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35 118 154 124 







England and Wales; 

'OK, . 








BriiMaMi'bsU I hail, bippy ■■!* I 
When J07* iabiUt, plmurt* iniile t 
CicatnnrMof benNi, mm of cbitmi t 
SvpniBe in UU, >nd fint id amu. 

Tnde, am, wd ictcnK, flouriih hen, 
And bl«« each fair Kvolving yui i 
Gay-tmiling plenty reigni around, 
And golden bancaU loiA the grouad. 


rn»id tf Thaw timdm, Utrimim-Ltiu, 

imoM., soos & aMAKri; loxomam, nuai-r, ttit, & oaua; 
cumaLi. tt HAfttiv) w. j. Sc j. kichakdior ; 
AWB s. caoiav. 


OOT 1, W* 


Tv Ub« Utolli Tolane if Uhf 

BUvriEs or esgl^sd jnd wjies. 

U*fllS (wing the Rra Volume that bu appeared wilh m; d&BiEf 

iiytiNdHallj', 1 devm it arcnaiiry to appttN.- IIh' mdrr of a fVtf 

pmttinilan rv«prclni^ it: atid I am iiit(ke4k(1 lo Hiii, rniln llitf 

qk«t)(>MBlhat (mvT b«wn aildresseil In aie, botll verbally and by 

|i«-KlrT. Tltr tint lix ruluiitn tiavr brcn jointi)' eircutn) by Mf. 

Knitcv and mywlf; awl il is but jiutice lu slate, Ibxl l)>e grMt- 

^stponion of tittfir lilvniry co in posit iitii Mas frain tlie pen of Ihaf 

goUkaian, wliii. Milfa ntueh cara ami vKritiuri, nxt^t'oiirfil M 

■ -rMiiT llN>m acciinte and ongiiiaJ. The prim^Ml iniveHin|g 

cantfondeow. Utiutir uf accumulatiiij; Itonks <|nciiitl«iiLii, dU 

fCitiBn of ilraii^ltlsiiivn, vn-'r.ivrrs, aiid torur ullu-r rtrm^arj 

naboni, dcvolvril on nie ; aud t fell it a plv«tiire and duly le 

pMffnIe my laik with ztvi and atuduilT. At Ibe cloic of IttS 

KUbvotuiae it ito< iWineil eH|wili«iil llial rarti of •« glii^Kltl tm^ 

daMkito write and CMHiuct a volume alteniatelv: ainl, by ar- 

anfmmt, itie ruunltes »f Hffir«ril, Huntingdon, ami Knil, 

Inolnd on Mr. Biajley; whiU) Lanc-aslitre, LeJceilariliirv, sua 

IJDCnIiilitK, e^iiie under luy direcliun. Il now reniaios for me 

tt npfain bow I haw «\Ktiled lhr*e ; wlint nM>>*itaitrr Im breA 

iami fton cont^fModfnc^. tte. and, indeed, wbsl are the 

dttwMw brtwcni the kubi>ri|tieiil t<)|Higniplii(-al liivlories, aiid 

Mihvhiw \ti-m pKviotuty publidWd. tt b» tun; brut a 

■uinirilh mr. Ihe wriirr and n-iklVf should {HTfi^lly Uf^ 

dMSalndi ulliei; that ihcri? lOmuM he no rotrrve or aaibi* 

|ri; in Ihe fimwr. oor tutiiirina Or doubt with ibe latter. A 

mulcunlBdily and cuulhlence ihoiild ctn'l, and (hrn lire nm 

'MMpDine lit* talM>un nilh conrforl and plemnre to hiim^lf, 

*^ti>e other m-uld read wiiti addiiioual advantage ami (trligbt: 

"^'v. in u) eitciuive ttork like the present, the Autlior must 

*^I» IX. a calculal« 



calculate on the comniuntcation>i of iuteltigent Cnrrespoiidents ; 
who will not be likely to write frrely and /u/fy, unless \\\ey feel 
confident that tbeir fuTours will be properly appreciated and ap- 

Lancashire. Tlie following topographical account of thit^ 
county, though necessarily concise to a certain degree, is more 
copious and circnmstaDtial than will be found in any other pub- 
licBtiou: for besides a careful rxaruinalioD, and i^dvantnge of 
every preceding literary work, many particulars were derived from 
a personal survey, others fW>ni tlie conimuniculious of kiud and 
inttlligent correspondents, and some from original ducumenls. 
To the following noblemen and gentlemen I am indebted for 
many personal civilitiea, and for much useful information : 

Earl Wilton.* 
llie Earl of Radnort. 
Sir Ridiard Clayton, Bart 
IaH; Anne Hamiltrn, 
John Dent, Em|. M. P.* 
JoliD Hodson, Esq. M. P. 
J^n Towneley, G«q. 
R. J. Harper, Esq. 
The Hev, Ttionuu Starkie. 
Qvtxge Ormerod, Eaq.* 
Edward Holme, M. D. 
Jolin PilkiDi^on, Esq. 
Hatlhew GrpeMm, £«]. 
Jamea Lnosdale, Esq. 
The Rev. Jolui OreawelL 

Edward Wilb. Bootte, E*q. M. P. 
John Btackburne, Esq. M. P. 
William Ruacoc, Esq. 
John Dutlon, Esq. 
Ttie Ke». Dr. AVhitaker. 
HoUaad Watson, Esq. 
JoliD FontCF, Eiq. • and tiie 
Corporation urLiverpool.* 
James H. Msrkland, Esq. 
Joseph Allen, E«q. 
Samuel OMknon, Esq. 
Joseph Gaody, Enq. A. R. A. 
Mr. Geo. Bullock. 
Mr. William CkMe, and 
Mr. William Ford. 

Leicestsrsbirb. The Topography and Antiquities of (his 
Conii^, haviog been very fully and minutely narrated by Mr. J. 

* To each of ttuMr pentleinen iriinte nainea are aceanqiairied hj an aite- 
lidt, I am obliged for the prantatum i^ a Plate to thi» work. 

t At the time this acconot was written, the Autlior beard, with seatineoti 
of liucere sorrow and te«ret, of die death of Lord Bollon, who had numi- 
feated much kindiKM and ima^cled cirility'tohim, Iwth with rcapect to 
iUs Coanty, to ibmpdure, and some other places. 


Nichols, I fwuiH tJuL h oitcfiii BbridKuiimit of, sn<l Klcrlioo 

ffum Ills viul sloitrs, would be ixarl}! all lliat couM be lioac for 

llin ttnifict. I ihiHiL-liI it i»\ iluty, bimeri-r. in vSer a fi-w uri- 

iwal maatVt and ctiliciuTii, wlirnorr upportunilics ptcKulcd 

UMaudrts: nnie of ntiicli will ap|>car in tiie Bnignpliiinil Ac- 

couata of Robert B<iilon, l^i\y June Orcv, llnbcrt R;)kcwtll, ami 

RiprctinE Ibr ADlii)iiittrs nf Leicester. To Mr. NiriiOLs 1 

fed mrjF paftkulirlv oblij^cd for Ibc likcmlily and liin>li)c»^ as 

«eU u for Ibc prompt iluilc (iv <lts)ib\r<t id cnnrctiof: M tbr 

luoof-ibnls of ilir cniinlv How <itry titirciciil u Hm conduct to 

tfail of sonr oHkt I'opoigrdpbcrsi who \m\ifi cn^a^cd either io 

Die \a/'otj of a county, or of a cerlain di»tricl, biitc uriciviDjr 

adiiiiuJiciauiJT refusf-d to fnmisb a hint of iiirDrmiliou ; und 

Ian alio niilcai^iirrd Io preclude acccM Io other prnoni, and 

olnbMl Ibe HXircvs of hifoniialiaa : absiirill) su|)|>Oftiii|^i thai if 

iWj (MlhbwtH to rcudrr a Kcncrtl Woik, like llii*, uccumtc and 

•njinl, U)c; would (li<:reb;t tk-precia!« aud injure lli«;ir own, 

IlitaaiiiMtiiujItdicnaud illiberal policy: for Uicquolulions and 

H fa a e a , rnvh to • popufair gcucral Work, (ami it ba> l>«rn 

ipnclice witfa lite Authors of tbift to vckiiowlcdKC rrrry Ibing) 

BUl tad to advcrttK and piomolc all otiicrs of a more local 


LiNCOLSsaiBK. Tlib very cxleini*-* County has tcarcoty 
berg alltuiJcd tu by the grtieral Topogmphtr or AutiqiMLry; and 
ibsitti it contains a City, full of Antiquities, and many towm and 
plKnrrplctc Mill) k<cal und gt^nvral interest, \«t thtx bavenrver 
hn iiiUy or fltillifully dcM^ribrd, (Si-e note attached to Ibc Litt 
o(Ba(4>^ II was my >iuc«rc y/^nh, am\ puMtivi- tiilciition to have 
HfffadtlieM deficienciea, in a small d<-grcc, aud to Imv«- funtiibed 
(Ik trailtr with a eood«nf<!d talioual Arcouut of Uie Coanly. 
Fat Ibi* |Hi[po*e 1 viulml moit of its towns and Aiiii(|uiti^ii, and 
«tiliiof<t BaaMrom oripnal commuuimtion^ fnmi niaity iiili.'ltii>i-iit 
{MnoQi of the Ctnuity. I alio carefully oblaiiiMl all iIif |iuhliiJK>d 
bw^mdsoii^hl orifpnal infnrtnalion fmin same MS, collections. 
Tb Ridt of all wbicb would have becD given to the Public 

a 2 carl; 

To Die followiik^ Niiltlfinm uimI G«nl)eiii«ii I 
my DiiWTrc jitil ^miihil Thtnks for miicli iiwful t 

LokI Ywbvrviiafi. 

Sir Wrllbiti rnrk Welh}', Ben. 
John Ken(d«, Ew|. 
BdnwinJ Tutunr, Ew], 
Oirlr* Taibm, E4i|. 
Oeatic Atji3rTuni. F.w). 
/. N, Juhntoit, E*<|' 

•'«f9 2>. lOOB. 

Vni. Brnnil, Eaq. 
nio K(-r. C, tllim 
Kcv. F. P. Liltlc 
Mr. pjipin. 
itir. Brookr. 
Mr. U'lii. U'iluin, 
Mr. H'm. Sliei»|Mii 

J. BRn 

tKiitoil riw*. Raw 

This Volume will ineltidr (_\)to teinpom) tkrfiJlo 

Copped Hall. 
Cflinstun Diurriii 
nrv>hwai»r C*t*. 

MalBttbnry Ablx^ Cluirrft. 
Lulloif Cutlc. 
W%noK Cwitr. 
Ooodrirt) 0»tk. 

Ij^dlkrd Tn-itur. 
Danmmith Caiile 
AOitan HaII. 
Bnw mill Amisr < 
• RnclMn|l;P Build 
" L>iiiii>ter. 
" flmliiD H"H»?. 
Vi...M-.i^ """■'■'■ 



englaiit auD WUik&. 


/iMOSG tite natJiT tnlics that inlialNlMl tlie Bnlieli Uauds 
pninu 1» liic Rotnui Iuva.<loa. Ilie Brigantet' aocoHtqg to ike 
tmaaiaf k»liiiKioy «r manv n«peetal>l« writer*, wtn tb« most 
HMfMf inri p<w«fuL Ibn ponrswd a tract vf country vrlitcli 
aloded 6aia tbe wutb sliure uf l\w livcr lltimWr lu tb»t of ilw 
TjM M Hie eastern cout, awl from ibe «!<tuarv of Ihc IVIet«y 
iDlbt Etien on lite ncsleni cocisl. Tlib large Unitary wai, liowever, 
pRnoiHly nbabitrd by midc other infcTior rlans, of nboui Plo> 
lajri^ucsill LannuJiirv tlic Seiamti, Ilw 5irgaMrii,t or Siauniii; 
bribe nme b vwicHuly tpdt Tliia tppcIIatioD, uccorduig to the 
ttOftHaAoa of Ibe Icaiaed Hntonau of Maiubcitcr, ts-as «x]>rc»- 
maf Ifee narilime lilualioa of the tribe, mnd ciUier " siinply *ifi- 
ntnix OfoUry </ ITaMr; or diKrimioalely, llie IiUtricMr and 
tmiethf CoMUty t^ tVain: tiKreby expn'*«ve of ihr imrtirnlsu- 
of Lxncaaliirr, witli n-q>ect to tlw VolxiituI and the Sea. 
A 3 Setauli 

* r«r mm Recount of ihii iribe, mc Hcautini Vol. lU. p. 3, A, tte- 

i "Tnh the reading of ihe Palaiioe MS. The aironrmoiu tla- 
Taau calii tbcm SittuMtiatri, more pigbaUy Srguniiaci. Vide Bixm 
m Voce." l>r. UhitaJttr. 

t TIm cb(* or iribe'or DritoM omipicd ibc noribern pant of Wgit* 
■Mfclud, aftd all C(unl>eThM! ; hkring VuUnty, or Eluntiorcugh, (or 
■tmcapteL Sec Cambrian Rrijiicct, YoL II. p. 14-, anil Wluukcr*i 
iKfi 410. Yol I. p. M. 


Setimti must have been the ort^al appellation of the original colo- 
nists; and Sistanlii, orSistuotii, miut have been afterwards con- 
ferred on them when sew colonists had taken possession of West- 
moreland and Cumberland, and when accuracy was obliged to 
distinguish one from the other."* 

Although very little aatisfactory information can be adduced re- 
lating to the «tat« of -political or tivil soci^, antecedent to the 
Roman conquest of Britain, yet Mr. Whitaker ofTers a few conjec- 
taral remarks on this subject, wUch, if not demonstrative, appear 
jational; and as they have peculiar reference to this county, I shall 
quote them. " The singular nature of our towns in Lancashire 
before the entrance of the Romans mto it, was the necessaiy re- 
sult oi that life of hunting and grazing, which is the natural em- 
'ploy of ttan it\ the in^cy of society, and which, in all the 
Hortfadn regions of the I^md, f*hen the arts of agriculture were 
totdly unpractfsed, %as peculiarly the employ of the natives,t 
The to«nl of the Britons vrere not their places of perpetual and 
■general residence; they were only their places of refuge amid the 
dangers of war, vhere they might occasionally lodge their wives, 
tbek children, and dieir cattle ; and where the weaker might occa* 
-sioBtdly asust Ifae stronger til! succours could arrive. And as, 
tt^re the Romah Invasion, they had known no other enemies 
than tbdr Celtic brethren, who, like themselves, were always eqgcr 
-to decide the contest by a battle b the field, neither the one uar 
-the otker could be expekted to have any considerable skill in the 
Science of fortification. But the Britons certainly possessed b 


* M'hiiaker'i MancHeiter, 4to. Vol. I. p. 7. 

t Czur, by Ckrk, p. S3. Cognoicit noD loogc ex eo loco of^idnm 
Casitvellauni abesse, lytvis paludibusque munituni ; qud >atii magnui 
^oDiioum pecotiK]ue numeral coavenerit. Oppidum autem Bntanni 
vocant quurn lytvas irapeditai valio arquc fotlft munienint—Locum repe- 
nt egregie natura aique opere muniium. — P. 87. Se in sylvat abdide- 
runt, locum nadi i^gregie nalur^ et opere muni turn,— que nw-jain ante 
ptvparatierant i nam, crebrii arboribui lucciait, orooet iutnutut erant 
prvcluii. — See aho Strabo, p. 3Q0, Amiiel, 1707 } and more pvticulax'y 
Dio, p. 937.— Whitakcr^ Mancttnter, Vol. I. p. 10. 


poftion of H Hint our rrilurs are willing tn t\\nvt iliein. 
tm<t were pUulctI in llic ccnire of llicir tvooili, vt-n 
iMshWH Iiv ihr natural aitniMag^ nf ihr ^tc, find wav CortirKt) 
bj llw fclliiis ofin-rt t^^ nbtlruct ftif BrimrKT, anil, by Ilir runi» 
tina of B iHuk ninl n dilch, to |tni«ttl tlic imi)Aioii uf «i axny, 
tbcj mnlctl the iittadit vf tli« licit troops, uniirr Ibc roit»> 
•f tlx brti oNiwrs hi lli« worW, anil even piiie*! fioin (tie 
ef Mie Ullirr, ttw repealed i-omturndiilioD ol cxc^llcnl for- 

Tht Rnrnan inviulpn nf BnlaJn linvlit^ cnitqiiertd all, or ll« 
gRih'r |«rt, of the iiihulutuils wirlti of tlir Miiney. one of tltrir 
^iat o0iner>i Jutivt Axrirobi, nppean to 1iavc txwn iltc firit (!(•■ 
1iogiu*t>ol Rnnuu, «tbu, at Ibc bead ofs powerful anUT, rjitcrtif 
Ihe dbitkt t.'i iIa- S>u>iuntii, »Ik>iU A. D. 7^. JLivtui; <-)u>iK tuLc 
lb«c (r«ttlc (i|t^>owiitt, ijub singnaiuiDMi OoKral iiumrdi- 
aidjr resalv«(l h) eloUbli furt&, wmI [ifauit ^irriicuu, iii sevcnl 
yttU of tbetr c«anm'. Tn tliis caminsader, nnri r<i Oiit tra, lim 
Ml. lA'InlalieT wftintl llie lint eiectiaii of tlic (ullnninv Kouiaa 
Ibliam tn iIm coiml) : " ^d Atatmniu. and Bnwcfon^rtr, in tlic 
ODftfa ; Pivttu SMiauiomin, in Uie vett ; Arrt^ojuifai, and 
Coccimm, about Ibc ccnirc; CWoiwa, ou the cast; aiid ('mifinMin. 
Md jl/osLiuiiun, on tbc aoulb, Soiiic lurtiY<is«3 wrte sbttoliildy 
Kvenan l» tbe Htaiuteoance of the Kvtnun cuocjuuls, uhI tntut 
■hm>-f Invt Iwca Rgnlirly ctr<led bv tlie Roiiiani u liicy exleud< 
ed Ihclr CDaqneftU. Six ofllie^e, ui jiarltcttUr, are meutioacd by 
Ibe carikal iccounts wliicit nc lutvi- of Hit- Kunuin tiaUotit in Lan- 
aikiie; bkI five (d~ tbcm bv chw accvmtt,t Uiat nrju dnwii up 

A * aboyt 

« Wluiakcf** Mwdiener, Vol. 1. p. 4, 5. 

t-Tha iiK«ui bue reimed to, it ibat by Riebard ur Cimice«i«r, a 
U4«k «t)o Imcd in ibc fuwiccntb tcnluryi >nd wboic [iu of Itonun 
KutioM, Ice. i* more t^inu*, and more " circuAtunrMl," ihan ilie 
Geqgnp^; ofTiiAirmj, llic Itinerary of Aniooinui, the ImpcTiil Noti* 
ta, a«d the Aaanpn«ii L'biirograpbj. 't« liiit work Mr. ^^ iinidcr 
aiuclw* alrtwit albeit ranbileiicc; but die ntotleta aod Muie Uitiuciaa 
ft ttf 


about sixty years only after the reduction of it. Havbg been fivft 
of them originally Britisb fonresses, tbey were now diiuiged into 
stationary «aiiii» ; and amall ganisoiu, comUting pnncipally of the in* 
firm and taw soldten, were lodged in them ; wbile Agticola, wilh tbe 
les^ attacked the more northerly Britons in the following Bummer."* 
" Thus W9a the autumn of 7^," omtinues Mr. Whitaker, " the 
very remarttable ^>och of the first erection of our pre^eut towns ia 
Lancashire." Ilougb this writer has f^)ectfied ax stations ai po- 
■itively belonging to this County, yet their exact situations are not 
^tisfactorily defined ; oor are otfaer antiquaries agreed with respect 
tp this number : for Antoninus, in hk Tenth Iter, only marks tbrccr 
which, with tbeir relative distances, are thus set down in a jouro^ 
^om tbe north towards tbe south : 

Gilacum m. p. xiz. WettmerelaDd. 

Breraetonscei m. p. xxvii. ^ 

Cocciumf in. p. xx. I in Lancathire< 

Mancuniuro ni. p. XVli. ) 

CoBdate m.p. xviii. Cheihire. 

Bicbard of Cirenoester, who is Mr. Wfaitakei's giude, gives another 
tout, in tbe same direction : and Dr. Stuke)^ affixes tbe modem 
names to tbe places as follows -^ Proeaeonacit 

•f Wballef, quettiom the Monk'i auihoritiet. and obMrret, that " be 
^V3i poMeued with the geoeral spirit of hii profeuion in the middle 
agetj Kineibing between bold conjecture, and mventive fraud. He 
laid out new Itinerai he imagined colooiet, town* insetted with iha 
Jm* Latii, and othen menly itipendiary, long after thoie ditimciiani 
were abolished : he inwned wme namei, which, though real, were poi- 
wrior to the Roman empire in Britaia, and tome which may lafely be 
affinned to have been fabricated by himielf." History of Whalley, p. 15. 
f Whitaker's Manchctter, Vol. I. p. 31. 

+ Th'u Station wai invested with the Jui Latii, or Latin Privilege, 
whereby the inhabitants were exempt froin the ordinary jurisdiction of 
the Prsrtor, and \Terc no longer governed by a forei^ Prafeci, and a 
foreign Quxiior, but by a Prxfcci and Qujntor elected among them- 
selves. Every inhabitant of such towns, who had borne the offices of 
Prrtor or Quz^ior, was immediately entitled to the privileges ofa Roman 
•ititen. I'acitui Ann. B. xiv. Whitaker's Manchester, V«I. I. p. 243, 

* " Account of Richard of Cirencester,'* 4to. 17&7, p. Si. 


PrtKmomtci* XXII. Penriih, Browhim. 

jI4 ^taxna • • • Laocaner. 

Coecitm — lxvi — Latio Jurt donata, fIuT7 and Cockfcy 

Cbspel, LancuUr«. 

Alia lb« Siatiofu were establidied, it vns next, according 

lo the nsual svvUiii of Romnii policy, derineil neMwarv to 

opm a fMsaUe cotnmunimion ttrfwcrn tliein, hy ibc mram 

of wUUary roadt. To eSccl this in a counly like LanrxKhirft 

RrpvrH Ibr uiiilcd pOKcrs of lulrar iiuti skill. Tbc first coukl 

be caiiiv obtfiinrcl from the subin-tril italiv-cs, coiiihincd witfa 

ifac vtrtrnui cnxinc^ra; and llie latlvr waa a diilinguiiliiiig clia- 

fadeiistk of ibc Ruujvii*. Il b ratbvr a linj^lar dnruawlancf, 

llat, ftltboo^ nanj e\c«U«at lloinan roadi were made iii iltit 

c awtr y . ihe tbape and cnnttnidton of »ot>iv o( uhich an casilj 

urrrtmncd at ibis day, Ihr prinriple ha« nc\rT htm nrvived till 

widhio liie last (it^y yran. In iitniiy placrs, tnilfed, rtm now lite 

ivn^n of roads dllicr totally disrcganl ibc hystcm, or ate igno> 

imly bmpalilc of apprcckitinc its manif»( utility. In wnic part* 

of Laotasliire ()u> is dr|i)orjl'Iy i-^em|iiified; lor Miih inudi wet, 

vlmidi tntrrUing, the |it«'Vh1 1uni|>ike roads, iii wim: (iIhcts, 

m generally in a very bad »t«tL-. A* llic pniK>|ial Romao slatiom 

rf IIm eouirty ntiifl cvidfjilly li^ive itud iiitcrv<9iiiig rottdtt 1 •Ittll 

biidy nalir« the diirctioii of llieie, and retcr to Die arromiKinyitig 

■fi* for a more perspicuous deliiieaiinn of tlifni. Froni Mancti- 

■in ^MaoclieUer) a road liranched oil soiiili'caiiicrly towards 

i'twilMtt; aiiotber Muth-wcstrrly into Chcibirc by Slrrtford; a 

llU aortlHwnt loRlackrmt: and ncit Pcndlcloo, a vidnat way 

bnodiol od* lo Warrinjttoo. A fouitli comniunirated dlrvctly to 

CkWcm. (Ribcbcstcr,) and coolinited Ibencc to Bremetonadi, 

(Omborouj^b,) A fifth drverged narlh-rajt towards Hulilax; and 

B Bilb more eaitetly, towiirds Alnioii-lxiry. in Yorkshire. Mr. 

1.000 aba imagim-s ibat a road coramunimted alinoat direelty 

BMb tnd foutli iluongli the centre of tlie couiily from Waning 

tH, by Bbckrod and Frcsloii, la Lanca&iLT, &c. 


' S(« Map of I^ncastnre, ia the Br'ttiA Mini, No. XII. the Rmium 
n«di « wluLh wcie kiadl; akcKhcd in l>y lhc Uev, 'nwnui Lcinan* of 



Concering the known itations, and principsl intiqiiilics, disco- 
vered at eacl), we sball have occasion to treat wlien describing llic 
jjiiirislies Where they are situated. The wliole of this County, with 
Yorkshire, &c. was denomiualed, by Ihc Romans, Maxima Ca- 
koTKinM, or Britaimia Superior: and by the Saxons, Lancaster 
was included within the kh^otn of NorUuinibria; and, accmtli^ 
4» Ibe statement of Mr. Whilaker, was " formed into a tepamte 
eoon^ about 6S0; and sooa after the conquest of it by Egfiid." 
At thin petiod, oontinues our shrewd historian, " the Rovan 
AUram receiTed the honor which it retuios at present; was laadi 
the metff^xdis of the sfaire, and lent its own appellation to the 
eoanty." Soon after this event the county was divided into faaB> 
dieds, tythings,* &c. and that part called Soutli Lancashire was 
fint parcelled into three, and undivided into she just before tb« 
Ctnqaeat ; these were called BlacUium, Derby, and Salford ; also 
Kewton, Warrington, and Layland ; the- three lattte being scpii- 
lated from, or taken out of, (he othen after their original fbmw> 
tion. These ware all denominated from the towns, or vilbges, 
which were cwistituted the heads of their re^tectire centiaies. 
C And those of Salford, Warringtoa, and Newton, Blaokbum, 
Derby, and Layland, were so cwislituted beoouse they belonged 
t» the Crown, All of them, but Ncwlon, continued in its pos- 

, * Moit of our topt^rapben have attributed the HibdivMKm of Eag' 
hid >Dta couotieiy hundredi, Itc, to the illiutrioui Airrcd; but Mr. 
IVbiiskcr boldly auerti, " they arc aU mistakai. The tjpthing, bun- 
^ttdj aad counlf, conitituted a pan of that original polity which the 
Saxont brought with them Trom Germing : and two of them appear ex- 
Iniog in Britain, and all ihree in France, even tame agei bcrorc ihe 
time of Alfred. The tything, and ihire, are both meniiuned in the laws 
ftf the Weit Saxoni before the cloie of the seventh century, and during 
fbe reiga of loa. And the tything, the dure, and the hundred, arc no* 
riced in the capitutariei of the Franks before the year 630." Vo). I. 
p. 1 13. " I'he hundredi of the Saxoni wvct eiactly the lame with the 
■BDtrefi of the Briioni : ai the latter contiiied of a hundred lownihipi { 
and the former were composed of ten tythingi. Iliese were always 
Anuiderabte dntricti, and eziit to thii day the great diTiaiosi of our 
eouDtiet." lb. 130. 



I n lale u tlie m^ af (be Coni«9«or. AH of titrm Imil 1>rra 

I M linrii \»y tbr Crowii OD the Rrnrrul |KirtitiQ(i ofUte couiitrr, (he 

•affnuiled (luiMaHWS of ibe Knvltr. And llic town of S«irord l»a 

f^MT Uii* rmon bMil c^kt mdqicndent of (ti« Lord of AlnnchcsttT, 

wd oMluiitet Ui (lu! piKCfcnt tiinr xnnexml to ibe rf^ltiiu af the 

Duciiv. Th* wlioi* comiMu of Smith Ijincaahirc. wliicli, tliifliigh 

[.all Ibe (wtiik) oI' iIk Brilotx, probitlily hail ctntfiiiml only lut> 

astiHii, Liuub ind inorlipr, now idcIomkI fiikty t^lb'm^, thirty 

jMWorv nod three huudrei) towivhips^ The divkon of Selford, tin 

odtyoMF o(' iu Hinv liuodredx itiat hut not l)e<Yi (tismemlwrrd, 

bid jM ten aMnon, l*ni tythio;;^, mid i liiindretl t<n*mhi]ti^ witb* 

isk pccaoMi Iftotls. And ibr cnilnm nlijch b nrfnined among us 

to lliB iky, of B»kii>): the huodrcd resjioftsible for rohherin cnm- 

[ jiMl«<l bet«i:it MKi «nd MUt, bud its coinnKDCcmcnt nl thn period, 

4ukI <i«e a niilunU a|i(>ei>da^ to (li« Sason sy«l*mi of txlhini;^."* 

The l."cW<iiui((i-j/ ilittory of tticcoiiutv commeneea «ilh Ibe Sn- 

' ^lo S<uai» ; twil Af W the See of Y otk n-as eitHMIibed, ttie Kini^m 

of XufifciinibfM wax *pecdiK «ibdiind«<l inin iiiimcroiit diocrsa; 

■Oil iIk itliiilc vf Norlb ijnica»tiin; was ccinn«rt(-d nilh tint See. 

.S<tf tooa af^er tlte reditcliuo of Noilhumhrui uitder the dmiiinioti 

W ibe WmISixods, km] tlie roii»nltdalion of Ibr Srrpn Kbigdonii 

'into one tatfin, unl btforc die siitijcdioti of thn to llic vole of 

Um Noiasant, Ihe MUlh of Luiicitffiire w^t sevrred fmm tbr diocne 

jmi pVBiriDCc of Yori^ wid var, -jiuiiiexrd to Ibc province of Cao- 

Cctk«f>, wkI diocett of UchtWId ; ami ititiH continued (o llic six- 

toeatb oeaturv. llie two putts w«rc eanil>iiwd n^stn '< iu 154l« 

.M Ih^ Inve ever dnce coiiliunpd un<Irr tli« (tonitnion of one 

BiUiafi, and renited fhr ever to their iiiicieni and originHl pro< 

van of \oA. At tlie firtl parlhioii of tbe Bidiopric into Arcln 

'dcamnrin, the prMKT[ia! town* of die Ulin- woolH natuniHv Iw 

coiuliUjbsd the nipitiibm' ibctn; flnd thf Roman colony of Ouster 

»at mwk tbc neltopoKf over ilie south of Ijinraslitrr, as the Arch* 

ilcimtii> of KJrliitioitdwa^oTerlhr Dorlh. AimJ dothvcrr mmild- 

cd lugKlWi, b} liciir)' (he Eiijluh, into a new «iid dbtind diocesp, 

tltdi rttoiuci bciiig nady idl a>gTOft»cd b) Die income of tli« 


*^ iliicory oT Manchcf.eri Vol. I. p. 731> 


lUsbopnc, and lh*ir prnver Milirelv swallowf^ np in llie anllionly 
of (be Ilitliop. Tlw iKKl (^rrluiutkal divuion of t\» rotiiity ^'39 
iBlo run] Dcaiierin : and In tlie " Valor BmeAdoniii)," whirh wiki 
taken in I'iS'Z, liy coitiniiind of Pope Nh-IhiUi IV. ilir nliokr 
Cowaty of LSuiratArr, e\rUi»ive of FumcM, wliicli (lii-n lR-lcM<<;cd lo 
WoOixiieUiid, was |mtilioiicd into tHrtyni parMtt only. By I 
Ibe nunc iecot<l il a|>peiir6, tlut lb*;»o pariilic!i «»re iiirlitddl wild- 
ia tlKac tour Deaneries, all in llie ArdKlcuconiy of Cliciicr; Bhick' 
bum. Le\tend, Maueliesler, and Warrin|:loii. But tlie Deanery 
•f Anounderneu and Fumeai ia io Ibe RiehmniMl Atvlideamnry. 
■* The number of parishn in llm county," observei Mr. Wliitaicer, 
*' has Dercr b«en diininiilied by lime. On the rontiary, it bac 
grown with our lom». nml tiicrcnscd wHL our po|)uLition." 

Tbe landed Propertj/ wbich his M^tcsty poaseian in this eou»> 
ty, as Duke o( Loncaslcr. n of gnat cxicnl, although \be re-reoue* 
araing from it are by no means considerable. 

The pnDcipal part of Ibii property cotMivti of wbnt are gene- 
rally styktl ibe Forests of Mwrscougb, Fidwood. Bleiudalf, 
Wy«r»dale, and Quenininre, all of whirh are sitoated in tlie motft 
oonhcni [nrt> of the county. In lliese bis Ms^jesty is uitilled to 
Ibe Ettrayt, and the game, the tight of hokliog ihe CourTt, &e. and 
must be coruidried an Lewd of llu: MniK>r for all tb« Fore.<it«. 

Tlic toirnsbip of SvtrnnoTe ii aluiited in the hundred of Lons* 
dule, and fwbh of Lancaster; and oontiins a enmidenibte quan- 
tity of incloM^d and waste land, nhich amount* to upwards of 
3000 acres. The fishery of the Luiic ia claini«d by the Kioe as tat 
as it adjoins Quemmore. Ihere is a separate Court for this Fo- 
rc*l, held Ualf-j'eHrly Iiy the Unsler Fomler of Amouodcmeis, 
wboM duty it H, in r^lit of bit office;, lo bold the aevetri Courts 
foe the said Fore^lt, 

IfyendaJe is Mtiiated as QHemmore. The ttwr Wyet ri«M ia 
Ibis Forcsr, and flows tbroiij^h a valley about the middle of if. 
TIic open and niiloscd parU together, ate comiwted lo cool;iin 
more tlian 20,000 Hlalulv arrea. Tlie grealvr pHit consiils of 
mountninou.1 land, which is deemed not wortb inclosing : but ft 




|HteMakaMhsoe«f game. Ibc C«on is held similu 10 ibM 

Btuadalr b siluMeil ki Ibr liunJral of Araoumieinnt, Mid 

pah of Laacmer, &iul lia co^xUiuivc vt'nh tlw tomuhip of 

B—hlr. Acuuding io ■ rejNN-l made in tlie jrew ir77, by Ibv 

An Receiver Generat, it couhuiis trom 3500 to *5*iO acre» 

d ninakisrd, and about die sdinc quatitH^r of iiicloMtJ, Und, 

7W Coart uf llib Foce»t i* not held ttcpurnlcly, but Jotutly, wiUk 

ttnc of M^cracougli aiid FulMOod. 

Jd^mc««,^A if »itiiat«d atar (lie turnpik«>roAd frnm Preston to 

mtmittf uml ulnioa dgUt milva frnai Uw totuhr pliic«. 'Hi* 

ItoimcJup of Id7<tseougli is undcniocKl to be of njuul ex- 

the BBonit Forest, and cotuisla of m-aily ^".'oo staiuie 

[■(»: aboal 300 of wliich bvlwig lu Charlrs GibMin. Esq. of 

jQiNniiiOK P^dik, und ocurlv lite huhc qii.iiilil> to a Mr. Grrci>-- 

lUgh. The rvuvsunder b«loa(;iiig to llw Kut{f, is ullcd .>U^ra>- 

■MJb Puk, uid is htUi aodtt a lease b; Mr. llealle>. with tfa« 

of a itnall portiou of woodlaiKl. Iltv ftttole ot' Uu* 

FsfwoMf ■» aluslcd ttrar Pmton. TW aiidefll Foiut of Ful- 

[med mapriKd « large (|iw»tiiy of lanil nliich it uow iitdoird; 

r, or a coutiiiefable part, of ibe louii of fft^on u Mtd to 

or^nallv witlttu its boitpdarie". 'llie uitiucloM-d pari* 

FoRsl appear to contain a)>out 90ii »latute acres. Pmion 

n a portioD of ii at pmciil. 

lesdct tbe htnds bclooxing tci tlic Ducbv, llitrc ore u few oihei 

kh(( pnpriclors, wbo possess caIcdmtc estates ia lliJs county, 

|IbI ibe pnsvRtence of trade, jn)iuufa«:lurG, aud oominucc, bas 

i hsded gteall} to subdivide lliv pf opcrty iit the vicioit^r of the 

Itf^ rowTu ejpeciaUy, and lienc« itx county of Lancaster bas a 

paler nutnber of laod-oniiiets thau any olber county, exerplirig 

IbUkset, in Eogtand. VVbcD Canidvn uiote \m Btitanuia, be 

|Rmked, ttul Laituuliir« wus dutiiiguitlM^ for tbe number of 

fjmiljy*, tbe names of wh<An were tlic sanir as iticir r>s> 

Mai tstalcs. Tbis re nnik <iiill appiice, tbuugli not to ll>c sama 

ulat, muauy uld family utamioos arc dovt dcwtlcd, or divided 




into sercnil trReBKots. This wiU be McnipliHW Ja tlie «it 


PrCTiotM (o, TinA untkr tht- mrl^ KfHniim littrisK, thH cmiftly 
WU diltiusui&b«d aa aii Htmcur;* tmd •n»% ol (lie suptrior rla» of 
auitmorin, ou wkidi iftt«ri«r LordslBpd »ikI Mmon dvpeadcd, 
bv llif pfifari)iiin«> of oertMin cusloms mid vrvirn, 10 ihf lj>f<li 
wtio hvld llivin. Landed HoiKHin belniiged cx«liisivcly tn King* ' 
■ rig inrity. but were afterwanh granted ia fee lo NoMrfiira, ■ 
'Fliew Itcpl llicir IIoiintiT Courts " tvfry yrar m 1ki«. or oft«»*T,' 
tt* Devd br; at wliicli Court hII the- Fn-rlioMpnt of all the Manon 
Uili stand united [e llie said Itonour. ahall nmkc thai nppoirunre, suitors }lmll not «it, bill staiid burchptxlcd ; aiHl orer that 
Court uliull be banged a riotb of Mati*, wild a rliair oF aliitt, upmt 
ifbub cliair diall be laid a eustiioo, <itlier of cloth of g«M or *th 
Trt, «o<nily aivl d(<^iit for widt b place of boiiour, upon whieb' 
tb«t« wmht to b« eiiibtM<kred Die arm* of the l['>n<Kir.''f ■ ^ 

That the Itoaour of UuiCQSler existed Ix^tor^ titt ConrjtMVt, (**■ 

deiDoiulnili'd bv ui t^rMiiiciit (still iireaervMl) maife betwem 

KingStefihen and Hvatx Duke of Nonniuidy. Sooa af^er tbe- 

Ooaittitst, ihr€c Noblemen bdd the Honour of /.uncnier, as it 

«Ki3 iltvii InnKd; but Ko^r oC PnJolou it the lir^ jirrion whose 

nune b^s been rentnled as llw pOKCSSor; and that Nobleman ' 

forteited it for high tr«uau. KtngSlqibcii Ihea ^ve it to faia- 

owii 9mi, Wiltiain. From Ibis period till lb« reigRof Ifenrr die 

Ibinl, the Hoinmr »ra» IitW by sewral pr«l personage*. Aim|i h 

tbe lattcf Mooarch conferred it on hi» second son, Edmund Plni> ^ 

tagenel, sumniiied CtoiiclibackJ wIimi it bceame un Eathlom; Dol 

through creation, lint ia «Mi9e<iiwn« of tite \nmiewaot beiug an Eat! • 

by birth-light. In addition to I his emit, I*ulianicnt piuaed ao 

Act, in nbicb Eduioixl vm dialed Eari «f LaMMtM: 


• f"of w) »ccounl of ihe natare and qual ijr of im ffontmr, aec Sia- 
iwci, 3lM of tUaiy ihc Eighth, ch. y.— 03d of IJcnty ibc Esbth, 

cLai, 38. 

■j- Uvpkiiiwn'b MSS. 

* Ibh appcan bf lilt Lcnen Patent, dated at linrob, Attgutt 8tll« 
in tbe twenty-Mcood jt*t ofhii reign. mM 



Hie tttfe or £>0fa* of laiwtttr wu cnalpd bv Edward ibe 
TWd ia &vor of Hcnnr Flautageoel. whow claufEhler and hnrcM^ 
Itadw, tOMsied iobaof GmibI, fourth um of Etluurd the Third, 
frwiMVl the pnTflegei mk) rcvcnau were cotisidcrablv incn-ainl; 
ad hiiurU' created Dufcc of Luioeler on iIm: dmib ai lih fallicfw 
itJiw. Ilair^ ibr Fouitti, Iiia aoii. procutcd at> Act of IWIia* 
mmt, wkicJt ilecreed tlmt Itte tale and reveuu«> tbould Mmalirta 
b* Md to till heir* for «ver, » a tluiiDct and srparale inhtritaactt 
ioB Ibe Cnmu, vad lliiu Hie; dewremled to bis aon, nod fpaod- 
M, Uwfy the FWh, aud H^nrf thr Sixth. 
Mm vf iiauot, to nanwd Irom Ghent, in Ftauilen, Ibe plac# 
[tn birth, pomiLuiiig die riMlflBUilcs anil lereaun ottbe Dudn.* 
WwAacat nUerest lo obtiu llie follo^ving (laleiit, b;^ whidi die 
[analjF of LanoutiM wu advaBCMt to Ihe di^iit; of a Palatriiulr. 
m gnolcd, fur ouTH'Ives uiitl mir lictn, lo our said son^ 
tibdl bsn, during lite, wilbin iIm count) of Limcwlcr, bb 
Cfurt of Cbaucery, and wiib to be uiucd out under hie seal bo- 
'iNglie to ibe offlce of Cltaneollor^ his JurticM botb for holding. 
I Ar phw of the Crown, and for all other picas itlMing to cotamoa 
k«, and the cogiimice thereof, and all executions by liia »nl»j 
l^aAetn within the toune-. Aitd all oilier liberliet aiid lUivaU. 
Im mlUlag to a Count) I'ubiiuc. a« I'nilv wid fully at ttw EarV 
<f Cboter ii known to nyOT tliem niditn tbv county of Clii«lrr.'*t* 
Atcordin;; to Cowi-l, ■' llie jnrtsdklion of a County pjl^tine wi»* 
if w bigb a nature, that whereaa all ptras lou<-Iiiitg tlic life or' 
Nj^tlan of a nnn, calb»l Pta* ftf tiie Crown, be urdituirily bdd 
wi ipcti iu tlie Kinic's naiDf, mid cuniiot pan in the name of any 
Ollw, The rliief ^vemon of iheM, by ««p«iBl cliarter front Uia, 
Kill, did aeod out lUI writ* in tlietr ornt uamc^ nod did all tilings 


* To fhKl) bclon^csl U»d> in I^ncailiire, Middletes, NorruQc, Suf- 
[ W, UneolB, KMiuigham, Dettiy. York, Ruilind, StaAurd, See. 'Sohw 
\it Ate are ipni£ed ia Malccwni*i Londicium Ktdc\ivuiD, Vol. IIL 

f (W M accwol oT iheCouDtf Pat<jtine oT CbetbiTC, mc neauliv*, JccN 
Vri. IL p. 1 k3 1 and of the i^iM% ol' CoruwaJI, in ibc uinc Xolume. 


toiichhxjitsliee, r» ahiotutrii^ as tlw Prinrf Ininvtrin other < 
lia, only uknowledginit him ihrtr sii|)cnoT and Soveidgn. Bnl 
by the l^vrntj-scvrnlli of Henry ibc Einlith ibu power b iducIi 
•brwl^ctl." Tin: Diirby was Hcclorcd I'orTeitnl In llie Crown in 
iIk &nt )«ur of tlic Kt^n of E<|waixl Uic Fourlli, l>)r thr allatiiluie 
of Hcory th« Sixlli for hij;li In-amn; and nt tb« aunt lime Hn ActV 
of PariisineftI w.i< fMoM'd* to tncor|)flniI« lh« IhKhy of IjincMtt'r 
whta Ibe Couiiljr ^bltoc; iiikI uIm) to test llie ubole in Ihc Kii^ 
and hU bein, Kings nf England, for ever, under :> distinct gnvrm^'l 
mce from l!>c »lli«r pofwsuoni of the Crown. Iliis Act wu coo* 
firmed by Ihrnry the Sevenlli, wilb a power of teuniiiu^ mcb parts 
of the Docby buxl as liad been dimiciBbcml by Edwanl 

I tlie4 

■ Ttif li a prints Act. aai] was mvrtr priniH, but u pmerved in ib« 
Archive* »r ihc Ducby CtiwDber. N{dton'$ MSS. p. 206. 

t I^( uf KcGonl*, Letter* rateat, Sc. tcUtieg to tbe Oucby of 
Xaocaiier. ^ 

* 1, An ICxctDplificaiioB rajidc ia iltc Rnt of EJwirJ the Fourth, of the 
gnnu m*(le h^ F^dward the lliiril unioJobn of Gsunt, for erMiiag 
him Duke of LaiKatier, mftViDg the amc a County PaUtine, a* free » 
Wetl CbcMcr ^ wtih gilicr Iibemct, gnoicd in ih« lifiy-6ni of Edward 
the niitil. Tor term of life oaly. 'Wax exempliIicjitioD coDUim a granc 
made to Juhn of ( Jaunlt «xid Ulanchd h» wife, and to the bciit Duk of 
their bodiet, ^f ihc uid Dukedom and O'Uniy Palatme. 

2. ChtiTta de />upcj I'muj of King Hictiard itie Second, with recital of 
four Kvcrtl clMticri uf Kmj- Edwaid tlicTliird, made to John ofGiunti 
«( Uberiiei and I.mdc anneicd to t)ie Duchy of J^DUitcr, aad L>ods 
eickaagcd. thtcd fint of Riclnrd the Second. 

S. A Charier of Edward the Fonnh, in the fini year of hii reign, 
fcir con^raiiOK (he icparation of ihc Duchy of Laacaitcr from the Crown, 
b)r authority «f Piiliamcni, wiih ao fn^ximtu of the Chancr of ilenr/ 
ibe Founh. 

,4> A Cbancr of ibe £ni of llcjiry the Sc\-eaib, wherein it tint pio- 
TUO) " Pio^iw Kinpec (juod omnet ct t-.nguli tcnenic*, inhabitsittei el 
midenici, impuatcrum wlrcni Tlicol jnium, Pariagium, I'auagiutn, Pi* 
cagium, litiilUj;iuiii, Liitaj^iuni, 'I allugiun), Tolbgiutti, Catiajfiunip 
Peugiuoij cc 1 crrsgiiuB in oauubiu et ungulii Foriii, Meicatit, VUiii ei 




fbe Court beloogin; lo Uiis Ducli v bos tlic pon-er of draJtog 
rtof cauoe Ml«iin^ lo it ; «nil itic officers ate, a Cltmcctlor. At- 
WKV-Oeans), hji}g'» Serjeant. Kind's Couasd, Reccivci-OeDc* 
111, Ctetk of ll>e Council *a4 Rc^uler. Surveyor of Laads, ^c. 
■MoKiifier. ail AHornn in (lie EvelMtiatr, on Altortie>' of tbc 
linkj V tlie ClmtKcry, four Coatuellors, Sic. Tb« oflices of 
ttc Duchy Couft arc at Soroenct Place, London. 

Soil and Scrfacb of Ibe coilnly are vanoiw; andib 
in some part«, partimbrly toniird$ t)ic Dortb, and all aJoog 
lk(l)l«rn bonier, »re ilrfWEfy niurltcd. Here the hilU iir* ui g»> < 
asil bold and loftv, and llw mUiri: narrow and trripiou*. Near 
iWnaooait, and aeuHy the witole of ilie aoullicm tidn of Uw. 
tmlj, fallowing ilic course of Uie river Merwy, (tie land ia low< 

Vol. IX. B In. 

iKblrtaiCO^t Infrt pfeJkt ; Dumt Laticatt: ubi atiqDwl Tbealaiam 
Vmfmi et ceten puM i wa mm dlcw wlvcic c«iuucr«niiit jnoiit at ji»v 
ML' DU(d m October. 

&8MiU^Parli«nKnl>thlrd<if Henry tlie FtAh, conccrninE tbc Dudij. 

(SMMd nade in the Iw^nT^-tveancl of Edward the Fonrlh. coneeniif ' 
T»fc tuA lirttia of iImm who bold cf the Darbji anil aulliotiiy civtn to 
itlnmcyof that Cant tn ptUMVUv. 

T.Smaied* Ibe nrcBlr accord of Ednwd (be Foattb. for tnclDun<if> 

1^ iwiiie A>t SoppltmoK of ibe KinC* Hoiuchold th« tainc jcar. 

ISdliitP lti.1t ii ibafl aotbchwriil fiir tny lo mark Swotu, but thoac wli9 
tmt Utrb cf (lie jewly value of five tnaiks Ilie amt ytr. 

ATbii (he Piie«e of E^lwid AM be called OaVc of Laoculei'. $«• 
earirflbmy tlw PoniUi. 

lt,IWlkinM of tbe Inbertlancc of ibe Eatldow of ilacf^ril, made bj 
tfevf lb* FiDb, and niilctl l0 tbe taid Dudi; ill (lie srcnml jear olliit letgD ; 

ttpfcrililb dlCBIHOMof U>Clij(ll(aW|ll] iMNicuiaiMvrdKEajIdMiitof Ucic 

fall Beu. jjkI NurUiaiiiplon, to (lie taiil Oiidiy. 

U-IVaclof cnip«ralinxan4cMiluiM(itix Ibc Dndiy oFlMnntAfr, m 
Artanritvn nf hmmid of Kin; Rmiy the SUUif (■> the Crma : fii^i of 
U«M<ldit Fourllk 

U Souale (or ds^oiine (o tbf Dae of llip UsI VTM mA TeMaincnt af Kd- 
nrilbtFourih,iaibc tvrelfUiycHrurtibicipa. ofMvcialIIuauur»,)[aiwi>, 
UiMifi, aod Laadi. 

50 L\NCA8HrRB. 

tuipkmrt ei Bmyifs. TIk fomiiT, wliicL U a vfrj rare intiieni, 
is found in (lie grruint aliundanre near tlu- turfxcc : imd as it 
c)et>criiil«, il InxiDtn&f prngrvuivcly contiitninxtcil bv lh« mlphiirel, 
wbich in the ]oivr.«l ttrata oeeiiu completely to inur|t its plan. 
Tlic fxitli-iice of carbooal of barbies, as I producl of (utlurc. was 
first dblinciljaircrlaiiitd Ii,y Dr. WitlKring; * but tlial gmtlcmaa 
Kous to liavc U'co mistakca irsptrcllni' tbc p)Bc« ulierc lilt f^- 
cimcm mere otiliiiiwd. To Janies Watt, Juii. Em|. tliv public 
ore iodcbtcd fur a di»(riplion of the pxicntal ctiarattcr of this sub* 
ataocCt and its rA'ecIs on tlic animai hodv « hcit laden iiitcriially. t 
In the oei^bourliooil of Chorlcv it 'a ctnplojod u e poison fur 
rats ; and there can misl little doubt of ib ijeing; tlie sane tab* 
stance, mentioned Uv Dr. Lci^li, ] who ciroiicoKaly ascribes its dc- 
lelcrious tiualiliu lo the aduiixlarc of urM:utc< 

RIVERS. — ^Tlwr gluef of ibis county arc llie IrwcU, llic Wenej, 
ttic Doufilaa, the RibUc, ihc Culdcr, llic Viycr, and IJic Lojoc of 
Lnuc. Beside these Unne aie se^erul otli«r suialicr streauu or 
rircrs, all of which dircel Uicir course towaids Uk west, nnd 
eoiplY tlirir waters into tite Irisli Sea. CunioieDciug our desoip- 
lion ttitb those to tiK north, \vc finl IiriI the n\er 

Ihidirn skiitiji)^ und sciKintting the «-vst(;m side olf Fumes* 
from Cumberland, and, at iljjinicti^^n uiih tlie sea, forming a coa- 
skJeruMc bay at high wultr. — Sit llraiilic*, A:c, Vol. III. p. 7?- 

TI»e Crake fti'trr rotis nearly (wrallcl lolh^nhotv, andcoiitiecfs 
tlic valcrs of thai Lake called Thuraloa Water, with the «ca a^ 
Levta Saiid5. The waters of \Vinuad(Tn)ero Lake join the tea 
lliroiigh tlw chuinri of the LtMn, nearly at tlie lamv plaro. Tba 
mo»t cORsidcrahle river in like north part of Hie county is the Loyne 
or Ume, which, emanating from (he UAh of Westmoreland, enters 
tllis.eonnty near Kiiliby Lonsdale. Soon nnprwurds its stream it 
augmented by the unter^ of tlw Grrtc, an»I llie K'tHnitig from 
Yorkshire, and ti>c ctpaiKlod rivet then [uisse^ through iIk' inucit 


" 9cc PUIoK^bicnl Tnii»«ction» for 1781. 

t Sw Manrbi>»lcr ^(einoin, \a\. IIL 

] NalunI Uistoy, B. I. C!t. ]V.p.7a. 




•dmimi niky of Lonsdale. PumiiugH 9oiiili-n-c«ter]y coiim>, it 

nadiHlbe rouQly tonn, where il bccoinn navif^ble ; asi), ai Die 

iimin of ubuul Iwo iniKi from Lftimslrr, is cattiilatr'l to t>c3r 

ddpi of ron«idenit)1e burthen. ** Few rtreams can «<fuil tlip Ijine 

k bnuty. fTOfn Sv(lb«r»ti where il crtten u rulth^lrtl and inhabit- 

iddBtnct, tn iu codDux with the u?a ; imr rati many nt* tbe vale* 

iif England tic hiUi Ihc Loiudiile. Grey's cHebratwl view of It 

il tilni ftnni an eminence aboTe tliit river, near llie IhinI mile 

liflK from Lancaiter, from whenec almost the whole of thh (!«• 

SlJATuI dbtrict b viublv. abounding iit villagf.«, willi llie town aind 

cntle of Hurnby in ibe ecntrr. finely tnierMctctl by the Lunt*, 

■Bifiiift between bills cimilbed wilb i\nn>I, and Imetird by llie 

V^ mounbiin of Inglrboroii^i in York«hin^. 'nif apjiroacb to 

Itonater is bdescrihably drihtnK, niKre the river becomm!; 

wider, and unadiiij; in m-ithiI boliltrr mveqi^, open* to (lie x'kw of 

Ibal KBguhr lonii, dewenilin^ fnitn a hi^li hill, whuw »uniinil n 

croimed by ibc bastious of it3 castle, nnd Ibc lufty lower of its 


Proreeifing snuthnani, the next cr>itsi<teniblc riter is Ihc tyj/tr, 

orWyre, nbicb, takirr* its murcc atnon;^ the moors, on the oonh- 

vailcrn jail of the roimty, lueanden Ibniugh u trry romantic dts- 

Lxitt ; and, pumiiiig a aouth-westerly cnnrsc towaids Ihe sea, re- 

ctim Ihc wnlen of srTeral oltier tnoantiitn sli^anii before H 

ftadMs Gnrdang ehnrcb town. Neur tlib pincc lis cdmnl is ereat- 

Ijl^nented by the M^ilera of Mk men Cnhtrr, &c. and fiass- 

iagnnr Ihe lonii of Poulton, expands into a broad baMin mllctl 

WfT^pater-; and, a^^iin coatracting iu banks, joias Ibv Irish 8ca 

hitiieea Bcniard's-Wharf, anil the North-Scar. 

Tbe RilfbU river, like llw l-oMie, uailes to the sea by « very 
bend Mtuary, and like Ibul bus »bo a Rotnan itiriioD on ih 
hub. " Tbb ri\-er," ob»erve» Dr. Wliitakcr, " by Hie gviKral 
cMKSt of moot anli<|uarie3, bu becu ui>der&too<l to be lliv Btti- 
wmi or Ploleniy." Aitd this by^ut he«iK is wpf)orted by tlie rewni- 
Unce, ud by ibv elymohigy of the two words, as well as by tlw 

B 3 
* Skrine*! Ac<eount «t'ftirais,&c. 



bearings and distances laid down by that gcogi^iher. " Thb 
beautiful stream," continues the Doctor, " intersectiDg in its si* 
nuous course the whole count}' of Lancaster, receives, near Mitton, 
the HodtUr, which, coming down from Cross of Grete, for several 
of the last miles, forms the boundary of Yorkshire and Lancashire, 
as it must originally have done between two British tribes: the 
word Oder, in that language, signifying a limit, or bound." The 
nibble is one of the largest rivers in the north of ^igland, and 
has its source in the high moors of Craven in Yorkshire. Taking 
first a southerly course, it passes by the town of Clithero, and, 
forming the boundar>of the county for a short qnce, is joined by 
the Hodder, and the Winburae from Whalley. In a devious 
westerly course to Ribchester, it also receives three other smaller 
streams, whence flowing through the romantic valley of Kibbles- 
dale, it passes near the populous town of Preston, and soon afUr- 
wards joins the Irish Sea. The chief course of this river is 
through a highly commercial and well cultivated country ; and 
near the thriving town of Preston its banks are bold, grand, and 
finely adorned with hanging woods. Two handsome bridges, in 
Uie vicinity of this town, combine to enrich and dignify tfa^ 
scenery. A little west of this place, the Ribble forms a spacious 
estuary, which is enlarged by the mouth of the river Ztouglat. 
litis has its source in the vicini^ of Rivington-pike, and after pass- 
iDg the town of Wigan, proceeds north-westerly by Newburghf 
and near Rufford is joined by the Elder brook from Ormskirk. 
After receiving the united streams of the Yarrow and tdoHock 
rivulets, it emptiea itself into the estuary of the Bibble, at a [dace 
called Muck-Stool. 

The AU river, liung near Knowsley Park, and flowing in a 
iiortb>westerly direction, joins the Irish Sea, near Fonnby Point. 
There are several small streams, that join the river Mersey, on the 
north side of the county ; the chief of which is the 

Irwell. This stream qipears to originate in the moors, about 
the parallel of Ha^ngden. near the YorLsliirc and Lancashire 
boundaries, whence it flows, swelled by other small streams, 
through the manor of Toltington to Bury. Below this place it 

X forms 



(brm A JuDclioD nilb Uic Rock, and tlicn mtikti a eonsHlerablc 

(WC to ibc west ; but mccliDg witli a nvulcl frutn Bolton, tlie 

[ncB tbm wJada suddi'nlv towanis Die 5i>iil))-cast, anil proceeds 

■ thai directino to Maadicslcr, nbcre it uuttn with tb« Mcdlofk 

mi^trk. Aguin chaogiiif; its coune to Hie wcbt, and pasting 

ttnngb Barton. tvIkk Uic Duke of BridgewaCer's cant] is camed 

ots tif BoHtice. by ai<an« of a graiid aqueduct, it l«lb bito l)i« 

Utaty, below Flixton. Tbe course of Ibb livcr, from Bun' to 

Hnclictter, is Ihrou^b a rcry romutiUc, aiid extrcincly poiitdom 

contiy. lis l^nks are bold aud grand, aud in many parts tidily 

idoncd with bauj^bg wowli, Tbc sn-ncry fioiii Lcror lo Clif- 

bo if pmticuUrK itriktni, and emiuenllv fiiduroquv. Mr. Wlit- 

tiler, JtartBg occasioa to meotiou liib river, drsciibcs its course, 

Ac. in tfae Mioviaf' tentu : " WelUog geutly from a double 

fiMtaJB, Mtr Uw upper part of an hill, betwixt Broad-Clougli and 

Holme ia Bowendnle, Hantouing ia wild ntcandcn iiloiig tlie ^■a\t 

of Brov^bloD, and wbevltns nearly io one tost circle aboQt the 

Inratli^ of Soirnnl, the torrent carries its waters alon^ t}tc wtslem 

•tie of Mancenion, and >n)s therefore deiwniinatcd Ir-guiel, Ir- 

wB, Ir-will, or ibe Wcflem Tommt." Vol I. p. 223. 

CANAI^, m a commerdal and manQfucturrng entititry, are nf 
rinat tncalculablv utility and iniportaDce : and, from the natunil 
tof r«p«d riven, at>d expensive leiliniisnp^ of land car- 
Wf arc now very generally appredated, and well uiidenitood in 
fisglaiKl. TTicir or'ginjin this country is, however, yvry recent ; and 
from Uh! brtt authority, it appoam Diat llie^rjf complete or/rjfriij/ 
tanai was planned and formed in Lonmshiiv. This Hits known 
liy tlie uaiue of the Simkfj/ ; but, long previous to the rauking of 
tin eanat, difierent acts of parliament bad been obtained, and 
Mopaniea formed, fur rtntk-rin ' tlie rtvcrt IrweilxDit Merse^', iilw) 
the Weaver, &c. navigable. By tlio as(i«tanre of tlio title, wbirh 
ftowi witli rapidity up the clnnnel of the Mersey, veswis «ierc en- 
abled, wilbotil any artificial help, lo navigate iivarly lo l)ie Iohii 
«rW«rnu};ton. To render the higher part* of the river, tbraugli 
fti conianiiicating bntncb Hie Irwell, accessible fur vessels as feras 

B 4 Mmchesler, 



Mai>cb9ster, n-u an iiBproT«ineiit tnurji n-imtod h}- tbfl mumfiw- 
Inrent »f that toun, suiil iU vinnily. To eScct Ihu, an tcl of 
parliaiueat tvai oblainetl in 1 7-.>0, Hherebv MHain persona ofMui- 
cbestcr unil Livcr|>oul, but inoslly tb'ise of thv funncr towo, were 
empowered to make Uie tiwn Intrll aiuj Merivif narigMf be- 
Iwecti thow lovriit. Tliuugli (Im act siwu-itk-iJ IhU extpot of 
river, jrel, as the Merae}' v»s already tutigalil« from Liverpool to 
Bank'kcT, nrar t^'arnngtun ; atid us all tbt* !ilii>ulat«(l denunit for 
tonnage i$ cMilinetl to the luvignlioii between tliitt place and 
Manchester, it appears that the undertakers meant milv to o^yoa 
Uw upper pjTl of the river. Tliis has bvrn t^ffvctol by means of 
weais, locks. &c. and in places Hliere ihe stream funned cotutdar- 
3ble curi'^tunrt, rut« Kcre iimtle iicroM the ntcki uf ihe prTiid|)al 
beods- Gj these cnnliirances a navigable communirsliiin wat 
opened belwrcn (liv two towus: but the ialet impruvements in Uie 
Duke of Brid);cwater's cnnnl. which is not depeiid^til on droughia 
sod tides, have nearly lupeneded Uie use of the ionitcr diiuiiieL * 

^Vhilil ihe nsvtgalioii of the MrrM-y w»« tbti^ an (Atject of com- 
mercial speculation : that of the Duuglaa was equally allendcd (o. 
TUk counlry round Wi^.nt hcine (nirticubrly rich In cnal, tlie 
pvoprielorsof tile miiin in that diitrict obtained an '\ct of Parlia- 
IiKnt in I71<), for n-nderini; this river navigable. This being 
cvtDpk'lvd in I7^7i caabin) llic 5|Kcul«tiirs to convey Itieir comIs, 
&c. readily and c)i«ap1y lu the luoutli of Ihe Ribble; and thence 
coastwise to send them to the notlhcro puits of- Lancashire. West- 
moteUad, &c. " The Duu(^> uavigatioa has since been |iur- 
chased by the proprietors of the Li:cd« and Liverpool Canal, wbo 
have in part substituted aii artificial cut for the naiurft] chaiincl wf 
the river." t 

The SaKKET Cakal originated with a conipsiiy of gentle- 
men and mvrcbiuits, who, in I76i, obtained an act of parliament, 
authorizing Ifacm lo make NoJilirff brook navij^l'U from the Mer- 
fey rivtr, tvhich it joins abotit two miles west of Warrington, to 
near St. Helens. Thb act empowered ccrluia comiuiMioncn lo 

• PorenieeoimiofthuiCanal, JKCseeBciitiiiM, VoLII. p, 195, 
t AiUa's DcscripEiuu of Uic Cuiiuliy ruiuid MancLcstcr. 



L&SCASaiBB. ?3 

wtJisit liod anti olticr lUings ncccssiiry fur (Iir uitrndntl na\'i|ra> 
Im- In ^ I'irst r'*"*> ** "^^ ui1e-ii(i«ril to «\teud and tieepea tbe 
Indaftbe bronk; but, after due cMibcntioD, it was iilttinairly de> 
Hnmued (o cut a (cp»nilR aiirl dvlacltnl cliiiuiti!!, or rans/. To 
(iMtlliis mote comiilcUly. h tirtv net was obliuKMt in I7(*l. 
■boifal K u qwriAnl llint part of i)ic |>liui was llini eKCculed; 
tollhitia ocap iMies llic Mvi^jliun nan rendrm] imprtcticabk 
br mil uf walrr iii lliv biuvk. Tlic uiKlcrUkcra upit Utrro 
(neorpowcicd to nuLr a Ciiital, lo nlvnd fruiu a |>laoe calird 
JiUlcn' Ferry. »ii llic Merwv.lo a ipol vbiMt 250 ynrda I'nMU ibc 
loratlnck. Tbisncwpait u iboul uiii; niilv am) lltrcr <)tiai1cn 
ialnglb : mui in couuiIcrAlion of il, Ibc inuprirlurt iiiv alluwrd 
tadkvgc SJ. per tun. ia aiiililiuii tu lOd. ultiJi nus dursuibk 
hjtbelunucr ad. Tliiu Dii«igiit>lt cuicils biul tbrir rnc lu EofC- 
|«id,aiidtJie peculiar ttdviuitagtraatnl Mrwuy uf Utu alStuikcy Idl 
loniuy oUict suuilar uiKlr(l«iii)K!i : iu ibc cxvciitionor ttbidi, tbe 
fOUui of tl)c EiJ^iuocr, uwl «|wculatiii;: b|»rit vf lilt- £iiKli^l)> ^^rv 
(tHj aUcd iiilo mliou. Bui niiiii) Uiiii;:; wliicli \^*tv llirii iiuo- 
gipcd to he unattdiiuUlc, nod iii>uiiiKiuulubly imiToulic^bif, hive 
km TMcntly ed'cclfd. A» titc Sankcy Ciuul wu ibc lint ex- 
tapk, tl iiuy tifford ntisfucti«n lo ^oine rcatkra lo Utmyr its pre- 
ml ttalf. " It ruiu entirclj MpattiliNi tVuin .S,tnk(.'y lircfok, 
oocpltBg cro^sini; uid mixing with it iu one |tWe about tna 
ndafmiii S»iik^y bridges, ii« kufrlh froM Kiddkn' Ferry lo 
kbtR it w|sinilct iiilu llirvc bnuidies, is «^^ miks. Frum Uii'iu'C 
iliicarried la Penny Bridge and Gerrani't Brid^, nillinut goin;; 
fetlier : but rroiii Board ntaa'a Bridg« il raos n«»rly tu ihv linitu 
ofjOOOjHids, otakinjt tlie nbule ditbuice from the Meisry [Ij 
bA*. Then are «i^t single, aud two double lucks, upon llm 
CbI, and lite fM of wuter is abuul 6o (cet. Th« dii^r arlktc 
(Hlitd opun it n coat, ot'uliicb, in the year 1771) by an ncruuiil 
(Roi lo porliammt. Iliirri- wi-te takni lu U«i.'qwul 4J,56'S Imk. 
nJ Iu WairiotftuQ, Nwrlliwicli, aud oUier pbu-es, 4-M3'3 loiu. 
There are. besides Ualv briiuj;lil dt>uii, corn, d«il4Mlk, patnng 
■ml Uiu« stone, carried up. Tliii navigation U never obiirurled 
if floodt. ^nd sHJiMii lur any Inigth of lime by ftmla. Tb* 
liiglirrt spring tiiki cite wiihm a foot uf the level of tbe Cjnul at 



the lowrst loirk. Loaded vnoeU are ^iicraliv n(ap«d about (hire 
fhva, but unloailcd aiti |Mm to or from die rm>r at cTer>' IkJc. 
Tbc old lock by wliicii at lirsi it committiicatMl wilh Sankc-y 
brook still raiiiujtf, but U tclilom used, unI«iB when u uuinbcr nf 
resscls arc about oitciing from Uic Mcnc; ttt ODce ; in which ■ 
case some of tlie liinilmod ofl»« sail for SanUcy brook, in ordfr 
to ?et before tin: others. This Caiial luu proved very In-nclkiiil 
to the publk anil to Uie undertaken. Sotne of the firil collieries 
ufKta itj banks arc worked out, and otltcrs have been opened, fb 
bmtncM biu b«eu iiKrea»od by the large copper-m>rkt belonging 
lo tbc Aoglnea coiitpony, erected on one of its branches ; and by 
Ibc platc-glaM nrniufactoty, aud other works founded near it, in 
tbc neigfabourhood of Uie populous town of St. Helens." * Besides 
Ifae above named Canal, tliis county is inteneded by portions of 
■line otiwrt, four of wbkh communicate witli the populous town 
of Manchetler. I (ball proceed to detail a concue account aiid 
de*er>ptioa of these, in the alpliabetlcal order, and therefore com- 
aMDCC witb that of, 

Tfic Atlit«n-undrr-Line Canal, wliich commnniratcs bet»mi 
MancheU^r and Ilielownof.VHht'Mi, ivasmadeinronmiucnceofan 
art of pttritnninit, pasted ia I79'J. Commencing at (lie east «id«of 
Manchester, it crosses the river Medloek, pa^tM^ Fairfield, and at 
Aslitou passes tlirougli a lung tunnel in front of Duekenlield Lodge. 
Near this place It b joined by the Penk-foreit Canal, and »l Fair- 
field a biaodl g«(a off to the New Mill, near Oldliani, The vvltole 
lengtJi of this anal is eleven miles, with a rue of 133 feet. 

Bridgnvatrr'g i'tmaf. A prntioti of this lias already been dc- 
irribed onder Cheshire ; but there is a bratiWi which exeluiiTely Ue- 
la»gs to this eouQly, aiid communicates from Manchester, to Wurs- 
Icy, Leigh, tkc. Tlib iiuiiieiiwly pro5tal>Ie iiarigation originated 
with the Ute excellent and patriotic Duke of Bridgewaler. who 
indiTidually and coHta^roudy undertook to expend an almost 
princely furluikc in cAectiiii; tJm scltcnie ; ttie object of which was 
to su]>ply the inaniifarloikSk &c. of Manrhestcr with coal from 

* Adda's Uneiiptiui, Jic> ofManclioeterip. Ill* 


lit Wanl«y. The brancli of it Mliicli wt Ihivc now to 
UA coanwQor* «t \bt CiuU*.- Fiirltl, in tlw HibuclH of Maodia- 
Ik, and kniiitwtea al F«;nuuigU>u, neirthc towi) of Lcigb. Cob- 
I^HMu to Maneheatcr tWe i» « cotUDiuukaUon with tl)« M«twy 
ml In«ell Mvigatiwi, and Manrlirskr, Bolton, jiitil Qury Cmit 
hj mtuu of Mediock brook. Un<ler th« Iomh of Maiuhe»l«r m 
Htbed lunB«b tot a poctwB of this cuaai, of coiuidtrabte leiif;tii, 
IpM ob( <tf nbicH cools ftie hoitlcd up liy a coal-f;in, llirougli ft 
AiA mil of Ibe liarget beh)W, iuto a hr%f coa\-yM:d, «t slorcbuiue. 
ilDie niuin Mrevt : nt wkkti pUce the Duke and bu uiereMun inw 
kj dK fint acl, boun<l to supply ifae iahabitunls of Uantti«>itt.T, at 
dtimi, aridi coal* at otik -Ul. per bunf1r«cl nt'tgbt, of UUlb.; ft 
dt C Mal ft B CC wbich intm bare had a sKat i^tl'^ct ou tbu Rrowiii^ 
ppolalioo uf ilm umaeoK totfn. At Wonky i* a aburl cut to 
Vm|^ Hills, and nmtlier to th« vntiaiico baiou of iJic fuiiitiiw 
■drrgnMUKl uoili», or tutincU. Hvre it biiric^ ilM-lf w ii liill, 
iriKfa il mters by an arched pasinge, parlly bricked, aiid iMrtlj- 
liHlRiJ by Ifae foliilrock, wiil<- < nontjli fur llir :idiui»ioa of long fitit< 
ItltHWd boats^ wliicb are (ntri?d b^ iiieans of rin^, and band- 
■ibM eadi sidv. Tbe Caual, or luiinel, jKiK-tnitu above tbrce 
fWMn of a mile ttefore it reaches tlie timt coaNoxirks ; wliera it 
SMm tiUo two cbauoels, bnuidiin^ to tlu? rigiit uud IftL In the 
npHHi*. at certain dittancrH, are furnreh cut Ibrou^li tbe rock, and 
(■tung perpend icularlv at tbe lop of tlic bill. Tlie arch al lite 
it onljr about six feet wid<*, aud fiv<- in licighl above tbe 
of ibe walcr. In some |>Iii«.-C!i witliin. it ni^lmi, to accom* 
two boats to pass Gixh oilier. To tliU lubtcmnnnu 
1 the coab are biougbl from tlie miura in low WHgtioiis, which 
llnU aboDi a ton racli, nitd ibew are casili; pul)v<l donn a 
fenit declivity, on an iron railwaj', by a nuui. One of tite 
tuBtb M as much m <d\ Viinb bdow tlie C^iuiil, suvl ntM>tlicr 
K\ wda above H, and 60 yunlt Wncutli Ihc Miifitfc. 
Vac but. to uhicb tbe boats tiMend by means of an tncfiited- 
Plme,* extend to tbe vciw of coal, that oi-c norkvd to a i;n-«k 

'He TiWuN RtgnoU; iff [Mcth-j, lu $l»epiluie, «m liic finl pt-ntia 



(ir|i4h un<lpr Wullitlcn Moor; nirMi nf IIk* luiiiieli arp hewn out 
«f ibesolKl mrJc: from the lower mw Ui*^ ewils an Ivn^led up in 
bnit^, nut t)( tlip hn-di9. a& alr4>a«lT mptititnol. »l Miiflrlif^er ; 
ami titr wliftk lit' tlif lower works me jin>\(Hilp«l iVom liltiuf; nilli 
w»Ur bj hrirc puiitpt wniked by the htfttreuUr wwrA/wr, »it(l the 
wairr u thfrctiy alMiivs kejH ul lliu jiroprr li^iglil for iKiii^lion 
in ihc lower Canal. In niukiitf; l\t^ 1tiRii<;l« ul this place, Ihe cn- 
^neen rncountemJ some irriiHudtflioulliet: after tiK woi kmrn liail 
prureerlvd » ninMilrrahlr way into the Itill, iJiry came, at a l^rFSt 
«lrplb, unclrra sniiill iirrani of wutrr, hv llic lulcorwliiflia Urg* 
mtcr tliafl was Miiik. anil a Hriini ami Inr^e l>rdke-nhvel wcrr 
ttwcled over it. Tim was matle of ^utficient »iie llnil a man. mlw 
tiaii'lt bcforf a U-vrr. ultadioil to il. rtiti. b\ air<tm of rahr!', com- 
nmiwJ llie wttolc niachiurrv, and direct ils iipiTalint» at picasitrr. 
By means ot'llits marliinv. the mitte water ii drawn fioni Ihc lower 
level, into the nirklle Canal, and Die lici^hl and tiepi)) tif the 
Irmer Canal are reflated, Coab arc ubo ciuily'and repidly Irt 
down from Uk upper fhatts into lite IhibIa, by this niarlihie, which 
na» one «f tlic ingenious invcnlkinjutidcuiilrifHiicrs niMr.Jamts 
Hrind/fif, Ujc ciiiinent caital ciigiiiwr. Near Wor*lcy, a oil 
brandrcs ofT, and tnds at Cliut Mora, a difelanci: of abi>ul a mile 
atttl a half. By the fttA ad, it was iutcnded lo carry tim hraiidi 
to Hwllin Terry, ticar filaxcbrook, ttierc lojoin the Mcnry aud Ir- 
wdl uavi^tiofl. Tliit plati vras ticver <:onipIcted. The principal 
fcedCTK for this Cnnal arc Ibc \Vor»Icy brw>k, with the niiot water 
there eollected, end the ISIedlock broi>k nl Maoehcsler. Tli« 
tuDiHlUng at M'oralcy, mid tl)c Canal llMnc*: la Maiicheslcr, were 
it 1 begun 

•iW contiitwIwi'JevwiiteiJaninirnwdplane.nliirtiwM romplclrd In ir78. 
Ft w.i> oalntbK^I f nnnij bcM*, and th^ir rargt,**, from <liA«f«at Icveb in 
tke Ciwiit, uhI MJi foiiod fully W aiiswei Ks inleiMinn. Stcmt acooau of 
llWuWitti pfititi, Ul i'iymlfy'a JgwicvUvut Uepart iif ShirofA"*. latTW, 
ll^^Dnkr cf Dri(ljj»-nni<T linil a woiilai incli:it<l pkwir, nxxtmcied iu liii mn- 
ritj> at Wcniry ; \a<i in iM'iO, Lu Cmec chiitJ ui nL'voiint of it to t>c pn- 
witWA Iu Uie S<n-ii>i_v of Aiu in the AJi-lpliI, Lanilon ; fiw wliieh Ibe SorJety'^ 
VmmI liiin tU- Gulil M<-<l«l, and puUUicd Pl-na anil Scctinin, niUi aii ae- 
caual in tbc isih Vul. aftiieir " TrtmaeUvm.- 



LANCASlltSE. 29 

bqni imoieJiatct^r on psuiii; ihc fir^t act, 3M Gra. 11. 1759-* 
Ihclmb ttttt tnn^c iVora Wonley Iq Uwidicsta', arc unlv 4^ 
Wind'i wid coolMtu lietni-cn ktcii ukI dyhl loos eacli. Scvc- 
nlof tlirin Rfc nsually liiikriJ tugctbrr, aaii drawn b; cue or \yta 
■do. SooK very iugc wvtdiousci lisvc Imcd built tur »Iuh in;: SooUi, 
Ac bduttging to litis, iml its coaoecLing brftncbcs. ml Uic Caallc- 
firU, Mauclicstcr. In Ibc counc of tbb Coiul. near Wonley. 
wl al wim: otlicr placts, uiull cItiuiiieU wc upcuv-J fioiu tlie 
MlA* oJ^ tbc Cnuol fut Ui<: purposv vi Idling Miitcr out U» irti- 
pklbe land in its viuRity. 

To 'Ur. Jvmn Briitdlrfi, tli« inliabitunb of Manclintcr, aud 
llKpiDprielonuf Uu> cuuccro, urv }>TiDcipiilly in<lcl>lcd l'»r the 
oigjm] njccvnful cxcculioa of Uiii iiavt);itlii^n ; auJ since lus 
dulb tlw worlu have beta c;(nt«d «a «iid promoted by iVr. b'if- 
hi, tud Mr. Btnjamin Sotkrm; wbi]»l the miDing ilejiartnKJit, 
Iw bceo ably vomluclnd b^ jWr. 'lJufmai Jiurif. S\a<-e Um 
bk Duk«'< drccav, tlie wliule uf his cuiial property lias bren 
R^ by will intlirev IniUi-es: \htBi*h9p oj Carlitie : \UvC&uJ 
Btrpa : and R. H. BradtAav, Etf. The IMer gi-iiUi'nMu r«>-. 
•An Bl n'M-tify-ftmll, aiid toaiufrcs tJic wbolu lur llir ptctcul 
MKfoiB of StaAiird, wlio it u>te lil« proprietor. Tlie bouts uf 
Aat einals ve nuiikvd K. II. itniilnli;iw uid Co. : wlii;uca it ap- 
ian to Um slraoj^vr tluit Ur. Brad^w is tiie iniitcipal jnrliwv 
it Ik firm. 

Dmgin /tirwr ^iarifatioR vms effirctrtl tiiidur aclii of |tarli»- 
mbIoTUm si^lJi of tJeuT«e the Firtt. atMl lentli luid Iweuly-tJiiid 
«fCcor^ (be Tliinl. Tbe courte of Uib Dxvi;;iilio«t is Dcarlj 
wrlfa uhI suulli ; aiid, fur the ItiM aiite iii(l«« from tin; tea, it u 
tat iittk devalcil. Its pi iiid)Ml articles of conv«>aiM:v are cviii- 
■(• ttd aumrl coals, ugfkuUund prodiKe, ami liine'stiiue. It 
Miiniciices in tbr Tide-way, in tltc eiliury of Uie Kibble- liter, 
tictkclli, uiid tciiiiinute* in Ibe V^tJ.i uikI IJtrrpuot 


' (hler Art* wkp ».krtl»nl Ibr llil*. mA the Mfcer Hoe flf the ItriJffewaiet'B 
tmaK UK lUttytiiM «r Gt<ug« Hit Seeunil, tual mewl, tisili, and Uikty' 


30 LAItrASHlBK. 

Cm*) al Bri«n T^Iill. From the mouth to Solom, about Hre 
mikfl, (he ori^iial mrr Dottgia*, (or A«I(uk),) k nav'tpMe ; luul 
th«m-r Irt Rri*T« Mill is a nit of four mil«, wfith a lue of right 
lock', the whole riw from ilie Rilitiic hi-inj;!; forty-niut feet. Tlie 
width of the Cairal is from tw-tnlv-four to thirty feel, and its depth 
gnicnillj 6vt fret. Tlie locks jire 70 fw-l fonf;,bf lAl feet wide. 
tty the first net, Me»rs. William Stjuiret and Tlioma^ Steers were 
to nakc Itic DooglK navigable from tlic Ribble to Mir>'-Lane- 
cod, near'Wigan. Tliis wax effected altout the \ear 17127, and 
the pmpiHTton wi're Hlloned ?«. bVI. per toa for good«, whatever 
dittaiKc they miglit be navigated tliereon. Ity tlie lirrt act for 
tbe Lftdt and Livrrpool Canal, (tenth of (ieorge the Tliird,) llie^ 
focceraors of the fipit jmjpriclcmof tlie Ihiuijliis tiavigalion, tter«' 
aullionsed to niake a jiiiirtioa mIiIi Hip l.Bed^ and Uverpool Canaf 
at No* borough, by a cut of 3j miles long, puiallel to this rn'fr,' 
villi a fall of 12 feet, \ihic1i lbe\ eninpHed in 1774: and the 
same now fnnns part of llie Leeds aud IJiTqiooI Canal, louth- 
ast of NeivboFOUgli Aqueduct Bri()ge, in eoDsequence of llie pni- 
diaw which that ronipany made of the whole of this concern, ia 
pursuance of their act of tlie tueiity-thlrd of George the Third ; 
jance wbidi the Canal from Bricr't Mill to Solom above de»crib* 
ed. OS part of the lo»er iiavig^ilion, was cut, and coniplrtetl ivi 
I7ftt ; and the river ndvigalion lietMccu Solom and AVigaii, 
twelve or thirteen miles, we are iiifomrd.has bcL-n disuM«l. 

Uattm^ton rrraff/, according to an artof PorliatneRtobtamediQ 
Ibe ihirtA-Ihird of George the Third, U intended to commuuicatc 
ta a dhlaiite of about Ihirteca miles bttneeu Bury, where it Joins 
(he Bolton and Bury Canal, Id Chureli, where it joiiu the Leeds' 
and Liverpool. No locks are to be made on lhi» line except by' 
coiisent of three fourlln of ail the millers «ho occupy tJic streams' 
of witter: but in tlieir plare it is iDlciidcd to erect bclhied pillars. 
Thn Canal is nut ^et cumplctiul. 

I^mctsMtrr Canel lakes a loii;^ course of 7j| miles, through 
uearly tJie nhole couiily of Lancaster, and part of Westmoreland : 
MKJ is nuUiorised by nets uf I*arliauieiit iu the tbirt y-sceond, lliirty- 




LANCA511IBR. 31 

HA, lUt^r-Mxtli, Ukd rortj-fint «r George ibc Ttiird. II com- 
I al ibc town of Kirkby Ktodal, tn WtatmorrJanil, liaviug a 
fcnkr (root » ttvulct ftboul a nulc from tfaftl tovru. Procccdiug 
Ifcaoc dirertlv Motkwartls, it cDt«n Lancasbirr, near Buricm, 
farinc passed aiKUr grouod fvr ubout liatra utile, nciiT Midnav. 
M Botwick, a little »uth of Burton, ir lioki to ib luidlcvi-lj whicb 
it pr K ft^ e* for »ercn! miW, making fortliit purpoM a rtry viad- 
it>f course, ID MOW places spproachiug atonHt close to Ibe aea 
bcaciL At Lancaster it b eanied over tlie river Lo^ik b^ a noat 
saipnoDg Aqueduct Bridge of five arches. [This will be describ- 
ed ia the fulloniugsiceoiint ofljurastcr.] Near Prntonit Lt carri'^d 
«f«rUic Ribble by asollicr Aqurduct-Bridg^, ood agaia at Gar- 
«tng over the Wyre. Near Bethom it it carried over the Ikcloo, 
aod ia tbe ncinity uf Wigan it passes under the Leeds and Lirer- 
fDoi Canal, by an Aqueduct of about sixty feet iugh. After pvs- 
hf Pttlton, it luccnib, tlirouf>h a series of locks, to tti higliut 
leitl, on wliicli it proceeiU, a little to the eiutnard uf Chorlcy. 
atns Ibe Douglas, tbrougd Ilaigh, uolcd for ita caiincl pits ; »nd, 
bfodaig to the eailwsrd of Wigan, nrrivet al lis terininalion 
M West Houglitou. Tlie lall from Kendal to the mid-level it 
n^-fivr Iccl.undlberiselhL'nce, usit jtUnticessouthM-ardly, is two 
kuulRd atid tneut\-two feel. A coltaletnl cut iu tlic iieii;bbour' 
bwd of Chorlcy is about llucc niilvs in Imglli, aiid another near 
DonricK is nearlj two nncl a lialf ruIm luttg. Tlio priacipal 
otyccl of this Canal is to opui 2 rrady and reasonable corijuuhI- 
aioB between the rital and lime-stone co.intrit-s, thereby iiiter> 
'^*"E"1E >Dd convening these articles to diSerenI placet; and Iu 
epcn the port uf Lancaster to otlier |H>puIuus tuwuH on tlic utirth 
indtoath. AH Hie countiY north uf Piesiou is deitjlulc of ctal, 
indtlie Canal is directed Ibmugli a district abounding with iliis 
Mduble radneial, Aoiii Wt-st lii>u^blc>n to If^i'/r/r tlilU. Fcum 
Kendal to Ijuicasler, nearly llie nliolc cuimtry coiiiists of lim*.'- 
ftaue; and ou Lancaster Mvvi, sviuc ^/ouA J'nt'ttone is obtained. 


59 tAKCASHIttC. 

From the Baton tnOr^cuh^Mtrl Fvni, ^m. 1 (. Ic- !20l. is l«rel. 
nwicp lo»5}>ot neurBorttitl(....y l 7 JS ftib 65 feci. 

Boraick to ntar Prnlun •••4j 5 t 28 level. 

PiPStDii In nrar Cii»%toii Or«m*>*>5 t) S J5 rHei922fMl. 
CIm}1oii Oteeii lo Weil llou^htuii IJ 5 3 72 level. 

T«ul 75 5 9 70 

Colialcrni Culs. 

Gait Mo» l« Dusburj' 2 7 11 kvel. 

Bonvich lo Woilou Cragg i 3 8 15 level. 

- Tliu Canal b on lui uvcn^e scvcti fed tkf|i ; the boats arc liA;- 
m fciH lony, foiirlccu ftct widf, ami carry sivty lom. Tb«r* ate 
Iwo luoiiels on its fiMirw ; one al IIJiiciutLT ii«ir Lcveo's Park, of 
■Iioul «'i^li1 ItUQilrccI yaril^ long' ^>^'' aix^ihcr Uirougli Ifae Wliillfo 
Hois near Cliorli^-, wliidi provcil c^trcmrly rlHTifuIl to cxecirtei 
■nd 9U Aililon ntar I^iimslvr, llicre » an amaungly dMp [>if c« of 
cutting. Tlir part «>r iIk- line bctMnti Wiii'4'llcHi, nrar Clarion 
Grcra, Hnd Ibe soiilli rod of ibe long level, i> at prment «u|i|tlivd 
«ilba rail uiiy. Mr. JuirH-s Brinillcv nat piiipltM i-O, iu 177:;, lo 
lune^ a part of llii» line: tlie whuk* of it nas sntko oftcrwanls 
«arvc\'«d by Mr. Hobvit Wbituorlli; uid in 17^1. -Vr. JMi« 
Hmuif nitf eiii|ilfi\(d to proceed «itli, and csM^t-Ir liio worfca, 
Tu Ibescivncc uud gooil trm' uf tliis skilful arlisl. un^ the IjitMti- 
Iriaus iuddiled li>r the Bstoiinliing Aqueducl>Brid;;e iicHr Lancas- 
ter, flnd for serervl otlier coutrivancw iu tbe jtrugreu of lliis un- 
dertaking. Tlie Lann&Irt Caital Cumpanv it autliorisqd tu rabe 
414.0001. ia loot, shurei, and l>00.000l. mor¥ in sliarei of 301. 
cadi. In July, I7<^. Ilie I<ut arcb oftbe great A<picduct'Brklg« 
was completed. In Srpleiiiber, 1803, it Has&taled lliai the slmres 
divided 1 1, per cciiL rrnm Bollon to I^tica^tcr, and iIkdcc to 
Prcstun. tlie ranal vra» opnied iu 1 7.97; iitiil iji a fevr yeai^ aAerw nrds 
llir- wIidIc of lite luii^ Icwl was complctt^d. la June, 1803, the 
^Vbiltlt'-ll)Uuel nas liiii^licil, and t ^ mile of tbi' rail-tea^: so that 
coals passed from Weal HoukIiIoii to Bnunbcr Bridge; and in 
1$05. Uie rcinaijider of tliv niiUvray uas opened forcomeving 



«*ib U PNrtoa, tuKHler, fcc. Tlw wtw of lonngc are for 
cMla IJiJ. |>erloii, per mile; far liRi«.slone, salt, slate, brick, stuoe. 
ifucKort, clny. ramiurcs, i-c. Jil. per lor, per mile ; for lime and 
ima, l4. per ton, per mtk; fi:»r liia1>er, wbrsl, und ruetcliundiM, 
■M. prr loo, per mile. CuoJs arc nut to piis-s lite intcoded locks 
Dortli of Ch'>rkv, uixlcr 2s. 3t]. p«r ton, after paying which tlMjr 
arv free for eiglitevn miles.* 

The Lrrdt and Livrrpooi Cttnat takes a tong roMndtiog 

course through this county, ami is inteaded to unite ttie ports of 

litcfptMl and Hull. Tiatiiig it from the iiortli-eait towanti tlie 

■Mlli-tKsl, we &vi it eoter LunciUiirc a little Dorth of the loo-u of 

Calne, near nhtcli it crones iIk gmnd ridge by mnnu of a ttm- 

wlal FmUrittge. Tliis b lb'3U yards m leoglb, and ?3 yards 

britw \ke higlmt point of the liill ; t)te soil of wliich proved so 

Ihu, that odly 700 yards could be worked under ground : the 

KMUDder inu obliged to Ik opened fioiii almt-e, from trn to 

Milj yvi» deep, aod twenty to thirty Vdrds iviilc at the lop. 

IV wlei of tlw eioitalioii ncre su|iported by timber, at an iin* 

Btaie lalwar and capcuw, to prevrtit the eurtli falling in, until Ilie 

tHMtwdi «nu,coiulrtid«d. Tliis is ti^hteeit feet liigti, aud sevcn- 

krn ftet wide sWkd nde, and is fonned with stone. This tmuiri 

ni amplelcd, atid the line opened to Burnley', May Ist. 1796. 

MFmnlvjf, near Buruk-y, a aiiullKr Tunnel, which was finitbed 

mUiii IflOI. 

IV diief obiixts of convcyiuice on this C auaj arc, common and 
oiadonal, liine-slone, tucrrhumliat:, and tlic at^tkiillural products 
■ ibnciDity. At Brier'* Mill it coitiiectk with th« );>ouglas oavi- 
pbna. (which aow bejwags lo tlic Coaptny of Ibe Leeds and 
Umpoal Canalt by puTcIia.te, u»<1«r an Ail of the l^i-cnly-third of 
nmq^ tb« Thiril.) Neur Itiirk-Mill, tint Ut ftoru Wigan, it 
OMMs the Lancaster cut by means of an A<]ueducl Briilge, which 
iitlth r<et above that Cttn:il. At Church tt connects with lh< 
Uatitn^^fU Canal, at Shtploii Milfa llunet's Xatigatitm, and at 
Vol. IX. C Wiodhill 

**\^«rilKpref<MdLai)ca«tH OiTiai.iarve^bv Jolin Keuai* la 
U»lad WMi'maj Uhadflf Mr. FwUu, UuiorOms. 



WiiHlltill nilJi llic Srad/ord Canai. CoHaleral cols brand) oITt* 
iKhluo-llitl uAhctin; aiiollicr tu Mr. WullhamS AlUiamM^jllic- 
rie* i ■ml ijruvk^oii is luaiie fur cul!) lu Iw oiwotij l>,y tlic KarJ uf 
BilcaiTW and 9Jr. Sliutltotvrtli. bctwccD tlidr coat-works tiid tbe 
liiK, 'rttc c4d btaaa at Li^-crpool u Cx(\y (mo Tcct above low 
u«I«T matl ill the Nctscy tirer. TIivdcc to Neivboruusli, tw-cnty- 
ciglil itiik-s, Ifae vralcr is \trc\ ; to Wigan, »ctcii mUci, it it raited 
bjl live locjts, Uiirly feel. Tiiia \9>,t Ititytli h wmttiaws called tlic 
Vftprr D^MgftH ,\'ieigat>«i», as it orij-iindly cwuiUtutcd a putt of 
IJjKt coueero. Froaj il>e list place lo Undshan-lljll, ucar Xy- 
DerU, u IIitm milea ; aitd iu tlial short s^iue lite level 13 ratted 
tno )iun«lrc<i ant) fievcDly-niiie fcf t by twenty-eigbt locks, Tltciwc 
to the A^u^duct over llie D^rwent, uear lUnckbumf b a level of 
I9J iiiila: IbeiKC lo Chmsliaw I'ark, Dear Blackburn, oaK Uirce 
ifunrters of a mile, arc tevea lock*, raivnj; it 64^ licet. Troni tbi* 
phre lo Uie end of tbe dertalion at Barmwfurd, near Cotnci if > 
Ittvel of Iwcsty-ruiir oitles. Tbv i»ext tliree quarlen of a laile cu- 
ries it up (i/it f^^l b\ sevca locks, wlien it enters tbe Fonlridge- 
TURuel, awl Ihrtice desemd^ by acvenl locki, to Leedi. T1>* 
lodit on this Cmal arc 70 feet tonic by 1S| foet wide; ud 
the Inin^vs employed arc keel boUomct), and cain llurty tons of 
floods. Belirecu Leeds atid Hl;^, OHe bondml flats, of forty- 
two lom burtbeo, are eruplmed io tbe eoai trade ; and pOMage 
boats are m oaastant uae betwceo tb«*e fkteo. 

Near tbe nartlMait extmiut; of Lmspool ate xvtj tpadous 
Wharii Bud Waw h o mct , raanecled nitb Ibe canal, llie first 
tarvry for tliis navi^auon v*s aiadc by Ur. Laa|{batIoa in 1767 < 
vdadi was initvl by Hi. Jaaea BrndWjr. ia 17£4. under wboMt 
waifitm H mm tb» bqgnn. Aftcx lim grmliaaam, Ur. Kobart 
WlutWMtb and Mr. FleCcber «efc onpfoynL Tlw wtatem end 
^ika Uk wBtcaaplaMdfram Liwipaal lo Ike Daq|lBs old tn- 
»i ^i Mal Xa «faoiqBg fc. «<fcb««oftwg»^-t3gfclwBo,bl770; 
awl in 1774. il mi c a ini l rhd ■■ &i a» V\pm. TIm Cmhih^ 
mm a Kfcw wed hp tbrir Actt of fiartiawM. (te«lk timtyjii&i^ 
lynML wA tUc1y4b«rtbarGcei^4KlVdL>lBniM£otXOO0L 
hahuMufltiOL TV latt of ttmtre an Ibie »Iid(, »d oth*r 



b jiL per loD, per luilc; on coa\i and lime id. ; kntl on 
ill oltiCT aitirlft I i<i p«r too, )ier mile. No wfaBifiigc lu be Ukro 
lalto poodb rcmiua nx liwun. 
To of>«i a niiviipitii)a bctnccn tbc easterti an'l western seas, by 
i ntMta of Ific riven Wn mmI Ribbic, hud b«m oflen propowd and 
^B <lmiar>u!>lv r««oiiiiiieiided, bd'orc th« above Oiuil wn Ih>^o. 
^B But Ikit great dcsklciBluBi hnt becu at len^tli cliecled ; aod a 
^P Ciaal Inu DOW been made between the town< of Liverpool uttl 
Leedc, iockidjng a Iim of lo^jf milf*!, and commiinicatin); at the 
Wmr p(*£* with the riv«r ,^hf, «»d at the t'»rmfr with the rirer 
Hnvv, b*4b itf which are mtngahle to the German O^Min on tli« 
Ciri, and tn the )ri«h <h>» on the we«t. The full of wat«r in tbi) 
ciHirw, ftom the lii^ ridge of nouDUina which dhide [.ancMhtre 
I wri Yoriuhb*. k 8it7 fret westward ; and +4^ f<xl eastward. 

^B ManrhrMtrr, /Mien, and Kvry CnnnI, ii fnithnriwd by Aels of 
^ KnttaaMalr passed in the IliirlV-tir^t and fr<ilv-(irst ofCrarce l(i« 
Tbiid, and lahes a north-uestnly dircelioti from Ihr former (<> ttie 
' ^tltt town. Its miTtlicm end is eonsidirrably el4>v;ited, ati<l iti 
^^urhole eoiirte cninpiebends a line of 15 milei l riirlnni;. It eon- 
^'^tenrcaat thi* Mervejr bihI Irwell nav igatJoii, near the junction of 
AVnllorli4itook, at ManclMwter, and terminates at tlictoititorRolton. 
1 Btay ha a braudi of fo»r mil» in length, lu join tJie llashugloa 
From llw Mersey ami Irwell. is a riw of »rveral Iwks to 
basun iu Sallord jiafish : thence for about four miks it |>tirsue« 
level ccnirsr. In the next three luiln are twelve lurk«, and (lie 
tiack it level, including the braneh to Bun,'. 11i« 
^rinle riK ii 187 f^^- Prcvioits to lh« v4-»r I79<t> this cut iiat 
Wgnn. and tevcral lock* were buill for narrow boati : bat In rnn- 
■ti|araccnf oihrr wider Canals bring joined to it, these lock« were 
li^ np anil relwill. la its couik are two A<{ueduct Biidgct 
nrr tine Irwell, at ClitVin-IIall. nmr SLockt: and anotltcr 
oWTlfae Le«cn at Loo|;rol(l. [n 1797, litis Canal was eoni|>lel«d 
to Bolton (except llic locks near IIk Mertey and Irwell tmvtga- 
UnnV Onllir iTth of August, I7$9> grrat damage wiu done bv* 
1 Bond, wliicli mnird away above one hundred jani% of ill 
Uarr limks. The ratcj arc, for coals, lia)«-st«ie, tlonc, brickaB 

36 tARCASRinB. 

frc. Sri. per ton, prr aiilr, if llic.v piiss a lock ; bal nil ibrfe, PS* 
cfptl>■lK*-«lonl^, arc to )hiiii the let-dn al |(t. jwr lim. t>rr mile 
Pa;<saf^ boiils hit ntahlifhrH betwnrii Bnlltm and Maiicttenter ■ h 
l>ul whfn Ibc wBlcr has been low, puGenecrs liuvc been n;i)uiK<l f 
to walk fmi* tlie locks, ukI lake to aoolbcr boat t>o Uie oilier ude, 
in onjcr In avoid lb« vmatc of wutcr. 

Horkdalr Vanal. By Acts of l*ariianienl pa»»«l ill U»e thlrty- 
fouTlli, forlirth, and fortj-foMrih of Gaoi^ tlit Tbird, Ihc pro- ■ 
prit'torf of Kiis eonc^rn wm« authorised Ia opcu a navi^ioD liraia 
lite Duk* of Brid(;««nl*r*» Canal si MaiicliMlci, to Ibe CaliJer Nb- 
viga(>M) al SovrerfMr Rri'Jsc, near Halifax. Tbe course aod rise of 
this Canal an>, from iti (romnientvtfHnt to ihe Mnneiiesler nil 
Aslitoo Csnat, one mile aiid a liulf, is a riM> ol leniitii-tivo feet 
an<l a lialf: Iheiiee to Holiingu-ooti limiich four miles luiil a hiilfp ■ 
with a rise of eicbty-one fwl : tbencf to Fiiihuortb broiA, two 
mile* and tliree-qnartcn, r& Icivl : tlieiicf> to IIk' Hochddle bnuidJ. ^ 
four iniln anri a (|uarter, with a Hmt ot ISO fret: lltcnoe to H 
Clav-liili, two luilo mid a (]uniter, rising; iixl\-lwo feel ; Dienrc 
to the Summit -pound, ami tliron^li the deep cutlinft to Bder's 
Mill, fiv4 milei aod a half, i* lewl. Al Malltng'i MBI is a fin** 
Rp/serenl'v vanla in leunlli, seventeen feet ht^h, and I went v -one 
wide, with a towiitg-^Mtli |Iitoiu:Ii it. Bvtivcen Lttlli-ltomutib miiiI 
Tddmenti-n n a piece of atii)>eiidoiui deep cutting ibn>U'^)i ttaitl 
rock, of tifljr A>cl. A very targe rrMivotr is made ou tbewe«t 
tide of llie summit: and » ■leaiu-eoj^ine, of a liinKlred hone 
iwinrrr, i« nsed to fHitnp the u'airr tip to the tutomit-pDutid, On 
a boft al BlsL-kstoiie-«lKe, arc two olher large rtarrrmm, one of 
sdikh i<t t'otiilm) yarils iiee^^ (JMi^n lur re^niliilhi" the streams 
(tf the Rocli, Irucll. and Tik rivna. met thai only tlieir flood waters 
■re taken for lite supply of tliU Canal, nrre coiitmnl and erectect 
by the irxciiious Mr. Julin Ilmiiii', tlie en}>iiieer. Sleam-cnieines. 
williin twrnly \»rdf of tlie Ciinal, are ullowvd to comleiiK by it» 
water. 'Ilic east end of llic litir, iroiQ Snnetby Bridge to Rocb- 
itale. w«» conipltlcd nn tbc Jftib of December, I7J)S ; and on the 
IHlh of RrpleniWr, tflfl?, it na^ continncd to I^omowharf. Tli« 
whole bnc wns conplelnl la Mandtestcr, ?l»t December, 1S04. 




eomitati^v ore to fmj a compenuLioti to the BridfiT^atcf** 

trwt. fiir lb« uw of warrbouacs ul Ciutlc Fid'l ; Biid lo Ibc Cnldcr 

nd llcbUe C<uii|»ny Ah- waiebotues at Snwtrrbj Brklge. By 

the iinil Ad, the pn^tnctors were MtUuxised lo nuw 39l .OOOl. io 

of 100). ; aw) b; ttn; U^ Ad, ther were alluwoil lo 

a laoff: addiluninl <um. [Tfav n\fs »f loooifir, wharfii^ 

4iec. aotl Uie etcui|>tiiHis in liie tint Act. will be IbuBtt in " /'Ai/- 

lif^t tiialcry pJ MohJ MarttpititM." -tta. paget 157. 1J9. 161. 

4cc.] I'lutn ill Jh»<I levd, lliia Caua] falls 375 l^eet oa tltc Hali- 

fat suk, ucut 43H feet 7 indm on Uic Muucbcitu side. Al 

^ oomaKncetnctil of tlitt tdtaae, it c4)Coulitirr«d mudi uiiptnU 

tiM, ukt IIm iiKrprict'ir*, ill oblainviS tlieir Acts, Mare oblifivd to 

UnI Uh-uu«Ii«» nul lu UK xii\ of tlie waten of tbe Irk, Calder« 

«d RoArti ri«;r», »» o) lo aibcl llxit >tills &c. Thcv wen 

iWrcfore tAttz«J |u luukt; Ktenil hin-v reienoin »d the billi to 

Hffily Ibp uii>tc iif Wlia^tfuail Imka^r. 

Al I'ltrrtfiMi H n sburt cut, or Canal, v( about one mite attd a 

\aif, la ronunanirultf frani lltal loira lo lli« Indi Sea. An Act of 

hriaunent was bM.iiuf(l Titrthia, iu llic llurlv-tliird of Gtorge Uis 

Tlaid. A lock is niaiU- i>l' i fl tit-l ltiii{>, mpuUe of receiving a 

\kv veiBd. This Caaitl ii t)5 feet al tu|>, and SO fut nt 

beUmn; niiii i i drl Heftth uf M:iler, and a pru|>rr lovritiJE; patli. 

Sudiare Ita.- |i[iuci(nl, and, I believe, ooU CuimU and Navi^tiJe 

ttnn of Uiift ver^' |M>piiteui and Aauhtliitii; county : and tlie cou* 

KmrtkNi uftltese lends Utniiply In 4:baniiCleii>«lliecoiDiBercialiind 

i^mifartiae ifiirii at its arlite inliabitanls. Ilie many adi'aDtagn 

•f «Bl«-r, vvei l8iiil-aini3(>c, arc now very f^eoemlly kiumu to. uad 

by, Ibe people nf ilib country : tuiH Ha cffKts must be 

libty fell by ihe fnhnliitaitU of pnjHilou) manufacturiiig 

tana. To thai nf Muni^lie^er, in ]urticiilar. ihe Canal lias proT> 

•denlMBtly berielirtal : »iid llie Ibriving fotts of Liverpool and 

Ijnoritr. Willi tite central hmnt ortba cnunly, have all derived 

fraa Ihs M*nrc« inaiiy iinixirlant ad^'anlHi^s. VVbtM tlte Tialural 

pnitM* of fbe county it rrndtly aiiri cheaply conivj-ed lo varioiit 

■ait), and ibe coals srol lo llic dcruuHni* f»(-tork-i : t)ie prrferted 

ttiicuioiu of [tie biter ate ibtrebv distributed all over the kintr- 

C 3 


9* LAHCAStllRE. 

dom, MCl to (he Mta ports for ibivi)i;n exportatioii. The na tMf 
pensc of Cmial-maliiig liai long i^tmliiiii*;*! an obatade, and Uw 
ctui only be Mimiovuletl, unil its imnwnsL charite*. nilli aocumii- 
btinx tntercsl. rqianl, by t|ie coiulaiil inttTic pruHucrd by fioutoli* 
JDg nuiuutiiclDrirs. 

At the bcKiDiiint; of th« latl nririun it was dimmed a mo*t 
•tduom tu>k to makr a Ai^ road fur carriuitFt ovtrr Ibf hills acxl 
moors nhirii arc found bctni-rii V'nrkiliire ami LaitiTasbin: but 
now Ibift connlT7 » picried. oml rcmlcrcd pussal'Ic foi nicrcltaiw 
disc, tec. bv (Aire AadiraMe C^atila. Tbr rorky iuuutili«iiu src 
ako ptxrforatri], awl ihcir stccptww frubtlunl, by Ibc gttaua and 
perKvenu^ labour of wan, iii ciitliiig tubternuKuui luunek 
Ihnnjgli tbctr acclimiB und cnu;»j utL-s, 

On retiewiug Ui« pme»t uml past stale of Canab tii Um Ling- 
d6m gcncniUy, aod in Lauca^ibitL' parlituLii ly, Qiiil coinpuinc; 
Lbcin witli tiie prcKut aud K-ruier stati; vf tla- uiauuU^uiui aud 
coiuucrM of this county only, Ibc liuiuaa mind is cspctiddJ with 
admttatioa and axtoiiUliintiil. it inay, )>crlia{n, Itc i^fely stated 
tint ibcrc is no oocthirv lu EngUnd wherf lli<^ oicflitHM of buinatt 
faigeutuly aiid penocriug labour hai'« prodtKvd such cxte»*it« ftiMl 
bciwticial cft'iKtg, »t in LancoKture : for in tbU county, Uie vanom 
tnacliinety cfiiuxctcd wilfa nmntifaclurfs, uLo uitit the en^nnes amt 
mine*, bate Itcirn cmiacnlly proiiKilpd, if not oHi^nally invrjilcd ; 
asd bere lh« lyiteiii of (Jouimercial Uoclii wui lira succcssl'ully 
snd «h-ai)lat^nus)y camnt into vflrcl, allhougb titc laller luu 
since bwn surpai^ed in lh« iiniucusc aiid a^tooubiug Uocks be 
ing to tliG port uf Loiiduii. * 



Mosses.— Laneasliire abounds witlitlnsc Bo^ or Hwvssesv 
whieJi bear iUk provincial nnmc of Altutn. TIk principal of lliesc 
mc called from lliv dik-f placrs in tki-ir virinit^. Chat : PiUiu^i 
Tnfftrd: HUlti/: MMen: Head; likknUaff': fiainjord: 

Morton s 

* ForuiiDi<rrc9iiiigliiitvry nfCuua1\wliliniuc]iud\iIlEifam»ilcuiui> Uhi 

Mly«ct, *tir Udit'i " ( ytlop^tHa,' Vol. VI. Hie vety able atljck I'or wluck 

W wiilieB by Air. Soim Farry. 8n alw Pliilljpi's " Hutary t/ iiUamt Si^ 

T^r-lMJii" llt« Iwt Qruirta EJttioo. 


lAKCASniRB. 99 

Marlmt : St. ArtfSarVt; snd Cat/artk. Tfif rompownt |>arl)iof 

Aete Htiedv coosift of a apniig^ wil. contiiuitng rooU uf dccayeit 

wsMablf^ ttitfrmiied villi ;i ion of rnllcn (iimiM. Tlir origin 

■ml }>rciilianly of Wanes baw oct-asioned miucIi iltlTt'nfDc* of 

opinioD Willi the Hritrnoti Agricuhure «d<I Ntttura) Hi^rnrv ; Iwl 

lilwn llwir prerw silualioDi irr accunitHy ((«liii<.-4), itsmmfx- 

tmuelv can to accDiml fur llie bitec, and lliert-by iltM-mt-r mmr 

tktr for tb« fornKT. Tfac lavrs of tmhite are unmulalili^ : atid 

ttbfo certain tutotal tnaaet arv ktioun to |>rwltire r«Tlaiii fffnti, 

and UirK arc imnrinble. it dot» not appear iliJtirult tn elvvtImii 

lb MOtm, or piimanr source. Tbui Mossn. or boe;\ arc alnvys 

fawd near ipriai; iicad^, a&d in surli Itollovrs as prcrcirt a regular 

mI oooitent diidiargc of tlic oozidk water). Time must con* 

Mqaoriljr ronan ilagiiant. and rrom Iht- prrfX'ltnil |>cncnilion and 

I'ROfiipoivlina of wjrlakle mailer, must progrt-uiveK nngiiire sub- 

ifeUMv, AnMnpllie most common vcgetabli-s in tfi4:w RiliiatuitM, 

^setbc Erica Fvlgmrh, \itt OmUhogafmt tutrtim, anil the liifiVr- 

ccrt sfwrtes of BHiAanum, or coltnio-;^;ni» : aho litlben^, crao* 

bcmr. crowberTT, tmtfivmaia p^tMia : l^timshirr u^plloclc1. 

■■B ikw, and Ibt fraerant myrira-^ie, or htq;-mYrllr. Ai Ihcae 

-gllMib ^eaty, and (lr|>osit Ibeir iuttslaiices. a contiilmlilc addilioa 

a* aunually laadt to Dk moss, in ruttnis a ficcliiiu of ulitcli, in 

■Mse plac«a, ibe progresw-e ntraliiicalii^n or tawina uiay be db- 

tiKlIji diMOfend. Tbesc pianis, and psrticularlv tlie mraoo, 

W«m lo d«rnc UKir uutriment and fn»1ilicalii>D frtmi tlit-ir own 

MM, wkI gn« more luxuriant as 1h« atibstuncc iucrcaM^: at 

taUA the Mbul« (»ket Ibe appearance and voii«i<lrnc>' ofn lar^ 

htfni >nd coniinuith; to irx-rcafC, it at Icnclh crows grcaOy 

! tbe level of ihc a<<j^ceiit laud*, till tlie wt-l^ltt of thv furAlce^ 

; loo fml to be mpjiorrfd by Ihe «|>oii|;y tulMtanee be* 

Im, h overflon* its orifpnal boondarv, and covers ibe wl- 

)MBiBg ^nuntN. A rrmarinblc iiiJlnnce of ihif oeeurrrnn* h ns 

\ltai ot Sol>ray-AI»n;* and, accorditig lu some of our ancimt 

C 4 rliraiudcm, 

* ltd* tnppened tn I7T1, ind oHxiuiird rrom Knnc wrv«rc niuh wliicta 

p«4*tM) *»}* vatmknAiM imuKlaliom u( tbe hrcn. Atraat &>J acre* ol' 



chroiiiden, a great portion of Ckat-Mo*a was carried idIo tlw Irr 
veil, an(i thcnc« inln litv Mcricv, 111111 on to llic sea. Ldand 
Venlioiit this «vcdi is tltc folloMJjtg k-rnus : " ChaUltg Moru * vi 
nilw >'D l«oglit, siuii (wa^ St.) brut up wilhtn a mile of Morleji 
Haul, aad deOcokd much t{T«ikad(-, ulih J/iM«f tit>.-reDbuul, iin-Mc- 
atroied mucii fr««ch nater Kische tliereatfCMit, tir&t cormplms ^vilb 
■tialuDg water, (iUMbrix^, aoii n Glitubrook« cairiect fttiiikiug 
water aod Moaw ioto Mersey Water, and M«n»y c<imi|ttc<) C3rri«:tl 
tbe rouUiog Moim part to tbe shorts of '\Vsk-s, fml to Uw I»le of 
Man, and lum into Ireland. In Ibe vrry loppe of Cluitct*'y Mote 
where Die Mossf Vi-an hyest and brake, U now a fair plaiun valley, 
aiwni in lymci paf.l«, and a Rillc nmtiilh in hit, and peaces of 
smaU Trrcs be founde in the Botoni." Iliii. Vol. 7, p. 46. 

Without entering into parlii-uUn nOatin); to nil Ihu Mnraues, 
or Moec^ of lbi» county, I sliuU give u &horl accouut of two or 
three of those, whkh liavu been bi<ouf{]il iaio a slalf. of iitijwuvc- 
nant. On the south wde of the river Irweil, is a tract ol'iuoaa 
land ralle<l TraJford-MiMt. (vhidi containit alHwl 5(X) ucrp&, and 
adjoins the park uf John Trallurd, Esrj. nt the ilistauce of about 
three miles from Maoeliester. The Cunul r^ llic Duke of Bri<tg»- 
walcr, from that town lo Woraley, nii» lbioii]>h thiii Moss, tb« 
level of which is upwards of Ihirly teet above tlte bi-Hl of Itie liter. 
The facility of drainage aHorded by tbi* circiiiiistaniv. and tlie 
abundaiue of matertals found uiidt-r tli« \ntA of thv Mom, suggral- 
eri the idea of the practicability nf impioving it ; and in Ibe >ear 
1793 an act of parlianicnl was nbtaiucd, cuabliag Mr. Trafford lu 
grant both Ti<<frord aod Chat Mosses for long leiiui of ytun. 
on a kase for improveiDcnl. The itDproveruent of Tit^orJ- 
ATms Mat uudertakcn by Mr. Wnkcficld and iU. Hoscoe, of 
Lrrcrpool ; and Ittc wbok of this hitlierto ustIcm tract of land is 

|ii^ wcr« diCB ovcHIowcd hj tke maia, and the hubiOliviHi of Lwenlj-wvm 
fcnifiejNMedwtn-yt-i.— Sf« BFHiiiini, Vol. 1(1. p. 107, ftc AtinuloriB* 
tgtdnwin cil inn» oi-«iitrv<l at Mooicith, in Scothod. An iiilcmting mcciMmt 
If 1b» Sinta. pret»bl« (vigiii, tIm, profn^M, and [irp<cnt tuic Of thr tItgK 
rad £av> MotMi oCKincm^iMt mar be itta in Sitxlui't !»tatKlicaI Account 
•f SeofliDd, VrL XXL p. lSI~iai. 

LANCASHtie. 4^ 

iT«t1e<l bto i>\ccll«ut anbk sikI {laaluTe ground, and pro- 
>eropi «r ^in, grus. pwtatoca. Sec not ncectk'd b> aiqr 
badi in tbt neighbouibocxl. 'Ilie finl slq* towartU improiiancnt 
«ai tlrainasr, sikI liiit was «SKted uHliout any oilier lualeriah 
Una sucti as tlie Mo« itself supplied: (Itedraim )>eiiig c0TTro(l,at 
■bnul balf a >ar<l deep, willi the l«Dgb Bulled («d Ukm from Itie 
Mrfrce, TIte uudiHM-* iiwit M tha improveintul Imtc been bloc 
anrir, of a stmng r^lcamnis qualily, wlikli it found aiiilcr tfoe 
Noa ilielf, lime, ami n>m|MHt l)rotii>iil liy llir rami from Man-- 
(ftnltr. This Inkct uf land, ubkh, ]ir»iou9 (r> ijie ytat IJ^, w«s 
dtolly iiupn>ducli«e, is now wotlli four or live pounds per acK^* 

('ho('A/«n lies rai tlicnorlli dde oflbc river, md of llic great 
Mfrik* nsd bHwreo Urrrpool and .Aluiiche'dcr. It i» nitliin 
tt Vinih of Erritn, and TounUrip ul' Barton ttpon IrnvU, und 
nowt) of wmir iboinands of acn^s. A bmucli <if tlie Ditke of 
BbdinMirr'ii outiil ictniiiam in tb« luon; iiunbctn p:irl uf'Um 
Mo^ HI a part of trbicb, belonging (o ibc Duke, cofuiilenUe b»> 
|Mmnicnto are now making. Tbc rvouiiid<T h»s bit-n IchsmI by 
JJ(. Tnllbrd for a long term of jc^rs to Mr. Roscoc, wbn com* 
mocrtl the draiuiige in llie bitter |Mrt of llie year I8I)5> and bar- 
'm^ alnaily luid a coniiderable poctjon of it sufliociillj^ dry, ii 
tMPacdiog |r> improve it b; nicaiu of ltL>e, and uiaile. Aa ibil 
Mm Cflmists of umilar UBtcnab, and ia uf titc muuc texture ai 
Taii)nl-Mou, iIhtc can be no doubt lUal Ihb tttlcui|>) will b« at- 
bmlcd wilb umitar success. 

Baidu tlie above, lliere arc several olbcr (urge Mutucs in Lan- 
aitmti *omc of wliich stili rcntuin iu au uaLlcjo aud unprutiubk 
<Utc uf aalurc, TIumc pluien tliat bate bccu druiued, bate, in 
tPme imtuicci, awiuire"! a value of abwul 0\. pet acr*, per Hiinuni. 
dllwii;|i,bcrurt-lbeiriaipmvcnicnl, they i^ctc not wortli ar.y tlting. 
tMU-marih, ta tbc viooily of Liverpuol, a now iiiIoliI at more 
Ibulhm piiurns per acre, altbouglij prevtAiu In its tlnitnage, 
.ilinu Icl at Icn sliiUii>;;« per acre, i>cr aunutn. 

*T1* caHanafy lifryKJ"- aav uTievco yaids ui ih> tud ar|Mte. 

41 , LAVCASUniB. 

Httittfcrd-Mou, atsu Prcscot, has been amaiini;lv iuproTcd 
utidcr U>« judieiind naoagctiKnl of Mr. iiAxa Cliorlcv, wbo of»- 
inwU it. «a ■ tcnc for Ibree Urns, from the Earl ef Derby, and 
ftyi a nut of eight sliillintp |>er ncrr, per annum. He bvji^n 
hilt ofwratioiu on Ihii lytpaiviilly iterilf «a*te m I7K0, and bydRtis- 
■n;;, partr^, and niuiturhie, nrnrly utniltiT lo wlial ntiB [wactKcrl on 
'i>affofd-Mn«, hns n-nriererl Ibo land Ki|iab!e of bearing ooti, bar- 
1^, elovtr, poMoK, A,-<-. Aceordini; to hi* imn menHiraiiidnms, 
" politoea, with dung, pmdurcd for \be lint tim« »boul four 
hundn-d busliels ppr am of eight ^rds; nrxi y«»r |iotalo«% -.t^ia 
nithout dung, prndufed about three biindred husbeU,'* 'Tim 
g«illi'ninii tfiH Turtatiiin oats, &c. but thinks lltui Muss-huids, ia 
genml, ar« not mlfulatcd for grain, at Ibev are more congenial 
to tli« pruduclton of gT3s<»<i, ice. which comv K)>ontaD«>uslv, ifm- 
eouraged Hiib a Iin!c duug. lie freqiMiilly «owt Hover seed im- 
mrtUalc-lv zflci llie potalot'<>. Itlr, (Jborlpy has buih some cot* 
tages on Ihif hnd for titr labouttn, and only cbargn them SOl 
per asDiun for mM.* 

Ttie ACRICUITUIIAL PboduCTIOSS of Lancashire arc prin- 
cipsUy Otits and Potalots, twtli of nbicli are used for hiiiRan lus- 
kiiance : anJ niauy of tlie Lbouria? chusr^, in the northern and 
culrra parb of tlic county, are chiefly sitppoitcd by this food. 
A cousiderabic quanlily ot'BarIvy, aitd soniv Wheat, arcciiltiTatrtl 
ia Loir-FiirncM, the Fildc, and iii the »oiilli-\s(!»trni paiLs ofthe 
county; but it n iniagincd that LAnciulitrG iloe? uot produce one 
quarter of Ibr (;Tiktn consumed by its o^iu iuliabitanta. The laikds 
near the jrijil towiu are ctiieBy appropriiiliMl to pafJurage aoJ 
gardens. Th<^ fim PcM^i said lo have b«'pii mltivalf^ff iu Ijiglaiid, 
wer« gnmn bi Laiirs&hire. Tliey were ori';;inally iiitiwdiced into 
ftrlaiu) from North Anterim, ntKxil A. D. t.^6.'i ; and iu con»-> 
ipKriirt!! of an iri>h vessel bi-ini; cast away on the wcKtcni cow^, 


■ Hplt"» « General Wm of the A£nroltttrc of Lanruhiie," Sro. p. W, 
In till* wurk ihe icndrr mil find nucij lud*))! obMrraiiont i«'lBt<iis W Ilia 
dtAcrem plans 9f drelolagiad cddvaiins itie HoMn. 


■ 'Korlli-^rcob in Lascsnbire. book o( those noU wen- pliiiA- 

[ad ia that put of ibe couhIt; but it wm nuiuy ycaraaOet llnfr 

tint culdnriioti here, bcfnrc ibcj wera aduptetl hs m aiiicle of 

food in LuoHon. Al |>rewttl they are lenmn in ainnBng qiunlk 

tica iu lbs coutih : ami many ate nnnually rxpotted licncc l« 

lirlaad. A girjit swiely of aorta arc cullivate<l licrr, and emit ab- 

lartton b fiaid to raisinit new species, Tliry are pTmluccd both 

tnnn atUingi. and from llw applet, or seed. Tlit Oa-itobft bhI 

t Tn a l ef fiittoloc ate cbicflygnmn forlhc callk-; and t)ir Pink Ey^ 

liOi diffrTnit kbdt oi Hk Kidney, are uschI for Uic ultlc. Hm 

OU-teintrr-tfd is found la keep pdrticuiarh* t*Dod liU Uk spriag, 

■bta ollien lure loot Ibeir Davgur. llic produce of a cnip of 

plirfvct in Ibn c^mnly b generally from 2 to 300 nieaiorrs or 

taihrh, per ittatutc airt : * eadi Ixiiiid >tciuliiu; about 9<>ll>< I'C- 

/0K clcuuinf;. TIk early polatoo are gcuenilly planted in ruwt 

of ifcmit eight indict iliilnncc: eiimI tlic sch fiMir or five iiuhet 

■cfanle. Matty useful particulars arc detailed relating to lh« best 

g0odt of planting ^^wing, an<l [nrservinf; potalocti, in Hull's 

•■ GfUtral View of' tht jlgriatUure »J tltr CoKitly," Svo. 

Lioeasbin is poaKsscd of a peculiar breed of Hornfd Cetth, 

«kidi (ataa a variHy willi lliiHie of LitirAltMiin.-. 'Vhc rows are 

(Mkr ouallvr tu azv lliao tliuje of Uk! latter »Minty. and are 

looan by ttwir mtle->prea(liiig bonis, aud Uniij^hl bMcks, ■< To 

Im die or!glu oi* a breed of callle ivrtr prc\'ailiiig ia Ijinra»ltirr, 

mold proLubly, at Ibii liuHr, be a diAiailt ra>k. Rut iImI tliv; 

ant £ntrau» awr the »hule kin;pluni, is evident from bciag so 

trqiEDlly ualKed, and iu tiicb e«liiiiatir)ti, »» lo be lou^t ulter 

(ram ill (larb of tbe kiagiloiu. Ia sucli impute were tliey. und of 

ndiaipcnar quality, that iliiil grt-nt JtMlj;c iu catlli-, Mr, B4ikD> 

^dttliaaght pru|>cr 10 make llicai the wufc« trout wbicb be bm^ 

' Tl»y nt dvftmiy tmicL more ]ii«lucihe, M exemplified in ll»r Mlow- 
iH iMBn aat by Mr. Wariuf. ^leward tu ilie EjuI ofUrrliy. ODuaereuT 
M il IiMrmltj, the reUeoiaf: crop* wrte obtniiitd in 17'.'3 aiid l794 ; m 
^(M()«MnM>li«iteitnfPiBk-«yw; and bt 1T<H tlio mne hinil proiiieed 
n Ufacti «t' VVl)«ai, oTrolb. w«igiit U dw bndial. TtiU mIiJ at Tk td ptr 


bycnMHOf, &c. mada sncb improvcfncnt. Bui as the brted liu 
beat umlrr i |rrncrr5sn-c ilate of mrlioratiun in Leicntenthiie, it 
SfTiia lo bav<^ )xrcti in an riiiul state of relio^rftdaliMi in I^iica- 
thin, uo'l B> if ovcr-aned by compctilion, bas >ilciill\ yielded to a 
«ou<)iM?for. It » not long since, however, that a Ci-Irbraled traveller 
made (hefollon-mg nbwrvalioiu ia fail tourihroii);ti LancMliirc.'* * 
" Brnkfitsted at Garslanj^ « smnll town rrmarliable furth* 
^nt cattle ]ira<liicM) in its n(i)>lit>oiirhood. A c^ontlnnan has re- 
fused lluiiy giiitww for a lhtr« yenr old eavri )i:h kaIH b ra)f of a 
tnoiilh's age for ten ^tnea*, and bulls for one hundred; and hat 
kili«i an on wMRliiuR twmly-oiw aeorc prr ijuartor, e»clu»iw of 
bide, Giilrails, Aie. Bulls alio have been I«l out at tlic rate of 
thirty guin«a» the uwsaa ; so that wkII iiiigbt hi>iim Bnmaby t ce- 
Iebral« the cattle of this place, notwithstandtng the inislbrtune be 
metwilb in nne cd* its great &>»."[ 

" \'enl Gantan^, tibi naU 
.Sum AniKDla frnnir lata, 
Vcni Ganlang, abj maK 
IntraiK bran betUilc 
Forte TMiUanilA viea 
Rnc ct Qlnc cnn amioo 
In jiiTCnrw doruini rni 
Ciyiu coraii Ivmu fuL" 

TV Climate of this counly is prowrbially H*rt. and this 
serins a natural conAcriDenre from its peculiar filuallun, b«lw<^n 
Ibe broadest fieri of Ibe Irisli Sea, and lite bl^h ttdge of hilb 
wbicb iftnn its ra^lem bonier. All lliU side of <be cnnolj'v 
inorc snhjccl lo rains Iban the Mde bnrderitig on Ibi- cnasi ; for as 
the (loudi are waflcd over ihc IrUh S«a from Ibe Atlantic Oceui. 
Ibey are first tbccked ami btuk«o by Ibe mouolaiaoiis ridge, n-bidi 
baia dinrdifin north iind !«u1h; aud bcocc Ibi: raini, ore almost 
pc^p^t^<lIy ^lliog oit the westcra side of (hc» iRtef<ep4ing emi- 

• HdIi'i •' Gennal View of ih< Apimliiiie.' p. !«*. 
t Belter known by tli« Mtmc of Dtanktn ilocottby, yrtta publiibrd his 
TrvTcl* in the Norib of Enclonrl. 
t ZViuudCi '< Toot in Seotltfid, b 1784." 



At Townltn,-, mot Burnley, it li«s been fgund by esperi- 
aetl, IhftI foMvtno ineltrt of rain fall anniiiUy, at a muliuni ; 
Mfl dutus lix! Hinie periods, llit' luxiiial lunglit of rain liM beta 
imlj lliutv-liirve incite* ;it MaucbiMler. At Lircqioal and Prefr- 
toft, tbe ateni^> lint Ut-n cuoMilvrubly U-w, wliilil Ual at Loutlon 
hubeco Hill loner. This netnesi ol'cliiuutc ii fuund |*artinilar1y 
ttgurioiH lo llie HraUk laiidk: lliou^h ttie iikmiIuw :iiic1 pu»lux« 
ligaadsatv toucd brorfiled bv il. Floats ;ircgrncni1liF Imiemc, 
■id of nbottcr duntioa. oo Ibe wutern, tluo on tlic eailern side uf 

TV 3/iritii/rtrf«fr«. Connrrrr, and Pfiputalkm of ll»e county, 

uc nibjcct) prupcriy connected nilb tbii gcocriii dir^ritiliuti : but 

IduiU reserve, and bnnjt lofelher all tbe iiifoTtnalioii I can obtain 

nbtbg t0 tbe lint, as an ap()ro))riiiie ap|icnd'j<;c lo tlie libtury of 

llBcbaler: ami lo tbe second, at livcrpool. But r»|>ectiiig ttie 

iBBcue popubtKn of L«oca»hirr. I will endca«t>nr lo fuitiish llic 

R«kr with s<nuc idea in thb ftiace. According lo Die Ite|>ort priot- 

eJ for Ibc HtnM of Ooniiiioua ni l$U3, rt-liiliitg lo Ibc po< 

(■bliou fff Great BritaiDi it b etatcd Ibal Lancasbirc contained 

IIM/Obniues, iuliabitcd li> U2>lir fauiili«a; and 3,394 uniu- 

Uitcd bouxv. Uf tboe pen«U9, i22,3i6 were males, and 

iiO^Ti i^ere feuiiil«>: 52,UIS of lbe»e n«re einjiln^cd iu osri- 

aiitare; 369iU9 u tniJo nod nisoufiicturcs : rikI tlie nbule 

■uabcr uf {Mtsous a Ml du^vii at Gj'i.'il- Tltc coinpianitii e 

Ue of tb« populttiou of Middli^M'x uml l^nc^ubirc? bus often 

Ina • tbetn* of discucsMn) ; but if lite relurui oliUiii«r| by par- 

fiuuat b« correct, l>>ii dispute nill iiovr b« citily «<!ttk-d, II, 

ktmntf, unfoTtMnately happens, that Ittc int^i and oi'cuUtiotu 

if Ifait cctmit ba%-e b<«u fuund lo be uoialiitfactor^ and inancurale, 

mi banc* we cunool decide tbt< point M-ilh |>reciiaon. The ait- 

itMised total of Lancailiire will be found lo exceeit the eUintate 

Ibt has been previousty publi«tied, nbilit th»t of MidilU-tex, ai 

hnafbtt timed, is rullivr iiiidcT Ibe sdppoted number whicb litia 

Uu gcDcrslly admitteJ bv political aritbmtliciaul. According to 



IIm ParltBntmlary Report, MiHillcsm, kicliiiling Londoaond W(a6* 
tiUD3l«T( contaiurd 112,f)l2 boiuws, whidi vme inbabilctl bj 
1S9tli54 familKSi uid 5,171 uaiiiliabiled bouKs. Ot'lbvw per* 
Wii», 373.655 wrrc males, and M4,*7* were ftnnilo : 19,+17 of 
tbem were et»pIoy«t iu itf:iiniUur«, atid l6'2,?l>0 ui tnitt utd 
aaanrfiKtiiref : and llw toltij nutubcr «f pc»oiu ii Kt dova in 
lb* pfintwl report at »1»,I29. 

From fliU cAmpamlitc tk'vr it a|ip<^rt, tliat Ihe number of 
boKws in MiddlccM b only -t 1 9 more lliau lh« total of Laiu»- 
ihire; ftnd that the occupietl hoiucj of tlie taller couolv exceed 
tlifl lolal of the fornicr b; I,35S. Tiic diHrrviiee of inlmljitauU 
H niAre ditproporlionat^; and thb is accounted fur lij tbe un- 
henllliful and inisenib);^ rrovrdcc) umiiocr of tilling tfae bouse* 
Willi lodgers, wbich n so uiiiversBl amoiig Ihe lower elates of 
peo|)1e m London. Dr. Aikin, in Stockdale's " Descri|ilioti of 
llie Cuuatry round MiuK-be«ler." Iiau cnlered iiilo a loug disqui- 
Btion on tbis tubjecl; bul, forwent of latisfactorv doruiiKol*, bn, 
villi coqjectnn] duU. dnun errooeoui cotKliuions. " lliv idea of 
Lancashire cmilaining an inan;^ iidmbilniilH xn Miildleirx, and 
wbicb are there estimated at a niillton, ongbl certaiuly lo be f)uali- 
fied aiid crnrecteit, )i> it (-:tu by ho nii-4in I>e itdniittcil bt ill* 
potitical arilhmeticuin, nttbuut the mo^ anlhenlic and uncijuivo- 
cal proof; for, Hipixwhi;; its two great luum of Ltveqmul and 
Mancbester to cotilain 75,000 each; ils four other |>rinci|>al tutiiu 
50,0UO aiiioiigitt tlu-m; 50,000 mure tn its uianiiliictiiriii|;|iarts; 
aod jG,000 more in its remalnijig pnri^bt^, this would oiiN give 
300(000; nor will any prubnble data fn^e a numbvr beunug luaj 
cotuidenible ]iro|)ortiofi lo a million."* Stirh conjectural calru^ 
briioia djew the tallii<:y of mukin« luiy deductions, or forming aiij 
decided syslcm, from Uic impi-rfcci relums of the poputatian tbat 
have billteriq been made. Ry the rollowtug Tdble. tlic tutaln of 
the CDUtity, of tlic difTci-cut buadreds, and of »oni« toniu, will be 
seen at ouc view : 

' W. PHt ; fii a uoU 10 Hull's Gaunl Vlat, itc pi. S1& 


*t ffm^ 

& S 3 S g S § 

ft s t S ? :: ; 

S S 2 B s 2 3 



>n •* « 
e *• « 


:? a 

* n 5 ■< T t «i 

R 5 3S 2 b s ;^ 



t* 9 <n 9 

■" T 5» tr 

2 2 6 3 


s§s = SII S^ssias 

t, ■• •! 4 « K t> 

*> o «• — « H ** 

90 9 <o V- o> <o c« 

kT (f «ff xT <o -7 of 

^ O* »* •■ 


^- 1 1 §■ ^ t 

•. ^ tf n « 9> 

e e 


« n 1- s •< 
^ h h. 9 ^ 

^ - ^ t ■^ s, 

Ck - « 0* - ^ 


t 1 

';; N 

I 111 . 

% I ri 1 


2 ^ 

:= X fc J I- 

M tlie Htm vhea EnghiDd was tliroat<o*d willi wi iiiMsioB 
tun France, llie (^tnU-Uculi'naiiU verc rt<\uhr:d !■> Puiltiuaciit 
to otttb anounts of all tite Utf-St^k, Cora, tet. in llirir n- 
tfUlm tmnxie^ Duriu; lliiA alamiiit^ ]>«rvfMt, tli« CWk of tlic 
CkMnJ Mcctiiigi Tof l^iH-.tshire Made oul Itte Allowing LUt, 
■hirh Okmh iIm (|uaality of Jjt^Stork hi lli« county in 18M, 
■id lllD ^cilies liie nmiilier ofiti lowmliip«, in. 














lS.9Jrt •,381 



mariibm . . 





18,904 1,9m 



Baltoa . . . 









I^hind , . . 






J, 1 7* 



UnrpMl. . . 









LoRHtnlr, Norili 









Du. SmiiIi 









MmdiMttr . . 









MaldiMM) . . 









OrmUrfc. . . 









Fracat . . . 






4,7 «4 



Waniiii^Mi . . 




4,6 jl 


5,4 li 



Tonr. . 









Tlie coiiuly of Lanouter seud* fntirteen members lo Parliau 
nrnt; two Imigiits for Uic sliirc; and two rqirrM-nlativcs for c«ch 
of iIk following t»(irDUgh» — Ijiiitaster, Liverpool, Picdon. New- 
tuii, Wigan. aud Clitlicro: an nccoiint of iht-ac will \x given utittcr 
Ibdr respcrtire heads. Ouc of tbe minnbcrs for tlir roiintv is r&> 
turned tliroiiKli tlic interest and iiifluciKc of the Eurl of Derby : 
and t|ie other u noiuiuatcd by ivliat b usually Icriucd, the Itide- 
)>eii<lrnt tiitercat. 

Bcspeclhig tiie cumtnoii judidul silmiiii:i(nitioit, L'itK:uiliiie is 
bduded ill Uk Nurtlitm circuit, tu»d iLc couul.i iuuizcs arc held 
at tbetowtiof Laucutcr, usare al»otlicQiiailcrSc53toii9. Tliwigb 
ttib county does not alwiiiid iti aiilitiurlk-?, yet it fonaerly contain- 
ed » few caslles and nouAJlic buiUling*, at miU be seen by tbe 
ibilowiag liit:— al Clitkfr^t CleaHvn; fMlmd: Uornbtf; Lanw- 
ttr; Pffle; and '(hnrtand- 

Rkugiods Hot;SBs~«t Bnrieough: Carfmfi;va6 Cttningt- 
hnd. AugusUiic Priutics: At Cock<^r<imd, an Abl>cy of tltePre< 
iiion<>tateiittaii order: f^mnt oaA HTiaHty, Cistcrttan Abbeys: 








lAyCASHlSR. 49 

IhSnd, a BeDedtctJne prior;: H«mby, PremoostratenliaD 
peuiT : tMmcatlfr, Latkvm, lujil Pcnirvr/Aom, Bcucdictiue 
pnnD : Mtnchtittr, a cuUegc 

IWIndorv, &c. of these, nilb Uie prindpal ttats of the coud^. 
dl bt rdiit«d iu the coutm i>f the eusuiug pus^^ 

]]r/«flnrm£' Bridget Mong /«, mu/ orr rtpmrrd bp l/u Ctmnty 
9J Lancgater: 



RomTj rrjuirni hi IA( C'owUy. 

fi&V. . . 

ImeU .... 

7M Feci in all. 

(tePiKd . . . 

MMMy «... 

150 Feel Snuih, 300 Ft. N ortl|, 

Immat . 

Xiunc .... 


UUt . . . . 

RiUrie .... 

900 Feet Nerth. 

UKkMxr . . . 

txit* .... 

300 Feci eodi End. 

Tkt /ollotring art brtomr Covnty Bridges by Indictment; 

CaIim V'«to« . . 900 F«et eub Ead. 
IjtnibrTk , . . None. 

laMi (1790) . 

fWc Cowtable '\ 
\M, EUl* Fool, { 
■J RnAbed, r 

(iw) . . 3 

htk; Green (laos) 

Kaictci»t>a Wticn 

1 Km*. — Rood r«)i«inj R» 
I (iuue Tcinre. 


Tbrreair also i$I poMic Bridges repaired hy the dlBerent 
Mirdi vitbin the cuuutr. besides TovtusUip Brides, &c. 

SOAin. — From the number of carriage*, uhI great quantity of 
Im^ ndcrials tfaiit are incessantly p»uiag id the vlciiiitv uf lite 
im mDD&cturiag towns of tlib county, from a wet climate, soft 
■A&c the jNii/ic r<tad» are generally mucli damaged, and \a many 
fkm in Bbsolatrly in lucb an uueren and bad state, as to be- 
aBt^sgeroiu to tin: traveller, \i-ar Manchester, Liverpool, 
nd tane otbcT lowDf, most of the roail* are paved, or pitched 
like Ihe LoDcfon streets : and as these arc not so easily or cheaply 
RpM u (he coinnton roads, they arc suffered to remain very 
omn. and io some {nrli abuiind wiUi deeji holes. " Pave< 

f »h. IX. D mtaXe," 

iO llKCAi^tllBI!. 

mHib," nItivrTPs Mf. floll, " are the motl cspntvive bw) rnmt 
dtngrentbk tA ill roads, but w« ban iio oilier malcruil that wUI 
fltand benvv cantage." The esprnw of llii* [Mivpminif ii nitntly 
from 15. Cd. to 2*. pr r aqaan yard. Copfter ii'ori;!, or 6»g, has 
b«ni sufctWullj tmpioyf^, and mslin Mcvlkni tide^road lo tbn 
payment. Tbut^^A particularly' aclopk-d in lite nci^titiuiiiltaoil 
of Winrington. Most of lli« p«ivin^'Stf>n«s xre imporletl from tbe 
W«lili coaslt, and ooM abAut sht ihillin^ p^r loa. Sonie of Ibe 
tampik^nwds in the vieiititv at Mauchuter, paved will) tbese 
stones, cusl from liOOl. lo Sooul. f>er mile. 

" lo the nortbern, «nd norili-^uilcrni purl! of lIm eonnly, ton* 
teriif* fortnakiiig roadi are A>liiid a|iAu the spot ; the ItfiHsnlone, 
nbco liTokfu, binds together, uud luoket an vxcpllcnt road; 
bui in the midluiJ. aiid southern |>3tt8. liie iu»tt.>riaK «tcp|)t wlnt 
the rivers afford, are brought from the Welsh iind Scotch coasts* 
Mid nt comtdenhle »p«iiM *." It hw bc«tt remarked. tluU lliia 
courtly ftboiind* with rowlt. an<l tint maay v( iUe*^ urt uutiecvs- 
larily wide, and others could be entirely ditpemed uidi. In proof 
of tliu upiiiiun, Mr. Holt, from t)i4* doniiiifuls of Mr. Yalt-s, nlia 
turve)edlhec«)mity, «tnte»tbat lite "pafiihufGoostiargheoolaliis 
3703 Hcrca, nnd the Icngtli at' rniids in that parish h iicarty 
auies, hcatiea ihiec miles of bridle roati, 'jud three rattes of i 
irpairrd by certain iaditidunh, Tlie tuwinbip of Walton 
Liverpool, wliidi only coiituins lifRU statute arres, bat a public 
road tiro intloi and a hilf la leiigtii ; parochial roads, ekven luiles ■ 
two flirloii^ besidts occupation roads. An iiii;i-iiinit< road- 
maker in the mighbourhood of Warrington, liiu of lide exploded 
the conitR'jti etfimx form, and adt<plcd tint of hu txelinrd-plaw s 
the indinalion ji»l sufficirnt to throw off occaiional water. B^H 
thii aheralion he finds iliat a rnud becomes more dtirable : for^ 
when it ii cont'd all heavy carri:u;oi u« the centre of it, and keep 
tn ttw tanw track." In Mr. Hotr's valume are several judicious 
nnd uwful olMerralioiu on tbiR subject, witli reference to aonic 
other nriten srbu have desciwted uu tiio same. 

- IfotrsOencralVicir, p. !«. 

■; sriM) 
olalfis J 

forty I 




■* . 



.■ * 





% ■ 

hliY U bvUiKl«4 «n ib wliote iMilli«Ri siile bv Chc»liire, 
hnmg \hv tiitr MuMv US • nalural txirner. I'bit c-nltoAs front 
Ibc M« fo StocLpifrt, wlivrc tiM nv«i' IVuw joins it, ind forus 
lire twamhxA ^>< l> itwrt »finc<f, till it iioite* to \ht YorLtliire lii>e» 
o&uiil> cuu-iiliiles iht whole ol' its euteni t>ord«r. I'o tb* 
Ute cuuDiv <>f WmmoreliDd ikiits it for it iliort incculvr 
anil llic trcitem Uinitt uf Fumm abut on CumlMrfund. 
hole u( ibr iriiumiti); neitcrn itdz a wsiltcH b>^ IIm: Itiilf 
A IJM dntta rtoRi llie oorlliern cKliemit)', lo tlic Mvrsry t>n 
Mutb, Would Dcamre full acyetrfy uijles; but lb« inediuai 
;tb of tbe cotntH a about fi^-four uvit», Mr. Yutcs, »liu pub- 
it Sartey of LaucMhire, gnti tbc following diuK-iuiuiu : 
length «e<r«iitv-fow mile* ; breadlli forty-four and a balf ; 
T>i^ tlM Ribbk tttJw niotitlO :J4? niiks; sof 
_ , I il<3». In (tcacribin); tlie timui, vtlla^, tiiitr> 

lb, &c, of lilts «ntaty, I sImU adopt a sv^eniatic to{i«- 
arniiii;<"iciil in ^'KlxliviJin^ i( into il» Six Hundreds, and 
leliBtiij; lUil cuiu)cctiu<r tt/jntlicr nil tbc matemli rcspMlivtK re- 
lit radi uf llwsr. B<-irnntU9 nith llie ihindrtd <A' LoHt- 
-, wliiffa u Hie iu»s1 tKtttliem paroclLi*] dimion of liie counly, 
6iul lis prtDci]Hil towa to be tbat vbicb givet uunc to lb« 


TUEkBar«rc»'oftbtco»tity town«m Eni;(anJ wtwch have btoi 

' !fY ih- 1 liMoiinn, or iii^rp inarcuratdv dwcribed by 

, ._, _^._j :.i:i, ihuu tliatof Lniirartfr. Tlml it was a Romsa 

, b rvincvtl t<T ttK !>axoii tenuinatioa Casttt; or CiMlrc ; uiwl 

cr coiitii uM.-d bv (be vaitout r^inaiiu <t( t)i« Jomedie 

tb« Rumain, tbat are conUiiually disc4veied in lliti 

% iciiiily. 

""1ft taa beta ssKtltd, (Imt LancaMer »■ ii out of tht line of any 

." •(/»: butwliclbtr it wa-^ w ww not tlifi Len^otityn of 

..M, itt tiaine will certainly Dot disco***." Canideii. Mi 

co«lrat;i tiivt, " fioih tb« Danie, aod tkc rivar running bjr 

D 2 i^ 

SI tANCAsninr. 

It, proTC il (ft Ik- tMtf-ofictm, wlifre, unHcr ll>e Dux Britannia' 
mm, sccnrdin^ 1o the Notitb, was ilatioiinl Ihr iitinwroai Lmg*' 
Tirarioriim, « Iw lotik ibcir nmut fruni llir plncc." It is eximnel; 
pro1><iMr lltat Ijincaslirr nTis the slalinn upon llie I.tine, as Rib« 
carter vr<ii npon iIm' RibMc; and Longoricum na* poasibly have 
ri'Ulrd miTpW to t!ie iova ami 3p)waraiirr of llie \Aace wherever 
it wa» HlaaM ; indcrd the Rnniin station of l^ncustcx most law 
been Ihe TnU'^U'* of th« Luuc itself nnJ mit fur from llit meap 
dow describfH iii Speed's map, ta Ibe " Cmnw Ayre," wbidl 
B now cuTcrcd witli liotun. Tlic Rct. John Whilaher obscn-es, 
in bit Hb<tor> of Slmicholer, " In Kiclinnt'* Iter, ll>c>txlion Ad 
.■llavntmi. apin-ars clcnrly from tlic menlioo ot'Luguialliiini aadfl 
Brocavonacb on oue aii]e, aiid of (U>ec\\tni und MaDciinium oit ™ 
(he other, to be somewhere upon or nithin llic nrtrlliern liortlen i 
of Lancasliire. Am) this aiirl the iiiiinc iVd Abtinam carry as aXS 
once In the ilatioti at ] JiK-iLtlar. Ilw raatruii) tipoa A Liini, or lh« 
river Loo. I'lic realitir of thb sialiun lias dIwj>s been eonfeued, 
but ll)c name of it \m\ been aomelrmn 5ii[^KKicd lu be the Lugan* 
diaiini nt'the Choro^iaphy, ami ntnre griienll^, hut mon.' wilJlvt 
the Lonpovicus of llie Nutitia, ll vus certainly fined iipoij the 
plane of tlic pment Caslte-hill, at the rurky einianKe of Uie ]nU» 
and Uic immfJiale vidiiity of the river, dearly eviiK-e of Uicii>>4 
selves, and a& llic still hangfai:; rrmaini of the Roman wall upon 
the steepest pait ofjt concur lo demnu&liare." Vol. I. p. 74, 

Reynolfls, in hi* "IlcrBrilanniarum." idcntiiics ibh place astbeJ 
Hrrmeloiuieii of Anioniniii ; and n^ Riclmrd lefl out lltat name iti 
bcs [linciar^-, Mr. Reynolds lhinl>s il nr.*> be the Porlus Si»tuiilio> 
rum of the monk. Tlius vwioua opinions prevail cnnccniins lltefl 
Roman tiame of Ihii stallon, Ihoti^b iill Die antvptarics are agreed 
tlial rt " ii> jiowckved bv ilie Koiimjis. Ciimtieii seems very decided 
on this Iitod, but tb« fraftnietit of a Wall wliicti he and Mr. \Vbtl< 
»k<.T ascribed lo that pe<i|>]r, seems to have belni):;ed to some mo- 
na»lk- building. Il uaj !>iluatrdon tbr dectivjty of llichill, belneeii 
tlie castle and the bridge, and was called " Wer>-\ValI.' probably 
from llie British name of the town CatrAVmd, lU Grcca i 
or pcrltnp tht City on llic Ortcn Uilt. 



Or. Wbitiikrr* cnmbata t)i« npiiiion Umt ibis Wall wm of 

i!«nmi origiD, aiid riks the fulluuiug pa^i^i^e rmni Lelaitd 

m ivppofi of bt« opiiuon : ■• Ijuicutra C:t«ltl itaods on a hiilr, 

'■^nmf fi y buiMe^l and wol ivp:uriid niiiH of an old pl3c«, (aa I re> 

of Ihe t'at-ffldi, by lli^ Ctullc Hill). Tlic- new tuuiie, 

an tim thrt say, buildeil liatri b}' \ii th« decent from tb« Cuttcl, 

tianng; one PutocU Clliirvh nhcT mm Uine the Priori of Munki 

Alienu wet put d<iu.»r by Kiii^ Henry tlic Fifth, niid gtveu 

4a Sjwi atbey. 'JTie »ld mdl »/ Ikt drcuil «/* the Prhry 

cinnmcth ulmuct lo Lore biidgc. Sum hair (fitrrijf tupp0€t4 

Shot it u*A* a pratf of ihe waul of the tovnr : but inieadf I etpy- 

*4 iit no ptnre that the toiene ittu ftrr leattHd. Tlie old lownc, 

•1 lb« ray iWr vm almost ai bunivd, and stood partly beyond 

Hm bbk Fr«n«. In Ibos p.irii'^ in (be fkldes, ;uiil funtbtioiia, 

1^^ talli ben tbuode niiteli Roumn coyuo:. the «>il« about I^neattrc 

^Btiivri Aiir,p4mtilul of wood, [mstuM, meiuiow, and con f." 

^B Dr. Lei^h iwrtto, tint Viirioiu emits, piecci of broken vurlhen 

^^L fOKh, Bad bones, hare been found in Ibk toun. hi the y«u 

^H 1772, aa Attar Stone, four feet long, and two feet ten indiet wide, 

^M. Mi daeotiTpd ia digging a celUr. It bod Uie foUoning inscrip* 

DIS M\N'l 

L nx APOI, 




AE Al 


TuuT \«an aOiT the abotv discovery, aomc lubourcn, nbo were 
ia)[>l<Mv<l in eii.-ai".tliag the cclbits fur a lar>rt: buiiw in tlic u)>|ir[ 
pitof Diiircli-^lrvrl. mtl uilh a tiippiMcd Roijuiu burial pbLV, 
iLlhi dcplb of lis feet from Ibe surtacc. Uii llii« sjh>I bod for* 

D 3 incrlj 

* U 1 lellCT U> tbe AoUior, t Itiuenty, vol. V. p. 93. 



mcrly stood Kxnc very old ImiiseK, which were then ated b> 
llic Ju(lf;<;*s loilginfpt, 11ie fMiocipal (ht^niKuU, ami rdicadMooMi^M 
r<l, ciin>i»tMl of burnt vrood, noiiuiti liricks, bmben paterv. ums, 
cuiiB. hom» of aiiiiiuJs, bono, mul asltca ; altu two fia^rucuts of 
ttrons walbt about fifteea feet utuMler, witli btr^ bIcKtu ofilooi 
bfttvepjt llirm. Sipiiilar artktcs to lltoscju^t menlioocd, wilfa i1m> 
nJilitiuii uTa bumua sKiill, ;ind bii curtlirn srpulcliral Urap, were 
found indoocd by the mils, Tbe ccinctcrf here alluded to 
Bppcan lo hiiTv r\iniilcd tinrter Chiirrh-slrcet : as on the npponUa 
Me di>co>riiv3 ot' ihi: name dt^cTi|itti»i luvc hem oiutle. 

The auiy prrfcd invTiptioiu on the coini, vieit cnnjincd lo new 
of brSM of Kfucuj Aimliiu; and u srcoud mtull tine orsihcr, iu 
e&crlktil pn!3Fi'vat)on, of Fainliiu Im wifv ; mi the obitirx Dim 
Faaittiua Pia, and on the levciM: a utotiumcnt am) Canxcrali^K 
Altoul :J00 feet mtward of ibe Judge's loilginKi. tevcral largtf 
liewn Uoii» <nerr .iltrrwiirds fuund, one of which wakauii]>0Md Kt 
wrighat Ir^xl ihrfc loiii. Tim w^ onlv »i\ fed beneath iheinr- 
fiioe, and und«r it were ditcorcred tnaay coioi of Domitiun, V««> 
piiiMi, &c. Unas thought lo liiiie been th« comer kloim of ■ 
I«IB))I«, or of tome other public buildiu^*. In tlic )eur li'jti 
another Roitun relic vita ducovrtcd on cleuring away soute 
earth for improving and rnltirctn^ the tiivtle. This ivii<i a aouU 
vothf'Alter, and nns deposited at about ^i^ fret from llw sur- 
fcce, " between Adriaa'ai round 'lanrr, iiitdtlie $ieut5i|uarenae 
ofSasoo architecture." From tbcdi&caTenroftlin intcribrd fras-v 
nKnt, Mr. Lee i> tuduccd to id^otifv this simion uilli the LoiipiO- 
nt'iMMofAnloiiiiius. where "lticiii)i>riidl lieutenant of Britain kept 
a comptuiy of Ihe iMnpKifiia itariisoa." Mr. Lee lidsoiadc out 
the inifripli..n ni futrows: DliO-SANCTO M.^KTWOCIDIO^ 
VrBIMViS I.VCIS. m-CS. V: S. I.. M. 

From these cvidcDoes, it ouuiut be doubted that Ijucaslcr tras i 


" ArefciBOlo^,Vol.V,p. (18,101, Ac 
t ** So calltdi ud tht kwcr pari of it ii cridratly of Roman ««t1iaMn>1 
■lil|i."~Cstraei nfa Ipiter tV«m the Rewirnil Franca Lee, M. \. .Ircbsulo* 
pa, VuL Kill. p. 401. 


iarinf tbe Ronitu) coloniialion of Bnt;iiu, a ntilltarv kUUod, or 

jputiioai bul ubetber it bore the appcllulion of .\tl>AJauiiam, or 

X^ooifmcnni, or bolli tli»c Bumcs. >iL liiflcrcnl periods, b not cauijr 

AckmtiniUe *. Ntit only during llic Kotnaii, Uil uIsd uu'ltt tbe 

.>ha|[li>-Suu)a djwist;, Luiculer nss certainly a furlreu of cob- 

^adoablc eoiueq«rKC. for it uppcim tu bare tivcu tUc gmiid bar- 

^iar Hul obdacle lu (be northcm I'ictt, oi Scutn. wlio Living elud- 

tftl or cotw|ucird tlie iuterniedinlc pxtiiuiVi belnrcii (iicir tuulitciB 

tiouiidiinrs and this pbci;, gciierall.y cticuuiitiTcd a •tublMm re- 

Ahtaoce uml irpuUe Utir. f. Tl)u i-ri-iilly vxutpctiiled tlie ua- 

stadiog bordrrent, ntio, iniiKdUu-l^ uAt-r llii- Itoiiuiis Itft the 

Und, alliickcd Ibc town, mid Ictellctl iu forti(i<^At(on«. Souu vflvr 

Ibatrriv^ nf llif S«xuiia,*<iiMl lliv t^;iljUihiuent of Die Ni>rtliund>ri:jti 

kiiploiu. Um tniumaiidiiig »itf ol lliU ruined loyrn altrjcUd Uie 

|M wulcn, wbo ipiw^tr la bave ic»lored sonit! of lh« duvlUiigs, 

ui mddificd |iub of llu: c&»tl«:. *i1ic »uperi<>ri<y ul' (liU, lu iuiy 

libu town in ihc dulrict, is nuuiifeafaul, in Uie e.\aA of its beiug 

D i 4Wiiililutvd 

* 1bid«Blify the ntmec ot ftonan tlalioiH. to ivconcile tbe Jairing opjoiuni 

tfbiiit aiiiuiuiio, and aJjitil dir opiminillT opfMcitc itinicnicnit of ilie 

It*n, hit* iVfKrtl gtwi otHUdntn manjjifaur Bodcm l«i>«;7a- 

Oat prtptcuus iliflimliy. [ ait> int'linetl to think, hm untca from ilir 

«t' Mmc vriten, whu enikavoiiT to Awl a iHf/Ttnt »uti«n for «v««j 

: diqr pcrodTr luuc illdcitut niiiiue» ttlutiuit lu Uciuuii Uiiiuit. Mutfi 

M di&iilly will Iw rfOMtiKl bjr tulmilliaK ttmt one tiiwa, u lAucjuten 

idicwrft/imf aiuua al (Mciccil pcrlixb: oi tViini luiiie riringrkab'e I'ir- 

.U*c*, Iwil a ■«cD«i)l d^twuiiTc app«Ilaticii iflixtd lo it. Tlut u iMvtIy 

trilh n^jH'Ct In f'unitl'iJnHRi'fftlnn'ia ; Colthmrrin Umm : aiid il'we»t«r fitat IoImtviI-^ Ukduuiv of A<l'\laun»iii,ai tbe town «i)tlK 

iMMyLiau^tml^tiT. it Mflri 1(1 vmBih lavnici}iiuchlitioiu|t«wti>»^* 

.fxavi ia cumWfaaKt uf bsiim Buiituniul tor ■ cuuituuQ- vf iJiir hmconai, 

I AcconGag to Uie aniiiiit fntilnl teniitoi, *■ tSogfi- df littam boliU two 

oimia of kiuMiv iiicHtttceuftmutifiw Ai< Aem. wltrn iIh- Linit rtiTi-rtor 

Iwn iheaiHitl) of La»aatrr. Lanik w«e ftivi*o lo tniidutMlltPn in llicwv 

fSU, In bitfl li) tUr iTTvlf r of M'ltrtMir '■"'^ Aonit, bikI In-Iiu! buuitl ru m ■>< 

«eii«'a«"iuMn4, with lii^ amy, bil« ScoUmiI; ip wlHcb ItMywtn: tt- lio 

iHMcd iqilw TMtyiMnf. MtJ in Ihp rrrr-mnl rvtuniins.'— CuixL Hrit. 

tl.t1ctlWBll. Bvc^wiiltV rn^mmrM Xi/iviiMitflii. p.71. 

