Frdaic «b- 
UftaiMtl the King »nd Qu««n of Enjlind, the Kin; oT SctMlind, itr* ruro 
McttopoIiU-it, »nd fiteullKi BitlMjMi kvco fcsdi, wiih ihcii l.adirj; iU-iIm 
Nobility nolth of Tienl ; with • wt concou'ie of Knigbu, fUquiic*, *nd ixtKt 
pcojilcirfdiiiiiKiioni among «^bom wcic Runy .'VbboU, Piiofi, and ui)kt re- 
li^Mui pertoin, ^Uiinun. 




M 



«5 



DURUJM. 



Mace of tl)« building* hava heen much amcnUcd. Under the di« 
rectioa of Sliule Barrington, Ibe present Bithop, new impivTc-mrats 
bave been raade; ami a mott bcHUtiful ^rr^ay in (he galler}', 
supposed to have been slopt up sereral centurid, again opontd, 
and repaired, lliis is one of the mmt perfect specimens of Anglo- 
Norman architecture DXtant; and maybe regarded as unique, not 
only from lite bcdiity of the pattern, but nlmy from the " numberof 
*he mouldings, the variety of the omamenia, and the nicety of the 
workraanftli<p." Various paintings are distribuled on the stair- 
case, and through some of ihc apartments, but nnt any of them 
mttk particular notice; the principal ornaments of this description 
being at the P«Jace at Koliop'i Auckland. 

Contiguous to the kefp, on the east, t> the ^jrcat North Getf 
vat/, a veiy ttrong fabric, erected by Bishop Langley, atid now 
used as the jail. The outward, or lower put, was defended by a 
gate and portcullis; wiiliin which is a recess, conitlrucicd with 
sallyports and galltrries, for the annoyance of assaiknts, who 
might force the tint gate : the upper part was secured by double 
gales. All the oilier gates of the city have been removed. 

On the west side of the Place GrctJi i» the Kxchtguer, a strong 
squaro stone building, erected by Bishop Nerille, about th« year 
1450. Adjoining it is the Binkap's Library, built by Bishop Co- 
sin, who alw greatly contribulcd towards erecting the Laa 
Courts, south of the Ubrary, where the assises, quarter sessium , 
iiC arc liuld. Tile court for the trial of Crown causes was much 
«nlai^d in Ibe yenr 179^, On tlie opposite side of tbe Urvcn is 
aa flospiiul, or Alms-house, for eight piwr men and women, 
ftiuiided by Bishop Cosin in the year 1666; and adjoining it, at 
each end, a Srhuol-huuse, rebuilt about the seme period by tba 
above Prelate, but orii;inally t-ndowed by HinliKp l^angley. 

Froin Iho l'lac« Green is nn avenue ]c«dinr< to llui public walks, 
called the tianks, which sktrt the river, and were tniide, and are 
kept in repair, by llie munificence ol tlie Dcau und Chapter. 
These celebrated walks " accompany the bcndiug of the stRam, 
and command sev'eral interi-sting ]>ceps al the city, and its august 
oriutmeius, the Castle and Cuihedtnl. The baiiKs lucky and ab- 

2 nipt. 



■ 




DVRUAM. 



«9 



nipt, on one band, and sloping gently to tbe river on the other, 
duiened by ft solomn depth of shadr, doquestcred and retired, 
ID tlie inunrdiule nei^hbuiirlinod of a t]u<iy scrne of society, affurd 
a retreat of the most bcRUtiful and agreeable nature. Tl>e variety 
of the Kcoes which they open alto is remarkable ; detp gbdcBf 
ndaolemn dells: tscaned ruck, and verdant lawn ; sylvan glades, 
■ad prood casteltaled edifices. From the elegant new bridge, tlio 
last-mentioned feature is seen to great eiTtxt ; the Cattle and Ca^ 
thedral blend their battlements and turrets to;i;cther, and rise with 
iacooceirabte niajetty from the sacred groves which clothe tbciz 
rocky fouDdatioo*. Tbe comhinalion here of trees and building 
water and rock, borne sylvan scenery and &nc distance, is at onca 
beautiful and grand.''* 

Tbe Bridge mentioned in the preceding extract, » an cU-gant 
itnicture, erected between the year* 1772 and 1777, from 
tbe designs ot Mr. George Nichol«>ii, then architect to the Dean 
and Chapter, at whom cxpctice it was built. The old bridge, 
which stood at tome distance higher op the river, and was only of 
■nScieflt width for the crossing of foot psswngeis and hordes, was 
canied away by a dreadful dood, chat commenced on tlic after- 
BQoo of the sixteenth of November, 1771, and continued to rise 
till atpout 00s o'clock the next muming. By this time the bndy 
of water had become so immense, that the arches of Llvet Bridge. 
fcemg partially cfaoakcd up witb rubbish, would not admit of its 
flonriajt off; and its weight forced down a long wall nearly adjmn- 
iag. The torrent, then rwhing forward with increasing velocity, 
acquired such a vast impetus, that scarcely any thing could with- 
stand it» prcwure- Four archrs of the bridge were swept awiiy, 
mod all tho lower buildings of tlie city, gardcu wallsi &c. either 
destroj-ed, or left in a very ruinous condition. When tbe tlood 
abated, in the cour» of tbe day, att the low Unds about iloughall, 
6)unclifle, ite. were strewed with the carcases of drowned cattle, 
wtd the hedgn covered willi corn and hny, that had W-kh wiishcd 
down by tbe water; which rose eight feet, ten inches higher, 
tbaa bad crer bcco iccoixlcd in the aruials of Duiliam. As 

Kfttcely 

* Wimci'i Noitttin Tour, Vol. I. 





fffr 



AURIIAV. 



scarcely any w^ had blli'ti during several days, wiihln many railef 
of the city, various ivasotu wer« auigoed for thii extraordinary 
inundation; but the most protwble was, ttmt it was occiuioiicd by 
a violent, atiil almost incenant rain, which had tleluged the west- 
orn parts oi' Uie county, and its iiejglibourhocd, near itie warces of 
the river. 

Besides the new Bridge, llierc arc two otliers at Durbam, called 
FranmxU-gate Rriiigf, and Elvet Bridge. The former wat ercc^ 
ed by Bistiop FluTntiard, nhuut lli^ yeiir 1 120, and ii a very ex- 
coUciit piece of masonry. It cfmii^u of a " pier, and two ellip- 
tical arches, of ninety icct space, so Aai as to bu conxlructcd on 
ilie quLiiicr sectiun of a circle^ calculated to tuit ihc low shores 
on each wde,'' FJrtt Bridge cniuists of nine or ten arches; it was 
built by Bishop Pudsey, and repnired in llic lirneof 1U»hop Fox, 
wlio granted an indulgence to all who should contribute towards* 
the exigence: upon or in*ar it wen- fi>niM*tly two chapeU, dedi- 
cated respectively, to Si. Jampn, and St. Andrew. 

Indopcndenily of the Catlicdral, Durham contains six churches i 
the principal of which it ihul dedicated tn St. "Nwhtiloi, an ancient 
tilTucture, »ttuHlc<l cm ihc !<imlh »>de of ihe nuirlcet p!ace< It Con- 
siato of a nave and ndc aiiluv, wlh a square lower standing at the 
sotith-wcst Bn[>1e, ilerewi'ro the seats for the bftdy corporate, 
and variuuscity compaiiira; but the whole building buiiig now un- 
der repair, all the intental parts have been reinoved. 

In the old regiMer bonk of this parish, under the year ISJ??, is 
tlie following rcntarkable cntrj*. " Siioson, Arington, Fcther-- 
stone, t'cnvricke, and Lancaster, itere kanged for tiring Egyp^ 

The causes or this, apparently, detestable procedure, can only 
be understood from a retrospective view of the different acB under 
whicli they suffered. By the first, passed in the iwenty-wcond 
year «( Benry llic Kigblti, Ike Egyptians are thus <lc*crit>cd : 

*' Forosinuctk 



* In inoihct p»rt of ihe K^ilcr, ihe Hme crmt i* iTcortlet) io these wMdi : 
" '39*1 Simton, Aricgion, F«hci*»Mic, Feawkkc uul LwaMr, £«i»iiaci» 




UVKUAlt- 



6i 



" Funaiuucb as bcrore lliis time, divan ftiKl iiuiiiy ouilunilnli 
-pvofik^ cnlliiig theiDsclvcs Cgyptians, u»t^ no cnfl, nor ienle of 
aerdtUMlise, have commcii iiiio lh\% realm, urul gune frum sliifc 
loaUtv, Olid place to place, iti grrat (xim|iaiiiii, »»<] u^til j|;iot4 
subtiltic and crafbc racaiur!! lo deceive die pruplc, braring them 

»ia hand tiuU Ibo)-, by pulnuiitric, could tvll meii^' and woim-nit' 
lurtuncs, and «o many times, by crali ami lUblilliL*, huvc de- 
ceived itte people uf liieir muiiey ; aud atio bavc cuntnuttDd many 
■tad hsmvui feluniis, utid robberies, to ibc great bart and deceit 
of (be poof^ tbat tbey have cQintnen unioni;: Bee it/' &c. It it 
Aen coacled, that tw racb pcnow be pcriuidcd to enter tbe 

t realm, Doder the penalty tit' t'tureiturc ol' ull properly, nnd nl' »ub- 
iwj uc ttt imprtMiiimciil, sliuutd lliry rviiiiuii m tltc Kingdom luiij;i:r 
iban fittecti tlaj-s after tite rZaaMiitlattrut, 

This act being iDadcquale to its purpose, as appeare from iha 
pnunbic of tbe statute of tbc fint and teeund uf ftiilip and Msr}> 
tap«4, wbicb commences thus: " J^ora»HUi.'li aa divers, calling 
tbrniirUn Kayptiam, not fcarini; tiie jiciiidlie uf the stoiute &3 
Henry D, cap. 10, have rumc uver again into tlus realm, using 
Uihr M, atciulumcd, lUicUuh, and nuKghl^ deticef, wiUi such 
dJcwi n atfr living ai.is uut in aiiy diriaian roulia to be permitted." 
he, i\ WM then ordained, ibal any one " Iranspontn;;, bringing, 
for conveying in, any such penons," ibuuld fucfeit forty povinJs 
< lor eiety racb offence; and i)*at (»«ry Egi/ptian so bruu^t into 
l.fculin, who should continue " by tlie »juice uf unr muiiclb,' 
aid sutTcr dealb. Tbe tanie puiiialunent wiu :il<o decreed 
affoasl all Egyptian), or pertvit conmm/y coiled Efypiiaim, that 
ihoald be bond within Eii|rlaD(] and Waim fortji davt unet pro- 
riuMUion ol' the act ; ualuis tliv said peryins sbould " leave (bat 
naagfaly, idle, and ungodly lifi: and connpaiiy.'' 

Early in the time of Eliiiabeth, a doubt bail ftrUeii, wlielltcr 
tbe pctmltie* of ibe ttnlute of Diilip and Mary extended to per- 
torn *'' iMime within llie Queenc's dominions, and bring of thai 
firilowsbip, by disguiuti;^ Uieir apparell, and counterfeiting ibcii 
■peecli and bebaviour;" to i-erouve which, jL waa enacted, (oimo 
i Elis. cap. 2V,) tiiat every person wbo thidl avocialc '* in any 
Vol. v. £ companie, 




3 



c 



66 



DURHAM. 



commnif, or fcllotr^ip of ragnbon(l<i, commonly oUlri], or call- 
iag tlirmKrlv«9 EgypliaM, Ate. and tloc continue and mnainc id 
tbe sami', rithcr al one lime, or at st-vcral times, by the space of 
on^ moneth, sliul tlirrlbre suBcr puiim of death." Nu tiuther 
purticulars of ihc prnons mentiuncd in tbe rrf^ter are known ; 
though thcit uamci warrant the supposition of thdr bavii^ 
bcfn born in this country. 

Tbv ('hurrh of St. Mary-te-liatu, or Bought u sitiuted on tbe 
cast Mde of ibr North Bailey ; nccordiiif; tu tradition, oii the same 
•pot wbiTe St. Cutlibcrt's rruuiiiis were ludged, in a tiibemacle of 
bouglia and wands, when they wen Qnt brought by the monks to 
Durliam. 'Ths present edifice was built nboui liic middle of tbe 
•e^entcenih ccnmty, and upened for dlTiiie st-rviee iu the year 
l68S : it is a neat, luiifurm building, without aisles, and fumub- 
ed with a f^ood organ. 

St. Ofaald"! Chard ii an ancient structure, occupyinf^ a fin* 
elevated BiluHlioD on iJie castcrii banks uf the river, iu ibat part of 
the suburte, culled New KIycl: it coiisiHls nf a, nave, rliancel, 
and tide aisles. The roof is of wood, curiou^ly vaulted, jointed 
«ith rose knots; the raft<Ts iusiained on brackets, ornamcntetl 
Kith cKcrubs, bearing shields : (}u» in tuppoMrd In have been corn 
■Inicied by William do fatten, ulto wiu vicar in the year 1411 ; 
but the budy of the mIiScc must ba«e been built lon^ prior to that 
period, as one Dolunus occurs as priest here m curly as 11&6. 
In tbe windows is a great quuniily of puiiiied glass, but luucli 
muiilaied. 

St. GikdM Chunk m, apparently, of remote ori^n ; it having 
no aisles, aitd much rcsemliling the old church at j&rrow, bang 
aarrow, long, and lofty: its Icngtb a thirty paces, and its width 
scrcn. On the south side are six irregular windows ; and un th« 
north aide, two. Iu the cbaiicel is a recumbent cIGgy, cut in 
wood, iraditionHjIy uiid to belong tu one of tlie llcatk family, 
buried here in 15^1. It represents a mate figure in romplcie ar- 
mour, the haitds derated, and tbe head resting upon an helmet, 
with a bear's paw for the creat. On one oC tbe bell* is »ai<i tu be 

an 




J 



DcmnAM. 



er 



I 



an iracT^tion in Saxan rhsractcrt. The views from (hn chuKli- 
yard have bM!fl thus dMcribod by Mr. XutchittKHi. 

" The lrt«ll*f who » condticied lo thr« church, hIiouM be ad- 
niilwd at the uortli door, and drpurt from the souih ikior, wIrtc 
ft noble prtnpect opens to the view, too mtensire for n picture, 
mnA too rich for ilrtcripiion. The iiiadfqnatp iitcas whicli Inn- 
pimgp can convey, hiu tu be Inineiitocl by itie muler wlin \\*» a 
taste for niral brHulies, and the cl^Mnco of Ion<)»fiipi>. 7'he 
Churdi nf St. Gtle» standi upon wry elevate frroiiiid, o|>en to the 
■outJl, wbrte the view js uiiubitrucied. In froiitt the loimduvr 
y w n wfa ferm a sterp descent to the rirer ; on one wing closed \yj 
the wood called Pelaw Wond ; nn the nthor, hy the hnildin^ of 
theitrrel. At the foot of the kill (he riw-r UVar forms a bcaati- 
ftil cai«al, dmoal a mile in length, tcrminaled \iy Rivet Bridge to 
the right, and hy the wooiivd iriciiMUivt of Old Durlinm on the 
left. On the opposite shone n Ihe Racr Grouu't, cumktiirg nf an 
CKlmdeil tract of level mc«(in, from wheiitr, by a grndnal iMreiU, 
rise llw two Elvets; the street of Old Elvel running (wimllel, the 
other ol>tt<]ttely, bordered with ^rdens, anrl tertnimiled liy EIW;t 
Cburch; a hnnd^fne Btructare. I'ha chnnnel of the ri<n-r lying 
lietweeo New Elvet and the Bailies, affords an agreeable break or 
eh— gi in the objects ; the iluping gardens being seen over tlie 
InriUn^p of VAwt, eciftrnenl to the eye with ihnt pleasing tint 
which the distance produces. On the brinlc of the ascent stand* 
the Boilti-i, object risin* gradunlly above object, guarded with 
the remains of the town wall, nnJ crouncd with the cathedral 
church, which in thb view presents the ni>rth and eest fronts, like 
the mttra which biods the temples ufiu preUle; giviiii{ tlie noblest 
M^trme orannieni to the capital of the principality. To ihc right 
Elvn Brid^, with seven arctics, receive!i tiie streuni, and inlcr- 
repts a further view of the progress of the river : over it, tier 
abtnv tier, riw the buitdings nl Sadler -sircec, the ;:laomy and m- 
lenili towers of the gOiA), attd the battlement and <iclagonaI CoMrer 
ofthecaslle; the trophiet of civil jurisdicllon weaHiic; the aspect 
of old secular aulhoniy, and the frowns of feudal power. Be- 
» the chief objects, the cathednit aud caulc, on the nearer 
E 9 bock-gruuud. 




68 



UURHAU. 




back-ground, Soath-strcet, vitlx iu hnni^ng gnrdens, mikes n 
fine curvature; bcbind wbich Braiiduri Muuni, wiili aspil of higb 
land, (■xlCDtlinf; lowards Aucklaml, form Ihu hunxon. i^urlh«r to 
Ihtf riglit, from'tbc hiwi^ oi tbc river, rite tbe builtlingkof the 
niark4.*t-|>ljirr, crowding thv tower of llic church, from wbcoce 
the Mrcct» of Cloypath and Gillygale rxlcnU. Thus for descrip- 
tion has proccnlcd without much fsullerin^; but in llie other di- 
visions oi [he Mvnc it a UdM, and totally inadcquntc: whoever 
would kriou' thv rest, must come and view it. Over the meadoin^ 
ill tlic cvutrc, B precipice ri»o nmrly uiic buiidrrd piTpvndicular 
fvct in height, called Muidcn CusUc Scar, or Cliff; tbe simp sides 
of ilie bill TO the right and left are covered wiib a forest of old 
uib, and tlif foot of tbc clill' li waUicd by tbv river, whu«e tftrcsm 
uppeurs n;;iun at this point. The lofty ridge of bill!) clothed vllh 
oak!i, stretching away, forms a zigag figure ; at tlie nxet distant 
-point of uljich, tbe great southern road, up the new ioclotcd 
groutids of Elvct Moor, is seen climbing the hill for ttcar t utile, 
beyond Mliicb very dittant eruineiices furm a blue-ttuged horizon. 
To the left of Maiden Cmtlc ClitT you look upon u rich Talley, 
highly cultivated, extending nearly live miles iii Itui^lh, and Iwu 
in width, bending to the snutb-wivt, rlimugh vtiucli the river 
uinds its silver Mreani, in the figure of an 5. Hanging woods 
fthut iu varh side of tbe nearer vale, ivbere arc finely di»puicd, tbe 
pIvaMut vtllhgc of Shiiicliff, il> bridge of three urcho, the villa of 
llie bite VVUliam Uudd, t»<i. and Jlougiiall Houie. The exlmne 
part of tbc valley » closed by the woods of SbinclifT, Bultcrby, 
and Cruxdale, fbrraiiig an elegant amphitheatre; over these rbe 
distant hills, hned out with incloeures, j;irin^ the yellow and. 
browD lint to the landscape over the richer colored woods. Tha 
whole tinifibcd with an elevuleil hoiizun, on ttwwin^of wbicb are 
sratfered tbe villagp* of Fcrrybill and Merrijigtuii ; the lower of 
Merriiiglon Church funning a beautiful and lofty obc)i»k. Oiw 
of the grealcjt excellencies of this hind!>capc is, that the ground 
rises gradually bcfurc you, sikI ju!>i such a distance is maintained 
as pfLvrveK ail the objects dtstinct; not like tlte InndKapca 
painlcd by the Memish and Dutch matten. To the left you look 

down 







DDKBAM. 



G9 



down upon OM Durhnm Hou-ie, its tf.mm tmi hanging ^anlrtis, 
Kilb ■ fine iKnd nf i-ultnutcd muntry stretching; nwny ihmugh 
aiMtlicr opening of tho litlU towurdA llic cast, bouattcd tiv tbc hi^i 
woodt of QuaTflngfrn, nrwl ilie clifT* of Coxboe liniokiliit ; more 
notie than the ullier views, luiJ bdng iii yiiiple naturr, uffurds 
■ plBmiog vsriciy to the rye of ihr niim uf tiisit>, who stands (if 
«f nay be alknred the exiravagnnt rxprcseion) on 'Am tuckanled 
^rvimd," 

The Church of St. JUargarrt, liluntrd in Ctctaf^e, and of 
Utile St. lHarjf, in the South Itsiley, display nothinfj rctntrk- 
ibltf. Tlie Mc^irig lloutics arc six: tbcec arc occupied by the 
m|)ccliv^dcDonu[uitions(ir I tidi'^ndante, l'r(%bylenan», Quakers^ 
Mttliodjsii, and Kumun CathtJicf, 

The Mariitt Vtitet ib a small sqnarf, harin^ a Guildhall, or 

tTolboolfa, nn the vrst udp; a Pant, lo supply thf inhnbitiints 
■ilh ttour, ncnr the conrrc ; and a Piazza, where the com tnar- 
licU, Ate. arr held, on the south. The CuildhaU wrji originally 

■ built by Htshop 7'(imtall, about the j-car 1555, but has tinea 
fami frpaimi, an<l much improved ; in the dining-room are por- 
initsof CitAHLcs TffE Second, and Bisiior Ckewb. The 
i*tf»ft or Condnir, t« a stone building, of an ACtagonal form, 
nilh a ttaiue of Ncpttint^ on the suiuniit. Tbc walcr is brought 

Ifrotn an incloMrd spring, about hnlf a miledtttant, originally given 
for Uie uw of tlw city, in Marcli, 1451, by Tlioiaas Biliingjiain, 
of Cbolspbaifh, r.^. lit John I-uuiid, Aldemion of the Guild of 
Coqiw Chrferi, in the Cfaurrh of St. Nicholas, and liia succcs' 
Bor», wllh Wtb " |« contey tho water lo the pant, or rasertoir, 
in ihc mart^ft^plNce, for the u»e and bcnetic of the inbilbitanti, 
piyitig for (he aM> thereof to the said Tbonma, and his sucoesson, 
ihirtven pence annually, on the fcnM of St. Muriin; pruvideil that 
^^ iw water kboutd be drawn from ihencctoany other pun ofihc city, 
^■ntrpt to lbs Gnintort house, in the market- plucc." On tho 
iwrnty-fir^t of July, in the same year. Bishop Nrville confirmed 
ibe abuva grant, by Icttera palcnr, and gave permission '* to llis 
^raotn:* lu dii{ in hit maiK>r, Car the purpose of laying and repttir- 
Hg the pi|)0, itt" When the inli;il>il<inls hud vnjoycd the bene- 

£3 Jit 




i 



w> 



PUBKAU. 



fit of the sptiag itculy 186 years, Coliibcrt Billin^un, « 4e- 
'Sccildafit vf tlic donor, broke up tbc p^m whicli conveyed tb« 
VAler to tltu pant, anil dirrcteil Us course to hi» own milk, at 
Crook-hall, alledging, that " tbe ciiintiit lutd iDJured bis com 
' nn<l qro'H) in coming io the spring, and also had witlihcM Ihe an- 
nual payment uf tbc thirUen-pcnce."' On tlii», « l>iil of ch«nc«iy 
was fiie<l against him by the ciltnnn, tind the aiiue finally argued 
tclort- !?ir Richard ISution, Knl. Chancellor of the Diocese, who 
cun&rnll^d the right uf llie citizens by • deci«c, Uated Marcb 30» 
1(S37. 1'be Fiazia, or Curii Market, wu comli-ucted niib tbo 
Tnntcrinli t>f nn old rnnti, which stood near the conduit, and wu 
rtmovi-d ill tlic year 1781. 

A I)it>pfii>.iry wa» fKtnbliithed, by subacriplion, at Uurbam, iq 
17S$; and th« coiitrihuttuns becominj; exl4«ini-ly libera], the 
trustees deti^rmined tu extend the charily, by convening it into aaj 
In/irmarg, where tJie aick poor ^ould be admiiicd without ex* 
pence, aiKl a large, and more cunrenicni building for tlmt pur- 
pose, was complrird about ten yran a^'^t *>i> " piece oT grouiK 
ill Allergntr, givtni by Tliomas Wilkinimn, i'M\, of Coxhoe. Ii 
1790, an act was obtained for lighting, paving, and otberwis*<j 
iiiipruoinK the riiy ; and various judicii>u« altei-utjons hsvc been 
pdi-cicd utiuer its clauM». In l/j^l. u iiinall Titairr was built by 
HifaHCiiplioit, in Sadler-gate; and dtirmg llic c(iur>« uf the past 
year, a Suiuicripli<M hihraftf \tw. been founded, which, to the bu*, 
nor of the liierar)' character of the city, bids fair to become proa>.i 
perou*. 'I'fac rocreulioi) of Ihe inhabitants is further proviiled fur 
by a llacC'Courtr ; uhich, fnirn a cuiious entry* in Lhe Hiirijchial 
Eagister uf bt. Nicholnk, a]i[>e»r> lu have bnvn eMnbiikhcd lu early 
w the reign of Ch«rlc« the Second. 

The original dcnomiiiiuinn uf I>urhain, nflcr Its civil eslablisb* 
tneiit, «ab that of llorougb; and it*! lucal jiolily was eurciiicd by 
a Uajliff, whoee uppoiutiiicnt rcinuincd with the Hi&hops. In the 

fint 



* *' Apfvl, 1683. ll ii ordticd. ihat .Simnn Lackmby ii la kap. In lied 
ef h'n EhUreomman Gioiintl, one Bufficicnl Hull for ihc uk of the City and 
fhiniugh Kyne, (or il'.m ytMn next cniutni;; ind to give tm ihllUngi towvdl 
a tthtt eiMitJf t CKtfit." 




DVB.UAM. 



n 



int diuter* of incorporation, wliJch wu granled by Biihop Pud- 
wey, bttitiot oihcr curi>iderablc privileges, ihc tnltttbitanu wcr« 
dbcbarged from the cinlom cf Atarckei, or nghl u)' titc l<>i^ of 
the nuwr, to pftM ibe 6nt night with ever)- ncw-tnatic bride. 
L'iKler bishop NeviUe, ttie cJiiel officer wu ttyleJt BuliS* of l>ia 
Cif^ uf Durham ; and in the yau 1563, by a new ch»rt?r, granted 
by Bithop Pilkitiglon, tbc civil junHliciiitn wa5 rciicd la an Al* 
daman, and twelve assi»tani BurgcMi!*. In 1 6iji, Ui»liop 
Matibews, byaiwtber charter, vcateil the ROYertiincnl in a Mayor, 
tweive Aldrrroen, aiid twcittj-four C'oniinon'Coundlnieii ; lb« 
Utter to be cboecn ycnrly by th« Alderinen, froiq tbc tuclvc lu- 
cnrpoTDtcd compantcs, in equal proportions. 'Ilitt charter iraj 
coafimed bjrJatDes the tlrsl, and continued in force till 1(>S4, when 
it HM snnendered to Biihop Crewe, who iniii»ediHlcly grautcd 
• Dew charter, but lomc iDlorioality having been dJKuveivd m 
dte forms of Mirmideriug the fomier one, that was a^niti rrMored ; 
,*iid coiitiaUfd to direct the aclium uf the budy curpotale till lb« 
I7()t. when tome ekctioo unnu^vms occmiuned »uch divi* 
I UDOBf; the cnrpoTsle officers, that the parties rufuu.'d to act 
Mch other, by wbtcb meaiB the prcscribrd number of metn- 
conld not be kept up, and tbc charier became *ac»tcd, 
F'roiii thai time the city wat guvemod by a llailiff till the year 
'1780, when llisbop Lgnrtoa granted a new charier, dated Octo- 
ber ibe Mconti, in winch it» funncr goveninierit by a Mayor, AU 
and Coaunoa'CouiMTilnien, with soiiw interior uflicera, 
re-eUBbiisbcd, and the ri;;bt6 of the citizens explained and 

Neither lb« county, por the city of Durham, ww repmentod 

ID t'arliament tiil tbc n-igik of Charles Ibe S>ConJ, a ciitumtlaDce 
wbicb ni>.y unduu btediy be ukciibtsd lo tbc vaal puwer and influ- 
eoee of ibc Uisbop; at retuniing oieipberk lu I'arliuuc-ni wu* an-i 
Jy ooittidcrud u wore grirvuui and inconvenient, than cither 
K 4 U^ful 



* " Bcfort cnf chtrtrr wa> grtnird fof (he )cov<mm«M of ih« Bo)g«uM, rha 
Mvnil enfu who cKctcitrd iheii tri^e* wiihm ttK <>ty, wen, untWr tpeciil t^ 
tfrlawu md byi-Uwt, fnattd •rkmj ihoudvei, ind taxihrmti by Uw frca 
Utrt la «lioK timci ibcy wcie idpKiiircly imtiUitnl." /tiliktm**. 



H 



DPHHAU. 



tisfful f>r honorable. Th(r rxtemion at loariiint; induced ideu 
more favorable lu liberty ; ntid wbat wiu axvx avtudM] as • bur-. - 
then, was aflrrwartk deniantlrtl aji a rigbt. It was not, bcnrevrr,' 
till the year 1673, Ihal tlii* privik^ wus kwuilcd \f> IHirhum : 
an act was ibeii )tnsod, bywKich ih« city uid the county were 
cAch luthorixcd lo scud two inemben, and from that period the 
returns bnve been regularly mude. The right of dechon for tba 
city is vested in tbe M»yor, Aldermrn, and Krrainon : the nam- 
l«r of voters 't% iiuoul 1000. SiHuo illci^ul proceeding? in Ihe ml- 
mission of frwmon during a contested election, id tbe year 1 7(i3i 
occasioDcd the passing of llie fiininas Uuihsm act, by which all 
petBODB wen- refttricU'd from Yoiiti^ nbo li:id not been " pcnv(.-}M.>(l 
of th«tr rranchiae twelve calendar nonttis before tbr duy of elec- 
tion ;" pxcrptiiu; those entitled to their freedom by the cubtom of 
the borough. 

Tbe trade of Durham i* not exlen-tive ; a few years ago it hod ■ 
wntdleii manufactory, which famished employment to acvonl 
hundred persons, bat has iunoe been wholly abundoncd. It mho 
|H»C9sed a large coiiun mantifactory, established by the Mebre. 
Salt-in in the ye^r 17I>S; jei titis altn, alVr prt>uily Mtffininj; by 
(be wur, bus lm>n entiicly dcttlniyed by an xn-idnitul 6rc, that 
comn>enc(>d uii the moniing of the seventh of January, ItiO'^, and 
in a few houn coiiHinicd the veiy cM«nsi\c factory that had been 
built forrArryin^il on near M. Oswald'^ Church, llie woollen 
Iittsinrss oripnALfd in a bequest made to the city of Uurhom by 
Mr. Henry Smith, on the twentieth of July, 161)8, of oil uiscnal 
mines, then of the annual value ol' lOdl. luid a personal cf^ie worth 
6001. U'he oiuM! of lbi» betiuni, to umi ilte wotds of the Will, 
was, " (hat some ptoA trade may bu deviled fur u'lling of the 
youth, and oilier idle persons tti wnrl,- a> thall be lliuuchi utotl 
convenient, wlicreb)- some prolit may arise to the bcne&t uf the 
>aid cily, and reliefc of tbosA that are part wurtE.*' Some ycaun 
■fterw»rdit the trit^trr^ coininenced a cloth ntanurucioty. which 
vas discontinued in l(>19; and a scheme de^in-d to increase tbo 
vulao of the donation, by applj-ing \i to the purchase of laiul. In 
I7i.9. ti>e proceeds were again appropiialird to eelabliib a cl«ll» 

lianafactor}r| 





ntjafiAUt 



7a 



I 



^ 



I 

I 



tBBnofaclflry. nnd various buildings ucre erected kn the conrem- 
encc of tfae worlkineri, and ri-rcpliun of ilii- mncliiiicr)'; but tJie 
caublisliracnt, « already mcittioncd, has since entirely tailcA: the 
Collieries bftTc also been many yean ibondonctl. Aiuoog various 
other betfucii:^ fot ch&ij{<iblo uw» in this city, are tho»e of UJsbup 
Ciriro, •■lul UitJio^r Wood, uf Lichfiftd: tbc ronitcc li-ii lOOl. pet 
•mnnn, for spprenliciitg Ute chililrcn of the poor; the- latlrr, 201. 
annually, ior the relief of small debtors; ami lOOl, l» be laid out 
U|Kin a ffnt-cbiirii^f, fur ihu muinienance of ilie indi;;eiit inhabi* 
tantt. Titc poimlulinn of the " city and tuun of Dutham," aa 
niumetl under liic Ulo »ct, wm 331!> inal^, and 431 1 fciiiulcs. 

M'llb the eminent niilivn uf thi» cily, muy be enumerated lh« 
piCMM LoHO Aucklakd; and Ur. RicirARoCact, auilior of 
several wurks, and purtimUrly, tbc ijemoriii Ttc^nk/i, or Kevr 
ftlttbod of .Ktiiiicial Memory, lie »as bom in the yt-Mf ]fi93» 
and haviirj; ifcrived a learned education at Oxford, was promoted 
la several vnluulde Iviielices; bis doalh occurred on the Sblh of 
Fdiiuary, 177 >. at llw age of levt-iuy •eight, 

Ki:i>l];K HOSPITAL, on ibv Unk» ol tlie Wear, about one 
mdc nortb^ea>t I'cihii Durham, wus kiuiiiled, in the year 1112, bj 
Bnbtip (lABibard, and endowed lur llio tnaintennncc of a Mu&Ier, 
and tmelio Brethren. The endowment* were afiemards contii-m- 
cd by Buhop I'udM-y, who also restored the building* w-hirb hud 
been cunsancd by liie in lh« nrign of S(e(>ben. At the Dis&olu- 
lioo. Its revenues were valued at 18UI. 10». Od. and it vros thea 
gianteil to tyir Wikliaro Pagi-t, by Henry the Ligbth. It aflcr- 
werds came, by purchase, into iho fiitnily uf ileatk, by uhom it 
mu snld, ta tlie ycur Ki.'iS. to Ruiph CoU-, Esq. His «in, 8ir NU 
choliit Cole* a^in diipowd of ii to tbc tamilics of Trmpcst, Carr, 
ftod Mus^ravc, w hose dncetK]ant» arc yot owners. The uniy re- 
OIBiB of llie monastic buildings now »liinding n the Outeway, a 
■tfODgand nut unbandi>oiiie)])iice of masonry, with pointed arcbca. 

About thn-e t^uariers of u mile esslwurd from Durliani, is OLD 
DL'ItllAM, a spot buppined, by ^Jr. Hutchinson, to bsvo bccu 
occupied by the Saxons previously to llie foanduiiun of the pn> 
tent citjr: and by Mr. J. Cade, in a inict pubtbhcd in the wveiuh 



r* 



AVBBAH. 



volume of the Arrfi«ologia, to lia« been a Roman station. The 
latter suppo«itian is not supported by sufficient cviiii^ncv, as the 
appeinnrc of Uie ground nloim by no means warrants the cuncia* 
aioD of its hivinj; bcrn occupied ws a Rumun camp. Simc deep 
trcncbe«, and rurlhen banks, may l>c5Cen; but ibr whole by far 
too irrcguliLT and imperfect, to fumUb a distinct )de« at to «bat 
mi^ht have bccu their original designation or figiue. A morv 
perfrct work is rcniaining, on the brink of the river at a litile dia- 
taticc, but on the opposite side. TU'v, is Maidi!K Castlb, 
which occupies the gummit of Maiden Caatle Scar, ai«I has been 
described thus. **ThcCiLs(lc is inacccAible from the rirer by 
reason of the ^teqiiK-iSof thi^ cliff, wbicli is a]nio»t perpendicular, 
and about one hundred feet in hei;;ht. 'Un the right and lett the 
ateep sides of the mount are covered with a thick ibtvM of ouks: 
the crown M the mount cumiats of a level area or plain, forty 
puces wide on the summit of the sear, on the front or nanh-eaM 
tide: 100 paces long, on the teft-hnnd side; and 170 paces on th« 
right. Tbc a])priwch from the south-went is fortified with a ditcb 
and brcast-wuti: the entiitnce, or passage o\Tr ibt tJitch, i» no( in 
die middle, but mada to correspond with the natural rise o( tlin 
oiilwiird gmund: the ditch is twelve pacr^ wide, and runs with & 
little curvature in each edge of the sKt|>e, now covered with wood, 
as before noted ; on oik hand being fifty pares iti length, on t)w 
cillier eighty paca. After pH»w^ the ditch, theie i« a levH pa- 
rade, or platform, twenty pace* wide, and then si high earth fence, 
now nine tect pcrpendtculiir, which it is apprehended wot bocd 
with mnson-work: a breast-wurk Jins run from the earth fence on 
each title alutig ihu bnnk of the bill, (o the edge of the cliff, or 
scar. The earth fence rtoscn the whole neck of land, and is in 
length 100 pHce«, forming the Routh-wr»l side of the area."* Dr. 
Stukeley, in his Iter Bore^ilc, describes this work as folloun; 
** li^twiird over the river Wear, upon another peniutula of high 
grounil, 1 saw a camp, called Maiden CusLle, which 1 judge to be 
Komun, It is tilmosC encompassed too, by a rivulet falling into 



Hutchintan'i Duiham, Vol. II. p. 31a. 





DVVllAM. 



75 



riie rivtr fitrm tlic «ttt. It is of an oblon«; form, .^00 (ccl lonf!, 
■nd wry stc^ on three ddrs; lh« neck is guarded by a nunpan, 
•ad vitfaout that at »)ni« link disiancc by a ditch: the project 
hv^ry Utfjt, more especially eastward." 

Bctwcvti two aniJ tlir«« ni'i\a from Duriiam, eastward, standi 
SHI>:KBUltN HOSPllAL, founded by RislK)i> Pudsey, about the 
yrir 1 180. for sixly-fivt; poor lje\wn, a Master, and othc'r officers. 
Tlic aiiciettf buildings kck <]cs(roynl by the Scots, but re?>lored 
by Thomas de Ile«u>«cll, wbo held the otbcc of Master between 
ibejKara 1330 and 1339; and have since been rebuilt by Dr. 
Gregory, who was nirpointed Master in 1759- They stand In « 
iny hmithful Miuaiiuii, on the dilTerettt siile» of an inclosed area, 
raatsining about an arir of ground. The Master's House is n 
cemmodiouit Hwellin;;, with pleasant gardens attached to it. T)m 
body of lli« Chapel U probably as ancient as the ioundalion: " it 
is ligblcd by three narrow windows on the south, under circular 
aidin. ant] tiroampnled viilh Htnall round pitiutcrs, belted and ca< 
pitallcd lik«; thnw in tl>e rs6l part of Durham Cathedral." Fmm 
the cnnititutions fnimcd by Bishop Pudsey, il appran, that (ho 
IwMpital was to receive both male and fcfflale lepers; each sex 
bavini; ihWrmpeciive holKe* oti the opposite tides of the area; 
and the brethren b«nit permitted to elect their prior, and (he sis- 
im tbeir prioress. " Kach leper was to have a loaf and a gallon 
et beer dnily: three days in the verk flr^h meat, and Tour dnys, 
fiih ; so ibni one dish of meat, fish, chers«', or butter, should sorva 
two; but on great days, two diabes were to be provided, particu- 
larly on QuHdrnge^iinu-dnv, uhen they were allowed fre»h sal- 
won, or <ilhi'r fr-d, if they C"uUI l>e had, for one di»li ; and on Mi- 
rbadmas-day (hey were to haw; ge«se, a goose to every four, 
Tbey were allnncd yraHy, threr yards of woollen cloth. rua!«t, 
« while, six j«r(h o( lim-ti, nnd six yanls of canvas, with oihor 
ntniMries, as truncs uf sirew and bundles of recdn, with four yols 
Hop for ibc Mpls of oor Saviour.'" By these and similar rules, 
iha inatiintion was j^vemed till the lime of Cardinal Langlry, who 
findin|r ihnt (he revenues had been mtMipplied, obtained a faculty 
fntn Pope Eujjenius the ["ourlb, empoweriDg him to make new 
2 n-gululiuti». 



7« 



DVKnAM. 



T^olalioin. His onliiiarm-s, dated July 22d, 1434. rffixtrd a 
conudenble rhanf^ in tlif nriginal foundation; tbnugh not more, 
perbapii, than tioccsaniy; an at iliis period, the tcprMy nppcar* to 
hftvc be«n nearly cnulicalcdj and two Itpcn only, " if tiieii cuuld be 
foumt," ure Jirecled to be admitted upon the establi&limvnt. I'o 
these thirtwn jioor pi'oplc were to l>e adJed, " to U: provided with 
mtan and drink uf len-pi-ncf value cvury week, or ten-pence in 
rudy money, at their own oplwn, and havo yearly the sum of 
S and 8 pi-nce for fuel and clotti4s." On this foundiitiiin the hos- 
pital continued till the year 1384, when an act was paiooii for in- 
corporatiiig the brclhttti, and th«ir >ucci-uor«, by the name of 
" Tbc Master mid Brethren of Chnsl's lloepital io Sherborne, 
near Durham :'' the number of brethren was by the same act co- 
Inrged Id tbirt)'. Some addiiiunal statuUs ncrc made by Bishop 
Chamller in the year 173^; and under them the hmpiial b iww 
governed. The in-brrthnut, fifteen in number, are each accom- 
rnodaled Mtlfa o. ncal room, a »uRictcncy of wholoome diet, a 6uit 
of cloilicsumiuidiy. und forty ihillingsitunoury: ibe out- brethren, 
who are &\m fifteen, are allowed a Bimilar sum. Tlie prewnt 
Iltasler is ibe Bishop of llocbesler, who holds it in coininendam. 

About orw mile south-east from Durham, is SHINXLlFFli 
Hall, the sent of Robert Scott, Km], This inaii!>ion i.'* sbellered 
by a bcauliful itniphilhcatre of hanging vroods, excepting lowardti 
the louth-west, which opens upon the river Wear, and a rich ex- 
pand! of meudonii. On the oppuaite side oT the river lo Stitnclifli*, 
a HOL'GIIALU an ancient manor-huiuc, erected by Prior Ho- 
taun, and forming pnTt of the prebi'ndal estates of Durham. This 
building hufi been lurroundcd by a moat, and olberMise fortified; 
and, according to autlienticatrd reports, was poneaaed by Sir Ar- 
thur Hiittlrij;);L<! during the Civil Wars, and for some time becaiat 
the residence of Oliver Cromwell. 

The manor of UUlTF.ltBY, about two miles south from Dur- 
ham, was part of the ancient posMsaions of the I.utniei/t, of Lum- 
ley Castle; ^m whom it probably paiscd as a portion with Mar- 
g^rrt, daugliter uf Ralph Ltimlcy, who mnrricd Sir John Clert Aux, 
ufCruft. iler daughter, the heiress of Clcr^-auK, wa» wedded lo 

Christopbei 




ftvitnxir. 



I 



CbristopWr Oiaytor, wlio wm fuuiid possessed of Bitltcrliy, ur, lu 
it WW iberi callcJ, Hrnulnnf-, in llie ei^jhiJi year «f Qown tliso- 
bctb. In the ycHf i6t)A, an net wus obtained to \'eit ceitikin 
luids, tlie pnrperty uf Sir William Cbaytor, lUiL In Yorli.^Jtli'c 
■nd Durbnm, tluit lliry might bo sold to di&chirge dcbli, Kiid ?«• 
cure pnrlious for younger chililroD. L'ndcr ihis siatiiti-, Kultcrby 
vUigU). in 1713, Co Tbomiu, JoIid, nnd Humjiliny Doubtodiiy; 
and Mwn aAcrwards, by punhnw. iKxume tbc sulc property of tlit 
lutcr; Hive utx tbiid of the piuduce of tbc salt ipnrigs, ulijch 
•ras rcMirvcd to liie tue uf Jolin and bis hcin. ]lutiiplin.>y'« 
widow ilevit^d itie manor U[K>n tru^E lo be Mid; an<\ aUntii ttt«lve 
w (banccn ycar^ agu it was putrhiued by Mr. \V»i'd, of S«)g4?- 
fieta. 
/She Manur-HouK', wlticli sltindi iii a low and nxOusc situation, 
ir tbc bnnkt uf iIiq >Vcur, tv ciici>iiipa$H-d by u moat wnlled 
round, wbicb, tbuugh oow ilry. can be filled witb water lo the 
ile{jib of filtecn feci. In cIratBJnf; ihis moot, some yvnn inner, 
a coat of mail, witb otbcr armour, was discovered in 11 larirc sione 
tRw^h; and in an adjacent field, in nliich an ancient ho!i|>ttK], de* 
dicated to Si. txvnard, ii sup(MMi>il to liave stood, many stone 
Cofiilis, and jam fvr boly wolcr, iia«e bnrii du;; up, Tbe grounds 
belonging to ibis manor are ninaritBbiy tertile: " tbe river near 
the bouse EbIU swiltly over a rough channel, under hi^h rocky 
ifaorfs and hanging- woud», fonning a canul n iDtk* in leni:iL, where 
the adjacent landa make a cunadrrablc plmn. 'Jlien- is nut a 
Hrceler rurftl sctnc in tbe whole county, unadorned, and in simpld 
uatute; for art bus not )ct extended her band bitlu*r, further than 
ill the u(diiu>r> eoun>c ol agriculture. This place is us reuiarkablf 
lot it* natural curiuaitits as its brauly: surrounded wilb the river, 
from the fisaurc uf a rtick in ihe bed of the cbaiiiiel, about forty 
CkI from llic idiore, iinwH a cnn^iidciuble sprin-:; of «ttit water, 
nkcd with a miocral tjualily. IV uluaiion of tb« spring sub- 
jertk it to a mixture of Iresh water, so that it u diHiculi lo knoiv 
lioM much salt it conlaiiit in its purest atatc: on sevrml triuls, it 
bas yielded double ibv <^iiantiiy produced from s«a-watcr. The 
lhot«, for a conudcrablc dutance, shows many ouiin^, or small 

issuoa 





iasuc* of ftlt wftter; am) by » iykc, or brtak in lite rocks in t 
cbuinet of tJie nv«-, a little above the spring, it i» pmumed fe 
rock ur bed uf wll mi^tht be won' ofwmo value, Tbit w*ter it 
reputed tn be an dfeciual remedy for ditpascs caused by the 
delAlcrious fuin^s «risin^ m smelting tind rctimng-hoitsn bclnn^ng 
to the b^ad-works. Hall' e pint isDufticicnlly fiurgative t'ur the 
■Ironf^t [lenon/'i In a small rift ur ilcll noirly opposite the 
salt spnng, sod Mitlirn III? diiitancr of two huiulird vanK. is m 9uU 
pliureous spring, a chalybeate spnng, and a >pnng of fresh water, 
all issuing throui^li the tlvMires of the neighbouring rock*. Th« 
two fnrmer, an appcan from bd account communicated by Mr. 
Hugh Toddt and pub1ij>bed in tlio PhilosDphical Traatactiom, 
were discovered by some workmen who were employed in boring 
for C'iftl. At the depth of twelve fathonu and a hall, t)t«y di»cv 
lered lhebul|)bure"Uk t>pniii{: tliry Iriel the rock about 100 yards 
diHtant, and at iieuily ihe vaiiie depth found the spring of Fresh 
water. Both ihese ^prin^ issue through the holn made by Am 
inslruroenb. The Chalybeate uprinig was probably opene*) )nit 
lately, when a narrow road was cut through the doll lor the uw 
of • ktone tjuarry. 

On »ome devBlcd ground lietween nulterby and Durham, 19 s 
modem Plant* -rios, beiongini; to llie Dean and Cliapicr, Ci>- 
vering an extent uf about iitiie acivs. This spot b intended aa k 
nursery for the supply of the prebcn'lal csttUea, and ^nme mitlion» 
of young trees arc annunlly sent away, nnrl ro-plnntcd. Tl-ees i>f 
almost every variety of oak, beech, laKh, pine, lir, aah, &c. are 
liere produced; and tl»e altontioti paid lo ibi-ir }irovrlb, to the 
arraDuenieut <'f the beds, and to every concern necessary lo the 
improvement of Lhe Plantation, merits the highest praise. 

CROXDALK HAU,, tlie seat of Witlium halWn, Esq. about 
one mile to the south of Butterby, occupies a lofty ^ituali<^n nmr 
the banks of the Wear, and commands a nch pro»)icct townrdi 

th* 

^ Fn h ■ term dnployed by the mifKnoldiiiMdcheadjiccntcouDlki. tv 
■ignif/ ihc actual fmitiiiei or woiluo^ of the ok. 



t Huuhlaioa't DuibjiD, VdI. H. p. 31$. 





I 



DVRIIAK. 

At aoruUt-wcat. The pleuure grounds are beaoHAil, uai tlic ad- 
jftccnl wood Rod plantatiotu, render it a very itcurable re*iiie(»ce. 
'I'be owaor uf Crtuulal« cune tnio iW liatuU of tlie Sahtiit prior 
to Ibe jou- 147 it and has ever«tici*CuiitiiiU4;d in llwir poueuioii; 
a circumstance hardly to be paralleled in the lii^toiy of any la- 
nily in the coun^. In the inscription upon the rooniitn«m of 
Jarrard Salvin, in St Otwra]d*s Church, he i» tiiid to be, ricfri- 
mutprimiu (wit intermiuumej ffa*drtM numnitjidt et tod. He 
died in the year l66j : Williun, the present |)oweuor, ii the 
twen^**Gnii in uiiiDlcrruptvd succcniua. Uound tiic ncblcrn «x- 
IroBity of the pleasure grounds llnws a nmaU ijvulrt, named Cror- 
date Btci; the channel nf which is a romantic dell so di.Tp and 
unow, chat the lan's ny% arc nearly excluded through tltc whole 
yt*i; and in the days of BU(ierstition it was thought a fit aboilv for 
tvil ipirilt. Thu idea occiuioiivd the er«ctiun of a crow, wluch 
afberwvrds gave name to tJie adjvrent lands, called CriAsdale, xa 
•evcral old writings.* CrotdaU Scar, n m^igbbouring cUS, com- 
BModi a Trry beautiful ittid cxtriuive prospect uf the valley lo- 
muxb Ittr wffsl, through which the river is teen tnennidcrinf; to an 
extent of several mile*. The viilo of Bulterhy, belted round hjf 
tba cryvUii watvre of the Wear, is ako beheld from this »pot, Iw 
■kIo oilirr pifising viewa on in difll-rput adca. 

BUKNHALI^ tormprty the f«at of the Smitkt, by ntK of 
whom, George Smith, Csq. many tinprovemcnts were made, is 
tum llie property of Bryan &ilvin, Esq. The mansion ii Mtualed 
in a low arkd rrcliwe »put on the Iwrders of a rivulet called the 
Bmemn, which bills into the Weur a liltlo below Sunderland 
Bridge. 

MERKINGTOX is s long, irregiiliir village, occupying a lofty 
littutian on the ridge of a bill. The lint mt-mtinn of this plucn 
or£-un durinj^ Cumin's usurpation of Ihjs Sei.>, wbrnhit iic|>liew 
filled the lower of ibe Church with armed men, uitd bopvn to for- 
titf it with a ditch and vallum. Tlie Church has many appear- 
gf iuiuquity, aitd was built in t^io lurin of a cross, with a 

towei 

* UuKkiana'* Oudam, Vol. 11. p. 33'- 





80 



BtrnrtAir. 



tower rising (mm ifie centre of four tiislcs. Tbc wMt Bide of llie 
tower is iU<tHii>c(l on s heavy circiilnr nrch, supported on but- 
Utaaa: tlic eai^t uilc is als" »uUAiiii.'d on u umilar arch, but this 
ipiings fn)rn cltntered culuinns oniamenteil with rude SaxuQ ro- 
yiitaU. The loner i» s mutiivc {mIc, about sixty (cGt liigh, baviitg 
■mHll wintiows, witli circular arclirs. " 'J'he pro^iect from Mcr> 
ringtoD Church is at once wonderfully cxtni^vc and bcialiials 
tbc liill on vrhicli it Miinds is a Hilgr. or long mount, rising with a 
l^radoal asccjit from th^ north and Kiuib, so as to command tbe 
finest landMrajM nilhin the couniy of Durham, I'xpaiided to lb« 
eye in u kind of bird's pye view, by rciuon of tlio loftincM of tb« 
mount. Tbe custem cad uf the ridge, being bouadfxl wJtb bills of 
alraost equal eminence, aiTord» but a !>Iion prospect; tbe wcaicm 
trrmiiuiiion is ut the village of Wi'strrlon, diiiiimi about a mile. 
The valley through wJncb runs the river MVar, lies open to ibe 
view, gracnl with tbe vli-^nt scenes near Uiitbop Aockland, ex- 
tended up to Wiiioii, and along the winduig channel of ll)C T\\a 
ulinfKt lu fiir as Wulsingfaani: to ilie right is Uranjx(>oth Cattle, 
and its environs; to ibc left, the {iruepect is buuuded bjr tb«'di»- 
tnnt eminence of Corklii'KI-iell, abovr Riby. On the Doilb, in 
tbc bosom of the v\i\e, with majoiic u«pccl, rises tlie city of Dur- 
ham, gracrd »i(li n variety of woodlands; on every side tbc cily, 
villages, seai-hoUMs, and bamtctn, arc scatteivil; aod the view is 
terminated by lUc mount* of IViwhuw und \V«rdeii-low, which 
make an eW^nt brcsik on tbe hijrixotilal liitc. To lUv souib'^resil, 
the Yorkslnre bills above UBrnuugbaio, lorm tbe honxon, south- 
ward of which, if, the spacious pluin, wberoiu N'ortliallcrtuii ajid 
Thirsk lie; and with a ^tuss it is said, Crake C»blle and Votl^ Min- 
ster ore discoverable: Hamilton, and Cleveland hills extend c«st- 
war^F sirelcbing thtrir culli^nU'd skirts into the vale of Tees: the 
pike of Hoyabury, all the chain ot mouniauis to lluntclilf, aiid 
tbe environs of FlamborouKb-bead, arc coDipn.'heiid«d id the proif 
peel, lu^tbcr with the 1 i'et> muuili. and a wide r.\paiise of sea^ 
On tlw intrnnediulc ground, bcdj^tii-ld, Ilurdwii;k, and tlie sweep 
of country to Elvnrk and Ihe beacon are disliticily seen: tht 
sceqe narrows towards the north, yet tnao) other objects are beau- 

Ufully 






nrittiAM. 



SI 



I 

I 



tiFully 41■^K»etl in the valley."* The number of Itouscs in ibia 
lowmhipis t)l, ol' inhiiliiriir» :22H. 

Xoirly twomikssoulh Iroin thisvillxgeit WINDI.KSTOX, lh« 
boipitabic teal o( Sir John Cdviu Bart, wbinv utictutors were re- 
itdmi liere in ihe time i>f Queen Kliuibclh. 'llic i-btuiv vras fur* 
Buriy divided itm*iii(( many fitnulics, but has brcii aj^trgated by 
different purrhnius. I'ha mnnsion 16 siiuuled on a gcntlu ascvnt, 
wiU) sn mslrrn a3))cct: it coniuini u uuall tiiotigh valuable colk-c- 
lion of aoiiquitM«' 

L\&T, or OLD TJHCKLEV, fonncrly the inhcfitancc of the 
liBntrtu, gave rite lo a very cuitttslcil iuw-^uit belweci) Ital()b 
Omton and llkbunl Lilbum, in llio ^enr ttiiH. ulu-n, on a quv»> 
Hon of light prosecuteii in the rvurt of p1eu» m Uurhatii, tiailh 
c«i vttged; but stfs)iemled thrnitgh » jinim which arcftu in the \ntf 
mdrngs, and uccaaionrd a reh^ifiice lu the Kiitg in Council, iiiiil 
lAemrrlii to titr indvc Judges. TUe ri-3|MX'livr rhumpiunx up* 
pwcd in array, ami ra«t ihrir itaiitillcu; llietr wcaixiM hinag btt- 
Uomuttb »iiiid>bngs.t 'nurdt»'H.-iitioii^ in the I'urliiiincnt, und^ub- 
Hqiml occum>nce of the Civil War*, n|.pcar li» hnve put n stop 
toibe further trial of the cauic. [tichard Lilburn wu father to 
ikt crkbralcd Livuicnaiit Culunel Joun Lildurx, who wiu 
fconioQ ibi* cststu in the ^ear ifitS; ami U-iii}; a yuuiij;cr sim, 
*M brad a clothier, but ubandoncd ht& profrsson in Ui'Mi, oiid 
■nao asMSiant lo Dr. Rasiwick. -L'tidor hit (Uroclinn he went 
laHolluid, and superintended the printing o| the Merr^ Uluijfi/^ 
(trtrkifb, and oilter prnumed ofTciiCM, he wna, on hia return, 
liloiKd, whipped, liiicd, impriif>nri), nttd luHiJt-d nith iiimt, by 
*Jero( the tyrannical court which »»«.'inb]eci in the St«r-Cham- 
^n. In iJus year IO"H, be was. released by the l*arli»iniciil, in 
■*Wd cause he becumv n ilihtinguished soldier; urn] in ItUi was 
Ahaund to the rank ui Lieutenant Culuiwl. Hi> undaunted t\A- 
Vot. V. F rit, 

* IJMUbiiiMii'* DuHtim. Vet. 11. p. 317. 

* Strlladiwoitb'iCallcdiom, F*n Il.inJilM Huiihintoa't Duitum, Vol. 
'^ P- i\*t whercMi it i> oln(rv«(l, ilui ili« Batooiu, &c wen In (be pniwMio« 
«{■!• hat Mr, Ralph II»dpon- 



ss 



bunnAM. 



lit, and persevering mptUoo* in defrnce of tlit interests of libcrtyr 
to which b« was BlUcbt'd nitb eitthusia»tic warmth, ucowviied 
tiim many suflcrings. From the ctmlidunt Hnd kcr'1 hicod of 
Cromwell, he becAinc Iiu> nccusor nnJ onemy, when ibv fumcr be- 
gan lo violate lite princip)<-9 wliicb he had flown to arms to nip- 
port. r>rin mik) tiiibeiidinf; in his pulitica, be was twice tried for 
high trcMun, but ncquilted by tlie junrs; nliow uuiborily h« 
boldly vintlicated, in exprasaiow ever conjET^niil lo Bviiish rrecdora. 
" The Jury," be observed, " by law, are nut only Jttiige* of tJtt 
Jket, Aat of' Iht lea altu; and you that call younelves Ju^et of 
taxp, are no more but Norman ininidrn; and, in trulbr if lbs 
JUKT please, are nn moro but cgphera i\t proHoiaee their rerdict." 
After hit M'contJ tri&l,^ he wss ordrrrd to k«*e die kingdom, but 
obtained pctinittion to remain, on Uikbrotbcr becoming security tot 
hh poiici-ablu behaviour. He ulteniards settled ul (Ulbam, whcnt 
he altached bim^ll to the Quukers, and died mX ibc tify <>l thirty 
nine. Ilii cbor»ctcr has been diversely esbmated. Hume repre- 
sents him as the ** mmt turbuU^rit, but must upright and cuumge- 
ous of human kimi;" ind Sir Henry Maniti, us of such a couim- 
tiouA disf>o«tlion, Ihal, " if there were none living but bint, Joim 
would be aa^irikl l.ilbunt, nnd iJUiuiii a^uin&t Jiihti." Tbcat 
strong expTCs^iuw, nlieii iiualincd by the cuiuidcration uf bit 
action), cnit only be understood as cliaracteriilK of the tirra 
energy, niid iiiHexible pcrsCTeriitiee, tliaidiuiu^uislied his delence of 
conreived principles, 1-^ually inimical to tlic unconstitutional 
dogmns of jiForogutive, and the illegal exeriiDTu of pHiliameuiory 
lUiirpmion, his conduct bus been misn-preKnted by bulli partietj 
\rl, under an unprejudiced review, it would Hp))car to Im- bu' moro 
deM'rvtnjjof prjiiw than of cen«oiv. 

AVCLIFKE, or GREAT AVCLIFFE, a village of conwdcra- 
blc sniiquiry, eiruHied on the high road between Darlington tuul 
Purham, vms pari of the »iicii>nt possessions of tlic Sc« of Lindi%- 
bimc, and assigned, with oilier lands, accordin<: to Symeon Dund- 
ineii*i», by Itishup Aldune, tu the l'4irlit of NoribumlKrlnnd, to- 
WU1I9 ^uppurlin^ the vmn of those liine<>> iuid were not for several 
ages restored ttf-thc Cbuicii Bieliu^ rLaiubnril rccaii'cd a coiilir- 

mutury 





ouhuam. 



99 



I 



I 



maloiy grsiit »f AycUSe from the CrovfOt Ipedfyinic lh«l it wu 
ow of Ui« placts in)unou>l]p claimed by the NoilliiiRibri»m 
ajpJHt Sl CuthWrl and the See. Hvre, acconlin); to the Saxoir 
Chronicle, a »y»o«l was held in the year 783> anil unullier in 7K<). 
Tlw Churcb occu)>»cs ta elevated tiite, iit Mnie dMnnt-o from itie 
vilbf^ wuthward, fend lutid luwiiiDtly a Guild dedicate) to St. 
Maiy Uie Virion: tl»e Churcb is d»licaleil to St. Acca. The 
number of hotMtet in lUi* lowKdit|>, af returned under the. tatc act, 
**0 WSi of iiibatiilants 6W. 

DARLlNGTOy. 

Uablijjoto.v, ft Utrgc and pof ulom town, of remote origin, 
aad ft barotqb by prcKripliun, n siiuatc-d on ihi* &id« of a hill 
gmily fntKnitif; to the nut, at ihc foot of which How; iIia rivrr 
Sim, cfrvr which h a bridi^ of three archn. The etjinnln^ of 
)h name haa been dtfirntnlly given; hot if ihccircumftance is trve, 
thu ifae Skern was anciently called the Dar, or Der, k may then 
be (leri»ed fmm tliot word, from the Saxon Iitge, signi^ing » tnca* 
daw faardrring upon a riTcr; and Ton, a vtlle or town. It con- 
wts of srvcnd street*, branchinj* from nn exmnive scjuare in 
vkidi tbe market a held : and haH a clean and mpcctablo^ ip> 
pinaee. 

Sodh after the qit»cnfj«l Sec wa* rsrat)Ii*I)ed at Pnrliam, in the 
,ne EthWred, SOfff, a t»blcin»n, the sun "f W«li»h, ob- 
uasKin trum the King, tliat Drriinglnn, uilh its appen- 
i^K, >l>ouId be rcstoied to St. Cuilihert^ to which re^titatiun, ll» 
Gaga Wubion, Archbnhup of Vurk, and Bishop Aldwiiii', became 
•nmjMa.* WlHrii Bithup Cirihrphu removed <he Seculars frurti 
faCkl&eilrmI at Durham, thn to«n wa« appointed oDe of Ilic 
iWtiLi (nr ihrir Tt^rptii^n. 

In the Uiilden llukc, D»riini;tnn ii tliu« pavttculflHv noticed. 
** ll iken ronlain^ forty o]ia;ang> of land in the hands uf Titlain 
"uiiiv, fer each of whicb lite lord received fite »hiliing9; ibeir 




* Ldindi Col. V«] II. P.S17. 



M 



DUaHAX. 



■ervicc consisted of mcnnng the Bishop's loeadows, winning and 
leudinf; tlie hny, for which work Hivy received a corody; inclosing 
ihe limiu of ihc couri, whence ihc cerm, " Vcpsc u( the Court." 
They vrere also to wnrk ot tlic mill, to bring one load of wood for 
ereiy oxgsjig, to cwrry lh« Bishop's bagj^nee on his circuit, and 
alto to cunv^y lu hhn jearly tKirt; londs uf win?, herrings, end 
sail, Twelve oihcr teiianu held each an oxgang of land, and ptld 
rent M vilUiins, but only Krv-rd as nttendanu on the Bishop's cm- 
busiui. 'I1t« Smilb held cigLt qci». for irun-wurk nboul ihe 
carls of Utile Wuliun, and for sinnU iroo-uurks within Darling- 
ton Court. The Cotia^men served to make the ricki of hay, 
bear in tli<? com, nnd rrpnir ihc mill». Tin- Pindcr hHd nine 
ucrea uf luiid, and had his thruvn, like otlicn, in that otficv, and 
pioridcd livf ncKirt hena, and Hve hundred rg^s, for lliR hou3<^hold. 
The mills uf l)ariinj;toii, Huuniitn», «tul Ki-lton, piiid tliiity innrka. 
'I'be burgagcrs, djvre, and fxrmcra, rt-ndcrrd li-n marks." Th« 
ftrvu, atjiniui, our bvst law cxpw>ilors detirie to be a ro^'al tri- 
bute, fur llic ■Miwrcign's CTitertainmont for unc ni|^t on his jour« 
iiin, nnd it wiis ihc badge ol'a royal borough or villr. 

In Ihr kurvcy taken by Bishop ilullidd, it appears that the tolls 
of fairs ami mnrlt-u, with the jmirits of the mills, Kuits of the t»- 
natit» of Wlicituw, bakclKHii*', losijte of bread and bfcr, pro6ts of 
|]u< borough court, and of tliv dyers, produced no le^s a sum thati 
5K)1> and the lannt-r* of the borough rigtiU, with other receipts, 
piud a rent of fourscore and fourteen pounds, *jx ehiltings. Bisbop 
Ui-ck inclosed a -{xirk hcloiii;ing tit thu manor; and wveial pcnont 
of Iiigh rank held lm>d» in Uarlinglon. 

'Iliv principal (irnainent of Darlinnlun is the Church, which 
stands at lh<! south-west angle of thi; Markel-Flncc, and was 
erected by BiUiop Mugh Pudsey, about tJie yvar Il60. Between 
that i>«riud nnd I I<j4, the same Prrlato built a mansioD- 
house near the Church; and bImi instituti'd a Deanery, with thm 
secular Caniins or I'n'lwndBries. 'I'hcac works he is supposed to 
ba^c cficcli'd with the vast sums of public money which he bad 
rigorously extorted for the purpose of redeeming llic King from 
cijilivilyi hut v[ipro|)riatcd to his own coffun. When the Col- 

3 tegB 




DtfRnAH. 



85 



\tf/i d Prebcndann ms diMolvthl in the reign of reward llts 
Sixth, A. D. 1360, notwithttandini; lliv opulence of ibe founda- 
tion, And the rxtrnt of llic parish, only a kmxll ^rliun was rc- 
icrwd tut tbe muiiilviiuiccof a imm^tcr; ibc net pruduce nniount- 
ia| to no mure tban 321. d's. Hd. annually. 

The Cborch b a spacious structure, m iho form of a cnif, with 
B Cower and spire risinj; from the centre, to the height of ISO (ki t 
tbe Mom of which it is built, is supposed to have been brouf^t 
from Cocklield-fr.ll, » diMnnce of abotit twelve miles. Tlie tuircr 
uprin^ fnjin unilumi urcbi-s, su^Iniiwd on chitterrd pillan; tbe 
aiches of tbe itavr and ri&Icb uk irrcgulur; and the whole inlerior 
new b gmttly di&tigured by the disposition of the pews and gal- 
leries. *' Tbe wni door is hiulily fi»ii.hed with archingx und pi- 
koeiB, cylindric&t and octagonal inlorc:bn.ngnLbly." PrrrinuB to 
ibe Disbolutian, in this cdilicr werv four chantrin; rmc of wbichi 
Cllkij Manhall's Chantry, was amply endowed ; and the endow- 
■eatt having been rested in Ihc Crown, were, in the reifta of 
Queen EUxabeib, granted by that Sovereign tor tljtt rouadation of 
a Grammur-Scbool, through ttio solicilatiuns of Henry, Karl of 
UtriJngtott, and Bishop Pilkingtnn, whose influence ilio inbahiuints 
had b(«oU£bt for that purpose. The charter was granted on tliR 
lilhofJunc, li67; and a poilrait of the Roysl fouiidr<-M, with 
iW charier in lu.T hand, n at plumed in lt>eScb«ol, by the lalo 
George Allan, Ksq. F. S. A. av a memorial of bts gratitudii in 
fairilig received part of hi; vducHlion then?. Tbe School. a» well 
■ tbe building loimerly llie Uishop\ Pdaee, is situated near the 
nar^n of tbe titer: the latter having become very niiDoua, was 
npoirod by Btthop Cosin; but having kince hi^iime bn-n lotitlly 
De|{lecln), is now liirmcd vf th« Bishop's housekeeper (who holds 
It by pAlent for life) as a WorkhouK fur the poor. Numerous 
diaiitabic donaliona bnve bern made m thia pariib, but not of 
wficient iraportanc« to be Wre parlicularized. 

Tbe bappy situation of Darlington, its Inrge market, which is 
abundaiuly supplied with com, cattle, sheep, wool, Ace. and tha 
(iienpness of pruvisioas, render it a sort uf vntporiuui tiir miinufnc- 

F3 rurus. 




TW 




9 •By 

«dW atfvnettt 
mdin aTMr. Inha MmtK. to 
fc* kM «»l>» in fa««v aC Ail 



Kcv^toaa. a ■£ kv %«■ OKtai far d 
ixal flw; tlpmtA»inc«rihefcMd«<cff um b Uik J in 
CaM tliiiih, mJ, togiAer rah MoAer ■« fcri(nBra^1)mp 
«d iim, ■■■ tawaard hjM^ htt ii^gniiiii Jew K«« •>««, * 
MIMirf nwfiBjiw: iMMHalMft AMaiU fag ^wnTig »«J. 

«y VWCT. kM BV THMttf — UafeNTtuCW >, Inc IBaOnB^ [MOV 0B 

nsjMppuM ■jts aaifHjMMnCt 

tW iwpniTiif—i «f ayk i lm t ba been pnnoi^ with 
4naUe Monv ia ihe cmtpoM of Darfiaglen: rfcietfy thfrnigb Ae 
pBttaaage ot a roprcubb wnrty t4~ gratWrnrfl. «lMt baU Aif r 
wcft r n ^ 'i m flir k/vn, and n>l» ftraMaoM wc o nfiB e ta merit. 
Abnd timyaa I7(>7, « n«»iy Ue caiwi w«i propcttJ in lf>J ftma 
Slociloi), by UkriiaiElcrn, to WiitftoQ. a kfipfa of abmrt thirty 
■ile, wirii vanoo» miv cuM; tfac^ MimaiH npeocc ms <i3,0iH)l. 
a raiD «faich H vat clearly prtrwd mieht horr brro »uon rrtanml 
■itit tarn iu c naw ; bat ibc plan was afaamkrard, (nrni tfae app»> 
mtum t4 wamu; infittitDols, wbotc nmnvrmmt* tbe p i n p tm i d nit 
•mild in wme mcaMire imvc inlprniplnl. [HriingloB, acconlfng 
to ihe Utr art, cuiiUim 94^ hmnc*, and 4^0 inhaUtaiits: oTtbo 
latter 'His an mtilc«, *nd ?5I? TrninlM. 

CinAN(;KHALL. ..r HLACKV* tLL GRANGE, ifcewat of 
GcorigB Allan. Km^. ts plmfantly smwd about one mile irairii 
fmiB Dariinpna. ol whirb, anrf 'rf the ii<)jiHmt counrn-, it cdhi- 
taaiiiU w>roc wTf line views. The Mamion is n K^pct-iiiblc mo- 
tlrni building;, and contftiiw a veiy ext^iuive minrtim ftf itatanl 
birfnty, and ollii-r curimilin, n!Hdi llif lulp pns^nvor. xnd learn- 
td aniitiuaiy, Ot-otgc Allan, fat], purchased for 70«l. of Mr. 
'J'amullr laie uf W^'cliiT, io Vorisbirr, who culkt-wd it nt a vMt 

cxpi-iice. 




fioaaAic 



nr 



I 



Mprnce. 1'be Libnin^ » aUo rxtrFtncl; vftluablc in lopof:ni|iliy 
uai Mitiquily, and cjiiiRJns m grrnt quiinlily of miir.u>rn|)t iiifur- 
■atftiQ OB ibia couoty, wlrnv bisloty ihr late Mr. AlUit wu ex* 
nvmclr anmbw to inioitit^r, aixJ vrns the otiginal |irouiuler uf 
Ur. Hulriunwo'd rkbomtc publication^ A »mii)l, but rnlualtle, 
MKtnblsgc vf [Mintiogs aiV tliittibutcd tbrvu^ti tlie dtfR:i-iUU 

Ai ihc diMancc of about tbrvc miles trum Darlington, at Oxco- 
btllf are r«^itirs(rvlilc canli. detiiMniiiii:(>d II bll Kettlkh; to ilic 
«n^n of witich arc nltacbrd many fabulous conjectures. 'Ihe 
cfcroniclm af Titiurooullt Friury, and Brompton, infurnius "that 
A. D. 1179, upcm t'lnitilma»-<l«y, si Oxcnliall, in tbc ouukirt* of 
Dafiifif^tiin, in tlic Iniihapnc »f Durham, tlir cartb r.tijL<d ii^ll up 
10 a •rmi lietgbt in tb« tnanuEr of a loUy lower, and n-niained all 
tliU day till ihe evening, (its it were fixed and immuveablr.) when 
a sunk dcmi) wiili sucb a hurrid none, iliai it ternfii'd all tlte vici- 
nity; wbcfl tha carlU aUorbod it, and tlierc I'orined a d««p pit.'* 
Citndcn wnipow* that tbcM pits were sunk in coiwcqucuce of tbe 
convulsion above loratinnpd: and Leland, in his ItiMrary, Vol. VI. 
laya, ** that Dr. Belluis told him, that a Uukkr, tnarkid after ihu 
lation uf dukkm of the bbboprike of Uureunc, was piil in into 
«M of the poolo caJlrd Hfl Keiellcs, betwixt Darlington Bttd 
T^irbMtdc, and oOcr «iu found at **'* bridgr, upoo T«9e, thereby, 
«b«r Ofrtnlx <C*ri>rt, ihc uvl oi tlit Clcivau\ family) diiellitb, 
«nd that be it the people hud a certain cnnjectUK-, limt thfre was 
i^rcM nttrr hvtwixl the ij placci." In tbe records of Dt^up 
SktrhiK, irlio entered upun the Svv iu the year l:>89, there in tncn- 
TJun of ceibiin lands cixWttl Jiefl, nhicli sftcrwardii became tbe 
jMwrMon fA lite Kvert: it is itnt imprufaabk' that ihepoolis toolt 
Itieir (tame froni this Inml: and as the monastic dirunicio above 
4|natod, were not to ancient as the ewiit tecordvd of the cdiivuI- 
•iTO, the chr«.i(m-tcri ctiuld only hiivc rehcarwd thi- tiadiiiunsl tale 
■rlodi U»eo prcvaitrd." Mmty cunjrctore* a» to tbe rrai origin of 
lima ))its h«wc bwn I'lrmcd: it has hwu tuppoxJ tlit-y were- the 

1*' * iUaiii 



* Hutchirnqr^ Vgl. }II, p. 19^. 






as 



ADHIlAlf. 



khoAs of tncient c<»l-«ioTfcs; bof this is extremely improljBblr, u 
tlif duinit-ter of one of t>tc Ur^t is tint Ins than 1 1 1 fret, and 
that t>r ibc lea-<«t >«\ftily-livtu Af r. Ilutcbiittun Uiinks tbey might 
hiiTD bcrn marlc-pit*. ta ** ibcY n-MDible the working in other 
countncs where marling is still iiractned;" though he nek now ledges 
that " 0i(M marlc uod alom pits are vrooghL much detper than mx 
yards, while \ht drplh of ihtr UrKost [lit here is only ninc-tcvo fret 
ntul a half; the next aevciitwo fcrt. the next fourtren, and the least 
Ate fr«t and a half." 1 be pniperltM BM'rib<'d to ibevnUcr nf iboc 
pit*, »r« Mmilar to tlioM- nfquiied by wnlor klandin^ in li<i|bi\ts 
whence marie bus bcrn ubuicwtl, whicti tiutes puiifErnt, awl curdles 
tuilk. and wap. Ittelnid, lu)wc«cr, ofsuppoeing ihciu to ba^c hnm 
ninrle pttSt or of ileducinf; their ctymolo^ from ihe old Gcrtnan 
MiB-fibt^ «ith the above ;-etiUeniao, «c should iiiclinc to refer it 
to the KriliKti hal, an alVnii, whence ka!m, iJtlt; and kiddle, or 
kidlfy A (lam: Hal-kidiiitt; i. e. »alt pii&.* 

HUftWORTIJ, uplnMint village, tlirrc miles south of Dar- 
tiiigtun. is utuated on Ibc acclivity of ■ steep hill, ruing frcu tlie 
Tn-s, and comniaiidiug a beauiiful, Uiougb not cMcntive, view into 
Yorkshire. 1'his was ilie biith-pUcc of lh« cdcbrau'd mathema- 
lictiui, William Knkbso.x, who was born in May or June 
170i. The prrceptur of bis early )i»n wiis hit on n father, of 
uhom he Imrru-il writing and arilhiuctic, unci ptobaltly th« rudi- 
ntents of Latin; but his fitndni-:^ to bimks while a buy, by no 
imam iiiftkalcd iIkmv >upcnor faculties wliicb beallcrwanls ex- 
erted with *Q much ctiprj^v. \Vlicn hi* nHnchinent ii> tiio nniusc- 
taiinls of cbtldlxNid l»ad kubfidnl, wbich, according to bis own iv- 
pori, was nut till be Imd nearly atiaii<e<l tlw age cf twenty, he 
tiecan lu study niatlit-inaiics with much dili^iK:i.\ uiukrthe direc- 
tioa of able inasten at NetvcuHtle and Vurk. On his return in 
llurwurllt. be win again beitelitted by the knowledxnof his bilber, 
who WHO a (olernble iiiiiihrmulician, iind wiilitjut whose books and 
imtruclions, nccurdiuj^ to tlnie-rson's obsornition, *' it it probable 
hi* own ip^niut would nv*i-r li»vr been unfolded.'* 

Sornc decree of Emenon's celebrity may, perhaps, be atlribainl 
tn llie contemptuous Ircatinent nbich he received Irutn Ht. John- 
sou, 
" Sec Oiv<n*« mkI Biilty'* Didionario. 




noEtnAH. 



89 



» 



•on, Rector of Knrvonh, ami Prebendary of Durham, what* 
niece he bad niBrricd. Tlie Doctor bad cnga^d to gire fivv hun- 
tlnd puuiuls with his nitrce, who lived wilh liim, ns a inttrriu^e 
portKHi; but when reminded of the pruinise, he choaa to forgfit 
line it had bven taade, and tivatcd our young mutbcnuiiiciaii as a 
]X'rwin bmralh bu imtiLV. ** Tbr prciiniury disnppoiuiinGiit 
KmerKin (who hnd an indep^iidrnt spidi, and whoM piitnmony, 
thou|;h not hr^c, was n^ual to all his wants) would easily have 
mnoounled, but tlic contem|ituiius trratincnt stung bim to the 
very tout. )lc irnmriliukly went ho[iii% puckod up hik wife's 
clothes, am) M^nt them lu the Uocii^r, Ni)ir)|>, (liat he would tcora 
lo be bebuldea to such a l«Llow I'ur u stngU- ra^; and swearing at 
^ mtoe time that be wniild be revenged, itnd prove liiinMUl to b« 
ifce btUer vtan u/' tAe tno." h'u fint |>ublk-Dtion, however, did 
not meet u-hh iniincdiute encuungcment; oiid mont pruhubly his 
other work5 would ncvt-r have ap]>mrFd, ut least in the author's 
life-lime. irEdward Montagu, Vju\. KU grt-at admirer and friend, 
had not procurrd him \Ue patronunp nf Mr. John Noum-, Uuok- 
teller and Optician, who bciiifi hniuieir skilled in the more ab» 
mtue srirnos, could cuinpivhriMl, an<l reward the merit of ano- 
ther. He immediBlaly eiijta^cd Enicrson to fumttli a i\-^Iur 
Councof Mathematics fur the use oryntilhful students; ami in the 
summer of 1/63 Emerson made a jountey to London, to scttU 
and fnllil Che agn-etnnil. 

His knowl*^ of claMical leuminj; vi*% not e\tennve; yl the 
mottoa to some of bis volumes pvukc (hut he sumctinK-s dipped 
into ancient auihon. At one time, also, he conceji-ed an iiiien- 
lioB of translating the Jcsuila' commeiu on the FriiKipw of Sir 
baac Nevloti, for whom his di'vutiuii w-xa so uncoii;ju<jnly t-trong, 
thai every nppuftncr of his philosophy was treated by Kmenoii, as 
doll, blind, hijtuited, prrjudici'il, or tmid. The fire and impctui>- 
My of hii temper, would on lliefe occasions betray him into tan- 
pnge of far distant aiinlog)- to the striclncM of mathematical de- 
■nomtiatiou. 

Mr. EnierMMi was in person enmeifainf; below ihc coinmnn size, 
fetlfinD* compact, well made, very active, and urooj;. He had 

a good 



OUkUaH. 



* gnod flfivn, «xpfv»ire CDontcnanoc, wilfa a ni<]dy coroplcxioR, 
■ kffvn htm) |>cnciniliii|{ ey», Kbd aii anltwr and cRgvruim of knk, 
tlMt «w» wtry liemwrnirnti w of (he tcxUiro of his mind. His drva 
WIS grotesque frequently ; someiimes, nwan itid khabliy. A vrry 
few ImtB fln-vTtl him thnxiph the whole coon* of his life ; ma4 
vrlieit lie [lurctiascd onf, ('inniictrd ao^- orhrr artifte of dma,) it 
wfl* pcHrClIy indiSir-n^nt to hini, whcttirr the tnrm and tashioFD nt it 
<ra» uf rti« ibty, or ui h«lf a century before. One of theto hais, of 
imnivtiw MipcHidn, had, by length of tiint, l<»t ia vluticity, and 
its Itrini bcgnn to diXK'p in such « toaiiiier, as lo prcicnt his bcinf; 
•blr lo virw th? olijcru bWoni him in a dtrcrt lim: tfaK vm not 
(n br cndurrd by an opiiciati; hf thervltirc tuik a pairof Ahci'ra, 
«nd cut it oflf by tbc IkkIv of the lial, Inviii^ a little lo the front, 
which be dcxferooiily munded into the r<»«nit)Iance<il~tbeiubof 
a jockt>y'< cap. (I» «n^& nerr made of brown, or of a dirty Aaxrn- 
cnloTcd hair, uhicii at ('ml ap|iHiivd tnnliy undlorluom behind, 
httt which gnyi prndulom ihrou;^ sp, lill at l«ngth il bcnune 
qutte straight, huvinj probably nc<rcr Uiulc-rgofic the openiiun of 
the conib: and riihrr ilirou!;h Ib^ original iniil-conii:irmatioat ol' 
the wig, i>r from u cnstom he bad of froqu(;iuiy thruntinu bis band 
l)ctmiTli il, the back of his head and wig wldoin ciune inttuvny 
clove contact. Mis cwt, or, more propef )y, jacket, or WMdcoBt 
with sleeves to ir, which he cuminoidy wore wiiboul any otbrr 
vatstcoal, was of a druh color: bii Unen was amm calcuUlcd 
fitru-nrmlh utid duration thiin ft\r sbnw, bein^ spun aad tjleadied 
by biii wifr, nnd wovi'n tit liunvorth. Iticuld uvather he bad a 
CtBtom of wearing hi^i shirt ivilh the wruni^ side bc-iufc, and liub- 
timrd beliind titc mrU -. yH Ibis was nm xu ultWi>ti<in ol Muguia- 
rity, (fur Etncfv.'D lixd no atT^vtation, tlii>u^b his cualoiiiB and 
nuincra «<-rr Bingiilar,) lie bad a reawn.fur il; ke lohfaaa bU" 
loned mtrre thnn iwn or tliree of tliebtiit><itkuf hnwai^jeonc, leaf- 
ing all tlic rnt open: in wind, roii)> or »ntiw, ibervforc, be matt 
bive found the ilperturc at the brMUt lacotivrniont, if bii shin had 
brt-n put on in the iKiml niuniuT. When lie grew o^d, in culd 
wratber, hr in^rd to near what he ciiilcd ohin-covcra; these were 
^cn ul oU Kitittig, lied n^-ith Httngs abvvtt Lh« hnrc:, aod do- 
J pending 





I 



pendrc^ down 1o tli« vboe, in orJer to presen-e hrt W^lnm bang 
Mwcbed «4wn kc tax too ncttr the fire. 

Itin (.insiiilurny of drvs niid figtirt.-, to^rtbrr vith his charartrr 
tut ptolamtd iMrruo^, and kt)owl«dgr m»rt than human, ocra- 
vDOCi] lh« illiterate und ignorant lo consider him as a cunning man, 
or n«cpMiunc«r, and whoas storm have tn^n relatH of hi> tiill 
in the litack an, lib diet wu «» iini)itir and pluin ns hi; dresv; 
■nd liB bmmU guvu litltc mu-rruptim eithrr to h^atudin. employ- 
in4Viti, or amuBcmcnis. He catered for htimelf. and prrtiy ron- 
Manlly ««iil In narliuj^lfin to intilce his nwnmnrkrts; ) el, when 
lie hiul {imvided all ihe necr<Nary atlir!o». ho nnt unfrcqnently 
tu<f^ecttd to return fur a day or tiro, wuting htmseKcontentodly 
in MJinp puhtic-hnuke, wlt^rc he could procure j^xl ale, and coiu- 
fKiny, nnd pauin)* tin- Ixiurt in vnnous topics of CQnTertatioO. 
^ ^1m last time he mode an excorsion lu Darlington villi hbwaU 
ht, be mwAe a li^re tnily cuiKpicuous: ihisvius, perhaps, the 
-Ody ttae h« ever rode [httht-r, he was then mounted on a qiia- 
<lnk|i#d, wtiM* mirnwie value, indegiendont of ihft tlcin, might l>c 
iurty cMknnred ai half a crown. Bein}; preci'de<l atxl led hy a. 
Wj bireti lor lii;il purpose, he pare<l in aulemn state, at the rate 
■ «r ■ mil« attd a half in an hotir, till in due time ho arrived al 
^LAwtagKin, and was condticled in the tame stute. to ihc i^-al 
^^HlUttliiliirni of iho speetHtors, through the streets to the inn, 
•km h« wished to refivth himself and his benst. What idea 
Pjnrnnn hitttielf entertained of the vehicity with which the animHl 
(ouid move, appenn from This, Ihat, When a tiei<;!i bi.it f nskcd 
fchn, io*rar«l« the cwniuR, if he yn% going home; •' !>amn ihee," 
«id be, •' what does thou wnnt with my going Imme?" " Only," 
irplied lite man, ** because I should b(> glad of your company," 
"Thwi fi»I, thou!" rejoined tlic other, " thnul't be home lonjj 
mough before me, man: thou wa^k*!!, mid I ride." Klsbivleof 
eenvetwiion wa« f^ncvally ahrupl and Mtmt, sbounilir^ in biiiii- 
Itr ae|ib-li*i-K to the above, and oflMi vulj^and unj^mminaliral. 
'Hit wcca&ioned a supposilwn that hi> |>rclace8 were ool Wrtlten by 
kimwlf, ttii opniion lliat was one day mentioned to liiin, ai>d llic 
dipant)' of hiei i'ORTcrsution and vtnling p'jtiiied dul ns the miutn 

..f 




Sit 



BUnUAM. 



of iL After m. momentary pause, be exclaimed, vrilH tome indi^ 
naltun," A jwck of fools! wbo could wiitr my pa-favm but my 
KMi" Inderd, wbttU wciglii'd wtlli cite vigor luid virorgy of fats miud, 
hjhty btar every mark aC \cgj,ixmacy : ihoy could have hatl no other 
, &ther. 

Ji Mr. Emerson often tried in practice lh« eilect of lib mathe- 
itical sjJCCulalioDS by comtructin^ a variety of iiatrumcnts, 
inalbciuitticiil, nicchinical, and niUMCsl, on a sia»ll scale. H« 
Snadc a spinning- whvcl fur hi* wife, wiiicii is ^eplv^cnt^d by « 
drawing in his btx^k of mcchunice. He was null bkillixl in tlie 
science of mmic, ttieiheoryof sounds, and tlie various Knlcs, both 
■ancient and iDoclcm. He had two first strini^ (o his violin, which 
ftc wid made tlic £ mure nu-luditjus when ibcy wcic druwn up (o 
ft perfect unison. Ills Tir^inal he bad cut and twisted into va> 
r>uusi>h:i|iM in llie keys, by uddins; wine occaiMonal ltalt'-tunc», to 
TF^ulutc ihc prfMTiit witW, and to a-ctily loine fniction or diKord 
tbat will b1w<i)'« remain in the tuninf^ This he never could get 
rrgulutnt to his mind, and gencmlly concluded in n p&»ion, by 
sayiiLg, " It is a damned insirunient, and a fooliab ihiii; to be 
vexed with." 

Uurinj> the grratot p»rt of hts life, bis health had licen strong 
and uniitlrrruptcd ) but as he advanced into the vale of years, ii>- 
lernal complaints allowed bim but httle inlefmisMon of pain, and 
at leugtli deprived him of breath on the twenty-Ant of March, 
178?. ill bib eighty-first year. He was buried in the church-yard 
at Hurworth. About a twclvemonlh before his dccciite, he was 
prevailed on, after much imporluniry, to sit tor his portrait, whick 
wat taken by Mr. Sykcs for his fricud Dt. Cloudsley, of Darling- 
Ion.' I 

SOCKRURN'C, asmall parish, comprehending only the manot^^l 
of tJic same name, is accurately dewrribi'd i>y Lelflnd, as of " « 
mile cumpace, of exceeding pleasant giuuiid, almost made an 
isle, as Tesc ryvtr winJeth about it. The house and land uf Sok- 

burn 

■ Tbc chief ptrtUulan of the ibovc ikMch, wetc cmscud from the Ltd of 
.Enwrwn, publbtitd in « f en«clk4l p»pcf, ullcd the EnfllJiRMa, ilKiut ijt}. 



r 



I 



bum hitlie bene of auDcicnt t)-me t\tt vtry tnberitanri* of (he 
Cmitrt," h w probable, obwrvcs Mr. Hutchinson, " that the 
Bnoor of Sockburne wu gntnteil out early to one of the Conicnt 
br Kine TiJtam acliuit, as the fullowiii^ ceremony dcnotrs, which 
it permitted ni tliis day on the* Bisltnp of Durham^ fiot entrance 
into llw coonty.* TTk* manor is held under the Bishop of Dur- 
ham, by Knight's scrwcc, and the following ceremony. Ac ifie 
fini entrance of the Bishop, the Lord of Sookburne, or his agent, 
tOMts him in ihi' middle of the river Ten, at Nresliam, \rhcu 
the water i» lurdable, (oiberwiw on Crofl Uridge,} *ihoii he prc- 
arnn a talcbion 10 the Bithop, as an emblem of histcmpunil power, 
and repeals the followin" words-t '* My Uird Biihop, I here pre- 
■rnt you with the falchion wherewith llic rhantpion C<iiiy<-n slew 
the norm, Hragom, or _firr^ fiifiiig Bfrpeat, which destroyed man, 
woman, and child; in meinoTy of which, the King then rrij^niiig 
(ive bim the manor of Sockbnrne, tu hulil by thi^ lenun;, thai, 
vpon the fint cncroncc of evi-ry Bishop into the county, this faU 
ckioii tfaonld bppmvnied." 'Hie Bishop th«n tiikcjs the falchion 
in hti band, and immediately retoms it to ihc person that pre- 
Knied it, wishing ihc Lord of Sockbarnc, health, and a long en- 
joyment of the manor, hi the ancient pnlijjree of ihc family of 
4c Cooicta, it H »ct lorlh that, " Mr John Conyert, Knt. whu slew 

iho 

• M VIil- t(Hi- to, R. ■, 1396— Vid« Hitlchn M S S. No. aiiS, Art. t. 
laq. p. Bi. John Casicit, cbiv. d. ». in (cc-uil to kim *nd tht btiri m»it of 
hi body, «l Uk duimi oI :>«cUMira, hdd of t>» Laid Uubop (« uf p. my- 
•■ dtmocwinnd. d'nocpi laiuiti fawcliou. TIkicu ■ Jiawiijuf iliiiUchiwi 
tiifct Hnild't 0!Ti<4t Durlum Viduiivn, OniW pomind *tc liiic* lig&t of 
b^Mid, ^uduit : ihcie wen &ta borne by Kiii^ John, w ihji thii falchion 
VMSot nude before that lime; nor did the o*ni«i Lill Uiedngon, The biKk 
q^( tai a Gdd O' f<rf<« en lit Itli} wia dw ann* uf Motcar, Earl ol XnitSum. 
Urivd: Ltiutoe mnia, be the UlcWtan wiUi wbicii liKbuliaii|hL bclAtnicd, 
Uwf (lit wilb Ux aw«rd of ibc £«/ldom.'* JUhkawm. 

t " Anonym, tn ih« tuihof t nid w Im uken oat of * M S. nr John CUvcrIf , 
ti^.— S«d nd. Du£d. Bar. r. s. p. tiio. Beckwith'i Edit ftlbunt't Tc 
""^i P- '99' ll " votX probable the dta^i ititn by Cunicn, «u (onM 
Dwi^ Aoetf wti» mi ucking agd ptinidcriag iba coumr^." MiUnuw. 




iH 



DOBlHAM. 



tbe iRQiBtntuc, venoioouf, Rnd pox-soauus wyttroM, mi, or maWf 
which overthrew und devoured many people in 6gkt, and (lie xetA 
nftlic poiwn was so strong iliat nu perv>u might itbide it, and bcc, 
by p'vidence of Alraighly God, uTcrtbrcw it; and l^eib tiuricd 
tt Sockburii, before tht.' CVmquest; but iiefoi'e be did enlerptiie, 
went lo the Church in complete armour^ wid oHcred ap bi» lono* 
to tire 1 loly GhotI ; which monumenls are j-et to kc; alao ill* 
place- where the serpeiil lay ji called Oreyttwte." 

" I low t'itr the reader will ^ve credit lo thu retuuini u not en- 
quired; but certain it is ^* family was settled hcrt- about the 
time of the Conquest, and were Rarotts of the patatiuAle; for Via- 
£cr Conien then held the same, and was by the Conqucrur maile 
CNiiistahIc of Durliuru Ca^lle, and Kci-pcr of all tiie »uldirr'fe arms 
therein; ntid which ofhco was wtlled on htm and bis beir^ male for 
twr, by grant unilor tlie Rreal seul of William de CuriK-pbo, 
Bishup of DuiL»m, The)- cutitiiuicd to hold tbe manor till iseue 
male falling in !>ir John Cunyer», bis dBUj^bier and beiren, Anoe* 
Kartied Fiaiicts 'I'ftlbol, Larl of Sbrewnbury, wbo«e daughter and 
heiress married ^toncr, of Stoiier, in the county of Oxford, who 
fold 2^orkbarne, with the manor of Qisbopton, to ISir £dward 
Ulacketl, in xrho^e family those poaivttions vlill cominue, Biilwp 
Bun* gmiitfd Uve warren to Sir John Cuigniers in bi» laiidc at 
Socltburn, Ac. and Bishop Rooih grenled bis licence lo Sir Chri»- 
lophrr Ccnipn, fur fortifying his manor- hnu*c of Sockborn, and 
tiitbattling und stre)i|^li«nin^ the Mine. A t'arni-huuw viands oti 
or near tbe place where Sock bum- Iioum> finnK-rly was: and tha 
grq- slono mentioned h* the motiumenl of Conicr's victory ovtt 
hti dreadful em'niy, is sliown to tlie traveller in a lield adjuining 
the Cliurcli, but wnLuut any oilier eviduicc lUan tradition, that 
tbrre a dragon divd."' 

The tombft <if the Coniers lie !n a ptirrh on tlie north side e( 
SocWburrtc Oiurrh. On one n a n-cumbriit cOigy in stone, uip- 
potird to rqirt-MfHl Sir Julin Conieni who married " Eticabrtli, 
eldest dnuglitcr of Urumtlete, Xjord Su Juliii, and Bruioflcu'^-t 

Tba 



• Uaukiai, Vol. 111. ^ %^ 



B^RHAU. 



9» 



The btpi of tbe ftgure arc croucO ; the feet rest on ttSbD tM|lMld- 

ing with a wingciit drufioa: the right himd t» to tbe act vi ua* 
khcolfaii^ the iwoid; nn the left is a sbiclil, without device; the 
;cnt tntl bclraet are of diajn-nurk. Several irtber memonals oli 
liij rroMin licrc: and among ihcin a bliu: mnrblc it) llie 
t, witli the ftjllowiiig inscription on a Uh<:\ ut' brass, nt 
«Mieciu) ul uhich is a swonl, at the olhi-r, a ^Kirld, wi[U a nuuiiclv 
> tbe anDf of Cuniera. 




Sfic iacet 3l*tiC0 Gon^nfl milra 11.10 ar ftsfcliuii, <)ul ofiitt 
ntnolfcfina tir (tbruaftl 9" iTni ^. flCC. nsiitforsimv 
till'* Bi< ppftitt Dfus. 9men. 



UINSDALb wiu llic aiu.ieul tmt uf tht Suritts, «)io settled 
Wie tooa after ihe Conquest, am) prt>biibly ttrrtved iheir noma 

kinm ll)e siiiiaiiurt of thoii' n^denrv itn t>ie rivrr's batik», Sur-Tta: 
■i. r. a|ii)ii I'a'VK: \hvy bdd iLc tiiniwr by iitilitar)* tervice of llic 
Irftrd of Cuitic nartiard. The Manor^Huwc ww surrvuiided 
' by a moat; it« rcmaitw haw htt-n oniTwrtW intu a famt-bonsea 
^ Two parts of Ihe laanor becaine, bj- maruHge, ilie property of the 
Hi'/oce family; otw of wltooi. Ma. i'KASCia Flaci, nat an artoC' 
oi ccinidcnibtcenutK-iicu almni ilm hini-r cnil of the sovcniceMil 

I and begjiitiiagaf the eightMiiUi cvuiury. lIvtMuntcd, dci^igtuHl,, 
and ctchfd : ;iud was aUa aguod mcxftoliiilo eiigravpr. Uh pro- 
bMtunal ubiliti» aii? accompanied by gn'ni Kimtilic knowltgey 
and 'rWrol^, iit bi^ Uucattu L^tidim»t», tidt^tiui us, tbnt be db> 
Civeicd un eulb fur, and a method ol mfikiiig iKMVtduia, tkhiili lie 
jMit in practicQ at liit> iaan»i<iii-liotM* ul Vuilc> »im1 uf whivh ma* 
aufocture be gfivc Tbvrctb^ a litn.* mii|>. His ditpc^Htkni uiid pur* 
vixXk induced a iawiavM tm u miiibltti^ liltr; aiid ibougb aa annuul 
adary of 6OOI. was oflca'd him ia tbe reign of Charles tJie Sth- 
Cund, to Mtgo^ his H^stanre in tiuvul drauiiiE^ be rcfuud to ac- 
Cqii it, as b« cttuld DMt endure ritbt-r roiifiiK'tiM-nt or ilr'|)ciHk-iice. 
II* died ill lh« yva 17*S: tiujiy sL«tcbu» luid diuwing»>, ulii.'b be 
^•de iu vaiibui parts of Great lirilaiu and Jrelatid, aie tlil^ 
{•Mfved ill diifcrciil ci^Llectiuui. 

ECGL1-:SCUKF 



56 DVRHAV. 

EGGLESCLirr is t pteaunt vUIbl^, occupying an etevkted 
point of land, rising from the Tecs, and comraandtng a fine view 
of the opposite town of Yann, in Vorkiliirv. Iltp riwr is here 
croBcd by a bridge of five arclies, which, in mt seawnb, occiu 
mm wch a stoppage or the water, that the low lands are fn~ 
quently overflon-eil, and grau damage donr, ptrticuiarly on tba 
Yorkshire side. To prevent similar occurr*n(X'«, un dcganl eatt 
Jrott Hridge^ ofoTM! arch, has been designed, the foundation itona : 
foT which was laid on the north »idi^ of the river i>n the tbinl oTJ 
September, 1S03; and the iron-wnrk is niiw canting on a neir 
plaa^ by iho Mean. Walkers of Rolherhiim, under the dl- 
Tection of the Ingenious Mr. Tbotnos VVilsuii, wiio lias oUtainei] 
ft patent for the iiiveniion. 'Yha span of the ardi will be ISO 
fen, its height ihirry-fuur feet, and its bratdlh twenty>3cven feel. 
^The expence of erecting it is estimati^l ai SOOOl. of which 4?O0l. 

appropriated to the const ruction of the iibutmt-nts, and the re< 
aaintter fur the !run-work : towards this sum the counties or Vailt 
and Durham subscribe in equal proporLiuns. 

SADBEKCK, a chapclry to Huugblun, is a place of remote 
origin, and was andefitly a county in itself, having its proper 
ShcriEl^, Corooers, and other civil officen. In the lime of Bishop 
Bury, it wn» d(vidi*d into two wards, and had the privilefp* of • 
vapcDtuke. " In the time of Bishop Langloy, il was SBcrtcd, 
that Danuird Cttvlle, Marwood, t'leatlian, Eg^-k-slon, Langtoo, 
Middletmi in TcrMhile, Newbi^in, Stainton, and other pla«:is ia 
tlie western extremity of JJurham, were tncmbeni of this wapen- 
take. There was a gaol fur prisonen in Satber«e; and sundry 
manors and lands were held by the special 9cr\-tre of maintainittg 
the same, and supporting the priwners,"* Sadberge vias ori^- 
nally the patrimony of the chureb, biil withheld till Hugh Pudwy 
exclmiified various manors in Linculnshin; for it wiih Richard 
the Kir^i. Lambnrdc, after menliuiiing iliis circumstance, ob- 
serves, that " Satbergi- was at that tyme, and Imitje since, cnlled 
,ft Cbuntye, cotiteynlnge (as ] tliink; the greatest portion of thai 

whic^ 

* Huwhiaua, Vol. III. p. 1)4. 




PL'EUAJt. 



or 



Ithittl 
i«tiidi 
BtSm 
CUlKi 



I 



bidi vre now c«Ue ibc B))lu>prick of Durhura. I hi'are ot iomt 

ffodtma in that quarter, tlmt, Uiesre be Jyvera tiiH-s vet extant, 

mltigoi before the U«>1ki{) in hit Court of' Satlicrge ; and 

thit the nost part of the oiunlrye nsnrted to courte thylhefi 

ivbidi j^yvctb aw to ttiiriLr that il nliould be Ciillfd SirREKtiE, 

oC SaCt anrl bfri^, ttii- ^axon wunlo, irhicb si^ilic tiie court vi 

or pl«sa, Irom whirh signitiotiun Sotburgti befuic i* not 

Autcbc different. Jt ttatKlrilie upon a Kil, sud » now cnllcd Scd^ 

bvTgii, vbidi ba-fb (iLu- Utter pan ut' the wurdc) soundcth as 

Tnuebe in \h* Saxuii, as hiit ntiw with iis in lagUshe, and tbcretif 

if luiy tuan like bettor to hare it derived of Sat-heoth, that u, die 

cnuil upon tlic hyll, or the hyll of plen, I girc bim as frco liber- 

ik m I inyM.-lf« vruold l>c gladd to eitjoye in any iurb matter uf 

wnjecturt/'* Wltateifer «aii the fjmier ci>n»e(|ueiice of Sudbergc. 

it n now an inaiznificunt place, uidy unrthy uf notice from its for> 

Mr grand^'ur. Tlw eminence on whicb it stands, riics on each 

ale with an nuy uivnt, and comiiuindsi a iiite view urer tbe south- 

tM )Mit of UtiThnm, and up Ict-s-dnle oi far as tbc bigh ftmuntli 

of Bamard Cafttlc. 'I1u- C'liapvl it bnill ul itonrs appMix-ntly Inkrn 

(tun tbe jnjtenalf uf more ancient Uructures. l-'rum the survey 

••de I7 order uf Bithop UtMtield, il nj^ijcars that nil the tandi 

vStdbergc were forrncil)' held by niililuty tcrvice. 

Hl.SllOP'IX)N is 11 Huuill villagi', rcttdcml uiemorablc from 
iniag been liie place wbere the brave Rniwr Coniers, of ths 
Cnien family uf Sockboni, siicCRMfully mi^te.l itw troops of 
Uilliam CuiPin, wha unuipcd the ^ee in lite twelfiK cenlury.f 
TliemI cboKn by Coruerk lui In* ^Ironi^-huld, is a small plain, 
to lite SMI of tbe vilb|[c. contplrtely r>v4'i'i<jokril by an adjacent 
emioencr. [lere a conical momitf sarroundcd with trencbe*, and 
fiiin* i|ith a «tcep acclivity, ti Mill n^maintiis. To the north ifao 
gtvund t« nvir^y, and capable of Mipplyin» tbe diicb<'s with va- 
tu the »t>uth it ritra gently, ilte circumference of ttie 
Yofc. V. <* nu>ant 

* Umbwdc't Oifitour)-. p. ^34. J 

Ifii* p. 3a. Tttf $re wn afifrwitili Tniotti lo ibc K»l BilKop, ibmi'Sk 
CiHDin'i unvKpecuil (orintKin. 




9» 



&UKUAV. 



mount is sbout Iwo hundred pucn; its height about sixty fret per- 
peodicular : the »ummil U nenrly \v\k\, tt^ii pacM wid<r (rum north 
to south, Slid sixteen from vtat to west; nut any rosrka of build- 
ings aru dtscoi'ersblc on the toji, 

KLSTOB, about two mJlr^ ^outh-wcst rmm Bithopton, wat tha' 
place where EUft, a Dane, tirst pitched his ictita after landing at 
the mouth of ihtj Tce»; and its name is apparently derived from 
this cii'Cuniiilaiire; Stoh, in the Saxon Innffuagr, t>i^ifyin^ a MAkc^J 
or tent; hiiicc Ella's Stob; and bycontractiuti, Kliitub. Truditio*' 
aMCrt<i, that he fought a battle at Shottot ; that one of his chief- 
taini died At Mordrn ; and that at Trimdan, a village to the north, 
hit men halted afler the futigura of battltr-, und wen: again trimmed, 

llAUinVlCKE, the seat of Matthew RosscJ, Esq. about half a 
mile west of Sedge6cl(), is much celebrated in the north, for the 
bvjiuly ufits pU-asure grounds, and the elegance of its ornamental 
buildings. '1 heae were (he creation of the lat« John Burdon, Ksq. 
who be^n his improvements about th« yeat 17^0: before that pe- 
riod, ibe grounds were scarcely mure thnn a bogi and the lower 
ude has even now a marshy appearance. Vorious alterations 
have been made by the present proprietor, which greatly redound 
to the credit of his taste. The inclosurcs of an estate lately pur- 
chased from the school of llJvington in I^anra^liire, have been 
removed, to connect it with (he grounds of llurdn-icfce, which 
havi; alM) been thrown open tu'Words the east, and several clumps 
of trceo, and a serpentine plantution, coouived to cmbelliiih the 
view of the western side of Scdgi^tield. The eiitninre into the 
pleamra ^unds has likewiM: been improved, and rendered 
more salubrious "J^'l tnoi-i: cheerful. From the ^rand terrace, a 
£ne gravL-l walk, about iiio paces in length, is a descent to n cir- 
cular bason of water; and near itx t<.'rmiriation is the Bat/tmg 
. IJuutr, a buddin>4 of the Doric order, li»viiig an open porticu iu 
front, leading to the balh, and apartments to breakfant and lepoKe 
in, at the sides. Proceeding in a winding dirvi'tioii, ibe path 
conducts to the I-ah, a sbe^il of water covermg iicuily forty-four 
acres, and uniting with a terpentine river or canal, which winda 
thruugh the gtuundt, but neither displays the transparency of cry- 

2 aUl, 




DURHAM. 



99 



buI, oar the bratity of motion. Near the side of the canal is s 
building called ilte Library, in front of which is an iiniflcinl Cas- 
cade of little interest, Uie dashing uf the fall being scarcely heard, 
though clow by the feet. The interior of the library h furnished 
with a ^l^ndid collection of pamted books, and the winduMi lilloil 
with painted glass, ditfiliiying, 

" The likcaeu of th\aft to foul to Ixbold, 
•* Tint w!ut Ihrj- tic i» t)ul fit to l>c loM." 

Tlie Tfwtpte, built on a circular eminence in a ^Inasant meadow, 
is quadrangular, wiih an open colocumde ; the enlablatute n 
npport«il by columns of ibc Ionic order : in niches on the outride 
are placed eight buUs of the most »U}K:rior pocls. The interior i> 
eighteen feet «quare, havinft an ocUgonal dome, dircurHted with 
paintings bj' tiic Dorocsc, futlirrtiiul son. In the centre h Apollo 
pmeoiing Pallas with a laurel wreath : at her feet are rcprncnccd 
theArtsand Sciences, lldnn-, in large comparlmcnts, are [he Car- 
dittal Virtues, with appropnalc emblems; and in the comers are 
four arts, Muaic, I'aiiiiini^ Sculpture, and Architecture. In r»* 
CC9KS between the windows, are tnedHlliuns of the four beawm. in 
stticco, by Cartifei. The notjr is of mosaic-work, inlaid with dif- 
fcrrui colored murbln. 'i'he Rvin is an arlilicial »emblattcc uf a 
denolishcd castle, with a round tower entJn-, from the summit of 
which is an eiUensive prmp«ct: oppoale the ruin if a sTutuc of 
N'eptune, nuscd on a p«^desial in the midst of the river. The 
Bamqueting-llotue is a superb building of the Corinthian urder; 
cootainingMie principal aparlmiMit, uxly-two fm^t in )>*i)i;ti), uni. 
about tMTnly-»x feet in height and breadth. Tttu cdling is divi- 
ded into various compartments: in the c«utr« u an oval, with a 
t^rcsentation of the a.vembty and banquet of thit On<1^ by Hay- 
man ; and in squares at the ndes, the petition of Thetis to Jupiter, 
bimI Venus prescming the cestus to Juno, attended by the Luvca 
and Graces. Above the doors are two painting by llnymaa, re- 
presgpting ihc marriaf^e of Cupid and fiiyciie, luid a priK:viMon of 
bacchanals. Over lite chiranej-piece is a full-lengtli cf J. Bua- 
Bov, £sq. by Qoadcl, a German, esteemed a correct likeneH. 

G2 Ilia 



I 

d 



100 



ItVllHAIi. 



The other divi&iunt of tbc room are Ht-conilptl witK «legftnt etacco- 
watV, and rich pl<l>i>g; and "mamvnU-*! irilli bwts of l*ulfauli(% 
Vtlrurius, liugo Jones, &c. Tlic vii-w t)ct"'pca the Bani|u«iing- 
Houv mid tlie Ruin in extreniely bmitul'ul; and iniiny fine pros- 
pects may be oblftincd from diftreiit points In iW grounds. 'Ilw! 
Mansion is on irregular ktruclurr, rrrcted by Mr. lltustll, in wbicta 
convenience luu b«rn tnupc iludicj chaii dc^nce. 



I 



SEDGtriLLD, 

Ay ancteot tovn, im-rstcd witit tbe privilege of ■ market, 'by B 
gruit from U»hop K^IIuwp in chr yeai 131?, is idliutteJ on one of 
ibe inott plnuHnt and htaltbful spuis in tbe countT; and m fiinictt 
for itn salubriry, and the longevity and lianlin<«s of Its inhabitunts, 
that the late rrlrbmtrd Dr. A$kc\v drnotninRled il llic Montpctlt^r 
of tlic Nortb. Its Mic IS elcvutcd, oit it grartlly itoil, and open to 
every ofpect: tlw surroumliug country ia in a high »tatc of cullivs- 
tioii, and very productive. Tliv piuspi-cts are cxtcittivc and 
gnuid; embracing a great variety of iiilcfraling objects. 

Cutiipnrd, Bishop of Durham, about the year 9OO, issald to hnre 
redeemed the v'i1[ of Scdgclield, uitli its tncnibcn, with the mo- 
ney of the Church, of three pcisoio, named .Aculf, Eihclbrycti, and 
Fr>1btake. lly tlit^ llolden Biikc, it apptar* lliere were twenty 
«tllaiii> 1)0 the inaiiur, ami twenty funiivrs, and thai tbc Hb<.>l« vtll 
joined to providi! a tai/ck coi?. 'J'he bond tenants uerc undei 
gmat servility; htf bejiidcs tbc viinuus puymentk c-xacicd, eacb 
Ijonclsman, wlio held thirty acres, wrmight three day* every week 
for the lord, except at F^Lster ami Wblt^^unlidc, attd iweUv days at 
Chnsima^ 

Tbc centre of the town formt a Inigti square, in which is a mar- 
ket CToe«; and on ttic eiist tidv, iIr' CliHich. Tbe lengtli of Utit 
airucture, observe) Mr. lIulctnLwm, from" iholuwrrtolbechanrct, 
is about 7* feet; tlio length oi the tniasept is nearly e()iia1 to that 
of the imvi'. The nislcs arc fijrrntil by mws of three pillars, light, 
and elegantly Jiapod; each pilhir huiiig coinjitiscd of fouif perfect 
c}'tinden, not placed in a si^unti.', but in a loxengc ca>l and west, 

« 



'A 




BvanAM. 



lOI 



W !• to prMfnl A broad front towarJi tlie ceittre of tlic nave; the 
Cotumm vn twitr.i m Hk- midilU-; llte tMU«>< liar« few intrnibcra, 
and Aam oi the ^ikxori vrdcr; but tlic capitals arc vftriuinly vni&- 
jnciitcd, wttk fillrb u( |<ittui Unuiclic*, vine k-aves, wreutti* of 
Aawrn laiofilMl willi lird& slid tilk<T ti;^rc»; in iimny parts dcli- 
C«t?)y piMKVoJ. 'lliv hrc)ii;s arc- j)uiiite<i, utid iirikamcutcd willi 
■louldtii^; tbe outwitrd oof, xigiMg; lfa«y spHng Icun pilfttton on 
tlw niv wilIIs and riae froni grolcKjUc beads on llw capilnh of tbe 
piUan. I'bv ckaucvl n iiiclodt«l from the nave by a rich scraca 
of uWriMcle-wuik in uuk, with ihrm; stulls oa cucb tide, divided 
by Uautiful light cvJuiniis, and canopied. The chancel is nearly 
liiity-u\ feet la length, aiid ncally wainiicoltcd with oak. Tb* 
tmucpl* a{)|war to have been add(^d to the ong;inid building at 
iliflcrcMt luiit^i" prubvbly on the tV'umbiion of two chtuilrica, 
jMabliftbed bvre luiij; prior to ibe i^iwoluiion. The orgvu n-u 
{ivra by (he Ucv, HicKphilu^ Pickering, who wiis rector ht-lwccu 
tko yeutv 17(ij and 17 LI. In the cut nindow of the uiulh aitle 
ate tlie wards, '^at* V Vftatt mw iScdM. Irdi ^nc fnu flttin : 
llrnley «vw» n-ctor in ihc vfar l:}6l. \~arious ancient iiucriptioitt 
an on briMca, in dlSerent (Mrts of tUe Church. IWforc ihc altar* 
wife, OB a slab in ihc pavmu-nt, i» rcprvMTileil a crosier 5U|^rte(] 
'mtlio back of a lanilj, ii chalice tu lh« niiddte v( liie >i»S, and the 
tnai at top pointed in the furni uf llic lleor de li»: near tbc tide i& 
inenbcd, in Saxon cbarartcfii, 



I 



+ SIR: ANDREVi DE: STAVELAI: METIRt 
Dfc:CJt£THAM: CtT: ICI; fVH : Uf.V : FRIEZ: 
" PVR I VAN. 

la llw nonb aiiile is a curious monument, oa a slab inlaid, repre- 
MBting two tkclrtotis in shiouds, Apparently male and fenuile; the 
lltler buvitig a w itHlinf^-shMrl fitldc«l owr the middJe: above is Ihc 
I^ace fur a label, which has long bi-cn rpraoved, and the inscrip* 
tnn A unLooti'n. 1'he ancient Uivlory-llouK,* a catcellutcd cdi- 

G3 fice, 

* Tlw nipcntitiuin Mid «u1pt inhabtuntt of SoJ^rlielil, wttt, previo4ii|y to 
^lioaiBg dowB of (be alJ Hccuiry, alaimrj by an appiiiuon, dcooiniiulrd 

Ihc 




1<M 



DURHAM. 



See, wns burnt down in 1792: the present bailding wu erected 
by the Rev. George Barringtoii, in & plain nrat style. Many 
imnlt (lonntions htve been mnde to this parish for charitable pur^ 
pum. On the eiut side of the market ^uare is an H<»pital, or 
vMmj-houte, for ten poor men and women, founded in punuance 
of a l>equ»t by Mr. lliomiu Cooper, a Surgeon, who died in 1703. 
Adjoining tlie hatpituJ is a Free G rainmiir-schuot, for the educa- 
tion of six poor children. The populmion of SedgcAcId township, 
as DiCeriained by (he late act, was 11S4; the number of houses 
307. The appearance of the latter has been much improved of 
Ute year*; many of them, which were previously tiiatched, bavtog 
been tilnl, and mu(;h<out, A ^mall Linen Muiiufuctoiy has been 
ettablUbvd here-, and nearly 100 hands are coniAtantSy employed 
in shoe-making. Some additional employment is fumi^hcd by a 
mill, erected on a small kiream near the town, for forging spadoi 
axes, &c. 

A very singular and Hwtniciiro Tce-tlorm occurred at Sed] 
field, and iti neighbourhood, on the I7tb of July, 1793- It hap- 
pened between tJie hours of elevm aud one in the day, and was 
preceded by an almost total darkness, and a noise reserobUng 
reverberated thunder. The Rtrcels of the town were filled to the 
depth of two feet, with pieces of rugged ice^ vaiying in siiie, from 
that of a marble to the bigness of a man's head. Alt the windows 
which had a southern a^pccr, were i^ntircly broken; and many 
houses presented a dreadful picture of its violence and devastaunn. 
It began near Prei>ton, and continued to nge in a »outb-««st di- 
rection to beyond Kctyoc. All the com exposed to its fury was 

destroyed; 




iIm PfrIM Farm, whicli for nuny ynn wn pmuiBnl M infrtt the nrrnhboar- 
bood oftheRwtoi't Hill. " miking iiighi kid toiu." The iuppt>Kd origin of ibe 
late u uiribnted lo the cunning of ■ rcctoi'i wifr, wIiuk hiufami] IwviDgdicd 
■bout « week before the ()-||gci (whicb ur gencrilly let off w farmcii, and the 
lOKi [Mid on ihe toth of December) bccimc due, ilic conculed hii doth, by 
uhiii)! hii body in ■ pctv*K room. Her icheine lucceeded: the rtcciTtxl Ibe 
emolumentt of the living, tnd the nett day made ilie deccMe of dkc RtciQi 
public. Since the fire tke appuliion h*t not Imch KtuI 



SOBLIIAK. 



I 



■ 
■ 



■troyed ; (1)« treM w«rc stripped of tbeir Imvn, 



birds 



K 



nuraerous 

were killed ; mikI tlic callle broke from tixiir poslurcs, aod vrith 
TiMble exprcsBWiK of terror, Qvd to (lie habitations of man for 
secoriiy. The cause of thb uticominon kjnd of [cmpoet does not 
afipeu' (o have ever been odcqualely investigated. 



STOCKTON L'PON TEES. 



TsAT Stockton is a place of considerable antiquity, may he 
nfeiy inferred ^tn its giving name to one of tlie four wani* into 
which lite county is dif tded ; but ils t^rly hittury is very ob»cure ; 
and whether it derivKl il> origiti from the viciiiagi: uf the castle, 
or irat previwuly In existcncv, a not dow eai^y to detcrminu. 'I'he 
oftgin ol ibe ca»tJe Is more obvious. 

Daring the turbulent ages, when national Jea]ouBtc5, and feu- 
dal animouiiee, rrrulL'd intOitine warfiirr, the Bi-shops of Durham, 
during been invested with palatine Jignity, comidcred ihemselves 
U gtttrdiam of the ttvcs and prnprrtin, a» well us the religion anil 
norab, of the province committed to their caie; and with ibb 
new, penoRS able from influence and authority, were upjioiiited 
io tbc Bbhopric of Uurbaui, that tliey mJ^jht act as shcphcrcU to 
dieir flock in both a religious and a civil capaci^. In the latter 
rhaiBCier, ihey had to prevent the inroads of the iicols, who made 
it a part of their constant policy to distress and levy contributions 
on tbcir southern neighbours: hence aro» the various furtrviKs 
letwixl the I'ync and the Teo', and among [hem i>TOCXTOM 
Castls, whtth stood to llie south of iKv tuwii, un tlie northern 
lank of the latter river, aiid cominunded un exienuve prwpect. 
Id after agis, it became ilic occasional residence of many of the 
pirluies, and uas improved and Mreiigthened, as circumstances 
reijuired. During the Civil Wan, in the reign of Cliarlet the 
Fint, it was garrtsoncd for the King, and particularly excepted in 
the treaty of Rippun, ivbi-n all \\iv n-H of the county, but V.gg^ 
clifle, was given up lu the Scois. Previously, liuwevcr, to the 
year i64i, it fell into iheir hands, and was afterwards surrendered 
to tlw Porliameut, which ordered il to be '* sWgbted and disman- 

c; + iledi'" 





I«f 



OOABAUt 



tied ;" and to cfjivtually was tliU executed, that not a itinw 
mains w evidence of its furmrr splendor. ']1ie only rHic i 
burn, (now indnd convened into cuvv-hoawf,) irhicb appears to 
bave stood within llie area. On three sida, tlic casllc wiu defenifti 
by a moat, the rhannct of which is yet visible; the tburth «ui 
protected by llie ri\-er : the Ocmoliiion look [ilare in tltc ^rur 
1653.* I'he utc a ttill a |»iirt of (he pokMuiom belon^ng to ibo 
Buhops of Durhum. 

lb* manor of Stockton wa» taoti probably a parcel of the Soc 
of Durhiun pi-c^'ious to the CuiK]uist. When it was incoqiuruted 
as ft. horotigh. is unknown ; but auppnaed to be in the linM* of 
BJiiiinp l'ud§ey. Mention of a Me-yor and BailJiT oecun in the 
yeu 1344; yet chut it was incuipnmied previous to this, is evi- 
dent from the iidliHge levied " of the buTou^ of Stukcton," ia 
thcycar 12b3.t 

la the Boldvii Buke, Stockton is rcpre»cnted as contaiuuig 
"eleven viUaiiis aiid a 4a^; vucb of ivhich holds two oxgangst 
tlwy pAy and ivork as the villains of Bolden, ceniogel only ex- 
cepted. In tin- satnc towii, six tarmerH hold eleven uxgan^p: they 
pay aibd wtirk as the larmc nt at Norton. Adarn, the iwii uf W«l> 
ler, Itolds one cancute and one oxgang for one marc of silver. 
Robert de Cnmboui holds fuur oxgangs for half a marc, aod one 
oxgfiag by tbe accomniodaliun of llie Uiafaop, &c. 'Ibe sumo 

Hubert 



* From in Ciigriviiig publiilici) in the Hex, J Brrwitcr'i Hiiloiy oF Stock- 
ton, sod cofiied from ■ drawin]; tiippoiH lo htvc httn n)*')« about rht ynt 
iff 7, pnrpamng to re^mcm tlic eiailc, th>4 fonrm spptSTt to luvc been ■ qua- 
d»itgul;t, utiitDrm building, wilh touiid iowrr* •■ (he angUs. and Mjuire 
lowcli ]ii tite mtdillc of clic kidn. AU ihc appa p*rt i> clnkxUJcdi aiid pro* 
vtded with iMTWW window*, ipptrtnily for die^lKhar^e of atfow». 
song reUtive Co ihii mile, lu# the following lincf. 

Old Noll in hit (!>y, oui uf pioin coiKcn^ 
Thii ChUc detuoliih'd, ttU aS, iultitttrm. 

i Ma^oft'i Hitt. oi iha Exchequer, p. 43^ 

( C*r»ift wu tht tncifnt Mr«ke of blowing iIk tiom on »nj uivuion of the 
Scou : tbr teuor« w« my (utUmnry in the cnunilM bordctitig on lb* Rohmk 





BVRHAM, 



101 



Doherl hsn ttie di tofl of the liall near hid own house, ami jwyi 
uxtttD-pence fur it. Blwin and UoU'rl, CAttsgGni, |ity for luu 
tftlls, (wtlvc-jiencc. Godcwiii, collagcr, sixt>^ncc. SjnKtit, (ii« 
Uackatnilli, fur dnc tofl, (cMir-iwiKie. 'ilin I'imlcr h»lili hi acnv, 
«aribu<rfSto4u*loD. o( Hvtlclmrn, aniPrvbtna^lhrnmaMotiurn, 
nd ftMr*score bens *n<l f*'"* liutHiml e^ffi, The Icrry of tho 
nvet pays t<v«ni)''peDcc. The «bo)e town pays one fat cow." 

In I3?.t, ift<i('(i.iun ii itteiiliniifd among the plucn dcvlro^W 
th»t yew by ibe Scois: il, (niwfvrr, tK»in rvcmcrcd in]|)-m)li)cv, 
n«|ipcan from an imtninient, iwlilreMcd by the Mayor and Hai- 
liA of Ncwotttle, lu '* thi-ir ilt-itrly bcluvrd fnendt) iti Christ, ibe 
Uayor, Baibft, at»d uiher Itonrat nii-ii u( ihc tuwn of ^luckton.'' 
Tbe privilege of a market wris granted by Biftlin]) IWrk in 1310; 
hmt it afterwanb Bunk into obsrurily, as ap^n iVnin iho iieiilion 
of ihe Mayor ami bis Urctbren, in U>02, to Uahi)[> Matthew, 
praying tor a renewal of the nit^rkt-l, which had been discunlinued 
ny jreais. About ihtt penod ujirl* litilo attention srrnu to have 
. gi«oi 10 promote the trade of the loun; and iit [O'iO, a dp* 
of ibc Jtiikap's Court of Chancery, dcti^nniniHl in Aia fiivor, 
tke ri|)il of recdviiig duiin from ihi|n coming iiiLn l)»e port for 
UKhorage ami pUitika^v. In tltt- ciuiuing ('i*il W»ts, the growing 
proapcrity of blucklon received a grml check: ibliui|;uitihin^ slate 
may be eauly conceived, from (lie report made to PMrlianicnt of 
ibe poiKBioiu of thr Siv. " Tlic lipp. hu Uie n>y»liie» of the 
liver of Tenae^ as uhales, hiurf^n, porpoors, or the like, taken 
OB iLat tide o{ the river urkt llic county of l>urhara, \iithin tbe 
manor uf Stockton, and all wiccki of the wa, but knuw not m hot 
Uiey are wonb :— not 51. per annum. 'I'hat ibe woiks, cu»lums, 
mtid aervicc of tho copyholders arv Uule worth; and we know of 
no cottaiRrrs within this man'. 'J'but the living at Stockton it a 
pocir prncun, and nut MOith abo^'e per ami. ^01. orS&l> or thcr«> 
&bouta." In l666, the town only cuuuiiticd 136 famil)e«« and 
BOM of tlic dwvllin)^ wen* of brick, On the rrturn of the nation 
to binquillity, Stockton a{(ain began to flourish, and in tweatji- 
ntywn, tbe population was incivased to Hi buiiiliei. In 17^^ 
^contaJtiod 4Ju btmiljn, ** bewln 100 laore that were paupers." 
9 Since 





leff 



DunnAV. 



Sioce that time its population has more than doubled ; Hie num- 
tier of inhabitanU, as returned under the late act, was 4O09[ of 
bouMs 533. 

Stockton coDMt* of two parti; one, called the Borotigh^ in 
which tho land ih all frcetiold; the other, denominat<d /** Tt 
where it is copy or leacehold, held under the *icai and vcHry-TOtn^ 
and not within the Borough jurisdiction: for this reason there mre 
two constablariM, with peculiar officers, though both form one 
parish. The civil government la rested in a Mayor, Aldermen, 
and Recorder, (who it always steward of the Bishop's court-lceC 
iind baron,) besides inferior officers. The Mayt>r is elrctwl by » 
iniijoriiy of the Burgesses; yet it Js not nccewar)*, as in most cor- 
poraiions, ihuC be should hanu 6ret been an ^Idcniisn ; but when 
chosen into the Mayorally, he is afiurwards styled an Alderman, 
and so ronliiiues as long as Ito remsine in possession of his Bo* 
rough-right. 

The situation of this town on the northern banks of the Teet, 
at a convcnieitt di^lauce from llie sea, renders it extA-mely &vorar 
bli* fur niuriiimi' tmdi.*, thuui^h it has not yet dcrircd all tliead- 
vnntugcs which might have been expected from that circuinstance. 
Its commerce bi-gan to revive soon alter the RMtoration, and hav- 
ing considerably increased, the principal otHcers of the customs 
were removed hither from Hartlepool on tlie sixteenth of October, 
ifiSO; and lawful or lice tjUxyit wwe set uji under « commis- 
sioner from the Exchequer in 10'83. Below bttfckton, ihe river 
flows ill A very circuitous course ; and as ilapproacbes the German 
Ocnn, expands into ■ large bay, upwards of three miles widei 
within which miLny ve«e]f, (hat arc not eoncrrned in tho trade 
of the river, seek shelter in tempestuous weather. Tlie veaarli 
registered as belonging to this port in l79^i ^<ft 47i carr)'- 
ing 5733 torn. 

Stockton is probably the most handsome town in the north of 
England, OS vrcll for the breitdth ol its principal street, a* fur th 
general nealnes of its buildinj^. This street is about half a mi 
in len^jlh, and upwards of sixty yards broad at the markct-pUce, 
which H in the centre, and continues nearly as broad to cither 

extrcjnitf 




DUERA^I. 



»or 



I 



» 



I 



•xtKmity of the town: tbu renders the entrance^ whether from 
the Borth or Mtuiti, pftrlicularly iinpr«»Mvc, Several smaller streets 
off in dilTcrcnt dircctioiis; and at the north-«ft5t t>idc is a 
tqnare, which contains Rome good buildings, and hu 
been lalHy inclowx), and plniited, hy a subscriptinn raised among 
the principal inhabitants. The ToKn-Uail stands near the middle 
<»f the principiil »trcet: it is u large !><]un re Uuilding, partly oc- 
copied as a (aivm, ami containing a haodiiunic suite of assnnbly 
TCmm, and various other apfirtmcitts, cnurl-niom, &Ct Tlie 
tms of (he town arc !culptiired over the south entrance. The 
order of court for lis «rc«tton is dated March ilie ninth 1735. 
At a imall distance id a bandsomr Ct^itmn, tbirly-lhrve (ctt high, 
of the iDoric onlw, where the marktrt i» held, and which stands 
on the spot formerly occupied by an open cross. Below thii are 
the Siam^ei, nbicb, though neat in tlienuclTct, detract contd- 
drrably froin the noble appearance ofitic street. 

