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Full text of "The Beauties of England and Wales, or, Delineations, topographical, historical, and descriptive, of each county"

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THE 



l/jffr///f^r4 



of 

E :N Glr an D and wale S ; 

OR, 

DJBIjINJEATIONS 

TOPOGRAPHICAL. HISTORICAL, 
and 
DESCRIPTIVE. 
Vol.V. 




^«.«/A /iJb'i'i' ' "' 



, i.-r- t.^w *•*/., .V^'. 



THE 

BEAUTIES 

OF 

England arid Wales; 

OR, 

OniGINAlL BELJNEL4TIONS9 

TOPOGRAPHICAL, HISTORICAL, AND BBSGRIPTITB, 

OF 

EACH COUNTY. 



EMBELLISHED WITH EN6RAV1N($& ; .-' . 

^ — :*:y . 

EDWAltO WEDIAKE BBATLEY AKs'TOi^jmtrrO^. 



VOL. V. 



Hail! atttof acicDce, ani, and equal iwiyi 
Freedom's £ilr ibrooe, amid the subject seat 

Thee ^'riog Heaven detiga'd. 

Prom wild despotic ragCi the fortress of mankind* 

For this he rais'd thy rocky mo«id» 

And pMr'd thy roaring biUows round. 

Prom where old Orcas hears the loogh North rave. 

To where Bolerinm bro¥ft the western wave. 

H. M00B.S. 






LONDON: V^Vj^U^Y^^^ 



WOK TBSiteBy aooo & sa AftPB ; lokoman) Hua4T» kbbs, & oemb; 

CVTVSLL & MAETIMS W. J. dc J. ftICHAtO|ON( 

|. AMO A. AftCa; J. BAattS, 

AMD a. CaOSBY. 

18 iO. 



• • • • ,.« 









v.. 



THE 

BEAUTIES 

^nslatOi ami Wiaka, 

m 

DURHAM. 

JLIURHAflf, as we have already noticed in ^b^; description of 
Combcriand, was included in the country of theB^.^GAKTES, who 
pro^ressffelj peopled tlie vast tract of bnd exteudiiig'nqrSihwafds 
from the river Don in Yorkshire; and being^an***^!tfctiye and-^spi« 
rited tribe," observes Mr. Whitaker, '' sazc^^O^J^f^^ig^^ists tb;d 
goaided the pasMs of the Yorkshire hflls^ and*Ka'd*i(i1xl6ed, at the 
coauDencement of the Christian era, all tlie country ihat l^y be* 
twixt the bills and the sea : they appear to have carried ^^Vvio- 
toriotts arms to the south and to the north, to have CTOsxd the 
rifer of M«<lway, and the tVith of Solway, and to have conqnered 
eqadly the Selgovae of Ahandale, and the Camabii of Chesbhre.'* 
TKittts rebites, that tb^ nation of the Brigantes were tlie roost pol 
poloos of the whole province. BrigoMes chitas nwnerossissiwuL 
Mias pravinciit,* 

In the '* gradual progression of the Celtse along tfie broad base 
of tiie triangle which Britain forms, and afterwards across tha 
wide i^ane to the tapering summit of it, the coonties of York and 
Durham were the first inhabited by the Brigantes.''t Af^erwards^ 
OB an increase of popuktion, they advanced roto the country of 
the Si$twuu^ and Volamii: these nations bemg wiable to resist 
the incnrsioiit of their Brigantian neighboui%, entered mto an alH» 
aaeewith them, yet their independence was soon lost i and though 
Plolemy places the SbtuntS across the Western Ocean, yet he 

A3 describes 

t Afrio« ViL C II. t Or HiikUnitts, %^ Vol. Ul. p. 3 



6 DUKUM. 

describes the territoiy bel<{Dgiqg tp the 3d(uites as extendinf 
from sea to sea. ^' ' * ' • 

Oq the conquest of Britaio by the Romans, Durham was io* 
duded in the division, Maxima Casariensts: but after the 
establishment of the Saxons, it became part 4>f the kingdom of 
Northumberland, wiik which it^remained coho^t^ tUl the union 
of the Saxon States under Egbert. 