5fi lakcashiuk. 

aouAulMt the chief and de«inmti»K town of Ihe eoiinty. Thif 
narlted ewol bn-ferred, by Hr. Wliitaker, lo Ibe " Sev«ull) cen- 
Uiry," nt which prrioil he ofasvnv^, (IkU (he " Kt'niuo vllHuta re- 
een-ed the honor which it retain* at prcMnt, lotl was mnirie the 
nwlropolts of the shire*." Of ita annals (hiring the SaM>ii Hep- 
lardiy.we b*ve no reeotth; but stum after the Norman coiiqite^t 
the town again uasumes sonie historical con4a<|Uencc; thnugii by 
Ihe decisive evidence of (be L)otneMtay*book, /.ou-rjsler, anil 
Cbeics-Longeaitre, spp«ar dimply a* two vitls, or JJeneic*, 
BinoDg the twenty-lwn which cnmposed lh« manor cti HaltAii. It 
must be observed, that ihe Term inter Ripam el Merfam was 
surveyed by itself, n»d Amoiindemoss lof^tlter with that ptirt of 
Loa»dale Hundred of the estuary of Ken and Leven, in Vork- 
ahire. Ro^ of Poitoa was. at Ihe liine of the Dontevlay survej-, 
posM>»ccl of Ainoundcmeu; but Halton, with itt nppurtrnatice*, 
u-as stiU in pQ»cs«iun of tbe erown. It must a]>o be obiervcd 
Ihal there wax at lliih lime no chiirrh at Lanctutrr; yet frnni llw 
name Chtrealaneaiter affixed lo nne of rhtr vilbg^e^ it lec-ntc pro- 
bable lliat Ircre, as ia many other instances, had been a Saxon 
dniTch, which wm probably destroyed in tbe ravages of the Danes. 
AmoiUKlenic^, however, an unmarked and level itid of country, 
■fiwded no eonvcnient ate for a great baronial coillo. Luneaster 
therefore, oo account of its bold and eiesaled litualiou, tias ])r«> 
bably obtained from the Coftf|itcror in Ihe end of his reign, or 
from William Ruiiis toon after his aeceistoo, by Koger d« Foitou. 
for ihit purpose. For, as early as (he year 10<J4, vrc lind Ibis per- 
son gninttof; the church of St. Mary iii this place, Uien neu-fif 
founded by him, lo tbe AhUcy of Sees, in Noriuaudy, to whitli it 
contiouod a cell until the alien Priories were seured by llctiry Ihe 
Fifth, when jl wk tiranled once naore lo the Cartbusian Abbey of 
Sion, in Middlesex, to which it continued to be a cell till Ihe ge- 
nenil diuolution of monailgries. The fotindalion of tbe Church 
and Caslle were probably conlcmpunuy with each other. The 
grtU Tower of the latter, still standing, diiplays the strong tuaasirtt 

• Hot Maa Vol. ». p. !«: 




Ihb of architecture of thai period. Its nallsan' estremrly lliicfc, 
ad <^ butlrr^MS batve narrow prqjvclions, nliJIst Ibe lower wiu- 
imhaw iborl mund-bMidrd srcbrt, wilb t>iii<;lc sbiiO coluiiiiit 
«tbar sides. Hubert, .\FchbUliup of Cuileibunr, bv&itged ami 
todt tlm CaiAe in 1 1(>9 : il whicli pniwi it mu )iuMr«w<d \ty Ibe 
tnlber of Kitig John, in (nut for Ihat tuoBarcli ubeii he ouw lo 
Ik crown. In the seivnlb >'car of Ibe reign ol' ibe suuip kin^*, 1I41 
CMle uid honors 9(>5>r3r lo Inw Un.11 in Ibe poseen'mn of Kj> 
iriph Blnndeiil, Earl of Cluster; anil in the finl and eighth 
jm of U«irv the Third, ibc situie went behl in rhiug« by Wil< 
ha de Frrnks F^arl of Dtrrby. 

Ai the mudcfn town of Lancaster appears lo have grown up 

vttltieCAtrTLB, it will be necesury lo intjiiirt- iiilollic history, 

■dlseHdeavuur lo drfinc Min« of llHfclnrjciemtjoi of this august 

si in|iertBnt iLtmctiire. Parti of its foundalions have beenal- 

tMed lo ll>c KomuDB, ntiil dw lar^r wiuate keep bM be«a coiii- 

wdy Mcribed lo Uie i>avaR« ; uliihl the ^nd entraoce lower. 

pHny, wilb some oUier jMfliQns, are gctierally refem-d to Ibe 

nip nf EdMurd tiic Tliird. Though, at a DiJIJtitry staliun, Laa- 

oM ms alwBvs a place of Mttne imporlSDce, }«t It owes its cliief 

ohbilj lo Ibe tiul oiotrarcb, uo«i to his Iktrd son Jtha oj Gmmt, 

■hi«a) crestled by bin £ilbcr, DitWe of Laocuter. Tlte em of 

tocmtioa uj>prsrs to ha<e hem niaifcccl uilhsL-vemldtitit^i&b- 

cd rwsti. *' Tin- tjom^tlrtiMi of iIk- liftielli yeiir of hi* age," 

(Ednrd the Third, A. D. 1362,] " he resolved to Uvat as an en 

of Jubilee; and on the Ibirleeiilh of Nuvcittbcr, n Inch was the 

mmatmy of bis birth, be^Mle ollter proceedings, by nbi?b he 

■iked to stamp it as tnnnurable, such as llie eularnement of all 

ikblors and prisoner*. Ibc resloralion of siivh of hi* subjects ai 

arte in a state of baoishmeDt, aud tb« abolition, by public ordi. 

waa, o( ibe Frtncb langmg<f in all bm-cau's. pleiidiii;^, judg- 

■nti^ asd oonltacts. wilhiu Ifae reahii; be ako toleuuily coufer- 

nd. lu full parliaimiil, upon bis ^rcond son Lionel of Antwerp, tbe 

lidc of Ditlie of Cbrtncv. and upon his third son John nf 

Guml," as already olnnved, '■ tlie title of Duke of Laiicas- 


k-r. Hx Myte (tf* John of Giunl was mw Duk« of Lannf- 
Nr. JinH E»ri of Rirhinosd, Lcirwlw, LtDc«ln, an<l Drrbv • ; hkI 
be cl.tiii>rd vn Earl of Lcictricr, the office <rf hendilan' MDCfciul, 
«r SlemiM af tncland ; u fluke of Lancaster, lo l>«j' the (tr«al 
fward r-Kllfd rip-ftffuT, b^Ate tfa« Itin»i -( Kn»lantl nt llieir coro- 
Mlioo; iinl a$ luir) «f Lincoln, to be fjiancl canerat lb« diaoat 
given nn ihnl r.^au»iii f," Ttw Ualw bciag n«w invested with lliii 
title, htf raxsl parent nrtt ccvhA^tphI fvi hiio ccitain pants and 
privilei{«* to nipport h*> dignity ; aixl \ty Uk cli(irt<'r pvta Irrlonr, 
it appear* tbattiw Docby ot' LiDcssttT eoiidiiuted an important 
fcrfabii^ltmciit, auil km u sort of )H.-tl; kingdom I. It in pnauncd 


• Sj™K>nI, B«t !. CIl tV. 

I Owtwrn-i " IJft of rh»iit<T." Rvc Vof. tl. )«. ttS, i*w* !W mrtw fa- 
frr» lo •'Cwtrti, Al^rulj-nwit rfBi-coTrfewtmim." 

t Hiv fi>l^l•w■■I; cfcanCT, utmcttd Irou anoM MH, btakkl llM ProliiOnB- 
l»T'« ofltcoai i^cston, Uiowt tlw itn|k.rUB( prit^pftar Uw Dudiy, aad 
atftt the iulitw>' cbiUACtei uf die tinici. 

*■ Ettwanl. by llic gran tt Gait, Jnc. Knnir vc, TiM Wlittcai wo nrclglkinit 
trith diK cootrhntifoi tlo- threat ci]>la!u of n'.l iLmq wbn taie laU'hU}' ftnd 
coangfiomtf hrr«c<I n* in onr trart, an dHirtini orexalOiis them hy himen* 
M iwwe n|>«aal)!r it brfiorrtS n lo bcrtww enoitvr hfiwnand &»«« nt>«i 
•u am *eR«, vk« ve i« Moiotftll}' compiciiout Ar (bdr wiadnta Mtel 
Aftttto Ktipa^ tuiil mIm ant (a maily conwctR) witb u Iqr tic* nf triiKNl. 
CtiaiikriaK Ibcrtiiyrv llic ■ntli«l«t (iiUlilyf nn-l cxcoUtuI «it4»inorovr 
dtar Mil, Juliu, Kinc of Coitilt' joul Lmii, Dukr of UiDCUlcr. nbo. by liU 
kbonn hb-I cxeriiowi, ai»l tt»ny ttma »hca mcvv-ilv [■M|fli.'cil it, ^ itr-ifily 
f if am v bdnirlTla ibc <liuig»r« of mr, hath prortll hl&)»c1f thmyn drTDtnl 
to uw Mmuce « and wnUa; oa (bat ftcoauiit, and dcdiac (a reward vw taiil 
BaBiii:tiH*BrMnufarfnRM|aBid liaaorfi)r(ba]>i«pai.<tlioiiidi not toIlK 
ft U u Lik (uiJiLijutily rc^d'^) of ow ceiuiu kaovrledi«, «cd wilb licuuVii 
jn)', liiHMitb tiMiswirei of Ibt Lordi fpuiloalancl tomporal, in w pratcnt 
I^riairKDl «t ^rniniinttrr bc!nc u-wnibM, p-ml for o«inclf aod our Iic!n 
UtonvrnidMB JoKn.Tkit he^lalt hateft trli« t«nn efhii lU^ hb (^hmccry 
tad Viilintidrr buccal [at drfMitini! 10 ihroffloF of Ct)Hire1l«r, fcrappoiM. 
loftkit JiNlJfM.iu ncti Id li«M Pl*<u> oTUk Omtd, a* olber Ple» P^wUpat if 
MucUnii Uc Cnminoa Law, uid to p«» Jtidcmuu in die an*, and lo imik 
CKe£ulifiaiefnltti*o(ti«trnbr tbeirwiii) airlofiicvn; *ad«ttvrlibcrlin 
■ad R*trji Hk^u <jiua R(g«ln.) -atiuiacmt lo a Coanlf Palatiat ifjtulanv 



Uit tbeCt^lle wv nnw cinvritlertbly «nlaTS«ft ain) Hat a lituH- 
Wtvu »taUi(li«(i brrt', iu>rHbl« to Ui« «ljgorlv »f Mi pin>)iriel9r, 
■ri lo Ibe ruOnnif of tlie tiims. B*il tli« prrcitc «v«itli of ibe 
ihe^iod of tlw OukeV <lt*iiK-)lJc liUturv, arc put pullKlv record- 
(i ll is fvidnit. fa<>«>4?\-w, UniI h< (M^icunid for Uw Iowa Ihts €%- 
dnrt rigiit ol'lioldiiiji Ike ammoas of Pleui far Uie wtiol« oouui^, 
■ « cusi]ililicil iti tlic cbirtrr l>cloH *. 

ItKiU s|ipt>ar I'rum Uiv nbove purlimUrs tlist tlw pratpcrilv ^ 
ImMtar ntabmillv dufeaie^ upoa iu coniKction viiti (he loftb 
frpMpid'vnof UieCwtlf, aod tlnlcircMiKaiKr will ac^'ouutfor 
Iki ibMiv )o)-ally eviiw«d hy xUt intiabitwls, evcu io Ui« ret;;u at 
Jki^ Jolio, ttlio yraiit^d tbem a charter si vaipit as lliuie be liail 
Mm Mafanvd au Norlivimp4oii na-i UrifiUit ; but ultitl lUi> iii- 
UitaBts ol liiU luwn gained by tltcir atlliert^nee lo Ibe mooaKli, 

ilt« IrrdjriwI fill} ■> i]i« &irt isCCImlcrcliuiiii Io enjoy witbin l]i« wine 

* lb fiilloniajr n a mnthlioii of Eilwvd Ibe Thirds darter U ttin 
•^nkilnic re ikc r'aofy SwioM.- 

»£iw«nl^ by the gran of Uuit lung of Eoi-laod. Lord •rf' Iiclaod auiJ 
•^>li(uIM:, To all Aidit'iitiopt, Di>t>Rir», AltlwU, i'rMn, t^ln, Uuvw, Juv 
I^LStiniift au4 tijc-H utfLctrn, iitiJ nil BuUlB and ttieir fi'~li>Her*. Uret'liiiif. 
Ipwje.'nut He uf vur .'ipcciul ftviiT.iirtdal thr jinyer ofuiir lictm-vil >oiv 
)tfai Piikc (>r I ^nnitfT, hav« p-dnml, and by thlt oiir diarler L-onftrmed, for 
tJ«and«iir HrLr% to war Vlmr«it tlie Mtyor. BailiA, and tlx; wl>;>lc csoiRni- 
mif^lmatmtet, ibdr Uwnnd Saece«M)n,(lat fell PlHuand Seuloiw oftiO 
iwiica wlntevu lui^nci) (ut tlie ciwniy nf Laacatiur. ilulj . in iIk niil lovn 
c'LaBCMtM', at tbc cajhUI luuiu of Ui* uinl cvuiilj', and owl clt-.-»lHrv nitliiti 
te aiil raniiiy, be fur tnti tie^ Wlierrfnre Wc will and ikclut: (iir U* 
ol <m U«in> tbnt llie Pica* m4 Scwoiti of all Jutk-ei wliitiotvcr avietu.-<l 
litlHBSdciiUutT.aaU Iw lK!ld m Ibc wl hnvii. Bid not e!)«wl>M». It it 
kmU; Wltaca ibc KcTCt«n<l*«MraUc Palbrn. SImim ArdibUfaoficr Ca» 
I ■rta7.iWmaMafaaRnflud,WjuiBnBbh«pnrWineb««er,iHwClnnrctlofk 

•ItlBMBUHpaf £1;. i*ai Ticatdru-; lticli«il£«(| of AiuikIcI, Kbbcit 
Uilt'Sirfalk.'niwUtede Vcer£ti| ot'O^Jocd. ourCja-iilietlata, LU^at.llfl 
llofCBm. IUt|>b lie N'cTtll, Julin ilc Nc\ 111. John Altc Let, llie Sencsi-laA 
rf«wH««weU>l<l, luidullirr*. Given uim)«( our ItaitH «l Vc*t>n>ii«ln> tl>« 
^Mmi^ lU) tit Umimfift, a tin Ui^tj uxtli year of ixtr rrisn. 

By Wiil tJPrlfj Seal. 




waa eowAer^biKMl by tlidr lo<«cfl tlirou^li thrit devotion (a Hi* 
I.anc]utrian line, tlurin^ llie tmhappy <-i>iI w^t belMern tht* bai»n 
of York ami LaDoulcr. whicli ik-iuged tin* counlry willi blood '. 
It appean llral tb» towm was half (kpopulaled i and cvm iq 
Cwndcn's lime the rctidrntt comistcd principctUy of liusbandtnen. 
Oftlbe conAmmtinfi of tbc cliiiTlcr, wHb aridttional pnvilr-M, by 
Kiiii; Clmrl«* the S«cntid, tli« lonn Bgato revived, and frum tb&t 
period it eppean to liAve pio^rKuivc-ly au»nKntcd its comincrcei 
local Iradr, sikI buildings. The niagntlioeal Castle, whicb liu 
been alteruMtrly the terror, clory, and safeeuaid to the lOMti, it 
fpacious ill plan, «nd commanding in sitdation. Oc<;ii])vii)e til* 
•uitimil of a bigh bill, built of ftroog materials, with niauivc walli, 
«nd MTctal Kti&id towers, battions, &c. it must fomii^rlv bavc a»- 
atiiued a ;:rAnd, awl ai^panoUy safr reudKocc. TIiAttgb much nf m 
its ancicul cfaariKtcr aiid dignity bare br«n E^crificed, yet it BtiU 
occupies a ajiacioiu area, and its nrcbitcctuml fi:aIuKs apil a|>pr07 
prialion are entitled to gfocral admiration. Tlie encirdiiir; wall* 
rtobmcc in arcii of 3S0 feel from cut tu wut, tfy 360 fi-vl from 
oortb to soulb. In ubicb ipace is a large court-yard, vrilb smaller 
irirds, and scrcral dificr.iitlY sbapcd towers. Al prCMot the wbwlc 
i* appro|)riiited to Itie county-gaol, nilb its n£c£ii;iry appendages 
of Gtiolcf's-liowsc, Prisoners'-rooiiu, Cells, Work-shup^, Courts of 
Justice, Stc, Nculyfacius Uk eut, and coiuinuuicatiiig niUi tbc 
lown, is tbe itrongly fortified totc<(r,gotftcatf, or chief eutraoce. 
Iliis consists of tno aeini-odaiigxiliiir projection*, ulikb are per' 
fi>ratcd near the boKom, with ihutow a)>cr1ure5 in eaeb face for 
tbe discbarge of arrows; and the whole of the enminit hai bold 
Diachkolslioos, witb KIIlbnsure^ £cc. The gateway was adcliliun* 
ally guarded by port-cullines. Within ihis ciitnnrc it a lai^ 
4|>ui aica, or court-yard, surrounded witb tcwers and forlilied 
walk; and nearly facing the calrasce, at Ibe of>pout« vde of the 
««un, is lk< laige square kttp, already refcrrcd to. The walls 
t-f Ibis are of amuing ihiciuieu, and iu apartnoenU are of grand 


* Focacoj)ioui account of ihne wvt,sndof JotmofGainitf sec KicboWs 
Hutory of l-cic(»t«»Liie. 



dincosioia. Oiie of llirM rouuis " approprialed to tbe t»e of 

prmaaen, wbo for sliglit oflenra are lenteaced to a temporary 

cowfi— iMC B t, b ibout Kily-lhrec l««t ktn", liavius oulv four pluia 

fv*lk, md nwkmg tmrlv Uie proportion ot* a (ltiiibl« cube*." 

"Xttis Footn is referred lo b; Hr. I>upf«, as caJcuUtcd to produce 

KTcnl rffrtX. by simplicil^v of form and giaDtkuT of dioKUtioBs* 

he doon of tliew rooms uie ttoii« and compowtion. Tlie fun* 

yfvl omBnianib sevpTtl extrusive, OivenilKd, ami sublime views, in 

«vbkb tbe niiidiof: rivrr l.unr, nitli its bridges and Rqiwducl, tbe 

ided bav ot' Motecainbe, ttie noiiiil^ins of Coaibcilund, 

', VTatOMMdaiKl. and Yorktliin;, auii the beuulil'ul vile of LooHtak, 

cOBlilule tlK prominent failures. 

Itr. Cil[Hii. uilb \m unial fHidlv of laneua^, Ims irivpii 3n tni' 

ffodvc dnrriplHiti of » ihnrulrr-stumi sccifi', as vicued I'rutu (his 

Cutlet. Athllenottb of tlie ke«p»re the Sbire-lliill, aud Coiin* 

1j-Cmii1>, also mivihI offices aiid Kpaitincnls cunnectcd with 

Unp. These are niottly moduli, aiid baic been erected and lit- 

Ud up at nil ibiukqsk expeiiiv. by tlie coiitributiom of ibe footle- 

onof tbe coudI;. Mr. Harrison, ttw anliltect of Cliester gaol, 

kc crrc ibe pnnd|ial (l<^ipu fur tbete alteralions, whi<:li in gc* 

Hid bate brai gnwJ luid judkiuus ; but the recent tiiti^ilngi aiv 

km the desigDi ot* Mr. JotrpK Genitjf, ulio Irai di^ayed much 

tMe and science in Ibe pails lliut buvc been eJTccled aAei liii 

ikiKiitgii. In the decorative fitiisbing of llie uliiduivs, &c of the 

Graad Jury room, which is circular, ikitli a coved roof, ornament- 

d villi grotos. spriiijint; from br^ckcin. and in tlic .SJiire-lfaU, be 

Wietrodnccd wttK clc^niiit aud correct arrbitrclufnl dccomlinus. 

lUibUcr apartnivnl ii tin^Iarly beautiful, andcoiuiclsof utcmi- 

cjrtulu' znu, nith an uile going ronnd it. ;iiid lias a groined rouf. 

«iUi tbe iuteistices between tbe groins open. Tbis roof is lup- 

pwtcd by si\ quadruple clustcnrd coluuin>. Apiimt ll>c ilattened 

nde of the room are tl« Judges' Scat*, bctieatti ck'i^iiitt piimaded 


• Doppa'i Lift rf Michael AogeK 
' Obwrntion* rsbiiTc cliietly to Pk;iuie«;ttc Bciutr, ttc on tbr 
HilUMdi ofScfftluxl," ^-d Eait. Vul. IJ. f. 173. 


nmnpiM, i)n<l riirwinrl<iuf. doort. jKitmrb, ««ats.ft«. tf^nllfindf* 
ftti in a >1 vl« corr«tponiliiifr In lb* euriclied ecclesiaKtival Iniilding* 
of Uirt liflcmlli ri'niury. Ov4t lliv Jwl^V Seats arc two full* 
tuiglli porlniU* of i^ahoft Statilejf and Mr. Btatkbumr, inenv 
bt-Mfiir Uk- cotiiiKj Thc<« ;in! l»y Mr. J. AUn. and are eiecut- 
n1 nilli lltat liiktily ami Initli whuh <li3tiitjB:iiulK« lh» utiit'i jmci 
tiires. Retween tliPin u a tmonfl intencled to rootaki a full leai^b 
]iottTait of Ills pTtfSPiit Mujesiv, seated on a clmric^r, with a view 
nf [jtiiratlvr C>»ll<' and Oinrcli in the lurk gruiiiM). 'I'liit ^t«im1 
picture n bv Mr. Nnrtlicote, K. A. and the lione is drawn ukI 
patiilrri in a slyle of vxpreMirr energy, ximI {iccultarily of fur^ 
sliuctrninp, uliicli in»iiil»L |Ih> rmiiicnt abiliticii of lliU arli>l. On 
it h tlM> fulloning insT-ription • " Piv«mled imhe County P^atin* 
of Luncaster, h^ the Migti Sheriff Jatnes Acker), Esq. uf Lark* 
HaD, Ana. Dam. ISOO." 

Ill II rircidar tmrer, eotiunniily called Jokn pf tiaml'a Orem, h a 
collwtion i>f n>\U, records. Ate. rvlslii^ lo ibo oDiL-ial Uugnos of 
lli« county. In anoibn* ptiii of lln' ntrw ttuildin^ are llie Oiwit> 
HafI, a «{ificioas mid appropriate rnnm, ako u library, iit. all 
finished aitd titled up in u ^uid» siibsualial, and dfgaal sl<rle. 
Vh-vcd u<r nulinle, <iraiia)jncd in detail, it any be ufely aaverteil, 
tliut nu cuunty in Eufjland con boast of a Gaol, with all its conco* 
inttiint parish to complete, grwu), and adniirablp, as Liuuartcr. 
And n^tilst Itie dirciion Hre lli(» latKUbly emploved in giving 
gnwdriir, rlrt^ice, and conifnrruble rnnvenienoc, lo tltat building, 
uhidi uas fimtierty Uie pubce of Ibe eoiinl}, bitt now its fiulilie 
priwm, tbe^ will be juitlyenlilled to ll»epTiiEn>of tlie Innl lilslorian, 
and the aiipnibuliun of fttlurp a^M. On the north and soalli- 
aidts of llie Castle urc raised Icmci-s wtiteli conuitulc \Try plea* 
taiit tisd intrn^tling promenade*. The fulknvin; •emiuit, froio 
the bcnM-otent Mr llotmnl, will «er.-e to f-xplain U»e re^tationi 
and economy uf ll;e Cao! ; thuiioli it is but Justice lo say, tiatt 
many jodii^ious rei*iilaliuii4, and improved armn^-iiienls, have 
bcpii made here by the pftsnil worthy gaoler. Mr. Hii;gin, suice 
the iMililiealion of Mr. llnwunVs Observuiion*, 1777- "The 
gaoler bus no uilarj'; debtors' fees, $i,; fdoiu, 135. 4d. ; 
1 and 





irta si. eicfa. The debtor/ aud felant' allontucr, one 

ibitBng each on Saturdu^v momm)^. Debton' ganiali Jt. 3il. and 

IIm of Alotu 2i. 6(1. TIi« ctmyilain docs dtity (wicc on n Sundav ; 

tai one* evc^ Wednudvf anil Fridny ; »nd U-m h »tary of 5Dl* 

narif*. TYk naslcr'i ride dditon have many apnrtmeiiU ; mtn 

tikd wamen felotia bat« Uwir day-rootna apart, ti the upp^r md of 

Ae jmr4 ; wunim t]eq> in their day-rooni ; mm Itiiw tor tbcir 

ai^ ht-roftiti* (wo v<iullpd td\*. One of llw rooinf for del>b>ry ia 

oBed the QHekfr»-ro»m, l>«ceu<ic it is said, when t)iow jieopJe were 

wcmcliy pcrwculftd io the last centun-, vast niimlwrs of thrni 

KfTC eonfinfd in it." Some cljnriljbK- Iv^'-Kit* «r* WijiH-nllKil (-> 

the debtor prtiooers of tlii> s«o). It i* gni>pos«d tliat thii pnMO 

«fll DOW rotitWD £000 i»en withiu il» walb. 

Coali^ous to the C^r, and on xitt laitie «nmenc«, U the 

Fittsil CUL'SCB, whidi is a bii^ tpacious biiitdiiii;, oikI «>n- 

iHi Iff * na%e, two sKJe aile^ ud a Itandsome lower at tlte west 

tail. The ailts nre divided from Mu- ta\f by rijs.\xt |K>iKtrd 

tnba DO each liilr, the aiuutdin^s of nlircti spiin^ IVoid clustered 

a'lwMW, nod at Uh- east end is a wood-Krceii of elegaut carvhig. 

Thii enrieheil willi ^uliu^e, iNUOacks. crockeb, &e. tud ma for- 

MHy ipbiccO ucruM Urc church, to scpotale it frum tliu cboitceL 

tiett an a few of the nionki^b turn-up 8cal« stUt rcnuunin^, and a 

few wi m wicwfj. Ainoii* the Ulter is n mural marltlc slab !• 

'F7/IEgM Slmijord, LL. D. wlio was eoniinb;;tT> of the aiciideaF 

f^Kj of RichiiKmil, and died io 175<7( a«ed Mvenly-fivc yran. 

Tile araantlMtil was executed liy L. P. RoKiUUc, aiid oa it is a 

■mH S^^oupe 10 biHW-rclirTQ, repnnentins; 3 fiifure of Clnrity re- 

limii; «B Old WumaD wiUi two CtiildrL-n. The figtures, though 

Ht^, ace marked Mttli tnasterN expreasion, aiid erince the tulc 

indiiill of this jiisliy eminent sculptor. A^inst tbc nortli «vall 

btUr^ munil marl'e tablet nii>.ttd to theiitemoty of Sem*fi 

£)rr, a jud^ wbuse body was removed to Salisburv, the l^th 


* nai] tU pounJi fiwn Ur Coantv - 4l. fram t» Uitcfaf , aad id. ftu» » 


!^v|i(mtbcr, A . D. I f-SS. A l>uft of Iiiiu, v'Oh a hrgc fiotvins %^ 

auil cap, U alladicd tn Ibe moRumcut. 

Ou a gntrf-stoDC, in Uii» Cliurcb, U a pompoiu ioMriirtioD, 
nniiiMmorelivc of the various office* and trcHSftntttut tirluet ^f 
jniMMi Coiv//, wlio wsi " aix timeifliajrorof tltclonn, fvrlj'-c^lit 
yean kcirprr of tl>e Ctstk, forty^x yean one of Ihc conHwrs uf 
tfiP cnunlT ; nplnin of ibc ficchold laiul of Ibe huiKlreil of Lom- 
diil«, on lliis liJe oftltc saiid«. &c. and died Augmt Id, l6d9," 

" Craie, craw to moam, alt (can are nuii and void, 

llc'x flail, not dead, dtuoNnl, not Avtttvy'd ; 

III beam bit teul dolh ml, lib liwly liOiD 

Slr«px in Ana. ihut, bdiI Iih ftme nary whtve 
Tiniiitptu: ttLCUiwu. tlicraDotiyftrdicrforllu 
TJwIand (fatuvfiliaiit pradabai Imuoblciionli. 

Speak of I taaa so canrieooi. 

So frtCf and «v«ry wIimc ma^^tiaiiimaiii i 

Tim »lotv toM at tnruc tnte dn yon trs 

Epjtonk'il in bricf^ Covkll naa lie* 

" ThU u> gifeo as a speonen." ma Mr. PconaaU *' or an Epi- 
U)>h M very cxlravaKaoU Uuit Uic liviug mutt linuglt to rend; and 
[lie dccciucd, vtm liv r>)|>iJj]e, luuit bliuli to li«ar. LaiKOstcf 
Cliufd) was out of Uioic reserved b^ lltary lb« Eigbtli as a 
Mutctnartf uAvr tbc sbDliliou v( tbitl dougennii privilege ui Ibe 
rtA of knglaKif" 

TIic siitiution nf Launster being on a ^nllc asccat, aad Ibc 
aumniit udoriKd wilh Ibe Chuidi uud Castle, Uk- general appear- 
ance a coninmndtiig ; \cl Ml*. Ciiljiiii ob>cnt», Uiat tbc porlals of 
tbc latter " arc iicilliur wdl &bupcd, nor ndl contbiucd." Tlie 
rivex Luuv uiakes OKsaiy uo ucutc utif^lc vn the uorlb Hide of Ibc 
tonn. ntiCLice »e^'eral rc^ar alrceb ptvcutd to Ibc loulti, leavitig 
the diurcb and <s:illc in some incosuic dvtadieil. Muiiy of tbc 
former are lutrron, but tbc liuusci arc ;icHriall)' f;t>od, coiislruiicd 
.of ircc-«toiK, uud cuvcicd witli slate t> Besides nliirb tiicre arc 

• Toor io litviraiBl, <lo. Vol. II. p. S5. 
I for llic aiiiM!Kal Vuf ol' Uw Town, tiaa ■ pilitiJiix b> tbhetMn^ I ani in- 
dcbte[|aQ(li>l)ltgctltgJ<JiiiDcnt, Esq. M. P. for LaneaJter. 




Mini budwow niaikutHU, tLc Kskl«ncc of iucd of iit<l(pcn<Uiit 
(dune. Aa cxleiuive quajr, huffi umcbousca. mid mauy iicat 
hootti Int-e recently bveu ercclcil ; aixJ Mine ol' llie streets are 
■fl futcd. ludctd llic lowu of Luncajlcr ii ul pic^cut in a vciy 
■frDTini; jinH pra«|Krous sUitc. Tins public buililitig:*, exclusive 
Jime alrcaily tntntiooed, cw»Ut of a thaptl Oqictidcut on tltc 
flbfaGihcd church : ina<ldilioa to »Iikb, i)k Quakers, Prcibvtc- 
am, McUiodiaU, and Roman Catliolics, have cacb tlu-ir rcapec- 
liitffaMsof wonfaip. 

AaHa()t Uie cwivcuiccces [xMiuliai lo this tcmu, tbe ShanMtn 

fbtnt (Mfticuldt uotice, ai IIm-v reafmble a slKet, vrlicre t\<ry 

butcUr oc<u|>ic» a fhop, witli hi^ luuic JoKrikcd ov«r llic doflr. 

AaiKKiil Bridgr, now ia ruins, coum'clvd tlie o])pc«itc iliores of 

Ih Lhk, acar St. Uvurgi^'b quaj', but the iticnruiu^ opukucc and 

pe9iilitkin of Uk town, rcntlcrcd a new ami mure comuodiou'' 

iw HcOMU.v. TiiU was crcrletl fmni llw exlremily of CnUr- 

itndto SL<Tt(kD, ut Uic cxjicnrc of ncail^r 12,O00l. vrkkh nas 

|ii>t by ibc count;. The di-aign was b> Mr. HHrriion : Hod llie 

odn^ nfctjiial size and cliptifal, arc tivc in uumbct : llie lcii:::tli 

«f ibu kupcrb itrurtun: u 5i9 Ivi-t. Luncasler coiiIbIos a Theatre, 

Aatci n Si. Leuntinl's gale ; and an A*vembfy-rxion in Bud^ 

hoc Tbc biter |^acc in alw llic &ilc of Inclt-e Aime-kauus, 

tomicA Maicb Sod, 1713, for tnclvc poor mm, who receive: mx- 

uu diilliiigs and eigbt-)iciice per (piarter, attd oew cuaU annual 1}-. 

llcv arc Uk charitable acts of William Pcany, Aldcnaao. In 

•Uilioa to tills, llie loMii Is dbtiiigublic<l by H-veral other btiicvu- 

kal iBdHatKnu, jMrtinibrly four ahiis-liouics, ralle<l Citrdarr's 

timtry, Juundcd in 14S5, and rvbuiU in 1793; lis othur alou- 

bmesweiv fouiulnl in l65i bv George JuIiumii; ami ComcDos 

Ovdot-alml ffMpifd/,c(in$t>tiii^ of eicUl bouirfri for maiden Udici, 

■fo ue allowed :}!. per aniiutn, and a new gown each, for nbicb 

^arc indebted to tli« donaliuu of Mra. Ann Cilliioiiitf Lancai- 

tcr, nho died at ihc a-c of *evcnlj-lno, in 1 790. Tlic iiibabi- 

tlotit tong imptcucd with a juM sense of ibc ruluc uf lucutul im- 

pnmaKnl. Iiatv at dilTrrcnt periods e«labU>licd a Ficc-school, attd 

t«v Charilv-sdiooh ; Uw Aril, fof the education of sixty huy«> wax 

Vol. L\. r icbuili 

66 lancashibb. 

rebuilt by mbwription in lG82, under Ihr atuptcei of Bbhop Pil- 

ktngtoD, and ha« a tnail«r and an ftMutant. 

Otii! of the Charity-Kbools is for 6Siy hoys, wlio tir« cloatlitd, 
edtw^atcrl, and allon-M) the sam of 61. as an apprtntioe f«e. 
master of the ithool receives an anuiml salary vf 35). and a rcM-| 
dcnce, from Ihc amount of the voluutar^' sub8cri|>tioiu which 
port lli« srKool. 

"Die other whonl, cupportcfl by rimilar means, i» «(ij»teH lo" 
lliglt-Btrc«t, Mlicrc forty girls arc cloatbed and educated. 

The ManufiwrtoriM of tbc town arc iutonndwible. aud cbieflyl 
eomist of mbiuet making, s]>inning of twine, rottnn printing, and 
weaving of «ail-cIoth. Sliip-buildin^ litis bwo greiUy cscou-, 
raged, and inaoy lai^ lyawlj* coiwtrMctcd, partKntari; by Mr,f 
Brooclibank, who has sent ships laundtcd al bh dock-yard, U 
T.oiidon, of *50 ton* l>urlli«i). Unfortunately for the traden of' 
Lan<'aster, the rin'r Liint U ob^l^ucted by <.bo&)s, utiich, in Uieir 
present undisturbed state, prevent vessels of eoiuklerabh: bulk 
fh>m spproBHiin^ uitliin i'n miles of 11>c town; nor can tho»e 
above 350 tons reach the iiuays. Lancaster trader to Americs, 
tntb hard-ivare and woolly manufactures, in ?e«seb of Mreor 
loiM, Forty or fifly slups tniHe ii|*o to Norway. B«i<)e* ibe «•-] 
binet gOMis, a considerable <|aanlity of candles are exported to the 
West Indira. Miu-li wbeul and barley is imported. II appears 
iron] the ctutom-houie enlrkn, tliat m the year 1799, tifty-two 
reerb cleared out of lht« river for Ibe West Indies, with Ufi69 
tons of i;nod4, in more than <K>.O00 tmrka^ji. Thew argaet 
were estimated at a ralue of two and a half miUioni of poundi 
sterling. The Ciutfim-ThH*f is a jmall n(«1 buildmf^ with a 
pottico supported by four Ionic columiit. Kach of Ifaeaeis liftecii 
fed and a Italf high, and consists of a siugle stone. II was desi^* 
ed by Mr. f^illow, architect 

Nearly in the rentrc of LaDcasler is the Town-Halt, a lat^ com-j 
modious building, omamentpd nith a bold portico, which was d^-l 
signed by Maj^n- Jamtt. In lite Council-nioni is a full lengtii por- 
tmit of the gatianl Admiral SrtMn, painted by Mr. Lonitdale, oa 
artist of t cry promisiug lBlen1<, who a a native of Ibit town. This 



MinkBiiUi prvMiilvil il to ifae cor|)onilKio, ulio have since onkred 
I tall tm!:lii |Hjrtnil of Ihal vmuii-ut Et;itrsiiiHU. Mr, Pitt, ia» 
nivpcf CDin|)aiuoti. 

He ktmugk ut' Lsucutcr ori^iiatnl fruui a gnuit made in tliv 
bMlh jMf oK the le^i nf Richard itie Fint; mod uiciiiIkts uvre 
utiMOtto PuTUaincDt iu the twetilv-Uiird of Kdward the f'lnl, 
Otbmwerc n-lumcl the tvrfuty-ijxlh, thirl^-lhiii), jud ibirty-tiflb 
nfteMitwLtng'i reigu; tutl ngain iii llie eighth aud iiiiieloralii of 
UmA the JMcood. sitd the tinl, sccuiid. third, aud fourlli of 
EAnnl liic Tliird, I'luiu whose rci^ti, till that uf £ilw-anl the 
ijitlt^ no munben wen; reluraed. After tliia period it was re- 
eled, with I'mtoii, Wiguo, aud Livcrjiool. Tlw rrtuming 
Autan Uie iip\or aiid two bailiiFs. It lii» bv«ii alnMily tnui- 
linMi tiiat King Joiiu grautcil the htirge.'tses privileges ^intilar lo 
ikm ponened hy Uie ciliietu of Biistol, lo wliicli Edward tlie 
1IM added pernussiou for the luiijur and bailifli to liold the 
tkui stud Seuiuiu at tAacaWi, :tu(i itu where else in the county. 
Ik corpuntiou u coiR)>u8ed of a Mayur, Recorder, iwdve 
tUaatea, two Ruiliifs, twelve Capital Ilurgeuet, twelve Coiiimou 
trnprna, a TuMn Clerk, ami Ino StrjeanU at Mace. Lanraitcr 
mkiat ^^^l l bauKS, and 9U30 iiUiahituttti. 

!■ Ibe viciuily of this toMn is an excdieat Salt-marth, u^oiobig 
lb hnii of the rivei Luu« : of nluch about tivc huudied otalule 
tarn bckmg to eighty of tlie oUle«t freeoieo of ljuica«1cr. or their 
%At»^ hring held in trud tiy the corpunttiuii. Tliis uiarsli b 
jMlured, and divided into wlut are leiuied orl giatten : thai ii. a 
pniili^ of tutiiitifj uiie horie, oi two cou^, of any size, to suininet 
ipm this cotumoa: a poney being reckoned ojual to Ino oxen, 
kavevM snull lite Itone or large the ox. Hie number ofgraMej, 
tfiaUs, il equal to that of privileged burgeues, with two mure 
iv Uie tnidecs: viglity<)wa in the uhule, which, if h-t, are worth 
ilprc*eut fiitm ll. 10». to ll. lit.. 6d. each |>er Rniniuer. They 
Mukl out. «evea jr<ars ago, liavc produced liienljr &hiUiii]^. Tlii't 
Bonb b w fertile, tJial, if divided tutu fields of proper lixe, it 
ntild tntaediatvljF b« worth three ))«>iindt per acre, pa aiuium ; 
lid if jndiciiMtsly improved, five pounds. 

E 2 By 


Rytliclali- inland imsi^lioii, Laiirastrr lia.s conimuiiirJlioii 
llicrircrA Mcnev, Hiblilci Ouse, Trcnl, Darn<riit, Severn, llumberr 
Tbiinic)), Avon, 6tc. wliich uavigalioii, indudtiig ih windinxf, cs-i 
tend* tbm-r five liiiinlrf<I mtks into Hit; cottnlin of LJnroliit Not- 
tin^^liain. Ynth, WcstmarHancI, Clicsl<-[, SlafToid, Wumick, Lei- 
cester, Oxfonl) WDrccater, &c. All Ibc couulry from Kmtialt in 
tbe course of the Liinfaslcr canal, for sixteen miles n full of limc- 
>ttnie: and fmm Chorlcy lo We^t IltMislitDa, tlwre are immcasc 
iiiiucs of sen and eaoiii-l rauls. Tlic wliolc country oorlh of Clror- 
Iry.lbrousli which tlie numl psun. is lery inui-h in wanl of cnsls, 
and the omntry soiilli of Laiicailcr is in want of lime : Iicdcc, by 
opening a conmiuniaition bclnecn the port uf Lancaster, Miid h> 
large it Inicl of inland maiiufticluriug countnr, litis new navigation 
nittit iiuiteri»Ilv henefit llie nliote, (>v iniprnvin^ tl>c lands, manu- 
fuctun^ Hnd cnmincrcc of Uibpart of the kin^dum. 

About one mile iiorlli-cast of the town is a j^rand Aqubddct- 
Bridge, whii'li cnnrm tbc Ijincjiilcr-c3oal over the river Lunc. 
This slupcndotn fjbric nm 'Icsi^ied, and succvNtfullj executed, by 
!Mr. Jolm RciiiiMr, ciiilcngimrcr, nholias licrchv niauifcstcd the po»- 
seuinn of much skill and scieiKe. It i»justlv,cou«i)errd IheuKMl 
iiiii^nilicrnl Mruclun: ()f llib tind thiit lias l-vct Ircca erected tu 
Greul Ittilaiii, and mn\ I'uirK vie with aiiv uf llic |iuuipous work^ 
of tlic Romans. At the sjiut where the prricul bfidge is built, tb« 
•architect liail to encounter nml sutninuiit dr|>tli of ualcr iu IIk bed 
of Ibc ritxr, and a soft inuUdii bottom. It vraa ibcrefure found 
neosaary to hy a fuuiidalioii at the dqith of Iwaily Ivel beneath 
the surface of the waltT. Thisconsislinf afloorkig nf limber, 6U|>- 
ported hy piles 30 feet lou;;. Tbe fouuduliuo alone n rdtd Iu have 
cokt 15,OO0l.»D<llliesu|ier.Hl I uclurcabo^c double tlmtsun),allhousli- 
ibc rtonc wus ubtitiiicd nilltiit about one luJIe and a balf of Um 
place. The bhd«c cunsials of live einruliir arches, !>{>ringing from 
riulicatvd piers, »itb (iolhie euda. i'ucL arch is of seveoly fed 
spun, and riM» thirly-Rinc feel above Ibc tuHuce of tbe river. 
The \>'h»lc hridye bai a handnoiiiv curiiite, and ciciy part nf it iy 
designed with strict rcganl to alri;tti;th, durahilitir, uiid ctcgaucr. 
Tbi: total hejglil from the 5Uf&ce of Ibe river to that of tlw canul 



t i6*-oae frtt: nai\ bai^* of sixly loot burtfaen pass ova it. * 
IV BKceelul cxeoiiimi of this aiiuucin^ norlt u »l once uii ho- 
OMiikk nioauiiMnit 1u Dtr ruinmerctul spirit oflliecoutilrw.aiiUlo 
tpkttB of hs ardiilect. 

lUung a nurttiem cuurw from Lancatlcr, I slutll nrxtprocKil 

lefacrilw the <liilnct called t'urncMi, brirtiv aoliciug two or three 

fhm m tbe internifiliale raulc. About one mile norlti at' tbe 

fariBtriDwn » Bvacmont Hall. Die seat of K F. Bucklftf, 

Elf.; snH altonl tmc iiiJIr furllirr is Hai.ton Hall, i1i« seat of 

IT B. Bmdfiunr, Fx\. At ihrcc miles from Lancasti-r is ltr$t- 

Mit, where tlie tnvellcT who limits Futness, must run>>tke tlir lirtn 

Men rtMil. for Imrkleu Sands. Tiirw :in> furthibie at low 

nbr, front (tie btler place, to a «[utt called Itie Carter, or Gutdes- 

Hmm, 1 dislaim of uboul nine miles. From tiuic inimcnturial It 

tebccfltJiecuHloni totiuiva r«»ul;irsortof oliw-tcnMlfiiiide, called 

Af Gtpfflr, to attend nnd conduct t-tntngviA acrou this roadIe&<> 

dairl. He is nutatviucd bv Ibe public, trays Mr. I'enuunI, " imU 

cU^ed, in all ncalliers, to ultend bvn from suii-risv to Eun-sel." 

tvtOiay cetiluriei the priory of Ciirlniel was under the nece»«ly 

afpsoriditi^ a girnper person tor this diarge, and received syiio- 

(hk and peler-peoce to reiiiibiirse llieir evpences ; but since Ibe 

ibnhilioa of the moMuterin, (be diidiy of Ijiiiciutcr gjanti it by 

Mtofs patent, to a tnisty msii, wliow yearly allowance from Ute 

ncovcr-general is Iweuty poundi, His salary ii however in- 

ooMfl by a small donntion left by n g<?nlt4Mii:in of Oirtmel. Fof 

Mint oTthb *■ Carter,' in^iny obstinate, or careli-M people liuvc 

lot tbeir way, and llieir livei : for in caac of darkness, fug, or lui- 

ri^Mcted tides, the silualioii is lorrtble, and the horrors of an ovcr- 

■Mning fiave, affri^t and astound llie bcMildered traveller, 

tana inatBBces of this kind Iiave been related, but none more ini- 

fmiTCly diidrening iban the fnllouing fact, wliich is recorded hi 

E a •' Giav '» 

: aoKxeU new, rqKo«iitiiiK liic AqimliiaOriileci v^iiti ilic %<'nilin]( 
nNt; klnike Btii^ai LancMler, wilti ili« tomi in Ihr iliiUme, Uci>|ii«l 
i^BtfiiBfaia^bjr Mr. VT. Daniel, tuid wu leut nic by Mr. Rrnnir. 


" Gra/i Jounial." " I crosoed th« rivti, and walked over lli« 
peninsula tbrcc mil«3, to the tillage of Poullon. wbidi ituidi on 
(li« brucli. Au c4<I ftihormau tufodiiif; hit n«ti. (w bile I iuquircd 
ulmut flic danger of pusing tlioye itaud*,) told ine, to liiit dialect, a 
moving »li>rv ; how a hi^olbcr of lli*' tm<lr, n cMklcr', ns be 
as\t<i him, driving a liltk cart, nitli his two ilaughters (woraen 
gTOwti) in it, and his wife oo Itoreebarli foliowiiig;, set out one day 
to pass tl>c seven mile sands, ns t^le^ hati bccii t'r<-<|ucDt!\ used I* 
do, (for nobody rn the village knew tlictn bdtci than lire old mui 
did). Wbcn tbe>' were about half w«y over, a llikk fog arose, 
and u they advanced, they found tbc waiei mttrh deeper Ihau 
they expected ; tlit old man wsu puerled ; he riopt, and said be 
would eo a little way to fiiid sonic nuirk he was actiuuinted witli r 
ibey Maid « while for bim, but in nin : tliey called aloud, but no 
reply : at la>t the soun^ women preyed their mother lo ibiuk 
where they were, nnd «o od— slie would not )ra«v the place ; at 
length the wandered about forlorn and amazed ; she would not ■ 
<{uit her harse and get into the cart loitli Uieiii : thvy drt^ miitied, 
nfler nwch time waaletl, to turn hutk, and give Ihcnuelvca up to 
the guidance of Ibcir horse. The old vomaii wu soon waabcd 
off, and perished. The poor giH§ clung dose to their cart, aud 
the. horvc, sometimes wadini;, and tonietimeit swimminf;, brought ' 
tlieiu back to laitd aliic, but senseless wilh terror and distress, and 
unable for many days to pye any aecouut of tbentielvea. The 
bodies of the pnreub ntn found tlic next ebb : that of the fiither 
a very few paces distant from the spot wliere lie )iad lefl tbem." 

lu the midit of these »and» is Ike ckaoncl of die Krji or Kent 
rrvxr, and in rather phtti are several siualler rimlcU. These 
ahouud with tlie flat lull called ^mA, also salmon, &c. mbkb arc 
caught St proper sca&ons, by means of filing tKt» across thecban- 
neb, and tliese arc cvimined ut ebb lidc. For a ceilata distance 
frumiborclbe ri^bt oflishiag ia Uiesc atreanu beloogsto Ibc Carl 
of Derby ; but beyoud hii bounds, tbc sands and fords are common 


* llbaeonnonpnH'ikr lor old women, chsUrrn.&r. to fi>ll«w tbc cMaiiif 
tide, ofMl pick ««c1(Im»uI of tlicntiit. 





inftft;, tod uc fr«« to idl Uic sons tad dauglikrs of iw 

To embaDk and briag under cultivatioa Uiu wide Inct of 
go^bu olWu l>e«n reeoauii«aded, aod its utility has been urged 
■ilbludftbi« patholic wanuUi by KvvraJ iogoiious writL-rs: but 
Ik lut CKpcocc uUcndiDg sucii ui uodertakix^, willi tbe prt- 
(siNBDeii of mM of tboM plotu tlul have bticn directed agatost 
ikpovcrtul aud capricioui wave^ liare liitlierto |)rcvculcd Uie 
idiybou of tliis scImidc *. An iiilcicaliiig accoiuit of Ibis project, 
vilbalcuklious on tb< probable ad^-anlai^*, vVc. was drawn op 
b} Ml. JJoiuinaD, for tbc Board of Agriculture ; and is publi^ed 
■ lltti ftDUemaii't small volume, entitled " A Dncriplivf Tour 
ad Giu4e to fAr LaJa$, Catxs, Atounluitu, £cc, of Cwnberlandt 
HalmotxiaitJ, LenCtukirf, IfC." 1SD2. 

Tbc luge tra(.t of Sauds alrcad)' described, will) an<it]i<>r «iiniht 
l^a, oociip> a s^vx, nliicb, in Ttukmy'i lioic, bore Uk- uanie of 
Marimibc, and is now called Mortcambe-bajf. Tlie is fonnod 
bjtbe Irish S«A to liie soatii, and the irrigaous shores of Loivct 
fiBMai to Uic nurtfa uad ncsl, witii u piut uf LuKasbire to the 
otf. A large Uact ufcouuti;, \tbicb l~orni> most of tbe uortbeni 
bwiadarjr of Uiis buy, utd it deUebcd frou any other part of 
Uacsihirc by Ihe river Ixveo, ice b litowu by the appellaliuo of 


This portion of the county coulaios »n area of about tirenly- 
pghl milca bom uortit to aauUi, by tltirlcen miles front east to 
Halt, and luu the county of Cumberland for its casteru boundary, 
ilnbt Ihsl of W'cstioareUnd itkirli it to Ibc noitb and easl: and 
ibc irregiDlar outline of 'tis soutlKru side a t^uhtrd by tlie Irish 

E4 Sea. 

* Xmaam: qmuitilMaof Iwd Inrc been rliflaclivd wnd ntnvtd from (lie «m 
\} f m Tf FWtHnfi^T— N TbeiiBtancM of iliow iUtli« mouHioribenver 
Oa^oat rtmlrw. an^al £>vnA«n in Emcx, urc orsivit public iitilily, atiA 
taMdal adnHlCB- ^^ ucoudI of tlic lattar w given in \kt ftUi Voluoie oi 

72 ' LAttCAStllltS. 

Set. Thii district cMaistt of m irMgubr utA rAOiintic mixhiu 
of liighcniggy hilU, narrow valca, 1ake>, riverr, and brooks ; and 
on th« Cuinbcrliitwl border are tavae matmtains of a wild, lofty, 
9r() romantic character. The soulhem eslromily, which projccli 
into the ««a, and » c-allcH Lower- Fiime^m, lo ilititin^iiisli it from 
the not1h«m part, called High-Furens, contuins a nnnderable 
tract fif lerel fertile land, fronted by the stnfpiUr bow-like hff o/" 
tVnineif, uliicb is »f the taoie natnre. Bcfides the main l»ud, it 
eomprehends Ibe iilands of Fouhicy and Walncy, Roe, Sheep 
?il«. Old-barrow, &c. 

We hare no eertain evidence of any Homan tlHtioii in this part 
of the counlv, nor docs it ckaHy apfMwr tiial tbt; pitrrd mtdi, 
which Mr. Wtst describes as Roman, were reallT made by that 
(>co|vle : ind«4.-d the ast^-rtions and arpiraents of that author no 
Ihb subject, require more decisive proofs than he has adduced. 
In the Doiiiesda>' Survc>, the nam* of Fume** does ont •cnir, yet ■ 
almojl everj- vilbf;* in Low-Fume»« i* mentioned, toother with 
the hind -owiien, and the quantilY of arable land belonging to each. 
From tl)b authentic document, it appears that this part of the 
eounly Mas provided wllIi " Sixlvais plouglts, cjielmive of Iboae 
which belonged lo the Lonli of the particular manon, aird to their 
tenants. Fumeu, in Uic Conqueror's survey, b included williia 
tlw west ridine of Yorkshire, and in the diviaon of llougun : to ■ 
i»all Ihc oorlh of Lancaihirc. and the »ou(h of Westmoreland, 
with part of Cumbertand *." As many further particular* relat- 
ing to this district, an directly connected with the Abbey of Fat- I 
new, ynd some of its towns, 1 shall proceed to describe tin* princi- 
pal places 3nd subjoin such geoenil acccoutits as may tend lo il- 
llulrate Hie history and antiquities of the Mhole. The lirst town, 
after pasting the Sand^t, i» 


Which is situated in a narrow, and well woodcJ rale, nearly 
nirrouDded with bold hiUi, among which, the high r><l»e called 


• "Wtttg •' Anuqailfn of Funiwa." 


LANCAsnlRR. 73 

HMfKficld>(eU 4v«rlttag il lo tli*- «ii»t. I1ic touii vf Cudiucl, 

wlb (Iw f»«iiin0ut%I«tl iauil coiiiprvlioiKlod lictviccii Uic n\vn 

Imnaod Win»tcr, to Uk *Miit aud HCi>t, v>iUi tlie Lki> v{ Mun> 

onle h> Um soulb, is not includMt wilbin Utv lilKilMs uf Funieaa. 

Hk hi^ iBliquitv of ihU tUslrKi, wilti a ti>Mu in it calkd Sudgrti- 

Ur, it idMltfied t>y a gnat of Eg/rid, m Wuip, uf tiw Nurtliuni- 

hiHH, Kbo rctpied between the ytan 670 awl (>85, and wlio Rikrc 

IbrwlMW, with all tlie Britons rxi il, to Si. Culfabert. [n lii«>eiu- 

)lt8, • Pri&iytm I'ounded her« by H'tUiaut Marttfha!, C«rl of 

Pembroke, uh<> endourd it tor Oanoiis reguliir uf Uiv orJvr of 

Sl Ams'i*'''"^- Amungd Ihe privileges of this rdigiotu toUoda- 

Ijeu, it hod llie exclusive ri^ht of appointing a guide to diiKl ira- 

Ttllfn over llie wighbourin* duni^rous sands. After lt)« dtwolu- 

tito, tbc inbabitant) of llic touu adopted Hit ipiittcd dvtcntiiua- 

tiioof purchasing ibe Momitic Churcli, nbicli vas afterwards 

aade perocfaiul ; and IhrrMjgb t)ii< circHintttaim! a very beautiful 

ilnctttre, in the pointed Myle of areliitecture, and <if a cntcifomi 

ftn, has been presprved frvni d(r%-a«lulioa. It has a eetitrc toner 

#f l«ro f(|tiiire gndntintti, pliiced otio u)>oTe unotlier diagonally, 

ud il f upported by four central cluiterul pilla». Tbcnavtit 

mt< nodern than tlie rest of ttx buildiog. The choir k onia- 

Mated with bandsomc Btall», the canopies and pillars of whiebnrc 

d«onl«d nith carved foliage, &c. Tbe&e arc suppoted to liavt- 

Wm^«(1 lo (he Cdticiu before Ibe diwolulioa. The cast wiinkiw i* 

(«t>-<is|bt feet high, by twcuty-fotit feet in width, and \s enncbed 

(All inulliODt ud tracery. Il bat been liikd with painted glau. 

Tbe length of the cbunh n 157 r««t. that of llic transept* 1 10 

Irel, and (be bciglil of the walls 57 (<«*• Tlic Prttton ^mily of 

iUftar-Hall, about the year 1700, coatnbuled Urgely (uwurds 

the tepaira and decorations of thit church. A stone withm tlie 

tbiucb i* ioscribed with the name of WiHuim de WaUm, Prior of 

CutiKl, who it luppotcd to have hecD the fiisl or tccotid Canon 

«li« held tliat office. A masaificeut monument, vilh the rccuin- 

boil cfiigics of a Kitigbt. ctoM Ic$g«d, and bi» lady, under a 

neb camp}, was ptohabl^ iatcad4^J fur Sir JvSn it ilarrtagton, 

•bo va» tuuuBuiied to nwel F.dnard lliu First tit Carll'^, in 1 J05. 


74 LAtrCASBtRE. 

tA atl^m) him inlo Hcatlsii<i*. Anollter was erected by Vkruttpher 
RaufliuMon f, lo liis parculs, whoiu mollwr nits a diriKl tiescendaul 
rron EdwinI lite Fourtli. Here utt »oiiic fine tnoRumrnU in 
.eomnttmoration nf dU&rciil braiidie* of llie Lowtber itnil Preston 
Aiiuli» «t' Holk«r-Hall ; and on a nuall aiartilp siab io tbe toutli 
wall. It cii iRcieiit Epitapji in verw on Elhrlrtd Ti»nbi>r»ttgk, 
wIm wbs of an aucirnt family of Hampt/tefd'HaU, near C'Hrttncl. 
TbrpOBlrv b eurious. Oa tlie nioitumeiit of Mr. J. Rabauoti, n 
reeorded a donalioa of tM-enly pound*. Uie inlered arising from 
trhirli is alwax-s Io be giteii lo Die Guide o^vr IjiiicaUer Sandi^ 
Allaclii'il In tliis diurcti are Ave Oiapelries ; i. e. at Slaeelnf, six 
miles uorlli : t'artmel'JeU, six tnilM norlli-eaU; Litutat, iJirce 
iittlefl e*5l ; Broughtoii, two niite« uorlli ; and Fioeithitrgb, wliidi 
i« Iwo niilfs xoiith. All the livings arc in Uie gid of L^rd George 

Tti? Klrrets of Carliuel are narrow and irregulnr. Besides tbe 
ehiirdi, lierc k a Firr-Grammer Scfaool. well vutluwed ; untl iu 
8clio»UHuiise was rehuJII in i7i)0. <.'nrfmti-itrti, or sjiring, 
abocit Uiree inileft loutfa of the town, issues from Ike base of a pn>- 
,iKtiiig rod(, and i<f ol'a bmckiih taste. Having tlie re|MiUlioo of 
being wrvieeable in KrorlMjtic rnwt, occtMoiw a cniisiderablc in> 
flax of company during tlie sumioer monllis. 

About four miles norlli-west fnim Cartinel U BiglANO. tlie 
seat of tirerge Jiigland, Esq. Tbe house and grounds aK pka- 
s&ntly situated, near a small piece of water: anil from tbe higher 
larkds wrf extnuive views are obtained over Furaei»-feUa, Leveo 
Saadf, tfae pilp of Fouldrpy. inc. In tbe kitcLen ut Bigland is 
■n iMCtifttion nn the cliimney-ptece, witJt tlie fuUuMiiig letters iinJ 
Agnres : L B. 1 )€l. From this, MHoe penons have erroncouily 
aacribed Uie caning to that era. 



* Dugdsic'* Baromce, Vol It. p. 09. 
t TIm gfnUenaB, w1m> natitcd at C1ttk-H«H ui tUs rouuty, mdo twge 
TftpognpUcal CdteeUooa leltlii^ f o WMUwniaiKl ami CnnttwrltDd ; Mpies 
ofwUdiareatRydBL Oot^^BiilMiTeragnph]-, VoL U.p.Slt. 



At a dwrt dblanct «v3l ofr^rtiael i» IIolksr-Hall. one of 
AfMbof Lmrd Onrge Catvnditk, mIio niccMdcd Uie Lontlier 
tadf. ad that the Prottiat in llm Demesne and Lordsbip, 
tW boMe » a bn:^ irFeculnr buitdiuf;, fnnitiii|| two rixbt lo^d 
■la of alriatiKl*:, uid biu been piutly frunled in llie " Gotliic 
ixk.' The park is finely wooded, and froni iu lacKy bills com- 
■ndmnie grmd and bigbl; |iictiirCMiiic vien-s. Tlic tiitiittor 
tl lb BDcient niamiaa <roiiluni ii larcc calltxtimi of piduna : 
HBTdf which arc liii^-, ond cuimiu. AmoRi; the Portraits ate 
AdntsofllK fbUowiu^ pcruHts: Uvcho&s of Clbvelakd, 
iAb m me of King Cliarlca (be Sccood's mbticsscs; by LrUf, 
Nf. Pmnaot c^amctarisc* tbia rowl couitccaa by Uic lernis uf 
bonlifal, abandoned. Tindictin:, and violent. 

A&UJBAL p£SN, hidt Ivu^lli : dn^svd iii bluck, witlt a ctavat 
adauh, loo^ bair, and, ua Mr. Pcniiaul nriuaiks. " of a good 
lUDol couulcaoncc." Tlib gcnUeaHUi wu tulviuiccd, caily iu life, 
to llie biglmt uuttil uppoiolmcab: wau a Captaiu at (h« age of 
taialj-ane: Rear-Admirui of Itttuid At tH«ity-UirM ; Gcocn) 
io fc 6iA Patch w-)tr at tliirty-tww ; div;ifiuci-d aud iinpfitoacd by 
ChnmcU fur bis uinucreMful atletopt gii iU L>oiuiui:o, tbouf;fa be 
•Med, ID that expedition, Jamaim to the Ikiliali crnwn. On 
Ihi natontioB, he commaadcl uud«r the Diikc of York, la the 
■ w aM p. al Ike great ua^id vvga^iutml of l6b5, wbca the lau- 
nb of the fint day were blutcd by the unfortunate iJHKtJvily of 
lie mand : ** for ittitnpriHceM are conc<me4, Uic IniUt of tuiactr- 
npa aeldoiii appcan. He soon ulVlrwiirdii retired from the aer- 
va, Hxl di<-d at tlic early K^e of fiirly-nine*." 

Sir JamBs LowTMBIt, of wliotn tbe&une whtex observes, that 
k waa " a eltanictcr too well fciiovta tu lie (Ivrdl oo :" but Mr. 
Vsact lav^, he " veaa well kuowii for hi» extreme pciuiTioiHiieaak 
vkKh obtained biu the appcUatioa of Farthing Jcm»mf\" 

TnoHAS WtlorilBSLT, E«rl of SvuUiiuiiplvu ; a head. Tlitf 


■ PonaofB " Tow in Seoibivl," Vol. II. p. UR, 
t A Toiu tlsoo^ tbc Norllicni CouDticf, Bvo. ISOS- 


l^wigbt Dobleman nas the ^latiucb rrit^nil ut' Lonl Clamidoii, luul 
virtuous treasurer ai lUe liist vrar» aftrr tlie Rctloration. 

Vak DVCK, when young, by liimadf. 

Lo&D Richard Cavenuish, bv Sir io«liua R«ynoldi. 

HlK. Thomas Riston, aiinticiml ]iro|ir(et()rot'Fun]en Al 
■ad Manor. 

Aai«n^ the Picliires, llic fullmiiiig are «l«eiUMt iioriLi 
nu^rit : Two Landieapes by Claude ; and one bv Zuccarell! ; 
I1M) biterior Vietn of CtiUTd>«, one b;r day-ligbl. ami Ibc 
other rcpri>tenr(f1 iiaAer llie eftect of liini|>-li|;lil ; bv P. Neefii. 
inlli r)j>urrs. uiitl lu be bv Elsjiienier. 

St. FRANCts o'AtslZB. kuvdtng. This it h fuie, sad very 
iilipTesive picture, in the ilvie of Spagitulelto. 

TH<a Largr Laadirapft, by Cbiude : a Puly of Peuants play- 
inj; at CurtU. by Teneirii. 

Two Pictuprs, by Wouverman. 

Twii fiiic Battle Piccir«. by Borgognonc. 

An Hi&lorical Picture, by N. Poimiii. 

A Landscape antl Cattle, by RUBKN<(: with a gleam of 
wen tbtnii^li i)h! Mtvs. Tlii<i Ii3» bei<n engraved. 

A L>ndaci)|w, by Hobbima. 

In the vicinity of Holker is Flook bofougk. which wu once 
• market tcmii, and had a charter granted it by King Edward the 
Fint : bnl is ootv redoced to a small vitlage. Near tliis plare, ao 
cordiiig to the slMlement of Mr. West, it a iimed Spa, called ibe 
iMtf-urU, the waler of nliich is esteemed of seniee iu most ru- 
laueouft dnraM-4. 


TIk tlirtct and nearest ruad frmii Cartniel to UK'entoii, Dul- 
tnti, ice. is B<ross .inolhcr bay, or creeli, r^dled the ixtrH^ Sands. 
This pAituige, like ibat over ibc Luoca^cr Sands, is precarious >nd 
a Carter, or ituide, is always stationed hereto conduct the atranger ■ 
through the bed of ihc river. At sprin.^- tides, the waler is »ome- 
times firtcco feel above llie leviL (il'lhone sttiid<t. Nearly in the 
midst uf these sands is a Mnall insulated lead called Chapfl'hUnftt 
wbeic are a few rejiHUn.H of an ancient Oratortf, ur clmpel, sup* 



LA>iCA»HIHH. 77 

pHedlo Imitc bmi built bv llic iiionks of Funicas, aad provided 
•jthi pncaU wlioae ofitcr vns lo offer u|i cliiil<|r prayers A)r Ibr 
MJil} of paarnerrt. Alwiil luidnajr bclweea tbe jlinrci, tlic 
■Ktod mrten of the Let-en aa<l Crrlic riven |hl&9 to llic hh, niid htc 
txiUble* wilh a Rmoolh samlv botloni, wbeu Ibc tide is oal. Tlie 
■fgtrv arontid llib flat tnitl. is divrniBed, icraiid, and anful; 
■d, acconliag to the difficiTnt ^.iMmi. or lu wen uader tl)« in- 
Iwce 4f ctear. cloady, or .nto<niy weatlter, a»uriiri »ii almtnt 
aimdiuige ofdTt-cbt. To tlic «mlb, tbe retiring sea. unHins 
ib diem) erige with liiv xtiining itniid, is seen furmin); n long 
ani|bt ItDr, with gleaim of li^ht and streaki of ^bade. and stud- 
M aith difiercnt lized vcssdit wbtue masts aud mHi iiilctiect 
Ibf haxt borinin ; wliilsl Ibc promontories and creeks of ibe t aii* 
aiinewBt ttriDiiuale tlie prmpcc tu ibc soulb-east. Tbc vkm 
la Ibr north preienti a verv diffi.-n;nt -.n^t : fur bere tbe tufged 
ikms, irilb the lowering idoiiuIuum. s|wtt(.-d witb IracLs of wood- 
lalnd hcalh, cxinstitule a sa-iic of miK'h <!nuHlcur and subli- 
■iljr. About raie loile fruin tlir oirter'* Imux, on tbe western 
adc a/ llie« sinHt, it 



t anil aocient naaikct Innn, llie capital and mait of 
FinvBL Tbiii is plrisaiitk tittiHird ou a declivity toM^rds tW 
mA, at tbe di^ancc of about a mile from an ami of the bav of 
MaRombc, called Ltvta Swnd<i. wIkiio; teneU of one bundrcd 
■d fifty tons burtben come up to ttic port .il bigb tvaler. The 
inxipal liade of ihif pUice is in iron ore. pij; and bar iron. Ihnc* 
lUae. blue slatir, onls, barley, aiid tie!in« ; wbi^-li Inst has been tent 
■•Lnvipoul, in lar^ rpianliltrs. for the food of tbc negmcH i>i tbc 
(■flWB trade. In 177*. seventy sliips vvere employed by this 
lata in tbe coasting trudc. The imiiufnclurfs carried on bere 
m tatton, cbrcli, canvas, and bal!>. L'lterUon obtained a charter 
fran Edmrd the Flnl, iii the eighth year of bis icign, for n v^cek- 
l)r nuket aod unauat lair: but wsn not much benefited by thi^ 
tBM, ahilc Pumm Ablwy vra« iidiabitnl by the inunks, as the 



land ; bImi into 1 irlaiHl, SmlUoil, America, ^^c. Tlie above nftined 
George Voii, ifbo U udinitkcJ to be llic I'numkr of lliu mcI, havifig 
seccdcJ I'rom Ike (>rolv*liuil cliurcli, kft his natal toil ', aod first 
attrsdcd ptiblti: notice at Ovrhy. iu K'jO. lUre licwm impruoa* 
ed for prutuiwlv udtlrcs!iiii» llic conKTCcalion alter divioe sctviee ; 
Mad duriiif Uis e)uuiiioali<Mi bctorc (lie maeitlrale, bt commanded 
Ihc company to tranbJr at Ibc voice of tbc Lord ; vrtienrc bo|b 
UtDiielfandliisfoll^mcra w-cn.-jeeTULi;it callolQirnA'TM. iloviiig ve- 
gfiincd biiibbKrIybc proceeded iioHliward, and £falou}l> pruclaim- 
cil tiii niistivD, ductrinet, and lenela. TUtac being o<H-e| and sii^u- 
lar, wcrv adopted by some persons, and scoutc<l by other*. Atl* t m 
i-ncouuleiin^ maiiy obitaclci. be re&cbcd the dialri(.1 of FurocM ; ■ 
8ud during Uie absence of Judge Fell, prevailed oo bis wife U)<I 
family to embracv hU opinion*. Tbi» vim in (be yeax }6i2- 
Tbe Jud^e, on bis reluro btmic, iindnifv^ted some di>pleftuir« to- 
ward) Die new pieidicr, aJid op)>osiU«a to hi» principles ; but Uw ■ 
Jatler per«»ered, and at leni;lb ronverted Utft Judge also. Georgr 
Hon- itecwred htnisiOf wilhiti lb« bome, and influence of Mr, Fel), 
who eslubli&bed i weekly tnn-liof; in his boiue; and accoiupaitied 
the preacher iu aome of hi» apiirtual excureioiis. *' At GkiMloiui 
Deodroo, and Hampskle, he uu ueil received i at Ulv«rstoa, 
Cockcn, and Nnrlb»cflle in the ItJe of Wabiev, be not ouly mrl 
with oppotilion, but abute, to tbe inmnuient daoRcr of liti life. 
Judge Fell, nftirbein^eonvinceil of llie rectitude of bii principles 
was «««r a sleadfa»l friend ; but death lerminaled Itis tuAVsge is 
September, l65S-|'." Eleven yean after ibis event, George mar- 
ried the Judge's widow, vim nunived her second butband about 
elewn yearn, and died at Swartinoor-Hall, in 1703, in the SStli 
year of her aj»c. 

Su>art, or Strart s mitar, appMH to have iMjlaiued its name from 
one Martin Stportst who, with an army of Gennani, encamped 
here in the year 14S7) in order to collect forces in tlicsc parts, bc- 

' He vru bom in L(tcci.iTriJiiie ; nsd anmc iDcmoIn of bim wIP be girea !■ \ 
ifce roOTBD of d(scribiii{[ tliat cotmty. 
* "nit Antiifiiilict of ruracu, edited b; W, Oom, Sn. 1903. p. HOf. 

ineiit ■Uempt to wmt Ok cronn frotn-llcnnr lh« Sewtitk 
Pt ffB Mfiported by Sir Ttxrunts Brou|;litoa, a ^eutiepian of llai 
K^gbbwrfaood, who naipiag Kftcttrariii inm Uie battle of ^alcr, 
SxOKtm Clrndtmr, lived many yeam (<i«b<-ii be \»a» s<i{ipo»cil tu 
hitbeeu slaiu) in gic«t vtncuhty, lupportcd bv bb fiuUiful tcauils 
ii KetnnordiuiL 

Abnt three miles wutb-wesL vf Uhcrstcn >rc tbc cxbaosttd 
WirrtlGC IrohMinbs, whkb fcriaeiiy, ' a>»l ^i avciy icotote 
poiDdi, prodttcetl la(|>e qunniHiesof on. Otben, eqimll^ pio- 
didFCi ia\x bern ufKiieii on LlMiAi.B'Mooft. Tbe Iiou 
UBcsofUib dutrid wen culled, by Mr. Wcril, (bcPciu offiit- 
wMtM^tty fomcrly conttihiled a valuable property: but froiB 
tk bonK*! expeiioe utteiiding Ibc convevaiKc of fuel, Uiey U6 
■n tlepfeci&t«d ia \^)uc. I'lic wood* of Higli-FtimeM formerly 
Mffkti the furnaces witb cbartoal, for »iDelliiig Ihe ore : but tbu 
U btt bccD somclimft obtained fiom the Hcbridu. From ibe 
Hflf t uUK f of the ground htn, it ia evident (faut tbe Iron-works 
« wn aacieni, ftitd by a grant of Wtib'un of lAociHer, Lord of 
Kn4l, lo the pfiory of Coobheid, lie coiiveirs tlio mine of 
PkmptMi '*iHfro introilti ft tiitv ad duet, ejtun turn AcmimibiUf 
eUKBdaiB, £ee. *." 


Iia (mall nairlcet bwm, plennnlly silxulcd in tbe niidst of a 
Uvt of cDUutfy Mftrcclylo be equalled for fvitilitvaudoilli^itlioa. 
lb nuM vta probably given by tbe Saxony, irotn its utuatioo 
king neaf several deUi or vsllks ; bat obtained its chief support 
■d UilorteaJ coawqueoc* from its vicinity to, and eontieetioo 
fit riiniu»> Abbey. Kio^ Stephen contributed greatly to the im- 
pnilMn of Ihia town, which, by tbe privilege gnuilod to tfav ab- 
bit,hnaaK Ihe eapilsl of Furaeis, aud held that rank till tbe dis- 
nhNiM of the mooaHer;; after «bi£fa, m consequence diminisb- 
*< nal Ulveiitaii, bcbg a more isvounibk ntuatwn fur trad^ 
•Vol. IX. F patlually 

82 LATfCABHlRe. 

fltdui11,T ■»t(»inrf a fuprrior rial* nf cooiiMreiel prc-etitincncc. 
Dihsn mrauti of »m pnn«ipal itrn'l, which aKtoding to die 
west, termiiuites in fl upadnuti market place, Thf aippMmic* of 
tlie Icnni k of late tnurh improved ; as somf of Ibe oM bouKJ 
hsiT hMD rebuilt tutri rorcred with slale. Being »iluate<l on an 
eniieeuce nf Uroetlone, tnncli tnenntenirnre is e)ip«rieiK«d in ob- 
tiioing mft water, which is brought by hand from a snaU br«ok 
jh Ibe atyoininf; valky. A rha rtcr for a w»kly marfcft nn Salur- 
4vr>t ud an imniial fair, wai gmntvd by Fxlward lh« Thtnl. TW 
marhet i« wickun h«M for f^riin, ncept when il is at a very ad- 
▼aitred priet. Wheal and oati are g«ii(^ralK teat tn UKwrston, or 
other markets : and barley is never will in piibitc, but earrinj to lite 
matlstera : iDa)t>nnikiii|! it the only trade L-arricd on here to tny 
great extent. I'he aurient iatr is licid October S3d; annlber 
•D June 6th : aud n tliini. e«lal>lt>hrd m l S03, on April SSth, for 
caUk, and for hiring iervants. 

On the wTst tide ttlkt lown h a rocky eniiiMaK«, trowned with 
a t^am to««er of an anrtent Castlk, which ti-as probably bnilt 
by the abfoob of Fomeu, to i^uard the uoHiiem afiproacti to llie 
Abbey. Id Ihi* fnrtree, the chief of that THigimn houw hetd bb 
secular court, and secured bis priioii«rs. A( pieteni, the building 
contains thn^e Aoors, and is appropriated to the courts-leet, and 
baron of tlie Duke of Buecleugfa find Lord Beatilicii, »bo art the 
chief lord* of the liberty and raanot nf Fuiness. 

The Chdrch is a xnall nrai buildinj;. and contiini an or^i. 
tiie expcnoe of which ins defrayed by i-oluntary cootritniliua. 
Tlie poiid) of Dallon ii divided ioto four portioni, or towDih^ 
and the cuxtoniary lenemoMs in each are of equal siie, pay the 
rame yearly rent to the lonts. ciumot be diiidcd by (he pruprictor. 
aud are not devneahle by will. Every tenant uwd lorroerly to fiir- 
nith the abbot with a man and a hone for ihe senice of the king. 
Dalton bn been noli-d for il» annuel kuafs ; ai>d here are some 
Ivgc .Touau, witich were built by gentlemen who resorted to thU 
place, from dififereni parts of tht- country, to eqjoy the iports of 
^ ehaoe. This jubilee wa» /ofmerly dcuoauftaied the DatlOB- 







rMA,is tppctn fnim sn BttvcrtBCiuent in lti« l^o3oo Ouetk for 
iKjinr 17i)3* 

b \ht ytu iG'Sl, tbc pla^« broke out at Dfttton, and at Bigger 
■Ikl^ of IVaintY. uid id a fcw irtmtfas pioduccd siuclaiithol; 
inUMxa ; fvr it appean by an entry in the pAruh rc^cr, that 
6at " dkd ia Dillon of this tiekoeu Uir« huudfcd «iid Oiree- 
itorr, ami in Walix-y one humln'*! and twenty." It began ia July, 
mi did not cease till abuut tlie Eutcr fullowta^. 

On the top ofaa cmbencc called Iligh-tTaame, about a mile 
bAeaorth ofDalton, bu dreular mound, partly sarroundedby 
ititodi, ami appcan to have bfen a fortiBcd beacon. Accord- 
^totbe population reports printed for tin Hotuc of Commona, 
" DilUM In Funtace" n stated to contain 56 houses, and 303 lii< 
Utaob : wtiiltl Dallon, an hamlet in tlie lame hundttd, » sutd to 
kmtfi houset, and 1053 mhabitants. At a place in lliis towa 
oUeddieBeck-nde.GBOBGBROMNEy, i pahiter orcoiuidenble 
mumet, wa» bom on the ISlIi of I>e«niber, 1731. 

M aneaxly period, youtig Romney tnaiiirvsted \ariou* traits of 
psios : and durmg ha apprenticeship to hb father, tvbo was a ca- 
IJoR Baker. &c. G««rf e via frequency employed in dtetdimK oa 
ibtaalb, car^v^tbe goodt, and decorating the furBilu!«. HeaUo 
iM rinccd a propeniity to miuic, by making flutet, viotiiu, &c. 
Nwkicb Ik perfornxxl nhoiu tunes. One of tbeae violins b« 
irarritd to the htett period of hit life ; nnd H it said to have 
k«B a areO toned inslTtimeiit : on tiie back of whicli w-as a tpect- 
■■ of bia early carrii^. In tbe humble pursuit of carving, gild- 
i^, and cabinet-work, Romney conlinii#d ten yean, when he wai 
KddeDfalty vetit into Ui« vorid; and hit ruling psnion directed 
tab a HuRinel more congenial to its prnpetitiity. Ao itineninl 
ptioltr, of 11m name of StMtf, wat fixed on a^ s matter and in- 
Mructor to youni; Romnvy : and to tbu poor iu;tn-d8ut>ef was 
tie»»tje bound for a term of years. How unlike ibis lo tbe situa- 
ttw of tbe more forlnnalc Roman and Venetian artisti ; who, 
hlTin^ tbe in^irint; work* of great mastera tiefore their efn io 
bt pabltc eliutrhes, have generally also tud the advantage of 
tb«i csperknced precepts, whence tbe road to fame was to thrm 

F2 opea 

1^X11, free, aud pbio : but Roiqdc)-, like Kvcnl olUi English 
artist!, Iiad ncitlicr uf (lie^c impurtajil, and ulntual ncccstiry 
UtuliuiU. Tint gctitus, aiid laudublc cutluieiasni, geDcnlly Mir- 
mount difliciiltiea, aud acqiiJn additional ngor by cucountcring 

Tlie young puiutct bcin*; settled at Yoik, huoh attnclcJ tlie al> 
tCBtiod of Lawnnice Stccnc, wliow vnum up]iii>bulint) rccouu»ci»l- 
cd liita strongly lo public itoticv mid eslecrti. Tlii^ cxtiled 
jealomy in Uk tnailvr, amit u piu-lius ciuucd. Runutcy rcliuocd to 
Lancashire, aud Ibousb dc|>nv«d of tli« advaiilajtv ul' M pklxm*, 
he puriiurd liu ivrofi'uional diidics : hikI (itoduccd, m Ihi^vlMcoro 
part of U»c isbud, )«>«Tal ]>iiiiiti»2« ; ainoug v bkli vn ouc rvpiv- 
sciiting Ibc story of lb« J^rafh of David R'tz^v. lie also (Nualed 
levenil >c«ms ffom Sterne '« I'riatntn Shandy. II b iiKwapatible 
vritlitbc brief tuilurc of tliis work, tofullow tb« j>r<icrt-Mive tibtory 
of our artist: suthce it lo »ay, Uial in the \<-iir i;62, Lc sctlkd iu 
tbc British mrtropole; (tfac great focus ofceniiu, taste, and 
*ciciifo.) At first lie <-\pFiicnccd sonic dtdicukics ; but afl«r 
tnivcUiug to Trance, tlnly, &c. b« ultimately succci-dcd to ^reat 
pradice as u pottnit-paiul«r ; and also executed a great uunibec 
of bistOTtrul and funcy pictures. Decltniiif; in yearn, and iabcallli 
he n'liied to his mine cnunly, ubrre he died on the 15th of 
November, 1 $03, and was tolcrrcd at Ualton. A« a priralc men' 
bcr «f MKJtly, Roiuney was di^inguuhul for niiuifrolu tceattn- 
cities of matner^; but w^ hone^, sincere, uuH uarm in liis 
Mkctcd friendship. Ae an arti<t he nc<|uirvd vm coiisjdendile 
«nivneiice ; and divided the tribute* of liiiJitoii with Ite^nolds and 
Gainsborough. His pauitinf; rooms wer* thronged with ooble- 
inen, judj;r«, the lilersUr nnd Indicc: and of tliCMto. iu- point- 
ed an inimcDse number of (uirliaits, and b«f^ many more, for be 
nas itaturallv fi^ry indudrioiis. It v.'.i% a «in|;i(br tmit in hit pro. 
feni'uul chancier, tliat be romiueiiced and proceeded to dilTereiit 
UagM, uilb sereiul beads, at Ibe yrnie time many of which he at 
last lell luiliimhed. Some of bii tiniiilied portraiL'i evinre a coosi- 
dcnible sh»re of tatti- and laU'nt, with an eye true to luiture ; and 
ioincuflui faucyaod Littoitcal picas ve doi^d and execute^ la 

» style 

a"»ljWi>f«rtcina!tly, dipiity. ami fIf^iii-«. Tuitl! reniarlt: tluit 
RncBiici' " tinu inadp fur Ihv limn, and tlit limcs for litin. If br 
had nel gniiiu to lesH. he hiuJ loo litucli orq^iialil y to follow ; and 
' . !ifiw, h* w»> iw-arcr ti> X\>t first, tliim to the last rf 
■ Praclicr lia.t givcu him nijniiily of execution,' 
avl luHurr an ryt ntdfiriently jiiU for fomi, and not ungcnnl for 
rnl-wT'." Mr. Ilavh-y paU aliandsonw coniptimvnt tt> librrifhS 
Rt'intify, in atiitr««nK a [khiii tc» liim, mtilled, " A puelirvl 
rfailh to vrEiHinetit Poiatrr, uitli nolrt:" ulictdn llKartut u 
■TKtMl willi much poetical mcoiniam, und liaileil ds oiic 

•■ Vltnin'^rtlafdKMcn, wtrliMiecoiAillaiid, 
Ta ^Mui h«r empiK ifiir tiiu lionor'd UmI." 

Rrftiff! Rnratit-v USi Loniton, Air. Slir<^ |Kualrd a (iiio hucI fjitliful 
|wrtnul of him, idiinli In^ l>«vii cii^iavcd bv Mr. [tuod for au 
Ibttorka) aiuJ BiiK;nplnca] work now prqrarini; fur llie prt-ss t- 

Fdrnkss AiibBV. — ^Tite rum« of ihU nnce extensive and lidi 
rjy. (Luwl on Iht? banlii ol'a tntall riviiJet, i[i a nannw awl 
! T»|p, at tiie di^hiOFc »f one iiiik and a lialf «uiilb of Dal- 
tM. Tb« foOowing dfwn|MiaH. by 31n-. RuIdiOe. will furBsJi Ibo 
KWler Willi a Itvvlv ntxt impreaivc idea of the niiin. aiid of Ifac 
SBllOUnilJii); iNnien.- ; — 

•• The firqi rotirfraf nl of its rittutinn, the venerable grandeur 
i4 iH ^Ihic atclies, awl the luxuriant, ytrt aurwiri Irors tliat 
Uuilcmllui fomken spnt, arv nrcutnslJiiroi of piclureM]ue,aad if 
ttoupmuOQ may be allowed, of tealiniviilal bt-auty. wliicli fill 
tlie HBid uilli lolemti, yet dclighlful vtiiuliun. Tliit' gli'n h called 
lite rair of )ijf>litiilia(le, or, more literally ftaiii iU ancwal title Bc- 
IruagiU ' Ihn gltni of deadly ni|;blsfa3dc,' that plan! being ainin- 
dally fouud in the aeit;htiuurtiood. Il» n>DBnitic ^looni. and 
M](M9ttf«d privan', pnliculnrly adapted it to Uju aiulenlj's nf 

F :i mottiutie 

* PSUdacUD'a "Di<tunaty£fr^uiilui,"4U>. lB03.p.46&. , 

1 Tttf Brill b« paVli^Qd by lAti^aiui ind Cc. in the co«r« of nut jesr. 


DOQUtic life; and in (be mmt retired part of it. King Stc|JIuui, 
while Earl of Murtaign aod Bulloi;^, founded, b the yesu 1 127, 
tli« niigiiifiomt monutciy of Furueu, and codowrd h wttb 
princely wcahb, ukJ 8liii<»t priocrhir lulborilr, in which it ku 
second oaly to FounUiu's Abbey, in Yotluliire. Tlie windinei of 
the glen conceal Ibex vcncmblc ruins, till ihey ue clat«Jy ap- 
proBdied ; Bad tlie bw-ruad tlial coaducted ua b imrpBed with 
a few anrienl culu, nhith tirctch iheir broad braurhn culirdy 
■crus it, Bud arc fine preparatory objtcts to tbe socnc beyond. 
A sudden bend to this mad broiigbt u* wilhin view of the norlhera 
gate of the Abbey, a beautiful Gothic arcli, one lide of which b 
luxuTiaiittir festooned with iii^btAhade. A thick gnwr of ptanc 
trees, with tamt oak and beech, nvcriltadow it on Itie right, and 
kad the eye onward to the ruins of the Abbey, aeoi throapih thia 
daiL arcli in remote |>enpectivi-, nver rou^i but Trrdaiit ground. 
The principiU foiturcj arc tliv f^rral northcni window, and part of 
tlic eiutent choir, with glinipm of >liallercd arches aod alalcly 
walls bcyood, caucbl between ihc gapiDji caKmcnts. On the left, 
the bauxk of Ihc gtvD i* biuhen into luioll», cupped with odo, 
which in leine places, spread downwards to a stream that wiudi 
round Ihc ruin, umJ dariieo it with tlictr rich foliage. Through 
this gulc a the euttaoce to the iuiruediatc precinct* of the Abbe;, 
an nrea said to contain 65 acres, now called Uie Decr-piik. It la 
tocloecd by a stone wall, on which the rvniains of many small 
buildings !>till appear : such ai the porter's l^^id^, milb, grauriei^ 
oven», and kilns, that once supplied the monulvr} : tmat of 
which, seen under the shade of Uie fine old lieet Ibal on every side 
■dom the broken ttceps of this glen, bive « rciy bternline 

" The Abbey, which was fbnnM-ly orsttch in>£niti»de as ucarly 
to fill up the breadth of the slcii, is budt of a pale ced stooe, dug 
fnnu the ncighhouiiug rocks, now changed by time and wcalbur 
lo a Ual of duaky brown, whjdt accord* well with the hues of 
phnta and shrubs that c^-cry y here emboss the mouldering arehfs. 
The fiout view of the ruin is on the east side, wher«, b''\oiKl the 
va»l tbatlered frame that oact caotained a licbly-patotcd window, 


LA,NCA9H1KJIt 87^ 

is taoi a per^ctivc of the dwir «nd of didant arches, ruravis of 
Ike MFC oflbe Abbn', dmcd Ijy Uiv woods. Tlib perspective of. 
tk« milt K mid to be '2iT ftti iii Icn^lti ; tlic cjiaii partufitiii ia 
wkUIi oii1> lliirt>-ciKlil Teet tnside, but Uli- in>L- n wveuly,; Uie 
MaUtk as Ibejr now rtiiiiitt »re tilK-luur t'txt biglit uud in Uiickuta* 
6rK> Soiilliward I'ruiu l}ic cbtiir exlciid Uk iliU beaulirul, Utou|;h 
hMken^ pillan ajMl uroHlei of wmc <lKi|idh ww Uid upcu to tlic 
liay : Ibc cIiii|)ler-houar. ihc doisten, awl bryood all. aixl dctacb* 
td fntm til, a the srhaol-bouic. a laigc buildiog. tbe only ptiU of 
tlw iDoaaslery Utiit sliU ituuba rwif. 

" 0(» quadraii|;uli» court oo ilie we»t aide of Uk cliurrhi 3M 
fait kogi and 102 feet nidr. Utile I'rsl^.'c dow ii(i|)CBn, except tlic 
fii— lilion of a range of clotttcn, tint IWncd lU Mcstent boun- 
iMijt and uDtlci- Itic atiulc uf nhidi llic moiiki, aa da>'4 of lusl* 
■ikianity, paunl in (bcir cus(oini:iT> pmccuiou round lite oouiti 
IVhal Mas Itw belfry U now o Iwgc unu uf detudied luiii, ptctu- 
m|«e frvni Utc lofUocss of its &lMUtcii:d arches, and the higli io- 
Byialitin of iJie ground witliiu tlicm. niicrc Ike lower, tluti onc« 
ttnwoed Uin buildiug. bariag fallen, \m iu tusL fnicmcitts, now 
ontred nitli carlliaiid $ta»,aad no kinder dittiaguubiiblc bulhjf 
Iba hillock they fonn. Tin: ulrooMiausCt a Iwavji structure at- 
Itclicd la the boundary wall oo Ihe aOulh, ii nearly catirc, and 
te walb, |ijtfiicularly uf the poitnl. arc «f CDuniiuus thicknota 
bsl, kcrc aud tlierc, a cIkuai iloclotca (ht: ^luicaaei, ttutwiud 
vitim tbcni to cliambcn above. 

" Tbcte are Ike pnuoi|wl leatures ibal rciuwi of llm uucc tmg- 
nficcat Abbey. It waa dedicated lt> SL Mitr>', aud received a cu- 
Itqr of motilu from the monaaleiv uf SiiTiguy. iu Nonuaody, wbo 
were called G rey StlouLj. fioiu their drcu of that colour, till thry 
bname Ciaterciaus, ouil. niib the Kvcrc rulc» of St. Bernard, 
adopted a wfaite hubil. nbick Ibvy rclaiiKd till Ibr dit»olutio« of ^ 
nooastic Didtra in £o;;laiid. 

" Tb« deep fvrut». that uuce nnounded the Abbey, and ow- 
fpread all Funwu, contributed with ilt ituulated situation, on a 
M(k of laad runaitijc out iuto the »eu, to secure it from tbe depre* 
ditioin of the Scot;, Mho wtta coutinitftlly cuiumittinj bostilitiei 

14 «u 

ak< LA!fCA9ntBS. 

on the IwnJtw. On B tutninit «»er the Abb«>' are the remain* cf 
a beacuu, or watrh-tower, maed by the tocicty for llhtr tiirtl»«r 
Mcurily. It <oniin«idt cxtcnvivc virws over Loir Funicss and 
llie bay of the Ma iiuniwliat^ly biMicatIt ; loolitng fonoaitl (o the 
town ind casllc of LAocaiter. i|>pfnnne; family on ibe oppontr 
COOK: «n the south, to the iski ot' WnliM>v, F«ulnry, and ilieir 
nttmcroas tsVis, on one of whkli ilantH PMl-cft«lt«: and on the 
norlii, lo lilt iiKiiinlftiin ot I lisb-Furn^^ and C^wMloti, n^mjt *» 
a grand ampliUhe&lt« TMtnci tUis iplct oi ilie Iriih Chutucl. 

" Tbc sum total of mil rnifa betonpiiie to th« AW>py imiiiedi- 
9t«lv before tiM riiiiMJali^Mi vtsh f^lffl. 9i. lOH. cn)(«tted frani 
LancaiJure, Ciimbcilnnd, and tvtu from the hk of Man; a sum 
wlliok, eonsiilf-rttut tUt value of monry at thai (M^od, and lli# 
yrt>0^ m&idowf, pasture^!, and lisherm, frtaincd by lh« tocKiy \m 
their own hands — the qiianlity of provinont for doin^Klir ii« 
btmtghl by the t«iuuils instnd of n-nl, and th« thar» of mines, 
mills, and Milt-wotks, ubidi l»loa»ed to tbc Abbey — cwella its 
forniiT rioh(« to an«nonnni» amount *." 

From \iw first estahiulinicnt of this Abh^y, lill the period of its 
dliaoitiliot), the Abbot wai iiiir«.tted uilh many privilege!, sod 
e^ttciwd a<oinm:indin~ Mi|>ctiority ovrr Uipwholp dutrirt. t.vea 
tKe mflitarr rjlal>ii*liiiicnl dqiendt- d tm hint, and rwry mnnt- lord, 
u»d frti homager, m h«I1 as lb« f iirinnuty lemroti, bound thein- 
scKes to him by an oalh »f fmJiy. Et^ry occupier of a wbair 
tcnctnctil fiimiiltcd :i innn and burse far guardinf{ the cnattx ; for 
the bortter scrvke; or for any cxpcdilion ajsainst the roiuman 
cn«iny of the king and kingdom. Thus the peculiar fciiiiHliun tiS 
thb Abbey, and |x>wcr of Ihc Abbni, gnte lu the f<>niier a trarbk« 
ctwracter, retj incmiipaiible vritli lite msluiiis, and religious liabils 
of the itKinks. In the calamituuf conteUi belueealfae houMs of 
Y(«k and LancKler, Ibe Abbot Mipfintli'd tlie dairas of the btler, 
and tiitreby itblained ;tddttional udvaulagcs to the AMiey from 



" For a ee]itau( nccouut i.f Farn^jii Abbe;, l*t. I rtfer Ae miln to 
"The Amiquillfflof Puinrw.'hyMr. Wert; anr-w nlirinn of which, "with 
4d(liti3iu,'' wai p«iblube<t in 1905, by Mr . W.Ciow, of Ualton. 

l.AMC.i!IHlRB. S9 

HfnrnT dw Foiirtli, Fiilb, and Si^lh *. Afiet (be [li»«Iiilion b; 
iiaaj llw EiRlith, thr Abbcr hwdi w-err lolrt, wH mtm of th<- 
en took fKKWs^un, and Tc«id«il on Ih^-tr Ml»lf», whi^ 
F^P w ioocJ very coitMdvrabk nltcntiuini iti lltc dtttrKt. lu the 
<««il fdn b«hve«n King Ctmrir* lh« Fint iimI lii« paritrnn^nt, the 
■■lignitT of partv |M)lilk» prrKlucrd violenrc find btAod^lied, «t<eii 
m tiiH M«]ii«lvfT'1 purt of the kingdom ; a* U flaiulv exemplified 
tb the fbUowins: d<K:uiu«iit: — ''' 

"Tbonm P>irk, of MiUw<i<i(l, hit^li cnmtiihli' of Famrt.«, hiiafr^ 
<>flb« lrui(bl« -if Fonw^* iluriit;: II)p ciiil war. A|»rit Iff, 
1 r«cfKc«l tin- owth of lii^h ti>ii*t.ililr, Aod wn^ dticharjcd 
of mty o4Hc« at llw qnrter mtion.*, held tl LancH'tter, A|>tiJ 27.' 
1647. The li»c 1 wr«9 Ittgb ctrtulable wa.* fi^e tears and effflrt 
di^ lo the fint y«kr b^eun llio rivil wiir I>HM'i-rn kin^ find 
pHlnincnl : Bid bvforc Ibn «ii(l of tito frOb }«ar the pArlimient 
cM>qu«red, and cleared tb« whole hiiigdoni t>f Etislaiid aud Wides; 
»mI there was never be&rd of nieJi (nmMrvnine ftiid dUtncteil 
llnK> »* Uiete live >nm bvivr l>eeii, but tf»|)ecuillv f >r<-ORi(ablea. 
MiyStt iti-iS, beni; Iluh-Tbundiiv, iberv cnme snnmiy into 
fVmau thU day of 1000 hor»e, und iOO foot; Lord Molioeux, 
■ltd Sir flt-orcT Midillcton, Sir Ji^bo f:irliD|;ton, Colonel TBdis- 
ky, Mr. I>.ilinii, with Aivtn olben of tlie connln', being ^hlef 
Our (nnntiyinm thongbt to luvc kept them ou^ 
'''<M|>taiai gii-faii; ibem over, and tbey seeing *ueli a huge 
tmn oti Coiiislffd Stttds, »err wt^lie^ hy tite head» of Furtien lo 
lIllA fbr tll«in»elv«. Tliey had lb«e iiiglits billet, most J'^tt of 
aw antH, nnd jOOl. uiid plundered Ibi^ place very sore, aiid then 
ntreatrd. TliU iniiv ^vit* for the king. Seplemt»er 3S, l643, 
Colooel Rigby cunliiming liu tiesse »l TbortHnd CaMle, (wbich 
caaUHMd la wwks before agw cmenl was made.) wa« IpI know, 


* f^moantt, in Uf adimiljr, obtained a ate uylom with Sir John 
ntuancUM, U Muiruieri ai>4, atparilii?, pmrstrd UicrmnilywiiiialW- 
TtgriU ^m cnp ; " utiieli,' mj» Mi. Wwt. " the i;#iwr>l opinion of the 
VafimatHtf, and ib» wlih ttlit tulaJedab^CHiiiitoD Ihc ^^I^]h,v•ucAl' 
U • lb Ibdk ^ AfMCod^r.- *«>* *^ 


ifafti Mr. Kirkbv, Mr. Rigby, sad Colund Hudlototi, wen iu ei>m- 
■notion ui Furkm, awl Ittat lltev Inui ^Itrn to^-tiicr ] 500 hone 
«u(l rool.miuivoflbcrooul of CuintnirUiiil: jouagMr.Pcnatnglon 
bciag.lliere Willi h compoajr. and tbe rest of Furncst: tbe> wen 
about 200 finnncn, aiid iIn- rest dubfocn. and itKv kqit Uicit trn- 
duvons al Dallon. Wbcrcupoti (W^ioeJ Rlgly, al die carneit 
desire oFdiven of Fiimen, who flcil tJtither. marcbed with lemi 
or ciglit companies of foot, and lliree tmops of hor>c. all fimnen. 
utcepl about lu-ciity, who bad piles : Ibey were all cDni)ilete, and 
very stout tellours. I being prisuiicT at Hornby Cadlc at that 
time, am) tlinx weeks before, was appointed to go with tbe coJo- 
nd: aad Utc last of Svplcmber tbcy came to Ulrerstuo, and 
rested there lliat nighl : aiid early the tint of Ociobrr, l<ji3. 
facii^ SuDcIa;, tbc7 set forward, and bad pntvers on Swutmoor : 
wbirb beuif; eiuled, liiey niatcbul furnanl till ibey aiae to 
Lynda), aitd (here tlte foot baited, but tlie bor«e n-eot on to Lyii> 
dal-Cottc, and drew op in a valley, ^iug. and shouting at Mr. 
IIi)dle»ton') borse, wlio were drawn up oa tbe top of Lyndal 
Close, who did sliout aUo to rcluro ; wbtch lasted about no liouiv 
while tbe foot were re<dvtue powder, shot, aad ualcb ; whith 
being ended, llic toot marebcd up to the borte : Ibcn Ihc kill's 
horse jled, nhercuiwn ifacy labcd a gnrat ^vul, and did pursue 
tliem very liotly ; and took Colonel Iludlcsloii piisoncr, Mr_ 
Stanley, and Mr. Latus, Mr. Eaitoo, witli SUO coninon »«ldier«« 
or Uicreabuub. 'I'licy look most part of tlicir anas, siK, nolovia* 
tico drums, und all thv niotiey aiid ajiiKircl tlie coiuntoa solditn 
bad on, with a coup biden with wagaziae, drawn by six OHeo. 
Hk common M»ldicn pbiTidcred DaJtoii, and tbe pari?)i, and rc- 
tiuDcd that nisht to Carlmcl. Tliwe were ibrw- or four of Uw 
Ling's tiiai killnl, and wtnic hurt — " 

Glkaston-Castle.— The ruins <tf tliis ancient fottren arc 
•iliiatod alioul two miles east of t'liniess Abbey ; and at present 
dhfilay i>orlioiis of ibrce square towers, with some consectini; 
walb. These eneompdM an area, or court yard, of US feet, by 
iCftand l33i at each comer of wlucb uerc formerly fortified 



ttmta. T1i« oalli are thick. simI coostnicUrd witli mud, pebUn, 
Ac; tad faced with luiie^lonr, UmI in lime niorUr. Ttut Castle 
■ppexn to have bren a mitI af tNmmial mansion, beloDgiug to the 
manor of Aklhiigbsni. At Uie Ijrgiimiiig vf ibe reign of Queen 
Haty. it wu posMssed tn Uw Oukc of SuB'olk, nliu being beliead* 
el, bn otuCrx wetc cuntitCiited to tiie ctuwu. At • »liort disUufie 
Irmii the CasHit u a copious ninuiug tpriiq;, vhicb, Mr. We^t ob- 
Knn, " if ounfiiKtl lu om b;uou, woulil 41 least «|ual that at 
lltiljirell. iu riiulsliire." 

AlJ>ll>tiiJjtH-IlALt, fonner); llie reriileocc of tbe Fleming 
fiimil;, b enlitvly mrept av^}-, vid tlic aucieul aud oure eiteiisive 
Fi^agt. af tbe sunic narae, u now reduced to oal) two bouus, 
niti llii: dmrcli bt-tnern ibrm. Here aic Hioac audrnt radonp* 
mr^»: oo« Ibnited in ■i Mjuaie >h^)>c. and another circular, with 
a Ins and bank between tliem. The tea liu great); euctoacbed 
CD llir Linil ill lliii [itace. Near 

Orswick aii; Ino other ancient forti£catioas, called Sltnt^ 
ffafft. Oof a w|uarc. tbe utiicr oeailj cirtuUr: aiid boUicon- 
^nl nrwsUa fcrnKd by stones piled up nillioul morUu. Their 
iiiiMiiUwtu are TC17 wkle. aiid tlic tiicujar aird im-asurei about 
ICO janls ill diuuieler. 

ftAKMiOB, a small viUage on tbc soutbeni shore of FumcM, 
k flKCStionally morici) to as a ph-ataiit a»d roinviiieul ballitng* 
I jlaoe. Tlic sands abuuwl wilh 1*00!% and remains of trees, liule 
[vomI, &C-: and as Caniclcn eotucclured niaiijt yeais batk, it t*, 
tilRnicIv probable (hat Ihc islamb to the wulh uud west have 
Icm irpaialcd froni (he niniu laiii), iui<) fdmiL-d b;^ the gradual 
tncfuachnienl of ibc lidr». Thv islands sie ciglil in number; 

Iannsg wbtcb. that «if Walncy a ihc must cuuMileTiible. 
Thti coiutsls of a long bunk, or riilgc, nuuinig nartli aud souUi 
parallel to the lover port of Piirneu. Mr. Wi-sl »n, thai th« 
*li«lc Uaod " lt« u\nm a bed of taoss: itnd uU round tbc island, 
iDoa ia found bj digging tliroui;!) a laver of sand and cU), wliicU 
eutrn it ; aud io the nio» liirsu trees ha>v b«ui lukva up. The 
Alibots of Kuroeu clMr^tl thcinselves wttk the support of several 
djLo for tia dc^cc; but sturc tlic iujiptesMOU of the Abb<v, lh< 


sea has ravaged fn^»t part of tl, and ihiratou lo waste it mUMv," 
Tbb bland has b«n, al ilrflerent liincj, nraily BinniJaleH by llic 
swelling tides: "ytt." mvi Mr. West, ** tfac ioliabilanls »f m aimoiit 
iaaatnUc of any danj;rr, or km. As a ipar, hOwem-, lo th«ir 
iiidiwlry, every trnant w rlisrced wiUi the lorils tcnl for the whoir 
rlaiid : >n that if all, eiccpt oik ttocntpot, ^ouM be sunllowrd 
up by the ata, that om tenemoit must diiw-hargc ibe whole oftbc 
nitl reiit,* Tbe uJani) is abuut Icn niDtr* b lcn(;lli. by oor fa 
brcadtU, ami ha» the appeumncc of a bauk, ot wall in the tea : 
betm il was calkd by llie Saxons H-'agAnnf, IVoneif, aiiH IfWury* 
It fnntaiiu hvit bamlcLs, called Biggrr, and yorlfiStalt: and 
l»5 a chapel of case under Dalloa. At the southern c^trcmih of 
the idaDtl is a It^hl-l)oa»c. v^bidi was erected in 1790, wilb »1nne 
obtained from a quarry at Overloti, near lancatttr. Il b atKMit 
nxly-dgbt feet bi^i ; and ilt lampi and reflector! are made to tt- 
Tolvc on a vcttiiul axle by a picec of dock-vfork. Neatly oppo- 
Hle lo tlib u anolbcr snail island callnl the PlLlt opFoCLDRRY, 
on ivhicb are the moiiMcriiig miiuins of an anrietit Cattle, Ac- 
cording to Camden, thii nas buill by an Ablifl <^f Fiimcts, tn A 
ihvl Tear of tbe nigm of Edn-ard Ibc Third, and tvuk i>robablT in- 
teuded to guard tlic eoaat in the neij;ljboiirho"d of lt»c Abbey ; 
aM lo sene for a place of rdrcat, in caw an enemy iliould drhe 
Uk monlu from Ibeir sacred monastery. This cvIIcwhs formerly 
cKlehsive, untt ftronj;, uni) eonmted of several (owcn, witli in- 
termediate wallj, n-hieh inclosed two oiirtj-ardi. Near the 
fADlbcm end ^r ihe inner eoiirl, was the inain-lower, or keep, a 
stTv.n;> ediArc; aiid ht the »iiler ballia wan a small eha|>el. 

At Nortli-toile are w^cral WrfU nt fresh »Bl*r, which are af- 
freled by llie lias atkl iul^ux of tbe liJM; and the waters rite and 
fail wilh Dm- fluriiiBiin!;; ocean. " The dcepril weth bc»in to gibi 
water about Imlf flood ; but thoie whith perfurale thn higlwr part 
of the stratum are IIk'ii eiuptv, nud do out receive their supply 
nutil abuil tbe ti:iwnrhi^fi>waler, and duniii; the first luutof the 
ebb-lide; fur the fri-sh wsk-r mill i-onhnue lu ncrunmlute until it 
^ttaiiB tbe level of llie talt nater iu Ihe cIimmiu>I. The^^ wclb are 
sHualed cIok by the sidv of Waluey clutnuei, and arc sunk iuM 
3 abed 




ft b«t of mad bci'orc any water can be procured : licjice it h 
nasooifak to w[if>o*e, lliat the salt m aler is (kjirircd ot' its miiae 
fortidca by pncoUtinK throogli Uiis sicuiKCuus itnitucD *." 


Is a «ntn11 tcraii, utURled od tlie wnleni bnrden of Funmi, st 
the ditUucc ul'ftbout uae mile rrotn llic cstuani' of tbc Dudilon. 
The lonv e raisctl on tbe Miutheni »](>pr of a Iiill. and its liottM% 
whicb nrc all liuill of stone, mod tiU-d »iUi ^lalr. an- duposod 
onth ia a rrgular iiiian. This pUre has beni fircatly iinjirovcd 
MiAia a icw yean ; aatl Itos a ncckly niaricet. hikI uiic fair aa- 
anlly: nbicb are chiefly afJiNt^fintcd lu xIk %aU: nS wu»U«n 
jin« s{iju liy tbc country people, ^hi-cp, iliort-woo], and black- 
cattW. Tlw surTOUudio" country b itiounluuious, and abouBiU iu 
ino^n:, copper, »lat('. ^c. Od Ilic tiurib »ide «f ibe tuwu u an 
tmoer, standing on tlic »umniit of a bill. 


fJoKijETON-UtKE, or Tui'rston-Watbs, occupics ao Mea 
•bout scvni iniln in Icoetb from noitli to siHitb, by llirce 
fOclcfl in iti gnaUft brcadlli from cast tu nest, llic diorcs of 
Ikii lake are indented by acvcral soiall bii>:i, aud ib aurruiiudin; 
Ktmtj coasisb of coppicc-noods, small fiums, and patclics of 
racky ammoa omd; from tlic shoic, abur« wbicb the DMUuilains 
monI to coBwlenble cmineDce. At tbc north ncstcm end of Uie 
bkc B Ibi vilfa^ of Comttati, lucbtud wliicli rise llie ruiiiatitic 
rm*n"" colled CmiUlm-ffil: Mr. Wot rvcutninend^ tbe Ira- 
tder to view iha lake first al As wiitbcm end, aud by advancing 
■ortfavard. llic larrouadine Kcnery, with (ite must intcietin^ f(.-a> 
bota uf tlw watcf aitd country, progrcsii^dy display tbcnisclvc^. 
Mn. Raddific odU il " tbc must cliariniae lake" that aUe bad 
Kra duiing her tour. The ^eatol depth of tbe water is said ki 
br forty fatiioms ; and Brnong the tish. the cbar u must catcemed 
jac lis flavour. Titc fella of Conutuu ha>e produced (^eat *\\iAn' 


■ PBK, ta W»ls AiMi^ilia of FunMM, 8vo. p. 979. 

9i lANCASHIItft. 

lilies of popper Art ; and retj bi^ »jatF qoarrwfl ar* now «|>cik(I 
in lhe«r mmintunv. 

Conistdn-IIall is an old inan«i'>n, nlmovt covered with iv;. 
and Kttted nor i1m^ iifrsKm edtfti of the Ukr, 


~ Is a nnall isaHiet lowii, sitiiHl«l in a rale nnr the ial« of 
fistmJtf', 91 thr nnrthiTn «'xlr«nity of this roiinly, wh<TC it pro- 
jeeb between Uimc of Weilnmrvlaiid and Ciunii^TLiitK). It b 
shetlered from the bleak winds by the ovcr-liai^ng f«IU of 
Conttlon. Brin» llkr pnl»4pnl town or FuniM»-Fe!U, HawhsSnd 
b th« (ratre whFr« all Ibc inMRinili tntuadetl. and the produce 
disposed of; ftiid ll»»iigh il Itu bo slapip manufacture or Inde, 
jrt, from 111* MOfurTMiro of IomI rtrcnnutantTt, it has a consider- 
able mariict, li«l(l nn Mnmhy, tij' a ctmrtcr granlcd hy Janef th« 
Firrt, wtio. by Ibc same ppint, rilnbtisli«d four annual ftin. Tl* 
Clmreh, whkli wit« formniy a chapei under Dallon, was nadepuo- 
eUal bwranb Ibc close oftlie ^bcternlb cpniury, by Edwfn Sanely 
Afebbtetiop of York, whnirat a nattvy^ of Iht* ptaee: heabofoond- 
(d a frve f^mtnar nrliool herp, aiid endowed it wAli a rtventK; of 
sol. peranoum, which is now inrnrawd to npwnrrt<t of lOOJ. One 
hutidtf^l \mys are p(lu«letl in Uiis scliofti, whtch is held in higfc 
estimafioo. A neat Town^honn was lately built by fabicription, to- 
wards which leveinl tnetchants of London, wlio had rwci»ed their 
education in Ihit scliool, were the chief conlrihutor*. At Gallow- 
Barrow, an adjotahip village, u aeharily-hoioe, endowed in 17 Iff 
by the will of the Reverend Thomu* Siindya, eiinte ofSl. Mwitin- 
in-tbe-Fieids, Londnu, for tbe inainlenBnee of poor hoys boro ia 
this low n, who are to bi> Mtu'tited in Die free-school. HaMluhcad, 
in 1801, ronlained HiC hoiucs, »nd 6St inlmhilant). 

Near thi; ta»n an> tbe n-itmit» of a botue where oiie or mor* 
nonkK, as lejittM-iilitJie of the Abbot of Funiess, rettdeif, and 
performed divine serriee, and other pamehial dulini. Oerf 
the f^alewKv i« -j, courl-roont where the Abbot's tem)>oral rigtit< and 
joriMltctim ffet« excfcited by the baiiiffof llawktliead. 

a DR. 







tnt. Edwin Sanpys, alttady racDtioiNil m a inttra or tliii 
tama. ms tlie ton of Willisni Satid*r<. E«q. of Estwaile in 
Fivmm; and aftvr bring eilunlwl il Cambridge, h« attuned tiw 
h— n of Miutci or Cxlbctiae Hall, and Vice ChuKcIlor of tbe 
Uaireniljr. By a wnDon in defence of Lady Jnne's light to tbe 
cnwn, be iocurreil llie diftplruMire of QuMti Mary, wm drprived 
•f hn (irecBvliuHt, and iiuprifoned nx tuontlis; after vliicb be 
lAUiew to <j«rmaiiT. till Uie quren'i death, wben he relunied. 
■od tooJiL un :icltre part iu tlie rrfonnation of liie rbiircli under 
Biadbetli, obo admiced him to tbe see of Worc*«ter : vrlieitce 
be was tnadated to thst of Loadoa ia \!>70. and afWrmmIs la 
Off Arcbbi»h(ij>nc of Yori in 1576. He died July lo. 1588, at 
iKlilii II. and was buried in that cullegtHte churcb. His fiitber 
al nMber were mterrmi in Hiinkxhrad cliurrb. 

In ibr virinily of lhi« lonn are tbe following Seatt: — GRAiTn- 
vtiTft'llALi., on tbe H'estvrn iNinks of WiiMlemif re, U tbe wal 
ti Mglra Smdgi, Cm). adpsceiidant of Ri^wp Sfuxljt, ofMbow 
furily aod j^caealogy a iaa^ account i< given in West's Aiiiiquittea 

fvmosi. LoW'Hall, in (lie nmc ntrigbbnurimod, ti llie Kitt 
if William RaitliKiam, E«r|. a (It^cendaiiL of an old family in 
Ui^furocit. AtCoKtaTON-WATKR-HBADisn wutofGroTjff 
KmtH. Esq.: and al BeLLMOKT a a Mat of iJie Rev. Urgiaatd 
irailkiemtt, M. A. 

Estwaite-Watkr, or Lake, a about liru miles in len^h, 
LljrMf anHleiii breadth; and is almost divided by two iKiitmiilai, 
; tf wbirb projects from cadi of the shorn. TLnKf arc fringed 
dilfa Ijeet am) cuppice woods, and the uenery round llw lake |Nir- 
tikn more of tbe sylvan, than of the grand or romanlic charac- 
ter. On tbe CTStetn tide is a gentle slope piirlly cohered witli 
Mnodi: and near tlie bead of the lake is a small island of about 
ta» petcties of land, covered uitli shrubs, ice. Tliis formerly 
MtA its situation, and was df tvvii al*ouI by e\«ry strong gust of 
«U; but bas fur some time been statiuiury. Pcicb, pike, eel, 
■i ttogl. are foood in this take : but tbougli its natets unite 



wUi Wjudcrtnciv, Iho dar-tbli fiu nof hHiietto beta fouod 

^VlKDRRMKBE, «r WlNANDERMERB, L* a lar^ luke OQ Ibe 
caMcim border of ibH cotiuly, dividins the ribtiict of Piirueff fion 
Wc»lDioreiaiid, Tlic niUer occupies au ;ir«-a of uboul tilleeo oiSn 
in Itaigtli, by one ruil« iii widlh en an mvf rB!!«. Iti tome pbMS 
tbc Itreadtii U inorp, noil in otli«n il ii not above 500 jranli 
acrou. Ni-tir N«w|ir-bh«Ige it if for({;ib[c. " On Uiv Uiifd Bnd 
Iburtb of Juiw, 177?, wli«ii tbe water wu sbt fevt below ib 
gmtrtt known b«|*Ul, ami tl)K« fvel »bi»v llii- luwot «bb, a trial 
wai ini'li^ lo atMFtuin by lAiiijdhi^ ibe deplh and form of fhu 
lake, wiiich is tlic Inrgeft in Ea^'uitf, aud tiip)>o«cd to he ub- 
£ithoiQitl)k'. Ilegrrateitdf|>lb was, however, fouud I0 be QOl 
fcet, nesu" lyjclejrig-cnig. Tlte Ijotlom of tlie lake m tlie middle 
of iIm stream is a smool)) r(>ck ; iu niiuiy places tiie sides are per- 
prndicukir, ntid in lomc they conliniK lu tor a ijiile wilbout intvr- 
niplion. Tlie rivK Rratliay aod Kulhay j^tiu at the u<!«t comer 
of ihc hkv, oJlol (bv Tbrev-fool Braudrvtb, and form ihttnit 
TCUTkoir. About fi^ur itule* lower down, on the eail tide, TVont- 
beck river dc^iceods from tlie fells, aud Joins tbe inerc Estwaite- 
waler ullo disdtarj^cs ilMrif into Windcmicre M Cimtcy-beck *." 
At its southern eiid itiis mere temiinalei at NcwK'-brtdge, wbenee 
llic uali-rs mualt^v fall wiUi gmit rapidity tlir«Uj;b the ehannel of 
the L(.'veii>river, Hud in tfaeir course form several atcades orer 
Uie viaggcd rocks. From Newly-bitdgo, lo the inoulli of Ibe 
Cnke-river, a distance of about Iwo miles, ibe water of tbe Levn 
fidlt neatly ](U fc«l. A& ibc princifial islunds of Ibis lake, and 
manv of itt locil clianct«iUtic«, are mvic directly connected with 
Westmoreland, tbuo Lancasliiie, tbe wbole of ifaeic will be liere- 
alW tkscribed iu tlw history of tliat counly. 

AX Castle-head, ikv Lindslr, on the banks of tbe Winstev 
river, is tbe beautiful modern seal of Joint IVUtanton, £sr|. wbs 


' Woi'i AMi9iItiaofFvnn%Bro.p.3&. 


i,ApipAsiiiite. S7 

bu bid out the grouiwli witlt mucli tulc, ukI erUJji in^irov«d ibe 
IW mouolUiioui tlutricl, conttiUiling all tb« nortlieni part of 
b locall]! known \>j tlie iiame of Fell;; aod tJtne ura 
(ma etdi other by the appeUatiom of Conittao, 
'unteu, and CulmH. Wood haj Imk-d rrnn abuoduil on Umh 
(■uDCDcei^ aoA w^s geiienllv cut ctoim ooce id every AAera years* 
,1a be dHncd, fui tlic use uf tli« fiLmaco aixl forget in tbc EKigb- 
bwibood. Tbc fclb of Upper Funieu bave been called ihe 
ApeniMKi of LanraiJuic ; aud at ui «arlv pciiixl were noted for 
fldr wild-game, drer, &c. : ntieurc biiuliug bat ever becuafa- 
Tvriie ditmion, and eieruM of tbe lords uf tliete doniiiioi. Prc- 
itma lo lb« uukm of Scotland aud Fjiglnud, llie bonlen of ibc 
In kiogdonu vreic iuvulved iu aliuusi jHTjwtUiil unrl-ire; aud 
the tuliuit ^Kut of bunting bai ever bveu ronitilcred tbe most 
■Ifiraprute divrnion fur Ibc uanior: to uliuiit the wild boar, the 
iagt and tbc vaIC bavc been gruemllji cuutidcied to afford tbe< 
liol, and nHMt noble objvru of puniuit Tlw cooti^^ity of High* 
ioDcss lo Scoilniid, lubjcdcd iu itibikilauli to repeated attack* 
Ibe bordvn^ra oftUc Laierkitij^diMn: andtlic bijjli fells, port- 
covered wilfa wowdi. ulfunled slicker Iu tbe ori(;iual MilJ 
^VaaU of tbe uluud. Wtiilri ibe furnier kept tlic lordi oF Fuructl 
ji a tfate of run jtani vig^ilduce, tltc latter, hy inuring tbcin to «io< 
nercbc uud liuidibtHHl, prepared tlicjn to encouaicr aud tup* 
fori BiiBUrT ualcbfiilncu, and military d^uigers. Bj some ancient 
panLi tecitcil in West's Auli()uilJc«, it »i>j>eara that uolve*. nild 
boaji, »ikl dcci, (alcoio. &c. nerc conunon in tbis ditlricl, and 
tbat Rkliard de Lncv, Lord of E^ovmoiit^nlio wm Lord Cliief 
iulice of Knf;l»nd in lli<; rri^n or' llrory tlie Second, iu a craiil Is 
Brcioald Fil^Adtm, uvakvs llui n-Krvalioo : — 

"SaHn nSil et lirtnlitm* inei> rm« ct trrca, aprp «t hia, et 
attlpilrt. qaando ibi fiKtint." 

B»i<if9 Ihe Uettils, &c hen nrnitroned, tliere was an aintiMil of 
Mh Deer species, called U>c Sr^pA. In Ibc >car 17t)6, Ibitc ticudi 
«f liQTRs were takro up oa Duditoti Miidi, of a sJzc raucfa Mipcritu 
lolbote ofan\ Ctci uow kuoMu; llic)i an lupptacd to be Ibc 

Vol. W. U hvtvt 


liottwofUie.Scofc*St«A utlicy urcm In ngirevitli llie iToicnp' 
lion given of thai aiiiiiiiU bv C^uiiilcn. TIic larjrat nt' thow h«*(l9 
b«l tlie lK>riu fix«d lo the nkull, which vi-M rnlrrv. The Iwffii of 
tlio born mis three (<«t nine iochei, Uic widtli Mnern lli« cslt«- 
luilY of Ihe lipH three fetl seven inches an<l iiatf, llw TDtind of 
tbe beam ervm iadi» nnd half, and the brcwttli of the palm four 

GrmI altfratmnii appear in h»ve tahen plan- in this dwtrk-t ; fat 
Mr. Wttt ohMTvu, " In Ibe wvorth year of llic reitni of QweD> 
lUiiabetht the wMxh iMrisg gnntlv rcHucnl, certain Itlotnatie* in 
HigVPunim «-«rfr suppreneH at the cmumon ivqueat of the* 
lemob of Hswfebnd and Oltnn, that the tups aad croppmss of 
these woods might bcproerved for thp noiimKittenl of their cattle 
i* irisler. The Momancs, or irnu smithie), were then leased bj' 
ChrisloplKr Snndjs, Gent, ami WiUfara S«i«rey, who paid twenty 
poonds aooodty to the queen for the irood ihcy consumed. M 
the suppreulon of tbe blomarief, the tenants charged theii»elvc%. 
ind HKir Mirceuoni, with Ih4^pitirnient of this rent, whkh is called 
the bloosmhby, or wood-revt, and is mlcd and ajaewed omongsl- 
ike custonarx tenants, at Ihe discretion of fonr and twenty o( that 
body, elected by a majority nf the whole. Stnr« the bcpntllng'or 
the etghtcmtl) century, the rc-introduction of fiiniacesBiMJ forgn, 
fhr making and noriiog iron, ha» adrMHred tlw nilu« of wood 
Onuiderdily, snd llie tenants lia\-ie found the means of improving' 
part of tbeir lands into n^radows, and preserrinn their woods for 
tbe usi- of the funnicMt-" Among the trees of tbi» di»tnVl. tht' 
lioNy is scdnloudy culliTated and ptrscri-ed ; and its gttm (caves' 

turd » iiiten. 


ihcrp Airing the long : 


Is a tmvXl mnrhet town, seatvd on th« eastern banks of tbe riTer 
iMnt, over whicfa Uiere ia a ttonc Bridge of Uuet: ucbn. 1%c 

. * A place In High FuriiMi, ootL-d for ■ breed of tar^ dtf r ot HgN. 

*■ « Wt»n Antiqidtita otFvmem, 8vo. p. 33. Ito. 


^Inn dovni the valley are extremely fine, and the wuiiluis rivtr. 

vitb tt3 wooded biiiiVs, prvstitt barium tiigtily pidurrxguc fieatiireti 

HiF (ottoa iii»iiiliit'tum cuiiMiltili; ll>e diicf bustiMW of Hie pbcc. 

A fair, or iniiriict, h bcid licrc tiety ultcnmlc Tucxliiy for callle: 

Itbis, wkli an aitmial fair, orcssi^m sunic bu»lk iiu<l trt'le in (be 

A religioiu bo^ital, or priory, of Prcmonstnilensiiiu 

005, wat fuiuiil^d bcic, idiI nin«(<: subject to Uie Abi>ey at 

Jm. in I^eUfiti-nJiirt, At Ibe dmnliitioi), it wat granted lo 

: Mooteuglc liunih, w bo posesscd tilso un old baruniul maiuion 

KaTahy-thttJt. wUkU n Mated on tui eminence, uboul tttdf 

\uSk fmai the river. AccordinJ lo Cundcn, this " aoblc casllc 

I foiutdtd by .V. ir Moat Bt^n. and owned by tbc Hurring- 

\ and Stuiley!!', baroitt of .Muiit-Eaglc, (Ic^ceiidttd froinTbomas 

pkv. fint e»l of Derby, u bo was adranrcd to tlial title by Heniy 

' E^hth. Homby castle i; non iIk- projierty and scat of >AAji 

Esq. and contains a lar^c sqiiace iifwer, and a lofty 

one. IIk cburcb. Mfaidi is subordinalc lo Melting, b 

and dnliu^uialKd by an iirlit;;»nal luivcr, Humby liai only 

Hy-9erca boU3C3, niid 414 tuliubitauh. About two inilea notlh 

rttmlovmuTuCBL^SD-CAsTtB, wliicli fonncily belonged to 

iWTuiutal fonidy, nbol'Hik ihat natncfrooi a vilbi^ io deiionii- 

Tlic cliurcb ut Tunslal formerly belonged to Hie Abbey of 

lion, but a itow a >icanige in Ibe gill of (lie proprietor of 

luHaikl Castle. At tbc brcakis^ out of tbe civil wurs, tbia for- 

I maoaoD, uttb its domuin, belonged to Sir Jbhn Girlmgton, 

I by MiB was 'garrisoned f-jr titc kiiif, ia tvtio:^ behalf it >u»- 

[bad a doM siege for some tine.' A (nirly of tbe kiiip fuKCf 

: la cdievc it. but were toon repulsed by some troops under 

I Cukitl Biglfy, a LAoeubire hwyeri and about MtUiaeliimi> i64Si 

I I «u olifigcd to turreudvr, 

' CfcSflf tM ttoat Thniland tiii hooK iiMun(ain'*l 
tliinf a dmp •!«{« ; yel vtat ut leugih couuiaki'd 
Od tcnm fcr l» rorrcodcr : Harub> loo 
MadjNidcd 10 llwanwpr«*ailing(iMV 

G 2 Sk 

■ Cooper's Clfil Wan, p. 9L 

100 LANCAsniRK. 

$jr Svhn (iirl!n-{t(tn. wlia wai colonel of s ppfitiivnl of bone, 
«-» lAentunlx »liiiii st Mrlton Muwbniy, in Iji^kcstirshire. lOH 
1719, tliis estate tt-as pnsseiM?*! by Paul Burraad, Es(|. and now™ 
betunjn to a iUmxiiiIbuI of liu fiimilv. 


Near tlie vlllsge of Krllrf is a natural curiosity riIImI DrSAl.- 
MlLL-IloLB, wlikli is It large cavern of ^vryrotnuiitir a!:)iecl, anil 
extcDiis tor nearly vOO yanU into tlje bowds of (hv liill. Tbe cn^f 
Inure to Uie cave b ticar « mill, u-tiirli, will) tlir acronipHDving 
■eeurrr, a extremdy pic1urrsr]uc. Tlie muolli of llic cavcm " it 
roiiiiiiiticiilly fritigeil willi tree*, Khlrh growing frum llic rocks, 
ami tm]<riiiltiij otcr llic entntnce, coiitrllmle G;reatly to llie awful 
gloom. IminrDM: fmginCDts of roclu liang ffom the roof of lite 
orifiix, as if ready In An*p down, uiitl cru-^li lite iiilniilitig visitor, 
forming altogether one nf the Tudcsl and niort {Erotnqtie rtOranca 
ioiugiiialile. Nolhlri-; ran lie euiiceiveil inurr iibmiing tbaa llie 
appearance of tliis rugged carem ; llie nnmWrlesi htgc chiii)t| 
aoti crcvicr» grinuiiig un every side ; (he dark (nuiigc before t^H 
iinrathiimnble to the eye; the inaasy luinj» of ruck pnijecling •' 
from Uic roof and wolU ; aitd llic d<ubm<; u( the nutct from rock 
to rodif beard at a distance b awful yells — all cunapire to abm 
tlie straoger not iKcustonied to surli sruics. Tlii^, however, if 
out always the csw ; fur io dry sriu*>n^ Ibr rave uiay be explore^ 
Dot only without danger, btit with pleasure to tliosc who arc ei»- 
rious-iD vicwingsuclisn;;uliirwvrk!i ofiKilurc*." Tlii* otvrnit like 
those at \Vi>key, Sonic raelali ire, nt CaalI<*loii, D<TS>vliire. and ollien 
ill linic-sluDc liiUs, couai^te of M-vei^ l«ir[;c and sinAl «|<iirlniciita^ 
ur open spaces wilb interaiediiile cliavms: mid its roof b bui^jH 
with vonoui tlulac-titCA and incnisldtioni, A snmll n^ulel which 
piuaes lliruugb, and issues frum lbi» mvc, alter runniiij; under 
ground fur about two miles, agaia rises near tbc villa-c of Coni«fl 
furlli. ai»l tliere fdlUiutu Morccambe-ixiy. About liv-e miUn oortb 
of Uoroby iitbc nlla{;c of UveRBOBOUOH, where tbc Uomas 

sbtlion, . 

* ** A I>«acripti>e Ton anil Ouiile to tbc Ijtket,' &c. I>y Jahn Ilomiaai^l 
evo. IBO-:. p. IM. 



M&pn, tatlti Brtmetonacct, was fixctl ; amd according to Mr,- 

RmtikmiH, tbc judiciuui lilttoriitn of tkc place, " Julius AeritvJft 

cfaoMlliis bill to baild BttmrtnuacAc upon, rn ll><: fini cenlnr) of 

cbidiaiiity ; tiid aOcr it had \iixo ^imviaitfl hy ttic (VK-df-niaQ 

hcbttf SrutUiiJ, it MII3 ugaiti rcpiiitL-il aud •^cnMim.-<l \<y 'fhfo- 

iuiw* ni Uie fuurtb (.-eiilurj '." Tbc cvklt.-D»>9 of lhi« place 

bning l>cn> a Roman stnlioii, arc an tHCantftHttttt AXwyAtA at the 

caaftuntcc uf lwx> atrcann or riven, iUmI trMtlatrd p^fmrnls, h- 

iai}4)oas tipon stunc^, tiltl iiKdal*, &c. uliich liatv bci-ti fuuml al 

difcttnl (inivs. AoU Uiat it wu IIk BrcmcU-iiBcu*; of Atii<i4iin<i«. 

itwv taH>fitr|r>Hlv proved by the arcunivnti adduce 1 l>v Mr. 

(twlluucll. Tliis »tulH)a U KtitU'd, iii tbe tenth Iter uf the ItonKiti 

Gtagrajtbcr, lo li« \X miles noiHi of CocciVoh, and XWII tnili* 

wnib of C't/wuM. Ittc Utter (tBtioDu fixed hy Mr. Itiuthrodl »t 

" ^pulhj," orApjtlebv iriWi-slniorvUnd, uliie)ihvs.i\«t»" tn«ntj* 

KTTii Italian miles, or Uetwt^n iMeutv-lw^andt^vepty-llirec Eofilith 

vik* froia thb pla<.'« ;" and the *arae author nva, (hat " all anti- 

^DUiuu iresigTMd in fiiciRj; C<ieriuni at Ilibdwvterr" wUicli iu ifae 

&w of the Roiaan road, he observes >* jint tweiitj Rvituin, uud 

ab«>ul eighteen Englith mile* from Ovcrbojuu^li. 'I'lie ituli'* 

twin; Ihui identified, be proceeds to d(»t:tupc it^hblury, »nd de- 

arrihr its turiiqititicl. Like the generality of Kortian slitiom, this 

mt fanned near the juncti'S of two river*, hHvin:* Ihe Lac wash. 

to( it* Krtithen) bank*, and the Luae fuuutnii on llw wc^ern side. 

<>n tlif euslern and M>ulltcru iides llif runipart« aie still vijibh', 

but tlir ulhvn hav« bei-n ncailv ublil«rated Ifv nii>dcrri itDprovc- 

nentR. Abkmi; Ihe fragoteuts of aniiilii) found liufc, Mr. Rautli- 

mell has repiesenled, and described iQ yi/t<ir, \tbic)i, he >ay«, 

«k4 " dei.1initi.-d lu tlie idol Magun, by a Itoiuiui lad), upon the 

Rco«cry of her heallh," It wat invcribvd ou oiw l«4.v, uml i>u 

■l»thcT»m a baiso-retievo ef an owl; %vhiNt tbe thinl fiic«v.a» 

natled wilb rrpre«catatiooi of two tmlmmenlt uted in the li^ierL- 

boEil ceremonies, Tiic other relict aie a " bulla anrri, 9 

O 3 p^Ura. 

Aat|i{arWrs BrcmctooMenia. ot the Roraan Aoiiriiutici ot Oirii. 

XQi tANCASnilB. 

jntera, and prarjmotltan," three urns, acoip oiflyi'mi Vr<^wi[*n 
ia cop|i«r, a tljluji, flee. Ai >onw dlsiance east of Overbpiough, |t 
a plaff calkit G«rgrove, is a camp, w bich Mr. Rimlluiicll aitrihiile* 
to A^riculji, aiiit i alls it a " Cuirum Ac^livum." Near ll'U place 
t fioipaa leSMlaled paveaMnl waa dttcorereij sobw ^ats ago. 
The Roman-roads councclnJ wtlti lliia atatiMi niajr be ilill dis- 
covered in tome phuxt, and oo the ude of tli« road betweeQ 
Oictbnrudgb and Laucuster, » miUiare, oi RotD»ii nitk rtone, 
ffilli sn ioMitptuin. U ilill preservctl. TMt xenr tatttfoctorily 
prores ibal a Runian rund rjanmamcsXeA betiteeu these ino 
pUcra Al Oft-r borough U a scat of iLe Frnwirh liunilv, of 
wbnin tlohert Peuwjck, E»q. was M. P. for Lsncasler, madeg 
KingVserjvaut io the duch^^ coiiit, and alto atlompv-c^n^ial. and 
wijeaiil of lie cotiiily pafuline uf Lanculer. To tlm genllrman, 
Mr. UatilhiiH:!! iuK'ribvd \m lillle volume, with vxp»uium dcuo^ 
ting his ou II gialilude, and encflmiastic In Uk patroti, ubose Iicmsk 
«nd gardens Blood " on the tail side of tlw fortiess." 


' Iraiii«'c)a(clif oo the roast, va llie village of lU^ihtnn, are llie 
niins ofa imall andciil huilding, ralleil St. Patbick's Chapkl- 
II* aicfaitectuic is of very earljr character : and ils ratfaoce dunr- 
wnv lias a scmtcircuTar arch, formed out of one *l0De, ornamented 
wilh fiulfd mouhliitgs, running round the whole door>u)iT. The 
building is mv unnll. uud M-aled on a ruck. Al a sliorl distance 
from one end are four holes cut in IIh* »ha)i« of Mone coffins, onjl 
of tlw niigiual rock ; dote to which is a nalaiai bench or seat. 
Tilt whole a|>)tcan to haye been formed as an ntalor^ for a ca- 
tbulic iirickl, to oflcr up prayers fur the sauUof florae ihi|mTer.kecl 
persnus uho were out ana} on this coast, hikI nboncrepfDbabljr 
from rn-laml. 

At the dulfntce of tliree niitcs toulh of Lancitaler, b AkhtoN- 
Hall, a seal tif bn (tmce ihe Duke of Llaniilton and IVraadoti. 
Tiiii was foiraerl; piwswsed hj tlie famil^v of the Laurences, the 
lajtmslc litir of whom wan .Sir Kohrtt LawrciKir, Knt tvho»e 
coheiress, Sib«), tnanicd Tlionivi Hnkdh, Em|. of RuAiinl. 
A&hlon-IIa]l, with the cstiiie of WhiUikcr, neaf Oafslang: nod 



fAa pr>p«rtj: b Suflorddiirv, caine iiito ttic present family, bf 

tbr — -•- :if Jamei, Earl of Arrnn *, (criMUd Ihe fnurtL Pvkc 

of : bv pBteot, August 20Ui, l607,) "itli EJibiIkUi^ 

^nflUn and mle beir tu Digby Lord OiTTanl of Brorotn. 
TtiM Eoil of Arnn nutic a contpicuovt ftguru duritig Uie rekpi 
«rf Qiijlu tbr Secuod, ukI Jaioes tb« Secood^ ffoui hvtb uf ^^jwta 
|lw WW dcpiiud £iivoy><tlnurdiii)iiv to tiir court of.Fnot^ 
Benilcft muiy oUur pMli of honour thai iietc cMilitrrcd uo bin 
bj ibr abd^T momrctn, Iw was made LorJ-Lieutendct Qf ttw 
fniot} of LuKulcr m 1710, Culu'i-Rotuluiuui, autl Ranger a( 
tte B«^ F«ie»t( fnr ttie siiid coiuit\ : »ko Adroinil of tlie Sfl'^ 

•*• •atl inDereintH!TuflJic»iac}rcur, wissnoni iutolbv Piivjn 

Lif Quwn AtiiMr. lu tlie ^st ;,'i.-jr iic U2s creuird «J^ 

tifftBb Peer. Iijr ihe title of Diike of finodoa, in (hJecoumyI^S^^, 

iJk. Id I7<3,bt!fbuglit s duduilliLwrtl Muliutt, tindfdlin tj^e- 

I teaoDOtre: but tiM second of bis ^alu^uni^I, s Gvufiul MiKOirt* 

[■ty, ms HMpwied of tuiviiig slyl; stitlibed tiisi: imd a ivward of 

UoO guiooB w:u I'lVrted b\ tl>c "ovcmmrut, nilli duul. b;r tbie 

|D«cben, fet lii} a|iprclt«ii»Kin, MRccailuejr wugbt refuge in ;l' 

I lbRi|n eouniri. but ww takcu ia )!vuo\«r, ,apd after a Irial fof, 

ilx munU't tn (be cowl of jK.iii;;V6ei]^, km uuI) fuuud kuUij ot 


The matMion at A»h|nu is a bige aiideot building witb,soiii^ 

Hpmc tmbnlthn) tuucn; ai{ai-»uus Mfdi^ aud uUht cbiu^clfrbf, 

• in of an old eanlle. It u sealrii lu a Aae EMlkp, 

^Ibftt^gh Ibe nuil(U« of ^iiich, a uniill mulil ^viuds itsooune, 

and afWr fomao^ a nanow bay at tbv Mesternfiiik uf lb4: giauini^i 

[bib into tbe c^uary *>( ili« Ijhv-. Tbc putk tiltu)iud> witU iioMe 

ud is dtv«i!rilied with hilt unci v-aKc^, aud Ironi stinu; of 

< Ml kwImc m ck v«^ vKtcnnvt and grand twue are ubt;ijiN.-d uciow 

I Iba river Dior, over In Motecauilte-bay, to the Iri^b Sea. ii^^ 

"Wbibt tbc vieu* to tbe «isL pren-iit somr very Hat tyUaaaad 

fuk frttmy, UlOiH' totbeunit)i-Me»L aiid iu>rtU<neM unfold several 

G 4 grand 

* AmimH twad, by Vr. Gatcli. bu been 'ocmved of (tu DobttinsD; utf 
laN«bl*'a " Di«grit)'<iicdl Uitlot; of tlnffaod,' V«]. tl. p. CO. ii »osia ar- 


gtud Bad intcrestsig prospects of river, tea, beadland*, aai dlv 
tut Dwuiitauu. *IV>Ugb miicb altcralion liu bceii progicsivcty 
ntftde X9 Um maiuion, Ibe preKtit Dol>knna Iku canfuJijr wUcnd- 
<d Id its aucicnt cliaradtr, in the icpanlioo» nod impiovoactits 
made, since it bta been in bis posMuion. 

' Amoog Iht portnib nnd painliai;^ wliich deconle llw rooBU of 
tilts ducal rC3i<lciice aie the rollowiog : A portrait of I^izabrth 
GBltB.\RI>, Dii(hfu »J UamillHt, repreMiilcd iit <Iccp niouniiilg. 
P&rtraib of the pruenl Poke's two soiu, the Afat-quU of DmgluaM 
and Clyiftialt; and Lord ArtkiMd JhmiHm: \nM\ by Gxiu>- 
borouj;h, und \\it btter is extreme!)- fine. I'orlnul of the pivMut 
J>ul[c when young, by R. Mencs: and uiK'tLcrMlieu hi>Gnce 
wu ia his 6lth j'ur, by J. LONSDAte, an artist uho was a pupil 
to Romney. and patronised by (bis flobtenuui *, Puitrait of the 
bie Dukt of Utijati, by Hopfneb. 

'A Head, by Keinbrandt. 

CUha eKofing from the Reman Camp, by RArilABL; « 
piduK of STcal nirrit and beauty. TliKdmiiigutUicd Lady bciofi 
delivered as an hostage for the security of it irwce lo King Por- 
amna, contrived to make )icr c«capr, and bwain acrou itie Tiber 
on a hone. She n-as aftemitnU tukcs, and brou^bl back to Uie 
monarch, nbe, iit complinKnt lo her courage, presented lier uilb 
a botst ricbly caparisoord. Tbr Ronuuu have coroinemorvtcd 
this event by a statnc on borfeback, wbich mas presened io Ibe 

A picture tcprcMntnig a Boar-hmit, bySSTDBRS. Ittiwiu 
fat Um possession of Gabisberougb. 

A targe Landscafie with figures, by Bbboiibm. 
■ A few smaU Ficluws, by Teniers. 

Some original Oartoont, designed by Leokaddo DA Vinci, 
for hi* much celebrated picture of Ibe Latt Supper. 

Besides the above, berc arc many otlirr pictures, of t-ariwu 
mer^l ; but the Duke, wUo bat erineed inucb partiality for Ibe 
Am Vts, has hii chief coUcclion fit llanultoo Palace, in Scotlaud. 

* TU>haalKcaei>gtarediamcuatiolo,l>y CUcL 

lANCASHlBB. 105 

Aboul lis duIm UHilli-wnt of LaDca»ler, are some rerouhu of 

ToCKEfUiASl^ Abbey, wlikH wat ti>uut)nl oa thv sile oT an hos- 

fur I'nrmuuUnlmlua Cduom, tibotil tl»e vear tl()0, by 

(I Waller, bnitber of Hubert, At(.-til>uliup ut Cuiu-tmry, 

iIm pive nil tlie jHitlute gruuiiils in ISUinf; sm pe([i«lual almt lor 

buildtng of tiie Abbvv. Tliit cuduwitviit was confiniiHl by 

[Kqt Juhu. and wilh other dotuilion^ and ^iAx, rrceivrd » furllirr 

' coDfinutiuai and csLibluhnmil by Itkliuid ihi: Second. Tbc 

LAbbcy Mas litiulrd oti i urck of IiukI wlmb prujcciN uilo the m.-<i, 

s^jiMiiiDg to llw iamU of itw river C(Hk«r, iVoiuMbidi iuiuiiie ii 

rfemcd. It it fuitilied by » ruck of red bUmic fruni tbc encruach* 

ncati of the sea, and coinnuindi mi c-xtamve view uvitIIw kukIs. 

Tte tMuktbgs of iltU muuutery an- vini lo liave covered tituriy 

u •□% of gmunil : but of llic^r, tlie diu)i1i^>haiiw utily tvnuuu. 

Tbn ii w) ucUngular ruoai, the roof of wliich h siip]K)rt<.'(l by a. 

ni^ luusve column ruiug in tin- crrulrc. Buck oigrdTcd a view 

of thia buikling. It ii a |)wuliiir circumtliuire iu tbv liKtory of 

im rrC^ous buQw, tbul nitliin three wars after ils disKtlutiou by 

Hcniy ibe Eighth. It wu» ngaiii rcslorrd tit ilt anciml |in«ile);t>>>. 

br a §Taut from tluit niunarcli. 1^ oUtic, with the rumi. now 

belu^ to .Mn Ditllon. Ew].Vibu«eiiHU)ui-buuw,caIIed Thl*RM> 

ltAII*tl ALt^ vt ieitti:il uii an triuiuciicc al>iiut tvto iiittcs luut of the 

I*artot*tbis »lute btu libertj of fitr-viaircu. 


mol Irani that of Lomddlc by a very irrc;.'ulur hue ou llm oonb : 

btiing Blaclibnni. ^ilb u small part of Yorkshire, on itic ea^; 

tbc mcr RibbLc, cuiNtitut» a tuTtunil boundary lo iIk toulli; 

abibt tbc wtiulc of its viv»lcrn miIc i\ hus1i*:<1 bv Ihe «ater> of tli« 

Irab So. The dislrHl included MJlhiu itxae liioib, cuiiMsts uf 

HMMS, tea mortbu, and luw latids, Iu tlio wed ; and of inuuo- 

\ua, ormoor*, cm its Vorktliirt- ^tdc. Tijc i:rvai Tumpike-rnttd 

(na PrcstoQ (u tbc north of £n;;ldud. iiawva tliroui;h tbc middle 

•f DA luniiml : aiid another Tunipikc-road communicates Iroui 

tktliHmetluwo to Puultoo, &c. Tbc low ua iu Ihia diiiricl are 

I I'Kbtoil. 


PmtOD. Gantans. KiiUiaxo, aad roultou. Of ihcic, the moit 
caittidenble in tiia, pupulalioii. antl elegance, b 



I i^eoiiiitljr situated 

I'KICB IS pleoiiiiUjr atuatcd oq sn eminence, tistoj; fiom the 
aorUicro bunks of ibe rivrr Bibble. This town is considt-red (he 
aunt fuliiouabli.' plsrc iu tiie conrtlv, unA bold nitliin its bounrla- 
rio, atid iiiinicdiate vicinity, arc niaiiv large and elr^nt nuosiaiu. 
FomccK it nusalinaM free from numufdcturcs, but mm, m^ay 
»paciou» Hiir^ltoiuea and eMeosire iitor1i-ft)i»|M are eredcd liere. 
Kcspcdiiw the aoliquity of the (awn. vcrir little b recorded s 
(liousli Ciitnttni rciiinrks ttuil it aroH- out of tbc ruins of ifi&fA'W* 
/rr, a crietirated Hotiiau ilatioti. wbich uaa lititaitd l^ulUfr iiptlie 
tint- it is said In hurc derived its omsx (lom \\k number 
vfreligioiii Iioums fuuiMlctI licrc, and lino.- culled Prirsit-town : 
alteiwards coiitntctrJ lu Pirst-towm Prr4un, uitd Trcilfla. 
EdmujiJ, Eari of Leur>i»ter, son of Ilcurv llic Tbird, founded a 
IlouM uf CiiRj* Ftian af tiiii place: and before bi» lime. acGorf|f 
ing ia'I'atuxr, an fiMyilal Imrl been eslabltdivd bcff^, Lrlaud 
njs (bal Ibc fuiiDcr " wiu scllc tu Ibe kmIc of 4 ^caUlmdn caullid^ 
PrcsluQ, dwelling in tlic tuun self of Prestuii'.' Tbr vflle of 
Pretloii, wilh »»uie ba;nlel$ appcrtainiiig io it, hu lield l>v Ta»lC 
Ihe rouitbwn of <>oilMiii, Earl of Kent. 

In IJk fint >«vr of Ibc n-i^ii uf lUcbaid tbe Firil, Theobald 
Waller, broUicr of Hubrit, ArcfaUsbop of Cinterborjt, obtain- 
ed B Krant of llic fuc of tbc lord>ln]> of Prcslon, and of the whole 
WiijiL-iiLikr, or foml »f A llHltladt-nK'^s. In almtil livr yran aflcr 
lie Hw made »bciitT of litis coimtv, nbich ulfirc be held until itic 
first of kin^ Jolin, and catilribntcd largely Io liiitg Ritbardi re- 
d^ii)|itioji. The auiuume of Butler nii& nfiervranb a»Rincd by 
liitioD Tbciobjld, wlio littdmurrivd ibc aider of Thomas a Becket. 
Ardibisbofi of Cuitcrbury. 

Treat OB 

• Itiwmry.Voin'.ib. 36. 

Ft«3tnn obutnni the pmnlcgi! nf a Iforoi^h iatlic twenly-tiiih, 
of Hnirj ilu* Srcuml. Tb« inlmbitjub ga^v I(X) mail) lo rqjor 
tbenmeprivtirjesn ihow ofNeM«u(le-(ip«it<Tvne. King Jului, 
io ha srrouil }cHr, IiihI sixjr mxiki. nod fuiu divKun, or Uoglr 
for ralifvng tlirir IHjcrl'^v : Imt llic^r were fiiivd (rn marls aiid a 
pilftrv it) llic nril jmr. Air Uicir jicucc, »a a pliitot mode agointt 
llirtn bv Ttirobalil Waller, cuuirniing the gaul aiid gallons, 
Ilmijr ttx lliinl. 9nd VAwatd llie Ttiiid, bnlh ciui&iued liioc 

Tbou»b fiits borou^b sent nicuibcn to jarliouKot torn Uma io 
the irign of F.ilnard iUv Vinl, am) iii tJir SrH ynt of Ednran] ibe 
$ec(ml, it bitd at\etiiwi\i uo Kintmom lo tliHl puqKnc, until lli« 
rtipi nf EiltfirJ \\iv Siklh : but it hxi fn-4)nviill^' bctu the ical of 
•inliml c'lptvstv lli"Ugli, no all occiuiviu of pmrliainrntiir^ tove»ti- 
pa'ion. tiK ricci'it-i: nglit of Tuling Iku been alvtava dclcrmiucd 
fvr Itir iiiliahlliiiiti il tnr^c. Tbc E>iil uf Drrtijr. who bus an 
bwxlioint: boiiiw ttrrr, returui one mcmlM-t ; but ibe ojipuute in- 
trrul cuiiiiiioiilv rurrie* llie other. The tcliinis »ic ni:tJe liy Ibe 
onvot and Itvii builitfi: uid ibe cuqionUKni, bcudi* tlie mi^of. 
In* a reowdcr, niilennm, rotnnioit^ouiidl tacji, aud a tuwn- 


1^ IIk atileeiitli of Edward Ilie Second, in ibe oclavo of tlie 

ralniitj[ nfSl. Jiitui Baptui, UoWit Bruce made an irniptioQ into 
Eoylanil b^ vta^ of CurlisU, puuiog tlitougb Ciinib(.Ttawl, W«t- 
OKiicUiul, :tud LniKii^irc, us fur u» Vsvsloa, |iatt of wlucb lie 
burai, nt be hod i)ciautUlie<l other luniit in tlie wrenl cuuntiei 
be bad travrticd. Id obtnit thne weeks and Ibiee rhyrs, mji 
lUUitkbi-d, be iriiiiited iclo Scutlaiul, wilbuul coniuig to anj 
tn^cmctil nilli tJie F^gRiti. 

Pmton but IIk ajvuitlagc uf being (tie leiil of vaiioiu Jaw- 
coiru: iunoiif;<il (licw. Ibe tltitbj( uf Luor^nUr Iihs a court of 
(kmctri, in wbicb all caUMii ucc beard aud dckruiiiicd according 
^{Cflaia pccu^a^ru^tulnsof tbcii uwii. Undar the cbaucelloT of 


f St* ll«<ta>'» lliAlot]r of thr li\i:iiK^iM>r, xcond cdilioa, t7£9t Val. L pi 
Kt) , auEl ll[«dj uu tu;::jili Uorou^lu, Uni, 1777, g. 94. 


tilt duehy, whn i<. ili« rkirf jadni^, k a vicp-cliuDcellor. wjlb the 
attorney -gene ml, rhief-clrrk, ici^ikliiir, nod rA^iimct, Mnnivs antt 
dtrlu. pfolhoiKAarv, ami ctetks uf tliv crDnn, ice. From tlie 
county court alwi, uIihIi ailft «\«ri,' TuriHlaiv. wrils lur lU-Itk above 
AM. arc iuunl, aiiit cxiculioua fVilluw dh lailiirt vt a\t\t€-jnt»cf. 
Bui MTits koldiii)^ la ha'A an ifsucd fiom the (tiullioMal^ii^'s alficc. 
Had (lirtctcd tc> the &licntl', who ^rautt^ a Marntiit i'tit ]t\nitfii^tiiiun. 
Oilier couitsiinr vIm) ImtM Itetr : nttd a court [>f (jiiurlerseMmnsaf 
ihe peace, by udjounitiKul lioiu Latiuuter, ou Tliundvy iu tlw 
Mnk z(\tT Efitplraiiy. 

llic Parish ('hurrft » a turgc biiildiitg, and was iiiipfn|iri4ted lo 
iht raliep of LeicukT, IhiI ik iwiw iu lliv |t;ilronage uflJiv llt^liloa 
lamilir. The parisli ia lHr;;r, aiitl lia!ilhre«elia|)i>bofeaM; Ilrough- 
(oa.St. Lawrmcr.onil rlicNeiv Chd|)rl. Hutllif laot liad lui certain 
eudoM'tiient until tlie Ke*. S^iiiiud l'e|)lae. tlicn vicar of* Fr»loa. 
procured llie (|ui*eti's bounty (<>r it ia 1717: ami ou his proini>- 
lion to lb« M)e oi' Cli»ti.-T, in l7'-\ bu viii surccnlcd liimas vicar 
tierr, who vras prcsrutcd. in 17^7* b}' the dcau and cliaphrr of 
CheiUcr, to tlic rector^i ofNortbcuden, in thai diocoj, woith about 
130t. pcranaum. 

In the lime of the rivil rrattnt Iwlween king Cliarks tb« Fir>t. 
and tbc parliBRicnl of Fji^Iiiiid. the diike ut' lianiiltoa. nbo bad 
broiEglit jn ami} (nun Smtliinil for his srnicr, mm routed on 
Rdiblclon moor, lo the eastward of t)ic town, and at Ihr pais of 
the brid^r. lliis nan in H)*» ; iW- iiriny under Cromitell au<l 
Lambert bnnjc very inferior in uuiiibtn, but much <iu|M:rior to 
dbriplior. In Ike >ear 17IA alio, tlic friends of Ihe pfcti-txlcr 
1WK defeated here bj the fijrces v( George th<- First, under Ibe 
cummaod officitTnib WiUrs and Car^n-utcr. Ilaviuf; btcn Join- 
ed by many rbsiffi-rtrd proplc, rijiciially pupirth. grml nuinben 
of them were mode prisoners, biou^tit to trial, und tuuod ;iuilty of 
Iiit£b Ircaann. Amonipl tlione who sulfercd may be Doticcd ll« 
namea of Richard Cbutlcy, of Ohurley, F.»q, Mr. Shutlleviorib tif 
Pmloit. Mr. Ro|[cr >luuciiMer, an atlomey of (jarstan;;, Mr. 
Joba Old i>l' LaIHa^t<'^, 4umJ vibci iM-iglibourtD|; erutlcmen. *ilb 
Kicu ot ti^bt otbcn ot' Prvston, five uf \Vi;;ui, und lite of Man> 




Aater, four orRantanj;, tuur of Lanrasler, uwi four of Livtr- 
poet. Oot af Wtfif Mii» Ttioini* Sj^dui, a biackimill), aiu) 
captain of tlw mnh, nbuM heatl nas wt up on th« crow at Mtut- 
ttestrr; sik) onntltcr, wltow 113 tnv w:*; CAHinswnod, bod an n- 
tale «f SOOQI. pcrannum. Il i* rpmnrhabtelbal in the year 174s, 
ttli^n iiftolher rebdlion broke out in favour of llt(^ Prvttwli'r, llw 
■M of llie HtiiJ llmiiint S_\il(tul, who <n%* a barber, wai uude a 
ptbeaw , nd cxcfUled, awl his head pbceH mi tlie top uf tha n* 
dnage at Mauebe«l«r, Srplfmber lS(h, i7it\*. 

Wc tnu«t not poM over the rbBrtrr )*rAnt«d I0 the btufjecwi of 
PfVOoa, in 117?, by Henr^' llw Sei-oiid, ntihout noticiu; Ibc. 
pntd-mfrrhanl wittiin t)ie borotich, Ihrti ejtablitbnl, ivfiich hu'i 
been conlimied by mtuiv (iirc^^^ini; kin£i and qtieeiM. It W u sort 
*f publif caniiTHi, or fubUtf, u\d it held wery Iwrnry j-ran^ us 
•|ipeaf» by the records of ilic corponlion. l^ie la«t aimfintnlioii 
«u by CharlRi tbc Secnnd, m lfiH4 ; since which ltm>c it hasbeen 
ie|[ularly held, in the tirti of Anne, ninth of fU'or^ the I'irO, she-' 
tomlb of ( jeor|^ tJie.Secoiid, andweuiid, tm^ily-secoud, andagarn 


* It M w«Q Lmwh M T»ni; Preston, oear ^tllr. in TorlLihir', Am in the 
f>«r 1743. a biivinia h4iif)«unip ynxni wnniMi ur llmt plucr, aitnioiM to ti* 
■le Prctni4rt Hid lu«utn)'< mnit to Pmtuii, in I^iiciuhirp, for th*l por- 
fwe. a dtftai«e of Bfaavt ihirly-eixM mil'i ; iui<1 after ^tifjiii)! tier ciiri»- 
itft aad aiajint Mine lime in. n nt«r ihc njbcl camp, rrtiviiwl la bcr im* 
I vUbigt. Tlia b««aDie la much ilie •itbjvct of LTOpral eimTetwiinn, ibM 
iba ocaiimn of pcuihirine a balliiJ, ^liidi ubiutncd u murli nutonrlir 
n Kitiltlculftli^. u rtkr fumaitt tiMloTical hullkid ofn^vy ChiC*. 'Die Kvtilla- 
uan 'alio In* r>(ruiili«0 iliii AiiectlutL' >i)>i, ilut lie lja« fii-()iiTniIjr tmrd 'ler 
li^ (be very •on^. of w1<idi il<e hcn^if wan tlir autyjort, iwMiiy ftve yon 
lAn Ibe oeenireace; viil t)ie liad tliw. tln^nsb Hriiinrn) in Itfr, ibc nrnniini 
of m b>i>^>oiiic itre, and fioi- prr^n, wliiHi I141I ilniiliHrw l>i'#«i iin|.Jitr»'l l'\ 
in*. aiHl by « ttruox |ii(t|>Fauty ta iutlulfft in iiiiriiuoui liiiwi*. Tii* 

** LonC'Prcsloa Pcirfy t«-p»o»i< PrMton wmt, 
To Me iLe bold rebel) 11 m-M larf inieiit," &e. 

I ai»aeil (Mm het I44 U3I )lte bad Iimii treated wllli lialfa donn, 
.gfiMii ifnilrili 

in ffa« fortj-Kcond year of his |>fcKttt Mi^j«sty: the out; mofflirtV^ 
nccf)t QuMo ElixaVelb, v,Uo Iisa reii^ed duringthc time «f Ihre^' 
guildj*. It begiiu about tlw iMa cad of Au{;uvt: and b;^ the 
cbart«r, whidi ot>lis;«s llie cvrfHtralion to crrMndtt it at tb« end 
at tvetj trttftity ytun, od pa5n of foir*.-flmg f bcir «I«ct3« fran- 
chiMf, aitd llwir Hitbla as buijc*fi«(, tntiitv-elAhtdsji of sraccarc 
allowed to all wbo are ditpowd (o rciKw that freedom. By 
public proclimattoa, it is d«clar<'d, tbnt on fttlun^ of doing so,' 
tiwy ar« ever uHcr to be deburtcd of tbc iioiie on an; future oc- 
casion. Hie laat gttild coinnienccd on the SOtli of August, 1802. 
nhco (u) iaiin«»e concounc of people of all raok) va atsnnblcd ; 
Sod proccuious of the gcnllcmcii at tbc bcud of the diScrtnf 
"duses of iU4nulacturer?, with •r>'inbol)cal tej>rcaenlaliou* of Ihcti' 
l^pcdivc bfoncliea of tnwJc and commerce ; iiad band* of mtuJc' 


' By the foDoRtn: ii*l, in wtiirti die nrayon', aiKtiM{>m-lircfnTir^t,>re 
•nuiDcmted, Ihcrc appran to liare b«CB TornifTly aoai« irtc«uUiil)r ia I 
p«Ti>4ii but ixnce Uie tctioralinQ uf Clivin the 5««<ii)d, tfae^ have 

Anbitrt, »on of Robert, 
Williaai Er^iun, . 
Uenr^ JalinHn, 
Robert Itoufliton, . 
WQBam Mat^II, . 
TlioiiMt Tyjfviag, 
TbomM WtH, 
Oeiiii:e WiJtnRi 
Rvmy Coi»nttl, 
Winiuiu Prvilon, , 

Edminul Wndea, 
JUDM Hodkinion, 
Kof «T Sndal, 


Edmrnad Ajhet««, 
Hnry Psntngtoo, 
Robot Parker, 

NldnlMOrto^ww, . 