Stocktna was originally a chapelry Co Norton, a plcfuant viU 
hgo abniil two miW to the nnrib, Imt was rnnstiliited a distinct 
parnh in the year 17 II. Uurin^ the rpiMropacyof Bishop I'oore, 
who died in 1334, a cbnpel of ca<e wss erected here, which bc< 
cumiog ruinous, and tou small for the increased number ufinha- 
UiUtft, was taken domn; and a new Church erected, the founda- 
tioa of which was Utd June tlie fil'ih, 1710; and the building 
opened for diTinc service on ibe twcniy-firM of August, 1712. 

tlie Ckvrek ia a biiiidwune brick fabric, the doors and win- 
dow* cased with stone, the roof conned with We*tmnrclaiid slale: 
ibleogtb) including the tower and chancel, i* 150 feel: thetowei 
ttands at the west end, and is eighty feet high. It contains a fin« 
tijan, erecred in lite yiiar 17^9: and the whole interior view is 
Mat and uniform. In tb« rastry is a collection of old divinity 
looks which has lately been considered as the foundation ot' a 
parochial divinity libniry, and varinu* iKHiltson religion and mo- 
lality are occauonally added to ifae ancient stock, by annual 
tubcchption among the tn-jsi r»pectable parishioners. The Pres- 
Kterians, Quakers, Methodists, and Romun Ciitbolict, have each 
a Dieeting-bouse in this town; which bIk> contains a Grammar. 

school, 





MIA 



0VKUAM. 



I'we I 



■choul, CUarii^-MrLool, Suniby-schouU und sn Alins-Loiua or 
lluspital tctr pour prople. 

'I'lic princi)>al uuiimfacttim of Slucktnn uc Mil clotii) ui4 ropes. 
Cor g»v^rnru<^it ftnd tie tuercliinil 3«^rvic<s aiul wltklt tivftnied 
<tn U> a cn(UHlerKl>l« (.-xtciit. Ilejv i>;iIk> a niaiiubclury ui'ifab- 

tides wliicU Iw^u iuivly breii wruu^it in i^ieul iicrfpciion. T 
llocts for !>lii[t-btiililiii^ ari! I)ltffwi:w uuiatrd oil llic bauks uf 
Tm; tuwl if a |)rii|irr !>iiinl uf I'liiorpnae wits rKCitod Ity the pro- 
prieton, tliis Uisiitess iniglit bccumr uf iiK'alcuUbU- advattlft;;e, m* 
tlir ships buill liricMrrituirc-fi'UMiiiulile, und fur t^tlt^ onnlrutled, 
lliut ut nany oiIr-i »v4-pgil%: a vcmv] uf 400 luu& liuiliicu luu 
lauly bcTJi I'Dilt lieiv fur llie Fjut Jiiclia Company, 

Au L-Wi;:uii lli'iiigc uf Ave auWt wa&vi«ctrd over llii'Tft*, be- 
low il)« touii, U-lwiYii till: >uii> 17^4 aiiii J771| at ibe cxpcoce 
of SOOOl. Tl>i» !>uni H-as rai^'d by l<iitn. and the »ub»cribcn «i^ 
tilted lu All iiicrrikjing intcrrst, but not to exceed i per ccitL tiB^H 
tlie dvbl was dtslniycd. The tollit liavc progiw.*i*i-l> t*u;(iucnln^^^^ 
aud now li-l fur MJOl, lujiiuaily. 'rkta i!< upprupriuli-d to diricharg^ 
ihe piiiKipa] and inipre&l »f ilin expcnce incurred, on ibc liquiduion 
of wbich^ ilie bridge will be ihruuu i^itn, and ib« chai'grs ofiv- 
^r defrayrO by the cuuiuy of Durhum, and ihc Nuidi llulutg 
Vorlubire, rcfipcciircly. 

JMatiy iin|>ntveint-nl>> ixuvtf turn nijidi* lici\- tviUiiu Itie last fvHf 
years Mliicb iiiuy. u'll'i gU'Ht |)ro|>iii-ly, be ascribed m the mor* 
callivatcd inaiiucn of Uw |iriiiripfd inhtibitumk. " Opuloiicv aiid 
iudusiry have given a t|iur to nil thoir uiuuiinii'iiti^ and ibry are 
behiitd no ulhrr tuwii in lUu vl<>gttitt pluisiirrb uf puliblad lilc: al 
ihcwma litne, Ivw ara ilie ii^tancis i)iai hav« orrurt«il, in whick 
librndUy and piiifiihioii linvr lo»t st^hcnf jo^ticu iind prxiprKrly,'* 

Ilie »Jivck cf HD rni(]('|Uak« wna Tl-Ii al !>t<iL'klon un Uic luiith 
vf Deci-iuber. t7JiO, M a quaiU't* before tivu in ib« afiernofjn:* 
Bul ou Auj-ini llicbccuml, I7tt3, « severe sturm of ihuiidcr and 
li^tniug occurnrd, accoinpuiiied by a »howcr of inxiguiBr pieces 

of 



* 6ic«>U!'iHiitory of Scotkiou. ]», t^ 



ion 

I 






I 



I 



nvKttA%. 



of irr. tome of thrm in«iHinn<> rrrrm three to five inches in rip* 
cumfcTrnce. ITic tempest cuiuc from the west; nnd mtmof the 
wiinlowi that flrmted it were broken. Variety of siWer ciiimn-cre 
fbODri berc in [nilling down m dI'1 hntne in tlie year 179^: many 
of tlinoi Were in excellent prwr-rvntion, onH in a rcgulnr ames 
from t^lnoird the Sixth to Jainr* the Second. Tliry were claimed 
as Itroturr trwr; ntx) S46, wet'tting fflb. ♦<«, fhrli»ea'd to (he 
B'nhiTp pf Durhnm as Lord of the manor. 

Stockton b«3 bnm the birtlt-idnce of the rollnwinc: dtffin^isfaed 

penons. Joaspu HBei>, auihur of the llegtstrr OITice, and 

other dnimatic pirre?, was burn in the year 17??. His pro- 

fIcKion was that oTarope-ninlK^r, which he praetiwd in Si<iekton; 

bat n,-oi<:rtrinj; In Lunditn, h.- M-tlIrd in Sun-Ta*trn Kii-lih, Sliad- 

Mdl. lncnrwit(«nt a» it niHy appear, Mr. Reed Miccenfully 

couitrtl thp Muw^; iiiid at the linie (hat he w;w winding CT>r<l«ge, 

be contiivfil dramas biUi cusiMderalilc l»I*iil and ingenuity. " Ma- 

ifig»i and Trultrtta, a mcick li-rtgedy, ncted under the liiivction 

ofMr. Cibber, in CuventGiirden; witli ii{.tv» by iht- nuihor, Dr. 

Humba^, critic und ccnMir-i^rnciul,'' Qp|>cnired ut IT^&, und vai 

hi» 6nt pioductiniv, ** It i<t impntitibh-," Myf A itrncwer oT thb 

piece, " to penice h\\ comic wx-m*», without >!i»riiis; in the dt- 

tlttiiMi which ihii btceliuuft {>erfoitiiiitKe must hitvc aflbrded its 

author in ihi- wrili»«." TIk- llfgitlrr Office, Sir. Uced'i 

lastt pru<1iiciion, was bmu;>hl out in \7^\, and stilt keeps a res' 

penaMcr rank among drantiUicpcrtorninnce*, and dxedtiieiiKthor's 

lepulMltun va a critic. HeMih-t lh»-»e, he wrote the in^^i'dyof 

ZH4b; and a omie opera ciilfcd " Tom Jtntrt,'' from the navA 

of (he same luinie: bat a diHen'nl nut n givi-ti tn tevrnil olxhe 

Tbaracters. He dieilon tl»c fifteenth pf Aitguit, 17^7, in the tlxty- 

fittb year ol his age. 

BaAaa t'noMiv, Est], bom in 17^6". row from a very inf*- 
ti"r flation in litii? at ihi^ l<iwn. to the highi-^st magisterial h<^nors ia 
the city of London. He uns placed «ith an attorney at Sunder- 
land ; and rvniuviiig to llic Metropolis, followed thut profc^tjun in 
the Little .Mioories, und afliiniirds in Secthing-Umc. AUrtytn^ 
tikt rich vMuw ui a taylur and whstmaD, vho hwX uuiied dualiog 

in 





112 



DtrRHilS. 



On this principle lie atfttaincJ from \\if use ttf animitl Uxtd fot 
the lii-'it twenty y«an of bis life ; a potntoe, * Vocuil, or sn tg^ 
wi[h Irmumidi* ur len, gewrully constituting hi» whole support 
during iltc ilay. 'I'his pcculiur atMlinmce con(nl>iit«l to destroy 
II cot»(itution natuntlly weak, and at the age of 6fty he pxUibited 
CTCry inafk of ptrmilurc decay. He <ltetl di-liriuus in October, 
19(Q. His works are numerous kimI »al»iable. His colUctions 
tif kliiglisli luid Scotch Songs, and of Metrical Romances, are, 
prrhup, ri{ual lu any in piiiii. lib last |nib1icaiion uos a trca- 
ti.<e (in his favorili; topic, abstinence from animal food. 

A Salmom FtsHiiRT tosotneextmt is nimert on in the Tcfs 
nntr Stucktoii; and near tlic mouth of the nver is a Fishery for 
Cockles, whJcb arc cliii-fly gHlherccI by fti^nsles from a rvlgc ot 
nnd \tU dry at the cl>b tide in the middle of the ttmini. On 
Sciiton ati>J Greattuini uianbcs, near the mouth of the Tees, wer« 

anocutlj 

I railed lo th« pilot »cv«nl tim«*, with aii)^, who h"! kald of tli« bab<iOy 
with hii hind, to maite h«r fuL I litrf down my mutquet, nn hnnfA iar a 
toW'litic, lent lomc ot ihr in*in>r'cek \d\nt U> haiiil Ox tni mp, na aft wilb 
ihe riid, rrcved it (hniij^h hii tH>1>-Mayi bioiight it m (he opt;aii, i^A tnoli a 
Itwnd lani with the r-thn pan. In (!'< mnrt time Ct^tn Sriy, and the pl- 
Jot. lud |ai lh« tnlMll-t<^p-Ull ihwt pUMfl, and made ii (ait to i cUti on dM 
■niun'nui^f whtcli caoic off. Thai bcitij) done, I Rlutneil to the ■wuftMt, on 
which (be aciKui thxQ)' depended. AboM ihii time th«y mjdc *n Mtrmpl to 
nlly tbni nMn, ami to miti thdt (oncank ; and dropt ihcii fote-HiL itut w« 
ini|lii ni>i icc Ihcm. Oiie of llic rout-pounJeit in ib« round-hniMe, cicatcd • 
way fur 111, l>y fiiiiDg pin nf itveit (oie-uili repcwing oui rmMjuMTy, \rid* 
mote vigoai, from ittc ifuanci-dfck and roiriad-boiiie, itwy fled, m a man, fui 
ahelier : and J percnvid ihrtf coliwri to be Mru<k, v>liicb I ciIImI wit «ceord> 
•ngly, and Ered my ■nuii^ucl in the air : iouf oi u* jcinpcd upim ibni lora> 
caiik bitr»cadtng Toi bmidiit^ thrm, Knaaf[K wbuai wai our pitoti bat, ud> 
uprcleil, ihey ^«e ua a vullty of inialt ai tnt; on which wr rdurned wnbaul 
ny dajnage. The <inn^, an baih vi\rt, cof«>n»*d abiuie tin niniitc* longftf 
wtih ihM« ut fnur xie*! foiit, and in the k*>oii tU'Vad. 

" My matt. Ui. Hudlam. who ligna'.iicd h.in>cli equal to any, rectived ■ 
that in hti Willi, and micol oiir manna a liight wound by a iplinur: Ihcac 
two wete wounded alivi itwir colouia wen Htuck. Oew «l uur muiiMt wn 
kiU<dib«fiiH«r(tac>(t>iw. 

••VMM, 

** CtiatsT. ALkiutH.** 



BVRIIAII.' 



113 



■nncntly very eonsiilerable Salt-nvrrU. *' TrwM of (liesc works 
.re fttll to be scrn, and have the appearance of brcafl-vrorks and 
rtiScatiorx. By an inquisition, pott uiffr/rm, ak'. 36' Hatlirldr 
[C'3S(^t) '[ appeals lliat Rob. son of Marni, de Lumloy, Kntgbt, 
died KinKl of 2js. rent, Riid one quart of mIi issuing ouL of three 
gci and oiw tnlt'work, in the tenure uf John dc Ciirruwe, 
Seaton: and by anuthiT inqujulion of tlie »nmQ kind. an'. 15 
icy, (1421,) that Amisin, the widow of Thomui dc EIror- 
, died seized of a quurter part of the manor of Scaton, con- 
amonii other things, of a salt-work, value Vs. another 
italt-work, and a fourth part of a sult-woik. The farms in the 
rish of Grcaliiain, bordering upon the marshes, held by \ease% 
the master and brethren of Greaihum HospituI, arc cuve- 
to pay BstipulutntnutnbtT of bushels of suit, us aniicknow- 
!ltdgmenC to the hnspital : ihrsc are now comtnoted for money."* 
SVINYARD, the bent (tf Sir Horry VnneTcmpeit, Itflrt. was 
in the rct^ of Edward the Hnt, the |:)ropcrty ut Sir Hugh Cspcl, 
Knl. fruu whom it psMcd ihrouj^h various fmuilics loThoina* Uudd, 

IKtq. «bu became possessed, by purrhose, early in the last ccQ' 
tkry; by him it was sold to John I'empest, 1-jq. matcninl grand- 
liUur of the present owner. The manuon baa been rebuilt on 
lit old fbundalicin, and now fonns an elegant residence. Tlie 
*alkt and plva»ure-grounds are extremely pleasant, nnd, by the 
jibhciou* intermixture of wood und water, render the KCticry, 
'mn mm* poiuts of view, uijccramonly attractive. 

GIIEATIIAM. orGRETIJAM, is a pleasant Tillage, standing 
^t^n an eminence at llie Miulh-cost corner of the county, near tlie 
■Mith nf the river 1'ccs; being situated about one mile north of 
•Wimr, and two miles west of the u*«. Tli« Paridi Church, 
'incb was very ruinous and decayed, and containing no mcmoriuls 
'*i(s BniiquiC}- worthy of remembratice, was taken down, anil re- 
"ott on a plain but ne«t plan, and a aqtiare embattled toner 
"*CI<d at tlie west end, in the year 1793. 1 he only pwris of tlic 
wduirek which were prescnred, were two rows of pillars, that 
■ivUed the chuich into a nave and two aisles. 

Vot.V. Feb. 1804. H In 



• Kmntn'i HlMory of Stockton, p. 6« 



1U 



DURHAM. 



In the chancel is a murat raonumont of block and white mar* 
h\e, with the following inscriittion : " In memory of Ralph 
nRAOLEY, E94- on eminent Couii54>))or at Law, born in tb» 
parub, who bequeathed a Urge fortune, acquired in a greet mea- 
sure by big ubililics and integrity, lo the jmrclnting of took* tai- 
tuialcd lo promote the internts of ziitut ami rtligion, and the Aap~ 
piMUa of mankixd.* l\r. diL-d Dccrmbcr 23, 1788, m llie scrrnty- 
MCOhd year of bis nge.'' In coTtsrquenco of ibe indefinite manner 
t-f ihc beqii«t, and the cxccuiion uf it bein?; left to the Court of 
Chancery, il wat set aside by a decree of that court, August ihc 
soctmd, n^} , in favor of tlw: next of kin. The property intended 
to have been tbub applied, amouiHed ti) nbow 40,000t. 

Tbe tiumbcr of tiibabitaiiCs in Grciitbani towni^hip, according lo 
the reluri) under thi: pupuliitiun act, 1601, is 4S1; of vrbicb S?£ 
arc rniilfs, and 3)S females. 

GUP:aTIIA.M liOSPlTAl.adjoiai the village of Grealham, a 
liltte lu the west, and was founded by Robert de Slicbill, Bishop 
of Durham, tit the year 1373; the Ivjids be appropriated to this 
purpcde being a part of ibu torfeicurcs of the Montlont f^imity, in 
the reign of Ikiiry the Third. Some dilference of opiutun baa 
arisen among antiquarica on the subject of thh fbuitduttoru Grose 
mtstakcs the diiic of the foundaiion, sa well as the name of the 
louriiler. Iliigdalc does tlie citiiie. iliitebirtM)i) »>>'«, " lii« (^rl 
of Leicester, or Pcb-r de Montfort, bis son, was ponewed of the 
manor of Grcatham.'*t I'eier de Monifort was undoubtedly i)tc 
pDBsnsor, but ho whs nut Siniou't. sun. but hi» cutisin. As this 
has not br«n before inve^ligutud, we oder the fulluwiiig observa* 
liora. 

A short time before the celebrated battle of l^wes, ibe King 
laid siege to Northampton, wbeie lifirvn Uarons end sixty Knights 
«erc Jiiade prisnnvts. Aniung tlie pcrsuiu of note viiumenilnl 
OB this occaciini by Ki^iinf;er, the ciuilinuator ai Mtiiihew Vtaiif 
ia Peter do Muntlurt. Alaubew of Watminster mlb him Peter 
de Munifort, Juu. and Tindal's note on Itapiti (trum Wikn, p. 

60, 



• Tbe word) oE bii WiU. t Uiirary o( DBibm, Vol. I. p it? 





160, and Hen.inford, p. 5a») rtyi« him Peter Ac Monlfort, tfa« 
l^ri*t couttM. Hw) he been Simcni't ion, the addition Junior 
could not liavf been used. At the batlte of Eveshutn, the cHc' 
bnted bimon. Earl otLeiccslcr, lost li» life; and at the wine tune 
Henry bis ton, Peter ila Monlfort, and man^ utiten who fought 
OR tlie same tide, were slain, Edward, t^ie King's son, gave or* 
4era to (be Monks of Evnhiim, that the bodies of the dead should 
be dccenUy initrred; bat he confined hit own attentions to tli&l of 

I Henry, and ntitted personally at his rxc<|uici> v (flishangcr.) Tha 
RDUtiiu of Simon wen thamefullv miitilHled; his head was sent 
Igr Roger de Mortimer, as a signal of vtetory, to hit wife; his 
body waa intcrivd with that of hi* son in the Abbey nf Evciham, 
Kv pajticulnr iljilinciioti watk fmid to the rcmiiins of Peter. 
Anongrt the namei of the illustrious penoDt tukGii prisoners or 
tDunded in this battle, we find " Gay dc Montfort. son of the 
Curl, Peur de Montfurt, Jun. itc." (Matthew of Wcstininsier.) 
Ilias batH father atwl son were eni^aged in the same catne; one 
loit Ilia life, the other hi* llbrriy and /antb; and, without all dotibf, 

Ilba hitter is the persoti whose name ncctiti in the original deed o( 
ti« feantklion ol GrMtfaam IIo«pitnl. 
Hm MaXMT of Oteatham thus fuifeited, bring part of the pro- 
ftttf, M the deed reciien, of " Prter dc Mimirnrt, lie King'* 
mwnf," Hcnr)- guve to his faithful and wcll-bcloved Hinmos da 
Clatc. But the King discovering thut th; privileges of the paloti- 
late of Onrham prevented the confinnatton uf this grant, he toon 
ifiepnuxU «xecut«d a drvd gf revimlion, in which he allout, in 
ihnr full extent, all tin Jim rtgal'ta of the Binhops of Ouihem. 
It might have been irongined, ihm the llishop, upon thi», would 
bave IhIccd pussrv^ion of the forfi-iied lands immediatdy. Pcrhapi 
U- did so. but the tic\t d4^d wc tiicct with, is a grant of Pclcr 
fc U«mforl to Robert de Sliihill, of tlie landa in quostioiw 
froco ibr immes of the witnpww to the deed, il appear* to have 
kwne»ecutcd wilbiii the pMblinatc; unJ cheerfully rcwgncd by 
I IVier to ttie Bishop, Cpcrbiips be made a vlriui; of a ucceoity.) in 
(vufurmily with his iiitcjitiuii to foujtd an Hospital. Thai this 

11 fl WM 



d 



116 



DtrSBAH. 



was the ciSK, is rendered still more apparent, by hts ealling it in 
the deed, a amfirmatiom, as veW as a gift and a gmiit.* 

Robert dc Stichilt, knowing that no comforts equalled those 
of religion itt rockiitg the cradle of dedining age, united witb 
bit charitable rouiidation a religious cstablttshmcut, and enjoined 
[hat ttic mombcni of tu» Hotipital stiould live together according 
to the iiiibits tf ihc limes in the manner of Monks, (more mona- 
ekonin;) tiiat they tJioald live in ono house, and me» at one 
tabic; and that thry should consist of one Master, jive Priests, and 
forty poor pcrsnns. This Hospital was dedicated to God, St. 
Mary, aiid St. CulbbrrU 'Mte fouiidatinn mid grant of Bisbop 
Stichill wcfe confirmed by tlie Edwards Third and Fourth: the 
latter granted the master and brethren a weekly market and two 
annual fairs. 

In ibu time of James the rtrsl, this Hospital was rr-foanded, 
and a i>cw charter granted, dated SOth July, ItilO. It is there 
called the Uo»pHal of God in Cret&am: Ihe five priests of couree 
■vrete not rc-cstablishcd, aud the number of brethren was reduced 
tu ihirtccn. The establishment at present coiuii»ts of one Master, 
(who is a layman,) one Chapliuin, si.i Brethren, maintained wboU/ 
in the Hospital, six nut Pensioner^ and one Bailiff of the Manor. 
Besdes the maintenance and pctuions of the brethren* a certain 

quantity 

■ Whanon, ftom Rob. d« CraAVuci. in Uw Angtu Sacn, p. 741, uu 
lortb, " n*ni ipHtn villwn tpiicopui rmetit ■ ([uoJam Bcrttnmo cognomine." 
In tha liu of Knighu fiam Duiham at the b«tl« of Lewo, it^, we find Sir 
Robtn (i>f XogcrJ Bcrttim dcCrnhtm. Sec Hutctiimon, Vol, I, aiS. in 
aiitwcT lo ih'iv, il may tic tUd, ilbc Biihop could not purdoM the Umli of B«r- 
inm, becauu ihey were nQtthcn iiihii poMCuion. Tlic ^nnliliclf i>a proof ot 
tUi*. Whm Noithimpton wu taken by the Kins'! iroopi, Uogcr Bcrtnia vrai 
m*d« a pninncr at tlic ume Cinu with Pctci dc Monifoil. Ai he wai to anna 
aj[)iii*t iIm King, he mi^ht probablf be librritcd by the lucceuFul rcbeUion of 
t)u EarL of Leicntcr; ani) if a conjecture iniy he made in a cmc of unccftaiaty, 
he might icll h>( land* to hi» fellow priaoner Prtei 1 or, which ia more liluly. 
he might ^io [and Petei might parchiie ihcm] in the intcimediale ipace between 
ibc battJa of Lcwei and Evnhtm. Tbit coiijccture U founded on th« cir> 
cumitaiice, llut though hii Itimf is menlinned at the farmer period, il ia alto. 
(Clhci ofniiuij K the Utter. notwilhctaDdiog the nainci of the piincipal pcKOM 
on bath ilia are fttorded iii hiltory. 



DIFRHAU. 



117 



I 



qoaotjt; of dough, ready prepared for (he oMn, it <lbtributcd 
monthly lo poor persons of the village. 

71ie orif^inal buildings of Uic Huapital are nnw no more. They 
ibnnod a quftdntngle, ur at least three sides of (me, a titlle to the 
north mm] west of the pariah Church. An exmvation in the 
gnrand, sumtanded by- a line of trees, marks the situation of the 
andent dormitory, and other necessary buildings. H'Ue habitalwa 
of lh« btvlhren has becii taken down during the last year, 1S03, 
and aootber, on an elcgsnt pUn, drawn by Jeffrey Wyat, is 
erectiDg at ilie sole expence of the Earl of Bridgcwairr, 
ihe present Muii-'r. The building lately removed was in a very 
decayed state, and consisted of two rows of arches, supported by 
octagpoal pillars, built op both on the north and south sides, with 
a smalt porch itv front, as if il had formed tlie niiddle aislo of « 
Church.* 

The Lodge, or Mansion-House of the Master, is pleasantly situ- 
ated ina pirden surrounded by trees, and commanding a fine view 
nt the river Tees, and the Clereland hills. Over the door is the 
l6Uo«ing inscription, under the anus of Mr. Parkhur^t, one of the 
fanner masters. 

" AdiGciiiin hoc «slrui cuii«i( 

DoiMiAVi Parkiivkit Aim. 
Hujiu HoipiuUi Ma^itler 

EicomiUlo* Palatink Dunrtmoaij 

Canodltrioi Tempaialii. 

Anno Silutii, ii*i." 

Within the garden, on a rising ground to the IcO, ts the Chapel 
ol the lluspit.ll, rebuilt also by the present Master in the year 
1788. Il occupies the chancel part of tlic old chapel; and 
cntaioa the two follimin-i inscriptions, preserved in the dcmoli- 
lioa of the ancient building. 

OnU pro »inial>iu NiclmUi Hulmc, Jolaiinii Ktlyng, cl Willdmi 
Eat£eld, clcncoroRt domiootum ijuund*in hujuj bo«piulii magirtro* 
turn, *c fUKMum fuiKl»ii>tuni suoruiu ttrnefjciarum k pio omatam 
fidttlum dcfuDctotnini quoium uiiaiibui propititiut Dciu, Atncn. 

H 3 This 

sltetHioo appcan to h*v( takm pivc when the hospitil WU rfrfo)ind«d 
by Jimo the FiiH. 



tl« 



IUA.UAH. 



This » ia llic black Idler. Tlu folluwing, in th« Saxon cbnracttr, 

is inscribed on the brau edging of a toml>-abone, 

I 

^ Hie JKit Migiutr WlUlmiii A« Miildilioun ucte pipnc 
doctor (juOnilaiB cutioi ddmui iiliut, t>f»U pro M.^* 

The brethren of This Hopltal arc rrlrbraled for ihpjr lonsrritT, 
Ilic igea of ihc ms brethren lust year were as follows; ^, 82, 8?, 
80, 80, 6j. Totkl numbef of yean 4D.1. 'lite Rev. Jam** 
HnrKmsn, ChspUin of the ll<»piliil, ami Vior of (he pnmh, dini 
in the year 1790, aged 88, Emving filled ihow oflicee during 60 

[yi-ars. 

Dormer Parkhunt, L. L. B. and hb father, John ParLhur^t, 

, L. L. R. having enjoyed the mastership of Oreathftm Huspiiat 
from the year 1G76 to iZtf'l, (SS years.) ih« lalifr built, at 
bis oM'ii exiicncr, and cndoucd an Ilo&pitat in the same viUn^ for 
WX poor females, in the year }l6\, who shall bn widows, or un« 
married, ami upwards uf Ally years of age, sccilvd in, or twlonging 
to, the totvnof Cirealham, if lil objects of charily. If no woman in 
Creatham be found of this description, I lien to be elected (wn 
some town or place In Ibc net gh hour hoi>d. Six neal apartmenn 
of biick, with a small garden ahnexed to each, are appropriated 
to ihiN piirpjivc. 'i'hv endoninciit con^ints of lands situated in the 
parish of Stockton, the rcnis of which are thus applied, m. 
4l. 16s. Od, a-pipce by ivfclve monthly payments; 4s. at Cbiist- 
mtit,; Sji. Bl lilaMer; and 28. at Whitsunfiile; on tbc first day of 
October, a gown rpady madei to be all of (be same rolor, and 
decent; a reasonable and sufficient quantity of coals and fud; 
and ulteu any arc visited with ucknest, or incapable of taking 
care of themselves, a fit pcreon of iheir own a\ is lo bo employed 
and (wtd fur attending them. 1'he women to keep their apart- 
ments clean and neut, aj]d be quiet and peaceable in thrir bcbu- 
\'iour, and constuntiy Httend divine service in the church and 
ehapct. 'I he residue of the fund* of thi* Hospi(id, if any, lo pince 
out poor boys bdonging to the to'^n of Crcatham, apprentices to 



* WiUiua d« hTdiimoa wu M^ur from i3i> to 1351. 




DURHAM. 



"9 



»iich mdes n tbe Inulcri tlixll think prnprr. Tlic ipprantmtnt 
ol Ute poor vrumri), nDiI tlic re^uhitiun, &c. oftbe Ilnspilal, h in 
the Muter of tb« llospiint uf Cmilham (or the time being, wbo 
]ia« power to vary tfar ruin ai occaMon tiliall rrquire. 

SEATON. or StAlON CAREW, so called from a family of 
itial luunc who were ownrrs m ilic mgn of Richuiil the Fint, » a 
;»t<«uu)l biithing villAgr, nilunlcd on the bonlcn' of tlir ica, nnd 
chicfl; coivitlinjE of collages, formin;; three sides of a quadrangle. 
lie accoromodaiiont arc reasonable; and a dcw and respectable 
an lias lately bevii built for tbv rrcqilioii of company : a row of 
convenient lodeing-housn cnmtnuiiicalra with the itui, both on 
ground and »c<vnd floors. Ttic prospects to ilie north and 
ih arc vcty biautiful. 

HARILEPOOI., 

AXCISXTLT called Hevrln, Ihortkn, and Hrortnme. is said, 
in ibc Clironicle of Lntdi«luriir, In linvo btvn Iniilf " hy EcgrrH, 
Itiibop of the I Inly lair, and giTcn to the Sec fur crer, somewhat 
rfore F^rdutf ded the Ule," Berorc tlii», nbout tlic year 640, 
fcr. a monaitery Imd been Joundcd '* at or nt-nr tlits plair, 
bjr a rrliglous woman, numcd llivu, or, as ionic copin hnve it, 
St. Brpi, wlierrofSt. Iltldnwas some lime Abbess.'" No further 
inctra of this C3lubli»l)meiit can now be discovered; but It is »up- 
pnard to have Itcen dntroyed in the year 800, when 'lytietnotith 
and Hurtnewweri' burnt by the Uumt. 

(lart)r[>«K>) is situated on a protnontorj', nearly encompassed by 
the Gemisn Ocean, which, on (he south side of the town, fornis a 
ipartous buy, extrcmi'Iy favnmhlp for the Tccrption of vc5S'l!, 
landing of Iror»p* fmm the Continent. ThfW ctrcumstnnre* 
rrndered it a pliife of pr\'«l importance to the NomiRiK, and Iho 
family of Brat nerr thence induceil to secure it by fortilicaliuns. 
I'bu tiimjly obiairteil powe»»ion of Ilnrt and llarmeu, with many 
o:h«r m;uMjr», by the m(irriiis,T of Robert dc Itrus, or Druce, uu 
attcDilnnl on Willinin rbc Citntjucrnr, with Agnrs, diiughler at 
Fulke do Uagiiwll. Wdiium d«r nriirc, graiMlMin of Robert, ob> 
' 114 laineil 

* Tnntt'i Notlita. 



ISO 



BUKBAH. 



tainctl Ibc grant ofi market; ani) Kiiig John, by a clinrter, dated 
the eiglith of Februsiy, in ihe wcond ^oar of li» rrign, " granted 
and coiifiniied to bis subjects of llaitlcpnol, that they should be 
free burge«w«,' and linlil the snme liberties and jtriviici^ as the 
burgesses of Newcastle. '* Thus HurlIe)>ool gradually advaiicrd 
tu importance. The cummodioui sicuution of the iiihinu*, wliicli 
forms a crcftCcnl, in tvtiich, fnuii its e-xtrndfd point, hbips could 
lie moored in safely from the slorim Ht north-eiut, as well as frtnn 
tliv henvy ^ea^ which break upon the coaM by the impetuous 
ud<», mid ibe inllux or cunviit Mrttiiig up the niuulh of the river 
Tcos, induced Hubert dv Bruce, son of tlie lost mentioned Robert, 
and granilsnn of William, tu build " ilio haven and unl) about 
ibc towne of Ucrtlepolc, with ten towers on cache sydc of the ho- 
veil, and a chayne to be dmwnc between ^cm near the haven, 
which havfii would hold a C saylR." 

Bishop I'udscy, ambJlious of hvnora both civil and ecclesiasti- 
ml, when be purchased the earldom and wapentake of Sadber^c, 
of Itlrhai-d the First, in the year 1 180, included Ilarttcpool in the 
purcliiue, which being conlitmed to him by King John, this place 
wtu hi'ld of the prelates uf Durham, tu chief lords of the Sec. 
Un the cluim of Robert Bruce, in l;]Oj, to the Crown of &ct>^ 
land, a furfeiture of his posEetaions took pUce, and Edvraid tlie 
yifht granted his esluies to Kobcrt dc Cliffurd. Though this was 
an inlVitigi'invnt of the privileges granted to the Bishops, tliey do 
iwl appear to have contKted it^ and in the first )Yar of Cdward 
the Sccondj De Clifford joined wiili Anthony dc Bee, to su|)port 
the honor and dignity of the King with their lives and fortunes. 
In this fitiiiily Hartlepool continued till the ihirleenlh of Uich«rd 
the Second, nhcn Roger dc Ciitl'urd died, seized uf the manors of 
Han, Harielpolc, &c. It seems, however, from various e*idcnce3i, 

ihat 



* £»dr, in Ikii Ttutisc on Borought, iafbrmi ui, " ihn the liberty hcra 
■riutcd, consiucd \a m freedom lo buy «ad irl] witliout d'tluibancc, fram 
piying toll, poDiij*, pMugt-moory, iMUjr, iulUf{r, &c. in (Sr nuikcu tod 
tsiit IB ibue buighi, and in coicing to and (oins from tlicn -, snd on Oku K" 
counuihe bur^ht wtic dowmiialcd fice bui^li»." Page ^, Appendix >^ 
KdH. ITn, 8»D. 




DURUAK. 



121 



that Uw CUJTor^t Uvld the maoor under the preUus of Durhain, 
u lordi inramoujit. 

Wben Uiu Scots, in ibe ytAt 1335, rav-a^d nit tlip cnuDtry on 
Om boftka of ihc Tecs, llte trrririccl intittbitants ol llartlepixil lU-w 
to tbrtr >Iiip» witli oucli ctTt-cbi »s they could reaiiily rmitMrc, atki 
put tu MA for Mifcly. Iluw the town cuuhJ be so easily suf' 
rcDdcittl IS fturpriung, cxci'iu by trvs-ii-bury, thu uppcanjicc oi the 
furtificatitms* bciiij; «o solid, Utat ■ lungeiege could have hem 
Ciuniiwd: however, iHc cnoniy wcm satislk-il by a \«t^ contiibu* 
lioDi which saved the whole neighbourhood rram dcstructiou. 






* TImm *k dcicribed by Mr. HuU-hiiuoa M follow* : " p«w placn in the 
li]n(don gi«* ■(> perfect m tdn of the futiificationt of fotmcr ilmci m Hjnle- 
p^ol. A loni; extended will, MR]i|[Uiaie^ by d«ni-bwiai» *t imcrvali, lontt 
toMs^A. (ithfn iqinrCi viiioui gata ind ully-potu, itcurcA ity mtchical^ 
tiiHM, Mid thepoKCulli]*, xiRir of ihr j[>tci ilt fended by anjaliT.oilirn by tcjiuie 
tarteUt lU lt>e variety apptatini which had grown ioto nie in thai a^e. Ai 
ihc wall tun* along tlie edge of lh« cicck, bchJitd llic point of land which pro* 
itcU itKlf knio llie tea. mJ fiDro ihciKi luin* to ctoh ihc iiihmua lo the oppo> 
wic clilT. Uw Rf/tn ii fomu it not rci^ulir. giving firat a uian^t^ and Ibcn iim^ 
■ili^ with a avrwp oi liend noilli anil caitwaid. At tlie iifii tej. ot nnrlh-cait 
point oT the wjlt lo fhr tifi, it f niihcd with »i iculc atij;tr, ritirj; un itie brow 
oF lofir locki ; iIm foundation hat of late j-cari been wautj by ih( wuhing of 
the wave, and that part of the wall it now gone ; it was cxaLlly timilai (a tbe 
neu or point of tlie Il[>TBaa wall oppoiiic lo ihe Cutir ol Cailiile. Fur a ton- 
(idctabk »pKc from the to, the wall i* much broken; aiid at the dUitrtcc at 
•bout tweoly pace*, are the tetnaina of a aqiuire baatino : tram iheiiu about forty 
pK«, la a rouiul bttlioa, projecting (rum the wall, about twu thn Ji of a ciiclr. 
In gilt marXy thirty fed : in ilir fiotu of thii bauion, » die diiiatice of about 
five y«tilt, is ■ bigh tidge uf earth, probably cait up by uuilanti. Fiora llie 
potuad batlion, at about loriy pxti, i» a *(iubk bailion, *boul loi fnt iii fiont, 
and ptnjMting about acven (act from the lint of the wall : (tum ibcacc, ai abovt 
(bny-aix patn, (> a louod baitioii. tomcwbal htj^ti Ubd that before tlcict«bcd, 
mking a piojeclion of about im fnt, not lu (jtomnitnt ai ika olbcri. In all 
the pari dtt^ribcd, ih^watl fonm a iiraigtit Unci and tJic giouni gradually uv 
cliun, iiid falli from the edge uf tlw clifTt whtie the wall b«gin*. Al the <lik 
tar>c« of about thinypacei the wall lonnt an ribinae angk, guarded wicii a tuiict 
or batfion; (rom wh«oce U a kind of boin-wofk, project rng'tnio the field fora 
C<Mt»idci^l«di«Bti«,of a«iangularHgurc,bi»lngtwoti:rnic«.olK:*bo>e*noidi«f, 
wilhliw nmauu of tbe gUsii: ihc muon^wotk appraraihrouijh the broken 

turf. 




»t 



OURHAM. 



To tliR Cliffnrtb the Ijtmleyii iuccced«nd u posMMon of Hxrlle- 
pool; aixJ in the lime "f lli^licp iMutihcw, " Lord Joho Lomler 
frt up a pretence tbnt llarllepool was not witliin the libcrly royal, 
but was entitled to a special franchise, as being a county or liberty 
distinct froin the iiAlali»utr." These disputes were at last (Hllcd 
by arhilraiion in favor of the Sec. The Lumleys maintained 
ponessiun till I77». when the uhole mAiinr, town, &c. werepor- 
chawil t^ Sir George Pococke, with whoso bcire it still continue!. 

liatUcpoul 



luiF. Fiom Ltirttft iiio rxtmttve prntpcciof ibe m tnd C9*U iQwjicU Sun* 
i!<t)anii, conma&diQS Uiwlhom Hive, or the Bcwon Point, Cumctcm, Elwick 
Scican, ind i long lt*Cl of coueiry. At aboiM ihiilMn pKci rrom the anglr, 
thite itihe appurattccof a ully^poct; but iht will hu httn npiitcd (Bdalccnd 
>a mudem limn, to ib*t U it not poittbl* lo ucciuin iDore caocerDtttg iL At 
Iht diManu ai ibout tixty piMi ii * round tMtlian i at about *>iiy pKo fui> 
l^cr lli«gmt biul £alc, bcmj; the chief cnliaiKcIo the town from Duiham, 
opening upoo a foid fnrctd over i level mirtb, caiily brnlun op oi Hooded in 
M tiege. Tbii gale aMm* ta have been itiengihcoed vritb a wet diuh, and pr» 
kbly a draw-titlilgp. T1^« uhtrlo wall, loweii, and ptrwayi, arc or«xcelteiit 
navinry, built of hmt- iton*. which ii won in the ica bark*, of lo wfc a naluie 
in \ht bed oi qu^'ry, that it may be tijitaied vtiih an adiet but when expoacd 
lo ibe air, beconio rcmarkibly hiid iiid dunble ; ibe arch of itiit j^aieway it 
ribbed; and, beiidn double gaiei, bad in pottcutlii: the width of the p^taje 
n lin fert, and of itie whnle gali-nay tower ab^uc tbiiiy feci : ibc {MoJKtton ii 
not fnucla thanti IqiI fiom ihe face ol the wall : it appear* to iia«e had aiuong 
lower (nt iia inperatrvnurc, entered U CKh lidc from the pirapet of the wall. 
The apptOKb to the town tiotn iliit gate wu by tbe tide of tl>c ht«en, whiett 
muit h>«e nude a fine appearance \ aa (he biiun, if wc may ji^<lj;e from ih« pre- 
■eoiit^keor mo'Kii, co''ki"edof Hvtnl urn, wbcic i hundied uit nii(bi lie 
noortd. from thiigjicway the wall nhiehiee iiuil ihc ha«cn be^iiu, aod tact 
ia a difrCt linc^ iht water at lii^h tide cocnii^ up lo the gate ll it aomcwbit 
tnoic than ei^ht feet tbiek, fared on nib itdc wiib dietaed unnci, vith a par>* 
pel ([uirded by a brcatuwall ai>d embx^uic. now |ieat]y decayed. TWre it ■ 
«r»t«f>g>tc in tliii wall, fornicd by a low, poiixed aich, about iwetKy-four fact ia 
»pu», and ten feet liijii, (w( iniatl ciafi to pan in and Oul of Ihe baien without 
irihivlngllic boom-chaiiH. alierwatdt noted : ihii gateway projecit fmin the 
wall abom e.(li-.ce» mtha, (ui lud (tood-^airi, and alwi ■ waKh tower, u wi 
appitlieiid, ftoni tl>e teinaiiu of the aupcinrucititi. From tbcncc, atUicdia* 
UiKof about Kveniren paeei, U a iqiiare t-aUio«i, about eight feet infiori; 
lodDcail] ooe bundled yt^e^ diaiw.tii «i>oikcrw]ii»re batlioai wd from iheiHC, 

abuot 




DOILHAM. 



135 



I 



I 



Itartlcfiool is built on the n-««t«m side of a bill, and cbirfly 
coistttiof one pnikcifwl ^tii-vt, and M)mc smaller ciikv, that run 
croMKJae. In the >uitimpr niunltis it >% niurii rrc<|u<intc<l lortoa^ 
^thing; and additional buil(ltnfi;s, and other accomnuxiaiiora, 
htit of bte yean bcNMi ^nrtcd for the rrcfption and convenience 
of the tuilors. The surrounding prospccti arc intrmtiiiK; unil 
tkc rocka, whicfa sLtit tlie cogut north of tbe town, bciiijt for tamo 
Atiaace excavated, nml rcntlcrcd caiivriinuti, by dip violence of Ide 
warps, adi-ird ojirccable and romantic retrents Rt low w)i(«r. 'Ihe 
fride of Hartlepool is not ratcusive; a circunmuni-v thai may 
foubly ba ascribed as mudi to tho ncgiccinl state uf the hnrbour. 






Mventy ptc(S< u * toby (ouod tower. mrtiniBH vrry [wrfcct, ure ihc 
pnpa utd embruum: oppotiic to it, at tht inuate of ihiiiyiit f'rt, ii >?») 
mothtt tower, niKlly umilii !□ ditncntion*, bi the (ten inil roum'iiinni pljtnly 
Atw. ThK wai iha g'>nd rmrtoce into thr litvt'i ; »nd by ihe «|>Ke bciwMv 
ikeiowm. encmiy judj^eftheiiicof ihowMueUwhxh wfK moored Uwrk 
in, 9 Uiitiy gun ihip, Iwinji lliit(y-iwo r«el wide. Thh sDirMtr* w*i (ui'dtd 
by brgt tioont'cha^niilrctclicd from toiw«i la lower, the rcmiiiu oF du loopt 
bclocgin^ Id lucb chaini bcir^ ilill vmbtr in dir urilli of (he lower. A' ten 
p»C<» diitanc* an &r founrtMiotit of * round battion, nnt wtiicli ii t in<><ltr» 
(f*E, whcr« ft U prMotn*d fafTn<rly w« * tmsli iloor-wiy fttt ihe epivcnivn« 
of pcfMKu Undiiif; fiam boMt; «t twdityfour pieet ditlant, tbf will I'ontit *n 
a^g)«,Mid Mnutowardiibc •cat ihU angle it defended by a Kalf-niooa. Tlw 
CUnncc into tfce bivcn had th< peculiar aicuiity, that vchcU coming fmin ihe 
ata RiuM nre^nuli'y double ibe tape or poiiH of ibe iiiiimui, and Ihoi proceed 
atoag ihc uibale nn£c and iKKch nf tf«(oiiih wall, within reach of the m(ine( 
lad iMtromnb of war, and pnt (he hair-mnoft which gnardcd the angle of 
ibe wall. At Ihe di^ianec of »ikty pace^fiom ihr argic i»< K{uarr l<a»liofi, and 
Bar It a tatje breach in ibe woJI: from ihr ujuare b»uinn. about out bsmlrcd 
■ndiwcsiy pace*, it • round baitioEii and next Hindi the pleway, nai/ called 
iSe Wjtei Gale, which only contmuniralri wiih the land M low vrttft, and 
Feidi fo the Hifth Stfft\ : ihe irch of ihii gateway it poinicd, ibout eigti f«t <a 
oidth. apJ drfrnded on e«rh hand by an^utir ttrirti, with ibr frontt ptojitt. 
iKg; a ^Siire not commoniy met with in old fotlilicalioni. From thii galr iha 
vajl advance* (o a»d but* wpoii the lock nnt in point, where ihe plei and 
■olc b«|<iu Tbe whole of tfcU louth pari ippcan miMb iiMre Biodcru tlwii 
Ibe north and wot uda^." Hittt'y ifDi'lfm. fW. HI. f. t j, tt uf — Sinct 
dw abo*c <*ai viinen, the foitificaiioni liiv* been lepaiird, and %ome iddf- 
tioul La(tci>eicctUiuc!c-J, vo dial die bay U itovr inkvety ie;pKlab!e Ka'c u( 




124 



XIURtlAU. 



u to its distance from the placet vrbere the great slvple coinmo- 
dilicB of tb» rounty, coal and lead, are abundant. The Slake* 
en the KTcst side of tbc tu\vn, might, by a due deforce of public- 
spirited exertion, be made productirc of much bcnflit; lu iti wa- 
ters coutd Le applied to cleanse nnd deepen the cxtrnsire bawn 
bclriw the town, nnd vessels of h lacf^ vise be admitted to approach 
Ibc very walls. 'Ihc fiAhing buMnesis is comidei-able, and great 
variety of lino fish arc caught, and sent into the ioLaiid parts of 
the country. 

The Churdi, or rather Chnpcl, (this town being included in the 
parish of Hart.) is an irregulu- structure, uf dilfi;rrnt ago and 
ityles of arcbiU-cture: the tower mid nave an; the m<M ancient; 
before the Ucformation several chantri»s existed here. Some 
wry old, but mutiUu-d tnonuments, remain in the church-yard; 
reported, but apparently without foundation, lo have belongod to 
the Brucek', one of whom, Ilobcn de Bnis, before l'i7i, rstab* 
lithcd a Monastery ibr Grey Friars, the ruins of which may yet be 
traced at some little dittani-e from the Church. The other public 
buildings arc a Towii-llall, a Frcc-Scbool, and a Custom-Muusc. 
The rivil government '\i vostoci in a. Mayor, Aldermen, Uecorder, 
and Common-Council. The number of inhabitants in this town- 
ship, i» y<)3; of hou«s S30. 

Within u few \'urds of the Water Gate, on the south side of tbe 
town, is a CAalyheate Spring, co\-ered every tide by tlic sea: it it 
impregnated with a small degree of sulphur, which evaporates very 
quickly, leaving a sediment, with salt of (anar. Tbe water as- 
sumes a whitish cost with spirits of hofrtshorn; with galls it luni* 
to a pink colore but with syrup of violets it subsides into a green. 
A gallon will yield 170 grains of sediment, two parts of which are 
nitrous, the rest lime-stonr. 

The fishermen, who, except during the bathing kssot. are al- 
most the only persons mident at Ilartle[>ool, are a rude, but 
athletic and conreg|K>u« race, very cKprrt in their profeaiion, atul 
ever ready to brave the violence of tbe storm to rescue their (el- 
low 



* Slait ii I common term In ihc oonh for • lake oi btoid ncj^wc of vncc 





HUkUAM. 



ISS 



I 
I 



r 



\mi creatuna in cue* of thipwrvck, whicb frequently occur on 
this coa»t: to aid tbnr iiitropid exeitiom, a Life-Boat bas lately 
bera atabli^llell )icre by public tub&cnpiioii, 

Abirot fire miles nonb from Hartlepool, is one of the most sin- 
^1«r and rornaiitic clustcn of rocks in llic nnrlb of England, 
lie geneinl nnme i« tlic Black Halls, so called from tlie vari- 
ous cavcn»; wrae of vrbich run many yards beyond the light uf 
clay; otfaen are opt:n, and supporU'd by natural pillars. I'faeso 
bant beta fononl by tbc foict- and comUiiit uciion of tbe waves; 
M-bich have also separated ciionnous nuuses from the coast, wash- 
ing tfomt entirely away, but Icaring otiiers standin;; like the vast 
towets of a cathedra) : in some places the rock is pcrfonled t» as 
tt> resemble a lane pointed arch gateway. 

CASTLE EULN, derived IraditioDslly from Ca4tle ia tie 
Dn/i,' is Ihe scat of Rowland Burdoa, Esq. one of the parliament- 
aiy representatives for this county, a most lesjiectiibli* and worthy 
clwnicler, to wlioic patnutic exertions, not only tliis nrifihbaur* 
har>d, but a very contidernlilf portion of Durham, i* indebted fur 
■Is improvement in trade ami agricullun:. Caitle Eden origi- 
nally belonged to the See of Durham, from whicb it was early 
unirpcd by the Eurls of North uniberland. After the Cunquwl, 
it came into the possession of Hubert de Urus, who gave it to tbe 
Prior and convent of Gisburne, by whose sticccsson it was re- 
titned till the p«rio<1 of the Dt»M}ltilion, Tlie prucnt owner be* 
came possessed, by purcliase. from — — Itroroley, Esq. of tlio 
coanty of Warwick. The Mansuon was rebuilt by Mr. Hunlun: 
ii is a spacious und tuLnd^umc culelJated vdilice. benulifuily situ- 
aled on tbe lop of the woody precipice that f»jrms the southern 
boundary of lb« mmaniic defile, called Castlb Eoek Dean, 
and commanding a 6ne land and sea prospect. The Dean ex- 
tends abcHJt three mile* from its entrance on the sc-a Uioir, nud 
taking a waring course, comiKutes some of the linett scenery in 

Ibc 



* The Ss>on wot J Den, or Dtm, lignifin a vallty or woody plice, but i^ 
very difeent froni Cltw, which ii ■ defile, Of villry between hill*. A Dm, <>t 
DtM, uftkj inddeniy from rbe common (nd of ibe couairy, ud cinnot bs 
tiU (bp ^«tUMT b cloK upon die boideri. 




136 



OtlURAH. 



the county; being il<cp, woody, unci rocky. In mniiy piirti of tfae 
Di^n, (he rockaso exactly t&lly in tlicir sInUa, Hitd upprmch iO 
ni-aily w'iili correspondent angles, 05 to ju^tily the idva of their 
hHvinjt been torn blunder by fcome grrat iinturul ronvalMon, Vu- 
riouH dvtitcheil masses, that eeem to have been rent from the suni> 
roit, lie in the bottom of the Dean, with ttiva and brtuhwood 
i;rowing upon iticm. At the brad of the dril is n nntural ca»< 
cade, which t»ues from the crevice of a rock, and falls into a ba- 
ton called Guuiwr'k Pout; and near tlie entrance is a smjuncercd 
cotlnj^R, whvm a small society of French emigrant priests t'uund a 
bnppy myluRi dorinf; the vinlenre of the troubles «hich so lately 
ravBg,cd (heir ill-fated country. A safe rond has been made 
through llu' llenn, liy wliich its mo»t biwutiful features have been 
di^layed to the admiring visitor. Tlie chief part of the Dean be- 
longs to Mr. Bunion ; llic other parts ure the property of the Rev. 
Mr. Brnndliiig, of Sliollen, a. village Co the noith of Cnstle t>tleti, 
and Mr. Alairc, of Itardwickc Mall, a pleas&nt residrnce on th« 
■ame side, near the m«. 

On all eminence, se|MUBti>d by a dwp and narrow valley from 

the »itc of Mr. Uurdon's mansion, to the south, is the viHng* 

Church, a very iMat struciurr, erected by that gcnttrman in tht 

year t'(i^. Undnr his feMering pnlnmage also, tvm spacious 

squares vf brick were built ; und a coiluii ninnufoctor)' bc>:;iin at 

C'ltslle Eden Id l7*/2i but tlte latter was soon aftcrM-ardi rrnmved 

to Durbaiti, «nd a sail-ctoth manufactory eNt»l>)i»lird in lU place. 

^^ At tho ciitntnce of the road leading to the C'urtlc, new the manu* 

^H factory, it a handiDome castellated lodge, buitt from the designs of 

^H Mr. AtkinMHi. A new road hns also been o|H>iied Ironi Nurlon to 

^H BifrllOp-^Veremoath, ^hich, from seveni) points, comman^h granci 

^H and extemivo views of tho sea, and cannot be paswd in a c«msenial 

^H ■etiMin ivithuut exciting cxisiderable admiration. I1te agricultors 

^H of the distiict bos likewise been greatly improved; and a bleak 

^H ami bHrieii country is now U-ginniiig to assume an aspect of fer- 

^H Iility. 'Ilie improvement may in some itK^sure be estimated 

^H hj- the increase uf population, uhich, in this small pui»h, since 

■ 



I 




DOnHAH. 



m 



17^3, bai more tban f)outl<^d : in that year its iiihitbiinnh wen 
oa\y 140, but uixivr lite Utc act wcrv ivtun>r>l ut 362. 

llAWTiiUUN i« A smnl) village, pltrHsoiill^- siliMtod on a hill, 

it • mile from the sw, arul cuniiguous to HoKtharn Dean, oa 
tbetuuth tide of which is an eminence allied B«*cou-)lil1, wUerr 
firo were fonnetly lighted to M-am mariiicn Croro tkis dangcriiui 
Coart. " T)>« shoic U roclcy, and broLon into a muUltuclo of deep 
C«T«nit; and the otSng ii full uf nicka and »h<MU. In the inuutli 
of Kdarp kimI narrow creek, where th« rocki arc the incst brukrn, 
niggn)» and runantic. Admiral Milbunke biiilc n Kummpr rvtmit, 
wfaich be named SaiJon' Hall; at hi^h tide it almost ovcihan^ 
the waves, and looks upon the mo»t stormy and shaken part of the 
•bore. 

" Id this part of tbc countiy are relained some ancient custiKns* 
evidently Uerit'ed rrom the Konuini; particularly iliut of dtviMiiQ 
«p ft 6guic of Ccrvs duiin* liarveM, vrhich n platTt) in tbc Arid 
tUiibt the reaprn an> lutKiriii;!, and bri)Uj;ht home on tbe last 

lin^ of rfapiD-:, with mtntr attd grnit acclaniulton : nfh-r (litx • 
' fcait 11 made, calk-d the mtU tuyptr, Irum the ancient sacrifice of 
uiigling tbe new nu>al."* 

At htAIIAM, a smull tillage oB ihe cneAl, is a summer resi- 
dence oS Sir Kulpb Millanke, Burt, one ol' the Almiliers or* Par^ 
Itamcat for this coanly. 'Ihis place is imd to have been irviored 
Id iIic Scv of Durliuni by Kir))( Atbvlklan; by v»hal mriiiia it »al 
altiTwards nlirniitnl, in uiikiMjwii; X in ik>w frvehuld. A sfmie 
Cufiio w» dii;; up in the ctiurdi-yarU a lit* years a^o, ami, from 
tfa« iiBCiiptiun. iikjacrt Hic^ardu* uc tie Seiaiam un thp curer, 

■ wni p uned to ha%'e rontaittcd the reinaim of Richurd de Orer- 
wfaow name occurs on tlio Iim of incumbents iii the )i'ar 

HOUGHTON' LE SPRING, »u e)vlet»iv« rillnse. Htualed at 
tbe bvud vi a bcauiilul vale Oipeiuiig lo th« Me»t, and sheltered from 
tbc bleak winds of lh« nonb and imm by a chnin of liilh, forms 
|Miii of the great puUKbions of tiia See of I>urlittm, and is iiihii- 

bitrd 



* Hutchlmoo'i Durh4in, Vol. II. p. sts. 



d 



1» 



tiuauAU. 



bited by mimy resprciable familirs. The rectory is one of the 
richest in the county, and contains no fcn-cr than imirlccn Til- 
lages ; yet ftuch was (be general ignorance, and so small was the 
cummunicaumi between this and the other parts of Eoglaod, that 
cvpti on lIic iicctrssiuii of Quecti Mary, tlie proclamationt iisucd 
by Edward ihc Sixth, ordering a change of worship in tlic respec- 
tive churches, ore fctivugly reported to have been unheard of by 
the inhabitants. The first mntcri&l advances towards itnprove- 
mrnl, urre made by Ihc benevolent and pious BiiRS'AaD CitL- 
PIK, who was presented to the rectory by Bl'shop Tunstall, and 
whose boundless charity, and meritorious exertions to enlighten 
bis fellow •creatures, obtained him the pre-eminent appellation of 
the Xortitin AyasUe. Mr. Gilpin descctui ed from a vcty rcspecc- 
ablc lamily, ami whs bom at KeiUmire, in Weslmoietand, in the 
year 13l7> Ills early years were passed at a public Oramnkar 
School, uliencc, at the age of sixteen, he was removed to Qumtii's 
College, Oxford. Here bis great progress in schulasUc divinity, 
and the branches of abstruse Icaminj; connrcipd with it, ailmcted 
general otlcnlion, and occasioned his appointment to supply the 
college newly founded by Cardinal Wolsey. Having been bred to 
(he belief of the Human Catholic religion, he for some time con- 
tinued sicndy in bis adherence to that fiitb; and even bcM dispu- 
tatious in it* defence; but the clo([uence and superior knowledge 
of Peter Marlyn, with inborn he East argued, induced him to give 
up the caUM;: " he ouiied publicly that he Could not maintain it, 
and determined to enter into no more controTcrsicK till he gained 
full information of the subject." He afterwards communicated 
his doubts to Bishop Tuiistall, his gteat-uiicle by tlie female side, 
and as llicy were in no degree undiminished after »omeycun lurther 
study, hedctcrmined, by the advice oflhat prelate, to vi^il the Con- 
tinent, tlist be might sitisfy hb mind by coovet^ing uith the west 
eminent Froiestant and Catholic profes&ors. " Itts principal ob- 
jection to the scheme was, that it wotild prove too cx^wnare : but as 
to that, Tunstall wrote to him, that his living (Norton^ in tltis 
diocese) would du something towards hit maintcniuice, and lie 
would supply deficiencies. This, however, did not remove the 
2 - difficulty: 



tlVRllAlt, 



189 



^ifficoHf : Mr. Gitpina notions ordericftl duty were so strict, that 
be thought rui excuse coulil jusUfy non-rcudence fur the coiuider- 
abk thnu that he intended to be abroad. I lu cuuld nut, ihcre- 
fuTT, think of »uppAriing bimwif Mich any |inrt of llie income of 
hs living; ami molred, if be ttaid the thurter time, to rely upon 
hit own frugal timnnscnHpnt of tlic little inuney he had, and to 
lea\'c the mt lo the lii5h(>p'<i geiiuru&ity. Accordingly, he resigned 
h» living in fovor of a worthy miin, with whose abilities and cha*- 
racter he imis well actiuainied, and then set out fur London, to 
receive hb lu&t orders from the Bbhop. and to embark, The ac* 
coont of hii rcaigrwiion reached town before him ; and gave Tun-' 
stall, who frns anxioiu for tii& kin&inan's thriving in the world, 
great coiiccm. "There are your friend*," he ohserved, " endeavor* 
ing to provide for you, and you uro taking every method to frus- 
tntr their wishes; but be warned, by iline courses, you will pre* 
■ently bring yourself to a morsel of bn'ud." Mr. Gilpin begged 
the BiAop would attribute wfant he bud dune lo a K'rupulous con- 
idaicc which would not permit him to act othcrwiw.* 

Un the Continent, Mr. Gilpin became acquainted with the mott 
celebiated conlruierBiali^tb ul the uge, and, by attending tha most 
distinguished college and schools, obtained a thorough acquaint- 
ance with polemics; yet, as his researches were directed solely to 
the CBU«e of trulli, and not lo the kuUlantiution of received upi- 
iBona, he now becnme a convert lo the principles of the Refor- 
mation; and, in-'lhe year \i5ti, returned to England; though the 
penrcuiion against Protestauis under the bigi)1tcd Mary, wus iiill 
rmpaginalliu horror*. Soon after his arrival, Bishop Tunstall ad- 
vmnced him lo the arcb-dcaconry of I>ur1iHin, to which the rec- 
tory ftf F^ngton was annexed; but these hencfices he »ns com- 
pelled to resign, through the strong opposition raised by the Ca> 
tholic clergy, by whose influence a charge of heresy, consi»tiii|; of 
thirteen articte», was preferred agoLnst bim, but dismissed by the 
fricmkhip of Tunstall, n ho soon aflerwardi presented him uiiU 
ihe rrciory of Houghton Ic Spring. 

Vol. V. 1 WltCfl 



■ Hntclunson't Durti«i»| Vol, 11. f. ^7- 




wb 



bURHAH. 



When thb parish was thus committed to hit direcUon, the igno> 
rnnre of the inhabitants wu extrerae; but Mr. Gilpin, whose ift- 
Boliuion to uodrrlske, was equalled by his induMry tu accomplish, 
ioon effected » con^idemble change both in their mfiroU and con- 
duct. His assiduity in the discharge of the dntic« of his functioD 
was excinpUry. " Wliun lie first took upon biniEelf the care of ■ 
paribh, he laid it down as a maxim, to do all die good in bis pawtr 
there; aod bis whole conduct was one straight line, diawn to this 
point He wt out nilh mnking it hi; endcnvor to ^in the atTec- 
tifiTL of his parishioners: many of his papers show bow material a 
point he considered ihb. I'o succeed in it, however, be u«ed oc 
■trrile compliances ; he studied that his means should be good, as 
well as his end. Ilis behaviour was free, without levity: obliging, 
without meanness; and in^nuaiing, without art. He conde- 
scended to the weak, bore with the passjonale, and complied with 
the scropuloui; and in a truly 'apostolic manner,' became all 
things lo all men. To his humanity and courtesy, was added an 
unwearied application to the instruction of those under his care. 
He was not salis6cd with the advice he gave in public, but used 
to teach in private; nnd induced his parishioners to come to bira 
with their diiubts and difficulties. Hn manner towards those be 
thour^ht wcll-dnpined, wns must engaging: nay, bis reproof waa M 
conducted, ihat it fcldom gave offence ; the becoming gentlenaM 
with which it was urged, making it always appejir the eAect of 
friendship. Thus uith unceasing assiduity did he employ himself 
in ndmotii&hing the viciom, and encouraging the wclUdi»poMd, by 
which meant, in a feu y<>ars, he made a greater change in the 
nri^bt)UThood, than could well be iinagiticd: he attended to every 
thing which he conceived might be of scr%*icc to his paridi> 
famcn. Ke was uaduuus to prevent all law<suits; and bis hall 
wot often thronged with people, mho came to submit their diSin'o 
enrei to his juiijrment: for thoii£(h tic was not much acquainted 
with law, be i.ou)d decide e(^iit«bly, and that satitlied; nor could 
hit Sovereign's cununiMtun hate given him luoie weight ibau his 
owu ckaractrr.''* 

Durit^ 
* lluichinian't Duibsm, V«l. II. p. at. 



DVKITAir. 



131 



I 



P 



Duridg tfae «irty put of ftlr. Gilpin'f reudcnce at Houghton, 
>iu rdtpoon opinions, thoHf;!* unfoId«d willi extreme iwerwr, were 
niadc Ihc found»lioD cf a bccond accusation bcfure Bishop Tun- 
snll, who again, howevrr, found mum to protect biin : but tiH 
Mtemies were not to be thus silcnc«d, and thirty-two aniclm wer« 
exhibited u rha^cs af^ainnl him before Bonnrr, Bidiop of Lon- 
don, who gar« order* for Fm inimedixtv apprehemicm, and con* 
vey«noBtotb«M«lropoli>. Gilpin. nhoVnew the implacAblc zeal 
of tbti bigotted prelatp, prepnred tor niartynlom; but tn accident^ 
hf «tnch bks teg vras broken, retarded his joiimry; and before ho 
TO ft^n able to travel, (he draih of Qiwcn Mary occasioned hi* 
being liberated, and thos relrasod him froin persecution. 

The hocpitalily and charily of Air. (iilpjn, uctr only bounded 
by his means; and thr latter, regulated by the must exact ccono^ 
ny, enabled bim to execute more than leu ilrict accomptaiits 
CDuld imagine possible. " [lis hospitable manttcr of living wta 
the admiration of the whole coaniry. Every Sunday, from Mi* 
cbaelmas till tJLSter, was a sort uf public day with him; and dU' 
riog thii Kason, he expected to see all his pari»hionen and their 
Jaariliei. For their reception, he had three tablet well covered: 
tbe fiist, lor gentlemen; the second, for liusbmidiiu^, anil fnr- 
ram; and the third, for day-laborers. When be was absent from 
hone, no alteration n&t made in his fumily expericcs : the poor 
vert fed as usual, and h» neighbours enlvrtained. tie sprni in 
kit family, every fortnight, forty biiihel» of corn, twenty bushel* 
of malt, and a whale ox; bc>idt« a proportionable quantity of 
other kinds of pnnrition. Strangen and iravellers found in his 
bouse a cheerful reception; all were welcome that came; and sTea 
their horses had so much care taken of them, that it was humor- 
otHljr said, thai, ' if a lionc was turned luow in any part of Che 
OooDtiy, it would iinmedialely miike it) way lu ihe Rector of 
HooghlonS.' -So extensive was the faBit* of liis hospitalily, and 
vutno, iliat even the great Lord BurWigh cui)<Jc>tceiided to visit 
bin,- on his ntum from transaiiing some «tat« buunesp in Scot* 
lud j sad when taking hts leave, told him, in alt the warmth oi 

1 2 sincerity, 




]a« 



UVIHAU. 



tinccrity, " Me had hoard prtu thinj^ in lii.<t commmrlntion, but 
had now SMii wliat faroxc«edcd all that hr had heard.*' 
r 'J'iie viideHvon of Mr. Gilpin, to promoic and establiih tba 
happiness of his ielluw-cnitttun-3, were nut. howv>-er. cunfined to 
bis care. At the pchod in which be lived, " Kcdcsdalo and Tjiie- 
dalc, in N'orthutnlKTland, of all bnrbarous plarrs in iHe north, 
wrre lotiUii upon to be the tnoHt barbarous; brJTig the common 
(bvatrp where the Scots and English were continually acting tbvir 
bloody scenvfi. Inhnbilird by * kind of dt-«{Kmtc banditti, rrn* 
dered fierce and active by constunt nipjnr, warfitFC, Hnd alarms, 
they bvcd by theft, and u»d to plunder on both udn of the bar* 
rier. In ibis dreadful country*, w lion.' no man would (ben even 
tnvel that could help it, he never tailed tn spend some part of 
the year;" the success of his disiitleresled exertions was veiy 
great; lu bi» teadirieKi to perform good oHicn wa& equal to bis 
ftbilicy to givo advice, aiid hiit |>cr»on bcciiiui.- re^'cred and sacred, 
among the most despenitc of the fcrodous bnnds amidst whom he 
Tcntured. 

Amottf{ llic various benevolent purjioseD to which be appropri* 
ated his inconti', wks the building and endowment of a Grammar* 
School in this vitlugc; which still ftourtahes, and has fiiveu educn^ 
tioii to many eminent men. Ele also lilted up part of his own 
house for the reception and (uitimi of Ecbalani; and waH at lh« 
expence of paying for the education and maintenance of orhen^ 
whom he placed at the houites of diflWcnt paiisfaioncni. Many of 
the. children, whow caily inaductiou he had (bus provided for, h« 
sftcrM'ards sent to ibc Univcriutii-s, and thexe either wholly sup- 
ported ihem, or furnished whatever aisastajice the circumstances 
of the sliidcnti rei^uiied. 

The death of this truly estimable matt was preceded by an un- 
fortunate occurrence, that cunvidoralily udded to the infirmities 
of declining age. While crossing the market-place at Durham, 
be was run at by an ox, and so greBtly bruised by the violenc* 
wilhnhich the aiiimai pushed him down, that his life was fut 
some time in extiemc danger ; iind tiiuu|;h he recnvend sufficicntt 
ly to leave his chamber, yet be never regained his former 



er strength, J 

J 




DranAH. 



133 



wni ponlinwd Umc till ihr end of tiis days. He died in March, 
liS3, in thf sixty-uxth ytAt of his age At tlie wmt end of bU 
iBMiauent, in Houghton Church, ii the following iittcripiion in 
nscd cbsracten, divided by an eecutch«on, displaying a bo«r 
nstiitg agunst a tree, with a crocent cut on the udc of the boar. 

BERXERD OBIT QUA 

CILPIN RE RTO DIfc M 

CTOR HV ARTri AN. 

JVS ECCLIA DOM. >i8j. 

"nie CMurti «tands on a riung ground, in tlie centre of a square 
an*, Ibnned by the buildings in itie lowvr part of the Tillage; it is 
ooMtrnncd in the form of a cfmb, and cinbaiiled, nitli a low lower, 
lerminabng in a ipin.% rising from the centre. Among tlie tno- 
namenls a an altar-tomb, on which lies the cfligy of a Kiii);ht in 
■nnour, with clasped hands, bearing a shield on Ui> left ami, (U)d 
repgung bit bead on a pillow. Thii it tnulilionaUy nid to reprwnt 
Si/ J,ihti U Spring, the head of an ancient resident (nmily ; but Col- 
lins* refers it In "Si a Kuv?laki>Belasisc, of Ucwicy; knighted 
It tbe battle of Lgwc», in buiiex, 48tb of King Henry the Third, 
when the King wus tiUtrn prisoner by Siinnn Moiilfort, Carl of 
Leicester, and nther llarons," 'Jbc Belmitc fHinily inhahited 
Uortoa-House, in (bis ptirish, in the time of Cardinal Langlcy. 
Some odicr nemorials of them remain in tiie Church; uiw of 
vbicfa a a bnaa plate, displaying engraved portraits of M a rg En v 
BiLAStaK, and ber twelve children: the former died nt the age of 
ninety, in the year 15S7. Another inseriiHion records the me- 
mory of Major Tiiouia Lilbl'Tin, who died in tbe year 
IdSS. In thn Church wat formerly a chantry, and ^o guilda. 
Tite Rtdoriat Manmm in a bundaomo stone edifice, funning one 
tide of a court, having u lodge at the entrance, and being flanked 
by a chapel on one side, and an ancient tower on the other. The 
later wus erected about the year 1483, by the then incumbent, 
Jubn Kvlyng, wbn began to fortify " and embattle u hotasc above 
Ibe kMcr porch within his rectory with a whII of time and ^titne, 
ud to make a fortren of it without liccme." This ufti-nco, how 

I 3 ever, 

* rNfig*. Vol lit. p. at4. 




»N 



PPitHAM. 



ever, wns pardoned by Bishop Dudley ; and, in co(uid«raU«a of a 

fine paid, libcny was granted by that prvlalo. " lo i>aib&ltle Ui9 

hotiBF, and make il a fortress for himself, and auccfuors for cv«r." 

fThe rectory uiu. afterwards repaired by (he benevolent Bernard 

p'Oilpin; but having afcain brcomtr niinom, was rebuilt, together 

' irilli the chapel, by the Uev. George Davenport, who waa rector 

belneea tlic years ]6b^ and l667> Tbe south front commands 

|,a &IIC and extensive protipect. Among tbe emiiveol Hectors of this 

■pamh, besides those already mentinm^d, may be enumcrutcd, Hma- 

Duel Barnes, a person of great erutbtion, anil son of Bishop BariKs ; 

Auguitin Lindsell, aflcrwerdi Biafaop of Hereford, noticed in Ftll- 

ler'a Worthies, under Vmcx; Dr. Peter Ileylin; Dr. Saocroft, 

&fterwardi Archbishop of Canterbury; Dr. Bashaw, a ramoot 

preacher in London, in the seventeenth centary; Sir George Who* 

Icr^ as antiquary ami traveller; Dr. Seeker, afterwards Archbitbop 

or Canterbury; and Mr. Roiherham, a colebraled polemical 

writer. 

Tbe Grammar-School is a convenient building, standing in tb« 
Church-yard, with tbe Master's house adjoining; uvcr the door il 
this imcnptiun: 

SCHOLA DE KP.IPIER* 

AB ELIZ. ANGLIC RLCNINA, 

A". MOLXXIV. FVNDATA 

EX PROCVRATIONE I. HEATH, AR. 

ET B. GILPIN, RECT. ECCL. HOVCHTO. 

C. H.t M. a. ALVMNVS POSVIT. 

A«. M.DCCXXiV. 

On B line with ihe School to tbe south, is an Hospital for the re» 
ccption of siN poor people, who have each a certain lum, arising 
from different betiunls antiuuHy, allowed for their maintenance. 
The popyiation of this township, ns returned under the late act, 
was 95K» ; the auiobvr of houses I b'3 : many of the tatter arc largf 
and respectable buildings. 

BISHOP 



■ 



* Krpicr. ntir Duihim, wm the *ui of ibc Heatlit, and ■( li coojccbm4 
ihit wn called Kep^ School io complimoii co itiit fimilf . 

t Chiiii0pl)trHuu«r, o(I>urham. 





I 



DUItUAM. 



BISHOP WEARMOUTH akti SUNDEHLAVD 



ISS 



Are so iatimUely umtcd by buUtlinga, and othrr IcHial rircani- 
ituices, ibai they may he said to t'orm only one town ; though tlia 
|)uuhe» SIC distiDct, and have separate and independent placn of 
«cinbip. SuiidcrLand is (;ui»|>ar«tively of aiodeni otigin, aod lias 
arrived ai ilB present imporlance frou Hie coavenience of its port{ 
but Bitliop Weartnoulli is a place of remote anti<]uity, and though 
in llisloiy ii involved in much confusion, ck-arly appears in have 
been of consequence in the Saxon ages, as it wai restured to the 
Sm of Purham by King Atl>«lhtan at Ibo beginning of the tenth 
zeaXnry, under the di»tinguishiiig ajipeltaiion of the " delightful 
rilla of South Wercmoath." 

The more ancient part of Binhoj) Weannouih occupies the 
enuihern acclivity of an ctninciice south of the river Wear, and 
about one mile and a half distant from its junction with the sea. 
On the crown of the emiti^nce it ihe Church, bcj'oiul which, to 
the north-east, a range of modern and handtomc buildings 
kaw been erected on the Pdtw-&-.lds, and connea with Sunderland. 
The latter extends along the southern bank of the Wear, aJintttt 
to the !iea shore; the upper pnrt ttand* on the vile of a hill, 
having a very quick descent both to the river and to the tea. 

Bishop Wearmoath Church is a very ancient structure, sup- 
|M»ed by Muicbin&on lu hnvu bticu founded very soon after the 
mtituUon made by Alhclstan: its original arcbilcclurr, buwever, 
has, in a great measnrc, been obliterated by tutnequcni tittenuioiis. 
It if a low building, cmbatUecl, with a square lower: the iiiicriur 
consists of a ouve, aiiilch, and chancel ; the latter was greatly alter- 
ed, and improveil, by the Kev, Mr. Smilh, who held die rectory 
aboiit tbo comincnccment of the last century. The nave is divi- 
ded from tlie aisles by two rows of three ruund columm, with rails 
lor capitals, supporting circular urchcs. " The rector of Bishop 
Wearmouth for ilic time being, if I^ird of the Manor, arul holds 
bis courts, the customs ami copytioldn of wlucli, Mrr of the siime 
OtinrB 4ith tlic customs and copyholds uf Lhu Bishup's maoon.'" 

1 1 The 



* UuttlaB»n, Vol. II. p. ^\{, 



IM 



BvanAM. 



Th« prcMiit incinnbent is tbc celebrated Dr. Williani Paley, Arch- 
deacon of Carlisle, author of Mural and Political PMlasopki/i Na- 
tural Tkeologfi and some other {lupular and catcrmfd works: the 
living is one nf [he most opulent in Durham. Near tha Church 
is an Uoipit/tl, or Almt-IIouit, cn'cXvA Hnd endowed for the laaio- 
Mnanc* of twelve poor mpii or »vonjeii, by two sistcn, Mr*. Jane 
'Cibton, and Mrs. Lupbemia K«dnMui, in ttie year 1727. At tliat 
ttinct the produce of the endowment amuuntcd t» only 31. anna- 
ally to c«ch peison; but from the incrense of the value of landf^ 
1)61. is now dislhbutrd atnonj; them every yMr. Another 
i/outr, for twelve indigent men or women, was built and endowed 
by the Rev. Ur. .loKn Buvrt-s, in the yeiir l7?3; but the allow* 
anco for maintciiiint-e is very bir.itH. 'VMa building siandft at tl 
end of a square called Wcurmoulh Greco, which, Wfore the divi* 
Mon of itie ptiri»bcs, was uted as tlie niRrkei-placc; but the msr«>, 
bet bus since been removed to tlio High Street, in Sunderland. 

But the principal itructurc on the Bithup Wvxrmouth nde, 
%nA by far the greatest curiosity iji this part of the country, JB 
the magnilicvnt Ibok Bridok, of u single arch, which bai buen 
th^(]1^'n over the river Wtar, and connectb with ihc new roiul Icad- 
ini; in Newcastle and Shields. This noble ihbric is indehled (or 
its origin to the genuine palnoiiKm of Rowland Burdon, F.sq. of 
Cattle I'VIrn, who, &s»i»tcd by the sciciililic abilities of Mr. Tbo- 
liuu Wilion,' Kngineer, iiirvcitcd, and obtained a patent for the 
plan on which it n cotutrucied. The principli-^ of Uii» plarj are 
essemialiy diHcrent from ttiosc employed in any former brid;^e, 
uttciiiptcd with similar materials; u it docs not consist of long 
ribs ut nictnl, approaching towards the rciiut% and sustained upon 
the ahiiiinet;ts, but in conslruetcd wiili urrh- jiiecrit ut blMkii,ai 
-tbcy are lechnirally iciined, ** Antncring to the key-stones of a 
runimon »rrh. which lieing brnii«t>t to brar on each other, gives 
ibeni all the liniinos 'H llie solid $tvnc aidi ; wbiUt, by the great 
vatiulirk in the b1oLk^, ;ind clieir rnpective distances in iheii lale- 

nii 

• Tin* g»«il«n»n iniiJfi in a n«U Ihium-, conilniclcd for the piitpAie, si IIib 
htad ol the B'idKc: >inic tiK finiih'nqt of llic lui'r, tic h^t tictt^ M>rM al.^ti 
tM itai> brtdgn in diflcrpiil pant ot die kin^om. 








» 



DUSnAU. 



lar 



ral porition, tb« arch faeconM indnitcly lighter than that of stone; 
and by (he tenacity of the metal, lltc paitH art lo inttniatety con- 
nected, lluit the accurate calculatiuii of (be extnuloa uitd imrados, 
w occcanry in Btone archvE of magnitude, is rciidcrod of mach. 
less comequence."* I'he blocks are wholly of cat* irm ; each of 
them 6vc feet in height, four inches in rhickiie», two feet bur 
inches afid a half in length at top, and two feet four ioches at 
bouom. I'he blocki are all nut in one pint; hut it may be iM- 
oesaiy, for the sukeof pcnpicuity in descnplion, to coruider them 
as foimed frith ban of iron of the above dimcnuons. Fjich block 
mil then appear to be compoMd of three pieces, placed horizon- 
tally, and two others in a vertical dirtciion; the former crossing 
the latterat each extremity, and in lh« middle. By this construc- 
tion, a square vacuity is left bcth abi^vc and bclcrw the piece which 
crgwes the centre; and as the v«iliciil pieces are nnt pincej at the 
tndt of the crws pieces, but about five inches iiiwurds, u-Iil-ii two 
blocks DTv lAoded lugether, iho void S]iacc between the now 
umicd ends of the blnckH, t!> of the lianK- extent »s (hnt bc-lwecn 
the opri^b. On each side uf the horixonlal, or cross pieces, is a 
flat groove, three inches broad, and tliree-ruurtbs of aa inch dc^: 
in these grouves burs of vraight, or tnallcable iron, arc inH'rlcd| 
of aufiicienl lenglli to connect several blocks, and are fastened by 
M|Dare boltii driven through holes IcO: at equal dtslances in each of 
lh«croM pieces; by these incan^ the blocks an- nil hrmly wedged 
lo^thar. The Jrci ist tlie si^nicnt of a circle Jibuut -iM iect 
in diameter, and d 23<j feet tdght inches in its chord, or span; i| 
is lormed by six ribs; each rib consttting of 1U3 blocks, which butf 
«m each mher in ihe same monner as the vowisuini of a stone urch. 
*I]ie ribs are re<i]»:ctivc1y placed at six reel dislnnce, but arc con> 
nected nnd braced together, by huUow tubes or brulUt of cast 
iron, with projecting shoulders at each end, intd «ihich the bolU 
thai fiistcn the bars of malleable iron to tli« cpAvpieccs of rhe 
blocks, arc also dnven, and mado (an by keys, or furulocks, 
ihu pOH through the tail* of the bults and fhoulders of Ihe 

biidln. 



* Sm $pKilicatioa ai f mul 



ISS 



DVItllAM. 



bridlo.* Tbe vereed i\w, or ^risg of the arcb, it only thirty- 
fonr feet; of ctiurse die t.pandriU require but litde filling up; yet 
this is offrcEed in the moel light aod elegant manner, by irun rir^ 
da, placed upon the rib*, and grtulually dimini.thii)g from tlie 
abutments to the centre of the bri«lge: tbeae support the platfonn, 
tthicb is a strong frame of umber, covered «rith marie, limc'Stonp, 
gmv<>l, fee. with fuot-paths of frre-stonc, and bounded by a neat 
iron ballustrade; above which, on each side, is tbe following in* 
•cription, chosen as a pious lecord of the succeisJul completion of 
the work: 

NIL DESPERANOUM AUSPICE DEO. 

The nhok weight of the iron that furma this immense structure • 
in 26u torus; of these id are mallenhio, and 214 «ut. lite pierif 
or abutments, are piles of almost iolid masonry, twenty-four feet 
in thickncas, forty-two in breadth iLt bottom, and thirty-seven at 
top. The south pier n founded on ihc solid mck, and rises from 
about twenty-two feet above the bed of the river: on the north 
side, the ground was not so favorable, so that the foundation tras 
obliged to be carried ten feet below the bed. The first stone wat 
laid on the twenly-fnurth of September, 171)3; with thi$ in> ; 
Kription, written by Sir Pepper Arden, now Lord Alvanley. 

Q«o 



* '' Tbi> contUvcliO'n,'* ohKFvei ihe editor of (he Supplement to llie Efityelc 
peiiii Bf 'i*nni», Mnder ,4nM, " ii Ijeaatitalljr iimplc, and very judicioui. A 
wait (dditJ-aR »f orengiK, and of itiftneu, u pntcured by lodging ihc wrayghl ' 
mii ban m groovu f^rmtd in the caK-iron riili; and for ihi* purpoie it it of {teat J 
mpoitjnce lo mak« the wrotig^it iron bars fill the groovn complcfely, >ad even 
to tx 10 lijjhl M W Tetjvitt the inter of lli< forelfKki lo diaw tUrtn Imme to>ha i 
bottom of the ^nvct. Thete can be no doubt, but that ihi* arch it able to 
witbitntd an cnottnout ptcuure, ulunj; u the ■butmeoit from wtiich i( iprings 
do nu yirldj and ol ihit chert ii hardly any rislc. Tfa4 mutual ihiuM* of the 
framei (at blocki) tre ill in \ht directioQ of tbe iiili, m> that no part bean my 
IraimerM )lnin. We can hardly conceive any fuicc ibai cm ovcteomc ihc 
Urength of Lhoieirmi by prcuutc, or by ciuihingchem. Thcmaiiixi to which 
the fremei ifc connected into one rib, cff<L-luiIIy mcutc* the butting jointt from 
■lipping; and the accuracy withwhichihe whole <>caccatcd, prcvcnU vy 
%nrpiog or deviuion of a rib from ibc veilical plinc" 



DCIRltAMt 

Q,vo Titirox* 
Civivu CAt-iicoKVM Aaooa Vbiamdi 

PftnVA JuiSXTICM 
CSNTK TvKtAVIT EuKOriAl 

Tf.nt% BiLLo, 
Xalandiu MMrJtm, A'mgtr, 

USblOKA CailNI 

VILDKA 
KtrA(, ScoruLit F(ABvrx«a 

PoMTt CoMjUNXit Fiaaio, 

FiLIClTK FUKBAMIMA PoiUir 

Octavo Calikbai Octoikii, 

Ammo 5Ai.VTit UfKAMja 

M.DCCXCIII. 

CXQACII TlKTII XXXIIf. 

Actt AMTt 

CvLiiLHO HiMiica Lahitoh, AAMtciio 
Phovihciali Suwmo Ma'.iitao 

hATaVHQUC &0CI>TATI1 AtCHtTICTOWtC4 

£t faociaUM Comitatu* Dun*i.miii(i* 

JriCTAIILl CoKDMAf 

PoruLi QtiOQVi Fi-L-Riu* CoHiTANTt Cat»v*. 

SliNiAxr ViiTiciA Did 

NoM laatTJt Srit. 



139 



He iroo-work wu cast by tfae Mcssn. Walken*, of Rotberhua ; 
and tfae arcb wai lurneil upon a very Ugbt but firm icaffolcling, bo 
jndidously constructed by Mr. Wilson, that not any interruption 
was given to the pasu^ of the numerous vomIs that navigate the 
buiy rivor of SunitcilaDd. The mode of bracing Uie nbs was 
•0 simple and CHpedilium, that tlic vrbolc was put to^tber, and 
UuowD over the riier, in (en ttayt, and the scaflbldingimmediatcJy 
icnovnL Tbe bridge was ojieticd fur j^neral use on the ninth of 
August, I79<S, after a very s|>lendid ceremony and procession, in 
which the pruviociaJ grand lodge of Frec-Mavom in llie oAinty of 
Durham sustained a djstinguithed part; Mr. Uurdon bring (or that 
day appointed Grand Mailer: the number of spectatora was com- 
puted at 80,000. 

llius was this important undertaking brought to a eurccssful 
conclusion ; though during the progress of the worW, the malignant 

S and 



140 



BtlRHAH. 



and ilHtcniTe had endeavored to impede its execution hy dir^ul 
forebodings. Th« rxpenn amoumed to 27,0001. of this sum Mr. 
Bardon, nilh s liberaliry worlhy of the highe-st praise, subscrib*^ 
23,0001. the rtmair>dcr vias railed b^ tub»criptitiii among llic 
neigh bouiing genttemcn. Tu Jefniy tbU expencc, a small toll is 
lened ou all [lussen^r*. which ali-cady produces more than the 
interest; and the overplus being applied tu liquidate the principal, 
when that is edccted, the bridge will be thrown open.* The 
cetilfv of the arch is nearly lOO Teel from the surrace of the river 
At low water, so that veaeh of from 200 to 300 tons burtbcn can 
pat« under it without striking their masts. The vast utility of ibii 
ttructare may in a sli((ht degree be ettimaled from the increased 
intercourse it has occasioned between the itdiabitaiits of ibe oppo- 
site sides of the nvcr, and which ts rendered strikingly apparent 
by the jeccipts taken at the f'eriy below the bridge: lliese, prior to 
its erection, tiid not araauni to 2D0l. per annum; but have since 
pivgrcssiticly increased, and now produce upwards of 5001. 

Another structure on the Bi&hapWearmouthside, but originating 
with the inhabitants of Sunderland, is the Hu/iderland Subnripttm 
Litraiy, the fcundalion of which was laid on the sixth of May, 
1801, in ** the name of Almighty God, the fountain of Intelligence, 
and the fotirre of Mind." The principal room k about Ibiriyonc 
feet ill length, twenty bniad, and fil'teen in height: on the same floor : 
are two smaller apartmenu, for the accommodation of meetings of 
the members, committee, &c. The gmund-lloor is disposed into two 
shops, one of which is occupied by ilie Librarian, a rvspcctablt: 
bookseller. The institution commenced in February, 1795; and 
though lit progress was not rapid for s few years, of late its sue- 
tfvi has been iiion- decided, and ihi; coUectioa contains a rari- 
«ty of valuable books. 

The EorougA of fl'eamMvtJk is noted in the Boldcn Buke; and 
a charter of privileges was grunted to the BurgFsscs by Bishop 

Pudwy, 

. * la t*M bticlgc MW coiutrueiuif by Mr. Wilnn, bciwccn ejglocltffe mi 
V<nn, («T p>j^ tfi,] ihc l>an of matWlilr iioii which coeoMt tbe ciu iion 
ktvcks, DR ■(! M be tnienrd in c*vi(t«» tvuiiH the blo<lu, and bting thai !»»• 
MTvtd frooi thr Kiitn of ilw air, ibtiibrtc will probibly be tnofeduablr. 



* 




SVRUAM. 



141 



Tndaef, about the comtnenceiDcnt of the reign of IlichBrd tlte 
Tint. In anoiher grant by the same Prelate, dated 1 1 54, arc lh« 
wonb, Ik Burgo tU IVeremae, aHas Wtrrmouth, mudo SunHer~ 
Ini juxla mart. Some privileges were aJso granted to the bur- 
ICMO by Mfttry the Third. 

SuKDERLAXD, being originnlly part ofWeftrTTHHitb par»b, is not 
mentioixd by historiamM n distinct place, till its incretisrug com- 
nerce Torced tt into notice. Tbe BMbo|M, in rigtit of Ibcir pala- 
tine autfaonty, Ica-sed out iho fvrry'biviiu and passagQ of ths 
tirtt i bat tx» grants of anchorage or beaconage ippwr to have 
b««n mtide prior to the lime of Bi&hop Tunslall, during whose pre- 
lacy, it may therefore be »up|ni»ed lo liavp obtained consequence. 

After the statute of Henry the l^jghlb, by which the palatine 
jurisdiction was mtrained and mutilated, Sunderland became of 
ronsetiuencc, and assumed municipal importanci-, having its bflicers 
of diiitinctionand police. IVtiroas of encouraging its rising tradr, 
Bobop Morton, in the year 1(>34, incorponilc<) the burgesses and 
inhabitants, by the liilc of Mayor, twelve Aklerinen, and Com- 
nooally of the Borough of Stmdcrlatid, and gi-antcd tbc privilege 
of smkrhet ai»d annual (aire.* This charter, through the distrac- 
tiorn of the limes which ftillowrd, was suffered to exfitc; but 
Aougb the corporation lost its authority, the inhabitants contested 
ibcir rights in vnnotis law'^uits, particularly touching tbe hurbflgc 
of the town moor, and its soil; and it was affirmed, that " Sun- 
4e^Moi h an auciunt borough, &c. that the twelve inferior bur- 
• Bie called ttaHingcm lud that each freeman, ocrup)'i[ig a 

hooar. 



* Thrchi'ttr taut, *• Thil Sunderliitd hsd bryonil Uic mnnoiyof raui 
been SB neieet borough, kaown by the ntmc of iht n«w borough of Wcte^ 
■lOutk, contiming in iucll ■ certiin pon, whrr* tlitpt hid plied, biingtiig and 
atrf'mg mcrchanditc, *« well to and frain Tomgn piitt, u frotn aktr pitU 
of thu kiafdom: the iiticU* thnein tftcifted, are tot^otlt, grind.uooci, 
tnb-ataiKi, anJ whet-itone*. It alx) Mam, this the liide wm then grutty lib- 
CTcwcil by ihc oiuliiiudc of iklpt raatiinK (ItidiFt; and that the bo'ooKb ■■>- 
cicmJy CBjorcd dtvtn libcttiti and fta CDdomt, a« well by pntctip ion, ■■ by 
Vittuc oF luiulry chaiteti frain llic Bithops □( Durlum, confiimcd Id them by 
Ibe Crovmi whkh, from defeci in form, proved iniuKcittii (ur the tuppon of 
ih< siKtcM UbcnUs, pitviUgnaQdfreecuit&ffliafifac boroufh." 



us 



BVKHAM. 



houM, liaJ commooage for tuo honei and four cow», aud eacli 
■lalljnger for one cow ; kiid that the widow of a Treenian, or stiU> 
Inger, being aa itihsbiUot, hid th« tike commonage tftcr th« 
hasbuM)'s deuh." 

When the reg^d jurisdiction of the Bi^ihops of Durham wu cur- 
tailed by Henry the Eighth, the conutrvatonhip of the riTcr 
Wear, and port of Sumk-rlsnd, was vnted in the Crowti. Since 
that period, various acts have been passed fur tbc pnseratioa 
utA improTemnit of the river arid haven, and certain commn* 
aionen appointed m conservators. On the rcstorotioa of Charles 
the Secoodf that Monarch ditccted a commision to the Major, 
and four senior Aldemeo, of Sunderland, and to Wulter Ettridt, 
Eaq. to administer tlie oaths of supremacy and obedieitce to the 
inhabitants ; and in the twentieth year vt his reign, he granted 
his tetters patent, for erecting a Ugbt-house, picn, &c. and for 
preventing injury to the harbour, by heaving oat baUast under 
severe penalties. 

** Various conjectures," observes Mr. Hutchinson, *' bavfi 
been made touching the derivation of the name of Sondeilandi 
some insisting that it is tbe. ancient Saxon, Smdrrland, signitying 
K particular precinct, with pririlegcs of its own ; others, thai lbs 
name is expressive of a peninsula, severed and separated from ibe 
main land; and thi« latter appexn the most probable; for Me see, 
by the ancient recurds, that in Bishop HatBeld's time, i/ynrfea* 
was a place held by Thomas Menvyll for the plying of ships: if 
the sea, m the b^nmng of the fuurttenth century, formed » 
CRck or bay there, the land on which Sunderland now stands, 
would, at high water, be almost totally di»evcrcd from the main ; 
and the deep guUiei shew a probability that such was the case. 
The shore has greiitly changed its figure in the course of 400 
yenrs ; and perhaps some an was u»ed to exclude the sea from 
that course, when the haven of Sunderland grew into fame, and 
the coal trade began upon llio We«r."t The 



* Hyodn Ladfe ti norly midwiy bctwMD Sundulud wid Hpdta ft«y, 

the MMIlh. 

f Himry of Durfcaai, ¥•!. U. p. jsl. 




OVJtBAM. 



Tlie harbour of Sanderland is rormcd by two pien, atuated on 
tlte south and iwrlh udcs uf tlic liwj: that on the south side u of 
loc^ ttanding, and has undergone several repairs having been 
much damaged by tbe high flood in NoTcmbcr, 1771,* That on 
the Donb ude bu be«n constructed since the year l'S8. and 
greatly contributes to ibe security of the shipping, by enabling tb« 
ebbing tide to acquire greater force to (cour away the sand, which 
forms a bar at the entrance of the harbour. Formerly, tbe nari- 
gauon of the river *' wai mncb impeded from the want of a tufli- 
cinit depth of water to admit sbipa of any comiderable burihen 
lo put to sea with their whole lading; to remedy which, such vcs* 
aeb were obliged to uiiie port of thrir cargoes in the open road, 
by which the kccl-mcn, who bring down the coals from the 
staiiha, were often exposed, in sudden norms, to dangcr,"t and 
soanctinMS lost. This inconvenience a, by the erection of tb* 
north piar, and oilier Kceut improvements, in a great measure 
icnxrred ; the tide now flows sixteen feet^ and admits vessels of 
SOO and 4O0 tons burthen. Near the extremity of the north pier, 
an elegant circular Ught-house has been built, from the designs of 
Mr. Picliennel, Engineer: it wa& finiibed in 1S02. Before iu 
erection, il>e only signal to enable marinei* to enter the iiioulh of 
llie liver during the night, was a laiilcrn hoisted on the Aag-ttaff. 
Hie wreck of a ver>- valuable vessel at the mouth of the harbour 
in tbc year 1799, g*vc rise to a lubactiplion for tlic buili^in:; nf a 
life-Uo»t; and one, on a similar plan to Mr. Greaibetid's, was 
accordingly Coratnicted by Mr. W. \V»ike, uf Monk Weannoulb. 
The trade of Sundeiland has long been in a state of proga'uive 
iacreaae ; but its auginetitaiion during tbe latter part of the last 

century 

• See p- 63. 



t Wllkeri CbuUcci. Thr danger wm, iitdecd, to ptH, ibtt miny of (he 
latpi iieucli lidoDgiag lo (hit pott were obliged to lake lO ihtir tcrfoct at 
Skiddt, thoHgh their voyage wat tioE iinfrMjuaitly ii«laytd by (he bat at the 
kSQuthof thM harbour; and a llMt of collicrt haa been knows to leive Suader* 
laiiJ, dcbi«r thctr catjoo in London, and ifltrwitdi rcliim, Moi'e another 
fioa at Sliicldt, which wu laden wbco lh« fotiuci departed, had boca able t* 
get over the fair. 



IM 



DVnilAM. 



century has been I'sry rapid. Th^ imports are corn, flour, iridBii 

spiriiuous licjuurs, timber, Ur, iJc&tt>, flax, iron, &c. The ex« 
ports ivrc coal, lime, glass, glass buttles, grind -stones, axui cop- 
peras. The coal tmdc is tlie priticipal, and furnidics employment 
for nrarly 520 vtssols, independent of the iw/j,* which convey 
the coai frpm the sluiths to ihc 5hi]», and are 492 Jn number. 
The coal is chiefly oonve^-ed to the Metropolis; though great 
quanlitiei are sent to the different porti or the Baltic, and io time 
of jieace, to yraiice and Holl»iid : the whole cjuantily annualljr 
exported from Sunderland, Bmuuiits to about Sl.'i,000 Newcastle 
cbalcIrons.t The nambcr of peranns de^icndant nn this itaile ii 
very great; and even some years ago, uhrn the consumption was 
by no nkeans su considerable as at present, they amounted Io up- 
wards of 26,000, on the ri»er Wear only. The lime it princi- 
pally sent to the coasts of Yorkehiro and Scotland. 

The parish uf Sunderland was separated from fitihop Wear* 
mouth, and ntabtished as sn independent rector)*, by an act of 
Parliament pv^ed in the jtar 1715- The preamble slam, " that 
Suuderland contains 6000 souls snd upwards ; and that a beauti- 
ful Charch bud been erected, together with a vestry nam, and 
dwelling houic k>t ihc minister." By this act also, n " vestry, 
nr associaliuii of inliabitiinls was instituted, comixting of tvrenty- 
four persons, having freehold cslalcs of the yearly value of lOl. 
to be chosen by the paTitluonen, and Co continue in uQice thrM 
years; and so a succeuion to hf; chosen every three yv*n. In 

tbcM 



* The ke<U »c 11 auboltointd 'craft, oth midc tnconuin ten Newcwir chal* 
droni, (about 26J turn,) jiid nuikcd wtlh tiaitut the head ind ilem, that it 
nuy lis tcaJily known when ihty htie Ihur placet iii^ing aboMil. "* Thcii 
■uinc," <i1»t(vct Mr, Dmid, in bi« Hracory of X«w ca>il<, '* u vcty Micicnc, 
and of Sa^con ariKin, for ■ ihip 01 v*u«t. On iht tiiti stnva] of ihc Stxt 
ia lhi» liland. thcy«nie ovrr in thttt loDg tiiipt. ilyUd by thcmietTa fat 
Venlegan iiliormi ui) htiti, otiiiJri. In ihc chinulaiy of Tynrrnouth monu* 
trryt the Kfvinii of the Phoi, who wrought Ln itte barge*! ■■' cillvd (^ D^ 
1378} iele'j 1 ao apptllaiioii pbioly (ynoiumoiu with oni ktilmri," 



i Tlw NewoMJe ctuldion i» jgcwi. cqaal to >34*4 -culiic fMt; the I.and«a 
ctuldiao u equal to atiMt iScwt. orjicubic feft. 




DDRUAU. 



145 



thee officers was vcsled b povnr to mnVc ontiimncrs nnd bye-lftwt 
for the regulntion of tbe parish, id bo nitl6«i) \iy ilie jiuiices ; to 
appnini ft scavenger, and to af&css rin ostatrs, rpal Hn<1 pcreonal, 
and slock in trade, a sufficient sum for thr piirpM<€S thcrmti nM>n- 
liuncd. aod particularly Tor papng the rector a yearly itifM^d of 
sol, and to tlic clerk lOl." Tbe Churcli it n spacious nnd band' 
tome fabric : ihc vAst end has a purliculuriy li^hl aiiij olcgant ap- 
pecunncc, the altnr bcin» p\acrd in a circular ncem, vonnoamed 
bv a dome. This allcrntion was projcciod about the year 1735, by 
the Hev. Mr. Newcombc, wbo was then rector. A new roof lifts 
been jiut bailt, und^rr the direction of Mr. Wilson, llic architect 
of Wearmouih Bridge; and it may be remarked, that the etpence 
of constmcting it, together with niiieui-n new windows, has brail 
defrayed by the mony nhtuined for Ihe Imd ihnt was removed from 
the old roof, and which appenn to have originally cost only 24l> 
Thil boilding not being sufficiently large for the increasiitg popu> 
luion of ihr town, abont the ^Tar 1770, a vory t^pucious VAaptt 
afEasf was erected ander the patronage of John Thomhill, l'j>q. 
a Kcpectable neighbourini; gcndrman. BHdcf these places of 
wonhip, Iterc are several moeli(i«-)iotiM^» for the re!>pecli*e deno- 
minatimis of MethoHi»bi, Presbyirrian*, Independents, Bapintu, 
Quoken, &c. The iirindpal Methodi't meeting was f^eoed in 
ADgDSl, 17A3: itts n Lnndsome builditi;;, and capable of con- 
tainmg 1 JOO people. Several henevolcnl instiliilKms exist in di^ 
fertM parts of Uietown; particwlarly, a DujiftiMrt/, established 
in 17^ ; a Uvmatie Soe'uty, begun akiut the yeftr l/i>0; a Cia- 
riSy for decayed mhIiicii, and seamens' widows; a School for 
girls, founded about the year 17*0, in punonnce of a betjuffit 
made by the hitc iMrs. Donnisun; and a hlue Cvet SeAool for 
brtj-s: for tlic latter a new school-hoUbo is erecting by •.ubacriptton: 
tite cxpcnrc of education h chiefly dcfniyrd fry ilie m«ii»«*y collect- 
ed from rommniiieanis at the limes of itilmiiititrring the sncranient. 
During Ibe la*t war, on tbe tnoor eastward of ihc town, vct^ 
•xlrtiuTL* and cutnmodiuus Barracki were erected, together with 
«aard-roam, and other accoraraodmioni: they ate sulBi-icr.ily 
capacious for 1800 men, independent uf olGccn, &l. At a short 
Vol. v. K distance 





M6 



XiVRIIaM. 



I 

I 



distance to tlio Mutli, on tlie rary edge of the ica banlu. U » 

strong Clkatybcafc spring, said to bo tcsrccLy lest powerful than tb? 
chalybvato s[>ring at Htirrowgate: its situation renders the suppo- 
tition t^xtrcmcly prubabic, that ii will, eic long, be (lc!ttru>ed by 
tbe rAYftgn of Ihr sea. 

For the aniuKment nf the itibnhilnnt*, a \atffi Atarmblif-room 
and Tfieatre huw been built : the former under the inaction of 
the directors of the Muster Uoll for Seamen, who use it for their 
own meetings on purticular occuii^ni : the latter is the prt^rly 
of Mr. Stephen Kenibic; it is a neat edifice, and, wbcii fult, will 
contain about 80l. but its incnnvrnient uCuation, in a narrow 
lane, rendcni it almo&t inaccessible in a wet night, as Ho cariiage 
can iipfinmch the duon. To facihtnlc the purpotes of tiade, two 
Banki have been establi&hecl here uithin these few years, 

Tbe population of SunderLand, as returned under ilic late act, 
vm 12,41S: viz. 490^ males, and 7510 females: the number of 
tiouwi, 1379. Of Bishop Weantioulh, the pofjulatjun was 6136; 
vix. 5706 males, and 3**^0 fcniak-B: the number of houses, 8<)0, 
Of Uisliop-Wearmouth Pans, the population was i6i : vii. 779 
males, and 2S5 females: the number uf houses, S6. I'hc popu- 
lation, therefore, of tlie whole place, as appears from these re- 
tums. was 19,102: the houses, 2325. The number of persons 
actually residing here, must, however, be considerably greater, 
as DO sailors, nor utbers employed on the wiitcr, were included 
in the nbove returns, 'llic most nnpcctablo buildings are in 
Bishnp-Wearmouth, and the High Street of Sunderland ; ihe 
lower pnrt of the Inner is, however^ much disfigured by tbe stalls 
and shambles which arc suflf^red to stand on each side the high- 
way. MiLciy of the inhabitnnts derive employment from a poieat 
lioftry, established since ITS^) o" 'ho banks of the river, about 
cue mile from Uislinp-Wearmouth ; from Ihe manuiiiciurc of bot- 
tles and broiid gUiis; and ofwliiti; and brown earthen-ware. Ad- 
ditional employment Is ftirmshed by a copperiu rnHnufiictory; and 
vartnu3 frc-e-.>itnnc qunnics in lliv neighbourhood. An amusing 
scene to a stranger, is displayed by the number of the lower class of 
inhabitants, who utteod the rising of the tide ou tiic sca-khore be^ 




DtTRnAir. 



147 



low tbe tomif nml with small hand-baskets rattb the nnall coali 
llut >r« dofclcil in fay the warps. At rhae uxnn, differenl pi«rttc», 
of from lea to thirty nr forty persons, cliirfly wumen and prls, 
may be Mtu cnlcrinj tLc water, aiiJ exbibiliiig cumiJcrable dnt- 
tfrity, in BiIvaiiLing ur rvccdiiig. accurding tu ibc strength of the 
wavnt, which frcfjuenily cover lliem fi-um the middle duwnwanli. 
As the coals are ciiu<;ht in the basket!), ihry are thrown in l]Cft[>i 
on the sand, and aftcrwardit carried away, cither to burn at hutnc, 
or be disposed of to the \csi venturous. It ban bem fl^^^rted ai 
ft fact, that, prvoiuu* to the csta1ili«hmvnt of the vartout niHDU- 
fadories in tliis vicinity, tliat upwards of 500 poor pcuple have 
been rnj;a^[l at one time in this Miigvlar occrtpBtinn. 

MONK WEARMOUTH, which holds nearly the Mme rc|a. 
tion to Suiulcrland, as Saulhwnrk does to London^ is siiualed cq 
ihc north and opposite banks of the Wear, lis antiquity is rcniotp, 
and perhaps connecied with a religious society, cstnbli^hcd here 
bj ibc sanie St. Bega, who foundi'd the monastcriet ol St. Bers, 
in Ctimberland, and at Ilartlrpnul in this county. This citablisb- 
ntent was probably swallowed up in a more splendid Ibtrndation 
bj Benedict Biscop, or Biscopius, who, in the foutth year of Eg- 
lirid, King of Northumberland, (A. D. 67+,) obtained a grant 
of sixty hides of land, on which hu buitt an abbe)-, and dedicated 
it to Si. I'eter. Biscopius was an Lnj^liibman, and has the creditor 
haring been one of the fii^t persons wbo inlrunuced (he useful and 
ornamental arts into this kingdom. Lambardc, who seems to xor 
p.rd ihc fine arts with snverrign contempt, thua speaks of him: 
" This man laboured to Home five several t)mes, fur what otIuT 
lliiiige I find not, save only to procure pope-holye privileges, and 
curiuus ornaiuents liir hts monasteries, Jitriow and Weremuuth; 
for first be goite fur ibcisu houses, wherein be nuurished CuO 
n>onk% great liberlin; then brought he ihcm home from Rome, 
peititeri, glatUrs, /rfe masons, and lingers, to ib' end that his 
boildings might so shyne with workmanshipe, and his chuichcs so 
suundtf with melodye, that simple souls ravi<.hed therewithc, thuuld 
faUtftMe of theinic nolhinge but heavenly bolyiim: in this jolllie 
Ceminuod tlieisc bouses, and other by ihciru example embraced 

K2 thf 




14S 



dcrkam. 



tbe tike, till HinguEir and MublKi, the Danish pynitcs, (A. D. 
870,) weare nuscti by Gud to abate Ibeir pride, who not only 
fyici) and spoyted iberD, but aJso almost all tbe religious bouses 
on the north-cast const of this Island. And of these thinges B«!ft, 
and others, note him the first aulhorj Bscribinge fr>tidlye to bis 
pniise, thnl whichp worlbelyc may be written to hU discommen- 
dation; fur by theise and Kuche other vanilicft of will vvouliip, ihc 
£piri[uai service of God began fint to be weakened.*' Though our 
author ii thub severe upon (be conduct of tbe HngliUi Saint^ 
(whose fotloviers tViiin bi& name, obtained the appellntiun of Be- 
nedictine*,) poslerily must regard his mem&ry with more justice, 
and revere the man that at such an eurly period, could combat 
the prejudices of ijjnorancc, and introduce into his country, use- 
ful and elegant inipiovenii-nl». 

it appears from Bedc,* tlmt, eoort after Biscopius bad laid the 
fotmdEilion of bis abbey, he went to France, aud engaged a great 
number of masons, and brought ihem over to build hiii Ciiurcb 
with stone, after the manner of the Uomans, which lie admired. 
"The Church was dedicated to St. Peter; and he urged the 
workmen to labor no diUguiitly, that iu a year after mots was said 
in it. When the work was far advanced, he sent agents itilo 
France, to procure, if posdble, some glast-makeri ; n kind of 
workmen altogether unknown to tbe Saxoni at that period. His 
agents succeeded, and several of tbctc ardzans ctune over into 
Critoin, Olid uot only glazed the windows in ibc church and tno- 
na&cery whictj Benedict hud built, but also instructed the Saxons 
in the art of making glass, for windows, Ininps, drinking vessels, 
aod other uses."t Thus Monk Wearmoutb had the honor of being 

Lthe earliest g/oTinJ church ill England: before this time, the win- 
dows were eitlicr latticed, or, at best, filled up widi fine linen 
cloths, stretched upon frames of wood. 
Nothing further occurs respecting the remote antiquity of this 
found-ition, nor bow it was n-stured after its destruction by the 
Danes, but that it wa» ^esto^^d, is evident from its'beving 



* Hill, Abbui Weremu^ben. 



Jcnt from its'beving been s^^| 
second ^^ 

t Stiuu'i Chtgnicb. ^^H 



UVUHAlt, 



1*9 



second time dcstroyeJ, during ibc irruiition of llic Scots under 
King Mftlcolm, iti the yrar 1070, when menv purls of the {mlati- 
DAte were ravaged by fire. It srems probable, thai the expedi- 
tion uf Malcnlm was, in Eome degree, plurircd to favor the rctrcst 
of Edgar Atlioliiig, \^1jo, with im tnotiier, ai$tci'!, and principaL 
adherents, was embarked, aiid l^ing in the haven, nailiug wind 
and tide for his voyage to 8(-otl[i.ii<l.* 

The monks, who were thus expelled from Wcarmoulh, appear 
to have taken refogo at Jarrow, which probably becoming too 
crowded from this incm»c. sent forth a colony that wltled at 
Mdross, in Scotiund, but xjoii afterwards returned, by the orders 
of Bishop Wulchcr, and was by biin fixed at Weannoutli. Mere, 
bowever, the Benedictines did not remain; for Otshop ^Villium dc 
Carilepho, in the year lO&i, removeit them to Durhjim; and 
from this period Wcarmouth became a subordinate cell to the 
nionutery in that city. Its auiiual value, at tJie DiMolulion, 
amounted to only 361. 9s. gd. 

Several rrmaiiK rif the monastic buildings occur in the parts 
adjacent to the CAirirA, which h an irregular building, only con- 
sisting of a tower, nnve, and one al^lc: the former is ihc most 
ancient, probably, of the eleventh century, and is »up[)ortcd on 
bcav)', low archn. On the north wall of the chancel is a. moDU> 
ment of the tidlon family, to which a mutilated e(?igy of a man, 
in a coat of mail, wiib elevated tinntj^, and a iwurd bhcjUicd at 
hik left side, ajiiican to have belonged. 

Monk WearmoHth bns shared in the growing pro<iponty of Sun- 
derland, and its population and buildings have gri*at)y inercaicd 
within the lost forty years. 1'he number of inhabitants was le- 
porud under ibv lute act uL 53-12; uftbeMllOS are returned as 
residents in the part called Monk WearmuiiI,U town; and 4239 
as inhabitants of Monk Weurmouth shore. The total numlur of 
bouses was <i03. Tlic laboring cla^ of males deri^i-o tbcir chief 
employment fcom khtp<buildingi and its dependent branches; sc- 
rend yartls bemg e^ublished here Cor Utat purpose. 

K3 On 

* Uaipm, Edgii'* lixn, wu mairicd to Matctulm toOQ iftcr tlutt srrivil )a 
thMcouotry. 

A 






DURHAM. 

On Fi'LifELL ITiLLS, a gigantic skcWon, aiiJ t*io Tlotnan 
coins, wiTc (tiscovcrcJ about forl^-five yran ago, loguibtT wiih • 
small urn of unbalcoi clay: the latter u now in ibc possesion uf 
Sir. Wilson, of Wcarniouth Bridgi*, Tlic fuiluwinj; particulars of 
ihc (littcovory were coramunicatei] by P. CoUinson, ihu historian 
of Somersetshire, to the Gentleman's Magaiinc, in October, 1763. 
" A few week? ago, a gentleman frum Durham showed mc tome 
llirgi- tirtli an<3 two ItoRian cuiiu. The loeth, he »«i»3, he took 
out of the jaw of a gigantic tkoleton uf a man, and the coim were 
found in a grave near it. The account he gives is in sufaetance 
as Ailloivs. Upon Fulwrll Hills, near Monfc IVeremouth, within 
a RicaKiircd mile of the tea, tlicrc are quarries of lime, which he 
reiiisof the proprietor. In the year 1759, he Temovcd a rijge 
of lime stone and rnbbish, upon one of these tjuarrics, which «a< 
about Iwenty-fivc yards in length from east lo wr;.!, its perptrmli- 
ciilnr height about a yard and a half, its breadth at the top was 
near iix yurd*, and the sides were slopinj; like ilic ruins of a mm- 
part. In the middle of this bank was found the skeleton of a hu> 
loan body, which measured nine feet six inches in length; the sliin- 
bone meaiiiring two feet three inches from llie knee I» the aitcle; 
tlie bead liiy to the weft, mid wuk d<.-fc[i(le<l from tlie tupcrtncura- 
btnt earth by four large flat stones, which the rclater, a man of 
"rest probity, who was {iri'seiit ivhen ilic skeltlan was ineasared, 
and who himself took ihe teeth out of the jaw, ^aw removed. Thtf 
coiiii were found on the south side of the skeleton, near the right 
Iwnd." 

HILTON CASTLE, the ancient baronial rciiilencc of the 
JIijUwis^ ii situated in a ptco^nt vale, on thu north side of the 
Wear, about three miles from VVenrmouth. Tliis family wa; in 
possession of the manor as early as the lime of King Athelstun, 
uml continued sciied till ilic year 17^^, when Jubii Milton, tiat^. 
the last male heir, died, having previously bcqiiejvtKed his e*tnte4 tq 
T)is nephew, Sir Richard Musgrave, of Hayton Castle, Cumberland. 
This geuLleiniin died in 1755; but ilic Castle, und nearly all the 
fnmily e^tittes, hud liefurv been sold, under a le^l decEve, to dis- 
ehu^TSp lite debts of Mr. Hilton. Atkruards, in 1758, tbo Custlc 

aiul 



i 




OUKHAM. 



131 



lor of Hilton, with otIi«r luidK, were purcbasml by Mrs. 
Bowel, relict of George Bowes, of Gibside, sod muihcir of tbe 
bite celebrated Counteu of Stratbmore, whose descendanis are still 
own^ra. 

Id 8 msnuicript account of the former propriclors of lliis Cts- 
ite, in tbe poese^on of tbo Miugreves of Havton, it tt obMrtW, 
tbal aeveiml name* occur in tbe pedigree of the llyltons, remark- 
■ble for tbeir learning and piety ; but that thow bigbly rcoowncd 
fpf tbeir martial deeds arc almost innunicrable. *' War seems to 
bsve been their peculiar ^pnius, and recrenlion; nor has any fa- 
mily been more lavisb of their blood in defence of their country's 
nose. Sine* tbe time of ibe Conquest, it is remarket] by tbe 
Hyltons, tbat one whs slain at Fercnham, in Kent; one in Nor- 
mandy; one at Meotz, in Frauce; three in tbe Holy Wars, under 
Richard the E-'intt; one in the same, under Edward the First; chrea 
at the battle of Bourdcaiix, under the HUck I'rinot; on? at Agin- 
Cosrt; two at Berwick uptm Tw-eed, afpiiiiat the Scots; two at tha 
battle of St. Albana; five at AT&rkct-Boswurth, aiid four at Flod- 
den ndd.'' lliis family was not only one uf lEie most euillieni, 
but also onv of the niou opulent in tbe biahopnc. 

Wbeo, or by whom, Hillun Castle was founded, has not liecn 
ascertained ; nor are we anjuainted with the form or extent of tl>e 
origina) structure, it having undergone sevenj importaitt altera- 
tions. Its preMMit form is that of an oblong scjOaitr; the central 
part b e\'idcntly the mo6t ancient; the sideti are of modem con- 
struction: its generul appearance is tbat of a fonifK-d matuion. 
" Tbe centre of the wcsi iront conaiits of the great entrance and 
gatemyi defended by square projecting turrets, crowned with 
banging parapet* which cross the angle* transvcrsi'ly, like those on 
the old towers at Luniley, so as to make an aperture on each bee 
of tbe square, fur the purpose of annoying assailaais: the centre ia 
fliakcd by drcobir turrets; and the battlements uf the ujini-nt put 
ormneoted with figures. On this iVont are sc^'cral shields of 
arms, but disposed so irregularly, as to testify that this front dinl 
jjot tJr>l receive them. In the hi^cst place ore tlic royal arms, 
flqun 4<i li> ^uartcrinj; llireo lioilt pusHtiit; and Lcncntb, iu 
.<^K* . acunfusfid 




15S 



WlkUAV. 



a. confused fonn, Uie«riQsurGnyBlockp> Lumlcjr. Unbaiit, Percy, 
Ogic, CoDyan, and olkera. The east fiont Iiu en Bitcicnt Idwct 
in the centir, willi » square projvctin)' I'rantf wiihniil turiru; it if 
omanifntcd nilh tlu' uniii of tlit^ lliltuiis, uitliout quMrtcrings."* 
Tbc intcjior consitlK of five stories; tbe nwms are diiefly ymall, 
WHJ aatiiibit every >^-niptom of neglect, being wholly uiifurnisbnlt 
and in a caniplvto state of dcciiy. 'Jlif saluou is tbc only e[)acious 
apanmciir, nnd nu once finely ornamenleil witli roprrsfiitsiions 
of various kinds of fish, and other figures. On a small eminence 
Bear the Ca»tlc, ii a ruined Chapel, beni>a[h which •crerol of Iho 
Hiltons lie buried, licence h.ivii)«; lieeii prucun-il for thiit purpose 
from the Prior and Convent of DuriiaiB. Bishop Gibwn men* 
tiiHU it ns a " fine structure, wberein there were Cliaplains in con- 
Blant aitriHluiice." 

BOI.DEN b only of note from having given title to thciprovin- 
dal D&neaday'Boolc, called the fiaUcn Buic tronn ita frcqiwnt re> 
Incuce to services within tbit loauor. 'J'bc villaim held under 
severe tenures, being obliged lo labur three days in each week, 
excepting the weelis of Easter and Whit<<uniide, and thirteen day* 
at Christmas ; bcades making varbus paymonta. 
. WllITBLniN, • small rillnfte, «ituated on llicsoulhem accli- 
vity o( an ominencr^ rising near the k» Aotc bctnroen Sunderland 
and Shields, has, from its extreme pleasaoinesii, bi-come the resi- 
dence of Kcs-erai nispmabk fiimtliL-b; and ainung olhciB, that of 
Sir Hcdwortb Williamson, hereditary High Sheriff of liurhain, 
who potacfscs a portion of the manor. The laboring class of in- 
habitants, are chiefly t-mployed in the fishing Inide, and great 
quantities of fine fish are caught off the coafcl, and conveyed to 
the Sunderland and Shields nuitkets. " Scvrral copper coins 
have been found at tltis place; ui' whicii the nio&t were Constanti- 
Bus, with the suti on the reverse, and the words soli inticto ctmiUh 
one of th«m uns n Tifaxcntiu-s wiih something like a triumphal 
•rch on the reverse, and tbc»e wnrd*, C'oiwrrra'ori urhu: there 
iticic also one or two of Liciiiiu&'s, and as maay of Ma\iaiianua*s." 

Tht 



* Complete Uiitoiy of DttihuDt p. 6ao. 



&VMIAJ 



l» 



* 



The Kft-sborr, between Uic aurtli pjcr of SuaJcrUnd Hoibour 
ami South Shields, is boundod by Iplty rocks, which id plans as- 
sume a. eingolar and g[(JlcM|uc uppeai-aiiCL-. |<aiticutarly abuut wio 
mile frutn the Succr Point, uhcrc an enormous cntggy tiims, bear- 
ing the name uf Mahstom Rock, has been dct^tcltCHl fiuin iho 
coast by the violence of the »ca, »iul at higH water is fifty or Mxly 
yards fiom the land, though iiiiUim memory' it uus so near as to 
have been reached by a plajik. i^ll tlac iatermedijiic part hu* 
been wiuhfd away^ aod even a lar^ aprctarc fiirmcd by ibe force 
of the waves ia the body of the rock, through which ^liug-boots 
bare fr«i|uetitly pa^^d a| coi>vtuie:Lt »[»)(» of dig tide. Vast 
Qunben of sea-fowl used Ifi buil^ ihvir nests on this ruck* and 
the i^uontity of manure llicy left vins (o great, that it was collected 
at the espiraiion of every live or icvuii ytiirs, and getierally •glii 
for eighty or a hundred pounds. Tu fucitttatc its conveyance (o 
the womit of the clifls, a circular hnic was made in lliu rcvof of a 
reccM or caTcm in Ibe rocks, through which it was drawn in ha»> 
katk Acescent to Manton Rock, are other large and irregular 
ihwri that have been •vjinrated from the land, and rcnr thtrtr gh 
gantic formn with considerable miijcsty. 

WESTOE is an extremely pleasnnt village, situated on an eml- 
■enct-- about ten miles from South Shields, and coinm^iiiding a Jliie 
view of the Ocrmiui Ocean. It consists cliiefly of one Etrrel, 
Ibnned by respectable building*, and inhabited by successful ma- 
ritime adTcnturers, who bitve retired bitlicr from Shields. 



SOfTH SHIELDS, 

TriE second place in Durham, both with respect to tr«dc and 
popuhuion, rtingca along ihe scutlicrn bank of llic Tync, near its 
jaiKtion with thv »», and, together with Nortl) Shields, on the 
oppmite side of tbe rirer, in North umberland, forms a very consi> 
drrable maritime porL 'llie eminence on the south point of the 
liarbour, was unquestionably the site ofn Roman Mtttion, though 
its name has not liitberto been asigiK-<l by any of tlir learned an- 
tiqoaries th^t have noticed it. linrsley, indeed,' who lupporU 

iu«4*^' the 
* DriUiuiit RoBuiu, p. 44}. 





154 



fit) an A V. 



the opinion of tlie Tyn« having bera the Vtdra o( Ptolemy, ob- 
tnvtSj lii:»l ifie Ottia Vtdra of that author may as wcU be the 
" QHine of tbe t^bitioii hs nf (h« rivfr's mouth/' and that unless it 
is, it ilocs not scan to be named cither in Plotcmy, the hineriuy, 
(Antoninus'*,) or the Nolittii, Had that gentleman, howoer, 
been fortunate enough to have seen the Itinerary of Richard of 
Cirencester,* he wouUI have dttcovcrcd the appellation Ad TTiitom, 
and undoubtedly referred it to its proper plact. South Shiclds.f 
llie proofs of thi» having been a Roman station, ore positive as 
well 115 presumptive: among the laltor may be mentioned Its «lua- 
tion al the end of the road, nomed the Wrckcn Dyke, and iti im- 
portance townrds tlie defence of the mouth of the Tyne ; the for- 
mer are eMabli»Iied by the Roman altAra, Coitus, Bud other rclici 
of ihitt people, which have beco dug up hcie at diSereut times. 

Mr, 



* Fiftt publUhed \>y Dr. Slukdcy ta lU year tjif. 

4 " Civt tM leivt," obvtrvu Dr. Huaicr of Duihan, In * lean ut Rogpr 
C*tt» £*<!. d«ud Mjy i7'1i> iT3S> " ^° iitcinpiihc rrcover)' of ou of the Ao- 
nufi ttationt in ihii catiniy, boili icqui^iic Tor the tccurily of the ni>ieali<>ii i(v- 
to ibc noithcm xa, taA the ptoteoion <^f Oirir froncicn bc%'i>nd ihe rWn 
Tync; ihetcby uving ilt« t|it*i t^tpenn ind ttoubl? of building ihc w*ll >i fir 
uihe tuatTin<m4uib, no IcuihaalhTumilct. 1 oieutihitncaf South&hiclili, 
•I tkccfllnnceof ihcrlwci iiilotbcocMn, uid which unnot but h«vr Aouiiifacd 
till the Danidt invnlon, m Mr. Ldwd bu !i in hu Colkcunci, Vol. IV. p, 
43- £ ^t£imt TitemvlA^i Jiiil wis vuMit * Dmii, UtJm Mmht, itii njfu tral 
Oiuitii'i 'c. Thr coinniiinicjtijn ihcce wu with Binchatirr. ii viiifalc in ic^ 
vtr»l placet, M i* the angte v-'hcre the piveJ way g<K» off fiora the miliiJty 
wiy Idling lo Linchuler, iboul three mile* to ihe nordi of BiiicUattr, md 
puict to ilic north-csii ihroii^h Brinccpclh Pirk, thence a little to the tauth of 
BnodoB, ind U lott ii the cu1tivatei3 srounilii but ■ppeating upon Durham 
Moor in iHe umt diTCCtion >ciia, pauing by fliig-haiue, ind bdow upon Har- 
bnu %toot, i* very vitible, terding put Lumlejr CMtle, in a dirtct line, to* 
vardi Suuit) Shi«l<Jtv pauing about a milt «ait of iTui of Cbnier-iit-ihe-Stte 
vithou any aigu of communication ibcrerviili. Two etcvaicd pavemeni« ia 
the iivcr Tyoc, the one at tbe weucad of South Shields, the otiier ort the nonll 
«idi oE the ii*c(. near the end of the Rnmin wall, propci for tbcir nfe laod- 
ing at diRcrcnt linwa af the ebbing md tlowin; tide, fully ihew iu ncennTy 
Gorrapuodcncc will) Sc^t^mm^ the fiiat aUtion upon the ii>ali. B^E anoihr 

tailiiai y 




DUatlAM. 



ISi 



Xtr. Hnrslcjr mcnllnns an alinr wliich Tie mw Ij*nig at the tionh- 
^•tM comer o( the ntntion, and which T>r. Huntfr aft^rwardi iiad 
removed to the Library at Durlinm. The iiwcriptmn w» cfiiccd; 
but ihe sides disployed the usual sHcridcing vesjcls, and vn the 
back waa sculptured ibc knife. IJe also notices two other sliart 
diat were found heit ; one of wbich was built up In a quay watl, 
knA the otLer sent to Dr. Lister, at Vork, who puhl»h«d the un- 
oblitented part of the inscriiition tn the Philosophical Tranwc- 
liont; tbn |]onI«-y reads as follows: DU Matrihiu pro talutt im' 

peratorU Marci JuretH AnloniHt At/guxHpii/t/kii iultetn 

merito tb rediimn : another altar, noticed by Dr. Lijtrr, was dc- 
£mcd to Ibc Dkji Matres. 



■Hltury way. catlrH Wrtktn DyVe, which pitltA fromthii Italian ta rhc wctt. 
bM biUwno fnittMcd the cnquiiia oi om lattniiiqwiini Mr, Houl^ himidft 
pointed oul iu duftui, itty jiiitly, ovci Cainhad fell, wWe il piHcJ, c}ic 
pabUc rotd, ind » liulc Co tbr vr<*l the Roman wty, jjoioj lo iht *outh fioi* 
Htwoittc lo Chswr-in-che SiiMt, and aftrtwardi riinn!a|[ thiotigh Lamciley 
•ad Kittbkiwonh (ieldi, kt idvaccn to the iPuib-wrK over Blackliufn M<Mf, 
tod Ibroox'i ^' towttihip of Itciilcy, It comrt ntm t<> Ctutcy, • villaj^c which 
OWM iu nam* to it, and fiam thmcc axtadt a hi;(K hill, and KimlnirM at a 
f^aarc faiii&cnton upon the top thEXof at Stanley, the mt of the Hon. Sir 
It'icttotai Tempest, Bacl ^hn, I im told, fotvtuuttverA Keman coini Tound 
tlurtin. Tliii place, Uiaugli not above itii'c miln fi;»m Cbrt'ii. nkihcScRM, 
«nd faat from Lwchetttr, t<cm( to have no iimncdoic comcnuntcaiioo with 
t.iha of tknn, no vcttigia of any paved way appearing upon the cnaora adjoii^ 
in,:;, and being ailuatcd a> Chalrr ilicif, a( the Icmiinatiori oi a tnitilary way, 
(ivn IRC convinc'ig icskj.-i to briievc ih( uic of nch hit been the ume, tuaie. 
ly, to {u>rd bctdi of ctiilc at gr>», fnr the ttlnbtoicc of the two f^atriioni at 
Soatk Sbwldi iiid Poni ^tl), and fot vietuallini; thipt rc>cirtinf> to the liru 
place: whrtcM har) lU cl«*i:led ticujllon been inwnded to furm a lailram tilU- 
t*UniM, (hen inutt tite advinta^t ol paved wayi to the next atiiion, have been ' 
ntteuary for the ipoMly conveyaciice of inteltigence. Though chit Inl miittary 
>ty livtil (lie name of Wiekai Dyke, 1 am apt (o believe thai luim ii niber 
due tA Iht way Inding frocn ttinchcttu l« Soutb Shielrii, apecUlly from th« 
authority of Ralph Ki)(dcn, who aaya, that Wfikcn Uykc, orRckm Dyke, 
]HI*rd ftom the vrtit of England, and ended at T<n«m«lilh. I dire not »|qi ) 
ftfioua otaie to ibti ouf tuboii. wiiho'Ut tiK authatiiy of injcttptioni." 



196 



DURHAM. 



I 



** In digging up the foundations of Tynemouth Castle,'' obscnm 

Mr. Guugb,* " near tlte ruiiis of the monastery, and ooitfa of tli« 

old ca»tk' whII, in tlie jear ]783i wat found an alUr with tha 

folll0^ving in&criiition : 

I. O. M 

AKRVIVS 

PRAIl - COH 

■ 111 E.INCO 

NVM. 

Jeti Eftitu Utxim 
Atihii Ruftit 

tin . Lof^ 
mtM. 

" On one side arc the prefcriculum, securis, seccspita, and ox- 
hcad ; on the other a patera with festoons. I]cre was dug up alw 
attooe about one foot nine inches by one foot (en, with the fol- 
Itming inscription ; the fint line completely iudistinct, and tbs 
aeoond very obscure : 

rVPVM CVMRA 
ARU.MPLVM 

FECIT CIV 
MAXtMIN'VS 

LEG VI. V 

EX V01"0. 

which has been thus diSercnily read: 

C;fnm, CumUt 
/ttit Cdiu jM/iMi 

JUlUEMHlUU 

Ltpmii iiMia viurkti 



C(/>/itM cum ttii: or, PMUam civum huHu4 



« Wlialcver 



* Addilioiu n dw Bjicannia, Vol. III.' p. a^. 

