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Full text of "The Beauties of England and Wales, or, Delineations, topographical, historical, and descriptive, of each county"

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Ineorrect pedigrees^ futile etymologies, Terbose diaquisitions, crowds of ep» 
tspbs» lists of landholders, and such farrago, thrown together without me- 
thod, nnaniroated by reflections, and delif ered in the roost uncouth and 
horrid style, make the bnlk of our county histories. Govo h« 




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is a markeMown, pleasantly: situatsed to the eatsA^w&t of tbtf 
Mendip. The stareetB are irregularly built, and moBt of the 
houses thatched. It was anciently privileged with a market^ 
which ia still held on Tueadaa^, but is exceedingly trifling. 
The market-place contnins the ruins of a cras& Indiia town 
theve is a Aree-school for six boys and aa many girls. * ^ 

The church' is a stately building, one hundred and tvtentjr 
feet long, and fifty-two wide. It xxmasts of a nave^ chancel^ 
side jaislesy and a porch, enabattled at the top^ and draamenlsd 
with a variety of handsome pinnacles^ The tower, which rises 
at the west end, is one of the finest in the kingdom. U is onv 
hundred and forty feet hi^h do the tep of the battlements, which 
are* adt>rned. with four tuneta, one at eadi comeiv and sixteen 
elegant Gothic pinnacles, fifleen feet in height. 

Tim church contains serend neat monuments, bot^ aneienv 
and- modem* One of them is remarkable for its elegance^ k' 
is built of white and Sienna marble, and w«s erected iniioneur 
of Henry Waterland, LL. Di Prebendary of Bristol, wha died 
in the year 1779. The inscription is too long to be quoted. 

^humble cottage in this parish had the distinguished honour 
of giving birdi to Mn. Johk Locks, one of the first philo«> 
aophio diaraetera the annals of science can - boast ot, His father 
wna a gentleman of some property, and orrginaUyv bred to the* 
Isrw. At the breaking out of the civil wor^ having declared for 
tlM pasKanent, he received a captain's commission > in* tlieir 
servioe. Oo»> author was hem in. 16SS. At the proper age he- 
became a pupil in Westminster school ; from hence he removed* 
to Christ Church, Oxford, where he prosecuted Ins studies 
with great assiduity. In 1655 he took his degrees in arts, and 
dwee years afterwards* began to ^ply hhrnself to medicine. He 
wont through the necessary preUnunariaa with edat, and ob^ 

^ tained 


tained a diploma as physician. He now entered upon his 
profession y and succeeded in acquiring considerable practice at 
Oxford. His constitution, however, wjis too delicate to bear 
the fatigues incident to a medical life. Hence he gladly em- 
braced the opportunity of, going abroad/ in the capacity of 
secretary to Sir William Swan, who was at that lime appointed 
ambassador to several of the states of <jermany. 

The object of this mission being finished in one year, Mn 
Locke agRin returned to his practice at Oxford, where an ac- 
^ cident soon afl^ brought him acquainted with Lord Ashley, 
afterwards Earl of Shaftesbury. His lordship being afflicted 
with a cancerous affection in the breast, for which ^e was or- 
den^d to drink the mineral waters^at Acton, wrote to Dr. 
Thomas, a physician at Oxford, to procure a quantity of them 
against his arrival there. Just at this period Dr. Thomas hap- 
pened to be called away on other business, and left his friend 
Mr. Locke to undertake the commission. He did so, but 
having employed a person who failed him, he was constrained 
to wait upon Lord Ashley to make his excuses for the disap- 
pointment. His lordship received his apology with great polite- 
nesS) and being much pleased with his conversation, detained 
him to supper, and engaged him to dinner next day. About a 
year after Locke was invited to take up his residence in Lord 
Ashley's house. That nobleman advised him to turn his thoughts 
to the study of political subjects ; and this advice being quite 
congenial to Mr. Locke's temper, he did not hesitate to follow 
it. In a short time he made such rapid progress in his nej7 
pursuit, as to be thought worthy of being consulted by his 
patron on matters of the highest importance. His lordship also 
brought him acquainted with many of the first political and lite- 
rary chaiRcters of that age. 

In 1669 he was solicited by the Earl and Countess of Nor- 
thumberland to accompany them to France, whither they were 
going for the sake of the earl's health. With this request he 
complied ; but that nobleman having ditd at Turin the year 

^ " following 


following, he ri^tumed with the countess to England, and again 
became an inmate in the family of Lord Ashley, then chanceUpr 
of the exchequer. 

At this- period his lordship and some other noblemen obtained 
a grant of Carolina* Loeke was employed to draw up the fun- 
damental constitutions of that province. Shortly after he began 
to form the ]i)an of his '* Essay on the Human Understand- 
ing ;'' but was prevented making much progress in it, by. his 
employment in the service of his patron, who about this time 
was created* Earl of Shaftesbury, and elevated to the dignity 
of lord chancdOor. His lordship named Mk Locke secretary 
to the presentations; but the great seal being soon agai^ taken 
from himself, our author lost his appointment also. Lord 
Shaftesbury, however, still continuing at the board of trade, 
Mr. Locke remained secretary to a commission ^pm that board, 
which had been added to his other sictk^tion, and was worth five 
hundred poHindj^ per. ^num. He enjoyed it somewhat more 
than a year^ when the commission was dissolved. 

On the sixth of February, in tlie year 1674, he took his 
bachelor's degree in physic, at Oxford ; and the summer follow*- 
iiig went to Montpelier, being apprehensive of a consumption. 
Here he employed himself in arranging the plan of his Essay on 
the Human Undeirstanding. In th« me^ time, however, he did 
not n^lect his profession. About this period he became ac- 
quainted with Mr. Herbert, afterwards Earl of Pembroke, to 
whom he communicated the design of his Essay. 
-, Mr. Locke continued abroad till the year 1699, when he was 
sent ibr by Lord Shaftesbury, then appointed president of 
Sir WOlxam Temple's council. . His lordship, however, having 
lest his situation in a few months, had no opportunity of serving 
our author. Still, ^lowever, he continued firmly attached tOv 
his interest, and even followed him to Holland, when he fled 
there in 1682, to avoid a prosecution for high treason ; which 
induced many to suspect he was a confederate. This suspicion 
being strengthened by his keeping company with a person of 


690 srrMEfcsftstttTtiL 

^he name of Per^son, who- had ^itt^n sevei*af papertf agmnst 
(h« government, he vraa deprived' of his rtudfent^kjilace atChrist 
Church, in 1684, by the special order of the king, as visitor 
of the college. In May, 1685, he was even demanded' by the * • 
English envoy at the Hague. This rendered' if expedient for 
him to conceal* himself for riearly twelve monthir, which time * 

he employed chiefly in composing his Essay. Toward the end' 
of Ike fbllowiHg year. However, the suspicioii subsided, and he 
again made his appearance in public. About this period he ^ 

formed a' weekly assembly at Amsterdam, witfi limbbrch, Le' 
Clerc, arid other 'celebrated characters, for the disCilss5ori of 
questiditts in sciettce. !« 1^87 he completed- his great Wort, the 
Essay, and- having made an abridgement of it, Le Clerd trans-' 
late* it into French, and published* it' in his " Biblibtheque 
Univereelle,'* in W88. This abridgtnent nt^s Well received, 
Und created^ SQcli a generd desire' to s^e the work itself, £hat 
M^. Locke put it to press immediately upon hi# arrA^dl in l^g<- • 
land, in 1689. 

Our author, being now restored to favour, cottlft easily have 
obtained n very considerable post; but hd contented Himself with' 
that of commissioner of appeals, worth only tWd hundred' 
pounds a year, procured him by Lord Mdrdaunt, aftferw'ards' 
Earl of Mbnmouth, and neift of Pet'eiborough. He h^d also' 
the offer of going abroaid as envoy to the emperor, or atiy of 
tbc Slates of Gertnany. But he waii'ed this distinction, oti ac- 
count of the infirm state of his health, arid-accepted the invitation 
of Sir Francis- and^BadJr Mk^wm, to occupy art apartment in 
their country seati at' Gates. Herb he spent the greater part 
df hh aftef life, imdefatigably pursuing his^ researched, into' 
dMferent branches of philosophieal pursultl 

The publication of his treatise on the bad stsrte of the silvter 
coin, procured him a seat at tHe board cff trade awd plantations, 
in 1895, whid* of course engaged him irithef innncdiate busi- 
Efess of the state.- Shortly after he turned his jrttentiotr to the' 
flAun of tHe cbarch^ aSftd- published-a^reatlse tcrprontote the 




scheme of King WilUam, '^ for a comprehension with the dis- 
senters.'' This drew him into a controversy, which was hardly 
finished when he found himself involved in another with the 
Bishop of Llandaffy and others, relative to some opinions in his 
Essay, In 1700 he resigned his seat at the board of trade ; the ' 
asthma, to which he was constitutionally liable, having increased 
so much, as to render him unable to bear the air of London* 

After this period he spent the whole of his time at Oates ; 
where he died on Che twenty-eighth day of October, in tho 
year 1704, at the age of seventy-three. His remains were 
interred in the church of that parish, and a monument erected 
^o his memory, with an inscription upon it, written by himself. 
Queen Caroline, consort to George the Second, placed his 
bust along with those of Bacon, Newton, and Clarke, in her 
pavilion at Richmond, erected in honour of philosophy. Mrs. 
Montagu also gave an urn to his memory, which is seated io 
the place where be was bom. It is inscribed thus :-— 

<* To John Locke, 

bom bi th» villBire, 

tliis memoruil is erected, 

by Mn. Montagn, 

and presented to 

Hannah More." 

A monument has likewise lately been pyopgsM fer Um U> 
St. Paul's Cathedral* but we lament to say that the mbsQiyiiaiie 
are not yet adequate to the purpose. We trtist, heweter, Ito 
friends of science and political liber^ will not allow thek coun- 
try to be stigmatised aa ungrateful to one of its noblest scb<dari 
and greatest ornaments. 

The principal works of Mr. Locke are too ge&erally known 
to require any comment, even would our limits admit of itt 
For the names of such of them as are less ftotiliar, we refer td 
the General Biographical Dictionary. They were all pttblished» 
^lo three volumes, folio, in the year 1714.* 

Vol. Xin. R r C/sMcAm 

* Gen. Biog. Diet. life of Locke, appended to his Condect of the Un- 

6%} SOMBltSETSniRff. 

Clevedan is a village in the hundred of Portbury, It is so 
called from being situated at the extremity of a c/ivf, or clilT, 
uid in a dun^ or valley, which declines from hence towards the 
Bristol Channel. 

The rocks in the vicinity of this village rise, with great bold- 
ness and grandeur, to an immense height. The remains of 
several lead mines are still to be seen in them, and that kind of 
ore is frequently found in digging near the surfaccr One of 
these rocks, which commands a' vast prospect, particularly 
down the Channel, was formerly the site of a tower, called 
Wakens Tcfmery from the family of ^'^ake, lords of the 
manor, who erected it as a place of observation. This 
tower has long been demolished ; and in its place, about the 
year 17S8, a summer-house was built by Mr. Elton, which has 
also gone to ruins. The ride over the hill, from Leigh Down, 
is justly considered as one of the finest hi the county.* 

The mansion-bouse of Clevedon is situated to the south of 
the village, and on the south slope of the hill. It is a noble 
old building, erected at different |)eriods. The scenery around 
it is wildly ** scared with craggy rocks, intermixed with fine 

The church stands near the edge of a rugged rock, over- 
hanging the shore, at the west end of the village. Its eleva- 
tion alone defends it from the fury of the sea, which, in stormy 
weather, beats here with great violence. When the wind blowa 
strong finmi the west, and is favoured by the tide, it is uncom- 
monly tremendous. The building resembles a cross, and is 
surmounted, in the centre, by a handsome tower, in the Gothic 
style. It is dedicated to the honour of St. Andrew. The 
living is vicarial, and the advowson bdongs to the bishop of 

The south cross aisle, or chapel, is the burial place of the 
lords of the manor. On a stone here lies the effigy of a man in 
armour, with a sword by his side, and a bull under his feet. 
The arms and inscription are totally defaced. 

* CoUioson, III. 168. 


Walton in Gordano is a parish, situated to the north-east of 
Clevedon. The scenery of it is pleasingly picturesque. A very 
fine amphitheatre is formed by the hills of Cletedon, and 
another ridge which stretches towards Portishead Point, and 
there dips into the Bristol Channel. The sibpes of the hiUs are 
covered on each side with beautiful seats^ villagesi and pasture 

The village of Walton is placed on the south declivity 
of the amphitheatre, looking towards a moor, which extends 
in a long, narrow, wedge-like shape, nearly three miles 
from west to east. Anciently, however, it lay on the north- 
west declivity of the south ridge of hills, and close upon the 

WaUon Castk, the ancient seat of the lords of the manor^ 
stands on the summit of the same ridge, and commands a 
very fine and extensive prospect. The figure of this struc* 
ture is octangular. It is embattled rounds and adorned at 
each angle with a small turret. The keep, or citadel, which 
stands in the centre of the area, is also octangular, and has 
a small turret of similar shape on the south-east side. The 
roof and floor are now fallen in, and a great part of the 
walls are going fast to decay. The entrance to this castle is 
through an embattled gateway leading by another portal to 
the citadel. 

The ruins of the old parish church lie to the westward of the 
castle, and near the spot on which the village formerly stood* 
It was dedicated to the honour of St. Paul, and consisted of a 
single aisle, with a tower at the west end.* A very fine mitred 
arch formed the entrance to the naVe, in the wall of which, to« 
wards the east end, there are two receptacles for images. The 
south wall contains a benetoire for holy water. In the burying* 
ground attached to this church are the remains of an ancient 
cross. This is stHl the place of sepulture for the poor of the 

Tlie present church stands in the village, on the south side 
R r 2 of 


of the bin. It ifi a pkin u^dqrned fabric, of modern coiutrao 
tioo, with a small turret at one end. 

The manor of ^Yalton was bfeatowed, by the Conqueror, ou 
his kinsman, ^alph de Mortimer, one of the principal com- 
manders in his expedition to Engl^^d. The descendants of 
this nobleman, afterwards earb of March, continued (o posses^ 
the royalty of it till the reign of Henry the Sixth, when ao 
heir female carried it into the house of Yofk. At this, time the 
pianor was held by Sir Thomas de Chedder, whose daughter 
and h^ress married Sir John Newton. Sir Edward Seymour 
possessed it in the time of Philip and Mary. This gentleman 
sold it to Sir John Thymne, from whom it passed to Christo^ 
pher Ken, of Ken, Esq. whose daughter and co-heiress con- 
veyed it, by marriage, to the £unily of Poulett. 

The parish of Portburt/y which gives its name to |he hundred^ 
lies to the north of the ri^e of mountain extending from 
Walton to Poriishead. It was a place of some note in tlie time 
of the Romnns, and long the principal town in tliis part of the 
country. These assertions are proved by tlie number of coinv 
of the lower eqipire, and massive foundations of old buildings, 
which have been discovered here. Some have maintained, that 
it is the station Nidus, mentioned in the Iter of Antoninus, aa 
Ae most important place in Britain, next to Bomium. The 
accuracy of this opinion, however, is at least doubtful. It has 
also been supposed that the towns oi Portbury and Portishead 
were formerly joined, and constituted, together, a largia and 
opulent sea-port town. For this belief there is some stronger 
reason than for the other. It is supported by tradition ; and 
the appellation itself gives it countenance, being clearly de- 
rived from two Saxon words, the first signifying a harbour, and 
the latter a fortified town. 

This parish had a cell of Augustine monks, belonging to tiio 
priory of Bromere, in Hampshire. The religieuae seldom 
exceeded six in number. The shell of this building is still 
standing, ** vetierably clothed 'with ivy.'* 



The diurcli is a large building, dedicated to St. Mary. The 
chancel and aouth aisles contain several niches, intended for 
images. The tower at the west end is lofty and well built ; 
Iml neither remarkable for elegance of structure nor embel- 
lishments. Many of the Berkeley family were buried in this 
thurch. No monuments, however, remain. 

PcrUsheady supposed to have been anciently the harbour to 
Portbury, lies a short way to the north-west of the latter. 

The parish to which this town gives its name, is for the most 
part level, but defended towards the north-east by a high ridge 
of mountains, which rises from the skirts of the Channel. The 
town itself is situated to the south of these hills, which are 
finely covered with wood. During the seventeenth century a 
fort was erected here, on a spot called Portishead Point, to 
protect the navigation to Bristol ; but it is now demolished. 

Portishead is a rectory, in the deanery of Redcliff and Bed* 
minster. The church is a substantial building, adorned with a 
very handsome tower, surmounted by elegant pinnacles. The 
churchyard contains a very neat cross ; but there are no mo- 
numents, either here or in the church, which require to be 

Eastan in Gardano is situated to the east of the two last 
mentioned parishes. The village stands on a delightful emi- 
nence, which commands an agreeable prospect towards King's 
Road harbour and BristoL 

The hamlet of Crokeme PiU lies within this parish, at the 
mouth of the river Avon. It is chiefly inhabited by pilots, for 
the safety of vessels trading to BristoL Even at this place the 
river is only a few yards in breadth, but very deep. Nothing 
more surprises the passenger than the entrance from the Chan- 
neL It is not perceived till immediately upon it, and then 
appears so small and narrow, that it is impossible to satisfy the 
mind, tiU actually a short way up the river, that any vessel can 
eater it. 

llie church of this parish is no ways remarkable for its archi- 
R r 3 tecture. 

696 80UBR8BT6HIM» 

teeture. The tomet at the west end contaiDA a dock and six bells, 
en one ofwhioh is this poesy: — 

«< Come, when I cell, to serve God aU.«* 

There are several monuments here, some of which are hand* 
some, but in other respects not deserving of description. 

Tickenham lies in the hundred of Portbury, at the bottom of 
a chain of mountains^ running from east to west Several 
centuries ago all this parish was a deep impassable morass ; in* 
deed it is now only rendered safe for horses, by a causeway 
raised across it. 

The church is dedicated to St. Quiricus and Julietta. The 
building is Gothic, and has a tower at the west end. The font 
here is a square stone cistern, supported by live pillars. One 
larger than the rest stands in the centre, and the other fbar 
occupy the angles. Three full-sized effigies, two of them men 
in armour, and one a femkle, lie on a stone tablet in the south 
aisle. The inscriptions are entirely defaced, so that the persons 
they were intended to commemorate are unknown. - 

Near the church formerly stood the mansion of Tickenham 
Court. It is now a ruin, but some of the walls are still standing. 
These being adorned with noble windows, of the Gothic order, 
and clothed with ivy, present to the eye an interesting and 
venerable object 

Barrow Courts another ancient mansion, now entirely de« 
molished, was situated under the hills, on the road lead^ 
ing to Clevedon. The summit of the same ridge, which 
overlooks the village, is distinguished by an ancient Ror 
man entrenchment, called Cadbtry Castle, resembling that of a 
similar name, which we have already described,* but of much 
less extent and consequence. This camp is of an oval form, 
and surrounded by a large double rampart, composed of loose 
lime-stone, the produce of the qpot on which it is placed. 

Ntrnnet lies in the hundred of Hareclive and Bedminster. 
The grounds of this parish are in general high, but intersected 


• Vide Ante, 477, 


by deep woo<)y gkas. The church is a SBiall buildiog of moT 
dern construction. 

What renders this parish chiefly worthy of notice, is a ^u* 
muluSf or barrow, situated in a fleld, called Fairff FieU^ at a 
short distance eastward from the church. This ancient se- 
pulchre is undoubtedly one of the noblest in England. It 
extends sixty yards in length, twenty in breadth, and fifleen in 
height. The surface of it is covered with ash trees, briars, 
and thick shruba. When opened it was found to be a nmss of 
stonesy " supported on each side, lengthwise, by a wall of ^thin 
flakes.'' The space between contained two rows of eells, or 
cavities, formed by ** very large stones, set edgewise.'' These 
cells are entered from the south, and are divided from each 
other by vast stones, placed on their edges, and covered with 
others still larger, by way of architrave. In one lay seven 
skulls ; and in another a great quantity of human bones and* 
horses' teeth; but no coins or other reliqucs were found in 
any of them, which could lead to a discovery of the persons 
who own this receptacle of mortality. It certainly, however, 
indicates the neighbourhood to have witnessed some great and 
fatal battle, which has escaped the page of history, as well as 
oral tradition* 

Cheus Magna, so called from being laiiger than any of the 
other places named Chew, is an extensive and populous parish 
in the hundred of Chew. It is sometimes called Bishop's Chew, 
from being the property of the Bishop of Wells. The town of 
Chew was anciently a borough, and considerable for its manur 
facture of cloth. These advantages, however* are now no 
more. , . 

In this parish are the remains of an ancient Roman encamp 
ment, called Bow Ditch. The form of this entrenchment ii 
circular, with a triple row of ramparts. The spot on which it is . 
placed commands a fine prospect towards the Bristql CbanneU , 

The church is a massive building, ,with a.tower at^^e wM 
B r 4 *" end 

ISSS 86MlCll8£TSHlEt« 

Md, mrmouiited by la 6pen ballttstrade, mi h&vmg a turree 
tt one coroer. 

6ir John de Loe, and bis lady« lie in efiigy^ on a large tomb» 
in ^e north aide. The figure of the former it of gigantic aize, 
and in armouTy with his limbs crossed, to denote his having 
been at Jerusalem. That of the lady k much defkced. From 
Ae inscription and date beneath she seems to have died in 1443. 

The south aisle contains the effigy of Sir John Hautvil, in 
attnour, cut out of one solid piece of Irish oak. He reclines 
on his left side, resting on his hip and left elbow, the left hand 
supporting his head. His right ami crosses his breast, the 
hand touching the edge of an oblong shield, which lies between 
his ieft elbow and hip. The left leg is raised, and the foot 
placed against a lion, in the act of biting his spur.' The right 
leg forms a right angle at the knee. Over the armour is a 
loose red coat, bound round the waist with a girdle, fastened 
by a gilt buckle. 

This gentleman was remaricable for prodigious strength, as 
the Irish oak is probably mtended to denote. Vulgar tradition 
informs us, that Edward the First having requested Sir John to 
^hew him a specimen of his abilities, the knight undertook to con* 
vey three of the stoutest men in England to the top of Norton 
Tower, situated in a neighbouring parish. Accordingly, taking 
one under each arm, and a third in his teeth, he proceeded on 
his task. The two in his arms, making some resistance, were 
Iqueezed to death, but the other was carried up witliout sus- 
taining the smallest injury. 

Stanton Drem^ is a large parish, situated in the south-west 
ogle of tbe bundred of Keynsham. It is washed by the river 
Chew, which passes near the church, in its course to Pensford. 
The lands are noted for the excellence of their pasture. In the 
diurcfa, which is dedicated to St Mary, and adorned with a 
tower, there are several neat monuments, mostly of modem 
date, which do not seem to require a particular description. 



This parish k remarkable for a carious monument of antn 
quitjr, which standd in an enclosure, to the north-east of the 
church. It consists of the remains of four dusters of huge 
massive stones, forming two circles, an oblong and an elKp- 
818. The first of the circles is three hundred feet in diameteiv 
composed of fourteen large stones, some of which lie flat on 
the ground. The second is only eighty feet in diameter, and 
is formed of eight stones. The oblong, consisting of five stones, 
stands between the circles, and at the 80uth«-east eattremity it 
the ellipsis, composed of seven stones, one of which stands 
centrically, and out of the line of arrangement. The largest 
stones are those which form the second, or inner circle. One 
of them is no less than twenty-two feet in circumference, and 
nine in height, weighing, upon calculation, upwards of fif- 
teen tons. 

Extensive as this part is, it would appear to have been 
only the centre of the whole building. It had many avenues 
to it, and a huge stone near the road to Chew, commonly 
called HautvSPs Coit^ from a tradition that it was thrown 
here by the knight we have mentioned above, seems to have 
served as part of a portal to one of them. At a little dis- 
tance south-west of the church, on a small eminence, there 
are other three large stones, placed in a triangular form, whidh 
are supposed to have been outworks to the circles. The wholb 
of this relique goes, among the vulgar, by the general name of 
the 'iveddingf from a prevailing opinion, that a woman going to 
be married was, with all her attendants, converted into stones.* 

The real origin of this immense work is uncertain. Some 
antiquaries, and among them Dr. Stukeley, contend that it 
was a temple, erected by the British Druids.f Wood even sup- 
poses it to represent the Pythagorean planetary system, adopted 
by that people, who pretended not only to have a perfect idea 
^ the form and magnitude of the universe, but also of the 

* Gollinfloa, 11. 43?. f Itin. Cariot. II. 169. 

t9i SOMER»£TSHiR€* 

nockshire, who lived towards the end of the 'fifth centoiy.' 
This lady, we are informed by Capgravc,* was, in her youth, 
much famed for her beauty, and sought in marriage by many 
distinguished personages, all of whom, however, she rejected,* 
and devoted her life to virpnity. Hence she acquired the 
name of JPeyn Wyryf^ or Ke)ma the Virgin. Travelling from 
her nati^ home to seek some solitary spot, where she might 
indulge her religious contemplations undisturbed, she passed 
beyond the Severn, and requested permission from the chief of 
this part of the country to reside at Keynsham, then a desert 
wood. • The prince said he would readily comply with her 
tequest ; but added, that it was impoesible for any human being 
to live in that neighbourhood, as it swarmed with serpents of 
the most venomous species. Ke3ma, who had great confidence 
in the efficacy of her prayers, answered the prince, that she 
would soon rid the country of that poisonous brood. Ac- 
ortdingly the place was granted to her, "and, by her prayers, 
dl the snakes and vipers were converted into stones. And to 
this day (continues Capgrave's translator) the stones in that 
country resemble the windings of serpents, through all the 
fields and villages, as if they had been so formed by the hand 
of tiieengraver."f 

This is one of the instances in which natural phenomena are 
referred by superstitous monks and impostors to miraculous 
causes. The stones alluded to, are examples of that curious, 
but well-known lu:sui naturee^ the Comua Ammonite or snake* 
stone, which abounds in the quarries of this parish. 

The town of Keynsham is privileged with a market ; and 
consists chiefly of one street, about a mile in lengtli. The river 
Chew waters the east end of it, and falls into the Avon at the 
county bridge, which is built of stone, and extends over fifteen 
arches. This place was formerly considerable for its cloth 
manufacture. Now, however, this branch of trade is entirely 
dropt ; though many of the poor are still employed in spinning 

^ A writer of the foorteenth century, 
t Cressy'8 Church History. Colh'nson^ III. 401. 


fyt the Bradford and Shepton clothiers. The herb woad U 
raised here in large quantities, for the purposes of dyings 
Percepiery or parsletf pierty so famous for its effects in urinary 
complaints, has long been very abundant in tliis pai'ish. 

Keynsham had anciently an abbey of Black Capons. It was 
fbiuided by William, Earl of Glocester, at the request of his son 
Robert, and dedicated to the hono\ir of God, the blessed Mar}', 
and Su Peter, and St. Paul. This nobleman bestowed upon 
the abbey the whole property of the manor and hundred. 
Many other donations were afterwards added, so that the rere- 
nuM of it were very considerable. Not a vestige of this ancient 
fabric now remains. History, however, informs us it waa 
both extensive and magnificent. Many effigies of monks, and 
other monumenial stones, have been discovered under its ^ 

The church, which was appropriated to the abbe}^ is a large 
and handsome building, adorned with a loHy tower at the west 
end ; it is pkced near the centre of the town, and is dedicated 
to SL John Baptist. 

The north side of the chancel is oruamented with a mural 
monument of stone, supported by a tomb, about five feet high, 
on which lies the effigy of Henry Bridges, Esq. in armour. His 
feet are supported by a dragon couchant, with its head turned 
back, and mouth open, in the act of siezing his leg. 

On the opposite wall is another mural momiment, of the 
most superb archilectuse, in honour of Sir Thomas Bridges. It 
is divided into four compartments. A hollow arched canopy^ 
four feet wide, and nine high, contains the effigy of the knight, 
attired in a loose gown, with a long flowing robe, lined with 
white. He wears a square toed white shoe, with a very high 
red heel. His long curly hair flows on his shoulders ; lus lefl 
hand carries the ribbon of the order, on his breast are the 
insignia, and at his side the remains of a sword. Within the 
hollow of thq cave is a beautiful group of clouds, from which 
projects the figure of an angel, crowned with gold, and* blowing 

a trumpet, 

634 soM^itsETSHine. 

a trumpet, from the bottom of which issues a label, with this 
ioscription : — 

" Awake thon that steepest ; arise from the dead, and Christ shall gtre 
Ibee lifer 

On the right and left o£ this canopy, are the figures of two 
angels, 'in fine white drapery, and having golden crowns on 
their heads. They both stand with their faces towards the 
effigy of Sir Thomas, each of them holding in one hand a 
crown of gold, and pointing to the label with the other. Above 
their heads are fine rich cornices and pediments, supported by 
two projecting and detached twisted colunms, and terminated by 
two stone statues. The inscription beneath is partly in prose, 
and partly in verse, and so long, that we decline quoting if, 
seeing it contains nothing either curious or generally interesting" 

Besides these there are several other monuments in tliis 
church, ; but we shall only notice one of plain stone, in tha 
passage of the middle aisle, and that merely for the epitaph, the 
style of which is somewhat peculiar. It runs thus :— 

** Here lyetb the body of Anna, the danghter of Mr. Thomas and Mrs. 
Mary Leman, who departed April 23, 1633, states suae.'' 

^ Grim death the eator meate doth give, 

By that which did me kill, I live ; 

The grave devonrs tiie, hat I sliall 

Live to see its fiineral ; 

After some ai^es more are spent, 

The gluttonous grave shall keep a Lent.** 

The south wall of the chancel has a remarkably large bcnc- 
toire, with two circular basons, for the reception of holy water. 

Long Ashton, is a parish on the bank of the river Avon, 
which separates it from Bristol, as well as from the county 
of Gloucester. It is situated in a rich and woody vale, de- 
fended on the south, by the lofly ridge of Dundry, and on the 
north, by a range of bleak, but picturesque hills, which extend 
themselves to the west» The lands of this parish, are for the 
most part, appropriated to pasturage. A small part oi tliem are 


80MERS^TS»IRB. 635 

laid out as gardens, where vegetables, and various kinds of 
fruit, particularly strawberries, are raised for the Bristol market. 
In these gardens many Roman coins have been dug up, a fact 
which shows that the Romans were acquainted with this terri- 
tory, though the name by which they distinguished it, has 
escaped the records of history. » 

The village of Long Ashton lies on the south-east slope of an 
eminence, called Ashton Hill. The houses here are in general 
well built, and almost every cottage in it has proper accom- 
modations for the entertainment of company, as this place ia 
much resorted to in the summer season. An excellent gravel 
iroad passes through this village, extending to the utmost 
boundaries of the parish, which at different parts forms a ter- 
race, from which the traveller has a most delightful view of the 
whole vale of Ashton, part of Bristol, Cliflon, and a number 
of villages, scattered on the opposite bank of the Avon. 

At the eastern point of the hill, which commands the finest 
prospect, the rocks are nearly perpendicular, and extremely 
craggy. Hence, many caverns have been hollowed out by the 
hand of nature, which being finely shaded with a variety of 
shrubs, exhibit a scene of much wild and romantic beauty* 
On the verge of these cliflb, are the remains of two Roman 
encampments, one of which, called Bunvalk^ is triangular, and 
consists of three ramparts, stretching along the slope of the 
hlU. The inner rampart is eighteen feet high, and composed 
of materials so strongly cemented, that it is scarcely possible to 
separate them. » 

The entrenchment, which is denominated Stolceleighy is 
divided from the other by a narrow dell. ^ It is of an oval 
shape, and comprizes only two ramparts, the inmost of which 
is extremely thick and strong. Both these camps seem rather 
to have been designed for the purpose of observation than of 
defence, ** and to have served as a speculum over the pass be-^ 
tween the Belgae on this, and the Dobuni on the other side of 
the river." 



On the south-east slope of Ashton Down is the niansien- 
hoase of Ashton Court* It is a noble old edifice, originally 
founded by the family of the Lyons, but afterwards much altered 
•nd improved by the celebrated Inigo Jones. Indeed the en« 
fire front of it was erected by him, and does considerable 
honour fo his taste, if we consider that he intended to have 
Biodemized the whole structure, and made it one uniform and 
reguhr pile of building. The length of this front is a hun- 
dred and forty-three feet. One of the rooms in it is a very fine 
apartment, ninety feH ^o^E* ^^^ twenty broad, hung round 
with a variety of elegant portraits. The back part of the house 
Still retains its original form, and exhibits marks of great an- 
tiquity. The court which leads to the park, westward, is called 
the Casile Courts from its being embattled, and having an old 
gateway, similar to those adopted in baronial mansions. The 
entrance to the second court is under a low door-way, between 
two lofty turrets, one of which contains a bell and clock. All 
the o£Bces arc ancient. The venerable i^pearance of the house 
on this side, contrasted with the elegance of the front, and 
the beauty of the surrounding lawn, exhibits, as a whole, an 
abject rather uncommon and picturesque. 

Besides this manor-house, there were several others in Long 
Ashton, but none of them can now be traced, except that of 
Ashton Phih'ps, called the Lower Courts the ruins of which 
stand in a valley to the south-west of the village. It seems to 
have been a structure of considerable extent and grandeur ; but 
wHy a small portion of the dwelling apartments, and the chapel 
remain. One of the former is a very large wainscotted room, 
having the edges of the pannels gilt. The latter is still in good 
preservation, and contains an altar of stone, in its pristine state, 
with a niche, or receptacle for holy water. 

The parish church is a very ancient and handsome building, 
founded by one of the Lyons, and dedicated to All Saints. Its 
divisions are a nave, chancel, north and south aisles, and tw» 
chapels, one on each side. The nave is separated from the 



Mmiff Uny fdmilf aeKl dlutt^Mifabit^ support^ pointed 
ifftdiet. A taiatifiil QotUc woitm, of flower ftnd frM work» 
puntod «ai ^ih^MMoiiiediB tbeiaiMt odqofable flianiwr, «ervefl 
to di^Uabolhiisvaflnd aUesfisw ttiQKchaaoeL Qntlie^toas 
of AewnuiDws oroieoonilpiiiited%»«i ind coals of oitos; 
ttBoog the tmueff are dm povtndtisMt of Edward the Fourtlii 
fndhbQaeop^fiiisiabethWtMidfiU^^ Tbetdwer,iitthew6^e&d, 
«(ibn iriuoh tiio ahni Ivf Lyons are out in stone, €!ontafng six 
-beHi I one uf them is preM^ eoetid with the foundation of the 
labiirtth^ and bean die fUlowingHiseription •.^*' %mttt Satttniti 
yapWf OKI pGO iiobU(»" 

Hie benefioe of this dnuch is Ticarial, and the adTOwson ap- 
pendant to the manor* The Rev. Jdui CoUinson, to whose 
HbSerjr and Antiquicias ef tim ooonty we have so often had the 
pleteure to reftr, has been man^ years vicar of this parish. 

In fibk drareh aiw several handaame monumentBy .both of 
«fldentanid nwdem date : that in Imnoor of Sir Richard Choke 
and his lady, is paiticalariy nuigaifioeiit; it is bwk of stone^ 
tlcMydeeomied iridi Gothic Irao^ and iasagery, b a style 
Ipnmhf Biqperiarto any simSar work of the qpe in whidi it was 
oreeied. The effigies of Sb Richard and his lady lie under an 
elegant canopy) being imerioriy adorned with a giory* supported 
by twaangeis^ in weil-dvawB attitudes. The knight is dreased 
hi his Jnd^stwbea^ and the female according to the ooetaamof 
her tt9i0* At tfia top of tfaemonoment are two sorolls» and at 
eaeh C0rtkw 4ve the faaniy arms. 


On aevenddocounis^ the ei^ of Bristol haaidaims of apeooliat 
and superior kind on the attention of the historian and the 
topographer. .Thongli jsot probably the meal incieii^ itlsoar-^ 
talnly oneof the meat important dfies In the empiric and was 
long reckoned second only to the metropolis, in a oMttMrett 

V0L.XIIL Ss and 

S9d ' KniKKflflTnms. 

and JMilitical point of Wew. The nngiiliri^ of ks t 
the borders of two extensive eeunties, in fiict, standiag in bolhi 
yet, strictly, belonging to neidfer, seated on seven hflls, ami, in 
other respects, resembling ancient Rome^anmnindod with some 
of the most ddightful scenery that the oonntry can boaat, being 
the great emporium of trade for ihe western conntips, and tba 
share it has had in all the great events of our history, are cktom* 
stances that have often excited the interest, and roused the 
euriosfly of the tourist, and the annalist. We regret exoeedp 
itagly that our limits allow us but a scanty account of this inpor- 
tant city. 

It has been said by some, that thb city was founded by Bren- 
Bus, the supposed first king of the Britons, about three hundred 
and eighty years before the christian em; bat this opinion 
seems to have been propagated without sufficient authori^.* 
This notion has, however, derived sonM support firom the 
appearance of two ancient statues, said to be these of Brennus^ 
and his brother Belinus, on the south side of St. John^s galo. 
Gildas, a British monk, of the sixth century, whose epistle ^m 
the depravity of the Britons was written in the y#ar S6^ men- 
tions Brito, in his list of fortified and eminent British cities, in 
the year 430, when the Romans abandoned our isknd^f Nea- 
nitts, in the catalogue annexed to his History of Britain, which 
cones down to the eighth century, also enumeiatas Caer BrUOf 
the ancient British name for this place, among the twen^-eight 
famous cities of Gildas ; and the venerable Bede says, that 
'* Britain was famous, in ancient times, for twen^-ei^t most 
noble cities, furnished with gates, and strong bolts, walls, and 
towers.'' j: These testimonies, however, have reference only to 
the ancient city of the Britons, the site of which is now occupied 
-by works of amuch later origin, as but little mention is made in 
I ' I r . history 

- ' t The «|pocryplMl Oeoffiney of Monmoalhi ssost likely, int broscfacd 
ttliis osiu^cUuis i ' which wivi lubseqnCDtly repeate4 and coofinned by^ Wil- 
'I^UD of Woic^tcr. 

^ ^ t Anderson's History of (Uimmerce, Vol. I. pp. 19, W. 

I £€cles.'Hbtory, Ed. 17t«. 

wfmwBAwtMuimu 6S9 

Irtttory of thejwesent pS^, earlier thaa A. D« I06d, whto» 
according to Florence of Worcester, Haiteld set sail from 
AritCo«r» with a fleet, to reduce Wales.* No particulars are 
wkted &t k during the Danish Invasion. Bat before we pro** 
veed in the history of Bristol, it will be proper to notice its 
^ancient names, and the etjrmiriogy of its present one. The 
Britons called this place Caer Oder NatU Badout q. d. ,the 
city Oder in the vide of Badon, or ** the other city in the 
vale of Badon/'t Leland inclines to change Nant Badon 
into iVisfi^ AvoHf **the valley of the river Avon," whose 
name, he oheerves, may have been given to the city situate on 
it j:. This writer also supposes that Odre is the name of the 
river ; but Baxter || says, that Caer Oder signifies ^frontier dxy^ 
and that Venta, which Ptolomy places among the Beigs, was 
Bristol : Brighisiom being the Saxon word to denote a tohite^ or 
a^r place, for the Britons before they were driven into Wales, 
and for the West Saxons afterwards.^ Or this word, as Mr. 
Ooug^ observes, will signify ^rttofsam locus^ synonymous, as Mr. 
Gale imagined, with Britodunum, Mr. Barret f agrees with 
the learned antiquary, John Horseley,** that the AnUma^ or 
Anfmuij fortified by the renowned Roman general Ostorius, 
was the Awma^ which is written by Ravennas, Abona^W the 
name by which the military works on Clifton, Leigh, and Durd- 
ham Downs, were designated, evidently firom their contiguity 
with the river Avon. Camden, however, is of opinion that this 
alludes to the river in Warwickshure of that name. It is, never- 
^eless, more than probaMe, that the Ahona of Antoninus, is the 
Avoii of Somersetshire, as he describes a Roman statioQ of this 
name, situate between Aqua SoUs^ the present Bath,^ f and the 
river Severn, obviously the Castle of Clifton ; which great forti« 

S s 2 fioation 

* Csioden Brit. t Note, by Gongh, in Cam. Brit. 1. 86. 

I Note on CygneA Csntio V. Belganim. || Olosf. Rom. Antiq. p. J 87. 

i Gougb, Add. Cam. L 12t. % Hbtory of Briitol. 

^* llrlt«naia Romana, p. 56. tt Cougbi ut wf. 

Xt Vido Ante, p.S«i. 

640 80MU18BT«(IX&S* 

fication is nbtictd 1^ William of Worcester** U one thne pmA* 
priest of St. James's, Bristol. 

After the name of Caer Oder had been dropped, tbis pbc^ 
came to be called Bristcfto^ partly from lUiother of ili txkU^i 
names, already noticed, Caer Briioj the British Clty» . But this 
name had not an immediate derivation from the ancient Brilish* 
The Saxons, in their rage for changing thie name of every {4&K!e 
in their possession, gave this a telrmination from tb^r onfn 
language, by adding the word sto/Wf a place, te the ancieiu name^ 
Briio ; hence it was long called BryUkm^* (rom Whence it wai 
latmized into Bristoha^ or Bristoliumf and, lastly, derived its 
present name, Bristol. There is another etyinology of thit 
name menticmed by Mr. Gough, and to which he strongly in- 
clines ; bat, we think, withoilt sufficient authority. His "words 
are, ^ Aylward Meau, or Smew, founder of Oranbom AU>eyi 
or his grandson, Brictric, lord of Bristol, before the conques^f 
was hnrd of Bristol, in the tenth century ;% and from him, it is 
more than probdrie, that the name ofBriatoiw was derived; for 
in some Latin rhymes, taken by Dugdale R from the ChhMiido 
of Tewkesbury, Brietanus, which is the aame widi Brictri^ 
says of htmsdf, Brtttam conHrueti^ u t. *^\ built a church at Bris- 
tow, as well as at Tewkesbury.^^ Several objections to this 
etymology occur ; but we wfll pass on to tlie history and descrip* 
tion of the place, as it now stands. 

In the year 1051, Harold and LeefWin^ two of the sons of 
Earl Godwin, after a fruitless attempt, in conjunction withthHir 
fiUher, and their brothers Gurth^ Swey, and Tosd, at rcfcd- 
lion against Edward the Confessor, fled to Ireland, taking shi|^ 
at the port of Btytstowe, in a vessel prepared for them, by their 
brother Sweyn, to whom protection had been given by the Earl 
of Flanders, f It has already been observed, that in 1063 
Harold set sail from this place, with his fleet, to invade the prin* 

cipality ; 
• Men. Biist. iu It. Nosmilb. .180. t LelanU, VII. 71. 

% Ibid, VI. 82. VII. 71. II Mon. Ang. L p. 161. $ Add. Cmb. VoM. IfS. 
IT Simeon DunelmtsiSyp . ]8i. Brampton, Cbroo. p. 49J. 


ci|Mli€y ;. and as this ii the first important historical mention of 
it, Camden conjectured that it was built about the dodemtoa 
of the Saxon government*^ 

During the reigns of Harold and the Conqueror, there were 
taints established at this place ; and in 1696, William the Third 
struck half-crowns here. It is thus mentioned in Doomsday 
book: f* Bristow, with Barton, an adjoining ftim, paid to the 
Ung one hundred and ten silirer marks; and the burgesses 
tetumed, diat Bishop G.f l^d thirty*three marks, and one of 

Bobert. of Glastonbury, thus ranks the citj of Bristol among 
Out prinqipal towns of the island ^-^ 

' Ihe fante lords mud msitten that jn ya londe wcr, 
And the cbyiSe towncs ftmte they lets srer, 
Limdon sod EverwykJ lincolw, sod |ieyeesti«, 
Cochestre sUd Csaterkyrs, Br»to«, sad Worctttrei 

About the year 1066, Harding, a progenitor of the ancient 
family of Berkeley, and a descendant from the kings of Den* 
mark,^ was denominated mayor and governor of BristoL He 
Was a rich and powerful merchant, and, according to Leland, 
removed the Society of Calendaries from the Cbriat Church to 

SsS the 

* This opinion hat given grest ofcice to the native htttorians of Bristol, 
l^r. Barret, who, as Mr. Oovfji hu made it to appear, diflera only a centory 
Horn the learned antiquary, in Ids dale of the orighi of Bristol, has started 
M satrswi olJeetioM ; and in the yean 1748 and 1749, were pobhahed part 
of a walk, entitlsd Bristolia or Meipqifs of the City of Pristpl, in which it 
^m PiMIPed to shew, that Mr. Caaden's ppiqloa of tl|e late rise of Bristol 
ia "'|iQt only paatradictgry to general tradition, and the opinioa of all the 
anti^narics btfore him, hut also inconsistent with his own anthoritics, m well 
at other positive and aatbentic testimonies ; by Andrew fiooke, Bsq, 
ntlve thcreo£* See Oongfa*s British Topography, Vol. II. p. S09« 

f Gba, Bishop of Bath and Wellt.— Goi«rA. Some, however, hsva sep> 
posed that this rthwtes to Oee ft ty efCeetwwye, at that thns cortam-heiper* 

t t^emesday hook, in Oloaccstershire, p. ISS. Btrttm apod BrtslMSf, 
I Yfriu i Coltins> Peer^e, Yd. lY. p. 1, 


the Church of AU-HaUows. This fraternity existed In BiJBtol 
before the conquetL ' - / - « 

In the first year of the reign of WHliam Rofiis, a fennai smd 
powerful conspiraey was formed to dethrcme the king; at the 
head of which were Odo, Bishop of Bayeux, and Robert, Earl of 
Montaigne, maternal brothers of the Conqueror, who, commu^ 
nicating their design to Eustace, Count of Bologne, Robert,' 
Earl of Shrewsbury and Arundel, Robert de Belesme, William, 
Bishop of Durham, Geoffrey, Bishop of Coutance,.hi8 nephew,- 
Robert de Mowbray, Roger Bigod, Hugh de GrentmesnjI,' aaul 
some others, easily procured their assistance. They retired ^to 
their respective castles, expecting the support of: a powerfUt 
army from Normandy. In the mean time, however, they com- 
menced hostilities in several places, and made Bristol their 
head-quarters, appropriating the castle there as the receptacle 
of their nefarious plunder, which they collected in. large quanti- 
ties from the neighbouring country, as far as Berkeley. ai)d B^th. 
Having ravaged the county of Wiltshire, they re-entered Somer- 
setshire, on the south-east, and^ sitting down before IJchester, 
they were repulsed. At the instance of the Earl of Chester, 
William de tVarrenne, and Robert Fitz-Hammon, the king con- 
sented to spare the lives of the conquered rebels ; but he con- 
fiscated their estates, and banished the greatest part of them the 
kingdoQ].* ^ 

About the close of the eleventh century, Bristol is mentioned. 
as a place of considerable note for trade to Ireland, ^nd Norway, 
and every part of i£urope. But there is one branch of iu com* 
merce, which reflects no credit on its history, and which we 
mention more willingly, that we may contribute towards that' 
horror which every feeling mind must experience at the remem-" 
brance of the now abolished traffic in human blood. The fact 
is thus recorded in an old life of Wol&tan, or Wulfstan, Bishop 
' of Woroester >^** There is a town, cailed Brickstpu, , opposite 
to Ireland, and extremely cbnvenient for trading. with tbalfioun* 

• 8axon Chronicle, p. 195. Ordericos Vitslis, pv a68. 

* soicmisEraHiRs. MS. 

tiy. .Widftfaa-rindiiced them to dio^ a bartitfoiia custom 
neitlwr Uie love of God, dot the king, could prevail on them to 
hfsmde. This was the mart for slaves, collected from all parts 
of England, and particularly young women, whom they took 
care tojiravide' with a pregpancy, in order to enhance their 
▼dae» It was a most/ moving sight to see in their public mar- 
ketSyf rowv of '3N>mig people of both sexes tied together with 
ropos, of gfoat beauty, and in the flower of their youth, daily 
prostituted and sold. ExecraUci&ct! Wretched disgrace! Men, 
destitute of the affections of the brute creation, delivering into 
slavery their relations, and even their very o&prtng!"* Itispleas** 
ing to notkethese sentiments of abhorrence expressed at so early 
a penodof onr history ; but, indeed, it was reserved for christians^ 
of BUicfa later times, to sanction and practice a trade, at which 
homan nature reeoils, and which has, happily, at length fallen 
Older the persevering efforts of the friends of liumanity and vir<r 
too. We shudder at the idea of British youths, in a British city, 
being tied together, and sold, like the beasts on which they feeds 
but still there exist, and in that very city too, some, we hope they 
are but few, who would rejoice at the restoration of our Afrioajs 
okve-lrade ; and who would feel, but very faintly, the *^ com- 
ponctiooB.vintings of conscience" at. beholding a like scene of 
bavbority once more exhibited in the streets of Barbadoes. f 
* During the sangumary quarrel between King Stephe»t and 
die Empress. Matilda^ Bristol, at one time, becasie the resir 
dence of that huiy* The government of tlie city then 
Monged to her brother, Robert, Earl of Gloucester. She 
landed at Arundel with only one hundred and forty men, which 
aor excited the . ftars of her mothar-in-bw, Adehus, that, to 

Ss4f dispel 

* Vit. Wolfttan, in Aoglm Sacra, 
t Thf fiitviv hittoCHQs of England will record with reluctance tlic few 
venial errors of an administration that aboli«<hed the slave trade ; and they 
will mention, with feelings of the moat grateful kind, the name of that en- 
lightened and benevolent patriot, throngh whose exertions, in the year lSil» 
a tnAc, so diigraeefnl, was made felony by the law and punished, aa a 
I oooHaitted ii0UMt the human race. 


iitfei htv apppfehensionst the espvtti rteoved'to-BriMlf a»* 
from thence to Glqucester» whare sht ffenuined coma time uoiier 
the proteoticm of a gatlaat noUcOMHy Muped MSo, nid hpd 
waimly espoused her aam.* 

After the defeat of the rqyidistii on the etoond of Eehtfiun^ 
1K1» the OBpttve monareh arei opnvejred to Gkmcatteri Bhd 
from thenoe kept a doee prisoner in Bratql, wbeie ht wn {oadtti 
with irons, a<id treated with eveiy speoies af.huiilt and dtogadai 
tion. Bristol and its castle being wiioUy in the pimseBiian of ther 
Earl Robert, and the triumphant empaess, Baker informs na, 
that the queen placed her son bef a, to be aduisatod ansong tho 
sons of the principal inhabitants. Ho was nine years oldf 
when he first came, and continued ui^der the isition of opa 
Mathei^s till he had completed his fhivtaendft year* It wn. 01 
thn place that he formed his attachment to Robert Fita^HanlM^ 
and when Henry came to the throne, be . bestowed on km 
fiivourite the manor of Berthone, in douoestaiafaiiie, awd 
fdso gave him one hundved potinds per ananm, with lands 
in Berkeley;! and afterwards the wholo lorddup of Berkeley^ 
and Berkeley-Hemcaso, belonging to it, of which Roger da 
Berkeley was then dirested, on account of his atta^dmolmt tf 
iLing Stephen.^: It was this Robert Fite-Hardihg that, iki thf 
year 1148, kid the foundation of the Abbey of Su Augntias^ 
and bailt the church and offices att|K:bad thereto, in the abort 
space of six yeanu In 11 W, Dermot Mac Murroogb, Khig of 
L^nster, in Ireland, came over into England, with sixty of 
his adherents, to solicit succmrs from |Ionry the So^Qod, wWek 
afterwards enabled tliat monarch to obtain posBssdqn of |hsl 
langdom, and which has, ever since, lomaiiiad aabfoot to the 
orown of England. During this visit of the Hibernian king, 
Robert Fitz-Harding entertained him and his company, in the 
most sumptuous manner, at BristoUji Robert Fitfr'Harding 


f tlunKTh Hist. Edg. 1. 359, Hvo. ed. t Beauties, S^, VoL V. p. ft^k 

t Ex Attto^r. in Casfro dc Berk^ey^ io €^l. Pear, IV. 1. 

n Sir James Wwe^ Aanals of Irriaad, p. 5. CattBs, |V* t. 

wife, Eva, by whom he had issue five 0QM, Uei inuiediBillM 
ifOtt v€ Siu AuguBting's AUMiyy wkm the ^OiedMi ^^(M of 
BriitoL He was styled Cenotfi^^ettdfhnttdiis^ iti hasbeaft 
ai^ppopiid, tfMit km waa a canon; in hh t<n»a ajibey* f 

Daring (Im teign of iieiny the Second, ihts city mm beooase 
n great place of trade, partkolarijr fbr eonamefe^ viUi ife* 
laadtt and tbat Idilg granted « charter to the men * «ifi<flbddi4 
ttontaining th^ M^mr\ng efaraee: ^ I gi^t that my men that 
4w«II in ngr Ibe in the marA, near the bridge of Briftev« 
bove their cerfaop onstemt, Itbe^tieai and quittanceB, tiamughaii 
England and Wales, aa my burgcasess and namely thnae of 
Binatoiir, aa atjefencter testiftea e end I fi>rbid that ai^y nae d^ 
tfiem any bi^uqr^ or vcpvonch them upon thia aooaMntl^'., lUa 
idiaster baaie date 1178; and liom hence itq»poant|iat'tiia 
eity apa« united to iUd<M4t a irery early period: Tlielmi^ 
emauildoidiiedlyeonatructedincmiaeqaevee «£ }^ wmty gian^ 
influx of wealth and population arUeh Bristiri, iheom^ Ma 
ce mmerflial in^kortanoe, had then yqnired. It Woald aaemlfaat 
the original bridge iraa oonstruoted pf wood ; fisri ontehtiildiAg 
it, hnmenaa pien of solid maaoniy wera fisondto faeincerpdrafcnl 
into bvge pmcea of tfaober. It area during diis raign, Ib^ the 
bargemes of Brirtol had a grant of free toB, and other cuetMssi 
throughout Bn^d, Waira, and Moimaodyi and tie hing 
granlad to it a iuU p^er to mbafait and possem 'thecify of 
poblin, in lealaiid, which, like other p*rU of thai eooitij^'lraa 
ft that thne^ but a very small ranwife from absolute 
4 ookny flmn Bristol wm, aooosdmgl)rv tent thither. 

The eiiBHer una renewed in 1190^ fay John, ]^1 ^fl 
afterwards the iraak, freaeherens, and wiokdL kingf wbiM 
character, Mr« Hiimeeiiesrres, ^* m nolliing bnt a tiriiifiifaiirin 
«f vieea, eqna)fy ninan and ediona; reinons to bimiel^ and 
destructive to his peopW Thia renewed charter settled the 

« >IS.atqaonspenBiDsafcJabsePedMii,Baiti 
tGQlllas>Pstrw,iiifif. 1 0el«Maba.Qnt«r«Hl,t»9. 


bomldfairiefr tsi .ihe .cttjr, and eatiMWied Ihe pvopeity ia4 piiti- 
lages of the inhabitanto. 

• . In the ydar 1210, thk detestable menerch. is caid* to have 
deinanded tc^. (bhouaand oMrks from a Jew of this city ; and that, 
cm his refusal, he ordered one of hia teeth to be drawn every day, 
till, he should comply. The unlortunate Israelite, probd>ly 
supposing that he should have little occasion for his teeth when 
he had' parted, with his money^ lost seven out of eight, and. then, 
huonsistentiy enough, paid the money, to save the remaining 
(mei- . This.ext0rtion on the Jews furnished a sufficient exan^e 
ta hiaaon^' afterwards Henry the.Thicd, who oppressed the Jew8» 
la eveijr part of his dominionsi in the mest outrageous manner. 
aiie>talliage laid upon the Jews, in 1^3, amounted to sixty 
thoiisai&d. marks ;f a sum,. Mr. Hume remarks, the 
whole yearly revenue oi the !crown. This last named monarcb« 
wfien Pribce Heniy^ was placed by his &ther in tiMs city, as in a 
place of safety; dhuringhis minority,! and that he might receive an 
educa^oA' 'suited to his stetion. .j i m ^ \ 

In the year 1216, the Pope's legate, Guelo, held a synod at 
Bristol, at which,, in the.presence of Henry the Third, he so* 
Icmnly exeommunioated those parous who h^ adhered toLewis, 
the French king's son ; % and at ai general comicil of the barons, 
hekl at this place- on the eleventh of November, in the same 
jear, the Earl of Pembroke^ who, at the time of) King John's 
death, was maseschal of England^. wa& dsfsen .protector of the 
««dm. In this year also, a new charter was granted, in which 
it. was fnact4^, ** that Bristol should be governed by a mayor, to 
be chosen in the same manner as was done in London ; with 
two gtive, sad, worsh^ful men, who were .caUed prepositcrs/' 
The naiqe of the first msyoc was Adamle Page. K 
f' • About the year 1247, the city was joined * to Reddiff by a 
bridge, the old wooden one having been destroyed* The key 

. . was 

* Matthew Paris^s History of EogUsh Affatn, p. 160. 
t Maddox't Histofy and Antiquitieft of the E«ch«qiier, p. 152. 
t Mat. Parif, pp. soo, «0f . | Heatta> Briitol, Si. 

BdfirBic^TtftnYit;' 9ff 

wvsmade al t1f« j^iAt^^peiuH! «f tHe^'citiseiiis flbct'ttei^faibW^ 
tanls of Redclift The cdurae of the river w» tcrtiied/bjr 
cutting a canal ftom Redc1iir-be<:k to Tower Harratt'; ^by th\g 
neans a key was made 'for the safe* birthing of shipft; bywhi^ 
they allow water, gvounded on a safe bed' of niud^ #M^ feft^ 
danger to their bottoms. This great iiiiprovenient fe ti»&^ jle- 
seribed by Leland:* — ** The shippis of^olde tynstt casnup eolj^ 
by A Von to a place eauUd theBolry where was aad^iii'depth^ 
^bw^e of water; but the botoni is Very stdny and rughe, sens/ 
by^Iecye, they trenched somMrhlift alolb by^die neMie-wM^ 
of the old k^y on Avon, anno 1S47, and ih' conlinuaiMJe' 
bryngynge the course of From that way, bathe made soft^ iin^ 
whosy harborowibr grete sliipps. 'Avon ryver^ abowt a quarter* 
of a myle beneth the tbwne, in a medoiv, casteth up a grete* 
arme or gat, by the which the greater vessels as tnayne'toppi' 
shippes com up to the towne. So that Avon doth peninsnlate* 
the towvs^, and v^ssel^ may eum x>f both sides of it.*'f Hhe 
^tfpence of cutthig this channel, or trench, for the cotme o^ 
the Frome through the key, amounted to the sum of iive^ thou** 
sandpound&:( It will be seen in a subsequent part'of tMi^* 
account, that Bristol Harbour bas received great and important^ 
improvemenis wi^n these few years. The bri4ge, thdt'was'' 
built at die time jftst mentioned, was of stone, and had houses 
on both sides, with a chapel in the form of a geie-way, across • 
the centre. The chapel was destroyed in the year^ 15^4'; iBod'-^ 
al length the bridge itself having become dangerous^ no heav)^< 
laden carriages were permitted to- pass over it- ' In* the year "^ 
1768 a new one was finished and optoed, having beenbegun in 
1764b On the erection of the bridge in 1347, it was ordered, 
that in futm« there shaald be ohly one market for provisions. 
Befbre this time there were two provision markets, one in 
Redcli^ and the other in the city. . 

In the year 12Q3, the valiant and intrepid Prince Edward 
was. taken prisoner, in a pa.rley with Simon de Mountfbrd,. Earl 

• Itia. VIL p.7l. t Ibid. V. «4. tOoiiJk, AddCanu L p. It3. 

cfUkmmr^9i^Wti^ii99^t'^^^ in Bmlot 

$ Wgo4 triwi^ ev^ 419 perBdioQii ]Lcjpefftipr« M tbe batUe of 
SfMl^qn^ f)ii»lie?9ic prmce tppk $he c$$a» QroQn ^ baroni» 
«b44|#4 4)9 ^w«| in tbe Mun of one thouwid pou^d^. 

fo^ fear IfiKSS Edw9r4 the first hd4 » parllfupioqt in tU» 
^^. ivbuih^ iwNffv^r, J^ f«oioYedf in the wm« year, ta 
gbv^v^tmiy^ H^ ^POii t^oce, iq n few 4»y«, to Actoo* 
99iiend «q4«9^» fiir iM foi limey a wvii waa iisaiied to tb^ 
qifQOf Mi |D^tr(«te^ of SfMo) to 8^ t^w4l perfKins aa r^r^. 
ammtiffm Ait tbit ti|Q^ as^we ba!iFC» dre^yatate^j: I>|vid 
i|p IJ^valljB, fho |i^ of tb^ race of tbe Wekh princes, waa 
tfi^ iMi|4 QondeaiBod, and. exegoted in ^ moat igpooainiooiL 
lanH^t Ha a traitqr^ for bf^ving defend^ by 'force pi ^mns, 
^ tfae^lib^ftias of hiii B44iYe:<:Quotry„tt«gelber vHtb l^ia owii ber»r 
di^ary i^dthoritj.**; 

^e wt%% rqyal f isit le lbi» ci^ uraa b Ae yeiur 1306; when 
fijhf^is^ tbe $ecpn4 a<)cqinppn}ed hitber Pfers Qi^vfutan, son ef 
a Gw»9 loHgbti wfc^ bad gm^ a coaopti^t^ aitoeodancy evv 
tb^ |d%*a nfeeMonf, on h^i ^fay to Iffelw4» baving a{^nta4 
hip Iqr^Mie^^onfot of tbat ^ouatiy,!) besi^api cfofcrriiig ^ 
bm bmd9 9ad ri^aa b<yth in G^cony and E;iig]4«d.f 

Ip the yffff 1826, goring tba uopatural ap4 iaMdioqa rebtl^ 
lioi) «f Queen bab^l|% ^ unforluiM4<» Edward waa piiryued ^ 
Qilltql, by tbe Etfl of %^%t aeccMidod by tbf^ fbreigik foro«|: 
oywIeF J^bA 4e HwiWuIiW Tbe (Mgitive q^OBArob b^4 ftlaely 
eaki^aiMi V^ tbe kiynlty lof bi« 94ject9 $9 tbe western perf9 of 
l^a 4ooMiiiopai Th^ cMer Hiigb Spenqrr* ereated EtM^l of 
WiiKJWt^, was jst this time governor qf tbe ofi^tle of Bri^ ; 
but the garriiK>9 lBu|ini(4 ^^aipat bim» tm4 be fell iat« |be 

^ M. Paris, p. 6G9. t Vide snte, p. 50. t Ante, pp. SS, 57. 

I HeniDglbrd^ Cbroaicfe, Vol. I. p. tf. Trivet Coot. p. nS9. Ana, 
nUfcrL p. 938. Chron.T. Wyk«, p. tit. And MattlMW ef 
•tsiy p. 411. M cited by Homey Vot 11. p. t4i. 

I Rgrstei^ FiederS, VsL IL p. ao. 1 Ibid. Volt lU. p. IT* 

kanda «f fala nfiinate cmemiet* It waa ]n»ier Hkfi .^imk of 
fredng th^ king fccan the mfliseiiee .9f tbe 8pea6l9r%iaad<iC 
Piers Govaston, that the ^ueen.irijrrjed .<m her tijlitormit'inir? 
paiesy and obtakied adfaereots to her 'diqae s aAd )lo^ lbift,9iHl 
of the oatensible ofafacu of hair piartuil had ftUea iaiD. har 
power^ the did aot fiuH lo aamifiat the fivjr af her dhaMctac* 
by the wpeeiy aflEacutian of the vaoerable iMbkaalatr SpMraav 
was dwti in his ninetieth year. He ww hukiediatelyt tm th* 
sorrander of die feows» which she had heakged, wttbtfitt loqr 
formal accusation^ and without even the shadow of a trials loaai» 
deaoiiad to he hung iai his armbor, tha pvalenca'of his 
own aon. His body hamg been sn^ieoded on a gihhet during 
fear days» it was takeki dmm, cut in pieoes» and thtowa t4i the 
dogs.* Hb head Was sat on a pole at.Wtediestart land time 
exposed to the indignitiea of a misguided popalaO^ 

Wiliiam de Colfbrd, being reeordar of Bristol, in 1345^ dr^ 
op a code of mnnidpal lawat and the corpoiiBtioa agreed on aa^ 
▼eral useful regulations, which were afterwards Gan6tined in a 
charter granted by Edward the Third. Among tbeite lam 
there were a lew that bore the appearance of cruelty^* or abr 
surdity, particularly those rtflaf ve to ieperoua peAona imd 
loose women; the former were dritcD from the prednotl of 
the town, and the latter were condetamed to perfonA tbaif 
nightly preambulatioBs without the walls; and, further, thU 
should any such woman be founds it waa ordered that the d<MM9 
and windows of the house in which they resided diould bo i» 
hung, and be carried by the mayor's officers to the* house, of 
the conataUe of the ward, and be there kept till the wmom 
were removed. It was also ordained, that no wbare riiouU 
at any time appear in the stre^, or withio the Barsr m St. 
James's^ with uncovered heads. A similar law, with respect 
to the uncovered ladies of London, at this time, would, perfiaps» 
have a.baneScial effiMrt on the morals of many young perAms. 


• LdsiMri Collcctsnes, Vol. I. p. erS. T. dels Morr, 599. Wsbiaa- 
hssi, |>. Its. FroisMrt'i Qir»n, fiv. i. chsp. \0. 

Oneef 'the noil*iixiporuiit events to-thecity of Briatoi loris 
place itf the year 18479 when Edward' the Thfad, bj dibier^ 
cbnsfilftated it d eoanty within itadf. On tfaia occasion, new 
, boondarieKy di8tit^;ttished by stones, were marked out on both 
rides llie Avon* ^ 8bme alterations ako took pfau;e in the poUee 
and nranictpal laws, ehiefiy, that the mayor and citizens were 
enabled to elect ji sheriff and forty common 'COttncil>'inen, who 
had power to make laws and levy taxes* Some reductien ^so 
took 'place in the power and jorisdiction of the constable of the 

> Darings the reign of the weak and extravagant Richard the 
fiecDiid, Henry, Duke of Lancaster, landed in England, having 
aretfaue of sixty persons, mcluding the ArchiNshop of Canter* 
bury, and his nephew, the yomig Earl of Arundd. He was 
immediately joined by two of the roost powerful barons in the 
%ingdom-*the Earls of Westmoreland and Northumberland. 
-The object of this invasion was sworn to be no other than to 
fecoifer the duchy of Lancaster, from which Henry had unjustly 
been detained. Pretensions so reasonable soon procured him 
large reinforcements, and his army, in a very little time, 
amounted to six^ thousand cdmbatants. 

* At this dme King Richard was in Ireland, to which pbee 
be bad gone, as he said, to revenge the death of his consul, 
Roger, Earl of Mlarche, the presumptive heir of the crown, who 
had lately been sUiin in a skirmkh by the natives.* During 
Richard's absence, the Duke of York was left guardian of 
Ae tealm, a circumstance, owing to his weakness or his 
treachery, by no means favourable to the safety of the coun- 
try. An army, however, of forty thousand men, was toon 
assembled at St. Albans; but the greatest part of themsecretlyt 
and at length openly, declared in favour of the rebels ; even the 
guantian himself publicly espoused the cause of Henry, and 
avowed his determination of supporting him in his daims on the 
duchy of Lancaster. The two armies having united, the Duke 

. * Umne, III. p. 38. 

i»f Lancailer became matter of the Ui^onU' HepMoeededtto 
Bristol^ then one of the first towns iff the. natSohS'Sad haviig 
obKged die phu^e to sarrender, he seized^ ib the ciatle, the Bad 
of Wiltshire, Sir John Bosqr* and Sor Henry Green ; and^ at Urn 
histigation of the mob, without trial, had them instantly 
beheaded. The seqiiel is generally known: Richaid wfi 
deposed by the parliament, and was, not long after, murdered^iior 
stanred to denth^ in the caMe of Pomfret, in the thirty-fettrth 
year of his age, and the twenty-third of his reign ; before whicht 
the triumphant Lancaster'had ascended the throne, tmdec the 
title of Henry the Fourth.* 

. This departure from the hereditary succession, to which the 
English people had been so long accustomed, but ill accorded 
with the views, or the prejudices of the aristocraoy ; and in the 
very first parliament which Henry the Fourth- assembled the 
most di^gracefiil animosities broke out ** Forty gpantlets, the 
pledges of furious battle, were thrown on the floor of the houses 
by noblemen, who gave mutual challenges ; and liarj and traUcr^ 
resounded from all quarters." These quarrels terministed in 
ojpen insurrection ; when the city of Bristol tocdk a considerable 
share in the royal cause, and beheaded, without trial, Lordp 
Spencer and Lumley, two principal conspirators against Henry. 
.The head of the first of these confederate lords was carried, ip 
shameful triumph, on the end of a pole, by his brother-in-law* 
the infiunous Earl of Rutland, who presented it to Henry, as ft 
token of loyid^ and attachment. 

Nothing farther, of material historical importance, seems* te 
have occurred, in regard to Bristol, till the year 1490, when the 
fltreets were newly paved, and Henry the Seventh, and the 
Lord Chancellor, kept the royal court at St. AugustineVplape: 
en which occasion, it is said, thet the citizens, .willitig to fehew a|l 
due respect to their king, arrayed themselves in their best 9fff^ 
rel ; but the monarch remarking that some of the ladies we«e 


* Knyghton'i Hi^vtory of the Depotiiion of Richard IT. hk Otfl.of Efi(. 
Hin. p. Sii 57. 

itimidi^ moU. conceived, ntch abof« thtir illitMB, mi§rU 
diat evtiy dtiaciif poiietting: tends to the anouil of tmMtf 
^eiMi, fhoeid fAf twenty duUhgs £»r the tumpCnoul dreil nf 
lA wiA« ThB immnrcki iib tbe yeef 150a, gninted e neir 
iphflpttev to die cirporattois, tm dx aldermesi a irecovder^ tir4 
Aerifiii fcrtjr comnum coiiDcil<nien, a ohamberkibi, e dean, e 
wateNbailiffV a^A gKlMixery^ He also presented hbenn 
«#srd ^ the M^er, to be borae bebce fahn. XNe ^mri h still 
in the possession of the corporalkm, 

Hedtythe Eighth, by iMers petebt, Bude this place a city» 
and a bishop's see, at the same time that be oonferred a ainilar 
ketiouv on the tofwns of Westminster, Oxford, Pelerbof ouj^hy 
Chester, afeid Glbucester. Fhre ef theae bJahopries attU subsist. 
Aad Bush was the first Biiiiop of BristoL 

The tmreaty-fdorth of Qnecn Eh'ssbeth, a new diarter was 
gMnied for twelve aldermen, and also fordiTidlng the city into 
as maby ^m^m. It is also said, that the qaeen paid a viut to 
Bi^tols a room belonging to a house in Smidl«eti»et, is still 
deaoitiaaated Queen Elizidieth's romn. 

Anothcv charter was granted by Charles the First, in which 
49t the sum 4£ nine hundred and fifty-nine pounds, the castle and 
Hm precbicts irere finally separated from the coanty of Okm- 
ceeler^ iind made part of tlie city and independent junsdictiioQ 
4lf fivistol. 

During the disgtaoefiil disturbances which distracted these 
realms, in the unfortunate reign of Charles die First, the city of 
Bristol took in active part In 164a, Densil HoUis was 
apjppohMed to the command of the Bristol ndlitia. This penon 
was one ef the most actit^e men in the presbyterlan party, in 
Oi^poeition to Cromwell and the independents ; yet he subscribed 
one thousand pounds against the king. He was one of the five 
meibbert of the long parliament, who were demanded by Charles 
when he went to the House of Commons; and in 1640, was sent 
up to the lords, with an impeachment against tlie haughty and 
bigh-spiiiced churchman. Laud. In 1642 the parliament, in 


60MKR8BT8HIRt« 653 

whoie hands diii city then was, strengthened and repaired the 
walls and castle, and forts w^re erected at Brahddn and St. 
Michael's Hill, now the Royal Fort. The year followmg, 
Colonel Fibnes, son fyf Lord Say, at that time governor of 
Bristol, discovered a design of Robert Yeomans and George 
BoudUer, to deliver up the city to the royal fbrces* A council 
of war was accordingly held, and* the loyal traitors were 
oondenmed Imd hung, on the thirtieth of May, in the same year, 
notwithstanding the king himself had addressed a letter to the 
mayor and citizens on their behalf. About two months after 
this event, Prince Rupert resolved to by siege to the city. The 
garrison, under Finhes, consisted of 2500 foot, and two regi- 
ments, one of light^horse, and the other of dragoons. The fortifi- 
cations, which had been begun the year before, not being 
finished, die prince resolved, at once, to storm the city ; and the 
next morning, with little other provisions for such an enterprise, 
than the great courage of his troops, began the assault. The 
Cornish raiments attacked the city on the west side, with 
inconceivable impetuosity. The middle division soon succeeded 
in gaining the waU; yet by means of the bravery of the garrison, 
added to the vantage ground which they occupied, the assailants 
were, in the end, repulsed with considerable loss, both of officers 
and privates. The prince conducted his side of die assault with 
similar courage, and almost equal loss, but with better success. 
<* One party," says Hume, ** led on by Lord Orandison, was, 
indeed, beaten o^ and the commander himself mortally 
wounded ; anosher, conducted by Colonel Bellasis, met with a 
sfattOar ftte; but Washington, with a less party, finding a place 
in the curtain weaker than the rest, broke in, and quickly made 
room for the horse to follow. By this irruption, however, 
nothing but the suburbs was gained 9 the entrance into the town 
was still more difficult ; and by the loss already sustained, as well 
as by the prospect of further danger, every one was extremely 
discouraged; when, to the great joy of the army, the city beat 
VoL.XIir. Tl parley." 


a parifly.^*' Thf aiegp laatcd three dajs, and the ganrhoft wu 
to. laaisch. ont witfi theif warn and baggage, kayiog their, cajuumg 
ammmitioii» and colouia* Ftiu&estthegoTecDor^ivaaaociiaBdof 
oiwaitliGe, broogbt to a oonrt-ndartialy and coDdeauaad to 
lo9a hit head; but the general, iiMt the inataiiGeirf his &tber»the 
first VUoDuni Saj and Sele, remitted hisaentence^f CraonreD 
afterwards made him oae of his loidfl,^ speaker ia the upper 
house, oommjssioner of the greafc seaU end privy counaeBor^H 
Hf was the author of some speeches and paaqphlets, and died ia 
December, 1669^ j The baroay of Say and Sele passed, bj 
tvysl patent, in 1761, to Cdond' Thomas TwisletDijs end the 
heirs of his body, in. consequeooe oi petitions to the king and 
the lords to that eCfect, in the committee upon which, it haiing 
appeared that the petitioner had made out his claims*to that 
barony, and to the dignity mid. honour attached to the saHse» 
The grounds of this daim were, briefly, that he was greats 
grandson and heir of the body of Elisabeth Twisleton, daaghter»heir of James, second Viscount Say and Sele* 

Probably the pardon of Finnes might be facilitated, by the 
complaints that wtns made of the Tioleoce that ^a$ exercised 
towards the garrison, contrary to the terms of the capitulation.f 
' In this assault of Bristol, the royalists suflfered very se7^ely« 
Five hundred of the best soldiers perished, besides Grandisoa, 
Hanningy Trevannioa, and JVfoyle, all persons of condition* 
Colonel BeUasiBt Ashley, and Sir John Owen, were wpuiided« 
Still, howerer, the success was considerable, and raised the 
courage of the royal party not a little* The king, howerar^ 
affected not to ^ire to entire victory over the pailiament, and 


• Hist Eng. VII. SVt, 5^ 
f l|i»liw«rth'<( Huitprii^l CoMcctianP, Vol. VI. p* 2S4k Oarciidoo'tf His* 
tory of the Ri^beUion, Vol. III. pp. S93, 294» et Beg. -, md Ksbk's Mtmoiis 
of the Cromwell family. 

J Lives of the ClianccIlor«. J Col lins's Peerage, VoL VI. p. 3t. 
§ WootVi Athena OxonifDsit, Vol. II. p. 454. 
f Clarendon, Vol. III. p. 297. 

u^on th^ fd^ablirfiteetife e^ tlie dAcient (*on^tuti(m. On M 
«Mnid of AttpMi^be joltoed the<dfhiipofBlritftbl$ aAif^athe^Siin- 
4iy IMb^ilijf attended divine servide at the cath6d^ <;hurc&'. 
The royiil OLum^ however^'idid not fen^ obntiiiti^ ih 8b prds^ool 
m «t8te« I» t^o yed¥8 dief the idege of )3iKsto), just' related^ 
fkfe cfty oaee mtte Ml into the tlandtf of the pal4iaiil^iftarlltn<l 
th6 wenidntble battle 6f Nltt^y;«^ by which . the foyal amiy, 
Ikougb itg Ibdi iiv slam was' ri6t et^utlT td CAat df Ctoviwt\i% wan 
tlinoilt exhsostedl^y the niihib^ ikken pnsonen, and the total 
€a|^tqre of the'kitig's aftiHery attd atfinhknividn^ ^e sifMLtflm 
to the afiairs of the royalists. General Fairfax, having succeeded 
h reAadng teveral places itf tltifef c#iii^, on tt:€ f^enty-third of 
My, 1645, reiolved to biy siege to Bristol. The great strtegtU 
of tlie garrmon, and t|ie repUted courage of Prince Rupeift, Hii 
governed, it was thought, wocdd require no ofdinary exeiv 
tions in the atlatk; Accordingly Fairfax did i^ot fail to makc^ 
iMTge and miltable preparations ; but, to the astonishal^t of 
<¥ery one, and the extreme mortification of the royalists^ tf 
wedcer defence was not made of aiiy place, during th^ war; 
'fhe paHiainentary forces were^no sooner entered the lines, thiAif 
Rupert capilulAted, and the city surrendered to'FaSrilut.f Thii 
eonquesi might more easily be obtained, in conseqiiience of the 
{Aligue, which raged the same 3feat' m the city, and carried off 
no less than 3000 ^wAs. The disaster, howdVer, exl^emely 
mortified ^'ubhappy monarch, -^o had but justbefbr^r^behred 
aKsurances 'Mm the prince, that he coilld defend the place for 
fiHUf ni<Mbs, unless a mutiny should obNge hhn' to surrender. 
This delushre boast setChlirleson making large* preparations,' or 
Mlher, of derbing schemes, for the relief of the dity, when the^ 
news of its surrendei' threW him into the most violent patoxisms^ 
#f indignation and anger, insomuch that " he instantly recalled 
«D the prince's commifibions, and sent him a pasfi'to go'beyond 

Tt2 t!ia 

» Vide BcnUcs, &c. Vol. IX. f32, tt seg. and Vol. XI. I6i. 
hu Col. VU. p: 89: 

659 80MBR8ET8HIRE. 

the seas.'** In the city, were found 140 pieces of cannoft, 100 
berrds of pdwder; in the royal fbrt, victuals for 150 men for 
990 days ; and in the castle, not less than half the same quantity. 
The prince's garrison consisted of 2500 foot, 1000 hoxve, and 
as many trained bands and ausuliaries* This loss, following so 
close to that of Naseby, almost decided the fote of the kingdom. 
The Ling never recovejed his afimrs afterwards; and when 
Cromwell was made lord protector, he ordered the castle to be 
demolished, and streets ha^e since been built on its site, b 
1650, the parliameiit gave orders to build the walls about the 
royal fort, and gave lOOOL towards defraying the expence 

We have now to relate a fact or two, connected with the 
history of this city, arising out of that rage for religious innova- 
tion or reform, that burst forth about the period of which we are 
now treating. The Society of Friends, or as they were in 
derision called Quakers, began, about this time, to attrai5l 
popular observation. In 1658-4 John Canun and John AudUand 
went to Bristol, where their public ministrations excited great 
notice. For want of room in their meeting-houses, their assem* 
Uies were held in the open fields; and it is 8aid,f that multi- 
tudes, to die amount of 4000, sometimes attended. The 
increasing numbers of the Friends in this city, at length excited 
the notice of the magistrates, and they were expelled, with every 
brand of infamy and persecution that the fury of their puri- 
tanical christian brethren could desire, or durst exercise. 

A year or two after this, one James Nailer, a mistaken 
Friendf departing from that primitive modesty and simplieity 
that so eminently characterize the mild genius of quakerism, 
took it into his head to make a public entrance, on horseback, 
into the city of Bristol, attended by several men and women, 


* aarendon, Vol.IV. p. 690, 695. ITalker $ Historical Discoorsei, p. 137, 

t In a reccat History of Dissenten, by two Calviniati preachers ; bat on 

what authority we know not, as those writers have not often judged it 

expedient to nforra their readers from whence they have collected the 

materials fort heir very siognlar, illiberal, and sniatiifactory compilatioo. 


who are veperted to have addreesed him in a nanner highly 
unbecoming a mortal beitigy and biaBphemous to the religion 
and spirit of the Son of God* Nailor^a extravagancies could not 
Ail to call forth Ihe notioe of the magistrates. They made this 
man's Mty a pretence to punish his unoffending brethren; and 
several of them were closely imprisoned, on a charge of bias* 
phemy. They were all sent for by the saintly protector, and 
Nailor was arraigned at the bar of the hoDoura}>le and hypo* 
aitical hoasci who '* resolved"* ]na\ a grand impostor, and 
guilty of horrid blasphemy. He was sentenced to stand two 
hours in the pillory, at Westminster, to be whipped from thence 
to the Old Exchange by the common executioner, then to 
hatve his punishment in the pillory repeated ; his tongue bored 
through with a hot iron, and his forehead bnqided with the 
letter B,t and then to be sent back to Bristol, to be again 
whipped and imprisoned. Such were the tender mercies of 
those who had themselves but just escaped the &ngs of popish 
persecutors, and whose spiritual vagaries were infinitely more 
injurions to sound religion and real morality, though, per- 
h^w less obvious, than any of which this poor misgu^ed 
enthusiast had been guilty. Nailor was not released from his 
imprisomnent till the year after the death of the usurping and 
cantoig protector, in 1658. He afterwards repented of his 
oonduct, and was restored to reason and the fellowship of his 

On the eighth of December, 1657, tlie corporation received 
the following letter from Cromwell :-rp: 

•* Olivek, P. 
** Trustie and weIl-beloved» ^e greete you well : remembering 
wen the late expressions of love that I have had from you, I 

T t 3 cannoi 

' Tbnrloe's State Ptpers, Vol. V. p. 708. « 
f History of ReKgioo, by m Inparlisl Hsad, Vol IU.p. 455. 

t The H«rieian Miscellaoy, Vol. VI. eontaina s circiinstsatial scc^imt of 
Nailor's extraordinary Jovmey to Bristol. 

cannot mai% «iy-opponiiiu|ie Uy i^xprease >n^ oure o( ji^of. I At^ 
heare on ^ hiwdBy that liie M^ataUer^ .party ari« 4e9igiiiAg to nm-. 
OS intoUood* We are, I b^pe, t^k^ .th« l^t (^^re we qajo, by 
the blesaiDg of God, toobvifit^ thif danger. But pur intelligence 
en all liandabfeing, that they htaye a.d^aign upon your ci^ie, w^ 
could net but warne you thereof^ and give authoritie, qfi Wie dp^ 
hereby, to put yourselves into the best posture you cap foe your 
0wn de&nce, by raising your militia by virtue of the commisfioii 
fimnerly sent you, and putting them in a readinefae f^r Xh% 
purpose aforesaide ; letting you also knowe, that for your bett^ 
encouragement herein, you shall have a trpop of horse' sent. yoiia[ 
to quarter, to or near y6ur towne. We desire you to let us he^rp^ 
from time to time, what occucs touching the malignant pnrtie|[ 
and so we bid you farewell. Given at Whitehall, this second of 
December, 1657. 

** To our trustie and well beloved the mayor, alderment And 
common council of the cittie of Bristowe.'' . ^ 

Thi^ command called for a regiment of militia, aiid the cit|| 
prepared for defence^ 

In the third year after the restoration, on the fifth of Septepi-^ 
ber, the king and queen, James, Duke of York, and his duchess^ 
and others of the nobility, were magnificently eateFtainpd a( 
Bxistol, by the mayor; 150 pieces of ordnance were disehaiiged 
3n the place- now occupied by Queen's-square ; and the year 
following, the king confirmed the different charters of hift late 
unfortunate father. 

In 1683 was exhibited one of the sham plots and fancie4 
secret rebellions, which are ever brooding in th^ minda of a 
corrupt or a tyrannical ministry. The Rye-House Plot, as it is 
^Ued, it k said, had involved the city in its vortes^, and a party 
was formed, or feigned, for seizing the town and the ships in the 

. haven 

* Hie niok-iiaire by which the royalUits were at that tine dHioiiiinated. 
The psrUam^DtariaiM were caU«Hl Roimdhpads, rn acrmut of the cU>se 
inaoner ia whidi it wu naual for them to crop their hair. 


fmr ifaft Qduffaraton; but that design, Uk^ the pqp-gim 
plot ^ later tiiDet»* bavuig ansirered tbe purpose af Us lo]^ 
jnpeiiton^ was soan foi^otteoy and Bristol, liice the rest of tha 
\ kx the kiagdoin, remained faithful to the iov?erei|soi» aad 
to the oomtitutioD. In the folIo#int year Charlea 
gnntcd a mew eharter, m which he oonfinned the Inters patent^ 
tf whidi Hm city wa« made a city and coanty of itKlf. Bjf 
this diarter, it was gianted to the mayor and two sheriffii ta 
haft a-tommon seal ; and to them and the common cooncilmeni 
not exeeeding ibrty^three, power to aiake laws for the gorernp 
meat tif the city. The mayor and therifi to he chosen on the 
fifteenth of September, and be sworn on tbextwenty-ninth ; the 
leoorder ta be a barrister of five years standing, and to have 
the royal approbation. The aldermen to be twdye, and ^ 
lecortler the senior. A fine of 5001. to be imposed on those who 
shall refoae to be chosen, unless not worth 20001. The aldermen 
to be justieea of the peace, and to hold quarterly sessions fet 
ti;ying ofences. A* town clerk to be chosen, a barrister of three 
years* standing; a steward of the sheriib* court, and two 
ooiooen. Hie mayor • and other magistrates to have tha 
regulation of the markets and fiurs, and to hold a pie-poudra 
court, &0. 

During Manmouth^s rebcllioti, in 1685,t this town, though it 
did not experieope any attack from the rebels, was, at ane time^ 
thfawn ante great alarm. On the twenty-fifth of June, it 
was reported that the duke was approaching It from Taunton and. 
Wdls : the Duke of Beaufort, then lord-lieutenaat of the ci^^ 
drew ujp twenty-one companies of foot on Redcliff-Mead, and 
dechared, that if the citiaens shewed any disposition towards 
inaorrection, he would immediately set fire to the town. On 
this determination, Monmouth is reported to have said, ^* Qod 
Mad that Iskould bring the two calamities of fire and sword on 
so noble a city ^' and then marched towards Bath4 

Tt4 In 

^ Bcisliam'f Hbtory of Great Britaio, Vol. IX. pp. Sf8, 397. 
t Viile antt, p. 845, €t sef . t Barrett's Bristol, p. 694. 


Ill the year 1702 Queen Aon visited Brbeol, ia eonqMmy 
with the Pirioce of Denmark, and was entertained in a splendid 
manner; and b 1710| her majesty paid another Tisit, and 
renewed all former diarters;* at the time granting a pardon 
to the mayor and other officers, for having executed their offiees 
without r5»yal authority* The charter, by which their ooipora* 
tton liberties were confirmedand enlarged, ordains, ** that Bristol 
rtmainsfor ever- a city corporate, and county of itself ; mi that 
its magistrates hold government over all its boundaries, by land 
and water; that the body corporate be known anddistinguishod 
as the mayor, buigesses, and commonalty of the city of Bristol ; 
that Uie recorder shall be the first alderman, with the others, 
n^dung twelve, according to the number of wards; that two 
aherifi be chosen anuuaUy out of the common council, which 
are to consist of forty-two persons, besides the mayor:" in short, 
this charter fully confirms every useful regulation, and every 
in^ortant branch of municipal right conferred on the city and 
corporation by former monarchs. On the accession of Geoige 
die First Bristol was atnong those places which manifested their 
mad attachment to the Men, and almost persecuted tor^ and 
their disloyalty to the new monarch and his whig government. 
The public rejoicings were interrupted by a high church rabble ; 
the houses of those who illuminated were furiously assaulted, and 
their windows broken ; with such other demonstiations of zeal as 
the Sacheverelites of that time, and their successors of later 
periods, thought requisite for the welfiire of Che church, and 
the maintenance of good order. 

Having now glanced at most of the important historical events 
immediately connected with the city of Bristol, we proceed to a 
detailed account of the several objects of importance, or 
curiosity with which it abounds. 

. Bristol, as we have akeady intimated, itands on the baxdu of 
the Avon and Frome, the former being its principal river. The 
city is about eight miles from the mouth of that river, where it 

• See Bristol Ciiarien. 

iionm8BTSHriiiB« 561 

ilielf IbIo die Biialol CSiamiel, or,as it is sometimes, 

QtUedy the Severn Sea. Till Bristel wts made an ijidq>^dent 

eouiity, it wee Qsmdly reckoned to befeng lo Somersetshire, 

occupying the southern extremity of Gloncestershhre, and the . 

noftheni of Somersetshire. It is now usoidljr mentioned m 

eonoectioo with the latter of these counties. The old town, 

which is now in the heart of the city, stands upon a nairow hiB, 

in a valley, and is bounded hy the Avon on the soudi, and the 

Rome on the north and west, and by a deep diidi, or moat of 

the casde, on the east. The whole city stands on sevend rising 

grounds: St. Michael's Hill and Kingsdown are the highest; 

dMir summits ben^ at least 200 feet higher than any other 

part. These elevations, though thems el ve s aeated in low 

gtound, and the wmdmgs of the two rivers through the dtjr, 

fender Bristol altogether one of the mostheahby and pleasmg 

ckieB in England. 

Hie dly boundaries, by land, on the southern, or Okuoes* 

eetshire, side of the Avon, include nearly five miles; and die 

iiorthem, almost three miles: the liberties occupying a drcmn- 

Imnee of upwards of seven miles,^ though the boundaries of 

die whole town include many streets and houses widim the 

jurisdiction and government of the county of Gloucester. It is, 

however, diiicult to convey a distinct idea of the full extent of 

duB large and populous city, as it is condmialfy increasing in 

siae and importance, and is supposed to have itcquired u pw ar ds 

of 8000 houses since the commencement of the eighteendi 

century. In 1777, an act passedi by whidi the boundaries 

south of the Avon, are much extended, its jurisdiction by water 

teaching from Tower Harrats to Kngsroad, and from thence 

down the south side of the Bristol Channel, as low as the two 

islands called the Flat-Holmes and the Steep*Holmes, and from 

diC9fee eastward to the Deuny Island, and so on ^ain to 



^ To ptcterte tlietniehoviMlsris, «s saond pwamholstioQis anie hy 
tbe dty flAeen, so elMMMiog tbfi OMjmv 

Aceo«diiigtotkeYO^ifi»ATioiCf<lisrDsi]il;d013>ittol ( 
1€»40S houses* and 6S,645 iahabitaiati, of nAiom, if these retuiui 
ere coneet, d6,9*S ure maks, aad S6,70e aae feoiafea* Of tUs 
pnmber, 10^190 were returned as being easpleyed in trade ami 
manufaotufes. Tins popblstien includes the puashes of Clifton, 
Mangotsiield, and fitapietony in the hmidred of Biiton BmgOfmt 
out parishes ; bat in this addittoa is netrebkonad th& pinsh' of 
BedniinBtsr, oentaiaHig 3S78 persons. /The^iretomByhOweirery 
ooirfey a very imperfiscridea of the popttlaripn of Bnatol mill 
its sid>urbS) and "environs^ By a survey, taken^ in * 1 736^* tit» was 
found tftae the ioty contained !1S,000 houses,. aM db6ut 'mfiOSf 
iidii^itants. In 17ST» is is said to have contained l^tOOahoossfei 
and 90,000 iiriiatHtattt8.f . In the year foUowing, Me. Antef 
soot perionbutatied the city fcr two successive days ; apd'fromn 
near examination of 'the number of houses on' new founds 
tions, and streets erected since 1751, he concluded that it coidd 
not contain less than 10D,000 souls, .tod b «s big an London 
wiAib' the walls. ** Dublin," says he, V appears more pbpo^ 
lens in thestreets ; but it is the residence of the chief govemons^ 
of all' pidblic officers, guards, nobility^ and gentry, with nuaae'^ 
reus rei3nues of people in the streets, without being larger than 
Bristol, where the inhabitants are private families and manufiu> 
turem'in employ within doors." Mr. Barrett thinks this too 
U^ge a caitolalion; but in a niore recent publication, || we arO 
told that, in 1797, there were many hundreds of handsome houses 
bOSdingon new foundations, in and about Bristol, Clifton, and the 
Hotwells; and this account concludes by adding, that "if inoitf 
computation of people at Brtstol, we inchidB its environs, via. tiM 
out-parish of St. Philip and Jacob, Barton^hill, Upper and Lowet 
Saston, Baptist Mills, St. George's parish, the out-f>arish of St^ 
James, and the new buildings in the parish of Westbury ; the 


. * EogUnd's Gaietteer, aj^ Bristol. t Barrett's History, 99. 
t Historical and C'brooological Dednction of Trade and Commerce. 
I Hiilsry,Antiii«ities,Sianr«3r,and DstSriptionoftlieGityaBdSiibiifbs 
of Bristol, &c. ; by the Rev. Qeoiis« Usalbt 

IMffUies «f fit* Jite ttid BadniMtor. md CI^ 
of Hotwidh* all of vUueb peiiain to the <%, or «f^ m tlM^ 
vjcinit^y .of .th^ MiburlM« we »Ay find the wtiok td contain, 
upwards of 1XX)»000 toub/' And, certainly, if we take into the 
a0O0u«t tl^rreceBtiflV^i^imeAtSk particularly at Clifton, this cal-- 
cabtion, we are (nerMiaded, doe/^ not exceed the truth. In 1801« 
however, it appeared, that the number of inhabitants in the 
interior pait «f the city, had decr otic d ; which the Rev. J. New, 
hi a letter to- the. editor of Mr. Fturley's Bristol Joumalf 
attempla ito: aoooifnt for, by repreamtiag, that within the last 
s e ven t y yeaia many houses haive been destroyed, either for 
erecting new streets, or large buildings ; amounting altoge* 
ther, to seveiml hundreds. Mr. New is, nevertheless, persuaded 
that the parishes in the suburbs will more than make op the 
deficiency, and prove that the popuhition will not fall ehort of 
lOO^OOa* The County Annual Register 8tates,f that according 
te the whole amount of the population returns already referred 
to, including both the Gloucestershire and Somersetshire sides oC 
the Avon, Bristol in 1809 cdntaiaed about 67,000 souls ; and the 
same work adds, that with respect to improvements in publio 
boiidiagt, few places can vie with the recent oaes« both for 
pleasure and business, exclusive of 1500 houses, erected within 
these five years. 

As aplaceof Thadb and CoMMBnca, Bristol is,* perhaps^ 
second only to London 4 but the increaaii^ pressure of* 
the times, and the present wild and injurious poiiey respect^ 
iqg our commercial and oontinental relations; every yea^ 
retard the extension of its commerce, and the iflkportanoe of 
its situationt The Avon is now navigable for vessels of 4Jia 


♦ Vide'Monlhly Wai^wine, Vol. XIT. pp. 273, 274, where there is t 
etrrnmManrial, bimI apparently correct, statement of the causes of decrease 
in tht city, and of iocreaae in the subarbs. 

t Vol. I. Part IV. pp. 60, 61. 

t liverpooli it b said, has at lengtli surpassed this port, in the extant of 
Its conmetce. See Beauties, VoL IX. p. 19ib 

664 80MttSSt(MifR>. 

largest borlhen, which ride In p^rAKstaaffal^ The 

iMtKsy «Mns^flMWit$trtid anp t en tr kaJ sHuation of the tawo, 
give it a &diity of communicatidti of ^hicb B&w other cities «ia 
boast. But « more particular view of the commerce of Bristol 
nay be taken from a description of its hartiouirf and those public 
bnildiDgs and institutions immediately conne6t6d therewith^ 
which shall be noticed in dieir prosier plaoes. 

This city has several Public £DiriCE$of great beauty and 
importance^ Here are nineteen churches, belonging |o the 
establishment, besides placesofiforslup appropriate to'alnlpst all 
the various denqminations of dissenters, and ^ syna^o^ for th^ 
service of Uie Jews« 

The Cathedral^ situate at Cotlege-green, was eriginaHy the* 
collegiate church of the monastery of St.- Augustine, and was 
founded by Robert Fitz-llarding, before-mentioned. At the 
time of the dissolution, by Henry the Eighth, some have erro* 
neousty suf^osed, the whole of this building was destroyed, 
except the arched gateway leading from the upper to the lower 
green, at the west end of the cathedral, which was the chief 
entrance to the monastery. This gate has been reckoned one of 
the iinest remains of architectural antiquity in tlie kingdom. It 
is certain, however, that it was not finished, or at least the ' 
inscription not phiced there, till after Henry the Second, who 
confirmed the foondation of the monastery, and contributed 
to its expence, came to the throne. The inscription on the 
north front, which is in Latin, is to the following effect :—» 
'^ King Henry the Second, and Lord Robert, son of Har» 
ding, son of the King of Denmark^ were the first fbundevs 
of this monastery." It was erected about 1460, as a priory 
of Slack Canons. The east part was added the twcnty-fiflh of 
Bdward the First,* by Edmund Knowles^ the abbot, who died 
in 1332. The abbQt,, William Huut, added or repaired the 
choir in 1463. In 1481 and 1500, the upper part was repaired 
by Uie abbot, John Newland, or Nailheart ; who was assisted in 

• Rf g. Wigom, in Batrett, p. «e9. 

SOHIBlSSTftRIlS. '665 

ti» Uhwr b3r tte abbot, Eliot.* The respective dimensioiiB of 
dik c t hg dr al ere as foUowc Length, from east to west, 175 
feet, w fa eff Bo f the chdr includes 100; the body and side aisles 
ore 73 feet in breadth ; the chapter-house, 46 in length, and 
196 in breadth; and the tower 127 feet high. The cloisters 
were originally 103 feet square ; but they ^e partly destroyed. 
The total dimensions are 175—128. This church displays two 
distinct species of architecture, both beautiful ; and ftunishea 
altogether a irery &vourable spedmen of that species of archi* 
tecture which distinguishes the early part of the fourteenth ' 
century, both as ^yplied to roofi and arcades, f The Elder 
Lady*8 Chapel and Chapter House are semi, or mixed Nmmani 
while the nave and choir are pure Gothic 

The general appearance of this cathedral is somewhat heavy; 
the tower low, resembling that of Winchester ; the windows 
are of paioted ^ass ; and the inside adorned with a few monu- 
menta. On the north side of the gateway, already mentioned, are 
Soar statues : a king, a knight, and two religious ; there are also 
stctueai^Heniy the Second, and the two abbots, Newland and 
Eliot : underneath is the inscription, with their arms. On the 
south aide are two other statues of ecclesiastics, but of whoni 
nothing is known with certainty. Above are the Virgin and Child, 
and a statue, probably of St. Augustine. The inside is richly 
ornamented with Saxon interlaced arches, though the omsiments 
are now so confbaed that it is difficult to distinguish them.;!: 

The cathedra], as it now stands, consists of the cross of 
the old duirdi, the tower, crowned with battlements and 
bar pinnacles, and all the rest of the old church east- 
ward. The abutments are of amassing strength, and project 


* Willises Survey of Cathedrals, Vol. 11. p. 761. 

t DalUway'f Obtervations oo EngUsh Architecture, p. 94. 

t Biihiip Lyttletao, in a MS. in the library of the Society of Ami- 

ipiaiki, as cited by Baifett, p. S9S, gives it as his ophiion, that the abbey 

galcmy, with thr Chapter House walls, aud its door«way, were of true 

9axoB architectafff. GonghAddtCam. I. p,l«6. 

686 saMiiudiTniiis. 

many fieet firom die waHt. Frdtaa: the door «o tie ditndb'^flM* 
meot is a deeeent bj eight stepl, whkh have baen placed there 
in consequeaee of the ground outside hamg' b'eea: ae nmek 
faifled. The beautifully arched voof of the church is rtMbavli^ 
able for having the two side aisles of equal Leight with- the nai»6 
and dioir* The roof of these two aides is uncanunonly curioiia^ 
having arcbea supporting ardies. In the body of the diozcik 
ilasdt a stone pulpit, decorated with die aaons of faia laajcat^ ' 
the Prince of Wales, the anns of the bishaprkv those of the 
* ci^, also those of the Berkeley family, and Bishoft Weight's, bf' 
id^om it was given to the church. In panaeBed. niches of 
the scn^n, before the choir, are paintings of the Cwiehre 
minor prophets. This^ screen has, also, a fiae Oothib gait* 
way, with the royal arms of Henry the Eigfafii and PtitiCe 
Edward over it. 

.The altar has an emblematic painting of the tkiune Deity ;^ 
hems a triangle in a circle, surrounded by eheniba, done by 
Tansomeren, The windows at each end of- the side aides am 
said to have been presented to'lhat. church by the .celebrated 
courtesan^ Eleanor, or, as she is vulgarly called, Nell, Gwynn. 
The great east window is of ancient stained glass, and the dde^ 
aide windows of enamelled glass, representing various subjects 
in scripture history. 

On the western side is an- elegant mohument,ia the farm of » 
Gothic archy of Sienna marble, to Mrs. Draper, Steioe'a fidr 
correspondent, Elixa. On the arched back*gnMmd are two 
ftmale figures of white marble, in ako-relievo, stimding on eadi 


* <* I WM very nrnch seandslaed at a lor^ silver Image of the Trinity, 
where tbe Father b represented under the figure of a decrepid old man, 
with a besrd down to his knees, and « triple crown on his head, boldmg in 
his arms the Sen, fixed on the cross, and the Hol^ Ghost ^ in the shape of a 
dove, hovering over him.* Woiis of Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, 
Vol. I. p. 219. 12mo. Edit. ia05. Perhaps a triangle ia a ciiele, s&r- 
mmded with chvbby-laced boys, is not less nowortiiy of the character of 
llie invisible and moomprehensible Jehovah, than tha ahSnrd figares by 
vriUch Ha is proftnely desigaated in the chnreh of Ratishsn. 



lidtt «f a aevUiilMed pedestal, sttpportuig adura, with flowers, 
int ibto fono of a wreath, hanging Sown the side. Cki the right, 
k m figure, repreaentbg GaiiuB, with her left band on her breaat; 
fter right, holding a tnimpof Fom^ leaning againit her shoulder* 
and having a flai;iie iieuing Ivom it. On the left is another 
figure, representing £€n«oo&iu;^, looking at at nest in hw left 
hand, in which is a pelican, feeding her young with her blood, ' 
which &ll8 in large drops : her right hand points to the following 
inscription ^— 

** Sacred to tbe memoiy of Mrs. Eliyabeth Draper, in whom Gmms and 
BemntUmee were onited. She died August third, 1778, aged thirty-five." > 

In the north aisle is a monument to Mrs. Mason, wift of the 
late Rev. William Mason, long celebrated as a poet and suflbr- 
ing patriot; but whose memory, in the judgment of many, »^ 
leodTes some taint from that political apostacy which the 
nad rerolntlonists of fVance tempted him to fall into to* 
wards the dose of his life. This monument is no way remarks 
able except for the inscription, which was composed by, Mr 
Kaaon himself >— 

** Take^ holy earth, all that my soul holds dear: 
Take that best giA which Heaven so lately gave : 
To Bristol's fount I bore with trembling care 
Herfftded form ; she bow*d to taste the wave, 
And died. -Decs youtb^ does beantyi read the Mtmi 
Docs sympathetic fear their breasts alann t . 
Speak, dear Haria : breathe a stram.divioe ; 
£v*n from tbe grave thou shalt havo power to charm. 
Bid dicm be chaste, be innocent, like thee ; 
' Bid them in duty's sphere as meekly move ; 

And, if so fair, from vanity so five ; 
Aa firm in IHsaddiip aad as fond in lore^ 
Tell them, tkoagh His aa awfiil thing to dp^' 
(Twas ev^ to thee I) yet, the dread path once trod. 
Heaven lifts its everlasting portals high, 
And Udi the pure in heart behold their Ood." 



. No apology is requisite for the insertion of any thmg which maf 
have come from the pen of the author of Elfrida, Caractacua^ 
and the English Garden. At no great distance from this is the 
tomb of Mr. William Powell, the comedian. On a pyramidal 
table is a basso-relievo figure of the deceased, with the follow* 
ing epitaph) written by Mr. G. Colman:^. 

^Bmtoll to worth and genhis ever jtisty 
To thee our Powell's dear remains we tnist ; 
Soft aa the stream tiiy sacred springs impart, 
The milk of human kindness warm*d his heart. 
That heart wliich every tender feeling knew. 
The soil wfaete pity, love, and friendship grew. 
Ob ! let a faiihfnl friend, with grief sincere. 
Inscribe his tomb, and drop the heartfelt tear. 
Here rest his praise, here soand his noblest fame ! 
\fi ^ All else a -bubble, or an empty name." 

Mr. Powell was an actor of considerable merit, and died al 
Bristol, after severe sufierings, in July, 1769,* aged thirty* 
three years. 

In the chancel is a monument to the memory of Dr. Natba* 
niel Forster, tf divine of great and profound learning, and 
author of many works of merit ; particularly Biblia Hebraica, 
sine Punctis, in quarto. 

In the chapel, to the west end of the southern aisle, are 
several monuments belonging to the Newton family; and on 
one of the pillars in the Elder Lady's Chapel is a device of a 
a ram, playing on a violin with a very long bow, and a shep* 
herd sleeping while a wolf is devouring tlie sheep. As this 
device is supposed to have been executed as early as the middle 
of the twelfth century, it may throw some light on the contro- 
versy respecting the use of that instrument, which some have 
asserted was not Invented till some time in the fourteenth 

In the north aisle wall is a knight under a singular arch, of 

* Ihmpian Dictionaiy, apud Powell, 


which there are some others ahout the church, called Monks' 
Cowls. When this arch was opened, some years ago, on lift- 
ing the lid of the coffin, the body of the knight was found 
wrapped in a bag of horse-hair, inclosed in leather ; the inter- 
stices in the coffin being filled up with earth,* 

The present bishop's palace was the abbot's lodgings, re- 
paired by Bishop Smallridge, and almost rebuilt by Bishop 
Butler, in the year 1744, at which time the following singular 
discovery was made;^ — A parcel of plate, supposed to havie 
been hidden in the time of the civil wars, fell through the floor 
in the comer of one of the rooms. This accident occasioned 
the floor to be taken up, when a dungeon was discovered, in 
which were found many human bones, and iron instruments of 
torture. At the same time was laid open a private passage to 
this dungeon, which was part of the original edifice : it was a 
narrow arched way, sufficient only to admit a single person at a 
time, and was made within the wall. One end opened to the 
dungeooi and the other to the house ; which it may be sup- 
posed had formerly been used as a court of judgment. Both 
the entrances to this passage were walled up, and so concealed 
as to give the whole the appearance of solid masonry. The 
deanry was nearly wholly rebuilt by Dr. Warburton, the pos- 
tern being the dean's coach-house. This ancient monastery 
was changed into a cathedral, and dedicated to the *' holy and 
undivided trinity." The foundation consisted of a bishop, 
dean, six prebendaries, one archdeacon, six minor canons, a 
deacon and sub-deacon, six lay clerks, six choristers, two 
grammar schoolmasters, and four alms-men, who were endowed 
with the site, church, and most of tlie lands of the monastery.f 
The diocese was taken out of Salisbury, part of Gloucester- 
shire, from that of Worcester, and three churches from that 
of Wells. It extends over 221 churches and chapels in the 
county of Dorset^ two parishes in the archdeaconry of Batli 
(which contains fifteen parishes in the liberties of Bristol) and 

Vol. XIII. U u seventeen 

* Gougb, Add. Camden, I. 125. 
t BisliO|» Taoner'B Notitia Monastics, p. 480. 

^0 SOUitiStfBmtLt. 

iewaitwii odier churches and* ch^ieh in. the cmmcy of GIai&- 

cester, subject to the jurisdiction of the Bishop and Chancellor 
of Bristol, but exempted from that of the archdeaconry. The 
see is charged in the king's books 2941. lis. On the twen^- 
ihird of August, 1808, the king ordered a cong6 d'elire to pasd 
Ae great seal, empowering the dean and chapter of tias cathe* 
dral to elect a new bishop, the dame being void by the transla- 
tion of Dr. John Luxmore to the see (^ Heref<Mil. Dr. WSIiaai 
Lort Mansell was accordingly elected bishop of this see.* 

We come now to aUempt some account and description of 
what is unirersally esteemed the finest parochial church in the 
kingdom, S^. Mariff Reddffflf This church, it has been db^ 
served, ** is justly the pride, because it is the chief architiec* 
tural beauty, of Bristol/' It stands wi&ouc the city walls : the 
ascent to it is by a noble flight of steps, and the whole buy- 
ing exhibits one of the most perfect specknens of ornamented 
Gothic arcliitecture this country can boast, 
k This church waJs built (rf* stone, dug out of Dundry Hill quar- 
ries. It was begun in the year 1294<, by Simon de Burton^ 
mayor of Bristol, and was not completed fill 1376. The 
steeple was partly thrown down by lightnings at St. Faults- 
tide, in 1445; at whidr time the roof, part' of the nave, and 
particularly the southern ai^, were much damaged. This last 
part was rebuilt by the grandson of William Canynge, or Can- 
ning. The spire was not rebuilt, but covered In. It is in- 
tended, however, to complete this spire, and to construct a 
magnificent cenotaph to the memory of the unfortimate Chat- 
terton. The church is built m the form of a cress, having the 
nave raised above the aisles, in the manner of a cathedraL 


* Ecderieticid and University Aanaal R^ter, VoL I. p. S7t. 

f It is with pleasure we learn, that our predecessor in this werk, Mm 
Britton, ^aq, F. S. A. is oottecting materials for ** An Historical and At^ 
ehitecttiral Essay relating to this Orarcfa ; to be illostrated with a Oromid 
Plan, Views of the Interior and Exterior, and Details ; embiteiag ate 
some Aoconnt «f the Monoments, and of the Eminent ItaaoBs intetred 
within Its Walls, or intiouitely coimected with the SalMlBg*** 

. s 


The roofy which is nearly sixty feet high, is arched with stone, 
and abounds with numerous beautifUHy carved devices and orna- 
ments. The whole exterior measurement, wHh the chapel of 
Our Lady, is two hundred and thirty feet in length ; and the 
croas aisle one hundred and seventeen feet The breadth of the 
nave and side aisles is fifty-nine feet, and of the cross nave and 
aisles forty-four feet. The height of the side aisles, from east 
to west, is twenty-five feet, being the height of the two cross 
aisles, from north to south. The height of the nave, from the 
western door to the high altar, is fifty-four feet, being the same 
as the height of the nave of the cross. Our Lady's Chapel is 
tiiirty feet long, which being divided from the church, is used 
as a grammar-school. The length of the present church, from 
the western end to the high altar, is one hundred and seventy- 
eight feet. The western door, which is eight feet broad and 
twelve high, is the principal entrance: there are also two 
porches on the northern and southern sides of the church. The 
internal appearance of the northern porch is singularly beautiful. 
It consista of two divisions : the lower of a highly decorated 
Normaa style, in a very perfect state of preservaUon : the upper 
Btoary represents tabernacles, statues, 8cc, with various coats of 
arms; among which are the crown and rose:* the whole 
affording, according to Mr. Dallaway, f a fine specimen of 
dmt species of minute decoration usually termed Saracenic. 

On entering this beautiful church, the lightness and exqui- 
site symmetry of the whole fill the mind witli the most pleasing 
admiration. The best views of the inside of the church are, 
per ha ps, at the western door, under the middle of the cross, 
and at the high altar. The entrance to the chancel is by gilded 
iron gates, richly ornamented : there are also iron gates at the 
western entrance of each aisle. The altar is exceedingly rich and 

Uu 2 superb; 

* Plan, aectioD, and views, with a minute deacriptieii of tliis beaotifiil 
>way, are given in Mr. Britton's Architectural Antiquities, just 

t Observations on EogUdi Architecture; p. to. 


fiu^b ; 0ver it are paintings by Hogartli and Tresham, which 
git generally admired. The altar-piece, by Hogarth, has been 
reckoned that inimitable artist's chef (Poewore^ in a style of 
painting for which certainly his genius was not formed ;* it re- 
presents the rolling away the stone from the holy sepulchre : 
<* the figures have energy, the colouring is clear and brilliant ; 
the composition is judicious, and the chiaro-osairo has been 
closely attended to." Mr. Tresham's picture of Christ raising 
the daughter of Jarius to life, was presented to the church by 
Cliflon Winterbottom, Bart, the artist's uncle: it is hung 
in the middle of the altar, and has a good effect. 

This elegant church contains several monuments: we will 
notice one or two of the most remarkable. In the chapel in the 
aouth cross, there are two tombs of the founder of the church, 
William Canning, and his wife, Joan, Their effigies, in full 
proportion, are extended on an altar-tomb, under a richly- 
carved canopy of free-stone, having a long inscription, settin|^ 
forth, as is usual on such occasions, all, and probably more 
than all (for William, it seems, was very rich) the good deeds, 
great wealth, and many virtues of the deceased. He took priest's 
orders to avoid a second marriage, and became dean of West- 
bury, he has, therefore, another monument, representing him in 
his dean's canonicals, with uplifted hands, and a large book under 
his head. The first-mentioned efRgy describes him in his ma- 
gisterial robes, having been mayor of Bristol five times. 

Here is also a monument of Sir William Penn, Knt. father 
of the celebrated Penn, the quaker, proprietor of Pennsyl- 
vania, and founder of the city of Philadelphia. The tablet 
bears the following inscription : — 

*< Sir William Penn, Knight, born at Bristol, 1621, of the Penns of 
Penn*8 Lodge, in the county of Wilt». He was made captain at twenty- 
one, rear-admiral of Ireland at twenty-three, vice-admiral of England at 
thirty-one, and general in the first Dutch war, at thirty-two ; whence re- 

* This capital specimen of Hogarth's powers has never yet been pub- 
lislied in any of the co' lections of that artist's works ! 


toniiag ill 1655, he was chosen a parliament-man fm W^rmoolll ; 1660, wat 
made commissioner of the admiralty and navy, governor of tbe forts and 
town of Kinsale, vice-admiral of Monster, and a member of that provhicial 
council i and in Ui64, was chosen great captain-commander under his roytl 
highness in that signal and most evidently snc'cesaful fight against the Datch 
fleet. Thus he took leave of the sea, bis old element ; but continaed his 
other employments till 1669, when, through bodily infirmities (contracted 
through the care and fatigue of public affairs) he withdrew, prepared and 
made for his end, aud with a gentle and even gale, in much peace, arrived 
and anchored in his last and best port, at Waustead, in the county of 
Essex, sixteenth September, 1670, being then but forty nine years of age 
and four montlis.. To whose name and merit his surviving lady erected tliis 

Though the parents of Penn, the quaker, do not either of 
them appear to have embraced the peculiar opinions of their son, 
there is a plainness and matter of fact about this inscription 
which savours strongly of that honest simplicity for whicl\ the 
Friends have ever been distinguished. It is known that the 
gallant admiral became reconciled to his son, whom he had 
discarded on account of his religion ; and it is not improbable 
that he,* or his lady at least, had imperceptibly acquired some 
portion of the son's spirit There is, however, one thing 
worthy of remark in this monumental inscription: in recording 
the principal events of Pernios life, it is not stated that he was 
sent to the Tower by Cromwell, for quitting his command, 
without leave.f 

There are several other monimients worthy of notice ; but our 
limits will not admit a description. We must not, however, 
omit to mention, that it was in the muniment room over the 
northern porch, that Chatterton pretended to have found those 
singular poems which so long duped some of the most aeute 
critics our county can boast of, into a belief of their high anti- 

U u S quity ; 

* Peon's No Cross no Crovni, p. 473, 13th edit. 1789. 
f Campbell's lives of the AdmiraU. Thiirloe's State Papers, IV. p. 36. 
Ib CoUins*s Peerage,* a work geueially remarkable fur its great accu- 
• VoL UC* 1^ Stf. Sapplaoiest, 4fth edit, by B. Longmate. * 

t7% SOMSlSBTSKtftS* 

quity ; but more of Mb shall be noticed in our memoir of their^ 
real author. 

Temple Church was originally called Holy Cross^ and is chiefly 
remarkable for its tower^ which leans towards the street, like 
that at Bologna.* This tower is many degrees out of the 
perpendicular: Mr. Gough says, five or six feet; and Camden 
asserts, that when the bells are rung, it moves ** hue et illuc*^ 
this way and that, displaying a chink three fingers broad, regu- 
larly opening and closing. This singular motion is thus described 
by Braun :f — " The church of Holy Cross has a very high and 
elegant tower, that I may venture to compare, in thickness and 
height, with that of St. Martin the Less, at Cologne. When the 
bells in it are ringing, it vibrates so much, that at length, by the 
too great and frequent shaking, it has separated from the body of 
the church, and opened, from the roof to the foundation, with a 
space four fingers breadth. Abr. Ortelius wrote me word, tEat 
he had put a stone, of the size of a goose egg^ into this chink, 
which he actually saw descend, as tlie space was narrow or 
wide, and at last, by frequent collision, squeezed to pieces; and, 
when he set his back at the east tower, he was afraid it would 
fall on him. The mayor, and other reputable persons assured 
him the whole church shook, and was like to fall before this 
chink was made ; and with such force that the lamps were put 
out, and the oil spilled, as many persons living could attest ; 
but the church being no longer affected by the sound of the 
bells, remains unmoved." Some testamental documents have 


mcy, there is a mistake conceraing this Sir WilUtra Peim, whidi deserves to 
^ be noticed : It is Uiere stated that Anthony (Lowther) of Maske, manned 
- ) ^ /XCv' " Margaret, dMghter of Sir William Penn, of Penmylwinia, admiral to King 
Caiarles 1." Now Sir William Penn, as we hare seen, died in 1^0, and it* 
was not till the year ICBl, that King Charles IL in consideration of sundry 
debts doe to him from the crown, and for the services of his father, the 
admiral, granted to William Penn, the qnaker, a province in North Ame> 
riea, then called the New Netherlands, but, on this occasion, denominated 
by the king, ont of respect to the grantee, PcfrntyhMmn. 

• Ooogh,.Add. Cam, 1. 135. t Hieatrun Oi^ii, «ile4byrroogb. 

iMeaibiind* iH^ 1390, and 1397, which me&tioa the tower as 
ycboililii^.; and William of Worcester* says, it was rebuilt by 
llie parishicHieirB in 146(X Mr. Barrettf states, that in 1772, it 
leaned at the south-west comer three feet nine inches from the 
perpendicular ; and that, on opening the groui^d, in 1774, thick 
feimdalions w^e discovered, extending from the base of 
the tower iato the ^eet, fifty or sixty feet. On forcing through 
this foundation, water gushed out, and prevented further search. 
It is 114 feet high, and contains a peal of eight bdls. 
ThoH^ there is geaers^ly a little exa^ration used in describr 
ing its motiep, it is true that ihe inclination is great, and that 
die vascilhtion, even in the belfry, is sufficient to produce an 
cpening that will admit a thin shilling between the stones. 

St. Siefhen\ in Close-street, is much admired for the beauties 
ftf its ancient tower, which, Camden says, was built by $hipward^ 
cituen and merchant, in the l^t age ; and Leland j: observes, 
that **.Shipward, a merchant of Bristol, made the right high 
and costly towie of St. Stephen^" Tl^is is esteemed a hand«> 
flone church, and was built in the reig^ of H^giy ^e Sixtl^ 
The pulpit and pews are of mahogany. 

AU Saints has a resemblance, in its steeple, lo St. Mary-le* 
Bow, in Cheapside, London. It stands in Corn-street, and 
is an ancient structure, with a modem tower steeple, built in 
1716, containing eight bells. On the top of this tower, is an 
cwtangular lanthom and dome supported hy dght arches, 
cou^ed Corinthian columns a^ each angle; and crowned with a 
gilded ball and cros^ There are three aisles, the two side 
€mes being somewhat shorter than the middle one, which is se- 
Fenty feet long, and forty-nine high. The whole is sixty feet 
wide. The altar-piece has a painting of the Salutation of the 
Hessad Virgin,. Here are several jpionumeiMis, the most interest- 
ing of which is that to the memory of Edward Colston, Esq. 
The effigy is a recumbent marble figure, by John Michael 
Aysbraeck ; over |t is an inscription, recording the virtues of the 

U u 4 deceased, 

• Itineiariaa, p. tSS. t Uiit. Briit. p. 54^544. X Vol. VII. n. h. 