Spcoiid ofEilwurd <h« Tliird, 
TnYnticUiaf RicImnJ tbv S«cmi(l, 
FiAb of Henry ilii! Fiflli, 
Hiirty-Mveotli oT Hctiry flic Sktb, 
SiitL-etiih uf HeniT- ilie Seven Uj, 
Tbatyfawnh <]f Hcitry lh« Eigblb, 
Pounb of Elinbftli. 
Twenty -fniirtli «f Clinlwili, 
Foiirty-foiirlli et EIial>rih, 
TMMilkrtli uf Jitnt* tlir Pint, 
Hk^eDib orO'arl« liw Vint, 
Fanrtcciidi o^ClivIn Ibc Second, 
TUrt^roHrtb orCIurIi>s the S«c«uiJ, 
Tint of AniK, 
NiMbofOeori^ t)i«rir»<, 
SixMcnrb of Oeot|te Ihc Seosid, 
Scctfnd of Gcciite tlic TLii^l, 
Twenty H>cmid cT Ocoiye ll>e Thin), 
Fort^r-Kcond ofChatft dicTtiiid, 

fitted Utnai^ the pmcipeJ ftrMis of the (own. The rmvor ind 
cwpontloii, with lli« vranlen^ of the thfFerenl contpAoiM at tW 
Lkcaduf iheir ffiiwcUw itiroqwratpd badita, each in thfiroffieiiil 
m, aii<l with tbeir luaal i[)fi;;niu, foil fnio tlw nuks iu iJue 
r; Bod the vhule ms preeutHb^ an eiccllrnt blind of mnsic 
I toUie i7(h ir^iim-iTtnf light dragoon*, in fuU if rest, amF 
llkttr ofliem nenly clfolheil. Beudn Die WMil-rambcTo, ^[iiiiiiers,' 
wtmKn, conlwatiicrs, carp*ntPR, vinbwn, biyiorx, smith*, pluiu- 
i^n, paoiatn, ^taien, ualrhtmikcrs, luercm, and drapers ooiia- 
pnis, the wh<ile «iu dnn-d hy lli« hulrhm, dinners, binnt^r^ 
ami ^onn, habited in ehurue1«rUtk <Uvs««i ; each coro[iiviy hnug 
attnxleil by n band uf muMC, attd a tery elegant CDaijpi. fa tfSi* 
order they proce^sted to church, and aUfr iervtc« relumed an>f 
fwaded throu»h lliv diOercDt >lnwts in the same order. The 
iii»(M-ani*nnTThi ntlfrtatned the (^cotlenen at hb house; aud ott' 
the next day the niOToress repeated (lie treat to the ladi*? of the 
lafnt, and its viciiiHy, who funned a procpJGioii on thii do^, ia a 
dm&r ntatiuer, ^prereded by the girli of the rottoti tnatiufMft>r\',) 
k luperiily drosed, nod profusely deeurated with jewels. NeariyttW' 
r rf Ibetn, cncfa neaHug an ele^::tnt fii&hfauablr plume of fealhetf; ' 
braed tueli-a bnlUant di«phiy ofbeauty und elegance, aalrresiF* 
' tM« (o altnet universal ailcntioc and adeiiiation. The prucet- 
iou was eoiAhded tu aiid from the church, in Itkv manner as ao 
Ibepcceediftg day ; intliecuuree of wliich, a mmiiilure model of a' 
cosipielc' ttntn-eni^e wai introduced at worfc, and performing* 

icnrr opeistiou of the cotton lonnutactory. The tvhole was «\- 
tieniriy *boi«7 and hriUiaat. BmI1«, races, ood plavt, u-crc not fw- 
gDtlAi dur1n<; tkii interening festival. 
Tlia " guitda mercatnrtA," or mrrchabt! cviild, u a privile|t To 
Vienrhants, eoabUn^ them to hold certain pWt of l;iiid, iic. witltin 
iMr own precinct, and is confirmed b\ nds of piiliamerit, ui tlw 
ttdrtv>-iennth of Edwurd the Tliird, and liftrcnth of Richard lh« 
Scwod. I| if of SakoQ orij;ii>, by nLicli certain commuuitict 
ifljildite with each other, to putiUh crimen, nuke good lones, aad 
kH of reatiliition in proportion to offences. Praleniilies and 
IliUt, llterefore, axe of ancient u*e, tang before forinal liccnif^ 


tKTc gnnted ; tt this tta; a guild impiiet a companjr uuited to- 
gether, with private laws and orden, after licence obtained from 
the king fortbat purpose. 

The mischiefs which were done to this town by the rebds, io 
1715, were tlie cause of its being rebuilt in a mere commodious 
and pleasant manner ; for it is now a liandsome well-built town, 
with broad regular streets, and many good houses. It lias three 
weekly maHiets, on WednOday, Friday, and Saturday ; but the 
tut is much the largest, and is under very particular r^ulalions to 
prerent forestalling and regrating. Every necessary of life u here 
to be purchased, and in general at very reasonable prices. Tlie 
town is supplied with coals by the Douglas navigation, which joins 
the river below Walton bridge ; and the new Lancaster canai 
wMcb is to pass near it, wilt add to the sources of supjriy of this 
ttseful and essential article of comfort to the inliabitants. By 
these canals communications are op«ied with the liven Mer- 
My, Dee, Ouse, Trent, Dcrwent, Severn, Humber, Thames, 
Avon, ice, ; for tlw Ribble is only navigable for small vesseb 
tbat coast it with goods from Liverpool and other parts, and trans- 
mit cotton and other maoufiKtored articles, which are made here 
m prodi^us quantities, in return. 

As a military post, Preston, from its commanding situation, has 
been deemed of the utmost importance in all the civil commotions 
of the kingdom. Traces of a Roman military way may be di»> 
covered on the adjoining common, from the mouth of the Ribble 
to Ribchcster. Near the town also arc many fine walks ; but the 
most fiivourite b that of Enim, as a MS. authority writes it^ or 
Haynani ; from which the Pretoider ii said to have viewed the 
town and the country below it, in 1745, with extraordinary emo- 

Tlie ToJcn-haU here is a very large and handsome buildingt » 
Sir Edward Stanley, Bart, who n-as one of the knights of the ^ 
diire, and afterwards Earl of Derby, made a present of the picture ^m-. 
of George (he Second to the corporation, which was placed hLcxJ 
their tnwn-hall on the llrth-day of tlie king, October SOtli, 17S9b^> 
when he entered on the forty-seventh year of his age. T^^^ 


^ttemkty- Rormf ««rr biiilt Ht ihf soI«' fvpcnc*" of tlic Eail of 
Deibv. iui llir uif of lilt; ladiM ami ^illenteii of Prntoo, and ilf 
vicmiiT'. ore ckganl sod conimodious. The nrw ;iruoit, or 
prnitentian' bouM, rwir Ibe cntniiKC of tlir town from Ctiorlejr 
tiv Waboo bric)((e, b conslrncted mi tbc pbn of Mr. ftonafl, mid 
■pproprisletl tor ihv cntiiiuiili of Louvlahr, Amonndertii-u, Black- 
bom. anil Wnl-Derby tinndivds, l«ing erected at the aote «x* 
prtice of Ibow ilutrkls. I< bran mucfi rcwiubliiiicr lo the N«w^ 
Ba5lc7 priann at MaaHmt^r: and iu piirpote i$ for »ahilary con-' 
fissccnail and reformalinn only. Eatfa priwiirr ii allon-ed, Hnilj, t 
pomtdHid » lialf ofbrrad, and apitrrrof biittir, ^ilh a halfpenny 
wortft oi potatoes; aiid Ibcy an permitted to cvcliaiigc wliat llicy 
ilo oot ?al for tea ant) su^jar ; but all slruug liquon arc abxiliilclj 
litcff. A MIC bridge Via aUu built over the KttiMfrin 170 1* 
rlbc aulliorilT of unact uf puHiuroeat, tlic fomieT one having 
•waibnlaway by a flood. At the laic return, in litOI. the 
itionoftbe townofPmton was 1I,S87, and the number of 

At pKtiworlbam, nhich b about a mile south froin the town, was 
>rmaiy mpriorg of BcnedicliiK monki, subject to the abbey of 
, ■ WoKcriersbire. It was fuuuded in tlie CoBit(ueror'i 
e. by WariHBoswl; amt at ttivdmulutionofnioDa&triKi, tlic 
Mir and buQdings were graiileil by IJeiuy the Eighth to John 
Ffcvtwood. S^ar this pljrr, it ■« to be prrsuincd, the Scaf, or 
Va-cal/, meotioiicil by Dr. Lciglt*, wai lukeu in Uir river Rihble, 
tbc teat of Tboinas Fleetwaw), E«|. called the B^nk. 
Abmm^ Ibr unoorantou or scarce plants of llns county, the sprliif- 
rBx|iiefcd is found in ttnai; pastures ucar the Itrwn. 


U a matkel and eorpomtc town, Kated on the w«ftera bank of 

*\* ri*ir Wyer, on llie great turnpike ro&d which comninnicatei 

Vol. IX. H between 

■ Nafunl UwWy of UoM4iIre, tic FoL p, 185. 



brtH'i^n Prfftoii aivH Liiir<i«ter, uiil at tlw dbUnrc oT aboot 
clri<i:u mWei from tinU of iIu}ik placci. Th'n luwa nut tiicorpo- 
rat«l hy Cliarlcs llir ScronH. au<] is gntctiivil li_v a iMtliir, hoJ 
itvca capiliil liiirgrwn. hi llic uliartcr s:raiik(t hy that iiiiHiaTdi, 
tlic rorporalion are iavc»1«il uiilt uulliuiity tu tr? all nibde-' 
mcaiiors ccHuiiiilltd ^^ itUiii Ihrir Hljerl^. 

It biix u iniiiktt uitLIt, on Tliimclny, nilh three annual faiai 
aitd Ihe Lnnradrr (^al, nliiili now [nusrs \»y it, will br ofcwcn- 
tial advanliis*^ "" a coranicrcliil »itw, aoil be a iticans uf »ur- 
toounlini; tbi>»e obsucl*'^ nliicli liave bcrctoruix- o|>i:niIctl sgiunat 
llir_ p-^tablisliiiieal of miy cnnstilcniblc manufitclory iit Ibc tnnn. 
Tl>r livLT W'jri-, uliiili ruiu jKirdlUI (u iIr- ra^l sifli: uflbi.- chief 
ilrcet, At a small tl»tiiiKv,aliouii<)B witb Irtml, dmb, aiidc'wtgcous ■ 
ind in the spring willi miicIIs. It also aupplin Ibc iulMbitunts'f 
with altuudiiurc of fine soft wnlcr. I'liiit rivrr, after wver*l days 
inctsantiain, naa so timcllctlaslu nawt>\*cttlii' cburcb vanl. wLicU 
in abo^e a inilr souUi, at a place aiiM (iar-tang-^-biircli towu, 
and break into t)ic cliurdi ; by nteaiu of nbicli tW roundatioua 
vivre DO weakened nnd lutdcrutincd, lliat it was obliged to lie 
lukca down and rebuilt in llie year 17-(4j, ul an cxpencc of 191OL 
Tlie cliurcli waa formerly impropriated lo ibc abbey of Cocker 
tand ; and il Iiui cliapcb nl Morket-Glitslan;; and Pillins:. 

A large printing cotton and cnlico manufactory limbeeuloi 
ciUiblialicd at Cillcr^l, about tvo utiles to tliv »oull); and 
ScortOD, three miles Dolpbinliulm, five mili-s, und Catttraw, awtn 
mtU'S all to the nor11i-«ast, arc mriwis spiimiiig ntunulactortcs; 
aod another about llire« niilei lo the*uulli>east. 

About a mile lo the norlb-eait of tli« tovru, are the ruins 
CtHEENHAVGtt CastI-K. AI prwciit llifre is <wly one lower 
lemauiing:, and Ibat in a v«ry slialtered state; but il seems to 
bate consisted originally nf wren nr eif;hl tfnt«n of fifCAt hcij;bt 
uimI *trength. Some writers bave dated iti foundalH^n in the 
times ofihe Sii\nii )iepl:ircliy ; hut olbers alTributr it lu Thonia* 
Stanley, the first Karl of Derby, in the ttiga of Heury Ih^f 
Stventh, as a plw«? of prrttt'rtimi fr^mi thr nobihly nf tbp rountrr, 
H'bute utoles lie liiu\ nbtaioed oa ibiir being proKribcd at giiilty 


sttrroondiig tnc 

ntry has b««n acAed for 

IV sttrrooDUiiK tract ot count ^ 

abundance of pob< 

loM, There were 731 iwisoiis here io ISOi. 

^Bl About one niilr south of titr tuwD k Kibklakd-Hali., th* 

^Bm ttf AtrxwHrr Battfr, tM\. MvRnscouGii-HoirsB, an an- 

^Httutl namion, u Ibe seal of CAorfrt (tibmm, Tsi\: Cladghton- 

^^BAt.L, about thnc tnilct sciutli-D-<u), h u snit of Witliam Fitzhrr*- 

^^mtrl ItToekMrx, Em], a j^illoman wIki ha* n*'™''?' "np™*'*"*! a 

largv morass nn his «<atp, by means of dninhig, &c*. The 

Brorkboks laiuit<v spptar to linve rcskled here from t]ie lime of 

H«iry the Seveotb. 

About lhn'« miles to tbi' nMt of Ganlang, is Ifae east side 
ef PtLLiKG-^loss, uhieb «vbibilr-il a similar pheaoiiienan to 
of Solwav-nHMS, in I77t. The account of it was given in 
PtniCMphicil TniwncliuiK l» the follontng eflertt. " Od 
irdsjr llie 2tkb of Jamiary. 1744-5, a part of PiUing-in»«; 
ing betwcvB Hescomb bumet;, ami Wild Bmr, mss observed to 
Tm to a nirpriiing bei^it. After a sliort lime it atirimk as much 
bdow the level, sod moved slowly touanh tbe Mulh side ; and in 
as bour it covered tw«nty acres of laud. Tlie iiiipioved land 
tolliatpartof tbc m'>v>, wliicli inon'« in a concatc cirde^ 
containing near lOOacm, U nearly lillvd up Mitb niou >iiil water, 
•ad in tome parts is tliouglit Io be five yards deep. Oiie family 
b driftn out of tlieir buu«e. wbidi is quite surrouiidi-d, and llie 
lahric is tumbling down. The part of tbe moss, wtiich it tuok 
liLc iIh; bed of a rhvr. rum north aud loutb. and b above a mUo 
in ksgtb, and lulf a mile in hreadtli. Wltcii the iiium he^ii to 
'. a tnim was passing owr it from lite west, who perceived, to 
U»|mil astoitBlmicul, that (he ground moved soulhwurd. By a 
^redy rduni, he bud tbcj^ovd fortune to escape being swallowed 


• Hoir* Agricultural Surrey, 
t See No. ^ti, p. tftt. 
are about hatTatnUe from Ibc wmh lida of tbo taom 


Is « man tavQ ^foily 1 97 bouses, luid 761) JobilubDb. Tbr 
lardsbp. witb H»t of Biwopehini, bchtecn it ud Uk m, were 
gim to the abbn of 5hrtn&bary by Rogn dc PwitKra. Tbt 
locange abo of lhi» |>larF, with tltc nmcy of BiKopehun, wen 
botb improprHileii to the niwnrrj- of Svta. in MiddJocx : Liul tbit 
I>Bl|v«aKt^ of boUi is. or lald^i wu^ Ja Mr»n. Flectwnud anJ 

At Uk distaoTf of five miles west of Poulton u Blackpool. 
wbicli. wilhiit Uic last Uiirtjr yean, hts aXtumtd soiikc dialinclion M 
9 wvlering-pfacr. Tor lliis pntpow At siluatioii, uid oUm^, 
c^ncterwtica, *k prciilhrly lavorablr, whrrbrt w« nMuidcT it 
fine brer2C3 Crom IW n-ntcra ocean. il> flat anti hdooUi beach, to 
Ibe breadih uf balf a mile wIwh tlie licit- is nui, Uic stntgbt eont 
for ncailv twenty miles, or tbc pwiil> uf tbr Viila wilb wLicb il> 

tffajlon are »ip|ilied. Tbc uamr it ticrivnl fnmi a po«] of tnter, 
•fa bb(k, (laik, or livrr cf4our, wbirh formerly wa* known |ii be 
tliltmulh CB<I, but aow JiUcd up u&d conitrtrd mlu loenilow 
iroumL Souk Cynl vtcwaoflbelakufMuD, lolhc north wcil. may 

; 1^ teen from iIk biMl brfuod it, iu a clrar cFeuiag; lo the Dorlh. 
|bc fi-lU uf Wnliminluud at tutty tnil» distuticc. ibe cni«i of 
Lunrdsliirc, unrl llic liilli of C'ucubtrrlsail> arc xi^blc; lutlie Mutb. 

, fveti al lifly mica di»lii»ce, are kco the inounfaina of Kuftfa 

iWalc*'' but lite riiiNg ;n^tuml to IIk t'u^l, limits tht: (mxi^iccI oa 
ttnt kidr. Slid) is the sitiiatintt of Bliirli|iwuL The sea bas eiH 
croarbpd upon the laud bcic Tcry considerably within tbc tcemory 
•fptnotti now Uviiig; aud from the fltiluesa of tlic beach, no vr> 
lelcan upproarh the shorf, nud even tltc sniullol boat cotinot be 
•atered nilbout wadiaK. Tlie trwJitiou uf tbs country is, that a 
public houv stuud upon firoi land, neat a utone calliHl Penny -slonr, 
wbirb it iiavi ul leait half a mUc fruiii Itic shore. The sou [m>- 
hably from its lillU depth, «<r<inl> but few fish; tlit>u;^h frealt 
vater ti*b, atid Ibma •! a mixed nature, ar« abuadast frotn Uie 

£ uvtxs 


hfm Lvne, Wyrc, and nibble. Near the south c«d of the LaA»- 
Itl, b ■ bdiMlDg cflltod Vauibull, now iu a Male of ruinous do^ 
«tf. 11 ms tans lite rtlmt fur itoftuh nrcuuinis, kbiI in 17IS^ 
Mi BOmI HI* ti> receive (lie Prctetuler, iu u >.ikI« nf c^aceaJmeott 
Idwtlen n-eM ri|)e lor it general iiKurrectkiii ; aud Iwin^ jur. 
nuHri hj 11 ktfly tmll, il «-ns oolv kcccKiblu rroiti lli« north ; tb* 
mlfcioil eiMt tide* Wiiig (leTeiKied by the |»t>ol snd a »wiiiii(|| 
Hd 00 the wwLjtide could not be u)i|kojc1joU by nay vextcl. J| 
■hi aH>|Buit<l many teeret rec«wct Had billing }>laccs, aiiil wu 
Ibrref jre w«U itrtajMe^l to Kiiard xguinsl surpriic. TIte rogulaliow 
tn hatfaiii|> Bt Uluclt|>aol arc ceituiiily eiKitlvd to Hf^trobitlion. 
Al IIm pro|tcr lime o( the tiii«, u bell riii(>s fur tlK Udtc* to ti»- 
■niiMe, wbta no }i«iUleinaii iuik( be svea uirttic parade, underfill 
Metatt ftfa botik nfniiie; »iid on tlx-ir retiring, llic bell af^aiii 
lisfi to mmmons Uie geittlpmni ru a stn>i[»r ccreiomiv. On tbe 
■(■•Uacfa b ibc ifuivtr, ii plvituiiil gnim unlk of about «x yiirdi 
' viif, by 20O yards in length. A Ne\>i-hou*e and Cofire-room 
I Inveberu eOiibUilii-d hcr«- On the c.>i>rLfii(-nce of visiton, H)io, in' 
^B •Diue *ea*ons. liave uniounted'to 400, or imirc. 
^B RoRrALl^llALL, about ftie itiilcA riorttt of thtt bamlel, ii llie 
^■'tal of FlertuHwd Il&ld Ilt*ktth. Ehj. who U Lord of tlie iitanoi' 
HoTDlKkpouI ". 


Uftfnall1o«B(U^itl> apntHiLilioaof I5til p^nont, *ai coositti 
of 362 baaM4. TIk Chuitli Iktc. tufictber witli iboM of Wulton 
mi Bc»Ctf|>clMiit, wvie t:iveu by liogtr of I'uiloUi or Poilicm, to 
fetaMejot'Sl. FeU-r uud l'iiulifiSl>rc\i)bury, which Lit tiitJiL-r hud 
tModetl; but is lite le^vnib of fticbard tli« Firrt, k tiucwu levied 
Wl«tm Tbcub«ld WiiUers, deinati'ttttil in it writ ofri^tbt of advo««^ 
m«ftlntJniKl(, agaiiKt ibc AblKitof ^ruttibury, when • rent 

11 3 ol 


* IW mmj local t>tTticul4n n-Ulinx to tlii* pincc, kc " A Draciiptioi) at 
Vwlvovl.' by W. HutUin, F. A,$. $. Moond Ed. lliD«. 


or lw«ln> marks was rescn'cd lo lh« Abbot, niih a cEame for di« 
iocumbrals fealty for tnie pavmrnt. Tliw Haim, howm'cr, bpoiiu 
lo lui^-c \>n-n »( liltle a\-ail; for Kdu-ard lite FinI iippmpmtcd it 
ta the abbey of Vale Royul, in Chetliire*. 11m Ticarage is no«r 
in tbe |KilTonan« af Cliria-chuTch rali»f;«, OKford ; and it rom- 
pnlKiids the clu|>olti of (ioosraurth, Whit« Chapel, Hamilton, 
and Lund. We rejid of Walter do Kirkbani, wlio vns keejier of 
the king:'! wardrobe, ouwtecnlli of Hstiry tli« Third. In lli» town 
H a well i^iutouetl fre^-Hliool, wilb three maiden. Iti market u 
on Tuesday; and it hai (wo fairs, in June ami Oelol>er. It hai 
tome Irade in coarte Imens, and ul«) in sail cluth. One mile wc«t 
of the (own is RintiY-H^LL, a large ucU-built brick mamion, 
^elooging to Josfph Ihrnbif, £«[. 

BtACKBUBN llliNDRBD is bounded by Yorkshire en 
north and eA»I, uitb Saifurd Htiadrcd lo th« soutli, and tho 
]liui(lr«d8of LcylandandAmoitntkrniissto Ib^'wc^t. TliU diatiict 
vas fonncrly calltd Blackburnshire, amt tbaugli at an eariy 
ptriod it v^ a vrild, dreary, and UD<ultit*utcd pait of the county^ ' 
y^^ it tt aow fillfd wHb inbabilanli, and aliaunds willi numufactoria. 
The Lctdt and Lirtrp««l Canal, vith that called the Uofiitigden, 
traverMS thii hundred, and o|)ens a nai'igatinn wilb the tonnt of 
Colne, Burnley. Ilastingilen, an<l Btackbum. Heiiidei these (omu, 
that of Clithero it within ttiis hundred, which it noted for an 
important Roman /tl/ition at Itibcbeslcr: alut for a i'astle at 
Clilbero, and in Abbry at Whalley. In tI4s ditlriti werv several 
ancient manor boum, some of which are deserted, and in ruiu; 
and indead of the old uoud-built iiiamjoti, many drgani and' 
comfortable siructiinM hut« l»een nii'ml wilhiu tbe last c^-ntury. 
Several tuinpiko-rondt intersect tliis hundred, and rciuter the ia> 
l«rcout»e, either for plcasurt or biuinew, liclwcen tlic tonis, easy, 
ami pleasant, ' 

* Sec SJPifii Vtle Sd^nl, p. ItS. DucdtVi iMon. ^VogL, Voi. U. £ K^ 


Tlie priiicip4 town of Uus liuiulrat, ud tfaat M-bkb siv«i 



Tlw followin? arrouirt of llw jtrtrijli, I')wn, Attd tctiim of 
Bbdilrurn, uiiil iti vicinity, nm kiixlS citiiiiiitiiiwutvd Iv nte bv llie 
ft*. TUiiiiu* Shirkic ; aMcl as tlw liislorv and l'>|K^ni]ih_v nf Itiil 
MtKtate but little bnoMii, I iirv^unit.' tbut itie vrltoJ.F »ill be 
ftrowd wiUi plciifur^und tiitrr^l l>v I)k ic-vJith i>f tbit wort.. 

Tfce fiuiah nf Bln<:li.l>itni h boiitKlvil an ibe west Uy lb« Ribblr, 
vliek tepBn>ti-a it rruiii tht ]>:irisU» uf Alitlim, ltibL*li»tcTr vimJ 
fVerton; bv th« OtId«r <>n tlie oorlh ; hikI by ib*^ Hyndliitntc, aud 
M inMgiiwn line, on tiic rail, it ii M(tHi-.ited Iroiit liic |)arUb of 
Klialley, Tn llic soutli i( abuts on Ibr fKirribvs uf Bury, liultiqi, 
Ityltai, nod Brindlf. TIk form of ibii piirjuli is ine^ular; ilt 
freatal l«Df;lli fmm Dortli-enH lo siMilh-west is about luuilten 
min, and its groitMt hrmtlb lr^cn>d■' tvtx miU-s, It coiitiiiin Ihc 
falinwiug tuwtii]ii|if— Black bum, Wiiiiou, Cuerd^ilc, Siinitcshury, 
Mdenlon. O^ltflldcslnn, Salnbun', Oiiikkv, \Vil|>diirv>, llilling- 
Un, Gfvat-Ilantood, Little- E I arKvot), Kialitoii, Cbtytuitle-dal*, 
laaignw, Uxt-r-DurMrn, Luwct-DarMTii, Tockboles, Mellur, 
WiUiw, Vtnakuffoa, and Iiv(^M>y, lUutra may be estiiitnU-d ut 
ii6K]ipir» miks, or i5,UlU stnlule acres, tn th« vrar 1K03, ib 
population m:u 33,59!) [Knotu, vhiib a]luw« 39U itiliHbitdnt>> to 
nay sqitirv mile, urunc ucreaiid tiirr« fiftts, to cwi-ry iiihiibilMiil. 
Jacr Ibtf atetagv ibrutigtiout tin- kmgitum has bcm cuinputvfl to 
W lout acrps of iratdfl and meaduw Lutd fnr enry iiduibilani, and 
mbe biul» til lliit puridi ure ipi>l crjidti«d wry ptuduclive, cilh^ 
tnrmtutc or oit, the iuliabiUiib are ^really dL-|M'iidHut uii ullior 
fntricts (w a iMUTHary Ki|>|dy of |)rovisiuu«. 

TV tinmdHji of BUikbiini. iii !*((■?. coulainwl ll,f)80p»T- 
vmi, Mbitb is luvii' tb:iit double llie uuinber tl cuiitaiiieEl in 17^"i 
«beii il« |N>]iiiUtiuii was ascrTlalaed : but tlti« f;n.'ul iiicrcvr must, 
in part, be atciilird to thr iiillii\ u( |n.'i>itU>, vuvU'UuiK'd by tbe 
fnMpcrotu tiade ut' tlie pluiv. 

Hi A tnulet, 

120 LAKCAAHins, 

A rivulet, wbon ancient name, Jitakrbovmt, bai be«n long 9b> 
>orb«(1 in that nf l)ic town, divides it rnlu Iwo uncqial parts, 
of wiiicb the iveslem a by miidi tlie larger. TIjore i* lilll« rr- 
giilarily in tlic form of iLc tlrrcts, u liicli m-jv ina great innuuiv be 
accnunled for by the inlermixlure nr^lebcaiid olbcr biuls. Tlitt 
town conlajm two Cliurcli» on iLi: cstubliUiiiMiit, one Cliapcl for 
Pre<il)i|1t>riiuis, Q«G fur Aiinbiplnti, our fur Pj)iiGls, Itm for Me- 
tiinf1iikt<-, iitid one in uhicli tlie unices of llie CLiirHi nf Fiijebuul 
are perfonneH by u per&ou licrn&cl at llic quarter Bcsuoits; but 
wbo never obtaiited epiMOfHii ordiualion. It luu a Gmnmurr- 
JSrAao/, foiinded by Queen EliciluHb, and gotetneil by iifty 
persoiii, ubo arc rrquired by tbe rhurtvr l« be iiiluibil:iut!t nf Ibc 
vill, or parish of Blackburn. Ttte jtresent levcnues of this acbool 
tie l60l. per nonurn: of wbicb lOOl. it appropriated to Ibe 
master, and 60l. to tlic uiJier. Titere is also a Charilt/Schoot, 
founded by u Mr. Lcvbiid, for lla- iii»Irucliuu uf about itixty gtrU, 
ip leading, irwiiig, and koiltinjj: tliey are partly cktalhrd, and 
the whole ii supported by benefscltons i*u<l annual collections 
niade in tbe two cburrbes on tin- e4l;ibliibnM'iit. Altove Itieuly 
yi;ars agn a Stttiday Srlwol, for 300 cliiidren, UHs citablUbed, aoiJ 
continues to be &u[wriiitenitt'd by llif [tnt'inul TI'oiiiur Siaikie, iIh; 
present vicar. It h mp\m\vA by annual >uli.scri|iliaiis. At a 
Ifllle distance from the tovrn, in no airy Hluatioti. is a commodious 
dwelling for tlie rrcejitioii of the poor bdoo^cing lo ll>c loun: is 
one of its apartments Is a diitpcDMiry, appropriuled lo tliL-ir ux: 
and beueiit. 

Thice fairs are annually lirld in tbb toMii, viz. ut Eiulcr, May* 
day, and Micliarlmai : it b;«s abo a nuoLct every Wi-dtM-^iiy and 
Saturday ; and a police for rcguhliiii: tlie uatkct, and for paviii!;, 
ligluinij; Katcliing. and ckujiMiig (lie atrctK TlH:ci)iciiceof llic 
potici; is su|i|i(irlrd by ii rate nn llic occu|t>T<s of building. The 
distmice uf Bliiclkburn fruiu Muuclieslcr is ii, tuul truut I^imIor 
;0K miles. 

The benefice of Rlackburu is a vicarage rcniainin" to charge, 
and rdtued iii (hi- king's booki at fil. 1». 8d. per anuiim. li a in 
fbe paliunagc of the Aiclibishop of Cuatcrbuiy, the uppropriatii 






LAKCJkKlllBC. >Q1 

mtor. Williii) tbepaiHliareeiglit CLji|x-liorEiiie: thry sre all 
taitmtd, bimI io Uh: uuiuinatkui irt* Ibe vicar, vix. AVdltuo-lc-DoIr, 
(nmetly calkd LaMr, ur I<f»vr, SMinlcsIjiini. Kildtri>toii, Lutgn, 
Gmt-llmwood, Oict-DurMen, TtKkii>jl<i. uiiil St. Jutui'a. t 
BkkbuiK. Tu ibvMi niav be iiiUt:(l ainilbcr CiM{Mr) of Ease, 
bMlt tlHb yev in StlKaUiity, but iml t'ct coiisccmtcil. 

H ai|ijMati Irom ii cciuut, tokm iMcviwus Io ttic Binhup of 
Or*ta '* luiiiMTjr vwiUlUMit in Uie jcar I Mi, tbui Una puf ish, u.-> 
dam of llie cbapctrics, conuiiiril lt<tO Vrt»\nicnMii*^ Sjti la- 
dtpnpWnts, 71 Aiut^iapUtU, 13 Qu^kcis liio Mclliw<iikls aiHl 
IMPaiNata. Io llie &uiuincr vf 1!U>3, ll>c pt)\nsh bUiK»|i ulllic 
Mtlicni dittricl cttiifiiowd |Nipuli catechuiiwui ui Uais Xvnu, pcr- 
fai|» Ivr Uk ^nl lime lince the Ucfumiiitioi]. 

Tlic tarauit tntk uf Ibis tuHU >iiu iIk- luauuficlure of JUtKt-' 
tmn-CMnla, a fabnck ciimbling of a liueii warp Hnd a coIIoq 
iwC >NW *■' ^'f> "f ^ lii^li IfviuK 'Ivcil tu lh« Uiirud, rbvc to Iba 
fi(CC<(lien nuTcn, a stdpc^ i>idKck<:(l u|tpcardiicv. TUisiiiltde 
MM AfWrwardi «u|>e(M:(l«l bv Unc ItUck^urn-Grr^*, Mt called 
foaliiei* culour, Dcitlivr Uie wurp itor the woof havitig bcva 
<f}td before tbey tvcre put iuti> llie luixu. TiivM.- suoJs were 
HOKralf; aoU to Lnadun l» be printed. About tliirty yistn ii<*o. 
Mother chaiige took (il-xre in lbt> miuurociutc uf thi» toMji, auJ iU 
ati^lboMrboMl, wriKrn Ibc ffry* ^ve>'« tuci-«<;(lc<l t»y Calicors, whicb 
Met frMS ibc fvrnKi m llu* fctpcct oitly, ihiit Uk vinT\\ n v^l 
utile woof, cvuibb of eoltoa, wU ow« tbcir iMntc Io ihcir re- 
RObliiire of the cotton L-Iulb of India, lir'i<u(bl bitber chiefly 
bwttie provtuce ol' Calicut. Ttie n).iuiiWl(i« of ca)ion«s, at 
bA eoofioe^J to Vtu (hwd hikI iwi;;hbou(litKitl, u now bMrniw ooe 
Wlbe luust iaipoft»nt branches of indiiitry, niit only of tfais, bnl 
olmtn) of Uie liorlltcrn couiilM!3. Bluckburn i«, blme^er, still 
eoHJderwl iti. U» grral luaU for ciilic«>«s >i»<l i> becouK, thnmgll 
liet mtMm, (at iU mxc mi<t popubtioii. •»>•■ of lite riciiut lowiii 
if Diropc. ]n cou»ci)u«nci> of lh<- lute iiu|>n>vciiictiu have 
Inn ii»'1f in spiiiiiiug coUoji, Ihi* niaiiufucture, batli hvrv Mid in 
winw otber {Mrl4 of the county nf Laiica<iler, h.n utluiiied a 
p« 4tgttQ of pettucttoa. Oa being [innied, tli« cilicocs be- 

193 1ANCA9HIRS. 

dxnc fiuliJFcl to a tax of Ihttv-ptncc Inlfpfunj for extry *']U8re 
ytrcl: hut llm is hitlxliiiwaon i-iporiatinnoftbt RnoH^. 

Pcrh»|u thrrr b no buijiicw wlii<h requires so mui'li CTi))ilal. 
tngmuity. snd sllrnlimi. )U the prnitatj; of nlictrcs. A> il it nnw- 
cRrricd on by snittr uf ifiv liist ftiiilrnt in lltl* ctiiinly. It iiiclutln 
a rarkly ol' fiulmpjinatr lra<lc3 ami att». In Ike iinl plare, tlie 
coUcoe-priiitcr boyi (lie rkw malcnal; Ik «nenninls spina it, 
vr««veft it, uml MtaHiw il. Tlioc o|»eriili«iis ait ffim cuttdudcd 
stptiately, and };ivc {-nJp1o^mcllt uml Irrcad to tlie nicrilunlf tbc 
cotton-spfitncr, tliu rDaiiuf.irliircr, Biid lite blcitcticr: uf t^liich, llie 
Ihrc* former ofieo ew|»l"y tciy Urge ra|iiluLi. Afler llie ralicoc 
has bKD bitrachcdi aad before it ctui Imt priiilctf, tbc <alicoc* 
priiikr itiiut briiii; (o bt> aid llir t-Iietui^l, lite |iutl('iii-dninrr, tbe 
lili>ck-«u[tcr, and Uk <ii;;ra\i.T. Miicb tiiitc and c!(|)cncnce arc 
ilMoiarj to brio^ anv oik of IIk->c dtflerciit arts 1u perfection. 
To erect buibliu^i udupled to llie vuious opcratioos, to furnbfa 
Ihcu nUi all uectsnry iiuplciuenls mid U)atemlj, and to resulUe 
•lid kc«p ia due moliuii the whecia of \h'n va»l and <'oiii)tlteat«4l 
machiDe, te4|uiies a ^irH* uf uo nmitoon itiugntltule; and 
atlmtion wlitch imist be coit^aot aitd iiidefiitigubk-. 

To inch a slate of |>cTfection arc Ihc arts of ipiunin^ enlton, 
md priiitins oIkocf, now bt«>ii);lit in ihtt countv, tlial a pfnind of 
roltoii ciiD be >pun ialo 300 hanlij, (-acb ()H> vards in IM15II1, iumI 
wM for Mglitcen pimcas; and a furniture palleru be priiil«d, 
wlikh in the evcculton require MS bloeb, lo produce ibe requtr- 
ed ficurc bi»H tolore, 

Ljttic can Ik *aid in behalf of the stale of agriculture in this 
parish. Eviales are ^^eiwralK divided into tnuill fnrm«, for llie 
uiiq>i>te of suppljiii^ llie fanner, who is f;eiterally a tteuvcr or 
mcehaoic, with milk and butler for bis fdioily. It k bj the loom 
chiefly, tlutt rent» for BukI ari' panl, in the nei|[bbourli<H)d of tbH 
to\*D. Tbcrp are few turii» iu tbc whole (uriih tlinl cxcred a 
hundred ilatule acres, and not tuaitv wbieh approach nearly 1q 
that m:i(^!ltidr. 'Pie grain tnort commonly grown b oats. 
Nntixr Uie climate, nor (he M>il, arc favoiable to Ibe cultivation 
vf wbeat, of which very liiUe k groMo, except iu the mon theUrr- 






fd parts of tbe pariib, ocir the Imiikt of llie Ribbtr. Artificial 
glUM*. tun^M. and aiblnj^ ar? but lillkr oUln-jted item: but 

ondi altcntioD is now |HiiH to Itie |>l;uiliiic nfllic |M>talur, nliirb 
ii AjimhI to Lv an rxri-liriit subsiitutir I'ur bread, hikI uffuid»« 
ffaianC *m\ notrilkius tujifirtti iiir calile. 1'Ikk! l^ out n >iii|le 
Atc^Ann iu (be (wiikli, aor |>t!rtiu|>s u musIl- khn'p uIihIi Uu 
km bolli bred miil f»l. in Llic nitok (liitnti. Ttic nurLet ii 
■pliiini witlibocf aad multuii I'ruiii tlie ricfa |K»ttircs uf Craven. 

A bmte «n(l »inTil icir butl'bii;; nml Hgiiculliire law Uiiif 
hisiin lo sbcw thcniH-lvv^ in llic iKt^Hilwurtiuuil ul' ibis luvrn. At 
WooD-t'oLO, in IIn.- tuiimlnp of MilU>r, iVmi' unit* wnl from 
Blickburo, u vmr nu;,:nihi:ciit liouw liaa )i«cit Imdy trcelcd, df a 
Hull prey strnir, luviag in ttiL- cctilrL' a tbirl)! of iteiu, with ii por> 
tKO siippoiti-tl Ity loiil' iDd.\iy mbitniii at llio I'oiiiithiaii onlcr. 
Hrnijr Stutrilt £«]. tliv iiropriclor, aiiti luni iri' llw nraoor, \am 
^nad DO riiwiiw in iiuimttuix Ibc (ntuiMls abnul ltu.t iiitUe 
MamoB, uatl iu rmltilliatiiiis llinii uilb cuniitlerobtr ciipanaci, 
balli «{ wi)(mI and tntk-r. Tbe houMr tiUinli DL-ar tbt riuitJicrn 
bouniMjF al'tbr |i:irk, wliicli b sutiouuilvd b> a tvali of Itcws 
akn^ lour itiitus iii cuciiiiifcn.-iicc, ncdrly tiiiM fed liigli, aud 
voootod >*illi a niiad roping 4t tliv Ufi. 'Vim paik coulaiut 
noe nHiuQlit: {Icm, aoti bue pUuUiliuas ul' oid and m>uii3 

Titav aic two virnt fnun l)>is liousc wliicb merit parlicubr 
■ttioe. Tbat Id Ibc soulfa nidr, ut fn>ni tite ]Mutcipal ErwnU i> >iut 
lifftal exhsuL it is bounded b_v a Iiillv ixilliuv, iii wbicb a t<nii 
tf cofutdcnble liciglil and bn^4<IUi Ibruis a alfiJiiog feature 
'Ibb n>ck mis upou a bed of afumiaona rartk, atid bas htxn ex- 
paetU to *i«w-, hj Ibc lulxiur of iiiiin, to svarcb ol \\m\ ^^b?lutM.-l;. 
FoUn* M^f, tjtul a iit-iie waii uorked hcru in lii» litnr, but Ua-\ lung 
been o^lecled, «» account of Uie expeiice of removing llie 
WpefiDCutabeiit &rrala. *l'be iost adicotiticr was Sir Grorrt 
CtMntt^ wliote fpcculalioii* in Uiit iirlirie tcn»iii9iti!(l in bit 
lun. Since liis linie no allviiipl ban bec-a made to reinorr. Iliis 
i wii i gi ii g rock, in order to procure tl»e ore, and so «ubrf;e ibb «b- 
mlion, ntiicb mutt bave bvcu tite wurk of umny aijH. Tbe 


gnnud «boal tb< rock it uild and irrriEidlir, and fomu a good 
eootrat) to tlic caltimtnl pack wbich makntlir brrgroiiO'I nfUie 
kndMapc A litlle to Itie nnt of llic rucM, mmI i uxlt-- m Iwo 
tKyood it, rtaods oo moic rlcvated prcMtntl, mod on the very niw 
niitvrtlii; precipice, (be old maiHua oniocHTON-ToWKB, be- 
loiajing \o the Uogkton famitv. Wltliui th« la»r few ««an the 
ro(»rof Uic K^I^Oi *"*^ lOatt of iU walb, bsvo fdLlea prcxlffite; 
thmigb wme paib of tliis wckut an<l e:^l«Dsiv'C building arc io- 
lwbilt.-<l b; i fcvr fiimilirs of tbc lon-cr tUss. Tlic bi^^biK ■» filli- 
ng fari t9 (kcay, and preseob to t jew an otijecl at ooce picli»- 
res<iuc, Rraod, mdnnclioly, and vcocrablc. 

'i7i« w«»l side of lUe bouK conjiiiaixts a soft ai»d rich "iew of 
tiie vales of the KibMc aud DamcQ rivers, wliicb uiiugle Ibeir 
itreams b«low (be viltaoe of Walloa. Tlic bank* of bolb Ibeaa 
ttntuts ara well clollicd uilli woods, and adorned nilh w\'<nl 
baodaomc buil)lin;{«, some of nliicit Ibe evv catcbe* in jHitxii 
Ibe conne of the Kibble. 

Al WiTTON, »oiiie<lib* k$« Otan Iwo iniles froin BJaelihtim, M 
the iitirly-eroctod muitlMi of Ufnri/ FtHtUii,]. It dandi oa 
riting ground, a( a Jitike distance from tbe Dar\i-eii, and ucm- 
bOMnird in wood. It b built of a ctnint-coloiirMl fri«-c1one, 
ricbly veined, and ikui in Ilie centre of ilie eahlcni fmni a porlica 
fliijiporled by Dotk pillars. Thi»rba«i>- and elegunl villa «oni* 
Hud} two plcasins newt of tlie Darwen, wboif IuihIla are diier> 
tified »ilb fwellin;: knolU, nell jibnled wiib thriving vroodi. 

l.M6lh;in n mile below WiMon, and on llw %.\n»e side of Ihfi 
Ttle, ii anotlier new stnieture *ti Mone, Ibe seat vf J. V. Butftr, 
Eai|. Be.lU of tli>'M> boiites are screened fmin llic nortb by Ibe 
sDinbrous Hill of HUdugf, Uic termination of ibat I'liatu of liills 
Ffaieh CKlend from Yorluliire into (bu pari of Lanoi^iirc Tbe 
pleiattoii of llii< iiill ubf^e the level of the sea ii about 3U0 
vardi; uiid I'loiu it& lop uiay be distinctly lem, in dear weatlier, 
(he muHiiluim of Irijtieburoagb and Pennigeiit, in Yorksbirc. 
Bla«:kroiube iii Cniubcrlaiid, tbc bills ocur Frotblmni in Cbrsliirc, 
and Ibe wbok- cwut of Nurib Wales, 


Sifll lower in the tuIp, it Mohteo-Watvr, llirce tniln fmm 
Bhckbuni. Uir bank* of llie Uaiwen become mure hold and 
atftJ, and uxe h«1I covcrrd with unixi. Tlir th-tr, in ii« rrmne 
(na thia place tn its junctiun wilb llie Rilible, u (^>acr of Aont 
rtra miln, pmnili lo vkw torar vrrr uitcresliD.^ HiiH mimntic 
Kiatry, mint of wI)k)), for vrtuit of a ruMi, i< Icml (o Ibc traiHler. 
Oillte builiJtiigs irbicfa niknn llie binLs of Ibb part oflhe ni«r, 
Mufa fint. prouHljr pic^iiinciit alxirt- iill Die te»t. Ilti^lilon. 
Toner, alrcod; tnenlioncd : ibro Dakwkn-Rank, ihf snl of 
£/aHrtf fViMiT. £«]. ; CrsRDALE-LoucK. llw srat of tf iWom 
ijairfoa. Esq.: Walton Cliitrch: Cooprr Hill: ami VValton- 
Rall, Uw miuuioii of Sir Heiin P&Uip llife;/t(oii. B:irt. Tfaoe 
Aar lul cdlticn jcrace ihe bank* of tU Riblfk. sh nt-lt xx Ukmb 
•f ttc Ovireo. Oti|)uHle lo (lit b^t inaiuiofi, iml on lli« iioilfi 
•de of it. tb« DsTWfn fiilli otto Ok Ribl>l4r, bctwMD the two 
hnJaoine Monc tintli;t;s iticonu over ibe latter, ut U'«lloji atti 
Penworthaiw. For irvrnil aitlt-s. ibovc nod bt-luw ibis juoctioo, 
Ac nle of Ibc KiLble liu every d»rtii ukI nriety nliJcli firrttle 
pnnri, a line river, elc^uut vilitu, und huigini* wootb, can well 

Tbcrc on; Iwo itBtioai in Ibc uurtheni exttrmily of ibis pariib 

■kick de»cm to be ooliccd, as lite ticws to be mt i-n from ibem 

urnlremcly beautiful. One nf IIksc g in u tjrni oilleil i'.!^ 

lititi oD llic soiilheni buiik tif tlie Cnldrr. ubuul a mile and liiilf 

bthecaal ofVTInlley. At Uie fool erf' (Ik eniiuence. ntiosc steep 

adc b co»rtei4 with woMt. the r'wr.i luakcs a coutidcmblc winding. 

ii the tallcv. to llitr cart, tht- ltiii!q;c forrat a very pi^irewiae 

ebjcct; beyond Mlticb bil- seen tlw ikipiiiji; woodi of RcadilulL 

Batae cn Ibc bridge Mtd tW »lalton, tlie river iIowh dtmii ivUb a 

{eiily windii^ cuune, the srceu (mslures of Ei:g-SyiK in inany 

|4iKa alciping to ibe nlge of the slKcani; t)tiouf;fa Uie opening m 

Mm bank*, Ibut are fringed wilb wood. Tonatds Wiiulky Uk 

coanc of Ibc rittv ia much mort- windiut;. and its banks nt« 

4tftna&ed witb many projcctiut; points, richly ccvercji) tvitli irodd, 

tflkc (KaUfet taiidj of foliage. Tbc verdant lu>lm« Jand p£ 



Wliillcv driDCRie Imninatn llie ralky in ihU dnwlloilt and b 
CKmiicil liy till- nolili- uihmU nf ihi- Hmioralile Rkhard Pram 
Cunmi iiml Hchcrl IV/iallnj, Fm\. on one siJe, iitnl of Sir ThemM 
D. ilt^ih, Bdri. »n Uh* other. Intlrcd, ricnril fiutit bnice. 
X\tty Bcciii In U>un our nmliniirti rnrcfll, miil cxcltulc all olijreli 
bntiDil llicm, cxcrpl Ihc ttimnitt of (irimllcloo Fell, whkh is 
caiidtl ttimiigti un (iprnm!; lUHtlc bjr tlir CiiMcr talley. Im- 
nrdblvlv m front is Mabton, a srat ofjirmrf Tat/lor. Esq. tlie 
grnumis nf 11 Lkli smll lirirlv, and arc ctpaliU- uf ^rcat emffciUflh- 
meiit. IV}'otiil Mnrlnn, thr paiit am) miinticni of C1.RRK-H1LL 
aff|>'i>[' In grNi Bdvitn)DE:c; iiiiil reivllc-liill. nbicli funiia a back 
f;niuiKl, more :;raml lli»ii k-iiutifiil, c\n*rs ihe |>ra«pccl. 

'11k tillivr ^tiilioii it on llm niat^iii of llic Ribbic, near BaocK'- 
llAlx, ihc jvnYfKTiy of iIirmeitTai/for, Vsq. below iujanclionswitb 
the Oiler fiixl Cnlder. Tu Ibr c»<tt. nnir ll>e boiiks of (be nibble, 
wbirli bcro Itnlilj a witxlifi*; rmirM-, ilandi IlACKlTfc-llAM,. ira 
ohl nniintnfi, dow llie prnprrty of a branch of the Pfire fhniily. 
BrTond llm, in itir frrtile vjlc of tlir Calikr, and sHuatrd on its 
bank*, if Wbnilry, so inlcrc&lint; to Ibc anlii^niinr fur its uncicat 
Cliuirb mill Abbey. Above Whallcy rise the line woods and 
ffTMiniK ttbidi were fnrntrrly a [tart of ll>e Abliey dainain, and 
Icmiinalc lb« ]>nii>|)rcl in Ibis direclk>n. Tuniing to tlic wot, 
h nceii, over llic bend of the Rifabtc, the larc*- |»ih* of Ston rt- 
BORST, the anrieni rcMilencv of tbc Shn^Nmrs, with H% turrets 
and rupnias, ami Mirrnnndin:; wood*: Dii* \\fw it lerminiilrd by 
Ihe lofly Kioiwi'ls of Lons-riitgc. To Ibe north a very ricb and 
cxtemivc rirw it ublainnl of tbc vale of Kibble, inlerMxtcd by Uie 
finely woodftl *tilM of CuMcf on lljc ml, aat\ Oder on th« north- 
mrtt- Tbe ol.ii^lswbicb cniWliah tlii* landscn|N' are, theclmrcli 
and wood* of Milton, tbe eliurch of Waddijij>toti, the beautifoOy 
andlui;; an-l «.i<vfy grmind* of WaH<la, Kilh Uie town, tlic 
mtle, uu'l lb« clmreb of Clitbcro. That \-b*i mrumlniii, Pendle 
Hill, fomi« the right wreai to this view: and Wadctbgton nod 
Crtu'llcton htlU fi>rm tbe kft : tu ftout it is lermcnated by tbc 
Bkbtt dittant Jiilli in Yorkshire. As tio public road pastes near 
1 Uiii 


1^8 LAltCASHTfie. 

corriingtft him, th* hnnHr*d of BJ:tcl(h>irn »»ts ^nt^ (tv (^ 
Cfwjiwor !o liogtr d<- Fluiff, nrnl Albrrt dr Grr^M : bul Ihe 
Dr. (tAtihls t)i( aulh^rily ">( Diiijflale, in ptirh^ " Vtmi Jr Lan, ■ 
NnrmkB.irivrBluMr," «i ll»- _yCr»* Lord of ClillMtft; nnd is tnrlio- 
eri to Mcntiry Robrrt 4e lAfi at tlw railtrAl |>*s»»«ftr, *' wlin«i4f 
Mtltinlv T^rd «f Blickliimi&Iiirr." The ;:rcAl frcor P"i>teri3C). 
in wliicit was romprehMidf/l lliiii[>>«sFr mifofCItlhero, aflcr iKinjf 
dKpo«ws9Pil or it by Ifcnry the Firsr, tar <>9pAUMitf; the caut« of ■ 
Bnli^rt Ciirtfiit, wiu rc«ti»r*^I In him, after a tenip«T*rj itlicnalionf 
bdH \hf. t.mAi of llic chiirrh of Whnll^y, by f logb, of Gti\ dc Is 
Vat, iluring liii |>i>(«ra)on, tn the nicuhs of Ptmlrrracl, was anrivl- H 
M fnr WBtil nf Rolterl dc I^a*-!'!! ronfirti)nttrin, Dfoiigh he mHliriF 
■ei«i9l olber gnwlB made diirnie his aHaimftr. The f*«/fr of 
CSlbero, raid tn bf buill by this Robnt, tra* fi«^ by him lo b» I 
the sMt or hi* barony, on an iiinitated cotiit^ rocli of linic-iton^, 
us till' iiKMt rhciblr liiliMlii'n fnr his Irmponry rr!4denc«, most' 
coiiT«iiimt lor IranitntrliRK tb« )»i»ifH)M of thr f>>r, which Mmiuln) 
df twnily-right mmiurs wilhin tli« hundred, aud as a for1r«« most 
drarablc for (h-frtulin^ hr* hiixk Wk socond win, Hwiry de 
Ijiri, hi* rltW brother, llhert, dyifif; vtllioul iMiif, fnundrd a 
Chtfrtian Abhty, st BHmoMswirk, whirh i«ss aftcr<n>ards tm»- 
lalrd lo \\Mt more p-nial i-lii»ii1i> of Kirhktiill, on the rtwr Aire, 
about Ihrce mile* wrsi of Lei'ds, in Yortobite, wlterein Roberl, ihi' 
■crond son of thti Hrnry de Laci, after his deslh in lljtft 
witlinut iisuc, «■»» inlerrcd. He de««ed \m rtliile*, by the 
inotlH'r's side only, i» )iis sislcr Anhrey, wiiote liiisband, Kichard 
Filz-Euilnce, Lotd of H;tIloii, and tnmtublf- of Oie^ter, dii^ tn 
1I7S, ** wHI 8v hit ^iiii Juhn in ll(JO: v.bosefion, Ro^er d« 
Laci, the tenor and scourge of (he Wekh, >^itC4:ivded lo the fevs 
of Ponlrfrart and "Otdtrhow," a fine hai-infl \tvta Ictieif, in 
llj)j. briween bim and hb^randiiiolWr Aivbfe« fof ihiit jKirpos^ 
aft»f his n-lun) from the siece of Acre, in the Holy Land, wfaitber 
lie Itfld a<-roin|iaiiird Iticlmnl \\\e First, in tti« third crtimdc. To 
the AUai of fHanlaw, uhif b bail been fnnodeil hy Johu de Eus* 
tsre, im|ii«fieily rullcil John dc Laci, Ibb lloper. Lb win, gave 
Uie advonsoii of ibc diuich of Rotbdale, Kilb four bontes of 



widow, Alice d« iaci, liail fwr lier dowrj' rarioiia loixlt1itp« m 
Toik«)itrc, uH (lie manur of VVi<Iu£ii in Uiii oouiily, arul, after mar- 
king tun ntbor liuUmudt, (livd in 13tS; llie lint orilu>»rM'iLi Eu- 
buto L'EstraD);e,uillinhomBbcb &taiitl|itTvkiu<K ti> bav« lived is 
grr-.ll ramiltHril y, aiul aflcrw^nb maiTtHt w itboiit Ibe kin^'ii lircncc, 
oru'liidi ciicuDislniicir tir Irnik aJtntitaije, ami lei^rtl on lirr tulirril- 
ince, both iii thb county aotl in Vorialiirc. TlirsL* irnniticd in tlie 
bsodiof Um ccouii until tbc bc^innin:; of Eduvtl the Tiiird** 
teign. wh«n, «illi lli« r\n!)>liQii u( lEbteiiliit) |>arL nuly, tiwy wfrt 
gmnlcd (uT liTv lo Quvta IwIkUh. But mi Ihcrcrcnul of Tlionbs 
of l^ucailer's alt^iimli'r, wliicb wm licfarc hcnlcatb, Ileunr Duke 
of LiincuBtiT, hy virtue (jftlK uilail on F>iliiiui>fl, thv king's bn>- 
tber, and bii bcira, siKcerdeil lo this Ihmkh' iuhI iiuii<lred. Tlib 
HeiirY fuuiided »n hermitage for \*t> rnlit^ics, in Wltalley cbiircli- 
jud: lie ulto grunted Ibc biuliuick (irBtickUinuliirelo the ubbeT 
,H)d eoQicnl IIkk ; uml Ibc tiintioi of Douiibam, \v John de D>- 
neky. Ik died MmkIi -J lib, 1^0, Iciiting uuly two daughter^ 
eo-licirc:iM3, of uhoui, nbuicb niii inamrd lo Jitbn of Gaunl, 
fourth son of EilMartt Ilie TliirrI, Eurl of Riclimond, uho was 
■ftcmards, in brrrigbl, rrtatcd Dukr ofLaumler. Bylbri mar* 
riage be bad llie fees uf l'anl«fractaiid Laiica.ster, aiid llu- bundled 
of BUckbum, or honor of Clilbent, Midi llir ;i|<[NirtLinnicH, ami 
died ibe 3d of Fcbnury, I3()ii, leavto),' fleurj of lloliit^bi ukr, 
llij son sttd lirir, duke of LAiiOflrr, ti bu wun llim in baiiisli- 

Ileury, oo bis n;lurD,dqKHcd bis utifnrt iiuatc in]i«lrr> IticlMrd tlie 
Seron(l,aud the bom>r of Ciilbero ibrrrby incr^d hi tlie criWD : 
but, awuc of Im uwrp;tt)(iii, be maiti.' a charter uf.K}i4ir>iliiM) uf 
Ibe ducby of L^iic^tcr, lent il ilimtbl, oii any fiitiirv cuBlcat.lbc 
the crown, follow ib fortunes; yet atill continued to {hm all f^raut^ 
of lands, Jicc under Ihc ;;teitl M-id uf Li>j;!nii«l only, imU tlie tbiid 
of Heiir^ ihe Fiftb, vihtn llie ilueby leal alouc tvas directed to be 
umA, a |inicliee uhicti u-si f<>IIo»ed uiilil llmry \\k .SUlh mus iie> 
pcBcd. Leiuud* bii» iliu» retuted the luatmcr iii nliicli lliat uu- 

" Stc CvUectanni. Voi. II. |>. .100. 


(grlVMte kins vnu bnlraved and »ktB«d, on levliiiis a l^mpnnny 

Itfit^ hfrc ftoMi Lb vnvmiot. " lu A. T). 14Ji''l, Kin^ Ilmry wm 

litea in ClMlMvnooclr bv ildc Iliiogerlffir liippiug MrxKs iii I^ii- 

, cnlcnfa^tv. by Tlio. Tulkal, lomic an J htir to Sir F^tmumlr T%l- 

»1hi1 of llulial), and Jnliii T.illiol, lii« ctiusifi. of Ooli^hry. wtiicli -le* 
Dttral him, ItriDK nt lih ilYner in Widyngtoa Haul, anil OroiiKlit 
kfai trt Lootluo, with liix Intiru buuotir to lli« stvnopn." Tor 
■ gtiwl MTvin llM'ir arr ito fttvci llian fmir patPtits, from 
Uxnrd nnd Ricluiil iIk Tliirtt, ttitl ««UinI. £<)«\iinl t1<r Fourtli, 
ntbc ronlr^ry, pO'^Mil ni) act, tliut Uio dudiv sltniiH he incni^o- 
mlnl nilb, au<l united Ik, llic cn>nn of tosland fur c<er; only 
pHuviimc iImI U HhouliI rr-maio a eorponitc inl>«rit;niM, and he 
(pfrnK"'! by Mteli ollirrrs m i( Imd liMti during Ihr lltri-^' pircMl- 
imnigpa. Bill Ht^nry lh« Si^rcnlh, the oulv l«^ hvir Ia Ihu 
fawMtr, umlcr the d«ed of wIllFinnit imi the hcin mate of Jubti, 
Duke of L'liicasm.utid Bliiiirfa liii wife, sooo rrpi'alrd P>lward llt« 
Foanb'ft act, .i»d eutajicd on liimsetf, aitd his heirs, \1» dticliy of 
laDCMler, with its appiirtttunces, lupetlief nilli lite erowD of 
Entail. 'I'hi» it cnutimtud till ilic rutordtiun of Charles the 
^_ Secant), uhti bcfl<mi-d it. fur liu eminent u^rvicra, oii General 
^B Moiik, and hit hrin; ami it is now the inheritance of Hrary, 
^m Di4rof BuccUu)^: liul uhrtbci it tins demised in fee by tlie 
^^ wconH ditkc of AihciiiHilc In his (liKhc^M, and was iscluded 
<iin(i»g»t tlirG*lalv> p^xa to bur «t«|>-M>n, JuLu. Diikc uf Moo- 
beiic, anil so puucd In the aucrslon of the prncul poscssor, I 
uiBol al prcaenl aide to ivtceitiiin. 

The Borouili of Clitb(.-ro, w liich 1ms been Tcprcscolcd in psiriia- 
ncfll frotu tlte tint \Tur ofQticen Eliud>cth, t« a small town, ooan 
hwilalcJ cmliK-nt'e, hatiiijC iu carilv ut mie vtid, on an ek-vutgH 
1ilM>alomt rock, (he rrnttiim of whirtt ron^ only of n fii]*»ra 
|ii«cr, dutuntly «urn>and4^(l bva sironi; uill. In the latter )iart 
iDw eivil m>ra uf Ihe scrcnleenlb cenlury'. it uus a ))n«l of the 
bnt in HiVJ. wai ordered to be dismAtiiled ; und lliv 
tiMD, the iiiarceniblc jvirls esceptttd, tcid been enltrely inont«d 
iwnki ^lenliuD is made of a chapvl here in tjtegmni of tliigb cte 
U Yili titii Has Hritbin tiie c:iatl>:, and was erected for llic use of 

I 2 Hx 


the buroiH his EunSr, Unniib, mad foreatcn: fur Uie famls af 
TiovkIcd, ItoiM'rKlaJc, Boltniid, anf) PcikIIt, vcic all (onsiikred 
U MiUiiii da liiuib. Hiu d)it|i<.-l liutl lici-ii alw«» tlrvinrit a [wriib 
cfturcli, s» appears (torn llie rfcoda of many of Ibc iKii^iboiiriDX 
ti*alry. tltnugb iww loinlly ruitntl, Imvine folli^wni tlie falc of uU 
liw cLsnIms n lie tinH of Edt^-anl liic l^inUi. Tli< t^'cnil 
diapel* of PcniUr, Wliitewrii, Rocwntialp, md Goodtlaw, >n 
unckr Clilhero, utMl in tlip chitrrli, uliirli u a rtiaiMlrj bdon^Bf 
Ut WMIe;, arc Uk nbtuster %um of a knight and hii biciy, 
ftrolrablji totse of llie faanilj of Hctkclli. Thti |nnNlual dtflfwl 
M o( liigb »iilt(|tiitY, bring tvpnfvJjr uicntJiMtrtl in De U Vnl'a 
diartcr : sud t)w tine Saion urvli belncdi ili« luve aud liie cliutr. 
a a nuniplelc !i(>ccii»e>i ufllw «lvlc wlrkb pruvatktl iinlil lh« lime 
of Ifeur^ the Finl. All (lie aiirirot inhabitants r<f tlic fornis, in 
llw uumI indetncri) »««»)<», aiul li> rtud* alniiMt impnwabir m 
winter, were oblijcrd to briiisc tlit-ir dcatl licir for lotCTiiirul. 
thoti|:h ill some |>art3 nearly Iwail^ miles dbtaiil, before the 
filuiidation of Nrtrrhurtti, in Rossenilate. Bui lite (aalle, vritb 
Uic itrmaara and forott, ia, slrirJilv sfxakine, ciitm-|iaru(-liia] ; 
atHt to tlii» (lajr it m dialiuituiibcd by the ii>ime of cwf fr-jwn'tA. 

Tbii town bncvideBll} BRnmicd it> muDC fmn tbi;»ilnatioit nhicb 
it p<>i9c>»ea. It b of an origin purely Britkb, Cttddttr <lvnutiug a 
bill or nKk by the nuter, and Ibe ad<liti()Bal «ylbibl« kou u purely 
}*ii\oo, Mjiich aUodrnolcssliiU, nad it tnercly nne&plnnator^' addi- 
tion, aibpled lo the langiia^ and idvj& of llic ^s^xom. A fair, 
which had bren held in the cliurch-yard rJS WlialU>y, «iu by letter* 
poilciit 4vf llMelewnth warof Henry tli« h'Diirlh, transfprrvd to CLi> 
1)i«ro,-jnd appoitiled In lie htUi tbere, on lite eve, tUy. and morrow 
9f llrt sBounciulioii : niHla eunftmuition of pritili.*^hy charter of 
llie fii^l of llctity tlip Kitlli, lo tlw free liurpesw* of Clyderhow, 
n-itti on exnrption nf the wood of &tll)iill. In be Indowd by the 
■uid biir^wfl ut their otn cxpcotc, and sa«ing the ■unf'i ri^ts 
of trying criiuiual raaies only by the Uvi% of tlie land. Clilliero 
nimt linve been & place of considenble un|xtrlaiice. ai «« rrad of 
** l^nibcrt, jApaiclini of ClyderhoH," jimliahly tji the time of 
lltntry tbr Fir^, or at lent onl much njb«e([urat to tlie conquesl, 
3 nod 

LAVCA«Hntr. Tm 

nmnnt Sp wpiKwM (o mtrt wftli pntctlce fii mnll 

Wr fiu<l iil<o lltil il rticbiinH eisti^-si^ fnt bnrseucs 

Mtwfv M fhe Vfflr tS40, whicb fru a cotntrterabk oumbfT in 

tto« d>M i>f >h:txlt-f p^<t)ulBlioD : Ui««gh the lo^*iKhq> «lofl« now 

(oimiiB, by llie rtiunii of 1901. 1368 pcfson*. awl S09 boiww. 

TlH town vfal, M apprsri nppnidanl lo i rlmrtrr of iHe ymr 
U55, Ci^usMi^d of St oin^le Itnn rempAttt, ihe armiof (jici, «r>- 
w«*CTihMl«*. B'. CWS. PF, CMDERHOWj bul their rmxIcTn 
Ml h tvHfnfneftt t(> ibe rrrtonitinn. CliltK^ro U now pivemed 
bvhni hariiflH, «lto jnmlty nrrcise llie ]Kiw#r ff om* tna-jisIniW 
nrJaUire nf Dw fiwicv, aofl are ubo ihn retuniing otkctn tot the 
karwjfth. KrcrboUlm niily who hun" «statn for life or in fvr, or 
I ntuknt owaen. >re enlillMt to valv. It In^ an «xccll«flt gram- 

mar iriKKtl coniigiKiti* In iIk rlnirrh \nrt1. 'flm «tridly prrjrnres 
1 il« rlurartPT a« a rhi«i(«l wtDinxrv. utd is of Oh- ctKlowmvtil of 
J Plaifip awl Mtn, undct ibe rrfuUlJna of certain ctaluh-i bv onlcr 
^H*f Biibiip Brktiipman. On thr <>|>piv'Th'^ mle of ^hv Rtttbk, at 
^V^cfii^Hifa. wMnn the iMTtwxh, ms foniTcrl; an brniiitiil for kpcn, 
••"liirfi wts founilcil Iwfurc rfnlr* wpn? parlicnhirlY iiHeinIird to in 
In one of lhr>r Joim, *oo ofRiilph tic Olidcrtioii, ^mntii 
nc acrci nf laud in Sitliiill ; and v^rtoua uDk-f gmutf arc inet 
M; lid iu U»e tw«nh-r(>ur1b of Kilward tlw Tliird it bad ocilher 
!ea B«r tmlfimi. in4 tt wai ulliintik-tv feltk'd on the abbot 
eoorffrt of Wlmlley. 'flie litc of tii< hospital wts on ibe 
Ynrkshir* nde of llie Riltble. 

Dr. ^Vtiiiaker tukM nottc* of a trart of country between the 

fftHtble unil Tnidle Hill, Itranng A *' distinct lod p^ctiliar charac- 

■«r.' AfUf ROfw f>mrnil ubHrrvalioiii on the nature of tbe soil 

fmm Lancaster lo this ptoee, as uboundiug nitli " coals, iron, and 

oUier kindred uiiiierjhi," and an powLftkunj; " a wt of inlive plants 

^daptnl lo {tM-tt':" be obo-nes tiiat, " here on a sudden llir crutt 

of llw auib appenn to Invc uDdergone ■ violeul diMi^rfion, in 

«MM()untr« of mlarU tiie ti^ffe* of tlie betU" uf inincnils " :ire 

tlmnrn up into liic ab, itml downward lowards t)tr centre of tbe 

ctilk. At an an^le of nn less Ibati fort^-ftve ilegrvct, iinnicdialc- 

Ij bqMsd tiiB «p|KacmiGC, ibei tlic bii^ m^a ofPcBillc, which 

1 .) Kcina 

y«t ihM« »k» ba** nIralBiM At nhiiaile of tlvr«i> hWr, am! itr iu-Ii'1k1.oBr> 
inn oi>« «r Wfan&Hk, )iit if which are ia Vi<rUiir«, rtcrp* IVi*in-(ilU, 1m«c 
lUMd Ual *f Ulivtiude to be cenudcralily lii^«( tinw osiy DTlIrt aihn*. 



acetns to iiav« been llirown up by ibc same caoraUon : and un* 
RH-ilbtH> lo titc iinrtb ait<iui. appears » vuif^ceurihite-stune, witb 
ib nncvnitUiDl .tvstcm of jtbmb hiuI miiirrals, wlitch, bud lite 
•tnta to tlic souUi tnainlaiucil tltcir nularal pb&iiini), must ^«\c fl 
lain at a ruak dc|ilii bencalk Tlir e(l«cl of'tliii cnn^uhiou u fcU 
over a trad of t'oily miles to ibo iioftli, scjtrdy u Mun of co»l 
Ixiug roiiiirl Itcfare vr* urrivc Ml Rtxlon m Lut^Uk. Thti fiiqt 
s«rr<3 lA sbfM lto^r tBOcb mote Ulc cliamcler n( a country in tie- 
Icnuiiwil liy t')i), Iban by eiinwic : tincr, nn lli< north of rencUo, 
' 'and cvpn ou a declivity lo tbe north we see ubnt, fRW; bcaoar 
and ulh*-r ittu&l )>ro(litctinin of a moK* tniilliM-n Im»li«»i1i7, rifwo* 
id;; at Icuit ia tiivHuratlc .^cjvim ; wliilo un tin* toulli, u|M)it a de- 
dniljr nl^, tbe haidy Uack oat itielf U ufteti indebter) to llie 
Frosls of Novetiitier for all Hint r«M.-nibl«s inatutity nbout it." 
Thik hill nf TnidK noted in tl>e Ixuvlnl ibjTnine phmieolnsy of 
Ibe cuuniry *, mskn a cau«i)ininu« Agiirr <>u tbe v>u'.b miIc of the 
|i7aiu : Bod ne buve the aalliprily of Mr. Priiiiitiil i. toi BsttMttBg 
Diul ** tbe shIcs are tcrdvil, uud llir tufi uiuutisli and «ciy nilnni^'e< 
On this dood .Vn/Jh'n-TffMvr, relcbiuli-ii, in ifi^U, Enr be!»t; Ute 
rrndunoun of witdics. Scvcntct'ti |)Uor MTclciiiu vtete UKxtan- 


* NolUi*^ <> noie cOninon'} rTf<«t«il in tli» (n4<itl« of the rtiiUrcn *f lbf> 
ftrnMony *it tliii eouaiji autl Ux «i^iNiiti^ uuc at YAiktLira, o^MtciiU}' in 
llic ilnUict <^ Craven, Ut-in du- r«ll<i»'i»g dtixicli i— 

" PfBitlctill, ttoA l>nnygwit,«Bi) JiUb ll>^b«R>i«h, 
Are ihrte tndi hUl* u joull not fwd Iijr KBluag EiGhmd i 

Or, ai ir B otlienrite expreutd, 

" Inslrbnraiigli, PcndlfUll, m-A VrtmsttMi, 

An ll>ii faigiicti hill* brlwti-n 3r->tliUMl uid Ticul," 

I.ANCA«illRR. 1S5 

ttni no pnjufnl rviiloxe : IIm ntfu'ir VAt wruliniErd into, and llie 
poor convkU tct at litxnlT. A wilnr» iwore Iw mw llicni eo int 
« bant anil piiltftl six r»]»rs. dawinthirhrHI &nb <u>oKLinc, ItullcrJ 
ia iunpK, awl iiiilli as it w^rr llyjii^ fmni the suiid ropos. all 1*4111112 1 
iilo ux biuons pbcnl hrnralh: ani >ct, UMitir^ii^ rrAKtiunll 
tbegfcalStT THoma* Brco'n. aiilh»r of tfie biMik ii^'aiii>tl lulgar^ 
cTTon: and Ghnrii, odc ofllie tint promoter* of llw Rojalj 
Sockt;, wfaidi u'fl^ iir^itiitcH rii|>r«»lv f»r llie iklcction of crror«J 
soil atablnhmcnt of Irull?, ytnTv sad insUiic«« nf rr«dulilv iu tb*J 
Borf Blxninl of ull omun-^liiMCTS. On tlu* hill wrc two largie 
MTM^ altowt a tiiil« duUiut fruni cftcli olli«r : tli«»c wcic RioK 
praMdy llir timim of toine RiKioiit Sp^ultr, or lieafnn lowerpH 
nw(«l by .'igri<*i0 atVr Uw fMiijiiwI of th# couuln. 'RKt* i$ \ 
onnlb^r, of more nvKlcra date, uhieli .iihwct« to one in lni(fe-\ 
tttnmgA-AHl, tysfttfy miln lollip norlli. Kmtti lliis nKiy lie Nc«-iia I 
moirt amnzing mIpoI of roiiiitr^ ; Yorh-iniiutvr is wry Ti'iible, uaA 
Uie l4ud liiwunJft Ihe Guniian uc«9n -jt n* tlic |Mnvcrt tif lite ' 
«];rcan rvlmd. Timunh lltr nest iltr s«rak »m' ditlro!nii«liMlil«, 
and »«] the hie of MtiH. \t\ Hie aniitaiii-e of (ilaues: to the 
north llir TM'il nKniutaiiivof li<^tclM>roiigti. mmni-^itk, and olher 
ttt Ibc Rmith Aprraiinn. The other views arc tb« vjks of 1 
BibMe, Hodder, nud Caldcr. (tlic firit e<cl<^il« tliiity iniW) which 
idRnd a owrc dHici»us|>TO!t|)rrl, >aritnl uilli nnnilnrrlcM object* 
of rtiTOt, iiotn«3, womls. luid ricli pnstiim corerrd with cattle ; 
and in llic mittst of tliii (inc vuli- litci llii* lottn of Clkhnv. wilb 
Ifce «bUe »l «iit wfl, and the rliutch at lli*' oIIht, elevalrtl mi a 
rvd^acar: Ihr abliey of IVkatfri/, ibiuit four tnih-a la Dw w>utli. 
and Ihal ofSalttir, lu «mrb l<»llii:nurtli,«'illill)c addilbMi of many 
gmtlPumS itals wattcr^l uvci lliv \ti\e, \^nr tlie whole a vdrictj 
an<l riclBMft nrcly to be loiutd in any rural proapccts. It n abo 
mlivrord with sonw A^^rvt of fftminc««, in the nmllrtutfc of Ibe 
tattle, ll»c earriapv o( the lime, and llie btny boiw of the »pin- 
wn pngai^tii in tite ntvicc of tlic woolleu mouufuturcs of lb« 
diMrtbfaig ton IK." 




COTTOS-PRIKTINC, &c.— About Iwo Riiloi fmm C1rth»T0, 
nod K«3tly llie «mi^ diataoce fiotii WlialleVi on thr rwwl imm 
Padiham to the fonn^r town, are stlmlcd tlie ntmsire Factort 
and Print-Gsol'mos of Meun. MUier, Bwya, aad Co. in « 
beautiful valky, watered b; » Rtnill linindi i>f the Bibbk. The 
Kiluativn of tbit part of Ibe couali> is peculiuty roirranlk ; •«! 
those works, which coosnt of numerous cott8(^ Mid lioinn, in> 
ternnrti willi ibc mnoia KO[k':ifiop\ fucni a sUikiuj; " coup- 
d'oid from Black bill, behind wbjrh Puidle hill roea iu awfid 
gnodeur, extending iLsdf over an irsinenw tnct of cmmlry. 
TliB mouDtaJn towerf in unv |>art lo a very high pnik, on tbr lop of 
which the daaKWorui, or wiJd muMnTrT, (aplaat peciili4rln hiith 
mwintain?! aitd cold eountties), a found h) great |>lciity. la the 
w»rk.t of Messrs. Millrr and Co. ibe wliole proceM of ipinaiBg. 
wvaviDg, and printing, is carrifd on to a grml enlmti but it ft 
4lnioil iiupowibic (o give a clear and full desenption of llic laUw 
process, us every coJor i« ratwd hy a different nMihnH. The 
mode of printing a single piece of two colour;, with plumb or 
bloom j>T<iiind, and a yellow objeLl, mav, hoMever, ronvn Kom« 
idea of Ih? ditfercnl processes attending lhi« p»rt of U>e buaioiia. 
When tiie piece is MtDicieull^ bleadieit for piiatiug, it israleader- 
ed( or pre»ed between tMo Tuller«, aud is Uien remotnl to the 
print-Uiop, Hlicre it is priutcd by incaok of blocks '. with a bmIu- 
lion of lime-juice, nixed with pipe^tev. In tbis process ibe piee« 
b ilictclied on a table bt-lWe IIk ptinlcr, behind nlwia is placed 
8 sieve whicli conlaiDs ibc color lo be priuktl. TIms gives cm- 
plovineut to a boy or girl, who is roDliniially eftociii^ with a Uriuli 
tlic iutpmsion made by tlic block on tlic sieve, «nd keefiing the 
aurfiicc coflilaiitly smoothed. Allcr it is thus printed, it rennina 
two DC tli/ec <lay*, when it i* removed lo llie |>adding-shop, w here 
il is padded, ot steviKd in a nurture of alluug itnd HU^at of lead, 


" Hie liloeki uc gpneral'y abcnt eigbieen tnHiH triiie, and iwnl** tMvnri, 
aodarc ort, or nopuvcil, vOh llw lt{nr«f ur patleni,iu WId letic^ iHiidi » 
htoidnl to be iBnprcmd oa Uie colioa. 


■baatoaepouiMlaiidabulf oTcaclila a jpillou ormJcr. This part 
«tf Ibe bmiimit it pcrAimcd by mucluoery. Itic piece is turtt 
tmmmtH upon a roller, nkacc it goca Ihrougl) a trouj^U &UctJ with 
MJm ootnliaa before mcnltimcii i tlicu p«umiig beln«en two c>liii- 
^Iiii. placed M» Bear toRctbcr a> to pms out all Utc supcrfluon 
MiqftoT a» (t pa«e> llirougfa i it is tlken carried over bot *to>C3, bjr 
'^riidi meoa* it i» coiupldclji dried before H reachei llie n|^ioNte 
-4(1 of tbc building wliere it is nonnd upon anolltrr roller, awl 
carrieH awHv t'>r the purpcice of uDdcrgning tiie |wocHt of 
tiiccnit;. Ib l)ii« wonderful opcnition the pjt^e putstt ihm or 
ftHir tinm oyw a wroi-c^liiKlrial mass of rrd liut irtn, cMed a 
faHBlB, bciog in coiapleU codtaci with the glowing nnetal during 
tt paange. Tiiii a to i»kv tiie aup olf tbc |Nccr, and render its 
flirtacc fOMOtli sod equal. After Inving hung up for four or five 
ilijs, that Die clotb nay be tulftciejitly uiipre^mletl uilb the 
calor, it is removed lo tlie ilvL'-hai»e, wlteic it is btnled ia a misi- 
lun ofmadikr, lugwood, ami water, about uiic pound mid a li^ 
tl OkIi lo a piece, wlucU raises ibe blouiii ground, lejiinj; the 
tlOBCt firated in tbe lint iii-rtuiicc »itb lime-juke oiul pipe-clay. 
fofeedy wbile. It is tlim put into a uasb-wlicci, and cleansed 
Iron Hm color aod bits of lo^-oud ivbicb ]uui odlicrcd to it; 
•ad beiag pnfoclly drieilt it is again calendered utid padded ttitb 
the ainc liquor^ and in Ibe xaise nuuwer as before, U is iKnr 
■giia taken to Ibc dyc-4ii>u»e, and boilud Li wold-liquor, about ona 
p«in(l and a half of wold to a picee. Tim nma a beautiful yel- 
low color in tfaoie parts tliut were prc^iouslj white, Kithnut affect- 
ing the bloom gronnd. Tliia color is rikllcd n f<i<l y<^Ioiv, as it 
tanoot be itasbed oot. Tbe piece b llieu taken to be parked far 
B^. Tills is OIK oCUic Ktni()lesteiaiiiplet in the busiiM-ss. as what 
■re called chinls-patterusr with eight ur even ten culon, are fre- 
ipieBlly ohl^ed to be bleached after erei^ fx>lor is put on ; and 
ticordingly passes Ihrougli a inucli more complicated prorcM, 

There are two other depqulments, called jK-nciling and half* 
(rouodtof : titt furiuer is done entirely by giib, and constats b 
|Mltu^ OQ tbe diiTcrcnt colors with a brusli. Tiib is only done 
•ben the object a loo ditlieuU or complex lo be worked by a 



hlotk, aiid is practised with tlie greatest ease and dexterity. The 
latter is the coarser kmd of block-work, and is cbiefiy done by tbe 
qtpreutices, to instruct them in tlie business. 

These works are reckoned the most compact, sod better adapt- 
ed to the purposes of printing than any is Lancashire. IIk shops 
arc all detached from one anotJier: in one tlic patterns are drawn ; 
in another the blocks are cut ; in a tliird the cloth is printed, &c. ; 
ao that every diS<Erent department is conducted by a separate 
person, called an overlooker. 

As tiiese works are detached from any town, Messrs. Miller, 
Buiys, and Co. have opened a shop, from nhich their men are 
supplied with every thing (hey may require at prime cost ; and 
meat has frequently been sold at twopence in the pound under (he 
market price. In and about these works are employed nearly 
SOOOpenons; and many of the priuters earn above lOOi. and 
none less than 501. per annum*. 

Iliis manufacturing hamlet bein;; some distance tVnm the parish 
ciiurch, the propriitors of die works wei-e induced, some time 
back, to build a chaprl here at (heir own expencr, and Itufc also 
Icng^ed to pay a clergyman a regular yearly salary tor perform- 
it^ divine service. 


Is a small market town, advantageously situated on a drj' and 
elct'alcd ridge, iu the eastern extremity of the huiidicd. Dr. 
Whitakcr asserts (hat thb place " is UDfjuestionubly the Ccft/nio 
of (lie anonymous Rureunas, and was probiihly never abandoned 
entirely iutlic long and obscure period of Saxon history. EcrUsia 


• In a siiliseqiien! part of tLjs voiumc, ulion describing Maiichcilcr, I in- 
tend to detail some furtlier particulars conccri)in|r the Colloii Marinfecttu-c!, 
4p. ForanaceouDtof some ATadiincry, witb s Mpiroir of Sir Pichard Ark- 
inigbl, «Lo was a u-ttivc of PTctton, in tliit coimty, ibe reader is refcnrad 
ta Vol. IU. of this H«rk. 


de Cahta is expressly mentioned in the cliartcr of Hugh de U 
Val, wliidi was probably not sixty years (wstcrior to the contjuest;" 
and u it was a cliapel lUpeudaut upon Wiiulley, the itilciice of 
DoraeKl'dy-book, witli r<.-spect to it, by no means disproves its 
exateoce at an earlier period. Here x^a one of tlte four manor 
Louses of tlie Lac'tes, from which several of their charters are 
doted, DOW, ill the mutuhility of all huniau things, degraded into 
Uie work-house of tiic towuV Mr. Guu^h obsc^^'es that Colne 
" has no other nuuks of a Roman station," than what arose from 
the discovery of some Roinau copper coins, and others of silver, 
which Lave been found here at dilferent periods. The latter were 
discovered io a silver vessel, and rousiited of some of Gordian's, 
and some belonging to one of tlie Antouiuesf. The rkapei of' 
Colne is suborduiate to the church of Wballey. It is " a spaciow 
aiid tleccut building," aud appears Io have been restored, or re- 
built, about the time of Henry (be Seventh, or Henry the Eighth. 
The JoHt is aiifiular, and bears tlie name of Townley. On three 
sides of tiie choir are portions of an old wood screen, " extremely 
elegant," and resembling one hi the cliiipel atTowiiley, which Dr. 
Wbitaker considers to he of the age of Hi'ury the Eighth, fa 
Ibb building are two chantries; one on the north si<le of the cIkhf, 
'belonging to the Banhttr jantily of Parkhill, and one on the 
sr)uth side l>eloii^.ig to the ToTcnleys of Bumstde. Atlarhed to 
Ibe wall of (he former, is the following singular inscriplinn cut 
upoo oak: — 

" Qualibus in riclo precilxis inccurrcTG mniiilo 


Hac recitarc via Hebes Ictarc Maria 

Larva<( intcritii'dtlitct ilia manii 

Hijril RCnclrix Clirirt'i lUlhelmnm <)epipror audi 

No .'uperet mors nnj »lrgo iiavciis reiiuc." 


■ History of WiaHey, p. 366. 

t Ai)<li(ioi» to CjDiilcii, Vol. Ill, p. i:>9. 

t Tbe fine peutamrtcr line u waQtiag. 

140 tAWrAnflRK. 

Dr. Wbilnber. after printing tlte abore intctiption, ai}% " T am 
ubiunMl lo notice lliv kluurd tntl disgualiiig rra>liim wtiicli has 
Imcu fwlnicij upon ihe last cxceUuit editor orCanidcti'i Dribuaiit, 
Mill llxc Miiially otiennvc nMijecture Ifant ar«nn)»iiiKd il, fniin Iw 
coimpoiitlcDl *. 'nie niiole was cviilcnily a |>ni«er scIiItvbmI to 
iLc viigin* by our Hi/nl, probably a chaplain, or cJiantry pricat of 
tilt plitc«, agaiiut diabulical illuaivn* (tan'«^) iii tbe boar of 

Tlie mauufiirionea of Colsc tomcrly conkiateJ at wooIUn and 
Kontv'l ^'(r)xl} ; mtfi tl itppcan ftotn the inquixiliuBcs pott ntoii<nA 
vTtitc iul IJcniy dc jjici, Lsrl of Lincoln, fourth ol' Edwaid the 
Second, that bere u«s " onv /ulling milf,' <4>irg«d tl (w. Bd. 
Iliit clcurly imt'Ii^ llml clnlh wiiK iiianuf!irl>ircil h«r« at an mrly 
|Mcriod, aud " (ilaiiily conlmdicts the ^n^rally rcreivrrl opiniu», 
tint l^ngliMA ir*vt WM uniwrsilly ■naniifiK'liired in FIniidvn, till 
tbc urt uf lb« Irnlh of bdwvd thu 'I'bin), tnvilii)}> uvtT t'lmiiili 
nntaufiicliiren, nod graaiiofi ihem eonsiderabJe prrvtleges. Itw 
finl fuiliug tnill liivcinn to havv been vrartnl id iIik p.iri«li of 
IMij'ax WM itewnle«ii1b of lyiward Ibe I'ourth f." See Watsoa'a 
tinluf; o/lUIifuK. p- ()'>■ Tlw rutti)i>i4nide duw preiaiU here, 
and tbcnrlklo of tminufHcturc cmnitf rbirlly r»fi-j|ii-oc>Mid dtin- 
itich For ibc accointnodition of trade, a Cloth-UaU. or picco 
bail bat bcf n crrrlcd bcie. The Li-edt mial, panitig widin a 
piilc of llic lomi, lius prurrd cmiiimtly scnrjociiblc to the uiinn- 
facturcs of tlita jiUce. Tbe couiUry u billy, aiid abounds with 




• TV imcripikin mtl c<mJf rtnre gi«n bjr Mr. OoDjib, tt% 

■■ n*'- Kntiii-'iiu) dcbr.^ la^ni Mark 
Lati'M ia ciiilii dilucl iiU iiiwu. 

Dr. CViiw|HT of Clmtcr fnnnA, l~i7,aii iitM-riplionia dtertnirrliior daprt, 
infdiel^inAiuinidiam'ivn, uiiH tlic I>t. believed tint MaJani vai Min^ 
IBM* aiMked a* & CliMttian LiKitB, but diil MK iMW ibe pTcrtomly ini*r- 
ftneiir* Gongh'a AittliriainioCuaileu, Vol. III. |i. iSti, from die * Anliioa- 
nw Soeitt)'* MiuitM.' 

I Hu(or}'ofWUhrr,p. 360. 


■nd dMr: anH abnut four milra didnnl from the Utwm 
I plenty of1mic-«loae. lietf b * wcclcly in«Tli(-l (ni We(tu•wlay^ 
■I two fiifn ttnnaxllv. Brtlilm tlw parmHiinl chapel, hrrc i* bIm 
K for lite mrllMxtutc * anoil>«r fitr tlw (i:ipti«]«, aixl a frpc*" 
tea). In 180?, (lie lowmltift coMtuiMfd IS? htinscs, aud 34!£S 

Al Bakmsidb ii SO oltl hoiitc Monpng to thr TomileyK. 11 
Bai beta Aoogly mmI danibty built. Abcwt baH* i mile muIIiW 


EHMOTT-llAt,L, llic Mat of Rickird EmnKttt, Em). «b« Ii 
•^■bokIwI fniw an anrirni liunily of liiul name ; nrwliom. FUAcit 
^t Bmnt bdfl taotii bn% in tin; fouilli of Edward the .SeeoaC - 
*rhc boiiar, iMYs Dr. Whit.4iar, " k rejfMclable and em*e< 
■irai, iriUi • fntH of ralber heavy mMkm 3Kltil<-«turc. m^ 
•cnohini onny porlrstU of iIk bmily by Mr. ,Mn Fmmcft, who 
■mu food of punting. Ky\htvnytMe, n«ar Uh< howe, is a fM^^* 
fcl (feiHt, with Ih'CTfibm, I. p. 8. awl H. hnirnttlitrrulrH U|i<w 
Ibt aipitaL A ven- ropious sprinf! in an acljuiuinf; ficM. imn' an 
MtallMa mldJnlb. ia rolled ihc HdII«wb, i. «. the HalUmi, or 
ftub^d) t.' 

AiXAMC04T!i is anotlii>T oUI mamdon in the neifkbouibao^ 
Md Woa^ lo J. Parkn; Fju). 


Ol. Bs Dr. Wliitiiker nritca it, BnmUy, is a pofwlous aaJ 
tluiriag BBriwI lonn. iit an advaoUecotu and cenlnl "*""»l'"v 
ipia a ItDcala of laud, fbniwii by tbe coofliKoc* of tb« CjIfW 
ttd tbc Bare, lirom Ibc Ultcr of u-tncfi tite rniM 19 i>robably do- 
n>*4. A Ticioal Rotaaa Wj, from Bibchcitcr to SUdi, lM*inj 

* Tlw WW «fcel*il t>>- Mr. V<id«y, and in iT77 one gT Ht gaBerkt M^ 
itJaany poaooa wv» moch injarcd. 

' int>a«7»f Wfaallejr, p, SiO. 

cIniTlirr fur a markrt pvrrv Tumtar, or W«dtwaH:i* : al the 
tiiac lir jirDcurci) ibc privilege ot » j'csrij btit t» Lr beU for time 
rftjs. Tbe nurkrt b now bdd *m Moaila;, and lure arc alao five 
lain nnuuBllir- 

Tbi» plact. l&e mnny af Ibc Ijuira^ktrc lomu. bu rspcrimcMl 
■ pniliKious niivmoiUUon in ib liousca niiil populotioa. vrAhai Ihc 
bit lifty Years ; Knd aixardiiu; lo tlie rt^lums iirmted for Uic IIckmc 
of Conmoni. in 1601, Ibe bmiuliii) of BurnUy cnulUBeil 6&T 
boiiMi, and 330& iulubitonU. the cotloii nuwiradHR. in all 
it* braiKliet, it now fully uid ntentivvly uUMidHd in this lown. 
A Atw fulling iiiill> f«r lite tvooUcn tnule ar« ilill 9U|if<ortc<I liere : 
as<I on the Iwo rivrn iniuip<liAlcly in Ihc viditity, are corn-tniUs* 
luBiof-inilb, a inHi for gfinding woodi, fcc. for tbe dj<>r9, and 
Tcni) <-nllun fidofics. Antong Ifac mawioBs intbciKiglibourlMHkCl 
of fiuniley, that of 

t)in« M 

TowkleV-IIall, a scat of J»A» Townrtry, E«). it lite most 
coRMdeniblc. At au rarl> periixl, {imlKililj' in lli« iTi|^ of 
Sl^NW. OT llcory tbe SxoihIi llic naiiM of Urnrif lU JkMimjf oe- 
eun> m an anricnl dvol, wrillm in a acnu-Sainn character : hut this 
pertou, acondiog to Dr. Wbitnker. " bad no rdaijousliip to iba 
prcscBl fiintily." doaie uimalon of ibtsc reiided Jiurr prcrioiu la 
IISI. and tbe uamo ruiituiiicd la be ^dt «i abuvo, lu UIck «■ 
tbe linie of lUtwnrd tlir 'ITiiid. Since wbkb cm il \ua l>rcB 
wriKm 'Thtmldji, Touaflati, Tountift TlwMAgr, and Ttttmle^. 

At A shoii (listiuicc ^ouUi of IIh- prcaetit naiuioii U a ItiMill. 
ndkd llic Cn>(b-iiill. on v-Xnch il u imsiinird that llir fiitt dwd< 
iiu^boUifC Ma« trcckd. Tbe ptvscnt U a Itirpe «eii«niblc itruc- 
tnir. Bud iU iniiH-ipa) ptuts form lliree Hdn »f n quadrtDgte. At 
Ibe iiDer ait^W arc two ^tusrc «jikbatlkd totvcn. and tX cacL 
cerDTt K a butlina, " foniipd for omamcol kikI uk." About » 
ctttlur; bark, tbe home «ero]iKd the font «M«» of a f|uadraRguUr 
court : nnd from Ihe style of Iti arehileclurr, couibmiiig nitb tbe 
\ gram\ \ttii|ie ami cikut, iniiKt tiint haw aMiuned A grand eo|- 
lpgtiil«-lik' iijifNarancr. The nurtb-east tidv of llitt, now tokvn 
awB}', eoLLiJucd two turrets al tite angtei., a gateway, a cfaapcl, 



I mmixy, wkh a library over it. The oppoMle nr)e l\as 
i aiore Uwa aix feet Uticit, wliicli &rc conslrucled willi grout- 
-woii, uutl Ute windows are l;irgc,«nli square tups, &c. , , 

RcsiM-cling Ihc inlerior of Itiis i«ucr>ibk tDiitiDwn, it will be sl- 
•ww)t iiii}>osablc tu cDkr ii)lo parikulan. |ii its farmer |Kis«es- 
{. ^Mir. Cbulci Tuvruk}', Ex). »»» coinbinvd lltciniwi «f Kkeowlcdj^' 
^H .«d lulc ami viitu: uml in Utc presvut [>rvpt ii--tor is (^xciiiplificd 
^K Sftcpotrnu aii'l vdtairT uf l<»pogra}>liy und Rnglitb anti^uily. 
^V AlTowuky ILill b a reguUr mntt of tunuly portraits, froia 
^H Join Townlc;, £iq. iu tbc time of ElizaWlh, to lliv |>areiiU uf lb< 
^H liti pnoMBBot. One tt))ailuivnt ia coii))>k-trl^ tilWd, CI)C^<Jc» t fidi 
^P Id^tli of Ricbsrfl Tovmle^v, Esq. wbu divd l6JS,} wilb licitda iit- 
' jcrtcd in Uie ]iaiiiKb; uiil ioauut Iter room h a fiitc picture of tlic 

£rst Lord n'iddrmgtoa, who wu killed iii Wigau-lftac. 
Ilic gTraIr>t iniuiiuenLt of Townley arc its line ancient 
I voocb; the greater purt of wliicli coiuiab uf ulil oaks. Tfatxare 
ftUspervcd uver n large parti, vliicfa, \iitli tie cunUyuout mouutiins 
disidul cuuuliv, prcscut larious toiutjiuation& of grand uud 
i»(ilv pjclumque Ken«> *. TliC liccn>« for ioclustii;^' the old 
at TownJejr beart 'laic as per inq. sitlb of ilrnr^r the 

At ibc noutlheadera c^lrernil v of Wbnlitv purisli a the towtuhip 
f ClIvigbb, wlierc a Urge iialitrul gttr^ ur apperturc, bas been 
ined tlirou^'b Ibe mouutaiiit and wtivufc tlic sttmnu dtsccod 
to the rasteru and weitcni srds. " Thb pan," saji ibc Imto- 
xiaa vf Wbalivy, " b<u been cviikolU fonijrd in cousequeooe of 
»(>Bic j^ieat couvuUioii of nature, wbicJi, Lj reiuJiu^' aiundtr tlie 
stall of Um cailU to a vast drplb, bai leU a lid;^ of very Tot- - 
tioillik focks on Uie loulticrn lidc, from wliicli Ihi' tfiwn iKuUibly 
to«^ib tnnkC." Ctivigcr abvuuJ* wilb cu\il uud iron, aud il at- 
tou IX. K fonli 

* Tta ttpaifurjiafi ptiat, ensrtred froni a picture by Barren, now bc> , 
tcenagu J«lin TinrDelc<r, F«q. gi»w a miiuaiurer«vrcteiiiariMi«rthe »e«Deiy 

CM&piMM to Su* tSSUMUB. 


fords a Miigt? ve!n of IcnO runniug along Oni! of Ihc ciml it<«urc!i 
ID Uic crust of IIr- ctiitli, which is technJcillv known to the rn»t«n 
b; tlir nnoic otnvUa. Somr curious plant5 nrc raimil ta Ihts <lb' 
trict ; anri Dte inaccessible rocks arc llie s«cnrc hatiiit-t of lianks, 
tail yrtbt othw bird* of piey. Ani'Miij llH-w, one pair of £ir 
superior ftiK iin'I Rtrcn^lli, populnrly <■ iilkd Rork-Tla-j^fw, but pTx>- 
babl> llietiiK Ciyfiitfoii of Itay Mtl Pt^nntugt, im^-c ummntlj bred 
fur tiiitt itnmtmonal, in dcfisiice of alt (be ciiiCfeuvoun u»e<) by" ■ 
s)h>rtsiiH:i), or sliqulicnls, to cKtcmiinalr to formi'lithle t rival of 
oiif-, anil robbt-T of the other. Iii llic jTiir l()".96, ii number of 
RtfitMit ntiffjt, sDtl otbcr relics, wcrt ftnuh) near Itlcrcclouib, oa"fl 
tbe skirl* of tlie vtiJd moors lK>r>lrriii|; on Yorksliire ; and loitic 
rcntliiii* of a Btilish character liarc been dih.-ovcred iu Uiu iteigb- 
bourliood at dilRrcnt periods. 


ff(rt,fl<R.— Ilit coinrfry arOund Ibis plj«. wbich beloo^ to the 
Re>". Dr. Whilokt;r, hiu been grratly impro^eit in sccnerj' iii»t 
appearance, betni\( the vean 1784 and 17P9> diirinjc which ■ 
period 4v?,000 tr<«» of various (pe<in have lK<it planted oo Wtt 
bare and rocky bnno, alw iii lite t\<tm and gullie*, of Ihii erialr. 
The bou>c, like nio«( of tbe aiicieot iitructures in the unghbouibtMMl, ■ 
nos i>rii{iiiallv bniltofwood, and coulained some pri^-ate closett 
ftM" the coiitHlincnt of pri«^', astliefmuilycoDlinued recusants to 
Ilk litUi' et)d of Que«n riirabctirs rei;;ii. \pp«ndanl to thii' f 
dcnitihe wai a tbanlr^,'. follUl^c'^ after the dt»o)ulion of Wlialt*^ 
Abb«;t', t\ Tho's. WhiUker. <<i IIolm«, Gent. : but tbii njipcnr* to 
have been K*»in diuolvcd in about ten yeurs alter its fnit eniton'- 
tneitt. Til* chunlTv was fiol, however, destrovtri; and what Es 
rnlhcr sat^tilir, it had a den^man ticeneed to it \t\ Bt^liop P«)>> 
k*, in 174'J, ll BOW belong lo Dr. Wbilnker, wbo w-ai licenced 
on his owA petition. " The fir»t strp towards * re-cndowiii«»t of 
this pnor neglected foundation, mt a rent charge of ]l. per an- 
Btim, luft upou till- islate of Hane, h\ Mr. Hmry Wood, a native 
of that plaeo, who had beeu clerk of the works oitdcr Sir Cfaru- 
loplipr Wren, durliit; Ibe ri-Iiuildiug of St. Paul's Cathedral, an4 
mluM* cuiiout accounts of that great nork arc now in the author'* 




LA5CA5HlftK. I-IT* 

pn W MBB. "niis was fotluwed h\ tcnntl successive bnwfjrtinns 
Annllie ncellvul faiut of Qurai AtiwN bnonty, which, tvith s 
Amtkm of .iijol. fnm the iiresCDl iiKiimtwfrt. imkisg in (be 
mMrn iSoOl. mt all v<HlfA in lundi, antl prnducp ■ ttnr luraaw 
of sol. pw sinnim *."' Tl>t "H omtonf bring in n niinoui iMc, 
«» pullnl duvo b 178fl. vid a mw mte frnitT on hijjIwT ^uodt 
at n rtpmev of 870l. nmn: thtn t ntotHv nf which wh <f?fra*«(l 
by Or. Whimktr. This builHiiw witt ImH about 460 perwm. 

Amttlg the peculknlks of this ituArict, ibe hiiKmiin dnrribct 

iW ptopenity of tliv iahabitaats to brtim in fairm, ghn^t*, ttc : 

but mnirk^ ihkt the luprnlittaa of the fnwer clan af pt^plv \s 

d^^tariy rvmntvir within llie lut thirty yean. " Onr |<taettca) 

SB p tiftil i on, pecuKor, m ^r us t know, to XUa pl;tc«, ((esnvcs to 

be KiMnbenoJ. The hvdn>cqihal(n h a dbexw LDniI«iit to ado- 

Ineatl MfaBa]>, and u tuppoted by the ibephvrila tod bcrdtmm to 

be eoobi^iu: but in order to pnireul tlie prt^ress of the dJwsM, 

wbmcrer a young brail had tliet\ of thit contplainf, i1 nras usuaF, 

aid I bviicve it has beeo pnictiwd bv farmen, yei alivf, lo cut ulf 

ibe be*d. lud convey it for interment into the I>e^f«^t part of the 

adjoiniiig county ; Stiperdra, h dusert plan upon the border of 

ToriiihiT*, HKi the place orckulli. Of »o ilnn!^> and hnlaslic a 

pTKtie* it is difficult to give any solution : yet it umy have ariwa 

from loine confnwd and fincifnl amilogylo tbe rate of the AtaveT, 

(Suroben xvi. i2.) an analogy between tlie reni»ral of sin. nnd of 

i&eaM— Ihxt Bi the Inag g retiions of tbe people were kiid upon 

tW held of the nipe-godt, the (Kieasea of the herd slrauld be latd 

iipoa tbe brad of Ibe dereawd aniiTist, and that as tbe one wa* 

AtWB into Lbe wBdemev, never tu return, so (Ik other sliould bt 

ccafcyed lo a desert j>lace, beyond un iina^ary Ihie, which its 

wwtiyniM eftcli should not be able to past-" 

VtLUA.ll WuiTAKBR, 3D eminent dirioe, •nat a oalirt of 

K 3 UaLau, 

* Vkitekei^ IU>t«7 <^ Wldlcy, p. MO. 


Holme, vihtr* be wa» bom m the Ihird year of Edward Ibe SbtUi- 
A. D-l>30. He died in 15;)S, iii lh« forlv-tifjlith ^(.-tir «f Ui>. 
tgt, aod u«3 interred al a vast cx|ieiic«, uud wrilli uiiusiud dvinoif^ 
ntntiniiii of «>rrnw, in Ibc Hnt«-c)wpcl of SI. Jolin's colUsf* *t 
Canilintlg«, of uliicb lie had roDliniwd ma^iir above f iulil vMrt., 
At the age of Ircclvc lie niu M-nl lo Si. Paul's ulionl, London,, 
then oiw of Ibe iihi.>I floumhiiif* umia»TW* itt tUe Vm^tlaat : and, 
ihMice tiv wBa soon iiflrnvanlt can<rvy«d lo Trinitv Coll«i;e. Cam-; 
bririgf. AbonI llic lliirtj-firrt year of his ag«, tw was elected 
itgiiu professor ; and <-oiudd«rirj; Ihc period of bis lit*-, "this 
elet-aiion,*' t>a\5 Dr. Whitalier, " tuusl be ivcarded a* ID evidence 
of vtry exlraonlinary taltntf in llic »iieccs6ful catididate. 1b_ 
1 5S3, he fint be«arae a controversial writer, aiid iu the r<.'niaiiiiDf{. 
tea yean of bii lift, with manjf oUjer ■vo<--titieu5, proikiccd that. 
huge tom« (fo- 16I0) of polcmieiii lIi<'oIn{r\, whicliwas prioted . 
•ome years after his dealb, a monumenl at onc« of incredible 
iodustiy', aiid great IJcUily iii composition *." 

AbonI (WA miles east of Biirnln- is Obmrrod Hocsk. whirh 
appears to have b«cn built in, or nvar the jcar l iQi, as that dale, 
with the namca of Lawrenu Ormemt, and JUi^bftk Barcraft, ■ 
arc inscribed on it, Ikfamd llie bouse is a i^rov of sycamoiviaud 
ebns,. peopled by a numcrotis colony- of rook* ; afld in this town- 
ship is liill pretenvd an inslrunnent of aneieiit and approved 
efficacy in supprtssinj; the licence of female tongues. It i* callM 
a Brank, and uas placed on a woman'k head, Hho "as led, or 
drove through Ibv t>tniHs, with this tgnumiiiious baO^ t- 


• Hislorj ofWInilloj.p. Wt. 

t For ■ rrpmrnl&ltAn uf it, sec nm's Hintoty of 9lnfl'onbtnn-,'''eMl 
Brazil's Ifistory of N<i»n>»Ilc. ll* form*/ Ttipajf-nptitr, after giriiig a 
(niDiiC rtrsmplian of il, my* it " i« (iincli lo lie prelbirKl tn Uie dvekiaf- 
tloirt, nhirb not only <iidangcn< the tinltli of the pwlj, but »W sitm dw 
UHgvt liberty 'tieijt evenrdiji; M nritfaer of Hhirtitbii Hal all liable." 

RaiEKCLlFFR t< » luirnihip which cnntlitiilr^ a fViurth part of 
llit»tnniic parocliial chuiwlnr of Buniltry. It vs diioAy Trmsrli* 
i^fnr KMutf riiamiprnvuK. ice. On tlir middle of tt'orttkon- 
Mtrarr tlicntnain^nfa xniall an^^lar fnrt, ron<o-tt)ijg oCu Tnt.\ 
od fra^iiMtii'i of* vral'. which incluM.' anaicfl of 48 jardt by 4?. 
ftmaofs fnr Ibe Tncrorittii nml Ormmni gat«i are (liMincll]r 
liable. On iIm- tn)i nT Tui^t-hill, nc»r (lie «uily of Sniiidrn, it 
nollwr fart, or cncampnicnl, exactly forty -two yard* *.-[iian:, and 
bxnni to ibc vlKpIierth. ftt. by tiie nnme nf Twitt-catttf. On 
tW b)«:fi irtiiuiirli, ra^Iward nf the latltr. it u tirciiliir mtTciicb- 
nntt uhixit fiAwi*lil yurds in (lijiiTKlcr: roiincctCil uitli titctt 
Ml. were ^lilTi'mil tiracMii : nnd thr*p, icith oilier liinilnr works, 
««<lilule<) « scries ot'iniUlar\ poiU, uhtcli wcrf pliinti-d elong l!iB 
wateru akie of ihf grtat rid^ of htlK Dr. Whi lakiT, Bml hb 
BUDcnlie, tb« acute hittorUn of MjitcltcsitT. iit;rec iii tiippQwns 
lint a chain of militurji fnrb were ronbtrvclcd in thi^ pnrt uf th« 
mmtry. 1o defend " Uk Ifralfm SeionlH, DU'i tht-ir carl^ rolo- 
(■btffoia tU- atUicks ufllH* Cafleni Bri^Jiikt." 



A ihiifins mantif.icturin^ aiid mxTkct totvn, jcuted on a bold and 
Uok f 1n-itinii, briueeii Itlitckltitrn »tid Bury: tiui hvi-ii grtriitlj 
inprneil tvUhiii Ihc laM IweiiK ycdrs. It f«ii)icrly klond on ibe 
biMuf J hill, wlierc llie cliurrh, wMtii 'va» rolniill about lliirly 
jcareo^ in n )ilain, but siibilanlial inaiitrrr, .ttllf coulinuet. TtiO' 
mSu of iidubitunls. from tlie tiitroJuclioii of lti<; culton it)»nufac< 
turOi Mul the i-xinit of [1h- woollni, bits occssioitnl a large iii- 
mne of butldinss into the vii)W below Ibe old (own, uliich is 
lUiltd nci ll«- wr*t by l\w river Swiimcl. It doiiMlesi received its 
BiBeorigluully from iht- gnn« of ba)>dt Mhicli abouitded here, 
ulntepprrfid the dean* orWltnin*, cr^l ([niinlitirs of the roots 
tit thine Iree* bcltip ficiiienlly nii*e<l ui dipi'iig- Tima^lt con- 
whted n a )Mntb, il it nnly a ^nrncliial chj)icln-, subject to the 
plnta^and juriidirlton of the vicar of Wiiulky; iind withiii 
Atcfairtli h a/wif, of ibt thne of llnuy the Ei;thtb. Tlicre ar*" 

K .i tombs 




tonibi orer lolio Diickwortli*. wlio die*l miDiiler htrt, in ifijS ' 
Juhn fJolaui, uho ili<^ to \7ti7, and hit lucccMor Joh. Wad** 
worili :' aDil uti a rione before ibr Mqu of llie alur. b a bran 
pbte vbith cuoiiunnoralcs Dr. tloSma. AtaAive uf llii* pUcr, uid 
rcctur of WliHrrtrajkcl, in LuikIoo, ubo tlicil in Augiul, \T^i. 
Bj an ini)iii)ilioii of ibe futrliamcDl cutumiMiouf ts, lu Jiuic, KiiiQ, 
tbis {)a(cid>ial rlupclr)' ciinti»U-(l of tlie lOMmdup oS Ha.'<tiii)tdcn, 
vritb |Mu1 uf r.uuuiitHl«, tk«ii coiilukiiiiii about 300 fitniilii-s ; in 
1801, tb«retvrr« 773 f-taiiii«a in ibis (owmhip rwily, Jii<l 4O40 in* 
babitxDis. Tlir luwn i* guirnxft hy n coutlabtr, and tix church* 
wardcut, who h:ive uiiilcr ibrir r^ie tix divikinnt, or po«ti) : Iwo of 
tbeu* l:at« a t.l]M|M;l vf CHse of llH'ir owo, subjert lu HaUin^ckflr 
called Goodfhiw cbipel, about two niBct on yhe Burnlev rmuj. 
A ipiiit cf indiulry aud I'lilrTprizt [i«t«iid(i all ranks. Aiiioaigal 
olticr inip[t)VMiwiil>, a Iwridtonte M|iuin: n xlrvadv r«n|)k<ed. 
wbicjt coiitalni M>ine rapilul biiildiiii;]). Tbi- uiiiUs. vitii<:h aflTord 
tbe bcDi'Jit of vrater-cjnia^e for tucb bea*> ^ood» us lucil to pui ■ 
many ni\\n by Iniid, are of ific most es»cniiiil adnnlsge. A uujd- 
bcr of miili are filablbibHl on tbe river for curding cotton and 
(heep'i u-ool, and for spiimuig ibem into twist and woollen yaro, to 
make AaiuieJ!. 

BiBCHEjTEB, tliough now ndmcd to a poor bumble liUagc, 
was oucv a niilitiiry Rooidn Slatioit. and from tbe ajiliiiuilicjt tlial 
bave htKO found hen-, it is prcituned ibal it wai a place of aome 
digoily and iiaportunce. Tbe original nam* of thii station bat 
ocnfioaed much di)i|Htie wiili aiitKinaiica. Canidtn soppowd it 
to be the Cotdum of Aotoiiinu*, and the Ri^odiinuiu of Ploloiuy. 
Uorslr^ snreea (o tlie first, lint Miiliri to fix Itir tall<:r at Warring- 
loo : and Mr, Whituker, llie liittoriaD of Maiicbetler, contends 
llial Ribk-lieittr must lie llitr Rr rip-on itim of Ridiard of Citciiccs- 
Ut. Dr. Wbiliikrr, ibe laK who ban invealignled and ditruucd 
lliik subject, haiaibfac^orily idviitilicd Itaslbe Coccium of Anto* 
nious. " 'Du^ ceUbnted staliwi," Kriles the Dr. " wa* placed 
with tlir peruUaj- jtid^nwnt which niarks Agricola'i ciicaiupoicnl«. 
for to liim unqucstioaably it inml be rcl'eirt-d, on llie Dorllicni 



uiNCAauinR. isi 

bak of die ri?er, a^d fiaoLeil liv l)ic drc]) chauiwl of a lirook on 
Ik rut, rormponding to wiiidi. gu llic wvst, is a laigc Uuicf. or 
dumocl, to wUicIi liHdiliun liai -jnigucil hd utc> ctjii/iriued by 
Muj naiilka) reik«: imiiiciv, tiiai ofs flock, or Uip, for wtMlt. 
Vat Ibc tides uuce ron- so hi{;li ai lu ual\ vchtcls ut burtJtn lo Ibe 
i)uaj> of Cvrcium, llien* rati br litUr tlijitltl, nnr is il ncccasarj lu 
murL l<i llic «iu|«riitcx)>c<livnl of mi t:drl)ii)iuke iii <irj<r to at' 
eoval for \tttiT nxLU. A gmJuiil ^gnxwa of santU. uidud by 
fliuug wcilcil;^ win^ and not surtidctttlv leiidlirU Uy llouda from 
tbc biad, will tibijodimll;* ac<.'oiuil ftn' zii ;i|tjM:jniticv mi fiet^iu'ut, 
tliil we littvc nUuiwt coucU lo ciit|uirc iitlu its raiisca *." 

Several vcrtivc »tonc«, >uij allien uitli iii>rfi|)ti()ic huve bmi 
Tuuud licie ; aixl Dr. NVlrtlakcr Ihu piiiiled uine *iC llii' Ulter : b^t 
llKie do not fu(nikl) uiy lliiug ctiriuu*. otber feinting lo tlie place, 
orlollie people. IWii<)e inset ilicd aUmica. iiiutimrralile niialtcr 
vlit]uilk« have \xta found here : Binonft time are tnauy mjiia 
of large bmm, alM> jome Oritarii ul' Ibe uii^r eui|>ire. An Jh- 
Ugi» in a nilty ia cMgraved » Lcigli's Nalural Imtory : and Dr. 
Wbilaker poMcsHS a ^tJd ring, set vritli a curncliaa of many 
6oeii liaviag a nrprewidiiliuii of » dmc in tlie ««utre, wtlb tli« 
fulluning wordi roiiitd il: AVE. MF.A. VITA. " But ifie 
no bta i t ditcoiery ever iii:»le I)«re, »r [>e[Iu|is in Biitaio, «at in 
ibcww n^, *beu ll>e shelving biink of tlie Kibble »p»M.-d tbe 
following leiuahis. «bicb seemed to luvc been deposited in an e|- 
anitiua of tiic eailli. ailed up nidi wil of a diil'etvnl quality. 
Tlicsc were, tU. » large fLtt mriMa truit, exlr«niel> ttiick, witb 
Ifae poller'* atwiip fery diUiiKt. Uunedof, UoiieOi Ufiicioa. 2nd. 
AocatiR Patrrts of ciipjter. about tix. iocbrs dJumrter, witb tn 
kandle. 3(1. Tlw imperfect leniiiiits of a similar veuel. 4lli. A 
Votwrn, or CAtloMdrr, of Itie kiiuc tin: and awtal. Atb. JMvcnl 
cuocBvc and ciriuiUr ptolet of co|^r. willLlu«»p» beliiud, wliidi 
Imd evideoliy Iteen nitcndcd to faiten tbeni per]KD(lii;ulai1y 
qpioata ^uft, in unler lo lurm <i Roman nxiiltutt: micU tire fie- 

K 4. qucnt 

• U)MW-rfWim«|ijm*, 


qttKiT upon anrn-nf moiiHinniLi ; hut for a paiticulnr illustntkni, 
tlic rrii'liT is itlrrred lit .1 inoiiuiiii'at of iMciun JJacciiu, SigKiJer 
of Ihc <ilh lesion in lloreeln'. pi. 63. 6tb. .\ rtTj line Aelmet, of 
whicli lilt rrciil miu u sphriix, alleniunls uiiforlunalcly lost, 
tJtv bciHl'piecc entirbe<l with b&sMi n*licvia uf amrrti mm. 
tkirmitlmg tritli owunls •orf a viznr coushIIok of un enliic auJ 
beautiful ftrniaJe Fdw, wilii oitlkn at llje t-jics. luoutli, and no>- 
Irib. From tbv ahic of the farad pitxe it u <-n(i)erttirac) )>\ Ibc 
iMrt jyitgo. no! Ill Uk prior 1u Ihr a»v of Amnu ; but the vizor is 
a nuicli more dclkale sihI cxquittile piece of vroikiimiuhip, and m 
s«|HKs«(l not odIv to be (htciaa, kit, from the l)t>|{|i>rM of its 
liori, to belong tu a period somcnlMt untrriar lo llic last pcrlrc> 
tion of Itie arta in tlial wonderful rtmnlry*." 

TtieMT relics were all depouteit iii tlic □nisciiin of Charles Town- 

' ""7'bebeln>pl and ni3t>k nf bmniv, witlimmr of the nllirr Ronian 
Anti<)uilics, wirrc euRraved for the Aiili<)itiiriun Sodi-I^, anil pub- 
li#lK(l, with an -.lecounl of llit-iti, ni ttt« ftnirtb vtiluiiici of lUe Vc- 
tn»la Mriimnieiila; and in the \llhh tuI. of the Arclia-<>lo|{ia, 
the Rev. Stqihen Wnlon wrwli: 9ome ubirrvntiflm iru ll»e lietmct. 
The latter i^ a Miipiilar and eleEranl spii-imcn d ancivnt art, and 
arrntthn;; to Mr, \Vr»loB, may be coiiMilvrvd of" the brat Ronnii 
work on the Greek inAdel." It bonaiaradvd «ilb a great nuni' 
tier of t'»>itn-3nf varrinn on lH>r<<.-niid foot, in bauo-rcticvi). 

Near tlic cliurcb arc the rcmniii« »( u nni|Kitt mdiI fo».i, where 
jfx-Affrvhavebcni fi?uiHl, fmiuwliich Uicplarc uBUpp'ucd lo Imvc 
v^blai^ed thenaiucof Aurhor-llill. Kiiies i.f ihi|w wnc alwif und; 
and inMnkm!;awclisoniit>t'ur^iigo, a!)liipiorvrvtel,Hiudi»cuverc(l 

-'at till- Mine place, From Kifocbnicr, a Kontan road, called Ibe 
Watbng-ilieel, tafcea " a northcni cuurgi: over Loitgr>< l|tc-fcll, and 
n diMinpiishcd \n a lon^ stripe ol' trireii, intersect in;; Ibc brovta 
liealh n( (be monnteiii. llavinK reucliiMl Ihc suuiniit of tbc hill, 
it tBk»a turn towards tbo north, then deKVuds aguni, a very cou* 

* Uiiiory <4 WluUlay, p; IS. 

1 tnlcrviili, Uns u briniil and lii^ Hil^f in titc tiidocnm 
«f ihe l<nnnki)i« of Th-tiilpy unci CliarErlry, mkn Bowlaitd a little 
Irimncs hi n ducct liur, Ihc liiuli •yroumts In tlir norlli of Ibat 
boute. imf ibrn p«Me9 tothenortbuf Nnrttm and 8fiid«hum, 
ml Innn Hil- (I'xMrr to itsMHtrceat CnmurCirrrt, whirli i; the 
DoctiMni biMiudury of tlit uriffinal (ximli oi VV'hallc*. A potiina 
aftftt* 14t. al><Hi1 SSO jnitb iii kiu^lb, was iatil Oftm t>y llic culli- 
nliou uf « iiii>ni*F^ ptccc ot grounii, itiiJ is itncrilwd by KauUi- 
tDcO, tlic KiBJlfk aiitl i>l>Krring ai(tii{(wry pI' Uv-crliorough, to 
havt tomi^t4 oft tubttfAtuin of Urge itfliMv Km^cl, ijttvsil on 
Ibe sorAicc of Ibc iDoraf?, qihI coicml vUh Urge flat paving 

|tanUi of Pvibdw^trr, willi llintof CMppitg, »««■ taken out 
'•f Ht ongiuul pitri-oh <>f Wlmlki^ : «itd llic churcit at IbiK \Aan 
1y two (-liiinlrir* ; oM ti^longinA to the Lofd of the 
tbe oiImt to llw TAimlnv of l^/r<Mi. 

7ini<t£i)OU4 lo KiMmlpr n the pnrocliial Cluiprl of StRDB, 
vUch sci:u»> (o htvt bctiiii^«l lo a g)>>Uti or hotpital, of rcrj 
%iiKfltii|uily: ai>d the huil-ling h sftid, bv Dr. Wbilak^r, t» be 
Qm lAfieat within (he ]»iri»h of \Vhalky. The wiutJ'jws ar« au- 
m*. umI IniicH »hapcd, hud ll»c (kv>rs tlMxieh rather pointeit, 
nrichdl with Sttxi>n onuntents und the nitote tiiiUhcd in that 
■nrtiinrof^ljlcswhiHi Inoh pbice in the rei^of Kins St«ph«n. 

Tlw •(■''iitr ••t'lbi» «n;il[ nr^'tn?lH edifice it tlill mor« intercst- 
•)(; in vtliivb divitic M-rvici- lius bri-n oitly (HTforturil inicr a \<nu 
«ICC tbe Kformati'^n, tio irvliitf; drsk Inving hee» envied ui it, 
BtH ilir jir.iii'n li*-!))^ Tfa4 t,\iX nf b pulpit whicli is diirnhly «lp- 
«>twl on a ilooe (Ktei*. A c^flin Imnh, of htzh uMi(|uitv, sipptan 
i^fwiitL* lo it, Irat tniikrn njivn, arkd the fni^«al< iMng in moil 
pldaittrjMc ditonler ; atid the tloor is rtn-wr«i wttli nucicnt grW- 
dimn, Mne of lli«fii nNrtiUd with LitDgobaniir, or Norman 
dsmScn; and u ueoniiau Iulhi*t6n-ii4: ut'»i|iialid julic|iiit_t. lh« 
^^^^ bodj 

• Il»t(i7 of WInIk}', p. W. 

IkkIv of tbc Inle eslliolic IhsIk^ Petro, ube liv«ii and died at 
Sbowley^ in hit vwb vmr, Deceoiber CDb, IJTS, Im iiilcnird 
under asJabui'lMauUrul vrliile marblr, witii ui «p)iiapruile Js* m 
«crip(i(io. On at-CMiiil of lib tnUrmriit, lite tl»ii«, lbou{;li re- 
moved, wu not lakcu away, ibe Ivttcis ol'wircli liaw bnrn lomi- 
cil louiid ill ni4rgt». bv siiikuii; tlkC lur&ce of liic stone VQund 
Uwui, and &lliug i*p llie c2viiy«>>y a fluid ubile lucular, leprcaeol- 
ing^ii iwldCiuueo of two (olon, and cxhitNtii^ mii app^amicr 
xwtiy lo he met wilh. T)ie g!aiiiig of ibe ^^aA wiutlow iMviiig 
,bc«ii broken fiom linte lo tiiue, and nnt FefMircd, allows room fitr 
Ihr i»(«l liixuriaiit br^uclu-aofiv^ u> force ithnav into ibe iiilcrior 
of the buildiq(j, ubrre il mantle in rich festoooa over itir 
allar'.*' A 

In the towiuliip of Aighton. about ttin* milet to l!ie north- ^ 
cast of Ribdti^Uv. iiSroNYHiiRsr. Ibc princely inaiitifm of ibe 
SherburiH-s. " Tfais venerable house tlands nn an emineoce, ■ 
« bkti corniniiiiiU some e\h'iMJv« «if wt bulb of Calder-botlom 4ivl 
Ribblc^iiale ; but ii welt screened from ibe iiorl!i by Ibe va»t bulk 
and rstent of Loni^idgc-felU : aiiil probably was begun by Sir 
Bicliard Sl»eiburne, ithodli^d in 1 j<H. »iid finished by his Km in 
JjjX). Tlie heavy cu)K>la9 uere added by Sir Nichohu Sher- 
hurae, mIio came lo reside here in l6Si : and itic camix dug, and 
gardens laid (;ut by Jiiimelf in the Dutch UtHe. According to tlie 
cuitom uf our old mauMons, llie domestic chapel was abore the 
Xnleway: but a K(wiciouf aud bandsoaie oratory hus been more 
retciilly lilM up, which, lu^i-lber Hith ll>e size uiiH general db- 
IKoilioti of the 2piiTlniFitl«. render the uh»le eauly ponveiliblc lo 
ttie pur^iov- of » large catholic senihi»ry>," lo which it is now 
afipropriRte<l. The houw and demesne belougito Tboinas WeJd. 
1aai[, of Ct)rf>; Castle, t>i)r9elsbirc. The forroer is a lofty, tu^ 
pile, ocMtilructcd at different periodi, uilh » court in Ihe middle. _ 
lis cultMiKe ^-tcivay is urDytncnled with culmnoi of the difiercntfl 
iiuivn, placed in f»in one above the oliier. The apartments are 

• Hi!t(K7 of U'iMlley, p, 443. 
» Wi. p. *V. 


ifodam. ittfticoluly Ihc iail, iml iNoIosg (rsUvns, ill ofwbieii 
dtamiilnile llwt greaiiiMH. uilicc titan cimvi-iiiviiri! tatil conlbrl, 
»tn priiKi|i«llv sUmtI«t to al llie liptr liwy ven (lcti|;ii«tl . 

Tli» pUrc, will] 7U(Xil. a }*»f, wu kit hv i UtivliMt ol' Nov- 
iiA, mIw dirriiit 1754. lobcr iK-in mL tain, Ibr Wvliii, wtio wren 
^nttudrd rniio llie anljr siitet u£ Jiei fitlher Hit Ntcliubs Sbtr- 


At the diitauM ofttvta uiki from Bbikbam, in tht road to 
Clillicro, llioiigli r,nlv a riling, i*rtn(urkal>l<' fur iUii»eii*nt Abtt^y, 
inil for llw <?\t«n( of iti pvrub, wliirli coiti|in^i a [treat pari of 
Blir^burn butulrrd, mA mntauis tit>«4>ti, or w nllicrs tlalR i\, ux- 
tN«(lni|>«l« vrllltiu iu limit'', all of itifin poMcuin^ |)uri>clual 
ri|;liU. In llie lalier nutuWr, h<wi-*vrr, lln- rhup<-l in Clillirro 
CuUc is coiiii4cfftt ai one, ami th« pqirocliiiil <luipel of Si. 
Mirluie) in Clitlitm, as 'dUotlt«r. Ttii* r»rcnt niav be liencd u 
•Dt of lluuv iar^ \ariihM Mlikb vcn f>tnii£'rl\ c^lUni Vltinaia, 
nd dwmril to l)« n bcfiffire of a f>((nliT trsl^iit tlion t'wa a rce- 
ttljr, TV larbli of Hiilifiis, id YorksJiirp, wlti«(i join* it at nae 
|bH, IS appi^m fr^m an aiici«)t perambulaimn, may be cttnii'lcr- 
cda» soolltcr At' ltto>i-, Ibou^tb perhaps not qiiilc m> otcttsive at 
Uui,l(aslK«]v« rhni^U under it, many of whUli potM-w ptrftchiil 
tights. Ilcfur? tile (luMiIutioi), t)u! iiarisb of Wlialley mu under 
Ube jurtultetioB of ttic Abbey, but is now a ^iriirat;*- iii tlie juitniti- 
a|e of U|e A'cbbUtiop nf Cint'irbtirr. " TIk: emtAwmrnl «at 
■BcicDtly rrry f onsiilerabl« ; bul, on a conijilaint, to enriy ss tbe 
icar 1330, that the ticar hadino lurje a sbari' of tlu' property, to 
the prejudice of tbe raouadcry, Rajjer Northborounh, Bishop of 
lidifidiJ and Covsolry, in wbow diocese it tlico was, ordered that 
txihouJd re^tivv only Mxty-sit tnarkit, ami four tiuarten nf iMlt, 
nd hay soflieienl for ha lioMe. Tbi* was contiriiird by ll>e Aicb- 
4nMa of Chetirr in 133?,,who, in ihnw. davt, had grriil power 
^eJq^teij to liini by th(^ bt^)f)|ii: ; ami llie uilary is at prfsunl onlj 
liO. per annum*.'' ill tbe time of Uk DoDHiMlay Stirwy, the 


* PmnMiToar Aom L>ai>iua( to Abt<m-3lo«pr, |». ti> 

156 CAItrASHfBK. 

cltarrli of St. Uranr, in WiallM', Iwd livo {AtmfflAmtA^, aTKiat ?5ft 
fWitIc ntm, fm frtitn sll cu^lomt ami tnipoxitJom. nod il Imd at 
kari asfiuuvmilcorvootl, or abonl fi40 stalutr an*a ; thr mt. 
DtaHv f>6'0 nrrei more, nmkin;; in all iJGl Matulc arro. were 
Uieti tu common. But itiMi^b il had art )ar*e » piiipnrtion of 
wood at llittt liiiic, it Im ofMv onlv rnoimh le adoni, liut not to 
cacunilirr it ; and may be deemed a trad of moie than usu&I 
frrltlily and bniiily. 

"Augualiue, Uic (irA mbsionary of dirutinnily to lliis islaod, 
founded a cliuidi tii IIkm parts, wbicli was loiij; parocliial to llic 
«idc tract of Ructi^llt1•^hi^c and iill DoUaiiil. As conrrrts ia- 
CTca-ied, luoiT placeis ol wunhip kctc crcclcfl, Tboe liad no par- 
Iklilar introua ; but Uic lords of the soil, in whidi thty lay, ap^ 
penled tlidr Klatioi» or fituidi to tli« cure, vh» ivcre caJled 
ncloni aiid nere gcnemll) tuanicd meii aud persons of pTO)WTty. 
Ilic country at tliut time wus very tliinly pimpled, and tbe 
btaho|» left the ((Overuineut of \\k ne^irly cre<;ted cburel»e* to 
tlicjr owners, with the poMcr of deans, an linnnurable apiwllatina, 
for nbiclilbey ncre Um^ diUiiisuialic^], the office being liereditary. 
h tiw nigft of WJlibni Rufus, tlie last dean hciajt; probihiteil 
iruuriagc bv a counril, Die prcteiitatioii of Wballi-y and its chapel* 
vraa giituted Ix bit relation, Jvliu, conttdble of Clioter, and lord 
«f Blacbbuni ; and llcnry Lmi, earl uf Lincoln, a MKceswr of 
liis, bestowed tltia chuitb ou the white tnouks of Slaiilaw, m 
Wural, with Itie piovito that if th« ouaiber of inoiil<» sliould b« 
au^ieuled from forty to »ixty, tliej sboulil remove la WbaU«y. 
Tlus was cliecletl in 1 2S*<, «Ik'u tlie iicw monmlery was built by 
Ihe ntuiiilin^ncc of llie earl, wlu> ttansUtcd lo il tlic bone« of ht$ 
auceitcrs, who bail bci-D iotcrreJ ut Staalnu*. Tliis abWy floih 


' ** Tlia femoral toon f;kv* umlrajfc to tlie nciEhboiitin;^ abbe<r atSaney, 
uliidi c<iBipIalr<.>l Hat Ihc oi-u lioiuc aw, cmitrary to [tic iiMiitiitioos at Ili« 
«titt, pbf (' J I'-o n'.4r to thi^ dllt^r , thii it miicrl tlic marlt^t ; and, by the 
ailviac«d'prirn nfrom, wit, butler, ehr*«(-, and oBirr attictr*. tlvjr aulftTed 
naaiilllj tu ilic &ni<iiuit of tnauXj-mi p<ni»b trn >1iil)jr>g> ; but in 19M, bv 




hffanl till tbe year 133£, Mben iLe abbots and iitoalis of seveni 
iraimiili; win bcfoK bad eilba xurremlered tbeir honset, or been 
(Irivm from Ihrm. cnmurj^'i!!] by .lake's rcbcUioii, or Ibc |iitgnia-- 
ofc orgraci^. r«}iouiou«<l llietiuelvei, ami refuoied limit fuficliacn. 
AisoQ^ others were the rel^ious «f this lioust, as well ai otJiaa 
io Uk nortli: but lli«cail uf SbrvwsbuPi', ivlxt ciHnuiundvd i^itut 
tbr rabeK li^d tliem laltu) out, and m^ittial law exeuikd U)wa 
itictn. Jolii) Pv9l«vr, ibc S^lii sbbul, aud qhv ul'bis itiooks. wen ] 
luagcd al Lanauler". Arter llw dinolulioii it wan nraiilt^l, nitli , 
ifac gKatesI patt of iIk demesne, b^' Edivard ttic Sixlli. tu Kklrard 
AriAon, of Dnro'-l'Cvcr. a brancli uf ihp Iiduu- of Middlitmi : tli« 
mt Io Joltn Itraddti, of firaddvl iii lliia |Kifid>, wboic ancoton 
were KlUrd iii lJ]c«- |Mrta from the tiiiw; of Eil»iinl the Stct»nd.t" 
'fbc lioiite aiiil iiuiNjr of Whiittcy c.uar iiitu itic f.itiiil^ uf tlte 
Ouaoni during: llie latl t«iiturv. ll]« late Sii SstUtnarl Curzuu 
having nurried iIk co-tipir of Sir Aalpli A^litoo, and tl nvw pm- 
(•««Kd !•« tlie ircntid »i>ii, A»IiIod CiirMin, F.wi. 

A noaular gnitt was made, ainunjist utfacrs, to itiis abl>e^ hj 
timn. Duke orLMiicaskr, oftwocutl^gci, wMcn acres of laudrOoe 
Auiulial and dglilj-Uin:*.' acres offKulurc, aiid two htinilred acres 


VteMtfatioaoTtlM atibott grRr*eKby and Swinmtici), the sffitrr waicum- 
ygw iwJ ill a (cneral thafilu uf the onlvr.'—See Pcirauil^ T«(ir; l^vw 
3]|fi.Mimas. Vol. I. fol. c«7, BV8. 

* Dr. vrtitaLcT (HUury ftf Wbiller, p. 78) vbwms, dial " be ms ar> 
*V(anl Bad <«m«cd mlitxh tiriw«ii, *t tlie iptint; aniici at Umcuivr, aad 
•nH t» till om lonu fur «iiWDtk>B, utiitii w;ii prif >ni»>} Mardi l.Vi6-7, 
■IMaacaDoatercclcJonntenllrckvatiTsnin iliefidil ralli:<l the )/«trJlRnun, 
■■d iSHMdiftK-Iy iWhh: iIic iMiPccfUi Airtii. Out of re*pi«t to hi* iirdw, 
!>• t* lappincd to latie bn-a interred in (he notlti aiale ftC Uic miiili chiitch 
■Mukf « itooe v«t temataUit. Aa oakiia p«M. wrttith uu pait of Ibe (mmI 
ttppamm, it nvl to laie ipinatCKl nitUu Uir nieuwry of bki''' pcnoiM ,' 
■tad Speed tdb «». (Deck 9, C. v't;^ ibat " tnv luuiik* wen: evtciit^d tlwng 
failb tba ptlntqMl.- 

• Aiba^ ffutfii? efMBUcbctter.p. r£, uJ I'cwtianl't Tuurto Abtott- 
Mb«,p. 70. 


ofwiiod, in BlKckbarn Ojasf. Another gnini: mtf tnadr nf (btf 
•ttm* Dahire, ia the nri^ltbniirbnnif, ti^ «iip(HirI a fpirste Kchise, 
Rati Iwo womcd 5«'n':iiitB, within lb* pamh c!mTeh■TII^^ nfWhal- 
Itf, who vttn perprtnsnf lo pray for tht sonli of Ifie finke, sntl 
all h'n )MMtPriTy. The fonx-ent v.-\t to r«>[>nir lliclr tMhiiution, akt 
to pravi()c a cliH|iIain and a cUrrV to ring mas lo them in Ifie 
chapel Wonpin;' lo their retreat; lo bntnw on ttpm wveilv »- 
Teriteen (oaTu, trei«liin« CiDy >o»(fz rfr atrrNng apwer, of suilt 
bn-ail M wa» ww-tl lii llie ahhey ; senn lonvvs of tlie tMow) »f»r1 ; 
ngM gallon; of ihv lidtrr tnrt of brer, and Ihrf-e-imicp for thHr 
food. "AH ttiismuMluvebeflisurplyiiilcniledloynalilf tlicnito 
liRp hmpilalitv. Beskln, they ItaH aniiii^lly. on IIh? fast of 
All Sainli, ten large stucV-fi^h, a busbe) of cmlineHl for |w>tl>^, 
a bushel of rjie, tuo ^lons uf nil for lltrir lamps, one pound et 
tallufv fur candles sii ioaAi of luif anil one of fa^ols. fur tbelr 
Ciel. On the death of sny of tlicse recluses, Uie rlulcc or his heirt 
were lo aj^int mereivin"." 

Duriiix Ihe ciril comiuolinni, in the year }643, IhH plare nir- 
f«red wvf coiuidenbly. Having been poawssed bj the rail of 
Derby, be pmtnl hit nieii ia (he chureh and louer, nberc titer 
Mtnalaed fur some time, utilil the cnuulry ]ieople, mhn were aeal- 
aiu partisans for the parliament, look up arms, aod with great 
■faoglKer enpelled Ifaeiii. 

Hie itniDc of WImlley u of Saton origin, from a worH which 
•ignifiei Ihejf/W o/wrlh, a term prruliariy riescriptive of it* «i- 
lualkin, on the ikirts nf Pendle Hill, where the land, if not 
drBiivMl, blevdi at every pore, heaidea six coii«iiteiab!e tprtn^ 
Mitliin the immediate limits of the place. A& a |iari4i, it had 
Beren dui|ieU founded either on or before 138-1, viz. "Ctklerbow, 
Cubie, Brunlry, Biveliitim, Duwiiur, Church, aod Hwlin^fdto; 
aud af^er the )ear 1400, those of Padtliam, Wbikwell, Hobne, 
Mar«den, Ntmchurch tu Rosendate, (loodshaw. Newrhurrh io 
Feodle, Accritigtun, aiw) Bacop in Roarndale, ranked aceordiag 
tu the |>riorily of foiuulation. are luel with, aiid tbe hut as lata 


* P«rawit^ Toor from Do<raifi( lo AbWft'Mow, p. C$— 75. 

airu*.'* B3rtl>»tiv|iiuilJnn,oT|mriian)RitBn'surv«n'ori630,ic 
■« kmd Ikal the pamli of Wballcv coMBled oftiiirtir-fiv-e tovt> 




orifw cIhikIi il nisy lie obsvrvctl. tbat lli« colucnm of tbe 
Hrtk Mie, iHitch arf cjlindneal. Inil not niitwv, are llie oldeat 
paft MW rrauuMig, and miut liav« iteen ncrlnl conndrralily 
Mil lb— ibv coQipest : and Utecbnir a little liefure oralVr t23!>, 
«faa Dne Ropter rHeiwd, »iil PeUr <)e Cnstna lueceeded w 
mW. Tbe windoii't are lannt-sliapcil, iW butlrasK [>crpeik> 
Saki. wkll Rtilr projtviioB, nm) Imoiui) Iiv h lilleiliiig w firing 
(line Id llie wall, diflnin^ oa tlM> wholv very liille fmin Itie Vf^ 
mim S*Yoa pditsl^r, but in t!i<> temiinaliDti, which njipniMrbn (u 
Ike fMmarJe Conn, lliough it titkn pl»cc rattier bcw-atb llie S()iiatr. 
IVent oiadotr, which iiodoubtcdly oeciipis ibe place o( th^ 
(fate orit!tiial lifjhta alM-ays sn-u i» lli« <nut piid ol' tbe ^nuiue 
hJiliwfci of iliia pcfiod b conij^aniiiely irnxkni, and filled with 
tmMtti trwry. Witliia and oo tl>« KKitli lidc of tike ullur, are 
three «e>tt for tin officistiiu: prinls. siijiporle'l nn uimll nliiKlfi- 
alcohuRin. Tb* brarlb of tlie <restn- is a rerv anc^ieot |>nive> 
■tnv, wtlh a border of foliage, atid an uiM:rt[)linn, of which ibe 
tntm rraui iiing are of tbc form of Edmird the Pirtt'i time : pro- 
fatbli (at Peier de Ce^trio, ubo died ia iliti. or Tliuntan 
di CciTHj. tiM firtt prior. Tart of ibe lUli* of tbe ab- 
bey baic been retnorH iiito tlie choir, to which, liowever, 
tkpji are 90 awkwanHy atlapled as suflici^uOy to prove tbat lilt* 
ra Dot their ori^ital utiption. I^te [>ew ia tite clilirvh. foriiicily 
<riM Sf. j4mtm'a Kagf, belong lo llie Touiiley fmaily. in right 
rf iMr nianer of Ho|)lon. A rtbputc arose on aceoouL at sit- 
tingi b the rhurch, mid Sir JoliiiTounky, ia llie pttnripal man 
t( the jMmb, wa* sent tor to decide ilf ; wbeu it vras renieui- 


• H!«i)eyofWladI»y, Pl S«3, Wft. «tr. &c 

f na HfiM hare Iweo brfaro itie year, li34. In Mliidi ^f the pew b^ 

t« tbe SMDor oTKcad <*a» matlcnicicnKijucBceof ihta award: forlba 

•f RmcI before Hiti at a fomi om lo die pillir below. Slwt- 

<f Hackinp, waaa pen«n of prappn;, and, pciiaps, eu« at tbe 

•iqalra^ m probably liij priocipl amat. 


1(!0 LAKCASMIflK.! 

bend libit be bud mudc uie nf tlie followiii^t renuHuiliIc wonb 
* my Tuan. Stiulllcmtriti. ofllackins, xuade lliii torm, uid licie 
will I Mt hIkii I mme; aiiH my cuiiiin NowH may in:i\^t une, 
bcliiiid me if lie plrosi: ;' til u is llicnict relntivr silualton oftbc m 
lw»|ir«9 at pre^nl, ' urid my sotitK Slierbume sliall iiraXc onie 
on (Ik other tide, nitd Mr. (^ulteral anollwr bcliitid iiiiu, and 
for tlie mtduc IIk ine sliall br. lirst come fitat tpmtl. tiiid tbul 
will make tlie (Hotid "ivc3 ofWlmllpj liie lidiiiies to coiue la 
churcli.' TIie«f wonis n-erc rqiorteil uul aultKiilicated Iiy tins 
derlt. and anotlicr nitnr^. on the int'onnalion of the liiai sgciit 
of llie abbey ; and it a not Jikely Uiev woald anon lie fi>fsolli!ii, 
as ibey would probtibly ncat<ui))i same niirlh in the husbaniK oixl 
nsnesfik-eti iu ibr proud nives urwiiullry. Of t\m |iew, ihe 
old waii»roluiti; kIiII reiiiaiit*, tboti^h Ihe lattice woik abofc 
been eiil away." 

Tfie sic of the abliey hiiritis been receally surveyed, is tht: 
docribed by Dr. Whilaker*. "'Hic whole area uf (be clow. 
containing tliirty-sis acres, three roads, aiid fnurtrcn ))crelii*^ is 
still dcfiued by the lernainn of a brnad aud lierp tn'ui-li whicli 
(urroiinded it; nverlbisnerc'In'aBpproacliea In the Imuse lIiroHj(b 
two strong und stntely gateways yet remuiiiin^, lliey are con- 
stnirted in thiit platii and .mlislRiititil style wbirb chnr^icterizcd tfac 
Cittertian bouses, n •Ivlu nhidi ipiiroxiitNiti-s Iu tlutt uf fxirtitto- 
tioa, wid aliens lliiri tl>e moiiks did uut obtain a lieeitce to ker-M 
Del and cnihtilteU wilhoul nii cimI in vteir. Wiliiin this aiea, und 
on titevctiic r)rC4ldiT, wbirb funiied tlic suulliw«t lioundaQr of 
the close, was Ihe lioiuc itself, coiiustiiif; of three <|UMdrmi:q[tca, 
besides slublea and uHicrs. Of tbese (tie first and most wealeHy 
ma the cloister court, of which ihe natv uf llie conventual 
churcti formed llie north side ; Ibe chapicr-house and vntry ycL. I 
frmaiiung, the out ; llie dorfnilniy also miitiiimn-;. IlKncKt; iui<t 
the refectory and kttcben^ the south. The ciuisler vai of nood, 
■uppQitcd aa mual, upuu corhelvi still leniaiuiiig; the arm wilb- 

* History or WfanUi?, p. lOB, IM. 


in was tbe monks cemcU-ry, and flome ancient gnvc-stonea are 
still remembered wHbin it Against tbe nail on the south side of 
tbtsquadran^ is a wide lurbased arch, apparently of Henry 
the Sereiith's time, which, under one span, has evidently euibr<icnt 
two tombs placed lengthways against each (ither. Beyond this 
rourt to the east, is another quiidrangular arcu, funned liy tlie 
rbtMr of the church on one side, the opposite side of tlie chapter 
bouse, &C. on another, a line of ruiuous buildings on the third, 
Bud a large distiuU building, itself surrounding a small quadran- 
gle, on the fourth. This af^iears evidently lo have been the 
abbot's lodgings and must liave been a modem buildiug at llie 
diuolulion, for which reason it immediately became the residence 
uf llie Asshetons; uud, after many alterations, and a demolition 
ofib best apartments, partkulariy a gallt:ry nearly liO feet ia 
length, has still several good and habilable rooms, and is now 
[veacrved with due care by its noble owner. 'Hie ancient kit- 
cbea, the coquina abbs of tbe computus, whence such hecatombs 
were served up, remains, though roofless, with two huge lire- 
places. On tbe southern side of ibb building i« a small but very 
pirtuFesque and beautiful ruin mantled with ivy, which appears to 
ka^t been a cliapcl, and was probably the abbot's private oratory. 
But the conventual church itself, which exceeded many cathe- 
dnis in e^tlent, has been levelled nearly to the foandatiau. This 
Kork of havoc was probably an eflect of that general pauic 
vliich seized tlte lay-owners of abbeys, on the attempt made by 
Queen Mary to restore llie monks to their cloisters. ' For now,' 
«;* Fuller, ' the edifices of abbeys, which were still entire, 
' looked Inviuijiy again un their ancicut owners, in prevention 
' Hliereof such as pusae^sed them for (he present, plucked out 
' tbcir c)es by levelling them to the ground, and shaving from 
' lli«m as much as they could all abbey charaLters *." 
Vol. IX. L The 

* In ibe hblofy alreftdy qnoled from and referred to, ia s groond Plan of 
t^MAbbty Cltnrrb, wiiL its connecled buildii^; bIm two viewi of tlie re- 
"ui.sndoiicuf tfaecluLilcn. TUe latter onjciigi-jved from drawingi of |>rcu- 



llic lusl Alibot of Whiilkrv ttxa John Ilulew. wbo, lieiug af 
nijjned and ruiivtct<-il «f hiub lrra»cMi, lite abbey, witb hU iti ap- 
parteosncp^nruwizcd into Ibr kini^'s Ituiirh, A. D. 1537. 

Since pi-nntn^ ibr xbore m-ooiiul. Dr. \Vkilak«r Ins pnUalMfl 
a few Miiiplrmpiitiin fmj'Vi to liis InniiPr liislor; of ^\halli?y. and 
in lliesc lie Main, that iiiirni'drjliHy iifter tUe MmviUit, titc Mity 
and denimncs were otiiiiniilii-d, by kllrra |>aipiil, to lli« ciuIwIjf of 
John Bratlihtl, of iEir iirigliljunring tinu«> of ItmtUlyll. ** la ibe 
roun>e of t»o or thrve itcvlis. Uiclmnl I'alUnl, I'Mf. uae of tbe 
kin;;'ii sunievnni, riinv down, and kt Ibr tV-inr«p«s iii p»rcirl> fni 
tliG liittcr (ulf voir, or from l^dy-iby to Mitiiarlinai. lUncc 'U 
3]ipc:in lltal all lln- IKt slock mut,l bivp bcvti ulrr^ilydnpnivd af. 
Bdt, liwicle* tlip «ii'ii»rM!c*, ibe Iriiauls alrtil), vrlio were all Hk- iih 
luliitants of the town, ocnipyins with tfaeir baanti small Icoe- 
luriils of ttitr, iii, nr rigbt ane* i-ucli, w pre rom(»rll«] lo ciiler ii>- 
In new coRtrads, probably at udvancetl iciitii. Ilic ut»o)c uim 
fHud by Ihrn wu only isl. 2: 9^. per tmntim. Tli« price of 
bniues from ]s,to{iJ. and ewn 4d. iiirb. Ttia ilrmcsne Isodi 
av«ngni iibout •29. per acre. Ljmfatkire iiieanire ', awl al tU» 
low r»tc produced 6'i\. l !«. 2<1. TJmt licthuge of Uic piirk ami 
wood, {lb« Lord'i pitrliX '^^ miles in dmiil, win dcnuMrd lo 
Sir Alriirtidiir Osbaldatoa. for l?l. Tbis, i »u|i|Mise', waf piclly 
BfM Uie cuireiil prke of lawl at Uk liiiMf. Every acre of laiiil 


lutr <^rvlScm-r, by I'onwr. In tire HiH of llti^ Abb^'V, t;(y< Mr. I'eiiaaiit 
in lib low to AI«MifMo«r, " iiaamnccpirf rnrf o4' ito Urji'iif|i ImMyiHrvrfUr. 
«lia«wlMrpinl4l&r<facMnl ia ■ Imis pliuJ, CutcvciJ ui(h a lifwickfaml 
pi'iiicwil, aii4 a while h[i ran . and at Ilic (ret a]i|ifv i!i» li^o of h cork 
anil 4 beii, \o <li:DOtc lliv <lupttctt)i of lli< ^Cl. Hiis C|:ii;eM! was imMMtnl 
at Ibe CRirl oTUiarie* ibc Secoml, in lU^i." 

' Till' l^^inji rtutomtnily Mlimatrd at cifltl ynrtbi lo tk« puk, wUI bMr a 
pippoili^Q tv itic •utiiic nuttiuitiai (ln!*«(uart ad'ciflil 1g tlic tqaarcoTfi** 
andH lia'.r. oraiSMlo 191. H*ncrrttty nutomaryacr^ oTIiml wilt coo- 
uio two iMUIc amca iad h&i t^mrc pnV ; aoi] co)i»c«|>KDtl; IbmI Irt At 
fa. per an^ liy the cwionmy neatmc, ilati uot anuiiRt MIy to la. pu 
»t-i«. Of IcM iliBc Mclialf. TlietamcBiBylKulncrvciltiftJic otlicr pnpoa- 


tbea let for St. is now worth thirty tiiucs the aum ; and yet tbe 
pike of Ibe iwcesaaries of Itl'c is not advanced in Uie same iiitcrral 
more (ban ten ur twelve fold. Tlie reason of tliis disproportion 
is, Uiat in limea when there is no trade, furnieni must live wholly 
from tbe produce of tlieir farma, and tliercforc require s much 
lai^r profit in tdciu. This was also a reason uliy land-owners 
fetuoed ko lar-^ie a portion of lliclr eslales in tlieir owu occupa- 
tioa. At the death of Sir John Towneiey, of Towneley, A. D. 
1541, the whole estate was valued at lOOl. per annum. The 
nine, when strip|M-d of ail additions by purchase or entlusuresi is 
DOW worth 3000i. Nor was the price of lands in this district 
greatly itdtanced in Uie reign of Jauies the Tirst. In the year 
l6l3, the demesnes of Towneley uore surveyed, and valued at 2s. 
per acre, lu the Parliameutary Survey, about forty years after % 
tbe same lands averaged between 4s. and 5s. Eight shillings per 
acre was about the average rent of farms here in the rcign of 
Q'jcen Aane. In hall' a century more it had increased in a ratio 
of two and a half to one. In the same interval, from that tim« 
to the present, it may be generally considered as trebled a^dinf." 
In the churtli-yard of Whalley arc three ancient stoiu Crosses, 
news of which are given in Or. Whitaker's work ; and this 
•ealteman conjectnres tliat they were raised in the time of Pauli' 
aw, wliose ministry' in Northuntbria commeuced in QZ5, and 
liTmniated in 6*3 1, when lie was driven from that kingdom. Soon 
alter tlie establish men t of Christianity in the Anglo-Saxon do- 
ninious, it was customary to raise stone-crosses in church-yards 
at the time of consacratiug those places, and in many other situa- 
iKim upou tlic ratification of any solemn covenant or agreement %. 

L2 In 

*TMa«as in 1630, i.e. or 1651, tfairlj-ciglit or tliirty-nine yean afler; 
twt iBKt of the surveys were made in l€5u. 

f HbtoryorWlttllcy,p. 134. 

• ^ GoRj'jIi's Sepulchral Moiiumeiits, Vol. II. Pief, p. 177 ; ai^ 
*«l«Minral Anlwjuiiies, Vol. I. wLtre, in plate I, fig. ^ will be seen tlic rc- 
l^WiibtiiHi oTa stone cross, siuiilaily oruaiiiButiMl tu oue uf Uiose at Whallw. 


In the vinag:e of Wlmlley h u smull Sclinnl bf (lie fouii(!iitiim of 
Edward tlie Sixth, wiiicli, with Uioite of Middleton am! Ittnntcy, 
Lave thirteen scholanhijia in Bra?:en-no«e Coll**^, Oxford. Tliis 
tuwnshtp, us diiitinct Fmni tlie other (larU of the jximb, iii ISOl, 
contained 134 houses, and S7(i iuhabitunh. 

Little MittoN is a h:;ni!cJ ::rrl manr.r vithin the parish of 
Wliallev, and «ilh IJenfhorn and Coldraafx, form ime tonnship'." 
n stands near Ihe confluence of tiic Rihiilc, the Hodder, and the 
Caldcr rivers. The Manor-IIousc, t!:e scat of Ti':rhard Htury 
Bfavmont, Esq. F. A. S. is a fine s):ecinicn of llmt style of 
domestic archilcctiirc whirh prevailed in the rei^ of Henry the 
Seventh. lis bascnient story is of stone, and the npper part is 
Aimied of wood. Tiic Hali, with its embayed window, screen, and 
gallery over it, is peculiarly fine and curious ; " tlic roof is ceiled" 
nilb oak in wrounht compartments ; the principals Iimiid iu the 
form of obtuse Gothic arches; the giaslenis deeply fluted ; IheJr 
capitals, uhere they receive the princi|)iils, entiched with carving; 
Ihe walls covered with wainscoat, and tiic hay window adorned 
with armorial bearinnis in painf(<l iilnsi^. Tlie screen is extremely 
rich, but evidently of more modern iityle tli^in the rest of the 
wood work. Uptin Ihe pannels of it aic carved, in pretty bold 
relief. Ion heads, nirfleand female, within medallrons, which have a 
rude kind of character, and were evidently intentled for por- 

" The situation of Liiile Milton is a remarliable instance of the 
predilection of our ancestors for a soutliern a'^pecl; to attain 
which they have tnnied the front of the house a<;ainst a marsh 
ovfrpriiwn with alders, and have netjlidcd ine of the most 
delicimib bndiicapcs in Ribblesdale, which opens to the north and 


• Hislcirjof MTalTey, p. !S7, in vlirh rltreisar extrfinrly fine print of 
ilie Hall «t Mitlon, fii m a drawitig by W, M. Ciais. 


The village of Great Mitton, thongli witliin llie bciuiidaiy 
nt' Vorksliirr, is a port inn ot* Wliallev purisli; and Us Church h 
bcldly waled i>n 3 lii^li precipitous b:tnk, above llie rivtr Ribble, 
tiejr its jitnctiuD uilh the llodder. The cfaurcb Lppoiin to be 
ali'intlhe a!!e of Edward Ibe TliinI, and contains srveialmonu- 
tiitnis and tombs to ilic memory of tbe Slicrburncs of Stonyhurst, 
ill lliif parisb. Most of these arc within a private chapel or 
dmntrv *. on the norlli side of tlie choir. The most anrient of 
tiii^ rnoiiiinierts h that to the tnenwry of Sir Richard Sherburne, 
who, accordin-jr to the iiisrriplioii, was " master forester of tlie 
forest, Stetiard of the manornrSladeburn, Liculcoant 
of Ihe l>le of Man, and one of hor Majesty's deputy Lieutenants 
in lite county of Lancaster." Sir Kicbard died the 'SO'lb of July, 
1544. Here is a nitiral monument In another Ricbiinl Sherburne 
lud his I.a(iy, kneeling: lie armed; she in a ruff, with a Muck 
bflod ttimins: from l>€hiiid over the top of her head. Three 
Altar-tombs, with recumbent figures in while marble, having long 
hair and loose gowns over their coals ; ooe of these has his Lady 
lying by him. Alt of tbeni are of the name of Richard, and each 
figure is spurred, and placed cross-legged. A long inscription to 
tbc memory of Sir Slrho/a» Sturbttrtu, among other things. 
Hates, that he " was a man of great humanity, simpathy, and 
concern for the good of mankind, and did many charitable things 
Hliile he lived ; be particularly set bis neigbbdurhood a spinning 
"f Jersry wool, antl provided a man to comb the wool, and a wo- 
n*n who tautihl them to spin, whom he kept in bis house, and 
allotted several moms he bad in one of tlie courts of Sloiiihurst, 
fw ttiem to work in, and the neighbours came to spin according- 
'y; the spinners came every day, and span as long a lime as they 
"uid s|)arf, moniing and aAernoon, from their familias: thiscon- 
linwd from April iC99. to August l/Ol. When tticy had all 
leani'd, be gave Ihe nearest neighbour eacli a pound, or half a 

Ls pound 

* A View oflliisUpivpn in tlie History of WliaUey, from an rxiniiulc 


pound of wool nn\y for spinning, and wLeel fo set ap for thctn- 
telvfs, nlitch did a vast deal of good to the nortti side of Ribble, 
in LaiicasLirc. Sir Nicholas Sherbum died December l6(h, 
I7I7- This momuneut was set up by the dotvager dutches of 
Korthfolk, in memory of the best of fathers and mothers, and in 
this vault designs to be interr'd herself, whenever it pleases God to 
take her out of the world." " This epitaph, or rather history," 
says Dr. Whitaker, " was written by the Duchess herself, who had 
certainly no mercy on the marble cutter." 