* " Tbu iDiCTiplloB hubcM rcfcTred toMiximriim, ■fierwar^ Etnpooc 
from A. D. *3$ to A. D. •38. Ui» full n«inc wu Caitu JuLiu* ytrmj Mtxtm 

mimu. 




BritnAU. 



M7 



" Wbitever construction," continues Mr. Oough, after somQ 
prefiwory matter, " ll)i» inscription may be tliought capable of io 
its iraperfcct state, it certainly uarribcs to iho place wijere it was 
liiicorercd, or to •bich it belmgetiy a d^groc of consotiHcncc tbat 
lias not liithctto been Bcknouledgcd." tic afterwards rcren it to 
South ShicWs; and r<?marks, that whatever " r.amc n-e adopt for 
ibis bitlierto to little nuCiccd statiuo, the discovery of these two 

inscriptions, 



• 
I 
I 



miMii on all lh« imcripiiooi ikii mtniion him ;' lhou|[h Auretiui Victor callt 
feam only C. J. Maxlmtnui, wlihoui tke >ddit1«i of Vcmt. Itit nnic ii altft 
enittcd M ibit iMcripiion; Juliui Cii'iiiliniM, who wrote hit life, donnot, 
■odetd* nMMioii hit being nned lo ibc camro»Ti<l a( t Ifgioa, He wki ■ paT- 
liculir finorice witfa the Emperor Stvcnu, who. dr juauni of lib great bodily 
NTa)(^h •nil tclivity when * common lolditt, pUcfd him iboal hn pcnoii u 
eve of hU goiidi, ind intiuitM to hirn cIm chitge af (cveid inillury ptnut 
for le CaMubon undrrtunds /orf« ttitm militix 4 Sev^t aJjia»>, which my 
ooly ■mrart thm he pratnot^d him in different cl<rp«(tinenu. Under hit too and 
■eOMMT CaracallB, h« vra% aC«nIurioa, and comoMiider ornniU dnschdicau, 
■ai Md Other rank* in the aimy frnjucnily-t Uoder Heliogabului, he mm 
ooly ptomoled to the rank uf Tribune; *i»l Alcmtidcr Scvcrui midc him 
Tribune of the arw^raitid fouiih legion; but it Uu, luiWy Tor hinudf. ap> 
pointed him a eomniandcr ia chief. We may ihcitfote fairly conclude, that 
the rank he bore in Britain may hive be«n Centciiion, or ■ Tribune, of the tilth 
kpon: (he hrit under Sevcru*, or Caracalla, who aptac rniTch time on thti 
lalmd : ibc Iticer, under AJexaoder Sevemt, who, according lo hi* bio^raphn, 
Lasiptidim, not nnly wai m it, hill lu» hi^ life in il. Thut (he iiitcripcioo ii 
to be lappiicd with a ccnlunil maik, or the IrtCcri TH, or TRlfi ; autl ibe 
wcerval in Ur. Uoriley.t hrtxecn the relgni of Alex^ider Sevcrua and the 
Coidiaai. may be filled up with mote cemlnty thin he hit done by an iiiKttp> 
tton in Cumb. IX. barely [lom the Iciccrt PETVO, (baking the name of Per- 
petuus <i>'ho waa Couul A. D. 937 ; and thui, without contining the date of 
Ihia inaciip<ioo to lORte l>nlc lime before A. D. t^g, wc have thirty y«ai* tu 
nap in. If Mr. Honley ia right ii> hja cnn-jceiurc 011 two invcnptioiu in 
ScctlMid, 111 and IV, paiu of the wall were built £m I'aiM.- we cinnol there 
fb«bc turprited aiieein^ the phratc applied to Other buildingi beiidci a tern. 

• SeeCtvtefCLI.s. CLV. iri.e^ 

t CrJimJ iuttl mtafmUi, tl taiem mlitaru iigninti i»pt htilttH. 

X Bcit^'ia Ramuia, p. 67. 




tf 



US 



DCnitAM. 



I 




inscriptioiw, which were probftbly conveyed over tlie river •ith 
the n-^t of iu matcriiLls to build (he tint Christian Church at 
Tincmouth, proclum it a place of no tittle confrquence, and to 
bave been decorated wiih u trmplc, and other public building, 
and thosf eroctrd by the liberality and devotion of Maximinui. 
These two inKrriptions arc now in the pos&csaton of the Society of 
Antiqunri'ei uf London."* Mr. Gnugh's opinion relative to the 
consequence of tWn stjition has been corroborated by recent ditto- 
veriw; as various Roman coins,+ brolten inacripcions, and the re- 
mains uf an Il^putumf, or Hudattfryy were dug up here in the be- 
ginning of the year l7S^ : * blight drawing of the latter it in the 
pouciainn of Nicholiu Fairies, Esq. of this town, as well as soma 
fragments of the building, and several coins ; particularly a small 
gold one, in ver}- high preservation, of Marcus Aurclius Antoni- 
nus. That ihe slalimi iUelf was in being in the lime of thiit Em- 
pcrnr, appfurs, observes IMr. Hor^ley, " from the altar and in- 
sciipiiun lound here ; but 1 am apt to think it was abandoned not 
Wiy lung alter, perhnps at iho building of Serertu'i wall, and tha 
ataliun ert-cteO at Coumh's house, or a little alter." The Utter 
lUppositino is ineccanile, as the coins mentioned in the note eti* 
dciiily ptfve, for Severus died at York ciiEicr at the end of lb« 
year 310, or beginning of 211. Uhcii Ibo station was really 
abutidoncil, is uncerlaici ; but lUAitredly it was not so early as iha 
ttmr of Vnlentiiiian. The site of the station comprehends sweral 
Qcies: part of it is now occupied by a building called the Law 
Iloufp. In the adjacent grounds, broken pottery, and Counda.- 
linrrt of houses, are frequently dug up. 

Whatever might have been the splendor of Ad Tinam, tt most 
probably very quickly vaui^icd alter the depnrtun: of the Rn- 

IDBDS: 

* AdditioDttoilie Biitmnii, Vol. 111. p. S55. 

f "Thcfollgwitigart the dttetiption* oT twoof thcroini: Jmf.CUnJiiuAi^ 
fiapml Chuilir CstAuiJ Mjrli pacr/ira. f'fn" mlitaru iUm, d<KtT* r«HKB W« 
fottiiitJif, fmstrm hutM~c\nittT A. D. «t6,— g. J>. N. fn/ou-'wimu F. F, 
jUg. fiipxti I'aitnthUiii} ghrii Rmuvtnn. figun mUktrii, dtars tt^nm 
tiniit.! (r#Aeiif, fKtifra Ulv'am tt»rai—<Ttcitrt A. D. }7i." iCtStV^ iUf, VtL 
¥, p. M9 i probtbly Uam [h« Tyoc Mercuty. 




bUKHAM. 



l^f 



nus: even Its name WM forgotten; and the presrnt appelktioa 
□r tlie lown must be sought in more humble lources. There is 
lillle doubt but it originated witU tbe fiahenoeii uhu ftcqui'nted 
ibe Tyoe, and who, on boili sides of tJic river, creeled ■ few R)i> 
serable buts, or thcds, railed Siulds, at SMcelif, ninioftt univer> 
mIIv in the oortbcrn district, to screen them^elvrs fwm the seve* 
rity of the weatlicr. The far-fetched inference of Shields betog a 
corruption of Si. Hilda, to »bom tbe church is dedicated, is utt- 
jMorth/ of a remark. 

The present ipiportancc of South Shield* has principally arisen 
from its very bivomble situation fur coromercial purposes; but its 
apiH-araoce a much disliguri-d, though rendered extremely singu- 
lar, by a vast number of high artiUcial hills, extending oh th« 
cast and south sides of the town, formed by the cinders fi-om tlic 
Mlt>works, the reftisc of the gIu5S-huu5C5, and the Thames gravel 
that has been taken up as bnllost by light colliers, and afterwftrds 
dirm-n out near tbe liver's banks. Sonne of tbe hilts &re built 
upon ; and have a very euriuus mpcct whcu viewed fruin the suuth 
on the road near Wc»(oe. Most of the streets arc nnrrou', and 
inconvenient, and tbe houses indifferently built, with the e«ccp- 
tioo of those in thn Market-Plscc, and on the fkLiik Top. Tbif 
may be ascribed, principally, [o tlie whole town, three housest 
and a Mecting-Housc excepted, being held by lease under the 
I and Chapter of Durham, a tenure by no means favorable 
rjfa) iinpro^-emeiiL. 

South Shields was formerly famous for its salt-works; and be- 
InYCn sisty and eighty yciirs tigo, nearly 200 large iron pani* were 
constant ty employed in thenianufaclui'e nf that useful nrtirlc; but 
this trade has been decliiiine '•"" <''« !«»• Bi'y year*;; the munu&c- 
turers having lost the Uindun matkct, wnich Is now chicRy sup- 
lied t'rom the works at Liverpool. 1 he number of puns now em- 
ployed for making lalt iti this town, is only nine: these are Mip- 
plied with sen-water from reservoirs filled by the tide, and the 
water bong evaporated by boiling, the salt rcmnins, and is ni'ter- 
vards refined for use. The gruund formerly occupied by tlio 

Jis, has been convorled into yards and docks for building and 

,, repairing 




i6o 



DitHBAU. 



reftairing kIh^m; nnd Trom Shields Harbour (br Tynemouth Ha- 
Ten) being the great retnie?vous for ihe shipping taken up in tha"' 
co«l trade, llieac docks arc coItsUnlly employed: (he dry docks,' 
wbicb arc nine iu number, axt convenient, and sufliciently cnp«- 
dovis tor thirteen vessels. Another principal branch of Iradu 
arises from the glass-worlcs: here are ihrec glna-liouses for the 
nunufacture of crown glass; four, for that of buUles; and one 
white glass manufactory. 

A new mode of insurance, termed Mvtuit, was introduced at 
Shields, a few yean ago, by Utc &bip uwncr!); a certain number of 
whom agree to insure a given sum on each other's ship; and «h«n 
a los» happens, the sufferer receives the amount insured on hi* 
ship from the other meinben, who pay in the same proportion as 
their own thipa are insured: no premium is given; the considera- 
tion Knng, ** Ihe risk each lake* xi[ion the other," These are 
called Imuratico Club»; in some of them every member takes 
12001. upon each ship; while in othcn, various sums, from 2001. 
to 15001. arc taken upon each ship by the individuals of the so> 
ciety, wfho contribute to any UiM, in the same ratio as their own 
insurance. Speaking generally, it may be aHirmed, that all the 
fchips of the Tyne, now amounting to some hundred vesscla, and' 
averaging about 250 register tons each, arc insured in this man- 
ner. The grentest part of the shii» regbicrcd at the Newcastle 
Custom-] louac, belongs to North nnd South Shields, and, besides 
carrying on the Cu&l trade, are tuurh employed in the Baltic 
trade; and in war time, in the royal Iranirporl service. The sea- 
men and pilots are reckoned among tbo mo»t skilful and expert in 
Hic kingdom. 

Considerable advantages would accrue to Shields, if the Mill 
Daatt a small bay, or inlet, at the upper end of the town, was 
forme*] into a wet dock, for which purpose it would seem to have 
been naturally intended, from its convcmciil situation ; but (his iiii- 
pwvemcnl, which, from the vast increase of shipping in the Tynp, 
is much wanted, is about to be tost to it for ever, as llic d»m 
is now 6lting up by direction of the Curjiomiion of Newcaslle, 
who are CoNK-no/uriuf the river^ and bold tbcic ground uncter 
2 th« 



DURlIAlt. 



:l6l 



I 



llic Dean and Chapter of Durhiun. Though the port dun hiro 
gnMX\y incrensHl, scarcely any thing hu been lately fxppndcd by 
this body, cither m the preservation or improvernvnl of the har- 
boar. 

I'hc ttugiacntatioD in the trade of Shicldii was pnrtirulnrly great 
duriiig lliv last cctilury; even so Intc as fifty or dsty yctin sio«, 
itic tiumbrr of ships liflonging to llits town is said lo liave been 
only foQr;* though they nam amount to upwards of £00. The ia- 
crauc of population renclerinj; a niAtkct neccMary, a charter was 
grmnted in 1770i b\- lli»liQp Trevor, empowering tbc inhabitants 
to hUd a market weekly, and two fain annually. The market- 
place » B spacious cquore, built, wiih ihc exception of thu Cha- 
pel, which forms the south Mdc, about the year 17^^; the houses 
are mostly good: in the centre is a rrspectabk- Tosn-Uome, with 
■ colonnade beneath, eracicd at Iheexpenre of the Dean and 
Chapter. 

TIm: Vkaptl is parochial under Jerrow ; bu e when it was founded 
is mknown; and no part of its antiquity can be traced in the 
building, as it has been twice altered, and much enlarged, within 
ibe last fifty yean, llie interior is neatly fitted up; and on the 
chain above tb^ chandelier, is preserved a very elegant model of 
the Lira Roat, pre»ciiled by Mr. Henry Grcathoad, the inven- 
tor, who re&ides in this town, uhcrc the finst bout on this plan was 
constracted. The following inscription, commemoralive of tb« 
bte of an entire family, is recorded on a neat mblct: 

To the UcmoTy orCtn: Yiomam of H»rIofl[iD 

lUt CouQiy} tiq'^ who did Jino»fy »3 ■ rfSj, Jgod 5» 

Yean, AUnofF.iTin hw D«U|;hUrT in Inftni, 

And of Amm kli Daughter, who died on itw [ i*^- Xov'- 1793 

Aftd iS, Cut off by iht comding laflu«t)c« vf > contumpUon, 

JiHt U At WH enieiing « World in which hrr Bcauiy 

hct Ccmlcneti, mnd accompliiliinfiiii wouM hiv« aitixicd 

aairtnal nuem — Likewite of Ccor;^ J''^'^ ^'^d llrnry hit Sook 

Who rctnming from Qutbcck werr ihip^ieckcd 

On the L«imIi End on ihr tf- Dec'- 179I- 
Ciosck>g(dt3 JoNN ftOi H(i>nv 18 Van, 

Vol. V. L Whidi 

* HntdiiawB'i Dnitmn, Vol. II. p. ^Si- 




1(3 DVRIIAM, 

Which u]ih>pp7 Catuirophe while it filled the Heart 

o{ (h«if *»iviviag Ptreai with tht moM l't>i£Mnc Saitow, 

UBiu'd a Cloom ovct tht whole Ciidc of the ncighboiuihoodi 

tot the pIcMing Exptcuiiont which th« Minhood of 

Ceo((c lud ilicail)- confitnicd, the Ich matutc 

Yori of hii Brothcn prnmiMd to fulfill. 

Alio v> the Meinery of tn tfllicud Pannt*i \m 

lantinioghopc THOXAt « ho died M«rch ig. 1799 A^d 18 Yaa, 

Tim Monutiicnl^ Uw wd Mcmoriil nf do cuminnn drviiucinn 

lici>QKCTsicd by the Widowed Wife, ind chilJIe** MOTHER* 

Sinngcr, if thou hut net with Affliiriion, 
trader o'er the npid Dntmclian uf thu once flourUhinij Ttmitj 
" And in eonctinplaiing th« Sorrows of ■ fi>rioin Uolbira 
fofga for • white thioe owa. 



On the 19^' of Mjtcli ifloj 

hiving borne with the meek end ruij^Rcd Spirit of ■ Clirislin 

the repeated deprivatioK or h«r Huitund end Children 

it pleated Gad to c«ll from thit Tml 

of her Foititude and Submkuion 

Akk YeauAH, 

The Wife and Mollitr of iIk above recorded deccaicd 

Ajtd 60 Yejri : 

by wboee Death no vcatrgc 0I the niilmec of iKu Familjr mBaiat 

Hve thit poor Mvmniial^ 



Near the tower of the Cbardi, od the oubide, ms interred 
*' ibe body of Sir WillitLm Hamelton, Knt. uid Bnrt. sonne to the 
Efirl of Abercomr, and late BcrraiU lo Hcrnrictta, the late qucen- 
mothrr of our soveraigne I/ird King Cliarlps ihe Second, tbu it 
now over England, &c.'' He died on the 38th of iune, in t!i« 
year 1681. In the ohurch^yan) are several ntcnioriaU of longe- 
vity; patticularly a recynl of ihe doaths of HalpA liarrUw, and 
Dorathv, bu wife; the fiirmcT at the age of ninety-eight, the latter 
at that of ninety-three; after " living man and wife together, se- 
venty-four yeara." Another inscription mentions the death of 
Mrs. Dorothy JFatunt^ wife to W. Walson, £iq. Sheriff of York, 
who died in 1705, aged eighly-lhree; hi»vinK " lived lo teethe 
fourtli generation, lo the number of II6 children, sprung from 
beiseir." The so'Uth-west prospect from the cburcb-yard is iote- 

resting, 




DUaHAU. 



to 



nOiog, from including a view of Jarrow, ami ila ruined mo- 

Thai very admirable iiivsntion, the Lip£-BoaT,* which bus 
alrtody \xva ibc moans of preserving ihc cxislcjice of several hun> 
dred penoiis in diflt'rcnt pnns of t\)^ kingduin. owes its origin to a 
ftociriy of gcntlpmcn, «ho held lliWr mwtings st the Lau-Hauie, 
beioit mctitioned as having bcrn prccted ou tho site of the Roman 
Malion. The tohcmc was sti^igcsted by the mclBndioly loss of the 
crew of the Adventure, of Ncwcasilc, in September l789i »'ho 
dropped off from her rising;, one by one, a> she lay titrandvd on 
tbe Ilcrd-Hind, near the entrance of tbe burbour, " in the midst 
•f tHBMUloils breaken, in tbe [iresence uf lliuiuoiids of spectar 
■dtb, not one of whom could be prevBiled upon, by any reward, 
to vmtQre out to her asiitmicc, in any boat or ruble of the com- 
mon consimclion. On this the gentlemen of South Shields (tub- 
KrUtfTt to the A'eiM-itouiB at the Ltm-IIoute) culled a meeting of 
Uc ijibabi4atil>, at wiiicfa a cuimnilice was ap|>oinCed, and pra- 
■liums were oflerad for plant of a Boat, nhicb should be the beat 
Calculated to bravo the dangers of lli« sea, particularly of broken 
water. .Many proposals were presented ; hut the preference was 
iinanimotuly given to Mr. Grcathettd's, who wa^ immediately di- 
ttcted to build a Boat at the rxpcnfe of the. commi[tec."t The 
utility of tiie new vewd was tin»t experienced on the thirtieth 
day of JantuTy, in the year 1790, when it put to sfs, for tbs 

L 3 " glorioua 

* Thia ippclbtion ippean to b(v« oiifiruud with the contman people of 
Sliidd*, who, wiiucuing ihe uapinllded iure<u of ih« B<i« In the prtMi vatioo 
«f tt/t, {tvc tlui rumc lu lacmaiul of lU prE-cmKicnt utiljty. 

* Sm Letter lo Roiwlgnd Burdon, E»(. frum Oir R«v. WiUUm Turnei, 
b«fT<ttryu the Liieraiytnd PhiloMphicil Aoctoty it N^wcutle-apon-Tynt, 

finlnl in a " Rcpoit of ibc Evideucc, 6k- lopcctin^ ihf Lifb-Boal," • imill 
iptlM, T«caiOy publiitwd by Mr. Cinihud, liy wIicwf p^rmiuiuii ihi foU 
' Jewiai particiiUra on tha ■ Cotuiruciioa of the Li(«-Uui,' mi, * DirKUoiu foe 
iU MMMccmait,' i re eairactcd. 

•' The Icn^b i\ thiity feel ; ihc bmdth un fc>et ; the deplh, from the lop of 
iIh DHnMlc IC tltt towft pen of the ktcl u\ midthipi, ibree feat (»Uf \m\m i 

fnn 




1 6* 



vcnnjtu. 



" i^nrioiu purpose of mctiiiig iiomc unfortunate mjtrirK-n, vihn- 
ytttv the ipurt of ttio Icmpvst in the oIKng; a number of 
jnckeK bcina pninJ^Nl for iho crfw, iii cnw llioir boat disappointed 
the pxpcct4ltons of lite inventor, and fnitrd in il? objea: but the 

prrcaution 



ff«n ih( i^anwile to the phiibnBi {aiUbin,} two fwt Tour inctwii fnra (lie up 
o( the Uimt, (b(i!h ttiit b«iag limiUr.) to ikc buttom of iht her), 6«e («• 
nine iiiclio. The keel it a pUnk of iliiee incbct thick, al i prnponiniuM, 
1»«adili in m'lJihipt, narruwing gndiially towiid the cndi, to the brodth of 
ilic iirni* at tho boUom, and fonning * K^eat convexity dowawaid ; the ttcnia 
are irjpnetili of • «i(ir1e, with coniidstnhle taia; ihr hWom xxtioo, U th« 
Qooi'tinit), It a curve foit inil aft with ilicawccp of the keel; Uie door limbcf 
hai a iinall riie curvini; fiuni the keel lo ihc flooi-beadti ■ bilje plinfc ii 
wrought in on each aide next the floar-hradi. ^vitlia double rttitt or jioovc, 
of * timilar ibieknu* wiih the keel, anil nn tlie uuliide oF (bii are fixed iw« , 
[.bilge-tTCcl, corTC;ipondLr>|{ neiHy with the level n! the keel j the cndt of llie Uot* 
torn leciion Eorm that line kind of eWnnee otuetvable in the lowtr pact of the 
towof ihefiihins bo»i, called a frf/f. miwN ui«d in the nonh; from ihiipin t9 
die top of the item, it it more elliptical, formiafc icontiderible ptojacttoiit ite 
aide*, from ihe lloot.heads to ihe top of the gunwale, flauDch oS oci c«eh lidCf i 
In propgrtion to abuul half the bteadih of the flooi ; ihc btndlli U con^ootd I 
far (ottnrd toward ih« ctkIi, leaving a tuflicieiil leti^h of itnlght tide it iIn 
lop ; Ihe ilieef ■( regular along the tttaight tide, and more cleraud toward tbt ' 
endi ; the gunwale fixed on the outiide ii three incha thick ; the lidet, frank 
ihc under part of the gunwale along the whole length of ibc rcitubt iheer, eit>' 
irniling cwentyone Itet aix inctiei, are caied wiih layn of eoik, to ibc ilcpih 
of lixlecn iochn downward ; and the lliicknett of thi> eaiiii^ ofcoik Wing fwif 
inchesi !l project* st the lap a liitlc witlioui the gunwale [ the cork on the ouu] 
aide IS lecurtil with itiin platei, or ilipi of lopfrr, and the Boil it fa^tene 
■with <ff*rr naiU; the ihuurl f {ot iciti) are five imtumber, JinMe h^ltJ, 
ae(]iicnily the Boat may be rowed with ten oiri ; the ihaiarli are fiimly ttandM^ 

L toned; iheiideoart are than,* with iron iholet, mil tope grommeti, lothit^ 
the inwcr can pull eilhcr way. The Boat ti tiectcd wilh an oar al each end ; 
and the iieethig oar Ii one iliiid longer than the rowing oai; the plMform 
placed at tbe bottnm wlihin the Boat, ii hariioiml the Jengih of itu nidihtps, 
and deialcd at lheenii>, for ihe convenience of I he (teen man, la give him i 
giruer power with the oir. The iniennl psti of the Baal nevi ifie aides, from 
the tuideT pttt of iIk iku'^ti down to iIm pUiloiin, ii caicd with coik i ibe 
whole 



r 



* Tbt ikitt oar >» more manageaVilc. In a high lea, than the lovg Otr, mt in 
airokc ia moie ccti»in. 




DVaHAM. 



iGS 



imgUtion was unncc<-«uir^-; floslmit liLe a fciithcr upon Ihq 
water, it rtxlc triuitipbuiilly €»cr wvry raging surge, aod !.iniled 
(It Uie borrors of tbc stonn. Tbv wreck Mas approaclied in tpiic 
of the elements; and the wrvtrbcd crew, cqunlly aScclcd uith 

L It astonish Die nt 



wkale qiuiitit]r ot uhicli, affixed la the Lift-Bo^t, ii ntitiy teven hundteil 
ureight : the cork, iadilputably (ontribiitn much lu ihc buoytrwrf of the Boat 
when foil of wktn, ii a good dcfcnrc when gning alurigitilp • vnaol, and ii of 
pniKlpal UM in kwping the BoM in an erect potiiion id the tet, or father of 
gning bee • veey livdy aud ^ukk diipDiiliim to lecovcr fiDin aiiy luddcn taat 
or lufck which (he may rrctUc fiom ihe ilrolic of a hnvy wav^ ; [kut, cxcluaive 
of tiK coHii the admirable coiuiiiictinii of ihisSoai gives it a decided pte-cau- 
Msoe. The endi being timiitr, the Boat tin he rowed either way, and thit 
pecBliarily of foim ittniatct hcc >» rurii^ over the wave* l the curvature of tbc 
lud »d bottom fjciUiiirt hci movement in lyeniiii;, and coniribulet to the 
MMofifaetueri^ u a lin^le tiioke of the itcering oar hai ao immediaii: effect, 
Ibc Boat mo*ingi m it were, upon • rcntrt ; ihc fine entrance bitow it of uic 
id dividiof the vavei, when rowing agaimt them ; and, comhined with the 
cWirexityof Itic bouoen, and the tlliplictl (urni of the tiria, •dmttaher to riM 
wiih woodeiEul booyancy in > high «ra, and lo Uuneh forward wtih npidiiy, 
wiUwdl ihippiiig any water, when i comtrion boii would be iu dau|er of 
bctoj tilled. The yLmKcAiMj or ipteadinf form of the Boat, from the floot- 
bcwli CO the guawile, give* her a coniidciiblc beaiing ; ind the cooltriaation of 
ihebleadth well foivitid, it a grui mpporl id hei in ihe Ka; and it hat been 
liMBd by ctpeneoce, thai Koala of thii cotutruettoa are tlie but tca-boeta for 
towiog afkimt ihc lutbulcol wwca. The iotcmal thallowneu of the Boat, 
from dw gunwale down to the platform, the convexity of the fonn, and ib« 
bulk Vt cork wHhin, leave a very diminiihcd ipace for the wiicr to occupy i 
M ihrt the Lifc>Boat, when fitlcd with water, contain* a cooaiderably leat <]tiaaa 
tuy than the (Onin>an boat, and it in no din^r cither oF aiuking oe ovcduni* 
iat- It <n*V Iw pr«Mroed by lomr, that in caiet of hi^i wind, agitated to, 
and bieketi vravu, ■ ftou of sucb * bulk could not pievail aigainat them by 
til* fcm of lb* oan; but iha Lif*-Boai, from her peculiar fiDrm, may b« 
rawed a-ht*J, wtieB (he itwnpt in other bom would fail. 

■■ Tbcte tattt i'e built of two aiaea ; one to row with tm oin, the other 
wuh ^ght, for the convtntency of ihotc placet whcic a larger number of hinda 
CMBOIt Ofl ibe atiddeti, be ubtained. Each oi thete Boats require ivcu men be- 
tide! the roweri, who ovght to be ae<iu»imed with the actt oi the tide* wbw* 
the Boat ia likely to be uted ; ilieac are lo ttiiiou thcmtelvM, one at each ettd 
of Ui« Boat, «|uipped with ■ toBj iwcrp, for the purpotc of rtaering i for by 
the Boat being made fore.aad>afl perfectly liinUir, the rowi and ueen afha 



^ 




tee 



DDRQAM. 



Bfttonishment and exticy, beheld the Ufe-Bont (never wa» name 
more happily imagined, nor more appropriately bestowed) along' 
aide of their shatlercd rcsscl, and offering refuRc fmm ihe tremen- 
dous abyts, that wan opening tntwullnw ihem up forFi-cr. Ralored 
to life aad tope, lliey were removed, and conveyed to land, to the 

unipcakabio 

w>y with «|iul Me : he to whom the rower* hcc, b«camn tlMnnun t ihc ,1 

other muvi be vcty caicFul to keep iu ia.ttp oui of the wjtrr. The rnwect row '1 
double banked, with their otn tiung over tn iron (tiolr. prmridcd wUh a 
grommet, whicli ciMhIci the lowera, merely by ficifig ibout, w row either 
way wichour turnJn^ ihe Boat, a ciicumMancc of infinite imponaix^ io btoken 
Wttcr. In pxag io a wiecki if mciie ibiii one poiul <i( laoU liDm which va 

.^md ofT the Bmi <an be obuined. il will be (auiid adviiahlii to launch bcr ao 

at ahc may head the *ca ai much •* pouibk : the atretamaii muM Keep hii eyo 

flxed upon the Wivo ur brakrrt, and tncouiage the lowcti la gict aitj to ihs 

^ Boat. i« »h« (iia Co them : the Boat, thui aided by the force of iha oarit 
lauDcke* over the wivEi with vul rapidity, wilhoDt ahippinj; any w iter. Ilia 
aKcanry ber* to ohKnc that Uiere ii often a itiong rcfluK of tho tea ntir 
auanded vCHeli, which lequiret both ditpalch aod care to tho pcraoaa employ^ 
cd, thai (he Boat be nol dimagcd by urikii^ ihc wreck- In itturniog from 
the wreck, should the wiikd blow lowatd the land, tlw Boat will cone oo 
•bore without any other cSon than that of ateeibig, 

" ThcK Boat* ire p^iintcd while on the owUide ; thu colour more intnwdt* 
ately rehoving ihe ty« o( (he iptataior, at iheir lUiiig from the hollow of i 
to, than inyothei; the bottom is at liiuvtrnialud for the more mtiiute imptte' 
lioo o! puichatcr*: but it may be pamlcil aftcrwirij*- if preferred. The oaia 
which (be Boat ia provided wiih, are made of lir of iha beat quality, ai ic tau . 
bacn found by aspcricncc, that a rove aah ear, that will dreaa dean aod ligh^] 
ia (oo pliant among the breakeri; and if it he made arronj; and heavy, ihc towr- 
••* arc looncr exhauiud, aa llie pucchix ii ncceuaiily *hon, fcom (hcii rowiq| 
Aoable hanlud I ihii circvmiuiite niakct the fir oar, whra made atiff, much 

L|0 he preferred. &h« u alio fumtabtd with pouya, or irii, which aM betlct 
calculaiad than boiuhooki to piiih oft from wfi land auimg the braikaea. 
" Thue Boau have alio, when tiluition Terideri it necuury, a carriage, «c 
liuck, foi (he purpoM of iranapotlin^ them liom itcir boaubouae to the point 
of land nesiat the wretk, at where they will be able (u head the *<a moM di> 
(edly ; the tolleit of the irucki are taide concivc. for the purpnte of raUii|r J 
iheiR over (pan. or o*u. laid laogthwayt on the mthI, iI ii U<aiild not be i 
liciently h*id (o bear the wei|flit of the Boat," Thrie inttitKlionr ale accoo^l 
pinied by a itiong tfcomntmdiiiioii for ■' practiking the Boat ui iui({;h weather^ 
by which muru. eipflltncc will be gained, and Ihc danger becowr Icta, ftno^ 
Ihe wdU[iauitdcd confidence the people will have in the Boat,* 



I]BSHAM. 



4«ft 



'nHiwIliililc- joy oF the benevolciu proprietors of the p1&D; who 
\di thm the double gratificaiion uf seeing Uuit ilic vcuel wu cat- 
culaled lo Ktuwef iu inicnliun in the conipletcst manner, and of 
(•cuing, at die tame tioc, Mvuriil felluw-ciciiturEs imm taenu^ 
Ue destruclkm." 

Since the above period, the Ufc-Boat has been repcatadly ex- 
ercised in the humane, and, prvviuusly, dangcrotu office for 
wkkh it waa constructed, attd never, in a single inilancc, tailed 
of fucceai. "He number of pencils laved at the moutb of tl)4 
l^K aloiM amountti lo bctwei-n tuu and three hundred; and to 
CPQ&dent bave the men employed in the nwDBgemeQt of til* 
Boat, become of its periect Kcuxiiy, *' tbat the codc-jackeU 
wbich were provided for them to wear as a precaution against aLy 
pooflible accident, have long anco ceased to be Uied." The cat- 
iraordinary utility of this vei«cl may, indeed, be euiily conceived^ 
from the circumstance of itk having been more tbati once dlled 
with water, attd yet pcrfonning its oiEce, and conveying the pre- 
sratneji over the raging billows in complete safely. 
For some ycar^, the ingenuity and labor of Mr. Greathead 

fuere hy do mrans svflicicntly remunerated; for, waving tlie idea 
af crcitttiw pr^t, when the preservation of human life was the 
object, he iicglccteci to Kcure hit iiiventiun by jiat^^nt, aitd <-ven 
fum»hcd plans and models, fixim Kbtch the Ule-Uoat might b« 
coottructeJ by othen. The atictilion of the k>gi&lature was at 
teoglh, howc%'er, attracted by the celebrity and usefulness of bis 
KbentCr and, on the report of u committee, itppoiiited, in Feb- 
ruary, 1 803, lo ertquirc into the utility and originality of the io^ 
, IWOl. uas voted hjir. as a reward by the Houec of Com- 
ion. Within the last three ur four yean, he hoi alM bceu pre-> 
aeoledwilh aMtdaiiiuH fruui the Royal Humane Society, onohuti- 
drrd guineas from the Curporalion of tiic Tnuiiy House of Dept- 
Jbrd Stroud ; a gobi Metialiii^n, and fifty giuueui>, frotu the Socie- 
ty of Artt; one hundred guineas from the subscribcre at Uoyd'si 
(wbo ntio \nitii 20001. forciicournging the building of Ufe-Bouls, 
on different )>«rtg of the Coast ;) and during the last month, an 
elegant diamond ring from the Emperor of Ruwa. ^ 

L 4 b» 



Ids 



DURHAM. 



On Mr. Grruth«td*s txaminalion before ilie Committee of (he 
I [oiue of CoratnoiM, be was dMirctl to explain what had !iu|;f^led 
lo lum ilie particular comtruelion of the Life-Boat; on which ho 
staled, thai h« had conceived the p^inci|^le of llie inrention, from 
the ]iro[H:rties uf a 8|ihcr(>id, which " if divided into quarters, 
each quarter is cllii>tical, and nearly resembles Uie half of a. 
vtoodcn bowl, having & cunaturc with projeciiiig ends: this, 
thrown into the nea, or broken water, cannot be upset, nor lie 
with ihc bottom upwardis.'* Thi<i lUu^tmtion is confirmed by the 
more diluted evidence given by Mr. Thomas ninderwell, ship 
owner, of Scarborough, who observed, that " The peculiar na> 
tiirc of the curvature of the keel of the Life-Boat, is the fi>uDda> 
lion and baiis uf it* cxc«Uciice : it resulales, iu a Rreiit mc&ture, 
the shear with the elevation towards the ends. This construciraa 
eprrads and re|tel3 ihc water in every direction, and enables the 
boat to ascend aiid descend with great facility over the breakers. 
'Mil- ends being rrducpd regularly from the centre to leta than one 
third proportion of the midships, both ends are lighter than the 
body section. By means of the curved ke&l, and the centre of 
gravity being pUiccd in the centre of the boat, she preserves cijui- 
librium in the midst of the bivuken. Tliu internal sbiillownees <4 
the boat in the budy section, occasioned by the convexity of the 
keel, and the shcur at the top, leaves so small a space for the wa> 
ter to occupy, that the boat, tbou^i filled with water, is in no 
danger of sinking, or upsetting. The buoyancy of the boat, when 
filled with water, is also assisted by the cork being placed above 
the water line," 

One of the mmt cnHy patrons to the Lite-Boat, was the Duke 
of Northumberland, who, with distinguished liberality, had a 
boat constructed at his own expence, to be kept at North Shields, 
This has been the tnc-Hiis of siiviiif; many valuable livw, as the 
wrecks, from tJtc situation of the harbour, frecjucntly happen on 
the NorUiMmbciUnd side.* Nearly thirty other life-boats have 

tioce 



* An mtriardintry iruUoce of the ciilicuY of the Lif«-BiMtf occuircd on 
Ibii uie in Novrmbri lut. The Bcc, of Shieldj, wu itmided on lU BIk^ 
Hiddrru, nurfy opposite rineiagudi Caulc Here, \a iht nudii of roekt, 

wbcK 



DVItnAH. 



i€9 



«nc« hefo built by Mr. Greathead; tvho ha* relinquished all 
otbcr btninos, purposely to attend lo tlieir construction : two of 
these were built for ilit! I'rincc Royal of Denmark, onu fiir the 
Emperor of nus*iB, ant) one for llic King of Prussia : tncM of the 
others arc slatiotiod on iliflierptit points of the English coast. 

It liM been mentioned, that the Ltrc-Iioat orij^inated wilh the 
meeting at the I^w Hoiim: ; to that meoliiif; alio \he adventurous 
maritter is indebted for additional sniirty in navigating tiic raMem 
coast of this king(fDm. Wv allude to xliv^floatuig Ljglil, establish- 
ed a few yean ago near the Newnrji Sand, on tbo Norfolk shore, 
and whicb was originally projected by Mr, Cuthbert Marshall, 
a former member of that society, but now deceased: this light 
liat prrrcnttfd the loss of much property, and many valuable lives. 
The wa pnwpect from the Law Mouse, including Tinemoutli 
light-House, Priory, and Castle, with Clifford's Fort, and the 
liavcn crowded with ships at full tide, is oim of tlic grandest in 
the kingdom. 

The population ofSoulh Shields, as enumerated under the act of 
1801, was 12;J0+; thstof th« rest of (he chapelry, inciudin« the 
faamlns of Wistoe uiid Harton, and the out-farms, 605; making 
i totul of 19,9V9> This, however, is supptyseiJ to be considerably 
below the real mimber, which, nt the- beginning of the present 
year, was computed at t5,CC0. The number of bouMv in Shields 
is about 1500. The children of the poorer cIossm rocci^-c educa- 
tion at a Chanty School, eniablislied in 1759, for forty hnys, and 
twelve girls. For tbe recreation of the more respectable inhabi- 
tants, a rent Theatre has been built ; and subscription Assembly- 
rooms arc opened during every winter. 

JARttOW, anciently called Gpivt/, or Girrp, about half a 
mile south of the rivrr Tyne, and two mile* from South Shield*, 



where (he tea, twdtnl by a loulli-cutcrlY wiiLif, tan mouiitiim higli, md {M 
ID iian«n(iokii trtt^ktrt, (he only ccfu);? of tbt crou liota immti'mt <ieuh, 
wii to climb up tnU) the ibroudi, Nkhicb they iiuunily <SKUi, Tticjr itttti- 
fnl titailion being potcivcd fiocn Uic Uod, the LiEe-B'ial wu hove out, and 
lawnrd i wid in the coofhi of ut liour, tb« men wctc ukcn tiom (hcif [iCTiloui 
■mioiu, sad Imdcd in utoy it South :»h(ddi. 



170 



DVAHAM. 



was (bmierly a place of coniidenblc consoqucncet thoufiH lately 
only oonoiiting of ■ few moan cottager, an ancient cbuich, and 
ilic ruin* of a moautvty. 'I1ie Ulter vmt fouiidod about the fif> 
tecflth year of Egfrid, King of NorUiumberlanil, (A, U. 686.) 
through the influeitre of Benedict Biscopius, vho had before built 
th« Rionastcfy at Monk Wearmouth. In the fifth year after the 
rektorattoi) of King Ethelred, it was burnt by Uie Danes; and 
mgun in Ibe Kvenlh jvar of King Osbcit, it suffered Blmil&T de- 
va»tal)OD. DeiDga tbird time reslured, probably during tbe cun- 
(inuance of the wat of the episcopal See at Cheater- le<Strertf it 
tgain became subject to misfortune, and wtu frcqurutly pillaged, 
ud laid under oontribulion, during the provincial war which dis- 
tracted this part of ihe Island, when the Danish and Saxon Sove* 
ragiu were contending for inaati>ry : nor were iu woes yet at nn 
cud, U/r on the irruption of the Konnans, into the aorthem part* 
of the kiitgilom. it was vuce more de»troyed by fire. 

Soon after the appointment of Bishop Walcher, who was pro- 
ItnM to the Sec by William the Conqueror, that prelate invit«l 
tb« monk* Aldwin, F.lfwy, and Ttrnfrid, who had fixed their 
abode at Munkcheiler, (now Nevr-Castlc,) and were greatly es^ 
tecnieU for piety, io take up Ui.eir reudence within hi» dioceae ; ol>> 
Itrviiig, tliat he Ihought it preferable fur them to be under thr 
govemmonl of an Ecclctiauic, limn of the Civil power, " Munk- 
cliatcr beiDj^ at that period, included in the jurisdiction of th« 
Earl of Northumberland. Atdwin, and his asaociates. having 
accepted the invitation, were received by the Buhop with great 
respect, and had Jarrow given to tJiem fur a place of residence 
Here, according to William of Malmsbury, tlicy found walU 
vtthout ruofi, and ^arcely retaining any vestiges of ibrmer splen- 
dor:" these, however, ihcy quickly covered with a roof of un- 
hewn limber, thatched with straw, iind again commenced the ce- 
lebmtion of divine ordinances. Bring juined by several brethren 
^m duferecit part* of the kingdom, they funned a detign lo re- 
build the church, and restore the ruined monastery, aud several 
ailjiicent tuanun were ;;mntcd by Wnlchcr. to enable theto to 
fullil their iDtciition». Earl Waltbcof uftcruaids enlarged their 
t pussQUOCkSi 



DUBHAH. 



in 



bjr tlw gift of Tinrmuulh Prioty, tod permitted them 
lo rcDKne tbc remkira of St. O&win to their own establUbment. 
The increase of tbe tucivly, &fler the cx|)u)uan of ttie inookit frun 
Wouniouth, occftsioned a diviuon of ihc brclhrcn: Aldwin, with 
kitlbikmvrs. departed toM«lrou;* It<-Jifrtd, with anotfeer {tarty, 
frflDt to Whiiby, in Vorksbirr, (whence, after a diort nuidcnca, 
bat many suffering?, they remuvcd to Y«rk, and founded tbe 
Abbey of St. Mary ;) bimI £UVy, with his uaociates, couiintutd 
at Jsrrow. Bishop WilUum <l« Carilcpho, who iiad rouArmed 
thr grants of his picdnrrssur, Walchrr, Bcwti afterwards removed 
tbc inmates of this eslabbbhmeiil to Durham, and thenceforth it 
waa only a cell to that monastery. On lh« DiuoluuoD, its rr- 
_'ff<enuei were valued, accordinfj lo Speed, at 40l. 7i- Sd. 

The moiiaslery waa dedii-ated to SL I'aul, and itppnjpriatcd to 
ifaa receptton of Benedictine*, its rwuairu, tii|p.aber with the 
Cburch, occupy tbe summit of an elevated ridfie, but display lifila 
Worthy of notice, m might be expected in a building so fref|nenlly 
dilapidated, lite windoM-» were small and narrow, and irre|tu« 
.Iftrly Bcaltenul nt ilifk-rent hriglitit; some rtOici of Suxon sculpture 
occur on llic mouldiiigs of a ro«nd arched window. The Church 
^ipetn, from the tiluatioa of the tower, to have been in tlw forai 
ftcroMi but Mj juaiiy parts tire distiuycd, lliat this cannot be 
'poiUively affirmed. The preseol edifice is formal by port of tlte 
udent buildingi, connected with « portion, leboilt in llie year 
17&3> In the north wall of the old structure, cut on a slonCt 
that passed quite through it, wbi an iRKriptton, which (.-sind«u» 
•nd other antiquanes, have noticed, but not accuratuly. Mr. 
UMdwUDH dcacnbrs it «& follows. 

P. DEDICATIO BASILIC*. 
SCI PAVL1 Villi KL A\AI 
ANNO XV ECPRIOI REG 



C£OLF&IOL ABB £IVSDLM <} 
2- ECCLbS DO AVCTORE 
COXDITORJS ANNO IIII 



Tide Mitn'K WmoiMihf p. 1^7, tlttf. 



'TTie 



17« 



OUKUaV. 



" Tbo fint characttr has b«cn omitted by all the copyists: w« 
preume It is a compound, meant for «n invocation, uid signiliei 
.Profntitiar Deu*. Below the third line the stone is rough, as if 
it had sutlorcd an oblitrrnlion. Vim whole in&cnption is in Ro- 
man characlrn, except one Saxon E, and two square or black 
letter 0*>; from which, and tt)f^ &ilualio[i of iHe stonr, unr readily 
detcrniinn the inscriptj^jn to be of equal date with the tepnirs that 
wcru made alter iho Normans destroyed ibc monastery, and that 
it was only a mudcra memorial of ilie antiquity of the fuuiidu- 
tion/'* Sii>re tlie repairing of the Church, the inscription bai 
been replaced in a situation in preserve it from injury. 

In the vc»try is cartfully prrKtvcd a large and ancient Chair 
of oak, Iradiiir>na1ly naid to lm.ve been [Ite Keat of VENtHABLE 
Beoc, the pre-emim,-Tit boast k>( this monaster^'. It is very rudely 
fermed, and, with the exception of the back, is undoubtedly of j 
great a^e-, but there is no authenlic testimony of its evi-r having 
belonged to that Icumcd writer: indeed, it is in the greatest de- 
gree improbobte, that this, of all the furniture of ibe monastery, 
should have L'&ca|H-d the lepeated devastations commilled here by 
the Danes and Normans. 

The exact place or the nativity of Bode has not been ascertain- 
ed by historians, though Jarrow is gcni^rally considered as having 
that honor. That he was born in a jjart of this county, conligtw 
ous to the riter Wear, is certain; but the precipe spot is not known. 
His birth occurred in 672: when seven years of age, he was re- 
ceived into the monastery at Weurmouih, and under Benedict, and 
bb successor Ccolfrid, his infant mind acquired the rudiments of 
that knowledge which has rendered his memory immorlal; twttO| 
much, perhaps, from its comparative value with the more osefiil 
erudition of modern times, as from its having been obtained in an 
•ge when almost every species of learning was shrouded by the 
mitts of superstition and ignurunce. When only nineteen, be was 
ordained Deacon, and even at that early age, wa>> regarded as ex- 
emplary for his piety and studious life. He was now removed \0i\ 



* BiitoiY or DuibMH, Vol. II. p. ^jft. 



DDtlRAM. 



>T» 



the new foumlatton BtJtrrow, uu) liisacqilirenwnts mpittly in- 
crmtd ondrr the tuition of John or ficvertey, then Bikhop of 
Hagulitad, or llcxiiam; by ubotn, ut the a-jc of thirty, lie was 
ordaitml a Priest, prpparaiory In an inicn<leJ journey to Rome at 
the request of Pope Scn;ii», whose ndmiraiion had been excited 
by the reports he had beard of the progress of our illustrious »cho- 
lar in the >-ariuuB branchr« of leaniiii};. ') he drxlh of Sergiut 
preve-ntetl his going; but thut prevcnUon did ngl oxote hi* ri'^rct; 
reftrcmcnl, and incessant application, bring more congeraal lu fail 
iocltnatjons. " By n:majning intiit monastery, aud hubitualing 
him&eU tn a reclu^' lift-, he hud fcUfTicivnC time lo make himself 
ntaRrr of every branch of literanirr which at that period. was 
known in this Island; and his acquirements were made MilhouC 
any apparent desire of fame or promotion, but merely lo render 
bimself useful lo aociely, and for the pronnotion of religion and 
Tinu*." lie died iTi 735, in the stxty-lhird year of his age; and 
being afterwards cnnoniited, uas enrolled in the Romish r^leiuJar 
of saints. Ilis character has been ihm depicted by WiilJHm of 
Malntsbury. " Ele was « man, thai, although born in an ex* 
tremc corner of the world, yet the light of his learning spread over 
all jwris of ibc earth. All the hours which be had lo spare from 
ibe monastic exercises of prayer, and singing in the choirs by day 
and night, (in which he was constant, and very devout,) he most 
diligently spent in study, and divided \in whole time between that 
and hii devotions." His works arc numerous; but his LxrleAiaiiti- 
ail History b most known, and miytt valued: rarious of his trea- 
tises OD different parts of scripture are pre^ervnl in the Bodleian 
libmy. About one mile wat of Jariow, is a IVd/, still colled 
St. Dede's, lo which it was cuMomurj*, almmt as late as the mid- 
dle of tlie last cciitury, to convey diseased children, and, after 
dropping in a crooked pin, to dip them for the recovery of their 
kcsltbs: round the well, also, on every MicHummer eve, was a 
gmt resort of the ueighbouring people, with bonlirm, music, and 
duKing. Bede was first buried in his own monastery; but his re- 
lics wcK afterwards removed, and interred in Dtirham Cathedral. 

Jarrow 



174 



DURUAM. 



Jnrrow naj now be consid^rct] u ftdvancing to importance, k 
*«ry extcDMvc CuiUety liftvinj; been opeucd here in September lost, 
by Siimm Tcmiilri, E»(|. who liu erected a Iwndwjmc mansion for 
bis own rcsitlcucc, mid u row uf low houiips, mlrading in a curve 
line for upwards or hvlf a mile, on the Newcastle roadi for the 
abo<le of tlio pit-inr n. 'Die edrbration of ihc opcnini{ of the col- 
liay WIS accoinpiuiJcd by a grand f<;tc, to M-hicli Mr. Tem{>lc in- 
viled all the workmen employed in liis various coiiMfOS, as well u 
(riciuU, so lliMt more tluui n. lliuu>innd persons partook of the en- 
tertainineul. The leic commenced by a pruccstion headed by 
Mr. Temple, and ihn'c sans ; and tl>c curly port of the day wM 
piuGed in the bet>evulom art> of Uyini; the foundations of ihrca 
buildings, aSchoot for cliildreti, aSfminarif for frnisles, m^aFeier^ 
itiUK, aud Hospital: all for the bciicAl uf the families of thote em- 
ployed by Mr. 'IVniple, and tii be xupporled at tiis ex[>citee. Se- 
veral coKl-wii^ons were tlicn filled nt (he |»it, hikI conveyed oa 
■liip-board, uiidfr the bantien of ihe South Shields Volunteefiy 
and a gencrnl discliarge of urlillery, vith appr<>pii«te music i the 
remainilcr of tLc- day wtL» 9i>ent in feasting himI rejoicing. The 
coals an* ul tlte best (]uulity, and t)w aiihual receipts ai« expected 
to be imroci»e. 

Jarr<no Stakt, extending on the north-east towards Shields, an^ 
uniting with the I'yne, appears at high water like a capactout bay; 
but wleo the title it doun, it ii left dry, and adinitc the paii:mge 
of rarriages round its wbulc extremity. This wc are inbmied, 
by ancient authors, was Uie principal port of I'^frid, King of Nor- 
thumberland, and where bii entire nafy lay moored. It has 
aince been washed full of sand, and ii not nt present of any use; 
jhuu{jti vnriout sclieuiet h:i<re been projvcteil lo rcodur Lhe grtruod 
of service. Ju cKteiit from cost m west is iwurly a mile; iu 
breadth about half h mile. A »niiU rivulel, called by Leland the 
J)oiie, ribing in (he Boldcn Hills, (lows through tbc midst of it, 
into tbc Tyne. The population of the towiu.hip of Jarrow, Mook- 
lon, and Hi^Jvrorth, as returned under tlie late act, uas 1366- 
the number of hou»<n 307 : both the number of buUiiiitgs, and of 
uilisbilaau, have since, however, greatly increased. 

GATESHEAD, 




DBRHAM. 



ITS 



I 



OATKSIIICAD. the GacUhn^d ol tbe Saxois, uid supposed, 
by Camden and Baxter, to be Itro Oabrowtium of (he Romatit, 
|niBC))ially coD»»t5 o/ one long street, ntuging along a GU-cp de* 
asm, and rcrmiduii-d by the Bridge leading over ihv Tynn to 
Nswcutle. Tiie etjinainc; of iu nanie hiu occ«»oocd vark>u» 
OoajeCtara; some of these sufRcicnlly fanciful: Air. Dnind, 
%»kaM ophdoD MCm* rnoKt corrtct, dpHva it from the Saxoa 
GoriffiflKt/, tbe brad, or termination, of a military rvad, or way, 
wincl^ in these parts, it ccHntnoiily dcnoininstcd ^ait. Being inime- 
riiMalyaa the Uomaii road leading from C'batrr-lo-Stm't, tlien? ii 
•earrely a doubt of its haring been occupied by the Romam; and 
Ac opinioa is corroborated by tbe diacuvciy of an um full of Ro- 
■Ma eotm, on widening the main road leading to thi;Tync-Ilndg« 
a frw yean ago. Most of tbe coiut were distributed among 
Aeworkmen, and are Uwt; yet Hteral of UleB^ in ipmd pmerv^ 
bOB( f4 tbe Emperor Adrian, are now in tiw hands of Dwrid Sl^ 
|dicasao, Esq. Newcastle. 

Tbaa is a boroi]f;h by prcKriplinn, but t>ot priviteged to teTxl 
mexoben to Parliaro«nt. The earliest known record relating to 
it, occurs Id tb« Ume of Bishop Pnilsey, and is dated 1164, whea 
ifcil prelate granted by charier, to bis burgcsws of Gateshead, tbe 
Jiberty of his Eoresl; and by the same charter, further, "thai 
Mck tAati him nr right bf hit burgage simUar Hbfrtiet to tkote tn- 
jjogmJ b^tJir burgetna of Kewattk in rigAt of their burgaga ; and 
that tbey shall havn fier pat«aj^> within tite liberties of the palati- 
IMe Willi their goods, clear of all dues aiid exttctioiu." $evvn>l 
JMOseding prelates had their keepers of tbe park and castle bore 
In 1557. Bishop TnnEtsIt granted a charter to iho company of 
Clovers, within the borough of Gateshead; in l602, ItiKfaop 
■^ totth cw inoorpotated sundry tradn; and in 166I, Bishop Cohiu 
wtorponied them into one comtDonalty. During tbv reign of 
-Edwaid the Sixth, this borowgli was united to Newcastle; but in 
the iuccccdin;; rngn it was re-uuitcd to the Sec of L>urhain. 
Previous to the act of the seventh of F.dward the Sixth, by which 
Gateshead was annexed to Newcastle, it appears from Suy|i<:'& 
Annils,* that the Mayor and Bargeaes of the latter place, had 

obtained 



Voi.lt. p. i|s. 



ar£ 



BVanAM. 



obtsineil n nglit* by purcliaiie, from Thomas Sutton, foander' o{ 
the Charter-! Iou*c, ia London, for 12,0001. lo "the manor of 
Guioslica*!, wiib uU the manon, cuaUpiti, and coal-miucs, ia 
Guk'stii-utl nnd WicLbam, viith tbe common wastes, &c.** Tbtse 
hikd been alienated by IVishop Bam« to Queen Elitabctb, wlio 
guve ibcm to ihc Earl of Leicester, and by him were sold to Mr. 
Sutton. In the rei^i of Queen Mary, when nti tct was paascd 
for the re-incorpomtion of the di>*tevercd laudt with the Btshoi>riC( 
the opptiulion of tlie corpordtion of N'cnrcustlr, to the restoraiiun 
of Galcsheud, was lakcti uff, by a grant made to the Mayor and 
burgesses, dated March the seventeenth, 15A4, by lliahup Tun- 
stull, of » li'flie of the Stilt JV/enrfira* for " ninety years, and » from 
ninety liLI the expiration of 450 yean, with a way to be assigned 
fur nil penons, anil the conveyance of wares and mercbandize, 
and other ihitigf, to mid fn>m the Salt Aleaduurs, and the high 
street of Galrahead, at a rcwrvcd rent of Si. 49. annually ; with a 
discharge from all tolls for that lerni, that had formerly been taken 
by the libhop, or his lessee*.: reserved rent, 4J. 6s. per annum.'* 
Tlic Salt Mesdijwt comprdiend about cightylhrec acres of very 
fine lund, about half a mile down th« river. 

On the cost tide of the main street, about half a mile from the 
bridge, an.' the ruins of Si, E4im»nti'4 IJotfntatt orMimatttry, sup- 
posed lo occupy the site of a inoDaster\', which appears, from 
Bede, to have licen established here brforc the year 6S3. Thk 
uos probably doMnkyed at the lime of the murder of Bishop Wat- 
clii'i,* when ibc populace let fire to tlic Church. In the year 
1247, Bishop Fambam founded ttie " llu^plCul of Si. Edmund, 
in Galeslwad," and «iidoweJ it lur a Master and three DrcUirvn: 
soon aficrwards he united it to ibt; " Chupel or Hospital of iha 
Moly Trinity in Galethead,'' and framed ordinances for its govern* 
meat. Bishop Lnnglcy, about 1438, on the {letition of the Prioress 
and nuiii of Si. IW thoh-uit-w, in Ncwcn»tle, ap]>ropnBtod its re* 
venues to the »t]pport of that house, to vrhom it belonged at the 
Diuuluiion. In the year iGlO. Jnmcs Ihc First refoundetl it by 
letiere patent, fur the mvpltun of three pour men, and ordered 

An 
• s« p. t6. 




urftKAK. 



177 



Utnl it kliiiuld lliencrf»rth' bear tltf name of Ule *' Hotpitfll of 
Ktttjt James" ^c. The niinf of thcw moniuric biiililfngi nnr 
UlW «ie*cnbeil by Mr, Gro«. " Tl.e entrnnre h. (hrffliwh n low 
iquaiT. stone ^tr, tkvui-Blvd nilli pilailcn, aiitl awmtn^ly o( mo- 
dem cotmniction ; Tbe site of the home, with iHoflkn an<l pir^ 
dem, occupied about two acres and a hsif of land. Nftircin the 
road •UbcU thi* Chnfiol. wliow vrcst end t« hand4<>m<>ly ornamotiK'd 
uAk s numbrr of pointed orchcs and nich«9, ihinigh the insidt* 
■MRU nmBTkiihly pliiin: i( coiikirt* ufa ringlr ai«h-. turentr-one 
pHcs bfuoil, by tucniy-MX pacn lon«r. Some *(o|H at tlw «a»t 
rod, lutdiug lo ibe alur, are slill reraiiniiig. T))c> srchs of'* 
■he windou'*, except thiwc at the eitst and ynsit rnJ<, nbicit i\n 
entirely pototed, un; ruuod withiti, and poJnird on thr rvui><idow • 
A moarkablc omsmrnt » mouniPd on the eR^t end on a tiendtf*, 
ntd, bctiii; a Bfuall drcic, rhrqiirrrd by wi-ntt l>:incf< )i* 

otlin at J'e}tt aa^ti.'' In the garden ar« tlic mitt* ot ^ i ;, 

wbtcbf iiom it» oontuning a Catholic Chupi-I. <fnu &cf on Arc by ' 
ibu {wpulnc^ at ibo time when xhv Duke of C'umfarrlnnd wiui 
mure bing with hi» army through Gati-ilH-nd, on lii*; way to com- 
Uu )hc Uitca of ilie Hrctmder. 

■3W t'iwrcA, dcdicai>-d i(j St. Mary, i% an ancirnl am! ^cifun 
buildiug, 111 the (uini ofs crou: the m»U-«arc M>|tiiT8t«d fmin the 
iwv« b)' poiiuvd nrcbrtt tupported on very light utid vrvU [iropor- 
nottod octsganal colorans wiihoot cnpita^t: It cMiiaim n piod 
nrpia and ^idlcna. Tbc touvr having become ruiouui, wtu re- 
built in the >«ir 1?40; lot the upper part hassitwo bpen alti-rwl. 
latbfl ckorch-yard i* ■ iin»uUr monumrnt, «.iid to have biwti 
fffclrd by Hobert TroUajt, the arfhitrct of thr Knchcni^ fit NfVr- 
latUfi tf cover bi*uvio intcodcd place uf tnlcrtn«^c: it it x M|uarP, 
liHtty building, ibc upper p«n urewoil with ** many a holy text," 
•n gold letterx im 8 bluck •irouiid; but partly ubIiirraiiM?.* On 
iIk nut ade ot ihc cburcb-yiLrd, on a sput of gruund mlird the 

VflL. V- M j^ncttoro't, 



* Ubq wiltcn tlut hive moiiioiKd Uiii w«b, tuwe tctQidcd ■ mdiiioD of 
iktrt bntng l*m otijtiraDy * ilitue ga ik« notib vie, in ibc aiiuuilc •! pok- 
ing towaiili iW Eifhinjr, ^hitli u ociity oppa»ite; ind h»inj tfac fullowing 
!m Ukiw Un (ot. H«rf 



178 



DtrftUAU. 



Ait^horagt, or Aitciontage, is a Free-School, founded ia the year 
)]701, by ihc Rev. Thcuphilui Pickering, rector of this parislu 
itThe children wducjited bfre *!« taught luitbraeUc and novigativiif^ 
^snd the Greek and iMin languagi's. 

The trade of Galnhrad u l«8 extensive than lit favourftble »i- 
tuKliun would appear to indicate, and in ibn respect ita coiitiguitj 
(o Newcastle is, perhapt, of dnadvitnla^. ll, however, p««»etseK 
Kveril maiiufactones, puticulurly of cast and wrought iron, whi- 
ting, &c. The pi>(}ulation, m &Utcd m the late returns, was^ 
3*)74- maks, and 4b'23 fi:mulv!i; but ihnu iiuiubersarv said la i 
over-nud : the housed ucre returned aa amounting (o 1 10 1. 
great improvement was made bore a few yedr» ago* by furnilng fti 
new aiid u'itk vtrcvt from the head of thiC aarrow and ttccp deacenC J 
called iho Uoltle Bank, and earryinj; il ruund in a curve Iim 14 
the Bridge; by which means the former dangerous, and, in win* 
tcr, almost iin|)aswble road for carnages, may bo entirely avoid*- 
ed. It is ohsorred by Hutcliinson, but on what authority » no 
menlioiKd, that Daiiie) Dc Foe resided nt Oulrxbcad when bqi 
composed his celebrated Adventures of Kobinson Crusoe, 'l\m^ 
view of the river Tyne, and town of Xewcutle, lironi the brow 
the cmincoce a little to the iioilb of (he Hexham rood, oa the' 
Gateshead side, is uncommonly grand, 

Gattaiitad FfU, a bleak and clcvutcd ridge, cxlendit^ southward] 
from the village, tuis been already mentioned as tunoun lor itai 
grindstone ciiiarries. Ilciv, in the year U)()8, a victory wa» ob" 
taincd by Wilbuni the Coiiqucrur over titc combined furcea of ICd-' 
gar Atheling. beir to the crown of Scotland, with Malcolm, King 
of Scot^, and wme Danish Pirates. The Cunc)ucn>r, after the 
bottle, murchcd t4> Newcastle, und alm<at levelled it with the 
ground, to prevent it a^u becoming a place of refuge to his 
enemies.* 

RAVtNSWOUTH 

ll«B li<t Robttt Trollop, 
Who nudt yon sxonet roll Up ; 
When Death iodIl hU <oul up» 
Hit body fill-d ihU hole up. 



■ Bnnd't NcircMtk, Vol. 1. p. yH. 



bUKIIAU. 



jrp 



HAVENSWORTH CASJLK, a seat of Sjr ThotnM Hwiry 
liilrtcl. Burl, h xliout one tnilc wx-st of ibc rivCr Tvum, fruia 
vrhich the ground gvotly ri^ce tu ti cunsiijvrabic cxieat. 'Jlie pre* 
sent maimion occupies jinrt of the site of an aocieni ca»l!c, which 
seen* tr% Lave formed a quQ<]ning1c, having a square tower at each 
•n^«. connected by a curtain wait: two of the cowers are built up 
in th« olBcw; the olScr* are piirlly in ruins, and niantlcct with ivy, 
Hk oripil of this fortre&» it uncertain; but, from its nainej 
which, ID rarioDi old wriiing*, is calluJ Ravau-ictm, uiid Ru^'cfii' 
t»<t/A, Hutchinson, with great pnibability, imagines it to be Da- 
ri*h. The standard of ihir Danos was named RaJ'cM; hence he 
coiijectUKi tKftt the tertii Rufftm-htUn, ftignilied the stronghold of 
the Daiiitii sI:iri<)Hrd; hiicI Ra^mi-wtaih, rhc Daiin' ww, fruin 
Mine defcttt whicli that people sustained here; aeatli. In the north 
CDUntryiliiileci, being exprcstjve of sor^w. IncorruboniUuiiof this 
opinion of its anriquily, he obscrvra, that, *' it muil have birn a 
fartirm before ftuy records now extant; as there )» no licence to 
embattle and kerncllitte this houte found in ttte Biiih'i{i's archives, 
thou^ of every other Castle in the county lhci-c is that evidcnco/' 
The man^on is iutended to be rebuilt: ilie saloon is spacious: but 
tbr npnrtments are gcnenilly uitall. On the north and wc^t ic is 
sbelletcd by a Sot forest of oaks; to the cost it commands a plea- 
nnt view over I^m»]cy Vale; and iiiimedtiili-ly up|x»itc in tlie 
distance it Gate»hvad'lct), wild and shaken, yet covered with a 
mvlutudc of nid« hovels, inhabited by the fauiilieiuf the quariittn 
and pit- men. 

Aaveiuworih, and some other manors, wercgrantcJ, by lliahop 
Flambard, tn his nephew Richnrd, to hold by homagCi and the, 
ferrice of Hnlf » Kniglil's fuc. It aftenfards passed through vari-| 
ous families to a brunch of the Lnmlej/t, which became extinct iu 
Issbdl, who inanied Sir lieniy Eluyntun about the conunoiicc- 
rnent of the reign of Henry the Seventh. Their daughter and 
heiress married Sir Henry GiisccHgn, whose deaccndaut, !}ir WiL- 
liam Gascoign, in the fifth year of James the Fit^t, suld it to Tho*, 
mn liddetl, Esq. ancestor to the present owner. 

M ■: On 



lao 



»DKMxW. 



Oa ibc ImiiIo of iIip Drrwcnt, about otic ni!lo fruoi ib juiirtion 
•iih tlieTjnc, inSWAl.WKLI,, a pUce fairiDU* for itkiron-worii»( 
which were origiimllj' wUWftlie*! h«rrc wbouT thv y«ar I69I, by 
Mr. Atnbrofie Crawley, who, fnitn lla> humblo cniirlitioii ul' u 
common blscksraiOt, raiM<) biimolf to allluence and nobility, by 
hit tntlustry, invention, and vigomut pfncrcraiKC jn promoting 
tbr Tttiie and manu&ctum of bii country. All ibis port of Dur- 
hsm, com{>Tvhmiltng Swulwoll, YVinliiioti, Winluton Mill, High, 
and Low, Team, &c. nwy bo said to hnvc been cvlonised by kin;, 
for llie sjiualion being favorable fwr (be putiK-se, Iw reinovoJ hi- 
thcT bis inanu6ictori«8 from SundiTland, tad, by ihc m(Utitud«« 
nf wnrkntfn rmploNTd was the discriot prnpird, Tbr variety of 
nnicln mur.ufocturiHl hcrt is immctuc; and, ^pcakiug in jicnemi 
frrnii, almost every- form of wfaicb iron or steel a sukceptiblCr i> 
h«^ produced. Ancbort of tiie largest siw, mooring'Cbaim, ta.yn, 
nails, mattocks, boos, t>pad«5, cast-iron puU, kettlcsi fitc. are 
among l!te goods Rianufacturcd ; and conveyed to thi^ various dock' 
)-ards, tliP Fast end West Intlici, and miuty other parts of tbe 
World. The huge furnnce« for llir ancboni, atul lite wholt Cyclo- 
4)can amtngctncnt employed in their formation, excite Uio mott 
livelj-seiwntiona; and the images, obwrvwa modern author, "coiwj 
ccived by the iuimitablv Virgil, are here justly reprcwntwd." 

Aiii rfltjii JtHihi nru 
Jftrfiitati, tUdmrniftti dlti onjtmid lii^gnt 
yCfa iJtk ! Ctmit i^titir iacWAii mttmm, 
tin inltf MM, mdtmx titcAm tttlmV 
t» MnwnM/ WTMirfw ttnttijirdft mauam. 
Aniid, B. 8. 



Tb* goods mttiiufatturn) here, are conveyed to ibe Mvtro|Kilis in 
Tesseb belunj^ng lo the Company thai now carries on the buvi- 
iic«, ihc CVaa/fy* having become extinct to the year IJS'i. Tbu 
iron imported it laid to be duly free; Mr. AnibroM; Crawley bav- 
ing had the address to obtain un exemption from loll^ with utitcr 
privikga for his factory, of the Corporation of Nvwrnstlr, on th« 
payment of 61. ISst. 4<1. annually. Hit nnnt* m roim;nibrfri> 

3 wiib 



DL'RHIH. 



191 



I 



*ilb tnwnilion and rr«(>ccl: the mgutatitirii which hr frumcd for 
itrt- governiiirru i>r ihr wurlitneii. anJ the e»rab1iUimtrnl» winch h« 
funnoil for ihfir botM>£t, buying btvn attcri<tf.>il ^«itll tli«- moot s«lu> 
laiy fflccb. The COiU: of lawt nhKh h« ilrvtv up, wilh nriititi 
siiH!ndiiii.i]ts tttui uddiiiom, that huvc bincc bnii dccraitl e.\|>e- 
tTwnt, have, to » rrrtatn rxtriit, super^pded |hc ge»t>nil law of the 
land* and,btT»mi! lociitl}'n»tiihlis}K*d, "To put those lau« in rxe- 
entiun, ■ cimri of urbiiraion (chosen from ihe sujierior cIusk* of 
lluttcriii)>lujnl) was roi»titutctl at \VinUti>n, to bt; hulclen i-rrry 
irn w^lcR, ioi hcsrifig nnd fh;tenniiiin<( cnsot anions ibe woikmen^ 
10 which all have an appeal: the fet-s are fixed beyond iniiovntion, 
Bt H toodnralc mtv. Tbb iiutitution has the most linpjiy nnd ex* 
tnuive tue: it quieU tbo cliflcrences of the [R-uple, SL>t(ln ihcir 
daitni to jtistlcc in an easy and cxpeditiuiu inaiiiier, presorves 
them front the »>>ponccs an<) di>trofA of common Inw, and the noi- 
•umr tni«enea of a prison. At & furibcr piutcction to civilisaiiun, 
■cbnals are cktabliUied at Winlalun, Winlalim Mill, and Svalwdl, 
for tin aolc benefit of the workmeiis" children, where ibcy are in- 
itracied in rcu-Iing, writing, and accounts. The poor and dis* 
tnwpd were also the objects of the founder's solirJtudci and he 
appoiiilfd a sur<;eon for the relief of &IL the persons employed, by 
whoae timely awi^tuncc many Iive9 and Iimbi huvc bocn pmervetl 
lo the public. When a workman is ill, ho has muney advanced 
by lh« agent; when siiperatinuated, or disabled, hv has u wt-ekly 
mainleiMncc; and when he dtc«, his raniily U provided for.'-" 
Fjich of the woritnen is allowed a coiwpiiient bouse, wiih plenty 
of coal, and > small piece of ground for a garden, Sutne itcw 
Mn-l-ucrks havi! lately been astablithed here. 

WISLA'ION i* kiinaTed on a high ridge of land, incltmtijj to 
the Dcnroit and '1 yue rivers. Dctbre llie introduction of ibe irofi- 
«ark«, it oidy cuimtted of a few descrtiM coiiu;jcs, but nut* cwn- 
laim upwanh uf SSO hnuKm, and HO-^l inbubilunts; most of whom 
an employed In the mannfaciurp of itiUli, ftc. WtMLiToM 
Hill -was origitully built for grinding corn; hut hnvinft been tip- 

M 3 propmted 



* Hitfchintna't DufhMB^ VuL 11. p. ^^3, 




^^9 DVKHAX> 

propriatcd to the tisc of the iron-worlts in ifigi* 1i« >•"« given 
liw Co a i>lcuMnt villnge of iho urne name. The chief bmncbe* 
cBrii[:d on bete, ure (lic fnaLin(an<l grinding cdgc-tooU, manufac- 
turing tiles, and sliuing burs of irvn into lunj{, nxrcow pieces, pror ^ 
per for making nails. 

_ Between Swalwell, ftnd Wtnlalon Jlill, is AXWELLPARK, 
tlic principal m«I of Sir Thomas Clavering, Ban. whote ancestor, 
Scrip de Uurgh, rmiic into Kii;<lund with the Conqueror; the tiur- 
nanie of Clavering was given to tbc family by Edward the (Ir^t. 
The tDonvcmiiaiL elegniic modi^m building, erected by Payne: it 
flccupips a plcnaint ami cVvatrd site, and is surrounded by grounds 
beautifully divtrMliii^iJ by irregular swells, judiciously cmbcllislied 
with ptaniationt of fore»t trves. The nut front commanijs a licti 
profcpt-ct of the Tyiic, and ihc- buiy lnwrts of Neucutlr niid Gates- 
bead: the view fruiii the Miutli front uf the woodlHiid» of Oibtide, 
and the ac^acent country, is atso beautifuL The Claveiingi fare 
finl scaled here iu (he iL-ign of Queen Lljxabctb. ^H 

nVTON is a flouriihing vilUgr, finely situ-ited in tlu- irale iiot^B 
the banks of the Tynr, and containing many Ksiidsomv buildings 
inhabited by opulent families. Hie Church is >paciuut, and coo- 
iiitt of a oave, MiJe aj^ln, and cLaiiccI, with a squan; tuner, ter- 
minated by an ucittiigular spire, rising to the height of iOS fi^t, 
and forming a good object from the river, and inany parts of the 
\ale. Near the north wall of the church-yuid ik a birg«: liarrow, 
about tuenty feet In perpendicular height, pUiitcd witli trees. It 
does nut appear to have been opened; but a similar orte, near 
Bradley Ilat), in this parish, inspected nbout twenty yean ago, 
Ms found to cunmiii a Miuare cavity, formed by clones placed 
edgu-wtse, in .which a human body bad been interred. Ryton 
vra-H burnt by the ^^<ll') in the ^ear l'-9'i ^'hen the English forcet 
were conduded by Warren and Crcwengham. 

GIBSIUU was ihu ancient inheiitancc of the Mcrtcpt, but is 
now the piincqial seal of the l-'arl uf ijlrathuiore. whose ancestor, 
Sir William Ituves, act^uired it by murriagc with tlie heiress of 

, Sir Francis Blackiston, at ihe conclusion of the seventeenth cen- 
tury. The tnaDsion is situated on the ca&t side of tlw river Der- 

wcnt i 




DVRII4M. 



3)t3 






weot; and contains numerous family portmits. bcsiiles a Tew ox- 
{«ll<^t pniniings of other kinds, 'l*bc principal n a finr picture of 
Rdbcxs' NViFE, whiUt pregnant, in a fruii-slinp; llic cxprrision 
isexlppmely fine; bnt, perhaps, f quailed by the lynx-tycd corio- 
tity a( tin alil woman to wliom y\\e h nddrming berseir: llie cot- 
lection of fruit is inimensp, and finely colored. Tbc grounils are 
my vxtetnife : tho apfiroach to th« tiouie ii bj* a scrpiintine rcwd, 
neatly ■ mitc in Irnsth, winding Ititougfa a forest of vrncrable 
vtktf sumclimcs rxiemling along the brink of a <ltfj> valley, at 
Mbm, descending on the ejisy inclination of an eminence:, lie 
firtt view, on Wnn); the Aood, ojiens upon a BaH^tietiiig-Hmisf, 
litnated on an <.-lcv«t«d site at the rxtn-mity of a tpacious avenue 
After pnuitig a (m-ce of water, the prospect becomes raotc inle- 
mting; aiKl n rtobic h«n);ing wood is seen to the right, covering 
all the inclioiog gruuiid Iroai a lofty summit to the rery skirt* 
of the vale : in ibe midnt of wliicli, nnd fnrming a tcrmiiuilion to 
tbt gnmd vista, i<i an elrj^nl lonit! mlumn, upwards of ISO fnt 
in heicht, tnrmounteH by a gilt Maine, rcprrsentntivc of "BrituS 
Uierl\i: en the left a fine terrace is seen, extending above a inik> 
in Jcngtt), at the end of which it a hnndsome modern Vkapef, with 
a tirhly embellisbed portico and dome. Besides these, various 
btaatiful views occur in difTcn'nt parts nf the grounds, and parli- 
colirly from a. walk near the bnck of the house, nn the brink of a 
neep descent, whence the Llrrwcnl is seen flowinf; through a deep 
vale, enclosed on the iinrth by hanging woods; hut on tlic south, 
lH>ondud by cultivated latKli, fixing from the riv#r in irregular 
iwclls. The park is aboilt four miles in circumference. 

EbCHESTEK is a small irregular village, occupying the brow 
of a Bleep dcclivily, oveiban«ing the Tyne. This was the un- 
Awibted site of a Rnman Btaiitin; though Camden, who hns no- 
liced a mnnii'^U'r)- reported to have been established here by 
Ebba, ilaucblerofSl. Ktlielfrid, Kingof Norihuinberland,prcri6us 
totht year OdO, and xfterwRrds dt-stmyed by the Daiieti, bvsnot 
mer.tione«) it. Gale supposes it lu hnt^e been the EpMcuui of Pto- 
lemy; but Honlcy, apparenlly on belter groumls, refers it lo tbv 
Vadomma of Antoninus. 1'he trices uf the vallum are yet diKO- 

M 4 verablPf 



Kf DUBIIiH. 

\fi-al>U>, bill so nbsciircd by buiiilHig<i, us lu r..*nJer it iilnrartf 
jrnprtic livable lu luceitsia llic cxict dimcnsious uf ihc cunp, 
though it «pp«un l'> hiive formed u M]u«re of &buul ISO pank 
'VViibiii iLc niva stands ttic Cliuicb, »aii t«vcnl rotlai^i:*. M«ny 
Uomaii itticiiptiDiis, and otlicr n^miutu, liuvc bwn found hrrri 
and particului)^' an urn, of un uncommon furm, nearly a yvd 
liigb, ihaugU not above mwn iitclia wide, and having iii iln cen- 
tra a small rup, iiiiaginrd In have been usc-d dUier aa a lai:hnmii* 
tory, or patcrw." This, a* appcaa from a manuscripl note by 
Dr. Huntrr, nrilten on tite nutrgin of thi* Britxiitua, \nadi»- 
covcrod by s jiluughman, hi a cavity fornKd by six uprijiht 
stono, covered by a »vcntb, ogairat wbicb ilie coulter of tbo 
pliiugb bud struck. 

ScTcral uf the iincriptions, and other remaim, dug up here, 
bavi! bc«-n noticed by Dr. Hunter in the I'liitosopliical Tninsac- 
UoftL Among ihcm is a figure on a gmv4>-stone near the cburcb 
door, described as a man in a liaman dreu: aw this, which is re- 
preKnled in the BntanDJa Romana, Mr. Moialey'* remark* areas 
fuIluWK. " 'llie inti^e is very ob»cuie ; nor do I tec how it cu 
be di&ccrned, wLribcr it biu been mab or female ; for iLcrc is no 
insrripiion, and the features an quite gone : there have been two 
dolphins, one on each aide the figure, which issomewbat peculiar* 
I doubt not but it has been sepulchral ; and that the image was 
imendctl to represent the person deceased.'' On this subjecl the 
following quotation may nut be iropcilirtcnL " Wbcn tbe ancJeitta 
erected tltrir omit tomU in ibcir lil'e-iime, they often left ibe in- 
»cnptioii». Olid Mtnciiiiici tbcir cfEgics, tu be cut by their rula* 
itouh or friends after their decease. So Corius in hiR dcscripticm 
iif a large luncral vault lately discovered near Rome, has givi-n us 
tho draught of a mnrble cotUn, with the bust of the deceived per- 
son cut upon ihi* side, but only a round ball for the bead, which, 
duubtli«6, wus designed lo have t>ceii afirrwards liiiiihrd ; and 
l)|Win another ihrrc is a wliiile human figure, (ini!ihed, except the 
)ii-ad, which i^ telt in ibc same munoer aa tbc former. And in 

icveral' 



* GihioD'i CundoB. 



CVRHAH. 



ISfi 



wfcnd or the nicbn made in tlie side of Uie monuntcnt whid) con- 
tiraeJ I1VO urns the in<>cri[>ii»n h cul over one only; otid ihat 
port of ih« stono vrtiirh waa fotind urer the othor la t-ntpty, ihe 
pcnon bring llicn living for «hnm that uni was clnignrd."* 

Antong tlie inscribed i>tun««, i» one rrmnrbusly referred, bj 
fiitbop GitMton, to Liiiich«ftt<n'; tlinu;;h Dr. Mttotcrs Recount 
pTOTH tliit it wa) fuuiid ltvr«: it i» stated by Ilonley to be »o- 
|ia1rbra], having the Eingtc woril HWK, fur AVE, as in 
Unite, //wTf ftlriituia niatusma. " The custom of thus saluting, 

>u it nert. the drnd, or falling ihHr laU farewell nf thein, is very 
uell knoira, and it mny teem almost needles fo produce any io- 
MUiCCt uf il. Thua .tineas bids elemal adieu ta Pallas :"-(■ 
TIiui 
lUKK 



lijtn trtfrnm mini, ■ciutf fJld 
iCK>i».' x).97. 



TIiui also ft pflua^ in Catullus: Mt atque rale. Vuioai other 
iluocs found here, were imcriticd with a;niuriiU maikt. and leiten 
nferring to cuhorts uf dilTerent legions, Scveml Kumuu altan 
hire abo been discoNxrcd at this uation : otic of tliem, erected to 
I^H the local God VUirts, has this iusciiptioit : 

^^ TTic Icll 



DEO 

VITIR! 

MXUV 

V & 



The letters, observes Ilonlcy, " are meaiity cut. On one aitte 
of tlw alur i& u hour, aitd a luad on the oilier." On tlte luei- of 
another altar, referred, by ibis writer, tn Northumberland, but 
actitally removcii from « burn at Kbcbi^ter, by otdiT uf Dr. 
Montague, bite Dean of Curbam, and 'di>pOMted in the Dean and 
Cbaplcr* Library, wiib most of the above rematm, *«• • muti- 
Uled inscripiioii, which he reads thus; Minrmt JuHiu Gnenint 
Acttirta$ cohvriit qnarla Br'Utunum AiUoaihiie lutnm MotiU fi6rti- 
tinime mtrito. Acturius na& the a|}pclliition ul an olTicor who 

used 



* Co*. MonumcBl Liv. Au(. p. 30. t Biitinnji RerpWi p. »ii- 



U6 



DURHAM. 



used to provide corn (or (tie tn>Qp«. Since tbe time of lh« abore 
aniiquar)', luvcnl olber inscribed stones and altan have Imn 
fouod, attd ans icpresentfd in Um Hittury of Durban, Vol. II. 
p. 493. 

Mr. Hutchinson observes, tlmt the Great Roman Road, nhich 
led to this ttation froin the southward, is remarkably perfect 
vrbcre tiic induntres of common lands had not l>«n made. ** It 
is formed in three dlMinrt parln, with four ditches; a centra nmd, 
proUibl^ for CArriagcs aitd rnralry, forty-two feet in width, wiih 
a narrow road on each side, for fooC passengeni, twelve feel wide." 
Some v«tttign of a tijunre w:ilch towvr, hclwvcn one and two miles 
to the MUth, have been noticed by Dr. Hunter. 

Over a dct-p and romantic dell, called CAi;ecT BuavE, near 
Tanficid, n a rrmarkahlc Arrk, cunsirucied about the year 1729i 
to obtain a level fnr the passage of coal waggons. The span of 
the nrch h L03 feel: it springs from nbuimenls abont nine feet 
high, and Wing wmicircular, the entire elevation ii about sixty 
feet. The Icvut is preserved by cmbankmenb of earth, in some 
places forty feci high. The expciKC or constructing it, is said to 
have been 12,0001. This was defrayed by the Auociatcs, locally 
termed the Gmnd Allies. The name of the architect appmn lo 
have h«n Ralph Wood, a common mason, who is reported to 
have built a former arch, which fell for want of weight ; and that 
a dread of the M-cnnd arch experiencing the s&mo fate, induced 
liitn to commit suicide, 

CHESTKR-LE-STREET, a rrspcclable vilUge, pleasantly si- 
luitted in a valley to ihc west uf the river Wear, and on the Ro- 
man Military Way leading to Newcastle, it suppoifd, by Camden, 
to be Ac C(»idereum of the Uomans; but, upprently, from irv- 
suflicient evidence; do inscriptions, nor other data, having been 
found to warrant the pojiliori. By llie Saxons it was called Cmi- 
teattre, or Cimtagester, ami under that name became the eplsco- 
pnt ScR of Durhjini ; Eardulph, then Ubhop, having removed hi- 
tbcr from Crako-Minstcr abont (!.*• yenr 883, and built a Church 
for the reception .if St. CuthU-rt's body. ERclric, fourth Bitbnp 
of Darbaio, dissausfied willi the humble cbarch of wooden inulc- 

lialt 



I 

PUKHAM. 187 

ndtwhicli hia predfcesor bed rused, erected a more mngnificent 
fiU)ric. During the progress of the n-ork, much treasure ma 
Jiacovertd, which the Bnhop transferred to aggrandiae the mo- 
nastery of Peterborough, where he had been a monk. After the 
See had been removed to Durham, this place, divested of its 
Kate and authority, became a mere parochial rectory, till Bitbop 
Beck made the Church collegiute, and established a Dean^with 
Kven Prebendaries, five Chaplains, three Deacons, &c. Thus it 
continued till the Dissolution, when what was estimated in tbe 
rei^ of Edward the First, at U6L 13s. 4d. had no higher valua- 
tiqo in the twentieth of Henry the Eighth, than 771. 12b. 8d. 

The present Church is a haodsome stone edifice, with a nave, 
ude usles, and tower: the base of the latter is of a square form; 
but above the roof of the Church it assuAies an octagonal shape, 
apparently mere modern; and is terminated by a very elegant 
Stone ipiKt one of the finest in the north of England ; the entire 
height is 156 feet. The interior is neat, and well preserved; it 
contains a singular arrangement of monuments with effigies of the 
deceased ancestry of the noble family of Lumley. The series is 
as fbllQws: liulph, the unhappy minister of Bishop Walcher, who 
was massacred at Gatesheud, during the reign of William the First. 
Uticdus filius Liulphi, William dc Lumley. William Lumley, 
mil. William de Lumley. Roger, temp. Edward the First. 
Robert de Lumley. Sir Marmaduke de Luinley, temp, Edward 
the Third. Ralph, first Lord of Lumley, temp. Henry the 
Fourth. Sir John Lumley, temp, Henry the Fifth, George, 
Lord Lumley, temp. Edward the Fourth. Sir Thomas Lumley, 
temp. Henry the Seventh, Richard, Lord Lumley, temp, Henry 
the Eiglith, John, Lord Lumley, temp. Henry the Eighth.* 

The Deanery-llovse, now the seat of the ancient family of 
Hedworth, is very pleasantly situated ; it commands a fine view 
of Lumley Castle, and is surrounded by excellent meadow grounds: 
the manor of Chester Deanery is copyhold, belonging to the Bi- 
shop, 

* A very particular dcKripiion of thne figDrei ii inicited in HutcKinion'4 
Doibam, Vol. H- p. 391 



ISS 



OOKIIAU. 



■bopt am) its junsdictiun is vrry exlvrture; it liai ■ coroDfr, an4 
'gives name to ihc wurd. 

Tbis 1 lUa^*,* being vn the grcui pmi rood (wm Londoa tu Edin* 
buritti. und runti^Dnuit to nun>L'ntu« c<y]il- mirks, ba» lircorec pu- 
pulou*. 'I'he Unrtiftiiit*, nn n-dintfd umK-r ih« Uie iiri, cuntaini 
1(>5? inliabitants, nnd 35i) house}; itmt of tho laltff an* of itonc 
1lK>y iirc.> chittly svMiiged in one »tTvot, itesily » mile m Ivi^th. 
On iLc uiljuiuing inoor is a not coant. 

LU.MLEV 



■ •' At Wkitchill, at Whitwdl. in UiU nd{;)tUiutliaoil. u > blMl TuTOKt, 
vbich RiAu iii)«b.>i«lil tiuni ifoixlune, ilug aui a[ jiiU in ibc oci^hbouring 
Vtlli. Thae IMt h»v( b«ii Ye»y muth woil.t(l fit iioii-ttcw'*, (tupjio«d by 
the Dmm* IV hen thry weft in yowuian of (Kc kingdom,) ti ip^ieat* f(&n tlia 
ignaC uiiini'^ty fif xor.* at tindrt wh'f.*! U (nuiMl ojion iht fclU. nul <XWKdi 
MMy mjk* WfKWiid. Th«nmh*d In ttiowtlm« had been to mt)tthirin»> 
•laoc urtb chamn) in » Iitjc Moiihjr IwifUii ckll<d ■ bl«0tBcry, mJ ibcB in 
another Imtlh to melt ii down*£«tii, *ad KdiK«>ttg bcbiionCoi all niKintr 
ef CMiBtiy VKtr tnd mIxii the wood fsilcd, ihcy irmovcd tkdr tirjtOn I9 
lalxrcil wMRtotciJralyiMXhftcviileiulyihry DiiWl h(v« bloMrBthcirbtoomery 
bclTowi cillwr by hind 01 m ilh hones, or have koowa tbc ut« of iir-fanucc*. 
It thr matt Kori) vt cinder i> IduimI upon ihe In^ |(nM()di. where no wMet 
CiHild be sbUiMd. AboMl ihree lailci wat of CbaKr, ii a plJKc called Um 
Old Fuinarc, where vtry lauJy waa tu be tieu tbc bottimi of a funiace bcattV, 
accofdixg 10 iW u>u)l tDode nf buildint ihcni oow, but of much tmaUei di- 
BMtii.iMit, Tbcy hid blOMD the bdlow« wiUi a wikr-wlwicl, ai appeaia by 
the (-.It of • wilet-iicc to coaTcy ll to tbc wbnl from in cppci put nflbc 
buiinir. On ikaoppoiiie tide of ihr bouriw ■« a place caltid iht Aitim Wdl, 
from the wuer hnloj a KrofiK albminoua mtlt and UMa. Ttie nutbad of 
tutktng ttieta] U by putting iolo a Itrga fgiiiKc, about 34 feci ui hci|fal, aod 
19 UI 13 <eide in ibc btoadcvi p*tt, but cotitracitd at lop and bottom, • cn> 
Inn ouinbci uf hatlicti of coal o( cindc(5, to a ccilain nuinbrr nf baxe* of icoo* 
aiOOe, c>t<incd Tot the pvrpote, aad a quint*Ely of limcwaont- iti!1u.ieiit la (Uil 
it: \ibcn a gufTioetii i^uimity it netted into the hcanh, or Uimi, ffihthMtom 
•f the lunucE, It ta thcii upped with aa iron bar, and run aH iota metal plgl^ 
ot latje veueli pieptted io loam, {a compoutioa of Mod* cUy, 4tc) fgr iH* 
femit Diet, iiKb at biewiiig veueli, nap pan*, cagiM piimpk cylindeti, CHW 
non oiall litet] and ihe iron-ttone and coal uicd hcie, art allowed by the bac 
jud];i* at hii Uaicuy'i Waritnai Woolviich.io makcllie tuon^cit and aoundett 
caonmi (hat arc pr»ved there " — From the inforaiation of Mr, Snilh, ageol oC 
Ibcae wor^. — UtachtMn't Dmsitm, fA 11. p. ^tfk 



Dt?an.iM. 



I8» 



LL'MLEV CASTLE, nbnut a mile to the eaK of CImIrwIc- 
^iti««t, a oac of tiir mhus ui die turl of Scnrbomugh. Il stand* 
u)nilinilly uii ■ flnn elcv-uu-d situation, boutidcd on dte norlli bj 
irnir)' Brck, and minj; gniduully on tlw wiutti ami vmt (rxan 
Uie rner Wear: Ilic ciwt {roni i» iwwr (ho brow of « v^ry <)w|i, 
tvcU-woodvd vulley, through wbich tbe Beck <i'ind» towurdt iha 
inex. Tliit italcly matujwi (urnu a quudroiiglv. witlt aii arm in 
Ae notiv; at neb angle arc pTVJectJag turrets, or atanvntoriei, 
of an cKlangtibr fonn, which urcHian^ the tare ol' ntch iquaR; ol 
dkv basr*. and are niAchiolaled. fur tlic purp<»c of annoying oisail- 
antt; Uiey, however, give lo iLc general huiluin^ a uitgular ap- 
peuaoco. Tbtf"*b»jJc i» cotnpatml of n jcM'iw fnw-frtot*. «hich 
^vn • bright and Ltcautil^ul ual nt a disluncc. The chief cntruncc 
to the CatOe b ac ibc wen froiit, by a noble double Sight nf strps, 
aod a pbtiucm filling the uliolc span' bctwivn ihelnwrn: the 
front to the wnith is tandf rn. fltui brnugiit ulmo»t parnllrl wilb 
the tower, bdofi tixtyfivc pace* in letigtii : the frwit to ihe Twrtti 
b obicuti-d fay ufficn ; l>ut touardt the vbm, the Caitle rctaitu in 
uictvnt furin, and lus a nitMt av^uil uppfaraiice: its pn<JL*eiiiif; 
gatr«a}', ccmmandcd by turrets, and mafiiiohilcd f^allrry. an* bold 
audtlatrly. Above tbb fiMv arc six sbicldi, with annorinl bear- 
hifS (li^ily carved in slonc, wilh itirir cn-iu, cutrmpufary with 
Ihr buildiiig; afid wbicb Asr«rtfiiu tbe *UUi of m allcnition hy Sir 
lUlph Luinlc}', ilt tb« mgn uf Kicbatd th« Second ; wbvn he ob- 
litincd licence from die King, in UltQ, as veil lu from llivhop 
bkirlaw^ tu n-pair hi» Coilk- nf Lumlry, mid tu build a wall with 
mortar and ftone, aitd to embattle iheMmcture: it appMir&that 
i' ' ^ ■ '■ 'ud l.fcn con'rtruried fay Sir Robert Ijimley, 

>:. ^ . urd the HnL, and cidiugjcd by his son. Sir 

Martqa4Juke. 'llitri: uv ibrcv Modca of aparlnncnu in ihta frottl, 
'' iidoivs guarditl with iioti : a tiamtr space. 

> I ^n the wbIIh and the brink of ilie pmripicv, 

b guanled by a nirtain. The ttfiiformity of thh front, the ar- 
ning«uicnt of the armii, and lh« irhote nppcArance of Its tnasunry, 
[(-Mity tdi] to bp n part of (hc uri^'uat ilructurc, and u gruiid ai<j- 
dd wf lU« tutc tit the ag«. 

A bvngt.ful 




ISO 



DURHAM. 



A bninliriil prapwi is nkibitetl from the plittfomi, At \he en- 
timocc intu tlic Hall. At thp bottom of ihe kvemie wblcb laids to 
Ae tuiuae, u k Hnc Itjuon nf wnlcr, u Hilfnon lock, anil fislier- 
louks colia{;i.' : an.'l on the opponle olcvau-d Innd, th« virw of th« 
towu nC Chester, tlw l>«uiirry l)ou»c, and Chorch, compo«e a 
plessinK disuiiux: but tlie more extended landiirape comprehend} 
tbv hotue of Flails, Velum A'illugc, mv\ Ow gn-at Norllivrti Rood; 
whilst the back scene displays brokm and irrvgalar grounds, jn- 
ler'prt>L'd wiili coita«c*. To the left, cultivniton bri|;hten9 the 
pnnpcct, und tLi» winding »lrrftin of the Wenr *Ads beauty tn the 
|>ifitUBe> wlitcb, on one hand, presents th« view of the town of 
Great I.umlry, and, on tiK-oilier, Walridge, with thellennitnge, 
and several Iwmli^b in liie vHle. Tbc diVant hindscape is tenni- 
n»ted liy Plawsworth, nnd the plontatlons above Newton Hall. 

Tlir "ri'iil Hall mcaMim nitu-ty feet in length ; it ii omamentvd 
with a gallery for minBlirhy; and exhibits a itriiing feature of 
ancient liracB. feodiil performances, and old English manners. 
A Kni;;ht in full amiour, on hoiwhack. graces thh spartmeni; 
and the wails are deeorated with an nrraiigement of imaginary 
pottmitain the fbllimitut order: I, IJnfphtn. 2, tlchtml. 3, 
GnltelmiH. 4, Sir Willinm de l.umley. 5, \rdtiimi de Ijimley. 
6, Sir Kubvrt <le Lumlcy. 7. Sir Mannaduke Lumley. 9, Sir 
Ralph de Lamlcy, the 6nx I^ron, in hb robes. S> Sir John de 
Lumley. 10, King Richard tho Second sitting in a chair of state. 
Lord Lumley in his rnbes kni>elin<;, nb<n-e ttic figure R. It. It. 
An' D'jio 15&5, A* Rrg. 8. II, ilir Thomas Lumley.* 1?. 

George, 

* He meivtd kwgklwfld u a reorerdfor bii.mitiiary prowcu, ud wu 
employed by ([overnirml in tevenl inommtout ivgaciaiioat : in IbetStb, Bgili, 
anil 31U, of Hniry the Sixth, he w» gisittntcc fortlie King of EngUhd in ibe 
Sceuifth tnuint nt ihe 33d year v( Ihc nirw tei^, h« wm nait governor of 
ScaiUjiOiiftt CmUc fui Ilk; * motX diMmguiilKdiiiuil; and w« tiMnitted in 
many other *ppaiMincni> oi |;uv[inineBi. Ii ippciia ilat he wm eqinlly a h- 
voiile wiih King Edward the fourilit (at in tbt lirii year of ihii nifa he ob- 
tained a TFvenir ol bit {rmUfallici'k attainder; bad uunmoDa W parltamoil for 
ihe remaltiAcr ofhil I>(«i and wat rmployed in vadouk coiilidciili*] matteri iy 
hia Sovcraj^n, paiticutarly in tbc ncgociatlMU wiUi Kiss- Judm of Scollud, 
tMicbiug kia marriage. HtKhiinn'i D*rK*m, U. 403- 




BUKUAU. 



191 



^ 
^ 
^ 



I 
I 



^ 



Gtatgtf Lord Lumlcy. 13, Sir Thonias Lainley, who niarriefl 
EliabetJ), natural daughter ot' Edward the Fourth. 14, Jolui dtt 
Lomley. 15t flicburd de Luinloy. 16, George Luuk-y. 17» 
EUabetli, daughter of Jubn Lord Darcy of Cfaicbv, uid »eeontl 
wife of Sii Juha Lunilry, wbo wu ratorod m Uluod Uio tint uC 
Edward, aiid had Uii; aiiciuit barony rwUired. Her Iklber, (>oorno 
Lord Lunilvy, hod becii mtainted in llie roign of Henry tha 
Eighth, (at joining the nortlicru reltcU in what th<;y denominated 
TW Pitgruaage of Grace. 

The Great Dining-iioomy in the aouth-wnt tower, it elvgantlyi 
ftnccoed, and has a vaulted noL The view fixxii iJie windows 
comiaanduig the adjacent muidours, the hanks of tiie Wciir, tho 
canal fomied by the curvature of the sireiun, am! from another 
ptR of the room, the avenue prospect, with Ch*:iter and other ob- 
jects, are ddigliiful. 

In the LiUSc Diuing'Hoom are tcveral Hne purtruits, panicu- 
larly Sie ionx Lobd Luulkv, \563, a ihree-quarter piece. 
Two other portraits of ibis nobleman ur« in the Muae-Iioom ; one 
dated 1588, ihc other 13^1. Sir Juhn Lord Lumlcy was in high 
mtimstion ai Court, with small alloy, during lbftcontrarily>dix)M>- 
sed reigns of Edward (he Sixth, Mnry the Flrvt, and Eliiabetb. 
By Edward, be was restored in blood, as aborc related. In 1553 
h« was crcoud & Kni^it of the Botii, tad, with bis lady, atieiulcd 
Maiy at her coronatioin; he was one of the noblemen who iniro- 
dticed the tint Ru&>ian Ambassadurtk to Court; and was in employ 
dutioK tlie vaHy part of the reign of Queen Elixabelh; but bdng 
BUipocted of uime iiiln|;ui.- concerning the Queen of Scots, he, and 
hi« ^tlicr-in-luvf, the Earl of Arundel, with whom bu was a great 
^Torite, were amTsiud. Afterwards regaining the royal I'uvor, he 
was e^ain adtaitted into con6dencc, and was one of the Ltirds 
Cumniis&ioncn on the trial of Ihe unhappy QueeJi in whtMe causc 
h« hwl suffered ; and, to (he surprize of his iiearen, delivered his 
Dpittioo, tkat the Mnfence vnu jattlti pronounced. He wui one 
also who condi-mrH-tl RobiTt Uevercitx, Cutl uf Ecsex. But, nut- 
with&taitdiitg I.urd Lumlej's ejipnaeioiis a^oit llie unroriuiittle 
Mary, her son. King James bcMowed on hiai many marks of roytl^ 
2 condeicemion 



JS^ 



Sl'llUAII. 



eoudoccnsioR and fuvor. Canxlen affirms^ " tbst he bad so 
a vencnilion (ur the iniMnory of hh aiiceston, llist he caused mo 
rum<'n<!t (n be oircictl fvr llirtn in tlic cullcgiaie Ciiurch of Cb( 
ler-in-llie-Strrct, in order, as thfy succeeded onoanoitier, froii 
-Liulpbos down to hi* own time, whicb be bad either |ttcl\Oil out 
,of llic demoliihed mona'itpncii, or made new," Tliii NoMi'innr 
1 iiad collecttid aii r:(iemi%'« libraiy, vyilh tlie UKistancv of the celt 
braied antiqiian,-, Mumpbrc}- Uiuyd. 'J'ho bouki were oftcnnti 
purcliascd by James i\w I-'itM, aiid form, according lo Gnui^r^ 
I A vcr)' valuable part of die British MuKUm. 

lu lbi> room » aUri a portrait of Joanka Fitz-Al^v, finti 
tftfc u( John, l>ord Lumlcy, and dau-jblvr ul' Hcary, Earl 
rArundcl. 3be a cli>tbcd in a black dress, gracefully 'onHiineiit*!cl< 
wilb sTrings or jcwi-ls. fJcr tconiing was QDCommoD; sbc tmn- 
;aliilcd tbe Iphgcnia of ICuripidcs iiilo ttiglt»b, ami some of llio^ 
'orations of I&ocntis into Latin; iIm M&S. of ifac latter in her own 
wriuitg, are preserved in the Hoyal library at \\'ustmiit^t«r. She 
was ititerred in lh« cbanccl uf Ibc church at Cixaat, in Sam>}'. \ 
In the it/uioijwffl i> a fuio fuU-lcngthof TiioMAsUATCLirr,- 
Earl- of Siuex, ortayvd in white armour, and gold hruraila 
fairrchcs: ta his right bund is a ttaiT, bi^ left is rcMiii^ upon 
sword: near bim, on u luUe, is placed bi» bdmetr with on «oo( 
plufuc. Tliit Noblcinau stems to have been a fsvotito bott 
with Mar)- and Klizatwlti; ar>d wat, in bdiii rdgns, Lord-Drjiutj 
of IrcUiid. By Muiy be was also appointed I'mident ul ih«l 
iMoilfa; and la tluit capacity, he supprcocd the rcbdlioii of tfa«| 
Karls of Not tbuinbcr land and Westmoreland, [n Uie reign ul 
Eliskbctb, lie wiu the spirited rival nf I.cicc5tcr, but bis dcaib dc' 
tonaioed the contention. 

RoftKAT, £Aai. Qt S.tLisoirRir, Miuislor in the last years. 
£lisubclb, Bud tint of Janus tbc b'inU lie is dttsscd in black, 
with the George niiiprnded from bii neck by a green ribband. 
Above hts head is the motto, Sti-o atd aerioi tad on a table, a let- 
ter dirccicd to him by all hh Ullcs. 

In the Draining- Huam is ii lioe tlir«c-quart«>r length, on woodfof 
Akorkw Dvkia; with Uic iatcnptiua I'aUr ^Irut. Ho i» 

. jwrtruyed 



DUHUAU. 



ISd 



portTAynl in black, with a cnp on \iis htad, a kmg beard, and 
foutkl hii neck, a cull ur of die OrHcr of the FUcce. penduiil; h 
truttcbcon in his Hand, aud a dsgj^r in ha girdle Uuha was o( 
an anciciil Ccnoc-kc family, " niid uppi^jkn tiu-rally to have been 
a Ttrrivr bf prof'atian, liAvingr bocn rqunlly engnged for aiid 
ajftiiiu rniiici* live I'tnt, aitd Qmrlcs the fifth, to both of whom 
111 successively proved oi service and injury, lie nobly refused 
ibc sovereignty of bis vwd country, and preferred to huve hit luuno 
ncorded as ita deliverer, hy rcprcsung the coiispimcy of Lewis do 
Resco. He dkd nt Genoa 1660, at. 94." 

Sia AxTUONT Uaowvr, Matter of Iloric to Henry the 
■ - ^tjiri , and one nf the execuior« to his will. 'ITii* 19 a very curi- 
i)tl» half length. He it portrayed with a buthy beanl, * bunticl, 
and tbe inugnia uf the Ordec ot th« Oarlcr. 

Sir OsoatiB Savillb, aflianccd to the Lumleys by themar- 
tii^ of biAtiMer llatliarn with Richard late Lord Scarboruugli, 
wlioMi Mcond Mjii inherits tbe Saville cfttatcs, and heart llie fa- 
niily tMme. 

LaiiT SvDsr.i"; Holbein. This lady wa» daughter Iq Secre* 
Ui) WalMiigbam, and wile to RuUti, Larl uf Eskx, 

IJfinav HoWAHP, Uariofburry, halfkogUi. This accom- 
^bbcd DobleinBU wui antong the numerous victim* who fell by 
the tyranny of Henry the Kighth. llw buspiciun of the Monarch 
Ml cxcitfd by hit having quartered tlie arms of Uward the Con- 
feaor with bid own; attd tbe ciime imputed to bii charge frum 
tbU limplc act, wai umpiring to tiie throite: lor thu he was Cou> 
dcmnotl, and b«l»eatic«l, in the year i 5M. 

AoaaaT DUULI-Y, IJirl of Leicc»tcri ^iree-quarter length, 
dated litij. He is arrayed in a very splendid drew, ornamented 
fi^ a proftuiun of point-lace, according to the fubion of the 
linet: round hi» tteck in the collar of the Order ot' the Garter. 

lUvnr Citz-Alah, the last Earl of Arundel of that runic. 
Iltit nobteman greatly distlnguttbod himself by bis valor in tho 
rdgn of Heiiry the Mighlh, when be ran with liii squadron clow 
uadcr tbe walls of Buutogw, and quickly occasioned its surremJer. 
Auacbcfl to the Princes Mary l>y tbe ties ui teligion, be was 

Vol. V. AUaeii. N partiuuliuly 



194 



DURHAM. 



mrdcuUiljr intruin«nlsl in fixing her opon tbe thranp, ani' 
kftcnnnts appointed Strwntl of die HooarboU ; mi office whtck , 
he rrtainetl under Cltzabrth; but (ittding ihnt LciceilcT hnd m^i 
iJAOtfd him m the Qiir«n't faror, be retired to Fnnce. On b» 
n4um from tbat eouniiy, be inlmducnl ibe useof coacha into 
KngUtMl. lie diod in the yt-nr \A79- 

VuioiM other portraits arc scaltercd through different apart- 
mvuts; bal ibe ** curious old picture of Cfaancor." menlinned by! 
Dr. Slul;*!!^, in hi» Iter Honale, as bciitg preserved in this OUr 
tie, i> nut DOW to be found.* 

Between one and two miles Donh -eastward from Lomley Cm- 
.tic, in an rievaled ntuation on the nonfa bank of the Wear, itanito ' 
LAMBTUN HAlX, fonnerly called Harntton Hall, the t«si-| 
deuce of \jidy Anne Lambton, «bo ocvujMes It in right of berj 
eldest ion, a minor. This estate ww anciently the scat of lh« 
jyjrrift, who conveyed it lo the He^xmrth*, the Inst male Una ' 
of which funily died in the year l6SS, leaving two daughters 
heiresses; one of ahom married ilalph Lambton, Esq. syac 
branch of the Lambtons, ofl^mbton IIaII, on the opposite sidfll 
of the Wear: the other married Sir William Williamson, Bart*] 
of Monk^Wearmouth : but her moiety was pnrchascd by William, 
[^mbton, Caq. in 1714; and ttic whole onlBte ha» from Ihnl pe*{ 
nod remained in llie family. The late WiJliam Henry Larobton,' 
who died of a conmniption nl Pisa, in Italy, in the year 1795, 
was une of the most estimablo of human beings; and lhon| 
anatdied from the world kt the early age of ihiriy-two^ had dis^ 
played w many illustrious qualities, that his memory will bedie- 
ralmd as long as iirtue continues in be re^ipertcd. The Hull is a 
■odem building, enctod hy Bononi, but disploj'S comtdcnible 
incongruities both in its dr«ign and execution. The Library is a 

well 



* The (eliowinf artwcdote it rtltied by Mc. PcuiMnL " tVkca Janci ihc 
Fini, ia OM of hi* progtctMi, -wuenterUincd in tha CiuJr, WUIitm Jim««, 
ftiihap of Dfithmt, x ftlat-aa ol tfi« home, in otder lo girt his >Iajcit}- n 
Idea e( iW imponocv of the fimlly, wearied him with • long duiit of ihnr 
MMCMry, u> a pertod evca beyond belief:—" O, moo," uid ib* Kiag, 
giof a* finbrr; Irt mt digut ilie knnvl«dc« I faagtlacdl (ot,.)it mf mal, 
I did M ko^Adun's name wu Lumle^ " 



Dvnajiii. 



](» 



I 

I 
I 



well prapoMMWiW quR(li«nflul«r iparhnrnt. vith a. oeat gallery 
ffiiofi rvuiKi it: be»i^ « (uvd teWctiofi of Kutbras. it m famnhecl 
vith a lew twrnily iNuitin^, aud among xheia a Bne full Irn^h 
poctnit !>!' ibe tue Ocneral Juhn Lambtos, by Sir Joftbua 
Re>noUla. The Jtrouods u? ph>aiS«ot; and the ride ihrouf(li a 
tiangiog wood on tbc u>atliern bank of ikft Woar, extrvnwly beao- 
bful. A tnulitkin cxbu, that an eiioimoUN worm, or >eq>enl, 
vbich iairtlwl the rivor ti«ai tiiis spot, waa destroyed by one of 
ibe LttiiiUuBs, liy awuo* of • coal of nuora^ aai a tiiuIilaUHl 
itatUff. Of efligy, « puinted out by ibe vulgnr, ti> givn cittknrc 
to ibi tale. A coaicfil oniiwncv ia llie iu'lgtibuuihood b also 
caUed Woim-Millt witb relu«iice to the taaie story; but nu r«- 
eard« of any rcul event, on wbich il could buvo hfcn foundH, arc 
to be in«t with. 

About two miles add a liait' touih from Luinlcy Ctutte, b 
COCKEN llALL, ibe dcBOrtDd maiwon of Cicr IbbntKin, Kaq. 
This scat baa brt-u mucli colabnitiid by travcHvrs, lur tbc vanoty 
ia4 ficlurcaque b«auty of iti leeiury, and rvrloitdy witb grout 
jtWicet tboui^ ibc upgteclad stale in whkb tJie grounds are now 
kopt, and tho rvlliug of (Ik woods of late yeora, considerably do- 
tiact firuiD its fonocr citarms. The eninencc on wbicti tJw tUU 
it built, ia bounded on tiio c&«t by deep dells, and on the other 
tbmi Mdv« by llic river Wvur, wlticli How* tbrougb a luw nicky 
tbmiBl, witb difRTCiil dcgm» of rapidity. In mjiw pUce* tite 
diA riao pcrjietulicuUrly lu the beigbi of one hundred fcct; iii 
•ibm ibo ground slopa ganily to tbv brink u| tlio river. The 
ffiew of the ruitu of Fiocbala I'rituy, from the terraco furronl at 
tbc bMtoai of the cliff, is very interAUng and grund. The suutU- 
*ra aspect of ibc rucks wu furnoly plaatsd with vwtA, »nd utber 
fiuit trcra. 

FINCHALK, a Mxludod, &pot on the western tide of tha Wc«i^ 
appears tu have l>ven a place u( »vnie note in the Saxon tine^; a 
tfBod being held here in llie year 7.92. during the prvlacy of liig- 
bald, Biihop of Lindi^tHriK' : unoibur ivnud wtu held lisre in 79&: 
and, asuppcfln from Lclatul, a third, iu the yoarSlO. In tlit 
btginning ul the twelfth century-, it became the relrcut of Godric, 
a native of Norfolk, vrhu had tliricc been on pilgrimage to Jeru- 

N 2 lalem, 



isfi 



DORtlAM. 



ulem, sm). acronling to tbe Icgond of h» history, «u directed by 
« vision to rerirr hither; which having done, h« erected k hermi- 
tage aud a chapel, and, by his wventy of (iiscijiline, and uncom- ; 
maa auslcritie*, obtained «o much renown, that he was admitted 
into the cnlendet of saints. Soon niter Oodnc wuled here, 
" Bit>hop (laraUird (about ir^8) grained to the niOBaMcry of^ 
PuHuni, in frcis almi, ibc hermitage of Fmchale, with iu vntMH, 
fibhii^s, rights, and privileges, eubjecc tn Gudric's life, who shoul4.1 
hold of ihem; and after his deaih, that it might be tbe habitntior 
nf such of their brctbren as they should apjioint." The bermifkl 
deceHse occurred in 1 170, about Mxty-six years from the flay be] 
had fixed hi« residence iu lhi» retteat: (en ycam xfterwarJii (A. [>•< 
■• i ISO) Bishop I'udwry f>ranted u foundation chuiter for a cell 
Tinchalc; but it does not appear to have been carried into efle 
nil' 1196. when Henry, tbe Bishop's son, founded a i'riory ber«j 
lii^ lii-ncdiciincs, subordinate to the monastery at Uurhutn, ICi' 
IMMesiioiii were aogroeiitcd by thHous brnclMCtiom; and at the 
period of the Dissolution, were, acconlini; to Sf>ec<l, valued at' 
iV5l. I9>> 2d. per annum. It then cormsmmI of a Prior an<l eif^l! 
Monks. !wuii afterwardtit waa granted to tha See of Duiiiiuns-j 
and hag been appropriated to the support of unc of tlie Prvbcnds. 

I'Eie ruins of riNcii^LK Pkiohv are braulifully situated in a 
low vale, bordering Uic rivor, which flows in a cirrulHr direction 
beneath theclids o( Coclten. Tltcy cover an extensive plot 
liroand^ but arc so much dilapidated, that the original apprupii*** 
tion of their respective paru can unty be traced n-itit dilKculiy. 
The Church wan in the form of a crow, but »itiitll, aud apjuirvntly-.^ 
without aiiil(-s. 'Ihe nave, and part of tliv clioir, ^cvm to bui 
been originally open at the sides, us the spare* belweeu the pillar 
which supirartril the arches wbcn^m iIlc riHif was su»tained, 
filled up with masonry oi a different kind of stone, and in an inf«^ 
rior style of nrrhitccture to the retnaioder of the building: the 
-arche* of the windo^vs that have been made in the parts filled up, 
an; aUo of annther shape. At the iiitcneciion of the nave and 
<ttBiw*pt, are four maseivr culuinns wtib octagonn) capitals, which 

furra 




DDRHAM. 



157 



P 



A qtUtlnnt^c of iwcDiy-one feet. TtttM uppear (u Itavc nip- 
nnl a low tower and spire* on pointed Broli««, one uf which 
WM prrfrri till within tli««« few yean, but i> imw fiUlfti, In un« 
of lh« columns are Ihe rcmairii of a 8U>lie »lurcaj>«, Ihiit led to 
rite ftupcr-Mmclure. 'Hic rluivlcrs, refectory, and Prior's liMl^ine,, 
went 10 havr nin!>eil un the KHJib of ihi< nave: the funnvr sur- 
rounded an area about tw«nly-fuur ynrda sqture. The refectMy 
nu a haiHlsome npurtmcnt, ne*rly tw<^Uc yards in Icnglh, arhl 
•t|lil in hreiulth. IVnrftlli it was a spacious vault, nuw partly 
tilled with fulilHsh, tup^rted in the mttre by four plaia ocUgu- 
a>l pillan, from which the groins me, end extend tii thi,- pilasten 
b llic stide walU. The ribit urc of hewn stuiic; aiid iho workman- 
thip of ibe whole vault rxtreiiiL'ly {jood. Many pans of the ruim 
w covetrd uiih ivy, ami. in cnnjunciion with (he roclty banks of 
Ike Wear* lunialty fTin;;ed uJlh wood, compose »ome intcrcftimg 
kndtcapes. The bermil Godric, and Henry de Pudkey, the 
Wndcr. arc reported to hare been buried within the church. 
Nmt tiie i'riory » a f'ann-llouic, tbe appeodoges to which oc- 
cupy various poriiom of ibe ruiin. 

NKW'ION Hall, a teat ofSirThonas Ijddcl, Bait, but mw 
inhabited by the Rev. John t'awcett. M. A. itxiids on a lofty site, 
btiwern one and two mile* south of Finclule. The Maaiion is a 
{ililiD toodcrn editice, sheltered by plantalinas and commanding a 
vwy fine prosp«l of Ilie City und Cathedral of Durham, bcsidt-s 
oilwr inierntiiig vicwK to the »oulh and cast. 

Abuut two mileo noith-wvsl frvm L>uriiam, on a pleaainL eroj- 
nonce, riaing above the river ttrune, or Urowney, at BE.\Jl 
PAUK, I'ormerly adied Beearrpoire, are the ruins of au ancient 
aianiinn, or pleasure- house, which bclun^ to ihc Priors of Dur- 
batn Moiutfiiery. Uraurepairc mus originally part of ibv poa^n- 
itonsof Ihc ^-0, hut wa* obtained in <-xcliungr, about the year 
mo, by Prior Itertniro, who erected a small hou»e and chapel 
btrv. Hui;h <le DHrltn|;ton improved the buildings and tnclu«ed 
parki theivw«re pillaged and de&lroj'ed by tbc Scots in tha 
N 3 rci^ 

* Sie-YiWtvf fiBcbil0,lfiiaiy.iBStsyeai*iUi»pa«icfia. 




r"5r 



m 



M»RnA». 



nign of Edfntn] the Second, and ngnin in the Tear 1346, pr^viotH 
lotlte bAlileor Nrvtite's Cnic At IhBt fcriod S«atm^i« i«at' 
ImIiI ly ?rii>r Fn»our, whn h virppMrtl Td \»w rebuilt tlic hotue 
and chapH. After »hf [>i<4otutron, tfce iiinuur was Bppmprmied 
to llienpport of the Detut uitl Ctitipter. mid bow fenn^]Mnof 
tfjT Dean's tiUtK'. The Tuins of ihc Cliapel bit ihn moM [wtfrct, 
and display suiitc tmt urnuncnul iirchitvcnirf : tome mnalns «f 
ibe rcfrctiiry and dormitory sre fibo sIittHHng. 

ttmarvpitire wc rendcrett mefnorflblc from the eimtrrftliinM of 
David, King of ScaIr, mrantpinj; here with hit nntyy before the 
celebrated battle of Kun Hills, or Nkville's C«o»s,* as it 
wu aftrrwarxU twirtcd,' frwtd «n ek-gnnt Sigiw Cross erwtcd ID re- 
cord the Victory by Lord Kntph Neville. The haitlr, which inu 
fuugbt on the w^wileenth of October, 1346, and )sstr<l only ilipee 
hours, was oocommonly deitniciive: iho English archcR, who 
were in frt>ni, were at firei thrnwn inro confusitm, and ^n*m 
back; but hcjng iHHiiforeed by a body of horse, repulsed Uieir op- 

JlilTKTtttf 



'* In ihc CtifOni<ni« of Ami II m fit TtA'mptn, U lh« rollowing nainctvc of 
jurtlcalift v>ac*nntt^ Iftia nKmua^k engtgcninn. " Kbnvt thii t^rmCi if 
Ihc iWMBfof Fhiiip V*loya. Kmg af f nncr, Dmi^ Kiagof ScAUn, vnteiid 
ya to Um MMllt natchei, tpotl'ng jnd baioiiig, uid i»ke tjiy ioitt ih* Pyl« of 
Lyddlc. >iid awd the nublc kuighi W«iict Stlhy, Ctpuynr of tl, m Im 
tliyoe ilofc hi> owiii: f»Cf, not tuflconj hiffi lo much u to be caiifcMcd. ftnd 
■fta he c«m (o the cdmc of Dyilnni, and Tiy ihttc, ai a plxc ctuIII'd 'B««u» 
npiiie, ■ mmorvf ihc frnt vf Otrmnt, Riiiiapirli: nd thitlm raonrd 
tuny at the ciinury ibouu, conpauadiag with Ann to i(ure thfif graufldBa 
•nd nuiuii. Then William Souch, A[(.hbiil»p of Yoik, iJie Countc at, 
At>CgM| Mounifir John de Mantbiaye, Mouju«ir Hcniy dc I'crcy, JtlQUiiMir 
JUfe de Nevilk, klouMcir Rale dc Hucinju, MounMtr Tlwmu dc RolLcby, 
<hco SheiJT of Vorlahrrc, ind oiher Knights tad good men of Ihc noiih, 
tnircbcd towird ihc Scottn, and fint lay yn Ak(lii>d Park, and rn th« mom- 
l|n( cnuaiattttd willi Syr WylllmDoglu, fcitlinKOftnt band TCOiacaiMtMd 
4ie» with touch p«yac, cKipid to Burepaitr, lo King D«*id, daiiaiing the 
Fuming of iht Engliih hoti. Whcr tb«o King David luucd, and iotgJMe upoa 
a More nac to Dummc touoc, and tbert wai taken ptiioaet, «id with liyaii 
'8yi Wylliam Ouglu, lh« Counce of -M«t3cth«, and thi Counic af Fyfe. and 
grrut numbre of the conimuna of Scotland ilayn. The King, bccauic be wji 
woadid in Uk Hct, be vm cirid n Wvrk, aad thtui broa^hi iq Loadoo." 

9 




DVRIIAM. 



199 



I 



poncnU, and ihc engagemrnt loon became geitentl. The ScoUtsb 
umy wu eotirely defriled, and Ibe King bimt«ir made priloaBr; 
ihsagb. pre*kHM to ibe Aglit. be it said to have regarded ihe Eiig- 
Inh witb contcfflpi, as a raw and uitdiici|>liiwd host, by no mcAM 
annpelctit to icsiat the {Kiwer of li is more hftrdy vctpraiu. He, 
however, fvuitbtwitk grrat bravery, or ratliftdi-spc-ratiutii for lie 
KoriiH lo ask qunrtrr, aitd was taken alive with difficulrf. 
" Tfae tM:otch Kin^, lbi>ugli lit; ImJ two »pean banging in hit 
body, bu leg tktperateiy wounded, and being disarmed, his sword 
havtog been beat out (rfhit band, diKhiinwl caplivily, aiul provo- 
ked 1^ Englith by opfimbrioui lungungc to kill him, Ulieii 
iobit Copcland, wIm ww GovenMir ot' Roxlwrougb Casilc, advitnl 
bim lo ynU, be struck liint on ilw tuco with his gauntly so fierce^ 
Ijr, that hv knocked out two of hi* tccib. CopcUnd conveyed biRi 
OM of tbc livid aa hi* jtriKpner. Ujiun Cc)|>i;1und\ rcfutin); to de- 
liver up his Iloyal captive to the Queen, (I'hitippa,) who stayed 
It Newfcutle during the bnUir, the King sent for hlin in Calais, 
wbere be rxcused hts refusal so handsomely, that (he King scot 
bim back with a reward of 5001. a year in lands, where he himself 
tbould chine it» near bis own dwelling, and made bim a Knight 
Unnrrcl.''* 

I'he gniund where ihe batik- was foggbt is shoot one mile west 
ftom Durham; it is hilly, and in lionic ports very sleep, particu- 
larly towards the river. Near it, in a deep vale, is a small mount, 
or luUuck, Called ibc Mtddeti't Bottfr, on wliich "* the t loly Cor- 
purcx Clotb, wherewith St. Cuthbeit covered tlie chalice when 
be OMd to my mau," was displayed on the point of as|)ear, by 
ihe monks of Durham, who, when ibe victory was obtained, gnve 
Mlire by signal to tbeir brethren stationed on the great tower of 
the Catiicdral, who imBie<liatt>ly proclaimed it to the inbubitants 
of ibf- city, by sin^ng'l'e Dvum. From that period Itic victory 
was annunlly eiimmeuiumtad in asiinilur manner by tbc chorialers, 
till the occorrrnce of the Civil Wars, when the eostom was dia* 

N 4 coniinitcd; 



* Kyan's T»d. ton V. p. 51s. For lame otlxr psrtieaUi* oi ilia btulc, 
Hc Btaiuics, &c. Vol. I. p. »9. 



wo 



DUkUAU. 



coitlinunl; but «g»iil Nvifcd on (be Etatoraiiuo, nud ubKuved 
till nilhln ib« labt &>urtcen or fiUecn >can. 'Ilw Cnm «nxlcd 
by Lotd Nwilk] slued ntar ihe road sidi^, but wu dvfuccd oxvl 
brukcti iJuwu ui llir ^c»r l^iij); tuoii: ttcjQ, und part of the base, 
siill reinaiii.* 

BRANCKIMIIU CASTLE, an imcuUir but sinirly pile, wuc 
creeled by tlic liiinity oi'the Bulmtn; inuU probably during Uut 
eatly part of tbc usurpaik-n of Stephen, wlicn, to Witn^thfO hit 
own cau^, Ut gave tbc IkirorLs purmbaKm to build furtrcMea, and 
ciiiUuUle Hit-ir maiuiuns, at cbeir own cboicc, EroniHt daughter 
and bciicM uf Berti'ajii liulmcVt raarned ilubcn NeviU, gmndsoD 
of Gilbert deNrvJH, wLu c»tme into L^nglaiid with thu Conqueror; 
by wboia tiie bud two cliildreit, a toa aiid daugbicr. Hciir)-, itie 
ton, aM«tvd the coultKJfiaiv Uuroui. ugaiii^t King John, to whonip 

ill 



* *' On die well tide of die city uf DuctuDi, where two i»mU put «ctt 
othn, ■ oiosl fiRioui and elt^fiii ciou of uou^waik wu necied lo ihc honai 
of Cod, iu. »t the lole cost of Ralph LorJ Ntville, wSi{h crou htd tcvm 
lICfM (bout it, cvciy wty iqulfcd lo Ihc «ockct wherein the sialic of ihc c(Oi> 
food, uhlch inckri wm (atiencd taa t>tgc iijuiic >COnct ihc tolr, o< bottom 
nine being ofa^rctt thtckiirti, viz, * yjid and ■ hilf every wi^ri itut tuam 
WM the cigliih Mcf». The tulk oE Uie crou vr« intoigtii ibret yard* aad a 
hati up to ibc bolt, having e\f,H tiia *tl of one piecet Irani the lockel it wm 
Itird ini? the boM above, ttim whicli bon the tblk wu deeply ttlJcicd widi 
lead. In ihc mtdit of ihe ualk, in every woond iquare, wk* t)vc Ntvil'a Crow: 
a aalliic tit a tcoletiron, being Lord FJe«'l't aimi, finclrcut ; and ii earry 
cornir of the tackcl, wai a picturi o( one of the lout Evangeliua, AnalyMI 
fonh and cirved. The beu at ihi top of tU ualk. wai an ocunjular aUoc. 
finely cut and butdcfcd, and tnoti euiioutlf wrrouglii; and in every tquarc of 
ihc nether iide (brieof wu Nevil'i Cimi, in one iqujir, and ihc btill's had hi 
ihe ntxt, 10 in ihe lame leclproul order abc-tit the bflu, On ihe top of (be 
hoH wu a itaTk of itune, (hcing a crou a litile higher than the im,) whereon 
W1I CUT, on both 'idn of the ilalk, the picttjre uf our Saviour CIniH, cioci. 
fied i the picture of the Bleued Virgin un ona aide, and it. Jobo Uk 1 vaaga> 
lilt on die oihti: both atandm^ on ific top o( the bou AU ^bith pH:i>tte« 
were mOK artificially wiought lofirther, and finely caivcdoutol aiie entire 
(lone; aoine patu thrreor, ihotough carved work, both onUie cut aiid weit 
lidra, with ■ eoicr uf ttonc tlkcwiM over (heir headi, being all nioit finely 
•iidcuiioutly wrought (ofeiharaucafibeaame hollow nunc, which cover had 
■ covering of Ind. " Otm't Jtigkti and Memvwti, 



DURUAU. 



901 



I 



I 

I 
I 



BveutecniK of bu reign, be gave 100 muriu to bo rcstoreJ 
to fiivor, BnJ, lu k pledge or fulun: fidelity, ddiwreci two huattigcs, 
and his castle nf Unrncvpeth, into itio Kin;;'s hands, tu be Held at 
hit pldunre. Henry <iying withnot iuup, in lUe cU><n^ul]i yiwr of 
lleniy tbe Tliird, hn mttrr, IwibrI, beciime hh «ul« iiil)«ritrix, mad 
«at married ui Robert Fitz-.Maldn-t), Lord of Rnby, by who<n 
^e bad a k>ii, calK-d GeutTrcy, who, in hunor of \i» innttier, lu- 
buonl tbe name of Ncvilt: from tbis munia^c sprang tbe lumous 
EarU of VVc»tBU>reland. On die n-brllion of the Ncv.lU, in tbe 
tta^ of QuMn Klizabctb, tbi" c>vt1e aiij lonlubip of Druncqicth 
beeuM fctfetted, and were vested in the Crowo by a npecial act) 
but in lb« ri^hth of Charle* tbe I'lnl, tbvy werenold, undt-T Ihe 
auiJiorilyof Lclten Patent, to Ludy ISthldlcturi, acxl ullivn. Tbnra 
yxmn aftvrw-ard&, ibey wvro made over to Ratjili Cule, Eaq. of 
NewCBslltf, in ui»t for bit son, al'tcrwardx ijir Nicbulai Cule. 
Ili» Min, Sir Ralph Cole, in couBideretioti of the sum of l5,&O0l. 
and antniitie on the Uwt of bimself and v-'tfe, coHvrjed tbcfn, in 
April 1701, to Sir Elenry lk-4Ia»}-»e, Knt. whose p-and-ilauKhler 
dying in 1774-, dcwwd ibem lu ibu I^rl uf Faucouberg. Soon 
aAcnrards ibe tail (uld tbnn tu ibc laiv John Teinpnt, E»t{, but 
ibey have bincv bcctt purchiued by WiUittm RukrII. 1'^. ibo pie- 
■ml reudcnl, Tbe whole estate roiuists of about 46O0 ocTn, all 
of fireliold li-nmv. 