676 SOMERaETSlllRE^ 

deceased, by enumerating most of the principal public bede&c^ 
tione for which Mr. Colston was so long and so eminently 
known.* He was born in Temple parish, the second of Novem^ 
ber, 1636,' and was brought up to trade under his father, an 
eminent Spanish merchant, usually styled Deputy ColstoUyf 
to whose memory there is also a monument, erected by their son, 
in this church. He resided some time in Spain, as did also his 
brothers, where two of them were murdered. There is a 
tradition, says the Biographia Britannica, that when Mr. Colston 
andhb brothers were in Spain, in their disputes with the papists, 
It was often objected to them, that the reformed religion pro- 
duced no examples of great and charitable benefactions ; ta 
which they were wont to reply, that if it pleased God to bring 
them safe home> they would wipe off that aspersion. Upon 
which two of them were poisoned, to prevent their return ; but 
their elder brother, Edward, escaped. It is more certain, 
however, that one,. or both of them, were assassinated by ban- 
ditti, very common in Spain and Portugal* Whatever were 
the motives that first urged Mr. Colston to those great, and 
almost incredible, charities, which he performed, it is certain 
that they were of an extent, and many of them of a nature, 
that in other times would have given him a distinguished 
name in the calendar, and have rendered the place of his inter- 
ment the resort of the faithful, and the admiration of the multi- 
tude. Mr. Colston died on the anniversary of his birth-day, in 
1 721 : a sermon is annually preached in honour of his memory. 


* '* To dp jii5ti.ce to bis cliaracter, would oblige one to eniiuiei a U* almost 
t.'\ery kind of charity, vkliereby we can promote the glory of God, or relieve 
tr.e ncccsbities of oar fellow-creatures. Scarcely any soit of temporal 
iralaniity escaped his chat itabte asftintance ; nor is there scarcely one api- 
rttKal want, towards the removing of which be did not piously and freely 
ftffurd his cootrihulioo. From his bouiitiful benefactions, tlie ignorance of 
tiie yoiuig, ihc mis<;rics of Uie iiiiirrn, and the helpless necessities of the 
old, arc ren.oved, cased, and relieved/* Dr. Haicouit's Funeral Seiinou 
for Mr. Colston. . 

f Biogr. Biit. IV. 43. 

80M£RSBTSRIRB« ■ Sflf 

Inthecentreofthecityfltends Christ Churchy near the site 
of a very old^horch, a& appears from the circumstibice of dates 
having been found so early as KX^y or 1004. A discovery of 
this kind viras made in the year 1 765, when part of the old spire 
was talcoi down. The dates were of lead, let into the stone, 
near the top. The old structure was taken down, in 1786» in 
order to widen Wine-street. The present church was opened in 
1 790. It is built of free-stone, and consists of a handsome tower 
on the stage, above the church, with sixteen Ionic pilasters 
supporting four pediments. The stage above this, containing 
ten bells, has, on each side, four Corinthian pilasters, and at 
each comer of the tower a large vase. On the top is an 
obelisk of seventy feet, on which are elevated a ball and gilded 
dragon. The entire height of the steeple is 160 feet. The 
following funning epitaph was on- a stone, in the old church »— 

'' Here lietii Tbo. Turar, and Mary, his wife : he was twice ina«eer of 
liie company of bakers, and twice churoliward^a of Uus parish. He died . 
March 6th, 1654. She dM May Slh, 1643. . 

Like to the baket^M oten^ is the grare, 

Wherein the bodyes of the faithful have 

A »HtiMg-iny and where they do remain. 

In hopes to rise, and to be drmm again : 

Blessed aie they, who in the Lord are dead, 

Tliough set like dough, they shall be drawn like bread:' 

St* Mark's (^kurckf on College Green, is usually called the 
Mayor's Chapel^ because the corporation, whose property the 
curacy is, usually attend divine worship there. It is a very light 
building, but disproportioned : the height and length being 
much greater than the breadtlu It stands rather north and 
south* The tower is ninety-one feet high, and has four, pinnar 
des. It has a curious aisle, and beautiful vestry, supporting 
the founder's vault, wherein was formerly a confessionaiy, with 
two arches in the wall, and eight niches.* It was founded 
about 12S0, and has several monuments. The altar-piece is by 

* Oough, Add. Cam. IV. p. 125. 


Hogafdi, and co«t 5001. It belonged originally to the hospital 
of Bonhommes, which was founded in 1229 by Maurice Gaunt, 
for a chaplain and 100 poor. The nephew of the founder added 
a master and three chaplains, and it was valued at 112L per 
annum.* It was refounded, in 1598, by the corporation, for a 
school aad orphan house for boys, and was then called Queen 
£liasabetib*8 Hospital. It was rebuilt in 1702; in 1763 the 
boys were removed to St. Bartholomew's ^ but the estates 
remained as they were.f 

St, Paulas Church is a new stone building, in the ancient style. 
It was opened cm St. Paul's Day, 1794v The tower gives it 
somewhat of a resemblance to the steeple of the Royal £x- 
diange, Londrni, and is 169 feet high. la the last year ( 1610) 
a monument was erected in this church, to the memory of 
GoKmel Vassal. His remains were brought hither kmx^ South 
America. It is the production of Rossif irom a design by 
Flaxman^ and is a chaste, classicaly and elegant piece of sculp- 
ture, very affecting and impressive, relates the heroic tale 
in a striking manner, and accords with some of the finest spe« 
dmens of Grecian sculpture. 

St, Peter's is a very ancient structure, having been mentioned 
as early as 1130. It has now lost much of its antique appear- 
ance, by being often repaired, particularly in the year 1795. 
It is chiefly remarkable as the burying-place of the unfortunate 
aad licentious Stuoage the poet, who was confined at Bristol for 
a trifling debt, died in prison, and was burled at the expence of 
the gaoler. His poem, ^titled " London and Bristol deli- 
neated,^ as it does not make the most honourable mention of 
this, the last scene of his sorrows, has given offence to the Bristol 
authors. Surely, however, his birth, talents, and misfortunes* 
far certainly he was an injured man, might at least have saved 
his name from being forgotten, and his memory from insult; 

but ** net a stpne tells where he lies.'':|: 


* Tanner*s Not. Mod. p. 482. } Barrclt, p. 579. 

Javenile Tourist, by tlie Rev. J. Evaiu, M. A. 3d cd. 393. '* The 


S0ittB8B»HilS. 079 

1^ city has many other dknrches, besidet five diapeb 
of ease; but having noticed the mo6t remarkehle, we poaa on 
to « brief descc^ption of some of the principal placet of wonhipi 
hdongiag to the di&reot sects of religion, dissenting from tbe 
established choroh. 

If raukiplidty of sects, or variety of religious opinion, were 
really an evil, as the Roman Catholics, and some protestanls^ 
possessing the spirit of popery, in its wom tihies, would gladly 
peiBuade the world, then indeed Bristol holds out but few temp- 
tations to men of serious and weU disposed minds: for there is 
scarcely a denomination of modem christians, that has not one 
or more places of meeting in this city : yet we know not that the 
evil genius of intolerance holds any very distioguished seat here, 
or that the odium tkeologioum is more evident in Bristol, than in 
places where greater uniformity of religious faith and woishi^ ia 
to be fimod ; on the oontrory, we ara persuaded, that few large 
towns can boast more instanees of liberal intercourse among 
peaiiie of opposite sentiments, or more of that genuine candour 
apd good will, which the mild tenoor of Christianity is so emi- 
nently calculated to produce. 

The Presbyiaian Chapdi in Letain^Mead^reetf is a large 
and substantial building, with a front of free-stone. The galh^ 
rics are three ia number, and are asee&ded by two geomeuical 
itair-casea, rising from the wings of the building. On all 
accounts, this is esteemed the most oomplete chapel in Bristol* 


peer mun nho tuik to his grave segkcted, s Chsttertan, a Boyse, 
era ftwyi, iwi hate DOLaiwKBUi, but what are saohftom e«mictioe.'*^<'if 
tbe painfol eoowctian is ^^fsed^maa m i^ tht aa»e of Mt^H aad Asaufi^ 
diat their dbpoi'ttioiii were lo diaor^ierljr as to n^i^ it dAcolt, abaast 
impossible to serve them, let it be remembered that they offend no sum 
now, that their irrei^ohuities cannot now disturb any man's peace ; let ufl 
weep over their follies, draw instruction from their examples, and meditate 
y^Hk a ai hw s s , npan that speciee of geaioa end intellectaal power (rare, I 
kfip^ in its occurrence) whidi can be associated with incorrigible weak- 
ness, and bear withm it the tint of utter inutility to its possessor, and its 
connections.** Etsag on Sepulchres, or a Proposal for erectmg Bome Memorial 
of the WuMtriouM X>Md, tn all Ages, 4nthe spoi where thair rewmm Aaoe been 
tjtfcnr«(. By William Godwin, pp. 103-105. 


The congregation is of the most reputable kind, and aopports 
two ministers: at present the Rer. Dr. Estlin and the Rev. John 
Rowe, who both jnaintain the Unitarian doctrine. 

BrUge'Street Chapel is built in an ancient style, and has also 
a free-stone front. It belongs to the Independents^ and is a 
handsome building. This denomination has two or three other 
good meetingrhouses ; particularly one at Casile Green^ and 
another in Temple Street. 

The Baptists have meeting-houses here, particularly the 
Broad Meady or Htty^markety and the Pithatf. Both these cha- 
pels are good buildings, and are very respectably attended. 

The Friends have two places: one in Qjuaker^ Friars f Rase- 
niarjf Street^ a large and elegant chapel, and another in Ten^ 
Street^ a)so a good structure. The quakers are very numerous 
in this city. 

The Whtfieldian and Wedeyan Methodists have several cfaa* 
pels, and are exceedingly numerous. The Tabemackf in Penn 
Street^ OU Orchardj belongs to the former; the Weskyans 
have Broad Mead^ or Wesley^s Room^ Old King Street^ a new 
and excellent edifice; Guinea Street^ Portland Street, which 
has a* painted altar-piece, a turret, and a bell, and where the 
service of the church of England, as mutilated by Mr. Wesley, 
is read by the lay-preachers; and George Street^ originally 
built by a .Mr. Dolman, who preached in it himself, but after- 
wards was ordained, and died in London. 

Lady Huntingdon's connection have two chapels, St. Augui' 
tine's Place^ and Hope Chapel, Alhermarle Row,* founded by 
the Countess of Glenorchy and Lady Hope, who have marbk 
monuments erected to their memory in it. In these chiqids 
Che service is much the same as that of the church of England, 
with such curtailments and additions as accord with the peculiar 
views of the sect. 

. The modest and inofiensive Moravians, or United Brethren, 


* Strictly spf aking, thif chapel does not belong to her ladyship^s connec- 
tion, but the difference is so slight, that we knew not how otherwise to, 
distingoish it. 


hare their chapel in Upper Maudlin Lane, Here is a good 

The old Roman Catholic Chapel, at St, James's Back^ haying 
been much enlarged and improved, with the addition of a gal- 
lery and organ,, i^ now occupied hj the believers in the doc- 
trines of that most extraordinary character, Baron Stveden^ 
6arg : it is now called the New Jerusalem Church, 

Orchard Street Chapel is appropriated to the French Pro- 
testants ; and there is a new Roman Catholic chapel in Trench- 
ard Lane^ towards the building W which, it is said, botli 
protestants of the establishment, and even dissenters, contri* 
buted : a proof that the time is now fully come, when no dis« 
Unction of doctrine or mode of worship whatever should 
be allowed to debar any peaceable person from the full and 
entire enjoyment of the civil and religious rights of a free 

The JetM* Synagoguef in Temple Street^ though small, is 
beautiful, and is fitted up with all that splendour for which the 
Mosaic ritual is conspicuous. 

These are among the most important houses of dissenting 
worship ; but Bristol also has some places of minor consequence 
appropriated to the different bands of sectarists, who are firfr- 
quently branching out from the larger bodies, displaying, in 
varied ramifications, the almost endless versatility of the human 
mind, and demonstrating the absurdity of coercion in^ the pro- 
mulgation of truth or t^e unity of opinion. 

The Charitable Foundations and Public Schools qX 
Bristol are very numerous. We can barely mention the most 
eminent, and a few recent ones. 

St, Peter's Hospital is for the reception of the poor citizens 
m genera], including superannuated persons, orphans, and 
idiots. It is an ancient. and good building; and the establish- 

* See m vc^ry interesting aceount of this sect, in a novel entitled '< Wanlcy 
FewoB," by Mr. Sadler, «f Chippenham. We regret that the i 
•athnr ahould suffer this excellent poblication to be out of print. 


, ment is sup(>orted by annual assessments on the several parishes. 
It 18 generally called the Mint, because it was once used for 
the coinage of money. The Infirmary is a most extensive tfnd 
increasing establishment. In 1805, Mr. Reynolds, late of 
Colebrook Dale, made a most benevolent offer df 5001. towards 
opening a new ward in this infirmary, on condition of its being 
completely fitted for opening in the course of the year. This 
offer was accepted by the trustees ; at the same time subscrip* 
tions were opened to defray the expence of a new wing to the 
building. The conditions entered into with Mr. Reynolds were 
soon cotnpleted, and the subscriptions for the new wing and 
other improvements went on ; when, on the thirty-first of Oc- 
tober, in the same year, a building committee was formed, and 
on the sixteenth of June, 1806, the first stone was laid by Ed- 
ward Pretheroe, Esq. with due solemnity, in the presence of a 
very respectable concourse of people. It is now the principal 
infitmaS'y for the west of England. There is an Asylum for Or- 
phttn Girls, at HoaH^s Milk, Merchants* Hospital is fbr nine- 
teen seamen, and twelve seamen's widows: each receives three 
ihiHings weekly; the elder brother five. This building was 
fimshed about the 3rear 1698. Hie principal Alms-houses are 
Colston's, buih in 1691, St. Nicholas's, Forster^s, Alderrkan 
Stephens's, Strangt^s, All Saints, Presbyterian, Spencer's, and 
Redely HilL Besides these, there are nearly twenty hospitals 
and poor-houses, supporting altogether about 2000 poor and 
distressed persons. Every year prodaces some attempts still 
fiurdier to relieve the wanu, and ameliorate the condition of the 
unfbrtunate and wretched. The Btutd Blind Asylum, a most 
benevolent institution, is very liberally supported. The blind 
pupils are employed in various brandies of manufacture, and 
have produced many useful, and even excellent articles. 

A Lancasterian School, a species of benevolence that bids fair 
to produce more permanent and extensive benefits to society 
thaa any other institution the world can boast, was ^^nedat 
Brintl, m 18Wt and is ia a flouriahing slate. Tkf Samaritan 



^hcieiy was established in ISO?, to relieve patients dismissed 
from public institutions under peculiarly distressed circum- 
stances, especially females, for a short period, or until their 
health be restored, or able to resume their avocations ; to re* 
Cere, by visitors, during sickness or severe distress, and at their 
own dwellings, such poor as cannot obtain relief under the 
existing rules of other charities, and to assist such persons in 
t^itaining parochial relief who belong to distant parishes. 
The Gratefid Society is an establishment of several years' 
Manding, and has put out apprentice nearly 200 boys, with ten 
pounds each, and relieved upwards of 9^500 lying-in womeii* 
The Anchor Society is of a similar description. In mentioning thb 
benevolent institutions of this place, it would be unpatdonaUe 
to otnit some notice of Dr. Fox's Asyhmfor LunaHcs^ at Bris- 
lington, near Bristol ; for, though it is not strictly what we 
ittdidly call a charitable foundation, it has for its object thto 
greatest of all charities --the restoration to themselves and tt> 
ctety of such of our unhappy i^loWH^neatiMres whom the d^ 
trees of an inscrutSble Providence have deprived orthat whidi, 
in many respects, alone distinguishes man from l^ie ** beasts 
that perish." Dr. Fox's Asylum is of a singukAr and exten^v^ 
nature ; and he has so organized it, (hat the patients enjoy, 
as much as their situation will admit, all the benefits and 
coniferts of civilized and rational society. The poor are em> 
ployed in various bhmehes of domestic labour ; and the better 
aort have engi^ementa stntaMe to their former pursuits, 
and every possible indulgence is allowed them. To effect 
^tbe purposes of this esta3>Ushnient, a little vfflage has been 
efetled, connected by indostues with the doctor^ residence^ 
where eadi a^parate class of mankind, from the prince to the 
labo ur er , may enjoy eveiy possibte comfort fats case can afiow ; 
yet the whole is so contrived, that every patient is secure frmn 
doang injury eidier to hiinsdf or hk 'Mows. We cannot give 
a defaiUd account of this institution ; 'but Hie reader 'will find 
% yerj ampk-onei bjr Mr. Cuad>eriand, of Bristol, dntwn up 


684 iOMBR8Bl»tfIRS 

with much judgment and taste, in the fint volume of the 
County Annual Register, published in 1810. 

Bristol has, of late years, given more encouragement thaa 
formerly to Literary and Scientific Institutions ; it mu8t» 
however, be confessed, that in this respect it is much mfeaov 
to some other provincial towns, especially to Liverpool and 
Manchester. The City Library y in King Street, a handsome 
stone building, ha» a good and increasing collection of books : 
there is a librarian and a sub-librarian. The late Rev. Mr. 
Catcott, vicar of Temple, bequeathed his museum, containing 
minerals, fossils, an4 other natural curiosities, together with a 
number of valuable books, to this libary, when a new wing was 
added to the building. The admission and annual subscriptions 
are much too low. The City Grammar-School^ for the instruc- 
tion of the sons of citizens in Latin and Greek, supports two 
masters. The endowed College Qrammar-Sckooif in Lower 
College Green, was founded by Henry the Eighth, at the time 
Bristol was raised to an episcopal see. Queen EUxabeih*e 
Grammar-school has a statue of the royal donor in the school- 
house. There are ten or twelve other puUic schools^ or chari* 
table foundations. The Baptist Education Society y where young 
men are educated for the ministry, deserves notice. It is a 
valuable institution, and has been enriched by several legacies, 
particularly by the library of Dr. Llewellyn, and that of Dr. 
Andrew Gifford, a learned minister of that persuasion, and an 
intelligent antiquary. He was many years assistant librarian at 
the British Museum, and died in 1784. The museum belongii^ 
to this institution contains some excellent natural and artificii)! 
curiosities, particularly a collection of Hindoo images, formerly 
objects of divine adoration. This is a long room over the 
library, which has a beautifully painted window, representing 
several subjects of sacred history. A new building, foe the use 
of this society, has recently been begun, and is now carrying 
on. It promises to be a handsome and substantial structure. 

It is proper, in this phice, to take some notice of Kingsux>od, 


80llEltStoSRIR£, 685 

c&pectftlly ds no mention was made of it when delineating the 
tounty of Gloocester.^ Kingstoood Ft^est^ containing about 
600Q acres; is in the lower pdrt of the vale district of Olouces^ 
tershire.'l' It has long been celebrated for its extensive col- 
lieriety bnt perhaps still more for the ancivilized state of the 
cottiers^ afid the infiuenoe of methodism on their morals.^ It 
Is «bout three miles from Bristol ; and we mention it in con* 
nectioB with this city, on account of the celebrated 9chool esta* 
blidied there 'by the Wesleyan methodists. This institution 
was founded by the late Rev. J. Wesley, in 1748, who designed 
it ti a 8Cho<rf for the children of his societies in general* In 
some years, however, the place was found too small to answer 
die fiill extent of the founder's wishes, and it became acces* 
sible only to the sons of preachers ; that is, of those preachers 
who are wholly supported by the society.. The ** local preach* 
ers," who are such as follow trades, and have no pecuniary re- 
ward for their labours, have no interest in this foundation. The 
children are initiated into the various branches of education 
taught in other similar ^tablishments. Pupils are admitted 
from the age of eight years, and are continued on the founda- 
tion till they are fourteen. { It is singular to remark, that 
among their sdiool e^rcises they are taught to translate John 
Bunyan, and read Shakespeare. The discipline of this schod 
has been often^ and justly, censured, as much too severe ; and 
indeed it is notorious, that comparatively few of the children 
educated here afterwards join, or continue in, the society of 
methodists ; and that very few of them become preachers* One 
of Mr. Wesley'9 rules of discipline enjoins, ** that the children 
most never play ; and that a master must always be with them.*' 
** Instead of play,'' says one of their own writers, ^ Mr. Wealey 
VouXni. Xx wished 

* Tide Bcaaties, Vol, V. t RadgePS'Agricaltanl Sarv^, p. 22. 

X Portraiture of Methoditm, p. 1«8. 
) By an order of Conference, in 1808, it was tcttled, that in some CSMI 
a boy may be allowed to coatiane at lebool a year longer. ICiimtei ef 
ConfereBce, 1808. 


wished them tD learn husbandry, or some mechaaic att.''* 
The school-house is large, and the whole esiabljabmeni, eO" 
tirely supported by annual subscriptions throughout Ibe uniled. 

The Public BuiLDixca deToted^ to the adniiinistrgtiou of 
jyistice and to conmfsrcial purposes, and the instituti<ft|s con- 
nected therewith) are numerous and important* The GutUhali 
is an old curious structure, standing in Broad Street. ^ It is a 
large and lofty building, with a modern front, beariqg the 
wewB of ^ward the Firsjt, and a royal statue. Here the 
mayor is chos^n» and other dty <^ county bosioess Craos- 
acted. The Ceuncil' House is a sUme building, ereeted in C^m 
Street, in the year 1 703 ; but it is much too small for the pur- 
poses for which it was built. The mayor and ^aldermen sit 
-here daily to administer justice. The council chamben contam 
some pictures, among which is a portrait of the Earl of Pern* 
broke, a whole length, by Vandyke, a present to the- city ; and 
another of Lord Clare : both very good paintings. Here ara 
aeveral'.pubUc offices connected with the; city. The CuOom 
House is a good building of brick^ with a colonade of freestone 
pillars, having Ionic capitals in front : the room in which busi- 
ness is conducted is about seventy feet in lepgtk. The Excise 
Office is also^a brick building, near the Custom House, in Queen 
Square. The Past Office is of freestone, near the Exchar^e; 
and ir a veiy large, elegant and good structure : it w^ built by 
Uiat ingenious architect, Mr. Wood, of Bath, and is said to have 
cost 50,(X)0L It was opened for public business in the year 174Sf 
and measures 110 l«et in firopt, and 148 in depth. The north, or 
principal fronts has a bold and stately tretastyle, the cohunnsi 
having Corinthian oap^talf, sqpporting a pediment^ fmd on the 
tympan of which are his majesty's arms, carved in stone. The 
entire front of the building, between the capitals of the pilas- 
* It would 1)G a curipiis fact to ascertain, bow far this rcgiilatioo goes to 
lerify Mie oiirsery ada^e^ tliat '* alt work and no play makes Jark a dull 


ten and of {he columns^ is richly ornamented with emblematical 
festooM, representing various prodnctions of Great Britain and 
the four quarters of the world. This front is on a strong rustic 
bosement. The southerp view of the building consists of a rustic 
arcade, having also a central projection supporting the city 
arms. Here is a turret with a clock, with two dials facing op- 
posite directions. The merchants transact their business within . 
a very extensive range of columns pf the Corinthian order, 
fbrming a peristyle capable of containing upwards of 1400 
persons. It was opened for business* on the twenty-first of Sep- 
tenber, i74d, having been rather more than two years in 
birilding. It was repaired internally in 1796. 

The Merchants Hall is a modem freestone building, erected 
IB 1701 ; but has within these few years been almost rebuilCy 
with very great improvements. The principal door, which is 
ascended by a flight of steps, is ornamented on each side with 
the nerchaiLts' arms, carved in stone. Over this door is a 
good boat af his present majesty ; and on the top of the build- 
xng are a globe and armillary sphere. The principal room, on 
the north side of the saloon, contains some portraits; one 
of which is of the late Edward Colston, Esq. a half-length, 
bjr Ridmrdson ; and irom this painting Rysbreack is said to 
have taken the model for the statue already mentioned, in the 
ohweh of AH-Saints. Merchant TaUors* Hall is a freestone 
bdlding, seven^ feet in length. It has an orchestra, and is 
often let out for public entertainments. 

Under St* John's Gate^ at the bottom of Small Street, the 
€«irporation have, not long ago, erected a capacious arch, for 
£he. accommodation of foot passengers. The statues on the 
sondnni aide have already been mentioned. 

T^mpkXStae has very recently been taken down. 
NmgaU h die city prison for felons and debtors. By some late 
X X 2 improvements^ 

* It is mariiabTe, that notwkli^^tandios the Bristol merdiants liave 
ndi«ieieelkttl|rtuelorineetiQg, tfaeysddoiii got into it; bat asncmble 
oatiide, otar w&mt ttdent brass pillars, or tables, vrhirli were placed tbew 
MoK the prcs^ elff|aBt baUdiii wascreetod. 

6SS somehsetshire. 

improvements, this prison is made comfortable and convemeai 
Bridewell is- the prison for the confinement and correction of 
offenders ; and there is another prison, called Lawford's GatCp 
Bridewell Street, for the reception of those who have been guilty 
of misdemeanors without the liberties of the city, and in the 
county of Gloucester. 

The Public Statues of Bristol are not very numerous* 
In Queen's Square, is an equestrian statue of William the Third. 
This is said to be one of the finest pieces of sculpture of the 
kind in the kingdom, and is the production of Rysbreack. Avery 
fine statue of his present majesty was completed last year, in the 
centre of Portland Square, in commemoration of his having 
attained his fiftieth year. The first stone was laid on the 
twenty-fifth of October, 1809. On the front of the pedestal, i» 
the following inscription ; — ' 

^ Ckorgc III. tbe Father of hi« People, kaTing oo tiie f 5tb October 
1S09, tbroagh the favovr of Dime Providence, attained tHe 50tlt year ofhw 
reigBy to commemorate that happy event, and iu testimony of Ibeir grati- 
todc for the blessing enjoyed under tlie mild government of the beat of 
kings, the loyal inliabitants of St. Paul's parish erected this statue, A. IX 

The High Cross^ which formerly stood at the confluence of 
the four principal streets, having been removed, not much to the 
credit of the diizens, to the gardens of Mr. Hoare at Stpuriieadit 
in Wiltshire, a descriptive and historical sketch of it shall be 
given in our account of tliat interesting county* In the mean 
time, we refer the reader to Part I. Vol. L of Mr. Britton's 
Architectural Antiquities of Great Britain. 

As nothing now remains of the castle^ and but vety little, if 
any, of the outworks^ a minute description is difficult and usefess.. 
According to a sketch by Mr. Tumor,* the outwcwks, in 1644, 
began at Water-fort, in Lime-kiln Lane; from whence, to 
Brandon Hill, they lately were plainly discernible. Th^ce, 
proceeding in a northernly direction, to Prior's Hill, at the -end 
of Somerset Street* The line then went, aoutiv-eastemly, 

• Archalogia, VoL XIV. yi. XXXV. p; iSOi ' 


tb Law(brd'ft Gate, near the castle, being intersected by the 
Froooiy in its direction. The works then proceeded to the 
Av^Dy c^posile Tower' Harratz, and from thence to Temple 
Gate, ending a little beyond Redcliife Gate, at the Avon. 
This line was four miles in circumference. The forts were, 
m little above Limeldln Lane, Brandon Hill, Royal Fort, 
near St. Michaers HiH, Ri'dout, or Colston's Fort, at Hor- 
field Lane, and Prior's Fort, near the north end of St. 
James's Place. Sach was the state of the fortifications during 
the siege, while Prince Rupert was governor of the castle, as 
already nendoaed. 

The castle itself, exclusive of the outworks, was 540 feet, 
from east to west, ahd 300 from nortli to south. The principal 
building occupied an area of nearly four acres, exclusive of 
houses, barracks, gardens, courts, yards, and several other 
accommodattons for the officers and the garrison. The remains 
•f these extensive builduigs are now almost entirely lost. On 
the eastern side, in Tower Stre^, still exist some arches, with 
ribbed roo& of stone, which are thought to have formed some 
portion of a porch to a church, or magnificent hall. 

The Quay and Harbour of Bristol, are objects of great 

iolerest to the mhabitants, as well as to foreign commerce. 

Brktol Bridge is an degantstructureof three arches, with a 

balustrade on each side of Portland Stone, about seven feet 

high, with raised ibot-paths chained in« The*centre arch is 

aa elliptic of fifty feet span ; the side arches are semi-circular, 

and of forty leet each ; the piers are forty-two feet long, and 

ten thick. This bridge was built, or radier re-built, in 1768. 

At each end are two small houses, a kind of domes, where the 

k^-gatherers formerly resided; but the toll has been many 

years discontinued, and these houses conveited into small shops. 

About ten years ago, a plan was suggested for the nnprove« 

■sent of the haibour, for erecting iron bridges across the Avon, 

and forming a New Cut. In ISOi*, this scheme was matured: the 

Bristol Dock Company advertised for six or eight hundred la- 

X z 3 bourerSf 


bourers, to cut the new docks and canal. The expences. In • 
very short time, amounted to 93»2491. ; the moniea received 
were 94,2181. and the works proceeded with rapidity. Early, 
in 1805, the foundation of the iron bridge was laid, and 
a sum of 500,000). expended. * Unfortunately, in January, 
1806^, the ribs of the iron-work gave way, after considerable 
advances towards its completion had been made, but they were' 
soon repaired; and in 1809 the docks were completed, and now 
form the most extensive works of the kind in Europe, the float 
being two mil%i and a half in length, and covering eighty-tmro 
acres of ground. At all hours of the day, ships can now pass 
from the Dun*head to the quays of the city, and discharge their 
cargoes into warehouses, while afloat. The swamps near the 
works, which were at first so offensive, are now filled up, in a 
judicious and uniform manner. The iron bridge, which extends 
from Clifton Down, near the old windmill, to Leigh Down, has 
an arch of about 200 feet in height, and will admit ships of any 
magnitude to sail underneath, full rigged. 

The imboanded sph'it of commercial enterprize by which the 
merchants of Bristol are actuated, has lately rendered itself 
singularly conspicuous. Neither the restraints which the belli* 
gerent powers of Europe have laid upon every branch of torn* 
merce, and which have affected the city and port of Bristd m 
a strong manner, nor the almost incredible expence to which 
the Bristol merchants and gentiy have lately gone into, in the 
improvement of the harbour, could prevent their listening with 
attention to a plan, suggested within this year or two, to erect in 
the city, a large and commodious Commercial coffee-room. For 
thi| purpose, a subscription, amounting to 10,00(H. was soon 
filled up; and on the nineteenth of March, 1 810, was kid the first 
stone, with the customary honours, by George Dyer, Esq. in the 
presence of an immense concourse of spectators. The architect 
is C. A. Busby, of London, Esq. This beautiful building stands 
in Corn-street. It has a free-stone front, in the centre of 
which, accordiag to the plan originally laid down, it has a beau- 

wnfsxBETtHntB. 691 

lifid pbrticoy of the Ionic order ; the acrota of the pediment 
mmxHinted by a statue representing the city of Bristol, and 
fanriogon the right and left emblematical figures of Navigation 
and Commerce ; and over the entrance doors a basso-relievo^ de- 
scribing Neptune introducing the four quarters of the world 
to Britannia* Should this building be completed, internally and 
externally, i^;reeably to the plans of the committee, it will be 
a valuable acquisition to the inhabitants in general, while to 
the merchants it will affiird, like Lloyd's of London, a centre of 
communicatioii and intercourse, uniting every purpose of a plea- 
sant coffise-room, and a place of busmess. 

In addition to these improvements, of a commercial kind, 
should be mentioned the intended new canal from Bristol, to 
join the Wiltshire and Berkshire canal, at or near Foxham. By 
this communication, a regular and safe navigation will be opened, 
by means of the Wiltshire and Berkshire, the intended western 
junction, and the grand junction canals, to and from the ports 
of London and Bristol, and all towns and place^ contiguous to, 
or communicating with, these canals. The sum of 400,p00l. 
iriiicfa was originally proposed to carry this plan into execution, 
has been already subscribed. 

All these plans and improvements will suggest spme faint idea 
of the commercial importance of the city of Bristol. The 
opulence of the merchants puts them on an equality ^ith any 
traders in Europe. In beholding this large ci^ at some distance, 
the mind is immediately filled with the idea of the inhabitants 
being totally occupied in trade and commerce. From twenty to 
thirty sugar-houses, and abundance of sulphur, turpentine^ 
vitriol, and coal-works ; brass and iron founderies, distilleries, 
glass-houses, and manufactories of woollen stuffs, and china, ^e 
constantly at work. The foreign trade, in times of peace, is 
immense: k is carried on to every part of the known world. All 
persons are free to trade here, and the freedom of the city, the 
want of which is the curse and the disgrace of a free country^ 
may be purchased at a very moderate rate. The trade of this 
port is cUefly with Ireland, the West Indies^ and North America, 

X X 4 Hamburgl), 


Hamburgh,, and the Baltic. The Guinea trade, and tlie dis- 
grace attached to it, had been for the most part transferred 
to Liverpool, some time before the wisdom, humanity, and ocm- 
aistency of an enlightened administration for ever abolished iL 
By the navigation of the two rivers, Severn and Wye, finstd 
also engrosses most of the trade to Wales ; and the connection 
of this port with that of Liverpool, gives it a considerable in* 
terest in the commerce of that opulent and flourishing town. 
Besides those ships which arrive here from various parts of the 
world to dispqse of their cargoes or get freight, there are gene« 
rally about 300 sail employed in foreign trade belonging to 
Bristol, exclusive of coasting vessels, large troughs, market* 
sloops, and other craft, which are extremely numerous. The 
annual amount of customs exceeds 300,0001. and the excise 
> to more than 100,0091. The post-office revenue is above 
15,0001. and the land-tax 80001. 

" Majestic Bristol ! to thy happy port 
Prolific commerce makes its lov*d resort. 
Thy gallant ships, with spacioss sails atafitrl'd, 
Vaft to thy shore the treasures of the world.** * 

Here are thirteen city companies^ some of whom have halls ; 
particularly Merchants' Hall, aliieady noticed, and Cooper's Hall, 
in King Street. The Fairs are two, and the public markets 
ten. Coals are uncommonly plentiful and cheap, there being 
pits of great extent within a very short distance from the town ; 
Kingswood furnishing the largest supply. Water is also very 
plentiful, the inhabitants being supplied from pumps and con- 
duits in almost every street. 

The corporation, at present, consists of a mayor, a recorder,f 
a lord high steward, eleven aldermen, two sheriiis, forty-eight 


* Thorn's Bristolia, a poem. 

t Sir Vicary Gibbs, the attomey^eDeral, at this time, fills that high office. 

For a cnrions account of his reception, in 1810, by some of the HrUtplians, 

not over delicate in the mode of expressing their dislikes, see the Coaaty 

Aaanal Regiiter, VoU II. Psrt iv. p. 161. 


common council-meh, a town clerk, a chamberlain, vicei-cbam'^ 
berlaiii, sword»bearer, and under theriff* The mayor is allowed 
from the city chamber 10001. and the two sheriffs 4201. each. 
The borough of Bristol sends two members to parliament ; the 
right of election lying in the freemen of forty shillings a year, 
and the free burgesses. The whole number of voters may 
mmoimt to about 7500. The two sheriffs are the returning 

Tliere is a sort of balance of political influence here. The 
irhig dob possesses the means of securing a member of their 
own choice, and the tory club readily returns one to support 
dieir interests. Thus the hamumy of the town is compromised, 
and all parties satisfied, that they have got at least one such man 
for their representative, as will not fail to watch over their liber* 
ties and preserve their privileges from violation. The present 
members are, the Right Honourable Charles Bragge Bathurst, 
and Evan Baillie, Esq. There is a £u:t connected with the 
parliamentary representation of this city which should not be 
overlooked: the freemen are those who^ are free by birth, 
freehold, servitude, purchase, donation, or those who obtain 
their freedom hy marrying a frteman*s daughter. This last 
singular privil^e, it is said, was granted by Queen Elizabeth, as 
an encouragement to matrimony ; yet it is woU known, that this 
greatest of British princes had herself somewhat of an aversion 
to the marriage state. 

On the fifteenth of September, 1662, the title of Earl of Bristol 
was conferred on John, Lord Digby,of Sherboume, by James the 
First, in recompence for his services in frequent foreign em- 
bassies.* This tjtle expired on the death of the third earl, in 
1698 ; but was revived in the person of John, Lord Hervey,t of 

* Coliinft's Peerage, Vol. VIIL p. f51. 

t '^ As Ibr titles of hononr,** says Sarah, Duchess of Marlbofoagli, ^ I 
aever was conceitied in making aiiy p«er bnt one, ami that wan my Lord 
Henrey, the present Earl of Bristol. I had made a promise to Sir Thomas 
Fdtoo, when the queen first came to the crown, that if her miiiesty should 



MkWMthy in the coun^ of Saffialk,* in whioh family it renuuns 
to this time. The present earl is. the Right Hnnducable Frede;- 
rick Wiltittn Hervey ; his father,, the late earl, was alsQ fiishop 

Tha general appearance of the city is not prqposseaBing. 
Many of the bouses affi>rd curious specimens of ancient dooMs* 
ijic architecture, having their gable-ends projecting:; mostly 
wood, or lath and plaster. The city is, however, gradually 
improvhig; many new streets of modern elegance haFing been 
formed, and the old houses as tJiey faD to rams, are replaced 
by good and comfortable buildings. 

The places of PuJUic AmtuemttU within the city are, princi- 
pally, the Theatre Rtnfol^ in Kmg Street, a model of elegance 
and convenience ; which that most inimitable actor and great scho* 
lar, the late Mr. Garrick, is said to have pronounced to be the 
most complete theatre, of the same dimensions, in Europe ; 
yet he saw it before it was quite finished: it was opened in 
May, 1766; and the Assemhly Roomy in Princes Street, a good 
building, with a freestone front on a rustic basement, which 
supports fou)r double Corinthian columns, and a pediment; on 
the frize is inscribed Curios CUhara ioUit. The assemblies 
are conducted by a committee, consistmg of some of the prin* 
cipal gentlemen of the city ; and there is a regular master of 
the ceremonies. 

CxTFTON and the Hotwblls, have already been noticed;! 

we diaH, nevertheless, make some farther mention of them in 

this place. 


ever make any new lordsy I woald certainly use my interest that Mr. Hervey 
IJJUHilil be one. And accordingly, thongh I was retired into the conntry» 
nader fhe most sensible affliction for the death of my only son, yet when 
the qneea had resolved to make foor peers, I had snch a regard to my 
word, that I wrote to Lord Marlborough and Lord Godolpiun, that if they 
did not endeavour to get Mr. Hervey made a peer, I neither would, nor 
eoald, shew my fare any more." 

« Collins, IX. 427. t Beanties, Vol. V. p. 731. et seq. 

One of the subliinest and moet beautfftil scenes in nature Ui 
exhibited by those bold and rugged eminencies belnnd the 
Crescent^ known by the name of 8t. Vincent's Rocks, which 
appear to have been rent asunder by some violent convulsion 
of nature.* They are mis-shapen and massy projectionsi tkeeetlf 
300 feet in height. Pieces of this rock, when broken, have much 
die appearance of a dark red marble; and when struck by a> 
substance of cotresponding hardness, emit a strong sulphureous 
amelL * It is sometimes used as a substitute for foreign marble 
for chimney-pieces ; but principally for making lime. In the 
Bssures of these rocks are found those fine crystals usually 
called Bristol-stones, which are so hard as to cut gkss and ^ 
sustain the action of lire and of aqua Jbrtis : this, however, is 
only tlie case with such as are tinged with colour. The imper^ 
feet ones, in which there appear something like small hairs, 
white speeksi or bubbles of air or water, turn white when cal* 

How beanteoui the pale rocks above the shore 
Uplift their bleak and farrow'd aspect high ! 

How proudly deiolale their forehead^ hoar. 
That oieet tke earlieit tan-beam of the sky 1 

Bound to yon dnsky mart, wttii peimants gay, 

Tbe-tall bark on the winding waters line, 
Between the riven diffs plies het hard way. 

And peering on the sight the white sails shine. 

Rev. W. L..B0WLES. 

The village of Clifton has of late undergone part of that 
im pr o ve ment which it had so long wanted, and which the ro* 
Hwndc scenery of its neighbourhood imperiously demanded. 
The buildiDg of the Uffper CreaemU is by this Cime nearly, if 
not wholty completed ; the terrace of the largest will not be 
rivalled by any street in England* Besides these buildings, 
others are going on upon the Downs, and more are projected, 

« Hiitofy aBdBeaBtksofCliftMiHoMrellii,by O. W. Maaby, £m|. p. 31. 
t The Harldaa Mis. VoL IV. p. 110, Svo. edit. 


•0 that CUftan bids fUr very shortly to have the appearance of 
a new city. 

The BIOGRAPHY of Bristol is of the most interesting kind, 
and would fumish viduable materials for volumes : one or two 
instances have already been noticed* 

William Grocyne, Greek professor at Oxford, the intimate 
friend of Erasmus, and godfather to Lilly the grammarian, was 
bom here in 1443. He wrote a l4itin epistle to Aldus Manu- 
tius, which is prefixed to Linacre's translation of Piroclus de 
Sphcera. . He died at Maidstone, in 1522, aged 60.* 

William Botonkr, usually denominated William of Wor« 
caster, was a native of this place. His father was a glover, on 
St. James's Back. William was secretary, pursuvient, executor, 
and biographer to Sir John Fastolf. He was the first that 
translated any of Cicero's works into English, which was the 
Discourse on old age. He wbb educated at Hart Hall, in 
1734, and drew up a work, entitled ** Polyandria Oxontensis,*' 
from which Anthony k Wood seems to have taken the idea of 
his celebrated book on the learned men at Oxford. He was also 
author of *^ liinerarium, sive liber, memorabilium in viaggia de 
Bristol, usque ad montem S. Michaelis, in anno 1478." This 
work is not, however, confined to the remarkable things of 
Bristol. Browne WiUisf published Botoner*s measurements of 
almost all the churches in England; those relative to the 
length of the streets, &c. of Bristol were collected from the 
original MSS» lying in the library of Benet College, Cambridge, 
and published in 1778, by Mr. Nasmitli, in his valuable coUec- 
tien of MSS. in the same coUege.^ 

Sir Willmm Draper, well known for his controversy with 
Junius in defence of the Marquis of Granby, was the son of a 
custom-house officer here. In 1763, in conjunction with Admiral 
Cornish, he took Manilla, and was created knight of the bath. 

• Wood's Athen. Oxon. t Hist. Mit. Abbies. 

• t GoDgh's Britisb Topogr^>by, Vol. 1. pp. W, «1. Vol. II. 107. Barrelt^ti 
Bristol, 625. 


Id 1779» he was appointed lieutenant-governor of Minorca ; and 
when that place surrendered to the enemy, he brought a false 
accusation against General Murray, for which he was com- 
manded by the coart martial to make an apology* He lived 
fome years at CMon, and died at Bath, in 1787** 

Thomas Crattbrton, the unfortunate poet, was a native of 
this city. He was bom the twentieth of November,. 175£, m 
Pile Street. The events of this youth's life are well known. At 
a very early age he was returned from school, with an observe-, 
tionthathe wastooduU tolearnl In 1760, hewasadnuttedint^ 
Cdston*B charity school. In 1767, he finally left school, and 
was put to Mr. Lambert, an attorney. Here he indulged him* 
self in. writing verses, and other literary speculations. Indeed, 
some years before this time, he is reported to have written many 
good poems, and specimens have been published of lines written 
when he was only eleven years old, particularly a hymn for 
Christmas Day, which, for just harmony and ease of expression, 
is moch superior to the majority of pieces usually published 
wider the title of Hymns for Public Worship. At a very early 
period, he had acquired an enthusiastic admiration of antiquarian 
and heraldic researches. In 1768, being then only fifteen years 
of age, he published in Farley's Bristol Journal, a *^ Descrip- 
tion of the Fiyars passing over ihe Old Bridge, taken from an 
ancient manuscript." Thb singular production excited the 
attention of many curious and inquiaitiye readers. The printer 
eonU give no account of the matter ; he only knew that the 
copy wBB brought to hin^ by a young man of the name of Chat- 
terton. The contributor was soon found, and threats and 
pcfsoasioBs used to induce him to* say by what means he 

* Mr. Osoghcmiaicrates Dr. Francu ^listoa tivBong tbe cnriaitiit nslivrs 
9t Bmlol ; but Dr. AikiO) in hi$ Bifl^. Ai^. ^, JUtdkhu, m^i lie was born 
at RwnpiabsDi, in DoreeUliire. He was r^gm profeisor of phytic of 
Cambridge University, and long time Prc&ideut of the Rojal College of 
Pb}ficians, London. lie was the author of several works, and died ia 
id77. He was grandson of Walter Glisson, who was a native of BristoL 
Oen. Btofr. Diet. Wood's Vasti Oxon. I. ^39. 


had acquired the origmai. At first he gave evasive, and in 
fome iDfltanoeSy impertinent answers. At length, hewever, he 
said that he had received the paper, along with some others, 
from his &ther, then dead, who found them in some «id truoka, 
which had long been m the muniment room over the northern 
jporch.of St. Mary's church, Redcliife. This account received 
tome confirmation, from the circumstance of his father's having 
been many years sexton of that church, and that, being a 
■dioolmaster, he had been known to use several pieces of .oM 
parchment, as covers to his ochool-books. Chatterton said, ihef 
were taken firom Canygne's chest, and that they were Ab 
productions of Thomas Rowley, a monk, and others, in thv 
fifteenth century. The poem on die ceremonies on passing the 
old bridge was followed by others of a similar description ; and 
they soon amoimted to a quantity sufficient to fill an octavo 
volume. These productions, real or fictitious, procured him the 
notice of persons of respectability and literature, not on^r in hii 
native city, but in various parts of the country. One of' the 
first of these aoquamtaaoes was Mr. Catcott, author of a IVeatiae 
on the Deluge, and also of a Descriptive Account of Fen 
Pinrk Hole, in Gloucestenliffe. This gentleman introduced liie 
young poet to Mr. Barrett, at that tune engaged in coUeelin^ 
materials ibr his c<Hnprehensive History of Bristol. Theae 
gentlemen, nobly pnMid of having so promising a youth for tituit 
fellow townsman, took particular notice of Chatterlon, and 
implanted, or nurtured, in his bosom, those seeds of ambitioil 
and enthusrastic thirst for literary fiunc, that in the end provisd 
his destruction. Disgusted with his pvofesnon, and panting for 
notice and greatness, he left his nath^e city, in 1770, and came 
to London, not doubting but that he should find in every lover 
of literature a patron, and in every rftpectahle bookselief an 
eager employer. Soen, however, hjs high-towering notions^ if 
they were not lowered, were, at least, mortified ; and he found 
himsdf sunk to a humiliating dependance on the publisliers of 
magazines, a species of writing of all others the worst paid for» 

and of flU otteiBt fls they are at present «ondacted» with btic 
fiew exGeptioiM, the least likely to exalt the character, or giye 
iseapectabiUky to the naoie of an author. Nor was the particular 
department which he adopted in those puhlications of the asost 
Kespectable» or profitid>le nature ; for though by some politioal 
essays he got himsdif introduced to the virtuous and intrepid 
Beekfordt and to the licentious patriot, Wilkes, he soon found 
the truth of his own observation, that ** there is no money to be 
got <m the patriotic aide of the question ;" yet it is to he ftared 
he never received any lai^Q emoluments, even firom the 
** courtiers,'' notwithstanding his conviction, diat they '* are so 
aenstbie of their deficiency in merit, that they generously 
reward all those who know how to daub them with the appear- 
ance of it." The fact was then, as it alwajrs has been, that there 
wisre too nanydaubers, and poor Chatterton could get no 
profitable jobwnoog them. As a poriodical writer, however, on 
one subject or odier, he had sufficient employ ; but his remii* 
aeration iUI moch short of his.expences; for his aspiring mind 
hadled'Mn inCoa mode of life, which no exertions of a niaga* 
aine writer, nor any merit as a poet, could support ; and he sunk 
into the lowest state of pover^ and wretdiedness. Every one 
a d mire d and praiaed has genius ; but few seemed disposed to 

Before he left Bristol he had made an effort to procure 
the patronage of the Hon* Horace Walpde. That friend of 
geniua and sincere admirer of literature having but just been 
awakened from his dreams of Macpherson's Ossian, did not 
venture to trost to his own penetration, and accordingly re&r- 
red the iaapection of Chatterton's packet of MSS. to Mr. Gray 
and Mr. Mason ; and those gentlemen immediately pronounced • 
Rowley's Poems to be mere forgeries. On this unpleasant in- 
formation betag communicated to Chatterton, he wrote an impa- 
tient or inyertmept letter to Walpole, demandmg tbeTetum of 
his MSfiL which being complied with, the correspondence for 
ever ceased^ and the hopes of the unhappy youth wese 



blasted. It is not quite clear that Walpole acted in this bii8i« 
ness with that feeling and delicacy towards a poor, but extra- 
ordinary child of genius, for such it was impoesible to deny 
Chatterton to be, which the great youth and inexperience of 
the poet might have suggested. But a more important questioB* 
than this is before us, and we hasten to glance at the celebrated 
controversy which the poems of Rowley occasioned among the 
most acute critics, antiquaries, and bibliographers then living* 
In the mean time we must follow the unhappy cause of thia 
controversy to his wretched and disgraceful end. 8tung with 
disappointment, devoured by pride, and destroyed by the most 
abject want and poverty, in a fit of despair, he put a period to 
his existence by poison, at his lodgings in Bfook Street, Hol- 
born, in the eighteenth year of his age. 

The controversy respecting the authenticity of Rowley's 
Poems is now pretty well set at rest, and the honour of these 
compositions given to the ingenious youth .who had adopted the 
extraordinary and whimsical choice of establishing his fiune on 
the credit of a doubtful monk, rather than on hm own indis* 
putable merit. 

One great point in this curious controversy, on which suffi- 
cient stress does not appear to have been laid, is the question 
respecting die actual existence of the persons to whom Chat*, 
terton attributed liis poems. Canning, in whose coffers the 
MSS. were said to have been found, was buried in Redcliffe 
Church, in i4<74'. But why he should have any coffers in the 
church does not appear. Rowley is a very doubtful personage: 
he is said to have lived in 1480, and to have been the friend of 
Canning; but William of Worcester, whose notes on Bristol 
were written about 14f80, and who mentions Canning and other 
celebrated men, takes no notice of Rowley.* 

We cannot enter into this controversy; but sudi readers 
as have patience or inclination for the task, may find their 


* In tlie register of the diocese of WelTs, two persons of this 
ar« meotioned, who were both conteioporftry wiik CaaniDg. 

80MXRnT8HIRX« ' 70^ 

c m r i o Ay ampty grttified by the pchioal of the ondcniieDtioiied 
publicfttaoDB;* which, tbough by no means the whole of 
what has appeared on the subject,. wiU be sofficient, tve should 
suppose, to answer every yaluahle prnpose the discussisii can 

We have n^iw to notice another, if possible, stillmdro un« 
tetunate and wretched diiU of afflictioUf— another poet^-an- 
other eztraordinaiy instance of early genius-^^anocher mavtyr— 
another proof that Bristol is not the very first place In the 
kingdom for the encouragement of literacy merityor the snppoit 
of pfemature mislbrtone. 

TouXIU. Yy Mis. 


l« ^ pMim, soppoisd to have been written at BifetsI, by thonias 
Bowlcj nd ethcn, in the FiAcenth Geotttry: tliegrealnit part aoW tint 
paMwhfd from the most atttbeotk copies, &c«" , Svo. 1778. 

S. ** Obeenratioot iipoa these Poems, &c. by Jacob Biyaat, EsqJ* 
2 vols. Sto. 1781. 

3. Barren's « History of Bristol' 

4. Dr. Jeremiah Milles*s Edition of Rowley's Poenrn, with a Comment,' 
fte, 4te. 1799. 


1. ^ Conory Observations on the Poemsi and ftemarha on the Comme»» 
Uries of Mr. Bryant and Dr. Milles ; with a salutary propoml, addressed 
to Che Friends of those Gentlemen." A pamplilet. 

t. An Arcbsekgieal Epistle to Dean Milles, editor of a snperb edition of 
Rowkgrs Poems, &c.* A pamphlet. 

a. «< An Enqoiry into the Aethenddty of the Poems attribnled to Tho- 
mas Rewley, in which the argnmenfs of the Deanof Eseter and Mr.Bryant 
aia oamined, by Thomas Warton.** A pamphlet. 

4. ** A Vindication of the Appendix to tlie Poems called Rowley's, in 
reply to the Answers of the Dean of Exeter and Jacob Bryant, Esq. and a 
Aird anonymons writer. With some farther Observations upon those 

Id an Examhmtioa of the Evidence whidi has been prodncod in 
t of their aaHRotieity. By Thomas Tyvwbitt." Svo. ITStf. 

5. Life of Chatterton, in the Biographia Britanoica, VoL III. 

a. «< Tbe Worha of gliomas Chatterton (by Sonthey and Cottle) coi^ 
taiakihii Life(whteh fa the same as that in the Biog. Brit.) by O. Ore- 
isiy, D. D. and Mfaeenaneoos Poems.** S vols. Svo. >80S. 

t. Tbs EdtebMBh Ravisw, VoL IV. isat. 

7M homiWKfAHiuM* 

M«t4 Mabv RofttusDif, cteEagliBli SapfdiOi mbehtt I 
Mt iMftly tt)rlMl» Wis iN)r« near dw veoeiible nnhwiral «q 
College GreM. Hie iiuMier in wiHck Bbe iBOMidiioet hmtat 
16 the ttdiice lOf the nmtsty hmkg in a smin ae peifecliy #o« 
cordant with the objects of this work^ we shall be justified ii 
mmscribingk:.-^'* At^e pedodiilieAdietuicieBtciiy of Bristol 
was beait^ed liy VtMuxh wimy, ttm UoofB bmg siatMiMd wa 
a niiag groutid in ahe ticiiiity of tJie aateivba, M graai patt ef 
the vehenible MtNsr»a was destroyed by the canniHiaiding, b«* 
iire FHnce ftuj^ aummifired to tbe cnemjr; and tiie beaiiti^ 
fill Gothic structure, which^ at this inonieBt^ HHb tfie oeaaanf Ift^ 
tiee mind with melancholy awe, was reduced to but tktk mtnre 
than one half of the original fiibric* Adjoining to the conse- 
erated hill, wbeae ant^ve tower resisHs ike xa.vsgf» ultimo once 
tbMt « SMtamry of Inonka, of tiw order ef ^ Augnstitoa^^ 
This building formed a pttrt ef the spadoos boubdaries which 
fell before the attacks of the enemy, and became a part of the 
ruin, which never was repaired, or re-raised to its former Gothic 

** On this spot was built a private house, partly of simple^ BmA 
partly of modem architectm«.f The front faced a small garden^ 
ihe gates of which opened to the Minster Green (now odledllie 
College Green); the west side was bounded by the cathedral, and 
the back was supported by the ancient cloisters of St. Augustine's 
monastery. A spot more calculated to inspire the soul with 
mouitifol meditalimi cati soarcely be found amidst the monu- 
meats of antiquity. 

** In this venerable mansitm there was one chamber, whoae 
dismal and singular constructure left no doubt of its having 
been a part of the original monaateiy* It was supported b/ 
the mouldering arches of the^idoistefs ; dark, GodiiCy und open* 
ing on Uie Minster sancttteiy, not only by caaeaMitt windo«% 

* Ths Priory of Black C^mons. Eov 

t ** TIds nwBisB was n<«rly in a ruiasd state,' and aainbabMili in tfaa 
year I79f ." 

rtBimx. n$ 

ladUn mid^i^r i^mn, by tiaarnyir windn^ 
the ftot of widdi an mn-ipiked door kd t»1h« toi^ t^^mg 
pmk of dditerad iolitiids. TImb place rmmmd, in die utoth 
tkm k iMgk I deKribe i^ iti the Tear 1776» and probably BMqi% 
in a aaere ruintd ttaiai, oommne so to tUe hour.^ In tUs aare* 

rbflhiftBti0% wbich I ahaU btncabrth denaaioate lb* 
doling a tfhnpefltaous aig^t, on die tirentyw 
M*aiidi af Noteariiar^ 1Y58» I first opened mj eyei tn Ifab 
vorid af duplietty and aortxm/'t This ranamic, biit jait, fah 
tradndtioa^ will nittoraliy prepare cfaa reader frr the bbtory ef 
m diMened, bot moat dijicate and aoitabie penon ; and nt 
cnty not die d'npoiition of thoM arbo can rite finom Am pertital 
«f bar MAM and afbding natratiTa wtthont •droa; feeing tf 
|iity A»r dia o ppifawd , indignation agnaat the dc)ia>efate baat^ 
tmm wUoh abe experiaiicM, and sorroir for the mlwry m 
likidi oven the wiaett and moat exceUent of peramB espote 
thanMiresi vban once they depart from the pom dietatea df 

Ifra. Sabhiion's nudden naau was Darby: on her mother^ 
alia^ pafflicularly» the was of a fiuoily the moat retpnelabbi^ 
«ha 99f% of Bc^erton, hi Ghunorganildrei ( to whom ttie cek»- 
•amiad Loeke #as a rebicive. She received the rudioBenia of 
hnr ^dneotion nndar tki tiitera of the amiatde and weil4cno#n 
MIm Haonab More. A #ild, benevolent, but with bis meani^ 
on impracticable aehcme of estabhsbing a wfaale^^fiskery an tb* 
eoosc of Labrador^ and of citflitfaig the Esqoimeanx Indiana 
took Mr. Darby, than on opnlsnt Bristol merchant, S» Aneiien ; 
•ndby thatet^pdoMroyad the fotoae happiness ofhis fiBnily,wha 
remeved to London on die ruin of dietr afidrs. At the age of 
Mosn, whh every aSlraotion and every virtue that could ador* 
ind dignlQr her charaotar, Miss Darby was married to a worth* 
less and encravogoot insii, of the name of Robinsan, an attor<» 

Y y « ' ncy. 

* JsoHBTy Aoncemb, tfsa. 
llfaOMMsf AabMs Mfs. fesMtesa, WiUfca by Midr, Tal.l pp. 1*^ 
t CaUia'^ Peerage, Vol. VIL p. trs^ 


Hey. This niftii kneir not how to eitimate the talents or tfi& 
virtues of his wife ; and he left her, eipond to every temptatioa 
to which a young, lovely, accomplisfaedy but poor and destkitte 
female is subject in the centre of a fashionable and flattering 
circle of society. Under die tuition of Mr«r Garrick, Mis. Ro» 
binson prepared for the stage, as th^ only means of supporting 
herself* It was in tins dangerous ** profession/' for so it is now 
fitthionable, perhaps proper, to caH the business of an actor, that 
Mrs* Robinson attracted the favourable notice of the moat polite, 
^ and best bred man in Europe," now exahed to the higheat 
honours, next to majesty itself, that this ooontry can bestow* 
^— The allurements of royalty, and of royalty in such a person ; 
the infidelity,, extravagance, and consequent iembarrassments of 
the man. lo whom she had a right to look for protection, with a 
Moved infimt, whidi its unnatural &ther seemed nehher fit, 
willing, nor even able to support, all conspired to weaken the 
virtuous resolutions of a heart that had successfully resisted a 
thoxisand temptations but little inferior to those it had now to 
encounter; After several months' incessant and daily applica- 
tion fitan her rojral admirer, Mrs. Robinson consented to forsake 
her profession, and cast herself on the £sith, the honour^ and 
protection of a man, whose various attractions but few of those 
wiio, with boasting pretensions to superior fortitude, were lavisfa 
in then* censures, would have resisted. It is not meant here to 
justify Mrs. Robinson's engagements with the prince ; but, we 
are persuaded that, in that great day, when ** actions come to 
be weighed,'^ the merciful Judos will not be ummndful of 09 
circumstance which can at all lessen, or extenuate, the offences 
of his erring creatures. " He .1$ not strict to mark iniquity f^ 
but in the midst of ** justice remembers mercy,;" and it should 
not be forgotten, that she herself repented of her errors. In a 
mind (Constituted like hers, this was sure to be the case. 

Mrs* Robinson did not long continue under the immediate 
protection of the prince* A separation took place, when, by the 
generous interference of that most enlightened orator, and distin- 


^yithdlfstnot, Mn Fox, an annuity of 5001. per afittum, with 
900L per anmiin ibr her daughter, to commence on the decease 
of Mn. Rdbinaon,* was agreed upon, and, we have no doubt, 
ftgalarlj paid. A finrmai separation had previously taken place 
between her and her profligale husband ; but another unfortu* 
attachment towards a gdlant colonel, it is said, was the 
\ of Tendering her fntm*e days still more unhappy. Her 
?, though augmented by AH incessant attention to literary 
pursuits, proved insufficient to support splendid appearances. 
We cannot narrate every important action of her life : for aU her 
csnc eros were important By -travelling asleep, during the 
nigbt, ia n carriage, with the windows open, to serve the inte- 
rests of h0i friend, ike coknd, she laid the foundation of a 
coaaplaini, which progreasivdy deprived her of the use of her 
imba, and she was, ever after, carried to and from her 'carriage^ 
and 6nooa one room to another. She afterwards went abroa^f 
6x the benefit of her health, and remained from home five- 
years. On her return, which was in 1788, she devoted herself 
to titenupy pm sui ts , and caotmued her labours, with unremitting 
rttfntiflw, tiU within a very short time of her death, which took 
place on the 26tii of December, 1800; and thus ended the life 
of ano-of she meat aooompHshed and beautifiil women this or any 
4ydMr eountiy ever produced. ^ Let those who are without sin, 
throw atones.'' — l4et those who never d^arted from the paths 
of rectitude, triumph in -their independence ; but socih as are well 
aofttiated with all the circnmstaneesof Mrs. Robinson^s unhappy 
Vi^ tfcoggh'they may condemn even her departure from the line 
of doty, they will not, if they have any sympathies of nature, 
any bowels of eompassion, any true acquaintance ^tk theur own 
natural strength, condemn her with rigour, nor insult her 
ncmoiy with reproaches. Of her genius, her talents, lier many 
personal and mental charms, the numerous virtues of her warm 
and generous heart, ail will be enamoured ; and her name will be 
feooided in the litenwy annals ^f our countiy^on the same page 

Y y 8 with 

• MAOtbly MsgaiiDt, Vol. IT. p. 37. 

766 soicsBsnsHUUb 

with many who'trt an henoor to tha plact of ihrif Utti^ mut 
who have nevar giran apangto thair fineadi, hy waj actioii tea 
might sully their (m^e, or dalraat fima tfaa raqpact diia ta Qiem 
talante. Her principal works atnamit to about twahty, in proa* 
and va»e : with few axcepiidna, atpaoiaUy such aa wei« wnttan 
aoeordii^ to the sickly ante of the DaUa Crtisca school, tlugr 
are certainly rqplala with whatever can chaam Ihefimc]^ iooprova 
t^e tastej refine the morab, and intaMsl tha fbelioga, of everjr 
correct and generous aiiiiid. 

Mrs. Ann YaAftatBT* the weft^known poetical aniUnsoniaa* 
was a native ^ this city. Her tafents were first disoomered by 
Mrs* Hannah More, who selicitad for her the proSaction of Mra. 
MontagUi '^ a prefatory letter prefixed to her poaoM, whidi 
ware published in quarto* ia the year 1765. Two yaan after 
tlust Mns. Yearsley published a second collection af her poems, 
and afterwards a poem on the '' Inhuamiity of dsaSkwe Tirade/^ 
*f Stanaaa of Woe/' *' Earl Oodnrm, an historical piny, pes-* 
fbrmad at Bristol,'' and *^ The Royal Captiv^es," a ooval, in 
fyut iKduBseSk After haVnig experienced oonridBvable anaati*> 
ngamtotfvoiB the public, she very naeh injnrad halt poputai^ 
by a quarrdi with her original patroness^ wbidk was oaitied an 
ifilh much acrinony on boUi sides, Ibr saaut tilsa. lifer poaua 
abound too much with axtraaragant hnagery ; but, on thawbola, 
exhibjt sb'OBg powars of genius, and a tnsa spiitit oT poatqr. Fbr 
aaoie tiaie after »he had retired from the poblia ^^walka^ of 
lifoi aa a v^ilkmaid, tim kept die Ctrcnkiting Khaaryat Ilia Ca)o- 
nadcy near the Hotwells» and died at MeUahaw^Wiltshire^ te the' 
year 1806. 

jAMsa Dawcs WdnoAx, is awther instanos of eaWy and 
e^lraordioary geniua-^-anothar of the m^ns cdtbr^ by mko m 
%ifi(ol h«a been justly konoured* He was the aen of a w«adi* 
inaker in this 'city» and waa aant la a commexdai school^ ftnaa 
whence ha was recalled lo aasiat in his ftiher^ trade. On the 
death of his fttbar* he became desirous to pniaoe each daswoai 
stndies as might qualify him for the christian ministry in the 



cbiirck, fbr whick ke kad tebibtd a ttsoi^ kidiiiation* By ik# 
beaerolence and kindneas 6£ the Rev. J.T. Biddttlph, ht was actti 
U>the achod) of the Rev. Samuel Sayar, s gentleman of knotm 
eruditioQ and respeciabilhy. In o«e year and a half ka paarad 
througb die nBiMd eourses ef Lallll and Greek, besidea devoting 
some fiortien ef his tkne te the stody of Hebreir. it was pro- 
posed at one ttee to send hiin to eoUege $ but thia plan wai 
i^bandoned, and he eentinaed his atudiaa in private. He aoon 
acquired a knowledge of French and Italian \ but, in 1807, all 
his prospects of literary eminence were blasted, by a typhus 
ftver, fhnn lihe effects ef which he never recovered. This, 
however, was not the only source of this young nuui's sufiering : 
he had formed an attadunent which could not be encouraged or 
gratified; and his disappointment, thou^ suf^rted by an 
uncommon strength of religioua fbelliig, preyed on his heart, and 
tmmght on an aggravated train of consumptive symptans, which 
at length ended in disBolntion, which he met with the fortitude 
of a philos o p h er, and the joy of a true christian.* He died oo 
the twenty-fourth of July, 1809, aged nineteen. As a poet, 
Mr. Worgan was inferior to many persons this country has 
produced of the same age: his talents were, however, much 
above medioaity ; while his ikcility in acquhnng a knowledge of 
the learned languages was very extraordinary. He baa some- 
times been compared to the late Kiik MThite s It mast, bowevar« 
be conftssed that diere Is scarcely one pohit of resambianoe, if 
we except their similarity of religious viewa and pursuits, in 
which these two youths i^eed. It shouM not be etiitted to be 
noticed, that yotmg Worgan, at the age of fiftaea, was chosen 
to undertake the education of a son of Richard Hart Davis, 
of CliftoA, Esq. M. P. and that befbre the oempletioa of his 
sixteenth year, he settled as a private tutor .in the family of the 
celebrated Dr. Jenner. His Poems and Essays, with some 
Particulars of his Life and Character, by an early Friend and 

Y y 4 Associate ; 

* ScWct Peeims &c e4ite(l ly wmm HvH* ^« FP* ^7. .78. 

7D8. sowsnasi^HiAe. 

AiA>eiate».aiui a PreliBkoe».by Mr. Hfljjfley, wfrs pobl^ed iam 

anu^ ▼olimie» during tlie last year^ 1810. 

Though we aie not certain that Mr# William fiAEi^BTT waa 
a native o£ this town, yet as he was certainly bom in , this county^ . 
aodfor many years settled heret it will be proper to la^ot^^ him 
in this place. He practised^ with much credit and i;espect» as a 
surgeon ; but is chiefly known as the topographer of Bristol, 
and as the friend and patron of Chatterton. He employed 
above twenty years in the compilation of his elaborate His- 
tory; and the work was published in one volume, c^uarto, in 
the year 17B9* It kp like mos|; other works of the kind, a dry, 
unmteresting book, i^>ounding with useless, and oflen unintelli* 
gible documents; yet it contains a variety of valuable matter* 
Aa a book of reference, it is somewhat dangerous to rely upon, 
as the author seems too implicitly to have confided in the apo- 
cryphal: communications of Chatterton. Mr. Barrett's connec- 
tion with this unfortunate youth is well known : it was honour- 
able to his character, and highly creditable to his feelings. He 
died in 1199. 

Sebastian Cabot, who has been considered, with justice, 
the first discoverer of the continent of America, was the son of 
a Venetian, r^ident at Bristol. He was bom here in the year 
1467, and receiyed from his father those branches of know- 
ledge suitable to qualify him for a scientific and useful navi- 
gator. Before he had completed his twentieth year, he had 
made several voyages along with him. In one of these they 
discovered part of Newfoundland. Afler the death of his 
ftther, it is supposed he completed this discovery ; and long 
before Columbus or Vesputius, also discovered the continent of 
America.* In the early part of Henry the Eighth he made 


* Both Stowe sod Speed attribate tliis dttcovery wboUy ta Sebastian, 
thoogh tame bavc snpposed that he did it in coiyiiiiction with liis father; 
and Purcba* auerts, that Cabot discovered more of America tlian eitber 
Amerieiis or Colmnbos; from whence he Miggeatg, that tliis continent 
evght to have been called Cabotiana, or Sebastiana. Vide Punhua hxa 
Pilgrimage^ 0r RMtUm^ the Wwrld. 

SpMBftaiTSMIRt. 709 

anoliier attempt at a voyage to the East Indies ; but from some 
tiause or other, fu>t now cleariy known, he was disaf^ointed ia 
his first views, and therefore, after carrying on some traffic in 
Hispaniola and Porto Rico, he returned to England. He 
soon Bgaia left his native, country and went to Spain, where he* 
was treated with npKich respect and attention by the court, and 
was made chief p^ot of Spain ; the highest honour which, in. 
tliat country^ his profession could obtain. At the suggestion 
and eacpence.of some rich merchants, he undertook, about the 
year 1525, to make a voyage, by the passage of Magellan, then 
newly found, to the Moluccas ; but the mutinous conduct of his 
crew, and a dcfficiency of supplies on the part of his owneiSt 
induced him, after an absence of five years, during which he 
made many valuable discoveries, to return home, without 
having accomplished all the objects of his voyage. He then 
came once more to his native country, and settled at BristoL 
In the early part of the reign of Edward, a new company havings 
been fi>raied at Bristol, called the Merchant Adventurers* 
Cabot was af^ointed, by letters patent, to be the governor, or 
director, and had a pension of 166L ISs. 4A. aasigned him. 
About this time he was - the cause of a trade being opened 
with Russia, and eventually of the formation of the Russiaii 
Company, of which he was made governor during his life^ 
i^ch terminated when he was nearly eighty years of age* 
We should not omit to mention, that he was the first who 
noticed the variations of the needle. He wrote instructions 
and advertisements of and for the direction of the intended 
voyage to Cathay;* and was also the author of Navigatione 
ndle Parte Settentrionale ; first published in folio, at Venice^ 

We shall dose our list of Bristol worthies, though we might 
have extended it to a much greater length, by some notice of 
Dr. Caxxb EvAys, with which we have been favoured chiefly 


•laEskWl'sysi^^ • 
t CsmbeU'ft Lives of the AdsMrals. 

710 SOMXMKTBinJIfi. 

bf lits reiatife, the Rev. J. fivans, of Jdingtoti, wiH kaMra ■• 
the candid aotber of a Sketch of Religloue DemKiiinatioBi, wd 
various other publications. Dr. Evane was born in tfaia toim» hi 
the year 1738; and having received the first part of hn ediioa* 
tton for the inim8tfy» under his own fatheri he eane to Londoii 
about the jear 1754^ and became a fufSi m the academy at 
Mile End) then under the direction of Dtfetot^Waiker md Jen- 
nhlga* He here entered on the sacred mfcistry ; and oAcr he left 
the academy, settled for soine time at Unicorn Yard, South* 
wark. In 1?59» he returned to Bristol, $aA became assistant to 
hls^ftther in the Baptist Chapel at Bro^^mead, and also in the 
academy, already noticed. He was oolained, in 17679 by tho 
Rev. Dr. Slennett. Soon after this,'||a engaged in cstablishinf 
the Bristol Education Society, and Hv9i to see the (hiit of hia 
benevolent exertions. About the year I7?5» he engaged in m 
spirited controverBy with the late, Re¥. John Wesley, respecting 
the American wsfi in which, it is said, the pieua founder of 
methodism did not appear to advantage. In 1781, he waa 
elected president of the Education Sociefy, which offce ho 
retained till his death, in 1791* His fWaesal sermon, by Dr. 
Stennett, is a just tribute of respect to a learned^ active, and 
benevolent man. There is a handsome medallion of him, with 
an Inscription, -stating the servicoshe rendersd the institution, in 
Ihsi Museum of the Academy at Bristol, executed by Baook, 
and an engraved head, by HotLOWA v, was pubUsfaed seen after 
his decease. 

We regret that the phui of this work does not adnttt ottr 
fonkmgin this list of persons, so honourable to the city of Brie* 
lot, the lives of More, Sovthiy, and Cottlb, all of them, wo 
believe, natives of this town ; and surely it will not be denied, 
thai whatever iateiese we may fed in the delineation and 
deacriptton of the remains of antiquity, as they are exhibited i» 
the n^ns Gt castles, churdies, and other public ediilees ; whet 
importance we may attach to the various improvements which 
modem taste and modem m^uity have introduced in the 



S0MERS8TSH1RS* 7 1 1 

nffioua towns, villages, and districts of our beloted isle, still tiie 
real ** beauties/' the true value of a country, consists in its 
inhabitants. Mind, in a general sense, never falls to ruin — 
there is no such thing as intellectual antiquity: Uiose works 
which are the effects of human wisdom are daily mouldering 
from our touch; and it is our duty and our interest to snatch 
tiiem from oblivion and forgetfulness ; that we may perserve 
^me visible record of those whose wisdom, piety, and benevo- 
lence first gave the^n existence. Men shall live when their 
labours are destroyed ; and to tell who and what they were, is 
one of the most useful and pleasing duties of the historian ; nor 
would the labours of the topographer and the aiitiquary have 
any interest, if the biography of past ages were neglected, and 
the niches in history left to lose their living subjects, as do the 
proud and stately mansions those effigies which perish as we 
gaze on them, and every day exhibit new proofs of th^ ini«^ 
riority of matter to mind* 

£N9 Of 80M£RS£TSMIKir. 



X HIS county belonged to the ancient ComavU of the Bri« 
tons, the division of Flavia CasariemU of the RomanB, and 
th^ kingdom of Mercia during the Saxon heptaichy. Bede* 
icalls the inhabitants Angli MedHerrandt the Midland English. 
The Saxon name was Statfordscyre, from the shire toviH Staf- 
ford, which name somef have derived from the river Sow, which 
flows about three miles east of iuX Somner|| say8» somewhat 
fittcifuUy, a vado forU Baculo irantmeabUL Whatever maj 
have been the original name of the river, it is pret^ obvious, that 
the name of the town, and from thence that of the .county, has 
emerged; as the terminational word, Jbrd^ demonstrates; but it 
is highly probable that the Sow had, at one time, the letter t, in 
its orthography ; and if so, there will be very little difficulty in 
discovering a rational etymology for Staffiird and Staffordshire. 
Camden says,it was called Betheney, at one time. 

The two Roman militaiy ways, Watling Street, and Icknield 
Street, pass through this county. Watling Street enters it out 
of Warwickshire, near Tamworth, and running westward, pas- 
seth into Shropshire, at no great distance from Brewood. Ick- 
nield Street enters the county, from Warwickshire, at the village 
of Hansworth, near Birmingham, runs a little beyond Shenstone, 
at which place it crosses Watling Street, and thence proceeding 
in a direction north-east and by north, enters the county of 


* EccMaitietl Hittoiy, IV. p. 3. f Salmon's New Simrey, II. 515. 

t ^ FromTiUington, Sow, washing the walla of Stafford, ptsseth between 
the t^wn and castle of Stafford towp." Erdeswicke's Survey of Staflurd. 
sbtre, p. 57. Edition of 1723, by Sir Simon Degge, Kat. 
• I Saxon Diet, {r Iff. 

714 srAVrOSDHIRB.' 

DerbyriuMy cnrer the Dove at Monies Bridge.* There is a 
greet ooni\i8ioii in b<»th the mape, and the descriptionB respedt^ 
ing this road.t It is said to have teived ita name from a con- 
jectiue that this part of the coun^ belonged to the loeni. 
^ The Ikening Street^^ iftfs ths learned, or the whimsicaly Mr. 
Whitaker4 ^ confessedly signifies the way which led to the 
Iceni of the eastern coast.'* The Roman stations in this eoaaQr 
that are known, arei^^mtomictW, near Strecton ; wadBiaehtm^ 
at WaHy near liehfldd. Bot Salmonf gives to this comity ftnf 
ttmnan stations, which, he says, are Mediobtnum^ at Knightley ; 
VficMhtn^ at Wrottesley; Vxficma^ at Wall-LichAcld ; and 
tetocetxtm^ at Barbeacon. The first of these stMion^, ComfdeA, 
In a very positive strain, places in Montgometyshire ; and 
Bishop Horsey fixes it on a slip of hmd, mclosed by the Tern, 
and another river. Urieomunij we have rki doubts is fhe 

* Pfofk Kstoral Iftetory of Staflbrdshire, p. 4m, 

t firdeswicke doM not appMT to mention it ; or ratfier, lie tahlakes it fbr 
Watliag Street. In deseribiag tile coane of the <* Breewood Water/* ht 
iijs, it «<waikslli tht banks of Sirectonyso called, bscsoBekttsadt Mile 
w y aailtd fTflt Afr Sirw#, •• if you said Street Town." p. 4iS. It iaiaa lah- 
aield Street that Stretton stands : the etynolegy may stiU t)c the same. 

t HkUtry of Haaahaiter, Vol. I. p. 103, sccoad ed, Svo. TitB topogra- 
pher or the aatiqnaiy, who consolts this very odd book, will have need ta 
keep a strict eye to the windings and turnings of the anthor, or he ^ill be led 
Into very great mistakes; as nianyt peihaps most, of Mr. lHliitakcr's con- 
eloilons and reasonings are foonded on some previons snppotttion. ^ In all 
pwhalrillty,**^^' most Iike1y/w« we may snppoie,"--** the Britons nnmI 
Jhvs coasHaetBd, kc"---^ I apprehend/' and other hypothetioai pltnaes «f 
tUshhid, afe fiivoorite modes of expression in this anthor*s works ; and it is 
from sQcb premises that he reasons and decides, in the most ingenious and 
positive manner, through several pages, till be seems to have persnaded hira> 
•elf, and almost his reader, that be is proceeding on indubitable and acknow- 
Mfsd teti. A society of antiquaries, composed of such men m Mr. Whs* 
laker, would produce hi more curious, and oven extensive volumes, than 
those wliich at present compose the Archaelogia -, We vrill not say mora 
aaefnl oir valuable. The History of Manchester, nevertheless, contains 
aNidi information that may, with safety, be reiisd on. 

f Survey IL p. 517. 


WroBiHor of Salop;* UjBticai90i or Uaaoona, wkioh oiigbl tt 
|iBV« been mentiOBed endwr in ttm-ftemnt ^^akine^ we believe^ 
belong either to SheriA Hates, on the boiders of ShMpehira 
and tbb oounty^f or to tbe place asngned it on th^ miip of 
Sbrapehire, in the Bvitiah Ailm, acoampaayiig Una woriu 
Gicat, and in aome inttanees^ ioHiperable, difieuUie% niMat ever 
mftend the task of assigning proper placca to the xenmiiB^ of tho 
Bonnui mlkarjr rands and station^ which ace tab^ij disoea iofr 
aUe in varfens parts of tins isiaiid. Salnionplneaa/ViNNifriifiMsp 
nt Oidborj^ in Wanrichshire» and gpaea Ae second jonnie|r of 
Antottinns, leadii^ lipom the nerth fay Chester to liOBd«D» as hip 
antfkority; adding, itut Penhridge, the plaoe aasignad it bf 
rotlicr aniiqulrtesy lies ^neither milicary wagrt vemainsy ner 
(to boast of.":^ Bat Plot» Gale, Her8eIey,{iod8tukele|r 
aB nearly agree, that this is the sito of that station. It mus^ 
ircr, be confessed, that this is not deadly ascertained, 
lits distance from Etoaetnmfj the apparent etyn^ology of its 
in the river Penck^ nt the same diaMnoe laid down bj 
Aaftonnus, end the anciexit citj of Pennooniciuni, wUdi maf 
be said atili to exist in Penkru^, though at present bat an 
obocnre viHi^ e, naturally encoorage acme presumption that tbia 
» she place. The remains of Roman aDtiqnity, which have from 
time to time been discovered i^on the roads and station^, shall 
be noticed in their proper places. 

SlsflinJsiiire is sn infamd oonnty, lying neariy in the centoe 
of the kingdom* It is a long and narrow tract, something in 
the Ibrm of n rhombus; bounded on tlie nerth by Cheshise and 
Deibyahiffe, on the east by Leicestershire, oti the west by 
e, and on the south by WarwickAire and Worcestoi^ 
Its greatest length, from north*north-east to south-south* 
WQM, is about sixty miles; and its grestest breodth, from New* 
ton Sabey, to thr western point of Tevbey Heath, near Market 


• VidsAata, p.a. 
t Oeai^, Ad4, Cuu flh t9. t V«l. VL p. 5M. 

I Sm l^aasaf J^mtmy Ikom Cbeitsr to Umdom^ p. i»8, era. ad. tai 1. 

^I't StAFMRDSItlllfir* 

DrajtoAi in Shropshire, is thirty-eight mUes.* It eonCaiti» 
«ibout 780,800 acre^ of tod; 100,000 of which are pastore^ 
500,000 arable, and the riemaining 180,800 woods, waters^ 
wastes, ftc. By the last census, there qipeared in thb coun^ 
to be 4^,198 houses, 989^158 inhabitants; 118,698, of which 
were males, and 120^455 females. Of these aumbars 7S,4f6S 
were employed in trade and manufactures, and 48,990- In agri* 
iSttltdre. Tile poors'-rates, in 1803, amounted to l]0,6il4L at 
Ibur shillings and two-pence forthing in the pound; and the 
proper^^ assessment, in 1806, was 1,840,9611* The parochial 
rates, nnoe that period, have risen to aatill more alarming ex- 
tmit. In Iktle more than Swelve months, before the year 1795» 
%hey advanced, in the parish of Tettenhall, fifty per cent.f 
The conclusion, therefore, if we had not actual observation to 
confirm our statement, is rational, that the amount of the 
poors'-rates, since the year 1806, has advanced in an equal 
proportion. This county sends ten members to parliament^ 
two of which are for the shire ; at present Sir Edward Littleton^ 
and the Right Hon. Lord Granville Leveson Gower, D. C. L. 

The present Civil Division of this county is as follows :«— 
There are five Hundreds :— Totmanslow, to the north ; Pyre* 
hiU, to the north-west ; Cuddlestone, to the south-west ; Offlow» 
to the east ; and Seisdon, to the South. There b one citjTt 
Lichfield; three bbroughs, Stafford, Newcastle-under-Lyne^ 
and Tamworth ; and twenty-four* market towns, ancient and 

The Ecclesiastical Division comprises one hundred and 
eighty one parishes ;% and the diocese of Lichfield and Coven- 
try contains Derbyshire, the hirger part of Warwickshire, the 

* Pitt's Agridiltanl Survey of Staffordshire, p. t, 
tibid. pp. 57, 238. 

X According to Mr. Pitt, (Survey, p. 4.) who says, that by the term 
parish lie mean^ tiaet of land haf ing a place of worship, and nnited io 
some degree, by a common or mutoal interest, withoat refarding Ih^-eccle- 
daslical constitotioii, or dependence npon a snperior or anather church. 

STArfO&DSSIBl. 717 

whole of the county of Stafford, (except two parishes) and 
nearly half of Shropshire. It is divided intafour Archdeacon* 
ne8« Ck>ventry, Stafford, Derby, and Salop, and contains 
64S*charche9 and chapels, of which 250 are impropriate. The 
Iceni according to Dr. Plotf werie the priginai inhabitants of 
Stafibrdshire. In this opinion, however, he seems to stand 
alone, and onsapported. Mr. Shaw says, it must be a mistake, 
because that tribe were undoubtedly of Derbyshire. Camden 
and Gough X will not allow that they extended farther to the 
west than Huntingdonshire ; while Salmon || confines them to 
the two maritime counties of Norfolk and Suffolk. The opi- 
nion of Mr. Shaw is, that the Ordivices were the aboriginal in- 
habitants of this district, and it seems at least pretty clear, that 
they possessed it many centuries before the Christian era. 
These were a brave and warlike people whose territories ex- 
tended over a great portion of Wales, as well as many coun- 
ties in England. They were not, however, long permitted to 
enjoy their dominions in tranquillity. The Cornabii breaking 
through the limits of their original settlements on the banks of 
the Dee, conquered a large tract of country to the west and 
north-west, and established a powerful monarchy of which Gm- 
dlg|e| was the capital. The Brigantes, whose original habita- 
tions lay more to the north, in their turn subdued a portion of 
the territories of this tribe, a short time before the arrival of 
die Romans. Upon this event the . metropolis was transferred 
from Qmdaie to Uriconium, now Wroxetei ;and this honour the 
latter seems to have enjoyed a considerable time, after the first 
inrasion of Britain, by these unrivalled conquerors. The 
Vou XIII. Z z county 

* Ecclesiast An. Register for 1806, p. 905. 

t Plot's History of Staffordshire, p. S9S. 

^ Goqgb's Cfttnden, Vol. II. p. 159. 

I Salmon's New Survey of England, p. 455. 

f The sKaationof this city is moch dispated. Mr. Whitaker conclQdes it 

to liafc stood at Kfiodcrton. Or. Wilkes, on the other band, wf| have it to . 

have becB placed «t Bell-poot aear Middlewich. 

couaty we are about to describe formed part .of the domiauai of 
theCornabii>asha8 been already mentionedt to the latest period 
of their existence as an independent nation. The Cangi * iir*' 
deed« from their name, are sapposed by some to have possessedl 
a portion of the chacoj or forest of Cannock^ but if they did 
80> it was merely in the capacity of herdsmen or servHnts K^ 
the Coraabii. Others, however, positively deny all conoeclkMl 
between the words Cannock^ and Can^i ; maintaining the for-i 
raer to be derived from the name of Canute* the first of ttMr 
'Panes who posseased the regal dignity ii\ England, and wh^ 
lived several centuriea posterior tp the period of vdiich weaft^ 
now speakii^. We bave no hesitation, to pronounce the fam^ 
idea erroneous. 

When the Romans pushed |heir conquests into th^ interior of 
this country, the territories of the'Comabii« would appeay 
to have comprised, besides Staffordshire, the counties of Cbeglei^ 
jSalop, Warwick, and Worcester. During the sanguinary cen-^ 
tests our ancestors maintained for freedom against these «sm* 
ters of the world, we hear very Utile concerning this di8tric( 
or its inhabitants. The level aspect of the country* in geaeraU 
afforded but little inducement to the Britons, to oppose them- 
selves here to the disciplined armies of Rome. * Perfeoll|r' 
akilled in military science, the latter could easily supply by «vt 
the deficiencies of nature. The Britons, on the other hand, <jbne 
paratively ignorant of the art of war, justly considered the 
hills, as offering the best means of counteracting and balaieing 
the advantages of discipline. To the hills therefore they gene^ 
rally retired, and there, history informs us, they resisted yrkh^ 
ibe most heroic valour, every effort of the Romans to reduce 
them to subjection ; and though at last compelled to submitg^ 
their determined courage, and generous ardour for freedom, ex-< 
cited the eloquence and admiration of their haughty but en- 
lightened conqverors. 

^ . After 

e Wfaitsl^« Hiitorj of UaacbpHer, VoU IIL p. $X 9hn^ ii^taif of 
Itaffiiidflura, Vol. 1. p. 14. 

•TA9rOE98BIEI« 7 19 

* Aftn Iii6 tnbjecdbn of their eountry, the C«mabii teem tp 
kaiw cmitiiiiied the faithful Iriends and allies of the Eooiaa 
people. Numeri and TunDae* of ^is tribe^ are frequendy 
meotioiied in the Notilia as serTing in the armies of the latter 
emperors. From' hence it would appear that they retained their 
original name, eVen posterior to the decline oi the Roman 
power. It is certainly then in no small degree remarkable^ thai 
the appellation Comabit never afterwards occurs in the amiala 
of Eng^iah history, nor has any traces of it been discovered 
eMier In this county, or in any other part of the isknd« 

When the legions of Rome were recalled for the protection 
of the central dominions of the empire, against those swarma 
of barbarians, which ultimately effected its ruin^ the Britons 
Iband themselves in a most unhappy and miserable situation. 
The flower of their youths, trained up in the Roman army, liad 
been carried along with it to assist in thedefenoe of Italy. Those 
who remained at home being entirely devoteil to the. arts' of 
peace ; and having their minds debased by slavery, were totally 
uifitfor the arduous conflicts of the field. Secure under the 
safe-goard of Roman valour, they had lost all idea of defending 
themselves. Snob was the situation of our ancestors, whcA the 
Scotch and Picts, now no longer opposed by the veteran troops 
of Rome, broke through those walb, which before they had 
assailed in vain, and advancing into the heart of England, plun* 
dered and massacred at will its weak, and defenceless inhabit 
tants. {n their thirst for vengeance, these ferocious enemies 
spared neither sex nor age. AH were promiscuously put to the 
•word, or perished in the flames. The miserable Britons, unable 
to resist, sent deputies to Rome to implore assistance, bnt*their 
entreaties were heard in vain. The Romans, scarcely adequate 
to the protection of Italy itself, were compelled to abandon the 
remote provinces to their fate. In this direful extremity, 
onr ancestors, loo timid and irresolute to arm in their own 
defiMice, resolved to dispatch ambassadors to i\ur Saxons, 

• warlike tribe of Germany. These eagerly embraced the op- 

Z z2 pertunity 

720 BTArFOapSBtBB. 

'portunity oAered to them of extending their military hme, and 
acquiring a portion of those riches which Roman cirilizatioA 
had introduced into Britain. A considerable army was iinme* 
diat^ly sent over, by whose prowess and intrepidity, the Picta 
and Scots were once more driven back to their original settle* 
jnents. No sooner was this service performed, than the Saxons, 
allured by the opulence and fertility of the country, and the 
easy conquest the dastardly 'behaviour of its inhabitants pro* 
iaised, determined to seize upon it for themselves. With this 
view they warmly urged to their countrymen on the continent 
the many advantages to be derived from such a measure, nor 
were their representations long neglected. *^housand8 immedi* 
ately abandoned their native land, to join ^e standard about to 
be unfurled for the subjugation of Brit^tin* A pretence for 
quarrelling was soon discovered ; then followed a scene of deso- 
lation and cruelty^ more dreadful, if possible, than that which 
marked the progress of the northern barbarians, from whose 
sanguinary grasp they had just been freed. 

The Saxon army being divided into several corps under 
leaders totally independent of each other, advanced into d>f- 
ierent districts, each with the view of conquering for them* 
selves. In the end seven kingdoms were established, of which 
Mercia was the finest, if not the most powerful, extending over 
all the midland counties. It was founded by Orida, who ar* 
rived in England in 584, and assumed the purple the following^ 
year.* Staffiurdshire formed a portion of this monarchy and 
contained several of its principal towns. 

In the neighbourhood of Lichfield, is the forest of Cannock, 
iikt. favourite chace of the Mercian kings, near which it is ex«- 
tremely probable some of their palaces anciently reared their 
lofty battlements. 

During the inroads of the Danes this county l)ore a consider 

rable share of the calamities, the cruelty and rapacity, occasipu^ 

ed in alm^ evei^ portion of our island. Several sanguinary 

* battle* 

• lUpin's Hiitory of EDglsad, Vol. I. p, 59. 


iMttleft took, pitcc batweentbem and the SaxoBii whhin tbe 
limiU ^f Mercia. The Saxan annals mention a dreadful defeat 
ivhich tbey sustained in that kkigdom in th^ year 911, but 
do not specify the spot on which the action was fooght.* The 
alaoghterwas prodigious, and among the slain were two kings, 
Eewils and Healfden, two earls, Ohter and Scarfa, six generals, 
and « vast number of inferior officers, many of them very cen« 
siderable persons. Henry of Huntingdon gi^es us a similar ac- 
count of fh]» action, differing only a little with respect to the 
anmes of the great men killed. Concerning the scene of this 
battle much diversity of opinion prevails among succeeding an- 
tiquaries suid historians. Florence of Worcester, and Ralph 
Bigden, contend that it took place in the vicinity of Tettenhall, 
in this county. Etbelwald, on the other hand, maintains with 
equal confidence that it was fought at Wednesfield. The truth 
seems lo be that two battles f happened in this part of Stafford- 
shire; the one near Tettenhall, in 907, and the other at Wed- 
ncsfield, in the year 911, X in both of which the same parties 
were engaged. These lu'illiant victories are among the num- 
ber of those which distinguished the glorious and successful 
reign of Edward the elder, second son of the celebrated Alfred, 
by hia queen Ethelswitha, daughter of a Mercian Ear].|| Ethel- 
fieda the king's sister, and widow of Ethelbert, governor of that 
Jtingdom, contributed much by her prudence, activity, and va- 

Z z 3 lour, 

• Shaw's History of Stairord^liire, Vol. I. p. 38. 
f Nigden. Gnngb's Camden, vol. II. p. 500. 
t ilntiquaries aud hirtortiina difer no less with regard to the period m which 
tlMse baulea were fought, than they do with respect to the scene of them, 
Asser says, the haltle of WedocsfieJd happened in 910^ and so it is in Le* 
Uad'a Collectanea, toI. IL p. 8 1 9. Ethelwald describes it as fought on the 
5th of Aagnst, 911, bat his accoant eridently pofaiU it out as the battle of 
Tettenhall and not that of Wednesfield. The action of Tettenhall is mention- 
ed by Leiand, in page IBS, of his Collectanea, as haTing taken place in 907, 
bat in page 289 of the same work he places it in 939. Hovedeii, p. S4< 
^ the date of it 907, but Huntingdon, p. S05» says 911. t 
I Home's History of England, vol. L p. 99» 

low, to the eonttnned success of her brotber'i anus.* Ketadning 
Che government after the death of her husband, ahe erected 
Aomerous castles^ raised and organised a powerful army, and 
it said to have been personaUy present, in all the great actions 
fought daring her government, within the limits of Mercia. 

At the time of the partition of England, between EdoHUid 
Ironside and Canute, Staffordshire, as part of Mercia, (ell to 
the latter. After the conquest, the whole estates of the Mer* 
cian Earls were divided by William among foor of his princi- 
pal followers, Hugh de Montgomery, Earl of Arundel, Robert 
de Stafford, Henry de Ferrars, and William Fitz Ansculph, the 
last of whom held twenty •five manors in this county. The 
other landholders besides the king were the bishop of Chester^ 
the abbies of Westminister and Barton, the church of Rheims, 
the canons of Stafford and Wolverhampton, Earl Roger, &c.f 
In the reign of Henry I. Robert de Belesme earl of Shrews- 
bury, ravaged this county in support of the pretensions of Ro» 
bert Curthoae the King's brother.) 

During the contentions for the crown between the houses of 
York, and Lancaster, a decisive battle was fought at Blore* 
heath, in this county. The earl of Salisbury marching to join 
the Duke of York, who then lay at Ludlow in Shropshire, was 
intercepted at this place, by the royal army under Lord Audley^ 
who posted himself here for that purpose, by the express orders 
of Queen Margaret, the celebrated consort of Henry VL she 
being extremely fearful lest the kings person should fall into 
the power of his adversary. Lord Aud ley's forces amounted 
to ten thousand men, and had besides the advantage of chasing 
their position, whereas the Yorkist troops did not exceed 5000, 
men with all the incumbrances and disadvantages of an army oa 
its march. The Earl of Salisbury, to obviate these difficulties^ 
as much as possible, and with the view of separating the royal- 
ists, and throwing them off their guard, had recourse to strata- 

^ • Home*! History of England, toI. L p. 102. 
r. i Pometdftjr Book, Fol. S4ti. A. % Ooogh's Camdea, Vol. XL p. 499. 

• STAProaDSHiBt* 7^3 

Between the (wo armies ran a small rivnlet with Tery 
tteep benke» and not easily passed. Feigtiing therefore a re« 
trsat, lie indaced Lord Andley to ordeV a precipitate piirsnit. 
The consequence was the dirision of his army by the rivulet; 
which the Earl no sooner perceiTed than he ordered his troops 
to free aboQt, and commence the attack. The vigour of the 
•nset, and the surprise and astonishment of the enemy, soon de- 
cided the fortune of the day.* Lord Audley himselfj and two 
thousand four hundred of the Cheshire gentlemen whose loyalty 
and ardour had led them into the van« fell in the action.f The 
Queen, who beheld the defeat of her army, from the tower of 
Moccleston church, fled to Eccleshall castle, while Salisbury 
proceeded, without further opposition, to the place of hisdesti* 
nation. { 

Michael Drayton commemorates this Important battle, so fatal 
to the Lancastrian cause ; and preserves the names of the 
Cheshire heroes, who fought on either side. 

At Tutbury, as well as Chartley, Mary, the beautiful but un« 
fortunate Queen of Scots, resided at different periods during tfa6 
lime of detention in England, by her rival Elizabeth. At the 
latter place her correspondence with the Pope was contrived 
and carried on. Here likewise she resided, previous to being 
conducted to Fotheringham castle, where her trial and condem« 
nation took place, followed by her execution, to the indelible 
disgrace of the great and illustrious princess who then swayed 
the English sceptre^ 

Staffordshire, during the great rebellion, as it Is called, in go- 
heral supported the cause of the parliament, but to this obser* 
vation the exceptions were perhaps more numerous than in 
any other 4:ounty in England. The Dyotts of Lichfield aqd 
many of the country gentlemen were conspicuous for their 
loyalty and attachment to the house of Stuart Lichfield wak 

Z a 4 taken 

* Iltime's History of £ng|^d« Vol. II. p, tOft. 

t JUhuMl'ft lua. VII. 3 ?. OoQgh't CamdeD, VoL IL p. S0». 

I Pcaaaai'i Joiini«jr« p. 61, 6S>. 

724 QTAirOEPSpUS. 

takQn and rjBtakf n several times in thiB course of the war» as d|iU 
be ipore fully shewn when we come to the history and descdpr 
tioi^ of that cjty. In the neighbourhood qf Stafibrd> the Earl 
Northampton enj;aged Sir John Qti], and Sir \iriUiam.BrereUiiu 
and after a most desperate rencounter^ succeeded in compelling 
the enemy tp abandon the field. He bimse}f huwever being too 
.eager in the pursuit, was surrounded by 9 party of republican 
horse and slain. This event so discouraged the Royalists that they 
fell back again upon Stafford, which town soon afler surrender? 
<sd to th^ parliament, as 4id also the town of Wolyerhampton* 
In this county, Charles 11. l^y concealed after the fatal battle 
of Worcester, till he found an oppprtunity of making his es- 
cape to Prance* The circum{stanc(es attending bis concealment! 
the hardships he underwent, and the faithful attachment of hip 
friends, particularly of the three brothers, Humphry, John, 
and Richard Pendsfurd, will be found very fully detailed by 
Mr. Shaw in his General History of Staffordshire, to which w^ 
beg leave to refer such as feel strongly interested in the misfor- 
tunes of royalty. 

In the year 1745^ the Scotch rebels posted themselves a| 
Leek, to the great consternation of 'the inhabitapts, who feared 
the consequences of an action, betwixt thefn aQd the army of 
the Duke of Cumberland, then stationed in the town of Stones 
The rebels, however, deemed it pri^dent tP withdraw ' to theifr 
own country, without hazarding an engagement. Sii^ce tha( 
period the history of Staffordshire is merely a history of itf 
commerce and manufactures. 

. Ecclesiastical History.— Mr. Shaw is pf opinion, that in 
the days of Druidism, the chief seat of the arch-druid of Brl* 
tain, was situated in the vicinity of Sutton Colfield, which an- 
ciently formed a portion of the forest of Cank or Cannoc. Thi^ 
conclusion is drawn from a combination of evidence which wo 
confess appears to us to possess considerable weight The fo- 
rest of Cannoc lying nearly in the centre of England, corres* 
ponds with the position of the well authenticated residence Of 


ftVAFrORPSHlEV. 7t5 

lbit«iipMaie prifiBt ia the continental countries. An exten&ivtt 
common bere bIiU bears the name of Drood or Draid*beath. On 
this spot, it is supposed, the people were qgnually accustomed 
po assemble to have their disputes, civil and religious, finally de^ 
pided by the arch-druid. The words Cannoc and Colfield^ 
though unquestionably of Saxon origin, Mr. Shaw says, bear 
an eirid^t relation ia meaning to druidical religious rites. 
Resides these circumstances in support of this notion, there are 
two large areas, immediately adjoining, which cannot be well 
l|cconnted for^ f xciept upon the supposition of their being the 
summer and winter habitations of this sovereign Druid. A third 
area^f smaller dimensions^ which is placed at the east end of dbe 
heath, may probably have been appropriated for the reception 
of some of his more illustrious attendants. Add to all this, the 
positioQ of the areas, particularly that now called Knaves Castlcj 
^an which perhaps there is not a spot in England better 
adapted for making observations in astronomy, the favourite 
pursuit of the Druids, The summit of Barbeacon hill, adjoining • 
commands an open and extensive view of Warwickshire^ Lei- 
ccstetshire, Derbyshire, and Worcestershire, besides several 
counties in Wales. If therefore, as we are informed, high hills 
were the points from which by means of fire these priests gave 
notice to the country, of their quarterly sacrifices, what place 
could be found more suitable to their purpose than this ? 

The inhabitants of StafTordsbire, forming part of Mercia, 
continued in the practice of Paganism, till the reign of Penda^ 
long afler its abolition in the neighbouring states. At length 
{this monarch having sent his son Peadda into J^'orthumberland 
to solicit in marriage Alchflida, the daughter of King Oswy, 
he was converted to Christianity by the persuasive discourses of 
^e venerable Bede. The object of his journey being accom- 
plished^ he returned to his native country accompanied by a 
pamber of celebrated characters, who immediately began to 
spread'tbe doctrines and precepts of the Gospel with great suc- 
ffas among the idolatrous Mercians. Peiula, who seems to hi^ve 




^e^n^ these events with ibe utmost ifidifflnreii«e> seott nflcf 
isntered into a war with the Northumbrian prince, and being 
defeated and slain in battle, his dominions wet« seized by the 
conqueror. Oswy, in conjunction with Peadda, remained in 
possession of Mercia for the spaoe of three years, during which 
time Christianity was declared the established religion, and the 
cathedral of Lichfield founded. At the end of this period^ 
howeyer,'the inhabitants, weary of subjection fo a foreign mas- 
ter, revolted, and having proved successful in regaining thtir 
independence conferred the crown on Wulfhere, one of thtt 
sons of Penda, who still embraced the Pagan idolatry. 

During the earlier part of the reign of this prince, the cause 
tf Christianity was greatly injured by the vigour and enmity 
withwhich he persecuted its professors. So strong indeed was 
th^ aversion he had conceived against the religion of Jesus, that 
he ordered his two sons to be put to death> because they refused 
to become apostates. Cellagh, who had succeeded Diuma, the 
first bishop of Mercia, was compelled to fly to Scotland for 
safety. Wulfhere, however, in the end became a convert to 
Christianity himself. The circumstances which led to this 
change in his religious sentiments are very imperfectly stated 
by historians. His first act was to appoint Tramhere, an Eng* 
iish clergyman, who had been educated in Scotland to the 
vacant see.* To this prelate Juraman succeeded. The fkmouS 
St. Chad, or St Ceadda was next consecrated. About the year 
669, by this bishop the episcopal see of Mercia was finally 
fixed at Lichfield. His successor Winefired, being deposed by 
the archbishop of Canterbury, the bishopric was divided into 
five several dioceses, Lichfield, Worcester, Hereford,[^Leicestef 
and Sidnacester.f 

Ofia, one of the most powerful and illustrious monarchs of 
tt&e Saxon heptarchy, required of Pope Adrian that his domK 


* EcclettMt. Ao. Register, for 1809, p. 78, t9. 
f Ittgde, Po^chrcm. v. L |>« t41. Sccleiisit Aa^Begiiter, ibi l8D)k 

I shooM be goyemed by an arebiepitGOpal power. To Ibii 
he WW iadeeed by feelrngs of pride and resentmeniy that hie 
bishepe should be rabordinate to an authority beyond the liniCH 
of his own kingdom. In compliance with the wish of 08h» 
Lichfield was constituted an independent archbnhoprie in 78ft 
This cky howeTer, only continaed to enjoy the distinction it 
had thus obtained, till the death of Ofia, when the archbishop 
of Canterbury* prevailed upon Leo the t(ien Pope, by a goldea 
bait, to reduce it once more to its ancient rank within the ju* 
risdiction of his see. About the year I067> the bishopric wa$ 
carried from hence to Chester on account of the mean conditioii 
of the town. From Chester it was removed a few years sohse* 
foent to Coventry, where it continued till after a succession of 
45 prelates, Walter de Langton was unanimously chosen 
bishop of Lichfield and Coventry. From this period, nothing 
remarkable happened in Stafibrdshire, connected with cborell 
history, previous to the reformation ; when the cathedral of 
Lichfield was despoiled of the rich shrine of St. Chad, and 
the see of Coventry again disjoined from it. These two bishop* 
ricks remained separate till the era of the restoration, when 
they again united in the person of the celebrated Dr. John 
Hacket, who was elevated to this dignity as a reward for his 
pious heroism, during the persecution of the established church 
by the puritanical party. Since that time this diocese has un* 
dergone no changes deserving of notice. 

AsFiCT OF TRB CouNTRY. — ^Thc aspect of Stafiordshire va* 
ries in different districts : the middle and south portions are 
generally level, or only interspersed with gentle eminences. 
To this observation, however, there are a few exceptions, among 
these the hills of Dudeley and Sedgely, the Quartose and Rag- 
stone hills of Rowley, and the hills of Clent and Barbeacoa 
nay be reckoned the most conspicuous. The high grounds of 
Byshbury and Essington, and some situations near Tettenball, 
and Enville, as well as on Cannock-heath» also reach considera- 
« CtflMleD MjTt King Kenulph. Pough'i CamdeD, Vol. II. p. 51t« 

Ue eleyaikm* Thai portion of the county last mentioned ^ 
ID ancient times wholly cotered with oak« bat has been for se* 
▼eral centuries entirely despoiled of its foliage. Scarcely a 
tree noyr remains to enliven the riew throoghout an extent of 
fi0 square miles, or 2500 acres. 

The northern division of Staffordshire is quite of an opposite 
chaiiacter to that on the south. Here the surface of the ooun* 
try is for most part blea]^ and billy. Only a few of the emi- 
nences> howeverj rise to any remarkable height* The summit of 
Bonster, near Ham, was found by Mr. Pitt * in the course of his 
sufvey to be 130Q feet above the l^vel of the Thamea at Srentn 
ford* According to the same author the Weever hills;, and some 
other points, even ascend so high as 1500 feet. The general 
elevation of this district above the southern part is estimated 
at from 100 to 200 yards. That portion of it, which is denomi- 
nated the moorlands, is the commencement of that range of 
mountains which stretch themselves from hence through the 
centre of England northwards till they enter Scotland, receivihg 
different appellations in their progress, and becoming more lofty 
as they approach the north. 

As the subject is unquestionably a curious one, we deem it an- 
necessary to apologize to our readers for transcribing from Mr. 
Pittas Survey a view of the particular elevation of different spota 
in thb interior county, above the level of the sea : 

** Elevation of sundry points of laud in this county, perpen- 
dicularly above the level of the tide of the Thames at Brent- 

Pariicular Spots. Feet. 

Banks of the Severn at Over Ashley ' 60 

Tame at Tamworth '. 150 

— — — ^Trcnt at its junction with the Dove 100 

— Summit of the Suffordshirc Canal 385 

S ummit of the Birmingham Canal 500 

' Summit of the Wirely Canal at Essing- > ^^q 

ton-wood new Cdlierj 5 


* Pitt's Sarrcy of Stafibrdshire, p. 10« 

Pariieuiat Spots. Fe^. 

Suttmitof Bfsbbiiry-^bill - 650 

Baurbeacpn - 750 

the highest pesik of Rowlev biU 900 

■ ■ . T he grand trunk Canal -^ 420 

^a hMl called Bunster^ near Ilaoiy in the . \ .^^nA 

Mooriandi ^. .••••.. i 

the Wcever hills, and some other of the > . ^qq 
highest points in the Moorlands .* ) 

*'MaDy of the above are by actual ob$erTatioD« and others bj 
•stimate ooly.^* 

JSoiL.— This co«nty exhibits as great a variety of solis as any 
/>ther in England of proportionate extent. Mr. Pitt says the 
•; arable soils may in divided into^ first* the stiff ^d 
strong clayey, (argillaceous}, secondly the loose an4 light, 
sandy, (arenaceous,) thirdly,, although the county has no 
chalk, yet in the limestone district, lime earth (calcareous], 
fourthly the mixed or compound soil or loam composed of the 
above with the addition of stgnes and other matters, terra com* 
pontio. The strong clayey soil is most prevalent in the hun- 
dred of Castleton, and in those portions of the hundred of 0&> 
flovr whicb lie nprth of the Trent, and east of the Tjame, to- 
gether with the southern parishes of Pyrehill and Totsman- 
stow. The light aoil predominates chiefly in the hundred of 
OiHow, to the south of the Trent, and in the lands adjoining to 
Pattingham, Womburn, Himley, and Kings Swinford in the 
hundred of Seisdon. The calcareous district is of small extent, 
and situated chiefly eastward of a semicircular line, which 
may be supposed to be drawn from Farley by Kingsale and Ip- 
stones to Warton in the hundred of Totmanstow. The other 
districts of that hundred, and all the central portions the county 
or on the soutl^ side of the river Trent, are composed of th^ mixt 
compound solU The meadow grounds, which for the most part 
lie in the vicinity of the canals and rivers, usually partake of 

' the 

* Piit*i Suqrey of Stiffordthirej p. 9, to. 

the natore of the arable soik in their neighbourhood^ with th^ 
addition of the sedtment of water, when within reach of the 
fttreams. In some parttcalar spots peat earth forms the soil in 
the meadow ground, reaching different degrees of thickness in 
different places.' This species of earth, consists principally of 
the decayed roots of aquatic vegetables. Sometimes it contains 
trunks of trees, of which many curious specimens, have of late 
years been found near Stonehall in the parish of Sbenstone, 
When properly drained, consolidated, and meliorated, this kind 
of soil becomes valuable pasture and meadow land. 

Climate,— /The climate of this county rather Inclined to 
wet. The air is generally good, but in the northern parts ex- 
tremely sharp, impressing the senses with a greater degree of 
cold« than in most other counties of England. The annual rains 
are calculated, supposing them to stagnate without waste, or 
evaporation, at upwards of 36 inches, an excess of nearly 16 
inches above the computed rains in the metropolis. The quan- 
tity of snow which falls in the moorlands, during winter, is yery 
fpreat, a circumstance which no doubt contributes much to the 
piercing coldness of that district. 

RiVE&s.— Staffordshire is plentifully watered by rivers ; but 
Aone of them are navigable, at least within its boundaries* 
Some of them, howerer, are characterised by very peculiar and 
interesting features. The Severn in its circuitous course, firom 
Plinlimmon hill in Montgomeryshire, Wales, to the Bristol 
channel, flows through the parish of Over Arley, situated in 
the south-west extremity of the hundred 6f Seisdon. This cir^ 
cumstance, however, does not seem to entitle it to rank among 
the Staffordshire rivers, though joined by a number of tributary 
streams^ which take their rise in, and flow for a considerable 
jpace^ within the precincts of the county. The Trent, there* 
fore, which springs from Newpool near Biddulpb, on the con* 
.fines of Cheshire, is generally esteemed the principal river of 
Staffordshire. With respect to the rivers of England at large, 
it is uodoQbtedly the thirds whether we regard its size, or the 

4 isztent 

«BtMkof ite^wrie» Its stream b bold wad clears bearing « 
jtrong resemUaace to the Thames, but exceeding that noUe 
lifer io rapidity. The Trent, in its coarse to the sea, watera 
some of the most fertile and best culti rated districts of Eng* 
land. Daring its passage tbroogh Staffordshire, its banVs are 
corered with rich and loxoriaot meadowy, between which tho 
water glides along in siWer beanty. Flowing past the busy town 
of Northampton, and the sorroundifig bills e?ery where crow** 
ded with potteries ; and adorned by Mr. Wedgewood's celebra^ 
ted Etraria, it reaches the maosioa of Trentham^ the seat oC 
the noble family uf Qower. Here the efibrts of art haif e 
greatly increased the natural beauty of the river, by swelling, 
it into a broad and expansiye lake. Qn the one side of this 
, charming expansci but at a little distance, stands the house, 
sarrounded by a verdant and smiliag lawn decked with treea 
and laid out with the greatest taste. Qp Ae other rises a lofty 
^reading hill covered with oak from k$ summit to the very, 
brink of the water. Leavmg this, the river meets near Oat-, 
lanes with some of the numerous oanals which abound in every 
part of the county, and firequently foHow a course parallel to 
itselC It now passes the town of Stone, and flows on through 
an agreeid>Ie valley diversified with a variety of elegant parks 
and villas. Among these the inck>sures which adorn the man- 
sion of Earl Talbot, at Ingestrte, the ornamental buildings and 
plantation of @huckfoergh^ and the wild park of Wolsey bor* 
dering on the chase of Cannock, are moat remarkable for the 
beauty and romantic character of their scenery^ The Httle 
bridge of Wolsey^ which leads from the park, across the river^ 
is one of the most sequestered and interesting spots in England. 
The Trent, continuing tt9 progress from hence, is intersected at 
different points by the canals, which are carried over it by 
means of very noble a^edacts. As it approaches Derbyshire, 
it forms a namber of small islands, and upon reaching the con* 
fines of that county, sweeps rapidly to the north, and becomes 
the boundary between it and Staffordshire till its junction with 


ySi 8tAyto&i>sttifte; 

A^ river thve. After this/ croaking I>erbysbire» H mm threifgff 
fbe counties of Nottingham and Lincoln, and at last poors it* 
waters into the Homber, about 40 miles beneath Gainsborough, 
towbichphiceitis navigable by vessels^ofconsidemble tonnage. 
The river next in importance to the Trent, m StaflR>fdshire, 
and which joins it near the town of Burton, ivthe Dave. H' 
lakes its rise among the hills in the moor)ands» near the points' 
where^the three counties dfStaflbrd> Derby, and Chester, meet. 
The Dove has much of the quality and appearance of * those 
rivers in Wales which flow from a mountainous origin. Oene- 
mlly speaking, itoseeneryis not less romantic than that of'any 
river in England. From the great declivity of its channel, itsi 
vialers flow with uncommon rapidity. In some-places it dashes 
j^recipitately over rugged rocks, shaded with foliage. In^others' 
ii is distinguished by gentle cascades. Not far from its source' 
it flows through the beautifully sequestered dell of Dove Dale, 
embosomed among bold projecting preiiipices, whose lofly tops 
are covered with trees. Emerging from its hollow bed, under 
the pyramidical mountain of Thorpe cloud, it receives the 
Manifold. This latter river rising near the origin of the Dove,* 

- afUr a very serpentine course of several miles, sinks into the 
ground to the south of Ecton hill, and rises again at Ham, not 
&r from its junction with the DoVe. Daring its subterrane^nr 
transit, this river is joined by the Hamps, or Hansc, which also 
flows for a considerable way in the hollow bowels of the earth. 

* Increased by the accession of these rivers, the Dove passes be- 
ileath a long picturesque bridge situated in a most romantic spot 
about a mile above the village of Ashborne, one of the most de* 
lightful in England, whether we r^gard the charms of its situa- 
tion, or the select society by which it is inhabited, jfrom 
thence the river meanders along in a winding direction through 
a narrow valley agreeably diversified by a variety of elegant 
seato and hamlets. The fertile meadows on each side are cover- 
ed with a profusion of sheep and cattle, which here feed on the 
finest pasturage in the county. At one part of this vale the 

8 town 

kmn of RocbMlsr b leen* and a short dittaiice below H the 
Chahiet formed by the conflaence of two moorland streamSf 
near Leek, poors iu wateva into those of the Dove. Arriving 
at Uttojieter^ the vale expands greatly on each side of the 
river. As it approaches Sndbory, however^ the banks are again 
enveloped by the wild wooded hills of Needwood forest and 
the ancient domain of Lord Vernon. Once more the hills re- 
cede and exhibit an open plain> distinguished only by the bold 
essinence on which the celebrated rains of Tcttbury castle pre* 
sent themselves with venerable pride to the view of the travel- 
ler. Meandering roaild the base of this hill> the river soon 
after fitlls into the Trent, being first intersected by the canals 
of this county between which and Derbyshire it forms the 
boundary during the whole of its course. 

The Tame k another river of considerable size flawing into 
the Trent during its passage through this county. It springs 
from several sources in the vicinity of Walsall and C(«leshill 
Which latter place forms a portion of an isolated district^ of 
Warwickshire ; proceeding from hence it takes at firsts a direc* 
tioa almost directly east, entering Warwickshire near Aston 
juxta Birmiiighant Here it begins to bend more to the north, 
and at last flows decidedly in that direction through Tamwor that 
which place it again enters Staflfordshire. The banks of this 
river sure much less fruitful in scenery than the rivers hitherto 
described. Its junction with the Trent takes place at the point 
where that river reaches the; confines of Derbyshire. I^^he 
Tame derives its name from the nature of its stream which is 
exceedingly slow and placid.- 

The Bfyike which fklls into the' Trent near Kings Bromley 
BMty alio be reckoned among the more considerable rivers of 
this county^ It rises in the neighbourhood of Watley Moor in 
the northern districts Its line of direction is nearly parallel to 
the Trent« No scenery worthy of particular notice, except 
Lord Bagot's seat* and the finely wooded park of Blithefield, is 
feund to decorate its banks. The Sow from Ecdeshall, and the 

VOL.XUL Aaa Penk» 


PefU^ &oin the TldnUy oC Som^riSbrdy lbvaii»g«a<J«iiita9QAtf« 
low Stafford, proceed togetb^r to TixiAl, witei* tkejr Kke- 
wise procipitate tkemselreft iijnux tM Trt »i r . 

The. other rivers, of Suffordabuw, deMrriniJ ooiifca ia thi» 
i^ork» and not pouring th«ir waters nM the Tren^jaM lite Staof, 
s^d the Dane. The fermer» whiehrioos in WamiidaKre^ majr 
be considered by some as .property b«)bngiBg>o lh«k county* 
The latter has its origin, near tJ^e source of Ike Dnrc^ botfkiw«* 
ing in an opposite directiooi beeoiAes the iMrahdwy beteweto 
ih^a counly and Cheshire for upwaixb of lea miLes* 

Canals, The deficiency, of nav^|aibl« rtviers in Staff»fdshire, 
and th,e disadvantages of an inland situalion under rach csrcom* 
stances for the purposes of tcade> |«e ampiy conntnrbaktneed 
by the number and extent of iU canak. ^Indeedy do district per- 
l^ps in the world is more nobly sufH>li^ ^itb ifcis cheap and 
easy method^ of distributing its own productions^ and receir- 
ing those of others, than the county we art now describing. 
To detail the numerous benefits avising from canals^ eveadid 
the limits of our work permit it* would be a mere waste of time 
and patience^ as we presiune every individual* who pretends la 
reason on comoxercial questions, is ahready aware of lhem« We 
ahajl content ourselves^ therefore^ with simply obsewiag in re* 
gard to tbis point that withoOl ibeaid of artificial nwigalion it 
would be impossible that the interior portions of the country 
could participate in the advantagea arising from- our foreign 
trade, or contribute mui;h for the parpoae&of eocportatioa. 

The Grand Tru^ Can^ so called in refivceBoel»the analo- 
gy subsisting between its relative, situation^ andr that of tbe 
main arter^^ of tbe humam body, to- the leaser branches, was 
planned and execmed» to the period of kis dieatb, by the 
celebrated Mr. BriAdJiey. This great engineer* whose genius 
alone* unaided by edjucation* raised bias ta the highest dtettnc* 
tioQ, in a profession for which be waa act origioally designed 
had previously b«ea engaged by tbe dake of Bridgewater m 
the construction of those canals which baxe lotntef tithe neine 

.8 of 

of tHit iKMeman ao* earinent m the history of this species of 
naTi§(Atioii. When the corporatnm of Liverpool^ therefore, em- 
ployed Mr. Taylor of Maoeheslief^ and Mr £yes of Ltrerpoo], 
to take sulrveys with the ri€w of determining the practicability 
of opening a ffee confmanioation, between th^ Hamber and the 
Meiaey, Mr. Brindley entered upon 1 smiter poject under the 
patreaage of the marqaie of Stafford and lord Anson. The two 
plana bfeing laid. befMre the pabHc, both were ^and to agree in. 
thta prad^cabifity of the scheme, bat difierbd vevy malertally 
ia the line of direction to be foUowiri» and the manner of putting 
them into exeeation. The feiteicr gentlemen proposed to ter- 
iDinale the canal in the navigable rirep Wearer al Winsferd 
bridge^ and the' lattcTi in the ^ke of Bridgewateif s ctnill at 
PrcstoQ-'brook* Mr. Brindky's plan was preferred apparently 
on reasen^ble gromids» as it a£Porded a direct comnnifeiioatioa'^ 
with Manchester without the mtervention of a single lock.* 

By the grand trunk navigation, the three pdrts' of Bristol* 
Liverpool, and Hull^ are united. After crossing Cheishire, it.eit*. 
ters thia coaeity near LawtoOi At a short distance from thence 
is ihri Harecastle tunnel^ where the canal runs under ground. 
for meife than a mile. From this place it proceeds by New- 
caitle. Stone, and Weston, through many ether intermediate 
town* and villages, into the Trent at Wilden* in Derbyshire. 
In iCa passage through Slaffi>rdshire, this canal generally fol* 
lows a course parallel to that river, which it intersects ait dif- 
ferent points. The whole extent of the mam trunk is 91 miles. 
From its greatest elevation at Harecastle the fell of water on 
the northern side is S96 feet> and on the southern S16. The 
Ibrmer part is furnished with 35 locks, and the latter with 40. 
The common breadth of this canal is 39 feet at the top, and W 
at the bottooi, and the usual depth iafoer feet and a half. In 
the part from Wilden to Burton, however, and from Middfewich 
to Preetow on the hfll, it b 8! feet broad at- the top, 19 it the 
bottomland five and a half feet m depth. 