This county has not unusually been termed the Bishopric, from 
the great power which the Bishop of the diocese formerly pos- 
lessed. It is a County Palatine ; and appears to have derived its 
original privileges from the grant made to St.] Cuthbert, the Apos- 
tk of the North, by Egfrid, Kin^ of Nortbumberiand, in the 
year 65^, of ^l^aht: Imul between the *' rivers Weaiie and T^fie^'' 
to hold Ui an' (^!^:j£tid nniple manner as the King hiin^lf held tba 
«ame. %^i4^s^'0nvile^esr says Camden, were first broken througli 
l;t^^44luaVclJh'«li'irHbt,^^hose award, as arbitrator oo. a dispute be* 
y^li^ienBi^^f^ttifihon^Uee and the Prior about their lands, oo| 
\* bekr|[;c;^xiii<i(K;ry^* seized the Bishop's liberties into bis ovo 
}^m^ir fiui'nait^t strkt etiquhry^ and offered great violence to pri^ 
i^tlegir/":i0dlerwardBf however, the See recovered and held .itf 
rights litvbltte till ibe tlji^ of Edward the Sixth, to whom aU ita 
fcvenues and privileges wei^ granted by Parliament. Queen 
Maiy re-established the See in its former authority ; and, thov^ 
DMny pf its rights have since been abrogated, it still possesses pe*' 
xiilt^r immuoities and power. ^ 

^ The Palatine right of the Bishop of Durham is founded oq 
immemorial prescription, there being do record of its being 
grfuUed by any Princes, before or since the Conquest, wherein it 
is ^of supposed to have been granted also by their predecessonu 
j[^ proceeded at first from a principle of devotion to St Cuthbeiti 
Ihat whatever laods were given to him, or boi^i with bis money, 
be should hoU with the same freedom that the Princes who gavia 
them held the reit of their estates. But this piety to the Saiut waa 
not without its prudential purposes, both for the service of the 
(^rowu in its wars against Seoiland, and of the county, because of 
jU distance from the courts above. It cousbted of all manner of 

royul 



thtacMiB tbflri»<;ihe BishoiiB bai thek frnptr oovrls of aB 
Bovli htld io tbcir lame, and by tbaar aotfaafitjr ; thifr dumber^ 
i;.^ii^il»^^ and Court of P1mi» asweHaio^theCroim, asofth^ 
Comtji .apd aU odMtr pleat and aniass, cartificaiMM whateoeverl 
and all •fficat beboRiiif to tfaan^ as CliaiiceUon, Justioet, Higbk 
SbcdS; Coroners, Escbaator, and other oiinislers ; as well soeb a§ 
I baTO bacn wont to bave oltawbara in the takf kiagdoni, as 
\ as the said Kings bare been woat to depute aocoidkig to tbi^ 
f of emeigent cases, or for tlie speebl execotioo of acts of 
PttUameBt. Thus by tfaaanelves, and their ofieers, they did jus- 
tice to all persons in all cases, without the King, or any of hh 
dBoers inletlering ordkwrily in any thing. The King's writs did 
ant raa in this county, but were ditacted to the Bbhop ; or, in the 
rmpmcj of the See, to the Cbanoellor of the Filatmate. 