" Tb« CwMie of llranspctb,'* obwnoi Leland, " vtuiideth on a 
rock jiniong Uillc* bibber limn il.*' 'lliis i» nut ttnclly uccumtc; 
to tbesouib-w»t, indeed, the wall* rise from a r«ciy procipicci 
oearty furty feet in height, wulcred by a small rivulet; but on tbo 
east, and purt of tbe north, the ground is nearly level for a 
comidcniblc diMaivce: on ihc luller s-ides, the Caatle has been de- 
fended by anwat: the billk to Ihe wAt are loily. ThikCa»tlc, 
continues LeUnd, " is unnigly fmt and buildid, nnd bnth two 
cuurtei of bij^h builditig: tbcre is a lillle mote, that bemuielb a 
fifW peace of the tiitt court. In tbis court be three touret of 
lugging, and three siuull, ad Qmameiilton, Tbe plrasuit ul the 
CaBtie is io the second courl ; and entering into it by a great tuure, 

I saw 



3oa 



DUKHAM. 



I saw in KM>hm in iIm fronte of it, a lion rampaunL* Somt tmy 
Uiat Rafe N«vitl, tlie tint Erie of WesttuMland, builded nmcb of 
tbb hoiiie, A. T>. 1398. Tlif F.rlc tbat nuw is, hiiUi tet » new 
pcftce of work to it."| I'hc pniicipsi court, or ana. ii of ui oc- 
tBfigular form; having the body of thflCutle on the wuth-west 
side. The entmnrr to iHc area, is on ihe north, by a gKteway de- 
fended by (u-o square loiron; from which, to the east and west, 
■ whII and parapet extends, and cooiMCt& with the Cutl«. B^ 
twern the Intier and the f^tewn^, on the «asl wle, are two lar^ 
Kjuore towi.'Rt, comtiiutiicaling wiUi Itte wall, wiUt pn)jcclinf; an- 
gles, having a imall turret at ih« ■ummJc of each angle, auMained 
on corbies, open at the sides, but nut in fronu " Frum the guie 
on the wf»t, the wall is high, the parapet in many pans hanging 
on corbin: where, the wutl forms angles, it is funnshcd with small 
square turrets, an the arct side supported by an arch ; and in the 
(ioor of each ii a square npciture, to rec«ve materials from pcr- 
Hnu IwIdw, whereby tlie guuiil should annoy thoK who auatled 
rb« wall." Tlic main ptk is very irregular, from subsequent ad- 
<)itions made to the original building, whidi appears to have cofr- 
sistetl of fonr di!.hnct quiulrangular towers, having projecti/ig «!!• 
^es serving as baiiresses, and provided with untilar Uirreta to 
iboM on Ihe wall. Various modern improvements have l>een 
muilv in the intrrior for dume»tjc |iurpcm--s; H.iid Mveriil of tW 
aparlnMmts are spacious, and handsomely filt«d up. Time im- 
pnm>jnen» have been chiefly made by the present proprietor, who 
has also iTCCtefl an ornetmental tircen Mouse, onii maik seveial 
jodirioiis alterations in the pleasure grounds and potk. 

Near the Casile, " is the pnmrh Chirch of Saint Braudon, ai 
Brenspcth ; in which be dyv«i-s tumbes of iho Nevillei."! This is 
an anci«nt structure, of the conventual form, but apparently of 
difii'rent ages. The inudc is neatly decorated; particularly the 
chancel, which m divided fnun th« nave by a pointed arch, closed 

with 

* Cuin, bilkto, O', *nd ' lien nrnpant of dia Mcond. aie ihc BidnKft' 
■mu : Oie cntt ii s bull puiuu tUtcinm, 



* MaVol. I.p.6s— 71. 



4 Ibid, p. 8a 



onitHaM. 



203 



witb gabs, «nd rtnlh, canopied aiid finitbtd to tlie roof with tatwr- 
ande worit. In the midst of the rhancel is the monument and 
barial<^Ke of Maruaubt, daaghtor of Hngh, Rnt £nri of 
Atnftit4, and flrst Mif« to Ralph, Ihc Ant Earl of IVtstnorrlaiMl. 
11)* tmnb ilisf)la)5 i4)e HB^ei Ixith «f the Earl and his lady in 
w«od : the Karnirr it rtprvMnttA in a Itclm^i and roai of mail, th« 
hand* ricvstpd with f>tttitir]ct)i, a rollHr studded with f(i?m» round 
the neck, «nd on the breast, a. shield with the Bmw of Nevill. The 
latter his a high cro^vneO bonnet ; and e mantte dmwn cImc over 
(he freU arbich rest on two dop cuuchant. On the snulh of tlie 
fhanrrf, is n poirh, or chn|vclr whpirin xrvfral of lhf> Nevills lutvo 
bmi intrmd: and in whirh iwn tnble monumervrB of that fiimily 
vA RlMun, but withoni infcriptrom. " 'Itier lypth in thai cha- 
jnfHtf," Htye Leiand, " a Connie* of Westmrrlifni), iiMer to Boulh, 
ArchbtiJiop of YorV: also the Lord Nc»ilIo, hither of Uie Erie 
Ant now is. This Lord Neville died, bi§ father the Erie yet 
Ijrviiig: wberapon the Erie tok much lhouj;ht, and died at Horms 
by Cofitotlc-, in Richmond«hir, and tbcr is boned in lh« paroch 
ehiirh. The Erli- of W*MmerIand thnt is now, had an elder bio- 
(hrr, and be lycth in a lillp (umbe of nuirbie, by the hif^i altar, 
on t(i« south »ide; and al the feelc of hym be burii>d four children 
nf the Krie^ that nnw lyv«^b."* At tha end of tJic north (ran- 
lept is a tvcumbent rffigj'. su|)paeed of one of the Robert* dt 
tfevilf^ offt Colcmhin liie, finely cat in alone. Tlic 6'^\uv. appnin 
in A coot of mail, and htiod uf clmin-work; on the left arm a 
efaieM, with the nrms of Ncvill, nnd n label of fire flambraux : the 
kgiMn cnoMx), otwI sup|>orted on a lion; and bmeath (h« cushion 
that suslufiM the bead n a grouji ol lions: on the left lidc i« a bear, 
fnimlcd. ia ihts iranie(>t are likewise tvo ancient lonibs, tup* 
poaed to belong to ihu Bulmen.t Kalph Lord N'cviU, and Isabel 
his wHc, by liranc^ granted by UitJmp Dudley, September the 
SUkkj lAMf founded a chantry iicru: a second chantry Mas also 
[ iooDdud iu tlia Church, but by whom b uuktwarn. 

Bctwcoi 




+ Hutchlwon, Vol. III. p. Sl^ 




S04 




TtURHAM, 



Hetncra one and two milci norili of Braitc^pcihu IlitAVnox 
HitLi * iotiy euiiriGiice* to p«rticuUrly siUialml as to command 
view, in clwr wrtther, of (lo fewer iban ftRlit riistirs ami a VB»I 
rang« of (Munlry. Uii Ilic 'iununk is a irniurkaltk TtmtilHt, of 
sn oblofl|> form, 190 pares in cirriimCrrenfy at tlie b«se, and 
about r.wouty-four ft^i in ficrpendiculur Iici^il: it doca not ap|x«T 
to have ever been opened. 

L\NCHI:>TEIt, KBfnall strafRling villnge, but of much ce- 
lebrity, from il» cuntiKoily to tbe Komui slntiun CUitMihiinia, 
ivaituaud on tbe Smallhop beck, wbicb. nt tfiedistamcc of about 
halfa mile, uintn its wutrrs wiih the rncr Brownry. 'Htft parish 
IB very exteniiive, and wn^ formerly a rectory, havin;; sevtn clia- 
pelric*. ami a rci'enoe taffirif nt for llie mainienanfc of n Denn nnd 
9e»cn rrcbcndd, who were Mtablishcd brrc about the yenr 1283, 
by Bi»hop Beck ; but tjte Colle^ waa dissolved at tbc »uppit«ion 
of rplif>ioii» tiouwi; nnd its pOMeMJons mi di<&i|intM, that a wry 
icanty allowance is now all that beloii;^ to the ofTiciAiing miiu«- 
ter. The statniAt for the gnvemmcnt of the D«n and Prebends 
were drawn up by the above Vrelule, and conliimed by f^ward 
tbn Firat, in tlic year 1^9.1. Tlie Churrli it a handtom« fabric, 
with a squaw to^ver aiKl battlements. The interior bss been late- 
ly repaired; and ihe wiitilows di»play various I'ninnHmls of paint«d 
glos. Id :t vectm in (he wall of the north aisle is a rBCumbrnt 
figure of nn (Tclr«iiistir rla^iiig a chalice ; sitpposDd, by Hutchin- 
SOHi In hi- the effi;ry nf Dean Au^h'll, whu died in I i€t, Au in- 
Eeription in black letter, on a hm^ pliitc that »m« formerly fined 
to a stone in the middle of tbechunei-l, records tlie memory of 
Denn Itudd, whow d«ith (Hcurred in September, I4i)0. 'flw 
cover of tbf sarramcntiil cup is a Roman patera, truditiomlly 
rcpurilid in have been found at the stnliun, but at what period it 
unknown, unless the dutc I67I, engraven on it, may be pf«- 
suraed as the real era. The number of houses in this towtuhtp, 
aecordin*; to the late returns, was 137 ; of inhxbUnnis 6ib. The 
common land« of this parish, to the «up()(Hcd extent of 30,000 , 
acrw. have been inclosed under an act of the twelfth of his pre- 
Hiil Mtijaty, and great improvcmciiu in culuvution have »ince 
»ken place. The t 




^VRH*V. 



305 



I 



The noman Mniion occupi«« a fine emineocc aboat baU a mile 
»uth-n'«st from the villiige; but tliv outline nf ihe pni«)MH:t from 
It. ift bounded by stilt bigber grounds at the n^fwciive dJUancn 
flf two, ihm, and perbapH four milos, 'lliis sort of nluatiun. sa 
Mr. llonley has rrmnrkctl, is ubsen-ablc at Klsdun, in Kunhuiii> 
Urbind, and wveral olhrr plac«; and bas the advantn«f that 
■n enemy could not c»me nvci' the rning grounds, but [hey must 
immediately appear to Ihr garriwn. 

Ilis rvntarksble that thisntation. nhich bus survived the ravages 
of cultivation in an extraotdinary dcgiro, uiid it one of tlie inmt 
prrfect io the knigdinn, tt no otherwise nicntiuiied by Cumilen, 
ibin to notice, ihut he " once iliougbi it Longoviaig." This 
opinion of its name was »1») rnteriaincd by Mr, Gale, and Dr. 
Homer; but HorsW, on mniie probable evidence, refers that 
itation to Lancaster, and affirms this tu tutve been GlannUfama, 
u It ii called in the NutiUa, and whicb corrrtpcods wilb the 
GlamnaUa o( the Itiovniry. '^ I uni apt to think," continues 
this gentleman, '* that the 6nt namo ol this town (villagp} hai 
bemCtanchtiiler; computed, us ui^ual. of the Cm syllabk' of the 
old Romait name, with tlio wtird Cht.->lcr annexed to it: the (', 
for the saLc of an euter prunumriaiion, mi^t be dixipped. If 
Glanovcnta tigniry a bank ur bill ru-ur a ri^i^r, reu, tiritnt, in 
(he Brilt^b ruiigu**, nignifyitiK ^ river, (he Mluittion of the Malion 
it not wisuttablv Io th'n clyinvlo^y ; for it •iHiido on a ht^ ground. 
wHb a river (the Bruwr.i>y) on otie ude, and a rirukt (the Small* 
hop) on the other, and ml far fiom either."* 

Wbulcvcr name may be alTixcd tu the Maiion, it has e«vidently 
been of coiifidi: ruble importance. The Watlin;; .Street paMcf it 
within a few yards oaihe weit tide; and numerous monuments, 
<allan, coins, and other relict, hAve at Mirious times been found 
here-, but it diir) not nppcnr that the storc^is even yet oxhaustcd, 
n» scarcely « year pauo«, withuul loitie memoimble v«lige of Ro- 
man piety, either tu the guds, or Io the deitd, being turned up by 
llic plough. IVvious to \Uv enumeration ot these, however, we 
•ball iuicrt a dncripliim of the station itself, in tlie «-ord« of 
Ur. Hutchinson. 



■ Briumu Rgioau, p. ^gi. 



This 



206 



VUMUAM. 



" This Blaticm is of an vblQiig Ggurp, 174 pace& from north tn 
south, and l60 (torn cost to wAt, wiUiia the vaUum. Ii b«s 
survived many ages lesi mutilauil thiui any UruciureoltliQ kind 
in the northern coontin ; but of Utc naoy of the Mone* ha«« 
beett removed, to incloM the adjacent lands, and cnake the roads. 
In some parte the wall yet rcmaitu perlrct; the Ckutside is pcqwo- 
dicular, 1 2 feet ia height, built of aahicr work, in rpgulai cours««, 
each stone being •bant nine incb«« deep, and twelve long: by 
some lai^e Mui>rs which li« near tbe foot ot the will, it a evi- 
dent there was a parapet, witU a walk, nearly threa feet wide attbe 
top. At ihe w«6t cQtrancc a »tonc was dug v,j^ which ibews that 
such fnrtilicatioDihad more ornament than is commonly apprcltond- 
ed. The iiksidc of the vallum i» bailt of a^ler work; but. from tltc 
ground-work upwards, at tbe distance of about W ittchca, it di- 
mtnishagnuiually iiitbtckneu, instepsruniiin£)Minillc) ibrougb the 
whol« structure, by uhich thoMi within mij;bc iisceixJ tli» wall, aixl 
iDSlantly line tb« parapet with troops on the approach of an etMuay. 
The wall thus broken through is eight feel thick ^ the prvMilt 
surface, diminishing to somewhat more ihaii four at the totp^; 
the interior part between the facings is formed of thin slonca, 
placed inclinicut, (cflther-wise, tier above, tier, run through Hllh 
mortar mixed with rough gravel. What n rrniarMU>le, tl)ejt:iii»- 
pcar no thrvughs, as tbe masons call those stvnu «b>ch bind the 
building by going through from face to iace, or into the betft 
of tltc wall. There wiis an entrance in ili« centra of each side of 
the sqiinrc, and to the west a wide ditrii : the ground ha» bees cul- 
tivated many years on ibc other sides, as well as within the val- 
lum."* To thik may be ttdded, that the site of the Pretorium is 
still cK-arly diAtinguisbablf, nmi also a rovrvoit near tha station, 
into wliVch tbu strtmrn was conducted by a duusaul, or aqumluct, 
that may be traced winding along the rising ground, to ilio di«- 
lancc of about two miles aiid a half nonh-webi; vrheraara&Ta 
small springs, whose waters appear to have been collected into a 
capaciuuk bason, formed for the purpose, whence lliry are al first 
conveyed towards tbe station by tnu channels, which are aflef- 

wurds united. 

Alany 
* HUioiy ol Durbm, Vol. 11. p. 3^. 




DUftHA.M. 



807 



iiMny ntMBA of buildings have been discorered in and around 
ihii •UtKMi; Bod among tbcm llie ftoon of wbat b luppoted to 
bm becD a Bahruim. Th«ae »*«» formed with «|uara tUtoet, 
■uppurtcd on pilUn, about two l«ct five inctm tiigb. and more 
ihao a jrard dittant frora eacli otbcr. L'poo tlic square stonei was 
a plastvriii)^ about (bar inchoi thick, of lime and small piccei of 
brick: here tbe narks of (ire and ttnoke wen? very visible. Be- 
low the first Aoor was another, on tihicb the upper pillars retted; 
tlie inlervaU between the lower pillan beinj; filled up wilb earth 
aid rubbish. Above the former was an apart mcot, rouryanI<i 
•qnare, at the CHSt end of which waa an altar, inscribed as iottovi: 



FOR TUN JE 
A/C. SACK 
F. Ml ATTl 
CVS PR*F 
V. 5. L. M. 



Fortma AngMtIi Sacnm PvbHia MUut AftieK$ Pra/ectn votirm 
ao/d/ libeiu mento. ** I'be word Fr\r/rctus," observe! Hofsley, 
** without any thing (u)tuwing, is out unconimuii in insTriptiom." 
The above altar is now in th« Dvan and Chapter's Library ; toge- 
ther with some others found here, and two oblong stones itucribed 

Ihut: 

IMP. CXS. U. A'T. C0B.DIA 

NvS P. F. AvG. BaLNEvM, CvM 

B*SiL>Ca A oLd INiTRVXiT 

rXE cN LvCtLANvM. LEa VC 

PR. PR CvRAfTi U. AVR 
QVl&INO PRE. COU 1 L GoR 





IW. C-ESAR. M. ANToSiVS 

GoRDIANVS P. r. AVG 

PRINCIPIA EX ARMAhEN 

TARIA CONLaPSA REtTiTv 

IT P£R MERCiLiVM. tvSCvM. LEG 

AVG. PR. PR. CvRaNTE. M. AVR 

feVIRINO PR, CoH. 1. i.. COR. 



Tbe 



«M 



t>URn.tM. 



The fomwr Mr. Iluriivy mujf tt* follow*; Imperaior Cottar 
Marvwa Antnniut Corxlianus jmwm ftla jiugvttia B^meum cum-\ 
ItasHka a solo tHstriuit ftr Gntttam iMcilianvm legatum Augtuia' 
irm i^ropr-Tlorum rarante Marco AurtOo Quiruio pnt/tclo CtiJiorli$ 
frima htgloitit GordiaHf. Ttic iKriM tKus: imfentor Ctttv 
Staretit Antonvu GorJutitut pint ftiix Au^utim priMcipta ri armit- 
mmtaria rontnpjta rfttiluit ptr Merotiam h'utcim Ugatwm Aagvs—i 
taifm ProprirtariiM arcMU Mono Ain/to Qwirino pnefeKtoCo^] 
Itortit primir Ltgiouu GorJianie. 

'i'liow, couittiiiM our «utkor, *' are two curious uid lucAil \ai*l 
scriptions; and valuable, as rhpy have prc*cn>i!il to us llie natncii 
of two Propnrlors, which iilhrrwiw mmt have bpcn lost; for, UJ 
'Mr. Gale ob»crvi'», from T'iV/m Imjui.^, who was Propraior onder] 
Srvcrtn in 90S, to Jfoimiua TllUippui (wliorn be believes to hava^ 
fiicrrrded tlic latter of lltosc bcic iiic-iitinncd) in I lie yev 243«. 

['the name of no oibor Prvpnttor, or I-ejpitt.', i» any where else 19 

r be met with. It is highly probable that the two hrre meittioticd, I 
ifltmediutcly surcwded one nrolhcr, because both inscriptions neral 
erectvd not only under the wmc Emperor, but also under lh« ' 

, *>ame CommnncJor of ttir Cohort, Aurclita Qairinus, who had the { 
CBre of both ibeK work«. The Bmaliacit of ihe ancienu wet* 
public buildtngB, in uliich causes were beard, and merchants met 
for businets: they were adorited uith covered wftlk», and hmne 

' V-en deurribed by ^^truv[D!, and from him by Palladlo. Con— | 
ecrning the Utter inscription, it may not be amiu to observe, that 
the Emperor's name is here al li-ngth, Antonitta, as it is printed'] 
alio in llic FiLsii Consularcs: wc have likewise some olhcr in-- 
stHiicef of it in Montfauc<^>n, Mr. (ijtle »«)■«, thai the Annamm* 
tana signify iht^ aneiial; Mtiil I'rincipia, the quarters cilher of the 

I legiondar^- soldiers, called the Prinapes, or the place where thtt 
ligns were kept: but, from a pit^age in Tacito.*, In iprisprin- 

'•eipiit atvyrvm auiQ,* one would rather conclude the latter to be 

I the Ocneral's pavilion." Another stone noticed by Horstey is 

fibscribed as follows: 

CKDIO 



" Rirt. Lib. I. Cip. 48. Sm «Im> Gordan't Itin. Add. p. 14. 



DraRAK, 



909 



«CE?J10 PR^TOR 

CL EPAPHRODITVS 

CLAVDIANVS 

TRIBVNVS COH 

il LING V L P M. 

OfKio Pratori Ctaudiut Epafthrodiitu Claudiamii TrUnauu CoAor- 
ti» Secuuda Luigumtni, Votvm Libcnt Ponn'r Alerito: this stpiic 
looks like n pcJfsuU, and socms, by its regular square cavity al 
U)ft tu bavc bad 5ome(hinj| fixed upon it; and it is my opixuun 
that ttiis 4toue Uas MUtoined some pillar, or aoiacwfaat of Uiat na- 
turet and that Uic moDumcnt bus been creeled to the boaor of 
Gatiutt tiic FrjEtor; Genius being a [iroiKT namu, fraquent iu 
Gruicr. This compliment is paid by Cluudiiu Epapbruditta 
CIaadianu% ilie Tribune of the 6rst or seoond Cuhart of the £i- 
gMu: cbc second Cohort of these people was in Biitain, as ap> 
pean ff om other inscriptioin i and in CitqiJcn (Gibion's editioo) 
a. unajt 1 u H:t before the oiber id ttiii InKiipUoo, w «s to uak^ 
it plainly the second : then: is, I think, roun fur it uii tbc stone, 
but the pari where it should be, i> brokeOf or wuiu."* 

On anuther stone discovered here, and represeiiltd inihe Britannui 
Rotnarta, is a Corona supported by two winged Victories, with the 
UJUol symbMli and drapery, and in the common altitude. Willi- 
in the Corona is inscribed in ibrec linn, LEG. XX . V . V. FCC, 
Legio Vkatima valent -actrix frctt ; and beneath the last lino ■ 
boar, which Horsley observes, may imply, that ihjs memorial was 
erected after some victory over the Caledotiiaijs, ubiainod by this 

Among tbc altars described by the above writer as belonging 
to this station, is one to the local god Viliret, thrt-e to the god 
Ar«rt, and tlirvc without irwcriptiuns: on one of the tatter isarudc 
Kulpture, sujipoKd of ilie Dex Matrts; on the tiecond a toad^ 
trhh tbe usual sacrificing instrumentSi and on the third, two rude 
pQtitcr^, supporting a pediment. On the opposite sides uf ano- 
ther altar, which this gcnilcman obtained here, but of which the 
capital was broken off, were (he remains of inscriptiom in twalan- 
gna^, Greek and Latin, as follows. 

Vol. V. O 

* BrtUAfl'^ &&auu, f, syi. 



su> 





DUUIIAN. 


. . cmt 


■ - i 


♦>AOr 


. . no 


.IITAXO 


T. >L. TITIXNVS 


..JhlAP 


TRIB 


..c 


V. S. L. t. M. 



"To haw imcriptioiw both bcforo ind bchinft, is s MiiguUr 
curiosity, of K^iich I imictnbcT no pvrhltel instance in Briuini 
uiilvu tlic brautitui aitaiin Cumbcrlniid' be lakcti fur such; but 
to hsrc sQch iincriplions iti two diffL-cvtit fanguagn, is yet mom 
trmnrkAblc. The Latin inscnptiim socins much ihc Bome wiili 
(Ite Gr«l( ow:', excepting ihc diffprcnt lafigoage nnd cl»aractw; 1 
lAiiill tlirrcfiire spculi lo thr furmer, ta bang more posy nad per* 
frcl: Alsedapio Titui riaiiiis Titiaiim Tribamis f'ufvm Sokit 
t'Atrtttimme mertto. ThftI there were some in ttin part of tll6 
lalnml, •rho were willtiig (o pay rrgard to (He go<l» which presided 
OTerheftlth and receiver,-, Mpprun Trum tlic sculpture at Ki>iii;« 
bftm, in Nordiumberland. This is the Kcnnd iMtance of the 
OfeHt clmriictffr u!od in surh ifiscriptions in Britain: tl.* other i» 
tlic fiiiiunte ftltar at Corfcridgc: no doubt thry have been erected 
by WNiw ftUxlliairi« thai c&me from Gtvecc, or its Qcighboup- 

kood."t 

'i'tie last Htar mentioned by Flonlejv is dedicated to Jupiter, hy 
ihfl G<>fauK of Vardali bone: it has the (bllo\riik° muHtateil ip^ 
scripttun : 

. O M 

, . . ATI con. 

VAKOVLOR 

CR RiiX 

V S U. M. 

The Inic reailing of thi« has j^vcn rise to vnriow confrcUinEi 
Hinong aiitiqusnej, Uut is must likely as follows: ypri OptimO'^ 
Maximo ixsaltUiv Cuh^rtit VatdjilorHm Chivm ^imwnwtitt Ejjuu 
tpuif t\c. TliJB trilt ap|ieur m^ie evident trnm the next itisc/lp- 
tinn, nliich is ou a lurgc ultnr. luuiid ui this station, luid uum 
9land)nji oj^xinst the «e»t wall uf bir Thpiniu CUivvnag'ii miuttioa 
at Greencrofi, nboul uiieiaih! |j:ur;^ Uuicliesler. NVU, 



> Sk B«ii'tte<, Vol. IH. p. Ml. 

•I* i 



t Biiunni* Romiiii, p. 194. 



DURHAM. 



211 



KVM. AVG. ET 

GEN. CoH. II 

VAKDVLO&K 

C. R . E >^< . Sva A/ 

TIITO AVEN* 

To. Lie. AvC. f RO 

f». riRASVS TRIB 

• * ■ • A 



to bf 
k Vmr4x 

I 



ThH, obserroB Mr. Galp, ii) a letter to Dr. Hanlrr, dateil 
Jvnc, 1735, the year in wliich it wits discovered, " is ««ry curt- 
oai( at It Kive» u» llie rumc of a L^attu Augtatalu, and Pn> 
pnstoi billKfto unknown in Britain, and which ought, m 1 ihtrikf 
to bf n»d u follows : Numuii Augiuli ci Gtnio CoJu/rtu uvifwdir 
Vmrdi»lorym Ctpnum Homationfm E^ntate itUlia/ix nb Antulio 
to, Lrgttto Aitgutti proprxlorc. F. Tiramt Tribmiu dot 
catqut rttt. The Varduii were a poople of Spain, adnulU'd^ 
as the words dcium Romaaorum may Jcnoir, to tltc rreedom of 
tbo cily of Rom« fnr Mmc cxlranriltnary nirrit, or b^ nooic tm- 
pcrur*> fiirof ; jierhttps, tiieir countrjmao Tmjan"*, This wis a 
pnvilrsie fre^ucnUjr confrmd upon fbreigacn, even to wbala 
towns and nations, and wai at laat connnii nicitted, by Autoniaui 
Piim omxilfttain coimnna n^cciis ; by wlitcb it Moau k if this 
■iiar bad bccu ercclutl before the ^cncia) gmnt of Uiat Emperor ( 
fiw it would have bten no great honor for ihvM yarduii to valtM 
tbemtelTci opori, tf tlicy had er^oyed it oaly in coaimoa with all 
Ibe D»t of liic woild.'' Near the above alinr, at Grecncruft, are 
wmv ulber njio Irom this station ; and aiBoftg tbf^ni a *calpture 
CKKtIy umitar lu one oa a ftlune built up m the nr^ry wall of 
Laocbcstcr Cburcb, )>u|«^»jteJ a Gciutu by Hunk)-, and whidt 
tcprBK-nu B male %ura, ixiked lo the waist. su»tiuiiijig a corau* 
cofUH ia one hunJ, and huldiiig an altar in ihv mhcr. 

In pl(iiigl>m<; a lictd on thciMrllienst side of i|ie slatton, in llto 
jvar ij9*, Kflcin votive altar, twenty inches in beiglil, now in 
Ibt ptMOMon of Cu|tTAin Orn^by, of LiiichcUrr, was Jk>«ovcrod, 
bavmt 4h« fvllowing itisctifjliuii neatly out. 



9tt 



DURnAM. 



DEO 

MLVANO 

MAXC. DIDIVS 

PROVINCIALS 

a. F. COS 

V. S. LL. M. 



Dra Siluato Marcus Didiat PrmincinlU Briw^ciariuM Connf' 
tit, Votum Sohil Lihtnt'utme Merito. B(s>dc« tlie sbore in- 
Mrnption, HietW », oh one nde, S &int outline of tli« Seeesjritaf or 
Cuffer. TWo other altars tonaii at this station arc tww in rnir 
llMMisior) : one of them, about ten inrhn aAd a half high, and 
six inches wiilc, is much omamcntod, but lias no inscriplfont tW 
other, nearly the same sire, has been inscritiefl with ihrec llnei," 
but (he letron are too illi^ble to he made out. Thi« wu (fitcc»> 
vctrd on Ihe vrJin of ifac Marion, about a year and a half ago, by" 
Sir. T. W. Greenwdl, of die Ford, whoic father i» ttfe dwner of 
the land; and has had several rude scutptun-s that wvrc found 
her* bmll up in litt garden waU.* Sercra] Roman coins, one of 
them, an Antoninus in good prefiervarior. and other antiques, 
found in the arra of the station, or the adjacent fit-Ids, ott in tba 
possession of the Greenwtll htaWy. 

CREEXCnOFT, B deserted scat of Sir Thomas Clavering, oc- 
cupio an elevated and commamling situation, wltcnce th« yibw of 
Latichester, aud tlie winding rale, i» extrrmely beautiful. Tbc 
grounds arc pleasant, arid contain some fme wwnIm, and also soma 
ornamental buildings. The mansion is a •spacious but plain struct >J 
turr, sheltered by plantations '^^H 

CROOK-HALU called Croi« i/i/^A in the records of Bishop 
Tji'ngley, is about one mile and a half nonh-wet from Greenrroft, 
but in lAUchater parish. This was I'ornieHy the Mtate of th« 

■ lit HuIclkiniM, Vol. lit p. 368, 14 a cut, purpoiiuig to f ipuMMi the 
ivo mott TonnbUe of tbtM Riilptum : thvy Mr, kovrnn, eiirt*Ml)i di*> 
■imilaf. The 6iu, wliicb it the cut of ■ ftanlc figure tauaiainf ■ comncopla, 
h MideaUv a Komaa wanior, l««nln( apian the iid« of kt hone Tbc ockt 
ii mo (ar ot>IitciaUd Ui b« tiaccd, bat ii whoJly onlike Uia rtpteitnciiiM^ 



bUllHAU. 



91^ 



I 
I 



William de Hilton tlJMwted it lo P«lrr l^lliifl, from 
wbom^ by vanoua poMrMon, it brciimo the propeiiv of (be Bif 
km. Mh. TiioMAH Bakkr, (be celebrated Hbtomn of St. 
John's College, was bom here.* 

WOODLANDS, between three and Tour miW norlh-wesi from 
Lancbotrr, is the vny ftpproprinto nBme bcstownj on the wat of 
Thomas Wliitt^, Esq. by «ho30 inu«t prai^te-worlby exmiom se- 
veral bundrrH acm of a. <lrc*ry and bl««k trad of Cnunlry )iav« 
been eoVfreH witli Huunshing woods. The Innd wns purchiurd of 
the coramisuoncn appointed under the act already meiiunned for 
indoiitig the common lands of this pariih, uiid the iiDprovernrari 
were coon artfrwanls began. The plantations comprdiend boib 
fbffwt and fruit tires, and many hundred thousand are now (grow- 
ing OD the estate. For this attentioit ro planting, Mr. White 
bu been honored with Reveral silver and gold medats hy itie So- 
ciety of Arts, The munsion is a neat structure ot his own build- 
iuft before it in a pleiuunt lawn, and some amall pieces of water 
lately formed, tlte tenuinatioos of which arc so judiciuuity con- 
ccaLed by woods, as to excite the idea of much greater extent 
tban they really possess. The aqueduct that !>upplied the station 
at Lnnchcster runs through the grounds, and in some part of its 
courM lias been again approyrinted to the conveyance of water. 

BKAULKV HALI^ a neglected iind ()iU|>idated moiiMoaof 
the Bowes fiuiiilyi lies in a fiue valley, bordeiing on Housliit 
fieck. It was embattled by licence from [!i»hup Langlcy in tliQ 
reign of tleory the Sixlb, and was fortilted with deep nooti and 
B ounaiu wall. In tbe front is a projection apparently of tfas 
^fft of Jaincs (be Fitslf wiili large windows, and in a more ftiiiahed 
Kyle than the oiiivr parts of the building. Ti^ lower apanmcflU 
ue vaulted. i 

WOLSINGHAM 

'ta Kn irregular town, pleasantly situated in the vale of the 
Vnr, w a point of land formed by the confluence of the Wear 

3 and 



'* Sfr piriJtulin of hb Life) VoL II. p. 7^ 



su 



I>L'»J1*K. 



Mod iho WcBctov. T!ic Cturei tiMubi oii a liwag gtvuiid on the 

HiLi Hilci liui dnjiUys nolUing rcnuitkiU>le. XcwJtaro some fe> 

inuki uf ft cMiiirfonbilo tmildin^, ioclooci) with a deep moRt, iu|m 

puMcJ, l^ 4i.>mo writer*, to huvc IxxajMitof > niuitastcry, fbuudod 

by Menrj' 4c I'uUwy; but liutcbiiisoa rtlen tfaetn lo Xhv aocient 

lUbor-lwiuv of th« UishviiG', wbidh i» niuitiuiied in Ututinld'a 

iunty. Tlie inliabiuutA o{ ititt puriili, w:cut<liiig U) iiie loic 

citimi, aiDouu 10 18U: Ibe bnuMS to ASM* TH» viewi down 

lio Wtmr from th« lull abov« WoUin^bnio, tueluJe * very »x« 

vnu»« will Insuitifully dtvcnitHxt tri";t al' country. Between tiiit 

ra tuid btJ>iibopc, liio vinuniciicviunnl of tb« lead ihilnct is 

vuiy «b«re iuiipikUKl by I«rgc parcvU ul~ li-xd lying nuar tb« 

iikt of lite ixmJ. Slid fruui tbe blue unubolcKime vi}}oan 

ling tmtii tlie »malitii'* milU in Uollibppe. On BoUUlepe Can* 

loij, in llitt yrnt 174.<J. wu fuund k l'u)in«n altur, vriili sn ia-* 

rlpltun lt> lliU purport, ^t/iirto lattb^o Mirim C Tetitu Krr«* 

H-JUinrnM ^rvf/*. Mi£ Stiutifntt oi ainrum ciimue/ofm<x cap*-, 

turn, qticm vtalli ONtCfcuan* rj0a pfadaii m9n ^tiin-Mt. K«i«irt| 

tiiUtiltr fwmt. 



STANHOPE 



) ]i ft Hnall lowii, on the north bftnks of the Wear, ehrrflyin-j 
rliabitrd by tniiipn. Tito ]>rlvilvgc of ■ mftrkcf was orlghMlly; 
^granud it by Cardinal l.n»|>ti<y in the year U{?l, Knd icvtred 
fby Irtlen i^leiil in Ih*- ywr |6<).9, lhii>ugh Ih* influi-nc* «f llr, 
fSssire, (lie llicn rector. 'Ilie CAvrvA is « pUin ntwl »nn«iit fw> 
I'tiric, ittunding on a ri»ins scound lo the nunh of the town. Oa ' 
^ttic woft iiAit in an emiiience, called CwHz fiilf; its soulbenf 
It ift washed by the Wear, from which it rises to the height of 
103 prrpendifuUr ft-et. I'he summit is of an oblong 6guro» < 
thirty pacfs in nultli, ilivldcd by a ditt-h inlu tnn trrpguUr 
part»i aJioUicr ditch drli'iids the acc^itity to ih« north aud ca>i» 
l^irherv lh« lucvnt is cawLft. A wall of ublur work, itrosgly c» 
IDVnteO, is !>uppoK-H to ii^ire \Ktn CflrricJ ruuiid the whole Sam- 
fail, from the rL-niains of fuutidatiuns diiiCovercd a few yean agn. 

li 




I 
I 



Inkgnnl uriontbinadc hy Qixhop lleck, tli» tsdcnoininilcij the 
Ctode of Stanhopr; but on ulti^r nTConh concvming ii kit rx> 
twit. Tradition rc[K>rls it as having Oven a fortress E>r rnnote 
origin, anil tlcnmlrslird during aci iiKrunion of ihc Scots, - Ai a 
fthuit distance fmni the town, on tbc wnt, a a spacious oM buiid- 
in|t railed Stnuioj)e Halt, (armct\y th« lunnor tiousc of the an* 
cifnt family of f-'mthcnlnnliaugh, ibc \asi of tilium nu vkia at 
llw battlr of llockstct. Tlie liviiifi of lliift eKtcmivc puiih ^ 
wcrth about -^OOOl. pf-r annum. In the returns ondcr ib« po|>u- 
latiun act, ibr iuhabilnnti of Stanbopr lowmbip arcniuincniietiat 
13^9; the houses ai I<|€: ibe tuhnbiiaats of. Stanhope Form 
quarter, at 2143; the imiiM«, B( .366; and ihc luhAbilaniii of 
Staahopp Pnrk qunrtrr, al ll(i$; the bnuvs, at l^i. NV-ar 
tlti* tovn, on the north, ii o cavern o/conudi'mblc length, vaid 
Eo abound with aialactitts, and to cxt«nd D«arl^ a mile, 
' t>TAXMnpE Pakk, a larjy? trnct of (>)cvstcd Iuik), b«l»n^ng 
to the See of Uurlmm, between Stanhcitcund St. JobaV UVanlalc, 
ami ibc hiiis on tlic opposite sidv uf tfa« river, are rrgardcd by 
.biltoriara as the plncn whci-e the nniiirs of Wwanl ilio Third, 
jind of Ddugtfls, the Scoli'h rhicftuin, wcro cncnmpcil lifiiien ihtyt 
in ti^t of ciirh uthrr, without coming to a (W-cimvc cfi^^wcat. 
The Enjlish army coiwslwl ofuboiit 60,000, cbivfly fwot wWirr*; 
the Scotch force was Mholl^- coMpowd of cavulry, and, Hccord- 
inf 10 lltcir own hi»loriun>, anounted toiijitOO, Thc!>cot»ic 
lenKth rvacuatod t)tcir cauip in the tugbl. aud rctrruln) towanli 
their oun ronnlry with w much prli'ary and cclcrit)*, thiit the 
English Could only oTertokc part of the rear guani, who were 
Rtadv ptiM>iicn. lixlwurd h said to hdic " wcpl triidLTty," wfatm 
tic found tltcy liad c*<;«[)rd with surii small luut. It was in Ibj* 
parii thai the Elisliu]) nf Durham uiicimily hcUl lui gmi fore^. 
huntk: ihv Ictiants bring obliged to rrcct a tjibcrnacle, to luinisb 
the neci'ttari^s fiT him and his Hiilc, to maiotttin bit dogs, &c. 
■ikI ho hud here his master of tlic fomt, his bow-beaivr. and 
olbcc suboidiuiile oiliivrs. Thf cirtumlcn-itro of the parli i« up- 
traidb uf twelve n»\a: Lvhind iiieiitions it as bciiif rudely incloivd 
whhktaRe. 

O* ST. 



tl8 mfRtfAM. 



' 'VarimK ans tni liiclirymAtorifa have ilio brcn fHind 
hftr ; ingrriirr with snnw wain ctii nn cnimf eornrlJaftt ; on one 
conit^nn wm Ifar tifiuir of Hsechus, wttb a tliyrsus. Twn of ibtf 
altirfs brionjims rn Ai» iiaiitm nnt inscribed H> the Dra yfulm: 
«a a third, Ihuugh mudi drfocvtt, CarnOen tmced' th« foilomag 
m/ris: 



TRIfl COHOR. I 

carYov .... 

MARTI VrCTORt 

OtMO i;oci 
EX Boaio 

EVESrVl. 



TriAums CohortisprinnrCarrm. — Tllarll Heforifofi etfimo Fvea- 
ivi. Oil rtiis Htir«l<ry ohwrvo^, " lh«r ifwr Jtomans nuiilf an ima- 
phinry go<f of jlonm FxrufHt, iscrrlMin; tut \ have atroc jcalfflisy, 
tfmt, tntTrail of Carfucionnn, we shmilil read CorMoc fo jioH .■ dW 
CtAtin Comovionim is in ilic Nniiila, ami was at Panr MVu.'* 

BindiFiitrr lla^ b«n [insscj.M.-d I>_v itip Wn-ns rrtun die lime of 
/iiinf9 dieFtrsi; iihonr the rommoiircincni uf wliwo nn!ji, liiF 
maiiiinn-hotiVT flpjy^rs in hi«r hrMi cirf^-d. It is a wncreWe- 
)iiiiliriit;r. Airhwrngt: Its i-iiviirflrei |>rr-M-ii[ II wnttf at Ixiiutiful 

^)r knnrnl L<m?ui;h By prcecriplinit, is ddighlfulfy ntualnl nn 
an ciniilencrf boiiiHicit oii ibt- north hy the river Weur, and on tli« 
soiiih-tust hy ihi' river Gimnk-Ks. wliicli f]o»'H into ilic Wear a lit- 
tle alitivc ihi- town. 'Ilir "miind mi utiieh il stunils is nearly 140 
Sett above iKc Icvrl of iho plain bolow; Um- dcscvut on each Mile 
ij parity fornn-d ipIo hanpris gurHMi*, mid the buildings occtipy 
(111- l>riitt niid nmaiiiii);; |Ktrltiii) of tliv dnrliviiy. Thv inaitor bc< 
K>u|p to iIk> ItUiops oT inirhnni, who have a WauiiFul I'ftlace 
brm 'J'hr ftni IVIhIc who ciitifc it I'or a n'^idciK-c •mm Uibliup 
Ri*rk ; uitil l» th)^, [K'iliii[Ki, is lo bi- ascribed tU' piTMrnl impor- 
lann* n| tlir tonn. lit 

• ArchMloeU, Vol. TIL 




nvRRAlr. 



m 



In iV OoWfn Tlukff, it li calfcd JVor/A <*iY«#*/, or .fr/*f, ind w 
«MleJ la <*<(tnin, " r«mly-tw«> vilhinK, pnch of wtioai hvM wi 
ttgani; t)if latii), midvrin^ tvre dtald^n of BmHttak, tind on« 
«bf4t or w«h(i of 9(at-iTinlT, «nd lire tike of ttimI or bivwl nmi 
and oMs, pit>litp«tw of avff^onnin, I'M. cormi^, one Itrn Krwl 
imtvfgi; rhm cords nf wortH-lnnth, r^brou^tt lo AurklttMl, tttkl 
MttKtuI ft half if CRrwH to lJiirh»m; thcjr wrmtghl hro dup in 
«(* wfcit from ih? 6«y of St. P*-ttr ad Vmeal* tij Waftinmm, 
■wt from thcocp one day in each week the r«t "f 'he year; be- 
siJes they cacli prc|Kirccl four ]H>riioii5 of land in itutamR, wild llie 
«bolc femtly, wwpe the houwwjfc, and frw nth curuAtr plnugti- 
^ ami ttflrrowMl iwo srrrs and a half extra work. 'The whole 
vill prnimlett n mtlrh row ; the hcuiUK>rough matt had an ox»ang 
«f larNl for his tervvx ; th« smith bad tho like; the ptintlce hhdi 
IS ftcres, and had iho «tHii^niary iIipevm, mnlefin^ rntirscoiv tieiM 
id Hw Itundrt-d t-gs. The li>lU »f htfr (brg or bdrhry) prddo- 
89. and thetntlla 94 tnBrkii. St^Tnteea cuibigvn wrought 
three daj-* at bay. ind had a fanhin;; a day. The bormish wji« 
lumed oot, with l\te profiw of the Iwniflgh-foBrt. Ate. ne 
961. Mbl 4^1. 'Ilio fiilling-miK prodoeed 4^1. Sd. Tlie park St. 
4th ilO ncnw nf inendnw therrin, O." 
A Gnmmar Sdiool waa esmblielied Kere hy Jam» the Fiwl, 
I ibe pwiiion of Anne Swyhe, who «idow«d it to the iimount nt 
FN), annuelly. The cndo^rmtftil wt» au^etiied liy Bi^np NrHe^ 
llnd ki» henefactifrti was confirmeil by Bishop Morion; wlio ah» 
l^ropriated the old Clmpfl (the iriUhi-r Chintrh bring nt St. 
Aftdrrw Auckland) for a School House. Sinw hiti time^ how- 
uttr, ihn Chii|M-t h«* been njboiti by «iib*ciiption, and cpcncrl' ttv 
inine »er*ice, the School' being co«fi(ifd l" Ihr npftrtixenl* an iho 
grouwl floor. 'Hic pi«9onT Hishop nho hn» improird it iMtMidrr- 
■Wy at hii <yvn ejrjrt'nce: nnil a new fewer hn,« bacn added- ro-the 
woii end, fruni an etef^tnt Hejign by ^^r. Atkinson. 

Tbe Bl»Hor*a P'AVACt,tnCs»ri.1t, iimndu at Ihv north anj^ 
of (l»e twHn, aiwl, together wiib the conit*:iiHl ",%?!•*, c'lwn aKme 
6\c acm. " It stwinJctli," wys Li-himl, "(ma lirte Irill- betwiit 
tnu liveia. Tliit wns a rery utncieiit immor-pliirf liiDipng (0 the 

Bishop 



sta 



ktrSElAll. 



Bi^n|t of Dur»nie iit Akelanft: Aiitoniofi <le Bek« beg^ fint to 
lUKULeliatc it ; ke made the gmt hsullc: Ut«r be div«n piUtn oi 
bUck nMrbIc, speckled with white, mod the «j(cei!diog taire grct 
ctnmbni. irith oUivr ibrntw lU ms^o alio nii «xcMtU«g goodly 
chqwllo ihcr, ol' Mm well squvntl, ami a college with Deae «wl 
pRbeods yn it, and a quadnot on tiie wutb-wcbt side of llw ca»- 
telle for miniuen of ike college. Skirluw, Bishop oi I>aiTitne, 
mii(le Ihe goodly gate-bouM at entering ii)to the csstelle of Ake> 
land. Tbcre rs a lairc park by ilic caucllr, having fallow doer,, 
wild bulU aud kinc." if 

Almust ull tlip buitdinfti mcatioocd in tbi« dcwrriplwn ha?* 
b«e» debtroyed ; chiefly by ^r Arttiur Hstdriggr, on whom this 
place was be>tow«(l by die PArUatneut, and ivbo, attracted by the 
boaoiy of th^ Mioaijon, having determined to make it bis principal 
residence, erected a magnificent bmiso witli the raairriala. On 
the Restoratioo, the former Itinliop, the nuinificent Coun«, was tv 
called to hit diucesc. " He had a (mUcc/' olwtire* L*«iinaa(, 
" ready Tor his recrplton ; but by au vxcvas of ptcty dccliuod ma- 
king u» of it, rnmi the coii&ideniiion, that the ^lotw of ibc ancient 
Cbapvl had .been sacrilrgiously applied (owanb ihe building of 
thri lute habitntion of fnnuticism. He i)i(?rcforc pulled it down* 
and restoring ihe materials to tbcir ancient use, built the present' 
elegant Clmpet ;'' bnicaih tlie Boftr of whieh Ihe pious re-fuunder 
lin interred. 'I1ie other parts of llie Ca»tl« have been erected at 
dificK'iit iim(-», and the whole pile it in contequcuco of au irregtl- 
lar form. The cntrutKc from lh« town is through a new Gothic 
gniewity and screen, exliiiding3IO fert, designed by Mr. James 
Wyatt, and from thence to a Uothic porch and vestibule, which, 
on the right, conducts to the Chapel. This is eighty-four fieel in 
length, and forty-eigbi broad: tl»e roof is sui^rted by rows of 
cluilerod piUan; it has been lately decorated with anew allar* 
piece, and « picture of (be RKSimaacTion, by Sir Jusbua Rey- 
nolds; being the original deMgn made by him for (lie new painted 
window at the east end of Sali»hury Cathedral. Hen: i» also m, 
hwidsonui monument by NoUekins, to the tnctnoiy of Bishops 
Trbvoh, who is represented silbpg with a hook. Onthejcft, 



dubhaw^ 



SSI 



tlie v«siibul« leaHs tnto the Hnll, a very elegant iipartinent, aoil to 
lb« atairoue of Ihr ADli-Kocim, and Urent Urnwing-Huom; (he 
latter » sixty Wl kHigi. and tliirty bruud: ju iTiUrnal finisliing, 
to^etlter witb put of tlic Anti-Room, ataircaw, Bnd votibulr, 
wu luely executed fmra dkugns by Mr. Wyutt, at the expence of 
rtie pmene Bbhop. In the Dining-Fariour, lifty-ibiir toet by 
n»eiity>four, arc fuU-ienj^h paiiiungs of Jacob and llic tnelve 
FatdarctH, by Ribrra. more klK»»tv by Iba appdlatinn o( SjNig- 
■dIcKo. Ilieic an: tiuely executed: tbey w«r« purcbas«tl at an 
•action, and pmeMcd to the I'alacc by Bishop Trevor. Ucro are 
likevist four heads of the £vaiii;el)5ts, by l.AnlrnRC; a painting nf 
tl» Faar fathcn oi the Latin Church, by Bluccmani and bw>- 
iher of the Corn aku rnuulVf by 'litian. Thit is a vi-ry line per- 
bmonee: it contains rvpnsentaiions of three fnU-grown petMiis 
■myciiia flowing mantles, and of six children, all iiDecUnji, and 
yiitiiift lAtfi croos. Ill the Bre^ikfo&t- Room is a good porltait^wt 
Ttcuo Br A us. the Danish aMronotner. .oiii 

*rbe park atid demeuie Unds connected v-iih tiiv Caaile contniii 
acm: the ground uou ihc tnamon has liccii Judiaoiisly latJ 
Hi in slopes and tunccs. bo as to cuniioand a great variety oi 
The MRMT ,1uu1k»i>is are compowd of wild and ir- 
jnlar woodUndir'baldiClifi and enuuenccs, mingled in a pic- 
i]ue manner { the more diatant views are composed of tirK 
Cnltinitol kioucuIs, awniKted by the windings ot the Wear; 'the 
nrcc Cauol<:« flow* nl the bolluiii of the lawn, nod it cfMved at 
fame distance by a stone bridge, at ttie building o^ nbicb, in Uta 
year 1767i a ttoman tiro of greyivb clay was ditcoveivd, filtcd 
IJlh aibe^ ettrth. aad hujnaa bonea.* 

from un inquitition puil attrttm, taken in the .fuurtecutli year 
of Uuhop bkirkaw, it appears that Diuncsia PoUard died svioed of 
certain lands held here in socage, by the tenure of presenting it 
fisulchioii lo ihu UiJiop on ht> fir>t comiitf; hilhcr after attaiiiiui; 
that djfnity. 'JV ciTeinony is atiU conlinued, and accompanied 
with the lollowiQj{ addrcu. " My Lord, I, in behalf of myMtf. 

ai 



* Gjrit't Mtaiuuiptf. ■ 



f^ 



DOBS AH. 



at veil M MMDe Other ftmewan of tiic Potinrd's binds, do bonUf 
prMcut vour Lnrdsbip mth Uub ^IcUon U yuur Ant cotaiag 
tjcro. wbcnmith, tu l)ir tnulidsii fDeth» lie slnr of itU • *rnott»- 
(HH xrfHmU whkb did much hunn (o aian umI b«Mt, and hy 
perfomitt^ tlits nrvtcc wt: hold oar lMt4»." 

On Uic ikorth<-irc3l side of HnlM}t Auckluid, b NtWTOir Cjir 
RnioCK, a MMtdy fidinc, crawi^ iho Wear, erecti-d by Babop 
Skiclaw nlmui ths ytar 13*N>. li t'lms tn a frtiAt height above 
tiic ririT. an^ conattsof two arrbeav one of a arculur form, 101' 
1l-«l in the ^pan ; tho othct a pointed arch, of ia&et}--oitc fcct span. 
Uti the twrib banlu of the nver, beyond the brid|^, is Nkwtom- 
C'ap, a tmiof ttw fitwJbea family : ihe iilualiuo u )i>lty, oiwJ tfar 
sQitDiuidiuf! pro«ficct«cicetdiniily bcavlii^al. 

ST. ANDREW AUCKLAND iccdcbntted from thcCiiunb 
having bra tnadc collcgiaio by IWwp B«ck, .litniyi) dicre «p< 
pi'un to liaw botB aonie prcviooi MUiiduiiou livre, the cdificv 
jttaniis OD a rising gmuml, in a talley near the banki of ihc (intuu 
less; it '» buill ia ibc form of m ctoa, with a tourr at liie WAt 
tnd. \^'ithin i> a cunous tigniT, in nuod, jmii to Ui nn rfiifiy of 
one of the PviJtxrd family: it reproenD a crou^le^Kil Kaigbl,' 
in a coat of inaii ; the haiidt an: cicmiL-d. and tho f*et niR soar 
lign. At Ihc peiiod of ihs I)ie«>]u1iuii, b«rc w« a Dt-aa asd 
rien'n Prebaodt, whwc poaKaaoni were vklsed at 179i> I3i. lOA. 
Most of tht estatciwere gnintn) any, in lUe tint of Erfwmni 
the Sixth; »> thut ihc livin| ii iiow un)y a dottativvj or mmry, 
*itli u satall inconip, 

WaLWUKTU hall, or HKifl WALWORTH, about Half 
a mile ca»t of Ovtitun, was anciently a s«t '»f tlie A'cviUl, front 
viivfn tt fMued, by the mariia^ of a daughter «f lUdph Lard 
Ni-villr. to Sir Gilbert llauuuid, Kriight, in *UoBt family It ri<iw 
litiucd suTomI p-naraitiini t hut was at lvit|flh ^>old to lb* Jmiri. 
AUMt Thonas Jrniii*(>D, luw]. wbo was Auilitot^(>vntral U* QiMwtk 
t'Jlixnbvth, raado gi«at imffvMihcab bn?, nnd «vfct<y) a manoiw 
houw iii iLe urtutnRiUil ilylfof thnt ii|;i'i ibv »0Utti fitoM, ^nlwd 
by circuliir turrets and the wimlotvs decorated with pnintrd 
kIia, diaplaj ing tie anoa uf llie then Kiu^tita ol' tbe Gaitrr. Tlir 

3 «id<vw 




* 
^ 

* 



JItlKIIAM. 3^ 

■itknr of RaI|iIi ionnMOtVi wlm wus tnoslitr ut ihm tbtj^-hounJa lo 
Geufgc ittc S«caA^ mU litr tunie, atiout ihe y«ar 17&^, tt«r 
i£/}VOl. to .MittboMT S«r)>hcDiun, I^m], ot N>vccaule, «bo» mmm 
tine lUurwuds, i^ii ao)(l it to J<jbu l^lunuuu, £aq. 

flUlSUJUDCii:, Of {■R11:;S1UJU1)GE, • Muull vHIag'^ un 
tie bMkks fi Uw 'J'eo, uimI fitwr iti« eiKrance wl ibu Woiiuig 
StiMt fioii V«il»hire, occujucs aOHw puiUott e( t)>Miut of kcon- 
sJcuUr rom»n fiatii^n, wiiicb lionilry conjccluns to kave been 
ikc^Uoii^icol'llii; Notltia. The norili and mtMudn of UwTallutn, 
ud p«it oj* tlie aoulti aide, ue my conspjcuotn. The HwPMt 
Rnd fitiswi it a lew yards to tlirr <•«»( i tmd (iie t'uundativtiB of wi 
ucieat biidgSi wbica nwMd ilw ri»ei in ibe auue directiwi, 
were vtiiLle till tbe great riuod in tbc year 1771. wbeo Uity irem 
eiuircly wiilictj Hvr«y, The present liritlgf, ftatone fabriCt ia be- 
tween i«o and tlinee bunJred yards to tbe vnt. ^iluty Rotaan 
cviu bavx; bcvn, and arc »tiU, mot wltli at ttii* ituit^n, parttculajjy 
tAcr (*Mi: U>(r ttfUiMiatkiDS uC builitirigs iic swry mbaita fuiind 
vbm rtui earlii ts QpctMxl i and an aqiKduct* uhicb lupplicd tba 
prrtton witli water from a riviibii on the north tidrf vaia di»cu- 
ifrad aiwui tiie b«^kouiiig oi the lata ccnturjr, liotJy arcJicd, aboiu 
Micyard wide, and a yard and ft ()tKirb-r di'^rp. An oayx, withi 
a finuie oi V>\x\ic, iuid a fiiic mIvut Utlio, uoiv iii tbc i'cnibruke 
ooUcctHtn, hava ajso b«en t'liund btsef atwoll nodwr nnticjuilieir 

I anwiig Ibcni a RoDiao aJur, witii tbt» inacriptioti. 



P : M 

CONDATI 

ATTONIVS 

QVINTIANVS 

UbN t-XCC IMIV 

r.X tV. 5. SOL J.. A. 



Dii MouUm* CoHiiali Aitoniui Qnit*lt»nua iVca . . . er jutni 
»tt*trptum tgiiU Uhifti nmutv. 'lli», obspfvca linnky. iaalU" 
iMftiil inuriuiiiciil, cKClvd to uiw C'cwiJaf lu lu ilie u&dbI icnaref 
>udi inM'riptiiins; tbuugh Gale aud Thuitsliy \nve, fram llw 

luscripli^inr 



V34 



DTinititM. 



inttcriptioin, mistiikcnly nippos«l pKnbridge to be the Canifafe] 
ot iho llirifrtry." N*'ar lb*: bridge arc some r«naii» of ft cbipclf 
fvun(UKl by RNliol, Kittg ot Scutluid. Dunti^t the Civil Wanvj 
a skirmidi occurred here between the (toif-ali>l>t iin<ler tb« MaMJ 
4]U» of NriTCflMie, and a parly of ibi- Pattiamviii's furccs, ui vrbichj 
Colancl Howard, mid many of tbe Inwcr ranks weti; killed. 

The nmd betvreen PiCTvbridge wid GAINSKORD indude^l 
nwny hcautiful prospects. The latter villus i^ situated in a 6.«*\ 
ligtilfit) vNlipy, watefAd by ibe Tees; tbc building form a f<]uaref J 
lookwing a ^nmn. Tbc manor i> exiensive,' and mentioned by 
rient writen, sa compre)i(<nding great pun of time side u( tb#j 
cuunty. It was given to ibe See of Dutliam by Kgfrid. Dbbop i 
Liiidiafime; buc afiorwards resigned, with oibcr towmbipB, 
Iho EiuU of NnrihuisHcrluiid, for support a^^ttut the On 
kJn the time of Uward ilic Vint, it came inin the pflSBeanun of ib^ 
)£aiiois, by the marria^ of Hugh Uoiiul with Agnn de Valencia 
mho, aa iippcan from aii itvquisliioii lakrn under itic Motute (futf J 
: iVarranto, in ibo year 1 :2^, had fix'c warren here, and otliufj 
#|tnv)lri^ uf a royal Irancliivc. Uolah, in this t«risli, gnve birtl 
tlD^tR Sahukl Cjamtji, fiome of whose fnmilyhave tiiunar 
I in tbe Church. Tliis gcnllemsn became Fellow of the College 
I'hjHciHns, nnd oblaiiied much ci^lcbTity for his conduct during 
Ktho conteniiua generated by tbe edict pawed in July, J687» 'obJ 
tg^viiig i^tuitoiu advice to the nt:igbboui'iti^ poor. Uii this occa'J 
'Sion, he publiklH'il hiH celubmled pueiti of Ilie Ditpfntarf, ^thicll , 
tKiiig well culailatcd to accord with the »tate of the publi< 
'feeling, obtained much applause. His influence in the establb 
meat of Dispensatories, indeed, redounds greaily lo his pr 
and, togethvrwiib hj^ active bcju'vojcnce, and extensive charities,,] 
deserved, as it has receit'cd, the grateful aclknuwlcd^menlt of poi*| 
terily. He died in Jaminty, I7I7>1S, and wji» buried in th* i 
Church of Han^w oo the Hill, near London. " His death,* 
-ObMnca I'opc, in a letter written s-hortly after, " was litmflectcd 
enough to have made asninior r philosopher faiobui: if everlhet 
[was a go>od Cbriuiaii, without kntmii^ himself to be bo, it 
Pr. Garth." SELLABl 

* Silttmiii ItotnuH, p 196. 



DQRHAU. 



335 



*IXAnV TIALL is a beaaiiful villa of frec-sloiie and blue- 
liut, lebuill by llii: late Earl of Darlington, by wltoiii it wus {lur- 
chased of the Vrremant, Tli« gmuiid* an; disposed with grcac 
(asl« and ju^mnit, and aflbrd a slogular diversity of pleasing 
views; the Biablca are WL-11 arranged, lofty, and embattled. The 
vic«» on leaving the high road at Cnindbank, on tlic way to 
Srllai>y, is uncommonly rich and extensive. It eomprchends 
nearly ibe whole Vale of Tccsdtite, from this point to the cloud- 
t]i(it blue mountain orCmss-fdl, in Cumberland. 

WINSTON, a manor wbicLi belonged to the lulu Duke of 
Bridgcwstcr, u»g, in the rci^ of Henry the ril'th, |i:ircrl of the 
estate of the -Scruci^u of Ma-shiim, of whom Henry, I^rd Scropc, 
mi beheaded for treason agaimt that Monurch. The village oc- 
eu[HCS the rid^r of a hill rining from tlie Ti'es, over which it a no* 
hie blouc LIndi>c- of otiu arrh, erected in the ynr 1 7C>-t, from a d&- 
tigo by llw lute Sir Thonius UobinGon. The span is 111 foct. 
here the Tecs quits the romantic scenes winch had accompanied 
it from its source, and, instead of hurryinjj its waicrs over craggy 
rocM, nnd thickly wooded bank*, IIowh into a levf-l country, and 
■SBlimes a more placid, though scarcely lets beautiful, character. 
The view from the Kectory-IIoUie is extremely fine: from this 
peaceful recess, Dr. Hurgess bus been lately pmuiua-d to fill the 
Episcofuil Scat at St. David's. 

STUB HOUSE, lt>c scat of Harrison, Esq. is a respect- 
able modern buildiu};; tW gruuiulx are pJea^nt, and umamented 
with WDie thriving plantutioiis. Mr. Harrison hH» in hit poM»- 
lioB a bird» next, curiously petrified, imm Vip((T if ^ng spring iOi 
north bunk of the Tee'^, uppuaitc Wycliffe. 

~ STAINDROP, 

Am 4U>cienl town, seal<-d in a beautiful vale, was originally a 
Royal vitle, a« appears from Canutt.- gmntiiii{ lii» mansion- house 
her« to the monaster}- of Durham, together with mtiny other ma- 
oots, US an oBvnng at the holy shrine of St. Cutfaberl. Bishop 
Flambard, indignant that the moiiaslcry should pusacss such a rich 

Vot. V. P gift. 





2?6 



BtrVBiif. 



pti, mted ibc pnscssinm into bis otm liantii, but mloml them 
on the approach of death. Soon aftcnrardi Algar, rlie Prior, 
"gruited StJiiinlr6p, anr! StoindropBhirc, to D<>Ipbiii, greut gTBiKlsoh 
of UchtreJ, and ancestor li> tlie Nevitls, tu be boltirn of bim in 
cnpitc, with a rrscrvcd rem of four pounds. In the year 1343, 
Tlnlpli (le Nevill, of Itnhy, obtained a gram from Prior Fotsour, 
and the cwnrcitt, to found three chantrict in Staindrop Cburdi. 
Ralph Ncvill, Eari of Westmoreland, was empowered hy Bishop 
llutfitfld, in 1378, to erect a College for a Master or Wonien, 
eight ChiLpIaius, to be conlinuatly [e^tdellt, four !«;ular Clerks, 
»x Ei<|uinv, SIX decayed Gentl(uncn, And iix other pnflr pmottt.* 
The tndiscrimmatmg hand of riissolulion completely ovtrtnrhed 
Uiii exrcUcnt caiablishmcnt: it was bcrcarctl of its ponewiom, 
wiiii* dwlrbyed to Its'foundatioiu. 'tli reveimca were esb'tiiftted 
ut i'h], 4s. (id. annual %'nluc. Leland describes the CoU^e u 
■* set 01) the nortti ade of the Church, and stronly boildid al of 
Uour." By ft charter from Biihap HaiKetd, of the same date as 
llie above, John dc Ncvill, Lord of Ttaby, trim privileged to hold a 
"weekly market al Stairidrop: of late j-cars this roarktt has been 
rcvin'd, to the great sJvanciige bf the inhabitants. 

The Church *» an ancicht ikbric, with an embitttlcd tou-er at 
the west end: it consists of a have, side aisles, dnd chaticet. " In 
llie south aisle, as I heard," says Letand, '^ was buried the gmnt- 
faillcr and grandcdam of Ra/c Ri^, and they made a canttiarie 
there. In the waul uf this isle appere the tlithbcs and images of 
3 lady-s, whcrufone hath a cronei, and a tumbe of u man child, 
and a flat tumbc vnril nutrmorU. Titer is a flat tambe aF»o, With 
aplayne image of hntaic and a scripture, wher is buried AiVAirrrf 

>UR 



* T^ I'Mnee grmtcd by the BUhap did not nttfki the Taundtf, eiUvr to 
BOnbcit. or tondilian; tfie rxpioiion ihcKin being unr bm eerlh pviprnhm ^f^ 
mrmu tt aliu ptnpCfttai : Mid it ii xnml pitibabl(> that ihe Eatl inundeil tkU 
hotiK for ihc twcpcion of hli miltiit) fttainen. or lho«« »«n'»U moti imilM- 
diMdy about hii ptrion, ^ux v*HKt<i'tim,} who ihould be rtiluccd by niiifo(> 
luua, or uihtiiaitc diublid ; tttd in ihM Kni*, (Kc app«li<ciont of »rm^irtr%n 
and rtlintmum will tuvcUie moit p»pcr sppltuiion, IIJdxMakUDkTktmt 
III. ts». 




StlRHAM. 



«r 



lua Rnd brire to P.<htnr<{ Lopl of Burgevcnny. Jokn by Hafn 
fint wife was Lord Nfviftp. lUeJiard h^ Johan his 2 wife wu 
Eric of Suretfri/ri. Robrrl wns BRiinp of Durnme, George wm 
Bon! Itdlimer. EilaanI wn» I.«htI ISurgnatJiy; and; us I rcrncm* 
ber, r<<i/rb«d U'itfiain that «n» U>r(l'/'d/«HiVit/£f. Jltf/t NniUt, 
ifavfim Erf ol' lyntmnlanff uf that iitme, is buHed yti a njbt 
•Utety turalfc of uliibu^teryii the rjUJre «f Siaittiorp Collrgr, and 
iUar|^<Bnrrr his fini wife nn tlie lift honJof hym: nttd on the right 
bond lytlh ih? iraHge nf Johnn ht9 •! \iAk; bttt she Is buried' et 
Lincoln by her mollier Calarine St:inrijhnl, Duch«n of Ltm- 
eailcr." 

©II tb« torab of Rai;p1(, Earl of Wcstmorclsni]; mentioned in 
Ihb eiitract, lie the efflgin of the Earl and bis two wiws; but bu 
flnl wiio, Margnrpt, wiv, buried at llrai)ci*(irth, IB lias U^n alrcu- 
dy toffiidmitd, andnot, as Lcltind was iiifnrmrd, in this Ktructore. 
"Hie Eari is rf^rraenieri in nrmour, with his hcftd rrtlina; on his 
bebnet; his iMt on a lion. Here is also a labte montimpiit of 
«ood, Mghly decorated, toihcmctnoiy of HEintf, lihb Karl of' 
Weonoreland, and Itis thrrc wives, two of- whnnv, with himfdf, 
are rqtresMilcd by rccurabcnt figures. Round the sides of ihc 
tomb, within B kind of rolannade formed by small carved pillars, 
arc ill-<xcctit<d fi^irw of their children. Some other anctpnt 
mffmoriaU rMnaiu in thistiibric: and near the altar is a superb 
white marble monument fur the latt; IIt:ury, Ivatl of Dailinglon, 
«lu) h delineated in a rccliniug attitude ; beneath k a fine rcpre* 
teoiacion of Jtaby Ciibtle. He died in September ir9'2> In lk« 
Chorcli-j'Bnl it a nent frec-stone monument to the memory of 
the Itte mtrdi'lamcmed IIonouTuble M». Raby Vakb, of this 
(6wt), wb'Osebcni^iuuitdiiputitiuii, and extensive charities, procured 
her ibe p^neial blejAitigb tif the poor. The pupulauuri of SLain- 
droiitowiuhip, as returned under the lale act, was 1 1 56 ; tbe nam- 
bfer of booses 1 83. Many of the latter atm well built, and chiefly 
disposed in one wide xtierl, extending about half a mile east and 

ifnL 

RAUV CASTLK, the magnificent seat of William Hairy Vane, 
Earl 01* Darlington, and Lord LicutciuDt of this county. Is silua- 

P2 ted 




dvuhau. 

ted about um- tnile oorlb from Staiiwlrop, on (be «Bit siile of ta 
extanitK park, lliii uotik- pile u indebted for ib »|it«i»lor to 
John de N^vill, E«il of Wenltuoreland, wtio, in thv year 1379, 
obtained a bcenrv* to " nwkc a cii»tlc of bi» iiiaitur of Raby, anil 
to embalilc and crmrllatc its towcn, &c." On<- pan nf th« 
building, however, api)CDrs to be of more aiicinDl dal«; aiul s^ 
vei-al oltcralioits, l)iouj;h not particularly connected wttli its ex- 
ternal fonn, have been raadc! by diffcirni piwscssor*. The general 
(-(Tcct of Ihe Cattle i« iincommoiiily ijiijHOing; mid its extent, gtan> 
dvur, aiid presenrntiou, are povrvrrully calcululed to impress dam 
mind nitb a vivid idea of the jnagnificence of ihe feudal ages. 

Tbc situation of Raby Castle a extremely itiivi tliough not 
lofty ; It occupies a rising ground, with a rocky foundabon, and 
il kurrounded with an embrasured wall and parapet, indo&ii^ 
about tHo acres of Loiul. '' Raby," says Ldand, " is tbe i&rfett 
cntel of logj;)nges in all tbc north country, aud is of « stroog 
IfuJIding, but not tct other on hill, or very strong ground. As I 
entcrid by a catury into it, ther was a litlc Magne on the right 
liondc; and in iho 6rst area wcra but two towrcs on a ccb ende ai 
ciitre*, and no other buitdid : in the 2 area, as in entiing, was • 

gnftt 



* A dupIicMc of (hit liccDCe, ia the French knguagf, i> prcicncd mosf 
t)i« afchivd o( the S<e of Duitiiin : tlie followins it ■ (laiuUtion, 

" Thomu, by tbc Cnce of Cod, Biihop of Uucham, in i)t thoK wrho 
iIkII ttt ar hear iheM o'lr prexftt Ictlcn : Know ye thai wc, of am dar wd 
npetial (avor, and toi the gmt love wc bur to our dear and hjtkful Jsha de 
McviU, Knight, Lord of SLtbj, who hadi lung been of our council, and in 
our icivicc, have {ranted, and u much at in ua ii, do liccfuc hiin fully, at* 
cording to hii will, lo nuke a Caitlc of hii Manor ni Raby, which ii withta 
out Royal Lordihip. lod in our Biihoptick of Dutham, and til ibc la%rcra, 
haum, and walla thertof, to tmbatlle, and croidlaie, wiiliout reamiiK, hia. 
dtancc, oc nuilaaatiao ;— or oihcr our lubjrcu, Of Irving within our Koyil 
IjWdihip, CO haft and to hold to him ud hti hctn for c*tt, provided it ahiD 
npl he prcjudioal or injurioua lo tii, out Church at Dutham, not to out luo 
tcianra in lime lo come. In WLlacia whncn!., wc h»v< cauud then out leUcn 
piuiii to Ik made. Given at Durham by the haridi of William dc £lnd«ii, 
our Chancellor, oa the tenth dty of May, aad in Ihe ihirty-thicd year of our 
CoatMcrMiou. 
t . ■ "By Writ gf Privy Seal." 




vvkhaM. 



339 



I 



grpat gale of irvn, witli s towr, and 2 or S mo on tlif right honJ. 
Hm were al the cliiff towns of the 3 courts, as In Ihe hsrt of 
ihe CMtcl. The haul, anil a\\ the houses of officrs, he large and 
stately; and in the himl I saw an incppHible great (H-wtie nf nA 
hut. Ther is a tower in the rast^'l, having Ihc mark of ? capitat« 
S^ from BcTtrain Hiilmer: Ther in another tower hearing the 
mmeof Jane, hastunl sisler to Henry III, and yrik- to Kufe Ne^ 
Tille, the fint Erl of Wcslmorland. ThiT long 3 pHrki* to Itoby, 
whereof 2 be ptcnlshod wilU dcre: the middle pork h:iih a lodgft 
iti it." 

TbeoQlwan) area of the Castlt; has but one eiilrvncet thUili 
on ihe north side, by a gateway defended by two tqunre trtwed^ 
atid fltokrd by a parapet with IutttIn. I'he inner arpR has two 
fOtranoe; one modem, opened by the lolc Larl ; ilit- other an* 
dent uid grand, being the principal entrance lo the Castle. Tb'ti 
is from the west, by n double gate, and covered way. strengthened 
by a square lower on i-nch ^iilc, which arc coEiiicctcd by a hang- 
ing gallery exti:nding abore the gale: here arc ilirve shields of 
anns of the Nevills, quartcreij. The covered way is nearly four- 
teen yards in length, with a gniined roof, and rirrulnr archer: 
«ch gate has a portcullis. This entrance is flanked with square 
lowers at irrogular itislnnres ; l>ciween thi^ mcMt northern of whiclii 
J»»co«imuiiJc«tioi) by m gallery with Clificrd's Tf>wcr, a lar^ 
Mjuare bulu-ark opposite the oulwani gale. From Ctifibni^ 
Tower, eastwurd, is a hanging «allery, which communicates \nA 
tnaaller «iuare tower, strwigthened with turrets; from this et- 
tBMb a. cnrtain wall, which ronrrah a rccew, and adjoins to the 
new entrance farmed between two snuall square towers, and h?ad- 
iog to ihe hall. I!enc« a n>oilern curtain wall connects this pan 
uf the C(4»tlu with a lofty tower, uppurrntiy of uiurc uncietil origin 
than any other part of the building. " ll& figure b that of an 
Mcientarrow-liend, with the sharp edge or point to the south r 
it has four lierB of apartments, or ftnon, and the southemmast 
aogtCK are I'unuidied with turrets. I'he masonry is excellent ; the 
front is cliisneted, the joints arc compact, and the Interior parts 
of lbs wall are run wiih hot lame. From the cop b a moat vxten- 
"^''' P 3 «vo 



1 





MO 




DURUAM. 



Mvc praiiwct; and ne«r lltc suminit, raiwd in Uie stoti«-wor)G 
arc ihe two Vs (mentioned b^ Lirlaul) in llie old character, tton 
which, and the name the lower now bconi, it bu been inTi-md, 
that it was built by Bertram Bulmrr." Mr. Uulcliiiuoii, bovr- 
cvsr, from wboM descnjitjuu tim cxirsct ,ik iua<lc, .cot\^tuns it 
.to be of yet greater antiquity, «v(9i ur ikc Dgc uf Canute, «iid to 
Jtavc fonned part of the niatuion given by him to the CSuicfa, 
with Slaindrop, and other lordkhips. This opiiiioti, Mludi .i» 
CQpparted hy a teSatacc to the singular Iigure of .ffao'tnwer, ,i«, 
perkopsp sufScicntly refuted by the gi-nvml Iradilioii which Tcfort 
it'to Bertram Duhner; not. we tliould suppotc, thv fiiat, but the 
ieamdof that name, who lived in the reign of Steplien. end was 
ton of AncatfUltH, Utfttmni's brotlier, and related to llic NVwilk 
by the tnarriflge of the luiircaa ot' Bertram with FtntKict, JUtnJ 
JJ^ritl, Qitron o' ll4b|y. Sonte intermediate luildii^, iMitHtcen 
this tower and the main pile, are »aid to l>Ave been (lutroyed by 

The Interior of the Castle is diatributed into a greet number of 
apartinent^i many of ibem hatiii'>om<tly fitted up. Tbe BntraiMie 
tlall is uncoiiiinoiily f^rand; its ,va»lne», and apparent ktability, 
jicver failitig to excite iidniirHlion. The rouf is aichcd, aod nip^ 
ported on six pillars, uitli capitals, divcrjiiiig and spreadiiig aleog 
the ceiling. Here bia Loi-dbhipts visitors quit their oorriafps, 
which arc admitted into the Hall, and al'lerw&rds pass otf on the 
opposite side, through tlte inner area and covcired way. At one 
end is a flight of steps, Icattiicig to the i'rcaciice.Cliamber, Musio- 
itvoni, Billard-Kouin, &:c. all which are very ueatly decorated. 
AboTB the Halt 'u another spacious aparuaent, niitety feet in 
length, thirty-six in height, and thirty-four in breadth. This 
room, which at present has no particular deatination, was tlio 
place where the ancient baronial fesiivala wcfe cclebmtedi and 
TQOKlU^ts, who held of the Neville''', arc nrcordcd to have been 
«nt«xtaiiwd here at uiic litne. The wosl eitd is croned by a iitoiie 
g»llecy, wheace the mia^trels poured fuith tlieir animatiag strauia 
U> tlie hours of levcby, or of drcadj'ai jireparalion t 

" When 





I 



ttVUJlAK, 

*■ When thnnp of Knigku, uid Bifoiu bold,' 
Ob wnltkc Ihcnto high convene huld. 



Sdi 



Several ijf thesmalliir apurtmrnti have been hollowed out from tibt 
walU, wiliich nre n( great tuYiitily Kiid ttrco^tlu The Kitcljoii is ■ 
i^uare of ihirty feet, witb an ucbeil roof, »aJ cupola ligliu in Uie 
cratrc; it lias likcwUe five »iji<]uus, fr<jin cacti uf wliich steps de- 
Keiul; but oJily in uiiu lUbmiicu lu tliuHouri and befurc ibem a 
gallery ninning round tbe wboUiiiierior of the&ibric: it bas thne 
chimuics, beikbs narrow passes chaiinrllcd in the wall*, through 
ithich the provisions are suppowtl to have bcca ancitfiitljf Ki\-od 
ap in the gnatt Uuiiquvtiiig-llouiii. tin: unctent oven w«s pro> 
portioned to the munificence dtipln^cd by its princdy po&sessors; 
and is mentioned by Pcnn&nt as bcin<{ converted into u wine cellar, 
** the &idi-s being divided iniu tni purts, t-ucb holding a hn^ead of 
«ine in bottles." 

The p«k, pleasuns grounds, nnd |.Iantati<nis, ofRaby, accord 
lilb the <fxtciU tmd diguity of the Catile. Many parts couinuuul 
Tvjy beautiful and enlarged prutpccts> whore the wauds sweep 
ofer the rbing grounds of a diversified tract nf country, ntid ihfc 
dis'tant eminences blond niih ibchoriBon: one of the tcrmccs is 
Inward* ojf 7^0 yoids in length- On the estate is aii extcnum 
(urn; to which i)«iUcuUv iLtt*-nUui\ um given t>y tbe late IJirl, 
who iotroducvd every agvicullural improvement, and erected 
nany useful buildings. Tlie farni-ynrd is excluded from iha 
Castle by an embattled screen, over tho gateway i>{ uiiicb ia a nido 
ttulpturc uf a bull, bearing on ensign nnd mantle, adorned with the 
Ncvilkb' uruis: tliii wa» remo^-ed btiJicr from Bulroer's Tower. The 
dog keiuiets, and stublcs, arc built in iin ornamenliil style, and ja- 
diciott&ly situated, so a& not to iletruct fn>m the gnuidcur of the 
Cattle: from particular points of view, they form good objects in 
the different prmpecls. 

£uby Cnstle continued to be ibc gmn<t residence of the Ne* 
vilb till tiie rci<pi uf Lllizabetb, when Charles, the sixth and lut 
Karl of Wrslmnrcland of that family, engaged in a weak coiupi- 
lary to dctltrouc bis Soveai^n. ISdiig obliged to abandon his 
couutry, he Aed to tlie NeibcrUtnds, wlicrc ho ilied a ruibcrablu 

P4 dcile, 



isi 



BunnAU. 



exilf, in 1584. His immtitsc estates were drcUrctl Turfeitcd; and 
in the reign of James the Fint, wrre ron^gncd by ^nint lo certain 
citizens of l^iKlcin for saIiv of th^ra the Cullc and demesnes of 
Jlatry wore [lurcijased by Sir Henry Vane, Knt.* from whom Ihtj 
have d^^cndct) to the present noble posuMor. 

On CocKriCLD Pkll, north of Raby, am many lines and 
tnci'fot entrenchments of unknown origin; but llio mnsi remark- 
able appearance here, is that of the Dyke, or Break in the strnto, 
by which the M-ami of stone, and of coal (with which this district 
abounJs) arc " thrown up lo the southward, three ralhoms." The 
Break is about fifteen or sixteen yards in nidtfa, and, according to 

tlutchinson, 



* The followuij U ■ copy of a PtTtinUf of ifae Caitle, bndi, toKmcnu, 
lee. puHcucd in ilx Lordihip and Manor of Riby, by Sir Kenty Vane, ihc 
tlder I wUh lh«if rcnu, and mpecLive vkluct 

" [mpTimi). Tht Cuiie of Raby, and y* tllc ibcTrof: Ticm, TIk Lord* 
<bip and Manor o( R«by. Item, ihe Eaff Ptfk« Mirwcn Can Liule Puke 
and Crowe CloW) conwymr^ by eattmatLon two hundred and clcKcn tcvt» oi 
ihercabouu, 140I. Item. Ttie Middle Parke, conicyniug by ntiniaiwn ihite 
hundKii and (ourc acre* or Chercabouu, lOOl. lum. ihe Bcil Parke, conttyn- 
ing by eriimaliai) tuveii huadfcd lixiic one accei or ihcmbuutt. bc'inj now 
adjcMed out brtidci y* giinc of 400 Dcerc, and a Race«f Mam, and Coolu 
W the nurnbcrof ffiftk, iipl. Itrm. The Slau^btcr Clot*, 4). tO*. tienu 
Otie Rtrai paiiuic ground called tlic high Woud, cMilcynini^ by (admattoa 
one thouund acm 01 ihcicabouU. doI. Item. One Clotc of aicadow gi pu- 
lurtuUcd fiowLctt MA%, cunttynbg by eiiimaiinn fourKorc aerci or there* 
abouu, 40I. Itrm. Ccrlaine CloMiof Mcailuw and Pailuir Grixtnd eallrd 
Suindrop Citfa and Raby, now inucV. in ]* poMeuion of Cuihhm I>aT0- 
ton, 9I. Item. Three CIcmm it the £ai( Paike Gate, laic in y° poueitton of 
Charlci Walaon, 3I. Itrm. A CapiUlL aicaau^^ w"* ecrtaitic atralitc littla, 
meadow ind paiiuic giokindi mcloacd, InSuiodnrp and cUcwtere, bu par- 
ctiaaed of Mr. EwbmcJu, of ihr yeatly vjjuc and icntc ai tofl. 4k. 8d, lteiB> 
a Cloir of pialurr called Niltlrbrdd, il. jt. .jd, Iinii. 0»e Tcnrm*. eilUit 
Hill howtc yi*" ceruine clota of meadow or pMture idjoyning. in the Occu- 
pation of Rjiph HodgKin, 81 Item, j*. Cojliary, Drife, or Colemynr, lately 
purchaacd of Mr. Roue wilhin y*. Lo^'. o( Raby, lOOi. Item, y*. Rcc- 
turk iod Titbet imptoptiateof y* Collcdjiacaod Paiiiah Chutch of Suiodiopp 
p. aon 1701. lOi, id. Item, two Ualtc milli in Siaindropp afoieaaid, catted 
the Eait IMill and the Wul mill, both ia (he OccupatLun of Mr. Conycnof y* 
pxcKnt yecrly icilIc of jil. St. hem. The ItKrcaie Rentt is Raby Lo*' p. 
Aon. 64I. 1}*. 9d. 





I 



BUBHAM. 



sss 



Hutchinson, filled with llic same kind of substance as Derbyshire 
(Md-stone, and in other respects, presenting similar appearances 
to the (li^Ioralcd strata o( that coanty.* <)nr of the ^hftlts of a 
Colliery tiereis umxI fur ihr purpose ofaisliiiflithot. In this opera' 
tion tiie lead, when sufficiently heated, i- ytisomd wtlh arecntc, 
and poured througii an iron sieve, with differeiil sized iicrAjRi lions, 
into a largr tub of water, placed to receive it at the bottom of 
dieAaft. Tbc sfaoE attiun iheir globular form by this process, 
and are then shaken in a barrel with black-lead dust, by uhich 
ineans they become polished for use. The depth of il.t- fid) is 
breiily-five tuthoms: between two and ibree tons of shut are easily 
made by litis inediod in one day. 

STREATLAM CASTLE, the scat of John Ly<m Bowes C-Brl 
of Stratbmore, stands in a secluded but romantic vale, surrounded 
by high and irregular hills, nearly three milt-« Mt-siward from 
Rab^ Castle. 7'hc present raan»ioi) was erected on thv rnuiidation 
of the old Castle at the beginning of the liuL ceiilury, and M>vcral 
of the apartments are retained in it; but the general arrangement 
i] wry dlflercnt, as apjicar^ from a paimting of the former, which 
is still preserved here, llie lir^t rastlc that stixid nn lln» »|>ol it 
Hiou^t to have been built in the thirtoontb century, by Sir John 
Tnyoe, who manied Agnc», daughter and lieirew of Ralph do 
k Hay, I<ord Percy, and nictv tu Bernard Ualiol, gmndliilher to 
the Kinf; of Scots of that name, by whom Slrentlam, Statnton, 
snd other estates, were given to Iter in doiver. Alire, the issue 
of this miirriiige, and wle heirns, married tiirAdam Uowet, from 
whom the present £ari inlierits in right of hik inothur, the 
late cHebraied Countess of Stniihmore. This Cabtlc was rebuilt 
in the fifleenlh century, bj- Sir William Bowes, who was knighted 
for htsvaliir at the battle of Vernoyle, in France, in 1424: many 
Otben of this family have been reiioMued for their bravery. The 
park displays some rich natural scenery, and i» stocked with line 
deer: it has ItUcly been considerably enlargcii by LoT\i i»traih- 
m6rc, who has rc-unilect the Stainton estate, by purchase from 

the 



* HiiWry of Duitiim, \ci. 111. f. ga^.tiJ^f. 




«H 



DURUAII. 



tbe iiuUinu, lux 24,0001, Tbu IluUons obUUD^ it u a luarrU^ 
portion with oiw of tha Bowes. The ^xe&t mkeo stain io th« 
proent raiuuHii were added by Andrew Robinson Stoney IkiwOf 
lilsq. wbo was closely besieged here (at some days after be had 
■tolco L«dy StratbmvK troax LondoiL 

BAUNARD CASTLE 



Is situatcO on lite toutlieni acclivity of an eminence, m'uiiS with 
■ strep tuceiit I'rom ibc rivor Tecs, lu wunu, <uul probably ori- 
glo, are doiivcd from a formidable caatle erected on tbe sutomit o( 
a rock on the west side soon sfter ibc Coiuiuest, the ruiot of 
itbicb cover an extensive plot ol~ ground. The whole district sp- 
ptare to have b«en originally calltHl J^tinnvud, and lu have be* 

^loafRd to thu Wapentake of liadberg: coneetjuently it remained 
llM from the pulaline jurUdiction of the DiUiop, till the aiiDCxa* 
bw of SmlWrg to litis &ec. Marwood alu> Bjtpcara to ha%e been 
iW naniu of an ancient town about half a miU froui UHvuard Ca»r 
lie, of which thvru is no oilier trnce than an old building, Niid to 
bare been the church, but now i»cd as a barn. 

The town it pepulotis, and exiuadB in Icngiii aloul a mile j it 
pouoses one urihc largest corn inarke-ts in the norih of Kngland; 
but the Marttt-CyiMy Tvlboott, orTouu House, antl Skaml>(c4, 
Mn Tcry incoDTCtiienlly sttualt-d. being in the very middle t^ikt 

{way. In this reaped, perhaps, as well a» by the indifferent pav 
in^ the iuhiibitaiiu appear lu have bad refereuce tu a chartct' bor 
aiowcd by Hugh Baliol, who, after allowing tlicin tu use ibeifi 
own ovcns^ granted to each of its Bnrgcsstd " capere viom 
ottium «uuni pro domibiu suis cditicandiset fumum coUigeivia 
via ante oatiuni, utque mcdiam liam.'' 'I'bc Markcl-Crost itielf 
ia a neat iita-*tono building, open at the sides for popular accom- 
nodation. The Chunh, or rather Chapel, Barnard Castle forming 
part of Guti&fbrd parish, offers nothing remarkable but an aticicnt 
IwAt bcl), said to h«v« been brought from EgG^lction Abbey, apd an 
octagoniil font of black mtirble, having on four sides, devicrs, ap* 
pareully q'mbulical of the Trinity ; aad on the other ibur, sluclds 

iirachbed 



Lbeir^l 





■*.■ 




I 



iflKribcd with Smxan cbaracten In cypLefS^eKprnaiag Its d«dicatioi] 
tater fitius ei Sprintm S«$tctm, Tbc iiuuies u-e dwputed in Bcvcnil 
ttreott; uul umler the late act, were returned at 312; i)\e inha- 
failmats at SlG6'; including tfao otlicr parts of tb« township. The 
Ikboriog clan are chiefly rmploycd in t)M manufacture of Scotch 
caoiUcts, or tammiea, aad in ttie tanning and ttocking businesses. 
Of lau yean, tlir woollen tr&dc lias greatly tlfcline«J, tlirougli ilia 
TWe of (Iw cotton bcanobn. 

Babbaro Casti-r was founded by Brmanl, son of Guy 

ilaliul, who coiao iulo luigland widi (lie Conqiicrf>r, and on 

whom WilliMQ Kufua l>Mlowed it>« fomtis of I't^dalv and Mar- 

'wood, sod Utc rich lunUili)* uf MiiliHt^^on and Oainsford, vriili 

all ifceir m^l franchises, liberties, and itnmuniliev. Rcriwrd, iwa 

of tlic fovniet Ucmonl, panted ih« iiiliubitantc free burgige: this 

wu con6niicd, with uddilional IHicttiw, by iliU sun tiiid succesMf 

tiugb Baliol, ia wtwwe time Alexander, Kin^ nt' Scotlund, made 

aa irniisioa into England, and having Mibdued all tlie fonreues 

ia Konbumberlawd fur Ufwis of 1-miicf, cuiir* bcfort; ihc Castle 

cf Bernard; wltrn tubtacvdc Vwcv, brcHher-in-lawto Alnnndrr, 

bttBg on a recMinoLlcring psrty, was killfd by an arrow from a 

CKMA-bov; but it docs not appear that the Castle was availed, 

iohn Balwl, tlic iivxt posteiMir, founded an hu<ipital, wliicli sur- 

livtd tbe Dusolutiou, and still iccctvni llin-v ulms-woinen. Tfab 

Aeftain was tbe sucoetslul claiinanl to tbc crown of Scotland; 

which WBS awarded him by Edward ihe Tirst. In his time the 

fnociiiu'S aad pririLi.>geH of tltit liberty, and its independence of 

the palatinate, were pretty distinclly ascertained.* 

On 

* By viitout recordi ti ippon, ttwi Imk w<re an itintnoi judge lo di*pouc 
juuicr; » chid tuilitt ot' tin! lilwriy; i comtablc cf itic cuile; • forrHer: ind 
1 p«ncc of the tattle, wrih tr|i«nW Th*; and ratorier for the libcnviippsiiued 
by the loid. Th* Kithop of Durhim had alio xn uchMlori but iliii wu not 
lill the ntgn of Fhillp tod Uiry. Spttroian, ia hii Enquitia, uys, ■■ tliat 
JLobtiC de Cliibrrhoc, nd John deStpjr, tucemivdy cKcrciiedthvcKheitonhip 
•f Binurd CHtle, by (rut frcm the crown." The lonU of the liberty hid 
■Kimdy dl*ci4 knights fees, Mirdtliipa, inarr>it;;n^ anil iclicfi thetei and 
hid (ht (iradi of tbeoeif, or utiive, which they ftc^uMitly took, 'am ihdi huds. 

They 




C9« 




DURItAMa 



Oil 1l>e subsequent defecuon of BftlioJ, his aiaxei wert cUtimctl 
by liialiup Bcclt ft^ oi the Jure Ttgalia of liu palatinate ; bat King 
£(lwarj, lu huinlili! tlie pruuil Prelatci, and al the toimr tlOM to 
abridge tbo uvcrgruwu powiT uf u subject, seized tbo jialubnate; 
and when it was rMtarecI to the See, it was fnund mutilated 
and abridged of man> of tlic privileges it had gained by the 
foTf[riluiv.s ul Ualiol and Bruce. ULshop Godwin infonns us, 
that Dock made comiderable reparations in this Castle during the 
lilQC it renuiimd in him poMCttton. Edward, still dctermiued to 
mumfy lliv Ui»hop, and abridge bit poncr, gave the Castle, and 
itsmcmben, to Guy Dcaucliaiiip, Larl of Warwick, in wfaoer futnily 
it continued for five di-bccnts. Il uflrrwards came to the Crown; and 
Hichard the Tliird tuok ^n^at delight in ibc place, and contributed 
ptuch-to its embellishment; bis COignizancc appearing not oaly in 
the Willis of the Castle, but in several parln of the town. On his 
death, licnrj' the Scvcnlli came iiilo pouetuion, and it bu been 
a Crown domain ever since. The Casilc, honor, uud privileges, 
with llic parks, lands, and appurlcnanrfs, were purchased by an 
aua'^tor of the prcM-iit 1-^rl of Darlinglon; and Kin^ Cliatlea flbe 
Pint, 1640, granted to Sir Henry Vmte, sundry privilegttan- 
ncxed to his manor of Tlaby, and honour of Castle Barnard. Wi)< 
Uajii ihc Third, in 16S9, created the latter a barunyt il it now 
the second title in tlie llarldom of Dnrlinj^Uini 

Mr. Hutchinbon dcKcrihes the remains of the Castle as covering 
aboulsix acres and three <jliartcra of ground: the jwrtsof chief 
fttrenglh stand va the brink of asleep mck, alraut eighty pefpea- 
diculur feet aUive the 'lees, on tJic norih-cast corner of tb« prin- 
cipal area, commanding a most beautiful prospect up the river. 



lu 



They bid free wiiicn and chitt, w\ik txieni at Uigt mooi* mi WMMtt In 
which they h>ii the soil, tninci, quircio, and a(hci pcnguiulo. fiatn trhcMe 
th(y o»At tJie grjni befure tpcctfied. Tbe^ bad (he retuRi of wiilt »d wa^ 
roiu iwirdcd thitbct, 10 that i»a aSictt or roinittci ihtvuld catci ibcrc, but by 
writ oi dt nra 01*11141: iIm, '- markcU «nd fain, pdlojy, &C. &C. Utd tlM 
Dooe (hould keep iIc-houMi wichiu iKiI libeiiy, wiUiuui thellcmceaf the 
ucwatd ia optn caun, for which Uwre wu a yorly nnt of bttw-hiiMi 
cieaU/ paid 10 the lord." HuUki*i«a'i Duriam, fit. JU. p. 139. 




dukbaic. 



337 



* 
* 



The area on th« side of the market-place appcnrs not to have had 
any communicatioQ with the chief strong^holds and bulwarks oF 
tbc i'ottma; and is s4-parat«d from thf intrrior buildings by n Jcq> 
Uasc, wliicb surrouniis the rest of the Caatlp. Thn area is fenced 
with a high waU along Cbe «dgc of the rocks behind Brig-gate. 
Tke iptcwaj ta the Flatts opaiis fruiii a large an?a to the ancient 
road, which communicated wiih the ford. I'liis. area, to,^ethcr 
with that before described, were anciently used to receive ihc cat- 
tle «f the adjacent country, in times nf invasinn antl public danger. 
Tlie gaieway Itut menliuned is defended by n del ni -bastion, and 
ibe broken waLIs thaw ap{)enraaces of niafikingE anil out-works. 
At s torn of the wall, southward, was a tower which llanketl 
llt« wall towards the gate, from which over the t'oue was a 
draw-bridge. This area contains the remains of some edifices, on« 
of which is called Brackciibury's Tower. The chief Btrong-holds 
Xaiid nu more elevated ground than any within the ureas de- 
iciibed; thty were surrounded by a dry ditch, or cov-ered way, 
withstnall gateways through the intersecting walls: this ditch is 
terminated on one hand by a sally port, that cimimanded the 
bridge t» the west; atxl on the other by a wlly*ftor1 to the north; 
the covered way alraoBt surrounding the inner fortren. Tlie 
area, in which the chief erections were arrunged, is almost circu- 
lar; the buildings are of diflerenl a;ras. Northward, the walU 
are of modem and superinr nrchiicclurc, supported by strong 
baUrestes, and defended by a square turret towards tbernst: to 
the south, the wnU appears very ancient and thick, and has been 
itruglhened, by traias or lines of large oak bivtiiM, dis|>osed ia 
Ijan ia the ceutre of the wall, at equal distnncee, so as to reoder it 
finnag^lbl battering engines: on earh sideoi the !<ally-p(irt to the 
btidge* within the gate, was a semicircular or demi-bastion, loiided 
Vllb eaitb to the lop, very strong, and of rougli masriii work, 
built chieily uf blue flints; the greatest piirt nf one of these bai- 
tiom still remains: here are soiite ot (lie mmt ancient parts uf thu 
(katle. The west side of the area has concaiited the priocipai 
lod^ng!, in si>me parts six stories high; the slute rutims stood in 
Ihti quarter: two large pointed windows, looking upon the river, 

seciu 



I 



SM 



nvniiJiM, 



I 



K«n to b« tlw nwst moilern; tosethcr with a bow-window-, bang 
•a corblet iii the nyfut mWg: bere is the figure of a boar pis- 
SBtil, Klirvcd, and in pwd prrsenatKMi. Atljuinin;; tu thcae 
»|iiartnieiil»t nnd on lUr norllt-wnt comer of liie tortreu, t» a cif 
CttUr tower, ofcxccUtat aMBottt-y, i« wliler work, having a vaule, 
ibc roof of wi)i«h in plain, without ribs or centnl piUsr. This 
tautt ia thirty fcitC in diurnc-icr; the stairs of Uic «ccnt to 
the \ipptfr apaitmcntA an chnnnclted in the will. In the ad- 
juiuiiij; grounds, caUc<l tit Ftatla, is a lai^ Twervoir, cat in 
swampy grauitd, cnllcd Me £rrr; water was collected and coa- 
v«yed there jd pipes, to supply tbc gBrri»oa bimI cattla inckmJ 
within tlw wntlH of tbc outer ureas in tines of public danger: for 
which prmrriioii th« lufJBcviil lumk paid a rcai, called Casd*- 
guaril rent, for the Cmllc land. By the coi^nJxancc of the botr^ 
and the apparent it^ of the buildings liM described, it is rason* 
uhle to di-ttrimine, llieie were the woria of Richard, Duke of 
Cikiucesier, uho, it ia ttaid, poecsscd thh Castle in right of his 
wife. LcLitnd makes mention uf a '* hir cha^xtllc" in this Castle; 
but no tnices rcmuin r>f the building.* 

riiv uutcr area ol llie Catllr tt now used as a pasture for sheep; 
a»d otiier i«lts mctomd by the wakis liave been long conrertecf 
into orcliHrd j:r(.iuiid. The wall thac sRrrounds tbc circular area, 
hat a narrow pataage running ihmogh the middle, of scarcely saf'* 
AcienC exleM to admit oae poraon to creep throagh. Many por- 
li'Tiifi of the ruins we picht^' mantled with ivy, and present *«ry 
fin« \'iew>, purtJculELrly t'roin the louCb bank of the river, which 
WD«)i«> the foot of [be rock on which the Castle stands, and whose 
ttdesare cluatheil with fine wood. Sir George Bowe>^ ol9lrM»> 
lam, nn thr rumour of the rebellion of the (larls of Wcstmordand 
And NtitthumbrrUnd, in the reign of yixtlieth, posscsMd himself 
vf-lbis fortress, Rnd resisted the whole power of the iitsurgents for 
eleven days, when liu lurTcndcred on honorable tcnos. The 
bridge, which then crowed tlic Tecs, nas destroyed in the contew: 
the present bridge was built- in IS96, and consists of two eltipti' 
eal arches. The 



* Huichiuon'i Durliam, Vol. III. p. !{& 





svnuAUb 



839 



I 

■ 

I 



Th^enmonsof Bomard Oastle arc rcnmrkably bMinttfiil; the 

nte of the Toes H iMJunrfinj; witli -picture^jue (irxl mmKnlic views, 
Iwlewl, the whole omrse of the river, from its source to X\'inBton 
and Cajnsfofd, presena such n rich combinatkni of cburniinf; ob- 
jects, fliai the mcnt meUncholy^ dJflpOMUon-cuultl tnot {nil to be in. 

tSRStcd. 

On BnniBrl Ciistle Moor is Bail Hiu., which has brrn forti- 
fied by b bwMtwork, and dwfi trciwh, terminating in « morasj. 
Nejir thiii^iKit hisny coins of lulwiiwi ih* First, iin<l some of Alex* 
intlcr, Kmg tif Sfwt*. hiive bwn found. Tbe^rospect from the 
summit coranionds a vpry e?cton«ve invcl of couiiiry. 

SHIPLKY HOUSK, now Monping to the FjiH of Ktralhmrmi, 
«» a hunting scflt of .Famn the ^rcond's, and cxirtmely wcU 
CboKti fur the purpMt, as the ndghbourhood slKHinds with fbx». 
It'wa» then th^ rwdcncc <>f SInipMHi, ihi- Kiii^s Huiitftmati, who 
left his country to nhui-e tbi- fulc of his KoyBl Mmtor. lis cele* 
trltyisMill gmt; and Iho Kiirl of DnrlJiigton, vhohusomcof 
'the bet Vj«nds in Eni^lanti, frwincntly rfsorts hither. fibipfa>y 
fomicrly stV>un<1eil nilh furnncn for miking irnn, and v»t he^ 
of iron Korift yet remain on the land. 

EOGLESTON wns part of the [>Dssnsion» of Ihc Enrls of Wrst- 
tDorr-Und; but is now the property of William Hutchinson, Es([. 
«hoK family obtainc^l it by purchase in the beginning of the last 
Century. In lhi:» dJMrict arc kad-mines, which have bem wrought 
from the thne of Edward the Sixth: various ancient workings 
bave also b«cn traced iicre, and, by the dilTert-iit implcmvuts 
found in theni, are suf^i^wd to hiive been wrought by the Ro- 
-nans. On the average, ti-n ounces of silver are extracted rromeacb 
father («2 Cwt.) of lead produivd in Tecsdale. KOGl.ICSTON 
HOUSE, the seat of Mr. Hutchinson, occupies a lofty site on the 
banks of the river, and i* screened frcin the iiortb by plantations 
grem-ii^on the !Ju|>r$ ut the hills. '1 he garden cuiiluius one of the 
btost botanirol collecliom in Kngland, upwards cf 700 different 
plants t>eing arrani^ here: several pleasant ualks arc rut through 
ifae rocks burdt-nng on the 'IVes. 'I'hc wastes round the vitk^ 
have hccn also inclosed, and plunled, by Mr.'HulcLinioti; and 
1 , the 




Z 



340 




SPllUAM. 



the silver fir is {urlicuUriy nourishing. Egglestoa Chapel if mo»t 
siilguUrlv Mtualc^ in Uie midit of ibis gentleman's botanical ^r* 
dcos. Nciir K^leston, on the north, are exieiisite works, for 
Bineldng, refining, and reducing lead. The Quakers^ and Lon- 
don Compuny, hare al»i some very ingcniote machinery and 
mills here, for breaking and cleansing Ihc ore and slag, (he invcn- 
lioti of tlie active Mr. Hall, now of Arkcndale, in Yorkshire. 
The pruspcct fnim JVrmc/ Edge, north of the mill*, it cue of the 
moat exlennre and diwriiliGd in iht- county: on the east it com- 
matids the whole variegated Vale of Cleveland, with lUesva near 
Hunsriiff Pnint; and on the soutli-we&t, the beautiful windings of 
the Tors, with the distant raountainsof Vorkshire, Westmoreland, 
and Cdniberland. 

One mile north of Egglcston is an ancient remain, called the 
Stakdixo StohE!*; this originally oohbisled of a Ctuni in tbr 
centre, surrounded by a trench; and that Again entxtin{His5cd by 
■■ circular arraiigpinent of rough stones, many of which have been 
rfmovf'd, and broken, to repair the roads. Near a brook, at a 
sroall distance, is a large barrow, crossed from cast to wot by a 
TOW of atones, 

MIDDLETON 

Is & ^rnatl market-town, occupying n singular situation among 
hills, and extending, in somcwhuCofan oval form, round an ex- 
tensive green. The inhabitanls arc chiefly engaged in mintnj!;; 
and almost every house is either used lu an ale-house, or tor the 
sale of tome kind of good». The Church u an ancient but small 
building; but the living is worlli 1 5001. \xt annum. Th'e parish 
extends nearly twenty milts frum wnt to east, aiid between two 
and three from north to south. The whole of the noithern half 
is one scries ol lead-mines ; in which, the country being cxtecdinjtly 
mountainont, ihc mcidp calLtd llmthmg b cliielly practised. Ilie 
hmhing^ frctjuentiy raise and discolour the waters of the Tees de- 
stroying its f»)\ in great quantities. Some hoive levels have becit 
carried beneath the hills to an extent uf five miles. I'bc west 
ude of the parsh was andeolly port of Ihc extensive forest callwl 
--*-- « Tcesdalc 





ttetmAH. 



«*i 



I 
I 



Ttf^ale or Marvood Purest, and vu wdt slodicd about 14v59, 
wben ibc Duhop .miule Jolio Nrrill, Farl of WWmnnjlwxl, iu 
^Dt»lcr. Ill cbe vrimcr ur l67S, Tiiur bnndred dnr perjsbed in 
tbt snuw. Tbc btnucs m this .towmliip, iccortltnj to 4b« )at« n»> 
tyriLS are 140; iIk' fit>i>ulutiwti, T.'Mi* 

Nc«r Muklletciii u tibc foitl iMd VortLstiif*, calW Step Eada, 
wfaeiv ffliny acridrats jiatc tu{>pened in crotiing the ht«r, the 
ttiuunljeitigM times triy rapid, ud old and younj^ male and ro- 
omlet obU^I to wade Tbroagti it, (bough rianj above tbe want' 
IVo miles higher up n Wir mcm liitisoc, coDstruded with wuod, 
MipesdHi on iwo iron chains vrbicb cescb I'l-om side to tide, and 
aie Bicitrcd ia the jockt. 'I'htt fabric ii ifxty^thnr feet in Jenglhi 
thoB^ acarcriy more than tiuu fctet broad: its height aberc Uie 
river, which falb in rcpratod «asca<ln, is fifty feel. Tbe iTemn* 
hnn rootiou of tiic bridge, and ihc dmhing of the wuten beneath, 
fill the boMNii of the sttanger vitti coicideiaiile afprelieniiun and 
■ham. 

Three miles from Wynch BriJgc it Hioii Force, ot Force- 
Bali, a lubbftie caurad, dartiiif; itt wateis orer a fange rock of 
black maH>le, terrnty feet bigh. Above the U.\\, tbe rnner is 
doMly pent up, and fuelling iiilo i^e, bsK |mdpitales in aw- 
hi CBsb into a rp!«rvotr more than uxXg leit^Hp. I'vaaqtaUity 
iwl mm[ h Dot its dc-Mii^: 



** full iwift it Atdm on tbe looky novidit 

Wfceie lIiiOLigh 4 jhapslcii bieck ibc *i.ietm rcUMMida. 

Ai high in lir ihc budiinj tnittnt* Qow, 

Ai dtcp recoiling turitcs (o»in bdaw t 

Piofl* Joum lb« rock tbe wb<taiin( tktA dactndl, 

And vicwicu Cctio'i ciT, ulonbh'd, trkI*. 

JaraMR tlttoiigb rising mnu, tiul mdmIcu thow'rt, 

Tbe hoary carcm. wide^unounding. Inw'n: 

Still throu^ tli« {ip, ihe tungsliog liver loilt, 

Aod (till bdow, Ihc horrid rauldron boib." 

Buant. 



The ctonds of spray aiisitig from the descending waters, assume, 

ttleneulifililirned by tbebtemiof tboun, a)1 the brilliant besultei 
Vou V, Q of 



AM 



ddhhan. 



of the roir»-bow. Ift wiDt«r it presents a tciy different, though not 
1e» inrercaliiiR aj»|*ct. The projecting p«iinu of tite rockf arc then 
decomteil wilii » bovnAU-M divcnity of iurg« tcy stalactites, and cu> 
rioubly cryMa)U»d fringes, which fonn m codksa variety of prisms, 
that fi|icralc on ihc ^un's r»ys like so many crj-stal luslrrs, de- 
corating Xhrm in ten thousand dircrlion& in the ino*t brilliani 
manner. The force and boilii^ of the watcra at the bottom of thv 
fall, has excavated several caverns in the solid marble, but of 
difficult accos, except during fcevcre frosts. Here the minera- 
logist and the botani&t may wander nitii much satisfaction; the 
stratification of the rocks, and the many curiom plants th^^H 
clothe them, furnishing nuncrous objects to gratify their rcwarcbet^' 
The Ijcautiful Bumot Rose has hern met wiili here; and m>t fat 
diituiit was discowred the Gentiana Vema, though nut previously 
Itnown (o exitt in Great Dhtain. The noise of tlw.' (all may be 
beard >iany miles round the country; at some diklaucc below it, 
the rocks rise in square columns, to the pcrpcndicuhir heij^ht oi 
100 ftet. 

Caclorok Skoiit, anotlicr cataract on the Tee^ bat 
four miles above llic High Force. This, with its uijd and romi 
lie adjuncts, forms a spectacle of vast and gi^nb'c niblinai; 
TIte Tirei iaues from a deep and lulhargic poul, or mountain : 
called the IVafd, and precipitating itself over a vast barri^ 
of whin, or bosaldc rock, is dashed from srcpp lo steep in sheet^ 
of foam, forming a chain of rascades through a descent of 600 
yards. Over the deepest and most awful part of the gulph, where 
the rocks approach nearest to each other, is thrown a beam of 
bntbor, serving for a bridge, wliich none hut the most resolute 
can paas without horror. The Weeld is about one mile and a 
half in length; and receives the waters of the Tres, after the 
descent from the deep and narrow glen« which accompany 
|)ix>gres from the elevated regions of Cran-fcll. 






ESSEX. 



I 
I 



xVT the linuR of ihe Roman invasion. Fsslx, with all Miw 
oit&zs, was inhftltiied by tUf- people calleii Trinohauta, or Tri- 
wcMttt; an bppcllaliun obtKinetl from ihe situntton of theii' 
country nri till! bofilen of the broud expanse of waters formed by 
the Thames: (bus the trit^ inliabiling (he low prciiniuhi c>r Oallo- 
way, in ScutUnd, were Icnncd SttTanttt. The namt: Tranovtmi 
woQtd have hcen gi^ieti by ihc Brilons tu the Coiatry beyond Ike 
Strfam ; and its inhabtiaiits coJled TraHavautt, Trnnorantvfrf 
T»A»ovAsrwTs, &c.* The TrtHobaHtet, a» appcttm from the 
Wtjmony of ancient writers, potsMwd two coiniderable Hti«, "or 
fortified itations: one of ifacm occupied " tbeeminencw belwtxt 
(be Thamrt aiid the neelbrook,"+ tfic centre of modern London i 
the otbrr flppt«rs lo have been at Culctinter, in (bii county 
Disscnliiin^ amon;; ihe Trinoboiilcs paved ilic way lu the cnnqtiest 
of Britain by the Romnttf; Afamlubraiiu!), a Prince of thit na- 
Son, having been the tint to invite Ctesar tu inrade the country. 
For the ptirp<J4« lie went to CVaul, and returning with the Ho- 
mam, became initrumenliil, l»y hi* inflceiHf, lo (he subjugation 
of the Britons ; the Trinobantes setting the bate example uf sutn 
ntuion to the invadcn. 

On the subdivision of this Island by the Romans, under Coif 
stantlne the Great, Esfir<c was includr«l in that part named Vl\- 
viA C.«»AliiEysi«. From the Ilinerary of Antoninus fiv* 
principal Katiom appear to have been either formed, or occui>)ed| 
bytbv Rotuans in this county. These wen Durotitum, Cirntroma- 
(W| CaitMtiinN, Camttlndauum^ and Ad Amam. These places 

Q S were 

* CKntMitn Rcgiilcr, Vol. II. p. to, 

* WhilBker*! UiiWty or tHr Brit««i. 





344 



ESSEX. 



wen- all sealed on tKe road which formed ibv fifth Iter, from Loo« 
dunum to Venta Ic«noram. Camulndunum was unquestionably 
the principal station in Esacx ; ami though its »te has been mucb i 
contested by diEl^rent writera, an attentive examination of tb*. 
nliiOcs anigned by the variuus distputants, combined with a know- . 
Jsdge of the antiquities discovered in ibc vicinity of each, will ad- < 
nit liule doubt of Colchester being Uie real situalion.* 

I'Uscx formed a separate and distinct kingdom during a certain 
l,pc[iod of the Saii'U Hrptarcby, and was called East-Scaxa; but 
tlhc times of its fint ettablibhment and lerraination as a Saxon 
I kiiigdum are not aotbenticated. Tuniert states that this and 
Atigiia were originally occupied by the Saxons at nearly the 
^mci and chat Erkcnwin weu the first King of the fanner; com^ 
mencing his reign in 527i ""d dying in 587. It it obxrvod h] 
Bapin, thatf of all the kingdoms of the Saxon Heptarchy, 
it less noticed by historians than any of the oilier*. 

By tlie Domesday Book it appean, that ninety laDd-owoen 
Ihis county were deprived of their lands by the Conqueror; dv 
«bote reign the whole civil and ccclisiastical government of 
kingdom, and of each coun^-, underwent very comideral 
changes. 7'lint of Ziacx was now got-cnied and tyraimised of 
by Norman Burons, who coiutmcted csaUes on tUeir c&tUes 
pcnxmal security, and to awe their dependant vassals. In 
Gvil V*ars between tlic houses of York and I.ana)»tcr, and 
those of Charles's lime, this county suffered mucli from the it 
te/ferencQ of ibe De \'ercs in the fomei', and during the loi 
siege of Colclicster in itie latter. Furmerly there were twelve cs 
ties, or fortified buildin];s, in tlii> county; four of which hai 
been denominated Mojial CattUs, us built for national securit 
These ore Colcbestcr, Hadteigh, Languard Foit* and Tilbt 



* ta our MGOnd volume, p. 4, on the mhocity of Cwmdca and Hortle^, < 
htri rttcTKt] lo Mlldcn u (Uc lol Cvmulodunnm; • mar« compic 
fawobguioii oranthohiics, mi ■ vUlt wucli of ibc migned ittliwi, hova 1 
daccd Bi M dcdde u above. 



t Ac^D SaxoQ Hillary, VoL 1. p. if«. 



Bssar. 



945 



fbfti Th« other «igbt were Ca«tcUiitcd maiuiona; Irat farmvd for 
great strength and securitj. Time Mere, Cnrutlielil and Heding* 
ham, belonging to the I)c \'crcs, EarEa of Oxford. Ckveringanil 
Rsldgfa) belonging to Suene, of Rsaex, who possessed besides 
tteae, fifty-thr** other Loixhhtps in Ihii county. Ongsr, beloiijpng 
to Ricbard de Lucjr. Ptoliy, fint poiaes$ed by ibe I>uke of 
Gloucester, HiglL Constable of England. Stan!ttead-MontAch«t. 
belonging to Dc Monlfichet ; and Walden, to Gpoffrey de 
Mandcnile at the time of the Domesday Sanrcy. These very 
fbnaidable fortrcssrs, though oner tht^ pride of the nobiKty, and 
terror of the peai;intry, arc mcntly niied to the ground ; the only 
jNTts remaining are their high ket\>9, and wide fosses. At Col* 
dicster, iladleigh, Hedingham, and Walden, lonie parts of the 
buildings or walls remain. 

This county is bounded by Snflnik and Cambridgeshire on the 
north, by the counties of Hertford and Middlesex on the west, by 
t^ river Thames on the »outh, and by the Sea ct) the east. Its 
atenc, from cast lo west, is estimated at si.\ty miles; and from 
nnrA to south, at about fifty; its circumference it cciniputed at 
S?5 miles. It is diTided into twenty parts, of which fonrtrfin are 
hundreds f fite, hall'* hundreds ; and one, a Royal liberty'. These 
t«ubdi«ided into nimut 4U0 paritihcs and townships, and twen* 
re towns; containing, according to the Inte official report, 
~99,99S hooses, and 2l26',4S7 inhitbitani; ; of whom 111,356 are 
nilcs, and 115,081 female. 

Euex compoMs part of that tract of country on ihc eastern side 
ivf England, nhich fnrtns the largest coiincctcd space of level 
ground in the whole Island ; not one loHy cmiocnce or r<)ckyrid^ 
being foorMi in screral tontignow counties. The surface of Jlsiex 
B Dot, however, totally ITal, having many gentle liills and dales; 
knd towards the north-wcM, whence most of the riven proceed, 
the country ritics, and presents a continoed inequality of surface. 
The most level tracts arc ihosc of the snutbcra and eastern hun- 
dreds. The sea-coa»t is broken into a series of inlets and peninsu> 
las, di-eply cut in by arnis of the k>u, and exhibiting cvidriit to- 
kens of the force and eflccts of that miles element. Extcntiro 

Q3 wtk 




c 



KS&IX. 



I 



salt marahes bonier roost of Uie coast, (be greater part of which n 
pruti'CtPil by vmbunkmciiU. The bftfiki ■>( ibe I'bnnio, uiitl ibo 
lower pan o!' ib« m«, are likewJM- low and rasrthy. Tbii county 
lies uu<i«r s provrrbinl imputation of being pnriicularly unhealthy; 
but this character can only apply to h tinuil part of it ; &i ll* 
luidtlh: and noilberii ditirirti are juuly noird for a Jine ilry »oi| 
with m wbulcBoroc clear air. 'lltat part kiiown by the imnte ut i\ 
JJuHiiredt ^' £utx, bordering on tbe toutli const, froiii iit low 
Uk) marshy vitnstion. and expcxun: lo llic enslvily wnuis aaii 
iofff i> certainly inimical to hcallbt and majiy intormiuing 
van proceed trom tb»c causes. 

Ktaex derivm many advanlxges fruin its inxnlimc tradv, a» wv 
as froin it> vicinity to the Mctroptilis. I'hc conv%ni«nr)' ol watci 
carriage, and goodncH of its road;, give it a commefcial kupcri- 
grity over many other cotmiin, la surbce n ^-ciicrally level; 
the greater pan is indccfed, and rendered highly prwluclive by lbs 
skilful mADOgcmcnt of the a^culturaliHU. The principal pro* 
ductionsaie whvHl, barleyi oats, beat]*, peas, turnips, lare$, rape, 
mustard, tyc-^rai», and trefoil. Many acres arc aUu itpprupriaied 
to the cultivation of hops, canraway, coriaQdcr, ica&el, and nu-tutts 
borlictilturiU ptaiii& and roots. I'he tatter nrc confiitrd lu ili^ 
largo towns, and to the lands niyoiniiu: the Metropolis. Alt 
every Bpccies of soil is to be found within the liuiis of Cuex, 
th« mti*t stubborn to Ihc mildest l«Hm. 'Itm ntirlli-wcst ttdc 
characleriied by a chulky siiln'mtum; but the eut and soul 
side abound with mnniby and bog^ land, having abundance of 
gnivet intermixed. Of viasie lands luxl furrsls, .Mri^rs, fipigpt'* 
computed the county lu contain fiftCL-n tliuuHind acres; the greater 
part of which, they ob^frrve, is capiible of producing com. Since 
llrnr report, huwevifr, many dialricu have bi-en inclosed and cul- 
tivated. From tbe extent and vanety of Hiil ol this County, il j^^h 
totally impowible to preserve one uniform '^ttcm otjiuming: tl]^^| 
iDutit esiablisbcd and pn-'vailing mode is described as follows by the 
^buve gcnllcineu. " In the cAtieni part, the land is chi<'lly of a 

sirunji 




* Ccnenl View of die AgDcuUare of Emcx. 




UkBx: 



"«4r 



I 



I 

i 
I 



rinmg gotxl stnple, and, excepting lite marshes, aod here and' 
llicfe ft unsll porttoti of meadow, h under tUe plough, and pro- 
duces \tty conaiderable returns of ewry svrt vf grain and pulsr. 
The must approved mode of treating the hmTy land here, as in- 
cwry other part of the country, U to winter fallow it ererv ihitd 
or fourii), xnd, in mmr pHrts, every second or third year; aiier 
whicb, io the caMent parts, oats or barley are luwn, and ihc land 
bud down with clovor, trefoil and ryc-gniss; and fiaving tain one 
year, U agiun brukcn up soon after Michaelmas, and wheat is 
wawn', after whic^h, if the lund is clean, and in good condition, the 
famer tain a crop of beans, and then fiiUowa ag^in. The neKt 
ntadoa frequently a wheat, beans well hucd, and then Mliest 
again. On the lighter lands ar« town, Artt, lunupt, for wbicti' 
a falhrw is alway* maile, and the land then manured. Barley. 
smm with clover, &c. uhicb is fed off the ensuing yeai-, succeeds 
tbe crop of turnips; tben wheat upon the clover lay; and after 
thai, pcvs: but where the clover fails, (a cirrumstanrc rot unu> 
Kial,) the land is comidtTed unfit for wheat, and peas are sown 
in its stead. Towards the middk of Kvex. and the northern part 
botdenng upon Sufiolk, the soil varies considerably; some being 
bgbt, with chalky clay, or gnivrlly sund, at a fuot ur & fool and 
hlJf below the surluce; other ports arB moist and bindin<^ affon)> 
ing a qtbck vegetation, and requiring constant attention in iho 
fuattner m<»nths, u> pn-vent il exhausting ilscif by a tpontanenus 
produce. 'Iho pltiugb in iweii Io occupy a lur^i' pHrt of Ibis dis- 
trict, u little more meadow or old pasture grouuds are found, 
than will supply hay and feed far the horses on the farms, and 
ierd for a few rows kept for the purpose ot suckling, uiid dry cat- 
tle and sheep, which arts principally bought in oiie year, and sold 
out the next. Ht-rr ocry sort nf grain, pulse, and ariilicial gram, 
is fouod, wilb some well-managed am) productive hop'^roanJs, 
which, from tbe vast expence of culttvaitug, and unceriain pro- 
duce, arc kept in the hands of tlio ino»t opukm landholder, (o 
«hom tbcy are, upon the whole, lucrative.'" Tbe cuutra of £a- 

Q4 Mr 

" Gficgi'GcBcnl Vkwof ibc AgttcultORof £un. 




J 




lasBx. 



mat b too dietEtU from tbo pits to procure cka}fc: but lime, clfl]p> 
and other mnnurra, are appliDd advantaf^uiilT tn the anil, In 
llu tiorli»-w«st part of the county, the land ii reflderad most pro- 
doctiTe by one crop oaiy, and then fallow; excrpt, indeed, wh«r« 
il «ill biM tarnipE «r ctov«r. I lere u but little mraJDw or pw- 
teir; but, in contequencc vi fi-equcnt litliows, vtry givat Cfops •$ 
vhcil, oats, aiiri bariry, ara fminenily nlitoined. Tlio loitrf 
grain is mallet^ un the sftnt, and snit lo tJir London marker, wh«M 
it is ill high esteem. I& the western part, bordaivig tke tittr L««^ 
M>d including th« foreits of Eppint;, nod iUinaiilt, in Inond an rnt«r- 
•lixturo of Mils, from a w«1, benvy, tovisli clay, up^jn a lile eartby 
to a ligbl, tcDder, tbia soil upon graved. Tbe tile parth is ofiem 
used in the manabcturing of coarse eartlien pot», tiliw, See, £k« 
cluuTC of the fonsta, tho grcatrr pure ut ihis disirioc » pasUmi 
land, Bppropiiat«d to lh« dairy, &nd siirlilinx of ralvrj. Mimy 
district! on th« m^t side of thr county ado extivtacly prodociiw* 
in llie vftj-iou* cropa of wheat, bcaitf, oab, cule-M.'d, rapv, coam^^ 
dcr, and inuslanl. ** Tbe whvai is not unfm^jucntly fuund u^ nm 
to a load an acre; oats (ptinicularly the Polanci) to eknen m 
twelve quarters; and bcaiK, aitd other corn, in propDrtioiv. SoiM 
of tbii land has been known to prodacc five or hs of ibe bmmI 
ailMUiiting cro^ successively. Whmt has been mma Um« mc* 
(cnivQ ypan upon tbe Hunv field, attd ttc crop* upon an average 
have amounted to fnur quartcn per acre. Iha part of the coni»- 
ty, ia pncticular, is tilk-d with great ipirii aiid judgmenir tbaugt|, 
at a very great escpence." 

ThoMf^ Eudx is not hit^hly celebrated for its Dairiei, yet tfaoM 
in tbe parish of Eppin^, and its vicimn', are fflfflons for tbe ricb- 
ncis of their cream anil butter. 1'fae butter is nMxtlly sent to Lo»> 
d«v wWre it beara a high cliarucLor and price. In tbc sckcti— 
oP cmn for the dairy, those of IJoldernesb, Loinslcr, and Ditby^. 
are usually prefcrrt'd; though llie Norfolk, SuSijllt, LinODby 
Welsh, and other breeds, are often indiscrinitnat(4y blcndod. Th* 
Boatnoit proreH nf nmking tho I^ppini; baiter^ is lo let the milk 
ilaad tvrrnty-lour tiuurs, %tl}cn the cifain is skimmed off, and tlie 
inilk it drawn into vcskU (not lined witb lead) of an increased 

depth. 





I 
I 



MtSX. ik/^ 

ttfSi^ (tkiB is called doMitig,) wbcra it remains for sbetit twenty 
Immu»» durinf^ which time tlit: riuug cjCiuu \% ocoKiuoally skimmed 
oiL It it aftcnrards pat into deeper vessels, (which is c«U«l (rc- 
iUmg-,) «U«n >U tlie remaining creatn, or rich milk, is *e[>arat«d 
frDB it. Thfl butter Ditule fn>in these liut ikininiiikgt, or after fleet- 
n^ B ofa paler color, and iiifunor quuJiCy tu that niwli! from tho 
int ikimnwd cmuR; U churned loparately, and »oUl at lowon 
(prices. Tlie blttmmed milk b connonly applied to the feeding 
■od Iktleimig of young pig& and porkers; and it appean, fioin re- 
peated experiments, that the fat of tlievu aninuils is firmer, aad 
" vutly superior to that of bogs fatlciwd upon peas or meal."* 
Oa a crilcuIaiioQ. ihw two acrts oi prime pasture, at iwenty- 
Ihree shilling each, will support a cow one year, and making aU 
Iwraitce for ail usual cxpciices and receipts, oa a ^ry of twenty 
Cow*, Mr. Vancouver m&kci it appear, Uiat the annual profits oC 
ndi a fbiry wiU be 1081- Os. 8d. To prodiKW this profit, bow- 
ever, it it necnwry that the dair)- be of pnmc (fuulily, and reftu- 
lued by ihc most skilful and uuentivc nianugcmctu. lilacb cow 
halloweii to give suck fiar £otty weeks in the year, la iJie first 
t—B^'itx, its milk will produce tix pouiitb of liullcr per wt<«k| 
M4ia tbe other fourteen, about' four pounds per week; thus yield* 
Mg aboQt 313 pounds annually, I'he milk from cAcb cow is also 
Mimated to M^ipoii twelve pigs, ood twenty utUus, during ths 
abave |Mnod. 

Eaiex is proverbially distinguisbed for ib Caita, of which more 
arc bre<l or fattened here than In any otber Kiigti»h county. lfa« 
Itock of cows i» cbie6y appropriated to lliu dairy, and graaing; to 
tbem nay b« added, auckliny as. sn object ot gimt attention uitfa 
the £mtx furmer. Tbe Norib Wales cows are, by some perwns, 
preferrc.l for this purpost; but ihtr Dm-oiuhire brc«l baa been 
found greatly superior to all uibcrs ; " not only lor tho dairyi %nd 
ncbtiiv, but in tbrir dispmition (o keep in good order during tbo 
tenn of lb«ir milk, am] in their great aptitude to feed, or to lattea 
ttezwuui thui UDiliog at oDCt^ all tboK i|ual)ti«« which aro 

supposed 



'^Yiftuna^t CtKTii Vkw fif dif..AgriSBltufi o/.EiMt. 




i 




soppcacd to exiil injiritlaally in other breeds; tad thus in 
jipcc»es concentrating all those excellencies so long »nd so eftroeat' 
ly sought for in the most perfect of those animnU.'"* These excel- 
lencirs conn»t in thdr betnj; Milled wiib • Inc quanlity, sikI in- 
ferior quility, of foorl, tliftn the l*erby or Leicester: and iheir 
(hin hlue milk lierng more applicnhle to Micklttig, &c. Besidec 
the calves (hut Are bred wiiliiii this cnunty, great numbers are 
brought from other psris nf the kinftrfom. iind fattened here for 
(he L>imion butrlier. To promote their fBltcning, some feeidere 
prepure « stnall ball, of sbnut two ounce* weight, which is com- 
powtl of llio po\i(ler of lenu^m'k, wheal mriil, and a email tiuan* 
rity of pow<ti'nBtl chalk, lilrnHod |«<r<>iher vrith mild ale. This m 
pnn ihem morninp and evpniriji, jusi before sucking [ and i« 
found to farrlitate their fattening, from its soporiAc and composing 
fflccts. This nulnttom npiat* is ulwi deemed useful in whitening 
the veal : a calf thus inaniiged, b [rnerally rendered cumpletely 
fat in about Iwelw wfel«. 

Pottttor* are cultivated to comiderable extent in diflerent parta 
of the county, and are occaiionally employed (n prepare & field 
i<ir wheal. In the Itgbl lands i'*^ Ulow and manure as for 
barley, ploui;hin^ four furrow riilj;e4, and planting two rows or 
•ets at eight inches apart on each ridge. In the early pari of tlw 
summer, tlie furrowk are ploughed, and the plant; earthed up ai 
nocb as pot'^ible. '\~\w crop w ohdiincd by splitting down tbs 
ridges with a double-breasted plough, ant! 300 bushels per acre n 
esteemed the aivrage produce. Near llford arc tome extnuno 
potatne grounds, which are cumtanlly appropriated to ibis roob 
To support a succrsajon of crops, it is neceiMty to supply tW 
land with abundance of manure, moei of which is obtained from 
Lond'>n. 

Cabbagct, though lately introduced into tncx, as food for ml* 
tie, ^ee|t. Btc. «rv now raised in great numbers, and arc esteem- 
ed a good succedaneum for turnips. 1'hc IbikI is plou^ed into 
foarfornmed ndges, with about -too bushels ot' laog dunttpw. 

acre 



•' V^Bcouvef •» Cffitril View af Qtt A^'ieultote of Eitet. 




KnCT. 



ffST 



I 



Kit. Tbn is ploughed under, making the rurrmn-s tlic riil^, on 
ibe lop* of »l»ch. unci at nenrly one yat«i apart, about a quart ot 
wnier b poarcd down tin diu^ut wbvrc thv plunl is intciHk'<l lo 
be fixed. A boy plares the fibrnts reaily Tur tbt> dibber, wlio ttt% 
ihrin in ihc niouli), sm) nnt'llu-r vinlcnn^ 1.4 th<>ti appliml In ihr. 
Axed planU; attrr ubicb, ploughing the iotrrviilo, hw-inK nitt) 
moulding up tbe plunis, Tullow vf courw. Tbe dram-bead mb- 
btge is prererred ; and it should be previonslf lraiii>plaiil«ii fniia 
tbe seed-bed, beftirG it n commilied iv tbs field. 