AaaS 7ht 

* Aikin'f Hiitory of Munchester, p. Il7, lit. 


,The chief branch leading from this canal, strikes ofTat IX^Y^ 
l¥ood« near the confluence of the Sow with the river Ti'ent«« 
In its way to the Severn, which it joins not far from Bewdley^^ 
it flows past the towns of Penkridge, and Wolverhamptoo. 
The Coventry and Oxford canal leaves^the Orand Trank at Frad->- 
ley-heath, and proceeds- by Whittington> to Faaieley. Near 
the latter place a cut is-nnde, which fww to Birmingham and the 
collieries in the neighbourhood o^ Wednesbury. The Wirley 
and Essington canal commences at a place called Wirley Bark^ 
and passes through the Oldfield, over Essington-wood, and Snead 
commons, across the road from Wednesfield to Bloswich. Fronv 
hence it goes on the south side of the town> in a* direct line to* 
Bircbill. It likewise passes through^ Laneheadv in the neigh*- 
bourhood of Perry Hall, to Wednesfield, where it joins the' 
Birmingham canal. Tiie branches are one from near Wolver-* 
hampton to Stow-heath, another into Ashmore park, wbichr 
mns off at Poole Hayes, and a third likewise, goiiig inta Ash^ 
more park from Lapley Hayes.' 

The Birmingham canal begins at Birmingham, and proceeds 
to Wilsden Green and Smethwick, by Blue Gates, West Brom- 
wich, Oldbury, Church Lane, Tipton, and Bilston, through 
Wolverhampton and thence into the Staffordshire and Wcht^ 
cester canal, being altogether a course of 23 milts. Out of 
this canal, a cat or branch passes over Ryders^Greento the 
collieries of Wednesbury. Another commences about a mile 
from the town of Dudley, near the engines whieh are next 
Netherton Hall, and runs across Knowle Brook, along Dudley^ 
Woodside, through Urchill coppice, and Brierly hHl coppice^ 
toBlackdelft. Taking a large circuit round the church of 
Brierly-hill, it crosses Brittle Lane, and falls into a canal on 
the lef^ of Brockmore Green, which arises in a large reserroiv 
of water at Pensetts chace* It thence passes almost in a straighC 
line to Wordsley, over the high-road from Stourbridge toi' 
Hampton, and across the river Stour, into the Severn and Trent, 
junction canaL At the elbow and confluence of the Stour 
t wiik 


wMhtbeSmettalU not far from Stourton^ another branck goes 
<off to the led, by Woollaston, Holloway and Sots Hole, aad 
^lence into the mer StoQr at the extremity of the town of 

Sir Nigel Gcealey's canal •extends from the Grand Trunk, at 
Newca8tle*tinder«-]ine, to tlie coal-mines in Apcdale. The pro- 
prietors became boand by the act, granted in 1775» enabling 
them to form «i, to deliver coals at Nevrcastle-nnder-line at the 
{>rioe of S?e shillings per ton, for the period of twenty-one 
years, and at five and six-pence, for a similar term farther. 
They are empowered to make as many new cats as may be re- 
^quisite for the use of the collieries. A constant stock must be 
kepi at the'r wharf, near the town abo^re ttentioned. 

At Hoddlesford, a branch has been extended from the Coven- 
try canal, by Brown hills over Canaock-heath, to join the 
Wiriey and Essington canal. On the west-side of Cannock- 
beatb, a smaller branch goes to the south by Walsall wood te 
Cbe lime-works at Hayhead. The whole length of this exten- 
sive canal, aad its branches, is thirty four miles and a half, hav- 
ing two bandred and sixty-four feet fall from Cannock to Hud- 
dlesford. The canaU which connects the Dudley canal with 
•that of Birmingham, is called the Dudley extension canal, it 
runs off from the Dudley canal near Netbertoa, tmd making a 
iiend to the sonth-westy to avoid the high ground, arrives at 
Windmill End, Here it takes a south-east direction, passes 
through Comes Wood, by Hales Owen, at the foot of the I^a- 
•sowes, rendered so celebrated by the taste and muse of Shen- 
etone. The course of this canal is ten miles and five furlongs^ 
in which short course, there are two tunnels, one at Combes 
^ood, and another at Hales Owen. The latter is nearly two 
iailes in length. 

Lakes and Sprincs. The lakes o^ tiiis county are neither 
Aomerous, nor of much importance. The principal one is that 
4»f Aqoelate, which measures 1848 yards in length, and 679 
m breadth. Ladford Pool is said to comprehend about sixty 

A a a 3 acrei. 

739 tTAFromDSHiRX* 

acres. The others are of far leu extent ^d oeosequence. 
Dr. Plot informs ua, that there are several rocky tubterraiieoua 
passages in different parts, which receive the waters that poor 
from the hills after violent rains. The same author speaks of a 
aprlng in the parish of Caverawal], which issiiad forth yvitb so 
full a stream, that it tura«d a mill, less than a bow'shot ftom 
its source* Another which runs plentifiiUy from under a rock 
to the west of a smalhrivuiet called the Tene, is stated to pro-> 
duce small bones of differeat shits, most of them like the b«hes 
of Sparrows, and very young chickens. 

Salt springs are found in various places. The most impor* 
lant oaes are situated in the parish of Weston. The salt pro- 
duced from them is as white and good as any in England. 
Here are also a few sulphureous springs* That near Codsall 
was formerly famous for the cure of leprosies. At present it 
is used with effect, as a remedy for scabs and the itch. St. 
Erasmus's well, between Ingestre and Stafford, has similar pro- 
perties. A gallon of water from this well will yield three 
hundred grkins of sediment, whereof 272 are salt. The water 
of that at Willoughby is clear as crystal, but renders the sides 
of the glasses oily, and of » bright yellow-colour. Contrary 
to most waters, it leaves nothing behind ev^n from the evapora- 
tion of several gallons. Its oil is so extremely volatile, that, 
when distilled, it comes over the he]m upon the first heat» and 
is always in the receiver before a drop of wat^ appears. In 
Dr. Plot's time this well was in high repute for its medicinal 
virtues, which that naturalist at^ibjated to its balsamif: quali- 
ties, and the great subtilty and volatility of its oil of sul- 

Minerals. The mineral productions of Staffordshire, are nu- 
merous and valuable. Upwards of 50,000 acr^s have been aa* 
rertaiued to contain an almost inexhaustible store of coal Aear 
enough the surface of the ground to be easily raised. From* 
the earliest time^ to the preseqt day, the consumption does not 
exceed one«tenth of the whole. In the south division of the 


cqrtrty> tbe eoal distiict extends in length t^m the interior of 
Ctnnoc heath to the* neighbourhood of Stourbridge, and in 
breadth Irem WolTerhftinpton to WaWatl. The same mineral 
if hkewite very abundant towards the noTth,- in the neighbour- 
hood of Newcastle and the Potteries, Lane-end, Hollybni^, 
Cbeadle, and Oilborne. A very singular species called the 
Pemc^ok coal, botn the prismatic colours it exhibits, is dag up 
atHandley-gretn/^ The coal strata now wrought vary from 8 
to 10 or eTen 19 yards in thickness. 

limestone is slill more abundant than ooaK At Sedgeley 
and Dadley*castle hiUs, Rushadl and Haywood, but aboye 
all on the north-east moorlands, and the banks of the high« 
er parts of the Dove, this mineral exists in such immense 
prslosion, that the greatest consumption or length of time, 
Govld scaroe apparently lessen the quantity. The lime-works 
opon Caldon Low, and in the neighbourhood of the Weever 
hills, are particalarly extensive. • In some places this stone is 
of a marble quality, and susceptible of a very fine polish. In 
others it is cbicAy composed of TreltQintholopi, or petrified 
marine substanees of the animal kind, as cardium, millepora, 
Itc. Under several of the limestone-hills, which are perfora- 
ted by the canal tunnels, the workmen have hollowed out hogo 
caverns, withont removing the surface soil. Lime is carried 
from this county in great quantities to different towns for the 
purposes of building. It is also used extensively as a manure. 

Iron ore is met with plentifiiily in every portion of the cos^l 
district. In the neighbourhood of Wednesbury, Tipton Bil- 
ston, and Sedgeley, and also west from Newcastle, it isparticu* 
larly abodant, and of an excellent kind. The surau of this 
metal are nsaally ranged immediately beneath a stratum of 
coot. Iron works of great extent have of late years been e»- 
taMtsked on the banks of she Birmingham canal, where the 
iron trade is rapidly incr&ising. We trust that the capital, 
spirit of enterprise, and exertions of those engaged in it, wiH 

A a a 4 ia 

' Aikitt'iBffl&ciisaer, p.tOX 

f¥> STArroaMBtftB. 

in a Ahort time prieclode the nectmty of uiiporting any i 
derable qaantity of this valuable and useful article, from fi^ 
reign countries. But iron stone is not the only metallic ore wbick 
prevails in StafTordsbire. Both copper and lead ore also esiat 
here in gre^t plenty. A copper-mine is wrought at Mixon. in 
the neighbourhood of Leek ; but the most important one is that 
of EctoQ W\, near Warslow upon the estate of the duke of IW 
Tonshire ; this hill likewise has a considerable vf in of leadj and 
not far from Staunton moqr. is another of the same mineraL 
In this divisioa pf the county* but particularly atWhiston, 
Oalfmoof an.d near Gbeadle^ a great nomber of smelting and 
brass works are carried on. 

The quarries in different districts affi>rd very good free stMia 
for a variety qf purposes. Tixall produces an excellent and 
durablfe kind for building* which is easily raised in blodca of 
almost any dimensions. The same species as again found at 
Wrottesley^Breewood park, Pendeford and sereral other places, 
JSjUtqne freestope is of a peculiarly fine grain, and fit either 
for mouldings* or griqdstoqes of the finer sort* for which last 
purpose it u particularly well adapted. The coi^rser sorts of 
this stone are very plentiful* in the numerous <}uanries situated 
in the vicinity of Sedgeley.* 

AUbaster vfas formerly dug up ii| considerable qqantitiest 
particularly on th^ banks of the river Dove* At present* how- 
eyer* ^^ ire are informed very fevf of the quarries producing this 
species of stone are wrpught* though it still exists in great plenty. 
In some places it is sufficiently ^lid^ aiid firm of texture* to be 
applied to the paying of cburc)ies* the making of tablesi chim<> 
ney-pieces^ and grave stones* The coarser kind when heated 
becomes so extremely soft and brittle* that it can easily be re« 
duced to a powder by threshing. Froip this powder a sort of 
mortar was formerly made* with which the floors of hoiises were 
formed* it being when dry as bard as Stone> uid exceedingly 


r pitt'i A|rtcfiltiiral Survt j ^ 15^— 17. 

. VnUe of Tarioas kinds is likewise a production of ibis conn^ 
tf» Thatspeeie^ which is denominated rance-marble, is very 
Hbnndant on Yelpersly Tor and the adjoining hilis. It consists 
of a white and shining grit» strt*aked with red, and takes so 
good a polish, that it has frequently been used for chimney 
pieces and monuments. Grey marble is found in considerable 
plenty at Stansop ; and at Powke hilU not far from Bentley hill, 
there is a good supply of a jet black colour, hot so hard that it 
M difficult to raise or work it When burnt, however, it makes 
very fine emery. 

Clays of every description are abundant At Amblecot is a 
clay of a dark bluish-colour of which are made the best glass,* 
fkonm pots of any in England. Great quantities are sent to differ- 
«nt parts of the kingdom, and glass houses attracted by it have 
been raised in the neighbourhood ; potter's clay of several 
•ortS| is ibund here, particularly in the vicinity of Newcastle- 
under line, where the potteries are chiefly carried on. Yellow 
and nedoker are among the earths used for colouring and paint- 
ing, which are found in Stafibrdshire. A blue clay at Darlaston 
aear W«dnesbury is sold to glovers to make an ash colour. A 
Uack chalk is also found in the beds of grey marble in Langley 
clos^, and also a fine reddish earth under a rock near Himley 
hall, which is little inferior to the red chalk of France^ 

AaaicuLTuaa and Products. The ikrms of Staffordshire are 
of all sixes from twenty acres to five hundred ; but within these 
few years, the number of small ones has very much diminish- 
ed. The greater proportion of them are held upon leases of 
twenty-one years. Some, however, for a much shorter period 
likewise exist A few in the neighbourhood of gentlemen's 
seats are rented only from year to year, from an idea entertain- 
ed by the proprietors that a lease renders the tenant too inde- 
pendent. The justness of this opinion seems to us extremely 
i|ttestionable, whether considered in a political or agricultural 
light Rents are usually paid in money. Indeed Mr. Pitt 
says hp never ^ntw or heard of an instance to the contrary. 


7A .SVA:fVO&J»0aiR«. ' 

SomttUag like pmonal atsnoBM, ikv&mitr, wtt stiU Inpttp ;^ 
for it ift no unoomiaon ^hgatimi oh the tenant to perfbrm oa* 
day's team work in the year hr kie iaedioH, atid to keep kiea m • 
dog. The average rental mt land in thb county is radier akone 
8Sf, per acDe» varying in whole ianns fibom I5<. to V. «ni np* 
wards. A censtderable part e£ the grounds haf» keen exeaefe 
vatsd froes tithes, by purchase from the tithe hoUcrs, bat a Atr 
greater proportion of them still oontinue liable to that heary 
nnd neiarioas tax upon the efforts and excrtieiiB of human in* 

The cvkivated lands of this comity are nearly all inclosed ; - 
not more than 1000 acres stiii remaining open. The fencep in 
the southern parts are chiefly raised fron quicksets^ among 
whtch the white thorn is most approved. The following is Ike 
manner of fiuming new inclosores; tkey are first fenced with 
post and rail, and then a mound or bank of earth is thrown np 
nearly to the height of the lower raiL Wkbin this bank« and 
n little above Uie natural level of the grounds, the quicksets nre 
planted, which must be careMly cleared from weeds, for two 
or three years. ;By this means a good fence is soon raised, tMud 
•f consequence the land greatly improved in value. The sine 
ef the inoloBures in this county vary from smaller to twenty or 
thirty acres. « 

The vegetable products of Staffordshire, by field ooltwe, are 
rtielly the following : 

1. V^heat, 8. Duck-wheat, 

fi. Rye, 9. Hemp, 

d. Barley, la Flax, 

4. Osis, 11. Turnips, 

5. Beans, JUe. Potatoes^ 

6. Feaie, 13. Cabbages, 

7. Vetches, 14. Rape. 

To these we may add clovers, trefoils, and two or three of 
the real grasses. Tarnip cabbage has likewise insen tried as 
well as 8aiBfein»lnce?ne>bmrfiQt» and the other artificial grasses^ 


•TAJtORD9HIR;«. ^4) 

CarroU, and m few piti^n plants^ are only intr^aced inU» field 
cnltivaUofli, by gard«pera for the narketo*/ 

The mi^pr piM^ or b^k of tbe sowing buainess is done hi thi^ 
fconaty m the old broad^a^t way, though driHing has likewise 
inade coa<<iderable progress. Of the machines tmed -for (his work 
there are two varieties, either of which delivers several rows 
at ^ tiiae^ and may be coostracted so as to deliver them at any 
given distance. Seed-time here generally commences in 
March, and ought to be finished in April ; in some places, how* 
ever« it bangs 0a through a great part of May. Respecting 
ihe system of cropping and round of crops, no general one 
C9Si be laid down thait will apply in all cases, as variations of 
ml and climate most often render deviations requisite and 
praise wor Ay. As something like system, however, isneces- 
siiry to the proper management 4>f every regular business. Mr. 
Pitt^ in his Agricultural Survey, has given thefoHowing courses 
of crops, as generally practised in this county. 

The «tiff or strong soils of StafibrdsMre, under arable culti- 
yalion, says ibis gentleman, are of two sorts ; the strong and 
harsh inclining to clay, and the more mild or friable marl and 
loam. Upon the former of these it seldom happens that any 
other grain, but wheat and oats, are grown. The rotation of 
cropping upon this land is, 1 Fallow, 3 Wheat, 3 Oats, afler 
wbich it is laid down with clover, trefoil, and ray grass for one, 
Iwp, or a)ore years. Sometimes on breaking up an older turf, 
the coQrse is 1 Oais^ 8 Fallow, 3 Wheat, 4 Oato, and Chen gra<;ses 
U before. On the more mild and friable loamy soll^ there is 
I fellow, i wheat, S b^ans or pease, and 4 barley or oats, when 
the land is laid down with clovers, &c. as mentioned above. On 
this species of soil beans are sown in the beginning, and Oats 
towards the latter end, of March ; barley seldom sooner th^n 
May ; wheat is chiefly sown in October, but some little of- It 
is much earlier and some later. In the neighbourhood of £c* 
deshall, and also near Stafibrd castle, there are a few fields in 
■rhich a vein of incomparable marl is found so near the surface 



«f the ground that the farmers can easily plow through H.' 
Here good crops of wheat are produced by fallow alone, with- 
out manure, so that the dung is usually reserved for the next 
Mason, by which means two crops, one of beans and another 
4)f barley, is afterwards eecured ; whereas, when it is placed on 
the wheat fallow, these crops are seldom prodnctiTe. This 
circumstance is certainly deservmg of attention as a real ini- 
proTemeot, and capable of extensive application. 

On the light sandy and graTelly soils adapted to turnips, the 
order of cropping is the same with the Norfolk system, which 
is 1 tairuipsy 2 barley, 3 clover, 4 wheat The chief time for 
sowing turnips is from old to new Midsummer, but some are 
sown both earUer and later. The land in preparation for this 
crop has usually four ploughings, with sufficient harrowings be- 
tween. The first ploughing takes place before Christmas, the 
second in March, the third in May, and the fourth at sowing. 
The manure in ordinary use is dung or lime, or both, or a com* 
post of dung and soil. In the vicinity of large towns the dung 
of such towns is frequently used. Near Birmingham, in parti- 
cular, the parings and shavings of bone and hoof dust are also 
frequently applied with good success. Some farmers observ- 
ing that this system of the same crop every four years is hard 
tillage and exhausts the ground, give their fields two years rest 
under grass, which makes the course 1 turnips, 9 barley, S 
clover, 4 pasture, and 5 wheat. A few totally omit the growth 
of wheat on light land. Their system is 1 turnips, 3 barley, 
^nd seeds pastured for two or more years, and then sometimes 
oats, on breaking up the turf; or 1 turnips, 8 pease, and S bar. 
ley and seeds as before. As in these courses, the great staple^ 
wheat, is neglected ; the following order is not uncommon 
Vpon land that is continued some years in pasture : 1 oats, % 
wheat, 3 turnips, 4 barley, and pasture for several years. 

The hay harvest in this county is mostly in July. On highly 
forced lauds in the neighbourhood of large towns, the meadow 
grass is somewhat earlier than the artificial grasses, but upon 


VTjKf^omDrsRiBX. f^9 

legalar &nDs die tatler generally takes the precedence. Staflbrd* 
abire cannot be considered as a feeding district, at least 
not in proportion to Leicester. Many gentlemen, however, as 
well as farmers, feed a considerable namber both of cattle and 
riieep. Calv^ and hogs are kept apon most farms. More cattle. 
a^ well as sheep are reared^ than are necessary for the eonsonsp* 
tion of the county. Great numbers, therefore, are sold to dealert 
who drive them towards the Metropolis. 

The cattle of this county are generally of the long^borned- 
breed, the stock of which has been gradually in»pro¥tng for 
these several years. The sheep are of various breeds. The . 
Crey-faced, without horns, which are natives of Cannock heath. 
Suttoo Colfield and the adjoining commons, arc of a moderate 
sise, with fine wool closely and compactly covermg the car* 
case. Those of Cannock, in particular, bear a strong resent 
blance to the South Down, and are doubtless originally froai 
the same common stock. The black*faced horned sheep are 
peculiar to the commons situated on the west of the county, to- 
wards Drayton in Shropshire. These have black and long legs» 
are light in the carcase, but certainly capable of great improve- 
ment. A white*faced breed without horns, and having long or 
combing wool, occupy the eastern parts of the moorlands.^ 
Upon the limestone bottom they are strong and heavy, and are 
tiiooght the most valaable of any on waste land within the 
county. The breed on the west part of this district, and on 
the grit and gravel bottom, are a much inferior sort to those on 
the calcareous ground, and seem to have originated from the 
ancient moorland breed, continued without attention.* They 
are of a mixed kind, some having white and some grey or dark 
iices, with legs usually of the same colour. Besides these 
breeds a variety of others have been introduced. The old and 
new Leicester are particularly common on the pasture grounds 
in different districts. These have been crossed in various 


^ Aikuft MsDClietter, p. lOt. 

74A* 8XUlVVOBDtHlllV«^ 

8hap^Mta»l» firodiice a ptwA dWenily oFfl<K:i9» pmim a Am ^ ps^^ 
cuKar characterUtics, uid s«pcriot ot inferior aitcordiag to the 
judgement with which they herve been niailagfed or bred»* 
. Kitdheo garden stoib aire soffictently abuada^t, bc^t fruits lallr 
mt^k abort of the consucDptiDn of the couhty. At TetephaB 
»y«cii)iar speeiev of pear b raned,* whicte thail be desdrihed 
fM^tc$A3f\f in o«ir account df that parish. ' • 

Timber Plantations, and' WooDiANny* Tbia dOttnty, net>' 
^iHthitahding the vast haaaher of treea ^hiclv hove been cut 
de^ft wi€hi» these thirty ye«rs, stiU eontinuea WeU: stoekedl 
with wood e^ et ery descyipcion. The e^ate of lord Bagoty its 
the neighhoarhood of Abbota Bromley, cbavprebenda several 
handred acres ef the finest and ripest imks perhaps in lk4 
hingdoni. Many of them carry timber to the hergbl of aktty •* 
seventy ^t. Some in the park around the mansion ' boose/ 
evea contain 400 feet Uniber each, and are of considenMe ait*rf 
tiqnity, being mentioned by Br. Plot, as fblil grown ni 16ML; 
The soccesaioB woods and young plantatiofia here are Kkewiav 
extremely flourishing. The estate of CbiHingworth May hm 
ranked next to this, for the valae of its woodsy within 3tafibrd« 
ahire. The wooda. at Beaudesert, the*seat of the Earl of Ux- 
bridge, are scarce^ less extensive. This mansion is situated on 
the north boundary of Cannock fereat, and is one of the most 
anperb and magnificent in the vicinity. Large quantities eC 
well grown timber cover the pleasure grounds and property off 
lord Dudley, at Llimiey and its neighi^ourbood* The estate of 
Teddesley has very couKidkrable pkaitdtionaL Mansley woe4i 
10 a large coppice of v«ry fihe oak. Wrotteslcy contains aeve* 
ral woods of ripe well grown timber, aaod also extensive plan* 
tationsof akster growth. Fisherwick,SaridweU park, Enville and 
Hilton^ display very ioe treea of every kind in great abundance. 
The bishop's woods, in the vicinity of Ecclesiiall, are said tn 
contain ISOO acrea. Besides these thei>e aie a variety of othet 
I^antalions and valuable clumps of timber scattered throughout 

• Pitt*« Surrey, p. 1B«. 

tjiis coun^. For a inoc9 paotieqlar accoant of the whole« thA 
reader ma; coosuU Mr. ^itt's Agriqultural Suryey. 

Was'ce apd UNiMPaoysp La^q;s, ,< The extent of lands lying 
i{k» stale of nature ia tbU coi;nty js very great. Many thou- 
smii acres in dUTerent pldces^; remain wboHy uncultivated, 
serving merdy aa past^ragp (oi; ar^Cews&^^jep or deer^ (lonsider* 
ing the increasing state o£ tb;e .q9,vAtryi( vi^itb respect to popula* 
lion* this is cectainiy a.mattej; .wortjijr of attention.. Mr. Pitt 
computes the wastes or cjo^amonf^ to contain in all, at JeasI 
100^000 acres^ which* if iinpi:aye(Uwhicb C9ttld«a8i^\be effected, 
weald at a skoderatc cakulajLipn ;itdd . L^O^OOpt to the naiionai 

The chief waste dislcicts i^ t^e jsouthem parts ace, Cannock 
bestir and Sutton Culdfidd»tctg^^r with-Swiiyloib Woqabourq* 
^f^iL Fca4l£y compQas*.^, nontb are I^^rredg^^ ^etiey« 
noei^iS^nlq%o^ootrHoktf|gtf)p h«fitJb,CarferahaU,cemBion,ai^ 
])(eedw4M)ft focestf. wbicklajiti i^9^e?4i;, )m&heejp t^^ sreat^ 
part inckised and cuil,ivat«d. .. J^Jbpiy $»ther uaimproved spots oi 
lessee ratteniexlst ia every bulged. 

, J^xos^ BuncBs, ^Sr '^^% pulflic roads o^ Stalbrdshire arc 
iageoeral goocU hut maay of ti^ private ones are abundantly 
iodiffeEeat. With respect ta bridge^i, tmufels^and other works ot 
that, kind, th^y are .sufficiently plent^u^ and in numerous io-. 
s^ancea do g^at lK>niittr to the aountj* The OMNre remarkable 
of tbeflk will ^nd » place in the sequi^L 

ln^AiBivF^iCTua&s AHn .CpHMKacs. . MaBtt&ctures of yaFieue 
lands' are carried oi^ ^ a great e;aQnt in* StaffprdaUpe^ particu*. 
larly in the soutbern di^riote. These ohtQfly cenaist in hard* 
warearttcles^ nails, glass toys> japanned goods, and potter's ware». 
V(ilh productions ia cotton, silk^, Jaatber^ w^eellen and lintn. 
T^he niADufacture of gjaes. is most considerable in the vicinity of 
Stouclyidge, w^ere a variety of very lofty and apaeious. glass- 
house^ have been erected. Th^- potteries are. siiuated Batlicr to- 
v|iaai& the north division of the county, occupying an extent 
of ten miles. They have acquired nosmall degree of ce^lebrity 


flrom the ingenious inventions of Mr. Wedgewood* Former!^ 
the quantity of goods made at these potteries Was prodigions^f 
Of late years, however, their produce has been much dimi- 
nished in consequence of the continuance of the war.* WoH 
verbampton and the many populous villages in its neighbourhood^ 
are distinguished for their manufacture of locks^ which are es- 
teemed equal to any in England; buckles, steel toys, and par* 
ticulaHy watch-chains, are also among the famed productions or 
this town* The staple manufacture of Walsall, and its yicinity,^ 
consists chiefly of shoe buckles, and claspa, to which may be 
added sadler's ironmongery. Vast quantities of nails are made 
in many of the country parishes. Women and children are em- 
ployed in this department, as well as the men. BHston far- 
nishes a variety of plated, lackered, japanned, and even* cnac 
melled gobds. The gun trade of Wednesbury is by no meanr 
inconsiderable. At Darlaston, and Willenhall, as well as in th«r 
country around, tobacco and snuff boxes are finished in Tarions 
ways. Stafford, and its neighbourhood, displays a number of 
articles in the cutlery and leather trade. The hat manufacture 
is also carried on here, and in some other towns in the county on 
a large scale. Tin and brass are among the common produc« 
tions in Staffordshire. The cotton manufactures at Rocester, Fas* 
eley. Tamworth, Burton, and Tutbury, are very considerable. 
So likewise is the silk trade of Leek, and the tape mairafacturet 
of Cheadle and Teyn. The woollen manufactory is comparatively 
trifling, most of the raw wool grown in this county being sold 
into the clothing and stocking districts. The making of linen 
ui a branch of trade mostly confined to private families for their 
own use.t 

PficuLiAa Customs. It is not a little remarkable, that the 
original calendar of the Norwegians and Danes, still obtains in 
this county under the appellation of the Staffordshire Ciogg. 
This almanack is nothing more, as its name imports, than a 

* Pkt*i Sorvef Qf Stti!urdshire, p. 113^, €57^ t lb. p. €3^ 

ftTA»01lD8HlEE» 7^9 

square piece of wood« box« fir« or oak« which containes three 
months on each of the four edget, aiid has the number of days 
in them expressed by notches. The first day is marked by a 
notch with a patulous stroke inclining from it, and every 
seTenth, by one longer than those intervening. Issuing from 
the notches are the symbols of several saints to denote their febti- 
▼als. Over against many of them, on the led hand, appear 
several marks symbolical of the golden number or cycle of the 
moon. If this number is under 5 it is denoted by so many 
points ; if five, by a hooked line drawn from the notch repre* 
senting the ancient sigle of V. When above five, and under 
ten, the hooked line or V has one or more points appended to it. ' 
These points are now continued over it, and a stroke crosses it 
for ten. At nineteen it is intersected by two strokes. This in* 
strumen^ however, is not always alike either in form or marks. 
Olaos Wormiu^ in his Fasti Danici, exhibits two, one hexago* 
nal, and having an intermixture of Runic characters, and^nother 
flat, but divided into six columns, and possessing other peculi- 
arities. A third with two sides in six divisions was found in 
a castle at Bretagne. Engravings of this calendar, somewhat 
difierent from each other, will be found in Dr. Plot's Natural 
History of the county, and in Gough's Camden.* 

Market Towns and Parishes. The following is a list of the 
Market Towns, with the Parishes severally contained in each 
Hundred : 

Market Towns Ancient and Modern. 


1. Stafford the county town ••..Saturday. 

2. Dchiield Friday. 

3. Wolverhampton • Wednesday. 

4. Wahall .Tuesday 

5. Burton on Trent .T Thursday. 

6. Uttoxeter Wednesday. 

Vou XUL B b b 7. Nercastle 

• GoQgh'a Camden, Vol. IT. p. 499. 

750' tTAVtaAIMaiElb 

7. NewGiiUe. m.m....... ••.« • Monday* 

•* Leek «••« ».•••• WednesOajr^ 

fi. Stooe M Tuesday. 

10. Cbeadle Saturday. 

11. Eccleshall Friday. 

19. Kudgeley (small note) • Tuesday* 

13. Tamworth... Saturday. 

14. Tutbury (small note) ; Tuesday. 

15. Abbot's Bromley ditto Tuesday. 

19w Breedwood (very trifling) ••Friday. 

17. Penkridge ^ Tuesday". 

18. Cannock-^declined ••«.•• 

19. Betley*-declined 

20« Wednesbary, (for fowls, butter, &c.) • Saturday* 

* »J*".^" t^n •fc* Potteries, now oonsidenUc maikeft 

22. Hanley.grcen...> ^,^^;.. . 

23. Lane-cnd ) fo'P^^""*'-- 

24. LoDgnor, (fowls, butter, &c).*m«. • Wednesday. 

Parishes in the Hundred or Totmanslow. 

1. Alstonefteld. 1& Draycots in the Moon. 

S. Al?erton 17. Endon. 

3. Bignal. 18. Elkstona. 

4. Blore. 19. Ellaston. 

5. Bradley in the Moon. 90. Flash. 

6. BramshalL 31. Gratwick. 

7. Batterton. 29. Grindon. 
S. Cablton. 93. Horton. 
9. CaldoD. 94. Ham. 

10. Caverswall. 95. Ipstonef. 

11. Cheadle. 26. Kingstone. 
19. Croxden. 97. Kingsley. 

13. Checkley* 9a Leek. 

14. Chedletom 99. Longnor. 
1^« Dilholme. 30. Leigh. 

. 31. MathBeld. 

•TAffOftDIHI&S. *i 

31. Mathfield. 

S& Sheen. 

92. Oakover. 

37. Waiftto«r« 

33. Onecote. 

Sa Wetton. 

34. Meerbrook. 

39- Water&lK 

35. Roceiter. 

40. Uttoxeter. 

Ptbebiix Hundebd. 

I. AbbM^i Bromley. 25. MucUestoa 

3. Adbattoo. 

96. Maer. 

3. Ashley. 

97. Madeley. 

4. Audley. 

9a Milwich. 

5. Blithfield. 

99. Marston. 

6. Barlaston. 

SO. NewcasUe. 

7. Blurton. 

SI. Norton in the Moops. 

8. Betley. 

S9. Stoke on Trent. 

9. Bunlem. 

33., Stafford. 

10. Backnall. 

34. Stowe. 

11. Biddph. 

35. Sandon. 

19. Colwich. 

K. Stone. 


37. Seighford. 

14. Chebsey. 

38. Standon. 

15. EUenhall. 

89. Swinnerton. 

1& Eccleshall. 

40. Ronton. 

17. Brotighton. 

41. nxall. 

la FradswelL 

49. Tbursfield. 

19. Falferd. 

43. Talk on the Hill. 

90. Gayton. 

44. Trentham. 

SI. HighOffley. 

45. Whitmore. 

». Hanley. 

46. Woolstanton. 

93. KeeL 

47. Weston on Trent. 

2iL Lane-end. 


CuDBLSStoNS Hundred. 

1. Acton. 

3. Breweod. 

9. Baswich. 

4. BednaU. 

Bbb9 Bliiabi] 




5. Blimhill. 

6. Bradley Juxta Stafford. 

7. Cannock. 
'8. Coppenball. 

9. Castle Church. 

10. Dunston. 

11. Forton. 

12. Gnoshall. 

13. Houghton. 

14. Lapley. N 

15. Norbury. 

16. Penkridge. 

17. Rodgeley. 

18. Sherif Hales. 

19. Stretton. 
90. Shareshall. 

21. Weston under Lizzard. 

22. Whealon Aston. 

23. Churcbealon. 

Offlow Hundred. 

1. Alrewas. 

2. Armitage. 
3 Aldrige. 

4. Burton on Trent. 

5. Barton under Needwood. 

6. Bloxwich. 

7. Barr. 

8. Clifton Campyille. 

9. Drayton Basset. 

10. Darlasfon. 

11. Elford. 

12. Farewell. 

13. llanbury. 

14. Hamstall Ridware. 

15. Harbonrne. 
IG. Hs^mmerwich. 

17. Haselour. 

18. Harleston. 

19. Hints. 

20. Handsworth. 
21« Longdon. 

22. King's Bromley. 

23. Lichfield SU Chad's. 

24. Lichfield St. Michaer« 

25. Marchington. 

26. Maveston Ridware. 

27. Newborough. 

28. Norton under Cannock* 

29. Pipe Ridware. 
So. Pelsall. 

31. Rolleston. 

32. Rowley Regis. 

33. Rushall. 

34. Smethwick. 

35. Shenstoue. 

36. Statfold. 

37. Tutbury. 

38. Tatenhall. 

39. Thorpe Constantine. 

40. Tam worth. 

41. Tipton. 

42. Wichnor. 
4.3. Whittington. 
44. Wigington. 

45. Wccford. 


45. Weeford. 49. Wednesbury. 

46. WalsalL 50. West Bromwich. 

47. Wcdnesfield. 51. Yoxall. 

48. Willenhail. 

Seisdon Hundred. 

1. Ambitfcott&Brierly-Hill. 11. Kinfare. 

2. Areley Over. 12. Kingswinford. 

3. Bilstou. 13. Pattingbara. 

4. Broome. 14. PatteshalJ. 

5. Bobbington. 15. Pehn. 

6. Bushbury. 16. Sedgeley. 

7. CodshalL 17. Tettenhall, 

8. Clent. 18. TryshuJI. 

9. EnvilJe. 19. Wolverhampton. 
10. Himley. 20. Wombourne. 


Totai. Tolmanslow Hundred 40 

Pyrehill Hundred 47 

■ Cuddleston Hundred 23 

■ Offlow Hundred 51 

■■ Seisdon Hundred 20 

Total Parishes in the County 181 


BuBTON UPON Trent. This town is situated on the north 
bank of the river Trentj from which it derives the latter portion 
of its name. It is a borough and market town« containing, ac- 
cording to the parliamentary returns of 1801, 833 houses^ and 
4359 inhabitants, of whom 546 were employed in various 
branches of trade. The market is held on Thursday^ and is 
well supplied with all the requisite articles of human food. 

Burton upon Trent is undoubtedly of very great antiquity. 
At an early period of the Saxon dominion in Britain, it was a 
town of considerable note. In the annals of that people the 

B b b 3 name 

f54 i«A?V0EDBH1EB« 

name is written Byrthm, which is synonymoos to Bm^on, or 
Buiyton, a word used by them to denote placet of Roman or 
British origin. Hence it ' may be inferred that some eminent 
person of one or other of these nations possessed a Bmty,^ or 
chief mansion or manor honsoj in the neighbourhood prior to 
the period of the Saxon conquest This opinion, however, restf 
upon no authority, but that of probable conjecture, there 
being no records of this town till the time of the celebrated Sf« 
Modwen, called also Modwemna, Mowenna, and Mudwin. This 
lady, who flourished in the ninth century, had long been Abbess 
of a monastery in Ireland, which having been destroyed, she 
removed to England in the reign of king Ethelwolf. That 
monarch, pitying her misfortunes, bestowed upon her lands 
sufficient for the endowment of two religious houses, in one 
of which she resided for some years. After this she retired 
to the island of Andresey, an insulated meadow situated 
oppfMite to the present church in Burton. This island was 
sometimes called Mudwennesiaw, as we are informed by Le- 
landf from her name, as it was Andresey, from a chapel dedi- 
cated to St. Andrew which she built upon it$ Upon her death 
she was buried here, and the following epitaph preseryed by 
CamdeUi inscribed on her tomb : 

Oitam Modmennae dat Hibernia Scotia finem 
Anglia dft tiUBiUnpi, datDeut aatrapoli 
Prima dedit Titam, ted mortem teira lecnnda 
Et terram terrae tenia terra dedit 
Aafert Lanfortin quam terra Conallea profert 
Felix Bnrtomom TirgiDii otM tenet. 



4> See Spelroan't Glossary under BertA or fiuHa ; Somner*i Saxon Dictionary 
under BtfrL 

f Lei. Coll. Vol. II. p. 408. 

i Modwanna ii said to have fonnded a Tariety of other ch^Mli and monaa- 
taries in difimnt parti of England, ai wel) as in Scotland and Ireland. Her 
piety and inflnence with the diriae povjer were so famoiM, that king EtheW 
«olfe sent his son Alfred to her to he wed of a disease leckoned incomble, 


fffAFFomptBimi. 769 

trrfMid gftM Bfodweo bMi ; Eaglaad a pM9, 
Am StotlMui deatb, and God her ioqI ihall mt« 
The first lend life, the leeood death did gire ' 
The third ia earth her earthlj part receive 
Lanfortin takes whom* ConnePi coantrj owns 

And happy Barton holds the Titgin's boneb.t 


The abbey pf Barton was founded and endowed by Wulfric, 
Ulfric,or Alfric Earl oi Mercia^ about the year 1003. This noble^ 
nan long held the high situation of chief Counsellor of State^ to 
kingEthelred, surnamed the Unready, He is characterised^ how- 
ever* by several of oar historians as a traitor on many occitoions, 
both to his king and country, and was slain'in an engagement with 
the Danish invaders^ in the year 1010. The lands which Wulfric 
bellowed upon this monastery seem to have been very consider- 
able. The book of Abingdon has the following passagf^ relative 
fo this point. '' A servant of king Ethelred named Ulfric Spot* 
boilt the abbey at Burton, and gave it all| his paternal estate 
worth 700^, and, that the ratification of this gift might stand, 
he gave king. Ethelred 300 manes of gold for his cofifirmation, 
,and to each bishop five manes, and to Alfric, archbishop of Can- 
terbury, over and above the town of Dumbleton/'§ 

This gift was confirmed accordingly by the king, in the year 
1004.11 The tenor of the confirmation, as usual, was full and fi-ee, 
exempting the abbey and its dependencies from all exactions, 
dntiea, and service^ except the <rmo<ia«fMces«ii«w, the erection 
of/ortresses and bridges, the reparation of high ways, and the 
repelling of invasions. In this charter, however, several places 

B bb4 are 

«biih,h^^ify<firifter pmm fimnaof tl|e benefit of England, she very soon ac- 
complished. i;^f^ filter to Ethdced, was anna under her. HoUnsbed, B. 
VL c ii. p. I'M.' bale's Annal^ YoJ. III. tib. 6. p. U6. Lei. Coll. Vol. U. 
p. ^S. 

• Tyreonnel. f Googh's Camdefi, Vol. II. p. 497. 

I Mr. Shaw sajs, the book of Abingdon may be correct as to the taloe 
'^tta, bttt it was not hit whole estate : Shaw's Staffoidshire, Vol. I. p. f . 
V (Thb place had been wrongfally uken from the church of Abingdon, bj 
Wnlfric's predecessois. Monasti6on» Vol. I. p. 965. • 

I MonastkoD, Vol. L p. S66» 

756 8TA7F0EBSR1B1. 

are omilted, which are mentioned in the will of Ulfric. By an 
ab&tract of Mr. Shaw's from variom parts of Domesday , the 
Talue of the possessions of this monastery, at the time of the con- 
quest, appear to have been estimated at 36/. 15«. of annual rent. 
A variety of charters were subsequently granted in its favour, 
by different monarchs, bishops, and others, Jn which its original 
privileges were confirmedi and many new ones added. The 
iabbots were empowered to hold a weekly market, and had be- 
sides the privileges of collecting toll, and instituting fairs at dif- 
ferent periods of the year. Some of them occasionally sat in 
Parliament, and were extremely beneficial to the abbey. Af- 
ter the dissolution, this monastery was constituted a collegiate 
church, dedicated to Christ and St. Mary, but continued to en- 
joy this distinction only for the short space of four years. The 
seal of the college is one of the most beautiful specimens of that 
species of sculpture extant in England. It is a representation 
of our Saviour and his disciples at the last supper, having the 
arms of Wulfric, the founder of the abbey, at the bottom. The 
words on the margin are in Latin, and signify '' the common 
seal of the dean and chapter of the collegiate church of Christ» 
at Burton upon Trent." An excellent copy of this seal will be 
found in Shaw's history of Staffordshire, on a plate contributed 
by the earl of Uxbridge* 

The buildings of this abbey appear to have been rery ex- 
tensive and superb. Mr. Erdeswicke, in his Survey of StafiTord- 
shire, says that it must have been " a very goodly one forthe 
ruins be very large ."f The dimensions of the church were 228 
feet in length, and 53 feet and a half in breadth. It was 
adorned with a handsome tower at both ends. The other build- 
ings were proportionally extensive. The cloisters which lay 
on the south side of the church measured 100 feet square* 
The fraytor, or common sitting room, adjoining on the same side 
was 96 feet in length and SO in breadth, and the principal 
dormitory on the east 100 feet by ten. Besides these there 


• Shaw'» Staffordshire, p. 6, 7, 8. t Erdcswickc's Survfy, p. W. 


jhtariety oNttttv roonis and h^lk CSose to the baildingt 

wo large gardens walled about^ and containing a gre?t 

of trees. Of this immense structure, only a few re<- 

of any considerable importance can now be traced. 

^ong these are the yestiges of the cloisters visible in the old 

3> between the present .church and the bowling green. On 

{[wall are a number of Saxon ornaments. Beyond it, near the 

[in of the riverj are some further remains of that part of the 

battery, which was appropriated to the abbot for his private 

''l^esidence. It is now the old manor house, but, though still entire, it 

'^lomoch mutilated and altered by modern additions and repairs, as 

'totally to efface the most distant resemblance of what it formerly 

'Was« The only remarkable part of it is the perfect outlines of a 

chapel east window, having the place ,of the glass and the rami* 

ficatjons filled up with brick and mortar. A portion of the great 

wall which incI6sed the whole buildings and grounds around 

this monastery can yet likewise be discovered. The small ruini 

of the porter^s lodge on the side next to the town, were of late 

years converted into a smith's forge. 

Burton, we have already said, was a place of consequence in 
ancient times. Leland* says, it was famous, in his days, for it« 
alabaster works, and this statement is fully confirmed by Cam- 
den.t How long these works continued to flourish is unknown, 
but for more than a century there has been no business of that 
kind carried on here, though abundance of alabaster is still to 
be found in the neighbourhood of Needwood forest. This town 
was d^ly burnt to the ground in the year 1255. In the reign 
of Edward II. it sofiered very great damage during a rebellion 
incit^ by Thomas Earl of Lancaster, who was dt;feated bere# 
and being subsequently arrested, suffered as a traitor at Ponte« 
fract The unfortunate queen of Scots passed through Burton, 
when on her- way from Chartley to iPotheringay castle.^ 
Daring the contest between the House of Stuart and the Parlia- 


• LftUnd. Itin. Vol. VU. p. 56. t Cough's Camden, Vol II^ p. 377. 

% Magna Brit. Vol. V. p. 6. ^ i5haw'» Slaffofdihirc, Vol. I. p. 17, 

rSi iTAffffOKMllimX. 

tseoiil was 6efenltime«tilEeo and retaken by both part^ la 
the year 1643 it was plimderad by the repobUcail amy, who 
placed a garrifon in it. Prince Rupen regained it after the re* 
4«ction of Lichfield, but the royalists were soon again obliged 
eosarrender to lord Grey. Some time sabsequent, when sir 
John Harpar, an officer in king Charles's army, was engaged in 
falsing some fortificacionfli^ major Mollanns fell upon them with 
the parliament horse, and made the greater pert of them pri*> 
«onerSb The king's army lay here under the command of lord 
JLoughborongh in 1645, at which time his majesty's head qoar*. 
ters were stationed at Tutbnry . Some very curious letter^ re* 
lative to transactions at Barton daring this period, will be fomid 
in Shaw's history of the coaoty,* which our limits do not per- 
mit us to transcribe. 

The town of Burton opon Trent now consists of one princi- 
pal street which runs parallel to the river, and another cotting 
it at right angles. In the centre stands a large brick hoose 
formed like an half H# which formerly belonged to the E?erys 
of Egerton. The town hall is placed on the scite of the old 
market house, and is a neat spacious structure. Here the courts 
leet and all public meetings are held. Not kr irom hence is 
ft Tery remarkable old house, adorned with a number of wooden 
pillars, on which a variety of curious Gothic ornaments are 
cut. It is generally supposed they have been brought from 
.some other hoose or place of worship. Mr. Shaw seems in- 
clined to think that this was the prebendal house during the 
period of the collegiate church, and gives it as his decided opi- 
nion that the pillars must have been fixed here firom its first 
erection. A free grammar school founded and endowed by 
Abbot Beane in the year 1520 is situated in the north-west 
corner of the churchyard, and is a very respectable institution. 
The church is a neat edifice with a fine tower, built in 1730, 
when the old one dedicated to St. Modwena was pulled down. 
4ome remains of this last are yet to be discovered in the east^ 


' *.SIi»w'ftStaibTdshir«, p. le. 

dbd^m tke WMt it ia marked out by aline of dtSerait colourad 
paveineiits. lo the belfry of tbe preftent church Hes a defaced 
nonomeBt, which ia vulgarly aapposed to be the original lomb 
of the founder of the abbey. This idea, however^ ia donbtleas 
•rroneoaa, and> if erected at all in honour of Uifric, must have 
been the work of aome of the abbou at leaat two hundred yeara 
nfter hia death.* Within these few years aeveral stone eoffina 
ka^e been found in the church yard. 

The most entire and remarkable object in this town, deriving 
ka origin from antiquity, ia its bridge, one of the nobleatfabrica 
of the kind in England. It consisu of thirty six arches extend- 
ing 515 feet, and was, according to Mr. Shawyfirat erected be* 
fcre, or at leaat about, the time of the Norman conqoeat. In 
early times this bridge waa placed under the care of an over- 
aeer or procurator nominated by the abbots together with (he 
knights and justices connected with Burton who acted in the 
capacity of trustees. Towarda the middle of it is the exact 
boundary of the two counties of Stafford and Derby. At one 
end foiperly stood a chapel supposed to have been erected by 
.Edward the second in memory of hia victory over the rebel 
earl of Lancaster, where mass was frequei^ly celebrated in 
order to collect charities to defray the expenses of repaira. A 


• .Mr. Erdetwicke sayi that " being of alabaster it it fashioned both for ar« 
Boar, shield, and other things, something like our new monuments, so 1£d« 
'ward the third's time fs the oldest it can poistble he, and a man would rather 
by the shield, fbr it is square at both ends» and flourished with gold both 
•bove and beneath, at the Londoners set oat shields in their pageanli, think 
it were of Edfraid the IV. or Heoiy VII. time." Erdeswicke, p. 92. 

t Mr. >£rdswick states this bridge to consist of 54 arches only, and be is 
followed bjr most other authors. He likewise says it was built in the reign 
of Henry the second, resting his opinion upon two extracts from old evU 
dence*. These evidences, howcYer, are combated both by Mr. Shaw, and 
m well known correspondent in the Gentleman's Magasme, who seem to 
.pflOYe inconteslihly that this bridge is of much older date. 

Shaw'p Qtafordsbire, p. 14. Gent. Magaiine, Vol. XXI. p. 400. 


krge warehouse now occupies the foundation on which it ftoo^y 
and intercepts the view of the town. 

To the admirer of ancient buildings, this bridge cannot farl 
of being a very interesting object Its piers and arches are of 
Tarioos formsj and almost wholly covered with lichens and 
mosses. These, with the trees growing immediately near it» 
give to the whole an air of very picturesque beauty. Three of 
the arches are entirely blocked up, and other five of them are 
only visited by the water in the time of floods. 

In this town a court of requests is held for the recovery of 
small debts. The lord of the manor has likewise a weekly 
court of record called jenters' court, where pleas can be main* 
tained to any amount The inhabitants are exempted from 
being impannelled on county juries. 

The chief production of Burton is its ale, which is well known 
and deservedly celebrated. Great quantities of it are consum- 
ed in all parts of the country, and, previous to the blockade of 
the continent, it formed a considerable article of exportation. 
In making this ale it is somewhat singular, that, contrary to the 
almost. uniform practice of other breweries, the brewers here 
employ hard water in preference to soft It is found to make 
a material difference in the strength of the ale. This fact is 
Tery ingeniously explained by Dr. Darwin in a letter to Mr. Pil- 
kington, upon the supposition that some of the saccharine acid in 
the malt combines with the calcareous earth of hard waters, and 
forms a sort of mineral sugar, which, like true sugar, is con* 
vertible into spirits. A curious manufactory of screws for driv* 
ing into wood has been long established here. Hats and cottons 
are likewise among the more considerable articles made in this 


Is an extensive parish and village situated about two miles west 

from Burton on the eastern side of Needwood forest. The vil- 

t lage 



Itge is small, and obscurely placed in a narrow valley, bctwecu 
two lofty hills. The superior lords of the chief manor, origf- 
nally, were the Ferrers, earls of Derby, * from whom it de- 
scended to the house of Lancaster. In the reign' of Edward 
in. John of Gaunt made a grant of it to sir Philip de Somcr- 
ville, for certain curious servicesf which our limits will not 
jpermit us to narrate. From this family it passed by mar- 
riage to that of GrifFyth, who likewise possessed the adjoining 
manor of Briddeshus, or Briddesdalc- 

The parish church is a large old building, consisting of a 
lofty nave and chancel, and surmounted by a massive tower. 
On tlw' floor, in the body of it, are several ancient flat stones 
urftlrtigures cui out upon them, but in so mutilated a state asto 
render It impossible to ascertain any thing concerning them. 
The tQSiecis remarkable as the €entntm Phonocampticum, orob- 
ject of an ^ho, which returns no less th|n five syllables distinctly, 
though the distance of the centrum phonicum, or speaker's place, 
does not exceed 70 yards. J Another urtdominon echo is men- 
lioned by Dr. Plot as having been formerly heard near the par- 
sonage bouse, which so much depended on the state of the wea- 
tker that it never answered except in frost. 

There are several hamlete in this parish; but that of Burton 
under Needwood ;x\oue deserves to be noticed. This place was 
anciently called simp\y Berton, and seems to have been of 
some consequence at the lime of the Norman conquesU The 
church, a chapel of ease to Tatenhill, is a neat building of 
Mune faundcu about the commencement of the sixteenth cen- 
€ury, by Dr. John Taylor, a native of this village, and the 
eldest of three :it a birth. The windows of the chancel still 
disiplay the remains of rich and elegantly finished paintings of 
the iwchc aposttL-:. In the centre one is the figure of the 

*U»OTi. Vol. I. p. 262. 
f Sec Shaw's StofTordthire, p. 106. Blount's Tinarci, 217. 

^' ' i plot*i Natural history of Staffordshire, p. t8. 



762 sTJtFFOEmmftx. 

Sat lomr apon the cross. At the eastern extremity of the ▼(]- 
lage stands the Free-school, a very respectable old fabric 
erected in 159S, and lately much hnproved throagh the exer* 
tions of Mr. Kirk. 

Some years ago a Tariety of Roman coins were discovered in 
the Ticinity of the small hamlet of Caiiingwood. A cur ions 
and beautiful model in shittim wood of the holy sepulchre, with 
the church of er it» was formerly deposited in a house possess- 
ed by Mr. Jolland. The history of it> a« well as the name Of 
the artist, areanknown. It is remarkable that salt is so pro- 
fusely mixed with the soil of some parts of this parish, that 
even black cattle change their colour to a whitish dan, afler 
grazing upon it only for a few months. To the west of the 
principal village lies Sinai park once possessed by the abboU 
of Burton^ and now the property of the earl of Uxbridge. It 
is a rough hilly piece of ground and derived its name from 
mme supposed resemblance between it and the wilderness of 


This celebrated place lies about four miles from Bnrtori upon 
Trent, on the west bank of the river Dove. It was erected in- 
to a free borough at an early period by some of the royal per- 
sonages, who occupied its once magnificent castle. The bur- 
gesses and inhabitants then possessed a vitriety of valuable pri- 
vileges. Among these were " divers liberties of common of 
pasture, purvenage, and estovers, in the forest of NeedWood," 
together with freedom from ''all toll» tonnage, package, pound- 
age, and other exactions within all their possessions.'' What 
is rather remarkable, this town never had the right of sending 
members to Parliament, though still retaining the name of a 
borough, and having a population of a thousand persons. The 
market, which is held on Tuesday, is of small nbte. Wool- 
combing constitutes the principal business of the inhabitants. 

9 A cotton 


ty, eilfeWished about twenty y«tM ago, alstf 

\ to giTe emptoyinent to a eon^dcrabie number^Df per- 

^TDt^mry bas an excelknt free ^hool originally fonnded 

by Richard Wakefield in the year 1730, and 

V^ 1799. It has likewise a meeting house for dis- 

cMie, than which there is searceiy one more famons in 

iid^ is sapposed by some to have been first erected* a 

Jer|d)Ie ttnm before the Norman conquest. Camden>t howt» 

cAprettly saya " it was built by Henry de Ferrars, a no* 

(.Nbrman, to whom William the first gave fine esUtes in thtt 

ity/^t ^^ ^ coarse at a period subsequent to that event. 

iaanyy oC Ferrara it remained till the reign of Henry 

rthmb when it was forfeited by Robert de Ferrars, the rebel 

of Derby. Henry the thirds the reigning monarch> be* 

red it on his seeond son Edmund^ earl of Lancaster. In 

Ht once more reverted to the crown> in consequence of the 

allioa of Thomas, earl of Lancaster, who fortified it against 

[ the second ; but, being unable to hold it, was obliged 

\ surreifder. Having suffered considerable damage during this 

and being afterwards allowed to Ml into decay, John 

6aQnt%builtthe greater part of it up<mthe ancient scite in 

1850. . 

This castle, being the principal seat of the dukes of Lancas^ 
^ ler, was long distinguished as the scene of much festivity and 
splendour. The number of minstrels which crowded to it was 
so great that it was found necessary to have recourse to some 
expedient for preserving order amongst them, and determining 
their claims of precedence. Accordingly one of their own num-« 
ber, with the title of King of the minstrels, was appointed 


* TiadUiOQ even reports that a part of it was erected by Julias Csiar, bat 
ttijs we«presane to be a mere fable. 

t Gough't Camdan, Vol. II. p. 498. 

X ThSie who oaintaintbat the caitJe was bailt prior to tbis period, tty diat 
it was ftvta aloDf with the estates to Henry de Ferrars. 


with this view, and under him several inferior officers to assist 
in the execution of the laws. To this chief minstrel a charter 
was granted in the following terms> by John of Gaunt duke of 

" John, by the grace of God, King of Castile and Leon, duk^ 
of Lancaster to all them who shafl see or hear these our letters 
greeting. Know ye, we have ordained, constituted, and assign- 
ed, to our well beloved the king of the minstrels in the honour 
of Tutbury, who is, or for the time being shall be, to appre- 
hend and arrest all the minstrels in our said honour and fran« 
chise, that refuse to doe the service and minstrelsy as appertain 
to them to doe from ancient times at Tutbury aforesaid^ yearly 
on the days of the assumption of our lady, giving and granting 
to the said king of the minstrels, for the time being, full power 
and commandment, to make them reasonable to justify, and to 
constrain them to doe their services and minstrelsies in manner 
asbelongeth to them, and as it hath there and of ancient times 
accustomed. In witness of which thing we have caused these 
our letters to be made patents. 

" Given under our privy seal at our castle of Tutbury the 
twenty-second day of August, in the fourth year of the raigne 
of the most sweet king Richard the second/' (138L) 

The lines and other punishments, which by virtue of this 
charter^ the king and his officers inflicted upon tiefaulters, 
being found in numerous instances to exceed the due bounds of 
justice, it was deemed expedient to institute a court, to be held 
before the Steward of the panor, on the morrow after the as- 
sumption, for the purpose of hearing all complaints, and de- 
termining' all controversies, connected with minstrelsy within 
the honour of Tutbury. On the court day, all the minstreltf 
having assembled at the mansion house of the bailiff of the 
lordship, they, together with, the steward and bailiff, walked 
in procession from hence to the church in the following 
order : 


STiKVt<MlMaiRI» 7^5 

. Miostrels, two and twoy 

Steward— king of the Min^trelsi— bailifi; 

Stewards and officere of the late king of the Minstrels, with 

white wands in their hands. 

Inhabitants of the borough and Honor of Tatbnry. 

Birine senrice * being finished the procession, continued in 
the same order from the church to the castle hall. Here the 
king of the minstrels having seated himself between the Stew« 
ard and Bailiff, or their deputies, one of his officers gave 
notice, that all minstrels dwelling within the honour of Tut'^ 
bary,f and owing suit and service to that court, '' must, draw 
near and give their attendance upon pain and peril that might 
otherwise ensue ; and that if any man would be assigned of 
suit or plea he or they should come in, and they should be 
heard/' The names of the minstrels were now called over 
from the court roll, and two juries} impanelled, who after 
receiving a charge from the steward on the importance of 
■msie^ and the duties they had to perform, proceeded to elect 
their officers for the ensuing year. The king was chosen from 
die fonr Stewards then in office, one year out of Staffordshire 
and the other out of Derbyshire. Of the new stewards, two 
were elected from each of these counties, three being nominat* 
ed by the jurors, and one by the person who held the court. 
After the election the jurors retired to a private room leaving 
the old king and bailiff and their assistants in the hall '' quaf* 
fing the rosy howl and enjoying the sound of contending min« 
strels^" Upon the return of the jurors they presented their 
new chief officer to the court by the title of king. The old 

Vou XUI. C c c king 

^ It was perfomed ky the view of Tatbniy, who leeaived one psnay from 
Mck oHastol M a fai ibvumI^j doe to bun epoa thm wAeiiuiitj. 

t Tbb was a very tstoniivo koaoor, oooqirehaDdiag tbo ooootiet of 8t>f- 
fBrd, Derby, Notttngbaai» Loioeiter, sad Werwnk. 

I Tvekre of the joryarao wars dmsB froai StaffMrdibire, aB4 twelfc fVoia 
alJ the oltiet eoouciei. 

king instantly arose and delivered Co him a white wand or itaft 
(album baculum) in token of soTereignty. He next drank to hit. 
health in a plentiful Ubaiion of wine, wishing him all joy and^ 
prosperity in his office. The same form was obsenred with re- 
spect to Ihe stewards.* 

The bnainess of the courtbeiog condloded» they with<hrew to- 
partake of a sumptuoos repast prepared for them by the 
steward of the lordship. In the afternpon the minstrels assem^ 
bled at the gate of the priory. A boll, having his boms»ears^ 
and tail, cut off, his body besmeared with soap^ and his nose 
blown full of pepper, was then let loose. If the minstrels 
could take and hold him even so long as to deprive him of the 
smallest portion of his hair, he was declared their property^ 
provided this was done within the confines of Staffordshire, and 
befoi-e sun set. The bull was next collared and roped, and| 
being brought to the market cross was baited wjth dogs. Aftev 
this he was delivered to the minstrels who might dispose of 
him as they deerped proper.f 

According to charter* the minstrels only were entitled to en* 
gage in this sport, the multitude beiiig positively restrained* 
under sevet*e penalties from approaching the bull nearer thao* 
40 yards. In after times, however, the latter began to mix in 
the ceremony with great zeal. This gave birth to mach ani** 
mosity between the inhabitants of the count,ies of Stafford and. 
Derby. So far, indeed, did each party carVy their eagemeta. 
for superiority in this contest, that it seldom concluded without 
a serious rencounter, and much bloodshed. In consequence of 


.* Jackfon'f Historicil Deserlpffon of Tatba^, p. Id, tl. 
t An inapexiront by Henry Vt. relative to tke cuatDiiM of Tkitbnry •alet, 
meotion of this extraordioAry oae in the following wordi. "There it an an- 
cient prtefiie belMglnft td the Aonor of Tutbory, that Ihe mimtreh #ho eomc 
to Matini there, on the feast of the AMumplion of the bfeMfcd vtrgm, shall 
have A ball giv«n by Hie priof of Tntbory, if they can take him on thir nfte 
the river Do vei which is next Tdtbnry ; or elie the piior^liall give tbea 
%id for the enjoyment of which eattom they thnll gite lo I be lurd, at the 
said feaM yearly XX^.** 


tiMieoQtraget a final period waa put to this bacbaraiia c«stoiii» 
by coramntation, about 40 yearaaga.* An annaal oourt^ bow^ 
crer, called the Minatrei's coart, atili continues held at th# 
atewardfl' house, which is situated on a part of the site of the 
ancient castle. . 

In the general history of this county it is remarked that Mary 
queen of Scats was confined for some time within the walls of 
this celebrated edifice*' She had previously resided in Bolton 
caalle, Yorkshire, in the custody of liord ' Scroop, brother-in- 
law to the duke of Norfolk. Upon the discovery, however^ of 
the iotrigoes of the latter nobleman to obtain the hand of the 
n>yal prisoner, it was deemed dangerous to trust her person to 
the care of one who might be supposed to ha?e some interest 
ia procuring her freedom. Accordingly, in October 1568 
queen Elisabeth ordered her to be removed hither, and com* 
niitedto the keeping of George Talbot, earl of Shrew«bury« 
who seems to have executed his commission with great feeling 
and humanity.f Here Mary remained till November in the 
following year, when she was conveyed from hence to Coventry 
as a place of greater security, against the attempts of the duke 
and his party to effect her release. Hastings, earl of Hunting- 
don, who pretended to dispute with this unfortunate princess her 
title to the Scottish throne, was now joined in the commissioa 
with Shrewsbury, and, by his rigorous conduct, contributed ia 
no small degree to render her situation more unhappy. Such, 
indeed, was the harsh treatment which she experienced during 
this period that her health began visibly to decline. At length 
the French ambassador interfered and prevailed with Elizabeth 
to permit her to visit Buxton, in order that she might enjoy the 
benefit of the waters. This indulgence, however, was only of 

C c o 9 short 

^ Tbe ditlie of J>cvOBftbire, wbo holdt ilw.pciory,.now gives tbo minstrels 
ioer omiIl^ as Ike ecfunuited tequre. The ki^g Qf oiusic alip reoeives irosi 
the Uiliff five nobies ia liee of his. right to4b« \^\\, After which it is M for 
rhe use of the poor et Christmee. 

t Collint'f Peerage, vol. lU. p. 18, 19. 


short dttration. Cecil, the favourite minister of her more power«^ 
All rival, happening to he here at the same time, drew uporv 
himself, by this accident, the temporary suspicions of his royab 
mistress, to destroy which, it b' probable, he became more de* 
cidedly the adviser of severe measures. But, be this as it may, 
it is tnn that Mary was soon after removed back to her dreary 
residence at Coventry; and, what added not a little to her 
misery, was taken from the custody of the earl of Shrewsbury, 
and committed to the care of Sir Amias P^ulet and Sir Drue 
Drury,* men who seem to have possessed no other qualities to* 
recommend them but tbek severity and rigour. The wretched 
queen was now exposed to every species of indignity, whicb 
could result from a stern temper accompanied by brutal man- 
ners-t The French Ambassador again remonstrated in a vi- 
gorous and menacing tone against the affronts thus unjustly 
heaped upon her; but be was unable to obtain any further «U 
leviation of her miseries, except tke permission of vetuming 
to Tutbury castle, and some slight relaxation in the rigor of her 
confinement. Here she remained from March 1585, till to- 
wards the close of the following winter, when she was convey- 

« Lodge, in hit JOuttrntimu of BritiihHUtory, denies that the earl of Shrews* 
^ury was dismissed, lainttming it to be clear from the papers of those days, 
ihal he resigned of his own acootdi and that Mildmay and Somen immediate* 
ly sncceeded him ; and not the gentlemen mentioned in the taat* 

t This assertion we make on the aathority of Dr^ Robertson, whO| in bis 
History of Scotland, speaking of these gentlemen, says, " Even the short pe« 
riod of her days that remained they rendered oncomfortable by every hard- 
ship and indignity it was in their power to inflict. Almost all her servants 
were dismissed ; she was treated no longer with the rctpeet doe to a 4|aeen : 
and thongh the rigonr af seventeen years imprisonment, had almost broken 
Jber constitntion, she was confined to two roinons chambers scarce habitable 
eren in the midst af aummer, by reason of die cold," &c. It is bvt justice t» 
Sir Amies to add, that, howevnr harsh and stem his coadoct towards Maiy^ 
might be in point of maiineia, he not only resolateiy rafnsed to be aceeseary . 
to har assassination, but would on no aceount permit her servant! ta be biibad 
to disclose tbt sectcts of tbeir mistress, or beleay berintcatioot.. 

STjflOKDiHlRS. T69 

cMm €b Chariky^ and afterwards to Fotheriagay castle^ tke 
BceHe of ber sbamefol trial and condemnation. 

At the commeacement of the ciyil wars in the reign of 
Charles the first, this castle was garrisoned and maintained by 
iord LoQgbborough^ a zealoas partizan and supporter of tho 
royal cause. Sir William Brereton, one of the parliamentary 
commandersy however, laid siege to it, and conducted the at- 
tack with such judgement and vigour that his lordship was soon 
compelled to surrender. The damage sustained by the castle 
on this occasion was very great. It was not, however, doomed 
to total destruction, till towards the conclusion of the war, 
when the Parliament issued an order for that purpose dated in 
1646, at which time it was reduced nearly to its present ruin- 
ous condition. 

•James the second paid a visit to thb celebrated residence of 
che house of Lancaster, during his memorable tour through 
England. Instoad of the sighs of a distressed queen, the walls 
now re-echoed the joyful acclamations of loyalty. They no 
longer beheld aa unhappy, though illustrious prisoner, but a 
mighty monarch surrounded by all the splendour and magnifi- 
cence of kingly power. 

The few remains of this castle, which still exist, are alonft 
anfficient to declare its former extent and grandeur. It has 
been built chiefly of hewn free stone, with admixtures of gyp- 
anm, and stands on an alabaster hill of considerable elevation^ 
commanding a very fine and varied prospect The ancient 
gateway is tolerably entire, and towers and buildings, with 
hewel staircases, as well as vestiges of divisions of rooms, with 
fire places, can yet be discovered in different parts of the walls 
which appear to have been of immense strength and thick- 

The whole was sarrounded by a broad and deepilitoh over 
srhich. Dr. Plott* informs us, there was in his time an extraor- 
dinary timber bridge, composed of distinct pieces of wood, 

C c c 3 none 

* PloU't Natural History of Stafbrdihire. 

770 ITAVfOmDSHlBl. 

none of tbem abo?e a yard long, yet unsupported by any arell- 
workj pillarsj or other prop. Sir Simon Degge says it was niore 
than thirty yards in length, but adds that the arches which 
served to support it, reached to a considerable distance. Both 
Ifhese authors agree in affirming, that ^ the more weight was 
upon it, the stronger it was, and may be if well loaded it would 
Hot quake so much as he had made it with his weight/'* 

The Pbjory, founded at the same time with the castle, and by 
the same illustrious person, wasiledicated to the Virgin Mary.f 
Therreligious of this cell were monks ofthe Benedictine ordef« 
. A great exter^t of landed property, and other sources of re* 
f veniue# were conferred upon them by king Williflm Rufus> for 
^. theiMmdtt of the souls of king William I. and his queeu Maud^ 
^ . and for the heajth of his father's wife Bcrta, and their sons and 
^ ^wtghtij^i B^Tfa the town of Boveridgi;, 
J and the maiTfir of Estanfort. Earl Robert de Ferrari, grandson 
-■ to the fuunder,. confirnied tothem all their ff»Fmerprtfl?*e»i"^k*iH 
jLnd rights, ^nd added the tithes of Newborough as his own gift. 
Thii person, howeTeTj in some measure lowered the dignity 
of the priory* by grafting to the monks of the house of St 
Pere 5U[>cr l>ivam ifn {Normandy, the high-privilege of having 
^ the prior uniformly nominated from among them. Several 
other t!t!sccndants of the family of ^errars also contributed 
il greatly to augment the possessions of this monastery. Scarcely 
K ^a vestige of the ancient building now remains, and we know 
t little more eiiber concerning its structure, or interior decora-r 
f itons, except that it was of large extent, and contained a very 
splendid a.TiLi(jue monument to the men>ory of its original foun- 
der. The parish church, constitutes a portion of the old 
priory chun h. It is a large massive building with a square 
embattled tosver at one end surmounted by four small pin- 
nacles. The principal entrance^ situated on the west side> is 
6nely decorated with beautiful specimens of Saxon sculpture. 


■ Gough't Camden, Tol. II. p. 516. t Ib« 

^ i 

*s I 

tTAVrOftDSttlBS. 771 

Vhe liTing i* a Vicacftge In the gift aT' the 4«ike of Devon- 

Before eonchiduig our zctuont of Totboryj it will not perhaps 
be lAiMroper to state a few particulars relative to that remarkaM^ 
living phenomenon, Mrs. Ann Moore^ who has now Babsisted 
for nearly five years withoat food or drink of any descripttoit. 
This woman, according to her own accoant, first totally lotft 
the ose of her digestive organs from washing the linen, and 
dressing the woand9> of a person extremely afflicted with scrof 
{thidoos ulcers. From that period eVery thing she eat or drank 
presented to her imagination the taste and smell of the putrid 
natter which issued from the woands. Her stomach, which be^ 
fivre this was extremely weak, now refused the smallest suste^ 
toance. During her whole illness she ha^ never felt the most dtif- 
lant inclination either for food or drink ; nor has she for foo^ 
years had a single passage by stool or urine. She never sleeps 
80 soundly as to forget herself, but remains in a dozing static 
for a few hours of the night. Her body is totally insensible to 
•the variations of heat and cold which oar climate exhibits, fee(- 
ing precisely in the same condition both in summer and winter* 
Her extremities feel cold, and apparently lifeless, to the touch 
of another, and though pressed with considerable force, pro- 
dace no seosatton of pain to her. 

In person Mrs. Moore rather exceeds the ordinary siae. The 
regularity and just proportion of her features are signs of for- 
mer beauty. Her disposition seems to be naturally lively, and 
her conversation fluent. She pres^^rves her mental faculties in 
a Wonderful degree, but is somewhat tinctured with religions me- 
lancholy. By the assistance of glasses she is enabled both to 
read and sew with great ease. Her voice, which was originally 
strong is now extremely weak, and for the last twelve months 
>he has be^n much liable to hysterical fiu^ and also to occasional 
paroxysms of fever, accompanied by great pain,* 

C c c 4 The 

* This case is one of m ei traordinsry a naturey and m diametrically mop- 
yaiitiae to Ae ataal coataa ofaatare, tbatit it eitrenaly diflcolt to give it 


779 •TAfro&]>t9imB* 

The pariah and vilhge of Haakirf/^joiiis to Toibisry M « 
the south-west, lying close upon the northeni extremity oC 
Meedwood forest The village finely situated on an eminence, 
commands at once a noble prospect of the fertile meadows of 
Ihe Do?e, and the bleak and dreary mountains of the Moor* 
lands. Tlie etymology of iu name U descripcive of ito eleva« 
ted site* Heam in Saxon signifying high. 

This place is mentioned by yarious writers at a very early 
period. The celebrated St. Werburgh* the sister ^or niece of 
Ethelred, king of Mercia« was long abbess of a monastery here 
now entirely demolished, but which no doubt stood a short way 
to the east of the church, as human bones have been frequently 
discovered on that spot. This princess, when very young, bad 
been betrothed to her cousin Ceolred, who afterwards mounted 
•the Mercian throne. Hie marriage, however, was never con- 
summated, the queen» her mother, having instructed her to 
devote herself to God and virginity. Much diflPerence prevails 
among historians as to the place of her death and sepulture* 
William of Mahnsbury says, she died and was buried at Ches* 
ter. Higden* on the other hand, with more probability, asserti 
Ihat she leaded her days in this monastery* and that she, like- 
wise, lay interred here, till upon the invasion of this district by 
the Danes* the rtUgieuse flying to Chester, carried the bones of 
their laint along with them. The elegant shrine erected to her 
memory in the cathedral church of Chester is described in oor 
account of that city, to which the reader is referred.f 

The church stands on the very edge of the declivity, on 
which the village is situated. It is an ancient stone building, 
having a very lofty nave and spacious aisles. At one end rises 

a plain 

b€li«£ From the cure taken, howerer, to prevent impontion, aiid the retpec« 
tability and intelligenee of thoie who testify the troth of the above statement 
we are compeHed to attach to it implicit credit A particular acconnt of this 
wonan wiU be found in the Monthly Magaaine, Tol. 5S. p. 88, 207. 
tAatDVolILp.fl«t 8haw'a|Itftorjof8tdfcrddute« VoL.Lp.Tt« 


a phin square tower^ which, aided hy the natural ele^adon of 
its base, exhibiu a fine appearance from a distance, and affords 
9 very extensive view. The situation of this church and vil- 
lage are well described in the following lines, quoted from the 
iesriy admired poem of '* Needwood forest :** 

" Her ttmtel J tower there Haiiborj rean 
IVhich proodlf look* o'er distent shires 
Down the chill slope and darkened glade 
Projects alar its length of sbadc« 
Assails the skies with Oiant force 
And checks the whirlwind in iu coorse ; 
Or when black clouds involf e the pole. 
Disarms the thunders, as they roll ; 
Beneath how nature throws aronsd 
Grand inequalities of ground 
While down the dells and o'er the steeps 
The wavy line of Paphot creeps/'a 

Several monuments, both ancient |uid modern, adorn the »• 
icrior of this fabric, but none of them seem to require particular 
notice or description. 


This forest, a most beautiful and interesting spot, extenda 
from the confines of Hanbury to Yoxal about a mile to the 
north of the river Trent According to a purvey, made in the 
year 1765, it consists of 99:^ acres ot one of the finest soils in 
the kingdom, which, till very lately, remained wholly unin* 
closed, and in a state of nature. Here the little warblers of the 
j^ve, unnumbered, chant their ' wild and mellifluent nytes. 
Here also toe woodcock, the snipe, the pheasant, and the par- 
tridge, abound in profusion, and rear their tender oflspring for 
Ihe sport of the cruel fowler. Numerous deer range in the 


• XTcedwaod Foreir, p. n. 

774 6TATfOltI>8)fIRi:. 

^rallies; t^e hare bides in the thicket^ the fox and thebadgM^ 
Ihhtow in the declivity of the deep gleo, and the rabbit on the 
landy hill; all of them bat too often the prey of relentif 9$ man, 
^ho, notwithstanding his boasted reason and innate sense of 
moral rectitade^ is the only animal in creation, at once the 
enemy of his own species, and the terror of every other part 
of animated nature. 

Need wood forest anciently formed a portion of the property 
of the dukes of Lancaster, in whose right it has belonged to the 
English monarchs for several centuries, subject, however, to 
certain privileges of common enjoyed by the owners and in«> 
habitants of some of the ac^acent villages. It is divided into the 
four wards of Marchington, Yoxall, Barton, and Tutbury, each 
ward containing about five miles in compass, exclusive of the 
Uttoxeterwood, Boughay, kc The officers of the forest are a 
lieutenant, and chief ranger, assisted by a deputy, four lieuten- 
ants, four keepers, and an axe*bearer. A court is still held 
every year by the king's steward of the honour of Tutbury, 
when a jury of twenty- fonr persons resident within the juris- 
diction present and amerce all persons guilty of '^ encroaching 
on the forctst, or committing offences in vert or venison."* 

The natural disposition of this forest presents a great, and 
beautiful variety of aspect*. Gradual eminences and easy vales 
watered by murmuring rills, with here and there a bolder and 
more abrupt swell, form its general feature. In the northern 
parts, particularly within Marchington Woodlands, the emi- 
nences are far more numerous and lofty, than in the middle or 
southern divisions. The forest here exhibits to the eye, a series 
of deep glens inclosed by steep and rugged precipices, inca* 
pable of agricultural improvement, but happily covered with a 


* There were formerly eight parks, impaled within the ring of the Ibfest^' 
cilled the parks of Agardesley, Stockiey, Barton, Heylyna, Sberrold, 
Casdo-bay, Hanbury, and RolIe«toit. That of Castla-hajTi sitaaied aboot a mile 
irom the castle, was three. miles and a half in compass, andthatofHanborvi 
t^ miles end an half. JaekMm> account of Tutbury, p. 40. 

:<on <^ 


tTArrOBMBIRS« 775 

' \*.yftti rarietjr of trees, among wMck the nacire' eak,* vrgorous 

v%tiiluxurt9iity shoots up in gteai abundence. Mr. Sbawsayi^ 

''•itjft the whole foreU does Tiot coiHain lesa tbati IM0'4cre« of 

''iik timber, a greater quantity, thim perbapf any* disbicl (n 

^ Bbghuid can boast of possessiilg. The veneraMe Swikor, a 

J. .""tfae of immense size* and majestic appbarancieji 19 siiiidted in an 

*, ■' tpefi lawn, surrounded by extisflsivo woods»'*«tnci is supposed to 

r , *tev^ stood upwards of six hundred yea #8. It is thus addressed, 

• !'kiB^^^y f^f^^^^ strains, in the poem of " Need wo6d Forest :** 


. " Hail, atfttely Onlc^ wiv)9e wrinkled tnink bathatood 
. ^e after ag9 the tovereigu of the wood ; 
Yoo, who have seen a UiOusand aprtnga anfoid 
,1'beir ratal'd buds and diptlieir flonefs in gold; 

■N^ ^ .^I^Ddll.'tibMttsiftd eimes yon nioon relight her hum, 

? Y: .'*i' "'itail'mit ikilglit ey e of e reoing -gild t he mom. 

! T[l> Yair'vtatef^qakj thjrhur*iaraf»f};dheadiiAtime 

• ^y Ere long nfust ppjrisb in the^wrecka of time 

* ' J l^hoold o'gj; ij^ bMnf^the tl^iindoia haraifrai break, 
. >^.i Aim) thy firm root» in valo the whirlwinds shake, 

^ Vet must joQ fan.-^Th^ withering glories tank, 

> Arm after arm thah lesre \\\y mould'ring tronk." 

I , ijA A white or red marly Joam, more or. less tenacious, but set* 
' V^w^°^ approaching to the harshness of ctay, forms the soil in aU 
erery part of Ncedwood. About a thousand acres are 
Sciently light for turnips, and seven thousand more, are 
K '^^aal to the productions of the finest crops of any species of 
! l^piain, or to the feeding of cattle of the first rate kind. Wbeq 
i../|Weught to a proper state of cultivation and improvement, which 
:flD easily be effected, and we trust will shortly take place, this 
l' ,' ' tract 

"• This noble oak measarei ft feet round the trunk, at the height of five 
feet The lo#er item is ten feet high clear, the whole height 6.5, and (he 
patent of the mrmt 45 feet. It oootains 1000 feet of solid timber. «Pitt'i 
Survey. Shaw'i StaffMdtbir^. 

77^ tTAvrDHDenifti. 

tnctof C9iuikry will b9 one of ike mott delightful and feiiile 
diilrictB in Great Britain.* 

At Ibe sOQlh extremity of Needwood, liet the village of 
Yoxml. This Tillage^ which was formerly a market town, is 
finely watered by the stream of Swarboame, which serves, 
doring a great part of its course, to divide the difierent soils in 
tbia portion of the county, the one side of its cbannei being of 
a deep Joam or clayey soil, and the other an ebb soil with a 
a gravel bottom. The church dedicated to Su Peter, is a spa- 
cious and elegant structure of stone, having a tower sonnouuted 
by handsome pinnacles at the one end. In the interior are a 
Tariety of antique and modem monuments. At a short distance 
Arom the village, a number of vessels, probably the remains of 
Jtoman antiquity, were discovered a few years ago, but most of 
them unfortunately went to pieces in the act of raising them.t 
These vessels contained a considerable quantity of ashes, and 
fragments of human bones, ami were composed of a very soft 
species of coarse brown earth. 

The village of Wichnnr, or Whichnoure, is situated east from 
Yoxal, on an eminence near the north bank of the Trent, at a 
abort distance from the point at which that river becomes the 
boundary between this county and Derbyshire. It is particu- 
larly deserving of notice, because of the singular tenure by which 
the manor was held by Sir Philip de Somerviile, in the reign 
of Edward IIL under the Earl of Lancaster, as lord of the honour 
of Tutbury. Afker enumerating two small fees, the charter 


* Mr. Pitt tsys, that at lesit 8000 acres of this forest are susceptible of 
the highest improTemem* and estimates their value in this state at 5L per 
acre, or 40,0001. per annam ; whereas, in their waste condition ttiey are not 
worth mote than 4s. per acre, or 18001. per annum. Under these circum* 
stances, the cultiTation of Need wood, is certatnlj tn ohject worthy of serious 
attention, both from the increase it would afibcd to the national capital, and 
to the rerennes of the proprietors. Pitt's Surrey, p. 187. 

tOne of the lew got up entire was deposited in Mr. Green*s Museum at 
Lichfield, and ii engraved and described in the GcDtkaao's Magasine, Yei. 

sTAPFORmnfBE. 77T 

proceeds thus? '« Nevertheless tftie sjlid Sir Philip shall tymdm 
flieyntienge and snsteiyne, one bacon flyke hanging in bis baile 
at Wiehenare, ready arrayed all tymes of the yere, bolt in Leni 
to be given to everyche mane or womane married aCter'the day 
and yere of their marriage be passed ; and to be given to 
everyche mane or womane married after the dey and yere of 
their marriage be passed, and to be given to everyche man of 
religion, archbisbop, prior, or other religions; and to everydi^ 
preest, after the year and day of their profession finished; or of 
their dignity reseyved in forme following. Whensoever that 
any sach before named wylle come for to enquire for the ba^ 
conne in their own person, or by any other for them, they 
shall come to the bayliffor porter of the Lordship of Wkkkc* 
mour, and shall say to them in the manere as ensewethe : 

** Bayliffe or porter, I doo yon to know that I am come for 
myself (or, if he come for any other shewing for whome>) ona 
bacon flyke, hanging in the halle of the Lord of WUdkmmr, 
after the forme thereto longinge. 

' '' After which relation, the bailifie or porter shal assigae a daye 
to him, open promise of his feythe to return, and with him to bring 
tweyne of his neighbours, and in the meyn time the said bai* 
lifshall uke with him tweyne of the freeholders of the lordibip 
of Wkichencmrt, and they three shal goe to the mannour of Ead* 
iawe^ belonging to Robert Kf^ghiky, and there shall somen the 
foresaid K^ightl^, or his baylifle, commanding him lo he ready 
at Whkhcmmr^ the day appointed at pry me of day with his car« 
riage ; that is to say, a horse and sadyle, a 8akke> and a pryke, 
for to convey and carry the said bacon and com a journey out 
of the county dSi^ford at his costagesj and thea the sayd bailiffii 
shal with the sayd fi«eholders, somon all tbe tenants of the taiil 
maaoir to be ready at the day appointed at IVhickenaur^ for to 
dpe aad performe tbe services to tbe baconne. And at the 
day assigned all such. as owe services to the bacoane shall 
be ready at the gate of the manoir, from the sonne risinge to 
none, aHeodyng and awayltng for the coniyng of him and his 
folowys chapalettSj and to all those whiche shal be there to doe 


778 tTAVrOEDSRlftE. 

Ihttr l6hri<Se8 deue to the baconile : uid they'shall leM the nkl 
dilntndaiiti wy the •trompB and tabourt and other manner of 
mjostraheye to the halle close where he shal fynde the lord of 
Wnddtaumr, rtedy to deliver the baconne in this niaoeie." 

** He shall enqnere of him which demandeth the baconne, 
tf he hath broaght t#eyne of his n^ghboors ; who must an8were# 
Thmf be here rtdy; and then the steward shall cause these two 
neighbonrs to swere yf the said demandant be a weddyt man 
er hare be a man weddyt, and yf syth his marriage one yere 
and a day be passed^ and yf he be a freeman or villeyn : and 
yf his held neighboars make othe that he hath for hym all these 
tkree points rehersed» then shal the bacon be take downe and 
bnmght to the hallo dole, and shal there be layed upon one half 
a quarter of wheatte, and npon one other of rye : and he that 
daswsrfcth the baconne shall kneel upon his knee, and shall 
bold his right hand^ npon a booke, which shal be laid abore 
the baibmine and the coroe, and shall make oath in this manere : 

" Here ye Sir PhiUp de Somervyle, lord of Wkichenour, mayn* 
tayder and girer of this baconne, that I A, syth I wedded B. 
giy wife, and syth 1 had her in my kepyng and at wylle by a 
jpere and a daye after our marry age, I would not have changed 
toif none other, fiirer ne fewlor, richer ne powrer, ne for none 
either descended of gretter lynage, slepyng ne waking, at noo 
tyme, and if the seid B. were sole, and I sole, I wolde take her 
to be my wife before all the wymen of the world, and of what 
condytions soerere they be, good or evyle, as heipe me God 
and his seyntys, and this flesh and all fleshes. 

And his neighbonrs shal make oath that they trust Terily 
he hath said traely. And yf it be founde by his neighbouri 
aforenamed, that he be a freeman, there shall be dely vered t4 
him halfe a quarter of wbeatte, and a cheese ; and yf he be a 
▼illein, he shal have half a quarter of rye, withoottc cheese 
and then shal Knyghtky, the lord of Rudhwe, be called for to 
carry all their things to fore rehersed, and the said com shall be 
layd upon one horse, and the baconne apperteyncth shal 
4 esceni 

^•nd ttfxm hit boTsej a^ shall taka the cli«e iMfore hym, if he 
liate a bowe» fud y f b^ hwe imAmi, the loid of Whiebenoi^w ahall 
caow huvr tp hune one horse and sady l> U> such lyme as hepiuaA 
bklerdsbippei Itad so sbaltb^y departa the manoyr oT Wkkke^ 
wom-,- with the cora »Dd the baconne to fore hun» hin, thai, 
hath wonne yttf wUb <iroBipet«> taboqrots» and other maooir oC 
oatostrelsoe* and alt the freetenaals of WkidMumti shall ooik 
4ucthim to be passed ;the Lordshifi of IVhkkenfiur; aild ihea 
aball they retornei, exrept by m to ivhom appertaiyneth to auiko 
lihe carriage and journey wUhOutt the oouotye of St^fMl^ 9^ 
liiecostysof bislecdof WkuMmmft and yf the. said 4oin9 
JQ^^AufSry, do not oatise the .baconne and cotne to h^conreyttd 
«a is rehersed, the lord of WhkhefMur» shal do It la be canTed*. 
and shal distreigne the said Robert &i^ghil^M forhii deJanlt fbfe 
one bondred shillings in his manoir of Mudio^^ and Aall lEopo' 
ihe distresse so.tabyn irreplevisable/' 

No motif es, asfer as we koow» areatiigiied by ailttqharia*. 
fifr the instittttionof this curious custom* except the mere whinv 
or caprice of the noble £arJ«. by whom the charter to Sir Phili|t 
de Somerrille was granted. Whether it was caleulated to affi>ni 
to the inquisitive in such matters any just data upon which t<v 
oalcalato the proportion between the number of the happy and 
unhappy in the married states we shall not pretend to determine^ 
h is not, however, certainly much- to the honour of matri- 
mony, that since this practice was first established, few have 
dared to claim the prize, and three couples oaly have obtaioeA 
il».one of which, having quarrelled about the mode of preparing 
the bacon for the table, was adjudged to return it.*^ 

No demandant for the fljtch having appeared during seveiat 

eentories, a wooden one was long ago substituted in its stead, a 

fcieodly monitor to the young and free, to be eautious of trust* 

iQg themselves in the hymeneal noose. 


^Tbc other two couples were sata officer aud hii wife, who lis4 nerer si^^n 
one another rrom the da^ of their marriase, til! fhejr ae at the hall ; and S. 
iifople pair in the neighbottrhood ; the husband, a foodttalured tenfihl* 
man, olidlhs wife Ittckiiy ifumfr Spectator, No. (60$. 

7V6 sTArroEmtfiiiv« 

The ehnrch of Wichnoar» dedicated to St Leotmrd, and 
formerly a chapel of ease to Tatenhill» is no ways remarkahte 
either for ita architecture or interior ornaments; batbein(p 
seated on an eminence, and commanding a fine riew, is an ohieet 
of MNne interett to the adjacent conntry. At a short distance 
from hence stands the manor hoose^ a neat modern botlding^ 
snrrounded by rich woody scenery. Mr, Pennant snpposes it 
to be placed on the site of the original mansion, which Leiand 
mentions as totally in ruins in his days, the then family resi- 
dence being situated in the Vale immediately adjoioing to the 
TVent, and much liable to the oTerflowings of that river.* The 
Soman road from Lichfield to Barton, passes through the eun 
tern portion of this parish, and, owing to the marshy nature of 
the ground here, has been constructed upon immense pile^ of 
urood^ It is carried o?er the several branches of the Trenip 
which here forms a variety of islands by a series of handsome 
atone bridges* The Grand Trunk canal also crosses this river 
close to the road, upon a range of very noble aqueducts. Many 
coins of difierent Roman emperors, have been discovered ia 
this neighbourhood, and vestiges of a Roman camp appear in 
the tnclosures of ^AtcAcnoar Lodge^X 

The parish of Alr€wa$ immediately adjoins to Whichenour» 
en the opposite side of the riyer, the canal running almost 
through the centre of the village which is of considerable ex* 
tent, and sttut-^ted in the valley of the Trent. The original 
church of this parish was established at a very early period^ 
being one of the prebends instituted by the. bishop of Lichfield* 
in 82S.| This place appears to have been celebrated in ancient 
times, for its eel fishery. In the southern division of the parish 
is a large extent of waste ground, called Fradley and Alrewaa 
common, a great proportion of which is capable of being con* 

• P«niitDt*s Jonniey, p. If9. 

t Iff. Shaw tcllt m, thit the piles were difttioctlj visible to biro, in (Im 
year 1795, wben the flood destrojred the bridge* over tbe Treot, and laid 
•pen a.fOttion of the road* 

) Shaw*« Stailbrdtbire, p. 18. i MsgnaBritaaaia, VoL V. p. ilS. 

tT4rffomMHixi.* 78l 

irwied into excellent pMtave gronndi.* On one part of the 
coiiimoB is a remerkeble spring, vtilgarly said to be bottomless^ 
mbkik always OTerflow% and though placed in a low sitaatton« 
aetiiaUy pennits the plammet tb descend 48 feet. Near this 
well Dr. Ploi mentiCMM^ that an nncoaamon species of fungus was 
ImmI in his tiase, the interior of which resembled spnnge, both 
in coloar and texture^ and was covered with a membranous 
skin. This fiingus was ?ery large, being at least four or fi?el 
inches in diameter^ and rose fiom a short pedicle which ex- 
lended broader and broader almost to its very bdm> in the shape 
of an inverted cone.f 

Higher up the river^ and on the same slde^ lies the village of 
MU^9 Btomkf, originally called Bram^legge, and deriving its 
preacot name ftom the circumstance of its being' tht property of 
the crowa^ for nearly two centuries after the Norman conquest. 
It had previously > been distinguish^ as the residence of the 
Earls of Mercia. Leofric, the husband of the famous Godtva^ 
died here» in the year I|W. Plot mentions a remarkable in- 
alance of longevity in the person of Mary Cooper, resident in 
this parish, vrbe had seen her descendanto to the sixth gene- 
valion^ and what is more extraordinary, all of them alive at the 
time, so that she couM say to her daughter, ''Hiss 
r, go to thy daughter, for thy daughter's daughter hath 
got a daughter/' Between the village, and the Mersey and 
Trent canal, in the direction of Fradeley heath, is a large com- 
ni9n» cimtaining about 1000 acres of land. Tlie church, dedi- 
cated to All Saints, presento to the view a Tery fine old Gothic 
boildittg» adorned with large and beautiful windows, and con- 
taining several monuments in honour of the Agards and New- 
tOMb proprietors of the manor. 

Eastward from this parish* and that of Yoxal, are three 
amall villages named Hamtal Ridwarg, Pipe Ridware, and 

VouXm. Ddd Maoeim 

* It ecmiati of between two eud three thoosaad aeief ; and th«e b plcntj 
of asrl b the netgtbonrhood. 

t Plot* 9 Staffordtbiie, p. 60. 

7M •TAW<»MHimS. 

Maverin Eidwar€» Tbef fNrobably ixt etrly tints fcmed one 
district^ under the name noir coonnon to each. Then tlunee 
tillageH lie in an angle belweeo tbe liymt Blyt|ic and the IVent 
Somewiiere in this neighboorhood stood Blithri>ai|;b, m Sszoa 
town of great antiqai^j which is supposed to have risen on dw 
ruins of sone more important station helengiDg •riginatty etSbcr 
to the natiTe British, or Uie Bomans, and sAenrards snceessi veiy 
occupied by She Saxons and Danes. The utuation of this strong 
hold is not precisely ascertaiBed ; but there is every itason to 
believe it was placsMl en the hill called Cuttle-ring, ai the dl^ 
tance of five or six miles. As the inhabitants of the country, 
in those troublesome times, generally flocked to the vtcbity ot 
military stations for protection, Blithsburgh weold flourish, 
and continue to do so after the settlement of the ceontty ; 
whereas the fort would be destroyed and soon forgotten. 

Sanuud Ridwarts the most northerly of the Bidwares, vrai^ 
at the time of the great survey^ in the hnndred of PyrehilL 
The church, an old spire boiUling, hte some painted ghm on the 
windows, and contains several handsome, monuments^ one of 
them in honour of John AUestree, A. M. minister of the churoh 
of England for 54 years; during which period, he composed AM 
sermons, and preached 5000 titats.. A4joinuig to the ehnrab, 
is the manor house, an extensive edifice^ formerly fitted np-ia 
a style of great splendour and magnificence. Near it standi 
a neat watch tower, ascended by a staircase^ and open at the 
top, which anciently communicated by a suit of rooms with the 
other buildings. In this house a curious stone hammer, dug up 
in the neighbourhood, is preserved* as are Uhewiie a coat of 
piail, provided for king Charles in the time of ite jnebcUioi^ and 
a curious iron cage in which the heads of sc^<Mng women weri 
placed, to enforce silence.* 


« This tmly valtisbie iiutniment is^ cMnpoied of nirrow tfaitr fdafti otNtt> 
ing into two eqiwl psrtB, having Tacanciei for the nose and eyes. Wlien 
isod •tLf s Sat pie€e of iron projects into the montl^ and prsning npoa the 

Pipt mdiaaut, h oiily iiemittkable for its dMtth, iAM^ is i 
^ery aocient stvtictofe, contidiiitag a carious old font, senlp^ 
tared in an mcoinmbti tnatrntsr with cirdes interliided. 

Mdotsm Rukuares so cilted fhna the iamily of Mhh^uk^ 
Mamvem, or Mavetin, a branch of tbe iilnttriotts 'borne of 
Roswy, in the Isle of France. The old manor house is en* 
tirely demolished, ii<rith the exception bt the gi^honse, in 
which is an old cliainber, said to ha?e been originally an ora- 
tory. The ancient church dedicated to St. Nicholas contains 
fetrerml antique monumenU, The new church is a plain build* 
i/fg. jSameof thetombs, in honour of the M^iuvesins^ were 
iqpensd a^ different periods during the 4ast century. The| stone 
eoSiB in.'ii^iich lay the corpse of Hugo, the founder of the 
priory, of BUthshurghf was raised in 1785, after it had remained 
nndiatur))ed,' for upwards of ;six: hundred years* In this coflS^ 
w«ve all the bones, in a tolerably entire-state, but moist, and a 
quantily of mould, supposed to be the remains of a decayed 
wooden coffin, by which the body was first enveloped. The 
tomb of Sir Robert, who slew Sir William Handsacre,* lord of the 
D d d 2 neighbouring 

toofue^ piBSMiin tikiiee. Thsreis • riog in tbs ceatM, Uiroogh'^hacli » ccfed 
WW pnttotad ihseolprit to Um chaicbjwrd* where ibe was obliged to re* 
neio till the pwoiif ed re(otiiistloik 

• Thii aeUacholy coteitrophe was the conaeqaence of the civil coDtea- 
tions which diitorbed the fciiigdom« when Ricfaard the second was deposed, 
and Henry Hie fonrth took poiseision of the throne. Sir Bobert espoosed thb 
CBiiseof««iisttrper,«nd8irWilBaiB,thatoflhSiuiibrtnBitfrWdiiird^ Bseh 
asndbM fall Tsiiihi aad began their auvch to join the acones, then iyiag 
In view of eaeli other aaatShrewdbaiy; botanfiMt«nale]jneetiiig,aikinBiih 
•amsdl in which Sir WillisD was akin on the spot Sir Robert proceeded 
lo lbs lejal amy, and soon after met bis fate, fighting against the gallant 
Percy. What a dreadftil picture does this accident exhibit of the miseries 
•fciTildiiconll What a tale is the following, of the sudden ticisdtitde rf 
hatred to loire, between contending ^unifies ! MtntarH, oat of A^daag^sis 
and ee inbsii ef Sir Hobeit Msfeiten^ gssw ber band in Sir WiOUm, sonof 
the knight slam by her father ; and with her person and Iwtttiis, GOMpcasatsd 
^ nyni^dombyherbouetothat of AndMeri.'f Pennant's Joniaey, 
f. 118, 119. cs Srdeswick. 

784 STilV£OR0»Bl&l. 

netglilfauriiig mukor of Handaacre, iu the raga of Henry tbe 
f»iirtb« is a very haodsome one in the shape of analtac. His figure 
armed and«belmed^ with a great ^word on one side* and adag*^ 
ger on jd^ other* is engraven on tho incumbent alabaster slab, 
with the following inscription ; 

.. Ilic jacel Pas Habtrtnt de Mauvuii^, miles. Dos de Ifitin^stnf Ridwar^- 
qui occubuil juitm SaUpiam, \¥)$ staos cum rege, diminicans es parte sua 
usc|uc ad mortem, cujus animas propitietor Deu$» 

The priory of Benedictine monks, already mentioned, Wfl4 
situated in a sequestered valley, on the southern bank of the 
river Bly the, and probably on the site of an older cell of Satott 
religieuse. It was early united to the monastery at Breewood, 
and was one of the number of those which were suppressed and 
seized by Cardinal Wolsey, in 1534, to endow his intended 
Colleges at Oxford and Ipswich. A farm house now occupies 
(he original foundation ; but vestiges of the ancient birilding 
can still be discovered, and many bodies hare been dug up 
here and in the adjacent grounds. 

Arfnitagc village and parish lies immediately sooth, from 
Mavesin Ridware. It was formerly called HermUage, from: « 
tradition that a hermit resided in a sequestered spot here between 
the river and the church, which is situated on a rocky eminence, 
and forms a most beautiful and picturesque object. The prin« 
4:ipai entrance to this edifice is curiously built» and adorned in 
ike Saxon style. Some paintings on glass, and tabernacle work, 
'embeliith the windows; and the chancel isaeparated from 
tbe nave, by a handsome z\ g zag arch. At a little distance freni 
the church, is a moated fragment of the rival house ^ Hmidutcre, 
a hamlet in tlus parish, founded by bishop Clinton ; and not far 
from hence was lately discovered the foundation. of some very 
ancient religious edifice. In the pleasure grounds of Mr. Lister* 
th« grand trunk canal passes through a very nobie subt^rane* 
ons cavern, or ttnuiel* 


si'ATroEDSUlIlI. nS 

tjOngdan, lying iiodth from Armitage, is a village of great 
length. Hence the common saying in these parts : 

Tbe itooteft beggar that g^et by the «^» 

CanBot beg tbro' £01^ in a tamiBer's day. 

It was formerly very much crowded with gentlemen*s seats. 
The manor is of great extent, above thirty other manors, 
lordships, and tillages, owing suit and service to the court leet 
which- is held here every three weeks. The church stands 
ajpartfrom the village, and is dedicated to St. James. 

The mansion house of Beaudesert,* the seat of the Earl of 
Uxbridge, constitutes the chief ornament of the parish. It 
js situated on the declivity of a lofty sloping eminence, sheltered 
above, by beautiful rising grounds, and wholly enveloped in 
trees of the finest and most luxuriant growth. The exterior 
appearance of the house is very magnificent, having been 
greatly improved, and embellished by the late noble owner* 
It is built of stone, in the form of a half H ; the front entrance- 
being under a neat and light old portico, which leads into a very 
kaadsome Gothic hall, 80 feet by 81« with a lofty arched ceil* 
ing, and adorned at the west end by a most splendid window^ 
oil which are painted the arms of the first Sir William Paget* 
and' PcoBton, whose daughter he married* Proceeding from 
tbe house to the summit of the bill, are traces of an extenslva 
encampment, called Casikkiii, which Mr. Pernianlt conceivea 
to haVe been of British origin, in opposition to Dn Plot,| who 
considered it as the work of king Cmaiie. It is sonronaded by 
a vast TBUifmn and two ditches ; and is nearly circohur, except 
OB tbe seatb side where it is straight, so that it bears a stroog 
resemblance in form tA a theatre. The two entrances are op% 
posite to each other, facing east and west; and before the 
former are several advanced works. This was certainly a spo^ 

Dddd well 

• Peanant's /oarnej, p. 132. ♦ Mot's Nat. Hist. Staff, p. 41 B. 

- tTbis plate was onca the tesideoee of tbe bishops of Lichfield. Gongh's 
Vol U. p. 496. 

irell chosen for an encanpment, »s U comma&ds % Ttiy 
noble and extensive ticw^ o?er no le3s than nine oounties in 
England and Wales.* 

Longdon parish produces a great supply of coal. A certain 
species of this mineral, termed cannel coal, is found in con« 
atderable abundance; and» on account of the fine polish it takes, 
is used in making a rariety of igticles both useful and oma*- 

Leaying Longdon on the road to Lichfield, th^ traveller passes, 
FainoeU, a small village, remarkable only for the antique, 
itmcture, i^d picturesque situation, of it<i church, which was 
formerly conventual, and belonged to a priory of Benedictincf 
Nuns. In taking down the old nunnery chapel here in 1747 
three rows of coarse earthen ressels of various dimensions, and 
placed on their sides, were discovered about six feet beneath 
the surface of the ground. The mouths of these vesels 
were iMd towards the churchy and covered With a thin coat of 


This city is supposed to owe its origin to the Saxon*, and to 
have risen on the ruins of the Roman Eiocetum or Wall. Re- 
specting the etymology and signification of its name difibrent 
opinionf are entertained by antiquaries. It is called by Rede, 
lieiif^ld; by Ingulphus and Huntingdon Liol^ld;Lkeii^ld 
fay Simon Dnnelm; Lkhe^elde by Brompton; Itdkef^by 
Gervase ; and l^k^fiM by Knighton ; which Boss of Warwick 
smd some others translate Comfut cadaverum, i. e. ihtfteld ^ 
dtad boHeSff from a tradition that upwards of a thousand Chris** 


• Shaw's Hist VoLL p. 2tl. 
t The BCiiiortal of the church of Lichfiold sajs, it derived its naiae of 
Liehes from ww. Apgli» Sacrc. Vol. 1. p. 459. Bfr. Jaeksoa, who 
WM anciently called Ucheafieid, upon what aathority he doMQotincolsQn, 
7 pam> 

lialii were maasacred ker^ in ihe nign of IKotlestan.* Or. 
Stttkely> however, justly considering this legend as febaloas, 
fells u$, k certainly derived its name from its marshy sitoation* 
|1k» words tick, lecej lee, or kce, in Saxon, signifying a bog or 

The QoaditioQ of this town, prior to the time of its being 
eorecied into a bishoprio by Oswy, the conqueror of Mercia, 
about the year 665, is totally unknown. It does net even appear 
to what causes it owed the distinction* whioh it then acqoired* 
of being made the seat of the cathedral church of one of the 
finest, if not the most powerful, of the Sa&on kingdoms. That 
it was not a place of much importance, wei may reasonably 
ccmdude from the fact, that several centuries posterior to this 
•ventf it was only a mean village, and on that account deemed 
unworthy to retain the honour of forming an episcopal secf 
Bishop Clinton, however, restored to it its lost dignity. He 
also environed the town with a ditch, aad fortified the ca8tle> 
fiirnishing the same with sufficient maintenance for a garrison 
of atfUiers. At this period three large pools of water inter-" 
•acted the town of Lichfield. Bishop Langton built a large 
bridge over the principal one in the time of Edward the first. 
In the thirty-third year of this reign, representatives were first 
sent by this town to Parliament; it was then governed by a 
Guild and Guildmaster, words of Saxon origin, signifying a fra* 
temity, which ** unites and flings its effects into a common 
stock, and is derived from Gildan, to pay/*^ Richard the first 
invested it with the right ot purchasing lands to the value of 

B d d 4 ten 

giw it the mat tnuttbiti«n with Roit, sncrttog thst LieAea, inSsxoD, li^ 
•ifia a dead body. Dr. JohiiMo caiU UO^fiM; the ^ field of the deed,'» 
end eddt, lic&fsfe signifies the gate diioagh which the deed sie ceiried le 
the grave. Jackson's fiCtt p. 1. Johnson's Eng. Did. 

* There is a spot within the precincts of the city still celled CkrMam fiM^ 
•• it is said, in aeiBorjr of this event. Herwoed'i Lichfield, p. f . 

t This wet ecttttlly the sitnttion of Uohfield in ancient tiniest 

X Vide ante, p.Tfir. 

$ Pennant's Jonmey, p. 155, 156, 9pelaMui, t60. 

78a tTAtFOEBamRS. 

ten pounds ; Init it wa» not formed into e regvter coqiorilkA 
till the first year of the reign of Edward the sixth,* when it 
WAS elevated to the dignity of a aty, and incorporated by the 
style "of bailiffi, burgesses, citisens, and commonalty, of the 
same.'' The same prince restored to it the privilege of dc« 
puting members to Parliament, which it had not enjoyed from 
the twenty seventh year of the reign of Edward the third. 
This charter was confirmed, and many other rights and imma« 
nities conferred on the citiaens, successively by queen Mary; 
Elizabeth, James the first, and Charles the second, as marks of 
the high sense they entertained of their steady loyalty, even 
in the most troublesome and difficult times.t 

The city of lich&eld is now governed by a recorder, high 
steward, two bailiflb, a town clerk, and coroner* The senior 
bailiff is elected by the bishop, keeps part of the seal, and is 
escheator ; but his colleague, and all the other magistrates and 
officers, are chosen by the bailiffis and common council, which 
is composed of twenty one brethren elected from among the 
citiasens. The recorder and steward, are magistrates for life ; 
and, together with the baili& and justices, have power to bold 
coarts of gaol delivery, and to award sentence of deadi, or 
other punishments, upon offenders. The city and its suburbs 
form a distinct county from Staffordshire.^ Within this dis* . 

• Goagh's Camdcn« Vol 11. p. 511 
t James the second hsTing procured a surrender oi the ancient charteni 
granted the citlseni a new one, in which he incorporated them b^ the style 
and title of Mayor and Aldermen, but made some arbitrary reservations la 
16ftB» when the king's affairs began to grow desperate, and he found it ne* 
cessary to review his arbitrary ineasafes, he published a proclamation for !«• 
storing corporation^ to their ancient privileges. In oonseqneoce of thi% the 
»ew charter, and all proceedings opon it, were rescinded, and the eorpotn- 
tion reverted to the charter by K. Charles II. Hatwood's Liobftekt^ p« 

X The city and county oomprise a eircott of about 16 miles, which the 
sheriffs, with numerous attendants, annually perambulates on the eighth of 
^ptember, the nativity of the blessed virgin Hai;y. Herwood's Lich. p« 
340. Jachion'sliist^p. ju 

ftTA?roftD8BimC. ^89 

trict the eorpomtbii has exclaaire joriadicdon. A court of 
record is held here by the aathority of the bailiA for the re- 
eoTory of debu, amouniing to 40#. and upwards. Soch pleas 
as cannot be determined in this coart must be tried before tho 
justices next ^ Coming into the city, and not out of the city, or 
before any other justices." There are, likewise, courts of gaol 
delivery, quarter sessions/and Pie Powdre, beddes scTeral an* 
Boal courts, as the Court of Array, the great Portmote courts 
and the court of the View of Frank«pledge. 

Of these courts, the Court of Array is the only one we deem 
it necessary to notice particularly. It is held on erery Whit- 
Monday in the Guild-hall, from whence it is immediately ad* 
jovmed to GreenMU, an open mount, situated in the parish of 
St» Micbaers. Here a temporary bower of wood is erected for 
the occasion. The constables of the city, attended by armed 
asen, morrice (or moresqoe) dancers, &c. escort the sheifffi 
lown-clerk, and beilifl^ to this place, where the style and title 
of the court are proclaimed by the public cryer. Then are 
ibe names of all the householders of the twenty«one wards of 
the city called over as owing suit and servioe to the court ; andt 
if they fail to appear, they are subjected to a small fine. The 
doieners or petty constable^, likewise^ attend with emblems of 
their respectiTe trades^ or other devices, and deliver rolls con* 
taining the name of every man resident within their respec* 
tive districts. During the day the High constables, accompa* 
nied by danrers and armed men, perambulate the city, the lat« 
ter firing a volley over each bouse. The dancers appear in 
U^eir shirts, having ribbands of diflforent eoloers tied round 
their neck% and flung across their shoulders, dancing sara* 
faands^ Chacons, he, in imiution of the Moors. The whole 
concludes with a procession through the principal streets to the 
marke^plac^, when the town clerk, in name of the bailift and 
. citiaens, addresses the constables and others, in a compliment 
f^ry speech, and exhorta them to he loyal u> their king, and to 


«urt tbeviselfeit m t|U cicc^na, to prpinpte Ae intereil* of iht 

Lict^eU epiqjB a healthful and agireeabie situfttiaii> boing 
|p]baced ia a Sqq Talla^jr. sor^oiutded by UUf of a moderate 
Iffiftht ^ixd ea$y a3cent, at t)ie di^feaiice of 119 miles from Lob* 
^OHi ^ nearly.m the ceotro of Englaod. The bouses are in 
igeofral built according v»tbe ta^ of modem times; and are» 
f^ Uif most part^oc^opjifd by gentry* and persons of small iDt 
dependent fortunes. Tharct is here, . however^ a considerable 
manufacture of sail cloth* aid some others on a smaller scale, 
which employ a g(KKl niimber of hands* The town is now eoK 
lirely opeUi. ^od probsdily nev<ur wiaa imdled» aft least no appear* 
avces of ijU| h^Tiog been so are to be diseot ered at the present. 
ixf* ](f either do aoy vestiges of the ditches formed by bishop 
Clmton remain, except the foot path* oalled Gssi^ dkch, lead* 
in$ from John Street to the ea^rn diriBion of the teiwB» 
magf be regarded as a portico of one of them.; 6x which snp* 
positioDi, how^yer* the nan^ is the only foundation. The cas* 
llet itself hasj4ike.wise> been long entirely demolished ; and» 
though fcnowjjL to bfife stood near this place, the precise qpot 


*Tle «i«atn of taifti«nei4sble>eeafft is anlnioirih bariog esifted loog pMt 
|»|U dMf of wy of tim foymk flhiift«ff4 Vvioo^ cwsjcctuni, bowevor, bcve 
topplied the place of Jiistoriosl record. ^Sobm tupgose it to be aa initit^tioa 
of king Oswj's, in memory of a victory obuined 1^ him over tbe pagan king 
Fcada, while others conclode that it is founded upon an act passed ia the 
reign of Ifearj the second, and confirmed hj several of hn successors, enact- 
kgtiMttfae high eoiutabfes of every town shoaltf oftentimes view tbe arms 
saAanteor of the aiea in their franobise or liberty. Tlie latter opiaioa ia 
csitsinly Boie frobaWe than the forsMr. 

t Mr. Feonant thinks it piobable that it was in Iba cattle Ung Bisbaii 
spent his Christmas in 1397, when he oonsamed 80O tans of wine> and two 
thoosand oxen ; but Stowe says, be kept it in the dose. Here, however, it^ 
saiSctently certaini that he was confined, when on his way to London, as a 
prisoner. Frdm this fbrtress he attempted to escape, by slipping down from ' 
the wndow of his room into a garden ;bttt being nnfbrton^tely obserwd by a 
ffOtinel, Iw wu secured and recondncted to his confinement, Stowe't Chio- 
aklei p. 318, 322. Fennant's Journey, p. 157. 

impt eucMy ajicertaiaed. The town b stflldrndcdinlotiiti 
portions*, the city W the cloa^, by a l«rge tikmi of walarj 
frti^db conlriiviles not a little to its beauty. Tipe clo^e is of 9Xf* 
ompt jjunsdicition* and wholly independent both of Licbfid^ 
and the conoty of Staffinrd, the reaideotiary deaa and eapen* 
being sole justices within its precincts. This district* whicli 
stands upon mncb higher groond than the re#t of the towit# 
bavingbefii fortified, stisod scTeral vigeroua aieges^ during the 
period of the gieat reheUien. The first of these ha|4>ened in 
March 1649^ whn Sir Richard Dyotl, and some^ the princi^ 
pal gentlemen of the coonty, under the earl of Chesterfield 
held it fi>r Iha hi|ig» and were attacked by lord Brook and Sir 
John Gellit generals in the parliamentary army. The former o|^ 
theae last mentioned officera* a nealoqs poritsuii, is said to have 
drawn up his army within half a mile of the town ; and» haying 
▼owed the destruction of the cathedral^ implored the divine as* 
sistance in the accomplishment of his intended purpose. He 
then advanced into the city, and raised a battery in Dam Street 
^▼er i^gainst the east gate of the close. But his lordship* har-i 
log stationed himself under the porch of a small house imme- 
diately adjoining in order to superintend the progress of the 
attack* was shot through the eye 1^ a gentleman of the Dyott 
iamily • who happened to observe him from the top of the b^ 
tlemento of the chief steeple of the cathedraL* The death of 
their commander, however, did not much discourage the par* 
Uamentary forces^ who continiied the siege with great vigour 
under the ^onduct of Sir John Galk &«d shortly after indnced' 
the garrisofi to surrender upon the " condition of firee quartera 
to all in i^neral within the closest The rebels having left 
a strong body of troops to defend this post, these were in their 


* l%e fpoC on wliicb he ftH b now dbtingaishecl by k paveioent of white 
yeMet, end a marble tsUet with an inicription in roemoiy of tbe avent which| 
hat tag happened on tb« anniTenary of St Chad* patron of the catbedralj 
wu attribttted hy the taperftitioQB among the cavaliers to tiie influence of 
thai «iBt> as a pimishoient for the impious tow, noticed in the text. 
f Shaw's Stailbrdshire, Vol. I. p. S40. 

79® STAVrOllDSHlllB. 

forn 'besiegtd the month following by prince ]^pert, who 
matcNeA hither itemedAtely after the rednction of Bimring* 
bam. ' Colonel RosseU the gOTernor, made a brsi^^ resistance jf 
bvt'bavilig lost a great number of men in an asssralt, aftdbeing' 
annous lo pre? ent any unnecessary effnsion of human blood, 
capittflated npon honourable terms^ on the 2lst of April. From 
thn period the loyalists continued to possess the close, till about 
twelve months iubsequent to the battle of Naseby; when^ being 
satisfied that the king's afiairs were desperate, they delivered \t 
up to the Parliament, whose army under Major i^eneral Lo- 
ihian had invested it fbr a considerable time; ^ 

The cathedral church situated in the close is an object of just 
Toneftition, and one of the noblest religious febnes in this 
country. The period at which this church was originally found- 
ed is uncertain ; but that event is generally supposed to have 
taken place about the year 667, during the bishopric of Jbra* 
man, the immediate predecessor of St Chad.* It was rebuilt 
in 700, by bishop Headda, or Hedda, who dedicated it to that 
sahit, and removed his bones hither from Stowe church, where 
be had been previously interred. Roger de Clinton, whose 
beneficence to this city we have already mentioned, demolished 
this building, and erected a great part of the present magnifi- 
cent edifice. Walter de Langton, who succeeded to the bish- 
opric, in 1396, built that portion of it, which is called St. 
Mary's chapel, as well as the cloisters ; and, besides, expended 
9,000/. in raising a shrine to the memory of St. Chad. This 
splendid monument, and much of the other riches of the cathe- 
drali were seized by Henry the eighth at the time of the dis- 
solution. The buildings themselves^ however, continued in 


• Upon tliif supposition the chavch bnilt by Osvy b €56 (when be«onsci« 
tatcd Lichfield an episcopal see,) end dedicated by bin to St Peter and St^ 
Marj, cannot Lave stood upon tbis spot : if it did, it it clear tbe original loon* 
datiofi of the cathedral must have taken place lAeii, aathe mother cltaivh of 
e^erjf bishop's diocese is a cathedral. For oar part we are of opinion that 
tbo church which Oswjr begun was not finished till the ii^ of Joramaa. 

good ceodiJ^on ti^l the period; gi' the. »egeA, abo?e d«^ied« 
when they suffered very comRde|E;^ble d^age,:aot paly from 
jthq fire of tfie ^ftteriea and.ioiiiquetry^ bot^ 8^$o from the rsr 
pacuyof t^e refniblican zrmj. Tl^e honour lof neoewing 
Ihem/Wj^ reserved for bishop Hacket^^ who was .appointed i^ 
tbia aee imna\ediately after the Restoratioiu The very ppming 
following {ki^jarrivaU he set his oj^xn servsmts amt b((rs4$iwith 
teams to remote the rubl^iiih,^ aod lay the firsthajoid totHe work 
be meditated,, 3y mon^y jcontributed by himself and the dean 
and chapter, and obtained thj{;oiigh hisvexerti^nsAfroqi.the gen- 
tlemen of hifi diocese, he, was enabled .to rjsstore this noble 
pile to its fo/fner. splendour. j(n. .)1788 it a^ip^ underwent a 
thorough f^paic by .subscripli^ti/ tipder t^» superintendence of 
Mr. James JiVyatt of Iiondon. , .... 

To describe accu^tfsly tjkt pn^ent and pa^ cof^^ion of this 
cathedral and the various ornamcjols, whether mon^meatai oi[ 
otherwise^ with which it is either now, or has been formerly « 
embellished wo|ild occupy a m^ch• larger apac^ thaii the limits 
of this work wiU permit. We. must coatent ourselves, there* 
fore, with a l^r^f jpoUce of the more prominent circumstances 
by which it is distinguished. . The es^tent of the wh^ole building 
from east, to n^est f is 411 feet in length, and from n^rtti to 

• : south 

• A Qthia ierianee of magtianloiity sod heioiiB fortitttde is recordml of this 
yrckte, duriiig Ibc pcnecutiou of ^be etublished charch bj tho Puritanf. 
Notwitbttanding Uie fevere penalties enacted to preTent it, be cootinned to 
lead tbe liturgy regularlj^ in h^ cburch of St. Andrew's Holborb. In coa* 
scqaeoce of tbrs a serjeant, witb a file ot men, entered the church and tbreat- 
ened him with instant death if be did not desist. '* Soldier/' aaid (be ibtte- 
fid Itacbct, "I'am dbing my dvty. doyonyows/' mid with m nwie^tedlble 
"VBftce pcoceeded m tbe service. The soldier, astonished at bis MuUnoted 
eompOMire, left the church withoat doing him tbe slightest injarj. ^ 

t Dr. Plot observes a remarkable circamstunce relative to tbischoroh. 
•bicb is that it declioos 97 degrees from the points of east and west. This 
error, however^ was aomewhat amended by bishop Langton* who pointed tbe 
#al]s of oar LadyS chapel, which he built, mach more to tbe east ; bmce iC 
is that tbe walls of tbia chapel stand bevil to those of tbe cbnicli^ as^y btt 
•otjced e? en. at a superficial glance. Plot's diatfbrdshirei p. S6t. 