•" When Henry the Second sent his ^Justices of Assise hither, oil 
an faliaoifUaary occasion of aMrder and robbeiy, he dcclaved by 
\k Chatter, that be did it by lioenoe of the Bish<^, and pro kae 
mee only ; and that it jboqld not be drawn into •eostoro, eilfiet In 
his tiase, or is the tiae of hb heirs, not bdng done but upon ab. 
sokiUi necessity ; and that he should nevertheless have the land tJt 
$C Cttthbcrt to eqfoy its liberties and ancient customs as amply as 
ever. By virtue of .these privileges, there issued out of (h^ 
Bidmp's courts all sorts of write, origbai, jadicial, and comrnon ; 
writs of prockmation, kc As all writs went out in his name, he 
bad a rc^er of writs of as nrach autfaori^ as that hi the King^ 
courls; and all recogniaances entered upon his dote rolls in his 
Chancciy, and made to him, or in his name, were as valid m this 
oaanty, as those made to the Kh^^ ool of it. But now, the Act 
lwci|ty««evaoth Heniy the Eighth, for the re^<sontnuimg of certafai 
ihcsties takon fimn the Crown, dhecta, that all writs, indictments, 
and all manner of process in Counties Ptalatine, shall be made only 
ia the Kill's name ; and sinee that tioM all the difference In the 
ttjfie of proceedings io Ibb county fton others is, that the teste 
af the writ is in the name af the BiiAiop, accordmg to the direc* 
lion» ot that net. Still he is perpetual Justice of Peace witlihi 

A 4 bis 



Ififi teni(0^ duA dui mk only as sacii») tod Js Ao fieipetiMfl 
Cbancellar, becauie tbe duef «ets of the eiempt jtmdiftkHi 
^ited to nM through hk oourt. All the oAoen of the couttBi 
C^reo the Judges of Aasiie tbenueltes, have still their ancient saki^ 
riesi or soniPthiag analogoos, froib the Rihop ; and all the slaocU 
log officers of the courts are constituted bj his patents. When h6 
conies in person to any of the courts of judicature, he sits chief in 
them, those of assise not excepted ; and even when jodgmeat of 
blood is given, though the Canons forbid any clergyman to be pre* 
seat, the Bishops of Durham did, and may, sit ui their purple 
robes on the sentence of death, whence is used to be said, ioium 
jPuneltneme itolajus dicit et cmt. 

^ All dues, amercen»ents, and forfeited cecogniasnoes, in the 
courts of the Palatinate, and all deodands, beloug to tbe Bishop. 
If any forfeits are made, either of war, or by treaion, oufhiwiy, 
fnr fidony, even though the soil be the King's, they £iil to the 
Bisl^op here, as to the King in other pboes : and though the first 
great wound which tlie Palatinate received, was given on l4ie aHc^ 
nation of Barnard Castle, and Hartlepool, on the forfeitures of 
Baliol and Bruce, yet the Bi3hop's riglit was declared to them an 
full hearing ; and though the posKsaion of tliem conld not be n»i 
trieved, they stiU resort to tbe courts of Durham as other parts of 
the county do. 

*^ Lands were held under the Bishop petfarinteeum terviihtm ; 
which is defined by Bracton to be a badge of regal right, and was 
a service only belonging to the Crown : the tenure in capitc waa 
common under a sutgect* The former occcurs very oDeo ^in the 
records ^ indeed, all the tenures of land here originate ftom the 
Bishop as lord paramount m chief. Hence he grants charters for 
erecting boroughs and incorporutioos, markets and fans, indosiug' 
forests, chases, and warrens ; licences to embattle castles, build 
chapels, found chantries and hospitals ; and dispensations, with the 
statute of Mortmaui. All inclosed estates, as well as moors, 
or wastes, to which no title can be made, escheat tp him. He 
grants the custody of ideots and lunatics ; and had tlje custody 
of minors while the custom of wards and liveries subiisteiL Be- 
sides 



Mcit)iedcfpeD(lence<»f IcomImM or copybokl tetumts od lum, if 
mj imholders alienated their land writliout his licence, they were' 
oWged to sue out hb patent of pardon ; and all money paid for 
sDch liceQces belongs to hitn. 