Anions the more nrc planu culiivoml in tuex, are c»nanderf 
ttatti, and carratraj/. IW acciii r»f lK»e nrv BometiiriM s<>m n ii>- 
gplbcr (sorlj in Ihc sprine, UI""! a utrunj; niil Icy, once plt>iigln?d, 
»im) w ultea very proStable to the prupriflDn*. 'Jlie mode of 
cultjvuting ibcoe plants is raihcr Nniular; iiml the rurmcr iVe- 
queuily rngaigw wtib miuc hiburt-r lo share tbe ct|uiil pmiiui o( a 
field, upon condiiion of bis bneing and miAwgin^ tlic crop*. Tbm 
tamer providn thetaiid, plritighN il, pHysali \inrith rem, and niso 
ioi tbe iwcd. The luborpr nnns il, kcrptt it clean by fn'quent hoe* 
mg^, cub, threshes, and prepares it lor Iht- market; when ihe 
produrv ii equally dirrdtd. This counectioa comnonly bsu tbn-« 
)caTSi sumeiiRiF!) longer. " In tbe tiral* tlic arvcral scnts nmie 
up, and nh«n of kuflirifnt ^onth, nte mM out with a hoe 1 btmI 
lb« coriander, which is annua), is ripe bcroro ha^v«^ and pro* 
dlici-9 a return frum len to fourteen hutnlrcd uctiiht an acre: on 
ibetecond )<nr, tiir tfu»el. moel of wliich will run now, yields a 
kiodr or six score stafTs, of fifty heaiis ench staff ; and tbe carta- 
way», from three to six hundred weight of soed : tbe third year, 
\iui iiiuul declinca, and tbe rarmway is in peiUTliiin, iind trill 
yield an equal bulk with the coriander; Bnd tnoM of the Ii»*i'l 
diat did not run last •eawn, wi]| produce headn lhi5. and Aflbrd a 
fuurtli ur Utili pint of the ci<<p it did the prenxliiiK renSDii; by 
whicli time tlic ptanis ur< f^-ticrully cxbausted ; though a fcnirih. 
um) even filth, year of cartuway ha.i been knoivn to Hucceed."* 
Tbe coriander, or eol, as »onie call il, and the citiriivray, must 
be bandied niih great care when ripe; and women and ctuldren 

are 
f * Gf'fgjt' Gnnil View. 




^ 



S5« 



Z9SEX. 



an ^Dcrally employed to cut it pl«nt b; phuit, which are oAer- 
wuds placed in cloths, uu) connnon]; threshed on Mul-doth, in 
the middle ol' liie Aeiil. The teasel is also cat I7 wonen, wbo 
Wave a stalk with ihc head lix or eight niches in length, bjrwhidi 
it U booitd in buiicho or gleAfia, of twenty-five heads each : the 
like number of gWtis constitutes half a staff. Teasels arc pur- 
chased and uwd by woollen manufactuten, who fix them on 
frames, and by the hand or mncbinery, tbfy are aftplied to the 
surface of cloths, to raise the nap, which n cut otT by the 
thicTk' shears. 

J'cw coiinlici have len minemb than F-sneK ; which is abo near- 
ly exempt from (|U2rnn, or miy mass of rocks. In con9et|0eace, 
the houses are almost wholly built wiih brick ; and many of ihem 
aresinguiar antl curious specimens of brfck-arthitectun;. In con- 
structing the casUcs, the munaKtic buildings, and many of the old 
mansion-housen, the builders hare endeavourfd to render ihrm 
not only durable monuments of their skill, but also exanples of 
their tasic, di^iluyed by a variety of ornaments in the ctirruces, 
doors, pihi&ti^rs, and particularly in the chimnics. The lailrr arc 
Btadiously varied in tbeir shape and workmanship, and are seen 
with zigia^ grooves running round them, with •spiral and with dia- 
mond and square grtxivcs, and several other whimsical adornmentv 

Some JUtnerW lyatrrt rise tn the county, but fifw have obtained 
much repute: that of Tilbury is occasionally resorted to, and 
found 10 be impregiuiied wiih some earthy and muriatic saha. 
The &shionable and useful practice of sca-bathinj; has extended 
its influence to Essex, and a lew places on the coaaI, are 
aanually vnilcd by many pcnoni, who wek plreMire or hmlUi, 
** in bufle4tinf( tlic briny waves," /wA are plentiful on the coast, 
and in the various creeks of this coonty : some of the Utter, 
aboat Colchester, and the Mersey Itland, arc cdcbiBled for their 
fine Oyster-beds. Tiitst afford a considerable article for expor- 
tation; and the true brec<l are hij>h)y valued in the Metropolii^fli 

The eastern counties of England are recorded to have been (Be' 
first places inhabited by llie wooden nianu^luren, who came 
mer from the Continent for the purpose of working up the Cng- 
1 tish 




MSBX. 



^S$ 



I 



liili wool, which, Bl an early pericKl, vn ncpo^t<^d in e nw iitntft. 
£ittx, bow«*er, does aot seem lo liavc acquired xny -p^cnhsr 
Uwich of OMUtafacture, till ibe civil And religious perM>cutions 
pntcliKod in tbc Lcm Ccmnlhe* uiitler the l>u)te of Alva compelled 
BKny utisun to quit lliose parts. Sotac of then eeliliii^ m Col- 
duBter, coRunenced u. iDMoftctare of bcbc: lbi« f1ouri^>«t) comi> 
ikfalily, and iooo extended its influence to wvenl ncighboortng 
towRi uid villiig«s, knd many cf the }>oor inbubilanls wore tlica 
iflibalad in tlic nrtk uf wntving, spinning, nnd drvung of wool. 

Id the early pcriud of onr bistoi)', it is raunnably pmumed, 
thai the whole or greater part of £uex wus one mteo^ve fvrest. 
During the Briiush and Komoa ^ovcrnmonu, many parts miut 
have been cleared^ for stations, roads, and culiivnrion: yet in the 
time of King Stephen, it appean ihat the principal jiortion of the 
OQitnty wait olber forvkt, or lubjecl to forest Imvti. In his rmgn, 
bowvver, a large tract in the nurih-eut |iHtt of the county was di»- 
iBbresled, and culti^-nled; and the rpniBiiiinni part, north of Static* 
Stfcet,* waa doalbrcsled by King John. Henry the Third, In the 
twdfth year of hi* tcign, directed penmbulations to be takeo of 
Wailham Forest, in order to ascertain it» extent and value; and 
about the aanie time bad large tracts cleared for the plough. 
This judicious plan was pur^uud by Edward the Kml, in the 
twtnly-aixlh and twenty-eighth yearn uf his reign: yet much ii:>mt 
*MHttliP remained ; and I'fiul, Viicount Bnyning, with many other 
jldttMMfe of the county, purcbaaed of the Crown, and diMffure»ted 
lever*] parts of it, 'IIkm! proceedings, combined with the mora 
equitabla decinans of subsequent monardis, occaaioned the tbmts 
to contract thejr boundaries, and be lets injurious to the public. 
W'hilit the forests continued in the Cmwn, and were under the 
locftl govemn>ent of arbitrary t'oresten and stewards, the subject 
wtktae estate waa contiguous, suflercd rv^paated oppietsions. Tb« 
grierance was partly redreased in the perilous reign of King John, 
when Ibe Banma conipuluvely procured from that Monarch, (he 

C'Aw/er 

* Tht rasd n namad, ww dir frtsi Roanm wty, whtdi led from Colchnttf 
(bM«ghdKaai<ld>eotLhecouniy loSiihopSioixiord, &c. in HetitorUkhiic^ 





2H 



Bsatx. 



CJmwter of Faretts, by which mwiy of these royal dntricti were 
dibaffiTMttd, anil 9«nji|H'tt ol" llieir o[>pre!<*iire pturil^t-*; while 
tOQie Iviuent regulations wvro adopted in the- KDvcmmcin t u( Oiose 
Ihu K*mniiii>d. Tlif forests nf Epping and HHinaalt still n-tiuii 
the ORinc, utid nupporl it icw dcrr. &c. The odice of Ctiiof Fur- 
n>tKt lur EiiKX. was dtwmcil highly hononiry, and g<*ncnlly be- 
»luw<.'cl on >uii)c iUuhlhciUi person. The »tcwftrd»liip wns aJau nrv 
office ol fircut co[UM»|Utfnce, nnd usually enjoyctl liy some of the 
nuldlily. It coiilinu«<l in Ihu D« Vct«s, Esrlk uf Oxford, fur 
many urncratioin; but wa^ taken from them by Edward the 
Fuurth, tbruugl) tlicir adhvn>iice to tJic Lanrastrian party. On 
the occcsuuii of lluiiry thu i!cv«nih, It was restored by gmnc to 
John, Earl of 0\furil. The Steward had power to uibstiiutc a 
lieutenant, une ridiiig-forcslcri and three ycumcn-forcstcr), in lite 
thi'Ce h^liwicLs uf ihe furv^i. lie also imd many lucrative pnvi> 
leges, aoct was kwpci* of UarcrtMg al Uvwcr, and of tl»c huuw an d 
park there. ' fl^| 

Previous m llie Dissniuiiiin, Ea«"c contained no fewer thaS^ 
fortywwn Teligii^us Iiouri: uf tbcte two were mitrrd Abbira; 
Walthain tloly Cross, aiMJ St. John's, Colchesien ux commvn 
AtAitt; Uley.Coeiwhall, St.Otyth. Sirulford-LangthDrn. Tillcj, 
and \Valdi:ii: iwriiiyiwu Prwriea: burden, Blackmore, Su Uo- 
tulpb, bytkiiaere, Maiden, Chelnuford, Donmow. Grey frian 
Cutchratcr, Eflrh Colnc, Ilutfield Broad Oak, llallield IVvrtvtl, 
Hurkc»ly Little, Latutn, Iaci Liiile, Merwy Wmt, PanlliHtl, 
Priulcwell, SUiii*ga(e, Tiikclfy, 'I'tplrce, Toby, snd Tbp<-mhflll: 
three titnuterm; Uatking, Hedingbani, and W'lckes: three Ci»/- 
(cgts\ MaJsiead, Pienhy, and Layer Marney: two i'racrptoriet of 
Tem^4Hn; Crabiii^, and Alupleird Little: nine HMjAtaUi Buck- 
ing, Brook- Slrcvl, South Weald, Crouched Friart, HedillgliMl 
Casilc, lIuriK-liureh, Ilfurd (in-at, Newport, Si. Giles's at Mai- 
den, and bl. Mfiry Ma^^dnten at Colchester. 

The principal ItiVBUS, properly belon^ng to ihb euunly, iiv 

tbe Colne, tlie BLickwater ur Pant, the Chclincr, the Crouch, the 

Ingerboum, the Itoding, and the Cam. Besides these, Escx par- 

taJfis of other rivers which serve as naioral boundaries, and ir- 

2 Tigate 



SSS&X. 



359 



I 
I 



i^lde and fcnitize ib l«ul ; 'fbew are the Thames, tlie Lea, the 
Stort, and the Stvur. 

The Cu/ne rises in ibe pamh of Ridgewcll, on the northern side 
of.lbc coQiUy, and punuin^ a south-easterly courw, pus«t CaMie 
He(liii|;liain, lUUt«ad, and Colcbeater: it Kton ut'terwards expands 
iQtct a widu tslunrv. »nd is navigablv Trum the sea to wilbin two 
aiiles qS Colcbvsler. 

The Bluchsafer, call«j also iha Pant in the 6n>t part of its 
progreas, has iu source rifur Debiien, un tltc bordetf of Corn* 
bndgeshint, and, ititb a constantly nieaiuicnng courar, passes 
Ihivugh Bucking and Cuggt-nhalt : near Witbatii it nrceinn aimttier 
tireem : flowing tiuuth-ciut, it unites tvilb the Chclnicr a little be- 
low Maiden, and then joins die uatcn of the Oct-aii. Here it 
furms an cxteuure cttuaiy. and at high tides the wateca iuuiidutu 
II large tract of country. 

Tlie Cic^mrr hiis its original spring ncarThaxird, and following 
t lifpilAT courw with the former riven, pass& near ihe'town and 
piior)' of Duiimon, and at Chelnnford icctiives some other sireiims. 
It uuw ihIlcs a nurth-ea^ii-rly direction, and (liming through & 
pleasant valley, receives jctenil irihutury brooks, and joins the 
Ulackuatcr near Maiden. 

The Crouch and Ingtrhoum arc small rivers, nhich rise in the 
wtitbcm >ide of the county, and slowly pn» through u short 
coane to the 1 hiimes. The Hoduig, a smalt stream, has a cir- 
cuitous course in vuiting Ongiir, and several vilkges in iu pro- 
ems to WunittCHd, Ilford. and Barking. It is made navi<>ablv to 
llfcrd Bridge. The Cam lakes a dilTerent direction to any of the 
Jonner, and riMng ai three springs near Newport, passes Aud- 
Ity End, Chesterton, &c. ami puraues o northern course to Cani- 
hriiigcshire. 

The Lot and the Start constitute the western boundnj-y of the 
nuniy, aepamiing it from Middlesex and IlertfurdshiLtr; and the 
Stour divides it from' ihe county of Suffolk to the north. N'umc- 
rom other smaller streams have their rise in Essex, ami fnll cither 
into the Tlmro<'s or the Oci-an. Some of the estuaries and creeU 
Uc celebrated for their oysters. 

Eucx 




csftex. 



'is ht the DioMM of Ijenrion. nntl coaUtM ibive Arch- 
clnronrin, and fifteen Deaneries: it returns eigbi m«iiben to 
I'arlisnetil, vix. two for tlic county, two for M&ltlcn, two fur 
tiarwtdt, and two for Colcbnter: ts in <)ie Home Circuit, pa^ 
iMvniy-four parts of the land-tax, and provides 9(Jo men (oT ihe 
tnrliiia. 



CHELMSFORD. 

The shire town, b pVaiantly situated near the cenlw of the 
, cnun^, at the conflacncc of the riven Chelnicr and Cann, from 
Ac undent (ufd over the former of which, it evidently derives its 
name, Camden, without any authority, but its distance from 
the supposed site of Caniuludunum at Mnldeni places Canonium 
f.licrr-, though "evrry cirpumatatire," it is observed by Mr. Gough, 
I** is against assigning such anti(|uity to this town; there was not i 
even a root! near it till llmry the First's time, when Maurice^ 
Bi&liop of Londun. (o whose See it had always belonged till Bon- 
[ ncr's time, built a bridge over theChelracr."* Maurice pauicmJ 
the episcopal dignit}' about the year 1 lOO, luid to his bridge thiij 
^town owes its importance, as it occasioned the great ro«d, whici 
Lbcfore pawed through Writtic, a village two miles to the west, tdi'j 
brought to Chelmsford, and from that time the latter incrcasedj 
tMlb in houses and poputiitioii. In the fin>t year of King Johiif.. 
i^illiam dc Sancta Maria, Bishop of London, procured iho gnnt 
of * weelily market, and other privileges; these were aAcrwards 
confirmed by Edward the First. 

The town and manor of Chelmsford were granted by Bi*ho|f] 
Bonner to Hexiry the Eighth in the year 1545. Queen EliM 
/both, in Juty 1J>63, bestowrd ihcm on Thomas Mildmay, Ex^\ 
rhosc family have continued proprietors from, that period, tn a ! 
aurvc)- taken for the Mildmay?, in IJ^I, arc these partlculansj 
** Chclfflcrsfordc Is one ancient goodly manor, scitunio in ibtJ 
heortc of the county, in good and wholeoom air, conveniently aoAj 
well housed, and well built for Umber and tile. The chief roanof I 

bou9» 

* Addiliom to ibe BiiUonb, Vol. II. p. 5$. 



E(^tS. 



SS7 



brmKiru tb tW time 6f KdwarJ* ilicTliinlo, brent niil weutcd 
trilh fire; and before tltnt it MXmctl lo Iikvc btcn tome aiicieiit tut* 
rvny. AViihiii ttiU tnuiKir hi sitti.itt.- the- tuwii CIicltiioTuftl, xitno 
limcs wriiteii liie Uurruwc of Ciii-lmcituriJ, wi-U iiluolivl uilfi niiire 
ibaii 3O0 hnlittttlium, divcn nf ihpin wcmly for grotWmcn, iitttny 
(&ir inns, iind ilic rcMdut* of the fiinie tnibitBiion* (i>r uciuallers 
arnJ onltWn of rily-lil:e btiit<l>n;*i. 'I'liis town is ciillrtl tiitt thirc 
Iowa. iKit uiiiy by the stnlutc of rl»'cnlh of ilcni-y The Si-icnlli, 
for the Cinttxly uf wcij^lil* nnd nM'*'>Urca, bill su rf putnl aiid Ixkcn 
lDti)( lime b^TtXT by ll»> k(.<o|)iiig uf nil niMset uiid seaioDS of tli* 
penw," &c. In tlig rtcwnth «f Cilwiird thf 'Miird, four mcm- 
l>ct:i «rerc>«nt froiu ChclinsrunJ to n Connvil beM ut U'minliater. 
Cbvlnitforil is a rt^jit-cinble lowti, ciiicfly fuimtd by fnur streets. 
Nrsr tbi-' ci-nuc is the Sbire Ifalf, »n rlcgsnt, rumrnndious, and 
l»*ll-dc«gned strucltire, rrccled ue liic rxpcnce of the rountyi 
froin (kv^iu, and under lite iminrdiale <lir(>ction, of J. Johnwn, 
l^. aicbitect, ubu having eoiopleted it to tbc satisfaction of Jiii 
rtnidt^ym, mid Kt an cxpciKc Ins llian ihc ori^tinl nlimmc, was 
]>Tcacitird, in {mnitiancc lu a volo pai^ ul tlie f|uiirtvr k^iuiis in 
179?, with K silver cop of clrgaiil form. The front of ibe huild- 
iti$ M of white stone, with % riHltrated bnmncnt, and onisinented 
xilh foor tlircc-tjuiirtcr columns, *Mp]K>r!ing a |>ediment. Th« 
oppcr patt of tlic U^AiSvn (uriber ornaint-iiU'd nitb Ibn-v nppro- 
priue embiemalicttl b>wo-Tclievu>, In ibe bitwuiciit of ibii 
building is an open spuce for ibc com excbange, and apnilmenti 
for lliC ctiutU uf usiite, eesMons, ttc. Above la itn elrguiit a^iiem* 
bly or fAunly rmim, which exlrmls tlic whole Iciigili ofihc build* 
Ing, and is fumishod willi n mii»ic gollery, two Imnt^Home rlmn- 
delien, and uulptured marbto chimney- pieces. Ilehind this i> a 
jury room, and sc»"ct«l fiber ronvetiiwii apnrtmcnts. Conriguous 
lo ilic Shin: Hull is a n<'iilly seulpliircd Conduit, huviug Ibc fijjurc 
of & Naiad at the Top. On the ilifftrent iida nbuvc the pi{>es 
whence the water iuues, aic the foll'iuing Mppropiiatv ii!M.'ri|>- 
tknu. * Benignus hmtgnit.' Bounliful m the Bounlcoun. • Utt 
farau parcis.' Ubtrul lo the Corrtoiis. * A'cc dhn'mvlut taigi- 
ado.' N<it dimiiiiabcd by bcsluuing. * 5i'e ckanlai a Devjante.' 

Vol. V. Apaii, isov. K 'JTius 



us 



UfVEX. 



Thus Chill ity fmrn Ihc 1 Icftvf nly rounlain. Tlie water is brot 
frum u. spritig abuut a quarter of a mile from the town. Wbeu 
the un;;inal Comluit was built ii unknown ; the prCTcnt w-a» crect- 
wl a lew yvsnt ago, chic% from sulHcriptJoiu or the inliitHlants, 
and gift* of lOUl. racb, from the Suti and Royal Exchnnge Fire 
Offices. 

'Jlie Church i» a spacious and ti»ntl»oinc building, dedicated to 
SL Mary, llie body is modern, and was eiecled from designs by 
Mr. Jolitiiion, in pliLct; of Ltiu more uicictu part, whicU fell to the 
ground, wiih a must trtmcndou-t cni&b, uii the night of the seven- 
Ict-ntl) of January-, 1800. At the wcfit end is a sr|UKre flint tower, 
witli {>innHctc3. When the original Church wai founded is unccr- 
tsiii ; l)ul, from an inscription which was placed on the south tide 
ttf the centre aisle, it apiKrars to have been repaired l»y »ubscrip- 
tioDt in die year 1424>: in the Catholic times it coDtaincd four 
guilds or chantries. The buriaUplace of the MiUlmayi is on the 
tiuilli of the chancel: Benjamin, F^rl Filzwaltcr, anil Frederics, 
his Cuunle», daughter to the pliant Duke of Schomber;^ ar« 
amons the number of that family wiio Up here interred. In re- 
boilding the body of the Church, the ancient character of iu ar- 
chitecture baft been preferred; but the interior is elegantly orna- 
mented in a luodern Mylr. At the west end is u gal[er)','^n which 
is a tine organ, erected by llunrock, in 1772; but since improved 
by RoskII. The new building was opened for divine iervice iu 
September, IS03. 

In thia town is a Tree Grammar Schui^, founded, and liberally 
endowed, in the ye-iir 155'}, by Edward the Sixth, un the petition 
uf Sir William Tetfe, Knight; Sir Wulier Mildmay, Knigbt, 
ihen one of the Genera) Supervisors of the Court uf Augmenta- 
tions; Sir Henry Terrell, Knight; and Thomas Mildmay, Em^. 
The Govemnrs were at tlie same lime constituted a body corpo- 
rate. The common sral is of bram, having a ro»e engraven on it, 
and round the edgii this inscription : COE. SIGILU. GUB. POSS. 
IlEV. K. BONOn. Uli. SCHO. GUAM. REG. liUKI. Vltli. 
IN CHELMSFORD IN COM. ESSEX. 'Hit: School House 
wu relmiU iu the year l/'SS, by R. Benyon, Etq. then acting 

3 Covcrvor. 



KS1BX. 



339 



.GovtTiior, on ttic utc of a more anciont onr, creeled by Sir Johp 
lyiTvll, Usrt. I1i« eduCHliun or youth a rurthcr pTxivuled for by 
Iwu Chanty bcliooU, »u|>])<jrU*ii liy t>ul»cri])liuii; um- founilvd on 
t^e tcvenicentli uf AugUHt, 1713. fui fifty buys; the olbrr in 
.Apri), 1714, for twenty ^rls. The School House stands Ht 
liic north-caat corner of the Church-Vard; adjoining to it are 
^ree Atrnt'II^uMts for decayed families. The Bridge, erected by 
Rtvhop Maurice, ovrr tlie Chcltner, tiaving greatly dcaiypd, waa 
tabuilt with one arcb in the year l/Sr, from a design by Mr. 
Johnson. Thik Bridge unites the hamlet of Moulbiiam with 
Cbclmsiiird. Near it, on the Moulshum »ide, buxnds itii' Coauij/ 
Gaolf a spuciotts and well-arranged Ktotic building, which was 
rdbiinenced in 1773, by an nrchiu-ct mtm«d Hylynrd, but hfts^ince 
been much improved by Mr. Jolaiuon. 'i'hc Iroiit is formed by a 
Commodious house occupied by the giioloi : from this westward, 
extends a large paved yard, tcrminalt-il by the I[<«pital, or Ward 
tat female criiuiiials, and a vcr)- ticat und cuiiveuient Cliiigtel. 
On the north wdc, next llie river, h a double rnagD of cells; nnd 
beyond, anothor large yard, secured by & wall and iron jialis;)- 
d(X3, Appropriated to the me of the convicts employed in picking 
oakum, and making ropes. On the south std^*, from iJie bouse, 
rx(end»% range of separate cells for condemned ciiminala, behind 
Nhich,' on the opposite side of a pu\Td yuni, are apartments fur 
debtors, conveniently disposed. Every yard is provided with 
eKCcIlcnt spring water, which, with the general attention paid to 
.ckanlincas, greatly contributes to the health ef the prisoners. In 
Jiloulsliuu arc also iix Aims-Uoma, endowed for the relief of the 
same number of poor people, byThiimait Mildmay, Esq. in the 
>ear 156^: the pnaenl dwellings wereervcled by William .'^lildmay, 
Lsc[. in 1738. Within this hamlet, near the river, stotjd a Do- 
jufucan Priory, the site of whicLi siill relnins the appellation of 
the Friart. Camden, and some other writers, have* Hiirihuicd its 
foDndadon to Malcolm, King of Scotland; but this is evidently a 
mistake, as, according lo tlic remark of Bishiip Tanner,* the 

U 3 Alakolnu 



NoLilis. 



36o 



E3IB:I. 



Malcolms were exbnct long boferc the Dominicans obtained fctot* 
ing in England. At the Dissolution, tbc revenues or this house 
w*ro tTitunatctl «t JH. 6». 5d. In I>ip ihirty-lirih of Henry the 
Liglttli, it wtii gmiiled to Anthony Uotivixi ; bul bos since be- 
come the- property of the Wildmaj-s. Thomai Langj'ord, wh« 
lived in the reigli ol" Edward tlie Second, and compiled a Uiii»cr« 
»al Climnide from tlie Creation lo bis uwnTimw, beiulo other 
cunouv pi«<V9, vu a Friar in this hotee. 

On Gallywfxvd Common, near Cbelmsford, iii a R/iM Cumt^, 
en which thrw plates are run for annually. One oi tbcm, of tlia 
value of lUO guineas <> p^t^'n by the Queen. The others, of fif- 
ty guijicos <^cb, are provided by tijc suUcriptioiis of the inltsbi- 
lants, uitd uf the neighbouring nobility and gentry. Tlie support 
of the tuburing cla»i» in chiefly derived from the general busi^eas 
of the county, and fmm tbc multitude of carriers and passengers 
that lakv this road to the Mc-tropoHiii. The number of inhabt- 
luiits, us returned under llie late act, was 3753; of houiea 6i3, 
'i'lio countiy Burroumliiig Clielrmlord i) cxtrcmdy pleasant, and 
fertile: the soil principally consists of a deep rich loom, inter- 
mixed with reins nf {;ravi-l. Several flourishing plantntions of 
hups are established in the neighbourhood. Within tlie la*t six or 
seven yean., twoeMcmivc ranges of Barracks, with acccAiinoda- 
tiuits iur upHards ut 4U00 troopi, tiavv been erected in tliis pa- 
risli : the largest is at the west end uf the town : the otbcf on ibe 
southcni side. 

At a small distance west of the latter, begins a line of emheidi- 
meiil for defending ihe approach to tiie Meimpoli}, coMtsting of 
slur butteries and pnmpets. It has been carried a considerable 
way in a south-east direction ; but is. not yet completed to tbc ex- 
tent pmposed. This line is one among the nomcrous works now 
carrying on in this couutiy to defeat the purposes of tbc projected 
invasion. 

Philkmok lioLLAWl), M. D. the Tnuulalor-Oeneral of his 
agr, and the first that rendered Cunulen into Knglish, was born 
at Cbelmtford, in the year 1331. lie was uught the Ant rudi- 
mcuis of Icuriiiiig at tbc Grammar School, and was then sent lo 

Trinity 



t»»tx. 



96i 



Trinity College, Cambridge; in wliicli lie wkx nftPrwarJs aitvenced 
lo a Felluwtiiip. ttcmoving (rum ihe UniTenily, be Killed iit 
Covenlry, whvra hr Iwcamc h«ad MasUrr of the Ruyal Frcu 
School, and retained that siiualion many yean. Here also 
be commenced Physician, having tultcn bis degrees at Cam- 
briil|[c; but fais celebrity appears to have arisen more from lh« 
'itDniber of learned wurks wliicK W iraiwlatrd, iban from either 
his schulwtic or mediciiinl ]>rofi;Mion. Among h» TrBmlatiuns, 
%ri Li»y, Pliny's Nfttuml History, Plutarch's Murals, Suetonius, 
. Ammiuius Marcetlinus, Xcnuphon's Cyropxdia. and ibe Bii- 
^lunia: to the lutter lie also made various addiiiom. He was in> 
uigable in study; and of acompnbciBJre, well-informeH jndgr 
mnil; though bis Blylo is somewhm tinctured with the conceits 
aih^quainineu oTlbe age. He tixpireJ on the ninth of Febniary, 
1636, in his eii;hty Afth yeflr; and was burie<l in St. Mary's 
Church, Coventry. The following tpigrum ii altiibuted lu him, 
and said tu bavi: been tniide on writing u large folio volunw with 
A single pen. 

With ODe io1« pen I wrote thii book 

H*dc of 1 [rty gao*t ({aill 1 
A pen Ll wat when I it took, 

A pen 1 1e>v«itwill, 

MOULSFIAM, Ihc seat and manor of the MiUfuayt, was, prior 
to the Korman Conquest, parcel of the possessions of the Abbey 
Church of St. Pclcr's, Wcsiminstcr; hut bccomin« vpsled in the 
Crown at the Dissolution, was sold by Henry the Kightb, on the 
Iwenty'third of July, 1540, lo Thomas Mililmay, Gent, otw of 
the Auditors of the Court of Augm^ifntations. This gentlemaii re- 
built the manur-boutie, " so that it was then accounted the great- 
at Esquire's building within the county of t^>x."' Since iliat, & 
Lrgc modern fabric has been creeled on its ute, by nenjumin, Llarl , 
^Is-Walter, from the designs, and under the direction, of the ce- 
lebrated ilaliiin architect Leoni. This building, now called 

R 3 MOULStlAM 



Aacic&l Snnry in the poufuioa of (he MilOmiy family. 



iSt 



C^ftET. 



MOULSIIAM Hall, is of a quadranfriilar form, inclosing ft 
court ill tl](? centre, and commanriing n view of Danbury llill 
from th« grand fronr, which hu an omamcntel pediment, dis- 
jjlaying llic ftimily aims in txisso-relifvo ; nhove, arc ihc statuvs 
of Apdin, Dinna, and Mercury. The interior i^ di?.pnM!d with 
great judgment ; and an easy access is nbinin«l tu the apsrtnicnt) 
on the diffoTcm sides of the quadrangle, hy means nf a Continued 
gallery on each ttnor. 

Amonj! the family porlmits in this mansion, are thot« of Sia 
TuoilAft MlLDMAT, to vihom the TD^nor vras sold by Henrv the 
LighTli: Siu Waltkr MiLDHAY, rounder of Emanuel Callrgp, 
Cumbrid^l SiB Henry Miluhat. irpn^nled us dead, tind 
covered with a black vchxt pall; Ki-.n.iahin, kre Karl Fiu- 
Waller; rRRiiERiCA, hisljdy; RonFnr, Fjirl of Holdemesse, 
her first haslmnd; and MjktKcnART, her father, the brave 
Dukcof Schuinbcrg. Ilcn- is also an ancient painting of Matil- 
da, daughter of the Lord Kubctt Fitz-Waltcr, who nas poisotird 
at Dunmow by King John. The Milcimat/x trace iheir descent 
from Hugo Mildeme, or Mildmc, who lived nbuut the year 
1147: Wolttr Mildmay settled at Writilo, near Chelmsf<)rd, 
•bout the end of the reign of Henry ifae Seventh, and was fother 
of the above Sir Thomai, v>ho had fflur ior«, each of wbon be- 
came the heud of a re«pccliiblc family. Hivi. Walter, the 
youngest, Ibc founder of Emanuel College, »iis born at Mdult- 
hara, and became Chancellor of the Excherfuer, and Privy Coun- 
aeilor to Qtiren Eliiabeth : he died in the yenr 158f). Several 
others of this family have held honorable situtitinns under dilTerciit 
aovertign*. 

Nearly two mile* wert from Mouliham !* WRITTLE, former- 
1y a nmiket toun, but long divested of its trade by [he increwe<l 
iiDportunce of Chelmsford. Here, Afurant, and tonic other anti- 
quaries, have pbced the dnaromagut of the Itinerary; but cbem 
is no mdenci!, as Mr. Gnugh obicrvn, of its ever having been a 
Roman station. Near the villagic is a squarv plot of ground, in- 
closed by a deep moat, supposed to have been llic &ltc of a palac«>, 
rccufded, in blow\ Annsls, to have lievii erected by Kiny Juhn, 

»buui 



XSSEX. 



tSi 



the jear 1? 1 1 : tonw of tlie fnundaLions were dng op ix- 
tbirty xm) forty yr&rs ago. Th« CAunrA it an unci«ut und 
'^Ipaoous building, coniisling of a iiuve, chance), siid side ahlcf, 
with an onibattted inwer at the west end. ll is dedicated to All 
Stints; and appears to have been given, wiili i» appurrcnanccs, 
to the monki* of i^iiiKiiidsoy, iti Surreji] )iy Kin^ Mephrii. In 
tbe year 1303, ic wan granted to tlic EnglWh ]|uspit«l or tin- Iloty 
Gbost, at Rome, by King John ; but its poMewiom were after- 
wards seized by tlie Crown, sa belonging to aii alien priory, and, 
in 1359. bestowed en the Wardtti and iVlluws of New College*, 
Oxfon), through the interest of its founder, Wyckhain, Kshop of 
Winchester: it is still a peculiar jurisdiction belonging to that 
College, and as such, exempt from episcopal nsiuition. Within 
ibe Church are »everal claborute monuments, and many inscrip- 
lioiis to the memory of respectable familin who have resided In 
tbii pamb, which is supposed to be the largest in Ihc county, it« 
drcumSercncc bang estimated at filly-two mile*. Among tlicm, 
it sn cl<^m tomb to the memory of Sin Jons Comyks, Knt. 
Chief Baron of the Exchequer, who erectftd lite large mansion 
called HvoHLAsos, near Chelmsford, now occupied by Cornc- 
IJBB H. Kortright, iLsq. On ihe tomb is a bust of tliis nbleanS 
uprigbt JudgCt in bis Baron's robes; and engraven on an entabla- 
ture of grey marble h'a character, which concludes with the fol- 
lowing beautiful extmct from Horace: 

Cui pudorct Jiutiiic »ror 



Incarrupu Eiilc*. Kuda^ue veiiUu, 
Quando ullam iovenicnt pirum,* 

In the rriijii of lulward ibc Confessor, the e-xlensive I.ord*hip of 
Wrlttlc* from which at diflercnt times nu fewer than nine iiiunors 

R 4 have 

* Thae linu Fnve been thui traftilatoJ hy FrincEi; 

Oh, where »hal] F*ith, of loul iinc«rr[ 
Of Jiuilet puf 0, iht titUT hit ; 
AnA Kaittiy, uni^Mhi) msid; 
And Truth, in (rt^cii guiie acny'd ; 
Awxig the nee of human kiDd, 
A mttcb Cor this Juuinoa find t 



aa 



ZftSlS. 



)iavA \xen sqiarattJ, wu hcM by Earl llaroli), on wboaa defeat 
aikI (IcaOi it feU into the hands of the Conqueror, nho retained « 
verj' coiwidernljle part at ihc liino »f the UomcMlay iiurvey. Irt 
the reigo of Ilu-iiry llic Tliird, ihc manor of Wrillle was in ibe 
poaseuion of Philip dc Albrne, and urim'rards of Wiilium Long- 
l^apCL', Llarl of Salisbury, rn^m hint it parted, through vnriotii 
fiunilica, to Thomns of \Vuod<)tock, Duke ot Gloucester, and High 
Coittlullc of rit'^liind ; aOrr whmc unlimeU fate, in t3S7i it wac 
obtKiiKil liy 'Piiuiias, I'-irl of Slafi'md, wtiusc dcscetidAnli conlj- 
tiuvd p&ui-^>«on till (he doca|)itution of lulward, Carl uf Stafford^ 
in the yrar 1331, uhcnutl tlic fimiily ntules fell tulheCrowtif 
Quern Mary, in 1333, grunted AViittlc, vriih other manor», lo Sir 
William Petre, Km. whu^ issue aiill enjoy i^ The number of in- 
Imbiianls in ll<is pan>^1i, as ivtunicJ under the Poiiulalion Act, 
WI14 131)3; ilic "umber of houses 'iSG. 

Writtlc was ihc hirlh-place of the celebrated Jo«» Bastwicc, 
M. D. Uc wat burn in the year 1593, iind educated at Emanuel 
Cullrgi*, Cambridge, hut ubtuincd Im di-grfcs ut the Utiivenity of 
Padua. Granger (Ii.'iiCribi?s him as too intent upon llio rrforniBF* 
tion of guvrrnmenc and religion, to attend paiticutaily to the bu- 
■ineu c( his profe!<>i&n. lloMrver this may be, it is certain that 
bit writing inrurrcd the displeasure of the Star- Chamber, by 
iftbote unprinciplc-d and infamous di-Ctuon he wh« drprivcd of hif 
ear^ in ihu iiiHurj', and wulmiced to perpetual Impriiunmcnt in Si. 
Wary's Castle, in the Isle of Scilly. In 16'-10 he •wm released by 
order of Parliament, and his siiiferings cumpciisaied by a grant of 
50001. from the csiiul-h of ilic /Vrchbishop of Canterbury-, lie 
died about ten years afterwards. 

In thi* parish, about four miles nonh-easi from the Church, in 
(he middle of a wocitl culled Highwood Qunrter, was formerly a 
Itcnuitagr, founded by oiip Uobert, n Monk, in the time of King 
Stepbvu, wbo granted the land, and other rcquitita for the ua- 
denaking. Additional bcncfuctiom were made by Henry ihc Sa- 
conil, in who5c reign it became attached to St. John'* Abbey, 
Colchester. Suun after the Dissolution, its possessions were alienated 
fo ^r William Pctre, Knt. in whose posterity they still remain. 

SPIUNGFIKLD, 



I 



M»EX. 



96s 



SPRINGFIELD, a smalt vil[B)if, about one raWe narth-tast 
from Cbclioifon), is callfd, by Nordeii, Catiiput Aqitadfut, from 
(be Dumber of 'ptinp nsing in ihc oci;;;libuutho«iJ. At the time 
of tbc DuRiPsdny Survey, nearly tliu uh«ile piLniili was in llie po9* 
fesikm of Ralph Pr^vrct anJ tloberl Gcnion. Sprikofibld 
Lyos5, iiimairJ uii n fine emin-ricc in this pnrUh, isihewatof 
the Duwagcr Liiily WaUhara. bPaixcrtKLD Placc is occu- 
pii-d by ■ lirogravo, Enq. 

W^W-HALL, "II i'Ktfii«iivc Lordsbip in the piiridi of BorehBm, 

in originally parcel of Ihc pouruions uf Wallham Abbry; but 

vat cichangetl, in ihc Iwciiiy-fuunh of Edward ihc Tbird, for 

[iMber manors in ihis county, with J>ir Julin do Shardclowf, Knt, 

P^hoae brother, Sir Tliomai dr .Shardelowr, a^aJn excliangcd ir, 

»ilh otiicr estates, for the manor of Bnidekcr, in Norfolk, then 

rjbc prupcriy of bir Henry and TTiomas do Cog5;cjbiill. Tbii fa- 

EfDily retaiikcd it till liic tenth of Ilc-nry tlic b'illb, when it bvcams 

be joiat property uf Sir John de Ilurefaam, and othen; but soon 

IjM^erwanh Hp|>cnrs to have been pos!>c?!)ed by IlichiLnt Alrod, who 

fid it of Wnratarct, Qticcn of Henry ihcSixlh. During ihc wan 

belvecn ibe rj^al houM-s of Yurk nnd Ijincastrr, it ft-ll to llie 

Crown, and was j^ranti-d ro Hotelier, ICarl of Ormond, a strenuous 

parlinn of llie Ljincast riara, who wui made prisomT at ihc buttle 

^d Towtun, in 14(iO, and Lehrailcd. It was afterwanls bestowed 

on Thomas Uia younger bmthcr, by Henry the Scvcntli, who also 

granted pcrmiuion to fortify the munor-housc with walls and 

loners, llic hpncious mannion called Nf.w<[lAi.i,, of Mhich a 

ilarge ponioa is now standing, is btippoM><! to have been built 

(lirough ihu license. It wasaflt-ruuida udornetl and improved by 

Henry the Eighth, who oblatiieJ the l^ndxhip in exchaitge, froia 

Tbonas Dollyn, (father of (jui-en Anne Bullyn,) E^rl of Wilt- 

ihire, u'ho» ^hcr had niarfiod the eldest daugliter of Tliomas, 

Ear] of Ormond. Henry wus so charmed with the siiuulion, that 

be erected i[ into an //onor, and gave it the name of Btaulieu, 

making it a place of frequent residence; and here, in l3?4, he 

|[ept the feait of bt. George: bis daughter, the I'liiiccu Mary, 



S66 



K5S1X. 



mho TtutM her* wterol yean. In 1575, Queen Eliiaboili grunt- 
ed it, with other coulig^uoui rosnon, to Tliomu RatcliflT, Earl of 
Suflolk, who hud rendered her cmmtijil scnice both in Scoltiind 
&ml Ireland. This nobleman d>-ing without miK, was suc(;eeded 
by his brother, vrhoM son and heir, Robert, Earl of Suisex, mM 
it, Bbotit the ycjir iG'iO, for 30,000l. to Villicn, Dokc of Buek- 
inglani, who was &»»a»inalocl by Felion at Porb>mouth. Hi<i snn 
Georgu ijaving ctpoHsed the Royal cause, was attainted by the 
Parlifimcnt, and his estates onlered to be totd. Soon afterwards, 
in April, ifiil, Ncw-lioll was pmchaaed by Oliver Cromwell, for 
the sum n{ ^Te sMtfings, though in annual value was then com- 
puted at I3U(^I. l?s. S^d. 

Cromwell rctafned po»«4ion but a short period ; for being more 
pleased will) the situalinn uf Ilanijitun Court, he gave a sum of 
Inoney, and New-Hall, in exchange for it. The Utter was next 
purchased by three !tlcrchants of London for 18,0001. but, after 
the Restoration, it became the property of Monk, Duke of Albe- 
marle, who lived here for fonte time in great splendor. Chrbto- 
pher, his »()n and heir, mnrried Elixnbclh, f^rnnclHliiufthtcr to Wil- 
liam Carrndish, Earl of NewcaatU-, who, on her husband's deatb> 
Bucc«eded to this eidaie; Ibis lady, in 15191, w&i ogun married, to 
Balph, Duke of Momugue; afr it which New-Hall was deserted, 
and became ruinous. Iklorc the decease of her Curare, who dted 
in 1734, the reversion of this Lordship wtis purchased by Bcnja- 
Uiih Hoalv, Esq, Three years afterwards, the mansion of New- 
Hull, ivith ihe gardens and park, xvas «o!d by thiti gentleman to 
John Olmius, Esq. afteiwards Uaron Waltham, who pulled down 
a very considerable portion of ihe building; some valuable mor- 
liles^ and other maceriuls, hating been previously removed by Mr. 
Hoare, to a new and handsome mansion, erected fur himself, at 
«omc di^tanre on the road to Co!che«ler. Ncw-Hall has since 
been purchased by mmv opulent ftoman Catholics, and in occu- 
pied by Knglith Nuns, who were driven from Ucgc during the 
French Revolution, niid here direct the educalion of about eighqr 
Catholic young ladies. This building, in its most fltiurislnng state, 
WIS one of the largest in the kingdom, and conuslcd of two ({ua- 

dmiijlee. 



ESBET. 



267 



dnnglfS, itMrlonng large courts. In llic part now sianitiiig is ihs 
Grral Bail, ft spacious and ^rnitd npnrtnHnit, Tfio&sarinK nincty*six 
fcft in length, fifty wide, ntid fony high. This hus been lately 
convened into a Cbapvl, and laid out in a very jutlicioui mant>cr. 
On the eiiiil side arc tliv arms or Henry the liligtilh, finely wrought 
in ftw-stonc: the grounJ-worlt K scufpHired wiih licliciite foliii^e; 
Wnenth the amis h the feUuMing inscripliun, &u{:port7d by a )ioB 
fcitd s hawk: 

b<ie/sB:S£S«is<iBjE£>2rs:aaiaft -act ^Ijssljs. sss^Tft 

llie whole is inrlfMcd in a frame of sltim*; ihc nut*idc embellished 
wtlh militiiry instnimfnli nnd tmphivs. Over ttic porrh at llie 
enirancc b the arms of Queen Llirnbeth, wich ihc3« injcripLioni: 

VJV4 £lizab(tEu, 




En tan 1> piv u«ii Itcgina, oi c1clo b piu tutenu tfdb: 
VUgine RMgnaniini iova divina lc{i*df> boosia ct bctl*. 



R the splendid ChaprI beloi^ging to (his manuon, which wn* ttken 
down between 60y and uxly years sgo, wus Gr»t crrcled llic iiiag- 
ni&ccnt painted window now in bt. KUrgatet's Cbapel, W«9t- 
nin^itcr. 

BOREIIAM, (low a pleasant villn»e, is, rrnm its nnme, sup* 
pofrcd, by Moniiit, lu Itavc been a markel-luwn in the Saxon 
limci. At ikr pciiod of the Domtiid&y Survey, the nbolv manor 
was bcid by Ku>lace, Tail of Bulo{;ue, Suenr, of tUarx, and WiU 
linm de Warremic: ii is now divided among varit>us fumtlKS. 
la lh« Church, in a [liui called the Simtx Chaptt, from iis having 
been built at the rxponcc'f SirTliomits IlndcliSe, nflerwnrdg l^aii 
of Suucx, ultii, with bi» lather, giand-falbcr, and nine olhcr per* 
Mia of llii) noble family, lies buried in the vault beneach. In iIm 
('Impel arc llu: mulilattiJ n-m«Ji» of a »p1entlid monument, erected 

* nil inwripl'ion icfoi to ■ tnajtoi^ctul ];tl£>in-jy which focmt-lly led tnl9 
the chief Court, uid fion which tht aiiut wen icmoved iatciiic HiU. 



9$9 



KftSEX. 



I*; Earl Thomas, to perpetuate the inetnor)' of ti'musell atui noble J 
relfttivcs, u itii e\peiice ul nt-urlj 3UUl. Un die top ate recum- 
bent Aguns, in unn»ur, of Roblut RAocLtrr, first Earl of 
Sowrx oflhat hmily, who died rn 1543; Henbt, bis md, obiit 
|.]A;){>; and Tiiumas, his grandson, the builder of ibr- Chapelt 
Linbo dii-ij in 13S3. llic bodi<-s of llic two former, witblliiJMof 
^^fir Inditrs, werc^ removed liillier frum the Church of SL Law* 
rencr Puuntiicy in London, in pursuance of the will of Earl Ho- 
ni:t.i. Three lon^ inscriptions, in l^tin, on lab!e» of black mwi* 
tile, record the lilies und conduct of (hea* exalted penonagcs. 
The leaden co0ins in which the bodies are inhumed, are now 
l>rK;kcd tip at one end c>( the vuult ; sevtnil of them arr cast in lh« 
^luitiun lorm, and iifcnbcd with Ihc name, &c. o( the person ir.m 
closet) wittiin. In the Church-yard ii a nrat octagonal maiuc* 
leum for the Wallhain fttniil), built of i\<nv and while brick: tho 
Jalc Lord Waltham, o( New-Halt, was buried berr. On tUa front 
ptiiis inscription: 

UAUSOLEtTM 

CENTIS WALIHAMIAN*. 
ja.DCCLXIV. 

GREAT BADOW, between one and two miles sontb-east front ' 

Clirlni»for<l, is an extensive village, iiibabiled by many mpeeta- 
ble families, whg have cboten this jiUce of residence from the ex- 
treme plcasanlncH of the situation. Frcvious to the Conquest, it 
ibnnod part of ihe estate of Algiir, Earl of Merriu, whose eldnt 
aon^Earl Endwine, succeeded him, and, prompted hy ambition, after 
the death of King HArold, solicited ihe citizens of London to choose 
him for their Sovereign. Being disoppoiiited in bis hopes, be 
■ubmitted to the Conqueror, on condition thut the tniter should 
give him bis sister ih marriage ; tut the crafty Norman no sooner 
obtained firm possession of the throne, than be treated Eadwin« 
with contempt ami insolence, and refowd to perform his engago- 
nenc. The Karl flew to arms, aiid was tUiin in battle, after dis- 
playing great bravery and rcAolution : his possrj&ionH were then 
■eiied by the King, who granted the Lordship of Bodow, yi'wh 
•titer valuable oUtes, to the jMotiaatcry of ibc Holy Trinity, ac 

Caen,.! 



sssE?:^ 



s6S 



in KomanJy. Id tlie nign ofKfnry the FSnt, it was 
ptmtmed by tht Crown, tod about thnt pcriiKl became th« 
properly of llic EarU of Oluuccslcr: it lias bincc been voleil in 
many noble fiunilivt ; bat is now, we bclievp, ia tbe pufscoJon of 
tbe HoubloD fiuiily. In the Church w«re furmcrty two cbunirics 
of wme value. According to the late enumeration, tlii» punib 
conlttini sffi bousM, anil 14^3 inhabitants. 

In the Church of LITTLE BADOW is a cosdy monument, 
Mvcted lo the meinory of SiR Hexkt MilomaV, Knight, of 
Gnwre's, In this pamb, who <Jiod in Octob«r, iGsy. The Knight 
u rrpraenifd in urniuur, reclining on n pilluw under a kind of 
dome, supported by pillat^ uf black marble: at the foot are two 
femak figures, knrciing; on« rrpppscnls an rtderly Udy, arrayed 
in ft hood and scurf; the other, a ynung one, superbly drcsicd in 
ibe babtt of the times. A Latin i»Kri(>tioD on an oval tiiblet, 
nrniionit Sir lU-nry as a toldier in the lri»h wars, iini! that he re- 
ceived the honur ol Knighthood in llic licid. In itcl'sscb in the 
sot]th wall of the centre ai&le are the carved figures of two females^ 
whom tradition represents as siblert, and the fuundcrs of th« 
Church. In a letter now in our possession, Imm llie late Jowph 
Strait, Fm|. author of Rt^al anil Kcclcsia^tical Anliii)uili(-), anj 
other esteemed uciVs, arc ihe (rillowing particulars relating to 
these figures, " At Little Badow, we opened two gmves in 1I10 
wall of the Church, owr which lie the effigies of two women, 
who, by their drets, uppenr lo have bi-en burii'd there in the thir- 
teenth cmlury. We found three skeletons in one, and two in tbe 
other, without any appearance of wood, coRin, or linen, or any 
other covering for the corpse.''* Dr. Richard dc Iladuw, wbu 
fiHinded University Halt, in Cambridge, on the vitc now occupied 
by Clure Hall, sprung from a family which dt:.^t;d its name ei- 
ther from this or the former pariUi. 

SANDON, a small villnne, deriving its name from its sliuntton 
«a s landy hill, is celebrated as having been the rectury of the 

luiriied 

* Ur. Struu idiU, dut he ihill suk«, at hii kiivrc, a little pamphlet, with 
oCtwuip ol ihr moauiticnl : (liii, if nei publUhtd, Iim not come to our 



270 



&S>EX. 



learned Dr. Wnlton, editor of the Polyglot Uiblc. His first wift 
lies buried in ibeCburch; wbore bur virtues are rccunkd in an 
inscriplinn by brr busband, wriltcn partly iit Lngiish, niid partly 
in Ijitiii. It ii obtH-rvcd in Vancouver's Agricullunil Survey of 
Eteex, thut llic buitincsi of bnlter-makinj; has Iwcn in » great 
measure reliD(|ulsbc(l in t1ii« parish, from the want of good spiiug 
water, and from a t>moky taste wlucb is communicated to tbc 
butter when tbc cows iecd upon some particular postures, or wben 
ibi*)- are fiHJdcrvd uilb the biiy utiiclt i» inuwn frum tbcni. This 
effect, which has hiibt-rto bufflvd every inudt: of preveniion, lias 
ficcanoned a veiy general attention to be given to tbc suckling of 
calves. 

DANBURV, contracted from Danrtbur^, the town or casilo 
of'the Dani^ is a ainall vjllsge, pleasnntly situated within and 
near tbc area of an uncivnt EmamytiKnt, about 6~S0 yards in 
circumference. TIu> situaliuii wtcs well chosen; Daubury Hill 
bcinf; C'liiMdercd ai< lUf- higlio^t eminence in fcJWN, aud command- 
ing a very cxtciRJvc prospect of the surrounding country. Un the 
fouth side the gl&ci» is still nearly thirty l«et deep; and the titKt 
may be iraci-d to a runsicJcTable distance on tlie other aides. 
Danbilry, in the time of Edward the Confessor, was beld by Ar> 
ling, n Sa:ii>» ; but ut the compihiiiun of the Domesday Book, it 
was the property of Getfery de MandoiUe. S'lr.n alternarda, 
the chief portion cuntc to the family of De Sancto Claro, or St. 
Clere, wbo retained it, at lc»>t, till the reign of Edivard the Kii>t^ 
in wbinie time William do i»t. Clvrc was t>benlf of lincx, and had 
a park ut Danbury, The cstatv held by ibis family is still called 
Si. Clcie's manor. Trim ihcm it pusHsd successively to the Verity 
Earls iif Oxford; to ihc 6'r^^ii, of Wihou, (from whom, for a few 
]Kan, it went to Sir Gerard Braybrookc, who married one of tb» 
dau^tlen ofl^ml lti-:;tfuild dc- Grey;) and to the Lordv D'Arciei. 
Afterwards revrrling to the Crown, it was granted, by Edward 
the Sixth, to William I'arr, Mari|uis of ^urlhampton, who alie- 
nated it to Sir Widtn^r Mildmuy, Kitighl, by wbum the lauiior- 
houso, called DANBUUY I'LACK, now the seat uf L. D. Tfyicbe, 
Esq. was erected at about half a mile from the Church. 

The 



EISEX. 



871 



I 

I 



The Church stands on Ibe eumniit of llie Hill, within tbo nrra. 
of the BDCiunpiDcul. This cxpuscd utuatioii has occasioned it to 
be several times damaged by tempestuous weaihi^r, and parlicu- 
Urly ill May, \Aiyi, wbeti the bcMly, mid pact uf the cliancel, 
were destroy«d. la February, 17*9-30, also, the »pire wa» i«t 
on fire by lightning, and consumed twenty feet downwardt. 'llio 
fsst end of ibc north aislo is inclu»cd by a partition, niilnn which, 
under arches formed in the wall, are the cffi^es of Iwo crosB- 
leg^ Knights, curiuuiily can-ed in wood, and in good prcservft- 
tion. A similar effigy was formerly pluced bcncsib a like arch in 
the south ai»l« ; but when iliii part wax rebuilt, in the year 177^* 
die figure w;i3 removed into tJic iiorili ai»le, where it yet remains. 
It has been questioned uhetlier tlie&e tlgures were intended Co re- 
preuol ihc St. CUrex^ or the JXAnm; but, as the arcliw und*T 
which they lie, arc apparently cih'vuI with the Church, ii doubt 
can scarcely remain of their having bciungvd to tlic former, 
whgee arms appear emblaioned in several imull compurtments of 
Ibe aniique waiascot ceiling of the chancel. The feet of each of 
Ibc figum arc supported by a liuu ; but each lion, at welt as 
Knight, i» in a (litfcn-nt position. One of ihc Knighu is in a 
pmjing attitude, with his sword ^heathed; another is in the act of 
drawing ht& iwoiA ; nnd the ibird, of returning his sword to the 
Kabbard.* In October, 177!), (^ some woikiuen were digjjing a 
grave jmt beneath one of the urches in the nonh wall, they dis- 
curercd a leadi-n col's!!, about iliiriy inches from the surface of 
the pavement. This was cpnird u few days nflerwards, through 
Uie influence oi Mr.T. White, who supposed that it might contain 
** the bo<iy of the Knight Tcmplnr reprewnwd by the eftigy" in 
the arch above ; and uho, wmc years afterwards, Knt »oino par- 
ticuUrs of the discovery to ibc Ocntteuiaii's Magaiiiie, Vol. J9. 
p. 337. from -nhich ibn fallowing is an extract. 

" On raising the lead coffin, there was diiicovered an eliit cofSn 
inclosed, about one-fourth of an inch tl 



very 



Oil 



* TlieM fifwua ba«c btcn tngnnA for Qough't Scpulchni MonnmenU, 
Val. I. p.VII. p.8«. 




CSSEX. 



On rcmovinn tlie lid of tliis coflin, it was found to cttclmt a sfii-ll 
•bnut Ihrcc qitarlcnof nn iiirh thick, wliirh w» cavrrvtl wiUi d 
ihtck CFRient, of a durk olivv colour, and nf a mim>ui nnturcj 
The Jid gf this shi-ll l>eiiig ciivfolly taken off, wc wire presmtcil 
wilb ft view of ifae body, Ijring in a liquor, or pickle, umcwbat 
rocRiblitig mmbrKum cutchup, but pukr, anil 'd' a thitrkcr con- 
■ietenci?. The taste was amniutic. ilimi'^h ni)i very puiiftctii, par- 
tkking oflhe flavour of catchup, and of the pirkit of Spanish ulivn. 
The body wm tolerably perfect, no part BppcHiini! decayed, but 
ibe throat, and part of one arm: the S«s\i every obere, rxcept on 
the bee and throat, appeared exceodia^y white aiid firm. 
11)0 face nnd thn>at were of a dark colour, approaching tu black: 
the throat was much laceralcd. I'be body wa^ coveicd with a 
kind tif shirt of linen, nut unlike Irish cloth, of superior finenets: 
a narmw, rude unti<]ue Iuc«r was aflixcd to the hofinm of the shirtj 
the stitches were very evident, and attached very strongly. Ths 
linen adhcicd rather cIuMrly to the bodyi but on raujng it from 
the breast, in examine the slate of the kkin more minutely, a coa-i 
udemhie piece n-iis lorn utT, vritb part of ihc lace on it. 

" Thi- iroirin not being half full of the pickle, tic fere, bretti(^ 
and belly, were of course not covered with iu The insde of lb« 
iHidy seemed to be filled wirh some substance, which rendered it 
vi-ry hiLfd, There wst no hair nn the lictul; nor du I remember 
any in the liquor; though featken, llowcn, and herbs, in aban* 
dunce*, vcre (loniiii;;; the U-atei and stalks of which appeared 
qnlte perfect, but lolally discolored. The coHin was not pUced 
in a position exactly hurixcnial, the feet being at least three itKboft 
lower ihuii the head. 1'he pillow which supported the head, id 
process of time, decayed, and the head fell back, lacerating th* 
throat and neck, which, with tlic face, apficuivd to have been db- 
coloreJ from the drmy rif the clolh, or subotaticr, which covered 
them. The jaws, when the cufBn wnslir^t opcticd, u-erc closed, 
but on being somtwhut rudely touched, expnrded; owing, as wu 
sai>{u)scd, lo the hrcuking of miRic haiidago that bound them U^ 
gclher. WIk-h l\te jhwj were opened, they exhibited a set of IcctU 
pciiccUy white; u hich was Ukvwiso the colour of the palate, and 
1 all 



KftSBX. 



373 



Clll (be rnddc of [he mouUi. 'Die limUi worv of cxcellMt Bymnn- 
the general appearanci; of tho whole body conveyed the tdcs 
\'tS hvany youtb, not in the least cmaciutcd by sicknen. The 
Flength of the corpse vory little exceeded five feet, though the sholl 
'^hat inclosed it was ^ri^fcpl six inches within. When the pamhio* 
nen, and nthen), had satisfied their cuHotily, the shell, and 
fn coffin, were fastmcd down; Ihe leaden coffin «vm again 
'aoldcnMl; and the vrhoh left, av nearly aa circuoutuiccs would 
admit, in statu quo." 

Ill >fr. SliTJlfs letttrr, before mentioned, and which is dated 
August the sixtli, 17^9, are some particulars that render it vciy 
doubtful whether tlie remains thus inspected were rM//jr bclon^ii^ 
to one of the cros>-leggcd eflij^icii, a« kuppoaed. " We dug at 
Dsnbur>',"My3 this gentleman, " and fuund askclcton of the bero 
who wi\i buried in the tomb, and whose cfbgies was the cover of 
it," It had been interred u thetamt; manner as those at little 
Badow; that is, without any appcamnce of wooden coHin, or li- 
nen, or any oilier covering. " I am now convinced," he conti- 
nuoh " that the mode of burj-ing in pickio, is i>ot to old a»<b« 
lime of the Knights Templars. 'Hie body found in pickle Icn 
jcars ag'^ was nothing le&s than one of tliese old warriors: it lay 
at lone distance from tbe wall, and was covered with a large flat 
stone, on which was a craMj!cury: and fi>nnci-ly an inscription in 
braas, not unlikely the following, mentioned by Wecver: tlicjacct 
CcTaiiiv$ quondam ^iiiu <t lieret Cerardi Rrayhrokt MUitU gin 
<AiU XXI.X Mai^ii M.CCCC.XXII. The body had evciy ap- 
peannce of youth, and was little more tliari live feet high; but 
being probably the son and heir of the above knight^ was buried 
io this cxpciaira maniKr." 

On the west side of the roftd leading from Danbury to Wood* 
iam Ferrj", arc ilio ruins of BYCKNACRE PRIORY, founded 
for Blaci( Canons by Maurice Fitx-GcfllTy, !ilicriff of Lssex in the 
%agn of Henry tbc Second, who considerably increased the en- 
dowments, aod grmnted the site of a Hermitage which previously 
%tODd here, to the Canons. In the reign of Hci)r>- the Seventh, 
the posseuions of this house bad been so much leaseoed by neglect 
Vol. V. S and 



«w 



»sscx. 



ftttd jiuitteftliori, that i1 was almost abaudoiied; and, on the 
tioo of ttie Prior and Monks of U»4iig Spittle. London, w&s grant- 
ed by the Kiag to that HoepituL, After the Dissolution, tbe ma- 
nor of Bycknacre, vfitb the site ol* tbe Priory^ was given by Henry 
the Eighth to Henry PoUted, who, cIctcd years aAcrwards, in 
I548j sold it to Sit Waller Mildmay; of whoiie grandson it vnt 
purcbaaed by Georgu Barrington, Esq. of LitO« Badow, and i» 
■till postesKd by b» deKeodaots, 



MALDEN, 



d 



As ancient and popalous borough and market-town, atualed 
on the acclivity of an eminence south-west from the estuary nf the 
Bkckwaier,' or rtvi>r Idumanum, has been frequently assigned as 
the Roman Camulodunimi ; but on vcrj' insufficient eridence, as 
neither its local situation, nor the untiquitics discovered here, will 
wurrant its b«ng referred to that people. Its antitjinties, indeed, 
with the exception of an entrenchment formed by Edward the 
Elder, are confined to two Roman Coins; one of Vespasian, with 
the legend SALVS AVGVSTI; the other, a gold one, in fine 
preservation, of Nero and AgrippJna, with the legend NERO 
CLAVD. DIVI F. CM5. AVG. GER^I. IMP. TR. P. COS. 
On the reverse, tlie Emperor and his mother seated in a car drawn 
by elephants: on an cnugn, carried by Agrippina, is the inscrip- 
tion AGRIP. A^'G. DIVI. CLAVD. NERONIS C^S. MA- 
TER, above EX s. c* 

The eurliett mention of Maiden by hi^toiians refen to the 
913, when Edward the Elder encamped here to impede ibe pra- 
gms of the Danes, while a fortilicaljon was comtracting at 
Wltham. In 9"0, he again encamped at Maiden, and, according 
to Mariami!, buih a Castle here; but as no traces of this stmc- 
turc can be found, it seems probable, that our author alludes to 

ths 



MA-_^ 



* Thkicoin ii rcjirJed with *□ mucli vcnenlion, ihtt MoniM, o«r MiuoiiMi, 
obwrve*, it it alwtyi cgntlgued to t^ cate of one of the BaiUA of Matdca (or 
Uw line being. 



attx. 



«ra 



lie entrrarli merit or fort above n)entioni*<I, «hrcfa lii» nn the wmt 
ailc of lliL' town, ami appartnilv iiickwcd about rwenty-f«wr acres: 
it appears to have been of an oblang foiin: three sides of the ram- 
part can yet be Irnccd; the dllirr n drfnewl by buiiding!. Its 
Mmiglh was probably considerable, as in 9^1, a great army of 
Danes are said to have betiegrd it without cflbcL In the ytot 
993* it was again attacked by the Dantsb Toircs, communded by 
t'niaf, and the forcrs of Earl Ryrhriiolh, who advanced to relieve 
it, being dcfcntcd, and the Karl himself siain, was compelled to 
admit tbe Cum|uei'or. In the Domnriay Survrv, Madden b 
Ktylcd a half hundred i itiid had then 130 houaes and a hull, lield 
by tbe Burgesses of the King, who had aUo a houM here tn hi* 
own posseiAion. 

When Maiden «as comtiluied a borough is unknown. Its 
Sret charter appears lo have been granted by IHcnry the :^econd, 
at the reqoest of William de Mand«vilte, Karl of Em^x. Amodg 
tltc privileges secured to the Burgee*! by this Charter, was. an 
excuipliuu from all foreign service, except the finding one «hip oc- 
rifuonally, fur the King's um>, fur forty duys ui their owu vxpcncob 
By another charter, granted by Queen Mary, in iho N-ear 1553, 
ibc borough was incnrporaled, and its gnvcrnmcni vaxcA in two 
Baililt, to be chonen annually, six Ald<-rracn, eighteen Capital 
Bur;ieiBwi, &c. The right of retuminc the Meinbrr* lu l>»rliK- 
ment is confined lo those who obtain then- freedom by birth, tnar- 
liagc, or servitude : tbe number of voters b about 200, The first 
return w.is made in the year 1329< 'i he custom of Boruugh- 
Engli&b, by which the fouitgesi son succ<«<ls tu the biirgage-tcnr- 
nrnt on the death of bis father, still prevails here. 

This town codbisCs uf one principal street, extending nearly a 
mile east and west; « crD9s*«lreet of considerable lenech, and se* 
vera) btnulier avenues and back Itints. The descent Iroin tbe up- 
per part to the river is icry steep : many of ihc houseb arc good, 
having been rebuilt within the last forty or fifty yeart. The im- 
port trade is considemble ; and consists of Cop t, iron, deal, corn, 
ice. At spring tides, the river will bring up vessels that draw 
fight feet water; but the coal* are brought lo the town in ligblers. 

S ■:; Tha 



5-6 



BSSKX. 



Tlie numbrr of houses, as reunned in ISOI, wu-t54: ofbifaabi' 
Unts 335B. 

Afaldcn had formerly thrtc pansh«s, but llie rectnrin of two 
of thvm bare loug Imnmi contblidiiUMl. 'Ilic tirinripal Cliurch, Ae- 
dicalcd la ^U Saititi, is en uiicictit uml ^[Hickiis rdi5rr, with a 
square tower, trrtntualcd by a s|Hr« in tim form of an equilateral 
triangle. Inlhcsouili, or D'Arey* aisle, wfrt- ihr« chantries, 
founilcil in the reign of Henry the Sixth, by Kobcrt D'Arcy, ¥m\* 
uf Danbuiy: several of whose family were burietl here. On m 
atonoof white marble, in iW chaoccl^ i» a Latin epitaph t« this 
e;fiect: 

Ttic dcpotti of JOH* Vtxxox, Crtit. Turkry BfTrichant, wbo 
IimIi ofien crottcd tlw Ka«, tempted thereto noi lo mwU by dte love 
n(g«in, uminieMduireaf bthaldingihc wonderfal workj of Cod 
in ilie deep. He boMb of thh tepuUhnI Hour, n not ike Imi tt* 
ward ol fail libon, ii being d<icovcT<d iaio«;< the niius of .Sraynit; 
he iliu brooglit to light Mine choice iflcicnt nunuuripti, tnotutnentA 
ortKicnxi(]DCCtt)ri wiihilieiehc entictied hiiiuEivecounny. Ho 
\% now nrdy «n[v<d it the havtn of nil. He died Jiuury lUi, 

Ateny other commrtnor&lirc inscriptions are in this Charch ; 
«tul ill the Church-Vard is a mural nionumciit lo the memory of 
Dr. U*ac Domsj-tf ^, of whom Snlmon olwcrvas fn-ni au un- 
known wiilcr, that he took liis degree of Doctor at J^'deo, and 
WHS wnt for In Catnbndge by IajtA Brooke to rend IliMory ; bat 
being thought to speak too freely in favor of the people, uns for- 
ced to leare tlie University, and afterwards settled at Maldeji. 
'Near this Church is ihe Taisn-Uali, a large ancient brick build- 
ing, but not otherwise remarkable. 

&t, Marv'i Chmxh is a spacious pile, situated in the lower part 
«r the tuun, Hnd recorded to have been founded by Ingelric, s 
Saxon nobleman, before the ycnr lU^ti ; the tower is a massy 
struciure, and, with jiart of the Church, was rebuilt in the reign 
of Charles the l-'ird. St, Peter's, the pari&h united to All Saints^ 
lubl formerly a Churcli, of which the tower only is now standing ; 
attached to it, is a building* creeled by Dr. Tuomah Pli'MK, 
•^ Archdeacon 




I 



ArcbiloBroii uf Ri-chesJcr, fir h Giemmar Se^ool, lOil Ijhrnrjf. 
Thrt gcnilcman >vu5 born iil Muldrii in ihc ycur I6'.i0, and in tha 
Uricr part of Ms lite borame a great bcni'fartor Co hU nxiivc foun, 
31 wdl as to seveml o<l>rr pUcrt- Tlip btmk* contained iniiiu 
LiltTury vcre ha oven collectiiTi, and are ordered to be Icnl out 
on the value beiog left in the laiidi of tlie Librurinn. He ska 
ajiproprialed llic rents of a furtn at Iltitry, to keep the School imd 
Uhraiy in rri»air. Uesidw tbcic diarilics, he gave 2U0l. to biiilj 
a Woikhousc rorlbc|Kior: itnd about lOOOt. more, to eMablt»h 
the trade of weaving sock'Cloth lo ontpluy them. The I'lumleu 
Pruhsaonbip of AstroDoiny and ExpennicnIsI l^hilotopbvat Cam- 
bridge, vns foundi.'(l Ihrutigb a bequest of Ii)U'^l, k-fl by blni for 
the purpum. lie dtcd in the ji-ar l/U-V. At the west end of [be 
town is an extcmire range of Barrarkt, lately erected. Kichnrd 
dc Gravc*end, Bi^bup of London, about llie yt'Jir 19^1, fottiidrd 
ft imall Piv'y f<>r Carmclitrf, or While Mnnks in Mnlilen, 
nlikh coiiluiued (ill the IJiMoIution, Several cniincnl »cli(jlttr( 
an mcnliotied by Bate, and othere, ns hiring been intuatcs of ibis 
monutery. 

In the fyrty-scvetith Tolume of the PliilosophiVal Tmnsaciioiw, 
is an account of Edwa«d BniuiiT, a shi^kefepcr of tliis (own, 
who w)tf so enormously fat, that his site and wdght are altaost 
tinpanillelt'd in the history of tbc butnan rare. At llie fljte of 
twelve yean ai>d a half, he weighed 144 jraunds: increasing in 
bulk OS be grew up, in seven years more he neighed 336 
puutids. He went on incnniMng, and probably in pretty nearly 
ihe same pruponiun ; fur the lost lime he vios weighed, which wni 
about tbirieeii muniha before he di»l| his weight was 584 
pDUtids: at the tun*? of Wn denth, he uvf manifestly grown bt{^-t 
Mnce b» UsI ivrighiii^; to thni, on a fuir estimation, his nei;;lit 
must then ba^e bei'ii Oltf poutuis. He measured live feet nine 
incbea and a half in height. His Uxly ruuuil the chc«t, was Hvc 
feet SIX itichea; nml ruund the belly, six feet eleven inches: his 
arm in tbc middle meaittin-il twn feet two inches, and his leg i»o 
fcrt right ittctiei He died at the age of twcnly«t\Ine, in the year 
1720 • afier bis death, seven men were buttoned in bis w«i«lcoiit. 

S 3 TiU 



I 



«78 



Eases. 



THI a yr«r or two before hii tknth, he was comporaitvely an 
BCtivo initn ; but uricrvnirds h» exlrrme corpulency bo nverponr- 
cd ha slivngih, ihal life srcniMl bunhensonio. He left a widow 
prcgoant »]' li«r uxlh clitM: his coffin was bo cnormotialy large, 
Uiat an u[>eiiiiig was ohjii^ed \o be cut in the wail and itajr-cuo, to 
kl it down idto the Uiup ; and It wiu cam«d to tfac grarc apon « 
carriage. 

nn.EIGH ABBF.V, npariy one mile wc«t from Maiden, was 
founded^ in ihc ytar I ISO, by Rubert dc Mantell, for Monks of 
|he Prctnonstratcuiian order. Tlieir prasMaians were afierwards 
incrfEued by various b«nefaccioni, (lie annual value of ulitcb, at 
the Dissolution, according to Speed, amounted to 1^61. 6a. 5d. 
flintl nine CRHuns wi-re iben mainmincd on the foundation. Soi 
[ parts of ibc niona&tic buildings arc now uaiidi ng, but appropria 
fVery dilTercntly from their original use, Icing connected with a small 
[Ann; atid the Chjipcl, wbicii is the most pcrtoct remain, employ- 
ed a> a liog-»tye. Ate. This was a handM>ni« though small npart- 
iDcni; iu Icjigtli bring only tbiily-ux feet, ond its breadth eighteen. 
*\'he roof is formed wiih very fine-graitwd time-stone, and haa 
grtunetl nrchrs, supported by tlirre slender Purbeck columns. 
Here Ucnry Bourcbier, Earl of Ilsscx, who died April the foorib, 
1483, vriis buried; together with Isabel, bit lady, and the Ljidy 
Mary Nevill, of Euex. 

IIEVBIUDOE, a ninall village, opposite Maiden on the north 
side of the Blackwater river, li tlwu^t to have obtained lis pm- 
ecnt name from an ancient bridge of Hvc arches, beneaih which 
the main blream t» siiid lo have formerly run, though it now Aowa 
at some distmnre, through Full Bridge. Its ori«;inal appellation 
appears to have bevn Tithi^ltHtuve, and by that name this and 
twelve other lordhhip» were ^ven by King AlhcUtan to the Cathe- 
dra) Church of St. Paul: it still belongs tu the Uean and Chapter 
of ihnt Cathedral, logeir.cr with the ancient manor-house, called 
llEYiiRindK Hall. Between this place and Maiden, is a 
raised Causeway, which existed be£ore the time of Edward ibo 
bccojul, wijo ordered ii to bo «)rve)cd in the year J324. 

LANGFORD 



5d. 

lall 



»SBX. 



«r> 



LAKGFORD Hall, a modern white houst, standing in a 
ij wooded pArk, is (lie beat uf Nicholas WestcombCf Esq. 
vhoae family obtained it in the year IffSO, by purchase from tha 
ptphcw of the celebrated phyiician. Dr. Wlliam Harvey. The 
rilJBgeof LANGFOnUdenvedib name from the J>n^</bri/ here 
in the 6axon times, when the vratcn of the Blackwater fprcad 
' a much wider surfiice than at pretent. The meadow grounds 
tfcoidcriRg the river in this neighbourhootl are extremely fertile. 
In the pariahof GreatTotham, cm the north side of filackwater 
ay, arc a considerable number of defaced Inmuli, called tb« 
>EOUCH Hilla; probably a corruption from fiarrcne IlUis, 
These are supposed to liave been raised indiscriminately over the 
bodies of the Uanes and Saxons that fell during the battles fought 
.an the tnvastons of the former, who frequently landed on this 



TOLLESHUNT-MAGNA, a corruption from ToUcshuat- 
Maigrr, is one of three adjoining parishes of the name of Tollcs- 
buntf but distinguished from each other by additions derived from 
Ihe names of their former ownen. The manor of Tolleshunl- 

ilialgert called also TolIc&hunL-Beckingham, from the Beching* 
to whom it wa« granted by Henrj- the Eighth, was settled 
in Ibeyear 1711, by Dr. Daniel WilUams, who had purchased the 

'Rretvon, on a Society in New England, for the purpose of pro* 
Dting the convcraon of poor Indians. An uncient brick gate- 
way belonging to the manor-hduse is yet standing, having four 

Lanbattlnl lurrds. 

y In tlie parishes of ToiUtiuitt D'Arcy and TolUtburf, " a con- 

lAderable improvement has lately been mnde in the rough marshes 
by removing ihc ant-hills. The opcrulion is performed by chop- 
ping round the hills with a hearyad^c, or grubbiiig-hoe, tlie cut- 
ling cd^ of which is circular, and ten and a half inches wide; the 
depth of the blade, inchtding its neck to the eye, or where th6 
handle is fastened, is eight find a liatf inches: from half a dodten to 
half a score strokes will belt the largest hill, and loosen it from 
Hs seat, which is always left lower than the adjoining surface uf 
tbe raonh, to receive and bold the ruin-wuicr, by nieau!. of which, 

Si Uie 



SSft 



XSSEX. 



tlw nnis are more completely detroyed. Boys follow the grubbrr, 
and rarry the ant-bilU into the rilb, and low places in ibe marsh t 
ntid thus a considcmbic increase of turlkcc is obtained, that in ihe 
counc of a year becomes profitable by grtlin<; coatr<l trith grass, 
■nd al an fxpcntx whicli seldom exceeds liftcen shillings per 
acre.'- 

j\U)Ut llircc miles north from Maiden it WICKHAM- 
BISHOPS, bu called from ibc Bishops of London, to whose See 
it has belonged from time immemorial, having had a residence and 
park here: the latter was inclosed, in the year 1375, by Bishop 
Courttmcy, who obtained a license from Gdward Ihe Third. 'He 
ancient manor^boose has been pulled down many years. The 
Church is nearly a mile n*c«l from the village, 

IIATHELD PEV EllEL, with thiily-four other lordships in 
ihts county, WHS given by William Ihe Conqueror lo Kauulph 
Pevercl, a Norman soldier, vfhu had nilended him to England, 
and al^ervrards married Ingelrica, the duughtvr of a Saxon Xoblc- 
luan, a beuuiiful woman, who bad borne a son to die Conqueror. 
In the tiniL- uf William Rufus, Itigelrica, to atoDO for the erron of 
Lcr past life, founded a Cullcgc here for secular Canons, and do- 
diralcd it to St. Mary Magdalen. WilLam Pcwrcl, her legiti- 
mate son, converted the College into a Monastery for Benedic- 
tines, and grently increased the endowments, besides giving his own 
mansion to the Monks for a residence. The annual revenues of 
tliis I'liory, at the Diwolution, u-cre estimated at 831. 19*. ?d. 
It was soon aftciwaids gmiUvti, with other detiicsixw, to Giles 
Leigh, Esq. by ihe marriage of whose two da\iglilers and co- 
lieimBes, with thu JtUym, they passed intu that family, whose 
descendants continued puoessors lilt nboui the ^i-sr )70'8, wheif 
they »»• sold under an order of chancery to Peter Wright, Esq. 
This gentleman pulled down the mansion which adjoined itttt 
Church, nnd erected a more elcgiint house on an einincoco at « 
little distance. 'Iliis building is culk-d the 1'kioky; bui iheonly 
remains of the original fuuadauuii is the Churti, ttow made paro- 

chiiil. 



f VvKOBMi't Agficuttute of ttHK. 



ESSEX. 



S81 



P 



(Mai. An ancient statue in one of the windows is mcntioncj hf 
WeetvT, US iho inwgi; of IngelricB, ibe fouiwIroiA. Several in- 
tcriptions to the mciDory or tlio Allcyos arc prcserrej in Iho 
cbooccl. 

TtlULiNG PLACE, the seat and manor of Lieutenant C(4o- 
Del J. H. Struit, was once appendant to Eljr Cathedra], but dis* 
eevciL-d from lliat Sv« by William the Con<]U(.Ti>r, who gave it lo 
Ranulph Pcverel. In the >-cur I20'9. >L was held under the Bo- 
hoM) £ub of Hereford and Easex, by the Bishop of Norwich, 
who bad a palace and paik here, and alw u Chapel, which po»- 
■eased the pcivil<-g« of sanctuary ; and is recorded as having shcl- 
lered the celebrated Hubert da Bergh from the indignation of 
Henry the ThirJ. Henry the Eighth had also u n^dence here, 
as appears from the date of several acu of that Monarch; and in 
|tnrlicular I'roro [he paienicrsating Sir Edward Seymour, Viscount 
Seauchanp, dated 1506, in which year ihc Mormrch gave this 

^ manor to ihe Lord Chancellor Audtey. From htm it has paucd 
thnmih various ramilics to tfau Struttt, who became pcoscsscd by 
purchase about ihe middle of the kst century, 
tho 
at I 
the 
oih 



WITH AM 



T» generally reputed to have been built by Edward the Elder; 
though it is probable thitl it was only rcatoreil by lltet Sorcrvigu, 
at leut at fnr as regards the pari situated on C/ifjiing HtU, round 
the Church, ubich rt^nds about bah ii mile notth-witt Irom ihe 
other part of the town. On this eminence, " near ihe south tide 
of the Church, are coifridcrablc remaiits of a circular cnm|>, de- 
fended by a double valluin, almo&t levcH'Cd withiu on the south 
side, btit very plain oii the suuth-wc»t, whcifthc pnsseiit road 
runs along the outer bank; the river duTending it on the west siite, 
(here the works are lower: a road runs through ii from iiurlb lo 
Kuih.*' 'I'lum this cump, aud the considcrubli* c)Uitntii^ ol Uu- 
nau bricks worked up in the body and toner ul t^e Church, 
ilr> tiottgh seems inclined to coniiJdcr Withum as the Cdaoiiitrm 

of 
* CousVi Addilioutsthc Briaoaii. Vo].JI.p.j6. 



383 



■MUh 



of Antoninus; And Lh»o|)inton » greally strtngllintcJ by the cir- 
cumstance notic(r<3 hy Morent, of two Ilunuui coins, of tbc Cm> 
pcfors Volens and Graiian, having bccQ found in levelling Uw 
fortili cations. 

I'he nianur of Withiiin wa» ancwnlly poucss«d by tail Harold ; 
and arierwatdi by Euslucc, Lurl of Uvulo;;iic, who married Goda, 
usicr to £iiwaTd il>c Cunll-uor. King blrpiirn bcitlowcd it on tbc 
Knighb Templars; Trom whom it paaanl to ihc Knights- Hospiut- 
len of St. Jiilm of Jcriivilrm, who rvliiined it (ill th« gcoeral sup- 
prcsaiuii. hi lliv tiini; uf JLnti l^ii»iac«, it was called the Honour 
of Dutianda; and was ouu of Ihv four ancient Hoiionrt thai oxUted 
iu thi» kiniidum. Tbc ^jnvilcge of holding a oiarkei is reported 
In huvc hcvnjirtt granted to Wiiham by Richard the First; but 
thi& is probably a mistake, us it was then hold on Ck^ing Hill, 
which evidently derives its name from merchaodiac beii^ sold 
their, aiui carries usal once to the Snxon limes, lly an empiiry 
node in the nrigit of Henry ihe Third, it apjtears, that ont 
Geffrey de Lyston hi-M land in Witham, by the service of carry- 
iiig Aiiur to mu^c Mnj'era cm ihe King's birth-day, wbenerer hi* 
Mujrkty Mus in the Itiiigdom. 

In the Church, among other monuments, t» a large tomb, 
eieclc'i in the reign nf Queen Klizabelh, to the memory of Jo do K 
Heatiicote and his Lady, nhoM eiligies apjiear on it. The 
chief trade of Withani uisi» from the pmsage of uavellcn and 
carriers; and in the summer season, from the company who 
attend to drink the chaUbento waten at William Spa,* about 
three (]uarter» of a milt frimi the town. The number of inhabi- 
tants in ibis pnrWh, as retuinwl under the Population Act, was 
QIS6; the niinibar nf houses 401. Many of the latter are wsll- 
builc, and inlmhiicd by respectable bniilies. Near tbe entrance 
of the town from Colche&tcr is a handsome mansion, now the scat 
pf Thonuu Kyitostoii, £sq. but formerly beluD^ng to the late 

£«rl 

* An E«^ f liic viftuct of tht* ipriag wm pwblithtd in the Vcar 1737, hj 
Dr. Tavuncr, a Phyiiciin ai ihit plK«. uiA pni ex:«a)[ion* wtrc ihrn eaui* 
(ained uf itic lowu becontipg vcfy fluwisbiog from Uw iaUuX of viitHO. 




2&S 



Earl AbtKom^ who 1o(1t>ed and entf rtnincd her pment Kl^esty 
itlfe, on bcr arrival in llit> counlry from CcrmBny. 

FAULKnOURNE IIALI., bttvwn one and tvo miW nortli. 
Hcst from VViUiRra Cliurcb, ii ihu scut of CoIoimI Juhn Bullock, 
one of the memben for the county, whose family have poeMssacd 
it from the year liiSi, when it uns purrhsM^l of ihc /Wrirwv, 
by Sir Edward Bullock, oi Lafts, in this county. I'hc mansion 
is a ktalely and >p»cious building, of diffcii-nt eras ; part of it di*> 
|)lay« • towrr gateway of cunout Hrchitecture, and is »uppo(Kd to 
have been erected by the Karl of Gluuce&tcr, about tlie time of 
King Stcpiien, or Henry ilie Svcoiid, V'ariutn improvements 
bave be«-n made in the hotitc and ^roumb by the present fumily. 
Sercral of liie npartmenls coninin good pnimiii^ by Van- 
dyck, Vandeveldf, JMichael Angclo, Sir William Itevcliey, Sar- 
loritM, ami oiber niMLter*. Many fine ^rinf;! riM Jd llw 
gfOuivJSf which arc cxtrnsive and plea*ant : here alfo is a Cedar 
Trtf, conjectared to be the largest In the kingdom, its girth st 
lix inches from the ground, being eighteen feel, nine Inrhei; at 
(en r«x't frrini the ground, fuurtn^n feet, nitie inches: its height 
to the fint branch, is nineteen feet. A Romaa VUia ii supposed to 
baTCMood at FAULKBotTRKC. from a liK-cr coin of Domitiont 
mentioned by Bishop Gibson lo hove been found under an old 
mill, pnnly composed of Romnn bricks. The manor of FaTilk* 
boame waa given by William the Conqueror to his nephew, Ilamo 
Dapifer, »Iiom; niece and ciih«ir«*», Mabil, was mnrried to K>f 
bert, Earl of Gl(lucl.•^[^:^, natural son to Hcniy the First. From 
bim it jKtsscd through various families to (lie Fortescues; of whom 
Sir John was Lord Chancellor of England in. the reign of Henry 
the Sixth. 

At CRESSING, called Crmiitg Ttmpte, from the Knights 
Templars, wm a Prcceptory of that order, to which the manor 
was granted by King Slepheti about the year 1150. in lb« 
Church U a very ancient monument to the Nerill family. 

RIVEN'IIAIX was, prcnous to the Conquest, part nf tht 
passesftions of Queen Kdilha. It nftcrwards came to Eustace, 
£&rl 01 Boujogne, the heircas of whose fatniiy having married 

? King 




3 



King Sirplien, it I<?)1 co tlte Cnmn. In ihc thirtcwtli of King 
Juliii, RiTcn-Hall «(is held by Italpb dc KoAii, whoK* «ister and 
iMims iiDirrird KubrrI dtr Smi^rii^: llic descendants of this 
narriijc wrrv the cclcbiiKcd UtrOs Scul», the hut of whom, tn 
24£Ot Icll n &acrilicc to iits adhemtcc in (be Howe of Lancuster* 
Mb daughcvr married Aniniiy WidTille, Enri Rivers, who be* 
qncttthcil Uiis manor lo Sir Jeffry Gate, in irho»c latnily it cooti *-^ 
nued till the year 1553, when Sir John Ouie was bpbesded AidH 
having rupoUMxl the riiit*c <it the Lady Janv Grey. It was tbvn 
•eised hy [he rn>wn, aiid has since pa»cd through various 
teuors to the tyestentt, mho are now soiled nl Kitlix Hull. 

>XEUX HALL, the seal of Churlca Calli« Wotem, Ksq. 
of the reprcsctitniivoi for Maiden, is a neat modern buildi 
fttandin;; in a bmidl (>arl(, pleasantly sittuitetl about one mile from 
Kclvcdon. The irilerior of the house isclcgitntly 6(ted up; and 
itie gardens nre hiid out uilh much judgment. 

The Clmrch of INWORTH has a small ancient porcli on lh« 
soutb ude, remarked as being baitt with a mixture of flints and 
Human bricks: on the frDni is a brick cross, and within the 
|>otcli a very iiiiti(fu« briclc lo):-:n!;e. In the intiile of the C'harch 
are wme rutnains of a kind of musaic pavemrtit ; and in a recess 
of [he south mill, ncnr the altar, the piscimi fonnerly used by tb« 
Ilomtsh pricais at ilie t.^>Ioaiiiilin of the Eucliarist. 

BRAXTKDLODOK, late lite scat of Peter DuCriir, F^.isb 
IiudtORic miittioii, plriisanlly silualed on n gentle eminence, near 
the centre of B tntall |iiirk, and commanding some a^eoable ptos« 
pects of the surrounding country. 

In llic parish of BrucUtead, nlTIl'TRKK, wasauaiicicnl Priory 
for Blaci^ Canons, fouiulcd before the lime of Kdward the First, iq 
the ninth of whose rei|^ the Prior bad license lo impark sixty 
acf» of land. This c-uminued till iho year I52J, ulicu CurdiiuU 
Woltey obtained n gmiit of its posscssiotis to incrensc the endow- 
ments of his two Cul]c;(e9. Its annual retunuci were then valued 
Rt -.^1. 1'>S. 4d. 

LAVtU-iMAUNKV dt-rivej tlio hitler part of M naiuo from 
tlu^ uoble laiuily uf Mauti-v, ubo beld 'he majwr Crnro the lioiti 

of 




I 



«f Henry the Second to tliat of licniy the Eighcli. William dr 
Mantry nlitained license frrim Henry the 1'bird to incline b pork 
hwr, " within lli* jirccinrM of the forest of V.fscx ;" he hiiH also 
liberty of free warrcii within his manor. Sir Henry ManK-y wan 
a mail of great talents and bravery: he vas Privy Counsellor to 
Hcnrj- the Seventh, and Henry the Eighth ; Knigbt of the Gar- 
ter, and Keeper of the I'rivy Seal : in 193i, he w&s also crrated 
Lord Marncy, hut died (he following y<^ar, and mas buried in tjia 
chance] of Laver-^^arney Church. Tim nobleman is supposed to 
have erected (he extensive mansion called Layer-Mnmey Hall, 
of which the Kraiid entnince lower, and gmt p»rt of ihc south 
tide, is yel standing. John, second Lord Mnmey, died in Aprils 
1525, leavii^ two Jaughleri, who sold this manor to Sir Brian 
Tttkc, Secretary lo Cardinal Woli#y, of whose dcsreiidanis it was 
|Mtrchused by Sjr Samuel 'j'ryoti, llnrU It has since become the 
properly of the CorteUit, a 6imily naturalised in the reign of 
Charles tbe Second. 

LAVEll-MAUXEV llALLvas unginallya very hirp* qiia- 
drangular huihling, inclosing a bpaciuus court: the chif.f entnince 
td which was the tower gntemiy that now remains. This is built 
of brick, and comisCft of a tufty centre of two stories, flanked at 
eacli angle by an octagonal tower rinng from the ground tu Home 
hai^ht above the cvniie. Each of the octagonal lu^vi-rt contains 
dght Hoor", lighted by small pointed ivindoivs: the centre stories 
are lighted by two large square windows. Tiic suraniil, chimnics, 
and divisions between the windows, are curiously ornamented with 
iculpturcd mouldings of various patterns. Atiuclicd u> ihc east 
and west sidc^uf ihia gateway nreronsiderable remHins ol the old 
aundon, tK)w convcrte<l into n farm-houK, and oUiccs. Th« toiter 
it utuatcd on bijj[h sratiiid, and Trom xXve uppermtist stories com- 
luaods a very extensive tract of country, particularly to the wutb 
and wot. 

About fifty yards distant is Layer Marncy C-fMrcA, an ancient 
brick building, in which William dc Marney, by license, dated 
in the year 1330. founded a College f-.i a Warden and two Chap- 
laiii>; the latter to oHicialc in the two chantries, which he had 

also 




BS9IIE, 



abo fomadti heWf and cadottcd with the advowson, and thirty 
MSM of land. Tbc east end dT Uie uurlh anJr, called the Chape), 
«u beg^D by Kenry, Unt Lord Mamcy, who ntabli-ttml two 
pricAb bore, to pray tor the «ouIs of hit mm, himielf, and u»- 
OOtM*. Sercnl fine old moauments, with effigies of thv Lordi 
Marnt^, and othcn of thti feinily, are coittained in the Chordi. 
In ihe chancel a alw u niunumcot to tlic memory of Nicbolas 
CorscUis, Km\. one nf the first of that name who poaotased ibia 
BUHkor, having an inscription, in which he t^ fiilsrly said to haw^H 
laoght " ihc English ilie admirable art of Printing." ^H 

N«ar Ike Church, in the parish of Gbsat Birch, b the arti- 
ficial mount, or luvji of a Catfir, recordi-d as hai^ng been forti> 
fied against Uuiry tlic Third, by Sir Ralph Gemon, who then 
held the manoc; but &uppo&cd, by Monuii, to be a ** continua- 
tion of (he stupendous Koman works on Lexdrn Heath," whielk 
nnay be traced atill fimher than this spot. The mottac ii uu» 
niundcd by a trench. / 

COPFOKU HALL, tiie seal of J. H. Harrison, Esq. ii a 
hai>dsomc mauuan, said to have been some time the midence of 
Booncr, Bishop of London, to which See the manor belonged 
plCTioua to the Cnn(|ueflt. The grouiMls are picaaent, and onift* 
mcDted with scvcnl pieces of water^ 



COLChESTKR. 

Tmb early history of Colchester, the principal town in Essex, 
baa occasioned much disputation among autiiguarica. Its rertHXe 
arigJB ia, however, undoubted; and when tlic various authoriticfl 
arc attentively examined, aiul compared with the actual ntoatton 
of the town, hnd (he nmm'jvm ancient mcmoriaU that have been 
d»coverctl iti it, not llic &li^blG»t doubt can remain of its having 
been both a BntUh and a Itomon city. Urns, ptivemvnls, and 
aoiin, nre almost daily brought lo light by the spade or plough: 
every public building displays Roman tanterialt worked up in its 
walls, either in a greater or lc» proportiuu; aud ihc rainparts, 

attd 



I««SX. 



ear 



i 

I 
I 



uid i-ast etiUencbmctitSi nu«ed to Uvfcnil it on the vctf and «»utb 
lidot, eviil«iuly letlify ib origiiiiil gnutdeur kihI imporunct;. 

Hu uicietit iinme uf Coldifstvr was Comtiiodunujn, atui uixlcr 
Hut appelUuicMi it occun io Dion Cauiu-i, who expreuly tueiiUonf 
it as Uie rnKlcnce of tbe Brilivh King Cunobiline, Hud die capital 
of the Trinobantes. Thst thi» wm U)c uodouliteil sice of Cutnulu- 
duuuD), is JtiiDonUnted by the uuuiber of guld, silver, hikI brasi 
cwns tJiat bttvc been discovcwd here, haviog the letters CVNO^ 
or CVNOB. oQ one •^iUe, tnj Cunnbiline; nnd CAiM. or CAMV. 
on tbe other, fur CamuU»dunum.* On one of tlic«e cuinii, men* 
tiottcil by Monim.t »>* twing in bit, own poueniun, ftre the words 
CVNOB . . . HEX; ua the rcveiw, a hone feeding; und below 
U . . MV. 

When Cirair qititle<i Briwin after his second expedition, Mnn- 
dnbralius] was Sovereij^n of the Trinobaiitcs and most prubably 
Lad bts scfttat CAmuludunum. On Ins dearh, the vacant ^cncrtf 
ment ctunc into tbv puucsaioo of bis brulbvr Tenuanl, whose wn, 
Cunobiline, being anxiou:. to obtain uknowlpdj^ of Roman man- 
aera, vrcnt over lu the Continent, and, ttfter visiting ihe camp of 
Aap'^^'^S returned to Botne niili tbut lJnpcror,und was publicly 
nlated by the appellation of Friend tu tiie Comnioiiweuliii. Dur- 
ing bis residence in thr Capitol, Cunnbilinc is suppuwd to havo 
obtained a conMderable intiight into tiiu Roraaii arti, die kno\r- 
ledge of wliich, nn bts return oud accession to tbe throne, he en- 
deavored to extend for the bene6l of bis people ; and under his do- 
ninalion, the Uritons bc^an to advance in retinemcnL 

On the decease of Cunobiline, about the year 42, his son Otii- 
Melius, or Togotiuninus, succeeded to tiie governmeut of the 'IVi no- 
baotca; und ainbasBttdors were sent to Rome, to demtuid tiie ar- 
rest of some fugitive Britons, to vthoni tlie Emperor Claudius bad 
prvu protection. This d<-mand being evaded by tbe Emperor, 

tbe 



* Hmjr o( that eaiat are iuctibtA In Cuniicn ud Monet, anil oihtvt are 
nouud in tbe Hi>u>ry oi Colchoui, latno. publubcd in that town, iu tbe 



f Huiorx ot Euoc, Vol. I. p. if. 




} Sm piCi a4> 



tss 



ktscx. 



tiie payment of (lir tribute which Cx»ar had impo«ei} was with' 
held. The R«mxm, cagvrly arixing tbe opportunity, commenced 
war, and, under the command of A. Tlautitn, a skilful gmtral, 
()<'featcd Ouiderius, who rrtrvntcd acrona rirer; but was followed 
so quirkly by the Ilomam, that be was again forced to engage 
Willi hi^ wearied forces, and, after valianlly defending himself, was 
tlaJn. Aniragus (or Caractacus,) his brother, by a iuccesiful 
tiraUgcm, saved tbe remnant of Uie British anny, aod had nearly 
dTedcd the ducomriCuru of Tlautiuf, who, in the etgeroUB of pur* 
BUit, lo?.! many of his soldiers in iho bo]^ and mai^ca. 

*' The death of Guiderius, instead of inlimidBting the Britons, 
il^roil tbea with fresh courage; and, that they might eScctually 
TCTcngA his low, by the extetmination of the Roman army, new 
forces were r^tcd in every province with which the Trinobantes 
were in league. Plautitis, apprehensive of the danger that dark- 
ened around and (hrcaiened him on every side, informed the Em- 
peror of his Mtiialiun; and securing tlic conquests he had already 
made, he waite<) the arrivnl of Claudim, who, with a tar^ army, 
soon Innded in Britain, A. D. 44, and joining his forces with those 
of Claudius and Vespasian, paned the Tliames. The Britvnt, 
posted on the oppotite hank, resolutely sustaioed the onsets and 
bravely encountered the Itdniaiis; but finding themselves unable 
to maintain the contest against such a powerful foe, after couidef- 
tthle toss, fled into the adjacent woods.'" 

Claudius pursuing his victory, proceeded to Camulodunum, of 
which he look pouession, and «»iablit)iied in it a colony of Roman 
Teteraus, consitting of the tecoiid, nintb. and founecnib Icgioiu, 
On this occasion, it obtained the name of Colonia; probably as a 
pre-eminent memorial of its being the fii^t Roman colony planted 
in this Islnnd; and in ihc Itinerary of Antoninus, it is dislingu'isb- 
cd both by that appellation, and by its original one of Camulodu- 
num. It was al>o called ColoH'tn-Camnloiiutitun, itf> appears I'looi 
the money mentioned by Camden to have been struck by Clau- 
dius, 



* Hiony of Colchour, Vol 1. p. 15. 



181 EX. asg 

ttiw, widi llic inwription COL. CAMALODVy * In another 
inscription, TvConlcil by this aulhgr, and cojiied beneath, it n 
named Colonia Vktriceitsit, from iJie wtrrans of tbc faurtr^ntb 
le^on, whose gallani conduct hiiJ oecaaoMcii them to be ilyleJ, 
Coaqocrors of Britain. 

CN. MVNATIVS. H. F. PAL. 

AVRELIVS BASSVS. 

PROC. AVG. 

PRAF. fABR. VKJLf. COH. III. 

SACITTARIORVM . PR.tF. COH. II. 

ASTVRVM. CENSITOR. CIVIVM. 

ROMANORVM COLONIA. 

VICTRICKNSIS. 

fiV*. EST. IN. BRITANNIA. 

CAMALODVNl. 

CVRATOR. VI.E. NOMENTANA. 

PATRONVS. EIVSnEM, MVN'ICIPII. 

RAMEN. PERPEl-VVS. DVVMVIRALI. 

POTESTATE ^.DtLIS. DEDI. 

CATOR- fTTY. 

After rstnbliifain<; liiv Colony, Claudius reduced the adjacent 
counti^ into a Uoman province; and having appointed Pl&uiiiu 
Proprcfor, lie returned to Rome, where a ma^niticent triumph 
was decreed to him by the Senate, and anniventary games iosti- 
tuted in coinmemuratiun of his victor)'. He wa^ ulau, contrary to 
the usual cu:^tom, sexrral times italuted Imperatoh; triumphal 
aiche* were urdcrcd to be eivciod to hi» glory; and (he tumnmc 
of Britannicus was rnCaiLcd U|x>n his family, (lis succc^ was 
equally lh«* subject of rtjoicing kI Camulodutium, where a Temple 
was reised to his mrmory, and hiiiiwlf wortbipped us the tutelar 
Deity of the colony. 

Vol. V. T Plauiiu^ 

* Medab ibo wtn muck in commemoration of the cittblithnie'itof (lie 
RomM colony 1 ha«iii£ on ore tide, ihcdTi^ict of Claudiu, vilh the Ugrtiil 
TI. CLAVD. C^S. AVG, CER. P. M. TR. P. XII. IMP. XIIX;w,d on 
^iwciKi • pliu^h dnwn by afl ok and i cow y^ked, drivrti by a man: 
ifattve them, COL. CAMALODVN. AVG. C4miti. 




930 



■ss>x. 



Pbtttiaii wbo coDtinucd the teat of governnwDl »1 CamDioda* 
nun, from ihence prosecuted tin war agniiwt the umubdued Bri- 
tnns with coniitlL'rable vigor; but being recalled about the ycsr 
*9, O-itohus Scapula waa K-uL by Claudius in hU steed On his 
■rriTtti in Brituin, he found that vanoui inroads hud been madA oa 
the territories of the Roman allies, and immcdialely taking the 
field, put many of the natives (o the sword, and dispersed 
the renminder. The desire of indepcndnicc was not, however, 
desilroycd; the neishhourihg states again flew to arms, and having 
ohiaincri llie HssislKDCc of the Iconi." a powerful force was raised 
against (he Rf>mBn power} hut the superior ctt»ciip1ine of the Ro- 
man siildien once more prevailetl, and the Britons were defeated 
with great «.laughicr. Strll the native spirit of the Islanders re- 
mained unci>n()iK'red; and the Silures, and olher slates, beaded by 
the gallant Camctacui, Meadily opposed tJie progress of the Ro- 
man arms. Their bravery, d«'!crroini;d u it was, h«d not its de- 
wn-ed success; Cnractacus was dcfeatedr and the country of the 
Silures reduced to Roman bondage. 

Oslorius, to secure his newly-acqnired territory, drew forth 
chirfpurl of the vct<Tan legions from CftinuloiUmum; and to 
tncasui-c the deMtQCtion of that colony by the Britons, under 
imrulted Rundutra, or Roadicrn.t is certainly to be attributed; fo 
the Trinobaiiles, no longer uwr-nvred by the itnmediaie preWTK 
i»r any considerable mititsry body, united with the Ircni, whom 
l!ie opprcMion exercised by tlic Remans had again driwn to anu. 
Similar fcchngs, TCJiilliiig from similarity of cause, inflamed tba 
Trinnbiiiiies, who began tn consider the temple erccic<I to Claudios 
a» ihe [itul^e of etPTHal scrvitadc; and the demands made by the 
pricili lor its support, as crentuully tending to ttie destruction of 
tlieir w-lales. llie cupidity of Catus Decianus, the Procurator, 
cunihiiicd with tlie other catiM^ of revolt, and the insurreclion was 
■o sudden and coinplelc, that the whole foundation of the Roman 
poner appeared to lotter. 

Camuloduniini was the first saei-ifice to British vcngeartce; iba 
impending destruction is recorded by Tacitus, as Iiaving been 



• See Bcmtiei, Vol. II, p. 4. 



4 lUd, p. «. 





fcisik. 



S9t 



of fl 
^p iDin 



I 



(BTerun by ftarTul p^odi^^e^. '* 'Hii* image of Victory," mys lliis 
bittorian, " without any viitblv cuu!«, fd) down, snd turned 
backward, a^ if jicl^ing tu t'lP nicmy. Riithusiastic ivotncn fnre- 
toltl lh« ipproncbiiig drtnlntiun ; strange noisn were hcnrd in (he 
Court, Rfid houlings resounded in ihr tbntrc ; anil tin npptiritlon 
of a rolony <!r>troyeti, was wen in the csimiry uf ihr Tliuim-*. 
The Mtt looked bloody ; and in tbe ebb, lb? 6ffig1« of human bo- 
were left upon ttie shore."* Tbo^ fablt-d prodigies strongly 

irk the apprehetiMun nnd alirm tlial prevailed among the Rt>* 
iDim, whni ihe Briiunt bent ihcir forro against the dcviitn) eoW 
ny, Tbrir fmn had not been excited upivn Mi^ht ^rminds! lire 
and silnunhtcr marked (lie progress of Bnnduica; and Camulodu- 
nuro, the scat of Roninn tyranny In Itiitain, was overwhelmed in 
its own niins, nfter h ft-ebh* re*i!>lii»ce from thi- »rildti>r^ who re- 
mained iJktc, and who defriulcd ilwniseUc* fyr two days within 
the temple. 

On ihe earliest intcMigence of ihi* formidable insurrection, Suo- 
toDiu* Paulinu*. the Kuniun GriK-i-al, hastened with his whole 
foire from Anglcsea ;t but was at fir»t unable to slcm the torrent 
of Uritub Tcngeance. London and V'erulam fell auccewively be- 
fore tlie lUMults of the iiiMiltcd Queen, and tlinr ilt-fatcl inhabi- 
tants were masbacrcd without remorse iir pity. At length, Sueto- 
BiDS, rbunini; an advantageous position, resolved to try the event 
oft tiatilc: the Britons, rtnder4!d imprudent by success, and confi- 
dent in ihc multitude of tbtlr numbcn, advanced with rashness to 
An attack, and fruiu an injudicious disposal of their fotcc, prco^ 
pitatcd their own defeat. So complete was Ihc oveilhrow, that 
thit is recorded as the lost vigorous effort mudv by the Bcitons to 
recover their low independence 

Morant, on tl»c authority of Pliny.I and the evidence of tlia 
Ronan coins daily discovered here, awitimcs, and with every ap- 
pearance of probability, that Camulodunum was very soon rebuilt, 
after its fatal overthrow. " Great Dumbers of coins," he observes, 

T a " even 




^Atkud. L. XIV. c 3^ f S«c B«autic*, &;. Vol. U- p. i, ti f<f 

} NAUkL L.XI. p.7<. 




w 



ES9CX. 



"ercnof Claudius bitnstlf, and of Vcspaslftn, Titos, DomiHAtt, 
ud tfadr several aucceuors, arc found in anJ aliout the pbce: 
not in heaps, poU, or large quantitin togellier, u if thvy h 
beea desigiicdly buiicd, but disf>erwd all about, as if occidentiill 
lost at dilTcrcnt limes : butJieU, I amy say, have Ixxn found, b 
cliiefly in (he higher part*, a cerlain pronf thai l}ie Roman ci 
Mood thf ro." 1'lii» argument in fRVor uf the early rebuilding, ai 
subsequent occupation, of Camuloduiium by the Romans, 
strongly corroborated by ihc many other antiquities of that 
plo, that have been discovered mtliin iu precincts and tieighbuu 
hood.' 

" Than are more Roman remains in and about this town,' 
continues Mumnt. '* than in any other part of South Brilai 
Immeiiw quanlltii'^ of Jlomun bricks niid tiles are to be seen t 
Curpuralcd, or riiihur, arc ihc chief mutL-riub in all ibe most 
cient nntl public edifices. The town-walls, the Caslle, Moi 
Churches, are half built with them ; and in sevcml parts even the 
Roman Morkrramlii]! is copied. The bricks are generally about 
ejgticcen inchc* 'lung, eleven broad, and two thick; excecdin, 
hard, and we!l-bfiked. 'Ilie Siipciltx liuruana of all kinds siJ 
abound here; hardly any place being dug U[), wiiliout urns, 
•nil poiteric of all sorls, or at least fro^menls of thom, being di. 
covered. SepuU-hral urns, wiili t!ic ashes therein, are Ukewt 
frequently found ; as well as lumps, rings, intaglios, chains, & 
A remarkable Sepulchral Uru, in paiticulur, was taken up here 
few years ago. it whs a hirgi' v^wl, nmdv of thick coarse hg^i 
clay, containing twrniy gallons: ivilhin was an urn of bloc: 
eurtb, holding about [wo ^illon», and having in it the ashes of 

Rom. 



* The Mtwroaj ■ntiquiiir* found M CokhetUr. were nuny ceiwurta »f/i 
ribjccl of rnnirk : Oic fallowing puiigc nccurt m Mirianui. " Civiui iMtt 
cniiienttMiiDM numeitniJa (Cotcmria tcil.) li eon vnuilM. condapuionu, 
almionei, (ltn>i}<ie piriiirum imtaiu'ioriti, variKC|ue oiuum affiir.tMiOnn, 
OmaU C'vitilU memoralia dcIcviiMiit. TjaJiium i<mm Uclcnitn, quoixiani 
Inptrii miiicm, ex hic C-vii'M naUin ct tducaUm.— Coilj<<i(ur clUni cx liit, 
4]u» it urn Iouon«i crueruni, um fciruia qum UpidM, tan aia lipiaU 






esszx. 



i^ 



Aoniin laily, as msy be suppmerl, because tticrc were also Ki(h 
^it, two botll« of clay for incense, Iwo clay lumps, one melal ves- 
sel for ointment, and a speculum of potion) metal, aiic'ieotly 
used for h tuvking-glasf."* 

In llip yc«r 1738, wvcral l/rtu wca* ditcoverpd jiisl within St. 

iBotolph's Oate, lugiMhcr witb a Roman lamp, snme pieces of 

nellcd raeCal, and Iwo coins of Ooroiiian. Anotlier urn was 

llfinjnd in March, 1749-50. in >Viiidmill FicUl, nenr ihc wc^t end 

[of tbe town, hulrlirig about n pint, and within it, two large 

' coins of brass ; one of Anioiiinu* Piu*, the oilier nf Alexander Scve- 

rus. Near it ivai a leaden coffitt, ivri)Ui;lit all over with lun-iiges, 

with aji escalup iJiell in eacli. Within llie coffin wns a scull, and 

[•ome remains uf ihc vertebrar. together witb two braci-lels, four 

I'bodkins of jet, and one very smail bracelet of vruughl bnus. 

Anodier um, twenty-two inches in diameter, and two feet, fiour 

incfan deep, w&s found, iti thu year 1753, in a field on the itouih 

Mde of the Londiiri r^ind: iti iJie urn was a metal Rpeculum. A 

small brass statue of Alrrcury, and a fisgmetil of annther, Kup|>o* 

led to have been a Veno^ have also been discovered near this 

town.f 

Hie TeueHated Paitfaesti arc generally found at between 
three and four feet benoaih ilie surface of the ground. In tho 
Church- Vard at St. Mary's at the Wall, there appenn to have 
been several, as tcuera have bei'n frcijuenlly dug up in many dif- 
-fercnl places. In tlic year 17-V8, p-.nt of one wa* ttiscovered in a 
prden, in the parish of tlie Holy Tnuiiy ; and in ihc vnrlh flung 
Vp, was sonic U-agments of u figured arn, and a coin of Constan- 
tine, llic youii^r brother; and anocher fragment was found in 
1763, in a garden in the High-Stri-el, belunjiing to Mr. John 
Heniard, an apMiJiecary, It con^ihts q( a plain border of red trt- 
»a/t, each about an inch square, inclosing a curious ornamental 
ci'ulre of cl»iin-wnrk, and squam, cumpiioed of black, white, 
red and yellow dira. Of this pavemenl, Murant has given a 
r^menCtttii^n. Many Roman Patera, fragments of sculp- 

T3 tured 



• Hoiotj-of £un, Vol. I. p. >8i. f Ibid. 183. 



d 



59* 



E&SLX. 



turn) v«wrli, tacrifidnj; imtrumriits, Romnii bnceleU, ftt»I otb«f 
Diitiquitin, h'i'-o also been (bund hcic; ftml lately, in a field near 
(hi: west end iif die town, part uf a RuinaTi llypocuua wiu dit* 
cotered. 

The immense quantity n( Romnn mfdals anil mijij that have 
twcn discoveitd in every part ot lh« wide exlrnt upoti which CoU 
cticstcr b uluttlcd, stid wliich rccrim duily iiusmrtttfttitm from 
the sutne source, carry a full and clnr conviction of its ancirnt 
tnagtiitudc, aild ufa li>iig naidciice of ibe Uonian people; fur nut 
only an occa*ioi«l coin in tJic era of ibe Upper or Lower Human 
£mpiir ba» come to light, but innny a seriet itvm the firel landing 
of ihc Roraniu in Briuiln, to ibe lime of iheir finrJ departure. 

Anullier proof uf the coniinticd a'Aidence of the Romuna at 
Colchntcr, ari»<-« from tlie many strung cntrenchmenU, »uetelui^ 
from north tu s^juth, we^twai'd of ihc luirn. Ti'iv urehuppoMd 
to be the reinain> <if tlir Cuttra, CatltUg, and I'rauilia, that, ac- 
cording to Tacitus, were formed about llie ancient Cutonia. " To 
give any idea of tlic niagnitU'te of ilie«c works, wiihuut an accu- 
rate survey, u hurilty puksillc. The lirst rumpnrt cmv^ llie 
toad a liillc to the eastward of I^xden, nnd exlendn louthnnnl ft 
COUiiJeraWe wuy; and northward nciuly in a tlrail line, to iho 
river; Ihencc it proceeds to the road leading to ^Vcftt-Ber^holt| 
beyond which it is defaced by llie cultivation of the incluwd 
grounds. The funhtAl und must considerable rampart, h nearly 
mrallel to the llnit, and extends southward a conMdcrablo way 
towards Mer^y Uland ; and iiorth>\nril to ihc river, where it is 
(onlinued acrou BerghuU lUruth, beyond which place, though it 
undoubtedly went much further, it is dil^icult to trace it with any 
certainty: in the vpuci* iM-tw(n;n thcM; rumparti, are many uthert 
inlcru^led at rij^ht angles; and some, apparently in other direc* 
tons: also ihree niniparts, parallel to (»c£i other, and to the n-o 
above doDciihcd. '1 he area incEcucd ia vcr)' large: frtim the hei^iht 
and strength of the wckicm rampart, it ia conjectured that the 
camp formed here was for the defence of Colchester by the Romans^ 
and by llic ramparts cjttcndin;^ imrthward br)-ond the river Cohie, 
and southward tr» the Slcrscy Islaadj • line was formed, which 
1 completely 



ESSE.^, 



i9S 



complefeljr G«cured the country ajjuccnt frain the hostile incur* 
lions of tbe Britons. The iabnd itself, from iti plnuuntnvu, and 
.COQVCDience of tituution. brrHfne th« hitrbuur. or, ai it were, ths 
[VHting-place of pt^optc (lauiug to and from Ronw^ The tcvernl 
^^MUtiful |iftrcmriil9, an<l nlher antiquities, yet rrmKining there, 
tufficirnllj inijicale how rniK'h il whs frrqucnCcd. About k fur- 
long to thf eust of Berp Cliurch, ii a Tery high rampart, (.■xteiiil- 
ing iti k direct line betwi-en Cokhnter and Mersey Itbnd: its ap- 
^pMraitce leads to s conjecture, that it was thrown up for ths 
easier and more expeditious IraTelliiig to and from the latter."* 

From the tiAmc Orj/me't DycAe girrn lo part of the itbove works 
on Lrxdeit Hcaili, Mr. Gough itifen ihcm lo be of Roman origin. 
Dr. tituiLi-ley, be nbterves. Mho engraved tix ptales of them, 
'** affiriDcd theiti A lliilith CttcuM, Sec. and the pit ut the south-west 
coroer, called King Coel's Kitrhcn, to be an Amphitheatre. This 
coiijeclure it ju&iilieil by tbe Dorchester Amphilhi-alre, and 
: situation of the banks, having Ihc ditch sometime Kiihin, and 
•oiuetiracs without, and running in some parts triple in a paial- 
lei direction.'*! 

It was a raaxint of Roman policy, to entrust the goTernmeot of 
{>artJcular dtntricls in conquered provinces, to Ihe detccndaiits of 
tbe native Princes who originally po^seued the sovereign power. 
Tbe district of which Colon ia-Caniulodunum was the capit&I, n 
nporied to have been among the number} bm the evidences of 
thi;i assertrrin seem loo weak lo merit confidence. On this hvad 
the Ruiniui historiims arc itilctit; and the British writers who re- 
port tbe tradition, are not uiHicieitily n-specuble lo warrant in- 
pitch bclivf. The Intdiiiun itteir, hs repealed by Morant from a 
ahort cikToniclel in the Ouch' Honk of Colchester, is accompanied 
by particulan of such a rumantic ca^t, that a ctmsiderable degree 
«( doubt would bo excited of its uuiheiiTJcity, ercn if corrobora- 

T 4 ted 



' Hiitocy of Cokhnut, Vol. II. p. i3P>" "f- 

t Addition ID tht BiitsflnLi, Vol. II. p. aq- 

t Suppoicd, ftoni ilic tittid, to have btco wiitlcn afaout the coniincimB 
DiCDt of tht leign of £(lw«id Uic Thiid. 



.iS6 



ESSEX. 



I 



ted by the testimony of more reputable autlion. At the tair, 
and Ju collaletBl njipcridagus, have not unfm^urntly engaged the 
arteniion of the IcaTnNl, a conilcnscd review o( tbe drcimutinoei 
may not be uniirccptiiblc. 

CocI, the second of tbut name, k British Prince, and descended 
fruin a Ion; line of QriiUti Hucettore, is said, in ihp relations «l)u- 
cled lu, to have been itivesti'd by che Romans with ihe government 
of ibe dislnci or wbtcb Cuinuluduiiuni was tbe cliicf Uatioa, some 
titoe about tite penod when tbe Uocnaii empire wuii dibtrscicH by 
tile numerous usurpers uf ihc ImpeiiiU I'uqile, whom history has 
itigmalixod by the appellation of the Thirty Tyrants. This was 
Dcur the middle of the third century; nhcnCot-l, taking t(tinii)(a|!« 
of the i;eneral cunfu:>ion, atauiiied independence:, and liaving re> 
jmired the buit Jiiigs and public works, gare to hii capital tbe name 
uf Cacr-Cucl. At n lucam uf perpetUAtinj; this twuniption of 
power, he is sup^iowd to have become tributury lo Curatuiut, arul 
the other usiir|>cr« of imperial dignity who renounced ilicir allnji- 
ante in Britain. 

Conslantius Chlorus, groat nephf^ to the Emperor Claudius, 
who bad been Invnlcd witli sovereign authority under Diocteaiaa 
and Maximi'cMi, embarked at Cinsoriacum, or Boulogne, with ■ 
powerful army, to chastise ibe revolters, and reduce Britain tn its 
furaici' state of dcjiendence. Having safely landvd, be commenced 
ifae »cgc of Caer<Co'el, as being the focus wherein the flame of 
insurrection hud been elicited. The resistance opposed to his 
arms «a& so determined, that the siege was procrasiinatr4 
to the unusual period of three yean, and e\-en then seemed very 
distant fri'm a tucctssful termination. In ibis state of aflairs, 
Cuiistutilittk beheld ilclenn. Curl's daughter, who was bom in this 
cily, and puaseued iliu must fascinating charms of person, as well 
as tW must uncommon enjowmenls of mind. Struck witli hi-r 
beeiiiy, and intert-^ted by ber acqui laments, Conslantius became 
violently enaiiwured of the British Princess; apd hesitated not to 
muko peace with Coel, on condition of receiving the accomplished 
tlricM *s hb hridr. 

llUbwto 



ECAKX. 



m 



* 



Hitherto the t^cnpml tradition is connstent with itself, but it 
tww brenchn utT in ilifltrrrit <lirectiiins: uiie ac'cx>unt aMcrl* lli«t 
the marriage was immediately cclobntWii wiili >ui(ablf »plcnilor; 
mother, ihal Helerni w:i5 the mistri-ss of CunstJitiliu& before she 
became hii wife. tk>lh, houcrer, a^ain uiiice in nfRrrnin^, that 
Cotutaatine, surnAincd th« Orciit, tvos xhe issue of this inlercuurs^t 
and that he alw wai born nl Cncr-Cui'I. Even the poets have re- 
lated the circuinsliincf, but on tlii!> gcound thry may be hIIowaJ 
to wander, and cekbraird the birth and ltirlh-|tlace ul CuiiktantiiiQ 
ID lenns uf by]>erboli»m : thus Nrcbam : 

f ram Colchnirf there row ■ ti*rit. 

The r>yM wlicieof s»»«Kl<iiiou» lif^ht 
Thn>ughou( ihe wor14 in cliimtei firrr, 

Cttit CoNiTAHTins, Rame'i Emperer b/i^ht 

Such are ihc outlines of this splendid fable, which, buidc« the 
nimantic hue of its coloring, coninidicls iKc evidence of the best 
intwrmcd writi-r* nn Roman History. AccorJing to Oiblntrir tlw 
rIeTatton uf C'uii«lanliii<e to the rank of Crtar, and admittance to 
(OTeretgn power, precnicd hit recoveiy uf Urit&in from ADec* 
tus, who had awas'iiialcrd CurauiiuR, und usurjied his dignity. 
Loog previous to itial event, tlierefoic, be must hu%c lecji inar- 
tird to llclenu, from whum he was divorced on hisbccond mar- 
riage with the dnughlcr of Maxiiniun, ucid at which jieriod Con- 
ttanline was eighteen years of age. I'hc evidence reaulling fruni 
liiia evident anaclirontsm, is not the only proof of the iuiiliibility 
of the Ifiiditiiin. Our cloguciit historian dcjtifi thut a llntikli 
King was liie fulher of Ht-lcim, and nives that houor to an i:m- 
keeper; at cbe uuae Iiliil-, he ob»erve<t, the legality of her niurrugc 
nay be defended " aguiii>i lho»e who have represented her us ibc 
concubine of Comraniiiic* Eutropius (x. 2.) cxprcase*, in a 
few word», ihc rcul trutti, and tlie ucciuion of the error, rj- ol»af 
riori malrituoHw rjuk Aiius.** 

TIti; real biith-pliice of Coiistantine, who wss the first Roman 
Eni|)cror that openly avowed the beUtil of Chrutiaitity, issupiKJMid 

to 



* D(cr|iM tod F*U of the Romtn Erapiro, Vol II. 9vo. Edit, p. igo^ 



d 



»00 



KS9EX. 



(ho treaty concluiJe<I betwoen the Gmtl Alfred, atut the Daiiisb 
Obief, Cothrutn. On liir dc^th of tlie latler, Alfrcij vgaJa be- 
csiDv the noiTiii):il master of thit district, but wiu luiij; un»ble to 
subdue live; I>itnish forces, ^vhuwere cunittiually receiving supplies 
by tea. Having at Inigth comiructed n sujwrinr navy, ibe 
Daiirs, deprived of iheir aecuMomeil roint'orcenients, sulnnitted lo 
ackniiHledgc bini as tlictr Suverctgn; bill nppeur to have still kept 
poneicviun of Colehesler, m their priiici)Ml atrong-bold. 

On the denlh nf Alfml, and wrceMioii of his >on Kduurt), calU 
ed the Elder, the Danei Tc-cnmnienccd llicir ii»unl cour«> of de- 
5irucii<m m\d plunder, under the command of Cthelwnld, Alfred's 
nephew; ulio inteitdiiig to poiscu bini-tclf vl ihe sovereignty of 
Btitiitn, hud a^seinblcii a large army of Ouim uiitl Normans, and 
landing in t'jscs, berame muter of Cnlchet>ter, unci the neigh- 
bouring countr)-. F.theluaUt tieing defeated, and sl&In in the fol'- 
lowingycwr, (poj.j the Daiie* relumed to ibeir allegiance; but^ 
witbw liUlo bincchcy, that Edward fuuiid it ncccuary, within 
few yean, to alabiifJi frntiricatioiis at Witham and Maiden,* taJ 
nalrain thnr incurbii)nR. In (>'JI, Kdwnrd, finding the time foj] 
imnble for a design he had long ineditAtcd, aiaembled a large nr»j 
nyt and laid siege to Colne-ceasler, which appears to have bccaj 
tiiken by assault, as the Danes were nit put lo ttic .sword, with 
itie exci'plioii t>f a vciy lew, who leiipuig omt the wallo, fled into 
r.wtt-Ari^lia. LCdward is (bought to bare re-pc<>plcd the desolated 
ciiy by a colony of W«l-5tixoi)6, and in November, 922, as Dp- 
pcan lioni the bB.\(;n Chroi.iclc, lie either rebuilt or repaired ilie 
walb. From ihb petiutl to the Nuriuan Conquest, the aunuk uf 
Colcl]f*ttfr cffvr ntnbing remHrkubie. 

From the Doine^day Itooh, Colchester appnin to have been, 
at the period of it» compilaiiun, a very considembla town, the 
iianiber of Uurgc»w>, who then held houses under the King, was 
.S76; ihc nitmbrr of liuusn iii (beir puuetsion, 3i5: besides these, 
ihcUisbopol' London held louiicvn houses here; I->ido E>8pifer| 
£vr houses, and forty 84'rcs of land; Hamo L>»pifer, one bouse, 

and 



* Set pi£« 171 tnd sBi 




k 




£»SBX. 



301 



uii] one court, or hill; and Earl Eustace, twelve bouses; tfurty- 
iwo other houses were hdd by different peraom. Eudo Dapitcr, 
wbo had much land in Kbcx, made Colchwtcr his principal n*i- 
deocc, and it said, in th? MotmMicon,* to have founded Ibc Cus- 
lle; tbough it is probable that be only rebuilt it on ifao site of a 
more ancient fortress. In tlie rvi^ii of Henry the Second, the 
(ee-ftrm of the town was let to ibc ShcrifT uf ICsscx fur an annual 
sutn; but the rents bring rxactcrl wiih grrat rij^r, Henry soon 
afterwards remitted the inipo»itinn to the Burgesses, oo their en- 
{a^ng to pay forty-two ptmnds yearly. 

During ibr cuunnulHMu in tlic time of King John, Salter de 
QattKy* Earl of Winche»ter, be»icgi-d C«lcbi*ter, (A. D. 1214.) 
with anarmy of fgrvigiicr^; but hearing; ihat tliv Uarom auemhled 
in Londoo were advancing to Jls relief, be rvtircd to St. IvJrnund's 
Bary. Soon nfierwanU, huncver, Sahcf, or some of bis party, 
obtained poeM^ion, and having pliiiide;-cd the (oivii, placed a gar- 
nion i» the Cii»lle; nhith was quickly iit«C3li>d Uy the King, and 
obliged Co surrrndur. In the year 1^8, Colchester wns taken 
by the soldier* of Prince Louis, son of Philip the Second of 
Prancci wbo had been incited into F.ngkand to auiM the Barore; 
but, iitttnd of remaining faithful to ibc cause they had under^ 
lakeo> thought the oppurluuicy fuvorubli? to make conijtiesti for 
ibemwtvca. The Castle wulls were now disgraced by the banner 
of France; which, however, was not suilcred to wave long; tot tiie 
Barons having *nbraiited to thi-ir new Sovereign, llmry the Third, 
consolidated tb«-'ir»ireiigth, and ejipcllcd the vain-glorious Prince 
froai the kingdom. 

I In llic rcigit of Edward the TlLird, one Lionel t!e l^railcnham, a 
powerful and avaricious man, endeavoured to pos%-wi himself of 
the exclusive lishery of the river Colne, which bad brrn orHuicd 
to the Dur^nseK by Richard the First. Being Ibiled in hi* at- 
(ciiipt by Robert de llwrle, the Lord Admiral, he hmei the ave- 
miQs of Colcbrklw with a hand of during outlaws and for three 
months kept the inhabitants in perpetual aLirm, tiy endeavouring 

u 



• Vol. I. p. !?(. 



30C 



sssttr. 



to >ct the place no fire. He was «t Ib*( cotnpvllfd (o d«sisC; and 
purcha»e ha lorrwietl life b^ a Ufn^ lutn of iuoti«y. On tbe ni' 
UKL' i't ihe iinat iiuval annulment to UockiuJe Calais, ColchfSlef 
I'utubhcd five >Ui[a and 170 mHrin<^n. In this reign, in the ye«N 
I34tf, and 1360, many of the inbabitanU MI victims to tM 
|»l*i;ttr. In NS.i CoicliesTcr w«9 vHltcd by Henry tSr Sixth; botf 
tb« orc'UBi<jn »f b'n coming is not rcconled, iliougb much page- 
■iilry was ()i>|)liiycfl in coinetitiipnce. 