Mtith (fl TM in breadth. It is sannounted by three elegant 
Meeples, ohe in the centre of the edifice and two at the west 
end. The height of the former is958feet, and of the latter 188 
ibet each. Tbe western front formerlyiexhibhed a moat aplen* 
Aid diiplay of finely wrought figures, the Mfajecta of which 
werfe^eVived from scripture history. A great part of these 
Were much delkced doring the attacks made on tb^'closfe at tM 
time of the rebellion; but were either repaired or replaced bf 
bishop Haeket. Thne, however, has again considerably in* 
jdred thefft ; and in 1749 several were removed by order of the 
dean and chapter to^ tlie perpetual deformity of thisbeautifiil 
structure. On the top of the roof, betwixt the two spifes^ 
stands th6 image of CkarlcM fl, who had contributed a libetat 
donation of timber towards the repair of tbe church. It is the 
work of Sir William It^iban, originally a stone mason at Sbtton 
Colfield, who arrived at knighthood aftet* his marriage v^ith d 
Hch widow ; but, according to Mr. Pennant, does very fittl^ 
honour to his genius as a sculptor. This statue is supposed to 
occupy the situation of armore ancient one of Adam, or Christ; 
as both sides of the towers were adorned With figures of the 
0ld patriarchs. Tbe lower rows of figures were probably in* 
tended to represent prophets, prophetesses, send judges, to- 
gether with the kings of Israel and Judah in various postures. 
King David bdistmguished tiy hte playing upon the harp. The 
statue of a person in pontifical robes, supposed to be designed 
for St, Chad, stands exactly over tbe porch, whidb is adorned 
with beautiful sculpture work. Within this porch are placed 
the fimr Evangelists, holding the gospels in their hands. Mosea 
and Aaron were situated on tbe two atdeab and in the centre 
between the great doors is the virgin Mary with the infint Je« 
•OS in her arms. These were all formerly richly painted and 
gilded. A figure of Christ, with his arms extended, appears 
between two cherubims, on the top of the central pillar. On 
the outside, the vacant walls between the large and small doora 
wtsafUod with statues of the twelve aposUes. 


fflmnosDiMimi. ^i 

Tte catfances to this 9hiaHb, ttoMi on «M Wttft^'Mlnbrth 
fUo^are T«kry<legatt^ pntiettlttly the north il«tir'>^idi h 
mrcwety rich io tciilptar«i MtiMM^, thi^ df^rollagv^ 
§M ihrt'oi small figures in biril. In 6M of Ute itmest, h 
i O|Htl C P t e d a hishop » his pontifical robtis, baptizing '% 
penpn knoeUog before bim with a crosier in hii' left hand* 
The former probably is intentfe^ to designate St Ch^, and 
Iha other Wnlphere, the oeiiTerted pagab king '6( Mercltf* 
«Hio k said to have 'mnrdered his sons becaose they refhsed 1^ 
apostates to^^ristiahity.* Immediately over the door 
die root of Jesse^or the descent of kings; frotnI)arid t6 
tho captivity of the Jew8» 14 generfttions, and ttata thence t6 
Christ a similar nnmber^ and also the descent of priiisls. iThe 
■addle ipUlar supported thc^ image of 'Christ. 6vef th^ south 
door, also rich fin scntpture, appeared the following inscription : 

^ Hospes, qoi tngrederis banc ecclesiam, cupio te noscere el 
telebrare manificentiam iHostriss. et pient. heroinae donu 
Catharinae Leweson de Trentham, hojns aedis cum miserao 
vastatae patronae lobentissimae et benignissimae/' 

On the east side of this door are two ancisnt monnmealal 
fltataes for deans of this chnrch ; but to whom they beUwg is 
now unknown. The roof of th^ eathiedral was fenhleriy eoter* 
ed with lead; but being much worn and injured, the metal was 
sonie years ago taken ofi^ and slates substituted in itasteivd, the 
revenues for the purposes of repair being totally inadof nato 
to the expense of renewing it with lead* Indeed, evien after 
the strictest economy, the dean and chapter were obliged ao 
advance considerable sums from their own pockets before they 
could complete the plan they had adopted. 

The interior of this noble edifice fully answers to the splen* 
dour and magnificence of its external structure. The body is 
spacious and lofty, supported by pillars formed by a variety of 


* Vide ante, p. 60, 

•lender <dto|iiiw, liiUi oeM tblillcd capitals.* The Bmnefocw 
^rave ttonei^wl^icb ancien^y dtfiingiiiahed ike floor, are now 
removed, f tqgelher with the s^M and polptt tn the nave ; and 
ibe wh^ if* now p^wtd with Derbyshire Hopton stones. The 
upper rows of windows areof an nnesual form, being trianga* 
lar if clnding three circles in each. Along the walls of the 
jasslee are .rows of false Gothic arches, having seats nndemeatb. 
Previoos to the year 1641, all the windows in the church were 
painted with varions effigies and coats of arms of bishops and 
.Other eminent characters. Some of them will be foond engrav* 
ed in Mr. Shaw's history of the coonty. Over the great west 
idoors, which open 4nto the nave, is placed a most magnificent 
window, of a circular figare, raised at the expense of James 
dukewof York in the reign of Charles the second. The 
painted glass in this window was the gift of dean Addenbrooke 
in 1776, as appears from the following inscription underneath : 
" The laie Bev. Dr. Addenbrooke, who enjoyed this deanery 
npwards of thirty years, as a memorial of his great regard for 


• Tbe lengtli of the body from tbe great west door to the cboir is tlS feet ; 
ili krasdth 153 ftct» sod the breadth of the side aisles 66 feet : the height of 
Che nave is 60 faet Jackson's licMieid, p. 109. 

t The epitaphs on two of these were very singular. Tbe one was: 

•' William Rokertt rf Overhurjf, tome time maUter in this town (teU$ yon) 
fbr the love I bore to choir service, I chose to be buried in this place. He 
4ied Dter, 16th» 1748/' 

Ihe other gave you the posthumous grief of a deceased wife, and the 
ckmienl fcnewiedge of the liviag husband : 

H. ^. E. 
Secundi Horatii, Lineae. 


EUwehetku E Z) Pafaied 
Maettissina oonjnx ; 
^oae obiit ultimo dieMartis, 1712. 

Pennant's Jonmey, p. 148, 149. 

STilFfOABftUI&B. 797 

The hU ReT.Dr. Addenbrooke, who enjoyed ibh deanery 
upwards of thirty years, as a oiemortal of his great regard for 
Ae cathedral, was at the sole expense of beautifying the west 
window with painted glass.^ 

A large morml monnment of marble to the memory of Laon* 
celot Addison* lather of the celebrated Joseph, with who^ life 
every classical scholar is well acquainted, stands on the north 
side of the west door. The south side is distinguished by ano- 
ther newly erected one in honour of Hugh Walmealey, Esq. 
xegistrar of the ecclesiastical court here. A variety of others, 
some of them extremely neat, are dispersed through this por* 
tkm of the cathedraK Among them, to the west of the north 
door, is a marble one, raised to the memory of Lady Mary 
Wortley Montagu, by " Henrietta Inge> relict of Theodore^Wil- 
liam Inge, Esq. and daughter of Sir John Wrottesley, Bart." 
This monument cokuists of a handsome statue, representing the 
goddess of beaoty, weeping over the ashes of her preserver, 
supposed to lie inclosed in an urn, encyphered, M. W. M, 
The inscription is long, and dwells chiefly on her. nterit, as in* 
troducing into this country the practice of inoculating for the 
small pox. In the south transept is a recess which was ancient- 

VoL. XIIL £ e e ly 

* AncitDtij thefollowtng inscription appenred hen, 

Otwjttft ett Lichfield fuodator^ sed reparator 

Otta fait ; rcgom fama ptreoniB ertt : 

Rex Stephanus, rex Henrico s, piimasqoe Ricardot 

Rex et Johaoois plurima dona dak>ant 

Pacne haec millenos Ecclesia floruit annos, 

Dorct ad extremam nobilis u»que diem 

Daqae« Deas, longum et floruit Imec sacra ac^et 

£t celcbret noroen pleln ibi tancta taam. 

Fandata est Eocleiia Mercienais, 

Qoae none Lichfcldia dicitvr 

Facta Cariiedralia 

Anoo doduDi 


Dugdale*! Viiitatioa of Stafibrdtbire. 

798 8TAFIr«ll9ft]lUMk 

Ty metoied and dMded^ the wb part of R bciihgtkiQ dafen's 
consistory and the other the Tiear'ft vaitry* Against tin tiiall 
of the ft>ffmer portton appeam the HonaneBl of Aai Hei^ 
cules of literatarOf Dr. Samuel Johnaon* Upon die padeafeid ia . 
a bmi not very remarkable far its resemblanoe la the great ori- 

- The opposite side of the 9ame racess is diatiaguiahad by .m 
host of the celebrated Garriek^ erected by his widow. Tbe iM« 
scriptioo closes with Iha werda of hia friend Johnson: 

«' Wn deaUi eclipsed the gaiety of nationsj and impoYariaheA 
the public stock of harmless pleasure/' 

Not (ar from hence near the south door is siluatad anatbor 
elegant mural nonumenty adorned witb a celaalial crown and 
other beautiful sculpture. It was erected to commemorate tho 
virtues and alRictiona of " Lucy Grove/' wife of Dr» William 
6rove» of Lichfield close/' and deserves nociea particularly oli 
account of the epitaph^ which is little inferior to the ceMiratad 
one by Mason : 

" Grief, lov^snd gratitude devote this stone 
To her whoie virtocs blen'd a htisbsitd^s Kfe, 

When late in dotr't tpheie the mildly shone 
As friend, as sister^ daugjliter, mother, wife. 

In the bright mom of beaittj, joy and wealth 

Insidious paUy near his Tictim drew : 
Bashed from her youtfafiil hand the cup of health. 

And round her limbs his numbing fetters threw. 

Year after year her christian firmness strove 

To check the rising sigh, the tear repress ; 
Soothe with soft smiles the fears of anxious lore* 

And heaven's correcting hand in silence bl^ss. 

Thus tried her faith, and thus prepared her hearty 
The awful call at length, tb' Almighty gave. 

She heard-»resigned to linger or depart : 

Bowed her meek head and sank into the grave. 

The choir, and St. Mary chapehor Lady choir, were fbrmtr-i 
ly separated from each other by a sione screen of most elegant 


teebiMcftim, «mlwllM « th^ M^, oeri fttoraei wHb MT«t4l 
MM of Oolhio ftieh«^ eiequltolMlf Wf^nf;^ Bftch of thttk 
oHghially tohtaifi«lt^m «ttall WikM^t and h^H^th w«re tHiru^i 
Mdltadorl^d with Oofbit irtK<«ry. TUii )Mrre«tt ykzA injndl^ 
ttMMulj r0ili»v€d dttrlilgf the hMf^lMMmsf Md tlit iivo cbdH 
tbf <Mki itifd Ot^, t« th^ gi^^ftl ihjttry df tbfe iHttelMl aippeamkA 
n4 thkr Itolrt^ edifice. TIM l^wfgtk of the <^ir tolug now at- 
togotfber diitphjporflonattr ib the rest Of the boilditigv tho riflfect 
of the whof« 18 destroy^. St. Mary's chapel boiH by bishop 
lAhgtod displays wieomtxiofi beamy and mhgniBdtoee of stnici 
lam. la iMs ohap«l aro fiino i^indows^ thre^ oa eateh side and 
«hiiM at the end; nafrdwer, ba« of a more l^fty dnd splendid 
ifptHiraiNre than any 6f the others. The slender «ist wihdoib 
^refiltolwilh fMihited g)as^ a ^onsideif^Ue pa/t of whidi waft 
brought by Sit iWo6ke BttotVhyy frm tto diMfVMabbeydf 
fiel'eheni'o^ilt th« bislmpHe of Liogv; dud the purchase gt* 
ffev'Ml^ly «l^ariMft»fr«d by Mi* to (be d^ttn aild ^^hiptfery 'Of this 
gi^ tiHtte af« 840 p^«es, oii«h abotfl % inehta sqaa#e< The 
whole nx^ybtf ^^ftlded M tfpWili^ of t«n thoniaad ]Mi»ids> 
IHH H dklrioi c4st.tho etfthiNfraV itaoto than llOCW. iaelading 
fhe cfxpettM of 'fonvty^nce tf^ ttllAg up Ihe Windows to vk^ 
e^i^e it. 'Ph^ eeni^d window on tbo* satn^ side enhibiis si ro^' 
yteseiltatiort Of tke ^^iwr^ctien, execoted by Mr. Bg^moatiof 
Hands^tMib, ttdlf J5km)/h\ihiMi, frMO a design ^ Sir Josboa 
ftoytfofdii UAfd«r here .Hands an akot of freestone^ neatly 
Hfiliptat^ hi the Giothic 6r pointed ^tyle. This chapel fbmers 
ly contained thotich shrine already mehlioned/ as having been 
raised fiY liononrof St. Chad, and demoltslied at tbe period of 
the- diss6lntioi\. A tr6ry splendid mfoniiment w the mfei^ok^y of 
hbtd Paget seetetary of scsffe t6 Herirry the eighth afterwardi 
occiipTed \U site> btre met Mfith tite same h^ in the time of tbo 
eif?I wars. ThfiS' tdmb Was adortaod with columns, of tihe Co^ 
finthrian ordvr, having two kneeling figure* hf a than and no^ 
iflsm betwie^ the front and bath pillars. It was ^aeeatM* in 
liniy, and este^thed a mast^rpfac^ of #«»rhniahlbip. Utar 

E e e 3 thU 

lh« ps»(MifiiJ> and; bin V*fo ^T))« 9iMm««l«nU in tbe 9f|irt)i 

fff.TbomM Conikigiiby/ i<wd af Npnb.MimA m HMfpiMm^ 
m4 wife vl Dr. flm^lkidgt 4|li4ptMA l« hillg Ch^rtef !!,.{» ^f 
marUf i 9fid. finely •Bri^bed ft itb ^i9^i 9cirip|«fe. A n«tt 
)iM«e U p}afl«d in Ibo (uintrr^ iwilb tk$ pvfiyer bimks or goiN 
fiftli nDrrouodtid bjT chenibib A'oin IbU I4s1» i^ pnwHP^i 9iM« 
UMintod witb fioAto ftfidied'Seftt^ l«ai4>it«:ihtt ob«p«er h^wiir^g 
poom of an ootangiiktr fornix and adonltd with arehM aiknibir te 
tbo89 in lh« entv^nocL. The iMfc ptHnrs^ar^ supplitd iritb. pl$»r 
leri^ md the wboW ifi foppor^d fal tbo'emtni hy % ginit ff f4 
Cffonn. Orer.'this.rooin 19 placed tbt Library, inatiUitfiltbir 
dean Heyvrood, which ;r»niaiBfiaewiBl raliiable beoki and MML 
AflBong the latter «e fjemarkcd a taloabta andiettt copy of tka 
valor of pope Nicholas in (be reign of Edward the first; abo a 
f nrf out am called Tistut St. Ckddt, o» %y^ Oeapeb of St. Ghed % 
not because they were written by that SMnt, hni leeraly on aot 
oonnt of their belonging \o thif ebaroh. Ttey ant «bie&y in 
pkin Saxon eharaolors, and* lUaminaicd with a f ariety of ear 
nraeedinary drawings.' * The data of the writing is certainly 
it^ty ancient, acoDrdHngto seme, noi less than a thousand yea^ 
back. {lere is likewiat a koran intituled thns, ** This Afti^ran 
was taken from the Turks at the siege of Buda;'' besidea a folio 
illuminated chancer, fttirly writtePf and some architec^wal 
drawings execoted in France. 

To the north of the lady chair ia a small ekapel, where tbe ret 
mains of two of the Mercian monarcba were deposited.. In St, 
Peter's chapel, now filled with, rubbish, there was a painting on 
the wall of St. Peter crucified with bis head downirarda ; that 
of the sooth transept belore the late aUeratiops eonblined a ««* 
rions fragment of Gothic sculpture. U consiated of iWf arob^i 
beneath one of which sat a figace ceowned, baring one bigMl m 
a y(|ong prince. Under tbe other appeared anotber fcing.wirtl 

- bit 

hi^hmd ntftiag od bu left kue*. Tbts wai a relic of the ancient 
fikivdi preserved ia tb« rebiiildiug of u ; but being reoioved in 
1788# ifc becuvM «n oroaiBent in the wall of Mr. Greene's stable. 
TkB aacriaiy in which the monks formerly deposited the nacred 
vesseb and otlMr mpyeablea |>elonging to the church adjoins to 
.4he aottih aisle* Here are the remains of a rich altar piece of Gre« 
^tm architeclare* which formerly terminated the choir^ and no 
Jess impaired the beauty of the caihedial than the dispropor- 
liaiMite length of the choir does at the present day. A number of 
iepakhral and other remains have been found at different times 
in tbiachorcb. The late Rev. Theophilus Buckeridge^ a few years 
agOf discovered under the white-wash a curious ancient paint- 
iag, which* from a mutilated inscription in old court-band, is sup- 
peaad to have been placed there by Oliver de Langton* rector 
Hf Wyggui, ia the year 1450. 

The members of this cathedral are a dean, precentor, chan- 
cellor, and treasurer, all of whom have prebends annexed io 
Iheir offices. The dean and six residentiary canons constitute 
Ihe chapter, ai|d hold their court in the chapter-house every 
alternate Friday to hear and determine " causes of instance." 
They likewise bold weekly hepdomedary chapters on the same 
day for the general regulation of the church. In all disputes 
arising within the close an appeal lies from them to the bivhop ; 
hot no other person whatever has a right to interfere in their 
decisions* Both the church and close ar<; governed by local 
statotea. A collection of them was made in the reign of 
Henry the eighth, when they were confirmed by Cardinal 
Wolsey as Legate de. latere to the Pope. These privileges 
and immunities were conferred by king Edward the fourth, 
and afterwards confirmed by queen Elizabeth and king 
Janes the. first. The prebends, independent of those at* 
tacbed to the offices already mentioned, are twenty seven 
m nomber. That of Ecckshal 19 annexed to the bishopric. 
There are twelve minor-canons, five of whom are styled priest- 
vicars, and the other seven, lay*vicars. The former are denomi* 

£ e e 4 uated 


nated from the dean, precentor, chancellorf treasurer, tad Um pve* 
bendary, of Offley. The other inferior members are a sacrtit 
and subsactist, organist, eight choristers, and two ringers. The 
subchanter, sacrist, vicars, and clerks, seem to hare been col- 
legiated ever sikice the prelacy of Hugh de Pattishul, about the 
year 1340, when houses and some separate estates were made 
o?er to them by the dean and chapter. These possessions were 
afterwards much increased by the bounty of bishops Langton^ 
Bunghill, Bly the, and others. According to an injunction, bear- 
ing date the seventh day of April 1374, they seem to have had 
a common hall, and also a common seal and mace. Their pre- 
sent seal is the same as that used by them in 1340. In the 
reign of Edward the first an order was isaued by that prinee 
requiring the justices of peace for Staffordshire to attach and ex- 
ecute divers persons that forcibly held their lands from th^m. A 
curious original instrument, signed by Edward the fourth, and 
having his seal appended to it, is still preserved with great care 
among their records. From the terms of this instrument^ grant- 
ing pardon to the college for all offences committed by them, it 
is reasonably supposed that they had previously shewn sofne 
predilection for the Lancastrian party. There was a mansion 
at Stow to which the superannuated vicars were privileged to 
retire, retaining an equal portion of the general revenues. 
King James I. made a demand upon them for the First Fruiti, 
which was resisted, as appears from a curious' paper intituled 
•f Casses and resons whie the Quirysters of the church of Lich- 
feild should not pay Fyrste Fruits,'' a copy of which may. be 
found in Mr. Harwood's History of Lichfield.* An ancient 
custom is still observed by them, at the time of Chrbtmas, of 
calling upon the inhabitants with a cup, and entreating a con- 
tribution either of money or drink. The origin of this custom^ 
which is denominated wassailing, is uncertain. 

Besides the cathedral the close contains a variety of build- 
ings, all of which are the property of the church, with the ex* 

(far wood Lich. p. y64. 

•TAVfOEDSHlftB. 805 

i of tiro houMs <m ibe south side, adjoining to the pool, 
which were granted to the city previooa to the erection of the 
bridges («r causeways, by bishop Langton, that the inhabitants 
might hate landing places* and access to the cathedral. 

The bishop's palace is situated at the north-east corner. The 
original foundation of this edifice was of very ancient date, and 
probably only of inconsiderable extent. Bishop Langton re- 
built it in a most magnificent style, in the reign of Edward the 
first. The great hall, which was an hundred fe^t long and fifty 
six broad, displayed paintings of the coronation, marriages, 
wars, and funeral, of thai illustrious monarch, as well as the ex- 
ploits of some of his officers, among which were those of Sir 
Roger de Pulesdone against the Welchmen. Many of the 
figures *« very lively poortrayed with their banners of arms 
bravely before them,'' together with descriptions of the subjects 
•represented, were remaining at the commencement of the 
■eventeenth century** The other apartments in this palace were 
;of proportionate sisBe and splendour with the hall, and behind 
the whole lay an extensive court, laid out with walks and grass 
plots. This noble mansion having been demolished/ bishop 
Wood t was enjoined by archbishop Sancroft to renew it as a 
•fine for wasting some portion of the woods belonging to this 
see. Accordingly he built the present spacious edifice of stone, 
which has the arms of the bishopric in the front, with the date 
1687. . The bishops, however, having fixed their residence for 
many years at Eocleshall castle, this palace is .generally occu- 
pied by tenants. It has been long inhabited by the family of the 


• Erdeswick's Survey, p. 101. 
t According both to Mr. Peunant and Mr. JacktoD, this palace was rebuilt 
hf bislMp Hscket who immcdiaicly prooeded biahop Wood in tliia tee. 
Tbeir autenpcnt, bowerer, U coatradi^cd b^ Mr. HatwM>d, and hU iisiertion 
on thia subject appears to oi correctt BUbop Hackot did oot rebuild tbe 
palace^ but only repaired a prebendal house, which he intended for th^ reai* 
dcnce of hioiaelf and bis successors ; but no act of ParJiament vas ever ob* 
tained by hhn to annex it to the see with tha^riew. Fennanf s Joarocy» t90» 
Harwood IJcb. p. 66, t90. Jackson Hist. p. «07. 


)»ie G^tebraie4 Mjli S«wftrd wh«M'nge«im» |)Mttoai \ 
%ipm ar« well kaowa t» «r«iy reader of taHc. 
.. .West from. the palace atandatiiedeaBfrjhoiin, vebviltiii 
the reign of qiMBen Aiirm» oa the site of tlie aacieiit one* wUck 
^ have been of ?«ry •malldiniaoiioM. Tkm pvebeadal 
hemes are flilnated in 4i&reBt part» of the cloae* Tkoee e» 
Jl^ MtHUk west portion oS'iU 4»uoyed by tbe Am, fifth, aofl 
,#i9ltb repideQtiaries» werebuil^ by. bishop Halse, whoi died in 
1490^ and aire prpbaUy.arooBg the earlieei brick^betldiogain 
the ^iDiJpiiom. The Ticarage cooaisto of twoamaU qaadfangiee 
jaf low ImiU honaes pieced in the. north weat corner. The 
houaes atteiently tfallfld '<The New College'' atand. within a 
cenrteaat'ftom the laat mentioned residentiary houses landnear 
ihem is a new house belongiaglo the Regiatrar of Ihe dieecae» 
;baih in 1796 upon the site of tbe.aDcienc prebendal hfK»e» ia 
which the beaeficeat bishop Hacket li?ed and died. Attached 
lo this hoose is a large hall in which it deposhed a valoable and 
exteasiTe museam» collected and established by Mr. Richasd 
Wrights surgeon in this city« The handaome beildiog faced 
with stpne» which diatiaguishea the west entrance to the jciosfj 
was erected at the aole expenacy and daring the 1^ time, ef 
Andrew Newton, Esq. brother to. the late Br. Newton,. bishop 
of Bristol, for . the reception of twenty aged and. necessitooa 
widows, or unmarried daughters of clergymen ; he has since 
likewise added a liberal endowment for. their support. Tbia 
structure is supposed by some to occupy the site of the ancient 
tower built by bishop Clinton, in which king Richard the se- 
cond was imprisoned, as has been already mentioned. This 
opinion however, seems to be extremely doubtful ; because, if 
it really stood here, it roust have been of very trifling extent ; 
whereas both history and tradition assure us it was a noble and 
magnificent edifice. The house of the choristers, erected in 
1409, and much admired for its Gothic elegance, formerly 
stood on the north side of the close. 
Immediately in front of the centre of this building was a 


^A9rpRp«iiu«t tor 

ffMnoiom «f ff^mt^^ which exhibited a mort bmitifol fp?* 
dmeil of 9licieii|^rt. Th^ ih^^I^ g»U» at itl^e w«it enti«M:#r 
nftcr hfiyiaermmiin?4 iminpfured daring 9^ p^^riod of fire cisor 
Hv^ UPlwiUuiMDdiW' the d^ftroction which attaiMcvciy 
f^iQof fHr9w4 >l^ V^ itfkm dowp in 190(^ ia order jtq widw 
Ih^ r^ffd iQlo tbf ^o«i, Thin g9to* Ibe wprk of bi«hop JUogk 
IM^ HIM fwrnisM with portouUi* qf gffat iMrength ayid mitr 
jl^^ and hailA».low«nover it* Ai^i^c^by bis wccestorbiishnp 
N^l^iurgbr. lAw^Aer #pl«9diilga(« a}ip frected bybifhof 
Langton formed, tbe soatbeim ^ppfoacb^ to the cloie. To th# 
n^of thif ipot Ihai^f 9liU ^(aodf ons of tb# four ancieot tonfrers 
ipbioh wr 1^ pl^ad at its f^r an^^l^. Under this iower# a| tb^ 
fteptb of Sfi^^w feo^ a aubtarraiieoiif pawv^go was diBcofered i« 
|MM| aqppoiod io lat^ from the i^athedral^ aad to have been 
Mf^v^tad at tb^ period of the ^ivil yv^r in the reign of Charley 
the fim. The doee is sepplied with water from Mappiahayar* 
Tbe ancient stonf^ i:vofs condoit, said to bare been of excdlen^ 
workmanabipt has given place to an ordinary pmnp« 

Having said tbas ma^b respecting tbe close and its bnildipgar 
it will now be proper to turn our attention again to the city» 
Wbieb is dif ided ipto thr^e parishes ; St. Mary's, St. Chad's^ an4 
«t, Michael's. 

The parish of St. Mary's occupies the central portioo of the 
town* The chorch, situated on the south side of the market 
place* if generally reputed to bave been originally fonmled m^ 
tarly as 85fi> in tbe eighteenth year of tbe reign of king 
Ethf Iwolfe. The authority upon which this idea rests* iaan if|r 
soription, copied from the old steeple ; but there seems ei ery 
reason to believe it ba^ been erroneously traoscribed, as Licb'9 
Aeld did not contain more than a few cottages at that reinota 
period. Lelaod calls this church ^ a right beautiful piecf of 
work in tbe very market place.'' Tbe old boikling being muc^ 
decayed was taken down in 1717, and tbe present edifice erectr 
ed on the same site. In point of ejiterior architecture it is suf? 
ficienlly neat^ and t|ie inside is fitted up with oak pews^ an^ 



ftdof ned with a spacious gallery, around which many of Che 
beneftictions to the parish are recorded. - The' altar^^piA^e ii 
handsome* and on the north side of iti^ tt place of sepulture of 
th^ Dyott family, where stands an anticjue thonument to tibe 
memory of Sir Richard Dyott, so celebrated in (his county for 
his attachment to the unfortunate boute of Stuart. In this 
church the master and brethren of the ^uild of the blessed 
Mary had a chantry hi which their five priests officiated till 
the dissolution. The senrices of the church were then perform* 
ed by the members of the cathedral. • • 

The Market Home, a light building of brick, is "placed at a 
little distance from this edifice, upon a spot foilnerYy occupied 
by a very handsome market cross, erected by dean Denton. It 
wte composed of eight arches, surmounted by carved rails o^ 
banisters, on the top of which statues of eight of our Savioijr'i 
•postles were fixed, each carrying the emblem of his death, 
curiously carved to the life, in their several habits. ■* 

The market days are on Tuesday sand Fridays, when supplies of 
every kind of food are amply provided. In Bore Street, adjoining 
to the south end of Bread Market Street, stands the Guildhall, an* 
cienily appropriated to the meetings of the religious fi^temity of 
St. Mary and St. John the Baptist, and which the corporation now 
vse for public purposes. It is a neat stone edifice adorned with 
the city arms, an escutcheon with dead bodies slain, and a 
basso relievo of the cathedral. The firont hall is spacious, and 
behind are several smaller apartments, in which the members 
transact the business of the city. Underneath is a gaol where 
debtors and felons apprehended within the limits of the county 
of Lichfield are confined. The theatre, also situated in this 
' street, is a small building with a stucco front, erected in 1790, 
and now the property of a society of Gentlemen. In a garden 
near it a large pot of half crowns, coined by Charles the first, 
^as discovered about 34 years ago, and at the south-west cor- 
ner of the street is an English School, founded and endowed by 
Thomas Minors, Esq. in 1670, '< to teach thirty poor boys of 


t)ut city to read the psalter and bible in EogUsh." West fironi 
tbe acbool ape thf ^it^s leading .to a pleasant seat* called the 
Ffiiiry, because. .fonn^^j tbe aite, ^f. a conventual cborcb or 
monastery belonging- to tbe order of Franciscans, Grey Friars, 
or Friars Miz^or. It was founded aho^t tbe year 1239 by bishop 
^Teqby, b)it wa».aU« burned to tbe grounds except tbe church, 
in 1291, wbc^n a dreadful fire destroyed tbe greater part of tho 
city. After the disselutipi), this church wag allowed to remain 
for som^ lime in ^^^ate.of de&oli^ion. In 1545, hovK^ver, il 
was totally demolished, and the present mansion erected, 
vtbiph has si«ce been occmpied by several of the most re- 
spectable geotlemeQ ii^ the county, and among the rest by the 
late William Inge, Esq. whose abilities and integrity as a justice 
of the peace gainjad him the applause of lord Mansfield, and 
the confidence of the people. The duke of Cumberland had 
his head quarters here, when the king^s army was stationed at 
Lichfield in 1745. 

On the north side of this building* in a spot supposed to have 
been the situation of the conventqal cemetery, a nupiber of 
human skeletons were discovered some years ago, and east 
from it, there still remains a very old mural monument with a 
cross fleury, surrounded by a curious inscription in ancient 
characters, of which the following translation appeared in 
the Gentleman's Magazine :* 

" Ri^ard the aerchant here extended lies, 

Beatlv like e ttep-dene* gUdlj ckw'd bis i^et; 

No iBore he trades bejond thje huniiDg Mooe, 

Bot happy rests beneath thb sacred stene. 

His benefactions to the church were great ; 

Tho* jonng he hatten'd from this mortal state. 

Haj he, the' dead In trade, soccessfol prore 

St Michaal'f merchant in the realms abore." 
. Bridge-street, or as it is now vulgarly called Bird*street, is 
the principal one in the city, the road from Chester to London 
passing through it^ Next to this street is Beacon or Bacon- 
r street, 

* Gent. Mag. 1746. 

sift »tAytMMftlAJfc« 

mMmtt which Was lobg licmotired by the r^aiee i^ ib^ M6 
ism-mid tfi4 iitgettlaw tkj Darwin: tt wi» ileBtrly b«rm «o tM 
jpMtti dtfittg ikt citil Wtor, but is again well built and popftilofiA. 
in this gtreet is the George Inn, tbe famttord ef which in 1707 ia 
drawn under the ebanKftef ef tMUkee in I^rqabAr'a ddtairM 
comedy of the Beaas StraCagem. Ladf hiddulph, who then oot 
enpied the bishop's palace, was sappeaed to haVebeen persotiat^- 
ad in the character of Lady BoiintiRiK CUmy was the daugh>- 
ter of ^ne Harrison, likewise fer aometimfe ^landldrd ef the 

In SiL John Street, Whtdh mna off froMi the ^fiaet Hist ihenw 
tiened in a somherrt directioni stands the Fret €h<tiMndt Sehd6t, 
foanded by king Edward thc^ sixth. The sdhool room is of 
targe dtosensions, and probably cOetal with the insCitntion itse!f. 
The other parts ef the bnildings, howeyer, were rebttlk in 16991 
At this school some ef the gfMtest men whose name^ thtbWA 
lustre on the literary annals of the last century, f^eeited the 
redimentir of their edticfttiea Among the motie distrngiiished 
of thett were Addison, Wootnstbn, Ashmote, Garrtck, and 
Jofirnsott. 8och of them as we>to nathre^ of the eity ^H be 
noticed hereafter. Nearly opposite thia school is the Biapiti^ 
<ff 8t. John, oftginaDy a monastery. IW peried at which it 
Was first foonded is unknown ; but it was doubtless^ prior to the 
commencement of the 13th century, as we find, that in Witb 
Roger de Clinton revised and ameiided » cod* 6f statutes said 
to have been " anckMff* made for the gdYemBHent of iU friars. 
Having been destroyed, pr'^bably by order 6t fienry the sixth, 
in the* ninetisenth year of bis reign, when he demolished so 
many religious structures, it was rebuilt by bishop Smith, and 
by him endowed as an hospital and chapel, dedicated to St 
John, for the support of a master and thirteen poor men^ This 
hospital, though deprited of part of its original property^ atill 
possesses a handsone estate, and is in every rcspeot in a 
flourishing cmidition. As a building h is very remarkable far 
the number and curious form of the cbimriies, which are placed 
t in 

taA9wm»nmL%^ tit 

i» Urn findL Tl4 cfaapcl is built of itone> Md hit mittetMl 
Ihe nHvaget of lima for iwreral oeiilories» having beeft the aiiM 
citnt chapd of ibe priory before ito re*ereclfOft by biibof 
Smilk. It in neally paved, and contains a very iMadaonr 
aBonuaMnt with this ioscriptmi aadenmnh an urn : 

" Omnc Cepta mooet Uma nmmii. 

The parish of St Chad^ )yii>gen the north-easi of UchfieM^ 
eocapiea a considerable portion of the cHy and its Mbuitui 
The chtticba of veiy ancient election, being origiaally founds 
ed at a period long prior to the date of the cathedral.* It 
derived its name from the circomstaace of St. Chad having had 
his ccU:h^se beiore he watf appointed to the bishopric as men* 
tioned in aa earlier part of this work. The interior of the 
church is extremely neat> having of fate years undei^ne t 
thorough repair. In the north aisles is placed a very andiM 
tet Here also in former times stood the shrine of St CalhsK 
rioe, whose chantry priest had a stipend from the vicars choral 
of the ckthedraU « Some of the monuments display considera- 
ble taste in their execution, but are not of sufficient interest to 
ekim partieular descriptioik In a smaU garden, adjoining to tho 
ehnrchonche west« is the weU, called Sl< Chad'swelU where that 
saint irat held hta oratory, and which was aneientiy -frequented 
by a vast number of pious devotees. Even at this d4y k is 
eosttmmry for the cforgyman, attended by the churehwardeflu 
and a great concourse of children, to visit this well on holy 
Thnnday, (AscensicMi day) when it is adorned with boughs and 
lowers, and the gospel for the day is read. The water, which 
la of a milky colour, i» supposed to possess considerable medl* 
einal virtues. 

In a part of Bacon Street, which is situated in this parish^ 
Itands an hospital for fifteen poor women,,con]monly called JM 
MMefi HoipiM, because rebuilt and endoired by him in 150^ 


* Soaie tsy it wai founded by tfte Roraioi towards the end of tbo second 


M the site of an older original edifice erected by biihop Hey** 
worth for the same benevolent purpose. Each of the womeit 
occupy separate apartments^ and receiTes 1«. 6i^. weekly, be* 
•ides Hlb. 6(f. every quarter. Ckristian Field, alre&dy so 
often mentioned* is situated near Stickbrook in this parish, bat 
at a little distance from the city. 

On the eastern part of the city^ and comprehending some 
part of it within its limits, lies the parish of St. Michael's. The 
church, which is situated on the mount called Greenhill,is par* 
ticulary remarkable for the exifiot of its cemetery, whick 
contains no less than seven acres of ground. It is an old fabric 
with a lofty spire probably erected in the reign of Henry the 
seventh. Numerous monuments, both ancient and modern, 
ornamented this edifice ; but the limits prescribed to this work 
will not admit of their being particularly described, seeing 
they do not possess any peculiar interest. This church hat 
neither tithes nor glebe attached to it. The living is a per* 
petual curacy in the presentation of the vicar of St. Mary^s. 

Among the many distinguished characters born at Lichfield 
was Elias Asrkiole, or Asmolb, This gentleman's birth took 
place on the 23d of May 1617. Having shewn a genius for 
music, his friends had him instructed in it, and admitted as a 
chorister of the cathedral. Whiie yet very young he removed 
to London, and became a resident in the family of his maternal 
uncle James Paget, Esq. puisne baron of the exchequer, to whose 
friendship he was greatly indebted for his future elevation. In 
1638 he became a solicitor in chancery, and some years subse- 
quent, an attorney in the court of Common Pleas ; but soon 
after, the city of London being in a very disturbed state, he 
retired to Cheshire. In 1644 he entered himself of Brazen 
Nose College Oxford, where he prosecuted his philosophical 
studies with great assiduity and success. On the 9th of May 
1645, he was appointed one of the gentlemen of the ordnance 
in the garrison of that city, from whence he removed to Wor- 
cester, where he wascpmmissioaer, receiver, and registrar of the 
9 ' excise. 

»TA»0ai>6Jti&B« tt$ 

tmclak, as also csptam in lord Ashley's regimentt snd comptrol* 
Jer of the ordnance. Upon the surrender of Worcester/ he 
withdrew once more to Cheshire ; but remained in tliat county 
only a few months, and then returned to London. He now he- 
came acquainted with Sir Jonas Moore, Mr. Lilly, and Mr* 
Booker, at that time regarded as the first astrologers in Europe^ 
who received him into their fraternity, and elected him steward 
of their annual feast After two years' residence in the metro- 
polis he retired to the village of Englefield in Berkshire^ 
where he first was introduced to lady Mtiinwartng, whom 
be married in November 1649. In consequence of this event 
he settled !n London, and had the felicity of seeing his house 
frequented by most of the learned and ingenious men of hi9> 
day. lu 1650 he publcsbed two treatises relative to the phi- 
losopher's stone, one of which was written by Dr. Arthur Dee* and 
the other by an unknown author ; and two years after, appear- 
ed his •'Theatrum Chemicom Britannicum,'' being a collection 
of such productions of the English chemists as then remained 
unpublished. This work he intended to have carried on through 
several volumes; but turning his attention particularly to antiqui- 
ties and records he dropped this design. Having always shewn 
-himself a zealous loyalist, he was in great favour with Charles 
the second, to whom he was introduced after the Restoration* 
and who bestowed on him the office of Windsor-herald, and a 
few days afterwards appointed him to give a description of his 
medals, which be did greatly to the king's satisfaction. In the 
year 1661 he was admitted a fellow of the Royal Society, and 
in February following constituted secretary of Surinam in the 
West Indies. The university of Oxford created him Doctor of 
Physic by diploma in July 1669. About this time he visited 
bis native city, and was splendidly entertained by the corpora- 
tion to whom, as well as to the choristers of the cathedral, he 
had made some valuable presents. In May 1673 his great 
work on the noble order of the Garter, for which he had beep 
making collections during many years, was presented to hi:i 
Vou XIII. F f f Majesty, 

€14 8TATSOE1>aniBB. 

Majesty, Who appr6¥«d of it so highly, xipon periisal, tbat^be 
granted him a privy seal for 400/. oot of the custom of paper. 
Indeed, it must be allowed that it has the merit of griat re- 
.search and solid reasoning. In January 1679 he was so un- 
fortunate as to lose his nohle library together with a vast col- 
lection of coins, seals, charters, and other antiquities,, by a fire 
which consumed his chambers in the temple. His manuscrspd 
and his valuable gold medals were happily preserved, having 
been removed some time before to his house at Lambeth. 
These wiih many other curiof^ities he presented to the Univer* 
sity of Oxford ; and at his death, which took place in 1603, he 
further bequeathed to the same learned body the whole of his 
library and manuscripts. This collection, much to the honour 
of the university, has ever since been carefully preserved under 
the name of the " Ashmolean Museum/'* 

George Smallridge, an English prelate and very elegant wri- 
ter, was born here in 1666. Ue was educated at Westminster 
school, and while very young distinguished himself by his clas- 
sical acquirements. In 1682 he became a student in Christ 
.church college Oxford, where he in due time took the several 
degrees in aru and divinity. At the age of 21 he made his 
debut, as an author, by publishing a work intituled ''Animad- 
versions on a Piece upon Church Government." In 1689 ap- 
peared a Latin poem, '' Auctio Davisiana Oxonii habitaper Gul. 
Cooper et £dw. Millington Bibliopolas Londinenses.*' Shortly 
after this period he went into orders, and having passed through 
several inferior stations in the church, kissed hands,aj| bishop of 
Bristol in 1714. Upon the accession ef the house of Bruns- 
wick to the throne, he was lord Almoner to the king, but lost 
that situation for refusing, in conjunction with bishop Atterbury, 
to sign the declaration of the archbishop of Canterbury and 
the bishops near London, against the rebellion in 1715. From 
• his correspondence >viih the celebrated Whiston he became^ so 
suspected of Arianism, as to render it necessary for him to ad* 
dress a letter to the bishop of Wijpche^ter, vindicating himself 

Biograpbit Britannica. Gen. Bio{;. Diet. 


(fom the charge. His other publications, besides those already 
mentioned, were some volumes of sermons, many of which are 
• wntten in a pure and chaste style. This prelate died on the 
17th day of September 1719.* 

Thomas Nbwton, bishop of Bristol, was born in 170S, 
and received the early part of his education at the Free School. 
When thirteen years of age he removed to Westminster, and 
became a king's scholar the year following. In 1793 he was 
elected to Trinity college Cambridge, where having taken the 
several degrees in arts, he was chosen fellow, and went into 
orders, soon after which event he set out for London, and was 
appointed curate at St. George's, Hanover Square. Afler pass- 
ing through some inferior gradations, Mr. Newton arrived at 
the dignity of rector of St. Mary 1e Bow^ by the interest of 
the earl of Bath, in whose family he was first chaplain. This 
happened in (744; and, a few months subsequent, he took his 
degree of doctor of divinity. During the period of the re- 
bellion he greatly distinguished himself by the spirited loyalty 
of bis sennons ; and on that account had many threatening let- 
ters sent to him, which, by the advice of lord Bath, he trans- 
'mitted to the Secretary of state. In 1/47 he was chosen lec- 
turer at St. George's, Hanover Square, where he preached a ser- 
mon on the death of Frederick prince of Wales, So highly ac- 
ceptable to the princess dowager that she named him her chap- 
lain. About three years after he was made chaplain to the 
hiog» prebendary of Westminster, and precentor of York, and 
in 1761 was elevated by his majesty to the bishopric of Bristol, 
to which was annexed a residentiary ship of St. Paul's, exchang- 
ed for the deanery in 176S. His lordship was twice married, 
aod died in 1783 in the 79th year of his age. He was a man 
of coasiderable learning, and great piety. His principal work, 
intituled *• Dissertations on the Prophecies," is thought to 
possess great merit and ability by the orthodox churchmen. 

But the most eminent character and greatest writer to which 
F f f 3 LichReld 

*Gen. Biog. Diet. 


Lichfield has given birth was Diu Samuel Johnsom, wIio was 
born on the seventh of September 1709. Hit father wbo w&» 
, a bookseller by trade, perceiving strong marks of genius in hia 
son at a very early period, gave him every opportunity be covld 
afibrd of improving his mind. After passing some time at the 
free school in this city, he went for a year to the school of Mr. 
Wentworth at Stourbridge in Worcestershire. He entered as a 
commoner at I^erabroke college, Oxford, in 17%, being then, 
according to the learned Dr. Adams, the bestqvalified young 
: man that he ever remembered to have seen admitted. Daring ^ 
his stay at the university he composed a Latin Tersion of Pop«^« 
Messiah, of which the poet is reported to have said that the 
author would leave it a question for posterity which poem bad 
been the original. Unfortunately the low state of his finances 
obliged him to quit Oxford before he was enabled to complete 
his studies, upon which he returned to Lichfield. Shortly after 
this event he lost his father^ and found, on the division of his ef- 
fects, that his own share amounted to only twenty pounds. 
When thus destitute of support, the place of usher to a school 
at Bosworth was offered to him ; but, upon trial, he found it 
impossible to retain the situation owing to the tyratinioal 
conduct of his patron, and consequently removed to Bir^ 
mingham, where he conimenoed his career of authorshtp 
by pob)i)(bing a translation of « Lbbo.'V In 1734 be issued 
proposals for the works of Poiitian; but, not meeting with 
encouragement, the plan was abandoned. Somewhat nnif e than 
a year from this period he married Mrs. Porter, a widow of 
Birmingham^ who possessed a fortune of 800/* with which he 
fitted up a hocse for a school at Bldial in the netgbbourbood of 
his native, city. The want of encouragement was .again fatal 
Ux bis views, he having only obtained three scholars, one of 
wbom was the celebrated David Garrick. Giving up this pur- 
suit, he formed the intention of setting off to London, and was 
accompanied on his Journey by his afterwards distinguished 
pupil. His first literary connection here was with Mr. Cave, 



the editor of the GenUeo^an'tt Magaziae, who employed him to 
furnish succinct reports of the Parliamenury debates. The 
tragedy of Irene, bad been engaged in composing for 
acTeral years* was now ofiered.tol&r. Fleetwood tbe manager of 
Dmry Lane theatre ; but, probably for want of some proper 
recommendation, was rejected. At ibis time Johnson became 
intimate with the unfortunate Savage^ whose life he afterwards 
wrote. He likewise about tbe same period published/his poem 
of *' London/' which . gained him considerable celebrity, and 
passed through a second edition in the course of a week. 

Notwithstanding this success, for which he was in some mea* 
sure indebted to the approbation of Pope, he does not seem to 
have found his pecuniary circumstances likely to be imp|[oved 
by pursuing the career of authorship ; fur not many months 
after this period he made every effort in his ppwer to obtaia 
the mastership of a free school in Leicestershire, fh^ want 
of a degree in arts occasioned his failure in this object, t(iovgb 
he was warmly recommended by lord Gower. His applica* 
tion for admission at Doctors Commons was rejected also be- 
cause he had not a degree in civil law. Thus baffled in all bis 
projects of obtaining some fixed profession, he was compelled 
to codlnue the hazarded and laborious one, in which he had' 
already engaged. Accordingly in 1739 he published his 
*' Marmor Norfdciense,'' an anonymous attack upon the minis* 
try and the house of Hanover. From this period till the year 
1744, when his life of Savage was reprinted, he appears to 
have confined his attention solely to the furnishing of memoirs 
of eminent men for the Gentleman's Magazine ; at least, if he 
wrote any other works, none of them ever came before the 
public. In 1747 be begaa bis edition of Shakespeare, and 
about the same time published the plan of his.Dicti<^ary. Two 
years subsequent, bis tragedy of Irene, so often presented ia 
vain, was brought forward by his friend Garrick ; but the de« 
cision of the public was .so far from being favourable that our 
F f f 3 author 


»othor resolred to decline all further attempts ^s% dramatic 

A« a sort of recreation from the fatigue and labour of liis^ 
Dictionary^ he commenced bis Rambler, on the 20th of March 
1750^ and continued to produce two essays weekly till the 17th 
of March 1759, when this admirable work was closed. AboiA; 
this time he lost his wife, whom he seems to have loved with 
the most ardent affection. In 1755 the Dictionary made ita 
appearance, and was received with merited approbation, not' 
only by the English, but by the foreign, literati. Previous to- 
this time he had been honoured with a degree in arts. 

Notwithstanding these great labours, and the reputation 
which he had acquired in the republic of letters, he was not yet 
able to emerge from^ the miseries of pecuniary want The 
whole profits of his tiictionary, aftd his subscriptions for the 
edition of Shakespeare, seem to have been expended before 
March 1756, when we find him arrested for a debt of five 
guineas, and liberated by the aid of the celebrated Richardson. 
The Idler was begun in April IT5S, and finished in 1700. A 
few months prior to this time he wrote his Rasselas, with the 
pious view of defraying the expenses of his mother's funeraL 
In this manner did this great man continue to derive a scanty 
subsistence from occasional publications till the year 1769, 
when his Majesty, through the influence pf lord Loughbo- 
rough, granted him a pension of 300/. as the express reward 
of his literary exertions. In 1765 the University of Dublin 
conferred upon him the degree of Doctor of Laws, " Ob egre-^ 
fgUm Scriptorum elegantiam ct Utilitatem** as the diploma ex* 
presses it. His edition of Shakespeare was published in the 
same year. From this time till 1771 he was chiefly engaged in 
writing political pamphlets, some of which gained him the 
highest celebrity as a politician. 

In 1773 he made his tour to Scotland, an account of which 

he published upon his return under the title of a "Journey to 

the Hebrides." This work accidentally involved him in a 

7 quabblc 

STAFfOROS^IRt*. ^ 81Jf 

i|«ihhle.withMacpherson, respecting the aatbenticity of 0$* 
aian's poems, in which he evidently bad the advantage. His 
large great work. The Lives of the Eagiish Poets^ was begun 
in 1777 and completed in the course of somewhat less than 
four years. About three years subsequent to the publication 
of this work he was a^cked by the palsy which, togeth'er with 
the asthma and dropsy, continued gradually to undermine his 
constitution, till at last be sunk into the arms of death on the 
ISth of December 1784. He was buried in Westminster Abbey, 
at the foot of Shakespeare's monument, close to the grave of. 
Garrick ; but his monument, executed by Bacon, forms one of 
the chief ornaments of St. Paul's cathedral.* 

Wkktingtom lies about two miles to the south east of Lich- 
field. The Fradley heath, Oxford and Coventry canal rqns 
past the village.- A family of the name of Everard was long 
in possession of the manor, which is now the property of the 
earl of Uzbridge. The ancient mansion of the Everard's is 
still standing, as are likewise several other houses formerly be« 
longing to families of considerable repute. 

To the north east of this village is FUherwick, the late seat 
of the earl of Donegal, from whom it was purchased in 1810 
by Richard Howard, Esq. The house, a very extensive and 
noble building of stone, has since been demolished for the value 
of the materials. The surrounding pleasure grounds were laid 
out in the most exquisite taste; and exhibited such variety and 
richness of scenery, as to entitle it to rank among the finest 
mansions in the kingdom. 

E(ford village, situated on the north bank of the Tame, de« 
rived its present appellation from the number i*f eels with 
which the river formerly abounded in this neighbourhood. Pre- 
vious to the Conquest, this manor belonged to earl Algar ; but 
upon that event it was seized and retained, as his own property 
by the Nurmau monarch. During the reigu of Henry the 
third, it was in the possession of William de Ardern^, whose 
descendants continued to enjoy it till the marriage of Maud, 

F f f 4 aote' 

' Gen. Biog. Diet, ilurwood Hut. Liclificld. 

#80 SfArfOftDBRimi. 

soU heir<^ of Sir John Arderne* with Thomu* Mcmid iw «f 

Sir John Stanley of Lathatii, carried it into that fiimily. By 

t succession of females, it passed in like manner to the Stantons ; 

iVoro the Stantons to the Smiths ; from the Smiths to the Httd* 

diestons ; and from the Hoddlestons to the Bowes« in which kat 

Aunily it remained for several (jenerations ; when it devolved 

on the honourable Craven Howard* by marriage with Mary 

daughter of George Bowes* Esq. ancestor to the late eari of 

Suffolk* upon whose de^th it fell to his sister* the honorable 

Prances Howard. 

The church dedicated to St. Peter is a fine old building ia 

the pointed style of architecture. The windows contain some 

fine paintings on glass* but in a very damaged state. A few 

ancient monuments deserve attention. In the north Wall ap* 

pears a painted figure, with curled hair* habited in a ^wn 

which reaches to the knee* and having buskins on his legs* a 

sword* and a ring on his thumb. Near it is an alabaster tomb 

of an Ardeme and his wife. The male figure wears a conic bel* 

met* mail round his neck* chin* and shoulders* and a collar of 

S.S. The lady has on a rich pearl bonnet* a cloak and gown : 

one hand is clasped in that of her husband. The figure of Sir 

WiUiam Smiih in full armour* vrith a collar S. S. and beardless, 

lies upon a raised tomb between figures of his two wives Isabel* 

and Anne* the former of whom wears a coronet on her head. 

Sir John Stanlq is placed under an arch* in armour* his head 

resting on a helm. Beside him are an eagle and child* the 

cognizance of the Stanleys. Under another arch near this ap* 

pears the recumbent figure of a child (the eldest son of Sir John 

Stanley) dressed in a long robe* and having curled hair. One 

hand points to his ear* and the other holds a ball* which appears* 

from the inscriptiAn upon it* to have been the immediate instru* 

ment of his death— >«' Ubi dolor ibi digitus.*'t 


* Isabel VM dftQgbter of Juha Nevil, narqais of Monlacste* brother to 
the great carl of Warwick \ Anoe wai daogbier to WiUiui Stanlui^ and 
convejed to him this manor. 

t Fetuumt't Jonroeyi 160^ 161* 

BTA'flrOftDSHItlB. MI' 

At BHbrd park Um, which is sittsatetf about two miter ftom 
the TUIage, it a barrow called £Ifoid-low, and opposite to it, at 
the distance of a mile, another of smaller extent. Both of 
t&em are etidently sepulchral, and were probably the burying 
places of the slain, in some battle on or near this spot, during 
the Saxon heptarchy. These lows are denominated by the 
eommoB people Robin Hood's ^looting bmts from a belief, pre- 
Talent among them, that he sometimes practised here, and was 
able to throw an arrow from the one to the other. Sevei'al hu« 
nmn skeletons, apiece of a bayonet, a wooden bowl or noggin, 
and some other warlike ntensils, were discovered in a ^Id here 
about the middle of the last century. Coocerniiig the bones it 
it impossible to ofi^ even a plausible conjecture ; but the re- 
maining articles, in all probability, belonged to some soldiers at 
the time of the great rebellion in 1645.^ 

Cll^oit GsMpoi/lr, a Tillage plac^ at the most eastern angle 
of the coutity, deriyed the latter part of its name from the 
<!amyille8, a family who were in possession of the manor from 
190O to 1315. It is chiefly remarkable on account of its 
church, which is dedicated to St. Andrews, and is surmounted 
by one of the finest spires to be seen on any parish church in 
the kingdom. The interior has two chancels, which are se* 
parated by a handsome screen. Soikie of the windows contain 
several very neat paintings on glass, one of them a representa- 
tion of St Mark. The south chancel is distinguished by a very 
noble alabaster monument in honour of Sir John Vernon, and 
his lady, both of whom died in 164A. On the top are their ef« 
figies in a recumbent posture ; the knight dressed in a long 
borniet and gown, and his lady in a square hood, with a purse, 
knife, and beads, by her side. 

Tktfrpe ContioHtme, situated about two miles to the south of 
Clifb>n, deserves notice, only on account of the dimino^ve 
site of its church, and as being the ihtnily residence of the late 


• Shaw's Hitt. Staff. Vol. t p. 381. 


WiUiaoi Inge, Esq. already menttoDed as greatly dtstingaishcd 
*^ for his public spirit and integrity as a justice of the peace. 


This town is finely situated at the confluence of the riTerTamt 
and the Anker. The former runs through the town» dividing 
it nearly into equal pprts, one of which is in Warwickshire* 
and the other in the county we are now describing. In the 
Saxon language, the name of this place was Tamanweorthe, 
which signifies, the island of the river Tame. It was likewise 
called Tameneordige, and TataatDardina» both of them terms of 
similar import. 

Tamwortb seems to have been a town of considerable note, 
at a very early period. In the time of the Mercians it was a 
royal village, and the favourite residence of their monarchs* 
The celebrated Ofia dates a charter to the monks of Worcester, 
from his palace here, in 781. Several oS his successors ia the 
next century date other charters from the same place.* 

At this period a vast ditch 45 feet in breadth protected the 
town and royal demesne on the north, west, and east; the 
rivers serving as a defence on the south side. Of this ditch 
some few vestiges can still be traced* and at two angles which 
it forms are two mounts, probably raised as the foundations of 
small towers. Many bones of men and horses, and ancient 
warlike instruments, have been discovered here at different 
times during the last fifty or sixty years. 

Upon the invasion of this kingdom by the Danes as men- 
tioned in the general history, Tamworthf was totally destroy- 
ed. Ethelileda, however, the celebrated daughter of the il- 
lustrious Alfred, rebuilt it in the year 913, after she had, by 
her prudence and valour, succeeded in freeing her brother's do- 

* Pennant^ 16i. Gougli't Camden, Vul. XI. 495-*5a4, 
f Vide Ante, {h 720— 7«2. 

V 9tAFFOR0SflIEl« 80 

miniont fi^ the grasp of the piratical invaders. His lady 
likewise erected a tower on a pan of the artificial mount which 
forms the site of the present cnstle ; and here she generally re- 
sided till the period of her death in 920. About two years 
posterior to this event, Tamworth witnessed the submission of 
all the Mercian tribes, together with the princes of Wales, to 
the sovereign power of her brother Edward. 

Ck>ncerning the history of Tamworth from this period till the 
era of the Conquest, nothing of importance is recorded. St. 
Edith, or Editha, whom we have several times mentioned* be- 
fore, is said to have founded a small monastery here ; but the 
truth of this statement is extremely doubtful. After the acces- 
sion of the Norman conqueror to the English thrones this town 
continued for some time a royal demesne, but was at last let at 
a certain rent to the lords of the castle. In the third year of 
the reign of queen Elizabeth it was constituted a corporation, 
and two years after first sent representatives to Parliament. 
The right of voting is vested in the inhabitants paying scot and 
lot, and the members are returned jointly by the sheriffs of 
Warwickshire and Staffordshire, from the circumstance already 
noticed of the town being situated partly in both thei^e counties. 
Twobailiffs> a recorder, and twenty-four capital burgesses, form 
the corporation. One of the bailiffs is chosen from each county. 
They have the power of holding a three weeks' court of record, 
and acting as justices of the peace within the borough. They 
have likewise a court leet once a year, a gaol, and a common 
seal. The market is held on a Saturday every week, and is 
plentifully supplied with provisions of all kinds. 

The town of Tamworth is large and well built, and its situa- 
tion uncommonly fine. This latter circumstance, joined to the 
advantages it enjoyed as a place of defence in ancient times, 
was probably the cause of its being distinguished by the resi- 
dence of the Mercian monarchs. It is on all sides surrounded by 


*Sbe was tUe daoghter of king Edgar and abbesa of Poleswortb nunnery. 
•Vide Ante. p. 755. 

rich and loxurittnt oMadovrs, throagh which the T«uaEi« aod An* 
ker glide along in Ibe moU picturesque manner. The, two 
bridges, which are thrown across these rivers^ add not a little to 
the general beauty of the scenery » which is viewed to the 
greatest advantage from the castle. This edifice was the seat 
of its lords till the commencement of the last century. The 
first of these was RobertMarmion, Lord of Fontnoy in Normandy, 
and a celebrated chieftain in the army of William the Conque- 
ror: whose descendants enjoyed it till the year 1291, when it 
passed by marriage to William Mortein, and from bim to the 
Frevile's. The same title in little more than a century carried il 
into the family of Ferrers, and from them also, ^t a later period, 
to the Comptons. The Marquis of Townsbend is its present pos« 
sessor in right of Lady Charlotte Compton, Baroness de Ferrers, 
only daughter of James Earl of Northampton. To a modern 
eye this castle, considered of itself, appears dull and heavy : but 
the elevation of its site throws around it an air of considerable 
. grandeur. Exteriorly it is still kept in tolerable repair, though 
the interior is much injured. The apartments are for the most 
part extremely inconvenient and irregular. Indeed the dining 
room and drawing room are the only exceptions to this remark, 
each of which is ornamented with large projecting windows. 
Around the first are painted a great variety of coats of arms of 
the Ferrers femily and its alliances ; and in the other is a very 
splendid chimney-piece richly sculptured according to the old 
taste, and having beneath it the motto " Onljf oncJ* 

In the hall there was formerly an old rude delineation upon 
the wall, of the last battle between Sir John Launcelot of the 
Lake, a knight of king Arthur's round uble, and another knight 
named Sir Turquin. The figures were drawn of gigantic di* 
mensions, and appeared tilting together in the manner described 
in the romance ; resting their spears, and pushing their horses 
at full speed against each other. 

The church, which is dedicated to St. Editha, is supposed to 
occupy the site of the nunnery, the existence of which we have 

t already 

ilready stated' to be Extremely doabtfbL At what precise pe« 
riod it was founded cannot be aseertairfed ; bat Ldand thinks ?t 
nrast hare been the work of one of the Marmions, very 
shortly after the Norman C6nq«iest« Some person of the sanra 
&inily, and probably the founder^ constituted it a collegiate 
church, and placed iiere a dean and six prebendaries^ each of 
whom had liis- substitute or y icar. This church is very spacious ; 
and, from the various styles ofbuitdTngit exhibits, would seem 
to have nndef^ne very material alterations and repairs at dif- 
'ferent ^erMs. It is surmounted by a massive tower, the 
•double staircase of which is much celebrated by Dr. Plot, the 
•floor of the one being the roof of the other. Each statr<^se 
has an eniretice and exit peculiar to itself. ^Near the chancel 
are two great round arches with zigzag mouldings, which shew 
the era of ^their erection to have been at least prior to the reign 
of Henry the third. St. Editha is said to have had an image 
here Which was destroyed at the time of the dissolution. The 
sev«n tncoflibeirts, however, enjoyed pensions so late as the year 
1553. In'the reign of Qbeen Elisabeth, the college and all its 
jKebendar»ed>*w^t^ granted to Edward Downing, and Peter 
Ashton. Set^ral lay prebendaries still remain attached to this 
chureh> but *there is no dean. — Indeed for many yeatfs the living 
was regatlied only as a curacy ; but, towards the close of thelast 
cenvary, a decision of the House of Lords declared it to be a 
vicarage. A' number of antique and modern monuments adorn 
the different divisions of this church. The most distinguished 
are those in bonourof the Freviles and Ferrers, upon which are 
placed their figures, and those of their wives. Among those of 
later date one particularly deserves to be noticed, on account of 
the elegance of its style and execution. It was erected towards 
the close of the Bieventeenth century, to the memory of John 
• Ferrers, Esq. and his son Humphry, who died two years before 
bis (ather at the age of twenty-five. This monument is of mar- 
ble* and the figures as large as life, appears in a half-kneeling 
posture, and habited aAer the Roman costume. 



The Hospital in this toWnwas founded and endowed by Mr. 
Gay the rich bookseller> to whom the borough of SwUhwark 
18 indebted for the noble iustitution which still bedrs his nsnie. 
It is sitnated on the same spot whene formerly stood an hosfHtal 
dedicated to St« James, and built by Philip Marmion^ in the 
15th year of the reign of Edward the first.* 

The Grammar School, founded by Queen Eiizabetb^is yet an 
excellent and flourishing institution. 

Tarn worth being a town of considerable size, carries 4>n a 
variety of manufactures. The cljiief of these formerly was the 
manufacture of superfine narrow woollen cloths; but this trade« 
though still considerable, has n>uch decreased. The printing of 
calicos, and the tanneries on the other hand, are branches i»fbiisi« 
ness which have greatl}^ advanced. The ale breweries are now 
likewise great sources of wealth to the inhabitants. According to 
the parliamentary returns of 1801 the population of the StaflTord- 
^hire portion of this town consisted of 1 133 persons, of whom 642 
are returned as employed in different trades and roanufactares. 

There are here several meeting houses for Dissentery. . 

Drayton Bauet, a village situated about two mil^ south from 
Tam worth, was a place of some distinction in ancient times- 
The latter part of its name is derived from the illustrious family 
of the Bassets, who were for some time lords of the manor. It 
afterwards became the property of the Earls of Leicester and 
Essex, who frequently made the old mansion house their place 
of residence. 

The church is a very handsome modern edifice, erected in 
imitation of the Gothic style of architecture. A variety of 
tombs and coats of arms of the Bassets ornament the interior. 

Hint9, lying to the west of Drayton, is a small village beauti- 
fully situated on the side of a considerable eminence, which 
commands an extensive and luxuriant prospect. From its. 


• Gough't Camden, Vol. II. 504. Pennant's Jmirney, p. 171. Turner*! 
t For 4 further account of Tamwortb, lee our account of Worcestenhirc. 


Stxon hmne HeMd&n,'ngn\iymg ••OldTbwn/' it'wonH appear 
to occupy the site of some very anciebt station. 

Not far from the ehorch ts a rery large tumulas, whieh is 
placed on the south side of the Roman road called the Watlhig 
Street. As it has not yet been opened the contents of it remain 
unknown ; but it ts supposed by Plot* to be of Roman con- 
strucUon. On the common here was found, in 1793, a large pig 
of lead, haying the following inscription upon it in baa relief. 
IMP. VESP. Vri. T. V. COS. 

The church, a modern structure, exhibits a very line speci- 
men of Grecian architecture on a sm^ll scale. Its situation is 
lofty, and highly picturesque. In the interior are several monu- 
ments to the memory of the Floyers and Lawleys, two families 
of some note in the neighbourhood. The former church, which 
was Tery ancient, contained in the chancel a noble raised tomb 
in honour of one of the Bassets. 

At Canwell, a hamlet situated at the south corner of this 
parish, but deemed extra-parochial, there was formerly a pri- 
ory of Benedictine monks, founded in 1149 by Geva Bidell, 
daughter of Hugh Earl of Chester, and dedicated to St. Mary, 
St. Giles, and All Saints. It was one of the monasteries seized by 
Wolsey. The building, as Plot informs us, was a very curious 
old fabric of Gothic origin. It was destroyed somewhat more 
than half a century ago, by a tenant of the farm on which it 
stands, who is said to have got as much lead from the coffins 
he found in it, as paid the expenses of his alterations. Stables 
belonging to the superb mansion house of the Lawley's now oc- 
cupy its site. 

Wecford, adjoining to Hints on the north-west, is a low lying 
village and parish, situated on the south side of the Watling 
street, and distinguished as containing the large barrow which 
ffives name to the hundred. Concerning the origin of this mo- 
nument of antiquity, different opinions prevail among historians 
and antiquaries. Some regard it as the sepulchre of the cele- 
» Plot. Sufford. p. 40?. 

tn 9n.9«oiiMHua. 

1>ra|cad Offa; bat (or Cbis idea there seems 16 be no other e?i- 
dence than the soptposed etymology of ks name. Dr. Plot, 
liowever, says it is most probably SaxOB> and tboo^ not the 
burying placfeof the Mercian monaroh^^ certainly contains the 
bones of soaie roigbty chieftain, who had peiliaps fallen in 
jmme engagement near this place. Weeford has been the scene 
of moeh citiI strife. A Purefoy was here slain by Sir Henry 
WiUougbby during the contentions of the houses pf Yoiic and 
Lancaster; and Sir Henry himself was -shortly after desperately 
wounded almost on the same 8pot> in a rencounter with Lord 

The church is a small ancient building no ways remarkable. 
The living is a prebend in Litchfield cathedral* Npt far from 
it stands the mansion house of the Swinsens^ a Tery noble edifice 
erected by Mr. Wyatt, father to the present celebrated archi- 
tect, and said to have first brought him and his ftkmily into 
professional repute. 

Shenston, which lies to the south-west of Weeford, is a Very 
neat pleasant village, situated on a gentle eminence, and sur- 
rounded on all sides by an expansive vale. ^Almost every 
house has a small garden in front. The church, dedicated to St 
John, standi^ nearly in the centre of the town. It is a very 
ancient structure in the form of a cross, but much altered from 
its original condition by successive repairs. The body is sup- 
ported hy a variety of strong pillars. This church consists of 
a north aisle and three chancels only, one of which is more 
modem than the other, and neatly fitted up in the Venetian 
taste, is now used for divine service. 

In this parish is situated the splendid mansion house of Littk 
Aston, An extensive lawn stretches itself around, finely 
shaded with trees, and embellished by a noble lake. Over the 
latter is thrown a very handsome bridge, and opposite to it 
stands an elegant stone conservatory, which adds considerably 
to the general beauty of the scenery. Immediately adjoining 
the hamlet of Overstonall on a small hill, appears an ancient 

* Offa WM buried tt Bedford, Mtt. Paris. Matb, Weft p. 991. 

■TAri^mlMiBiEi. 6^9 

fiirti6e«liOti wbteb ii called CoMtk^td-ford, or Cattle Old Fori, 
h is «flicompa«Bed with a doable ditchj and is 160 paces diameter 
belween the entraiie€s« which seem to have fronted sooth-east 
and north-west* By whom this fortification was originally 
eraoted remains extremely donbtfal ; for though it resembles 
British works of the same kind, sereral spearheads of iron ha?e 
been found in i^ which tend to the supposition that it is of later 
date. A barbed arrow head of flint has likewise been discovered 

The village of Wall lies about two miles to the south of Lich- 
field. This village, and Chesterfield^ situated a quarter of a 
toiie still more to the south, are now generally allowed to oc* 
fiipy the site of the Roman station Etocetnm. Salmon, indeed, 
is thiie only aQtbar who adopts a different opinion, pliiciirg it at 
Barr Beacon, in the parish of Aldridg^. Many vestiges of this 
ancient city can yet be discovered. Coins of Otho, Nero, and 
Domitian, are frequently dug up. Dr. Plotf tells us, he saw 
two Roman pavements of lime and rubble, and of pebble and 
gmvol, both laid on Roman bricks, also the pedestal of a pillar 
and other antiquities of tbesame kind. In afield called the Butt^^ 
sayaStttkely4 '' 1 saw great ruins of walls equidistant twelve 
feet, and twelve high like square cellars. I saw there bits of 
pavement, Irish slate, and Roman bricks. The walls are a 
yaid thick of strong mortar, rubble, stone, &c.'' These re- 
maitta caii stiH be distinctly perceived by the attentive eye of 
the antiquary. Some rains in Butts close are generally pointed 
ottt as the foondation of a Roman temple ; a little below which 
the author last mentioned affirms he discovered the crown of a 
sabterraneanarch. Between the Watling Street which passes here 
in a direction almost due east and west, and another road leading 
to Lichfield^ appear the vestiges of the castle. The ground 
upon which it stood is the highest in this neighbourhood, having 

VouXIII. Ggg tiot 

•Plot StUlM, 396. GougVf Camden, Vol. IT. 506. Sbaw's HUtorj,^ 

t Flot. StsC p. 401. I Slokeley. Ic Vol. K. p. Si. 


not impfobably been somewhat raised by the Tast pile ofmnm 
which lie beneath its surface. The walls of this ca«tle were 
founded on the solid rock. South from it runs the Rigning way» 
called by the inhabitants Hickling Street, By the side of a 
road running aorth#ard from hence to Pipe Hill» are some very' 
considerable remains of the walls which inclosed the town, and 
from the existence of which in later times the village derived its 
name. There is a gate mentioned by Stokely as crossing the 
Watling-street at the castle end; but no vestiges of it can now 
be traced. The same learned antiquary likewise notices a 
Roman wall, which was shewn to him in a cellar then belong- 
ing to " WfUiam Milner, at the Swan.^' On the south side of 
Watling-street in the fields, called Cfiaterfield Crofts, a great 
variety of flower-pots and other curious antiquities have been 
frequently discovered. This spot was well adapted for a Roman 
station being situated nearly in the centre of England, and hav* 
ing open communication by excellent roads to its most distant 

Between this village and Pipehill, which lies about three 
quarters of a mile to the north, there was lately discovered an 
extensive Roman military barricade, justly to be regarded at 
one of the most interesting remains of the labours of that won** 
derful people, which for many years has been laid open to us 
in this island by antiquarian research. It was composed of en- 
tire trunks of oak trees standing on end close to each other. 
The timber above ground has long been completely decayed. 
Those which Mr.Shaw examined, he tells us, were perfectly black 
at the bottom, but bore evident marks of the operation of the axe. 
This barricade was divided into anumberof distinct pieces, each 
about 13 feet long, and ten or twelve inches diameter. Every 
piece contained a cavity three feet down its middle for the pur- 
pose of observation, or with a view to the discharge of missile 
weapons. The extent throughout which this work has been 
traced is somewhere about 500 yards, in an angular line, 
strengthened by flanking bastions, at which points the pieces 


■TAVroUDSftlBt. 831 

most entire baye been generally placed. A wooden ma11et» 
found when digging here> was unfortanaiely afterwards de« 
Btroyed by fire. 

Norton under Cannock lies at a considerable distance to tbe 
west of the Wall near tbe boundary between this hundred and 
that of Cuddlestone. It derived its peculiar appellation " Under 
Cannock" from its proximity to the ancient town of that name. 
The Watling-street passes about half a mile to the south of this 
Tillage. At the time of the Conquest, the manor belonged to 
the bishop of Chester^ Henry the third bestowed it upon 
Bobert de Aston, whose descendants enjoyed it for some time, 
when it was. distributed among a variety of families of inferior 
note. The church is a neat Gothic edifice surmounted by a 
small tower. An ancient font, which appears coeval with the 
tower, being formed out of and constituting part of its base, is 
pUiced at the entrance to the belfry. In this font are three 
bells. None of the monuments require to be particularly 

The manor house of Little Wirley, a hamlet in this parish^ 
affords a curious example of the architectural style of an ancient 
fiunily residence. Its situation and embellishments are in per- 
fect harmony with the picturesque appearance of the building 
itself. In the hall appears several pieces of antique armour, and 
some old-fiishioned wooden chevrons, on which are depicted the 
arms of Fooke. 

Aidridge, is an extensive village, situated near the northern 
extremity of Sutton Colfield, at the distance of a mile and a half 
from the confines of Warwickshire. The church, a stone struc- 
ture with a tower at one end, is dedicated to St Mary. Tbe in* 
terior consisu of a chaucel and a north and south aisle, the for- 
mtr being separated from the body by four arches in the 
pointed style of architecture. On the south side of tbe church 
is an arch probably designed for the reception of the founder's 
monument. Here is likewise the tomb of Robert Stapleton, 
whose efiigy bears a shield ornamented with the figure of a dog^ 
His sword hangs across the body in front. The living is a rec- 

Ggg« tory. 

tory. Till lately it was customary For th« incianbefil to gitt 
a dinner every Christmas day to each intf Tidoal/ yoang and 
old, resident in the parish. The origin of this coriotiB practice 
IS now wholly unknoiirn. Within these few yean it has been 
discontinued, th« clergyman payiog6dL to every lK>i]seholder to 
regale hiR family at home. 

The agreeable village of Gi!eat Barr lies within the limits of 
this parish, being placed on the declivity of the lofly Barr^ 
beacon, which stretches itself out to a great extent^ and seem* 
like a vast barrier to the coontty beyond it. The derivation of 
the Bame of this place is somewhat micertain» being regarded by 
a few as coming from the wovd Bora, wfarich signifies a wild 
vncaltivated field, and by others from the term Borah, to eat 
sacrifice or purify.* 

The family of the Scots have long been in possension of this 
manor. Their family seat here is one of the fineet and most 
delightful mansions in this part oi the country. It stmnds in a 
beautiful vale, surrounded by a noble lawn, and ornamented 
with trees in great variety and abundance. A charming sheet 
of water winds along in front. The hills behind, covered 
with foliage, are every where intersected by numerous walks 
sheltered from the scorching sunbeams by the umbrageous shade At different points as you ascend the hill are placed 
rustic seau, each commanding enchanting but dissimilar viewi 
of the scenery below. One of them exhibits a truly Shen« 
stoaiau prospect, the eye being directed down through the 
wild copse upon the lake in the vale, whose extremity is con** 
cealed behind the richest scenes of aged oaks and verdant hills. 
Descending from these in a different direction towards the 
house* you first pass the kitchen garden, and shortly after enter 
the flower garden^ which is laid out with the roost refined taste« 
At a little distance from the latter garden stands a beautifel 
* urn, to the memory of Miss Mary 'Dolman, cousin to the cele- 

• Sbtw't Hitf. Stafibid. Vol IL p. lOf . Stukele>'f Itiiw 


brttad fikenstooe. The fMUoiruif tlegant epitaph from the pen 
of tbe poet » engraTed on ihn pedeirtal : 

** Ah MvU" pa^ilfiniiii^Ifigtntissiiiw, 
Ah Flore, venoitate abrepta ; \tih, 
** Hoc quanto mioua est 
Cam reliquU versari qaam tai inefflinti»e. 

Tliu urn, it composed of itatoary marble, and floted with 
a medallion of Mist Dolman in the centre, and bears abete 
Uie Sbenttonian epitaph, the following words : 

" CoDiobrina sue MaruB Dolman" 

«' Hanc Uroam'' 

" potu«runt," 

"I. & M/' 


Leaving the urn, a gradually rising walk now pretentt itself 
and leadt to more elevated grouod, commanding an extentive 
prospect of the sarrounding country. Approaching tbe house, 
we behold a very noble cascade, pouring its noisy watert into 
the large and richly wooded lake which adorns the valley. 
Crossing the head of this lake, and proceeding along the range 
of hills which stretch themselves from hence, we reach High* 
wood and Barrbeacon. The latter of these tommitt cliimt par« 
ticolar attention. In the time of the Druids, we have already 
mentioned it to have been the point from which thete priesu 
gave notice to the people of their quarterly tacrifices* It after* 
wards, in the time of the Saxons, became a beacon to alarm the 
country during the invasions of the Danes, who likewise pro* 
bably used it for a similar purpose themselves.* 

The chapel of Great Barr, founded by Mrs, Bromwich, is re* 
markable for the beauty and elegance of its architecture. At 
one end it it adorned by a very handtome spire, and the interior 
iafitted up in the most refined modern taste. On the east win* 

G g g 3 dow 

• Sbaw*i Hut. 9u«M, Vol. 1. 105. 

aM ftTAfroaoiHxai. 

dow is exhibited a punttng on glai8» not inferior in stj^le and 
execation to many of the most approved productions of this art 
in more remote times* It is the work of Mr. Eginton, who has 
not only happily borrowed from the Hev. William Peter's 
Spirit of a Child, but has actually succeeded in improving the 
original design, chiefly by bis having introduced some highly 
finished clouds, which finely relieve the splendid effect of the 
supernatural light The graceful and highly flowing hair, to- 
gether with the delicately beautiful and interesting fiaces of tha 
two figures, are exquisitely delineated and sofiened by a gra« 
dation of tints, and a simplicity of colouring, of which the an- 
cient painters were wholly ignorant. 

In this neighbourhood is situated the extensive waste of 
Sutton Colfield, which hill lately was only valuable as a sheep- 
walk or rabbit warren. The portion of it comprehended in 
Staffordshire is calculated to contain about 6,500 acres. A 
small division of this common is now inclosed, and in a state of 
cultivation* The remainder is much occupied during summer 
as a place of encampment for troops, and of course still con* 
tinnes in the same unimproved condition as formerly. For a 
further account of this extensive waste, the reader is referred to 
the description of Warwickshire, in which county a very con* 
siderable part of it is situated. 

Adjoining to Aldridge, on the south west, lies the village and 
parish of Bushaii. The manor has in later times been possessed 
by the family of Leigh, one of whom is distinguished as the 
author of Crkica Sacra, The ancient mansionhouse is now in 
rains. It was formerly '« built about with a wall and a gate^ 
house of stone all embattled castlewise."* During the conten- 
tions of the houses of York and Lancaster, and likewise in the 
era of the civil war between the Parliament and the family of 
Stuart, this seat was strongly fortified and defended by a nu^ 
merous garrison. At present, its ruins display in external 
appearance a very curious specimen of t^e ancient embattled 

* Leisod't Itio. 

i«M»ioiis» irUch our ancettWB were obUg^ ^ ^^"^^ ^^ ^'^ 
d^fiuice ai a time when Ibe science of gorenuaenl was little un^ 
dertioody and the laws were inadequate for their security and 
protection. The wh<4e area of this fortified residence com* 
prises aboQt the extent of an acre* The wa]ls» which areoom* 
posed of roQgh limestone^ ase ?ery strong, and, according to En- 
deswick, were sorroondedby adeepmoalvfio testiges of which 
can poiw be discovered. Mr. Shaw informs os, that he saw 
sevenU marks «f fine places in difiereat parts of these wails, 
but he justly supposes that the principal apartments most have 
been placed near the centre of the area, where still stands a de* 
tached edifice* sometimes occupied as an occasiooal residence 
by the proprietor of the manor. 

The church of Rushak dedicated to St. Michael, appears to 
bare been formerly only a chapel of ease to Walsall. On the 
south side of the chancel, there still remains the aperture of a 
confessionary, . and a vase for holy water. Otherways thu 
edifice pn&sents nothing, worthy of remaric, being no more than 
a mutilated remnant of an old huiMiag in the. pented style of 
architecture, with a plain tower rising at one end. In the 
cemetery stands a curious old cross ; and the whole being 
finely shaded with foliage renders it rather an agreeable and 
picturesque object. 

This parish produces vast quantities of limestone greatly cele^ 
brated for its superior quality^ taking a polish almoiit equal to 
marble. Ironstone of different kinds is likewise a &med pro- 
duction of tbi^ neigbl^urhood. Both these valuable materials 
are readily conveyed to various districts of the country by 
means of the Wirley and Essington canal, which passes here, 
and is connected with a mi^ltiplicity of others. 


Hus aneient market town and borough is situated immedi- 
ately to the BOQth of Rushall. It stands on a pleasant eminence, 

Ggg4 at 

* firdeiwick't Ssmy, p. W. Shsw'i Hist. iStsff. V»]. IL p. 66. 

U the daalMioe of nifie miles fron tke eity #f LiehAeid. Thti 
40VR m t fdaoB •£ gratt «ptiq«iiy, und u regatded at the second 
market town m the comrty. Betog a town corporate, the 
government is vested in a afeayor, a recorder, tweaty-fbor alder* 
men or caf ital bargesses, a town clerk« twe serjeanls at mace^ and 
a iieadle. A court of qoatter sessiona is regularty held at stated 
periods* in which the Mayor and Mayor eteet preside as jos* 
tices of the peace for the borough, and the foreign of Bloz* 
wich* and award judgement in cases of petit larceny, rad 6& 
iences of a similar oatore. Though a corpmation, bow«ter« 
this town does not send any representatives to Parliament. 

Walsall, previoQs to the eommencement of the present war, 
was a very thriving and flourishing town, consisting princi* 
pally of twelve large and regular streets. Of late years, how* 
ever, its iadeitry, in common with that of the diflbrent towns en* 
gaged in the same species of trade, has suffered consideralile de« 
pf«?3sipn{ but we trust it is soon destined again to revive. The 
ananu&oture chiefly carried on here is the making of buckles, 
chapes, snaAea, bridle bits, spurs, stirrnps. and in general all 
soruof hardware articles employed in saddlery. 

According to the parliamentary returns of 1801 the number 
of inhabitants iu the borough and foreign amounted to 5274 
males and 5125 females ; in all 10,399 persons. Of these 541S 
were reUirned as employed in various departments of trade. 
The market, which is held on Tuesday every week, is well sup« 
plied with all kinds of provisions. A very remarkable prac* 
tioe, mentioned by Dr. Plot,* is said still to prevail here. Oq 
the eve of Epiphany, a dole of one penny is regularly distH« 
bated to every person residing either in the borough,, or in the 
villages belonging to it, without regard to whether they are 
fixed residenters or not. This gift was bestowed, as is generally 
believed, by an inhabitant of the name of Moseley, who hap- 
pening to bear a child cry for bread on this day, was so aflhct« 
ed, that be vowed st|ch ap occurrence should never take place 

again { 
• Flot> StaArdihiMi p. 3U. 

agrin ; mi ai ft bmui of pTercntang it» ianMditMljr miifc orer 
kis dunor of Baacol t04lie eerpofaiiioii» tvitli tlMe view %i tnaia^ 
taSning the dote. 'Some affirai> hovrrvur. tlial H origintled kl 
ftn endowmeBt, WMdK Im besM^ed <m this chm«h and Hm 
iiibbey of fitatva Owmi^ in iBvder 1^ have prayers said for liit 
own soal and that of his wife ; and that after the dttoolation of 
TMigiona teases; chie endowmeM, ^ at 1#sat a |>ait of k, waa 
conrerteiffodM w^iotenanee of thky^aHy benevolence, 
• The manor, whieh is ef large extisnt« was the property of the 
gr^ileari of Warwick, sarnaaied «» Make' king/' dariai^ the 
t^Sgn of the ifnfertanate Henry the si«tb. It was aftetwarde 
In the possession of the^eelebiailed daka of Northamberland, 
who lost his head in' the atcenipt to establish his danghter-tn* 
tow, the lady Jafte Gray, on the ihrone of Bng^ahd, from 
which sha was ovantnally driven by the cruel and bigotted 

The chursh dedicated to St. Matthew, or All Saints, formerly 
belonged to the abbey of Hales Owen, having been conferred 
an that monkish establishment by Sir William Rofus at a rery 
early pariad. it is an edifice of gfreat anf i<|uity, in the form of 
n crom, bqt does net exhibit any traces of Saxon architecture. 
M the sooMi west angle rises a strong, plain, and rather elegant 
eowev, eanaoomed by a handsome spire. Th^ interior is lofty 
and apaeioas,. and presenu a sonfewhht singular appearance. 
Zacb aide of the vhaneel has seven stalls in a rery intrre state, 
iha aaalaof whkh are evnamented with a great variety of gro^ 
iasqne figures earned in ba$9& peii^fO. Under this part- of the 
church is a remarkable arch-Way of massy Gothic workman- 
ship, forming a cemason passage, through the eastern division 
af the church yard. In ibe windows were formerly some neat 
faintiags on glass; bat they are pow almost completely efiaced. 
The window of St. Catharine's chapel, however, still exhibita 
the mutilated figure of that saint; and St Clement's chapel has 
eeveral niches in its walls, which were no doubt intended for 
atataea, though none now oecopy ihepi* 


898 tTAffMftOtBUtl. 

Betldet the chnreb, tbera ura in thla Uwn several places of 
pnbljp worship, eppcoprieted to Dissenlers of difiereol deaomi- 
a^tioiis. Here is an ezcelleni free grammar school foonded 
eitfier by Queen BlicaheUi, or her sncoessorf M Bloxwiph, a 
hmoUtt in this parish celebraled for its aadlery work* is a small 
chapel of ease. 

JB^sco^ Hall occnpies Ae site of the ancient baronial maa^ 
sion pf the Hiilarys^ and MoantficNrts. This seat and tbesur* 
rounding, inclosures are finely decked with loxoriant foliage; 
and, from their goneral elevation above the letel of die ad« 
joining country, display a very extensive and interesting vtew^ 
It is inclosed by a moat filled with water, which is crossed by a 
very picturesque bridge. Tlie iron gates, formerly standing 
close to the house, are now placed sit a considerable distance 
from it, by which means the approach has been greatly im- 

HmuUwortk is an agreeable village situated at the soath-east 
extremity of this hundred, at the distance of about two miles 
from the town of Birmingham in Warwickshire. The parish 
is of considerable extent ; and the most distinguishing object 
it contains is Hamstead house, a noble old buikUng, lying im» 
mediately opposite to Perry HalL The grounds winding along 
the banks of the 1\ame are pleasing and romantic, being ,eover- 
ed with a profusion of stately trees. . A lime placed on a rocky 
eminence is particularly remarkable for its uncommon sice. At 
three feet from the surfj^ce of the ground it measures twenty 
three feet girt. Its height is seventy feet, and the shade which 
it throws extends one hundred and eighty. 

The church dedicated to St. Mary, is an ancient Gothic struc- 
ture of brown stone, surmounted by a lower which rises near 
the centre. It contains a few neat monuments, and has a va^ 
riety of coats of arms painted on the windows. The living Is 
a rectory in th^ deanery of Tamworth. 

In this neighbourhood ^itands SpAo, justly esteemed the first 
manu&ctqry of its kind in Europe, whether we regard the 


STUrffOEMBtmB. 8^ 

Ymlae of its pnadndMiM, or the extent and grandeur of the 
beikHings in which it i» carried on. These.are iitaated at the 
fo^ of aconaidftrable eminence, on a^piece of groand, (former^ 
ly a marshf hul noir .conYcrtedinto fertile awl,) and consist of 
four aqofires wiitb connecting ranges or rather streets of wara» 
houses, sufficiently extei^ive for the. accomnDK>daiion 4^ m 
thousand worjooea. To the south are situated a number of 
agreeable gardens which giro an air of uncommon cheerfulness 
to this splendid seat of art and industry, and affords ample 
proof of the taste and skill of the original projector* 

At the coaunencemont of this great manufactory, its pro- 
ductions were only such as were usually made by the artists in 
this part of the country, viz. button.s buckles, watch-chains» 
trinkets, and articles of a similar description. In a. short time, 
however, the manufacture of plated wares on an large scale 
was likewise introduced ; and, at last when these substantial 
and useful branches had been fully established, the proprietors 
began to bring forward works of elegance and grandeur, in 
stone bronae and Or Moulin, These consisted of all kinds of 
vases, candelabra, clock- cases, watch-stands, ice*pails« and many 
other particulars equally valuable. No sooner was this novel 
n^^ufacture fairly begun than it received the sanction and en- 
couragement of his Majesty and of the principal nobility, while 
on the .other hand no exertion or ingenuity was wanting to ren* 
der it worthy of such distinguished patronage. Thus support* 
ed#thepropietors were soon enabled to bring their productions 
to the highest state of perfection, so that not only was the im* 
portation of such articles from France materially reduced, but 
a new and valuable branch of commerce was thereby created 
to many of the most polite cities in Europe. Some foreign 
sovereigns were even pleased to confer upon them distinguish- 
ed marks of their approbation and munificence. 

The brilliant success of thi« last species of manufacture more 
lately induced the proprietors to embark in another of no less 
novelty, and of much greater importance. This was the manu- 

140 nrA«tomMBtftm. 

-fiictiiring wMQf hi |»late, to^&cilttafee wWdi tluy > after a eooc 
aadefable ilrtiggte* auccceded ia obtauing the eita M ia liwwm 
of on oflSM of asiay m Biminghamy Ibr ragolatiog tkeparifly 
«f ibe natal. Smoa Cba caaipletioa of thia Abjeel» wroaghl 
fiiafto baa boon a pfofmAont article among the aaany rich pro- 
doMoaa ef tbia^ great eatabliaboMiit^ totfaeezAenaioiiof wbick 
beyond all probable limita tbe inpro^emenU in the c<mairiie- 
lion of the ateam engine bat^e contribated in a Tory conaideia* 
Uo «kgree. 

The house of Soho^ which is placed at a abort distance fhmi 
the mana&ctory, ia an elegant mansion rarroanded by beautiful 
{rieaaure grounds. In one of the more advanced grorea stands an 
nm to the memory of Dr. W, Small^ whose name has been per- 
petoated by the moseof Darwin. 

The residence of Mr. Francis Eggtnton, whom we have so 
ofVen had occasion to eulogize for the elegant style and ezecn- 
fion of his paintings on glass, is likewise situated in this pariah. 

West Bromvfieh liea to the west of Handswortb> and is chiefly 
remarkable as containing i$a»i/u;ftf/»arAi the seat of earl Dart* 
moutb. This mausion is situated in a romantic valley> and is 
built on the site of a priory of Benedictine monks> dedicated 
to St Mary Magdalen.^ Some portion of the original fonnda* 
tien is still visible to the antiquarian eye, behind the honae and 
among the offices, where a stone coffin was dug up a few years 
^go. The present edifice is constructed of brick stuccoed white, 
and forms a square, the corners of which rise conaiderably 
higher than the rest of the building. The interior contains 
many valuable paintings, and in front extends a channing lawa 
laid out with the highest degree of taste and judgement. 

The church, an ancient building surmounted by a tower, has 
df late years been repaired, and much enlarged interiorly, the 
side aisles being thrown into the body, so as to present one en« 
tire space. Neither its architectural features, nor its monuments, 
claim the smallest attention. 

♦ Tan. Not, 


Tbis ▼iUage is remarkable as the bkth plaee of Waltel* Par^ 

I, porter to king James the first, who appears to have been . 
no less distingoished for hia eztraordtnai y strength, than for 
the equairinii ty of his temper. Hit stature was aomewhat aboTO 
the common siae* i>at not in any extraordinary degree ; yet 
such was the force of his arm, that be ceuM, without material 
exertion, take ap two of the tallest yeomen of the guard, and 
carry them where he pleased in spite of their tnost rrgoroos at« 
tempts to iree themselves from his iron grasp. 

Wedneihtaji which adjoins tx> Bromwich, on the noitfa-ilFesI^ 
and stands at a short distance from the source of the rirer Tame, 
is a eoBsiderahle market town of greist antiquity. In the iHav 
of the Mercians this place was diAinguished by a noble casein 
fortified by Adelfleda, who was for some time goeemess of thiir 
extenaite kingdom. No part of this work of antiquity now* 
remans, except a Ibw tracea of its foundation. After the Con* 
quest, it became a portion of the royal demesne^t. Hem-y th^ 
sacmid, however, bestowe^l it on the ftimily of the HeronvHea 
in exchange for the town of Oobsfield, in Yorkshire, so that it 
is now a parcel of the honour of Woodstock. From them it 
psased after various successions into the family of the Beau- 

This town is distinguished for its numerous and valuable 
manufactures, the principal of which are gun^i coach harness, 
iron «xle> trees, saw^ trowels, edge-tools, bridte«-bits» stirrops, 
naiU, hinges, woodscrews, and cast iron works of er ery de- 
pcriptioa. Enaaoel paintings in the ftnest style of execution 
are likewise among its more prominent productions. For 
their proficiency in these diflerent branches the mhabitants are 
principafiy indebted to the abundance and excellence of the 
coal wrought in their immediate neighbourhood. This coal w 
beyond all doubt the be»t in the kingdom for the smith's forge, 
db account of the intense heat which it produces. It extends 
in aeparate veins firom three to fourteen feet in thickness, and 
affbrdfi t»Jta various proprietors an almost princefyrevenue.' 
i .i 9 Here 


Here is also found tliat peculiar species of iron ore denomtilAt* 
ed blond metal, ased chiefly in the manufacture of naiisi 
horse-shoes/ hammers, axes, and other heavy tools of a similar 
description. Some spots, likewise, abound with a sort of red- 
dish earth employed in painting, or glazing vessels of different 
kinds. This earth is known by the appellation of Hip. 

The church is an elegant building in the pointed style of 
architecture, and adorns the summit of the hill, on which the 
castle already mentioned was situated. At one end rises a 
handsome tower, supporting a lofty spire of unusual be.iuty. 
The interior is divided into a chancel, nave, and north and 
ioath aisles. These last are separated from the nave by a 
range of very neat arches, which rest upon octagonal pillars. 
One arch being intersected by another pillar, produces a sin- 
gular and awkward effect. In the chancel are several preben* 
dal stalU, ornamented with most exquisite carved work. Here 
are a variety of monuments in honour of the ancestors of the 
fiunilies of lord Dudley and lord Harcourt. Against the north 
wall appears a very ancient tomb on which are placed two fe- 
male figures standing under Gothic niches, each having her 
right hand resting on a plain shield. On the floor are cnt oat 
the figures of a knight and his lady, the one habited in full 
armour, and the other in the dress of the times. Several more 
are visible on the stones, but are so much obliterated as to be 
incapable of description. Within the rails is an alabaster monu- 
ment to the memory of Mr. Parkes, whose effigy, and that of 
bis wife, lie recumbent on the top. A monument adjoining the 
south wall represents a nan and woman kneeling, having be- 
neath them the figures of six children. Around the church 
yard is a large graff in which the vestiges of the ancient fort 
may be distinctly traced. The prospect from hence is among 
the most extensive in the county. 

The market day here is on Wednesday when supplies of all 
kinds of provision are plentiful. According to the parliamentary 
returns of 1801 the number of inhabitants here was found to be 


BTA»yoaMfiiftt; MS 

ilflO persons, vis. 3071 males and 9089 females, of whom 
1993 were retorned as employed in different branches of trader 
and dl3 in agricoUure. One of the collateral branches of the 
Birmingham canal* entering this parish, a(fi>rds ta the inhabi* 
tants the most perfect facility of commercial coromanicaUon. 
A furious riot against the Methodists took place here in 174& ; 
the windows of their houses were broken to atoms, and even 
their personal safety became much endangered by the violence 
of the Anti-methodistic enthusiasts. 

DarUuiim lies immediately to the south of Wednesbury. 
The church, which is a brick edifice of an oblong shape, was 
erected by Thomas Pye« a celebrated author of the sixteenth 
century. There are here two meeting houses for Dissenters, 
one appropriated to the Methodists, who are numerous, and the 
other to a small body of Independents. 

Beniley Hall, an ancient manor properly belonging to Wol- 
ferhampton, thongb situated in this hundred on the immediate 
confines of Darlaston, is remarkable as having . been the pro- 
perty of Col. Lane, who, together with his sister, so much dis- 
tinguished themselves in concealing, and efifecting the escape 
of, king Charles the second after his defeat at the decisive bat- 
tle of Worcester.* 

Wedmu/UU lying about two miles north«east from Wolver* 
hampton, on the western boundary of the hundred, is remark- 

* The history of this Monarch's escape is too well known to require to be 
detailed in a work of this kiud. That he should have resided so long in this 
connty, known to a great number of individnals, and that not one of them 
shookl hate proved fiilse to the trost reposed in thenn notwithstanding the 
high rewards offered for his apprehension* is a circnnstance that reflects the 
highest honour on its inhabitants at large. To them is doe the glory of set> 
ting the example to their more northern coantrymen of the fatthful and 
noble character which they evinced, in preserving the unfortunate prince 
Charles, after the dispersion of his army at Cnlloden. Miss Lanes was equally 
bold and jodidons as the celebrated Flora Macdonald ; and it is somewhat 
reaarkable, that the plan of escape was in both instances nearly similar. 

Shaw's HUt. Staff. Vol. t. 75. \ol IT. 95. 

144 STAtfomMiitar. 

able as the scene of in eiig^;eraeiit between Edward tbe eMer 
and the Danes in which the latter were overthrown with im* 
mense slaughier. This battle u generally said to have taken 
place in 911 ; butopoa this point there is considerable vario* 
tion among historians.* 

The number and extent of the lows or tamoli, to be seen 
here, are decisive nionotnents of this important victory. W\U 
lenball, a village adjoining and situated within this hundredj 
though attached to the parish of Woiverhamptonj deserves at* 
tention as the birth place of Dr. Wilkes,t to whose researches 
and collections the historian of the county is particularly in* 
debted for mcfa valuable information and critical disquisition^ . 


This noble work of antiquity is situated on the sommit of a 
limestone hill at the distance of three miles to the sooih of 
Wednesbury. It is said to have been founded by Dodo« or Dudo# 
a distinguished Saxon chief about the year 760, from whom it 
likewise derived its name. After the Norman conquest it appears 
to have been bestowed upon William Fitz-Auscuiph, who pes- 
sessed no fewer than 25 manors in this county. During the con* 
teattoBS for the crown between king Stephen and the empress 
Maud this castle was fortified and maintained on the part of the 
latter by Gervase Pagnel, whose son having joined in rebellion 
against Henry the second, it was dismantled by the orders of that 
Monarch. This second Pagnei, dying without issue male, this 
Hcnour past by marriage to John de Somery. In the seven- 

• Vide ante, p. 721. 
t Dr. Wilkes wai a nembcr of Trinitj College, Oxford, and rector of 
Piichford, in Sliropthire. He ooUected materials for a history of that coon- 
ty, and is spoken of by Browne WiJiiesi, (Mit. Abb. Vol.11, p. 189) but 
to the antiquities of bis native county, bis attention was chiefly directed. 

Note bjr Dosweli in his Life of Johnson, Vol. L p. 123. 

fTAfroUDsm&B. 845 

toetith yeftf of Henry the third it was seised f6r the king's use 
on accoant of Roger de Somery neglecting or refasiug to ap« 
pear in order to have the honour of knighthood conferred upon 
bim.* It was« howeyer, soon after retuniedi and we find that 
about thirty years subsequent to this, the same Somery obtained 
a license to fortify it again. Issue male also failing in his family^ 
It became the property of John Sutton who married Margaret, 
6ne of the heirs general in (he reign of Edward the second. 
The Suttons were a respectable family in Nottinghamshire ; and 
in consequence of their owning this castle one of them was 
called to the peerage by the title of lord Dudley. In the 
^ign of Henry the eighth it was purchased by John Dudley 
duke of Northumberland, who lost it by rebellion in the reign 
of queen Mary. This nobleman is said to have made great 
repaire and additions to the buildings. After his death the 
queen bestowed it on Sir Edward Sutton son and heir of the 
kmi Dudley, who had sold it to the duke. Anne, great grand* 
daughter of this gentleman, carried it by marriage to Humble ' 
Ward, who was created baron "Mk^rd of Birmingham in War- 
wickshire on the'third of March, 1643. During the civil wars 
which now began to distract England, this castle was twice be* 
sieged ; first in 1644, when after holding out for three weeks, it 
Was relieved by a corps of the king's forces, from Worcester ; 
and again in 1646, at which time it was surrendered to Sir WiK 
liam Brereton, commander of the Parliamentary troops by 
Col. Levison, governor for the king. Some affirm that this 
noble family still continued to reside here for a considerable 
period after the Restoration ; but at length they deemed it ex- 
pedient to abandon it, probably on account of the ruinous con* 
dition to which it had been reduced by the siege. Tradition 
says it has since served as a retreat to a set of coiners who, hav- 
mg set fire to the buildings, were th^eby discovered, and com- 
pelled to seek some other refiige, in which to carry on their ini- 
quitous profession. The title of viscount Dudley was renewed in 
Vol. XIII. H h h 1768 

• Mtddos. Hj»t Ezcbeqoer. 



l(^, in the person of lord Ward, by the title of viscount Dad* 
leyj and ward of Dudley. 

. From the lofly site of this castle the view from its ruins is 
noble and extensive, comprehending five counties of England 
and a great part of Wales* The sides of the hill on which it 
fU^nds displays a beautiful and varied povf ring of trees. The. 
mansion itself consists of a number of buildings sun'ounding 
a court, and encompassed by an exterior wall flanked with 
towers. Of these buildings the keep appears evidently to be 
the most ancient part. Next to il^ in point of aget is the 
chapel in which there are two very noble Gothic windows^ 
The great gateway, with the apartment over it, may have been 
erected about the same time. This entrance is very strong ^ 
and under the chapel is a vault called the prison, though most 
probably built for a cellar. None of the other buildings seem 
to be older than the time of Henry the eighth. In the kitchem 
which is situated on the eastern dirision, are two chimney, 
pieces of monstrous size, the fire places in one of them meai* 
suring no less than four yards and a half in width. . In the great 
l^ally there was formerly an oak table one yard in breadth, and 
twenty five iu length, which now forms the table in the hall of 
a neighbouring gentleman ; but part of it has been cut off since 
its reftioval. The greater portion of the castle is a complete 
ruin, but some portion of it has been repaired within these few 


King's Swii{ford lies to the south-west of Dudley, near the 
buundary between this county and Worcestershire. It derived 
the regal part of its name from having been in the possession 
of the Conqueror at the time of the great Survey. 

The church here is an ancient fabric surmounted by a mas- 
sive, tower, and possessing no claims to admiration for. the 
f beauty 

flVArFOADftpiaB* J847 

^beauty of its architecture. Over tbe south door, how^Ter, 
which is the principal entrance, there appear some remains of 
sculpture executed in a rude style. The monuments are nu^ 
meroos ; but of these we shall only particularize one* not on 
account of its elegance, or the grandeur of the person who 
reposes beneath, but because it commemorates virtues of an 
humble stamp which unfortunately seldom meet with those 
marks of respect, which are so justly their due. This monu* 
ment is nothing more than a plain stone, erected by Joseph 
Scott, Esq. and his wife in memory of Elizabeth Harrison, who 
had been thirty years in their service, and had all along con- 
ducted herself with such integrity, and evident anxiety for 
her master's interest, as drew from him* the following poetical 
effusion, which forms her epitaph : 

** While eattering prtiset (Vom oblivion tave 

The rich, and splendour decoratet the gravo. 
Let thii plain itone« Harriaon, proclaim 

Thj hnmble fortune and thy boiief t fame. 
In work unwearied, labour knew ne end. 

In all things faithful, ever j where a friend ^ 
Herself forgot, she toiled with generous seal. 

And knew no interest but her roaster's weal, 
Midit the mde storns that shook his ev'ning day. 

No wealth oonld bribe her, and no power disoMy. 
Her patron*! love she dwelt on e'en in death* 

And djing blest them with her latest brealb. 

She departed this life J one 19, 
179r. Aged 50 years. 

Farewell thoo best of serrant^* may the tear 

That sorrow trickled o'er thy parting bier, 
Prove to thy happy shade our fond regard, ' 

And all thy virtues find their full reward.*" 

Hlih2 In 

• W« cannot help thinking that mach practical good might retalt from a 
jndictflw erection of monaments like the present. Servant! are far ftom 
being devoid of solicitude for diittnction ; and such a tribute to the memory 


84S »TAfPO1l08Hl&B. 

• In the middle «f this Tillage, itaads the imeient manor l^euae 
cf Bradley Hall, a very curious half timbered manstoii, which 
Wats for some time used as a Catholic chapel. 
^ Pftstwood IS a fine modern seat, placed on the site of one 
more ancient, built by Sir John Littleton, of which the gate* 
'Way sttH remains, forming a very picturesque appendage to the 
present residence. The surrounding pleasure grounds exhibit 
a most delightful variety of hill and dale, wood and water, ef- 
!fect^d chiefly by the hand of nature. The Roman road passes 
In this vicinity, which abounds with extensive mines of coal, 
lyiiig upon a stratum of clay, esteemed the best in England 
for making glass-house pots, from the great intensity of heat it 
is able to endure. This circumstance has already attracted 
hither several capitalists, in the glass trade, whose elegant 
villas tend greatly to the improvement and beauty of the 
neighbouring counUry. Oa Briefly hill, immtidiately adjoining, 
stands a small chapel bmlt by subscription, «n account -of the 
distance from hence to the mother church. The first clergy«. 
man here was the Rev. 'Thomas Moss, author of the elegan| 
little poem, called the ''The Beggar."* 

On Ashwood heath, in tiua parish, appear the remains of a 
Roman encampment* oi forti&catiom (t ia of considerable ex- 
tent, but simoBJided by a single ditch, which shews it to have 
been only a temporary post This camp is usually denominat- 
ed by the people Wolverhampton churchyard, from a tradi* 
tion ; current among them, that the cemetery of that parish 
was actually translated to this spot many years ago. The to* 
mull or barrows on Barrow-hill, which now seem to be entire- 
ly formed of solid rock, are supposed by Dr. Plot, to have 
been brought into that condition by the action of subterranean 


of one, who hu attained the pniit« at conTe3-t| oan netfer be viewed by a fel- 
low tervuit, withoot jmprening him or her with a Strang anvitly to < 
a similar eslogittm. 

• Shaw'i Hist Staff. Vol. U. fS7. ^38. 

STAffOEDflBlBS. 649 

Al R^u^ Regis which » situated on a lofty peninsalated 
Intel, which stretches into Worcestershire, between the parishes 
of Bradley and Dudley, there was founds some years ago, a pot 
of a globular form, which contained 1200 Roman silfer coin^ 
of 140 different sorts. Some of them bore fine impressions of 
the Roman emperors, Galba and Olho. The church here is 
particularly remarkable for the deformity and barbarous taste 
Of its construction* 

Gem, a village situated in a detached portion of this hui»> 
dred> surrounded by Worcestershire, and a part of Shfppshire# 
dsims notice as being the place near which Cenelm, king of 
ifercia* was murdered by the orders of his elder sifter Qoendrida, 
about the year 890. The unnatural conduct of this prinoess k 
finely described by Shenstone, in the following lines i* 

" Bom Dear the leat for Kenelm't fate renowned, 
I take my plaintire reed, and range the grove. 

And raiM my lay, and bid the rocki retoniid 
The sarage force of empire and of love. 

Vifflt hy the centre of our Tariena wild. 
Where tpreading oaks embower a Gothic fane, 

Kcnrida'i arti a brother*! jooth begniied. 
There nature vrged her tenderest pleai in vain* 

Soft o'er hit birth, and o'er hia infant boon, 
Th' ambiciotti maid coald every care employ^ 

Then with aasidooqs fondness ciopp'd the flowers. 
To deck the cradle of the princely boy. 

Bat soon the bosom's pleasing calm is flown. 
Love fires the breast, the sultry passions rise ; 

A favoar'd lover seeks the Mercian throne. 
And view* her Kenelm with a rival's eyes. 

See garnished for the chace, the frandful maid. 

To these lone hills direct her devions way. 
The youth all prone, the sister's guide obey'd i 

111 fated youth ! himself the destined prey.f 

H h h 3 The 

• XXIII Elegy, 
t Qaendrida did not reap the benefit she eipected from her barbarity, the 
Merciant having pUced her ancle Ceulph on the throne. Rap. Hist. £og« 
lead. Vol L|». 55. LeL CoUect. VoL L p. f U. 

850 itArpoftDsamv. 

' The paH»h church' here is a very ancient iabric, surmoiiAied 
'by an elegant Gothic tower, richly ornamented with niches and 
-pinnacles. On the outer wall is sculptured the rude figure of a 
«chtld. TWo of its fingers are raised in the form of a benedic- 
tion, and OTCr hs head is a crown. Above the door, within 
the porch, stands also the figure of a man, greatly mutilated, in 
the act of giving benediction. The arch here displays a neat 
specimen of the Saxon style of acchitecture. This church 
tippears to have originally belonged to the church of Wor- 

Over Arky. This village is situated near the north bank of the 
river Severn, which passes for a/ew miles through an angle of 
4hi8 county.* It would appear to have been at one time a much 
more considerable place than it h now. Leland calls it '* %, 
good uplandish town." A |toman vicinal road, which probably 
led from Bremogenium, (Worcester) to Uriconium» (Wroxeter) 
passes the eastem portion of the parishes, and now forms part 
of the post road from Worcester to Shrewsbury. In Arley Wood 
are the remains of a Roman camp, which is an exbct square. 
On one side there is a treble ditch ; but on the other sides it 
h only double. Mr. Shaw supposes this entrenchment to have 
been the work of Ostoros, who^ it is well known, fortified many 
spots in this part of the county, during his wars with the Si* 
lures and Ordivices. 

The church, dedicated to St Peter, is a very ancient build* 
ing, first erected during the reign of Henry the first, or of 
Stephen ; but probably afterwards renewed in the time of £d-> 
ward I. The'nave is divided from the chancel, by a continued 
range of pillars. Some old paintings still decorate the win- 
dows, and there is likewise a modern one by Mr. Egginton. In 
an arch placed between two of the pillars, appears the monu- 
mental e^gy of a knight in complete armour, cross legged, and 
having a lion cauchant at his feet. This church was some 
years ago, thoroughly repaired by Lord Valentia ; who orna- 

t Lcl. Iiin. Vol. VI. 76. 


mented the singing gallery with various coa(s of arms. The 
pulpit deskj also the gift of bis lordship, is adorned with hang« 
ings of peculiar richness and elegance. 

Kinvcr, is a very pleasant village, situated on the west bank 
of the river Stour. It was formerly a ^ market town of consider- ' 
able importance; and, though the market is now discontinued, 
Ibere is still a market house or townball, in which is de* 
posited some old armour. Here is likewise a free grammar 
school well endowed, but the name of the founder is unknown. 

To the south of the hill on which this village is situated, be. 
tween the Warren House and Sandy town, is a small plain 
covered with sand, where are the remains of an ancient camp 
of an oblong form, 300 yards in length, and 200 in breadth. 
ThtditioD says, it was the work of the Danes. Mr. Shaw, how- 
ever, is rather inclined to regard it as having been constructed 
by Wulfere, one of the kings of Mercia, on account of its posi- 
tion with respect to the adjoining cduntry. Just below the 
camp, appears a tumulus or barrow, surrounded by a narrow 
ditch, and in every way similar to that described by Dr^ 
Stukely on Salisbury plain, which that author supposed to be 
Celtic* Near it, is also a large stone of a square figure, and 
tapering towards the top, about two yards in height, and tour in 
circumference, having two notches on the summit. Tiiis stone 
is called BaHaii of Boltatonc, 

The church is an ancient building, dedicated to St. Peter. 
From the form of an arch over the principal window, bishop 
Littleton was induced to conclude it to have been erected e>eu 
prior to the Norman conquest Here are some paintings on glass, 
and a few monuments deserving of notice. At the top of ib* 
middle aisle, stands a fuietomb of speckled marble ; and thereoui 
on plates of brass, is the figur-e of a knight in complete armour^ 
having his hands raised as in prayer, together with the i)or- 
traitures of his two wives, both dressed according to the fashion 
of their age. Beneath the knight's feet are the figures of seven 

Hhh4 bovH, 


8|t BTAYfOEDSHittK. 

boySj and at the feet of the woman ten girls. From the in- 
scription this monument appears to have been received in honour 
of Sir Bdward Grey, who lived in the reign of Henry the eighth. 
In a portion of the chancelj which is railed in, stands a muti* 
lated alabaster monument of very ancient date, but to whose 
memory it was erected is uncertain.* 

Stoorton castle is situated in this parish, on the west bank of 
the river Stour. At an early period it was the property of the 
Hamptons. Leland says, ** Sturseley, or Sturton Castle with- 
out fayle, is in Skaffbrdshir. And I hard that there was a Lord 
Storton, a baron of this Storton.^'f It was fortified for the king 
at the commencement of the civil wars, but surrendered to the 
Parliament in 1644. 

The celebrated Reginald Pole, Archbishop of Canterbury^ 
and a cardinal, was born in this castle in the year 1500. His 
descent was illustrious, being a younger son of Richard Poloj 
Lord Montague, Cousin German to king Henry the seventh* 
His mother was Margaret, daughter of George, Duke of Cla- 
rence, brother to king Edward the fourth. The early part of 
this prelate's education was conducted by a private tutor, from 
whose charge be was removed at the proper age, to Magdalen 
College Oxford. Having finished his studies here, he went 
into orders, and soon after proceeded abroad, to attend i\\^ 
foreign universities. During which time, he was allowed a 
very handsome pension from Henry the eighth, who likewise 
conferred upon him several benefices in commendam. In the year 
1525, he returned to England, and was received by the king with 
distinguished marks of favour. His court influence, however, was 
but of short duration, for having vigorously opposed the divorce 
of Catharine of Arragon, he became so obnoxious te Henry, that 
he was compelled to seek shelter in Italy, where he wrote his 
celebrated piece intituled ** Dc Unitate Ecclesiastical*' Thia 
work exasperated the English monarch so highly, that he not 


• Erdeswicke lapposes it to have been designed for John Hampton, (or oae 
•r hii AQceston) who was lord of Stonrton in tlie time of ^df^ard the fourtli. 
f J>I, Vol. VII. p. 36. 


<^lf dq>ri?ed him of all his prefermentSj bat e^en canted an 

act of attainder to be passed against him. He did not, how* 

. eTefj sustain yery material loss by this harsh conduct of hit 

kinsman ; for the court of Rome immediately preferred him to 

' sereral benefices in Ilaly» and raised him to the dignity of a 

eardinaU Upon the death of pope Paul the thirds he was twice 

elected to the vacant throne, but declined the honour, because 

one election was too hasty, and the other made in the nighttime* 

;. This truly commendable delicacy so muchfTisobliged hisfriends^ 

' tfiat they no longer afforded him their support, and of conse- 

'^ ^uence the bishop of Paletrina obtained the papal see. 

if ; . Immediately after the bigotted Mary had ascended the 

£ ikrtne of England, the attainder against the cardinal was re« 

j^j^led, and be returned with distinguished honour to his native 

&kMhiitry. His first act, upon his arrival, was to absolve the king<* 

.,,44111 from the papal interdict, under which it laboured on ac* 

L. <oiiQt of the apostasy of Henry thp eighth. He was now ad« 

• tanced to the archbishopric of ( !anterbury ; but enjoyed thb 
J'.'i^gnified station only a few months, having died on the seven* 
1 leenth of November 1558, the same day on which the queen 
j, herself expired.* 

I BmoiUe, lying to the north of Kinver, is principally distin* 

* goisbed by the noble mansion of the earl of Stamford. The 
V house, though the greater portion of it is of modem erection, 
.^ atitl retains much of the air of antiquity. It consists of a cen» 
fC Ir^, and two wings, the former receding considerably, and 
-' having an octangular tower at each end. The windows in this 
"• f/sxi of the edifice are formed by Gothic arches in the pointed 
^ 4lyl€, and round the top runs an embattlement, which complete* 
^. ly prevents the roof from being seen. The wings which 
/ stretch themselves out from the fowers appear as modern erec- 
Vilons; and behind are several later additions which, with the 

brick offices, are judiciously concealed from the view, so that 
Ibf whole possesses an agreeable and uniform appearance. 


• Gen. Blog. Diet. 


la' froat of this mansion extends a beaatifbl sloping tawiv- 
which rises boldly on the left, and is adorned by a charmin|^ 
lalce^ skirted with foliage, and a few ornamental buildings. 
From the side of the water a path lies through a neat shmb- 
bery, and leads to a fine cascade, formed by the celebrated 
Sbeastooe, who indeed originally designed the whole of this de- 
Kgbtfiil scenery. 

At a little distance below the cascade, is a rural bridge, com- 
posed of only one plank, which crosses the stream, and is 
lni)y a Tery fine and picturesque object Near this spot stands* 
a small chapel, dedicated to Shenstone ; and having its win* 
doiws embellished with various paintings on glass. This cir- 
cumstance, U^ether with the thick and gloomy umbrage in 
which it is enveloped* impresses the mind with a sentiment of 
peculiar solemnity. From hence the path extends through the 
w€»od, till at last it arrives at an open leveU from which there 
ia a yiew up a gently ascending lawn, on whose summit is erect- 
ed» with singular advantage, a handsome rotunda, overshadow- 
ed by a bold and lofty wood. The path now entering a part of 
this wood If ads to a verdant alley, opening into a sheep walk, 
from a rising point of which, under a lofty yew, there are ^ome 
of the richest and most enchanting prospects imaginable. At 
the extremity of the walk, stands the shepherd^s lodge, a neat 
white Gothic edifice, shaded by a few trees, and partly used as 
aa observatory by the noble owner. 

The church of Enville, dedicated to St. Mary, is an ancient 
building, the east window of which is adorned with several 
shields and coats of arms ; also with portraitures of St. John 
the baptist, St. George and the dragpn.and the blessed Virgin, 
with a young Christ. The chancel contains an ancient alabas- 
ter monument, with figures oT a man and woman, the former 
in armour, and the latter in the dress of her age, with a small 
do^ collared at her feet The inscription bears the name of 
Thomas Grey, and his wife Anne, who died in 1559. Adjoin- 
ing to this tombj under an arch of handsome zig-zag, is an- 

•tidier Tery incient one, supporting a^gare in priest's robes, the 
mantle reaching to his heels. It has neither arms nor inserip- 
iBon* The lid of a stone coffin urtth a cross, and the words 
ROGERUS DE MORF, inscribed upon it, was dag op irf 
1763,* froni beneath the west end of the church, whence it 
is supposed that the Morfe extended to this place. A similar 
stone much defaced, with a fleur-de-lis and a cross, likewise 
lies in the entrance of the porch. 

On the same side of the county with' Enville, but at a con* 
sidersble distance to the north, is situated the parish and village 
of Puttingham. The church is an ancient Gothic structure^ 
having at one end a tower of a pyramidical form, surmounted 
by small pinnacled. In the interior are scTcral antique and 
modem monuments. The church yard contains an o\d cro8S» 
perfectly entire. Here was found in 1700 a very valuable 
gold torques A>ur feet in length, twisted towards the centre, and 
so uncommonly elastic, that it could be bent round the arm, 
waist, or neck; and easily extends itself again to its own shapci* 
Thfe weight of thb beautiful ornament, was three pounds two 
ounces; and, independent of its curiosity, was estimated to be 
worth one hundred and fifty two pounds. A piece of gold m 
the shape of a pig of lead, round on the top, and flat beneath, 
was likewise discovered in an adjoining field, by a boy at 
plough, in the year 1780. 

Scdgeley, situated in the centre of this hundred, is a place of 
very considerable trade in ironwork of different kinds. In- 
deed it is believed that there is not less than two thousand mea 
^d boys employed in the manulactories in this village and its 
immediate neighbourhood. The parish produced great abun- 

• A udaU tUlago here itill retains the name of Morfe town. GoegVs 
Cajiideii,Vol.II. p. 50«. 

t It wai wreathed by two hooki at each eud, resembling the bow or handle 
of a kettle ; and in this respect, says Cainden, " it corresponds with the gold in* 
strnisents found in Ireland," Cough't Camden, Vol. IL p. dOO. 