The two tombs, and four statues of the father and mother, 
grmdfalhcr, and grandmother of Sir Nicholas Sherburne, were 
finished in 169$, for 2^31. by Willitun Slauton, Inpidary, who 
lived near St. Andrew's Church rn Holboni, Loiidun. Tlie two 
male figures on these tombs. Dr. Wbilaker says, " are probably 
the latest instances of cumbcnt cross-legged statues in the king- 
dom." lu November, 1328, Arclibishop Melton apjiropriafed 
the church of Mitton to the Abbey of Cockersand, reserving fo 
himself 40i. per annum, and 20s. to the deacons of his cathedral. 
Ordaining also a perpetual vicar, presentable by the conrent. 

Near Mitton is Basiiall, a plain large house, formerly belong- 
ing to the Lacies, and granted by Ihein to the Talbots, who pos- 
sessed it for many centuries; but the present mansion appears to 
have been erecti:d since the extinction of this family, and now 
belongs to John Lloyd, Esq. of Gwcrhlus, in Merionethshire. 

Waddow Hall, also on the Yorkshire side of the Bibble, 
anrl immef liately opposite to Ciithero, is the scat of TTiomaa Weddfl, 
Esq. The house is sealed in a most romantic and picturesque 
district, on the side of a round and insulated hiti, that rises from 
the bank of tlie river, which here nuis furiously over a rot^y 
channel. The views from this mansion, and the surrounding 
eminences, are greatly diversified, and cuniprdiend Ihc town and 
castle of Clilhero, with the hills of Pendie, Fcnygcnt, and the 
more lofty Wiiamsidc. 

In this pnrisii is the chapelry of WAnDlNOTON, where is an 
AlmthoKse, which was founded and endowed in 17OO, by Robert 



Parktr, Esq. of Bromtiolme, in this parish. Waddington 
Hall, b stone bouse, with small aocient windows, uul a narroiv 
niadiag stair-case, though now the resi<lence of several poor ta- 
milies, formerly afforded shelter and protection to the meek and 
il-&ted. King Heiiry tlie Sixth, after the fatal battle of Hex- 
bim, in 146'3. The monarch was conveyed into this county, 
where he iras concealed by his vassals for a whole year, notwilh- 
ilandbig llie most diligcut search was made after him. At len^ 
be was surprised at dinner, in Waddmgton Hall, and taken near 
Biingerley hipping, or stepping stones. The account which 
Lebnd* gives from an ancient chranicit.-, agrees with tlie tradition 
of the country, that he was betrayed by Thomas Talbot of Ba- 
jhall, and John, liis cousin, of Colebry. The house was beset, 
irben tbe Ling contrived to eKape, and fled for some distance, but 
was |Himied and taken. He was tied mi a horse, and carried to 
London as a prisoner. Rymert has preserved the grant of a re- 
ward for ttiis service, dated from Westmiuster, 9th July, 1465. 
Al this lime Waddington belonged to the Tempests, who inherited 
it by virtue of the marriage of their ancestor. Sir Roger, in the 
nign of Edward tlie First, with Alice, daughter and heiress of 
Walter de Waddington. 

Beowsholmb, the seat of Thomaa Lister Parker, Esq. is 
within the boundary of the original |)erish of Whalley, in the 
county of York. It stands on a commanding elevation, in a tract 
of land formerly part of the forest of £(>u>/aft(f I, which, though 

L 4 now 

* CoOectanea, Vol. 1 1, p. SOO, from which Holimhed and Stow have co^ed 
their acconnta of this event. 

f Fceden, Vol. 11, p. 548. 

t " TIk wliole tract of countrjr vulgarly called Bowland, and consisdng of 
tM piriihe* of SUgMurn and Mittoa, togetiier with llie forest properly m 
^*^, is equally a member of tbe fee or honor of Clithero, and was equally 
<^">)prebeiKlcd wittiin the original pariih of Wballcy ; but tbe two fonner 



now- cnclcned, anil moMy 


cullmilril, woi nitiitii a ffftt 

ytan nogrJL 
h} scvrral limla n( vritil <lc«r ; tlic lasl of tlirn? ua«ilc»tn>) til in lli« 
yw IS05. BrvwMhulHte luu loi»; twrn Uic »!:il, or li>(t^ uf l)>e 
Bonbcaier*, or raa»l«f 'luiolrr uf llw ijulriclt : uii<l Itiia tillc and 
oflic* Itn-bceii rctniufil by tlif |iirwiit wnrllit prntnaoi. •' Her* 
have bcrn (no lawiKb, oi ciidoaiiict for deer, Ru<llit>)me luvvuci, 
•iih] Lalb^raiii Paik. 'I'tir iKuulifiil river IlodJer, rutttuus fur ils 
|ber, lisiitj nrai llic rra^s ol^ firck, ami paisiiii; llmmgli ibe 
iriih nf Stin/fbttm, iiilcriccU ll>e fuiv-sl, and funni ilic oiil> or- 
iiaiiiental Mrriim nfulnict, othcrnLw h\eak and iMtriro, hy ib 
ticqi and fnu^ liuiks. On u»c uf Ihuc u Uic IJIlle liiapcl of ' 
If^iftHrU, todctlier witli an inn, Um ooiirl-liousc of Bowiavd, and, 
uiuldublrillv, a rriy ai<rirnt resling-filiici: fur Imvrllmjimincyiiig 
frnni l^uutlcr to CJilliero, or Wlulky. Tbr Uikdw^c brn i* ■ 
dianiiing — Uic llmtdrr brunliug at a gival ilqiUi bciicalli Ilia 


wmiepanteil si ui nrly prrivH Avm Uwv mfftbcT diitrcb, ind al dw 
Doncutaf Surtty witrlitlLCnu padinu of tbeuaikor ul'tiijwIletMi.attlity 
ImritlncelKinii'rKbjilbuiii. bul llf forr^ DrUwnlanJ, In tlic lUiei senac^ 
«M, In Ht civil rdtUc-ti. alvmyi taken m am of the iI«mMni> «f tb« cnstl«,< 
■ml tnlticct to ifaccMin nf ir»o<imate nloiH-; Mid 1t» rcrlc^htlb^l tnu s^j 
«rDv» ■ pQMinn «f rh<> Oktrn pncochiti] tTVinillM ll<# CMilo-farUit 
tiiiiforatljr ptH tjrihc* to iIk Alibry nf WImIIpv. ai^w tlir niBUBliM^ 
|fcficl>«pcl»rSt. MklMtltuCMliw.'— Mwl«iy«rWlialla}',ti, -iOS. 

* r>r. WlifUkprtMnlctlliirtrw liilr erSowbt^rfri* nflniltf to fi<j forest T 
jnt WY find ll in dHTrtmi AtdttM!asi>al woHi* ipiitinl tn wi under trfficcr if | 
tba r»wsi i atul III rrtt»f.Jnr: To. flO],kit |)nmlindiityit di^fiwil, 

t OiM cntlMn io IMtiae Ar girta (brrp fanii> in tl>p AieImt cars of Bow. 
IsmI) dncrm lA be mruiiofKd. w 1 4a nat knnw, wj? Dr. Whluk<T, iliat it ■ 
pnniH on; where rlif.— It u ilib, thai lite Rorli. Aftni contBting of .■OOd * 
•hMp, M- murr. b Ac piofiaf ly of th« lord, ami iMi* nrrd to Ihe unmul hy u 
Ktedutr, Hilijrri rr> iV iMiidiiinn uf (Iv1i«rriK irp >n eqiml manhfr aflto 
nmr qinitliy ui t'l*' •.■in'^t'"i "I" ('■■' ■'^ii- *niiii ikn inuat b iDfTCty uaiK 
frntftuvry «fl.L' nMiiilncfc- -Tli'*rtiirri--''«-jk tnnn'.at M ilii- RAraiin law, aiiij 
trnw ll havf ariirn from llif iliffirulty of [siiruiirt! Irn.ciu ntm wPr« 
ta ttortt Arntiof mrh rxlnrt. 

L&NCA8H1BB. 14S9 

cbapei, waslies tlic foot (^ a tall cooical know), covered wilb oaki 
to ib to|>, and is soon lost in overshadowiog woocIb beneath. — But 
it ii fur tlie peiicil, and not the pea, to do justice to liiis scene. 
Ou llie opposite liill, and near the keeper's house, are llie reinaiu 
of a small encampment, uhich has been supposed to be Ruman, 
but the remains are too inconsiderable to justify any conjecture 
about them. At do great distance a cairn of stones was opened, 
and found to contain a sort of kist-vaen, and a skeleton: itissio- 
giilar that neither of these remains have been noticed bj^ ifoutA- 
miU, the diligeot and accurate investigator of tlic Roman aotiqui- 
lie^ of bis own neighbourhood : but as he was minister of Whyle- 
vell, be could scarcel^r be ignorant of this encampment, and maj 
therefore be presumed not to have tiiouglit it Roman. On an ad- 
joining height was discovered a quarry and manuiactory of querns, 
or portable millstones, of which, though probably tutroduced by the 
Roman soldiers into Britain, the use appears to have continued 
among us till after Uie Norman conquest*." 

The mansion at Browseliolnie is a large pile of building, with a 
centre, and two wings projectiug at right angles from the ends. 
In the front of the centre ts an omamenlal facaric of three stories, 
with pilu<itera of four orders of architecture, and the whole in the 
£uhion of Elizabelli and James the First's reigns. 

Though man^ very considerable iniprovemcDls hiive been progre*- 
uvely niade, and are still making io the house, yet (he present posse»- 
sor carefully guards dgainst any inuovaliom orallcratiuns in the ex- 
terior cliaraclcr of this venerable and interesiliug specimen of an- 
cient domestic architecture. Within the house it a tine oldbbrary, 
well stored with curious, useful, and amusiug literature ; a col- 
lection of coins, and a valuable assemblage of manuscripts, many 
of which relate to the history and antiquities of the neighbour- 
hood. Among olber curiosities preservert here with laudable at- 
tention, is the Original Seal of the Commonwealth, consisting of 
massy silver, and inscribed " The Seah for approbation of 


* History ofWIutley, p. 30ff. 

170 tAirCASHlKlt. 

MliMtn.'* "The (Mipers nf Hie laniK «m!Bi« manv rtiriou* 
•lid nripinti rtoCTim^nl* of (how Htaft, iiiirl » larijr <«llc(iiAii 
of 9M>tigs ami tnlbiU rrhliv<! to Itic tump (siliatnont, nbicli 
hurc nevrr yt lipeti ptiblMied. The rttir-nup i* rich in jwidliNl 
gtow. Mmiy of tlie rr»it4 of Krim uvrr brofi!,'ht froui Wlisl- 
iM sbhi^V In (liiiiTOtit ajwrtniPBl* atv «M*ni( Km* paint- 
ing* by (he Imi ¥ip.n»U n\aaten, uhI many r«r«Tlrat ptn- 
ilueltons of (be pmml En^lnli school. 1 ^hIIv rrgrrt (bat I 
mtnnt. lit pr*!t^nl, ]>ivp a IikI vwn itf llir prfneipaJ oT (hi-ft«, hiil 
jRi I shull liliv« rvoriision hrreal^cr, ni lb« ficfouiit nf VnTk^hirv, tn 
rtlttv some fnrlhcr purtknhirs rottp^mmi; Ihu )nr1 of ilir rotinly, 
I hope tlirn to l>c nble lo rntdcr more jmiice to (lie |vlflc«, anct lo 
its liberal po»**ior. 

" The hall, foTly fr^ loit|^ it fimtMiMl with nmny iiflii({iiiiies; 
mrli as tlii> liifirhmlfr kuetifHicat of tlii? XXth le«^n, celh, 
fibulte, (tifTemiL pieret of annaiif, and parlirnlariy n small spnr 
finttid in the aparlincnt «illcfl Kiit^ ll«if^' the 8i\lir<i, at Wad- 
din^lnn Hall. Among Uie tttt is a eorn|iMe «iiit of bnif, worn 
by (We of Uie fomily, ■ suflvtvr for lii« loyally in Uic great rvlirl- 

Dr. Whtluker «latM, ll>at Ibe only v»ti^ of ilitt foTOl taws 
prrsenpd brre i* tKn Slirrwp, throM^h wlitfh ewn-do^, oxfepl- 
mg Ibftpp bdftriKii'S *<» Hie lor^U, mn't past, fK- al*o mrntions 
the fiUonmi; p«rlmit4. A head of.frati dr PartM, by VrlatpuTt 
wlb«h 14 filccmcd OH'- of Ihc bMl porlrails, by tint master, in 
Gngbii>H. Another of Fdwwii Ptekn; V*f\. who ^^v,% boubfarrr 
af Bowluixl about ififjO, tinH wlio appears in tlie mrtume of btx 
oflice, wilh n «liitr li|^cil uilli a btick's hom, and a bnglt-hom 
lucked uiirier \i» Riitlte. 

At Ibe sonlh-wr*! eMremity of llie toHn<.bip of Clayton-lm- 
MooH is DtTNiCEN'iT.tlon, nhidi ^|ienn to bnvc brfo jiowecwH 

• HiUorjofWniaHfT.p. 514. 

1 llMd. 


1^ a Eunil; of tint name at a reotote period. It was purchaaad 
(0H«nh the end of EJizabetb's, or begioniDg of Janies the Finfa 
rfign, by Sir TTioinat Wahmdty, Knight, one of the justice! of 
Ibe coort oi comoion pleas, sod now belong to a descendant pf 
the ble Robert Edward Lord Petre. 

At a short distance soutb-wett of Ribchcster is Sahlbsbifbt, 
2D extensive manor, wlircb continued the property of the great 
&)iiilv of SouthwoTth for 350 years. Tlie manor lioute was for- 
merly' moated round, and inclosed three sides of a large qua- 
drangle. In the centre uas the great Hall, " a noble ^cimea 
of most rude and massy wood-work, though repaired in 1532, 
by Sir Thomas Soutbwortb, whose name it bears, is of very high 
anli(]Dity, pn^bty not later than Edward the Third. The re- 
maining wing, which is built of wood towards the quadrangle, and 
btkk without, (the earliest specimen of brick work in the parish^ 
ti of a later date. llKre is about Uiis house a profusion and 
bulk of oak, that must almost have laid prostrate a forest to erect 
it The principal timbers are car\'ed with great elegance, and the 
compartments of the roof painted with figures of saints, while the 
ootsides of the building are adorned with prolile heads of wood cut 
in bold relief uilliiu huge medallions; it is curious to observe 
that the inner doors arc without a panncl, or a lock, and have 
always been opened, like those of modern cottages, with a latch 
and a string. It is also remailiabic, that in this house the boards 
iA the upper floors, which are indeed massy planks, instead of 
rrossmg, lie parallel to the joysts, as if disdaiouig to be indebted 
to the other for support*." 

Salesbuby Hall, on the bunks of the Ribble, nearly op- 
posite Ribchester, has been successively the property of the 
Salesburies, Clilberoes, and Talbots, tlic la^t a braach from Ba- 
shall. Tliis b the birth-place of Tkojttas Talbot, who, in tlie year 

J 580, 

• lEstory of Whalley, p. 474. 

■72 lANrAfiHIRE. 

iiiO, ■ma* kecfcr of hi* Merest;') lecoids in tbr Tower, tad t<a- 
ftcn.-d asanlnncc to Camden in furoiibins ^i") ^^^ * caUkKiw o( 
iuib, I'ur iti« Brilanuiu. lie also mwk cotutdcnbte collcclioM 
fur liic biidtiry of Voikdiirc : smiie »f Iheae are drpooiled io llw 
Biilnh Mutciim. an<1 miidc tu the HcraM's oltlicr. In Urc epi»ll« 
dtdinlnrv to Mills' cat-ilffguc of honor, be i» railed " Linipins 
TUoiti» lUbol. t crrat |!cn»luuiil, and of cx<:i:llriil mtmvry*.' 
Tlic rciiiiiiii? ut the Mall licrr, arc portly mwd uuil {Mrlly »10Bt: 
•ad the vrltule foiiiirrly ntcoinpaAieil a fiuadrtucuUr t'ourt. A 
piece »f]toiii«ii ac»l|itiirc of Apollo, fioni Ritichctirr, liu (mwb 
iiKoitMraleil iu one dfllic wtllf, 

lu a hfw siliuilion. on tbo liaiiln of tlir Caldcr, is (■ awtuOKP, 
ihv Hnrirot rr^iileaee of tlic Shiitllcworths, win wtrc m.-IiIci1 hen 
asurly u tbe lime of Kicliard Hie .Second. 'V\nc liousr is an aa- 
BBnt cinbaltlcd btulilins, and, icuinling to Dr. Wbilnkcr, " cOm- 
btnei tlw pirturruguf) eSttl of (he casldltfcd maoMoo wilh >onM 
drgifc of iiilcnml lightncu and rouvciiirucr." in llic vicinity' of 
lbii,bJIuNTHOYD. a modcro inHiiiiui), in a 6uc ronuulic caucliy, 
belongiii" Io Lr^cadic Picrt Starkir, £»[. 

Lrylanp Ucndkkd is t!>«tinM)c4l of ibe»ix Hibdinsioiu of 
UiitCuHtily, bikI liai Ihr river Kibble for ib nortbcrn buuadary, 
wiiiltt Wrst-Dci'liv litiiidrrd forms it« Ruullicni and H>utb>vv«»tem 
«xtrcn»iiy : dud llii: hundrNl> of Salford uid BbH-kburnc Join it 
to Ibi^ list ALxi «oiitli-«a^t. 'I'ltit hui>dr«d itrracttU n<-arly a 
8al mtfuu-, Mnd ht* porlioitt of the (jinrailir, und llir Li-i-ils nnti 
iJt'<r]iiK)l aaiU p^nkiii^ aeruss itieuieni side. Hirccjifeut turn- 
I^iIlp r'^atli from U'lgiin Io Predion, and fmin IJteipool to Ibc 
Jiilteff ttiun. are alw tarhed tlirougb it. Williu) llii> di»incl i« 
onU ncic iBwtLel town. 


■ flwGaash'ttT»fMgn|)h]r. VoLtl. 347. 




"^ip^ k_ 

This uftrft ilftidi on the grtM himpile roaj lietntpn Liveq»ol 
■i fmtnn, n«ar ibc MMirce of a small riviilrt, calktl llie Chor. 
■hkfi )o»et its name to ibe pla«. Tin- rivrr Yiirrow. ruing in 
lUnoon to tlic rmt, flows near tlie tonii, aud kivcs motion to 
■BciMi* raill-t tlal are rrccird on its banks; Ihrtc. uilli tlie 
priotkifi, and blciiichiag ^njumb, for many miln round, iuier- 
apedttitli thr ciiltuf] fjdotirs. contfiin' to citiii:miiiir;it(' lij Ihe 
iWc ditf rkl au aspect nfntrenK limlWand imlustry. Tticchardi 
in*, fur it Inn been bttiy made [^arodiiat. fltiiJ M-paiatal frrMn 
ibr fwnfi of Cnaton. in an aiiL-ktil fiilr of liuildiii-:, tlx- u;ilU uC 
tKli Bfi- slitdded witti wivnl cwals ofuiiiit anil old iutciipliuiis, 
ndtlw windun* arc drconttcd witli raritra* [winlingt. 

Hie Imvn cocuiils of tno lordi>lii|», mhicli Iwloni; to d!jlt:Knt 
infnrtora. Its police bgmcrni^l b> one niajj^tratt, nlio, wilb 
oof or luotc nuigitlrjlrt fcir tltc county, liotil n pell) tct^oiM lierr, 
ad It Riiingfoii. near it, once a nionlli iillt-nrakly. The Bi^ihop 
rfCbnte-r alw Itolds a court here Iwice a year, Uy Itli stenurd cr 
ftnf, Cfaorley i« a lerir iinproviiig place ; acd In rt-ndcr it more 
tk nrioBs dubs, and a building touliiir, ba>e Iteeii nliiblislicd, to 
raronrase im^ errcltons. wbicii llie population ol its viituity, Ibe 
fknlv nnd clicapoct^ iif |Knviiioiis, and abuiulaocc of luslcnuU 
Irdnelliiif bouse), vitb the nunieniu^ maaufnrturics in lliv pa- 
itrit Rod neit:MKiuibur>d, «> naturullv tend lo >tippr>it and eji- 
aiara«r. T))« plenty a( coals also, with Iriwl, atiim, sand, nud 
flttrfe, u well a> die quarries or Sag, >IrI<, asliter, and niilU 
floae*, pmciirc-l lierc, and sent In rarioui parts of llw kiiijiiiuin, 
kij arnifli ofliic LancaAler, aud Leeds luiii Livi-rpool c^uaJs, wliicb 
jon dose to Ibe lonn, are highly favourable lo sucb specula- 
tioDt, \a liie year 1801. Uits town contaiiicil 45l6 iiihiibilunts, 
bniag at tbit time S40 inlabilhd houses, occupied by 920 ^nd- 


\a Ibe oltt:rrb-yartl is a (Sran:mar'Srh99l, ivbicb, Ihongli eo- 
4oacd ttillt siiDie b'giiries. lias not any frtCKboIan. An utms- 
3 liuiue, 

174 IJlNCUniSK 

lioow, for Ific («[>port of »ix iKKtr pciwiu, aud i pi-Uoa liart 
been ereclft*! in this town. Here ate two weekly tuafkeli, and 
four annual fain, nhkh arc luudi icioilcd to. 

About mr mile WMt Af llie tovm, k llir site of riit.LltiKAND 
Hall, llw proprirtor gf uliidi, Humnt <i\Uiln-and, \j<*\. is Lwd 
oTniiv of tin tninon nlmiily nifntionMl. Th« old hAitic, nliicli 
%iis niTro\\m\tA hy s moal, ba^ been rectnlly taken down, ami llw 
foaitilAti'Xi of I Dew nuuition is just liijd. 

Near Hw vrllat^ of f{ivi»gfo» h n l«fty hill, nnted for a high 
peak, (ir bntr4m, whicti served ia the civil mn a« a wateli-lowerj 
onignxl pusl. From its commanding situation, and llie Mtcv- 
aivn vipws ulitiiined ffoin it, many parties frtujuttnt llm rlerated 
iqiot (luring sumniPr evcninj^. In tlip village ii a fref j^rammar^ 
st^t>ot, fiiuitdftl hy Jamn PiUinffUii, Bbimp of Uutbain, in llic 
tdgu afQurm FJumbvlli, and rodowcd with laixlx Hliiaml in llml 

At Ibe disiinrc of sis raiks, aouUi of Cliorley, is llie lownslii 
«fSTANDlsil, nbrrr a fiiuiih nf ll»e name nf Standish aiipmn 
to liav« bwn srilled from a ])«rind moo after tlie caiii|ue^t. Of 
Ibb Amily nas John SlanHhft, Esq. wbo^ accordinjif to Kolina* 
li«dj wax a wn-ant to Kiiie itictunl II. .ind dijitn^iJUied bimadf 
by wmmriing Wall Tyler, in the lueroLoable rrncouiic Iwttroea 
bim ami Ibe monRrcli. in Smrihlielii. Foe tbit service be, with 
tlie mayor and citiwnM mIiq n-ere tben preteol, verv kniglited. 
Amoni* oiIh'i emioenl pefsons in tbit Cuuity, was Sir Ral|))i Statu 
tSsb, who niuimuided an army in rniiice initlcr Ifciirirs tin: FrAli 
and Sixth; and Sir Alexander blandish, nbo nas knr<;ltlpd for Im 
i-nlianlbebaiionral ll;c Imltleof lIo|>loo-tU-lt), iu.v-olland,tii l-ig'J. 
Henry Siandisii ulso, u'liik ua« made Bidiop ot'St. ;lupii, in \&l$, 
(iceam])»nii!d Sir JnbnBakrronanembsuv toDcmnark, to ISlSi 
and, in 1550, was one of Ihe bi^iiops w bo iti.sistr«l (jufvn Ca- 
therine in Uie suit concerning' Iter divorce from Htrnry the F.igbtli. 
The Irving of Standuh is a rectory n'ottlt mme than 70<)l- p*' 



Mun, tnd is in tkc pA of the Lord oi Ibf manor. Tli« cburdi, a 
hoidMlii^ building, villi a sl»i(k, wm nncttH in IM4, ttb'tttf 
b) Hn >l>ii of llir ivlur, uIh> tuaiulsined Ibo wnrkmcn wtlh \>ro^ 
riwMi during tlic trmr. Wiibm i( is ■ lumb of Sir Edward 

(VtifitiatMi, Kta. an «min(nl coun«d)ar, vr\w dicct in ICi^S. 
JMOm i* nmd Vt lite mcitior> of Ui« lim )»wl4iUol rctlur, 
SidMntJbfoodte, of vtliwuUietvisafetalue, drcsKdin ti Fr<in«iKiiii 
M>>l* vf nlut^K order be tud been before ie onfomwd t<t lite 
jiinle^liiil eUubliiihnienl, wilb an ittscription dLxbmli\i; of liw 
toumitis.'uK'r, «8 ibuv^ ilulcd. 

Itt KM t>i Sir Fnnk StantHf/i, bar*, tsnl DCMit'RY HALL, 
•boat a tttUp and ii ltaIr~MuUi ofCbiirkv, ou Dip ivcst sitle nftlic 
le»«rd« Adiingtou H«ll. in Ihe way to Wia^ii. TliI* plaw 
rlijdl^ iit*}iro|>iUtc(l to n S!ui)-F>irtti. 

Or. Lcigit has represented and dcKribed a smull Hffnrt In n 

Ur¥>!otu», whidi tvu fovud n^nr SlatKlisli; nl wbkh 

were alMi diivovcKd, at (lie suine time, iiboiit ItiO Roman 

■, " tnd two cvid ringi, of the equitcs aurati, or Komui 

nqjlih*,' Ttw tfmiuliip of Standisb, «illi Ljin^trw, in ISOI,' 

biucil :ior itdmbiteii boiisci. ai>d 1 5-1? iiili&tvitAiiU. 

WBtGMTiNTo."* Hall. t« th« werf. i» an old rfoue hovi*, 

in a suiall, but beautiful jark : and h ndcd for bavin* 

t »i»li-vtiiMjow» of any liouv« iu tlie caunU, or in an^ [tart 

tf Uic ktiix<Juro northward of tlie I'luil, The Lanc&stn- caital 

fBBCa at a sburt dislaace on Ibe 3Ctith-\tcsl of Wrishtinton and 

Stuudish, iiud crcall; fjcilitnlo llie rouvevaoM of coab, willi 

hkli llic |)uriili abound*. a\ hcU u cotton ^od« nnd conrif- 

wlikb an licre muiufiictured. 

Abniil tiirre milci and a half miitli of CI)orii?y, and viihtn 
|V0 raik» III Llic iiorlb<cast of Slandisb, is ADLIKGTON Hall, 
i\» M?Bt of Sir ftieharJ Ch^ion, Bart, a modem houM, eraded 

\ IbepHtdit onacr oa the tile of Ibr old manduu. An iiacvstor 


« Naonal Uktotj ef Uncathiic, Part 3, M, 81, 101, I0». 


ofUiiv fuiinly »iiir In Rn'-liiii<) with VVillioni tbc Contiiirrnr, 
bod Hk minor nf ClaytrHi, Dc^r Lcvliiuil. amrciml upiiti iiiio I'ur 
bb senrkts. A familji of tiio asnne o( Adinstciii fottneily p<i»< 
seswd llic- r^xtc uf Ailliagloii : but it liai Item iti llic praa»«Ki a! 
lhcCb>toas forneail^ two n-Jtturie^, who haicniadc il llidr ctmf 
«Ud1 rcsMicDK. Tbc liousc u uliiatci) oa b cenlJe dcvaliuo. Bail 
fnmua |iruniifM-ut fi-aluic in tlie UutUcajf iVoin niua.v lUtimu in 
tlje turmuiidingcuttulrt-. It has a auutlivm iu)icct,iUMl u[i]>c4n la 
the ej^e at a tlistucc, a> if 

*• DovBM'd deep ill imtifl trttt.' 

* (Vhe.coflcctioa of jtidurrt ii iiol Urge, but aoiou^d ibrm llie 
fbllbwni^ may be incniiorcd as worthy «l' jiraiw : — Datiil with the 
fan<I a( Golimb — Mar* aiKl Vciiu«, by L, Gwrdaao — ABCU- 
BUHOP Laud, by Vandyck—K (Wad li«u] of Cbaiin ihc Fint. 
an wlnuiublf iiaiirtin^— Nr.Lt. On yn. by Sir Pttrr Ixfy — X'lr- 
gin aiiil Clii1<), by Carta Tiotcr, uii iinduiihlcti nork of lliU maslcr. 
aad ia his bnt munnrr — SL John, by OuTciMO — Po|>e PicS ^bc 
Sixitt, pbicing Uii; iiclnrt uii tbi' iicatJ of Lirut. Cnkiocl Browne, 
vrilb bU bronliciiuH, by S'ortitotc. Bt'^ulo llnav, bcrc arc 
M%-craJ &mily [Nclurcs, by Sic God&cy Kudler, uu) other nuu>, 

Nditb ofChorb-y k \\k p»m\i anA loMttuht^iof Wkittle-lr- 
Vk'uoDS, tlw oalnl pittcc uf Sir Jonas Mocma, wlid u;i< boru 
in llw ycui l€l4. Dislliiguistied fur bis uutlictiKitiail iliiU. 
be uat |iarlirularly pa1ri«iiix«<I by Ki.i^ Cbacb-i lli^ Sr<ou<I, sml 
Bp|ioiolc(l by Iiini sancyni-gt-ncnd of )bc onlnaticc lie Mai alio 
OIK of Ihc ^^vnton nfCbrbl'* HiMjiilnl, and luducnl lite king 
to fiHind a niutbciiialtcal schunl iit ibnl git-iit inttioniil tnitinaiy: 
fur ihr MM of whicb, 8ir J<>i».i conipik-d a gOH-ial ay>ttoi of mo- 
tboantics, ill two vclutnci, quartn, nbich work, itic tir»t of ibe 
loit io I'ligliii'l, H1I3 {Klbli^Ilnl ark-r bis death iu i6'Ki. He was 
Uie lint In (tiscuvcr nnd promote llie lah-iiUoi Fluntd^ed, who 
WSJ ulliiiuiti'U placed in Ihi; Rovxi Obsctvutury. at Grevnwkb, 
■t the espicM rcromiiicndstioii of Mooie. He died in 1679, 



mterrfd in St. Peter's church, in the low^r of London, 
■ faandsDRie marble mooumetit, with a Itmg inwriptioi], 
kn been ntted to his memory, by bis son-in-law, William Hkd* 

Chisvnhalb, or Chisnal-Hall, about two miles north- 
: fiora Standbb, was tlie ancient residence of a family of that 
who had long been its proprieton. At this place was bora 
£dwabd Chisenhalb, Esq. who bore a coloael's comraiisiaa 
■ the ro^ anny during the civil wars in diaries the First's reign. 
He was one of tbe six captains selected by Charlotte, countess of 
Derby, for the defence of Lalhom house, at the memorable si^« 
of tliat place, io l6ii, where, wilfa singukir address, and a skilful 
■aanuvre, he drew off the besiegers into a private place, aiKl cut 
off 500 of them, under the specious pretence that the house was 
eptntd-f. For this exploit be was fued 800I. for ddinqueacy. 
GraBger|meoliofis another anecdote of him, that " he sallied forth 
JDflt sf^ the enemy had been boasting of their provisions, and 
■tote their dumer." As a literary character, no less than a mili- 
tary one, *' he wdl deserves to be remembered," being the author 
of a Catholic History, collected out of Scriptures, Councils, Fa- 
thers, flee, occauoned by Dr. Tliomas Vane's book, called Tbe 
Lost Sbeep Rehimed, I6'j3, small 8vo. the frontispiece of which 
peseats a portrait of him, with various significant and emble* 
mitic figures. At this time Dr. Vane was a convert to popery. 
Jix old manor house is entirely destroyed, and tbe estate, on 
«bicb is a farm-house, belongs (o James Hammertoo, Esq. of 
HaHjfield-Pecl, in Yorkshire. 
Vol. IX. M 

• S« Birdjli History of tbe Roytl Society, VoL IV. p. 1O6, ice. Aa- 
bn)'i Mas. in tiie Asbmoleui Mmcuoi at Oxford. 

t Set Ptd^i Doid. Car. XI. p. 43, &c. and Lloyd's Hemoriab, p. 690. 

t BiogT^hical Hist, of Engl. VoL III, 8vo. 1&04, p. 1O6. 


LiTLAKD, «T Lavlaad, onrc of lutfuricil CMOuqntocc ta |^vc ' 
lume 1» tV lluii(lrei), i<> 4 ta»ii«lii|i nliidi n>mprt;lNriu(« 8 peiHvj 
latioD of S,0!^8 pn»>u*. Tti« Cliuidi ront^bta of one tttQWk 
nt^aiuriitK sivly live fret liy thitly-lfarcr. and in k me scrcnl nM> 
Duntait»tn rfif Fjinn-^tfin fiimily- 

Shaw-Hall. bdomim lo - - ■■ — ■ faiimijow. faq. b r lat^ 
incKul'ir mamioD. rantaiiun): sniue fine nportinents: abo a bm^ 
KUflt of DBtuntl tiutAry, and wimt cuitnn» VttKn paiiilin^ 
bnititlit fraro tlie cfikpiibiled tralU oJ' Iltfculanruni. Tlic home 
wd f rountls commaud wme (ilNtiiii: ta*\ extrmivc vmim. Its 
propcktOT »k>T(l oftbr munor of Ibis plMrr, iiidnha oflliv iococ 
hnnornf P^Rwotihnm, »H1i •onte oltirr contiiciioiis ninunrA. 

Suboriicirc 10. uul dcpuiliiat oo Lv^laud. *sk tlic CluqiclllM 
•f EoKton and Htspj. 

Thr eutern part of lliii bundrrd brin; ifnumlod by a fl*t 
)bor«, is uibiKt lo nccaiionil inundnlinn* of Ibc lidm : ami aiach 
j^jurv and damaoe vrere ntaainrd in Drcrrahcr. 1720. by a 
vioioit Storm, wliicb occwkiiivil the x^ Ir (iretfltin' a lart^e trad _ 
of icoaolr;. The lea-banks, rmniiarti, nad (A\kt fcnm. wer« f 
lluB tbiDwa doAn and uradied awjy : aud on luca nf nhuut (k>00 
acres of land mu inmuhtcd by thr drvaslalins Huvr<, Scvrnil 
boutev, r.nirlc, ami a qiiaiility nf gruin. i/rtn wiuIuhI nvay: and 
tbc TavnKcs extradi-d into ibr serrnil iMiiibcs aod lnnii^)ti|» of ■ 
HMlteib tum Bi'coiiull, TarlirHi, Nnrlh Mrnis, lute BlimdcU, 
l^Ftbcan, WartrtD, W*4lt<y cum Piamptou, and crco as liir a* 
Cockerhiun. The danagu pruducrd by tlin tKcidcnl rttre e»li-fl 
mnted al 10,2271. »nd. in 172?, several brifft were read, in order 
to obtaiu some remuneratfon for the £rcdt lovics uf Uic Kuflrrio;; 

West Dbtiby Hvndkkd i« » lai^ mdrilime didrict, COUEflStiBg 
cbiofy of It tjuti of bind, included h«tw<«n tbo rrvrr M«r- 



tAKCARltlRK. ll 

I hml and Satford, which form lU iif>rUif m mti'i astern boundarifls. 

tmu ibe middl* uf tli» diurk-l, anil ;il iu cAderu Imnlfir, are soma 

bf)^ tntu of mimes: md in the vki»ii}r»rU|>-t[olUiMl:ifld Wiecm 

Lisa KHDe pill ofltii'r-.innrt t-04). A Mn^lU-VratiHl ridgacniuntUa 

I Itoni Mxilli Iu tnirlh : aitil b<-«iJes spv«»al mulclt ttui fall 

iotD tlK >1rr«47, tbh ctHlrirt ts ubundaollv pjpplie^l wilh tnrnpik«> 

Ln«K *^ canals. \Ve<J Df^bjr, llul t-hiatmrnv to llw hun<In>d, 

lOMi ftB iaoiMiyilotQLile liunim, cooli);anii» In Koowhley Patk, 

ItlK paafmelor of ubkli bikea die title of £jrl from thi> obuuM 

Thv |)rhK-;|ul tomi in this liuodieil t* the populous and 

[y m p ut iQi Ka-part uf 


" W%c*« M<^«»7'> iimmt, long windiBg o'«t tlio pliioi 
Pom bk foil tribaic i« ilit ciirtinc min, 
A bud sf (Macn dfltM Aeir liuinbto iwl ; 
CoBteaial Uhoor btmd liic Tjir lotiru; 
iBur'd Iff harrfiliiit. |«tKi'l. boUl, ;ib<1 miki 
t^*; bnv'illlie bUIowi lor iinmijoTV footl: 
Tbrir •trajti^iac hub vir* nng'i ulonj lh« 4iar«> 
Tbctr Deo ■ixt liitie Imuu Uietf only tturc" 

Db. Ajsik. 

Amomo tbt Buiubtr nf eommerdiil towns iu Great Brilira. it 
My siJcl;r be Hid, tli«t oot «n« Ima so raj'ittly itd*autc'l to great 
abtaL and |n%<lt vpnieiice. a» (but of LircifMol. rrom n »umll 
itcimikletuble hamlet, nicnrl/ a iDcoiber of the pamh of Walton, 
ii) lliriviug lea-poil, hy Die tpJiilcd itiduMry, mlefprbtii" pui- 
fut»i and spfctilaliii:; haliiu ofit^ cltief mtmbitaiiU, Iwa, willilu tlM 

, bit ceotuTT, becu vrcgulurU aifvaoccd ia the scale of lutiooal tin* 
^tttaiMe ; awl whilst many cities aod borou^bi have gndoailv atink. 

' into Ihal init^i&eaui:* and defradntion, \tfai<.-h ulmust iLcvitabhf 
fioK Uk caretit of corruption at>d rassnUse, Lircipool iwi er> 
tmled her »trc<U, ausntvntcJ ^icr (xxiiiscrce, aodiiiipruvvd iu the 
riche), arts, and liuiunti, of dvilizcd lite. TbouKli itHnuliI be do 
•try dilSciill task to aiceitaia tlie cause, and deve{o|>e tite eSects of 
tUi pn>j^«tHve gja«iJomi«it, y^ tbc cutjuify wotild citeud to a 

MS IcBgth 


lengtli iaconipiliblc wilS iIkt ImtilMl nalute of Ibit wotk: and I 
am llierfffiie <i>m|irtl<-r) lo rotifim- iii* ubsrrvuiHm^ lo a trw 
leading; [luitili in iSe hbtorj' of (Ih- pbor, aiiil rl«fll tml^- uti its 
matt pronimrat ottfrcls. 

A ma^nnimous and libcrtl spirit Iia« crrlainly iiii|i«>lkd tlie 
corpontc bmlv, xii<t miiny inlit-irliiaU nf lliii town. In ll>e aiiJo)K 
tian atid jiroKCiilioD »t'»cvcral Mrlirnm, of^eat lunl advantage 
and public gmid. In ilic <t)tirse of liie prriN-nt «t»v. I kttall 
ban ample orc;i.ioQ lo itiuitrdte and establish tliii propoulioa. 

* FBrulbf CjYcnIracc tlic |>rottircl loiiiKf, 
Tb«lpl0idid irifrk* ■rTopiilenc^arrfnuiJil. 
TMKarecHliDTidicdaiiniiiJmuD'h hire inn, 
Shic« flrit ilie tibtie orihi* poutrt liTna ; 
Hit BoUr. mm* inrtoriinu. M«r»f y rolHif, 
Vm fVtt htf wtvf Ky btvonitng iri raDirAl'it. 
Aloni: hia aide m kw nnafl roU i*ne xprMtt, 
Hit finny bto«l ihrir liunihlr If nanM M ; 
At op'tibitt Aiirn. »iili Trtni'lfttl nctt mppVy't), 
Tbc pmd4ina iLiifveiiiil brave lui iprciniHt it'tr, 
Ply tonml tlm itinirs nor ipiri^t ttt dnim'r&irt ouiti. 
Gal tcck eie night iKt AioHllj port afaitt*.'' 

A bbtonr of Liverpool muU b« an «-roiinl (irib«> pcnple rathrr 
tl>an l!ii<tofllir)kl«<r; forif lb«(i>wiibe<livmc(lof lis coni)>lic;ilMl 
tra^. i»rrrBK<t ^liippinc, aiid nautical crn:tiiiD», it |irai>eiil» liltk 
olw to ircumpiiKcuiquirv. nr gratify curiositjr. 

Conc4-tniiis ll>e original oatat tit lliis phtv, itiid Die diiTeKDl 
motifs in wliicS tli»t hai tiM-n wiitieti si varioiit fnt'ioiU, it would 
Dcitbcr be very aniuniiii'. or uurrul, lu i^iitf i into prlirtiUra : for 
QiohkIi all lilt tupugraplicn of Livcrpoul buvc auid a cood deal 
on lkuMib.ii-1.1, lhr> iijvc not dcvrtnprd itiucli snhttaiilbil bfot^ 
aiatioa lijr tlieir diucilBtiuia*|. It may. huvtcwi, be fiidttlj 


' W. RoKOE— ft«B a ifctciipiivcpoeni cmillcd MtviUPtntwil. 
t SeoM vtitrn Lamdeaue*) th« lutnc rrom the 9%xm wcril Utkjr-fMti 


that riierc h iiinr« rca>uii in i1i.'(i«i(ig the nrizinat itamtf of 

pbco fiuiii (Kculiuntv of liiu^lion, iliuii frura F«lr<i.>iuK ili»- 

IbclMD ; for tltou^h ihh iiiiiv b« frr<|ueHtlv Ibe out iu tUtfinetive 

MpptiUUfw*. >et il uill geiitrntlh be ruitod llidl ttunilin biire nlher 

tirrivrH rlirtr tianrn from plai-m, tlian ud tlic cutitrHrV. TIk an* 

CMU liiuonf itCLi«rrp(Hil h cxikqkI) incn;t« ; witl il cjii !>uircel;r 

lajctditnin nwubirt'lofiifftiiiaily. Camden sltilo, th^t Ro^rde 

Poidlrra, nliuliu't titxlt ^itrii (irm, in lliii p«rt uT the county, lijf 

Willnuii ifirConijiiemr.baill h Cii<tl« lien-, "lliccuMoilynf Mlikh," 

knn, " lunntyw, (ur h Imig liiuc.bcltiii^il lullic imbic ami kiti^lit- 

K tunily of %lo\\atati%, vhtrw chief trill n rii Xht itcigltlxtiirhoud 

•fScAon, which Ko;jrr, nriiri:««Hl, in (he vatU NornKin tiiticv gUTc 

to Viv«a dc f^loliimuH. Ttiis Roger bcld, a» uiipe^n 1>y Unmef- 

(fit>-l»Twili, nil iIh- Uiiil* lirtwtfu ihc rivt-fs Ribblr nii.l Mcncy." 

Tiw ttatf-nii'iil of C«iui)ni, relMtiiig to the m'tetnat cvisile at 

LitK^wA, b cKlremeU rfjiiivnnil; but il » pr«biibk ibHt Prince 

'vhi. toil of 1^1117 tbi' !<rc<MHl, crt^tet) a fitrln-^ hrre. For ibat 

■luiarth haviii;e Kmiitcd hi'* Nmi tlir [/>r<Miip of Irelnitrl, willi Itj 

'f^^Mlmrira, and as l!ie uewlv coiistilitlcd |»ott of "Lvrpul" 

Mr^initt cunwuirnllv titiiutol for jtliipfing More*, &c. for that 

^slanil, it bctiiDii.- ir«cc»>on In vctmr ibc |>Wi- by n iniltlarr n|ta> 

t^Kulunnit. Bi.'ii'(i^, it a)i|ir!in Hint tlie (onu liii'l iicriutrctl n>lue 

c:'Cktnpdr«lm! dittinrlHin. » Hmiv ifM Sccnrkl, iu llir yrur 1 173, 

Knvtrd it * uliurirr, wlM-iriu it n ?tla1cil, " llnil tlitr tvliuli: r^luar^ 

^tf the Mcrsry slmll be for tvcr ;■ |Kiit cf lite in, wAU nil libtrlici 

•«>« |wit uf ttre M-41 Ulntiftii;; ; »tu( lluit |iUcv mIiJcIi Ibt- men of 

L.)TiKil all Lilhciinil, urur to Tuxlrtli, fioiii liii-li ».lc uf the 

^i«alrr llirv imy cuiitc :iiiil rrtinu uith tJtrir slitjx mij iiicrclian* 

dacfm:!^, m>il ^rilbout itbaliMli'it *.* In thi; dociimcnt we r«> 

M 3 ciiguize 

Wtlmi fram a bkil tBili.-<l tJ*^ ur LiTfr, iIimu^i ntt uigIi liird Iai Ixm fixnxl 
IrtlB, Aiulli-t <utl>»r tteritc* II futu a •i"«Kt *l" tt.e Hqulira, or Jjver- 
■wii tail btoiiljet l|iiM aUiuj i^%n*-i Le«ct, n^iuticiiiwttltit bttSNlau 

• TniMlaiiw «f iLc CrnXn (u ft htte " llUtorjf of UvcipaoL" Tlioe 


cogniK the oriKio c^ a toun, tflilch wu llmt a pl»cc of triftns ioi- 
)>t>rl, luid wliicl) coiitinuul >o Tot muty ccnturie*. Yel in dif- 
ferenl lulncqiiool clmitcrs it u >|>oLcn of bir cucb moiKtrch a* 
" our iM^rougti or vill" of Uvcryoul ; and nwution i» made of |>er- 
MDS bddtng butg»g« under Ibe crown. \ scvood chaiic^r nut 
Riwitcd to (lie luvtii b} kin^ Jolio, in (I.*- tiiulh }car of bi» leign, 
A. D. L2C9 *, nlio ia Uieieiii stjicd " ixKd of Irelauri,' a |>Iac« 
tbat WW not Dtentionfd in (Ik prcccdiDjc dtftrter. Thii ouly al- 
lud<3 to biirgag* bou»rs, jukI llie free posieMkin of Ibe mmr by 
uj) oflln,' kio|('» " failbriil subjects." li> Uic u»t Kign, (H«iiry 
tiie Third), tlie bur^gcau rcoewed their charter, but ncrc oUigM) 
tofay " n tirw of t«D marks iu inotwv;" vad " a ntcrcfa>n1-|^iild. 
Of 9oatty~ was thca ot^lubcd. It was stipulated ttutt "no 
strangcn sliould Ukii ciin7 vii butiucss In Ui« town, wJUtout tho 
coOMot of tlic burgcsMft." Thu prohibitory at>d impolitic cUu»e 
•ceius to h&re continued in forco till Hboitt IIm middle of tbe reign 
of Ocorge tbe Second, ubenatrAiigers »«rcalluwcd to Klllcin th« 
ton-D, upon lL« iMijvtcflt of u siaM ftnc, " Sjiive llic bexuittinS 
of Uie pre>«n( century thit denimid lta:i bi-cn diM-onliiiued ; sod 
ihc tuun, vllliough a b<>rouf>li, mty be oiikidetecl an |)crfcclly frto, 
fortlie purpose of coniRi«ice, tn all llic waild." 

Ill atli'plhig iliis uiM? princiiile, the Imrgesws of IJvrrpoul hi*« 
ECt an exiiinplc prculnily wcnUiy of inv-talinn ; for hy tioamf- 
9ffag the iaduitrious uid speadating tradeunan to sctll« b«TC, 
ibt lowo CAiiscqti cully nKreasrs iis popuUtion, comtnerry, siid 
ricbcs. Wlttlrt the »ollitli and tlotliful prt>piie1or« of llioie 


■pffcars lomc aii)li«iuty rrlcinf to liib Clitftrr ; for in i petltiM Dom itio 
e«ipMSUr.ii In ihv ktii5, USI, (U j.ciiliftfcwt (tale that LhrerpMl 
■* {• a wry Muinrf toTMur A tijr prvjoiplian. kru; b/*r* ttw ini««f kncJobi, 
lafao panwdiUjEtJ* clutltr.' 



* In tke hhrtnry of Ijvrrposl bow pthlidiin^ in unuben, llirrr afipcan 

> ronTiwiifi tofirriinr tiiia <l«e : ai al pv^ 4f ft b tatd dstt tin; Clanev 

TJfiiK it daU'l A. D. itOT: nnrrmnlj it appeari rn (>« givea u Iba 90) 

]F»aTnrLUt(Hi:n, <1309,) and id Ibe out paec it u Ifl l>e * craolod to 

Ureipwl in Ibc jcw isOX' 


boiDU^is, whoK cbartetefl lans entitle Uiem to exclude all 
itnuigen, are gnduall; siuking to pmerty and sbame, Uie imhabi* 
tutsofUie iftee town are stitnuUted lo euergv by competition, 
■od ire adi-anced to riclti^ aod honor by laudalte iodusb^ and 
Direstraiiied talent. 'Hicse remarks could be satbfactorilv eluci- 
daled b^r rerereoce to numerous boroug)i\ wbicli are notorious for 
tbnr Tcoalilv, curruptioa, and impoTerished appuaraace. 

"Die following concise notice by Lebnd, will fumisb us witli 
mne idea of Ibe place duriu" the t^a of Heon Ibe Eighth. 

" L>rpoIe, alias L\verpoole, a pared towue, balfa but a cfaipeL 
Walton, a iiii mtlcs off, not far from the Le, is paroche diirch. 
Ibe king hatb a castelet tlicr, and the £tle of Darbe hath a stooe- 
houae tber. trisfa roarchaunb come much iLilher us to »goodhatxit. 
Good marclouidis at Ljrpool, aud much Yrish \imi that Mii»> 
Chester men do b; tber. At Ljrpole is cna«/( ciutunic payd, 
tliit cauntk loardiauotes lo resorte *." 

From this early aod accurate tourist, we leani tliat Liverpool 
*as a paved town when be vinited it, much resoitad to by Irish 
merchants, &c. and that its stiiall port dulies were then deemed 
attractions to traders. This account is rather vague, and from 
tbe towo record of Novpuiher \b65, which is more decisive, we 
find that the merchandise and commerce of the place were 
tbeo much reduced, or had not hecii preuousli^ of tliat ex- 
tent which Leiand's terms imply. Accovdiug to this document, 
Liverpool contaiuetl uuly 138 householders and cottagers. Be- 
tides, in a petilioD from tlie inhabitants to Queen Elizabeth, in 
157li tbe place is stjied " her Majesty's poor decayed toua of 
Uverpool." The term dccat/ed iudlrales that, from some cause 
unrecorded, and uriknuwn, the town had suffered some malerial 
liMses, and its remainiug iohabilants bad to deplore its foriaer 
coDiparative prosperity. At this period there were only twelve 
barks, or ve^seK with sevmity-tive' men, belongiog to this port, 

M 4 and 

• Itinerary, Vul. VII, fo. SS. 



and the whole estimaled at 533 ton* buttlito *■ Hy goini^ Airltifr 
back, vit find an oitli^r from E^luarrl tlie Third, roinniaiiiiiiis this 
wa-purt lunn lo " |irotiili> till il« vtj^K, in a KuDincut iiiunricr, 
with mm, anut, aud sloro," lo atiul id a foneign ciipedition : ai>ri 
" about ttie staiv litne," savs Macplirmin, " titt cf>iim>iiiiil% of 
Liverpool u«re KpiateHly eiupowrred tn lerj dnlin fnr paving 
ibeir tlrrds-f." Waalin* talblH«tor)( records to vAplaln the 
causes of iheK sjijiannt flurtuulions in (lie eaiiy hiolnrv of IIm 
plarr, it would he falilc lo eatri iaio u coiijtcltirit (iiv»crlatiua oa 
lltenibjecl. Suffice it to otiKr^v, ibal in c<>nic<]iifn<« of IIk cx* 
tCDtk-tl incmsr of Ibc town, it ma foiuid ncrcnHr^. b the rci|;a 
of kiag Wtlliatii the TbInI, Ui obtain au art of |>arlianirat for 
oiakin}! Liteipool a dixlincl aiid wpaialr parifh ftooj that of 
Wallfti) on llie bin. From llris period v-e sirall litid the lowu 
(TadoalK and rapidlv tid^atire io ptipiiltitioti, buildings, conuiKice, 
and riches. Thb a ■ituj>h il!u3liatcd bv the littes and (ibjccis uf 
the teveral puhhc and priiate &<(• of parliaineiite thai Larr been 
cbtatDcd ut different (MTimls ; and the iiimilHT of rharln« Ihat 
bave bren giautoi k\ ihc t'oUoHing routmrcbt, b a furlbcr evi- 
dence of the iDcietoing coiucqiirtice of tfae lomi. Mtist uf tboe 
charters arc still picKrvcd ainunfi tlit Arcliivea of the c(>r|»ralkHi: 
' — I. Hairy Iht Sreond; in whidi he b styled Duke uf r\iiuil«iD, 
and Earl >^f Aiijuu ; Hnd A b hnown iNil Kiuk J'>ha ul^etwanls 
k»l lh««r p«j&c8sjnni».— II. JtiAn.— Ml. Hmry tbf TkirJ. — IV. 
Eduard the Third. — V. Hirhard the AVfwrf; hii niicieut eopy 
of this cbaiLer was Jatcly pn"H-rvcrl at Spcki-Hidl.— V|. llmrp tkr 
Fimik,~S\\. Hcmrj/ Ike Fifth; H ctiajleis.— VIII. Ptkitt^ mud 


■ Oa Kid eiip6&itp btDkR ottht Mi^rwy, in Ch*<ltif«, tto > luall *e»paft 
eallrl Wrllairj, wtuch, ii ibj* ini*, pouMMii ikit* Uiki. «f UkU loaa 
baitbtn, atui n«nn«i witli faiu U«n ttvata. 

« " Avm'iatf Cammtm,' Vol. I. p. 514, 516. |Ra4. pet. tmfMi at 
Ed«aid llic Third , prim. Mf cnib of Kdw>rd tbc Tliitil, m. x7 i |ifim. iroUi 
«r Edwai d (be TUrd, m. 43.] 


Maty.— IX. Chartes the First.— X. Ckarlra the Second.— W. 
Jama the Sttmd.—\\\. WiUiamthe Third.— WM. Gnrgethe 

Acts of Parliament. 

Tentli and eleventh of Willitni ateTlird,ti.36,—A prmte Att . 

To enable Ihc town of LiTcrpool to build a Chvrch, (St. Peto^),aid 
endow (be same ; and fur making the said town and librrtiei, a Pabiih of 
iUeif, <lK-:inct from Walron. Thiiact cmpowen theCoipomtion ■■ (oboUd « 
luattjat llu rtdor, and to raise 4U0i. by aMeaeuciit, on the iobabitanti, for 
that |iui]<o-F. That two rectors should be appoiuted, one for tlw new 
drarch, iiie ntlter fur tbc paiocbial cliaprl, wbo sfaonid eiyoy the tuae cede- 
Rviic beiivfils as tlie rector and vicar of Walton had before offojed ; that all 
farish dues itc. ihouiil be eqiiollj divided betwMH tlie two recion. Ttat 
ibc patroD^e and prcMOUliou In the rectory tbould be voted is tba 
Mayor, Aldenuen. and Common Council, fur tlie time being ; and ifaaold anjr 
dipnie arise, the decision to be referred to (be Btshop of Cbeiter.— fcc 

Eighth of Amir, c. it. A paWic Act 

Fornakinga convenient DocK,or bnnoD, at Liver^ol, for QieMCDrityof 
all ships trading to anil from (he iud port. 

Eiglith of Anne, c. 93. A prkate Att 

Te roable (he Corporation (o make a ^rant to Sir Oleave Moore, Bart. 
&r Ubertj' to Ii.i'itf iBkKii WArtK into the said tovvo. 

rirft ofOeurgc (he First, c. St. A prititie Att 

TmtuihUKg ami milt'W'it^ aCHuncit upon the site of tbe cutle of linr- 
pool, ht'ld bv 1ca>e I'kiu ilic DiicUv of LaBcaater, aud for exphiiuing ■ 
Armeractforthc builibngaiiixliii ihuivbtheie. 


* By ll^is Charter, ul.i li wa? rftrifimicd by Georpe the Second, it was or- 
ibiLpd, iliiii i:i oril-^r (« |>i piiTvo t!if i*acp, iwc. tliere ^lould be the fotloninj 
o^cfrs, A:c.— Fiiityotic )>t>i>ii unil itiACrccl pcr<om, vtUo riiuU be called tliB 
Ciioinion C(>i:ni-il of Livrrpn<il, out uf which should he yearly choseo a 
MajiT. Kerotdcr, and (mo Itaiiilfs. " This is the e\isting corporatioD," 
1^ \t'ii:ia<.-':, '' nLose Ly lans and authotiiies are binding to the present 


lUH of OeoTfe the Fint, c. 1. A prtwtfc A<i 

For enlar^f Hi« time granted by an acti puwd in tbe ei^lh yearof the 
KigD oCher late Majetl; Queen Asue, intituled, ■' An act for making a con- 
venient ifocJI:, or bawn, at Liverpool) for the secniity of all ihipi trading to 
and from the said port of Liveipool." 

Seventh of George the Fint, c. \&: A jmblU Act 

For making the rivert Heney and Inrell xavioablk from liverpool to 

TwdRh of George the fint, c. 31. A ptibtie Ad 

far npatniy and adarging the road Irom liverpool to Prescot, and other 
rtmb ttaereitt mentioned. 

Eleventh of George the Second, <-. SI. A privati Act 

For c nta iging the thne giwKcd b; an act, paued in tlie third jear of ibe 
nignafliiilate H^eety KiD){ George, enlai^ng tbe time granted by an act 
pa«ed in the dgfatb year of the reign of her late Majesty Queen Aoae, fer 
makii^ a convenient dock, orbawn, at Liverpool, for the aecurity of all tlilpa 
tivding to and from tfae said port of Liverpool ; and for enlarging the same 
by making an additwMJ dodr, and bttUding a pitr in the open barbosr there ; 
and for oUigUiMiMg the ami dock. 

Nineteenth of George the Second, c. 19. A pablU Act 

For enlarging the term and powers granted by an act, passed in tfae twelfth 
year oflbe reign of liis late Majesty King George tlie First, for repairing and 
•idarging the road from Liverpool to Prescot, and other roads therein men- 
tioned ; and for amcndir^ the rooii leading from Prescot to the diapel of St. 
Helen, in the said coimty. 

Twenty-first of George tiie Second, c, 54. A public Act 

For building a cbvrck in the to\m of Ijverpool, and for enlightening and 
cleansing the itrteli of the said town, and for keeping and maintaimng a 
nightly watch lliere. 

Twenly-fifiii of George tlic Second, c. ■IS. A public AH 

For the more easy and speedy recovery of small ueuts in the to«ro and 
port of LiverjKKil, and liberties iliercof. 

In tliis year, it appears lliat (lje corii oration petitioned tlie king for an 
act, to " gnnt ^n additional numbfy <•/ Jaaticft a/ the Pi ai:e, and to empower 
the recorder to make a depirty, and for granting the aeaslmre to the corpoia- 


Sm'mt^rtm ««nb.' Inttib petituiBrMiiKt Ot&nMkm chaftcn-tbii 
lad been preriotnly obuioed. 

Twenry-sixlh of Gcorp the Second, c. 65. A public Att 

For eolarion; the term and power granted l>; two acts of parlianieot, om 
fHMtl in the twelfth year of the rei^o of his late Mjjcsty Kiug George the 
hu i ud the other psM«4 in the nmeteentb year of hii presciK najeity, Ibr 
n/ariMg the boad from Liverpool to L'r«scot, and other roaih iheiijiji tnoi- 
limed) and abo for rcpairmg the. road ftom Prescot, through WhiMoo, IUi»- 
M, Bold, «wl Sukey, to the town of Warriogtoti, tod alw the road (torn SL 
Bdcnhi Aahton. 

Secoml of Oeorfv tfaelUt^ c £S. AjMbKc Att 

ForbaildiD^tBwiinecitvitcHEt, owl praridmg bnrial place*- widiiD tfae 
Mm of Liverpool; anc) for the heller pfCMrring the fa r aw iiU of the atreety 
iaihcMJd town; and for aaccrUining xJat/areitai pricei to be paid cvftr^ 
ttrmoLliaekmrg e«9timt»,, aodetetraMM, and for regpUtin^ tbeic bchnioar 
vitliiu the nid totRk 

Second of Ofeorge the Third, c.3g. ApthSeAet 

For etdar^ing the term and powers ^rented by an acT, pased in tb« 
dmnth year of the reign of bit late majefty^ fbr continwng aereral actt re* 
lUiac Id the uarbouk cf Liverpool, and for enkrgiDg the said harbour, by 
ukiagio additioiial doJc, and fatiildiog apierin the openharbonr. there, and 
fctcnligbtening tbe«aiddock, and for makiDgmotlLn-dKfc, with prober piir^ 
■ tbe HJd hvbour, and for erectii^ liglU-housei, and other proper ligbfi in 
* Mar the port of Liverpool 

Such are tlie principal Charters and Acts.that have been sue- 
ttsifdy obtained in behalf of Uib (own, anil on which it« ito- 
Bxiailies, privileges, aud civil proceedings are founded. Yet it 
Qiist 3i;rj>rJse many to be told thjt some ambiguity and diffi- 
culty Mill exists respecting the funiiation of the corporate body. 
& dispute lias arisen, and geiienitcd two parties or ccipurations, 
tlieoM and tlic new; the tirit coitsbling of the niaynr, bailiffs, 
Sod burLre^'ie'i ; ;ind Ihe Utter ot the mayor, baiiifTi, and conimon- 
^uucil. In order to setlJe this dispute, the old corporation re- 
•olfd to trv l!ie issue of tlioir claim at the Lancaster assizes, in 
1791 : juJ after varioas learned and legal argumenU weread- 


1M lAirPAiRTlK. 

viocmI on both iMn. it trai <l»cvW<i iii fiivor of the old corjton- 
lion. Tliu rlcciuutt w-at cnntetlKcl by iItp nen' cnrporatian, nho 
obtained a d«w trbl iti Dtp Cnurt of Kiog's BpocIi before Lord 
K^iJoD, uhpD it Mu» tlpcitletl tliiit llif oiti^or, luililTs, aud cuiii- 
tnun counnl cvntliliiled the proper corponliun. Tliu titugree* 
■leul of ibe luo vettlicU Ihu deteiiiiia«<l uotber, uiui ilw potut mt 
btuK U »tilt a UiiMiie uf dispute *. 

Th* prM*ni pro»i>enly of Liretpool Ins evidently ariten from'' 
a coiDbinitioii ofoiusrv; lud among (lic*e may he cbicflv nolirfd 
ittuatural situatinii, its fie« »«Ier carriage wilfa (he numerom 
mnnufiactuntig loutu, awl miuet of tJie countv. ami tlie enlight- 
UH-'l pwlicy ofiudiil govcniRwnt. Suied uu Uie eattero baok 
ot'lbe ealuary of ihc Mcnrv, which niav be call«^ ibe ke> uf iti 
comiiKTrf, and wmrcc of il« wealth, it poiwn«d a tfmiy and r»y 
commtminttion with Sr. George's donnel, and Ibenre lo the 
Atluiitic ocean. Ship«, wlien ihe nbd is fair, at about eut-40utll^ 
tnii, will tail from lL« docks lo tlie luaia Irijh tc^. oi « tW hottia. 
Tlw riviu- gi-u(lujUy expands, betwefu llie luuu and llie sea. 
From Ihe fort, to Sraamilir ferr; ufipuile, il it about 1300 >«tds 
arron. At «ptiiig txif* ttie water M>ineUiiies lites tliiili fi>M : but 
at drad neap, only thtrteen fevt. 

At what lirutr Cmmercf iixtd od (he liiMkt of Ibe Mene^, as 
one of Iter priucipal w.ilt iii Britain, k u tulyccl, lliuogh, per- 
haps of "o liigli anliqiiily, btiried in tunfunittt iit>livit>ii. Lv- 
land obscrvn ilul thii pnri was tid] fri-<iuriiic() by ItiUi iti«r- 
«httii1»inbi* time: and its firU importance doubliw* amw fr«n 
the low ratio of ilsimpnrt duties. From the Aatnt-n of Ibe sliore, 
and olli«r ciTciiniRlann-s, the shipping nitist foiii.«rly batv hern 
shbjwt lo great tnmmeniefiries : for llicm^h \~efscls rodesafiU in 
ihc offing, Ihtnr wttf o))li^e:l lo rirlc ibrre ai in a toad, rather 
Iban an harbour. In the Reign of Diiatitlh it appciin Ifiat a 


" Tlie whfilt rf llw prowf ditu:*, eo At obftve iriaK with the speedtMJ 
•Bit Af-iniiiu of Ccmwil, Iwvt beta |>nblMied.— Sm Lbi af U«oLi »1 iIh 


LAvcumm. 189 

■nk vu fonoKl to iiy «p Uie vnwh iti ihc tfintw; iml ■ 
^my w*t maAe fat iht attvanta^vuiis 'hiftpini! ntv\ ini9lt>(>|>iait 
iheir rargees. To remedy tliru! »vil«, in M-t of iiarliiiinml wii 
obrtinnl in Uie ri^Iilli ufQu'^n Anne, for lli« foniialiisn nf a vft 
ifcck, BOW e»IM •■ llie OtJ Thxkr Fmm Ihe ttirreoM of tradr, 
Iftb «u sooa found titeuAdefll, aticf anntlter 9eX mm oMntned, 
liBlh of Gfor^f tti« Second, for lli« rnUivtmrtit oi' ii : Ihr fur- 
■tboB of aoolber. ailed " Sail' Haute Dock' aod frmleriii;; Ibe 
hHbour more tecnrr, by erretitii; ■ pi»r. A &•* van more 
AM»cd tW ttHKlcqiney or liiete inpfoveiDcnU, bdiI n third lel was 
Bbtufwd, Mcond of Gfor^ the TliirtJ. 10 ttilarjge the ptwen uf 
bath Uht former. B> tlin, u third durk. rnlleit ilie " St. tirarrt'i 
Jttfk." *n (armit^, ami \tien to uwntc Ibe outer baibour; Bud 
I t«u lighl-booses w vre buill. 

Two other doeh Itave itiicc been imule, aad mn> eaJInl "/Ae 
KiKf't Dork^ >mii " Ihr Qweii'a Dork." Ttiese ire nlualed at 
theorHiti westend of Itie lovn, mil are acnimurodated viiUi a 
4iyhmao, mi Iwn i^avinfi-dotk*. A« Hie Uiret|»ol clucks were 
Ibc fini rewrrain and haitK>ur*, for die iiccominndjilicHi of nicr^ 
tluitiw^ ever eauURMled iu tlib country, siid as tiicir me fie- 
fMollv refcrretl lo in coiiifiaiboii Mitli Ihnw of Lowlua. il «iill Im 
ttrrt»arv to <tcUtl*ume fuillier imrticulara. Tliew dutrks may be 
incribed at (oixUtmi; uf ihmi scirt«: the mrft-4orkM, which 
■ulhr reeetre Mtli tliifjs as are <in t'»rei^n teivtoe, ami amie- 
^acHtl; lunre laif* and he^ivy car^oet In dnebarge: iIm liry- 
vpprnptiiiled to receiic the Te**ela tliat are rnipio^eil 
il-t«ay«: nnd Hie gritring-Hotkt, wliidi bv tJond-calei aie cnU 
OtUed ki aaliiiit iittti exclude Ike traler at )iU.-uAiie. tor tlw pur- 
pHe D^caulkia^, and prrtVirminj! ollirr iqttin to tite iliiplilng. 
Tbe Ainowing an; (Jte diuieutuct of lite dre Juiks altead) com- 

190 iMKCAtnmx. 

T*- y*. ft. >i. It. H. 

OldDocit li)«b>&j -llsgalcfSS vfidc, by 25 3 deep. 

SallbouwDwckaial)! 102 • 3« 25 — — 

Gcoii;(.-iDi>ii 2-Mi bv 100 3a 3 — 26 1 — r-r, 

Kinc's D-tk - .272 bj 95 *2 — — — • 26 • 

ftuwii's I>ucJt 260 by /SO- • 42 — 2? 

Such are lli«- si£<r«nf Uie iJWTponl dorkt, whiHi, uli«a eoai- 
IMKri u-)ih Itiose or' bxHlun, wiii iippe^ir rrbtivoty uiull. 

The priiicipiil bawQ of Uie Ws6i--i*iui4 l>i>CK, wliich wi$ 
opened August SOlli, i802, tni!»«res S6'00 feet, by 510, wvj 29 
deep. Conliguutu (u (lib 'm anotlier bason, or dock, of the taat* 
teaffh mni itptb, byvbrnit 40Ofort wide. The first, ofalMot 
tbiiij acres will cnntjio Ixlueen two liuiMlrtil, «i>tl tlir«c hundred 
nil of WvU-tiiiliamen, and is 3ip[>n>|Hatetl fur imladiiig tbe irs- 
ttlt. Tlie \iHWf, far loiiduiit oulwurd'', coMAins about twenly- 
fi)ur turn. Thew ate accopiiiimliiteU with iimiieme innrrliniiin, 
tiasoos al each vad, and suriuiindcd «ilJi a bigh wall, and deep 

Ttie LoMDOK Dock for ualiidiug is il&i feet Io«g, by 6pj^ 
l«el wife, anil contains 'Kl arrcA. 

Tbe East India Dock, tor ualading, is 1410 f<el Inuj^ hj 
s6o hel wide, and coiilaiiw l&j| a<T«« ; Hud for loading, ik 700 
lee! lof^, by 5'JO te«^I wtile, ami <^(>ntuins ^^ xtet- 

Tt)e«e ituRieine work^ liave bv^n nenriy ronipleted Mooe tbc 
commenernieiit of ttii- ycxr 18UO. uihI lltua dtunoDhlntivtily proy^ 
to llie «:itoiihtiec) enunirr, and to tlie HOfld. the unlioiiled |ww«rs 
of Eagliih enerity, skill, and ricixs, when properl)! &tiaiulal«d ■od 

Ol'tlie Liverpaol Docks, it may be aecaatry to be innK cir> 
ctinit tan lull. Tlii' uncDrtsiiiity of (he lidrs, and ftalnFss of the 
shore at this pod, Jirit sii^gcsled llie ij^ccvity of torur urtilicial 
accommodation furihe meicbanl's «^<;a«I», nnd, asenrly as l&€l, • 
seherne vm plaitiied for coustrueiiii^ u turt of dock, ss a shelter 
ttmn slomis, &c. ; but it wai not lilt 171O, that an act was ob- 
nined to coiutruct a regular deck. Since that tioM ibe docks 


Jave incteaied in natnber, with the increase and populatios of the 
town, and are now auf^meoled to (liirteen * : — Five wet doclts, five 
piTing docks, and three dry docks, (independent of tbe duke of 
Biiilgewater's dock) ; occupying a apace of about three miles is 
orcninfereuce ; the wbole constructed, fanned, and built upon 
the bed oftbe river. It ia to be observed that George's, the OH, 
and Sallhoiue docks, commuiiiciite ; so that ships can pass from 
one to the olber, and into the graving docks, without going into 
the river, where their being unmanned or unrigged, might expose 
them to iojmy ftom tbe wind and tide. The Kmg and Queen's 
docks communicate toiialiier ui the same manner, dud with tlieir 
own graving docks. There are perfect communications under 
gronod between all the wet docks, by large tumiels, for the pur- 
pose of one dock cteaniug or washing another ; so (hat when a 
dock is to be cleaned, which is generalty done once a year, it is 
IcA dry at low water, by kee|»ng the gates unclosed ; tbe sluices 
sre <^ned into it by different directions, and a great number of 
■ca enter, who, with spades, shovel Ifae mud into the curroitg 
mtde by tbe sluices, till tbe dock becomes sufficiently cleared^ 
which is usually done in ten or fourteen days. Tbe dry docks are 
dared from mud in tbe same manner, by sluices opened from 
tbeir respective wet docks. Tins ready and etfectual mode of 
danmg tbe docks by sluices, is rather of late invenltoo and adop- 
tion ; as it was origioidly done by means of fbt-b<jttomed boats, a 
method tedious aud imperfect. Each wet dock has a dock- 
huter, with an annua] salary of lO^i. whose office is to regulate 
'the btemal decorum of tbe dock, by allotting the positions of the 
idips in their loading and unloading ; to direct the management of 
tbe flood gates, and to ;itlcnil to the ducking and undocldn!; nf the 
■hips at the times of the tide; as, without snch a regulator, nho is 
■hliged to act with impartiality, according to existing circuni- 
itinces, confusiou and consequent injury would ensue. The docks 


An act of parliament has tiemi obtained for constiticling Ivn more net 

have wslch, scawnger*. and lamp*. dUltnd Fiom timae of the 
lowTi. FIrM are m>l xiiflrrrd : anfl rwn mndli-i nrr nol pftmil* 
t«d to bcIigliU<l on hoart llie xUiyn, t-\epyt tusniivil iu liintttnnts; 
norlubairrosinoVH, tinrif^ra pem)(irof40i, : nor any conibuslibit 
naltcn kft on ttw H<^irtt«, nr oii tlir atljntnin'; <]<iiiyi, in Ihr ni^ht, 
onrtcra iine of lOl. By thvit prwautions. ilrinly attendeil tn, m 
iccirlent frcmi life (m much to bcdmik*!)!)!!* nnh hipi>mr<l once; 
yet starccty a day paviei nithwil finn hriiiK iiKtirrci) for lime 
praclicn. The ixmally for hjvio* f>uii(M>n(1«r id tlw doi-lit » (Of. 
Large ship*, whm l<tfiil<f' I, r^nnut pnvt tin* ftocli gatr^ at neap- 
ride*, for irant of nuflif H>nt deplli of waler tlwre : w lliat. when a 
ahip of that tlcvrnpiMn. in ^hp HdpV, h rtitHy for sra during ttie 
sprui| liiht, and ttir wind uiif^ir, it i* contfvf d into lh« rivrr, and 
tbrre remarns at anrhnr, In tnkf IIil- tdtantar^ of a filvoiiraMR 
wind. ITh tar£;p ilitp urritc* from <<» dnruii; n»p tide*, it ron- 
tiitim in tli«? Mnif ^itnnlion ill! tW \ie\\ Kpring titte rite Iiigb 
enough to Boat it into I he (tori. 

TliP following Iab(p «%hibil« tlir ptnf-rp^tri'e incrpaw of ihe 
Dock Diilies. wliirli are Irvird n|Kwi iliipt, armnling In a cerHifai 
rate per too. ft shows Ihe nnmber of tliipt lliat hure Item anes> 
■nl En t%A year, with the ag^n-gate mm pnid lo the Dork cmii- 

Yean. S&ip*. 


«. J. 



1. f. i. 

1760 1?45 





35TS 7 9 

17G5 1930 


8 * 



St 1 1 5 3 

1770 2073 


17 2 



10037 6 2| 

1775 2291 


i 9 


39 »s 

93S9 16 4 





<. 4. 





13 61 





8 2 


•17s 1 



9 10 1 



494^2 1 


13 r 











13 1 

In 1724, IIk dock duty amoniitcU lo only SlCt 1 U f d. 


The aggregate current expenditure on account of ihe ilocka, 
(whicb we ma; suppose lias incr«;ased in a similar pro|K)rtiuu to 
llie dulies received), appears to have ainoimte<l, in the vear 1605, 
to S7.S601. in which i^eur, by liie preceding stattineot, tlie duties 
received were 33,3641. 13s. id •. 

Tlie view of tlie duties, as exhibited in tiic fore<;oing table, 
deailjr shows the amazing increase of the uruiual receipts; ys\, 
although this revenue appears so great, Ihe Dock Proprietors are 
Jtill considerably iu arrears : for by a statement in Ihe small 
volume already r ferred tu, it appears, that " tlie original and pre- 
Kut coDstructioDS of the docks and piers have incurred a debt of 
106,7361. 18s. 7(1. by money borrowed upon them under different 
Acts of Parliament. 

Cumwcted with these docks are wide nud commodious quays, 
with large warehouses, calculated to store up all such goods as are 
Dot immediately delivered to tlie retail dealers, &c. 

Besides the five docks already mentioned, here is a smaller one, 
called Ihe Duke of Bridobwateb's Dock, whicb is devoted to 
tbe Bats and barges, belonging to the caniils that communicate to 
Huncom, Manchester, and tbe mauufactiuing towns in this part of 
tlie country. 

The direction and government of the docks are vested in the 
Corporation, as trustees ; whose accounts are annually examined 
Uil leltled by seven commissioners, who are appointed fur that 

Tbe following table displays the quantity and qualities of va- 
fioui articlei of merchandize, that were iiiiported into the town, 

iM fite successive years. 

* See Picture of Liverpool, 1£05. 

^'01. IX. N Imports 




^ ^ £ S %'& 

S »^ — St Vi 

« -^ fr- & t- 


<e '^ w o fj 

* « o S rf 

— 5 m tN 35 

S"T ^ lO t» 
ic c r- lO 

to t^ 
rfl — C" 


a r^ n 

16 (C 


»* — "^ :2 » 
rfi 1* — !S t-. 

— m >n «« « 
O r« <n rv » 

« ab 1*1 f^ M 

5 — Qi Dt m 
o t» — m o 

o o o c 


o a 

W I-- ffl *• lA 

rf n 5- '-^ ;■ t>. 

— IS-, ^ ~1 -£ d^ 

— ac o •* 1-. o 
^« "5 ci m r^ 

— — c- ■» ?• 



« "T "^ 5 S 6i 

.^ dl W O 09 ^ 


, e e te -^ S 
• £ -^ (2 — 2 
> n t- "f fr ** 
H c- "^ = » ^ 




O o o s « «^ 

Si O lO e lO CO 


« = 

<3 «) *» o ■a 
• » a ■* = 4 

£ O p — O A 
(C 2 F C « — 

z - 

B. *m 

le 3« -t (B K 

•» c -t © *• 
c- -5 -4 r- "O 

— «» i •.-! t» 

in t> t~ 

■1 -IS: 

e 5S 




's o a c »~ (4 

^ O (* *» ^ ^ 

^a ^ I-) fri 

, "i Ol 'C •O -31 

£.1-5 -1 if. JSv 

i C « ^ c' I 
-; -; — -i -^ --i 


J, 4t a ci -■! e 

S 'A - or « •■. 

.= ^^ 1* « O "1 

r- — 


- i*. 7. « c in 

,5 1^ ^ "^ 1» — 

!- — — c- t. — 


5 » y; — •» c 

f 3- T fT" c o 

-^ ^ 1 ■. ■» t>. rfi 

(■ •- — "T Cl c^ 


f p' m * j^ ta 

.? 3^ T «^ « (|> 



Cottoo imported into Uvetpool. 

























Cotb bniagfat to Liverpool by the Lceda ud Liverpool canil. 

In 1781 31,000 Ions. 

J784 70.000 

1787 98,000- — 

1790 137.790 

Coab exported in 17gi.— To Foreign parti. 57.000 tons. 
—Coastways, 40,000. — Total 97,000 tons; leaving 41,000 tons 
Dsrd in Limpool, besides the quantities brought down the Sankey> 
ami, and carted from the collieries. 

A lilt of the Dumber of British and Foreign Ships that have en- 
tatA inwards, and cleared outwards, at the port of Liverpool, 
£n>m October tOtb, 1801, to October 10th. 1802. 

British ships entered inwards in 180I,"-*I331 

1802, 1783 

Foreign ships enlereil inwards in 1801, ■••• 641 

1 802, 425 

British shipsclearing outwards for 1801,- • •■ l694 

1 802, • ■ • • 2062 

Foreign shiits clearing out iolSOl.--*' 705 
1802,-"- 461 

If the bcrcased tonnage of the sliips, and the increased number 
of men employed inlheni, he considered, the result, as to the to- 
U increase and decrease, respectively, of the British and Foreign 
)^>I, would be found still more considerable. In 180J, tbt 
tttutof the toniiage was 22,696 : do. for 1802,25.527. 

N S Oa 

'TbeqnaBlil;ofcatUiBiHportediiitoI<andoDiD 1800 wuS6.490bac». 


On the SOIh of June, Ift07. lber« mtn in the Liverpool docks 
S63 Mul of .4Btaiean rrjur/«. 

The nkpiil iucrva^: or the American ronHncrre, durioK tbr pre- 
sent det-aslaliiig and cukmilous uar, Js calculnled lo injure lliat uf 
Gml Briuin. For llie former liu» cvcrv port npcn la Ha mer- 
chants; lod imong other eiTcct^ (h3l mii^t rCMitt from tliii Tree 
trade, it is very likely Hut il will undi-rmiiic Ibc monopoly of Die 
£ul Tnduin traffic. This >ubj«<t is eulillcd to KrioiM coiuidcra* 

Long havt tlie t«i*o pnrts of Briito] mid Liverpool (kch acknow- 
Ie<%Ki rivali. TIk- liiltcr lina, tt lri)j>t)i. oUaiiied llieucendaacjr 
OWT the eniponum of tde w«t. 11i»ugli Ibe mcrdiaats of each 
arc di-wous of beioK romprtitors, vi-t Ibc pJaces ate so Bilnatcd, 
as nalunilly lo divitk tltc trade. u|iou very remarkattlt eqoalittM. 
Eacb preKiils a dillvrenl theatre for commerce toact upon. They 
posMM no legitimate cauM of iuteit'eteiKc ; each has room to ex- 
tend ib trade, both abro«d aod at faoiue, without cUahins with tht 
others interc«l. ItrtMol lii*« op^a to Ihc Irish Inido, at uell as 
Liverpool : bul while llic fiirincr tnid^ diiefty to the wmth and 
ioulh-ne4 ports, fmnt Dublin to Oalloway; thr bllermu»l liavc 
the trade of the eitt and norlUcm tlinre*, from Dublin lo Londou- 
deri^. The one has :ill lite sutilli of Kngkand ; the oilier all ibe 
north, to cttrretpond wjlh: Drivlol has the soiilli-west eounlies. 
«kle»ding tiorlliw-jiTd lo Slirewsbury ; Livetpunl the not ih, and 
nidtiiid cotiiilie*, extending wuihifard to Biiiiiingliant. Nalarr 
has npened a comniuaicaliuo, h) the ri»er Sci-em, lietwvm Btislol 
and Ihe counties of MnnnHiulli, Glocetler, Hereford, WurceMer, 
and ^op: yvl Liverpool lias obtained many advanUgcs hy the 
rivers MerMy, Wvver. fte. and the I'arious canaU which now open 
a eommuoimlion fur her, not only into Ibe licart of Ihe rounllj, 
but to tin' ra<ilcni «horr«, llie Tjne and the Ilumber. Wales 
wetiis e(|ually ilitided bfiween iheui: BiiiJul commaDding ibe 
barlmura dtmn to Milford, and tb cvulre by ibe rivers \V«-e and 
Lug: anti Liverpool does the same to the iiottli, bjr the Dee, Coa> 
way, and StiaighLi of Meiuii. 







lutlurullj of c(|iiall> eligible liluaUonn, both Tot 
forvi^ > nd doumtic iRKk, LivcTpuu), l)iou||;li die sUrlcd bu, 
ba* not oul} overtake!), but suipassci bcr rival in both. By a 
conpiriMa of titc nutDbrr of aliips wliich Kiilcd frDin and to 
Umwc Rspedtte poiU, va an avero^ of five >«ur^, 1 73S to ] 763 
iuduaiv«, tlie shipping of Liverpool far CKcrc<1ed tbut of I!ri>M: 
wlule Ibc cwtonu of Bt'atiA «itc«eii<d those of Lirvr|>i>(il. Thb 
■**"*»£ patadox is loli'cd, by adrcrting to llie nature of tbe 
art)d<4 uil (liflerencet of dMj iii4)orted tolo the two port*. 
Trom thai {•criod, ami cipetially since 1 77^1 in every point Liverpool 
bM h*^a »ur(ias-ing Bralul. Tiik piecedcncy lias been allributod 
to two causes, the ardenl pursuit of ibe African Trade by Uw 
oo^ and the biinune dcrriidion of it in (he oilier; aiid Uk 
tapeiior advsniagn Liverpool has htog enjoyfl, hy means of bi;t 
flnating doekt. Haw far ll>e Ant raiue luu operated, ibe effect 
of an act Ulely paswd the Le(ti4a1ivc Aswmbly, will soon dis- 
coi<t; ami the vkleitt of the latter will be decided by the tupemr 
eooipetitkin atleinpling iu Ibe itnmense M'urk noiv eseeuling, for 
dmnting a lonj; rraeh uf lli« tnvr Avon, lu keep Ibr sfaipc ufluat 
n Ibe harbour of Briitlol. I.ea«iug (bis for time to discover, tnay 
■ot a more energetically ojMTalive cauv he found in Ihfgvniiu of 
Ifee place, and the bbera) spirit nliicli pen'ades it? Liberalily of 
■BtHDCnt, nilb generoHly in prarlice, b pi-cuti:iHy favourable \o 
•MBOMvcc. it » ibe genial sun, uuilcr wliirti ilie flotirutliei, and 
wiUMMit whose ben^u influence, she dwindles and dies. Una- 
ainitly begets mutual cutitVlntcv, and coiiAdt-nce leiuts to increase 
power, and power soon opens luious avenues to ueaiLb and 

lo llie liistory of this port, the Africdu attrtf trade omitilutei 
^k. popular, but very unpleasant, feature; aud liiou{;li Ibc, bear- 
•«-oletit niiiid rejuices at adecision of the British House of CommoDS 
^01 1807. wh«i Ibis khutaan tmiBc wiu ''MbolUhed,'\yei it must 
^^ccauonally ttftecl o^i (be cruelty, ioJui>licr. and ignominy of (hat 
^<iit awl conuuerce, which couMstoJ in buying and selling men 
^td women ; or what is iiiucb worw, in ptundritng one couotry 
^^il» kiaum inbabitauts to consiira them to perpetual ilarery in 



■DOtlMr. It ii common lu aluHi farltmfnr rqirotch lo 
town fur riiuHgro)* w Utf*'\y i<i tliis btisiora. but lti« itisrrMit' 
mtiri; pattkuUrl^- b«loDg« la l>i« le^uUilive coiiiKiiU, fur inlviattrig ' 
and encouraaiug it. Ta rorrtct lung nurtured rrHs, anil to x&nU 
bilaie a f>t'<fi[iible bniQc)i of Intde iii xn irtirely cflitmierrbli 
cniinlry, rrquire much patiiotic cnum^ie and (nirintir |>rne- 
vrntR-e. It a, tberefiire, witli (^loMiiq; pltuuire Itml v,e Imjl llie 
awen'tancv of munn iin<l .juH'ice over olntiiiatp fnlly Hnti mcrrc- 
nary cupidrly; for llie nnbli* niati.n of P,rpitiian h Ihrii ttiibly 
nemplifird, " To sup|irpf9 wrong 'n wi»r, lo do rigJiM n piiltlic" 
"Much illit)«nl and unj^iwrous rrHertinn," Mvi the rdhor ofj 
tix" Prcliire of Linrponl. "baft indtwriroinalely Iictd cayt ugmo 
the iiibabit^inli of Lir«rp<Hi|, oii icciimt vt t\m Irmlr. It is loo 
coinmonly Hippowil Dial it lias Uk unqualified rancliiiD of aOM 
nbo lukc ii|] llieir leii'lcnce iii lliis town, and it h^l^ iM-en brace 
vin)>hjttcally called ibc " the niclrojx^is of ^avery ;" \rt oulhing 
can be more unruuuded, nnl to sny ilh'benil, tliaii tuch an inipil- 
lalion. T1i« trade is liniitcil lo a very lew of l)>c rarrehaDtt of 
LiveijKKil, cljtefly lo tlirce or four lioiues; atid nmtii nhljH are 
fitted out ia that trade frotn Ibb porl, beloosiiiK lo owi>er« a 
nieiclianii t^ho reii<le in dilferent portt of the kingdom, but w 
give liw |>r«(t;renc« lo Li»i-r|><«)!. viWy on accoiuil of ihe aiip«rior' 
■croninioilutioiu it pru»ease«. The rriend* nf lite hapltM Afnentiu, 
and nuiny »uHi ire t<> be found ttta l»ere, liave ttul bwn pa»i«t 
anil uiKonccrited id the slmegle ^< bicfa baa been raited for piitltng 
a flop to the Inide. Tlivir tnlents have bei*H citnsecfuled to llie 
••rvicr. They have reiiionflmted hi public and in privair, 
through Ihe mrdiiim of the ptilpil nixl the preu. Ther have 
eAlIcl to iheir aid lh« powers of )tr!;um nl. tUr clianm of p'^ity, 
and the gram of oratory ; in doing wliirh Ihey have acquitted 
thensrlws of what ihcy eoDceivetl to ht? nti imperious duty lo, 
their owa eonsriences 'heir cormtry, and their (iod," 

In Ihe vear 1709, Lirerpool btgaii to hav« a diare uflhe Blare 
trid*', and trail I0115 been the priiKr|ia! Eiifrlivh pnrl in thai hrauch 
of liaffie. The fallowing ia a SiUtement of tbe nuaJter uf vewela, 


^ ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^1 

^^^r LANCAflHlKB. 199 ^^H 

m4 frcighUge, with s view of Uie progressive augmenlUibii afthe J 

^^fridr, ditm to the comnKDcemeot of the pwM-iit war: ^^^M 

^H \tmn. V«Mck. Tabl 

1775 9.200 ^^M 

^B 1709 30 

H 1730 

ma 7,078 ^H 

^M 1737 33 2.r3fi 

1777 4.0(^0 ^^H 

■ 17^3 n 7.547 

■ 1778 ^^M 

^ft 17» 41 4.053 

1779 ^^1 

^B 1760 74 8.178 

1780 3'2 4.'i75 ^H 

^H 1761 69 7i309 

1781 ^^M 

^m 176? 61 6,753 

1783 6,^09 ^^1 

^1 1763 95 ().$50 

12,'!9fc ^^M 

H 1764 74 7,978 

67 9.5S8 ^^1 

^m 1765 S3 9.383 

1785 79 IO,9R2 ^^H 

H 1760' 65 M50 

17S6 93 13.971 ^^B 

^^ 17J^ 89 S,315 

1787 14,013 ^^1 

^^^U76S 8,302 

1788 13,394 ^^M 

^^MrGd 90 9,85« 

1789 66 tl,5(il ^^1 

^r^l770 96 9.818 

1790 91 ^H 

^^^B^l 10,929 

1791 19.610 ^^H 

^^^^Tii 100 

1 793 1 33 3 2,403 ^^H 

^1^1773 105 IJ.Oifi 

1793 10,544 ^^H 



1 ^ Tbe^aWif ifmrfum, cunnccled willi the trade and commerce ^^^ 

I^Bf Ibe tOHD, are the ExcbaDfe-fatiildin^, Towii-HaU and Man* ^^H 

^BoB-Houir, CiBtom-Houac, Corn-Enchans*-. Tobacco-Ware- ^^ 

^^MHT. and otticr wntcliousea. Of tli«!te, thai callM Ihr Livbk- 

FOOL ExcHANOB H llic Diosl sfutciuiM io plan, aud oniHnicnlid 

il architcduiml clcAiitioa. It lias been erected bv a iub.scnp4ion 

•f £.80,000, rfti»*:d rrom HOG Inuialerubk shares of ^'.100 

ad^. Ttic buildings occapv three ddca of a. quadrmnglc, baring 

HK the 

^^P *nepTCMal Ropi ExdMage «f L4nii)or, according ts NortlMnci**»tat«r 

^HmeA. oat SO^KML III ma ii 114 fMt by iir ftm. , _^_ 

900 I..\KCA9niRE. 

the north tVonI orilkC TdwihII;^!!. I'ut tli« CoBtth side, snil \o- 
geltw^r inrliide mi nrra uf IfH fi-t'I Ity ISO. TIil* ufhitcclura 
ivas (le^igoed to harnionuw »ntl corre^poiitl wilh llie otitlli vleva- 
tiun of tlieTuH-n-lmll.and lltuiMimlilnlc ;>ri uiiirmm quurlrsnijtr. 
T1i« unv building coutiUs uf a twlic.^lcil LLteRuiil. nitit m |Hazu. 
exlendtng touml tli« wlioir, and «|>euiiig to tlie am by i sn-ivs of 
niilk aicbM, bctncfi) stroD^ pi«n. Above thii are Iivo slotien, 
onianarntail v.'nU OtuiUiuii piUttcnt. amt Mmiitiiiiilnl with an 
ranched liuld contitc and poraprt. tn ihe cculic o( tbe north 
tide, re*lin;t on llir bawtiteiil, U a trand ri^rnnl |H>i1tr(i, nilh 
Crghl tttiidsuite Conntbian columiu *. Tliu buililioK a inIi-iLdcd 
to accnmtnod»tc the mrrcliauti, brokers oiidfn»rilrr% and nilir 
oftliv town. nbiiai<r dcrotnl tu iDcrcaiilihr purmiLi. Id ibe cast 
ninsba coflre-tnom, iiindy-riiiir feet bv (iliy-lwo, stifipnrtrd na 
lu^e culunius, Above Ibis i> unntbi'r ipucictus mom. aeTcnly-l«to 
fVel bv lhirlyiii\, intended Id bi> ap)t(opriHled to llie uiidcmntcn, 
&c. on lf>c principle trflbfll ii( LUiyV^ ta Ltiiidina. Tim magiil- 
ficeal and commwlibiit rmigi: »l' buildiogii is nn l:<ni<iuralile mrino. 
rial of l\» comHirKial qtii it and noble views of ll>c I jrerpoul 
tncicbitiits : and, wliiUt il sflfoidb t)i«m <6nifuttalilc iicconmimla- 
lioDs, il Mil] itK n ;;itat oinumctit to tbc limn. At lb« liii.e lb>» 
account is |>ci»)injE, a cmniuiltec is dclilicralini; oa il>c choke o 
a group of Miil»ary, lo adorn and difcmfy tltc tetilte nf the aiea. It 
ia iiitt'odcd to liave a aiibjcct in coruiiirinntalion of lire heroic 
bran-r^f and sltill of Lord N(.-Uon: awl as sucb » nibjcd, in lli« 
fine atts, vrill be eilbfr apprT>(iriiite and prttse-woflhy, by tta 
Uilcfiil dcii^ and shilbd eit«culifln, c>r nnploituitt and rr[rrcben- 
btde, br the Miint nf lbc«(> i»»*fnliiil?, il i* bo|>ed tbal Ibe cora- 
mitlM will inanifo»( a crilk-al afid liberal dttcriniinalivn to cbtrua- 



* Tit anrvfxfd p'Un rfqircsoan llii? wnt n-inc.sMl pfirNrigutl Avtrt of iM 
baihGnt'i vfaidi Ian \rt*B emtol by J»)in Ponir^r, Em|, (ihe Cotiwiraii«a 
Arrtalpcl, Fji|;i«rcr, rind Doel'KlnmrJ frtm lb* dtuiitrM of JanM tTyait, 
Eiq. To ibt Coimtt i,«t>lt«iiiaii I (vf\ cTfl«*riill,v inilrMcil, fbt [irocrvUift the 
drawiiiet «f ihi* bniMiRs and t]i« Town- Hall ; aud la Ovt CMfoniian 16r 
(Mr Dbrraliiy, ia pramtuc the plate* to tbi* WDtk. 


\tiom thr mudcfa subiuiltrtl lo tlicif ducKtivn and judg* 

Tub Town-Hall, funnerN ca1k<t l>i« Exdiangc, b a Iwefi 
irnnUr pJeuI liuililiii)t, which niucrcclccl abuut llic jcar 17''>0t 
from dvwjni t,v Wowl, of B«U>: aud its dccontioiu strongly n- 
niud us of lli« ihoKy buUdJugt of lliwt cii^p. Tlic ^r»uii<l-d(>ur 
vM ialciidiil fur *ii exchauite, and calcuUkd to arcniuntmlatc 
Ibc mcrctwnU vitb Im-untncc OfiMS, ttc. A cotutdcrablc 
t4iIilioa iriu mude Iv IliU btiihJiog sutn« ;«are back, and 
fKoKl imifmu Viu B:tdv m dtlcintiDg the ofiicts; wlieo tJic 
nbuh iiflUe tiitrrinf wa) destroyed by (ire, in rbc <ifar 17^5. In 
r«aN(|lMtKC of lltu tcvid^rit, llic cor|)i>rjtion rvtalv«d lo rebuild 
kfmm nwfe tAlfn<Ud ai>d improved plan, and lo tipproprute lite 
wbnir lojudictnl and ullicr utrmn, for liic police of the town, for 
I Mbttbii fm Ibe ma\or, a mile of public assemblv-roorui, aiid 
bvrtll Ikr (j]fii-«s d«*4^>!ffd loll)«' bu(itu>M<>f tlw corporation f. 'IIm 

iiuiid »ifiy, OH Ibe ftoutb sido, cuDsisJs of a liaiidwrne enlninee- 
t«s'livg Inu nixlil of vtaiT9, a runimillee nxinl, ami a private 
^Soin for Uie tnajror ; oo llie «ast wile, are a vestibule, ronmi for 
tbo ina;[i«tnilc* mid jurirs, mid Ihc towii-cliTk's ciAic«s; on the 
Mftti sirte an cnlraace-ltull, leading to Uie town-bull, or geiKral 
tr«Hon»-ranin, In tlic mlatton office, &r. On llit' principal flunr 
ii t ^nfid iniie uf rnouu, couatting of a saloon, Iliitt} feet by 
t*tnl;r-^ — B drawins-nxmi. litirl^-tltrM fc«t by tMeunly-sit 
— • Inll-room, iiioclj tcel bi^ furtj-lwo— a lerond bnlJ- 
HIMO. Eixt}-siv by Ibirlj fo«l — a rard-nxiin, tbirlj-lwo fwl by 
meolir-^n. itc Tite lummil of Uiii buitdinjc n Leraiiuak'd by it 
dotar, utoili b of laoticm cotittritclion, aod oraatiicnled uilb if 
Hial coliunni. Hounil Uw riieze, and iu tbe pediment vf the 


'TttcdnlgnaoditacriptionofOTW of thMemode^, by G. Dullock, An- 
fky pvF«iiar novdiy and oiiKiMliiy ; and wtut coDMilWra ib tuprrior «- 
erikartfix ttwiiriciadksmicf v> ItiilmaU profn-ittf t9d i-mtim^ toiuutrmcf 
lid<ll pwU. It •> lnil> t'tfihk Art, ^rmployttl \a 'li|;Dif} EnKlitli valour. 
AeMtdiBf to Uk |>»rauilii^ |iablicatii>ii*, liiii dcuip liu b«cii aiiipitd. 

t ii4« anaaud Piiut, tw* tnma at mat. buiUtaf ■■« dUpajari. 


•outhera friHit, b a proAuioD of sculptured decoration, but exe- 
cuted b such a bad style, tbat it more disfigures tbao ornameDts 
tbe buildii^. 

The first foundation stcHie of a New Cobn Exchange, m 
Brunswick-street, was laid oa the 24tb of April, 1807. This 
building is iiitcnded for a general resort of the com-merchants. od 
tbe plan of the Exchange in Mark-laoe, London ; and, consider- 
ing that Liverpool is tbe seat of tbe secood com-market in tbe 
kingdom, it is somewhat surprising that an establishment of this 
kind has not been instituted before. It will be a handsome stnic- 
lure, of plain Grecian architecture, with a done front to Brun8> 
wick-street. Like tbe New Excbanire buildings, it is erected by 
tubscripticm ; a fund of 10,0001. having been raisad, by shares of 
lOOl. each. 

Tbe Custom-Home, situated on the south side of tbe Old Dock, 
has nothing peculiar to attract attention : and the Tbiaeeo Wttrt- 
kctue, with varioos other commerdal warehouses, are devoted to 
tbe stowage of various articles imported into this town. 

BmltUngt appnpriated to ReHgum, are numerous and various 
in this large and busy place of traflic ; but I shall restrict my re- 
marks to those belonging to the protestaot doctrines, and of theae 
I must necessarily be concise. 

The most ancient, called St. Nicholas, or the Old Chdbch. 
is a very low structure, having windows with pointed arches, and 
a small tower, crowned by a spire. Though called the Old 
Church, it does not excite curiosity ; and its interior exhibita 
gloom, without grandeur. Near it formerly stood a statue of SL 
Nicholas, a tutelary deity of the maritime part of tbe f^ce, to 
which sea-ftring people usually made a peace-oSering, previona 
to their embarking ; and another, as a wave-offering, on their rfr- 
ttUB, for tbe successful issue of the voyage, 

St. Petbb's Chubch, built in I704v '» > plam structure, 
having a quadrangular tower, the upper story of which is octan- 
gular, terminated by eight pinnacles, in tbe form of candlesticks ; 
with a gilt fnne, shaped so as to resemble flame. 
St. Gboboe's ChdbcHi which waa finished in 1744, is more 



lyitetnkliciny bailt, ind paHsikct of ■ duiiol i/tyW. The bodjr 
is fonaeil l<y > (fork wtge, b<aH»f; an «1tic rntublalUM; with ft 
pttnpet oriiamrote I willi v _sei. Tlie Hin<Iow) for kSurdioK light, 
both (o th« xisl« and gall«rw9, art dispro]tortional>)j Urge. Oa 
tlie snmli tide i« s wide hjudiotne (em», niied on ux niftk 
trchet. Thflii|;)i itir rye may hp reconciled lo tliU by Ihc siruA- 
tiOB of lli« ground, jet the mind U dis^uUed al its apjirojinalkin ; 
for, like the outer eoiirt of Ihc l«npt«, in tlie dfgeiirrale duyt of 
the JewHIi CiiUTcl), lhi<i |il»« u derated to tliow who itgf md 
irtt. At thr extnnnity of Itiis t»rni<« are Inn ningt, eaa^stbijaf 
DCtan^lar huildic^ ; one of n hieli in ii]i|)ropiialed to (be dcrk of 
the niarknl, and the othrr lo a cvll for niuftitiiig dclinqtirnUt I 
Tbe (t««[ile coii<bl« of 6we tiers, or [mrlions, otnaniented wHh 
pilattera of ttie Durir, Iimic. Ciriiilhijn, and C'^mposile orden; 
■ad atMve lite looer riW4 a Iffly. ta|)eriiiit, octaneubr ipire. 

Sr.TuoMxs's Church, hutll in 17J0. is brttcr pn^rtiooed. 

but wKiiiracnl ill itt apixar^iice. I'lte bodji' consiMa of a rustic 

ki«, having two tirra vf windows ; ihe >ipfier rakulatcd for • 

ttnwio^riMHn, ami tlie luner fur a priMHi : nor b llie iarije actni> 

cifcular Venrlian niiidnw, ul Ihe tail cikI, id a Iwppicr style. 

The tkHible Ionic pilasters Ktraclied (u the ai<lei, at they iippear to 

hive autbiii;;; lo stippixt, n:M litile to iti dccoialiua. TItc lower 

b lofty, terminating in a well-proporliuneil spiTV, ocsriy half the 

height from llie base : but it» immediate and appropfiale support 

con^rii* of four couplets of CoriuUiiaii columitt, do wbkh, as 

though adiaoied of ibeir slulion, stare four crocket pinmiclcs, 

Combined with rases. How far it might have been the doign of 

\he architect lo bide the waut of affiitily between Ibc diutmilar 

(iBrb, in a Giitbko^Grcciiui b^ld'ui^, 1 ninnot pretend tv dcter- 

Xaitie; Ihe Irauaitioti it alirtipl, tlioiij<)i e<iually abnuid. Not 

«aii that motley st)'lc of arrhilccturv, obKivable bcrc, and in other 

targe places, to di-ilructivc of all gcnuitie la>lc, be »ufEcicntly re- 

probralad. To tocli incoograoin designs, diicstcd of all beauty, 

caaveniaDCe, and hamotty of parts, every lover of the art* must 

ba decidedly hostile. Fxr lliou<;b a cerluin Utitude, for the di<- 

jkj of ceiuu tod idtoce, loay be, sod ovght to be, allowed ; 



\*t not t» far U lo gr6up liic ioxmI pJpalJc iBcongruitK*. The 
rule » ai^liciililc Ittn— 

*• DciUq«e lit ^h1 111 linpln ituitRaal It ommi.* 

St. PaVL's Church, uliich ma mrted nt llir public ex- 
pense, and coiMtfcnifeil in 17ljp, it a miniature inutalion of Ibf 
^al catticdral of LoixIod. Ou tlie west side ii gntvi Ionic |>or- 
tii-o furms a suilitlile vestibule to tli« building, nliidi I* al^io of tlie 
Ionic anUt liiroogtinut. Tli« hau- b ni^tir, tlu- M-jIi<t plain, ler- 
ruiiiatnl bj* a baluitnide decorated, but not rroudtdly so, with 
plain tmil vai-es, TIic dumev criiMurd nilli x Imilpm, aod its 
fiiiial J lull b^aiiiig a crns*. 'fliougli the e\1eiior or \\m tMiilding 
loMx nil a|>|>caruurc of grandeur, or beauty, to lh« eye tbal faai I 
dwell on the deugna of St. Peter's at Koine, aiid St. Paul's at 
London, jrl it aSMiiim tonie importance ainl elegance nlwu conir 
pared to tlie olber tnodeni chiircliu of (he town, or the ^ntt- 
ralitv of lliose iiacred iilifiin tliat have bevn eri'cted tiace the 
reij^ of Iltiirj tlic Eighth. lu interior ii more inipo«ing lluio 
the exterior, from Ibc disposition and cbamcter of the j>illan 
that ut|ipoTl tlie dome. Like must building* willi ilomes, or of 
ciicular ariangemenl, tills it rcnr unfavoiiraMe for ibecommuni- 
cjtion of Bound: mid tbe congregation a Mtui to be very limited 
from llii* circuimtance *. 

St. ANK'sCiiiirch was built b^ two pro)>riflors, in 1770: and 
is nrwiirLiihlc fir having l^^ galleries supported by slender cut- 
Itoa |iillan^ whidi were tbe first employed for this purpose. Tfie 
cburcli iff, vrn.* uniiullj', placed in a uorth and ^nuiti direction. 

St- Johm's Church was erected nt tiK public exficiise, and wis 
fiilishctlin I7SL TIk' lower part of this, like that of St. Paul's, 
is appni^itialed to ibc public. 

Tkinity CiiLRcu, built bv prii^tc proprietors, and toose- 
cntcd iu IJ^-Z, a cuiuniudious, and peadiarly uvat. 


' *8eeannan*lew«ftbisIriii]tUnE u> UicPhncf itieTam. pub&ibcdia 
«The Briliili Alio*." 



CdSISTsCBURCH h an tumihotneaini spaciotif buildiDg, witli 
Ho rotn ofgBllerKs, and an Organ, ver\ peculiarly cmitlnMMd' 
Ijr Mr. CoI)tii«, of iIih Ihwii. Tliit untmmfnl n di^ilpcl tolo iwo- 
pirts, at 1 1 1'rtl Miiitd«^r, and Uip orguiiul U iiImh**! in tlie cviitre^ 
nilh bis furr loMnrdt ibe coiigr^atioD. The snrll is behind him, 
tbc floor, aiu) tlic niovcnit'Qti arc l»et>ratb Im fi^t. 7*hh 
Itorcfa WW (mill hv an au cxpenicof lJ,0O0l.: and 
< couMcralnl lo llic prulntaiit fclixiMi in ISDO. 
St. Mark's CIiutcIi ia a lar^e itctv builHinK, buiil bvajb>rriii 
1. ■! au ttpf-n«e of iCflOOl. It will b«ld aliwnl :;,500 
•OBI, aail vr»s finished in ISO). 

Here is a ffWrA CAorrA, and a Seolf^ Cknrk. But it would 

«xleotl brjrond the |imfwr limits, lo forticuhin/i; all the idi^ioiii, 

«nd other (Mibltc buildings of tbh ^-ul lonn. Scvcntl of lh« 

Discuter's MMling-HouKa are nciit nud comfortable stnictiira; 

but whul it ntlleil Ibc Or/A'on rlatais Mif nionl iioticr, as il niiites 

(Tmt convenience wtlh sonic )>oilk>n of dignity. Of charitabli: 

fuumlnliuns, Ihv Blub Coat HosPiT.«Lclainui Die fiist notice. 

Ttm made ib ajipcaiancc as a Charily-9clKiol, supporleil (i\ an> 

•ual subsciiptiou aiitl donation, for the educating »ad muintatniii;; 

40 boys and 10 ^rb, A. D. 1709. — Not lo bla»)n llie anii-jbic 

l{)irit of charity, but ooly to abevr Iiow one sjmik of snieriMily 

knds to enkindk tlie HaiiK of betievoleiK-e, let it be observed, 

that ll>e mnibcr now provided for, by tliis bcucvolent cstablisb- 

Imt, ia ofrnwd* u( SSO.— Ami Ihougli the iiulilulioa stiliL to • 

.conndr'niblc di-srer, dvpeuds ut>*>i> 'be same preciirious plati for 

iMtppnrt, yet, while it b so ably coiidiided, Ih«TC eati b« hitic 

4o«bt of its eontinuiitf: lo ttttm additional aniiliracc. The 

ttuiMin*; con^isls of a Inr^ body, laHng Iw-o vint^; the nlwlc 

buUt of brick, nod oniaiiieiile*! with stone. Tlte enpeittc of the 

edsiblittiiuent, in 1903, wai S4:it!L— ondlbe benefiictioitt t«a'ir«d 

KiBouuled to ^DlUi. 

The public txriBMAiev is niHiilier charitable insHiutioii. con- 
3«i<l(^ vitlli Ibat eiteodod Imud of litwrality, which the nature of 
^«ich cl»aritie*, to r^ndi'r llirm btrnrticial, impeTtfMnly r«]uire.^ 
y^lpcnotfs, wilhoat dtriinciion, arc admitted, »l>oconi« proper^ 



ntc LoadoD actors join it. In the season of \79^% an incideiil^, 
at onc« singular and solemn, occurred at this tbeaire : — As Jofan 
Palmer was perforniiag the part of the Stranger in Kotzebue** 
once popular plajr of that naine, and prououncing the words— 
" there is anotlier and a better world " — be sunk down on tiw 
stage, and immediately expired. He was buried at Walton, uid 
soon afterwards the proprietors generously gave a benefit play for 
Mr, Palmer's orphan family ; to whom was remitted, exclusive of 
funeral expenses, &c. ibesum of 4131. 

Tbe ATHBN£Ulf is a building and establnbment, calculated 
to embrace a Noes aud Cqffee-Room, and Public Library. It 
was commenced in ir98> ^oA the coffee-room opened on the 1st 
of January, I7d9- The building, which was erected by a snb- 
scription of 4,400l. arising from the sliares of different memben, 
has a stone frcMit in Church-street ; and, besides llie rooms already 
speci5ed, contains a handsome commiltee-room, and apartmeDli 
to accommodate tbe hbrarian. TIte whole of tlie building, with 
its establishment and current support, ti defrayed by about 450 
subscribers, 300 of whom paid, on entrance, ten guineas for each 
sbate, afterwards the shares were raised to twenty guioeas, aod 
subsequently to tliirty gumeas each. Beudes this, every subscriber 
pays two guineas annually. 

The Unioh News Room, a similar ettahlishment to the 
above, was instituted on the 1st. of Jan. 1801, the day of eatabli^- 
iog tbe Union of England and Ireland. This building cost be- 
tween four and five thousand pounds, and has a stoue froot in 

Tht Lycbuu; consisting, like the above, of a coffee-room, 
library, aod other necessary apartments, is a large handsome pile 
of building, erected by Mr. Harrison, of Cliesler, at an expense 
of al>out 1 1,0001. This sum was raised by a subscription of 800 
pn^rietors, who pay aimually one guinea each towards its support, 
&C. Tbe coffee-room is sixty-eight feet by forty-eight, with a 
cored ceiling, thirty-one feet from the floor ; and, besides most 
of tbe London and provindpal newspapers, it is also supfrfied with 
naoy literary Revkiu and Abgaiinei. Tbe library-room is cir- 

708 LANCASniRe. 

ciilnr, foftT-fiTe feet in dianclcr, and » fiUcd up wilb 
•ntl iiftuniol witb Mvrral Initli, ice. 

The CoMUeitriAi. Nkws Room, in Suiliiiin'» liutldittf^Xr 
Lord-^ncl; mid l\x Minerva Nrws Room, ia Upper Daw- 
ann-slrcet, arc iii^itulioiu, in ^omc rcspccU, similv lo Utc preoeU* 
ing, Ihimsli upiin MTulIrr icalr*. 

The Music Hall, in [k>M-str<-ct, n a |jfi;« hojf itomc pile 
. of buililiiii;, and provided with «ver\ accouuiwdatioR fur cvrnxrlx, 
ice. II will lK>ld ntaHy 1300 perwui. 

Hk AsstMBLY Room it » puti uf ll>e Livrri><x»l Anns bold, 
iu CasUe>slie«t. B«sido6 Ihcvc plitce;, Uverp«al cwititim a oirmUr 
room built ('.>€ a Pamrrama ; a Vufruiit, belonging lo Mr. BulluRk; 
» l-'reC'Mastiii'ft-lhll, aixl a RoTANtC GAB]>tiK. Tlie Mttf, vt 
tiie S' £. *iili«milv oflbe tunti, conuiU of uUiiit (tw arm of 
grovnd, vucluwd by 3 sloin: wall. It is tuppurkd by 575 [»fo- 
pfidon, wiio, besMe* im otipn*) advwicc, fmy in mimiftl lub- 
icription of two guineas. TItt* iwv>*I (&tali)tihmeiit b bighty cre- 
ditable lo tliv tii«l; nod vltHracti-r of Hs pr4^ji:cl'-t8 ntid strpporten. 
PrasraU of ran aud eUuice planu hikT« hctu nenl t» it frufn Ibe 
Emi mid West Iiutii-s, utid froiu ihe Capc-of-UwuI-IIop'', 

Til'! l»oundiifi(-8 flf the Roroiigb of Uwrpnol «rc defined by 
marks, cbIImI Mcrt-Slnnn, nilLio wbich its libcrtirs xre bndnrlcfl. 
TTitt extent fornti an iir», coBtainin^ ?,tO!i flcrt^; of wliieb 
about 500 belon; to lh» corpnnilion, and tlie irst fums prmile 
pr»|ifrlv. Rut nliil nuy he conxtdrrL-d Iht; minpletc (kupdalioa 
of LhTrpnnl, is not to be raafineil Id tlicse linjb, as eniiNrrout 
slnret«, l:inc«, alli'vi, mid buihiingv, have prugresmelv mulltplMl 
around the corpor^io boandimes. 

Ulie niMt trading places, the streets in Ibe oldest port uf the 
town are too nurroM', rrtber to be bandsoine nr healthy: iiml, 
uilb respect lo many bttildiugi more receiilly rterled, giratn re- 
gard has been generally paid tn convenience iJtan beauty. Tliac 
are, , however, arveral handwtne Mrerti; ond an Increaung pnu* 
perity teeoin to have been aemmpaniMt by aa iocrnnn^ la»le dar 
elegant aswellasuM'fiil building. luKome of Ihepriitcipul >lreels 
are hoiues, wbirh do eiedit to llie dyle of the aitiali, and llie 






LAvrASBims. M9 

spirit of those who effrtedthMi: hot ben? prinripdlT oT hmfc, 
they lose micb of the stjwI «ftrt pnxhicMl by £rw-*we fiirtK 
Id 1774, ibp number of stnttA, ltat% ■He>«, Ar. ■»• «30; blA 
Ihn number bu b«ra smtly iitcnai«i, as Ihe xhemt of buOdiit 
j^etal WW streets at the XMttfa end of the tbvn, has been, 
that period, in a degree mrried into eflecl. BesMes vhirh, 
nl rows, temice*. pbees, fcr. iu the animos, cootaiBiBg 
good houses, have bevn erecleJ. 

To ascertain exactly the pc{nilation of a plan, so crowtleil willf 
nbabitanls, is a d£icult task ; aitd (be difiniItT b incRaaed by 
the unceTtain numbrrt necewarily ahwnt on bosiuess. Two ■lOito 
have been reported to for asccrhiioinv a point, nhich tafulicf 
questions highly inipurtatrt in Ihe i lew of pt^icv and comaieraew 
Tlie one mode is, fomiiji? aii avenge of Ihe number of permo* 
to each lioitse, an 1 inultipK-iRj Uint by !?« number of bouso. 
But tbii 'a lial)!e to roo^derable erron. Nitthiuv but actual eai»* 
ntralioa can eflvctiiaity answer Ihe jmrpow, and the diflkultf of 
Baking it, 'Iocs not leave Ibis method free from objedioes. 

From litis of the popuhtHon, as detailed m the bisturies of the 
*'>*ii, the nambers apgiear to have rapidly incicaaed during en^ 
'»•'' intervals. 

'i 1700, the number of houses was 1313, inbaliitants 5714 
1753, 3700, ?0,000 

1760, 4?00, S5,000 

*774, 800 J, 3»,407 

!From I lie reports of-j 
the House of Com- ^ 1 1,774, 77,6i3 
mtmt J 

*<t from the very incorrect method in nhich this census Vas 

"***» owmg to III* perrersendss of families on tbe one hand, aiid 

■, "Odoleiice of those appointed to make tlie rttiims, on the 

T***". even Ibis statement cannot be relied on. In tbe present 

"*"»<?« it is said to be very inrorrect. 

^ the year 1793, the corporation, by fiilnres, and wart of uio- 

'-^t-lX. O „ey. 


My, w«T obliged lo itpply lo pHrlidniriil for relief. Tlte «late 
theur aSairs wai pTin(r«l, avouched, and Uid twforp iwrlianxml ; 
by ubich il appt^ml llral tltt^ir income, for llic ^rar I7!J?, wm 
2S,O0Ol. 17i. lift.— ttial Ihdr mIioIc (irofwrly vat nlued at 
1,044.7761.— and llial llieir drlXs amouatcd lo 3^7.81(^1. ^'2%. — 
kaving a xirpliu of 676.ii^'Ji- B*. — h^^iitrA wunc rontioffent 
coontm. «Miniiite<l at upward* nf 60.OOOI. more. Tlib siale- 
ment »3t ordered lo be (iritbtKl i3ib April, 1793, In order 
lo aKcrtaiD the ]iTopri«ly of iilloHinti tlie cnrpnraliua lo Usiie n^ 
gotiable DOtet, nhich was (•ninird Uit miic >i'«t, for a limited 
lime, and uu of gmt temrc to iIm> Imie «>f ilu> Iomd. Tbia Kt 
laid ihe foundation of tiat for the iuuioj; ExciiequM- BHIh. for 
th« relief of the counlf}- : llioiigli Ibe tVnnicr was Lepi l»dt lill tlw 
latlei had been paiMd. 

Lii'etpuol, as a twraugk, rerutns Ivo ni«-mben lo (urliamriit, 
wboare tl«ded by ihe. voles of the frte Inifse^tcs; and of IIkss 
about 2,500 pocsets ilial privil<-i;c. Tbr touo m» coBidiliilcd a 
borough 23 of Ednard llie FirM ; and, in 1 Jjg, it was dclvrniined 
Ihallbe right of eleclioQ was v«Ued in tbe ma^nr. baili^ and 
freemen not receiving alms. 

Tbe mrlitnry Imtoiy of tliis town is »bort, and confined Mithia 
tiarmvr limiin. 

The pariianient bad a very ilrona aarri^rtn here io 164*. under 
tbercnimand nf Colonel Moore, of Baitk-Hnll. Prinre Rnperl, 
amUed by Ihe F.arl of Derby, approarlicd tbe touo, after tukin; 
Bolton. It wa« drfeniled 011 Ibc eiitl and nurlli Iw a Mronif mud 
wall, with a ralluiu aiid fo»s, twelve ynrd* wide aad Ilirre deep. 
On tbe top of Ibe^e were placednuinerntis baei of Imb wool: • 
•nA iRiprirtatioa having prrvinmt\ Inb-n pliire. TIk «n)ith*eait 
side wa» naturally defended In' a witle manlt, inundated front tbe 
rlvec: Ihe flmrti leading lo lhkw<Mv shut t/p. awl iIiom' toMardi 
tlic Inwl wi^rf Hcfendnt by ^^m, with pieces of cminun plan 
in each a^-enuc 

It bud a ttronc raOli^ cm itir «n4)llr, inrrounded wilh a diti 
twelve yardi w ttte and ten deep : npoit the tnmparli of w bicb were 
cKtaoa, and IIk cnUuvcr dtf .-tided l>y a futt of ei^hl guns* A. 



I,&NCASH)?B- til 

covered way-Ie'l ihcncc to the river, liy which the dilrh w^s fiUc^ 
occasioiullv uilh waler; and by i^hich, at elib tide, provision^ 
an.l sturtfjj were brought iu. . The prijire having possessed tht 
htiglils, thought the cooqucst easy. He encttni|)ed on tlie hilL 
ID<I, liavins iu vdiii ^umuiooed the place to siurender, he com- 
Dieiiced the sif|;e. Tliis, with coulinual repulws, al^euded with 
great sluuglit<;r, continued one month : when, from Ireachei^ of 
the comuiaixlaiil, which lia^ beeu alle<tg«(t by som« — ortht^worky 
on the irnrth bide being denerted bj the troops, as metitioDed bj 
otlit^Ts — a breach was tiiailc, aud the Piiuce's army eutered the 
town no the 2b'th of Juiif, putting to the sword all they met. 
Tlie troops from lliv castle Iheu bent a parley, submitted to bo> 
(oine prisouer^ of niir, and the wliole town surrendered. Il ww 
won after retaken by the p^rtiiinieut army, and Colonel Birch wt9 
appoiiUed fjoveruor of the castle. 

AAer tliis the works wcie dtsaianlled, and tlie place, in poiot.of 
. defence, totally iie^ilected. Duriiif' Iwo insurrections in the Dortb| 
iu bebair of the aUticated fiiniiK of Jamea, the inhabitants, frOBk 
the defenceless state of the Iowa, were mider.just apprehensions 
for its safely. For, had not tlie rebels been arrested iu their 
' |trogress by the battle of Preston l*a]is, iu the one esse, and d^ 
'Verted in tbrtr cour^, on t)ie otlier, before they had seu»d the 
Jmportanl post of Warrington, they would immediately have re- 
duced Manchester, atxl the taking of Liverpool would then have 
(troted a very easy task. Tliere they would have met uitb men, 
fihips, stores, dec bef ii eiiabletl to have ti>riiie<l an easy comoHt- 
«iicallt>n with the reheU in Ireland, and opened an inlet for fresh 
-^Auxiliiari^s from France. 1 litir desi<;ns wore providciilially tniH 
%rate«) ; hut Ibis can uever form an apology for leaving so import- 
^mi\t a place m> totally unprotecleJ, by sea and land, as it has long 
^'ecD, duriu'; the threats of invasion, and the apprebentious of te- 
'^iilt. For timugh a fort is erected on the bauks of tlie river at 
Uic N.W. end of the town, yet tlm istootrifiiug and weak toaflbrd 
Scarcely aoy protection to the place. 

Such are the ehuf historical and lopo^phical features and pe* 

^iuitiea of Ibe tecoud sea-port town iu Great Biitaiu ; but to 

OS detail. 

t\i lAKCASUtitB. 

ittxt\, inA iMTtiCTifariy tfrwrilM all lli« mbjffls aorl o1>JMt' 
rtcll; and colbterjlly coiiD<-ct«<l with rl, wmilil fill lh« p3j>» of at 
la^ roluinf *. Thote ubo wkL- for ni ore copintit inroniialiriii. 
in refen^d to lli^ tvorkt uhieli havr b«^n rnnsalird for lh« rore- 
{oing skekb, totl which will be particulari2«d at Ihe end of Ihh 

tiwrpool i« liUiaterf in 5i< 3?' north I»t, nii<1 5» 3(Y Irng. »\ 
tfce distuic« of 204. miles N. W. fMim London. The wliolt lown, 
with (U proper «ubulb^ in(lud««. BfYcnnltii^ lo a Mirvry liii4^ ity 
Ctisilu Eyie, in 1 7A5, an atca of 4,000 \atdi from ni>nh lb H 
toutl), sDcl ?,500 yan(f from rnit to wr«i. Ttic hit'ir sut^ h 
bounded by Itie river Meisey, niid on tite op|KM:ie M<tc arr Ihe 
(t6rd«TS of lli« (OH-oshi|M of Wcit-Dirby and Everlon t whiM 
TtmMh-Paik skirt* its toiillxm xidf. vml the uvtUirtu rrdt- JoiU 
the lounthtp of KirLdale. The mIioIc of th» area i« no*, bnw- 
erer, covered kiiIi buildingt, tlioagh lliv prartirr of rr>rc)iii<' new 
bou»e^, and forminf; new streets, conlinuni to pieni) lo an amat- 
iogexleut: and. if persevereinii. will id a sburt [teriod nccupjr 
the nhok- sjiaw, by a coniwcled aiwl upaHoiii town. 

Among lheciiiiii«nl imlivts of LJi'er|KioI, ibe naiiieH ofDEARB. 
^mtJptVF, and SruBa^i. ibr piiiiiler, ivit) l>e lon^ Temrnibered 
wltb mpect and »diiiii»tinn, by every Iriie lo«er of lli« Anr art?. 
who has had Ihe ple:iuire of examiiiing Eome of their best wnrkt. 
Georp Slubbs wn bom heie in 172-lt and died in London. July 
lOlb, ISOtf. Id early life he acquired some dislinction fur hit kntm- 
l«dge in aaatony, aodmoreparlkuljirty f(irtb:jt of ihe horw. In 
1766', he puMished a Irarued Mienlific nork, enlilled " The Ana- 
totuy of ihe HorM." including a partimlHr dMcHptioa of the 
bone», cartilages, miudcs, facias. Iig;ameais, iierves. arleriCK, 
veins, and iilaiMls: m eighteen lablei, all Avat from naiurc. Thb 
work obtained Iiim considerable rcpulaliou ; ai>d tlic miiiy etcet- 


'Thediipeof tht lown, aitmlioaand poNtiom of thcdocks; wilnm* 
ber of sitects, Mpiarei, itc. airv tril bid rionn in Uw greundplui «r the 
l»«tn. pnh1Ui([1 in No. XIV. <d rlic UrkUt Alia*: A MnDl) rnsrafed view 
of Ube town UV CO ftmn ihc epposile ride of iLa M«tMy, srcMnpauiei thii 


lent painting of horses, suici other quadrupeds, that he cootJoocd 
occasionally to esliihit at Somerset-House, established for him f 
permanent fame, in Uiis braoch of the fine arts. As a punter ff 
animais, lie evinced nut only a peculiar taste, but a itjie of ex- 
cellence that cnnferreil interest, beauty, and grandeur to bis p^< 
tures. Mad he rest salisliod wilh llie fame that he thus merited, 
and acqiiiretl, his faithful biogmplier would not have had ocuoon 
to notice the pour altempls Ht a new species of painting on nfdge- 
wiMxl pL.tes, thdl Ire e\lii'iit^d a short time previous to lits death. 
These jilutei liiivc been erroneously called enamel, and sonie cri- 
ticii hate iiijii:lici<]ii>ly praise. I then); but I cannot reflect on 
them, ur cliaracierize them, in any other view, but as the playful, 
or weak pro<lucliuns of genius, when strayed from the paths of 
judgment and ta^te. 

South of LJTerpool. and nearly adjoining the town, is ChILD- 
WALL, an extensive parish, uliich includes the cliape tries of Hal^ 
Sj^lce, GaTBtoi). Wa\ertree, Allerton, Great and Little Wolton, 
with several seats and manors. Among the latter, the raoff 
Incicnt and curious is the old mansion of Spskb-Hall, or 
Spbak-Hall, huilt mostly with limber and plaster, and when 
entire enclosed a square area or court. The bouse was formeriy 
lurrounded with a moat, and came intolhe possession of iheA'orrir 
fiiinily, by the marriage of Wiiliam Norris, Esq. with Joan, 
daughter and heiress of John Molineitux, Esq. of Sefton. The 
Nnrris family was settled here fur many generations : and Sir Ed- 
ward Norris particularly diitingu'shed himself in the battle of 
FlMden-field. A rauliUled pedigree of this &mily is painted mi 
nnvuss, and attached to an aucieut carved mantle^piece in one of 
the rooms here. This mantle-piece is esteemed a curious speci* 
ti^ of old carving, and n tra'tilionally said to have bees brougfat 
froQi Edinburgh Castle, after the battle of Floddeo, in 1513 ; but 
^r. HiucklifTe, in the XlVlh volume of the Archaeologia, p. 22, con- 
'"^erts this opinion, and concludes bis paper by saying — 
" Spieb-Hall certainly oflers au interesting scene, as an ancient 
"■iniion, where, although the hand of lime has already made 

3 considerable 


cwiud«rab1e mvacn, lh« senTal di<i|XMilinn of the aTtartrnfnU il 
qfill to be tracH ; ami llw earvini;, of tilitcb u dnwiiig U )tr«-WMl> 
cd lo tti« notice of llie SockIVi tawv itv Hvt>ii»-'l iil ku" »" Cir 
ctirioux, M it nifonU a $)Wfiiiit:[| of ihe luhle of ihU f^Dniiry, M><^n 
aAer the iaIrcMlurlion of llic 1l4lmn Brrhitfotuie, and wliirh, »• In 
pait (vf il, ulsfttcemi by no nteant v^ntincln tniniwr nxri'." 

The estate of S{Hke descencied from Ihe Nnriii Faniilv " lo th« 
UleTopham B«^»iH:l«rk, tiq. wbuMiKta, ihe prcwiit Mr. Brau- 
cl«ik. dJtj)OM-J of it to the Ul<r [Uchar<J Walt, Em|. "" 

At a iltort dutAoce to the etut of ^peke, Awi a) ib« loutltem 
eKiicmi); of ib« count}-, i» Hale-Hall, a M^t mikI «ti4ie be- 
longing to Jofeii B^'ttkhurne, E>q, oite tif ihe M. P. lor La»- 
catllire. This etlutc sppeirft lo have belouf-ed to tiie Ir^fand 
funiiy, unvn *(itt the raiKjuctr, aittl, uccordii>e lo H>uie eenralo-, 
gieal ace^uiil^ oue ut llieiti ^titi bumiJ in llie chjptl li<-|i>uf;!ug lo 
the Htilt(the ijri;:iDalsi'<i(};i)earl> ua I08H. A» heiips* uf iluit 
Ibuiily having tnariiecl Thoii>it» Bltti-kbumc, £m]. of Ortbnl, oe^f 
tV'iirringluii, (htriby con^'eyed tbij eilale jiito m new f-im W, and 
It liBi anc« devolva^d to the prcMiit posM^Mor, <i« li'ii* of 1*^ nbove, 
Mr. BUekbiime. Tl)c; uMtsI |>art xf iti« |)ri^rut ini)n4ii>ii, tlie 
iwrtli front, MpiHran to hiire been built b> Sir Gilbert Irelaiul, Iq 
1671, and coiititiiies in b lolcmblv prrtccl nl'^ti:^. A imxtiani front, 
tolbe itoulli, hui liiiflv Iw'eit errcUd, wikI Htb coiiinMii<li u fioA 
view urtli« river Meney, with the Ugh srouaJt of Clietbir^, aii4 
pwit!i of Noflli Wales. Tile n*cr here i^ u'wul Ihrer tiiilMi itrroxi, 
diid Mr. BbcWburuc, us lord ut lU minor of H->>^ ■■ eiiliiled lo 
fuur|K-nce for cvcr>' M^oel tlial aucfaors on the norlbrrn tliore of 
the liver, in Uiti disliid. Nfwr tin; bumc i» « dceoy-]»W)l, for 
t;tkinc wttd ditcks, teal*, Midi^eoRi, &c. Here it a Miinll fhii|i<rl, 
viiich il indi-pciiitcul Iff llic puri^lt church uf (^hihlMnll, 
[ 1|) Ihisclmijclry uds boin, in the yeiir |i7H, JoHJf UlOPi-B' 
TOS, conunoniy called Vl» " ChilUeJUah" vho ^w remmfc- 


* ArtteolotriM. Vol XtV. p. lO. nfacn: a llis'>t cti:Ui)£ b ^tm of 
diiiuiioy pwM almcfy icfcn cd t«. 





ilik for liii larcwi*iwi nf nUiriire, autl estraoMinary sinrnglli.' 'tt] 
n InKlirinoully rrpoflvil Imv, Itiut ud« o( IIh< Inluntt's ■ look bti 
Ift LMKJon. Bwl itilrwlitcr'l him lu llie ftrehence nf Kiii^ Janin 
(lie Fint, drcsl up in n ren fuilavltc ityl«. On fa» n-ltini iVota 
LraMlofi. t |Kirlnit M-aa tiV«B «f liim, whicb is (irvoertt'il in Ihaj 
librtrt of BMwit-iK>*e Cntk«», iit Oxford: hicI Dr. PluUt gi«<' 
lb«! fnlltitviii:* urcotint of him ;— " Jolin M i«l<li*loir, couiiimal/^ 
allMl tbtf Cliti-I nf Mule, wlHise ham), fnim the nqtus to lJl«{ 
nd et\iu! aiiMiv liuitn-, win wTenlMn iiiclivt: hn pulni vigbt J 
iacht-i 3iti1 a !talf ; ami bis height iitne fevt liiitw indies, wanttD^ 
bul six incite* tif the ^iIl' nf OoliaUi." 

All.ltHrc>N-HAl.l., BMir the chapcln,- of fianloTi, i? the »«l 
of WdHtm fif>*r9r, K«q. lh<> ItMrncrl intl i-kount uuihur of the 
lib of I.UTmir> rl« Medici, nnd lennil ottter ck^nt liKrery 
wocki. Thr l:niisc is partly u!d, aiid (uitW modutn, ami coifl^i 
nantfii ■ chrerful flew of the broarlrtt |>irl af the Aleisey river, 
mlb ibe hi^lt lauik alwut Ruiieum, in CItMhirel. This eslale 
fonncrl; belouf^ to ilw family of Uilltam, of AlUrtoci, atui Par- 

4 boU, 

' b • MS. Kc*UBt b«f*re mc, h« b rnUad Sir O^bert Iroland, ■< wbey 

ildl iMBe of tbe MkbtioniiaK Lminittiire c«ulr)'. diuncd tdra ott «illi larf.c 

lalwwt hi>»«ck *rt<l land's a Mri|mldoiit>^ci ofcrint'onanilvtbJEc roDod 

t wabl, ■ bln»nn1h- FiabfoiiJmnI wiihinld, In^nwlai* pimti bmc-lMS, 

wife UiM Oovcni (lera »lackiniri> j brMd «ImU( d'a Ucht oo- 

law, kBviif Uib ml beeta, iml lird wtili lurui; bein of nd libbuo : miA 

JmI bdavtaikRccawctr bwMkjatif Uia wiim culuai. with tar^v fcowB*. and 

^j bfa tido ■ nt'or't. MipenM by a bruaO bell ovet Ixii ibutiliJer, ami em- 

bttMeral, at bii (inllr, with blue uil jt^U. «>ll) ibc aiMiiion cr* ■ Kold 

fH^c aqiMi the e^^ V« ar« ti«tlitlMially inluniiwl, thtit bb oauuinc 

rin, •! one UMr, ftfetooKcl avray wime ihirTM, who r<3n>c In rob hit mo* 

ibcM booM.' In Ibo draM jnit d«tcnb«d ]» ^|>«wt id U* piuu«, ia Um 

tMMMhaof Ur. Blacbbunw. ai HaIc 

tHastot; uf StoffMMirr. 

% 4m TittW of iht bouM UBM*d. 

il6 lAKC&SUIKfc. 

bold, near Ornultirii, «hti «ilj it u> Alili-rmaii r«rcinil, of Liwf- 
|K»I, (mm wimni tt kiu puuliuvd h<i' Jubti Ilardmaii, nho *olil it 
to Uw picKiit |)ii»u.-Mor. 

Hi Oarslou u an uti) tuausian, called AlOBVKCn-HALL, nliiHt 
^uiuinly l>r)niijt(l lu tiH> THrlL-tua IJmily, auJ, uflvi }M3»iiig 
Ihiopgh diffeipnl ptopiielutv. cauie to Jului Tvlut^iu, Sm^. 8«« 
vcr<U ullwr tiauJMtiuc luudcm wals and old hulla, unuiMot lUo 
founlM huutli ul' IjwrfMMii^ and, uii tlit- lii|>li i;fi>utuU •■a*< uI' lUe 
tovio, an nunierous jJe^uanr, and wni*; elrguul viUai. bflouj'iiig 
lo thr vrrullliy invicJiitnls of lli»r )i;o«|)t-ti>iu wu-[u>Tl. ludcf'd Uis 
emiruiu of Uveipuul, like Ibtne of IjchkIuu, and some Oliver Urge 
dtiri 30(1 lontB. are tliicLly oovvrcd uiUi unglc boiucs, sud rona 
of Ijuilituig.^; awl drarl^r indicate lo Ibe |>jxuug lia^t:lier and Sit^ 
idgiier, Utal douic^ic comforts and liunrin un; Ibe ulliniatt r& 
WiUdj uf Eiigluli iiidiiMrj nud actit-e tulmt. 

Tlw pafi»li of Walton, cidlwl H'o/fOT oir fA<r //iVA from tbc 
clentrd sitiurtoii uf llir Witirrli, t-oiii)in-lieitd« a large tract of 
cougliy nmlli of Liverpool, and, tjcsidett tlitr pai Isli clmrcli, wliicli 
ii a ricti rccUint, bas iIh' cliajK-lrin of Formbj/, ir. Dnbj/, and 
Kirkbt/, dtT|M-iKlui)l on, nml iubuidinalv to it: buidet Ibe tatrvn- 
'flhipi of Toslvlb-park, Crostdb-park, Buoll«, FAcrlun, Kirk- 
,i^le, Faxaltrlj-, IJitacrc, Slnintnl's-wooil, RuverVMraU, Afc 
There wag an BJicienI tjiiiily of Wallun, of Wttllutt: " liic lut uf 
llic naiiit-. wbuuwnt.'d ^11 Ibe lands ill Wullciu, left tliKC daneb- 
t«rs. coltvin'uri, B^ one of Kkr), a ibiid part jtaueH to t|iu Ib- 
mily ofTdnhiily, in wbirh it cuiiiinutd till stild to iliv Uilir Earl 
of Urrby. Anolhcr pri Hint lo tli«- Ch<irtv\s, of Citu(lc>, but 
being futfi'ltcd in tbc rvbtUion of I71\ it yiu i^urcltaicd by Mr, 
CroRipIun and oliicts. Tbe ollicr ibud w«it to ibc liimil; of 
Hogblci, of lliedoccudiililB orvtliicb, luwet of 
tbe eriale wm sold to Mr. Allitilon *." 


* OcMfiptka «f Um twujtrjr i*i)m<1 MtMbrpttr, p. S<9. 

LANCAaniEB. Sir 

Sbfton b a parab and niHaur, which forinerlif beloiiged to tli« 

Ui^yiMiaiix faoiil;, who hiid a Kat here, wliich they poKtea«4 

from their Norinan aDcestor, William de Moulins. who settlod 

here on th« grant made bill) by Roger de Poictists. Previoui to 

the lalUr, this property was Iicld by the Thanes, who were tbi 

gni(ry of Die Anglo-SuKons *. The church at Seftoa is a lai^ 

ami haodsfiine pile of building, witli a nave, two wslea. aoditowv 

Kith a Meeple. It is taid that this building was erected in the tioat 

of Henry the Eightli, by Anlh<Hiy Molyiieaux, a rector of tUl 

place, and who was dislinguislicd for hb preaching, and for amy 

atts of piety f. The chancel is divided from the nave by a screeI^ 

aod cuutaiiu iixleen stalls of elegant carving. In this place are 

deposited llic rctiiains of many of the Molyiieaux family, and ae^ 

wral curious und fine monuments are still remahiing to perpetoatC 

Ute race. Amoiiir the^ are two cross-legged figures in stone, wiA 

Imii^lar sliields ; which, Mr. Pennant says, are espresMve of 

Uieir profession of Knight's Templars. These effigies are drewB 

io a book in the herald's office, from a 6ne pedigree sent them by 

Lord Sefton. Around an altar-tomb, of wliite marble, is an in- 

Kn|)tioD in memory of Sir Richard Klolyneaux, who died in 

'*3!), and Joan liis wife. He was Lord of Bradley. Haydik^ 

"'Tington, Nentoii, Biirton-wode, and Newton-in-lhe-dale; dii* 

""Suished himself in the battle of Agiiicourt, and received tbc 

""•"OurofLnighthood from Henry the Fifth. Effigies, in brass, 

/^Preserved of Sir William Moiyneaux, and his two wives: be 

^^lized liimself in three aclioDs against the Scots, in the reign 

*^eiiry the Eighth, and in that of FlodJen took (wo banners. 

^ Lancashire archers contributed much to the victory: and 

/"•"v, under his own seat, ^eut Sir Witliuiii a letter of thanks for 

""*<»are of it. He died in 154S. The figures of Sir WiUitm 

***>i)eaux (son of tlie la^t menltoued) with his two wives and 

'""■^en children, are also ex]>regsed in brass plates. On a flat 


See Peiiuant's "Tour fVniit Dawning to 4lsIOQ-Hoor,'' 4to. 18D}, 
tSee Lodge's Iritli l*eense. 


Stone ti preMrved (li« n»nnofy of Car>l Lord Molrtmux, on 
tmipent, l>ul umuccc^ifiriil ruyalttl ; bis Tuiuilv rabed a n-^imetri of 
foot aad aaolher of lior^c in Mippoil of Clutrlcs Uie PJnl : for 
wlii«h he va\ Mibjirtrd la |if avjr p«D»ltk« dntiii^ llic iisurfMltoo ; 
bat after the rctlctrulinit was ndmncMl lo hicli hnnon. In the 
bntkirii paint«>(l ^la^i of the wjudows nr« some )iitcrtj>l)oiMi re- 
cording lite rwpective maker*: amoHi* th^-m sirv, onr to Moly- 
BeauY, dated ISK; aivother to Margaret liul<?t«v, (taii^il«r to 
Sir Rirhard Mitl\-n«aut, dated 1543; ind o tUird to u IrtUnd 
pfL^diale, daUd 1540. 


b a populous nnrict an J nmnutVluring lomi. nhicb foimerij- 
belonged to the Caiiuiis of Bancuugli Priui^, in th<r licinitji ; and 
by a grant ftoui Edwunl llic Fint, to tliai rclijiious hoiur, wu 
invested wilb llie (nitilrgr of a market iuid (air. Tiits giant was 
renevrcd and confiimcd hy Edward the Secund. Lclaod's ac- 
count of llib l>ljc<: i» very conciie, as he aajs, tberc is " a porUb 
church in the town, ira river by it, but muncs on tmch side." The 
lann now conUin« fimr prioctpul utirRb, nliich inlertiecl each 
olbcr ne4rl; at ri»hi ungtei: iukI the spiniiin;; of colloa for Ibc 
Mimdwsler man u factories, and threw) for >ail clotli. coii»iilute 
the chief employ uflhe tnliabiljtnt». TheptUreiD^j^e of ihc church, 
and Uk property of tbc nunor, now brlung lo Ihc £arl a( Derby. 
Amiiaikable fralune u gitcii lo the cliuxxJi, by a lower and 
etcrplr, bein^ dilacied*. Witliinsidc ii n butitfl vault o( the 
Derby fduiily, i*li<>. pirvious to l!i<; disaotulioa of the luonablcnci, 
wttc iiitcricd dl Biirscou-b priory. E-Jward Ibc Third Earl of 


* Tlib odil rircimHlmre hai never tieni •atUiu'tority anenalc4 for . 
tliM>Kli il >• lisditiv>i»lly rt^tttd, that it uri;niulMl with tiro afuicloai 
■wien. wlxi wci« deuiuiu uf imbinKaoiui- iacT«*l uwmerW : uid nMiiKD ilwy 
■fmd (o builtl ■ lowi-f itn<i victfilc, jrl tbvjr cMld not iniTcc abeiM tuiilixf 
■nileonmcu<i{(tliEir worki: but at leug{b dBteniMUed t* ncci belli, •!<- 
bed (ti/Oi CKb mhtr. 

LAircASRin*. 1ti9 

Derby*, by will daled 15/2, directed that a chapel, wiHi ft <»• 
ntttery. riiould oe built at Ormikirii : aud that his body shoukl 
be interred there, and a TDonumcnt eitcted to b'a memory ** ai> 
cordug to his huaor and vocation." At a subsequent periud soSm 
of llie monuioeuts of tlie Stanley family tlial bad beea laised al 
Buncougb priory, were brought here. In the year 171.1, ll* n- 
carage of Omukirk vras one of the ntty-three small liriB*^ an^ 
oieDted by Queeci Aane'a bounty. The church, mliicb stands lA 
the N. W. end of the loun, on an rniiDeiicc, contains, amoog 
other iDODumeDts, " two figures of Slanlies; short hair, bandc 
closed,ltenUdsiuaullei4Ddarm5. Two ladies ia dose bodied gDwn% 
one with an Rarl's GoroneL Thew probably were the first Earl 
of Derby and bis two wives ; the lady vfith the coronet his second 
wife, tbe Countess of Richmond ; fur tlie first, who was sister 
to the famous Richard Earl ofWdfwick, died before he was created 
Earl. Tbe Earl, in his wiil, mentions " personages" which he bad 
caused to be made fi>r bis father, niuthrr, grandfather, and grand- 
mother, at Burscough. Probably all, except the ab'tve, were 
destroyed at tbe dissolution f." In the year 1801, this town bad 
apopujatioo of 2554 iubtibitatits. The paritb includes Krenl 

1 olbet 

* Ite flmeral of tUs DDbleman, wbo died at Latfama Ronse, October M, 
1574, and wu burii^d od tlie 4di of ttw followinf Oecenit>er, wm pecoliarij 
xaMipaBeeat, and condnrted nidi great poriip and parade. A particnlar ac- 
WMHt of it if preserfcd in Co iinil Peera^ estracted froni tiw MSS. of 
John Aatfi*, Enq. Garter King at Arma. Among other Uungs it states, 
tihat " dK chapel, aiid lioase, witb tfae two courts, itiould tw hanged witli 
blark cloth, and nniubed eirutcbroiii of lus aruu." A tiearse was erKted 
at Ormakirk. ** of five piiucipals, thirty fret of heiubt, tivelvv feet of 
leB|!tli, aud QJne feet of breadth, double railed, and garnished witb black 
dMb, velvet, frintcofwlk, ta&ty lined with bucktant: also gold aad tilrar 
OTBaomtoi Itehn, ertxt, and esratctieoiB." - This ata'.Hy lieane nai erected 
io tlie nave of tint diiircb, whera tbe bodf wat coudiicted bjr a araad pn»> 
•oemion ; and in wliieli it was deposited for tonie time, during the perljrmnaoa 
of ieverat faraul ccrcmuniet, and 4fterwards interrad in tlte chapel. 

t PcDoanrs Tonr from Downtoa ts Aiiton Uoor, p. 33. 

£tO t,AXC4SHIitE, 

oilier towntliiiM ui4 hanil«b; aii<l ut ubout two mWn nvlli ai« 
waie small reaiaias of Bcitscouou PsiOftV, ihikh was fi>u»dt:(l 
tn the time of RkUard Uic First, by Kvbtit Fitclieiirv, wlio km 
then iord of Lalliuni. TIii» Robert eudowcd it witb cofkMclrfsLIc 
fnpetiy, ciiioluxucuts, and altos; and wcoTiling to Ibc wc«k su- 
pentilion of the age, tbouf^t tltcnby to obtain |(ar<loo and rest 
for Ibe wult vf Henrjr the Seeoud, Julin Barl of Muivton, himsdr, 
hts MJfc, abd (lioscof Im aiKUlon; iit the same time uiibinj^ the 
kiDK^om of Jleawu to all persons wliw would incre-JMr tlie giAf. 
ftlid " givin» to llw INrvil, aod his ingds, all who tliould iw 
I>totuly infringe on bit bctiuettt"". — At IlKtime of ihedUwIiilioo, 
tJiis Iiuiue laainlaiiK'd a ptior and five canons of ibe Augustine 
0(d«r, with foily BcrvanU; and was eailom-d, nwnrding to Tan- 
aer, wtib au luiuiiitl iuconx of I39l. is. lOd. Of Diis once ci- 
tensiv« priory, onl^ a small fragment of uQsha|>c<l ruiu remain*. 
Contigooua to Bur^ioougb it 


Lathom-IIouse, llw scat of FdwardWilbbaham Boo- 
TLR, Hk). M. i'. Thi« pbc« u paiticul-ii ly diilingtmhed. a» t|ie 
•ndent residence and propetly of Hubert d< Filxhenry, or La- 
thorut: (e«'er;il of the Sinnlcy family : and luslK, tlif Bootlca. 
During th« c:ilamilauf dvil uais in Cbarle:) the Firsl's time, La- 
tbom, hkc Wardour Cuslle, in Wiltshire I, ft«|uired pftrlicutar 
renown in eonie<]uenceof the galhnt and heroic tesialaitee that \t 
ninnifGitiMl under the eomnmnd of Cliarhitle, Couul««« of Derby, 
nlw was besieged here by Culonels Egf rlon, Rigby, Aibtnn. find 


■ OwgUe't MuuHlicou, Vol. 11. p. 304. 

~ t tCn was one of ilit Bnmai wImim nnti* ar* rrenrded «■ a cnrious »•- 
■(■erifil fflUt Klliiuet*(henienio(«Ueti(ce ef Galnst in Die lMenty>tint 
fmtof Um Nlgn M* Ciltrant IheTJiinl. On Uiu oecawfln bn bad <UMlcr him 
ttiK hanin, et;bi taqaim, one kRiebl, and lireni«-i>iie« udien mi tianc- 
|]aci—FarMiMa«cotini of tttis *<<■£«, &.c. »«« Vol.l. et' tbcpiCKM wortt. 
voder ilic utide U Wuidtur-C^tilc. 


'. St* Btatitia of Wiltiltiit-, Vwl. 1. 

Iancashibe. Ml 

Hotcroft, fromtbe 3Stb of February, l64i^ to the STth of Hsy 
foUowiof;, when the cotnmandrr.withHreff his forces to BoitoO; 
The Earl was in the Isle of Mao during this time. In this attack, K 
ia stated that Ibe Parliament-anny lost above 2000 men, and j^ 
inarcfaed nearly the same number away. "The heroic, and mOtt 
undaunted Lady Governess was often without the gates, and somb^ 
times near tbe trenches of the enemy, encouraging her brave aid* 
diets with ber presence ; and as she conslanlly began all Iter aU- 
dertakhigs with prayers in her chapel, so she closed them wiUi 
thaobsgiving ; and truly, it ivas bard to say whether she was ra6rt! 
eminent for courage, pnidence, or steady resolution; or justice 
piety, and religion*." A description of the bouse, as it then 
stood, will shew how well it was adapted to resist tbe assailnlent 
of a considerable army. It stood upon a flat boggy ground, toll 
was encompassed with a wall of two yards in thickness. On tbb 
Hail nine lowers were erected, each of them mounted with A 
pieces of ordnance, so placed as to enfilade the countiy, toA 
command the af^niaches in every part. A moat, of twenty-fout 
feet in breadth and six feet in depth, surrounded tbe whole ; waA 
round the bank of the moat, between the wall and the graflP, mi 
a strong row of pallisadoes. In the midst of the bouse, was tfafe 
Eagle Tower, sumiounting all the rest ; and the gate-house, at tbe 
entrance of the first court, h^d a strong tower on each side. . Ob 
these the best marksmen were judiciously placed to harass the be- 
siegers, and frequently killed the ofiiccrs and olliera in the trencbo^ 
and in their passage to and fVom them. Tiie singular utuation of 
this house increased the ditficulties of the siege to an almost incr«- 
dible degree ; and tbe enemy was unable to raise a single battery 
against it, so as to make a breach iu the wall practicable to enter 
the house by way of storm f. After the siege of Lathom faoiue 
bad be?n raised, on Prince Rupert's arrival tliere, directions weR 

* milory of thebonse of Stanley, frro. eti. p. 239. 
t IfistorycftbeboiiKofStBDier, p.-SSl^, tM, he. 

SCAlttsBRltK-IlAtL. llic scitt of THofuai Etrlnte*, Etq. I» 
ftiUi iu Ibr t>orUh ■ f* Ili^Kal), at tlic <ta(nni^ of ibotil tlitrt 
Biilesuorlh from Onmliiik. Thf ohiwt, who sMhd litre n ir78, 
basparticnUrtydirttnpmlK'Hdimsflf f«»r Itfe !(p4til*<I iin|>rtw«n*fil» 
in Uie acMciiIIurv Iff hit riTirtf ; ami. to \ht ycji ITfKJ. received, 
from ihc S-K:kly of Art*, (!< Iirnn»rar\ ^M iiiwla! for lh« useful 
eflevit he prvxlute^l in tlnutiiii^ that strrilc miel nf bo^-lsntl mllrd 
Haitin-Mc«r. Mi^ V'^unl of thn siMiinni nn>i'ft;il[in<; h pub- 
liafiftl in lh« K\<nll) voliimc of Ihe " frflnwrf ''oiw"" of Ihal M>- 
cEety, whefdn he sla1«», tf>«l the " mwr ww frtmicrlT a Urge 
p«oJ, or bk* *f f«*h water, of nn rrrc^utiir f.irm, 8)irrf»uml*<l 
diiefly by (no«*f«, or boj^v latirf, CDtttaininj: near 1717 ncfcs. ftf 
t^l j«t(b lo tlie pok, Vrhkh if thf riitioiitary mr«i'>iir» of the 
n«(([hbo"rli(KM) (about 56'32 sishil» seres). Il Ik^ in tli* Jiffc- 
rent mflDors of S«trishriflc, Bnr*roii»h, Norlh■M^ol», fVleton, 
tmH Ruffont." To drain tit'a sta^.-naol pool, «'Si a fevoHle 
flchcDK- of a Mr. FVelwonil nf Bank-Hall, ai rnrty » 1fie yfar 
lUit'i ', hut aiHinu^h h« cut' h r.aiial fmm lh« mnr to lh« tea, aiitl 
MpeiHk'l considerable mmiuf monevinfonitTucltnrl'anbs flood- 
gnt9, &c. be Ailed in tfiV-ctiit^ hi« (ntcntifla, Unriinnayed b^ 
ttiis evMil, Mr. Kerfetfm, a-«ls»crt bv the srirulitir uml sJiilfnl mf- 
liecof Mr. Oklbed, of Woreiey, («tio Iiari j»<tiri«)iiiily piatineil, 
and ■uKe«>rully exeenteil, unmc dilftriili (nhjecis of engineering 
fnr the Ditke of Bridj^ewalpr,) rcsolvt-d !u mske »nnttier rifnrt 
toHnrds afroni|>li»!iinK thiv olijeet. " The pl»5 Mr. nitlwrt 
stniek cKit, whkh I have e\ecutp(l," «iys Mr. Ecrk*t'iii, " wi» lo 
Inve, in the nitirn sSiiioe*. three diRVn-nl fwir nf floodpales." 
TV ftr<t, lo keef out ihe «» ; the wcond, at abuul hiilf n milt 
diftimcc iKTirer lo ihe meer. lo «Sop the wii diff' in ra*f tor »r- 
ciilenl shuald huppcu to tlir find ; Diid tbe llitrd bnill H'tje lo, and 
m the «Hme wiillt (t itii the sea-j^ates, b-'l lo open «inl *l*iil in ii •■«>n- 
trary diteetioD. Ali these galea arc kfpl opeii w'len ihr title Ikis 


■ Tlie ilnke. or cnal, it nesrl} Grc milu in kcfth fron iht (ca-Qaln. 


"iSickiiUy retired ; and wheD the water rises above the lercl of 

"*^ meer, the sea-gates are shut "Tbus," continues Mr. Eo> 

"«rton, " by the great skill and superior tngenuity of Mr. Gil- 

^*^, the great obstacle to the pcrrect draining of Martin-Mcer ii 

^^Kk away, which ]iad bafiicd the many vain efforts of the pr(H 

'^'^^ors for almost a ceotury." A part of the laud being dnioed 

*" 17S3, in ibe following year some few acres were ploughed up, 

**•«! " yielded a tolerable crop of spring corn ; some yielded a very 

''^^riar kind of hay ; and the rest nas puslure, la the nekt year 

*^*^ proprietor prepared for oats and barley, by ploughing neariy 

^^^ large acres." He proceeds to stale tlie advantages that have 

''^^Kulted from this drainage ; and observes, that previous to Uiu 

^^x best lueer-lawJs let for a few shillings the large acre." In 

'- ^ &i, be sold some standing barley at 111. 17s. 6(1. per acre; and 

*^^ purchaser to cut, carry ofT, &c. at his own expense. " Good 

'^^^i^^dds, for several miles in length, liave been made acroH tfae 

'*-^^=er, by means of faggots, covered witb a stratum of sand. Tbe 

''^■•jawcred laud b now generally appropriated to pasturage, oo 

**^ *%ich horses thrive better than any other kind of stock. 

JIdffobd-Hall is seated between tbe meer already described 

**^^ tbe great road leading from Onmkirk to Preston, at tbe dU* 

^^^sce of about six miles north of the former town. This estate be- 

'*^*^ toSir TTumuu Daliymple HnlKtk. Bart, who has recently built 

^acw mansion on it, and much improved and adorned tbe park by 

^'^ plantations, &c. This estate, in the parish of Crovton, and m 

^^^ hundred of Leyland, has a chapel of ease, which was built at 

^"^ expense of 1 1 63\. raised by brief. Tlie dean and chapter 9f 

*^«ster receive 40l. per annum from tbb manor. 