Duniig ttii: Bllrni])( to pluce the BccmnpUihetl but ill-futcd 
Jane (<tvy upon liic thnmr, ihe inliabttanis uf Culcbvster &ui>> 
portnl ihc inirr(%t% uf the Princess Mary witii so much fervor, 
tliAt a v<^r)- li!>w days afl«r the Utter had obtainet) secure pomea- 
sion ol ihL- Crown, alic viiiuxl lh« tuwn, purposely to display her 
Xrotig M-nsp of the MitacliiDont of its inhabitants. She was re- 
ceived with gi-eiil rrjoifinp, and on her departure prewnled with 
■ sJUer cup, and *^0l. in gf^ldi a num regarded in Ihme tines af 
iroritiy ilw- a^^c<^lilncp of a Sovereign,* Her gratitude, however, 
»u» k-M puKcrful than htt bigotry; and various persons, both 
male and frmalr, were liere cugnmilted to the flames, to expiate 
tlw crime of oppoMtion to the religious ordinances prr«cribed by 
tho exiting law, Culcbe«ler, indeed, at this period, was diatin* 
guiiihiftl t\>i' the divenity of its religiom sects; and the flanes of 
perercutiun were lighted up by the bigottrd Queen, to afnalgsiKste 
the oontrariely of upiiiiom inln one uniform bviirf. The airvnge 
aod absurd tenets of the sect nttmed ihc Famiti/ of' Love, were pro- 
pafiled bcrc by Christopher Vilds, The disciple of Heniy Nicho- 
las, of Delft, its original founder, and obtained many converb. 
Vutioat oilier taiicitui fty«l('inft nere rUi> extremely current; and 
au i]uinriruu& nm (tic n»url of foUrits, that Colchester, to use tba 

80ecte4 



' The vjloe »f thi» gifi zm be b«uer ■ppKciiwd by m extnct fiwa dw 
Chimb<tl«in of Colrhuuf*! account of the ehirgu incuncJ by Uic purchua of 
vaiious irlicln iil tuiiA, in cunicqucnce of Uiu viiiL Ilcm. For jfi doxen of 
b'orl, j9>. For ^9 gDllom of rli-in wint, ^Si. Ten lutidiof Ixtr, — • 
A<tuictrr orbtcf, wci^hinKfivcuQieuiduQ poaodi, gt. id. A lideofbof, 
wctfh'iij MICA icon Mid liic pound*, itt, li. A vctl, ^. tUf ■ ve*i| 
U. ad, Two muttuD*, gc fd. Ac 



ftq»EX. 



aos 



I 



«&>cted luiguage of the age, " )>ccam« like onto k citic upon a 
hill, aod as a candle ujxiu a caiidle&licki-, gave i;i«at light In all 
thoK who, lor tlie comfort of limr coiKicimcr*, auno lo roiifcrni 
tbcra from diran plaim a( tlic rralmc."* The accuaiuti of t^IJu- 
bcth extitiguisbed tbe pyre whicli intolf-ninre bad kindlrd; and 
leveral inliabitsnu of iliis town, wlio w«rc awaiting tbcir expected 
fate in the drpllit <>f R priioi), were »ct at liberty. Soon after* 
wands many Hetniii^,| whom the bloody and unrelettliRf! policy 
of tbc Dekc of AIvs bnd expelled froni tUvir nntiv* ptaim, soa^t 
an atylum ulC'jIcbcMcr; und, in return tor llie protection aSbnled 
than, inirodured th« manufacture nf bays aod >ay«, wbich rcikdcr- 

Led the iDwn more Souri&liing ihan il bad bcitt litr maiiy yeara. In 
the autumnal pro^rru of Kiizabctb in the year 1579, thai Save- 



* CoQfiitui&nof the Fimily ofLovc^ tiy W. MTilLinjMCi, i<iJ9. 



f '* A. D. is$0. The proiection i)i« I'lnnini;! hid rKovcd on thdr fine 
ebutlag Colch(il«r for* residence, ind the cnfaungemciit ihry had cipcri* 
meed in the Kn yein ihit h>d clipicd tince thrirciubliihmcni, were Uie m«ana 
of grcatlf IncKMing their nttmbet*, Th» renulaiiiy and mshod of thciT pTO- 
MedlQgh bwii in civil Md rcligi«M tmmttt. u wall ai what Kinrd u their 
■Haiibduici, inadclhetn eximpktfat imrUlion. They Ktil [oraitd them* 
kI*ct inio 1 (oogrtgnnuu, oi iJiiUftcl body* aod every ouc xknowlediicd a* ■ 
member, bad hii name enrolled in a icgiurr. They weir permitted to malw 
nidera and regoUtiorii fni cairying on thtir Iradr, which gave iWm t dr^rit of 
CTedrt un known twfoir : ihry niipportM th( ponr and indium oF iheir own na- 
i*oni DM lafFeriBg tkcia to bnaint i burthen to thoie whAK hoipiiaJity had 
f(*M ihnn in aiylum; and Jbi the puTpmea of religion, ihcjr had Ihc Chunk 
li Sl Cila auipud them, w^hcicin the dofiiina of Luthtt were expounded 
by a miiiillrr choieii from amuiii; ihtmtdvw- Thne lilieniei, Tai gttairr ilian 
any iheit own country (ifoided, tempted m»ny, who h»d oiSrrwiu no laUuniil 
motive, lu leave their native toll, and auociaie with iheiT bmhien thtit eala> 
hUthid. TbriT nuRiben daily incrcaKd, and CakheMei wu upon iha point 
of baeoiBiac a colooy of Flemingt, u well at of endutinit the iRCoiintnaaiatu 
ftirnififti"rrt of deutb, and deirneia of piovin'oa. The conjjrcjaticia wm 
UinUe 10 rewntn thit incruie; and the fiailiffi and Aldemea, to picvcnt fur* 
ther iKumuJalion to a body ilieady tog unwcildy, wne obliged lo Itiuea 
CommMid, that no ittangef it»>uld. for Ihc ruturt, Ic permitted to tuida In 
At pncincl* of dw town, without their tpecial can*enl_" 

titturj 4 Cdtktatr, VM. /. p. nl. 




304 




sssex. 



At the comtnencement of the clcttractivc commotions lietween 
Charin the First and bi» Parliiim(.'n(, tlic itihilHtanis of Colchester 
took part with the tattrr, and in 1^4-^^, petitioned that the town 
miglu lie betlcr forlificJ. Ttw .Mn» of 15001. was nrcordmgly 
granted for reputing the wkIU, and provtdini; other mcui* of de- 
fence. Soon afterwards some uitwarrentH acts of outrage were 
cuiniiiillecl by the lower ciaues agiumt the Lucas family; but the 
horrors of civil war were not fell in all their severity till the yenr 
lG*6, when the mcmorablv srrgc of Cotcliester reduced (be inEia>^^ 
bitants to the greatest diblrrj^. ^^u 

At this period, a design was conceived by matky of iIk nobility 
and gentry in ditfi>ro(it parts of the kingdom, to restrain tlie un* 
due cxercbc of PuriiaDicntAry power, and restore the fuoclioiis of 
government into its Ibrmcr channel. Frequent conferciirea to 
jtromule lljese purpiiiit's were hclil in various coucities, and [mrti* 
cularly Jii Kent, where great numbers uswiiililed under George 
Goring, Dirl of Norwich, who, without suHicicnt CNpcrii'ncef 
assumed llie office of General. Having marched to Blacklieath, 
in exptclalioii of being joined by the Londoner*, the t*arliatne»t's 
army, commanded by Lord I'airfax, advanced to encounter the 
newty-raised forces, who immediately reirealvdi and dividing into 
two bodies, one took (he road luwucds Uuctie»tcr, the other to- 
wards Muidhtonc. The former were ovcriaken, and dcl^atifd : 
the latter again advanced to Blackhcath, slill hnping lo receite 
agsistancc from the Metropolis; but a detachment coming a^nst 
them, the greater nunib»- di&pcr»cd. The remainder, with Lord 
Goring, crossed the Thames at Greenwich, and took post at Mil(HH 
End, and Slralfoid-k- Itow, when.- ihey irmaiiied five day*, aoo 
were joined by many Keiiti»!i-men, and Loudon apprentice*. 

In the raeiD time, the Rnyaligb in Ewe\ e.\«ried themselm 
with grnil surcew, ttml htivin^ ikeiitcd the Comnuttce of Parlia- 
ment sitting at Chelm^rord, aaeniblL-d a coniidvrublc force, and, 
under the command of Sir Charles Lucas, marched to Ilrentwood, 
and joined the Lord Goring, who hud advanced' to meet (hem; 
their united sitrengch was quickly incn-ase<l by Ibc junction of de- 
tached parlies from various quarters ; and the sriiiy thus drawn 
S tog^tlwr. 



KSSEK. 



atys 



togtther, Mon amounted to 3400 foot, and fiOO bone. This 
forrc being instifFlcient to cupc nitfa Fwrfax, who w-ss then in close 
purxiiitt it wus detiinnine.-l to proccrd to Coldicslcr. 

Th<^ inhabitants, wishing to pr*'vent the entrance of the Royal- 
Ut«, shut ihc gatrs, and culleclnl k troop of about uxty borw to 
defend the pa«)a|;e ; but, on the ti]i]>roacb of SHr Charles Lucas, 
with fome compauies of cavalry, tiicy thoti^til it moit prudeat to 
deliver up the town, on a promiK tiiH' it shuuLd be preserved froia 
pillage, and tionc of the towns-people injurcJ. Tho main force 
had now arrived ; and the approach of Fairtiu being quickly ap- 
prehendeil, guards were posted ut ev<^ry arenue, the walls were 
strengthened, and every ihiD^ assumed the appearance of a vigor- 
ous rcu^taiicc. The next day, June the thirteenth, th« PstIm- 
ment army arrived on Lcxdeii llrath j mid FnJrfax summoned 
Lord Guhng to lurrcnd^r the lowii, iind cause hiti forcps to lay 
down ibeir aniu>, 7~o this meuajje, un insolent negative was re- 
rumcd by the Earl f and an assault (vas immediutcly commenced : 
the tuhurl» were I'orced after a dreadful conflict, and nothing but 
the moat determined bmver^- prevented the place from being carried. 
Some foot soldiers of th« enemy bad entered with the retreating 
Royalists, but were again driven out by the pikes of the Royalist 
Oifficcr^, who, in the confusion, ck>«ed the gitc upon many of 
tlidr own people. The assault continued between seven and eight 
houn: till at length, wearied by the obstiiute defence of the be* 
sieged, the troops nf p'airfax retrriitrd in much disorder. 

Beittg thus repelled in a general auRull, Fairfax commenced a 
ref;ular blockade, and, after a prolracicd investment of eleven 
wctks, in which many vigoixma %alik-* had be<^n made with vaiiotts 
success, obtained possesMoii of the town. The terms of nurrendcr 
were unusually severe, as the Parliumenlary General refused to 
promise quarter to any but the common soldiers, and o(Bccis un- 
der the rank of Captains. The ncrcwity of the case admitted no 
altemalive, and to this hard condition the Royalist ofTiccRi were 
obliged to submit ; erery usual kinii of provi»iun having been litnir 
exhausted, and buth inhabitants uiid soldiers reilticcd lu satisfy the 
cravings of hunger on horses, dogs, and other animals. 

Vot, V. L' Soon 






K9SIX. 



Soon after the troofis of Fairiox had entered tlic lovn, i Cowi- 
eil of War was beld- at tKe Mont'lUII, anil SirChorlei Lucot, 
Sir George LuJc, and Sir B«mard Ga}cn)-nc, condemDcU to suffer 
dcalb. llie moon of %im procedure, w fonnklly lUlcd to llic 
buflt-tsn, was, that, " after i>o long and oinlinalc a daHeocc, it 
wn& aaxsaiy, fur tlie uxampk of others, anil tbal tlie p«ueef 
th« bicigdom mi^il be nu luoru diuurbol iu tiial maimer, tlua 
inme miUtary jusUre tJiuuU be executed, and thvn>[ore that ibc 
Council bad tlrtiTmincd lliat thpy tbi'ee should be presently shot 
to dcalb.*'* The three unfurlaaate officcn were then conducted 
(u liie Cullc ; but it having been discuvcrcd (liiu GitvcoyuQ was a 
llorvnlitMt, bik sentence uu rcti'erMd, and himself urdcred to b> 
cunlincd »iib ihe olbvr priwnt're. tiouR aiiemards. Colonel Ite- 
tun H'BC dispRlclied to inform Sir Charles Lucu, and Sir Caor^ 
Lii^le, to (irepare for dcalb. At scren o'clock the lame eretUDigt 
ilu-y were Inj lo a green spot of ground, only a few jiaces distaot 
frum the north wall of the Casilo, aiid ihrre nubmiUed to Uwir 
kar»li fate »ith llic ino«t intrepid bravery. 7'1)« bodies of th« two 
Koigbli uere privately inlem-d iji tb« vault of the Lucas luiulyt 
in ^1. Giles's Church. 

After tlUi extcutiun, the Lord Goring, Lord Capel,t atul tha 
other iiflieers, were uiaured of " lair quarter as pri^wien of war;" 
but this pronisB the paramount juriadiction of the Parlinniettf 
ibuught |>rtippr to disannul in mpect to Lord Capel, wbp was im* 
peachcdj and broii^t ta trial, when refuting to aciuMMvIedge the 
aulhonly of (he eourt, he was condemned lo die, aiid lotfered the 
pain of hi* M-tiieiicr m March, lG49. After the surrender of tha 
tMro, a cotitntjuUiMi of U,UUOl. was impciwd ou the inhabicanti; 
of wliicb Mim 2000], «iLs afternanis rctniued; !2000L was bealowed 
to nlieva the disirc»rs of the poor, and the retitaituui; IO,OOOl. 

distribuiail 




* CIsnndMi, Book XI. p. jSj. 

♦ Tlie m«"r(i will ptrwioil canttge of Arrhur, Lord C«pd, who Ibu^t 
on t)>c nAt of I.ii'ii Gating, -nn, uiilie itnlUHttli, trttgabdy cwupicaOM: in 
the lumiuli, ma b*r couU hs found to 6mm the rHrml (att^ Md It wat nchmA 
by ■ UK 9»iy, MoM|<K( lo ilii* rniMwnin 





<1CSX. 



307 



* 



• 



tUstriliutcd amon:; tli« toldicK. Duriag the iK&f, U[>»'>r()> of 
300 bQUiett Bstii urivuf oilier E^'Uiltlijigs, twd bWD biirol, or 

(k^irc tlu: &L-Riy of raiHvN quitted llifi town, the tvalls antj Tor- 
tificulion* vete complrtety titbinajilted ; llie inn^Utram being 
oiAi^ti to »i(>ply (lie mcoMTy tooli to effect tlicir titsiriictinn. 
In \ht! yrar ]66j, (lie <]rG8ilful plui^c, whtc!i ravRgciJ I^mloii, 
cxtcttilctl its l)«ncri)l miwpw to C((lcli«icr, a^id More the coiits- 
^OH liiwl DPJiKiJ la act, nearly iOCtO pvituta lt»ti hfxn swept aiv«y 
Iry Ui iafluvnce. 

Colc|i4»ler is prinfipiilly ultucilcd on tlic Bumtnit uid nnrlhera 
Vftci of n fictr eminence, riung (torn itic river Coliie, wliicli flovrj 
on Uie riuftb and eatt si«les, nn«i is navigable to (he ^oi ctdled ti>« 
MiMr-tlylbc, ia (lie cfi>i quarter uf the lowri. Tbe tpsei^ iiicloAed 
by tbc reoijtiiH »f ttie ancu-nt uulU, lurim a pa nd (dug ram, huviitg 
ia longcot wdc) tow»/tl> t>ie nnrili aikI >ouili: tlie buJidiiigf with- 
out the walls are very irregularly tlisposcil, chiclly on the soulb 
Uid eoM. Tbc principal .itrccl, which niii.s twai'Iy ca&t and we?it,- 
witlitn the pamllelofjrntit, ruulninf muj>y larf^ shop«, oud respect- 
aUa bou»c«; bul is soracwhat di5li|;iir<>d by tlic oI«l Markel-lmvtc, 
aM otliei- ftnull buiUlingi, whicJi ttand ni-.ir the middle of tl^ 
Mreet. and obMruct the pattajie. Pari of (he t<>wn wsf paved v 
fwty at the year l-*73. In llic reigi of Jumci llie f'inl, an act 
IMS obtwred for paving the whole, and its provisions vcrc enforcetf 
by another act pasted in 1760: by tEicse, the lonJ-ouncn, iuhI 
pruprieti>n uf buildinjEs. arc DrdercJ to pave, and keep iu repair, 
ftll tb« w»ys contiguous to their rr^peciive potscstiom. 

Great ailentioD was formerly given to the pn'scrvntitiii of tbf 
U^ulit, but they are now in a ^i-cat degree dntruyt-di nod what re- 
auinii i> ooly Juept m K'poir by tlio»c who have ^tnleiR, or other 
pounds^ adjoining, 'i'hc walls ciiiitisl of stone and itomoji briekt 
united by a very tirnng aimciil. The iLickricvi varies, but it, in 
gcaeralf irooi uvcu to right feet. Tbe iocijsed area contajn> m> 

V 3 that 



• A »«ry cxtRiiIcd iKouot of ihe erenii of lh« liifje of Colchnui mty b> 
•tea in Uorent'i Ew^, Vol. I. p. £9, el iij. compikd Uom Ruilmuith. 
CltrudoB, WhiUockr, &«. 



SOS 



B»SEX. 



I 



thex ftiorc than lOS acres: the circumference of tfie waits bein{; 
one milr and three quailen. Kdward tli*^ Kldrr, m iilimdy mcn- 
tjuned from the Sa\on Cbrumcic, repaired, or rebuilt ihem, after 
the ilefimt of tli<! Danes in 9^1 ; nnd Richinl the SKond n re- 
conled m have txcnipicd the Burgewe* from the ckargt of retorn- 
ing members to Parliamcnl thr« several tinie«, on accoonl of the 
great cxpeiice they were ni *' in repairing their wall with lime amt 
jitoiie nj^inst all invaders." The like ext^mption was grtinted by 
the Heiirie«, Fwiirlh and l-ldh; but «incc the sipgc in Ibc time of 
Charles the Fmt, Ihc wkII» liave had iw public labor cxjietided on 
them. WheTi in their pcrrcct state, the town was entered by four 
principal gniesaud ilin^- pintcrns; inn^t of which are now destroyed. 
The walls were !.lrongthcned by Mveml bimiions, and on the wfal 
defended by a stnal) ancient fort, called Colkfnge'a Castel; the 
arcl)e<. that remain, are formed of Roman brick. On the ttorlh 
and wcit sides were deep ilitcben, in the places most opea to 
atinck. 

On an elevated spot, lo the nnrih of the High Street, and 
commKiulin;; a fine view of the winding valley to tht- north 
and east, stands the Castle. The outer walls arc nearly per- 
Cccl. and, by ihdr vast thickneu and v>lidFey, evince the im* 
parlance that in the earjy agn was attncbed to this situation. 
The whrjlu building is constructed with a mixture of stone, flint, 
■nd nomnn bricks ; but the latter arc chiefly in pieces, conveying 
(ho idea of ihrir having been taken from some more ancieni build- 
ing. Norden B.'jcribcs the erection of this fortress to Edward the 
Elder; but the Monasiiron, before quoted, refers it to Eudo Da- 
pifer, Sewvr or Sleward to Willijim the Conqueror: in its general 
structure it is evidciilly Nornmii; thougli, Iroin the immense 
quantity of Uuiniin bricks worked up in the walls, it sevnis pro- 
bable that il nas raiuid upon the site nf sAjtoc Roman building, 
and with a large piirtinn of its matrriata. The tradition, indeed, 
SIS recorded in the Colchttter Chroiiirle, clearly points out a moifc 
siirii'iit edifice on thisspol; in/uiiiioPalaiit Cocfit qyondamRtgit: 
now if, according lo the ingenious supporsition of Mr. Goof^, 
Coelf orCoetius, was a'Roman name, the origin of ibc fortren 
2 sceras 





I 



ESSEX. 

«cciDs 8t onco detennined; and, unless Mtne spacious structure 
httd previounly occupied ihiii ^pot, there scctna grcut difficulty io 
accouiiliug fur &ucli a large space as the CnslLc and ils nim{Uirl9 
cavetf and Mtuaccd so near the middle of Colchester, remaining; 
unoccupied till the tiinv of the NorniAiis. 

The Cattle b built in the fumi of a parallelogram, the enst and 
west sides mvHsuriiij; HO IccI each, the iiutili niul ^uulh Ndes 10'2 
heteach: at the nurih-eaiit and iiortLi-wc^I uiigk-ik arc prujecLitig 
RjUiirc to«er»', ut the suuih »idc, on the wvit hicc, a uiiodicr square 
Itiwer; and oh the cA&l fucc, ii scmicirculur tmvcr; the exlrrcial 
radius of which is twenty feet. The Ibundatioiu are thirty tec-t 
thick; the lower pan of the woJU iwi^lvc feet thick, and the ujipcr 
part nearly clcvfu. The principal eiitiaiice is near the south- 
west lower, beneath a strong semicircular urcli, with thrwtiuiirtcr 
columns; huviii); capitals, ornamented in the Nurraan style: this 
was anciently defended by a portcullis. Oti the right, ivilhin 
the entrance, is a niche, where the guard or porter whs stationed, 
ike IciMirc ami irksomenfSB of whose calling is expressed by the 
figures rudely sculpluiTii on the ndjucent ulnnes. At a little div 
tance beyond is a squnre room, at the further end of which is a 
flight of stairs leading to the vaults. 

" At the foot uf the 6lain> is a vault twenty-six teal in length, 
and twenty-one in breadth, linving at the further end a narrow 
passage, which is briclcrd up, to prevent accidents arising from 
the ruinous state of the arch of ihi- vault to which it kads. On 
the tight of this first vnull is a pxnaj^e, titbit hiis been broken 
through the wall into an adjacent vault: this, which is not [wne- 
imted by a Mti^le ray of light, n of the same dlinensioii) as ihe 
itnt; and ihiougli a chasm lU the fuitlier end, is a vvay to a third 
tault, of the sflme breadth of the others, but much longer. Wlieit 
(hesc vaults wrrc first ditcoveied, which it not more limn ri^bty 
or ninety years ago, Ihey were full of miuI, to curry oH' which, itu 
opening was made through the foundation wall, near the north- 
east cvrner; but this pHssago is now cJuMfd tip. The original de- 
icciil into these vaults is still hidden, liie preseui staircuic brc»k- 
jng through the crown of tbc arch; it veins prohablc, therefore, 

V 3 that 




m 



tiitTt. 



thnt varioDS oiheit are jet unknown. BetwMri tht! Oairi and s 
^^ln<fuw in ilic saiilb wal), is a well, now arrhed over: m the 
limo of doing wdich, tlio workmen, whose curioiiiy intiuci-d them 
la dmceiiil, discovrri'd, about hair way down, en ftrchcd piuMge, 
leading townrdi tlic soulli; bill thU was not explored. 

" Bcj'iini llic *l«(rs i* ihc enlmncc lo » Iwrge ntrii, rormttly 
inclosed by a roof, and divided by a wall running nortli and soutb. 
Thii spice icicluded, upon its different floors, ibe printipttl ftp4rt- 
tnents uriht- rmtlc; oikI sUo b gallery ibat runs between the wall 
V'hicb crones tlic ttwn, and tliat wiiicii is demoiished. At the 
iauth end of tlie gallery, on ttic ground floor, is n Mrang arched 
room, that receives a scanty potiion of Kght llirough a small aperr 
lute in the south rtaJI of the caillc: this inrtemble bold, a» tradl* 
tion asserts, irat the last lodging of Sir Charles Lucas, and 9ir 
George Lisle. 

" At the cttremily of a vrii] which separates this area TroM a 
Kcond, h a door above tin& belttw, Which led into apartmenU 
that filled tilt >t»ftce hrtttW!! ihc «ul w«ll of the Castle and ih* 
gallery. At the south end of this spacp, in the south-east tower, 
Bn iho gfound floor, i4 a klrong arched room, the walls Of which 
art- of cxlraordinury iliickiicss. In the touth-west Inwer is tfai 
grand stniiTii&c, which is circular, arclicd abnvc, and built of 
fttonie. This leads tn a modem ron^, used for a Subscnpiion lj> 
brary. An arcade of modem workinftnihip, wliich nini alnnj; Ih* 
tibrlli Uall uf the Librftiy, conducts to TliC ancient Oiapd. Tliis 
b a venerable piece of architecture; tlie Ijcaoty of its proporiions 
Btrikc the eye, notnith&tanding the massivcness of its coiMtruciion. 
llic roof Is strongly nrched: the light eiiteni through live window*: 
twn f)f wliich have bcrn enlarged, but the nthen remain nearly in 
tlirir original state." The length of this Chapel h forly'ieven 
feflt, the width ntnrly forty; the height proportionable. An 
uichtil vault beneath \t used for the confinement of pnsDiwn. 

" tn the nortli'CaSL and nonh-ttcst towers, upon the liatne floor 
OS llicCliapi'l, are vaiirtus sninll ronnis, or rccewes; and in !h* 
latter, is :iUn a siJiirc-.i>e, which descends from the upper part M 
Tbe tower, tnd tenninatei at the first floor. At dw foot of the 

1 stain, 




KtSIX. 



in 



Mfun, in ibe north wkU o( tbe Castle, ii a >elly-porl, now c\(a<d 
wp, which upL-iicd upon an abutmtnl of ihr nortlt-wnt towtf. 
ThtB saily-port, wbicti is nine f«t wide, and ifw grmt iloomay in 
tbc south Willi, «re tkc only original entrancra into the Ctutlo. 
From the principal stairaiv.- in Ihf i;nrlli-i'nt( tow«r, amjllicr Hi-Itt 
of ttrps lesds to what wa« the second fUtor: the walls of this ituty; 
of wlitch but a veiy *inall part rcrniiin, wvre nine fict ttiicfc. 
The dome which coven the UAirciiKe, the parage formvil upon 
tfae wet and north wall of the Castle^ and cbe small room apon 
the summit of the north-eatt tor^er, are a\i of modern comtrnc- 
lioB. The great doorwity in Ihi- north wall, and the am.ill port in 
(be cast wall, arc lil«wiv modrrn, and have been furtnrd uith 
great labor, by the rtil»rj:rment ol n narrow window jn oacli plotv, 
Sereral ol the windows bxve alio, with no less labor, been en- 
larged ; in their original stute, but a very smnly portion oT li^C 
could hare tuund enimnce into Uic intcriur apurtmonls. The )»!• 
rulitr consiructi<m of theie windows, » entirely different from 
lay in modern buiMinj^, is worthy obMrvntion. An arched 
niche, about Ihrn; feet deep, foriiic-d llie inner opening of Uie win- 
dow ( in the back of which niche, another, of k» diauaiiuns, gra- 
ilnally decreasing in Ireadih, [leitutralcd abtmi seven fcet furllier, 
St ihc extremity uf which, a itorrow apcttoic, only eight inches 
vide, lined with hewn Mone, was made throogh the runiainin^ 
ibickiteM of tlie wuU, I'mm tho tlonr of the roonu, an lucent 
wn made to the narrow apertuic of ihc window, by a spislj flight 
ofilein."* 

Severn) horisonlal bands, or fillcls, of Romnn briclt, ditpo^ed iii 
pCTpeadicuIar and oUjtiuo Icyeis, run round the outride of ibe 
whole building. On the north und ea»t sides, the Castle was do- 
fended by a high ntntpart, r&i»d upon a more ancient Mali, and 
by a deep fon, now piirtly lillH up. On the sourh and west wlcs, 
ii was strengthened by a iTinuivL' wall, in which were two gales; this 
IiU been pulled down some years, and its site is occupied by a 
range of modem houses. The CjuiIc, with its l>^ecinct^, called the 

U 4 Ihiilvy, 



• UUlory of CoJcheitcf, VoL II. p, t^.itttf. 



sit 



XBSKX. 



"1 



Bailey, fBallivm,) U extra parocbJiil, imd exempt from the jons* 
Miction of the burough oQiceis, Originally, iniieed, the town wuft 
feuilftlury to the Ciultc; but nil expmptioD from all wr>ic«9f fines, 
&c. WMS purclmbTtJ by Uiu nur;gctBes itvtn Qu«en FJi:iubcih, 
afterwards contirinod by ['ailtamcnt. 

Colchnlcr Cu^ilc ciinr very early intn ihe power of the Crov 
The t^inpren Maud granted it to Albrric Jc Vorr, anceslor to (be 
Veres, Earls of Oxford; bul it is nul ct-rtain lliat he wns e*er in 
possewion. It was next bestowed, during pleasure, on Stepli^n 
IJureiigood. Henry tbe'iliird, in IZ^fi, granted it to Guido d« 
la Rupe-Ford, or Rochfurd; but ibis noblcniRii falling into dis- 
gtucf. two yenn afterwards he was deprived of his estates, aad 
banished. By Edward the I-lrst, it was iucct«sive)y bestowed on 
John dc ilurgh, Richard At Hulbrouk, and Laurence de Scaccaris. 
bhcrifTof l^skex: to the latter it was granted for a county gaol; 
and il> deinc«iH« wcrv onlered lo be ploughed and town for the 
King's (ISP. The n?xl pussessur wu Kobi-rt dc nciihall, KnU to 
whom it was granted for life, by F,dward ilic Third; from whose 
reign to that of Charles the I-'inl, it was ^ninird to various noble- 
men during life or pleasure, by successive Sovereigns. Of the lM^| 
ter Mo:iftrcli, JaTiies Hay, Earl of Carlisle, purchased the rever-^^^ 
sion to him and Jm hein far ever. It was Iheri held by Sir John 
Stanhope; and has since pasted throu^ various families, cUiefly 
by purehaM?.* ^h 

The town and suburbs of Colchester comprehend twdve poii^l 
nshcs, of which eight arc within the walls; but ftomo of tha 
churches are destroyed. The remainder, with the ruins of Si. 

John's^ 

* On* fii \\\ poitntor* wu i Mr, John MThMljr, whn bn.ughl it in the vmt 
1683, far [be purpDie of pulling it down, ind dUpoiJii|; of the mitniaU to >d< 
viAU&Ei butthii intcoiMii dcftateil by tbc*olidtiy of thelxiildlng, tndittcni^ 
of the cement. Much danKgcwta, liourcvrr, done: tnrge ijuintitiu of ibc Ra- 
man briclci wcEc taken iwiv, ind in<Mt of the fiee-itone of the door and win* 
dow caid, Biid intciior oi the aicht*. The topi of ih« tovren and walli wer> 
lorcnl dnvrn wi'h ncrewa, or blovrii up wiih gunpowder; liiil the cxpcnce of 
rficcting] ihri dtiliutiion wai to ftioF, that the idea ttai abaiidoiitd, «t ihe price 
frocuicd iu[ tlic tii.'Kfiah would noi dffny lj» dutfct. 




KBARX. 



313 



John's Alibey, S(. nutulpl'ti Pttory, ami ike Mool-IItll, comtitaie 
Uiechiofuf (lieaitCM-[it uml |iul>l:cbiiililin;;ii. St. Joiim'ii Abbey, 
so callnl iVom Its tlvdicitlivii to ^1. Juliu-lia^liitt, V'u a very mag- 
DificentstructuFe, foumlvd by Kudo IHfHfcr, in Itic^ea/ iO^*' It 
ornipied u plenwnt viniiienco without the walls, on iltc anath cirle 
of llic lotTtt; but only ilie rnlrnocc gaiemi)), and >otiic frugoivnts 
of the other parts of the huiMiitg, are Tcmuibiitg. On >omi- por* 
liuii of il-t iltc, a vrooden Church hnd prcvtmisly stood, dnlicaied 
to St< Juhii Ibtr L^iiiii^vltft, whuK induvm'C uus rcpoiti.'i| tit havs 
performeii scvpral mintcte* rear Ibbtpol: this occshionril l^udo 
lu make choice of it lor his intetidvd fuuiidaiiun. When the 
buildings were sufliriciitl)' cnmplcted, he procured two Benctiictiiie 
Monks from Rochracrr, tn resiite in it; but thry, becoming diuji.. 
tiaficd with their treatment, relumed, imd ihcir places wrre mp. 
plied by tno others, who, like the former, were not contt-m tvjth 
the tmall enduwinenis granted by Eudo, and soun Hcnl back lo 
their brethren at Rochater. The caie of tlie fiiuiitlHtiun was ihcn 
committed to Stephen, the lint Abbot uf St. ]Mar)-'s, Vnrk, who 
placed in it a Provuet and iweUe JMonlu; and the furiheranre of 
ihe btiilding being refi^rred to William, a Priest, and nephew to 
£udo, wbo spared neither uitciidoii, norexpence, the Abbey vrai 
completed in a superb style ly the commcncenient of the year 
I lO-t, wheci it was consecrated by Maurice, B>»bup of London. 
At the same periii'l. it «ii* liberally ctidowci'I by the founder, and 
other devout p4-titoii:>; iind lluj^o, one gl' tlic Mu»ks, was appoint- 
ed Abbot. Eudo. who died at his Caulo uf Preuux, in NormaiH 
dy« was, at bis own d»Jre, brought to Liij;I&nd, mid huriol here 
in Tchruary, IVHJ. Many other omineut persons arc supposed, 
by llruwnc WiUi<», to liiire been inlerrud here.* 

This Ahl>ey ronliiiiied in a very tluuri>]iiii^ ttnte till the time of 
the Dissolution, the Abbot having the piivilcge of vilting m Par- 
liament; and the foundniion itself posseuiitg the tunic privileges 
as "Si. Peter's, Westminster. At the Suppression, ib annuni rc- 
fCAues neic, according to Dugdale, atijiialcd at 5231. I7s. lOd. 

but 



> View of the Miucil Abbcji. 



»1« 



ESAtX» 



tnt tliis sum » t1iotij>(it lo Itsvc breii far below tlie actufti proilucf. 
John Bvchc, the latt Abbot, Tna nitaihted of Itigti Irnsoit, for 
Tvlwing lo acknovilnJge the Kind's suprcinocy, und on I>eccmber 
Ibr first, 1539i was lunged " upon tlio same gatlo«-9 which tfao 
/bbots of St. .I'jhn hftd gninird ihf Bur^c^scs of Colchcsitr librr* 
ly la erct-i in iht- manor of Gre^^nstoad." Henry the Eiglith, m 
15*4, gnuited lli« site of the Moimstety lo Sir TliomM l>*Atry, 
iKntght, for tu<>nty-on« ycnr^; nnd bdwxrH, hi« *ucc«^«nr, io 
15+7, gninled the reversion to Dudley, liarl ffl" Warwick, flora 
whom it pasM^ lo Jolin Lucas, Towu-Clvrk of Colchester, ind 
Muster of Ite{|URit» to the Kino. 'ji,ig gL-nili'mun ronverird the 
Abbey into a fumily xat, a cireumstancc that greatly conlributed 
M its d«9tnictii>n, as ^ohit. Lord Lucai, his drsrendant, elder 
brother of Sir Charles Lucas, aui^trd ih« Royaliali dtirrng tha 
ficge of Colclitaier, otmI having Rdrtiitled a j^iirrtsoo, his hotlM 
vaa stormed on the fourteenth uf .)uly, i6iS, aiid a coinid«nibl< 
^n Of it battered dnn-n. At that liiiM?, it iiii[>Fars to have con- 
•isted of the entmnce gntc^ray, rtnd fno rjundrangnlur ptles of 
-liBilding, inclosing courts. The garden walls, which still leirtain, 
IdcUuIc between thirteen and fbnrtrrn acres. The Oa/eiMy' tS 
built wilh hewn stone and flint; ibe woriimnnthip b very neait 
The Abbey Church xrm a Bingular building; hnving a tower in the 
centre, with circular angle*, terminated by siniiU conical spirn: 
the west front, alsu, vrus Airni^lvnl l^ith circular turrets.t St.. 
Jobn'fc Abbc)' haij the privilege of saiiciunry. 

Near tlic nonh-wcst comer of St. John's pirden, Is 5/. CiU-$'t 
Chnrrh, a small building;, partly in ruins, of which the chancc^j 
imly is now t^ed for divine service. 'J his wtu ihc burial*place ofl 
the Lucas family, several of whom arc comnicnK^raled by inscrip*^ 
&•;(». Here al»o, ^ith hit Iclloi* sufferer !5ir Charles Lucas, wai | 

interred 

* Trom tbe iTchitertnTQ of llru itmctare, it may be uppaied of btcv i 
tion tKin t)ie Mhct paiu il ttic AM^; probably tawiidi dw <ad uf Uic twti 
UDUry, or k|iiMii)g at itc tliitiecniht ut vipicut is chU Valomo. 



^ A ddwtnj of thri iinxiuTf, in the CoCtooiM Libnry, Nero, VIII. ij. 
hu been cognved for MamH'i Euca. 



9I« 



ess EX. 



but this sum is tliongitt to ha« hi'en far below the actunl proilacr. 
John hcchc, th(^ lust Abbot, was nttninM of high tmison, ^r 
rBfui>iDfi to acknowledge the King's supromncy, and on December 
Mie fint, 1589, »>u hanged " upon the SAffle gatlows which the 
Abbots of St. J'^lin lind granted the B:irge;3C5 of Colchester liber- 
ty to erect in the manor of Urcenitcud." Henry tht Eiglith, in 
13»4, granted the mIc of the MonaslcT)- to Sir Thnmns D'Arcy, 
Knight, for ivrenly-one yeiin; iind Bdwnrd, ha successor, in 
15*7, granted llic rcrcrsion lo Du<lU*y, Earl fl Warwick, from 
titiom it passed to John Lmc&s, Tuwn-Clcrk of Colchester, amt 
MA»lcr of Ke(]itcil* (« llie Kin;*. Tlii* gt-nileman converted the 
Abbey into a fiimily wnt, a circumstance that greiilly conlribaied 
to its de»iriiciion, as John, Lord Lucks his descendant, elder 
bmiher of Sir Charles Lucas, ossiMed the Royattsts during tits 
airge nf Co)cti<»«ier, find hnvin" ndmilled a garniuin, his hoDHt 
Wfts rtnrmed nn ihe fourteenth of .liily, I(i48, and a cowideniMe 
part of it battered down. At that time, it appears to b«ve con- 
utied of the entrance gale\TRy, and t«ro quadmngulur |ntes of 
tiuililiiig, iiicloiing courts. The garden walh, which still leiiiain, 
incUiiic between thirteen and fourlren acres. Tlie Gtr/nrfjy* Is 
built with he\«n stone and flint; the workmtinship is very neat. 
The Abbey Church wm ii »ingulnr building; having a tower in the 
centre, with cittulur angle*, tennitmtcd by smnll conicftl spirt* : 
tbc west ffont, al»u, niu furn)>l>rHl ^\)tb cii'cular turtcU.! St, 
John's Abbey bad the pn«ilogc of «iiicIubi^'. 

Near llie norlh-west comer <jf St. John's garden, is Si. Cih^t 
Cknreh, a small building, parity m ruins, ul which (he chaiKvl 
only >■ HOW B^ed for divine service. This wha the burial-place of 
the Lucas family, sevenil of whom arc commcmomied by inscrip- 
tion. >Ierc al»o, nvith his fi'Ilow sitlCrrer &ir Charles Lucns, wui 

intiTfcit 

* Tfom tttcaicliiiKinnof itiBitrui:iiire, ii may be lappoaed of liter (itc- 
bon than Khc oihtr pa4U ut llic Atibry ; probibly loo iids Uic cod ul tlic twclfUl 
ceiuury, Ul begiiiniKgoriU OiiilMUtlij Me vtgnclte lo iliit V<ilu>l}c; 



■) A dnwinj of itiii ilruciuTc, in the Cn(lanl*n Library, Ncto. VIII, 13, 
hi* lic«tt engraved for MarantS Eurx. 







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ES5ES, 



515 



lnl«rreil the nmnins or Sir George Ua]e ; the £»(c of these lEnicut- 
ti Mends is thus recorded: 



I 



Or me two HO»i valiamt CftrrAivi 

$*. CdAKLtt LvCAl, AKD S". GlOKCt Lt«LC, KhII, 

Who roK Tirfi* cmihsnt Ldtaltt 

To Ttltll SovllAIM, 

Wttt DM THt tS*. Dat or AvcviT, t648t 
Bt thi^ Comkaki o> S*. Thu. FAriFAx, 

TulM ClNSHAl. or THI PARLIAUIMT ArHVi 
|M COLB BlOVB lAllAXOVlLV MvKOIIttS.* 

It n sTinrt ifkiann?, nortli-east from St. John's, are ibe remairtf 
ef St. HoToLni's Pxtonr, uhich, like the former, *otv«s iti 
plrinripfl) demolition to Ihc ijoge in 15-18. lliii Mrticture is gnx^ 
rally reported to have Ijeci) t'nuiidtd hy a inotik nnmml £ynul|ib, 
or Emu)[lli, in the tkrginutiig ar the tM>cI(lli ciiitur^'; though 
iOme portion of the ruins <ceins to imply a inut-h snierittr dnte. 
Efflolph bccjimp the fiR^t Prii>r, and plnc<?d on his foundation, rt- 
golw Canons of the order of St. Augii^tine. Tliis was the carlicil 
cstBbtislinient «f Ifah order in Knglnnd^ as apjicars fVoiu a bull i^ 
vatA by Pope Ptwrhal II. in August Itlfi. By this bull, Er- 
ntjiph, his brethn-n, «4id incceMofj, were invested with IlhcHy to 
plant and (listributo ihnr nit'mWi't as they jud^t-^l expedient; and 
cApaweml to govern all olbciv by their own rules, tiaungfull 
authoHiy over ercry oilier cicahlifliineni Ibr Augustine Canons in 

linghnd. 

* Tbnc ItOtti Ke c ut vrry Jerp itiio ib« maiblc : aocoidins to (riditign, thii 
%na dau by the comnuil of Chirlci the Sceood, tram the followiR^ ciirura* 
Kiac>. Ciotg.- VillHi), Duke of l)u<kiii^h«in, whn luil miiii^ the ooljr 
dnshui af C<Tict3l Fiirfix, ipplicd lo ibc King for p«iiniuion to Itan It 
etatcil, u it rdl<rcttd on tlic memory uF !>>> fuh<r-iii-ltw. Tht King rm-ntion- 
td the T<t]um to Lord Litnt. whn reptted, that, he would mdily in^d^ to 
(lb Kijmy'i wlih, provided he wduIiI permli liiiti lo inten in iti rooiiit 
* tbH Sit CIttilei LuCH, ind Sir Rmicc Liilf, wcic tMtbaioutly murietti («( 
their loyally lo Cluil'i lli* Fitit, aod ili*t hit vtn, CImiIh the Stcaad, ordeicd 
dill neSWriil o{ iSeit Inythy lo b« ciaMil.' TNb K>r%, UrucL w'>lh (hp u1>* 
Mivitiom, it M>d (o luve iuimfdialrly ordered the Inicn of ibc oiijtn*! id- 
Ktiptlon to be cogiavcR M deep m ptuiliJe< 




31C 



E«»t3C. 



Eo^aod. It tke«rM exempted Uiem (torn every lubJ of wcular 
mud vcctniaitirul juriulictiaD; kdiI directed tliat, after the dmtti 
of Eruulpb, tiie >uccredipg Prion should be elected b^ tbc Caauts, 
•nd couecrated vritbuat fen. The potsetiioos bestowed by the 
foandcr, und otber bene&ctont, were incteesed by Henry iho 
Fint, who granted the CatKini ihc whole tyihes of his demesnes in 
IWfirld Rcgo, or Broad-Oak ; and CiKifinned the fergeftntiy, and 
Uodll prm by Hugh Kit2>Sle[-,hcn, on coodilitm Ihat oa e^cry 
Webb war, they tbould fiiid a horM of five sbillingB vhIuc, a tack, 
and a Ipar. for the King'b me, (or katy day». Tbe rerenoei 
were iliU further augmented by tbHous doi»tjon»; and at the pe* 
riod of ihe Dilution, tJieir annual amount was estimated ac 
lU4l. l.'Is. 4d.* The MIC and posaesMOm uf the Pnory were 
giaoled by Henry the Eighth, to the Lord Chancellor Audlc^, 
but have sinre (HUMd into various fiimilics. 

Very little of the monastic buildings run now be discorered, the 
ptrtj liial rcainia having bct-u worked u[> in ihc walU of a brew- 
house, en-ctcd on their site. The Priobv Cuurcu continued 
perfect till die time of lite uege. it having been parochial as well 
as coQi'ciitual: it was iben in a "rest measore destroyed. Hie 
cotitcndiitg pnitics accuse each other of having wantonly occa- 
aioocd il& dcinulititin. Jls ruii» arc exttcnicly interesting to 
the architectural anuqu&ry, fruni presenting some curious speci- 
mens of brick oniaiiieDts, and of intrrlaced atchcs, from which 
the idea ol the pointed arch 15 ihouglu by some to have been con- 
ceived. Ill its original state, tbv length of th» edifice within the 
waits, was lOS feet; its brcadlh, including the nave and aisles, 
nearly fony-l'our feci. The wr»i front was highly d«Mrated: on 
this aide was the principiil enimnce, which Mill remains. The 
doorway is a 6dc> srmicircular retiring arch, having various mottld- 
ings constructed uiih small, ihiii bricks, and hewn stone, in al- 
lornalc fcucccuiun. 'I'he tnuuldingb restua lhrec-()uartcr columns, 
of which there were five on chcIi miIp, cHch having differeiil 
capitals, charged with $culpiurcd foliage, and figures of ani- 
mali. Abov^ the door-wiiy is a double row of intcriaced circular 

arche« 
• Pu. as, Ikn. VHl. 4. ,-. 186. 



MSEX. 



air 



I 



I 




I 



I 



I 



nrches of Roman brick, wliidi appear to have cxtciitied to Fsrh 
rxtremjty of ihe front, Abnw ihcsc arrliM, near ihr a*ntre, are 
the remiiini of a lar^ circular r>pcnii)g, which Remitted light into 
1 gallery that f(irm<il a passage Uetwwn two " stately t<.(trcn." that 
onco siood at the an^lef of this end of the l^iiilding. Tbc narc was 
separated from the aides by nnvs of circular columns, five fret and 
■ half in dtamctcr, sujiporting Mini-circulur arches. On llic iiurtli 
aide six of these columns, with their arches, arc }*et standing : but 
on the south, two nnly now remain. Both the cnliimns and arches 
arc principally built with broken Roman brick»r and apprnr to 
ha«c b««n coTered with a kind of stucco. The north aisle teems 
to have been altrml, the windows being Hmshcd in the pointed 
Myle. Several lomb^ and broken «toiitu, are scattered among the 
.Mes that nre cultivHted in the inside; the «hi^lc area being 
appropriatctl a> it garden. 

At some diMancc to the east of St. Rotolph's. is Sf. Mtwy Mag* 
daltRa H(ajnlal, oiii^iniilly founded by Kudo Dapifer, in the reign 
of Henry the T'\r>l, for pci'tons afflicted with (tic leproiy. The 
en«lowiiiont was augmented by Kin" Stepheu; and Richard the 
Fint granted the brethren liberty to hold a two-d«y« fair. In the 
rrign of Edward the First, the tylhes of St. John's Abbey, and 
other retenuo belonging to ihh Hospital, were withhi-rd by Adam 
de Cempes, then Abbot ttf Si. John'ii; wlio alsin rraflily ohtainAl 
poasessionof the common seal, and chnrler, and expellrdlhrt bre- 
ibren; who, however, wore reinstated, and had their privileges 
rwtnred, by order of ParliamenL After the supprruiim of this 
Hospital, in the reign of I-'dwaril Ihe Sixth, its posir-iiom were 
much dinipated, and the Chapel entirely destroyed; hut in llie 
year 16IO, it was re-founded, fur a Master, and five poor Pen- 
.sionew, unmnrrted, under the title of the College or Mmpiial of 
King Jamc5. and ihc brethren were incorporated. What is now 
<«lled the Hospital, consi*>tt uf n few old biii1din;rs, on the north 
of Majidulcn Church. In the church of St. I^eoikaild, which is 
still further to the east, and not very distant from the riter, trere 
formerly two Chanlne*: one of them was founded in the reipn of 
Edward the Fourth, by Peter RanAick. and on ch« Suppreseiou, 

A valued 





4i« 



BKI&X. 



ivaluol Rt III. Ss. 4i]. unna^lly: Ilie otljrr wa^ ruHmlodbyEdwai^il 
llsnnaniicii, ubuut tUv bcgiiming of ibe irign uf lleury Ibe 
tcnib; ilE potseeuum U ilic l}tit»o)uttuii wen: aMimuicd lU. 5L 

On tite tntilb-wnt ^de nf Cuk'tinlrr, in Si. Mary's Psriah, wpi 
» Kfonutery of l-'ivKcW /VtATf, lbuii<Jttl about (tic y«ar IM4, 
wben Ui»t order ftnl t^mv ioip EngUnd. It vfKTv-iird) umlorwiTil 
scwral aiicraiioni; ADd. in n07> becaro* tbc teat of the hcli 
Guild of &. lU'lui. with whose poweuiooa Tuur Clumria i>9la- 
blisfand hrni utjd in iIk' Cliardi uf i>l. NichuJiu, were incurpo- 
ntcd. Soon after tbc iiiufdubun, its revenues ivcrc granted ta 
fiir 'HuMnos Audlc}', I^rd ChanrrJInr. In 1637, ibe munuUc 
buildings Imviiig been convi>rtrd into a dwdli^ig-lMwe, vere iiiha» 
bitvd by Sir lUrboUltiGriinstwi; but were partly destroyed diutog 
Ibe BiPglb 'I'bf reoiitiiK viern litccd up as a workliguac, but hft¥* 
■iure been entirely tnkcn dpwn. 

The most coDsidcmble Church vrjthin the vullo, is dedicated to 
St^JoMtt, and appears to have been founded ;ibout the rcigii of 
]vlw*rd the Second, It comics of a body, cba.ncc), and sida 
•Biie*, «ith a •'fuw« tow«r at the wnt end. In the south aj»lc : 
a monunient t^ Arthur Wintk-y, Cu). MAttviMti cf the town,' 
who fbunJcd Alms-bouKs fur tvrclre poor pcnan« in St. Bo* 
twlpb's parish. AH Saiiitt CiitixA was built before ifae year I356t 
ilie wwcr in nioktly of J)int> having only a louill <^uaatiiy of ttoiic- 
work at the angles, Naur tbe cost gntc, in liiis itnrisb, was *. 
riltii)9»tery of Orey Pnarf, founded in the yiitr ISO*), by Bob«rtr 
IjoiA ritz-WaJicr, who, a »h<^rt litnc brfoi-e his decease, in I38fi, 
ic recorded to have auuinej tbc habit of this ord»-. Only some 
fragments of tbit house remain, and thoac arc incorporated with 
oilier huildiii^s, ^7. Nivfu/i'ts CLuni it partly m riiiiui, the towor 
liaring ieilca upon the bixly and chaciLcl a few yean a^jo, vbile 
ihc «urk(u«n, who hiul hivii cuiiploy«d to repair it, were absent. 
Ill tbis paiith stand* llie Chapri of Si. Jifim, » naotcd from its 
dedication to llcluis, tlif mother ofC^iKtaniine; and txaditionalty 
assorted to have been founded by bcr. Eudo, founder of St. 
Joba's, rebuilt it about the year IU',6 : it it now rcftaired in tb» 
nioJcrnatjlc, and used ns a Quakers' Mecting-liouK. ItxTrimiif 

CAorcA 





EBStX, 



Sit 



CiMrci if ft moDumcnl to tltv memory of Da. William Gil- 
BVK[>, a nalivc of tbb to^vn, who vm priocipal I'liy^risji to 
Qiwcti l^Ujtabctb, luiJ Juaa the Vint: Lc wa« aiiiiiur uf au Fjuay 
on ihc Uiulstune, cnttilud De Sla^acU, and uime other works. 
St. HvinM/tl'i is a small bgilding, staiuiing in the iiiidiiie of lU« 
Uigb-btruct, wliicli, after lyinj( in rutiis nearly 100 yean, vca n> 
{wiietl «t the expcncc of the puisJiioncn, and afsajn opened fur 
divine fenico in J7^0. At h ftiintll diUuncc i)ortb-we»t ii tL* 
Mwt-liiiiL wUcre llie Courlt> are held, ami llie [tublir biuinctv 
IiBitwcud: thi> building wak ruundfid by Eudu Uapifer. Ad' 
joiiui^, ftnd partly boiiealh it, i» the 1'uwn OsuA ; tiid behind it, 
tiie Tieatrt. St, Alntini't nas founded jibuut ihc yc«r l^'ij ; thf 
Mtwer it partly coinpojcd cf rtomui brick, but is rtow ia ruin*, 
hRvtng been datoagcd iluring tho siege Si. Pctgr't was f«undcil 
previous to ibc Cunqui'i^t, and i« Uw only Church in this tova 
BKOiiowd ta tbc l^omctdvy Ikwk. In iJir ^-car 17^8* ii was rap 
irod aiul iuodcrriz9(l , and bad a new brick Luwvr mvciud tit ibv 
end : the original lon'cr stood at ihr intcncclion ol' lh« body 
And chftiiccl. Ikliiiiv the DisKilution, a duintry and a guild cx« 
in tiiis Churcb. St. Mary's sttitMls nvAr the south-west coi- 
oflhelown, in a high sJtUBiion; ijie budy of this Churcb wbi 
nbuill in the year JTlS: and in 17S9f the ancient tuni-'i wu 
beigbtiiUL-d tnvlvc Ivet, and rcjiuircd. So.iw of Ibc Houws ia 
ibis town arc of considoralilB age ; and two nncient dutos re- 
mfttD can'cd oq wood in diDcrcnt buitiUngs, which have occasioo- 
cd affvcral ditputationa antung antiquaries, as to the time whea 
Arabic numerals ttetv intioduccd into Kn^lund,* Cwlclmter is 
ne of th« tuwnt included in tliv j>iri of birlliumasWliitCit intiny 
utber charitable bt-ncfacliuns have Iwen giveu, by vHiious |Mnt>n», 
far tbe use of the poor. A Free School, and several Ckarits Sckimit, 
bare been established here for ibti cduciuioD of youtii : and vtuioiM 
Utetu>g-UiHii€i have \mxd. built for tUltercnt religious secta. 

CulchMcr 



* See Momt'i Csscx, Vol. I. p. 191. Philotofhicil Tnmnciloni, Auf. 
i€99. Biblioihcxi LtKntia, i;it, Ac. 



t See Buuiiet, Vol. I. p. 9L 



SiQ 



ESSE*. 



Colrfifflfter was in(Mrporot(>J by charter of Richard tliC Firef# 
dalcil IIS^; nnd ut tlie stirnc liinc, the Hur^^e^n wptc inmted 
with many valuable privili-^M, pHrticul&rly the exclusirc right of 
fiBhrry on the Culnr, from tlie Xnrili Bridge to WestMicsK-. These 
privil*^ have bvtn confirmcil ami rxl?nde<d by many subsequent 
KiiigH, ami )iE.rticiiIarly \>y Henry the Ftftli, Ihe Initial LcUer vf 
whoK Chnrter represents Sc Helena before the cross, findy illu- 
niiiiAtMl. 'llic last charier, and by wtiicli the town is now go^ 
vernwl, was granted by liis prcsciU Majesty ici the year I7t»i; 
Its provisions arc nearly the sitine bs thu!)c in fbrmfT charten 
granted by Charles ihc Seeond, and M'illiam tinA Mary, hut whie 
hnd b«n surrendered on differciU occftsions. The coriioralc offi-l 
ocr* consiiU of a M«yor, Recorder, Town-Clerk, twelve Alder- 
invn, eighlceti Astiiiiint*, eighteen Coinmon-Couneilnien, »nd in*; 
ferror Kfwnts. Tiie tight cil' rflurniiif; Ihn Meniln-rs to PaHiaa' 
nienl is vested in llie Cor^MjmUon and free Burgesses not receiving 
olms: the number of voieis is about 1400. The earliest rctuiUi 
WM madi? in the twenty-fifth of Edward the I'irsr. 

Colchester Iikr Iwtn a market>lown time immemortal; but this 
jiriviU'^ti' w»« cnnfirmed by llic charter nf RichHrd Ihc First. Tbki 
number of inhabitants returned under the lute act, an residing 
within the wnlls and suburbs, was lO.USj); the number of houscc«l 
I79S. A conbidemble purlion uf the trade of tliis town arises' 
from the Ot/tfer Fishery; Colchester oysiers hiving bei-n long ce- 
lehralcd fur ihelr f;aodness und flavor. The fallowing parttcolars 
relating lo this fishery, are condensed from the account published 
by Dr. Spratt, in ihe History of ihc Ilojiil Society. 

The sjiawn of the oyster, Called sfiat by the tiihemien, ia cast 
in April and Muy, and about Midsummer ami Michiieliitsx: tin 
stones, o^-stcr-shellj, pieces of wood, and other Mibstances lo 
which it cleaves at tJie bottom of the M'a, ihey call cW/i!^. The 
spat, when first cast, is like the drop of u candle, but no larger 
than a spansle: in cwenty-fuur hours after»ard*, it is conjectured 
that llic shell begins lu be formed. After the oj-eters have first 
spawned, they arc sick, but soon begin to get well, and in August 
arc pcr6;clly so: the male oyster having a black substance in the 

fin. 




SSSBX. 



321 



fin, u termed black sick ; the female having & milky subsEnnce in 
the fin, is tcrtnisl while sicl:. Wticn th« oyMen arc lakon, tlie 
uniaW brood i> kc;|>aratc(l from the cultch, which a then (hruwn In 
Bffia i but if the npnt is u) small Ihal it cannot be 9eTen!:il from 
tlie cullcb, the fishcrinon arc pciinillvd to tukc tbe latter uhh tJte 
spit. The ^pBt ami ^inall ovhUTi thus ukrn, »rc lipreitd upon 
places called bedi or lai/eit, near the edge of tlie ri%'cr, where tliry 
grow and faitcti, and in two or ihrcc years, iho scniillcst become 
oyster* of the legal wste," and am then removed fri;m ihrir lay- 
ings, or beds, into pits cut in the mar«he», where ihcy fatten fof 
tale. In some of the pits, in a few days, a green culor is com- 
municated to the lin of ihu o^-sier; and iliuujjb the method of ^v- 
ing lliis quality to (lie pit i^ krpl a eecixl, there H!cms reason to 
be1ie%-e, that it arises from snuin^ the bottom of the pit with the 
lecd of a particular vegetable, on which the oysters fcc^ as it 
iprin^ up. As the cultcb is m> very necoisary li>r the oysters to 
•put upon, it is made felony |u carry It away after the mnnlh of 
I May; and penalties arc laid by the Admiralty Court on those who 
[destroy or purloin it at any time. The penalties are, however, 
insufficient to prevent the removal of the cultch, as the fishermen 
can frci|Ucntly carry so much out of the nver covi-rcd with spat, 
I AS will enable them to di^cbar^e the liiies many limes over. 

I'liougb tlie produce of this bihery has ohtuiiwd llic general 
aamc of Colchester Oysters, yet these arcof several kimls. ThePye- 
' fleet, which i!> most in request, is a small thick oyslcr, with a deep 
dear shell. The crcelt wherein this ipecic& is found, extends from 
the river to the Strode at the entntncc ut Mersey [sliuid. 'J'he 
number of oyitcrs which arc mhIiim ul lhiscrei.-k, caniiul be very 
great, neither can the wbule imtduce ol the river, with ils vahous 
creeks, be anywJsv adcr|uale to the vast i|uaiiiitics sold under the 
denomination of Colchester Oysters. TliC great demand daily 
made for them, has obliged ihe merchants tu [irocure oy»ters from 
Alher places; these are jttrewn upon the Colchesler layings, and 
Vol. V. JirsE, isot. X when 

Tbil si<e it known frnm * usnijard icilc, or oyitcr cmc ia biau, which U 
. kept by [he Mi^iiuaict, or Wiier-BulilT. 




% 




J2J «39BX. 

when ihey hhn attained a proper degree of fatnos, are Trequeutly 
vended as (he nuturnj produce of this Gthcry.* 

Culchmter ba<i anciently the rigtit of probate and enrolling of 
wills, wbich it continiirtl to exercise till aWul iho year IsGOj 
and, nmonj; tin- privileges tlmt it etill enjoys fratn prcKriplion, is 
tJie right vested in a Frmmc-Covert, or Married Wotnan, who, if 
her estate lies in ihe town, can convey it by deed without being 
obliged to pass a fine, having previously declared her consent be- 
fore the Mayor. 

Dr. SAMfp.L Ha KB NET, who was succcHively Bitlivp of Chi- 
chester and Nunvirh, and Archbishop of York, was the son of s 
Bjker in this town, where he was born in the year 1561. At ibe 
age of fifteen, he was admitted into King'i College, Cambridge; 
but afterwards he removed (o Pembroke Hall, of ubich ho was 
elected Tvlluwiii the year 1J>A3; and, on the resignation vf Ui»hop 
Andrews, in l605, chotcn Muster. He now obtained various 
church pre&nnents; but being a favorer of the tenets of Armi- 
niunism, was accused of various 'Diisrlemranors by the Puritlia 
parly, in May, l634. He died in the year l6Sl, and was bu- 
re«I in the Church at Chiswcll, where ho had eslaUishe«l a Free- 
Scbuol. One vf bis publications wis intituled, " A Discovery of 
iho fraudutcul Practices of Jubn Daxrel, in bis Proceedings con* 
rcrniiLg the prcteniied Posession and I)i!>po<tsession of William 
Somcrs, at Nottinghum, and others: detecting, in some Son, Ihe 
deceitful 1'ra<Ie in these latter Days of ca.stinjr uu( Devils." 

MILE-KND, so named from being that diitance north from 
Coltbeslcr, i^aii cxlei»ivcpati!>h, chiefly belonging to the nurgesses 
of that town, to ubom the c&tatcaiicicnily called Kinjt's Wckod, and 
King's- WikmI Ilenlh, was granied cither by Henry the Finl, or 
the usurper Stephen, h afterwards rrveried to the Crown, but 

was 

' Tlu Xonani, obicrvu Mr. Whiukei, in liU Hirioty of Mincheilcr, fint 
Uu^t ui Ihc art of (iticning our oyMtn in luilici*] b«d( ; the fccdiaj f'ttt 
being 5iii i«wmkd »boui niivMy ytari before Chcitt, tnd ftm coniriuctc^l upon 
tlu ihore of Biix ; and rvcn u m\y u the rcign oF Vapniiin, tht BtiiiiJi cy* 
Mcr wu Attmti fatnou* tmonj the Romini, uid thought worthy to be carried 
UK9 luly. 



k 




ESSEX. 



893 



I 



I 

I 



again inrated in the Burgesses of Cuklmter by Henry llic 
Eighth. Tliis estate was uri^innlly part uf the Royal FtiiT&t, but 
the greatest portion is now culiiralrd. A tnnror in this pamh 
was passe«ecl by the Abbots of St. Osylb, iinti still retains the 
name of Abbutu' Ilnll. 'I'lic number of ihliiibilanti^, as rrtumeil 
under the late act, was 299 ■ '^i iivwm, 4-4. '\he rnami'iu inha- 
bit«] by the rector, is cliue to the CJiurch-Yard, luitl couimanda 
u fine view i>rCulctialcr. 

Wn'ENIlOE, grWiVF.NMOO, a impulous and rr^ppctable 
Tillage, about two miles soutti-enst from Colclmtcr, stnndA on tbe 
acclivity and iummit of n pleiLsanl eminence, on tLo iiorlh iUlc of 
tbe Culuc, of wbirb it comniaiidh u line prmpict down lu Mcrwy 
Island. At Uie time uf thi: Ui!iiir*d)iy Surrey, this inanvi- wa» 
possessed by llobci-t Ucrnon, and bcrume parcel of bi& barony of 
Stansted-iMontficbct. It wiis afterwards tbe properly of the Ha- 
taytcs, or Ve Ratailes ; and, in llic reign at Hfiiry the Third, 
Simon de Batailc obtained the privilege of free-warren in hit ma- 
nors of Ifynen/io, I'alciwyke, and Stislede. From tlie Itutailet it 
passed, by marriage, tlirouj^Li lLc Sution, Waltun, and llnward 
families, to John dc Venr, twelfth Earl uf Oxford, cif ibit name, 
oho havin<; espoused die lAncastrian interest, was bchL'jkdi'd In 
1-Kfl J and his estates being confiscated by Edward the Founh, 
Wivcnboe, wkh other manors, WK»;;ruiilcd by that Monarch to 
his brother, the Duke of GlouceKler, ijfl(;rwuriJ'( llicliard the 
Third. Henry the Seventh restored tho De Veres to their honors 
and iulieriiancei and ibfs manor continued in their possession till 
tbe prtKligality of Kdnard, ihr Hrvenieeiiib I'larl, occasioned it to 
be 5c4d to Roger Townacnd, Tjiq, who was lini;>iited at sea ftv his 
bravery in the engugcment wiili the Spanish iirmada. From the 
Tuwmends it pawed, by sale, about (hf pvr^ud of the Ite-Sturatiun, 
to Nichohis Corsclles, Kaij. wbwe descendants are the prcwnt 
owners. WIVENIIOK HALL is pleasantly situated norlh-»»rat 
from the village: when in possession of the Kurls of Oxford, it 
was a lan;e and elegant building, having a line tower gateway of 
cousideiable height, and serving for a sea-mark, Tlic popuktiun 

X 2 oS 




V 



J 




384 H$SE!t. 

nf Wivcniiac,* ts cnumenited uiutcr llie Iftte act» wbs 1093; the 

number of liouses 177. 

MERSEY ISLAND 

Is situated at llir conflacnco of the riven Colne anJ Black water, 
being s«pnratrd fnim thn main land by the small crock or channel 
called the Pjc-ftc«rl, where [lie licst-flavored oysters are produced. 
Its Iciiiijlh, from iiorth-caat to south-west, » about five mites; its 
greatest brca'ith about two miles. I'lie only road by wliicb it can 
be entered, is a cuu&enay called llic Strutie, a cuiitruclion frum 
L'ftt tlorte, which crosses the Py«-flect crock, and is covered by 
the sea at higji-waipr. This Island possesses many natwral bcaa- 
ti<^; is well wooded, And beautifully varied with hill and date. 
On the *ea-coast, the shore is bold and commanding ; but on tlto 
north, it is flat and shelving, and atiiirted Xiy a great extent of salt 
iDar:»h». The soil in the higher parl«, consists of a dark'colored 
friable mouldy with a «indy or gravelly loam beucBth, and a dcfp 
hnzel-cotorcd strong earth on & brown tender clay. The embank- 
ed raarsheit, and heavy high-lands, have bccti much improved br 
the application of chalk, in the proportion of about eight lo«di 
per acre. Tlu" fnrm» are sepanited from each other by thick 
hedge-rows, but the inclosed fields are generally small. The ave- 
rage produce of barley and uals, is about forty bu^ds an acre; 
of beana, ihiiiy-lwo bu&hels; and of wheat, Iwcnry-elght busbeli 
an acre. The inhabitants arc supplied with excellent water from 
various springs. 

This Island was unqnentionably known to the Romans, as nu- 
merous TciseVtittd Pa~ani:nis, and other antiquities belonging to 
thai people, have been discovered here: an eminence on the roud 
to Colchester has also the name of Roman Hill. Dr. Cromwell 

Mortimer, 

• Thefotlowinseuitom, inciencly obiervcil in the ntnioi of Wrvcalioe, is 
mencioacd by Mi>r«nt, " Rii:. Burrc Unet unum Mctuigitm . . . Lt debet ut. 
Ii^aiii, icclim curie, et McriAtl hoc modu [ quod li Mitiiirc volueilt liliini 
tujm cum quodun llbero lionnne extra villini, hc'H purm iota'na pro mirl* 
tififf. £t u MB miriuvctic slical cuitanurio villi, oshil dabit pro Uaritigio* 
Ixinu iUMtii^ HioaiJu, 131)1 Ed. II. a iS D«. 40 Ed. HI. 





essBx. 



Mortimer, SrrrclDiy lo the Royal Sarirly, who first ptrf a pvrtU 
calar description of the pavements, tu^ipoaes, from their number 
aD<) divcr&ity, that some Roman Prtr/or had a vUk on the spot 
wbere tliey were found. The Count of the Sax/m Short is also snid, 
by Moraot, to liave certainly hnci liis residence here. During the 
in^i-afiions of the Danes, tliiti vras fru<]U(MilIy the landing-place and 
retreat of their ferncious bands; and the Great Alfred is recorded 
to have beueged n large pArty of ihcm for some licne on this Island 
in the year 89* : several tumuli remain in diflerent parts. 

Tim Island is divided into tuo parishes, named, frnin thrir ni- 
ipectivc silualiwn*, West-Mersey, and EAST-^[aaB£V. Great 
part of West-Mersey was given, by Edward the Confessor, to the 
Priory of St. Audoen at Jlouen, in Nurmatnly; and a Mil of Be- 
nedictine monks bclon^ng to that House was soon aftenvardi 
founded herr; but on the suppression of the alien priories, 11 was 
granted, by Henry the Fifth, to Archbishop Cliichelcy, who src- 
tled it on the collegiate Church wbicli he had preoioinly founded 
at High nm- Ferrers, in Nurthamplunbhirc. On the DJssoluiion, 
in the reign of Henry the Eighth, ihe manor of West-Mcrscy, and 
other Mtatcs, were granted in capiie to Robert D' Acres; but were 
afterwards given, by Edvrnrd the Sixth, to Thomas I,ord D'Arcy, 
of Chicii, in nii»kiii)» some alterations at Wwit-MiTK-y Hall, 
ivhich Mands near the Church, about the year 1730, the trork- 
men discovered a very line Teuttlattd Pavetaent, extending twen- 
ty-one feet and a half in length, and eighteen and a hulf in 
breadth. This was iusptTtvil by Dr. Mortimer, who found it 
composed of various colored tesscrs;, about half an inch, ,and three 
quarters of an inch square. From the parts that were uncovered, 
it appeared, that at each angle within the borders, were red and 
blue wreaths interwoven ; next to thero, on the north and south 
sides, were Bijuare white spaces, burdcri-d with black, with a rose 
in each, khuded with red, yellow, and wiule. Un llic ea&t and 
west sides were similar spaces, bordered with fret-work, variously 
shaded, and each containing a wreath of ivy li*«ve.s. Witliiu thesa 
^>aces was a large square, funning the middle of the pavemont, 
I bounded on the south and cast by rows of diamonds or ioxctiges, 
■ XS t^•^lvcl 



I 
I 



i 



S26 



lltSCX. 



I 



twolw iiicliffs in diameter, bordered with white, rach rontainin|;a 
knot or wreath crnming at right nngles, and Mllemalely compnaed, 
one of black, blue, mid vVue (e^erae; the otlicr of red, yellow, 
And nfaite: the mtermcdiate spaces were triBnguUr, Kod were 
again sutxlivided into trixngles of various colors. The centre «us 
lillcci upuiih difTcrciit »|uuie«, ronliiiuing WTeiLtliii and ruwLcioux 
flowers. Part of this pavement extended into ibc ChuTch-Y'ard, 
which is os!>crted, on pnod authority, in cniitajn a diver&ity of 
these pavements lying contigiiouH to each other, and extending 
nearly 100 feet from cast to west, and about fifty from north to 
■oull). A pavement of red teMera^, each an inch and a tt»i*f 
Mjuurc, luid disposed in the form of stnr-like myt, was also fiMiDd 
in tfae chancel, together with two ancient brass coins. Other an- 
tiquities have been met witli in ihc adjacent lands, porticitlarly 
buckles, hasps and Kli//i. A brass ring, five inches in diatnetcr, 
pierced u-iih smniL hides, suppisrd to ha\T been the rim of a fbi- 
rfuforV or Slingcr's bug, has also been found hero; together with 
various Roman ralmt, some of which are preHT*«d in the BritlA 
Museum. 'i'Lc lower of fcjiat- Mersey Church »ene» as a sea- 
mnrlt, aiid had furmctly a beacon on its buiiimit. Ihc number 
of inhabicnnts in both parihhes, as returned under the population 
act, was8iK>: ofhnuses, 154. 

SV. OSVTII, anciently called Cite, and Chich, deriva its pn- 
eent name from Saint 0»yth, i1nuf;hCiT of lli-doald,* King of £«t 
Anglia, and virgiii-wifo to Si^Iiere, a C'bnstiau King of th« Vstt 
SoxuM. She was bom at Quurcndon, in Buckinghamshire, and, 
aeimrding to [he monkish ]e<jL'nd&, made a vow of virginity at an 
enrly age; but was compelled, by her father, to marry. The 
marrisge, however, was never cnn^ummnled ; for, in the nbaenc* 
of her husband, shi> assumed the veil; and hatint^ afterwurda 
obtained his consent to the rullilmenl ot her vow, (>hc retired to 
Chich, and founded a t'burch and Nunnery. This establish- 
ment was plundered and desiruyrd I'y the; Danes, under In^;tiar 
and Hubba; and the royal foundress herself beheaded near an ad* 
jaccm fountain. Her remains were first imcrreii brtor* the door 

o£ 

* Ul. Ae Script. BitL 





I 



of Iicr Ctiurcli, but afttrwartU removed to Aylobury, where nmny 
miracles arv lubled (o have been wrouglil lliruugli Ler iiikTccssion.* 
After llio DeUHTt IimJ otttamed ri>ga[ duiiiuinliun in Englaixt, 
Cbich St. Osj'th was given, by King C«t)u[«, to Earl Godwin, 
Ihc cclcbnilcd Earl uf Kcnl, w!io gnuitt'il it In ^'l.ri>l Cliurcli, 
Canterbury; yet at tlic lime of the Dunrndny Surrey, it belonged 
lo llic Sft of London, About the j'enr Ilia, Richard de Url- 
inci», DiUiop of l^ndon, c^tnLlUliOil a I'rinrj- for Autliu Canons, 
on liie supposed »itc of iht.' nunnrry trcctcd by St. Os^th, lo whuiq, 
in cotij unction with St. Peter, and St. Paul, tlic new fuuiidatioo 
was ilctlicutL'd. The pot^ts^ons of ibi^ Priory were grcnily in* 
cresard by difTcietit Ictiuturiors^ and at ibc period of tlic lJiaM>- 
luUoD, its revenues, according lo Spcnl. were valued Rt 7581. 5».«d, 
per annum. A I'rior, an AblioC, uml ctglitcctiCununs, were ilicii 
*u|>[>ortcd on ihe rouiidBliuii. 1 tic titer of iLe Priory, and variouf 
manors belonging to it, were boon afltruards granted to Thomat 
Lord CromvLcll, on wUoiic attainder liicy reverted lo the Ciuwn. 
Edward llic Sixlli rc-grunlcd Chich St. Osjtli, find other manors, 
to Thomas Lord b'Arcy. Elizabclh, clJost dnugliicr uf the IsMt 
Lord D'Aicy, married SirlhomasSkvage, afterwards Earl Rivers, 
wboM! family cuiilinued possessun till tlic Ex'gitmiKg of I be eighteen th 
century, when ibvse Citaics were bequeathed, by iLeliuii. Iticliard 
Savirge, lo lks!>y, his nalural cLuugliier, who niitiiied Frederic 
Zulcistein dc Nflssiiu, F^nrl of Uocliford, 

llic Tcmaicis of Bishop dc Ikliuei^' fuiitidaiion is now ibv seat of 
F. Nmmu, Esq. of tUc family of the late ** iVrl of Hochford, whoev 
gnuulfalher, by marriage, acquirt^d tlir c^state of llic Lords D'Aicy 
of Cbich. The quadrangle is almost entire, except part uf lbs 
nonhsidr, occupied by some modern npanineiits Ihe entraticc 
is by a bcautifiil gateway of hewn stone, with Itint, batinyr m-o 
towers, iind two poNlcnis: the sChIjIca ^iid officc» ihiit foini the 
east and west sides of the court have great martu of antiquity, et>pc- 
ciatly the former: to the eiist are three towers, one largvr atHl 
loftier than the rest, comruandiiig an cMviwive prosprct. Among 
ttie ivy-grown ruias in the gardens tt a piur, with iliia modern ia- 
■ tcriprion, expressing ihc ancient magnificciice-ol the place : 

^^^ , * &te Bioatiei, VoL I. p. ^. 



1 



33S 



ZlSftX. 



V«(ui b«e ~ I 

qu)Tn cttait macsiit* , 

coiuervBU t*t 
lA Ai>£ustiniini ctrnoblt , 

liniiin daisiiandot. 
• Tu veto 

int«t buJHi loci •numiuUi 
I gritLtluc 

alilcgau ]»n itl* lupemiiiOM 

qUK 

Domleilium tim inpribma 

ScpiiiiEi caQiecnvil 

« 

SocoidiK 

A. D. CI31DCCE.X.*" 

In llie Church at St. Osyilif an- s^-vcral dpraccd montiments to 
the memory of the Lords U'Arcy, and olliets of the siunc family^ 
(hat were buried Iiero; pailiculurly Thomas, Lord D'Arry, Mvbo 
hud Hpveral considrrablc vrnptoymi'tiis uridcr Mpniy ihe Eighth 
and Edward the i^ixtli, and \vn% crcnird Knight of the Garter ia 
the year 1551. Biiliop Brlmeis the founder of the Priorj", was 
b]so interred in (his churcU in 1137, by dcMre of the caiiutK. Ilx 
|>opii1ation of this parish, as returned in 1801, was ll68; the 
number of houses 2l!7. 

THORPE, KIRKBY, and WALTON, arc three contiguoui 
parishes norih-past froin St. Osyth, which compose a di&trict g*- 
ner»liy called llie Sokeia; a namr di-iivcd from ihe Saxon Soc, or 
SocOf gignifyinjj ttnniunity, peculiar priviti-gr, and jurisdiction. 
The customs with respect to laiid arc still particular. The laodi 

•re 



>^ 




* Goufb't Additi'onttD Camden, Vol. H. p. ^ 

+ Tlie diiOn(;uU^il ctlebiily of iliSi Stinr, mty b« Ken by ibe followiaf 
Mtriafrom N«svcauR'> RcperuriuTTi, Vol. It. p, 4^. "Richard, Biihop 
d London, founder hcicof, cauKil the arai nf it, Otjti to be Irintlaled to the 
ChuTcli o( St. Paul with gicac wkmntty, in the pmcnG« of 'William CorbcU, 
01 D« Cotbvill, itic Cm Priur of (hii Uoufc. Atchb. of Cut. *ad olhct 
Biilxipti ttmiltin; x> dayt penance to ill that came to wofahip it i tai leltx- 
;.t- •"trt yeu v<i dtfi pcnincc, to all that ihould devoutly cotoc hither M 
n foiivi 



valfc^^ 




I 



I 



ESSRX. 

Are mostly copyhold, hut nrflrly equal to frcehnlHs. The tenants 
pay twdvrpi^nce on acre for a 6nc, and tmi ihitlings for n colisge. 
*' Thry may pull their houses clown without n license; cut down 
ihdr smuU free*; grant a lease, even tor fifty years; and, in^c«il, 
do most things conlru-y tu Ihecuwom of other copyholds."* 'ITie 
Lord of these tlirru maiion, which p«sw>d with Si. O&ylh, from 
Thomas, Lord D'Arry, lo the Earl of Koclifurd, '* styles himself 
Lordof the Ubcriy, Franchisw, Dominion, nnd peculiar Juris- 
diction, of the Sukcns, in the County of Essex: and appoints a 
Commissan.-, wlio lHk« the title of ODicial-ptiiiciiial, and Vicar- 
general, in Spiritual Causes to the same Lord. This Commissary 
keeps a court at Thurjie every three weeks, a» ucca-Mon sen-es, 
utd proves wills and tesiaments within the Sokcns, which wills are 
kept In tlic church of Thorpe, The Lord of the Sokens halh also 
this peculiar privilege, thtit no bailiff ran arrest williin them but 
his own. ''t 

Tliis district wus gruntfd to the cathedral of Si. Paul, by King 
Alhehtan, licfnrc llir; ypiir 941, under xhi^ natnn oC Efiduffes-naa; 
from Eadtt/f', a Saxon Thane; unci the promontory ut Walton, 
railed the nasc, or nfit, which juts northward into the ocean. This 
promontory forniedy (rxti^itded much further to the emC, but hits 
been greatly cncrouclied upon by the sea ; and the ruins of build- 
ings have been di&coicred under the water bI a considerable di^ 
lance, ponicularly on a shoal, called il'eat'lioeis, nearly five 
miles from the shore, which is left dry during grpal ebbs. The 
spot where the ruins are found, is dialinguished by the appellation 
of the ToKti. The wall thrown up tu keep out the sea, gave name 
lo Wnllun [larish ; within which is a Light-Ilouu of brick, eighty 
iret high, erected by llic M«!»ler, &c. ol llie Timity-llouse. 

Between tlie pillars of llic south uiale in tlie Chuith ut Thorpe, 
h the llgure of a Knight cross-legged, appaa-ntiy of the age of 
Henry the Third, or l->Jward the Fint. On his left arm is a 
shield ; bis head rests upon a cushion, and his feel on a lion 
CWtchaol : above is a ilticid of arms, said to be those of Salbcrghc. 

'I'liii 



» Monne, VoL I. p. \9\. + tbid, 




1 



332 



KS&BX. 



prinripal buildiogi arc tlie Toati'Hall and Gaol: the Seioo!- 
Jloiue, and the Catloia-Hotiie: (he furmcr was irbuilt abont forty 
yetn ago. 

The iDhabitanta nf Ilarwich ure cbicBy supported by thip- 
liuilding, and Tarious rufirilime eiii[iluyme[iU, The yard for 
"building ami trpiiiring chips is wry cuiivcniviil, and furnishei) with 
the n«ces»U7 Htore- houses, launches, &c. Here several third 
ntn have been built, brstdn other large vrtncls of conudcrable 
biirtlien, Tlie Lnrbonr ii dei^ and spacious, and the anchorage 
good. Upwards of 100 sail of men of war, witli frifrittcs, and be- 
tween $00 and •lOO colliers, ace recorded to have been riding here 
«t one time witlioul endangering each other.* For the safe gui- 
dance of vessels into the harbour, ai.r^Af-//ou«e has been erected 
on a hill hrlow the town. 

Many smacks belonging to this town are employed in ihc North- 
Sea fishery; their burthen lias been rulculaled to amount to more 
thtin 3000 Ions, and the number of seamen they employ to abuut 
500. Ill addition to the advaiKiiges aritiing from this source of 
trade, the inhnbitunts derive confjidcrable profit, pariiculnrly in 
limes of pence, from the mutiitudc of passengers that slop here on 
their way to and from llollnnd and (iermany, this being the stA> 
tion of the packets bclwcou those countries and England, llar- 
Vriehwasthe usual place of rmbarkation nnd landing oMVilliam the 
Third, and the Gtorijes, Unit and ISecond, on their ref)>ective 
Journics to the Continent, and return to Great Britain. Her pre- 
sent Majesty also landed here on bcr first entrance into thii 
kingdom. 

During the proper season, Harwich is visited by much compa- 
ny, who flock hither for the purpose of sea-bathing. The accom* 
modalinm are respectable, tbougii not equal to tho»e at the more 
faahiuimbk- pluu-s of resort, lialbing machines have been intro- 
duced within these few years; and arc more used, bccauEV it is the 
mode, than from uecc»ily, as tlie private baths are very neat and 
coDTciiient. These stand in a large reservoir of sca-noter, which 

is 



* Xott ihiough Creit Btiiaia, Vol. 1. p. it. 



k 




KtHtX. 



3S3 



I 



ta citaiigcd by every tide, uid Hipplied witli fmli water every boiir 
by a coatrivaoce uii Ok principle of a nalurxl >ypbon. In two of 
the balhs the sea-wulcr is made hot fiL-r the use of invalids; for 
whose fuf Uier accommodatjon a steajn or vapor baili has aUo been 
constructed. Parties arc frtt|u«t)tly made by the viutors, for 
uiling up iKo OrwcU and Stour, aDil making short trips on the 
bcMoiD of the ocean. The ttcenery on tEie Orwell is extremely 
pleasant, its banks being studded wilii vlegant villas and pleasure 
grountls. 

On the south side or Ilanvicb is uClilT which diridei OrwvU 
Haven from thu bay that extends to Wiillon-Ness: this contains 
many acres of land, and its greatest height is about fifty t'cct. At 
the bottom is a slrntura of cloy of a bluish color, about one foot 
ihickf uhich is succeeded by a straltiin of utotte, of nearly the 
tame color and thickness; within lliis suniv fc>*si] shells and pelri- 
facliotm are embi.HJdoil. Abwc the stone are various btmtu of 
clay, similar to that already mentioned, ri&ing to the height of 
wmcwhai more than twenty feet The airccis of Harwich are 
mostly ]Avcd wiih mn^cs of this clay, which have fallen from the 
cliff, and become indurated by exposure to the air: the town-walls, 
as appears from their remains, were also formed of this sub»tance, 
which, by lapse of time, assumes the bardnets aiid durability of 
Hone. Above the clay, adveniag to within two feet of its sur- 
fere, arc dlflcrDnt stnita; as fine sand, and stone and grave) mixed 
with ^mnll pebbli>», nnd blended with fossil »h ells of the bivah'e 
and turbinate kinds : the^ arc sometimes found sieparate, and some- 
times in luntps and mits.sM, inlrriiiixcd with sum), and other ad- 
ventitious bodies. The upper part of the clitf is common xaiidy 
earth, in vnhich a few veins of a " white friable substance," (sup- 
posed to be laic,) *' rceembling i&inglass,'' have bueti found.* ^'ari- 
ous teeth of large animals, and bones of un oxtniordinary size, 
have been discovered in the fallen miLWtos ofthi!) clilf. Thc«(> are, 
by some writers, supposed to huvc belonged to the elephants 
hn>U{{ht ilitu this cuutiljy by Claudius in the year 43. 

At 



* Uofuit't tan, Vol. I. p. 500. 



1 



da \>rc, the last Earl of Oxfunl, by whom the rcvennoa 
»<>ld, about thi^ year lltSO, to Ixlwnnl Ui^by, Esq. from whora 
the prcMTil itwner ii descended. The Hall tins hwn niucb im- 
proi-od by tU» fmnily, ami Mime cl«gant guivta and pkutaliow 
laid out wit)) groul tusle. 



HANNINGTREE 



Is a tmsM incgiilar tnwn, situated on the southern baaks of lb«, 
river btour; and though only a cbapcliy in Mi&cley pamh, ha* 
the privihrgf of u market. Whuricu it derived tti pnscnl name is 
anrcrtain : iu aitcicul appcttaliati was Sciddinchau, and by that it 
15 niMilioned in the Domesday Book, at the period of compiling 
which, it was held by Adeliza, Countc&s of AlbcmRrlr, ha)f-&i>ter 
bk the Conqueror. It afterwards became ibc property of Maud 
dc Clare, Couutees wf Hereford and Ctoucciter, why bestowed the 
munor on the Xuiiiiery of ihe oruer of St. Augustine, at Ginon' 
Leigh, in Dcvon^irc. After the DiKtolution, Manningtreo, call- 
ed Maiii^-lrrc, alias Scidinghoo in the grant, was given, by Ifcnry 
the Liglith, to SirJuhn lluiniwurth, and ha« dmCciidcd from him 
iii the Hime manner u Miftlcy-ll&ll. The river Stour was made 
naviguble from Uiis town to Sudbury, inSuAolk, by an act passed 
in the fuurili and tifth of Queen Anne. Iu principal imports an: 
deals, corn, cobIb, iron, and fish. Here was formerly a Goiid, 
dedicated to ihe Holy Trinity; the revenues nf which were valued 
at 8l. 5s. 4d. per annuni. In the certillcate of chantry lunds, ihb 
place la called " a great tuMnc, and also a haven towiie, having 
in yl to the number of 700 liowsolinj; people." 

At Dl^OllAM, a decayed murkei-towrt, and famous for Its 
clothing trade an early a» llie reign of Richard the Second, is % 
Free Grammttr-Scbool, founded about 1570, and endowed the fol- 
lowing year for tbeeJucmionuf twenty scholars, by William Little- 
bury, Cient. The UoiiHtiuii wils cuiilirnicil, and the Governots 
incorporated by chnrter of Queen Elizabeth, dated May the foiir- 
teeiuh, 15'L Ihe Church ii a hauJEomc and >]iacious building. 
'2 Ihm 



I 




■ssfci-. 



SSf 



tilt population of iJpiIham, us oscrrtainod under the late act« 
ms 1537 ; Uio nuinbfr nt hoHse*. S0.1. 

^At LriTl.K liOHKKSI.KY, nnir iHc north s'ldo of llic 
ChurcH, wmi a Priorif, now wtitilly ilntrny^, foittidod, in the 
Itipi vf H('nfy llie First, for CluiTiac nnrnks hy Hobctt rite- 
OndrboliI, and llcutr'trr, hi« wilir. TtiiB wm tulxjl'dinntr to th» 
Munustery of tlmt onler nt Thi'iford, in Norfolk : ils revenue*, 
when it Vita supprcuvd by Canlinal Wolwy, (o support his Col- 
](^ at Oxford, were valued at ?*l. 7s> 1 Id. itiliiunlly. 

STANWAY, 5o iiJimcd from its t-iiuniiuii oii llic Sttmtaay, or 
Romnn military road Icniiiiii; frnm Storiftvtl, through Duiiibow, 
Draiitlrc«. nml Copanbttilj to Colchister, was aiiripntly the pro- 
perty of Tttrl lUrold, and nl tluit time the chief of a vory cxten- 
Iftive dUtrirt. It is noiv dinded into various manors, t1ac puucs- 
HOM of dilffrent fartiilicc. Id llii» pHmh, " un llie south siile of 
tbo Ltmdon rwnd, were found, >u l!i« jear l?(>-V, a tiutnlcr of 
laTgp. bonei, vertebra), and ul'\w, with ihwr joints, lying in a stra- 
iHin of s^-Mtnd, and vmull sitclls. Tlii* kiil tras nbuut a yard 
thick} and iibovo it another of oaxt, or river mud, of ibrc« 
irkdwB ill tbickness, over whirb were several veins tA yeltow sandi 
f^ravrl, ami mould: thi* [iLi,-c were mucii corroded, but the o(ber 

Ilninc* pi-rf»-ctly well polished;"'* 
The manor of OHEAT TEY was, in the tcnili ceniary, pos- 
fcned by the Saxon Kail Alf;;ar, wliosi- youngest daughrcr, .fehel- 
IMa, cnnvrycd it to Duke Allirbtaii by marriage. On ihe death 
of this nobleman, it wbe given to llic Monastery of Stoke, near 
Neyland ; hul at the period of the Domesday Survey, it wai po»- 
iosacd by Eu^tncc, Earl of Qoulo(>ne, whole grand -daaght*^^ 
Maud, married Stephen, Fjtl of Blms, afterwards King of Eng- 
laod, Stephen gave it to his thiit) son, William, who, in tha 
ynr 116^, f-ni'ited it to Uicbunl du Lucy, CJiicf Justice of Eng- 
laotl, by wliu«e daughter, Muud, it nit!> rumTyed, with many 
other uitaLcs in Essex, Nurrulk, ami SufTnlk, to her hu*lmnd, 
Walter iMtK-Rohrri, ancestor of tl»e noble family of ttic J-'itx- 
Vol. V. y Wallewi 




* G<H)|h'< Ailitt|i«nitn iht Britknnte, Vol. IT. p. (9. 



5sr 



ESSEX. 



I 



I 

t 



Walters who retained it till the death of Hobcrr, Lord Fitz>Wat- 
ler, in the jt'ur 1432. Soon aftprwitrds it was posMs&cd by Sir 
John .Montgomery, Kivt whose daugHccr, PtiiUp|ui, iiui[ti<») Pnin- 
cn Brjran, Em\- who, 'm 1532, had licence lu veil it to the Lord 
Chancellor Audlvy. In his family it coiiliiiued till the yw 
17IH, when it wes >old to Guurgu Crr-ssttncr, F,sq. of London, 
wha!>e son disposed of it lo l'hoinH& AsUe, E^. the late cmiacnt 
aniiquAry. 

I'hia manor is of considerable extent, being ebaut terenteen 
miles in circumference: the landi, which are mostly arable, ue 
rMMT^ably productive, end have long bcvn in a state of high cuU 
tmtkin. The villiiin, or copyhold tenants, belonging to this ma- 
nor, were bound by their tenures to plough the Lord's land, to 
mow his gnus, to reap his com, and lo cut underwood in his 
grounds for firing. They were al«) obliged to make the Lord's 
fences round his woods within the manor, but were permitted to 
enter one rod within the woods to cut the underwood ibr that pur- 
pose; the surplus materials being allowed tbcm for their own use. 
Many estates in this manor weru subject to the Marcktta MuHe- 
naiiy which custom has commonly been supposed to be a ri^it 
which the Lord had of passing the first night after marriage with 
his female villain. " The best historians," says Mr. Astle," " as 
well as several foreign author*, hare given many uarvellotu par- 
ticulars concerning this custom ; but, on diligent eiiciuiry, I am 
t>r opinion, that this kind of intercourse between the Lord and tus 
female Tillain oever existed. I am persuaded the Mareleta wu a 
compact between the Lord of the Munor and his villain, for tba 
rodemption of an offence commilled by the unmarrial daughter 
of his vassal ; but more generally it was a fine paid by a sakcman, 
or a villain, to his lord, for a licence to marry his daughter; and 
If the vassal gave her away without obtaining such licence, he ww 
liable to pay a fine. The probable reason of iho custom appears 
to bare been this: persons of luw rank residing on an estate, were 

gei>era)ly 

* Itliutritiont of ibetaiBTM tod cuitDBnof tKii maBOr, by Mr. Aitlc; 
fitnlnl in ibc AidMEologia, Vol. XII. p. n—\0. 




I 



asntx. 



339 



ffeonally eiUier OMripti gldtr, or were lubjectvd to soitte specie* 
ofscrvict! similar to the asciipU glritte; the tenants were bound to 
reside oti thu ntate, aul to {wrt'orm MveraL Krvjcea to tiut lord. 
As women necessarily fullowetl tbc rcttijuiices of tbcir liusbandi, 
tbu cixiKcriuMicc wiis, tlial when a ivonian of luw nuik mnrried u 
rfranfprr, thr lord wtu (ktprived of part t>t'hi> live ttuck; tm ihere- 
(bre required a line to indcmuif)' him for th« ion of liis property. 
\ In procen of time, lbi» comppsition wis ibrown into tlie ttg^re* 
* Sal« HJin of quit rauti, m ftppeari by an aucicnt uirvey of tliit 
uianur." 

MAAKS-MALL, about tiirc« miles west from Great Tey, was, 
in ibe time of the Conqueror, )irl>l uiittcr tlugb de Montford, by 
Nigd, whose family afterwardi beciimu tJie chi^f lords of ths ma- 
nor, nod obtained tJie name of MerkcAbttll from their plofie of rv 
sidence. Thi* family pusvcwed ihe nlale till the beginning of th« 
reign of Elixubctii ; when it was Kitd to Jobs Cole, Esq. whose son 
and beir again sold it to Edwnrd DcrikUgh, l:>q. Hii j-oungpat 
son, William, succeeding his father, dbpotcct of thi) manor, ia the 
year l605, to Robert llunywond, Esq. u!' Charing, in K«nt, whow 
posterity ttill enjoy it. The ni»nor>bou>c was ptirtly rebuilt by 
the Ul(rr geiitlcinait, who en:Cled a now and handsome front, over 
ihc poKfa of which are vaiious quartering) ol tbe i<jmily armi. 
It aiatuiH ou a liuiig groauii, nmi the Churcli, in a pIcaiHiit park, 
which has been much impnived by Filmer Honywood, ICsq. the 
pmcnt proprietor, and on« of tlie rcpreacntaiivta for tbc county 
of Kent, whu Laving lost lits election for that shire in 17d^, made 
this bis principal residciice. In the I}itiin{;>Kwoin is an original 
pottiajt of Mill), Maky Hoxvwuop, nidlber to the first of that 
naina wtio owned tliii estate. She is arrajed in a widow's habit, 
with 1 book in her hatwli end on her hitt is inscribed in golden 
leilort, ]f.iA.T\% avs. 7lJi *vo dki. l&y/. This lady became 
Memombta from bcr grmt msfi, and tlic multitude of her lawful 
deKendants whom ^ saw before ht-r deaib, which happened in 
IfilH^ in Iter ninety-third ywr. 'Hie number of her own chil- 
^«B WMBixtccn; of bcr grand-children, !I4; of her great grand- 
children, 2SJt; and of thost in the fouitli generation, nine; in all 

Y 9 Sti7' 




I 



340 



MSBX. 



Sffr. TlioDgl) she Ih-eH to sticli a great age, »l)e was much oppmsai 
by religious meUnrlioly; and a singular Mory, oonnFCtrd K'iih tbis 
sMiction, is re1ai(s) by Fullffr, on the authority nf Monon, Biihop 
of Durham; tn wbom she hcrwlt' rold it. He ob«prv«, " that 
being much afflicted in mind, many mitiKten repAired to ber, and, 
ainnng dio iTst, Mr. John Fox, iHc Mxrtyroloj^st ; but that all hU 
counsels proved inHf»ctual; iitmmucfa, that, in the agony oF bcr 
■ou1, haviiit; a Venice gla» in her hnrid, she but^t out into ibift cx' 
prnsHHi, ' I am ai lurely damned as th» glasi is broken!' which 
»he. imoicdiutdy threw with violence to the gruund; but tfae glasi 
rebnundcJ nzain, and wat taken up Mholr, and entire, being still 
ptrserved in the family." She was biincd in the village Church, 
where a monument was erectLtl to her memory, oa which the b 
rvpreicnt«>l kneeling. 



I 



COGGF^HALL 

Is is a ntaikct town, partly situated on low ground, nrar the 
tionli side uf the river Ulackwsicr, and partly on the scclivi^ of 
aplcaFAnt bill ri^iig on ihesamt- iiJc. Morant affirms, that ** It 
owes il<t existence tu the abbey, whose foundation here drew round 
it a numliiT of inhabitants and dependaiiDi:" hut some other an* 
tiquarics, and panicularly Mr. Dmkc, suppose it to have been 
of Ronun origin: indeed, this gentlemmi argues ttrongly in fa- 
vour of its being the CajiONiiMfi of ActtoTiinus.* It^ distance, he 
obKTve*, exactly amwcrs tn the numbers of the Itinerary, which 
places Canuniuin between Camulodunum aitd CK^aromagas; the 
latter lie sup^ioscs' to be Dunmow, from which a military way 
runs in a direct tine to Colchester. The opinion of Coggeahalt 
being the slaliun Canonlum, he endeavon to corroborate by 
. mentioning &om« Uomnn ruins, and other anticiaJtin, that have 
been found in this vicimty. Among the latter was an " arched 
vault of bricke, and therein « burning lam|>e of glasse, covered 
with a Roman tyle Kune fourteen inches square, and one urn with 

asltrs 

* AKJicDbjia, Vol. 5. p. 131—141. 




•ahcs and bones; bcsiJcs two sacrificing clislm nf poU&ltcj rrd 
canh, having the bottom of one of ihem witli (aire RomaTi letters, 
inscrilicd Cocci lim.*'* In a ^ilacc called WeMlield, also, " thicc 
quarters of a mile from Co^esholl, and belonging to Itie Abbey, 
was fuund. by toticbirig of a i>luugi], a gTcal lrun:n put, the 
mouUi of whicb vnn closed witli a wliitc i^ubstaiici; liku pntc or 
clay, B» hard as burnt brick; wbt-ii tbat was by force removed, 
there was found ajiotbcr pot, of earth ; add within it a lesser pot, 
of ranh, of ihc quanlity of a gallon, covered with n matter 
like velvet, and fii&lcnfd at the; iiintiih with a silk Incc: in it were 
Mine wbule bonci, and many pieces of small bonr*, wrapped up in 
fine lilk/'t 'Ilirte rcniuiiis, thoui^b judged inBuflicient, by tlic bot 
infomud aiiti(]ua.ne9, to prove that Cnggt^^all was the actual 
lite of a Roman slatioti, are yet adiuJtl«d at evidence of ib bav- 
iDg been a Roman vil)n. 

In the reigli of Edward tbc Coafcssor, ibis lordsbip belonged to ^i 

(Colo, ft Saxon; but at the time of the Uomcsday Sur\'cy, it was ^H 

held by l^ustacc, Farl of Boulogne, uhuse heiress, Maud, con- ^H 

veyed it (o the Crown by her marna^ with Stejihen, tlnrl of Blois, ^V 

afterwards King of England. In the year 114?, Stephen, and 
his Queen, fminded an Abbey here, iieur the river, for Cister- 
cian Monks; and having deiiicaled it to iho Virgin Mary, en- 
dowed it wiUi this and other monon. In 1303, King John grantt'd 
the Abbot, and his Convent, peritiitKion lu inclose and impark 
their wood at Coggeshall; and in 1247, they obtained liberty of 
frce-warr«n from Henry the Third; who also invested thi-m with 
the privileges of holding a market weekly, ami aii eight dap an- 
nual fair. In the reign of Edward the Third, the monks founded 
a chantry in Ili^ir church, to pray daily for the King, tlic (juc«n, 
and their issue; in cuiuidcratiun ofwhJiii, tbc Sororvign, on ths 
eleventh of Januiuy, 1344, granted ihcm a hothead of Ard friH«, 

Y 3 to 

* Ww«er*i Funeral Monumciiu, p. iiS, " CtctHi* H only ihi poitcr'i 
mirkr *ad not p«cu1i«r lo- the vcittti found here, iincc it occurt m> otlicn in 
Enjlaad, and tlxwhere." CM£k'j .iddiiint la Iht BnUniiM, I'^l. a. /. jfi, 

f Wcrrar'i Fun. Hon. p. 119. 



» 




s!j| 



■ffVX. 



I 

I 



to be delivered in London by tbe Kiog't gFntlenwn of tlie winr 
celUr, evtry year at Eaftcr." A sKonil chantry »Bi founded 
hfn, in I407> by Joan Ae Rohun, Couotess of Hrrefnrd, and 
cnhen, who bMtowcd tomr Titlaabl« rstttn upon the monkft for 
its support. On the surrender of the Abbey. February the fifth, 
1538, its annoal revenuet were, according lo Speed, valtm] ab 
S&M. Si. Id llie tame year Henry the Eighib granted the manor 
ofCuggahall, and other eEtates, to iiir Thomas Seynotir, brother 
cf Edward, Duke of Somrrsot, uho. in 154-1, exchanged ttiem 
with the King. Since that period this manor hits been divided^ 
«iid pHSMiJ through various families. Only a smalt part of tbfl' 
Abbey is now remaininn : near it n a bridge of ttiren arches, 
originally built by King Stephen, over a chdnnel that was cut to 
convey ihe water of the rirer nearer to the Abbey. 

Cog^e^hall was furmeily wry crLebmled for its clollting trade, 
«nd particularly for a kind of buiee of superior fine stuff, manufac- 
tured here, and called Coggeshnll Whites: but (his bminn* ha* 
been on the decline many year*, timogh it slill furnhbcs soma 
cnipluj-ment to the labouring inhabitants. The population of ihii 
town, as aMTcrtainctl under the late act, was 2469; the mimber 
of bouses 3i}3. 

The Church is a spacious edifice, dedicated to St. Peter, and 
has a targe square tower at the west end : near it are three 
Un-rndonrd atms-houses. Among iKc bcnefaclions given for the 
support and education of the poor inhabiianik, is ibr annual sum 
of 1501. pHyable by the Muster and Follows of Pembruko Ilnll, 
Cambridge, out of the estates bcquenthed lo thatCollrgp for cha- 
ritable puqposes, by Sir Robert fliicham, Knt. in the year 1636, 

U'lTLE COGGESHALL, now a hamlet to Coggeshan, wna 
furmeriy a distinct ptiTijh, and had two Churches; one of them 
erected by ihc monks of Si. Mary's Abbey, iii the field called the 
I'ark, for iheir own use; the other bs a regular parish church: 
The former has long been demoli«lied; but the latter is now used 
pa barn. 

In 



* IHoivit*) EtscK, Vol. a. p. 16^. 





»ssx. M8 

In the small Churcli of BRADWELL, about two miles soaib 
from CuE{:c»Ein]l, is an elaborate moaumeni, of various colored 
marble, to the memory of Sir Axtiioky Maxet and bit Lady, 
wbo posseued this maiiur in ibe reign of Queen Iillisabelh. The 
cornice is supported by pillan of ihc Corinthian order : on the l«tl, 
beneath on arch, arc the t^lligies of Sir Anlhvny and bis Lady, 
luKclitif ; and on the right, Ihc figures of hi* ton and daugliter- 
itflaw, in timilar potturca. Several olhen of this family were 
also buried here. 

BLACK NOTLEV, near Bnuotr««, u renowned as the birtb- 
plmcc of llic learned Williau Bedell, Bi&hop of Kilmore, to 
Ireland; and of the yet more celebrated naturalist, Mit. Jonv 
Rat. The former was bom in the year 1570, and was eduokred 
at Emanuel College, Cam bridge, where he obtained a Fclloursbip 
at tbc age of twcnty-lhrce. In ifilH, he became Chaplain to Sir 
Henry Wotten, and accompanied that gentleman on his embaiey 
to the republic of Venice, where he obtainetl the frieixJship of tlw 
famous Antonio de Domims, Archbishop of Spalalro, wham be 
assisted in the book intituled, De Reptdbtka Hcetmtutiea. He 
abo contracted a close intimacy with Father Paul Sarpi, who 
presented him with hts manuscript History of the Council of Trent, 
and other vnUiable writings. In the year \6'J7, be wa* eWcted 
Pro^'oW of Trinity Cnliege, 'Dublitt, and two year* afterwards, 
preferred to the Sees of Kilmore and Ardagh; but being inimiml 
to pluralities, he resigned the latfer bishopric. His epbcopai 
character was exemplary; and by his iirm, yet coriciliaiing en- 
deavors, be efTected a considerable reformation in the coiHuci cf 
the inhabitants of his diocese, which had been previously consi- 
dvTvd as one of the mo&t turbulent and licentious in Ireland. The 
Book of Common Prayer >vas, tbroujili his influence, translated 
into the Irish language ; ns was rUo the NewTwtament; bm tlae 
former only was publinhed in his time. On the breaking out of the 
Rebellion in l64l» o"'* Prelate was not at Gr^t molested, from the 
reverence which bis character had excited in the ntiads of the 
common people ; but he was afterwards seized, and Imprisoned, 
for having refuted to deliver up »ome Protestants whom he Ititd 

y 4 tlKlU-red 





3** 



XSSIX. 



•hcllrred in bis houM. He dii-*J at the end or Febnisry. io the 
wnw year, and vras interred in Ibr Church-Vard «t Kilmore. 

Joua Kay, M. A. wm bom in ilic yai iiii*. His fatlitr, 
wrbo punm'd thi* humble uccupulioii oP a UlacLirmth, pcrcfiving 
that bis Still p»v.«os)>cr3 a vigorous genius, wiit him to scbool at 
BraintrtTi ait<i tlicncv to Cambridge, ubcrc he was admitted into 
Catherine linlK but a^rmantk rvinoYcd tuTrinily College. Here 
lie became dislineui^Wd for his ^kiM in natural history, and parti- 
Culiirly for hi^ knowledge df bulany, uliJch )|;mw into a fuviiritf 
vtudy, and was pursued with paiticul»r atidity, Irom bis ex- 
ample Ilii industry, »nd &tcady appUcaliuii, olilaincd him much 
renov.'n; and iFii- bt-iier luinca'asc hi&urquiiiiilniKi! wiib |hc works 
of Nature, but c^pcrinlly ihoso of the vcgntable ktn^doRif he made 
several jntirnies ibruugh ih* chief part of Great ISiilaiii. He also 
viiiited various countries on the Continent v»iih the '*ime intenuon, 
accompanied by the great Willughby, who was lihcwisc Lit con- 
panion in seveml of bia home joumics. It i« remarkable, thai the 
■ublime and beautiful uxncry of Natuu-, ubich luu of laie given 
eloquence to the pen of so many (nvellets, wai, in the time uf 
Ray, entirely disregarded ; nnd it has been ubicrtcd, uilh equal 
|jropncIy and trulh, that though our naturalisr, in h's different 
fxcurtions, " p.aurd through the vallies of Derbyshire, ascended 
(he moyntflin* oj' North Walc5, and Ijeliclil the gb.ries of the Cum> 
Uerlend lakes; yet, from the whoW oi' hi$ iiiiierarics,* not a sngle 
Kiiti>nce can be gleaned expruuivc of that uondcr and delight 
with which every one al the pt-*-*^)*! day it irrc:&i^libly aflccted.'*f 
Tovards lltc latter pari of his lifii, Mr. Ray removed from Cam- 
bridge to this hi» native place, where he died in 170^1 in ht> &<• 
venly-eighth year. He was buried in the Cburch-Yaid; where a. 
nest pcdnlal monumc-nt was erected to bis iiimiory, at the e\' 
pence of Henry Conipton, Bishup of I^ndon. It is itucribrd 
Kitb an ^li-gunt Uilin epitaph, which has been tlius trnDhtated : 

TbwfV 

' puhliibed in Ok " ScIkI Rnnilni," «ii|i bit |l&, by Dr. Duihm, 
paitrtil, Itc. tvo. i;te. 

t Aniutd Review, VoL J. p. ^^a 





UȣX. 



MA 



T1m)U{)i in ihii ninow lomb iht illuitriou Rat 

Inhumfd l>ti, ha mould'ring into iUy, 

O'er the wide wurld hii waiki ihci* beam diapliy, 

At bright iimI eveilMtirig m the <ixy i 

To thatt juit Fimc ucf ibcs imtnorbl bmih, 

Ami in hi* wrilinj* tie oullrvo hn d<Miu 

Of ev'ry tcirncc, n''V p»'» ^^ kn^vr; 

Read in tJt iru, divine anii hutnm toot 

Like Soloman, and Solomon ilonc, 

Wc ■» ■ gmlrf king of knuwlrdgc (iwiu 

Our modern uge dark Nirure'i MCiffi md, 

fiom cbc lall cedti lo ihe hyitop'i b«l| 

From ihc unwicltlinl lic«K of land oi deep. 

To tlie lou iUKct lliit hu power to creep. 

Noi did hii artful Ubononly ihow 

Thni* plinu which on ihc utth'* wide ntUce gtaw^ 

fivu piercing c'cn her diikot cninili ibr«i>jh, 

AH ttul wn wiic, ail Uiu wu greit he knew, 

Afld NatuK'i InnKtii ^loom inid« clear lo commoM viev. 

From loKiga ttota hii Ictming biought lupplictf 

F-xpoting itcuum hid froiri oiImi ryri; 

And in hii wiidtm wm hit touMiy witb 

But, whic't yet (aore, he wm lo mttkly fft*l, 

Tlui F.nvy unrepiniDg law hit lUte^ 

Toi, O'c Kconpli'hinoil, hit Itumhlc mintl 

roucM'd * jewel which it could noi fiTid. 

A high detttnt lent nnthing u hii Idtne; 

Vinuc, not hiiih, diitinj^uiih'd hit gtoi ninui 

Title* and wollh be n<ver iirove to (ain, 

TbcK he would taihec mcnt than obuin. 

Hi* private life in Immbk thado he tpciit; 

Worthy a paUcr-f with a cell content ; 

Unwearied, he would knowlrdgr %t>U pursuet 

The only than;; in which no mean bt knew. 

What more >)id jJ<I to lhr»e bitghl ^lUi, we (iod 

Uim bicit with an utiitimrd puiity of mindi 

tnglaod'a blot Church cngiou'd hit icaioiu ttnt 

A trutli hia dying accenla d id declare. 

Tbui lo« ha in rnirrmeni hii grat breaih i 

TliiH riy'd he living, who ihiu livei in datlii 

Thua haa Hcav'o call'd hii agc't glory honx, 

y^n J the blight wondci oi the age lo comr. 



^* i dyed i;. Jan. 1706. 



Vc 



4 



3t6 



' M9BX. 



M r. Ray was the luthor of sevrrat estwrncd works : tboM most la 
rrquc«t, aie 'Tlie WiKlcini of Gucl inanifcstcil in the A^'orks of the 
Creation;' ' Ditcuuracs an the Chaos,' &c. * HgKops'u Methoika 
Stir}num Briltainktmim;' ' CulJtlogue of English I'lanb;' ' £jr. 
. nopiit Mftk'jdicti Atium ei Phdim^ Jfc' 

SeTcral fragments of intiquiry were dug u|i in n field at Black 
Mnllry in the year 175?: among lh«n noi an oblong blue f^aM 
vessel, with white bands running round it at unequal diitancca; 
various pieces ofearlhen-ware; a cop{>cr veswl witli a imall neck, 
and globular body; and uiotlisr fnigin«nt of copper, like a fluted! 
cotunid, rermiiiated at one end with a mm's hoad, and in iu ge- 
neral rnrinblnncc similar to one given by Count Caylus (I. xdi. 
4.) as a knife handle* 

BRAIMTREE 



Is a Urge straggling town, situated on rising ground, and cod> 
ncctcd on the nortli nilh backing, or Rocking Strectf one of tba 
most considerable villager in Emcx. In the Domesday Hook, 
this manor i» comprehended under the name or Ktiinci, and vrai 
then held by the Bishop of London, to whoM* Sec it continued 
Attached lill the reign of Edward the Sixth, when it whs granted 
by that Monareb to Hubert, Lord Rich. In this family it re- 
mained lill the year l673, when, on the death of Charles, Earl of 
Warwick, it became the property of his Mster tmd co-lieirctt, the 
Lady Fnincn, wife to Nicholas, ton and lieir to ^'ir Francis Leak* 
Earl of Scandalc, whoM successor, Robert, u>ld Ibis estate, in 
1701, to Herman Olmius, E$q. tnce^tor to the late Lord \ViU> 
tham. The ancient manor-houic was a palace of Uic Bishops of 
London, but ha> long been destroyed. 

Bruntree ve&t mtmle a diilinet pxiiitli about th^ time of King 
John, or Henry the Third: the former of whom conUllutcd it a 
market-town, ihrough the interest of William de St. Mkria, Bishop 
of Londun. At that period, however, it was only tt hamlet to 

RaiM^ 

* Cou{h'i Addittou to Ok Biitannii. Vtrl. IL f. 5fr 



' 



^ 




9^3 



usex. 



i * 



ii«i» foT 6fty shillings, and the play-books tor twenty »liillirigh* 
In the cbxnrcl it an inicripliun to the memory of Ok. !>AMt;EL 
^0Ll.l^s, whu WW the uta of a ntinislcr of Ihiti parivh, and (or 
ionio years priiitipul rbytician to Peter Ihc Great, Cuir gf Muh 
Covy. 

lltii town iibounik with dissmiers of dtflervnt drncMninatiom. 
The strctrls arc mostly n&iTow, and jncominodiou^i and many of 
Ibe buildings am oi timber, and very old. Tlie number at 
UoMtSt BSicturncd uiider liic iiol of 1802, Ma«4J4; of inbabh- 
tent") 9!^31< VnriuuH bcqui-sU haw been mndo for tba nrvira 
pf ibe poor; the mott cekbritted, though not th« most vBluabte, 
was the gift of Henry Smidi, E^i. Alderman and Salter, of Lon- 
don, wbo, in lire reign of OuliIcs ihv First, left 2&O0I. to pur- 
chase an cstale in (his county; ilie pforreds to be diMribulrd 
atnong the poor of the five parishes of Iliainircc, Henhaw, Tcr- 
ling, Tollaliunt-D'Arcj', and lJ(iTcr-Cour1. 

fiOCKING principally conaiso of one long street, extending 
along tbe high road, and coiiiaining several good bouws, inhabit- 
ed by respucuble i^imlics. lu the reign of King Etlicli<.-d. it was 
|ioeees&ed by vtibvlric utid Lcofwinc, iwn nubic Saxons, who, ia 
the year ICOti, grunted it, with oUicr lands, to Su Savionr's 
Prior)', Canterbury', for the support ol' the monks. St. Satioui's 
was then the name of tlic Cathcdml Church in that city, thou^, 
when it W8A rebuilt by ArrhbiiJtop Lanfranc, after il» dntruction 
by the Danes in 101 1, it wiu dedicnied to the Huly Trinity, 
and by Ihat appellatinii it occurs in (ho Uorocsday Book, as being 
in posH!s&ii>n of Duckinge. It continued attached to that See ull 
the DisHiluliuii, vrtien Henry the Eigbili alienated it, lu the year 
lii40, to Uogrr Wenlworth, Gent, atid Alice, his wife, in consi> 
deration of 87.^1. lis. 3d. Hogcr, tlic grcflt-gr&ndson, married 
twowtvrs; by the second of whom, Kliiabeth, daughter of Sir 
Robert UaiLvr, of OrtmoloK'llAll, Suffolk, ibis maiiur pawed M 
Sir Thoru8& Barker, her brother, wliuw son. Sir Wdliam, toort- 
gjiged it to PriK'a Cobourrw, Widow, of Slcntford-le-Bow. To 

tlua 



* UoTMt'i Esifii, Vol It. p- 399' 




SftSF.X. 



949 



I 



I 
I 



I 
I 



I 



this lady the mort^gej pirniUes were Jccrceil by the Court of 
ChBDCcry, Hbout the latterend of the sarenteenih Mnlury; and in 
1701, by Will, dated M-xy thr sixth, »he bequi^^lhod thi;:n tu th« 
CoqiOTUtiun cif the Sons of the Ckr^, mwds tho iDaiiiteiiaiicc 
of the poor vridom and orphan children necking rcDci* from that' 
otutili&hmcnt. 

The pniici[>al trade af this extensive ^lUago, in addition to what 
arittn from the pau:^ of goods beiwecn the ML>iropoIis und the 
tnone ctutern Counties, h the msiiuKtcturc of bitzcj though this 
ba* greatly dccmued within the lH«t fifty or sixty ye«n. On (h« 
liver I'ant, named ihc Ulackwater. in the lower pnrt of its course, 
which nowv ihrou|{h it, are several fulling ond com niilli. I'bo 
nuiuher of htiutrcs, in 1802, was 623; that of iuhabitunls, 26&0. 
The C'kureA is a spnciotiii building, Kianding on an eniinejtce, 
between one and Iho mihrs Eiurih-we*.t from Bockin^-Strwt. It U 
dedicated lo the Virgin Mnry, ami suppiMiNl tu have been built 
about the time of Edward thelliiid. Ilcfore tlic lleformBtion, Jl 
contained three nttars, and 6vo chtinlnes. In the south oiile aro 
the effigies uf a man and woman, supposed to reprc«ent some of 
the Dorcivard ivmily, who posKaicd a subordinate manor in this 
pariah during the greater part of tlic fuurlccnch and fiiiecnih rcn- 
tdries t and one of whom, John DureiTui-d, Ksq. founded and en- 
dowed an Hatpifat here for seven poor people, in the reign of 
l-leory the Sixth. This lluspital Mill evists; and abo a Vkaril^ 
Schoof, etiduwed by Dr. Gutidcn, Kishop ot SVoKcster, for edu- 
cating thirty poor buys. 

Uocking is a peculiar belonging to the Archbishop of Canler- 
buiy, being only subject lu his juri>diciion, ur to lliatof hisCom- ' 
misury, who is called Dean of Bocking. It is also considered aa 
the diicf of the four peculian t» ibis county, and of tl>e three in 
SufTolk, which belonji to the See of Canterbury. 

RAIKK, furrnvrly called Little ItAiriC, to distin^uisb it from 
Great Raine, or DraiDlree, it pleasantly liiualcd about two milci 
west from llie latter. TheCAirrcA is un ancivnl butldlni. supposed 
to have been fuunded soon after tlie separation of the parishes, and 
aas very famoav, in the Catholic times, for an Altar and Chapel, 
1 erected 




SS0 



M9tX. 



rrrcicd m Urn sotith fuiXe to tbe bonor of tbo Virgin Mkty, Tikis 
jAllar wasRioeh TrMiupnted by pregnant wonicn, who sgughl, 
|llMiriuppl»cations in tJie Virgin, to obcsiii a safe delivtoy; uid 
ftccorjing to tntditiotu with such great succew, that tbo ajvtce 
*' go ere long, and uty yvur prayen at Raioe," became a 
non pTo\eib. 

Al PANTFIELD. a small, yet pleaant TillaQe, near the ri« 
Pani, whence it derived its aame, a PaioxT of Betkedicttne 
nnnlu, subordinate to the Abbey q( St. Siephea't. at Caen, ia 
Konnaiiily, to which this manor v as given by Wulcrui Fits-Ralph^ 
io the lime of the Conqueror, was founded before the )-rar I iiO, 
when (he ruoiikft oblaJiiMl hcence of frve-warren. On ihe suppm- 
lion of Alien Priories, in the reign of Ilcnry the Fifth, this nanor 
wttB grenivd to John H'oodhouse. of Norfulk, to liuld by the ier> 
vice of a R«d Hate, It afterwards rerertc*! Io the Crown ; ami 
was again granted by a amilar tenure, by Edward the Fourth, Io 
(ireMild, widow of John Hende, Esq. who alienaicd it to CardiMi 
fiouchicr, Archbishop of Canterbury. By thid Pretalc it wai 
t^wfl to the Cntheilral at Canterbury; but, after tbe g^nvraJ Sup* 
• prenioD, it was bestowed, by Flenry the Eighth, on Sir GilM 
eil, of Raine-HiUU and ha> since pasaed tJirou^ variMl ftii- 



GOSFICLD, an extensive parish to the west of HaUied, ia not 
BienlKined in the Donicftday Bonk, it briiii; included in the a^fo* 
-«eat lordships till about the time of Henry the Second, when it 
was made a distinct parish. Tbe lands are divided into niii* Nuu 
Morv, and were ori^iiuilly held by different fiimilm, but becMne 
united in the reign of Itirbard (be ^Second ; and thongb again t^ 
panned in the sevenlernth and eighteenth centuries, have ooc* 
more become tbe properly of an individual, the present Marquis 
of Buckingham. 

GUSFIKLDMALUaseatof this i>oblemMi, was, verykooac^ 
fter thcCgiiquest, in ihe poHession of Robert drClare, Carl of Gloo- 
ster, nnd ts still pan of the Muiiour of CItux.', to which it \hxyi ac^ 
kiiuwled^iticnt. From this tamily it was alienated to tiic t'ern, tkA 
ofOxford,ajidhclduf ibem by AdamdeGi»&ki: but, in the rrij^nt 

2 af 





v« 



tSAEX. 



3SI 



of Kilmin) the First aiid Second, it was the proper^ o( Jolin Bet- 
lowet, Cbcvnlirr, whosr nnmc app<'ars to have been given to llic 
lord>t)i(r. It RfterK-nnb pawed to ttic Roifct; and from tJiem, try 
HD beireM. to the ^cMiviortkt, uf lodliani Hall, of wbuoa bir 
Roger w« Sheriff of this couDty in the y^ar 1499> The heiress 
of tho Uuer family muiriod Kicbard, tvcoud ujii of Lord Kych«; 
bom whom it passLtl to the Lords Grey ; bat, at the br^ituiing of 
the eightcftith cmuury, was sold to the Milfingtaat: nnd n^in in 
B-sboit IJine to John Knight^ Esq. who dying ia 1733, bequeath- 
ed this manor and lordship to Atinr, his vrifo, second <)Aught«T to 
Janes Ciagp, Estj. Three ycnrs aftcrwardA, this liidv niarrird 
Robert Nugent, tUq. nftcrwartlt ICarl Nugent, from whum, in 
1789* these cstalev became the property of George, Matqui» of 
Buckinghain, the present proprietor, whoiuhcrits in right of his 
lady. The inaniiion culled Gotfiftd Hall* tliuugh greatly ultc-rcd, 
pnacntaaaiaurreEling specimen of the dmuatic arcljiti-clurc that 
pivvailed in the ciuisiruclion of the midences of the nobility da- 
ring the reign of IJcnry llic Seventh, who »trtclly enforced the 
ancient prerogative of tho Crown, uhicb had been compounded 
■P^ ibe usurper Stepben, in prohibiting his subjects from erecting 
Caitica; yei here, as in other casts, where tbe rcstnuots of the 
lair proved an insufficient sccuriiy against ihc ^-iolcnee of the 
tinea, its provisions were evaded; nnd tbe houses erected at the 
•kovc period, though not coming within the description of a for- 
tmt, were ttjuaJly as strung, aitd well secured, vt\ many ol (be 
baronial Custles, This building wat a large pile of brich, inclosing 
ft qnailrangular cnurl ; into which all Ihc lower tier of window* 
opened, lliere were not any windows on tbe ground-floor of the 
outtidr; and those of ihr upper Mnrics bt-ing struii^ly banicadoed, 

^P* TIk Monnl fvlfltt, ptMoilCTl to llii* Work by thai liberal patraa of An. 
ti^MITi— *ild Topagnphicil (iJiloijr, ihc M>ii)uU of Bctlinchitn, rcpfcimt 

^fa mott ptcullH duTKlcTinui in tbe uctcnc pin of chit Buuion. Pliic i. 

B^lba Wcu from ; the (wo lower windowi <lo not belong io the origiatl build- 

^i^, but have fac«n Utcly tnttoduccd. The cfitnnce in the ccotre wm ptoteclrd 
by windows proJKiio;; from dOKU, from wh'.ch at»ilanu couM be oppoted 
without difljct. f late > diiplayi the Interior of (lie QuxlrugU. 



5S2 



1S9CX. 



no idmiltance ceald be farmi bat with gnat HifRcuIt^. The w«< 
u'llc of tht qtudrmngle remains nntrly in its <irij>ina1 stale; but 
tfic nonh. out, ind uuili fronti, were buili by Jittm Kntghl, 
Ciq. who owdcd tfaccMatc al tbe bcgimtlng of tti« lut conlur}'i 
Varioiu nUentioiif linvv \nxn laaJe by tbe Uic Lord Nu«vnl; and 
iiddilioiiui impruvcttiiMils have been vflVcled under ibc direction or 
ihc presrnt nnblc pruprirtor; the rost Hhd ivuth sidm haviog bceo 
t.*nlnrgcd by diflVrmt rooms and pftseagi*<(. The llouv, as origi- 
nally built, consist of only one room in tliicktiou; and conse- 
quently there WHS no other cunimunicaiion mund the iuide, but 
by pnwing through every room. The west lide is yet in this »tBl*} 
and the first flix>r is occupied bj' a loiig gallery, I06 f(>ct in length, 
and luelve in width : this gallery is called Qi«m EliMbetA't, ia 
commeinonuion 4)f thai Sovereign hawing twice vititcd llw Lady 
Ryclie ut Gos&cld. 

The principal paintings tiuit were in ihu manGion have been 
removed to Stowct a few ^ud pictures still n-maln in the Breah 
ftnt HooiH ; and in tbe Diniiig-tiotMii ric many valuaMo ong:ioai 
porlraitH, particiilurly of OsoRO^ lliu Fip'l ; Joiin^ Ihike of 
Marlboroutih ; UtiB*aL, Earl of Oxford t WtLLiAM, Earl of 
Cadogsn; Jonx, Duke of Argj-Ip; FKEPEstCK, Piince of 
Wules; the Lord Chutieellor SnarTiSBURY ; JliciiAnu, Vis- 
count Coblinm; Sir William Wyndhau; and DR.HaLLBr. 
In the Lil/raty 'u an ancient sculptured Chiinney-Pioce in stone^ 
drtervtng notice from iu subject and execution. It reprewotb, la 
bold relief, the memonible Kaltlc of Dosvrurib 1-^eld, bctwna 
Kichard the Third and llte Earl of Riclimrmd ; und c<in>aii« Iwvn* 
ty-|t>ur fi>;um on horseback, tvith the King lyin;; prcntrutc under 
bit own chnrK«r. Mo»t of the |>erwiHiges intruduced are knovrn by 
the nnuoriiil bciirinp on the >.hields. Amon^ uihors, are the Duke 
of Norfolk, the twirls ui ^urry uml Northumberland, Sir Simon 
Wgb)', Sir Walter Illount, Sir William Herbert, Lmd Stanley, Sir 
Cenr»i' Slanle), Sir Wijiinm Brandon, l^rd l-JIward Stalfunl, Sir 
GilbcrlT-lboI,.Sir n. Ratcliffe, Sir J. Tyrrell, Kdward I^rd Lowl, 
and the Far) of Oxfurd. Al tfie extrcmilin of the Chimney* 
I'iccc are klUiiJI sUtuet uf Jlciir;- the Sercr^h and his Queen, 

uw,ily 




* ' 





rssEx. ^^^^r 3i5 



I 
I 



exactly rcscrablinj; Ihoso on the monuni^nt at Ti\'cstinimtcr Abbc)'. 
Pic CNOCl diUv c4 thift ficulpturc is unccriain, but it i« knnwn to 
be of CAiuitUrr'tljIe aiiiiquily, it having been removed, in tliey«ar 
l587, Iroin Eoii>' \W\, u «inii)l bouir, beloit[;ing to tho Earls 
of Oxiord, one ol' uboin u'us » pnni^nn of tJie lilarl of Rich- 
inon4« to lUe (frcen Vehet ajiHrlinents are varioiu porumits of 
fhcCraggt' funil)-; umuiu; thcin, tbokc of J.tM£S Chaocs, Ksq. 
PuUmaiter Ciciirrali llw Ri^ht Hon. Jamls Cuago^, Sccrrttir/ 
«f Stow; M*s. Chaogs, lib mother, sbter to Mftjor-Gci»|^ 
ItichirJi; ami MAj<ta>CeM:itAL Ricjiakda, 

The I'ftrk ni GosficliI a vMviimvc, ntul cuiiibjiis many fliw o!J 
tycM: it » aim ornanuuited by it noblu sheet of watirr, th^t was. 
enlarged, tt) llie rMt-nt of 10.' acres, by the late Lord Nugent, . 

At a abort (Ji3t;iiice from the IIhII, to ilic oast, js tlie viliAge 
Church, in which is a imatl Chapel, or Chantry, built by I'bo- 
Ituu Iloll'c, Rm{. and rrpiiire-I, in ll«; year 156'0, by -Sir John 
M'cntwurth, as n bimnk-pUcc for his family. j\djoini)ig the 
Gbantty ii a private Chupcl, in which U a large tnarble tnoiiiiinuot 
lo the rocmury of Jous Kvigiit, V^. who likd ia I73-1, at 
the age nf iii'ly, eitvciiied by Schofinalcrr, under the direction uf 
Pope, who also wrote the cpilnph, which 'm ks follows: 

O .' f<iir«t( pattern to a fairio; ige, 

WhflK pnMii: virtuf knew no p»riy i»x* i 

WhoM piivtte nkme ill tiiln rK«mn<n<l, 

Thepioucnn. tond hukband, faUbful (rtcnj. 

In mtnnefi piain, in KnK alone rcfin'rl ; 

Goo4 without >!iow, and wlihuui wrakiieH (^bd 1 

To ReaKn'i equal diccsin ever Irue; 

Calm to mo1r«, witl roitit«iil to piinuti 

In liTe with ei'rf *ocul )(r«« adnin'd i 

Id death by Friendihip, Honour, Virtue, tnouni'ii I 

tbe pcdeatal arc short inscriptiom, thnt have been adiled in 
commcmonuion uf Robert, Eiirl Nugent; Lieutcnniit-Colonul - 
Ii!dmuod Nugent^ his son; MargarecNugrnl, hie sifter; and Anna 
^ragg*! who was fjr«t rrkarrted toJnmrs Newjiham, rsq. fccomllr, 
.to Jobn Knigbt, V.k\. and loiity, to Robert Nugent, Esq. nfirr- 

Vol. V. Z a..TJ. 





35* 



tsszir. 



wards Carl Xugent. Sfi6 iltcO id 1755, aged fiAy-nlne. Id llie 
cbancel ftrc two anci«ni tombn; o»« for Sir Ru^er Wcntwurth 
and his lady, who ditril Ixrtwcen ilie yean 1534 aD(] 1539; (he 
Other for Sir John Wenlwt^nh anJ his lady. Here is also a \itnfi 
table monuflwni, of Purbrck mitrblc, lo the memory of Sir Rich- 
ard, wcond snn of Lord Ryclic, mHo married the bcirvM of the 
W«ntWdftht. The Partonage is a oMt, connmiont dwelling, ad- 
jiAtRng the Clmrch, and ii now posteMed by the Rev. J. Thurlow, 
Who has stu<tied, with laudable atiention. ihe nature of the soill, 
«nd the mode of cultivation, bett atlapied fur ibis pari of tbs 
county. About half a railo east from the Church jtGosrttto 
Placv, a handsome modern builiiing, with nearly "^OO acres of 
Und surrounding il^ the scat and pro|3erly of James Goodeic 
Sparrow, E«q. 