$56 8TAffOE9SHiaB« * 

dance of a fiit ihinmg species of coal, which barns with a 
bright shining flame, and leaves a residaum of white ashes. * 

Near Seasdon, or Seisdon, the Tillage which gives name to the 
handred, situated on the borders of Shropshire, is an ancient 
fortification called Abbots or Apeswood castle, which Dr. Plot 
regards as a British work. The situation of this entrenchment 
is very lofty, and commands an extensive view, particularly to 
the westward in the direction of Wales. The entrenchment it* 
self is apparently small, but the whole steep ridge of the bend- 
ing bank, betwixt it and Clasphill, placed at the distance of a 
xntle, having hollows cut in the ground, over which the possessors 
are thought to have set their tents, the two hills at each end may 
probably have been the principal flanking bastions of a lai^ 
camp. The lows on Wombom Heath may not unlikely have 
belonged to this fortification, or perhaps are burying places of 
some Roman of rank slain in attempts to dislodge the Britons 
from this strong position, so admirably calculated by nature as 
well as by art for a vigorous resistance. 

Paitishul adjoins to Paitingham on the north, both parishes 
forming a sort of promontory which projects a considerable 
way into Shropshire. The manor here was long in the posses* 
sion of the family of Astley, from whom it was purchased by 
Lord Pigot. The present mansion-house of this noble lord is a 
very magnificent and spacious building, adorned in front by 
a delightful serpentine expanse of water. 

The church here, dedicated to St. Peter, is a very elegant 
modem building in the Grecian style, with a handsome turret 
at one end. The principal entrance is beneath a portico* sup* 
ported by four handsome pillars. An armed figure forms the oma-> 
meni of one corner of this front. In the interior, which is fitted 
up with great taste, are a few very noble monuments. One of 
them supports the recumbent figures of Sir John Astley and his 
lady, and is inscribed thus: 

" Sir Joho Attlej, Kaigiit of the most noble order of the Osrtcr." 



The dat«« if il cfn was affixed, is noir completely erased; 
\mt it is coiiiectured by Mr. Sbaw> that thb gentleman lived ia 
the reign of Henry the seventh or eighth. The other tomb 
is to the memory of Sir Richard Astley,' who is represented in 
ha$to rtlievo at the bead of a squadron of horse. On each side 
of Sir Richard, are the arms of a knight, and other warlike ac* 
coutrements. The figures of his two wives are placed on 
pedestals at each end of the monument which is adorned above 
with some elegit carved work and other embellishments. 


This town, though not a borough, is by far the most extensive 
and populous in StaSbrdshire. It is a place of great antiquity; 
but nothing is recorded concerning its history till the year 996^ 
when we are informed, that the pious Wulfruna, relict of Ald- 
hefan, Duke of Northampton, built and endowed a monastery 
here. Previous to this period its name was simply Hampton; 
but it BOW began to be distinguished by the appellation of 
t¥ulfirtmi^9 Hampt<m» since modified or corrupted into the term 

Wulfruna, having completed her foundation, placed in it a 
dean and several prebends, or Secular canons, with other suitable 
officers. These last, however, it seems, did not long continue 
to promote the object for which they were instituted ; but, inde* 
fiance of every precept, moral and divine, became so vicious in 
their lives that their dean Petrus Blesensis, after trying all possi- 
ble means to reclaim them in vain, was compelled to surrender 
his deanery into the hands of Hubert, archbishop of Canter- 
bury, about the year 13(X),* humbly beseeching him that 
Cfstertians might be substituted in their stead. This change, 
however, firom some cause or other, now unknown, did not take 
place; but the deanery, with the collation of the prebends, was 


* Fctnu BleseniU KputoUr. Lib. Kp. 15<» Ad Inooceiit. IIL 


united by Edward the fourth to that of Windsor. la this state 
did it continue till the dissolution* after which it was refounded 
by queen Mary, whose acts were confirmed by king James the 
first. This monarch appointed the celebrated Marcus Anto- 
nios de Dominis, archbishop of Spalatro> to the conjunct 
deanriesy which are now in the same condition as then» but the 
colleges are distinct. 

Wolverhampton is a well built and healthy town* notwith^ 
standing its proximity to numerous coal mines* a circum* 
stance which, no doubt* is in great measure owing to its lofty 
situation. The trade which it carries on in locks* keys* and 
such like articles* is truly astonishing. Nothing indeed can ex* 
ceed the ingenuity and skill of its locksmiths* their produc- 
tions surpassing both in beauty and usefulness* all articles of 
the same kind made in any other district of England.* 

This town* however* notwithstanding its extensive manufac- 
ture* does not increase in houses so rapidly ,as some other 
towns in the interior. The evident cause to be assigned 
in explanation of this fact is* that the land here is almost 
wholly church land* which is not a tenure sufficient to en- 
courage people to lay out their money in erecting buildings. 


• Plot, •dverting to this subject, says. But the greatest excellency of the 
blackinith's profession, that be coold hear of in this country, lay in their raak* 
ing locks for doors, wherein ibe artisans of WoWerbampton seem to be pi«i 
ferred to all others, they making them in suits* six, eight, or nore, in a suite 
according as they are bespoke* in such a manner that the keys shall neither of 
them open each others lock, yet one maste^key shall open them all. Hence 
these locks bring placed upon separate doors, and the inferior keys kept by 
distinct servants, though neither of them can come at each others charge, yet 
the master can come at them all. Moreover, the master* by turning his key 
in any of the servants' locks but once extraordinary can prevent the servants 
themselves from coming at their charge. Neither sh<ll the servant spoil hi% 
key or the lock in making the attempt. Nay, they can so construct locks, 
that a master or mistress can tell how often it has been opened or sliot, even 
during a whole year together. Tliese locks they make cither in brass or iron 
boxes so curiously polished, and the keys are so finely wrought, as not to be 
exceeded. Plot's Hist. Staifoid. p. S75— 376. 


No parish perhaps in South Britain is of greater esttent than 
this, it being little short of thirty miles in circumference, and 
containing seventeen very considerable villages and townships* 
The population of the townalone, according to the parliamentary 
returns of 1801, was estimated at 12,565 persons, viz. 6,907 
males, and 6,358 females. Of this number, 3,356 were returned 
as employed in the various branches of trade and manufactures. 
The lighting, paving, and cleaning, is conducted under the 
authority of an act of Parliament The principal market 
day is Wednesday; but an inferior one is likewise held on 
Saturday.* Two canals, the Staffordshire and Worcester* 
shire Grand trunk, and the Birmingham canal, pass Jn this 
immediate vicinity, and form a junction about a mile to 
the north. 

The collegiate church, now dedicated to St. Peter, is very 
agreeably situated on elevated ground towards the eastern side 
of the town. It is a stone building, consisting of a lofty nave, 
two aisles, and a chancel. The latter is most incongruously 
fitted up in the modern taste. A very fine Gothic tower, em* 
battled at the top and richly ornamented, rises from the centre. 
Five pointed arches resting on octagonal pillars support the 
nave. The pulpit, which is composed of stone, is an object of 
great interest and curiosity. It is placed against one of the 
south pillars, and is adorned with very beautiful sculptured 
niche work. A flight of steps forms the basement of this pul- 
pit, at the foot of which is fixed the figure of a large lion, ex- 
ecuted in a very superior style. To the south of the tower in 
Mr. Leveson's chancel, formerly called the ** Lady Chapel," 
stands an alabaster monument, to the memory of John Leveson 
and his wife, who died in 1575. The figure of the man is in 
armour. The great chancel contains a fine full length statue 
of brass, in honour of the celebrated Admiral Sir Richard Le* 
▼eton, who commanded under Sir Francis Drake, against 


* The market was graated by Henry the third. Gough*t Camdeoi Vol. 

$60 ITUroRDSBlftS* 

die Spaoish Armada. The noble tomb of Colonel Jofaiif 
Lau^ already memioned as haTidg difltingcrtsbed himself by 
bis afctachment to Charles the second, stands in a small chancel 
vsiially called Mr. Lane's chancel. Here is likewise a curious 
atone font of an octagonal shape, and evidently of great anti* 
/ quity. On the shafts, in bass relief, are the figures of St. An* 
ihony, St. Paul, and St. Peter. The first bears a palm branch 
and shield, the second holds a club, and the third has his hands 
raised in the act of supplication. The other parts of this font 
are beautifully entbellished with crosses, sprigs, tulips, roses, 
and a multiplicity of other flowers.* 

In the churchyard, fronting the south porch, stands a round 
column twenty feet in height, and displaying a ^ast profusion 
of rude sculpture work, arranged in separate compartments. 
On the side towards the north west, near the base, and under 
the spandrils of a sort of arch, appear the figures of a bird and 
beaal looking back at each other. Above these is a band of 
Saxon leaves, which divides them from several other figures 
like dragons, with forefeet and long tails, in lozenges. A 
second band similar to the first separates these from a com- 
partment of figures of beasts and griffins. To them succeeds a 
third band, and above it are various grotesque carvings. The 
whole is surmounted by a regular plain capital, which 
might have at one time supported across; but this is uncertain, 
as is likewise the question, whether it is of Danish or Saxon 
construction, t 
The precise site of the monastery founded here, by Wulfruna, is 


* Ihe living of this church is onlj a curacy, with four chapel* io the gift of 
tiie de«n and chapter of Windsor. The dean is lord borough of this town« and 
of tlie villages of Todsall, Hatherton, and Feubal, with Ludley, In Worcet- 
tcrtbire. There are nine leets within the jnriadietion ; and the dean has all 
manner of privileges belonging to the view of frank-pledge, goods, deinlands, 
escheats, marriage of wards and clerks of the markets. Each of the portion- 
arics tiave a several leet. Gough*s Camden, Vol. II. p. 495, 50O. Plot's 
Natural History. 

t Shaw's Hist. Stafford. Vol. II. p. 161. 

not pcrftolljr ase«ftaiii«d. Tovrards the sontki weil corner of 
4^ this cemetery may be stiii seen a very laif^e^ room or ¥aiil|» 
about 30 feet square, suppocted by strong massy groins which 
meet in the centre of the roo£ This work is entire and unmnti^ 
iated, and seems to have been the basement story bf an edifies 
of considerable magnitode. The wall ia three yards thick, and 
on both sides of the doorway are some slight vestiges of sculps 
tared cornice stones. 

The other church, dedicated to St. John, was erected by siib« 
scription, an act of Parliament having been obtained for this 
purpose in the year 1755. A deficiency of funds, how« 
ever, prevented it from being completed till the year 1776. * It 
is bnih of stone, and is pewed and painted according to the taste 
of modem times. These are the only churches belongingto the 
establishment in this populous town ; and, as we are informed, 
there are not more than three chapels besides, in the whole 
parish, though it contains a population of thirty thousand per* 
sons. This certainly shews some manilest deficiency of seal, 
for the interest of religion in those whose doty it is to pay aC^ 
tention to such matters. Here is a plain stimulus, if Uic express 
sion may be allowed, for the encouragement of schism, and se- 
cession from the esmlished church. It is in a manner com- 
pelltug the inhabitants either to abjure the Christian faith, or 
to become dissenters, a change which is soon produced by 
habits of attending dissenting places of worship, where the 
comments on the Gospel may be often erroneous, but are al* 
ways delivered with energy and fervour, not with the sleepy 
iistlessness of a schoolboy dunce. In conformity with this ob'* 
servation it is a fact, that almost every sect, relatively speaking; 
18 more numerous here than in any other district of England; 
conjointly comprising at least two fifths of the entire popul^ 
tion of the parish. Here are of coarse a number of dissenting 
chapels. * 

Tbe Free*school is a handsome brick building, foouded and 
tnd€f¥^d by Sir Stephen Jennings, a native* of- this town, and 

Vol. Xlil. lii Lord 

Loffd May^r of l^oiu in th^ jtet ISSB. BesUei tbk wbdob 
theraaretnvo^lmrftf oms for fifty boyt and forty (^Is. An < 
hoai^l for a prieHi and six oM woamt waa erected bera a nd ar 
Iha sanction of the royal licence about the year 1S94> by CI9* 
nent Laien» aad WiUtam WaterftilL Tha WariAoute h an 
inoonvenieat atrudiNre/ with lanall wkidowa, low rooma>' and 
dark Btaireases* 

Some curiooB customs ar^ mentioned by Mr. Sfaaw and 
several otber writers^ as haTin^ prevailed here even so late as 
the eomteencemeiit of the lasl centocy. Among these was the 
pvaatice of procv^mfttngw On the Monday and Tuesday af roi* 
gation vreek. the Sacrist, resident prd^endaries, and the meai» 
bora of the choir assembled* at morning prayers with the cha^ 
riiy children^ each of whom carried a long pole decked 
Widi a profasion of diflfisrent kinds of flowers. Prayers being 
filaiahed, the whole assembly marched through the streets with 
greftaolemntty, the ciargy, singing men^ and boys» arrayed in 
thm «cred robes, bringing np the rear. The origin of this 
<9ereoiony is inferred lo very high annuity, and would appeat 
to have been. a. continuation of the Roman offerings of the 
iV»itft<ie» adapted to our purer worship by the early Christiana^ 
Another cunton was that of certain efficers patrdliing through 
the fittr dresaed in anticpie armour, and preceded by a band <rf 
musicians, playing Uie Fair tune» 

In the skirta of the town are ranged, at determinate distances^ 
a number of large^ trees, which serve to mark the limits between 
the towttship and the> parish. These are denominated by the 
inhabiftanu Gospel trees, from the practice of reading the Gos* 
|iel under them,, when the clergy were woat to perambulate 
the boundaries. Every part of thia vicinity is covered with 
fardeas, and when the eye is directedtoany considerable die- 
lapo<>f the ooiKitsy presents a scene sufficiently indicative of its 
agricultural prosperity. 

. T|te vilUge of Jili^^ lying to the east of Walverb|tm|ilon, 
«nd €pmpral|f^diad» wiftbio the botWKh^rieaof that.parislib tboagb 
V : 9 . ajttatinct 


m diiliiiel tenrmhip a« taail paiiocliial piirpoiffB, k one of the 
nKMl exteasive Tillages in ftUt coimtiy. li contaans opwardeof 
lOO^hooMt* and standa upon nsing gmmd at a short dntance 
froBi the north bdfk of the Birmioghaei canal. The gtfat 
London road to Holyhead peases throagfa ilat the distance of 
one hundred and tw enty«one miles from the metropolis, with 
which it keeps up a constant and aciiTo communication. . Its 
mauniaetttrea consist chiefl j of japanned and enaiaeUed gooda 
and bnckle^hapes, which are wrought in great perfection. 
Femaoes for smelting iron ore> forges, and stilling mills worked 
by stcam> are frequent in this neigbboni^eod, which abonnde 
with Tast mines of coal, iron stone, ^arry stone, and day. 
Here is also found a panicidar species oE sand, much used in 
the casting of metals. j, 

The chapel of Btlston is a neat modem strecture fitted up 
in a very elegant style. The li? ing is a perpetual cnraofv 
within the exempt jurisdiction of the dean of WoWevhamplm^; 
hot the right of nomination and presentntioo is vested in Uie 
inhabitants at large. Here ate besides twq^laces of wersbip 
lor Dissenters, and a very excellent ctmrity school. 

At Bradley, a hamlet immediate^ edjoiaing' to this vHhtgei 
there is a tery extrsordinary phenomenon. A, five in the earth 
has now continned homing for upwanrds of forty years, defeat* 
tog every attempt which has been mnde to exttaguiah it. Thia 
fire has already reduced nearly six aeres of land to a mere 
calx. It arises from a burning stratum of coal, about fouv 
feet thiclli and eight or ten yards deep, to which the air has fi-ee 
access, in consequence of the main coal having been dug out 
Ihmi under it. The calx affords a yery excellent material for 
the repair of roads^ and the workmen, in collectiog it, frequent* 
ly find large beds of alum, of an excellent quality. What is 
likewise curious, the surface is sometimes covered with sulphur 
for many yards, in such quantities as to be easily gathered. 

TatenkUl is a small village, picturesquely placed on the de- 
clivity of a steep eminence, and lying at the distance of two 

I i i 8 .... JBoWtk 

86% * sTjlro&Dsaiftfi. 

miles north from Wolrer^iamptoii. Etymologically considereif 
its name is a corraption ot* TbeotenbaU» i. e. the hall of nations 
or of pagans.* A seYere battle was fooght in this neighbouf* 
hood> between the Danes and Edward theilder,' at the com- 
mencement of the tenth century.f« Leland calU" Tetenhaal » 
village and a college about a myle from AVulnerhampton.'^} 

The college was foanded previous to the Norman conquest, 
aitd had a dean and five prebends, till the period of its dissola- 
tiMi by Henry the eighth. This bailding, as Mr. Shaw informs 
119, stood at the east end of the present church, which is not im- - 
probably itself a part of the original foundation. At present 
the cburoh is a royal chapel dedicated to St Michael^ and en- 
joys all the privileges of such peculiars. The inscription on 
the seal is *'SigY||um Commune Ecclesiae Collegiatse de Teten« 
hall." The eastern window of this building is a very curious 
ancient one, containing a painting on glass, which represent* 
IIm archangel trampling on a dragon. The font is of an oc- 
tangular shape, and beautifully ornamented with* Gothic sculp- 
ture work. 

Wrotteslty, a village in this parish, is distinguished by some 
very extensive remains of antiquity, concerning which various 
ideas have been adopted by different antiquaries, and even at 
diffisrent times by the same enquirer. From the appearance of 
these remains, there seems to be little doubt, but that tbey are 
the ruins of an ancient city, and not simply a fortified station^ 
or encampment* Of this the parallel partitions within the out* 
wallj like streets running different ways, are regarded by Dr. 
Plot, as sufficient evidence. This author first|| conceives them 
to be the vestiges of a British town, but upon reconsideration 
inclines to think them, " the true remains of the old Theoten* 


• Gongh's Cvndeo, Vol. 11. 496. Piot'i Hist. Stafford, p. 39i, 395, 4 IS, 
f Henry of HuntiDgdoti describes this battle as so terrible and bloody, 
that a jast idea of it could scarcely be convened by the most exquisite peib 
Kco. Hunt. Hist. Lib. V. cap. 5. Vide ante, p. 791. 
^ ^ '^ Lelaad'f Itin. Vol. VII. p. M - | Piott's Staffordshira, p. S95» 



bkU of tbe Danes/'* which he supposes wlis fi(lal|y i^ei^ed by 
Edward the elder, ^fter his signal. victory ali^yitttietioneditr 
Mr. Salmon, in bis Survey of £nglanJ|. opposes these sentt*' 
BseotBy and maintains that this is the UricotuMmr of Ihe Somans; 
and it must be confessed ttetttbe square st^aes^.Jarge hingefl|i 
and apparent regularity of the streets* give no .small degree of 
weight to this opinion ;X which appears to hftve taiet with tl^ 
approbation of the learned Gough, in his additions ioCamd^a.T^ 
These gentlemen, however, do not deny that it .might be oc^ 
copied by the British, Saxons, and Danes, successively alter tbe! 
departure of the illustrious conquerors of the ancient world. 
Dr. Plot mentions some enormous stones as having been dug up 
here, one of which made an 100 loads, and another, afler su^ * 
fering a diminution of 10 loads, still required 36 oxen, tqr 
draw it. . . * 

'Yhe surface of this parish is generally level; and, together with 
the country immediately around it, is adorned with many hand* 
some seats and hamlets. There is here a peculiar species of 
pear, which Mr. Pitt says, is not to be found at aiiy considera- 
ble distance elsewhere. The tree on which it grows is large^ 
and for ithe most part uncommonly prolific. This fruit is of ex- 
cellent flavour, and bakes and boils well ; but will not admit of 
being kept above the period of a month. In consequence oT 
these circumstances, and its making but an indifferent perry» 
it frequently happens that in plentiful seasons, large quantities 
are given to the hogs, the price brought by them in the market 
being scarcely adequate to deficay the expejj^se of picking and 
carrying in. IJ 

Iii3 .f • North 

• Plotf I Stsffbrdshirc, p. 415. 

, JM^ Salmon says that the present name of this place nay n4l improba* 

hljVTderived from tbe Saxon, term Jjj^rotan, signifying to loot or turn up as 

twine do, and the word Uy, derioting a field. Wrotan ley then would signify 

the field in which the rained city stood. Salmon's Survey, Vol. II. p. 5J3. 

t That the Romans had some action hereabout sevmf, indeed, extremely 
probable, from tbe existence of a Roman work at >f ortoni east of it. 

^ Gough*s Csffldeo, Vol. IL p. 300. I Pitt's Survey Staff, p. 12a 

North ^vi from Wol? erhttnpton lies Bushbury or Byrt^tny, 
netr Um northec^ «xtrenMty of this hundred. The situation of 
the Tillage is filei«aiit« though much sequestered^ being shel- 
tered by a kfty hill ;* cotered with a profusion of ancient 

.j^ews. Its anoint appellation Biscopesburie would seem to 
point it out, as having been the residence, or chief seat, of some 
of the Mercian bishops. 

The manor of Byshbury was long the property of the Goughs, 
anc^tors to the celebrated antiquary of that name. In the 
ball is still kept the chair in wbich Charles the second sat, 
when here# among other places, during the period of his con- 
cealment in tMs county. There are, likewise, in this bouse 
several spoons of solid gold, discovered under the soil, which 
had probably belonged to the Byshbury family ; but they bore 

4» n9 crest, or other mark whereby to ascertain the fact. -A 
skeleton in complete armour was found about the same tnne 
when cleansing a pit in an adjoining field. From the dress, 
Mr. Shaw supposes the deceased to have been a cuirassier in 
king Charles's service. 

The church, dedicated to the assumption of the blessed 
Mary, formerly belonged to the priory of St. Thomas's juxta 
Siafibrd. It is an ancient stone edifice, in the pointed style of 
architecture, surmounted by a massy embattled tower. The 
nave is spacious, and rests upon two handsome arches. The 
chancel, more modern than the rest of the building, is of excel- 
lent vrorkmanship, particularly the roof which is constructed of 
oak,. and is supported by flyingJ|||ittresses curiously carved with 
the arms of Byshbury and Grosvenor. Several paintings on glass 
serve to ornament th^'^indows of this division of the church. 
One of these represents a man in sacerdotal robes, kneeling to 
a lady ct^ying a babe. The monument of Hugh BystiA^, 
who is said to have built the clfencel, is situated here. It was 
opened about 50 years ago, and found to contain a stone coffin 


• Accordini; to trsdkion tb« great London rood to Chester pasied over 
tki^ b^l/ upon wlikl) lire to be seen the vestiges of several iMMti. 


' * 

wWh « Aeletofi tolerably tntire, and a <jialic« now iiiidfor tht 
Dominnnton service. Nothing else io tbii ^dwt«h seems to re*> 
quire notice except the tomb of Thomas Wlikgrafe^ Bsq. eele* 
brateif for the protection he afibrded to the monarch laH 

Near this village, appears a yery eonsiderable tnmnlos wtich 
Dr. Plot supposes to have been dP Roman ^rianstroetion^ seem^^ 
Higfy xtpoti no other ground but that the brass bead of tiiet%oH 
of a catapulta was dag up in -a small wiKtd here c^led ^ th« 
Borchen Lesow/' That the opinion of this author may be Gor<i 
rect we will not deny ; bat we cannot refrain ffoiii' reprobating 
the abtnrd practice, of conetoding every wodc to be Roman, 
near whkb a coin of th4t nation, or othet^ triml remnant of an* 
tiq«Hy, has been discovered* 

CodioN, titoated in the north-west comer- 'of this hondredi 
Reserves to- be noticed on account at the beauty of its cburefa, 
which consists of a chancel and north aisle, separated by very 
fine pointed arches. Tho roof is of wood, ciirved in a most 
curious and elegant manner. Some tirandsome stgzag work 
omamenti the porch, and in tlie chancel stands a noble alti^ 
menomenterected in honour of WakerWvottealey, whose figure 
lies in a recwnbent posture on the top. His head rests on his 
helmet, and at his feet is a gauntlet 

A sulphureous well in this parish springs up in a very un* 
common manner through the old stump of a tree. So strongly 
is the water impreeoaced, that it leaves a yellow appearance on 
every part of the 9face over which it flows. Anciently this 
well was famed for the core of leprosy ; and it stilt retuns ce« 
lebrity as a specific forthe itch. 

^ ^ 


BRBWOOD is a market town, situated about a mile and a half 
Io the south of the Watling-street, and at the distance of nine 

Iii4 miles 


imietfiMi St»Ai4. A small priory of Cistertian or Bepedfa> 
mefim$, de«)ic9ied to.lhe Virgin Mary, was founded herein 
the reign of Riobard the first, and .continued to flourish ^ill the 
l(eneral difisolutjoPi jyhen iUjrevenu^ wa# valued at 11/. 1#. 6i, 
per annum. . ..:> 

This town> neatly built, an4.4eMghtfully placed 09 ipne of 
the branches olthe^jriTer P^nfc .According to the populatipn r.f 
|ui;nsof 1801. it contained 2,867 inhahi^t^ of whom hif^ wei^ 
males, and .l»Aa9 females. The market is held on jFriday; 
every week. The free school is an excellent lastitM^on* 
Processioning was prevalent here as welt as at WoWerhampton 
<}uring the l^t.^oLury^ on which locc^isipns it was customary 
far the inhabitfmlrtoa^m^heir.we)Uwjith boughs and ftowera.* 

Several severe shocks of an earthquake were felt at thi^ pl>^ 
in J678, which were,. preceded by a loud rumbling noise, re* 
sembling distant thunder. The bishop of the diocese is said to 
have had a seat her^ before th^ Conquest. 

Sharekill li^ a^ nearly an equal distance between the Woroes- 
iershire, and the Wire^y and Es^ington canals. On the south 
and north sides of this; village are two. encampments supposed, 
from their square form and proximity to the Watling*8treet, 
to be of Roman construction. The area of the largest measures 
somewhat more than a rood in extent. In the church here, 
which, with, the exception of the tower, is of modern erection, 
are several curious antique monumeitts, preserved at the demo- 
^tion of the ancient edifice. At Hilton, which is situaied 
sooth from this place, there was formerl||pn abbey of Bene* 
dictine monks, founded by Henry de Audeley, in the year 
122B, which was valued at the .time of the dissolution at 

* Thii coftom of adorning welU ii a relict of popish times. When that 
religion prevailed, tkui ceremonj was instituted to distinguish such wells as 
were celehrated for the cire oi particular diseases, and generally took plac9 
oa the aatots' dajrs, when the people dsrerted themselves with music snd 
dancing, and bad cakes and ale. 


terAJiroaoaaiiiB. 8^9 

J^BL lOs.. Id. peraoBnum* No restigei^ of thk bbric can now 
.bo discovered.; 

The 9erv^e. enjoined to be performed by the lord of the 
neighbouring mi^noc of Essington tc^beJord of Hilton is so pe* 
.ciiliar^ that it aeems to deserve particular notice. By his 
. charter the former was bound to bring a goose to the hali here, 
eyery New-year's day^ and drive it at least three times round 
the fir^e while Jaqk pf Hilton was blowing the fire.* This 
part of the cerjemony being finished, then the lord of the 
jnainor of Essington* or his bailiff, carried it to the table, and 
received a dish from the lord of HiltoD, for his own mess. 
This service was actually performed for upwards of one hun* 
dred and forty years; bot nothing has been heard of it since, nor 
is the origin of the custom known. 

Crossing the ' WatHhg Street in a north east direction from 
hence, the traveller arrives at Cannoc%^ an ancient village situate 
ed on the southern boundary of the extensive waste, from 
whence it derives its name. This waste stretches from hence 
to the south bank of the river Trent, comprehending according 
to Mr. Pitt, about 40 square miles, ov'SfiOOQ acres.t A great 
proportion of the land here cmisists of a good lightrsoil, well 
adapted for turnip or barley culture ; but towards the east and 
south parts it is extremely gravelly, and covered for a large 
extent with heath. 

Different opinions are entertained by aqliquaries concerning 
the etymology of the term Cannock, some deriving it from the 
Cangi, and others from Canute, the first Danish king of £ng]and.| 
But, whatever may be the derivation of its name, it was doubtless 
a celebrated forest during the period of the Mercians, being the 


• This Jack of Hilton is a Tittle hollow image of brasii whi<1i'tean8nSpon its 
kit knee, and has its right hand placed on its breast. In its mouth is a little 
bole jost sufficient to admit the head of a large pin ; and water is'JMored into ' 
it bjf a hole in itt back, which is aiterwanls stopped up. Thb image being 
•et on a strong 6re, the air et aporates throngh a pole at the mouth with a con* 
tiaued blast, which blows the fire verj strongly. 

t Pitt's Sanrejr of Staffurdshtre, p. 144. X Vide ante, p. 718. 



870 Ak ■TATrolfcPfttrxiii. 

&Toarite cbace of their monarchs. It was dien andliir many inc^ 
ceeding centuries covered with a profusion of majestic oaks. Se- 
Teral centuries, howerer, have past away since it was wholly 
stripped of its foliage, and'^onrerted into a bleak and dreary 
waste. This sad change is Well described by Drayton in his Po- 
lyolbion, but much more beautifully by Mr. Masters, in his Iter 
Boreale qf 1675. So elegant, indeed, is the composition of the 
latter, that we deem it unnecessary to apologise to our readers 
for introducing it here, as every individual, who possesses the 
smalle^taste jfor refined poetical description^ must aflPord to it 
his meed of praise : 

*• Hinc nthi mm ingont ericetom cMsptol ooe}lof » 
Silvm olire pasftim Nymphin habiuta feriaqne, 
CoiideDfte qBcrcufy domibuf res Data itr«eiidU ; 
Ornaudoqae foco, et f alidae ipes unica clanis. 
Mttnc nmbrU immissa dies, nainqne saqaore vaslo. 
Ante, retro, dextrfc, laeva, quo Inmifiacunqiie* 
Verterit una hnmili consurgit rcrtice plamta^ 
Purpareoqiie erioe CellnMoi veitil aoHctn, 
Pan floret suares et naribat adftat oderes 
Haec ferimus saiteia am&Hie solatia sjlva.*' * 


* Tlie ReT. Richard Williams of Fron, Flmtsbire, has ^ven the following 
beautifal transiatiou o( this poetical effusion : 

*' A nwr, a naked plain ooBfinei tbe view, 
Where trees unuaubered in past agei grew; 
Tbe green retreat of wood Njniphs ; once the boast» 
The pride, the guardians, of their native coast. 
Alas ! how changed, each Tenerable oak 
Long since has jf ielded to tbe woodman's stroke ; 
' If Where'er the cheerless prospect lieets tbe eje, 
K<» shrub, no plant, except the heath, is nigh. 
Tht solitary heath alone is there, 
^ « '^ c And wafts iu sweetness in the desert air. 

So sweat its scent, so sweet its purple hoe. 
Wo half forget that here a forest graw. 

Pcnaaal's Joumey, p. 13A^ 

Ciiiiiock is abundantly sapplted with coaL ttnd tifcewise witb 
a particalar species of iron ore called Cannock stone, which 
oxygenates so rapidly as to be incapable of much useful appU-^*! 

At Radmorei within the iHHindaries of this waste, there for- 
merly stood an abbey for the Cistertian otirer of monks. These 
religions were originally formed into a society about the year 
1140; but at that period their retreat was only a he^* 
mitage. The empress Matilda and king Stephen, however, 
liaving conferred upon them a considerabl«£ extent of lands 
situated in the neighbourhood, they founded a monastery. 
This waa at first merely a priory, but was shortly after constitu^jfc'*^. 
ted an abbey at the instigation of the 'impress. It soon, however* 
lost the distinction it had acquked by the removal of the monks 
to StonAy in Warwickshire, a measure which was the result of 
the inconveniences of this situation. Some large single stones 
fixed here have Irequently been thd^subjects of antiquarian in* « 
Testigation. The design of their tmctioo, notwithstanding^ 
still remains undttermined. ^ 


This market*town lies at th^aistance of several miles to the 
northwest of Cannock, and one mile to the south of Stafford. It 
derives its name, as is generally supposed, from the river Penk, 
which flows past it, as does likewise the Staffordshire and Wor« 
cestershire grand trunk canal. i 

Penkridge is undoubtedly a place of very great ai^quity. 
According to some, it is the Pennocrucium of tlie Romans, men- 
tioned in the Itinerary of Antoninus. On this point, however* 
there is considerable djs^sity of opinion amongf^ an|iq9^he1i» 
Camden regarded it as having been that Roman station; but Plot,* 
Stttkeley, and Horsley, transfer the latter to Stretton, a village 

'♦ situated 

» Plot's Na^Hiit Suffordj p. 401 . Honely 19. S^oo wilrtoot hare k ^. 
PegnocracigiD to be in this neigliboarhoo^it all, maintaimns i( t0 have been 
pleated at 01il|k^ jo Warwjcktlur«. A Sorvey XwiglaiA^ol. W 



situated in libe neighbourhoodi a little belofv! the bridge, unrder 
^bich tbeT.iver Feok crpsses th^ W^^tUog StreeU ^ut though 
f difiering witb respect to the actual Mte of Fennocrucium these 
authors all agree in considering Penkridge as having risen on 
its ruins. A brass head of the boH of a catapulta was found 
here about the midcPfe of the last century. 

The church of Penkridge was formerly collegiate. ^In the 
reign of king Stephen^ it was bestowed on the bishop and 
churches of LichBeld and Coventry. Afterwards* however, 
the advowson w]|3 given by Hugh Huose^ to the archbishop of 
Dublin in Ireland, who was generally! in subsequent times^ dean 

»here« and had the collation of all the prebendaries, who were 
thirteen in number. At cfae dissolution this church became 
the property of W. Riggs and William Buckbtrd. It is an old 
building with a square tower, but possesises no arcMectural 
features worthy of particular detail. 

This town carries on a considerable trade in iron works, but 
on a scale much infertor to the places which we have already 
noticed. According to the Parliamentary returns of 1801, the 
number of inhabitants here was estimated at 1143 persons, of 
whom 560 were males, and 573 females. The market is held 
on Tuesday. ^i^^ 

Here is an excellent charity school for twelve boys and eight 
girls. The fair in this place is universally allowed to be one 
of th^ first in England both for saddle and draught horses. 

At the village of Lapley, situated a short way to the south of 
Penkridge, there was formerly an alien priory of black monks 
belon jihg to the religieuse of the abbey of St. Remigius at 
liheims, on whom it was bestowed by Aylmer, Earl of Chester 
an^dlercia, in the time of Edward the Confessor. Having 
^^*^sharra the common fam*of alien priories in the reign of Henry 
the first, it becatfie the property of the college of Tong ia 
Shropshire, by virtue of ^ gra«t from that monarch,* The 
^ .*• church 

^ ^ * Faroch. Atiq. Staffiprd, M. S. W 

* ' '•*" 


f t 



ehorcK is an aocienfedifice, haTing a feiy noble tower wbick 
risefl between the chancel and the body* 

Soath from this yillage is Stretton, where stands the handsome 
mansion-house of Mr. Monckton. It originally belonged to the 
.- family of Congreve, ancestors to the celebrated dramatic writej? 
of that name. 


This town is situated in the north east esctremity of Cannock 
chase, near the south bank of the river Trent, and on the im- 
mediate confines of this hundred. The Grand Trunk canal, 
which connects the navigation. of the rivers Trent and Me»ey»% 
runs post the north side of the town which is one hundred and 
thirty-one miles distant from London, and seven from Lich- 

Rodgeley is in general well built ; and many of the houses' 
are even elegant. It carries on a con%i<^|[pble trade, for which 
its situation is admirably adapted. The chief manuCsictores are 
hats and lelts, but many other articles are likewise made heve. 
It is a market-town, and has a great annual fair, principally Ibr 
horses of the coach breed. The market is held on Tuesday, and ' ^ 
is one of the best supplied in the county. 

Thb town is under the government of two constables, who 
are chosen by the inhabitants every year. According to the 
PkrliaroenUry returnsof 1801; it contained 428 houses, and 9090 
inhabitants, of whom 978 were males, 1063 females. On the 
bank of the canal which is situated betwixt the town and the 
Trent stands a large warehouse for the stowage of goods. 

The church here is an ancient building, dedicated to St. Au-' 
gustin, and consisting of two low aisles of equal dimensions. 
At the west end rises a handsome tower. In the interior, on 
the south side of the body, is a circular arch ornamented with 
cheTToo mouldings; and at the east end are two or three piseinas. 
The laving is a vicarage, valued atfive pounds two shillings, in tlie 

^ patronage 


patronage of tfafe dewaad clia|yler of UMM. The mantr waa 
anciently the property of a ikmiiy, wtio mthet gtore tbatr name 
to the, town, or derived it ffom hence. In the reign of Edward 
the thirds we find some of this family sheriffs of the coamy ; 
and .one a knight of the shire about the same time. How long 
they continued to possess is somewhat uncertain ; but» in the be« 
ginning of (fee sixteenth century, Erdeswick mentions it as the 
property of the bishop of Lichfield, from whom it was alienated 
to the king by bishop Sampson in 1547.* 

Several handsome seats adorn the neighborhood of this 
town. Among the more remarkable of these* are Hagley Hall, 
formerly belonging to the Weston^, and now the residence of 
Lord Curzon, and Wolseley hall, the seat of Sir WilliBm W^ 
■eley. This last, whicbis in the hundred of PyrehtU, ihtfli be 
more particularly noticed hereafter* The Grand Trunk canal 
is carriifd^over the Trent on a noble aqueduct, within a short 
distance from hence. Two miles to the north of it upon Can- 
nock Chace, is a celeh(|;ated cold bath, which springs from be« 
neath a hilL Several iron forges, corn mills, and colour mills, 
are placed on a small brook which flows through the ceatre of 
the town. 

dweh^Eaiimp is a sandl bat neat village, pleasantly situated 
at the distance of four mile* and a half to the wast of Penkridge. 
The church is a handsome edifice, in the Saxon stile of archi* 
tectore. Its toWer is extremely low, and supports a. spire of 
modern erection, th^ contrast of which has not a little injured 
the appearance of the whole fabric. The south side of this 
church likewise appears to be modern from the square form of 
the windows. 

The stone at LitUe On in this parish, mentioned by Plot as 
having impremions upon it resembling the ieet of oxen, was in 
existence within these twelve years, but has since been re* 

OnathalL Tbit village lies to the north of Church Eato^^ on the 

• Pennant's Journey, p. U9. 

twalfai cf iIm ftowbf water, which fl^ws lAto the Trent. The ^> 
cUef objietofe worthy of atieatioA here is the churchy which was * 

fonnMljp a coHegs for seeuiar canons T^loed at 471. 6b. 8d.* It 
is of large diaiensions, consisting of a nave and two aisles, a 
chancel aad two aisks, together with a lower which rises in 
the centre, aad a eross aisle. Exteriorly, with the exception 
of the well end, whkh has fire laAcet windows andHhree per* 
pendictilnr buttresses, it appears to be of the latest style of £ng* 
lish architecture. The tewer to the height of the roof is in the 
Saxon etyle^ the western arch being adorned with flat receding 
ehevita mooldingsw Tbe staircase and passage to the belfrey 
are of the fame era. In the latter are three T^ry sqnll circnlav 
cohimn^ supported by short thick piUarsythe capitals of which 
are varioasly omamenle^^The colanms in the nave are oc« > 
tagonal, and the arches {^mnted. The font b a circalar stone^ 41^ 

two feet six inches high and two fiA wide, with:%4largo *> 
hoHowattbetop. Here is a wellMitcuted altar tomb sup* • 
porting a leeinnbent figure in chSn mai]. It hae n<^ in- 
KriptioB^ . i', * i 

Tbe ninister, together with the churchwardens of this parish* 
annually choose a jury consisting of twelre men at least, who join 
not only with them and the sidemen in making the presentment* 
to the oftcial, as it is a peculiar, but are empannelled, and de« 
liver a Terdtct op all eodestastical matters, concerning which 
any dispute moy arise among them during the following year. 


Aobot's Bbomley is situated in the centre of a sort of cir* 
c^lar recess formed by the hundreds of Totmaaslow and Offlow^ 
a^ the distance of six miles to tbe west of Tutbury. The river 
fily tbe run# between it and the Trent This place was origi- 
nally called simply Bromley, the term Abbot's being after- 
¥mi* udded.from 4be circumstance ^ an abbey having been 
!<,.., founded 

• Taimer'i Notitia, p. 495. 

S78 89ArroED»Hiail 

' (bunded in iU neighbourhood. It was at a toter period Iik«wi«9 

denominated Pagets Bromlej, iix>m the noble family of that 
name, on whom the a|)|liey 'was bestowed at the time of the 
genera] dissolution. 

This town was formerly a place of more importance than at 
present, and possessed a variety of Talusble pririleges which 
are now wnolly neglected. It consists principally of one exten- 
sive street, the houses in which are for the most part built of 
brick, and present an appearance of considerable neatness. 
The townhall, where the court-leet and court-baron of the lord 
of the manor are held, stands nearly in the middle. A free 
school, fotjpded here in the year 1603, by Mr. Richard Clarke^ 
is still a flourishing institution ; and besides it there is an alms* 
j^house, well endowed by Mr. LAmb||t Bagot, for six poor oM 
W Women. The church is a large buiioing, the tower of which is 

surmiMhed by a lofl^ steeple containing a ch^me of ex* 
cellent bells. Very little 'tgfA^ is carried on in this place; but 
it has a good market held on Tuesday. The popnladon of the 
whole par^ according to t6e Parliamentary returns of 1801, 
was estimated at 808 inhabitants, of whom 397 were males, and 
41 1 females* mostly employed in agriculture. 

A remarkable custom, called the Hobbyhane Dcmce, is men* 
tioned by Dr. Plot, as having existed in ibis town within 
the memory of many persons alive at the period when he 
wrote. It was a sort of amusement which the inhabitants cele- 
brated at Christmas, on New-year's Day, and Twelith-day. On 
V these occasions a person danced through the principal street, 

carrying between his legs the figure of a horse composed of thin 
boardji. In his hands he bore a bow and arrow, which last 
entered a hole in the bow ; and stopping on a shoulder in it, 
made a sort of snapping noise as he drew it to and fro, keeping 
time with the music. Five or six other individuals danced along 
ivith this person, each carrying on his shoulder six retii deefs' 
heads, three of them painted white, and three #ed, with the arms 
of the chief families, who had at different times been proprietors 

t of 

STAVVORDillfRB. 9lf 

of Um manor ptioted w the paluiv of theM. '' To this hobby- 
horM dlaQce> diere also belonged a pot which was kept by curliet 
by fear •? fire of the chief of the town, whom we call Rceva, 
whoprvrided cakes and «le to pat into thn pot. All the peo- 
ple who ^d any ktndneta for the good interest of the institution 
of the sport, gitiog pence a piece for themselves and families, 
and so* fbreigners too, that came to see it; with which money 
the charge of 4he cakes and ale being defrayed, they not only 
repaired their charch bol kept their poor too; which ^rharges 
are not now perhaps so cheerfully born." 

This -practice seems t» have existed at other places besides 
Abbotts Bromley ; for we find hobbyhorse money frequently 
mentioned in the old parish bo<»k^ both of Stafford and Seigh<r 
Ibpd. It continued in force till the era of the civil wars be- 
tween the Parliament and the House of Stewart, at which time 
Sir Simon Degge informs us, that he saw it often practised. The 
same author adds* in another part of lis work, '' that they had 
something of the same kind» to get money for the repair of the 
dinreh of Staffbrdj every common council then collecting 
flioney'from his friends, and whosoever brought in the greatest 
sum to the hobbyliorae was considered as ibe man of best cre- 
dit, so that they strove who should most improve b\% interest: 
and, as he remembered, it was accoonted'for at Christmas.''* 

At the distance of two miles from this town stands Biiihfieid, . 
the seat of the Bagots* It i* an ancient building ii» the form of 
a coort The park which lies at some distance from the house 
is covered with a profusion of large oaksi and citsplays some 
very beaatTAl^and picturesque scenery. This mansion contains 
a splendid rolleetion of painting**, many of which are executed 
in the first style, and by the ablest masters. . 

Isrd Treasurer Burieigk, is represented with a white beard« 
bofmefrand collar of the garter, the George, and a white wand. 
This flObleman was erne of the most distinguished statesmen 
England ever produced, and the grea^ favourite of queen E1iza<* 

V01..-XIIL ' K k k beth, 

* Paracb. Aatiq. SUfford MS. Goog^ C»nd«n, VoJ. II. p. 514. 

i7S •TAFfOaBftJIl&B. 

beth> who bad the sagacity to discoTer bis talents^ and to em- 
ploy him in the highest offices of the state. Honesty, tempe- 
rance, moderation, industry, and jqstic^, were prominent fea- 
tures in his character. His magnificence was attended with 
hospitality 4 and his varioos deeds of alms amounted to no less 
a sum than five hundred pounds per annum. << His life/' says 
Mr. Pennant, " was as excellent as his death was caUn and se- 
rene. He died in the fulness of years and glory, envied, at 
his greatest enemy declared, only because his son went down, 
with so mnch lustre.'* 

Henry earl qf Huniingdon, a cotemporary of his Lordship, 
is painted in the same style as in his picture. He likewise ap« 
pears with the collar of the garter, his beard forked ; the date 
*' 15S8, aet« 53/' But though the paintings resemble each 
other, the characters of the persons they exhibit were very 
dISerent ; lord Huntingdon was no less dissipated than Bur- 
leigh was considerate and prudent. 

Sir Walter Aston of Tixal is painted on board. He is dress- 
ed in black, and wears short hair and whiskers. The seams 
of his coat are laced with gold, and a triple gold chain hangs 
loosely upon his breast. This gentleman was ambassador to 
Spain during the negotiations about the Spanish match, in the 
reign of James the first, and was favourable to the designs of 
the young prince and bis favourite Buckingham. He is said 
to have possessed great prudence as well as firmness ia hia 
political conduct; but he was ambitious of parade and dignity, 
and hence dissipated a considerable fortune during his resi- 
dence at the court of Madrid. Charles the first, soon after his 
accession to the throne, raised him to the rank of a Scotch 
peer, by the title of lord Fbrfar. 

The picture of IValter earl qf Euex, father to Robert the 
unfortunate favourite of Elizabeth, represents him at half 
length in full armour, highly ornamented. Thjs nobleman ap- 
pears to liave been a niian of singular courage and sagacity* 
having distinguished himself greatly during his government 


In Ireland. The ministryj however neglected to support him i 
•ndi inconsequence, he returned to England to pi^efer his 
grierances to the Queen herself. He was artfully receited, 
and soon after sent back with promises of better usage. These 
promises, howeYer, were Urdy of performance^ so that his 
Lordship, folly sensible of the intricate situation in which he 
was placed, was seiaed with melancholy, which terminated in 
a fluk, and put a period to his existence^ Some indeed as^ 
serted, that he was poisoned at the instigation of Dudley earl 
of Leicester, who was enamoured of his wife ; but this accusa^ 
tion seems to be unjust, though the rapid and indecent mar-> 
ria|(e of that Nobleman with his Countess afforded a very 
strong ground of suspicion. 

The vartous portraits of the Bagots claim attention, on ac- 
connt of the steady loyalty of that family in the feign of 
Charles the first. Colonel Richard Bagot sometime goTemdr 
of Lichfield^ who was slain at the fatal battle of Naseby, is 
exhibited in a bujBT coat, and wears his hair long. 

The portrait of Mrs. Salisbury qf Bachymbed is a most Cu- 
rious antique drawing. Her costume is a rast high sugar Idafed 
hat and kerchief bordered with ermine. Two of her grand- 
children appear near her, the one Sir Edward Bagot, and the 
other Elizabeth afterwards countess of Uxbridge, both of them 
children of her daughter Jane, who married Sir Walter Bagot^ 
and conveyed the Welsh estate into that family. 

The portrait of Mary, eoumess qf Ayletford, is admirable 
both for style and execution. She is represented at an ad- 
vanced period of life in a sitting posture, and dressed in a pale 
brown satin gown, white hood, and handkerchief, with an apron 
and short ruffles, exhibiting a reproachful comparison, to the 
unsuitable and fantastic modes of the present age. 

Mary, daughter to Hervey Bagot, Esq, of Pipehall, is another 
individual whose portrait deserved to be noticed. She was 
twice married, first to Charles Berkley earl of Falmouth, and 
afterwards io Charles earl of Dorset. This lady is of a dark 

K k k 9 complexion. 

complexioD, and w^ distiaguished as the br.own beaiHy of Xh0 
gay court of Charles the second. Graipmont, speakUig of her> 
says/' She was the only one who bad the appearance of beaoty 
and wisdom among the maids of honoar to the dachess of 

Here is aUo a head of the celebrated actor and drMnatic 
poet MoUerc. This great character, whose works reflect $o 
much ^honour ou the country which gave him birth> aflbtda 
one among the numerous examples of prejudice and. bigotry» 
so conspicuous in the history even of modern times. Having 
died in his profession, he was denied Christian burial by Harlai 
de Chauvalon, archbishop of Paris. Lewis the fourteentht 
however, afler much intercession, prevailed so &r as to get htm 
buried in the church ; but the curate refused giving counte* 
nance to the act, and it was with some difBcnlty the popdlace 
would suffer his body to pass to the place of interment. How 
different were the sentiments which dictated this conduct from 
those which animated the breasu of the French people, at the 
close of the last century, when every one breathed war and 
hatred against all the maxims of religion.* 

I'he church of Blithfield dedicated to St. Leonard is an ancient 
piece of architecture, having its interior adorned with a number 
of fine sculptured monuments of the fifteenth century. Some of 
these tombs support effigies of the persons they are designed to 
commemorate. In others the figures are simply engraven on the 
stone or on brasses. The monument of Sir Edward Bagot is 
mural. From the inscription on it he appears to have been a 
strong assertor of episcopacy in the church, and hereditary 
monarchy in the state, which probably was the occasion of his 
tomb being placed over the altar. Several other monuments in 
honour of the Bagots appear here. There is likewise one of 
•n Aston of Broughton, and another expressed by a little skele* 

• h foil c«italogue of ibii ' collectloa uill be found in the appendix to tl^ 
HiAt cdltioa of illr. PcDnaot't Joaroejr. 

tHff6iih%Aitt. 881' 

tdh 6F a Broaghton about thre^ months old. Theke ihonumenU 
are not in any shape particularly remarkable. 

CdiwicM. This viUage is most beautifully situated on the north 
bank of the river Trent, at the distance of two miles from the town , 
of Rtidgeley. Nothing can be more delightful than the scenery 
which this part of the county exhibits. The rlv^r here flows 
through a Tale of the richest verdure^ adorned with a variety 
of elegant villas. To use the words of Mr. Pennant : " It isi 
perfectly prodigal in its beaaties, and spreads at once every 
diarm that can captivate the eye.*' 
^ The 'Church is an ancient buildings dedicated to St. Michael, 
and contains a number of monuments in honour of the families 
of Anson and Wolseley. The burying place of the former is 
laade d ftmtique, in the shape of a catacomb. One to Sir WiU 
Warn Wolseley, bas an inscription in commemoration of his 
vnlocky and singular fate. He was drowned in his chariot, 
owing t6 the accidental bursting of -a mill dam, on the 8th of 
J\Ay 1738, in the neighbourhood of Longdon. The accident 
was the result of a thunder storm. His four horses were lost ; but, 
strange to tell, the coachman escaped, having been carried by 
the torrent into an orchard, where he remained fast till the flood 


This place, which, as the name imports, is the county town, 
it situated on the north bank of the river Sow, at the distance of 
three miles from its junction with the Trent. The derivation 
of its name as well as its origin, are matters of great dubiety 
and difference among antiquaries. Camden tells us the spot 
or island, where it now stands, was originally called Betheney, 
and was for many years the retreat of Bertheliu, a distinguish- 
odberaiit in ancient times.* At this period of course it may 

K k k 3 be 

• "Berthelin/'saysDr. Plot, " was the »on of a king of this country and 
scholar ID St Gothlac, with whom he tarried till his death. After which^ 



be presuo^j no inhabited tawn existed here ; nor is tt known 
in what reign, or even age^ its foundation occurred. Merlin 
the British prophet, who flourished about the year 480^ writes 
that two kings should *'dubium praelium cammiitere propter, 
Leenam in \ ADO Bkcvu/' whiph last two words have been 
translated " at Stagbrd." This translation, fiowever, seems at 
best but conjecture , and the foresight of the prophet will not 
probably be considered, by the jndicious enquirer, as in any 
sjiape worthy of attention. The first mention then of this towD 
which can be relied on is in the year 913, when the Saxonchro* 
nicies^ inform us that ^tbelfleda countess of Mercia, and the 
celebrated sister of j^dward the elder, built a castle here. 

What was the condition of Stafford at that time cannot now 
be determined ; but it would appear to b^ve been a thriving 
place, as we find it shortly after considered ^s the chief town 
of the district. Of the mighty cattle which Ethelfleda built 
no vestiges now remain ; so that the precise site on which it 
stood is e:(tremely uncertain. Dr. Plot f supposes it to ha?e 
been situated within the entrenchments at Billington, at some 
distance to the south of Stafford, and appears to found his eon- 
jepture from the lands there being still a remaining part of the 
demesne lands of this barony.^ Mr. Pennant, however, main* 


though now unknown to his father, he begged this island of him, where he 
Jed a hermit's life for divers years, till distarbed by some one who envied his 
happiness, when he removed into tome desert monntainotts places where he 
ended his life." Plot's Hist. Stafford, p. 409. 

« Saxon Cliron. 10^. f Plot. Stafford, p. 410. 

t We speak thus, foliqwing Mr. Pennant, who has been pleased to assign . 
tliis opinion to Dr. Plot. The perusal of the latter geptlemon's remarks on 
the subject of the castles here does not we confess, however, impress us with 
rhe same idf a. It seems to us, that Dr. P.'ot does not mean that the castle 
built bj Ethelfleda stood within the entrenchments at Billington, but iDme 
oilfer ancient mt, which Mr. £rdcswicke supposes to have occopied the site 
of that built in later times by Ranulf, the first Earl of Stafford ; or, at le^, 
to have stood near it. Tift words of Dr. Plot, after noticing m^j of the 


STArvoftstaims. SS3 

tlieae works .to be a Brititit post, which might be aftor- 
wards occupied Jby the Sapcons;but be gives no opinion on their 
connection with the castle. Edward the elder is likewise said by 
Csmden * to hate boilt a tower here on the north bank of the 
river about a year after the erection of that which his sister 
founded* This tower Mr. Pennantf coojectures to have stood 
on the mount called by Speed Castle^hiU, and now distinguisbr 
ed by the appellation of Bulfyhiil, A church which stands 
near it is. named Castle*church« perhaps from being raised on 
the site of one more ancient, which might have been attached 
to the castle, t 

From this time nothing remarkable is mentioned concerning 
Stafford or its castles, till the era of the Norman conqnest, 
when it appears from Domesday, § '* that the king had in this 
town eighteen burgesses in demesne, and twenty mansions of 
the honour of the £arls. It paid for all customs 9L libra* dena- 

K k k 4 rtofttm 

af«s^ sctieot of Ethelflsda ar« ; "She aIm bailt a castle at Ibe town of SCaf* 
fordt 00 the nm-th tide of the rirer Sow (Billington lies to the unith of that 
river) whereof I could not hear any footitepi remaming^ that opon the bill 
above the town, at near a mile's distance, the pro«ipects whereof are both 
here annexed, being bailt long after by Hanulf or Ralph, (he first earl of 
Sisiltird, though Mr. Erdeswick tells ns he had a certain deed dated ajhtd 
ttMnmjMstm Slaffr4, long before the days nf the said Earl Ralph : whence 
he coDclodei he did but rectify the cattle, and not new boild it, which per* 
baps may be true : but for my part I conjecture, thai the firit Stafford castle 
mentioned in that deed might lather stand within the entrenchments at bil- 
lington, which perhaps may he only the remains of this castle, and not of the 
battle between King Rahdolf and Duke Wada, as was thought above, kc.*' 

Plot's History, p. 4t&. 
* Googh's Camden. Vol. IT. p. 496. t Pennant's Joumey, p. 104-5. 

I Sir Simon Degge, (says Mr. Gongb in his additions to Camden) in his 
M. S. notes on Dr. Plot's history, affirms there was a castle within the town, 
near the Broad Eye, and in his time a bank called the Castle Bank. Tliis 
(aH^s Mr. Ooiif;h) may be the same noticed in Speed's Map now called Buthf 
hlf. Gough*s Camden, Vol. II. p. 410. 

f Fok U6. " 

norum jd mbaey/^^ T)ie«Mne ancient record tiieewiie \ 
m thai the king butU a cattle here# the Cttstody of which i 
given to Robert de Tonei, 3^unger aon of Roger, standerd^ 
bearer of Normandy, one - of the chieik who fc^owed the fS^ 
tunes of William. This Robert de Tonei, in consequence, took 
the name of Stafifbrd, which contiooed through his iUnstrioes 
d^cendants for many centuries. The castle, sd boilt by the 
Conqueror, doe» not seem to have stood long ; but by whom, 
and on what account it was demolished is unknown. It- faae 
been already obsenred, that Mr. Erdeswick sayjs, k was re- 
stored by Ralph de Stafford a distinguished warrior in the 
reign of Edward the third. That it was restored and continued 
tto flourish till the seventeenth cetitory is undoubted ; b«ft the 
truth of Mr. Erdeswick's assertion, that its renewal wasthe 
work of Ralph, the first earl of Stafford, certainly reqaiits 
some confirmation! During the contentions between tlie ub*> 
fortunate house of Stewart and the Parliament, this castle was 
one of those which was garrisoned for the support of the royal 
cause. After the commencement of open war, howeveff^it 
did not hold out long, being taken by the parliamentary forces 
under Sir William Brereton, in 1644, and soon after demolished. 

The following curious letter relative to a previous demon- 
stration made by the general above mentioned to induce Lady 
Stafford to surrender the castle is copied from Mr« Shaw's. Jiis- 
tory of the county. 

"May it please your Excellency. 

"In my last I gave your excellence an account of the taking 
of Stafford, by a very small force, wherein the Lord was pleased 
to worke, and bring to pass that which was as much beyond 
our power as above our hopes and expectations^ to whom I 


* Who thelUulft were that ire mentioned in thii passage does got appear { 
nor can we conjeeture, oDiess it might be the £arls of Mercia. . If esy eadt 
of S(^urd existed previoos to the Norman cunqeeslj their history it toiai^ 
]o6t. No e«rU of ihe^Normaix dynasty were created tUl the reign of 
Edward the third. 9 

the- whok giory arid honour mty be atlribated* Since 
that Ume we have done our utmost endeatours to fortify the 
towne, and make good the breaehea. Upon Thurschiy.we 
went to the castle, faced itj and demanded the same* The 
ould Lady Staflbrd had betaicen herself to the castle^ reiaoTed 
her taolily, and some say all her goods* Wee made as large 
our forces as possible« to induce my Ladye to admitte some of 
por men to secure the castle/ and gave her assurance <»f all 
protection (wee were able to give) for her person, goods^ ser* 
▼ante, end tenants. Wee acquainted her with the miseries 
which would inevitabley fell upoa her bouiie and estate, and 
did most earnestly beseech* her to bee so just to herself, and * 
lo those that were to succeed her, as not 4o be persuaded by 
wieked and obstinate counoell, and to bringe unaveidable de- 
struction upon herselfe, and to do' great injury to those that 
sbeiild succeed,' 

** Wee spent much time in 'this treaties but it was vain and 
frttillesse. Wee. coliceive her heart was hardened by the per* 
nictoos cooncell of some priest, jesoiles, or other incendiaries 
about her/ who delight in nothing but fire and sword. And 
seeing nothing is more apparent than that they thirst after 
blood, I doubt not but the righteous Lord will measure out 
nntothem a bloody portion to drinke, and will establish peace 
and quietaesse natoe his people in doe time. 

'« These iatr propositions being rejected, the forces retofned^ 
and before I came to the town I saw some of the poor oothooaes 
sett on fyer, to try whether these would worke theire spirites to 
any relentinge but all in vaine, for from the castle they shot 
some of our men and horses, which did much enrage and pro* 
vdke the rest to a fierce revenge and to pmctice those extremi- 
ties, which consamed before the next ordinai^ce, almost all the 
dwelling houses and out houses to the ground. 

" $ince that time we heare there arc several considerable 
persons in tliis block up custle which we resolve to observe 



and attend as much as pos8M>le nntill we can reco?er the nmie^ 
and disperse tbem/^* 

Thought as already mentioned, the o?igm of Stafford is oncer* 
tahnj there seems every reason to suppose it was a town of some 
importance before the Norman conquest. In Domesday •>booli 
it is termed a city, and was then' governed by two hatlifis ; but 
the first charter of incorporation now extant, was not granted 
till the reign of King Jobn.f From the tenor of this deed« 
however, it is evident it was a corporate place long previous to 
that perio<l. It merely confirms privileges enjoyed " from re* 
mote antiquity/' and does not confer any new ones. The word 
used in this charter, to point out the previous existence of these 
privileges is aniiquitus, which wonld not certainly have been 
used to denote a period so recent as that of the Conquest. 
Hence it is concluded to have been a borough in the time oi 
the heptarchy. Nay, it may not perhaps be too extravagant a 
conjecture to suppose ic might have been originally a Roman 
municipal town, or even a British city. This, indeed, h mera 
conjecture; and, if really the case, the town was most probably 
reduced entirely to ruins, in the conflicts either between the 
Romans and Britons or the Danes and Saxons. It, however, 
may be observed, that its situation accords very nearly with 
the general description given by Caesar of British towns, 
which are represented as being placed on gentle eminences, 
barricadoed with trees, and generally surrounded with morasses 
and ditches, in the vicinity of extensive pasturages; and that a 
pasturage of many hundred acres of lanils was annexed to the 
town of Stafford from the earliest times is evidenced by its 
more ancient charters. 

The charter by king John to this town was confirmed by 


• Shaw's Hist. Stafford, Vol. I, p. 161, 
t This instrument is probably one of the oldest deeds now ext4nt in this 
llngdom. It is dated the first day of May in the seventh year of King 
Jotnrs reign, and is of eoarse one yearmore ancient than the cJitrter to the 
city of JUoudon, and sis years earlier than Magna Charta. 

svAfvcMtfttai&i. wr 

Edwttd t|ie wsA, nod numy new privilegM tdded to those it 
mkreedy posseued. Qaeen Elisabeth established the assizes 
and aessioiis here» by act of Parliament, in the first year of her 
neign. According to Mr. Gough, being here on her progress in 
\Vlh9 and perceiving the town to be rather on the decline, she 
eoquiosd the reason, when she was informed it was owing 
partly to the decay of capping, and partly to the circumstance 
of the assises having been repioved to some other town ; 
whereupon, her Majesty replied, that the statute relative to 
cilipping should be renewed and established better ; and that 
she would grant the inhabitants the privilege pf ever after 
havnig the assizes held in their town. 

Though placed low, the situation of Stafford is extremely 
pleasant It is distant about one hundred and thirty*five miles 
Qortb-west from London, and sixteen from Lichfield. The 
straeta are well paved, and the houses for the most part built of 
stone in a regukur and compact manner. In ancient times it 
was defisnded, except on Uie side towards the Sow, by a wall 
and ditch supplied with water from that river. It was never, 
however, capable of leaking a defence against a besieging ar* 
my ; at least it never stood a siege. Sir William Brereton, 
general of the 'republican army, took itbysorpriae in May 
164d> with the loss only of a single man. These walls were 
wholly demolished at this period, and the ditch filled op, so 
that no remains of either can now be discovered, even by the 
scrutinizing eye of the antiquary. 

The form of this borough is that of an irregular ellipsis^ 
the greatest diameter of which extends from south-east to 
north-west. Formerly the grounds adjoining to the walls on 
the ouuide appear to have been marshy, or at least could 
easily be laid under water in such a way as to envelope the 
whole town.* Pennant says, that Stafford had anciently four 
gates; but for our part we are inclined to think that author is 


• Hits idea was tuggeitad to ui by a correspondent, who mentioos btTinji 
aaeo an old map, in which the swamps were dtitiactly marked. - 

^idi8tai)4»g 011V mosi dillgekit eilqairieai) Thai* formerly ntlif 
iho bridge f»ver the Sow.cmlled Grtetk«ga^i/ahdceMalatnfg ti« 
^tranco^^ to the tova» on 'thft road' frbDi>Londmi> iwas IKkMi 
di0vainl780« TheareboC the eaal-giite wMHandibg^^vMiiU 
Ibese.feyir years back;oDe sideof aigrtNovefov a'portcallaii icK 
de^.may still be tcaced* Tbe 6aol»g^te/cm'bhe>flartb'roadt 
wa« i|i vaiDa so early as ike year 1660, if we Aiaycvedti an* 
9ld<dra/iv4ag by.K Siancyi tbef same ' iadivideal > irho^nnidet tb«^ 
aketeh^nf Ti^sall for the engraving of UhH aeat in Dr. PiMf ir 
natural history* Subsequent to this period it seem to have 
been rebuilt and established, as a house of correetlen or phmmi 
fi^r«.tbe>becougb»>:<tae!side of which buiMing k' still' iBtttirfing» 
while the other is: ooctipied by the Free^eehobL • 

^ III virtue of theeharter by king Edward^ alreaidy' fAemiotfed) 
S^Pb^d is governed by -a osayor, recoMer, ten*/ aMerlntenf 
tw^ty coamnon-coancilHnen, aiowndecht arid twoserjeaotv 
et«>Mac^ .This borough sends iftro members ibParliaineiit; 
and ba&done so.4tt|ioe tbe twenty^third year of the Tei§(n of 
Sdward I.* It does not acknowledge sLny patron ; botwhettiet 
it really stands dear of undue influence* isaqaestion we will 
not take upon us to determine. In «arly times it apptert to 
havebeen<, tonomitutte one of the 'townsmen 

. . ■ .' ' '■ .'•■•• ^ 'at 

* The following itema relative to this borongh, extracted from an old 
book, formerly in the posseasion of Mr. Shaw, were commanicated to nt 
hy- ft' eorreifMKicfetit. 

f *' 1^19. Xhic yore John Fersen and Homphrf Barber, being borgettA 
of tbe Parliament for tlie town of SuSbtd, received oertaytie waigbt«ad«t«f 
tbe Kjng*t exchequers which were appointed to be kept here witUin ibis- 
towne, as in tbe Kinges treasure, 10 Hei>, 8^ 

" 1535?. Thonids Bickley, William Terry, Baylivcs.". 
. '.'15S2. This yere Mr. Erdeswicke and Mr. Bickley, being burgesses of 
tbe pMfliament for this towne, were allowed tbeire chardges from tha 

Among the architcs of the corporation ii a pow^r of attorney from Mr^ 
firdeswicke to a person la the borough to regeive tlie suqi alloMid. •■ » 

u.CQUtagoe«k>siimejieighbo\iring gentlemaii> in the represent 
tacioii* Lord Visoount €hetwynd of Ingestry at one time pos* 
Mssad considfirable .interest in this borough; but it is beliered 
the iofltteiilce of the present proprietor of that mansion is 
comparatively ifttle. The right of election according to Mr. 
PunnaDt « is vetted in the inhabitaots paying scot and lot> and 
ibe return is made by the Mayor. The number of voters is 
estimated atfourhtmdred. Sons of burgesses^ and persons who 
.have served an apprenticeship of seven years within the bo- 
fioogh, are eolttlad to admission as burgesses, whenever they 
think proper to claim the privitege^— 

Stafford contains a variety of public buildings and instftt!^ 
tions .worthy of particular notice. 

The Cott/i(yHa/^, situated* ne^r the centre of the town, Is a 
very spacious and neat modern edifice, erected somewhat naore 
dMO .twenty years ago. This building measures one hundred 
feet in front, and contains a number of elegant apartntients ap- 
propriated to different purposes. The assembly room, which 
reaches nearly the whole length of the front, leads to the court 
rooma which are placed on each side. In the centre! rs k stair- 
e, at the top of which is^the Grand Jury room, and several 

mber offices. Behind this structure is an elegant and conve- 
nieot market place. 

^ht'Vounty Infirmary stands in the Foregate on the north 
road, and is a plain respectable building. It was finished, accord- 
ing to Mr. Pennant, in the year 177% f. and is supported by 
Toluntary contributions and benefactions amounting to eight or 
nine hundred pounds aimaally. 

' The Cauniy Choi is situated almost directly opposite to this 
hospital. It is an extensive edifice oT modern erection, having 
been built within these last twenty -five years. This gaol con- 

' • Peoiiant's Joamej, p. 105. We have just beeo informed, however, ibnt 
fbii ttatcmeot i» an error on the puit of Mr. Pennant, and tliat in fact onlj^ 
die Hoyor and burgessea are entitled to vote at elections. 

t MS. (Penes ne) say « it was nut built lill ^be year 17 77. 


taias about one hundred and fifty separate cells or apartmentt 
for prisoners. lis regulations and internal economy accovding • 
to our information are excellent, and reflect great honour on 
those who haTe the superintendence and management of it. 

The Free School is an ancient building. From an inscrip* 
tion on a board in St. Mary's church it appears to have been 
founded by King Edward the sisth in the year 1550. This 
monarch gave, for the support of a Master and Usher in this 
school, " all his tithes of the Fore-gate and Fore-gate fields, 
and Ijammascotes, and of the High Street in Stafford ; part of 
the property of the prebend of Marston ; together with the 
lands belonging to the free chapels of St John Baptist 
and St Leonard in Forebridge,* lately dissolved, with certain 
rents and orbits in Stafford ; vrdnh .90/. a year, now worth 
250/." JLeland'says, ''there is a Fre School for grammar in 
Stafford, made by Sir Thomas Coofitre parson of Ingestre, by 
Hey wodde and Syr Randol a chauntre presto of Stafford." 

The Aims-'housei of Stafford were built or purchased at dtf* 
ferent times, and are appropriated for the occnpation of a cer- 
tain number of aged and necessitous poor, inhabitants of the 
town. Each house has a garden appended to itf 


^ I^robably it stiould btve beeo written St. Joho Baptist in Fortgattt tod 
St. Leonard in Forebridgc. 

t The fuUowing account of contribations to these alms-bouscs also ap- 
pears on a board in St. Mary's church : 

"Sir Martin Noel about the year 1640, at an expense of 10001. erected 
\t alms-houses, as a shelter for some of our aged and necessitoas poor, wjlh 
a garden to each house. He also gave SOl. and tO bibles to the poor with 
one church-bible and 8 folios. Towards the maintenance of poor persons and 
children in these houses, John Chetwy tid Esq. of Ingestry in the year 1696 
gave 1001. Mrs. Abnett ISI. Philip and Thomas Foley lOOl. and in the year 
1711 Dr. Binns gave 501. There is also the yearly sum of tS\. reserved out 
of the acre rents of Coton-field for the same purpose. Robert Palmer, rector 
of Stafford in tlie year 1638, gave two cottages to the poor people, honest and 
aged. The corporation, in the year 1701, purchased four cottages in the Bast' 
gate Street, to be used as Almshouses for ever." 

This town»thoQgh it contains only one parish, has two 
churches belonging to the establishment, one dedicated to St. 
Mary, and the other to St. Chad. 

Si. Mar/$ Church is a large building, in the form of a cross, 
and consirits of a nave, two side aisles, a trsmsept, and a chan- 
cel of three aisles. The transept is one hundred feet in length, 
and about twenty five in breadth. In the centre of this part of 
the church rises the tower which is of an octagon sl^ape, and is 
thirty-three feet squarje at the base. The aisles which cpm- 
pose the chancel are of unequal widths ; but, taken together, 
exceed the dimensions of the body. 

When this church was built is not exactly known. Its ori- 
ginal foundation no doubt took place at a very early period* 
Jt has since, howeveif, been almost entirely • rebuilt, but some 
marks of the more ancient structure are still visible. The styJe 
of architecture in general is the early pointed. To the north' 
of the doorway there is a fragment of the Suxon billet mould- • 
ings with fret under it. This fragment is evidently a part of the 
first building. The head of the western window has trefoils in 
circles, and upright muHions, which seem to have been origi* 
nally three quarter attached columns. The aisles are lighted by 
three lancet shaped windows. In the nave are several wmdows 
looking to north and south, of much later date than any in the 
church. They have in all probability been struck out long 
after the erection of the nave, as there are distinct marks of a 
sharp pointed roof both at the west end and against the tower. 
There are, likewist:, some remains of tbe original perpendicular 
buttresses of the aisles, some of which on the north side come 
to a point in front. 

In the south transept is a large window, the arch in which 
bas certainly been altered, being flat, as {ikewise the door-way 
ander it. This window has, in all probability, been formerly 
divided into two or more of a lancet shape. Tbe window* in 
the chancel are in the style of the reign of Henry the sixth, or 
earlier. That which faces the east has undergone some aU 
f terations 

ftpi STAflPOIlSSniftX. 

terations in tht? disposition of its mtillions and trtcery. Tbere 
seems, likewise, to have been anotfter over it, if we may j<idgc 
from the cell that remains. The arches in Hiis division of the 
church are elegantly light, supported by four clustered* three 
qdaiter colnmns, the capitals being composed of thin laminae. 
What is singular, in the construction of these arthes, is that 
the columns diminish in heij^ht from the transept to the east 
end, and the two rows do not answer each other, so that n6 
two sire equal as to the length of shafts. The present floor; 
which is horizontal, covers the bases of part of them, and ex- 
hibits the foundations of others. The north transept seems; 
at ofte time, to have possessed a very considerable degree of 
elegance, from a pinnacle that remains on the buttress, at the 
east end: The doorway exhibits some receding mouldings and 
embossed ornaments. A window which is placed over it ap- 
pears to be of much later date than the transept itself, tyti ac- 
count of its numerous divisions and fanciful ramiflcatSmis. It 
is greatly too wide in proportion to its height.'' The north 
porch is probably the original one. Round the coluhink are 
trefoil heads and bands, and a series of plain leaves constitute^ 
the capitals. In the tdwer already mentioned are eight win- 
dows, two looking towards each of the four cardinal points. 

The nave is separated from the aisles by five highly pointed 
arches supported on four semicolumns clustered against a 
square somewhat larger than their diameter. The architrave, 
the abaci of the capitals which are composed of leaves some 
having a small volute, and the flat under side of the arches, are 
little improved from the heavy massive style of the Nol-m^ 

The altar-piece in this church is an elegant piece of work- 
manship. It is of thfe.' Corinthian order of architecture, and 
painted in imitation of marble. 

The ' organ ' erected by Longman and Coy of London is 
considered by judges as one of the finest in the kmgdom; 
At the northwest of the tower there was foriherly a chantry^ 

wtjk f vo Aosa imfi* 45)3 

or cbapel^ 'te|Nuractad by oak screen work. Tiie. whole W98 
rMDOTed about twenty ' year» ^o. In the nate iar a seat 
appropriated for the three > town magistrates, in that style 
called acabesque. It was fixed up about the year one 
tboasand eevqn hundred and eight, and ytas the gift of 
a person named Brondey, a aative of the town. 

The font presents a singular piece of antiquity* It is tery 
large and of a clnoisy constractioti. The bottom part of it i» 
a square;, of two feet diameter, and is ornamented with figures 
of men or baboons, on three sides, all lying flat on tbcfir bellies. 
On the fourth iitde is the figure of a ram.. Above this square 
are figures of four lions, which form this part of the font into 
an octagonal shape. Each of these lions supports an upright 
figqre, between which are four semi^globes. The whole ia 
sonnounted by projecting monidiogs and facia measuring three 
feet six inches across. The height of the font is three feelt 
three inches, and the interior or cavity is sufficiently large for 
the immersion of infants* In this font are two small holes« 
one which runs through the centre of it, and the others which • 
penelffales the sides. The inscription appeara to be in the 
Saxoik character ; bat being much plastered with point, it is not 
possible to. decyphcr it correctly. All which we could make 
oot of it, was as follows : 

TALE, • ^ • • • lES 

• • Discueivs. 

A number of ancient and modem monomenls occupy differ- 
ent portions of this church. * The most conspicuous among 
these, and indeed the only altar tomb, is that. in' honour of 
Lady Ann Aston, . and her husband Lord Edward, of Tixal. 
From the inscription, on the edge of this tomb, it would appear 
that it was raised during the lifetime of his Lordship, over the 
body of his wife. The figure «f the lady only was. then placed 
upon it; that of hit Lordship having been added since. These 

.Vol. XHL Lll figures 

$9^ iTArKoa»l9iaB» 

figves difier i|iixch» even in proportioQal tSm^ m well as ia th0 
style of their ezecation, and hence evidently point out the 
liict, of their being fixed there at different periods, and by dif* 
ferent ar^ts, On the ^valU above this tomb, is an iascriptioii 
in praise of the Lady, which is so awkwardly placed withre* 
gard to the present monament» as to Induce a belief, that it haa 
originaUy stood in another position, or at least that the figores 
were at first placed in a different direction* 

This tomb was formerly surrounded by Gothic screen work, 
|t is now inclosed by an iron railing, the spaee within which ia 
appropriated as th^ burying place of the CiiQbrds of TtxalL 

The monument next deserving of notice in this church is that 
of Sir Edward Aston, and his I^ady Joan ; whose figures are re* 
prjBsented in alabaster, under a large canopy. Sir Edward wpm 
the person who constructed the curious mansion of Tixal, 
Which shall be more particularly noticed, in a subsequent part 
of our work. This gentleman is said to have been a .distia<t 
guished knight in the reign of Henry the eighth- He died in 

Over this tomb appears the following inscripti<»i embossed 
in old English or uncial letters. The letters were ori^ioalty 
gilt^ bat the gilding is pow almost completely eAced : 

lUt Seamui faotuomfna flMm, ifmtUtpiamm% 

fOU fActttm Vfiontf jOri^V DonMnime 

I^Mtt m ?ei4o, mltoi tt ii^bft 
SPBsqnflifni MBksi CfjadI atfifficniw 

^wriilstfifftt orscottit u0Bk ntamut 
■Kt tnsccoua oatnts* orsott scunui otnimia 
^9rontiut atttt ^cintf^ fwflftTiflifm ftiitt 

CM WWflflWlf ttlW« pfTWtlttHIT (fUH^ ttCitK 

ttji^hih tttt tifWitj Mtwnt QK9 niffliff ftiaww 

•j^imiiks naBHfss eetttBf^ flBMtt^iiHKv 






STAVrORDSiriRB. s9t^ 

•fptmibi^ Me iBknuiy 4et perit IBs 

Oil. iftcmmo* nt aimit, tnocii tns M tif inia e^ 
ammo non pictt m diemplca rtpa pttlttit 

Attt pBttv iStttM ptatpsmc ^iK fftiot} 
1)011 macfi My quam nof^ fttsimisf^ * ** vMtm teomi 

4teoitfto trit3ii(t» iifliimtttf dXxi* oto* 
fllmio mffltno (ininstnttttf iptMiRt bbf iboc 

JmBC dtttsttmnlA sou ^ ttto ftfn ci tWvt 

Against one of the pillars in the chancel, stands a very hand- 
«oitte antique monument, which appears fn)m the inscription to 
have been erected to the memory of lady Barbara Crompton. 
"Heire of Richard Hudson, Doctor of Laire and late wife of Sir 
Thomas Crompton Jvdge of the High court of Admiralty of 
Klghmd, Adyocate for Clueen Elizabeth, and kinge James of 
ptouse memory; Vicar Generall to the Arch-bishopp of Can- 
terbury, and Chancellor to the Bishopp of London. Whose 
iKKly lycth interred in the Fish church of St Gregory, by St, 
Paules London. She lived his Widdow' three and thirty yeeres 
and departed this life fourth day of March 1641 aged 72." 
Below this part of the inscription appears a recital of the 
names of her children, and the different farnities into which 
they were married, but we omit it as too long for insertion 
here. Besides these there are a variety of other monuments 
in this church ; bnt neither they nor the nunlerous gravestones, 
which form the pavement of the chancel, merit particular de- 

The church of St. Mary's in the times of Prtpery was col- 
Jegiate. King Stephen bestowed it on the bishop and chapter 
of Lichfield and Coventry some rime previous to the year 
1186, but the precise year is not known. In 1445 the patron- 
age of this church, having somehow or other reveiied to the 
crown, was granted by Henry the sixth, to Humphrey duke of 
Buckingham. At the time of the dissolution, in the reign of 
Henry the eighth, it consisted of a dean and thirteen preben- 

L 1 1 3 daries. 

S96 STArFOEOfHlftB. 

daries^ as is sUted in Dr. Tanner's Notitia. Th« living is now 
a rectory in the gift of the king. 

Westward, from the charch, at a very short distance, there 
formerly stood a very ancient building, which Mr* Pennant 
supposes to have been the dean's house ; and most likely his 
opinion is correct. In a MS. (penes me) it is said to have been 
"evidently the nave of, (with the north aisle remain- 
ing) consisting of five plain circular arches or circular co- 
lumns ; the window and door at the west end were pointed." 
This building* faowever# whatever might be its original desti* 
nation, does.not appear to have been ever set apart for divine 
worship. Jt had long» previous to Its demolition, been occupied 
as a Free. School, and its materials were upon that event chief- 
ly, employed in rebuilding another on the site of the old Gaol. 

The other ohurch of Stafford, which is dedicated to St. 
Chad, is a \'cry old structure. Its architecture is an imitation 
of the most ancient Saxon plan, which assigned one half of 
the whole dimensions, to the nave, one quarter to the tow^er, 
and the remainder to the chancel. About seventy or eighty 
years ago this fh^rch was cased with brick. Some portion 
of the perpendicular buttresses. of the old building, however, 
can still be spen. The north side of the chancel exhibits the 
only fragment .of S^xon architecture now extant in this an- 
cient borougli. It consists of two small circular headed win- 
dows, supported by projecting facia about five inches deep ; 
the beads bejng about one inch in diameter. The tower is in 
the latest pviiited style, and would be a handsome object, but 
for the circumstance of the stone being so extrtmely friable 
that its ornamental parts are rapidly going to de<:ay. In this 
tower there is now only one bell ; the other four having been 
sold for the repair of the church. 

St. Chad's parish is extremely small, not comprehending 
within its boundaries more than twenty houses, the rents of 
which are chiefly paid to the dean and chapter of Lichfield 
cathedral. From these and other circumstances it is conjec- 


lured in the MS. several times already mentioned that this 
charch is of macb older institntion than that of St, Mary's^ 
but we must confess the conclusion does not appear to us clear- 
ly warranted by the premises. 

Besides the churches belonging to the establishment there 
are several places of worship appropriated for the meetings of 
Quakers, Independents, Presbyterians, and Methodists, of 
which sects the two last are by ifar the most numerous. 

Stafford, previous to the dissolution, contained a variety of 
monastic institutions. At the north end of the walls stood a 
house of Francitcan or Grey Friars^ which Erdeswick tells us 
.was (bunded by Sir James Stafford of Sandon. Henry the 
eighth granted this cell to James Leveson, in the thirty first 
year of his reign, when its annual revenue was valued at 
351. IS$. lOd. 

Here was likewise a Priory of Black Canons, founded ac« 
cording to some authors by Richard Peche» bishop of Lichfield 
and Coventry, about the year 1 180, but according to others by 
Geiard Stafford, who thought proper to compliment the bishop 
with the titW of founder, because it was built upon a portion of 
his Lordship's property. Which of these accounts is true we 
cannot determine ; but this much is certain, that the bishop al* 
ways manifested a strong partiality for this house. Upon re« 
signing his see, indeed, he entered himself one of its religious, 
and continued in that situation till his death. It was dedi* 
cated, as appears from the Anglia Sacra, to St. Thomas 
Becket exactly ten years after his death. The number of its 
religious was limited to seven, whose revenues were 1981. a 
y«ar. After the general dissolution the king granted it to Row* 
land bishop of Lichfield. 

This house was very pleasantly situated close to the river 
Sow, about two miles to the east of Stafford. Its chief remains 
consist of a building with two circular doorways, and oblong 
V|uare beaded windows, a few pilasters of half columns in the 
boundary wallj an arch way and two fossils in the garden, two 

L 1 1 S foliated 

foliated peiKknU^tbat ornameDted the roof, and a fragAient of 
sculpture exhibiting four heads^ three of them looking up 
towards the highest. The stone upon which they are sculp* 
tured is about two feet long» and ten inches and a half deep. 
The hair of each of the beads is well disposed, and the coun- 
tenances are good. One of the lower ones would appear to 
have originally leaned upon the shoulder of the tallest The 
area of this monastery seems to have extended over several 
acres, inclosed by a stone wall of considerable strength. 

Ralph Lord Stafford bestowed a portion of ground on the 
green at the southern extremity of the town, on the FHert 
Austins upon which they founded a religious establishment^ 
about the year 1344, for the sake of his soul and that of his 
two wives (Katharine and Margaret) Sir Humphrey Hastings, 
knight, and that of Edward the third. The tombs of this 
great family were removed to the church here from Stone, at 
the time of the dissolution, but very soon after went entirely to 
ruin. This house was granted to Thomas Neve and Giles Isam, 
in the first year of the reign of Queen Mary** 

The chief trade carried on in Sta£R>rd consbts In the manii- 
fdcturc of boots, shoes, and Cutlery. There is, likewise, a con- 
siderable business in tanning, both for home consumption and 
for exportation. 

The ancient custom of borough English still prevails inlhis 
town, by which the youngest son succeeds to property, as heir 
at law, in preference to the elder children. The foundation 
ef this custom is not very well ascertained ; but the probable 
conjecture concerning it is, that it had its origin, in the pre* 
snnq^tion that the youngest child was the least capable of pro*- 


* Lelaad, ^xrakiiig rtlatire to this house, mjs, <' Ther wcr dyTfnetnmbrft 
«f tbe Lordes of Stafford, in Stone priorj made of Alaba»t«r. The imaget 
(bat Uy on tlieni were, after the suppretiion of tiie house, carded to the 
Freers Anguirine, in Fordedridge alias Stafford Grene as flomen. And ia 
fhb Friers hailg a Petigre of the Staffordet»*' 

tTAttOBMBlAB. 899 

▼idiag for itself; and tbii idea, in certain conditions of aociety. 
it not perhaps altogether without some show^of Wisdom* 

The remains of the castle of the celebrated barons of Staf- 
ford are placed abool a mile and a half to the south-west of 
the town, on the summit of a singular hill, the ascent of which 
on all sides Is extremely smooth and gradual. So much, in- 
deed, is this the case that we strongly suspect it has been ori* 
giaally levelled by art for the sake of embellishment The 
chief, and indeed almost the only, portion of this castle now 
standing is the keep or stronghold, placed on an artificial 
mount of an oblong form, measuring one hundred and five feet 
by fifty. The wails, which are about twelve feet high, were 
some years ago cleared and made of the same height, by -— — 
Jeraingham, Esq. At that time a variety of silver coins were 
discovered, in general of a later date than the reign of king Ed« 
ward the sixth, together with a plain silver cross, a cannon ball, 
two saail millstones, and the lower portion of a large font or 
piacina. Each angle of the keep is surmounted by small oc* 
tangnlar towers, and there is likewise one on the south west side. 
It contains three separate rooms or apartments with fire places 
in each, and also steps leading up to loop holes. The thick- 
ness of the walls in this building is eight feet, and they are so 
constructed that it is difficult to determine where the entrance 
was placed. An intention of rebuilding this edifice, or at 
least a considerable part of it, has been lately manifested; and, 
indeed, some portion of it has in consequence been already 
erected. A deep foss or ditch surrounds the whole cas- 
tle, and one side has the additional defence of a high ram- 

Soath from the castle stood the manor house, the usual resi- 
dence of the noble family of Stafford. It was fortified by 
Ralph de Staflford in the reign of Edward the third, who had 
granted him permission to make castles of all his manor-houses 
both here and at Madeley. The area of this ancient seat is 

L 1 1 4 still 


irtUI eanlv dkirorjered, by the moal which sarraimd* it remoio- 
ing unfilled up. 

The town of Stafford formerly gave title to one of. the most 
tBcient and powerful families in England. William the con* 
queror conferred ^be title of Barou of Stafford on Robert de 
Stafibrdi who had performed far himmany signal services, both 
in bin progress to the throne, and after he had been established 
on ft. Ralph Stafford was advanced to the dignity of earl of 
Stafford, by Edward the third. This nobleman married the 
heiress of Hugh Audley earl of GkMicester, aud left a son 
named Hugh, who died on a pilgrimage to Rhodes. He vras 
succeeded by his son Thomas, who dying without issue, £d- 
munil his brother obtained the title and estates. Edmund mar- 
ned the daughter and heiress of Thomas of Woodstock* duke 
of Buckingham, to which title this family were Subsequently 
elevated. Henry Stafford, duke of Buckingham, was beheaded 
by Richard the third. Edward Stafford the last Duke of that 
name met the same fate in the reign of Henry the eighth. 
His descendants enjoyed the dignity of lords of Stafford, to the 
third generation, when his great grandson Henry, having mar- 
ried the grand-daughter of Thomas, earl of Arundel and Sur- 
rey, he was created baron of Stafford, and his Lady baroness 
Stafford in her own right, by Charles the first. Soon after 
Henry himsflf was advanced to the rank of a Viscount in the 
year 1G40. This nobleman was beheaded on Tower Hill, in 
consequence of his being concerned in the Popish pl^t ; hat 
Henry his eldest son was created earl of Stafford, in the fourth 
year of the reign of James the second. John Pa^ul Stafford 
Howard, his nephew, and ttie fourth Earl, dying without issue> 
the title became extinct; hut it was again revived in- the year 
1786 by the elevation of earl Gow^r to the dignity of Marquis 
of Stafford, which title is now enjoyed by. his son the second 

John Stafford, a Ft anciscan friar of considerable celebrity, 
was born here, as is generally supposed to%vards the close of 


Ihe iMiteenth eekiUiry. He wan, according to Fuller^ ''No 
contemptible Philosopher and Divine." His principal work 
was a History of England! written in Latin* 

Edmund SuflTord^ chancellor of England in Che rrign of 
Henrjr, was Kkewtser a nattT>e of this town. Ho was brother to 
Saipb, first earl of. tftafibrd, and consequently son to Edmund 
iioroa Staflford; Bichard the second preferred hioa to tbe 
bishopric of Exeter ;and Faller * inforaasus that some aathors 
assert, he was likewise bishop of Wofoester, and nltinatttly 
archbishop of York.; Godwkvt* however, makes no mention of 
him as ever having held any other sec but thai of Exeter ; 
and his authority we are inclined to regard, aa decisive of the 
question. Tbi« prelate was a great beneiactor to Stapelton's 
Inn> now Exeter college, in Oxford, having eettled two fellow* 
ships in it, and fomisbed liberal endowments for their support 

Another distinguished character, a native of this towi^ waa 
Thomas Aidieburn, who iived in the fourteenth century* Ho 
waA .educated chiefly at the university of Oxford, w^ere he 
afterward* 4>btaini3d a fellowship, and entered into orden. 
Wickliff met in this divine a most vigorous and active oppo- 
nent to his new doctrines. Not contented with exerting all his 
ialenu, and knowledge, in endeavouring to prove their falsity* 
Jbo caused a convocation to be called at London, in the y^ar 
1382, whjere the writings of the reformer wero solemnly con- 
demned. { 

Thomas Fitxherbart, a learned and ingenious writer -of the 
3eventeenth century, was borfi here, or at least in this neigh* 
boorhood, in 15^2* Th£ place of his early education is un* 
Jcnown ; but, in 1568, we find him removed either to Exeter or 
Jincoln college Oxford, where he continued to improve him* 
aeJC till disgust at the heresy of the times, as be called it 
(being a ;Bealous Catholic,} induced him to quit a public life^ 
and retire to his patrimonial estate* Here, h9wever, he did 


• Pallei^f Worthies, VoK 11. Suffbrdtbire. 
f Godwin de Pnetulibos. Exon. t Plot's Hist StaC p. fir.j. 

9M .sTAvramwBiEt* 

tun escape ihe opprteran whick bed so orach affiicted Ms, at 
the university ; for, having refused to attend divine service in 
the parish church, he was thrown into prison in 1S79. Having 
eiTeCS^d his discharge soon after, be became more ardent than 
ever, in soppOrthig his faith, publicly declaring that he deem- 
ed 'it criomiaV in Catholics' to frequent or even to enter a Plro- 
ieiftaift church. In consequence of this violent conduct the 
enmity of the clergy was particularly directed against bin, 
so tlisjl he found it necessary to withdraw himself into obscu- 
rity. But notwithstanding tfais^ when the Jesuits Campian and 
Parsons csnne over to £nfgland, he set out for London, found 
them out, and contributed liberally to their support. Thta 
cenduct having again attracted notice, he thought it prudent to 
retire to France in 1583, where he advocated the cause of the 
beautiful, but unfortunate, Mary qneen of Scots. After the 
death of that princess he proceeded to Madrid to claim the 
protection of Phiiq> IT ; but, upon the defeat of the Spanish 
Armada left Spain, and accompanied the duke of Feria to 
Mihin; That* Nobleman, who was- for some tipie resident in 
Engliand, h^ married an English ^oman by birth ; and in con- 
sequence was a warm patron of the English in Spain. Mr. 
Fitzberbert remained at Milan for a considerable period, after 
Vl'hich he set out to Rome, where he devoted himself entirely 
to literature. In 1614, he became a member of the society of 
Jesus, and much about the same time was ordained priest. 
After this event he departed for Flanders, and presided over 
the mission at Brussels for two years. From that situation he 
vra^ recalled to fill the station of governor or rector of the En- 
glish college at Rome, for which distinguished mark of fovonr 
he was solely indebted to the abiTrties and judicious conduct he 
had displayed at Brussels. This^ (Office he enjoyed till his death 
in 1640, • being then fn the eighty-eYghlfa year of his age and 
the twenty second of his rectorship. 

Mr. Fitzberbert wrote a variety of works upon different sub- 
jects ; chiefly, however, such as were connected with religious 


matters. The moti famed amongst them inere hie Trealiie coiv- 
cemiiig PoUty and BeUgion, and am>|ber iatituled, c^An sit 
utiKtas in seelere ▼•! de infeikiute PHacipis Machiayellank'^ 
Both' these pieces beai* strong itidtcations of a keen juflgmenl, 
a generfioB roiody and extensive reading. In the former, he 10 
frequently successiiilt in his attempts fo disprove the prfn*^ 
eipies laid down by the celebrated Machiavel ; but his la»* 
guage is onfnrtuiiately obscure.and perplexed, as well as hii 
method. These eirciHnstances» however, ought rather perhaps 
to be charged to the barbavous taste of his age, than stated as a 
peculiar defect in his own* capacity for composition.* 

To the north of the town stands Coitie Churdi an ancient 
bmldiog snrsonnded by very pictovesqne scenery. The arcbi- 
leclnre of this ediice is various. The north side, which is 
older than any other part of it, is distinguished by a plain arch 
of « circular form* and a round-headed window, tosonthera 
divifion has been lately rebutlt of brick* The tower, which is 
somewhat moremodem* is einamentedon the west side with a 
coatof arroiU the same as on the lady Staffiird's mantle ex« 
hibited in Plate XXU of Shaw's history. 

The fortification or encampment of Billington or BiUmom 
Smry, n placed on a high .hill abont three miles to the west of 
fitaflbrd. Its ar«i which includes several acres is circular, and 
snrvounded on some paru with one, and on others by two deep 
ditches. From this camp, there is an extensive and beautiful 
prospect of the surrounding country. Mr. Pennant, we have 
alr^y mentioned, considers this fortification as having been 
originally a British post, subsequently occupied by the Saxons 
whose stations are generally distuiguished by the addition of 
Borough* Bury, and Berry.t 

Several miles south east from Billington in the neighbourhood 
of Penkridge stands the village of Congrevct which bad the 
honour of giving birth to the late celebrated Dr. Hurd. bishop 
of Worcester* He was the son of a respectable farmer, and 


• Crtlt. Biog. Dkt. t P«*nn«m*$ Jonnirj, p. lOj— $. 


noeiTed the rodiments of his edocation at Market Bosworth in 
the pounty of Leicester, tinder the tuition -of Anthony Black- 
wall, dlBtinguished In the religious world as the editor of the 
Sacred Classics. Leaving his academy he was next entrusted 
to the care of the Rev. William Bodworth of Breedwood, of 
whose kindness the Doctor always retained the moA grateful 
rememhrance. From hence he removed to Emanuel college 
Cambridge, where he formed an intimate friendship with Dr. 
Warh|irton, Mr. Mason, and several other characters of great 
celebrity, and continued to prosecute his studies with uncom- 
mon assiduity, till a vacancy having taken place in the rectory 
of Thorcaston, he was presented to that living by the fellows 
of ihe college. Not long after this event he commenced author 
by the publication of an English Commentary and Notes, upon 
Horace's epistle to the Pisoe's. The commentary was distin- 
guished by a new consideration of the subject, and a fancied 
discovery of a systematic plan, which be supposed to have 
beien adopted by the Roman poet. He was dissatisfied with 
the opinion entertained by Scaliger and Heinsius, that the Ars 
Poetica was a collection, though not a system, of criticism on 
poetry in general. His dissatisfaction resulted from an idea, 
that the purpose of the author was, neither to abridge the 
Greek critics, nor to amuse himself with composing a short 
critical system for the general use of poets, but simply to cri* 
ticise the Roman drama. To the views of Dr. Hord on this 
subject the praise of ingenuity- must undoubtedly be allowed; 
but we cannot subscribe to their truth and accuracy. Exten- 
sive erudilion and refined taste are conspicuously displayed 
in the work, as well as a complete acquaintance with polite 
literature. In 1753 an edition of Horace appeared with notea 
and a commentary on the fine epistle to Augustus, which were 
no less honourable to the Doctor's talents. These were accom- 
panied by two critical dissertations, one on the provmce of 
dramatic poetry, and the other on poetical imitation. The 
next publication by Dr* Hurd was an Essay on the Delicacy of 
t Friendship, 

Friendship, which, while it gave the most heartfelt satis&cjtiott 
to his friend Warbarton, severely hurt the feelings of Dr. 
Jortin. This circumstance. Dr. Hard' afterwards so much re* 
gretted, that he expressed the most'eamest wish that the essay 
should be suppressed. A Dissertation on the Marks of Imita* 
tion came out in 1758, and in the same year also, Remarks on 
Hume's Bssay on the Natural History of Religion. The 
greater portion of this latter work was from the pen of Dr^ 
Warburton. It was issued forth to the public in an anonymous 
form ; but it was soon discovered that Dr. Hord had some share 
in it; and, in consequence, he received a severe reprimand from 
the Scottish philosopher, who declared, with justice, that it was 
** written with ail the illiberal petulance, arrogance, and scur* 
rility, which distinguished the Warburtonian school/' 

Afker the lapse of a year. Dr. Kurd published his Moral and 
Political Dialogues, which purported to be the substance of 
different conversations between several eminent characters of 
the last and present century, arranged and digested by the 
parties themselves, and then first published from the original 
MSS. A second, edition of these Dialogues appeared in 1764y 
when the Doctor's motives for concealing I heir real origin 
having ceased, he declared himself the author of them in a pre- 
^e on the manner of writing dialogue. This work gained 
him extensive fame ; and operated, in no small degree, to pro* 
mote his advancement in the church. The king, it is said, 
pointing to one of them, after he had been elevated to a 
bishopric, declared that it was the cause of his preferment to 
so dignified a station. 

Three years previous to the publication of this second edi* 
tion. Dr. Hurd was presented by Lord Northingion to the 
sinecure rectory of Folkstone* and soon after received the 
archdeaconry of Gloster from his friend Warburton. In 1773 
be published a volume of sermons, which he dedicated to 
Lord Mansfield, who returned the compliment by exerting his 
influence, to procure him the appointment of preceptor to the 


§0$ 8MVrO»9MIUIB* 

^Bce of Wales Mid die dvke «f York. SbwUy after this 
ev«nt be appeared in ainew character* va. 93 €4ilor of select 
works of Abraham Cowlay. Thsit pubUcalion does bim much 
less credit than most of his other productions ; for we cai^ as- 
sart with confidence that many poems replete with marks of 
taste and gemui are omitted^ to make room for some of the 
poet's most pallry and trifling effasions. In the year 1775 the 
bishopric of Lichfield and Coventry^ with that, of Bangor« 
being offered by his Majesty to his acceptance* he chose the 
fimier* From this see he was translated to that of Worcester^ 
in I7S1» when the honourable Dr. Brownlow North, was pre* 
ferred 4o the bishopric of Wtnehester. This appointment be 
oonttnned to hold tiU his death* which happened at Hartlebwry 
palace on the 28th of May 1808* having d^lined the high* 
est dignity of the churchy the see of Canterbury* ofiered to 
him in 178S. 

In whatever point of riew Dr. Hurd is viewedy we perceive 
much to praise, and little to blame. His friendship for War* 
burton no doubt sometimes led him to write after the keen and 
arrogant manner of that celebrated character. In private life* 
however* he was free from violence in his animosities* while 
he was no less warm and constant in his friendships* than his 
great patron* whom many calumniated* and few Loved* but 
whom all were forced to admire for his transcendent talents 
and extensive learning. Dr. Warbdrton having died in 1777* 
he left the settlement of his domestic af&irs to Dr. Hurd* and 
likewise enjoined him protector to his wife* by a letter dated 
the 6th April 1776, and thus endorsed " To the Lord Bishop 
of Lichfield and Coventry* to be opened and delivered to him 
at my decease. W. G." 

Besides the works already noticed* Dr. Hurd published a 
consi<lerable number of well written and judicious sermons* 
In 1785 be brought forward an edition of all the works of Dr. 
Warburton* which he conceived it proper should meet the 
pjubiic eye* omitting* however* the Essay on the Delicacy of 
9 Friendship« 

FriendtUpj in which it has beeo eeen he had a C€Cifid«r«hb 
«hare. To this superb and Taluable poblication Dr.Hard* for 
some reasoiis not yet otactly ascertained^ prefixed no memouai 
of his distingaished Mend. The omission gave oflfence to Dr* 
Parr, and indaced him to republish the essay above mentioned, 
in a work intituled " Tracts by Warburtonand a Warburtonian/' 
the dedication to which is not inferior to any paper in the whole 
compass of English controversy. The re-appearance of thia 
woric was highly resented by Dr. HQrd> who found himself 
under the necessity of answering it, and did so with nroch 
ability, but unhappily, without being successful in wholly es* 
tracting the venom of the attack, though he sufficiently e»* 
posed the pretensions of his opponent, to elevation of mind and 
purity of intention.* 

At the distance of four miles, south-east from Staffbrd, in the 
angle formed by the junction of the Sow and the Trent, standa 
Tixai HaU, the seat of Thomas Ciiiibrd, Esq. The preach 
edifice is a modern building erected about thirty yeais ago. 
It is constructed of brick in* a plain style, and ofler^ nothing re« 
snarkable ; but in front of it stands a magnificent gateway, a 
motley pile of Gothic and Grecian architecture, embellished 
Jbefore with three series of columns Doric, Ionic, and Corin* 
fthian. Mr. Pennant says, that he at one time conceived thia 
^^il^ucture might be among the early productions of Inigo 
Jones : afterward^* however, he abandoned that opinion, having 
Ibond that it vraa built by Sir Walter Aston Knight who 
died in 1589, and consequently at a time when Inigo was too 
^oong for such an undertaking. The antient house stood be«. 
hind this gateway, and was a most venerable building, having 
Us first floor constructed of stone, and the higher ones of wood 
and plaster* Some remains of that building can still be seen att 
the back of the gateway. It was erected by Sir Edward Aston* 
in the early part pf the reign of Henry the eighth, and will be 
fount represented in the thirty-eighth plate of Dr. Plot's his- 

* laipcrisl County Resbt^r. 


tory of tbe coxinly, where H is observed, thafrit was retfiarkaMt^ 
as containing a vast number of windows, and yet not ortie o# 
them alike* On the sill of the windows was.this inscription r 


The manor here at the Conquest was in the possession of Ro« 
ger earl of Montgomery, from whom it was held by Henry de 
Ferrers. In the reign of Heiiry the second, we find it had be- 
come the property of the family of Wastineys, or de Gaslenoyi^ 
one P^ganasde Gastenoys being then lord of it. This family 
held it for se?eral generations, till Rose, the daughter of the 
last, and widow of Sir John Gastenoys Knight, sold it to tbti 
Littletons, in the reign of Henry the fourth, though not before 
she had consalted the learned, whether she could do it with 
aafety to her soul. Joan daughter to Sir William Littlet<m* 
who died in 1507, carried it by marriage to Sir John Astod> 
Knight of the Bath. Sir Walter Aston, one of his descendants^ 
was a great patron of the poet Drayton, who pays the foUowr* 
ing tribute to tbe family in his Polyolbion.* 

" The Trent by Tixal graced the A2»ton*9 aiMnerrt seat. 

Which ott the muse hath found her safe nnd sweet retreat^ 
The noble owners now of which beloved place, 

Good fortnnt them and thcin with honor'd titles grace. ^ 

May heav'ii Mill bless that house, still happy flood yoa see, ^• 

Yourselves more graced by it, than it by you ; ' 

Whose bounty still my muse so freely shall confess^ i 

As when she shall want words, her sighs shall it cxpres5.''t 

Sir Walter Aston married Getrude, the sister of Mr. Sadfer 
of Sandon, in the county of Hertford ; and waH, not long after 
that event, created a baron of the United kingdoms by the 


* Michael Drayton, says Mr. Pennant, owed much to tliis gentleman, Si( 
Walter Aston. He was one of bis esquires when created a knight of Che 
Balb. Pennant's Journey, p. 96. 

t Polyolbion, Song XIL 

tide of blwoii ^6ifar. His second son Walter, secoiid Lord 
AUttDi married Mwrf. daughter of Richard Weston, earl of 
Pdrllaiftdf lord* IVciasiirer of England, and was sacteeded by ' 
his son and grandson, both named after himself, and a great 
gMoidsdD Jvutes, who died in 1705, leaving a son Walter and 
two dmogbtelrs, one of wh<>m, the younger, married the Hon. 
Thdmas Clifibrd, who thereby became proprietor of the estate. 
This hoQse gave birth to Edward Wittenhalli bishop of 

TbtftI' Heath immediately adjoining the park, whieh sur- 
romidis Che mabiiioif-hause, is distinguished by two remarkable 
lowsr oir tillnuli, the one named the King's, and the other tlii^ ' 
QMM^' Lowe lf6thSng, however, is known respecting tlie 
roftibiror tlieir being' so denomihkted, nor can it even be cOn- 
jeeMred on what occasion they have been constructed* ' Tw<r 
urim w^e found near them, in the beginning of last cen- 
tury,* itrhicli' were supposed to be of Roman workmanship: 

TUif heath was^the scenic of one of the most baibarou^'as- 
sassliiations, which disgrace the records of history, and mark* 
thefT{ttdi<Stive chaiticter of the feudal times. A family emula-^ 
lion which subsisted for some generations, between the Stanleys 
of Fipe, and the Chetwynd^ of Ingestre, was the occasion of 
this catastrophe, Sir Humphrey Stanley was one of the 
knights of the body to king Henry the seventh, and Sir Wil- 
laaM oriel of his gentleman ushers. The former according to 
r^|M)rt, jealous of the preferment of his rival, resolved to dis- 
patch him, and with' that view inveigled hiiu from his bouse, 
by a counterfeit letter, containing an invitation to the residence 
of oa^ of hu neighbour^. Sir William, without suspicion of ' 
the artifice, set outto cross the heath unattended, but no sooner 
approaclved the middle of it, than he was attacked by twenty 
armed men, and dispatched in the presence of Sir Humphrey, 
who wis passing at the same time with his train, under pre- 
ttact of hunting, though in reality with the view of glutting 
Jiimsetf widi the sight of the blood he had so long- coveted. 
Vo£. Xm» * Mmm "It 

910 STAIfO^kMBOtB.. 

"U does wA appcftr/' says Mr. Peiuiaiil» « dMjiiislic^ tvcT 
overlook tbo assassin, thoagh the widow of «Sir WiUaam in- 
voked it. Probably Sir Humphrey had no fortune wortky of 

Ifigestrt Mail is situated to the north west of Tixal* and 
nearly at the same distance as that mansion from the town of 
Stafford. It is a respecUbie old edifice, standing on the do* 
clivity of » gentle eminence. Behind it, the hill is covered 
with a profusion of trees, among which rise numerous ancient 
oaks of immense size. This wood forms part of the snrfoond* 
ing pleasure grounds, throughout which extends a great va« 
riety of noble walks, some of which terminate on the sbirt»of 
the wood, while others penetrate a considerable vmy benoatllk, 
its nmbrageotts shade. The house i» built acooidittg to the 
style of architecture prevalent in* the reign of quoon Sliia* 
beth. At each end is an arched projection or bow^ in whid^ 
appear four large windowi^ two and two separated by a sort of 
flat square coIuokk These bows are built of stone i bot the 
central portion of the edifice is constructed of brick, and it 
ornamented with a number of large windows. The entraaoo 
is undei^a very handsome tower» which likemse projects' fipqm 
the rest of the edifice, and is surmounted by an elegant balhis- 
trade, similar to that which passes along, the whole lengjth of 
the front, several feet beneath this elevation. Rising firom a 
base within this ballustrade, is a small erection bearing a strong 
resemblance to an observatory, for which purpose it may have 
been used by its ancient proprietors. Over the fire place in 
the great hall, hangs an excellent picture of Walter Chetwynd 
Esq. in a; great wig, and crossed by a rich sash. This house 
has lately undergone considerable alteration, but not to such 
nn extent as. to obliterate the general features of the Eliaabc* 
than style; The north front has, indeed, been rebuilt a&er the 
same manner. 

In the reign of Henry the second, the manor of logestr* 
was in the possession of Eudo de Mutton. By the marriage of 


SYilWMtMHtfiBi 9it 

iUbAintfft^but df Philip de Mntton, with Sir John Chetwynd 
it pMwd into the noble family of that nanie» in the reign of 
Sdirard the third. His descendants were created hanms of 
logestre amd Talbot; and in 1784 John Chetwynd Talbot, who 
had previously suteeedodhis uncle William in the barony, was 
caised to the dignity of an Earl of thte United Kingdom by the 
ilyle and title of e«*t Talbot of Ingestre. 

The church at this place is a rery neat edifice^ and finely 
stdceoed; It was built by Walter Ghetiryndi; Esq. of Ingestre» 
in the !ntem of a more ancient one which had nearly iailen to 
ruins. For this purpose, Dr< Plot says, he generously petitioRf^ 
ed the most Rer. father iti Ood Gilbert archbishop of Canter^ 
bory> whereupon that prelate, by a deed dated in 167S> com- 
missioned Sir Edward Bagot of Blitbfield, Baronet, William 
Chetwynd of Eugeley, Esq. Richard Harrison, B. D« and canon 
of Lichfield, and Williiim Jennings, clerk. Rector of church 
Bytoo, (charchEadon) all of the county of Stafibrd, to surrey 
this church, and report to him, upon its state and condition* 
Accordingly these commisslonetB, having examined within and 
evithout, declared that they wef e of opinion it ought to be de- 
molished, and that the spot proposed for building the new one 
#hs much more convenient for the inhabitants, than the site 
apon which it then stood. In consequence of this declaration 
the archbishop granted a power to the said Mr. Chetwynd, to 
erect Ms proposed neir church, and to use the materials of the 
old one to assist him in that object. The foundation of this 
church was accordingly laid in the year 1673; when a variety 
of coins of that year were deposited in holes, cat for that pur* 
poM in the comers of the steeple* The appearance of this 
chapel is remarkably neat and dnifbnn. It is built of freestone, 
and adorned at the west end by a very handsome tower, tbo 
top of which is ornamented, with a fine balustrade with flower 
pots at each cornii;r. The chancel is paved with black and 
white marble; and on the windowi^ in this part of tiw churchy 
jure peinliiw* <^ <l>Mb of the arms of dhetwynd. On th# 
Mmm9 ceilmgs 

9lt t«AW0aB*«i»s« 

QMlifigsAtt'ith&aaiiiejB fimtwoirk, tti4'tltt MvmSk'mjiA^ 
muiy fineofiiDere»liiiMiani€nto of that haMf, ottriMsIf tttrtfcdi 
in -iPfbile marUe* The fiav« w» body of the chordi is sepomtod 
fiwsn the.cbaDcol' witban-elegantiskreen of* Flandera oait^ w^ 
nanented with the king's avma and a great variety, of' other gMK 
taaqne embellisbnusiits. At the sooth comer 8taiKiS'die'pQlfri|» 
made of the same wood adorned* in like manner with oarveA 
nwk, and iron work cartoosly painted and gilt The seals are 
likewise of Flanders oak, and>all eqoelly eleganti; Nearth^ 
entrance on the. left band is placed a cartons font of edid white. 
B«Mrble; and over the same on the ontside is • a ssmU table else 
f^ white uMurble with this inscription :* 

BsQbOpt Mazf 

Tcnplam Hoc 

A faodftmentis extnictiim 



Ou D« D. 



•The foUoimig eorioas uo^aat^ of the cowect ati ^e of tUschor^ h 
9^eo^I>x«PM* ''TiMielieith being ttaf fiaelidist theaolecliaigaor 
the said Welter Chetvjnd io Av^wt An. 1677. i( hm BoleauQjjr ooowe^Hod 
by the right Rewreod fetber in God Thomef loid biabop of Coventry end 
Licbfield ; the dcen of Licbfield preaching the lermon s and wrae othen of 
die most erouient clergy reading the prayers, baptiaog a child, churching n 
woman, joyniteg a conple in matrimony, and burying another ; all whieb of- 
floes weie also there performed the same- day, the pioos and generoos^toQader • 
and patron offering, opoo tbe altar, tbe tkbeaof Hopioiiva viUnge hard by* to . 
thi^alue of (ft^ pounds per.anniun» at an addition to the rectory for ever; 
presenting the bisbopand .dean at ibe same tiaie> each with a piece of plate 
duoble guilt« as a graiefal acknowledgement of the service ; and entertaining 
nobility, clergy, und gentry, both men and women of the whole country, 
which came in* that day, to tee tbe solemnity performed, with a most 
^Icndid dinner at his houM near adjoining, ^Hikh^ together trith the- 

tUkJbpim BttUh,mi short wmy -UKbe voalh west of Iilgettrie« 
«<M«rara aotMB wasfoaght^bctwre^fi the Mug's forces^ midet'tbe ^ 
i^mA at North«m|ftoOk iliid the Psrliamenfeiy Mny cennaatid^d 
kjr air John Gelland Sir Wtlliani Brei^toii. The earl oTNorlb- 
■Msplwi had rparposed the velief of Lichfield : bnt iJiat town 
4n?iBg been eon polled to surrender before his troops <to«kl't[r- 
•teo»iM determined to march vpon Staffi^rd/wfaich- had been 
dmmediately after invested by a detacbitfem ^^the victoriods 
tnpnbUcans. Upon the approach of the Royalists^ Bit John 
jG«li,wh& commanded this forco^ retired with the view of fortcrt- 
1mg% j«DCAion with 6fr WiNkim Bfereton^ who was coHecf- 
ing hi^ troops with the same intention. This point being 
«fl($eted« bc^h Generals retraced their steps towards Stafford, 
mid encamped at this place, which lies three miles to the north 
east of the town. The earl of Northampton immediately led 
his forces against them ; and, notwithstanding their great supe- 
riority in numbers, attacked them mA incredible impetnosity. 
A long and obstinate contest took place, in which, after peru 
fermtng prodigies of valour, the Earl's horse having been shot 
under him» he was surrounded and slain. Notirithstand^ 
ing tbvs unfortunate, the royallsta Combined the battle, and 
accorditog to their own account ultimstfely gained a decided 
victory. The parliamentary army, on the other hand, asserted 
•hat though defeated at first they were in the end soccessftti ; 
a«d» if success is to be estimated by its consequences, they cer* 
talnly bad the best of the day. 

The following are very different accounts of this engage- 

Saturday March 25. 
- <* There hath been a more certain information given of the 

M m m S battell 

fiew churchy tre both here repretcnted, where nl^thingt were carrjed with ^ 
•obrjety tnd gnvlty suitable to the occasion, concludifig the day with hearty 
prayert ibr the prosperity of the cbotcb ; aad a universal applause of tlia 
yMy smI geneftttity, ofibe noble (bander ; and frtom the Whole idanago 6t 
lbs work iron tba fouodatioo to the snil. *' Plot's Staff, p. f 97. 

bifttell aear Staaqrd thao wm certtitd, the lart • imf, MiMi i$ 
to this efiecu That Sir Jobs GtiU advancing towards thaltoim 
' with bit feroen from Litehfield, the orl of Moithanftton imfk 
hia forces fell upon his mrreare* wiUiin four miles of StiAbid* 
and after some combat betwizte the Parliament forces and 
ibem« there was about a thousand more of the hingt forces 
came unto their assistance, which caused a very: .hdt skirausb 
for sometime, after which Sir William Breretdn came in mA 
, 1500 horse, by which means the kings forces Were . pm to the 
worst, the earl of Northampton slain, and one of his soimeB 
.wounded and taken prisoners with many others of good ^ueli* 
ty. After which they were .forced to retreat into the town ejf 
Stafibrd for safety. But it is further informed that before the 
ooming of the Cheshire forces, the kings forces took four 
drakes, and about forty prisoners from the parliaments foreei^ 
and it is said Mr. Hastings is mortally wounded, and that the 
cavaliers have desired the earl of Northampton's body, to 
bury it, but an answer was r^umed that if they woald return 
the four drakes and tb^ 40 prisoners th^y l|ave uken« Mity 
Aonld have him.'- 

Sir.^illta^ Brereton writes tl}us relative to tbit actinvi t 
«« Upqp tfie ll)th of Alaroh, being the Sabbalh day, I march 
.jTrom Newcastle to Stone, and soe to Sand, and joyned with Sir 
John Gells forces neare unto Salt Heath, about two o'clock in the 
afternoon. Our forces were much disproportionable to the en^ 
mies, who did very far exceed us in hone ; whereof there wurf 
two regiments brought down by the e%rl of Northampton. One 
was his own regiment, the other was the prince his regimenU 
There were joyned thereunto the forces of Colonel Hastings, 
who is very strong in horse. And the Shropshire bort^ and 
dragoons which was a great addition to their strength. These 
came on with great resolution and boldness and in very good 
order. Some say there were six score, other judge there were 
900 in front, when they came up and charged our horse. Some 
report there were 2^00 horse pf tbeifa, wheieas we had not 

t «• 

•TAMOtMVfmi. 915 

«ilOO%one «l the most wberoof I^broaght iw» troops. And I 
iM^lieTe there were «boatfive companies of dragoons^ wbereof 
I brooght three, some of them did extraordioary good service. 
There were near 100 of the dragoons slaine in the place where 
the dragoons skirmbhed^ and I cannot disceme that we lost 
move than two or diree. And yet they fought so long and so 
fiercely, nntili all their powder and bullet was spent. After- 
wards they jqyned and fell to It pell mell, one npon another 
with the etocfcs of the muskets. These were Captaine Brom- 
halb who behaved themsehres well at Bramford, and also at 
Middlewich upon Monday March, IS. This was a great dis^ 
advantage unto us, that both our horse and foote were unhap- 
ptiy disposed of and divided into small bodyes, at inch time 
08 the enemy charged us, which was die occasion that the 
great part of our horse weo? disordered, and routed, and yet 
▼ery few of them daine. 