SouTHPOBT, in North-Meols, has, within a few years, be* 

'^^Kae a plaqe of faafaiooahle resort for bathing ; aod its fine flat 

^**<is are pecuUarly &vorable to this healthful recreation. Hoe 

** ^ good inn, and Beveial lodging-houses. 



A maniifiacttiitiig tomt, a fated on )ii«li ground, on the great 
road bctMTeu Urerpool ami Watrington. ljf\aad aUi iliii place 
a " lille market, bavirtg no notolile walrr alwuit hit, a iiii mile 
frtiiH Mersey up tovnirii Ljrjiolir. Mr, Aloliiii-iiv, a kitiglit of 
^real lanilcs, a it inilet from Prolroile, dwellith al a pliioe called 
Crmt^fft. Tt>ktli^r, n park ol' l)i« kipg's hard l>y bis Iiuwmt, 
Knettenlff, a parkr Ita«ing a praty boiiM: of tlit; rrlc^ «r Drrli; 
Kilhia n mile of Prcatcod. Sir Williain "Hntyi duellitb at a lioiuc 
called S}w;rtri a ii or iii railo from Preilcud*," Tiib (Miriah 
Bbouods with colUctita ; und supplies the tonii of Livcrpwi>l, and 
many adjacviit pitcen, wrilh coals al a clwap rate. Among tlie 
manulsiclurcs of Prescol, Ibow of walcb-tuuls. and movetnciits^ 
and also imall fil«9uep4tnicii]aily ctlebrDtetl. Tlie former Lave 
been loiif cftablbfaed hen; ; atid, ia comequcocc of mious in- 
ventions and improvemeuts that hate onKi<>ale<l iu tbii lowu, the ■ 
tMoioeM i» naw carriMt on to a «>iiiiileral>le eKteni, A brp por* 
tion of tlic inhubilMnts arc regularly em))lo^ed in maliiag tlM 
movrntents, ipriii^, chain*, «u«, wire*, and nriooi oilier eom- 
ponenl parts of walrhen ; and also iu the tnanufuelnry <if I00I9, 
&c. fnr tl>e I.oiidoD ailizaiii. t\w. Hinall files are hIm) much va- 
lued for titeir »tperiurity of tied and cutting. Coarse nrtben- 
wnre, iail-«lalh, and colt<H», are abo tnHniifurlured tn tim l<ma 
and itsjicinity, 'Hie chureti tx larj;e, willi a lulty tlei-ple ; Nad, 
altarlted to tli« outside wall of the former, b a statue, in slaoi^ 
otJohn Oglr. uf PreM-ot Hall. — By a valuation of cbiircli living*, 
made Janujiry, 17A0', the rectory of Present was rated al 5001. 
per aniiuni. ll t» iinw a vkiiniije, and in the gtfl t>f Kai»'a Cul* 
kge, Canibriil^c. I1ic clia|>i-1ries uf t'ariuportK to Uk kmiIIi^ 
Haim/ord to tin- north, St. Helena and Smkr^ to the ca»l. are 
all within lim jiaiuib. Iu IfiOl, the tuWiuhip of Pieuot coa> 


•UiMtaiy, VoLVU.r«l.5S, 




tained 736 bouses, and 3,4,65 inbabilaots. Among the great ma- 
nufactories of this parisb, tliatof PLATE-GLASS, Hi Racenfuad, 
is enlitled to [>articuUr notice, as being the most complete and 
ample of (be kiud iu Ibis country. Id the year 1773, an act of 
partiament was obtained for establishing these works, aiid incor- 
porating the proprietors : but thuui;h this comp<iiiy apptrars to 
have spared oeither application nor expense, yet it Ikiled in about 
twenty years; and the proprietors Mere obliged to sell the pre- 
mises, &CC. in 1 794. In the same year, a new company was estab- 
lished and incorponted ; und, combining prudent with scientific 
maDagement, they have succeeded in tiniily estabhsbiug the coo- 
cero, and improving many processes in the manufacture. Cast 
plate glass, with concave and convex mirrors, are now made 
bere, of nzes and qualities etjuii], or superior, to any that have 
becD imported from the continent. Of the latter, some have 
been made thirty-six inches in diameter; and of the former. 
rate bundred and forty-lhree inches in height, by seventy-two 
indies in width. In these extensive works, which cover about 
twenty acres of ground, nearly 300 persons are usually employed 
u the processes of melting, casting, blowing, jiolishing. Sue. The 
'Com, or hall in which the glasses are cast, b two hundred feet 
^^& ^y seventy-eight feel wide ; and its roof is supported by 
■<^Ay pointed arches. In it are three furnaces; and the table on 
^liich the plates are cast, is a solid piece of copper, fourteen feet 
^**g, by eight feet in breadth, and seven inches thick. Two 
^^gt steam engines are employed for grinding and p<i)ishiug the 
S'^^ plates. At tlie coinpauy's warehouse, near i-iaiLfriars 
^*^dge, London, a gredt variety of specimens are to be st,eu. 


''^m its advantageous situation on the Sankey canal, and 

irotu ii, natural characteristics, has gradually increased to 

* town of considerable size and consequence. A most exten- 

••^e copper work was established here abuut the year 17S0, I'y 

1*2 the 


tbc propmtois of Ibe raTrvmtnc, in Aoglewa ; and it it iMeil, 
in the " Duscriptiou of thv couiitr}- rouad Msacheeter," ihat 
20,000 tons »( wv ure utiiigally tmvllcd liere aad at aoollKr uf 
tlie company's works on tlic »nic canaL " Tlw Ravciib««l 
WOffcc BBiiuruclurv tliirt)' luos weekly, i>r small copper ban {not 
SMTOl ounces troy wciglil), f«r Ibc Ejst Indiu Catupanv. whicb 
Hre cxporiMJ to CItiuB, mid suj>po>ed to pats for coin. T1n*c 
ban arc drop! froni lb« mould into wat«r, wlicii a» vfferrcaMoce 
be{;ias, in a fen niiauto, to take pl«cc at o»c cod, and ptocccda 
IfuicUy to Ibe otb«r, by wbich lite bar b dtattced, from aleftdea 
faue, to Uie coMurofred »ealiiig-»ax *." In the vkioii; otTre** 

tot, is 

. Knowslev, 01 Knowslby-Pabr, an aocMiit leat belMtgii^ 
IoIIk Eatlof Derby. Th<- park is cxtct»it*c, and abounds willi 
fiite woodi; but manj nf the largest 1re«» art iKarfy stripl of lh«ir 
foliRgp, and sntnlkr braticlifs, «nd Blop« lowanls the iiortli-«a«t. ■ 
S«aled on an eleraled pRtt of tbe porlc, i* \he m:inwin, a buildtng 
lliat lijiii rviditilly Ik-CD crvclvil nl diU'cnnt periods. The xaotX 
ancknt psrt, nhicb is biiill of slon«, and has two round towcn, I 
iinid, in the wurk jusi quoted fioni, to liave Ueen raised bj 
Tbonnas, Ibe Unl Eailof Derlij, for Uie renplioii of hu »oB-b- 
law, Kins; Hnir; thv Stn'rntb ; but, in the " Hbtory of the boaia 
of SUnkv," it U staled, Ihal llic Earl ouly " culargcd big boDsc, 
at Knawiky, bv tb« stone building, and repaired and beaolifird 
Ibe otber p»il ; aiid aUo Hint of Lathaiu." The pr«pu9thm 
made by tlie Eail, in cooM-tjucncc of the Royal vitii, w»re iipoa a 
grand seale : for, besides cnlar^ti^ find decoratiog fait maonooi^ 
** bi- purchased a ruad, finni llie crosft-ways leadiog fmni Sanlc^ 
sod Winwick (dow oUlcd Matkct-g^te.) to tbc river, through tbe 
field, now called D[iilgo5.ireel ; and, at tbc botloni llwreuf, crcd - 
«d a spacioui sloue bridiji?, and threw up a c«iKi)«y acroM die 
warriia, to tbe riiiag ground on tbe Cbetfatre skle, and kept HmTi 



"Psst i ip U a a ^flht CMntij isaod MancbkitM," tie. 4ta. p-9l«. 


fanem repair all hit life, and hia successors aflerbim, to Um 

line of Waiiam Eari of Derby *." Tbe additions wliicb were 

tbeo made to Knowdf}- ntamioii, are not precisely defined ; and 

llie oe^it account ^^ any alterations, refcn to the time of Jaine% 

Ibeleolb Ear), who was an active public character, during tbe 

rti^s of William the Ttiird, Queen Anne, and George tbe FirsL 

He died at Koowdey, id Februaiy, 1735-6 ; but for some time 

jmnotis to his decease, be had retired to this seat, and made 

peat additions to the house, &c. The work just referred to, 

ipecifies, that be rehult the old seat, " af^er the modem way, ui 

Uw most sumptuous and beautifi'.' manner," ami caused llie foir 

loving "calumniating inscription," as Mr. Pennant styles it, to 

be cot on the fronL— " Jaatet, Earl of Dehby, Lord of Man 

niihe I$lea, grandton of Jamra, Earl of Derby, by Charlotte, 

iaughtrr of Cloud, Duke of Trfmeuillr, who was befuadrd at 

BoitoH, the 15M October, l65l,for ttrenuoutly adhering to 

King Charles the SeeoHd, who refuted a bill, unantmously passed 

hy both Koutet of parliament, for restoring to the family the 

tttites vhich he had lost by his loyalty to him." Of the ancient 

and honorable family of Stanley, the house contains many por- 

butt; some of which are curtoiis as works of art, but more inte- 

mtiag, as serving to perpetuate tbe likeness, costume, &c. ofper- 

■<n> who have, at dilTerent periods, been distinguished in the tented 

^M, io the senate, or at court. Among tbeseare the following: — 

IWtrjif of Thomas Lord Stanley, afterwards Ear) of Derby, 

™mA in black, with the George, v' a bonnet, small ruff, and a 

^uteffand. Thb nobleman was an active character in tbe reig»s 

^Elward t)R Fourth, Richard tbe Third, and Henry tbe Seventh. 

nt'flrjt disringuished himself at the siege of Berwick, under 

^«Wd, then Duke of Gloucester ; and for his fidelity to £d- 

]^ aiid'lib ciiitdren, be provoked tbe hatred of tiie Usurper. 

*K Qtrrovil} ettaped assassination at tbe council board, at the 

/^liM Mi hyioAnMin^ vns dragged from it to execution. At 

'"■'■" p3 tbe 

*■■ ■i ^'»-iBtitaty»iilie1>wHierf3toaey, 8?o. p. 105. 


th* mfmorfibJe baHl« of Boiworlh-lield. he Joinpd Hnry, Earl of 
Richmond, Hhoro lie had tb« honor of {-ronning nitfa thecoraoet 
torn from the tirows of the fUin Ivrant. For hb bni«'<fy on Ihfo 
occasion, he wiu«mleil Earl of Der1)y, sod rHeived mnnv olber 
hononry f^ivitre frum hit monarch. He died in 1504, and was 
buried at Burscongb. His mcowI coniort, 

PtrfrAt'/ of Margaret, Codntiss of Richhokd, b repm- 
■cnled in a icligiottt habit, in the ad of praving. Tlie £ai1 was her 
third husbuHl; and, aHer (be old lady hadsittatnl lierwlfntth the 
pleasures of life, she requested, and obtained pennii&ion of iier 
q>ou»e. In «]>eiid llie rennindtr of ber li(« in rbutiiy, sod, a^ ] 
cordbg to the inatioiml custom of tbe limes, morlify both her 
" Ae»h and tpiril," in arti of ^«lf•dp|>tul and )Hii)i»hii»iil. In tbe 
pmeDce of Disbop Fiiher. she made this vow of diostity ; and 
atlrrwards wore virdles and shin» of hnir, !■> iTrilMi^ iind rlmUbc 
tbc " siaful flesh." la liaiiKbtliig rcligiooolwoks, aud perform- 
big many nds of charity, she approprialrd much of her time ; 
and amon<; otiirr " pious dcedi." she founded Sl John's College, 
at Catnbii(t)^ *. She was daughter to John Beaufort, Dnke of 
Sonieiset ; vaa lirst BUirrird to Edmund Cnrl of Richmond, ute- 
rine brnlher to ]tenr> the Sixth, and nHerwardi to Sir tlenry 
Stufibrd. Bjr tbe former husband she bud Henry ilie Seventli. 
Stie diet! June ?9i 1^09. and was buried iti tbe sumpliiODS cba- 
pel ivhich that monarch erected at AVcslminalcr. 

Porlrait nfGB.OtiOE, son to llie l)n>t Earl, nlio died in the 
life time of bis liitticr. He rtta a youof; man of promising talents^ 
aad disUnguisbcd hniiwlf bolh iu tlie cabinet bimJ in the &cM, be- | 
in^ Rplioinlcd coniiiiiMi"iKT lo treat nith ibc Scoli, in the reign of 
£<lw»rd, and ut that of Henry, »as very tRrirumeutal la tbe de- 
feat of tbe Yorku-ts, at tiK cooctusii'e battle of Stoke. 

Portrait of TuouAS, SECOND Eabl of Drrby, who be- 
came surely in a ^0,1X101. bond, for lite pcifonustice v{ lIk inar- 
mgt conlnct betveen Mary, third daugblct of Hcury Uie Se- 


* See Bmiliet, be. T«1. IL p. 69. 


«nth, and the Prince of Spain, afterwards Charles the Fifth. 
He was present at the celebrated battle of Spurs', with Henry 
the Eighth, and sat ou the trial of the ill-l'aled Stafford, Duke of 

Portrait of EDWARD, the THIRD Eabl of Derbt, paiuted 
by Holbein. This nobleman was the greatest character of tht 
ige, and is the theme of panegyric to many writers of that pe- 
riod. Uot/df, Slow, and uther authors, liave'descanled on his 
niiniliceDce, loyally, &c.; and the former quaintly remarks, that 
" his greatness supported his goodnesi, and his goodness endeared 
hia greatness." Mr. Peoi^ant observes, "he is the finest example of 
4e ancient independaot English nobihty that remains on record, 
ile lived among his people, ready to sacrifice his life in the cauas 
of his prince, when popular tempests arose, ant to insult hioi with 
impertinence, faction, and iugralituile, like the independanti of 
'ater days J." Slow says tliat he offered to raise 10,000 men 4t 
-bis own charge, in defence of Queen Elizabeth ; and that his hos* 
P'talily and house-keeping were so " famous," that he kept 
*' eleven score on checkroll $, never discmitiauiug, the space of 
'^♦'^Ive years. His feeding, esp^'cially of aged persons, twice 
^~<Msay, three score and odd ; besides all comers thrice a-weck, ap- 

P 4 pointefj 

The cnrioiM old painting, reprewqtlng Ibia event, and descrilied in Vol, 
* V>~ iiT, lit thi) work, luu b«en preaeuted by bii Majetty to the Society 
'^^ vtiquariea of London. 

t State Worthiei, Vo). I. p. 433. 8vo 176«. 

^ "Your fTom Dowidng to Alatoa-Moor, p. i6, witcre tiiere it a paClry )>iint, 

^^snding lo be a portrait ef the abovemanied Dobleiiiari, iiid««d, tlia 

. ^^'sof tiie prints in that volume are coatemplibly bad : aud we rannof 

C^ regretting, that the respectable uame oTPennant should be attached to 

^^'^ « volume, many pauages of which «r« uD4cluiowledg*d extnuJi from 



* This was a roll, or book, eontaJnin;; thenamei of rach lervaiits, he. as 
^**C in tiie pay aud service of great perwui, 


poifltcd far lib ilcalin^dnn; and evrniOMKl-fridar, tl>c»e Urirlj-lira 
Tev3( uficvrilli unvthcr, Iwo lli(Mtaii'J Kvni liaiiilml, witb meal^ 
driiik, unMiev, ukA nione>>-worlli, Hi.t tcarl} |iwrlii>n, inr Ibtt 
e&penMS of bis bouse, 'iMOl." A>lieltY<:<l that laagntfioenllyt 
bedifed Kfirjitly rri;rcllc<]; untl, u hiu been alrvadv stol«l, f»gfi 
2I9> "^fts iDteiTerl »'.tli dial in:;ui:ili««l pomp at Onn^lirrk. 

PorlTtiit ol' fiBNRV, FotiiTit Karl at Uhbbt, who Ind 
tb« honor of IIm- nnbau^, to 'niwt Mean t!ic TttinI, of Fraocr, 
wtlti lh« uHer of Uw )iarter : Hnd t'le niorliticatir n of l>entg ap- 
poiultd nne of ibe.|ui1gi-« of Mur^ Sltnrl. 

Partrail of Fkbd:nAND, pipth EarL "f Dkbb*. who 
vmw mt <4)', eurl^ in life, by jioistm. A partinil»r accduni of Um 
)rn)|-tQnt> prec«lui|t liu ili-alh, &«. is pralei) in tltc lour jint rt- 
ftnwij lo, etlracird frutn Cioiilen'* annxlc of Elisibcth'k reiga ; 
bv whkli it npficini, tliat tbe murtlerer, liLing arlvairiaKe nf ilie 
iu]>enliciiius fully of tlie agt, cadeavttaKii tn hcri-rn himself bjr 
exdliii;; a belief, tlitl Ihf Fjirl died l>y lli<> infliienr* of inldi- 
eran. In aii iastriinHiit cuU»l, " a lrui> r^jiori uf kueh nMOOft 
and c(tnj<-«-ttim an cauvit niiui^ leurued men In t iipfmse liim to 
be bewiicUed," it a tv\Mv4, Ihnt *' Sir Edward fiilon, who, 
Milh rrihi-rjuitltCM. exaiiiitiefl certaiii K'i(fi^», lepiwlctli, flat one 
of tbem heiog bidden lu s»\ tlir Lord's jiraj'er, uid il wi-li : but 
beinK coiyurvd iti lite ii;inif of Jcnia, Ibit tf ibe lud benitdied 
hU booour, she should be able to say the tame. U>e ii«vi>r coufd 
repeat tbut \n:l\tu>n, /orgivr tu tmr trnpuv^t*. an, ni)t although 
it WM rejiezted unto ber. — A boniel; wuniaD, abuul tl]« agr of 
ftO}', vr» fuuod itiutnbliiig in a cunier of his faojtour'a cbanber; 
bill wbal, (iw\ Viw\tf\\ir f^eienil oilier e<)ii:dl^ fnroloiis atxl 
!itu|>ii) rircunubDces ate ilelailed to prove, as then nilcudnl, the 
puwerof witchen ; but all of wbirh rattier exemplify the nicked 
craftineK of some perwns. aiid wciik crwlii'lty of rillien. 

Portrait of Wii.LlAM, tlie SixTH Earl of Pkiiby, wIio i» 
piialcd in full ktigtb, nhh a hi^U ciovrucd hat, and ia llie U- 
sliioiiubk drcu of Jaiites llie Flint's rti}:n. 

Portrait ot 3 AMUs, ibe Ssvjinth Earl opDbsbt, dnlki- 
gimlK-d for his tnjall;, courage, and IragicBl end. Tbe tnilj 

DtajniR' - 


nugnaoinious conduct of bis lady, the Countess of Derby, bat 
already been dtscribed, page 221; and bis bravery was eqoaUy 
emiaent, and often put to the lest during tlie unhappy civil waia. 
As a proof of liin extraordinary influence in Lancashire, when be 
was directed, in l6i'2, to assemble his friends and forces in be> 
halfof the unfortunate King, it is stated, that no less than 20,000 
men came to his standards ou each of the heaths of Bury, OrtB>> 
kirk, and Preston. 

At tliit period, it ivas first proposed to erect tlie royal staodtrd 
at Warrington, where such a force would have proved peculiarly 
important; bnt in consequence of raising it at Nottingliam, tbb 
advantage was lost. Tlie Earl, hoivever, subsequently mustered 
three regiments of foot, and three troops of horse, at his own ex- 
pense, and turned them over to tlieuse un<i commandofthekingi 
The most memoraltle instance of this Earl's courage, occurred at 
a place called Wigan-hanr, in lliis county, where, in l651, bs 
vigorously opposed his little army, of only 600 horse, against tbe 
enemy, consisting of 3000 troops, commanded by tlie determined 
Lilburoe. This sujitiriority of force com]>clled Uie Eari to retreti j 
but not till he had been wounded, and had one horse killed uDder 
liim*. He afterwards sou;;ht refuge in the isle of Man, vbkk 
place he was summoned to surrender, by Colonel Irclon, bnt tc- 
Rst«d the demand, in a letter which displays peculiar clor|uence of 
tt;le, and magnauicnity of sentiment f. He w»s at length tre^ 


" Sec Clarendon's History of the Rc!i«tlion, Book Xin. 

* " I received yoarletlernilhiniU^-Dalion," lie writes, "and wltbsconi ItB- 

"^'yoaiUis answer — 'IIihi Icanuntbutwonderiviii'uceyousbouldgatlieranf 


' ** eannot be ioGenublc of my t'urmer actings in his late M^eaty's servicv, 

/^ which principle of loyally I am no way departed. I scorn your prof- 

"^^ i I (fiidain your &von» ; I alihor your treasons ; aud am so far from de- 

**'ing i]]u island to your advantage, that I will licpp it to the otmost of 

™y power, to your destnicti«i. Take this final antner, and forbear atj 

"'llwr toUcitatiou ; for, if you trouble me with any nure «tePMfie* npoa ' 



panned by the Parliameutary partv, carried bcfuir a court-mar- 
tial, at Chester, sentenced to death, and unrelentingly and bar- 
barously executed at BoUnn, in Oiis county, where he fell with 
tbe firmness oT a soldier mid piety of a Chrislian, April 1, 1651. 
Collins, in the Peerage, has detuiled an affecting account of (he 
beroic conduct and sp-ech of this nobleman, when on the scaf- 
fold *. lie wag not only a warrior but an antiquary, and wrote a 
small topographical work, which lias been priuted in Peck's Desi- 
derata Curiosa f. 

Portrait of Charlottk de i-aTrkmouille, Codntess 
of Debby, wife of the preceding nobleman, and daughter to 
'William, Prince of Orange. 

Portrait of Charles, Eighth Earl of Derby, who 
joined Sir George Rnoth, and okher insurirenis in \659i but be* 
ing taken prisoner, he was confined 'till the following year gave 
freedom, but not content, to the long depressed royalists. Durii^ 
the civil wars, this family tost most of its landed properly ; and 
after the restoration, some of the Lords, in itarllatnent, formed a 
private bill, for the ptiq>ose of restoring, to this loyal Peer, the 
estates which had been sequestrated. This bill was strongly op- 
posed, and rejected, without coming to a second reading, or be- 

tbiR Dcrasion, 1 will bnm t1i« paper, and h.inf; the btarer. Titis is the in- 
nintdble rrM)liition,anil sliallbe the uodoubteil pmcliceof tum who accouDts 
it the chiefcst glory to be 

His Majesly'i most loyal and obedient subject, 


CasUc-Town, Jn'y IS, 1649. 

• See also Lord Somcra' Tracts, Cull. If. Vol. II. p, 507. 

t It is entitle<1, " Tie History and Antiqailies of the Isle of Man, by 
James, Farl of Dcr'iy, and of M'tn ; with an scconnt of his many troutdes 
and lowcs in llie civil war, and of hb o%m proceedings m the Isle of Mao 
AiiiDjIiisrcsiilirife tiicre in 16W. Inlerspetsed with larce and excellent 
advices (0 his E011 Ci^ar'ts, LonI .Strrnce, opoD many curious points. Prom 
the original (all inliis Lordship's own band writing), in the hands of the Hon. 
Roger Qalc, £»q." 


iag submitted to'the King ; though the inscription already f;uoteil 
states otherwise, and reiiroaches the monarch for refusing ha 
assent to the bill *. 

Exclusive of the above, here are several other portraits; and 

also a large collection of pictures, by the old masters, some of 

ttliich are works of acknowIed<;ed merit. The chief of these were 

collected by James, Earl of Derby, who patronized a Mr. H^«- 

»tanlnf, a native of Warrington, and sent him abroad pnrjMHelj 

to purchase tlicmf. I s!imU britlly S)>ecify the titles and siihjcctsof 

a few of these, A holj) familif^TnihU. The feant nf Behhaz- 

xar — Rembrandt, The Roman Augur — S. Rosa : BanHiUi in 

a rocky Landscape ; also Hagar and hhmacl with the angel« 

fcy the same sublime master. The \up'\ ilriviiif; Adam and Eve 

^rom Paradise — Denis Calvert. A Wild Boar Hunt — Snyden 

^d Rubens. Tiie feast in a gallery, ami The Wife of Pilate in> 

Kercedin:; in hchatf uf our Saviour— Paul Veronese. Our Saviowr 

^tlterring Ike Keys to Peter — Vandyck : and Tlie Descent from 

^ke Cross, by the same master. The Love of the Arts, repre- 

^-ented by a beautiful figure of C«|iid leaning over rich armour, 

XDusical insttumeiit.x, pictures, and pieces of sculpture ; a iim 

picture, said, by Winstaidey, to be the joint production of Sny- 

rfersand Vandjck. Si. BarlhoUmew, by Spaguukt, which Mr. 

Fcftnant calls, "a horribly fine picture." 

^Uodemus comuiuning with our Saviour by night — Tintotet. 


■^•trough and market town of considerable importance, in « 
' * ■ mercial point of view, is situated near the rise tif the river 
***^glas, whose banks are celebrated as the scene of l!i€ memo- 
* « defeat of the Saxons by King .Arthur. So far back as (be 
^*-^^ of Leland, Wigau is called, a " paved tonn, as big as War- 

• See Drakes Parliamentary History, XXIII. M, S3, 
t Heetcbcdtweuly of tlicse picture!!, vtliidi are published. 


riD|;ton, but better bnilded, and inbabited bv some roercbanls, sr- 
liSoan, and fvnicn." In its prcsnil tUlt, it hm s n^-si, tboiigb 
Irrejolar appearance : and Ins been (aid; mucb improvetl, by the 
efwuing of Iwn new itrect*. and the erection of tewral liamfaatiw 
buildiiT»%. Ati exleuuvc trade is curwd on in the mami&trture of 
roaixe Awnr muttf Uimhtkl, clied^s, calicoes, fiuliaM, and oUier 
cotton goods. Ikie are alao large briUS ainl pewter works. 

Wignn »a borcMijjh, bjr prncription, and fia* lad ils [rrivilvgn 
confirmed hv ibc several cbiitcrs of Hcatj' ibe Tlilnl, Edward 
ttie Stxund. Edward ibc Third, Rirhard like SecoiK), uidCltnrtm 
Ihe Si-cowd. Its corporate bodj consists of a Ma^ror, Recorder, 
tweIi>-G Aldcrmei}, and l»o Bailifls. Two Mewlien arc relumt-d 
lo rurliitmcnt ; aitd tiie riglit of election is vested in tbe free bur- 
gases, in niirubcr sboat 200. TIic rrprcwmtjtion of Ibii borotigfa 
bu ooasinTK'd some very expensive coulcsts; and it b said lo bave 
cast tieorge Hui;, Ehi. 1 0,0001. in bis opposilioii to tbe interest 
•f Sir FletcLer Kotton, awl Sinioii Luttrcll, E«). Relums sp* 
pear 9o niiy ta 23d and S31b EdH-uixJ llie Firet, afler wbich the 
liiivifege uas suOcied (o be dunnuot for £40 ytnia, uu oltier re> 
turn being inadc till 1 IJdward ibc Sintli. * 

Tbe l*attali Cliurcb, Hliicli is aiicicnt beronil aoy tnidilioaarj 
account, is counaoulip' ciUicd an baRttsomc structure, comjimcd 
of a asvc, n sp;iciou» cLancel, and two nde maini. Tbe otiuijtal 
clisitcel v>as taken down and rebuilt on a larger snie, about tbe 
middl«ortLc iCTciith c^iitun', in z fl>k conespondiiij; witb tbe 
re»l of Ihe fttbflc, bj an ancestor of tbe pte^nt LonI Bradford, 
who is 1h« jpatroo «f Ibv IMi _;. Ti ■■ -tAy mouunKnts Wortit^ 
nolir« »re, one lo tlie momojv oi' Sir tti^ff Bradtka(fJi, »tio 
v'liiuenlly distinptiUii'il binuelT by bis Kcaloiu loy.1t(^ in Ibe ciiil 
war of Charles llie Fb^t — and an ullar and tomb, now inucb ob> 
Kured bv Kiieee-uive eunlsorwbile-wiksb, of Sir llViiam, anii Tjiity 
JUaiti, ttredtliai^h.nhv liittt tii lb« reigti of Edward the Tliird, 
-Within Ibc Cvmniunio(i-r.til«, nrc dep'Miiled Ilie remaJnt of Dr. 
OcORr.E Hals, rector uflbU church, and bishop of Ct>e4lM>, 
wlio ditfd .».ugii!t 31, I6<i8. Tie rectory is one of the be«l 






cadowed id the kingdom : and the incuinbent is always Lord of 
the Manor. 

Witliio the town b a cliapel of the establbbment, also tfaie* 
disGCnting meetings, and a Roman Catholic place of worship. A 
Town-ball was built in 1721* at the joint expense of the Earl of 
Barrymore and Sir Roger Bradshaigh, the then re|>reseat-ative3 wf 
the borough, A Frte-sckoel was erected, and liberally endowed* 
about the beginning of the last century, by voluntary contribu- 
tion; and upwards of thirty years ago, the same liberality estab- 
lished a B!ue-coat-ichoo\ for thirty boys. A commodious Work- 
kouse has been also built at the toivn's expense, where the neces- 
ntous, and superannuated poor are comfortably accommodated^ 
mduslrr, in the more able, is furnished wilb the meani ; and the 
meritorious are eocouniged and reivardcd. A Diapeiuary, built 
of stone, has been hitely erected, and is supported by the benevo- 
lenee of ibetown and its vicmity, where tlie |>oor, when properly 
recommended, have the benefit of the advice of an able and es- 
f>erienced physician, and are provided with medicines gratis. The 
best surgical assistance is administered in cases requiring it. 

At the north end of the town, is a monumental pillar, erected 

tn lti79> by Alexander Rigby, Esq. then Sherilf of this county, 

%o commemorate the valour and loyalty of Sir Thomas Ti/ldaUtf, 

who was slain on Ibis spot, in l651, in the action wherein the 

"^Earl of Derby was defeated by Lilburne. 

In a field near Scholes Bridge, contiguous to this town, a spring 

^•as lately discovered, which has obtained the name of Wigan- 

^^ipa, or New Harrowgate, as the water resembles that of Han-ow- 

-^S^te, in Yorkshire. It is highly impregnated with sulphur, and has 

%:^>een successfully recommended in various cutaneous disorder*. 

-^^Ji appropriate buildmg has been erected for the use of the in- 

'^t^stlids resorting to this spring, with conveniences for drinlugg the 

'^"•raier, and for using it either as a cold or hot bath. 

The population of Wigan, which has been progresGivc'y io- 
^reasiog, was, in the year ] 801, according to the return to p«rli»- 
'*"e at, 10,9S9, the uimber of houses Z23t)'. 



Tlie parl^Ei of "Wi^^^m coiitaiii» tH'dv« lowiuliipa, in 
whicli, ht'Piidcs liiaL iu tlieluun, nrv chupcls of tbe eM-^lilJ^^inKDti 
iulii>riliii»<L' to tlie motiii^r dinrdi. Three of ttiese lowiubips, 
II \ir!H, Afipr"JALL, aari HiNDLEV, «re wortlty notiw, far (he 
|iriJilu<'IJon {if Hip tiuest cautiml or canille coal, which a found in 
luii^c l)lii('k^, [li black as jet, anriwill b^ara b«aiiliful |>oIish. Tbe 
bi'il^ nr« ul>o(it tiiree feel in Ihtcknesg; the veins liip one }!1t(| in 
livfjirv, 'riinl lire at coiisidcrabli; dejitlit, uitli a block bass above 
autl Utluu. Tliis cual i& uot uuly an agreenble species of fuel, 
bill is cii|mblL- of bdng ttiatiti fatlured iuto vurious ornainculal 
lilensils. Oil an eaiiiieaue iu this township, about a miic uoitb ol 
Wiijaii, h 


IIaigh-IIall, tlie ancient seat of ilie Bradskmgha, a fad 
of hi;^l) uiilIiLuity aud tlislJactiuD, but now exljnct ; tVuin uhuui it 
deai^eiiJed, U_v niamHge, to the 'Ezri of Jialcarrat, who now re- 
.siiles here. Tliis vciienible inaitsioa was built at difTerent periods; 
the rhajiel i? t>u|>|>used Iu be coeval with the reign of Edward If. 
Iu llie fiiiiit arc llic arms of Stanley and Bnid^baigh. The house 
cdiiluiiLS sdiiie excellent jiorlraits and other pictures. Adjoining 


K ^snol HJiolan of tbe.d^iteeDtfa ccntut?, and more paiticuhrl; ' 
^^■«bnted for tiw critical sagficity whicb he displayed in a v»- 
2^-lLy of valuable publicaticws. He was the youngt:at of twelve 
-kasldmiof tbe Rev. Ralph Markland. A.M.' virar of Oiildwall, 
^r, this ooonty, author of " The Art of Shooting Flying," and waa 
«7n there in the.year l6B3. As the fricod and cotenipontry of 
|j^ leanied Bowyer.many intere^ng menionuls of hislife'and 
^j^- citings are preserved in Nichols's anecdotes of tliat geutleman. 

Upon quitting the univenity, Mr. Marklfuid received a liberal 

^yvcposal from Dr. Mead, to travel into Frauce and Italy, m search 

^ff sach literary treasures as ap)>eHred worthy of preservation. . 

S^me accidental occurrence, liowever, iu the progress of this 

(■e^odation, gave ofieace to the natural delicacy «f bis feehugs. 

1 gvtnd of travels, or any public honors, he devoted himself to a 

life of retirement, and twice refused the teitiptiiig offer of being 

d«ded to the Greek profeswnliip of Canibriiljre. He closed his 

long and valuable life in the year 1776, at (he villa;;e of Dorking, 

>■• Surrey, at the advanced age of cigbty-three, nut more adiuired 

f<»r tlie depth of bis learning, titan beloved Tor (he benevolence of 

is is htart, and the priiiiitiw simplicity of liis manners. His remains 

v%r^rK iuttrred in Dorking cimrch, and a Lntiii inscription, writteit 

bjv liis friend Dr. Heberden, (to whom lie beijiieatbed bis Ubnirj 

aaasd MSS.) was inscribed on bis tomb t> 

Tour miles west of Wifjan is the village of Holland, or Uf- 

.Z-Io LLAND, wbeiue the illustriou.t, but ill-fiiled tiiniily of Holland, 

derived their name. Tiiis family attained Ibe iiigheitt oftices of 

^K&&<:«, with Die tit!et uf earls of Surry und Kent, and du lies of 

^FL ^^itcr; but nere as rtmaikdble fur tlieir sulFerii'.gs and miserable 


^ Starly kllieil to Abraliam Marklaiiil, D. D. Prebendary or Wiuclieitor, 
^ntl luaster ot' St. Ciuj>, author of Iwu tuluiiiei urwfuiuiui, aail a vuiicij of 

♦ -A^ portrait of Mr, ^J. er^ravn at tlic cvprnie of iiis gratcTiil pnpit,' 
Witt, Stioile, Esij. is il^;^^telI iu UK: Kuv. Uwiu Alaijuiii^'i iiidiur^ol' tLa 
Co"*-* «-ioi'S(iriej-, Vol, i. 



cad. In this village was fonnerly a prioi; of BenedkUnM, of 
which Dotliiag dow remsiiiu but the church and a few walla. 

About a mile and a h^f from Wigan was a wbll, which, when 
■ candle was put to it, burned like brandy, and the flame con- 
tioued a whole day, with heat suflicient to boil eggs, or even mea^ 
though tlie water in the well remained cold *. This well, or at least 
its peculiar property, is now lost. 

About three miles north of Wigao is the village of Blackbodb, 
at which place Mr.Whttaker fixes the Roman statitHi, muued 
CocdutH, but JD support of this he acknowledges, there is only 
** the fttiai retrospect of traditionary history, and the vague 
generalities of a winter's tule ; and in this state of uncertainty the 
attention of the antiquarian is naturally engaged at first by the 
same of Castlc-Croft, at the south eastern extremity of the village, 
Ity the tra<litio» of a castle upon it, and the evident remains of 
ditches round it." Mr. Percival and Mr. Watson both agree with 
Mr. Wliitaker in placing Coccium at this placet; but these opinions 
are sntisfaclorily reliited by the historian of Wfaalley, who contenda 
that this ancient station was at Ribcfaester. 


Is a market town, situated near the epjitem exlremity of West- 
Derby Hundred, at the distance of six miles from Wigan, and five 
from Newton. It is a vicarage, having (he chapelries of AstUy 
and Ckmvbent under its ecclesiastical jurisdiction. In the 28th of 
Henry VI. this vicarage was appropriated by Win. Lovell to the 
cauoDs of Erdbury, who engaged that two monks of their convent 
sliould daily perform muss, for the peace of the eouI of the said 
Lovell. The dairies round this town are lamous for their cheese, 


■ Fbil. Trans. No. 36 and 945. 
I See Ardireolojiia, Vol, I. p, 65. 


*fcU ii nfld and ridi. A btmnch of the Bridgewiler Canal passes 
hj tin town, and has faatitatcd the conunerce of the [dace. Both 
tht town Hid neighbouring hamlcfts aboond wkk nana&ctories ; 
aa] coab are abundant on tbe ^mt. 

AeeOTdii^ to tbe official report of tbe populatton, the towosh^ 
of Weit>Leigb, as called in that work, contained 377 houses, and 
lil9 adialntaDts ; and Aitleigb towmhip, a place cootiguoas, ooo- 
tained 375 botnes, and 1545 penoot. North of Leigh b 

Athiitok Hall, a seat fonneiiy belonging to a lamily of 
tht moe, is now tbe property of tbe Honoiable T. Powys. Tin 
^Mtt, wincb was boilt by Gibbs, is large, and has a spacious 
dbial entrance ball. A plao of this tnaosion is given in Ibc 
Tttranus Brkannicus. In tbe year l680 a shower of Seeds oc- 
otmd at this place, and excited much curiosity and controversy. 
BjMBe pmoos it was said to be wheat from heaven; but tbe 
■ore latioaal part of society acknowledged it to be a quantity of 
hj-bemts, which were supposed to have been forced into tbe 
^faer regions of the air by a whirlwind, and fell at this spot. 

'nKcfaapdryofCHOWBENThasgrrally kicreased in houses and 
psptdatioa within the last twenty years. Though its chapel has 
been prt^rly consecrated by tlie Bishop of Sodar and Man, yet it 
■ esanpted irom tbe jurisdiction of the diocese of Cheater, and its 
pttrooage is vested in the proprietor of Atherton Hall. In tha 
Rbellionof 1715, Mr. Wood, a dissenting Bsinister here, led his 
ioA to join tbe royal standard ; and od Ibis occasion the important 
psn over tbe Ribble at Walton was committed to his protection. 
For his bravery, &c. he then obtained the title of Captain Wood. 
taA of Leigh is 

Ttldeslet, a hamlet that has growa up with the thriving ma- 
m&ctures of this county. A family named Tyldesley was seated 
here as early as the rergo of Henry III. ; but the estate was after- 
wards alienated. About the middle of the sixteenth ceutury, it 
again returned to Thurston Tyldesley, of Wardley, who then 
■■rried Aime, the sole heiress of the LeUmds of 4«,'4rleye»< 
Vol. IX. Q Hall. 


HbU*4 Of this family wr»s Sir Thomns Tyldcalcr, who parti* 
cularly ^tsnulin^ hiniictf ilurms IImt troubles of Ctarlrs \hc Fint'i 
reigD, and IVU in lliv fi^lit of Wiguu-laof. On a pilbr near Wifan 
b fixed a btass piste, nitli Ihii idscrijiltoii to ]Ktpctaatc bi% 
memory : 

" Au liigti «cl ofgnililuilc erected tbi» monument, which ma* 
Tcyathe inenioryof SirTbomuTyhlcslcy lopoitcril;, nfao served 
Kiiif; Charter tlic First us liculcimut-colonel at Edgcliill buttle, 
after raning irgtnieiils of liorse. Tout, nml dnifjiuim, aiidYor iiit 
desperate sloniiiiie of Burt(>ii-uptin-Trcnl, over s bridge of thirbp- 
nx urcbes, aiid rtceit^d tlic liouourof LuighUiool. He after- 
irards wrved iu all the nan in c^eal coramHnd ; vraa governoi of 
Litchfield, and follunrd the fortune of the cronn thrmigli the three 
lunsdoms, and iie^cr compounded with tlie retKl», Ibou^h stron 
invcilr'l ; Diid ou tin: 2£lh of Angust, A. D. 16'50, niu licrc ili 
cooiuiaoditis a» luajor-^ueral under the Earl of l>erl>>, to vh 
Ibe (cvakfut Aloauder Rigbv. Eaq. nas cortid : and nheu be ww 
high sfaeriHf of tins county, A. D. 1^79, placed iLb high abligatioa 
on tlie wbole family of Tyldtsleji." 

Sir Thoina* Tyidesley vrai interred in the church at 
where a tomb «-rs erected to his memory, of nbich ooly 
lelics are now to be tettt. 

Ttic cbief property in llie bamUt of Tjidealey bclom;;! to 
JeAiunn, £«).- by purchftK of bii graiidfatlier. When the present 
proprietor took pouession of ihU tAutt, there ircre only ihree 
&mia oa it; but by liis active and «i>iiiltd ex«ilioni JneataMghi, 
onnuftclurei, it iMnv coul^ios a papulation of i.CCOperw: 


A siman liwit, about fiv« miles north of WarTinglott, and 

eight oiiics south from Wigan, Ulongs to Ihc rieJi recloiy of 

■ Of ibit aneinrt wat, IwCweea Aiticy inJ I^i;>, ■ fin* fniircBl* «Blr 
mmhi. Thta* toutitt at a |iaiIouf uilti oimninited ctUi»f, iba noal aad 



—1 0-tlOM 


LAirCASBrCB. «3 

ffiiwidi** Kiig Edmrd the Coiifcuor ntas toni of it, as appean 
doui Ibr DaiDGsdav bwik; wnJ siucv lite C«iii|uc3l, it m;u loug 
pMCScd b> Ibc ffitnil}' of Langloii, wLiv liav« bno usuiUI) tl^kd 
Iveusof NcMtuu-f. This Borouc-li haa returned tw-o pwnUcn 
|D|arliwncnt,froni(be lint \ear of (Jue«n Llirabetb;. UbadooM 
iMfkd, wbicb is dow disutcd. Ixlaud rte*crit>ei it in lbe«e 
kcm: " Oa u bruk it UM [wvr« nnikct, whrrvot' Mr. Laogtoa 
Itlh Ifac UBUK 4>f Ilia barouv. Sir Pcnt« Lcc of Biadlcj balb bti 
piKc Bt BntlK.-). ill a park, ii. i»ile> fiotn Kcm-Ioo." It now eou- 
kM ptiflC^Uj of ooc bro«d rtrecl, which U ouly rmnrkable foe 
it» UBBierottt public h4>iu«t. H>tu ia an old lutll built of wood, 
Kilii nucfa poinlnJ ^Im »lill rctuiaiiiiiig in ils uiodows, ll staoifs 
oaa mky fouodatiou ; and behiiul il lb« rock is hollowed out b 
iwrj' uousiuU niunucr, uppeariog to hiiv« had ^ubterrancotii pm- 
pgp, »lticb, b}* Kiiioviiig tlifi luffiMTc of ihe tx>ck, »n uow laid 
0^. AdjouiiDg to tiiis ball is a siuall rbing |;raaiid, whieli whs 
ieiwetiy aatij sairouailed MJlb n iDuat, of uhioh a smnll remnafit 
imill Kouuning. The InMliliou of the place ii, tital Jt was tfa« 
raodoKe of a King. 

Atapiaoc nlkd (be Red-Btuik. ntar Ncnton, a (kludirn«nl of 
Cmnwdrt army, in August, lt»4ti, tklealedaparlyof Hi;;hltin(ien 
«a thtir Rurch from PrettoHj and Ibe ^rcalvr purl of (he prisoocn 
«ae iBOsni in a tield u«ar Ike scene of action, whicli Mill b«an 
ItaoBsof Galluwi Cruft. A lar;^ sIoiif wm fixod in the lieilg«, 
II t DMOOiseBt of llic caUstroptie. Newloii coulaiiitti in I HOI, 
Q 3 173 hoDMS, 

* h b fn<qiicnlly rallHl Nciitoa-h-ttie-WiII«wi, pertapt fVora Ibe laifs 
^EMlrimtf those lr««» growing utvr Uic plact:. 

.fUmib Ae pwp <f tjrf the lowu appcan to lie now ui ibc ftmdyfif 
Jmk ■/ HMrfub^ to lUi fviiti, and of L> me, la Qieilitrc. 

flhillfctofelMtkmit Iniht ft«e bwj^uM.whoarvorevpiencf urtu'n 
(ody, abotil ihiny-tis in iiunibrr. Tlic itcwardof the loid of the 
f. with lb* baihii, ar« tk« relurains oScen. 


178 fioaws, uid 1.455 iabibUimls. About midmy bchrcai tMs 
Unrn awl Wairingtoo, k ^ 

WttfWiCK, remarkable as beinf[ one of Uie ridteit Rectories in 
England, ll» presnilatinn to wliich U ni tlie f^ft of tbe Earl of 
Derlty. TIte rector ii lordof Ibe maaor, uiid Ilie wlioir lowoKhi|b 
•leepbnq oop ocliite, k f;ld>e liind. Tlic living u eilimitMl |fl 
3,0<Xil. p«'r annum. Tlie Hitirt!b is an ancteiu jiile of building, 
vrilb a lot^y spire, and on tlip souUi side of the fanner U a L*tia 
iDS4^Tiplioii ill old charai-ti'rt *, intitnatiiif; ifaal tliii |>lMce wu a 
fcvourite seal of Oj.\*u](1, king of Nortlmmberhnd, who, Heeord- 
in§ le Camden and sevt^ral other writers, was ilaiii at Onvcftry, in 
8broptfaire. But thn is not v«ry probable, for if it tw rNoUvcled 
Hmt Ofiwald was a peatuble and religious kio^of Notlhunibrt«, 
wbidl aaljr extended IuIIk- hver Ihler»e;nnulhwvrd, and as Penda, 
liie PHgan king of Merciu. u^s at Mar with bim, and pursuing bia 
oeaqueala tbron^ii ibe kintjdum o( Ibe fbniier ntooarcb, it » not 
very likdv thai Oswald woiitJ liave peSMlnilcd bis enentiet' tern- 
lories Ko f»r an OsMvsIn*. Indi-ed there ii more probabilhy in 
•uppostiig Ibat be mighl have suttaitwd a defeat, aiid met VU 
death OQ tbc borders of bis own kingdom. Bede uy*, Dnl the 
|llaoe where hems killed is called in the F,iigli»fa ionise .Vffsn/c/A; 
bat neiiheT has he, oor anji of bis annotaton. satisiiudorilv de^ig- 
mted tkt fulul »\hA. Atrbbodioi) UiUur, iii his notes on Oildas, 
U llfi a— ui opinioD, that Cair-GuiHtpiic, one of tlie tweoty-cigbl 
Bliliih cities, meulioued b^' thai aaciciit writer, was at Wiuvricl ti 


' TliMineriptien, accin^ug Id Pc«iiaiit,B in ilic fnflo'wiiig Ichm: 

" Ulc tooui, Otiralilf quoiidiiii lilit pUciiit vnlde; 
ytrikanitmlft^rum fucn* tit\, niinc^iie pnlonim 
Kfgna fenes, Pnio pviui MartftJe vocaK). 
Ansa oillcno qtiiij|;ei)t,i.-iio4]UC IrJcetio, 
Schttr [ii«i (hrulvm miiTuni iTOovuteni iitani : 
Utmc/ta J^avton cuiaiNe <ii%\ aimul lii« liuie.' 

t Cale1IIlil.AagL8ci^ VoLL p..l3C 


tills parlih Bppnn to bam borne fonarrty the avne ot 
frti: aail tbe cbarcb ben U dcdkulo) tu ^l. O^wuid, king t>ud 
■artyr. Tbeae dr«iuiuUu««3, joinlly c<>[Hicl«re>l, Irud to suiif^xt 
Ibtopiuion.tLiit Wiawkli, Hiid ntit St. Oiwnin, wa»tb«plii<c tvlicn 
lU*g<>Ml kiDsitas ilaii) iiuii t>arbar«uU<r otaDnkd in the ibirl^-- 
«igldll >««r «f lii» KK*: *. In (lie cliorch »l WiBwkk it n tbitnUy 
bekogiBig lo th« l^gh ^iiiK uf Ljnie-Hdll. Cliesbiie. in nlwM 
famudm Uc tumt atic\aa\ |>]ip«t3 coucirmiiij; tftc itiu«. Aniung 
fte Bsaanoilt is oue u lUi a l>niM plat«, effigtc*, &«. to Sir P*ler 
LfgA aud ha lady. 


iJl large iK^laus thnTiits manufadiiriD" town, occupin t)ie 
■hUhim baafc oTlbr rivi-r lilcnry, about midway bclvrccii lltr (ho 
f^cat bnmi of Mutrbnter and Lircrpool. Some afilbon Itnfe 
W rt w fc d that ■ Romaji Sbitioti wat fbrmrrly nlublislml at Ihb 
fhee, aa a giurd l» the ford ; but no )MrliciiUr remain* or dis< 
ctiuiea ittre bcco inndc U» jtislity tbia apiiiion i. Tbat a Roman 

Q 3 nnd 

* Seanntf*! Wttotj oftli* Ancro-Saxom, 'IWl Vol. I. f. %4$. TlMait 
Am n^anabh- UiWfiKw cuniridiiiK In ilic cumitiou ojiiDkiOi fix«t «R 
OnaMtjr « Ihc phu af 0*<*>lii i (k-attk 

* Mr. Wbitakff, wM hU iNoal inotwiiirj nf nrpien«nt, Kctrrif, thai '* Iha 
iMt af Vanhiilan IB the dwncKr f^ a Hnmaii lUtiiiD, m pr«vi;d b; Am 
tfniari oftluce road* ai it : on* lr«m CindiK. unttluT tnm Cocdum,' 

<ttitt hmrtttt, b onij Ibt coatJBiiaiioii at tti« fint rMiH " ami a iliiril tram 
BbMOMon.' lie ueit •ndnvoun tu <(cfii<e uxl liarr Ihr- coat<>r:i uf iIiam 
aiBlny-waj*, and ifamnDrqiiiioi-mllTasKili, iImI " juit iipuii [1i« fuiiluf ilie 
Mmwj , iRBa RunMy tUtUin, lliouj^li fjuallj uvcikKilLcd bj- iuitii|iiiii iuiu, 
mmi fc((mim b)' imfitMn.' la. mpijurt of Uiu aMXitliui lir ailducci aiaiiy 
ia^Micai aiKaattnu ; but fwliiig in fr»^«, lie adwrti to a ducover; «f Min« 
aWif laiiimirin I, iili Ii wrrc r«iiiida " An luilMrrom timpUn. buttm rlia 
I flf tlw Mcncj.* HoKCDCT t>iaiiubt< llxr arciinivii'iior ■nt' 
tiaai of tha Ifurnrd uiiirr. wr niuit hi-iitalc Im'Cuiv «c ualinil 
I UatWadiMafi Ar ia mki to xcure ibv uuud ug^iint citor oud l>tetbo«d, 


roBd entered Lancasblrc from Cnndalr, m Chohirf, is nlmndjr 
probalik. an<l tracet of it Iiavr bocn athfartnnly drGncrl in some 
phew. The brM^e tln-ddy n-rtiiMi lo. I>uilt by IIr- EaiI of 
Derby for Ihe jwtsage of H-eaty VII. crci»« the uvtr at thi* place. 
X'tluid HtsrtilKs WarringtoD a* " a pjvn] (..wn of prelh bigncw," 
rith a chtirrh " »t (be mil tai\" of il, am) hantig a " better uArk«t 
IjttiKti Mnofh«t(r." Htre uras an AngUittoe Friary, foundH before 
ff9l but Ibc building; it onlirrly ob)itcislc<l. A c barter for a 
lAtt aad fair* was obtained in Uic rcign of Edtrarf Ibf Finl, hj 
a Sir Thoma* Bottler, of IViwiwy, n«ir ibb lowit. where an ancieal 
moated maiuion ilitl reiiuum*. 

wp oiitti nrr^r anow any ttntenprM lobe intl* ttbiorlnl Ihsi an bm pi 
by demniiitrativc trideiire, or jiniificd hf (lie nxnt miioiat and cvi 
ariinrnont*. Tliunwun i>ef p#(tiliarunpamv«inal1sntiqaaiii 
Ami miclir lo be fMcilily iniiKMed tiu the Htimiiotiarilic jyvcaik tvpagi^: 
bill LiilaiiAir. 

* Tliefini ix-nkmcn ircDrdof diialainiljFnat ttnhrTt, wIm held |])F olEe* 
«f n>itW, or Boirt^T, (ftrii) ttv^rrtiynUui'i^llliUMiimai'V under Rmtlph 
deGriiiafu. CtrtufOi'^ter. iu I1.1&. Waitetn. n »nn of Um aliovr Robrrt, 
cetlifird in tlie lime of Kinf; Jokn, Hmt lie heM cif^it fcaiolilU feci «t (lie ktag 
U rapiff in iIm cmnty. I'o liJm (ocvooclerl notfier U'illum, w\m. in itie 
Ebrly-llMnl or H*t>iy |!k TVud, wa* bigh abarWor th« i^naiuly, and tote-nkor 
of tbe fiuiie or Lanuater, wlioie lamk were >N leiied, on Im lakteut part 
Willi (lie Daroua of Itiot n^e, AHer tlic >>atlte of Ct«)l«Mli, fvrtyailiih 4^ 
H^arj thP tliirVl, Oie Slicriff of L^iMailiire tras eamniiiMleil lo mtnre UH 
bnd*. In tlit? lillli of Hdnacd llir flnt, br obminrH ihc kin^^ ehartrr M a 
rnnrkpl evny Friilny at hi^ mangr nf ttaniiiiitnn, nmt fm a bir annaalljr aa 
llic etc, day. aiui lourraw after the feast of Si. Aailicv, and Um ftr* tbp 
Runiikff. In Die Uiirtrentb «f Uie Mine king lie ubtalned atmllter pant to 
c^a^e the Diiikct lo Weilii(«<Liy. on vrliirli <ln> Il ttill e«nilan«9, tod fer 
■notberftii'ioeontlniieeij^lilifayilTcm thu eve ol' Si. Tbama* tlw Martjt^ 
traasbnlon. From tbe nicnty w^-ofl'I lo the mraty IVtb of Ikat nirv, be 
had tnfiMnotu to patllameat antonjc tbe Bomaa. Tte Anily OmirMbed at 
Bnnty itlt the reicn of Un«eo El iMtirth, vhto ititt eatate m fonod to be ■■». 
tlH ponoMiM nf UnWn, Eart ef Lel('e4lcr, by wtiaae Will, dated tb* laT «^ 
AoauU, iwr, hit rietuton were iSiected lo aell all hi* lands, &c. in Latica— 

•111 re. 


Hw town of Wirrington consists of four principal streeta, which 
■re mostly narrow, inconvenient to passengen, and unpleasant to 
Uw inhabitants ; and though these are chieHy composed of shops 
Hid small bouses, yet k few handsome modern buililiugs are inter- 
ipened. " The eutrance into the town," says Mr. Pennant, " is 
anpromising, the streets long, narrow, ilUhuilt, and cronded with 
arts and passengers ; hut farther on are airy, and of a good width, 
jet afford » striking mixture of mean building; and handsome 
bouses, as is the case with most trading towns that experience a 
ndden rise *." The principal trade of the place consists in the 
manufacture and sale of smV-c/oM, or poldavy; but some coarse 
linens and cliecks are made in the towu and its vicinity. The 
former is chiefly com{iosed of hemp and Rd\ mixed, and some 
sorts are mauufactured with flax alone. The raw raalerials are 
nostly brought from Russia, and imported into the town of Liver- 
pool, whence to Warrington is a cheap and expeditious water 
carriage. Among other manufactures of tliis place, may be 
^•ecificd pin-making, !>lass-makiog, and iron-founding. " Warring- 
ton may, in some measure, be considered as a port town, the 
Mersey admitting, by the help of the tide, vessels of seventy or 
eighty tons burthen to Bank-Quay, a little below the town, where 
warehouses, cranes, and other conveniences for landing goods are 
erected. The spring-tides rise at the bridge to the height of nine 
feet Upwards, the river communication eittends to Manchester. 
Beudes the parish church, here is a chapel of ease, and another 
chapel of the establishment in the suburb over the bridge, belong- 
ing to the parish of Groppenhall. There arc also places of wor- 
ship for the Roman catholics, presbyterians, anabaptists, metho- 
diili, and quakers. There is a very welt endowed free-school in 

Q 4 the 

Aire, wliicb bad been tfae lands of Sir Tbomu Bnllcr, aad of Edward, 
b MQ, who is njd to have Iteen tiie lut beii- male of ihe Bntlan of 

■ Toot is Scotland, 4to. pt. L p. ». 


348 LATff^ABHIltB. 

tb« l«wn : and « charity for educating ind m atoliia h ig 
cliildr«n of both «fx«»." 

Tbcrc bctnjt no other brklge nver the Men«y b<^h«-een thia | 
tad Liverpool, and tor many mil«« Ca»t of it towardt M:iDchc«ltr, 
has occasioned llw pass lien* to b« a p)sc« of rrpeat^d conflict n 
the civil commodons of litis kingclom. TIm most memetabla 
f\-eitl of this kind occurred in l646. wt»o a lar^e body of the ftt* 
gilive .Scotch army, under the Duke of Hamilton, wnt pursued 
froni Kibblclon-Moor; and ifaough they made so obsliasl* re- 
listaqcp, for loine hours »t Ihti bri<l|!:c, yet abovr 1000 weitt 
killed, and their LkuKnanl-ge-aeral Bayl^y, wilh '^i)00 soldien^ 
were lakro priwnen. A^ia io l65l, Gcncml Lambrtt, 
bad coinniaiidcri on tht fonn^r accmioii, fixed on t\m spot 
oppose and resUt the Scotch amtv undet tlie yoiiag King, 
was here repulsed, la tbc year 1745 also, Ike middle arches of 
the bridge were broken down, to check the progress of the i 
and again rnlorcd on the leraitnaliuii of the iimnreclinii. 

A ibort di«bkfitc north of WarrRigton is Ukfokd-Hai 
seat of the Blackbume family, of whom was Johit BiackbuiiM* 
E«q. father of ilic present menibcr of parliiiinvnt for th'» entmiy. 
Ho died »t the advanced age of niuely-six, aod was much re> 
ip«eted while Uving, for his many good quulilies. His garden 
nas considered an object of curiosity, and was viated by some of 
the iii<»t ciiiiui'iit bolauisis in llie country. A calalogoe of iu 
botanical products, uas published by Mr. Neal, hiagardmier, 
1779- Hcri?, as Mr. Pcunanl obsrrvcs in his lour to AcotluMlJ 
the vetieriible owuer, like utolher Etelyn, spent llic c^m evenings 
of liiM htc, uniler the flounsfaini^ plantations nf bis own citltuie. 
Tbi town of Warrington, in 1801, cotitaiucd Hfi^ bouses, and 
10,5<)? irihahitaiils. m 

Tlie It'erringten-AeadnH}/, established by some rc^^jectahle^ 
Dilsentera, luu lieen justly ccK-hrated for itic lileniry eminence of 
its masters aod tuton ; among ultom the names of £ii6eld sod 


lien^ I 

at ufl 

ALL, ■( 



* Detcriptioa of ibe conntrr knumI Manchoiw, 4to, p. 3M, 


Vdcefield, will losg be rrmeiDbered with respect and efteem. 
Thomas Pbkcival, M.D. F.R.S. and R.M. S. wai a natim 
cf Ihii town, wbere be wai born 1740, and died at Mancheater 
a 1804. He lost both his parents during his infancy ; and tbe 
guantianship of his early yean devoWed on his uncle; a learned 
ad eminent physician of this town, who also died before bis 
nephew bad atlained his tenth year. After receiving the rudi- 
meats gf bis education at tbe fiee grammar school, he was 
(woUed tbe first student of Warrington academy in 1757. where 
be coatimied about three years, and then removed to Edinbut^, 
vbere be studied physic for three winters. The year 1763 waa 
■pent in London for the same purpose, when, by the friendship 
of Hugh Lord Willougbby, of Parham, he was unanimously 
deeted a fellow of the Royal Society. He afterwards visited 
Paris, and other places on tbe Continent, and in 1765, took hi* 
degree of M. D. at Leyden, on which occasion he published his 
Qtem. " OD tbe Effixts of Cold on tbe Human Body." In 1766 he 
■utied Elizabeth, daughter of Nathaniel Basnett, Esq. and in 
1767 settled at Manchester, where he soon had a very exlentiive 
pnurlice, and his merits ensured bim proportionable success, 
which be pursued, with universal re<f>ect, till hii death. He was 
«dl known in the Ulerary world, by his " Father's Instructions U» 
bit Children; Moral and Literary Dissertations; and Medical 
Ethics," besides many excellent papers in the Memoirs of tJie 
HsDchesler Society, of which he was one of the principal 
feandera and ornaments. Tlie Society hava testified tl>eir uoani- 
noui respect to his memory, by placing a marble tablet over tlie 
dair which be had so many years occu{>ied as their presidenL 
Hit works, with " memoirs of his life and writings," have recentlj 
bttn pnfalisbed in four volumes. 

Salfobd-Hundkgd occupies tlie south-eastern comer of the 
couoty, and has Yorkshire for an eastern boundary' ; is divided 



fimn Cbesbire bj the riven Men^ aod Tmw, wbikt the hiiB- 
dred of Blackburn abuts against its oortbern bounds : and tbe 
hundrcda of Leyland, and West Derby, attach to Ibe westeni ex- 
tremity. This laine district coataim tbe great nwoafsctoting 
towns of MandMsler, Asbton, Rochdale, Bury, and Bolton * ; ii 
intetBecled by portioiis of tbe cmab known by tbe nanta Roch- 
dale, Bridgewaler, Asbtoo, and Bolton and Bury ; besides wbicb 
the river Irwell is navig^le westward to tbe Mersey, llongb 
most of this district is ratiier Bat, yet on tbe Yortuliire side, tbe 
bills rise to considerable altitude ; and the whole courses of tbe Irk 
and Irwell rivers, north of Mandiester, are diitiuguished by high 
and steep banks. At tbe various smirces of the Medlock, the 
grounds are bold, and the hills are lofty. A great pert of thi> 
buwlrcd is occopied by the steril mosses of Ashton, White, and 
Chat; besides several unculiitaled tracts of moor-land. Coal-* 
|Hts are numerous ; and tbe plentiful supply of that useful fbsnl 
has tended materially to promote the eslablishment of trade. 
Every town abounds with warebouses, shops, and factories; and 
•very village and hamlet presents an industrious and restless scene 
of human activity. At the period of dividing counties into bun- 
dredsi, and those again into parishes, this part of I^ancasbirc was 
but thinly pet^lcd, and consequently separated into a fiw por- 
tbns, or parochial divisions only ; but as the prodigious increase 
of manufactures has attracted a vast augmentaition of inhabitant!, 
the original parishes have been repeatedly divided and subdivided. 
From this circumstance also, most of the old land proprifcton 
have sold or let their estates, deserted their venerable and uncom- 
fortable mansions, and sought rural retirement and picturesque 
beauty in other counties, wliere laud was less valuable, and 
where their habitations would be less annoyed with tbe smother- 
ing smoke of furnaces, or the boisterous manners of tbe lower 


* Little Bolton, and Oldhsm, are aUo marked as Towns in the officio] re- 
ports of the popnlatioD ; io which work, llw whole number of tumses in this 
hundred ii set down at 30,750, and penoos, irr,6S3. 


orriera of society. It is a lamentable fact, that where these as9»- 
ciate in lar^ numbers, as in Rreat commercial and manDfaeturio^ 
toma, they acquire depravity and generate vice by social confe- 
deracy ; and this is likely to continue a growing evil, unless a 
more general system of moral instruction be adopted ; to promote 
whicfa, honesty and probity should be publicly encouraged, and 
Tideus pursuits unequivocally reprobated and punished. 


The name of this place implies the pre-exislence of a Romaa 
Station ; and it has been aalisfiictorily proved, by the learned Jiii- 
torian of aneknt Manchester, that the Romans possessed an im- 
portant military post on the banks of the rivers Irwell and Med< 
1«^, which streams unite their channels at this place. Thou^ 
the present to«Ti offers but few attractions to the antiqnary; and 
though such a traveller may (iurl but h)(1e to gratify bis curiosity, 
vet the elaborate disserlntions, in 2 vols, qnarto, by the Rev. Mr. 
Wbitaker, entitled " The History of Manchester," are calculated 
to deceive the stranger iuto a belief, that here would be an ample 
ficl<l fot the researches, and abundance of food for the appetite 
of the professed virtuoso and confirmed antiquary. To obviate 
any erroneous inferences uf this nature, it may be proper to ap- 
prize the reader at ouce, that the present Manchester is an im- 
ncDse manufacturing, mercantile, and trading town, consisting of 
(great nnmber uf streets, lanes, alleys, aud courts, which are 
crondedly tilled with warehouses, factories, and shops. At the 
extremities of the town, however, as near London, Bristol, and 
Birmingham, are many comfortable and handsome houses, either 
•tanding alone, or congregated in rows, places, and parades. 
To furaish the reader with just i<leas of the ]>lace, it will be ne- 
CKtary to advert to its ancient history ; and endeavour, in a con- 
cat manner, to display its progressive augnicutation, and present 
Respecting a British settlement here, previous to the coaquest 


351 t&NCASRlKB. 

of pDffluKl by (Iiv Romaoi, it would be futile to rMord Anrl 
tub c<ni,i*^uf ea ; sn'l it would be cquallv rbinM-THriil lo cDileavai 
to asrerUtu the orifpnal occupeliou of lb« pi»cc b^ Uiuk coih; 
r-r*. Mr. Wbilaktf, however, obscrrcs, that AcricoU oUlilii 
• po«t iH-re, csUed Maiicu&tum, " in tli« year of Chiul 7f 
Tb« umc WTtirr il«o UMiis, thai " » c«4lle was built oa lite Mlt4 
Caiiltc-fiel'l ; *iid Ibe prAlectioa of a c&itle comlHilly |ts>'c riK 
Btt.«ti" lie piorced* to *l.-itr. Dial " Utcdimcusioosof Afw 
ni9fi, llie Britisli name of Ihe place, tirettiir (lit 1771) " tiiib 
ll hIM Hie wtinle area of the preseM entllc-field, eteepi Ibe 
maoipy part of i( an the weA, and wai twelve irr^ tbtee i 
and ten |>ercli<i in rxteal. Teimiiinled by (be «iiKliag> 
Um M<-tllock on iIk »«tilli, so«l)i-<'i»t, and snnlh-w«»t, ft 
bounded on the eafct b) a fa^ur, on (be weit by the pte«enl 
lof^y baiili, and on the nnrth b> a loiip; and bii>ftd dilcti." 
deteription apfiltn to the nrilidi fortreH; for aAcr tlie 
])(v«Ms«»il il, ihey abridgM) tlie limilt of ibe raftrum, and, a(irt>ftl- 
init to Ibe nme uiiler, reduced it fr»m an area of " ibirtt^a *cr4^_ 
«f our stelute measure, lo »Im>iiI five acres and ten percbea^B 
AAor d<>9rribiD|E niAiiy traiiurliona, ttt. wliieli Mr. W. nys mtttt 
ban taken plaee, lie proceeds lo ilute, that " tbe uew erKted 
liirt, in mtllc-lif'td, now brewnie a 4»tioimry railnim of llie Ra- 
mans, anH tbe lU'inam now leltlcil a garriwKi within it. I'be new 
«recled ft>rl, in dUie-fvrld, still reliined lite name of tlic anrient 
fitrlrevt iiptn i>, sol AUnrcnioni wax only clianjted inlo Mamco- 
TurM." II Mill be ledion lo follow our author lltroo^ aU tfaa 
miiiuie parliciilaiilie^ of ht^lor^, dewriplioii, and critical dttqiili 
Itun, wliich be initul-^et in; aiid it may Butlke to remark, thi 
lbon<^ all traces nf s military station are oblilenled, yet a fr 
Bntnan aniiqtiltirs linve been found here. T)>ps9 serre to prora 
t^r Ideiilily of ibe siaiioo, am.) lite names of ibe cotiurti, &c. Ibat 
were e!4tiibli»bed in it. Besjdes louie sepulchral urns and coiM, 
b«re ha\« hi-en (nuwl attars and tKcribed stones. Cue of thesa. 
vi'.b Ihe riillnw'iHg iiiscriplion, ua« discovered un rvinu^jng lbs 
Tubbbb that ubsliucted " Use ttxtonan gateway of tbe Komaa 



fmp m eaatle ficM." It is deacribed is tbe Mlawiog temn, by 
the learned Dr. E. Holm, of Maocbester, wbo ba supplied llir 
chanctera, here printed, in Italic capitals. 



iV, a VI MVNX 

At. P. XXIUI. 

" Probably ; Cohortis prima Fritittvomum jtue vum wamicit mU- 
liiim patnnim viginti quatuor; wfaicb may refer to the coiutnic- 
lioa of tbe military road between Maocuuium and Coudate ; as 
tfae diitaoce betweeo these stations, fi>ed by Richard of Cireocet- 
tv, in his tentb Iter, at twenly-tbree Bkiles, measures, according 
to Mr. Wbitaker, tweuly-two English, which are uearly equiv^ 
lent to twenty-three Roman miles and three quarters*. The le- 
hc betbre us is of importance, as it enables us lo restore the proper 
appellation <^ tbe cohort Uiat garrisooed Maucunium ; coucerning 
which antiquarians have been ntisled, by an ambiguous coutiac- 
tioQ in tbe inscriptioD at Melandra castle, aud probably in that 
tnatcribed for Camden, by Dr. Dee. It is farther valuable, as 
il may serve to vindicate the autliority of Pliny, and the purity of 
io tcit, in regard to a subject on which they have been ques- 
tiooed. io a work of great eruditioo, publtslied by an emiuent 
Kbokar of tbe seventeenth century f. The FruiabinKt, or adopt- 
Bg tbe reading of Harduin's MSS. f)risiajieneM are twice meo- 
boBcd by the elder Pliny; tirst, aa inhaNtunts of an island si- 
bulcd at the mouth of the Rhine, between tbe Maese and tbe 
Zsydcr Zee ; and secondly, as a nation of Belgic Gant {. Th« 
fcnoer are sujiposed, by Harduin, to have been a hotly of emi- 
Caats from tlie latter. The name is likewise preserved in an in- 


' IIIitoi7 of Haadleater, I. 101. 
t Fid. Cluverii Qenaui. Antiq. S6i. 

t UiiL S$L lib. IV. cinS M, n. 

CJ4 L&NC&SIintK. 

acriplioa found at Rome, of wbicb I sball utant a copy frof 
tinitci ". 

D. M. 







F. C. 

Wlietlicr titc Mancuntan cohort was tlicMnif nilh UicCoAorvj 
fruagorum of the Sviilia, hlaimiKd, in lh« dtxliiie of Ibei 
fin, al Vindobcia, is i qucition l>iat muit be dccntod by future 
diacuvmcs, s* no inMMptions occur al RutdK-Aler. whicbUsuO^ 
poMil, bv Mr. Hor»It:v, to ecocide wtlfa thai stalioa." ^| 

Tli< Itvtiiaii »lulH>ii of Mauf'uiiiiini wis cuiiiitctcd wJUi " sevd^ 
vibcrs, l>y lucuna of mililary-^vBys, ur nM<li. Of Ihne Mr. 
Vr'hilakcr vixleavvura lo dctlcc and describe sb ; oue Icading to 
Ribcbf^lcr, a Kcuad to BLilckrode, a Ibird to WarriDgtou, 41 
fourth to Buxton, a finii lo llklcy, iu Yoilubire, and a sixth t^ 
Kinclerton, iu Cheshiic. Besides llie sluUuii ulteady described ua 
occupving tbc site orCulIc'lkld, Mr. Wbitaker coutcuds, that |H 
wii <;oiiiiei:tcd v>iUi a Caslrtt-^tiea, or sumntr-caitip, whidi be 
fixc« at lliai |>itrt t>{ tli« (own ivlicre Uic colkjte, &c. oow aland. 
Ilia account vf this spot, fiimbhed a curious tpccitwa of ingenioiu 
ooiijecluial writiBK- lie ^y*. " liii»i> infinilcW lliepropcreslsile 
m Uk Ticiail}- of ihe town, that can prrUnd tontlmct Ibc notice of 
tbe en<tuifiiig antiquarian. Tbi« in abodutel; Itie wAy lilc iu Ibe 
vicinit^t of tlie ilalion tiiat could pn'tend lo uttia<t the aottce of 
ttc examining Honiaiu. In lb« earliett period of Ihe Saxoa liia- 
tory of Manclirjcter, wlrvted iot ll>e >eat of its lord, as J »hail 
4h«w hereafter, and aecordio^^r deaonunated Bctrcit»-bullt 

* Inscript. AaUq. DXXXII. 7. 


Baroos-Tflrd, and a part of it still retaiaiog the appdlation Huots- 
baok, it, and it alone, is exactly such a site as the exigencies of 
the Romans required. It is banked on two sides by ribs of rocks, 
either very steep, or absolutely perpendicular, and looks down 
from a very loAy summit upon the waters of the Irke, stealing 
directly along it on one side, and upon the stream of the Irwell 
breaking directly agaiust it no the other. It spreads its area of 
dry compacted sand, gently leaning to the north and west; and 
from the lowness of the ground about it, on the south>west, west- 
north-west, and north-easl, and from the constant venlilations of 
the air, by the briskness of the cnrreols below, peculiarly feels, 
in the summer, a succession of refreshing bivezes : and thus ad- 
mirably fitted for a camp, by its formidable barriers upon two 
sides, and incomparably adapted for a summer'-camp, by iu po- 
sition upon two concurrent streams, its ovcrlookiug all the low 
grounds of Salford and Strangeways, and commanding a distant 
view of the country, even as far as Howick-Moor ; it had (he Ro- 
man road, to Ribcbester, stretching along the western side of it ; 
it still shews the striking remains of an ancient ditch along the 
southern and eastern sides ; and it just contains, witliin its limits, 
the requisite number of acres for a summer-camp. The area 
comprised within the ditch and tbe rivers, is exactly twelve stft* 
iDte-acres and an half in compass." 

After describing the manner of its formation, it is added by 
Mr. Whitaker, such " was the pleasing, impregnable site of tbe 
tummer-camp of the Romaus, lined witti tall impracticable pre- 
cipices behind, covered with a fosse enormously deep and broad 
before, and insulated by tbe three lively corrents of water around 
it ; where, for more than eight successive centuries the public 
devotions of the towns have been r^ulariy preferrrd to Heaven, 
nd where, for more than twenty successive generations, the 
^ain fore&thers of the town have been regularly rcposited in 
a place, the Romans once kept their summer residence, and en- 
joyed tbe fanning breeze of the west and north. Where the bold 
borons of Mancbetter spread out tbe hospitable board in a rude 




magBiieeoe* of tumn, or diipla^d Ibe imlrorliw mimicnr 
war in a tnin of rutlilAry rvfrcim-s ; nlirre llit TdlowB or ilic ri 
l^e iludied ulenlly in Itieir mpentitie sparlnieDlf, or walked n 
Voaiagia Ibrircommun i^allrn': anil wlictpyaiin^ imligfncc 
dftiiy ncetTini> (lie jitilidoui dole nf cliarilv, nnd TuMs lih 
JlHods in gratilude lo Ciod for it, tberc previously rote the iprra 
■■f! {wviliom of lti« RiMiianN, and IIh-pt praviously glittered tlie 
nilitarjf €nsixDi> of the Ir'fiuaiu *." 

Witliont fi)lloWHif|[ tliis supine ami «laliorale biiloriB 
CiitlHT, or clwvUtti}> loiij^ nn tin* RuttMii aniiah of Manchfsl 
it niuy Iw lirtefly mnarked, Ihal aHer liie Rnmant bad 
tbi» station for nearly 400 jcars, il was re-occnpipd by Ibe BrilfliM. 
vlio toon rclinquafacd H to tlw Saxoiia. During the dyitastiM of 
tfacse inradcrs, MaorhestPr wm several ttroes a place of mitilary 
cotiflicl, for, seated nmrlltelMrdertortbeNorthuinlHianliiiigHom, 
it was likHy to be atal)bonily defended by its poKcsmn, ami 
fiNlgbl for by ih'ne who rouglit to maltv comjitejl*. (1 k said lo 
ban been fortified and partly rebuilt by Edward tbe TJder, hing 
of tbe Mvrdaas. iu ^20. ia l)>e next rentury. wbm Uie doneaday 
ihot^ WM con^lrd by order of William thn CniHitterrr. nimlioa 

nsd« of two cburt^hes at belnnguig to thit plate. St. Kfary't and 
St. MJcbarl's, Oiti- of (he followen of tbe Nomian tovader fixed 
hh reiidence here ; and hit name spell Albert de Gralry, Gred! 
Grcaiel, and Gretk. apptrars ia wibi^ss to a cfaatter to our Lady 
Lancattrr. in ibr time of Willium Ruftis. 

liis ion Robert resded chietly at bn barony here, but c^vt bb 
ntllt on the ri««r Irk to ibc Cisterctnn tnonkt of Swinesliejid, in 
Lincolnaliire ; and, after attending the hiag in Normaoily, obtained 
Uie ;nanl of a &if ut \m lordsbiji of MiinHteAtcr, on St. Mallbew'a 
day. aiiiiuuliy, nnd llic day bcft>rr and af\rr. His ^at grandutn 
Tiiunuu, tm tJie l-Uii of May, 1301. giantvd to hit bnrgessct of 
ManchcMce a charter, nhicti it »\A (o be tlilt c«tant, of tbe cu» 
lorn of Uic manor, and was nttnmoiied m a baron to parliament. 

■ Rlitory of Mtnclicuer, ToL I, p. IM. 




fnrni Ibe first to tlie foiirtli of Edviiirii Ihe Secnii'l. D^iiij with^ 
out issue, Julin, son <>t' Ro^r D«ltiwar, SKcceedcd (o liiJs inlie* 
lituocc, and cliicRv r«si<it'd in BjronVIInl', or BaronWard, 
u tlie «tle of \'i'. |)ruwnt cfi!]c;:e ia still soiiietiiun called. Tbit 
JeliM UBD sumniiiiieri In pisrliament, as u Baron, from tll« first of 
E(Jwar<l tlie S<!cnml tu t!ic sKteenlh of Edward the Tbird, 
iorl'isive, and dip t about Uie t»eulictb of llie la«t kinj^a reij[D. 
H(-< ^iidson, wlien uf age, did homage tu Edward llic Third, nai 
hwd livery of ull bis Iuik's, and was uilh tlie prince at the memora> 
ble battle of Poitiers. Hif eldest soil whs summoned to jMirlia* 
mciit as a Baron front 1,170 tn \39!i, to ivlioii), as be died without 
issue, his brollicr Tliitmas, whowus rector of Manchester, and io 
tlioK daj^s of ))ri«rsllv f-eliLacy, coniecjneiitly unmarried, succeeded 
in this baro.iv. In the niolh vear uf Henry the FiAb, 1422, oa 
tbe payment of 200 murh^ into IIi? e^icbcijUL'r, he obtaiued a liceoM 
to found a collegiate chiti'ch, &c. here, which he liberally endowed. 
The ntabiishment viis to consirt of a oiaster, or kivper, eight 
fallows, (of whom two were to be pnrt»h-prieiils), two cauooa* 
four deacon^, and four choiislera. Trie bisliop of Durham and 
ether parties authorized in the licence of foumlalion, granted to 
the lint maslrr or u^nlcn of the suid college, five meisuaget and 
t«D acres of laiid, which were parcels of the nt;inor of Manchester, 
one mnsiia^ with tlte appurtenances, and one acre and twenty- 
four perches, called Baron'j-Hull and BdronWard, with eight 
acres of land ui NelJier Aldport, one mr^isuasc of eleven percb«a 
io f>orton-G recti, uiid another in Heaton of tiie same «\t«nt. But 
Fuller, in hit Wor!liie«, observes on llie subject, that " the endow* 
BWiil of this culri'£>Iute jii>I pdrocliidl chorcli were the Riebe and 
lytbcs of the p:irsoiia;;e, wlik-h ^k-be was computed to be about 
too acres uf Ibis couiiJy measure, (about half as oiany moreof lh« 
tlalal« meafiire), besidei a cousiderdblc part of the town com- 
mmity called Deun'^i-Oate, (a corruption of St. Dionys-Gate, to 
«4oDi and to the Virgin Mary and St. George tlie church was for- 
■wrly dedicated), now situate on the site of the glebe land belong' 
iiu; to the church; and the tytbes of tbt {mtitib arvse from the 
Vol. IX. R tbirtv-two 


thirtj-tno hanilels or Inwiuliipa into nliich it n ilmdtd." At Uit« 
lime Ibc roiinttrr n KtUi \o liove n^rted lltp proriil rnllt^ for 
Uie residence of Uie calleghilc body, ul Itic «(>f ii<c of 3,0G0L Tlie ^ 
grailcr part of the diurrb naa probably cntnpleted daritif; the life H 
ofjiihn iiiintintriloii, iIm lint wuden, who WMvrrv aniiuus to 
aiktra this new erection. lie vews presidctit here ibaal thirty -tevra 
yean, frnni Mli lu 1439. bo'I coawquenliy Iiii<l full time to 
rauifL-)t bb ftbpoiition awX zealous prru-rcTance. Hit eAi{;;y, io fl 
*acenl<i>al vo»lincnl», isriiiEraveu oo a br.iu |iliilr, to the choir ^^ 
near itic altar, with ui imcription cipreuii-c of ibe chief objtrcl of 
tiisica). fl 

Domine, diWt ifcrorem doniii* tux. 

As Ibe colle»i-jtv (uunilnltim and ntublisliutent ar« inlinntdj 
ooDoedn) H'ilh tbr ancient liiatonrof tlic town, it will be but to 
pursue this eoriiiiry licro. 

On the dianobitton of the originat college, ia Die jrear 1547. 
flie hoiuc and sooic of Ihc lands were told to tlie Earl of Dcrb]r> 
wbo imiinliiiDcd sercnd miDbtrra to otBciiite in llic rliurcli. On 
ha being refoundeil bi Qurca Mxry's nign, wIkii the statutes 
of Ibe first faundulton nrrc rcvired, most of tlie landf nere re- 
alored : but lite Earl ftf Derby relniiiPtl tlie mllr£i;ilc bottsr, wilIi 
•omt of the luida of smalt valur, lu Xhf. Iwcniidh year of Elua- 
bctii, I J*S, it vm rcfuundetl by tlic tuime ttfCiritt'a-i'oiltgt ; but 
iras once more dtioolvcd, io consci|tH»)ix of sonic ctimpliiinlx ex- 
hibited agaiuvl tlie warden, au<) rcfuuntla] by Charles the riral. by 
charter, bcarlD*; dale tbe 2d of October, 1636. By Ibis tlmrtcr. 
the collr^wuilocomittof a wiirden, who\r» tibctit least B. D. 
or L. L. R- and four fcllowj, wIh» arc to be M. A. or L. L. B. aud 
hro cfaaplftiii*. to be at leai*t A. B. with two clerks, of which one, 
by a recent regulatioa, ts to be in order*, four sinjpn^ men, and 
four diotrtslcr boys. The Bttlmp of C'iriter, for the Itair boia^, b 
viiilor. Tl»e warden 19 appointed by tlic crown; but every other 
nawey is filled up by (Iw warden and fellows. Time were again 
ejected by the psriiaaicnl, their rewooct leixcd, and in itiip, 
tbe dour of the ctwptcr-boutc and college cbest were bruken opea 




by the soldiery under Colonel Tliomus Birch, when the deeds and 
writings relating to the foundation were taken to London, and 
never returned, l^ey were af^erwurda destroyed in the greut fire 
of 1666. tn 1649 the independents converted the College* 
house into a meeting-house. In l642, during the siege of Mao- 
cbester by tlie Earl of Derby, it had been used as a store-honae 
by the troops within the town. After the death of Mr. Che* 
tham, in l653, it was purchased of the Earl of Derby, io piu> 
uance of a recoiumendation in t)ie will of the former, as a suit- 
able building for the benevolent instilutioD he then bad ia con- 
templation •. 

To return (o the manor, which passed on the death of the founder 
*f the college, 4th of Henry the Sixth, Roger Delawar, who was 
^t the butile of Poitiers, by a second wife, had a daughter Joan, 
"Mho was married io Sir Reginald West, knt. the son of Sir Thomai 
'^Vest. He was not only the nearest Iieir to the estates of Thomas, 
XariH) of Muncliester, and rector of the parish, but he was also 
«unimoaed Io parliament in the next year by the title of Lord 
l>elawar, from whom the present Earl Delawar is desceuded. In 

R 2 1S79, 

* Oftbe variiiiu wankns of Manrhntcr eollece wbo liave 1>peD promoted 

*« the epiacopal iMiich, John Booth, Ihe sacceuor of Jolm HantmgdOD, was 

'^i^oDsecraied Bi^op «f Exeter in 1465. when he reiigoed the wardenihtp, 

^nddiedtlie 5th of April, 1478; Dr. JamesStaaley, dKBalfatonofTboiDMk 

^T^irl of Derby, the fborth wwden, wu coiMecrated Biibop of El; in 150^ 

^nd held the wvdeD&tiip with it until 1509 ; John Woltou, the tenth wanle% 

'^'wcomemied Bbbop of Exeter, Angtat !d, I597i Willianr Chadderton, 

''•e next warden, held Clietter diocese with this wardetuhip ; Nic'iolwStcat* 

'Vkrd, tlte fifleentb warden, nu cooMcrated Bishop of Chester, September 15, 

^ G89, Imt sppears to have vacated the wardcnship five yeara berore, wltea 

^>r. Wroe was appointed ; Samuel Peploe, the wventerath warden, was cod* 

*«crated Bidup of Chester, April Itth, 1 fie ; and Dr.Sanmel Pq)loe, Us 

*<4i, MA the wardenship fh»n 173S ontU 1781 ; tin twtlfth warden was 

'oba Dee, of wbme academical booonraluoiiapben are not agreed i tnittaa 

PmbaU; hid a cUm to the degree of doctor, becaoie that of M. A. wodU 

Aot have qnalifled bimfbr Hub preferment. Hit writingi arc tmt little knowiy 

^MNi^ lui literary cUbm may deserve tonie Btte&tioB. Or.'Thaans Bla^ 

^'*a Mcceeded to the wardtadiip In 1798. 

S60 LiSCiSBIB^. 

ljI79> bowcnr. !bp a\9tti*J \nvi »oUI. witb all ilB nslUa atut pi>- 
T(lcgcs, ty J0I4H LaoT. a citizm of Loudnti, vho molil il in I .)£!</ 
f|fr S^OOi. tu 5ir NiclMilas MimIc>, tVoni wIkiui il Iws ilr;jrniilr(i 

Hul wl-ilM jo muc'i rvear'l tnu tiatl to tlic lih«ral eil^Mivli(uvitt 
of 9 Fetigi<>i^ rr4lurnil>, iMitBliDi: of |>vi»ons «f 4itsLiBsui»l>c4 
raeri^ lb« bfoevolsnte of others bai rqwallj ©iwrat^^l U" bcorj^t 
(be youngr 'liis*** "f tlie communily. //Kjj-fi Vldhum, ■ nati*)} 
of Q)(|t»tii, in IliU couiilj', sikI Uialiojt ol'liwttr, wliw Jkd iu lil^i 
ftjtp)fl(*l I) gT«n»nwr-*fV^ lierr, aptl WKiowcd ii will) «rtaiii latid*, 
■ndaone coru-iuiiU, wbidi he had purcha^Ml mI Miu)cl)«A^r. li| 
thf }V*r 1524 i full 4otlV«yllHce^v-J« nu<lc of Xht property of lh« 
^itl mUfii, latul*, atu) ten^mviits, to Mrtaia |nui«s for a^coiiipl^- 
il)]; tliC kilntQr'-- nud dtiiMir's inl«iiliuns. Aniun^ oIIivt proiisH'ns, 
]f, il flirrrled, thqt do nul« iDfint, of nlislever citunly iu the king- 
<^oin, s)|||ll l>c rvfut^fd adifiiMtioii. 'T\w mzskr and u^h^r u^e to 
^e appointed Ijy Ibo pretidcot of Coq)u<iChm1i College, in Otfonl. 
^nd ill default uri)nmiiti|tiuu «itliia a r4fv)5uttaMi.' liiuf, to 4«'vuU'e 
q^ ibe naTOvn of S(aiictie»^er CuHqje. TIip pHucijMl uuili^r, b»r 
n^ a duelling-btiiiw, &c. liiB 21^. ^vr dwuuB ,* anil the second 
nutrr 1301. be»Mu 1biT« others, who have 80I. a year each. 
Vliii. ackovl bos aigkt luUitbitMDS fui ULfun) uuiniraily, each of 
t5l. a year : and tbnw n>bo are «ilera^ al BniMiKNww CoUaga^ 
Ini-e a fiiir cb:iiicp of ft>iiw *;iluiibte cshibiliutis from landa 
^3nchi-«ti!r. Wiiuralltfd bv th(> Ule Mr. llu|nH>. 

Tlivbuildifi^tof tbf;a>l[e;;«, or bu»lVt9|l, pouipriie^ rc(i](U 
llildiei], cknnitv^'y* 6u>fl«f»-[<u>iii, ^(nd wtom »Uu>r d^ 
apaitioeiiU, brtiiilei a brg« collrttiale lihra[>'. MuM uf llir roc 
aad the nbole building, rcwnifik lite ct)Ilr£;r Mnirtvre^ of tbi 
unlrersilies^ »iid Ihc bbmry is Ur^r, uilb a viftua^tlc uiid tiiitiicn)U| 
collectitw of bools. This mth e3i;)Mi.ti[d bv tbe ' . .' .. MrJ 
^belhti^ *• A caUlo|uc of tlic biiuLs vca* pubU^i < < . .> 1 , iifl 

* Pf lh|S avuBl^i dmriuti:'' HMn, l<^w bliiignpliical pnrticiiltrt litye evi 
V*it ^bbUiL Ucnn I a^i induced iii (ire pM(c t» iJtc Ivtlvnius nvi 

uvcMtttTiv. aft 

an Mi;rivoi1 ftoriwlt oilht /.win'ler. 'tho h>nA.<. tn tfiN coTTfclion. 
now amouD) ta ii))Wdnla of /iflocn l^uuu»d volimif*. Amoti^ 
ofliet rorioirt MSS. art a • VUiiaiioii of LatioishJr* Irt l5JO.' 11^ 
FlowLT and GrnvCr: • Siliitli's (lilto. \h tS^rJl' ' IIitTin»*ftllliri 
yixacMaieieii;' ' fcufrrituu'ii Caltcclkiii for a ffUtorj' of LaAn- 

R3 abirc; 

wUHi hi>» f>*4-K kindly rotniAndfl^tei tit ^ Il!ff. ^abi iiiiniSi, HoSlSA • 
ktlffiUn PoIitbniM. 
* fJiiNPiiRi.~v CiiKTniM. \\» tlifril \tn o/flmrir Chcifiiirn, MTf^ninipHl, 

MflT HTinrhnliT, «^p!tp. ««• torn Jiilv >>1tti, l>Jf>. riirin- i'll^rnKl dl 
itUi *' fUt I'miily t> ihouff.t I'na jii<t' ^lunO lo tlrMTiiir fmta 5ir Jrltrrjr 
(%«lliAiB, lit Clicllinni, (■ mail of ■■■irb iFnmik in fiMiner 1£i^'*) tuiA loiiin ow 
^Mlln^inlhelian&'af <At>niii|iriil perKHu. ooi Ut leinMc' (Von lie place, 
(tA i*4iEi) tlo Fiidcncc n» niiicli." Il apvcar) lliot Sir J'^Vry, " in livii&Ie- 
■onM> iann," liai] iwurinl ihc lilng'* tln|itMMtr«, ty whiiili Lb* loitui'iM oP 
Ut Tiniilr wet« iimtcriillv iiijtir«!. iti* |ib<initjri fioirevcr, mil! cuminacd 
to nstiifa imiT ilic place vlwrv (lie t'nmjly hii<l m long been tPItlcil, ntiil it|Mii 
Ac ihalfi at Itmiy Chrlhaiii abiirciMBtPHirir, Jaam, lib eUlnt ^nn, Me- 
Medetf fo tU Cnmifual txtalr, wl^le<SMr|t». iTiimflircy. and Anipfi, l&a 
j cans c *"*• rinlaiLcd in iW Iraitc fur nbic)i >f«u()imrr tiBil lar Mme 
ficne lM«n ■(■■ini^iiBlLAf ; Tlir tKiff brvMJi of wtiicb wuft l)ie iiilui<iiti<-liifc <^ 
cuUmw. Ai till iirrfo'l ttiilipn ma. iii> trw tiK. iniiicijul mitrLcl lor rii»tiaU| 
mVA ite>« (rimslit iWitticr 'i<Atn all |i!irls -.f lli« nirnmiulinc criiintry. Of 
UtOK bwf Mjifcrallv, ihi- ^Jtrthams «Wr tli'i'rint'ipulInijni.iuHJ ttie tdiidoii 
mrtat *■< r)«icf v •ii|i)>ricir by lti«in iviili tki<n« malniali i)ra|>|>dr<l, tlicn in 
■Tqiml fcnrial im^ lIii>ii::riuHl (1i« luliun*. n> lliii rtinimetii', uliieh ml 
|>ta&«U; cottilnf W Ml 111 <-xtcitii*c *f-\\t, Mr. Clwtliani acinif cd n^oMoKt, 
wlifla U» iliirt tmr-jtity, lin piniy, ItitviKktof ciiariiyanO bcni-vufeu», 
■Munril Uini itir ii*(|i«i;l Mini r^icWit oriliMtcnniniidfiiiii). Hnrhicrrutilrnrc 
MM Cid^utrlUii, nnat M«iii-linlrr, at iliat llmo Nirraiuidi'ii by a muat. (M 


* S*wv\y ar tIm iLiya of Claivnr, PoMiten ififKnr to Ime bwn wvru, 
r«m try pmiRi uf caniMiltiniu-n, tinr? tir ctuilm liu" Kiii|;ht' in afnlian 
f«^«a ar doiibiat. 

" or (astian he weriit n i:>p<>ii 

AUt bi-uiwilriJ wilb iiia ttX/ut^mt." 


2{i2 LAKCASaiBS. 

ihire -* ; Knyvett's Projpcl lut tbc DefenM o( En^hiid. Al 
shbrt dislsncetnutlt of (be college is (lie Collegiatb Crurcu, 
a kit;^pi[e of btitlUing, nliicb uccuptu tlte the of lUe ol'l |Miml| 
churrli »r HilKiKhitstM', »nA a Avwn\nti in tJio rultitnii)}t tenia by 
Uie Kev. Dr. WhitJker, fa) a commuuicdtioii to tbit wufk. 

Ttie oiiUidc beiug comlruclcd of retl cruaibliiig slonv, bii 


tnetr of wliicti ire *tQI uuty perceireil, Gtotgc, Itu elder brother. reiUe4 
U Tiarion. nt«r Bnltoii, at tbe bouw oiled Turtcn Tantir *. 

Fuller briefly mcoliotu Mr. Hiiapliny Cbcibani omoic biit " W'arthka of 
EivkMl," (and aHMrMllr h« dnrrvea l» nnk li^ amwig llirni ,. I»viii|; r«- 
ceivfil hi* JaliimuuJiin from Mr. Jobi»oij, prvKrlier of t\te Ti:inpl«. wid out 
«r ibt Icoftif^ oun") iu 3Ir. OiethaiDi will. Fiam IliU antlMiily «« «)« 
toll] Itiat be WM <* a (lilij«ui imler tt ihe •crfpntie*, ind of tlw ncnk> of* 
•aund ilivint*, Ktvptctcf orhuth niiDTilensi Ik iM-Foimled Imlv godly, ap^ 
rigbl, Mbrr, diurtct. anrl linccrp. Kr hiu Flith Sbetiff uf tin cocaiy of 
Lmcuter, A. D. i^5i durimf-iug Uial vtVttt uilti |[icbt Louunr, •nwmNcBJ 
ikil very good gpnikuiicii of birlli ■nil etuie did mcv bit elulli •! Ike awis^ 
to tG*lif> tbctr iiafiiitiicei uffection lo Ida, tuul two of tbca (Julin Herilc>, of. 
Smnsewajv-Ualt, and IL \t'ii^!e)', etcjultca). oT ibemae |iraAM^ wli^ 
binrMtf. stie^/^crvrBrdsKbcri&c/tltcrouut;.'' ^ 

Tlie rtwiily of ?lIr.Cli«ltuni ytu noi to appear oalf atiet lila deoik; iba 
chitf iraiitiitinu provided fur bi hit « III mbs bui a nirufktinD of me 
he lud fomttd \iiag b«fi)ir. Tbe ntatnnbij aiaiincr in vbidi tii* i* 
10 bi U> viilt tliews hiip i« htrr beca frtn fVnm all pride umI cMri 
Duriof lilt Mft h» tmi) " taken op and nMinuiwd Rxmem |>aor hujt of i 
lawn of ManchcAlei. us of llie lomtif Sairurd, boiI lira of ibt lomi 
JiteyUdta -, ia all Incntjr two.* Having Bftfer maoM, h« that brruue 
ftlbtrr 10 llie fttticrlcM and ih-ttiinlr ; niid dnidtilea maHy w>eie ilir rlublii 
efldi-erMty, tiMl, duiinf; tbo lil^i Ibne urilkJi pMid muii, «><rrcwi*i-(y Tmi 
ptoicclion ill 1ri» fi«ieriitt; and jiateTOil bcnerdaw. U'ric tl not Mipi 
hi«,ittDigbl |«ihapt MllJt eoaftdtiM^ Ueauetttil, tbai ofaUlbo c)>«iipeU iit 


* In Vbitakrri Hitlory tt llaochrtler ii wna bccsiwI of Iheae MSS. ' 

4 Camdni nyit thai be mw (about I cat,) " Tiirtnn.Totrer, and Cntwivelr 

neat and cl«i;ai)r Iiciim*, ibc fotmei oacc tbe xal <4' Ibo fdinoM ftmily of Iba 
Orrellf, lUen of tbe CfaeibaiM.' 


tafiered extremely rroni the operations of lire and smoke. ' Tbe 
church-yard, from the multitude of ioterments, iu exposure to 
e?eTy amioyance of a crowded town, and the neglect of railiDg off 

R4 tbB 

ubidi chuitj deligjits to pour iti itrcanu, in none do diey 6ow so extenllTdj, 

ud as it were vitally efficacioui, ai in that in vhicli Mr. Cbctbm duMe to 

diiect thcM tlie more public overflomiip of liis bencvoipncc ; thovgb at Aa 

nme time it '» very probable tliat tlie charily ot'iuch a mau, while he livccl> 

m* not confined to tliit alone. By liis wiil, bearing date I>eceitiber ISIb, 

1G51, he directs ibat tlie before -mentioned number of tKeuty-two boys be 

-increaMd (o Ibrty, by (he election of another boy fioin tLe towmhip of 

Droybden, ten from Botton-in-the-Moon, attd five from Turton ; bcqoeaQi- 

-Joi the Hun of 7,0001. Ibr the pnrchue of a fec-umple estate, tlie profiu of 

~~*lucb are to be appUcd to the support of thb inatitutiun. Hie Imji are ts 

~it elected, in the proportion specified, and from the six townaltips mcDtioiied 

tbe will, tlic children of poor, but honest parents, not iltegitimatei nor 

"^dieased, lame, or bliiid when chosen. Tkry are to be doatbed, fed, and 

^sBostnicied from the aze of about six to fourteen (since limited to thirteen} 

^~*wlwn they arc to be bound ont at tit: expetise of tbe institution to Mine 

and useliil trade. 

Nearly one fuurtb of tlie boys are annnally discharged at Easter, and olben 

ileeied in their stead, by the feoffees, tu ctity-four in nuaiber, and who have 

ivariibly been gentlemen of the first respectability in the nughbogriiood, 

feoffees are a budy corporate by charter, dated November SOth, I7tb 

ChattesII. (A. D. 1665.) 

Peihap* no institution of the kind has been more indebted to iti gnanfiana 

their jodiciotis managemeiit of its resource*, and attention to its iotereita, 

this ; and tliey liave found an ample reward for tlic anxiety which tbej 

,n evinced for these objects, by hnvin^; been enabled to enlarge the spbara 

this benevolent imtitution, and to augmeut tbe number of boyi upon tba 

wodation to eighty. 

Hr. OielhaiD, by his will, bequeathed also the smns of 1,000). Ra the pnr- 

of books; and 1001. for a building, as the foundation of a publklibfarj;' 

«T die augmentation of which he devises the residue of his personal catate, 

er the payment of certain legacies, and this is said to have amounted ta 


Hefurtber baqneathed thesamofSOOI, to pnrehase godly English I>ook^. 
*^«) be cfaained iqion desks in tbe dhnrches of Mandtcaler and Bolton, and tin 
^lliLh oTTtorton, Valnuley, and Onton. 

The Ibander departed tUilifb October ISd^ fallier4diyearofhb«{«. 


the (lifTvivnt footpalW and pn^cUoi u of the building, it ia ■ rcTf 
disgusting <ti)il iiflVimve ttair, WilliiD. wmI oti tlw swiilli ii<t», sf* 
M>enl Lir^ dinutrics, one of which is ihe |>ru|>rrljr wmI bwri»i* 
place (if (lie Truft'urfb of TrdlVnTd. Al Ibe cust em), Hml heWatd 
tfac altar, ti the chnjwl of ibn ClM-lliain*, wli^e the nittnilkftnt 
fouiider of ibe liospilvl tint n lumb. TItcre arc ulto KtUMr Inter 
BMUinetiU of the fiiiaily, of wbicb Utr uurble reiain* urn IHltc 
•ilfaer oi ha origiiiBl whiloMsi oc pnliriit inmMiil sW«tn of 
tomme aool penetrating eiety chiok «i<t emi»v. ( hi ihr iinrtb 
iidc of llic north site is a tcpf sparjous <-ha|H-T, built by Bisliop 
Slanlcy, audnuw the property ofllie Furl of D«r!iv. wirirlt. briof 
Id out for iulcnneaU at a slated piiu:, u tM.-tioiiic Ulllc IxUct IIbm 
a diariKl. Bc5><uil this >• a wtalt prrijrfiiiie chairin', tiaili'r Ibe 
ijtdxlcr'ft luvit of vrjii<rh, »xni «>ilhta n ftlutii alur lomb, br* tk* 
same Janes Stanlet, Bbho]) of £K ntirf IVarTlm of Man- 
cliCAter, wbo iJinl in Ihr nill^c There h u Muail ficuic i>r bim 
jp Uraaf, iiu<t nii iiucnirtjou ni ohl £;;gh)h, nltkh bns breii eina 
bj Mf. Ccathaga ia tin Uiitoi^ uf £lv. Bui llic Kirnl uinamrnta 
of llib rhurch Kfc the nialh, xcrvcus, ami lullire wwIl of ibc dmir, 
iwahrcl ia a giesl nkTMnrv al the eii|)ence nf this pr^lnlr *. who, 
tbctish little of a scholar or on ccclr^intlic, lecnis lo huve hatf a 
muiiiliccul ipiril not uuworlhv tjf Itii birlh. His ftinii^ cuuDcvi"a 
ui'laced liiin |o reside much at Manelicsler, to whicli be aeeiufe to 
(ava UcragKalljr aUaiiMtil; for nothing fct* Iban 11m |»owerful 
itlAiMam ol the Suule^ vmM ha** otilaiiiad lor him fttrnmiom 
to boM a emiimtmUiH nilh tire rieh See of Blv. uail the value nf 
HM mn^cinliip niuit Iwve Ko a \er^ mcoRMtl<^rabIe a<MilK>ii to 
ftts iiict^tiic. lo tKlitieai Hii'l ilcliucy ofexcrulioii. tJie cao'^>it«oC 
the«e ilalli txtttni aut tliinc I Wn &cea> lboui;b |MrLap« in i(«inl 
•tf liflM"**. Uie>kMeM«Klhiitf{fionalbewaBla£ltHa>tiali ■p'ritig- 


* TV asocvrd vk-^, iom » <lnwuit l>X OvofKe Oinieiiet» E*^ wkt 
feWI} pPKtit> Uip t't«t« to UiKwtirk, <lik|>1a^ mmtt of ilitM UUU, ilia 
dnrano' or tke airlim and MpjH r muiiIiwm wi the uuth aiila of ihe tlwk^ 
aUo the flatlncil cularuwia^uM^ <<«ilh Uw dal wmnIui ntoi; 4c. 

iVool pinnclvsi w'lidi nuiitd Ibc sUUs ftf Ibe two dnUar «Mk- 
(wks, wtfi • Dot borixOHUl conuM (thou^ mucli eeriched) m iu tk 

MnnouitU the nliolc. 

The ti>un {pntbMAy the chuirh) of M-.iuchc3ter vnn nrigiddly a 
place of Mitclnary, and uue of l)ie cif;lit )>!><»» lo wlncti thw pii> 
vilcgr WIS coiilirtned h\ tlie statute of ;]'> lienr^ the Eiglitk, ift 
I jlO-l. B'.it llie fwivil^e was tnasfrrretl lo Cliesler iu tlw fU> 
lowing ytitg m it hail been fotiiitt to ojkcnite (o tiia jMejiidiai of 
Hk weaHli, credit, Hnd g>K>d <ird«r of tliv |iIhCo. 

Oo tlie alarni created by tfio Spaiitali arniudii, wlien evtry hmv 
in the km^doni, nr at kaitt of the iiiariliine comities was called to 
CDirttibttle ill qitiila of defence, MaiHiliester tW iiinheil only ttHriJh 
vfht men for hmtjuebiniers, tlte sanii.' ntinilm fur aMien, aiMl 
I4i mat foi bilb and pil'.es ; and iti M^, on raising men 10 Bup* 
fuss tlitf reliclliou in Inland, (lie iimglitnitea were cautinaed aat 
to send auy tagabonds or disorderly pcrMiiw, but men of good 
aharacter, suid paniculurly young men, wlio were skilled ia tbtf 
■aeof tin haad-;;un. lit Ib'05, a [leHlikiice here rarriedoff 1000 
person; aud we know litlle luin-e of Ilie general lii>lory of MaiK 
cttesler aelil lC*2, wben, iu tlie dispute between Charlea Uio Pint 
and bis partiaineat, it took aide with llie kttter, and the town wia 
occapicd by the coonty nrilitia. la September of tbal year ttw 
Earl of Derby besieged it in vain, retirtog, after seversiil dayt, widi 
0on*idcrable loss ; I he mnta of the itreeU were Ihen only furlified ; 
bat it WH9 better garriKKied and defended in the course of tiw nekt 
year. A violeat pestileifce broke oyt l>crs in 1^45, wlien ««1- 
lectiun» H-cre made iu all the cliurcltes of London aad Weal- 
ilMiHler. T)ie furtifi cations of tike town were dismantled in 165/3* 
NutM ithstaiKliHg tile resolute ufipositioa of ll>i> town to KiBf 
Charles (he Firat, the corooatioB of Ciiarl«9 (be Seeoikd, oo tli» 
2^ of April, l(>ti\, appears to li3ve been boooiired with particuliw 
dislinelioB. In 1708, n a act was obtained for building 5^. j^nii'a 
ehmrtk, the &ite of which, witli the square, was formerly a corn- 
field, and so roniembercd to be, by Ihe name of Acre's Field, by 
an oklnmii who died ita or about Uie yeat 1780. St. Martft c&ttreh 


566 LANCAsniSB. built Is art of parluiiiient in 1753 ; and in 1747, aii«ct wii 
obtained to exoiiirnle the towa from the obligation of grinding 
corn at llie free-sctiooi iiiilU. In 1776> another let was passed 
for wideoing Itie streets. In 179 1, <^ J^cL was obtained fur light- 
ing, watching, and cUaiiMu>; the town, ounhicii occaeioD b watch- 
bouse was established ; wnd in l7d^i ^"^ centre of tbc town was 
farther improved bv lu^^iu^ down llicExcbjnge. 

In tiib iiccniint of JVlLiiirbester, it will be cipt-cled that aomc of 
the public buiitljni;) be noticed; bul tliU niiis.1 necessarily be concise. 

Asylum, are all ijicliKJtd in one spacious building, ia the liigii- 
est part of llic town. The fouudiitiuu fur the £rst edifice was kid 
in 1753, when onlj a.jOl. had been 3[ib^cril»ed lowardi it. TIm^ 
plan for receiving forty palifnls, was aftenvards esteaded to 
eighty; bul itio beds «re now appropriated for the use of pa- 
tients; and i:] 179^!, a Ditp'unury was added, nod a suitabl«j 
building annexed, colte^tions. for which were made at the differ* 
ent pljtes of religious worship, to the ai.iount of more tbaivj 
4,000l. I'erliaps it should be added, tb jI beucfactions and itga* ' 
cies for the support of the liifiruiary and Dispeusarj-, prior to tiivi 
S4th of June, 1S03, aimonnled to more than 3:,6ool. aud tluf' 
annual subscriplions to nioie than 6b,5001. — ^The LuimUc Hos- 
pital and Asylum was o|h.'ih'i1 in IfCb'- 

A pcor-honse also was opened in 1792, and another at Salford 
in 1793; ill both I!ip paupers are employed, according to their 
■i, ii liilily, aud r.ipacilicSj in tlie various parts of the 
tvetiviarr, \-c. and in such 

lft«jWard>, witb raucli propriety, nicceeded, h*s be«a produc- 
i6** of aiinuita)*c to bulli. The PvnLtc-BATlls, ntidi are 
<ualed »L ))te ealnac« of lite loJinnary Wiilks, coiiuiU of hot, 
[KjHt), Tiipnur, aitd <olt< boUUs, Ut uhicli are ultucUeil very codi> 
furlubk- ilK&siug-nwim, Uiat an rL'j;uU'.i»l nilli Uiu sUiclc&l trnlcr 
«n(l pru(ir»rty; wc fu.>] dotil>lj railed u)>on to expren our appro- 
tMittoiiofUietvrmsbf mlmukion, wliicli are moderate, and tbeu|))ilU 
^»lioiiaf lli« ]>roltl:< lu Uic supfwrt uf llie liifuiiiury. Tlw LviNG- 
MV Hospital, al $ulfi»(l, iruililtiieil in 1790, not only pfuvutei 
ymrt^unal Hid aixi doiDc^c aceaninKHlalioii fur pKgnaut uo- 
aJKit nli» arc rcci'irt.->) iiiUi ir, Iml fur itie delivery of poor mar- 
vied wunica at tlicir umu huutus, with pro^Kr advic*.*, und siiiuble 
aunlkuics. Tlie lIousK of Rrcovkry U an approdage to iIk 
Jtritnnaty, und iutrnded to aixunmiudatr lUO patienis, iritli pro- 
^ otftcet. TliU origiiiiUctl ill l/iKi. auJ U cakuUled for per- 
m in cootagiuus fe^vrs ; bill persons having kaiUA anil «pid^- 
niicil Icrers. in paitirulur, aie couipklrly shut out from tlie rest 
of tlic buusc; lIicujiailiucQU being vcnlil;itcd in lite Lint povuble 
natuKT, to tctkeii iliv |m:di)iui»aut tfBuvia, iuid (icvcnt the cit- 
CDlatiou of ihc murbiil raiUcr. TIk Stranok^' Fhienu So* 
CISTT. iinlitutcd in 17i>l, distribulei cloaibs. bcdi. iuid Mao- 
krtx. and wlidlever iiu^ be fuiind aectsaary for liicconifoit of poor 
tiratigrn, hIm bate bcvti iudiislriuwly suugbl out, Mbniiiiikiug 
uider iJie preMiiic of poTi-rty and dbcaiC : iind it slioiild not b« 
iionuliccd, tlml propk ofcvri^* rrJigioiis persuasion are subscribers 
to it. audtbat tlic iiictiiodists, wilh wboio it lirsL oripn&tcd, lu- 
variabty rvduilc Ibrtr own |H>iir from iU bent-fits. Tlie Bo- 
lODGiiBKKVfi's Chakity uTisrs from lands and moneys, led 
for dialribulicn to poor. agvd. aikJ tmpnlrnl inliflliilaDl» tti Man- 
tbcttcr. These arc prnvidcd witb linen clntii, ctuXi, gowas, or 
nouey, at <lbcrctiun, uccurdinj; to tlicir n'lpectivc vaub; but 
the landi bavc bccu lak-ly sold for buildinx <>■>• &■*'! ^ voltw 
of Hint |Kirt of Ibe yurixrXy is augitK-olcd in more tbdu a quad- 
xuple priiporlion. 'IIk clotli pvto on tJiis occuiou, u m niiirkcd 
M to pr<ircnt its betrg either pawu«l «r sotd. 


'4M 'Lanca^hirb. 

flncMtif^ for the firopsgitliDn of honwledgf, soul ttiwmimlkm 
*f luefiil aud whjablp discortriw, arr linir»T»u« in Man«[i«Mer.-^ 
Thr OniMMAll SrHniji. tas Ii««b alrclH* mnitkirK-ff : bfsMM 
trliicli tlii'r<^ arr miitir piiralc Hcltooh, Iwtli btrr snrf in $allt>rd. — 
The I.iTBRART AMI pHiLosopHtrAi, SocttTT, riUbtwhcH 
In )7S1, of nlncb th« late Dr. Hioitnu PcrchuT, a natrve of \Vflr- 
riAglnn> W1W long prrtklciil, w Ihf inn«t nfit)<f, || [m iiitWM»r<i 
lercriil roluniCT of Hi mfmoin. ionic of tthkh hot* been Irti»> 
hrtcrf iirto the Frrnrh ami Ofrnian hofiw^-*. TTir lorn-lr'i 
nmling] nre ctery Friday fbrlniglit, from Oclobrr to April, 
htdu.'Ut e ; and, nn sdmmiun by Lwllot, earh mt-iid>er pay al) 
errtrtnci! of Iwo ^niiros, and an mmml sol>»criplioo of one gui- 
nea. — The Philological Societv ma iittrtitntn) in 1803. nn 
ihc mwlf I of n itifuitar sociclr in I ifcrjjool. Ih profcwrd obj«(t 
b, " to coIliTirlr lifcralDrr and itricnce in gmrnil. Pvlmtic pbt^ 
tict, awl Pulrmic diTitntv only «cP|i(ed."— The .MaNCIIBsTEA 
CfRrCi.At(so LtBRAiiy, mslrtul«l in l?4f, ii llie joinl i>ro- 
'jKitr of uboiit 3/0 nutncrilitTSr thr price nf ati athniwioii lirlcct 
'bcinjfivc f^iimi?. Thr price of nn ■4Rtt5»ion and pn>|irrehffy 
ticket, wFifch i? inm^ffTthlf by «le ot Itgury, is nm» I'lw gainrvf, 
•mt each mtmNir pay* fi(l«ii shillmpf yearly. — thv MAVCae^ 
t«B Nrw»Nft I,»»BATtY woi JMiiiutM in I75tt. 
•nd is supported by an adVsneed mm, and anmial ftubserJptiufi 
ftota rbc infiKbfw. Tbe lihmry irohtaint. ti<-i*Hy 3000 ^oRtnif*. 
A btff hirilJfn^ in >fo>l<!y Strwt, failed the PftETtf o, has Ixert 
erected R>ra libmry, nnni-room, &tv. This hut bem built, aiot 
f^Kexpence* Jirt (frfrnyed bya BUlrt^^r of proprkioff, wbo paM 
AirWnpiincHs' hi affvanee, and an nantinl subserrplkiii of Wo 
KQinfflf. Thh bnttHin^ i< hn^ :ind' bandsonte, and MHitaini a 
eOffM or in^w-r<w>m, mrj'-rtve frrt long, by fiirty-(iv# fort i#H>K. 
tnd fofty-ftiur ftPt in ht-iglit'to the lo)5 of the dfime. Bnltle* 
Aeje, then avcMher reudhig and Kfen<ry«u«iet^ in-lhit-roTtir. 


I Min ktf liera m«cc raixd to tvesif c«aBn>i mil wlitD l6e iiBu- 
iKf utMOnU lo 4M, lilt prki* of MilnuHkDi will b<f advaocrd ta Itii^ tni- 

hAvcAMamW' 109 

fpT Uie purpose ofpromoliug aud encouragiog tbe uieful ortf «a4 
Kienccs of life, was estalilislieil in 1767, and iiiic« that period 
has distributed many |>remiuuis for valualjle discoveries. One 
qtuECt of Uiis society caunot be too waniily recommeaded. MT 
Cifl it be too much iuiilatw) ; — lint of granting preniiuqs to tut* 
tigers wtu> support their families without parochial aid. HMBft 
tiid good servants are also rewarded by hopni«ry preseott, 

the Rbpositosy is aa iDslitation adapted to eacourage nd 
ifward ioduitrious females. At this repository, the ueccsiitOM 
may sepd. with a ticket and price, any article of funcy-work. or 
ueful contrivance, which is exposed for tale, and, wfaea toM. 
tlu money a paid over to the owner, who paya one penny U) t 
ibiliiii; for coinmiKion. This very iiuportaiit eslablishmeat bu 
(wored eminently strvtceable to many iiidividnali, and is catitM 
tQ IJheral and careful support. 

Though most of the public buildings be devoted tn buwKM 
n>d religion, yet, in so populous a place, we may justly expect 
to meet u ith some appropridled to aiuusenient. Of these, tb* ' 
TuBATBB is lbs most prominent. A n«w building, on r Ivrga 
tta|e, hits very recently been erected, and was first opened m 
1807. The present manager and proprietor is !V[r. Mitcreadjr, whtt 
ii also propietor of the Birmiugboni, and some other smaller pro- 
vincial theatres, 

llie ASSUHBLT Rooms arc contained in a plain btnUing, 
Khicb «ai erected by a subscription of 100 persons, at $01. 
each. The first public assenibly occurred in ScpLembev, 179^. 
The ball-room is c^bty-seven ieet long, by thirty-four f«et broad; 
Vui is decorated with three elegant pcnJdnl, and Iwdvc mut^ 
(Uss cbaadelior*. In tbe tes-room is a full length porlrait of tba 
Ma \jOliU Stb&ngr, father to the present Carl of Derby. As 
ipsgriplkn on it states, thai tbe former nobleman procured tb* 
iqi^I of an act for imposing a duly on tinen-yam. This piftuM 
'\3fi painted by " Edward penny, professor of painting to tlM Royal 
-icaidemy, 1773." 

A CoifCBBT- 

fltO LAHrAsmite. 

A CoMCERT-RoOM wa« vTTcIrd Iirrr in I777t ^^ <*" tnc«t' 
fW kHI lufipnrltMl l>v amateur tnuiticiani, and are generHlty 

'fiequentcil bv n cromlcil aiiitinicr. 

From |iJiire« ofiitrnrnialiiiii jiid amuwnml kl tii litm to wch 
■I have bc«ii nbrd fur the purposes of mlniamc and pimuhiog 
»icp. ThrNkw Baii-RY PmsoN, io Salforrt, wa» fiiiisficri in 
17<>n, aii'l is a birg« nppmpriutp pile u( building. Il i% constnict- 
cJ on HoHint's pl»ii, and was nbcd at llw eipettae of (lie bua> 

i/4lcdof Saifnri), lo nhicb ilijirici h ii whollv appropiialed. Tbc 
rbnl« l>uil<litig i» iru'ttMnI witliin n tqiiarc wall of 1?0 yjiiAs in 
dtamrtcr. At ibe eDlrnocr is a bitulBotnv ntctiraled baDding, 
cmtafaiB^ the «r>sM>n«-rooiti, tvttcrctii MfcklT itiiH ijimrtrrly courts 
■reaBcniblrd: und adjoining it aic wilh-dmniiii; ronnn for the 

' -Vngitlrjilr*, aiuniKl, jurors, wilticwrs, Ac. TJio 'I\inikfy Vnts 
on tiie Kniutxl Huot, ami bcliiwl Ibc lodge, in ti>r micbt ofa targe 
area, is the piiton, of Ihr form nf a fnnn, tiim stnrtn high. 
From Uic ccnirc of cHcb story all lite four wanl*. with the door of 
ercrr celt, muy bt: M-rn. No piinrmer here is fcltcred ; but, tf 
l»fradoTy, h mnnrcti to n wilitury mII. All ttti; prisoncra wear 
Muc itDd trd before conviction, and filue and yrllow aftcrwanb ; 
and no prraan is suffered to b< idle, people of ntt tnidca tieing^ 
coi»l.inlly rmployerl. It ia under ttie ilimtinn of the nia^blnites 
of the division, and affords n modvl of nianDf^emcnt for olhcr 
prtsonf, which cannot be too slrougty recommenifcd. 

Thr RakhAcks arc silnakd iu t^ulmv, a towtuhip in tjw 
nbuibs of MandicttCT, nod are cointructcd iu an uuifurm pllii| 
(or tW Ai-rnmniodalion of dra^finnft. 

nie eirii gfivrmment of Msi»che«lcr m reeled in » borougb- 
r^ve, who is aetiually rtinsen ; two canstalitca, and a dqiatv 
constable : and the towmliip of Salford is under a similar (;ov»ni- 
MWt. Freed from a eor]ioTalion and the dej^din:; slavery and 
ersmping poum of » diartered borongti, the inhnhilaots are 
iKtTr atmnved with Iho lantnltriiig conteUs of political election)^ 
and every tradesman is at lil>eTly to commenFc und puma lib 
busincfti uomolesled by atbilran taws. For ttM> adminiitralion of 



jOstice, several respectable magistrates assemble on Wednesd^ 
and Saturday misniings, weekly. Quarter sessions, also, are held 
four times a year; when, fruni press, of business, the court faai 
been sometimes kept sitting nearly a fortnight. The lord of tbe 
manor, too, holds a. baronial court monthly, tor the recovery of 
■mall debts ; and in Salford, which is a royal demesne, is s 
bondted court, for the same purpose, holden under the king, by 
the right honourable the Earl of Seftoo, once a fortnight, 

Bbioobs of communication between the two towns, and mora 
distant places, over the Irwell, are the Old Bridge, which was 
erected about the time of Edivard the Third, of three arches, oo 
which was a chapel in Leiand's time, since used as a dimgcMi, 
but removed in 1778, when the bridge was made wider. Bladt 
Friara' Bridge is built of wood, though flagged with stone for 
foot passengers only. The A'nrfn'rfg'e was erected in 17S3,aiiditB 
expenses defrayed by subscription shares of 40l. each. It is band- 
•omely built of stone, with three arches, besides a small one left 
open as an acknowledgment of the Dukeof Bridgewater's right to 
a towing path to his quay on the Salford side of the river. Tlw 
subscribers, at the end of eighteen years, having reimbuned 
themselves by a toll on passengers of every description, with an 
interest of seven and a half per cent, on the original capttal, not 
only purchased buildings, to be pulled down, at the upper end of 
Bridge Street, to eiilend the shambles, and widen the access to 
the bridges, but generously relinquished all future toll to the 
pablic, though, in the year preceeding it had been let for I150lt 
per annum*. The small stream of Irk, which passes through apart 
of the town, has six bridges upon it ; and the Medlock, a larger 
current, has no fewer than nine bridges in various parts of the 
town. Iliat of Oxford Street, in particular, merits much atteo- 


* Only one halfpentiy wu p^d by foot paawngers, and a proponionUai 
tsll for caniagei. Tte recollcctiou that tbere were two free bridgea on 
thii river, most Btrikingly point out the great population of the lowu; and 
dni surrender of tlta rest of tlia tolls, luffidcntly dcmotHtratei the liberal!^ 

fTI lAtf0ABIItBB. 

fian. Ski9ff*'» 9nA lut ihrm tirkigai smir it. Hnd *lvtn m our 
vt Ihre* an-Jiex over SJiwlr^l) ('iff. Not lo uulice i»un Hum 
Imvfttjr o««r the (liAWvot 4-vi4)a, lli* gf.iml at|ii«ilitct (if Adilun 
e«niil nvrr Sliulrr's Brook, In R<lnisriiia| tlirrrlMn. U "f tiugulac 
comtrudirtit, u<i u irnly pidiinrMjuf- em Uii? apfwooeli frnoi i'io 
cwdilly. Ndllicr oiiul we omh ltii> luim«l al Knot mill. lUrough 
mIikIi ibc RnHtduIa mtal iwisn, tn join thv Duke of Bridge' 
water's below Cualc-ti* id; whkli tuiinel poucs under Itw MtiMit 
iMdiBft lo CaKte Qimv, ■! r«4-(i «m) of which aie l»)i)ge-)ike bi(< 
demcotkhi (Myltiotn Sfrrel and OtMk-FipM. 

Tin MnmiieaeeM fur eouvryiiig fiOoAt bolli lo the eaat tmd 
wrsi, w Well u h» Luuilvn. are aloinit mcsdculiiMe. About fortjr 
jean sgo, noly eight Ail* (wtieli m nWed) were rmplincd in tb« 
mde btlween llin town uul LiwrpiHil : but iu>w nicur lli;iii l?0 
are cuHStsidly in Ri«(ii»i. Tlio laml-rurriBge iJso lias iBCreii*i)H. 
ill llw STdiae pcrMxl, more tlian ir ntnal prn)Mirliiin. Tile fiub, is 
Lkr muiir.rr, arr coBltiiuiill^ B<i«li»;;|tn<>ds lo (tail, &c. Wft^imns 
andoirt&are cmplniicd in atuiudaBrc. Eighteen caarfaei Icav* 
MniKl;«3lrT daiiy. f<<r l^iodon ua) difU-rrnl placn. bikI ei^lit 
otfaas ibicc titDcs a wrck: vil»em* hvo nalylrfttlii* place twice a 
veck. so late tt \n 1 770, ore of ihrm lo Lnndnn, apd llie other to 
Uvcrpoul. In 1734, (br ^'Uiiii; (.VmcIi cni;a;!ed In Im^ ia I^mdna 
io funr'duys ami h half: nnir ihv in«il cuacbes cott'taiil ly run it io 
Uiiilyhuur*: iind Um DrlrjiKc and Telesrapb ctmehn r^acbH 
Uaiictwiter, from I«iid«H, tni llit! pt-acc in October, I«t>2, in Ion 
than Iwrnly lintin. 

Tlie MamjpaCTDRBs of M^nrhcftter puy He suil to cnnti- 
tule tin very wW of the placf, end ihe Cwlniiesila kotfy. Whiltl 
llie foituer give antiuiilinn aixi spirk to the seniits ami mrrsica 
of DtMli, Ibe hitler 01V dcv^ii«d »iiit eaecfllcd by him lo Miit tba 
progTvmivi: inipmvcnienta of idmre, and ds best adnptrd lo the 
%lBliicM of llir coiKi'ios. To furniah n full and rjli^f.iclory ac- 
ffWM of ad Ih*: opurstions a»H c umplicdtcd parts of litem noultl 
tetittire Mveral i«!uin«s ; and Die tialure of Ibii imrk wQl not al* 



loW'Hnf <pifBt> A fcm liistoricsl menoruida, ud i^McUa- 
meoa$ natirei, ntisl thrrvfoM niAce. 

In lb« fifth ud lUlh jenn of Ihe reif^ of Edu-ard tbe Siatfa^ 
bD acl puwd (iir tbe hvOer maouf-Mtute u( teotllrn dolti, nhcn- 
in tbe ASimeheHrr-tvttom, hs Ihvii cKlbed, umI ManekHtrr-frita, 
■re direcKd lo be made tti a proper l«nj(t)i aad breadth, whith 
cottofu were cvitainly Own made frum nuol. lit tiu- war 1557', 
■Dolher act pnuvd, to amend the pteeedin^; and recite*, in tbe 
anae term*, tbe Mandmtcr awl Lsiicastiire ronnutarlurea. Ano- 
dwraet, for the rvgul^li'Xi of M-aliiif; the elolh by tlie Qu«eo'» 
^aAi^rrr, jMowlin )5€j. The trade uf MaurhfMer » dneribei^ 
in HiM, a» " iiot inftTiur lu tlut uf maay cities iu tbe kingdom, 
(biffiv coiifi«t>fig in H>tmlU«-piuM, /utlianj, uttk-ci»tkt, mingird 
ah^», ettpt. inktn, tapts, poiata, 6ie. ulierebv oot niily llie 
IwUir 90it of iiieii Hre ntipl'ijed, but alsu Ibe ter^ children, bj 
Ibrir own labour. c?.ti iituiulalii thnmeUvs. Th«r« are, betides, 
all kinds nf I'urei^ oicrclMiKli/c briju;;hl and returned, by the 
nerrtiaiiti of tin: town, »iiiauiiliiig lo Uw sum of mau}- thousaDd 

Is a anall treatise, wriltpn by I^nu Riibetts, a mtrdiant, and 
CBlhkd, "The Merchnnt's Map of Commerce," l641, the ui- 
Ibor Males, tliat " tlie luun of Maiiihe^rr buys iIk linen 511m of 
the Iriih, m great cjiianlitj, and, wearing it, relnms the «id« 
afiiu to ItrhiKl to idl," (which, says Mr. Maepbenon *, ini^it 
pouiUy and naturally i^te tbe firU liini tnwanli the Irivli linen 
namiifiiclum). " Neither diKb lier iiidu^tiy reu hrre, for they 
hmj eottoit-vrool iii L<iiidnn. Iluit comes lir«( I'roin Cy|iru<i and 
Sinynut, and work liie same into fwlian*, veriuilhons, dimities, 
ite. wliiiJi they reluni lo Lnndoo, wliere thry are sold; and 
from ibcvor, uol *eldi)m. uie ttntt iiitn iuHi furrigii lurU where 
Ibe lirrt materials may be more e-jsiiy bad for that njauutucture.*' 

Vol. IX. S CoUoo 

* Aamb of Ctimmtnt, Val. 11. p. 4)0. 

t It amj he infnrpri from (hl>, tliat no Mitcidriablv qino'ltj of cottM 
«■ a* ^ impati*'! ftnn lti« U'lMl-luitl* I»liii d» 


Cotton ^mk, of Englisli tnaniifacture, appear lo htrr bcCTi a 
nonJiy in lh<> yeaf 177+, Vflien aii acl of imrliHinciit ivas puucd, 
decUHiic Itial ttuITt niailr ciitircl,v uf c«>Uoii »|iuii in lliiit kin:;- 
dom, hail Ultly Un-a mtrorliicc<1, and llie Mnic wvic alUtwed to 
be uied as a Uiiful ami Undttlik indUuructuK. Adiilv of thnf 
pencr per Mjiiaie yanl wai (w be piiid uo every piece llut wu 
priiili'H, pDink", or stained ■ . 

Tlip author of a pjiiiphk't, f>ul>lt*hcit in 1788 f, oKtcn-a*^ tital 
not al>o*« t««iily 5«ur» bi-fun: tnut |Krio(i, lite wliole aiiiiuriJ va- 
lue of tlic coltim itmuuidctuies of tli» kiuj^Jutu muj uuder 
200,0001. and thai not al>ove 50,000 spindlet vittt earployed iu 
apuining coltou-jnni; but ia 1767< >)">> number was ralciilatcd 
lo hMv« aihfrni^ntcd tu 1^,000,000, aiii miitlmt M<:r« ItKn made 
in Brili^i looms, which rivalUtl ittoM of India. Tlie following 
table, tiiewiiif; the progrcu of the cotton niunutticturv tor scv«n 
yMn, will fumiih the reader willi same iik-a of tlie aituuiog in- 
creaM of tbi& buuncM. 

Cotton iMf d in the Mann/iiciiii *i of 
GtMl BnUiin, 

«,IOI,920 pounda in the j-»«r I78I 

tl,?0(),81() 17R3 

y,ii(i.l79 I7»3 

11,280,838 I7K4 

17.992.888 178i 

ip.lSI,S6f 1/86 

53,b'00,000 1787 

Fuininted valttR of itie CotMtt 
Muni'liwIinvB of Cieal Rrilan. 





A writer, who invi><.l i^att-d 1Ih> sutijttl of tlie cotton ntanuf^c- 
lure.<i in 1737. olin>ali>« lh« supply aod fxpcinttlure of cotton 
in Uk fulluwing prnpuitiuii!,: — 


• ufico. Ill, di.r*. 

< * EDiiilril. •• An inrporlant Crius in the CmIUv inW Jtftulia Vvn/mriarif 
bt'trui lhitai» fjfjaimrf." 


lai)»art«<l firooi Poond* Worked op in Pansil*, 

Brilkii Wert Indies- • 6,600,000 CundletiicU 1^00,000 

Fr^ticb aad Stiaiiisb ) 

Col uirt ■■.. , f ^'OOO'OOO Hnswiy 1,500,000 

Dutch dhfo 1,700,000 ^•"""S"™**""-) 

PortnRue* dhto. . . . a,5C.0.0U0 '^ "'"' «"'• °' i 2'^'«» 

liiM-u •■.•.... J 

Eul Iriilia, pntcur- i 

«lfr«n tWma } >°"-**° ^'"'*="" 6.000.000 

Snyna or Turkey • . 5,700,000 Ciilic(MS& Miulint 11,600,000 

2'?,600,000 42,600,000 

At tbis time, the nainb«r of water-mills, or machines, for tpm- 
Va§ twi«t cnllQU yani for Hnip*, m near ai iiilelligeaee could be 
obUiucdi was u fallow i :— 

In Lancitahire, 43 

Derbviliire. 32 

Not(ia«tMiiuhirr, .#............ 17 

York«hirr, 11 

Chealure. ••■• ••... g 

Sliffardiihirv. 7 

WntmorelmKi, ....••.••....•..•..... 5 

Bcrfcxfaire. 8 

In other parts of Engliint). • • • • • 6 

— 119 

Pltntthire, 3 

Peuibrukrtbiie. 1 

— 4 

InEiietarwi and Wnlrt. 123 

InScotlHiKl. 19 

laleof>Un, I 

Mikins together. •>• •■..>..t ttS 

S 2 Tlic 


Thewholecosi of which was calimalcc! at 7'5,0O0l. Th«« were, 
at Itic same luiic, 250 mulc-jcnuici, or nucbiiiM of nindy spiii- 
Aln Kicli, 8ti() 20,700 hanil<iaiiii(>, of ciglity tqitmlk-s riich, fur 
spiniiiii;: yam for the ihoat or v,-cA; liic cent of Mhith, and of 
the aiixiliury macbiiicrT, togclLcr with Hint of ihc liuiltlings, u 
stated to have hrrn at IchM ?6j,000l. making, tii<;rllit'r with llie 
fbmi(.'r sum, 1,noo,000l. Thc^ e^ilublialinifnts wlwn in full em* 
plu^mi^nt, vrcic cattoiiilerl to prottuco as much ruttou )«rn u 
could be npuii hy 1,000,000 pciM>n» on tiiii^le ulit-dn; and jii- 
stcad of iliniiiiishiiiK the cinploymcnt of (lie pcopir, as uos ap- 
prclieadfd, tliry mllrd out niimbirni from itIlcitrM to coiiiforiable 
indt'fH ii'hiiirf . At tliis time Ihcy vat Mipposefl to employ 




J 1. 00(1 


159,000 9o,non 





1 10,000 in the operaliotn of »]>!nnin|t : 
210,000 in llie siih»c(|iK'nt staccs of 

the mauuructure: tbcrc being 

iu all 

350,000 ptTMini rmpioyeil in thti most 

beneficial maiiulaclure : and nearly one-butt* of Ibi-ni in the calico 
and niuEbn btunchas. wbvrein lb« vaiott of ibe nw lualeriiii i* «d> 
Tanc«d, by indiiitlry aiiil iii^rutiily artiug upon ca)Ml]tl ami tn^ 
dituery. to iVom tea to lifly lioies lli« value of it. hIicd piircbuerf 
by llie nianut'aclurer. Such are lli» powen of machiurry*: and 
sucJi ar« tbi' benefits coitr«n'e<l upon Ihis nnlion by lh« iavenlii/e 
griiiiis, and persevering itiduslry. of Sir Ricliatil Atknngbl. 

Maiichentrr hat IwKn long fiitned for its laiiwi* anti eileiuive 
munfiiclum. But tin? bi(;b mnk it holds in tlw scale of cnm- 
nierdal iiujioi lance, inay be >ittTit>ul«)l to llic nature and exiuit 
of Ibc improvements intro4iiKed iutu the <:o4lon kpinkino trade, 
by wliidi the produution of all llic articlei cwcnttal to ibe nmiu- 
fiirture of cotton gaod.4 lia« bwn faciliuieii, and cvei^ rompeli* 
tioii, lieielofore itgariled as loo funnJduble to be successfully up- 
poMul, lias been most con'plfteiy bonie (lo»ii. 

Tbc s|iinQiiig cooccnis, io ibe toivn and ucijIibourlKiod. are 



■mieroBi, u4 RUUtv of Uiem of ^reat iitafTAitnde, book anplgy. 
■g from 30 to 70,000 s|Hti<lles aa-l yU-Ming iipnutdii of 600,009 
bnlu iwr week, eacli tumk lueiuiiriag S40 >'aMs, ur, in Uw 
wliole. 50^,000,000 ymfU, t pr<Ml<^ous l«if;th lobe llu- prtwIuM 
of ti& (lay« lubotir. Tto unpriiveRieiiti made far lli« lait tw«nly- 
fioe yean Iia%« b«en, in i j;re«t (tegrpc, cunfinud la the spinning 
tiqHiilmeut, au'l tlio»r prcpttrslory procev^/ nliicli the pre»al 
ioikIc of aiukkii;; vjm ri.-quir» ; and it will ap|>eai' nialtcr ol' M&it> 
«kr, wlMti we rovrrt lo the Itadc in ite urj^in, ihut, in so short a 
iptice, Mirli perfccttOD shouM Iu«c beeu alluuied. 

Notmorc llun balf a c€olur\ Lm cUip^cl $inre all Uie colloa 
jan, mH)M£icture<l iu Uii« <:ouatr>v ^^3* ^un by liaml, upon lint 
vidl kaowik doii>c»lic iii<>tniiiH'iit, fultccl, a One Tlireail Wlieel; 
Die (finiiiltlv.llicrel'Tf, produce;. I al ihul time, inuO luvobceu very 
liuiitcJ iiid^dt and, from llir uncirliiiiil^ of llie npcrsti:'!), miitt 
have yKl<lc<l au urticl« ita uoeven, and varioDS iii iu fiocnen, u 
to bavr Mprrated at a very nmlerial bar to llic esti;mioii of the 
tnd«, ill uii> l>ul coaiM or bcavy »cio()s : Jmiccd nn albinpt wtt 
made at tlir tuauufacliirv uf iiiuitliiiR, for vrlLicli tlte Eaiteia uorld 
WH »D eckbniled, uutil lb« preseut system t>{ spJiiniog was in 
some <l«gwe RKitun-d. Tltr vnrtoii* nierJiaiiicul contHvanMs by 
wlttcb Ibe nuriKrous prriceucs through nhich cotton ueeeuariiy 
pawM, are niorv iKcuratcly, as wcU as cxpHitiously performed, 
having efivdc4t u pro(lt:;lous rcduvUmi in the piice of labi>iir, and 
\he. valuv of -jU li<« «ariuus sorts uTitoutls rompoH-d, either partly 
or wtKiily, of cuttos, the lU-mani) lia» rapidly iiicr<>a<cJ : aod cot- 
ton K»<><Is, of British inanulacliire, have fouurl tlieir uay over lii« 
conlin^nls nf Mtmif>e and Anieriui, The tjrst suecosifal attempt 
Uttl was ttufic lo spin coltou by tmcbitiery, ivtu by a person of 
tlio iiaiDe of Hargreave, of Bliickwell, iu LauoiBhire, utio con* 
structtNJ n rruriiinr, wliicli lie eMvS a Jviiny, »id by ubicli a 
iiii{;U.- pfnon eould s\\\i\ fioni lAetily lo fi>rly IhreadK at one 
lime. IImm! iiiacliines, ia a short time, became very gpueral; 
and upon (bent ttta ptudifnl the vith or fbute of uLlch the va- 
rktui Liudt of eottoa gotidi ivere tuade. Tbe Harp oi wcbb of 

S 3 Ifaaae 




IbfS? goods WK almost uuivcrsilly linen, uotil it was duMWered 
Ibat l>y uuui»g two of IW llm-uds prtxluced by Hk Jenny, an<t 
iwiatiiig tliciii togetber, an «xvflleiil 9ul»tilule wut piovtdeJ for 
liue» ^urn ii«eil heretofore for vurp, 

Th« laie Sir Richard Arkwri)(lil, for wliom the nc^omplUbment 
of tliia great ubjirct wa* TeMr%'e'l, after inan^r ekj^eriiiieiilf, (toUlied 
bis lirit engine id If68, and ia tbe fuUowiug >««r tix^ out a 
patent,. He still, bow«ver, ccnilinued to study im|>roveiu«i)ls ; 
and in Ibc year 17r^> liaving l>rou^lit bis ori^iusl iiMcliiiivri,' to 
giedtcr pcrfcctioD, and bnvtn^ invt-iiled iiiiiLliincs fur prepxrin^ 
the cotlou for spinning, upon wliirti a MR^Ie thread could be i(Kiii 
mflieienllf conipacl aiid tinn to an»wer all Itie purposes of warp, 
he obtained a fre*li patent for lit* new intentiuii. Jfilherlo lie 
and his partners, liad n;)t(>ed no protit from the uiideilakiDg ; but 
BOW proper buildings being creeled, at tbe expense of 30,0001. 
and the msciiiner) potsesuiig tlie KUjterior advantage of being put 
jo motion by the appliraliun of power, aiid by ivliich an intinile 
Dumber of Npimllcs taijfht be iac«yuuttly eni|>loy«d, requiring wly 
Ibe atttntian of a ftw cliilitren to piece up the ends that ma\ nc- , 
casioaally hn-uk, and thu> ptodudng, in a Ht)^f'.ld propotlinn to 
what bad before heen conceived practicable; the business began 
lo be produrlive to llip prnprict'irs, and un ohjj'd of iitiporlaiire 
to lite whole niiltnn. MaiiufacUirert, iind other men (»f |iri>)terly, 
now wislie > lo particijwte in the benelii of Arkwrii^hl's in^euttoii ; 
und »v>-nil spirntin]^ mill* were ervcli'd in vnriniia parU o.' the 
country, the pro, rielnrs of which coiiliaeled lo py him u e4-rl'jio 
■uuual rent for every spindle eonlJtin<-d in iheir iinulttiifry. Seve- 
ral nptiining mill', Ntablidicd in Lnnrjiihire, tJie ue^l |Kit1 of 
Scollaud, and el^ewliere, together with lli<! geiivtul u-e of the 
jetmies, (engint:« fiir Kpinniii;; the unof or weft,) jif idnctNl sicli 
■n tl>ri<l}>iiieut of labour, au'l improvement of the fabtir, the 
jrsitu hdiLj>>ipun upon Irni^r princi|rles lltau if done by hutiil, flttil 
llie prices of goDtlit were mtich ri^dnr^eii, aud co)nM-(]ueiilly the 
British maoMfaclurc)! r>f cullun ;;oudt of atl kinds were grea ly ex- 
Iraded, and nuirty thcu&aiKte uf people, including women, and 



chtlilirn uf bold tt-^ts, ivrrc oiin iriKlructud in lb« vhHous ofxra- 
(inibul' Did busiueu. Fi>ur spinning milbwere eiecletl ia ]k- 
tin<l : Bu'l hv'i nrri- nlubliilivd near lt<>ij«n, in Pmnct^, under 
Ibe »bl« liirvifU'Mi af Mr. Ilalkt?r, an l^n^lish muiiii I'aclurer, wbo, 
wOb lii& |i»rtti(rr9, w«t« gialroiiiitnj u>i<J auuted b) llw ^ivcro- 
nuMit. ll «i% D'tl Itkitf; iMiun- Aikurrij^bl's ntmchmrn. mu4 <-v<>u 
IniupiirLed atruM the AtlaiilJc, und u >|»ituiu); mill creeled in 
flitlai)cl|itiia. Sir Kiclinri) t^vuriti/, l>v putu-nt, lu liiniiivlf the es- 
diuive |)rivili!gc nr usici^ Uie»i* iniichiiKV, nt-<iiii(«d, in a lillle 
tiuip, ail immense furlu ii.>. The Irdde wai bj (his meant much 
)iiiiit>!il ; bill a i|iiisii(>ii MrKinj; a« li> Die riglil of Sir Kiclmril to 
tbt oirluMw |)fivitege, siiil Itiv tmllvr ctymn\g inidir l<-f;iil invrs- 
Ui^lHiii, ii tvjif^ after loiif; litij:ati<>n, detenuiued in |[i<f Court bf 
Kiii;;'* Brnrli in l^Hi, wlten the lour pniit^l rivciunibic lu Ida 
ankiit wbli of tlioM nho bud iiiilitulcd Ibc »ii)uiry, iind Uie 
oiTUerin ol'lbf Inide wrir uu kniittr toiiciMlnl iVoiu lliubc ivhu.w 
genius, wb'HC i|)irit, and ^urt(llll-^ t-iutiled lliein to etiltrr lite lists, 
u couippLitori widi Sir Bw'Iurd bimnclf. 

He, boni>vcr. roiiliimed iti^ buMtieu aflvr lie wus dif)mved of 
the mMmpolv, mxl, pr(t1j;il)lv, willi Mine it(lvant:tg«>t)Vvr bihcom- 
pelil«r», drrivcil ffmn lti% r\]irriciR'c aitd ffilablislied |>]kii ufcoo- 
dufling ibc biiitiit^t, He ceiiainlj' dii«er«vd the {{teat furlune lu 
aci|uir<!(l: fur llic n<lvdnt4^« lii>('<iiirerred ii|Kin Ibe iiiitiiiu were 
iolidiU'ly ;:rp:ili'[' dmu lU-.nt- uliicti ^i^irrtinli In liiniwlf, »ud I'dt nioca 
■olid uDd duFdlile Itrjii m liuiMlrt-'il cxncjiuiils. Inskiid of depriving 
tlie uuikiDK jMi'ir of a livrliliniKt by bis mtjl iibrid;;fini-iit uf la- 
bour, tlul very abrid^cim nt bai cruuted a vast iteuL of etnploy- 
micnt fur more banrU Ibun were f«ruieri<v nigaged: and it wa* 
mujiuled tliat bi*lf 4 niiliJon of people weie, iti Iht; yeiii 1^85, em- 
pluM-d ill llitf cuU'in lurt:) nf LdiKatliire, Cbesbire, Drrby, 
Nultingiuin. dnd LticcNlcr. Tiiittcoinpiiitiiioi) wm pcrbaps e»^- 
genlrd : but )h« uuuibL-n utiul liii«« Una \ery grval. as v/c find by 
the icpurt nf tiK coinnailtve nfitie lloiiw uf Coiniuons lbi« wiin» 
yt»r. «>u lite biuitii-M o{ iUe ccininicrrial iiilricoitne witit Irvluiid, 
JJut uaOO were anj>to}cJ l>v Mr. Pcvle, Ktrnil Ibouurndt b^ Mr, 

$ 4 Stuitli. 



Smith, and numbers profinrtioRably great b\- llw crtlwr mtnufao- 
turrn of coMini. Tlic niiiiiufuclare of taUt«n, which «» Uejiiin 
ia Laiirakliire iii Ibr j'eitr 177S( «u how preUjr geoerelly rsla- 
hiUtie*! in wvtral parU of ICagland and ftcotland. Tlie niaiiiifae- 
ture ol' musliiu in England h'us b«gun m the jTar I7S1. xnd was 
rapidK iiicreMinj;. In ];»3 there »«rf ;«lKive a llioaiciud lounu 
Kt up in Glai^M I'oT that inwl beneficbJ aitide, in whidi tfa« tkill 
and labour of ttiv mecliauic raise tliv raw nialeriul to Iweiit^i Itniei 
the vaUie it wui»rwhm iinpotted. 

" Ttw rapid increase iu llie number of ipinning eiigine>, which 

look plare in ronteijueiKT ■>f llie expiralioii of ArlLWri gill's patral, 

forms a new xi», not oiil\ in uianufaclutei and commerce, but 

also in Hie dreu of botb iwKes. The cooiiuon um of silk, if it 

were only to be itorn while it reliiini its lutJre, i» |irii))er onljr (bt 

iadiet of ample fortune: and ^el women of ainiotil all ranks ;tffecte<l 

to wear it ; and tuan*r "f Um luwer ddj^es uf the middle tanks of 

aociel^ diiitre««ed their husbands, parents, xiid bmtlicrs to procure 

ttiHl rxpensite litiery. NcilbtT was a hamlMiiiie roiton gown sllaio* 

ftble iiy wotuen in humble ciicuiuslancrs ; ai>d thence Itte cotton* 

were mixed wilb lineji yiirii to reduce their priev. But now cotton 

yarn ii cheaper than linen ^tam; and coltnu good* are rerr mttch 

used in place of cinnhrics, lawm, aud other e\|*eu*ive fabrics of 

flat: and Ibey btive almost lotully «u|>etiK^Ied llie mILs. Wnuien 

oral] ranks, from llie highest lo Ibe lowest, are clMbed in Brilisb 

inartifartures of cotton, from Ibe muslin cap on Iho crowo of Ibe 

bead, to the cntlou stocking under the sole of Ibe font, Tlie is- 

geouiiy of the c;ilico<printer» lias kept {lace wilh the in^^enuity of 

Ibe weavers and others concerned In the preceding stagi» of Ihv 

manufacture, and produce*! |«altenis of piinteil goods, whirli, fur 

elegance of drawing exceed every thing lint was intporletl, 

aud for durability of tolour. genemllv Maitd Ihc washing m> well, 

as to a|>peiii fresh aud new every time tiny uie washed, uud ^ive 

an air of neatness and cleanlinnstu the wearer beynod tlieelegaiK* 

of silk id Ihr- tirsi frcslmi-ss of its iramitors luilre. But eveu Ibe 

most elegant prints are excelled by llie superior beauty and virgm 


LAIf CASniRB. 381 . 

puHly of tbe miHltns, the groulh and the nuuufoctuK of tbe 
Bnluh doniiaioits *." 

From tti^ expiration of Mr. ArkwHgtit's palMit, Dk spinning of 
ytm, and inaijofattnre of i^otl'm good* rupidly iiicrcjurd ; meclin* 
fttcs weic successful'; emplo^r^d to abridge hboar, and no dilfi- 
cnKy or eotnpctirinn pre«<nle<t itself of lo fonnidabl« a nature u 
Id d«r«nl tlie geniu> Ami indintry of tUose nlio wct« eofaged in 
■be trsdc. lluACvcr rjToural>Ie these ie;if>aiirH: >lrirk-s tgwiirds uo- 
nrelied Hhlioctioo may b« rcgardetl in a eonuncT<ijl point of view, 
(the eslablisbmentof extcoded factories, reqiiiriug tliccougregatcd 
numlfers of men, women, and children, for the purpose of attend- 
ing lo tlie raultiplieil atid etiriotis |>rw:c»c« timt it wm fwuml n«> 
c i ia a ry for Uieeollon to |>ftS4 through i)re(Miralor7 t»»p<nnin^), bu 
certainly i>peTal<.-<l 1<> tl»c injury of publi< nioniU, n drrtiroslanee 
iwhtcli titc friends or lioiiKiiiity cannot but deplore. The eotton, 
•• it it recii>«d iu its original pttckagce, i» conimilted to women, 
«ir gifU, u'hn Iwat it with Uciider rodt, hj uhich the tibres an 
*i|Minded, and the seeds and liiitks are loosened, and more dis- 
tinctly acen ; titew are carclully picked <>ul, and tlie collon ii then 
lakeii lo a nnachinc, by which it is carded. This mnehinc coii^sU 
of two or mow eylioden, moi-ing ivitli great selociiy in opposita 
dirrriions. By this niTichiitc Ibocnttnn U «o digged a* to be 
taken 'iff ill a small substance, mueh rescmlilinga spitler'g web. 
Ttiia H conveyed into a can. (by a pair of rollers, itxed to th* 
■ndline); in a perfirlii;!! or cndlew cnrdin^, afier »Iiicli several 
of IbcMt esitdings are united, bad frequently (w«s«d between iron 
roUen, l»y wliieli llw; lilncs hccoine Ifcller nrraitged, and the bulk 
cantidprabty reduee'i. Another, aud siniilai operation called 
loariAif, ttieceerls with this difleivnce, that aflcr tli« cuttois has 
JMMcd lhr'>URli lh<*« n*lh-rt, it HtUs into ft otii, ojX-n at lli« ti^p, 
•blcli mwe« tipon n tciitra with considerable T«loi:ity, and by 
which the eoltou becomi-s a sort threiid, iind r«|LabIr- uf Turther 
CitaMoa, accordiiit; to the linent^^^ of tlieyam rc<|uircd. Tltit 


* Maeplwrtm^ Arailt nTC'^wincrre, Vol. IV. 

Hit LANCASniaB. 

|iro««n i« SBMeetlrd l>v aiiotber called streichinic, or roavinfi, apan 
a tn;irliiii9 vcr\ <iinirlDr lu llic tnulr, nml wtijcll is Ifav lust of Ui« 
propitiatory prori^Mei. Th« mulf iipnn whidi 1h«^ie rnavinj>t are 
(pun h a curious machine, and like liiL> Jenny when tirsi imenled, 
cairied from SO lo 100 sjiinrik-t; the«e liave Wen fvcces&ively in- 
crcfued, until the pr«vaiiing site now ii $00 spindles. Tower 
bs^'U1g aliui l>een fuund B|)()liciilil« lo give mutiuu lo IhrM machine*, 
Iwo lit lliem are maiiaj^eil by oue man, nnd three or foor cbiidrrn, 
vrhof^ employ men I it u lo ky the iLiruiJ, mIicu made, upon the 
spindles, und to piece up those that may biuik. By llm umni^e- 
menl, anil llie tucccMfiil applicaiinii of niechanini lo (hit branch 
of liusiucM, what wuuld, thirty yeiirs since, huvu rrr|iiir<'tl six hun- 
dred womtn or girls (o have |Krt~onued, can now l>e done by oim 
uian and four cliildren I 

Of Ihe Luiicasbire spinners it may not be improper to mcnlion 
here, that more timn 400 h)inl.«, wi-ighiiig \\>ic pimiidis hnvr hcen 
drann from four pounds of raw Eait Imlia cotlon, eiich liank 
nKBUirui[> S40 yards, and rcacliiug upwards of ISOmilr^, ornearlj 
u fjr as from l^nndon to Mnn<-he«ler. The following ealcniatinn 
will shew Uiti value of this Uu^incas lo the country al iRffie, and 
liow neceutary tt in (ogive it llu-ir encuunE'cmcnl ami Huppoit. 
Tlie mimlier of prinlen i« rxlrniutei) at nlMiut * 70OU ; and eacli 
of tlie^e employ in their wotLs three persons, niatiiii^ the whole 
21,000. Each printer ivjll employ nine u-eaven lo make the elolh 
lippriiili: now, suppoMiig Ihe printer to print thiee pieces jtcr 
day, uud Ihe weaver lo weave two ptecrt per wi-ek, Ihe ounilier 
will )ie 63,000. Tlietie 4)3,000 ueaven will employ 33,00U gier- 
■rtni in makinjQ the yanis Tt--n\y for Hie loom. According lo ihis 
ealriila'ion it apjieurjh that there are 109,000 persons depeiideiil 
00 tiit-se 7000 printers, so lh'<iL every printer wl to work will 
employ nearly sixteen pi-noDt in all Ibc diflvrenl brandies of tli« 
eollou biuinest, Dolwitbslanding ibe great iniprovcroeuls in mH- 


' Ttili calculation (loin Ibe nimber of pcnoos wbo tlgiml the petition to 


ftiinrrt' of every dwmpUon which Ihm laVcii place. The prr*rnt 
<luty on priiiletl cjlkors is iiboul six sliilliitg« a>i<) Ihrrr-ix'iirc per 
pirci*, Ixkiiig 311 average of tlw ck>llui, h> llial. MipfXHing one 
printer to pttui ihrev pk'ci-a per dav, ihe rc\>cnue arising fioni llisl 
«IK pnnirr will be ?92l. IfK per snntitn, and supposing ihc 7000 
priitten lo be ciiipdtycl, will product C.O*7.500l, [wr anniim*. 

'The vast iDtrcav in Ihc Innlc of llii» town liai ocnntuncd tbc 
cmtionofmnny new Mrocturr*. Amntigllinellic Man CHESTER- 
CovMHiiriAi.-BL'ILUINo h tnml ctilitkJ to nntici'. Tlie 
/miuiUliun ut' tlit* uao laid tbo fmli July. I806, and unce that 
|>eTiniI (he 9lruclurc lias bfrit lapidU mlniiiciiig. Il b lo be built 
viitirclv of Rum-fmi-ttliiiw, ami is from t)w doi^m, Ace. of Mr. 
ildrnfum, o( Clk-sttT, The ]Hinci|)ttl nSjcct uf ib rtcction h lo 
J'uTiii^ a pliicc nf jmblic rrvtrt for tlic iiirrcbiitib and nianurui>> 
Varen iif llir pliice aixl nrishlMMir^Kioil, on llie pbiii of Unyd'a 
^'ffnvllousc, in I^ndon, and every ailicle of (tolilicul and cnia* 
Vn-riMl tntLSlii;rtKe h tu be prociirrd for Uirir |ieriml. The fund 
fill derravini; tliir r>peiH)iliire (wlitcli n ciliinatcd at nu IcM ibuD 
20,00<'l,) biu been raUcil Iij ll»c sale of slwrp* nf iOl, racfa. 

Acconiin!; lo llic p«>piiljliun rvpart, priitird in ISO), Ihc loim 
«f M»iicI»c»Vrt i»iltiriii«-d nilo Iwciily-rijihl ct^lrirts. vthicb, witb 
%\ic uuilcd township of Sjill'ord, coitliinei! l?,A;ii liouir*, and 
tl.O'^O iiili4btlnui% 4 b,.j90 of nbnni were employed in tiadn and 
>iuim fad urea. 

'rbwigli Uic tnnn of Munrlmlcr is not di>lin;tiii)H-d for iti 
lihrary, or other rtiitiirur rpttivc^, ycl ide iiamn of Ilyroin and 
Fiitlitirr nwy l»c properly ranked i^illi vtUl Fuller oil* lIic mr/Atra 
of the place. 


• For Mtne oihfr ile.tiili rrtatJnj lo the ennon MannTaeiHrc, tmrtaairf, 
fc«. Mc VuL IL uf ihi* wwlu 

* To Mich periMi* ai are deth^nN aC mare cnpimi* inTDnnarinii rtiai'mK I* 
>» IWH, m ajtiL!;rki(tt lup<>2ra|i'.-iiMl luouiul. 



John Btrom. A. M, and F.R.S. a native of KtrmU, nrar 
iianclif »lci; was the yoiin^«st vm of Mr. EJm ;ird Byram, of ihb 
loirn. AAri receiriug a grammalieal etiucalioii in the cuunltj, 
be was trnl lo Mcrcliant Tavlor'> Kbool, ia London, where ba 
dulmjjuiobfd liituwif hy hig tluukal flcquin*m»)l>: and in 17O8, 
in hU seveoIreiiUi ym, he was admilled a peu«ioiier of Ttinitjp 
College, Cambridge. In l^U lie was elected a ftlloiit of hit 
College, M>oii afler wliich lie wrote liii fint |»piT iu the fipcclii< 
tor, aod aflemardi liii admired pa^oral of Colin lo Pboclie. He 
Ibeu (iractitcd »]iotl liiiiid, witli mnie succem, at Maiu:lie).ler ; 
md OD coming lo London, toon arqtiireil, b^ succetsfut cxer- 
tiena. > comfurtalile coniiKlciicy. 'Hie celebrated Eail of CltP«- 
tarfirkl wa« liis ini^il. In I7'^3 lie win ailruilled into ll>e Kojnil 
Society: and in No. 4S$ of die Pbilosopbical Traitneliont, it Iu* 
pa|icr OD tlie £U'meiit» of Sliori Hmid. lie [Hililislied Mucella- 
neou.1 Poein*, ia 2 roll. Svo. ; but iboK oil &>lbujitURi and ibe 
Imnioitattty of ibe Soul, are comiJered as excelling in metil. 
He dii-d in Sejitcmlwr, I7(>5, baring supported, througli life, 
a diiirailef ofinlesiily and virtue. 