HALSTEAD 



I 



Is a targe and populous town, pleasantly situated near the river 
Colnc, oti the acclivity of a grsvelEy eminence, and deriving its 
name from two Saxon words, signifying heaiiky place. In Ed- 
ward tlie Confffisor's lime, it was held by Earl Godwin, and diven 
sokcmcn and freemen ; but on the Conquest, it appears to hare 
been divided among the then Norman chiefs, Richard Fits-Gil- 
bert, Eiirl of Uriun ; William de Waren, Earl of Waren, and af- 
terwards of Surrey; and Uobect Malct, who bad also th« baron/ 
of Aye in SuSblk. 

The market here was probably e&ubtished in the Saxon limes, 
t& a hill at the upper end of the town, on which it was held for 
several eentunei nfirr the Conquest, has the nnmc of Chefing Hill. 
Till the year 1251 it appears to have belonged to theCrvwn; bat 
about that time, Hi-nry tbo Third gmolcd it tu Abel de St. Mar- 
tin, who held two Kni{;hts'-fces in Hnltilcad and Belchamp, of 
Richard dc Clare, Earl of Gloucester and Hertford, who inherited 
this manor from Richard Filz-Gilhert. Hugh de Vere, foartb 
Karl of Oxford, indicted Abel dc St. Martin for Setting up a mar- 
ket at lialtlead to bis prejudice, as being too near liis own mar- 
2 ken 



as5 



ketg atCsstlc Hed'm^hatn, and Earl'aCotne; but the dii1t>rence 
wtt> «djusted, on Abel's consrnting to pay half n mark y'lrly to 
llic Earl, tnd proving hit right tn a marict nt tluUttad, boih by 
prescription and the King's s^ratit. About tbi* period, it appears 
to have been held somewhere on the Kin;;'! highway > but it was 
TMw removed to its andenl station nn Cheping Hill, where iL 
continued Itll the reign of FJisabelli, when it was nguin mnnved, 
and fixed in it« present situntton, near ibe centre of the town. 

Tlio CAurch, (ledicnfcd to St, Amirew, is ttn old bliilding, con- 
sisting of B n&vc, chancel, and »ide aiilpn, with n lower and spire 
at the west end. The spire is of wood, and is the third that hots 
been etected on the prenenl lower, ihe two former hating been 
•track by lightning, and destroyed. The second spim was raised, 
IB the jrear ITIT, at the expcnce of Mr. Samuel Hrke, nn Apo- 
ibecary of this town, on which occasion the followhi^ lines were 
written by Prior : 



View not ihlf ip'nt by mrMiirr gi**» 
To butldingt ra'rt'd by comnon huiilt ; 

Thit ftttric ri*c( high u Heav'a, 
Whose bisii on devotion MJadi, 

Whil* yM wi dijw ihii v>hI brnth, 
W« cm our hop« ind ftitb d«claitt 

Sul charily Wyund uui dcilh 
Will rvn iji our workt appnr. 

BIcK be he etll'd amang good n]«n. 
Who lo hii Cod [hii column iiii'd) 

Tho' lighuiinjt (hake the ipitc igain, 
The naa who built U ihill be prtU'd. 

Ytl ipiie* and towera in dutt ihiJI lie, 
Th* wMk rflfnrti of hiitniii piirw ; 

And Faith ind Hope ihtinitivn ihall dit^ 
While detthtru Chiiily rcmaiiu. 



A Chantry wns founded in this Church, for a Master and fire 
Priests, by Barlholomcw, Lord Itnurchier, under a Ijcence ob- 
tained from Edward Ihe Third, in 13i0, iiy RoBCRT Bouu- 

Z 3 CHISR, 



I 

1 



955 



ISSKX. 




ciilER, Earl of Eucx, and Lor^I Chancellor of England, wIk^ 
wss buried licre, ntxj it1io»«^ muiuimi.'itt i» Kujipowd to hv in tb* 
suulh ai&le, to^dlicr with Diiothct uncieiit lonib of the liQtrrcJlienf 
on H'liicli are llic cdigics o)' & Knigltt crots- legged, and his lady. 
A lliird tomb, of fl similar description, was removed Lclwecn fifty 
ftnd &ixty yenis ago. tii the chancel Js a monument iiiscribe^l to 
Ibv memory or Sir. Samuel Tryox, Km. aad Hart, r former 
owner ol th» manor, vrUn died in l6'26. The College for tltt 
Ch.ii)(ry I'ritisls >» yet slsnolng near iho miJdlc of the town : Itt 
rcTCiiUL-3, Kt the time of the :jup[in:Mii>a,weic valued at 34l. 4s. 3<U 
annually. 

Among lUf. chariliihle bcncfacttons made to thb town, is & 
Crammar'Sehooi, fouiiiJfd, in the year 1S94', by Dame Marj 
JjlaniKv, lur luriy pocr children of llalstcad ami ColDc-Kfi!;(iiiic: 
or, in default of asufticicut number from thcic [)liice», the number 
vratited lo bo cliou-n troin llie childrta of the poor inhabitants 
Killiiit liic circuit of eight miles of tbe former. Tlic iliiectiun of 
tl'.is School viM VHled, by the foundress, in the Governors, &f. 
of Climt'a lIuKpital, London. The population of lluMi-Ad, as 
a&e«r(ained in (he yc-iir I80'2, iimuunlcd Co 3380; Ihc faouMs to 
.734. At n house in this ptiriiih is a Greek inscription, brought 
from a village near Smyrna, where it «a» erected 150 yeais be- 
fore Chribt, t" iliu hiimir ufCralo, a niUbiciaii. 

COl.NE^FNGAlNIs a smnll village, called Little Colne in 
the Domesday Uook, received t1ic appellation of Engaine from a 
rc^pectablII lainiLy uf that name, who possessed lands here frDin 
the yc3r 12IS to 13C>7. when it bi-cAtiie extinct. The Churtii 
it an ancient fabric, pleiisaully sttuutcd on an eminence: at (lie 
ijesi end is a hniKUonic brick lower, boill in the reign of lletuy 
the Sevcnik, which, on the east side, has ihe (ig;utc of a mullet, 
one of ibe badges of tho Dc \'cn-s, Earls of Oxford. '1 tic num* 
bcr of iiihaUtanlt, a» returned under tlic luie act, was IU4; of 
these ubuul tMciitjTtbrcc fumiliis derive sustenance from spinning 
viQo\ for the baize munufaciurers at Coggi.«h:ill and Colchester. 

COLKC PAllK, in this parisb, is tbo Kal and property t*f 
Philip Hilb, Esq. to whom ii vnu devised by the sou of Mr. M. 

1 iiiiis, 




rssBS.' 



ssr 



I 

I 
I 



IfflU, of Colchester, wbo purclia«d it, in ihe yvav I7fi?, of Sif 
Thomas R. G»ge, of Coldhnm IIhII, in Suffblk. 'Ilif mansion 
N a kandsnmc building of whicc biick, rn>c»(l In IT7S, nnd 
stknds on b riMtij; ground, surrounded with \roodi nnd plintn- 
nofis. It b situntpd in ihi- wntrr of a manor callni Shrivp<, of 
Shcrrcte*, which obtnined thai a|>yx-llaiion from a fami))' so 
nnmed, who held it in llie reijjn of Edwnnl the Pint. It 'tm nf- 
lerwunis |Missrased by ihc Pnory and Convent of Sr. BoiflphV, 
Colchester; but in 150ti, was the property of John doWrc, KnrI 
of Oxford, whose &ucccssors retained it till tnmt of the fiimily 
estates were allt^OHtcd by the scvcnieenih Eiitl. Norlli from the 
nwiiMon is a column of Portland itone, of the Ionic order, er<;i!ird 
hf 3. SoanC) Esq. urcbilrct, in the yeur I?!}'- This d(rlncsnl^ 
inclddn about 110 acres. 

F.AULS-COLNt, culled nI»o Great Cclne. and Coloo Mona- 
fhoruH), obtained ihn appi*llalii>n of F.arh from the Da Vem, 
nho, with little intprrupiion, were lords of (he fnanor from (lie 
Morman f 'onquest till the yearlj33, wtien it was sold by Edward, 
tfacterenlevnlli Karl, to Lis ^tcwanl, K<)^>f>r llurliic-ktfnrlcii, of an 
wicieni family, settled at \Vor>dcburch, in Kent. Mary, ihs 
farimsof the Hnrlnrkendcns, conveyed it, by nmn-iage, to Daniel 
Andntwcs, Esq. in lti7i2; since which, it has pitMcd, by maningo 
«!», ihrougli two or three other taniilic$. The Earls of Oxford 
bad an ancient mansion near the Chorcb, called Hull Place, but 
thb woi deniulisLit'd before Leland':) time. 

Aubrey dc Vero, who accuni[>unied the Conqiiemr to Fn^and, 
(bunded a Rcnedkctinc Pninnv here, previous to the year 1 100, 
in bouor of St. Mary, and St. John the Evan^eliat. f laving rich- 
ly Hidowed it, be made it subonlinntc to the famous Abbey 
founded by Cissa, at Abingdon, in Berkshire; and aflcrwardti bo- 
rame a munk on hh own establish ment. Here al^o he iviis buried, 
logcthcrvrilh Beatrice, his vit'e: the epileph, a<t given byWccvcr, 
bom the book of Cotiic Priory, was as follows: 

Hf lyeih AvLiimr ot Vitit, dicfi'it Erleof Ci'itxti, l!i« tonn« 
of ALrHOMiU4 vt VttK, ihc wtilche Autixtir wu tht Fffuodu 
of iht) place; and BiirtT*, tiii Wyf, Siitci of Kynj Willi am, 

llwCoNQUtaOL'K. 

Z 3 BcuJm 




ait 



IMKX. 



BniilM tliis boUeman, many others of the Mm« illuMnooi Tftmily 
wrre intrrrcd in the Priory Cburrh : nmons tWm are thirtcea 
Eflflft of Oxford, and srvcnd of tbeir wivn and children. To the 
incmory of the fnrmrr, variom costly monnnrnits were creeled, 
whiLti, after llic DiMulution, were removed into the Psrisli 
Chiircli, bulare giriitlydtrfmd. Mid others iw damagvO. Tlirce 
{^ ibne have cA)gie> lyin;; on itinn, caned in vFootI: two other 
effigies, one of them soppowd lo rff(^r«»cnt Aubrey dc Vere, the 
•eoood li^rl, arc of alabaurr. 1 he arm$ and quarlrringi of tb« 
faftiily. which were cnrved arul cmbUimnod on the tocnbv, are 
IDOstly ubtiicnlvd. The revenues of this I'nory uere, on the 
SuppreMiton, estimated at the annual TaLue of 17^1. 1 is. 8{d. ac- 
cording tu Spnrd. Tlio Priory Churth was a stalely labnc, but 
has long been entirely domolished: the tnonaslic buildings wt-ra of 
limber, and have been partly pulii-d down, and partly converted 
into a duvUing ltou»; hut scarcely any idea can be formed of 
iheir origtnal Bp|iearince, as the rcmitins have Iwvn cased with 
brick, and otherwise altered : l}iey MamI tkcnr the Colue river, and 
were rormcrly inctu<)cd within a wall, inclosing about twelve 
acres. 

Tbe Ciwck At FRrls^Colne i% dedicated lo St. Andrew, and 
cnn>itt3 only «t a Inidy, south aide, and chancel ; with a tower 
at tbe weit eud : the latter was built about the year 1592. On 
the es%t and west udrs are carvings of the arms of John de Vere^ 
the sixtrenth Karl; and at the rnst comer, itear the lop, are mul- 
lets cut in free-stone. Resides the monuments of the De Veres, 
alreudy mentioned, several others, for pcrKom of inreiiur note, are 
erected in tlm buildin]{. Ill the vill^gv is an ancient fret-Sdlmtt, 
endowed by ilic Earls of Oxford, but at what period is unkiunriL 
Tlie inhabitants of this parish, as enumerated under the late act, 
frere ^2 ; the number of houses, 201. 

Thomas Audley, Lord Chana-llor of England in tbe reign 
of Henry llie Ki^hth, was burn at LJitls-Colne in the year 1466. 
He was bred |o the laW; and his nbililici very early introduced 
liim to the notice of Chiules Bruaduii, Diikeof SufTolk, who ic- 
fomnienJed bim iu the King, by whose authority he was appointed 

bleaker 





SIUX. 



35$ 



» 



Spea1i«r in Ibe famous Pariiamenl which raH in November 1599. 
In ihts auembly he nrquUlvd himscll' so much lo the siti»faction 
of the sirra Harr;. that he wui sppi>inti-d to several uiBccs; and 
in 1532, koighteii, and ma<lc Lord Kecp/>r. The fdlowiiig year 
he «ftt pronititecl lo ihf CbancelloRh ip, which he reiaiiicd twelve 
year*; and had ibc I'liurj af Chrtu Chuich, iirar Al<l|^&tc, given 
biro by the King (or a town midracc. In 1538 be was created 
Baron Audlcy of Wuldcn, in this county, and installed Knigbt o£ 
the Gaiii-r. He divd iu April. 15*4, and wai huiied in Walden 
CburWi. 

Beyond Earb-Colne, to the east, arc the parishes of Wiile- 
Coliic, and Colnc-Wnkrs. In the latter is CRKPING HALL, m 
snnoni builcLing, standing on an cmineiKie, and moaled round. 
All the pluccs in lhi» neighbourhood di»litii;uiihed by the name of 
Coinr. a|ipeur lo have thnt apticMalicii from the Coluv livcr, new 
Trhich they arc respectively eiiuated. 

At BiFKLs, called aliK MovKT-Bynis, to distinguish it from 
BufMSt. Mary, on i!ie <)ppw!>iiL- Mtle of the river biuur, in Suffolk, 
where Edmund, King uf the Ea»t Angles, was Crowned, is an ar> 
ft ti^ciaJ mount of earih, about eighty leet in perpendicular heigliU 
L Tbift wak lornicrly muth higher, and co*cn about ao acre and an 
^Nntf-Vf gruunii, surrounded by a dry moat: no tradition exi&ts as 
■ to the lime when it wa» raikcd. 

" The contiguous parishes of GREAT and LITTLE MAPLE- 
STEAD, obminvd their naiiiev fconi the maple Ireeii cliat abounded 
ben Id the Saxon times. Great Maplcslead is mentioned in the 
DomeMlay Uuuk, fa beinf; hrkl of Robert Gernnn, LordofStan- 
ste&d, afterwards called SiaiiMead-Montfichei, Iu which Barony, 
or Honour, the dcmeiine lands are yet annexed. The Church is 
a small ancient building, chiefly reinarkublc as being circular at 
the east end. On the south side is a Chapel apj>ertaining to 
CtxU HaLL, a manor in this parish, lormeriy possessed by 
the Deaittt, but now bdonging to H. Sperling, Vac\. Within 
this are two costly munumeiits to the memory of StR Joiik 
Dbawk, Kkt. High Shrritr of this county in l6lO; and his 
Lady, Aimr, daughter of Sir Drue Druiy. On U>e tiretj beneath 




•ft 



CSSET. 




M arch JUppoTtfd by pillflre of Hnck marble, is Ihr pffigiM of the 
Knight in armour, in » ircumbcnl pn«ure: obovr, arc ihc figures 
cTtiitnj^bt cliildren, in dcvotionul aaiimtcs; and bcliint), are the 
ramily arms. On ibe other montmiL'nt is the i>ffigieft of La dy 
Peaks, rorinmty cxi-cutcci, iinil ilic li^iuit; uf bet rlilc&t son, in 
■rmour, at her fivt: vnrious csrTingi, and other liPCorBtions, or- 
natnrnl this tomb. ' 

Liltlc Mnplrttrnd was, in tlie reign of the nsurjier Slq>hcn, 
vr«trcl in Kotwrt DoisnrI, tiliow daughter, Jii!iiit«, nmrrini 
VilliHm >1tE-Audctin» Steward to Henry Iho Second, and, 
with her husbanii's permission, gave the whole pnrisli, and in a|>- 
])iirleiunce9, lo tLic KiiJghti 1 Uispilak'i-i. 'Hiis ilonntiim wusctMi- 
£riaed fay King John; and the value of the gift was inrrrs^efl by 
Henry the Thin!, who grantpd ihw brethren lilwrtyof free-warren, 
Here a Precepiory* was established under the Appellaiion of Le 
Jlospitaf, which bc-camcextri^inely flourishing from ihc gift« of nu- 
merous bencfacton. On the l>is)olulton, in [tuMeuiom, with 
Temple Siilton and Chiiwrelh, wfcre granted, by Menry thu Eighth, 
lo George Hnrfvcr, ¥m], who ntienalrd Little Mnple^tead to John 
Witcman, lUq. ao Auditor of the King's revenues, tilmund, grund- 
aon of ihi* gentk-miin, hihi a follower of llobcrl Dcvereiix, farl 
of K»M'^, uhotc iinfotlunutc ttettiiiy wn piiilly ocra>ivned by 
the rrirrDcr'n nrgligrnce in tlie di'lirery of a letter entnisted to hiai 
by (he Earl for tlir Qtiecn. 'Die aub^rquenl tale of his mactcr bo 
BiTepled him, lliai he voned never more* to test on a bed: and 
Morant observes, " he was as good as his word; for he caused 4 
large tree to be cut out something in the »tiape of a Iwi) and bid- 
Iter, on yt\m:h he iHy." In 168'2, Sir Willum Witeman sold 
this estate, fur MKHll, to Sir Mark Guyon, Kni, &om uhom 
tl has passed into oiber fnmilics. 

The CiureA in a small low edifice, eelcbntled from Its general 
(onn resembling the Church of the lli.ly Sopulclirc at Jcrosalem, 

and 

etitet wiih ihc llni-iiu ltuip>ul«(), who aloiv ippear to b*ve pottcscd liiik 
■Mnor. Hid it be>oo^d to the forma, n wooM ootlaubletlly hive btm tup* 
yioicd in <3i>, tty-ta ilic atiUi ol Ki^ijtiu Tfmplan »at daiUy diuoUcd. 




Bfl»EX. 



351 



CBnil tiie Temple CliurcTi at London. The priiicipal entrance is at 
t)ie wc^t end, by a porcli, uilli three doors : ihts lends into tLe 
circular part, which is juHt thirty feet in duitiietvr, und hnsa pe- 
ristyle, coosHting of %i\ rimterod columns, supporting poiniAl 
Brefacs: the rooF is of wood. The whulc length of the Oiorcb b 
Kventyfeet; theciuteud is Kmicircular. TLti structure Is dedi- 
cated to Si. John, of JeruKilcm ; and is traditJoiiall^ said to have 
had the privilege of Mij>ctiinry. 

The manor of IIAWKWOOD, in the parish of Sible-Heding* 
hnnj, Ku hehl of the Enrln of Oxford, about the m;|rn of Ldward 
the Fir^t, by Siqjhcn H»wkvwood, an iincc%tnr of the fainonsSi'K 
JuHN' IIa^tkwood, whose extniordidary exploib bare procured 
him an immorinl, yet not very honorable, retiown. He wos bom 
ill this villnge, in the rdgn of E<!trard the Second. Kis faiticrv 
Gilbert Hnivkwood, wns, by occupation, a tanner; and apprvn- 
ticed his son, at on early Kge, to a taylor in [.ondon. Tlie 
youth, most probably dishktng his profession, cntrrcd, asacoio- 
B)on soldier, in the army which Edward the I'hird was-thefi 
Rising for the Frrrvrh wars. In this service he behaved so gal- 
lantly, ihal he was advanivd to the rank of Captain, and knighted 
by tlic King, lie alterwAnls !;ave rmineiit proofs nf hit valor and 
conduct nt the Untile, of Foilient itrid nns lirld in much cMeem 
by Edward the Black Prince. On the termination of the war, 

Jte became an adventurer, and h&\iiig jnincd iha tmnils rnllc«l the 
tte Cameri, ciimmitted great deprcdiitions in the oa&tem parts of 
France: these associates were so surrcssful, that they spread tei^ 
ror ev«n la the gates of Avignon, at that period the residence of 
the I'opc and Cardinals; and their prowtfa was so much dn-adcd, 
that the l*i>pe, to prevent their expected visit, was content to par> 
don their pnsi oAt-iiccs, and, wimt they prohahly considered ss of 
greater moment, u> f^vo them ah.o a turgtisum of money. Hie 
Companioiw separating their forCM, our Knight assumed the eom- 
nd of a select troop, called the White Band, consisting of about 
$000 horse, and 1500 kvut, mostly ol'hii uivii cuunlrynim. With 

|^«e be aoitlcd Jnhii, Mur(|uU of ^Io3is-ser»t, ngiiimt the Duke 
oP Milan ; yet, uo the uiariJngc of LioQcl^ Duke uf CUreitrc, 



Ibird 




0611 



lasER. 



ihira ion of £J«ari ihe TbinI, with th« Duke GalUccio't iv 
ler, he changed tides, and obtained vo murh retwwn by hjssac- 
ccn, thai Burnabaf. the Dukes bruthrr, gave him his luuira) 
AugbtcT, the Lady DumJiia, in marriage, with a wtenue of 
]0,00U n<'nn»anntialty. Noiwithfiiatvtling thtt alliBnce, be again 
became the enemy of the Duke of Jklilati; according to K>nMi an- 
ihitn, ia revenge Tor the death of Lionet, who died wiibin fire 
months uf hia wolding. und wlium be tu»pcctcd to have been poi- 
■ntd. Oihcnt atiribulc the change to a design ol increaaiitg hia 
Cotlane, by eittering iiuo the Benrirc of other Priticct. lie now 
plundered many towns in l^mbnrdy, and »uld one lu the Murquis 
or E»te, for 20,000 crowiw. Shortly afterwards be recovered iJic 
towm which had revolted froni Pope Gregur)' the Twellib, in Pro- 
vence, and was n^wardcd with dominion over five of liictn. Hia 
fame vioi at this period su ^rcat, thai his assistance was courted 
fay leveral slates of Italy, and particularly by the rival common- 
wealtb) of Florence and Pirn, which were then contending for 
Sovereignty. I'hc Florentines offciLtig ilie mutt advantageotn 
terms, he fought for a while in iheir interest; but dcbcrting them, 
went over to their enemies, on which occo&ion the celebrated dis- 
tich of Luran's whs applied to him. 



Nulla fiivt piHBirjiic virU qui CHtra tequDfltur, 

V<nilMq;tn>nuB. ibi fn ubi in»ima nerui. 

Again ber(>miiig a. parlizan of I'lorcncc, he rendered its republic 
such cffecitml aid, that on Iiis death, in ispv, the H^nate, from 
gratitude for his services, decretd that bis " bttiiy should be depo- 
rted ill the Cathedral of Sancia Maria FloridH, under a sumptu- 
ou* mnnumenti over which there is bis picltaPe on boiwbacJ[, 
armed si all poiiil<>, with banks Ryiiig through a wood on his 
shield, being the rtbus of bis name.''* Juhti, his wn by llic Lady 
Domilia, was bom in Italy, btit Dnturalizcd in England, and 
knigtited in the eigbth of llciiry the Fourth. Most ol his wcaltli 

was 



I 




* MOfsM, Vol. II. p. iBt. Mi. Coiigb oWrnrrt, llm "it Kcmt lomt 
probibic ihc monurnnit u 5>t>l(-H«<Iiii£k*m conulac^ l<u bo4y-" AddttwU 
10 the Bituanii, Vol. 11. p. 5>. 




I 

I 

I 
I 
I 

I 



wu brought to bis native country; and a cenoUpti wu erected to 
his boitor in Slble>IlciJingh&m Church. Mmiy liuloriaas arc elo- 
quent in his praise; far dwvlting only on hismilicnry cttarectcr, 
Xhey loM lh« reiuonbrance of his faults, in the corilcm|>latiuu of 
Vw bru'wry and mariial talenls. 

Tbc |»m!,bcs uf ^lULL-IlEDINGVIAM, and Ciuilc-Iledmg. 
bam, appear to have been connected lill after ihe Conquesi, u 
ihpy do iwl uccur as diuinct pamhfRtiil about the commence* 
mcnt of the reign of Ilcjiry ibc llitrd. Their Mlualion ■•very 
plennni, the httidt being varied with gentle eminences, and watered 
by rills, and tinull rtrcatm. At the time of the general eurveyf 
Sible-lledingham was held by Roger Bigot. |jy the muniagc of 
whose second daughter it vra% cunveycd to the Uc Verei, Earls of 
Oxford, from whom it descended in the same manner as ll(uJing- 
ham Cajille. 1'he CAurck ii a neat and tolerably spariuus build- 
ing, »uppo«ed, from it« ornaments of hawks carved in stiini-, lo 
have been erected by lome of the llawkwood faijiily, aboiil the 
reign of I'^ward the Third. The scat to two of Sir Jolin Hnwk*' 
Hood'i letters in (he British Museum is a liawk pcrchc; and iliou> 
OQ the tower of this structure are similar. A chantry was found- 
ed here by bis executors; ihe house appoii)ii>d fur (he residence nf 
the Pnat stands utsouie distance frojn the Church, and still bean 
the name of the Hoitagt, it having been uri);inully built for the 
reception and entertainment of devout pilgrims. The cenotaph 
to the raeniiory tifSir John Hawkwood hus long Let-n demolished : 
it stood under an arch in the south aisle. The population of this 
parish, as enumerated m i802, was 1S66; the number of hoUK-s 
364. 

HEDINGHAM, or CASTLE-HtDINGHAM, as it hoi long 
been called, from the Castle erected here in the Norman limes, 
was the head of the extensive barony belonging to iIr- Veres, Earli 
of Oxford, to whose ancettor, Aubrey de V'ere, it was given, 
with many other lordships, by William the Conqueror, after the 
defeat of Harobl, at the Battle of Hastings. It continued in this 
iimity, with but little interruption, tiU Ihe yonr l625; being 
Itcld immediately of the Crown, and exclusive of all other lord- 

sbipib 



4 





3M 



ESSEX. 



sbrps. Henry tbe'Srcond created it u) HomW; and it bail thea 
twcnty*^ght dfpetuiant Knipibts'-rccs, 

Aubrey, or Albcrir, lint [larl of Oxfuril, and his m'tfc LuriSf 
vlio became the first Prions, founded a Benedictine KLnrnBRi 
here bcfure the year 1 IQO. This was de<ticatpd to St. Mar^-, Stj^ 
Jaimn, and the IkilyCitw, and very amply endowed ; ihotijith at' 
the Di)tolutio»,i(6ftDnual revenues were vmtued at only ^pi.lZklOd. 
Jienry tlic Kigtith granted its posiessiom to Juliii, sixteen!)] Earl 
of Oxford, who wa* Uicii patron. TIjo Nunnery, and purt of 
the Chspel belonging lu it, is yet standing; the former bas long 
been convened into a fnrm*hoiise. An Hotjntnf, sometitnra call- 1 
ed the New Abbey, was aIm) founded iifxe about (lie ^var IS60^j 
by Hugh, fuuilh Lurl uf Oxford, and enduwitd for two or tbi 
Chapluins, a Cterl:, Serrant, and some poor and decrepit people.'] 
This building stood on the soutli-eaiit i.\dv: uf the Cutle, but hi 
been dnirnyed many yean. 

ITie Charck, dedicated to St. Nicholns, is an ancient itoi 
fcbric, with bntllcmenls of brick, supposed, from the ormimentsjj 
•ud the curving^ of the boar and mullet on different paru of ib*-' 
slruclurr, to ha^'e been erected by the Dc Veres; and proba- 
bly by Alberic, the second Earl, who nppears to bare endowed it^ 
in the reign of King John.* Tlie present tDwvrt which standi tc 
wards the soDlh-west, was built about the year l()l6. The tim- 
ber-work of lliv toof is variously uriianii-nted ; and »uppoi'1ed on . 
circular and octagonal pillars. In the inJdst of (he chancel t»sj 
&uperb, but somewhat mutilated tuonument, covering the rcnuuns < 
JoitK U£ VEaE, sixteenth ICail of Oxford, who died on ihv iilr 
Icenth of March, 15S9> This nubtem::^ was Great Chanibrrlail 
ef England, Chancellor of State to Henry the Eighth, and Ktughtj 
of the Garter. On the tomb are incumbent figures of the l^ii'l 
and bis wife, the Lady Klixabeih; togetliei wilU the anas and 
quartcitn;;E of the family, encircled by tbe garter. On the south 
and north sides, aru effi^es of their children, four sons, and fbui 
^au«hters, whu arc represented kneeling, with a book opeh brfontl 



* Mao. Adj. Vul. I. p. lOtu 






XftltX. 



a6s 



each. An in»rri|)l!on, engraven on brass, Umt vent rcund (he 

tumb, vtoA torn ofT in l)ic tittic uf ttic ClviI Wan, Vuiious bvn-, 

vtn, guuntlcts, am) oUier wiutiKe remains belonging to itie Da 

I Veres, art! diipEAycd in tlif^rcnt prta of the rbancel. Here are 

^bLui Miinc.monunicDb of tht jiiMursIt, who po^scssc<l this estate 

^Sq tlie laai century, nnd Kvfnl of whom are interred in itic vault 

beneaili. The number of inhiibit»ntx in lbi» |)uriih> U rClurucd 

vuJet tbc kite act. ua> I f}6i ; of boiues, 3-iJ. 

H£UINOJIAM CAb'I'Lbl ilAitdi near the village, on an emi- 
tiencc, ttKich, from ils regular funn in tliat purl occupied by tbo 
iortma, npprun to bavc been lipi^htened and improved by art. 
Jn its original aiate it covered n much larger area llian at preKiit; 
but tlw keep, frnm IK^ Rreat streugtli and toltdtly vf its wtUlt* bv 
ajone retitti^d llic rsvi^e^) of time ami of man. Its arcbitectuie is 
of tbe pure Anglu-Nornian stylt:; and tb«ugh iho esact pcriud 
[-oC iu ereciiun k uncertain, iln general Tiseinblance to tJie Cnstles 
Itltown to have been construciol uion efter the Conquest, and it» 
parlicaUr frimilarity to Uochester Caitle, built by GunUulplius, 
Bishop of that See, between ii>e years 1093 and 1 107. icarcely 
leave a doubt uf itb having been laiscil abuui the same era. Tlie 
walls arc from eleven feet six inches to twctve feet »ix inches tiiick, 
at the bottom ; and rrom nine feet six inches to ten lecl ibick, ac 
the lop. The ca&Icm wall is at least one foot iliicker than tUc 
(•then; a circunutance that Kerns tu h-Mis been purpo«ly con- 
trirud to oppow a greater rctt&tance to the weather, as the uost 
stormy winds in this country ariK frooi that quarter. Its shape is 
ncAfly Kjuarc ; thecobt and west tJdc» tnca&uring about fifty-fjvo 
teet; the north and south, about sixty-two: its hci^il is rutbec 
more than 100 feet. At each angle, on the top, was formerly a 
turret, which, with the pUlforro, or upper siory, were enib.-it[L-d : 
two of these turrets are desfroyeO, tugelher with ibc battli-mccits 
and parapet wall. Tho oiateriaU of whtcb it is composed, arc ir> 
regular fliiM, and stones, embedded in grout, or fluid mortar : 
the whole outside b cased ailh squared stone, iuid with great 
neatness and regularity. This stone appears to have been brought 

Iroia 



3SS 



ESftftT. 




from tht quarries tt Barrmck, in Northamptoni^ire : it is 
reoi», uid scenu ta be « conf|;cnc» of minute shells and earib. 

The onginal rnlnuice U on the west aide, by a flight of «uin 
reaching U> (be i>niici^nl door in the fint story, the grooves for 
the portcullis on each siilo of which may yet be seen. Aboat 
six feet wilhin the cntmn», on llie north, is a circular stair-case, 
dcaoeiuling to t1i« ground floor, and ascending to the upper stories. 
The ground floor may now, however, be filtered frooi without, by 
two o|K-iimg«, made with great labor in the eastern wall, about tho 
year 1720, by tlte then })roprictor, for the purpoae of converting 
this floor into an out-house. The interior coniista of five stories; 
and WAS ronstnirted with every attention to wcuhty front th« at- 
tacks of external enemies. " At the bottom, where the danger 
was most apparent, the walk arr liiickest; and the aperture is a 
mere loop-bole, simple in its form, tuflicient only to admit a scanty 
light, and to allow the discbarge of oflensive weapons from within: 
ahnvr, the windows incmuH! in size, and are somewhat ornami-nt' 
eil; above these, the aperlurrs are HtiU larger, witK similar rmbvl- 
Ushmentt: in the next riory, the windows are double, admitting 
more air and light; and in the upper or attic story, they are richly 
omsmonted with the usutti sigaag of that age: thus, in proportioti 
as the dialnncp from danger was increased, the architect seems to 
bare introduced into his structure, air, light, and omamenc."* ^d 

The |;round fluor had originally no light but from the loop* * 
liolcs; and in its cun^truction displays only massive strength, with- 
out ornojnent. The entrance story is more lofty; the arches are 
Hnmewhnt more enibellishrd, and ihc architecture is altogetber of 
« lighter kind. The story next in {succession is the Armory, or 
Mall of Audience and Ceremony; this is a noble apartment, thir- 
^-tight feel by thirty-one. exclusive of tlic spate occupied by 
• gallery which surrounds it, and is carried through the very cen- 
tre of the walla. Its height, from the floor to the centre of a 

great 



* LKICT of Lcwti Mijctvlie, Etq. puMtihed In Ihethird volvme orilic fV> 
luif* AlunitKifii. Fiam ih\i ft«nilcinin'i KCDunt ot Hcdtnglutn CuOt, 
af the ibovc puticului an dntved. 




ESSSX. 



i^ 



j^rcat arch, which «:(tmds crnnplrtely across^ and sapports the up- 
per part, it tiK0ty>ODe feet, imd lu tlic ceiling twmly-^gtii fr«t. 
Here ibe style of builJing is ttill more embcllitlied; Iho ba«rf and 
capitabof Ibe pillart, the mouMingit, ^c. dUpUj-ing more elabo- 
rate omantenls. In this chamber, ttte Biicienl Bamns recei^-ed 
the homage of their reiidnl (fnunis, nntl entcnnined tbcir visitor* 
in all the ostentatious bo&pitality of the timet. Above u the tt* 
tic, or uppermost Hoor; nntl over it the pritform, vrlitch com- 
mand* ■ view of Ibe surrounding country to a tuiisiderablc ei^tciit. 
Near the loop-holes and windows, on moisi of the lloorB, an- a va- 
riety of receaes miming inlo llie heart of \\w wall; theM- were 
probably intended as strejjin" places f(*r the koblien. li \s ubser- 
vable, that tbc omEimerit& of the impusia and base* of the tarns 
arch, mostly differ thnai^bout Ibe whole building; m circumstance 
that teems, frvm it> frequent occurrence in structures of the same 
age, to become a distioguisbing charucteristic of the Anglo-Nor- 
man style. 

The Bd/Junm, or Inner Court, in which the Casile ttando, con- 
tains nearly three arre«. Wiifain this were several towers, and 
other boilditt;;*, that appear to have been huill by John de Vere, 
tbc thirteenth Earl, soon aOer tbc bailie at Boswurtfa FiL-ld, and 
were mostly destroyed about the year 159?, by warmnt from 
Edward, the seventeenth Earl. Some other buildings stood in 
the ouler court, on the wte» now occupied by a l:8n(l&om« man- 
sion-bouse and its offices; these were built by KLibtrt Asbbur*!, 
£sc|. about the year 17 1^. 

Though the exact lime when this Caslle was erected cannot be 
ascertained, there is full reason to believe rhdt it was huilt by the 
De Veres, who, as already stated, pokeued the lordship from the 
Conquest till l625: and ihat it w»» rnised befwre tlie jx«r 1 152, 
it certaii], as vnhout authors have recorded the deuth of Maud, 
wife to King Stephen, as happeninft " tt Ilanninclmm Casllc,* 
belonging to Alberic de Vere, Earl of Oxford." It is probable, 

therefore, 

* Sn Dr. Ouciral'* ABglo-Noratan Aniiquiliu, p. $;■ Henry'i Hittorf 
of Ecfland, 6vo, Vol, VI, p. 191. Grosc't AatiqaiUa, 9ic, 



J 



96s 



USEX. 



tliercforp, llmt il owf^ its origia to llic gencml | emii*»ion(o erect 
cnMks gmntcil by Sh'piirn, iiiiil llmt it mm built eitbcr by Uiu 
fim Aubny, Esrl ol Oxfunl. or by hu nicceuor: the rormcr ot 
whom wu slain by the mbbte U Loudua in 1 140; iIk latter died 
in 1-2 U. 

Uuriiig ibc contest bctumn tite Damns and Kin^ JuliOi it wa 
takat by tbv Utier from Robert, the third Eurl, in t2tb\ 'fha 
((illawine yenr* aAer t'lc nccmtioii of ]|<mry tbe 'i'liiril, JtiguirWj 
bcciunc ui> object of ronlentiun, and whs ^unendcred tn Priiic 
Li-wi», tbp Duuptiin uf Pnmce; who, however, vfas &ooa after* 
w&nb iliipMsseuci) by the joint muleration and lirmuess of Lbc 
£ial v( VanUtoii;, K'^vrmor to l)i« youtig. Kjii^. Itobcrt do Vcrc, 
vrho bati tukcQ Bucb ansciive iNwt in Javor of llic Baruos, that 
he nos by nnmv excommunicated by IiituMrcnt the Tliird, was al- 
io fwrdonrd, »nd reMomI to his iiiiieritance. From (his period, 
nulhJnf; pAiliculiir nccurs relatinz to the Castle, till the time uf 
Jdliu. the twelfth E«Tt, to whom ii pasM^I in almost uiiiiitcrruptcii 
succi's^ion. I'hik nobletuun c^i^fUM^d the cauM o( the LAnca&trian!, 
and. continued to firm iu bis allegiance to Henry the Sixths that 
£ilvrunl the Fuunh, at a Parliament held on November the 
Aiuidi, in ihi' lir^l year of bis rcignt caused him, tliQQf;}i then nearly 
aiMy>c«nnra;;e, to be altaiiitcd, with Aubrey, bin widest wn, atij 
stlctnanls, with >c«crftl olhera, lo be beheaded on Touer Hill. 
Jol<n. his second &on, immediately took the tithi of Earl of Ox- 
ford ; and bwms, during the lint pert of txlvrard'e reign, to havA 
bren actuitlly employed in the restoration of his deposed So^xrrt20| 
ill wbirh objeri, lii% with hii friends, succeeded for a kbori time, 
atid wntt le-iiulated in Ua (static and buitora. The superior iior-^ 
luup of I'ldward baying once more iv;;aincd llie atcendancy, tbe 
£arl, Hfier ibe decisive batllc<>fl>aniet, ftcd into Fmnce, whence 
ictumin^ in a bitort time uitb a uiiall force, he surprited S(. Mi* 
chad i Mount, in Cornwall, but was soon obliged to yield himself 
a piiaufttr, nnJ was seal by the Kitig lo the Cu»t1ccf Uatnmei, 
i|t I'icardy, nherr Iie wus cimcly cotifincd fur about twchx 
years ; but ut leii^th escajwd. according to tome account*, through 
6D ifiliniary niih the vtite vi hit kecpor. to the meao time, hb 

tunjite 




E9SSX4 



anpl« estate were confiacaled ; atul, in tbr firsi yc&r of Itichard 
the Tbinl, this Custic, lonbhiji, niiJ mmur, wen! gnintcil fur 
life to Sir Tb'Mnns M<intg<impr> ; who, h'jwever, did not vnjoy it 
Biij cowidcrablc lime, ii*. on tho dcwssiao uf Henry ihe Seventh, 
aiior the ticiory et niutrorlh, the act of atiJiin<1cr uas repealed, 
ant] <ill ihc luirl'a c&taus aiul hunurs mtorini lo him. No one, 
iildvcd, cuntiibutcJ tuurc to raiw iIil* EmtI of Uiclimoutl to the 
throne of Eflj;lan'l ihaii this luiblcmnn: for, on hit rscapofroni 
the Caule of llaiumcs, he joined tlie Knil's ndhrrnith, accompa* 
nied him to England, (Lnri.conarnniidcd the vangiiant of his army 
with the grratwt n-iil orul effect. 

" Thii John dc VVrc, ihirler'nih End of Oxfurd, uhcn Ui)riV>. 
ga^ed in Ihtf alfiiini uf hi* Sovereign, (for h« wa» bi» princiiul wr- 
v>int both fur war nnd )K-»ce,*} >c4>nis to have pas^d much uf'his 
tunc at (hu Castle- IK* upjuam iv have bt-en auivc, magniticcni, 
learaed, and religious manjt and Co bnve liied in grtui tplotidur, 
and much bt>t>piiiJily. 'I'bvtv qualiiiu i-cera to bate drawn ihn 
jcalotny ami rt-M-nlinrnt uf 1;!^ raiult^r upon liiit old Miid faithful 
lervaot, nnd thiit nt r RKiinctit n^ure proper to (•viin^isb, Ihai^ 
to aciua<e tUr mt^'hI puMon»; at the close of a sumpluou» and 
expvn^aro cutcrtiiiiiiDeiit given hy Ihe Karl to llcnry tiic Seventh 
at tbfi Cutlr. Tbe itury it Bulliviilicatcd by our bc&t hiiloriam/'I 
■nd is thus related by Lord VeriiJuin. 

" At the King's gniitg away, the EUirl's servant! Mood in theii 
Uvcry coats and cognizances, tsmged on both sides, and made a 
laiH'. '1 hi: King Called the Catl, and taxi unto him, * My Lord, 
1 bate heard niurh »f your hMpilnlily, but I ive it it greater titan 
tbe tpevch: tbnv handsome (^ntU-mcn and j-coincnf which I see 
»a both 9id«> of me, are suixi >uur intfnial setvsnts.' Ttic Karl 
uniled, and ansnnred, * It may pIcaM^ yatir Grace, that were not 
for mine code: ihi-y arc itiost i/I ihi'm my rctainen, thatarccomc 
^"01.. V. An (0 

■ Sir FruKu Bicon't Hiit, of Uatr/ ihc Snremii, p. tai, 

t Callim'i Kebic faniliei, ]>. Sjl. 
J Letter of Looii UvjciMliei Ci^. VKuiii MitniiriMiia. 



n 



i 



to ilo me *«r\ke at sach n time u tliis, nnd cTiirfly fo sf^ yoar 
Cnirc' Ilo King «liiitleil u litilp, aiiH snid, ' Hy my (iiith, idjt 
Lord, I ttmnk you Tor your goml cheer; bul I may mil tmve my 
k«i bruhrn in my sight. My airoriicy must ^jioiik with yuu:' 
in<) it n I'cportvO ttiul Ibc Earl c>>m[>uuiKlcd fur iki lew cIuiit 
1 J.OOO marks for thin ofTL-nctf againtt iliv ^bitulc of KctairKTTS." 

1'his ICarl survived liik uitgcncnios Suvercign abnul futiryc^an. 
On tiis duitli, hit body vtua runvr^-cd (mm the CiBtlc to thtf ' 
|)Kii»h church, uhrrv it luy ii) «iiiic previous to itslntermcni itc^ 
CvUtit Priury. The gwil ami rxpriisivp [Mtradeattetuliiig ibe At< 
ni-iii!s ni ni>l>lrir.cn in ihal age, may ht tilimnted from a docu-*' 
Tiii-iit jtrcMTvinl ill ihc Hritish Mmcum,* mid nliicli coutaim llicw] 
ironk; "Ihcir were giwii of Wackgounc* the number of nine hui»*| 
drvd and uiun*; and to tvns my txtrd brought to the pariib church, 
inil laid in ihc tjutic." 

Edward, (he sevrnti'Viuli £arl, vrex not<;d fctr hit unboundrd 
pmfuMnn, uhicb uccnsitined him lo ulic-iialr many of the famtl]^ 
r%tfllc«. Hit linl vrifv Via Au>i, cldt'Kt daughtrr of Ibc Lor<|'| 
ChiuiodlQr Burk'igh, by * horn he had ihrw daugblcn; bts »c- ' 
Cond, Elittthctb, dnu^thtcr of Thomns 'I'rpiiiharn, Gent, of Rou- 
cmivr, in StuAurdtihiri?, and Muid of llunor tu Quvrn Ulizabcll) : 
by thi-t ludy be bad one ton, namtnl Henry, who succeeded la thuj 
earldom. AnKm-; the oihcr rtlaics which the extravagance of) 
Earl l-'dward )>hli,>;i-il him lo purl with, was ihc Honour and Cai*j 
tie uf llcillnsham, which waa srcuml hy ImtA Burlfigh, moit' 
prubably niih a \\ev of providini; for hi<i three graiid-<}AUghters. 
Pn-vi<ius to ihis, howi'vci. the C'aMle wui dilapidalod, and moH 
nt Uk- liuililmi;^ ruMrt\ ti> the <;r(iurid. under the Earl't warranuj 
'rite ISrt.«, which were three In number, and contained sercnll] 
bandrrd acm, weiv pat1«cl, and Vet 10 sevcnil lenaots in allot* 
meiit^ 

Heiin*, ihr eiAbteenili Earl, imt, by the pmdcnre of his mo* 
Ihrr, and the riMMuiii-r v'f hor o|iiil«iil leluciuns, reilored to ihtt 
r-,iiKie by iigrLiUh-tit willi bit three biilf-iisti-r^, and ihvtr butbMndt., 



■ HmI USS p. a93. I. i^ 



JilirTTFrmT, 




)lS»BJk. 



371 



"Ort Tin death, without i«9ue. in l6-15, it was licM in jointure by 
hht Cunittcn Diann, ifcond «l»ujLhtcr of William, second Kurl nt 
EWlcf, itflcr ivbiiic (lecrtuo, in l655, it ptuarti JMrt liis ni^tliri'i 
family. wt)<> retninciJ it till iti^ ymr 1713. when it wus purciiaiicd 
hy Robert Antihunt, Esq- »PCond mn of Sir William AshhiiRi, 
Km. Lonl Mayur of L'.>TH]un in lGi)3. Tbc AaMiunis were »ac- 
cveileil by Sir Henry Mntii;liuiii, of llouglium Tuwcr. in ljanc«- 
illtt^; but tlic present [xiswasor is Lewis Majpnilie, Emj. wlio in- 
liabits th<? mitmiiin itpcimI in ihe t^pjinning of itie Iam cenrury. 

TWINSTE \D llAtL, Utf the scut of the lainicd Jaine* iMnr- 
tittt, IX. I>. fttaiich on b cotnfiMluliits eminence near the villit;;^- 
Cliureli. Il i> a 4[>itrtoiu xn<l linmiiome building, nidrcled by 
pleasant p«rJen«, inciowd by a drcp moat, ovcrwliicb is a lijflit 
briWge, lending tnio the adjoiiiiiin nteudowa. 

In tlir chnncvl of ihc small mid uncivnt CAunHt M I DDLKTOX, 
on a blacli marbk* stiib, is u niKk' fi.^urv, the body uiid other 
ptrt? KulptuTcil nn tliv klab; btit the hi.-ad inliiiti, Nml of white 
niarUe. ArmiiKi itsrc vHriom oriiamrnt«; and on tbc wr^ of ihu 
stiMU ibu remains of the fullowinj; inscriptiua: 



Ate fs:ct Diminua %A€'S)'BGl% tiid^J^^f^i QuanQam 
Eciui CttlfttSM r;utiis iVibliltion, qui atiii diuia ComiAO 

BrXCHAMP HALL, situuieJ in the pnritb of Relchariip* 
^Valtcrt 13 the s^al and properly of tbc Itcv. Samuel llaynionct, 
ortc of *hi»e nncc^iors came into Kngland wilh William the Cnn- 

' qucrar, and whose family liave resided in this neighbourhood for 
ibe lut iZOO years. The pmeni mansioti is a «ulj»tuiilial aiuj 
ruiuiutHllom building, bavtnft iti pniicipl, or Kiutb-csuturu front. 
compow^ mostly of foreign bi-icki. Il staiida Iti n plua^ant lawn, 

'sloping grnlly to u small riMcr, Unit llowg within about 200 yanli 
of the front. To the south h an extensive arid btKirloiis termce* 
skirted with lofty trees, and icrmintttcd ni one emi by an ancit-iit 
building, ornunrntcd with some puintod gliist. At the ulbrrcod 
is a lofty mount, having anuibcr nmamcnlul btitlJina on iti tUM' 



AaS 



miL 



3/8 ^^^^ 

mit. Tills man«ton contains a collection of pictures by some of 
the muit eiteoinni mmslcrs; amon); iKcm are (he fullowing. 

A Urge piclurc, contuiniiiK three iubjr-cts, by old Teniers. 
Christ appearing U> the Virgin Mut^', in the character u( a Gar- 
dener; Rubens. A [.andscape, with an approaching Storm; Jacob 
Uu>n.()acl. Two picmrw, n«>rMenting Archiiecturul Uuins; \'i- 
vinni- Clin»t in the (iniilcn ; Ikn. Ltiti ; a very 6ne specimen of 
this artist's tslento. A UtDtlscapc; Hmh. Another, finely paini- 
cdi byWynants; andnlhii-d, by WuIltIou, uh artjirf famous (or 
bis etchings of trees, 6cc. Tbu Wiw: Mem' Olfi-ring, an altar- 
pieoc; Albeit Dunr. Thit picture, nilh a large gun, some |H*- 
tdls, uniJpoM'der-llakkf, inlaid tvilb gold a»d ivory, M-creprcH-ntcdto 
tlic Knymunds, by Sir NVilliiirn Hiirris, a sea-ufficer, who took 
thetn, with other property, on the ilcfeiit of the Spanish Armuda, 
in 1698. A thrcc-qimrtrr porlrult of SiH Hl'Cii Middle* 
rotf, Uart. in whose public siiirit the New Utvcr originated, aitd 
nasbrouglit to London; another of his Wife; both by Cornelius 
Jnnscti. Sir Hugh resided at Goldingham il&ll, ui ibc paruh of 
Bulmcr, adjdiiijii^ Bclchuinp. 

llic Ckurck of nL-lrhamp- Walter, dedicated to the Virgin Mary, 
B lofty, and neat ; and coittains an onliestra, with a fine toned 
organ. Here is a large vault Iwlonging to the Raymond family, 
to whom there h b fine tnnrblc monument in the chaitcri. A 
Sunday Schout, for filly poor children, lias hexn establuhnJ iu 
this village liy Mi>, H.-iyiuuiid. 

In BORLUV Lhanh w a opleiidid monument to the memory of 
Mfvcral individuals of the Wuldegruvc family, ulio have held the 
manor from the liine of Henry the Eighth. This monument is 
foura-eu f>H*l in height, nine iu length, and live broad. Under 
a rich cornice, supported by pillars of the Corinthian Order, arc 
incumbent figures of Sir EnWAwn WALni-OUAVK, and his 
Ladv FRANCr.n; iht' furnuT of uiiotn died in 1^61; the latter 
in I5i>9. Near them are the effigies of their five childreti, two 
sons Hud three daugbler^; at the top of the cunopy arc itie fumity 
amis; nnd round the cd^c a Latin inicripuon. 'llic whole is gilt 
aiid pittuted, and inclosed by iron puliutdoes. 

LISTOS 



BMXX. 




LISTON HALT., tbn uMit of ^Campbell. Esq. is a hand. 

lome RKKteni building, with wings connected by pimzas. hit- 
very pk-asanlly situated on (lie borden of the coun^ near tbfi' 
river Stour, uiid <'ncom))aucd by a small park and gardens. TKii 
moor was gircn by William llic Conqutirur to IJugli d« Gonuu, 
om of his ofHren, who afterwards Iiccame a monk in the Abbey 
of Bcc, in Nornukmly, Pntm lliit family it jMiraed to the Df Lif 
tMt, wlio spitird here cither in lh« reign of Henry tlic Second, or 
King John; and held the lands here by the sergcaiitry of " mak- 
ing aitd placing live na/cn before tlic King, as tie sits ut dinner uu 
the duy of bti CurunuUDii."* Hy the sam^ tenure, with but little 
variation, ihe tnanorof [.iston was iirld far nearly live centuries; 
though during that prriml it passed through various Inniilies. 

GULAT YEI.UHAM i» an extensive parish, but lliiidy inha- 
bited: thu lands arc mtH cultivated, and di«tii«-d intn anibli.-, pai* 
turv, and inea<low, interspersed with HuurivKing ptanlatioiis of 
hop*. Ilerv is kImi sumc fine timber; and n rcmarkablv nncieut 
oak, vhirh »tand& near thv Church, llic trunk of which is upwards 
of nine yanls in circuinrerenrc. 'I^c Ciiiirch h a strong stone 
boilding, supposed to have been erected by subscriptinn of Uie 
neighhoiiring gentry, ubuut the time uf Edward the. I'hird: it la 
pleaundy situnted cm a bill, and Is ornamented with a tteat allur- 
piece, and «nnir painted slo-t:), put up nlwiut fitty yearsago. Hero 
b a handsome nioiiumi.'nt to the memory uf the Dowager Liidy 
Viwountest Batemah, daughter to Charles, Earl of Suiiderlaml, 
nbo died in Kebituiry, 1769. Within a liiUe dintuiicc of the 
Church is a hnusc, anciently ui^d lor dreeing a dinner when any 
of the poor InhatHlants were married; but now converted Into a. 
SekooL 

In tlic year 1800, askeleioh, and various Komciii antiquities, 
wcTc diicorercd by a labuivr in n field belonging to Bmdiield 
Farm, in the piirihh of TuFrEsriELD, udjcriiiiiig Great Veld- 
bam on the iiorlli. Among ibem was a metal vase, or i'nrfrri- 
culum, with a handle; u metiil Patera, bo»cd in the centre; three 

A a S elc^nt' 



• Uonal't Luck, V«1. U. p. flW* 



ar* 



IBSBX. 



elc^nt litllft nips, of red Samian ware; ik Ilomnn c<m, mneh (Jr- 
fuct.'d- finil a sworj-blado, grttitly corroded, &nd found l^iiigftcrtj«» 
ibe brcsat of the »k«lrio».* 

Nort!iw»H fnMn Topi-csrH'ld, are the C(>nlinm>u« pnmhw of 
ItlDCiWI-XU BIUDUKOOK, iinii STUUMl.Ki;, tlir-.ugh whicl^ 
B liomoH uiUitarif It'aif is inciilioiicd, by Ur. Salmon, to hava 
[Misited fronv Colchnter touards Camboricirm, An Bcrotini of 
ibit rond, and the mitlquitios dUc4)Vcrv(l on citlicr bido, u-as com- 
tnunicBtrd to tbc Society of Anbquaries ia Februaiy, 1801, by 
Thomas WiiWbni, Esq. of Wlii(lt-y; from nli(»c loiter Uie follow- 
ilig particulars urc ik'ntril. 

Kidgu'cll u|ipmT» to b«v« oblaiiiud its name from ibe RomAo 
ridgewiiy, a road, which passes near il, on the »oulh-«e*i ; and 
which, Jn tlic ycsr 17^0, hus very visibie; hut run now buntly bo 
Irnced, fioni ibc c-fr^>ct& ofcuUivaiiuti, Ncurly inidwuy, beiween 
tba lotd anil the villagr, in a Jit-ld, riilird <iri'«t A>hlfy, ninny 
Roman anltquilirs, m ruins t'Ics, and Icisrnr, urriv fuund prevU 
t>u» to the ycur l/'^l^; ivbfir it wtu firal dinco^'t'red lu have been iho 
Mt« of a UuM4N Villa ; und h very »ccuni1e plan of that part 
Mbich had nut been previously di^urbeU, wgfi uK^ti by Mr. 
Wallord.t 

" The cntranci! of this villa wus on th« &<iuLh souih-uru froot, 
into a narrow fiorticus, U-hvcen sixty and seventy feet lung, and 
unly riinc v^ide, uitli a le»c'lii.ti:il imiemenl, nearly eiilirt!; the 
tk-tsrrx one inch long, three ijuartcn of an inch wide, and faalfan 
inch ihick, rU euliie: in ibt; reiiire werv mx kqunrcft of lurgQ 
brick, of whith live only were perfect; part of the sixib having 
been diilurbed by ibc plough. These squares, which were ex- 
actly three feel cvcrj- way, and seven distant from each otlier, 
were probably tlic l(»undutiom of pillars, which formed a colon- 
nade to fttipport the roof of the porticus. The tile*, or bridu. 
in these sqnniv*. were sixicen iiiclnes long, twelve inches wide at 
one end, llnrtecn at llie olbcr, and three qunrlen of an inch 
ibidc; the edges, which wore turned up nn inch and a quarter 
Uigii, were thicker than the other part of the tile, lliese were 

placed 



« Are>><col»r*> Yot ^IV. 



♦ IbUI, Vol XIV. 



k 




nsftiTt 



m 



|JcM(l witb tlitfir^dgnilownnard. upcin a thick bcJ of Mnil; nnd 
Uput) llicm was IhiiI il roitsiilenbU- roat of nKti-tar, miulc wiili 
IKxundoii bricks aiul Iiinc, lu cement ttie brici» wliicb by abfiu-, 
aiid wliJcb were fifteen iticljt-» «iui r lialf lun^ elcvrii iitclios widv, 
ahd Hbuul uiic mcliaiul « half thtck: six of ih[>M'. viith a nnuill 
|ikcu ur two [u iiU up llic cviUrv, furim-i] die M|uuni ul' three ixt, 
u aliovc-mentiuncd. 

" From the porikus nn a^crnt nf erne stop IrJ into the Cryp- 
to-porlieiu,' uhicli vtui pavcl uiili red tcs«nL*, iit itnitt hnvt, 
but lui^rr than the funner. 'iliiii nppcure to have h-tl lu the ptin* 
cipnl fXMin, ai u gn-at number of vrry niiiall ii^wrsf, ul nirmai 
colon, i«cre ruutid, and nuiiic jm-ct^ t*t[|i t^t^ht or ten, that hiid 
not Ureii wpiinili:i), tbiii had ci.-rtniiily I'u'nird purl oj'n bcnutiful 
puwinent, furmvrly broldii up by tbc pluugh. Tire povvmctil 
irhioh remained of the cjyptif-porticus, was but fo«r inrlics bchw 
[lie luiruw; therefore, »u|iiii<iing a siep nut of ihis intu the prin- 
ci|ial room, ihe llwir uould lia\e been even with the pre><*iit tMT' 
Hire; and, cun»rt)uemly, inuM lont; agn have been ditlurbeJ, 
I'lial there were rounia beyond this, is tiacrrtjiiued by the remajne 
a waJI, extending tea ^t further ihan wiy other part; and 
[further pruned by iiunirrx>u« plectn of wait, pnrnted in 9lri|Ki of 
yellww, blue, puiple, bruMii, crimson, and green; Wfhich biiH 
ovitieiitly fuUvn frora the udea of Ihc nwim when* they wcr« 
fuund," 

One of llie roomt appL-ars to have cnmmunicaled with an tlj- 

poauutr recorded to bate been met with here about filty yean 

ago{ and nrntl pfubably W'ii» healed by it, as a very pi-it'cct dt>« 

, .was remaining, which o.\teniled sixteen l«tC ci^ht inchn under 

floor; the arch was turned with lat^ bricitt, abniting upon 

iibble lituiH!; the >i<Je* and bottom w«r« o( iho taniR; in 

width was twunty-unc inchu, ami ii» tivighl ihirtj-lhn'e indies 

clear: the mouth of the Hue wai co<rcrcd with a liirgcsloiM>; and 

ncur it were I'outid a rumiderabli: quaniit) uf woud, citals, part o( 

A a -t a huiki-iiiill, 



* The C<ypM-pOTlkui wm *n tnclot«ct of piivue poiticoi. to nib-il u> i'n* 
cingutih it from llic iMCiicui whuM roof wit jupivotttd by pitlirt, iaiun fi'% 
X«, ^ t AWr. 



375 



ES»CX. 



a hand-mill, two pieces of stag's born, two bran fibulw, and m> 
vein! co[))>pr coii«. 

Ainon^ the olhir irmain* found in diflprrni pnrts of lh« nrira, 
were taunx fnismrnis of Putrra, uiid pott of vannus kinds of Ro- 
man cattliMi-iwip; nmii) lm[;inMib. of glass, twn-ri;>lith*of anincK 
thick, " which h«d evidtrntly b«eu iited in ihe windotvs; one piece 
perfect)) ftjit, nith ii rnun'IrJ:^, formed In I'll n »nK>vc;" a f,ttM 
nunibor of ontuinenl(>t liln; and ll>e fni^mcnl >>{ anolhrr tile, 
with the figures y tttKc rcpcnird; two ivory Mylt»; in oblong 
bmss fibulsc; a fihula^, ncuilj' circular, with uni»inniied ends; a 
Bllver rom nf Donnlian, in flix- prrsrrvHtion; Rnnlhei of Olacilia 
Severs, very perfect ; copiicr cuiiia of Nero, Vrspa^ian. OuraU 
tinn, TraJHn, Camusius, Conitsniioc the (irmt, Constnnlioe, Jun. 
Theodosius niul Arcodib^ ; Aiid a " MnnFl l>rili&h coin of gnAit. si* 
Ittilar lo fi^tire 56 in Cannlen'A Krilxunia, pa^c ft3." 

In Birdbrook I'briib, oii diffrrcnl sides of the turnpike- road, 
ivlticb &[>|ipuis to bu«e iK'en formed for a coittidcrabJe »pace on 
the Itomun Military Way, vorioin si-cltloHt hnvi; hi>pn found, 
Wiih tome of them urru «crc discovrrrd ; but the grratef nnn- 
bcr bad nfiiher oms, nor uny other aniiqutiy. The ground 
M-lirre they lay, ia <)iiiie k-vrl, hnviiig no tiiic4'> wtifttrvec of iu> 
tnuli ; lltus wtity'tufi the obwrvHlion of Sirutt, " that not many 
Itomun Mi)tiquitie» bK\-e h<-ft) (otind in barrouv, but Urge rjuanli- 
tics ][i th« tnore common (iuryii'g-gri.iuiids, near iheir ^laltoMS; 
and wiThout iheiir cities, vTonthtBtdfiafthtirgreatrvadt: and 
thete ari: most Irequently dit^covered without the least veuigv. or 
mark, of any kind of luiiernl mnnufflrnls."* 'I'wo skvletoBs, 
fiund with tvko cms, in Oxicy Field, bekjnfiing to Chadwell I'anii, 
Iny II) a very singular muniiiT; being *^ urin inarm, each r)B9{^ 
ing 111* same urn ; and the right leg of one laid acrow the left leg 
of the other, tbe lower urn U:ing placed Ivtweeo their hips." In 
the jcnr 179S. ut a little diBiiincr ftoni the iUTn|Hke-foad, a kin- 
glc skeleton was found, vith tvo urns; llic i>nc placed lenglhwayt 
tieta-eei) the feet; the other cliispcd by the left arm, with ihi: 

mouth 



« JVnti^tii(i«», Vol. I. p. f% 



£BSEX. 



str 



toouth downwards : one of (Ik urnt was Iimkcn wilb the pirk-nxe ; 
the other was prcsrrvcil by Mr, Walford : it li sboul seven inchci 
liigb, and three wide at tbe top, with the »i<ln indi-ntvd. A small 
quantity of red earth «&» inclcwed within these, umilar to llie loU 
in which ihcy were dqio^itcd. 

A little to the nortb-wc*l of Wal*w Briilj^e, which divides th« 
pansbes of Ilirdbrook and Stcepl'e-nuiiisirad, and immediatelj 
above the riv-er Stour, is iho tile of u liotitait Camp, or eutiun ; 
part of the west vallum is slill remaining ; tli« i)urth-vre»t end woi 
destroyed so lately as the ycur 1793. .Many blune (uundHiiotu 
of buildings have been dug up here; and Mveral skeletons, uilh 
vms and c^iins, discovered in a tieigbbourin]; licld: in t 6cld al»o, 
on thi} oppo&iic iiJc o[ ihc 8tour, many Human coi:iJi biive been 
found. 

Ill Fonl Meadow, about n furlong from (he camp, a workman, 
Hubbing grui-el in Fi-bruary, 1793, diwovered a »inBll urn, co- 
vrrcd with pan of a Roman brick, containiDg one gold, and (wen* 
ty-ninf silver coiia, of the I^wcr Empire, in very line prei^rra- 
tion. 'iTie gold coin wiis of the l-'mptror lionoriun: llie others 
were of Honorius, Arcadius, Magnus Maximu*, Gratinn, V»- 
lentinian the Elder, and Julian. Tbf urn wa* of light browa 
caitti, slightly bidied. AbuuL one mtlu and a half westward Irt/m 
Ford Meadow is a largp tumulus.* 

AVMITLF.Y, in the parish ot' Birdbmnk, nnri nearly cfnlricHlly 
intuatcd bt'lwccn EUrdtrouk, Il.:thorne I'/nd, and Riili;nell. ii the 
properly and residence ol Thomas Wallord, l-^sq. who has grertlly 
rmbclli$h«d and improved the i-»tale by various plnntulion!), uid 
layinj^ out tbv groymls in iin omnnieiiial slyk, A r*:rvtn ot firs 
and furut tiees, combined with syfam<iie», ehesnuts, Urcbei, &c. 
extends from the houM Id a Email bill, planted wilb cvduis, cy* 

prcbsvs. 



• Sum* otlict iincJ()iiiiiM. tnd, in pir.icialir, ■ nnmWr of Bii*i>1> f oim. >ie 
mmlioM!) Iiy Mr. Wiltoid, la iuve letn round U ibc njUol ibo UiUllTf 
W»y, htyotii Heveibill. in SuKulk ; Otoe niU be irwulioried in 0*iT d«- 
iciipUOQot ihit county. Inadiiiiian to ll-e psiiicutui coiiiinuniriEtd to il)e 
Sociayof Aiii<i]uir>ubyM[ W. ihit jeiitl<in«n iinnw prrpntinglo' puilKWiow, 
■ H'lloiy >i'il Dvcri^non, with PU:n, of >bc ELomaa Ami^bilic* (auiid in 
the puuh ud VKlnicy of Birdbtook. 



vn 



ZI&X1C. 



bpressa, uk] lanrrlL Tbe prospect hmct^ commaoding •oin« 
ftm tcrucry, u eiilivenrd by tb« graiHl ctobdlllcJ Custlc uf Ho«' 
[^mgluun, ukI the ClmicUca of Toppcificld, Ui-f^ivcll, and Bird^j 
uk. At a tburt dislu>ce u a woixl of about k-vcu acres, laid : 
Ennt in plmsint wulkf, and DntamiritUiJ wilh Viuioos wat^ onii 

lildiitgs. One ot'Uwm, called the lUrmilosft ii rtMM ai^n-eiibly 
lituainl among tlic met, ami coreuti of ihm cifrular ajMiiimcnts, ' 
|t is bulU nitb mi>-il['ne, limber, un<t bark i>r trees: ihcnhola 
E(tivcTC(l vitti Uiatcb, paved with prblles and Iitrs, atwl rusUcalcd 
rilh mou, Sec Sen.Ta\ ivtUcr nir»l ftitd i>ninAieiital kC1^rlt»an■t) 
objects are Cunluiiwi] in llinc iLroijiiJ^. The Oowrr'^tniilcn cota-J 
iia^ a rich antl choice UMrmblage of exotic »hrub« «n<l Howvn^ 

Rid» a coUccliuu ul race Eii^lith pliniiB: tb» tpot in dccDralir*!' 
riiJi u buililiii^j appiopriulcly namrd the Trmpie t^ Flwc, a'wl a 
tmcr-houi^e, taiicitully oniamciiu-.l vit'i tri-llib-notl:. Tliia 
tcitalc was pu^clls^ed, by Thornas Witlfura, M. D. ut f'locbtalJdtlt.j 
iitcaiDr to ibe prtwnt proprietor,) m i)M^-rar l657i 

ItlKDBKOOK HALL, ailh othvr estate in this vicinity, i» 
tbv pn>pcrly uf Sir WiUiitiii [kauniauiico Riuli, Kut. uf Wiinble- 
tlun, in Surty; wbusc tamily purchUH'd ibis tnsiior, in tbr you 
iJlG, of the Ilonomblo I^ord GcoT;gc Howard, «bo posscsMd i(J 
in right of hii wift^. 

The manor of BATHORNE TIALL, the property of George 
VyVv, K.«'j. Hiis purcbiMd of Cbarlei, I^rd iilnitiio^ic, byOt^ir}^ 
Pjif, E»c[. uf Binlbrogk, in itiKyear iGib. Batiiokjh: House, 
the presem residence of tbe nbovcgcntloman, was«rccted inl668i 
but na« modcniizcd, aiid mucli irn|)n>ved, in the year ISOl, It 
Mands in a large paili, ptivtjy dispOMHi iiitu pli-asure grnuiuU. 

IIAIUiTED HALL, a reputed m&nur in Birdbrook Harisb, is 
diMiiiguishcd a> cuntaituiig wnic of the fiiieU oaks in the whole 
county. 

SIXI It MERE derives iti name from its vicinity tea Jlcre formed 
by the river Stour, and thuuf-h nuw unly an obscure village, woa 
fumicrly v( great cMeiit and consequence, and is said lo have 
Fxrendct.! inlu both SuRVdlt and CambriiJgtsbite. Even the town 
of Haverhill, in llic former county, was once a hamlet lo Stur- 
merc; and the bdcr is &lill " tatrd and anesbed (o Uw laod*tax 

( by 



E55KX. 



S79 



lijr a~««rrant directed to two of iu inhabitants to assess Sturmi>ns, 
with its hnniltMs Haverhill and Kettou."' 

BOH'EIt Hall, in Ihr parish of Btimstmd-.StrrpIc, wn$, ia 
the reijn of Kdwanl the Third, the iiropwty of Sir John Kntvct, 
Oili-f .lu«tice of the King's Bench, and Lord Chnncpllor. It was af- 
ti:ni.-»rJs ahfitati'd ; and iii theyearl435, came into Uicposfcstiun of 
the Dendi^h fuiaily, which for a lung period held lands in this pBiislu 
Sim T'uoMA^ Ue!IDIHII, Ban. who nas born here, was n dJs- 
tin^iuishcfl |ianixnn of Charlt* the First's, in whojc came lie wa» 
somfftiine inipriMnod hy the Houu^ of Commons; but after his 
librraiiun, obtained so much renou-n Tor his inlf(>nty mid talciils, 
that, in 1^47, he was sent, by Ci>niiivancr of ilie Pufliamrnt, as 
Ambniuidur tCxlnonlinor^ tu the Ottoman I'urtc. He continued 
in Turkry fifteen yviirs, tninsRCting the business of his cmbauy 
with groni address aitd spirit; and though IcUcrs for his recul, 
were sent to Cumttniiliiiaplt: by ihu I'rolcctur, Oliver, he Tcfusod 
10 ubry the mandate, or to rcKJ^n his roinmiiaion, Miihnut tha 
King's onler. On thin rrfiiMl. In- was im|Mruciie(l for liii;Ii IrMU 
•on; «nd probably only r^rnped ilealh, by hi« dclrrmination nut 
to return to l%ii;;hind while the enemies of royalty held supreme 
power. AflL-r llie lU'sluration he was rctaltnl by Ciiiirlcs ibo 
Sccund, with many promiMs of rcnsrd fur hisservirrs; though 
they do not appear lo have been fullillcd. He died here, in his 
o»*n mamion, in lt)74, and ncu btintrd in the Church, where nia- 
oy otbett of his fiiroily lit intunibcdi unrl sionie uf uhoni areroin* 
inemonitn) by rlnborale moiiumrnts. Since the death of Sit 
lieiiry Bcndi^h, Burt, the last male heir, who died in 1717, this 
csutic ha.s bvcumc the property of the Aader»wts. The mumion is 
A huidiomo and conwniont building, pleasantly tiiuaKtd in a small 
pjirk, with contiguniu ^rd^-m. 

HK.MVrKU, orHllMPSTKAO, n repuled chiiptlry loC.M-st 
Snmpford, contains two mnnon; one of which, citHcd llemstrd 
iiall, was purchased, in the rcijtn of Charles ihc First, by the 
celebrated {'liyiictiui. Dr. Uilliiuii JIurve)-, or hi!> brother V.\n\x 

Hancy, 



* Mnrem't Euu, Vol. 11 p. 3I7. 



380 



£8BKX. 



Harvey, Etq. TIio burial-place of thi> fimily is thr nolt be* 
imih UeinstcJ Cliapel, wliere several mooaraenu nre erected to 
ijR-ir metnory. Amotig ihtm tsonn for Da. HAHVEr, dtsplay- 
inj; liis IhirI, nnd iiiKrnbcd with a Latin ppitapli, recording bb 
(liscovci'y of llir circululiou of the blood, and other rircumstiincea 
connected with bi> profcuionnl knowledge. He died in tbo year 
1657, !i< llie iigettf eighty. 

Id the pmrish uf AsiiooK, separated from Bartlonr, in Cam- 
lindgealiirr, only by & anuiH rivalel, sr* four lofige contiguous 
Barrutc*, culled the Hautlow Hills, frutn Uidr atuittion be- 
ing not %cry diiiant from Uartluw Church. These arc vulgarly 
vegurticd as the tumuli nited over the sUin in ihc battle fou^t 
bclwcvii Udmuiid Ironside, and the Danish King, Canute, in the 
year IO16; but at lbi> tradition a nol uippurtcd by anyh»torical 
authority, it cannot be ccn&iderad a& deserving of credit. lodcedt 
the tcalimuny of ancient authors is decisively against it, as from 
them it appran thut Canute, al'ier plundering Mcrcia, was retreat* 
ii^ " to U'n kliii)*, when utiacked bv Edmund, and that the bat- 
Ik was fought ut AiMindunc." It 1* therefore evident, that iha 
|ilace of action should be sought for rather in the vicinity of lbs 
sea, than at tliv nurihvru exlremity of the county. Mr. Gough, 
fnnn the siiniluiity of the oamc, and other ctrcunslanccs, places 
it at ^ssiiigdoH,'' in Kuchfutd hundred, and that with every 
NfipcKrancc of probability, na will be seen in our description of 
that part of the county. Camden, speaking of the ilanlow HitUr 
Mys, ho nas informed, llitti, '* In (li«|;ing duvrn u fifth an<t 
sixlh, K>nii: lime since, they found ihret* slonu coffins uith broken 
human botics in them:" and HoHimbed affirms, that two bo- 
dies H'crc found ill one stone coftiii, one lying with the head n>- 
wards the fret of the utlK-r."t Un this evidence, Mr. Gou^ 
observes, «c do not find the use of stone coffins among the nor> 
ihem nations in their Pagan state, ani the Punes were itot con- 
verted till long after the time when the Ixiltle was fought. The 
real occasion of minng these barrow*, must, llivrefure, be rcganled 
as at present unknown. I).\DSTO(*K, 



* Bttunnli, Vol. II. |i. 53. Couch's £^L 



t Ihil p. 4& 



Eta lie. 



sei 



' HA'DSTOCK, now a small tdoui vilkge, nearly oiljoining 
Canibriclgc&iiire, had furcncrly the privilege ui' a market, «!iicH op- 
pears to have been pmcurcd, in the year 13S?, through tUc in- 
tercft of the Biihop of F.ly, who licid ttic manor ufthc King, wi 
cupitr, Bs part of lit bnruny. 'I'iH' CAmitA coiwbU uC a n«>i'c and 
trattwpU, with a small tower hiitig I'lum lh« iniewctiun in tliu 
centre. Dr. Salinuti, and olltcn, buppuM tlie HtuiHg Wag to 
hav« pasMid nenr lhi> villH<:v tivm lU-ytloii. 

GE£AT CIICSTLRKOUD it a small but ancimt viltage. si- 
tUBted (in ilie piut side uf liic river Grants, uliich, in ilii> part of 
its course, dividn Euex frmn CumbriJ^liirci and is by Miina 
UUhon erroneouftly ttained tbe Cam. This wu itie uiidoubttHl 
•ile of a Ruiuan ilMliuii, as is evident from ll>e numeruut Uoinan 
coint, uriu, und uliier uiUquili», iJiat Jiavc been dui; up heir, 
as wcH at from tli« reiniun* ut" the ciicainpmeiil i\w\i, which, till 
within these hw yaan, might be completely traced, and n yet 
vnilile in tcveral placet. Its name, however, like tbuM: (ifiill the 
ether ttalibni in iUik cunnly und neii;!tbiiurboud, Iiiu Ui-cn much 
contested. Dr. Stukelcy, and Baxter, ni«lu; it the Caaibarkum 
of Antotiinus; and HQn>ley calls it Iciatii; a MutJon uhich Dr. 
Salmon, on very ituuUicicni gruundt, relcrs to Cokbtnlcr, the Mte 
«f the real Cainulodunum, which thii author pluce§ at Castle 
Cajnpi, in Cambridgosliire. Mr. Gough appears to incline to lbs 
opiniom uf thuK hIio make Cbntcrfurd itic Ancieut Cuinburicum. 

Dr. Stuliol«y, whu vitited ibh blation in the }-car I7I<J, and 
deccribed it iu iiis IltiK'niriiim Cumnurn, say», that, " the fouu* 
(htliun of tliu walls was \ery appiirent, ijnitc rnond, thoUi;U level 
wild the ground, including a »pace of about filly acres. Great 
part of it serve* for a caiueway to the public Cambridge rxwd 
from London; the Crown Inn is built upon it; the reM is made 
use of by the .countrymen for tbeJr carriogcs to and fro in the 
fields: ilic c«rth is still hi^h on both sides of it. In one piirt, 
where lii*ry have l*een lon^ dif>gtii{; it up lor mnicrials in building, 
and mending tiio roads, I meatsured its breaclih twvUi; leet, and 
remarked its composition of rag-stone, flints, and Konian bricks, 
bound together by a strong cement. He btieks me Iburleen 
3 iacltw 







3Se 



ki-itft. 



Inohc« ini a Iin1f Ions;, nnt) nine bmiul. I rcmnrkcc!, Iliat tW 
city Min juht lOUO Ruiniin ibfrt in btntdlh, and t)i»t ihc brrndt& 
to tht (eni^lh WHS u (hn*c to An, of the ume proport'ron as iTier 
Tii^kv tlitir btu'k*; il >« poiitltnl obliquely lu ihc CHrHiiml pointi; 
ila length rrnm mirih-wnt to suaili-wat, whrrcby wholnomeneM 
is w well pnjv'nled fur, accnntiiij; to the diirction of Vitroviu?.** 
TliP mf4t nHfiu-nim of the coins <H*«iverri3 hcrp, »rc those of 
Cali^iittt, 'rnijiin, Cunstanlinc, ami CoMtnntius ; though nuuty 
of the nrly, M wrll u the later Empcrots, have hctn >l*o du^ 
up; find ti Itirp^ parcc! of »(*ry fine onr» wm found here in a p(« 
in ijOi).* A bronze liust, various fibular, uith bran 'and gold 
utnuiits and imirumpnis, have likewise been met with; as well 
u inatiy urns ami entire »kclctom; " and a smail um abu of red 
nrth, cunibiiiing fi«vrrul written scrolls of parchmcni, but i«^ 
pcnied bcrorc any ucrount or esplnnaiinn could be obtained. 
A Mone trough, the only one of the kind, perhaps, in England, 
discovered her^. awl some time »**d fi>r water at a smith's forge, 
was in the hands of the late Dr. Goiver, of Chclmtfon), whosu[^ 
posed it to be a receptacle of ashes, v( the kind called, by Mont- 
faucotv, and others, Quirtorinm, It is u half octR^on, mth a fiat 
hack, about three fvel lon^, nnd about a fuol or eighteen inchesdeep; 
in four rompnrtinrnii are retiefs of human fi;;ure» down to the 
waivtH, in lolrrable prescrr&tlon. That in tlie middle, whictt 
seems older thnn the others l">^ notliing in its Lands ; that to the 
right, holds a kind of patera with a handle; one to tbo left, in a 
jiafudaMcnfum, hiLt a ^il1^ulnr iveiipon, like ft trident, with a bar 
nrruw lite top, or perhaps a vexiHuni ; the other, but ball a 
figure, holds a »pear. These may repreitent one pereon in diQereot 
chiiracien'. or a rainily."'t- Bcsidis the station itself, which Dr. 
SnImoM, in his A(ilj{|aiii<% of Ej»ex, states as bcin-ia mile in com- 
pass, a smuUor camp may be traced near the Cliurck; and sev^ 

nt 



I 



* Gough** Additioni to the Biiuimii. Vol. II. p. 6*. 

1- CouKh't AitJiiinni. A«. Vol. 1|. p. G«. Mr. Honlejr, who duco<r«i«4 
iki* umigh in « miil at Cimicrford, bad it <a}rav«d, but very wmchcdiyi 
for the SritUMUa Ruinaua. 




r 

I 
I 



incy. 383 

tal Mhrn 1iave t>ccn noiiccd as remaining widiin the circuit of • 
6f<0 miVs. 

In ttie rrign of Hdwiirrl the Confrssor, this nuinor uiu thf pro* 
pcrly of Earl Edgnr; but nt the time of the nomftdlsy Survey, 
it Urionccti to tht Kinij, arifl had the prlsilegcs of a royal deiiK^tic. 
It was Bfienvar'ls poisois«l by several noble lainilies; and in 1503, 
planted, by Mruiicv, bruthcr lo Willinm, Marquis t>( Berkley, 
anil Iwbcl. Iiis wife, to the Abbey t<rSt. Peter's, ai WcsUiiiiiMer; 
but, on iliR Ditanlulion, Henry the Eighth bcEtuwccI it on tha 
Lord Chunrcllor Audlcy, from whom it has paned to the present 
Lcml Breybronke. 

The Chunk, dedicated to All Siiints, U a large buildinjB;, anr) 
bad a chantry founded in it by William lloldeii, Gent, under li- 
cence granted by Honry die Kighlh : it* amiuKi revt-nuw Ktnount- 
ed In 91* 9*- 7<'- I" '''e tetlificnte of the chantry lands. Great 
Chesterford is called " a Rival towne, atid populous, having ia yt 
to the number of iOO houseliii<; {reopie, and more." MiirHnl also 

I affirms, thai it hati formerly a markeL The inhaliiiants of ihe 
p«rikh, AH enumrrated under the tale act, amnimted totiOO; ttie 
homes to I IS. " Tlic many Ilomtin rtxid »,"' obscrres Air. Gotigb, 
" that iiill rvlain their name, or ridge, about this ancient nation, 
desenre to be accurately traced." 

H It a large, (traggling town, deriving its name, U'lifdoit from 

H the SaxoD words if'eald and Dai, signifying IVtm^y iittl; and Ihe 

term So/Trow,' Snathe great, t^uaniitics of that plant formerly cul- 

livaied in iu vicinity; bui ihe cultivation of whicli round thii !^pot 

m has long been abandoned. lb uloation is pecukiar; and Dr. 

Stukclcy, who, without sufficient authority, conjectures it to have 

been the Mie of a Roman ii^tioii, calls it " the most beauiiful ho 

B ever beheld.'* A narrow tonguu of land, he conlinues, " «b»olt 

I itself 

I * StfTron 




WALDEK, ott SAFrnON'.WALDEN, 



Saffron i> u<d la hive btcn firtt brousht Inio EojIanJ, tixl finl jmura 
iaEuex aod CnabiiJ^nliirc, riiIm rc>(n of EiJwtr4ll)e Thicd- 






984 




kscir out like a protnonlury, eiicompaswd wiUi a valley in llie' 
Ibriti ul a lioi-VL'-fthoc. iiicli)««<l by tlUiiiiu urid rnont ilclif^hifDl hills. 
Oh the Uittoin of tbc loti^ue sliuid iho ruins of a castle; and on 
llir top, fft extremity, llt(> Cliurcb, rouiiiJ which, on ibc side uf llie 
hill. w)<i in the vallry, t> the tuwn built; m (bat Iho bottom of the 
L'burcb is ta bigb aa tlie town, ami seen above ibu tups of tbs 

llOOH"*."' 

At tbc period of tlio Domnday Survey, Wajden was one of thf ^ 
■nineruui lonl^iipe possessed by (ieuffrcy dc Maf^iiRvillc, a Nur^J 
man Chief, who aceainpaiiitid ibe Coitqucmr into Eiiglnnil, ami] 
whose services uere rewordol wiili lis lonlahips, of which forty] 
Mere in tbia couDly. Thi» Nublcniao fouodcd a Latllc here, audaj 
NCCiirdiiig to the rxprcuiaii ol Camden, " first give life to tl 
pluce," vrbi(h altenwardi bectiuie the bead «f the barony and ho^! 
our of MuKdavjIle. 1 bis Cwlle occupied tiie highest part of iha i 
town, and. fnxn the remaining fragments, apjtcurk tii hare bccoof 
greatsl tenglii ; tiic wallt> hiivin^ U'cii cunipuoed of siniul tliiiis, buutwl \ 
bvtcellter by a very Mmtif; rcnK^riL Omlfrry, j^imuUoii of tlie, 
above, tras a man of gicul pvnonal brnvery; a quality which, io 
hi» turbulent n^v, wa» of the liret necewity. Kin^ Sleplieii mad* 
biti) Keeper of llic Tower ul Loudou, and created bim Ijirl oC' 
Essex; probably with a view of rclwuing bim lirnUy in bb inte-i 
rest; but the more advunlageous nficrs nf the EmprcK Maud aI-> 
lured him to her party, llesiiles very ample gnnXi of land, she 
coruiituied liim Hereditary Sheritf of London, and of llie shim of 
.Mi(Kll('M>x, Mertfonl, and Esm.-.\: the conlirnicd lu hiin Ibc pot- 
Kssion of all hik forlk and CA^tlrs; and ^ave him bberly to retain 
and fortify itie Towi-r of Lxmilon it his pk-ature. She ajw granted 
him liberty to remove the market from the neighbouring town of 
Ketupoii, xu his Cnaile ut U'alden, there tci hold it twice weekly, 
on Thumlay alid Sunday ; with tlie ri^ht of alt tolls, ru!>tains, &c. 
lepheii lic-iiig privately informed uf the defeettoit of the Earl, 
caused him to be arresti-d nt Si, Albann in 1 143; and, beliire be 
c<^uld obtiiln bis hbeny, lie was obliged to surreiuJer the go«em- 

raeat 

* Lout to llago C*^) £*9* Oii^'t LcUcn, p. iii. 



K5SE7C. 3S$ 

ment of the Towor, togcthrr with his own cuilcs of WaMen and 
I'lc^liy, to llic King. Iniliiiiu-d Ly vengeance for ihii txratineni, 
with a band of desperate partisuu, he ravagi-^ the demnnck ol' 
the Sowr^igri, unil hi» adhcicnCs, wilhout mercy; but vrus &t 
length »liut by sii arruw (A. D. 1 144) whik' houe^ng the Caade 
o( Uunrcll,* in Ciunbridgcthire, when utidcr sentence lU' e\- 
com mm ligation I'ur baring [tlumlercd the Abbey uj Kuinsrv, in 
}{ unii n^tlonahire.t 

Besides the growing importuncc obtained by this town throiif(li 
the rein^ral of ihc market from Ncnpori, lU Cunwqueiirc wu) 
further uilvanccil by the founiliiig of a B€iudicli/i< I'rhry hete by 
the above Eurl Geolfrey in the yvur 1 156'; and tvbich was cun- 
Terted into an AaatY in ll!^OI It stoud on the i|iut iioiv uc- 
cu|ii«) by Au(lU-y House; niitl wuk tupporlL-il by conni'ierable e:i< 
tlouineiit^ arisinj; from Ml^tos »nd cburcbo ib various counties. 
At ibe lime of lite general Suppression, iu itoueuiota Mrere, ac- 

Vol. V. B b . . ^,^, cordjug 

• Bnulin, Vol. II. p. >(■■ 

4 ** Lying %i the poljit of ilmli, Ktiy to git-c up Mi l^it gitp, iIictc vtmt 
bf certstii Knight* TcmpUf», who l«>d upon htm llw hibit ai tticir r«ligH>ij* 
pioioiiaB, li^ed with • pod cton; tad >lutwaidi, wIkb be w» Cull Jeid, 
bking liim up ivlili iheni, ciiclaKd him in * leadni <u(iin, ind hung him up 
on 1 tiM in ihe orchard in the Old Temple in l.anilon ; fut, in a i>-vtrtfiid aw* 
of the CJiUKh, ihty i)uTit nut l>uiy him, brciutc lie died cxcoiiimtin!t.'>tcc1 ; in 
frarful in ihou ityi wat tV Knuncc of «comniuni<-itlgtt. A violent invtdrr 
he WM of other mou' liodt tnj po>iicuioni, and ihcrdore jiutly incurred the 
wolid'i cifuuiG, »Rd thit doom of ilic Church; but I inuu irave liim, where 
buried, or wbeic not. Cod Ldowi,'* RtgiiUr £e»k rf n'iiUc%, quoted by 
Caradcn nd Wecvcr. Tlic cKconnnuniCMioo bein; «ficrv.«idi uku off, be 
vu privttcly burLrd. 

] AiBong the rmiiitnt perwmt buried In the Ahttj Clutch, were CtoFTrty, 
laof ibo founder i Humphrey de Bohiin, fifth Earl o I Cu(i:i hit Min (lum< 
"■fcliy the lixih £arl'» wiFc, witb three of ber vjta, mA a itiujIitiTi the wife 
•f John, icvutth£irl; Hutnphrcy, iuhlIi Earl, uid hitwiici and Hiimphnry, 
»on of Thon.H of Woodstnclc, Duke uf CloucciCcf, ind hU wiTe. tn lh« 
Cliapter tlemuwcie buried tlic bcailaof the founder '■ w;nnd %on, and 0> WUlian 
Ibe fourth Earli logellvT with ttw body of Bratrtx lie Siyi the foutidct'i una, 
•g Cis/n, i'K. Jf. f tin. 



I 



^.. 



366 



£S«1X. 



cording to ^ptcH, valued at 4061. 15s. lid. per einiotn ; an! 
were grtnted, by H^nry ihe Kigtitb, tu ihc Lord Cliaftcvllur 
Aiuilejr, who lOon ancrwards obtainni licence to enlarge bis park, 
by inclonng ?00 adilitwaal acres. 'Hie grant included Ibe manor 
of Walilfii, which has poassd Iwm the MagDavtlln to Geoffrey 
KilZ'Picrs who was girt with the sword of the earldom of Essex 
tlic day after the coronation of King Jwhn, in 1199. Geoffrey, 
his SOD and successor, assumed the noroc of Magnarille; but dy- 
ing without iaaoo, in lZl6, his c»we» and lith dMcendftl to his 
brother William, nho entailed them on hn sislCT Maud, vrifc oC 
HuiDfArey do Bohun, Earl of ilerefonl, and Lord High Consta- 
ble of Krgland; one of whose Bacreswrs had liceiici! loombatlle 
hb manor-house at Wald<>n in 1347. The youngest daoohteraiHl 
co-heir 10 the last of the Dc Bohun*, marrifd Henry, Earl of 
Derby, fiflcrvrard* Henry the Fourth, whose son, Hcorylhc t'lfih, 
itihciited this manor as pitrcvl of his motb«r'> tnoiety. FlrMli 
iliis period It appears to have rentftiiwd in the Crown, till giwited, 
wiiti the site aiid possessions of tlvc .Abbey, to the Lord Chancellor 
Andl^. Margaret, »nly Mirviving daughter, and sole heiress 
to lliis noLiiemnn, was twice tnurricd: Tint to llic Honorable Hen- 
ry Uudley, &laiii at tlic battle of St. Quintin; anil secondly, to 
I'ltomas Huvran), DuLc of Norfolk, who being attainted of in»> 
JOM, for ntrcinpling to release Alary, Queen of Scots, from im- 
prwnnieni, was beheaded, and hit estates furfeited to the Crown. 
'Ihey were, however, mtorcd in the foUuiring year, 15S^ Iftbit 
inn, Thoiuas Howard, who wh» liniglited for hks bravery ogainti 
ihu i>paaiisb Armada in 1388, uiiulc Kiiifibt of ibe Oatler in 
1^97, and created Earl of Sullulk in ltr03. The honuis U- 
vtfhed on this n<ihlinnnri by F.liziibi'lU, were incrniMxl by her suc- 
«?85or, Jaturs, by whom, in iGlff, he was made Lord High Trea- 
.'iurM', and appoinltHl, with other l.Qnis, to exercise the important 
ftffi<^ of lutrl Afanlial of li^ngluitd. ilt was this nobleman taha 
creeled the magnificent man»on, or palBcr, ju Avdlet) EnA; ami 
garc it that iiunii- from K^pect to his nialemal ancestor, Ibe Lord 
Clianccllor, from whom ho dcriwd thu mate; and whuK ik* 
s:ithlaDr, Lord Bmybrooke, b now propiiciiir. 

3 WaUea 





IS«R». 



S6r 



I 



I 



I 



W&tden WAS made a coiporato (own, hy Eiltranl the Sixth, in 
tbe year I54;>, at llie itilcrCi-«»ioii of Jotiii S'lnJtli, Estj. brotlierto 
the celebrated Sir Tliomas Smith. lu government wia tlicn vest- 
ed in Wfcnty pcnons, out of whom n Trewurer, or chief Officer,' 
and two ChsmberUiM, were nnnually chosen. Thnc officers 
were, by ehnrtpr of William the ThirJ, changed into a Mayor, 
tarelrc Aldoroion, n HecorJer, Town Clerk, &c. by whom the po*' 
iice is now regulated. 

In DugdaWs B&roingc, a notabte toanamcnt is roconled as 
having be<'n held hei« in the year 1352, " in which Roger de Lei- 
bum« encountered with Ili'iuuM dc Montcnei, a valiant Knight, 
and uoba[ipiIy run his lance into Ills throat under his helmet, it 
wanting a colliir; whereu^von Monleoe-i fell from iiis hone, and 
died instantly; upon which il was suppofed, by some, that he had 
leit his lance fvithout a soclvet on purpose, in revenge for a broken' 
Irw he had rcfx^ivwl from Montenci, in lilting with him ala fornici? 
tournament.'* 

lite C'AunrA, dedicated to the Holy Trinity, is a spncioits nnJ 
most elegiint pile of English arehiieclure, chiefly o( ibc ngt of iM 
Hcitrics, Seventh and Eighth; in llie reign of the latter of whom, 

Illie east end, and part of ihe south nisle of the chancrfl, nvrc built 
by the Lotxi ChnnccMor Audlcy, who is tiilerppd in the vxult be- 
ntaili, together with scvem) of the Eakls and CoiiHTtssKSS or 
.SorroLK. Walpolc calls it one of the lightest and most beauti- 
ful patisli chorcbca in England. It ctmsiiiia of a nnve, cbunrcl, 
and side aisles, with an embattled tower at the rt-esi end. Several oC 
the windotrs are richlv ornamented with mullions and iracery ; bc- 

Iriaeeii thoM in the nftvc are carved niches foi staluei. Th'n fabric 
wajlhorousbly repaired in the yean 17yi, ?, and 3, attheenpencc 
«r liille lea than 80001. To this tbe late LonI Howard cunlilbuted 
lOQUl. (or re^irin;; tlio roof of the nave, and abotit ISOOl. murft 
tot tbe Tcpain of the tmddle and south cliancels, both which, it 
dial time, were his Lordship's propnty. Eeudes these magnifi- 
cent contribuliuns, he was a most g<>nerotls bcncfuctor to IJbc pn- 
tibb, but iwrticulHrly to the pOf.r, to whose use he bcciucached th« 
'iaicrest of a sufficicat sum to dotbe twelve of eacli wk unnuidly 

Bb3 fof 




988 



B9S». 



I 



for ever. HU Lordship rfiivl in May 1737. at AudJcy Enrf, 
aixl IS Uurit'd willi Litk ancnturs in iJic lunily vault in Itiis Chun:!*. 
A liHiiiliiom'e pew-gallcfy was erected for him by Mr. Ivury, Iw 
twi.-7ii llic Qttvf anil charjcvL, 'V\ut altar-piece U a p«inliiig by tlie 
Rev, Mr PpU'n, copied frutn Currv^^io. Tbe motiumcni for Loni 
Audlcy &taniJi in iKc s^uih uile: and under an arcli a<ljoining to 
iLo chsiicrU ii a miitilalH epitaph to the memory of Juhu Lcche, 
vicar of this pamh from the year HH^ to I3'JI, and said to 
}iavc built tlie Clkurcli.* Many oihrr luonuniciital iiuciri|)tti>i» 
appr:tr in ditToiriit parts of this fabric, titc bright of which is I^O 
ft?ct, atiU the brcadtb niuciy: fim iutciWr U i«r{iculai'ly ncaiand' 
unitunn. 

At ihe simili-wffit end of the tuwn are some Aint-Homet, 
foiin<l<*d ill rhe xeign nf Tdward tbe Sixth. Here i* alio u Free* 
S<:}iool of ancient founduciuii, on wbich tome adililional t.-udov>» 
tnctUs w«rc bestowed by that Monarch, through the influence o(i'| 
Siu Tmoma* Smith, t Stcrclary to lidwurd th« Sixth, wtdH 
Queru Khoahctli, who vraa a nalivu of Wuldcii, and is tsupfwscd 
lo have b,€cn taught the rudinwjus of 4.'ducutt«ti at this school. 

At an old huusc in this town is a curious relit^ue of old Ei^ttlv] 
workmaniiliip. '* It cciMiiikts ul' a large oaken beam, eight feet NX 
inches ia length, and one foot thrvc inches in breadth at the cea*l 
ttv, beautifully carved in ix-licf vrilb ilic following d«vicca. 'ilio < 
ii;>ure of a tun i& cut in a scroll between iheftyllablcii uvu and 
DYL, and being read after LUt:tn, tnaku) up the n'oni !\[yddylton;- 
pmbably the name of the person who once powcascd the buildir^^ 
and upon the i\de. of the vciscl is a sinj^lc letter, seemingly an i, 
to demitc hi* christian immc: the date of the ytAT, also, 1387, i%'' 
Anibian fijjurcs, to placed at two trantvcnc angle* of the same 
ktlor. It is obscnrabk-, that all the letters, fij'ures, and the bolt 
of the tun, arc f<jnned of ihc twigs of vines Mripped of their 
leaves."; The number of itJutbitants in this towiif a» relumed 

under 



« Coufb'i Camden, Vol. IL p. 6i. 

VBfaiHiu, VoL II p. 63. J Sot Ta^ntUfi of iMi Beam, publiiJicil 
**i ly ibe S« tt) qI AiRiuuuia in 1758. 



h 





gssex. 



Si9 



XntSa ibe act of ISO?, was 31SI ; that of housos 68?. On the 

green behmil ihe Cattle, a !<ingular work ii nieniioiioil as «cisim|;, 
by Dr. Smkcl«y, colletl the Maze, wbtrh hv supposrs to have 
httn a Briibh Cunm, or plnce of ex^rciw for the soldiery. 
He <l«KTibc» it as formcil by » number of concentric circles, with 
Icur outworks issuing from th« four sides, all cut in the chalk. 
About half a mik> from the Castle, on the western sitlr, are the re> 
maimuf Bii Hiicicnt rnaintpinciit, ufftn ublon;; rnrm, raHed Prll- 
Diteht*, i>r Hepei-Dilcha. The south bank is 730 fret lon/^ 
twffnty high, and fiity broad at the boK; anil six or ei«ht feet 
wide at lop: the west bunk is 59S feet long: both hauks and 
ditcltcf are extremely bcild, niul well preserved. 

AUDLEY END, or AUDLEV HOUSE, with it« demesnes, 
ccmtinued in the pouession of ihe Earls of SufTulh, who derived 
it from the Lord Audley, as related under Walden. till James, the 
third Eari, sold llie buusc and park to Chnrlrs the Second for 
SOjOOOl, Grcnt pnrt nf this sum remaicin) nn m>iirtRn^; and ihe 
beanh-tax' is said to have been pledged to the Earls of Suffolk as 
collatcrul security; but ihis tax being taken off after the Ke^'oIu• 
lion, ifar premises arc unclcrelood to liave bceu restored to the fa- 
mily fnrthe vtiluf ofthe mortgn;<;e. Henry, ibc tenth Carl, <)yini; 
without bflue in the year 1745, ibc title devolved on Henry 
Bowes [toward, a des<Yn<lant from Thomas, the first Enrl; atul 
(he Essex eslalr)!, iticludins; the hoiiv, were some time in liliga* 
tJOD between the late Earl of Eilingham, und ihe rrprcscntalivcs 
of the two daughters of James, the third Earl, who made an act 
of settlement in their favor in the year l6i7. The present noble 
pnoseauir, niclmrd Aldworth NctiII GnfBn, Ixrd Braybruokc, 
obtained the inheritance, by the bcqncst of the Intc Lord Howard, 
in 1797; to whom, i»deed, be was the nearest rclalioii by the fc- 
ptale line.t 

Bb3 AoPLtr 



* Morcnc'i Enn, VoL II. p. gjO, 



t Lord Bnybroolcr ii Lord LieuleranI of the conntv of T.atxi tn office 
(tat has bnn confemd on icvct^ of the poueuon of ihii naciion. 




390 




usasx. 



AtTDLET HovBB U siluatcd in a finely «ocHl«rl park, at tbft 
dislftitce of sbout one mile vest rrurn SalTron Waldcn. Tbe pre^ 
cent tuamion, lliuugb a large and mogntficeiit structure, cotnisti 
only of a Binsll jKirt of the orif^tnal building, ux it ba» »uiTem) iliP* 
fetent ciirtniimcnts at \^ou5 lima. In its original aocl perfect 
state, it was Justly ntnked nmong itm nwMt spleitdiil nru) capacioos 
naiuioru of this countr)-; aoci, if tiot superior, was nearly eqttal 
to llic piilaccs of (lampton Court, Nomucli, and Kichmond. 
M <bc period of its erection, it was a prevailing fuhion to build 
lai^, rather then comfortable, or haudsome, housci, and to sin 
at magnitude, in preference to beauty or elc^uice. Influenced 
by llii$ sentitnrnt, Thonas Howard, tbe first F«rl of SuffuUc, 
determined to have " an immense pile of building," nS Walpole 
cibtert'ei', and vust turns were expended in tbe ereciion and era* 
bclliiihnwtit of this Kirueture. It is said that lliis lOarl told an 
estate, whtcb was valued at 10,0001. a year, for tlie purpose of 
carrjin* on, and completing, these works; and that be vras u- 
sistcd by " UrgiO Cotitribuiiuns" from bit uncle, the li^l of Noi^ 
thampton. A nodil* of the intended building was prw:ure4 
from Italy, which cost 5001. and tbe whole expcnce of erecting 
the buutc, n stated to amounc to 11)0,0001.1 It appears that 
dilTerent nrcbitecttf or builders, wcra employed ^ us Walpelv^ 
names /tn);vrMir«uf equal prctensioiB to ibis hoiwr; Jobo Thorpe, 
ond Bemnrd Jnnson. 1 be former, observes >V&l]x>lc, " was a 
capital artist, who designed, or improved, nio^t of th« principal 
aiid palatiul edifices ef^'cted iii |tie rci|ns of tii^abctli and Jameb 

FnHD 



* At Uicliinc of ercctiDgthU building, it wu ■ common prxticc to ktn 
mtati'i «f iiouKi, uiiwxl of 4'cl)'tec<uT»l pljni, eltvnioiu, Ice. Om oI tbtse 
iwofknts if*U«rn» wtt iii*dc Tor t>ic icmfKimy paUceuxd bjr Ilcnry the Eijkth, 
ill the Chiinp de Dnp d'Or, jn Frincc. A lintilir kind of rtvoiirl Hll lire 
been in*<Ir For a pilace itiUniled lo be bviliat RKhmond, which Mr. Couch 
uvt wu detipicd by hii ptatni !L[ajeiiy, •lul com ]00l. Tbu it ibtwn at 
Himpion Conri, wriili luolhu dciigiicd lot ihc Ulc King, 



■t '■ I have httti my Loid Trcuurer SuJTolk on« tell King J*m<l, ihit ia* 
tide tad ouuldc. in iIm fqmibire, it cow him SOO.Ocot. Miling." US, Km 



p 



!»' 



ESIEK. 391 

From A vc^unic o( h» drawings, in the poswwun of the Earl of 
WarwicL, it xjipears that he villier ttMigneil, Eujirnjsed, ur |irif- 
pcunl iiUci>(iui» lu the building* of Somerset HuUM-; Uuckhurst 
Huuse, ia Sus»cx; Burleigh Houset Burleigh on tiic IlilU Hol- 
land llousr, at Kcnsingloti ; AmpUiill House, BMford^hirc; 
Copped Moll; Ciildy Hall; and Audley Inu, in Euex." The 
twte of all these stately matKions, continues Walpole, " was that 
bwtatxl kiiiti uhich intervened between Gothic and Grecian archi- 
tecture; or which, perhaps was the style that hud been invented 
/or tlie houses of the nobility, when, oo the uttlctncnt of llie king- 
dom after the tcrmioation of the quarrel between ihc Roses, they 
Unl ^-entuied to abandon their fortilicd dungeons, and coiuuU con- 
venience and magnificence." It is probable ihsl llie wovLt nl 
Audley End were exfcuied under ihe direction and sujiennten- 
dmice uf the noble Proprietor binuell*. When the inaiisioii was 
completed, it comiaied of various ranges of building, whirh hur- 
rounded two t|iuidrangulur courts. That to the west was very 
spaciouf, and w&» apprnachcd tbroiif(h n grand ontr»ncv gateway 
between four round towers. On the north and soulli aides were 
corridoivft, supported by columm of alubatier; and on the caU 
tida was an entrance Jiuu Uiu Great lioll. Passing tlirongh this, 
there was a smaller square court, three sides of which remain, 
and cottttiiule the present m&nuon. In ita perfect state, the en- 
tire pile Hpjieared like a Urgi> collfgc, with numerous turnitt, cu« 
))ola*, and pinnacles. I'be rooms were large, incunvcntent, and 
many of ihem unplemnni; and to keep the whole in good repair, 
required an immense furiune: great part was in consequence 
pulied down, and the materials sold. Tho marble pillan of (ho 
Chapel were purchased by Lxird Omiow; and King William 
bought some pieces of tapestry, now preserved at Windsor, for 
nhicb he ^id '^5001. At the east end of the buildini^ vviit a gul- 
k'ry mviuuritig 1^6 feet in length, thiny-two fi-ut in MJdUi, utid 
tweniy-fuur fcit in height. Ttu!i, with s»me otlicr apartments, was 
taken di wn by the Countess of Poiismouth in l7\it> The wi'st- 
eni .quadrangle, myi Mr. Walpolo, was destroyed by the adviro 
•f " that injudiciou* architect,'* Sir John Vanbrugh, who de- 
tigncd tfav uncouth acrvw at tlir souUi end of ilie Hal), 

8 I) * The 



L 



I 



893 



K3SZX. 



The western, or grand entrance front of the present mamion, n 
ortmnivnieil with two aniform projecting porches, each havipg se> 
ventecn murble columns at the angles. Some of theje ars wbht>, 
with black bases and capitals; the othen are of dark i-nncd 
marblr, witli white ba»» and capitaU. Ttie ballustmdc of these, 
pnii of the house, is perforated, and -ntriotnly ornomenled; aiA 
ibe summit is adorned with eight turreb, and scwtal clustered 
cbimnios. All the windows are large, and square headed, wHb 
numerous ttone niu1t)un»; and many of tbcm project frutn the 
roomfi. Atmcbvd lo the wcsl front arc two Icadtti water spouts, 
which were probably placed llicrr when the house wan in the pot- 
fics&ion of the Crown, brin^ itiscrilx-d thus: 

U R. i6V>. {(or Jimu R«x,) ami W. IS. i68g. (foi WiUUra laU Miry.} 

The various apartments wen furnished and decornlcd, in ■ 
costly and i.-k-gnnt slylv, by the late Lord ^loward, who emptoyeJ 
ditlcrent artists to render the interior hi;;hty splendid and band- 
some. Th« Hall fttiil preserves part of its ancient character t aitd 
thuuj{h some injudicious alterations hav'c been made, it presents 
an intf^mtiii!; specimen of the mngiiitude and nnmramilt which 
cbaracteriied the»« apHrtmenlB in old baroniul manuons. It has a 
double night of stone stairs at one end ; and a curiously carved 
and ornamvntrd woud Kivcn, with hatch, and music gallery, at 
tlie other; it ts liehled by fivo windows, tho iHfgest projecting 
from the centrr, and re»cliing ne^irly from the criting to the Aoor. 
|n this reccfs is a large handsome marble pedestal, with basso* 
rcIi«v(Ts in the plinth. 

At the top of liie tiall Mairs ■■ IhcSnloon, or, as it is sometimca 
termed, tho i'li^-itoom; so called from a stuccoed ceiling, om»- 
Dicnted with pendaniives, and numerous fish, in different com- 
partments. The frieze, cornice, pilasters, and other piirts, are 
richly decorated »ith carving and gilding; aod the chimney-picce 
contfttm some beautiful miniature paintings, with arms of tlw 
Ilrxrunl fninily, •.%€. ]ii this cle^nnt apartment arc also full 
length portraits of the following distinguished penonages, copied 
frppi Holbein, Kneller, and othit masters; and all of whom aro 





» / 



n 



ESSEX. 



39S 



tn some dogree connected with the history of this estate and man- 
sion. These painting are M into the panneLs, on one of which is 
the followinj; inscription: 

"UcMKr VIII. A.D. 1539. nitAKTts TiiiMoKAiTiKTOt Wal* 

l>III| OK THf SlTt or WHICH THIl HoMIR MOW ITAKOl, TO 

LoRO Cnakcillok AuotLKv. EbUAatTN, A. D' 15971 ■* 
srtciAi. Wkit, ivUitoMta to FAkLiAMtXT Thokai Lniin 
Howard pe WaLoimi in tut keict Riich criatio Earl 
OR SvrfOLK. Hr ruilt -thir Hooir A. D. 16161. AfTiK 

MAMT RlDCCTtOMI. IT AIICRKDIB. A. D. 17$B< TO SiK JOHW 

CRiffin CkirRiMi K. B. coMtiRMRo Lord Howard b> 
WAtvRK, Gio. 3. A. D. 1784. Hi, AMONCOTRtii Adpitiqh* 

AMD ALTIRATtOMI, RtrtTTEDflUlCciLIXa SXCCrT tfi} TBI* 

'Saloah, to comuimorate the morlc Familir* thiiovos 

VIIOM, WtTH OkATITVDR, HR MOLSR TMIRR PoRlERtlOKR.'* 



I 



llp.Mar TRR ElcnTlIi from an original, by Ilotbeio, at 
Kcmin^nn Palace. 

QuEKN l!^i.iZABtTiT^ from an original by Zuccaro, at Hal'- 
field ITou5e, 

I.0Kn CiiAHCRLXOR AuDLRT, K. G. from llolbciii. 

Ma KG A a KT, daughter «n«l Iimitw of LonI Chancellor Aiidley, 
lecond wife to Thotnu, Duke of Norlotk ; from a Portrait in the 
posMSUoti of the Norfolk iiunily. ■ 

Thokas HoWAao, Duke of Norfolk, K. G. 1572. 

TnouAS, Earl or Suffolk, I«rd High Treasurer to Jamri 
the Hnl, and youngest son to Thomas, Duke of Norfolk, by 
Margaret, his second wife; at Knole, the scat of ihc Duke of 
Dortel. The ongtEWl was patnk'i) at the time he was Lord Chara> 
bcrbin. 

TiiEOFtiiLus, Earl or Suffolk, K. G. eldest son of 
Thomas, Earl of Snflolk ; from an original in xbc family. All 
the aWivu were copied by Kcbfcca. 

James, Earl or Suffolk, K. B. eldest son of The<^liilus; 
from an original liile at Dinglcy, in Northamptonshire, the an- 
pent Kst of the Giiffin family ; copied hy Zeetnun. 



Stt$AS!IAn, 




i 



sss 



ESSEX. 



tame PriJge of ihne aKbcs was built across tliii riv«r by liie late 
Air, Adams, in 1764. 

On lh« lop of Ming HUl, to tbe Mnst cf the mansion, is a cir- 
culur TcinplR, occopyinf( the &ite oF an anciait toarr, wbicb Dr. 
Siukel«y has ^iTcn a print of. with »m< account, in his Itinerary, 
but vrliic!) appears to have been only Hic rematm of a Warrm- 
boiMr, or [Icividcre. Tfae whole summit of this hill » inck»Ml 
wilii an entreDclimonl nearly circular, including; sn aren of about 
fifiMn ftCre». Salmon supp05e» it to have been the CoKOitium of 
llic Ilifwniry. and ttmt thv £rmii)«-Slrect passpd it from Bark> 
way, in Hertfordshire; but ibese conjrctum are not supported 
by ollicr niitiiftiariEs. That a military Wtiy was near it, is. Loir* 
erer, evidei>t, from the names of 5/rc(/py (now Litllebury Green) 
axtA S( recall, a neighbouring village; as well as fnim other cir* 
ciunstances; thia V^'uy a[>iiears to havv commutiiculed viiii Cbc5> 
tcrforiL 

At LITTLEBUnY, ■ villaj^ aboiit one mile north from AdcU 
I*y Knd, was another encatnpmenl, within the area of which the 
pa-avniC'liLircb n built. The latter is a small, plain fabric, having 
a body, chance), and ude aisles: near it is an Atmt-tioute and 
TrefScimU. This mannr, and that of Kadstock. were granted, 
by Queen Elizabeth, to Thomaa Sutton. Esq. the maivilJcent 
feundcr of the Chartcr-Honse, who bequeathed theni, in iSlI, 
to Thomas, Earl ot Su0'olk, on cunilitiun of the Utter paying 
10,0001, within one (wclvcmoDth. AAer tbe death of the tenth. 
£a[|, in 1743. Littlebury became part of the allotment made to 
the Koil of Bristol, by the deed of partition made in consequence 
of tbe decision which vested that property in the de&cendantx and 
co-hcirrsnes of James, third Eart of Suffolk. 

Mr. Hairy tt'itutantty, a descrntlant from an ancient family 
established at WaMen, and celebrated from his himeiitablo fata 
in the Ligbt-bouse erected by himself on tlic Edystonc Rock, 
was a resident in tins Tillage. This gentleman was " Clerk of his 
lUaJesly'it Works at Xcwmarket, and also of those at Audlcy 
^Itid." Of the latter be published a book, conlftining twenty-one 

coancly 




EBSSr. 



59r 



I 



coancly en^vcd prints or plsin, cicfaituus, birdV-^rc vicn-s, &c. 
Ttiis work is boromc rare; amt, tliough very biidly executed in 
K-jTRnl to itic tirftuing and <'nj;nvin^, yrt it u a curious aad lo* 
iem[inG> rvprcwnoitii^ii of u mugnlticeni inaiuion, whutcciiuructiT 
and extent woul<J ottierwiw hare btcii forgotten. Mr, Wiiibtanlry 
was at one time a. pn^niLT iti l-'rancv. aiMj iraa ofivrc^l a liberul »• 
iary, by ibc Fnmrii King, to rcnwin in that conniry, which be 
rvfuMul. He invented live fnmMis wntcr-works noir Hyde Park 
Coraer. After hi« dcttth. the government ultowod biH widivw lOOl. 
« year, during l^r widoMiiood; but slic wuon married Tenicr, a 
French painter, and concealing the marriage, continued to enjoy 
the pvtuion. Winfetanlcy s prints, phm«, See. weic di!>|)rr»od ai'ter 
th? ileaib of liis widow. lUt portrait, with prints of tiic Kdystontt 
Ught-howe, wcrclaiHy in thepaueMon nf Mr. John Sunley, 
m BookKllcr at WiiliJcn. The mpmoitLble storm, in the j-our 
1703, dntruycd both llie Li<;hi-houic and iti architect,* 

Iq Ckmt-Uali Park, about livu miles west from Liltlebury, at 
the north-cast corner, is aii earth-woik of a circular form, with a 
ditch five or six feet deep, and mounts raised at four places near 
ibe edge.! 

5HORTGUOVE, about two miles south from Audley End. is 
the manor and seat of — Smith, Kwi- by whom it was pur- 
chased of the Hon. Percy Wyndham, a drvcndont from the Isarts 
of Tliomond, who were b(«ied here during ;i-c«t part of the lau 
centurj'. "Yhe man*4on is a hiind»i>mc boilding, with uing^, occu- 
{lytng the itiruinil of » pleasant ominrnce, and having in front th« 
river Cintnlii flowing ul the foot i>f a Jawn cncompusiivd by planta- 
tions. Behind ttiv bouse i% a seci^nd lauii, with pleasure grounds, 
and canals, supplied uiih wutcr from tbe river, by au engine ia* 
vented by Dr. Dcsagulieit. 

NEWPORT, aiicipntly a mnrkut-Iown, is now a hmg straK^linj; 
village, chiefly consistinj; of niH- street, wcupying llie sides of tbc 
hiyh rood, und nearly unitinj; on the north with the hnmlei of Birch- 
Jq the reign of £dward itiu Coui'cuor, it bcluu^^cd lo turl 

Huiuld, 



• BMUtlu, Vol. IV. p. 191. 



t .Uaiwt'i iMtx, Vvl. 11. p. £03. 



3g4 



ZS9EX. 



Ttftrold, nrtflnrards King, on whose dcfvat Bad death, at the Rattle 
of Hutiiigs, it became the property of the Conqueror. Muiul* 
iltc tlmprcss, grantMl lands here to Gcuffrry da ftLignaville ; and 
al»o tiie privik-gc of removitig the market to the seat of luft own 
boruny at Waldcii :" it doe» not, bowtwr, appear to have been en- 
tirely nminvcd till after the time of Henry liic Third. t In tlie 
year 1203, it was held byGcranl dc Furnivall, who obtuiiied the 
privilege of holding a fair here from Kins; John, to whom, four 
years aAerwnrtlfi, the patent was again surrendered, tngetltrr writh 
iho town and Ctutic:l of the latter, no further pirlicalan aro 
known. The manor W8» afterwards pou««od by rarious families ; 
but uc»t finally granted from the Crown till the reign uf LUward 
the Sixth, who bestowed it on Ricliard Fcrmor. About the tine 
nf Charirs the First, it became llic property of the Karlii of Suf- 
folk; and on the partition of the cstac^s in the Inst centory. 
was allotted to the Earl of Bristol, who sold it to the Earl o( 
Ihomond. 

I'he Church, dedicated to St. Ktary, is a spacious building, cok- 
Mtuns of a nave, side aisW, and chancel, with a lofty tower at 
the west end, having embattled tnrrets. Before the year 1353, it 
belonged to the coUr^ialc Church of St. Murtin-le-CraDd, in 
London: and, with that, was bestowed on tlic Moiia»tery of St. 
Peter. \Vcstmiii9teiv by Lleniy the Scrcnlh. An Uotpilat tot m 
MoMcr wnd two Chaplains was founded here by Richard de New- 
port, in the rri^ii <if King John, and dedicated to St. ty>onurd and. 
St. Alary. On the Su[iprestion, its revenues w«i\} valueil at 331* 
10s. fid- Tlie original budding is }xt sup|>o^d to be stnrtdtni; on 
the Dirchangre side. A i'ne Grtvtiviar-Sckwtt was ibuitdcd hue 
in the year J58S, and fiiduwinJ with rrnta to the amount of 33t. 
10s. annunlly, by the Will (.iuted Frbrunry iOlli, I JWi) of Joytt 
I'raacklimil, of Sitiitslrad Abbot, tlcrtfordaliir?. Of this sum 30). 
was bequeatbed for the support iif a Srhool Miuii>r: 21. to iho 
Muitei of Goiivile and Coius Collide, Cumbiidgc, fur bis uottbla 



!■ 



* S«e p. 384. -f riru, &c. 37 Hen. Ill, Rot. 1^ dona. 

t Ctffv Aattqur, m. 1^ sAd t:,ci Fbtiu,9'Jab. rot.fk 





BSS£X. 



399 



I 
I 
I 



in directing ihc gorpniincnl uf the Scbnal, and ^lilUhig it once 
Bnouutly; (nt whirh nnniia] visiration, hr is » directut, by the 
Will, to remove threCj four, or more of the Kholun (o hit own 
College; there to place thcin in tbe Sdioknliipt of the founda- 
tion of the uiiil Joyce CrauL-ltland, and WiUium iaaxie, licr Mn;) 
•nd the remuiiting ll. 10::. I'ur tlic repairs of the Scbuol-House. 

Tlie endowments, which consist of the tylhc of Bamesfttde, in 
Surry, two houses iu Dislaflf La&c, London, aud two hoiuet or 
tenements at Moddesdon, in I li-rtfonUtiire, wern vested in certain 
trtutees to be applied under the direction of tbc Will ; but tbe 
irufcteci hitring grossly neglected tbeir du^, a decree of Chauccry 
was nbtained in the scYcnleenih of George the Second, for cn- 
foiring Attention to the objects of the diarily, and fur veiling tbe 
property in ttew trustees, from the enquiry which preceded tbe 
decree, it appeared, that the annual revenues lixd ^really increased, 
from the rise of rents und iinproremcnls in agriculture; that tbe 
Master of Gonvile and Cains Culk'ge had not visited the school 
for eight yean, though in the receipt of 7I. annually from iti 
proceeds; aihI that *' the -turn uf 144-^1. not applied pursuant to 
tbe Will," wi» then m thu bands of the Kbuolmaiiter. Tbisenquiry 
and decree, have not, however, been followed by their expected 
consequences: tlie new tru'^tcct have displayed ulmoKt cquol inai- 
teniiuii with l)ie fonncr ones; and the property bequeathed for 
ihe support of the vhool, now suppoMd co produce nearly 200L 
a }'ear, can be only cnimdcred as ibe endowment of a sinecure 
held by tbe K[a.Hter. An invr^tij>atiuii into this fraud fin tlie pur- 
J10M8 of lM.-nevoIenre, is, nc DndetBlaad, now makin*; by a com- 
mittee of the most re&pectabic iutiabiinnis uf Newport and its vi- 
citiity, a&d a M-cond appeal tothcCourtof Chancery isprojcited. 
The iDhahitanls of Thin parish, at rcluniod under the late act, 
amoanicd lo €63; the bouses tu 12/: a few of llie latter ure 
good buildings; butm^ny, t-veain Newport itsdf, are only thatched 

COItVgH. 

At CLAVF.RING, a small village, but formerly ibc head of 
lite barony of Clavcring, arc tbe kei>p nnd mojit of an micient 
Cttftie, the walls of which have been long destroyed. This manor, 

at 



400 



EU£X, 



■I ihe time of the Domesday Survey, vnu in ifae ponession o( 
Su«nc, ihc gTMiTfSt UnilKoldcr in this county, vihtrvin lie bad 
litt^-fivc Lordsliijif. Hugh dc Emcx, hit gmndsoD, being mrf 
qutttwi] tti »it]gl« coubftt, on a cbar^ or cuwaidice, by Kubcrt 
da ftloulfurt, liiti esUtes vme teiaetl by IJenry tlw bocund, who 
gnntcti Cla^'criltg to Kolion l-'iiz-Ro^ci-, Ihc sun of Alice, llugh'i 
wiEc, uLosc doKcuilanu obtained the suriiamc ot Cl&vcring from 
ihcir Tcsiilcncc liL-rc, This family cmitintied owners till ifae Ittter 
end of the rcign of EdwKrd tlie llurd, when it was convryed O 
the NctiU<3, Lord* uf U«by, (win whom it liu pascd tbrough 
%iKiDu» nuble funilia tu the Barriagtvns, w%'exal of wbon 
ItnvQ reptcacntod tliis couiiiy in I'arliuiicnu In the Ckurtk iu« 
various monumcntB of the BarUes, who hi-td a manor in thu pa- 
tiih; axiAt atider an arcb in tiie north wall, is an anciait tomb 
fyi some uiiknotrn pet^onag(^, whose effigici is reprcsctitcd in ar- 
mour, with bis right-hand un li>» lofl brca^, holding a sword. 
' BKIU)I'«N, to the south of Cliivcting, was the site of a small 
Priory oi* Augu&rinc Canoai, founded by the de Ruthjardt^ wbo 
Iwld lands here in ihc lime of Henry the Third, and dedicated 
to St. John the Evangelist. At the period of the Dissoluttont its 
jiossetsions wore v;ilued kI 2<)K 6». 4d. slid ur^re ^ronU'd to Eten- 
ly Parker; but otlcrwards aiiotuited by Sir Thooiits flaroscy, to 
the Ouveinurs of the Hofei^tals of Christ, Bridewell, and St. 
'Hiomns, in London. The learned Josuru MfiDS. A.M. wa> 
born at Ik-rJen, in ihc >eur I5S6', In l60^ bo become a student 
at Chiiit's College, Cauibridge, uf which he vos afterwards cho- 
sen J-'clIow, umJ was rcmarfcod for Im iiilcruc appUcution. His 
love Tor knowledge ua\ purttculaily displayed by bu rcfiuul of 
■CTcml vaiuable profcrnientB, (roni an apprchrnsion thul the du- 
ties attetkling tliem would inicrrupt his pur»uiui. He died in Uie 
yi^nr l63S: bia Cunini4-nt on the ApoodypaeisgencriLlly n;ganieil 
as his must vnluablc work. 

BKlIUliN HALL is a handsome stone inanfion. erected by 
Wf. Holland for the late Eichard Jluilnian Trench Chismrll, Es<t., 
K'hose HidDw i» (he present jcsideiit. The grauiicb are pk 
and arc intcrsperM.'d with gHtdcnsaiid pUntatioits. DtinituQhurtk, 
; , 1 irtuch 



^ 




£99 KK. 



401 



tchich stands lU x little dittntm*, ovrc% tomtt prtrlion or its DenltwM 
to tlic lute Mr. Chttwcll, who crvctv*) «ev«ru) family raonutnciits, 
richly urnnmcnted in ibe poiuced urch stylr, ia an ocl;iiigii)iLr 
Chiipcl at the cast <'nd. Tlie font, an elfgant pieci* of workmKn. 
stiip in Coadc's artificial stone, orniintcnled with »tdiues, was also 
of bis ^ 

TIIAXTED 

Is an ancient town, and probably existed in the Saxob tiraei, 
'*» lie fhurcb is recordi-d* lo haw belonged, in tlie rci^ti of Ed- 
ward ibc Confcfsor, to the Cnllpge of St. John Itii[)iisi, ui Ciurc*, 
in Suflblk. AHcr the Cunquol, ilic lonl&hip of Clare, and innny 
other mnmus, including Tliasted, wcrcgifcn to Tljfhard rJiit-Gil* 
bcrl, niicvstor of the noble family surnamrd I)e CInn-, whn held 
this manor till the year 13 14, vihenGilbcrt de Clarr, sun of Gilbert, 
lUmitnneJ l(icIU-<l, being tlain at the ItaUlc of Thinnricks-bam, his 
e&taln were divided flmortg liis tbrcc sistvra and co-hrircsa:s. 
IVf nrgarct, iIm second sister, wa&mnrricd lo Hugh de Aodlcy, Bfler- 
^ardsEarlofGloucewier, whoobltiinedThaxled in ri^ht of htswife. 
Iq the rcijjn of Edward the Second, it was hM OS parcel uf the 
anrldom of ObmcMler, by Bartholomew, Lord BadWmere, to 
whom the liberty of free-urnrien, and of holding an Knnunl fair 
berc, were granted by llic King. His son, Gi!cs de Bad'esnicr^, 
dying without issue, this manor vras equally divided among his 
four sisters, all of whom had married into noble families. Three 
parts of the maiiur ruinc uricrwuiiU itiio the powcsuon nf the 
Iklortifncrs, Earls of March, and were re-unitcd with the Honor of 
Clapc, which this family hart ohlalned byraarriagor the fourth 
part descended to ilic Lc de Spencer*, and from them obtaiwd the 
name of SpencerVfee. The Honor of Clare having reverted to 
the Crown by the marriage of Elizabeth, daughter of Edward the 
Foanh, to Henry llic Seventh, n-us M-ltled, by the son and tuc- 
ccsor of ihc lalicr. on Cuthnrinc of Arragon, afleiwarcU his 
Quec<i, who, in I5I4, granted the " manor and borough of 

Vol. V. C c lliaxtod' 



Mooaiticon, Vol, t. f. 1OO9. 



402 



xtttx. 



ThaxteA'' to &ir John Cattt, Knt. lo hold durinjt Iier liie, under 
a rem of 57 1. 7s. and noon arterwin-rU, th« Tvv•^nio^, in l«e*fanB« 
wM itTAnied lo tlt« Kmc Knicbt hy tht King. Sit John Coits, 
Km. hts jimtt grendkon, wiis rfrmwned for bit huipiiiiliry* tad 
nMi^il>(¥rit style of Ufing, whirh wemt to hovo «mbamtt8d liit 
circutn^tni»ci9, as l)l^ was obljgnl by Itcpncc, dated April, 1599* 
lo vc-*l ihc " nifttJor anii bnruugh of Tbaxte<l. and .SpeitccrVfcc,'* 
in trust to Hiotnas Kemp, Esq. oho bad brfore porchosed a rc- 
putc>i manor in ihn iianKl), called Coldbatn*B-fcc. Soon aHer- 
wiirds Thnxted became tlic properly ol' §ir Wiiliani Smylh, Kat, 
oi Hill-lloU, in tliiti nMinty; and bu ainoccciotiuued iti the poaes* 
sioit of his dt-M-end»nts. 

lliaxH wns inrorporated by charter of Philip and Mary, attil 
its gdwrDfltent vtsicd in a Mayor, Bailiff^, tfid Chtrf BurgMBO. 
This chaiLer was confirracd by Quern Elizitbclli, but rendered 
vatuelifss, eiliiei by the kam o> pov«riy ot the corpuiate Officpn, 
who. on being served witti a Qua H''arranto id the lime of Jamc* 
the Srcund, thought fit to reiirv from their offices in oilence. 
From II viKJtuttun of heralds iti i6j7, it appvars, that Thaxted had 
ttwii a JMoyur, Rccohlcr, two BailiAs, aud about twenty principal 
liurgt9-*cs; of whom ten bfid paired ilie ntayontlty. and tbut liter 
bad a common m*], but no urms. Iht- niorlicl, which had for K 
luug periwl been discontiiiueil, has of lofe yean Wen revived, but 
ii not mucit riet|uetiti!d. It is probabtu thiu it wu iirvi granlcd to 
Uarlholomew, L<ml Badleuncre, by KHward the Second, at the 
tin)« v>Licnthc forroer obtained llie privilege of a fair here, and 
liberty of fn.-«.uiarrcn. Tbc Dumber of boiMS io ihit (owo* u 
uscvrliiined under the Population Act, in 1302, was 36^; of iih> 
babilunts, 1S(>4. 

The Ckarth, a very large and beautiful structure, appean, 
from the various arms nnd cognisances on its several parts, to 
have been built at diiliireni limes in the fourtcenlh ceiiluiy. 
Its deilicatioD seems onknown, u it is B.<tcribed( by di^rent itt- 
ihois, respectively to Sl John Aiiptistf to ibc Viigin Mary, aud bi 



St. 



■ Buiitici^ Vol. II. p. m- 



ISftBX. 