*' I doe not believe that aU eur foot there present could make 
five hundred men. Against which the enemies horse were en- 
couraged to make a most desperate attempt which did produce 
and occasion their own destruction. Herein the wisdom and 
goodness of Divine froridence is to foe taken noike of, and 
ncknowledged that the disordering and dispersing the greatest 
part of our horse, to charge furiously upon our foot, who by 
the discharge of dieir first vollies of sbott did performe mighUe 
great execution; the earle of Northampton was then dis- 
monnted, and after slain; but 1 cannot perceive he was known 
bicffare he was dead, pillaged and stripped, when though it was 
m the night, I viewed his body, lyeing naked upon the ground 
and did believe him to be the generall, the earl of Northamp- 
ton; of whom I cannot perceive there was any more care or 
respect, either of his person, when he was wounded and be- 
fore he was dead, or of his body when he lay upon the field, 
than of the meanest souldier in either army. But notwith- 
siandnig our foote, through God's blessing, were so success- 
M fnany of them being inexpert, having never fiyrmeriy 
M4n m 4 been 

been upon service*) did mij^iie executioo upon the (N^fepjlb 
who were thereby rather enraged tban discouraged ftpm om]^ 
inga second as desperate an assault* which was eq^ajly if Jiot 
inore fatal unto them, who as wee hare been informed out qf 
some letters and acknowledgements of son^e of tb^ir faKteb 
confess they lost near three score of their most prim^ i^ eoii* 
nent commanders. Among which there was the liflgpr of tkfi 
prince his regiment* who is exceedingly iamented pmoilgNt 
them. It is reported also amongst them tb^ Cap^ MiddletQll« 
Capt. Baker* Capt. Leeming» Capt. Cressic, Capt. B^giot^, Ci^pt. 
Biddulph* of Biddulph* a recusant in Staffordshire* are ^l 
sl&iiie. And Mr. Spencer Lucee* Sir Thomas Lucee's soimi9 
and heire, who carried the kio^ or the prince's cplours^ wbt^ 
were also taken and himself slain. Soe were t^e colours pf tbf 
duke of York taken and his cornett slaine ; Colonel ^tanbope 
himself wounded* and bis cornette slain and colours taken. $09 
were divers other colours upon the enemies pact^* but not any 
officer or commander* who lean heare^uqe qpon our 
parte^ Some of the inhabitants of the cou^tray rqiprt tb^ 
there were nearly 600 dead bodies carried away from i^p fi^M 
the next morning* whereof I am confident tberfs wece Q*t 
thirty of our men. I cannot perceive there ar^ six wiiQt|iig of 
my two t^oopes of horse* and three companies of dr^gcv>n«i«. 
In the success of this battle> the I^ord was pleased, inucb to 
shew himself to be Lord of Hosis and God of Vict<]|ry« ftr 
when the day was theirs and the field wonue* he was plea«id 
mightilie to interpose for the rescue and deliverance pi tbest 
that trusted in him. And as my liord Q^ner^l said concerning 
Keinton battle* soe may it be said of this* that there ^as mucb 
of God and nothing of man^ that did contribute to this victory. 
To him I desire the whole glory may be ascrjl^ed and thai this 
may be a further encouragement to trust in hiin« and|tnm- 
gagement tq adhere unto his cause as well in the midst of da^? 
gcrs and streights, as when they are more remote. To t^ 
end I beseecti you assist with your prayers fhosje w^q cf^ 


ilfipd.m need t^reof, and believe iihal^beo w oone Ihat dofck 
^ore earnestly pray foraod desire jthe iaorease of aU comfert 
and happioess, then 

<« Your oiG^t fiihUfnl «eTYaiit 


Beacon HiU» 8ituate4 between Hppton Heath and the town 
«f Stafford, is distinguished by a fast collectioa of rocks on Its 
aununit. The sides of this eo^ioence are covered with giasi^ 
jipd are all of yery steep ascent, b has. as ils name Impotts, 
.be^n formerly the site of a signal post for communicating 
flarm to the country around^ in the ewnt of hostile invasion or 
internal commotion. Upon St, Amon's heath, under this hill, 
% smart action was fought betwaieo a party of Royalists, and a 
detachment of the parliamentary troops in 1643.t 

Coion Chntfordf a small village situated about three miles west 
firaim Stafford, gave birth to William Wollaston, a disUngoished 
philosophical writer, a^ the commencement of the eighteenth 
fC^tory. He was descended from an ancient fiimily in this coun- 
ty, and fir^t drew breath on the 36th of Marph 1659. Abonjc 
4he year 1674 he was admitted a pensioner of Sidney-Sussex 
college Cambridge, having previously acquired the radimeiits of 
jbif ednc^tion at a private school. At college he continued tiH 
Ihe year )681j when he left \U not a little disappointed that he 
had failed i|i obtaining a fellowship, a situation which his abili* 
lies and knowledge seem to have entitled him to fill. fiefi>re. 
feitting it, however, he took both degrees in ^rts» with con- 
fiderable applause, and entered into Deacon's orders. Soo«i 
lifter leafing the University, he engaged himself as assistant 
to the chi^f Master of Birmingham school, and in a short time 
l^ecame lecturer at a chapel in the neighbourhood of that 
town. At tb^ olose of four yearn, having been chosen second 
esestef of the school* be took priest's orders, as according to 
the charter of .its fotmdation, the masters, of whom there were 
three, were bound to Uke those orders, although forbidden to ac- 

* Sbaw's Staff. Vol. I. p. 54 t Oongh'i Csmdea, ToL II, p. 510. 

cept any ecclesiastical proferment.. In Ais station Mr. 
Wollaston remained till August 1088, when the death of tt 
' rich relative gave him the possession of a very large estate. 
This circamstance indaced him to remove to London^ where, 
the year foUowtng, he married Miss Catharine Charlton, a ctti* 
sen's daughter, who lived till the year 1790, after having borne 
eleven children to him, four of whom died in his life thne. 
After having fised his residence in London, he applied hinr- 
self closely to his studies, and passed his life in the utmost rei> 
,tu:ement, and with the greatest regularity.' He seldom ex» 
tended hts ezcursi6n beyond the bounds of the metropolis, and 
is said never to have slept one night fttim his own residence m 
Charter-house square, for thirty years previous to bis death. 
He regarded solid and real contentment, as more just grounds of 
happiness than show and grandeur, and was so little ambitious 
of power and dignity, that he refused one of the highest 
preferments in the church when offered to his acceptance. 
In the learned languages he was highly skilled, as well as in 
philology, criticism, mathematics, philos(»phy, history, anti* 
' qnities, and the like. The love of truth and reason made 
him a friend to freedom of thinking, and, as far as the world 
would bear it, to freedom also. He died in October 1794 of a 
complication of disorders, which had affected him for severri 
years before, and which were brought to a crisis by the acci^ 
dent of breaking his arm. His remains were interred at Great 
Finborough in SufTolk, (one of his estates, and af)»rwanht the 
principal residence of his son,) in a grave immediately by the 
side of his deceased wife, as appears from the 'inscription on 
their common monun(ient, which was composed by himself 

Mr. Wollaston published a variety of works, distinguished 
by the display of powerful abilities and great erudition* His 
principal treatise intituled, The Religion of Nature Delineated, 
met with so great a demand immediately after' its publication, 
that more than ten thousand copies were sold in a few 


fmn** This book exposed him to the censure of some zealous 

Christiaiis» in consequence of his urging truth, reason, and yir- 

tue, as indispensable obligitions» anfl that without making any 

menti<Hi of revealed religion, or even so much as throwing out 

liie sauillflet hint in its &VQur« It^haa even drawn upon him 

ttbe soqiicite of being an infidel; asid the great lord Bolin* 

•brtke imagines Dr. Clark to. have 'had him in view, when he 

.dkeicrib^ bis fturtb sort of Deills. WoUaston held, and bad 

• aascrtedi the being and altribote's of Ood^ natural and mbreU 

a providence, general and panienlar, the obligations of raonb- 

•li)y>.tbeinmiateriaUty and immortality of the soul; a fut«ffe 

iiUite; all of which opinions Dr. Clark's fourth sort of Deists 

. beid and asisned. But whether WoUaston, like them, r^ected 

•911 above this in the system of revelation cannot be easily de* 

termined; though, at the same time, neither can the contrary be 

pr^vedf because it was not essential to the design of Mn Wol* 

)aslpi»'s worki to meddle with revealed religion* Lord Boling** 

twoke himself considered it as a system of Theismy as it cer* 

lainly is, whether its author were a Christian or xiot. That 

nobleman calls it "strange theism, as dogmatical and absurd at 

artificial theology,'' and spends several pages to prove his af« 

^rmatkm. He allows the writer, however, to have been "a 

map of parts, of learning, a philosopher, and a geometrician/' 

It is written with a degree of elegance, far superior to the style 

of most English writers, and may justly be regarded as one of 

Mie best and most classical works in the English language. 

.The personal character of Mr. WoUaston, was that of a 
worthy and humane man in every respect, but he is like* 
wise said to have been somewhat irascible and fiery in his 


* Dr. Joliu Clark late dean of Saliiburjr, informs as, io an advertise- 
ment prefixed to hts edition of Mr. WoUaston's works, that this book was 
)ield in particolar esteem by her late Majesty queen Caroline, at whose 
I he translated die notes into English, expressljr for her own use. 
t Gent. Biogt Diet. 

9» nitkt 


The village and parish 4}( Xmtim He 9hMt twom^es «b 
the west of Colon Clanfend, and thtee mites aovdi «f»t fvsm 
Sccleshal. It is* efaiefly remarkable for its ancient abbey or 
priory, celled Rooten alias De Sartis, or Bssam abbey» which 
^was founded by Robert Kts«Noel in the reign of Henry the 
isecond. The ^religtense of this bofuse were canons regolar df 
she order of St^Aagnstine. Shortly after its estoblisfameifet, it 
was made a cell to the abitf^y of Haghraaii, in the coaBty of 
Salop, by the founder himself. At the dissotution in the tiwe 
of Henry the eighth, the revenue of this house ww valiifed ift 
90/. per annam. 

Considerable remains cif the monastery are still standing. 
They consist principally of- a lofty well built tower ; and the 
outer walls of the church which are extremely low, together 
with a small portion of the cloisters. The south garden ftoni 
of the house is by far more ancient than the western one^ 

£lienk0ll, which lies to the north west of Ronton, is remark* 
able as being the seat of the noble family of the Noels, from 
whom are descended the Noels of Hilcote in this'county, as 
also those of Rinkby Malory in Leicostershire, and of Brook 
in Rutlandshire. Edward, one of the descendants of this fiimi* 
ly, was raised to the honours of the peerage by James the first, 
under the/title of lord Noel of Ridlington; Charles the first 
created him Viscount Campdep, inconsequence of the. imilors 
of issue male, in the person of Baptist Hicks> lord Hiofca, and 
Campden, whose eldest daughter and coheir Julian he had 
married. The grandson of this Nobleman receired the dig* 
nity of earl Gainsborough from Charles the second, after his 

Dr. Plot, in his Natural History of the County, mentions the 
trunk of an old oak, of such vast size, that his man and ht 



\ tff-tt handsliigh, standing* on opposite sides, were: 
MeUjr alMble i«aee eeeh dber * 

Tbe large parish and rWhge of CHehsey i» situated to tiier 
Miitk^of BUenbali. This niaiiDr was or tginaUy the property 
9f Ike JioUe finally of Hastiogs, from, whom it passed to Uraf 
9lalbrdi» and- from then, lo the Ifarcourto. lo the chordi^* 
|rjuil.there,.siaads.ail6ft]r stone of. a pyraasidioal shapes resenK** 
blisg}tlMae atTDraycot and Leek; The precise qseof tiiesei 
fteoes k i|Ot. veryrapp arent. Many writers hate regardedt 
them, aathe shafb of crosses and this optnioaibr somatime^ 
feoeiTed'the-sanctioa.of'Df; Pkc^ That. gentleman, however^ 
sabseqoeatfty .changed hta sentiments. npon this subject; and 
deddedthat they were Danish 'momimeats» from their similati* 
tytoanchefoctibn^y hoth • in Denmark aad^En^land, as were* 
confisssedly of thaldescriplion; 


Thb'Biafket-town is pleaianliy attoated on the bank of a< 
small stream that flows mto the river Sow, at the distance of 
onrhnndredaad^fony eight miles from London, and five from 
Che town of Scone. The appearance of this place-is extremely 
nea^ the houses being in general well bailt, and disposed with' 
ce nsi ^e rabl t regolarity* According to the pariiamenjtary re« 
tens of 1801, it conuined 594 houses, and 3,4S7 inhabitants, 
Tie. 1787 males» and 1,750 females, of which number %057i 
were returned as employed in- agriculture, and 830 in diflhr« 
ent trades and mannbdures. It has a weekly market, estab- 
lisbed by bishop Dundent about the year 1161. The market 
day is Friday, when there is a plentiful supply of all kinds of 
peoTisions. There are likewise four fairs during the year," 
principally for cattle^ sheep, and saddle horses. 

The manor here^ which is of great extent, at the era of the 
<^onqaesty was the property of the bishops of Lichfield. How 


» Pioffl Kst. HUt Staff, p. aia. 

long it continued in their poaaeMion, or ^h&t chai%et hnai&i^ 
went, are not known ; but in the year 1650 Camdea'telb as, it 
was sold for the sum of 14.934/. * 

Eccleshall is distiuguiahed principally for itg* ctMt, wtiicb 
was founded at a very early pieriod, but by whom.' history daet' 
BOt inform us. About the year 1200, . howeirer, we find bisfaop' 
Muschamp empowered by a licence from king John« ** to- make 
a park here, and embattle the eoiile^" so that.aonie edifice .ani-' 
awering the description of a castellated mansion/most have ex-^ 
iated here, at least tome years prior to^tfais period** ''•' * ' '* 

In 1310, this castle was completely reboilt by Walter de* 
Langton, bishop of Lichfield,. abd iord- hiigh IVeasbber of En- 
gland, who established jt)aattheiprincipal pakceof the bishop^ 
of Ltcltfield. His succesainra^. however, . having otbeCipalacea in 
this county at Hey wood, Breewood, Beandcsert, &c« besides' 
Lichfield House in the Strand London, do not appear to hare 
occupied it much till the year 1695, when the whole south 
front of it hating been renewed by bishop Lloyd, it afterwards 
became their constant resideace^ and coiitinaeatojie soohat 
the i. . 

At the time of the civil wars,.betweeB tbe hbnse of Stewart 
and tbe Parliament, this castle was originally garrisoned for the ' 
king, and stood a severe siege against the repnblican forces, > 
but was ultimately compelled to surrender. So great was the- 
damage it sustained during this attack, that it became wholly 
uninhabitable, till re-edified, as already mentioned; by bisbop' 
Lloyd* Bishop Hpugh afterwards planted the grove, wbich 
surrounds it, now converted into an elegant sfanibbery. 
The late bishop. Dr. James Gornwallis, likewise cdntriboted-. 
greatly both to the healtbfal situation and ornament 4)f this 
rf»idence, by draining all the grounds in its immediate neigh- 

• Gough'f Camden, Vol. II. p» 5<)9> 
t LeUnd, speaking of this castle sajrt, " Eccleshall castle longlug lb tht 
Mio|t of Chester.** Tbi^ however, we iboald pici ame to be » mistake, as 


Hie church 18 not remarkable except i^ haying, been the 
place in which Bishop Halae concealed queen. Margaret, when 
•he fled hither from Muccleston. North east from the palace* 
at a few closes distant, is Byana, an ancient building, which 
was some years ago converted into a farm house. This edifice 
was long the residence of the iamily of the Bosf iles who pes* 
sessed the estate around it, as is evidenced by the inscripttons 
and atchievements on their monuments in the church of Ec-' . 
cleshalL Charles Bosvile, Esq. the last male heir of thit 
branch of the &mily, was sheriff of this county, and afterwards 
of Leicestershire, aboat the middle of the last century. 

At Peihall, a considerable manor within the confines of this 
parish, was the ancient seat of Robert, son of Gilbert, younger 
soa of R. de Corbeoil, a Norman who followed the fortuiies of 
Che Conqueror, and held the manor heref with its appurtenances 
from Robert de Staflbrd, by the service of a knight's fee. . 
Hence his descendants, laying aside their own name, assumed 
that of de Peshall. One of them, John Peshall of Horsley, 
also in this parish, was created a Baronet by James the firsts in 
the tenth year of his reign. In the course of the last century 
the manor passed to the earl of Breadalbane, by the marriage 
of that nobleman with the grand-daughter and heiress of the 
last Sir Thomas PeshalL 

Not far from this seat is WoiUm^ where is a high paved way 
which Dr. Plot regarded as a Roman via vicimaUt, 

The Biikop's JToocb, which are so called, because the pro- 
perty of the bishops of Lichfield, lie between two and three 
miles to the westward of Eccleshall. These woods contain no 
less than 1300 acres of excellent trees, among which is a con- 
siderable quantity of oak» nnd some fine underwood. The 
msnagement of them is at once variable and systematic. Some 
portion of the trees are cut at fourteen years' growth, for crate 
rod»and heads for the use of the pottery, others at seven years' 

«e do aol find k mentioned in soy other record, as hs? ing ever been in the 
potieMioa of that see. Leland't Itin. Vol. VL p. 36-7. 

9W ST4?Md«]]l8HIKftf. 

gnmk <W Adk'oifly. The tiniber trees are left a» nearly at 
an equal dlmuoe as^cilii be, from 40 to 80 on an acre; for the 
soilbcAng piMT they are but slow of growrth. Hence too, ill 
their^fnesenr condldeii/ they arfe mon yaldable to the owners 
than they could be in any other ; they are moreover beneficial 
to the public, both' b^taose they afibrd labour to many indi- 
viAoahi dnribg winter; and because without the supply derived 
from tbeni'to the potterM, the pbtters would find it difficult to* 
obtain fttadd'^ for the purpose of making crates to pack their 
'ware in; 

^oi^A/Ofl'ir»Kj immediately adjoining to the northern boun- 
dary of thiswood, is an ancient mansion surrounded with pisn* 
tadonSy clumps, and shady spreading trees, particularly syca- 
mores; This seat is the property of Shr Thomas Bronghton. 
On the opposite side of the road from the house rises a very 
fine premising spring coppice 'of oak. 

J^lb^eA^orA,' situated on the confines of Shropshire at the dis* 
tailce of five miles to the west of Eccleshall, is distinguished 
a»tfate«teneof'a furious comhkt between the troops of Henry 
the sti^th, commanded by lord Aodley and the adherents of 
the house of York, under the orders of Richard Neville, earl 
of Salisbury. The latter was on his march from Middlehani 
castle at the head of five thousand men, in' order to join £d« 
ward duke of York, then lying at Ludlow, under the pretence 
of settling the difftrences then subsisting between the houses 
of York and Lancaster, relative to the rightful succession to 
the throne. Margaret of Anjoo. however, the spirited consort 
of Henry, fearing for her husband's personal safety ind alarm- 
ed at the consequences of allowing these two leaders to unite 
their armies, directed lord Audley to intercept Salisb\iry on his 
march. That' nobleman accordingly posted himself here with 
that view, at the head often thousand men, collected from 
Cheshire and Shropshire ; whose chieftain were distinguished 
by silver swans, the badges of thair young prince. But noU 



mtlMtmdHig their superiority tfi' point of nmnber and the ad- 
vantage of choosing his position. The king's troops were cbin« 
pletely defeated by the military skill and dexterity of the Earl« 
who feigning to fly, drew him from his commanding position, 
and haying allowed the vanguard to pass a small river, which 
separated their camps, turned upon him before his army were 
enabled to form. The battle, however, was long and severely 
contested ; many persons of rank and a great nomber of in- 
ferior condition having fallen on both sides. Lord Audley 
himself was among the slain, as were most of the Cheshire 
gentlemen, whose heroism had indaced them nnwar41y to bear 
Uie brunt of the battle.* 

Michael I>raylon commemorates the slaughter of this day in 
the following lines of his Poly olbion : 


So hoQgrjr in re?«oge, thm made a rav'noua spoil. 
There Duttoa Datton kilU : a Done doth kill a Done ; 

A Booth it Booth ; and Leigh bjr Leigh if or?rthrown ; 
A VenaUet against a Venablet doth stand ; 

A Trootbeck figjhteth with a Troutbeck hand to hand ; 
There MoUneux doth make e Molincus to die ; 

And £^rton the strength of Egertoa doth try. 

A wooden cross was erected on the field of battle soon afler 
the action, to mark the spot where lord Audley fell, which 
having been thrown down by a cow rubbing against it, the 
Lord of the manor ordered a stone pedesul, to be placed there 
with the crosb upon it. The height of both together measures 

V0L.XIU. Nnn about 

• The aarl of Sallsbory did not long enjoj the loccess he bad thus so nobly 
obtained, having been taken prisoner at the brittle of Wakefield, in the 
year t4d0, and soon after beheaded. His three »ons All likewise fell in the 
field of honour. The eldest, Richard eari of Salisbury and Warwick, to- 
grtber vilh tlie third, John Marqnls Montacote, were slain at the battle of 
tosmet in ihe year 14ro. His secaed son. Sir Thomas Neville* met his fate 
in the seas action with bis lather. 

Slt6 vTAwyQMMmmm* 

$bwi three y vd* ; and on ibe easlern front of tfae pedintiil 
•ppean the following inscription : 

•' Off THIS ItfOT 



rw 1459; 










The village of Muccleston is situated on a rising ground about 
a mile to the north of Bloreheath. Subsequent to the Conquest 
the manor here was held by Kenning, one of the Taynes. It 
afterwards passed to the family of the Morgana^ of the west 
country, with whom it continued till the reign of £lizab*etb» 
when' it was purchased by Sir Thomas Oifley> Knight, lord 
Mayor of London in the year 1556. 

The church is an ancient edifice dedicated to St Mary ; with 
a lof^y square tower, from the top of which queen Margaret 
beheld the battle so fatal to her cause, which we have jual de> 
scribed. The living is a rectory in the girt of the noble 
family of Talbot. 

The parish of Maer, or Mere, lying to the north of Muc* 
cleston, derives its name from its comprehending an extensive 
lake, which forms the head of the river Tern, and flowhig 
Westward through the county of Salop, falls into the Severo 
about three miles below Shrewsbury. The manor here, to- 
gether with that of Aston, immediately adjoining, was tljio joint 
property of William de Maer« and Robert StafForJ.. After 


Ik« ta|M|i of several eenluries, onexif the Stefibrtfs excbwged 
hie ihMre of Meer with Ralph, the eon of John Maccleiieldj 
whose deecendaou sold it to John lord Chetwynd so that it 
now forau part of the projierty of earl Talbo^of Ingestrie. 

No spot perhaps in England is more prolific 6f Saxon an* 
tiqiihieethan thia parish. Tbe fortress of JBrnf or Burgh is % 
remarkable monument of thn kind. It is composed of a 
double trench and rampire constrncted chiefly of stone. The 
shape of this fortification is altogether irregolar, yielding to 
the figt^r^of the eminence on which it is placed, as is the usoal 
mode in British and early Saxon works of the same kind. Two of 
the angles . form a natural projection resembling a species of 
bastions* 7*be entrance to this fort evidently appears to have 
been situated on the side next to the present road. The isfn 
preach is very visible : It crepi up the steep sides ; and dividing 
in two branches one took to the left and the other to the rfight« 
To whom this fortress belonged is uncertain; bat the 
general opinion is thatit was<^onstrocud by Kenrid» king of 
Mercian as a protection against the invasion of Osrid the licen* 
lioua king of Northumberland ; whom Mr- Pennant calls ** a 
despiser of Monks, and a corrupter of Nuns." That monarch, 
we .are informed by Henry of Huntingdon, was slain in abab*» 
tie fought in this neighbourhood. The words of the author ar^ 
Oirid vera rex heUi w^ortunio juxta Mere pugnan$ nUerf(Xtm 
€3i^ Who was his opponent in this disastrous field does dot tqp* 
pear), but Dr. Plot* supposed it must liave been Kenrid, above^ 
mentionedy and not his cousin who succeeded him. It is pro* 
bable 4hat the Mercian monarch bestowed upon his vanquished 
foe the usual funeral honours, and interred him and his officeri 
with the respect due to their rank. Opposite to this fortresi 
are the (kamp-kilh, so called probably from having been thn 
situation of Osrid's camp, previous to his engagement with 
Kenrid. No vestigev of snch a work, however, are now vbiblOt 
Nomerous tumuli or barrows» oi difierent shapes, bowef er, ap^ 

NnnS peaf 

• PWt'sSiafedshirei'p.ioe. 

das tTAvvokDiRiai; 

^ear dispersed over ih^ various httis and heathy wtth nrfaieb 
the neigbbourliood abounds, and point out ielearly that some 
great battle had been fought there. One of these banwui, cal- 
led Ccplow, particularly claims attention, by its onf»mnion ex- 
tent.' It is of considerable bcigbt, and of a conical fiyrm ; and 
is doubtless the sepulchral monument of some great chieftain, 
inost probably that of Osrid. The other smaller ones we inay 
presume to be the burial places of those of his numerous follow- 
ers who shared the same fate with himself. 
> At Wilhwbridge, a small village in this neighbom*bood; is a 
incdiriual spring which was originally disco^*ered 'by lady 
Bromley. It was formerly celebrated for the great virtue of its 
watersj in curing a variety of distempers. Samuel Gilberti a 
physician of the seventeenth centtiry, wrote a pamphlet ex- 
pressly recommending them ; and, in consequence, this well was 
much frequented by persons from every part of the cduntry. 

Dr. Plot« speaking of these waters, says, that he counted no 
less thim sixty springs all rising within the space of ten yards 
square. The water, according to him, carries with it the most 
rectified sulphur of any mineral spring in the county, not' 
being as usual of a yellow colour, but clear as crystal, and 
only discovered to contain sulphur by chemical tests. The 
cures which it performed, whether by drinking it, or by using 
it as a balh, he represents as extraordinary, and seems to con- 
sider lady Bromley, as among the great beitefactors of the 
human race, for having discovered its sanative properties.* 

Throughout the whole of this district, the country was some 
firw years a^o full of commons and low hills, overrun with 
heaths, which served as a covering to a few black grouse. 
Latford pool between Eccleshall and Stafford, situated about a 
Bile south from the road, having been neglected, had converted 
upwards of a hundred acres into an extensive swamp or morass. 
A considerable proportion of these lands has been lately 
drained, and some part of them promise to become exceUeflt 


• Fist's Nat. fiisL Staflbrd. p. lOC-^3, 

nnadfcr jMd ; b«lin the liDiiiediate otfi^boarhood of Maer^ 
ifi paitjpolar^ the soil is so grayelly that it will be extremely 
diffici9lAt0.bTi^g it ia^o a state of high coltivation or fertility. * 

&ff tivKrioni a nea( village situated about four pi iles .north 

frapi £c^esball> was a royal residence in the time of the Sax« 

, 0^ Afterwards in the reign of Edward the first it was con^ 

atitnttda market by charter ; bat this pra?ilege has long since 

&Uea into disuse* 

-. The manor here, at the time of Htm Conquest, belonged to a 
pesspa called Aalaih^ who held it fromBobert de Stafford. That 
usdif idoal appears from Domesday to ha?e possessed no fetwer 
t^han ejghtyrone manors in this county alone. His descendants 
assumed the name of Swinerton, and many of them were per* 
sons distinguished both in the field and in the cabinet Boger 
de Sfvinerton, in the reign of Edward the third, had the honour 
of boing summoned to Parliament, and was soon after created a 
banneret« He it was who obtained the privilege of a market for 
tjus pla(^> as also a free warren^, and a bir. Edward the second 
Qm appointed him governor of Stafford, and afterwards of the. 
important fortress of Harlech in Merionethshire. Having dis* 
tinguished himself highly in these different services, he was 
appointed constable of the tower, and received an assignation 
oat of the Exchequer, of one hundred and forty five pounds, 
thirteen shillings, and eight pence, per annum. In this family 
the manor continued till the reign of Henry the eighth, when 
it v^as carried into that of Pitzherbert, by the marriage of the 
youngest daughter of Humphry Swinertbn, 'the last male heir, 
with William Fitzherbect of Norbury ; from whom the present 
proprietor is a lineal descendant* 

The Mansion house in which Mr. Fitzherbert resides is situ- 
ated near the church* on a gentle eminence, which commands 

N n n 3 very 

• Mr. ^enaaut infbrms us, that abont a cmtorj ago iht heath on thes* 
tHh brre wai made uw of to tnpply the place of hops ; a practice, he adds. 
I to this day, io the Hebrides or Westem^Islcs of Scotlaod. 

Feaaaat'i Jpufpey, p. 65. 

9ba STA9t«E»»SHll. 

Yery exten^e ritvv^ not aiilf «ver a greal portloii of tkfe 
connty^ boc orer Sbropiihire and Woreesterabire; In tkis 
house, is a very fine foil >ength picture of Sir John Fitaherbert, 
Knrght, The Scbool-house contains a remarkable coloital 
figure of oar Saviour^ sitting. He is represented aa in tbe act 
of shewing the wound in his side^ whirh he received on the 
crossj to Ills mcredoloasidisciple Thon»s, with tha viowof prov^. 
ing to him the fact of his resurrection. This statue was discorer- 
ed buriad at a little distance from ite present situatioib some fcw 
yeara ago, and is geaeraily supposed to have bean placed there 
in order to prereni its faUing a sacrifice to the fanatical seal of 
the reformers; who, in breaking down tbe images which filled 
tile jchurches of our ancestors, too frequently destroyed some 
of the noblest monuments of human art.* 

Swinerton Church has nothing remarkable, «iHier in itsarchi* 
tecture or interior decorations. There are, however, several 
monuments dispersed throughout it, among which is a plain 
altar tomb, supporting the recumbent figure of a knight crosa* 
legged, after the miomer of the knighu Templars. Under* 
neath appears the following laconic inscription : 



This town, situated almost on the confines of Shropshire, was 
formerly a place of considerable importance. It then possess- 
ed a privileged market; but has for many years been deprived* 
of that distinction. The appearance of the houses here is dn- 
commonly neat, and tbe town is further greatly ornamented by 
two very handsome seats, which occupy the grounds in its im- 
mediate neighbourhood. Thsee mansions are tbe property of 
Mr. Toilet and Mr. Fletcher, the former of whom is celebrat* 

* ' Fsitnritare of Catholicism, Part I. f YIU, puism. 

•4 lbriii$,wui)r imprttveai0muiik.4friculti»rf^i ^ad^arikolftrly' 
fiv'his irpnfrnt of the Mtdao Bhe«p» 

Tberenttimi of Bcafym iJ^I^ Quile, in thU neighbour* 
hood* are skoated oo a lofiy rock about a mile to the south eiiat, 
Caadea tell us that the iaods hereabout were gWe« by Harvey 
lord SlaffiMrd^ Henry de Aiditblege or Awdlegia, already mea* 
lioaed, in the reiga of king John. This Henry appears to have 
been the founder of the CBsde« He was flesoepded fron Wil* 
liam de Bettelegh or Betley, who besides Audley left him con- 
aiderable property in this yiciiiity. The Stanleys earls of Der- 
by were the descendants of this family, who were created Ba« 
rbns of Audley. Both the esute and title, however, afterwards 
went to the Toochets, and that faqnity atill continues to enjoy 

Audley, a small village about two miles to the nortk is distin-^ 
guished, as having given name, as well as title, to the noble 
family of Audley. This manor according to Camden was con* 
ferred upon Henry de Aldetblege or Awdlege, by TheobaM 
Verdun. Plot inform^s us, that traces of a very old castle 
could be discovered here in his time» which had either been 
built by the Betteleghs, whom Nicholas maintains to have been 
in possession of it before the Audleys or the Verduns> fhrni 
whom he says they received it. A4I vestiges of this edifice 
are now lost 


At this place, previous to the Con()uest> there seems to have 
been a town and fortress of very considerable coiusequence. By 
whom these, or either of them, w^re founded, is. a question 
wholly involved iu obscurity. The ^t,. however^ of a castle 
and town existing here at an eaxly period iSfU^douJ^ipd. Cam- 
.den tellpus, he saW' their ruins ^d shattered walls,, and Srdes- 

N n n 4 wick 

•Pi«i!»Nst. H^p.443. 

980 StAffOEMBlEK. 

wick tty«, thai he coaid fMrcctre the wtih bad bees of wott« 
derfttlstrengtb and thickness ; but Dr. Plot oould only tfUcover 
a few traces of Ibem, in the year 1680. In the reign of king 
John, the property of this place was vested in Randal earl of 
Chester, on whom it was bestowed by that monarch. It went 
to decay so early as the time of Henry the third, who baYiog 
granted it to his younger son Edmund earl of Lancaster, he 
butH another castle at a short distance from hence* and entirely 
neglected the more ancient one. 


This borough and market-town is situated on a branch of the 
river Trent, and derived its name and origin from the new for- 
tress, built by earl Lancaster as abovementioned, in the centre 
of an extensive pool. Of this castle scarcely any vestiges 
can now be discovered ; it having fallen to decay at least three 
centuries ago. Leiand says, th^tin hi»time the whole edifice 
was destroy edj with the exception of one tower.* 

The first charter of corporation, granted in fiivour of this 
town, is dated in the reign of Henry. This deed was afterwards 
confirmed by queen Elizabeth and Charles the second, with 
some additional privileges. In virtue of these charters the 
government of the town is now vested in a mayor, two justices^ 
two bailifis, and twenty four common council men, who po8« 
sess the right of holding a canrt, for the recovery of debts un« 
iler forty pounds. 

Newcastle sends two members to Parliament, and has done 
BO ever since the twenty seventh year of the reign of Edward 
the third. The right of election has several times been the sub- 
ject of parliamentary investigation, during the two last cen- 
turies. The first time the question was thus agitated was in 
IC24, when tli^ decision favoured ancient cuslom^ which de« 


Ltfknd*! Itm; Vol; VII. p. 96< 

tVAflMMSIftt- 9tt 

^Hani thai lii« free smr restdeou.did not forfeit tMr title torn 
▼ote« till a year and a day after tbey bad left the town. In the 
aubaequeiit contetu* ia I7t5 and I79i, the di«:ussdon was coa- 
fined to the qoestion of resident for a year and aday» thai 
tbey had actnaUy ceased to reside in the town, and was decided 
againat their claim. In tht urial of the last petition by Thomaa 
Fletcher, £sq»and Clement Kinnersley,£sq. against Sir Archi- 
bald Mac Donald and the honourable Let eson Gower, the lif- 
ting members^ it appeared in evidcSnce that a great part of this 
borough was the property of the Marquis of Stafford, whose 
influence directed the choice of the electors ; that it was found 
customary for the burgesses to live ten* fifteen, and eren taran* 
iy years in the houses, without payineot of rent} gnd that the 
then members were brother and son in law of that aoUeman* 
Upon the trial of this petition, the counsel for the petitioners 
stated the right of election to be Tasted in the mayor, bailiisy 
and burgesses, or fi-eemen, whose place of residence at the 
time of giving their votes was in the said borough ; or wha aa 
such time have no place of residence elsewhere, and who bava 
never been absent from the borough a year and a day, without 
interruption, since they were admitted to the freedom thereof 
or whose ramilies (if they were masters of families) have no| 
been absent for the space of time aforesaid, without mtervap- 
tion, after the time of the admission of such burgesses or free- 
men, having families to the freedom of the said borough. The 
counsel for the sitting members maintained the right of elec- 
tion to be in the freemen residing ia the borough of Newcastle, 
and not receiving alms or church bread ; and that persons liv« 
ing a year and a day out of the borough lose their freedom. 
The committee having considered these sutements, and ea- 
amined evidence, both written and oial, relative to the ques- 
tion at issue, determined that neither the view of the petitioner^ 
nor of his opponent in the petition, coincided with iact; but 
declared their opinion, that the right of election was vested 


994 nrAfP9%9$nMmt. 

<«4tt the frMmen reai^ing 4a tbe boroagk 4t * Newoaste miAtr' 

Tke sttoation of Newcastle is extremely pIcMant, and tiw 
bowes difplay considerable neatness of arcbitecture, and uni* 
fennity of arrangement. The principal sireel m particolar is 
spacious and well pafed. This town formerly possessed lonr 
clwrcfaesy of whick only one now remains, baring a lofty 
Square embtfttled tower, containing a chfrae of eigbt bells. Tbe 
otbers snflfered demolition daring the barons' wars, itfter which 
periods they were never reboilt. Besides the establisbed 
ebarch, which is only a chapel ry to Stoke, there are several 
Itteetlhg bouses fior Dissenters of different denominations. 

l*be Ahn9^hon9t$, twenty in number, were boilt and endowed 
by lUe Marqnis of Staflford and lord Qrenvilie for Uie assist- 
ance of twenty poor women inhabitants of tbe town. A nK>» 
nastery for black IHars is said to have stood in its soothern di- 
vistOB ; bdt no iestiges of this edifice can now be discovered.* 

The clothing trade and a faianofettory of bats constitute the 
Aief employment of the inhabitants^ and are <.-onsequent1y 
tbe pHneipal sources of their wealth, independent of the pot* 
series, whfbb shall be described in a subsequent part of our 

Work.*'"- ; 

Here is au excellent market place situated in the centre of the 
principal street. Hie market day is on Monday, when all sorts 
of provimns are abundant. £very alternate week a great 
beast market is held. 

An extielient device for the cure of shrews or scolding wo^ 
men has been freqtiently put in practice within the limits of 
this ancient borough ; abridle being fixed in the scold's mouth> 
which deprives her of the power of speech, she is led 
through the town, and exposed to public shame, till she pro* 
\nilies amendment. 

The immediate neighbourhood of Newcastle* is dtstingeished 
*M the sporting world, as containing a race coarse, which is not 

a little 
* Leland'»Itin.VoL Vfl. S6^ 

%rAWwonmm%%* 9SS. 

• Vntirn dangerous, oo accoQiit of ihettaneroaf uQllllad ^oal fills 
by which it is surrounded. Plot informs us, in his Natural His^ 
tory of the county* that he saw a solid block of stone raised 
from a quarry here, which exhibited the petrified skutfof a 
hnman being entire, most probably that of some malef^otbr who 
bad been executed here ; the spot where it was Pound behig 
sliU G^led Gallows tree, in memory of its ancient apptopriai 

• According to the pariiamentary returns of 1801, the popuhi-. 
tion of this town In that year amounted to 4495 persons, fix. 
S885 male*, and 9960 females, of which number 695 w«fe re* 
tnraed as employed in diflerent branches of trade and maimr 
factore, and three only in agriculture. 

The neighbouring country boasts several ancient and respeofci^ 
able gemlemen's aeat^ besides a great variety of modern ttian* 
sions, raised by the genius and energies of trade. Keel halt» 
io (Wfftieular, deserves the attention of the antiquarian architect 
and topographer. This edifice is situated two miles in an 
easterly direction from the town, and stands in an extrem«ty 
agreeable and fertile country. It is built in the same My Io 0C 
avthiteciure as Tixal, via. that in use about the time of quee^ 
Slixabeth. Dr. Plot has given a very excellent view of the 
vest front of this house, executed by that excellent antst 
liaehael Burghess. 

The coal trade carried on in this district is very ex- 
leneive. In order to frcUitate the conveyance of that valaajMa 
arlieie of foel, a canal was some years ago cut by Sir Nigel 
Greatly, from some mines on his estate of Kimpersley, to the 
town. A branch of the Grand T^onk ser? es in the same 
manner to transport coal from Harecastle to any part of the 

Proceeding down the river Trent, on its southern bank, the 
ttaveller arrives at the town of Drmikam, which Dr. Plot in- 
forms us. Dr. Fulfce of Cambridge regarded as the Bremetonacis 
mentioned in the tenth itinerary of Antoninus; bat the correct- 

t ness 

996 sTAiroaosBtBB. 

nclSB .of thU opinion is extremely problematical, as no' R<iman 
tem^ins have hitherto been discovered at this place. This viU 
lage derives its name from the river Trent, and gives title- to 
the Marquis of Slafiord^ whose noble seat here is one of the 
finest in the county. I'he house is of modern erection, and 
built after the model of the Queen's palace in St. James Park* 
One defect attends it, which is the proxnnity of the church 
yard to its entrance. The Enclosures which surround this man- 
sion are very extensive, and finely variegated by mnbrageous fo- 
liage, and extensive sheets of water, formed by the river Trent, 
which passes through them. These lakes with their accom* 
]Nmimentsof imperious shade, winding behind a swelling bill 
covered with trees which approach and hang over the margin 
of the water, have an efi*ect truly magnificent and worthy of 
the noble owner.* The higher grounds command extensive 

In tbis town there formerly stood a v«ry ancient nnnn«ry* 
The period of its fbondaftion is uncertain ; hot, in the reign of 
kang Elhelred, we find his sister, the celebrated St« Werbory, 
appointed al^beas of it. This lady died in the year 68S. From 
that time history is silent concerning it, till towards the dose 
of the reign of Henry the first, when it is said to have been 
tebvilt or refoonded by Randal, second earl of Chester, for 
canons of the order of St. Augustin. Mr. Erdeswicke indeed 
basards a conjecture that it was actoally refoonded by Hagb 
Lupus, in the time of William Rufus, and subsequently only 
augmenied by Randal ; an opinion not entirely destitute of pro- ' 
bability. After its renewal the priory was dedicated to tbt 
blessed Virgin Mary and All SoinU. At tbe ssra of the dissoln- 
tion it had seven Religious, and possessed endowments to the 


• Ace^rdiag to the aotlior of tiie Topognpher, the lakes here bnAe Iheir 
bsnks abpiit fifly years ago, and 90 stocked the lower divinon of tbe am 
with fish, that the very ditches and meadows, for federal miles aroond, weie 
comparatiTclj ^led with them. 


aaoum of 19U. 3ff« 9tL per umoni* Sabteqntni to tbal event 
the «ite w«f gnmted by the king to Cbarlee deke of SuifaUu* 

In Jater times than the «ra of its aicmastery« Trentham be- 
came ntaias:kabU by the hurge shave it bad in the will of tbm 
charitable lady Calherine Leveson, daughter o^ Alice 'ducheia 
DeiHey^whOidied in 1673; leaving several esceileii^ eiMUnr* 
ments fur sopporl of poor widows and inhabitants in this and 
varioiis other places. That lady was the wife of Sir ftidiard 
LeTesoOt npon wrhose death without issu« his sister and coheir* 
carried the lordship by marriage to Sir Thomas 6ower» whose 
descendants were elevated to a peerage, and cootinned to re* 
side chiefly at this house.f 

PaiBoing the course of the river, about three miles below, 
we reach Dariamom This village is situated in a valley 
on the south bank of the Trent, surrounded by fertile pastorafs 
lands, and environed by hills which afford it an agre eab le 
sbelterj and add a pleasing picturesque charm to the scene. 

At a short distance from the village, is a hill called Bwy 
Bonk, the summit of which is crowned with the ruins of an 
ancient castle, or entrenchment of an oval form. The area ot 
this work extends about 250 yards in diameter, and is defended 
^y a trench and ramparts. The entrance ia on the noftb- 
w es t , and on the south side appears a conical mount, resem* 
bling a tumulus environed by a ditch. Mr. Pennant imagines 
this mount to have been fermed put of the ruins of some build* 
ings, and to have constituted .a sort of Prstorium to the occu- 
pier. Wulphere king of Mercia is supposed to have fixed his 
'Iwsidence here from the year 656 to 675 ; an opinion which de- 
rives some support from its old name Wlfercester. This hill 
is a most delightful spot in summer, abounds with rabbits, and 
affords many pleasing prospecu of the surrounding country. 


* Tanner't Kotitis. 
t $r John Ltttvm Gomtr, the fifth tmrooet* wu crested Baron Stettoe- 
ham in Yorkibire, Ifirch 16, 170f, Vitconat Trentban ui<l £«r! Gower, 
Jni; ath ir46« sad Mm^wH ef Stiffoid I76d. 

jn f«4fV01l»SHlBl» 

Tbe ca|i cfr tow Br. PUt coiumbn as the flepuldMre of ite Mn** 
ei^ monarch ; bnt thid idea is doobted by Pennant.* 

The ancient mansion of the Ations, called Aa&m BaU, ftnr« 
aoerly stood aboat three miles beneath Barlaston. It was a 
large.and magnificent edifice botk in the form of an half Hj 
and slaod in an extensive plot of ground surromided by a 
bread and deep moat« filled with wateo and having a stone 
hndge^i with, iron gates in its centre. This bridge led op an 
areata the front of the house, where the principal entraned 
was into the hall» a lofty and spactoos room. On the ontside 
of the moat were beautifal grass walks that sloped job all siddi 
to the margin of the water. Delightfsl gardens, richly stoi^d 
with a rarietyof fmito, stretched themselves to the north; to 
the -south: '* alvenaes of noble lyme trees spread their ample 
ahadts around the largest and finest bowfmg green imaginable ; 
Whicfoj since the desertion of therespectattle, has beenconven* 
cd into a place of public amusement to the neighbourhood To 
tb* ^'est extends a wilderness, ihe haunt of clamoi'bus rooks, 
who have long fixed their habitation there, and enlivened the 
once obarikiing bnt now melancholy scene with their annnal 
young. Behind this, nndcr the covert of a thick shade, as if 
id qoest of undisturbed quietude for the relics of the deM, 
Sir James Simeon built a large Mausoleum for the tntermentof 
himself and family, who were Roman Catholics. f'' 

The manor here was originally the property of the Hewn* 
ifighams of Suffolk. Walter, the last of tbe line, left two 
daughters; one of whom, the youngest, conveyed it by marriage 
to Sir James Simeon abovementioned. Of late years it became 
the property of Bdward Weld, Esq. of Lulworth castle in Dor^ 
setshire, as being the descendant of a daughter of the Simeon 

On the opposite of the river, at the distance of about three 
miles, stands the village of Burston. It is chiefly remarkable 


^ Plot's K«t. Hist. p. 407. Pennvnt't Joamej, p. 67. 
t Topogniplier. Vol, 1. 118. 

libebig ilieaileof an 4nei6iil akkpel ertfeled ih mmaofrf^ 
Bnfin second son of Wulpbere, who wos nmrdered at Ibis 
plaos by bis falber in coiMC<|«ance of hia having embraced^tba 
Obrislia» foilh. Thitfchapeh which was formerly HHieb fti6« 
qaanlML by the .piom^ it bow eDttreI]f daaolithed, thoogb Mr.* 
Brdafwtcfc speaks of it as steniltng when he wrote>hii iwirejr 

Stmd^ This tillage lies about half a mile to th0 eael «f 
Bafsien. Before the Conquest the manor hare was ihe proper^ 
€y of Algar earl of Mereia t bat aftor that ereni it fell into the. 
bands of the hing, who bestowed it apon Hugh Lopo^ eaH of 
C bee ti n From him it passed to WilMam de Malb^g or Nant**' 
wftch^'one of his barons. Adens,>rhe great grand^ughter of 
this WilHam, gave it to Warren 4le Verdon» whose daugbtei' 
Alditha conveyed it to Sir William Staffiird, Margaret, th« 
daaghier of one of the descendants of this latter gentleman, 
oarried it by marriage to the iamijy of Erdaswick, who posiete* 
cd it till the reign of iames tfao fir»t. In his time it was soiX 
to George Digby/ one of the grooms of the stole, by Geovgb 
Erdeswick his half brother. Mr. Digby's daughter placed ici 
by oft^rriage in the possession of Charles Lord Gerard of Brom- 
ley, whose grand-daughter by matching William duke of^ 
Hamiilon carried it into Haihilton lamily, by one of whom it 
was sold to Lord Han^wby, whose son, the present lord Har« 
rowby, still continues to possess it* 

The mansion house is a most elegant building finely situated 
on the declivity of a considerable eminence, which commands 
a very noble and luxuriant prospect. It was built by lord 
Archibald, on the site of a more ancient large half timbered 
edifice^ the residence of the Erdeswick familv. This house 

% Mr. Peonaat infonot ua tbats tsw ivtt reUtiire to this place wm the oo> 
eision of tbe fatal duel, in November 1719, between Jamn daka of HaoiU- 
tolb, sod lord Mohon, which termiattad ia the death of both eombsisali. 

Feonsnt'a Joomey, p. 00. 



MS Mnded by stroDgrwalband Adeapuool, wUeh fawfc t» 
stilt TiftiUe; and teyond it ihe sloping sides of the Uli 
art covered with a profusion of yoong plantations, in the most 
promisiag conditio^. The chorch irhich stands on the sanoiit 
^f this hilh not iar from the house, possesses nothing remark.' 
able ift iu exterior architecture ; but it contains a number of 
monuments some of which deserve particular notjoe. That 
in memory of Sampmi Erdesmdcke, the celebrated antiquary of 
the county^ is by much the finest. It represents a colossal 8- 
gure of himself in e recumbent posture, and dressed in a jacket 
with short skins and spurs on his legs. Above, in two niches^ 
appear his twp wives kneeling ; the one was Elisabeth Dikes- 
wel, and the other Maria Neale widow, to Sir Everard Digby, 
whose sen was the unfortunate victim of the gunpowder plol. 
The inscription on this monument is so extremely singular* 
that, though rather long, we cannot refuse it a place hi this work; 
"JKcenfct de Femon Bare de Sikroe 20 Wilfmi Conqucstoris 
PlstcrbammflBimiliar *de Vernon Holgreve el Erdeswfck 1086. 

Hocsibi spe In Xpo lesurgcndi 
pumitSampMOn Erdetufick Armi- 
ger. qui gen. recta serie ducit a 
Ruo de Vernon, barone de ^roc 
tempore guiMoqsl. 




Hujus ffilt et heres Hugo de 
Verno duxit fBlia ct haerede 
Rainaldi Ballioli^dm de Erde9» 
xvick et Holgreve dedemt ffilio 
Maltha uyu' ffil;' inde dicf fult 
de Holgreve. 
Vernon— 1 Vernon— Venion. Baliole— Vernon— 1 Holgreire. 


Ricardus (filius junor Mathaci de Holgreve tertij cum pa- 
ler illi Erdeswik dedisset nomen de Erdeswik stbi assump- 
sit reliquit et ex altera han-ede Guil. dnt de Leighton Tho- 
nuun.'^e Erdeswik genoit cijjus pronepos Thomas quarw 
tus, accepitin uxore Margareta unica fiba et Iieredero /ci« 
cobi Stafford de Sandon milltis cujus proava fuit AVda una 
ffiiiar et heredu Warini ultimi barouis de Sibroi proav. 
vero Guil, Stafford ffilius secund' Harvaei Bagod ex Meli* 
Stafford's ^^^^ Baronissae Staflfordiae quae fuit proneptis Roberti pri- 
mi baronis Siqffordiae qui Anglia GuiL Couq^uestore in«w 





Stafforde | Stofibrde I Staffifde f Cirfetwik SUffonle 1 Erdeswik I Mioabil 
• Erdetwik Cideiw. Clinton Enksvik 

Irdemtk Ba/mt 
Krdeswik Harcourt 
JSrdoMrik Orej 
Erdttwik Lee 

Sampson Erdawik. EBsabetha 

Elisabetha uxor prima fuit£iia se- 
. ^undactiinatrium heredum Hum- 
fridi Dikesw^H de ckureh Wwo€t 
iocom. M^aru^f aroHfieri ex 91m 
quinqae suscepit iilias Aktrgnf 
ciam nonduin nuptam, H€l«nam 
uxorem Thoroae Coyne de Wed- 
ton Coyne in comUata Sidgbfdiae 
Annigeria £lizabetham, Mariam^ 
ct Margeriam. orones supersUtes 
neodum enaptaa. 

Sampson Erdeswik. Maria Neale 

Maria uxor secunda fuitffiliase* 
cuoda genitaetuna heredu Ffhn- 
clsci Neale de &ay thorpe in comi-> 
tatuLecestrie armigert quae iiti 
pefMrtt Kclarclum et Mattteaum 
filios et Jv^hana ffilia ut priori 
marito Boerardo Digby armigero 
14 IfberoB enixa*€St, e quibus Eve* 
tardus, Joannes, Georgius, Maria« 
EHzabetlm, Ffranctsc.*a, et Chris* 
tiana, none sunt superstites. 

Tcmon Semper Virct. Anno Domini 160L" 

A pUitn nm^le tomb, altar sliaped, in honour of Mr. George 
^'B^y» presents the following inscription : 









• HOO B»T 









Vou XIIL O o o 


942 8TAFrOR2>8HI]L£. 








TP8IS IDIBU8 D1CKMDBI8 A. i X?**'"^^**^ 

( iEtatU sasB LXXXVI. 




De Bromley, 


Sampson Erdeswiclce, the celebrated antiquary of the county, 
whose Qionument we have already mentioned^ was bom at 


* The history to which this inscriptioQ relates, is thas given bj Mr, Pen- 
DBDt Id his Journey from Chester to London, in three sepsrate notes. " Gas- 
par Scioppus/' says that author, " was a GerinaR of great erndition, but of » 
roost turbulent disposition. He became a convert to Poperj in 1599« and 
natnrallv distinguished himself by u blind and farions seal against bis foroier 
religion, and even went so far as to recommend the utter eitirpalion of its 
professors. He was a fierce antagonist to Scaliger Causabon, and other Pro- 
testant writers ; and in his book, intituled £cc/esia«l/ciif, 1611, he attacked 
James I. in a very indecent manner. In consequence of this atfront, Mr. 
I^igby, and some other followers of the earl of Bristol, his ambassador t« 
Spain, attacked Scioppos in the streets of Madrid in 1614» where they left 
him frir dead. As soon as he recovered, he removed to Padua, dreading ano* 
ther attack. He-lived in continual apprehensions, insomuch that he ahnl 
himself up in his room during the last iborteen years of his life, and died in 
1649, at enmity with all mankind. He was equally profuse in his aspersions 
against Henry the fourth, in the book abovementioned, as he was of the Ei^ 
giish monarch. The refrency of France, in honor to the memory of that great 
princcKdirected it to be burned by the hands of the common hangman." 

Pennant's Chesten 

8TArroEl>8HlES« 943 

Sttidoiiy pd>OQt the middle of the sixteenth century. Fallen ia 
his Worthies of England, says he was descended of a right 
worshipful and ancient family. He seems to have been a man 
of considerable learnings and great accomplishments, no less 
qonspicuoos for his judgment, than for his industry. Being 
anxious to elucidate the history and antiquities of his native 
county, he began a work intituled *' A View of StaRbrdshire/' 
and continued it till the day of his death, which, as we 
have already noticed in the description of his tomb, took place 
on the llth April 1603. Fuller acknowledges being hereby 
much assisted in hb .investigations, not only respecting this 
county but antiquities in general. He repaired and new glazed 
this church.* 

The parish of Stow is situated about three miles eastward 
from Sandon, and at the distance of two miles from the river 
Trent. The church here, which consists of a small nave and 
chancel, was formerly distinguished by numerous monuments 
in honour of the noble family of Devereux ; but only one of 
them now remains. It is the tomb of Walter, first Viscount 
Hertford, grandson of the first lord Ferrers, and founder of 
the house of Chartley. This nobleman gained himself great 
renown in the wars against France, during the reign of Henry 
the eighth. Ilis bravery and good conduct in the naval attack 
upon Conquet in 1512 procured hira the honours of the Garter, 
from that monarch ; and his successor elevated him to the dig- 
nity of Viscount Hereford. His monument was erected during 
bis lifetime, and is a very fine specimen of that department of 
architecture. It is an altar tomb supporting a recumbent ef- 
figy of his Lordship in robes, with the collar of the garter 
round his nerk, his head reclining on a plume of feathers 
wreathed round a helmet. On one side of him lies his first 
wife, Mary, daughter of Thomas, Marquis of Dorset, and on 
the other, his second, Margaret, daughter of Robert Garnyche, 

O o o 2 Esq. 

. * Fuller** Worthies of EogUnd, Vol. It. p. 310. Camden calls him, 
" Teoerandae antiqaitatis cultor maximiu." 

944 ft^ArfORBftsmi. 

Esq. of Ky ngcton ffl SuOMk. The sides of thit i 

ornamented with six male and female figDn% the fbroMr be*. 

girt with swords. 

At a small distance from this tomb is another of akba rte i^ 
having the figures of two persons engraven open il^ bntso* 
matilated by time that the inscription is wholly illegible. 

The chancel floor contains a brass plate in honour of tk^ 
mas Newport, steward of the hoaeehold to Walter, first earl mt 
Essex ; upon which appears the following iascriptioa: 

3hi obifitm V|onMi jMvoH flnaigtrl: 

Cn / Thomas Newport coiiIrttQr %oc ttmmte* 
SDitifiiicottiifiiitttmertefeeamif; ^ 

Onem Deus tt (fCoetem, qntm pfaMa tabtnt 
iOanc UfHOm pomtit Viim Vagot 9r <&njp» fiBeb 2iwUm* tolt ff^fom 
ISetoport 9b; qnonoam ttnmttam %ofSjfmi prtnobi&d WSMM Cof 


Adjoining to this parish is Chartky, remarkable as having 
been for some time the residence of Mary queen of Scots^ 
during her unjust detention as a prisoner, by the haughty and 
jealous Elizabeth. The ancient edifice was built round a courts 
and great part of it is curiously made of wood, embattled at 
top, and the sides carved. In many places are the arms of the 
Devereux, together with devices of the Ferrars and Garnishes. 
Over the door of the gateway was carved a head in profile, 
with a crown over it. Several of the windows contained paint- 
ed glass, with various representations. The whole of this* 
bo.use was destroyed by fire in ]781, so that little remains to 
mark its site, but the moat by which it was surrounded. 

Not far from hence, on the summit of an artificial hill, stand 
the remain^ of the castle built by Richard Blundeville, earl of 



r ■ . 

'^. HV 



i - 

ClMtBTf In 1990^ on hU return from tbe Holy Land.* This for- 
tress seems lo have been very soon allowed to fall to decay, 
lor we find it mentioned by Leiand as being ruinoas in his 
tinie.f Its present remains consist chiefly of the fragments of 
two roundersi and a part of a wall which measures twelve feet 
in thickness. The loop holes are so constructed as to allow 
arrows to be shot into tbe ditch, exactly under the tower or in 
a horizontal direction. The keep appears to have been cir- 
cnlarj and fifty feet in diameterj a wall of brick having been 
laised on its foundations, and a summer house erected thereon, 
which has suffered considerably by time. 

After the death of Randle the founder, this castle, with tb« 
estates belonging to him, devolved on William Ferrars earl of 
Derby ; whose son Robert, having entered into the &ctioas 
Tiews of the Barons in the reign of king John, was defeated 
at Chesterfield in the year 1266 ; and consequently forfeited 
his estates to the crown. Henry the third shortly afterwards 
bestowed them upon Hamon le Strange; bat, notwithstanding 
this, Robert (lossessed himself of it by force, and the king was 
compelled to command his brother Edmund earl ot Lancaster, 
to besiege it, which he did, and took it after a very Tigorous 
resistance. Ferrars, however, was pardoned ; and, though de- 
prived of bis earldom of Derby, was suffered to retani this cas* 
tie. In this family it continued, till the reign of Henry the 
sixth, when Anne or Agnes, heiress of Williani lord Ferrars, 
carried it by marriage to the Devereuxes* earls of Essex. Ro- 
bert Devereux the last Earl, dying without issue, Charles U* 
declared Sir Robert Shirley, (who had married that Nobleman's 

O o o 3 sister 

* Todefray the eipenses of building this edifice, a tux was levied on all 

t Leland's words are« "Chaitloy the oldecastelf, isuoir ^n ruiue ; bat olde 
yede Randol, as rom say, lay hi it when lie buildod Deulencrcs abbay. Thi\ 
caslel sftn^efh a good flite ahol from tbe boildiBg, and goodly manor plaee, 
liwt sow ia tbcr aa the pvincipal boose of tbe Ferran^ and cam to them ba 
siaiHtadie by marriage. Tber is a migbtc Urge parke." 


sister Dorothy) lord Ferrars of Chartley. This Nobleman was 
af^rwards created viscount Tamworth and earl Ferrars by 
queen Anne. In 1754, the barony devolved on Charlotte wife 
of George viscount Townshend, whose son George succeeded 
her in 1770. 


This market town is situated on the northern bank of the 
river Trent, at the distance of seven miles from Stafford. Since 
the canal navigation between the Trent and the Mersey wsts 
effected, it has considerably increased in extent. It consists 
of one principal street, which is now a pretty good one, with 
a new market place ; and contains a population of 2035 per- 
sons, of whom 963 are males, and 1073 females. 

But what chiefly renders this town remarkable, is the reli- 
gious foundations which it anciently contained. Wulferus 
^ king of Mereia, whom we have already noticed as having built 
a castle at Bury Bank, founded a monastery here for canons 
regular of the order of St Augustine, about the year 670. 
This prince had been brought up in the Pagan worship, bat 
after his father's death became a convert to Christianity, and 
married Ermenilda, a Christian princess, daughter of Egbert 
king of Kent, by whom he had two sons Wulfad and Rofin, 
also a daughter named Wer burgh. In this faith he continued 
for some years, when he thought proper to embrace Paganism 
again, and educated his children in that religion. Wulfad, 
however, during a hunt, having accidentally entered the cell of 
St. Chad, who resided as a hermit at Stowe in the neighbour- 
hood of Lichfield, was converted to Christianity by that saint. 
Rufin, his brother, soon followed his example, and both joined 
in requesting their instructor to remove himself nearer to their 
father's castle, which he accordingly did, and fixed himself at 
a neighbouring hermitage. At this place the princes, under 
pretence of bunting, constantly visited him to receive his in* 


avArroRDSBtmB. 947 

structions, bat being discovered by Werebod« one of Wulfere's 
Fagan counsellors^ they were accused by him of apostasy to 
their father's tenets. This inhaman monarch having in vain 
urged them to renounce their new faith, watc:hed their steps 
so closely, that having traced them to their devotions he pUt 
them immediately to death. St. Chad, to avoid the same fate, 
fled to his former cell near Lichfield. To this spot Wulfere 
soon after repaired likewise ; and, becoming a sincere penitent, 
was once more converted tn the true faith, and abolished idola- 
try from his dominions. 

Besides the monastery, so founded by Wulfere, Ermenudo 
bis queen is said to have established a nunnery here, whose 
religieuse were dispersed by the Danes. Upon their retreat, 
however, they seem to have returned, or at least a new esta- 
blishment was formed, for there can be no doubt but that re* 
ligious existed here at the time of the Conquest Enysan, a 
Norman, is reported to have murdered the nuns and a priest 
here; but the truth of this statement is extremely questionable. 
He appears, however, to have removed the female votaries, 
and converted the house into a priory, by filling it with canons 
from Kenelworth, and making it a cell to that abbey. The 
church belonging to this institution was the place of interment 
of several of the StaflTord family, whose qfiagnificent monu- 
ment lay here till the dissolution, when they were removed to 
the Augustine friary at Stafford. A fragment of this house is 
still vbible on the road side, at the southern extremity of the 
town ; and at the construction of that road, about forty years 
ago, several subterraneous passages, connecting its different 
buildings, were discovered. 

The church of Stone is a new erecti^m, neat in its architec- 
ture, but disfigured considerably by the diminutive height of 
its tower. It is dedicated to St. Wulfad, and is a vicarage in 
the gif^ of the marquis of Stafford. On the north east side of 
the church yard, stands a large stone vault with two wings, the 
|>roperty of the Jcrvoise family; 

Ooo4 Thtrc 

There is in this town a Free and Charity school and an es* 
c^ellent endowment for the support of poor wido^frs^ the gift of 
one of the Leyisons of Trentbani. 

The village of Shcltan, lying at a considerable distance to 
the north of Newcastle-under-line> gave birth to EUjak Fadcm, 
a celebrated poet of the last century. He was descended from 
an ancient family^ whose estate was very considerable; aii4 
was the youngest of eleven children. It was the intention of 
his friends, that he should take orders ; but having, while at 
Cambridge, embraced principles inimical to government, he 
became disqualified for the church, by refusing the necessary 
oaths. Having, therefore, been driven out a commoner of oa*- 
tare, excluded from the'regular modes of profit and prosperi^* 
and reduced to pick up ^n uncertain livelihood, he engaged 
himself as usher to Mr. Bonwicke, a celebrated schoolmaster 
at Headley in^ Surrey, in which situation^ however, he only 
remained for a short time, having been appointed secretary to 
the earl of Orrery, who likewise placed his only son lord 
Boyle under his tuition. This young nobleman entertained 
a degree of friendship for the poet, almost amounting to vene* 
ration, insomuch, that after his decease he could scarcely 
speak of him without tears. After this he for some time kept a 
school for himself at Sevenoaks in Kent, which he brought 
into reputation, but was persuaded by Mr. St. John, with pro* 
mises of a more honourable employment* to relinquish it. By 
the recommendation of Mr. Pope, he for some time was placed 
in a situation, which held out to him the most flattering pros* 
pects* This was to assist Mr. Craggy then Secretary of state, 
in the studies which be found necessary to supply the deficien- 
cies of his education. The death of that statesman* however, 
very shortly subsequent to his introduction, blasted the hopes 
which he might otherwise have entertained. Pope again prov- 
ed serviceable to his friend, by recommending him to conduct 
the education of the eldest son of lady Trumbal, at whose 


tealv in the neighboorhood of East Hamstead, Berkshire^ he 
died on the 13ih July 17S0. 

Tbe death of Fenton was a subject of deep regret, among^ 
all men of taste. Even his brother bards greatly lamented 
him, being one of the few devoted to the muses, who have 
been fortunate enough to escape the malignant look of envy 
unhappily too often the foible of poets. Pope, in particular^ 
was severely affected by the event, and honoured him with 
the following epitaph : 

'* This modest slooe, what few vaio mortils boMt« 

May trolj say, here lies an honest roan, 
A Poet, blessed beyond a poet's fate«- 

Whom heaven kept tacred from the proud and great. 
Foe to loud pmise, and friend to learned ease. 

Content with science in the vale of peace, 
Calmly he look'd on either Ure« and here 

Saw nothing to regret, or there to fear. 
From Dal are's temperate feast rose satisfied, 

Tliank'd heaven, that he had Hred, and that he dy 'd.'* 

The first publication by Mr. Fenton, which made its appear* 
ance in the year 1709, was a volume of poems intituled '* Ox* 
ford and Cambridge Verses.'' In 1717 a volume of bis own 
was produced, and in 1723 his tragedy of Mariamne,* having 
received the approbation bf the managers, was performed with 
great applause at one of the London theatres. This piece is 
founded on the story related of that lady in the third volume 
d the Specutor, which the ingenious writer bad collected 
from Josephus. He besides wrote a life of Milton, of which 
Dr. Johnson speaks in terms of high commendation, and 
also edited a fine edition of the works of Waller, accompanied 


• Dr. Johnson tells us, that when shewn to Cibber, il was rejected by him 
with tbe additional insolence of advisiiig Fenton to engage himself in some 
employment of honest labour, which he nercr could hope for from his poetry. 
When tbt play was acted at the other house, however, Gibber's opinion was 
I lor the approbation of tbe public. 

966 ftTAvro&i»8H\ii£: 

with very valuable notes by himself. Snch of Fenton's poems 
as were not published in the last edition of his works are pre- 
served in " NichoFs Select Collection/' given to the public in 

The personal appearance and moral character of Fenton, 
as well as his meriu as a poetj, are thus given by Dr. Johnson, 
with that force and discrimination for which his name is so 
justly celebrated : 

'' Fenton was tall and bulky« inclined to corpulence which 
be did not lessen by much exercise, for he was very sluggbh 
and sedentary, rose late, and when he had risen, sat down to 
his books or papers. A woman, that once waited on him in a 
lodging, told him, as she said, that he would ' lie abed and 
be fed with a spoon.' This, however, was not the worst that 
might have been prognosticated ; for Pope says, in his letters, 
that he died of indolence, but his immediate distemper was 
the gout. 

"Of his morals and conversation, the account is uniform ; 
be was never named but with praise and fondness, as a man in 
the highest degree amiable and excellent. Such was the cha- 
racter given him by the earl of Oviery, bis pupil ; such is the 
testimony of Pope ; and such were the suffrages of all who 
could boast of his acquaintance.'' 

By a former writer of his life, a story is tuld which ought 
not to be forgotten. 

" He used, in the latter part of his tine, to pay his relations 
in the country a yearly visit. At an entertainment made for 
the family by an eider brother, he observed that one of his 
sisters, who had married unfortunately was absent ; and found, 
upon enquiry, that distress had made her thought unworthy of 
invitation. As she was at no great distance, he refused to sit 
at the table till she was called ; and, when she had taken her 
place, was careful to shew her particular attention." 

His collection of poems is now to be considered. The ode 

to the Sun is written upon a common plan, without uncommon 

f seatiments ; 


aentiments ; but its greatest feoU i« its lehglh. No poem 
shoald be long of which the purpose is only to strike the ftuncy, 
without enlightening the understanding by precept, ratiocina* 
tiooy or narrative. A blaze first pleases, and then tires the sight. 
Of Plortlio it is sufficient to say, that it is an occasional pas- 
toral, which implies something neither* natwal nor arti fie iab 
neither comic nor serious. 

The next ode is irregular, and therefore defective* As the sen- 
timents are pious, they cannot easily be new ; for what can 
be added to topics, on which successive ages have been em- 
ployed ? 

Of the Paraphrase on /sauiA, nothing very favourable can 
be said. Sublime and solemn praise gains little by a change 
to blank verse ; and the paraphrast has deserted his original, 
by admitting images not Asiatic, at least not Judaical : 
— — Kemraiiig Peace* 
Dove-eyed, and rob'd in white. 

Of his petty poems some are very trifling, without any thing 
to be praised either in the thought or expression. He is un- 
lucky in his competitions ; he tells the same idle ule with 
Congreve, and does not tell it so well. He translates from 
Ovid the same epistle as Pope ; but I am afraid not with equal 

Thomas Allen, a celebrated mathematician of the sixteenth 
century, according to Mr. Erdeswicke, was born at Bucknall, 
an adjoining village in 1542.* The same author informs us he 
was descended from Alanus de Buckenhall, who lived in the 
time of Edward the second; but few particulars are known con- 
cerning his more immediate progenitors. Where he received 
the rudiments of his education is uncertain ; but in 1561 we 
find him admitted a scholar of Trinity College Oxford. In 
15G7 he took his degree of Master of Arts, and three yean 
subsequent quitted the University, and retired to Glosterhall, 
where he continued his studies with great assiduity, and be- 

• In this optniou. Dr. Plot woald seem to agree $ but Fuller, Wood, and 
CamdfQ, say ]M wa« a natiTe of Unoietcr. 


came cekbratad for hit kaowledge, » an anfciquary and pbilo- 
sopher, particularly in the science of geometry* Upon the 
invitation of Henry earl of Northumberland, the Maecenas of 
the mathematicians of his age, he resided for some time at that 
nobleman's house, a circumstance which was the means of in* 
trodacing him to several of the first mathematical characters 
at that time in England. Robert earl of Leicester evinced a 
particular attachment to our author, and even offered him a 
libhopric ; but his love of ease and retirement predominated 
over his ambition. His great knowledge of mathematics, as 
not unfrequently happened at that period, drew upon the sus- 
picions of the ignorant and vulgar, that he was a magician or 
conjuror. Accordingly the author of a work intituled ''Leicester 
Commonwealth/' openly accused him of using the art of figur- 
ing to farther bis patron's schemes, to bring about a match be- 
tween himself and queen Elizabeth. The absurdity of the ac- 
cusation is manifest ; but, waving this, it is certain that the Earl 
placed so much confidence in his talents and secrecy, that no 
political transactions of moment occurred, in which he did not 
solicit his advice. Having lived to a great age in philosophic 
retirement, be died atGlosterhall in 1632. 

That the character of Allen for talents and erudition stood 
very high, is clear (rom the sentiments expressed concerning 
him by several contemporary and succeeding writers. Mr. 
Selden says, ** he was a man of the most extensive learning 
and consummate judgement, the brightest ornament of the 
University of Oxford/* Camden calls him, " skilled in most 
of the best arts and sciences /' and Mr. Burton, who wrote his 
funeral sermon, styles him *• not only the Coryphaeus, but the 
very soul and sun, of all the mathematicians of his time." He 
was curious and indefatigable in collecting scattered manu- 
scripts, in different departments of {;cience, which are fre- 
quently quoted by other authors, and mentioned as having 
been deposited in the Bibliotfaeta Alleniana.* 

* Plot* s Biit. Stair, p. S76. Gent. Biof. Die?. 

Th# wwImI town of Ibrndky, siHiat^ about twa miles Minh* 
cast from Newcastle under Line, is distinguished for ttie db» 
gMce of it» churchy which i» hoiU o( brick ; and aarmooated 
bjr a a<|aar0 totPer« one hundhrwd feel high. It was founds kk 
the year 1788> aod is said to have cost ufkwacds of five iboaBanil 
pounds* ia its erection. Saturday is the market day, vhea pvof 
vision* of all kinds are supplied in abundance. There aso herai 
ak« Mothodisi and Dissenting meeting houses. 

▲bout a mile to the southwest of this town is Eiruruh Ihor 
superb mansion of Josias Wedgewood» Esq. who is so justly 
Qslebrated* for his numerous and valuable discoveries in tbe 
art of pottery; which have not only greatly contributed te 
the ornament and convenience of ordinary life, but have bean^ 
the means of assisting the progress of chemical investigalioss 
Wedgewood's crucible is one of the most neoessary and «iO<* 
fol inventions in the apparatus which that science requires for 
its prosecution ; and his pyrometer is perhaps the only instra* 
OMiit we have, capable of measuring high degreesof heat with 
)ny tolerable accuracy. 

Lane End, in this vicinity, is a thriving market*town. The 
oburch is of modern erection of brick, built apparently in imi« 
tation of ths(t a| Handiey. Besides the church, there are here 
feveral places of public worship, appropriated to the meet- 
ings of Method ista and Dissenters. The market is held on 

Hilton^ situated about three miles to the north east of New« 
oastle, is remarkable, as having been the seat of an abbey of 
<^istercian monks, founded by Henry de Audley, in the year 
1333. This monastery was granted at the dissolution to 
Sir Edward Aston of Tizal. 

Stoke, which lies between thisplaoe and the river Tren^has 
been lately rendered a market town. The market house is a 
ipery handsome building, and is furnished with all the accom- 
modations requisite for its object The church is an ancient 



edifice, in the Saxon style of architecture ; but posMSses no 
featores of peculiar interest. 

The market town of Btirf/Inn, is finely situated on a gentle 
eminence, to the north of Newcastle : and at the distance of 
U8 miles from London. This town is the largest and most 
populous of any in this district, containing, according to the 
parliamentary returns of 1801, a population of 6578 persons; 
▼iz. 3201 males, and 3377 females, of whom 5886 were re« 
turned, as being engaged in different branches of trade and 
manufacture, and 243 only in agriculture. A market is held 
here twice every week on Monday and Saturday. The market 
house is a neat edifice of modern erection surmounted by a 
clock. The church is an ancient structure with a massive 
square tower at one end. Here is also a Methodist meeting 

The district, which we have just described, is usually distin* 
guished by the name of The Potteries. They reach from Lane 
£nd> on the north east of Newcastle under Line, to Golden 
Hill, which lies upwards of four miles to the north west of that 
town, including altogether an extent of somewhat more than 
eight mileb. This manufactory is perhaps superior to any of 
its kind in Europe, and does not yield in point of usefulness 
to the celebi^ted potteries of China. As has happened with 
every other branch of trade, however, it has been much in- 
jured by the war, its productions forming in time of peace a 
very important article of exportation. 

The parish of Biddufphf situated almost at the north west ex- 
tremity of the county, presents some curious remains of 
antiquity, which are worthy of particular observation* The 
principal among these, are the Bridestones, consisting of eight 
upright free stones, two of which stand within a semicircle, 
formed by the other six. The exterior ones are placed at th« 
distance of six feet from each other. Some antiquaries luppose 
that the circle was formerly complete, from the circumstance 
of there being an appearance of holes, where stones have stood 


in pDsit^fws fitfrmmg aootber aemicirele, cootiniied fnm the ex- 
Ireme pointoof the setnicircle of sloaes. West from this spot 
may b^ seen the pavement of a kiud of artificial cave, com- 
posed of brokea fragmento of stone, about two inches and a 
half thicks Under them, to the d^pth of six inches* is laid a 
quantity of white stone pounded ; the upper surface being 
tinged with black, pro.bably from the ashes falling through the 
pavement, which was covered with oak charcoal, and 8om« 
•mall bits of burnt bones. Two large unhewQ free stones 
about eighteen feet long, and six high, forms the sides of this 
cave, which was likewise formerly separated into two divisions 
by a stone five feet and a half high and six inches thick* hav^ 
ing a circular hole cut through it, about nineteen inches and a 
half in diameter. The whole. was covered with long unhewn 
-flat free stones, since, taken away. The height from the pave- 
ment to this covering measured five feet ten inches. The en-, 
trance was filled up with stone and earth. 

At a smalt distance from this cave, were two others of similar 
construction*, but smaller, and without any interior partition. 
These caves were covered with a large heap of stones, aboat 
mie hundred and twenty feet in length, and twelve in breadth* 
The stones having been removed, at different periods, by 
masons and others, for various purposes, left the cells open for 


UTTOXETER. This town is finely situated on a gentle 
eminence, close to the western bank of the river Dove, at the 
distance of fourteen miles from Stafford, and one hundred and 
thirty five from London. It is a place of very great antiquity* 
and was probably a British settlement* even previous to the 
Roman invasion. A noble stone bridge is here thrown over 
the river ; and cpnnectsthe two counties of Stafford and Derby. 


9S6 MTAVMltiisiriaB; 

Much damage has been formerly sastatned by this Umn, flrom 
ftre ; but it ie now large and well bailt, having a market place 
ia the centre, with three streets branching out from it. The 
market is 00% of the first in this district of the covntr]^ ; for 
cattle, sheep, pig8> cheese, and, in general, every article of 
agricnltaral produce. This is owing to the extensive meadow 
and pasture lands in the neighbourhood, which are justly ea* 
teemed among the meal fertile and luxuriant England can boast 
of possessing. 

Uitoxeter and its vicinity, particalarly the latter, abound 
with iron forges, employed in the manufacture of that oseAil 
and valuable metal. Tbis trade has been greatly increased of 
late years, in consequence of the ^cility of communication 
the town now enjoys, by means of the inland navigation ; 
which connects it not only with the metropolis, but, directly or 
indirectly, with every port either in the eastern or western 

The town of Uttoxeter, from its lofty situation, is extremely 
favourable to health ; and hence instances of longevity fre« 
quently occur here. Sir Simon Degge, the celebrated aniU 
quary, writes on this subject as follows, in a letter dated the 26111 
<iS August 1736 : " In the three weeks I have been at Uttmce^ 
ier, there have been buried four men, and two women, one 
woman aged 94, the other 83, one man 91, another 87, aod 
another 82, and one young man of 68. Yesterday I talked 
with a man of 90, who has all bis senses, and walks without a 
stafi*; about a njonth since he had a fever, and was speechless 
two days ; his daughter is 60 ^ and, about six months since, he 
buried his wife» who ba(( lived 63 years with him, and was 
aged 85. In this town are now living, three men and their 
wives, who have had fifty three children, and each has the 
wife, by whom he had hfs children, now alive. They are all 
young men, the oldest not being above 60. I will only tell 
you that in 1703^ there died here three women, their years as 
follows : one 108, the second 126, and the third 87." 

9 The 

ltAFrOE]>8HI1lB. 937 

The trifling resemblance in sound between the names of the 
Slixon Vitok-^estre, and the Etoceium of Antoninus* at one 
time, led Mr. Camden to conjeetnfe that tbts was the Roman 
^tion^^ which every antiquary, Salmon excepted, has placed 
at Watt, as we have already noticed. It is hardly possible to 
avoid remarking on this, as on numerous other occasions, the 
extreme liability of a credulous or fanciful antiquary, to be 
deceived with respect to the sounds of words. Would all an* 
tiquaries, however, follow the honest example of Camden, they 
would often have occasion to say, as he does respecting the 
mistake into which he had fillen concerning the place of Eto* 
cffum:— *<'I was amused by mistaken conjecture/' A specieli 
of amusement to which all antiquaries are extremely addicted^ 
bat which they do not often like to confess. 

Of this town Leland* writes as follows : "Uttok^Cestrchz^ one 
paroch chirch. The menne of the towne usith grasing. for 
there be wonderful pastures upon Dov«. It longith to the erle- 
dom of Lancaster. A frescole founded by a priest Thomas 
Allen. He founded another at Stone in the' reign of Queen 

The Miftan family, remarkably for their attachment to a 
seafaring life, were residents of Hoilingbury Hail, in this 
parish. Captain Richard Minors, in Plot's time was proprie* 
tor of the aeat, which was squandered; and in Degge's time, be* 
longed to one James Wood. This Richard Minors distinguish«> 
ed himself considerably in the Dutch wars; and also against 
the rebels at Colchester. He followed his relation William 
Minors, who sailed eleven times to the East Indies.t 

The lordship of this town at the time of the conquest be- 
longed to the king, but was afterwards given to Henry de Fer- 
rers, whose descendants were subsequently created earls of 
Derby. Robert earl of Derby, being so unfortunate as to 
-uke a part in several rebellions against Henry the third^ had 

Vol. XIII. P p p his 

• It.Vir. 56. 
♦ V. ^ Not« on Plot, p. V5, vpud Googli'i Csiaden* Vpl. U. p. 516, 


bis wbole estates forfeited, after the battle of Eveabam. The 
king bestowed theoi upon Edmuod earl of Laocaater, bis 
younger sonj under a clanae of redemption upon payment of 
50000/. by a certain day. The oarU bowever, being ooable 
to pay thi9 sooi, the estates were confirased to Edmunds frooa 
whose family they passed by marri^;o to John of Ganiit, king 
of Castile and duke of Lan<:a8ter. 

The market day here is Wedneaday. 

According to the parliamentary returns of 1801 the resident 
population of this town amounted to 2779 persrms, 1975 male^ 
and 1504 females^ of which number 3»S00were returned as 
employed in trade and manufactures^ and 427 in agricuUare. 

The church ^ this town is an ancient edifice; nowise re* 
marlcable either for structure or easbellisbmentai There are 
here several meeting bouses for Dissenters^ and a free school 
founded and emlhSi by that celebrated mathemiltictany Tho* 
mas Allen, whose birth place we ^ave 6ked at Bucknal upon 
^ the authority of Mr. Erdeswicke* contrary to Fuller and Cam* 

den, who say he was bora bere« 

The la^te distinguished 4dmiral Lord Gardner was bom 
^v' ^ '^ -Jiere oii^ the 12th April 1742. H; was the eighth aon of 
. ni(ji.lHfiit*goionel Gardner^ of the 11th regiment of dragoons. 
Having at acw early period shewn a strong bias towards the 
nafal sernc^ he was rated, when 14 years old> as a midship* 
man, on board the Medway of sixty guns, then under the im« 
inediate' orders of captain Sir Peter Denis» an officer of diatiii* 
gttkbed .merit. In this vessel Mr. Gardner remained for two 
years, during which time he was present in an action, in which 
the Dug d'Aquitkine French ship of the line was taken. From 
the Medway, our young roidshipcefan afterwards accompanied 
liis captain, first on board the Namur, and afterwards into the 
Dorsetshire. In the former he served under Admiral Hawke« 
during the expedition against Eochfort ; and, wliile on board 
the latter, was present at the capture of the Raisonable, on 
wjiich occasion Captain Denis put in practice the plan now 
V adopitd 

' '.* .' ■ 


iiiDpted by ihe aew Bchaol, of not firing a s\^t hM tf U wHbtii 
^ fevr yards of th« eiMttiy's ihip. • lie likewise bore A ehare m 
ihe general eogagement^ which took place offBelUisle in 1769» 
t>e(ween the Brkiah aod French fleets, coQiiDaoded by Sie 
Gdward Hawke, aftd the MarsM ^e Cooflans* Mr. Gatdncri 
faavi»g ei0W been fife years in oon&tani service, was appointed 
Lieutenant on board of the BeUooa# after the customary exami* 
imtioQs. In this station he distiaigeished himself at the captare 
^ the Le Courageox, whereepon be was raieed to the rank of 
aaster and commander/ aad appointed to tho Saven of siz^ 
feen gonsu AfWr the lapse of four years, ho was made pott 
In the Preston of fifty gaos, which had been fitted out as tha 
flag ahip of rear-admiral Parry« whom he accompanied to ' 
Port Royal in Jamaica. During the whole time of his being 
stationed here Great Britain was aa p^ace with mli the nations 
of Europe, so that ihe only circiraistance which oocvrred, re« 
^eiring notice hi this sketch, was his marriage with Susannah 
Hyde, only daaghter of Francis Oale, Esq. a planter in Li- 
guania. This lady having soon brooght him a nnmerons 
family, and being himself ambitious of rising in the service, 
he made every efibrt to obtain an appointment as soon as the 
American contest began. Accordingly he was nominated to 
the command of the Maidstone frigate, in which he sailed for 
Ihe West Indies early in 1778; and, in the course of that year, , .-- 
was so fortonate as to make a rich capture on the coast ol ^ *j^ 
America. On the fourth of November he fell in with the 
Lion, a French man of war, having on board fifteen hundred 
hogsheads of tobacco, and after a severe action compelled her 
to terrender. With this prize he sailed for Antigua ; and was, 
soon after hts arrival, promoted by Admiral Byron to the com* 
maud of the Saltan of 74 guns. In the drawn baule which' 
Was ft>ught some time subsequent with the French fleet under 
Count de Estaing, off the island of Grenada, capuin Gardner 
led the van, and greatly distinguished himself. His ship, how. 
ever, soffered so mechi tliat he was ordered to Jamaica, from 
P p p t^ wheifce 


whence he shortly after sailed for England, when the SuYCanr 
was discharged. He did not, howeTer, remain long out of 
eommission, haring heen appointed to the Bake in the course 
•f a few months, with which ship he sailed to join the fleet m 
the West Indies, then under the orders of Sir George Rodneyr 
and was fortunate enough to arrive in time to participate in the- 
glorious victory of the twelfth of April 1783. On that memo- 
rable day, his ship was the first to break through the enemy's 
line of battle, according to the new plan of attack, suggested 
by Mr. Clerk of Eldon, and then for the first time put in prao^ 
tice. At one period of this action the Duke, in conjunction 
with the Formidable and Namur, bad to sustain the fire of 
eleven of the enemy's ships. Soon after this triumph the 
American war terminated, and peace continued for several 
years to shed her benignant influence over the several nations 
of Europe. During this period. Captain Gardner was employ- 
ed in difierent capacities. For some time he acted as Commo« 
dore on the Jamaica station, and in 1790 was appointed a'^lord 
of the Admiralty, when he likewise obtained a seat in Par* 

In the year 1793, having been raised to the rank of Rear« 
Admiral of the Blue, lie hoisted his flag on board the Queen 
of 98 guns, in which he sailed as Commander in chief to the 
Leeward islands. Soon after this event, finding the disputes 
between the republicans and royalists in the colony of Mar- 
tinico to run very high, and being earnestly pressed by the 
latter to efiect a descent on the island, accordingly Major 
General Bruce, landed with 3000 mei^ ; but that officer judged 
it expedient to re-embark again^ almost immediately, being 
satisfied that the republican party was too strong to afford just 
hopes of success, in the royal cause. Admiral Gardner now 
returned to England, and the following year bore a part in the 
action of the 1st of June, under the gallant earl Howe. On 
this occasion his conduct was conspicuous in the extreme, bis 
ship having suffered more than any other iu the fleet, with the 
9 exception 


exception of the Brunswick. In conseqaence« he not only 
was particularly thanked by the Commaucler in chief» but was 
appointed major general of Marines, and created a baronet of 
Great Britain. On the 2id June 1795, Sir Alan was present 
at the action off Port TOrient, Mrhen the French fleet only 
saved itself from total destruction by a timely flight. Two years 
after this event, when a dangerons mutiny had broken out al 
Portsmouth, he manifested a degree of firmness and resolution, 
during that trying period, worthy of his high character as a 
British naval oGTicer. From this time he continued to serve in 
the Channel fleet, till the close of the year 1799, when.he was 
sent with sixteen sa^l of the line, to reinforce the fleet off 
Cadiz, and in the Mediterranean. Perceiving, however, that 
little danger was to be apprehended in these quarters he re* 
turned, with nine sail of the line^ accompanied by the convoy 
from Lisbon. 

In 1800, we once more find him serving in the Channel fleet, 
but he was soon after appointed to succeed Admiral Kingf- 
mill, the naval commander in Ireland, being previously 
raised to the dignity of an Irish peer. This command he con- 
tinued to hold till the year 1807, when he hoisted his flag as 
Admiral of the Channel fleet ; which ill health, however, soon 
compelled him to relinquish. He died in 1810, and was bu- 
ried in the abbey church of Bs^th, with the grandeur and so* 
lemnity due jto his rank and merit. 

I/>rd Gardner's political career was not distinguished by 
any circumstance of great moment* He sat in three succes* 
sive parliaments* His first election took place in 1790 when 
he was returned one of the representatives for the town of 
Plymouth. In 1796 he was colleague to Mr. Fox, in the re- 
presentation of Westminster. On this occasion he was opposed 
by Mr. John Home 7ooke, whose wit, satire, and eloquence, 
were more alarming to the Admiral, than a shower of cannon- 
balls from an enemy's fleet. NotwithsUnding this circum* 
stance, however, he once more offered himself, as a candidate 

Ppp3 for 

Ibr the same city^ and was again successful. At thfs time Mr. 
Fox, in addressing the electors, said, " A noble Admiral baa 
been proposed to you. I certainly cannot boast of agreeing 
with him ia political opinions? bnt whom could tbe elector* 
pitch upon more worthy of their choice, than the noMc lord, in 
his private character universally respected, and a man who 
haa served his country with a aeah a gallantry, a spirit, and a 
splendour, that will reflect upon him immortal honour/'* 

Thia place also gave birth to Sir Simon Degge, an antiquary 
principally known for bis MS. notes on Plot's Natural History 
• ' of Staffiirdshire. He died at the.advanced age of 99. f 


Is a hamlet containing few inhabitants. It is situate about 
ibur miles and a half east of Uttoxeter; and is noticed only 
ibr i^-^.three pyramidal stones, which stand in the church 
yaird. . The inhabitants have a tradition, that these stones were 
originally set up to preserve the memory of a great battle^ 
fought belween the Danes and the English, in which the latter 
were victotieus. They moreover tell us, that one of their ar- 
mies wa^ totally unarmed; and that three bishops, whom these 

' itOhes lepr^sent, fell in the engagement. The middlemost is 
'fl^«'high''^t, but has no figure atttached to it, as have the other 
:j^o, dWthis tradition Camden renutrks, that he had not been 

' able to dbcover any historical evidence of its truth. Mr. 
;^Ough ct^ls the stones, funeral monuments, perhaps Danish. 
This is asserted without authority, however probable the coni 
jecturX The figures are rude and unmeaning* 

, ■ "s CHEADLE 

Isthe next market town to Uttoxeter, in this hundred. It 


* Imperial and County Annnal Rrgister, for 1810. 
t Goa§h*« Caiftden, XL p. 516, 

STAtroftDSRIEB. 96$ 

k pleasantly sitttated in a ? alcx bat is surrouiided on a)V sides 
by bleak and almost barren hills« compose^) of sterile gravel, 
distributed tn various large heaps. The lop of the titO on the 
west, ^fbrds abold and commanding view of the ^ighedt part 
of the town, even, as Mr. Pitt observes, of the chimney -tops. 
Owing to the public*&pirited exertions, and judicious manage- 
ment, of J^bq^ HoIUilay^ %iq. brd of the manor of Cheadl<^ 
many hilly districts in this neighbourhood have been greatly 
improved. CheadU Park, forming the hill just mentioned, is 
Ihree miles in circumference, and consists of thirty-three in- 
closures, which lett, on an ^^verage, at fifteen shillings per 
acre. They abound iii <^oal mine's of considerable value. 
That partj however, nearest the town, is still sandy and unim- 
proved. This park, from i^hich Lichfield Minster, though dis- 
tant twenty-seven miles,' may be distinctly seen, is much re- 
ported to as a pleasant walk. 

The hills, north and west of the to^*n, are generally com- 
posed of the same materials as the one just mentioned, upon 
an understratum of sand, or sandy rock; and (he herbage also 
consisting, for the most part, of broom, heath, whortleberries, 
mountain cinquefotl, matt grass, and hemp seeds. These 
barren wastes, observes Mr. Pitt, are pretty extensive, and 
not worth, he believes, Ti.ore than one shilling per acre, as pas- 
turage for sheep, or any other animal. Though this gentle- 
man is of opinion, that they are generally too poor and beg- 
garly, to be reclaimable by cultivation, for the purposes of 
com or pasturage, he has suggested some valuable hints, fur 
rendering these moorland districts valuable, when converted 
into coppices and plantations of timber and underwood ; and 
suggests that probably the Scotch and other firs, and sycamore, 
would succeed her^e. And, indeed, what Mr. Holliday has 
accomplished in the neighbourhood of Dillhorn is sulRcient 
proof that few, if any, of these uncultivated wastes, are realty 
incapable of being render«< highly valuable nurseries of tim- 
ier< tn the year ^1793, sire gold 'n^edal was adjudged to this 

P p p 4 gentlemaHK 


gentlemanj for haTiog planted, on iwenty*«igbt acres, three 
roods, and twenty-eight perches of land, 1 13,500 misced tim* 
ber trees.* Since that time other attempts ba?e been made, 
and with considerable success, to iropro?e tbes4 apparently 
barren wastes. The hints of Mr. Pitt, to which I have just 
alluded, are deserving of a place in this work. " Perhaps,^' 
says he, •' many other of our native timber trees might suc« 
ceed,. intermixed with these, (viz. the fir and the sycamore) 
as one would shelter and screen another. To give any auch 
plantations a fair chance of success, I should propose to begin, 
i)ot on the summits, but on the declivities, of the hills ; and 
as such first plantations increased in growth, to proceed with 
such fresh ones nearer the summit, till the whole should hn 
covered ; by which management the plants of strength and 
growth would be made to protect and shelter those of tender 
age. The putrefaction and rotting of leaves, from such plan- 
tations, would increase and enrich the surface soil; and as they 
came to maturity, the woodlands, upon plain and practicable 
ground, might be cleared and converted into arable and pas- 
ture land. If such scheme be practicable, which I think it 
certainly is by judicious management and perseverance, these 
dreary barren hills, which now convey an idea of nothing but 
poverty, want, and misery, would not only ornament and 
beautify the country, but, by furnishing it with timber and 
wood, answer the purposes of more valuable land, and enable 
an equal breadth of plain woodland to be converted to pasture 
and arable, without rendering the supply of these necessary 
articles uncertain or precarious." This sensible and judicious 
plan, founded on the true economy of nature, and the perfect 
analogy of animal life, to which vegetation bears so near and 
so pleasing a resemblance, would apply with equal force to 
many other distiicts; and, if perse veringly and extensively 
put into execution, would be of signal advantage to t^e agri- 
cultural interests of Great Britain. 

▼ ^v.Stebbiog Shtw's NQte in Pitt's AgricaU Sur. p, 7m. 

STArroKDsaiAS. $65 

Whilst we are on this subject of the wastes of the Moorlands, 
mnd as it has not been sufficiently adverted to before, it may 
he well to enlarge this apparent digression by a more extended 
and detailed view of the soil and natural products of this wild and 
romantic portbn of the county. The moorlands, as they are 
called, comprehend a large part of the north east district, and 
are usually described, as comprehending all that part north of 
a line, supposed to be drawn in an oblique direction from Ut- 
tozeter to Newcastle-under-Line. This delineation cannot bei 
better described than in the words of Mr. Pitt, who, in the 
Appendix to his interesting Survey, has given a somewhai 
brief, but upon the whole, very accurate description. Of tbi^ 
we can vouch with the greater freedom, from having ourselveis 
traversed most of the districts, which he mentions. 

The commons, or waste lands, between Cheadle and Oak- 
moor, (a place so named from being nearly covered with dwarf 
oaks,)* called High-Skuti Ranges, and Alveton-common, con- 
sist of an immense number of rude heaps of gravel, upon an 
understratum of soft sandy rock, thrown together without or- 
der or form, or rather, into every form that can be conceived, 
into sudden swells and deep glens, with scarcely a level 
perch : the mind, in endeavouring to account for their forma- 
tion, most conceive it owing either to some violent convulsion 
of nature, or some strange confusion of matter. This tract, 
impracticable to the plough, now rough, barren, and bare^ 
might be improved into woodland and plantations, and some 
open spots of the most favourable aspects might be reserved 
for gardens to cottage tenements, and cultivated with the 
spade and hoe. Above Oak^ioor, to the north, the plan of 
planting precipices has been executed. A plantation has been 
made there^ on a declivity as barren, rocky, and bare of soil^ 
as any before mentioned. This plantation, which is little more 
than twenty years old, is in a very thriving state, and contains 
^otcb fir, sproce, oak, lime, bifch, fiiUow, and mountain ash. 

A little 
* Note 5 in Pht, p, f6 V 

966 MAFVOftDftKmB* 

A little north of Oafc-moor, the lime-Mone tMwirj b^gina^ 
tod extends over a great breadth of country to the nortb» east 
and west« in many placet rising opt of the main surfaee in 
hoge clifft. The Weaver bills, already mentioned,* are €t>- 
▼ered with a rich, calcareous, loamy eai4h, csf>abie of being 
improTed into very good artible, or pasture land. These hills 
are composed of immense heaps of lime-stone, and are en- 
closed in large tracts by stone walls. Their height we have 
briefly mentioned bcfore.f On one of the sommits grows, 
indigenous, the upland burnet {poierium smguuorba.) This 
plant has not been deemed a native of Staffordshire. Tbe 
herbage of the^e hills contains many good plants, both grasses 
and trifoliums, but the hills are much overgrown with nneven 
lumps, covered with mots or lichen. 

Stauimoar, to the east, is a considerable vrasie on a limestone. 
Large quantities of lime are burnt upon Cauldom £ou^ and 
elsewhere in this neighbourhood, and there are marks of Ihae- 
kilns, formerly on Weaver^HUb. Lime is much used here as 
manure, being sometimes laid on ploughed ground, and at 
other times on turf, with very good efiect in fining such turf. 
It has been remarked, that after limlng'a coane tarf, white 
clover has been produced in abundance, where that plant hail 
not been observed before. The limestone here is intermixed 
with a proportion of gypsum or alabaster. 

The fences are for tbe most part composed of stone walls, 
often 80 constructed as to admit the winds, which are tometimet 
Tery high in these dittricts, to pass through them. When we 
werethere, we noticed, that the most compact waUt had received 
tbe greatest damage irom tbe weather. Mr. Pitt expresses 
himself wjlh some warmth, against this " barbarous practice,'* 
of nshig stone walla instead of quickset fences, which he says 
are much obeap^/ more darable, vastly n»ore beantifoland 
ovnamenlal, aiii make the country ainl clinrate more tempo* 
rate. This opinion, particularly with regard to the point of 


* Vide atiUu p. 7f 9. f Ubi inpra. 

sTArto&MBiKB* gSf 

#heapneM> 4me of Mr. Piti's aiiiiotatort» Mr. Siicyc(> of Bel< 
nonlinear Ltek« doos noloonfitiD. Ho remarks that itono 
walls were originally raised from the prevailing idea of conveni- 
ence and cbeapnem, in finding tbe material on tbe soriJBtce ; 
and be adds, no wonder -they should be continued ; and ii» 
many places, (particolarly low situations,) tbey are soperror to 
hedges. So confident, however, is Mr. Pitt, that quickset fences 
are infinitely superior, in every respect* to stone walls, that 
he is persuaded, \f tbe owners and occupiers of land would 
have so much regard for their own interest, and the symmetry 
and beauty of their coantry, as by degrees to do away this 
invention of barbarous ages» and a violence to Nature, by 
planting quicksets, to which the stone walls would be a fence 
and shelter on one side ; and if tbey would, moreover, attend 
to the other certainly very plausible and valuable improve* 
ment^ which he avggests, '« posterity will wonder why the 
country was called Moorlands.'' 

We will not here farther pursue Mr. Pitt's rery iageniona 
and pleasing account of the Moorlands ; but will notice the 
parts in succession as we pass along. ' 

Cbeadle itself has nothing remarkable, either in its history, 
or for remains of antiquity. The church, which is dedicated 
to St. Giles, is an ancient structure. The trade consists for 
the most part of copper, brass, and tin, works. The market 
is on Fridays, and is amply supplied with provisions of all 
kinds. The popubtion, according to the census of 1801, con* 
sists of 2,7M> inhabitants, via. 1-^71 males, and 1379 females, 
•f which number 675 were returned as being employed in 
various trades and maaaiactares, and 468 in agriculture. This 
velam is, however, certainly very erroneous; and much be- 
low tbe tmth. There were then 577 houses. They have in* 
ceeaaed very coiiskierably since that period ; and both this 
and other market towns of the Moorlands are gradually en- 
larging in proportion with the progress made in inclosures and 


$6% sTArro&dsniRB. 

Here are also a Free SchooL with a imall endowment, and 
meeting houses for M ethodisU and Dissenters of various de- 

Cheadlewas the ancient seat of the great baronial family 
of Basset, of Drayton, Blore, &c.* Oq this account it will not 
be improper to proceed immediately to some account of 


Avtllage not otherwise remarkable than as connected with 
this illustrious family of Bassets. Of the ancient mansion of 
these barons, scarcely' any vestiges can now be discovered ; 
its site being occupied by a modern farm house; Erdeswicke 
calls it '' a goodly house antient and a parke, now the seat of the 
BasseU of Staffordshire XX"* of the conqueror Edricus, held it 
of Rob. ^e Stadford. And SS^" H. III. William de Blore, who 
had married Agnes, daughter to Petrus Thornton, Clericus 
Hugonis Cotnitis Cestriae, was lord of it. 

"William Blore had issue by the said Agnes, Clementia* 
married to William, younger sojnne of Henry de Audeley and 

"William de Audolcy, and Clementia, (who had Blore and 
Grendon for her portion) had issue John Dus de Blore, who 
had issue Wm. Dus de Blore, who had issue Allayne, lord of 
Blore, who had issue Hugh Audley, lord of Blore and Gren- 
don in the latter end of Edward H's. tyme, whose daughter or 
sister, and heire (as I suppose) was married to John, the sonne 
of John Basset, or else, to Sir Henry Braylesford, knt. and 
his daughter and heire Joane, was married to Sir John Basset, 
Kqt. which Sir John Basset, was sonne to the aforesaid John 
sonne of John, and the first of these three was second sonne of 

• See !>ugdale'8 Bsironage, the Topograpber, Vol. II. p. 318. et stq. and 
toUins's Peerage b;- Sir E. Bridges, VIII. p. iiO«i et st^ 

STAffORDSniaB. 9^ 

Rat^, second son of William Bassett, Justice in Itinere« 33 
Henry II."* 

As this family is one of the most illustrious and most ex* 
tensive in this county, we do not suppose any apology is re* 
quired, for inserting a short account of their pedigree in this 

Tburstan, a Norman Baron, was the founder of the family 
In England. He held five hides of land at Drayton, already 
described, and had issue, Ralph Bassett of Colston and Dray* 
ton, lord chief Justice of England under Henry I, who, made 
many good laws, and was buried in the chapter house at 
Abingdon; leaving, behind five sons. Of these the eldesti 
named Thurston. Bassett, died without issue; the second son^ 
therefore, obtained the property. He had i^sue 1st. Gilbert 
baron of Hedendon, who married Egeline daughter of fie- 
ginald de Courtney, by whom she had issue Eustachia, wife 
of Richard de Camville, 3. Thomas who had the barony of 
Hedendon, and married Philip, daughter and heir of William 
de Malbane, by whpm be had Thomas, baron of Heden4on, 
who died S. P. PhiHppa who married Henry of Nevvboruugk 
earl of Warwick ; Joan, wife of Reginald . de Valletorty and 
Alice wife of John Bassett, who h^d several children, 3. Alan, 
Basset, who by Alice had 

1. William Ba^et of Pilkington in Oxfordshire, who mar- 
ried Isabel, daughter of William Ferrers, earl of Derby, SP. 
% Fuico Bassett, bishop of London, who died 44. Henry III* 
^. Philip, baron of Wycombe in Bucks, and lord chief Justice 
of England, married Hawise, daughter of John Grey, of 
Eaton, and l^ft issue a daughter and heir, Alice wife of Hugh 
Je Despenser# lord chief Justice of Hogland, who was. slain 
at the battle of Evesham, 9 Henry III. 4. Thomas Bassett« 
who died without issue. 5. William, died 18 Henry HI. 6. 
AHce, wife of Sir John Samford, patron of the priory of 


* £nleswicte'i Staffurdsbire, IUtI MSS. I99t), p. 86. 


pf0 ' tTAvreai»iRiKB. 

Blakmore. 7. «**--m^ wiCe of Drogo d« liontacute, wikow oC 

— — T- Talbot. ' 

Richard, lord of Weldon, Co. Northton, urbo manied Maud 

Nicholas, who held in Torkenden and elsewhere, of the 
honour of Wallingford, and whose sons forfeited all to king 
He»ry II. 

Thurstao BassetU ' 

Rkhard Batsett^ third son before mentioned, married Mand> 
daughter and heir of Sir Oeffty Rtdell, lord of Wettertng, died 
18 Henrjr 11. leaving istne Hugh de Ridell, lord of "Wettering, 
whose son Richard was father of Hogii de Rtdc11> iord of Wet«^ 
Mfing who roleaMd to Ralph lord Bassett of Weldon,«ll th« 
right which he had unto' lands, which were sometime Richard 
Bassett's, and 6efFrey'RideU*s his 96n; 

H. Richard Bassett to whom his mother gare the bsrony of 
Weldon, Co. Northton 1 king John 1199, father of Ralph lord 
BasMtt, who died 4® Henry III. father of Richard, who died 4 
Edward I. father of Ralp<i lord Bassett, who died 15 Edward 
III. father of Eleanor, wife of Sir John Knyf et, lord chanceU 
lor of England. Of Joan wife of Sir Thomas Aylesbury, and 
of Ralph lord B. of Weldon, who died 43 Edward III. father 
of Ralph lord B. of W. father of Ralph, last lord Bassett, who 
died S. P. 1408, 10 Henry IV. and was succeeded by his two 
great aunts, Eleanor (from whom the noble family of Knyvet is 
descended) and Joan lady Aylesbury, as coheirs. Sir Thomas 
Aylesbury, son of Joan, was father of Sir Thomas, whose 
daughter and coheir Elizabeth, married Sir Thomas Chaworth; 
(whence-' descended Sir George Chaworth, of Wiverton <Sk 
Kott. Knt.) and Eleanor, the other coheir, was wife of Hum- 
p)irey Stafford of Grafton, whence came the Staffbrds rf 
Blather wSck. 

Ralph Bassett, to whom his father gare Drayton, lather 

of Ralph lord Bassett of Drayton, father of that Ralph who 

was slain at the battle of Evesham, 50 Henry IIL father of 

I Ralph 


Salph who died 97 Edward 1. father of Ralph lorl &of IX 
knU of the Garten who died 1342, 17 Edward IIL father of 
Sir Ralph, who died V. P. father of Ralph, last lord Bassett, of 
]>ray toa, who died iMueleii, (whose barony afterwards became 
the property of George earl of Liecester). 

Wiliiam Bassett of Sapcott, who was sheriff of Warwick 
under Henry I. and Jostice itinerant of Lincoln, Nottioghani« 
Derby, Stafford, Warwick, and Northampton 117i(, 29 Henry 
UL to whom Gsbeitus BaasoTinus, gave the manor of Cheadle^ 
Co. Sta£ He had issue 1st Simon lord Bassett of Sapcott. 2» 
fialph Bassett, ancestor to those of Cheadle and Blm^ 

Simon lord Bassett of Sapcott, had issue Ralph lord Bassett 
of Sapcoti, who .was smnmoned in 1266,^ 51 Henry UL and 
was father of Robert a younger son, and of Simon Lord B« of 
$. lather of Ralph, lord B. of & living 1292. (2 Edward L) 
father of Simon, lord B. of & wbof^ied before 20 Edward UI« 
father of Ralph last, lord Bassett of Sapcott, who died abo«a 3 
Richard IL father of Alice, wife of Sir Robert Motoo of Pen** 
tletoo, whence came the Hwrringiong, and of Elixabetb, wife 
of Richard lord Grey of Codnor. 

Ralph, second son of Wm. lord Bassett of Sapcott, was lather 
of Robert a younger son, who held 12 Virgate terre in Not* 
^oghamshire and Derbyshire 1253, 38 Henry IIL (and waa 
£ither of Sir Wiliiam of Nottingham, &ther of Sir William 
Sheriff of Co. Nott. and of John. Edward L who was lather ot 
Robert 1359, 38 Edward UL and of William 135% and -— 
a third sen.) And ' 

Ralph Bassett (son and heir of Ralph second son of WU« 
Itam baron of Sapcott,) whom Ralph lord Bassett of Sap^ 
cott (his first cousin) gave 62 acres of land in Cheadle to 
hold of bint hy a fine 1271, 56 Henry HI. He had issue lst« 
Sir Ralph Bassett, of Parldiill and (Cheadle, knt. who in 1817, 
(11 Edw. IL) gave all his land to Ralph his son, who was of 
Parkhill and Cheadle and living 1331 (6 Edw. UL) without 
iaaue. 2. Joho Bassett of Cheadle, 6 Edward IL who left issue, 

* Sir 


Sir John Bassett of Chedle, Knt 44 Edward III. 6. Henry IV. 
who married Joan» daughter and heir of Sir Henry Brailes^ 
ford, Knt. by the sister and heir of Hugh Audley, lord of 
Blore and Grendon. By her he had issue (beside Edmund hi* 
second son, who died S.P. 1429, 8 Henry VI.) 

Rafe Bassett of New Place, (and Biure) and after of Cheadle, 
9 Henry IV. who married Maud, daughter and heir of Thomas 
Beke, and Alice his first wife who died 9 Henry V. and bad 
issue, Ralph Bassett of Cheadle, and Blore and Grendon, who 
married Margaret, daughter and sole heir of Sir Reginald De. 
thick, Knt (son of William, Treasurer of England) by Thomasint 
his wife, daughter and coheir of Sir Hugh Meynil, Knt. (who 
was seised of the manors of Langley, Kingley, Newhall, Hartis* 
home, and Staunton). She afterwards remarried Nicolas Mont* 
gomery son of Sir Nicolas Montgomery, knt. and died 1466. By 
facr first husband she had issue Ciceley, wife of Hugh Erdeswicke, 
(son of Henry) and William Bassett of Chedle, Blore, and 
Grendon, and of Langley, Co. Derb. 34 Henry VI. who was 
father of William BasseU, sheriff of Co. Stafford. 6 Edward IV« 
who died Nov. 12, 1493. He married Joan daughter and coheir 
of Richard Byron, son of Sir John, and had issue by her John 
Bassett eldest son, who married Elinor, daughter and heir of Sir 
John Aston, S.P. Ralph third son who married Elenor, daughter 
of Hugh Egerton, of Wrin€*hill, and had Margiiret his 
daughter and heir, wife of Sir Ralph Egerton of Ridley 
(grandfather of lord Chancellor Egerton). Nicolas Bassett, 
fourth SOD who married Elinor daughter of Sir Nicolas Mont* 
gomeryi S, P. 1492. And William Bassett of Langley and 
Blore, (second but eldest surviving son,) who in 21 Henry VII, 
gave lands to Rocester Abbey, for the souls of William bit 
father and Joan his mother. He married Elizabeth daughter 
of Thomas Meverell, the younger of Throwley (remarried 
to Henry Coleyne) by whom he had Thomas, father of Thomas 
Bassett of Hintes in Staffordshire, (who married the daughter of 
Chetwynd, 1583,) and Sir William 3a2ftsett» of Blore, Grendoit, 


tTArrom.MuiSr«. 9fS 

UkA Lmgley (bis sod and heir) who married 1. Annei danj^ter c^r 
Tbooiafl Cockayne of Aahbume, Co. D^rby, Knt and 2. babel 
daaghi^r and heir of Sir Rtchvd Cotton, by bit third wife He- 
leop daughter of Thomas Littleton^ by whom wa> Maud wife 
of RaJph OakoTer, of Oakover; bnt by his first he had Margaret^ 
wife of Ricbard Copwood of Tokeridge. Thomas Bassett (who 
married Helen, daughter of Cotes of Wodcote, S^lop, and was 
fiuher of Thomas Basselt of Fald Co. Staff. Hying in 1583) and 
William Bassett of Blore, i«rendon, and Langley, (his son and 
heir«) who married Elizabeth daughter of Sir Anthony Fitz- 
berbertof l<forbory, knt. and had issue, 

William Bassett of Blere and Langley, living 1588, who 
married Judith, daughter of Thomas Osten of Oxley in Staih 
fordshire, Esq. (widow of William Boothby, ancestor of tbe 
Boo.thbys, of Broadlow Ash, &c. baroneU;and, after her second 
husband's death, remarried to Sir Richard 6orbeU,) by whom 
be. had issue-^EIizabeth his sole daughter and heir, first nm^ 
ried to the Hon. Henry Howard, a younger son of the eai;l of Sof- 
felk; and 2dly to Sir William Cavendish, K. B. afterward dukA 
of Newcastle, to whom she carried this estate, and of- whose 
children she was mother. Tbe Duke's 2nd wife, who wrote 
his lilv, says '< tt^at when he was 22 years old, bis mother was 
desirous that he should marry, in obedience to whose commands 
be chose, both to his own liking and his mother^s approving, 
the daughter and heir to William BasseU, of Blore, Esq. 
a very honourable and ancient family in Staffordshire, by whom 
was added a great part pf his esute/' 

The ancient mansion of this illustrious family, as we 
have already observed, is now erased completely from the 
ground, so that scarcely a vestige of it can be discovered* 
It was standing, however, in tbe year 16G2, when iu win- 
dows were adorned by several coats of arms, and other embeU 

The chorch of Blore is ^ small edifice, mean in iu extermr 
architecture, but posseenng, in the interior, considerable re- 

VoL. XIU. Q q q mains 

• iiMn«$«f former ambelHsbment, partieulsrly iiim<^»of Ae 
' ilt«wtrious family of the Bassetts, which are^ bo"^veO'i«pid1y 

approacbing to cqmplete ruin. A«^few hrok«ii*>firagm«Bt8 of 
painted arma alone are now retnaiaing in the windovrs^ thoogh 

< in' iS0d there "was a great number very elegantly- exeeoted. 
In one of the south windows was iho: picture ^ WtUiam 

' Bassett, in his sarcoat of arms^ with the arias ef^ Coekt^^ne, 
quartered with Herthall on her mantle, kneelingb^fore acra* 

• eifix. Below ts the following in old- English letlere : 


,^,Ajnnjskvx(miB Bjus, qm i^tamfsnissi^bamfierifeceiu 


The same inscription, under a diSertnt coat oratms, was 
^placed at (be bottom of the es6t window ; and at the bottom of 
the* east window of the north aisle, was the pictnreof William 
Bassett/ Esq. and Joan his wife ; he in hissarcoat of Bxm, 
and she with the arms of JB^on 4>n her mantle» both kneeling 
before Sir William, with this scroll on their lips, in old'Sngliirh 
letters : 


' A flat stone of marble lying in the north aisle, on which 
were the portraitures in brass, of a man and his wife, there 
tvas formerly the following inscription, in old'EngTish letters^ 
mutilated fragments of which still remain r 



6TAFP0I11>8U1II«. 975 

^But the object most worthy of attention in this church. Is 
a noble altar tomb of statuary marble, which stands at the up* 
per end of the north aisle, inclosed within an iron rail. On 
this monument are three figures, each of them in a recumbent 
posture. Two of them lie together on a mattrass, the one a 
gentlemaain complete armour, and the other a lady, dressed 
according to the fashion of the age in which she lived. The 
' thirii figure is placed on a slab, about a foot higher than these* 
and represents an older .man, also in armour. Two females 
appear kneeling, at the heads of the two, lower, figt^res, bc\th 
'habited in bea^utiful flowing Vandyke costume, with girdles, 
pointed handkerchiefs, and easy yells over tb^ir faces. One 
of these .ladies 13 in the bloom of youth aiid beauty^ but the 
other is considerably older. A variety of coats of arms, and 
other ornaaiehts, fornverly served to beautify this ^ ^legjuit 
monument, which unhappily has been suffered to fall to decay. 
The following is. tbe only inscription now upon it : 

•'fiPItAPH. / .... 

Witty» wfa, #«lhiiit, Md'of piire'blbod 

Vfsm WilliaiB't ecnqaedf and-liift poumt iwbM ' . < 

Jn the tfmt IjfiM (fail) ni4oj • noble Losd* . 

That time bath lost in pajtoj thns Death** dfebt. 

In this anparalleird William Banett, 

But thy high virtuet with'lby aptient nume 

Shall ever twell the cheeks of glorious fa roe." 

The church is &>ery neat Gothic structure, on the paddock, 
%hicfa is well stocked with deer, and altogether afibrds an ex- 
anfple of peaceful industry and happiness, not often to be 
observed, even in places more apparently calculated to en- 
coorage tlie one, and inspire the other. The plantations are 
rapidly advandng, and the oak rising to a venerable perfec- 

Q q q 2 Almost 


Almost immediately adjoining Okeover, to be noticed skort* 
ly, is the parish of 


Containing about thirty houses, and two hundred inhabi- 
tants. This place exhibits one of the roost solemn and roman- 
tic pieces of picturesque scenery in the whole county, per- 
haps in any other part of Great Britain. It has been observed 
that, the seat of Mr. Clive, ((he property of John Port, Esq.) 
^* suggests the idea of a glen iix the Alps." Here the two 
rivers, the ITam/i^ and ilfanj(/b(^,' rise from under the lime- 
stone hills, under which they run for several miles, in separate 
E^treams. That these rivers during their subterraneous passage 
run in distinct streams, has been demonstrated by throwing 
pieces of cork wood into the streams above. The steep and 
lofty precipices, surrounding the Valley of Ilam, and forming 
an entire amphitheatre, are nearly covered with oak, and other 
wood ; and the pleasure- walks from the seat on one side of 
these precipices are w;oDderfully romantic and various. These 
walks, resembling shelves,, arQ almost perpendicularly above 
another ; by the side .of which, nature, with scarcely any as- 
sistance from art, has furnished a profusion of flowers of no 
contemptible appearance; amon^^st others, native geraniums 
of different sorts, particularly the Robertianum, also the cm- 
tavrea scabiosa, and many other showy natives. In a meadow 
over the water, the ramson, {allium urtmum,) a very gaudy 
flower, but po very desirable pasture plant, fioarishes in pro* 
fusion. The subterraneous rivers here are very comnderable* 
at least equalling the Dove, In a limestone grotto, and else- 
where, therjB are several specimens of what are exhibiied as 
petrified fish. These are, however, broken irregular (jc^gaxtnU 
of chert .embodied in the limestone rock, when jp a fluid 
atate,' which, swelling out towards the middle, bear some re- 


semblance to, and as the limestone is soder than the chert, 
most of these fragments project. Three or four good spt^ri- 
mens of these are shown to those who visit Ham, at the con- 
fluxes of the two rivers, wheie, by being much trodden upon« 
they project more than in some other other places.* These 
real or imaginary specimens of extraneous fussils have an 
appearance^ in some instances^ of having been originally fish 
of the carp or barbel kind ; but it must be confessedj that the 
aid of a pretty strong imagination is requisite in coming to a 
conclosion, that they are in reality genuine animal petrifac- 
tions. It is well known that even the most perfect petrifactions 
rarely exhibit a complete substitution of mineral for organic 
matter. The original substance^ whether animal or vegetable, 
la a greater or a lesser degree, is observable perhaps in every 
instance, either in the external or internal parts of the foasiL 
In shells and coral petrifactions, the original calcareous mat- 
ter is frequently seen covering the suriace, or remaining in 
small portions in the interna! parts,f and is readily distin* 
gtiished, although the substituted mineral, forming the princi- 
pal portion of the fossil, be also calcareous.^ 
It is also worthy of being remarked, in connection with tbese 
Q q q 3 supposed 

• Ap. Pitt. Agr« Siir. 
f There is a remarkable specimea of peuified corsl described io the Ute 
•zcellent and ingeoioas Mr. Martin's " Dcrh^ire Fttr^mctumip*^ Plate 
XVIIL Fig. t, S, See alto the same anthor's " Outlhtet af aa Atiempt la 
asia^^a hnowUdge of Estrantoui FoniU en Seitniifie PrineipUu," p. 11. 
I caiuiot kt this opportonity escape me without ezpresaing my extreme re* 
gret, in common with every other friend of his, and of Science, that Mr. 
Martin should have been snatched away at a period when bit labours, (and 
bit were labours indeed,) and his merits, were onlj beginning to be koown to 
the public, iu defiance of those obstacles, which an almost invincible diffi- 
dence and modesty, and a thouiand disadvantages of a local and private na* 
tare, raised to prevent them. In the author of " Pttrif'acim Herbitntia" his 
ftiends have lost a most agreeable and faithful companion, and science ^t^ 
lisefvl an4 indefatigable labourer. 

I Vide Perkimon*! Orimie JR^mami, p. 344* 

supponed petribctioQs at Ham, that fish, of all otb€r org^miaed • 
animal bodies, are most apt to lose their recent or primitiy^,, 
form and. texture: little more« generally, th^ the ^eUcbed., 
bones are preserved, as the vertebras, teeth, &c* , Sometixaea^ 
indeed, they exhibit the complete external appe^ance of thfi^^.t 
original, as those formed in Thuringia,\n a>itiiminoui,nifMriiMi^ 
But of those discovered in limestone strataj ^s in the slaty beda-r 
of Monu Bolca, Pappenheim, and elsewhere, oi\ly the sk«)er . 
Ions remain.* 

Though the remark does not immediately apply , to petrified , 
fish, it may be worth while to observe^ as. it mfy tend to ino- 
derate our faith, with regard .to many equally fanciful speci* 
mens, that the fossil Butterflies, Beetles, &c. so p<^mpoui^i 
described by some authors, particularly by Bichavda^ in. bif^i 
X^etter on this subject to Lbwydi ar^ nothing, more iban mm» i 
imperfect vegetQ^hlc remains.f Linnasus thought betteir of hist 
EfUomolithua coleqptri, which, thougb^h^ noticed itjn tbe V^- 
^eum Teuinianumf he did not mention it ampng .the Entom^lftth 
in the latest edition of his Syitema Nafw^tttX ; It shpuld jipl^ i^* 

I Mart. Ext. Foti. 80. ^ f Litbop. Brit. Lnidii, p. liS. 

t The origiQ of petrifactions hai aUbrded a tiibject for much ipecolation 
among the learned. Aboot the begbioing of the last centorj* the writingi of 
our English Natnralists wertf fiHed with disputes and contradictory opiaioQi 
en this hea^ ; many estreraing these prodactiont to be mere lusut futmm, 
while others ascribed iheir formation to an imaginary plastic power of the 
canfa, by which it was contended, stones, and other fossil sabstames, with 
the regnlar form of aoimals apd Tegetables, miglit be generated. Another ^ 
singolar theory of the time, proposed to explain the origin uf these bodies, 
was that of the learned and ingenioas Lhwyd, who sopposed eatxaneoos fos- 
filsto be generated by seeds and spawn taken up in vapour, and, after being 
precipitated in rain, deposited by the precolatyig water, in the crevices and 
fissures of ttie earth.— Here, according to this bypotheMS, meeting with a 
proper matrix, the seminal particles gradually expand, and produce Ibaul 
bodies, in form resembling ^e parent animals or vegetables. These fiuwi* 
|ul theories were opposed by icve^al philosophers of the same period, who 


STAVrO&MfilKS^ 979 

memtoned that ttie •pecimens ut Ilam, exhibit not the Bktteton 
oBly> but are thought by some to represent the entire Mbi 
«tttic» lof' the -prototype. 