Thomas Falkk&r, tlie son of an eminent apnlhecarjr of 
Maiiclietler, was ongiuuHy Itroiiglil up to hb Cither'a piofunon. 
At the ^e of twenty be removed ro l^ndou, for Ibe uke oi 
leimiog Uie practice of the boipitaU, but tniHi :tnerviaidi eitgaged 
as surgeon ia a riruel nbiefa was bound lo the ontt of Africa. Htl 
bcdllb baviof; been »everel<r impaired duting tbe voyj^, when 
the ship arrived ul Buenos Aym, be w<^ul on &bure lo rccowr it. 
lie ttiare received to ataiiy acts of kindness from the Jesuits, u 
hidiicrd him to become a metubcr of Ihoir cullr^^e; wlienctr he 
was Koon sent out as a lumiiiiiary lo vitil the extreme parts of the 
Suiitb-AiiKni-aii cnntiiKnt. nbcre he remained six years. On hb 
rclurn. he was appointed phjaician to the college, and conllinwd 
nntil the supprrwion of Ibe otAvt in 1767. when llwir property 
wa% coiiAscaled, and be und lii* colltugues were sent prisonert 
10 Cadii. lie ibcrK Ungeied tome iiionlbs in a dungeon, but at 
length procuied bis release, thiough the £a|liiJi ambassador. 



91m! b I7SR wlumwJ to London, after an nhWHce of thirh'-ei(;ht 
jrrirt*. Heaflerwardi b<M^3me dnniulic cluaplain lo a pcnUenma 
«f WoTce*lerriiire, wh«re he died in 1771. Snon after lliis ev*iil, 
Mr. Pennant pabtitliFtl "ihtdfucrlptifiit of Patagmia" wrillen 
by Fullmer, wbo« mlloquial and library nnrnitivri w*r« «i*- 
peclKl of lionlerliig Itiu itiiic'i on the nmrvHIous nml wrrn cnn- 
«»[)u«»ll_v diacrcditcd ; but nihiei|iiail Irnwlleri hiive nibilantiuted 
naay of liis moal queslioinble slatemeats. 

Tlie eitvirom uf Manebesler abound uitli old niaiuioni, re- 
ffwclnble vtltiu, und bandsoiTiir tiiodcni senl^. [a the lint c\ass if 
ABCOATs-HAtl, a venerable hou**, Uic sMl and |iropprty »f 
$tr Otavld iVtu/ry, Batt. wlio is Lnrd of (lie Manor of Man- 
dmlfr. Tb« oldest \mts nf ibis hiii1>lm|> eoii»i<l of liinb«r and 
liliutcr; Ibe tint, dis^wwd in i-.iri»us tijg'iirex, fami a *-iU of 
akdctoo; aod lliv Uiler it empluvcd tu till u|> Ute inientioes. 
Tbe two u)tp«r ilAries overbang the ^fmund floor, tiiid the ttreaf 
windows ))r«>JMl iMfure the face of tli« building. Of a stiuUar 
tljlc and age it 

■ Hulmr-Hall, or Molmr, « little iwst of Mantlieiier, a 
Dus apednioii of anctvnt domv«lic architecture. But i(s exte- 
rior is more romanlic aud pictnn'aqiic lliaii fine nr btaiitifid ; and 
ils tDlerior could never be tiell adapted for doine-ttic comfort. It 
tiaodi on llie edge of a thelvio^ bunk of Ibe Irwrll, imil being 
now let out to (tifferent jidor UnAiits, is tii»t filing lo ilorny, 
Tfau manor belonged to Adam de U'l^iiidule in the tinte of E^t* 
ward the FJr>*, at apptan by a gram from (be said Adam of 
Ikirty Uiillm^ per oiiniiui, to Heuiy de Tnffitrd, out of his mti- 
nor of Hulnie jiista BJaocbejler for life, dated llurly-(ii'4 of 
Edw. 6). Regis Hen. Afterwiirdt, tn Ibe ttne of Henry the 


• P«B»iil, in fail " LiteratT lift;,* obwntfc dnc Falkoer Wirroed la 
Esropv with a (uit of PatagDiMn cloth, a nip gfbom, a Utile pat of Cliitita 
copper, the wbolc Ftvia of tkirlj-cislit yeoti' laUnir, wliicli Uic ^iNiuiMtk 
AasdUlH left liim. 



Sistli. it l)*Ioiiged lo tl« fiiinil; "wf Pn«lHicli. Noirwnber 10, 
tbe Snt of Henry tlie S<;reullj. *I'l)oiua9 Wul, Kniglit. Lotd de 
la Wsfr, and Dame Rlimlwtli bis wife, gnnl l» hlyic Preslvrich, 
of IIuliDP, bcwlv Maiiclmter, a lit>erl\ i>f allarliinj) a wear for 
milts ne^ir Iluliiie-bridgv. Iiv Al|)tirt, the site of tbi* r^tle. It 
coiilimicd ill tlic uaine t)f Pi«*liiicli lill KiOO, ulicii it wh* pur- 
chawd hy .Sir Ivdwaid MokIfj-, wttuse ticirew, iq i684. married 
Sir Jutiii Bland, i>t' Ki|)|):ix. G«urg« LJo\d, E»q. Iioufjltl it iu 
17^It vnd sold it, in 171^4. to Ibe Lie Duke t)f III id if« water. 
The Dowa^r Ladv Pmlwicii, in Ibe ci*il war, cDcouragcd licr 
ton Iu conliiHie in tli« roval oui.w, sajing, tbe had Ir^anure to 
lupply hhu wilb: lliis was supposed lo be hid about lluluie: but 
oo accounl of Iter Iwing iiiken )>|)eedit«-M in her illiiru, was oevcr 
Anud. Sbc Hi» graudmollwi lo Lurd [)iirv Morion. 

Alkington, tbe «eat of JoAn Lrptr, E«]. was ibe i>ro)>er1y 
of bis uncle. Sir Anhton l^rrr, who cmnmrnceil bit grand and 
intercsliiig niuwutn, uf naluml an<l iirtificiiil citiiu«ili». at lliU 
place. I have been iiilurmed, bv a ^nillfiiian who mu iolimale 
tiitb Sir Asbluo, llut liie Ullrr nui iiiduir«ri to coninicncr luscol- 
ItctiOD, from having shot a wktlr iparrou^. At lie kiiccecdcd in 
presrnini' tiiia, be trird enperiuiciits on vlbrr birds, \'c. and 
progreuivel} Hcciuiiululed one c^ tbe liiiekt muscnnis ui tiirnpc. 
Hi<i 2cal for the subjcctt and Ibc avidity wilb ttbich be purdiaied 
cvciy object of curiuiity and rarity, having grrady injured his 
fortune, he obtained an Act of Farliumciit Air the dispusal ot' Uis 
museum by way of biltery *. This n'u^rielcmtiiic'd in 17So, pre- 
vioui to wliicli il was |mbbi-ly cxhibiteiJ i» Lt'ireftter-IlouM.-, Lei- 
cester- Fieldf, aitd aftcrwaids it hbs icruuvcd to Bldckfriar's- 
Bridge, where a lar«e buildiitg ws» imrpooely erectt-d to receive 
il, and where it vfas coiuiik-nibly U'i<!mnitcd by Mr. Parktusnn. 
the lucceuful bolder uf tlie lii:k«:t witicti conveyed llw priM. 
This Ullcr siiualioQ buuig found ualiivuiinibk fur a public ex- 

■ ttr Aibton died in 178B. 


libiltnn, ifie tchole collect><m vmt dupcrsed by publk aucttua in 
Ibe jeu I80ti\ 

About one mile nortb of M«nrlin1er h Smedlet-Hali, the 

•oil amt |>rnp«-tty i>f Mdjor IlilKm, wbo posit^iits il Uoia tha 

Chclbuni fumily. Nenr Ibb is BRnuuMToN-HALL, wliidi wu 

fBmcrly tbc propctly of llir Stanfrif family, nml wu ptirdoueil 

in 169;}, b« GtM>r)[c Cltclham, T^. «h« kuill llic M Hall hero 

ui I70ti. IIUwD Jumn succci-ilnl lo ll»c r> ; l>ut thing witJi- 

aul ivaxv, it pa»ci) {yftfr tbc dtriilli of liU u&lrr, Aiiu ClicUtiiiiit 

>|iinslcr,) to his cohmii, EilMiiri) CiiclliaEa, £h|. of Siucdlpy dB<l 

Catllcloii, liic bul iimle iJetcemlMit of lliti nitcjinl lumilT, wrliu 

died a bttcbelor iiilnUle in 17^8. [cKTiiii^ two tnlrrs; the yoimg- 

cit, Maiy. tiuifri«'tl S<iuiu«l CIomcs, Liif. of Clni'tivicL, in Ibis 

couiHjt (grout gr<iiiill>iUicr to tliv prcwnl po^suwi,) lo vvliofiit a* 

oo-li<ifcu uf licr brutlKr, tliis miioor vmi mIIhIIciI, uilli olltcr«Mi- 

•hlenibi* |)ropcity, in L7t>9> Tlie uew 1I«II t^tfs built by (li<; late 

TftAFPOBD-lloudE. or Hall, Hie mbI of Jolin Tiafliwd, B*q. 
I Killed on ttic »'>uU*cni baitk oTllic river Irvell, nliuiil five luilo 
%*e»t of Mttutbtilcr. Tlic house is n iiiuik-rti btiik sltiitluir, 
•^»«eil wilb »tucco. 'Hie Tntffitfl fiiniily iipiiciirs lo hare beea 
Act I ki I 111 lliii ciitinly iVum llie lime of iW niiii|iK->( ; iiiirl lite 
AMinv of Sii i{;ti)iil|>)iu» dc Trutfutd b in tbc lint of 4ljatiii^u»lti.-d 
'Wiiniurs in llw liiim of Ctiiiute. 

Hbaton-House, II ttiX of tlic Em-i n/ tilUon. ti Mtunteit in 
k title port of llic cciiiity, «t tlic dislaiirv of ftwr iiiilo nohb-eutt 
Ft<tm Muic1»cslrr. This nluiv i> pnil of t)it: timiiUiip nf Little- 
EI«^a1on, and ioiluded in Ibe (larikli of Prt^tvirli. It ciikm^ into 
lIk Eiicituu frimily in the icl}:ii i>f Qiitcii .\iiii«. v.Wn Sir StAtn 
E^vilvit' of Egertoii, nuirricd tlimLtlb. d<iugl)tcr of Williain, 

* See Du(ds!«'i BitonenjCt VoL [. p, ir\, Sl*. 

S88 LASCAsnine. 

aad iHter and «>1« heircsf of Edwaid Hullani), Esq. nfio, wilb 
kis iiacevtvrs, inlifrHeil lliii rsUK*, uilli aiioliier M Dmian*, in 
lhi» rnuDty, for iteveral ^eiHTalioiis. Sir Robert dc lI(dlBnd, 
Kniglil, of Holland, in lliii. county, vntt, by Kini^ Eiltrard the 
Second, cr«utu<J Loitl Holtiii»l, »nd was snminniMKl to (Mirlianicnt 
by writ among the Baroni. Tliis (ittnily itad considerable poft- 
•Maitiiu ID iLic cooDliet of Lineaslcr, Norlbiim|i(un, mhI LricM* 
ter; luid nne of them built Drnton-ehttful in Hie M^vrnlh yrar 4f 
Edu-ard Uie Fouitb, Tiic present noble |>Ms«siflr of lli-uton io- 
berits il in rvf^lar descviil fr<im bin grnU ^rrfiidfutlivr, ll'.« alwTe- 
nameil Sir John Rgertua. Tbc mansion here is a Imndsome mo- 
dem structure, built uf done, from deu^tu bv the late Samuol 
Wyutt, E!*q. tl Mau(l!i on a mnmmndhi;: Khuutinii, in tU- midtl 
«f a line pxrk, wlni!li iib«undd witli ^viKruble lree« and mtinerous 
IliriTitig ptanlalium. In tjic MUlre of Ibe soulti frual i% a semi- 
circular piece of architecture, of the Innic order. Hurmouated 
with a dome ; and brandling froiu llie former, are two spacioui 
colonadcs, connected and temtiimtcd with two octanj>ular pavil- 
lions. Tbc clev-jtian of this front is at wxce^ simple and elrgaot, 
and communds some plnising prospvcis of ttiv lioiiie scenery and 
distaut raLiiiir)'. Tlie iiilerior arnin^ementii arc comfxirtably dis- 
powd, and elegantly liirnislied. At a shurt dbluncv from (Ite 
bouse, on a bi;^li s^ut of ktuuihI in the park, is a drndar temple, 
which eomniaiiiK very o»lein)\'e views into York*liire, Chevhirv, 
Derhj*hirp, and SiaHonlsIiirc f- Tlie park includes an area of 
about five mites in ciicumtemice. Utis will be inclosed nilh ■ 
wall, and a new Doric Lodge t* now building. 

PSRSTWiCH, north of ManctKster, is a large parish, nhtcb 


* Al this place ii tlieold Ibmily muiuna, itill lUadiiiiii, but nm* in ibc 
occnpation of a Ivmcr. 

t Hie ann«>xr<l ^nl nill iltuttrate tbc ptectclinC AtMripii'm, «* iLe 
firinripl* rroni «r tlw houw, with Uic icmjilc, an<l tlie |MjL-«ccs<!ry, arc all 
tcpr<teul«cl ia tLii soiall view. 

LA:fCjisHinv. M9 

embrace) tta am of about fineen miles iq I<Migtli, bv three ia 
breadllr. Tti!s, with Oldhatti, conalitutes odc Rcctuiy, under wliicb 
are wveD cbapeliies. 


Tttoiigh recently adraoced to a matltet town, issuborilinnle to 

I «;lw parish of Prestwkli : but has a church, a chapel «f lite cilab- 

Eishment. and some itiv^teiitiiig mci-tiiig-hnusc*. Tliis Iomh u 

Lvuilt on high ground, oo a bninch of the river Mcdlock, t>car its 

source; and the river Irk also comniviKca ils channel near Ihii 

^pot. The peculiar utilily of ihew streams in citiryruE; on tlie 

yviachiiKnr, Arc. of itiainiritctories, ha« occHNloned the er rcliun of 

y«any ; and an immense number of these, with connected housvi, 

y-aave been erected in tins pail of (lie county nithin the hisl twentj' 

.^'ears. Aiioilter imlucemeul to wilier^, is (he nbundance of coal 

^^tat is eaiily and cheaply obbtiiwd liere. A free-Khool wat 

^"Icjundcd here by JameM AtArton, Esq. of Chadcittm. Accnnl- 

^^Jg to tile popubli'rn report, lliig town contained, in 1801, 1231 

"^^oaan, aiid 12,02-1 inhsbilatits. About two niilei ntirth of Old^ 

ym^un is 

RoYTOK, a chapclry to Preitivicb, abounding wilb manttfao 
Ireland coal-mioes. In this totrn«hip is Rotton-IIall, the 
If of Josrpfi Pitkford, Esq. but iViniieily belonging to Die By- 
family, who had coutiiJcraLile liuuted prtipeity here. The 
boiise 19 pleasantly seated in a deep valley, surrounded hy high 
bills. In the house is a circular sloue btair-case, remarkable for 
itA solidity and slrei^th. 

Cuadbrton-Hall, tho scat of Kr Walts IJorton, Bart, it 

a modem brirk building, seated in a |nirl of the roinUry whifh is 

dttlingubhed for its bold iueqitalily of surface. 'I'bo park, from 

thu drcunstUMV, abounds wilb picturesque sceovry ; and iniine- 

VoL. IX. T diately 



dmttly cootiguoui to tb« houM are some fine pl«aiure gtvuDifa, 
witli t>biubbefi«s, &c. Tlic mnnora of CliUftcrioQ ap<l I'oi-Dcn- 
ton bcloiificd to Geoffrey, tccuud >vti of lUcbard tic Tniffuni, in 
tLc Uwe of Hrary Ui« Tbitd. 


Hiviog bceu ^ladually iocTtMinj; iii size and popnialiou for tonne 
ytin. Has coaitilulcd u tv<»n iu tlic yrar ir91> wlivn » K<^at wui 
obtaiucd IVoui iliecfuMii fur livldius ut^ecMy inatkcl un Ftidav, 
and three JLiioual Uin. The manor, aad cJikf landed property 
oftbc place bcloai>s to L»rd Suffirld, wlio obtuiiMrd Ihcin in mar- 
riage witb Maf^'. «ldft>t diiu^bter aud cuhcir of Sir lUlpli Aitbe- 
toiit Batt*. Tbe present possceor Ins erected a iiiarkcl-placr, 
wttli sbamblcs, also, nareiioutes, &c. in Ibis town. Tlic police 
ii govenied by two conaliiMe?. wbo are auiiuutly cboaca at tbe 
courl-Ieel ; and tlie pansli, nbich coulaios tcvrii or clgbt baiulcta, 
it a rcetonr. la Ihc diurcb, a venerable pik of building, uredc- 
poailed tvvcral of llie A»heluti t liiniil}. vilio for many ctottirin 
mided iu tlii» pari>li. In (lie cburcb ttiadow-s are wveial sbictd^. 
with olbcr iubjccts of painted aims. The riOc oilca to the cburch 
appear l» liaw been built in \^b\. Tliey ai<M-inl>allled: and 
under llie nnbiaituies are sbrctda »itti devices, A carved Krcen, 
of seven crnnpattnienlH, di> ttl« llie cbancel frain Ibe choir, oit 
which are shields with tlie armorial bvariugs of ihe Ashctons, Ral- 


* Tkut RCbllcnMn lefl two tlau{^ilcn>) Ui< yoausut of wboB nianiod tlie 
proem Earl of Wilt«n. 

t Of ilii> (iiniily nu JViVium Aihelon. B. D. «ha wu ibt ku mole Leir, 
anil wlio w rrrlcT of t'tvilnieli in 17^T, aitd al tlie lania Ifme Iicld tliat <X 
Carietim, in ihe cooDty of linreln. Tlti* tinfulm- firivil*^ nat enjoyed by 
licence Rmm Chnrlu Ihe Ke(rMi<1, «'hfi wa* iitdni^FU (o gntat hii tojal drt^ii- 
•ation at Uic ioirtaty ef Colonel Jotio Adiel(>D, wbo nai iu pitrticntar bitrac 
wilb ibG moturcli. 

LANCASnittS. 991 

<Iifr«9, Grosvenor*, and Stsaley*. H«re in a free Gremmar' 
Sfftoo/, f.iunded bv D.wtor A}atndfr Vowf/*, who was dean of 
Si. Paul'i, ami priocifwt nf Brai»ii-Nos«-Collcgc, Otforil, in 1 572- 
This » nri» a resppclabl« nLilititltiiivnt, iind often cuQlaini be- 
tween 150 and f?00 uliulvn. The cotton roan'tfuctun b car- 
tifal on hrK in all iLs iliflvrpnt pToccssn; ami lli« priotiui; tind 
bUaditn^ wniis arc on a liirijc Kule. H«rv a aim a i-oiisiderdble 
timt HMniitJirtnry. This tuwnsliip coalatued, in 1801, 624 houfes. 
aod 3'26i inliabilauts. 


Abodl nbe mile* to tite north of ftfanebcslcr, has npcftenm), in 
aa eminent <)esrfe, llie i-flV'cts nf tlie luanufoclure^ which have 
bcra ifltnidticvri, 011 ki extensive a scale, tnlo Ibis county. The 
riter Inidl rous close along the west sid« of tin* lovrn. ami tlic 
Kuvli 't% niily nbwit R mile from it on the ent. Tlw«e, about luo 
mitei helnw the luivn, unite Uieir slreams. In the time of Ice- 
land, it ti described u< " a poor miiTkel. TlKre is a ruin of a 
nstie by Ibc (uriih church in the town. It long«cl, witi] Ibtt 
td«R, Some time to the PilktnloD*, now to the Enrl of Derby. 
Venie wtipielimc made ubout it" The meraary of two castles, Ja 
or near tlie li»vn, lia-i Liei-ii trri<)ili(>nal)y pretcr^-cd. Otte of Ibesa 
Wait in a tiekl railed CtMle-l'.roft, 011 the west side of the town; 
tiuHL^b there are an rrniuint of andenl building parti of tha 
fooiidaliot) wiilK hitve bei^n nWea diii> up in llie adjacent f^rdciit. 
1bi> site uat • akulalcd for a fortress : awl on (h« n>>rtb liie old 
course of l)ie riter mviih to have pas<«d close bv (lie hill on which 
it nns MlUitlci. The odier caftle, or enlrenchiiii'Ml, uh; al Walms* 
(ty, about two mile* north, on ibe road tuwaj^b Uaslbgdea. 

T2 Iha 

* Hib woflhjr tfiviiie wrtite MTcral tracts anioat pnpenr, an<l vai author 
itfiaa caiwWisti, one nf wliirti t* tnitii-n in (ricck, Latin, aaJ Hcbr«i«. 
tb cvOeeteil tiwi; uf ilii: ancient MSS. ucn WtoutEJny to Ibe Cotton LibmjFt 
BtiliA Hwana. A portrait of Mm i*p«(ar««d 10 Bra>Hv^Kw«<Mlt|l. 

S93 iiAXCAsniitB. 

The cotton inanufjclurcs ofllm town and its vicinity are carried 
on to m almost incredible exlenl; mil on tlie riven and brooks 
in tl>ff patitii, uiiicii i^ ivry «xlvnsi*e, w nmny fartortcs for 
eardioje ami Kpiiinini; liulh cvtloii and sl>ev)i'!i wool, uimI fur fulling 
wooll«ii elolfa. Tiie dilfereut inveuliooi tiiicl ini|trovoRi«nti in ma- 
chiwTv »re. a^tonkluag. Ainon^ oUien, Li a tnacliiiic ma'lc b^ 
Mr. Robert Kay, son of Ihc lute Mr. Jolin Kht, who invented lb« 
wheel, or fly Uiulll?, (or roakini; «cv«ral eardi« ut onw. II not 
only BtniiKlilcni ll>e wire from llie ring, biit cuti it in lengths, 
)ita|>1'$ it, turns it into Icetb, and forms tite lioI«3 in the kalher. 
It alM> puts the trclh in, row afler row, unlil (he rardt are 
finished. All Ibit t« clone, very eatily and etjicdilimisly, at one 
opeialioB of tbe mui-liuie, by a p<rrsoQ turning a sinaft, who neiUier 
ImmImi the wire nor t<>9thcr. 

Tlic very capilnl maiiufiiclunnf; and pfintiiif; works of Sir Ro- 
bert Prel, Burt, and Co. on the bunks of the Irweil, in the val- 
ley bcocslh Cit«llc-CroA, Ititrc been of nsenlial bnicGl lo the 
kwn. I*rif6 r<wrvoJr> of u'iit«r, for bl«ocl)iit^ and olber pro* 
eeutrs, arc lbnn«d and filled frooi (lie livn-. A upiiralc rvtervoir 
is tupplied by a spring, for w-ashing the piec«« wlwn ih^ rixvr *• 
muddied by floods. I'riiilini; i* t\tentti here, and at their other 
exteintre works, both on the Irwell and ou titc Rocb, in tbe uMt 
inproved nictbods; but «oDie are conliocd tu curflinit, slubbin^, 
tad ipinninj; (roltoii, olhrn to wftsbuij; tlie mllonii will) natvr- 
wheda of quick velocity, wlucli can be inslantly it"p|M'd to take 
out am) put in g^od<i, and at others are p^rf'x nwrtl Hh' openlinns 
ol' boiling and bleacbiu^, Tlie caihtl from tliti toua to Mancbes- 
ter eomnwnces at llic woiks, and greatly fidliltitcs the <oovry«ncc 
»f taw tnatcriuU, and tbe rclura of tlie niaiiufaclared goodi, 

Ttie country about Bur>', espectaliy towards f1a»lin^)en simI 
the north parU, ii fimOy diversitied nith liilU »iid vullies; lite 
latter coBtatoing liiauy winding rirul«l<, of the most important ad- 
untairc for \iQikiii;; the variuui fucb>rie> wliicb every witere 
■bound in the iK:i;;hl>ourlK>od. The roais alx>nt it arc whn ex- 
eelkut, the inatcrtda bcinj; both pteutiful uid duiable. 



Burv M a litr^c aa'l ettenuw pariiih, and consists of Mrcral 
towniliips, of uliicli, incJu'ling tliv town, Walmesky, HeiipSr and 
Ellon, art iisuatly calU>d ihf lorfl*.fiip of Bury. TlW'se ar« moMly 
held by lea-ie under tii« Rarl or Derby; and Toltiii^ton, lii*bcT . 
and lower End, an; conjirlcrcd aa tlic royal manor of TollinKton. 
Tfie church iiBR been ialely rebuilt, in a v«ry handfome manner*! 
betides wliicit ilie parish contains thrM chapels of eatc, ul IIol- 
eamlw, Efkufield, and llcywwvd. One half of llie tywu ia Ihc 
l«lar*s glebe, and the other » l»eld under ka»e from tlic Ear) of 
Derby. By an Act of Purliuinent of 1/64, the rector i* em- 
powered to grant building leiuci (or niii«ly-nine >'ear8, with the 
prnilcge of renewiii nt any inlerniediate )M-rii>d, TIm toivn also 
eoniaim a chapel for ihf est^blishmeut ; and the Metliodi^lf, Prct- 
bytcriani, and IndependnnK, n< in inn«l poptdons and manul^c- 
toring lowni, have places of woKiiip b<.'ie. A handsome fret 
tdiool for boyi, vrilli two ma«lcn, who have eiicit a good honw, 
•ilb coniforlablc rjihrift,, and n rliarilv «cli<^ol forbov* and ^rl», 
bave been establkhed here. The number of bimiiies in Bury, ia 
1773, was 464, and the inhabitanls 9090; but in 18OI ibejr 
imniinted to ItOO familiet, who occu|tied 1341 bousn, and the 
inhabitmit* had increased to 7071;. At lite tiorlb eud of the 
town is Chambsr-Hall, the teat of Sir It^^rt Pre/, Bart, a 
geDtlemaD who has padicularty dislinfjunlied hiinself, by his activt 
aeal in promotiDg tbc cotton uumufdctures, 


So eilled to dislineunJ] it from some other places of the same 
name in thu connly nod in Yni-I(»hir«, is a. large thriving manufnc- 
Isriag towD ; and it is tntditiAnjliy a*«erled, thul l\w cotton nia- 

X 3 nuracturing 

* Ou iHiUinv down tbc oM chntcb, in 1T>6, Uie wofkiueu uncoverad a 
piew ortlnil*Fi, calleil a pin, oa nliicli wm cot DCLXXV, Time wu no V^ 
apj^etuuBKt of iui M btian tht D. 


DufadurinK fnachinerj- nrigi'iatcH here'. Letand remarVed. ia 
the tinie ot' H«iir\ t!ie Lighlii, llnit ll>e iii2irii(.-l at Uiis place 
" stondHb mott by cottont «iid rourse yame. DiTers vilhgfi in 
the murwatioHl Bo/Zoii da maLc collnm. Nntlier iSc siie our 
gro<iD(t alxiwte B' luin i* to good as it is alinui £yri. (M'lrv.) 
They buiiie at Botirni Mim candle, but lunre V cole, nf Uie Mkh 
the pittea be ant far of. T)iey bunif lun« ahnf." Tlifie vagne 
nolins arc cuttuu^, ttiou<ih uot cuiiiptelrljv siii<iCactonr- Art'iid- 
Ing to tradition, tome FIemi[i^«»etlkd iu [tolion ia llw ye:jr 1^(19 
or 1370, ao(f citabliibeda novel species ot' Lusiora here. Snim 
After th« re'vocalicHi of llie edict of Nanls. A. D. 1(>8^. w>in« 
French proleilanU seltleH in lliis town and iiei)[hbnurb(KMt. AKaia, 
in tbe nrigu of Qn*»ii Aniie, about Ibe year l?OJ). s"ii»e p«>or 
Paluline wearers carried on llR-ir proiVMiuiit here. Smite lar^e 
UMXfdnt-aheft, or sahkoti, uid to have bi-limgrd to Ui»c ima, 
vrere preserved as objects of curinulv at Andrrttm, iu the bouse 
of Alfiinder Shaw, Emj. From tbe kind romintmtntlifMio of 
}oba Pilkinglon, and Samuel OMkituw, F^squiio, I am vii. bled 
to record a few nieiimrable ereuls and cirtuiiulauoen respffling 
Uie maiiiifticluru of thb pbce and iti iieigbboiirbood. What 
were railed eoftcn goodt, pnvious lo the invetilion of ibr Ule Sir 
Richard Arkwntrht, wcm cliiffljr rom[>u)«<l of lri>b, H.tHibitri^b, 
or Brenit^n Untn ^am warpt, and cotton tctft. Cuiiulequncs, 
velvel«, c|iiiltings. Imlia-jeaii^, ribi, some t(lick^ets. au'l siiniB 
strong jeans, were, himcTi-r. lltcii i?M'te snli-lj of mttttn. Tlie 
WHrp« of corded dimities wcie tnadc t>f coltuii and tiiicn ntiKcr). 
Cotton velvL'ta vttn first made bv Jeremiah Clarke iu ni& : himI 


* llir itm msdiincA, etH^cA Vii/m, or " Hall in-thr IFiaJ-lfhrtU' froai 
bcUg nu'k Hi a pUrr naniH Ha)l, Mtmit^ iii 3 i^oorl a Urtic iinrtli aC Qui- 
loo, weie invented bja poorwcavri iifihr imme of Samuel Cruinptun, wbu 
jMt))*'t lit Ibnl plac*. A* • r«trat4l for li(> invrnliiin, hiiH w an iiHlitrfMnenl 
for him 111 make it public, llie nuuufactuien aubjiciilied, duiJ iBode liUu a 
pitwut vf tool. 

I Itinfrarj', Vol. "Nil, fi*. S7. 


collon-qiiillinga by Jo»e|ih ^un-. of Boltoa, 111 IjOH. Britub 
mualma were lirtt nuiuutiicluteU at AiKleTton, iu thb county, in 
1*(>4. At tlii.1 |ieriiiil Mr. JoKpli Shan niauufactiircd plain, 
ilriftd, aiKi spoUrd mustint, and supplied Ii» luums vritb yajna 
ipoo 00 the uliJ 9iit|;k tipinjli: hand wliccls. Bui li« could oot get 
iqttaulily sutticiciitly clieaptoopc^viUi ttic Last ludia Citmptui/* 
■nusliiia, wlticli lie liBil to tuvcl in llie lt<>iu« ii>arki:l, ttnd VtU 
inidcr tlic nccc»ilY of ubuiiilotiiiig the pui&uit, witfauut being r»- 
wudcd for his nicrilurious Ubouii. 

lu tlic \rar I7)i'ii Mr. .ShiiiuvI Oldknuw coniiucDCcd llic nu- 
uiir;ictHrc vt Britiaii niuslins al Anderton, uii his uuliic suil. At 
lint liinc Sir KicltHrd Arkivrighl'a line yara, atid other rollcr- 
(liuMii viiTus, wvtc Ikcuihc tujctiibl5 plcikliful, and tiDil induced 
Hi. Thomiit Aiuswurlli, of Bullmi, Sir Ricbnid Arkwright, aud 
uthcrs, to begin to luukc Ibis tbiii aud dclimtc hibric : but it it 
^cacnilly udmiltcd, that Mr. OUlkiiow was the first that pruduced 
Ihe Balatert handkerc/iirj's, the jacconot and Japaned mtuliit», 
intiiesl>K'ut'Inilia: aiidwasllie tir»l pcrsuu who realized 10,0001* 
hj the muiufdctUTeji nf Brili^i Biiulins. 

" In ihc iieifihboii [hood of Bohun, bfeaciing oC the vtry Iwst 
c|ualil> iu Ihc kingilum is pcrroriiird ; uiul of bti- baj been iotro* 
duced, by M. Vallele, (an in^euious French rikii.) a mure rxpedi- 
tioiis mode of bk ucbing, so niULti. that a. piece of calico whtcll 
Hould Itdte r(.x|uired. b^ the nnltnuar}' process, three weeks in 
the mntt f^vonble season, may now be rendered perfectly while 
IB tlte kpace of one hour, and that, as it b said, without the least 
iujury nistaiacd by lh« doth*." 

Prrtioux to the piT»nl i>»r wilb Fnince, an Act of Parliament 
vas obtained for the sale of a lar^ watte piece uf ground, called 
Bolton-Moor, fur llie purp'jsc of building on it. An ac-couiil of 
tbb sale will shotv the value of bind in tlie district, llie moor 
consisted ofabout 230 ucn^s; and after fire Lords of Manors Irad 
htco iati«£e<L fur their respective claims, the laud was divided liita 

T4 UM, 

* >IiitU' Agiicalinral Suttey, am. p. 914. 


loti, and told hy auction, for the sum of 3632L per annuin, be- 
tide 10). per acre, wtiJcli wu lo be paid dnwu at the time of 
sa)>. Tilt* iiim, afler paving for the necomiy roads, ha<. been 
spprnpriated to the tmproveineDt of ibc iovra, and toward* Uia 
poor's rates. 

The priiicipnl streeU of Balinn unile at theniarkcl-piace.and two 
6f tiieiti ^te encli neariy a mile in leo^tli. From Ibis place in Man- 
dKiter, where most of its manii 'kclurcd gwKl§ are i^nt, is a Canal, 
a branch of which also comniuMkaies vritli Bury. On lliit caual 
are luelve Incki, and three aqueduct bridgei. I1ie laller are at 
the respective licii;hl« of ten, Biileen, and twenty yards abave tlio 
bed of the river, which purMiea the same course Ibruugh a n&r- 
rovr, piclureitqiie vale. la the ytar 1773> Itie ntnuber of bwises 
in fIreal-Bulton was $i6, and of inliahtluals 4i6s. Ullle-Bolton 
at llie MUie time coiilstuetl 232 liouscs, aiid 771 iidmbitaitlt. In 
ISOl, Greal-Bollon contained 13,St9 inhabiUnli, and 3,510 
boiutti. Altliesnnie time Liulc-Boiton contained $66 bouses^ 
and 4,867 inhabilaiilB. 

Tbt parish diurch of Bolton k only rroiarkabic for liaTin^ in 
its vrindovrs tlu; shields of Chetham and Bridgemun. It is situate 
in the part of titt town called Gfeal-Bolton, besides which there 
if a chapel of case at Lillk-BnlloQ. Sewrsl nweling-houses^ 
for dk^ulers of various denoininalions, have been abo erected in 
the toHn. Here is hketiisc a good free mIiooI, ubich had for its 
mailer the noted Mr. Ainswortb, whose name w ill be long revered 
by clutkal characters, for lus laborious and inlcllieeiit Latin Die* 
lionary. " In the Siiiiday-schoolt of the mcthodi)fl»," says Dr. 
Aiken, " upwards of ]000 children are mslructed by leacbcn 
«itlioti( pay." Bolton ha* a weekly market on Mouday, and twa 
annual fairs. Tlit police is under Ibecopitaauceortvrocouitalllei^ 
•isuted by lb« magutrate^ of the divisios, or county. 

About two milca lo Ibc Dorth-wefl of Bolton is SmithILU- 
HikLL. ortgtiialK the properly of the Rutditre fiunily, but [>aMcd 
by marriage to a younger branch of the Oartous of Daitoii and 



Holsa, It waa aft«m-acdi llie proiicrty of the Bvroios ; but was 
sold, & few y*Mi ago, to Mr. Anuworlh, a bleacher in th« 
»cislibi>uThoo<]. it i> ailiutted in a wood, above a «iuall lockj 
glen, aiiJ i* built io tlie torin of a quadranfile, wilb Cittianccs 
Ko-itT ({atcwajb from Ibc aorih and wnt sidea. It \na oriipttaUy 
built of lirabcr and pjartcr, and & clumsy open gallerv of timber 
DDH- runs rouud tbc nccontl elory of tlic interior. Tbe cost firont 
n Miniewliat more dccufst^d, and of ituue, whicb, Iroin llic buvri 
of llic chajKl and rcoess in tJie clinio|E-Tw>Ri, baa ralht-r an elc^nt 
opfK^ ruiicv. Bittli Ibi- cliu^K'l uikI hall vrindows contain some 
paiiitcil glaw; and llic latlrr b waiiitcottcd all rouml, from ibo 
cctliii;; Io the floor. Tbc middle row of pannets is charged wilh 
carod dcvicei of niim<n, beads of kinqs, crcab, kiioli, &c. Iii 
the windows of the kitclien, ntid oo the wainscul, are the monn- 
inUDs of A, with a bar and a ^irn, or catk, said to allude lo Sir 
Andrtw Bm-ien, a noted pirate mentioned hi Percy's ballads: 
but llic [icdigrcca of tlic RuddifTes nnd Burtons, of Smitliills, ni- 
dier trad lo prove titiil tliir liitusc was built, or gieally allired, bj 
Andrew Barlon, who lived about Ibc liui>^ of Henry Utc Serenlb 
or Eighth : and ibe cml of the oak branch, which has been mp- 
po»ed to bclonj; lo (lie F^ucoobcr^s, must have been the budge 
of tlic S«iiilhilU brunch of the family of Ratdille, as it does not 
appear by (lits pedigree ever to Itave belunj^d to llie Fuucii» 

In the patiib of Bnllon b TuRTON'TOWBR, daw atlaclwd to 
a (ann-lHiiuv. and conitisting of lour stories, tilth an cmhyttled 
|Mr.i|M:I. Here is some ancient arnmur. Tliii estate lielonged to 
dvrgr Chftham. Esq. who was high ili^rilT of tlie county in 
]^^0: itnd hi« sucn'Mor, Sdmurl tlM^thaiii, Esc], procured tba 
Queeu's bouDljr for ih* chapel here in 17 17. 


• TWt pmSgree «««» tsck to the RsldilTe), of SmittiDls. six <tc»c«)1« an- 
Xarior tp Jalu ObImi, of Siulihills, wlio livcJ in llie Uiite al tIeuiyUia 


Lostock-Hall, abowt three mile* we»t ol' Bolton. i> aa an- 
cient manaioD, wFiich, with ibe esUtc, belonged lo tbc Anderlon*. 
but {uswil. by 1 fvuiiilcbniiicli, (o llit; Bluiidvlls of lore. Tlic 
bouw H fckifiKil of wooden hriiiiis simJ ]i)>uitvr : aiid u'ver the etw 
trance door arc llic iniliuU of the penoiiR wbo lirad here, mtli tbe 
date vrlien it wsi built, ^*i,, I jGs. Most of liie roonu are wain- 
Kotteil, Willi maay (Miinela. Tlic ^^trwiiir i« of <tunc, and re- 
•etnblex Ibe style of tlie »:booU at OKfurd. Oter tlie bigbciit 
l)ty-window are the rojal arms, with Uic date I5$l>. 


Is a parisli of great extent, aad crowded population. It measures 
einvn inilrs fnun oorlh to tniulb, and niat frum east to west; 
and arcordiiif; to a tilaletnciit in " the Description of Ibe Country 
loimd E^Innchesler," ibe inbabitanta are eitiinaled "at AO,(lOO, of 
nhicb abutil lO.COn ;ire reudeiit in the tonn." In Ibe oAidal re- 
port of the ^ut|nii;i1i(tii, Roehdale i* not namrd, but I |iTesunie it 
is either included iu Caslletoa, or iu what it ibere lemted the 
<* /oirn of Sfiullajiil." Tim eoiiipri-b«nds Failiiigr mid Heahr, 
Clmdwirk, Catlcy-Laiie, and Wotitmtenholiue, aUo Wliilwortlt 
and Braudw-ood, all of which plueeii couistned 1,79^ bouses, and 
9,031 iiitiiihitunt^. Rochdnle (laiiKh inrhidcs tlie tiiuiisliips of 
Hiindcrslield, R|Kil)and, Itutlcrworlh, and Castleinn, the two Ia*t 
of which arc w)i»nilel^ nnlkcil in Hit- popubtioa rejKirl, and llirir 
inlmhilanta niimtrered al 'hSQO, whence it is pre«uinetl Ihat tlietc 
tiiuM be Mime error in llial «'iiuineialioii, respL-cliii-; the nuinb4>r 
of persons in this paiiifli: i>r ulhenvii>e llic |iu|iuUti(ia of tbe 
wliole amnuolril lo lH,4'^t pvnoni. 

The vicanij;e nf RocIkIhIc is said lo be of superior itiIdc lo any 
ullier in tbe kiiii^doni : though lu lite rei^i tif llcnr^ tbe Lt^hlb. it 
was riittnintcd al only 111. it. 9}d. Tbe present vicarial due* 
arise from land^ and bouses*, und Ibe prcsealalimi is in Ute Arcii> 


* TlMMin Wny, l>, I>. soon adcr obtatnlntc pwiWiliMi vf IhU ricansvi 
alxMl A. U. VSia, |irec«reil an Act of PtrfiuntiiJ (br whiHi, lay* Dr. 



biihop of Canterbury, to wliom ilie IjtLes belong. This living 
iomieily iip|Krlainfd lo WlmlLry-ALibf;) : un<l cuinitiK to llie 
cnwB at Ibe <Ii«»)1iitioii, vm cniiiit'd bf tlic King, 31st of Au- 
gust, I33r. !•■ TttoiiiBi, Ar<-libi!tlu>)t ol' Cdiilctbui;, iu cKcbaoge 
Ibrlbc maitorsiiil pnrk of Mnytidil. Nine cliajiels of etuc are 
uborditutc to tli« cburch of Rochiliilc, one In liii' town, and one 
at ^aeb »f the t'ollowinti plucct : LillicburouKh. Milnruu-, Tu(l> 
mnnl n, Wliilwotth, Frieriui-cr, Ljtljuu-, Sikldlenurlh *, ftiiJ 

TIk ori{(ti»l loum of Rocltilule was cnliicty williiit ttic town* 
iJiip uf Cvtietoa, wlivrc au aacivitt cattle foTuicrljr rvarcil its tm- 
bittilfil Huih, Hiid wbiTC still niiiam!!! a lofty artitiftal mouod of 
earth, calleil tlii; Krrp. Dr. WFittukcr suptiosn tliut u iiulle wiis 
rrecinl Iwiv before Ihe Roiuiin coiir|tie^, a« i:i a record ft appu- 
tratl) part of an inquisitiou al\cr Itic ticath of Tlioinas of Lau- 
oi^rr. " it it (l> H:rii>c(l a tlii' mI<^ of an uiwiint taillc, Um^ ^inctf 
{ouc b) draiy." TlicjKiirisli ofRocluJaIr, asdiittiiictfi'oiu.SadJIc- 


VhiltLrr, 1>U inccf**o*t~ a* well t* tlu^ towii, nrr miidi ind(ihte4 to hb 
Binaofy), la rnalilc lli« vicar for tlie liiue bwuj; li> Kraiii boilditii; kain tut 
jMtj-nac ycAT*. 

* " Tbe cbtpcIor.^JJtfwnrfA, tlicoalxonc upon tticoM roim'lation wiiW 
ia Uiit pttTuh, u;is er«nipil bjr M'flfidfn iF,' StiijjA'tun. Ij>ril of tlial i^nicU 
uid b<ubsr«u» tract, ^In Vurkaliirc, ) in tlic cuJ uf tlic tni'lAb, ur beiiuiuiiig 
of ih» iliirtrvnih cmtnry ; fur Vy phartcr. S. !> Gpoflry (til? rider), Ann rf 
Wlmlicy, aiiil tht >icaT. tlml is ou the Uni ruuiiJuliDii, v( taul OiMe in 
Ka(4tMlain, witli tti« «nr»«i( of Rac'-r dn Ijir'y, finliAn (ailvoi-Ally of 'lie 
Mid cliuirli, exit tlcfiin- in ilie Mid Siapttlou to caiio dtvlne oBtco to b6 
oelebtaied iii liia cli»f«l ul Sj>llcnorJ.''~Ui>ii>ry ol' U'luilley, p. A33. 

t TMi h in llie llailfkn cnlii^clion iii Ihe Britlsli Miopnra, and itata, 
" Itjclmhie lib aiiti>|(in vcrc.iiu K4elieliani «l <{ua'(lnm patiii* CDutiouu ia 
loiignm KII mi) ct aiiipliiu et in lat \ mil. cl ani|)liux el vjict aniuMtira 
ollra R<i>rLai Hit K «l continvt m nc III! Villiti divirata* cl niallai Ham- 
tdeiias mm nnilin inD<i:tii4 Tuiii in citdoni viilii ri HamblPtiU viJ. Htinorit- 
ftU, StMthiii), Qiickw<ii(U i^'ir) cl Ca^tlctou." 

Stm LAKCASHine. 

wortfa, occHptPS two valltei^ (onncd by tlie R»eh and Spoiden 
men, " vrilh lb* gr«a) iDclined plunes atid colfatml |[^llies iJflping 
dewa to Mcli." Aiciib»lii<f) Putkrr* fwimleit a free grammar' 
flnkw/ in this town, by indenture t, heariogdale JatiiiaTT HI, in 
llw Mwoth )w-jr of Qimrn tliiiibctti's reign. Tht gruund oa 
whirl] the irhool-hoi)»e Msiiilt vnn given b^ the Rcr. Rkhtrd 
Miilfiler, »kar. SiiiRc the liisl fouD«tatiua, tlie reveniws of Ibe 
•clmul Imvi* b«-fn inr-rrsiMl hv additional brnplucliDns: but, ac- 
cording lo Dr. Wliilaker, the iiiMteKH salary is now only SOl. 
« year. Another frev-tchool was ostablishi'tl here by Mrs. Haid- 
rnan: and since Itw year l^^i, sixteen auniiay-schouls have been 
fanned, Besiiles the pamh rliiirrh and clnt^els of the v^lablish- 
mcnt, here is a meeting-bouse of the iiresbyterians, another be* 
longinj; to llic bfl[>li«(s, and a very large one appro|>nuted lo tha 
nielhAdtMs. Here are twn weekly markcls and ibrtv annual (kin. 
The parish abounds with slate, (looe, and co^ ; and the manufso 
tare of huixv, Aanneis, kerse)-<, coaluigs, and doths, is carried on 
to a eonnder^ble extent. 

Id the paruh churdi was intcnrd, November 95, ISOO, Dr. 
M<^hnB Ytmngt Uisfaop of Cioafert, in Ireland, wlio was indiioxl 
te mide at Whitwoilh, io Ihu neighbnurLood, in order to obtaiti 
the advice dud inedkines of a pemon nho profinMcd to core ran* 
MIS, and indeed almost every fauman niatadyj. Bui though Ibe 


• SeeSliype's Life ofArdibi&bop Parker, p, 18!, 

t Tha oritiina] deed, nitli teicraj MSS. by the Arthbiilufii arc deponlcJ 
U Ibe libru; oTCofpn Ctoisii Coll. CRmbridgr. 

t This pnpiilons part nft^nroshircb nalcA for a clan afpersons wlio tome* 
timfi rapi4ly .ttrqnire fiuie and l«)ttuiic by jiioTiiiaaiiii^ (o t^iire ccitain diMnirr* 
of ibc fnmc anil miutiiuiion by ilic ipplicaiioD of tcmr (rcict Doiinim. If 
tlu> *bnuld •Rtidr-iiUlty el!i-cl "lit mrc, or it' nalar« jxTTomii it diiiiu^ tlie 
adminiBiratioti oT tlie (ireicrjplioii. tlir balibtinic laiiEiit of unndf r drrolaics 
|h» b>k, aad prxidiK^v* in aetuiibliiiig cclebnt; for the ncdiciuc. TbouMudi 


iiBpmd son q( Esctilajiius had Bcciikntzlly iacccc<lecl ia XKiie 
cues, tK (ailed in tlie prrwiiL 

Stublkt wa* long llif residencir of llw ori)^nal f;iniily of ibe 

JloltM, i UMtnonihlv iiant« in iIifm [isiit\. Tlie lioute appears to lura 

tfca buiU hy Rulicrl Holt, Esi]. ia Ibc rci^ uf Ucary Ihc Eigliili, 

■lid contiits of a cmlic wilb twowiiip. " ll coDtaias nillua much 

caning in wood, |iarlicularly a ridi and timuliful screen belwrca 

ttit ball and parlour, «i(li a iiuinlwr of cri?»l<, eyptitn, and cog- 

ninnces belonging to Ibc KUts, aiid otbrr neiglibnuriii^ families. 

It was abandoned for the nuTiiier and iiinre ferlile tilualiou of 

Cinleloii, by Robert tloll, ]^. about the year ItilO *." 


istk atonnd tlie MlfrnMlnl dorlor, ami ronliilnill; swallow any hsnnlru, 
•I p«wnfiil conpiuiliflii ticriiaj m'oiiinii^iiJ. Ajnong kucIi * touroiiTM a few 
nM u>|wre bvalUi am) iH>iinUtieu, and lliiiiit;li tli« prrtrn|)linD diil nnl in t1i« 
lent CdntribiiiG towarJi iliia, yi't ihp wliok I'liri* h uciibod to tht nMficifW, 
■ad credulity lirith ri^nfidt't in. aiid loDdl; mloli ib iiimtreptHinabIa virtMa. 
Dviaf my iUt In Alutclmttr, I linnl of tlirce iuitaucM where «□ itilierau 
old weoiMi, u ixiuiinnt furrier, anil uii im|>uil«nt wmvcr all ■unun'4 
K^rior kiwwlrclj^i- ia anatuaiy aiii) inerlii-iiiei and ainieautly asfumcd iIk 
pirfiMioa oT plij-MCiai) «( iiii^^n : but « liul wui more snrpriung, «'k<h of 
ibcM mi comvlleil liy a uuuwrotu (luck uf |>aliecib, uiuiiiie wliutu w«re agtne 
pcmin of ptopeil.r. Since tlicrcfurc ci-cilulily mil fulTy are eu |itrv«l<-iil, it 
i>nM to be wmtdpivd at itui kimviry and riinijins xlraitld nci-aMaDBlI; preji 
ugioD them. Tlioush Ihn superkiiiioiia fean (ifghahLi aad eiiclianiirieiiuliava 
Bcarljr mIihiUi], a nipvniitiom trcfH^t la <[iurk nii^diinim aitd poni|»oni 
itiaiHj ocaipiea Uie {ilace tu Ihr miinJi uf ihc tlUtemte ; aiul il U iliflirLilt 
Q ny wliicli be the nioal nbtatil anil (ipi;t^i>ltiij folly nf Itip iwn. lu tlie 
ttopcliy of WbitMrurtli lireil two |icntutu known tif llie nmnte ttC Ihe U'hit- 
virIA D*tt«rr, wIiom ftnic it ouc tiinc ^rco'l all over llic nei^hbanrlMod, 
md eien to tbe nietrepolit niid otbrr purtt uf lh« kinidoau '' TI117 wet* 
dikdy n*ted fot Kltian brokm aii<l dUldcucJ bnnca. sad br the cure of 
nncemai and «lber tomonn by i-jusiifi, pro{)«ily t<^nited by UictawlvM 
ina. Not ka ibmtoiHi buitcbc'l prrftoi» nuniMlly ukt- Imlclapln Wlilt* 
worth ta be no'Ier liieir ore, be*id<>a iLe freat reitorl of ocraftioiul vititatm. 
Vhfa tefy reatouablc diarKi^ tlipy bii« rcaliird bandionie tbnaotn, wtiirii 
Ibty M^oy "nib dha general MMom ofllt^ir ncietiboum." 

DttirifliMi </ Mr CoHalry raoad ifaaetertcr, p. 150. 

• Wbilakcr'f Hiilofy of U'baUey, p. MG. 


Oothe hsoli oftlieBri/ is the oncipol honsc of RELFIRLDli 
fiHiiieHy part of the pouesunni of tl»e Kiiighls of Si. John of 
J<'TU«)l«ni. ami, aft« Ifac disiolntioa of thnl order, Ihe proptrty of 
the Buttcrworlhs, of whom Alexander Bullfrworlli, E«q. dviiijt m 
eAtrrtnv old ■{;<•, deviseil this, snri o'litr rDiisidfrablc Mtato to 
Jlifhtnd Townfrt/, son of 3 youngpr son of Roylt TomdIc*. In 
tlic loumhip of Btilterwnith n Cleog-Hall, a iilruiig xiuare 
building, apinreiilly of Jiinics Ibe f^t^l's limr. It nus Imilt bv Ibe 
Ashloii!!, of Ltttle-Clr^;, and is lb*- only nlatcwitliin the puiuli 
vbicii still continui^ in the local fiuuil^ uaiue. 

Foxholes, In Ibe north of RtxbdHlr. is the seat of Jtiku 
EntwisU, E<t|. ttho inherits it iindn (lie- Will of his kiits- 
Rtaii, RulKrI Etiluisle, Eaq. The prnrnt munsion was buUt by 
Mr. Enlwislr, on the sile of Hip old hall, in I79?. Tlieramilyof 
Enltviate arc of i:nMl anliiiiiity in this county, and ucrc ori^-inulljr 
aealrd al Kiiti^iuirll, uliirh Cauideii slylrs "a ni-itt und ctr^nt 
boiiw, formerly behm^ing In an honniirdble ftiiiiilyorilmt iiainv." 
They fkrive tlicir dcsctnl ffm Sir Rrihnc or Butthrum EatwitM:!!, 
Vixouot iiiid Ba'oti of Brybokc, in NorniiiDdy, wlio, fur liis 
eminent servicen, was knigblcd at the battle of Agincourl. He 
WB-s liUiii, in support of flenry The Sixth, al one of the bulUrs of 
Si. Albatis. His family quilled their palrnrdi ost;ite in Ike six- 
lecolh century, uud fined tlicir residence at foxholes. 

Rochdale and its Ticinity are cotiddcieJ as the centre of that 
provincial phrdM-ulogy, kiion'ii by the tMme of the Lan(t»hirc- 
IKaint, and which lias Hcquircd iome lilrniry naloricly by ihe 
hiinioroa< wiiliiiLrtiifTfRi Robbin. Of ihisqnuinlly jocose author, 
wlio«^ name vm JOHN Collibr. n few fmrltrulan »ill nol be 
irrelevant. He was bom near Wanington, and was 6rsl inlcodcd 
by his firher lor the chutrd : hut instead of llint he was plwceJ 
wilb a Dulchdooin-weaver. Dislikm^; this wdentary life, be com- 
meiiee I ilim-raiil Rhool-mMMef, and tan^hl liolh by day und oight. 
After uaudcnng about precuriouily for aOio* time, he ubtaiix-d an 


LA>'CA8HIIIB, 909 

hiimble i«lU«incn( al a fne-scbool at MUnntw, near Rochttale, 
where birosrlf ami Mr. Pranum, a cumtr, j»uilly sliiirnl lli« ulnr; 
of Ivcntt^ pounds a \ear. Here be fuuded biiiiielf ip'l^iendmt. 
aacl tills golil«ii drcatn was aliuont vcrilicd tii tia inuigiuation on 
tbe d«illi of hit )iafliier, as Uni uai lltni nominated xilc master. 
He tmH previousJir kept an evening ichool, wlitcb na% now nflin- 
^iirtbed; ihoiigli from iiiotim of saving |trudeiiiy, be rmploved Ihe 
Chii»tuiAf and >Vtiitxantide ncalions in lencliiiig at OMham, aud 
focotr otber pbces in the richiil^. He also Iwgaa to sluily nlu^ic 
and drawiagr. and ]>ur4iu-<} tlicic fiiciiiiilbu am wilh »uch oviLltly 
tnd xeil. Ibat he waa hhmi enabled to instruct others in bvlb. 
Tliese acijuirements not only proved ainiiiing, but liKir.itive ; and 
having suicrvdrd in dt-liiiLiilit^x >on>e caricature licadi, %arcs, 
im) irroups, lie sold a great numlicr of them la travcllen, and ev«n 
to tile Lirerpnnl inerrbanls. EutIv in life lie diKorcred loiiK 
podical Uleuts. or ralhrr »o eniy \\Mt Cor liuniorous rbyme, with 
cfucb he annoj-etl a few dull bliicklii'ads and artORaiit cu^combs. 
Tbougb iIk-w prnvoked the vwiiil} of some, titvy procured fatni 
llic frieiid^tp uf oltKni. The lirtt re^iitiir poetical conipoiilMQ 
Krliicli Ite publblied, wai staled iIm: Bitukhird, and iiiteniied to 
ridinile a Laucubite juslire, who wiu more Imown for political 
rest and iU-timrd lovully, than good srnti: and diiwrelioii. " tii 
jKKul of easy, regular vei»idi:ati(Hi, perhaps this hiu bii bestspc- 
nmen, awl il alio exhibited some strokes ol' true liuiumir." Marry- 
iog aboal lliis lin>r. bis liouieslic cam awl cxpeiu-es iurreaird, 
und to provide fur liie Uller. Ite wm nlili^td to W addtlionally 
indartrioiis. Bcstilea llie dutiei of tiit srhoul »ii<) leaching munic, 
be repeatedly bdKiuced at tbe can?), and iwinti'd alUir-piecea fcr 
cliapirlii, and i>i^rvi for publk-boiutcs. IIavii)i! a rett-iitne memory, 
im) auoctjiliiLu j ^ood iWaluitbllie iiti!io|iI;i»<icHleil lutivus uf llw 
county, he bad alleiided to, aucl Ueiuiired up all |Ik- local lerins 
aad phraiea, with die vulgar ami iih<iolrle woidi uM-d in common 
diKourae by the lower clastes. Tliesi? at leiicth lie cumoiiltcd lo 
4e pnsu in the fonii of dialogue, and piiblUbcd uikder tin: title of 
¥ TTjk Bobbin'i Lanaithivc fhofcct." . Its nnvdiy aud bumoikr 



flBOn excited public curiostly, anil not onlj rmdete^ i *Mood 
erfilion nercsntrv, but prAVukvd sonM niere«n*ry publisher! lo 
pirate it. While the former t;rdlilied Uie moderate tmbitioi) of llie 
author, the httcr provoked Iih in<ligDiitioa and sngi>r, ttad made 
bim exclaim " thai be did not brlieve Ihcte nsis one keneal printer 
in Lancatliire." In (Intwitig up n preface toa <tul»eqiietil edilign, 
be jiully reproved and satiriwd itiose iusidiouB oB'eiidcra. Hin lost 
literary prtxiuctiun vit entitled " Curious Remarks on the Hiitorv 
«f Umichealer." Tliit timall pamphlet of sixl^-fiTepa^, eontaint 
•ome thurp ttriclures on that l«iirued and d»ul(arv book ; atid Ibe 
autbor concludes by sayiiig that the style of tbat work " appean 
to him to be uArcted, uf a mnnjjrel-py'd kind, produced by Ibe 
dregs oi 0»iiia, and llie lofly fu^tiatl of ti proud Oxontajt." 

Mr. Collier died in Die po»se«a'K>n of bii mental powers, ut the 
sdi'anced aj;e of eighty, I>caving tliree sotu an<l two daugltten. 

ErcLES I'AitiSH, to the vrcit of Manchester, comprebetids 
an area of abotit nine Ritle» from eut to weit, and four fioui north 
to soiHh. Tbc cl lurch is s large ancieot tlruclure; and tn the 
viodons ar>; tbc arms of the Boollis. ]u the charnxl i» a curious 
monument lo Richard Bieretoo, of Tntton, and Dorutim his irifi:* 
vliotie effigies are on Ibe tomb. Tbc virarage ii iu the gift of the 
crown. It formerly bclonccd to Wballcy-Abbrj ; but at the dis- 
solution was ntitdc purocbial. Two new chupcb of ciiae Jiarc bccD 
built tincc 1775> al Peiidktoti and Swaiotou in this parish. The 
gradaal and cocwderablc iocresK of the pnpuMion of which 
will best ^ow its relative <<lati! at dilTcrenl prrinds. Tlib will be 
taken ut sis distinct and distnut tinier. Id I77(J there were f>,7t!i 
persons; in 1780 — 9i > 17 persoas ; in 1785 — tO,5?S persons; io 
1790 — 13,4.'50 per.sons: in 1793 — 1*,265 pPinow; and in 1800 
Iberc were iu Baitou 6.10" ; in Clifton 812 ; in Penillt-btify 4.17; 
in Feadleton 3,6] 1 ; ami in Worsley 3,06*?. all places vtitliia Ibis 
parish, making together l6,ll9 >i>liBl>>la»l>< 

Wouslrt-IIall, iu tliis parish, ii b larce. venersblo, old brick 

msuaion. now in the occupation of R. II. Bradthaw, Esq. in tnut 

for the Ehdgewater e&tale. Sir Eiios de Workedealey, was lord 

1 of 

LANCASillKB. 305 

nf tliu manor in tlie lime of William titi? Fii«(, md tlib name was 
retam«<l both by ttw phtre ami fiimilv till llw ntd of Fdminl tbe 
tTWt reign. 'Fht chief liruncli of Ihe fjmilv i« now settktl at Hor- 
rin^nun, ill Yoili^liin; UDutlivr iHsncti luJ il8 Kiit «iut ))rinrif)«] 
«9laiM 91 Ajipnldtirrnintir. >n llit> hli* of Wtglit. Tli« eoal-niium and 
canalt hrr# hire bten already rvfenvd lo. TIic vrarfhomw too* 
n«t»l with whidi. uiv on a ^m rxtriwivc «ralr; utxi aiiMm;; Km 
iiianiifiu:liiri-4 nf tltc plaw U llial of blackln(l-|)pncik, by Gilbert, 
Borgns, and Co. ' 


Urg<^ town and pmiili, siluulcd at the soulh-nstem cxUc- 
11)11} »if the county. Tlic fonncr consiib of several narrow slteets, 
built OD ii bi-ii bank, v likh risci fruni llw river I'amc, 1l ap|)ear), 
fron an aucieiit nianu'Krnpt, now fttaerrcd at Royton, and coih 
luiuine wvci'aI ptiitirul:ii3 cuoccming this catale, lliut A^btOD ma 
(vtnaiy a bon>tt(^b. The vtiJcf buded pru)Mrrty of t\m \ov.a aod 
poriib Ixlone^ lu ihc Kjrl of Slainford, tutu »1iof« f;:iullv it wu 
coaT«>cil by tlic niairinjrc of Sir Williunt Saotit, Kl. of Duabam- 
Mai»ey, »ilb Slari^arrt, duiigbler of SirTiioinn* .\»lii;li>o. Tbe 
family of .\!>brtijn wcic sTttkc] here at on earl)- penod^surd arc aid 
to hftvc posrsscd jwculUTpiivileges aiid power* in thit tnuior. 
aipi>n)> whicli was Hut of life ind death ever their Icaanlry. lu 
coomiciuofatiuD ofthii privile;;!', miii its luving bcco Minclimej 
«xemMKl, a fK-lrl iieur tlic old ball a aliD called Calhwa-Meadow, 
All old UuQdiiig lure rIk* retarus Ihe naiiw of li»e Dun^m : ftnd 
lo perpetuate the icniciiibnincc of M>mc bhick act or lyraunical 
deed itf Sir Riil|>h.\*!iclvti, mIio, hi liSJt ui>dcr Ihe authority of 
be{fi{ Vice'Conbiable ''f Cnglaud*, exercMcd great tcvcrity io 
rlib part of Wk kingd'nn, »» aitiKial ruitoin, called riding the 
M*(4 tad, it vekbrutcd every Easter MoniKiy. The eereiuofly 
cootiftt la nittkiiig an eRifty iu tbe Liuniui foriu, of straw, wbkh it 
p|j<cd on a \ionf, and e^bibiud llirou'^h tbe iitreeti. It i> after- 
waidi bun§ up at tbe ciu»» iii Ibc inaTbct-pla<:e, and tberc abot at 

* Ttw coBiiBiMion 1( prcKrTeil Ln Rhym«r'i Podertr 

Vm. IX. u 


in Ibc miij^t of a Jnrgc concourse of ipKlaton. Formetl; tbc 
figuK «as cased b a coat of nnnour, mil n mm of inonpy wss 
■dii-niKwi b> tbc court toward* (icfraying Ihf irxpcnce of Itie effigy. 
A Imditioaal nccouiit of tltr utigin of Uii> now ahnird cuntom, 
•Uli-a ibat Tlionias A^factoii, iii Uic liitK of Eilnurd tl)L- Tliird, was 
inrlicalarly (Jiilio^istitrd ui the batik of Ncnilc's Crou*. and 
bore atvay the royal stundarH fnmi Uw SottHi king'* lent. For 
thbnct, kini: Edward, un bis rclum from France', where be bad 
oblaiucd a great victory, coufirrreil on A»lic(on the honour of kujgbt- 
kood, v\m, on bis rduni to bis manor, Instiinted the ciiatom 
already dncribc<I, 

Aslilmi bu a large obi church, part of which appean to liave 
Itttn built by Ibc lordiof tlte niiinur, as their arms, bn|ialiiig iboae 
of Slcaly, are atli«.-d in a sbicM on tbc south lide of Uie steeple. 
In the church are »ome old carvingi ou Ibe pews, or scab ; aiid in 
tbc windons are snnn; 6;nircs pniiitnl on the glsss. Many of tbc 
Aibelon fninily lie interred here, and llit^r iiamct were itiariilied on 
the windows. Near tbc chuKh is a curious uucieot miiosioD, 
called tbc Old-IIall, \ht oldest imb of whidi are said to bate 
been biiilt in I4$3. Adjoiumg this, ia a pile resembling a prtsen, 
and was fonncrly uh»1 fur tlut purpose, lis \n\l» arc thick) aitd 
at the rxtreniilics arc two uiiall round lowen. 

Couuccted with the town of .\abtoa arc two bamlcls. called 
ClwrkstowH uad lieflffm, from liavtng bfrcn iK-^un in lite lime of 
the deplorable American war. Mauufacttirca of dificreni kind*, a 
canal to Mauchcaler, and an abundance of cntil contiguous to tbc 
town, have conspired to rtndvr Ashtim and ils rtciHijT extremely 
popubiu* and flourisliiiig. On the western side of tftc town is AsA- 
lon-Moit, w bicb supptici the poor with pcat-lurf. Thif being dug 
iM-ay to about ten feet tu depth, l&yt opcii a fine loam-»ifil, which, 
under ciilti>itlion, bccoiuu good pasture. TbedtgBen 6nd many 
fir and oak-treej among Uie peat. In tlie year 177^i Hk tonn of 
AkhtoD woi ciliuialcd to contain 553 buuats aud 28^9 inludHttnt*; 



* Stt Iteantif*. 4cc. Vol L p. 40, asJ TaL V. p. 199, Utum* |<aril> 


kndUKpftrish b staled itithe|M^ulationrefKii1too(Mttasiin 1800, 
9,01 S bouM9, and 15,632 petwtu. 

About two miln ca&l of Ashtoo b StaleySriJ^r, a IvrKC 
|K>pttkiii> liamlet, K^trrl on Mk banks of lh« I'toe river, over 
which butdbsliiiitiulliriiltrc. Oa un eiubforc bin octagon chapel, 
Mousing to th« clmrch nlablisbiiicDt. Ttii.i pbce liu lung be«a 
■olH for ilt woollrn-t^lotb tfifrr<, pT<«»or«, and nva^'en ; blit IbcM 
bfanebes or trade are rooi-c punued in Vorkiliire, and tfa« cotton 
Iwatim* is now more prevalent here. Near Ashton is 

DcKtKriRLD-LouGK, the scat aiu) pro{wrty of Frtmei* 
J}tilnMfiel4 AM.tlry, Eiq.* The boaic k a br^ irregular pile of 
%Dilitiii^, oecufniii]; a bmat) XenvMi, Bear the top of ■ *teep hill, 
^hieh rises almott prrpendictilirly from llie ritvr Tame. The 
falter, being a niouiiliuii stream, forni!* Ju itt prngresn several cas- 
«adei; awl imniedialely in front of thv liou«e, though not sea 
ftom il, swri'pi rouwl the base of the hill, unti, with the ovoriinng- 
ang woods, preiciil some liiglilj pictiiiei^gue scenes. 71>e vieH't 
^roia the iHiute and f'lintefis are (Ktrlieiilaily romantie antl grand. 
It lut beetaJready reniailiett in Vol.11, oftbisworfc, that Dukin- 
Keld contains Kvenil pictures: bm one or l«o not there men- 
tioneii areentillcd to notiee, nnd to rii^lin^ui«hed praise. Tliese 
arc, Cbriat and tlie Wunrao (akeo in Adultery, by Titian; a 
landKape h} BOTit; and wioUier hy Barbrt, are woiki of 
acknowledged merit. 

Belneen Ashton and Maocheiler b FAtRPlELD, a place of 
ptrticubu* note, a« a »eltlein«nt, or aorl of colony, of a claia of 
reltpous persons called Moratimu t. Tlicie have congie^ted 
tbenuelves here within Ibc lust thirty years, and dutiitg that time 
luTe erected a targe clmpcl, with an organ, ^c. and raised several 
Hooks, wbicfa imw asstime the appearance of a tontu TIk cliief 

U 2 of 

* TUt ecntleiDnii liu Ittdy pulilbbcd a <^iiititiiilioBt Ihtle TolaoM, tsr 
tilled " itiutt U Vtmttn,' &c. 

**t Fbr Mvo aruMmt of tlui linEUlar sect, lee an intcrctting vork, ia^Vi- 
X*Aj 4<nonuial«4 • Nm*I, entilivd *' Kvi^cy PntmC 

908 LANCASUinS. 

of Ibesc fomt « Mpiare nwn, rouixl wttkli b a bfMd |««*d riMt!* 

and tbiii u^tiii iKiillj luirroundod wilh a ankt. ofrespedaUe dwdt- 
iogi. Mott of tliue jMraoiiB an rii^»td in aoine iiianurticluip, 
or uwful«inp1cni'mmt ; and wlitbl the lucii pmaccalc tlii- ifiiimiuf;, 
^vcaviDg, mid uOicr l>nuici>c<i of Uic cotton buBBCas llie »'>riiMi ar* 
useTiilly and tnudiblv exccutitif; tanibwiii- and Una moUc vtvik. 
Tlic MwRiTimis, I UcliL-i-c, arc ddI a numrniuf c\as%. Their clMcf 
MlUeinriil a »t rufmrck, in Yurluiure, a»<i tlietc ia a small uoc at 
l^Uiertoii, ill Willahiic 

IKCE-Btr *J DBLi tlie uetl of lUtui/ Blimdil, £»■{. is bitual 
in Ibe ^iu)i of Sefton, wilbin lii'. llun<lf*tl of W»t Derby', at 
Uie duUiice of nine fuilcs nnith fioin UreqMwl. Tbn cstjli^ and 
manor 8|tp«ar to liarc \tten iMffrssed Ijy Ilic Klundd I'ltiuil; froin 
a vtf}' rcmole iwriod ; aiid in Ibe limr of lleanf Ibe Third, a 
WiUiam Bluudel was sealul here. Kron liim it ilrMvnilr4l to 
nnbril HJtuidel, au emiiirni lawyer and bciirlier of Gray's-Ian, 
vud H hat cooliDuetl lo tlie iwcieol [vntsctiwr in rcguhu tuc- 
wation. Ttir nianMoii, a lat^e iKwdioiike building t, ii richlj 
kloreri uiih worluuf art, mid coiiiaitn a cullvctioo of aacieiil 
slutiuuy, trhu-h iu;iy safcEy be prunotniced of uiirivellcd avrit 
ami raiiu! in Uiit coimlrv. Alluched to tlus bouse a a oew 
biuldiiig, culled ibe Pjnlticoii, exactly re^viuhltiig the nliKce of 
tbal ia»i« ill Rome, IlKmi^h one lliiiil len in biic. ^Iiis uaa 
•rorti^ uti |iuqx)i^- to contain, iin(t (h»)i[n) the clmiceit t|>eciiitcit$ 
of llie Kcul|iliir«. Tlie aueniblage uiaUtius, imtl; biufrelitiaa, 
aumtrjf'Unu, aud oUier anciuil maibics, U oot ooly my nu- 


*'^ Hie nidior v»|iremite<t livm ImerfSiif; Hit* a«co*nt In \U fnf»r ptaee, 
flwB tlic dtCHnwiancc of a gcnOiMBan la xtioni the MS. wit ant for ror* 
mlion, Innnj iil«la!tiFi| it al Li*i-r]ia«l, litl Iba UmM wm eMgr4 to b« 
workt^l nffici Mliidi itie accoiiui intj^n lu luxe {jtrn (irtitteft. 

-t Tlin amu-xad firtBt K|>rt«cpti Ibc fioni of ihcminilan, wiilithr I'm- 
tbwii, tct. 


merous, but manj of them «re esteemed tbc friest productuMii at 

those unrivalled Grecian utistg whose works ire rare, but whoM 

pniiws have been ofLen repeated in tJie writings of the hiitotii^ 

tbe critic, aod the poet. In amaMtng this collection, Mr. mmilfl 

faaa expended immense sums of mocwy, and devoted a loi^ bmI 

activ« life. Possessing a laudible zeal for the subject, and iMMg 

znueh abroad, be bad iuvourai^e opportunities of coliectiog aad 

9rlecling many subjects, tbe real value of which was not kiiom ift 

tbe time, but which is now well uoderstood, and lherefi>re pn^ 

peri; appreciated. Though it will be impossible to fumiib tihs 

reader ivith any thing like a satisfactory account of the whole 

collection in the present work, jet lie may fonu some idea of ill 

extent by knowii^ that it coosista of about one hundred «f«tiin^ 

one hundrtd and fifty butta, one bundi-ed and ten baia-relma, 

ninety aareophagi and ctneraty-urua, forty ancunt Jragmewit, 

besidet vtarbU pillara, tthta, and other antiquities: also aboat 

two hundred piefurr**. 

Of this immense collection, a few of the best in each dan are 
laere specified. 

Among the most excellent of the Statdes, are those of Mi- 
1er\-a and Diana, both of which now stand in the Entrance Hall. 

Tliese rank with the very finest works of the ancient artists, and 

*re in good preservation.— ^The Minerva is remarkable for the 

graceful ease of the figure, and simple, yet dignified cxpreasioaof 

^ibaracter. The head, extremely fine, has never been broken off. It 

*?ame from tbe Duke of Laut6's palace at Rome. It was fouad at 

Oslia. The Diaiia is admired for its sweet, yet firm and spirited 

altitude, curious dress, and rich buskins. The legs and feet of tlus 

statue are adiuirahly executed, and claim particular sllentiou. In 

this hall is a lovely figure, of modem sculpture, the work of the 

ctlebralcd Canota, who is by birth a Venetian. This statue rrpre* 


* A caUlogne Baisonn^ of tliii cotlection, with niimeTOns prints <" ■■ow 
priiitine; by llie wortliy proprielof, who, liy socli a pubiicatloo, will wwfcr 
*n cttential favour on eveiy lover of the am ; anil will thereby »f t a luulable 
*iiamp)e to others who powcss vMluable collectioin. 




Ptfche, ecnti; and gracefully b«ndiag orer a butterfly, (an 
F<inl)l«n of Uie humui wul,) wbkli ntts on th« opco palm of < 
Inad. nltilc ftitli Uic otli«f ahe lioMs its wiiijp. The «lalu« of] 
Jttpittr Pvcifieui Hnely cxpresdei Ihe attiibtites belon^iug tu llie< 
Gtxl of Peace. Ttic coUBte»ancc u mnifttic, and unites pwideur 
andniblinitty witli militnen awl bctirvol«nce. II u cxcculed iai 
tlic Mtuc broad style of tculptui/^ wliicU is visible in »oiiie of llikl 
Biost valuable statue* oo (he Contincol, and the chuel marb arc* 
dbcernable all aver it.— The Theatu*, who mu Kt»g of AUteDl^l 
and ooe of ihe dhuI r#Icbtalcd heroe.* of »nti<iiitty, '» n rcniarkabl^f \ 
tine statue, nearly se^'en feel liif>h. Thia italwe tt-.u found in Adrian'l 
nll:i, and M'a* bought by Mr. Blundel from the Duhe of MMlena. 
Kolbitig can excenl (he beaulT aitd sMiiiuetry of dib admiraMc 
6gtir« ; nor is it posnbte to di^riil>c, in langua^r, t!ir rufy ili^^ity, 
und carde&s grace of Ihe altitude. It is altngeiber a perfect wo 
■Bdcsmiot fad nf parlinibrly interesting every t.)tcclnlnr. — Tlte 
M^unla^iu, iA\ feet eleven inches tn biiglit, it in line preservation, 
aod was for nianj jcara mueli noted in the villa Matlei. — Tlie 
figure of Ihe niuso Uranin is rciuarkaltle fur il« heaiilifu) dta> 
ptry, and elegant fonn. — The Jane veiled, and holding a poiue- 
fpnnatc — The slatiie of a Roman Stnalor in hu robet — ^TIm 
Bacchuf, Apollo, Aiichyiboe, and seivral ditferent line statues 
of Minerva, A|k>I1ii, Venus, Mercury, Hyjeia, lut, &r. arc en* 
tilled to particular alloiitinn, as do ftome rare and curious an- 
tique Egjfitiaa-idob^ among which is one in Baialle. — Tbere are 
alio two gnM^ of alalaary, plan-'l in the < on!>en:)tory, one of 
uhicb ia ccteetned, hy connoissenrii, to be vhv tincsl spt-cimen of 
aneieiit Rciilptnre rvlaut. Tl»e artid wlio eviceuted it vat a Greek, 
aDd* Lis name is inscriiwd in Grecian characters on the plinth. 

Among tlie Busts, die inuat conspkuout, in point of merit, 
ttuth at acknowledged pnrlnits and good specimeos of sculpture, 
are tliose of Adrian. SeptiiRtiu Sevmu, Suleiiu Othe, Ckfro, 
Clavdiua AlHjai% i'aU, Chudiaa Dnuiu. Augxistiu Catar, 
Jutiui Ctxsar, Diiiia Clara, ,\farciaua. Julia, and a Coluwal 
biut of yrsfouan, a true |:orlniit, wbicli ilandl cm a pUlat of 



Cippoliae marble. Hie basU of Jupher Snapis, Bacchtn, and 
tevenl oUkis, are wuiKirrrult^ ftnn, aiiii geuuiue aiitiqutii. Here 
9U0 are two casts in bronxe, frotu the heads of tlie celebrated 
CcDtanra at Rome, imd three or fuur ciiriout tragic tniuks, liiree 
fret ill bcigbt, valuable not onlv on account of Ibe excellcnre of 
llKJr sculfilurc, but from Ibcir ruritv. as there arc few, if any« 
rml aalique noes of U«t size in Eiigland. In ni«iitiooiiig tbe va- 
luable cullectioa ot frapatntt of ancient sculpture, there are 
Doac mnrc worthy of observation than the curious and bi^hlj 
fiuivlied [fund, which ttands on a porphyry pillur iu tbe Eiitranco 
Hall, awl which dHpUyi much trulb and nature. Aim an ftnj, 
Bodoublnllji btldiigiii" to iJic famed sidliic of Ibe phiitisopher 
Zcso, io ibc Capstolinutn at Rome. It adniinbly eTpreMet tltc 
cbatacter of iiu old man's hand.— .\o anticiue/uot on a jiedcsta] of 
Paroneua, tia line pi«cv of Kulptuie. — \Uutitfffaad thigh, 
imcoiiiimouly well t&ccutcd. — A fraguicnt of some Colossal figure 
vhicbi iu proportion to Ihii Itiiee, luiul Imvc been tvri»it;-liTG 

Ccet ia bfigbt, the Mulptiifc of the most excrllctit kind. la 

Uk collection of DASS-RctlBVBS, a lioa'a head, an Dru<caa sa- 
crifice, a Ikbula Voliva, Termiuuii, Bacdiaualiaa Scnic. Chariot 
Races, an elegant ficurc of Victory carrying a tvrcath to adorn a 
Tciuple, Ncrido, a Sepulchral Motmincot, and n Jupiter Pnd- 
liciu, coaiiDand particular iilletiliou, and are all of admirable 
wotimaitsliip. Itiil the niinieroui Harcojrkits^i^ and Cinerary- 
Umt, arc valuabit: and 1 are spi!i:imciis, ca))f:ciully one of the Sar- 
cofibagi xvrji feel loo^ anil fuur feci high, at each eud of vvliicb 

are lions devouring Ihcir prey, executed in a tnaslcrly style. 

Tiw cullcclion of MarbU-Tablet, between lliiity aiid furtv in 
number, is pcculiarl^r chiiicc <uid valuctblc. Tlicsc are of ^ciliao- 
Jaapcr, Vcrd-Aotiquc, rvconrlla, Oriciilal-Aluba&ter, Lavu-Duve, 
Brocatella, Bianco- Nero, Siicciiiien TabW), and fine Mosaic, both 
ancient and modem. AUu tcvcrdi Co/umih and Pillars of Uie 
Vcrd-Anti<|uc. CipoUiiii, Breacia, Red (irautte. Porta Santa Ru- 
bia, P«voiic£is, Porphyry, (ircy-Granile, and oUia Maiblcs — 
oad a vaiielj of Alubasbn aiid Etnucan yatta, and curious An- 


Alt LAVCAStflRP.. 

lifv fimuet.-^— TIk picriiws are not m select m tlicy raicht 
be: Iml Ihrrc are »e\m\ fine painlin^s, in wfiifli nainbfr. Ilir 
FiMand JtfJnapfion ef 3teu, ait Ktriy ptclurf, li\- Raphaiel, 
aliuds coiw|Kcu(»H9. Tlie Mvrriagt FeoMt, a Wge (tirture, by 
Pawl Vebonksk. Bscrhus md Ariadnr. a large paiiiliufi, by 
Sebastian Ricca. Four fine I-andscapw, by Wilson. Two 
cations PertraUg, bj Cfrrard Doutr. Tlw Alcliymot, by D. 
T<'tiicn, uilh many oihcn, t«o [lumcroin to iiftill, doi^iTr Ibc 
altcntiun of itie coonoincnr and artist. 

- John Wbetbb, a native of this cuunly. ma born in tbe 
yoT I57b'i bdt nt nhul plncc a nut mciiliourd hy ony 
BIiigniiitMT, Farlid to ecdt»u\tk-a) «nlic|uitk3 xdiI Kjiulrbrnl 
nanUtiab, lie Imrdlnl orcr difTcrcnl (ittib of Eii^latK), aixl ewi 
TintcH Ibc Coittinrtit to cmmiac cburchcs, and tmn^cnbr thryKrf- 
IcrA^ inBciiptiorH on okl tomb), &c> Al lengtli be piiblinb«d 
llnl purt of hn collection whiiJi rdalcd to the liiix-cfics nf Caulcr- 
bgry. Hticbr&l^r, LodJod, Nurvrich, and pftrt of LiDCi>la4 Thi> 
npiflc B small vubune frittOi l()41 ; tod in 17^7* the work, nitb 
•DiDf! iid<litJoii.% wtm published to quarto*, culitlvH, " .^itcintt 
Fattfr/d Mrnvmentn »f Grtat Britain, and the Iniandt adjacent^ 
— "with a Dijmiirsc on t'ltncral Moniinifiils*' Ac. Wliatiun, 
(An^li. fiae. Vol. I. jt. fitiltO charfpa dim ntth ^mss mistakes in 
ttit nunifricul Icllen and fi<:itrf3. Wccvrr died tn Londflti in Ibi; 
jrar U'M, and wnsKiricd iii tlie old dinieh of St. JamoV, Cksh- 
fimctl, nhcre Ibe fulloiiiiu; rpihipfa, wiillco by liintsclf, ntu iu- 
ictibeit lu bh ninnory : — 

<■ L(icrathin> ([arc tne tiiitli —Carabiiil^ HocatloD, 
MiiMlnex ^ve ntc deaili— ml llifa cliurdi mj IwmMiaa: 

ArMi Chriil 10 mt laih p^at, 

A phKC willi Uni in Hmcn.' 

* TUi wai cdlKd by tlic Rev. JohnTooke, aatbor nt TravH* in Rbum. 
ftr> «bo nJicitol ili« mminnnieslioii of tiMitmml epitaph*, 1i«t ^ Mrt 
•feOioinMr^-Coi^^BniuliTapoftapbgr, VoLl. p. isi. 



Vy-ALLED in Ibc Dwiicula',' Survey LuiecfUirttf-irt, is fin tOp 
land cQuiity, (ituati'd uuurly in tlie middle of EnslniiJ, and etivi- 
roaed hy llic counties uf Rullimtl und Uiki^Iu to llic E»sl, Nitt- 
tiagfaun and Derky on the North, StaCoidfhire and Wanvick- 
shirc lo llie We»t, wtiiNt ptiil of llw latter couiily and Norlhamp- 
tonisl)irc attach to its Souilj''iii border, T\» ^nale^t part of tliii 
boumlarjr b aitjtictui, but un the i^outll East llie rivers Wellaod 
and Avon coDstitulc n iiulund line of <!rinark;ilion. A part of the 
gT<4t Roinnn fomI, calln) \Viilliii:;-Str(H!l, A]i(K-ar3 to hfivG formed 
a K^ular dimion,l)clwcMi L*icc*lersbire and Warwickshire t« tb« 
South W«t. The district included wilUin thc«c boundaries vas, 
at 3h Uirly period, a part of the Irrriton Itelonging In the i'oritani, 
ormort' properly Voraul*. After UieUonians hadsiibjii^alt^d ihe 
Britons, and liud vstahlijlti'd colooios in dHfertnit parts of the 
Island, the coUDtr^' now under consideration wai included fvilbin 
the province of flaiia Ctenarumtii, and had inihtar>' stations 
established at Raitt (Lcicule.-) ; P'ntiomrlnm, on lh« norlbcm 
burdn* of the cuunty ; Uctiomc, ucur Hish-Cri>»i; itud Matt- 
<luf9Mdtun, at Mancelerf. These slaltoits were connc«ted by re> 
Kuhu artificiAl roH<J», or niililaiy vmys, knoun by Ibe ntuncii of 
ff'atiiitg-Strfrl, fons-H'at/, and I'ia Dei-ana. The first eulen 
Vol. IX. X tbii 

* For ttnne arcoiim uf tlicie, see Bcontiu. Vol. 111. p. tQl. Se* alM 
WUlalier's Historr of Maiii-liciliT, And Prggei r)itMrtitll<m on tht CoriUnit 
atumed to his Ceim of Ciinolietinc. 

tlV R«v. T. t^nui, on Iha KomMi Roads imil Slalion* of Ldcnter- 
■hifc; tHK NirlinU'ii lliniorj'. Vol, I. p. 14T, wlierp atp iliffprcnl obM-rra- 
ti«M on tliC !aiuc 9u(ijt;cl, hy ll»e Bialii^i uf I'.oiV. un^l Roh, Ml. R. GalUi 
Dr. Fene, 2lr. Tfawlif , Mr. Rufiuid*, aiiJ Mr. Atliby. 


314 LBICEJtTKItStllne. 

lliiscnunl^ at DonbrHlgc. or Dovcbriiljr, on lliv Northuinplan- 
iliirc lji»r(lcr, wlicra llie stilton mlk-il TripoRtitim was Kxed. 
H^iicc ta Mririlurf^rilum itpiiMeilneiirly in u^lraiglit liiiv, having 
Ihc small »l>tli<)D of /^aoji« <Hi its coiirar. Nrnr tli» |i(nire lite 
io^a-Waji tntvnecta it tit li^lil aiiglrt, iiii<l pusKa In almtist a 
ktiuighl lioic lo Rata, nlicncc it conlrniic;, in a norllierly tlircrlimt. 
to VmiiiiaHum, ddJ p,iu» on In MargiduHum. n sUilioa ntar East 
Biilfiinl, ill Nolliiii'li»iii)Jiir<'. lu llie }ran I7SS and I78£). Mr. 
Lcmu, in company with Dr. Bcaiii^l, the jncsftU Bi»lK>|t of 
C\oynf, travctlcd Lliia riMid froni " LuHfoKt, an iindnublcl &lBl!on 
at llie IicaJ of the Barn, fk-iiily l» Lincohi, anJ ll)cn<rp into Do 
ronsliire." Of its coune Itirough t*i<*stcr Oiirr, lie givo tlie fol- 
lowtii); licscfiption; — " Afiet quitlini; the slalinn at Ventflinctiim, 
the fax iiiiiLe.1 a small Lcml (as it rn:i|ucnlly <l»i:» :it rntcitng. or 
Iraving n sliilion) but sonn rr^ iiiiiin^: its fotiiu-r briitiii^, riiuliniiM 
nlroiKhllu Sex, or Srgs-IIill, and, tlifltigh dom iniirh (k-tiiced, is 
still eu>ily Imced, hy its cMitinuliig ulnmst Mliv^ys in Ibe same di- 
rpcliun, aiitl riom its bcini; slill hi Mfotjr placea bij;li'ridgc(l, and 
iu teme paved njlb Ur^ roiiod iluncs. 

" At Sr\-I>ii1 ia a conMdcmbtc luinutus mxl nlfo Ihc leiuaim of 
in eD(tcncbnH.-iit, nbcrc ibc Fun ia ititcrsci-kd by anulhcr road, 
a;iparentl7 Boiiihii. cuniiiit; frvui I'aiiiiton »ii ihi.- Ermiii-ttlrect, in 
uii &. N. t^itcrly diicrlinn, pointing lovmrds BiirTow'tipon-Sonf, 
aiid which, if continued iti lliv r,:mt briiinic across LciceslcTaiiiic, 
would have pma«d tbc Via Dfvana nurili of Mttikfichl, and fiilleii 
into the Wullin^fitrecl, avuv Elocrtuin, or Wall, iti Stuffurdsblrr. 
ul its jiinclion with llii: Rykiiield-Sluct. 

" From Sex-hill, Ibe Fos), in going owr the commons and 
T1iriu^|;ton Woulds krcyn gmerjlly iicnr Ibe hctlge, till it flc- 
tccnds into the valley beyond Kuldill'. It leaves tite great obtoiii; 
tuiuulud of Shiplcy-IIill to the IcO, mid, croMiu^ Uic Wreak, aod 
■nolber small rivulet near Syatuii, passes by a vut lumiilus at tlic 
place wlicie the Melton Mi>»b[ay quits the I^iccati-r Uoad, ami 
gmng through Tbunnaalon, proceeds directly to Itattt, or 




" In Lck«3t«r it joim tlie Via Do^-ntiR, anA both, ccnltnuiag 
through Ihe lown tcjrethcr, ka^e it hy the preal Gate-way Ml 
remajiira^ (but whicb lia% I know not for whiit trilling reason, 
been called IlicTcmpIo of Janii*), «id pauin^ the meadow upf^iv 
sile to Kin;; Richard's BiiHgv, where il^ on;;iiml hreadlli is still vLii- 
ble, it suddenly turns to the left (on erouinf; Ihe Hccond branch of 
the Sour) over the meadows ; and, gaining iu old bearing, joins tlie 
Narborough turnpike, snd continues wilti it as fer aj the fourth 
mile-stoDc from Leicertcr. The Fom Iwre quila the turnpike, aad, 
f^oing orer the fieldjt, leaves Ihe town and church of Narborough 
to the led, and is still finite plnin as it d^'sct-iidt ihc Inst inclosurt, 
opposite tlic Grcen-Lune, by which the Fata b continued to High 

" Near Crort tlic fsniicrs were brcakiDC; up in many places the 
tid^ of l)>e Romnn rond, hy carryinj; mit their miiniirc, when I 
pftssed it in 1788 ; and it wtu impossible not to observe still parts 
of the stone, with which it had been pnved, lying about on e^'ery 
udc. Near Scxtr-Mill, wliere Ihe road hat been entirely ne;;lccl< 
ed, and i» covered with water, one could feel plajaly Ihe brokca 
pavement as one rode over it. In a direct hue, nud wtlhoul any 
TAriatioii, the Foss conliuue* front licnce over tields to Brnona *, 
wber« it joins the Watltng-Slreet-t-*' 

Tb4; Via Dnana, accordios to the opinion of Mr. Leuian, ex" 
tended from t'amalodtmiiBt (Cotchestei) to On-a-Colonia (Chci- 
ter), and entered this county near Druighunt, whence il proceeds 

X3 la 

'"BmoMr, ffafa, util all oliicr town In the plan] natnber, were m 
odled, aicoaiiiiiiui nriitinally ol'mura tcwm lloui i>iic: tlim flfnniMF incJmlwd 
the praml buildinici at Clnjlnmt anil Clki,\<-hcjtcr -, Rata; the hiiilitiu)^ or 
bnnuoti nchiyeaf lhetfv«r: uid, amoni; the ancienU, Atlienimuollcil 
Atkntr, and c(iniprTjinii)hi£ fiut diitioct viila|:ci; and Sytacuse, Symcuiitt 
a» BOile up of ATf ." M'». Cork sml Roti. 

f llie cMine of tliit Roman rtiad, a« well «• Ibiwc «t' llic Wa|]in|^«tTc•t 
and Va Dmm, bi p laiil down hy the Rev. T. Leiuan. Id a miall Map of 
t.«k«Mctifaii«, |>uLli>b(il ia " TAc UritiA Atiaf." 


to " Mvilbouni*. ati undouMfd station on il." HercB a tntnti- 
hu, mil), on the hill tichvrcn the f>arislics of Cranoe bimI Cilooalon, 
U anotlicr, ai»I Uif row! h slil! visihli;, Hence h roDttriuts in al- 
most a slr«it;l)l line tn Ijricc^lr.r, )ia»ung liclneeii liiif rilUgrt of 
Great nnd Ultlc Sttrltvn ; anil b Kcn iu nmny places consider- 
ably rnuol ubuve the origiiud siirtiice. iljuracit llie Futs-waj 
nrur the soulhem stile of llic town, ami tigva letl It on Ibe mtrth, 
wlieri: it liranrhcd off North-Wcst. and coolinitrd ucoilv b; 
Groobv, Aatiby-dc-IU'Zuudi, far. to Burtou. 

Aiiotiier aiii'u-nl rojil, Mliich Mr, I^tnan ralln thf '• Satt-H'ap," 
nud couiiJun an nf Hiiiisli oriyin. entered this cohoIt frnni Un- 
n4i»liire, in iti Wii> to ttie ^rrut salt mines Ht Dioitwich: after 
|)assiiig by Croxton, oi» llie mt»lli easlcni hordfr of llic roniilY, it 
cooitnucd to Segi-Itm, nud, crosjinK the Foss. proceeded to Bar- 
row, atiil n anemanis irriLin mnie pliicrt m Charnttood'Aireat. 

After tlic Ronmns hud evacuated lSc hUad. thh dislricl b«- 
ttxnc pari of tlie [>ia;;doin of Mercia ; iliid wben tlic subdiviaimi of 
ihe Anglo-Susnn provinres hito counties nna eatiiblisbed, and 
Br)liop»' Sees ciriittd, tlic tawa of Ijcicestcr wm oonslitiited the 
seal of tire DitM-rsaii. The EVlrrrinn kingdom nni dividnl inl», 
or dblingiiiiibed by tlie immcs of youtbem snd Nuilticm, and tlic 
inhabitants of Leicnicrsbtrc were caltcd Mit/iierrantr, or Mtddh 
Ao^lch TIicj" were fre*]Ufnttjf Iiarrnsftrd In t!ie invadiiti; DaiiPs. 
nlio, entering the district ftxim tlie csstein coast, laid the whoie 
tounlry under conlribulicn behvcen the Gt-niran Ocean and Lei- 
cester; and having ciHitjWi'ed Ihia plaee, r^labli'Jied Ibemse-lirc* 
berc for some IciigUi of tiu.«. Indeed, Leicc^cr wu coosdcrrd 


'"Ifone were lo initutR o conjiKiDTr, iMedtjouni awjifalvrigiiioUy b« 
eaiSleii nirdiiim. a name uol nncoiumon in llae Ithienriei. ll b nauljr ttio 
ecntrci or lulf-way cUlion t^ctwern Calcbc«lG{ and OksWi, the tno gte«l 
Romui coluiuci, «'liich ureie uniteil by Om read ; aoiii On Suoni oftat pir. 
■nvcd the finX ajllnlilc of the RanmB uuar. wiUi a tcmaMtioo ot dfir own, 
u LmdimM, Loudon ^ Conf#piliiM, Corbridtc," &e, Wx, Corns aud 


•oflM of Iktir fiv« cbki* citka in llic Ikiuud. After the Nortnan la- 
VHsuMi, in l()f)6, I^iNStcreLiie experieuced a roni)ilele leroiuliou 
ift it« civil iiivd iiiatiorial privilcf^e): a* llic conijiicfor din-ioi! it 
among liu t-aJtSRU and rebliotis. To UU kiuunaii, KaIxtI F.arl of 
MclUut, wbo was atK-rwards Karl of heitesier, he (;ave tlie mIioIt, 
«r the fitter pm1, At' M\tcpii lurtUhifM in lliis coiinlv ; to Hu^lt 
Liipus, liii nepticw, who x«aa cnatcd Knrl of Cluster, lie gave 
tweul^-ttt" lordibips; \S'illLtiii Pvvcn-ll, hit iialoralson, he made 
Earl of Nutlinghain, uml g-^vc him six Ior(Uhi|M; tn Judith, bb 
aiecc, Couateat of HuDlingdoaand Nottliampton, he gave lliirty- 
<i^ht lordiliips ; to EatI Aribn'ji, fouitrcn; to Ili'nni- de Ferrn- 
tfli, Ihirtv-live; to Iloliert !c Dbfljiencer, levenb'en; to (ieoD'rejp 
de ^Vi^cc, tu'cnly-aev^n ; mid lu Hu^o dt- OreiiU'nuiisnell, Mx(y- 
Mven. Thus llic c\m^f piuU nf liii^ «uuiily were allollcd, and par- 
celled out to diflerenl Nonuan cUiefd, whu a;;ain rci*riiiiti.'d vuriou* 
alMiaeiiU lo llieir followeii uud dv|K-iid;inls, tu Iw lielit of Ihem 
by liuigiit'tsenice. R«»i<iet tlic al>Dve<rumG(l laiidlioldori, llitf 
Kio)^ the Archbiibop of Voik, and the BuhopsoT Lincola iind 
CoDStanro, poMested lutided propcriy in the couuty: Hnd ijotu? 
«ai annexed to the Ahbiet of PeletliurMigh, Co^ciilry, auti Croy- 
lond. Id ord«r to jceiire tiieir newly-acquired posmtioiit, lliesi' 
^onnan eltief* ami barons u>on built on Ihrir respcrlivc luutei 
** tlroaji and majpiificcut ca-illet, wliich might at once sn^re thein- 
aelvef, and keep ibe cuii<iiicred Kngh^b ia uu.-." Tlic iet«ral 
l(iURtlii]>f, in uhich »urb rrattlcs are kiinwn to have been erected, 
with llie Daaie<) of tiie foimden, art', I^icesler, Momil-iord, 
Wkilw-ick, and liliillvn, founded by the EiirU of Ldcesler; — 
Grobyand Hinckley, by Uin^a d« <ir«itetnai&iiell ; — Duiinii<ton, 
by EmlBcc, IWon of Halton ; — MpIIdh, by ltog(.T, Liird Mow- 
htvf I — RjivtmtoiJ, by Cocifrid HaiL'^lin ;— Sauvey, by llie Ijird 
Bamt of WeldoH : and Tliorpe, by Eniidd <le Bois. " Most 
of these eailles, during (br tini(uiel ri'ii^t of llpury tlie Seconil, 
King Jobii, nnd Kir; Henry lite Third, being hebi by the rebeU 
liOM barmtt, and n-tid'^red ivceplucks uf ibitrvi't; iiiut frrclxKiler^, 
«eie, by cotnaiaiid of the latter king, utlL-rly rirnnjii*herl ; an^t 

X 3 llioujb 


though sottw of ih^iu w&x aflerwHrds rebuilt, yet at II 
Ibenr is not oii« of tliiTn rrntHining nUin ; ksd even \bc ruins of 
mo»l of tbem are entirely defaceJ"." 

Tbe Norman diiefs, arier &rllling their posiessioiis and forlifj'* 
ing lben»elvi« wilbin llieir respective (tomains, next dirrcled llicir 
atletitioiH to tlte rvligious bubiU and prpjudices of tlie tinted ; ai 
to iccurp itiu fuvor mtil intliifoce of ila- mooki, iti an »f^e wbvu 
thry were almost omuipolent, or, at least, caaM command and in- 
titnidate nearly tlur whuk community, was a necessary braiKbof 
fniltiaiy policy, nhicli the provincial barom neither owriooked, 
nor neglected. Acconlinj^ly. pcut of their estates were appro- 
priatcil towardft tlie foundation and eiido»inent of Abbie*, Pii- 
oiivs, Nuuneriei, and other monadic eslabliEhiiient&. lo this 
eounly Uierc were ABfilE«, Aic. fuunded by tlie following per- 
sona, at tlie tiiui-s and pbret here kfiecilicd. 

C'roxlon, by Willium rarcartu*. in 116?: Gartndon, by Ro> 
belt Umsu, Ear) of IxiceslKr, in 1133, m ho alui founded an Ab< < 
ht\ in the town of Leiceslrr, iu 1 143 : Olveston, by Robert Grim- 
bald, in tht' time uf Hvnr^' the Second. 

FKloKIEJi, 6;c. Belvoir, by Kuberl ile To«ieoei, about liSO. 
— Bradley, by Robert de Buittl^, teiup. Jobn. — Bredon, by Ro- 
bert de Ferrariis, 1144. — Charley, by Kobert Blancliraaines, Ear] 
of Leicester. — Hinckley, by Hugo de Grroieniitisnell, aboul I090. 
— Kiikby-Beler, by Alice Belvr, t:).'i5}.— Liiund. by Ridiard and 
Maud Banett, about 1 130.— Leicester Eremites, before 1304.— 
Leicester Bhck I'riars, Duininicans, tcinp. Henry HI. — Leicester 
Grey Friars, Frdntucans, by Simon Munlfuit. — Leicester St. Ka. 
tbwinc's, for Austin Fii»n. — UlvesrroA, by Eiirl Robert BltuKh- 

maiiies. Nunneries. Ciacedicu, by Roesia dc Verdun, 

I'i'lO. — Langley, by William Panlulpli, ti-ntp. Henry 1L CoL- 

LBGIATB Cmdrchbs in I^Lciter. St. Mary de CaMro, founded 
before the ComiueU : rebuilt by R. dc Bellonwni. Fjir! of Leice*. 
\a, 1107.— Si. Mary the Great, in the Newark, by Henry Earl, 


• Nich«t>^ Bialofy, &e. V«l. n. pt. t. p. S. 

LElCmsTEBSHlttE. 319 

aAemBrds Dukt- of Lancdstcr, &c. IS.JS. BpsiJrs tbe Kbovc, 
(here wcie aeverjl Frce-CIia|)t:h, HotpiuU, PircefJtorti^, Cli4a« 
liiex, &c. ruuiiilfd ill ttilfc/t'iil p^irt< ofttic rnimly. 

At the liioc of rompitiii;; llmt ^rcHl naliunal aotL, the Domes- 
day SwTWi, Ltricnlrr^iiirf wiis divMerl into four W;(pi'ntali«, or 
Hiindrcila: FramlaiKl, <jiitlila\lfln, Oartir, and GoRCoIr : and thui 
A roplinunJ till llir iHciilirtli of E'ltvanl tlie TliinI, when unc of 
IInw uxs «iilxlividt'd mloOiilliUitanaiKl Sitarkrnline: imtl nftrr* 
knnrds llmt of OiMcotc nns divi<kd into two, anil (k-iiuminatn), 
from llirir rcliiliix; >iliiai)fiiis. Tasl nnd We»t. Tlw wliote of the** 
jr« wilbiu (he ccdriiiHiiliail JuriMlirtimi of Llir Sre of Liiiculii, and 
in tbe jironncc of Cauti-rbtir,T. The county it umlcr one Arrb> 
deacon, aud six Onmerics. KiiTldti. who pul)li»licd " ii De^rription 
of Lf ice*ler»hir«." in 1 62,', Ircais of 1 1 5 Rcctorie*. 3 1 Vicianigcs, 
and 105 CIiii|K'Is, (aa in ruins) btsidt^ 75 VilliiRw, firanffM, Ma- 
iiun, dr. Hrtoii, in EiiiTlieMiinif, niriitioi» 113 Ki-rtorKa, tiS 
Vic3ird]c;L-% (1200 Parishes.) mid I in ('Iir|]pIi, n-liicli wck ilnnntin's, 
peculiars, (wqieliiul cumcii-t, &r. " but icvenil of lliediapcls arc 
iiow dciwu, and ixjnvi vf the Iiamlcta lia\'e not tlie (nice of ji divtll- 

Mr. Kicliola Uiites, from the Doiiirsdny Siinfy, that tlw wlmle 

conMy, at tbe tinit- lliat record was roiiipiled, conlxtncd 34.000 

iiilialiilnal*: Hud, according to the fultnwing taMc, llm number 

^AU augmented to l30,u8oin the year IKOl, uhen the parliament 

'Csnterrd an account of the pcijitilittion of cvt-ry coualy, ^c. to )?e 



■ Kiclinb-i irHliKjt. Tol. II, pt. I. p. 1. 




2 ^' 




? » s 
? § s 


f = s 

^ a. M 





1 9 
1 ** 





















































J* i» 








5 S 

IC u> 















Lj — 

Tnulr, UlEiin- 










lacmiet. III 






- - 

5 ^ 

ToUl of ?«r. 










Tiie «Lrcumf«;r«no« aiKl extent of Uic couiitv have not been alit- 
faetorily di'ttn^d, Mr. NirbolsststestlKfonRerto be "about 150 
miles," wliibl Mr. Moiik * WU Iht- sanie down al " abuul iiiucty-sn 
miles." The iailt-T writer aho f«liinat» ilt niper6cial contenh 
8l ** $tk),OI>0 scri>« of lutul.'' In u lal>ie now before nic, dr&wa 
up can-fully fioni the be«t otu[w <>f Ihe county. Hie auinber of 
Siquare slatiilc riiil» n, mI Jovrii at 8I6: aiKl tti« ucrcs ul 522,240: 
hy wbicb calculution Leicvster^iin: appeon tu be ttie twcniy-flxlh 

* " GdMT&l Vitv of Ihe A^iculturf of Uie Comity or Leiceuer,' 4to. 


So a Bcaic of forly, nbcre Vorksbirc is Ibc first, and RullaniNiire 
41k bd. 

KiVBRfl. This <'oiuity has not nny tivtn of tin|>OTlaiice ; Init 
■Utoac lliut )KiM lliruuf^li il " arc cuiivcnHmt and arnanienlal." The 
^lijefarv tlie Sotu, Uio Swill, the 'W«lku<l, Uit- \yvui tlie WrrLv, 
anil tlie Anchor. The '•'pffj', aiKicDtly rslicil Lrire, Uie largest of 
Ibcfc, Hsts fnmi tno Ik-jcIs, or aouixcs. in lliu soiilli-wc^cni pari 
of ti*<! ooiintY. Hiid after receiving a biiiall trit>utui> '^lrvam iioir 
WbH:itoiic, p^xsscs by (be vrcat viid nutili si^cs of the town of Let- 
raster. Tliciicc it coiitinitcs alitiosl due nortli. UDvl atli-r pasaing 
dose b^ Kli>iiiit-9urel| recrivea two or three snull liwrs, uail 
iiiiemboi;iira ilaelf into Ihe Trent a little onrlh of llic vilU^ of 
llB<lclific. From this plutc to Stanford, about a mile hiiiI hjlf 
nortli of Lou^hboroutth. it couitilutes the nnlurul bDimLiry Imn 
IwiTQ tlib couut^ aud Nutiiiighannhire: and lii lliii »hi>rt roune 
of aLK>ul niiie nuirs, arc ti>e artificial cut^, or crniak, made to 
aroid the Huidin^^ of the rircr, Ac. In llic 3feMr 1(j34, Tliomai 
Skipwtth, Esi|. obiaiiicd a grant from King Cltarles la make (bit 
rirer "portable" or navt^eabJe, for boala and bnreri, froru the 
Trent to Ijciccsler. " Bv on act of piirliunirnt in 1776, thciircr 
Soar n^i alloMcd to be niadi; iiii%'i^Mc from tlie riicr into tvhieli 
il empties ilsrif to Buho])'if Meadow, within the liberty ol'Gareii- 
don ; and a navipible cut wm at the sHioe time iiulhnriscd to be 
nudr uijil maitilaiiied iIkdci', near, or up and iiilu 'Fkf Huahrt at 
Loughborough. TliiA being necnmpli^hcd in 1778. a canal 
mu then o|>eiicd at Ixiti^hhu rough, supplied by several iiei»hboiii^ 
\»% alreantt, mid cnniaiiiuicatifi}r with the Soar ; which now briiigi 
UpcoaK fite, 81 a very cnw priee"," 

Tlie li'elhKd. aceonltng to Sir Tliomas Care, " bath Ua heart 
at Silwrloft ;" Imr, hy I'rioi'a Survey of the county, it upiiears to 
haic three or tonr suurre*, or heads, near the soiil)i-eu>t iiu«lc of 
the eounly ; all of which luiilc itt Me<lbour», and leave the rotmly 
between Cilderol and Roeli in^baHi. ivhcre anutlier river luioi it 
froiu the north. These bound tluc count}. Near ]iusbauds Bos* 


■Nichoi*'* HiiWrr, Sc. Vol.Lp. i40. 

333 tElC£STCRSUl&E. 

«i)f1ti, ihc Aeon han its source, and running ncslrrl,v, furniv Ibc 
otilliue of (be county to Dovtibridge. nlicre it «ut«n Waniiek- 
iliiri?-. an (t con tin Ills lillit unilvKwilh llif 8«'«rrii, [irarTt-Mkmbunr. 
Thus llii- laller liirr flows l« the Iriih S^a, or St, (ieorgeX fllian- 
nel; xnd Ihe Welland, uliich Ikis iti source to tiic sainc part of tliii 
cotmlv, fniptics il» vvati-n iirto Ihe North .Sea, or Gernian 0<ran. 

Tti«' IVrrkf, \Vr<^kin, or Wreak, riseft iu the pansti of AUkeltleby, 
in the eaHltrn pail of Ihe (ounly, and glassing by Wrily, joins ili 
wa«;re with thv Etr, or Byv, whOKC iiuhed tirraim Ml uilo ibe 
Soar iMiir Mniitit-iorel, 

Ixin-stersbire being more an Bgriciiltuni thwn a commerml 
district, und deprived of any particular mines, Ims nut equally |MJ- 
ticipiiled with many nihrr Fiigliiit rountie* in Canai. Naviga- 
tion. Some plans for this purpose have bem projected, at dif- 
fiT«nl periods, and a feiv Iturc iM-en executed. In 178'i, ■ bill was 
presented to )iarliainenl for nialin^ a narigabJe ranai from Chil- 
iVTs-Culon, in Waniitlisliiic, to pass liy Bitrbarlt, fitnekley, 
Sotton-Clieynell, Shenton, Marknl-Braworlh, Carlton, Con|{eston, 
Shakerstoii, and Snarcston, in Leicestcrsliife, whence it uas to 
proi^eed lhrou<;li tome parts urDerbysUire, and teniiin:itt: on A*b- 
by-Wouhls, in this rounty- Ttic objetrt of tiiis cinal was to open 
a vralcr carrbine cominuiiieation betwi'vn lite coal-niiiies on Uia 
WotildN aod tli« K>-voriii pbcfs already n»-r>l)oneil: also 1o facili- 
tate Ihe loniej-jiire of lime, and goods of diilereiit kiuiis, and join 
with the Oxfurd and Cm-citlr; Ciinab. " Tit» schenie, being op- 
fio^ed hy a vaiiety of i»leii>st>, failed of success." Aiiotlier 
scheme, for opening a canal comitiuiiicalioii belwe«ii llie towns of 
Lotiglilioroiij;h and Ifirester, was strenuously propowd by toiue 
gentlemen in tlip counly, in June 1785; again in 17 S6, and, in 
I78,M. a bill tor that piirpuse was iutroduifd tula Ihe HouK of - 
Comtnoiis, but " (brown out" on the secoitd reading. In tbe 
year 17^, BiioUier public tneeting, supported by Lord Rawdon, 
now ttit; Earl of Moiia, look place, aud an actsras obtaiued in the 
folUmii^ ye;ir, " fur ntAing and maintaiiiiag a navigable conimu- 
iiicalion lielwven the Loughborough canal, aiid the town of Lei- 
cester; und for making and maiiitaiuing a coiBmunicatioo by rail- 


"vnm, or stonc-raads. and waler-lcrcb. from several places tuid 
ndMs to llie vsiil Loueliburough mnal." Hie |if<>prielnn an 
stykd in the act, " lite c«in[)uui\ aiitl prtiprictora of lite Li-itcster 
T«avigali(Kt ;" hikJ iire full) cni{WMt-ml to ciirr%ll>cir plau iiitoim* 
aoedyilc execution, under certain rr&trtcli«n> ami pmrlsiotn, jiar* 
ticubrly npcciiicd iu Ihv act. 

In the vfiir 1 791, unoltKT net of |iarliaincnt was obtained " for 
aoakinj; naeipablr thr rinri Wrrak and," fruin llieir jtiiidtoi^ 
to join the I'uniM'f nnvigalion. Tliis plan van chiellj t[il«.'iidr<l to 
e|M--D a water cctinmuiiicalton belMxrcii the louu of McIidu-Mow- 
hny, and llic rivet Trent, for the convr^-imcc of coul, Itnic-stone, 
ine, lend, &r< 

latlieimir 1793>lhv r»>ala5«fEil niu Kivcn to a bill for m;ikiog 
" the Oakham Canat," from a lt»>n wf (luil imnic, in Rulluu(laliir«, 
lo Mellon- Moivlirav. To coin|ilete Lliis, the |)ro)>riclors nt-rc aU* 
tborined lo raiK th« siiiit uf 26,000). iu shares of HK)I. each, with 
power lo raise 30,0001. more, if ukIi suui »IiouIi( be ixrqiiired. 
BmkIm the above, otlier bilk have licrii plaitDctI and prciKircd for 
makiDg other caiials ip llic county : uiiU acveni petiliont ivvfe prc- 
woled to parliantetrt, by diifcrrtit Und-mrnen, ai>d tlie farmetsof 
the dtsliici, ai;iun»l the itaaaiiiK of Mich btlN*. 

Soil and natural ciiabactebi»tic5. Lcictstcrshire it, 
moA\y u I3at eouolv, and ia cbicd,^ a|>(>ro^3tcd to liie srajcing 
ajltmi. It Itiu olilninvd piiculiai rclcbtily uhioiik jQiiculluralisl* 
for a breed uf sbrrp, Ihnt a spuerally dialiiigttislied by the name 
of the sbire: 4ad IIm. Uw KoBKliT Bakewell, of Di»liW, nc- 
quircdfor bimaelfawl liic coutiK mudi p"|>ul<>tily, by tbe enperi- 
mcDtt and ioiproveuicuts he inutile in the breed of cattle and 
theep, and in di^rcrent agricuilurdl ptir>uil>. la a suWtpKiil 
part of the wark will Iw i;iven a few biosraphicul parltctiUnt of 
tliit gentleman, whose successful plaia, and tcaJous |}cr>e\'enincc, 


* In Mr. Niclifltt's claliomtc ami rampicbrnNre Hbiary, Wk readrrwill 
find •hKtniDit oT sewraJ of the Itilh uitirli wvrvobinkiol Ar makini itie <li& 
Anal Dn^abls can, 6ic in tliii ci^iuiiy. 



excileit very j^cn^ral enuiblion among a diu$ of {irrsoas, lliat tiul 
nol ]trcvi<maly evinc-;H any particular syiniitoins of LuJuLU: iiiubi- 
tioii. It ujll l>c diltictilt lo <l(;tine l)i« toils of (l>r wliolv comity; 
but H may be olikPrvciJ, in Die vrord< of Mr. Moiik, Uiut " it 
«Bm-8 pretty rnuoU riuni a l^^ht sandy, or gnivclly Iouid, lo u slilC 
marly-Utam, including all liK jnirnni^diiilc dt!|;r«c8 |io**ib!e be- 
towm tlwM two extreuies. Very liltic of Uie laad uiu (nitli pfu- 
pioly) be riIIcI ii au-ir wwly, or j>ni««lly toil ; mr ia litttt luiy 
great quaniiir of it Uiat may |>ro[]criy hv called dxy. Tlie Wit 
ttul i<. ii|K>u Uk! Iiiits; und Ibc worst, i>r rit-unrtl up|in»idmi» lu 
cJuy or euld luuin, ixi llic vulkyt ; ihougli ibtre at« natn «x<vp- 
tiniK ftt'iii lliis rule. Tlu: M>il, or utml Ibe farmers seofinUy call 
moult!, 'm grucnIlydMp, wbteb malui il very proper for grow: 
suefa dwp uib not bciii; t«ry noon atuictdii by dry Hvutber. 
About Lttlteneorth, sotne paiL t* a ligiil rich loHUi, exceUeat fur 
Inniijis und bwrlcy ; a par: iltS, inclbiiu^ lo nnrle, or tk-b clay ; 
llie Tvtnaitidcr cIi>H)y a *ort of miff liiim liiitw era budi, n iUi a sub- 
soil, iucLiuiiis to iiuiH, bearing cxedlciit cni|)5 of oak and wheat, 
•ind EiDud limii)i« ulto, tbou-ti iml to ni-Il luUptcd for tlwir beJop; 
cut uS llie lau<l Htlti sJicep, ILouud Hiackieif oiufct ol' Ui<! larul is 
a •^ood otixcd Ao'A, and ban goud oro^is of ^rus, Ace Aahi^dt- 
ia-Ztmdi, and I(m' tu>r:licni pirt ot i!k L^niuty : Ibe soil bt^ie is 
TaTJuua, sucaA, gmcl, Uiani, tutd cliiy, but luusliy ciay. Mrlton- 
Mcwbrmf: Uii: aoil id litis part of Ibe eauuly, » iii goticral m 
li«ary loain; aiid itni»«liiil>-ly inidumcntb, a vety »tiA' rinfiiTvioits 
cluy, nii\«d uilii small pi««ca Qflinie-itoue, Thitt lundsarc rrry 
tvl-I in tvtntt-r, itiiil tlic lurf »o trmlf-r, as SL-aretly to be able to 
bear tti€lrcaditi;^nf sbe^ st Dial scnsoo, witlioiil injaiy. Mia-ket 
ilerborwgk: llic wit here, in (ec«im1, ii a rerj- siroiig etay, 
cbiifly ill yniu." 

Anioug the dilTtreol brt-cds of siteep in Ibe county, the OU- 
Lrittttrr, {At J'ojVit, a>id llic \i-ir-Lfimlfr, or DUbley, coaiti- 
tutc llie prioeipdl &oiU, uud of Uictn tlie latter class it iti tbe most 
rcpule. It is a jtuliciiKi* inaxiin with llie graziers to procurv Uim 
brvcd, wkicli, oti n given quuntity aud <]ualil}' of food, hUI )ko- 



dun llir most profil; fin<l t)ii* has l>erri prnvrd in tlio« of the 
New-l*iccstcr. Tbc cilrnordinarv pilrc for wliicli nuuiy of Aete 
ihevp Imvc bet- ii sold ut piiblir Hurlioiw, and llir. large tnim for 
w Itich Rome of the rams aud I>ii1l.t liave tieen let cut fur llic wnsan, 
KTre si aact lu sbctv tlxHr ntiiiinliun iii fiiitilic u(>inti)ti. iind lite 
budnUe tnal Hint prcv^tli amoiiK rerlaui rUuci n( tin- nnliiUty 
iind >-ronumrT n( tbc kingdom, fi>r iinproiinx Uic brcols ofcatll^ 
&c Al an miL-tton of Ewet, Exloii^iii; to Tliomui Pnertl, Em). 
m tlie jcnr 17^3, tbc fnllowing minn nrre ci^<^i> fof difiriftil 
rfieep: — Fnc cwcs;at fi2 ;;uiiiciis rich : live, ut S'i Kuinciu mcb ; 
fiirr, at 45 iviiieas each ; ten, it SO jpiintas, ,ind aneral otiwn ut 
"9, 25, 2*?, *2fl, ttiid ifi tniinciu cadt. Ouc of Ibr-sc »hrep, iHiicb 
irai killed at Walijnii-f, in Norllinmrtlombirr, w» uf tlic fultowing 
«e:|t)il;— llierarour, I44lb., or:3Glb. (Wrqmrln-; bitmil. ilb.-; 
brud, ■iMb.: pluci. 4:{lli. : ^ut*, larse and uiirII. Ijlb.: jiaunclt, 
S-^b.: roui^i lal, lii\\h., am) tin.- ski u ml)*.: inakiiii;, iiilltcwbDle, 
iTI^ibi It'aaa tincomnuin lliitig in ibh county lo mU doun llie 
nutt««, and kfTp it in tbc miml May. Bad as a substitute for 
biaia. In tbe jear ]793, Mr. Va^M sold scvenil bulls, hctfirr^ 
cows, and ciiKcs, Ity pnblic »iicliiin, wbfn some were knocked 
down ut the lollowin:; wry nlravapnt priccf. A bull, called 
" SfaakcNfirur," ilesrritjcd in the cntalo^ite, as " (bred by the late 
Mr. FuiivIiT,) by S!)Hkri>|icar, off vounj Nell. Wliocrcr b«w lliis 
lot, tiie sellri uiiikes it a comlilion tbat Ik ^all Itsvc the privilri^ 
of haritig two cows bulled by !tim jrady. FcllR hundred 
CDlNBAsIt" A'bulWalf, 31 guinea*; a Ibice ycnrs old licifcr, 
70 gutimia ; otbm at ii and 3'1 ^uinrus cudi ; a tvixi yean old 
hrHVr. at .S4. anil aiiotlM-r at (io i^iiicav It is afierled by Mr. 
Monk, Uiat Mr. Bakcivcll had kt out a bull fur 60 guineas for 
Ihe fCnsnii ; and that il uccasioned thr followini> rurioiis ciuc for 
Ibe lawycn. Thv i^Piitlciinin who liired llie bull, died befurc llie 
eKpiration of the season, and his cxccutoTs, i^oraut of tlie ajjree- 
mrnt. «otd, with other stock, at a public uurlion. The 
bull was bought by lii« biitrtier fur about eiglil j)nuMtN, nndkitlfd; 
•oon uftcnvards, Mr. Rakcwcll, not knowing of the tiaii<actii>n, 



MBt for it, nbeu be was lint inruTRKil uf ttir rircutnataarc ; and 
K3 tlic »cculoni rrfoscd cither to pay the slipiiluted Mun, or Uie 
TuliK ol'titc lii-^nl, the ownvr win D'crssilalcil la wrk irstitiilioD 
in a siutal bw. His dcmatid n&^ 'JOOf;uiiieai for Ihc bull, tind 60 
more fur the ksmii. Ttic executors pU-n fur refuainc; this do* 
maiiili \*aa ^touin\ed nn llie pultlicity vf Uie sak', ami Uic srnal! 
«im that it then ubiaitirii, u[(Iioii|:h " ihvrc were many fiir- 
tncTt (rmeiit, ztnl !>otiie of tliusc lLoii|;lit to be men uf judgnienl." 
On the trUl, however, moay witniiMca gave titrir camion, on oath, 
liiat Mr. Bukwcll liud not ovrniilunl his proirerty. and aAera 
full »anu»alioD of the case, it verdict was gtmi lu favour of the 
plainlifi' " to the full amount, fiith costs of suit." 

" Tli«re are nu iimiiuliiclures iu Lctccsterahirc, ctcrpt that of 
•lockings, nhich hnth, of lute, ttecn iiiU'ch eticoti relied, so that ihc 
abt-pherd and bmhanrlnian cngrosa almost all to thcniKlvei: for, as 
the latter supplied olhci couulics nith corn und pulse. iJie formct 
tends »ool into many paita of £nj;land. . Tlie wlivk county pro- 
duces wheat, barlejr, [Kasr, and oats; bnt iti most naluml and 
plentiful crops arc beans e^pecinlly thut part of S[>arkcnhoc 
liiiudred, vhicli hn about liie village llicnce aillnl Barloii-i»-the- 
beaos, nherc they arc so hixuriant, that lowarda hardest time 
Ibey look like a forest'." Since Ihc coramcnccmeDl of the last 
century, cherst ban become an article of soiuc inipoitance to tbe 
Ijciccstcrsliirc farmeni ; and st larse cheese-fair is annually held in 
the cuuiily-tonn, fur the italc of this couinivdily- Animig the 
diflcrrnt !ii>rl» manufactuTcd in the county, that called StiltoM- 
f^HF.fiSK, is deemed the li:n(:st,<indconsc<|ue»llyobUin9 the highest 
prices. It an|uirc<l Ihe title of .Stilton, from a place of tliat name 
on the great nnrlh road in Huntitii::dunshirc, where it is ^vcll known 
Itf have been first publicly sold by rclailf. This cli«v»c i« 


* US. UictiTjiid— Niche b's BIiloi?. V9). II. pi. t. pw .1. 

f Ir b asMfled hy Mr. Of anhall, in hit A^ieultiir*! Work, >ns rht " Ktiif- 
land Counties' ibat Mrv Paulcl, of M'j-moodtiain, near Melton- Movtbraf, 


aomrtiines called the Pkiniicsaii of Eaigbnil, and is Daiully fonm-il 
in M]iiare vals. The clicesn seldom Hci^h mnrc Ifaan twelve 
pounds each, luul froni tLiit t» si\ jKiupds is the gcDcral aveniKfi 
wri^hl. They sresumeliiiwn mouldeiliii itel.v hut Ihismucle tsnot 
deemed io eli(:ible ss that of tbv viit. A K«od dcul afthis cheese 
IB made on the fiimti abritil Mellun-Mowbrny. lb process of 
milking vras fur some linm kept a secret ; hut i.i now very ;;f ae< 
rally LiMwn. And si it may beinuniifactiirerlr<)u»llywcllin(>llirr 
dairies, as in those of Lcicv^lcnbin.- iiiti<l UulluntUbirc, tlic receipt 
will not be uiiacLeptable In those who may »inh lo make ao tx* 
pertmrnt, nor to stich as arc laudably curious about every branch 
of hiimHii knowledge. 

" To the moniin^K new miJk. uild the skiiiimcd cream of llie 
preccditi]5 evening's niilkin^, uith » proper (|ti!iiitiJy td' rennet. 
When the curd is come, it is not lo be broken in ihe luua) way of 
making other chrese, but it should he tnken nut carefidly, uud 
placed in a sieve to drain ^rurlually. As the whey tlrains off the 
curd if lo be geutly pri'jscd till it becomes firm and dry: 
then place it in a wooilcn limip or ^iit, lo be kept dr>', mid tumni 
frninenlly. After taken from the nb, it a sUU kept in the doth 
till quite dry and ftnii, and tifterwanls repeatedly briislied. If 
Ihe dair^'-maid shotild not succeed in the liiht allenipt, .she oitpht 
not to be dbbeartcncd, for in a second or Uiird trial she may be 
eqnaliy succeytful uilh an experitiieed in^ker." Tlit- [irocL-»» of 
making is very simple, but the cheese requires much care In he 
kept sweet uikI goail, till lit for use. The precise time of keeping 
13 not dctined ; as «amc farmers say tlicy arc quite ri|>e in lweN« 
months, aad otluts toutcad that they ought tR>t tu be usnl under 


w« ihtfini person wlio inanulacliireij ll.ii sort of chccte -, but other Aairy- 
wutiiMi hty claim to priority. IIiiMevcr. ll i» known, tliat Mn. 1', «ai n 
rtl4ik>ri, or inlimiilc ac<iiuuntitiicc, of tlio ncll-knena Ccper Tlionililll, who 
formerly kept tlie BiU-lnn, si Sfiltuii. nnil tliat ilie «iipptie<l iliat bnuie wtlli 
■ jwruliar and iiovcl sort of Hirr:<e, whtcli oblaiiirilmiirli cu'rliiity, uitI nai 
A^qnently retsiled by the landlord nt lialfa cro^in ptr poirod. Ftuui tbe 
place of sir, Ibcrcforc, It ccroinly aeiguiraJ iu diilinctirc naaic. 


eighteen monUn or iwo jtan. Tfa« prire of lliiit cbe(«e, in 
Loiidnu, iiow (1807), >* ftom one sfailting lo vigbUcn-penra per 
pounilr \ij tvUiil. 

Mr. Miu«ltall, tn Uie work atremlv refered to, descrilies Leiceft* 
trmliire as a viry teililv district ; and llie only park of il nbirh 
are nol iibaoltilely in coikI trultivalkiii, um Ckamieood-FmrM, a 
Irart of land in (be uortberii |«rt uf tlie county, caileti the Woldi^ 
or Wuuids. u<k1 hduIIht Miiiilar Uttct in the BOulliero aid* of tfat 
sliirc. Tlie tin) coiiuoti of a rurky Hitd txire aartaa, wbilll ikc 
two othrn are distinguialied by a cold daik-cnloured clavey toil, 
and a Kindy suTfitcr. T}m district called Charm wood Fose«t, 
tbuugli (iiiiLHtH ot'fon^kl Rceiierj', and ulmutt williuiit a tree, i* a 
very ttrikiug fralure in this count;. It comprclMmds beitieen 
ItOceu and tiixKren thouKuid acres, " tbrec fuuilbo of wbicli,'' ob- 
Mrtes Mr. Mock. " nii;Elil be uacle xuy naefui gacul iaiid, and if 
rnclowt). wouki make souic excellnil larms. If iIm bills were 
ptantvcl, and tiie olber ]taTtti endaMd, ii wotdtl be a wonderfiil 
oniaineol lo tJte county. The chief proprietors, are itie Eail of 
Stanford, Eail of Moira, William Hrrrick, tsi}. uf HeaunianoT, 
andafr-w others, wbo, I wa* informed, (hy one uf ibe proprietors) 
»itilied mnch to bave it enclosed." The follomnf; description of 
tbia tract, by Mr. Marshall, is too cliaraclcrislic lu be omitted. 

" The Clianiwood Hills are too sttikinjr a feature of IfaU dii* 
trict to hi! pa^s^'d wiliiout especial notice. IJike llie Malvern 
Hills, tlieir styk i* lingular ; but the itjir of one is veiy dilKrnnit 
from that of tJie other. Tlie Mulrrru Hills, Men from a diMauce, 
beara moststriking resemblance tntlie Atlantic Ulands; tDftering 
up liigh and ragged; and, on a near view, ajipeur as one lar^ 
utonntaui fra^iDcnl. T)h- Chainwnvd Ilillt, on the cotitnry, seen 
obscnrely, appear a« an exleiiurc range of nKHinlains, much 
fa^r, and nf ctiune much more distant, Iban Ihey reolly aie. 
When a| ipruachcd, tlie muuntatit jtyle is still jiieseried ; the pro- 
inuicncies arc diniiitct. sliarp, and most nf tbem pointed willi 
ragged rock. One nf tlie^u prominencies, Bardon Hill, Hh's flbnve 
the rest ; and, liiongh far from an elevated silualioa, conT))aralively 



■ytiib iIk iiio(« nottfiem mouiilains. comtminds, in mucli probaln- 
_Jily, agn'aterexl«nl of Mirfiire llian any oilier poiiil of vitw In tlie 
Uand. ll it entirely insiiUteil. slandiiig L-vcry way at a coittider- 
able dislMicc from lands t-qually bij^h. Tlie htiruton appears to 
lite almott rqually on rvety aide ; it n ritiitc an occau vk-w, from 
a sbij> out of >igbt of laiul; at least more so tliiui any uth^r land- 
licit 1 havt wen. 'Hii: Midiitnd district in, atinast every acre of it* 
•cm l^ing at its feet. Uncoln catUedral, at the distancr of near 
mxtj ^]i]e^ toukea » proniinml object from it. Witlt a good 
gbts. Itie DuiikLifde Hilk »t little lens llian eigbty miles, may, it 
bfiiid, be distinclly icen. Tbc Malveni Hilb, Muyhill, and the 
Siigu Loaf ill South W»k<, art- disliiiclly iu vi«w. Eoyille, tbe 
Wrebin, and other tuoimUiuit of .Shro[)»lii[c and North Wain, are 
n]ually djstki;^ishable : aud tbe Derbyshire bills, to the highest 
Prak, appear at hand. An otilliiie, dc^rrihed from the cxtrenii- 
tic3 of tbc views, would iiKludc uciir one fourth of England luid 
Waki. II unjr be deenicil, without ri*i]ue, I apprehtod, one of 
tbc most o Inordinary poinb of rirw in nature*." 

DrayloD. in bis Polyolhioa, thus dcKuib on Ihe peenliarilies of 

*■ n Qiarnwecil, b« thoa call'd Hie choicMl of Ihy kintl. 

The lllip in an; pltkrr, wlini Oond luiih hupt lo fiitd? 
NointM in all>, ilw pmudMt l«t h*t ht, 
Caa Aew a Sylnn ajtnphfat tKauly like to tbee: 
The Salyn atid Uic tViiM, by Diao tel lo Ucp. 
Roiigli bUli and luiui )iulii » tie milly iwn la nccp ; 
When tti\ liiRli-|i aimed linrls, Ibcfpon of boon udhmindi, 
By iriiipic bordtrcn' liaiids were bumiihed tliy graiindt.* 

The HtiKnRKDs of East and West Goscote were unh«l, 
aad conudt-riKl only as one, till ttie tasatioa of 1346, utien it was 
divided, and in all civil procMdtugs relating to the county have 
wvr since that period been dixliii<.lly ami i»|Mnitdy qiccifimi. A> 
tlie OMOty (own is included within Uie hundred of H>)r|-0'w»<e; 

Vol. IX. r iMh 

' lluifaaU'i Rinal Ecombit, \i>1. I. p. 3— It. 


Ifan, willt its pHnriptil tuwiu and \AiiiXi, will Iw fint tak«n into 
■coiuklenition. Tlie iiundred exlcndt I'roni tlie town of Leicester, 
to Ibe river Trent, which bounds llic county on the nortb, nod in 
sejMUuted from East Gowote by the livvr Suar. Part of tbe 
•iwiL-Di ro-Ad, nlted Itie S&ll>wiiv, liready described, mi^ be 
mfAd in the foreit between Banow and Bonlon-Hall. B«Mdes 
Leicester, tlw hundred cuDtains the towns of Aifahy-de-la'Jtoucb, 
Mwnt-aorel, and Loughboroiij|ih. lu principal teats are Cutk- 
Dootnglon, SluiiUlon'Harolct, Garendon, and Bradgnti^Park. In 
Ibii dHlrict h also cotopfeiiendcd tbe famt of Chamwood ; and 
in that part of it wbidi borders on DsrbyiJure are Mteral «oal- 
|Mii mod lituc-worfct. 


Commonly pronounc«H Letter, formerly written Le^cestria, 
Legeocoster, atid in tbe Saxon annuls Lrger-t^asAer, during a 
|Mft tt{ the Heptarchy, was a city, and has always been the chief 
loMn of tlie county. Without referriug it to a British origio, or 
mtcring into a Irivolous dtMussion reacting the derivalioo of its 
uamc:, and of its civil privileges from King Lcir, it will amply 
satisly every rational enquirer, to coinrociice its history at thai 
period ivhcn the Romunx hud settb'd IhuiiKlvcs to this island, 
Biid lield the natives in military subordinalioa. As tlii»e con- 
quemn innrcbcd gradually from the south east, towards the eeiH 
traland nortliem parlsof tlie country', they could not tin vtt^taincij 
|)o<»e»i(Mi of the prvscnt district, uU tlie inlennediate phcet 
between it and the sea were aubjiij^ed, and conip<1ent ftarrisou 
estahUshed. Having aeconiplishcd this, and ovcrpfwered the 
Coritani, they took pwwcssion of tlie diicf lituii of iJiat peofde. 
This town, nr (troiifi hold, n^is the site of the present Leicester, 
and, Bt the lime of its conquejl, was " denoniinaled EMa, in llie 
Itinera of Richard, Antoninus, and Ravennag; Pagir, in all tlic 
copies nearly of Ploteiny's Geography, and absolutely and only 
RagiL' in Richard's Roman (lcscri|>lion of Britain, The real name, 




tirtreforc, mml be etjually Rats and iUge, lb* former imphing 
the towv to be fixtA upon the currents, ami Ihc lutl(.T imporlin]; 
it to be the CApitftl of the ktnfjdom *." Tliut the RomaiH had a 
perinBn«nt Klntion here, u un«<)iu vocally munifesteil by the tesaeU 
lated pAvcments, aod other ntnains, thiit liaw been difcovered at 
diScrent perioHi : and, according to Antnninut, Ral» u-ai one of 
UKir ilipenclary lowos. " Antiquaries," says Mr. Carte, ■• gene- 
nlly ag;rt« thut thb is the place which is called CoMr-Lerum, hj 
Neaaiitt in his aUilof^ of l)»e QB cities wliich are taid to ba^ 
flouriibed in Urilain before the iuvaaion of it by (lie Konuns; 
aod Unt the Ronuiw, makiDg it one of liieir stations, called it 
ftaim. Whether the Iirili«h name proves it to be a city *<» 
ancient as some assert, I tliink donbtful ; but no doubt tax b« 
made of its l>cing very considerable in the time of the Romans^ 
Heinf; Uiat so mmtiy of tbeir rpmainB have been, and are discorered 
imon^ ii». Mr. Baxter, in his BrilLnh-tilogsafy, p, 137 — 800, u 
of opinion, that upon a Romun colony being settled at LutduN, 
Lincoln, Leicester became the chief city, or metropolis of the 
people, calk'd Coritaiii; and for tbat reason, in Rarenrtas, it is 
eaUed Raitt-Carum, and in the Vatican Rafat Coritaturvm-^" 
Tiungjh there be little reason to doubt the identity of this staliotir 
jet Camden and Bishop (iibson were not satisfic*! with tbeevi- 
denre* thoy "htuincd, and therefore Ictt their accounts undetei^- 
mined respecting the name. Hoisley, however, is decided ill 
fixing the Rtita here, and shews that tlie distances bct\«-ecn tliis 
place and Verometnm and Vcnnoniv, conctpond with thoee in 
Antooimu's Itinerary. The fofuurond in its way Trom L^ndinic, 
London, to JUiM/tuH, Lincoln, came by yfnntmif; nlKnc« loRatie 
«•§ Iwdve miles, and tlience tn Vcromi'tum, ifairlcen miles ; and 
Unm distances very nearly corre<|iond with Ihote bdweco Claj- 
cbester, Leicester, and Willoughby. 

* WUlahtfB HiM. of MandMSCcr, Vol. I. p. 1,51, 4w. 
f Cartt^ M9S. quoted by McbaU, Vol. |. p. S. 


To illiutratf tbr Roman hislnry of this tlatkni, it will bt Dcces- 
nn fo initicularijte cnni« of the mnuiw tliat liare been found 
bent but I preraiDP it«il) iwiltirrbe ocowary nor urtpmimg to 
dbum f«eb Bubjed m a» ebborate and nunBteriisKitatioii. Dr. 
Sfiikrlny enileavoaml to dtfior and dncnbi* llie form and extent 
of lltv Elalitin, liut lit* pUn awl armuDt liat-i* been disemcliteil. 
Tlmt il was formnl on liip WKilIivm bank vi ibr mcrSanr. that 
an artitkUl cltanrirl was cut for the water to Anw up lo, aoil coii- 
fllitule one boundary of lh« slalion, aiid that the Komaiu were 
SHtkd here for mtot Ini^ttli of lime, aie viinmutances cjiiljr 
provol, a5 8iD|ile eviilencts mnaiii, aud are recorded in tuppoit 
of tltesr inlemHxs. Maiiv lcsM-lixleil')iBirinefitR, coins, unu, and 
other dornettic aod mililarii rvhcs of tlw Rrmiaiu, have been du- 
oo«tn.-i) ill dtflereot limn : tome of vibkh an sbll carefulU pre* 
•erred as meinortali of aiKient atl, bul laanr of the oioat iuterest- 
il^ ebg^CCtamuM have been deitroycd during llie rava^ of war 
wfakfa LehMlem|>rrimced under the Sa\tHif, Danes, anil Nor' 
wmu. (>ir tlie AfMttic Ptitmeutt. that wtnch «tu foiuul in a 
cellar nearly opposite the Iomu piiifni. in the year \G75, i» llie 
niQst cutiouti, )i» llie Tnacne iire dupofted to represent two litimaQ 
%arci,a]ida buck or slag. Main conjectural opinions have been 
published respecting llie objeclit aud itory here repretented ; but 
it in IcM dilfMnitl to prme whal it i^ than to deBne it« import. Tkt 
prcsrat fia^nieiil, only pnil of a Suck-, is nearly octanpilar, of 
about Ibree feel in dtamcler, and cniuiils of variegated teswne, 
laid in cement, on a Iwd of oyiler riicU*. Tlie li|^e< repietcM a 
>ldg, »ilh a iiaktxl fi-niale reslui^ n^nst il, and before both 1* a 
boy with wui]^)i, and a b<tw and arrow : probabty loleiided lor 
Cupid. Tliia Rroup has been dcicrilwd by tmnH* anrif)tiaTii-f as a 
repraentaliun of lliiH nonwiiMcally fabulout stor\ of IMaaa toki 
^c/<ntn, whilst oUicrs have biutilyMipposed It alluded tor^pmsHi 
kunenling the death of liis fuToritv «1ng : bul an intelligent writer, 
who has too much good sense to )te captitatrd by anl)<)tiari]tn re- 
Toriaib lays, that " no atory in llic whole m-tomnrpkiotx. can li« 
found bcniiiig tlu: sligl)te>t reseiuliUtncL- lo the lubjccl before 



leicbstershibb;. $9$ 

M*." Mr. Gilpin slraogel; ckUs tl " a curious pieix of Koman 
tnUptmrf," liul J* tuorr jiut in iinniouncmg it " u ptcc« uf ntiM-r- 
9bff teorbntnuhip." Tbat ihit, aud svvcral olb«r iimilar jave- 
nwats, arr curious mid tnU-irstitig, m miiples ot'ancicDt urt, and 
» relics ot'particiiljr cmlom*, i» rtudilv adniitlfd ; Itut 1 minot m 
far impeach niv jutlgiiwnt as to praise, or eveii approve of tliem, u 
bung briiutit'ul in dcMgii, or ticie In excrutioii. Wbialoci liuteor 
talents the Romitis displayed in liicir owu country, may he pretlj* 
well up))nciat(-il by llie spccinwiii wliich Idlvo di^scendcd to our 
owD titiic^: btit it' ihty ever riertitrd any tiul) elvsxnl or lufrilo* 
rioHs noiks in this isliiod. oiirh proiluctioos bavo berD cillier en- 
lirely drstroyrd, or «rc yet rewned for fuuiti- iliscoTtty. It ha 
IttTKn geucruliy supiHiM^d ibut iIii-m: mosiiic paveui«ttl« wt-re priuci- 
pally or uniy um:^! iii tlie fiovn <A' batlu, Imt lliisopiuion b not 
satis ru<:torily provt-d ; uid il is more probabte lltnt tiH-y wtrc ia 
gniend use 11 1 I lie buusrs uf otiict- rs, and (be liigfaGr cticuies of llir 
RoiDiiai. In some of (be iiiiciciil nuuuiuns iu llaly, now in luios, 
tbc whole Soon cousislcU of iiigbly omamcDlcd mowJc pav«« 

In ibc }-ear I7'34, three otberpiecrs of Roman Pavements wen 
diainvcivd in thai pert of (he town called the BUck-Frinra. 
Ibesc consisted of ns many square cotnpfirtuicri(». ornamcalcd 
with tlw guilloclic bonkr, cnKiiiil<^d fret, &c. Another fragment 
of « pavtmmt nvs found id the yenr 1782. in a place called the 
Cherry Orchard. Two or Uiiee. oilier frvffmenbt of this sort huve 
been uncovcri'd in digging cellars, «"»>"«. &e- Most of these were 
fouod from four Id six feci beneath Ihc sitrfuce of tlw prejcat streets* 

The tnoot curious relic of eiitiquily, niid one thai has pro- 
voked the inoht copious disKrtalion.i, is llie Milliaby, or Ro' 
man raitc-sfone, wbicb was discovered in the ycur 1 77 1 ■ on the side 
uf (he foss-road, at tJie distance «*f nhout Iwo tniks north of the 
(ovm. The stone b circular, rcscmbbng putt of a shaft of a 
column, aud Uiv IcUeis ore roughly uid irregidiuiy cut iulo lh« 

Y A<i\ «i.i<i i: t auhslaDce, 

« *• A Waik tltroujli Uicetter," 1804. 



suIibUdw. It narasures two frcl len iiidm Id (Might, by five feet 
itiiip inches in dtcumferencc, and is placed on a squaie pedestal, 
with a Upcritig column abuT« it surmounted bj x Ump. Tlii* 
antitjuv monument did not CKciI« any particuisr aUciriion till 
tb(>yewl773» when ui account of it was sent to tbe GeRtteouui't 
Uaganne; and in the jiear l7^-t> (be Corporation of Leii^iler 
dtfi-uitrd it woTtby of remould to thvJr town. Had tbey properly 
eiliniiiled ila curiosity, they would fa»ve alto taken eaie to guard 
il B^;iiintt uantoa injury; but liaviii^ fis«d it on a pedntal in i 
jmhhe strevt, tltey fandfd ibey had perpetuated tbeir own fame 
with tlie name of Hadrian, in acquainting tbe public it w«s placed 
ttiere "at the erpmee of Ike afrporation at targf, in the VKiiforaitg 
»j Jama Bitkop, £lf. im 1783.'* Surely, if the exigence of re- 
moval iaartd to be pubUtty reetrr^M, 11^ nioiiuitieiil ilcelf was 
woitby of some care to preurve; but it isitow exposerf to every 
pterins of injury Ihtt ignonance, K>tttiihnp»i, and folly, may cfaoOM 
to exercbw uptwi it. Mr. Bray, the worlhy lrrai«r*r of Ihc fod^ 
of anliquarief, communicated to tliat imltltilion «oine account of 
the «ton<^, and made out the ft^ovring inscription, vrliich w« to* 
tnvbly legible in the year 17AI. 

" iMR CAES. 
DIV. TbAIAN. part h F. DIV, 





On anotbef part of the stone are the letters — E: P. B. 
If lh« obreviations were filled up, the fall reading ippMil 
toba . 


Divi Tbaiam Pabtbici Finns Divus, 
Traiakus Hadbianus Augustus, 





And ihni in Engliib : 

Hmlrmn Tnijanm Augiutiu, 

EmpCTor nrni C:e«ir, ilie Sou of tbe most 

illustrious Trajan Parthiais, 

In the 4lli jear of \m rrigii. and Ills ihirJ Consulate. 

FiDm Ralx (Leicetler) two railei. 

If U»e Roman Mill)an?-«toii« wck e^tr gf ntrallj used in Eng- 
Uwi, it is rtiliier lingular Uml »o uanv of tlKUi »boul<L be dtsAxvy- 
ed: for a veir ftw only have l>«en preserved, llonley 0DI7 aft> 
Ota thne, qm of wbicli hits elitady been ief«n«d to in tfa< 
IMcMOl rolume. 1*hal now under consideration it tli« mort «ii- 
rnoa that biu bilh«Tto liccn fotind, as it dcfinca itw ktalion of 
Ratic, and coDtaitu the nanic of the £mp<roi lladrian. viboM 
BBmc, si)> Honky, " t» tlio first Hut occurs in aay of oar British 
jia9cn|>tJotk»i aixl ive have trut few of lib, llioogb b« btutt a ram- 
part quile acrow Ujc cooatry : and the lew erected to him arc lin* 
pie and tlwrt *." 

In diffi:r«nl p«uU of tlac town, aod al distant periods of tltae, 
have been found ■ ^reat number ofRotnaa Cmia: anonx wbteb, 
were wveral with the uiimea of Tlliu, Tnijaa, Dioclenian, Coa- 
stantine tbe Great, ConsUntiue liiaior, Constantim, Iladriaa, 
TTieodoaius, Honorius, &c. Beside* these, broken poHerj, una, 
jdp, &c. have beea dug from tbe earth ; and, in a place near St. 
Nkhoha churd), a vast fiuanlit> of Ifones have been found benealli 
Ibe surface, Tbi» spot is still citlK-d tloly-Btnn, and is supposed 
to bave been a place of Mcrificc. Contiguous to this it a eunow 
frvmenl of Rom an arcliilrcture, comrounlj called tbe J EWRT- 
Wall. it ronsidts of u mass of brick-work, atones, aud rubbish, 
with dibpidated ardies. Mr. King dcMrifoes it in the following 
terms: " What icmaiacd of this tvall was about 70 feet in kngtb, 
aod between 30 and 30 feet in hciglit, and about live feet in tbick- 
mm; and from tbe hottotn to the top it ww built of alternate 

Y 4 courses 

' Honlej's Brilannli Ronuae, p. iOS. 




couna of rag-sl(^ao and of brick, b Ifac Roman nMoiicr. tacfa 
coun« of bricks c^nnsling geacnll^r of Uiree rowi, llwui^ iIk 
u)if>er ooc of all bwoaty two; and Uic srvcrul brkk.1 being of 
uitxjual (lJni«uMOt»; v«t, in general, a little mon, or a little kss, 
tbao 1 6 idcIks long, aotl about 1 ) inch tliick, or soiueliuica a little 
more, and about 10 or 12, or lometitDO 15 uichcf broad. 11m 
iDOrtar b«:tweei) each row was found to be nearlv aa iiack aa the 
biklu tbcnuclves*." Tttt covntt of ttoM vr«t< not 90 regular; 
iu ibty conaistcd sutiietimb of four or five mrj of roui;)i fore&t 
■turn:, aud in soisc places tJie »to«ct were llirowu can^lc1nlv ami 
proituKuously into tbe inorlST, Tlic arches were turned aOirtiy 
of lilea, Mbich ire bouod logellier b\ a large qiranltty of mortar. 
Hie peculiar shape of tbcsc, with tbc di^positioai of tiie bricks oc 
tiles, have excited many and viuioui onijecturcs. Some w ritcis liavc 
CMlidered it as a reniuautof a lemjUe ufUic Rutuau Janus, whilst 
otben have described il as tbc Jantui, or great gatc-i«tt> to Ihc Rv 
oantowD. Ilwugfa nvitiici of these opinioBs seems tcfv plausible, 
il would be dillicuU, in the present mutilated slate of Ike ot^ect, to 
4efin« it* origiiw] approprialioo. If bicudeil ntcrcN n a gale-way, 
it would not have bid nbove (no urchvd opmitigv, and these nearlv, 
or dose togcUwr; but, accordiug lo Dr. Slukcley's drawing, Uiis 
bad four Ut;^ aicbu on the eualini Mdc. with a sort uf arclied nicli« 
in tbe middle, and ou the western side two arthc». Be^idffr, a left* 
scllated pavement, nilb other Rouiau relict, have been rmind «n 
the outside of tliii wall— btlwceo it and Ibo river— and lind it been 
inlcuded as a great gatCMay, it would ceilaitUy have been in lli« 
exterior wall uf tlie city. Tbe other opinion is liable to many ob- 
jeclraot, and il would be e&trcmclyditKnill Id assiftu it a use tint 
should prove (luilc uliftfactorv lo all persous. A wall, with vcrj 
similar arches, cou4ni(ted ttith stone, it now rtiudiiiiu^ at i>oulh- 
amplon, aputkuUir description of which amy be sccd in Sir IJcnry 
C. £ogletidd'f iu(crc»lii>g lillle volume, entitled " A MWA 
tknmgli Swtkamplom,'' &c. 1805. Another object of remote 



* Mnniinenta Anii^tia, Vol. !■■ p. St& 

antiquityi m 


inli<|uitir, tbouftfa not inimediately in iIk town, is properly ton- 
ocdcil with Ihc preacnt t\ass, ;iiitl will ci>ni«r)iifntty bot ci>inr into 
lliis plfliK. Aboiit a (juartcr of ;i mile tniitli ■>!' llic Intinrurr uv 
•miK artificul banki, vhkb sre kootrn bv llie mme of Radyknt, 
or Kawdgkn*. Iticveiterv furinvrS al>uiil lV>iir\iirJ(iitlicigb^ 
oikI constslrd of two (latulivl nmumli of cartli, rtlptxlin^ 67 yariit 
b kui^i lit Ihc distuace of iiltvcii Minis froni Mdi olbcr. Be- 
fwe i>r. Sluhrley VKtitrd L,«ico»tcr, Itiev: r-.irlti HOikn "ntm ^rne- 
rally coD&Kicred ns purl* of u Roduiti cur^inipiiicitt. but tbo Doctor 
tu^e^lvd Ihe idea Uial liity romwd ;i Hritiih i.urrua, or mcc- 
couTM, and tilt* opinion bus sittci: enicrally pirvailed; but I an 
mure inclined to cun'tiiWr llietn /tom/m than Ikitbh.^Sudi arc 
liie most ancient subi«ctB, und Uistorical pu[lic-iil*.irs rvapcdiiis 
Itomui-Lciceft«r ; ind tbou^jb tlwic may of pear mcrrly IriHing 
iMtnoriab of a war1ik« ami rtrtined itulioti, >tbo prubably pouesicd 
this *lal»ou for tnorvllgaii three centuries, ye) tlicy uD'unl nbundaat 
DUlltf for r(tlectioii and invcMi^tion. Ifthtat rcmuius ar« ndlher 
beautiful iH>r fine, lu worki) of art, tlKy arc ttll curioi» as i-e«tif^ 
of fciDOt«linic«, and of a i^articuUr people. Of Leicester during 
the Sa^oa llcptjrcliy, the history is very <rBgue and itiiccrtaii^ 
Ibouftht from (lie concurring t^liutony of all vrritL-r», it waa opt- 
tainly a place of con«d«rable itol« from Ibv departtire of tbr Ro- 
inaut to Ibe liiiie of lb« Noninin conqaetl. Accord ii^ to God- 
trio, a Bithop'i HMy^aa tmttslerred from Sidnaveatcr f to Leicester, 


* In ika eonniy of Memp. iit Scotland, ii ftn r(lnnl|)ln^fll rtJl«d lUe- 
ifkta — bihI in tlj« ct^uutjr of Abenktui is aiioUJcr, cidlcil lie-<iijlat. Sec 
Kiiig'i3litnim««iia Autitjua, Vol. II. i>. i!i7. 

t Thpfiimdoaoritilf antiailSoxmieiK, nnrf Roman i!ni ion, fbritiinanie 
laif IJM U to t>c nnrh, liM aHnrdrd n subject of mii{;li eimtruvfny; forwriten 
Br«iiDlBgTfN'<liiifisii^ilaalte. Camden tayi, that its " nont to tin- onl of all 
ijglit awl liiKnrledKc, that) lot^^lbTwiUi llwDnine, the very ruim alio *ecnu 
tohav« pemlirJ, for, l>y all my cuiioiu iiKiuirjr, I could krarn nultiini; of iL* 
BiJiop Godniu b equally at a Iom. rramdm, hav^vrr, conjcrtnir* tint 
Caiuiburougb, in Liucplustttrr, wu Uic pluce: Oilwun (cfen it lu-S|rw, or 



in iht ytatJST- At Itiis prriod tfac Saxon kiujidoin of Mcrcia bad, 
according to soioc aulliois, Uirvc Buliopa' i^ecs: Liclificld, Dor- 
chester, and Lcicntcr. Citric e|)C<ific( LaodcsK and Worcester, 
but omits Dorclie9t«r. Tlie account) of tbeK, M rebled by nrly 
chronidcrt. and Tetwiled by later lopofnpb«r*, are verv vacnc and 
uiiHlitfactory, wlience it bccoiuca almoil DUgator^- lo paTtktiUriK 
any of ibcir annals. I'hose MTilers ubo bave dilated oo tlie oub- 
jtct, are very e^uiToraJ ai>d coatmdictory. Carte uivs, liiat ibe 
See of Leicester was Idieu out of Ibe Diocete of LJcbli«M iu 69 1. 
•ad auotber accoual states, that Lcic«sl«r wm constituted a 
Biabof^i Seeio fi80, wbeo Scxwulfus teas itutalkd. At tbis place 
mi aearly in the middle of Ibe Mercian kiD^dom, it Inu^l natu- 
t*ily li**e paiitcipalcd in lite barbarous wars tiial were o>n>UDtly 
fKcnrnoe during tlic irruptions of l)ic l^es, Scots, Danes i^c, 
Ftom tbe Saxou annals, it appears that BIbelfrid, King of Nor- 
tbtuaberbnd, being an avowed cticniy to Chrtttianily, marched an 
BniiT lo Leicester, wbi-re they slew so numy of Hk inbabiUuils, 
that tltey could uot b« all numbered. Tbis aceovat mtut not be 
lalwa in it» full lalil»do, for tboticb Leicester wasccitoinly well 
peopled ttl lliat period, it it not very likely tbit its populntioa was 
inoumerdblv. It has already beCD noticed, Ibal tbe Danes ruwle 
Ibciasclves masters of tbit town, and kept |iD«c&siou of il for some 
liitK. Jon-ullenstt related, thai Elbotrcd, King of Mcrcia, and 
bis ijueeii EJfreda, who was daughter of Alfred the Oreat, re- 
paired the town, sad rebuilt and enlarged the walls, about tbe yvar 
<>0I. TI1C latter wa.i now nude lo iockMe Uie castle, which before 
thai period it])pears to have been on the outside of Uie loun. On 
Ibe conqucat of England by Williain Ihc Norman, l^icestcr soon 
became |Ktrt of the royal demesne, and a autlr tvas either newly 
cH'ctrd, or eularged, aiid ttreiigllicned, lo enMire the submis- 
tfonortlieiDkabiUuts and thoM of the surrounding cmwlry. The 


Mariftlow, in Hint connij ; and Pqn:*, whli sante ether Hiiien. ate t» 
cltiic<l lo fix il St Kiiktdn, in tlie lami: CQUiily. la the llbtoij of Liacol^ 
iliti«, vliidt will fnilotr ili>t of llir present county, I will fodnveur to daei- 
iltic UiiidotitiiiuIiDkucct 



mrdcaliip of this iiru minuted to UugDdeOKatemaiiKKl.btNB 
ef Hinckley, 

Tbe roUowin* b a uanslalion of that pait of DometdHV Book 
•liicb nioFc imnicdiittel} concerns this ancient dty : fW the words 
of it aw, Civittu de Ltdttrttre. Tfmp*r* Hfgu Etiit-ardi, &c-~ 
•■• Tbc City of Leicoter, in the time of Kiitj; E<lwar<l, pud yctwly 
to the luag thirty pounds by tale, («tct7 one of the vala« of ten- 
|KScc> aud 6n«rn wxtarie* of honey. Wlteii th« kiiit; imuv-hed 
witli hii inmiy through the land, tnctve burg««)cs of tliat horongh 
altewled him. If tbc king went over sea agsinst t]>e eucmy, thejr 
Kftt four borM* from that borougli, as far as London, to <arry 
arms, or «uch olb«r tliir^ ns circumstances r«<)uired. Al thit 
tioM Kiug William has, for all rcnU from that ctty and cau&It, 
forty'two pottudi snd tea shiUiagt in iKighL Instead of one hawk 
Ik has lea ponndii by tale ; and instead of a bas^ge, or sumpler 
bone, twenty «hilliuK«. Of the tuint-ma^en be liiis yearly twenlj 
pounds, every on of tbc value of twenty-peace. Of tlii^ Xvftaij 
pounds, Hugo de C'reitteniaisnel has tbe IhinJ penny, 'ilio kin); 
has ui LeiotAcr tliirty-niue bouses. The Archbishop of York two 
houses, witb-sac and soc ; and they belong to Cberlbtone. Earl 
Uu&b bas ten hoiucs, which belong to Barbou, and six bcionj^iug 
to Cucbewordv, and cue bouse beloaKing to Loctebunte. tin 
Abbey of Covcblrtu has tun huuses. The Abbey of Crtiiland h» 
Ihrce bouMf. From all whicb the king bas bis f:eld, Hugo de 
GrenleiDiUHiel bas i hundred and ten houses and two churches; 
baridea these he bu, in common wtUi the king, twenty-fotiT houses 
w the «mc borough, hi the tame borough has tbc some Uago 
tno cburch«« and two hmues, and four hou»es decayed. TIl« 
Countem Judiih has in the »imc Itorongh Iwcnty-eigbl lioujes; 
und from the moiety of a uiU die has five tliillini^aAd four. 
pence. Wilbout the borouc;h site bas six plongli-Jands belonging 
to ihe borough ; and she liat thcie one plough, Aud bcr bomogen 
three ploughs. Tlicre are eijhl acres of meadow, and a uood 
six fiiriongslong, and three broad. Tlic whole is worth fcrly 



During (lif dlipule* coiiccratiig tlic kucccmiod, od Ibr Stalb of 
the Ci>nc|uernr, ihc Oreiiti^maunelg Kued Ldcrtitirr dullr, and 
belli it fur Duke Rtrfjeil. This subjected it to ibe fury of ib« suc- 
ce»rul paitJxBiM of William Rufus, wlw baiii^Kil it onirijr to Ibe 
ground. Anil ll continued in ruins {"ur sonic IJinc. 