MS 



SI. iAWttnee, Tlic whole fabric b cmbnttliri!, anr) supported by 

[•troag bulucaiH, lerminalcd by caooptod iitelm, ntid curiously 

irBed pinnacle^: below the nicli«^, on faeh buttr<^s, n» vufiulu 

[iV gftrtcKjue head, with u npuut i^buinv I'ram the iiiuulU tu carry 

[nS tho water from the rouf. The wiiiduivs sre rootily Ur^, ntid 

I pointed; mar.v of ttivin arc abo orommciitcd nitb iniccryt mad 

|MUfltedgla«; bat tli« ia(t?f is v-cry nnicli brxikcti, and otherwbs 

de&ic«d. The north porch 'a richly orratmetiiwl with sculpture; 

,arid llic cornier, and upper pnrt, charged with various 6(;ures: 

I above the entrance arc tno cscaichcons; one contnioiog the amu 

loT France and I'.iii;land-, (hculher, theamuof the lloiueof Vvric; 

gvcr llinc are Iwu witidowv, in lite arch of each ol which is a 

erown supported hyahand; betwiwn the windows is a baiidwme 

uche. At the ueat ctid is an emboltled tower, sustained by but- 

inscs, and icnnitialed by a nejit ucta^onnl spire, ri»n;; to the 

eight of 181 fi!4'i. The rircum Terence of the entire buildinj;, in- 

Eludiiig the projection of l!ic bullrmars, is y45 yard*. The intc« 

[fior cnittiits (if a nave, trsn^pt, chancel, and nde attln; and it 

nay he remniked, that the dbtc k not so wide a« ei'bcr of tho 

itter. Tlie arches of tbe uaw arc puintcd, nnd tupporicd by 

BglFl clustered columns un excli lide: tbe chancel n mut, and di»> 

pUys \-arious rognimnces vt VAwatA the Fourth. Tlic loot'lh tt( 

ike Church ii 183 fcrt; iu breadth, eiglity-veven. 

The expencc of the erection of thit building was principally de> 
frayed by tbe noble Gimilie* of Chtre and Mortimer; with some 
assistance rrotn an individual of the House of Vork, Edward (he 
■'ouilh. Tbe most anient pan is supposed to have been builc n 
the clinr]^ of l^liiiabeth. Lady Clnrc. daughter of Gilbert} sur- 
named the Hc<l, and his m-coitd wife, Juan of Acre*, daughter of 
CdwnnI the Tint. William de Buf!;h, Eail of (Jkler, and ton uf 
Lndy TlAre, built the nave preriout tn the yoar 1340: bifl *un-in- 
Uw, Lionel, Dnfce i>f Clnn-nce, erectt-d tlie south piircb, on which 
is carved the ducnl coronet, between the yeurs 1 3()'.! and 13^8. 
The nonh ai*lc, and north part of Ihc transept, were rai-sed about 
ibe year 1380, by Edmund. Earl of March, who was much cele' 
brated for his skill in architeciure; and it is observed, thai ihe»a 

C-c Q portionl 



40fc 



SXSEX. 



Donioii» or titr Cliiifdi Aiv mrnt ilistmgaHliecl fur supendr elc 
gnnce unit (»tc, •livplayvd in lti<- omanu'iil* and diiiptiisilimi of tbe 
parts. Tlif chsiiK'd vtm iM-fjun by tin? Ii'.uw ol March, but com- 
plrtnl by Kilwnrd tlH- Fourlh, us ap|>cnr!> I'mm itic vnriou^ arnio> 
Vm) b«ntitig« uf ihnt Sorcrrii^, wlin is nba thought lo have been 
At ihc cKantc uf lln- north potcli. Edmitml, lust Eiirl of Mardi, 
it <«iippo*ril, from \he wrnis nn wim(^ of ih^ archt^, to hxvr bu'itt 
the lower, which mm iniciKlcd to have been frrctcd At Ibe inter- 
M'Clion of Ibc nnt-e iiiul Imnvrpl, but probably this design was 
ubiuiiivn*'*! trum a frar of injuiin^ the oliicr parts nf \\iv building 
by lis vfeighu "nib nobleman diwl in the ymr 1 1.2+. A chmatry, 
?iiliii-d, on llic SL]iiiPCT»iini, 8l III. Ijjs. U'd. per annum, and 
twenty obits, bi-^ictcs vuriixis aitiins utid rhapch, oxiftoJ here in the 
Calhdiic tlntcfi. 'I'liis Churrh unilcrwent cotisidcrftble repun 
during the Inst rcntnry. 

"I In- fUniitnbIc benefactions for I he use of ihc ]Mior iahRbitantf 
oftbi* piiri»h arc cotwdeniWc. Tlie vslutc called Yraidlpys, dc- 
liviiig ite iwme from ThitniiiB VenJnlr, who residrd on it in the 
rvis,n nf lleiity ibc iiixth, was, nn bis dealh, vested in fcolfres in 
ini!)t for hb Tour sons, atid their iniue; or, in default of such iuu«^ 
to lie offid for the binicfit of the church and poor, end for tbc re- 
|wiin of -ihe adjacent liighwnjs. Ttir? sum all djiiif* childlru, the 
ettate was sold, in the filth of lloitry the Scvenib, »iul the pioduca 
pulablklii'd uji n lund fur ihc pjiyment of (he tenths and Afteenilis 
tliRt niighl be levied on the purish by (be government ; or, when not 
lAuiiEcd fur Uib puqiwe, tht revenues were lo be applieii [o gene- 
ml van. The mode of taxuiiun by tenths and Aiierntbs baving 
))een Inng ditcontinued, the proilucc of the fund i*- now epplinl to 
the support of n AVMiW, rrpdiriiig the Cbnrch, improving the bieh- 
WH>-», 0CC. Willinm, l»rd .Muynard, by Will, diitrd Miiy ibv 30th, 
16*^8, bequcnlhi-d 4000). for purchasing the rectory of Thaxtedi 
vr smite ••tbcr oi equal value, to be vtrled in tnisten lor the pur- 
ptise of iitctuiutng Ibe salary of the miniiter, repoinnj^ and beauti- 
fying (he Church, niurt^iti]; f>o<ir virgins, binding out npprcnticeSt.. 
rvlicvuig |K>vr people ou'rburlbened wilb children, and for other 
puqinscs. llie rectory of Tbaxted being entsiled in such a mati. 

ner» 



■ 




ner, (hat it could not bo obtuinctL, (tinl of I'oflcn, in Bedfordshire, 
and tonic ctlatrs in SulTulk, were purcbsKd uilh the above sum; 
ihc proceHs uf wliicb nre a[i[ilied arciirding lu thv directiuns of 
llje donor. Among tfae oiher bcnrfflciiitns, are endowment* for 
AlmuHmiirs Mtuated tn difl'rrcnt partfi nf the tonii: oitc <>( titt 
buildinj^ npproprinlcd to Ibis u«e, i.i llic anctenl Chant ri/-Aaiue. 
Tbc ancirnt OuildtutU is now Llic partab wuikhuuic: ibc Mait-iafl 
is used for ihe v:bonl. 

Samuel Purciia*, B. D. was born at Thaxlod in tb? year 
3677i autl received bis education ul Cuinbridoc. Gruiij^r repre- 
sents bin us a man of general learning: and observes, ihni, with 
great pains and industry, lie cnbir^d and iierfoclcd Hitkluyt's 
CoUcetion of Voyages anil Travels, *' a work nut only valuable for 
the various inKlnictitin and amusement contained in it, but also 
veiy estimable on a uutiunnl, oimI, I may add, a reli^iousaccuunt." 
He died in l62it, in diitre««ed circumstances, ihrougli the chargn 
of publicatiiin. (lis compilatiun, called Pm/cAos It'u PUgri- 
mage, ifc. extends to five Tolumes (o\hh 

In thcCAm-AatGRKATBRADFtr.LD, ftrmerly a mnrkot- 
town, wm a cliunlry foundi**! and endowed vtitb llic sum of 61. 
13f. 4d. aniiuiilly, by thi- celetjrated WtLt.iJtM IlcKHLowca, 
sole bcrgeant-at-Inw for seventy-three days in ilic reign of Queen 
Mary. Tlitt gcnilemitn dic<i in (be ynir IJSV, hiuI was buried 
in tlie chancel, nliiiiea lungLuliu I'pitapU recurds hisuL)ditie& otul 
virtues. 

Al TILTF.Y, nneiently called Ti/eteia, wiis an Addbt nf G»- 
icrcian Monks, founiled in the j-ear liy3, by Maurice* Flit- 
.Geffory, wbo enduwL'<l it wiib tbe wkole manor. 'Dub Abbey waa 
dedicated to St. Mary, and situated in a bcHUtiful ttd**, xuiround- 
ed by irc«s. The only reniaiits are part ol s cl<iikter, and a small 
building in tiie puinled slylr, now UMrd us (lit- rurisl) Cburckf but 
Iradiliofialty said to have iieen tlw Kirui liter's Clmpvl, wbicb stood 
at the Abbey gate. The cast wimlow is urnamenied with imcery, 

C c ;3 and 



* TKit wti the niDC M«iir>re ihx faandcd tW TiUnj U BytJuMCn; 
w p. »J9. 





m6 



S8BBX. 



and on eacli side is a niche for a statue: in (lie interior arc four 
anrieni stone slklk The pieerasions of ihis Abbey were, at ilie 
period of ibe 'Dissolution, valurH at i;til. 2s. 6d. prr annnm, ac- 
cording to DugHale; and werp then granted to the I^nl Chai)cri> 
lor AuiJtey. lliomas, lint Earl of Suffolk, mjIU tbe prrmiM-s. in- 
cluding ibc manor of 'Hltcy, fur 5(X)0l. to lU'nry ^Jttynurtl, Esq. 
in whose family tiiry still cntitiimc. 

In tlic poiisli .if UITI.K DL'NMOW nusa PniORY of Ao- 
gmtine Canons, founded to the bomir of the \'irgin Mary, in ibe 
y«ftr 1 104, by [lie Ludy Juga, Eiitrr of Ralph Oajnanl, who held 
the manor at lite lime of the Domc«day Suney; and from whow 
family lliiynani'i Cattle, in London, ubtaitwd its niune. Its an- 
nual rev-^nui-s, on the iiupprctaion, were estimated, according to 
Speed', at 1731. 2». 4d. Henry the laghth granlml the ute of the 
Priory, and the mnnor of Lillie DuTiniow, (u Kobert, Emi of 
Sussex; hut they biivc <dnre been in the posutuon of various ^ 
miliet. ']'iie tnonustic buildings wert^ situuled i<ti a Hkinf; ground, 
feuiilh-»c»t frdin the Chuich, hut nre now riilin'ly nutcd; and 
tome part of the site is occupied by llit prevent manur-housc. 

The PrtQty Ciitirci was a large and slat«-Iy fabric: ibe roof mi 
sustained on lows of columns, having ca{;ilalsoriiauia]lcd with oak 
leaves, elegantly car\-ed; " lomc of liietc remain in the port doit 
used as the parish Churrb, nhidi includes «fnly lUe east end «f 
the choir, and the norib aisle.* 

** Here, under an arch in the south wall, is an ancient chest-Kke 
tomb, »uppo»ed to contain the body of rlie fuundrns. Lady Juga. 
Near the same bpot b a monument, said to liave been that of 
Walter Firx- Walter, the fint of that name, who died anno ll^S, 
and was Uuriod with one of his wives in the middle of the dtoir, 
\vlience it has been removed to its present dtuntMtn. The figures 
of Sir Walter and hts Lady are well execuiud^rur tlie time tiiey 
were done, but are murh detacrd, probably by the removal, par- 
ticularly the man, uhcae legs are brukcu off at llic knees: the 

Lady 



* Cough ny*, the piciou Churcli ii " only the Utlk aijU lad five 
siehu of ihe nrre." ihuiuii, Vol. 1 1, p. j^. 



SSSBX. 



407 



L*dy has on a lian, or milre-lilie licad-drm, omsnicnted with 

lace, var-nt);i«, uml » nrcklltce. Sir Wultcr is rcprrsenceiJ in plate 

armour, unHt- r U h »hirt vi idui), which upprars ai his collar, and 

beliiM itw skiiia of his atmour. There is fromethiiig Kmnrkahle 
'in the ii)ip'.inii)Cf of his hulr, wtiich wfins to riidiiitc from a ccn> 
yire. notnewhHi likf ilip curl of a wig, hut curling hiwardi. Thi« 

ftehiun of hatT, or »ig, (for it appears doublful which wa« JiiK'iid- 

«d,} n ubbcrrvablc oti ilivers JuootuDCLits of the tame ago, as is alio 

the hrad*dtcM of thr l^tly. 

Upptniti; thi« monument, b«twc«n two pillan on Ibc Dorffi 
I nde of the choir, i^ ihc tomb ofihe fiiir A(atilda, daughter of lh« 
liccontl Walter riU-Waiter, wbo, according to the Monkish storjr, 
[tinsuppurted by history, i^ pteleiiLlcd lu tiave been poisoned by the 

contrivaiiLv of King John, for ri-fubing to gratify his illicit paKton. 
rHer tigurr 'u> in alabubirr, and by no means a dcapicable piece of 
|*)rkm unship. Both this figtire, and that o( lh« I^dy Filz-WaU 
[trr, afford iiccurate specimens of the neckEac«H, ear-rings, and 
[other omanicntt worn by the ladie* in thnte d&ys.'" The Fits- 

M'alter? are Mid lu haw pouc^acd ikb tordbhip as parcel of their 
[ilurony fur eleven generations. 

The kocienl and well-knowti ciistoni of this manor, of detirenng 
, Gammun, or I'liUik of' Bacon, to any married C()U|ile who would 
Tuke a prvscribud uitlh, is tuppfited, by some urilen, to huve ori- 

(inatt^ in the Suxon or Ni^rman limes: others atlrihuto its insti- 

rmiiaii to the Fili-WaJters, but with what prt>prii.-ty is uncertain. 

appearst however, fri'in the different entries in the Uegistcr, as 

ucundum Jormam dotiativuis,' and ^ sKUudum tkarler formam^ 

to have been impoaed on tlic postCNSors of the luaitor by some be- 
nefiictor. The eariicst delivery of the bacon on rccord.t occurred 

in the iwcnty-lhird of Hcnrj- the bixih, when Richurd U rigiit. of 
firadbourge, in Norfolk, havmg been duly sworn before ihc Prior 

and Convent, had a Flitch of Bacon deU>cred to him, sgrceabty to 

C c 4 .the 



• Cf«M'( Aii[i^«Ui«», Vol. VIII. p. £7. 
-t Maoucripl ia the College of Arou, nuukcd L. 14^ p^ si6. 



40S 



itstx. 



the tenQre. The cnMnoniat «4Ut)ltih«i] for titne occt^on*. cod- 
%i\tt^\ in the cluimnnt's kneeling on two shtirp-poiiitcd s1u»9 in 
the church-yBrtI, nnd there, si^cr soleniD chftntiog, and oUier rites, 
|wrrorm«d by the Convent, taking the following oatli; 

You ilall iweir by tuitom at coafruion, 

ThM yoM ne'er made nuptial innigreuioBt 

Not liacc you w<r< mttricd man ind wife. 

By tioutchold bdwlt or contcBliuut lUilc, 

Or ollwrnitr m bed or H bMrd, 

Offended each otha in deed or in woidt 

Or liracc tkt pirUh-Llerk uid Ameo, 

Wished younclxs Diiteitti<d Jgtin; 

0( in • (wrivernontti iiid ■ diy, 

Kepcnud not In thought any way ; 

But (ontifliied liue in thought and dciicr, 

Ai wh<T) you jain'd handi in boly qain. 

If lA (licte coDdiiioni witfaout til far. 

OfyoiiT own KCOrd you wtit fmly awnr, 

A whole C«»w« y Sdrm you ihall ttceive. 

And bear it hence with love and good leave; 

Foi lhi> I* Qnt cottoro a( Duomnw mil known ; 

T>u>* (h* pIcMur* ht our*, the Bacon't your owb, 

la tlic Cliartulary of the Piiory, now in thi? Britiih Muieain, 
three i>crsons are n;cor<lecl to have reccmd the bacon previous lo 
the tuiipreuiun of the rcligioUH houses, Since tbut |K'riocI, also, 
the bacon lias been thrice ik-Uvercd; in lUese cases tlie: crremoniea 
have been pi'rrurmed at « court-baron for the manor held by the 
Steward. Itic last persons ihni rrccived it, vtn John Shake- 
ihMiiks, woolcombcr, and Anne his wife, of Wetliortfield, who 
ntaUished ihrir right on the 20th of June, 1731. Mr. Gougk 
mentions the custum* at abolished; but wc understand it is only 
donnuiit citln;r through llie want of clnimanls, or fmm their neg- 
lect to enforce ilie demand. Several of the llallet family, who 
pQUetaed the inaour, lie buried in the Church. 

GRHAT 

• In » BoluiMf of Piieraa, laldy pitWthed utida the Ullc of Syr Rrginalde, 
or. The aiKk Tower, by £. W. Bnylc^', and W. lleiUtt, a a Ball*d ioundtit 
w <hH cmtom, 1ml the CKitttspItt ia tifi'ed. 



ESSEX. 



409 



GUEAT DUNMOW 



If tuppoBed, by several Antiquaries, lo have been the site ot 
m Romin ^ution. BiiJiup Gibson bus issiKited lo it the name of 
Caiaromagta; nrifl Mr. Drolic, in o Icttt-r, puhli-ihcil in t\ie rifth 
Tolutne of the Archox'logiu, sircngllicns its claim tu this upjiella- 
lion; noi only by referring lo the sittialion nf Duiimnw on a Ko- 
tnan rmid, but »l»o Uy mrtiliiming Uuman coins that have betu 
/ound hcTv; purlicularly a ^old coin of llonorius, and some liirgQ 

lra» of Ibe Cmperor Ci»mmudt». In Lord Maynard's r^tale, 
adjoining Dunniuw, Roman Denarii butc aUo bv«n fuund, ufGaU 
tienus, 'J'ibetias, I*o»tbuiiiiua, Vicionnu», niid uliicrs of the thirty 
Tyraiitf. 

At the time of the Donieiday Surrey, ibis manor was bcid by 
Richard Fitx-Oiibcrt, and llamo Dapifcr, in llie lul of nhoni it 
appran to have centred, and wbo«« niece, Muliel, obuinudiias 
parcel of ber inhcritancr. It afterward) bi>can)c incorporated 
with the honor of Clarf, uiid descended with tliut to the IlnUM^ of 
York. Henry the ICighlli, in the year 1^09* gave this manor in 
dower to bis Queen, Catherine of Armgon; but it having rcvcrled 
to the Crown, Ldward the Sixth granted it to William, ^Jarquis 
of Nortbumjiton. It next bpc»ni« llie property of Sir Kicbard 
Wctton, a Justice of tbc Common PIcbs ; but wa* finally purcliascd 

if the Crown by Wdliiim, first Lord MaynarH, in the year 1634. 
[b descendant, C'ljarlfs, created Viscount l^Iaynard, ia Udltt by 
hh present M^csly, is now proprietor. 

This town is plonsanily situaieil net iin eminence near the rrrer 
Chflmer: it coa-tiM* principally nf two sirccls. The privilei«eof 
holding the market wnk granted by Henry the Third, in the year 

IS23. Tiic governmcnl i^ ve»te<l in a UuiliH'and twelve [Jurgeses, 

ehoten under a clmrier gmnicd in Ibe Hecoiid and third of Philip 
nd Mary, and altcrwurds cuntirnu-d by Queen ELixubetlu The 
number of houses. a& cnumerak-d in 1802, was 39'^; the number 
of iububitams 1 Si8. 'I'Lio |Hiiir<*r cla.ssc» derive employment from 
,Um luar^LJiacturc of boizc and LlaDketi. 

Hi* 



410 



■sssx. 



The Churchy dodicated to the Virgin Maiy, is n lar^ ancient 
btuUing, coDUslinjt of a nave, chanrcl, anft uUIn^ wiib iin em- 
battled tower nt the west end. Over the ci^trtiice into the Ullier, 
■re various thield* of arms r-irvcd in ttune, and itnong them tboM 
oflbc nuble funiilin of Muitimer, Ik>hun, BourcUier, and Bray- 
brooke^ who uic sup;>oce4j tu liavv c<m(ribuicd towards the eree- •< 
lion tir tepairs of the structure. Al a iJiorl diiitiince to the iircfl 
ii in tinrtrnt lirick mansioBf belonging tu Lady neaumont, mutber 
«f Sir George Coauiront. 

At Merka UM, in this porish, among ranb nnd rubUth In a 
gravel-p)t, trveriil kinitll onia, »oroe »miill pivCM of brxm, and ctip* 
f«r coiiB of Tiajaii aiiJ Anloninus, vv\t diktovcmt in lite yv^t 
1760. Thv urns were mnged in regular order; the largvat ul a 
pirn size, and the three smiillac rtjual to a Maall tea- cup.* 

EASrON LOUCE, ihc veiierHWu seat of Charlrt, Vbooimt 
KlaynnnI, » pleasantly ftitoatt'd on liit^h aroittid, hi a spaciou 
peril, about two initn nortb-wesi from Dumnow. From llw lar^ 
projeciiii;^ wintlowi, 'And otiier peculiaiitim oT thr buddinZi it 
KeiDS to hHve beL-n errcted afiouL the ItUIrr end of the rciga o£ 
Qaren Klinbcth. Adjoining the east end is a neat Cliapcl, built 
by Williutn, Lord htuynani, in tlie ynir i6';i: theeasi window 
displays ihe phnripal events in the History of our StivKMir, In rix 
compart Dteiit^ nf painted g1a«l. Tlie groandt are pleasani, atid 
orruimeiilvd with can^iU, thrublierie*, Ate. 'I1te manor of LI'lTLC 
EASTON, in wtitch tbis Lodge is situntcd, was granted, by Queeit 
£ltzulelh, to Henry Muynard, i>i{. who wan Secretary lo Lonl 
Burleigh, and urtvrnards (A. I>. l60t) ShciilT of this county. 
His f^ndson, ^\t William Jifaynard, KnI. was ndvanred to the 
peemge by Chnrlf-i the First in the year \Gl7. In 'he vilUge 
CAvitA BTi- vnriuuK mDnumenlal recortH of this fcmily: tfae»e art 
conlaioed in a small Cha^ie], udjfiiniiig the chaivcel un lltv south 
sUc, and culled Uvarthirr't ClinpFl, from its having been CRYtfrd 
M a burial'pUev for the Ilourcbiers, Fjiris of Easex. who poneiBRi 
thp manor in ilie fifteenth century. Upon the monument erected 
to ikememoiy of Sm Hedky Matvahd« (iheSherifl', who was 

Imi^hted 
" GDugb'4 BiiunoU, Vol II. p. 54. 



StSIT, 



*u 



lini^te*] by Jaims Il)« Fint,) und hb [jidy, ara tbeir efligie% 
lying incumbrat: un llic norlli side arc (he 6gure9 nf iheir ogbt 
•ons nnd two daughtcn; the death of two of the fortocr an i» 
corded by the follouing (juaint linm: 

Rafc wu tbo n»le, the bnuiKha bn<r>|y ipnd^ 
And iam« (lilt arc, though ivme be withcTccti 
Two of ihc pTCcioiii OMt, ■ p iiiout >poile, 
Were ml ttinttitnitccl lo a foreiac toik, 
Wli«ra iti* fioU titiiQr, huurv'er il did hthH 
Akw up iheit jutcr, to perfume bov'n wittuUi 
When will ih' kciv'n lurh fiow'ri to (he catlh npay 
A> th' eiftb ■Soided Iwjv'n, two in ■ day. 

Among th« olhor moiiumenls is one of tcry clabomte workman* 

■liip, and finely SiTulplutcd, erected to ctitnnicmoratc WttLiAM) 

Xmkd MaV^aui), whodtLxlUi l6i}V, his wife Ho bothy, dao^h- 

Irr vi i>ir Ilubirt llaiiiutrt^ KuL ami uther i:Kii«idiuilH »i the la> 

, piily* Its height it upwnrtU of iweoty feet, luul its width, inclve. 

' l«rd Mkvmird h repreM-iiicd by a Tull length statue »imiding on a 

^pedeilaJ, luui surmumliNj by vanuus medallion* and IttHi:* of hta 

^Telalives thai are buried in the vault Wnealb. An atteieut mo* 

numrni of grey marble, neatly oniamcnlrd, in tbit CliufH;!, markt 

the place of interment uf IIevuv llouRCUita, lint Karl of 

[fvexof that name, and Isabel Plaktioskkt, hihCiiuritcu.* 

In the pun<>h otTAKKLKY, on the manuT caiM H'aruh Hal/^ 

vafc a unall Priorv, founded in iJie reign of Ilcniy the Fiist, 

at I cell to the Abbey of St. Valer^', in l^curdy, to which tJib 

I laattor a sDppu«ed to have been ff^cn by WiJiiam ihc Cunqticror* 

The Hri^^ry Ivm been long demohftlictli iL^ puMc^iiunt aresaid t^ 

bare been obluiiHtl o( lUlwani the 'I'hitd, by Willi»iu uf Wickhniu, 

vbo bctlowed them on his own fuundaiioti, the New Cullcgp, at 

Oxford, to which lb«y yet belong. 

At TI1UE.M11ALL, in the puruh of SianMeJ Motitfielct, waa 
a PitloRY of Bcnedictiite Canons, dedicaletl to St. Jaues, luunded 
by Gilbert de Mootichel, who came tnlo Kuglnnd wtth llicCon- 

(jueror. 

* TbtJ monanwRt lu been engn*tiA, lad publiihed^ by iba Socitiy of 
Anti^iatk*. 



413 



x«ssx. 



queror. It* chiff t-ndowmcnU wore derived from tKat Gimtly, and 
from the De Verve, EiirU of Oxiord, who iifiCTw*rd» ubuined 
the pUronMgc: bcierat ttidividuaU nT (\iv*v fnmilin ntv uiid lu have 
been buried here. Ai tlir period uf the Dissdluiiun, its ptieBCSHonSi 
accordinji tn Spec.), were valued ut 701. IJ*. 3d. annoBlIy. 

HASSINOUOt'RNF. lh\L.L, r Inr^e iind hnn<l»ump modern 
buiMin<r, dtTivu iu nume from ibcuiicicni family of Uottin^biiurne, 
wme of whom werr trilled h4>reii« early as the time erf Henry tha 
Third. From Ihcm Ihi- rnliilc p(i*»eH thnnifih varioii* fHinilic* to 
Fnwcii UcTnard, E»q. who purchased it inthcjear 1745, un- 
der B dociaioii of the Coui I uf Chancery. This gcDllenuin erected the 
pn>>«ni muiisiun, which biunds nn an eminence, an<l cmiiiiiandi a 
fine view of the adjacent country : ihc from is vciy clegnnl. It is 
n<m the residence of Sir Peter Parker, 

STAN^TKO MONTFICHKT is one of the Urgpst ptiriiheA in 
Essex, its circumference bcln^ ctrmputed nt neflrly forty indn. 
Its namv. Utanated. or Stime-Slrrrt, ivus prohubly derived fnsm a 
Vicinal Wny, which branched off from the Ftomnn road Ironi 
Bishop Siortford to Colchester, nnd runs thrfiugli i[ in the direc- 
tion of StBimled-Strcei. lowardfe Cniil Chesierford : the iippellntion, 
Moatfiehet, nppean to have been given it in contra-dbtinction to 
KlanMecl in lli-rifordshire, and probatdy arose fmm r iHrge nrtlfi- 
'cial mount uf eiirlli, nIiH remnuiiii^, an which otuoit the keep of 
aCnlle, erected here by Willism Gernnn, surnamed Montfichct, 
rbo itilH-rited the Lyrd»hip from his biher Robert, to whom it 
id been given, with wveral othei^ in rlus county, by the. Con- 
quntir. After the erection of ihc CaallCi it brcamo the head of 
Ihff llarrmy of Mnntfichet; and wnnie remains of the foTlrcSs are 
' yet visilitc iibnut a quiirier of a mile from the Church. 

STANSTtlD HALL., the seat of Ifeith. Yat^. iialorgi 

brick miinuon, Hliindiris on the summit of a hill, otKl commaod- 
ID^ a fine prospect lu tlw nocth, The garden»nre pteasaniK laid 
out; and the xr'iumU contain several plantations atid niirserin, 

HALI.I^C'llljKV TLAC'I^ ts a i|>aciuus edifice. Stunted on 
an eminencu In an exicnsivc pari, and now the wal of J. Ilnu- 
\AiiHt Ksq. The grounds have been grchlly improved, and tbe 
2 nhule 



ESSEX. 



*iS 



whute rendered a very desirable wiJ pli-asant residence. Tlib 
mannr wHs purclinM.il by tlic Haublons in the ye^r 1727, utider 
an act tii Parliament, which vcjtte'l tUe loatMn or Great Ilalling- 
l*orjr, W»llljury, hikI Moiikbury, in lruM««s for the diKliar^ uf 
Ibe debts of Sir KdwarJ Turner, mIio previously posKWcd tbein. 

GKI^AT IIALLINOBURV, ajicieiiily railed H'lUUgbwy 
Morltif, from iliv Lxirtb of llist n&iue, itsfurmertioucistm, paaasd 
by msniagc llirougii U)c (atuiilitis oi tin LoveU ami Parhert; one 
of r)ic lattt-r (tf whom bore the titlfi of Lord Momeglv in riglit of 
his mofher, and was the penon to wbum was sent tbc tDysterious 
kltcir reconled as having becD the occasioD ofibe di«co«-ery of 
the Powder-pint. Fmm ibit family it wai obtHimtJ by Sir £d> 
wurd Tunter, Knt. artcr\vafd»Sptriik«r iif the Huiiwof CummoBit, 
ind Lurd Chief Banm of the Exchiw)uer; after ibe decease 
of wbgw »nn, it was purchased by the Jloubluns, as abuvt: men- 
tiuonl. Several of (l>e Lords Morley and Moiiiegli; lie butiwi 
in llic Cbarcb. 

WALLBURY, which giv^i name to a manor in Great HalUng- 
ttwry [wrisb, " and waji anciently termed tt'afia, a an irrc{[ulat 
^'al Camp va a steep hill, mclu»ing about thirty ncrce, witii a 
Did double bank, and ua tbc Qurtb M)in« addiliiNwl work on the 
brow of ibe hill. A road enters it on the east side, but docs not 
ippear to have been coiktinited to the west, where tlie river Stort, 
at the dtftancc uf two or tliret! mends, defends it. Here is, Iiow- 
cvci, n gap in the iniker vhHiuu. and Ibc ditch it filled up on lliii 
side, but liio uuicr bank i> v<-ry ktexrp: Hiiotbvr ruad crofsn il 
from iwrtb Co suutb. Jukt within the wr«t bank >tand« a farm* 
bou<fe of ibr Himc name; ih« 5oulb purl of which, particularly 
the celliir, is built ul ruui;b work, strongly cemented l^igether, with 
come pointed arches. Tbc area was a rabbit warren, till ploughed 
up about sixty years n;;o, but is now divided into several /ields.*"* 
Tb^ area cuniains about [biriy acres, according to Dr. Salmon, 
who imagined it to be tbc vf/nujiM of Itavennas; not retlertiiig, 
obsen-es Mr. Cough, that that writer was describing tbc south- 
west 



* Cougti'i Camden, Vol. 11. p. 63. 



USEX. 



CiMMt of Britun, U)d that all bis itatioits answer to placn In 
Dwon aiid Dor*!.* 

HATFIELD RtXilS, or HATFIELD BROAD-OAK, ms 
(unuvrly « consitlerable mnrkel-town, but is nnw only s K-iiltcml 
villige with nry little inu\e. Il wm anrienily p«n of th« King's 
rfprticsiw, wln-ftw it d^riwd ihr name of Rfgit; a» it ilici that of 
hroad-Oak, or Hrad-Oak, liY»m an ontt of extraordinary sixr, »U[»- 
prMrd to hMV« flouriihMl h«ra in ibc Aaxon times. In ttie Church, 
■ <ar«'«d in wood, ts the mutilated rllifriva of Robert ok Vrita, 
IliirU Euri of Oxford, who was buried here in the year V22\m 
Near tbe east end of the Cburcb, cm a spot now converted ioto 
gardens, stnod a Ber»edrctinc Pbioiiy, foumlcd about the year 
II3A, by Aubrey dc Vrtc, fiiibcr of the Ant Earl of Oxford. It 
L«as dedicated to St. Mary, and St. Melamtn Redonensis, a Brititli 
|<ir ArmoiicanSAini, to whose glory a Aouris^ing Abbey was emrl- 
«d at Uennm, in lUetagnc. To that Abbry the Priory at HalfielJ 
was ongiiially a cdl; but is supposed to have been rendcied iuda^l 
pendant by Aubrey de Vcrc, the third of that name, or bJs sou 
Robert, whose efligin has just been mentioned. Its possraKHO' 
were greatly increased by di&rent benefactors; and, on tbe StJf»- 
prefsion, were valued at 1221. 1J«. 2d. annually. Aubrey de 
Vrrc, the tbuuder, " vufeoffed the Convent, with all his tilhn in 
ll>e pHrnh. by n gniiit, to which was affixed by a harp-strtng, ft) 
sburt bUck-hiiricil knifi-, insteud of a seal/'t Henry tbe Eighth 
gnmied the bite and revenues of Uie Prkiry to Thomits Nuke, to 
«hom ihcy wore «ii>tirnted by Queen Marj*. His son, Robert, 
fold ihein, in the yiwr 155^, to Thomas BarriitgtoD, Esq. wbosa 
ftiiiiily Here itflitcd at Rarriug/tm HaU,l in this parish, about one 
mile attd a linlf north from the Church, as cHrly at. the rrign of 
Heiiry the nrsl. From this innmion, great part of which ba 
bet'n polled down, and th« reinaindci- ctNivcned into a fiinii-housa^ | 

tba 



• Cough'* Camilra, Vol, II. p, 63. 



f I^hI. p. &4' 



X Tbe B>rn<toni haJ iKf cnHodv of HallkM Foroi >i wly u the time of 
King Kthtlrcd, {Hlin o( Edvistd the C^mrcitor. Mvitfi £ijcji, VoL IL 
p.403. 




xssax. 

the &«rringtaru remoTed to the Priory, axtX tvsidol tUoie lilL 
about liic besiituin^ of the lii&l ccniufy, wbra it vnu lakcn tiowti, 
tbroo^ the ituvipprtlifiuk'n of a woilm»n, wlimn Sir Chutes 
Bamogton biid oimuitvil iibaut Rpunitg it; litis Sir Cliarlc* re> 
pnaented tiba county in wn-n Parliiunenn. Dying wilhuul iniie, 
be bequcnihed iliis «»l»Ir to hi5 SMter, Anne, then mBrrityl ta 
Cbartca Sbhlcs, Escg. end her cbil4ircn. Jo^n Uarringtun Sbatci, 
£*q. bcT secoml mn, ubo ftuccrfdnl bu bnttbrr, Ricbe, «reel«l 
l)i« pment BAKItlNGTUN IIALL, at « littlr dtUaiice north 
(rom the si Iv of lb« friory. Tbis t5 ■ »pKciot)» biick mannon: 
ibe Ltmg-Hwm un ilie gruuiid fiHov measures 100 tt:et in length, 
anil IwvDTy in breadth; tite ceiling b (>maincui«d wiib itucco 
wnrh, and sopparlex) on Itirge cotumiw. 

GREAT CANFIBI.D, or CanMd ad Ctutrvm, as it is sonW' 
tini«s fslted, obtained ttt Intlt-r iip{>ellKlion from a Ca«tl« bcktog- 
ing to Ibe De Vem, Cark of Oxford, hy one of whom it a gene- 
rally luiipond [o bavG been built: tba ravunt, or k«ep. Hill n- 
mainS| and is pIsDled with ircni the uf«ain wbicb itMaiMls is snr' 
n)und«d by a deep mnat, encompiusiii;; about two acres. Tiiia 
place, from the Mmililtide of the i»ine, and from iu situaticia 
iMiog at ita pritt disuhce from the little rivet Cro, has fawa 
tbMgbt the aocicnt Canonittm; bat apparently on ibMilCcit^t 
fftvund>, 

tn the pari*b of LITTLE LEE-S, sqi] mioriy adjoining FeUted, 
vai a PaiDKT of AuguMino Canons, fuundcd about the ^-ear 
I3<i(>, by Sir Kulph Uemon, and dedicated to tlia Virgin and Su 
JAn the Rvangrlisi. It» rewnues, ai llw pmod of the DisMiluliun, 
i«ei« valued Dt f 14). I». 4<j. nnnuftlty. Tlio site of ilic IViory, 
virh other -marKtn, uere ^aau-d, by Ilonry lh« Eigblh, to Sir 
Richard Rirhf an eminent La-wyer, vbow tulents rendtnrd liim a 
TDTy tttcful ttMi:.laiit tn tbe tcbcuie of suppreving tbe religtout 
houtcs. In th« rcigii of Edward iIr- Si.\tb, lie nus piuinL>ti.'d tv 
the Chancel lor%hip, and alio created Unroo nf Loes; but ou llm 
downfall uf the Dulte of Sontcru4, he wiis c;blt«;ed to n^sign iIms 
Seal*. He aficcttards retirtNl to bis seat at Len Priorff the 
buililing^ of wliich be had eiilnrgud, aad furuii-d julv a mu^^cent 
1 duelling. 



4t6 



ESSEX. 



dwelling. In tu moftt perfrct stab* thii mansion comisted of ivro 
quudraiij(lci of brick, lUiToiiniliiig an uuter and tnnrr court, siitl 
cnconipao^ by a p«rk of 400 acres. Two oltier piitkt, of ncnrly 
equal extent, were also connectetl witli il, by Sir Rjcbani; and 
olhct iniprorpint-nt* werf ma-ic by liii successors. These sucrcs- 
uvc additions su greatly increascil ilB splendour, that, on tbc death 
of Clmrln Rich, 1-Url of Warwick, in l67S, Dr. Walker, in bb 
'faoeral sennon, scruple<l not to sound it&eulaj;ium, liy rolling it, 
!'" a secular Elysium; a worldly Panidisc; a Heaven upon cnrlh." 
;)n this building, the Princess Eliaabclh was confined durin|; snioe 
port of ibc reign ol Iter kiiter Mary. The estate now belong! to 
Guy'* Hinpititl, by llic direction of (he |;o%'ercu)nt of whkh great 
part of lh« building hm iKxn ilcttro^-ed ; but tuo tides of one of 
ihe quadrangle!, und a fine tower guleuny, yet rcmiiiiii. The 
latter bos an octagonal tower at each comer, with embattled tur- 
rets. Tbo oilier parts (bat arc now standiM>; are occupied by a 
respectable farmer. Near the hnuie are some of the lar;^ li^b- 
poiHls that belonaed to the Piiory. 

PLECSHV, though now only an oUcure tilla^, was formerl, 
a place of conudcrable icnpurlance, it Imving been the seat of tbc 
l:|ii;h Cnnstablra of England, front tbc curlicbt instituiinn of ihat 
office, till nearly fuur centuries after the ConiiucKt. Mr. Gough 
conceives it to have been the silo of a Roman station,* hue bus 
DOl ventuie<) t'> assign it a Honian natnc. Momnt, who Untowcd 
verj' hltle atltrution on Ibii »ubj<>ct, has yet referreil it |c> (bo 
Roman lime* ; Hupimrtint; his ofiiniim by a reference to an EntmcA- 
mait vibicb*surruunil9 the t-illuK*:, sud within tbe area of which 
a strung CW/e was erected, in the Norroan age, the kwp of 
•kicb still exhibits a proud specimen of ancient grandeur- 



Ha mitty door 



Onto oa huih hi»gu o'u ihc Tuin'd Aoort 
No poiiiinl aich. wiin drod porteuUii buiif, 
Bidi lioiior ualk ili« tiraiil biudinnoflgi 
No derj} ditk dungeon Mrlkn their mwIi with far. 
Not Dirtiliaj tow'n iheir Ihreat'iting turrcU reir. 



IIiu«iy uid Aoihtuiiiciof plnhy, p. f. 



M9ti. 



4ir 



h-Y*! tilll rcTTiaiiii, anil mirkt ihs nicTenE bouiul, 
TIk bold itHitmcnt of the outer inotiud ; 

SlM Wilb • »iavf ud piuking kl(p WE Kmd 
U'jh o'er ihc lufly iich, oad bcico arc led 
To moimiilw keep, whoic hirJ KctM of /on 
A (natilA<it!tAti, but defeitiJt n>i morr; 
For where of otd did ((uatdian wiicri lliiw, 
Now tptdding ath and huiablcr eldeit jfow."* 

'Hie entroiichin«»t lie^ns to llie wf^t of the Church, nrhich 
>tand> juDt williuut it, Hiid fulU inlu [ho t'uwe of the keep on the 
woit sidv. Thv vallum, ««itli a noble f^^uc, is very |n*rt«ct iti ))artB 
of tiie north, e&sl, and west hides; diid ilic fuur ruiub which lend 
into the camp, are easy to l>e traced. 11iiit which eiiiors the uesi 
sjdr, running by ila- Church, ni:iy Ijc .'jIIoivcJ by ])iccc-incal ul- 
nii»t to Ciirltn^furd, Ui the wi^t of the Walthnm road, liy its 
aide have been found muny human bones; a bit, of iron; a stone 
cofllni a glass urn, with hones in it; and some (csscne of pave- 
ments. 'I'bg circunt Terence uf the vallum ii witUin u few yard* of 
B Roman mile."i- Scveml urns, und other anii(]uitii's. have been 
found within thv distance of u niilu fruin the cniretiL'hnicnt; and 
some Roman bricks are built u[> in the Cower of ibe Church. 

llitsc remains seem sulliiicni to evince the Konian origin of 
Plssuv Cahtle: ihe krcp, and moor that surroundiil, must, 
liu«e«er, be n-furred to the Normans; and aIiIi most probability lo 
Vi'illium de Mugiiuville, tccond ion of Geuffrey dc Mugitavilie; 
to the lutler of'Vrlium Plnhy hud been grnnled by the uturpei 
Stephen, uho liud obtained it ihruugh his tnnninge with Mtiud, 
gr&nd-duugbter of Cu«t<ice, t^rl of Boulogne. This Williiim 
{irocured licence from Hcnr)* the Second to fortify his Castle at 
Pleshy; and here he solemnued his marriage with Hawise, daugh- 
ter and hcirns of ^Villidm le Grot, Earl of AlbeiiiBrlr, 1 ItiO.} The 
earth-works/* obaerves Mr. Gough, ** may defy the injuries of 

VOt. V. JULT, 1804. nd IJRM 

Iliaiory aad Aniiqiiiiies of I'lesh]r, tDlroduclioD, p. ivl, 
f Aiitd|uilio of riuhy, p. 3, 
I Ibid. &. UtUet Catalogue of Honuui, p. B^y 



41S 



Mssa;. 



time and cultivation ; but of ihe buildingt tliat oner adorned ihcra, 
remains uiily ilie briiJge Icadm^ .civm (Uo inuai to tbu Let;]?. I lib 
IkHiigc is ul brick, of one poiiiud arcb, Mioniily cnin)|>cj u>gcther 
wiih iruii, vighlcvn feet high, and eighu'en Kide, and mtxtrkutjl* 
for tlic singular circumstuice of cuniracting as it Hfiproachcs lbs 
founditiotu. Kiundaiioni of brick run Irunt tbc eod of thii 
bridge ta the left ruuml the keep; nad on mch ude of tbc way to 
it aie roundiitioin of largo Tboms, and angles of ttine bu'Mings. 
The silc of tlie Ctittk- has been a urarren; and four rajt^ea ^ewi 
occupy llie keep, in [ilauting wliich wme foundaiiom were laid 
open." The tonn of the keep is ui-urly oval ; iis brcadlh at lop ii^ 
about foiiy-fivc p3rc■^; its width twenty-five; its circuaifercacoJ 
is upwards of 8<}0 (ftt. 

Huitifil.iTy de Bohun, granJwn of Ilomphrcy, tamamed tliel 
good Earl uf Hcrcforij, wbo had succeeded tu the nlalctt uf lli* 
^Jngnaviiln, obtained lfav« of Eduiird the nral, to enlarge bis 
prk lit Pletby, by incbaini; 150 addiliurw) acres. His dncctf. 
dit.itA continued otvners tit! the death of Humphrey, the Inst malo' 
lieir, in 1:172, when Thomas ot Woodstock, af:erwarda Duke 
of Gloucester, sixth son of Edward the Firsi, became posseted of 
ric»tiy, and other immense esl&tei, in liglil of his wife Eleanor^ 
cldi-»t dau;;hter end co-bc)re» of Humjilirey: in her right, aL 
li« became High Coiislahle of England. 

Tlie bii'^y life and tugic&l late of this nobleman, occupy no 
incoHiiidcniblc portion of the aiinaU of Hichard the Second; and 
though the lurbuleitcc uf iho age, and the degrading system of 
tavoritisni pursucil in the court of that weak Monarch, necessarily 
connected him with the violences practised in the early part of bit 
Mvereignly, there is no evidence of his having acted wantonly 
cruel, or of huving supported his own administration by unmerited 
severity. His character appears to have been that of tJie blunt 
Knglisbman: loo haughty to ttihiuit bis judgment to the trammch 
of courtly sycophancy, and Inn hniiest to tarnish his principles 
by uncotidiiional tuLjmissioEi to kingly dotpotbm. The favorites 
of Richard fci'«w thnt bii destruction could not bccfcctcd by open 
violence, so much was tbc popular voice io bis behalf; they bad 
1 therefore 




I 



cssts. 



4)9 



tlicftfore TcrouTK to privnte aow^iiNilion ; and (be Kin); wits so 
ready to forward tiicir tcheioes of vcnjeancr, that he dncended 
ev«n to the base Irearlierj ul' Hrrwiing tlie Duke himbclf, undvr 
prctctkce ihat ho wUbcd to consult hiro itbuut Lusiiiet* in (be 
city ol London. 

Wlirn 4hiii art^l wm contrJvcJ, titc Duk< ira* at tiii C«5llc at 
PleUij, with »c«rc*Iy any more compnny than I114 uwji raiiiily« 
uk) immediaie r(>lain«rs. The manner mi wliicli it vrai ciircuted 
M ttius rcUitetl by Froiuart; " Tlie Kiii]; h-i out un« afiernoun 
JVoin IJav-eriBg ai Bouer, (whitlier lie bad cum? under pretence 
of recrauion and bunting, having )i*ft part o( lits qttendanU at 
Ellbara with llie Queen,) and came to PlnJsy abiiut five oVlock. 
it was fine warm weather; anrl when they entered tlic Custlc of 
Plaisy, \hey were surpriMd lu kenr, * Mere comes tbe King!' 
The Duke o\ Gloucester had just supp<-d, for he was rery lcm« 
peralei ond tat but a littte while at lubte, wbclhcr at dinner or 
supper. He came out lo meet the King in the Court wf thcCu>tIe, 
ami paid his mpecis to him as Ui liis Suvercign, for be nos n tio- 
blemaii of great polilriuiis. 'Ihe Duclieas, and bcrchildivn, who 
were there, did the same. TW Kin^ went into the hall, and 
then into the Mpartmeut: a tabic \vm presently *pred for bim; 
and, after a short scpper, be said to the Duke, * Gowi uncle, 
order Jive or six of your hone« lo be taddleil : you mmt p> wiib 
nifl lo London; for to-morrow I am to meet the IjjnduDcrs, and 
we shall find tliere my uncles of Vork and Lancaster, wiihciut 
fail: I mean to take ynur advice on a pciicion they arc to pteM;itt 
to me: aad order your steward to foll'tw with your people 10 
I^ondon, where they will find y<ui;' Tbe Duke su^wcting uo 
harm, obcjed biro forthwith. The Kin? presently Gnishod hit sup- 
per, and rose up. Every body was ready. The King took leave of 
the Duchess, ami bet cliildren, and m'>unl«I his horse: the Duke 
did Ihe same, and set out from I'laisy, nticoded by iuily seven of 
hit people; three Mcjuires, and four servants. They rode bard; 
for the King was in buste to get to Londuii. and all the way talked 
with Kj« uncle of Glnticester, till they came to Slu'l/orle (Slrat- 
, ibrd) and iJie river ITiamc*. When the King come to the pla« 

D d 2 where 




Ma 



KS3EX, 



wliefC the nnibush ky, he rnde on before, and left his uncle; bmI 
|}»en Miildcnly ciune up the l-^iiil Munhal (Ttiumu Mowhrsy) 
behiiul him, with u grcnl Iruop uf men and bones, and sprung 
on Itic Uukc uf Glouc^Crr, »i>ing, ' I anctl you by Ilie King't 
onler*.* 'Ihu Duke wuk lljuiiilci&lrucrk, and ^mw he wms belntyed, 
Bnd fapgnti 10 call ulouH la (he Km;; Wlirthor ihc Kin;; bettnl 
him, I know not; but U« dij not turn Imck, but rode vo fut, koJ 
bis people fwlluwed him.''* 

Th* ptiriiculun of this iirrest, q» relmed by \Vulsinj[hnm, Ta- 
binri, ttniJ ulhrt hi>U)nuns, Hie sumcwbut diwnrly told; but ihi 
King's trcnchtry is munife»[eii by miMti a( rliein. Al'irr beinx de- 
CD)rd from Ple.><hy, the Dtuc vna hurrii'J to ihe I hamet, where 
he vvu [HI I on «lii|)bo(ird, itnd oiiivryr-d to ChUk. Hrrr, after « 
few duyj ini[>riMtiinicnr, be hms &miiilii*ri:-d by ruOiuns. cngngcd foe 
the purpct&c atiiung ibe icrvanli uf Itio citemiM. Not diinng to 
tn»lie the manner vf liin <) mb pul<1ic, the Kirts'it minions Tepnrtcd 
ihat he hai) died of an apoplexy. Ili» btnly Has brnu^hl l» &ig- 
bind, and convejcd w-iih liltle |K)mp " to ilieCiurle of Plaisy, 
wh«re it vta» luid in llic Churrli which l)ic Asid Duke had built 
and founded in honor of the lioly Trinily,"t His rtrntuiiu were 
eiierwardi removed by his Durh>c6, and tinolly inlerred nn the 
•out1\ side ct( the khrine of I'dward ihc C'onfemor, in Wcslmin'tcr 
Abbey. Whatever di'grve of iny«iery had been thrown upon iho 
manner of the Dukc'« detilh, diinng the remainder of Kithard ibe 
Second's rcigi), it rtas nholly di»%ipHlcd by ihe Iitijui»iliun imidc 
by command of the &nt Piirhamcni that RMcmbled alter the oe- 
cenioQ of Henrj- the Fuurih. It was then found *' that be had 
been fravdutcurty and wi>i'kedly sinutfaered by the Kind's orders at 
CaJAit;" and i«o or three o( the astaiiMiu were alierwardi exc- 
fined.! 1'h« Uuke was put to death in &c}>teinbcr, ISJff. 

* ADliquitiMorplnhy, p. jC. 



{ " Arabn j ihc pcrioni more TtmnUly concetncd Ui itw Ouk« of Clocttln** 
dnth, It it rntuik^bk iliKjoIni UoJluiJ, Duke of tscitt, h»lf-braiker to 
Rtcbud die Stcond, ma hii p uoiihiiKot ia the atx: tci^n tl Plaby. lU tud 



ESI EX. 



4S1 



, The poKcsuons of the Duke, whirh, on his muriler, tmtl been 
wijKtl by the ('mwn, Hpjirdr lo Imve been n-ntort-tl lo lii» widow^ 
£leaiii-r; amt rif(ili}<, uiib othor nUil», wiu, after her di-ccue, 
held by tdmuiiH, llarl of Suffurd, in right uf his wife Aiioc, ibc 
Dutes itau_^iiti>r ; but, on u piirliltuii df the rsiiitrs of Humphrey 
de Uohan. beiwruti ittU Inrfy iind Henry the Pifih, her fi»t cou- 
■in. ihcCusiLo, I'urk, rikI MMimr vt rii-shy fell to tin- Ci-own, 
and Irom tbui nine (icctiiuc parcel of the Duchy of Lancaster. 
Edwflrd lite Sixth grnhled the .Muixir, with tli« Cireat and Little 
Parks tif i'lnhy, to Sir Juim Gatii, Knight, to uhom uUo ihe 
College, fiec. fniimled by the Otike of Uli>ace«trr, had kvn pti- 
viously givcii by lleiiry the llighib. Uii lii« uiluitidcr and ilcwtli, 
for run>pinng to nit»e itic Ludy June (Mcy lo iLc ihniRc, ihey 
■giiin tril u> ibi- C'ruwii. 'I'ltc Gn-ut Purk uiis Kt:u« iifiL-rwHrds 
obiuiiuil by Itobert, Lord Kicli, and brrame incoTpnniied with 
the (iem-^rifs uf Wiiltham-bury, umong which it pasnoil lo lh« late 
Lord SVullh»m. 'I'lte Liitle \'nrk, and llie Muant. were purclta* 
•ed by Sir Ilubcrt Cliirke, cunslituCrd one u\ llie bnroni of Ui« 
Exchequer in liie reign ul Lliiabetli, [rum wijuni thry liuvc pmc- 
ed, by de»cciil and purcliusu, lu Julin Jolltffe 'I'ufiiii-ll, Esq, ibc 
proicnt owner.* 

D d 3 Til* 

tapgf^ with liii bmthtr, llx Eart of X»t, and nihrr Lnrdi, in ■ conipif*ry 
agiinit Ht'iiv ibe Fouilh ; wlnlc ihe K>t were c»b«Iliin « Wmdiof, he ttaid at 
Landan, iiid, upon f]tlu>* u( il'cir il«<gn, sttrntplcU to m*k( kil ocape in a 
bait; bill findtii^ ihe wind centriry, he toi^k hone, and, with one Sir John 
Sc}>ev«lf, tniile the but of hi»\<r«y tath«caul of £imx. in cidtr togHa'.ioad. 
AflcT mciil unincccufkil aElcnipli to put to in, the <■ inil bciiij; j jainit hiin, 
ha rctirrd to a fiianii't houic: while at tiippar (hcrr, the etnimr tot* upon hira, 
and icicixg hira. brotight him firit to ChdmifDrd. ana I'am to Plfthy Catlir, 
u tl>e utct pUce. The popuUce flocking thither in gml nuitibe;!, he wai, oci 
llie evening uf St, Miuiite't day (i^oa) biought otil, iiid b«t'eaded on Uie tpot 
when ibeit Lard, tl^e Duke of Gkcnur, had txcn inntcd by King Richatd. 
Hcconfcucd, with lean, that he Kid mined grievoutty agaimt God aiid the 
Jtiog, in net di«clo>ing ih* conipifacy to which he wat pri«y.** 



^Oti^uilict of Fkihy, p, i^6>ij$. 



4« 



sntTt. 



Thfl CoLLKOE, already menlioned to have been founded here. 
(t.S93>) by Tboma) of Woodittick, »tooJ cki tb« south side uf tbe 
Church, and tvas cndun-ed far a Master, a Waiden, eight Chap* 
lalns, two Ckfks, and (wo Cliurislers. The ori»inul CTiilowmvnM' 
were greatly augmented by 8uhseqii<>m bencfBCtions ; and on tha 
Suppression, Its rr^-cnun were valued si 143). i?s. 7|(J.* nima- 
]ly. Nut any piirt of (he buildings now rrmain; und «w[i tbo 
•itc is hxrdly tn be dittin^uinlifd, it hiivinf^ bcvn long ploughed 
up, though it still U-an the nnme uf th» Ct>ll«ge Freld. Tbft 
Culltge Ciurci was buill in lh« Culhednil Tortn, with a towor ia . 
the middle, and te^'e^BI itlinlrious ))ervii» «cre iiitrrrvd in it. 
Tlie grcnlDst part was, himTvcr, di'moli^hcd b^ Sir John Galea f 
■ltd when Bishop Complon was proinuicd to the See <>( Lon>lAn at 
ibe begitinitig of ihe last wnniry, scRrcely nny mote than tk* 
tower was remaining: to ihh t\^c■ Rinhop adilrd a rwai body of 
brick, which, tu^Ucr with a chancel, since buill, now conttt- 
tutea th« Paiiih Oiurch; some uf the old atclicN of the truniffpt 
remain, but arc bricked up. Against lh« miuiIi wall of the eliia- 
col is a hnndiome monumpnt to the memory of Sim Wiiliah 
JoLLtFPB, Knt. who died in 1749: and agaiiKt the north nal) 
is another, in coniincmorniion of Sauucl Tt^rrNELt, IIm). hit 
nephew, to whom, and to his eldnt son, he bequruthed hi» po>* 
aentonH. Some inrmuiial of the fornirr contequence of Plcihy, 
may pciHap?> bo fuund in ibc clvttion of a Mayur, who is cboten 
annuHlly on the courl-day held for Ibo manur, out of the fpce- 
holdcrs of the vilhige. 

LANGLEYS, llie scat of John JuIlifTc Tuffnell, Ceq. a manor 
in the parish uf Grtnit Wulllimii, vriis furmeily called ManAalls, 
from an ancipnt family of that namt.', which resided here from tb* 
time of King John, till the reign nf Rilward the Third, when it 
puMcd to tlio Langlcj-s, from whom the present owner i^daceiided. 
The maiuion nm built by the late Samuel TulfDell, Ksq, It is a 
handsome building, standing on a ptea»ant eminence, hounded by 
ihc river Ciielmer un the tiuith, and by a small riviilot on tJi* 
•oulh. 'Jliu purk and grounds arc judiciously laid out, 

* Tinner. SiBcrab'i US. Volar. 




ESMex. 

The RODENGS arc eight roniiguotu pariibcs, dittinguHhcd 
by tilt! %'aniiiu prcAxn ul High, Aytiurpt, H'kitr, Liailen, Mar' 
gurrt, ISeram, AlAru, nrul Hrmnchmnp; bII which n&mes have 
been Kivuii ihi'm »>iii-r iho comjiilifliun nt the Domesday Book, at 
whicti {icnitd tlicv ni-rc ktionii by Ihc gcnrrsl appcUatiun of Rod' 
tMgf uiily: iiurrrta Radingt loritiedy a cJiMinct pBritb^ has long 
bri-ii a huintrl tu iliiii nt M'hitp Rodijig, Thii dUtrtrl. whidi ap- 
pcan to huve obtainrd ils mim<> from the river RuJitig, M-liicK 
mm iliruu^ti it, is Trry fruitful, but prarcrbiall) ditiinguiihcH 
for Itic bjiilrau nt its rmds, and the unCi<ulli mannen of ibr inhi- 
bil*nt»: in tuvlit ihctc rc»pcc1«, bowcvi-r, it it much improved; 
wul uiib regard to th<: coltivaitvu of tli« land, u not itilrrior 10 
nmi itlucf)' ill l-^x. 

'itteCiarchesoi WiiLlHOEiiALL-DotJ, and WiLLnraEHAit 
8rAtK, are both siitmfrd in the same rhurrh-yard; but do net 
di'play an> ihinR pw-uUarly remarkable. WARDENS HALL, 
in Ibc! foim<'r parwb, ici a spRcious brirk t'diticc, now ibe scat of 
V/illiam Milb, tj^. wbuie father obtained it in marriage with 
Selina, Hau^bter ot Sir John Salter, Knt. and Lord Mayor of 
LoDiluR rn 1740, by whom il wat built. The grounds arc singu- 
larly disptsvif, und tunii^tied with vuuirui fish-ponds. 

At FVFIELI) a great number ul Celts «cra fnund in (he yrar 
1749; iofn>iber wiih a large qnnniily of metal for msiingthrni: 
and in a field called 8toCbli\c, between Fyficld and Ongar, a 
coftii of hewn stone, wilh olbe rs ol tiles, mnny skeletuns, and ra- 
rious fragments of uros, wltc discovertrd iu 176? * 



ONGAR, on CHIPPING ONGAR, 

Ii an Ancient market lo«-n, chiefly coniifiingof one loag and 
wide »ir«et, ntoated within the area of un extetujve EntrencMmei>t,f 
whicb may yet b< traced on it* differeiil ude«. On ibe vust are 

Dd* the 

* Gou^'i Camdeii| Vol. 11 p. jji. S«pulchnl Btouuixcits, Vol. ]. 
ItRradiictivn, p. xsiv, 

^ Cougb'tOffideo, Vol. II. p. 51, flgare ^ pJalt 1. f. 41. 




«4 



XSk£X. 




llio keep ami ntlicr remains of a ttrong CattU, erected by Rkhud 
<lo Lucy, Cl>i»*l Jmlicc of Mtiyland in llic reign of Henry liie Se- 
coni), to whom thi> l/)nl»bip wiu given, by WiHtain, Evi of 
MtTluin anJ Sui-ry, unJ sun to King Stephen, nnU by wboM 
iiucml it wM cnvted int'> iin Honor. Mr. Goii4h lupiioses the 
Cdfttte tn have been rormcd out of a more nncient and KtensiTe 
nurk, of rilltcr Ituman or Saxon origin. The liecp b surrounded 
by n ili-rp umt \iit)e nuHit, rommitnly httcJ with water, and is a)M> 
dcfcnilrd by tinmriiitc fiiue^ Its ude* ftrc now plnnictl willi trees 
Slid !tlinil)»; lliroii);h which ti »t<.-c|i winding walk li-iids to the sunt- 
riuE, whereon ^toud the piincipai buildiDgN: thc!« becoming ruin- 
ous, win pulled down in ihe reign of Queen Elisabelb. by the 
then ownrr, >Vitliiini ^^>l^Cl^ lvtt|. uho crcvled in tlicir place 
a bundaume miitiMun, vrhii.'li, lium it» height mid kiUy &itUHiJon, 
CDmmandcJ Bnmc fine rirwa mcr the surrunntliiig country. 11i» 
huildin;; wii.<f dcin<>ti.nhcd iibnut the year 17 t4, by E<Iwiird Alex- 
nndiT, K&i|, who hud purchased the estate, nnd wliobtulan rm- 
battled auinnier-house erected on the site of the former dwellilig. 
11j« dcsccudtutU of Ibis gentleman are stjil owneis of ibe Cuile 
Witt manor. 

The inurkut is not much frequented; ibougb, from tlic term 
C/irping Uing adixrd In llif! name of the town, it h probably ol' 
remote origin. The Church i» n Mnuli nrai structure, and hat 
" many Homnn bricks worked into it:"* llic wmclowimrc «ngn- 
Kirly &ma)\, mure rctrnihling roBtdlHied Wtp-boles than church 
uimiout. Withtii it u an iiucriplion, recording the family anJ 
iiiterntvtit of Jasr, daughlcr of the Lord Oliver Cronnvcll, of 
Finchinhrooli, in lluntingdoiihtiire, Htul wile uf Tobias Pallavi- 
cinc, r.si|. J-'unndnlions uf Itumtin buitdiiic^i iire »aid to have 
beet) du<; up in the Church-Yard ;t and, ns a collatcnl proof of 
llie aiitiiiuity of the loivn, the principal road from London to 
t'l'lthester is ri-corded to hove led hither by Old Ford. Tlie po- 
pohktion of Chipping On^ar, as returned under tbc late act, was 
p95; tbc number of houMCt III. 

GREENSTED, 

* Cou^'* Cinidni, Vol. 11. p. ^i. 
t Hi'ltrv «( £ur(, V»l. 111. p. 317, i^ tJiO. 



XSSKX. 



43A 



r.UKKNSTEI), calk'J bIw CrfrasJrd Htnr Ongar, to diain- 
gaiiit it from unnihcr Orocn^teJ mljarcnt m Ciilrhtttcr, hits b<-- 
C^rni.^ much cclebraled Trom its CtmreA, whifh is coiuictrrcd by 
some ot I he best informpj n»tiqnnri(>t,*Bj one (if the moKt tiiifiulur 
and ancient in Great Britmn ; n% fur, Ht ItraM, n» nx^rd* lh« body 
or iiavc. 'Ihi»is entirely riiin|»osc() ofwooil ; the air les bring torni- 
nl of the trunks of lurgc clio^nut Iree&.f sjilit ur »wii u^uiiUer. 
ThcBc arc M.-t uprglii, close to ench other, itnd let into *. lilt and 
plate; at the top tUcy arc fiuUnirtl «ii!i wuudcn ]iiiis, " On tke 
MUlfa side trv siMeen, iiml two door pu^ts; un thi; north, Iwcnly- 
onr, and two varnnrtcs filled up nith plaster. 1'hc wot cod ti 
baiil agftii^it by n buatiW tower, and the r»st by a cliimct-l of 
bncL ; on the simlh ude n a wooden {K>rch ; and both Md«s un 
ilrenj'lhpni'il by >bricic buKrewci: the roof is of later daliTt and 
tilnl ;['' but ritc\ to a [mhit in tlir crntr«, m on;(iii:illy forinod. 
The entire Icnjiih of Ibe ori^tnal piirl it Iwcuiy-iuno fee,, niiK 
inches; the wiiiih, fourteen fi-ci; Shd the hciglii, lo ilie spring of 
the rocif, five fwt, six inches. 

In the accoiitit of thii Clitirrh. cnminiinicnlcd to the Society of 
Anri(fuari(<s by Smart Lethieullier, E«|. nnd annexed tu h view of 
it, publtihed many yean ago, it is *aid. that the inhabitants hiti« 
a iraditiun, tliiit iIjc corpse of a King once reMed in it. 'Iliu 
iradiiion Mr. L. imagined to have bfcn founded on pnrticulan re- 
corded by some of onr old wriii-ts, and instuiicvs the fullowiii^ 
In a iTianincript preserved in the Ijiinbeth UbrKr)', iniiiuled. 
Vita tl Pi!i*ii> Sancti Etmuudi, ai« patviges to thi» eifVct : " lo 
the year ]OiO, »iii! the ihirrieth of King Eiliclied, 8t. Edmund. 
by TCUBon ^if the invx^ion of Turkil, ihe Dnni»b iliiel, was laiicii, 
by Uihhop Ailwin, to Lundon ; but io the third year fulbiHing, 
carried back to Si. l-]4mund'B Uury: a certain person ut Staple- 
ford hospitably received hit body cm ils return." Auolhcr MS. 

cited 



* Duniel, L<(1iieuliici, Goiigh. 
t HlMory af Emcx, VeL lit. p. 383. «dii. 1770. 



1 COD^h'k CaRtilm, Vol. II. [). jl. 



«&s 



tnsEx. 



cited in the Monaaticoa, and iniiluled, Rfgittmm aeaohii Saucti 
Edmtmdi, has ibis nrntence: Tdrm apuU Auvohb hospilabatur 
tibtin rfiu Hienoiia ligura capeUa peimanel titiftic kodie; i e, * Hi 
body WHS likrwike rntertaiiied ut Aungrt, where a «<Wc:ii CA^d^j 
creeled lo hia inciKoryt remain* to Ihii day.' 

In thr Applicutiua of ihtM cxtr-cis, Mr. L. obsen-n. that, 
" llicparisli of Auiigw, or Oiigtir, adjoinB lo that of GrerrKUil, 
where ih» Chtirrh it tituatcd; and that the ancirnt ruad Imm 
Lxiiuton into Suff'lk, lay ihmugh Old-ford, Ahridgr, Srspldord, 
GfMmlol, Uuntnow, and Clare, wc Icurn not only fniin iraili- 
tlon, but likcwM from icieral reiraim of it, which arc ilill vi»> 
Ui*. It «ci.'ni* not ini[irubiihle, ihripforr, thai tliin Kmch mid (U^J 
jinli»hed fuhtic wan Tint ricclnl aH o uirc of iliniK* for tbv recpf>- 
tion of the corpse of St. Ed'Dtiipd, which, tn ih nrlum (nrm 
LoiKton to Bury, as Lydgatc says in Kit^ MS. Life of King Cit> 
inut»ir wa& carried in a chni: and, »s we iiic told, in the Kegbtcr 
above mentloneil, tliut It rrmaincd altprwards in mrmory of that 
lemovil, M) it might, in [irncet^ t>£ limr, villi pri^))*-! addtlicts 
nwle toil, be coiJ*rrteil into » rHri»h t'hiircli; fi>r we find by 
Kcwcourt, that Simon Fcven-ll sticrredrd John Lodct ai rector 
^«f Grttmttd Jusla Opgaty in IJJ8. lie wiys likctviie, that 
'Richard do Lucy very probably dtvidcd the porithfs of Onmttd 
and Amgrr, and built the Church at Aungre, in tlic raign of 
IJenry the Scroiid." 

GIIKENSI KU \\.\l\., iho scat nnd property of Craven Ord, 
E«]. one of the .Mutters in Chancery, i*a ncai modem building, 
tituDtcd near the Cliurch. 'Ibis otate wai formerly included is 
the Honour of Olouc«>ler. 

OTKS, in the parisli of High haver, wot furmerty the seat of 
the Matliams, of an ancient fnniily, originally Milled ticnt 
AlaiiiRm, in Vorkfhire, bat who rrmovcd hither in the reign of 
ivmvi the i'inil: on the dcalh ol Samwl, the lust Lord Mcubam, 
this Mlnie W8S sold lo the Palmers. In the Church- Vord are ie- 
venl niorumonts of ilic Mosham funnily ; and oka n plain marblft 
tomb to the tncnory of the grcitt I'liilmophcr, J<iiiN' Lockt, 
who va> the guett ol Uie Moihanii during ktcriI yvan pr^viouc 

to 




ESSEX. 



4«7 



to bis decense. The epitaph, written by iumKlf in Latin, bubeen 
thus tniDiJated : 

Nnrlhit Plice litth Johm Locxi. 

If you *ik wli«i Kind <:<( Mtn he vrai, 

lit aitiwcd, tli4t I^K lived coiilrnt 

Wiib hit owTi Fortunr. 

Bred ■ Schnlir, he miiie hit Lnrning 

StthtmteiU only to the Ctum of Tiuttt. 

TItia liwu will Intn rram bi* Writinfi, 

Wbkb will ihow lhc« eviry Tkiag die 

C<]>tccr>ite){ hin), 

With giMKr Tiuih iluii tbo luiprcwd PhfMM 

Ol on Epiiapti. 

lli% Virtuci, \tiitiA, it he had mty, 

W«K Wv liulc Tot hiin to prupoM 

A* Mtuei of Pm>M(o l»mi«ir. 

Or kon Eximplc to tltM: 

Let tiu V,ce% be buTiCil togellvr. 

Ai 10 in eximplc of Arjaxrrf, ifyou i«ek tbv, 

Vou have ii in the Gnirii. I 

Of rifu, 1 V iih you la have one no wbera. 

Of UoiktHif. cciUtnly, wid may it profit Ukc* 

Yoa tuvc are here, and every where. 

Thih Sloiic, 

Which will it«ir pctlUi In a shan TiiM, 

Record*, ' 

Hue be wu bom Aug. i^ 1631 ; 

Tfat he died 

Oct. aS, 1704. 



MARI.O\V, a disuwd mnrkcl town, wM fornwrly * place of 
con*td«frabI« trade, ynd bud » liirgit wiiollen tnanuracturc, but 
this has long brvn removed, and ihc inhnbil»nls arc now chid)/ 
cupponm) by ipinniti^, and ngriruttuml cfflploymcnts. Some od- 
Taniigea arc, howcwr, derived Irom HarfoK-fnui Fair, which ii 
beld annually, for the sale of hones, cattle, &c. on a cotamon, 
about two mile* froni iLe triwn, and much Ircqtietitcd. 'ITic 
CktirfA, dcdieated to the ^'t^g:n, onil AIJ Siiirit*, wm panty de- 
molished by lire, at the beginning of the last cenlory, but nui 

scon 



KftEX. 



toon ■nerwftnlt rntoml, ftiid nriwinented witli tnucli puoteJ 
gltiM, cliK'fly Hi the cjtpcnce of t'lc llc«-. Mr. Taylwr, tlicn vicUf 
and the nciglibouriiig gentry, llic original structure wat in tbr 
catlicdrul furm : but llic tower, which rose rrom the raitrt, hw 
bten rcptncvd by n cupola. 

In the pftrwK or LATTON, about three m\t» south Troin the 
Church, 1VUS u Prioht fur Auguiliite Csnons, dcdirutcd lo St. 
John BapciM. The tirec of ib fourulation b unknown ; but il wa*^ 
rrrluiiily buill txifaie 1 ?70, im il n nx'ntioncd in llic iJitculn tjuca-- 
tjon for th»l year. Tl)« Priory Church ComiMeO of • niTc and 
Iramcpl, in tlw poinlcti »lyl«; the reiuuins are now uied as m 
barn. 'I ho value of its poiiScsMons are mt recorded : Henry ihct' 
Eighlh graiilixl them to Sir Henry Parker. 

NI''.rin'.U MALL, ill the |iiiibh of Roydon, near tlic conlia- 
eooc of the iivcr& Leu and Storr, urus fiirmcrly the sral of the Catt 
family, which appears to have lK>en settled here as caily as the 
reign of F^dward the Fourth. The nnrient n)»n»iun, which had 
been ronverled into a farni-hoiiie, vtia (]enioli»hcd about tlic year 
1773 1 ihtgttlevmy only being left standing, throagh the UFe»i|lb 
of the wuik, uhich rendered its dntruciiun too cxpemivc. Thii 
ncnititi is of brick, mid consistE of two Roors, with an half hexagon 
toucr on each uile the entrance: tlie upper part of one of the 
towers has lately fallen, and the opAcc between them is in a very 
TDioous condition. Eucb floor is occupied by only one roonit 
ueatairin; about tticniy-scvcn feet by twciity-thiec and ft half^ 
and lighted by )aq;e windows : (he ccilin;e of ihc upper story hM 
fallen in. The ceiling of the iint story is su^tiiinM) on wninacol 
arches, resting in front on three blank sbicldS) and a trua ctm- 
poaeil of a radiunt rose; und ut the back on four tniSKS; the 6rtf 
and third of which rrprrNrnt griAini; the second and fourth, ■ 
bear and ra^^cd staA : tdv nioal wcstom of the »hictds is supi>ort- 
cil by two ho[>es; the second is hvid by a 9ipreiul<cuglc, supported 
by a lion nnd unicorn ; and the (bird rests on a lionen and bull 
ducully crtiuncd. Neur ihe chimney is a colt's head, in an oma- 
inrnt of the caning. This Mory bus been nainscoltcd lo about 
lbs height of cigfat feet: above the wainscot, on ibr plaslcr, are 

vuriuu4 



430 



tssex; 



Tilt! Vetik-rcre arc uleclwl by the fnHrlioIdciP <.•( Hie coaalj, arxl 
crtniri tlicir oBicf^ dunng life The (rnxit ri|;bb ure us vuriout 
a« the wntirct of ibe diAenmt majiun that Burround it. In ibi« 
forvslj tbnueb irilbtn i^tlvF miln of London, nild stap nro y< 
foun'l: mod h kIii« is annnally lurntd out on Eiuirr Mondayf 
ttiKkran MlHbUhmpnt petroniied by the piiitcipiil mrrcbants 
fix- City. The lUs-hcnt m wr)l suppnrtrd: tbe fccnn«l fur ifae 
lioundf, tml the building belonging to the bunt, bave been lUclj 
rebuilt at mi oxpeiicv of trvcrkl Ifaowand poundt. 

COPPKD HALL, tbe scKt of Jvhn Conycn, F.s(|, » jtaAj 
rank(?d onions the grratnl ornaments of this county. Iti ground* 
lire bnldly irregular; and hnve bent higlily improved by nomerou 
grove« and pluntalions, wbicb cioura tbe eminences, and •w«cp 
over ibe lides of Ibc hilb. Grii-td and very rxtehiivv d»Unra 
are alsu pnf>rnled from dilTercnt ttalionii; aix) it may be truly 
suid, ihsit Naltire bus Itbcmlly decorated ibe dcinmno witb many 
bcuutiful nnd (HCluretque features. Tbo IJoute, a neat wlifte 
IjHcIi* buibling, sUnds on a knol), ticnr the centre ufa large pwlCf ' 
which, with the <riinlii;uoas lands included in ibis <<9late, compow 
nn area nf 4(X!0 seres. Above 400 utres of tlus Innd was, abont 
thirty yciint a<}i, un unprotiuililc waste, covered with liombeuili 
jKiltard^ bru«b-wood, &c nnd infcalcd wilb gangk of wood and 
driT-tienlt-nt, <wbi»e nice bad bfiuiUi-d tlifr cIok covers of Eppina 
]'i>rvst f»r (vntonc*. and ums In ibc cuiutant pr>i lice of cotniDit- 
ling depredationB. Tlio pr&iw-wurtby rcforinntion of muny of 
th<*:¥ ouiroALi litts been ctfcctetl by a laudnbk* plun nf ihc present 
proprifior ol Copped Hull, wbo, nfier sufiemig greaily from iheir 
disEUiluie muntiprs, cnitced ihcm to live in small cotta)^ wbicb be 
had built on purpose, at a distance from e.^ch other, and appro- 
priated to cucU a proper qunntily of ^rden ground, lie also 
provided tbera with Inbuur, bihJ agieed tu supply tbein with fire- 
wood. By this j^diciuu^ Mrbeme, the idle liave been inured to 
bubil» uf mduHry, nnd u large trati of waste land rendered nib- 

scrricnt 



* Tint l>rick>«ri»V o[ iliii houw h inuc)i Mlmiptd for llx ctowotu mj 
antnat of it* JatrKmf^, uil lui the Mjuaimot mi tfmmtttf of tbt brtcfcti 
Uic Utui w<fc «U (Ml It) iros fcauldx 





^^^^^ 


T^ 


^ 


1 


^^^^^^^^Hti ^^H 


■ 


■ 






H 


jg^ 


1 J 


re] 


1 


E 




B ^ 


9 


1 




• 


^^H 



B9«XX. 



*3i 



jcrvirat to public ublily. Ami>ng tlio gtlier improvtntcnts that 
ba^x■ bcva luutftf, mny t)« iai)l.nJ it.c culuvution «f m (Hecc c*f 
gr«>und, callvi die Wurren. Aoout »Ltty )ieat3 tL^u, thii Irut^ 
c«nsi»(ing uf 101 aciva, was offered to a bpFCulBiini; IsrfV'r, tm a 
Iraic nf forty years, at 2tu Gd. per ncre. l'bc»i,> tt-nni, however. 
Iw rcfUMf), Mp|Kttinit tiw UaJ lutHlly unproductiov. 'Mie ground 
wa» then pl'kugbnl, and Kivra nitli Uie terds o( iilntott every kiocL 
of tree, iniik-scrifliinately ibruwn in, und k'lt tu Uic upcnttiuns of 
nature. The yDunjj plauii »pruii^ up; and ttiuu^h no purlicular 
aitcHiinn vrta pnid tu ibem, liatc Uinvcn with so mitch vigor, as 
to form one of ihc lineal anri mo&t valuable woods iit tlii« port of 
the county. Odc tr«e, in particular, a Catar* uf LibaaHm^ is cnlU 
tied lo tliatinct notice, from its nipid vegetation. Ilie »ecd ftiiia 
which it was r3iM^t w^ii wvrn in ttie year 17-^7> I be medium 
^itb of the buk- i» iietLt twelve feet; and the bninche* extend up- 
wards of eleven ynrds on eath lide. In the old buiUliii£t raited 
Copped IIu[|,t uflsllie iluipcl, ubrrein lliepitintedgluranaw lUSu 
Margarft's, Wc^lmlmtcr, was 6rst put up after iu removal from 
New llajl. TIk- pi-ex-nt man^itm wtM erected between tlic ycfirs 
\7it3 and 1737: but buB tinea bi'en greatly improved uitder tbe 
direction of Mr. James Wjatt. 

Near Copped llall I'ark, on the sDulli'ea»t bide, nre the traces of 
an ancient Camp, called AuaaiiTa, or Ambersburt Bakks, 
Cui^ciui'ed tu hiivc been of British nrigiii. " 'Hii;. entrench nmit 
is now eiilircly overgrown with old oaks and horiibeuins. It nu 
formerly in ilie very heart of ibe foreil, and no road near it* till 
itie prc^scnt lurnplkc road frotu London to Epping was maJe, al- 
most within the memory of man, whicb now runn wiiliin a bun* 
dred yards; bulit cavnot be perceived l>um thcr.ce by reuon of 

tba 



■ The wood of iht Critt U fjmoui foi pmrtvini; inioul bodin from pu- 
tnfMliOB; it itilto repaiud (a yield molt, wbod quttilMl nadtf it wclicc- 
lul prtMiv4i>ve fof bookf »nd nuiMucripit. 



t Tkit wM • laijc quidnngte, utrrauuding » court, aoct intlitdiiig a £il'<ry 
(Hty.tix yardi long, ercvltd hy Sir TWniM Hotiin^r. lu whom the twaot 
wu gnnicd b)r Qmcu Zliiabrtli. ll>c s*"*'? ^" duiroyed by a hiutiUM 
is lh( ynr 1G39. 



MASS. 

tbe 'wood thnt rnvcn it. lis itgurc ii irreguUr, raitipr longest* 
from emst to wnt, am) on a grnilo dvdivity In the iouiIik^sL It 
coiitaiitf iiMrly twclvt; arre% ami is snrrouiuleJ byaditcb, and 
bi^h biitik mucli worn down by lim«*; though where lliere nrp an- 
glrs, itwy nrc siill tvry bold and high. Then urr tio fPi^ulu 
opCMRgt or enlrniiccs ouly in two placei, where lbs bank tin' 
brru cut tliroug)i, aiA th? ditch lilM up vi>ry Uisly, in order to 
mflke a hiaul ruad from Dvtxlcn Gnen to Eppin;} .Market. The 
bouiiilnrici bflucira the pumhcs vi Wulthani and Hoping run cx- 
acity thrmigti the niiJdlt: ui' ihb cjitruiicbmciit."* 

WALTIIAM, oa WALTMAM HOLY-CROSS, 

Is n large, irrcgulor lowiij utuated on tow ground near the rii 
LcB, which Uviv fuimsii nambcr of iiiinll iUiuidk, aiid it skirtrd 
fruitful im-»>lu««, t)ial ha»f Iur); been f^miuu* for lliv nucculent 
and niiurisliiiig qoiililtrs uf llic gnta. Tiiis spot wlt^ onginallj 
pnri of ilie Fomt of ]Cswx, and d;>rivina the ttpprllMiion of Ifa^^ 
tiam from the Saxon words Ham, a pUicc, or bainlet; and If-'taidf 
ttcmdy; the whulp silc bL-tii!:ancii^nt1y overgruwn with tree*- The' 
Addition of //o/v Crois nruae fmro a certain miraculuus erms to 
wlitch lite Abbey, r<iuiidcd here by Orl lluruld, ui'trrwanj* Kiugt 
wa> dedicnted. 

The fim mi>nlioii of Waliliam ocrurs in the lime o( Canute thai 
Gival, in whuM leign i!ms ilicii owiier, Tovy, or Tovius, ^tnnd-' 
ard-bcjirer to thai Mniuiich, aiinicled by the quantity oF fifoa^ 
that aboundod in ttir IVtre^l, ftiunLicd hrrr a \'ilhi^ and a Church ; 
pluetng tbtcf-Kore and mx dwcllen in ihe fonner: and in lUe Ut- 
ter, two priests. Alter bti deceair, Alhctslan, fau sort uitdiieCr. 
•ijuniidvred hi> inheritance; and VVultImm rev^rtir.; lo the CmwQ, 
was baluired, by Ldminl the Cunl'cwtr, un ii^rl Harold. Tbe 
gift was, however, miidv condiliotiHlly, as oppenrt from the gtanc 
now icinainJDg in the Tuwcr; thm Harold should build a Monas- 

iciy 



* Cough'i Cjindta, Vol. II. p. 49, from a M$, Letter, wriun by Ma 
Lcthirullioi. 




BfllKT. 



433 



tery la the pUrc, '* witere wu a linU Cmttent, subject to tfa« 
Ouiwiu, and thvtr niters ;** ind cliouM furnbti it with itll ncceua> 
XWt relics dre«>ea, rikI ornamoul*, *' in mrmoi-iam mW, el Cwf 
jngh met Eadifkc." Tin; ConvX'iU hca- lanitiniicd, was ihc orl* 
gitijl founduligit »( Tovy, which li« h«d himseir aii^mente<l, by 
locriMsing both the number of priests, luid viilue uf tbc cnrlk>w- 

'ni« 9Bni« year, 10^?, in whieb the grant wns dKtcd. Harold 
re-founjed or enlar^ivl Die butlJinj; erected by Tuvy, sml snluw- 
C(l it, w a CoLLEctE, fur b Dean, »nil clercii secular Canons^ 
of the order of St. Augustitw. A distinct manor wtu alloticit for 
tlifl mnintenancc of mch Cun'm, and six for the «u|i{>i>rl of the 
Dun, a> Kpp(^.l^^ from Ihc charter of Conlirmalion, granted by 
Ednrard tlie Cunleuor. Tbc Citurch waa at Uia Mme time en* 
lielwd with a vast ntnnhQr uf rvlior, and many coilly TC9Kb.t 
TIm ppqeeBamnB of the Cii|lc;;c vtvm artmvard^ c<imid<<rably auij- 
nenlcd by vuioui bcM>cfariio[u, uid it c\>iHiitiioJ tu Huuhsli iiU 
ihr rcij^ of Ht-nry the Second* 

This Pnncc, in Ihr" year 1 17*, d^yiitfd Rictiard, Archbi'.bop 
of Canterbury, whu, in » late visitation, hw) «ujipi?nded the Dean* 
and discoTered many irregularities in this Coit^e, to ncccpt ihi 
reignatiuii of iL» titniiitt^^ ; and haviiii; prticurrd a charier uf )i' 
cence from Pn|ic Alexander, be smnn aficmnrdt changed the 
old foundation of scculnrs into an Abikt of rei^lar Cdnom, of 
the same order, aufrmenling the number tn twcKly-fciur, and pru- 
porttonably increasiiijt linnr rcv«nu(.-4. Tb« c:iuw a)lr<;i-<l in the 
charter for ihb chaM;e, is the disstjlute liros of the Canons. 
" Com in ea canmiici clriii]. ininttt religiosu ^ tequaliter vixiss«nt, 
ita (jnAd infamia eonreraathnu illaram maUa* xeartdafisttssfl ;" 
and bccan»c (to use tin- King's own noL'di} it wiu tit iliat CAriit 
Am tfoatf thmiM kax^ a nan dwiry, he not only cnnltrnin) Ihe pri- 
iniiiwc paliimony, wirhalt since brstowcd, bwl himiielf •juve the 
rich manors of S««ard»tone aiid Epping. Additions were pr<jba- 
Ujr made at this time, oolh tn the Munastvry and the Churcbp 
Vol. V. Jdlt, .o<n. F.e wid 

t 




* lluIcUn UaniUCfipt, No. ^7]6. 



t rtii. 



1 



M 



434 



£18 EX. 



ami tbc whole was re-dedicalcd to tlie xfomaid Holy Cross, and 
St. Laurvnco. All tbe Cftnons on tbe old foundation were ex- 
pelled frorn cbe new csEablUhmcut, but olhcrwiae Kuflicieiitly prtH 
vidrij fur. 

Tlie 6nt Abbot wkh Walter de Gaunt, who WM indulged by 
tbe Pope, ill lite year II91> with llie use of the pontificals, aod 
cxviiipwd from cprtcopul jmivJiccioci ; ilic lEiCtcc privilcgv bi-jiig, 
ia hct, a confimiation of lienry'a charier, viliicli Uius dcfioes tbe 
ancient liberUM of WHltluim Cburcb : Smiprr j'uil rrgaUt capeSa 
ex fn-imitiva tut J'nndatianef nuUi aivhiefiUcupo ret e^aeopo, ted 
tantim eceietiit HomaiM et H/gii dispositioni mhjccta; and this 
privilege )ias drtccndfd in purt to modern limes, Walthum being 
still E^xcmptcd from the Archdeacon'^ vtsitslion. 

Rii'lianl thv Firvt, by h>» churter dated ni Winton, (Winchester,) 
in hii first year, granted to th«-s« Canom his whole manor of Walt- 
hum, with the gpeat wood and park called liuruld's Par^, 460 acres 
of oxMirt lands, with various pmikgK, and ether estates, liber- 
licB, Sec. Hr kIdo, by annlher charter, conltrmcd nil the former 
grants, and made further gifts to the Monastery, among wbjch 
' uas the sta((;ly mansion called Copped Hall, but appoitited the 
lallvMo be held iu fee, uiid hereditarily, of the Church of Waltluun 
Soiirtv Cruets, by llobtTt Kita-Aucher. 

llcnry the 'Ihird nut only augmented the privilegea of Waliliaui 
Abbey, but also bratowed on it many rich gifts; and from his 
lime (t became so di»rm£;tii!.hed by a wries of roynl and noble bo- 
ircfitctors, us to milk willi the moul opuk'nl in the kingdom. This 
Monarch, to avoid the expcnces of a Court, fre()ucnlly made the 
Abbey his place of residence; and to provide, in some ineuturr^ 
fur the increased consumplion which his presence and retinue oc- 
CaHoned^ be granted to the inhabitants of Wnltbam, the privilege 
of holding a market wn-kly, and a vevcn d:i)'Y fhir annually : the 
fiiir is now only held on the third and fourtcettlh of May. 

Henry's lavon to the Munastery were not entirely disinlerestecl ; 

OS iippcar^ from bis rci]niring iu occiuiona) purtidpalion in bis 

dUtrc&M^, &s well as bounty. In the year 12iS, the Purliatnent 

having refused tlte King money, he procorcd from the Po|*e, a 

. 2 messenger 





KSSRX. 



435 



mesicrger. Darned Maiisut-tu*, to come to Kogland, uiiJ a*k a »up- 
(ily from [he Abbjcs und Chua'hfs. The Abbot of Waltlmm wus 
among the 6nt iipplied to on this occRsion ; and, partly by 
threats, pnrtly by iiitreati«, ttiis imlucwi lo issue a spcuriiy ft>r 
300 miirki. A timtldr application uiu tnsdc ut anotbcr lime to 
the Abbots or Waltbnm, St. A)ba.n\ and Reading, fi>r the mm 
of 5000 marlcs, which tli« King had promiHrd tn tlir youn^ Farl 
of Gluucater, as a marnage portion wild bis ncice, the duugiit?r 
of Guy, Eurl of Angoulesme. But this vrw not lucceuful ; iho 
three Abbots di^claring, that they were unable (o raise such & 
Him ; nor could ihcy justify so <l.iing, even if tbry were. 

In lhi« reign, great disputes took place tictween llie ^[onnstery 
and the townsmen, respecting the right of the former to pasture 
cattle on th« adjoining ground*; and scv4>ral outrages were com- 
mitted by the inhabitants. 'ITiew,* were at fir»l overlooked frum 
prudenlial molivej; but similar offences huving been n-peated du- 
ring the abwnce of the Abbot, be resolved to seek redress. Tbo 
towns-people, dreading the consequences of ihcir rashneu, solidt- 
«d a Iwcda^f or reconci lint ion, and cngiajjed lo make gntid all da- 
mages; but, wliile the Abbot and Ccmvetit were deliberating on 
the propotal, thry hnsleiied lo the King, and laid the blsmti of 
■II ibiil hnd happened <in the monks. This proceeding was the 
signal for direct hostility. The Abbot denounced sriitence of ex- 
communication ; the people flew fur ri'drc-ss to the Cummon law. 
At lengih the mutter C^mc to a hearing before the King's Judges, 
■when the lown*nicn being proved Ihc apgrciscrs, were amerced in 
a fine uf twenty niark» ; but, itix tiieir KubmiMiim, llie fine wn$ 
remitted; and the Abbot, in the end, astoi/Ud thcin from the ex- 
communication. 

This conteniion was no sooner over, than another commenced 
between the Abbot nod the Lord of the neijjhbouring manor of 
Chcsbunl, respecting some hmd in the occuptitinn of tlie for- 
mer, and which was clutmcd as parcel of (he Cht^hunt manor. 
The Abbott ^^i^r much litigation, wua suffurcd to reijtin ponei- 
sion; but the uffiiir was soon altvrwurds renewed, and continued 
A subject of dispute iJll the Dissolution. During these unpkdvntit 

£ e 8 altercations, 



itefi 



kSSEX. 



lUcrraiioiv, the monks were ctutrged by their enctoies witk 
receiving much afectionate conwlaliun from ibc holy aiucrs ii> tlic 
nunnery at CbcshuQt.* 

In Uk- ^rar 1*242, we learn from IVUttbew PxrU, tliat the con- 
ventual Cburcb of Wiiiih&m was Mg^iu soleiutily dedicated, tbe 
Kin^ and many noble pcnunagcs being pre&eat. Tbis mas proba- 
bly m comcqucnce of some additions that hul been recently nuid> 
to tlkc uriginul labrir, but of the cxtoat of which we ate ai present 
un«rc|uaiiitcd. Tbe lost event of importance recorded of ^VHltbani 
Abijey, prior to tbe Uibsolutlun, is tbe acciOi-ntal meeting between 
TbcmEta Cranmcr, ulierwiUiis Arcbbi:>liup of Canierbury, ami tbs 
prrluici Vu% und Gnrdiwr, v>bicb cjidrd so remarkably in Ibe od- 
yanccincm uf the fornirr, and dn-w with it a train of cnitsrquencea 
bi^ily interesting to thni Bg«, as wtll a& to succeeding cinies. 

Iliis Abbey b&ving exiued during the government of twcnty-M- 
veu Abbots, exclusive of tbe D(«m biloiiging l<> Uie fint fuunJft- 
Ijun, waadi&iulvcd ill thcyeur Ji39: itsaniiuul revenues were iben 
valued at UOOl. 48. lid. according to OugdRl[<; or, as recorded 
by Spw'd, ai JtJ/yl. 12s. Id. Ihc last Abbot, Robert Fuller, 
may be rcckuaed among the Ulciati belonging to tltis Moniulery. 
Fnjtn bis History, writlcii in 4(50 \ifigt^ folio, the lair manusKTipt 
of wiuL'b wiu ill itic p«N«rH.si<in of tbe I'lsrl of Carlisle, Fuller, Iw 
CBmi-Mikc, ttftenvurds curittc of ibc same Cburcfa, profct&es faitb- 
luUy to have compiled ulmobt all tbe maleriaU uf bis account of 
IValLhani Abbey, ua given at tbe uiid uf bis '* Cburcb History." 

Ulie Mic uf tlie Abbi-y was granted, lor tliltly-nne yean, to Sir 
iViilhony Denny, uho dying about ibe second year of Edward 

the 




* A wmpic of thcK Uki rtaf he iwn in Fulki*! ChuKh HiKM^. Tkt* 
tnlhat rcIiEci, ilnE S!i Henry Colt, of Nether lliill, who vnu ■ %t*»i (irnurife 
Willi Henry die i. igliib Fat hi« merry concciit, went laie wut nighl to WalOuin 
Abbey, where beinj; infofmed, by hit tpiu, ihal tome of tbe moakt wrrc in* 
dulgiDgiii EcRHic ccinirrte il Chcihuiii Nunnery, Itedcicnniiied lo>i>tctcr)K ilwir 
mum. Wilh tbi( iriiem, be htd a buek-itall pitched in the luirowctt pwipf 
ihe mtadow, or icurUi, vh^ch ihey hiA to crow In ibeit wiy bomci uxl the 
moiiki geuing Into i( in the dark, were melaKd by Kii Krvealt. The imxI 
Hiofniog, Sir Hciiry ptrtent(r>J ilum W tbe King, who heir.ily laufKinc, il^ 
tiafctl dut, " be hill often (ccji twceuc, but neva Uucr vcoijon." 




istaic. 



437 



the Sixth, his Widow bought the rewnion in fM Irom that Mo- 

Inarch, for itotnrwhnt tnon timn SCKHjI. ^Ir Edward Dsnay, 
grandchild to Sir AnUiuny, crvatcd Eerl of Norwich by Charlct 
the First, was (ho next pcnaesaur: In^m him i( passed, by tiic mar- 
ZlHgB o( his daughter, to the cdcbrMtd JanMss Hay, Eitri of C«r- 
I liUe: it han since come into tfao possesaiMi of the family of Sir 
WillUm W«k^ Ran. 

The AMctfJIonse n uid lo have been a wry exl«n»iv« build- 
ing, but has been wholly demolished many yean. Anoiber lar^ 
mtinaioii, erected in its place, wiu, in the ye^r 1770, sold to Jumca 
Batuick, ]C»q. who soon aflfrwanlii had it pulled down, and let 
the site, and siirroundini; ^iiinHs, to a gardener: within them » a 
tiilip tree, much celchrst<.-d, and rejtorted to be the Urjesl in 
England. 

A gateway into the Abf>ey-yard, a briiige which leads to it, 
•Mitc ruinous wulls, an arched vuutt. xnd the Church, urc tlie only 
VCMige* of the ancient ma^ntficencs of Wnlihani Abbey. Tho 
former of thew remuins arc of a much later style of archiircturo 
Ihttti the Church. Adjoining to tlic gateway a ihe Porter's 
Lodge, an<l a piece of ground cnlle«( itoMr/cmr/, as Pcler- pciico 
were termed Uomttool: this tmine it b thought to have derived 
from ilt rents bring appru^mifd in former time* t'f lie ate of the 
Holy See. On this spot King Honry the Kighlh U rr|inrtf-d to 
}iAve had a ttniall hotuc, to which, liv his visits to Waltham, he fre- 
quently retired for his pji^-ali? plen^uref. 

'^Tlie Abbkt Chithcii, which was built in the otualfbrmofa 
dTDM, and coiwstcd of a nuve, (imiirpt, choir, anie*ch«pel, dec. una 
very consideruble structure, and covered an extensive plot of 
^undu Sume idea miiy be furmed of its extent from knowing ihe 
kttuation of Harold's tomb, which sniud nbout I'iO feel cjut from 
Ihe termination of the present building, in what was then proba- 
bly the eust end of the choir, or mlhcr sc»me cli.ipel tM'yoiid it. 
ITie intciwcUon of the tranwpt is still visible: above thi« rose 
•the uiictent tuwcr, which coiiluincd a ring oi' five gi«at tuneable 
'tells afterwards purchased by ihe parish, of ibo Kinu* commis- 
sioners. Pari oi thia tower /allnig thiuug^i mere dccuy, the 

£ « 3 remaiDder 



i 



wl 



■sstx. 



rrmaincler «u blown up by andonniners* and ihc wbnle rimfr, 
thr towrr, transept, and ibc cost chflprl, wrn* domolishM), w thftt 
iKilhing wai Irfr Mandinit but itiv utr^t rnd, «hirb lias iince b«c& 
liltpil lip, ami tu»d« purocliial; himI rorutJtuIn thr prnvnt Church. 

This venmble ivlir, tbougli Riufh di»6}nir«d and mutilated, 
conlaiiu several intereftting Hiid curious sp^vimem of ihe orni* 
menii-d colunim, vemiciicular arches, and other charactcriiiin 
of the Normuii st^le uf archileclutc- lis length, from the wfslera 
entrance to the allar, b about ninety feet; and its breaiUb, indo* 
ding the »idp aiides, forty-rij^hi. The body 'n divided lit>m ih« 
Utter by «x arrhcs on curb side, supported by pillan: fire of 
thrm arc M-micirctilar, nnd are decoiaicd nith rude sigaag onia>- 
tnciiti; thc»ixtb, or we»tt ra arcb, is puJnled, and fliiparmtly of a 
later comtructiun, I'he pillars areexlrrmrly nnusive; and two 
po tacbVidc, H'hich r(irn^|M>nci, haroKavy and spiral indcntationSf 
aimilar to Uiuse of the naie uiid choir in Uurbum Caihedial. 
Above this luwer range of arches rise two tier of smaller ones, 
formed and orimincrtled In the seme manner. The upper row of 
tliete rnlightctt the nxif; and M Ihe button) of the lower tier is lb« 
narrow pa»»ge u<iuhI in Cathedral and cumi-olujl Churches, 
called trtfotia, 1 be roof iLsrlt is of limber, modem, and but lit- 
tle uruuiui.- tiled ; the side ai»li'5 arc surinouiitcil by gnlleric^ which, 
« ith till' prws in the nave, have btcn lately erected for the accutn- 
■nodaiicM of tlit pnrishioners.-^ 

At ihf wi'!>t end is a heavy square tower, Ita^-iDg the date 1558, 
It was n>|)Hir<-d about ux yt-ucs ago ; ami a iivw window was 
then introduced. It i» built with stone, is embattled, and iisc» to 
the height <j1 fighty-siK feet. Tiir oiifiinal char^' of building, in 
Itb'A, indepndent uf inutenuls, wa« 33s. id. per foot, for lJic6n>t 
filtyihrcc Icec, and 4tK per foot, for tbe rcmuitKlcrj which tx* 

pcnco 




9 " Anna ig^. tmfrimL, For u>lo to aBdemiine > piece of ibc itecpl« 
which iLood a/lcr Lhc fiiit UL ■•."— ■ObuichwudcDj* Accauna. 



t Select Viewi of London sad itt Swiron, No. 1^ 





ESSEX. 

pence was {lefrayeil by lliv parishioners from tlieir stock io tbs 
church- box.* 

Prom tUe south side of (he Church |>roJ4'ci!i n Chnpel, formerly 
Our Lady's, nmv n school-roum, under which is h beautiful Arched 
chamcl-hoa«c, or cryjit; " the fairrM,*' sjiys Fuller, " tlint ever I 
Mw." This was niicc II pliicc of wonbip, having its priest, Stw. 
fttid adunu-d with its altar and reading-desk, the latter ul' which 
was covered with plates of silver.t In Uw parish books a receipt 
of J5s. is inserted fur old limber sold from the little vpsliHrj-of 
St. Georgc'i Chapel, but where ihJK wits silunled is untinown. 
A third little chnpcl, or otit-buildinff, at the south-efi»t end of the 
present Church, is now a. repository for mbbisb and broken tomb- 
stones. 

'Ee4 Almost 

* Tllii ilodt wu acquired from viTioiii tourcet, u ll:c ntc of itonc, Icid, 
■nd limber, fromlhc nBanattlcbuiMifl^l but diieHy. bythculc of thegoodi 
«f a brothcihood bclmiging lo this Church, coniiitini; of ihnc PrJcilii ihroc 
Chotiitcri, Mid (WO Sczcoiu, which wai nut rlii)ul«)(l ult the eign n! Edwiid 
the Sixth. 'I' wo hunditd and icre«iy-uat -ouncct oF plve, the property of (hie 
fraternity, wcie loldi al trveril timci for (ij\. i^i. gd. M^ny rich drcitrt were 
likewite diipotri! oF n %be unif titnt, parciciUrly a CDpr of clotb of gold lo 
Mr. Denny, for 3!, 6t. $d. lognhrr with two illar-cletha of vtlvcl and tilk, 
vtitte >]. The muw of thia plate not btia^ ttiixA by t!ie King'i commiuion- 
tni it tliDUghl (O have been owing lo the inEeiemiun of llie Lord Rich, a ii»a 
live oF ihii conniy, on account of ihe imeniion of the pirUh to build ihe above 
towtr. fuller layt iIm belli purchaied fiom the old aiciptc were Tot tome 
vein ]iufi£ in a umpoiaty limber frame [reeled al (he iniith>ratt end ot (lie 
chufct^pid, where ilieri Hood (wo large yew trwi, and rcmiined there till the 
prtaent one WM cnmpieted i but thai, naiwitbiuodin^ Kifuof (imbet, &c. (lie 
fuada fell 10 t^tan, ihal th« taid kiclU were obliged to be told to n'ac mora 
money: » that WiIUmcd, wbicli roreutily bad " lUtpIt.ltit Mii, now hid a 
UB-Uii aweple." H'ltiry f/ fi'tiiliam Aitfj. 

« la (lie churchwarden*' Kcouau, mention i» made of ii« annual 'rfi/*, to' 
defray (he espenceiof which, landi were left by will, and ■ alotk of ughlecn 
cowi lei oui yearly to firm iot iBt. The luin allotted for each nbit wat ihua 
eipended: to llie pariih piicM, 4d. To Our Lidy'i pticrt, gi. To Uie i:*tff «</ 
prie«, 3d. To the two clefkt, ^d. To ihe children, (chotiturt.) a*'- Tu the 
mton, id. To die tiellmao, ad. Foi two tapen, id. For oblllioiii ftd. &C 



MO 



ESSKX. 



Almost every ornarocntil vatige of grandeur and antiquity 
wliicli foriiu'ily (littingui^ltpd the exterior *.<( ikis Cliurrh, has bi-cq 
inJiuUnuunly domoliidifd uT defaced; and v.hat rrinaitu, own its 
presor^atioD cdtffly lo the dumblc itature of its luuteiiils. Much 
of the boauty oi liic out&ide i<> obururrd by modern reparsiioiu. 
ThL> uitidowi in the norih aisle, whicb wore once MOiicirculara, 
have, in gcucrtil, be«n made s()uarv; a. few arc puinted. In other 
parts they retain ibcir ori^iml shape, but their ornameni* Km 
tilk-cj up with plmlLT. Ill tbo inkiilr, the bund of riulence is Int. 
CDCispicuouj), but every ibing (iitplays marks of the most KretcheJ 
parsimony. The Miuplicity aiid gruiiUeyr of the ancient nmaiitt 
are much injunrd by tbc glare of whilvw ashing. The bnuMs 
atfl torn uwny fmm the ^ravpstones, nnd it is with dilliculiy 
that their impresnons can be traced: two or three monumcnlB, 
more modern, but uninteresting, are all that remain. II19 
pews arc of deal, menu, luid, for the munt pari, unpainteUi 
the lloor it badly paved, and Lhc figures nf the altar-piece dugiace 
the edilice in which they nn.' placed. The south aisle is but litt 
altered, and the windom reiuin nearly their original /orm«: liiat 
to the norrii has been more moderniied. Towards the tn»\ end ol 
it is a iiflndiOlTie ^c^vn <if wood, (li>[iluying the arms of Philip and 
Irlaiy. Near th», fomicily stood a. i>ainiing inglastof the founder 
fJaroUl, which was deslrojcd by the puritanical seal ul rhe luna> 
ties about the bc«innii>^ of the reign of Charles the FJrsC. Tba 
font is appurcnlly very ancient. 

In this Churcli, bosidt-a the founder Harold, were interred 
Uvot* NtTtL, rrotho-turrstcrot Kiigland, wliudie<l lull of ycttifi 
about the sixth of Henry- the Third, anno 1*22?: his body. : 
Matthew Palis. Kas buried in iheChorch of Wultham, under a 
bte engraven marble sepulchre ; Jo» n N bvi l, his son, and the bei 
of his virtues, as well as hi> revenues, andoflices; (boihol these 
goodht-nrritclor^ tu[bL-MoiniMery:)ltOfiEUT l',«ssKLEw, Archd< 
conof Lewra,&creatureof IIiMiry the Third, much h»t«xl in his lif^' 
lime for his exactions und luciui cunipliuncvs, who died in di»graca 
•t hi* house at ^Vallhaln iti the yen li^'ii and later, Sir Edw»r4^ 



• 



ft. 




ESSEX. 

I>enny, son of AntWny, Lord Denny; togctlter wUb a great num- 
ber of pcntms of rank and auttioriiy. 

Harold WBb inlerrMi al the cast rtiHl of the Abbp}* Church, at 
the di&tance of abuuL dirty ynnlt froiti [lit- Irnninnimn o\ wbat 
fumtt the piMent struciurc. H» lumb was plwn, but uf rich 
grey mutbk*: and had on il a sort of crow fleiiry, '" mucli de- 
scanted UEi by ai't;" it wm supported by f>illi)ietii, one p«dntnl of 
whicb Fuller mpntionii to have been in bis puaBessiun nl the tirna 
of liis wriitng Uh History. Tlic i>|)il.ipb its sniri In have bo«n aiily 
the*c two »prc»ivo words, Haroid inf'tUx;* but Wccvcr ffva half 
a dozt'u liim of barburviu L^tin, wtiicb an: |)iobably g^ciite, as 

iliey 

* The unrortunatc Hirald offered up liii «nw» and priyeri fo( victory is 
Wilthim Churcli pifviout la Wi> cii^iiinncm wllhthe N'ormin iovjdcr; ia 
wlitch, by the »hoi of m iriow ttiroujih the Uft ty« bto bit brain, W 
wu (Jain, an Saiutday, the ifili of October, iCM, hsviitg r«ign«d n!nc monilv 
■■d odd dayt. Hit \i-^f, 1>y >'■' nwdlaiiini of hit nwilwr Ciita, and two r^ 
li^iout ncfl af lliik Abbey, called C'r^«i ind AUrii, baitis oLuincd of ihe Cnn- 
t^aeror, [who foi lorcK liiac denied il burial, afEiming tliil il wa* noi lit for 
him whote nmbitioQ t<aJ caiiMd w itai^y funf/ilt.} wat, with (he bod ici of 
hit two braUi(n, Cirti acid Ltefaii, ilain it thr nme rime, brouj^c hilhn, at. 
Icndtd by ■ •mall dr)celcil mvkindcr of ihc kngtuh nobility, and with great 
lanwucaiiun lolcmnly intencd. 

Prevtoui to the couui;, Citli, the brother of Harold, wiih ■ prophetic for^ 
boding, il Mtd In li-iic aiUiicd htm nol in u:t Mt trown and l>k oil (he daube> 
fill iMue of 1 linj^le b>i:li: ; ntTriinj, if ilie Monaicti'i cQiiictmce any wyi up- 
bolded him for hii mgigemmt* wtlh the Duke of Nomiridy, lo head ilw 
trnop*. and take Itic cvmiof lhed«y on himMir, whtle lla'old retired, and tA> 
wrvcd him lor frah encoanien. " Ii,"uid he, "yoti will lomniiilbe chaigf 
lo me. I will )Ki(orm both the pni of > ti»d bruihct and ■ cuunzeou* Lnderi 
(or l<in|( cleat in conibJcnce, I khall uLl my life, or di*<cinfi.C youi enemy, 
with tDote felicity." Bui the KtP){ not likint; hu« ipeedi, amueicd, ■' I vill 
MV«r turn my baclc with dithociot to the Korman. neither caci I \a any toit 
digest the reproachof a bait mind." Thti Iktoic amwer, hovrvvec, inticad of 
promiKiig emuluiou amufi); hit fnlloweri, wu imputed by them to ubitiiiacyi 
ud the Kinfi wu abanduncd to tbc ihickett of tbi fight, ind the kiii^dam (• 
■trangert and iJ'teiy. 

Ilaiold'i two btLiihrrii loit their live* fightlqg manfully ondcr hi* tanner, 
" which WW biondct {u'uh Robeil o( Gtoueener) with fy^iir of a mar fyghf- 
Ing biiet »t about wyth gojd and precioie ttDni, wtii;h Bauer altuc tic B^aile 
J>uc William lent to the fopc in tokw ol tbc victory." tt'rcvo,/. 613. 



^ 




B8SBX. 

they are pirwrved in n vtry aiieieiil manuKript once bcloiigiog to 
tbc Abbey.* In tlic reigo of Qiktii Llizabdb, a gantcner -be- 
longing to llie &bove-tiBRiei] Sir Edward Dciiny, (Uscovrrct), jn 
digging, a Urge «ronc ccOin, which, from tbc spot whcrcr it lny, wis 
tappcited to contain the royal corpse: th« remains, on being 
toucbed, mouldered into dust. A liccond cufliii within ttrnt few 
ycats ]i» been found iiriir Ihv »nic place, containing an ctuirf 
tlii'lctun encl'ved in lead, wbJch conjecture has idviitificd as one 
of bis lirulbvn. 

The bialary of Waltfaom Town is w nearly identi^ed whb that 
of the Abbey, llmt Ihe completion of the latter leaves but Uui« 
to rfcord witli respect to llic former. 1 be varioiu ktreams of the 
river Lt-a iii itb ncij^hbuuibood, arc Iraditiuriiilly suppOH*d to flow 
in the »am« channel* which tli« Grmt Alfred made to divert lli 
current when lie drew oS the water, and left liie Dani»li fleet on 
ahure. '1 lie number uf houKs in ibis parish, ub returned under the 
late act, wai 536; of inhabitnnis, 1837. Some uf the inhabitants 
derive cniploymwil from tbc manufaeturc of printed liiicitt, bihI 
tlie malting of pins : for tbe latter purpose some Urge iicw buildinp 
were rrcclcd about >ix years ago. On uiie of the brancli(*s of the 
Leo, near (be town, are some Gunpimder MUU, now in the oc- 
cupation of Govemmrnt: these have been ptirily rebuilt since lh« 
yeiir 1801, nbcn considerable damage was done by th« blowing* 
up of Ihe Curning-bouse. Aronng Ihe natives of this parish nre 
recorded Rooek ue Walthaw, Cwnotiof St. Paul's, u writer 
in tliB ihirtcenih century; andJoiiN de Walthau, Kcrper of 
die Privy Seal to Richard the Second. 

In Cbingford parish is an " estate,*' wys Momnt, *' Kc4dcn of 
the Ilecior, culled SC07TS MAVHRWS, alias Drixdwood», 
tbc owner of nhich, on every alienation, with ha wife, man-tcr* 
▼ant, ami niaid-MTvant, each sinj^lo on a horse, come to th« 
Paiiunflge, nhcic itit; unucr dues hjs honisge, and pays bis relief, 
ih manner folluwing. fie blows three blasts with his honi; car* 
ries ■ hauk on his fitil ; his servant has ii greyhound in aslipj 
both fur the use of the Rector. He receives a chicken for his 

hawk, 
• Ukx. MS. 3^6* 



"M 




IHIX. 445 

httwk, a peck of oats for liis hone, and a \o&S of bread Tor his 
^vybound. lliey all dine; after which, ibe Ma*irr blows throe 
blasls wirit hiH liuni, fLiid llii*y ull depart." 

IIIGHAM HILLS, in ihu ]iBn)>li of Wnndrnnl, is the scot of 
John Hnrmati, Esq. who purchuM-d the manor about icnyrarsago 
of William Hornby, Ksq. foinierly Governor of Rombay. 'Hie 
HouH*, a square brick building with win jcs, tsarated on a high 
ridge of ground, which slopes to the eiuc and to lh« wtbI: in t>otU 
ihcse dir«ctionii Ihe prns[n*ct» nrc pxlcntirp, divrnificd, and beau* 
tifut. On Ihe uorth-vrcst the eye is directed over a finely wooded 
country into HertforcUhire; to ihc west and south-west i>re clia 
hills of Highgflli*, anJ tlic spires of the Metropolis. The mt 
front Cfimmands a rich woodland prospect over purit of HainaulC 
Forest, the V'nle of the Thnmfs, &c. whicb are shut in by u ridge 
of the Kent hills. On the wcslem side of the houic is a fine Park, 
bounded by pitris of F-ppiiig Fore&t to the north and touth, and 
by a piece uf wuler at the builuin. The whole is encompassed 
by a winding walk, which, cuniigaous to the house, is ornainent- 
«d with numerous indigenous and exccic trees imd tthrubs, and is 
afterwards conducted through the Forest. The house was' built 
by the late Anthony Bacon, Eu|. who iiold it to Governor Hornby. 
The lull er Bi'ntlemnn eidHrf>t'il it, mid improved ihej^encral fea- 
tures of the demesne; bui its principal ornamental beauties liavo 
been created by the ptebcnc proprietor, 'ilie manor, connected 
with this i-EtiUC, vTin, in the time of t^dutiiid the Confuaor, the 
property of htnldun, a IrccinKn. At the time of compiling the 
Domcsilay Survey, it belonRod to Peter de Valoines, since which 
it bus passed through vanouh families. 

Near Vfoovtowu Uhidgr is an Aritjlciai Sfatc MoJtufactoiy, 
the property of J?ir Janic* Wright, BarL who bus a pHteiit for the 
mventiufi. 1'hit »UtQ is UK-d for covonnjt ruui's and fiuncs oC 
boaMs; for mQ kins; pcndniil iramea for hay-riclis, and blacks of 
com, and safcguutds to preserve (iiem fruin vermin: it is also used 
for water-pipe« and gutters, 'the buildings where tlic niunufac- 
lure in carried oii, ate of this slate, and were erected about ihirty 
yeanagp.* CUWUIIUKV 

* L}'MU' Ecvtrwtof toadoo, V<^. IV. p. 1X7.' ■ 



i 



\ 



d 



H* 



£■9 EX. 



CLAYBF.RRV HALL, llic sent of James Hatch. Em], a sits* 
aled Mathorc dihlancc from VVutKilurci Bridge^ un a higK 5|>nt of I 
ground, ctiiniii&ivling some tine pnnpccb of (orAt scenery, moAi 
grazing liiDd. 'I'he grouiitK huve bcrit improrpil, ami gicatly eoMl 
larged, by ibe yrnciil ponnsor, «ho purctiued the w»te «c 
mmistun uf iMxb'irougk Umue, Uie Imtcr uf wlikb be has poIlaAJ 
down, and unncxed the former, i*ilh some otben, to hisowifil*' 
me»Ae. The House is » neel RitxJcni baildinji, with s project 
iii(; ptitiico in front: the jvirk aboands with fine timber. Tlia 
eiiute wa» purcliaaed by Mr. ilutcb, in I/89, of Monlaj^ue Bor* 
goyoe, LJiq. wbu oblainc-d it by bta ?n»rriM)(c wilh a. Miw (-[srrey^ 

WOODFORD a a Urjii' vilbg?, luitHMing priiKipnlly i>f seal 1 
•nd resjJctlabli; huHses, mwily occupied by mercbants and trade** 
mrn ui Londun. 'i'bU manor ii tbe property of Sir James Tylney 
Long, Uart. The cufium til' the nmiior is tbnt eaDed Borough- 
£ngli!ih, hy whicli liie younf;cr son inherit In the Churcb-yant 
B « remarkabte Fra fm-; >ts j^rlb ul tbnre feel from llie ground* 
it eleven feel, nine iiichet^ at four leet and a kitLf from ibegrouDd^ 
fuurlcL'f] feet, ibrec tiicbcs: xUv ipitaid of itb b<JU^t lonns m rir* 
cuini't^teiK'B of abniii ISOU-i't.* Here alsobalofly mRrbleciM, 
lumn of the Corinthian order, u> the memory of " the aactenl : 
and knt<fht1y family of GuDrKBV, which flourished manyyMrVl 
in tbi- County uf Ktiit." 'I be Celcbruted Sir Edittundbory GvA» 
bty was ot this family. 

[ii an uld iMuinioii cullvd HEARTS, at Woooroito Row, 
tiiicil ibe luic Richard Waruer, £sci, who planted a batnricBli ' 
^rdoTv here, and was ver>- succcsrtul in the culture of rurcexotick 
The PJantir If'ijmJjdrdirmrs, wriilen by this centlemaii, and pri* 
TBiely circuiuicd, wns the remit of the ai uiual berburiistionr of 
l>im»eir«t)d arquhUitance in Itiis nrighbcurhood. Tbe House 
built in the ycxr Id'l?. by bir Humphrey HumMorth, Master ati 
Ihe Wardrobe lo Jsme% tlie tint; ubu i> laid tu have bceii fr» 
(]uently entcrlaineil Iica* when huntitig in tlie fiirriiL The pre- 
Milt owner, Jcr>-Dit« Cbirk JervoiEC, Vm{. obtuiucd it by bis niar> 
riuj^c with .Mr. Wamer'j niece. 

Neat 

* LjnoQi' faviicu of Uinioa, Vol. IV. f. ajT* 





KtfCX. 



Mew Oir nttrrn bouitHary of tbr parish of Waltbamstow^ 
atiJ itiljuUiiiig ihut of Woodlbn), » « New- Houw, lutdy erected 
ouwicointe callol JIKA I ilCIlOFT-GHOV'E. It it i1>l> prnper- 
ty q(, Bnd was built by, Cfmrlcs Conki^, Itjq. fmrn Hv»if;n« by 
Mr. Edward Giffoixl, Aidutcct, whu biu liiapliiyol murh ta9t« 
«nd judf^mciU in lii« (-VfjitJori ol* t!ii> luu rnnilt, and in the itra* 
plicily and coinpaclovu of tbe inl^rivr a rrau^ement. It tUndt 
on ibf w«9l«rn friiie of a. bill, which comniandt ■ fim-ly divnriiilii^ 
and extensive prg^pcct over the vulc uf llie Lea, and over ihe 
Uelropuiit. TiiB west or principal Iront has r semicircular par* 
dco, supportiMl by I'uur Ionic culumns, twcnty^two £ect in bcigiil; 
and to ibe centre of lite house, which is neaily iquara, art ut- 
tacbed two binall u'inf(». The ^miinds, tb<iii|^fi tiot tixtcntive^ 
have bcvn laid out, and [ilanli-d wilti inurb tasie, by Mr, Sandysi 
and the propriplor faw contended with great dilliculty of uiuuiionf 
in foniiin^ n piece of wHter uf llirce acres on tlie side uf the liill. 

The FORKST HOUSE, ancicnlly culled Curing H»uir, fmrn 
having been the teM of Charln Gniiit^, t^arl of Nurwich, in (h« 
neigil of Charin the Second, is a plain «({U>irc butlditi;;, now ilie 
pfx>perty ot i>tiinuel Busunqu^r, E-m). whow family acquired it by 
purcbuo frum !»ir John IJcathcote, Iktrt. 

I.F.YTONSTONE, a cha.pelry in thfi parish of l^yton, is a 
long stra;:;g)ing place, cont^iining many bouw^ inhabirad, like 
tnott other village* ja this vicinity, by tniders and iiieTchunts of 
the Metropidin. 

LEVTOX, or LOW LEVTON, lo iremed from if? wfuntion 
en lov ground near the river Leu, is a pleasant villago, cbieOy 
coQUbting of rcapt'ciable lmuM-«, cnibouimcd in iiecs. Variotn 
anliqititics have foecn found in iiii» parish; but the evidence of lis 
having brtni the lilv <>( a Honian alalion, ihnuj^h supportrtt by 
Camden, m*d some ulher anliquaii^, dtu-a not appear lo be ruf> 
firiently strong to wnrrant it« being po&ilively nnei ted. Camden 
himself sp^uki wilh liwlaliun; and thuu^h willing lu siippmc it 
the DurolHum of Aniuiiinus, from ib narao LeyCon, or llio TviBa 
QH the Lry, retaining Home traces of ihc former appellation, which 
" ia Britiali Mgiufle» H'afcr of Leg" acknowledges thai, tojustity 

thii 



us 



e3»EX> 



this opinion, the diitanrc of nurDlitiim froin Lonilon (fifteen 
miln) mtui be rc-gardnl as tnftccurtte. It i\ therefore most pro-^ 
bable, lliat tht- n-iiiaiiM ili^coverci] at Loylon, and it) itinighbour* 
hoed, bctuiigrd only to suiiic Ituttian vtlto*. That the arguments 
for the lite of Durultlum bviiig in this parish, are not incoateslj* 
ble, is rvinced by ihiprnntrarielyur opinions ret^pccling that station: 
Baxter pliircs it at Wuliham; Siilmnn, ai riifshum; anrlSlukctey, 
at Romford. The fLiUotting particulan of AcLtiquities discovered' 
h«rc arc given by Oough" from a Iclfer of Mr. LethieulUer'*. 

"In the yvat 1716, >lr. Gaructl (llien owner of the manor- 
house) having occasion to enlarge his gardens, on dig^ng up 
about ivio acres of graund, found under ihc whole, veiy large 
aiiii stroit^ foundaiions: in one place all stone, with corniilcmbls 
archrs, an arrhod dnor-way with strpi down to it, bnt lilted up 
nith gravel. In tnany of the foimdations were a great quantity 
of Roman lili*^ and bricki, mixed with more modern materials, 
and several ruugii and biukeii pieces of hard fttune, some purt of 
which, when polished, proved lo be Kg^-ptian gnuiitc: ino largCi 
deep wells, cohered over with slonc: and in dipping a pond, after 
llic vvorkmcci bad iimtc through a bed of clay abrtui ten feet, they, 
met with a great quantity of oak timber, mortizeil Itij^eiher lik< 
a floor, grown very hnnl and black, but unctrrlain how fitr it 
reached. Several Kotnun brass and silver coins, boih Consular 
and Imperial, lo the lime of Julius CKsnr, were KCaiiered about; 
as wetl fu some oilver cuiiifc, wiih Saxon characters. The groun* 
where these iliiscu\-erii*s were made, atljoiiis ihcChurch-Ynrd, where, 
some time before, a large tirn of coarse red earth was found." 

The Church nt Leyton is of brick, and conusts of a naw, chan* 
ceil, and north al^k■, \iilhato»cr at lhcwc»tcad. The interior 
walls are covered with e»culcbewn* and monuments; many of 
them in commemorattun of eminent persons, who have been in- 
Icrrcd licrc.f Among the tombs in ibc rhnncel, is a memorial of 
llie much cnlebraled IlUtorian aitd Antiquary, JoiiN Stbtpi, 

who, 

* Btinnaia, Vol. It. p. 90. 
t See LyuMu' £nviroD*, Vftl. IV. p. 16^ 





ESSIX. 447 

Mo, by licence of (he Bishop of London, though Tt«vcr inJuctcd, 
beld this vjcamge during tlie long period of ^ixty-oighl ytun. Me 
was buried Imjto in 1737, iit llic ngc of ninety-four. Tii tW north 
able is the monument of Ciiakles Gokjsk:, Earl of Norwich, 
who died in l670; and a Riflrble tablet to the memoiy nf Mr. 
William Bower, a teamed and omincnt Printer, whnse Life, 
as written by Mr. Jolin Nichols, his opprcntico, partner, and 
luccenor, and at whone charge the tablet was erected, contains 
many intere»ling pttrlirulnr» of the State of Literuturr, and of 
Literary Characters, through great part of the last ceniuryi Mr. 
Bowyer died at the age of •evfiiiy-f&ur, in lli^ year 1777. At 
Lcytuii a a free-Sdiool fur iwrnty poor boys of iliis, and the ad- 
joining pariiih of Waiihamslow; a School of Imliiitry fur thirty 
gir]»; nnd four Sunday Schools, supported by subscription, in 
*bicli ISO children receive education, 

Siu TiioUjI!! Ror, the liml English Ambnuador to the East, 
was bom in ihispafwii, about ihe year l58iJ. In l604 he was 
Itnighted, and went on a voynge of discovery to the West Indies, 
tn 1614 he was sent, by Jumcs the First, on nr Embassy To the 
Great Mogul, from whose Court he removed lo that uf the Gniiid 
Signior, where he obtained very esMnlial adranluges for his coun- 
trymen. On bis return, he was made Chancellor of the Garter, 
and a member of the Hrivy Council, lie died in the year lt)'44. 
'Hie celebrated Alcxandriun Manuscript of the Greek Testament, 
of which a fae simU was jiuhli&hed by Dr. Wnide & few yean 
ago, was brought by Sir Thomas into this country. 

About one mile from Lcyton, to the south, is the manor of 
RUCKIIOLT, where are »om« reriiaim of ati ancient Enlrcnch- 
nenl, now iicarly obscured by trees, which Imvo been planted 
over the chief part of the area. It ia situated on a small cmineiioef 
rising from the river I^ea, and appears to consist of a square em- 
bankment, tncloaing a circular one. The laitLT is about thirty- 
three ynnts in diameter, nnd is surrounded by a moat, about six 
yards in width ; the former has traces of a double rampart, divid- 
ed by a ditch. 

Not 



♦M 



ES«C)Ct 



Kot r&r diiiaatt on a branch of the Loa, are rlie TsMrtC 
Mills, wiid to bareaiimntly bt'luns«d (u tb« Kui)(lil> TempUn* 
nml aft^nrardft tu tlip Kiiigbu of St. Jnhn ot Jcrus«Jem. In the 
fear it'iO, tliey vicTe u«e(l fur brasa works} but arc now appro- 
priflled to the manutHrtore of sheet lead. 

Tlic wlebratwl Bow I^ridgp. crosses ihr rirrr Lra, and ta si- 
tuated near the vilhtge o( Srulfurd, aUiut Iwo miles to the cut 
of Luiiilon on the greut Eswx road. Stowe, Lvland, and otliet 
irrilcra, concur in 8Kribjn{> itie lirtt erection of liiii Bridge to 
Maud, or Matilda, the Quwii uf llvnry the FiiDt; as wdl as 
tn the detivalion of its name of Row, or arched Bridge, whicfi it 
u »aid (u hHve received from its bcint; thcHntarchetl stoita bridge 
crMtird in thiv couaty. Tbeparticulan of its roundution arc thua 
rvlutcd by Slowe, 

** 'I'lus MalildiL, when she saw Uio forde to be dangerous for 
thirm thut travclli^d by tlie old foord over the river of Laii*. (for 
the brmi-lf licul been w<-]l washed in the wutcr,) cau>cd ttro stone 
bridj(es to be buihivd, uf the which, one wji> situated overlie, 
&I ihc h^ad of ibe lownc of Stratford, now catltd Bcw, bpcavHO 
llio Briiigi- was uiclK-d like a how ; a ratu iiietc of worLo; for be* 
iure thut time the like bad Hc?i>r brpn seen in Kngtiuid. The otber 
over the liitte brooke runifntinly rnlled Chavel^e Bridge. Slie 
muiloltic Kiiij»'» IiiL-hM-uy of grovel between the two Bridgcsi'' and 
guvc certain manors to the Abtios of Uerkiiij;; and a mill, coi»* 
iiioiilv ciilk'd Wiiyjiiij (ir Wigprn Mill, " ftir Ihr repayrinje of lh« 
Biidgcs iiiiii bigbnaie. But afterwards GilLwrt do Mounlficbcl 
founded the Abbey of Stralliird ia the niarishc&, Uic Abbot where- 
of, by gitini; u piece of money, piicbiiscd In him&clf llic manors 
and mill nfora'.iid, and covenanted to rqjair tlic Bridges and way, 
till at IcnKib be laid the cbnr^ upon otie Mugb Watt, who lived 
near the Uridgei Bud cauKway, allowing him certain loares of 
breud dally : and by the alms of passengers he kept llictn in do« 
repair; as did his !<nn WilliHm after him, who, by tbo assistanca 
of Hubert Pasaelew, ihc Chief JuMicc in the time of Henry tb* 
Thirri, oht^uned llii'*e lulK — Of cvory cort currxiiig corn, woodi 
Coal, ice. one penny; oi every oik aiir)iii^ /o/eV, twcpeitcej 

1 atti 



I 





ESSEX. 449 

tni of ow ctrT>-inv a dead Jea, eightpcocc; and put up a bar 
with locks on Luckkcbrcggs: but Philip UoMei, and tliv Abbot 
of Waltham, having broke tbe bnr ratbcr than pay the (oil, th« 
Bridges and cauwwiiy rL-maiiictl uiiri-poirL-t). In thu mean lime 
Eleanur, <Juccn of King Henry the 'rhiril, caused llicm (o be 
mended at her own chiirse by William the keeper of her Chftpclj 
snd William de Carleloii krpt them uftorwards in rrpAtr, lilt a 
new agreement betwoen the Abbess and Abbot took plu.cc for (bat 
purpose."* 

I'Jic tenants of the abbey Iand»»c«m, in (ii« sevcntccnlh ccnturyt 
to have boca uiimlling to fulHl their agmmi-'iit; for in 16^1 
an inrormauoci was laid in the King's Bench agaimt Bucl:erid^, 
and otbcn, fur not repairing a high-way, rathne Iftturr, hy 
reason of their holding, ur tenure, between Siraiford and Dow. 
It was tried at the bar by an Essex jury. The evidence for the 
King was, ihat Maud, the Queen of Henry ihc Fint, built this 
Bridge, &c. (to tha tenor befurv meniioncil:) liiut ut llie Distolu* 
tioM, tho Stratford Abbuy lundb being vutcd in the Cnitvn, were 
granted to Sir Peter Mewtis, who held lliein charged for the re- 
pairing of this hijibway; and from hini^ by several mMiic assign- 
nienls, tlicy rami; to the defendants: liteic fdcts bein>; proved, 
the posscfeson of the abbey laud) wcru ordered to abide b^y th#