The subterraneous rivenfjust noticed; after honiting uphens 
ibran two Tery fine cascades. From these pleasure groands vt$ 
fieir a I Tery bold and tomantic prospect of two hiHs, criled 
TKcifp Chudg waiBMUer, on either side tMeDave: The latter 
anly^is tn* thiscbantyr 7!|opp^ Chud beiA(^ in Dertiy shite; 
Bunster is one iiameniie heap ^ of limestofM^'ceTered- vith>m 
light earthy and is ^aihply stocked with rahbiist^ The htghesf 
aonnitof this* htU is estimated at SMyard^ perpendicularly 
lrom4he \Dbpr^ and the &li of the Dove from heliee to ThnUi 
IW yards mere. It is not, however, so high as the Wkavth^ * 

/lam parish is sdse noted for the tooab, weH,and ash,of SCJ 
B^rttaoi, who is said Jto hare confirmed the truth of his reK^ 
gioQs faith by many stdpendom miracles in this couMy. Thtf 
aacred ash was formerly much renerasedf and taken great caftf 
of by the commoa people, who had a notion that it wti highly 
dasgefous to break a bough- of it. Little, however, is now 
thevght of ^either the saint, or his tomb and weU* This would 
bans beeil tess to be regretted, if^ with our contempt of hki 
supposed superstitions, we bfld not,^ in the efiblgence of our 
superior light, lost sight of, and ' learned also'todesptsei hie 
sapef'^emhieAt i^irtoes, piety, and derotion. Opinions nriay be* 
ceme obsolete, religion never can; and it is always much- 
eader to laugb at goodness^ than to practise the self*dettial; 
which b essential to its existence. 

' Qqq4 lis 

I Uiat these clasiet of foitilf, were real organic bodies petrified j ot 
St Jeait stones, nioalded in cavities* previously filled bjr animal or vegetable 
natter. This Utter opinion is )nofr the' prcTailing one* For anforoiatioa o« 
thisinterestingsubjectj seethe workft of l{ay/Hoal>, Uka^, W^odwnd, Lfsr 
ietn ?Utt, llofton, UigK &c. And« for stitl more satisfactory inlormatioi^ 
yarkimton, and fd^x'm, already qnoted. Dr. Townson, hi bis PkiUnophjf 9f 
MintrMlog^g has m iflgemmu chapter oo this subjccL Chap. VIII. p. MO; 
•t If !• 


In a fpoiXo, Rear this piace^ the celebrated Congrtvt, who, in 
hU titans was considered as tbe prop of the declining stage* 
and as the rising genius in ' Dramatic poesy,* wrote his first 
^d best comedy, of the Old Bachelor. Mr. Congreye re« 
tired to this place, afler his return from Irelandt and thus 
amused himself, during a slow reco?ery from a severe fit of 
sickness, with which he waa seized about three years after his 
return to England.t If these barren wastes had been as cold, 
dreary, and uncomfortable, as some have described tbem to be, 
this sensible and ingenious poet would hardly have made 
choice of them, for such a double purpose, of recovery from 
9ickne8s % and the composition of a comedy, and that his first 
dramatic efibrt. Of which comedy Dryden said, it was 
|he best first play he e^r saw. Mr. Pitt remarks on this situa- 
tion, that ** it is very advantageous for composing : the shady 
|K>wer above, the murmuring stream below, the recluse and 
retired situation, without the reach or hearing of noisy intra* 
ders, all conspire to fix the mind upon its individual object, ' 
and enable it to send forth an effusion of its collected powers." 
9nt few of pur present dramatic writers either enjoy or need 
f uph helps to composition as these. The vicious taste of mo- 
dern times may more easily be gratified in the neighbour- 
hood pf horses and pageantry, and where paiot, tinsel, and 
Qtage mechanists, may readily be procured : " murmuring 
streams,'' and "9hady bowers,'' may well enough be dispensed 
with : for such plays as the Q14 Bqichehr are but seldom cuikd 

Mr. Gough, for what reason does not appear, probably 
through mistake, places Ilam iu Derbyshire.! 


• Memoirt of William C^ngreve, K»q. ^j Charles Wilton, p. 3. 
♦ Biographia Brit. Vol. IV. art. Congreve. 
t AraendmentBof Mr. Collier*t Faults and imperfect ciutiont, &c. from Ibo 
Old Bachelor, Doable Dealer, Love for Love, Mourning Bride. Uy tKa 
author of those Fla^s, p. 40. 

$ GoDgh'sCamdeo^ IL p. 417. 


Okeaver parish, with the small hamlet, of the same name» 
k remarkable chiefly for the barrows of Hallsteds and Arbovr* 
close in the neighboarbood. These tumuli Dr. Plot, as we have 
already noticed,* believed to have been originally formed of 
earth, which, by a subterranean heat, have been converted 
into stone. Against this conjecture there are several bsupera- 
ble objections ; and with respect to these barrows in particular 
there is one that must entirely destroy all such conclusions. If 
they had been formed of one solid rock, like those of Barrow 
Mill on Ashtoood Heath, less objection could have been made 
to Plot^s hypothesis. These tumuli, on the contrary, are com- 
posed of dtflerent pieces of stone, piled one upon another ; 
Salmon remarks, on this opinion of Plot's, that we have no pa- 
rallel instances of such an effect of subterraneous heat ; and 
asks, how should a subterraneous heat have been confined to 
10 small and regular a compass ? And why should not this heat 
rather consume the earth than petrify it ? why should it not 
have petrified also the bordering earth ? More probably, he 
continues, it is that they were originally stone, a heap made 
up by a body of men, or an army, every man carrying a sin- 
gle stone. These, in time, may have been concreted into a 
kind of rock, by the property of some stone, assimilating the 
earth that is contiguous. We see the same fields yield plenty 
of stones, though they are every year picked for the high- 
way. We find oyster-shells in other fields, with a stony crust 
adhering to a considerable thickness. In our eldest histories 
we read of piles of stones, heaped over a malefiictor, and for 
other memorials. These might be turfed on the outside for 
beauty, and the earth that fell into the interstices might be 
consolidated. We find some of a mixt nature, friable, ap- 
proaching as near to earth as to stone.f These observations 
are made principally on the tumuli of Aslrfwrd Heath, but 
they will ap^ply with equal force to those of Okeovcr. They 

t Vide inte, p. 848. t Salnon't Sum/, p. 5S5,5f«. 

S94 %TA VrORDSIflltK. 

** Her bdibMid iood followed* 
J0D.3K I745«ag*d63. 

" Thrice happy pair« in nu()tial love so tied. 
Whom death but for a moment coald divide ; 
Knowing this worid is not oor proper hcNU« 
Their wish was for that happier world to come* 

*' Scripsit Amicus et M6diciii» 

Dom. GtUielraot Browne, Egnei Aurstiifl.'' 

At some place in this neighboachood, but where exactly, 
is not known, was born John Dudley baron of Malpas, yis* 
count L'lsle, earl of Warwick, and duke of Northumber- 
land, in 1503. He was the son of Edmund Dudley, who^ 
was beheaded at the commencement of the reign of Henry 
the eighth, on account of his oppressions, while in the ser« 
▼ice of king Henry the seventh. As this execution took 
place, rather with a view to satisfy the people than justice, 
the friends of his sou found no difficulty, in obtaining a re- 
Tersai of his father's attainder, and his own restoration to blood. 
HaTing been educated in a style suitable to his rank, he was 
introduced at court in 1523, where his fine person and elegant 
manners soon rendered hrm universally admired. Shortly 
after this occurrence, he accompanied Charles Brandon, duke 
of Suffolk, in his expedition to France, and distinguished him- 
self so much by his gallant conduct, that he obtained the 
bonottr of knighthood. When Cardinal Wolsey came into 
favour, he attached himself to that prelate, and accompanied 
b>m during his embassy to the French court. After his down- 
fall. Sir John insinuated himself into the confidence of his 
successor Lord 'Cromwell, enjoying anpidst the various changes 
of men, aqd nieasures so prevalent in the reign of Henry VIII. 
the good graces of all, and the coivitant regard of his sove- 
reign. In the year 1542 be was ^jlected a knigbl of the most 
noble order of the Garter* and was elevated ito the dignity of 
an ^glisb peer, by the title of Viscount Lisle* Not long 

mfter Xhk, he received, the appoiiUnient of lord high Adnirfil 
of the kingdom for life, in which important station he perform^ 
ed many great and signal services- Henry likewise bestowed 
upon him a vast extent of the lands, rested by him'.fr^m the 
church/ and at his demise.napaedihim in hi^ will, one of bis 
sixteen executors. The duke.,of Somerset, however, 4ie 
young king's Uncle, disregarding this will, procured himself 
to be declared protector of th^ kiiigdom, .and set on foot a 
number of projects for hiso^qi^pandixement. Among th« 
first, was an attepipt lo get hif^ |)rio.tMc# Sir John Seyqionr, 
made lord high Admiral,- in 'whirh- be. prove4 suecei^fulr the 
lord L'lsle, of necessity,, agreeing to resign i}poi| the co^itiieii 
of being created earl of M^affw^ick* and made great Cbaipber* 
lain. Thi^ happened 10 February 1647 ; .and in the same. year» 
serionii insunpections having,lmken out in diflbrent districts4>f 
Che kingdom, his LordsUpr was sent to quell that in NoiMk, 
under Robert Ket, a tanker, whose army consisted of i^waids 
of ten thousand men. In the first engagement he defisafeed 
them with thejossof one thousand moiu and w«s.oa the .point 
of coming to a second, when be sent them a messagoi that 
** he was sorry to see so much courage expressed in 90 bad a 
cause, and that notwithstanding what was past, they might 
depend, on the king's pardon, on delivering op their leaders ;'' 
to thia message they replied that, " he was a nobleman of so 
. much wonh and generosity, that, if they. might have this as* 
. surance from his own mouth, they were willing to submit," 
Tbe£arl accordingly went among tbem, upon which they 
threw down their arms, and delivered up. Robert Ket and bis 
brother William, both, of whom were executed'. ' In the year 
following this event. Sir Thomas Seymour, having been attaint* 
ed and executed for strange practices against his brother, and 
. the protect9r now in the tower. Lord Warwick was once more 
appointed lord high Admiral, with very extensive powers. At 
this time so much was he in favour with the king and the lords 
. of the council, that nothing of imporunce was transacted with* 


otit'hts adyfce; to whtdi eircnBtetancetnay be attt^buted the 
release' of th^s ilokc of^SMkiersetfffchn tHe- to^^r, atrd his re- 

' storation 10 some degree ^fpdwer and* favour. ^Thii conduct 
Miieti pleased Hhe khig^ who/ 'in order to cement strongly 
the bortds-of friendfeMp 'betwecin these t«ro great men, pro- 
'fK)sed-a'marriage^ between lo^WarwickN eldest sbriandthe 
'Dttke's^atfghMr; which was sofefiniised fn his Majesty pra- 
seiice;M»ntbe3iHl<»f Jiuie, 1550. -The following year, lord 

*1)iraiiiW«k was coMllirted ^^tfi*rihitrshal of Sn^and, lord War- 
den of the marches, and duke of ^Northtiniberland. In the 

' ^ginning ti the lyear I^, the duke <if Somerset was 
tried, eonddttned, and exeetkt^d/lbr a conspir&^y against his 

Hfe, ti^^eapon befeaecee^cri'hhn'ai^ ^han^ellor of Cahibridge. 
Tbe diike df ''NetthYkBbetkmd'had now feache^d the high- 

' eftt' summit of^igfiity atid poWt* alli[>#ed to'i stibject by 

« libeeonstitation of Eni^llnd. ^Sirch indeed' was hfe ascendancy 
overihe yoang Monareb« Ibat 'he taled'him according to his 

•'pl«SBdfe. ' 

• Mom; 4»f >th« gi^t iMblliiy^ti^frre attart)>^i»'his interesU, and 
soch^as opposed- him were so^biinlbled «Md depressed, that he 
8eeB)^t4>hai^e<ef ety tbing' to hope; and'neehing to feaf . And 
this indeed, "Upon 'gddd ^r^uiids, while that kfng lived; but 
when he diseerntsd 'hfs'Ma|e^'s beftlth begin to decline, be 

• found it necessary to^codaid^n in what mamiec' he might secure 
himself 'and family. He f r6posed.ftnd concluded a marriage 
be%webn his fourth son lord ^Guilford Dudley, and lafdyJane 
Grey> eldest dvagbter of. the duke of Sulifolk, Which was cele- 
brated obotft twomoflthsr before the kiii]^«^eathi ^e had been 
for tome timecontriving<th«tpkinfol-'tl^ dispdsal of the king- 

- dom> -whieh he settle time after ^carried- tn4i6 esecution. In the 
>Parliamett^ held shortly ^foretiie death bf the king, be ptt>- 
'etfredii'oiocMiderable supply <to 'be granted; and, hi the pre- 
amble of the aet, inserted a dweetceiisare on the admlniitra- 
' lion ^ the dube of SeVnenraet. ff hen iltesolviti|g the Parlia- 
' ment, he applied himself tx> the king, ^ttfd -p^iikted 'ovt to bhn 
* the 

iherneeesrity of^8ettingA.aBide th€« eiaiitis «f tbe pk-inoess Mary 
to tthe' throne, on accmiot «f tbe^angers'thdt might' ensue to 
4he /BcotestantestablithmenV f^na the til4fgioiis|»rineipk8 she 
'jiad embraced. 

The.ymoig Moafirch waa easUp^re<^led>upontO'give coun- 

.teoance to this de?iatiob Irom bi^editary tao<;easi<m, being 

ihimself «ninii}yjiealoit9< on /the/ Protefltanir- cause. 'But though 

-this atep JVPaa- effisoted, tbere^ yet'reiiiiaiftn<0d «Moth^r dfffieuHr^« 

;Tbe .next h^r was >.the ^Qchess^ <if 'Suficflk/firbo^ niightita^e 

.aobs; and it seemed, tlyrefore, uttjust toe^ddefiht^in fit- 

-Tioar <«f her, daoghter. It -so- b.appeMied,'4i<m<eve^, <that 'tfte 

£Dadiess,beffSeiif:fo0wa0dkd tbe - plana ef the IMke/by gf«rhig 

up her right to that lady, and with this renunciation < the knifg 

/ma V satisfied. <Applio«lionwaa now -ihade U^ the judges for 

thoir . cfmsent, iwbicb, ^after 'mtieh ^hebitatton, «rismg 'froia 

iheir aens&of the itldgaitty of the* measure, wa8^tritimi&ely ob« 


lUpon ibe 4eatb of Bdward, theduke- was Anxious to ronceal 
lbei«¥ent'lbr 'soree time; 'but, finding that tmpraetfcable; he 
jmnedialely ^oarfied his da.ughtei--Hb']aw,*the lady 'Jahe,'to 
tbe Tesrer for greater seeurky,* and- had<ber procfarmed' Queen 
nn .the lOth J^ly 15ft8. The eeoacH now- wrote to 'Aie - lady 
Mary* requiring her submission : but they- were 'soon informed 
d^ .instead of complying, she had retired 'intf>' the Nortb, 
«vltere many of tbe*n«Mlity, abd vast numbers of the people, 
resorted to her standar«l. It was then determined to send 
•forces to compel her acquiescence to* the actual dynasty, and 
theooromand of these was to- be confided to the duke of Suf- 
folk. The qaeen, howerer, would not be prevailed upon to 
part with her father ; and the council, therefore, earnestly 
urged the duke of NorthimberlaiKibto go in person; but to 
this he was extremely unwilling, entertaining some well found* 
^d «u4>iciops of their fidelity, {lawever,ilM(merehed on ^the 
14tb of July, with an army of eight thousand men, and ad- 
vanced as far as St. EdmundVbury in Sufiblk, where finding 
7 his 

9M tTArFOiDfBlKl. 

his troops every day diminishing^ and no supplies afibrded 
from London, be retired back to Cambridge. Tbe council in 
the meantime having got out of the tower, recognised the 
title of Mary, and proclaimed her queen* This being quickly 
made known to the duke, he also had her proclaimed at Cam* 
bridge, throwing up his cap, and exclaiming, '« God save queen 
Mary/' All this show of loyalty, however, was of no avail 
fo him, for no sooner was that princess seated on her 
throne, than he was apprehended, tried, and condemned ; 
anad was accordingly executed on Tpwerhill, on/ the 93d of 
'August; having first meanly condescended to abjure his neli- 
-gioD, under the hope of obtaining a pardon, and being restored 
to favour. 

Such was the eiyd of one of the most powerful noblemen 
England has seen in modem times. To doubt the superiority 
of his talents, considering the rank from which he rose, and 
the age in which he lived, would be manifestly absurd. The 
integrity of his character will better admit of question. In- 
deed it must be admitted, that his great and good qualities were 
much overbalanced by his vices. He left a numerous issue, 
of whom Ambrose, and Pudley, became distinguished per- 
sons. Guilford lost his life, as well as his unfortunate lady, on 
the scaffold, for his father's ambition and indiscreti^, and to 
satisfy the vengeance of the bloody queen, whose reign, hap- 
pily of short duration, has fixed an indelible stigma on tbe 
English throne.* 

Returning in a southern direction, towards the neighbour- 
hood of Uttoxeter, from which highly important and intei^ 
esting objects had diverted us, we notice tbe parish of 


Five miles from Uttoxeter. This parish contains about fifty 


•BiQg. Brir. Plot. Hot. Sufferd. 


»TAYvaRp8aiftBi( Sest 

houses^ and three hundred inhabitants. There is nothing re* 
iQarkableherCj ^besides the venerable ruins of i^once extea« 
tiiKg^ Abbey. 'Bertram de Verdon, in 1176^ gave the Cister* 

tn. monks of Ai^lney^ Normandy, a pierce of groandra^ 
otes or Cb9tene, to b|iild ao Abbey, of. tbeir order, ^ 
e%y ears tbi|\ was removed to Croxden;^ where all the &mi1y 
' \ ik( the Verdons w^e.|ifterwards buried, as v^as also. the heart 
' yi king jQhn.f The Temains of this abbey are in a narrow 
valley, wat4(|ed, by a small ri?u)et# which supplied a mill for-^ 
Vnerly in the precincts. The west end of the church, the 
'"^ d^uth wall transept, part pf abe cloistisr, . the outer walls of the 
; chapter bouse, and some parts of the oChce^ may still be trac- 
' '.^d. The whole, in a style, o^ architecture .corresponding 
^ with the date of Its ioundaiion;^! the .windows being bncetr 
ahaped ; and the capitals/>f the columns foliated. In the gar« 
. den of one of the farm-houses is still preserved a stone cross* 
• ^ .about three feet in length, ending, in foUi^e at the pointo ; and 
having a crucifix rudely sculptured on one side; and a Virgin^ 
- which is now scarcely distinguishable, on the. other, ,,Il wa^ 
found near the east end of the church ; apd thoogh. the .scajp- 
ture, in most places, i^ almost obliterated, yet traces of gilding 
Kere observable^ in one or two places, when it was first di.«- 
' covered. The permanency of this kind of stone gilding is, 
' Vol.. XIII. Rrr truly 

-• Bp. turner's Kot. 498. Mag. Brit. 148, in Cough's Camden, II. 515. 

f Tbts aiogolarly unfortonate, and it must be confessed, in many respects, 
Bkocfc misrepresented king, dte<< at SwinAetd jthbty, in Lincohuliire ; his 
hotlif aras interred at TTarcester ; bis b^meU in Crwrfon A^^ ekwreh, in Lei^ 
cesteishire, the abbot being bis physician ; apd hit itmrt here at Crvxden, 
<See Kicbol's liist. of Leicestershire, Vol. II. p. 149, and Cough's Camden, 
. Vol. 11. p 515.) This was certainly making the most of the puor fallen 
Monarch ! Perhaps the most precious portion of his relict would be the 
hand chat signed Afegna Chiuia. Croxdeu may be welcome to t^ hurt, 
which reluctauUy, perhaps never cheerfully, contented. to the glorip«4 
deed. t 

t Dr. Richard Rawliiiton engraved the foundation charter of tbit alib^y 
IB hit pottessiou. Dr. Rawliasoo died in 17 5i. 

tf ttly astenisbing. On a stone chimney-piece» in OroAy^ltdl, 
Orosbf Squart, Bishopsgate St. London, now occupied by the 
extensive warehouses of Messrs. Holmes and Hall,* there 
ik¥t still visible considerable portions of gilding. The ig* 
Mrant curiosity of the workmen demolished many parts of 
it ; till their depredations were discovered, and prerented 
by the son of their employer. Croiby Hall, or Croiby Hoir«e, 
' was boilt by Sir John Crosbie, who was sherifit in 1470. It 
i8» therefore, not so old as Croxden abbey, by nearly three- 
btindred years. 

The parish Church, or Chig>eh of Croxden^ is a small 
building, whose style of architecture indicates its age to 
be coeval with the foundation of the abbey. It is valued at 
19L in the King's books ; and its patron is the earl of Maccles-' 
field, to whom the estate belongs. The abbey, at the rapa* 
cious Dissolution, was valued at 90L '5$. lld.-f per annum. 
It is iatd, that Cromwell, the hypocrite* destroyed this ab- 
bey. Several coffins, having no inscription^ have been dug 
up here. 

Near this place are two hamlets, named Upper and Lower 
Tean, both in the parish of Chcckley. already noticed. Be- 
ttreen these two hamlets is a spring of a somewhat singular 
character. It is denominated The Well in the Wdll, as it rises 
under a rock. It is said, but with what truth* may fairly be dis- 
puted, that this "unaccountable spring throws out* all the 
year round, except in July and August, small bones, of dif- 
ferent sorts* like those of sparrows, or small chickeos.^'*^ ^''^'^ 
has an extensive rope mana&ctory. 



• His Btnie bit tUt latter gentkntn it bceomei the writer of this never 
torepest, or to write, but witk s feeling of the noit sincere and ardent rt- 
Ipeet «iid«iteem. 

t According to Augdale. Speed says, 1031 6t. 5J. 
I SDgUnd*t Gisetteer, f nd Ed. 1778. Vol. II. art. Tcm. 

jUtAftomDMUaft. 99^ 


• Or« 4i it b tometiinei written OwemuU^ it a pariA ihtnt 
ta&lm mtiX of Cbeadle, contaiaing sboot 159 hootes, and 800 
ifthabitants. It is a vicaragei haloed in the King^s bo6ka at 7/. 
B$. ML Torards the latter end of the reign of Edward IL Sir 
VHliani de Carefwell» built a large and ancomuonly Strang 
«lone CgHk, at this place, and surrounded it by eictensire 
pond^ and a deep mote, with a draw-bridge. The heads of 
the ponds had square turrets, for farther defence of the place. 
li was, for a long time, the chief 'seat of the ancient and ndbie 
lamily of the Vanes, now extinct. The old Magna Britannia 
gif es the following account of this castle : «' Careswell, or Ca« 
irerswell, was, 30 Conq. held of Robert de Stafford, by Ern-* 
vlphdcf Hesding, but hatli long been the lordship of a family of 
ahatname, antient and gentile, descended probably from him; 
lor, in the reign of Bichard the First, one Thomas de Cares- 
well, knight, whose grandson, William de Careswell, erected 
ft goodly castle b this place ; the pools, dams, and houses of 
office, being all masonry. His posterity enjoyed it till the 
19th of Edwaid the Third, when, by the heir-general, it passed 
fsftmliie Careawellsto ^e Montgomeriea, and from them by 
the Gifibrds and PorU, to the family of Hastings, earls of Hunt- 
ingdon, who were owners of it in the la8t^:entury, [the 17th,] 
amd, aa we suppose, are sUlL The castle, in the beginning of 
that century, was in reasonable good repair; but was suffered 
to mn into decay (if not ruinated on purpose) by one Brown, 
the farmer of the lands about it, lest his lord should be at any 
time in the mind to live there, and uke the demesne from him. 
It hath been since sold to Matthew Cradock, Esq. in whose 
posterity it was in 1655, but is since come to Capuin 
Packer.'** This Matthew Cradock was the son of George 
Cradock of Stafford, a wool^mer^^hant, who was clerk of the 

Err« ipwM 

• MsgneAriCiiilfff* # 


BHize of this circait* He built a good house on the part of 
the 8ite< of the castle. Of this House Plot.f and Mr. Grose 
have both given engraved viewsi It was after this place had 
passed out of the hands of the Cradocks* that it became the 
property of William Viscotmt Vane, of Ireland, who possessed 
it in right of his roother^ the daughter and eoheif of Sir Wil- ' 
liam Jollifib, km. who married Mary, daughter of Ferdina'ndo, 
the sixth earl of Huntingdon.^ It is now the property of the ' 
Hon. Booth Grey, brother of the earl of Stamford. Leland $ 
calls it *' the castel or prati pile of CauenvelL** 

In Careswell Church is a monument^ erected to the nhemory 
of William de Careswell^ the builder of the castle* It bears ' 
the following inseriptiou : 

*' WiUiclmof de CareswellU :" 

This is at the head. Surrounding it is this distich : 

** Caitri stroctor eram, domibus, (bisisq ; cemento. ' * 
«' Vivis dans opcram, nunc clsndor in hoc moBumcnt^'' 

Anglice : 

*' I built this Castle, with its rtnpiers round. 

" fur the use of tb* living, who am under ground." 

According to Enleswicke, the following lines weresuhse* 
quently written on this monutaaent : 

•« William of Careiwell. her 1 je I, 

" That built this castle, and pooIe» hereby* 

*' William of Careswell hete tlioo mayest !ye ; 

" But thy castle is down, and tby pooles are dry.*1| 

It has been thought, that this latter portion of the stanza , 

was written to excite the attention of the owner of the castle . 

i '.' 
•I ' 
• Holland's Camden. 1>egge BIS. N. on Plot, p. 448. Eideswicke, p.^ 86. 

p^l^d Qough's Camd. 11. 507. 

' f Nat. Hiat. Staff. PI. XXXVII. 

) Sir E. Br>dges'i Collins's Peerage, Vol. VI. p. 6d0. $ It. VII. 36. 

^ I Mag- Brit V. p. 99. 

tTiirvo»DaBifii* S99 

Id its ntinoof attie, and to ioduce him to aotioe the -fapaeknia 
.coodact of his tenant Brown. The former poriioa« it will . be 
observed, is an imperfect translation of the original Latin 

. To the east, a little beyond CkeadU^ about three mile^ is 
ih«* parish of 


Sometimes called Alion, It contains aboot 160 bouses, and 
800 inhabitanUi. 
\ The church is a vicarage, whose patron is R, Williamson, 
'Esq. The village is a pleasant and agreeable place ; but its 
' chief ornament consists of the ruins of a Qutle, which in the 
reign of Henry II. belonged t6 Bertram de Verdon; from 
whom it devolved, with other estates,* to the Furnivalls, af- 
terwards to the Nevills, and from them to the Talbots. It now 
' belongs to the earl of Shrewsbury. It was destroyed by that 
'religious Vandal, Oliver Cromwell. The present remains con- 
sist of fragments of the outer wall, of considerable thickness, 
round a small court. These fragments stand on the natural per* 
.pendicular rock,t towards the small river Churnet. The ground 
to the water's edge descends with a very steep declivity. Below 
is a small piill to draw iron wire, and a little further down the 
river there is a cotton mill. The land opposite the castle is 
equal in height with the Casile Hill ; and not more than 100 
yards distant. | The valley here has every appearance, like 
many others in this neighbourhood, and various parts of Derby- 
'shire, of being made by some violent convulsion of the earth : 
probably by the great deluge of the Scripture. The true date 
«f the foundation of Alveton Castle cannot now be ascertained; 

Rrr3 but 

* Tha manor belonging to this fsukily contaia ed no lets than ten, some 
•aj fifteen^ villagei* 

t MS. femti »e« | MS. Ubi sopra. 

99» OTAfy^wMaistt 

IniftH kwap^fomit^ii^w b06a boHi aocatftirtiMrOmifjiMQ* 
Dr. Ptot* M(y vMmI ''qmckly after the begiimWig oflEAmsd U. 
AMiomCwU seems to hwt been built, bjr Theobald de Vev» 
don, as psay pretty plainly be collected from the Aimak qfOroa^ 
4^* The prodigious thickness of the^wallssbew kte have been 
a most magnificent and stately edifice. There is a viewof tbesa 
ruin9« as they appeared in 1769, in the Description of England 
and Wales-t 

BradUy is a parish, a liule to the north-west of Cheadie. 
There is a chapel here, which is a curacy. There are nol 
0iore than twenty houses, nor than eighty or ninety inhabi* 

Jhi^coii is a parish in the same neighbourhood, containing 
about qinety houses, and 500 inhabitants. The church living 
is a rectory, valued, in the king's books» at 9/. 6f. 8d In Uw 
cburch^yard there is one of those pyramidal stones which the 
Danes are said to have set op as funeral monuments of their 
most remarkable men. This method of erecting some memmio 
of those who in their lives have been dear to us is very pleasing; 
and might, if carried to a greater extent, and not confined to 
warriors and heroes, have a good mor^l effect. X 

Halet Hall, a liUle to the north-east of Ckeadle, is tbe seat 
of N. Kirkman, Esq. It was built by the grand-danghter of 
Sir Matthew Hale, and was so named in honour of his me^ 

Rocuter parish, four miles from Uttoxeter, contains about 
}70 houses, and 900 inhabitants. At this place there wu 
formerly an Ahb^, for black canons, founded and endowed by 
]pichard P^icoqn, in 1146; i^nd at the dissolution was valued^ 


♦ P.44S. tVoLTin. p.a?i. 

I See Mr. Godwin's last upgnlar, but withftl pleMiiif> little worl, ile 
fMatf OH Sepukhrtu A boo|[ though inanj timet lest, it one hondred tines bet* 
%tu then Lit Pi Utical Juitice, now hfif pilj /orgoUei^ witb tbe sjstes it was 
iotcnded to be? e iiitrpdacfid. 

WAvroEDsaiAi. SfiS 

lOMLpofsimiim.*^ Th]$ monasttry <»f regvlac anpMwas of 
tbe orderofSt Augostim, aod was dedicated to tlie blessefji 
Virgiii. Baooon was nephew to JUnolpb, earl of Cl^ffMr. He 
granted the Abbey to R. Trenthan ; and thead po^aesuons 
were confirmed by Henry IIL in |he thirteealk year of bis 
•ttign. At tbe soppreaBion it had nine nriigiooa houses attached 

Theroare now no remains wfaatever of this monastery. % 

The chorch is a small modem 8tractore» standing in tbe mid* 
die of a fields in which there is a tall slender shaft of a erosi^ 
having the edges rounded^ yet not itself perfectly cylindrical. 
Fret*wor]r runs up each side of it. In an oat-housCi nearly 
adyoinin^ there is a tapering stone ornamented with some- 
thing like a cross, with tri -foliated ends. It is abont. thsee 
leeft in length. To what these remains belonged canaot now 
be exactly ascertained; and baying no inscriptions, nor peca- 
liarity of scoipture, do not gif e any information of their age or 
Ibrmer appropriation. 

In tbe chorch there are se?eral monuments of v the Stafibsd 
fiunily. § There is a very extensive cotton manafactury here, 
belonging to BSr. Arkwrigbt. 

At no great distance fropa this place, yet not in this hundred, 
is a small place, called FM, or FinUd, which we notice only 

R r r 4 for 

* Bp» Tanner Kot fk S96. Dogdals sajt lOOj. ti . totf. and Speed up* 

t Speed menlioBs only eight «' Houct of IUligion»" in the whok eovnty 
(yu4 <• I^ichfield, Stsffoid, De ir CrotM, Cnudeo^ Tranthsa, Bnrtea, 
TaavoctK and Wonler-hnDpton. Tbeae votaries" be addsi «* sbniii^ tkeir 
Ibanden tree pieties, and heaping rp riches with ditdaine of the Laietiee, 
laid thenaelYei open as markes to be shot at; whom the baud of the ikilfnil sooa 
hit and quite pierced^Tnder tbe aime of king Henry the ei^h, who wlUi tech 
Berenewes in moit placet releeved tbe poore and the orpbane* with icboolcs 
and nmintenance Cot tbe training vp of yontb : a work» no doabc nKiit ac* 
eeptabte to God, sad of more cbartuble Tie to the land.*' Tketitrt •fGnu 
Miaiiu BookLcbap.36, ibl.6^. 

|MS,|P€act«s» >if^Biit.9.iea. Coogh'aCaMd.XI.p.ilf. 

906 ftTAPVOftOfrRlRBr 

' for the sake of mentioning the celebrated author of tb« Anato^ 
my qf Melanthofy, who, according to Dr. Plot,* was bom here. 
That' writer's words arc: "Robert Bartonf is generally be- 
lieved, by the inhabitants thereabout, to be bom zlFald in this 
county/ where I wasiBhewnthev^ry house, (asthey «ay) of his 
nativity. And William Burton, in the seWedge of bis picture, 
before bis description of Leicestershire, owns himself of Fold 
in this county, though Anthony 4*Wood says, they were bom 
•at lAndley in the county of Leicester. J" Fald, is a pleasant vil- 
. lage, but very small ; it is very near Tutbury, ali«ady de- 
scribed, and ought to have been mentioned sooner in this 

Branuhall is a small parish near Uttozeter, containing>be« 
' tween thirty and forty houses and 300 Inhabitants. It is a rec- 
tory, under the patronage of lord Willonghby de Broken value 

Proceeding from hence, in a northern direction, along the 
borders of Derbyshire, we again pass Rocester, just mentioned, 
and reach Henslon, a small bamitt, in the • parish d^^/vtfrdn, 
containing about 200 inhabiunts ; having also passed CrUgAtoH, 
another hamlet, about the same size. From Dentton we pro- 
. ceed to Presixoood, a small hamlet; and from thence to Eiias' 
ion, SIX miles from Uit&xeter, containing seventy, bouses, and 
SOO inhabitants. The living here is a vicarage, whose pa- 
trons are W, J). Bromky, and J), Dqvet^ori, £sqrs. . . 

Crossing the country, in a south*west direction, passiiig 
Alvcion, Bradlof, Croxdcn, Cheadk, and CheekUy^ we * arrive 
at the parish of Leigh, containing nearly 900 houses, and 850 
inhabitants. It is a rectory under the patronage of lord Bagot, 
Mr. Palmer^ the rector of this place, planted an appt entree here, 


• P. 276. 
f Mr. OoQSh, Additiofif lo Camden. Vol. It. p. 905, cslb bira Ihmax 

I Vide " BiAUTlEi/' Vol. IX. in Leicesterahire. 
i C^lifle's Topogrsj^ical pictionsry. 

from which, according to Dr. Plot/ be li? ed to gather 16 
etrilcet of apples in one year.- • 


bnow, under the judicious management^^of John HolUday, 
Esq. as peasant and agreeable a place as Imost others in thi 
county. We have already glanced at the extensive improve- 
ments a|id plantations of this public-spirited ^ntleman. Since 

. the agricultural survey, and the reprinting of those reports in 
1808« still further improvements have been made; and the 

, Moorlands altogether, under the direction pf a few more such 
laborious and indefatigable landed proprietors as Mr. Holliday, 
would shortly exhibit an appearance of comfort and fertility 
to which a great portion of these districts are at present 

The church is a vicarage, in the patronage of the dean and 
chapter, of Coventry and Iiichfield. It has an octangular 

Kingiky is a parish^ containing 140 houses and 700 in ha- 
bitants ; it is a rectory of considerable value, being rated in 
the king's books at .16/. I5s. patron S. Hill, Esq. This part 
of the country has of late years been greatly improved. Many 
thousand acres about Marredge, Ipstona, and Dillom^ which 
a few . years ago were barren and dreary wastes, have now 
been enclosed and cultivated. The plantations, principally 
by Mr. Holliday, of DUlorn, Kingsiey, and Oakmoor, are oF 
a very great extent* Diilorn-xvoods alone form a chain of 
three or four miles in length, consisting of tall straight oaks 
and ash, in general so well filled up with underwood, as to 

. be cut in gradual falls, ^t seven years' growth. Eighty.four 
acres of wood will admit of twelve acres being cutannoally ; 
^d will produce, when sold to the potteries for crates, seventeen 

, shillings 

•Nit Hist Staff, p. $95. and MS. n. Degge, si cited by Gduzk. 

99 nAW9^9MMim^ 

■bllingf per acre pe? anniiQ), for the noderwAod cnly ; wluft 

tb unplanted bleak bills are not worth more than three cr 

JQir shillings per acre.* It is neither irrelevant nor nninterest- 

kg to pursae these obsenrations on the culUvation of the Moor- 

Juids* Mr. Holliday has described it in a pleasing manner.f 

<«The eaat*sideofi>i//om-A«aM/' he observes, ** was cultivated 

with potatoes, after the heath and gorse bad rotted^ and been mizt 

with lime and compost. The crop of potatoes was so.aboadanl 

as to admit of many loaded waggons being sent in the winter into 

Ihe Ticmity of the pottery, about six miles from Dillom. The 

quantity was not only immense, but the quality in so high re* 

pnte, as to produce about two-pence a bushel above the common 

viarket price. In this part of the Moorlands the potatoe-bar* 

▼est is of great consideration, and the dO«000 artificers and 

yeomanry eat very little wheaten-bread. Give a cottager 

in the Moorlands, with a wife and ten or twelve children, a 

cow and a rood or two of potatoe-ground, and you make him 

a happy man.'' This observation was made in 179SL The de* 

structive nature, and expensive operations, of war and its 

depopulating effecU, have rendered the remark somewhat 

inaccurate, or too strong. Fewer children or more cows and 

potatoe*groundj even in the present stilt farther improved stale 

of the Moorlands, are now, we fear, essential to the happiness 

of these cottagers; admitting hi^piness, agreeably to the 

remark of Pope, t6 

lie in thtes wocdi : Health, FeacVy siul Gampfltenesb 

Yet the poor inhabitants of these parts are certainly not 
asore wretched than others; nor perhaps is this term wretch* 
edness applicable to any of the industrious classes of English* 
fluent either here or elsewhere; and there is, moatasnredly, 
not a Ultle of pleasing truth in the further statement of Mr. 


of the Society of Ai««»VoLX. p.91.elss|. 

Hoffiday, wlio pAHsecdb to tay, coftcemiiig thi* rappowd luipi> 
py OQitegerr with a wife, ten ar twelve cbiMren, a cow aad 
two food ofpotatoe-^gTonnd, that he gote to hit daily labour, earna 
moaty to pbrchase clothings* &c* for hit largo faansly; the 
yotmger children collect the dung and toil from the pnhlic 
roads, for the improvement of the potatoe^groand> and the in- 
dostriooi dame, witlr her ttonter children, keep the groand 
clean, and attend to get in the potatoe harvest, the chief 
support of tlieir family, about nine months in the year. 

In these Moorland parts of Staffardshire, it has been stated 
how comfortably many thouasnds of poor people live by ihe 
wholesome addition of potatoes to their ordmary food. Bat 
bow striking is the contrast in some public instttations in or 
near London ! For instance, the children belonging to Chrialfa 
koapilal in London and Hertford amount to about 1000* The 
aUownnce of whcaten bread is a pound ea^h day to each chiM^ 
and consequently the consamption, by the xh^dren only, }• 
TOOe pounds weight of bread weekly. This royal hospital 
(well regolatod in many respecU) wu founded by Edfrard 
Ihe sixth. Potatoes were not then of the growth of this country ; 


• Dr. Withering, whoie inbHiiicat laboort and muty privsto viitact the 
liiendtef 8ci«ncfl wUl long remediber, roouirks, diat *'tlic wmget of these 
4sj-IabMrera are ceruiiilj veiy insde^aie to thoprioo of ptoviaions; md 
bmet sriisi* in « grost i^^Mope, the eaoneoes inersose of the poor^t-ieln.** 
*« A ■!■& and hit wile and 4«« children, linag chioflj npoQ hread, ee thesto 
people do, will coniowe one bushel of ^heat per week s the Ban gaina froai ' 
six •hillingi to nine alMUingB per week, and hat hrtad co^s eight shillingi or 
■Mce, #hen lach It the price of wheat. I know the aecetaitj of working peo- 
ple, whoae noarabment chiefly dependa apon hread, having the best kin^ 
ef bread, loeh as aibrda the ommI natrition. Nothing is got by the higher 
weges be way soaMtioies eam at piece-work ; .dm man soon weais hnnself oat 
by extra ex a r tion a , and his familj lose bb sapport the sooner, A day<Mioar« 
er at flfty begins to be an old maai no other proof is wonting," This benevo* 
lent writer afterwarda remaps, •^ that a laboarer sbonld earn weekly to the 
oaMaat of a bnsbel and a half of wheat." These obserrations were nuide at a 
linw when wheat waa coosiderad at a wwj high price ; and when wage« ware. 
lawerthaaitpfeMat. Wbeatiaiiow^18t5)mecbliig|Mr, 

1000 STAWOE08HiaS* 

^df by «ome fatality or strange inattention, this Tery chea^ 
mad wbolesome vegetable* has ne?er» nor has any other fresh 
vegetable, been received within the walls of the hospiul ibr 
the use of the children. Mr. HoUiday then suggeste that «'.ooe 
hundred weight of potatoes should be used with every like 
•weight of wheat or other grain." 

In the neighbourhood of this district, on the banks of the 
Dave, is. the ancient manor of Barrie^ord, or Barrirfbrd, f ft'om 
which place sprang the family of the present lord Tyrone^ 
marquis of Waterford in Irelapd. This family ilourisbed for 
many centuries^ first in this county, and subsequently in those 
of Warwick and Leicester. That branch of the lamily, which 
spring more immediately from this place, spread into the coun- 
.ties of Derby, Nottingham, Kent, Lincoln, and the city of 
Xondpn. A branch of the Kentish line removed into Ireland, 
,and was advanced to the honourable degree of baronet of that 
.kingdom, in the person of Sir Tristram Bcrctford^ and to-those 
,of baron, viscount, and earl, in his great grandson. Sir Marcos 
Beresford, earl of Tyrone. John de Beresford was seised of 
the manor of Beresford, OcL 14tb. 1087j and therein was suc- 
ceeded by his son, Hugh. Aden Beresford was lord of this 
place in the 8, 16, and 17, Edward 11. and his son. 
. In 141 IJohn Beresford^ of this place, gave his. son Aden 
' ,a11 his estate in the parish of Astonfield, to which this place 
belongs/ together with other estates and lands in the county. 
'They were granted in the reign of Edward IV. to John, lord 
Audley, in trust They Were afterwards released ; and in 
process of time came to be possessed by Sir George Cotton, 
Knt. whose son, Charles, is particularly mentioned by lord 


' '*The reader wilf find abandant information respecting the wholesomcneai 
and general use of potatoes in Wakefield's " Account of IteUiHit," just puib- 
' li&bcd, in two very large 4to. vols. This is one of the most valuable statist!- 
'cal books ever published concerning that interesting coontrj. 

4 In former times, this was called Bercford, Col. Peer, by Sir E. Brjdge% 
VIII. 74, 

BTATPOftD»HI&B. 1001 > 

Clarendon,* a gentleman born to a competent fortaae^ and 
•o qualified in bis person and edacation, that ^ for many / 
years he continued (he greatest ornament of the town* in; 
the esteem of those who had been best bred. Though a per- 
son of exquisite parts and amiable manners, ** some unhappy ' 
suits in law, and waste of his fortune in those suits/' made < 
some impressions on his mind ; and which, being overpowered ' 
by domestic aiBictions* and those indulgences to himself 
ithi'ch naturdlly attend those aflSictions* rendered his ago 
leas reverenced than hi^ youth had been; and gave his' 
best friends cause to have wished, that he had ndi lived so' 

This unfortunate gentleman vras the father of CharUg Cotton, ' 
the poet, who was born at Beresford, on the 28th of April, 
l€dO.} He received his education at Cambridge university, 
and was *e8teemed one of its greatest ornaments.§ Ota the 
completion of his education he travelled into foreign coon- 
tries; ||' but the greatest part of his life was spent at the 
family seat at Beresford. In./ 1656, he married Isabella, 
daughter oi Sir Thomas Hutchinson, Knu 'By the death of 
bis father, in 1658, be came possessed of the family estate^ 
which the embarrassments of his father had much encum- 
bered. In 1663 he translated the «< Moral Philosophy of 
the Stoics,'^ of M. de Vai)c, president of the Parliament 
of Provence. Two years afterwards he translated from the 
French the Horace of Comeille. In 1670, the year be- 
fore this was printed, he published, in folio, a translation of ' 
the «< History of the Life of the Duke d'£speriion." About 
this time his affairs became much embarrassed, and he re-' 


•Contimution of tlie life of lord Clarendon, Vol. IIL p. 5t, ^to. ed. 1759. 

^ ** Continuation," &c* «(>/ tufra. 
t Life of Charl«t Cottuii, Esq. prefixed to the second part of Sir John 
Hawkins's ed. of Walton's Complete Angler. 

i Granger's Biographical Historj of Bnglaod, Vol. IV. 
I Biographis Dramatics. 

lOM 8TA#rOftDSilI«l» 

-cftmd a ctptaua's comminioa in tba ttniiy» upon wtMck be 
went over into Ireland, which gave occasion to a bnrkflaoe 
poem, intituled a «. Voyage to Ireland/' In this poem ho 
jKMtices that at Chester the mayor was iparticalarly itrack 
on his coming out of churcht with the richness of his garh# 
and particularly with a gold belt that. he then wore. Ilia 
mayor inTited him to sapper; and treated him with greal 
Iiospitality, Mr. Cotton afterwards pobltshed many other 
works> both original, and translations from the French ; bnt 
bis most celebrated work is. the fScarronides, or Virgil 
Travcstie;'' a mock poem, on the first and fovr^h books 
of Virgil's jflSnets, in English barlesque. The 15th editioo 
of this poem was pablished in 1771, ithe first haying been 
printed in 1678. The work, with eonsiderable merit, pos* 
sessea no small portion of the common- alloy of the times :«— 
It is very indecent and indelicate. He also published a 
little work, which has likewise passed through aeveral 
editions, called <«Borlesque upon Burlesque; ^or the ^cofier 
Scoffisd; being some of Lncan's Dialogues aewly put into 
English Fustian.'' They partake of the same met^ and 
tbe same lieeniioas blemishes, as his other poems. 

Ills first wife being deceased, he married the cownifits 
dowager of.Ardgks, who was possessed of a jointpce of 
4Aeen .hundred pounds a ytsar.. He afterwards became ao« 
quainted with, ihe ingenious and excellent Isaac Walten, 
whom he called, his father : Cotton possessed a similar rage 
to this gentleman, for angling. The situation of his hoosor 
which he himself says, was <'upoo the margin of one of the 
finest ri?er9, ior trout and grayling, in England,"* watf 
remarkably well situated for the exercise of his fa?ourite diver* 

Near this place he built a small fishing-house dedicated to 

Anglers. Over the door of this little edifice, the initials of 

his own namcj and Isaac Walton'sj were placed together in a 

9 . cypher. 

• Conplcte Angler, ptrt IL p. 7, 

9TAr90ftDSHtftB. MM 

cypher. This building ui still standing. It is thoA described 
in the Notes of the Complete Angler :* ** It is of stone, aid. 
the room in the inside a cube of about fifteen feet : it is paved 
with black and white marble* In the middle is a square black 
marble table, supported by two stone feet The room is waia»- 
cotted with curious mouldings, that divide the pannels up to 
the celling : in the larger pannels are represented in painting 
some of the most pleasant of the adjacent fences, with persona 
fishing ; and in the smaller the various sorts of tackle and 
implements used in angling. In the ^fiirther corner^ on the 
left, is afire-place, with a chimney ;t wid on the right» a large 
heaufet, with foldiiig-doors, whereon are the portraits of Mr. 
Cotton, with a boy servant, and Walton, in the dress of the 
time : underneath is a cupboard, on the door whereof are the 
figures of a trout, and also of a grayling, which are well pour- 
traycd/^l It was erected in 1074 ; but having been little cftre 
taken of^ especially since the time when the description ju«t 
given of it was made, it has fallen almost into ruin. The 
cypher, however, was visible when lately visited by the well- 
known and amiable Bev. John Evans, of Islington.) The in^ 
acription, ''half filled with moss, was almost obliterated. I 
clambered,'^ says Mr. Evans, ** in through the window with dif- 
ficulty ; but of the interior decorations, alas ! ho traces were 
Co be found.'' The person, who accompanied Mr. Evans as a 
guide, informed him, that the **lUiU buiiding" as he termed it, 
was, in his remembrance, enriched with the rural decorations 
just mentioned, and that persons were in the habit of visiting 
it from a considerable distance, even from Scotland. At pre« 


• Ed. 1784, p. 9t. 
^ A fire>place, trithoui a chimnej, woiild but ill accord with oor Eoglbh 
ideaflof conlbrt. 

t There Are two Views of thia little boilding in Sir John Hawkins's editioa 
ef Walton'i Angler j sod a more correct one in tlie new edition of this inter- 
esUng work, lately poMished by Mr. Bagster. 

I JavenileTaarirt, third £d. (UlO,) p..f 18. 

}(M4 STA7F0B]>anfRB. 

8est the walls and roof, and those in a shattered state* only 

The second part of Wakon's Angler, containing " Instrac-? 
tiois how to angle for a Trout or a Grayling* in a clear stream/' 
wa» written by Mr. Cotton.. It is now uniformly printed as 
pait of Walton's book, to which it forms ''a jif4iciofts supple-, 

Mr. Cotton published his "Wonders of the Peak/' a poem, 
in 1681 ; and in 1685, his admirable translation ojT Montaigne's 
Essays, dedicated to George Saville, marquis of Halifax, who 
expressed himself in very strong terms of approbation, re^ 
specting the honour which Mr. Cotton did him.* Besides these 
works, he translated <' Memoirs of the Sienr de Pontfs/\wJhJch 
his son, Mr. Becesford Cotton, published in 169i» 

Mr. Cotton was a man of considerable learning, of amreble and 
agreeable manners; but thoughtless and imprudent in his conduct,. 
80 that he was often .in debt, and " harrassed with dons/ attor- 
nies,, and bailifis/'f a condition of life but ill suited to literary 
pursuits; though from numerous example!^ perhaps as little 
hurtful to the exercise of poetical talents as any others, In^ 
deed, many of our bards have acted, as if they thought to be 
dunned and dinnerless, are circumstances essential to their, 
fame as poets. Hence many persons, with weaker temptations, 
cooler passions, fewer opportunities, or. more constitutional 
virtues, have censured the whole -Parnassian race;. Mrhilst 
others, admiring the brilliancy of genius, and reflecting on the 
native weaknessof human nature, have been disposed to draw the 
veil of charity over the errors, nay the vices, of a poet, whose, 
labours have amused and delighted, more than their extravagan- 
cies have disgusted them. Such are the privileges of the sons of 
the muses : we, poor prose writers, must not expect such allow- 

In the second canto of Mr. Cotton's Voyage tQ Ireland, form- 

* Gibber's Lives of the poets, Vol. III. p. 308^304.. 
t GraDger*s Biog. Uiit. of £ng. Vol. IV. p. aX« 

. STAiroaDBHlEB. 1005 

tug pan of the account which he gWes of his conversatioo 
wjtb the mayor of Chester, he writes thus : 

" I answer'd, mj country wu fam'd Slajfordthire, 
*' That in deeds, bills, and bonds, I was ever writ squire ; 
<*That of lands, I bad botbsorts, some good and some evijj 
•^ Bat tliat a great part on't was pawn'd lo the DeviJ." 

And in his Epistle to Sir Clifford Clifton^ speaking of him* 
teir, are the following lines: 

" He ^wayt wants nooey, wbiob laakes bim want ease f 

*' And he's always besieged, tbu' himself of the pe^ce, 

*' By an army of duns, who batter with scandals, 

" And are foemen more fierce than the Goths or the Vandals.'* 

He is said to have died in 1687, somewhere in the parish of 
St Japies\s Westminster ; and that he died bsolvent. His 
' son Bcrcrford, already mentioned* had a company given him 
in a regiment of foot, raised by the earl of Di^rby, for the ser- 
vice of king William ; ^nd one of his daaghters, Olivia, waa 
married to Dr. Qeorge Stanhope, dean of Canterba^,* well 
known for his various excellent works of piety and devotion^ 
though for none, perhaps, more so, than- for his imperfect and 
inaccurate translation of Thomas A Kempis's De Imitatione 

Beretford Hall, which stands on an eminence, wds very late* 
ly inhabited by a maiden lady. It is in a ruinous state ; and 
the adjoining garden is altogether suflered to grow wild and 

Dove^dalc, which forms one of the most beautiful and pleasing 
prospects in England, in fact belongs to Derhy$hire; and is 
usually described with that county ; f but it shall be alluded 
to hereafter, before we finally leave the Moorlands. 

Mill-dale is a long, narrow, but deep glen, near AUionfielA, 
The sides consist of over-hanging precipices of limestone. 

Vol. XIII. S s s estimated 

* Biograpbia Brit, from bis Life by Hawkins. 
t Bs AVTiis, Vel. III. See also before p. 732 of (bit folame. 


estimated to be from 100 to 150 yards of perpendicuTar eT^* 
Tation, and so steep that they can be clambered up but in 
very few places. The width of this glen, vale, or dale« at the 
top, scarcely exceeds the depth of its sides: it seems formed 
by tha bursting or breaking of the hill,* which composes iu 
sides, occasioned by a want of solidity in its bearing. ' > 

Church Mai/field, between Rocater and Oakover, on the 
Dove, is a parish only two miles from AMome, Derbyshire, 
It contains 120 houses, and about 650 inhabitants* The living 
is a vicarage. There is nothing remarkable here, except the 
two barrows or tumuli, one called Rovolaw: roman coins 
have been found in an urn at that in DalC'Close^ between this 
latter place and Oakover, 

Stanion, in the parish of Ellasion, is a township, a few 
miles from Ashbome* It is a small place containing not more, 
perhaps, than four hundred inhabitants. It is remarkable only 
for having given birth to Gilbert Sheldon,^ Archbishop of Can« 
terbury, who was born. Anno 1598. Dr. Plot| says that '* going 
to visit the house of his nativity, in the very room where he 
was said to have drawn his first breath, he found the follow* 
log iambics : 

*' Sbeldonns itU presalam primta PaUr, 
Hos wtermtuM mpicU luctm Lares, 
O ter btattan Staatonn vilU catam ! 
Cui eanita fotnmi invidere Marmarm,'* 

These lines, it seems, were left there by the right Rev. father 
in God, Dr. John Hacket, lord bishop of Coventry and Lich- 
field, who, out of his extraordinary devotion to this great pre* 
late, had purposely made a journey thjther not many years be* 
fore, to visit the place of his birth, <« where, after he had given 
God thanks for the great blessings he had afibrded the world in 
that place, be sate htm down and wrote these verses.'^ This 

« Pitt's Agr. Survey, p. VS* 
f By Qiifttalei we mentioned the name of thb Abp. as having been bom 
-at StamUn Prior, in SotmneUhire, Vide ante, p. 630m 
I Nat. Hist. Staff, p. S73, 

8TAVrOAD8ItlIl8« 1007 

prelate celrtainly lefi behind him a very high character for 
piety and benevolence; and be, in most respects, deserved it) 
bat how to reconcile the character for moderation which has 
been usually given td him does not so obviously appear. 
When the king would have granted toleration to the non-con<» 
formists in general, he interposed to prevent it; and in fact to 
procure a rigid enforcement of the Corporation act, a law thai 
does not add to the liberal character for which our happy con* 
stitution hasiong been deservedly famed. MThether Charles 
was willing to reconcile himself to the Presbyterian^ who 
constituted a powerful body in the nation, or the duke of Buck- 
ingham, who had then great influence in the council, resolved 
to forward a step which he knew would be disagreeable to the 
dake of Osmond, whom he hated, uncommon favour was now 
shewn to that sect, which had been so much, and so unjustly, 
depressed since the Reformation. They appeared more open* 
ly, and even ventured to assemble at their religious worship. 
Sir Orlando Bridgeman sent for two of their ministers, and 
consulted them about means for comprehending them in the 
body of the English church, as well as for procuring an in« 
dolgence for Independents and other non-conformists. These 
two ministers, having conferred with a like number of the En- 
glish church, afler several yeetings, and various disputes, 
agreed, that with respect to ordination, all non-conformists, 
already ordained, might be admitted into the ministry of the 
church, by virtue of this form : *^ Take thou the legal authori** 
ty to preach the word of God, and administer the holy sacra- 
menta in any cimgregation in England, where thou shalt be 
lawfully appointed thereto/* They likewise agreed, that ce- 
remonies should be left indiiTerent: that the liturgy should be 
mltered, that those who could not be comprehended, should be 
indulged; and that, for the security of the government, the 
names of the teachers, and all the ntembers of the congrega- 
tions, should be registered. The lord chief justice Hales un- 
dertook to draw up a bill for this purpose, and the keeper of 

S s s 3 the 


the prest Sealj promised to support it in Partiamettt with hm 
whole iBterest. 

These things coining to the knowledge of Shekimt, the 
Archbishop, he immediately addressed a circular leifeer to all 
his saffirages, enjoining them to make an exact inquiry, touch* 
lAgall the conventicles that were held within their respective 
dioceses. Having received all the information he could pro* 
cure on the subject, he exaggerated every circumstance to 
the king ; and obtained from his easy disposition, a proclama* 
lion, ordering the laws against non-conforming ministers to be 
put in execution.* This was for a short time somewhat rigidly 
enforced, though it would seem rather against the king's ae* 
cret wish; whose policy he clearly enough saw dictated a 
wiser and more liberal course. 

In this business certainly Sheldon does not appear to hare 
acted with that prudence and moderation, which so eminently 
distinguished his conduct on other occasions. His munificence 
in expending the enormous sum of 15,000/. for building the 
theatre at Oxford, besides 9000/. for the purchase of lands for 
its perpetual repairs, will ever entitle him to the esteem and 
regard of the learned world. In this structure, which vraa 
erected in 1669, is an admirable full length portrait of its 
worthy and liberal founder. It^ appeared, by bis private ac« 
counts, that in fourteen years he bad bestowed GOfiOOL in 
public and private charities. 

He was expelled the University of Oxford, along with many 
other learned and excellent men, daring the usurpation of the 
infamous Oliver ;t but the particulars of this prelate's life are 
already sufficiently known. He died, Anno Domini 1677. 

• Hist. Rel. Iir. 4^1. 

t Sir E. Bridges, in his enlarged and macli improved edition of Coliim'i 

Peerage, alludes to Uiia circiunstance, in a note. Vol. III. p. 137, which he 

has confessefll^ " borrowed from Dr. Whitaker *' This ii noticed here, merely 

to point out a liugoiar oversight of Sir Egerton's. Th« character of thtt. coodf 

•, ^^ 


Abion/Uld. In this parish ris^s the small rWer DqWm so 
much admired for its fisb» and pleasant banks. It was near 
this place that Cotton, of whom we have ju9t 'i|»okea at some 
length,, took so much pleasure io fishiogj and here he wrote 
the following lines: 

'' O my beloved Nymph ! fair Dove, 
Princeu of rWert ! how I love 

Upon thy flowVy banhs to lie. 

And view thy iilver ^eam 
When gilded by a Sttmmcr'i beam. 

And m all that wanton Iry 

Playing at liberty. 
And with my angle upon theoif 

The all of treachery, 
I ever learned to practise, and totry."^ 

Near this place, and at a still smaller distance from Alvetony 
already mentioned, upon an elevated situation, there were, in 
Plot's time, the remains of a fortress similar to the one near 
JlJatfr,t only roach larger, which the people used to call Bpne^ 
hury. It is described to have been of an irregular figure, en* 
compassed with a double trench \ and in some places with a 
treble one, according as the natural situation of the place 
seems to have required, particularly on the north-west and 
north-east sides, all the rest being naturally inaccessible :,the 
whole including about one hundred acres, which, adds Dr. 
Plot, *' I have no doubt had been made by Ceolred king of 
Jrlercia, the successor of Kenrid, when he was invaded, (like 
manner as Kenrid by Osrid,) in the seventh year of his reign, 

S 8 s 3 by 

tea of Donet, Perobrolci, and Montgomery, which this iudastrioos editor ^ 
has very properly added from Whitaker to Collins, is repeated vfrUiim. 
Compwe Vol III, ut ntp, and VoL VI. p. 53S. This repetition occupies 
nearly three ptgci^ Sir £• B« will excuse this well-meant intiauition* The 
general excellence of his work may well enoagb allow a fiw mistakes \ bot 
-nek as this will doobtlcssbe corrected. 

* Cottoa's Poems, p. Utf. t Vide ante, p. 9f 6. 

1016 • STAVrOBOSHlftB. 

by the potent /ittfj k)ng of the West Saxons, in the year of 
Christ 716. Cujus anno septimo Ina Rex West Saxiae, magno 
Exercitu congregato contra Earn opuc^ Bonebary sircnue prtgHvat, 
i. e. in the seventh year of Ceolred's reign, Ina king of the 
West Saxons, having raised a great army, fonght him stoutly 
at Bonebory, says the abbot of Jourvall ;♦ when yet Ceolred 
(by the advantage of his strong fortification) so warmly re- 
ceived him, that he was glad to withdraw npon equal temu^ 
neither having much reason to brag of victory /'t Nothing of 
this once extensive fortress now remains ; nor, we believe, is 
the name of Bonebory now remembered. ^ 

Wotton'Undcr'WeevcT'hill is a small township, where there is 
a high paved way, which Dr. Plot took for a via vicinalu,X Cam*' 
den observes that the people in this neighbourhood describe the 
climate of these Moorland districts, by the following disUch i 

** Wotton under Weerer 
Where God came never." 

And, it is also remarked that these people have noticed that 
the west wind always brings rain, but the east and south, which 
in other places are rkiny winds, make ftir weather, unless the 
wind veers from the west to the south,§ and this they ascribe 
to its nearness to the Irish channel* 

Gn Ecton Hill, near Warslaw^ upon the estate of his grace 
the duke of Devonshire, there are remarkably fine mines for 
lead and copper; particularly the latter. That part of the hill 
in which the mine is situated is of a conical form, and its per- 

• Brompton's Chroniaon> apud Regno Affrtcprum. 
t Plot. Nat Hist. Staff, p. 410. 
t lb. 40f» et ante p. 9fS. Mr. Gough, who was oor antbority, in the fbt* 
sner mention of this place^ has misled as. He probably mistook it for Wukmtm 
$ Camd. Brit, in Staff. Mr. Pitt, Agricnl. Sur. p. 8» has copied this oh* 
ierVation from Camden ; but in a note on the same page, Mr. Sneyd adds, 
that " from a series of observations, taken here these twenty yean, it is 
proved that OKwt rain has come from the south-west." 

tTArrOEDSBIlLB. 1011 

pendicttlar height to the east is about seven hondred feet, the 
diameter of its base, from the Manifold westward, is aboot half 
» mile. The apper strata of mould, is on limestone, about fif- 
teen or sixteen inches thick, producing very fine herbage for 
sheep and other cattle. In those parts where the declivity will 
admit of plowing very fine wheat, barley, and oats, are oc« 
casionally cultivated, to great advantage. This mine was 
known before Plot^s time. He informs ua that it was worked 
several years by lord Devonshire himself. Sir Richard Fleet- 
wood, and some Dutchmen ; but they had all left it off, before 
he came into the country as not worth their while** Between 
eighty and ninety years ago, this mine was again discovered by 
a Cornish miner who, passing over the hill, found a bit of ore, 
annexed to some fine spar, to which that metal usually ad- 
heres. On viewing the situation and height of the hill, he 
concluded that it might contain vast quantities of copper ore, 
and that no place could be more convenient for working it. 
He, therefore, communicated his discovery and his sentiments 
to some adventurers at Ashborney who approved of the project, 
^d applied to the grandfather of the duke of Devonshire, we 
believe the grandfather of the present duke, for a lease to 
search for copper in that hill. Upwards of 13^000/. were ex- 
pended before any returns were made, when several of the 
adventurers, despairing of success, sold their shares at a con- 
siderable loss. The second adventurers were more fortunate ; 
for after sinking a shaft of about two hundred yards deep, and 
driving in an entrance, or adit, as the miners term the opening 
to such pits, they found Immense quantities of copper ore, 
which continued to increase the lower they descended; by 
which means, at the termination of the lease, they had ac- 
quired very considerable fortunes; and it then fell into the hands 
of the present duke's father. At the time Mr. Gough published 
the second edition of his Camden in 1789, it cleared annual- 
ly between 8 and, 10,000/. and, as be observes, might produce 

S s 8 4 doublei^ 

* riot, 165. in GoagVi Camd. II. 515. 

lOJS STAvromDSHiufi. 

doable.* Some hundreds of persons, men, wom^n, Mid cMI^ 
dren, are annually employed. 

In descending to view this extensive mine, we enter al fh€ 
base of the hill, by the river, and proceed almost fonr hundred 
yards in a direct line. About sixty yards from the entrance, it 
is nearly five feet high, walled on each side with masonry. 
Beyond this the height of this adit varies, and in some places 
rises to six feet At the centre there is a spacions timber 
lodgement, for landing and receiving the ore from below. Af- 
ter it is drawn up to this lodgement, it is conveyed through 
the adit on fonr«wheel carriages, each containing about a ton 
and a half. These vehicles have brass wheels, which run along 
the passage in grooves, with great facility^ by boys of twelve 
or fourteen years of age. Over ihis lodgement, there is a 
large cavity, at least two hundred and fifty yards high, by 
the sides of which there is a passage to the summit. Thu^ 
far it is easy to pass, with the assistance of lights ; but below 
there is such a horrid gloom, rattling of carriages, noise of 
>vorkmen boring the rocks, and blasting the more obdurate 
and impenetrable strata, under the very feet of the beholder, 
while fi*om this apparently frightful gulph the distant and hol- 
low voices and murmurings of labourers, that if Milton had 
wished for a place, from which to have drawn his picture of Pan • 
demonium, he could not better have described it than by a 
representation of this stupendous mine, and its gloomy ap* 

From the platform, the descent is nearly two hundred yards 
through different lodgments, by ladders, steps, and cros9-pieces 
of timber, let into the rock. In passing down, the constant 
blasting of the rocks, making a noise mueh louder than the 
loudest thunder, which in some parts of the Moorlands among 
the rocks is awfully tremendous, seems to agitate thif whole 
mountain* When at the bottom, strangers take shelter iii a 
niche, as the miners generally give a salute of half a dosen 


* Addidoni teCatnaen^ Vol. If. p« 515. 

STArrORDBHiaB. 1013 

Iflitfto, in quick saocessioo, by way of welcome to these hoiw 
M mansions. The monstrous cavern aboTe, the glimmering 
light of candles, and the suffocating smell of sulphur, all con- 
spire to increase the stranger's surprise, heighten his ap- 
prehensions ; and call up those ideas, which enthusiasU labour 
te impress upon the minds of the ignorant, respecting the sul- 
phur and the smoke of the bottomless pit : 

** For he, who standing -on the brink of hell. 
Can carry it so unconcerned and well 
As to betray no fear, is certainly 
A better Chri^ian, or a worse, than I/' 


'the description Which this same poet gives of the noise 
Made by the large stones, which the country people are apt 
io'cast down Elden Hole, one of the wonders of the Peak in 
Derbyshire, will apply with peculiar force, if not exactly 
With the same accuracy of description, to the sounds of thes» 
fearful blastings: 

*' When one's tarned off, it, as it parts the air, 
A kind of sighing makes, as if it were 
Capoble of the trembling passion (ear. 
Till th^ first hit strikes the astonish*d ear. 
Like thunder nnder ground, thence it in fades 
With louder thunder those Tartarean shades, 
Which groau forth horror at each ponderous stroke^ 
Th' unnatural issue* gives the parent rock. 
Whilst, tii it strikes, the sound by turns we note. 
When nearer, flat ; sharper, when mure rei^ote ; 
When after falling long, it seems to hiss. 
Like the old serpent in the dark abyss." 

Let the mind add to this representation, that the bottom of 
these frightful abodes, in the heart of Ecion Hill^ are inhabi- 
ted, for the greatest part of the day, by living reflecting 
beings, and little more will be necessary to complete the vulgar 
idea of the infernal regions. 

Hicre is something in the position, situation, and inclination, 


1014 STArFOEDsmas. 

'•f this mine different, it is said, from any yet di8ca?ered iM 
the known world : for the amazing mass of copper ore with 
which this hill abounds* does not run in regular veins, courses, 
or strata, but sinks perpendicularly down, widening, and 
swelling out at tbe bottom, in the form of a bell. Let the 
reader suppose himself nearly three hundred fathoms deep, ia 
the bowels of a mountain, in a great hollow of immense dia* 
meter ; then let him suppose an impenetrable wall of limestone 
rock, interspersed with small veins of copper ore, yellow, 
black, and brown, intermixed with spar, marcasite, mundic, 
and other sulphureous compositions, of all colours; and at the 
same time figure to himself the sooty complexions of the 
miners, their labour, and miserable way of lifing in those 
subterraneous regions, and he will then be apt to fancy him* 
self in another world* Yet these inhabitants being trained 
up in darkness, labour, and confinement, are not perhaps less 
happy, or less contented, than those who possess the more 
flattering enjoyments of dight and liberty. 

No timber is made use of, except for the lodgments, or plat- 
forms ; ladders or steps, let into the rocks for ascending and 
descending the mine; and we believe many of the cross- 
pieces are now made of iron, as is the case with the lead-mines 
in Derbyshire. Neither is there any considerable quantity of 
water to retard the works, though they are now above two 
hundred yards below the bed of the river* Hence, four horses, 
working six hours each at a common engine, are sufficient to 
keep the mine clear. In this mine, which has long been the 
deepest in Great Britain, sixty or seventy stout men were em- 
ployed about six hours at a time each day. Their pay is now 
much increased ; but whether it has kept an exact proportion 
with the advanced price of provisions is somewhat doubtful* 
They are, however, as merry and jovial as their fellow mor- 
tals who toil above them* Most of them work entirely naked, 
except having on a pair of coarse canvass diawers. 

When the ore is emptied from the carriages, above men- 
9 tioned. 

STAVfOBBsami. 1015 

tioiied, it is broken into small pieces by large hammers. It is 
then conveyed, in hand baiTOWS, to a small shed to be sorted 
end picked by little girls, in three di6brent parcels, called thc^ 
best, second, and worst. It is then conveyed to a larger shed^ 
where women -^it back to back 6n benches, to buck or beat it, 
with flat hammers, still keeping every particular sort separate. 
The ore, now reduced to a small sand, is removed to the buddies 
for washing ; when an experienced miner superintends it, lest 
any of the finer sort, through the ignorance of the girls and 
women, who sort and beat it, should be lost. Here it is washed 
and cleansed, and afterwards exposed for sale in^he open air, 
in various heaps, ticketted, according to the different qualities 
and quantities. What is called ticketing the ore is taking a 
couple of handfttis off a heap of ore promiscuously, and putting 
them into canvas bags for samples. Labels arie attached to 
these bags expressive of the quality and the quantity which 
each bag contains. It is sold to the proprietors of the smelu 
ing*hoases, often in a manner resembling a public auction. 
The refuse part of the ore is carried to a smelting-house on the 
premises, and run into a regulus, in large pigs or bars; so that, 
in (act, nothing is eventually lost. 

In the neighbourhood there are various buildings, for a car- 
penter's shop, a forge, a cooperage, and neat dwelling-houses, 
for the superintendauts. These houses have each a small kitch* 
en garden, with suitable outhouses.* 

On the opposite side of the hill there is a lead mine, dis« 
covered some eighty years ago. This mine is also exceedingly 
vicb ; its veins approaching very near to the copper ore ; so 
that this hill is altogether a most valuable acquisition to the 
estates of his grace the duke of Devonshire. 

At Cahoich, in the parish of Ellaston, there was formerly a 
small convent of Black Canons. It was founded some time 
before the year 1148 ;t but no vestiges of it now remain. 


* Tanner's Notitia Monastica, p. 497. 
f Mr. Effind, in Gent. Mag. VoL XXXIX. p. 59, n teq. 

10)6 STA? f OftDSB imi. 

Onecou 18 a small irillagej and townships containing nearlj^ 
iWQ hundred bo«ise$, and saven hundred inlmbitams; many of 
whom are employed in the copper and lead mines of Ecton, 
^boTe (lescribed. 

In this neighbourhood is Narrowdale, remarkable for the 
high rockfy by which it is surrounded. Dr. Plot* remarks* 
that many of the mountains about here, are of so vast a heigbl, 
that> in rainy weather, he has frequently seen the tops of them 
above the clouds* Those of Nurrowdaie, in particular, are so 
tery narrow that the inhabitants there^ for that quarter of the 
year when the son is nearest the tropic of Capricorn, never 
see it at all ; and that at length, when it does b«gin to appear, 
they never see it till about one o'clock, which they call the 
Nttrrowdak-noon, using it proverbially, when they would ex- 
' fMress a thing done late at noon. 

Indeed, the rocks in this neighbourhood, many of which 
are of a most surprising height, give an air of sublimity to 
the scene, beyond description grand and awful. From these 
rocks, some of which are entirely naked, not having any torf 
or mould upon them, the most romantic prospects may be 

" Fields, lawns, hillf, Tallies, pasture*, ail appear. 
Clad in the varied beauties of the jrear. 
Meandering waters, waving woods are seen. 
Here curling smoke from cottages ascends. 
There towers the hlU, and there the vmlley bends." 

The vak q^ Manyfold, is situated between Wettou and Bui" 
ierton, where the waters of the Manyfold are absorbed by the 
fissures under the limestone hills,t and discharged again at 
Ilam» as before mentioned. " The warmest imagination,'' says 
Mr. Pitt, " can scarcely conceive a spot more extravagantly 
romantic than some parts of this vaUJ* TkyrsisU Cavern, 


• P. Jltf. i Pitt's Survey, t» V^ 


which signiBes T%or*s* Uause Cavern, is a eonsiderabte ^XQara* 
tien, precty high up the side of a^ lofty precipice. It has aome- 
thing the appearance of the inside of a Gothic church, and 
seems to be the work of art. Starlings alone are iu present 
mbabitanu«t The thunder here is fi*equently tremendous. 
The common people call it Hobkurst^s | Caoe; possibly some 
religious legend may h^ve been attached to the place ; or that 
some robber may have been supposed to inhabit it. We could 
not» however* discover that any traditionj except a Drutdical 
oiie» exists to designate the origin or use 6f this extraordinary 
cavern, of which we shall have occasion again to make men- 
tion, further on. 

Dr. Plot § notices several lows or barrows in this neighbour- 
hood, and thence naturally infers, that the Roman militia some 
time visited the Moorlands, and that these have been places 
of action. 

In the parish of Ham, near the spring called St. Bertram's 
WelU there was found an instrument of brass, somewhat re* 
sembling, only larger, a lath-hammer, at the edge end, but not so 
9a the other. Thia Dr. Plot has described in the XXIII. Tab. 
fig. 6« This he takes to have been the head of a Roman Sectirii, 
with which the Papa slew their sacrifices, notwithstanding it 
has no eye for the manuMum to pass through, the Securis it- 
self being only some times stuck through it, as may be seen 
at many places, among the Roman antiquities of Bariolus and 
£e^atMr«.|| This Staftbrdshire historian proceeds to remark, 
that a small brass instrument, sent to him by ** the worshipful 
Charlea Cotton, Esq.*' fuund somewhere near him, argues also 
that the Roman armies were advanced even into the northern 


• The god of Tlmnder. t Pitt, ubitup, 

t The people here caU the hollow of a rock, Thur's Hmut^ Magna Brit. 
Vol. V. p. IJO. 

$ P. 403. it weq, 
I Vide Admtraikdu Homantir, Antlfiitatum f eiCigia,. per Joh. Belloriana ct 
Peir. Sanct. Bartobrum. 


partsi it seeming to have been tlie head of a StMum rest,* fiaed ' 
to support the LUuu$f not that crooked staff used by the Au-* 
gur$, in their divinations, to point out the quarters of the hea* 
▼ens ; but the Trombe^torte, crooked trumpet, or horn-pipe, 
used in the Roman armies, as may be seen in Choule's Ois* 
course of the Castrameiaihn of the Romans.t 

It is al*iO justly inferred from the brass head of the Roman 
Venabolum, or hunting spear, found betwixt Yarki and the 
foot of Pyrehill, that the Romans bad at least some residence 
here, with leisure to follow such sports, as the country would 

Whence also it may reasonably be concluded, as also from 
some Roman coins that has sometimes been found in DaU clo$e, 
between Oakover and Ma^fiM, and a Roman um dug, now 
about one hundred years ago, out of a bank in Church Town 
JuldX in Upper Ma^cld, &c. that the barrows hereabouts may 
for the most part, at least, be esteemed Roman. Particularly 
Harlow Greave, a little north*west otMa^ld, and that other 
in a field near the lefi hand the way as you pass between M^ 
field and Ellaston, near Coboich Common, without name, and 
another larger over against it, at the other end of the common, 
which they call Rowlow, perhaps the sepulchre of some.pettjr 
king, Rowlow importing as much as Regale Sepulchrum.% To 
these may be added the barrow on Arbour Close, already 
mentioned, the three barrows on the Weever Hills, and three 
others, in Plot's time, called Queemlow, Gallows low, and Out* 
hw Cross, together with the lows on Ribden, Reeden, and Co/- 
don hills ; and so Cockhw, and the rest near Leek, and those 
on EdoHHill; and another between that and Omco^c. Most 
of these upon examination, as well as those on Morredge, have 
been found made of stones, and not gravel or earth, as usually 


• It 18 described on the Plate above referred to, fig. 7. 

f fiifcorso topra la Caitrametation di Romani per ilS. Gaglielmo Choul. 

t Magna Brit. Vol. V. p..lO». $ Plot p. 404* 

stAtfordsbiki. ID19 

•Itewhere, which yet^ says Plot>* must not be tvondered at, 
because we find they were made abo in other countries of 
such materials as the places best afibrded, particularly ex lapUU' 
fat in Saxasis locis,f such as these are. 

The reason why such barrows and warlike instruments, cer« 
tainly Roman, are so often found remote from their military 
foaxf$9 Dr. Plot supposes to have been, that the natives drew 
their inTaders ofi^ and skirmished with them any where, 
as occasion presented. Upon which account too we find the. 
Romans to have pitched their tents in places far distant from 
their V)a^, as may be plainly perceived by the VaUa that 
went round them, which, as Polybius and Vegetius both say, 
were often made square, f especially says Sr«c;«c/»Wy § when 
they would have their armies appear great. 

The Saxon antiquities of this county seem to be confined 
to the more southern districts. 

This part of the Moorlands is the most barren and unpro« 
dnctive, as far at least as concerns the soil, of which, indeed, 
in many parts there is very little, and in some none at all : the 
naked rocks appearing. The limestone bottom ends at Mor^ 
redge, and understratum in the tract of country west of Leek, 
^^ and of this waste, is generally sandy or gravelly clay, or grit- 
stone rock. The snrfiice of the land north-east of Mok^cop 
Is in most instances too uneven for cultivation. Large tracts 
of waste land here, though elevated in point of situation, ar« 
r mere moors and peatpmosses; and of this sort are a part of 
Marredge, Axedge,Cloudh€ath, High'foresi, Leek-fiith^ and Mok^ 
€opi though ranking among the highest land in the county . || 
Mr. Pitt gives an interesting description of the general face of 
this part of the country. '* The summits," he observes, «'of 
some' of the hills in this county terminate in huge treroeo-^ 


• P. 504. t 01. Wormti Monument. Danicoram> lib. I. cap. 7. 

% Poljrb. Hist. I. 6. de Cast, et Flav Veget de re mllitari lib. I. cap. S3. 

$ GodeK. Stew. Com. in lib. I. cap. 93. Flav, Veget. dc re nllitar. 

I Pitt's Sunrej, p S7S, «74. 


douB cltffi, pariiculaurly those called Leet Roeh or Roehet, ipd 
Jpstones* sharp cliffs, which are composed of huge piles of 
rode and rag^ rocks, in very elevated situations, piled rock 
on rock in a most tremendous manner, astonisbi|ig and almost 
lerrifyiog the passing traveller with their n^ajestic frown. Here 
single blocks, the sise of church steeples« are heaped to* 
getber: some overhanging the precipice, and threatening de- 
struction to all approachers ; and some of prodigious bulk hav« 
evidently rolled from the summit;, and broken in pieces. These 
•tapendoos piles, the work of Nature, are a sublime lecture 
on humility to the human mind ; strongly marking the frivolity 
of all its even greatest exertions, compared with the slightest 
toacbes of that Almighty hand, which placed them here ; in 
whose presence all flesh is as grass, and the proudest produc- 
Uons of the highest efforts of human genius are but as chaff* 
The speculative mind, in endeavouring to account for their 
origin or formation by any known laws« agency, or operation 
of Nature, is lost in amaaement, and led to exclaim with the 
Egyptian magicians, " THIS IS THE FINGER OF GOD;" 
for the most superficial obsetver may perceive that it is his 
work*'' Such pious and apposite reflection^ though but sel- 
dom indulged, in works like the one from which they are 
quoted, are pleasing indications of the excellent franie of mind 
with which the author performed his useful task. We are sor- 
ry for it, but feel ourselves compelled to acknowledge they 
&ct, that many writers on the statistics, history, and anliquilie^ 
of our country, write as if they were determined to shew their 
contempt of all religious feeling* though pursuits like these 
should have a direct influence in the inspiration of a devoti- 
onal spirit. We trust, however* that no portion of our own 
work has. hitherto been devoted to a s^ain of writing calcu* 
lated to freeze or even to hinder, those sentiments, which alone 
exalt us beyond the ground we describe, or the inanimate pro* 
ductions of nature or art we attempt to delineate. 

Leek RocheSj as they are called^ are composed of a coarse 


StAFrOftl>8BX&S4 1091 

nnjij grit rtek. They are ktupehdoosly grand, and tfae reader 
will bf able to form some idea of the scenery of which they 
are'acoasptcaous part, by casting his eye over the backgro«nd 
cf the view, which we have giTen of the seat of Mr. Hulme 
M Be// H^igh. The elevated rock^ being the highest parU 
of the scenery to the left of the view, are tite Rocks here al* 
laded to. Those of Ipsiants, Mr. Pitt says^ «have for their 
bases gravel, or sand and small pebbles cemented together/' 
In a note, by Mr. Sneyd, who is evidently a gentleman of 
moch correct and practical knowledge, it is said that these 
rocks are brtccia arenacea, or coarse plum-pudding stone. 

Speaking of these rocks, Mn Pitt, observes that it is evident 
they have fallen in pieces, or, as Mr. Sneyd more correctly ex** 
presses it, have been torn in pieces, in some early period, 
"either by some violent con valsiens of nature, or, more proba* 
My, by an alteratiofi in the earth's centre of ghivity, from 
some agency under the immediate will of the Almighty Crea* 
lor.'^ This, adds Mr. Pitt's annotator, just quoted, was <* proba- 
bly at the general burst, occasioned by volcanic minerals and 
water; when the strata lay regularly lapped round the globe; 
and consequently must have made a sufficient resistance, to 
bate occasioned the formidable convulsion/' The universal 
deluge, to which we believe Mr. Sneyd here alludes* is very 
aptly called ** the general burst,'* No figure could more just'> 
ly convey the idea of the sacred historian who iitferms bs 
that'' the foundations of the great deep were broken up." And 
it is not improbable, that these superb rocks were formed, or 
father modelled into their present shape^ by that tremendous 
agitation of nature. These magnificent^ «nd evidently dis* 
jointed, piles might, however, be thus broken and elevated by 
some remote volcanic eruption, or by the violence of an 
earthquake, which fetiighl happen either in these immediate 
districts, or at far distant parts of the earth ; for those ibternal 
ceovttltions, though local in their issmedtate origin, are some* 
times ekteniive in their operations and coerseqocisces. It is a 

Voi/XIII. Ttt ' singular. 


lingular, but a mil authenticated fact, that at thevieryttaw 
iprben Lisbon was destroyed by an earthquake, in 17&5, the 
mines in Derbyshire, within a Tery few miles from the place 
we are now writing concerning, were alarmed by agitation^ 
and vibrations of the whole districts and with explosions, as 
loud as those proceeding from discharged cannon. It reqniret 
no reasoning to prove the adequacy of an earthquake thus to disr 
joint and disfigure, as it were, the hardest rocks. At the desiiuc** 
lion of Lisbon, the mountains of Arrabada, Esttetta, Julio, Maiv 
▼an, and Cintra, which were amongst the largest in Portugal, 
were shaken to their very base ; and some of them opened to 
their highest summits, split and rent, in a most astonishing roan- 
ner» loosing huge masses, which were hurled into the adjacent 
Tallies^ When the city of Tasao was wholly swallowed up, 
one of the Safyon hills was rent in two ; and fell in diSerenI 
directions, destroy mg at the same time, the town and temple 
of Mula Tesis, and another large town on the opposite side* 
The effects of earthquakes, on elevated and rocky aituationsb 
have of^en been observed. In 1693, when a great part of Pari 
Royal, in Jamaica, was sunk by an earthquake, some moun* 
tains along the river, between Spanish Town and Sixteen Mik^ 
Walk, were joined together, and others thrown on heaps» 
somewhat similar to these Rocks near Leek. At Yelhw$ a 
great mountain was split, and fell into the level, covering se- 
veral settlements. The agitations were very extensive ; but 
the mountains were most violently shaken. The Bhie, and 
other mountains most elevated, were the greatest suflferers. A 
large mountain, near Port Morant, nearly a day 'a journey 
over, was quite swallowed up ; and a lake now occupies its 
site. Some of these mountains used to afford the finest green 
prospect: but at the conclusion of the convulsions one half 
of them, al least, seemed to be wholly deprived of theis 
natural verdure. 

Thus we see the natural effecta of these internal operations 

jof nature; and thus may we account for the ragged and barrep 

> elerationt 

;ttleTatioiit of these romantic diitricu: for wbo can tell wbat . 
.cveo this country may have esperienced in that long lapse 
pf .ages» daring which the earth has stood ;. and the almost per^ 
.petoal changes to which it has eter been subject? Anele* 
.gant. though a fancifuU and it is to be feared in some respects 
a dangerous writer^* has thos reflected on these tremendous 
convalsions of oar earth: *< Happy visitations, conld they but 
leach us lessons of humanity and beneficence, and thus sweet- 
en the precarious moment of existence ! Diseases and cahi^ 
nities incident to human nature, eruptions of Tolcanoes» and, 
the con? ulsions and agiutions of the globe, conspire to our 
destruction. The elemenu fight against ns^shoold we the& 
fight against each other, or cbntend for a spot that we eiyoy 
but for a moment ? For what stability is to be looked for in a 
world that trembles under our feet?'' Or, as a writer of mech 
greater authority, has thus emphatically expressed it :^ 
*<The fashion of this world passeth away/' To whatever 
caose the present appearance of these rocks is to be ascribed^ 
whether to that " general burst—-" that universal concussion^ 
which took place at the deluge, when the whole &ce of the 
earth, as well as its internal structure, was distorted and 
'* broken up /' to some volcanic eruption, which the cal* 
careous nature of the soil, in many parts of these district!* 
would seem remotely to indicate; or, which is by no means 
•nlikely* to some violent earthquake, in their neighbour* 
hood* nothing can be more obvious than this, that the unevei^ 
broken* and irregular masses, of which many of them ar^ 
composed, have been piled, in this wild manner, one upost 
another, by some cause subsequent to their first formation, 
when the Great Creator 

w. ■ ■ iahiiband 

*-4ook the fplden ooaptsMt» prepv'd 

Jn God*t ctenufti store, tQ circanucribe 

Tbii aaivene, and all created thin^^i.'* 

TttS to 

* Dr. Oaor|s HoggMtToalMi't •• fittraity ef tlw UaimM,''^p. 613. 

%t^i of John Sneyd, E^ whose jtidfcra^s notes in Mr. PittN 
6arv^y, we hav« more than once hat! occasion to qutMfe, aM 
r^ht \o. The bouse is Jjleisanlly situated on ^ getitly risittg 
fiiil frotaliiig this sonth-e^ist, nearly surrounded by deep woods 
t>f oak, dsh, e1i^>lime, itaapte, &c. tvith linderwt^ of montatath 
Mk, hatel, birch, alder, altxes of several Species, &c. &d. 
whi6h iMderwood is cut, on an avet^jge, <)ncc in six yifears, tb 
iHakfe cilites Ibr the pottery. At the bottom of this roVnantib 
g^eVi runs a brook, which, after Feedmg ei^ht or nine lieirge fishy 
ponds, rims fhto the rivier Chi&net. Mr. SruytTs pitotatiotts 
%ere are Very extensive ; and it is remarked, that bad everjr 
jgentlettian, ^ho has landed property \ii the Moorlands, iifr* 
proved thetr estates in the way he has done, there would be 
little occasion to 'complain of the ^ nakedness of the land^' 
in so kyge a portion of this coiiimy. The woods and waHsi * 
tibound with' numerous rare plants, of wbith t list, atttonntfing 
to not less than twenty-seven diftrent kinds, is given in M^. 
Pitt's Survey.* Besides these, thei^ ate many others, whidh 
%re not peculiar to these gardens and plantattmls ; yet {[rowing 
iMre in abundanee. ' ^ 

The example of Mr. Siieyd arid others, is nA Without its 
beneficial ejects; and many paits of these MOorlands begin tb 
«8same as much an Appearance of comfort and useTblness tfs 
-other parts of the county. Many of these rude '«nd bafc 
rocks, It is true, nrast for ever remain exposed nt^d to the 
%1ement», tAiless another eruption, sMbilar to thfe toe to Which, 
in all probabtFity, t^y owe their 'piresifnt appearance, shall 
^^tiistnk them to their native heds, '^heo the level plates ok 
which they. now stand may once more%edoVered-wiMlra'fhlft* 
ful fi'jil, pregnant with • aninalio»i -and teeamg wiih verdure 
and fruitfulness. ' Till th^ fheir ffinty ehivntoces must con« 
tinue an example of the aWful f>6wet''of that Beihg, who ^ kills 
and makes alive," who to one place says Be frnitfiil and moN 


ST4^ r f a|L»s« I E9«. MM 

tfplya ^« replenished «nd b^ao^fi^ wiib tb« bonatiet M^tbn 
orn^mftiiM pigpting, said to.^nQiber, Be y^ tbe 9eaU of wtnteo 
and tl^e coois^nt abodes of spofr and gloom* At preaeat to 
many of ^beap rocky eleviHioni m^y joatly be applied the 
beautiful lines of Montgomery : 

" Spring,— tbie jQung pherubiw 9^ ^••«, 

An exile lA ^i^lSKf^c^-r- 
nits o'er the Ktiie^ (ike N9Bli>.do9f;, i 

Nfir fiod^ fi reatiog pl|^. 

When OB the mooQiaiaH atoio peak 

Alights het airy font, 
C^ldUow the wmdt,^— Mid di^k aed Meek 

Afwad her roiii thf ttorm.'^ 

We are inFonfiied by Dr. Plot,^ that in digging in % law or 
* bmrevf, at no great distance from this plaee/ there weVe found 
men's bones^ of an extraordinary size, which were preserred, 
for some time* hy a Mr. Hamilton^ vicar of 4^stpnfield, As 
thb writer does not mei^tion the exfict sj^e ^ thpse supposed 
hmnan bones, and ^ he ra^eiFed his i^fomwUicNi from report 
only, it is probably ihAit some exaggeratioB bsid been used, 
and that, in fact, thia ciroumstance oan tbrow^no light on the 
numerous tradHions, we have of the existence df d race of 
giants, either in this^ or any other part of the country/ 

The Blu€ Hills, in this neighbourhood, are rep)ajr^ble for 
lending forth a salii^e {ttTieaip^ whiph giv^s ^he ipfiiky, district, 
through which it runs, a brown rusty colour. This water with 
an infmioii oi^ ga})a iinmeid^tely turps ^ -blao)L >aa49k< Tbis, 
^b|^ess» is pwi'ng tf tbo al^qst iQe;db^i|stibleiStral» of lead 
ore, whxh abounds in various parts of these hiUs*. . i 

The viU9^.of ffc^o^ meatiooed ^ve, iasjtnaled in the 
irery heart of ibiesie roffiantic cUfis, which gi^ it an impoff^ 
%ifqe higbly ipteiresiing. Here it as supposed the X^ids w«rt 
vrpat ^l s^^lud^ thom^lves to perform \hm saprtd ritee; and 

Tt..t3 ia 

• P. 330. 

iVtS StArffOftMBUlB. 

in Iftdr't Oace, to haT6 oflTered human sacrifices to the gddT 
I^lor. These victiniB are said to have heen enclosed in wicker- 
idols, a circamstance which Dr. Darwin, thus poetically d^ 
scribes ; nrhile he also delineates this singolar cavem : 

" Where Hdmpi and Mmnifotd their diffb imoog, 

Xach in hii flinty clisnnel winds along, 

HVith Ineid lines the dosky moor divide. 

Harrying to intermix their sister tides. 

Where still their silver-btMoni'd nymphs ahhor 

The blood-smeared raonsioB of gigentic Thtt^^ 

Bat ires volcanic in the roaible' womb 

or ckrad-wrapp'd WH£TTON rais'd the maasj dome 2 

Bocks reared on rocks, in hage digoiatod pilei^ 

from the tall tanreU and the lengthen'd aisles ; 

Bfoad pond'rous piers snstain the racif, and wide 

Branch the vast rainbow ribs flrom side to side. 

While from above descends, in milky streams^ 

One scanty pencil of illusive beams. 

Suspended craggs, and gsping galphs illamei, 

And gilds the horrors of the deepenM glooms, 

•>*Hete soft the Naiads, as they chance to stray, 

Kear the ' dxaad Fmu or Tkor^s retarniog day. 

Saw from red altars streams of guiltless blood. 

Stain their green reed-bed^, and pollate their So^ i 

Heard dying babes iu wicker pruem wail, 

And shrieks of matrons thrill the affrighted gale i 

While from dark caves infernal echoes' mock. 

And fiends triomphant shoot horn every rock.^ ' 

No language coald more justly descrihe the scenery of these 
astonishingly rligged and wild districts. Indeed thi?y haffie aH 
adequate delineation. 

We have now noticed nearly every ohjcct of importance, 
either in nature or art, in these extensire and interesting moor* 
iaad districts. At Leek, and beyond to the south, the country 
mefy matepialfy alters, and nb longer can with propHety be 
termed Moorland : and indeed, of late years, through the pa* 


trilFOROSBtftV. lOfSk 

tno^c exartkms of the gemWmem whose names have already 
been mentioned^ considerable encroachmente, if we may be 
allowed the term on such an occasion, have been made ott> 
these once dreary and ' barren wastes. Many of these hills> 
and rising grounds, w^ich a few years ago ^^scnted only 
scenes of sterility ; cheerless and uninhabited eminences ex-- 
foaed to. all the blasts of heaven, and thought unfit for caltiva«i 
lion and ioca^ble of yielding the fruits of the earth, are now 
Compelled to afiford their <}uoU to the comforts^ the enjoyments* 
and even the luxuries, of human existence. If the farmem 
in general would be persuaded to follow the laudable ex- 
ample of these landed proprietors, the Moorlands,, in a very 
few years, would lose their, very name; but Unfortunately the 
eoBunon farmers hereabout are characterised as scandalously 
backward, ignorant, selfish, and bigotted. They have an idea 
that the land will not produce wheat, or not ripen it in time, 
and but seldom attempt it; but when they do^ it is after fal- 
low. They say it will grow a year from the sowing. This, 
mistaken policy is often mainuined with a pertinacity border* 
ing on absolute stupidity ; and whoever attempts to enlighten 
many of iu adherents, is regarded as an innovator against the 
laws of nature, and the course of Providence. The alehouse 
and party politics on the one hand, and the stultifying influence 
of enthssiasm and fiinatici^m, which is spreading over every 
part of the country with an alarming rapidity, on the other, 
conspire to retard the progress of every species of improve* 
ment, as well in agriculture .as all other branches of science* 
Beligion and morals are now the only subjecU, by many of 
the middle and bwer classes of society, deemed capable of 
improvement; and the only iOU«s vulnerable to the inroads of 
innovation and change. The stronger influences of an obvious 
aelf-interest, and the gradual progress of science and learn- 
ing will, however, in time destroy these baneful propensities, 
which cease to exist wherever the effects of true patriotism 
f ^d sound philosopJiy are permitted to operate. 

T 1 1 4 Before 


Before we finilly take oar leave of the northern {Rrtti of 
the moorlaads, we will oace more notice the fertile bealoL 
of the Dovck These meadows, it is justly remarked, are an 
object of considerable importance and interest. This riverf 
which has given name and beauty to the rich eale before men* 
tioned> 8|»ings from beneath the f' limestone hilU of the 
moorlands and the peak ; and at times receives an amazing 
addition, A-om torrents rashing down these hilM ftfter heavy 
MJns or melting snow. Its channel has a great declivity ; and 
in many places this river comes tumbling over the rocks iii 
cascades I and, in its greatest sirell, pushes on with astonishing 
rapidity t which continues to below Rocesietp where the w^ter 
has a greyish cast, apparent to the eye, from its being impreg« 
nated with calcareous earth, to which undoubtedly may be at« 
tributed the extraordinary fertility of its banks : for after re* 
ceiving the Chumci, a considerable stream from a. part of tber 
moorlands, not abounding with limestone, its waters become 
diluted ; and although its baoks still continue excellent, yei 
they visibly decline in richness, and the extraordinary fertility 
ceases. Immense quantities of limestone are found both on 
the banks and in the channel of the Dove, in the first pait of 
its course. This limestone has fallen in length of time> frooi 
precipices^ which overhang the river. The Csrtiljty of the 
limd on the upper parts of this river, about andahove RoeuUr, 
is, and always hs^ been> proverbial : " as rich as Dove/' being 
applied to any spot highly forced; and the fiKiuers, aceordiag 
to the Rev. Stebbing Shaw, are accustomed to say^ihat it is 
scarcely possible to overstock a few acres of Dove land. This, 
land has a perpetual verdure, and the spring floods of the river 
are very gratifying to the land-occupiers, who have this 
proverb ? 

^' In April, Dove** flood 
Is worth a £ing*5 good.** 

It is ^Iso said of Dove banks in springs that a sticlqlliid dewa. 


Aere oVer*nigbt thalt not be found next morniDglbr grasai 
It 18 very certain this rirer fertilizes its banks like another Nikg 
but sometimes rises so high in twelVe hours as to carry off 
•beep and cattle^ to the great alarm of Uie inhabitants ; and inf 
as few hours abates^ and returns again within its own cfaanneli 
Below Raeater, where this river receives the Chwmet, the 
plain spreads very wide, and continues so with variations to be* 
low llHoxeier. The plain here« on either side the river^ is ra«^ 
tbtt* composed of deep rich qiellow loara^ impregnated with/ 
if not wholly formed of, a sediment of rich and ealcare<* 
COS earth. The herbage is very fine> without any mixture of 
i*UBhes .or aquatic plants. The grasses are of the common 
flOPts; but thefojttail, the vernal grass, thejXMU, the dog's tail. 
and the meadow bromuu, predominate. It contains also rib- 
gvaas* meadow and white clover, upright crowfoot, and the 
common herbage of other mea<lows; not without a mixture of 
the curved; or common thistle, or saw-wort^ so common in. 
every soil and country. 

The phiin, within reach of the floods of the Dove, extends 
ineome places* to near a mile in breadth, particularly opposite 
UtiojNiitr, and amounts to several thousand acres, almost en* 
Itrely pastured with cows, sheep, and some horses ; very little 
•f it being mown for hay. The uncertainty and suddenness of 
the floods make the risk of hay too great. A sudden rain or 
melting of the snow^ on the moorland or peak hills is sufficient. 
to inundate large breadths of land near this river ; as the de- 
clivity or fall is great, the swell of water is sudden, but soon 
ever ; and the largest floods continue but a few hours. It is to 
be remembered, however, that the extraordinary fertility of 
these lands is owing to this circumstance, however complained 
of as an inconvenience. 

In delineating the Beauties of a country, certainly few ob« 
jecis claim a more decided and prompt attention, than the na- 
tural products of the land. It will not, therefore, be irrelevant 
tp notice some of the most remarkable wild or .native plants^ 
9 g^'w^ing. 

growings for the moat paft# in the tnendows atid pasture lands o^ 
the i>ore. Mr, Pitt has very accurately described them; and 
from his report^ with a few occasional remarks, the readei* 
will be able to gain a pre:tty clear knowledge of the botany of 
these charming districts. We insert the Linnasan, with the* 
English, or vulgar appellation : Wild rape, {brassica napw%) in; 
as highly luxuriant state, as in most places where it is cultivat-« 
ed. Tansey, (ianacetum vulgaris.) Water mustard, {erisynum 
harbaretu) Butterburr, {lussilago pctasites,) Jack by the hedge* 
- {erUjfmum aJUiaria.) Hemlock (cwium macuUttum.) Figworta. 
or water betony, {scorpkularia oquatica.) 

What follows is a lii,t of the principal spontaneous pasture 
and meadow herbage: Meadow grasses (poapralrntif e/<r»» 
vHtHs,) Annual meadow grass, or Sufiblk grass {pcm wmua»y 
This buds three oc four times a year, alter which the old ioo| 
dies. On this account Mr. Pitt remarks it might be termed 
foa guadrans annua ;^ he also adds, that* could the seed be 
procured in sufficient quantities, it is well worthy of cultiva<% 
tion, producing in quick succession an infinity of blades of 
grass, and being a sweet and fine pasturage* It isj however* 
after all, not very productive* Meadow fescue (Jeituca pra» 
iauis.) Foxtail grass (aloptcurui pratemis ei agresti$.} Soft 
grass (holcus lanaius.) Dog's tail grasses {cynosunu eriitatua 
ei echinatus.) Vernal grass (anthoxanihum odoratum') This is 
a fine, sweet, and early, grass; but by no means productive* 
Rough cock's-foot grass (dactylus glofiierattuJ) This is a coarse 
and luxuriant grass ; but not much cherished for hay. Water* 
meadow grass (poa aquatica,) This grows very high, even 
to the extent of six feet or upwards. It is also extremely pro- 
ductive. It is cultivated in the isle of Ely. Beed Canary grass 
Cphalaris arundinacea.) Linnaeus says that in the province o{ 
Scandia they mow this grass twice a year; and their cattle 
eat it. There is a variety of this grass» which under the name 
of painted lady grass, or ladies' traces, is cultivated in our gar- 
dens. It is here very tall, stalky, and productive. Meadow. 


Mt grtt» (qvena praitims.) Bent grtatet of Tarions iorU{ 
prtnripalljr the eapiUaru iUba ei siolm^fiara. Theiet thongb 
valuable in meadows* are very trottbleflome in arabteland* being 
the basis of what Mr* Pitt calls *' that corse to the ploogh*fiurmer# 
the black* or beggarly coach or sqaitch grass.*'* Tall oat grata 
(oooki eioitor.) This is the knobby or bulbous rooted coach grass* 
It makes good hay intermixed with other finer grasses* Bog'^ 
couch* or sqaitch grass (iriiicum repeus, tt camtuim.) Flotv 
grass (fciiuca fiuiumst) generally growing in water. Itis% 
sweet and good herbage, and very prodacti? e« It is remark^ 
that many a poor horse has been bogged in searching fi>r it» of 
which Uiey are remarkably fond ; as also our geese and docks 
of ito seedq* when they well know where to find it It is dificull 
to collect the seeds, or they woutd, says Mr. Sneyd» he iKry 
valuable on many accounts. Water hair grass {uma aquaika.'^ 
|t is very oommon here, and. exceeds all othcir grasses* and 
most native plants in StaflEbrdshire* in a palatable sweetnc%- 
nearly resembling liquorice. 

Other principal meadow herbage consists of the Mesdowr 
or cow clover (avariety of theirtMM»|»ra<ciMrj; the seed of 
which is often sold under the name of Cow grass. The long«» 
bfwpd perennial clover (trifk^iMM fiexuonm.) This* we be«! 
iieve* is not very common on the Dove lands. It grows chiefly 
on a mixed gravelly loam* sometimes shady* and sometiraef 
in o^n situations. It is the Marl grass of Hudson : irifbHum 
UMgusiifoiium. It is found in the clayey soil in the parish of 
Bfymhiil, in the hundred of CuddkUMs. Trailing trefoil 
(trifiyiium frocwmbem;) a sweet, fins* and good* herbage. 
Bird's foot trefoil (knu emniatlMu.) This grows in all sitoa* 
lions* open and shady* moist and dry* apparently worthy of 
eoltivation. Yet Mr. Pitt foiled in the attempt; the seed of 
bis own gathering never vegetated. Perennial tufted vetch 
(vkia craeca;} excellent paatnrage* and a good mixture in 


* Mr. Pit^ M dooK hat liaee wen DnRisbsfdMn's vcr j intcrestiog ires* 
IPIS on dv falHialisfrf f tbt darin gtsw. 

kay 9not vncNxninoii inliedguind moadows) ^ Ughly worAjl 
•f oulti^akioii. Mtzifm >retch\ing (laikyrtifprai€M$.) Forth^ 
cokii^atioa of tki« plant a premium has beea oAred by the Bath 
Agnooltural Speiety ; yet it does not appear .that cattle are 
v^markably ibnd of it Mefidow buvnet, Cifviguuorha offieU 
waHif) so named from its styptic quality. It is not very com^ 
mon ki th^se meadows ; btit 'it grows luxuriantly near Wahuli, 
hHweeri Wal9mU Wood and Cann<ich Me^th : this, Mr. Pitt 
Mys,U ^«a httibfrom nature that it phoold be cultivated" on 
eold ahd fery 'poor- wet upland. Meadow sweet fsgirau uimO" 
rki.)' . The farina> ov duatj of the ripe bloasoms of this planti 
whtehitf've^ abundanty is by some esteemed e good styptic^ 
and has been used with greair S4iccess- in stopping hmmorrhagesi 
Cow weed (ekarophyllum ^heaire,) > This has been used, ac«> 
eofdttigvio Curtis, * as a pbt*herb. It is vefy common about 
Wbherhampion and WednetJIild: Cows eat it very greedily, f 
Meadow sorrel {rumtM aieiota^) To these may be addtd the 
various kinds of Crowfoots (ranunadustO . These are extreme* 
1y abundant in the Staffordshire meadows; and. which, thodgh 
hfi themsel«>es acrid and pongont; ai^e> certainly a most desirable 
and grateful admiKture. They seem intended; eays Mr. Pitt^ 
as fieasonevs and cotreetorsy and to be adapted to ose9 in the 
asiimal e&eonomy similar to nhat of salt, mosturd/ pepper, and 
tinegar, at our tables \ to correct the flatulent or putrid qaalt^. 
ties of .the more palatable and loxurioini dishes on the ' great ta* 
hie of Nature. 

• What MIows are.censideHed, by this sensible agriculturist^ 
as neutral plan^> or such ae ere neither worthy the larmev's 
atlentiea to eneoorage their growth, nor his efibi^to to destroys 
the 'foliage of many of thens 'is eatealiy oofttle wUhoot injoryi 
either green or in hay, in cdmrnoa with other. herbage: Dander 
lion (Mli9 poramis.) D^flbdH (nardwaus pBemdo^oPcisiuiO 
Havebell, Engltiji hyaointh (k^rnnihrnttHmscriptus.) FritiiiaFy 

»OhMfv«tioaf OR MtiklifraWeA !,..•*•* 
^Pr.Withcrbg*aBotiiucalArriil^m€U»er<BfiliA*PlMtl(i. •" •' 

•TAirouBcaism. 4l638 

tdflrtiUkria . Melei^ifi$.) Tbk T«ry ^rimis .and nM fh)V« 
adorns in great profiiaion some oitadows about aueimie frota 
iBfymkili, in the pariah of Wkmek^Aihm. Cowalip (priklula 
veri\J Primroie (primmU vulgarit,} Lady smotokv* of *«»• 
raral sorts C^ardaminti ;) principally thel^hnfounwnd Awakam* 
-Wood^ or meadow anemone fwumone nemor^^.) Tha Mwm^ 
4his plant fold apiti a Curiotismanaer against rain. Dir.Wiiheritil; 
^8errv8> that it brings on the Dystntery* when eateA by sheep 
that are unaccnstonied to it Goose grass fgaliiwn.paiu9irt,im 
uliginosum.J Bistort (polygonum bistorta ;) common in moist 
meadows ; also in very high pasture^groimd^ at Eanngton, in 
the parish o(Btishbury^ The root of Ihts plant is> as Dr. Wither, 
ing observes^ ohe of the ^tnmgett vegetable astringents. 
Cinquefoils (potentilla vema et trptuns.) Meadow me (thalic* 
trumfiavum.) This grows plentifoliy on Mr. Pitt's farm at Pen* 
drford. Valerian (vakriaina tffieinaiiB.) Oreltni of several sorts ; 
Meadow boot (CakhdpaluHris,) Ladies' mantle (tdchendUa vul* 
garis.J Yarrow (archilka milltfoUum*) Restharrow (ononis or* 
veiuis.) Of this, almost aseless plant* Mr. Pitt remarks, tha£ he 
never fomid any in l^afordshire, except the kind here mentioned: 
there is, however, iri some counties, particularly in Kent, a worse 
kind than th'is : (viz.) the prickly, thorny, or spiny resthar* 
row (ononis spinosa :) this is a smooth species ; yet rather to 
be extirpated than encouraged. Yellow raitle (rhinanthus 
crista gnlli,) called also penny-grass, from the flat round shape 
of tlie seeds, which are very nutritive.* Eye-bright (euphra* 
$ia qjpcmalis et odonitcs,) This plant is much gathered by 
some persons for the purpose of uniting with crow- foot, and 
St. John's wort, for making into British-herb tobacco.f Purg- 
ing flax (linum catharticum*) This is called in London Moun- 
tain flax, and is sold at the herb shops, as a cathartic. It 
grows plentifully both in Staflurdshire and other places. There 
is abundance of it growing on a heath near Withington in 
Cheshire ; but dpes not appear to be much noticed in the coun- 

* Mr. Soeyd't n* ia Pitt. f Eoiron. 

try** ynkkeuatib^gB(9axifirogagranuUiia,) Thi^ Is tttoMlm 
^bandaace on some of the moorlaiid meadows. 

Mr. Pitt has not noticed that universal plant* the nodcat 
-tnd hamble, yet persevering, Hougr, which grows so plentifbliy* 
and whitens the fields in many parts of this and other coonties. 
If r» Montgomery's beantifbl verses on finding one of these 
flowers in fall bloom on Christmas day» 1808, may serve U> r^ 
lieve what some readers, whose tastes do not lead to botanicai 
Researches/ will consider a tedious list : 

There b a flower, a little flower. 
With stiver crest and golden eye. 
That welcomes every changing hour/ 
And weathers every sky. 

The fonder heauties of the field 
In g^ but quick succession shine. 
Race after race their honours yield. 
They flourish and decline. 
But this small flower to nature dear. 
While moon and stars their courses run, 
Wreathes the whole circle of the year. 
Companion of the sun. 

It smiles upon the lap of May, 
To sultry August spreads its charms. 
Lights pale October on his way. 
And twines December's arms. 

The purple heath, and golden broom. 
On moory mountains catch the gale. 
O'er lawns the lily sheds perfume. 
The violet in the vale. 

But this bold floweret climbs the hills, 
Hides in the forest, haunts the glen. 
Plays ou the margin of the rill. 
Peeps round the fox^s den. 


^ EoiroB. 

< WHhUithe gaidfto't citltur'd soaad 
It shares, the sweet comaliao's bed ; 
. Aod blooms on consecrated ^ouod 
In honour of the dead. 

The lambkin crops its crimson gem* 
The wild-bee murmun on its breast. 
The blue-fly bends its pensile stem» 
That decks the sky-lark's nest. 

Tis FLORA'S ^ge -.—In every place^ 
In every season fresh and fair« 
It opens with perennial grace. 
And blossoms every-where. 

On waste and woodland^ rock and plain. 
Its humble buds unheeded rise ; 
The HOSE has but a Summer- reign,— 
The DAISY never dies.* 

The Hit which we have just given is of the dietetic br agri- 
cultural plants/.natives of this county ; and, as we before re- 
marked, may nearly all be found in the meadows and grounds 
bordering on the Dove. Besides these, Mr. Pitt has given a 
most interesting and extensive list of the other most remarkable 
plants, trees, and shrubs; being such, generally, as he him- 
Keif observed. The list occupies nearly twenty-four pages ; f 
and to those who feel an interest, or a pleasure, in such kind of 
pursuits, it is certainly a pleasing and highly valuable addition 
to his volume, than which a more interesting, correct, or well- 
drawn up account has not appeared of all the reports publis'hed 
by the Board of Agriculture. This is not the place, even had 
we room, to particularize these plants. The list includes all 
thos^ mentioned by Mr. Gough in his Additions to Camden, 


* MontgOMerj's Wanderer of ^witierlaad^ snd other poems j a Yolame of 
poeoifl rhan which, at a lady, herself one of the first and best of our female 
bards, observed to the wrilex of this« a more pleasing one had not appeared 
these ilfty years. 

t hti Afr- Sur. f..«8r— tl«. 

and a great many others. The most remarkable and commoii 
indigenoQs vegetable productions, besides those we have al« 
ready named, and several weeds, and plants of iocal growth^ 
amount in number to two hundred and eleven. Besides these 
there is an extensive list of the commonly cultivated plants of 
this county, to which the author has very properly added 
the generic and specific names of Linnteas. This list con- 
tains forty different kinds of plants: ten of fruits; and fifty- 
five garden flowers most commonly cultivated : including some 
medical plants, trees, and shrubs. The whole of this botani- 
cal catalogue contains the names of S16 plants, &c. besides 
many others noticed in various parts of the work including those 
which we have above selected. 

As it is not our intention to revert to this subject any more, 
and having already glanced at it, in an early part of these 
volumes,* we will finish it by enumerating the rartpUmU of 
this county, as given by Mr. Gough :f 

•* Aster Tripolium. Sea Star wort: at Ingestre, in a place call- 
ed the Marsh, within two miles of Stafford, near the place 
where the brine of itself breaks out above ground. 
Atena r^uda. Naked Oats, or Pilcorn : in corn fields. 
Campanula laiifolia. Giant throat-wort : in the mountaiooot 
parts of this county. 

Euphorbia Characias. Bed Spurge : on the paper-mill pool- 
dam, in Hcywood Park, 

Fumaria claviculata. Climbing Fumitory : on the banks of 
zhe river Trent, not far from Wolseley. 

Lichen pyjcidatus cocctferus. Red Liver wort: or Scarlet* 
headed Chalice-moss : on mole-hills in Cank-wood, and in Fair 
Oak and Wolseley Park. 

Lycopodium clatatum. Club-moss, or Wolves-claw : on the 

^ Phalitts impudicu^ Stinking Morel, or Stinkkoms : iii the 


* Vide ante, p. 74K (f Cougk's OmA. IE p. 51B, 

BTAtmapAQIM* 1037 

pkA at Saukj^, -and lines ther«Abofit; BiOld Vttthigs, and 
ehewfaerei near Wolvirktmpiton,' 

Samhucus nigra. WIHee«berr)«d eldet';' hf tbe Hedge near 
Combridge, in Rocest^ parish^' plentifully. 

VacciniumVUii'idctck*' Red Wborts^ or whortle-berries; on 
the roountains.'^ 

Returning to the neighliourhood ot.Jiami already briefly- 
named^ we stop once more* to notice a few particiilars worthy 
of remark in these pwrls. 

Erdeswicke,* says the *' Manifold; hvmttg left Thrawky, 
runneth dovm to Ham, by Ca«^cme/ sometime Ipstone^s lands* 
from which it deseendedto the Walkers, in which name it con- 
tinued for a space* until this our age* that one of them sold 
it to Lawrence Weight* and having past Ham enters into 
Dave" This collector does , not mention the family of the 
Portes, they are the same fiunily with those of Etwali, in 
Derbyshire; for Sir John Porte* of that place* calls them 
cousins in his wilLf 

Wingfield lord Cromwell* earl of Ardglass in Ireland* in- 
heriting from his mother Elizabeth, daughter and sole heir of 
Kobert Meverell* £sq4 the neighbouring seat of Thnmley, 
upon his death* Oct 3rd* 1649, was buried in the church at 
Jiam* In. this church,, the following epitaph is worthy of 
being copied* being the production of Cotton, the dramatic 
writer*, and not appearing in any addition of his worka : 

' " Epitaph on the monument of 
Robert Port, Esq. 

. *< Viitaa ia th«M good tines, that hied good moa* 
. , „ Mo.t^iapny cfay'dpf toogpe^or.pen; . 

Voa. XIIL. . . Doa . fro 

' Stefiordshire, Harl. MSS. 1990, p. 68. 

' t Vmtation of Stafibrdshlre, 1614. 
t Robert Mereroir, EM|.died Febraary 5th, 16t7; hi* widoNr, August 5th 
MS8t end weM boch^oiied* ia the chalch at Blore. See NoUe*! Oromiv^l, 

1D98 9tAtW1M»mtRt. 

th BferbU to\4ma^ iiev«igm«te tMM> 

To*teII the world that such a periMi «•*•$ 

forthea^ eacli-piow act to £ur dMceot 

Stood for th« worthy, mmer'fjttonttment I 

Bot iatbat change of naonats, and of statet* 

Good nametf tiiougli writ in mar6le» have their fates 

Soch is the harb'rous and irrererent^raget 

littt armt the nibble of this impioaf age. 

Yet mvf thii happy atftu,tfaitb)BaM a mam^ 

(Sach as no bold surTivbr dares to daiM^ 

To igai yetnobaratinhlemislr'd.staadv 

Safe froro (he itroie of an inhuoMui hand. 

Here* reader, here a PORTS aad leUd licw 
To teach the careless world mortality; 
tVho while be mortal was. nnriral'd stood, 
' The crown and glory of his ancient blood ; 

Fit Ibr his prinbe's, and his cboiitry'k trust, 
Pfout to God, and tohift naiglilboor Jolt | 
A loyal hosband lo hit latest «ad,< 
A graeioDS fatiidr, and a iaithfal friend : 
BelovM Jie Mdt and died o'ercharg^d with jtars^ 
Fuller of honours than of silver hairs ; 
And to sum np bis virtues, thrs was he, 
Wh6 was what all isr shoold, hot canHOt be." 

Thas htY« wa taken a brief Tibw oF the cfafef beamM 
not onljr of these meorlaad dialriots^ the nei^hbowbood of 
Dovcdal9» aod the places adjacent along the borderdof Derby^ 
shire in geneial, but of nearly the whole county. We shall now 
liasten to a conclusion of our i9pograpfaical survey, just pre* 
mising, that, in districtB whbre few or no antiquarian remains 
are to be discovered, and when the works of att in general do 
not often occur to arrest the aicenlidti; the d^s^eirtpiion has 
necessarily been confined; for fKe most part, to> auich of the 
works of nature as in the most prominent manner presented 
themselves to our observation. And it must be confessed* that 
the northern parts of this, highly interesting coooty make up 
in grandeur of scenery, in the richness oC tbeirttmessl pv^ 
7 dooifoi^' 

UTArroRbsHitft. 1039 

iluctioni, waA in many places, even in the iexlent of their bo* 
tanical, and agriculj^ral resourcefl, for the want of hbtorical 
i]nportance» or architectural and antiquarian relief 

Tkbugb still in those farts denominated moorlaniBp inost of 
tfie parts which yet remain to be noticed hy no means deserr* 
to be so termed ; hence we consider ourselves as having passed 
the real boundaries pf those moorland districts, over whick w« 
have conducted the reader, without any direct or preHdeferminod 
plan, calling his attention to such objects and places, as s^eni* 
M to us to demand observation, however remele from eack 
ot^her, or however we may have found it needful, occaaioaally 
to retrace our steps, and revisit scenes before deacribed. It hag 
been a ramble over some of the most picturesque and sublimo 
portions of our island ; which, however^ have but seldom called 
forth the attention of the topographer, or the researehes of 
the antiquary. We now proceed to notice the tbriviog and 
iourishing town of Leek ; still holding ourselves firee to notM 
any place, which may not yet have been sufficieDtly d^ribed. 


ifka town of late years has considerably iiMMaae4 in its 
^'^e'^ and manufactures. Li Camden's time it was said to have 
a gooii^marketi The button trade is not now very extensive j 
but in si) k and mohair works it has considerable manu&c- 
toriesL Though the war has certainly very materially afiected 
the tfaAe of this and other manufacturing towns, yetatpre« 
sent there are few towns more amply provided with the n#* 
c^isary means of rendering the sober and industrious pans of 
its inhabitants happy and comfortable. In lti06, when Mr. 
ritt^s Survey was last published, as he informs us. Upon infer- 
mation derived from Messrs. Sleigh and Alsop, and Phillips 
and Ford, in the manufactory of sewing silks^ twis^ buttons, 
ribbons, silk-ferreu, shawls, and silk-bandkeidiief«, there were 
employed about two thousand inhabitants of the town, and one 

U u u 8 ihoosaad 

104a BTAlFORDSlliaft 

thousand of the adjacent country. To this information MiV 
Pitt adds, that in this trade sortie good fortunes haire. been 
made, and it has been very flourishing J" but the check on. 
paper credit; which in a gi*eat meafeUl-e hart the cohfidence of 
all connexions, diminished the trade here} and the war must, 
in some degree, hate damped the demand for it abroad : yet 
tbe trade is now in a flourishing state.* 

^ Since these remarks were made by Mr. Pitt, the trade baa 
increased considerably. The nearness of Leek to Macclesfield^ 
m Cheshire, being only about thirteen miles distant, has doubt- 
less tended very materially to increase the silk-trade of the for- 
mer place. The late Mr. Pratt, of Leek, frpm whom this infor- 
mation is in part derived, and whose death, eyery oncj who had 
the pleasure of. his acquaintance must sincerely lament, em* 
ployed many hands ; but> from information given to the writer 
of these observations, by two very extensive and highly re« 
^f*ctable . silk manufacturers of Macclesfield,! it appears that 
tbe chief support of the town, as to its trade, is that derived 
from tbe extensive works of Messrs. Phillips and Ford, and 
Mr. Alsop.X The Cotton trade, for several years past^ has 
been (if we may be allowed the figure] travelling with 
a somewhat regular pace, from some parts of Lancashire, 
through Cheshire .into Derbyshire and Staffordshire^ Leek 
has, howeve^ as yet partaken but in a small degree of this 
once flourishing and lucrative branch of manufacture. 