Lt llir Tcijpi Iff Hriir> the Fii»t, Robed Earl of Melknt bcto^ 
created Eur) of Lx-koter, cbieflj; tciidcd in Ihc ea»lle, wbicli be 
forlilicd awl enlarged. He was ver^ libenii to Ibe town: as%ras 
also Ri^eii Bnsw his mhi : but llie armjcaur bi-bavintir of tttc 
Ultcr lu tbc hiiiK, iuvdved tiiv tontj in bn>ils and nvr: it being 
Uie proclifc, in Uiuse limes for tovtmgia to nsmp: llwaudirca> 
fur Ibc olfciires of tiic uobililv, on tlic people aiul places iattattiU 
ttUly under Die ;>atr<>nii)>n of tbc ofli-D'lcis. Uf Iliis4 reniarkuble 
iiulance touk place iii the reign of Ilenn ibr Second, icben Eui 
IU)ljerl BUikIiiiiuuis. IcaguiuE; M'illi llie kin;; 's son in bis uiiDulural 
rebellion, Ix'icc^ter^ iJie cliicf rciorl of the diMilTcclcd, Muud a luo^ 
■MgC* The earl and bis adbrreuLi were defeated near SI. Bd< 
■aund's huty bv llie kiiig't anitv, under KidianI Lucjr, cliief jua- 
licianr of Kufland. Tbc carl ivus tukcn prisoner ; and liic Itiiig'a 
forces gaining poMe»i(wi of the toun, fired it in set-enl fAwea, 
and overthrew b> Ibc force of eiigiiiea vital Ibe flanieadliil not 
deslToj-. Ttie rasllc Jitld out midm; time louder, but tbc Kurriioa 
wan al Iriiglh evnipelled to )ield, and Ibe wbole buiklii^ wvi 
made a heap of ruins. Tliis abuoat eonipltrte dcslrucliou of LcK 
rcslci in visible in Ibv ftei]iM'nt discovcricsuffouiuliitium of build* 
ings, nalb, and lulibish ; some of tlic fuinicr are fouud io direc> 
tiflnn rigbl aeroM the present slrc<-tA. 

" Bland) ntainSt bowever, regained tbe itiig'i favijnr, mkJ wan re- 
•torcd to lii« cslairs, but both l>c iiimI his «on, [tol>eit Filx-Pamel, 
cogajpng in tbe enisadcs, tbe loiro of J^iveMer wa« but iU-f«bniJ^ 
and Ibe caille remained iiiany yean in a state of diUpidalion. 
filz-Pame) dvitt/; witlntiit ig$tie, the Acncr of Leicester, u {Wit of 
■be Bt^'lluraonl estates u^ called, pa<t>ed into the family of Simoa 
lie Monlfnrt, in (-oi|ftef)ueriee of bis ninrHa;;c writb one of llic al- 
ters of FiU-Pamel. But the Montforls, Earls of Leicester, both 




fhtlm xtid Kon, were loo mtirli enca^ in the hitsy transnctioni oT 
tli«ir liniei lo \my inucli ultrntiuii to tlieir propeHj' at I^ice^ter. 
After the ^fd\h o( l\it liiltir in the h-Mh of Evcsliam, the Ltt- 
ocstrr j)mi>eTty »•» coufcrrwi by Henry llie TliirJ on his HMond 
■OiV Ednood Eiitl of Luncnster. whrne »ecunH son llrnry, heir 
■nd MTCtnor lu Tbomat Rarl of Ijineasltr, bcliraitcd at Punte- 
iinicl, in Ihe ymt 13S2, miidc Leicester his priuciput place of iie? 
sidence, an<l under him, and Ihr two iicut sucrecdinj earb, the 
nslle retovered. antl, prubably, sur]«if.»€(! it> fntiucr slutc of 
splenrfor. Wht-a tiw Dukes of l^iicasler ascnifled the throne, 
Lekrster, though rreqttnilljr honounrd with Dicir prcsmoc. re- 
ceived no perntuiieiit brnettt : itn^l tliougli svveiiil parliaments 
iirru Iidd llicre in Ihe Tfigii nf Henry Iht: Sixth, the castle hiid 
M fiir decayed in the time of RJcFmrd the Tliirif , that he chose 
mlhcr to sleep at an inn. u few ewnings bi'fcrp his fill, than oc- 
cupy the myitl uparltnrnl^ in ihc castle. From tliis time the mitle 
>efn» lo hare made constant proin'vaa to deciiT, so llul in the 
nnra of CliartRi the Fird, onffr?, dalc»l Ihe ninth of his rri^ni 
werr issued to Ihe sheriff, William Ileyricli, E.^q. of neauniaiior,' 
(is appears from |nipcn in Ihc pDs<es»(m of that family^ " to take 
dowii Ihe old iiieres of our ranlle at Leicester, (o rp|Mir tbe ciulle 
bou», wbcrviii (lie audit hath been formerly Upt, and is hcre- 
alter to be kept, and iivhereiti our records of the lioitor of Leices- 
ter do now rrmuiii; to sell the stonea, limlter, ^t. but uot lo »i- 
terliTT wilb tite vault lliere. nor tlie sinirs Iciidms; llterefro;!!.* 
Frotu otbtTt of llie same papery il H|>)H-an thai Ibc timber sold 
for 31. St. 6<1. lite frcc-sl(iHC nnd iron-^voth for 361. 14^. 4d. and 
Iha! Ibc repain alio\e ordered cwsl about !H>1. Tlius was the cas- 
lie reduced to nearly its present sliile; aitil lliuti^b tbe untiquarj 
msy. ill tltecagvnKas of his curtcHity, lament that ao lillle of it 
iww rrmaint, yet lie must lurely rejoice, in his reilcctitig mo- 
nienls, that such structures bic not novv neresMiry fur the ilefence 
of the biiigdoRi, and that the turtuiK's of Ibc nobleinen ure nun 
Ifcnl tu » way calculated to encourage the aris and promote tn> 
dualrr, nihcr thaD in maintaining in these caitlci a Kt of idle rc- 



342 [.KICBSTERSHlflE. 

rctiUDcn, «cr rcuilj to astui llieta in duluibnig llie peace of tbe 
rcaliiii aud atill iiioie ready lu insult and JujuK tbe huuMe iuha- 
bitants ui tlicir ncighbourbood *." 

Of llie caitle liere rclcrix-d to, Ibcre » warcely kdj thiug r- 
ttuuning bat an arlilicial laouiid, or tbe eutb work of tbe Leep. 
near nliicli is it part of iJic tovm, ^t'itb Mine aucicat buiIdii>$Ht 
called " liie AVtn?rAr," or New-Works. This name appem to 
bnvc bcra (jiveo to dUUrigiiUh it from tbe caatle with ib originU 
buililifli;s, wbicli wiu eilber called, or considered as tlie old workti. 
*I1k: fvitucr is Miid to Itaic been fuuudcd by ilciii-y, the Ibirdearl 
of Lancaster, aod bis too Heopp-, Ibc &nt Duke of Ibat iinnie. Qy 
tbnc two Dvbkitieii »ome large buildings were erected here; and 
JobaofUaunt, who was Earl of Lei««»tci, &:c. added conaKi^r- 
ably to Ibifi pile. >Vhcu complcled, tljc wbole iiiiul bare fonoed 
a grauti 6a\)Uy ; but uearly all of these have falleo berkeatb lUe 
deva&tdtiug fauDd of uian, aad Ibc slowly devouring lootb of lime. 
From the rctuuiiis of Ibc lurrouadiuj; vmlb, it is prounicd tbat tbe 
Newark was an inclosed area, bounded on Ike nortJi by tlie cailk, 
on tlie ioulli t>y fields, to tbe west by a biancb of tbe liver So«r, 
ajid to the cuit by a street of the tubyib*. At Ibli mlc ti alill re- 
oiaiiiiiig a Urge ca&tellaled gateway, called Ibe Mageaiie, wluch 
name it obtained in l683, when it was purchased by the county, and 
applied to tlie uk of tbe Irunbuids. Tlirosby saj-s it " was built 
Mitli tbe Ncw-v'orlu, by tbe founder of tbe lu»pital and collegiate 
eiiurch." This gateway has a large pomtcd arched entrance, witb a 
stuall postcm door- way, and coDiniunicated witb an area aeariy lur- 
tomidcd with buildings. On tbe souUi, uuolltcr gate-bouse opened 
a commuRicBlion to a second court, oppoaile to llie soutbcra gate 
of tlie c^lle. To tbe west rose a collq^tt, witli a cburch and an 
Lotpiui, which couiplcied llie buiklitigs of Ibe Newark. TbeM 
biter tiructurea formed ajiothcr smaller quaflranglc court, baving 
on tbe nortli side tlie prcient old, or Trinity tlogpital, wbicb wm 
built and endowed for oue hundred poor perfous, witb ten woomb 

* Walk tlircugli Leiccitet, p. lOB. 


U wail on, and serve llipin. On the BOullislandtSt. Man's churcb, 
which iai'i cloiitoTS ; and ou llie we«t was Uie ('oilret for the Pr#- 
iMndiirKs, u-hi4-.h Lelaud says, " be very pniy.''- The walls and 
gitea of Ibe college, occupying liic west siile, wrre pronounced hj 
Leiend to " he very stately." Thi« college was iiol only spacious 
in bttilrling, but wai liberally founded by Ilie Laacaitrian fiunily 
for n dean, twelve prvbciidurirs, Ihirteeu choral vicar% three 
clerks, six chornlen, and oiic vender* at Uie dtwululioa its yeaitjr 
m«iiues werecHlimaled at 5gsi. I'Js. lid. Among the rarioua 
donatioiu lo this eshibli&hmeiit, (lie following rt w-urthy of uottoe. 
By the Parliamriitary Rolls of the year 14-50, ilappeanlhal Kin; 
Henry the Seventh j[mnled lo the dean and canons of the collegiate 
<liurch of our Lady al Leicester, " a tunuv of wyrme lo be taken 
by the chief Boleller of England in our port of Kifigtlon upoa 
Hull;" and it is further adde«t, "they nerer had no wyniie granted 
lo Ihem by us, nor our progenitoin, afore this time to sing wilh, 
nor olhcrwiw." 

The buikliiigs of the Newark continued in good and habitable 
pTMcrvalion till tlii.' dtaolulion nf the monasteries, in iIm* lime of 
Henry llie F,ii;hth, when Robert Bunie, the la&l dean, snrrenderetl 
his bou»e and passcaiioiis to the king's coiumls«i oners. " From this 
peri'xl, tlic buihtin^ of the college, Wing unsnpprirleii hy iiny 
fund, sunk into decay, or were applied lo purposi'S widely diA'erent 
from the iatenlton of the founders. Tlte church, rtoistcrs, urn) 
galevay are eutircly remot-ed, with the exception of tivo :irchr« nf 
Ihe vuull umter llm former, which are slill to he seeu, tiim anil 
«tronK, in Ibe cellar of the house, now a bmtrdiuir-ocliool *." 

Of the anciciit relif;io4i9 bui!dini;« iind fmindalions of this town 
Ibat of llw Abbet was fnrnierly of [•rejt local iaipurtiiiin! ; but 
ib buildin^i are nearly lp«elled (o thai enrth which ovoni Ihe iiidics 
of ils fimnilers, patrons, monlu, and dependant). It is said that 
thisabbey was founded by Kuben Butsu, tarl of Leicester, in Ihe 


* Walk through Lsk^ittf. 

9*4 uateuttfts^ti;; 

ytn il4A-^ whb; bdog xhnnced ib ^, became one of tbe Kg*-' 
hrtanpnaoobiiown foundatioii, and contianed here, n pttritDer 
ind prayer, till t&etioMof iris deatb. llns religious foQiubiliaB 
asbD acquired sanctity and oekbfitj, and tbcDce obtained do*' 
ncrous- liberties and imniuaities. Besides thirtj-HX parMiea in 
sod ^wnt Leicester, it had laads, privilegeis dec. in most of 
be manora in this and many other coimHee. Hie rttigwnsof th»' 
lAbey had great bequests of deer, fuel, and feeditlgorcaMe; Adt" 
pools, cattle, fish, and com. StonghtOHrGrmngr, near LekMler/ 
was tbe grand repository of fimd fot tliis bodse. Iltb pbee aa|H> 
ported almost tlie whole poor of htaceOer and its neigbbonrtiodd r 
aqd it was onall presaiug oceaaions aubaidiary to tbe king, hbA' 
hospitable to tntrellers, wbo Were fied and oftea lodged hcie (w 
Ifaeir joureies. Sereral kin^ of EnglaiKt we're entertained woA'- 
lodged here on their excorsiDiis to and from the north. Ricbud" 
II. and his qaeen, witfa tbeir ntintw, ^moagst whom were thv! 
Doke of Ireland, Earl of SoJSblk, Archbisbop of Canterbury, nict' 
■evler^ other great perueages^weic entcHainied and totaled ai Ibia 
liOBse ID grand and aunptnoai^t^^. 

" Tbe deatbof the great aod di^nificieut CardtHalWotit^ Imps 
peaed at this abbey, Koronber 39> 1^30, on htsjouraey from Vorii' 
to London. He had just before beaistript of his dignitiest ahdUa-' 
pride wounded by bis royal master, who bad before loaded bin W^ ' 
ridips, honour, and power, nnequalled by the first of pnneea. He: 
was M weak and depressed when be came lo tbe gate leading te' 
tbe abbey, that he could only thank the abbot and monks fertbeir'' 
civility, and tell tbem that be was come to lay bis b<mes among tbea^ 
He immediately took to hia bed, and died three days afleiwnds^." 
It was at this place, whilst the cardisal was on his deatl>>bed, - and: 
aurrouudcd by llie listening monks, that be pronounced the ftdknr-: 
hig memorable seqtence, wbicb dis)^ys tbat be bad been uerr 
of a courtier than religionist : *' If I had served my 0«d u £iilh«' 


* Tbioibj's Histoiy. and Antiqoilies of Ldccster, 4to. p. J6L 




as I terred Ibv kio]^ btj would not thut have A>THk«o inji 

Nntv Itx Noftli Bridge q( tim town w&s furiii«rl^ ibe \ii)me of 

plicciHisre luoiiev wu toioted t and the uries of coitu iJial bM 

iMVti eoUcrted, [)n»e that at the Lbickstkk Mint s rrguUl 

mKcewioR of coinage ha& been producvd frota t]j« irrgn uf llie 

S«xon king AUidBUn,douit Ui Hc-nrjr the Serond. "Tlw Af0Htt9tiii 

4}r govcmon of Ihtr mint, were entitled to coiuiiienible privilej^ 

«tKl extiaptioiis, being SixJwn, or liuldLTjol' land iu itw ^oc, u« 

ftanehise of u gre«t buion^ >el tliev coald not be coiH[>elleil to le* 

l)ni|iith tbeu teiiemcRti ut tbeir lord's will. Tliey (Niid tifenty 

pouadt ewrr year, a rousidcrablc >uui, a£ » pniuid at IJiU Uiiie of 

Mu cuoqunt conlaiiird (lirce ihai-t tim vicigbt uf ulver it do«s at 

pcocDt. Thecc ponntln cooiisted of pvunies, each Meij;bi»g oqc 

«nf, or ounce, of till! viduL' of tiveiitj-|A-iiCL'. Two Ibiids of Iblf 

mm wcK paid to llu: kint^, nod tli« uthcr third to the feudal Baroii 

of I^oesler. Tlie LeiceMer coins of AtiieUiaii lUid tjltnuwl tli9 

Fmt, have ooly a ruu willi a legend of llu.* kind's name, Ibat of tU* 

moae^«r, and lAiirrvter: frnin F.llifldr«(l llieSiTood, tiwy beartb* 

iaifiress of tiie n>}^ head aitil sceptre, with tiie same itile of kgeml 

anchangcd. In Uiis serivsof Liriccster coiiu, wiiicb bus l>ern etit 

graved wilb accurate iitteiDioti in Hr' vsiJiuibk work of Mr. Niclu>U» 

Ifae tfiHDgubir helmets, uucuutli liiadeiiis, and nidcly cspmie^ 

couolenancra of our Silxod Mvereigos, exhibit, M'lien ojipuMvl to a 

plate of Itoinan ooinn^, a alriking contrast to the nicely ddinealed 

features of the laurelled Ca^irs. In no iuslance of coi)i|)arivoa 

dou llw Konuui art uppeur more fonspiciious. Tfai' greut qtiuutilj 

of coiiu of that scieuliW. peiipli', ivhii^h hitrc li^en found at 

l>iceMvr, is an addiliunul le«liiuoav of its <:ofl»c(|uence as a lloniaii 

Iowa : these, unfortuiuitdy, upna hiring found at dilfvreiit period)^ 

have pataed iiilu variono Imn'U ; »nd ulllioiitjb w>me few gf ntlomm 

hnc uaide collections, jet it is to be Tegrelled, that bv far lh« 

Vou IX. Z gmUar 

* Sir Joshim Rcynatib hi) pn'nlnl a friDd, Sat, and tilgbly adinlndib 
p)ctiire rrf HMD ling tbua iiwful «vcuL 

I - 


greater part of th« coins bave beco Ukeu fiom tli« lotrti* llaj 
those found ia the lautt <;aitui_v becu Uirown togctlicr iuto one 
tabiuet, Leicester tuigbt haw exhibited at Ibia time u respectable 
Mri«s of Roman coinage, botli in bnus atid Nlrer, itom Ibe 
£mpcror Nero <Iot»ii to \'aJcH8*." 

Chabtbrs, &-C. T)ie fint CAjtM- granted lo Lcicedcr naf 
l>y )CiDg John, in tbe first ^car of his reign : aiitl al the tame limrf 
Robert ntiE-Pamel, Enri of Leicester, granted a cliartcr, or deed/ 
lo the burf^esscs of tliu town, ime^tiii;; (hciu with (he right of 
buying and selling laiid», ^c. Some of tlic ptiiilcges of the Cor-^ 
IwraliOQ are fint defined and coii&rmed by a KiQiit from Robert^ 
Earl of Leicester : and bi» »t)cce»»or, Simon de Moiiiefort, Eart 
of Leicester, extended and nilifKd Uioir righle by a cUarlcr, dated' 
•tt Leicester, iu tlic lw<:nlj--lhird >eur of Ibc reign of King iJmry 
the Third. The next charter shews the peculiar iiitolerance «f 
the times, tt Vias givca tv Siniou de Mouleforl, ton of the abo%1f 
taut, and particulurK »pccilie> tliat " no Jew, cr Jetcei, la mj time) 
w in the time of ao^ of my heirs, to the end of the world, sbuK' 
inliabtt or remain" in the town of Ijsicestcr. In Ihe year ISSTt 
thb ^'anderiog and persecuted sect of people M-at expelted (he 
kingdom. Till tbe time of Henry Uie Scveulh, Leicester docs not 
appear to have obtained any furtlier toyal charters, except th6 
grant of Edtvard ihe Third for the eslabliibment of a fnir h€- 
dccRied as one. llcnr^'t clinrter, dated t£0(, conlitius all tli« 
prcTious privileges of the burge^ics, d:c. and eiii)K)went titc Ju»i^ 
tices, or a part of them, to "Iskecoj^nizanccof Ireusons, inur<lci% 
feloiiits, rtpes, >»<! other transgtess^ions." Several publie ad* aod 
fcsoluliofu occurred during tliis reign, relnling to tite Ivcul govern* 
meat of the town, lor as that mooarcli com|iier«4l bis rival aai 
ftdver^ry near this borougli, he apfwurslo have paid portkulaft 
ntlention to tlie wants and wifthex of the corjtoralion. The cluirlc^ 
by (juccn EliKiibelh spcciripi that the borough of Li^icesler W terjl 
«aci<ent sad populous, and from rt^^mulc tiiut-i> liiu been a borough 

iucorporalo £ 

• V'lJk tbrouj^ Uimter. 

LdtcBSTrRsHinr.. S4T 

Ihc«ri>ORkte; " and the intmbitanrs therpnf and t)i«ir prei)e«96l»^ 
iuve liitberl^ Iiad snd Iteld divera liberties, franehises, privileges,' 
mod intniiiiiilie«, as well on account of dilTerciit prcsrn'ptions nmj' 
<vttoin3 u»ed in the said boroug]! front time immemorial, as fram' 
^louatioiii and granlK made bji different of our pingeniton, once 
luDp of Engl And." It Itica proceeds to slate, tikat, in consequence 
«r iKtitiom from tbc mayor unit burgesn'-i;, the corrmmte and 
politic body was to be created anew, by the name of " mayor,- 
bouUfi, and burg*Mes of the Iwroti^h of Leicesler." By tliif 
cbttrter certaiu regulations were prticubHy specified for " main- 
tiioing Uic pence uid f-ood goveriiiiient of the people," Tlie coiw 
pontiOQ were hereby em|w>wered to Wy and sell Innds, Itouwi, 
&e.; constitute freemen ; refuse tbe buildtnj; of malt-kilus vrilliia-' 
die disbuice of ttiirly yurds from uny otWr building, &c. It 
fnuita «l»o a market for teool-yitm and tvoi'steii, and other eom- 
Iboditks. All finei and uuiercienicnl^ Mere ordered to be *ppJied' 
fo Uie ux oftlie poor. 

As a Parliatntntary borough, Leiccsler relurucd mtnibert ta' 
fte national councils from tlie time of ndwurd llic Tirst. In the 
reijjn of Heury tlie Eighth, one of the burgwsea was elected by 
Hie " mayor and hi» brethren," aod the other by the common ully 
of llic town. Tbi» freedom of elcelion exciled much popular di»- 
, tnrbuice, even so far back aa the time of Henry the Seventh, who 
niduaed that " tbc mayor aud his brelliren should choo-ie forty- 
£gbt of the most discreet inbubilanU of the town/' who abould- 
bake election of alt officers for the hoTOUgli, as wrll as mciubcr»' 
4f pvlMmcnt, Thus it continued till the reign of Cliarles llie 
Seeoixf, >vlieu Sir John rrelymiiu solicited the votes, and wu re- 
tomcd b^' the " eommons at lar^e," Though the corporalion eu- 
deiTOUrcd to overrule ttiii election, t]\r [fouteof Coinnious ud* 
tnitted its validity ; and front that time the right of election hat 
been ^vstcd in " the freemen, not receiving (iIiiib, and in llie inhu- 
bitaM paying tcot and tot *." I1ie Dumber of voters is supposed 

Z2 to 

* Tbroibfi Hifloij omI Anrlqidllo of tbc anefmt town of Lcle*«t«r, 4t«. 


to be aboat 2000. Tlie hiUot; uf parliamenlarj-eleclionsi gcaenfl^ 
unfolds !»o iimay traiU of liiimuii busfoi'ss, dcfinvily. and state- 
corru{>tum, that llie rd^ectiii;; iiiiiul cannot «ont«ni|)lalc it without 
eiuuUiHKvoriiiiicvrc iwrruwaud n-grel. At (he general «]cctioD for 
1790, a violent struggle anwc ia lliu town, wfa«n two ondidalct 
in Uic ctHirt iiilFre^t, and Iwo, ruUeJ llK!n|>|>ottlioii, clflinwd and 
cnifvalnl tliv siid'nigps of liie votPn. Mtfr a poll of .uicnl diY«a 
tbe panic* coal««ce<l, ami one on each side agrted to decline Ibe 
eonlett. Btil, previous to tliit, llir popnLtre, provoked at llie cir- 
euniMUK* of Imvijig luo court eandidiites forced on llicm, coin- 
milfcfii patmy ileprcdutions, and, '< Jiitd it not bcon for ttie tiuiely 
iutetfcrcnM of llie nililary. their proceeding would bv< lcrau-« 
noted onlj in tbe <leAtn]clion of llie plncc *." 

Churches. At the time o( llif Xornian conquest, ibcrc ap- 
pcan to have been no leu thnii tit c&ttrchrt in Iliu town, and il 
would be highly inloroitiiig to the architectural aiili()uar}- to as* 
certain if cither of the prexttit glni«turc« eontaius any part of Uw, 
boilding then standing. According to a manutcript in the Cot- 
tODJaa Lit>niry, the fuUowing nine churdies, &c were slandittg bcra 
in 1220: St. ftlniy's, St. Nkbolas's, St Clement's, St. Leonard'^ 
AU Saints, $t. Mich^Kl'ii, St. Martin's, St. Peler'i, St. Maigaret't t 
alao a cliapel of St. SepuUbre. Of tbe religious edilioea now re- 
lanbing, Utat called St. Hkhvlett Church it esteemed ibe nioit 
BMicnt. 'Diis klaiidi conli^otis to Ihe Jewry-Wall, and afipcm 
to bafcbeeo partly constrvcled wilb the bricks, titei, &c, takei^ 
from Ibe lallen |<>irt« ortltal building. Nut only Die walls, but sonic 
«f the arches of tlic church are very umiiar (o tbe iewiy-WaU. 
wbencc »oinc anliquariei have tbougltt that they are both part* of 
(lie Kane alrucliirc, or built nbout Uie saae period. Tbe diurcb 
coBsiits only at present of a narc aod south oile, wilb a stjnare. 
tower at tlte west end. 11i« latter has icnti-eircular arcltes, and 
arcades near tlie top, aod altogetbct exiubits ibat stjlc of arcbi-: 


■ BiUor; ofthcBDrotigliiofCroat Britain, Vol. n. p. EOt. 



iMfnre tstWtA Saxon. B«lwrcii ihe nave iml nile it a acrivs of low 
^eiiiicimilar arches, springing from iimxsy coliimru. 

Tbe Churfko/St. Mary, tlutiuj^uislinl by the addition ot Infra 
OTJujta rastnim, is a large jnlv of irrrgtilnr liuilding, compwieJ 
«f nrinuit •pecinipiu, or sljilw of archilednre, from a wry tvtiy 
period, to a late one, wlien all »lvl« were disr*ganle<l. Tbe-m 
^arielitfs lend (o mark " tbe dKuters of vtolenov, upcklcnt, and 
ttow," and prove Ihut tb« nei{rblx>urbood of Ihe cairtk, wiihia 
wbo«e outer ballinm, or precincts, il slood, wus nfleit nioit dut- 
geroni. Thxl tberc vim b ctinrcb on lliU spot ie " tbe Saxon lime* 
letSBi almmt c«rliiin, from soiuo bricks, Hp|Hirctttly the vrorkniati- 
■hip of Ibat peoj^e, found in llw rbanrd ; <inf I Ihe clwvroa woril 
fOuiid (he wbidows of this chancel proves that tlie tint Nonnan 
Earl of Leicester, Robert de Bcltoninnl, wlicri Im rfjuiircd llie 
linKliief) of tbe Norman con<]uest, or rather of tlie attack inaHe 
bv WIflinm Rufii^, u|>on llie property nf tbe GrfntpmaTsnels, con- 
itnicled a cbiircb on n plnii nenrly like Ibe prpsviil, and adonted 
It with all the ortmmenh of the ardiiteclure of bis (imei. Iliia 
Earl founded in il a college of twi'lve mnons, and among olber 
donatioiu for (heir support, be endowed it wilb the palronu^ of 
Bit the other cburcbei of I^icesler, Si. Margiiret** excepted"." 

11)6 iiilcrior of ibis cbnrrh ii ipHciurn', und on tbe south side of 
ihe nave is a sin^itarly large femicirrular arch, baviiig a «|»in of 
tbirty-uine ftrtl. The soutb aile is sai<l by Mr. Cjirte to have 
been buill by John of Onunt. At the esit firKJ of ibis aile wfl« t 
cliapel. nr choir, fceid by a f;uild, or fnitemily, railed tbe Trinity 
GuUd. Tliii was foundcil in llie tiin*- of Jfenry the Serenlh, by 
8ir Richard Saritcrerrle, kiiL and Itic good l^dy Hiinfjetfutd. 
tte«pectitig tliK (^lild, the folimvinj- list of articles, bought m for 
tbe \ear lAOS, will sene lo shew ihe v^tluL* of money, ynii prices 
orprmiiicnLi at lb.^r period. " A dnten of ale, 30d.; h fut wellwfv 
91.' 4(1.; seven lambs, 7s.; fourteen ga^iings, M. Sd,; tifleen 

Z 3 cjpoiit, 

* Walk tbinast' L«lcatcr, p. 07, 



CLpoos, Si.; half a quarter of iimlt, 3s.; four galloni of milk, 4<1.|: 
«pig. 5(1.- , 

At liw- MiMt riHl Aflhr fharch is a liarKl«onte towf r, innnouiilMl 
by a luHy and degaol spiff. Tlic latter liai jufl'creil two acci-; 
deiiU from ttuniis. On that mvmorablo daj, Marcli 14tb, I7i7m 
whffn Admiral Ryii|;wiu cruelly shot, n trtn|wMuoiis wind blrwcut 
one of the « indows of Ihe ■[ure, and did m> much other damage 
lliat it was obliged to be new linvd witii brick, und bound round ia 
iHiny pined with iron tiantLt. In the year I jUi il agun siiKlained 
much injury bytneunsof Itglitniiig; and in 1783, anoihtr flash of 
the «Wtric fire sinick llir up^icr part of th(> itccplo, and nearly 
fplit it from top lo tlie bottom. The whole wai obliged to b« 
taken doH-n, and a new one w»s rrvctvd at uucxjwnceof '2451. lOs. 
betides the value of thn old materials. Tlie tastem end, orcliance^ 
of Ibis churcb, is a curious specinuni of ancieut arclnleclure, 
having thrre sfoncsfn/Zs, or seals, in ill saiithcrn wall, and tlie 
old windows have semicircular arcljcs, onmnienled with bold zig- 
zag mouldings. The buKmscs arv flat, with the saaic sort of 
ntouldings niiuiing up their extreme angks*. Near tlie north 
door is a passage leading uuder an old building, which forms « 
gateway to un urea culkd llie castle yatd. At Ibis gateway wu 
))nicti9ed, till within a few years past, an ancient ceremony, ex- 
presstvv of Ihe bomagr fonnerly paid by the tnagUlntn nf Lei- 
cester to Iht.' feudal lord* of the castle. The mayor, knocking for 
admittance, was received by Uie constable, or jwrler of tlie caalk, 
and then Imik an oalh of :dle^imire to the king, as lieir to the 
Lancastrian property. The office of conslahle of tlic castle is 
8liU nominally held. Opposite this gateway is a buikliiig, partly 
old nnd partly inndeni, within which is a large hail, " exceedingly 
curious." Its dimensions arc Miveuty-eii;ht feet long, fil\y-ouc 
feet wide, and lM«uty-four feet high. This space is divided hj 

" Since 1 taw this choTch, October 180(i, I learn Uwt part of (he chsMcl 
has h«9B taken down, and rebuilt wilb mudk dull by Mr. Finnailge, 
faigenious ardjiicct of LckcsEcTi 


two rows of tal( and massy aakcn pillan into ihtte divinoiu, likt 
Ihc nave aiid aide ailu or a cburcli. " Tbb vast room vm tlie 
andcDt hall of the castle, in which the EarU of Leicester, ai»i 
iiftcrvruds ibc Pukes of Liincuter, altenialeiv held llieir courts, 
and coDsuiued in rud« but plenteous hopitalilj, at tlic head of 
llictr visitors, or tlicir vhkhiIi, t)ie rent of their estatei, Ihcu uaualt; 
paid tu kind. On tlie south cad appear llie traces of a door-way, 
which probably was tlic CDtraocc into a gallery that lia» oflen, 
among otlier pnrjioi^i, served as an orchestra for the minstreb 
and mtuiciaoituf former days. Tlii« hall, during the nigu of 
aerenl of the Lancastriau piinces, was the scene of frequent par- 
liaracata. At present it i> u»ed only for the holding of the usuzci, 
and other county nieeliiig», to wlucli purpu^ it ia, fraiu i(a Icngtb, 
to well adapted, that though the busincu of Ibe civil and crowo 
ban is carried on at the same time at the '>p|iositc ends of Ibe 
room, the pleadings of the one do not in the leaitt ifllemipl tin 
pleadings of the other '." 

The liae Collrgiatr Church of St Mary, in tlie Newark ti wai 
Mbolly deiiioliiihcd in tlie year lG<)0. 

Near the north gate of tlic town wiu fonjicrly anolbcr churcty 
called St. Cinnent'a, but tliis lias been destroyed, as has one de- 
dicated to St. Lronard, which stood near tlie aurtJi bridge. The 
chorch-yanl of the latter is still jirvjtervcd a* a burial groi^ad to 
the parish. 

The church of All SainU b a small modem structure, conast- 
iag of a iiDvc and two alio, all nearly of Ihe same length. This 
ficarage, with lliiit of St. I'cter, which w»s annexed to it in th« 
reigu of Elizabeth, include the ancient parish of St. Michael, and 
part, if not tlie whole, of that of St. Clement. On a woodea 
tabkl, an inscription to tVUliem A'oricc slates that he it 

■ ■•" [>ead and gtme, 
Wlioae i;nve from hII Uk i^l is knownt 
Uj Aiidiug out tL« gTtatat tlont." 

Z 4 Tl^ 

* Walk Ihrou^li Leicester. > 

Of irliicli an aiii|il« liLitary Lt civcn li; Mr. Niclioll. 


* Tliii Stone is h large rougb pcbbk. WUliani Norict, wba 
Uric* mvfoe of tbe 1o«-d, had tlira* Mim, ind " gave thrice &r* 
I groati ^ttriv to All SaitiU poore,"— aba tin luitka vearljr to 
thtnCDod mBstiTur Uk l'(oe<9clHKil. 11« (licii in i6l.% ia bk 
Bincty«rvrBtfa jirar. 

An epitnpb on Jonepk Wrigkt, a gurdeoer, » coDclied in lenni 
alliuive to his pro^esuoD : 

" My motlm Earth, ttaouglb nij^ticalty conl, 
Hulil inc, htTann, must iKiiiiilJl'iilly niiril; 
For all my [laint, ami rtiil on lii-r bmtO'W'il, 
f)iit uf wbri] Hurt 1 cif lier icrviv'd, 
Mj painfiill wkMiiilJ bri-iKm I ralirVH; 
Autl ilimgti thli tniothcr I full well did hntf 
I better iQv'd niy Uitlicr ilint'* alcove , 
Mj motlier fL-^ili »1}' bud^ I'l^i a s]iiee, 
ftl; loul f«r ajc IkIiuIJs iii^ fattier'* f^cc* 

The folltiving may also be noticed anivng those ludicrous bi 
itlfplnms nhJch arc ton ftrqnmt b church-yanN, nnd whirh serre 
Bi pulilic inraioriiila of reproach lo the clergy, churchwmtlcn*, airf 
writtn. ChwiThes, and plare.i of tiiimaii intmnenl. are not ilie 
proper spots for itlitcntle and ridirulun^ j»ling. A fatlier, wliosi 
llttRie vat Jofan, had \wo diildreii baptised in the none luitne, and 
bnlh dring inputs, he wrote 1hi» stanza tor their tuDib: 

■' Biilli John ond Jtrim Mini Imi tlieir t)T«^ 
And jel, ij Guit, Juliii iltll nirvivrt." 

Biiliop Thuilow, at one of Wa Tisitaliotas, dircclecl llie vrords 
*• hy God," to hf iiltcred " /Aro" Gorf."' 

Tfae CAureh of St- Martin, formerly called 5f. Cr«»»f, balargfe 
old building, coiuiiliiig ufa nave, three ailcs, and n lovrer, nilli 
a lofty crockcttcd si>irc. lu the south aik tJi* Ardideacon of 
Leicester bolds hU court; and tlic chaacet, which belongs to tlie 
hioj, was built in the time uf Heury the Fifth, at on expcme of 
5i\. Tli» church b C0EiBtdcrG<! tbe largeat iu the' town, and of 
tbe county, oud it lucd at all Uio public utcetings of Ibc di>tfict 



ArlWbUiop, menben of parliament, judgu at asiMi, &e, 

Within it were formerJT two chspeli, or oratorici, and before tfaa 

riiuoluHon it conlsiim) tltno allan. Hcveral carvini^, Mulplitre^ 

fad tabcmaclrs klw contributeil to niJom the iiilerior of thu 

bbrie : but (hue were ■^nlematicuH'r detlroyed, and sold itt tLc 

tinie of lli« reforniatioa. Tbc chiireli wardens' ncroiinti rwpectioj 

ibU church and ptiriati are ci>|>i'itii und n-ell prcsen-ed. Tbey b«> 

fin in 1^44, nod eontuin many cunaii! noticet, deKriplii-e of iIm 

peculiar nunnere «fid cttstomi of the difterent times. In tlit* 

ckurcb was licJd St, Georgr't Guiid; a fraternity wbicb wu* io- 

veslcd vtith peculiar privtle^^, iin<l aummlly ordained a «nrl of 

JubUet: va \\\<- town, tallc-d " (Ac Hiding »/ St. Georgf." The 

BMStcr of tho piild giive |)uhlic nalic« to the ialiubitikiil* of tii« 

day Ajtpointetl fur lliia icreinoD)'. Id ud old liall-book, I7tli of 

Xdu-ard IV. is an txprvM order, enjoiuinj; nil llic iiiliabitanU, by 

general Huniiuoii^, lo at lend the niuyor — " to ride cifpiiitsl Ih* liinjf, 

Arlor riding tliv Gtrtrrgtti or any oUmt Ihiiig, tv the {JcusurC uf 

ibe mayor and ivonliip of the town." Another order occun, 

■IIm 24tli Henry VII. tiwcifyinf;, " that every oik- of the foilj-cigUt 

ibouM cDnLribiitc tuwurds liic !)U|>|>ort of SI. George's Guild; 

IboMwIw had beiaeEidnilKi'liLins Mspeiice, and (he others four- 

pence annually." In llic I^lh of Henry VIII. tlic nuutcr liaving 

iic«lccted lo notice, or ptuclaini, litis annual custom, fui order wai 

kRdc, Bubjecting liim to a liite of ^1. iu dvfault of appointing a 

day between SI. Ocoice's day iind \Vhit«ua(Iay. Iu St. George'* 

chapel, llie cltic;y of iin liorn' hnmcssed, or decorated tvilh gaudy 

tltimli lni|)|>iiig»t was formerly kept. " Wiieii the rcl'oroiatiou 

had o^'cithrciwn the monkish Riiiinnicrin, that »o inconsUlcnUj 

UriKlnl reli;n<^ti O'ith pusltRie *," tliis Uurse was sold for tuclt-c- 

peucc.^lii SI. Martin's ctiiircli «a» also tmutlier iluUd, culled 

Corpua t'hristi, »hii'.li, Mr. Tlim^by say^ " was the raott ancient 

aud princi|9ul in IjcirL-sler," To all public charges IliU guild con* 

Iribnted l<tr;;i'l\. There were niaatcn presided, wlio jmc) 

4;ical iutcrcst iu Uic corporation. Tlicy had poncr, iu conjunction 


• Walk Ibrmijli LeiecsUr, p. 138. 

9^ LsicRSTRRsniita: 

fiitli tlic mayor, lo inflict pcira[tic^<i upon the mcmhon of the rni^ 
poratioQ for mbcoiKtucl : and. upoti the mayor*! neglect to o])taia 
thcK penalties, tlicy liad power to levy thrui upon liim." Tlie 
|irCM3it ball of tlie borough bdoitKcd to tliis guild. 

St Martin's church was converted into a Imrtack, ot cttadct, 
during llie civil wars, ivIirii ||ie pa r I iam rotary sold ien, who Itad 
bceu dritrn from Uidr f^iTisoii at Nnvark by llie loyatists. look 
■ temporary refuge lier«; but many were slain m this building 
and in the mnrkct-plaee. Amonf; the entries in the cburchTrardena* 
accuunit are the fullowiog, wliich wire to eirnipbry many anr 
cient cu-sioDu, and shew titc I'aliir of money, aod of different arii- 
ck-s. at tlie respective periods here mentioned : 

A. D. 154.5. " Paid lo Robert Goldsmtlb, for mending tlic 
chalis hclmiging to Sent Oeorgrs cliapell, and a pix, xvid." 

" Paid for iiiilb. of vrms, and t*Mii wckc (or a torehe, ami 
inakyng ihc same, lis. vd." 

" Paid to Hubert Crofte for • day wark at ibe store bon% 
vd - 

" Paid to the pkiimr for a daJs ware on o» I^dy Chappell, 
.VI id. 

. " Paid to the ViltcT, Prerts, and CUtks. for the presessfaoo it 
S'. Mcells. on Whissun Moday. xiltd. 

" Paid for a yani of grciie silke, and x dirj-nes thred, viid." 

*• Paiil nn Palme Souday to the proAit, and for ale at the reding 
the )ianon, I id." • 

" Paiit for rhcwoV An T.»V. evin. lid." 

" P;ihI for the cliargea of the pretuhon on Wliiuan Monday, at 
flotli i]>peyr in a hid. xs. iiH." 

" Paid to y pore wenien for scowring tJic eygle of biaise, the 
midtlhlix, and ali wul'. xxild." 

" Paid for this chirche boLe, bought at London the xir day 
of Februaiy, Aono. Doin. 1544. mis. villdV 

* Tlih Firlio contnln 775 pages of ^lisg- papery homi >o roDE^i alt, «itl( 
4ifiM){; hnu clax[M. * 


A. T). \Si4i6t, "Ikai, |)akl in cspcnsca ii Aayi at CoTttre.Hbc^ 
ire lotcl ihc plale Uicr, Tor our bones and owreaelvo, 1 1 is. id." 

'* Ileui. for a lode ori>i»e nil. alodcof»nd, lilld.** 

" Sold s buudred nml a tjiartcr and scrcu pound uf iron for 
6. 2id.- 

" SoMcto Jbon EyiyVc tbeor^pinr cbaunb', viii*. vid." 

" Soldc to SyuKJu N>\ the llurlb and the vcak that the George 
Itood on, II n." * 

Four huudrtd and a quarter of brass was sold for ig*. per ott* 
to one man, and 3 cwt. aud 3 qu. was told to another at Uic samo 
ptice, aud one hundred to a WiUiam Tavlor. 

f* SoUe to Kjt*. Raynfurd ll]« scpuklirc light, naming tij ncore 
and xvlb. at iiid- ob. a lb. xxts. xtl. ob." 

** SoMe tp Mr. ^jcncoine c powids naigbt oftlic organ p^pc^ 

Id tbejear 1550*—** Ilem.rtc'forUiepnjil horse, xivis. ixd." 
«— la Ibe aamc )'car b a charge of "viiid. for gnLnc ivt lliepcst 
^nc;** and Ills. vd. fur gran for the same in Beaumont Lc)-s. 

In ISK. " Rcccivid of Nictirs Goldcsmctlit-, for ij slierls f 
ms for Seynte Nicoles, and a btild towell of d>^p. worltc, lis. 
viild." D; an culr^r of thb jcar, ll. 6sw Sd. nas paid for the 
prioU* wages for "twelve luotithi." 

In 1554, lliCK viat " p'' for dressyng snri htsyas Sent G«orf^ 
bames, vis. viid." 

la 1559. " Itrc' in Lliirolue Farihvngs, tis, lid. — Rcc^ fur 
Ihc I^(aur\s dance for chyldrcn, ills." — Ale for the ringers* 
*' «bca the tiocnes snce was pilumyd, viiid." 
* Jd I561> " Rec'' for st-rten Btufn teat to the pUiytrt of Fosxhi 
Yld."— "Paid for BirdJime, ilild." 

In 1563. " Paid for H-gn for ihe communiun at ^nr, ijj 
quulcs of nuMrsf, and ix (juarlcs of claret njne, ijiis. vid." 

In I570-1. " Paid unto Yrcland, for cultynge downc tlia 
ymages hcdei in the churcbe, xxd." andxild.waa paid for taking 
dovm the angels wings. 

]684k " Paid Fnuicn Iloakc for bb M^n'* declaration fuf 


ii& lbicsstexiriiik; 

iJic liiDM wli«i liin Mni^^y tawKf a for Ara/M*-."— TIhs " tiedini- 
ticHi'' is n curious "tlate j^eper" nml shews xt o«cc tlie niper* 
»li)iou» credulity uf Ifae pcoplt, and the pliable policy of the kliig 
Wid liiscMutttcre; tvlio, itistend u( cnJcuvcturiiig to «iilii;htcn the 
age, rdllier cuuntcnimccd its folly, in eh'tag wyal siucliun to a 
apccies of supcrnalunil agaicy. — By a paper, which wai rarcfVilly 
preserved in the veitiy of tlin churdi, it aj^Hrun that, at tlw 
Court of WhitehaU, Jany. QtM, l683. King Cliarin lid. wttll 
trrt- dI> of his aoblcmm and privy coiiiicdlors, drrw wp and rigned 
a dcclaratioa Kspccti'iig the fffuectf of the ftot/at tmch i'k ttue$ if 
King's Etsii. U states, " Whereas, by Ihe graee and blewing of 
God. tbc Kiop and Qiif-nu of lim ItcaliD, by mnny a;ces )ttst, 
Iiave had the happiness, by their tacrcd touch, and iitvocatioa of 
the name of Ood, to ctar thoar ivho are aJUirlcth with the disttM 
culled IIk' King's Edl ; aad his Majesty, in no leu measure than 
any of liis rojal predecessors, hathg had ^oofl mernt llK-rrin; 
and in his nmst gmciniis and pUiiih ctK|>ositii)n being m ready and 
willing as any king or (|iieeR of tins rcidm ever was ht any tbin| 
to rclii've the dL^lri's^es and nece'uitit-a of h'n good subjects : yet, 
in bis princely visdoin, fore!«rdti^ tlnit in Ibu (as in all other 
Ihings) onler is to be observed, and Jit times are necessary tft 
be apjioinled fur perr^miing tbi* grrat fcmli of fh^m^lf: lit| 
Mnjesty nas iberefnre this day pleast^ to declare in council, his 
fictfol will mtl /ilfaiture (o be, TIi;it llic time of public Iwalingi 
sbalt bencefotth be from Uie feasi of All SainU, till a week belbr« 
Chrixltnas;" lli« above time beln^ most convenient, and the sca> 
■on not so likely to produce contagion to bis " Mayesl/j sacred 
|ierson." Palirnti arc to bring certificates that Ihey bare not pic^ 
viuiiftiy "been touclied by hla Ufajesly." The ortler to be publicly 
read in all diurches, and then affised to lome con^pictxtui plare, 
'I'he \ezT 1729 is reudered nieniorable in tJii» church and town, 
by a riulcnt and pa.viinn.ile controversy, that arose belwreii Ur. 
Carte, tlie vicar of the parish, and Mr. Jackson, aome lime cmtr 
Irater, and afterwardi master, of Wig:tton's Hospital. By public 
discourses from llie [nilpit in tlic morning tbc fiitnicr s' 

supportetl* ■ 



md bciIousIt en form) tli*: doctrine of tlu: Trinity ; wlncli tiie latter 
■ riolenllif driiii;(l uud oppooril, ia tlti^ evmiiig. 'I1ii» ditpiitat 
Cxcitrd much tiotori«ty, nnd occasioned tci; full aacniblies. As 
rcKgious xtA oftrn produces intcm|)cratc lHiigu;))(c, mid Lliis 3liuiu-< 
btjM liie bad pauiniis of riien, we iuif;lit nlioimlly rxpcd tn 6nd 
boUi arlivcly cAcrti.'d upon a siib'tcct like the prc^nt. Accord- 
■jtly, at one liuir, tlic arxtoii »top)>cd Mr. Jucksoo on tlw gnilpit 
ibiin, aud oppntcd liij. prraclitiig: nt aoollin' linic, lli« miiw 
pmidicr was cgnuiiiiinlcd bi|- tlic cbiirclmdidciu to Iruve the puU 
pit, ia the midst oTIib discuursc. Tlits dispute vraa at length ad^ 
tied by B procewof law — aixl i( nppean., uiooug tliceiitrits iii llie 
booki aUcddji quoted, (hat Ibc cliuichwu'dciis " Paid to tli^ 
■iBB^rt, upon oewi tliaL t)iv paritb's Kppenl to the nrcbci wus al^ 
lawed good a^ia^t Mr. Jarksou, di," — Auulher siiiti of Gwun 
|nid tbem " vrltcu Uic ^ood nc«s eanic of tlie panidi's casting Mr* 
JacbsuH ill lilt' Ducliy Cbainber." — 'n)r bdl fur tctniiiiiij; council 
«■ Ihtf occ»!iuu antoiietcd to 3(>l. 17s. ('d. 

Tlic ahur piece in lliis cfaiirch, rl|u7Mrutins tbc Asccnsinn, and 
faiiatnl byC. F. Vdiiui, wns prcseutfl by Sir Williiiro SkdtBngt 
too. But. Tfic pari»b re^isier recunlv the calauiitoutt efR:cti of 
9 piague which ragod here in Uie yr^n l6lOiiiid l6li — ^luring 
whicb period «bove 166 penmns were buried ui tkia parisfi. Ii) 
the nurrittge register is ui eDltjof tbciuunes of TioniittiTibe^ 
and Ursola RumcI, llie lir»l ot' nlioni being " denlir und also 
doubc." il was Agreed by tbc bithoj). itiujor, and other gentle- 
■Kn of llie lowl^ that cerlHJn u^ aunl artioiu o( the bride-, 
{room ftlmuld be adiniUcd iiulead of the tuital words ei^juiueil 
hy llie prolesbintV tnamage ceremony. " First lie endiraced her 
with bin amies, and toutie )kt by the liiuide, put a rioge upon Ikt 
fioser, and luidc his liaiide upon kii liarte, and upon, her baitt. 
and lieltic up hii Iiaiides taward<) heaven ; and, to »1iew hii conii* 
nuance to dwell with hci lo his ly<.e<i cnde, lie did il by closing 
«f lib eyes with bii liiuids nnd diggiiie oiU tlie wirtlic with Ills 
fclr, and puUingc a« though be Houid rings a bdl, uitli tlivoru 
«tfacr signei approved." 



isS LtelCtSTEHfiHlRt' 

In a pari of llie church called Hn/ricys fhaucff. lire toml)* 
And iiiM:ri|itimis *o wvertl persons of thiit liimilT. who " dcrivMj 
llicir linrage frciDi F.rirk lite Fomtrr, a great coiuiniuKicr, nbo 
opposed llie laiiiiinK of William llic Corniutror *." 

St. Margairt'a CHnrch, according to Lebufl's nccauot, is •• tlw 
fiiirut cliurch in tliat plncc, which once was a c:)tlie<]nl churrli, 
and near uhkh the Bishop uf Lincolne hiitli a palace. whereoT 
little ^rt Mandrth." Ill is edifice fomlsli of a nave, aide aJlcs, 
dnuicci, and a Iiandsonie lower, and was aiioexed as a prebend 
to tlie college of Lincoln, b; the bishop of tltal diocese, al U>c 
lime when the other clmrtlies of the town were given to tlie al^' 
bey. The right of prescnlalion to lliis church is vested iathe JM*- 
beuJary : and thii p;jri^h, wilfa the neighbuuring deprDilcnl parish' 
of Knighton, arc exempted from the jnrisdidiou of Itie ArdideacOD 
of Leicester. The iutcrior of "tliiscliuich ii handsome; theiiaiT 
anil side niles are supiwrtcd by Gottiic arches, whose beauty and 
tymmetry arc not canccatcd by awkwani gallcriea. Scniral de^ 
gant jnodem monuments adorn lite walls, and in the nurth aile b 
tlie alabaster lond> of Bhhop Penny, many years abbot of lite 
ueiglibnnring monastery of St. Mary dc Pratis. In the charch- 
yard, the mililBry (ropliies oi a black tomb commemorate An^ 
drat! hard ftoih. 1'his nohlcinan was an instance of tbe altrae* 
tion which a martial life uBotds to an dcvuled mind, for be ea> 
tered the wrvicc at the age of forty, tflii-n generally the babiU 
and inclinHtioiii of life are so tixed us scarcely to admit boy 
chnnge. After miuy yean of severe and dangerous serrices, he 
died al Leicester, as tbe iiiscriplion informs us, oo liis way to 
Bristol, for the UMovery of his health, l76Vit." It may be ob- 
wrvcfl of this, and the other churclK-s of Leicester, that Uieir 
floon arc cuit^idcmbly lover titan the leval of llie church-yards. 


• Tbro^by't HUtory, 4c, of Lclctmr, p. VI, wJwie, awl in ki* •• Lei^ 
t«slHdilre View*," a a " prctly foil pe^gite," ftc. of liui " aDcknt and 
Ktpcclahle fiiiniljr" 

' T Walk ttin>u|li Leicutcr, |». ifi. 


wnd tW slivrh : wlif ncr it is inictrcd. that fhe IiiUrr must liave 
{iBiiuiilljr accuinuUk-ti fiom rubbisli, &c. puslerior to llic l)uilil<- 
ing of the former, wliich arcciitcrc<l by a descent of sci'cral steps. 

Bnklcs tlic forrgoiDg ctiHrclic^ on llie eataltli»hiii<:iit> Leicester 
(ontaiiis soniv thipela, or mnitHg-hotarit, belonging to <iiflVr- 
fiit sects of diasoilcn. Tiic principnl of tlicsc, called tlic Ptrshji- 
ttrian or (irrat .'Ifrr/itt^-Aouac, wiis liuilt in 170S, aiid Jias waXB 
calculated to acM>mniodiilc tiglit Imiidccd |icr>ons. Oppn^ilr thn 
B another mcttmg-fiotar, appropriated lo a sect dc'iiotiiiii>i,lrfl /»• 
Jtpendtnia: iicsr which is wiotlier n^li^ioiis structure, raised in 
1803, )>y, and for the use of a socictv, known hy Die title o/ 
£piKOjMliaH Baptists. 

The County (iaal was cncted iii th»tovni, in the year 1~9I, tf 
■n expense of sis thuuKind pounds, which wrr. niivcd by a coiinly- 
raltr. U occupies the site of au old prison, and is built after the 
flail reconmicn<lcd by Mr. Howard, vfitli sulilary celli. &c. The' 
■rcliitect was George Moneypaiiiy, wlm, iiufoiltuiately, w»« dtnim- 
cd to be one of Ihe first pri^oiu-rs for cli-bt. In the front eb-r-jlinrf 
arc scalplured, in bold relief, the Cup of Librrty, the Roman 
fasces aad pilciis Liicircted by heavy chuins: bciieatli which, iu 
lai^ letters, the uaiitc of tin: urchitect. 

The Toti-n iieot U a eunniiodious slonc tmildhig, destj^nctl liy 
Mr. Johnson, a aalirr of this t<iwii, and (.-ircutcd by Mr. Tlniia<lgt-. 
On taking down tlw old gaol, in ]79*i for the i>iir]K>sc of erecting 
llic prcM^ut, the labourers discovered tlic reimiins of the cAaprt c^ 
£r,/(Nin, wliicbwas supposed Iu liuvc bemJestroycddnringthccon" 
tests between Henry the Second and his nun. A regular ocinicii^ 
cuWarcb of sloiie, wJlli omamruts uf chevron woik, tvaD taken fioni 
ibcsc ruiuti'dtid prc!>er\cd by Mr.llirosby, llieixiduslriom bisioriun 
of thctonn: who luid nEso fragments of a Roman caiuniH, scvi'inl 
pieces of ffvAinn f/attrry. mitiij coins, and otherreiirsnf imtiipiiiv. 

The f^Yt (itammar School, according to Leiiiud and Cuite, 
was founded by Thomas Wigstou, who was a prcliendary of the 
folicKUkIc chuicli, wbere bis remains were interred. Thi* ithooi 
MscDusidcnbly augmctited and Dcw-cstabliibed in 1573, iit Ihe 
'■» fifleenlii 


fiOoenlh of E.1if;»bet)i, when a new Kliool-boui« ma crerfeif* 
Several oUirr j>ublic srtioub arc rsUblbb^iJ in llic louu, anions 
which U one called the Green Coat Sebool, for 05 boyp, who ar« 
iu»lructe() in ttie comnmii routine o)' cduculion, and cioatbcd in 
gnat coots, with nil collars. St. Mari/'t S<kool-hwK wai buili 
by public uibscTipliuD, In 17SS> and i» fuuudcd lor 4-5 boj-g aud 
85 gir^i, wlio arc pronded widi cloatha dikI etlucati<>a. Tbc 
bnildiDg is ooDtijcuous lo St. Marj'i clmroli, aiid coot 600). for 
erecting. Si. Martina Sthool a inlcndt'il for llie ponr cliildreo of 
tbal parish, aiid ils sdionl liouic la a haticUonic buiHinc wbich 
toA <)50l, At tlic EouUicra extremity of tlie Iowd is a large 
pile of building, called llir Injirmarif. Tbis utcfij tlrucluTC and 
cslablislnneot origiiutted willi Win, Watts, M. D. aitd the Louie 
iva.<i creeled in 1771> It is it plain sijuarc building, wilb Iwa 
uuifumi uifiK!, and is calculated to admit, exclusive of tbc fever 
ward, fin> four piilliciits. Adjoiniii; lie iDfirmary u ao Am/lttat, 
&r the reccplioii of iudigtui binatics, for the fnundatMn and frupi 
port of whkb, Mn. Tnpp left a Icigacy of I OOd., and Mr*. Am 
Wigley bt^iueullicil 'ZWA. for tlie same lieiK-vitlent (lurpoae. In 
aji ojKii Miiraie railed the uiarkcl>place is a plain building, kjiowa 
by tlic ii;iiiie nf tlic Eichan^r, where tbc town tuagiilFalcs hobl 
tfarir weekly tm-etiti^, and lniri«ct public buMucu. 

TAr Ihlrt, an httndtoiiie niwleni btiilijiit:;, wo* emted from the 
(fetigns of Mr. Johnson, urcbiled, and was oricinvliy introdol 
for a coH'ee-huiise. lavcni, &c. but u itoiv a|^>coprtatcd to avwrn^ 
biy room* and a library. Tbe ball rooni is titled up iiiiui clr^auC 
DiHtmer. having a cnved ceiling, eiirirJicd nilh lhn« paiutin'^ iu 
cirrulur campartnicuts, reprMeiitiug Aurora. Uiaaia, and Ntgbl i 
tlie*e arc from lire pencil of Mr. IteinagW', iviio hat also decoa 
rated llie wbH« willi painted leprcienlalions of daoctiig nymphs. 
Ei^bl bfHutiful lu*trea, besides bmiiclii :« for lt';lit», cniahiiK ti( 
oniaineut lite room. Ai^joiuiiig this, it a routenicnl ami cucumo- 
dious Thntrt. wbich was aUo buill by Mr. Jobuion, and is at pre* 
sent under tJie managcnictit of Mr. Macrcady, vbo bclonp !• 
tbe greater theatres of ituiuiusbiUD and Muuc^esler. latbcd^a 


9f pbim d«TOl<yl to die ncKittiot) aed comfort of \hf- inhabitants 
tiS Leicester, luaj be iwlic«d fA^ Arw IValk, wKicli occufiiea a 
(f»ce of tlirv(-«]uaittrn vf a iiiik in l«n^li. hy twcnljr l«ct m 
tridlli. The griMiiicI naj g\wa >>v tli« coriwrntioa, atxl the cx< 
IKOSC of Uyinj; >t out, ptiintint;, &c. wa* defray^ by » public 
nbtcription. 11 e\l<i)d} in a !K>ulli-eait dinrtioti fron Ow town, 
aiid front dMtiviil slaliom, tnauy pleating views an obtained of 
the (own, Ihc mvadom, and tlie nurroundiiig 4^oiml|v. 

AnK>iig tli« ciirioHlir^ of tlie town, the Old Wooden Bfdttta^tf 
M)d to have bclonK^'') 1<> Iting Kicliurd, and on wliicb b« il<-pt, or 
mb«r reclined, the night pr^ediiig lh« mcmonible Butlfe tf 
Bfnetrth', rrtHit not l>o uiinol icrcl. ThU ancii^nl relic trai for- 
meiiy pre*erT«d at a publi<- liouv- cnllcd Ihi^ if/wr ftiw)-, aflemards 
ctttnged to tlw ff/w i/t// Inn, an old timKr building, lisviiig 
it* Hpp«f stori« ovtrliaiictnG iho ba&cuwiit. *' Antiqunrict hav-« 
^li«n of Ihia Ivpdfttead at bc-lon^iing to the kiRj>, rather than ti) 
Ibe master of the hoiue; and llii« opinion lias been thought 
favoured, by llic cireuni^an«c of a lur^ turn in gold coin«, partly 
«f Ridiard't rei^, aectdt-ntk di<u^n«Fred in ilii dotible bottom. 
The bMlslffsd ii nf oak, liij>lily ornamented with carved nork, and 
is BOW ill Die poiaetrion of Tboraat BnlMnglon, E»q. M. P. There 
Kcms but little reason to stippo;:? that a royal General, wliiic at- 
■coding tbe inarch of his arm;, should uuaeces«arilj enetfiiu his 
bnggagc by «o cumbroui a piisw of furniture, or that a •overcign, 
gnardcd by nearly all the military lorce ot'ltie nation, should liad 
it e?(pedteat to hide his gold like a private uoprotcrted persOD. 
TIk bedttead, tlterefore, it may ufely be inferred, belonged not 
lo a noDwrcb, but to the raaJter of a good inn ; and llie money irafl 
Mctctcd in it by wnic person nnxiow to neciire his property fVom 
Hw dangers tlm-ntened )>\ limes of civil dUlmelioa f," 

Vol. IX. A a Tbf 

^ ' Snae aeeeant of Uil* will bo given in a rabieqiieiit pan of the peMnI 

t Wklk Uiroireli LricCBtcr, p, 32, View* of tlw iKiblcail vnA liouH ait 
(pvHiin Nirbob'tHlilarv, he. o^'I^cmlenhirv. 


Tlie printijml, aiii) alra<Ml cniK article ofmanufaclurt in Lctcolcrt 
(]ity here fur aborc two cctituriu. " It haa dlffuscil with a bouD« 
liftil )tui)d aai<in)>&t the iuhabilanls, ricliei and po|)uUtion. In this 
branch of commerce, Leicester has no compctilor afconscqueiKC 
hutXoltiogliiLiii. TbeA€ |ilacca together form oiiej^niud machioe; 
wlioae movement, at tliis lime {179^), ^ inionth and rapid, and 
funmhiiig enipluyiuctit fui 20,000 peuijle'." Thc»c coiuisi of 
dx Ttnous persons rcspcctircl}' bclou^inc to Ihc tuitiert, atMkittp' 
mtAtrt, wool-coiuhertt dyi-rii frame -unilhs, couilr-iiiuken, n-iiti(cn> 
tixers, seatoen, ffiinuerB, bobhtncrs, siukcr-oiakcrs &tocLiug-oredle- 
makcrs, &c. &ic Iii Leicester there were, accurdiog to Mr. 
Tlirushj's slatemeul, " upwards of seventy maiiulactiiien, called 
hosiers, who, it is computed, emplov 3000 frames ; i. e. iacludiug 
the urougbt goods Xhty iodividtiidl]^' purthase." About &000 
penoDs, Mr. T. (onjecturcs, arc flircctly or indirectly entpluyeU 
at Leicester ia some branch of " this great bu^inesi." A lew 
htstoricid parlicu]ar» leapcctiug this useful inauufaclure, it is pre- 
sumcd, will Dcitlier be irrelevant nor uniatcrcstiag. The lirst 
mnchine, by vrUicli stockings were inade, is said to have been in- 
vented b; the Rev. W. Lee, of Calvertou, Nottingb&uuhire, in th« 
jtu 1590. Tliiswu exhibited before Queen Elizabeth, but as 
Mither the bigolted queeo, nor any of her subjects, thought proper 
to patronize and encourage Ibe invciitiou, Mr. Lee carried it to 
Fnuce, and was on the eve of establishing hinivelf and bis manu- 
factory at Koucn, under a gmot from the French Ling, wbcu the 
latter wa* rautdered. TW* fnutraled Mr. Lee's planti, who, dying 
soou aitervards in Paris, ft»m« of liii workmen returned to Liig> 
land, and wttlcd in this county. In the yenr 1680 tbcre wus 
only one stocking- maker in Leicester, who, taking two or nton a[^ 
prentices, thus disseminated tlie secrets of bis trade, and laid the 
foundali^tn of a btisineta which lias proved highly bciiefwial (o 
tbc IradcJisiiti vnd to the coramunity. l>cering, in bis Histoid of 


■ 71irc«bT^His:arjr, &c.arLeicciICT.p.40l. 


Knttiagbani, stairs. tliHl llie^rsf [nir of nnnlnl knit stockings 

wjunudc b^ Wm. Rider, a Ijondao ajiprcnticc. in tlic i^caT 15^4. 

and vna pment«) hj faiin lu tlic t-url uf I'ciiiWnke. Prior lulhri 

peritKl it wK« cu^lomurj' fur ihc kings and nobility to wrar clolh- 

Aow. Ileiirv lh« Rigblh always wore clulb box, cxcr|ri b; 

cbancp a |);itr uf silk stockiu^ vuss bfOu«lit oitrr fn>iii S|>itin, 

wbere »i]k aboundrd. Kitaon, Etlw^nl the Sistb, was iwcicnlcd 

Kilb I ptur of Spani^ih long silk slocluiigi, b\ hts mcidiant. Sir 

TImmbu G mliani, aiiJ Ibis prrwiiL tvai (lien ttiketi iniicli notice of. 

Hence it appcan th»l tlic invention of kniltingMockiiij^t originated 

in Spain; but sonic conltrnd llial it w» lint uspcl h\ William 

Rider. Huwrll [cliitrt*, that i]iic«ii Elicaltelh, Ja the tbirrf year 

nf Iter rei|;ii. ijtil. was prcscutc^l with a pair of black silk knit 

slockiegs f, by hff silk-tioniuii, Mrs. Moiitai^ic, and rtOri thai time 

■lie never ttore clolb bose again. The priKe-ss of wrmHitg; stodi- 

ingf was not mucli iiscil til) tin- middle and lallcr end of the seven- 

teeatb ci-ntunf. In t)iv \ear \6lO. a stocking-Jramr wa« in1n>- 

daced. and employed at Hinckley, in this coiinly, u-liera lite busi- 

iirm lias bciii ever sliicc carried on b^ some of the family of lliffc. 

>vlm intfudiired it. At ll]« liinc the frames weie lir>t employed ia 

Leicester, tbey cncouiilcred much opposition, ^tr tlic knillen, like 

tlie •licarmeii, \c. among the woollen maoufaclurFn, feared thai 

luacbioerir nould deprive thcui of ihc nicaiu of livelihciod. The 

first Mravera were Ihrrcfufe obli^-d to set tlicir tranies up in 

(cUara. and other secret places: nor was this precaution adojited 

uHliout very cofjenl rcasoiu: for Mr.Throsby rfcords, that "the 

manufacturers of stockings in Lci<.'iesler, and the villuges adjacent, 

beaiin}* some uufiirounible reports respcctiiiK a slockiag-frame 

uliicli had bren tiitttle by an tn^ciiious mechanic, assembled oil 

Monday, March I.'illi, 1773, fitr the purpose of distroyiug it : it 

Imug MpjHised so to espcdtle their busiQcu, that it niigtit occssioo 

A a 2 numbers 

■ Hislcrr <'f ibc WarlJ, Vol. ILp. ttt. 

t This DMDc apirnis lo liive betn first fUm to sut^h corerinct fnr tlic Icfi, 
i ki)i(, to iluiliigtiitti il from die hat. aod&iiM, ouulc »f clotb. 


oumben of them to br un<'jnployc<l. Bui altliougli Um report 
wu grouncUess, tbwy dared even In force thentwlvn iulo Um 
'Chau£«, wIi«Tc it had hftn lodcicd by order of the niu><or. louk it 
thcMc, vid earned ii io tnum|iii round tbe town*." Eti-nw late 
ts Novenber 1787, the common people were doI reconciled to 
ntJKhiiicTj, for a mob assembled on Ibe 0<Mli of tli^l iboiiUi, to 
d«i>lr«v a tpmniHg machinr, uid bavkig Marched tuauy Imus«< 
witliout tiodnig it, tlKv broke itilo >tr. Wet^tooc's Louk in the 
niglit, and destroyed Wa ruraiturc, stock in Irwlc, tradiog uteosfls 

Tfab lovrii and its vicintlv, v'Ab NoUiii^lHiin and it> neighbour* 
hood, aic tbe principal placcf in Eitithind for tlic ni3au6ictur« of 
ttockingi ; uud the lultct u oioxt noted Tor &ilk and ifw finer tort 
of good.*, whilst Ihc former is chiefly devoted to tlic coarser 
articles, of nbicli a v«fy iM/tt qoaiittty is aunuaily made. The 
trade nt pretent ii ver^' floiirialiinf;, and in tlie " Walk thmiifih 
Letcctler," it u slated " Hint 16,000 do<:en per »ccfc," of stock- 
ings ate iitnde on nn averag'>. 

In St. Murk's church, and in that of All ^niutf , arc two carious 
entitnt fault i. 

Among the iiatitM of thii town, ulm oblaiued literary 'eminence, 
VFia Ur. KicyABD Farmur, who nat bom is 1735, and di»- 
tilitruislicd Itiiiiself b; b» mubltvly " Eiuay on the l^amin^ of 
Sbaki-^teari." TiiiH point hod previously entiled much disputa- 
tioD aiuong iWalrical critics, but ttiedoclor'tantUMunts myial6t- 
factorily d>^cid«) Uic (]ue9(ioi>. Betides tlie above enay, ha onlj 
publislietl a fe» iiriicellatieous pa|M>re and povms, and calleclad 
Hoiue nialeriuls tu\«aTds tlie hislory of his native town and county, 
which l>c ^vr lu Mr. Nicliobt, fur tite nse of bis comprchemitt 
tupogrdptiical work. Dr. Fuinier died in l7St- 


* nmriq^ Ilstory, &c. p. ler. 
t Bngrmd in Nlchob'^ Hiitai;. 



MiMnlsorret, w Mount Smrhill, 

1$ a miall maikf I Iowa on lb(> ^mil tumpiki! rxad from Lwcet- 
ler toDerhv, at IliedUliuiw of wvi-ii inilrvrioin (Ih* formtr. The 
name of the lown prcM^Db a ier}'r>[M coin|ioiiiK)Df thieewonls, one 
of wlikli Imoma lBut<iloi;ic4l: JHotart- Soar- flit/, i. c a placv di»* 
tJoguislicd bv « Mniinl or Hill «n llic bunks of tbe Soar. Ttie 
nulural Cvnlurrs uf this pliirt! am iutijulKrlv miniiDtic, Iiniiiedia- 
U^y nn Itie weslern mcIc of Ui» lown. is the ti'miiiiKtion of a ridge 
of lui;li bills, nlticii etteiKl li«ic«, through the midat of Clnm- 
wood f<irc»t, iiitii Dtirhynliirr. fcr, Tlw vxIrcniilT Iii'r« it loRy 
and sleep, preseutin;; n variegated face uf^rsictatMl rock; anil Hie 
higlinl point, atmnat uvcrliaii^^ the tnwn. is called Ctutir-Aitl, 
wbere wxn formeriv a fiirlrfn. wlii«'li Mr. Nirbuls (uiytMduras 
WIS buill Uy Hugh Lupus, Karl of Chrtlcr. It h meuiioued as 
early as Uic reign ofkingSlepli^ii, when amicable articles of agne- 
mmt Mrre tnwk and t\ftuti Iwtweeii RtimilpA dr Urmomia, Earl 
of Clioler (iireat nrfifaew of tlie fuuudfj-), aud Hohtrt lio-vai. Earl 
of Leicester, who was »l that liine one of the king's fureniMl chain- 
pions. Thit agrevimtit specilin tbat ndi of thew tiol>ti-mrji bad 
larg^ paisaestiioit«, j<iinii>e tnfietiter at lhi< pLue ; an<l assif^ns llie 
t-astir of MuunUorel, lu the I'l^irl of l^cster nod lit* lirir«, un 
condition tti»l Riiiiulpti and bis titutily shinild he received in a 
friCDdl^ wny within (he burough, haillKick, and casllc, Mbenei-cr 
they chose. Tliis curious document is pftiileil in Nicliuli's Hiktot)' 
of Li-icntiTshirr, Vol. \. p. S.6. tb* rartle continued iu the 
possesuon of Robert Hussti till 1lf>7, and then devolved to bn 
son Kubert BlaochiiiuiiH, w)ii>, rvbellini; »gai»s( Heory ibe Second, 
was dispotieued of ihts. and liix oilier caitlet, &c. At tlie ^al 
couQctl beld in Northampton, 1 173, he was reslorrd to the roval 
fanmr, and had all hi« oilier posseswMis letuntcd : but the king 
rttatncd Ifait <is his onn, aud diflerent gnverDors wcr« appoiutrd (u 
hold it, iu that and some succeeding reigns. San ds QHntry vai 

A 1 3 iovesled 


{averted witli ib porentmnil by king John, in 1315. nnd be occu- 
pieJ it with A atione f^-drrison, not for lilt own itioiuircb, but for 
htvtib Uic tVucli ktti^', whom the barooa hntl iDvitcd to tiiiir «s- 
sittaticv. Tlii» cariiton couuuittcd ^rcat deprc(ltiliui'« oo Dte 
Of iehkourhooJ ; but tl>cse frcc-bootcn were il Irncth upjiosed wtd 
eoi)tjii«ml, by r (tartar uf rcj-nlisls from N<ktlii>gliani castl«. Tlte' 
casilct of M^unlMirell, how«v.*r, wKt o»t subHittd, and Mei)Ty the 
Third coriitnanilcd lb« gurnaoii of Nottiu^tiiDi to bc»ici;i- and <fc- 
tuolish il. Thit wta tittfm|)l<d without »ucc«9s. Hie Preocb 
pntXy and hutotu. wer*- afl*rw!«rd« «oiM]UPr#d, and llii* mMI* vi-a» 
p€»K?»«d biking Ht-niY (be 'Jliird,Hhoa|'t|t<riiiled Ittnui/pA Bten- 
dtrilie, Earl of Chcstrr. its eowmor, Il wu* now nzcd to ihe 
Srovnd, " m a iiM of <h« Devil, and a <leo of Uiiei'es and robbcn, 
and was ne^'et acaiii icjiuirrd*.'' 

E<JwiT(l th< FirM, in 1 2»)'^, Rrnnlcd to Nicholas d* Segrare, teu. 
and hii heir*, a n^cekly niarkel, and a j-carly fair, for eight days: 
abo liberty of fi«v-«arreii, id all lh*ir rtftn^sn^ lands of Overton, 
Se^rrafe, Kikby, knd DHIienvorlli, in this counly. In 179I an 
act of parliament wns ohtaiiird, for " dinding, allotting, and in- 
clasngi uilhiii the munor, lordship, and libcrtiei of MounUorcIl, 
|wit whereof ll<^s in Uif puriBb of Kolbicy, and the other pout in 
the pari«li of Rarrnw njion 8oar, several open tictds and eonimon- 
able ground*, ronlainini; about 300 aoes, and a certain common- 
able place mllrd Mounlsorrel Hillo." In this act, Sir Jotm 
pnnnrs, Bitrt. ix described as lord of the niunor of Alounttorell, 
aho ai tmpropnutor of all the lythet of coni, grain, and hay, and 
all the groat nrvil rectoriul t^lti^fi arixin^ from the said liehU and 
commonable grokinds. The town is in tlii^ Imo [Kiritbea of Harrev- 
m-So4r, dud HofHIfg, and the vicais of each, w ilh the patrons and 
proprietors, arc allotted their pTO|>oTtionale sh^ret of laoda and 
tribes, in the gioiuiil which was then to he inclosed. 

** Monnl-sorel-hill, i> a rodi of rcddbb granite, with pieeei 
nhcTruf ttie bireets are paved. Tliey are canunoaly called CAm"- 


* Nicboli'i HiitoryorLeicMtmlurc, V«l. III,f>. tS. 


tfy-/orrat tt«na, and in many placo stand out bare, and in of 
tuch hardneMi, after htiof; cxpowd to tbe air, as to resbt all tool*. 
Such pKcn as cun be ^'»1 from iiiHtrr llie ground, are brok«u with 
a lOrdge, and used in buitdingi, in the libape in which ihey are 
brukcD. NlHiiy liuuti-s arc built with tbrm, and make a very sin* 
gular 8|>|)mi-ani-f. They ari^ oflrn JniperiVcl cimn ; and being 
too bard to ticciii or broken, the smoolhcsl face » laid eut«nno»t 
in bedsof thcrxcdleiit lime of Harrow. Tliex atonn, from ibdt 
iincomnion hanhicss, are covelcd fur palntrr'» iiiultets*." 

At ibeeiid of Bdrii>L»iie, utiicEi iK.-|)<initcs llic* of Roth- 
ley and Barrow, formerly stood a Luriuus cross. I( consisted 
of « iilcnder»haft of eigbl sides, flulGd, and ornamented wilbin llic 
flute*, nilti cutvihJ lic;tdi, quulrL-foils, &e. Tlte up|>er part of ibc 
«lnifl was Iccniiiiatcd with a crockeled |>edimt'n1 and niches, su]>> 
ported by carved ligures of aiiguls, ami al tlic base were " rude 
figures with wings." Ti\h linle irlic of itiunaalic uiiliquily uos 
lakm down in 17.4:i, and removed into die lEround.s bclotigiiig to 
Sir John Diinvera, Bart, wbo caused a sniiill market liou5e, iu iini> 
talion of a pavilion, to lie erected Jii \h pluce. 

In liiu town, auys Burton, were formerly Iwo ehaprh : bul 
it has now only one, which belongs to, and is sabordiaale to the 
chutcb of Bartow. Here are al«o three mcelrng-haitities belon{pn^ 
to Presbyterians, Bu|ktists, and Mclhodisls. In ISOO the town 
cnnlaiocd ?3I hoLsc5, aud IS33 inliabilnnts. 

Connected with this town, and about two mites to tlte nortli 
.«f it, but in the buudrtd of East Goscute, is 

BAEROW*t;po7t-SoAB, ciilied in ancient writings, JBarn, 
Baroo, tlarhoo, liarwt, fitc. Tliis is > large and pleasant FVJage, 
containing '231 hou»v). arid IO90 inhabitants. Tbe parish is witbia 
the deanery of Akeley, and indutlcs the townships of Barrow, 
Quomdwu, Wvodliouse, niid part of tbe town of Mouiilsorell. 
Tlic place appears to have taken its name from an ancieDtTUmuIn^ 

A u 4 or 

* Bny'i " SVetdi ofa Tour bt« DerbTtUr*^" Beo. 


or Bamw, »n<l llie aiUhion is lu diiliu°u>sh it from motbi-j 
filliMce of lliat iiiinM.-, ua tlic Trent, mit 1114117 nula dialwit. In 
ibfc time of KtJvrarti tin: Coatcaaor. Iliis cxIcihtc nunor b^kmiEcd 
to Enr) Hurolil; an«fWur(U lu Htigli Ldjius wlio liclil it iinntr* 
dtatdy uinkr the king, la Ibc nigu of liing St^ten, Rslpll <tii 
Gernoniis gH^-e iJic chiirrli lien*, n'tiU llji.- cbupcl of Quunidon, 
and one ««nicale of his <lfinnt»e- lamU, Ui llic ubixil aiid cotib 
vGiit of Si. Miry (In Prali<t, at Ijciccstcr, a^ jtntpriot tmta. In an 
act paiaed IJ^ti, for rlivitling tlic Mvirral tiprn Ileitis, wilhiii lliit 
lortliliip or libr'rt^. Francis Eurl of Mimlingilmi ii dcKritictl u 
lord of the manor, and Hie nnttler, fellows, &c. of St. John'* 
CoUt'^, Caniliridgr, as patrons of tlir vicarage. Tlmri iritli dm 
vicar, and otiier ()ro)imton, are allnltnl certain partSt IsUiea, &c. 
of tlic Inndii u-hirlt arc ^lecifivil ia llw said act, wlMrtiiiii iIif Gari 
of Hunliiigdini a stjltd loni of llie manor, in tight of Erdinpttu 
Manor, wliirli now Lili>iijis to llic Earl vf fliuira. " The 
gmitcr purl uti'tli« lordshiji, liowcvTr, belong to ^ratlcmrn far- 
■nerst wIhi ocrui^ir it ibcaiseUcs, not oaly for ibe prutib of 
husbnndty, btit iIk'ic arc irrcrdl wrlio gK up ;ind bum larqt 
quantiliei of time, nhkh briiif^ llicm no small prolil'." In llib 
viUai^ fi «n Impittit, founded by the Rev. Dr. Ihmfkrfy 
Babin^tim, vice-iiunti'r of Trinity Collr»c, Cambridg«, for mx 
poor men. 

Dr. W11.1JAU BcvKRinoK wss a lutive of lliis place, and 
baptised her«i, Fchtuirr lltb, l<>3€-7. AAer paMbg through 
diiTervtit cbiircli prefcnnenls. he was consecrated liitbup of Si. 
Aoapli, ill 1 70.1, but did not enjov bis cpisropal dli^iitir aborc four 
yean, ns be died in March, I ro;-8, tii llie cloiitcn uf Wedmimtcr 
Ablx-y, and was ititrrrcd in St. Paul* Calhi-drxl, " nliere be baa 
no meiiKirial. He urns audiur of timny Icuranl pieces, and bad r 
peculiar fcKcity in compound scnnons;" i»e of wbidi, "ontlie 
HBe aod exr«lkiic>- of Ibc CominoR Pra^-cr,' is in niorh repate 
V«it)i the ckxfS' His books he xiircctcd to be placed iu Si. PauTs 




V Nklwirt RbtMy of Lric«4«nUra, Vol. UI. p. «9. 


Cutbnlrjil, u a fourtdtttiou of a library for llie hm of the 
clerpj. His writing, moalv on Ihv siil>|pct of religion, are uu- 
luerfHis, and ha\« bpeii B)>uk<.-a of in vurivtl tcrrns of praise hy 
■lilTemil critin. In the Biografilin Brilannlcti, Vol. II. many of 
llieiM- criliciiinis are coHtftvit, ivitli a copious oicmoir of him*. 

Barrow hiL« lor mniiv ccnlurivs beeii fiirued fur u liard blue Siime, 
wliirb, bi^iiiK ciilcini>d, iiiak<« u ver^ Hue limf., and tial a liard, 
«£rjii, iUKJ iDucli esteemed «mm(. Iliis is in ))arlicular requeft 
fat water tcotks, for niakitifr duiut), flood ;^ales &c. aitd is i^apinl- 
.«d lo Hnllatid, and oilier |]lae», in larf*e <|ii[ii»titin. The atone 
lk« in IhiD strata; the tirst under tl>e surface is of a ^ellonisJt 
colour, »ikI below Ibis arc several ollivrs uf u lilue colour. Tlie 
Uner Alruta are abouL sis iiiclips tliiclc, and two f«iH nsuiidrr. 
Bolb sorts are dug out, piled up in the fonii of a oone,aiKl burnt. 
Mr, MarahalJ obieni-n, " it in an iiilereilint; I'iiet, thai the stone 
turn which ibe ilHrrow lime is burnt, is in colour, texture, aad 
qtwlily of coRipoiK'nt jKirls, Hie same as Ibc clay-stone of Clouces- 
lenbirp, fnmi whicli llie jitFOii(> lime of thai ditliict is bunit ; ami 
Hliat i« still iitnri^ retnarkaiile, ii is found in liiniitar sitiiatjon.% and 
deposited in lluu ^Ir^la, divHicd by iliiclvcr svams of ealenreous 
clay, ill die verv same muiiutr in which Ibe clay-ttone of Gloucu- 
Icrsliire ii, fniind. Oi»e hundred grains ofltie irf ant- eonlain eighty 
si^ graifls uf ralcarcncis matter; alfordiiig fuiirlecn grains oC Hit 
MfsiplMe tenacious ^tll, which seems to be po^WM^d of wine 
■tm^lHr proprrlie^ forinini; a tubjert well entitled to future en- 
quiry'. One bumlred grains of the ctatf, contain forty-six g;niim of 
calcareous mailer, leattni; fifty fourgrains of residuum, a lino clay. 
Hence this carlh, uhicli nl ftrcseat lies an encumbrance in llie 
quurio, m richer tn culcarotity, than the clay ntarl of the Qeg- 
kowlreds of Norfolk, with which very valuable improvetnents are 
made. In the fWe v/ Bulvoir, is a »miliir stone, tiluated ni n 
finiilar manner, aud producing a similar kind of lintet." Stone 


* See abo Nidiolk'i Hblot; ofLeiccntBrritlre, Vol. ITT. p. AO, kc 
1 Run! EcooDntv of tlie MiOUnd Coiinlin. 


of coTTrsponding <)ualhy is found at Long Bennington, in Lin- 
colnshirv. Mi. Anliur YouDg, iu hia " Aomts of Agnculturr," 
remark*, that the Karrow-lirae, witli all ill repulalkm, oui iwv«r 
coniv iiilo griivntl tut, fioin lliv cculral siliiatiuii of ihv pbcF, &c, 
but, u the rivvr Svar h madi: iiavignbli; ilifoiigh (lii* (uititli, and 
couimunkiitn direrlly «til)i the Tieul. and Iheiice lo Liverpool, 
HmII, and oilier Ma-port% tlie )ime-»luiK' iiiji<r n<iw be readily 
aod chtitply conicyed lo all parts of the kJngdorn. At Uie time of 
itiakint; Itiin)s»utc-|>i«r, IIk Rarruw-linie slour wu conrrvcd to 
that place, and (livic burnt aiid made into mortar, bv h Barrow 
nuKon. Tile rcmvnl was rniplaved anil found lo turrvni. aArr 
tli« Diilcli Irirak niitrtar bad f.iilcd. Ainon|; tbe ttatural cmrwi- 
tin of the pUcc. mav be ipcrllicd tbe Icthpotilki, or fossil fiili ; 
and Cornu Ammouh. Besides wliicli> nrioin M»ls of wa slielli, 
fdiuil piaiitj, bt€. are often found. The fiib arc nmMly in the 
lime-stone, uod the sbcDs iite bedded iu » gritl^ kind of colcureous 
tlunc. rdrilird li»h«M. either eiilirc, or in piecet, are coramoa n 
various jiacti of the )(lobc, rrxJ are usually found in nrKiIlBceoua. 
or sdiiitow budie». Ouv of Uie pt^lTiftidions found at Barrow, 
has excited much ruriosity and controvets^r anions naluralista. 
It was preserved in the Museum at Caiubnilge, nilb Dr. Wood* 
ward's fituils, and ist a plain uiid holil representation o^tjiaijidt, 
idiout twelve iiicho lon^. Mr. Jones, in bis " l*hilo3apliiad , 
Dixiuiiilioutt," 4(0. 17SI. concluKes one of bti »ci:tior», after* 
descrilnu!; scvenil lEood s|iecitucus of foMil bodies, by suyiog, tbat 
" our own country halh Itilely ofTorded what I upjircbend lo be 
tbe greatest curiosity of llie vitl that ever ap|>earrd. I( h tlie en* 
lire Jififf o/ a hrram, nioic ihan i foot in leiigUi. and of a pro* 
porlionahle deplli. with the scales, fins, nud gills, fairly projecting 
from tlie uirlitce, like t aculplure in rrlic%o, aud uith all tl>c linca* 
meitl*, eTcn to tbe most miuulc fibres of the tail, so complete, that 
tlie like vrus never seen liefore." 

Mr. Crabbc, in ba cominuaications lo Mr. Nicbob, says, tbat 
" (lie species of this fish cannot be accurately told ;" and On 
Pulteney also dcdures, that " this tigtuc cauuot well be referred 



In (he wMimni ; iti (Mitiine ha» tnnn mmihhiDce to nJlnl-jiA^ 
Kepn-Mnilaliuns of tlm, still itoutilful, (wtrifacticin, willi otiicr 
ajnntom atwl m;<Hiiiiit5 of il, ulso itnvt uf M^vcni) titlier fmsiK 
to\mA St narrow, an given in Mr. Nicboli'a volunie, alfotdjr 
referred to. 

QuoiiSDON. in olii writing ipelt Ctnrrne, QiirrnedoH, Qufi- 

rondoH. &c. U m Urge Villnjr', Iwloni^ing (o iht iHirisli of B-itruw, 

■eatnl OB ihe {[real mad, al the dnlaiice of two mile) and a balf 

■uulli of LoiiiihiMirough. The ^tTDund about here is hilly and 

-rockv, and ationnds with a gTc;il «aiietj' of diffi-rnit species of 

snakes. A dmntry vi% founded bere in 13'2^, by Sir JoAn 

/faMr/yit, who «ndowrrl ii with laiiilt ut Wymoitdhain, in tlii* 

'coml^ : and it i* catd thai a «niiil) pri»ry waa eslahlislied here, for 

in i:)A2 Will'am de Kos dii'd seised of the mniely of one kniglil's 

fce, in Hoiily, wbidi ibc prior of Qimnirioii ln-ld. Anoltier 

ckaalTy wu (bunded here in LIT?. In this place i.i the ancient 

■•rat oftlte Famhtimt, hIio derive theniieivvs fniin Sir Robert dc 

Fanibani, a com|iaiiiori of IIk cniMtueroi. Many of tlii« family 

'Were interrefl iiiQiiorndon cliurcb, wlien: are soini- Inug iriKriptions 

la their rnpective tni-morips. In 176'^ an act of parliament was 

obfaiiwd for iiirloMiti; the comtiiim lield* of Quonidun, computed 

to contain ld20 arret or lliercaboutt, and Fraiici«, Earl of Mun- 

tingilon, is describei) as loni of ll>e niMiior. Krre are some ^fiod 

house*, among which k one called QtioKNitON Hall, lately the 

vat of fhgo MrtfntU, Est), ttic celebnitcd spurtsman, who made 

many improvements to Ibe boiiw and grounrl*. Mr. Nichols saya, 

" Iben- are some good pictures at Quorndon-Iall." 


AccoRDlNc to its size antl populalioD. may be called the 

•ecottd town in ihe county. Letiind sajs, " The tiwiie of Lugb- 

• boTDw isyn largeneu and goad biiitding next to l^yrccrier, of all 

the luarkettr tonne* yu the aliir«^, suui hath in K a 4 fiiire strates, 




wmA, wdl paiid. Tlie paradi cbircite is laire. Cliap«U«s or 
cIur1h» twiiJc, ;fi Uk tovTiir, b« noitc. TIm IwIc toun« i» buildcd 
of Utnbrv. Al Uk M'uUicsI end »r the cluicli is a fiiie bouse of 
t>u)brc, Mfacr ons king Heai^ VII. did lye'." L<»uj:bborougfa 
cootifls of oo« paritli, to wliich belong th« two bunlct* of 
W<MM)'thoTpc and Kiiii>l>l-tbonK, both alM>ut a mile di>Uiil ; «it(h 
having iUt proper oDiccrs, atid tnainiaiuing itw own poor, (ircat 
pAil of Ui« Umo is ibe property of Uie Earl ofMoira, to vfioni it 
(mate fivin hit uncle, tli« lale (larl of HuiiliitgiJoii, in wboae fatoHj 
it liu bccti Mflcc tk« (iiiir (if ((utxni Marv. 

An Act WHS paiMiI in 17->9t for inclosing Kvenil open iitliU, 
within (tic lordthip, lownsliip, or liberty of Lou]^liboroo){ti, \*li«i<- 
(be Uit mcftliotM^I noblciuan was ucknoM It'dgwl to be lord of the 
manor, and lli« maatvrs, l«llow>, icQ. of Ejiiauuel College, C«ii»- 
bitdge, u patrons oi the rector)-. 

From u liu, relumed by tite- (oiitt»hl«s of tbis pnrieh, tn 1770, 
it ap|>ciite*l, tlial LouglilMroMgli lli«ii coutaiacd 43 bccnccd ions 
aud ale<bouws ; and iu IftiS there were above 50 licenced botUM. 
Ill Ibc pkicc of an ol<i rr(»s i» » inodeni atarket-liouie, or what 
isoillnl the Btitlcr aitd Hen Crora, wliicli msi crt-dvd io ]74-:j, 
aud is supported by e%bt round biick pillars. At (be upper eod 
of llic iiiurLcl place stands a ruiouuk brick cditicc, eaUcd TAf 
(JffUrl C^ml/tT, where is aiiuwdly held llie lonl't IceU The 
building appears to have been erected ia lf>88> It is boinclimes 
appropriated to a ball-room, and to a theatre. The tbkf maaa- 
fuctiin-s carried 011 al present are, itoyiery, woul-coubini;, and 
fmoie work knitting. Tbe Lon^hborou^h-caual ba» prorcd very 
servieeabUi to this tonn. and u valuable couocm Io the original 
proprietors ; as t|5). a star dirideud has been paid on a aliare of 
13^1. and one of these sliares has sold for I8OOI. 

la Ibc yciir 1557 Ibis tovrn was hircslcd by a peculiar discaw, 
called ill (be Farisb Register " Tire Swat,aliu!i Ncw-Ac^waiiitance, 
fHuiqie, Kuan', and know lliy Master." This disomkr carr»ed 

- LeloiH), Vol. I. p. to. 




off nineteen persons in six dx)*!, and was called, by Dr. Freind, a 
pnlilent ronl^seoui tevrr of (Hie t\9y. Bdiveeii Midtunimer 
iSSS, and Mid«tiiiin)er 155<f, Ihefe died or the pla^e and 
ollwr ifaettMs, 2!).> |N.>r>oDs. In \56i the aWzes were held xt 
(kis tuwu, til rotnft|iiriioe of Die |>lagnc Ih-Iiii^ then at I^ia»ter. 
TliBi filial dimider prevailed here at diffcrtnt stilMeqticiit period*, 
vod carried ufisfvenil persons: in Itie yVAt iOvS. not Ir^ tlian 
SOO of lite iidm)(itanl.i died. 

In Ibeclmrch vard 'ita/rre-^raMmrtrMrhoof, mUifhwiscnitmnd 
villi Ibe reiit» iiri«ii]<! fioni ceilain laiHh, ^c leA by 'noma» BmT' 
ton, for Ibe iiiaii)lei):iuce of s rhaniry nidiiii Uie church. Hrre 
is xbo a rkaritg acfmot. Tor eij^hty boy^ uiid lM\iily girli, 

Tbe cliurrt) is a large pile of building, coiiiii^tiiig of a niivr, si<te 
iSfls, chancel, tr<ius«pi, und 1o»fcr. Tlic Ulier is haDckome, uid 
was built by HubHcription, tuvmrd^ tiie end of (lie tixteenlli ceii< 
liiry. Here are four dissenlinx inecting-honse* ; one fi)r tliu l*re»< 
byleriiuu, anolliertorbapttsls,atIiirdl"iir llic I'ollouers of rtV»(Iev, 
uul a fourib for Quakers, lii IBOO llie town contained 981 
tiouMS, and Ml6 inhabitants. 


In aocietit writings called AwM and Eufby, is a iinall ninrfc«t 
town, situated near the norlli wnleni ektreiuily of llijs coiiiily and 
hundred. Tliv [tnrtsh 'n viry exleristvc, and iiKrhidn llie hamlcl* 
ot Blotkjordbtf aud fiaoihorpe, also tiie extra purochinl lordibip 
of Allmi-drangr. The nwiiar and principal part of the Inrd^liip 
belong to llie Earl of Mmn. Tlie town eotitistK clucOy ofone 
fireet, and uasfonniily HLniosI environed by the ;iiree par1u,dia- 
tiiiguiihed by ibe nanien of Pre»lo|), the Great, and the Little. 

The original name of this place wns iiiinpty A«bby : but acquir* 
ed tlie ttddition ofde-la-Zuncli. to distinguish it from other Asbb\*^ 
from Alart-la-Zoueh, nlio married lui heiress, wlio iwssessed the 
atanor iii llie linie of Henry the Third. In Ibe yeitr 1U)1 die 
niaiior devolved to the crvwii, and vm ihni granted^ inter aim, to 




Sir li'illiam llatiingi, Kjiight, who was particularlj fiivonrwl by 
King EJvrurd thv Fourth, aiid was a very cmincol cbaiacler of 
tbal at;c. He was afipoiiitcd niu«l<-r of llic luint in Ihc loMcr tf 
Londoa; stcM^rd of tbe li«>u«iir uT Leicester, Doiitogton, &c; 
comUble of Ilic castles of Ihowr two (>Ia<'», and al Jl^han- 
F«rrcn ; ranker of L«ic««t(>r frmvl aiid paHi, Barrow, Mid TooWy 
Ftliks, ^c. I]c was afterwards ntade cbai»b«ilaiii of llie king't 
bouscboM, itnd lord chamlierlain of North Wales. lu H6l bt 
wai adnnc^ to the lUgnity of a baron ; and had Hvrral nianon^ 
lordships, &c. granted liiin. The next jx-ar he was iii»titll«4l 
liotgbt of the jarter; and, aDer receiving roan^ oilier public 
honours, cbtatue<l licvncc from Edwurtl llie Fourlti, in H74, lo 
imparl: 3000 acres of land aiid wood tn Asbby-de-la-Zoudi ; 
SOUQ acres of bind and wood ia Baguortb and Tlionilon ; and 
3000 more at Kirby, with tlie liberty of free wartcn willuo Ihem 
ill'. lie was alio licfKfed \ lo erect hf.»xe> of lime aDd slooe, at 




* Tlio |MiwEr aiiJ diftnitjr nfllilt nnMnTian, nnil tlit- pmiliar rtutoira «f Ite 
tlmeih may kr niiiiiBiod by llic folluviiiu Btntcnit'ttt of tit. Fallcr. In I47S 
Lard Uniting " had no leu than two letdi, mnc knitttiti^. and fiOj-f^ii 
nifiiiiri, vtirli iweiii; smtlcmFn of nctc, iliat vcic rrtninrd bj ludentm 
during iliiijir Iivr«, to lakp (tit i>ar1 ii|:aiiitt all pfnnni wbatfvcr, witliia lh« 
icdlm, ilirii al'i'ttanrr lo ibe kiug. A.C. onljr exct^iiul. ' Hi- wa» MinM 
on Towtr Itill, in June, l-liLi, and «m intt'rcil in ilif >iil(>ii4i(] riupd of St> 
George, at Wliidmr, wliere an ele(rant monunieot bat Item niMd t» hii 
nftnory. A <)eKentlAuli>ril<ii lolfltnian wu tlir eccentric J/ncy Vattii^^ 
wliow oddiliu.! are desciilxil In Vol. IV. p. *jl. uf the (itiieul woik. 

* Tlicimiw ill lltit licence orjulentatt " iKia-fllanii, limrfiltatJi,' ktrml- 
tiauli, lmtmtl€tian.:i, turrHindi, nfui auehftaimM." I'lic LatiniiM]- French 
wgnb ntnif] j '* imutllarr, t<t wall ii|iur imuiuiv ; tmcreUatc, to aakv towen, 
bnltnirki, m frrlreuu: kemtUarf. lu pliu)acle; iinbalUllare, to amtMltle, 
ttuTttlurr, in tijaki-. IiuIm or la<<p« in m«||s; niiMbovldrr, lo in«ke a nilike 
device ov«i a ^aie, or oilim |MUM)te, like l« a gnie, tiiroiifh which »ealdiB| 
water, or {tvnitrnnit aRcnxiTe Hiinm micbl be CMl down upon tlie enemy; 
■II wlu'Hi, cicr)il Ilia llirec li>*t, aic lliiit iiitrqireleil bv Lord Coke, in lh« 
Ani book of hii iiutituln, wlictt? it b uid Itiat no nilijerc ran linild a caailc, 
wbguM«f*treD£lli, viiilioiil special \t»\t oftliekiii^" BiRTDh'sNS. 




«arb of those place*. That wliicli tie built al Asliby. was of great 
eKtenl, slrvii^^h, unil iiii])i>rtaiicv, xml ln're be iiiid liit H«i>cvrHli)iits 
rc«iitH for about 'JOO tears. It «aa built at llie loutli side nftlie 
tovm, on riniin {•raund, and was chiefly coinpoM^I of brick and 
Aeoe: Tlie TowiM wcie sjucious Mwi ningiiitia-iit, alUclieH to 
which wnt a coitiv priv^ite i-hajtel. llie builijiiig vas ifi;>tiiliod 
with two loflv towen, which were at imineine mi-, as one nfibiini 
contatued " a lar^ hall, greut chanilH-rs, bed rhaniUen, kitchens, 
celliin, ami all olbvr oliirev." The oUwr was railed tlie Ktlrlira 
Tovrer. Parli nf the vralk of the liiill, chapel, anil kitchen, arc 
stiU muininiE. aod ilispliiy a ^itd and tiJlere»tiiig mass of niim. 
tadly uiiilibTed wall* are ricblv decniated wilh d(H>r-w»jr);, 
hinraey<|Nrcei^ wiudons, coals of arUM, ami other dcnces. The 
er»enilerl Slary queen of Scuts, " who hu givi-n celvbrilv l» «> 
antny caulles and old imiuinniis, bv her inebiiclmlj ini|irisftiiitK-iit 
benestb their loH; turrrls," uas for some lime conlined uilliiii the 
wall^ of this at A^ibv, while in the cuittoil; nf (he euH uf Jlunliiii^. 
Anne, consort of Janie* the Fint, awl Iter »oii, prince 
lenrr, wre enlctlaiiied, in l603. ar this ca&lEe. which was then u 
ll of mndi h»»]>italilv. It was uO«rw iinls honureii b\ u viut from 
Ibat momreli. In Ihe civil war of the next rei;{n, Atbhy Caslle was 

Ky involved, bcit^ ^arrisum-d for llic kin;;, beueged hy ihe 
inwntary foires, aud ^lbi>nt;h nevrr cuiic|iivre(l, 
vlirocclhe gamwaobtaiDcd the H|i|>ellatian of Maiden) eviicuated 

Ed dHBWntkd by cajiitulntion. 
flic CllUHnti ofAslihy, dedicated lo 5l. Helen, U a handnnme 
icient Mlilice. ll is btiilt of »1one, nud coiiutts of a imve and 
'o ailes, sepanlett bji four lofty arches, spriR;;ii:j* froiii fliiled 
iliirt. Tile cbaticel tx neut and siiacious: on eiich side is a 
r^ cha|H>l, projecting considerably nider than the church; 
Uial on llie uuith is converted into a vestry room; tlie south is l)ic 
burial place of the Hastings family. At the west «iid of the north 






' Saatt kitfn iVuni ihe miticioii) Bliabclhi to the TAr\ o( Huiilingihn, 
■ priDtadluMr. Mcliali'i HistoryollxicMicMliiic^Yul. III. p. cu9. 


aitc u ab imtruuiml uf puniilmirnt for llic duordrr)_v> eallei] "» 
£1)t;er piUory." wliitti Mr. NklioU dcicnlws as a '■ i>iniiiil;ir cu- 
riosity.** ItcoDMkboftuoufiriglit jKHil<i. BDppoiliti^ ail borixonlal 
brani ill Imo part*, oproing with a hinge, llie luwcr pun contaiaJng 
Iraki of every aize for tlic fingers ol* utTrDden. Amnitgtt ttw J 
Kpiilcltral nioaumcitls, Ibuw of tLv ilunttDgdun &iiiily are nios( * 
cuBjiicuoiu. The uiciitoiy of Fmiuis, second Eari of ihiUiag- 
4o«, vilio died in I36l, aiMJ KiithvTinc bis wifr, is preserved by a j| 
Urge and c<ntly Mltar tomb, willi llicir rccumbrnt ttituts cm ir, ~ 
atvA llie elii^ien ut Ibtir rbildreji round it. Itcre n i1h» a mural 
niouiiine»l fur TfuophiluM, Ibc sncotfa carl, wbo died in 1701 ; ■ 
fnd aiKitbpi for Thropkilua, thr nintti «irl, wbu dk-d in l/';|(T. 
His couiitras, SriiMa. died in 1791. »od «u iiiterrvd brnf. Thii 
Udy is well kooMii for ber piety and pJiilaiilhrci|>y, and for tba 
erecliwu aud palruiisge cif nunieruus cbapdn tlirmigiiout ibe kJago 
dam tailed ntler her name. 

*' This town." ays Burton, " is tbenaliTe place of Uieiuirror anil 
omaiiii'tit uf our Itiucs. tbe rijjbl reverend Faibvr in God, JosBPM 
Hall, how Biiiiio]> of Exdcr." ■■ Few, if any, of lli*- fallters of 
9ur churcb,** observes Mr. Niclioli, " hiirv left bebiud them siicit 
illustriouB uieniuriids of learning, piety, aiid unwearied induvlr^ is 
l^e canK of Irutb. The innocence of hU life, tbe fenonr of bit 
charity, the variety and importanct! of hit ihvulogical writing liave 
been so many irresisbble dainu on posterity to jireMrnr him frora 
ibe oblivion into nbicb most of bis coteniporaries have falleB." 
He was bom, according to bis owii tialenicut, " Jaly 1, 157-t, at 
fieslop Park, within tbe pariah of Aitbby. uf houesl and wetti 
alloued parentage." After obtaigung and pu.vsiiig tlirougb tneral 
diD'erctit church prrfemiL-uU, Iw was traitsJulcd I'roin tiie bishop* « 
rick of Exeter to that of Norwidi, where be died in Seplt^ibcrtr- f 
l6i6, in the eighty-tbird 5<eai of bis age. His literary noii* ar* 
copiou), aiid occupy, exciuiivc of Iib satires, live volumes in fbli» 
ai)d quarto. lie was styled the Chrittian Seiiei;a, from Im sentcn- 
tioui luauner of mriling, and wu jusiy celebralvd fur hii piety* 
nil, learning, and exletuive Vnowkdge of uiaitkiud. 




, Four fairt are uovv annuadly Iteld at Asliln-, also a statuti: for 
fairing servaots, an'l a wevklyiRarkct,',wlij(?)i ispkulifutly supplied. 
Tbe place is ^vcll wiitrr«d with sprinf|R: aii(i onllioaiijoimngwold* 
■re fewial l»inje stagnant por>|s. " Ashljy-de<la-/ouch caDlBins, by 
ettiniatiou, about I l,!IO0 acres; aod \^5 liouKs pay tfa« »-indow, 
or conii»utali«D tax, Tbe inliabilant^ arc sbop-kecpcrs, iaa- 
k<epcr», nianufncturcn of woollen ami collon *li)<:kii,;;!i, and hats, 
fiwmcn an4l Inboiiters. Here is ooe of l^dy Huntinf^on's 
Cbapcli, one Mdliixtikt Cliapcl, atxl one Preib^tcrnn Cliapd, 

A Jjatin Prte-tcheol tias founded in Uib tuMii ia L567> by 
H«Diy Earl of HuoUugdon, and otben, " for kntrucliug ]r«utb 
in fOO<\ ntannrt), leiirning, knowlodge, astt virtue," Aootlier 
frec-Kbool nas founded here in lb'69 by \wic iXwton; and 
oUkts, for iiKtructing Iwcatj-aix bo^i iii llic usuiU brnncbu of 
acbool knowleiiije. lu 1800 Asliby coiitaiued 6:^1 boiues, aii4 
8674 iobabitauts. 

BSLTON, in old nrilJUf^s ttjivd Beicten and Bdatton, H a 
|>lea»aiit village, aealed in a part of tbe counter di3tirigu>>licd for 
lb picturesque icnicry. Tbe cliurcb is lari^e, vitb a nntt plaio 
fewer and spire, and vtilhiti Ibe I'onoei ti u curious old iiionunwnlt 
will] a rrcuiiilM-nt st;alue uf a feiualfe, leprcKnting the Lady Aocsw 
^ Vtrdua, tlie fouuder of tbe 

NoNNRKT ofGracioiRi;. Tilia religloua house wm beaa* 
tiAitly liluBted in a rtlirtd and tecluded ^»ot, uear llie c»tre of 
Ct)finmood forest, at Ibe diatancc of six miles from (lie towns 
«f I^it^iborougb and Astibip-de*lti-Zouch : and was foiuidcd \ty tbe 
ttbuvc named lady, between the sean l?36' aud 1243, fumutis of 
tbe order of St. Austin. Tbe wlinle of Oraccdien was a park, 
■nd bsliil M) denominated. The outer wall of tlic ganlcn. wliidi 
ia novr remaining, formerly iacludcd a space of about two acrca. 
Aa one of tbe smaller inoiiaiteTin,liiiA was included in (beiu|ipTv*t 
•ion vtbtcb took place iu the year 1536: but, witli thirty otiiers, 
mu allowed, by ticeocc fron tbe kuig, to continue lomc dme 

Vol. IX. B b lougt*. 


^''looger, II fiitalljr siirreitdered in 1A39, whm Uiiere vnn fouitrwi 
•ktins. a |TTioms, and a stil>-prioFvm. Thp mic of t)ir priot'y. willi 
lie demcsn* laml*, vtftt granted in Ilir «atin! jwr lo Sir Humph- 
ey F(Mt«r, Knight, b^ llie M^Tiire of a foitttli part of ont kni^lit'< 
c, and the mil of 508. a yrar. This pfnlk-miiii inimpclintrly 
■(onvejred Ihe wliol* In Jo/ih Brmimont, Ewj. to wlioni a verj 
curious inventftTj* of (lie " bouse liold-stufTi-, come, rati^H, orna- 

IfilieDls of ttir dinrcli, aiid »urh oilier I^Le," in lb« priciy, wu 
made nut. Among Ifjcin u ()i« following entry, iP<prcliiig tlie 

Itiuinber :inil piic»?s of *' cattell." " lleiu— l^veK'c oxow, lOl.; 
ti^it kynv aud bull-fidr,- 65s. 8d. ; lwejil}'-foiir bests in llic fnmr, 

|i.*7l.; »e»«i <glv«, lis.; six hor8», Q6*. 8d. : lliirly-fiitir ^vrjiir-, 

k^rayaed at C6s, 8d.: *imi of Hie »liu1*-, 251, iSs," In tJierliitreh 
««Te, " Fyrst, oiil- tubk nf wmlo; ovfr tlie byji;)i all«r certain 
iim^B, two iaien raiidl»t\k^ one hni|i of latPn ; <vrliim oiikte 
formes in out lady chajipcll. cerlaiu uuld image*, one pailicinit of 
(ymber, out- laiti|H% and oul'l f^rnirB in lite niuiui's cgueic, one 
roHe, rorti^eii iiiiagen, and llie minnn slalli ; in llie lirlbnwBc one 
Hoke, certeiii ontd iniag«, oiild stoles oCwoode, one ould chest, 
one uald liitly wairr blole of bni^u*, mid Iho ro^sc, glasse, ieron, 
■nd pavement in the clitiiclie, and (lie gla-ttf ond iron in the H(epk% 
u souidfor I5l." 

Fkani'19 Beaumont, the celebrated Dramaiie poet, wliow 
name i% genrr;;!!}' afsocialeit with that of Fltlrhrr, his literary 
Msdjiilor, was a native of Oracedieu, where he was boru iii 1 586'. 
IVhiliit BeiDiniont Mas remurKable for the Bcnirn'-v of his jotl*- 
ment, FMcber was disltiifjitislied fiir hi* erierpy and terlility of 
imagination; thofl, what the nnc ereuled, vex*, by ibe other; 
" formed sTid fushioned," wWh so nineh diseriniiiiution and elleel, 
•a iiot only to prow extremely |M>}Hiliir at the time, but enlittcd 
lo admiration and pniioe of tlie present fultthtouH age. Tlie^ 
co-aulhors produced fifly-lhree plays, Ibe greater pari* «f whidi 
•r» allriliuled to Beaumvtil. " 1 »iii]«ecl," nyt Mr. £. Brydgtt, 


■ T 

■* tUa Ii priutcd la Nidiok's Hatocy of Lckeiltnlure, VoL III. p. CiS, 


who unites the vitiil dncy of Die poet willi Lbe more atibslwilinl 
jud^ciit of lli<: uutiquur]' ami bio^iplier, " tliat f;r«it injudire' 
has genrralljr Ihtii liune lu Bcauitimil, l>y )lie aupjtwitioii tliiit liis 
merit nas priodpflliv roiijincd to lopping the n-'HiiiidaDrtts of 
FlelclicT. Indcvt], llic j(i< lie ions uutliori ff iIk- Bi"uni|iliiH Dn- 
matica arc not guilty of Ibb fjull ; r<>r llie> ^.y, • || is iirobnbte 
llitt the furmiiJi; Ihv plutMiii<t coi'lrirh^ llivconHiict of Ihc l^hle. 
the writing vdnare irrioKa anit pufhrHc porta, niicl lopfiing llic rc- 
dtindant braiuhcA of FIttdicr's 11 il, wlii»e lu\»r»iire we «rr told 
freqncntly stouil in ncctl of caslication. mi^ht \tt in gfiii-ml Hi-ati- 
numl's portion «f tlic work.' Tiiis is to nfF-ml liini ir»y lii;:h 
praise; and the follnwinf; aittliniitit* iihIuci); rh! lo bflievr il i«)it. 
Sir John Birkvohi'jd, in liis vmrs on Fleldirr, hus tl.( follouiug 
lines, which prove a) lva»l liis npinioii tliut Bciiuuioot unt better 
eoiplo\cd tlian in lopping luxuriances :" 

" S<ini» lliink your wiU' of two ciicni)!«ii>n'» fnnt'il, 
Tliai OIK llie Sr-ik, 1)1' other ibe ttufSim tloiiu'di 
Thai, diiiulit llir i>ta^ pmbnUIf all Ltk furrp, 
Flc(cli«r would Iml iha ftioi ; Baiimunt ilie lione t 
But ytm vcie batli Ibr both, not «cml-nit« ) 
Eicli pit-cc is wtKolljr two, jel never •iiUU." 

Braiimont died at Ihe vi*rv prime and vigniir of lifr, in Hm* \tnt 
l6l5, before he h»d alluined bi» Ihirtiilh jear, and «ai buried at 
Ihe etttraoce nf St. Bctiedicl't Cbupel, in Wcslmimirr Abbej 
Church. .\ voltmip of UU Poetical Esuivii, trilh a little Dramntie 
Piece, v>»i ptibliflieil in t()S3, in ocluvn. See a portrait ol'liiiii, 
nith ninnv {xirtirulars Te«pfcliitK h>^ writiii<^ tie. in >iicliol»'l 
History uf Leicestershire, Vol. III. p, *66C, &e. 

Br EDO N, » eomiiJvrablc villa t^e 011 Ihe verge of this hiinilrcd 
aiul county, is sealed at the baiie oCa hi;T|i time-ttone rnel:, 011 the 
BtiiDinit of which (he diuirli &luitd<t, pruii'ily elcv^jtcd above the 
eireunijaeent eounlry, ami comiiiniidi very rstenwi** *irrwi». The 
parish is large, and iiieltides Ihe hanilcU of Slaunlon-Hnrold and 
Worthuigloa, Brecdou Brand, Wilslon, part of Cole-Orton Manor, 

B b 2 a third 



a third put of Launt. and a part of llie village of Di)«wortb. Aa 
act was f>blaii>nl in 17^9, for indo&ing tiie uiNrn and cummoD 
fteJib of tliit mnnor, ^Dtinuiiliiig lo I J3() xcrtia, and Hurry, Kiirl of 
Staruford, U described as lonl of tlie niannr. palnw of Uie vkatagc. 
and |)ropnelur of llic ])rinci]Ml luuds. Tbe inanur ii ilJtl brioog>- 
ing to Ihv Earl of Sl;iiiifnrd. wlio it alio |>ro|tnel(ir of lb« nlunlile 
aBd«vtflisii-e thiic-wotlis here. " Wlioever," obKrtes Dr. Dar- 
win*, " will tiiBpect with tbe e>e of a pliilosoptivr, the Lime- 
BUMinUinatBredoii, uiittif cilt;r of Lcic*>Kli'r>1iirt>, uill uul )miut« 
a nioniciit ii> |»rofM>uiiciaj lliat it bu> btrta rmcibly i'l«mrd hj 
sonin p»wer beneath il : for tl is of a couicul furm, with LJie mptx 
cot off; aiitl the stralii, »liicli (oiii)ki)iV llie ceiilral |kitU uf it, and 
wbicii arc found nearlv borizoiiiul in tlie |tl:)iii, arv r«i«ed almott 
pfrpcndiculariy, and pliirfd u|)on tlivircd^i's, wliile Ibow on mcJi 
side decline like lliv iinrf^c« of liie liill; so llut iJiis mountain loaj. 
well be r«|irrseiilMl hy a bar niadu b^ furring u bwlkiii (hruugb 
several |iarjllcl •^hct^'ts of paper." 

Tlie limi- prudut-ed ftoni Ibis rock is of a siiij{u)ar quality, and 
h «cc«st(»iiiiljy unhI as mannre on the adjoiiiiu); Iaii<1ti, -to ike 
auounl of five or ij\ i|uar1er« per acre. If more tliau tlii^ <)it»n- 
Uty ht laid on. Die farmers (-otisidrr Ifiat it will paiatm (hr land. 
Here ate sis or »*vcn kilns t^enera)!)' ke|tt bimiiuf;, iiml liii* (jui-rritt 
arc between tliirty atid folly fci't liigh, eacli prc^nltng a ctitf of 
heterttgvneous rock, wlience tbe iloiiu is obtained by bla^tiDg. 
This stone. i« ver/ brittle, and »lien hnvkcn, n laid on itie kilns, iii 
layers uf about bnlf a viutJ thick, between eacU of which 1)i%cr« it 
anolber of coals, five or sin inrlm thick. The latter itre obTuined 
iu sbuiid.'iiice Hilliiii (hr«!e iiiiki of tlte kilns, uiid vrry stroo* Itres 
are eonslanlly kejit up. Lacb Liln biirat, on an average, four load* 

AtBrtdoitwan formerly arVI«t-y, or mtbcra CrfV, of Augu&liBe 
Canons, subordinate to the prinry of St. 0>wal<t, hI NoitcII, la 
Yorkshlte. 'Die present ct^>rcb belonged to the cell, till tbc dib- 


* PUIoMpluaBl TraimciioM, Vol LXXT. p» 4> 


soliitioii, \%hm it naf M>kJ bv Hmipv VIII. (o Fnincii Sliiilrjr, Ea|. 

H t biiri^l-)>lHnr fur liiiuM'ir aiid \m aucctiuorc. Tlit* g<'iill(iruin 
•fteraards gniirtetl it In llic paiiilijonen. Tlie porth » ilcconted 
«rtlh s«v«ful siiinll fra^pucnU of uiirinil scu1[itiirc>, prolialily lakim 
from tli« nMvT rliiirvli : ainjl uilliiii tlic builUJii^ an iou« fiii« 
moiiutncnU to llie Sliirlev fiitnily. 

Stavhton-Habold, ail extensive lorddiip, is the »at of the 
SMirtry /trmity, xn<l n now orctipicd liy Hobtrt Skirtry, Eml 
fimrrt. The name of tlus |>lare it «vitteutljr tlenved from the 
nalural diaracler of tlic spol-Slont-tom, or touii, awl the a^ftinct 
of Harottt froui Hiv luiite of vd anrirnt lonl. \Ati tliv Normoii 
cu<MiiM«l, Stauntfln wai given to Hmry dp Ferrarii* : ami miw 
inio the SbirW Hiniilj li^ lltf marriage of Maijrarcl, «olc Iicir of 
Jshn and inande Slaiiiilon, willi Kalpli SUirlev, Kkj. iii Ike yuir 
14^. This faiuilji, tays Burton, is of great aiiliquitv, ami 
d«sri;ii')B frtim " an nnriciil Suxon line, long liefarc the roiuiuest." 
"Of tli«opuIeiiKand(ligi]itv,aB u'«ll as ibe iinlM}uity (tf tliis noMe 
Ciinily, a copious account tiny Ih- wvu in IIutc dielinct MS tii^ 
torica preserved in the BrilUh Museum*." 

Tlu! matuiaii-hoav a( Si a iin ton- Harold is a hr^e pile, com^ 
posed of brick and stone. Its Boutli-^asteni, or prionpl front, is 
vmanvented with piUstcn anil Dorir rolunuis iu Iht cmtre, rar- 
moiinted wilhap<-iiim4-nt. The interior of lliii maiuiitn i^ipucioiis, 
aud nianv of Ihe rooms arc dccoialed with pictures, tSic. In the 
library, «cventy-tu'o Ibct by eijc;l»l*(n, is a «plctulid tuid copious 
ftdigrft of the Sliirlcy family ; also the coiufilete IVwka »f Cam' 
fucnu, Ihe Chinese philosoplier, in u\teen 4)(iar1o volumes. Here 
i) abo a curious old bt^ltstwirn, torntMl front mi clqthaot'i toolb, 
and adorned nitli reprc«.-4il»lioiu of variout Add sport*. Of the 
B b 3 pictum 

* Ktcbob'sHIrtor^j Vsl.JIT. p. 11.11. 704, i*lMr« ar* rxtmcU fims, u<l 
4safTiplion» of, tltcK M.S.S. ; abo an nccaimt «f ilii; chief itritmu uf llic 
lltniiK, withporliaiuof -Sir Roberl "^irlrf, l]«n>iii!l, vtIki Jtcd \<iS(>i and a 
fall lHii;lli portnil of anaiticr Air KolKrt Stitilsy, dir crkbralvJ uanlter ia 
l^^nia, froui a i'ictur« nl Pvtwortli. 




pklurM only a few can be )m1irti[arizi>d. PoRTRAlTs- 
Robrrt Shirley, by Vuiulyck : antl tiis Lail;, by \x\y : a uiull full 
longlli of A'l'nir CAartrt iIjc Seroml. in hit i»b<-s vi>ry liighly 
finisJi«d : ui LjiIIm, toiitiiicmly calltti hittf^ Charleis Urmitit*, by 
Sir Pfler Ldy, These last seven porlniU wi'ic given by ttnt 
moniucli Id K<tb«r1 Eail I-'crrt-rs. In tbp dining -parlour U one of 
WrijfhI's beil i)ictui(»i, calkd the tjcclmt on tht Ormg, in wliicit, 
among teveral poilrailB, is that of Atr. Burtirtt, who surveyed 
anil juililislird a maji nf Dcrbydiirc, and wax afterwards inaile 
diief engineer to Ihv Prini^c nf Baden. 

Dead (iuinc, &c. bv uhl Wecnix ; and » landMape, uilh figures, 
rninii, &r. by Wyiiniitt, iu his bcil niniiner. A large picture of 
the Crocifixiuii, by Carncei. The Last Jiiit^menl, by Uubens, s 
tiai! aiidbigbly-valtied iMcltire; ttrn landscaiws, by Dc^lietii ; ai»d 
Iwu oUicrs, with sii i-nc:impiiieiit and a ballie-pii^ce by Wouver- 
niaris. A biitisc^pe, rcpreM^nliiig llie ellect of a stonn, by N. 

Tlie lioute stands in a line park of one hunilrt'd »nd fifty acre^ 
in which w a litr^ InLc, Ibat coren about thirty acres, and is 
adorned wjtli a handsome alone bridge. Adjoining the houw » 
the chiircli, or rhapol, comtisliiig of h nave, itiU's. chaiieelj aitd 
tower. WilhinKtdc are uttiie monuments and long inMriplioos, 
commemorjtive of the names, litleo, and cbaraclen of several per- 
UMii of llie Sliirlcy luniily iuleired here. 

. Coi.R-Obton, aiicieiidy wrilten Oirtlone, u a large partili, 
distitif'uishL'd for it* e4>llivrtes, uriil uiience it af^mirs to have 
derived the eorrupletl addilinn of Cnle, nr Coal. TUe coniilry is 
high, and eommanils very exieiuive views every way. Ortoa coi^ 
xitl.« of tno luwti.d)i|M, eulU'd Otrr-town, or Cole Orton Saury ; 
and IS'etfuT-leum, or Overton-Quatcniiar^li. This place has been 
noted ftir iU roat-minra for many ages ; and in the reign of Henry 
theKi!*lillilliC!ii« "'fli(i bum for miiny years tO|;rlher, and could not 
be (juencliecl imti) lliat titiljtliurous iind brimstony mutter (wheren)K>a 
it wrDU{;ht) ivas utterly cxlmustcd and consumed." In this village 




u xn htapltal and $ehooi, uiiited in one building, an>:) erninl it 
Ibv r\|H-Hu! of the Kiglit lloitounibli; " Tlioiii^ Lord Viwounl 
neaiuuoot uf lliis iilucv." Smiic Blmin eiiguiet liavc breo emied 
lien, tu (Inihi tfav mine*, aud {>ull up llw coals. Thw \illii^e U 
ftnled lo liavc mtiUiiwd, in ISUO, '237 Ituusrs, and tu6i) iidiii- 
bitsrnU. Sii- Gvurgv Bvuunioiil, Bud. u now biuldiug au d^ut 
inausiou Uure. 

DisiiLCV H a Email «illugp, irndcrpd im|>artanl in Hie agriaal-t 
lufal uikihI^ of Ibr county and kiiifsdum, from thr surccaful ex-: 
pciiineuM and piaclicesof (he l;tte Mr. Ikikewcll, nlio wv^ a native 
of lliit place, aud wliu ^ve di;;iiity ami a snenlilic rlunicter lo 
ibr pursuits of ilit; gniriiT mill ftirener which were n«Ter knowu or 
iKknow li>d){ed before Im tme. As tli« hitlor^ and in1trrt»l of Hm 
plare Imiv arisea froni litis toan, und a^i hi» prolr.4ionul praclim 
wercal ouce lumbUlc, fMiiiphtn.-, mid pntis(-uortli>, a few |Kir(i- 
CDIub of ill* life cannot be tlevni^d citlier iridiivani or uniu-, 

ItoBCKT Balkwell nM bom ben m 1726, and having im-' 
biU'd It partidlilj, wlicn m jioutli, forlhi: |)ur«uit» of lii»fiitli«T,wa» 
enlruijcti, by tiiat respectable yeoDi-iii, with llie m>Ic tnanagcment 
of liu f^imi al an eaily Klagv of life, viUtu the geii«nility of yxing 
nicu iu liis flation :irc »l[no-.l ivlxilly rmployvd in tbc rude aud 
bM»tcr«U( iiwrti of lli£ licld, aitd the U-m iuai>n-nt pa»lin>c» of a 
COOlttiy vilbge or lowii. It twny be temitrked, llul wbeiiever a 
, luaa of genius beeonics iKirlisI <•> a pr'>fct«iaa, and ii enabtod (« 
yunat it wiltioul, nny accidntlul vr iii)furiuii»tc oWniclious, be 
uilluot Ouly ac4<ii(e fmuc to biiii>cif, but <<>iifvr di;:nity »i>-.I la- 
teml oil tbc object of his ttudic*. Tli'? ii<-live an.l riiteipriiiug 
niioil will certuiiijy «lidt «oi»e KjKtiks of li^^bl, and if Utc«c be kin- 
dled by f<OTluii*>itc c"itKidvncie9, wiiiice hIII \>v intpnnnl, and Ibe 
nation beuctilt«tl. Among all the virions mid uuincrons piirsuila 
of mun, IImI iif n^iiculliirc i» rcrlaitily tlie nnoit iiM'ful; Tir (be 
neeeftiarica of life are «f the tiist im|H>rJauce — it* lusuti^'S and 
pli.-u3itrc» but a scrondury vouMderuliuu. l)*:, Uienforc, ubo aiig- 
QWbl* Hit fonucr, &ud cutisCs tlictu Iu be rcinU-icd bcltei ttiid 

B b 4 cheupcr. 


cbeapfrT, mty fitidv Ik ranked willi tlie grMlert pliiluiUiropnli 
and palriota. [t lias becu repeatedly aoil ^ait\y reinnrked, that 
there b ito diiss of men, alH>ve the very vu)|;ar, more obstinately 
attaclicl tooKU^slcnu uod invetcnlc pTcjudices than tbe ttusbaml- 
UKQ «nd furtncn of tliU couiilrj'. Amuuif these, tberefore, useful 
uovelty luid iuDoratioh bcmme more rilniordiiiary bdH pnusc* 
vrorib^r* Before lli« caUblishmcnt of the London Agriculhinl 
Society, scarcely auy expt:iinieub in the Kieiice of ugriculluie bad 
been made, or, if made, were mn-er pubUi:ly promulicalcd. TYiat 
society* slimulalL-d enquiry, excited cumpetilion, and ultimately 
provoket) improvements. Oilier mialler societiea bh^t progret- 
nvcly sprung np in different parts of ibc counliy, and all have 
jointly co-o|>cniled in diswiniaaliQS useful knowledge. Tlie com- 
nwii-placR rompUiiit of rcprobatiug tliese, as lending to cnbanoe 
Uic prirca of the necessaries of life, nnd prnducu superituity offal 
in animals, b scarcely entitled to serious rcfiilutioD, u dogmatic 
Bad illiterate aaoertioos are unwortliy of an>uineDt. Il may b* . 
conAdeutly said, that uo individual bas elTerted «o mucti towards 
tlie miioral of prejudices from, and establialiment of enlightened 
praeticcs to, lib profession as Mr. Baknrdl. His maiiumtren 
founded on tbe best princtplrs of philosophy, and He fortunately 
eiemplilied those maxims in mo^t of liis experiments and pracliocs. 
His grand principle, in stock-breeding, was tfaal " like wdl produce 
lis like;" or, tbat well mnde, finely propurlioBed, and tbri*in£ 
aniniaU, niEl ptfHiure othtr^ of ^imitiir fjnalitie*. He alio cao« 
tended and proved, Uiut caltic aud sheep, when in good condttioa, 
(tid not devour so much food, or cost so mncli for keep, as poor 
and slaning ttnimnls. TIk* form of these was also s point of con> 
MMjUcnce in liis ektimation ; and lie aliray* chose those wilfa IkmItcs 
shaped lumrihing like a barrel : i. e. round, large in the middle. 
and tapciiiig towards both ends. Tbeir bona and Iifadi were to 
be very small, and their legs short ; as flesh is more profitable 
and nwfu) than offiil ur bone. 

A few particulars relative tu tbe life of Mr. Bakewell, and of hti 
practices at Dishley, will serve to illustralc ihcw rrmarki. The 
instractive coirreTsation of bis fiitfaer, comtnoin]; vritb the senti- 


LBtcnsTEttetiisE.' SSS 

mcntl of Rll», nf Gadileitdeii, w)in had publislied some worka no 
Aimint; and ratlin, wete the tint inccntivi-s lo impruvi^mcnt e%- 
perienwcl by owr nirsl philotoplicr. Tliew, ho-vpvfr, only pro- 
iaf*d rtiwirclic nrtlmiw, aiMl Mcitefl b detin to Ti»il athn ooun- 
He* aud I'ixees, in order (o nbterve am) \vsm tli« praf tiees of Mine 
experienwd *nii tiotorl fiinner*. Ho Oipicfotc made toor* into 
HorfU);, If'>Un<1, Holland, Ranclvn, tte. siid fmm cairefully and 
rslionnlly examining ihe various an<l different prartices of other*, 
aei)'''' '■ ' ■ '",' portifvii of Hint iis'fiil woHly wisflom whicli coo- 
taXs m krii»iiii^ »hatoii|;]it to he avoided, and what may b« UeA 
tod moKt fliiv»ntageou!ily ndopted and {tenerered in. Notbinj; 
either of i:renl or infi-rior con!e()uenci' in mral economic ettoped 
his todcfatigtibtc research. lUvioj; sntUlicd hiiuMlf j-cspccting llie 
Dtnagdiifut ot others, aft«r hi* fatlicr** dcnth, lie cmplojxd tlic 
full «neri,'ies of liis mind and knowledge oii his otvn f^nn at Di.ib' 
\ty, ThM, acconliuc lo Mr. Young, " oiii^istr-d of fwiit Iiuudrcd 
ind forty acres, oiic hundred aud ten gf which were arable, and 
the r*!itt gniss. On this he kept sixty horsea, four hundred larf^c 
sbeep, and one hundred ami fil^> beasts of all sorts, aiid yct be 
has genenJly about fifteen acre; nt' wheat, and tucnty-five of itpring 
com ; the tunii|» not morr: Ihan thirty acres. If the dcjrcc of 
fktnes in which he keeps all Ihi.'se mttle he considered, and Ihul 
he buys neither straw nor hay, it miinl at i>itc4: appear tl>al be keepi 
a htrgcr slorh, on a given niind>cr of acres, Ihnn most: men in En^ 
luid : the jfrongesl proof of all ollicrs of the excellence of his 
husbandry ■.' In srlrcflng the above slock, Mr, BaLrwell evinced 
Imdiscrimtnutiitg judgment: vvliJcb u^svi|ua]|y displayed in his 
tuodt of keeping ami fattening thern. His »ciienil Ireatnirnt of 
lire stork, and manasFment of Mrivanti, all citnstitiitetl parls of 
Ibut system which at once did honour to his lir-dd nnd heart. At 
I>ish1ey every branch of niral ecoiiomicji was sysleiniliEed: and 
after various experiments had been Iritrd, that wa't adopted and 
penistod in which had prorcd most successful, and therefore pro* 


" • Fwrner't Tour," mi, Bto. 

aw* LKicesrsasaiRK. 

Vibed to Jtc iiiD»l stlvutiU^cotu. Tiio«j{li Ibo vii;iT> avt pTuot of 
Mr. Bakcivcll embraced almost every object and ofScc ia llic coiu- 
jKiM Iff ii;;tkul(ui-c uiul b(r<:dui£. jct he upfKurs !.-> hiivc Lii'cti 
nunt »ucr<^fnl iu tlic reaiiiig and oiaiiu;;ciiiciit of Shr^, Tlie 
jtcculuir sort that «ti<;iaaiefl from liU mode oi hta-Ains Mtti rear- 
ing, liBt vrrquiu'il (lie munc of tbc DUhiey, or Acjt ijrieaUr 
sitrap. I'beir bodies " are ti5 true burrck u can be accn * ; rouinl 
liroiid liacLs, aiul ibc Irgt not a[>ovr ux iodic* lung; aiid a most 
unusual inoof of llicii kindl)' Mlcoiog h, lUcir fcclii^ cioite Cut 
Jiut uithiu llxir fitrc lcg» oa llic ribi, u [Kiiul ia wbisb sliccp ure 
never ekanuitril iii coaimwi.'' lu nuiViug bin slieep fut, aa iii 
fiillriiing liis c<i1II(.t, lie was only solicilotu of augnimliDg aad en- 
liclibg ibc IU fill [lurU uf the carcjuc. lie also enured bb live 
fctofk toli^idihowt. and cuiilcuded (li«t Iiis slieep would tbriie 
tiiudi licllcr on iIjc moimtainf of Walrn, in Iiiih's, ftc. tlan tliose 
accustomed tu sudi (iluces. The origioul breed wm liic Lincuiu- 
•liire; Imt lliftte uerc grealJ)' improved aiid alli-red. RcsfKctiog 
tliat dcstiuclivc and fatal dLscase railed the rot in hhcrp, Mr. 
DiilicneU Ined dlfiV-renl cspcriiiccnis. and ulliiiLalcly concluded 
thai it aritf-^ mhailif from Jlaodi. Tlic ^mss produced froni tbese 
iniinilalioiu lietng iiiiDatumlly forced aiid " flaiby," almost invari- 
alily caiiATs diis diaordcr in tliccji. rrrigalion. wliea discontinued 
before Ibc moiilti nf May, d(H:s nut ocoiuuii tbe {jrd^t lu produce 
lliia died, nor ditei anj couliiiualion of rain. Thin was repeatedly 
lii<-d liv Mr. Bitkt-wcll, w liu aUu uiii^le use of tbe lollowing pluo lu 
sitisfy binisclf that bw fat slieep ftliuuld always be killed wlK-uavld 
to lIu." butcher. He ovcrflnued a piece of |iii»lure, or meadow, in 
iitmmrr. and in llie futlow rtig autuinn turned ia sucb sla-ep a^ »ere 
di'vliiicd for tlie Initdier, aiid tbew invariably were aifeelcd with 
llu' rot. " After tlic middle of May," »ay* Mr. Vouug, " water 


* \ tbtr* yCfli* «lil ram wt* ncconilely ine«3Qr»d, aa4 Ui« remit llifl^ 
siBlcd— ■" Oirt 5 foct 10 iiieliM ; bei);ht B feel S indie* ; liii coIIat broad at 
llw "II 1ip», 1 foot I- iach<>< ; hrcadtli ovrr hit nhoiililcre 1 Aiol 1 1 ! indiu ; 
<ttii gvw iiL" libs 1 fool loj inclipf ; dirio liii liipi i fool ?J iiiclii»r' 


6oning over land is certain to cause it to rut. witalever be llic 

Alter etiitiiiiini^ tlic CatUe nf diiffrpnl counties, Nfr. Hulicwi-II 
cboie Ibe Lanciishire, or loiig-liunictl bn-rd, u« moM )Kl«|>Ieil tu 
lijs Kir'^tein: anil muny hulls and hnft^n Itreil at DMilf^r Iu>tc been 
much aditiirvtl Un Ihoir Im«hI>, donlilj', and ^tptitudc to fatlrn. 
In lli« mode of wiiiltiring tliese lie was parliculurly curoi'ul. Tliry 
were all tj«] ii|i iii o|irD atirds, or liou»e», from Navembrr til) the 
pud of ALircli, and led iijititi ilrsir, turnips, or hay. The le;iu 
cattle hid only the fint ; and the proprietor ii<;ver lillcrod aiiy of 
these From a cnutive of using ull thr slittw mt food. The floors on 
ivliich lilt' heitstt Kinod were jMived, mbedsiitoreight iiiciies ubovc 
the yaid, and !>o uairutv tliul llii' Jijiid legi of the ;itiim:il^ reudied 
the esTrciiie ei)ij;e. By tins pkiii llie diini! ,i;eiivn>lly fi'tl Ix'yoiiil 
the flvuis, mid thtse ware kepi dty aiid ilean. Iiislciid of oxen, 
cons were generally "sed in huiucsi, ihouj^h horses were aUo eni- 
plo^d; and Mr. Baki-uell isx^iid li> hiivc been the first pt-rsua 
nho adopted the econoiiiital and JiidieinuM plan of plotij^liiitjr with 
two a-Ureait. Wliik" one man wiis etiiplnjcd with only two honea 
io tuniiii); lip the earlli an hit f^rtii, many of his iiei^lihoiinn^ 
fannera seiit a (eiita of four and lii'e^ with a niaii anil hoy, to per- 
form Uie same work, and in wmihir soil. In llic lirced «if fioj'nt 
he n-as h1;o very scriipiil<tii!t, iiiid clinu* Ihi- dinrl, lliiek, hbili 
aurt, as moftt ndvaitlaf^ons for the liarneM. Some of liis scul- 
lions were let out for very liiT£;c3iiitii; iind nii(>, a fj!iir>u« hiark 
horse, was made a puhlic eiliihiliuii uf in the roiirt-vani, at $). 
Jamei'i. The Dii-hley hrped of huree* originuted in lh:il of Flan- 
ders, whence Mr. BakewelE gelceled the ino«l vuluahh- he could 
procure, und thai ut very great pricta, " The handiiomc-tt horsu 
I have e^vr ipfii of the I.i>i>i'e<iter!.hiri> lireed," ssiys Mr. Mnr&ball, 
*■ and perhajH the inoil picltinihle lioriti> of IhiK kind ever bred in 
the island, wm a t>tHlli»n nf Mr. I{:ikencirg, nnmcd K. lie was in 
reality Ihc fjiueied war-hor^e ol' i!ie Gernwii jiaitilers, who, ill llie 


• Farmer'* Tour. 


liiiuriuK« of tiDBgiiutkift, never |>fr!np« nc*IIH Ibc aatuial 
grandeur of thU \»9nt. A niau of inod«nt« sue »c«incii to slirtoL 
under li» fore rod, irhtch roK lo perfectly upri^t, tltat Iiis t»n 
iCood (at Mr. Bakewell «»« every hone's cars o«glrt lo riaiwi) per- 
pnAKi&jirly over Ms f«T« feet. It Di«y be said, witli IHUe latitude, 
that for rrnmdeiu' and sjmnitlry of form, vkwcd as a picUirubtc 
objccl, he <\t<ed«l « fitr Ih* t)or»e which tbis lopcrtor breeder 
had llie liooour of slicMtng to Iiis Majesty, md wLich was ■Hct- 
wards slicvni pttblicly tome mootln tu Loudon, as that horse docs 
the mciuieit of the hreed. Nor wftt hit form dclicienl in ulilily. 
He died iu 1765, ftt the Bge ofoiiirieen ^ean*." 

The ftrcrrf 0/ hogr, rmtitig 0/ fcner*, mode 0/ f»/frrftn» and 
dutriivlnig maitiirrt, planting, draining, impfnamtf of Am- 
bmttlrt/, tpalering iff cattlf, ami teattring land, wi-rc all objcrtt 
of care and BTi^eni at Dtshley. Each vaa alluided to, and each 
waa adapted lo tb tcspcclirc office and use. Tlrc conimon cmtnni 
of liavtni; a latg« or »cnall o|>eii pool of water in ercry ioclusurr. 
Mr. Bakcwdl found to be Tcrv iocoarenieiit, and often dangerous 
to cattle i to rtmedy which he firrt railed IIk- |»nis round, to pre- 
vent the aoiinab gellit^ fuiilicr in tliua hos accessary lo drink ; 
and aftemanls lie used troughs in every field. Iiis mode of bri- 
fotiom a thus fully described by Mr. MurJiall J. 

" Mr. 

* Rural KcoDomji of the MiiHand OMntle*, ^'ol. L p. 308. 

1 ICifTitcm ofmanurlmtluu t'eea mncb trp^ctid, aud nitlicvci;>pp«w- 
anec of rcauM. Vartl ilmi; wat (lie ducf niaiiure li« mtpluvr-d ; tnii lb) <ra» noc 
tlinnni over ilie (ttoiidiIh in ttic n»nat wvf, bdii^ kept in beapi id tlie 7niil, 
till dniMd quite in. In ibit state 11 wai tttttribuled : bat taviai; tuft ail iu 
jiMiediiiaiN (|ualily by draioa-c and mporatian, 11 l>eca»* atmrtf aickn. 
Hic piiaci|iU-i of mBDurinK are i'«t7 •alii&etaril^ anit ti»mkwUf defiMd (a a 
niMll VDluiDC hy Ruliara Jlinttn, Fj^. Hro. 1796, Touttli edilion, ftbeic llie 
■utbor a4Mi1i Uiat Ibe «>t«t wliidi uum &oni fadu yud <ttu^ tbooM l>« 

t Kiinl Cconoroji vf tlx MltDaad Conntio, ToL L p. tM, 


" Mr. Bikoncll, of DisIJcy, standi tint ia lUU qiiartn' of the 
kingdnin lu nu improver of grata land hi/ watering. Fomwrly, a 
suite of meadons, lytug by Ute banks of (be Soar, received con- 
siderable brriclit from the water of the rit-«r Wing judicioiMly 
•prpad over tlieiii in Itie limes of tbe floods. But uotv, not oiil^ 
tfaete meadawi, but year oue hundred ucres, 1 beUcve, of biglier 
buid, I^iug entirely out of Ihv wuy of tmtnml floods, ure watered 
on this modem principle. Mr. Bdkeivell, bke a inanofexperieoce 
in business, before be set ubout ll>» great work, btiidied the art 
on Ihe prineipat !>c«iic of pnii'lico, liic Vivsi of England, where be 
Bpcnt «oine days with the ing<>iiiou* Mr. Boswell, uho louiv yean 
Bj^ publiilied n Ircatue on the subject. The great Mroke of 
inanageiueat inthisdcparliiicnt of Mr. Bakencll's pnietice, whivli 
niaik« bii ^nius in strong ehnmclers, it tlinl tvf dlvcriiii" to Wit- 
purpoM u rivulet, or unull brook, whose iiahiral channel iJurls tb« 
£irlhest booiidur>' of bis farni, falling, vrilb a conUdcrable dcsceot, 
down n narrow vallev, in ubicb its utility, as a source of improve- 
ment to Uu(), W33 confiucd. This rivulet a therefore tunwd it 
tlw highest {4ace that could be eoniniaad«d, and carried, in th« 
canal iiiatiner, lotiud tlie point of a sucll, which Ucs betweeu its 
oatuial l/cd and Ihc furmcr; : by the execution of tliis Ailuiirablc 
tlioufilil, nut only conunauding th« skirls of llic hill as a »ite of i&i- 
provcuicul by wutc(iii[i> l>i>t »u|>plyiii£, by this artificial brook, the 
house ;uid fairni oliices m ith water ; Ijlliu;; fruui it a dnuking pool 
for hoTM-s auti cattle, and cuuvertiug it to a multitude of olhcr 
purpuMis one of nhicb is too valuable to be passed without dis* 
tiiicLiiHi. Mr. Bakewell, three years a.i;o, wit endeavouring to iit- 
veiit a flitt- bottomed boat, or barge, to uuvigate bis luruipa from 
lie liclU tu the ultte-»Ued>; but, fiuJing this Dot easily practi* 
cahlt^ his ^reit mind ttruck out, or lalher caught, tlie beautifully 
Mmple idea of hiuiKhiug the turnips IlKmsclvtn into the water, and 
letting them flout down singly with tlie current I " We Uiroiv Ihcm 
ill, and bid theni meet us at the Uara End !" where be u uow 
(October, i7^9) contiiriug u reservoir, or dry dAch, for liieni to 
«u] into, wttb m grate al tbe bottoia to let out tbe water, but rc- 
* taiuinj 

liintuig 1d€ liimipf, 

frtiglit frcr, ;tt a supjily hi frosry wruttHT. Mr. BnltrMell') im- 
proveni«nts. in tliis ctppmlmeiit of" mnil afi'iini, arc not oiilj *\ten- 
sin*, but lii^l> : ami atr rcndertvl tnon- slrikiiij; bv " pruof ftirrc*.* 
(a ^iid li-rni foi ei[)KTiiii«tit»l (latrtiri) left in eadi Mte of iniprpt'o 
meiit. Mr. liakcwWI \», hi Irutli, a iiia-iipr in lli« art; atid Dnti- 
Ity, m pri.-«i.iii, a scliuul in which it iniglit be sladicJ willi siugular 

Tlioii^li it is evidriit ihal Mr. R;i)f(^well, and bis plan cf breed- 
ing Biiil iisriciiUiirc, wei^ gen«mllv viiUlled to go iiii item I a lion, 
jet tlic one liu« li»d cnviuus rivuU, antl Ihc otlirr sriious uppu- 
neiits. llaviitK httn [titHy cnpioni in «ii])luinin)r liis m«rilX( tl MiQ 
be DO nioie tluiii justicr to ir\hibil unnu! of llic !ir|!iimrn(s rm> 
ploypd to prove hisdefcrU ; for ibe biographer <Ioes not fulfil liis 
(Inly who (lwvlls«nly onrxc«t!eiim'H, RimI niulineii tiiniself lo lti« 
IbiKt^nii" Ifrmt of piinp^vrii,-. At. Ilic hiinisn mind must ever 
be iinpcrfccl, and liable to error, the language of Inith should 
desrribe tl as it is, not ss wiriled to he. 

" Mr. Biikewtll'). pallle, sclcrltd Hnd reared wilh immcnie rare 
ind nnl, aMtmied Ihal stalclv and beaulifiil appearance Mbirh 
chiinTted a w hole country, where stich a sight was perl'eOly noi«l ; 
acid iIh* cullivaTon, bcinc admittH in llio critical inoinent of th« 
anininlH* bile, were eqiinllv rotidv t- ither l«> he dtip<'d or instructed. 
The idfii wiig new, and the rat'tonah .if it renleted \a tiie inven- 
tion nnd jt)d;eni<nit of a sin^^Ie eiiterptisiRs indiviilu*). It cvuM 
Rol be siippofed that hi< piirchR^er* nnd discl|)l(;i were first rate 
judse^of ll)c true lines of anintnl pro}>orlinn, or tlinl Iber cotild 
Btiriillyand Krientiftmlly combine the iilens of bentily and utililv: 
fnr it is well Iinown, that these are extremely variable and uucer-| 
t;im ftimiiii; our calHe-f.meiers. The inilh is, a lari^ (jURnlily 
lit^ulifiil und v^tliiiible stneic was rti^tnhutrd about tite coimlr 
from Oiihivy ; aud of \\m (here uas no xmsU tharr, llie 
value of wliich cons'stvd in a sleek nnd bulky nppciinincct con-'' 
ferrcd solely by th« great care and cxi»cnw of IIk- breeder. TImm 
animab having cost Uic purcliuers or thi»c who hired them. 


con^ideraUl^ sums, it vrxs a necetfan (-nuttijuenrc' that itfcir pru- 

tlufe uxttitii h« TsKtabltf in iiroiHtilion: ;iiiH Battewtll ^itmillt 

ubservtxl, " tttiit Itie noly May l» ItUVf rnpi*al ^InrL it In kri>|t lli^ 

|»in! Iiigli." In ahl ttf thMe u.^tunl and kgiliiuiitK rali^tn itI* 

the higli prins of ilie OlsliW bixcd, otiicn were «ipe*a([i1«l,> 

which, iifthuii»li hul liwi eomiiioii iii :iS manure of batjttri siiil 

sal*, are not cfjiiMilcreil a* hetn;; w> eaniHd. A snrt of niOiin|tnly 

mat cTLMtcvl umung tlic fralcniity of hii[>T<A'CTi, who a<1t>]ilpf! :ifl 

the arl». and |iiit in (>r>clice all lli« Irirku, of jflritiM :im! tmi i.'- 

((eat«R. Sliniii coclritch and purchnin nen; tna'lc iit woiiiU-rf it 

high price; putTers were rcgulsrly «nji:a^t| ro *iiiril up (tie 

tiiijxm st^uelioiK; 'and A yming Innl, or i>rnlHniin, nillt tm 

jmeiittit «oll linwl, aiml h'n senses inlnxtnitcd il^| the fntli'T* nf iir- 

provemenl, wM a< sine (o In' imposed npun by Hit-se *s by llie 

gmtrj at N«wmarkp|. Tlie pnu of itimrnnl :i!>nr<i'lturi!^ \tlinie 

knowkilj;*' of liu" *ti>c(t uriiiiiinl*'*! iiicroly in t! eir nriliiij -.ibniil 

it, ROW \ook up the nuise, uud btazonvd rurlli Ilie tntnsfpintpitt 

^aHlin of llie "new l^icnncrr." 3n n>tne<]uracr of tl)i<, tlte 

««»ntry br{;mi (o ccmidtr lliese omrnlaT dfrisiom as ort1lfxl«^; 

Kd «o (IieTt>wii. 'rfip Kiges of ^niUrtield, Ijefore wlmtn the 

1iitt«lnninisih of all t.wirlif* (ww in l)eb«IoinH<hl rmriew, and n1i» 

try the tiN^ntu •>f alt l)y tfii> tmnrlii* stniidard of (he Imltrtce, gtl*- 

lltousU llfcfy w^rc «V(iipf il*d to |nircbn*e tlw eofnmndily, nwn 

apfrored llic barrrhihcjif, ur ll:e Di^Wey imprcM-i'mMi^. Tiu-y 

pfdoiid, n( lh:« hour, (liM iIm* ori'^iinit breed of Leirvstcr (fict-p 

wksinore advjiitii;;eott«, iti pniitt of |>ub!ie utitily, tlliiit iIk uetr 

one ; and tlie Lincoln, a brancli of (he uidtnl fiiiitlly of 

T«»waler, b, 111 resjieet lo form, tupcrivvr to bH. TIi*'y do not 

cvoaKfu|)l< t.i asft^, (IihI 'he feeding of Di-ddey a-hV, X^wrya 

l«trly npaid the ciilliv:itnr. It is eennin (hvt >lr. D^Letirtl na* 

«K>t emirhrd, nolnlllt^tnndtng hn unKnittlling eterttom, tIteniN 

owrabte ^'conomy of M-. faniif, nnd the vast shim wAieb 1:« olt- 

tiiiJMd fof U\\ eidllr. But lltij is to Ik ullribiited eiilin-Uli} t1:c 

issartffvi AyW «f hotpiluiily ivfaich lie coniitflnlly niiiiiititinrrl »t 

IMAMr ;■ where ev«y ini>iiiiltve 'Iranger was rrcch-ed mid cult - 

>U)dc{| I 


taiii«d with lb« most frank and libenJ altvnlion. Tlie cxpuidcti 
brart of tiiu inan dcinaDdud more cap&cioiu mean* for Uic gn^ 
ficatioR of its geucrnuj dcsirci ; aiid it b evident, from Ins coi^ 
dud, tliat Ik nai auibiliotu ntha of Hk bonour, Uisa Uic prolit 
of bis calling *." 

Dislilcy wu always noted for the ctieering liospilalilv with 
wbich all iiitcllijiciil uud iiK|uinii|; pcTMias wcic tfcatcd. Lvery 
llHDg about the fiinii wui uming«d willi iidmirablc order, and at 
the Mine liine aa calculated aa to utisly curicMity. Even Itie nliew 
of Ibc cattle ivas coudiicled witli Uic most pleasing and iotcrestiiig 
Kj^ularily. Tlic ihcep were exhibited sinjtly in u imall bouit^ 
adapted to tliut purpose, hating two D|^oaile duun, one fur ad> 
uiiuion, tlie other for relieiit: and the inferior were always u»* 
Iroduced lirst, lliat the iniaginaEion of the inspector migbl ht 
mised b; dcjtrecs to the utmost pilch at ihe eKhtbitioa of ths bit 

Frotn tlie forrgoing parliculan. the reader will be enabled l» 
appreciate the character of Mr. Bakewcll. wlio, aHcr dcvothig aa 
active and tiidustriotu life to a laudable gjrofe^ion. whicli prove^l 
to httn an eudletH source of pleasure, died, allct a trdioiu illoeu, 
OdoWr 1, 1795. and was buried m DblJey church. He was 
tiever married. In per»»i lie wu lull, broad in the cbnt and 
•boulders, and, in bis ^t-ucral liguie, exactly tallying wilb our 
id«u of the fvspectalile old En^i&h yeoman. His naniten liatj 
a nislic, yet pobte and pleaiiing franknes, whidi rendered bim 
acceptable to all raiiks. 

BiiAL'MANOB is tlie naiBe of aa esteniife nunor, situated id 
a fcrlile vule, on the (^astern ude of Ibe forest of Chamwood, la 
the parish of Barrow. This, witJi a large nunutoo, belong to Wiltiam 
Serrick, Esq. whos*- ancestors have poetened Ike plaoe fiou Uia 
year 1594-5, when it u as purchased from the Rgents of Robert^ 
Eariof Essex, by William Hsybickb. Esq. of Lundtiu,wlia 
in the next \eat held a court bert*. Tbt» geutleaun was bora at 

• AasMl Ne«»l9|or, t90«. 




XdcMter, about the Tear 1557. »ad bad a spacloos bouse in 
'Wood-ttrMt, Loudoa, another in WL-sttninster, iind anntbcr at 
SichmoiHi : yd, iiccordbg (o a mun'irjmltiin rcmm) iimotig lin 
papen, he " rcuded cnnatanlly al Coiitt." lie was parliailaify 
tfavounft by QucFit Eliziibclli, and by James the Fimt. Tbc rurmcr 
seM him oo »ii embassy tu (be Ollonan PotIc : and. on liii re- 
turn, Ik was appointed to a lucrative nfBn; in the F.xi:heqtier, artd 
lietd several otiicr places of honour and trust. It is evident he 
anpiired coondrrnble riches, att many uf the nnbilily, ind eveii 
the monarch*, bommcd money of him. In the rdsn of Jame«, 
lKnr«Ter, lie petitioned ibe Lord Mayor of Lundoa to cscusc bim 
iroia aerving the oHicc of alderman ; and alledgrd ai a reason, 
lhal ibe km* o\vfi\ Itttn u> mnrb ntoiii^y. us renden-d bim inca- 
pable of supporting tlic lunal iMi)tfi)ws of that civic hoDcinr. Itc 
"ma oidervd to pay a fine uf 300l. and excused. He made a 
jircw-nt. among other things, of a poriroJf of Sir Thomas 
Vol. I\. C c Wkitb, 

• The ftfltewmg 3»tc lettw, aiMM^wed to Mr. Hwick by order t( 
Qoaan Ermbelk, it a oiriora ipecinwn of the iqrU of vrritini:, mi aWovt' 
tm wmAaa. w tSSC-T. " By ibe lluccov. TraUfoand wol-bdovi^ wayaMa 
yv» waR. 'rin contyiwnll |tt(atc dui^a iv"' «tce havi.-. far lfa« neee Ma t i a 
^deoceof and prcecrvat^iioro' domiuionaaud aulticciu. are m uoiorioia 
as ikmI« not to br otticru-tic ilMlamJ Iboi nay iuiliJe: be (.■oHnviiHl by nil 
•ur h>vlD)|: ftitttccti, being hut of comon iiiNlrntanilhis. And dicreitHTi at 
Ail pmfBtc, Ibidiiif; <aiii«'<>f incrute and coatyiuiaunM of ntdw diarjea 
CxccodinK all oihcr onliuaiy Tnriuw» , and not njitding 10 pmie a' inbiecti 
«^ •■■• pmnt« TtM cKte of nwnk. but only to be fiqiplicd ir^ *omo nm- 
aaoable pcncan by wnic cf loane for oiuie yeare** tparaj wwe lave i»dc 
jfcciaRe choice of lucb u' levins lubiectn as arc kuowvic (o be of ablleiie j 
amonj;m w"" wb acc^mpio vow one ; and thciolore we rei|aife jow. by Uiete 
pNasntOi, 10 lend n* tht iotncnf/uiflic fmnOea Tor th« space of one year*, 
aari fhe aa«e to Iw paydt! imlo Benediol Bamteni or Tbomai httot, alder- 
nan, by us apiKonleil as rallcclor* tlicrror, w' we pnMnbc to npayc 
lo yow or yaf auagru^, nl Ibc end of one ycnre, in the leccipto of o' Excbe> 
qncr, apon givioi; id* iliii \miile tcalt* »iibKribe<l by the nid collecion, teili' 
tMaf Ae rwetjite iht^teAf. Ht'von ondrr o' pri*io *c4lc al o' palaca o( 
Wnin', tbc XI vi'" (hie of Jannarj-, in die xxxnC" yeare oT o' raiip. 



White, to lliv corporation of Leicester, la lh« ynr l60S, be 
wai knighted at Oreenwich, and, after siistHining maoy public 
offices n>id (rusts died Miircli 3, I<>62-J, and wbs buried in St. 
MiUliiiScliurcli at Ix-iewter*. 

An inventory of glais in Ibewindowt of the faouw ai Beaiumiuor, 
tnl5<)9isli*'VK tliv ]irict'5uf wiudows u( (tjul period, and ibenanies 
of some of the xpartnients: " In (be parlour a gluse window, 
10s.— Tlie g1a» iii Mr. .Adrian Stock's chamber, 3k — In my Ladv 
Frogtuortoii's chatiibi>r, Ibv gbuset St. — Tlic glassc in tbe nur- 
wryv cbamber, 2$. — Tlic glaioe in ihe ttuke's cliambcr, 6*. &d. — 
The glasse in Uie great diainber, is. 8d,— Tbe gtasse in the 
hallate, is.— Tbe glas** tn tbe iKiwelns place, la, 6d." itc 

Beniimnn WHS pari of tbe <|ticcn's jointure in 1621, nb«n Ihe fee- 
farm rent of 341. 1 U. 9d. was paid bj Sir Wilbam Hcjricke. In 
l6S6, it b thus described : " Tliis ancient Riunor>hoiue of Besu- 
innnor ilandtrtb, and is seated in the paitt called Beaumanor- 
Park. The mauor-iionse is iitoalvd round nboul witli a very fair 
and dear nioni; and a little diittant from t!ie siaJd tnoat arc banu 
and stables, and all otb«r uiseful oHices ttaading ;]Hd seated ; about 
uliicb said biiildit)^ k u srcouil moat, aud round about this said 
anci<-n( nianor-bousc lietli tbe said park," &c. Tbe latter was 
dia|>aHie(l by Sir Willijiu Heynck, and, in 1690, tlie greater [mt 
of tbe limber trees were cut down. 

The park ami scenery of llt?aumanor are justly extolled by Mr. 
Tbroiby auil Mr. Nicliols, for piichiresc|ue beauty, coutbuied 
wilb wrenily and sublimity of character.;e limber tives of 
oak, asb, elm, and willow, are stii) abundant; and many very 
large trunks of the former were cut down some years back, for 
tlitf U£e of Ibe Navy, measuring Iwenly-ttvo feet and upwards in 
drcumfeience. lu llie place of tbe old uianor-honie, a new one 
ivas erected in 1725. tn Ilic great ball U u curioui (Adi>, cut out 


• NiclioU'B Hitt. al* L«kMtanhin),Vol. Ill.p. 150,&c. wbtreba{»«rtrait 
at' Sir William, and nniiy cuiioiw pwliciilafs lopcctwg liiiu, and tkc linm 
wbcD b4 lived. 


of one solid oak tree, whicb measured tliirty-fuur feel in circum* 
ferenoe. AnioiiB seii-ral porlniils, a one of Aim? Jomrs tfit 
First, aiid aiioilier ol' hit consort. Queen Anne of Denmark, botli 
origjnxh, and prewnt«(J b;^ tl": Muiiarcli tu Sir William Ilrjiick. 

At BhadCatr :<re tlie ntins of nn olil nmmion. wliicli vr»s 
fonnerly mugoificcnt aiiil spaciuus. Ttit place tvai piircci of tli« 
manor of Cral>y, and belonged, at an eaTl,v (tcriod, to Hugh 
Grenlesmainell. from wliuiu it pHiwd, Uy niatriagi-, 1o Robert 
Bliincliniains. Entl of I^iceolcr, Knd afterwards tjr nwrriage 
again, to Sahcr de Qurnc^. Eatl of Winton. A ptiik was here in 
1247, whm Rogrr dv QuciiL-y, Earl uf Winton, gnuitn] pennis- 
sioii, l)y vrritleii sgrtem^nl, lo Roger de Soiiiery, to " enter xl 
any hour on the forest of him tlie earl, to cliace in it Cod veraan- 
dmit) tfitli nine Uovii mh] six hotiiiih, accorJin;; to ibe form of a 
cyrograpli before made, between the afure^Mid Rog«r, Eiirl of 
Winton, and Hugh de Albaiuaco, Earl of Arundel, in Uie court 
of the Lord tlie Kint; itt Leicester. And if any wiltlbeasl, wound- 
ed by any of the aforesaid boivs, »hall enter the aforesaid park 
by »ny deer-lea^i, or otlienviM-, it shall be laMfiil for the afore- 
said Roger de $oniery, and lii» hcirt, lo send one man, or two of 
liis, who sliall follow the aforvsaid wild bea^t, with the dt^ pur- 
suing that wild beast, Killiin llie aforesaid park, wilhout bow and 
arrows, aud may take it on that day whereon it was wounded, 
without liutl of other wild lieaiatH iii the aforesaid park :ibiding: 
so Umt if llicy be footmen tliey stiall enter by some di-cr-Icap, or 
hedge : and if they be homeineii, ttiry shall enter by the gate, if 
il slnll be open; and otherwise sh;i]t not enter befoie they wind 
their horn for the keeper, if he ^^ill come*." 

The park, in Letand'ii time, was " VI miles in cum]Hi»e," and 

the foundation and walls of " a greale gate-house of brike" were 

left un6nishc(l when this toumt visited Bradgate. He also states. 

Cet that 

*TliU agreement bintDied at lengUi, in Nidiob'i IlittiM; of Lriccatci- 
Oatt, VoL HI. p. m. 


thiit Hiotnas, tlw fint Muiiuis of Dond, crcdcd, and "almost 
fiualtni ij tourts of brikc iii Ujc fruiitc of tbc bouae, tu m|K)«i- 
d^'iit on eche side to Ihr gate-liQuw'." TIic niiin of Uiis vcw- 
ntblc. ami oacc (liKu>'k'd luutbion, vrilh llie fvrviit taaery innuidi 
«re litglil/ |iiclur«>(jiie. A corrc^onHcnt lo Mr. Nichnb says, 
lliat " traces of Ibc tjll-ranl are fliill vLitlik : and the courbt mi; 
now occupied by rabbits, ami sbadctl nitb cbcsnut trees and null- 

<'onti}>iiau9 to tlic mansion a a <:hapel, iu wbicb h a handsocne 
ni'MiuHKut for IIknuy LoitO Gbsy of Orobjr, and his lady: 
bcnratli an arcJi on tlw Ntoiiiinieiil is a ligurc in amioiir, of tlic 
nubkfuon, an<l niiotlicr of liis wifv, and tlie front and auminil are 
decorated tvilb IIk aruorial bi-arui:^ and <)nai(criii|;s at ibc bnii- 
lits of Grey, Hasting, Valence, Ferrers of Ciroby, A»lky. \Vid- 
vtk, Rnuvilc, and Harrinjitaii. Lady Janr (jret. a rntire 
of this |>lac«, waj boni i» 1337. Slie \tius tlic ddctl daughter of 
llniry <irey, Martjub of Durael, and Duke of SLkflollt, by France?, 
eldest dauiehter orCliatln Rrandoo, Dukr of Suffolk. The wife 
of iIk lalkT was Mary, Qocvu Dowac^ to Louis XII. of France. 
»ihI yomigi-st daughter of Heury the Scteulh of Lagtand. Jane 
Grey was married to Lord GuiMlbnl Dudley, son of the Doke 
of Norlliuniberland. Slix.- was prcniilcd on tu acrept tlic Bnlnh 
crowti, but teipied oiJy nine dayn, when alic and hci husband 
were iiupihoned in the Town; am) soon allcrwarda bolb ircre 
beheaded, by comniiiiid of Queen Mary, in 155t. Tbu» iIk fcH 
R McriTicc la the ambition of her rctilivcs, at Ihc early age oT 
wventnn ; and all anlhori who Imvc written aboal her lik; or 
times, liavc indiscriininulelj |H)itrayvd licr as a paragon of excd- 
leuce aiid iiiiril. Iliuiigh it may be drenicd irreles-ant tn the nature 
of this w^tk lo investigate nud minutely deliiil such subjixts. 
yet a few cursory remarks, il is hoped, will not be extruoeous* or 
oseles*. Lady Jane Grey, afterwards Lady Dudky, arcording lo 
bcr own statement, wits treated with great rij;our by her inutuIs. 
who eisployed Roger iVschaiii and Dr. Aylnier to instruct her iu 

• lltneiary, Vol. I, p. i», tl*. 


LBICEsrERStllRB. 3^7 

Ibe usual education u( llic times ; uud, la tlie roiilioe of iiiilruc- 
liou, tb« Frot«3l(iiit Religion coiislilitUd an e&wntial |)»rt. (nriccif, 
if nc catimalc ht.T cliunickr hj' licr ut«u wtitiniis vic xliall infrr, 
Itiat Utc Ki-iplurra, iind religiuui iKKiks, were lite cliicf sutrjects 
of bcr (ludjr and tolicllutlr. IltT lutort, bow^vcr, )>anff;;riMd 
bcr Icunii^Ti awl the Murtyri^o^ists And ProU-stiiiit »d«voilc» (for 
r«li^iun Uicii cii^roswd Uic niiuiis of m<;iO dvsrantcil qq li«r «ir- 
tuca, Ricckncas, humility, uud " godJincst." Sub»«<iueut writers 
hvrt 9'lmitted, uud repealod, oeuri; (lie wliole of tket« euco* 
nuaii». Bigots aud mlliusiaits ucver diKiiniinatc, and from well 
wrilcn wc iirc nnt likely tu obluin pEuin fucU nud " unv-aroiiticd 
tnilb l" If full credit be given to the statement of tier ttilors, 
AKltain aud Aylnier*, ilic waioiieof the most cxlniordioory fc- 
jnalct that ever lived in tliis, or auy other country. Tln-y relutr, 
thiit tlivtr ])uiiil. 111 the age of iixtcea, uiidviitLtfod tite Greek, 
Latin, t'lcncb, aud Italian languages, and was aUo acquainted 
with the Hebrew, Gboldcc, und Ambic. It u further nurilcd, 
llinl ihe |>Uyvd on eeverdl iRiisic;!] iiinlrumtiilj, and suiuillhms 
•ccompamcd tbc luncawitb licr voice: and added to Ibrec ac- 
complishincnls the advaulii^jc of wrilinst a liiic b<uid, and excel* 
tiug in variouii Liuda of needle work. bu(:h liauaceudant alluiu- 
mcots seem to exceed the baimda of credibilily. und arc nearly 
allied to those inunkisli roniunri>i of siinh und niiirtyi^ invented 
by <jrai^, to ia)|>OM: uii crcdidily. Tlic historicdl iulereat attach- 
ed to tlK mcmonr of this lady, and Ihc en;r<>)!'oS iKciiuuts Hint 
have been §ivcii of her lueckne^, umiabUncKS uud leai'iiiti;:i com- 
bioio^ yn\b tlic afflicting and Jnhumdii circunuLuicc of her uiiir- 
der, all eoni>|>ire to rouw our feeliiii^s, and cxcile our 9ym])atl)ies 
in her behalf: tnit wc must not allow tbe»c cuiotious to uii|H)9c 

C < 3 on. 

*2>r. Aylmpr, flying frtim tlrnnr tlir FJ^hlli, iu»l th<> rnnrl, funn'l nn 
Hylam U Bnul^ie. uiit) it ftienil niii] pulrou in llii? Mdriitiiit t>t* lionet. *' He 
tnw for romc liinc Ibe ODiy (•reftc)i»r in Leiecttcnhirc, nlinro lie ttt ritcein- 
■KjrAxei) ilic I'loiestani RFli^iun, tint ncitlier force nor fraud cuulil blot il 
Ml.' Niriub't iiutof> uS Lcictstcnlurc, VdI. JIL p, ti67, $U>pc'» Life 
«f Aylmer, p, 9. 


m, ind d«cnt-c out Judgtncnis, ifive wisli In nerertam anilctmrly 
(omprehcnd tlie libtorv of liuman actions, and or human power*. 
Tliat nattifp orca^oually produces phenoiDcna, u evtcimt; but 
tlie iiKl3iir» ar« teryraie: >l b mnre cnmntodly Uie case, that 
cnft, folly, or iufWtualed nral. niagnifip^ and exaggerates cotn- 
nion «flV«lt into wnndFra. TIihI IjiiK Jane wu vrry lesroed for 
Iier age. andllielim« in uhicti she Ih'ed, Ibat tihe mu amiable 
in mannvrs, and Inilv unloTluniilo, are all ctrcumstitnces exlmnrly 
prolnhle and admtuil)l« : bnl the indiMrriminjiling and gamtloiu 
entomiunif nf Roprr Awliam. Iier [ireceplor. and nftenfanli 
Qimn Elir<)i<-lh'« u-honlmuMer, do ntrf command iiiiplidt cre- 
dit*, nor, iboiild w« lake tilth evidence sloue, fai liblon'cal dati. 

Castlb DoMXGTnN, a large village on llic nortbeni verge 
at tlie county, w:u describ*^. in Ibe time of Edward Uie Second, 
as the cHstIr, IOmo, maimr, nod lionor of Doiiiiiglon, and «ss 
granled by tbat tmnimdi Ui (Iii)>h k- Dnpcnscr, Junior. In tltis 
village an: tl>€ rirniains of an fumpilal, and a tinall fmgmeal of 
the tastlp, with the ralluin. Tlic chiircli is ipadnin; and bas • 
large citancci, at&o a lofty sicrpic : and within is u 6nc allar mo* 
iiument of xla)>»»ter, wilh lite Matueg uf a luau in Hrmuur, ajul 
Honmn. In ibu pari»h is 

DoNlNGTON Park, a »eal of lite Eart of Maim. T\m fine 
drmeuie wan noted far c^tenrive woodi at llie time of compiling 
the Uomcsduy Btmk, wherein il n stnted Ihat — " In J>vitV/4wr 
there is a wood tu five furloiiga htiip, and df;lit broad." From llie 
lime of the conquest this the property of the 
Rartn* of Hmilloit, till 1310, when it was lonveyed in marriage 
loTltonia^ Plantagcnrt, Karl of LanriiMcr, Leicester, and Derby. 
It came to the I Iiutiugs family by purrhaae. in 1 594 ; atul. in I TBQ. 


* In (kliiiealin' thia, or anyotbrr cliBraoter, tlie wriicr ii Klioll;in6» 
ncH by d love of tnitli, and a dnJr* to newite hte own md tbm rMder** 
raltemaS fUciiliitK, kn iiivntiE»linv tbc «lwnirilie3aii(Iiai[irababiUliaof bn* 
gnpliical, political, iml statiiiiralbuiery. 


ms bequeathed, b; PmnciE, tbc laat Eurt of Huntingdvit, to 
Fniaci!!, Lord (Utniluu, iinw Eart 9/ JMoirtt, Tliii lrul,> jMtnolic 
jinij munificent imblcitiaii iiasmailc very cxtcosivc and tiupurlant 
impfovvinctiU od tliv »liile, »iuc« the above [>ci ichI, and, among 
thcK, lias erected a new nmusiou, on a lar.|;;c and Ii1>cnil sculc. 
Tbb was raised alWtltcdoi^n^or Mr. William Wilkiiw, orCmn- 
bnilge, and » <ie3crib<r<l iti the Ibllowmg Icmu in a Ivcent wvili. 
" The pres<:ul liouse. wliieli has bMo lately c»ct«d bj li» lord- 
ahjp, stiuids ill a plain, formvd b^' the utiloii of Uirvc dcliKlitful 
'i-allies, vrliicb rddiale fruin tltc spot iu llje dnection vf tast, itoulli, 
anil soutli-weat. Th« situation is, ootwilbsliuidinsi considerably 
sbuvc tbc ^(iiciul level of the country, lilt »l>lc of the /ronl and 
entrance-ball is (jothic, adapted by a plan su^geated by liia lortJ- 
sbip, u most Biting to tbc scenery of the place. The house is 
equally convenient for tlte residence of cither a large or sinall 
fitmiiy : perhaps few arc better eitlculalcd for the pur|MJies of ex- 
cviciaiug the rii;hts of liu»pit«ltty, iu wlijcii the noble posH;s»or 
vJM wit]) hit leudal anceato». The piincijial rooms, namely. Uie 
GoUiic Imll 3-1 feci s(|uare. III* dinine-rootn 4fl by 21 ft-el, the 
aiiti-cliuniber aud the drawing-room 40 by "ii itxt, huve a suuUiem 
aspect; Ibc bbrary 7i by 2i> feel, looks towards tbe west; and 
tlic breakfast parlour towards the east. On (hit side a v'wfi c\- 
tcnd'S in wliicb is llie chapel, iS by 'JO feet, and it ia so ailuatrd 
as to iwrcen tbc ollices. Tbc various ofiices 00 the grouud-flutiri 
00 the norlb side, arc very little below tbc conimuD level of tlic 
Croimd, ul(liuu»h the vuulls under Ibc south side are entirely sunti, 
aud are appropriated li^ tlie butler's dcjiarlincut *." The house is 
built of stone, and surrounds a court-yard. Many of tbe apart- 
ments in Uiiselcgiint iiianAton are decorated wiUi pictures, M-vrral 
of which arc intereatiu^ as specimens of art, iind an purlntils of 
illnstiious characlcrf. Aiuoug the latter arc Portraits of fiTMi^ 
Jidicard the I'ottrth. — Geitrge, Dukr pf Ctarmct, bis hrotlKT, au 
C c 4 bail' 

■NnwVitnitiiunrianniciw, V«t. II. 5«C two (mh] Vimrs of the Ophv 
JO Nicbols'i Lcicealcriliirc, 


fadf kagth, in mall aimnur. — CmrdiMat Pole, Anno. 153T< XX. 
Si.—Cfiartn Brandon. DukeaJ SuffM, IJU. 1^.6*, b> Hoi* 
beiD. — Robert DtnUr^. Earl of Ijtirttter.—Janr Shore. — Jttfve- 
iitu, DatcfttMs of Ihlnau/t. who nue lunrricd tu Humplirj-, Duke 
of GU>uc4^i>ler. I. Hliit> VI. 1423. Tliis u fieacrtixd by Mr. 
Nichols as a curious awl rcimirkablr jiuilmil in wrcral rcspech. 
— Rmicit, tecmtd Eirrl a/ Huntingdon, Kiii^hl of llic Gurter, 
llircc quirlen. — Uenr^, third Earl of Hiutfingdon, Kniglit of 
tlic GBrtcr, htdf length. — llrarg, fifth Earl of HKUtingdan, in 
bis coroiialimi robes, by VaiuunHrr, itiu. £t. 28. — TKevjASmt, 
tivenlk Eto-lof Huntingdea, by .Sir Uodfi^v Kneller, half len^. 
— Gtvrgr, eighth Earl of UuBtiagdon, by Sir Godficj Kaeller, 
half lu^h. — Thrcphilun. ninth Earl of Huntinrdim, by Lc Bell, 
whole li^nglh. — Fraxcit, tenth and taut Fori of liuntiagdoK, by 
Soldi, bnlf length.— //f»c_y Itattingt, *rcand Lord Lougk- 
dmvugh, by Cornelius Judjcu. — Dr. Ilarreg. by Vundyck. 
— Sfp Daniel Jieintiux, by Mirvvt-ll. — Sir Thomas Hjm//.— 
Sir .faijt Chardin. — Hmry, Lord LoJighborough.—Sir flodfrej/ 
Kiullrr. — W.Pr^jiKe. aulbor of llistnuiiustix, \6M.~AlrxaM' 
dcr Pope.— Edmund Waller,— Samivl Ballrr, — Dit&r of Bcr- 
wfeit nalnnil ton tyiSama the Second; a rate and curious Por- 
trait.— 7J* Hon. Itohcrt Itoylr, by Sir P. lAy—Dean Su-ifi. 
— Ccorge ViHifTS, Duir vf Buckingham, Ifrnji. of CItailpt II. by 
Sir P. Leiy. — Algernon Prrcif, Earl of ^t'ortkuaberland, by 
TMnon.—Earl of Dn-bt/, Xxavp. of Jani«» tlic First, by Corn** 
lius Jaiisen.— Earl of Waru'id\ Ifinp. of ClmHo* \\w. Kirsl. by 
Viindyck. — liobrrt Dudley, Jiarl of lyienter, temp, of Eliza- 
iKth, by Porbut. Most of iheae |wiliaila are in tl>c diniKg-roem. 
T\eut\e» these, bere an- konte xalunbl^ miniature hradx, by 
Isaac Olivpr, lloskins, iind Cooper. The principal ppBtlmeoU 
are alw omaiuentetl with some select cabinet pictures, by old 
master!. Av tliese have nevt-r been nolired, I beli«%e, b any 
pubUcation, 1 shall give a VnA ol'lhc princijml pictures, spccifytn" 
tlie tuoiw n herein tltey bang. 

1b tl» Bbkakp&st-room, Tito Landtcnpet, by Bncli^. — 
&i»^i and (lamr, hy f^H.—Apollc and Oafkne, by Rotnaiielli. 







— Battle »/ the Boffne, Old Wyckv. A long narrow (nclare, full 
of btullr. iIikI Ircalvtl iu aa itilereslin); iiiaunrr. Tlie graiiil mkI 
truly excellent picture hy Mr- Wed, of die ^aiiie Riibject, mast 
be »ery grtiwally known, by iht excellent print fiora it by Hall ; 
and il b4-coiii<w Hiniisiii^ lo coiiipsr* tlie picture of Ibv Dutch 
mailer with that of the English hidoricnl painlcr. — Urad ^ 
CrvmavH. — Two Kiiinil pictures of tin- Naliriljf and Traiu^gttra- 
lim, b; !!iircarclli.~.<fi»f-m at Aa, hj Sul^alor Rosa ; a large und 
peculiarly tine picture, in which itin great master of the art has 
diaptavKl U'n iiiirivalted powen in force and hannooy of colouring 
uilh impressive and horrific effret. — Landtcape, Scb. Boimioo. — 
Landutipt. De Vadder. — Ttto Ijmdttcapca, by Van Goytn.^Sai 
Piece, by Sca».' — A Han^tiriitn Camp and a liatlU Piect, by 
Boudwyn« aud Bout .— C*///!" Piet^, by Wouvr>nuHfi£. — A Port 
in lloilond, by Storck. 

Ladies 1>r.\wing-rodm. Waterfnil, by Watteau. — Virgin 
and Child, Pietro Perugiiio. — fitfanf t'/irist lutrrp, ICIisalielta 
Serani. — H'atrr-Mill, Palcrre, — Sea Pm-t, Garlolomeo. — Dutch 
Sm Pmi, $4orcl(. — Ckri»l «nd tkr Samaritan ir«iiura, Ludovico 
Caracn.— ifo/y Famili/, Palnia Verchio. — Aaron and the Goidm 
Caif, EckliouL^Tiro Laudscaptt, Brueghel.— Ticw LaudarapfM, 
Mams. — Sta P«rl, Occhiyti. — Two Pielwrrt of Boors, Teniera. 
— Ttpo Vieiei in Rome, Sttidto. — Mai^alm'n flatd, aad another 
of SI. Johu'a, GukJo. — Venta, Titian.— y^ Painter draiPtng a 
n^eed Woman, Scbalcken. — Ijindttape, a Sketch, Sali-ator RuHa. 
A PkHosephrr and a Hmekster, two siihiU pictures, Gerhard 
Dnuw. — !Kifmpht and Salyra, Rubens and Bnt(?»bd. — Seamen 
J?rinkinff, Adrian Vundtr Werf. — Sporltnen, Peter Wnuver- 
mms. — Marriage of Si. Catharine, afler Corrcgio.— 'Ilro Leud- 
»e«pet, by Rnirvhc). — I'rtiwj and Sittifr, a itclcli, Titian. — Malrr 
IMorota, Carlo Dolce. — Landscape, A 'Wljiie.— /*"»*«»'*, Bam- 
btkceio. — firgin and CAitd, Vanurchi.— Pwlry and Painttn/f, 
Marillio.— 'i>Hf/-A fioert, OsI:ide,— ^ Phi/oMphtr, Quiutiu Mat- 
m. — Portrait of the Condt'Dufne d'Olvarrz, Vehaqwn:,— S« 
Stfrm, 'Stn>iptslsi,—lMndicapr, Gtt>}iar Pous&in, in bis best style, 




aiid airiolber Uy tlie lanie moittr : a iTr> early picture. — finding 
y Moaest Francisco Mil^. — Tiro Ijandirnjiea, Poelemburgb. — 
Tlirw Pichir«. u FrtMt Pirce, a Mglit Piece, aiid a Sea Portt 
Ore\ci)broci-k. Here atv hltmw aniiw niriniit s|>fdm«» of 
painted glam, pul uf mIucIi was broii<;h( from tlic old chapel i>f 
Stoke Pogi^lti, in Buckiii^iniiisliire, 

Tlic I*Brk at Ooiiiiiglon is cclfl>ratcd fur its line, old, lyajestic 
oyAa, and otlicr fomt \sen; uiid the gruuitds iirc ultctiuUdy 
Uironn into bnid mrelU, and sunk into svmcpiiig rallies ; Uitu 
presenting, from iivrinj ^lalioa^, sctn« of srcal picluie«{uc beauty 
and iiili-rest. Near the nortliem cxlrcniily of llie gruuiids, is a 
precipice tailed Doninglon CJiff", a wenc mucli admired for its 
rofiiMilic anil vtUd fciiturcs. A buld )iru)ecliiiv cng, witli hang- 
ing wnod.t, ami llie |ieklucid walcrj of the river Ttciit, coiutilnte 
a scene peculiarly iutercsting lo the landsciipc pamtcr; and ba« 
been fepie»cii1cd in two large printsi engraved by Vivana, in 
174J, from paintings by 1'. Suiitb. 

DiSBWDRTH. a small viUuge, about »)i niiica Knrtli-w«sl of 
Loii^^hborotigb, it* llic birth-place of WILLIAM Lilly, lite 
Mulrologer, who vt-m burn iii May. itiO'iJ, uud who dieil June, 
l6S). Tliis gentleman was one of tliose " blind buzzards," aa 
< lalnkcr calls liim, wIjo lii^ deceive thvmaclvn. by aa aMUinption 
of xiipeniatiirul puwers. iind then tin|>uM; on others, equally tdllyi 
by firelendiiic to forclel liuinan cvenln, sitd to dcvclopc tbc lacred 
and iiiscrutnklc di&pciisiitions ef Omniiwlcoce. Lilly «'j» fir 
many yeais in the liiimble capacity of u foolbny, but his diligence, 
sanctity, or somctliiiig elae, recommended bim to tiis mistress, a 
widow with ii fortune of lOOOl. This rendered biiu at etue and 
indi^pcndant. Me row punned hia favorite »tudy of ftstrology, 
and, according to his ouii ackutmlcilKcmcnt, made av npid ft 
progriUK iu the art, that it seemed su|>ciuatural iiupiraliou. He 
declarer, in hiN account of lii& life, that " lie piaycd for sctenl 
weeks lo tliow angch who were thought and believed by wtM 
men lo teach uud instruct in ttU the se^'enl liberal adeovea. ThcM 


reiCBSTBRSHinR. 40J 

mgclj nry rercly spmk to any operator or master ; and when 
Ul^ do ipcak, il h lik« llie lri»)>, tawh in Ibe tlirnat'." In 
l547i h« linishfii a honk tvbich li« arro^aiitly and impiously 
calliiH " Cliriitiian Aslroio;;}- ;" but this woik doct not evince the 
possMsiun of Bngflic iiupiratioii. Perhaps the angels ^ilb^r 
Uinird a (leaf csir to tli<- xuthor'« prnyrn, or dielaW in such 
guttural aud Irish Xom», as not to be understood by him. It it 
cviilenl ibut he cuiistil<T<-d judicial astrology as a scirner; and it 
is (^imlly evident, Ibat lie excrci^eil lits pen in behalf ofCromwell 
and (be ])aT]l:LiiR'iitf. Aslroloj^ical predictions and proplicsies 
were well suited to the bigolted phreniy and folly of Ibow lime*: 
and Lilly had euougli human cunning to know how to adapt 
tbmi to Ibc m|tHntt(rs of the |>(v|KiI<iec;. Likv all olber dealers in 
destiny, b« wjt (.-enerally uinbiguuus and onieiilar, and amused 
liis disciples with unintelligible bieroglyphics. Many of those, 
says Aubrey, hi- »tole from a MonkiHli iii:mUM'ri|t|. These have 
af^in been stolen by Francis Moor«, tlic almunack inuker, and by 
oltier makers of the tame contemptible (pamphlets. IJIIy, though 
known to be an im|KM.Icr, had ii |>enMoii of lOOl. a year gnmteil 
him by llie council of &late ;. Butler cbaraclerixes bim under llie 
name of Sidropliel; and Sir John Birkenhead satirized his aUna- 
nsdc, by eallini! it " the Art of disooreriiig all thiit rifver uia, 
and never shatl be." Ully's almanack ciainluLiied as l)ij>li degree 
d( n-putation for many years "^ ll>^ pn-M-iit {mpuliir, and almost 
etjnally silly awiujl {lublicalion, called ** Voa Slelluruni." "By 
the pruttl iirisini; from Uh "n-iil pnictice amouc; (be vulj^r in Uie 
profewion nf conjmer, |)rnt>het, physiciai), tkc. lie aniiijred a mm 
suflicioil to enable bim (o purbase a coiuiderahle eslHte at Walton 
upon 'Hmmev, tt-liere he died, and was buried in the chancel of 
tiie cburcli there. A sUb was placed over hi» r«main« by Elias 


* lilijr^ Ufr b> himseir, lui v<lil. p. B8. 

* " When Crom«rcll irw in ^enilnnit. a snidirr ntf""! with IJlly's (Mer- 
Lnui) Aacllciia in liij hani). aadMiil to thr^ i(>rYCral l[<)ii[i>< puawil \ty him, 
" Lo ! hear what Lilly suilb, you are ]i/riinin'H vidnrt/, tight it out lintvo 
boys," and tbca read iliat nianlh's |iradiclton. — life, p. tu. 

f Tharloc's Stale l>apen, Vol. V. p. «3i. 



Aslimolc*," A pottruit of bim b pnacrrcl id lii« Aslimolrain 
MuMutn at Oxford. BvBtdca liit almiiniiclt. wlijcli wu piiblUbcd 
for Ibitly-six jmrs aucccssirdv, he printed scvcnl other works 
on Astrologer, &c. Mr. NicboU ^vcs a list of twenty. 

<}ari:nik>n, IliG spat of Thomas March Phillips, E«q. is 
iboul four tnilcs norih of Loughborou.^li, The prracot mansnoti 
occiipiies llif «1« of tai j4Mry, nhicli wm founded by Robt-tt 
Dosni, tiie pood earl of I^icealer, in 1133, for CistcicJan, or 
White Monks. Tliia iibbey vna vay libcnitly rndowed and ?up- 
porteil, an may be inferred iVom Ute nunilwr ff s^tif^* Mtlached 
to it. Tlicac were at Dlahlcy, Burton, Kioddty, Rmglithmrpr, 
Sjf»onbiit AnUon, Staunton, Rarrastoii, and llaliireU to llic 
coiinty of Leicester ; liampeston and Ccrtingstttci in Notliug- 
hamsliire, and llralhcett in tbc Peak of Derby. 

The cburdi belonging to tlie ^bey was dtiuolisheil soon after 
the diuolulion, and all its furniture and materials sold. The fol* 
lovtn;; are tlie prices giren for some aitielcs: 

" Hem, 2 Wytidowcs glasyd uilh old giassc in th« quytr. lOT 
foil— II. 0. 0." 

By the invcnloiy, there appears to liare bceo twclre taott 
wiudows, the glass of wliicli sold at the ^xine rale. There were 
also six albirs, or " Autcrs," and a diiipd. 

" A mumimcnl of alabaster, 01. 10s. Od. Th« jiai-euieiit of tlie 
qiiyer witb bryke, 13a. 4d. 

" A Masse bokc and a bell. Is. — An Auter Stone, Is. Od." 

The txtrdships of Garradon and Sliepcshcd were piirdiased 
tn l683. by Aiabroee I'hiUipit, Esq, an eminent couosdlor of 
the Middle Temple, for tlie sum of 2S,OO0l. Thb geotlcmau wu 
knighted by King Janirs, and was biirie^l at Sliepesbed Clmrcb, 
nliere an ItaiidMHiic monument is creeled to bis memor^'. Am- 
brose Phillips, a nephew of tlie above knight, after travelling over 
tOTral paTt-> of Ihe Conliueiil, settled at Cirendoit, and built in 
the park here an handsome gateiray, in iaiitation of a tiiiimplial 
arch, abo a Circular Temple to Venus and an Obctiak. He 


' Nidiob^Hisl. orLncesteniiirr, ID. p. 7». 


draigoed llie magailirent garrl«ii front of the present Hotisc, vHiich 
waa built b; bis brotlicr and succcsor Samuel Phillips, Eat), mer- 
diant : oil tlie (l<ratli of whosv widuw it piuscd to his maternal 
couaiD, the present Mr. Phillips. 

LocKlNOTON Hall, the seat of tlie Rev. PEiilip Slory, b 
a niodcm nuuisiga silunlcd near thv tiini|»ke roitii, uhuut two 
miles nortli-wtrsl uf Ke^wortli. lien arc several i^ocl facoily 
portraiti and some other pictures. The late and ))reactit 
son bam greatly improved tbc scenery of the place. 


Anacnlly \tTiltcn Citgneoriif, is a town on the inreat turnpike 
road, m niilvs north of Lou^hbourgh, .lud eleven south of Oerbr. 
In Uie year 1239i K'l*;: Edward the first crautcd to Rotirrt dti 
Uaustid iiud Miirp;ery his nifc, the privilege of a maHtct <m 
ISieadays, and two annual tiiini, at thti pine. II appears that 
tbetc were only sixty-eight families in Kcfj^orth in the >'ear l.>(i4( 
■nd io 15r~'> a Jrre grJiwi wju founded here hy a decree ftom 
Qoeen Eliznbetli. About 2000 acres of land were iiicluw»i in 
thb parish, in coiiieriueitre of an Arl of pHrlianaent passed in 
177$>wben two MUaBainbriciRc's were acknowledged to be ladies 
of the nuuior ; luid the inuler, R'Ho^vs, fite. of Christ College in 
Cambridge (connecteit witli Frederick Augustus, V^rl of Berkeley, 
under certain restriclioas). as imtrons of tlie rector^-. TItc 
isaihet at Kegwoith is nearly discuutiuued. In 1800 Uie tovni 
conhuncd i6i bouses and l36o iithabitanta. 

The cburch is a hundsome, Itslit building, mitb a nave, ailn, 
Itanscpfl, chancel, und tower with a retire. Musi of IIk windows 
are lart^ with two niullions and tracery ; and some of tliem 
have pieces and cotnjiletc figurc<i of painted gluM. On the south 
side of Ifae diancel arc three s/onr srais or aialis, with the leal on 
one plane, and ornamented with purflcd pinnacles, foliated pedi- 
ments, Stu 



At Lanolbt, " ii hcnulirul scfjiicslcml lard»liip," nas fotind- 
Cil u priory for Beoedkline nuus at ii very early iKtiod, and at 
tlic (Jinotalion tb<- site aiiil <loiiicsne IsimIs were ilrniisecl to 
Thomas Gray, rrum a driccnttuDt of tliia gaillciiraii, Lant;ley 
prioi^-, «iic« called Lanoley Mall, was liouglit by Riclianl 
Cix'slyii, £>q. for 7~f>9l' 17s. ^- aiui dov belongs to Kidiard 
Cbcslyii, Exf. a<l»ceD(laiit uf tbc- abuve. Tlic tiuusc is ntualcd 
in a w<)uutcre<l spot iu a low aitualion, atid coD^bb of time 
tides ofa quiitlntiuflo. Piurli of the builditif; appear to be na^ 
lUats of the privry, aiid vritliiusidc are many family pvtti^hi. 

RoTBLET is a ronaidvniblc village on t!ie tumpihc road be* 
Iwceii Lougbborougb and Leicester, siit) i> ilialanl from «acli of 
Uiow; towns about live miles. This place anciently belonged to 
tliG Kutgbls Teni|)lani, wbo had a leni^lc bere. Tbc niunor hoiue 
DOW calkd Itothle\ Teiii[>lo, belougi lo Thomai Babiugton, Eaq, 
Loid of llie muuor. Ih'n nuiiior u e\lciifivci aiut is invested 
wKb peculiar jurisdiction in eccloiaaliral affairs ; being ftM 
from all liJ^bcr courts, and, at tbc lord of tlie manor can 
grant licences of mantHgc, is exempt from Uie Juiiidktioti 
and visitation of tbc BUbop of tbe dioccae. " Tlic custom 
of Gavtihind prci^iU tlirougtiout tlie soke ; a sokvsmao's widow 
liolds all ber biubund's rt.-;il properly lliereJn, M long as sbe con- 
tinues fueh ; and the lord receives an alienation tine for every first 
purchase made by a furcifiocr, i. c. • Bon-»okctuaii. l^toc 
iev«ral |>ntile(;eii urn liwl<ku in virtue of a patent of lli« land 
facrctofotcof tlic Kuigbts Templars, am) alterwardsof tbe Knights 
Hofpitalcrs, wbo originally rqjoycd it by ^pccial and esprtss 
words conveyed by the ptent; tvbjcb, with all its privileges, wa« 
conveyed to tbc ancestor of tlic present owner. Tbc Soke of 
Rotbley ctyoys moreover the firivileges of court-ieet, eouit-baroo, 
&C. oyer, teriiiiner, and gaol delivery, iodcpendi^nt of lb« 
county •.*■ 

la 1722, a Roman Pavement, witb foundations of a floor, 

• mU*. 

* Nidiob'i tlistary orLciccstenlurc, Vol. ni. p. 940* 


mlla, ice. W«TC (liscDvcrc^l near Rollilcy. The church is n lar^ 
ancient |iile, iuiil in tlie iiisidi: arc suni« curious ulJ iiiouumenls ; 
also ao anciviit low /dii^. In llic chiirdi-jarH in the ihaflofa 
atene cross, Die Tour mhs nf whicli arc ilvciir4itc(l niili lUiicirul 
Kulplurc vf'scrolta, tracery, ice. 

At Thurcaston, a smull villiigc about four miks from I^i- 
cester, in i'^istXiiiM'otc liumlred, wk-h bum, nboiil tbir vr»r 1470, 
Hugh Latimrr, D. D. Tlau naloua divine i«Hs at tbfl com- 
tneoccmriit uf bis ntiniskml ctirt-cr, ati riitliusi»&l!c Pii|itst; but 
deMTting llic (ioclrimit m)il Icnttit of the Ctitlmlic rhnrch, nOcr- 
vranb ado))lcd and |>owcrfully rnfurccd lite Prntestiint Ui-bi^on. 
He was advimced to the Sec of Wurcrsk-ri and in 1 J-t^ pr«uiic<l 
a senuon before King Kdward the .Sixth, wlieicin he gives the 
foUoHing; account of liimsclf, his tHiiiPy, and the value of &iraiSr 
&c. at thut jtcrioil : 

" M; father was a jfoinan, and bad no Inntts of his own ; onljr 
be hud u fiirni of three or four [lounds by the yciir at the utlcr- 
mott, and beretipon be tilted w mucli ns kept Jwlf a dozen men. 
He bad walk fur an hundred slieep ; ami mv ruulhcr milked thirty 
kinc. He nas iibic, uiiil did iind Ibe king a iiariic», with bin>»elf 
and \xh \mne, while lie came to the place that lie should jcceirc 
Ibe king's wa^ej. 1 can rcincmtiiT, llml I buckled his harnt^^sa, 
when be went to Blitckbeiilh field, lie kept luv to sebvul, or 
else I bad ool been able to have preache<l before tlit king's 
majesty now. He marrict) my sbters with live pounds, or twenty 
_ Bobles, a piece ; so tlmt he brought tbeni up in gudliness and fcxr 
y 'Of God. He kept hospitahly for his poor neighbours, and sonic 
alms he gave to Ihe ]mor ; and all this he did of the said farm ; 

t where be Ibat mm balli it, pny«th sixteen pounds by the year or 
more, and is not able to do iiny thin;; for bis prince, for bioisetf. 
Dor for his children, or give a cup of driidi to the poor." 
At tl)e lime Ijatimer exi-ilcd |>opular attention in prorantitig tlra 
rcfornulion, Bibicy was c(]uaily or more inralous in tlic same 
cause. These two at Icoglh su far pr«vokcd the rage uf tlie 



intolerant Calliolics, tbat both vvre apprelieniicd, and wntcnrcd 
lo be bornt as beivtica; Biioey at Nor«-idi, imtl Lattnitr with 
Dr. Rid\fy ut Oxfoffd. 

SuBFBSitED b a large village, four nil« west of Luugli^, 
ItOToujjIi. hy nn Act pasicil in 177T, (or dUittiiu; and tudasiug 
ccrtiua binds nilliin Ibis iKirialif lo tlii: i-xlcnt of about 2000 acres, 
Sir Williiini Gurdon. lu rj^'bt of «lanie Mary Ooidon his viih, i|j 
deKfibed at. IjohI of tlic iniinor and pntron of Uiv vi4,-an]^ and 
|iarisli. A very large Mocklug iiLiiiuluclory in cataliliatwd ber^ , 
nbirli, cKclasive of oontbers, njiiiincrs, itc. b 9U|>p«Msd lo coiplof J 
-too persona iii frumc work kniltiiiK <nAy. In tlic middle of Uie 
village b a stone crins of a single ibufi, Dtaniiins on tlt^, Ucn 
un; tbrec uivctiug bo»»eit: <itie for Mr. W'i»k^''« followcn, oue 
for Anabaptials, and one for Quakvrs. In 1801 Slirpctheil 
coDtuucU -(S5 houses and 2627 iuliabitaots. In tlic cburcb are 
sonic inoiiuinentif wilb long iiL->cri))lioni to Sir AuibroK PbiUijte, 
KdI, and otlicr persons of tbc name family. 

At Ulvgscuopt, in Ctuiinwood (oiiLil, was apriory, or. « 
commonlj but improperly calU-d, an Abbey. Tbc cburtb, or 
chapel, is in ruins i and tl>e priorv bouic, winch Iiiu been nlttrral, 
ia now uccupivil by a farmer. Tlic situation of tbc bouse is 
sequestered in a deep valley, by tbc side of u brook ; uou llie 
combination of ruii», Ireci, &c. preaenLs various scenes of pic- 
turcMjiic beauty. 

At Wanlip, five milcanoitli of Leicester, wha found a Ri 
iesaeialfd Patemevl, wilb coin^ of Coaslantine, broken Urns, £cc. 
Here vs an liandsome moderu liouae, called Wa N LII' 11 ALL, belong- 
ing to Sir Clurles Grave Hudson, Bart. F. R. S, who iobenb it 
in right of his fint lady. The houK, bniU of brkfc and ituocoeit, b 
sttualtfd near the rivrr Suur, and a fitted up, and tbc plcamre 
grounds bid out, wilb mucb taste. Near tlic uiuu^aa is the neat 
village church. 



EASTGOSCOTF, HUNDRKD is siiiarAtcd rram llw former 
fcnnitTM) by ll>e m«r Soar on Jls uMlern side, ami liu Nnlliiig- 

inithTTT for a norlliem IwDtiil'jn', uhiUl Hip fauitdre>li ofFraniD- 
famd 3U<Hiuitr«, witli u imull part of ItullHiKhliin-, l{uund it to 
the e*tt luicl toutli. Vuti of tlu's liislrict is occupied bv tlie WohJs^ 
or Wotilds ; and it is dlvidvd iiilo two, nvarly eqaul, pari; by the 
river Wrrke Mbirli crosKn it froni vaf,\ lo went. Then* ii aot 
ane uBTka-town in tlii« liimdrc^l, atul but few \iUecs timt present 

\y rorious or tni|>ortiiul (neb for tbe hiytoriui or aiMiqaiir^. At 
bill, at a ylare near Rarlctiff, »nd Kgaiii a litlk (o the north 

Thunntstoti, xre wtiic lumuti, all coiitiguom lo (lie Fuu road, 
whiel) crosan thh dnlricl. Tlie cross roads are generally in ver^ 

i<] condition. Tm*^r>l« the norlli (mrt of the hiitxirrd are some 
1 grounds, and at ihf loulli-eulcm end, Jmniii^ RiitlaiitlihirF. 
•oiae coraidenbJe woods, llie remaiiis of Ltijuld fortH, A 

ntpike niad from Lekotcr to Newark, and ainllier from the 

rmer place to Metlon Mowbray, patsu Ibrough llie wliole of 
itbis hiuKln-d from wutli lo nortli. 

Mr. Nicltob girrs the following li^it of tnwTu)ii|u in ibis Ittmdred, 
and speciftes ihr )ipculiarity of vucli cleriral living. Some of these 
liBve already been tlocnbu) iu tbe former hundred. 


AVeilon, a rectoiyi 

Atfordbg, a rertory. 

AdAy Folate, a vicaraf c : to- 
eloding Ihr Itamlrli of Bo' 
mbif and Anp4»W Folnle. 

Barldttf, a virarage: tncludiflg 
^L Ibehamletsnf Harkhtftkorpr, 
^ llmailioM, and the [lortii end 

itcrnnf, a'ncaragc; including 
llic cliapclries of Mownttorrti 
(the north cad), Quarnden, 
and Woodkmue, anil llie iiian- 
MO and park of i^awnanor. 
Vol.. IX. D 


Charhp, Atdfrman'a-ffirw, 
and UfapUwtU. 

lifby, a rectory. 

£f/^aiv,aviairage; IndtultTif 
tiie diapelries of Burntall, 
and the wutb end of Tkur- 

BrookM^, SI rectory. 

CMtington, a rcclsry. 

Crcxton. South, a rectory. 

Daibi/ Ma«Ha, a vicarage. 

Daibif on tht Wouldt, a dona- 

Friabi/ on the HWir.a vimrafe. 
4 Gaddnhj/t 


Gitddeil»f,vitii CMierll, iirim- Qvmi/horou!. a vicangc. 

st<mf, Kcantr, tiu- south cm) 
of Movutaorril, H'artnabg, 
aoJ H^ifkeJum, vr chapclrics 
bdoogiiig to RoMey, 

lIoAjf, a rectory. 

Humbmlont, a vkarage. 

Httngtirlon, a vkant»c : iu- 
dtiding the liajiili^ta of Bo- 
grave iiDil iHgarsbif (H) Gar- 
tie bundred) and Qarnlt}/ 
HaU, To (lib iicara£c llial 
of Ta-Jlford (tiiciuditi;; llic 
diapelr; of Thorpe SacJteriir) 
is also united. 

Laund Abbey, extnparocliiaJ.' 

Jjodmgtim, a frclory. 

Loscbt/, a vicangc; inclutltng 
tlie liamlet of Setvlim Bar- 
det, or Old \eieloii, 

PmtiamJd,itrminst:: ioclud- 
mg tlie iianikis of Burton, 
Ctteg, and HoIob. 

RadcHfft on the Wrrke, a tex^- 

Rgkrdair, a pcipeluiU ctHBor: 

iacluclins Ihc manor of , 

Saxulbjf, a rectory; i»dudin|[ 

the cbapclry of Sioitldbif. 
Srgratf, a rectory, 
Sitrh/, tt vtcani|:c. 
Sk^JijSton, 7t rectoiy. 
Sffafan, a vicnragc, 
TAiiuniMgtaH, a viaire(e. 
TiUoH, a vioirace ; includinc 

tiK hamhlsof littlstrd. Samth 

MarJcJield, and H'AafW- 

Tugbt/, a vicarage: including 

the lianilcts of KeiftAorpt (in 

Gartre Hundred) aud Eaii 

n'altoMon thetVauldi, aitdoty. 
llymtswauld, a vicarage" 

BttoOKSDY, ill ancient writing called Broehfibi and Br o kt M , 
tboogh formerly a rillu^c, is now reduced to a geutlctnan's botwc 
uiul bmi. Tliis denicmc belonged to the Villicre faniily for uaiiy 
seoerarioiM. Of thb family waa Gbobgk, Z>ukr of 
Buckingham, vrlio wiuboru here Auf^ist 3Sth, 1593. and nhu 
wtu mcmurahle iu Bugllsli iiiiitory for having been the favourite 
•f two kings, &c. He Has Ibe younj^eat son of Sir Gcoigc Vil- 
lier^t by a second wifir, Mary^ daughter of Aulboov Beaumnat, 
Esq. ofCotc-Orton, in tliii county. Young Villicrs attracted tlie 
attcDtitm and cidtcd tlic adnimlioo of King Jamca al an cady 
period, and proved ltim»df one of tbiMc supple awl iusiimatin^ 
courticn who cw cusd«9ceiMi to fl«ittcr the nsES* or lollies, of « 


LEtCEStBBStllBi. 412 

nomrch, or aay p^noa of superior fortune, to promote ha own 
Interests. Tbi^, Vrilicr; dkl to a;i auinzing citttDl, aiid tniE pro- 
firarivel; advanced in dignity from a commoner to a dukedom. 
Sir Henry Wolton quaintly remajrks. that lavoura poured upon 
bim " Kker main showors, limn xprbklinf; drnp4 or dews." Huom 
gires tbe following character of liini, by staling, Ibat he " govern- 
ed, with an uncontruulvd sway, both tbe court aod nation ; and, 
could JanWR eyes liEive been opeiml, he liad now full opporlu- 
oity of observing how unfit liis favourite was for the high station 
(o which he was n<ise<I. Some acrompllsfanients of a courtier k« 
poamud : of every talent of a minister be was utterly devoid. 
Headlong in his pasiuns, and inrapahle equally of prudence or of 
dimimulation ; xincere from violence rallicr than candour : cxpcB* 
sive from profusion more lli:tn generofiity; a warm friend, a fii< 
rioua enemy; but without any choice or discernment in either; 
with ibese qttalities tie had early and qiiirkly mounted to the 
hijheil rank ; and partook at once of the iosolence which attends 
a fortune newly acquired, and the impetuosity U'bicli belongs to 
pers«MU bom i» high stalions, and unacquainted with oppositioo. 
Among tliosc who bad experienced the arrogance of this over- 
grown foraurite, the Prince of \Vale« himself had not been en- 
tirely spared: and a great coldnesi, if not an enmily, had. for 
that reason, taken place between Ihem." Such is tlie cbaracter of 
an eminent statesman, who eserdned those jtassions ami pou'en 
for many yean. The !Iouse of Commons at leogtli had courage 
to inipeach him, and charged bim of having united many officM 
in his own person (a crime thnt still seems very prevateul): of. 
having bought two of them; o{ ii«glectinf> ta guard the seas, ta' 
cooiequence of whiHi several merchant ships bad been taken by 
Ihe enemy ; of delivering ships to the French king, tn order to 
arrre against the llugetiots; of being employed in the sale of 
honoun and offices; of accepting extensive grants from the crown; 
of procuring many titles of honour for bis kindred; and of adinJiiis* 
toiog phytic to Ibe htte king, without acquainting his physicians* 
AboUnj duuie was, that of extorting 10,l>00l. Iix>m the East Iif- 

t»<t2 dk 


dia coBipwi}', &c. Tlir iinpnclimeiit never came lo a (letfnni. 

nation ; ami l)i« valiilily of tijc rharget are \eH for tiw iovesligB 
tion aii(t decuion of tlie liittutiaii, who being enabled to review 
past events untrammelled b\ jtaTtialily, briber}', or fear, may, nitli 
lolcrahio Mfcty, ptououncr M'lileiict: ofroii(kmualion, or acquitta], 
ou Ibit public ])liitJ<lcrer, as u ell ai on many ollien. Vtlliers wiu> at 
kngUi ajuassinHled by Fcllon iu l636, uiil inlerrvd in Henry Ibe 
Seventli's cliapcl at WcsUiiinsler*. His son, George VUlim, 
Uukf of Buckingham, was a diitinguialied profligate in itie Itcen- 
lious cntirl of King Charlrs the second : »nd, as a coasummalion 
and just rvward uf bis vicioii« carter, imi a Iwggart- He was 
aulbor of " Tbe Rehearsal." iind dislioguisbcd binuelf by his irit 
and taleult lu wvU as by bis vices. 

; CossitlGTON, in same old writings called Commitau, Cosing- 
ton, Kesl)Dglou, &c. ii a lurge and |il«;i»»nt village, seated at the 
confluence of I he rivers Wrelce and Soar. Here are about forty 
houses, of (thicb liiat of the rectory is the p'rincipal, and this fait 
tooK marks of aiiliqiiily. Near tbls is Ibe church, in tbe cbanoel 
of wfaidi is a fitciita, and ibrre stone uats. 

South Cioxton, a village about seven miles north-east of 
Leicester, bad formerly a very ronsiclemble abbey, which was 
connected with the priory of Old Alalfon, in Yorlishire: to both 
uf these honies Aldulplius dc Bnici was a libcr^il bcnefitctor. 

DAinv ON THK WoULDs, SO namcd lo dittiiigulatt its litu- 
tion ou the high open gTuitnds, iitar tbe northern edfc of tlie 
county, ii a village, wherein Is a considerable tpf'tng of rhalifheatt 
water. Tliit, cl is Mid, will nist Itiroiigh a bar of iron an inch in 
diameter, in the courae of a year. Old Dalby b extra parochial. 


" *A rtry raplnns aernnnt, bntb of tbu tiolitramn and lin son, It givn ia 
Nidblk'i Hi»tnn of Lcicestenbire, V«L tIL p. 199, ice > 

I Sec Ilcauiics, Vat. I. p. 387. 


«i)H afniMiftblc ta nO' <our1. A constable <tofs all lli<c offices of tb« 
plan. Part of Uie manor here fitmierlj- belonged lo llie AV/ i^" 
Radnor, in ri;ilit of liis Lady ; and hi* lordsliip ))fcsenlecl |o tlic 
rlrarch of Nbthek Bhouciitok, an H<<joiriing rectory, ** s pat- 
lea mill clialice of dtwr, of esquUtte tiule Hud rlosign *." 

At Fbisbv, » village, nearly iii the iiiidHIr of lliis Imtidreil, it 
an ancKDt Sto^ Crou, lulh orowijcDldl uouldings on llie ihsft, 
standing oil tlirei' alqn: mid Ht a siiull di^luuce from Ibc luwu, 
at a jilace catted Fridty ling*, » another shufl, oii Atiir circular 
•tepo, and known by iIk iiaitK' oT Slnmf Croat. 

QuKXBT, Of Qttetiliy-Hall, alioiil seven tiiile.'i nortli-eaat of 
Leicester, has been for manv geiicnilions iu Hit? fninll}' of Aslihj. 
Mr. Artlit4r Younj; give« Ihe following account of this jdace, in liif 
EaMeni Tour: — " Qaeiitiy Hal! is an old huuw, bul wliat iswry 
eitrj ordinary, h an admirable structure, being on a v«ry lii};h 
rmtiieace. finely uooded, that commands all l)ie eoiinly; it wtg 
fonnedy tlie taste lo place Iheir wat» in Itie iortcut niid niosi »m- 
plnuant rituations of awliole cidule. Mr. ShuLbnigJi Ailiby. wlten 
be came lo tlie e«tate, found Ibe ItuuM- a mere sbetl, inucli out of 
repair, and the offices in ruin. He has. in a few years, brougbt 

_tbc whole into com])1vte order; filled tip all lite rooniit in a «lyle 
'great pTopriely: liU ftimilurc ricb. and some of it magnificent 
-and Ilia collection of priuti an cKceltent one. Ili« library su- 

']ietbly filled wild the betl and iiio^t expcniive boolci, in Kvcrul 
laagWllCes. Around tEte Iioiih; is a new terrace, wblcli conimsnda 
■ great variety of prwjiect ; on one »idc very rxlenwve, orer a di»- 
laut billy conntry. and even to the moiinlalnn of Ibc Peak. On 

I the other side a beautifid landHrape of hanging liilh, witli Ai-at* 
krcd wood, slielving into a windin;: valley, so low tlint you loiJt 
^wn ii)M>ii it in a very picturesque manner; the aides of llie liilis 
tUd cut into nch inclotuics." 
D d 3 Queoby- 

* Niclioli'i Riilorr of Lficeatenliire, ToL IU. p. iS6, wUcre it an en- 
tered rcprcMalatioo of IIicm two article*. 



Quenby-Hall is a substantial, lar^e, comtnodions, snd reiwn. 
ble building, And consUt* of a centre, with a Ui^e lofty iiati, and 
two aide wmgi projectiug from each froot Tli« Hiadowg are large, 
and divfded into sfrvera) lights b_v |M-Tp«i<]icular anri borixontil 
stone mullion$. The linuse and ulate now belonjt to Hn. 
Latham, relJct of the ble William Ulham, E»<|. F. R. S. and 
ODe of the coheiresses of the bcfuic-mcatioDcd Mr. Slinikbrugb 


At Ladnd, Laundr, or Latemdf, a sequcilcrod tpol on llM 
borders of Kutlandslure, was a Priorif, founded to ifac reipi of 
Hcfirj' the Fiml, by Ricbfird Basset, and Maud his wife, for black 
canons of tlie order of St. Aof^slin. This religious bouse was 
liberally endowed with several churches, and parocls of hnd, all 
which were coolinned to it by Henry lb« Fir^t ; also again by hit 
suceestor^ and other monarclis. The site of the priory, uitfa the 
manor, buildings, and lands, thereto belonging, were eonxvyed, 
alter the dissolution, lo Thomat CjvmufU, whom Fulkr quaintly 
calls " the scout nia<>ler-];eiicral" in llie act of dissolving Iha 
monasteries. Tim grnlleinnn was creale<l, by Henry Uie Eighth, 
Earl of Essex, and Lord High Chamberlain of England, and wn 
|HiTtiruiarly active in |tr«n)oliiig the overthrow of the iiiooks. la 
adviitiiift the Icing to marry Anne, daughter of the puke of Cleves, 
and by zealrusly accclemling that union, be acited the enmity of 
tlie liMttuI, cruel monarch, who, in spite of the artfully liypocfi- 
tical letter of Cromwell, ordered him lo be beheaded on Tower* 
Hill, the 28tb of July, liiO. 

Though Cromwell and hit cniis-taries, the commuajoneis, were 
very strict iu secmiug the iiroperly and eflbcts of ibe raouasteries, 
ycl they uere often deceived and clieated, by tlii> superior running 
and contrivances of tlie monks. This is parlicubrly exenipUlied 
in Ibe case of Luund Priory, as appfun from llie following lelteft 
addreued by Mr. Sniytli, owner of a neigUbounug l^rdiliip, IqIi|| 
friend Fi^incis Cave, dated Dec. 22, 1538. 

** My lieartie coiiiuieudacum to you premywd, this b to ad> 



verlise vou, th«l uppon Wctijilay Itut I icccvvd your Ic11<r; and 
^ns the rccypt thereor I lm>e jtidevorvJ tiivsvlf to the best of my 
power aocordiiig to llitH'eck t)i«rof. AntI as canurDinf; Uic 
priori' of Lawnd, I liave caused loo honest |>enoh» to view-c Llie 
dcpic)ii» of tli« *anit. And uht'iits l)ic »id dcincyncs, uttb 
Wbnlboro feld*^, were wontatsd accuBlemyd to kepc this lyine of the 
jere too lltousaod »hee|>«, or very afn, tlier be Rt (bis daye scant 
tyve huDdre<le sWfpe; of ibe nycbe I Hippoic Un-one h»lf oflhi^ra 
be uot ihe phoi's. And whera« Dio said prior was sccustynicd to 
keppe uppon hi* cotnyne* in Lodilyugtoii feld fyve llu^d^«^d iheepc, 
there u at (fait dajv not one sbe(^p<!. And whcras the said prior 
was accyriymed to linvc iippnii Ihh coniyiis in Fry«hy fi'hl a flockc 
of sbtepc, there it At ibU diiy none. And ai concerning beyves, all 
fale bey^es, exc<))l a very fi'wc for the bouse, be sold ; and niucli 
of I)k (tuf of housdiold i« conveyed atray (widii? dieepe, beyves, 
and houthold sluf, was iokl and convcj-ed before the last poijig of 
the prior to London, and in lite lyme of hin b>cyn£ llier) : but 
synt bvs comyiig home I cannot lenie that l\e halh nndc aweye 
,aay eatall, except ccrluyn of Ihe best niiirhe kyc hi* hndc, nnd 
^^4ne bull, wiche I hr> inforniyd lie mwiwd to be conveyed, llie 
first nyght Ibal he came from London, to K()Jding:lon, And at 

•cuuccniyiig the pl<tle, llit^ prior told me tliitt be hade made Lit 
■way a good whyll -.igoo, to the intent to bare redemyd his liovne 
if it wold have been, escept the juells, and plate of cliirctie, 

twicbe I am infnmiyd remayiis &tyll. And as for bis horses, he 
told Die that be bad [;yve» to dyvere of b\s tervSiinU every of 
them a geldyng, so tJiat I thinke there rcmayne but a fewe good. 

iAnd sa eoncetning lecis, I ihyncke Ibere l>e none letten out of the 
demeynet, excepl hit be tjihe*, wich I thyncke were gmuiilyl but 
■pon condieons: as 1 suppose the [mrlyes, if tltey be well ei* 
•myned, will eonfessc. And .is ronceruing l.nddington, I under- 
gtand ibere be dyven lecis granted of certain douses and of the 
nylkther, wiche I thinck were lykewyK letleii but upon cnndU 
eons, wiche leases were ^ranutyd before Uie prior's going to [^n* 

ttfoD ; but, ns 1 am informyd, ihri were not all dvlyvertd tyll the 
D d 4 prior's 




prior's comj'Dg whom agaj-DG, S)iis llie prior's rcliim from Lon- 
|do(i, I IhjHcke, llit^r wrio no Icycis tealed. Nuluitlulandiiif i 
liavf gterfect knowledge Iliat the prior hHlhe hene aore iii haud 
villi b'u bre(li«r, %y>% \m coiiijiig v>lii>iii, lo have n leace seaUd 
of all Ills porcliesed land in AUl jil anJ oilier tuwDes aiijwiiiing fur 
OH of bisfcjmietnirii: nheruiitu liisbrvlher w)ill iiula;'r«£a*tiet, 
because hit is uur<umutilv as his brelhci repurt. ThU ii all Uiat 
I ran se^n al tliit Ivme ; but m I Iific, ko sliall I csrtjvf^ jiiu. I 
trua I sliall Icam more against tlw kimg's coiniujuiuocn com 
yiig. At kuoHclliu llie Lonlv, who kepv you. Ftuin Withcukc. 
Uic xxii day of DeceiuUr, by your loviiig hrothcr, JoUR 

The lioiue and eiiatc al LMiinit beloog to John Fiocli Simpson. 
E$<l. jujtnommutcdslifriJfof Lciccsttrshirc for the yean SOS, who 
lias mailc coDsideniblc altiTdliom u) the furiurr, and iu tbc a<|j«>iuinj> 
|>lantalioati. The hoiite han g-jMcH, with large bajr wtuduws, and 
■tUchcd to it is a small cliaprl. The lordship coaUina about 1-KiO 
BCK9, murhof ivIiLcli is wtll woodrd; aud poilioDs are. kt off lo 
gtaziti" and dair^ir fBrnis. lo this dititiicl a large ijuaDtit^r of Stil- 
ton cheese u aiiniMlly made. 

In the diupct at Latiiid arc two diiliiict vaults, in one of which 
ire depowtcd ihe btxly of fiir^uri/ LorH Cramwtii, tu nhoar na^ 
1II0TV there h a intirii] iniinumcnl. Mating, tliiit he died lite 
4<(b dajrof Jul^, 1^31. The urigioal burial-gruuwl n itill (tris 
Kr^-rd, ptuntid wilb trrc:i, us an ornammliil iliruhljpiy, and it 
• occafloDaHii u4l-<] for llic iiilcriucnt of ictHUils of llie loidslti|i, and 
domestica belun(^ng to the nistior-liouw. 

Ill LoDiHGTON, a Mnall village niljiMntiig Lnuiid, U l^niNO- 
TON HAi.i,,the M-alof Campbrll Moirk4,EM].n]io iiibrnl»il from 
liii folher. Till'- h'fuie i» luodern, »iid tvaled in a fiiic |Mr1 of Uic 
connt;. Mr. Nichols describes Ixidington aa " one of tbc tinctt 
lord^hiin of old iiiclosnre in Lciccstrrahirc, and conlijo* about 
SOOO acres; and a famous womI, called Hedtiiik U'ood. In tbe 
(noitb-uut conicr of the Ivnlihip, iu a fivkl al^out a mile from iJif 



bouse, (called llie C^aduit Close) is a KmarVolili* iMiilfi- 
diniE, comi*tinK of n sloiic roof, «iiieli covers two relU, one a 
»qa«T«. auci llic vtlirr round ; Die vnXtr <.tan(ls about tvro fcft 
<I«cp ill Kich, Hid is lonurknhly rl«nr »tmI pure. Hence Ibe 
water wa* conwvd |o lli« prior;' al l-aiiml by lea(lMipii>f«, at llio 
disliinn^ nf a mile, llironsi) wonilUuidi. Itt««tluate aljoiil tno 
miles from Hmiitark, or fhnbtmk Hill, InTilton lrirris]iip, a place 
wbne XhetK n supposed lo h-Aw been h Rovum stclhn; sc\-imil 
calrciiclimentH boiii'; still [wrfertly %-iiiUle lo tlie soutti," Ike. Pari 
eflliv roiiduit has heon mnuved. Near ihc church is a ^ring^ 
llie iraler of nhicb posicSM-K a Mrong petrifying i]iialily. 

In tlielar;^ |uiri»h of PrvshvonM, is Ptt&3TwocLD-HAti.t 
the seal ofi'harin Jamn Pafke, Fjm|. It is a large rumlem man* 
EJon, stjiitding in i fine \ymV, ami coittain^i scvthiI |>ou«I futnity 
pottratt:!, by \'aii(iycl(. Sir F. I-ely, Sir Oorlfrpy Kiieller, and 
Daht. Amnn;;! IlieBe arc the following Portraits : Jane Short, a 
goo<l picture, and Iwlieved to be an original.— Tlie Itight Hon. 
Sir ChristophiT Parke, Lord Mayor of London, l()3S ; lie i* re- 
presented ill Ibe Ecariet goM'ii, bWk bood, ^lil chain, &c. of an 
Altiennsn. — Sir (immr t'tifitm, of CliHon, lUrt. He Itid 
•even wive*, and dii-d in KiOS. Sir Jemn Haubhn, Knight, by 
Sir Go«lfrey Kiwller. bi llie diiircfi al I'lutwould is a niontinieiit 
of aliliiBter and (oudi, erected to the tnemory of Sir William 
SkfHrtlli, of Cotes, Knigtit, and Lady Jane, his second wife. He 
died Ml the ad of May, itiio, 'llic above named Sir Christopher 
Packe, and sercral nlbem of the f>iniily, were interred here, where 
their titles, ages, virtues, &c. are fully sel furlfa in innnumenlal 

RADCLirpBON THE Wkfkb. is a village learcd onlheriv'cr 
Widit, near the place where the annjent funs-road iT0t.H.>(] it : and 
nilbin Ibc parish is a lar^e tiimtilus, or moimd of Citith, ineakur- 
ms about 350 feet loti^ l>y 1 30 feet broad, and forty feel in 
Jieigbt. It is called SJiipliy Hill, and Dr. Stukeley iillrihute* it 
|o a Celtic origin, whilst Mr. Carte thinks it was raise<l as a mo- 




iHiiiirnl to llir memory of a DunUb kinc. TIk pTftftil EsH 
PetTtT*, ill n Irllcr In Mt. Nkliols, oppoM^ botti tkrte conjectures, 
by slating Umii •■ the liill h lal«l.v pr<tv«l to be tlie wewierftil work 
of tKtwv, not »( srt; and has tweit proclBccd tn fomc mieom- 
mon surilux uf tb^ nicr Wr^k^. It wai cut open a ftw yt*n 
poul, fiixl ttxiiid lo cititutii »lrala c<i grarel and rri/ marit, rvidciiU; 
■raahcd logellief b\ some exlraordinan/ i-ortex of Die river, or 
nalrrs making slmmls round it; wiiicti %n very pereeptibie. 
Tii«rc »ry- >lrntii of tiifti-fCTil m>i1s of onrlii ; Arrt Mil ; Ibeii grard ; 
inarlc, n!d and while ; some lilUe blue tnarle ; mixlafe of grafd, 
&r. but nil eviilenllv ap|)caT to havt b^-n the work ut Providence, 
not of man. Tliu hill it rli»« to Hic rivor," Arc. AiH>tber cor- 
r«»pondeDt of Mr. NiehoU't slalea, tliat lh« bill is " about 900 
yanU from the river;" and a third says, " it docs not aji^ar likely 
UiBl any part of it run be waidinl away, for it b a furkmg at least 
from tLi- Wrckc." 

" Sncli jarriagJiHigaienIs vAio tsi» fMaiwUe.'* 

Il uilil be JHipoiiitblc for me, not having tern ibe spot; but lb* 
argiim«ntfi of the iiubk' Larl do not appear either conclusive or 
probable. Il I* very tiiiliLcly lliut <»iy ri^cr, like Ibe Wrrke, 
ihonid have formed »icti a hill as lliat above described : besides, 
its contti;uily to the Kumuii road, sfaHpc, ^c. are circumslMKC* 
tliat induce one lo view it lu urlltiml, niid ibence conclude it to 
be a bsTTow, or tumulus. Besides, there are otlier btllocks of ■ 
•imilnr cbaracter, at iliflereitl places near llus Roman way. 

RakBDALK, ancieully calkd Ragdait, RagMe em tke Ifit 
f«BW, K a ullage on Ibe norlbcrn border of the oounly, near Sep' 
hill and (he fotw-roail, and with tipc manor of Willougbe*. be- 
looC to Earl Ferrers. Tliwe two lortbhips conlain about l+M 
acres of land, Ibe f>reater part of whieh is ap|iroprnted U> tbe 
grazing; vy*lera. About 400 acres of lliis in on the Woolds. Oo 
(hit estate is a lurgc niaiwion, now ocmipied by a farmer, 
wtder Eurl Fcrren. Oter the cntnace porch, wfaidi wn» built 



i6i5t ia a Urge coat of amu, carrcd in stoof, wilb tifty 

'^qiari«Tiiigs. Id tlii* bouK Robcii, firat Ewrl Fcnfi?, fre- 

^^jBtttiy icskicd, sud ktiil Im hawks Ikit, in a room wliicli dill 

^■unoust and nbcrcin b the stone Irougfa from wbicli tbcjr w«ie 

fbl. A mod«m lioiur, called Rakkdale-Hall. van built here 

in 17S5> l)> Ihe prmenl Earl Ferrrn. It jtaiMls on un «ni- 

nencc, aod conimantb BOme cxtctcivc aiul divcmlicd ticn^i in 

Ifac i-nHcv nod vrindinpi of Uic ^^'rekc constitute u stiikuig 

1 pkaiia^ fuilure. In tbc Louse luc a feiv cuIhdcI (licluKa. lo 

dinrdi-^nid a a atottr cnm, conijiting of a dud raiwd om 

cps, and suTruuunlcd witli u iMtWunttvil ciom. 

SkbffinutON, foniicTly wiitUia S€iftit9tK, SkeviH^vn, See 

k HDall villi^ oil ail ciuinuice, n«ai tlic luni|iiktf nxid froia 

|)(jiof;liaai lo Leicester, at the di&tant-c of teu tiiilcs fri>iii tbc 

Icr. LcUtul Kkyt, that " Slicfia^uii lay upward a mil« aud 

lie flom NoMlej, wlier row tJie name of tlic SkeJiugtou: 

atlemcn of Lekeefcnhire tital be Ihei'e of nxntl rr|>ulaliaa *." 

lordiliip coatatus bclwccn 1200 and 1^00 <kics of Rood 

|;t«nig land ; »oine|)«Ttuf nliicli iaolil iodiMurv ; but llie greater 

irlion U1I9 in<lo»e<J under an act pA»cd in 1772- la tlits. Wil- 

Farrcll, F^q. a dvscribcd iii lord of llic inintor, palroo of 

rectory, u proprietor of a conaiUvraUe ]>art of Utc opeu fields, 

eittitled to riglit of oonunon. Wllhin tbc iMdiliip are five 

BromeVWood, supposed lo coutaiii about tweuly-fiw 

; Great-Wood, about uiiicteea ucre«; £iigluiid-Wnod, ttli 

Krcfl I HooUiill-wood, fifteen acres ; and IUoiie>bush~Wood, nine 

acred. Tlic lauds are niosll; hilly, tbe soil ricli, and on it art 

grese^t ntany lior sheep And oxen. In Ifai* parish U 

Skeffinoton Halu. the seat of Sir mUum i'Herltt Sktf- 

JtHgtW, Bart. The house is larjc, and on the south Iron! aMumes 

castellated appearance. The rooms are numeroii*, s])iH'taui 

conrcDieot ; and many of them are decoruted and enriched 

with fkictum, by Ibe tint masters, as Sir William SkctHiigloi:^ 

•IliMmy, Vol L p. S3. 


420 LBIdLSTEftSttlKK. 

Burt. Iins Hlua^o been uUfleli«<l to Itiv fine urU, aud arlkts. Araoo* 
the ))aiiiltDgs an: (lie fi>l[«w'ing: Matf* iraiHftiins; on ffir Crcwti 
»J Pf:nraoh, lis RenilirtindL — Ottr Sariour blnttng Ike (hSf/firx, 
by Le Scwr.— Tin* Lmd*eapes, on «)[i|«:r, by Brrushd. — 
JXirht N'ith (ithlinh't Head, In Ciro Ferri. — A Mngetalm, un 
©f life, by Parmegiaiio. — A Ijoidtfnpe, wilh prexr, dnek», a 
tpaniet, &g. by Weenie.— ,\ Uige pidiire, re|iretei)tin« Ihe 
Foar Eltmentt, by Jotdapus. — Venus relurnrng from lluiriin-;, 
1»\ Luca Giordano. — A I.and*cafie. 1>y Vjiider IMi-ii, niid Ihe 
fiSrirc* Ity Teuiers.— 7'Ae Adoration of the Skifhrrds, by 
L. Ciiordano. — A Ijrndtcapr, bv Liimbcrt. — A tiare ultiajg, by 
Pt-Hiicr. PouTKAlTS, Tiie ICarl of fMland, by DoIkmii. — 
Pept I'avi tbt Third, hyUHinn.—Charfra Ihr Serond, aind Gf- 
vnr*l Utone/c, liolli by Sir Goilfroy KmWct.—IIead of an Old 
iVan, by Vawlyck- — thai of Kin^ Clisrttt tkr Fiyat, by V'lio- 
*l\cU.~lfred of ttnuj/ thr Ki^htfi, by U, Hdlbi-in,— A «boIe 
Ipn«lh of King Chirrln thr ftrxl, by old Stone. — A wliolir lrii»lb 
of Jamts the Jlnt. unci Im Queen, by VaiHunier. — Kinff Wif- 
ti/jM tie Third, by Sir (i. Kiiflltr. — Qurrn /imtr, by Viiiiilycli. — 
A laigc inclurc of King Cbarles llic V'lni. bi«QuEeii, llic Prince 
ol* Wales. auJ James DuKc of York, by old Slonc, aRifr Vjndyck. 
Actcirdiiig to a rccmd iii llie luniily, ^iid lli? Incdilioiift iif tbe 
place. Um? (!i>or of llie draiiing-foom. niriisuring :i'2 feel ra 
l«nglti by 33 in bmillli, was oblamed tVnni am oak tree, wbicli 
:t)so I'lirnUlied the wliole of llie ujiiascolin^ lo llie same room. 
Tliii tm- gic»- ia tlie iKisjIiliiuiTiit!; woods. 

The churcli itt Skellinglon, dedicated to Si. Thomu it Bcrkel, 
is built of tloiif, and ciuisisUof a naiT, two aiE«s, and a dianceL 
At the riiil oflbt: north ailc h a jtrivule chapel fur tlie Skrfiiii^toii 
family, aad in tlic loiitli vull of the chancel b a cuiinm Pitfina. 
la tliesHine (tlHce «Imi Teiimiiis (lie rood hfl, nearly in a perfect 
tiate. Ill llie «:2&tcni niniiow is ^tat: painttd gtau, in wliirh are 
Kveral ti<;urL-s and nuiliLilcii ii]»cri|itioii^ ; and in the private chapel 
and chitm-cl arc scvcrnl iiisciiptions ta llic raetnorics of diScTOl 
bmnchics of the Sketliiiigtoii fimiilt, .ttid joiiie handsome niuuu- 
. tncuU. A pAilicuIai account of (he SLcfiingtoit pedigrees, vriilt 



•ome parliciilan of the itrimipol peifons of the faniil^, arc Hctai!- 
ed in Nichols's History, Vul. 111. p. 4-1^)) &«-: stso in Sliuw's 
Hi»lory nf Slaffonkhire. Vol. I. p.36s: 

At this place wai boiii Thomai SkbfpingTON, wIio wm 
contecnitGil Iti<;lio|> of Biingor in June 1509. He eHi»ed a 
winrlow to he mnde in Ihi* church, in which, fayn Itiirton, »ci9 
"his picture, amis, and a siitMcription." He iiUu nuidc an«th«r 
wijidow in M<-n>vnlc clnirrh in Wurwiekthirc, wh<-r<'in wiw the 
following inscriplinn in old letters, *■ Orate pin aiiima Tlioinc 
Sketiin^lnn, i>[)L<.»)pi Bangor;" with hU amis, iin|>uliii!> those of 
the Sec of Bungnr. Riirloii t'lirlhcr Ktafi, tluit llii« Biihop " Uuill 
bU Ibe catliedral Hiiirc!i at Bangor, from the i|iitn* dwvuwards in 
the west end, nnd th>! fine Imvcr 4tt->-)J(^, which wni not fully 
perfected when lie ilietl, but allpr liiiiitht'Ll by his exccutoit, 
though not to thul htri^ht he hiid iuK-ndc-d." Wood rulutes, tliiit 
Bisliop SkeDin^ton betjoie, uheii yoiiii;!, professed in the inoiiBs- 
ttry fif Ci^tcrliuIU ut MiTcvyk- ; inslnictcil in llieoh^gicul ;uid 
other leuming tu St, Bentard'ti collep*, crtginally built for Cistcr- 
tbni iu Ihc^ uoilh suburb of O\foril (bciii;; now Si. John's college), 
to wbidi pluce lie b''i|U('^thed QO). toManIx i\% tfyaniUoti, ]]e 
was aflertvurds wiatk- AIiIhjI of Wavcrlcy. a bouse of thai order in ■ 
Surrey." He dii-il in li33, ami Uh heart wat JiitFrred in llie 
cathedral at Bangor, but hit body was convryed Id and buried Jo 
the uioiid»tery ot* Bcaulieu in Haiu|»hire. 

SvsTOK.onr nflhn mnf.Y popu1ousvilIa>;es in the county, i« seated 

on llie turnpike road bclwi^n Leicester and Itlelloii, at lliedislaiice 

of lire niilet from the former. The Lonliliip contHina about 

Hj^SoO acres, the (;re;itcr p;)rt of whtcli U appropriated to grazing. 

^Vtlie Earl of St;imfur(l it Lord of the manor. In the year 17/7, 

^^^ open liehU of ibii village, and those of Baikby, were appuint- 

^ to be inclosed by Act of I'arliament : a brook runs on tlie 

^relttm iide of the village, over which a Bridgr was erected iu 

1797- This was begun and completed in nine days by three 

BAtricklaycrs, willi llii-irsix iatiouren; and from tlie rapidity of i|g 

^V- execution^ 


execution, Iws shice bcra nilleil " Tbe Nine Dajs Wondn-." 
quantity of mxtrriali iiwd in tliU brrclge, tvaa Z.?,000 brkk> 
U)d 150 (oi» Wright ofstonp. Wilhtn thit lordstiip ban fmioeoce 
called Mowde-buMh'HUl, <>ii nhkh in a Mone inscribed willi that 
nunc. The lute Sir John Danven fonneriir held a mecling at 
Mniinl.'Uirrlr, catWI Mowdc-I)u»li-Couil, atwliicli tini« the lawver 
or StcwnnJ of Sir John H'ent to IVIoirdc-bush bill, and nittinj; 
■ i^ece of Itirf, csirrin) it to ihr court. 

The Parish Rcgiitcr of Syiton Tiegins in 1594, and fODtatnf, 
among vartous oihcr catrio, the followiii]^ : which are curious, u 
illuttnitive of the customs. eij^'Dces, &c. of fnnner timu. 

" l^97> poid to tlic armour dreHCr, Zs. 4d. ; a1»o for tlic Imtn 
wronl. 7s, — isyig. paid to Peter Polbrd. for helping to drive 
away the Toiot Bnit, that was sold, id. — Paid fur a Ball, 30}. ; 
paid for another Bull, 40f. 6d. — \€0Q, paid to Tliomas Pollard, 
for moving the Bull-hooke, 12(1, — 16'01. old Julicn Uivett, 
widow, l)ei]ueiithe<l by will, i-2tL u[Ktn (he diurch; which vrat 
bestowed u|)on puinting the church porch and oiltug of the ntne. 
— l60I, spent at Leicester, when wcwcrc tunuiiaaed to appear it 
the court, for thnl some of tiie priuts had wtou;^hl ou St. Bar- 
tholomew's day, isd. — lf>02, paid to Lord Moiden's Ptaj/m, 
because they thould not p/aif hi the church, l'2A.~—l60'2, iianTst 
late: barley itot got in before St Matthew's day; atid ou that 
day no pea* nor beaoi were got in, in Syson. — iGoJ, a pound of 
good hops sold for It. Sd.: a strike of malt, l/d. and u alHke of 
wheat. 3«. 4d. — l6o(7, grnidin; was so scant, either by water or 
wind, that at the feast of St. Luke, the people came from Htnck* 
ley to Syston to gritwl tlieir com. — 1609, at LmighboroHgh, 500 
people died of the plague." 

The church b large, with a oave, ailes, cbsDcel, and a Mjuate 
tower. A pa»age to the rood*lof\ stilt remains, and a ikntn 
Bcpantes the nave from' the chancel. A Chantry was foimiled 
here by William Greudell, priest, for one priest To sing luaM and 
perform other service, for which he was to receive 3l. ] Is. 2d. 
ari^ng out of hmdi and tencmeots. lo 1534»5, tlie procuialions 



syuodab wcr« 13*. 4d. ; tlie value of Ute vieanigc, 7I. 61. $d.t 
*iiJ iobn Beiukin, the dtaiiiiy priol, Ind 3L 99. a-ycar. lo 
16M, Svston WAS returned a» an iiiipropriatioii, the rrctory worth 
130).; tlie vicar's tlipend of money, COl.; and the iucumbciit 
" suAcieul." — About a niik foulh-weit of IhU %ilh^ is a Thmuliu, 
on tbe eajtero sid« of tbc Fon road. 

SiLBBT, a lor^e and populnui villugc, 00 llie tvstfra bank of 
the Soar. Tlie c\tpnt of Dip lordsliip from rust lo wvst « one 
mile aud lialf, and from norlh to uiulli two milH. It contain* 
■boat 2139 acr«K. lo i^i^, an Act was phkmI for ioclosiog 
about ■2^00 acres of open lields bcktni^it to Ibis village ; latA 
WUUmu Podiin, Esq. Mm Iben described as iraprofiHatur aad 
patron of the vtmngp, and enlilied to all the j^ic^t and tmall 
tillifs, and to tlie gl«be and oilier land. The manor now belongs 
to Earl Ferrers, by wliont it lijs be«-n ciutomary lo call a court 
once in ibrev jears. ' Tlx-rt- wi-rc formerly two ancient manittua- 

Ituscs at Sileby, one belungiii^ to tbe Sberurd famil}', and Ifao 
otber to that of Puctjiit. Must of tbe inliabitanls are cmjilmcd 

EgrictiUurc aud fmuie-worit-hiutliitg. Htrc is a frecKbool» 
three other large sdiooU; and ill ItiOO, Ifoere were 334 
W9 and 1 1 1 1 iiiliabttanls. 
he cliurdi is built uf Mtuiio, and onmntented with mnch iGid|p> 
. It cotuisls uf a iiavv, ailt^, chancel, porch, and tOHW. 
The latter is liaudsutae, and liai |)Uf tied piniiadM tvttli oniamaital 
butlresMS, and tbe uhnle of the cburcli is iu a fine Ktyte of 
ardutectiire. It was tirst appropriated to tliv Abbey of St. 
brulpb iu Nurtnandy, wliieli wa« »uppriMwd by Kiiif* Henry 
l|e.,FiAb. In I be Mibtc-ijutiil rcijju, Jobn Duke of Nurfolk ob- 
I a patent from Ibe king to uppropriate ihu cburcb to St. 
r"! Priory, in tlie iile of Atholnie, ijiibe county of Lincoln. 

GARTRE HUNDRED it bounded by Oiat of East GoMotv to 
[tie north, tbit of Guthhurtoo to the west, whilst the counties of 

' Northampton 

4A* l.BICB$TBItSlllftE. 

Nortliainpton and RutluKl atlarb to its souliKni and eutem 
borikn. TIiis hundrc^l is regalaily noticnl ia Uoinrs(i:i\-bpok 
by llie unmet of Gtrtrrc and Gcrclrcv. Nearly in llie centre of 
it, b H pbic« called Oartre-Bush, wliere, lill Uic beginoing of ibe 
but rciiliinr-, urru lieid Ihe coitiily courts; mtce liuUl al Tni- 
Lanj;tuti. The great nuiil r<ad from {.miijon to Leicester, Man* 
Chester, &c. now crosses tliis hundred, ue«iri^ in a line from 
MUtli-eaiit lo D0T|b-ne5t. Tbe principal road was fomieily aoore 
t» Ibe east, iind is siij)|)oH'd lo haw been iu tlit; track of Ibe 
yia Devann, a Roiiiiiii rcmd wliich enter* llii« hiuidrcd, J'nmt 
Colchester, near the village of Bhnglmrst, and continiie» in a 
direct Hue lu Ftaliu or LeicvAler. Xour Mcilbouru arc the rartfa- 
woris of Jta encampment ; und between Cranoe aiid Cilooston ii 
a largi; Tumulus on liie course of ibis mad. 

The towu»lii)is la Gutire Hundred, witli their ccdeiiaatical dis- 
Uuctions, are 


Bagrovf, a cltB|)elry belonging 
origrnuiljr to Urirmr, ami 
anoTw-urJs to Hungarfon. 

jf/y/i'itf/oii, a vicarage; including 
Geadby tad lioftfuton, in 
cacli of wliicti (here it a 

Bhhop'a Fef (Suburbs of Lri- 

Bltttlon, a »niBll touiislii)] villi 
two chapels; the one, a royal 
donutire, wilbiii the parish of 
Medbaum : tJie otlier, a cha- 
pelry lo IJoilston. 

Botu'orlh, HualKuid*, a rectory. 

Jiovdfn, Gnat, a prrpelual 

curacy: ineliidinglhe vicarage 

of St. Marg in Ardrn, and 

the diBpcUj' of Marktt //ffr- 

liradffif, the sil« of an old 

Bringkuraf, a vintmge ; in- 
eluding Ike cliapHrie* of 
liregion and (irtat Eattm; 
witJ) Pmtgrart. 

Bhttov, a rectory. 

Bttrtita Vver^, a rectory. 

Carlton Curlnt; a rectory ; in- 
cluding Ibe ebapelfj of B- 

Cranhoe, a rectory. 

Eringtim, a vicarage. 

Foxtoa, a vieaiiigc. 

fiatby, a rectory : inrludiiig 
rhapelry of /riafry. 

Gltn Magna, a vicarage; in* 
chidiHg Ibe cbapelry of Gnat 




CloPstOM, a rrdoiy, 
Gtimte-i/, a rectory. 

Ilaltatox, a double redonr, in 
two mnlietlei ; indtiiliiic: the 
cbapel of St. Nkhclai at 
MyoaA.'A himlrtof Dry Steh, 
'at the couDl^' of Rulland. 
llomlngholif, a ricanigc. 
Uourklon on Ike Iliit, a lertorj-. 
j^BrjFw-f j;y, a chiipelt}' belonging 
^V lo I^n's^arfoa. 
^^BCn/t horpf, a chapelry Iwloog- 
B^ injt to Tugbjf. 
^Biibworik Harcoitrt, H rrHory: 
^^ iiicltiiiuig Uif Imnilch of Kit- 
KOrlk lirauehamp, Smeica, 
RoA H'ntcrbff. 

jfon, a rectory. 
Lamgtoti, arrcion: in- 
clining the cbupelrirs of 
Thorpe Ijsngtnn ami Tiir 
iMtiglon : anil Xhv tiaink-ls of 
Eatt anil U'eti Langton. 
jHghtim, a recloty. 
uMtiilicm, a jicri>clual curac.v. 
frdhntiru, a redone; incliiiling 
(lie cbupclfjr of Ihtt, and 
thv fn-c i-bapcl of Si. Cfi?^* 
in Bttiiion. 

fmatiey, a chapcin belonging 
lo Knaptoft. 

A'orftnt, a vicarage; including 

the cluipelry of Utile Slrrt' 

tioturletf, orif;intlIy a rtctovy ; 

and aftrnvards a collegiate 

OuMon, a perpetual cnracy; in- 
cluding Ibe baralcl of Arw> 

Pick'wttl, a rcclonr ; including 

Uie bamlct of Leetlhorpr. 
Prentgravf, a depopulated vit 

lagc (Sc(? BringAurtUJ 
Sadingloti, a rectory. 
Scropto/t. a vicange. 
£AaiiA:(on, a rectory : incliidii^ 

the Immlct of Uardvekk. 
f\l<nutaa, a vicaragr : indtiiiing 

tbc liaralet of Outhorpc. 
Staimton M'ytite, a rectory. 
fitt^xraton, a rectory. 
Thfdingitorth, a ricanige ; io- 

dudiiig Uic baiuld of /^ 

Tliumbif, a vicarage ; including 

llie chap«;lri» of BuMy and 

IVelham, a vicarage. 
Ui'ttow, a riranige ; including 

llic cbafieltin of FIrchin/, 

fiilby, and Nneton Utir- 


you. IX. 






Or Alarkcl Uarborovgh, is tlie diief town in ih'u liiindm), 
and ii siluftk<t near Ihc southern border of tbc coitntv, wlierc it 
joins Nnrlliamploiiatiiiv on tlic mtrtlnrni l)aiili nf tli<; river Wel- 
laiid. 11 is a ic3[)rrtnlilc ucIL biiilt-lotvn, coD^ialing bf twv \»\iv 
cjpitl strul, two sburt tirects, mid four Uucs. Within Ihc XoA 
twenty years, Harljoruugli liai bwin v*t\ iimterialty iinprovcd, 
And several new linusca liavc been erected iu the vicinage wiiliin 
(bat pcriud. Many uf llieje builJiags ure, bowrevcr, included iu 
tbe i>ariilic» of Ctrcnt and Little Buudcu, to Uic former of wliich 
the town is Eittacltcd. 

" The liilitudc of Ilarborough, deduced from nuny verj 
accurate ob»er%*aliuiu of Ibe altitude of Ibe sun's centre, nude 
in the ji»r 1737 by my Uto woitliy father, Mr. Samuel Uouy. 
a diaiMT in tliii Iomo, is tt'l" 1*)' iioilb; ill longitude is 35" or 
3' 4<y of time, west of Greenwich. The accuracy of these ob- 
Krvntions have bern roiitirnied by the sali^/nclory authority of 
the late Rev. William LiidUui, wlio took amch \tavxi nicely to 
ascertain the latitude of SL Martin's cinucb in Leicester. Tbc 
lalitndes and longitudes of placej, uhen nettled t>Ub accuracy, 
«r« valuable, as well lo Die practica] tutronoincr as to the 
jcrki^plier; ami those uf LvicL-sler aud Muikel Ilarboroujb 
may be relied on*-" 

In the Testa (Ic Ncvill. this plate is called both tltrhtrhnrr 
Buggrdon. and Hmn-ljcrg, and by Ihc latttr name it is dragnalMl 
in inoit other aucient wntJi^^ wbereia it is mculioned. Hmr. 
Johuson inform) us, is a common word iu the nortbrm counties 
for oatt. This may have ^leii occasion to the Iradilion. tbal it 
owes its I'ut to the good outs which tra?cllcn uxd to find at an 
inn here (Ihc King's Head), siipjiosed to be at that linK the Oialy 
bouse ui tbe place. To this Iraditioii; Moreton hu given some 
aulhorhv by ob^cnm;, that " Market Harborough and some 


* Mr. Rowlaiiil Rome, Eiivletter to (be Royal Society, Hay II, ITTSb 


other roittl towns llial arc now considprable, took tb«ir rise from 
only a iiri^lc inn." Aiiotlici account is, tliat lliii tovru was built by 
an carl of Cbest«r, who Kardtd in L«keitvr casllt, fot the con- 
fcnicnce of a li>ilyiii§-plaw for binHcIf and hla retinue, iii lilS 
pn^sivc to and from London. But there it rt-ason to believe Uist 
neither of IIkk traditions hftve any foiindtltioo in (ruth ; for it if 
rcrlain, Hat Ilurborough bas a strong claim to Roman aDtifjuitj. 
On lltf. side of the town are plain traces of an ancient 
Enrampmntl, which, from iUt form, may be consiilcn-d of Ronraa 
origin. At a aliorl distauce, both «aA iuid >ve»l, Roman urns and 
oth^r pottery hare been discovered; and even in Ujc street, ao 
ancient ilrain wa* lalely found, a frw feel below the surface, 
vrliich appeared to be of Roman nmsuiin'. Tlie niosl consjncuous 
retnaias of the enrainpmnit are in an old iiiclosurc called Tht 
Klag'a Head Close. TIic hnuic, fonnt-rlj the King's Head Inn, 
but iimv eoiivcrled into private houaes, stands opposite the south'* 
east Corner of Lord Ilurhorongh's nen building. Il is said to 
have been theanrieiit manor-house; and from its vicinity to this 
camp, probably ivas so: for when-t'cr these eain|H arc dbcovered, 
the nianur-hou»e is gencnily built in or very ncitr iheui. Thif 
encampment was of a squarish form, and included about tax arres 
of gronnd : hut the hunks and fuM are nearly Irvelkd with tlie 
aHljarient lajids. Near tlib spot was discovered. In the year l779t 
two Mrpulrkral urns, one of a large size, and (lie other Anialtcr. 
Th«e were formed of clay, very slightly baked. Two other 
smaller urm were afterwards found ; and at subiequenl times 
varioin fragments of other urns, with burnt hones, plceca of a 
pattrm, &c. have been discovered ; all which pro\T, that Ihb spo^ 
'was once a considerable eenielery. 

It is rather a curious circuinntHiire, that Harborough ha9 no 
lund or lields belonging to it: whence originated the local pro- 
Verb, that "A goose will eat all tlie grass that grows in Flar- 
Kormigh field," In eerletiia«ticul afiain, Ihi* town ii dqicndaut 
the pariidi of Bowdcn MaKiia ; and its chief religion* stniclnre 

only a chapd of ease. This buildiag. however, b large, band- 
Ee2 som^ 


tome, and nnrly uniform in JL« alyle of aHiiteclure. II may bt 
fairly ranked witli Uic linest religious edifices in tlie county ; nud 
coDsisIs of a iiavc, two ailet, n cbaiicel, willi two tiers of windows, 
IH'O iMrclies, and a tower, with a spire, all meaMiriiig 140 feel in 
Icpglti. Tlie laUer is oclHnj^itar, aiid untaoiented witb crorketo 
al each angle, extending all the way up. Mr. R. Rouse cuDJec- 
tures, that tliis cliapel, &c. was built by John of Gaunt, a!> tlie 
tnuliliun of the iiilinltilauls, and the v:irious uniis found in tlifi 
butldiii';, »eeni to indicate ; but Mr. Nirliols iiipposet that it vizt 
erected by (reflrey le Scroijc, "whose artm were repeated on 
lite atecple. Tlirs clupel ts mmlioiied in »ii eccle^iasticul record 
of 1344," where it is noticed as jiarcel of tlie Rectorj' of Bowdeu 

In this town are three meeliug houses; for Presbyterians, 
Quakers, and Methodists. Here it a weekly tnnHiet litrM on 
Tuesday, and one chartered fair annually; another lair is also 
established by cusrom. In llie principal srreet is a large towii- 
liall, and ncxr the church i$ a eh-jrity School, founded by 
Mr. Smith. In tlie time of QitMn Elizabeth, a krge maniifactorT 
of shoes for foreign tnid« was eslahiished iKrc; and at present 
Uie making of lummieo, Hhalloons, plaio and ligured la«tings, 6te. 
•fiord empluymeiit and Miceour to many poor families of the 
lowR and nrighbou rhood. Tlie buMiie<M in these articleg is ver^ 
considi'ntble ; and Mr. Nichols observes, thnl in some ynn " it is 
computed th^l 30,00Ol. has been lehirned in the article of tanunies 
OiJy." Harboruunli contains 330 houses, and 1716 inhabitant!. 

Harborough appear* to hnve been llie head quarter* of the 
Kuig's Army, jirevious to die memorable battle a/ Aaseby, in 
Noitliamptonsliire, which proved go fatal I0 the royal cause in 
June, \Giit. The king wai at Lubbenhnm, Eind hearing Ikat 
tile )KLrli:iimentE army u-as beating up in the rear of the royal 
camp, hastened to Harborougli, and called a counHI of war. It 
was ibea agreed to hazard an engagement the next mornings 
and llic royal army formed, it is supposed, upon tlie bill sontlt^ 
of tbe town, between Oxendon and Famdou. From Ibis adi 



ll^ou) position Ibey were drawn by the rasbness of Prince Ruper^ 
and burriecl on to buttle, in whicb^ in a f«w faoure, (be king's 
porly wa* crtmplftoly rotirM. lla<i thpM bci^n ihe »amc caution 
and prudence »n the side of Itie KnynliiU as wilb the P:arliamrn- 
tarians, the iamc would most likeEy liavc been difiereut ; for 
tliongh in point of niiinlM^rs i\w. armies were nearly equal, ytl Ibe 
royali-its had considerable ndvantiigcs, if Ihey hud |)ruili!ntly and 
akilfiilly employed tbem. Instead of which, lh«y made a quick 
niarcli of four niile«, and attacked tlie enemy in a lofty, commaiid- 
ing, and advantageous situalioo, before tlicirown cannon arrived. 
The coiiMqueiKC was iiicvilable, and Ihi- intiitualed and ill con- 
ducted royal army were nearly all alain and taken pruoners. 
Many of theiu were conveyed back to II:irboroitgli, and confiiied 
all night in the chapel. The fvlloiviog puriUnical letter from 
O. Cromwell to Uic Speaker, dated from thlt town, details some 
eveaU of ibt» nmmor»ible engagement. 

" For the lion. William Lentltall, Speaker of the Comoioiu' 
HouK of Parliantcnt. 

*' Sn. " Havfrhrom. June I*, l645. 

*' Being coniradnikd by you to tliis service, I think myself 
bound to acquiiiut you with the good hand of God lowanis you 
and ui. We tiiarchcd y^itcrday aflcr the king, who went before 
MS from Davcntry to Huvcrbrowc, and quartered about jlx miles 
front him. Thia day we marclieil towardii him. He drew out 
to meet U3. Bulb armies enj^ged. We, after three hours fight 
very doubtful, at last routed bii army; killed and took about 
jOOO': very many officers, but of wbat quality wc yet know not. 
We look aluo about 200 carriages, all he had, and all liis guns, 
being twche in number ; whereof two were dcmi-culverins, nod 
(I Ibink) the real ukers. We punucd the enemy from tliree 
miles shorl of Havcrbrowe to nine beyoud, even to the sight of 
Leicester, whither the king fled. Sir, this is none other but llie 
intld of God ; and to him alone belongs the glory, whcieiu none 

E«S arc 


are to tliare wilii bim. Tlie Genenl »erv«d you with ill fnitb- 
fulneits and Itnnour ; Hod the best cDinmentlation 1 can giv'C of 
bim is, tlial 1 il^irv say l>e ullriliuk's all to (iiut, and would ralber 
pcrisli tlian assiiuiff lu hiimeIC utiidi U aii iimie^l and a llitinag 
my : yet «s much for brai-«ry must be given bim in (bb actioa 
as to a mail. Mount men servvd you faillrfully in IliU action. 
Sir, {bvy are trasly. I bfMi-c)) yoii, in the nnnie of Gud, iiol to 
diicoiirnge them. I wiiili lliisaclioa may bt'get tbankfuloess and 
humility in all Uiat are concerucil in it He that venliirvs bis life 
for tbe btiLTly of bis counlry, 1 wish lio Itnsl God fur tlt« liberty 
of his conttdcarc, and you for the liberly lie figbt« for. lu Ihii 
lie rests, wbo is your humbl« st.'n'ani, 

"O. Cromwbll." 

The tnovemeiits of the king, immediately before Uiis battle, 
ar« IbuB recorded by an altendsint : 

*' June 4, l(i45, the king, from Leicester, lay at Wutow one 
Mght al Sir Kirhard Halford's. 

" 5lh, Removed to Liibbeubani ocur Harborougb, and (laid 
two nights at Mr. Collim's. 

*' 7lh, W«nt lo Dftvenlrce, and slaid six tiiglils at Ibo Wlieil- 
sb(af ; whence Oxford waj; relieved froin the awga and victualled. 

" 13tb, H«-niarrUed to Liibbeiiliain, lo Mr. Collins. 

" 14tli, Au nlarm iitfrigbtcd 1)k- king and uniiy at two in IIm 
moniini; to Haiborough, the gcocral's <;aartets; tbeocc, about 
•even, marched towards Naseby, where the parliameut's umy 
quattetetl; rashly fuuglit with tlitiii ; wvrc utterly dvfctUcd 
tkrough the cowardice of the bone, who ded to lite walla of 
Ldcesler, sixteen niUes, and iu:vcr tiiced aor rallied till there," 

This dofcEit was attciid<.'d with two peculiarly distressing ciz- 
dUD-stances. The King's cabinet of letteri, among u'bi<b were 
ike pritate ones tliat pas&ed between liim and bis Queen, were 
baKly published hy the iosulling foe. And the conqucion, 
fiercely pursuing tJie routed royal army, killed, besides many men. 
kuLiei, wboK coaches were ov«itunied in their haily fllgbl, 
3 par- 


lib- I 




particularly iii (lie soulli pHrt of Fitriidon-iifliJ. wiiliiu (b« gate- 
I^Bce in the road between Ntiaeby bikI Famdoii. The pkriiament 
bone gsllopini; along, as Mr. Mortoa (llie author of tlie Natural 
Hbtuni of Nurlli;im|)loi)«liirv) whs iDruiiiieil hy ui eve-witneM, 
cut anil ^la*)ied llif wattien, with tliw nan-asiii at *my Stroike, 
" Itemembfr ComwaU. ytm tchorei!" Sir Ralpli Ho|>taii, ai (A/y 
Moitl, liaviog UK-d thvir women in Cnrnwxll in the like mamier. 
]ti till) piireuit, llie enemy hilled above one hundred wsmen, 
whereof MJiue wvce tlic wives of otlicers of quality. 

At Bradlet, ill ttir [inritli of Mcdbourn, a tniall lordslitp on 
tlie sDulii-eiuIern e.di;e of ttie county, wsft a Priori/ of ouraiu 
regularof Ilic onler of St. Austin, founded by ilobcrl Dundy, or 
Buruely, in the rcr<;n of King John. The lords .Scrt>|)« of BollOD, 
■tyled by Du«dii)e llie second founders, were considerable bene- 
fjc^loK to, and afterwards patroiu of, tliis small religious house. 
Ou the site uf the (iriorv U a siugle liuii<ie, aitd near it b a deep 
Well WHllcd round beneath tli« luriace. Il t* odled Our Vaiy'a 

BuRiiow, in iomt old writings called Bvrg, Erdthkrg, 
Krdburrov, &c. is a vikla^ suluated on an emiiienee near the 
verge of llie county, where il joius Hunliti^oniiliire. Thiii ptaee 
is noted by some flnti{|iiarie>i for iu ea^tramftoliant, on which 
tiolh Leland and Stiikeley have dcwanled. Tlie former says 
" the pliice that is now ca^vllid BaroM-Hillos, is duhLe dkhed, 
and coiileiiiith wiliiiii Uic didie to my e^lifualion a iiii uore acr«. 
The loile of it benrilh very gomi come. Fint I looke hit for a 
eatnpe of m«n»e of warre; but after I plaine pereeived that bit 
had beetle wuulliil about with stone, »iicl to be ture, pullid ont 
■ome Uoncs al the entering; of hit, where h:itb bene a ([reat gale, 
•Bd iher found lyme betwixt lh« atones. But wirilher Iber halh 
been any mo gates there thnn one, 1 am not sure, but I coDjeCl 
ye. Very often Iwlh lie founde ther Aumjmui /(onoiM of geld, 
Bji'lref, and braue, and fngiueiiles of a! fouudaUous ia plotvying. 

Ec4 Tii* 


Tbis slonilitb in tiM tery fay my betwixl Mellon nnd Londoa. 
To Uie Borow-hilles every j*re on Monday after White- Sonduy, 
cum j>fopk of lite coolery iIht about, mid sliulo. roDiic, nrastel, 
dawnce, and ute tike other fcatcs of exercyse." (Thue rural iports 
continued in vogue till Midiiu a few yean.) " Borow lillii^*^ n 
wilhin k's&e llian lialf a mile of bil ; uiid ttieic dtvellilli one 3lr. 
Borow, liie grealest oucer there. 

" Borow-hilies be aboute a vii uiUm from Leyrceslre. From 
Borow-liilles to liiundv n v miCc. The suite dhtrto ithtm, 
betwyxt Soulltripe and taund, is bareii of wood, bill |>lraliful of 
Qorne and pulure, fS|ieciuily ;ibu(vl launde ijuurters. But (lie 
soile abowtc lauiidv is wui>ddy: iiiHl IIh- forest ul~ Ly, of &um 
eaullid Lytetd, Joyniltie lo laiiiidc by Este. And the Mile of 
Owien Abbey is alio very wooddyV 

Tbt^se nuticcs of our old luurist ;irc curious and iutere^ting; as 
displaying the (.late of the pbice uhnn be \'kited ii, and abo ai 
•erving to cbaracEerice Ibe customs of the people, and uaturat 
ftatnres of tbc county, aliuo«t tliii;*!^ bundled years ago. Camden 
conjeclurM th»t tlie Roman xlntion, mlled by Antnniniis, feno- 
mutuM, u'us at Burrow : bnt, by the authority of later anti(|uarie<, 
and particularly on Uie judgment of the Kev. T. Lcman, I have 
been induced lo tlx tliU slaliou on the notihrrn tmrder of Ilie 
oounly, nearWilloughby. Ur. Slukdvy describes the hill at Bur- 
row " as 3 grcut Kontan camp, on the nurQi west tip of a ridge 
of lulls, and higher thiin luiy oUicr part of it, of a inn«t delightful 
ud exlcniivc prospect, reaching as far as Linoolu one way. The 
fortUication takes in the whole summit of tbc hill ; the hi!;h nuu- 
pire is partly composed of vast lonte ittoiiea, piled tip und covered 
with turf. It it of an trref>u]ar tigure, liiimouriDg the form of 
the ground nearly a square, and conformed lo Uie (|uartcr« of 
tbc heavens, it« length lie* e^icl and wexl ; Ibe narrowest end eit9ft> 
ward, ft is about KOO feet long ; and for the most p:irt there is 
a ditch besides the ruropirc. To render the ascoul slill more 
difficult to assailants, the entrance is touth-weAt at a corner from 

a nanoir 

* Inland's Jlinerar?, Vol. V. p. 93, 94. 


m nanow ridge. Hera two rampires advance liiwartTs, tike the 
sides of a gatf for «;n.-:i(er slrengtb. AVithin U a ristng hill abool 
tilt middle ; urid llii-y my tliut virnU^ have tifcii found Ihvrenbouts. 
Anti(|it&ries talk of a Temple, which may have been there, and in 
Ibe time of the BritoiK. Several springs rise from under the hill 
CMi aJl sides; and I obscnod Ihe rock (liereof » composed of &t-a- 
<lieUs. They freijuenlly catr; away the ntnnei that form the 
rampircs to mend the mads with. There is another Uomaii 
nsllF, Boutliu-ard ueur Tilton, but not so bij; us Burotigli* 

Th»ugti Iceland and Dr. Stukeley speak so decisively of walls 
bete, the Kt^v. (tvorne Asliby doubis the existence of any 
masonry- huviny bt-eii ever iisod In this fortification ; find Mr, 
J&hn Tailhy, in a letter to !VIr. NichoTi, positively contradicts it by 
ob«ervut;7, that " Biittuw I Mil is an ejicampmenl, in a great mea- 
sure formed tiv nalarc, and slmjicd by iirt unit labour. Tht- JiiU 
coiuists nf a Iaa»e npeTi-jninted rork of soft reddish stone, covered 
with a shallow soil. In this rock some fossil shells appc:ir, some 
indented, some plain, but must tiflhc cockle kind: one I found, 
when bmken, ^liewed the ligaments, or memhraiie«, which juin 
th« full to Ibe shell ; this was a small plain one. The jninLi of 
the rock, at first sight, appcnr a< if furnieil by art us a ivuil in, for 
i>ctwrcn llie jninix in a white substance, which adheres to the 
•tone, nnd much reseinbtea time, or lime-mortar; but is in rcahly 
no such thing. In some pliirvs th^ joinls are so open, ihiil tlio 
eaitli, which h not more than six nr ei^ht inches deep above tlie 
roelc, (in some places llie stnne appears above the soil) is worked 
into the chinks, so a^ to appear as a i^-ment of dirt-mortar." 

In llie cimreli at Burrow is a small piwiiia, an<l a curious circu- 
lar /oHt, omaineiileU with ^Ttrious tracerj-, Stc. Here is an old 


* Itiunriam CuriMiim, EiKL ITi-t, p, lOf. Tli« aitU» or fHtaMpmrnl 
kere referreil In is pniliubty tlknl of Snnjr, in ilie tiiriliJiipaf WitUcuti^, alMul 
foat luiLc* S. S. £. of Burtuw ICIl, wUcit; tiic ouiltaukiiidiit h ain^'^i eoni^ 
pDi^ cbiefly uf a rock of l]i« siine naturv u Burrow Hill, and tnCeispi.*r)«l 
vitli foMib of the lauc kiad. 


BMfinincDt to a kuigbt of tbc hmiij of Stockden, niili ha rffigj 
in BiTuour. 

At Carleton. or Carletm Curliru, lo culled, to i&lingtiUt 
it from TstA Ctirlvlon in Northaniplonibirr, a an old bouw, 
nained Cabi-KTON CuRMEtt Hall. iJic «al of Thaman Pd- 
ma; Esq. who inherits it fruni hia fmhcr, llie late Sir lohn Pal- 
incrt But. Tbb niate Hiid manor Wiis purcbaacd \>y Tboma* 
Palmer, Esq. in IA97> vrbco it was fomid. by an inc|ub(lJoii, that 
lU-nn' Ilitstinp. Enri of Huntin^on, died i^iied of (he fjfltoc of 
bailtilitp fballiot) of Caricloii Curkv. hdd of ibc queen in capke, 
by tbc terrier of aii buodrctb pert of b knigUl's fee ; and, by a 
(ubsefguntl iti<|ui;>ilioii. Sr|>teiRl>cr ti, i6*)7, it v(m found tbal 
George Ha-^lin^, F.arl of lluntiii»i[oii, died seiMd uf the same 
bsilbhip: and limt it Wita vritliin ibe honour of Leieeslfr, and 
parcel of the Durliy of t>Bnca»tc.T. The l»rdibip now coutabi 
about l6'00arrT*of okl Jiivktiiire, llir greulcr pait of nhicfa b 
disposed in Ur^ pasture )^mind<i. The manor bouse is a curioai 
M biiililiug, of the style eorontonly oiDcd Queen riizabelh'i 
Gothic. In llic front are three projectioiiv. wilb three licn^ or 
stories, of windows, and lenninaled at lofi with e*raloped pedi- 
Bien(», Uke the stieet front of Unirenuly College, in Oxford. 
Among some family portraits, Ibcre b one of Sir Gnfffrey PaU 
mar, Bxrt. wlio ifBs bom in 1 59$, and who was the fir^t Attorney 
tiencral after the restoration. He acquired particular emtuenec 
in Hie law. and ia eaily life was one of Ibe seleet friends of Ed- 
wtA Hylc, ILarl of CUrrmlon. In t(i7S he |Rilili!ttied a Tolunte, 
entitled " Les Reports, de Sir ielfrey Palmer, ClienJier and 
Btranell,** wilb bii portnil, from a jxiinting by Sir P. Lely, now 
in llie poucsuoD of %tr. Cambrid^. 

la til* chutcli at Cailetoii Curlieii is an ahbasler totub, with 
the efligies of a man in armour, and bis lady : and two iu&crip- 
Hon«, in Latin, to (he niciiiory of Sir Johit Bote, who died in 
l62i, and Frtmccs kJx wife, wbo died in Hii% aged 80. 




Stkkttom Magna, lometinneB ciMed Diihop't Str€tton,(jiiom 
flobcrt Eyrick, BUIiop of Chester, who nm boni lierc) a a baio> 
Id, oil lltv R»iniui mini, hIkiiiu' it derived iu name of ^Irctlonr 
pr Slreel-ton. The family ol' Ivyruk wu* settled liere al »i) early 
periotJ. and held Iwu virgatcscfluiid (alioiil fifty acrr») from tin 
Abbey of Lrrcc^ttcr, on Hip piiyiiteiil of a poiitul of ]i«p)wr to iIir 
king, as nil aiiiiunl ijiiil n'lit. A Robert E^rick, or, »« coinraonlj 
called, Kohert de Slrelton, LL. D, tbandetl and tnidini-vd a dintt- 
try here. 

In tliii lordfthip, which in alnio»l surroiin'led with groves of 
iH-Lii, is u good inuiior lioua«, built by one of the £imi9y of llir 
Hewellg, who rcsidct) here 'till the dratll of tJie late H'iHiaa 
Ilrwrlt, Vm\. in i'OS. ThJK gentleman h^ sd intiniutc friend 
of lliejjreal Murijuin ufGtiuihy, uilh \tlioiii be Impelled Iu lluly. 
Qd his return, aiid selllentont ul this pUce, he act « large t|ttanUlj 
of acorns, uimI k said to liibve ilispDCpd somo of them in the farm 
of tiie coloiuudv tH'Torv St. Peter's at Kouic. At Crtxttoit, a hunt- 
ing *em belonging to tlie Duke of Ruiliind, U a giimll porlrail of 
him ; and his fhur:icter is uid to be well dnun iu one of Sn)(d> 
WI'b novels. The liull Iter*.- iiuw belongs lo Sir (leorfje Kobiuson, 
Bart, ill right of his Udy, oue of tbi.! Iicirvivius to lliv Ilewf tti. 

Ot^MLEV, a villuni; situated on an eniincoce, about twelve 
miles from l^ieester, isdij^iiilu^d nitit llie stvai of Jo!W(>li Cradock, 
E«l. M. A. aud v. K. S. I'hLi is a large inctleni building, riUl44 
Gtunlfi/ Halt, iind u-as b>fguii in l/6i ; aince wiii«h tiiuc the tine 
plQiilatiiiiis, p]eu«ure grounds, &c. have hern .^radiully utid pro- 
gressively iiDproviog, la llw library, which conlaina an ei^elliMit 
coUvcliou of book.:, (fur Mr, Cradoclt is a literary chararler] are 
Wver^il lirsi ediliaas of lUe classics: EuriiMdes, vvit}i Millon*s MS 
Doles, mentioned by Dr.Joliuson, uiul more fully by Mr. Jotlrell, in 
)fk " Illustrations of Euripides.'* — A Manihus, with Dr. Bentley't 
US notes; and the "Tho«auni*" of Gnevius and Urouoviua, of 
%^ large volumes, bound in vellum, large |)a|>er, ^Scc. &cc. 

Ouiuley, from time immemorial, has Leon famous for il«/«r- 



earths ; and here is a noted mitierat spring, MhitJi liiu heta cmh- 
tiowd in fcoiiie \tty old wrilmgs. Fmm the e%\xni»ei>i\ of Mr. 
W. Morris, it appears lo resemble, iu some degree, the Tunbridg»> 
Welh water. Tliia gentleman observes, that " its liglilnen xod 
ehatjbeale properlie-i, at lb« spring, leeni Id bo efjual, if not ui* 
perior, to any of our mineral waters in Great Britain.'' 


A small maiket town, b sitnated in a valley at tlie distance of 
about lix roller ii«>rth-p:itl of Miirkel Hartmrougb. " It has been 
fancifully called a Half-Town," ob&crves Mr. N'tcliols, " but ra- 
ther seeius to denote a Hallotped, or Holg-Tntm," Leiani) calh 
it •• a pretty Irtwnlet." — "Tliis lordship, from the earliest times, 
was divided into two capital nianan, one calli-d Pererrla, or En- 
gaine's, the other Aiiseliu'ii, or Bnrdo!f'» : both held of tlie fe« of 
Pe*erel ; and attache<l lo tliis was a subordinate manor, called 
Hackluit's, or the Duchy Manor'." 

In an act of parliitment. p3!l^ed in 1770, for dividing and indos- 
iiig the common fields of Hallaton, bein^ by eslimatioii about 3000 
acres, Benjamin BrMJckcandTlioEnas Voue, Estjrs. are dei^rihed 
u Mverally InrdN of manors within the parish. The town now 
contains 14JJ houses, and J4R persons. A niaiket. which had been 
long discontinued, was revis'cd here in 1767, and the lon-n has tlie 
privilege- of two annual fairs. A (chool was established bere in 
1707, by the beDelarttoD of a lady. 

H»llHton is distia^uishi'd by a singular 2nd ridiculous anrient 
STinual rmtom. A piece of land was ber|uenlbed to the lue and 
adi.^uitage of tile rector, who was then to provide "two hare 
|tir&, a rjuantity of ale, and two dosen of penn; loave;, to be 
teramhUd for on Eufler Mondny uniiiiilly." The land, before 
Ihe inclosures took place, was called lienre crvp-fn/a ; and, at llw 


■ Nidwli^ Hid. «r Leiccstcnliire, Vo3. U. p. 693. 

LGlCeSTRRStltAR. 437 

liiiieof dividing the tielfis, in 1770, a piece vns nllnlted lo llw 
wclor in lieu of Die sail) l^ys. Tlic cuslom is still cotilinued ; 
but, itutcud uf liare, \ht rodor provlJcs two lurge pi^^, mad« of 
ml and bacon. Tlirte. are divid«<i into part*, and put luto a 
■ack; and about two gallons of ale, in two woodra botfIp«, with- 
out liaiidtes or 'ylringv an also put into » taek : llio [Kiiny loaves 
■re cut into qiiarten, and placed in a banket. Tliiii prqarvd, 
the ni«n, woiu«n, and rtiildrtni. forni a proircssiun from the rec> 
tor's, and marcli to a place, called Jiarr Pit Bank, ahnut a 
quarter of a initc south of the town. In tlie course of llii« joura^y 
Uir p)«%s of bmd are occasioiulli^ thruMn for scnmbHn^; but 
Ike fin and ale nre carried tii tiie giand rustic Ihcaire of coulen- 
boa aiid confusion. Tliis is of old fomiation, And, though not 
vfioa so i;;reiit a scule. or dmiihed for »uch bloodv fi-als, as the 
Roman 3mpliill)<entTei, yH consists of a bunk, with a snmll trench 
round it, and a circular bole iutlie cealr«. Into lliis tlic pies and 
ale are promiscuously' thrown, and even frolicksonie, foolish, unit 
fraiilic rustic ruiilies forward tu srizc a. bit, or bear awaya bottle. 
Confusion ensues, and, what bt^i^n in peiirile !>[>ort. occasionally 
Irnniiialcs m that common, hut uivage custom, a hoKiiig-nKiU]i. 
How much more noble, and praise-u orth^, would it be to encou- 
nge and reward some lau<liible coiiiiM'liltoii, or inMmrlivi- emu- 
lation; and, instead of souing the seeds of discord and passionate 
coulenlion, endeavour to cultivate Ibe heuign blcssinj^ uf pcace^ 
brotlirrly love, and social liamionj'. 

About one mile west of the town is an incampment, called 
UaUatoa Ctiattt Hill. This coD»ists of a circular enlrt-uclimcnt, 
nitli a lofty conical keep : branching out from uhich, towards Hie 
west, is a squarish plot of ground, encompassed with hanks and 
ditches. To the north-ea^t is a small jquare entreiicbinenl, con- 
nected MJtfa the outer foss. The keep measures about 118 feet in 
bright, bv 630 feel in circumference, and the whole occupies 
about two acres of land. About a i]iiarterof a mile soulli wot of 
ibis is the appearance of the teaiaios of another encampmtnt, 
wliicli aHSunie» t stjuurijih shape, and includes one acre and three 
^wdi of groundL 

atngKT ERS H I Bff. 

Tbt eharch nl lluthton a a large liandramc slmctiirf, rumirf- 
uig ufa ii«m;, niWi, cliiiiict'l, noil tuwcrM'ith a sfiin-. The aiWt 
urc us liich as ttir nave, miil have Ui|C nimltms uith inullinitf, 
«i(l rlutwrule Irai-crr. At the nurlIi-«Hst nuf^t a * sort tif tmtef 
buUie»*, omRiDenlcd with nidin, cjiiiopiM, nml |iinnacl». Onr 
Lhcw nrc ibc anrs of nanliilpli hikI Engniiic, rut nii stoni- Hliicldf, 
xud llicHiok » sumiuunteil with an handMXiie rrockelnl piiiBS- 
ctf. Ki>uii(i the cxtctiur stiiHiiiit of tlm uilc is a iwrfnialeH lra(- 
Ittilraiir. Ill the iioilfi [xirrli n nn ancintf pirce of amJptvrt, 
wbicli ori^iniiny rormctl the import of x donrwaj, »nil ivprrt^nlf 
lh« pulron SMtiit, Michnel, sJa^ring a dragon. I» iIh- chancel art 
ibrce atonf tual*, i^rUiaWy Hmii^ nnc iibovr anotlHrr: unit in tbri 
suuth uilc Hre llir<:c uthtm. of (liflVrrnt sh»|ied nrrht^ and oma- 
nub. Here » uIsD mi »ricieiit /ont. of square fann, willi «o- 
hiinns at tbt aajrics, bavhig grnlc»que hvails lu )be place of 

In I>RvsTOGB Chi:rch (lii Rutland), on the r»«lcrn Iiorder 
of OuiUc himdrrd, is * fine atabasttr wMUumrnt, witli llie vi6gir4 
of u nuin ami v-niimn. The forDitr U n'presvDted ia jilated nr> 
mour, with gw id and i\ag^, nilTIni, Ward, xnd railed liair: al 
Ins lect U tl)L< li^iirc of a lion. Round Hw edg«, in niited lftl«r>j 
h'tbe following iiiKription — 

« dftn Tirtfi rfie li«in« of liMwtmt ZHabv< firfqtiln, totteb lit- 
inline bfcrattcD tbt li of JIprK. lyjo: anb nf Xnm tltiBtft, 
Ubittr Suiit brfcavctt" 

On tlw north side of the tomb nrc stalon of "a f<mddl«il 
babe, ft vrotnati, a man, in a furred doak, wai^teiml, aiwl Iniak 
how> ; BQotlicr in armour, with h fulling c<ipe, double coDar, 
glons iu tiis IvA kaud. \m right on a shield ; a fl«ur de lis, ami 
erewnit of tliffirrenep; four feniiiliM in niHx, mkI heads dressed 
Bte tlie larger ligure, aud :inothpr tn'addli.'d liabe ; Ino w onien at 
llie head, in tlie SBine dtft» m the ollifra, ami Wtween ihem 
Digbj/. iinpaiin;;, azuic. on a chevron, hclvreen three roses, dip( 
azure and vert, three fleurs de 1», Ctpr, in a garter tnirribM 




NVL QVE VNG, Aww Imi ane'." Tliia Kcpdm Di^by wu 
Grauduu of Sir Evcrard Digbv. vf Tiltoii, miii SlwrilF uf Rub- 
land, 1541, 1549. 1^54, iS6i, 156;, I5S5; uict tcprncnlcd 
tliat county in (HirliaracDt from tin Uni uf Edward llic SuLb, ta 
Utcfoiirln'ntliorEliaibclli iuclu»vv; and ^«at grandfalhcr of lb* 
fciniuiia Sir KcncUn Di^by t> In Ibis cburcb arc ullicr monuuKtila 
and ntemoriuls to diUcrcnt persona o( tiic Oigb^ family. 

At HoB?rtK<;HOi.n, a ^ill^cc a lillle north «a»l of Hallahiii, 
Ibe tkurci u entitled to tbc notice of the arcbilcctuml anliquity. 
It> soulbcm door-vrnif |»urab a cuntiu» siwcimt'u uf tbc real 
Shxou stile. l-Viini luo rudely sctiljiturcd capitals ^>ru)g a wmi- 
circular arch, \hc iwx of ubich is ornamented with a aort of dia^ 
mond sbapctl work, iiiid this k vitriiclcd with -a biiki mouldins, 
M band. In the chiirdi is an old octangular /on/, sii|>portr(l \rj 
four round pillnrs, with u large oti« in tLe cunlrv. ifornin!;hotii 
churcli, with llie lordsliip, was licid by Robert dt 'I'odtnii, ittn 
mediatelv from the Conqueror: and tbi^ Noniiau lord gave the 
tnrdsliip, &c. lo tliu priory of Ochuir, whttice it waa Inuufcrri^d 
to tbcAbbc^ of Ijt. Albtin's. 

Kl BWO RTll is situated on tbc tpwit tumplkc Toa.A from Lon- 
don to Lcicrstrr, at the distatu'i: of nine miles from Ihv latter. This 
pari)]] cwiiisU of the three bamtctaof Kibu-arihliaiatkiiiup, Kib- 
wvrth-Ifaranrt, and Smrrfoa-Ursierbt/, now considered an one 
Inmh-t though uctually Iwodislinrt villacis. The uhok- parish cx- 
tefuU aboul four niiirs in length, miil <:oiiiprchcnd<i ii<'>uly 4000 
acres of land. In Kibnortb-Beaudiaiit)), Waller dc Bcaucbanip 
ablained leave lo liold u ncekty market, from King Henry tlie 
Third, in 1^*21 ; but this hue long liccn ditciintinued. 

Near tbc hamlel orKibwurth-llarcuuTt is an mcampmna, con- 
Mliag oC a large intiunt, cncompatsed with a single ditch, llie 


" >Iiefcob'i Hulory iirl.eiceiienlJiT>, Vol. II. p. 60B. 
tftaBcaDtinofEnslinfl, »r. Vol.1. p.3ta,3S9. V«]. IV. p. «M. 


circunifrreiicr of whirli, al Ibc birftom, is I32 ysinls. Tlw lieigtlt 
of tlio tiopr of llie mount ii 18 yards b'><1 i'^ diameter at lop is 
l6 j^rds. About 200 jaifis ftom the Meedng-liouse i» a large 
BarriMc, nii»^(l uii fk'vutfd nround. At Kibworlb is • free 
drommnr Srhoo!, foimded iind supported on n lil>eral plan; birt 
llietiiiM.- of (li'i! fuun<lation, and Uie aanie of lliv benelaclnr, are 
not talisfiieloril^ dffiner] ; wlieocc sunii' Ittigslinni biive urisea re- 
ipeclinf; tttis eilabli<ilmient: but M\es,v boiii£( setllptl by H df«ree 
from tbe Court (if Clianccry, Francis ^dwardj, Esq. nlin posses- 
svd cousiilcnbk iiruficrty iu tii« viilagv, liad a oew sctwol-bouse 
«r«lwl ii) 17115. 

Tbc cfaurrb, seated on an emiuence, is npncioiif, and eoiistsU 
ofaDavp, ailcB, chsticel, two purctm, and t(ec]il«. The Utter 
is lofiy and inprr, and measures finy-tlirec yardt in hei^l. On 
the MUtb fide of llie cliani^el are ibree handsome atone teata, nnd 
■ small piKcina. Tliv jxilpit is cuiiouUy can«d, as is ilic covering 
of Uie font. 


LAKGTOlt, a eontiilt'ntblc dislnci in llie souttieni part of llie 
cowtty, iiirlude^ al^oiit 3000 MCtes of land, and comprdicndi tlic 
lire eltaptririi-siitid tiamlrts, of CAurfh-Lanf^lini, EasiL^rn^on, 
It'eat-Ltingt 911, Thorpe fjir-^ton, aod THr-t^imglon. The three 
fbnner, tbough disliuct tnaouis, may be considered as one 
district; the In-o latter liave M)>arale chapels, but each has an ap- 
fiTopmled sile iu the molher church. CllVRCK LanctoN b 
pleasantly 5itu;ited on an einiuGnce, at the distance of foar miles 
from llatboTough, and iapmtlictilarly marked iii the ainmis of be- 
orvoleuce, from Ibe cliarilable character, &c. of tlie liit*,' Rev. 
H'i/iiam J/unbyry. tvlio was tlie rector of tJiis liA'ing, and resided 
here for many years. " Aiuklijt the nutncrott* ptaos," observes 
Jlr. Nicliol^, " proposals, and schemes, ofiered to the public, for 
relieving dinlrt'SK, entoiitagiiig mcril, pruuiuting virtue, vxdlin^ 
tnduBtry, and propagating religion, noue has ap|)enred in tlie pre- 
■ent age more cilentive, beijevokai, and difiinterest^d, tban tlie 
charities prt>j«cle()f and iu sgiuc degree cstabltslud, by ibe late 


Bev. Mr.Haubury; which Justly *.'ntilled bim to the thanks, «»• 
Iveitt, auJ iwlnxingc, of hi* coolcinpoTvirie*, and have ensund 
bira the vvocntioa of posterity. T\*6ae charities, u llie public- 
•piritvd fvunder intorms us, owed their ori^ to bi« nnlutal gt- 
nius sad inctiuutioo for plaiitinf; nnd gavdniing ; and Ihc intmlioM 
of tiiti b«ii«vvicnt Uiviiic vere w p*Hedly pun*, dial one would 
have inia^ineiJ Utut the Wuth of cuiumny ilMlf oouM not Itavc 
v«nted tlie dightest oeiuur^ on th« projeetor," 

The great ohjcct and spcmlalion of Mr. Ilanbar^ vm t9* raiw 
anil cultivate \try oxlciitive planlalions : the profitt ari4il|t ftOM 
which lie inkiKlcd to approprinte to the fotrndation of several no- 
ble and important eharilies. When only tweoty-iix years of tg^ 
Ik luforni) u$, Ji« comracoccd hi» plan, ui first cutlivating ail a<- 
quuialuncc nilh gardcHcr^, Medimcn, &c. and tliereby acquiring 
Um best practical knowledge of the nature, properties, tsJuc, &c. 
of seeds aiid plants. Tlits not sut'tsfyinj; hit ardent mind. h« 
catxhlishcd a cort«|>oiidcnc« abrond, and obhkined frofa N'orifa- 
Awcrioi, and otlicr distant couatriva, a great variety bf seeds, 
Acc. *' All the time," he observes, " I was employed in lelllinji 
Ibit coTTCfpoudcncv, 1 >vai very btuy tii preparing tlic ground fof 
tbe reception of tl»e seeds of all sorts; together with a spot for 
the planting of such trees as Were headed down, for what 
gnidcneis call iloob, in order for their throwing out frcah shoots 
for Uyeriug. Two years closely employed ine in ll>e diffcrtat 
parts of such nercasaiy prcpamtioDs ; and, bytbcsprlng of 1^53, 
Ibe Mminary vras compiled, by containin; a very large quaatitjr 
•f ahuosi every sort of wed that cy>ul<l be procured ; besides, a 
large spot of ground was planted over vrith such tree* and shrubs as 
ar« propa!!stcd in the viminenouf manner." Soon afterwards Mr, 
Htinbuty found his pliuilt ineraased to such an extent, that he 
wi«atcd additiuital land to transplant thcni iu. He Uiereforc ap- 
plied for a snmll Close, which wus pnxt of tlic glebe, but in which 
Ifae parish had a right of common itflcr the hay vha clAirrd oC 
All the parishioners bat two, Mrt. Pickering and Mrt. Bgrd, 
agrcMi to allow the wortJiy cler|>yman tins piece of hnd, and tba 

Vol. IX. F f tira 


443 fiSmsTEBSll lltR. 

two Itdiea partly eoiMent«d, Mr. H. liinryiii^ LtmMlf m<iitc, 
prqiured tlic ground, sml planM il in the aphng with about 
20,000 youiiK tree*, of diffcnrul wrtn: b«I, either eoify, jcalotBj-, 
or some vrorM pauioi), opentvil on ll>« two )*rii«i and some of 
Uieir dependeniD, a»d impelled them to claim their ri^ht of com- 
inou ; aiid, " the moment the liarvest was id, thfir lennnts' cattle 
were turned amongst the young tree*, and in n little lirae dcsitoj- 
ed tliein all. Neither was tills all. I wu lertied, for a IrespsH, 
with twenty-seven different copies of writs in one day *. Nat dis- 
mayed at this," conliniuM the enthiuiattic projector, " I rallied 
■gain, and, in a year or two, my narwry at l'ur-Lan)>(na tut plant* 
ed all over. Firm and unUiaken, 1 clowly |iiir4ued the main point 
in view ; and, by the year 1757, my laif e plaatations nt Gumlpy t 
were all made." 

By nidi spirited exeitioiu. Mr. Hanbury had raised, by the 
ytar \7^h plantutions, the vulae of wbicli were estinated at 
10,0061. In Uiis yntr he published projMMali for tl)« tale of a 
large qitantily of these trees. Ace. towards the foundation of his 
cliarities. He iooo aftcrwnrd* wiiit to Oxford, and there printed 
bis *' Essay on Planting," which waii de<licated lo thw Umvernty, 
and iu which he gave additional publicity to bis favourite plau. 


■ In llr. NklioU't IIUlci^ of L«if«*tcisli'ii^, Vol. 11. p. CB£, U ike fat- 
lovring note mi lliit puMgc " In two or tlirer ytvt aStct be lud ■ pronu 
>t^ered againit Uim in the apitilnal ouri, hy Tlwiniu BiaranI, Ctinrrbwar- 
den; belt BiuMrd ap\fA tii* nmiiialioti Mairh 31, lTtj£, in wlwrh b« ic- 
knowkclgGd tc> )mv« berii iutlipiii'i) to act tu he diJ, iiol bv ibo ilttil, bat 
by tma ladiei uj'iiieai furlunF iti tliL- piirixli — Mn, Piuk«riiig nnilMre. BjnL' 
The contliicl of Ihcac frmftltt towonfa the bvncrolcDl lector, oppcnn citbtf 
cxccnivriy illibfnil and rrucl, or IncompTeltenslble. Iu onr inierHotM 
witb wciety, wc occluiin*!!; (unJ witti |>lfMiiie be it spoken, It it only ec- 
cukinalty)ineet wilh prnciin uliapeniii in >iiinnyinf ilieii oeighboan, ihI 
tlwrtb;r popularly dcbuc ibcriisclvca, by cMninitiiiiii; «iij r«|>eBtii^ dofiica- 
ble acU, in il«(iHi)Ce orjuitioc, equity, rvatnn, uid public dxuM. 

. t " Th««8 ramalo ■ glorioM ninnmn«n( of H» praciinbiUtj of tli« fka ; 
Uil UK Buw tlic cnumcnt cf Mr. Crarfrick's raicl«ac«. ' Nidtob** tbtary 
of Lectttenduce, Vol. U. p. ASb. , . . . 



To proinot« these, tie Hpiwinted nn Oratorio la be perfortncd >t 
Churcli Langtoii, .Sept. 26 and 27. 1 7^9, iiiH) Uiese were again re- 
pvuled iu lite two rolltiwiiif yean ; liut the profits amtiif; ibeirfrom 
ucrerery trifling. In the winter of}j6i, ihesatr of j>lanb, &c. from 
the iiunerics. aiitounted to upwards of lOOOl. In llie ycitr I763« 
Mr. Ilanliury luid \i'» portrait |>ainled in full length, Uy Mr. Penny, 
vho Wiu the lint professor of puiiiliiia to flic Ro\iil Academy. 
This arti»t also attempted to paiiil a lilieaess of Mn. Hanburj. 
but oot .Micccetiing, aymiofpiced for his inea|)adty by a coiiiplinient 
to Ihe lady, in Niyitig, " Slie is out of tlie art." This appears to 
have been peculiarly gnitefiU to llie hiisbfiiid : for he observes, 
" Senml other painters Imve since Bttcmpted a likeness, but in 
vain; so thai if ever ive lia\e a pirture of Mrs. Hanbuiy, it uitul 
be when ajsc has brought her under the pnwer of pencil and 
|rdiut*. My a^ at this time ia 58. and Mrs. Hanbury's 28." 
Onr brnevoltiit dut^Miuin was intimate witli the Rev. Chcrleg 
Vkurckiii and liohrri Uayd, whose deaths he particularly de- 
plores, in Ihe year ]7C)3. Iii conjunction witli the latter, Mr. 
Ilaubury had agreed to present to the public an English edition of 
Virjil. Tlic itauslaliou, " in long measure," to be by Lloyd, 

Ff2 and 

* Ttiii vulpr notion is loo pravaleni witli puerile tniniainra dniwen, and 
InpMeot panrail (laiitlen ; wIiobu iirtveiMl sj'atein ii floltciy ami diln^llixxL 
"niM ndtnTtiw lo make thtir rcptrteDtnliom nl' onliniiry Ikci'ii preltj', luid, 
ftUing to iDiiiaie " Nature's liurcal fumia," cootiive gencntllx to Uiclttr 
their O'WniiiibcriJitic*, and alioJcccivc iliciriniiisctlraiuatiiig emptojen, bj 
■ayinS. lu eudi prvlly wouiun, tlut iu tieyoni) the power of paint, or rnlour, 
lodu jueliccio your iaiiiiitatilc counlciiancc. Woiilcl VanJjcLcvwIiavc dis- 
giae«il his act. ami liiiuwu t>erieil, Uy Mich pityAil Mibterfiigc? or woulil tltat 
gival arU*t, Sic JorIhiu Kcjnoldt, tmvc dvigneJ hj vscuh; liiinatlT (ruin c«- 
ecDtiug the pOTlrBit «f u Iwautifiil iVmile, by uiying Ait proril wiu uKtinf 
pcteni ^ But Ui« mun i>im pruft.'du tu lie &u arliil, and uckIccU tho iwcat- 
nry auidiu to \ii> n incrilrmou* am% tnii«t resort tu u ba><-r nn, fur Die pur- 
pDW of obliiining a livcliliiKid. Siicli arc tlir iraiisccudiuii paii>ci& of the 
painier'a pencil, llint, in r >l>i!fiil liaml, it can he made Xa imititF almost 
any vuiul ubjeci not 111 moiion ; u tlic mirror, or IrantpareDi water, re- 
fleets and cemtiinc* all vhjcets imnicdiaieiy oppoMd (0 their rcspMuin sun 


and copiout uolcs, conUiiiiag " the iii9<leni nemu of ibe diflcn-Dt 
slirubs aud plants, togdiicr nilli Uicir unlcr an J class, ui llic Lio- 
oea-ii svbteiUt" by Mr. Iliuiliury. Tbia genllciiiiiti wiu not alttue 
devolcU to ploDting aod botuny ; as miuk was aUo & fsvoutile 
fttudv "ilii bim; and oa thi:tc psrlialttio lie nm co0ij>luiKntiid in 
Uk foliowiiig Uoea : 

" So Bweel lliy ifmtn, h tiitck ihj f&iidf. 

The plcai^d jiperlatDr Wta — 
Ibt nbicle once mote displa^'if, 

Of OipbMtt and lia ttft*." 

Tfac benerolent ptuu of tbis genlletnan had excited so miieb 
publicity, and liu private cliaznctcr mju au sincb rcspi'dcd bv 
Kimc btenry friends, tbiil srventi pvcnu sinl Koayi were pub- 
liilii.'d in his vitidicHtidii and praiw. Aiimu!; thrMwa&a poem b> 
lJ<7d, cnlilkd " ('harUi/;" and nnntlitr bj Wui, Wotj, colillcii 
** CbcrcA Idrngtim:" wfacrtm Ibc iiutlinr thus describes tlie (bs- 
tactenilka of ibe ctwnlry — 

*' Ob jftiidcr broMi ciicumlcrcnrc of uroanJ, 
Wbrre rliilling rUji (iifTiii'd tii damp sruuiMl, 
M'ilhia whatc IhiuhiIs ho liriiii; cliimi via ttai, 
No f rr.r tn Bh(i11«T, inil no kiuh In tkrccn, 
^liendiplanUliuanaw salutin onr rj-rs, 
And vsTM itifoluigoof cndmniingdya." 

The |)oet then pTDcrt-d<i to iteacxibc, m flowing iijtnbert, the 
ilifiereiil objects of utility, ornanmit, &c. Iliat were to uite from 
tEic coai|>lelioD of Mr. Ilaiibiir^'n placi ; but t)ie«c, like tlie pocfa 
viuouf, have fievvr bei'n fully accotupliiiied. Dtflerenl Imstees. 
al diflcreut )ieriods, have bi-en appointed t» execute the tnut 
deeds. The wbole of these, with the schemes of ibe author, wtn 
published hi an octavo volume, entitled " Tfu History t^ the Kite 
end Progress of thr Charitable Foundatiooi at Church- Langton^ 
together with the difieicut Deeds of Trust of that EbtaUisbuient, 
by tbe Rev. Mr. [iBubury," 1767- 

LBtCISTBKSntni. 445 

" Wtb a timiuns of mioil cqiiiil to llir beDevoUnce of liig 
beatt," says our niodrm CamtUn. " Mr. Hanbuni s«cin»cl, in the 
coorae of abntil t\venlv vean. In have brouglil lo the utniod de- 
gree of matiirilj and alability buimn are capable of, tliis 
nugubr uiidertakin!; uf rawing, ftoni * plantation of all the 
rarious tnet, plmiU, ttc. the world )i(oilim^% ii ;e^y Aiixl of 
near 10,<XK)I.: suflidcal to Kliifv^ tbc ilistTesBcd, m^tract the 
ignoniirt, USUI llie ciiricitn, adorn (lie (laruli, and bcnvtit thb 
and the neighbonriag county of Kiitland, as long as inlegrilj and 
pablic spirit subsist in ttrilaiii. nr Jara la defy lingnlarity aed 
etnsiiM. Tliis gviierons (te«gu clainu a )>l»ce her« on a douUa 
account. We antiquaries have great obtigalioo* to tbk liberal 
founder, who has appropriated pari of (bii fund tu the compHiog 
and )HJbliihlitii^ ;i bislury of every county of Eiigbud, by a pro* 
ftssur appointed on purpose*." 

Mr. Hanbtiry, persevi?riii^ in bis favorile pursuits, published in 
1773, a larf^c work in two volumes folio, eiilitlcd. " .\ coinpleta 
body of Plaiiliii;* and C*ardening: contaioiug the natural liiRtor^, 
culture, and manure merit of deciduous and ever-green forest 
tret«, with pratlicul directions for raising and improving wood^ 
nurseries, s^ntinariea, and planlalion^, &c. See." In the prefwe 
(0 this work, our author is rullier harsh und serere in bis slri^ 
lures on former hniliculliirvl writeri; thinking, like tnany other 
i^tem-niongers, that to establish a new theory or practice, il is 
»e«es8ary to depreciale or invalidate all that bad been previously 
laown. He is not very ele^»nt or elear in tm Myle ; nor on (h« 
whole was this work likely to ciiHlt his lame, or bvnvtit tiii 
ifafflietf. Mr. Haobnry died, Feb. 38, 1778, in the 53d year 
of liis n^e, aitd his reninins were deposited in a nnusoleuin al 
Church Laii»tun, near the rtclortal houw. 

It nmy. perhaps, with confidence b« taid, that no diantable 

achume, m public plan of an individual, ever excited so mucb 

F f 3 notorierf 

• "Ancc(ktt4«rBrilithTop«frapl9," Vol, I. f,$tCk 
t Sec ■ fur dioructcr of ibli work iu Moaihly Review, VoL L. p. U 


notoriety as Ihal aftht r«ctor of CliurcEi Langtou ; tliousaada 
fwnont iver<* ciplivAtccl will> the prospect, and tn<»t of (be neigh- 
tK>uni)g g«Rtr} chc«tfully joined lu l.» truab, aiid iHitroatxvd liu 
«flfbrtt. Yd h« hail hb ^ulli, and was attacked by rncmies : 
for in the ftrrour of hU xtn\, fae occtuionall^ guv« way to tlie 
impulses of pasiion and indignation; and aoinc )>crmn^, either 
actuated by etiv^, jcitloiiJiV, or f:*l^4■ Jtid^rat, publicly opposed 
atMi reprobated his uhemes. Whatever may have been U»e 
motives of the man, is not very ninteriiil ; but that lii« nitimale 
object vju of a very im(>oTtant and praiieworlhy nature is evi<leot, 
nd it Mill ever be a wibject of regret, that m litUewudoiK 
from inch very laudable iirLeme^ 

The church of West Lan^ton, " a lar^ and vcnrrable buiM- 
ing," ooiuiit* of a nave, Men, rlinncci, nr^ulli porrli, and lofly vjuare 
tower. Between tlic nave and each aile, are font senii'Citcular 
arches, simnginir from fluted coIuiuhs; aiid at Ibe vest end of 
tha former it a substantial i^llery and nrgun, raised from the 
profits of Mr. Hanbury's plantations In the aii^e between tbe 
north aile and ehaacel is a rwil loft, the tlone steps leailiiig up 
to which remain in a perfect blale. Near this is a piwrina, aod in 
the chancel is annther in a handsome niche, cutinecled with wbieti 
are three slo«e arats of the same style. The nave of the church 
IS appruprialed (<■ £a»l, Wvsl, and Church Ltinj^toii's ; tlic south aile 
to Thorpe I.aagton, and the north aile to Tur-J^angloii. The 
advuwsun of the church, willi all the lunds, tithes, and dppor- 
tenances thereto belonging, was^tven lo tJie Abbot aad Convent 
of St. Mary de Pratis at Leicuter, by William de Novo Mer- 
cato ; and confirmed foy Robert Bossu Earl of Leicrsler, by Hugh 
Bisthop of Lincohi, and by Chiistiana lilla Gore, tbe grand- 
daughler of llie ori^Kinal donor. In the Matriciilus of l?!>0, it is 
staled that the church wulhen under the pironage of the Abbot 
of Leicester; that the leclor wm G. nephew lo lite legale, by 
whom he had been iiDlituled ; that it Ind two drapels, Tbotpe 
and Tbyrbingtou, having each a resident duplain appointed by 
tbe inother-cfaurch; and that tlie abbot bad an ancient pension 

sof ( 



from this church uf half a murk. Tliere was anotlier cbupd at 
(cttlivT Eait or West) Lnngton, where service was performed three 
tuiicii ill B week from the molhcr-duirch. The \-alue of this 
living III i(it3 is fully cxplaiiiei] iu a letter from "TliO'iiuia Her> 
nch" to Sir Willinm Hcriick, wlierciuihe writer raya, "tlie living 
iaaparaonage; that the incumbent. Dr. Osborne, would sdl the 
iiibcriliiice, " it being an advuwson lo bi>n ind his heirs for erer," 
he deniands 30001. for iti ar lie would he tenant to the incum- 
bent, und "puy jOOl. a-year for it, for tweiily-onc years, if the 
iocumbeiit live so loii^." In l()50( the rectory ofCliurcb Lang- 
Ion, witli its divera chu|Hrls, wub rcturued lo be woith 100). ; " the 
miuister suHinenl, and out- curate siitfiicient." 

" AHcr Ibc death of Archdeacoi) ttrellon, or Britlonj in 166$, 
Ihc patron a said to have presented two several cEcrki to the 
Btdiop for iriHtitutioii; tiotli of nhniii bring refiiiicd far taekef 
Itamiitg, he prcaenttd NatliiinicI Abop, who«c abilities were 
known, and who ultemard* purtiiAscd the ailvowsoii ; which coi^ 
linued ui his family till sold to thi.- Rev. Mr. Ilanbury, who, to 
1753, bctuDic Rcetoron hi»owuprir»cntalioo*." 

The rectorial Iiouh- is n hundflomc uiiifntTu building, erect- 
ed by the present Mr. Hanbiiry. lo the villa^ of West Lang* 
too was bom Waltbb he LaNOTON, who was appointed 
Lord high Irociinrer a( England, Sept. 28, ISpJ, and elected 
Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry, Feb. 20, \29S-ti. He waa 
a particular favoiile with Edward the First, in whow cause he 
sofiered excomuiuaicalioii, aiid wbosc corpse he bad afterwards 
the honour of coiiducliDg from the borders of Scotland lo Wot- 
minster. Immediately on his aiiival in London, be waA arrested 
and imprisoned in llie Tower; und ihougli (he clergj repeatedly 
petttioned Edward the Second to grant his release, yet be waa 
«htfte<l from Ihc tower to WaUiD^foid, lliencc to York, and de- 
tained for two years before he obtained his freedom. He thca 
rdurcd to hi* See »t Ue/ifirid, atid th'Oiisii he found the calliedial 
PKaD, }'«t, aajs Fuller* he letl it niaguiliccnt. LiUigton coiw 
F f 4 linunl 

* NklKils's ffotoi; 9( LelceiUrsliire, Vol. II. p. Mi. 


I ■ tbia S«e tweiil^-fiTe ^«)r>, tlmiiig wliidi lime he " m- 
. 4raqiHKd Ihe cloisters with a ^lulle wall, anti bestowed a rkli 
sbriae upon Si. Chud, wliicL ctjwl Lim 2000L lie iUw ditclicd 
aad walled thai eiidosiire itttuut Ihc callivrlrul called Ibc Cfjut : 
credcd two sUkly gates at tbc west aiid souUi sides tif il ; and 
jointd it to lli« (it; by tlw bridges tli;il li« built ibere in 1310. 
He also built a neiv jiolacc at the ea»lead of tbcdoK at Liclifiddt 
V|d rvpvircd hi* caiUc at Ecclc&hall, bis iiabcc b> lb« Strand in 
^'LopdoD, and bis manor-ltouM of Shulboruugb, in Ihe cwunl^ o( 
Stafford. He died Nov. I6, tdSI, and vat buikd iu the chapel 
of St. Manr, « stately and cwtly bttilding of liis wtvn creeling*." 

Thomas Stavei-ky, author of llie " ItomiiA Honcltrtk," 
was bom at Eait Uuigton in l'626, wad afler coinplctiD); bia 
coUcge educatioD at Cambridge, »aa udniitted of tlw Inner 
Tcropk ia July, l647. lie did nul publi»)i any other work, bnt 
\tii some MS collectious, tiiiiDQg wbicb waa " a HU/orj/ of 
Chvr<lut" wbicb w&i published iu 1712. and ngaia with " liu- 
provcnKnt^' in l?*?- Mr. Slavdcy also made some coUccliont 
for tbc Borou;^li of Lekcsler, which hsisx been uwd by Mr. Ni- 
cbobi wbo baa alao publialied portraits of Mr. Staveley aod bis 
wife in lui Hlalor; of Lctccslcnhirci Vd. 11. 

LuBBBKHAM, in ancient writings railed Lobcnko, a cooiJdcT- 
AAt villa^, i» tuo miles wcit of Marktrt Ilurboruug^i, on ttie 
northern tank uf the river WelUiid, wbii4i here di«kles lb* 
cotinly from thai of Nortliumplon. The parish eoitlains more 
Umi 3000 acrca of land, the whole of tvliiib is iiKl4<«d, and 
SMttly kept in pasture. In Uiu pariah arc fmuid sonic of the 
fewUn <aUcd AstroUta, or vulgarly Ptirr ttmta. On IIk bank 
of tbe Welland, near tlie village, are the trenches of an cncamp- 
nWttf, wliieb Mr. Reynolds pronounces to be evidently Roman. 
" The hilli which command it on Ibe north and nortli-easl," 
Obaerves the geuUeinau, " made me suppose that such eapttt 
soldicn would hiirc cfaoicn a tjlualkiu not so ex|>09ed. But U>e«6 


" Nicfapn UMoTj Of Ldeoterdiir*, VoL IL p. CM. 



bill), prol>el>ly ot that time covered with wonds, fornictl ^ vny 
uecnsiirv tvirrier against ibe east ant) nortli wbds, an adi-anlag« 
DOt t« b« iw-iiWltd io iheii wiirter liabitatious. Th* small mar 
WcLland lies at «nnic little distance, and it is prol»l>lc ml 
originally turned ihraugh the south ditch of thirir camp; but in 
the bi|;(i«st Aond, it nerrr iiilrrf^rca wilh Ibc nrt-n of ihr camp. 
The linei of the ramparts are very ^iaihie on all aid«s ; but tba 
dilclies are nciirly ubiitcnied, except to the toulh, TliearcHof 
the camp cootaini about eijihl arrcx." Nenr this bt & mount, 
which Mr. K. miU a tuntulits, and tlic raanor-bausc u inclowd 
within the entrenchment. It niii«r be rrmark<-d, that old manot 
bouses fretiuently occupy lli« sites of, orare iininedbitely couligu* 
oun Id, ourumptiieiitK. 

About one mile frniii I.tihticiiham, is an old houM called i 
Papillon Hall, from the nnme uf the person who built i^; 
It iinw be)»»);K m Cliarlet Bosworth, F^|. Tiie »}mpe of (hil 
building is octan^lar, and it had furnivrly only one entrance: 
The roonu were ao disposed, that each conimiinicated wilh tha 
nest, and Ihiis every apartment formed a sort of paiviafte roam Io 
tbe others. A moat origtDHlly surrounded tliii odd building, bat 
it ins lieen tilled up. The fninily of Pupillon was oettled in 
Ijeicestersbire at an early perioil; and David Fi^iUon* ehtajoed 
a liceneet frotn Archbubop Abhot, in May, iGSS, for biinadf 


* He «ai author of a work enlitinl, " A prvtitnl ahstnci of ttte ArU of 
FHtMcaiion and AMtillti);-. conTaiiiini; foar ititTfi^ni ni*[lii>d.iortiirtilicatioit, 
with atiprovcd laltLi m »rt <hi( iit tlr field, all miuiiki^r ol' mprificc*. intivncl^ 
awnti," &e. i645. He al>o |)iil)Iuli«d a voiuine, cntitlocl, " 'Hie Vanity uf 
tlic Litre* nud [-"aiiiuM ufMcti," l^^l. 

I It appCJin from till* rireitmitane^, tint a permn hi former times bail 
Aot Ittr frrr rhnWe of atlmilitiR ttnj olhn- cliurch. bill tijal ol'lili okii |jarbUi, 
SliMtkt lie fcvl nfrliiird lu ri«<[iwiil anotljt-r, an cxprca* tircnre froin tlM 
primite of bw (liu«« mw neeaaaiy. at riinni])liA«d in tbe abort iutaace ; 
and ID lliQ Hi*t«r7 of Loiabcllj Pal[ico auu T'aruli, u a rdrrcmr (o a licriKc 
granted by Aiclibuhop t^ki-r, tn liu uiti Jolin I'ltrkir, who, wiili lot 
Amily, w«K a^MiMd la appeal in lb* patislt •.-burcU oa twu iiucnhiin or 



ftD<l family (o fre<]ueHt the cfaurcli n{ Manton, in the couoty at 
N<>rt>ian)ptou, as briuit ueurvr and aiore coii^-niit-at for ibetn 
tlua ttiv |»mli cliuTcb of Lubbeuiiriiu, which nas above i mile 
from bi» houw, in Ibis Itceoce u a provUo, lliat br and hU 
Ikmily vhould at katl once in Uie yeat (si Eaatcr) ^ to tbe 
church uf LtiUbeitliam, to Lear pni^cis and preacliing. wu) re- 
ceive Uic tuenniciit. 

NeDSOCHN, ft plcaianl vilbgc near the S. E. angle of tbc 
county, a m milc!) N. C oi^ Hvboruugli, and coiuiab of 10? 
houses wilb -l6l iubabitanls. The villas is s'duated at Uir 
western baao of u Uri;c and loHy bil), and tbc loidibip consists of 
about 1 SOO acros, luottly in upci) licld. 

Mr. Btirton stutce, Uial Mcdbunni bas " doulrileM been a 
Homan station, ai a great nimtber wf cuius mid luedala hate been 
fuund here." In the year 1721. a Ittaelatrd pavtmatt nas dii- 
covcicd 111 this 1 illagc. It idus aguiu opcDcd in 1 793, and found 
lo be abottt Ibrec feci and a half bcucatb tbe surface. The fluor 
coasiilcd of *(nall nqnare slaoca, of about Ihree quarters of tui 
inch over; inoj* of lli*sc were coloured red, black. &c. but Utc 
p&veiueut docs not a)ipear to liavc bc^n orDuuMuted vnth any 
figurci. In a field N. W. of tbe villiige, are tbc rcioaiaa of 
enirenchmtnta, wttli fouiidAttons, &c. ci»-cring a plot of grouod 
of iibi'ul half a mile square. " Tradition tayx, tlial tn tliia fietd 
once &tood u cily called Midmborottgh, or Medntiwough, wbidi 
wai d«3l[oyed by fire \ and llicrc flp|>cart sniuc degree of proba- 
bilitv in the iiamr, from the Mlualion and Itic ptewnl town i>ow rc- 
faiuinf; the f'>nner, part »f the Iradilionnt name. Tbc umlisturbed 
part of the R«mam Km4'k lolly and vUibIc for four or tifc hundred 
yard*; and when it joins Slauslon lonli>hip, it is called Port-ltiU; 
n very strong evidence in favour of a station and Romau road 


fatrvafa cTtry year. Thit Itekcr vraa allowed die pnvil^c of an OrUmr, 
eillietin liii hoaiM at Lambeth, oral Nniney CaMleiaSomenMsliire: aria 
an; hoiH« wtiacb tic mijtlit for a line inhabit : a KBiitar Kccoca. dated 1405. 
te mrniioDeJ in ilie umc woik, graolMl ui tbe but of tlic CbedLH.Inni ia 
Lusbeili, hy llic Didiop of Wtncft ester. 


bcinf; licre. la thu field wei« tlire« barrow», or liimali*," biit 
nunc of tliesc ar« perfect. NiAncrous coiu, pieces of potlcrr, 
bones, itc. uid II Muiill tiiill-stoue, liave )rc<ri> ilixov«red Ikiv. ' 
Some of tlic coiiia are rcpresculcd b^ engraviDgs ia ttic liistoT^ of 

At Holt, a hamlet attaclicd l« Medboiim, a mineral tpr'mg 
was ditcovered in 1728 ; nnd Dr. Sliort published n iHiinplilet in 
1742, descriptive of tl»e "content;, virtue*, and use* «f Nevil- 
Holt >pavr-\vater ; with »ome Itislnries of il.4 sif^nal effects m 
TBrioiu diKascs," &c. Tiiis wa? reprioled with Additions, ft<. in 
1749. In the church at lloll, nr« mmv niouument* to the fiiiiitty 
of MfviU; a descendant of whom, Cosmos Nevill, Esq. F.S. A. 
baa a large baudsome house here. 

T!ic tillage of Nokton, anciently called King'i Norton, seven 
and half mile* dixlant from Leicester] iius » remarkabty haniUonie 
small modem cbuKli, which was built by the late WUIiam 
Forlwy, ^^. ^Uiodiid, seized oflbc lordsbtp of Norton, In. the 
year 1783. The church cotimts of only a nave, at the wert 
end of wbicli is a fCeeple. The whole building i^ uniform in style, 
twd liat fcvca pointed arched windowi on eaclt side, with three 
at tlie east end. Tliesc are all divided into four lights ear!h, by ■ 
perpendicular and » horiKOutal luulliun, over wliidi iit a <]ualerfoiJ 
opening. The jtanipet lias two rows of perforated atones, and 
(lie summit is ornaineiiled with sixteen rruckeled pinn^iclcs. The 
imide of this ^acrrd structure is fillfd up wiUi Kvo roH» of [tew* 
(in tlie manner uf cuUegtalp chapels) made of tine Kiiglish oak. 

The ebiin'b of King's Norton was givi^N to the iibbul hiuI con- 
veal of Oiiston, by Robert (Tiimbald, and eonlinned to llicm by 
King Henry the Sccotidj :iiid iigaiu by King iticbard the First, 
Some disputes arose between the rector and the abbot, ut lliree 
or four difftreul tirais; and the I'ope ap|Kiitited delegates to 
tellle tlietc differeuces. 

* Nicbolt'B Rittary of Leiceit