Tbe market, which is on Wednesda^^Sj is still good ; and 
there nre now seven annual fairs, chiefly for cattle and pedlars 
goods. The church has a square tower, with six bells; but 
has nothing very remarkable^ either in its monuments or archi* 
tectural antiquities. In the church-yard, at the south-east 
corner of the chaiKeU stand tbe remains of a pyramidal cross. 


• Piifi Agr. Sur. p. f36. 
f Qerrsse Ward« Esq. Hod t)aniel Briiuley, Esq. 
X Meftir». Gauoti mid Co. alto Corry un a pretty ekteiisive trade iascfWf- 

STAfFO&DSniaB. 1041 

It Is about ten feet high, having three steps at the foot., It i^ 
adorned with imagery and fret- work ^ but has no inscription 
to designate its origin or precise objects. There arc several^ 
sachin various places, as we have already noticed ; particular-^ 
ly in the church-yards of Chebsey, Ham, and Chcckley^ " serv- 
ing/' says Mr. Gough, "where single as crosses; where more» 
as sepulchral monuments^ probably of the Danes.''* Thi» 
stone is, we think, not of Danish origin, though it is usually sa 

Besides the church, which is a vicarage in Ihe patronage of 
the earl of Macclesfield, valued in the King's books at seven 
pounds, nine shillings, and one penny half-penny, here are 
meeting-houses for the Dissenters. The Methodists are nurae* 
rous here, as in other places abounding with labourers, me-, 
chanics, and manufacturers. They hiave lately built a very 
large and handsome Meeting-house. 

Here are also eight alms-houses, endowed in the year 1696 
by Elizabeth Ash, widow, eldest daughter of William JoUiffe, • 
of this place,t for eight poor widows, who are allowed two 
shillings per week, and seven shillings and five pence three 
farthings twice a year for coals, and a new gown qpce in two. 

The population of Leek, according to the census we have 
hitherto, for the most part, followed,, consists of 4,186 inhabi- 
tants, (viz.) 1,913 males, and 2,27,4 females, of which number 
2,611 were retyrped as being employed in trades and manvfac^ 
lures, principally in those of ribbons, silk, twist, and buttons, 
as we have already seen. The number of bouses was 867, a 
number, we are persuaded, much below the real amount. 
The very flourishiqg and thriving silk-trad^ every j^ar adds 

U u V 3 to 

i 4 

• Ada»<Camd. ir. p.5l5. 
t ColUnf oonfoandt this name with that of " Thomts JolUj of Bi«(<mfiiii, 
in Cbttbifc, Buj." wboM danghtcr, Elizabeth, married Rowiand Hill of 
BamJttttPme, in Shropshire, Esq. Colliiw'i Peerage, VIIl. p. 34. andShaw'f 
3ca«iPrd«hiro, 11. d, 44. apmd Sir E. Brydgei'tEd. of CoUia^ abi iopra. 

I<H3 fttilffOEDSaiRS. 

to tb« popnlaliop and prosperity of this town. This popQ|»i 
|ioa, howeter^ is maqh checked by the practice of employing 
T«ry young children of both sexes^ 'm the silk-mills* A^ Mac^ 
eles^f 14» wh^re the same trade is carried pn to a still ftr greatn 
f r extent^ there are perhaps more lame, deformed, and pre* 
maturely old persons, owing, as we apprehend, to this pifa^tic^ 
than in any othe^ town of the same population, ^i the United 
kingdom; and !Leek partakes, in a proportionate extent, pf 
f his calamity. Nor is this the only evil attending these manur 
^totries. Whc^ such great nun^b^rs of young persons ^ 
promiscuously associated in the same rooms, improper coi|* 
ipexions are almost unavoidab(ly formed ; and perhaps nothing 
but the geners^l prevalence , and daily increasing iniQuence, cmT 
Methodism, ^hich finds its way into most of these manu&c- 
tories, preyents th^in from becoming a public nui^ce of the 
most dangerous nature^ The numerous evils of enthusiasm, 
particularly the ponfosiye yice of slander, of which it is ^e 
fruitful source, are more th^i^ counterbalanced by the uirH 
p( subordination, and the outward decorum which even the 
aemblance of true religion produces. Thes^ observations yn]l 
•pply, with still ^eater finrce, to ^e many cotton manu&ctpoes^ 
^hich are common in Tarious parts of thesfe districts. Nor can 
the evils, of which we complain, be checked, except by tj^e 
most Watchful care and unremitting attention of the. principal 
conductors of these works ; an attentiouji we are, persuaded, 
that is by no means wanted in most of the principal houses ^haj^ 
have comf our obseryation, whether at Leek or at Mac- 
flesSetd. S^ch men are a real blessing to society; an^ iptf>I 
iuch, Wf know, there are in these m^t^&ctories. 

This town is remarkable also for the £idlovving singular cir- 
cnmstan6e« 9y the intervention of one of those craggy moun* 
tains which vf e baye already described, at a considerable dis- 
tance waitward of the to^n, the 8|^ a ^ twice in the saran 
^ening^ at a certain lioe of the year; fox ^6^ \i «ato behind 
^e top of the oounlain^ it breaka out again 09 the northern 

ftXAHOI^DSQl&S* lOllS 

eide of it, iphich ia ateep» be&re it reaches tlie berkEOO in ita^ 
fiill. So tbat within a very fe^r i^ites, the inbabitaots havf 
00 riiij^^toi when he has, in fact, paat his meridian, as at 
J9i(frawdah, before noticed, and the «<ttj^-tifn twice in the 
HPce <^{ a Vf^ry fipw boorf, aa here at Lock / 

The n^nof wg^ the estate of one Algarpa 0%, before tbf 
p^nefl; and ip the ConqufrprVi handa, Reg. flp; bnt it 
ifas, 6^ Stifpb^n, the fiatate of Banalph de Cfecn^iia, the ^tb 
aarl of P^^ater, a geeat man in King Ste|>ben> tiipf , jn irboaf 
reign* Ani|o Xk^m. 1153* )ie died* beii^g pqiappe^* af it nfna 
■npperted^ bjr Williipn Pev^retl and others* Hia wife M^ud* 
daughter of Bpbe^ tw;\ of Gloocf^ater, baae aon of king Hen* 
I. waa the foupdi:^ ^ ^^fifi^^P^^* ^9 Derby abife, and, aur^ 
▼iying her bnal^afid, }^ the 33i|d of |Iepfy II* held the loidahip 
of Wadiaffm iadofnry.i^ i^ulp)i waa ^ peraqn of aing^^ar piety 
in {liadaya; and, afnQ|)g many other b^nefactiona, to diveta mo* 
naateriea in aereral countiea, aa to thennna of Cheater, I9i9n)ca pf 
Gerottdon in I^eiceat^iah^re, &e. he ga^e tt^e tythea of biainin 
in thia ph^st to tb^ monka pf S^ Werberg^, at Chea|en Hie 
heir and apQceaaor in his earldom waa Hugh* anrnamed i^?i« 
lieck, a tovi^ in Bqwis in Merionethahire, where bp w^ bor^i* 
|le died at bis aeat in tbia town, in th^ year 1161* 37 ileok IL 
an4 ^f^B aoccefded by Itenalpb, his aon and heir* who g%¥p 
thif manor to ibe monka qf the at^bey of Dien le Cieyae* ad« 

71^ the Boniana made fri^qoent incnraiona into tbeae pmi 
ja efident from varioqa concurring circnmatanoea ; and that tb^ 
i^igUfoi^rhood of Leek* io particolar* baa been the acene ef 
aomo aignal action* fott|^ between the Britoni* and their mm^ 
dnts* ia cl^ar from the circnmatance of aeroral piecea of B^ 
man and British arms having been* from time Io time* difCOTei^ 
f d in ita immediate ficinity. Dr, Plot,| apeaking of the man* 
Iter in which the Britona used to bead their arrowy wtitea thna : 

^nu4 «»Nbr 

• See the Topog^pber, Vol. IL pi <M. 
«HagaaBrit,yQLV.p.99« |P.S96ii39N 

1044 STAFTOiDSniRt." 

"Nor did the Britons only head their arrows with flinty batal> 
so their matara, or British darts, w*hich were thrown by those 
that fought in Essedis,^ whereof I guess this is one I had given 
me, found near Leek, by my worthy friend, Mr. Thomas 
Gent, curiously jagged at the edges with such like teeth as A 
sickle, and otherwise wrought upon the flat,t by which we 
ihay conclude, not only that these i(rrow and spear'head* are 
all artificial, whatever is pretended, but also that they had ^- 
ciently some way of working flints, by the tool, which may 
be seen by the marks, as well as they had of the Egyptian 
porphyry/*. Whatever truth there may be in this* conjectorei 
it is enough for our present purpose tashew, as we have just 
jremarked, that these warlike instruments, found in this part, 
prove tbe extent of the Roman invasion, into these remote 
districts of the kingdom ; and the reluctance with which the 
aboriginal inhabitants- of these islands yielded to the power of 
th^ir invaders. 

This town gave birth to the foumler of the earldom of Mac- 
clesfield. The family was founded by Thomas Parkeb, the 
person of whom we now proceed to 'give some account. He 
was the son of Thomas Parker, an attorney of this place. The 
name Jwas originally written Le Parker, as is evident* from our 
records. William le Parker, in 1271, { had a grant of free 
warren in' all his lands in Eccles, Lesingham, Hapesbarg, 
Brumsted, and<Shaleham, in the county of Norfolk. Thomas 
Parker § was seated at Bulwel, and was a person of such ample 
possessions, that in tbe reign of Richard II. he married Elisa- 
beth, daughter and heir of Adam de Gotham, son of Thomas 
de Gotham of Lees, son of Roger de Gotham of Lees, near 
Norton in the county of Derby, of which lordship he was also 
pwner, and now retains the name of Norton Lees. He had 


• C. Jul. Csesaris Corainentarior. de bello Galliro, lib. 4. 
^ Or. Plot has given a drawing of this : Tab. XXXIlI. Fig. 2^ 
J Gart. 56. Hen. UI.p. 1. 
^ f Fi Sldcmmate, and Visit, of Derby5bire, 161 !• 

STAr#oftDsn4itt. 1045 

by the sam^ Elie. three sons: Robett wiio coniinued $he line; 
Thomas of Norton Lees, who had an only daughter, married 
to Thomas Moore of Green Hill; and William seated at Skir* 
i<iiNf in*Der1iysbire. 

Robert Parker, his eldest son, was seated at Norton Lees, 
and with his younger brother William, was certified in 12 Hen. 
VI. among the gentlemen of the county of Derby,* who lhon» 
pursuant to anact of Parliament, made oath for the observance 
^f (he laws, for themselves and retainers. 

Robert, having married Elisabeth, daughter and coheir of 
John Bfrley, of Barnes, had issue sereral children ; of whom 
the eldest son, John Parker of Norton' Lees, was of full age in 
the 12 Hen. VI ; for he also, being written of iVor/on,t made 
oath with his father for the observation of the laws. Thia 
John married Ellen, daughter of Roger North, of Walksing*- 
faam, in Nottinghlimshire, ancestor to the present earl of Guil« 
-fonL by whom he had issue five sons, and four daughters : Joha 
•Parker of Norton Lees, the eldest, married Elisabeth, daughter 
to Ralph Eyre, of Alflreton, and had issue three sons ; John^ 
'Henry, and Anthony ; and a daughter, Margaret 
• Henry, the fourth son of John Parker, by Hellen North, 
'Was groom of the chamber to Henry VIIL but left no issue. 
William the fiflh was sewer to that king, and seated at Luton, 
in Bedfordshire; and married Margaret daughter to John 
Wroth, of Durane, in Enfield, in Middlesex, Esq. by ^\bom he 
had an only daughter Barbara his heir, married to John Wick« 
ham of Enfield, father by her of William Wickham. Thomas 
Parker, second brother to the said Henry and William, mat*- 
ried — — , daughter and heir of — — Pfeirker, of his own 
family, by whom he had issue William Parker, of Ashbbrne in 
Derbyshire, who had three son*; George Parker o^ Nether-- 
Lees ; Rowland and Edward. George marrieU Barbara, daugh- 
ter of —— Biff/^f^of Berkshire, and had issue -William 
Parker, of Parwick in Derbyshire, who died in 1631, aged 

f Foliar** Worthies, in DerbjsMre.- t Fuller, ubi iM/»ri» 

9kfta^'€if^ imvmg tneddtd Elimbfith, dtngbl^r to Hamphvy 
Wttabn, ^iid h«d is^ae Tboma/i P^rkerp t|i^ Mm of th^Cbn^* 
collor» of wboitt we now proceed to give sqch an acconnl as tba 
seanty materials^ that haye been recorded of him vvU efiffrd* 

(Jnder tbe directwi^ of h«s father, b^ fir^t applM biqtfaV to 
Ib^ ^tady of t^e laws^Qn^lgrewppeminant inbivprofasfipou Ibuft 
be W9S apppioted one qf tbe fM>iMiqil to qqeeo Annti apd» 
^mg called to tbe degree of a^rj^^t af law, June 9lb 13<Ni» 
the motto of the ring^ delW^rM W tb^ occasion |o q^t» 
4nne> aiu) pdope CSeorgfi pf P^nmark, was HHmb^t, 4wi^» 
jUgiiu9. He WM tbe ^anie ""day apppiptte^ the iftpefd's a^r* 
jeant. and bad ib^ k(W^x of toighthood ponferced pq bim« 
He w^^ member of Paritainent for Derby, irppi 1704 tp ITflg. 
An March 5, 17Q9-1JD, he waa constituted lord chief jn«|ipe of 
^be court of King's Bench ; anc|> oq the demise of the qwea^ 
^aa one of the lords justices, UH 4i? amv^of her siiccfr^ior 
6om Hanover; who, on March lOtb, 17lJhlS, crf^me^ bufi a 
baron oS this kingdpo, by the style ^ski lido of loid Parlmi 
banoo of XiacelcisfieM* ip the ppupty pf Cheater* 

Bishop Burnet* aaya that he had jiist betffi one of tb^ main* 
gets of Sacbeverell^s trial; and di^Ungnished himself M a T^ry 
particular manner in it. On the death of Hptt, the lord chief 
jostice, which took place during this celebrated trial, Parkar 
fraa constituted in bis place, *' which greet prompti<»n/ • saya 
Burnet, ** seemed ^ evident demanstratipn of the Qnepo'sap* 
proving the proaePuUon; &r none of the maiiag^rs had treated 
SaohevereU so severely m be bad done ; yen secret wtuspem 
were pretty coof^ntly se( ahoat, tbs^ tbongb the dueen^a 
aftirs put her on acting the part of <tne that was. pleased with 
^b scene, yet abe disliked it all, apd would take the {wst oo* 
oasipn to shew it/' 

To return to the tiina of Parker's elevation to the title qf 
baron : Nearly two year? after this hopour, his ma^ty was 
|>leased to deliver the Great Seal to ^is lordsbip^ and to de- 
• QiraThiie* VqLlL p, 4M.hH^ 

oiare.^iinB chancellor of Gceat Sritain ; nod on pi|^ \^x\k op 
Jtfay 1718, two days afterwards^ he way sworn at Kep^ingtofi^ 
the king pre;ient in copnciU and too)c fiis pl^p^ at the board 
accordingly : • he was cpogratolated upon his prpoiotion, by 
the Qi^yersity pi' Cambridge. He was pne of the locds jnsttcea# 
-whilst tieorge the Qrst waf af Hanover; being so appoii)te4 
May 9th I7l9» On Jii^e the 4th of that year> |ip was ap- 
pointed Custoa Botulonw of the county of Worcester. Oa 
the fifth of Novenp^ber 1721,* Y^e wap advanced to the di^itie^ 
of Viscpnnt Parker of Ewlnui, in Ox forest) icf, ]i^4 ^^^ ^ 
Maccles^eld, in the coanty of Cfaestf r« io tail-niale> ^p holiil 
fhe dirties pf lady Parker, l;)arq||iey pf Iflaccie^^eld, yvh: 
conntess Parker of Kwelme, and cponlesf of Macplf^fid; tp 
]|Slizabeth his daughter, wif<^ o^ WiUiai^ Hea^hcote^ l^aq. a^ 
to the hf irs male of her body. 

This tidp qf honour was snddc^nly inten'uptn^ : fc^ i^ J^e, 
1735, his lordsbip was impeached on charges of cgpoptip^ ; 
was tried s\t the bar of the hpiise, ^^nd unanimously pro^aoMop* 
^ guilty ; in consequence of whiph he ^as remoi^ed frojiQ 
hi? bjgh office^ and fined dO^OgOLf This ^as Cfrta|in|y ^ 
iieavy aic^ severe sentence; wjbich, had this pnfoc^s^c; chafw 
ceUor lived and ^rred in later times, woui(j| doubtless h^vf 
pi^ssed away as one of those ipany things which, hawiet«t> 
our fprefathers might h%ve shuddered at tbeQi, are now as conei« 
mon and as obvious «' as the sun ^ noon-4ay/' 

Of this distinguished, but unfortu|iate f^acU Mr. Npb^et 
writes as follows: "This everyway distinguish^ char^ct^c 
wat the son of Thomas Parker, an attorney at Lealfo, in Sta£^ 
fordshire ; in the ph^ncel of lyhich church I have read the^ 
inscription on his gravcrstone. Hp left hia son about IQQI. ppc 
^^um. n[e receiyed the Gr^at Sp^l, Afay lItb,V ^'^^ ^hic:^ 

• Bill ngMit* 8 Geo. I. 

f Coote*f HtBtory of EogUnd, Vol. VIII. 965, et if?. 

I ^tiniMtiap of G.rfiigM*f Biog. IfUt. of Eoglan^i IIL p. 2)0. 

f It iraidelrieied May IM. 



ht helcl 'till January 4tb, 1724-5. It was an extraordinary 
etcnt, that lord Macclesfield, one of the great ornaments of 
the peerage, who had so long presided at the administration 
of justice, should himself be arraigned a« a criminal; be con- 
victed of mnl-practices ; and sentenced to pay a fine of 30,0001. 
lis a punishment for hrs offence : that a second lord chancellor 
of England should be impeached by the grand Inquest of the 
nation, for corruption of office ; and be, like his great prede- 
tessor, lord St. Albans, found guilty of the charge. The 
prosecution was carried on with great virulence ; and though 
rigid justice, indeed, demanded a severe sentence ; yet parly 
aesrt and personal animosity were supposed to have had their 
weight in that which was passed upon him. The whole line 
was exacted, and actually paid by his lordship and his son. 
notwithstanding the favourable disposition that was shewn in 
a certain quarter, to relieve him in part by a considerable do- 
nation. It is certain, there had been gross mismanagement in 
the oflTices of the masters in Chancery, by which the suitors 
had been great sufferers ; and it appeared that those places had 
been sometimes conferred upon persons, who had evidently 
paid for them a valuable consideration. The public cry 
against corruption in high stations was joud and long; and it 
was not thought prudent to stay proceedings against the su-' 
preme judge in the kingdom. The statute on which the chan- 
cellor was impeached had, indeed, grown into disuse; but it 
was still a law; a breach of it was proved, and the conse- 
quence was inevitable. Lord Macclesfield was a man of learn- 
ing, and a patron of it. Bishop Pearce of Rochester, among 
others, owed his first introduction to preferment to his lord- 
ship's encouragement. He was also very eminent for his skill 
in his profession ; but rather great than amiable in his general 
character. He was austere, and not deemed sufficiently at-> 
tentive to the gentlemen of his courts to whom his manners 
Are represented to have been harsh and ungracious, unlike the 
mild mid complacent behaviour of his predecessor^ lord Cow^ 


STArFOaDSRlRB* 104$ 

p«r. His lordship passed ^he remainder of his life in a learu« 
td retirement, much devoted to the studies of religion, oC 
which he had always been a strigt and uniform observer." 
Such is tlie character of this great man^ <for, after all, he was 
a great man,) given by aJearned and able pen: but how.wil- 
fal corruption— criminal mal-practices— an abase of the most 
exalted trusts and privileges— harsh^ ungracious^ and domi« 
neering dispositions, ^an be reconciled with a strict and uni" 
farm observance of religious duties, does uot^ to M9, appeac 
quite obvious. 

His lordship married Janet, daughter and co-heir of Charles 
Carrier of Wirkworth, in Derbyshire; and by her had issue, 
George the second earl of Macclesfield ; and the lady Eliza* 
beth, befoje mentioned. He died • at his son's house, in Sobo* 
square, in the sixty-sixth year of his age, on April 28th, 1732, 
and was buried at Shirbum in Oxfordshire; esteemed for tho. 
social virtues of a husband, parent, and master, hy every one 
to whom he stood in those relations. 

His lordship's son George, the second earl of Macclesfield, 
was distinguished as a scholar, and the steady promoter of li- 
tejatore and science, lit: was president of the Royal Society, 
and member of many foreign academies ; and rendered him* 
self otherwise remarkable, for being zealous in procuring the 
alteration of the style ;t but, as his lordship was not born at 
Leek, his biography does not properly belong to this place.. 

At a small distance north of Leek is Dieu k Crtyse, or 
rather Dieu Encres, now commonly called Deluorcs, where 
was an abbey built by Ranulph, the third earl of Chester, 
and at the Dissolution given, with most of its appurtenan* 
ces, to Sir Ralph Baggenholt, by King Edward VL for 
his advancement ; but Sir Ralph dispersed it abroad, and 
gave it partly to the poor, for he sold it almost all to the ten- 
ants, who held it, to every one his own, ai sq small a price, 

• Park's Tluyal ana Noble Authori, Vul. IV. p. 145. 
♦ See Sir K. Brjdgcs'i CoUini'» Peerage, Vol. IV. p. 194.. 

§050 ITArfOEDBIllEk. 

tttafc-liiey were alile to make ttie purchase, i)aA then spefit the 
liiodey gentlemianlikej leaTing his son nothing t>at tiis natural 
endot^niehU, which proTed sufficient to raise him to an equal 
dignity ^ith his father i arid it is likely to as good or better an 
estate'; fot he wofs for his valoiir knighted ai Calais, Aiiho 

Thfs, £CS the s^ihe author inforn^s us^f ^^ ^^ abbey of Cis« 
ferciati ]tl6tiks ; and the following legena is mentioned, as im« 
ihediately cotinfecied with its foundation and name: ''Upon 
ibis occasion, the ghost of earl Ranulph's grand^ther appear-* 
lid' to faini on^ night, when he was in bed, and bid him go to » 
piace ea1le^ CholpcsdaU, within the territory of Leek, and 
Ibere he shoold find a chapel dedicated to the blessed Tirgin^ 
dnd form therb an abbey of Whit'e monks, and endow it ; for 
byit,^* said the gho^,-" there shall be joy to thee and many 
others who shall be saved thereby. Of this it shall be a sign, 
irhen- the Pop6 doth interdict England. But do thou, in the 
mean time, go to the monks of Pulton, and be partaker of the 
flacranient of the Lord's Supper ; atld, in the seventh year of 
tiiat inteMici, thod shatt translate those monks to the place I 
have appointed.^' Rahul pli having had this vision, related iC 
to Ctememia his wife, ^ho, hearing it, said in French : " Dieu 
tncrcsf'-^Qod increase** whereupon the Earl, pleased with the 
e!cpressiori; said: <'The name of the place shall be Dkuk 
cres, which is now corrupted to Dieulacres. This house, being 
thus founded, was fbrnlshed accordingly with monks, of the 
Cistercian order, from PuUon in Cheshire, which was built in 
this earl's name, by Robert de Pincerna, or Butler his servant 
«nd well endowed by the earl himself, with divers lands and 
possessions, which his successors, earls of Chester, confirmed, 
ilhd made considerable additions to it Robert de Menilwannin 
aho gave to the monks of this house, " for the health of his 
flbul,'' ana of Ranulph, earl of Chester and Lincoln, and his 
mother's brother, in pure and perpetual alms, free common in 

• M^g« Brit. V. p. lOK t P. J49, rt ttq. 

STiiryoKosaiM. %m 

the w^dd of Petaro, itlth housebote^ and haybgle, and ^wil« 
«ge for flay hogs.^' 

At ibf^ Dttsoluiion; according to Speeds it ^vaa tatoM al 
e^l. is. Od. AftetwairdB its site, with tto iCuidi, akid odier 
tfeiUlp of vtfUib bc/lon^ing to it, wae gimi, as w^ ha^e abOT« 
MfttiKl, by EdWavd VI. t6 Sir Rdl^H Baggeiiholt Thot vM 
tfie i^rbpetiy^tke tto^ and tiglitftti protierty,— ^iF {boiIs and 
MMcebt Iperffobs torn from lbei<> own^tt, by these rebrmefa 
ki BMigf<m> and sqnanAarM atriiy oa<th)» (kvoiirites of pHncei^ 
mrd tli^iMielv^sliM Ho nwrb noril or legal datdi to such pro* 
p^rf y, tban ilfe ti^g of Ebglandi at the present da.y, has to tbs 
kdise, in vhicli ^e ar^ nowr writings olr to the pen tltat recorda 
this testimony against Uie nipaol^ and pen^cnttons of in^ 
tM'i^ited refbmi^fir. Tbere are ^till sobe T^mdinfl of this abbey ; 
Ald> oM tb« Ate, it tiow an abbey of Frmiefa nons! 

l^shitm Spenceir. l^e naftttt of this placb wonld seem to in* 
di^t^> tbtf il; nitisu at sotne period; faaie biien the estate of 
sotlie of the S|>enoer £imily. There ia anoUier place at nd 
gfHM di^ilbe tr6ta this; called RuAion Joptis, which formerly 
belonged to one James. In the former of theise places they 
^nt oat a small Well, which tbk people of the nelghboarkood 
call Sir. HeUm*9 WM. It is so plentiftilly sappKed by a spring, 
l!h^ (Joined by another of eqoal Ibree) sapply water to s 
pfetty lar^ rettrtoir^ belonging to a cotton-mill, when wd 
irbil^d it,ooeopiedby M^. Peter Crooatryt Who employed man;^ 
of tiie neighbourihg- peoplei in the spimitng of cdton weft 
Air th6 Maiich«tt«r market This Well is r^marUble ftr 
adttkt siiigQlar qdalAiei: It sometimes hdppens thdt it will b»* 
come suddenly dty after % conMant discharge of water fb# 
eight of ten y*ear». Thid happens as well in wet as in dry 
efaions, and always at the beginning- of MAy, when the 
ipHngs are commonly esteedned highest; and so it usually 
continiies, till M^stiininiaa^, Nor. \% folldwing. The people 
iBlagine, that when this happens, there will soon follow som« 
«tvi|>eiidous calamity of famine, war, or some other great na#^ 



tional diststet, oi* change. They say that it grew ity hefot0 
the late civil war> and again before the beheaditig of king 
Cbarlea I; and also against the great scarcity of corn in 1670; 
and lastly iii 1679, when what is ridiculously, and i^lsely# 
called the Popish plot» was disccrrered. Mr. Peter Goosiry, 
mrhb^ influence in this neighbourhood was coQ8ideral^le« being 
himself an intelligent nab, helped, matertaily to hrmg tbesa 
aop(erstitiou8 notions into contempts We), could not learn that 
St. Helen's Well suddenly withheld its supplies previous tpii, 
or upon, the breaking out of the present war, which has cer* 
thinly operated as much to the prejudice of the poor inhabi- 
tants of this neighbourhood, as any other calamity that has 
befallen them these two:centuries past. 

The little rural chapel of this parish stands . upon a con- 
siderable eminence, .near this singular well ; but has nothing 
Remarkable/ in its history or construction. .The hamlet con- 
tains about sixty-four- houses; one of the best .of which is a 
large brick building* once occupied by Mr. (^oostry; and^ub- 
sequently by Mr. Thomas Ball, a worthy^nd ingenious per- 
son, now, we believe, of Macclesfield. 

Field, south of Leek, was, in king Henry^s tkne, given by ont 
Jefirey, abbot of Burton, to one Andrew, in fee-farm for the rent 
of 201. per annum ; but afterwards Nicholas, abbot of the same 
h^se, gave the same, with the homages and services, (Jeffery S. 
If aur being then the farmer thereof,} to his brother Bertram 
de Verdon, in exchange for certain lands of his in Si^enkallg. 
of which one Roisia (Margaret) was heir, being the daughter 
and heir. of some of the Staffords; she had for her second 
husband Sir Thomas Pipe, and by him had Sir Robert Pipe, 
Knt. She had two other sons by Sir Thomas Pipe, John and. 
Thomas, who took on them the nam^ of S. Maur. Thoma&'a 
tfon William passed all his lands to £ir Jaipes Pipc^ the son 
•f Sir Robert, by which means, in king Richaril^s reign, this 
nanor came iulo the j^ossession of Sir Jehn Bagot, whoat^ heire 


STArrOftDBHlRB. 1051 

were ownen of it in 1659. The riTer Blithe runs through thii 

Iif this parish grew a prodigious Witch*EIm« felled by Sir 
Hanrey Bagot/ in whose ground it grew, and who wai tht 
Jproprietor of it, the bigness of which being so well attested 
by the surveyor of it, and other living witnesses in 1680* 
well deserves a deicription : «'Two able worlonen were ^v^ 
days in stocking or felling iu It was one hundred and 
twenty feet in length. At the bott*end it was seven yards in 
circumference. Its girth was twenty •five feet and a half in 
the middle. Fourteen loads of fire-wood^ as much as six oxen 
could draw to the housfe of PiM, being not above three hun^ 
dred yards distant, broke off in the lalL There were forty^ 
seven loads more of firewood, as large as the former, cut from 
the top. They were compelled to fasten two saws together, 
smd put three men to each end, to cut the body of it asunderw 
Out of this most astonishing tree were cut eighty pairs of 
Bathes, for carriage wheels, and 8QP0 feet of sawn timber inl 
boards and planks, at six score per cent, which, for the sawing 
only, as the price of labour then was, came to the sum of 
twelve pounds.'' 

These facts being thought of so much importance, it was 
kerned requisite to establish their truth on a permanent basis; , 
accordingly, they were attested by the hand-writing of every 
person immediately concerned, from lord Bagot, the owner, 
to the persons who actually stubbed the tree, and cut it down. 

The number of '< Iknns" according to the scant1ii\g just 
Inentioned, it was computed to contain (after their gross coun- 
try way of measure) were nmety six of solid timber; «' a vast 
quantity indeed,'' adds Plot, ''for one tree, and well requiring 
ample testimony to render it credible : but whoever will 
take the pains to cast it nicely, and more artificially^ will find 
that it must contain one hundred i<ms at least, of neat timber, a 
fifth part (which is sufficient in such large batts) being allowed 
for the waste of nod, chips, Ste. For supposing this tree 

VouXia Xxn gradiiaHy 


gradually to taper from a base, to such a length, muUipIyiny 
the area of the base, by a third part of the length, one hoar 
dred tons will be found a very modest account all allowances 
being granted, that can reasonably be desired," The height 
of this tree, according to the same author, could not be less 
than forty. yards; and yet he mentions a.&i>tree, growing at 
Wartm,- in the parish of Norbur^, which grew at least ^ven 
yards higher than this, "out of which," says he, *' perhaps as 
wonderful a piece of timber might be Qut, as was out of the 
Larck-tfxc, mentioned by Piiny, brought to Rome with .other 
timber for rebuilding the • bridge .NawnacUariHj i.n Tiberius 
CsBsar's time, that contained in (ongtb forty yards, or ooe 
hundred and twenty feet, and carried in thickness every way 
two feet, (rom one end to the other, which the em.peror. would 
pot use, but commanded it to be laid in a public place in open 
yiew, as a singular and mirofuloui monument to all posterity, 
where it remained entire, till tl^e emperor Nero built his state* 
ly amphitheatre*'*" 

And yet neither of these equalled the Brs that Cbabrmmi 
inentiont, as growing in his time in the wood called T&anifai- 
wald, in the territory of Bern, whereof some' were two hun- 
dre$l and thirty feet; above seventy-six yards high, exceeding 
the tallest of these in Staffordshire^ by nearly one hundred 
feet, or full thirty yards.t 

It is not improper in this place to notice the princip^ places 
in this county wherein have been dug up« at various tioies, 
exceedingly large trunks of trees^ which have .been buued in 
t.he ground, as some have thought, since the universal Deluge. 
These have been, found at Laynton, in Pyr<hiU hundred* at 
the old PewU pool in Norbury parish, in Cuddlestone il.un- 
dred; in Stcbbm-poql, in High Offiey, in the . mossfs , near 
Eardky, in Audley parish; and also nft^ ,Bell^,'m FyrehiU 
hundred* Besides in these northcirn and westei^ districu, 
•* ' ^ such 

.*(XPli&il,2rid,Kar*4fiit.Iib«XVLca|M40; / i 
'.' ^ Poouoici Cbabraei Sdrp. Sclii«|faf h* lo App. ad Claaseiiij|,4vo».p. •6(»S. 

•och trunks have been dug up in the sbuihern parts :- in Chm- 
moor, near WroUesley; in Rotten Meadow, near Jfedaisbury 
Hail;- on Dorehf Common, in the parish of Gnoaell; in a-place 
called Peatimoore, at Thome; and in the moors of Hands* 

Pr. Plot discusses at some length the questions concerning 
ihe kinds or sorts of these trees; whether mineral or vegeta- 
ble; and if vegetable^ of what species; and if of this or that 
•peoies^ by what means they came to be thus buried. These 
questions, which are by < no means uninteresting, are treated 
in an able and rational mannec ; and his conclusions from the 
whole are, that although '' there certainly is a mineral sub* 
•lanc«> called Ugnum fo$tik, found in the earth representing 
the stumps and parts of the trunks of trees which never grew 
mbove ground like other vegetables ;*' yet that the trees foutod 
in these and other parts are certainly vegeUble, from the 
cireomstance of their having their roots joined to these, and 
the stumps of their branches issuing from them ; and still more 
ffom the fact, that the timber of tbem swims in water, which 
Hgnum fouik will hot do; and is still as liable to- the axe, 
dNesel, saw, or plane, as any • other wood whatever. Plot 
then corrects one or two mistak€S> into which Caesar in hii 
Commentaries had fallen, relative to the growth of Fir, (which 
many of these trees seem to be) in this country. Fi om this 
error of Cesar'g have arisen the other, as Plot conjectures, 
that these trees were brought hither by the Deluge. This 
opinion is corrected by the fact of many of these (rees having 
•till the mark of the axe upon them ; and the stooies or stumps, 
standing in an erect posture^ as is the case with those at Steb* 
ben, Laynton, and Pewit Pools, a^ also those of Juqualat, in 
Pyrehili hundred* 

To account for these firs, which be takes them to be, being 

found alone, there being other timber enough near all the 

places, which Plot saw^ he conjectures, on the authority of 

•ome ancient writings, then in the possession of Viscount Gor- 

.X X X 9 manstow, 


maAstow^ that the l)anes and Norwegians* wken tfaey had 
gotten good footing u^ ^ur ^l^nd, vfhiicb they bad foe maay 
years, like other conquerors,. wde;k?Qured. to «i]iake this,.af 
like their own couqtry as Uiey cpuld« and therefore pbntod 
there firs ; which after they had grown for about two hondriMl 
years, either upon the' total destruction of tbem throughout 
England jn a day, in the time, of king Ethelred;* w iheir 
fini^l loss of all dominion Jiere, after the d^tbof Hardicanote^ 
that no memorial whaterer. might remain of tbem» the . trees 
|hey bad. planted were. also cut down* and as mfmy of them 9$ 
gr^w in lov^ moist lands; .(lyiog conienicatfor ppctage,)negleot^ 
ed, and thus covered, in process of time, by aHri{iofk; those 
cut down upon the hills and higher grounds (lyiag readier «l 
hand) having been spent Jn divecs uses, many ages ago/' This 
Dr. Plot offers only as a conjecture; but is decided that tbcs« 
subterraneous trees were not brought to their pjresent places 
by any extraordinary flood, or other unusual operationa of 
liature.t . . , 

Butterton is a small hamlet and chapelry to the parish of 
Mayfield. It is la the immediate neighbourhood of WitiUm 
and //am, and bordering upon the place where, the rivuleti 
Hamps and Manifold make their subterraneous transit, wbicll 
we have before noticed : . . 

" Wheie Hampi and Manifold their cliffii among^ 
Each in his flinty ctiann^l windi along, 
With locid lines die dusky moor divide. 
If orr^ing to intermix their sister tides^ 

Three thousand ste|H in sparry cleits they stray. 
Or seekj through sullen mines, their gloomy wiqr i 
On beds Af lava sleep in coral cells. 
Or sigh o'erjaspcr fish and agate sliells. 


* Speed's History of Great Brit Book VIIL chip. 44. 
t Nat. Hist. Staff, jp. til— 220. 

stAvronDsaiKB; 1067 

lill^^n ffttnM ILAM leads hit biiilij% floods 

ThiD* ilowerj nemdowi and impending woods, 

rieawd with light spring they leave the dreary nigirt, 

And mid circamflaent surges rise to light : 

Sbake their bright locks, the widening vale porsne. 

Their lea-grean mantles friiig*tl with pearly dew* 

In playful groups by towering THORP they more/ 

Bound o*er the foamkig wears, and roth into the DOVE.*" 

Hortan is a parish about two miles and a hal^ from Lctk^ coA* 
taining aboat one hundred and fi fly houses* and nearly eigUv 
hundred inhabitants. The living is a curacy* ' > 

Bradky, is a parish near Cheadk. It is at the utmost eastemt 
extremity' of The Potteries, of the manufactories of whick 
a more minute description has been purposely deferred to 
this part of our work. The following account, we believe*! 
will be found to contain a pretty correct description of this 
extensive manufacture ; both as to its origin and present statew 
Those parts of the county* where this manufacture is carried 
on, fromlhe coal mines, which are plentiful there, seem bet* 
ter adapted, observes Dr. Aikin, for a manufactory of earthera 
jwares than, perhaps, for any other. And here it is just to 
premise, that the substance of what follows on this subject is 
copied from the very accurate description of this sensible wri- 
ter, who had it originally from a gentleman of great chemi* 
cat knowledge, and thoroughly acquainted vith the subject. 
The measures or strata, by which the beds of coal are divided, 
consist most commonly of clays of different kinds, some of 
which make excellent fire bricks, for building the potter's kilns 
and saggars, (a corruption of the German Sehragers, which 
signifies cases or supporters) in which the ware is. burnt. 
Finer clays, of various colours and textures, are likewise plen* 
. liful in many places, most of them near the surface of tho 
earth ; and of these the bodies of the wares themselves were 
Ibrmerly manufactured. The coals being then also got near 
X X X 3 the 

• Barwia'ft Bot Card. Ft. IL io AUun'i Manchttlar, p. 99. 

the surfkce, were plentiful and cheap. In the time of Plot,* 
they were as low as twopence the horse load, which, at eight 
horse-loads to a ton, (the usiial estimation,) amounts to only six- 
teen pence the ton. In 1795 the price of coaU was from four 
to five shillings per ton at the works. Since that time a regu- 
lar advance has taken place. In 1804* they were from seven 
to eight shillings ; and they are now much higher. The land, 
having chiefly a clay bottom, was unfavourable jto the produc- 
tions of husbandry ; and the remoteness of these districts from 
the principal seats of commerce contributed to render labour 
cheap. All these circumstances considered together, with 
some others which will be 'mentioned hereafter, may possibly 
afford the best answer to a question, which has oflen been 
asked, why the pottery was established in Siqfordihire, pre- 
ferably to any other place, and why it still continues to flourish 
th^re more than in any other part of the kingdom, or perhaps 
of the world. 

It is impossible, now, to ascertain the exact length of time, 
since this manufacture was first established here. It can be 
traced with certainty for more than two centuries back ; but 
no document or tradition remains of its first introduction. Its 
principal seat was formerly the town of Burskmi and it was 
then called a butter pottery, that is, a manufactory of pots 
for keeping buttef. It is so denominated in some old maps. 
Camden,'^who dk^d in 1623, does not appear to have heard of 
the' existence of this trade, nor is any mention made of butter 
poitery in Speed's map of 1610. One of the earliest authors, 
who notices it, is Dr. Plot, who died in 1696, and published 
his Natural History of this county in 1686. As a proof, 
however, of the antiquity of the manufacture in this neigh- 
bourhood, it may be proper to mention, that about ninety 
years ago, below the foundation of a building, then taken 
down, and supposed to bave'beeii not less than one hun- 


• Nat. Hist, of Staff, chap. IIT. where the subjects of both thtfottery, and 
•f the 3ta^or4sbire i;aa^ it^ amply treated* * 

STATfOaiW1f1R«. 105^ ' 

jh*ed ^ars old, the bottom of a potter's kiln WM diiCovered» 
Wfth some of the saggars apoa it> and pieces of the ware 
in them ; and that about the same time a road', which had long 
before been made across a iield, being worn down into a hoK ' 
low way, the hearth of a potter's kilni was found to be cdt 
ihroagb by this hollow part of the road ; and it was not 
among the then existing, or then remembered potteries, thai 
^besc^ old works were discoveredt bat at a considerable 4\t^ 
tance, in places where no tradition remained among* the oldeat 
inhabitaats of the neighboaring villages, that any pot-works 
tiadever been. It may be added, that pieces df ware, of the 
Tttdest worknaaship* and without any glase or Tarnish, are' 
freqaently met with, in digging for the foundations of new 
erections. Though these old remains are doubtless thef pr<»- * 
dttctions of distant periods, they give Intle or no light into* 
4lie soccessive improvements, made in the art; nor, indeed, 
coald any good purpose be answered by any inquiry of that 
*kind ; for though the manufectore has within <S\ir memory ad« 
vanced with amazing rapidity to iu present magnitude, ic 
seems to have continued for a long series of years almost uni- 
formly rude and uninteresting. £ven so late as the time when 
Plot wrote, the quantity of goods manufactured was so incoii* 
aiderable, that ^ the chief sale of them was to the poor crate^ 
jaen, who carried them at their backs ail over the country/'* 
All the ware was then of the coarse yellow^ red, black, and 
mottled kind made from clays found in the neighbourhood; 
the body of the ware being formed of the inferior kinds of 
clay, and afterwards painted or mottled with the finer coloured 
«nes, mixed with wateti separately or blended together, much 
in the same manner as paper is marbled. The common 
glase was produced by lead ore, finely powdered, and sprink^ 
' led on the pieces of ware befere firing ; sometimes with the ad- 
4litioo of a little roanganesa, for the sake of the brown colour 
k eonunuoicates ; and where the potters wished <« to shew the 

X X X 4 utmost 

• Plot's NsU Hiit. Staff, p. If ^ 

§1)60 . »r4rroiiMiitaa. 

jitoKMlof th^Bkit)/'* in giWngihe ware a higher gioit than 
ordinary^ the|r employed^ instead of Uad ore, calcined \etA 
tUelf ; but still sprinliled it on the pieces in the same rude 

A few years afVer the publication of Plot's workt a new 
apecies of glaae was introduced* produced by throwing into "" 
the kiln* when brought to^its greatest (laat, a quantity of com- 
mon salt« the fumes of which occaaioned a superficial Titrifi* 
nation of the clay. How long this practice might have sobtisl- 
^ed in other countries is unknown ; but it was first brought hither 
sAM>ut the year 1690, by two ingenious foreigners of the name 
of Eler^ of whom a.descendant was, no* long tinhe ago, a rv* 
ipectable magistrate in the county of Oxford. These foreign* 
.era esublished a small pol-work at this ^zee'^BradUy^^^adt 
we belie?e, Bradvfail, as Dr. Aikin's correspendent writes. 
Jt is said that the inhabitants of Bwrsiem, and the other ad^ 
jaceat places, flocked with astonishment to. see the immense 
Tolomes of smoke, which rose ''from the Dutchmen's ovens," 
on casting in the salt, a circumstance which auffidently sheafs 
the noTolty of ihls practice, in the Sfqff'ordihire Poiieriet. The 
.same persons introduced likewise another species of ware, in 
imitation of the unglazed red China firom the ea^; and the 
.clays in ibjfi county being suitable fdc thtsir porposei they 
8ucr^^<ied wonderfully for a first attempt, insomooh that sonm 
of their tea-pots are said to have been sold as high as a guinte 
a piece ; and some of the specimens, which stiU remain in the 
country, are very perfect in their kind. We have seen seve- 
ral of thenu at diflierent places sooth of Leek ; in the Arm* 
houses. Both the texture and quality of the ware itself snd 
the form and workmanship, are by no means oonlemptibte, 
though much inferior to those of more recent manubctttre. 
. The Ekri, however, did not long continue in this aitnntien : 
finding the manufacturers about them very inq|oisitive, and not 

• Flot, p. If3. 

ifArroAiii»HiftB. fo6i 

^hMsiag to litve their' labouhi so narrowly inspected, they 
qilttted Staffordshire^ aii4 Bel up a maAutactore near London. 

Thia practice of the new "glase With salt was socceecled, 
in a short time« by a capital' improVement in the body of- the 
ware itaelC which the tradition of the country attributes to 
tbe following incident: Mr: Artbai*y, one' of the potters, in a 
jonmey to Lon<lon;' happened to h^ve powdered l^int Recom- 
mended to hhn; by the hostler ^f %is inn at Dunstable^ for cur- 
ing some disorder hi one of his horse's eyes; and for that pur- 
pose a flint stone was thrown into the fire, to render it more 
easily puWerizable. The potter obsenring the flint to be chang- 
ed >y the fire^ \o a pure WhiCe« Was'immediateTy struVrk with 
the idea, that his ware might b^ improved, by an addition ox 
tbil^ DHiterial, to th\B whitest clays he could procure. Accord- 
ingly he sent home a quantity of the flint stones, which are 
plentiful among the chalk in that part of the country ; and, on 
trial of ihem with tobacco pipe-clay, the event proved fully 
•pswetable to hitr expectations. Thus originated the white 
stone ware^ which soon supplanted the. coloured ones, and 
continued for many years the staple branch of pottery. 
./ It Was natural that this discovery should be kept as secret as 
possible ; hence they had the (lints pounded in mortars, by 
nanoal labour in cellars or iii private rooms; but the opera- 
tUm proved pemicioas to many of the workmen, the fine dust 
getting into the longs, and producing dreadful Roughs and con- 
samptioos ; and these alarming complaints of the men may be 
piesumed to have hastened the discovery of the source from 
which they had arisen* The secret becoming generally 
known» the consequent increase of demand for the flint powder 
dootfioned trials to be made of mills, of various constructions^ 
for stamping and for grhiding it ; and the ill effects of the dust» 
which conld not be entirely guarded against, when the stones 
w^re either poanded or ground dry, pointed out an addition of 
water in ihe grinding. This method being found efiectual, as 
'will as safe, is still continued : the ground flint comes from 

) the 

I06.!t STArFOIlDSaiEB# 

the mill in a liquid state, about the consistence of cream ; and 
the tobacco-pipe clay being mixed up with water, about the 
same, consistence, the twQ liquors are proportioned to one ano- 
thejr. by measure, instead of weight 

The use of flint had not been long introduced, when an im- 
provement was made, by an ingenious mechanic in the neigh- 
bourhood, Mr. Alsager, in the potter's wheel, by which its 
motion was greatly accelerated. This enabled the potters to 
form their ware not only with greater expedition and facility, 
but likewise with more neatness, and precision, than they had 
done before. 

The manufacture, by those means, was so far improved, in 
the beginning of the last century, as to furnish various aruclet 
for tea and coffee equipages, and soon after for the dinner-table 
also. Before the middle of the century, these articles were 
manufactured in great quantity, as well for exportation, as 
home consumption. The salt-glaze, however, the only one 
then in use for these purposes, is in its own nature so imper- 
fect, and the potters, from an injudicious competition among^ 
themselves, for cheapness rather than for excellence, had been 
so inattentive to elegance of forms, and neatness of workman- 
ship, that this ware began to he rejected from genteel tables* 
'and supplanted by a white ware of finer forms, and more beau- 
tiful gla^e, which, about the year 1760, was imported in con- 
siderable quantities from Franee. 

The introduction of a foreign manufacture, so mach supe- 
rior to our own, must have had very bad effects on the potteries 
of this kingdom, if a new one, still more to the public taste, 
had not happily soon after beea produced here. In the year 
1763, Mr. Josiah Wedgwood, who bad already introduced 
several improvements into this art, as well with respect to th^ 
forms and colours of the wares, as the composition of whick 
they were made, invented a species of earthenware for the 
table, of a firm and durable body, and covered with a rich 
s^nd brilliant glaze, and bearing sudden vii:issltades of cold 



«Bd'heat» withoat injory. It was accompanied alfiowiih the 
advantages of being manufactored with .ease and expedition, 
was sold cheap ; and as it possessed, with the noTelty of its ap- 
pearance, every requisite quality for the purpose intended, it 
came quickly into general estimation and use. To this manu^ 
iacture the Queen was pleased to giye her name and patronage, 
commanding it to he called Queen's Ware, and honouring 
|be inventor by appointing him her majesty's potter. 
. It is composed of the whitest clays from Derbyshire, Donei* 
phire, and other places, mixed with a due proportion of ground 
flint. The pieces are fired twice, and the glaze applied after 
the first firing, in the same manner as porcelain. The glaze is 
a vitreous composition, of flint and other white earthy bodies, 
with additions of white lead for the flux, analogous to common 
flint glass; so that, when prepared in perfection, the ware 
may be considered as coated over, with real flint glass. Thia 
compound being mixed with i^rater to a proper consistence^ 
the pieces, after the first firing, are separately dipt in it: being 
somewhat bibulous,* they drink in a quantity of the mere 
water, and the glaze, which was united with that portion of 
the water, remains adherent, uniformily all over their surface, 
so as to become, by the second firing, a coat of perfect glass. 

To Mr. WedgwoocKs continued experiments, we are in- 
debted for the invention of several other species of earthen- 
ware and porcelain, adapted to various purposes of ornament 
and use. The principal are the following : I. A terra cotta ; 
resembling porphyry, granite, Egyptian pebble, and other 
•beautiful stones of the siliceous or crystalline onler. 2. Ba- 
flALTES, or black ware ; a black porcelain biscuit of nearly the 
same properties with the natural stone; striking tire with steely 
receiving a high polish, serving as a touchstone for metals ; 
resisting all the acids, and bearing, without injury, a strong 
fire,«tronger indeed, than the basaiies itself. 8. White Por- 
celain BncviT, of a smooth wax-like surface, of the same 
properties with the preceding, except ia "what depends upon 
9 colour. 

eoloor. 4. Jispsa: a' white porcel»n UscDiit of esqiiiftitft 
beauty and delicacy, posiessmg the general properties of the 
hdsaiies, together with the singular one of receiTiog tbronglk 
Its Whole substance^ from the admixture^ of metallic calces 
with the other materials, the same colours which those calces 
communicate to glass or enamels in fosioni a property which 
no other porcdaiii or earthen*ware body« of ancient or modem 
composition, has been found to possess. This renders it pe« 
Gttlmrly fit for mkkukg camoes, portraits, and ail subjects in 
hauo relieuQ, s^ the ground may be of any particular colonic 
while the raised figures are of pure Whitei* 5.; Bamboo, or 
canecolourled biscuit porcelain* This possesses the same pro- 
perties as the White poreelaiM bi$cuii, mentioned above. 6. A 
PoacBLAiN Bisci^tT, remarkable for great hardnest, little in* 
ferior 10 that of agate. This property, toother with its re* 
aistance to the strongest acids and corrosives, and its impene« 
Irabrlity by every known liquid, adapu it for mortars, and 
many difi*erent kindsx>f chemical vessels. - 

These six distinct species, with the Queen^stoare already 
mentioned, expanded by the industry and ingenuity of the 
difierent manufacturers, into an infinity of forms for ornament 
and use, variously painted and embellished, constitute nearly 
the whole of the present fine English «arthen*wares and por- 
celain, which are now become the source of a very extensive 
tradci and which, considered as an objeti of national art, indus- 
try, and commerce, may be ranked among the most impor* 
tant manufactures of the united kingdom. 

The following description of the process used in manofac- 
luring the earthenware, was communicated to Dr. Aikin, by 
]t person on the spot. The practice has varied iit but a trifling 
manner since that^time. A piece of prepared mixture of 
clay and ground flint, dried and prepared to a proper consis- 
tence, is taken to be formed into any required shape and 
fashion, by a man who sits over a machine called a wheel, on 
the going round of which he continues forming the ware. 


This branch is called ihrmoing ; and, as water is reqaired td 
prevent the clay sticking to the ha^id, ^, is,il9ceipary ^ plaoa 
it for a short time in a w^rm situation. It tl^en iipderg«|es \\m 
operation of being turned, and. is made muc)i smpptber thaa*j|'. . 
V'as before* by a person called a turner ; whei^ jt is ri^y for 
the handle and spout to be joineci to it, by the brapch .i^MM 
handlings . Dishes, plates, tureens^ and many other aiticl«iAar« 
made from moulds ^f .ground plaister ; and, whep fipishtd, th^ 
whote are placed carefully (being then in a n\uch moi^ britllf 
stale than wbe|i fired) in si^gafs, which, in shape and focm» 
preUy much resemble a lady's bandrbox« without i(9. cot^c^ 
but much thicker, and are, made fron^ marie or ql^ of this 
neighbourhood. The larger OYens, .or kilns, are phc^ full 
of saggars so filled with ware; and.after a fire» vr^ch .cojis«aies 
from tiyeWe to fifteen tons of coal, when the ofen is becuMM 
cool again, the saggars are taken out, and tbei? ^ofitents rer 
moved, often exceeding 30,000 Yarious piece*; but. this de*- 
pends upon the general sises of th^ ware. lathis state tli^ 
ware is called btscuii, and the body of it has much, the appear^ 
ance of a new tobacco-pipe, not having the least gloss opo|i 
it. It is then immersed or dipped into a fluid generally conr 
sisting of sixty pounds pf white lead, ten pounds of g^und 
flint» and twenty pounds of stone firom Cornwall, burned and 
ground, all mixed together, and as much water put to it m 
reduces it to the thickness of cream, whicb it r^s^mbles. 
Each piece of wa^e being separately immersed or dipped iotp 
this fluid, so much of it adheres. all. over tbe piece,. thai KvhftA 
put into other saggars, and expo^ to another ^peratioa Qf 
fire, perfonned in tbe glossing-kiln or oreip, the ware heqom^ 
finished by acquiring its glassy covering, which is giv^n it .by 
tbe vitrification of the above ingredients. Enamelled ^rarft 
undergoes a third fire after its being paiated, in order to bind 
the colour on. , 

A single piece of ware, such as a common enamelled tea- 
pot, a mug, jug, &c. passes through at least fourteen difierent 


io66 sTAirroabsmitc. 

hands, beFdre it is finished : (viz.) The iHpmakeo who fnakea 
the clay;— the temperen or beater of the clay ;-^the thrower 
who forms the ware ;*-the ball-maker and carrier; — the at- 
tender upon the drying of it ;^the turner, who does away its 
roughness ;— 'the spootmaker ;^the handler, who puts to the 
handle arid spoul; — the first, or biscuit fireman;— the person 
who immerses or dips it into the lead fluid ;— the second, or 
glass fireman ;— the dre^er, or sorter in the warehouse ; — the 
ienamelier, or painter;— the muffle, or enamel fireman. S«* 
▼eral more are required to the completion of such pieces of 
ware, but are in inferior capacities,' siich as turner^ of the 
wheeli turners of the lathe, &c. &c.* 

The evidence given by Mr. Wedgwood to the committee of 
privy council, and at the bar of the two Houses of Pktrlia- 
ment, when a commercial arrangement with Ireland was in 
agitation in 1785, will give some idea of the recent extent of 
this manufacture, and of its value to bur marilitn^ and landed, 
Bs well as commercial, interests. ' And the evidence of the 
present Mr. Wedgwood to the late committee of the House of 
Commons, on the celebrated Orders in Council, will shew 
the present state of this manufacture as a branch of commerce. 

The late Mr. Wedgwood, in the evidence just alluded to, 
was of opinion, that through the manufacturing part alone in 
the potteries and their vicinity, they gave bread to fifteen or 
twenty thousand people, including the wives and children of 
those who were employed in it, yet that this was a small ob- 
ject, when compared with the many others which depend on 
it: namely, 1. The immense quantity of inland carriage it 
creates throughout the kingdom, both for its raw materials, and 
its finished goods:— 2. The great number of people employed 
in the extensive collieries for its dse :— 3. The still greater 
number employed in raising and preparing its raw materials, 
in several distant parts of England, from near the Land^s End 
in Cornwall one way, along difievent parts of the coast, to 

, * Aikiii*ii Manchester, [>• 534, 535* 



PalmouSh, Teignmouih, Exfter, Pooh Gravesend, and the Nor- 
jfb/^ coast ; the other way, to Bidd^rd, Wales, vxd the Irish 
^oast :«— 4. The coasting vessels, which, after being empioyed 
at the proper season in the Newfoundland fishery^ carry these 
materials coast^wise • to Liverpool and Hull, to the amount of 
more than 20,000 tons yearly, at times when, they would other- 
wise be laid op. idle. in harbour;— 5. The further conveyance 
pf them from ' those ports, by river and canal navigation, to 
Ihe potteries situated at one of, the most inland parts of this 
kingdom :— -and, 6w The re-conveyance of the * finished goods 
to the diiTerent parts of this island, where they are shipped 
for every foreign market^ that is. open to the earthen-wares of 

. Mr. Wedgwood further observes, Uiat this manufacture is 
attended with some advantageous circumstances, almost pecu« 
liar 10 itself; (viz.) that the value of the manufactured goods 
consist almost wholly in labour, that one ton of raw materials 
produces several tons of finished goods for shipping, the 
freight being then charged, not by the weight but by the 
bulk ;— that scarce a vessel leaves any of our ports, without 
more or less of these cheap, bulky, and therefore valuable, 
articles to this maritime country ; and, above all, that not lest 
than five parts in six. of the whole produce of the potteries, 
are exported to foreign markets. 

, Notwithstanding all these important advantages* Mr. Wedge- 
wood, in his evidence to the house of Commons, declares him- 
self strongly impressed, with the idea that this manufacture 
was then but in its infancy, compared with what it might .ar« 
^ive at» if not interrupted in its growth. 
. Mr. Anderson, in his History of the Great Commercial In* 
^rests of the British Empire,* supposes that this last expres** 
fioqTalludes to the' introduction of the excise laws in the pot' 
icry, of which, it -seems, ther^ was some talk at that time ; but 
adds* that it would have been too impolitic a step to check so 
•.. . growing 

• Appeudix to the secofid Ed. \qI IV. p. TOO. 

1058 ^TAFFORDSR/llK. 

growing a manufactare by «xciM laws» more especially when 
fi«e«sixths of the doty 'CoUeoled must have been paid back 
again, upon exportation of their good^ and an opening there* 
by made for frabd, which, if we may judge from what has 
been practised in some of these articles, would have made the 
drawback amount to more than the original payment. 

This manufacture is, perhaps, more than any other, affected 
by the war. The evidence given by Mr. Wedgwood, on the 
subject of the late orders in council, at the bar of the House 
of Commons, shews the ruinous efii^cts which any restrictioni 
on the American trade has upon this manufacture, 

Mr. .Wedgwood, the great improver of this valuable manu- 
facture, was born near this place. His life furnishes but few ma* 
t^rials to the biographer. We have already intimated, that to 
his indefatigable labours England is indebted for the establish* 
ment.of a manufacture, that haa opened a new scene of extensive 
commerce, before unknown to this or any other country. By 
the united efibrta of himself, and his partner Mr. Bentley, the 
pottery art has been carried to a greater degree of perfection, 
both as to utility and ornament, than any works of the kindy 
either ancient or modern, has ever experienced. His many 
discoveries of new species of earthenwares and porc^laiif, 
)iis: studied forms, and cha^tte style of decoration, and the cor* 
rectness of judgment with which all his works were executed, 
under his own eye, and by artists, for the most part of his own 
forming, have turned the current in this branch of commerce ; 
for, before his time, England imported the finer earthenwares; 
but, for nearly half a century past, she has exported them, to 
a very great annual amount; the whole of which is drawn from 
the earth and from the industry of the inhabitants i while the 
national taste has been improved, and its repqtation raised in 
foreign countries. Neither was Mr. Wedgwood unknown in 
the walks of philosophy. His communications to the Royal 
Society, of which he was a worthy and active fellow, shew 
a mind enlightened by science, and contributed to procure 


liim the' eiteeni of scientific men at' home^ and iKroiighoat 
Europe. Hts inirention of a thermometer, for measuring the 
higher degrees of heat employed in the various arts^ is of the 
highest inipoftance to thetr promotion ; and adds celebrity to 
his name. 

Mr. Wedgwood was the younger son of a potter, but de^ 
rived little' or no property from his father, whose possessions 
consisted chiefly of a small entailed estate, which descended 
to the eldest son. In every sense, therefore, he was the ma- 
ker of his. own fortune ; and his country will be benefited in a 
proportion not to be calculated: 

At an early period of bis life, seeing the impossibility of ex* 
tending considerably the manufacture be was engaged in, ia 
the spot #hich gave him birth, witbooTthe advantages of in» 
land navigation, be was the proposer .of the grand- Trunk 
canal, and the chief agent in obtaining the act ci Parliament 
for malking. it, against the prejodioes of the landed interest^ 
which at that time stood very high, and but just befiire had, 
with great difficulty, been overcome in another quarter 'by all th« 
powerful influence of a noble duke, whose canal was at that 
time hut lately founded. Having acquired a largf fortune, 
his' purse was always open to the calls of chafrity, and to the 
support of «very institution for the public good. To his rela^ 
itons, fi'iefad^ knd neighbours, be was endeared by his many 
private virtues ; and his country will long remember him, at 
the steady, patron of every valuable interest of society.* He 
was a fellow of the Royal and Antiquarian societies. He died 
at his beautiful, village of Etruria, aged sixty^four. The bun* 
ness of the pqttery has since been carried on by his son, the 
present Josiah Wedgwood, Esq.f 

Voii-XHL Yyy Near 

* Gent. Mag. for 179.f . 
t Iif M«a;na firiUnoia, Vol. V. p. 103, HeracUt is said to be " tlie teatof 
Air. Jdhn Wedgwood, wbo from a freehold^'s estate* bath advaoeed Co the 
quality of • gentlemen ; bat Air. Erdctwicke uy$, that bii son, stckiiig for* 


VwVtvttmiU, ia Pyrokiil httnOniL i>an«< /MA It<i»« 
l«ig<9 tncWr«markaU9 «Hly ai having baea tht placftwhett 
Ibe 4«ke of Canfavrl^ drew «p hia artny in Utf , in <fiul^ 
«xf ectttmi af cMung to aa ongagentat^ wiik |ho8o Bcbdb 
who had ao incredibly penetrated into the very heatt oC the 
kjiigdom, aodbciplined, ragged^ and ahnost amrmed. Part 
of tbefti wiU and bol-btaiiied Scotioieii we Pt -at Derby» and 
the fH in a: my acatlered alatoi Well &r ibem, obaerrea a 
wriiv- in the Topogvapbar, Iba tojraliate bad folae intelligence 
of tbeir raiie^ and tbat the* sword of cbastisenMnt waa not 
unsheathed, or e?ery sou) might bare peritbedL The gnaasnl 
OMfbsion.llnl- was apreud over this part ef tbe coantry, and 
Ike. town of S$»ne. in paritculaf^ at this alarming period^ wonU 
seem alav»t incredible^ to those wbo bare not beard tbe par* 
ientars.. Yet in fad, there was no great cause of alarm, ex* 
cepi to weak and sopeestttiom minds, which qnakeiat scarcer 
OBowa;. for a more ragged band of moontaineers, under Ibe 
nam«t e£ aa enemy, were surely never aec^n, while ibis tosra 
waa safely guarded by an army, the most diacipUned and 
loyal that the kiogdom could prodnee. So numefons were the 
army in prepoitien to tbe siae of tbe town» that tbe inhabit 
tanta were almost dispossessed of tbeir houses, while erery 
afwimciit waa cremeded with soldiers, besides what wero en* 
camped in Stane^JkltL* The surprise expressed at tbe feaos of 
the.inhQbkaats of these parts, of the rebeb» m3y bo acoonnted 
ibe, ffom the natural dislike wbkb these people bare to a milt* 
tary li&: for tboogb the Staiibrdshlre militia hasi long been 
dkninguished as the finest militia corpsin the kingdoa» it is a 
ibot, that tbe common' people bcpe have a moce than ordinary 
afcrsion to tbe army. We know it to be true, that aeTeml of 
Ae poorer people of Bidduipk moor have actually disabled 


tfitr a advadBSe Vnastlf, bath entered ihto a contealioofleovneef llTing, wtf cb 
Ite^ieafcd woM not prora comianidable, if ■ncoeiifal." Qtmt kowls thit ^ 
Jlrria»«f ele wrate toward! the efcne of tbe uiteeoth oeiitaiy« 
* Topographer, VoL !• p* eO. 

<lHf«as#^^.'% 'striking ofrtW?r*fliWi tfitltabs with an uxe, 
ImtMr M^ ran the riA bf b^liig balldted into the tnif?tiii ! 
tat -fiie^ people oPBidiHlph, of tU they ealT It Bs<^/iif, ^eni 
itf^lM^st totally diffbrent racO of persons from the rest of thett 
#diiMr}Miien. RoafR, linhroteh, artd bat half-trhriUzed, they 
^Md '00 nc^ of* tbo^ festtaints which curb the passions and 
•)fp^1lit»'of others; and stietn hieTined to regard themselved 
itf RttfhHed' to hrtitaKty and insoletice. ' The influence, how- 
kttff of Mettiodism, wKihis yeiry iealonsfy and benetolentfjr 
tt^erted here, is gradually softening the natire character of 

^IM^ pe6^i^, and rdMcrhg them to something like rational 
liiffii^*'' TlftW Mvtf Ar independence, howetef, stiH keeps 

*^ iAW€ f Etdi^a^rsfon to a military fife. 

J- ''Hating appfoafched so much to the ea^t of thfe cotinty, and 
k^'Wt too btieify passed it over in OMr aCcouYit of Pyrehifl 
kindred,* we Wilf giro a more extended account of the early 
Msh>ry of NewcoHk-nnAr-LM. This place^ as has already 
beenr^bsefved, is so calfed <fn acdotint of anotdet castle which 
fttmeHy stood at a littte ^stance from it, ti Chester&h, where 
Ifr^cf lately seen the ruinous and shattered w^lTs of ah old 
€!M\e, whrch first belonged to Kannlph, eatl of Chester, by 
(he gMi of king Jdhn, and afbt by the bounty of king Hen. 
tf UL to the house of Lanta^r, who rebuilt (he castle, and 
weref s6me soccessions in possession of the manor. But before 
dirts gift, Gilbert lord Segrave had a grant of king Henry IIL 
of this manor to him and his heirs, to hold of the crown ii^ 
fce hrm; but the castle (which perhaps must prove it built 
belbfe tt catee to the house of Lancsoster) wat ortder the go- 
vernment of Renry, K)rd Audfey, atid was cbntmued to his 
son Jsm^s ford Audley, under the title of constable of New« 
castle-und'er-Itne, in the S5th year of Henry IlL But upon 
the rebtUioD of Simon Montfort, earl of Leicester, who ua* 
dertook, with his confederate lords, to reform all thiagt amiss 
ift'tiMl kiiif^a government, the matra^ aikd ooitlo of this town 

Y y y S was 

* Vide Mte, p. 90f . 


was settled (with the forced consent of prince Edward) upon 
the earl of Leicester and his hetrs. But fortune soon cancelled 
this deed ; for be was slain the same year by prince Edward* 
at tbe battle of £?esbara> and all his lands and estates, being 
forfeited, this manor and castle were given by tbe king to his 
younger son Edmund, whom h^ made earl of Lancaster, and 
gave him all the vast possessions of Simon Montfort, and Ni« 
cholas lord Segrave, who had been a partaker with Montibrt, 
in his rebellious actings; all which estates king Edward L his 
brother, confirmed to him* 

His earldom, and his great estate, he left to his eldest son 
Thomas, who having married Alice, tbe sole daughter and 
heir of Henry Lacy, earl of Lincoln, endowed in the church, 
at the time of his marriage with her, with this castle and 
borough, and all the other hamlels belonging to them. This 
same earl of Lancaster, by the instigation of Humphrey de 
Bohun, earl of Hereford, (who had mi^rried the daughter of 
the king, widow of the earl of Holland,) complainiftg of the 
arbitrary proceedings of the Despeiicers, the king's lavoorites, 
drew together many of the nobility, and took arms, under a 
pretence of reforming what was amiss in the government; bat 
chiefly to oblige tbe king to remove the Spencers from his 
councils and person,* which they comm'issioned certain bishopsf 
to request he would do. This fighting reformer, like all other 


* The ocouion of this confederacj against the Spencers was this : William 
de Berewt a baron, propoung to sell part of his estate, called Gowerland, 
first agreed for it with tbe earl of Hereford above named, who offered to be 
the purchaser ; but Hogh Spencer, Junior, obuined the king's licence, it 
being holden of the king in captte, and bought it out of the eail of Herefoid** 
bands; who, being highly provoked at this affront, complained to the earl ef 
l4uicaster, and they two engaging a great number of barons into their inter* 
etts, entered into a confederacy against the Spencers.. Walsingham's His* 
toriafirevis, HZ. 

i London, Salisbuiy, EI5, Hereford, and Chichester, who were to cone » 
the confederate barons at St, Albans, to procure aoconunodation. Walsisf* 

8TArFont>aiiiRft. \(yj3 

reformers, who take the sword for their own aggrandizement, 
nther.than for the good of the cause which they hypocriti- 
cally support, was fearfully wroth against the monarch who re* 
ftised to listen to his menacing message by the bishops ; ac» 
cordingly he marched to London ;* and by the queen's and 
bishop's advice, the king was induced to promise to grant his 
request, and the £&vourites underwent a temporary banish* 
ment But this* it seems, was done only to get a little time« 
in which an army might be raised to reduce him to submission. 
The king having easily raised an army, by assuring his sub 
jects, that it was not against them that he marched, but merely 
to punish the insolence of an individual, made considerable 
progress, not only against the ostensible object of his attack^ 
but also against many others of the confederate barons. The two 
Spencers were recalled, and the army put under their com- 
mand ; by which they had soon an opportunity of displaying 
not their courage so much as their revenge. Many of the 
barons fenook the standard of the earl of Lancaster ; and he was 
somi so wealcened, as to be compelled to withdraw into York* 
shire, where he was ultimately taken at Burrow-bridge. In 
his retreat, he took the most destructive methods to retard the 
march of the royal forces. He destroyed the country behind 
him ; but was obliged at length to halt, after passing the TVeni 
erer Burton-bridge, in order to oppose the passage of the 
army, which pursued him across this county, with great ra« 
pidity. The battle that ruined him was fought near Biirrou.** 
bridge, on the sixteenth of March 1322.f Lancaster, being 
made prisoner, was attainted of treason; and, being sentenced 
to death, by a small number of peers* among whom were the 
two Spencers ; and in the presence of the king, who assembled 
for the^ purpose in the hall of Ponteiract castle,} he was be* 

Y y y 3 headed 


• Vid. Act Pub. IlL 478, el ttq. WMoghum, KnightaB. 

t KnigbtoiL De la Moor, p. 59tf. 

t Rjner't Fed. Tol. la. p. 490, et aeq. 

headed on a hill near the town.* B^ing thus attainted^ his 
estate was confiscated ; but upon the deposal of the kkif^ 
which took place soon aflerwards« bis attainder w^s reversed^ 
and his estate restored to his brother and heir Henry, whose 
^on He^iry died possessed of this manor and castle, leaving 
his estate to his two daughters and heirs, Margaret and Blanch^ 
which last proved his sole heir, her sister dying without issue* 
^e was married to John of Gaunt« the celebrated duke of 
Lancaster. King Henry the fourth was h^r aon, and the beir 
of her estates, of whiph this m^nor was a part» and came If 
b^r upon the death of her sister,, to whom it fell in U^ par- 

It does not appear who built the castle from which the 
town takes its name; but whoever built it, it is now almosl 
wholly lost; but very few fragments of it remai^iqg. The 
town itself was fonnerly more populous^ or more religious ^ 
bavmg once had four churches,^ but the baron9' wars ve^kieed- 
them to one. 

The Dissenters are here aumf^rop^ f tirti^ularly the Wedges 

Dr. Plot mentions an instance 9( % fft^W having been firaiWI 
^n a place called Gallpws Fieldt vear x\^^ t^wq, being the pl^M 
where malefactors were formerly hung, in which stone \n$ 
an entire skull of a ipan, with the teethe &o. 'm it. Of thJI 
£ict, an alderman of Newcastle asaured the d^9lor« that be 
had such an one long in his posj^ewon. This curioee circwaa<i 
itance Plot endeavours to aceeent for by 9aying» that it i| 
probable, that the place, when it was used for executionB, waa 
nothing else but a sandy land, in which they nsed to bury 
the bodies of the persons executed, whicb# in process of lime, 
turned inU) intone, about the head of a map, inclosed it ia 


« Hii MDtenee was to be hung, drawn, and quartered ; hot the king, oel 
ef respect to hU birUi, iSf ed bin the infamy ef tbst pueiflboieiK, BYcthasi. 


k^ This is iiot at all nnUkely i it bring ^reil knowa tkat 
sands baire been observed to petrify. 

TWs mmm wnler abo^ in nentioniog several instances of men 
•f eatraofdinary sirengtb living in this ceanty, adduces one 
in Godfrey Witriogs* a boicber of this town> <rboai bo saw 
lake op a ftrai six feet and ten inches kBg» and fiftyaijt 
pooads in^waigbty by one end in his teeth» as^i boidkig be«h 
kis iMnds bBbiHd him* lifted op tha ^er and ibe whode boigbl 
of the rooai* etriking it thrice against the floor of the cfaant* 
ber oaer it{. which the doctor sayit» by compatatioa aoeotding 
lo «ha oentee of gravity^ will peove that be 4iiiod op* wkh his 
te«th» aboat one handred and ftixty«eight poasali weight,^ 

Bat what in this wa}» pariiaps» confers greater notoriety^ if 
Mi even greater bonoar on the town of Nowcaetle, than ils 
men with strong necks aad firmly eet toclb» is the circaaa* 
stance of its baling given birth to Major-geneial Thomas Har« 
rison, and to the celebrated John Qoodwin^ two of the UAi* 
■MHis but ostEaordiaary Cromweirs admicers; Ibe one aid*' 
Y y y 4 ing 

« <« IL W. taw a oe^ro. in tbe year 17^« lift BMlbs. wMi hia tsttk, ffaia 
thegrooody and atoad Bprighi wilb tbaia* Tb^ wcm four weightt wilh 
ringk" US. note in the margin of p. ^ of Vol. V* Magna Brit, in Dr. 
Williams's library. Red Cross Street. 

We knew a person some twenty years ago» at Chowbent, neftt Bolton in 
laiieashire, named Oth^uton, wh(» eoiitd easily lift taetb greater Wirfghtl 
than tbern m a similar manner : bnt tbese may* perha|i9^ yieM ia ^oi af 
wsadw, to Ibe aitiaacdkiary saaagtb« ar taAer basdasm ef baaa» ia ttie 
Asadof apenaaof tbeaameaf lligbtiiigaie,a dyeik (ao wi^ reUtad la tba 
wiiusr af Ibis,) at Mac cl es field, we belieYa now liTi^gt wlio can readi^ 
break throigb a strong house door« or the slab of a stone or marble chimney* 
piece, by soddenly rnnning against it headforemost. Of this man's Sstraor* 
dinary eiploiu in this way, the whole town of Mlcdesfield can bear aaiple 
testioMoy. He is father a low man in statare ; and mherwise does not ap- 
pear to possese any eitraordinary strength. Had Plot met with sncb a per* 
son, he would have assigned him a dignified niche, in his catalogue of natti- 
lal wonders, with which his Hlitory of Sufforitkirg but too much abounds. 


10^6 STAVrCMlBSillRB; 

jBg the usurper's regtcide purposes with his sword, and the 
other with his pen. 

. These Major-generals, as the usurper called tktm, were, 
according to some, only eleven* in number^ according to 
others t twelve; but Bates { says, the districu orer which 
Cromwell appointed these Major-generals were foorieeiu 
These offircrs were to keep a strict and vigilant eye o?er the 
jarring parties of the Presbyterians, the Independentsh, and 
cavaiieni, as the loyalists were called; but particularly to 
watch the proceedings, and curb the factious spirit, of theri^d 
repablicans, whom Cromwell bad the greatest reason Co dread 
and suspect The Major-generals had almost absolote power; 
and they exercised it, as might naturally be expected from the 
nature of their characters, and the upstart innovations of their 
master, of whose turbulent spirit they largely partook. Soly- 
raniiical did they at length become, that, to prevent worse 
consequences to himself, Cromwell was coinpeiled to re* 

. duce their authority within much uaiTower bounds. Before 
this reduction of their power, they could commit to prison all 
suspected persons; and they chose to suspect, whoever they 
disliked, (viz.) all moderate, loyal, good, men: they more* 
over levied money, sequestered those who refused to pay ; bad 
power Co enlist horse and foot upon any occasion they might 
think proper to make, or any emergency they might them* 
selves create. From their decisions no appeal lay* but to 
their regicide master himself. 

Of this honourable fraternity was Harrison, the son of ao 
attorney of this town. Not having any relish for his profes- 
sion, he enlisted into the Parliament's army ; and, being a per- 
son of great volubility of tongue, he soon insinuated himself 

. ii)to the favourable opinion of the army, and became Crom* 
well's conBdant. The Protector knew how to make use of 9|ich 

a persoo 

* Whitelock't Memorials of English ASkti% &c. p. 654* 

f Clarendon's History of the Rebelliou, Vol. III. p. 458. 

t VitB Selctorum, &c. 

STArroftoiHiiiB. 1077 

m person as Harrisoa ; and he did nol fail to avail himself of 
bis canting dexterity, and perseverance, in routing the Pres* 
byterians/ and bringing his legitimate, though weak^ monarch 
to the block. These services, for a season, procured Harrison 
a wicked elevation and popularity, among those who admired 
anarchy, rebellion, and military tyranny, highly seasoned by 
religious professions ; but he did not long enjoy his honours. 
He was at length executed as a traitor; his head was set 
up at Westminster hall ; and his quarters upon the gates of 
the city of London. Thus disgracefully perished one of the 
many persons who, under the most showy pretences, would 
gladly, have entailed to their posterity a form of government, 
whieh the people of this country never was, and we hope 
never will, be long disposed to support :— a government which 
opens the door to every species of oppression, by raising those 
to govern others who have neither prudence nor judgment to 
govern themselves :-*who are clamorous for principles which 
wherever they have power, either in their own families, or 
over their other immediate dependents, they rarely reduce to 
practice. Monarchy, and that only, suits the genius, and 
sober, and rational character, of Englishmen. 

The other person mentioned, as a native of this place, was 
doubtless honest in his mistaken principles ; and, as his personal 
history is not very generally known, we shall dwell upon it at 
a somewhat greater length. This person is the celebrated 
John Goodwin, a learned divine and most acute and zealous 
defender of Arminianism; who, as Granget* remarks, " made 
more noise in the world, than any other pei^son of his age, 
rank, and profession.'' Notwithstanding this, no one has yet 
written his life ; Dr. Calamy's account being too meagre and 
partial, to deserve the title. This will be our apology for the 
extended account we shall give of him. *' It has been the 


* Biognphicai Hist, of £ng. 

1076 stiff omMiilftB. 

vtisrortyne/' observes an tpg^iooB «m1 pseAil wiiUr * ^Jfkn 
pr^Bcnkday^ "of Mr. Goodwin to liaycc tis.oiwiO tfftrtqmi^td^ 
chiefly through the siectMiin of his e«eiiNto8» who b|ii^.-diM(ke»t 
ed it by cefMroacb, and laboured to render it, odiooe Ito posi 

Mr. Goodwin was bora in the year 1593» as wo ase i^ifonntdl 
hy^au intelligent gentleman, who is descendiftd from him in 
Ibis aeighbourhood.f Every accoant, hithvrto |»riated» auies 
the place of his birth to be unknown ; and it. is hat justio add# 
that our 'own authority is tradition. He reotived his acadeosi* 
cal education at Queen's college Combri4ge» where he aoett 
became known by his learning and talents, and for being t 
smart disputant Upon his leaving college he was admitted 
into orders, and became much admired for tbe erodition and 
elegance which distmguisked his pulpit compOMtiooa. 

He preached sometime in the country* and removed to Lon- 
don in the year 1639. The year following he was presented 
to the vicarage of St* Stephen's Coleman Street. Aft this time 
the lordly archbishop Laud took upon himself the govern- 
ment of the Engliah church ; and John Geodwub emong others. 

* Mr. WilMDy 10 Ids " Uiatniy wid Aatiqaitits vf DiiMOting CbaiAe% 
ClMpel% and McHtng-liousei* i^ and about ilie city of London." Vol. ll. 
p. 40Sb This work of Mr. Wilson't coutaios mo invaluable mass of curious 
and interetting neglected biography and antiquitj. Due allowance being 
made for a tincture of prejudice In faTour of modern Calvinism, this book 
is of great ralue; and well woith a place in\iie library of every antiquary^ 
and histoiiaa, as well as in Ibose of diaaanling ninistera, by mhcm, ^e(bar, 
it is uagnUelaUy neglected. It ia too liberal for the laaiorit j, and loo or* 
tbodoa £m tbe fastidious tastes of bcietics. Between the pdde of tbe onc^ 
and tbe narrow mii{(Iedness of tbe other, a work that will do honour to the 
auiiior for ages, is, we understand, likely to be left unSnishtd for want of en* 
courageroent I From this book many of the particulars relative to Mr. 
Goodwin are eatracled. 

t Yet Granger quotes a MS. in Lambeth Palace, which says : •' Johamlte 
Goodwin. Norfolc, becavw fitilow o( Queen's college in Cambridge, ia 
1617.*' Biog. Hist. Eiig. III. p. 4?. (note.) ' 


was duioimccd for a Itrmch of panoiu^ 1^ this tyxaniiical pra** 
We ia 1637.* To thia Mr» Goodwin uibiiuUed. 

In tbe^ear 4640, Ibe king haviog allowed ttm oonvocaiioii 
to contiDoe its sittings, afler the dissolution of Parliamcot, ti» 
clocgy were busily occupied upon two subjects of cooaiderable 
loagnitttde. One of these was to grant a subsidy for six yeais^ 
to meet the exigency of the public affidrs. This was proposed 
to be done> by a tax of four shillings in the pound upon the 
estates of the clergy* Another objeet of this prolonged coiSf* 
vocation was the enactneut of certain canonst or articie^ 
amounting in number to seventeen* These were pubUsbed 
on the 30th of June-f The first of these cations* ^'e^nccrniof 
the royal power/' asserts the absolute authority of Kingi, and 
the unlawfulness of taking anas^ even in self-defence* Many 
of the other canons bore peculiarly hard on the non^confor- 
mists. The fourths in particular, has been remarked to have a 
siQguIarly intolerant charaotCr. It is there decreed, that ao 
person shall import* print, or disperse, any books written kf 
docioians, on pain of excommunication^ and of being further 
punished in the star-chamber* That ^' no minister shall preach 
any such doctrines in his sermons, noir students have any such 
boob in his study, except he be a graduate in divinity, oc 
hair e episcopoU or archidiaconaU ordination ; and if any lay* 
man embrace their opinion, he shall be excommunicated^ and 
not absolved without repentance or abjuration/' How diffeiv* 
ent the spirit of our own time^ when, it is well-koowii, tbero 
are Uoitariana living upon the revenues of the establishment, 
despising and undermining her tenet«, y^ Eattening on her 
bounty ! Tiiongh Mr. Goodwin does not appear to; have bad 
any peculiar bias to^cinia^m, he# along wiih others of the 


* Neal'i History of the Pdritsof, Vol. II. p. f 63. 
t "ConstitQliont and canons eccleviastical, treated epon by the arcV 
bbhepa of Canterbory snd York, president of the conTocatkm for their ra* 
tpective province^ ssd sgieed opsn with tha kiqg'a laajesty't lictsee^ in 
their respective f/ned^ bsgin et Lndtn snd Yeik KiO.*' 


London clergy, drew up a petition to the prtry council; and 
so great was the eatery, against the -proceedings of the bi- 
shops, that the king thought it prudent, to issue an order to 
Laud to soften his soTf rity.* 

Mr. Goodwin, refusing to baptize the children of the parish 
promiscuously, and also to administer the eucharist to his 
whole parish, was ejected from his living in 1645. He then 
set op a private meeting in Coleman Street parish, on the plan 
of the Independents. Being thus in a manner freed from the 
restraints of episcopacy, he attacked his adversaries with con- 
siderable warmth ; and being a zealous defender of Arminian* 
ism, against the rigorous and dissocializing dogmas of Cal- 
vinism, was attacked with a characteristic and native fury; 
and he did not h\\ to defend himself with spirit. Bot when 
the factious turbulence of the times had succeeded in destroy* 
ing for a season, the episcopal government, he hoped to have 
met with more favour from the Presbyterians. By indulging 
this expectation, honest John Goodwin by no means shewed 
the strength of his understanding. Tlie ridiculous pride of 
Preshyterianism is more pernicious than the domineering sway 
of episcopacy. These religious demons, being unexpectedly 
mounted on the state horse, soon galloped to destruction. 
Goodwin was too honest and too unbending for these new de- 
magogues, who, not content with depriving him of his living, ' 
continued to heap upon him plenty of abuse, and enacted 
laws that were designed to prohibit his preaching. 

One Edwards, a furious Presbyterian, about this time pub- 
lished a book, intituled Oangrcma, &c. which is still well 
known. In this work Mr. Goodwin is spoken of in the follow- 
ing style : ''There is Master John Goodwin, a monstrous sec- 
tary, a compound of Socinianism, Arminianism, Libertinism^ 
Antinomianism, Independency, Popery, yea, and of Sceptt- 
cbm^ as holding some opinion proper to each of these."t In 


• Neml*t Hift FuritMii, XL 5Sr— 555 
• * Gangittost Pait III. p. iU. 


winding np the climvc of abuse which Edwardl fieaps vpon 
Goodwin, he calls him an «* Hennaphrodile/' and, among other 
equally heavy charges, he accuses him of playing at bowls opoa 
one of the Parliament's thanksgiring .days.* This and soch 
like oiTences, howcTcr, might possibly have been pardoned* 
had not Goodwin indulged himself in preaching agalnsi Cal- 
vinism. He replied to Edwards, and served him with moch the 
same kind of pious abuse, so fashionable in those days, and too 
common in our own. 

Amongst numerous errors which; about this time» the London 
clergy protested against, was the Errw qf Tokraticm. Of fifty- 
eight of these enlightened protesters, seventeen were of the 
iamous Westminster Assembly, who, strange to relate, joined 
in the complaint of its being a very great grievance, '' Thai 
men should have. liberty to worship God -in that way and man- 
ner as shall appear to them most agreeable to the word of God ^ 
and no man be punished, or discountenanced, by authority, for 
the same/'t *' Happily," says Mr. Wilson, •' the lapse of 
time has effected, upon this subject, a complete revolution in 
the opinions of mankind.''} Among the other errors denounced 
by these religionisu, the fifth and nxth were selected from the 
writings of Goodwin: They are these: ^ 5« That Christ died 
lor the sins of all mankind ; that the benefits of his death were 
intended for all; and that natural men may do such things as 
whereunto God has by way of promise annexed grace and ac- 
ceptation."— "6. That a man hath a free-will and power in him- 
aelf to repent^ to believe, to obey the Oospel* and do etery 


* Oaognras, Tun II. p. 65. 
f Ne«]*i Pttritani, Vol. IL t6S->Sd5. 
I HUt. and Aatiq. of Ois. CburchM, &c II. 410. Yet s dergynao 
lately Mid, and that with the approval of namben of bis brathran, io hear* 
ing «f tha writer of tbb aoie» that the " Ronan Catholie Faith it not a reli* 
gioi|« but a mast of lin* wbicb ooght to be estirpated I" This worthy non- 
confemiit ii» of eoatflcv a freat admirer of the Aitembljp Divines* and of ihcir 

tUiff^lMtt CM M^kef 10 AWtiMn/' lir« Oeidvin iMUDy 
Mre ttiid«r cki» «lMtrg« of l»tr«Pf, gutB a getieml clntUtnige tor 
iit pp l #ttiBpd»tt>j anl^A* WfMioai Jvnkyn •ntetwi the larti* 
Ilwer^ttsekesanif dtagiisliiigt94«tail ifae «(at^Me»«lid slw*' 
ittitlMti t» whfcb thii gafii rm.* 

Bas Mr. GooAvm h%\& prmefpfee^ much in«r« dMifferMtf ts^ 
ti* fouie anil' flibiliiy^W toeiefy tlM» tboM of ArminiaiiMfrr 
te w»a.a»aloof' fO|MibKnia ; and aetnatly pnWitliod a wark » 
defend the decollation of Charles the First.* Tbia mrndkaermm 
!Mlr» thoUgbdoalMlaBiwriiteamidar a 6rni ca n w c iaopof fte 
tralhofitsilacUMiei^r^adGbo^iii nitmuom tmatdtu, wtme 
vtapeetaMa for eharaciierr aHil feanklaUe for taleiM* dnttbia 
aihaa ioe%. Yel ha conthmad to defaad wfaa4 ba hiA 

iMolber caatroversy in vrhUk Mt^OooAvAB aaDh after cie 
gagdd was tbaft ralaBJag to the t^iw aa cevtata caBsaaiitioBan 
vere deiMMniaated* whom CroaMfell appoiotod to approve of Am 
piiblte preachers. Of these Tryan Goodwitf complaiikad that 
«* tbsy made their owft narrow CakioiMi aeniiQleiits in diTiailjr 
the daoB of admisston to all charth preferments/' I No great 
koowMga of tiu» peculiar character of this creed ia re<i^ita. 
to decide on the justice of tliis charge. Those who would sbofr 
out frooft the kiiig4ott of heaven in the next world all but those 
of their own sect or <aitb migiit consistently anougb bo sup- 
posed to attempt the starvation of the same species of heretics 
in this. Goodw^i^s dispute with the TVyrrr lasted some timCj, 
and was very bitter, aa usual. § 


* Before the title to one of the books written against Goodwin it • plata 
containing Goodwin's portmit; with a wHndnrill over His head, and* weather^ 
cock upon it: the devil is repreMnted' blowing the satis ; with other maiterib 
cMibtematicaf, says Wood, (Athenae Oxonieasisi Vol. II. p. 154,) of the ^ ii- 
itability of the man J' 

* «The Obstmctors of J^istice; or« a Defence of the Setttcace pMttd- 
upon the late King by tlte HighCoort of Justice; whe«sin the juttiee pMi 
ecjuity of tbe said sentence b demonstmtiveljr asseited," &c L md M tf 1048. 

t Neal^ IL p. 449. 
i See Wood*s Athene Oxou. Vol. II. p. 505. 

Bifbop 19«riM ♦ 0uw^t9 GoodNvin at t jealoas Fffik Mtam^ 
cAy iWan; bat inih whaH jastiee treknow not; hewatcartamftf 
afrimd •f Croma^d^ay an«l thittit almost svAckm to lianp 
hmi a friend to any Mtthamaacic vagary. The late Mr. Tap* 
lacl}r,t m his datastairoii of Oooclwin's AnaiaianiMn, waa glad t# 
hanre tbia ffafw in bis character ; and Mr. Wilsoa % obaarvet, of 
tUa fbrimB Calainiat, that '* he baa heafcd togatber wbateaer ha 
Caitld find to vilify the cbwacter of Mr. Goodwin, and staited 
them with all the acrimony of a party bigot." The ao» 
tbor of the Qangram, bewavar^ baa not enumerated tbia among 
tba vieas of Ooodwin. 

On cbe rnitorbtion of monarchy under Charles 11. it was 
natnraUy espected that Goodwin woold meat a severe chastise* 
oient ; but^ as Burnet § observes^ both " John Goodwin and 
Mikon did escape all eensruae, Co the aarprise of all people/^ 
Alltbaifwvsd^ine waatocaH in bis book intitaled the ''Ob^ 
atracCerf of Justice/' and MiHonV relebrated •* Drfemio pwpa^ 
pmf^ AngUeoMO c<mera Skilmasium,*' and his Awwcr to ** Tb« 
Pbrtraitare of his Sacred Majesty in his SoUtade and Suifin^ 
hig<9>'* and hare t!iem burnt by the hands of the common 
liangman, which wafi accordingly done» on the S7th of Angnat 
tike recommendation of the Commons that the king should 
direct his attorney -general to proceed against the autboaadf 
these books || was not regarded. It is thought by some tibat bia 
Armtntanism wa^ at length of some use to bim.f 

The restoration^ however, did not restore Goodwin to* his for* 
ner living; and another presentation took place id 1661.** The 


• Own Time, Vol. I. p. €7, 68. 

t Historical Proof, &c. Introductioiu 

t Hill. Aatiq. kc. II. 417. $ Own Time, Vol. X. p. 163. 

I Kenael's Cbroniok*. p. 180, 180, aS9. 

V BwMl, Own lime, L p. 163. Granger Bio^. IIjst.IIJ. 4t. 

** Die aa Mui> tC6U Theophilai Alford, A. M. admiM. ad Vic. S. Ste« 

phanif Colemmn-ttreet, Lond. vac. per DepxivAt. Jobannis Goodwin." New- 

eoart'i Report, Vok I. p^ W^ Wilsop, II. 4J % 

10S4 « STAVroaDSHXItB. 

terms of the Act of Uniforinity not according with the free 
spirit of Mr. Goodwin, he continued a nonconformist till his 
death in 166S, aged 72.* He wrote a great namber of books« 
and seems to have had a ridiculous fondness for Greek titles. 
If our memory does not fail nsj some of the late Mr. Wesley's 
Calvinian opponents used to call him Goodwin redivifos. Wes*> 
ley, however, was a much more sober roan : had every thing 
that was benevolent in Goodwin's religions creed, without any 
of his diongerous political bias. 

Our departure from the hundred of Totmanslow north, to even 
beyond the southern extremity of it, may perhaps, if not per* 
fectly, justify, at least apologize, for our preceding a little far- 
ther still to give some account of Shdgboraugh, not hitherto 
noticed by us. 

Mr. Pennant has f described the vale of Shogborough with 
his usual accuracy and pleasantness. Leland| makes but littlt 
mention of this place ; briefly remarking, that *' some call it 
Shokesborow Haywood, because it siandith by it." Cam* 
den does not notice the place at all. It is near Great 
Heywood, a village bestowed by Roger de Melend, other* 
wise Long Epee, *' a worthless prelate, in the reign of Henry 
III/'I on his valet, Roger de Aston. He was son of Ralph 
Aston, and lather of Sir John Aston, Knt. whose posterity en- 
joyed the seat till the latter end of the sixteenth century, or the 
' beginning of the seventeenth. Sir Edward then being in posses- 
sion of it. || 

This family, as they received their estate from the church, 
fo they have always shewn a particular respect to churchmen^ 
and learned men. Sir Walter Aston, father of Sir Edward, was 
employed by James I. as ambassador into Spain,5[ and Michael 


* Calamy'i Contin. p. 78. 

f Joun^ey from Che&ter to London, p. 90, ed. 1811. 

X Itin. VII. p. Si. f Pennant, p. 89. 

I Mag. Brit. V. 8S. 

f See Dodd't Cbarcb History, Vol. HI. p. 49. 


Drayton * menttoiit him as particolarly friendly to his masfi. f 
This estate passed from the Astons to the family of the Tixals, 
the heiress of Tixal being married to a descendant of the Astons 
.occasioned it to remove to the new acqutsiiion.^ " If my me* 
mory does not fail me," says this writer, " the old seat was io 
the possession of the Wbithies/' It has since been re-unitej 
to the house of TlxaU by purchase. The barn belonging tp th« 
manor-house was of a most n^agnificent siae» but has heen 
greatly reduced. The horse-bridge o?er the.Trent« adjoining 
to Haywood was formerly not less remarkable for extraordinary 
dimensions. Mr. Pennant says be remembered it to ba?e coiv^ 
sisted of two-and'^forty arches. Magna Brttaonia^^ says it *' is 
longer than any bridge in England, having ne^r forty arches; 
yet much shorter than the bridge over Druve, at Essec, whici^ 
Dr. Brown tells us is at least five miles long, and made all of 
wood/' The tradition is, that it was built by the county, ia 
compliment to the last Devereux, Earl of Essex, who resided 
mach at Chardey ; and, being a keen sportsman, was ofl<^n de- 
prived of his diversion for want of a bridge. Mr. Pennant, who 
states this, says he was not clear about the truth of this report* 
and adds, *' then there certainly had been a bridge here long be* 
fore; so that, if there was any foundation for such a mark of 
respect, it could only have been rebuilt ader failing to de- 
VouXIIL Zzz The 

* Mag. Brit, uhi tup. We will take ttiis opportunity to meotioD and re- 
•oroneod one of tbe most pleasing and iugcuious poems in the Englisli 
language : we allude to Michael Drajron's Nymphidia t a poem than which 
' there it not one of ail the nanierou« collections that hate recently been 
made of oof early English poets, nioA pleasing for beautifal imagery, sim- 
fitcity of character, and ease of versification. Doabtless, the welUknoira 
Buttet fly's Bail and Grasshopper's Feast of BIr. Roscoe owes iu birth to 
Drayton's Nifmpkidi*, which we sliould ranch wish to see re-pnblislied in u, 
Mparate and neat form. It would not have detracted from the merit of Mr. 
Roscoe's lieaBtifQl piece, had be mentioned the name of that from which 
Ills idea is obvjousiy bonowed. 

f Vide ante, p. 908. t Pennant, p. 89. 

( Vol. V. p. 9^. g Journey from^^bester, Ace p. 90. 


The chief reason for the notice which we have just given 
fkf Haywood, and of this bridge, is that we might more conve- 
niently introduce the beautiful Vale qf Shugborotigh, which 
from the middle of the bridge is seen to great advantage. 
This vale, varied with almost every thing that nature and art 
could give to render it delicious, is watered by the IVeni and 
Sow» The first, to use the words of the author last quoted, ani- 
mated with milk-white catUe, emulating those of Tinian, the 
last with numerous swans. The boundary on one side is a 
cultivated slope ; on the other, the lofty front of Catmock'-tvood, 
clothed with heath, or shaded with old oaks, scattered over its 
glowing bloom by the free hand of nature. It is more difficult, 
continues Mr. Pennant, to enumerate the works of art dispers- 
ed over this Elysium : they epitomize those of so many places* 
The old ^church of Colwieh; the mansion of the ancient English 
baron at Woitelof'Hali; the great windowed mode of building 
in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, in the house of Ingestrc; the 
modem seat in Oak-edge; and the lively improved front of 
Shugborough ; are embellishments proper to our own country. 
Amidst these rise the genuine architecture of China, in all its 
extravagance ; the dawning of the Grecian, in the mixed Gothic 
gateway at Tixal; and the chaste buildings of Athens, exem- 
plified by Mr. Stuart, in the counterparts of the Chocagic mo- 
nument of Lysicrates,* and the octagon tower of Andronicus 
Cyrrhe8tes.f From the same hand arose, by command of a 
grateful brother, the arch of Adrian of Athens, embellished 
with naval trophies, ifci honour of Lord Anson, a glory to the 
British fleet; who still survives in the gallant train of officers 
who remember and emulate; nay> who surpass, his actions. 
Pennant's friend^ as he informs us, the late Thomas Anson, 
Esq. preferred the still paths of private life, and was every 
way qualified for its enjoyment : for with the most humane, and 


* AuiiqQities of Athens, Cbap. IV. tab. 1, 3*. 
t lb. Chap. III. tab. 1, 3. 

\ . . . ' . 

tile most sedate disp08itk>nj he possessed a mind most utlcom- 
menly cultivated. ' He was the example of trtie taste iit this' 
downy ; and, at the same time that he made his iMn place a 
paradise, made every neighbour partaker of its elegancies. 
He was happy in his Nfe^ and happy in his end. Mr. Pennant 
saw him about thirty hoars before his death, listening caHnly 
to the melody of the- harp, preparing for the momentary transit 
from an earthly concert to an nnion with the angelic har- 
monies. The improrements which he began were carried on, 
with great judgment, by his nephew and successor George An* 
^n, Esq. He was father to the present proprietor, who was 
created a peer of Great Britain February 17th, 1806, by the 
titles of Baron of Soberton, in the county of Southampton ; and 
Viscount Anson, of Skugharough and (hgrave in the county of 
Stafford.^ ^ 

The improvements at Shugborough hate been farther car- 
ried on by his loraship, the house having been recently en- 
larged, and a handsome portico added to it. '' The highly cul* 
tivated state of the demesne marks the laudable agricultural 
taste of the noble owner.'* 

Of the great number of statues which embellish the place, 
an Adonis and ThaHa are the most capital. There is also a 
-very fine figure of Trajan, in the' attitude of haranguing his 
army. The number of which Etruscan figures in the garden 
shew the great antiquity of the art of sculpture in Italy, long before 
the Romans became a people. The beautiful monument in the 
lower end of the gitt^n doos honour to the presunt age. It 
was the work of Mr. Scbemecher, under the direction of Tbo« 
mas Anson, Esq. just mentioned. The scene is laid in Ar- 
cadia. Two lovers, expressed in elegant pastoral figures, ap* 
pear attentire to an ancient shepherd, who reads to fhem an 
ioscriptjijQn on a tomb : 


Zza 2 The 

• Sir Scciton Biydget'sCollioi'f Peerage, VI. 430. 



Tke moval of this seems to be^ that there are ao BitMlaon^ 
of life to delicious from which death will not al lenf^ i 
qa. It was placed hei^e by the amiable owner, as a 
of the certainty of that event. Perhaps, also» a^ a secret i 
morial of some losi of a tender nature in his early days t tor 
hm was wont often to hang over it in aflfeclionate and firm me- 
dttaUon.* The Chinese house, a little fiurther on> is a 
true pattern of the architecture of that nation, taken in thai 
country, by Sir Percy Brett; not, as Mr. Pennant observes^ a 
mongrel in?ention of British carpenten.t 

Opposite to the back^front of the house, im the banks of the 
SiNi;, stand the small remains of the ancient jnansion, which, 
according to Leland,{ originally belonged to ''Suckborrow 
with a long beard/' who> as some say, gave it to the mitre of 
Licdfield and Coventry. § It must have been in very early 
times ; for the manor of Haywood, just mentioned, (in which 
this is included,) belonged to that see in lOM, the twentieth oC 
William the conqueror, and so continued till the reign of fid- 
ward VI. who gave it to lord Paget. The boose, before that 
time, was an episcopal palace. The remains still standing 
serve to give the appearance of reality and ruin to some beau- 
tiful Grecian 'columns, and other fragments of ancient archi- 
tecture ; which were added to the front by Thomas Anson, 


• Penaant, 99. 
f If noKlemen sad other gentlemen of laige landed property woold devote 
s portion of tiietr poueMioni to tbe erection of tocfa gennioe specimciis of 
foreig;n aicbitecture as this Chinefe bnildtngt tbey would render moit iO'^ 
portant additions to the knowledge of those personi who have not oppovta- 
iiitjet of travelling, and who at present are compelled to receive their tnfof^ 
ifiatloo on this and difaer Interesting scAjects from the imperfect and igne* 
rant second-hand daseriptions of carelessi tasteless, and often absoid, tra- 

$ Ih. 1^ ^tiphu i Magna Brit. V. %ih 


Vm certainly Ifae greatttt honour to ib« place, ii Ilia circom* 
alaace of its having been the birth-place of one of tbe moet die» 
tingniiihed naval conmandera and circumnaTigaitors ;-<-ihe iatai 
LOKD ANSON* wbote voyages have long made a conspienoas 
Agare an every truly vakiable coUecttoa. 

This fajnily bave been seated in Staffordshire for seveval ga» 
neratioBs: first at Dwuion,^ in the parish of Peniridge, and then 
at Skugbaraugh, |he manor of which, being purchased in the 
■eign of James I. by William Anson, Esq. he made ii his prii^ 
cipal resideaca* 

Hiis William Anson, in the reign of Elasalieth and i« the be* 
ginning of James L was eminent at»the bar. Sir William 
Dagdalet states the circumstance of his having bought two m^ 
nora in Warwickshire, of Sir Walter Aston, Knight of tbe Bath 
and Baronet, wfaicb he afterwards disposed of lo WiUiam Cum* 
herlbrd, of Tunworth, Esq. and to Anne his wifis. 

WiUiam Anson, their son and heir, was bom iat 16M^ and 
mavried Etiaabeth, daughter of Thomas Stafod, of Boiham 
H^l, in Derbyshire, Esq. By this lady he badL when he was 
35 years of age, (April 6, 1^63, when his descent was entered 
in thn Tisitaiien of Staflbrdshire) thi«e danghtcta, besides Wil« 
Itam hii sen and heir, who was bom in 165& This William* 
who was the third lord of the manor of Ski^onmgK bad issue^ 
besides GEORGE, of whom we are now about to give a brief 
memon*, Thomas, his eldest son, who succeeded to the fiunily. 
seaiand estate; another son, who died young, and foordaugh* 
lers^t Willtam Anson, Esq. died in August, 1790. 

George Anson, afterwards Lord Anson,§ was bom at this 

Z a z 3 phKe, 

* VifiutioD of Staffordshire, cb«p. S% p. IT, in (M&e. Annor. 

t Antiqnltiei of Wartriekihire, 1»t«d. p. 8H. 

t Biogftphia Brit. Kippit'f ed. I. p. SIA. 

f fie «•§ the lAM ton of WUliaaiAii90Q,Kiq. by Eliaab0Ui,dai«blsr and 

eoheir of Robert Carrier, of Wbktwortb, in Derbyibire, Kiq. CoUim, (nor 

bat Sir Eaertoo Brjdffft c#roGted the blonder) tvka mils bini tbt Mceni 

IMO' srAvroRDtaiEE. 

place^ ot) th(ft 93d Aprils 1097 ; and> htviag aaearlj pMsion ftir 
iMTal glory, in his nineteenth yeari wa« made second licsi* 
tenant of His Majesty's ship, the Hampshire. The year follow* 
ing, 1717, he was in the Baltic, where also the Hampiire Imd 
been in the fleet commanded by Sir George Byag, aad at tbis 
time he saw, on the Danish shore, tbe ilkiitrioQs Csar, Peter of 
Bassia, and the famous Catherine, afterwards Emprea: Shovdy 
a^rwards he was appointed second lieutenant of die MoatagQe, 
employed by Sir George Byng in the expedition to Sicily, and 
was present in the celebrated action near that island. Id 1722 
be was made master and commander of the Weaide aloop, and 
in the following year was made post captahv^ ami appointed to 
the command of the Scarborough man of war. Shortly after 
disappointment, be was ordered to South Carolina; and, dvriiig 
bis station there, which was three years, he erected the iowiu 
'called Awtott B&mrgh, and gare name to the comiiy still oalted 
Anson County. 

< After being repeatedly in and ont of employ, and baling Ihrice 
been appointed to the station of SoutbCarolina^ where he had 
considerable property and to which place be was asvch attached, 
he, in consequence of an order in December, 17S4, retamed to 
England in June ef that year, and was paid off at Woolwieh. In 
all these serfices he gave great satisfaction to the Board off Ad* 
miralty ; and, after Ms retuni firom Sooth Caroiiaa» nemained 
dt' home between two and three years. 

' In December, 1787, he was ptit into the command of the Cen* 
torion, and ih this ship he was ordered^ in the February follow- 
}ng, to the coast of Guinea. He retomed in 1739, by the eovrae 
•f Barbadoes and South Carolitta. 

On the breaking out of the Spanish war, in this year, he was 
appointed to .the command of a fleet of five ships, destined to 
annoy the enemy in that dangerous and then unfrequented sea* 
which lies beyond America, in the Great Pacific Ocean.* This 


i. % 

* AosoD^t Toytse, p. 3. dnn litJi £d< 

rojrtge kid tbe foondation of hb filiate fortaiiei> aod Ibe biitory 
of it is well known. He did not depart before Sept. I740» whett» 
OD the 18lb of that months he set nil from St Helea't. He ttopi 
at Madeira, then ai the island of St. Catherine's, on tbe BrazH 
coast* and next at Port St Jalian^ in PaUgoaia. He enooonter^d 
predigieas difficulties in doobKng Cape Horn ; and» in this peril* 
0118 passage, his fleet was separated, and pert of it never rejoined 
lum. At length he arrifed at the Island of Joan Femandcs, and 
from thence proceeded to Peru, took the town of Paita, anchored 
a ftw days at Quibo, sailed to tbe coast of Mexico, and formed 
the design of intercepting the Acapolco ship. After stopping 
awhile at the harbour of Cbeqoetan, he determined to cross thft 
Pacific Ocean. At last his squadron was reduced to pne singie 
ship, the Centurion. He made some stay at Tinian, one of the 
I^drone, or Madeira Islands, from which he went to Macao; 
and,s^iUng back from this place in quest of the Manilla GalJeon^ 
he had the happiness of meeting with it, and of taking it on 
the. 30th of June, 1743. After this enUrprise he returned to 
Cantpn, from whence he embarked for England, by the Captf 
of Gpod Hope. Having completed his voyage round the worlds 
lie came safe to an anchor at Spithead on the IMi or 16th of 
June, 1744^ The whole of this undertaking he executed with 
lingular honour and advantage to himself and the officers atid 
people under him : from original errors and defects in the eni« 
barkatioQ, and from causes in which he was in no wise concerned, 
the gi^nd design of the cKpedition was not fully answered.* 

The fame which Coounodore Anson gained by ibis voyage^ 
which lasted three years and nine months, will never fade from 
the minds of Englishmen, while the great humanity, prudence,- 
^nd generosity, which he shewed towards the Spaniards, parti- 
cularly to certain young and beautiful females taken in the 
Manilla Galleon, has endeared his name to the Spanish nation, 
whose natives speak of him to this day as the pattern of a perfect 
gentleman and a man of the greatest honour and humanity. 

Z z z 4 A few 

• Admd'i Voyage, ptuinu 

Mm stATPomitBrntB. 

A few day& after bis return to his own country* he was nade 
Bear- Admiral of the Blue and one ofth'e Lords of the Admiralty. 
In Aprils 1745, he was appointed Reair Admiral of Ihe White* 
and in -July, 1746, Vice-Admiral of the Blue. He was also 
chosen member of Parliament for Hej^don, in Yorkshire.* 

The same winter, 1746* 7, he commanded the channel sqoa* 
dron in'a long and tempestuous cruize. The success of this 
expedition was frustrated by the accidental intetligeiice that 
was given by the master of a Dutch vessel^ to the Duke d'An- 
Tile's fleet, of Admiral Anson's station and intention. The fol- 
lowing summer, being then on board the Prince George, of SN) 
guns, in company with Admiral Warren and twelve 6hip»more« 
be intercepted, off Cape Finisterre, a powerful fleet, hound from 
France to the East and West Indies, and by his valour and con* 
^uct again enriched himself and his officers, and thus strength- 
ened the British navy with six men of war and four East India- 
■len ; not one of the enemy's vessels of war escaping.f The 
French admiral, M. W. George, of the Invincible, in allusion to 
two ships which had been taken, via. L'Invincible and La 6loir«H 
amd pointing to these captured vessels, exclaimed, as be pre* 
eented his sword to the conqueror, Mcnsiaar, vaui sitea vmmeu 
yinvtncibie, er La Gloire vota ndi !% 

On the 18th of June following, (1747) his Majesty, George IL 
ill consideration of Mr. Anson's eminent services, advanced him 
t^ the Peerage, by the title of Lord Anson, B^nm t^ Sohertcmt 
in Hants, and his lordship adopted the following very appro** 
priate and encouraging motto : Nil detperondum. The same 
year he was appointed Vice-Admiral of the Red, and the year 
following he married Elizabeth, eldest daughteir of Philip, Lord 


* Gent. Utg. Tol. Xiy. p. 359. from tbe Londc^ Qasettc^ abo Gen^ 
2C«g. XV. p. ii. 

♦ UndoniGasette, May 16, 1747. Gent. Mmg. Vol. XVII. p^ n^ 
% Collim' Peerage, Vol. VT. p. 4t8. CoUins wtf roiitakeii in attribatiiii 
thcae «rt)rds to Bf . Joiiqoiere, irbo commanded the Serieux. See Kippi^'^ 
]Mograpbia Brit. I. p. f 19. * 


Hftrdwicke» at that time Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, 
which lady died without issue on the 1st of Jane, 1760** 
• He had frequently the honour of conveying the late King from 
England to HoUand.f In 1749 he was made Vice Admiral o( 
Great Britain, and on the 13th of June, 1751, he was appointed 
First Lord of the Admiralty, in the room of the Earl of Sand* 
wich. In the years 1753 and 1755 be was one of the Lords 
JusUces of the Kingdom, during his Majesty's absence.^ 

On a change in the administration, in 1756, Lord Anson re* 
aigned his post as first Lord of the Admiralty ; and some blame 
having been attached to him by party writers,i(who, like some in 
our own times, were resolved never to speak well of an existing 
ministry,) relative to the relief of Minorca during his manage- 
ment of the Admiralty Board, the newministers made a particu- 
lar enquiry into the conduct of Lord Anson and others, in 
this aflair; when, by several resolutions of the House of 
Commons, the late ministers were acquitted of any blame or 
neglect of doty.§ On the 94th of February, 1757, he was made 
an Admiral, and on the 2d of July he was again placed at the 
head of the Admiralty Board, in which post he remained dariil|p 
the remaindei' of his life. *' All the rest of his conduct, as first 
Commissioner of the Admiralty, vras crowned with success, nn* 
der the most glorious administration which this country ever 


• Gent Mag. Vol. XVIII. p. 187, and Vol. XXX. p. f9r. Lady Ajuoa 
was a woman of extraordinary goodness of heart and puwers of mind. She 
had a fine taste in drawing and painting, and was, moreorer, a poef of no loeaa 
talents. On her death, Mhe tngenions Mr. MaUet^ addressed sooe goad luM 
;o Lord Hardwieke, her father. 

t Getit. Mag. Vol. XXXII. p. tdS. 

I Gent. Mag. «6t §ufra, 

§ Joorpalsof the House of Commonsi Vol. XXVI T, p. 87I-& 

I Kippis'sBiographiaBrit.Lp. Sei. 

• Poena on sercral occasions, by David Mallet, Esq. (8vf . i76f .) 

' p. 7s— rr. 


r In 1758« being then admiral of the white, and having hoisteA 
bis flag on board the Royal George, of 110 guns, he sailed from 
Spithead on the 1st of June, with a formidable fleet. Sir Edward 
Hawke serving under him ; and, by cruising continually before 
Brest, he protected the descents which were made that summer 
at St. Maloes and Cherborgb.* After this he was appointed ad* 
miral and commander in chief of his Majesty's fleets. 

The last service he performed was conveying to England oor 
present Queen Charlotte, whom be landed after a rough and 
tedious passage, on the 7th September, 1761. In February 
of the following year, he accompanied the Queen's brother. 
Prince Charles of Mecklenburgh, to Portsmouth, to shew him 
the arsenal and the fleet that was then about to sail; under the 
command of Sir George Pocock, for the Havannah. In attend- 
ing this prince his lordship caught a violent cold, which was 
aecompanied by a gouty disorder,, with which he had long been 
afflicted. This cold at length settled upon his lungSi and 
was the immediate occasion of his death, which took place ra* 
tber suddenly, just after walking in his garden, at bis seat, at 
Moor Park, in Hertfordshire. Thi^ was on the 6th of June, 
1763. He was buried in the family vault, at Colwich, in this 

Though Lord Anson had as few failings as most men of his age* 
with many more virtues than fall to the lot of the majority,hc did 
not escape censure, nor avoid that poison of asps which ever 
lurks under the tongues of the base and the degenerate. Few 
men are in danger of the woe pronounced by the lips of an im* 
maculate and divine teacher against those of whom all men speak 
wel]r*-good men, or men of more than ordinary acquirements, 
are wholly out of the reach of this danger. There are always 
base men enough to invent, baser men to propagate, and weak 
and proud men to encourage and enjoy, slanders against their 
superiors. These remarks apply with some force in tb^ case 


* * Gent. Mag. ttii niffA. 

sTATromDSBimB.' MM 

of Lord Anson. He was accosed of exiraTagani ganing ; and 
because it was thought, or rather slanderoasly reported^ that ho 
had lost a considerable share of his wealth in these ptirswits, 
there did net want wretches to ridicale and reproach him:— ihd 
loss or want of nioney being, in the estimation of some men, % 
sure mark of reprobatioh and scorn. Dr. Kippis has vindrcated 
the character of Lord Anson, agai|ist the attacks of an £ditor* 
^ho took Tory Ixtde pains to obtain aotbentic information co»» 
ceming the persons treated of in his work. Tlie respectable 
editor of the new edition of Collins should not have assisted 
in preserving the records of slander without oJBPering soo^e aati« 
dote to its poison. 

It only remains now that we notice a fact relative to the pib* 
lication of Lord Alison's ** Voyage rmmd tht World" which the 
compiler of our biographies and peerages have not sufficiently 
attended to. It is well known thai this work has ever had a 
most favourable reception with the poblic ; four large impres* 
siofts being sold off in a twelvemonth. f It has also been transt 
lated into most of the European languages, and still supports 
Hs reputation. This work was published under the name of Mr* 
William Walter, chaplain to the Centurion ; though it has been 
generally said to have been written, under his lordship's inspect 
tion, and from materials which he furnished, by Mr. Benjamin 
Bobins.} This was first openly asserted by Br. Wilson^ men* 
tioned in the note below. It was then reported and apparently 


• BritUh Pinurch, Ed. 1776, Vol. VI. p. 111. 
t Coian^'s Peerage, VI. p. 4«9. 
I Mr. Robins was mo ingeoious and very eminent matbeinaticiaD, and being 
a native of BATH, naturally claimed an earlier and more conspicuous notice 
In this work. He was bom in 1707, and died in 1751. He was engineer- 
general to the Ernst India Company ; and wrote several mathematical tract«» 
m edition of which was published by Dr. Janes Wilson, sccompanieM with » 
.^rt acconnt of the aothor. Mr Robins is particalarly known for his *' New 
Principles of Gunnery /'and for having the reputation of beiog the real author 
of Mr. Waller's " History of Lord Anson's Voyage," 

I6i6 sTArrosBSBiaB. 

confirmed in tbe Monthly Review^* a paHIication of sufficient 
celebrity and respectability to give authenticity to any state- 
ment its conductors might feel reason to make. From these aa- 
Ihorities the story has been copied into almost every subsequent 
account of Mr. Robins* or of this celebrated Toyager. Tbe 
editor of the last edition of the Biographia Britannica followed 
the same opinion ;but in the further list of corrigenda et adden* 
da to ^e first volume of that great undertaking, a letter is in* 
sorted from Mrs. Walter, relict of the respectable clergyman 
whose name appears ia the title-page oS the '« Voyage'^ in ques* 
lion. This letter was written in 1789» and was addressed to 
Mr. John Walter, bookseller^ of Charing Cross, London, and 
it decidedly contradicts the reports respecting Mr. Robins he* 
ing the compiler of this work ; asserting, in the most unequivo- 
cal manner, that Mr. Robins left England some months before 
the publication of the book, having been sent to Bergen*op- 
zoom. That Mr. Walter, during his almost daily visiu to this 
lady, previous to their marriage, frequently said, how doaely 
he had been engaged in writing, for some hours, to prepare for 
his constant attendance upon Lord Anson at six every morning 
for his approbation, as his lordship overlooked every sheet 
that was written. At some of those fieetings, says Mrs. Wal- 
ter, Mr, Robins assisted^ as he was consulted on the disposition 
of the drawings. She then adds that she has frequently seen 
Mr. Walter correct the proof sheets for the printer. 
• Mrs. Walter accounts for the silence of Mr. Walter on this 
matter, from the circumstance of his having laboured under very 
severe and painful illnesses, during four years before his deaths 
which took place in 1785 ; and, that during this time, " he 
never heard any thing but newspaper squibs, which he looked 
upon with contempt/' This is the only thing which throws 
Xhe least ob