** In the article of militaTy po^er, the Bishop of Durham had* 
andntly his Thanes, and aOer^ards his Barons, who held of him 
hy KtiighU* service, as the rest of the Haltwerk folk held of them 
hy inferior tenures. On alarms, he convened them as a Parlia-' 
meof, witii adfice for them to assist uith their persons, dependanttp 
and money, for the puhlic service at home and abroad ; and att 
levies of nKO and money were made by the Bfshop's commissioii, 
or by writs in his name oat of the Chancery at Durham : for he 
tad power both to coin money, and levy taxes, and raise and arm 
soldiery in the Bishopric, from sixteen to sixty years old. Ao» 
eordiag as lie found I hen* strength, he had power to march against 
the Scots, or to conclude a truce with them. One of the Bishops 
bait a stroi^ castle in his territory, on the border, to defend it 
aglBDSt them ; though no other person could have doue this with- 
out hb leave, nor the greatest person in tlie Palatinate embattle 
Ins mansion. As the people depended on him in Ihese matters^ 
tfaey were free from every t>ody else : and when the Lord Wardea 
of Ibe Marches would have sntnnioned some of the Bislic p*3 men 
to las court, a letter was sent from the King to forbid him, under 
pan of forfeiting lOOOl. But now tlie rotliiia of this county has 
been long on the same foothig with the rest of the kmgdom, under 
Ibe Lord Lieutenant ; the ouly difference here is, that that offico 
bas fsoeiaHy, though not always, been borne by the Bishop. 

*« The admiralty, jurisdictioii in this county beioH«;s also to tbe 
Bisbop, who Ifolds the proper court by his Jud-^es ; and appointt 
by bis patents, a Vice- Admiral, Register, and Mar^^lral, or Water* 
Baibil^ and other officers: and has ull tbe pnviifgrs, forfeituies; 
aad pivifits, incident to this |M>uer, us roval fishf«, sea* wrecks, 
duties for slii|»s arriving in his ports, anchora^r, beaconage, whar> 
lagc, moorage, biftterage, ubiage, &c. Tu him also belongs the 
eoMcrvaacy of walers wiliiiii hi:i district ; in pursuance of whicli, 
be used to is^ue comnii»>ious for rohibiling, limitiag or reducing 

weir% 



fteiBh or other enctUNis ia p^jtdice qt bk vmn. All ihipA^f 
m were arrayed witlitn the eoimty P^tioe by bis comHiiiirio% 
end writs to his Sheriffs and when the Kiog issued out writs fiom 
his admiralty to the Sberifi of other naritiiae coipties, he ad^ 
pressed a particular letter to the Bishop here for his concurreaoe, 
who gave Gomraissions to his owa Sheri^ vith express conunaadf 
tJiuU nothing should be done l^ the King's cooiniissions without 
bim* It IS but lately that any instances have been known of tb« 
adoiualty being separated from the Bishopric ; and it is now ror 
ftpredy though with some diminution m the honor, 

^ The great privities of this Bishofmc m toqiporat j«risdic|ion» 
lead one to imagine that its spiritual immunitaes were equally e&^ 
traordinaiy. After Paulinus departed from York, the BisbopK 
who restored Christianity in Nortbumberland* placed their Soo 
at lindis&niey though not with the title of Metropotitan, yet wtlk 
all the ecclesiastical power that was then in those oouatiefl. This 
occfisiooed a great veneration for their successors among tbe Saxons; 
besides the particular reverence paid to St. Cuthbert. When tha 
See was established at Durhamy m tlie time of the CooqneroCy 
Thomas, the elder Arclibishop of York, having been miraoilously 
recovered of a fever at the shrine of the Saint, granted - to this 
Church several immunities relating to jurisdictioiiy visitations, &c« 
^bich being coniiriued by tbe King and Parlianeur, and the Popo^ 
fnd by several succeeding Kings, coidd never be recalled^ no^ 
withstandbg many struggles and contests."* 

The figure of Durham is triangular : on its eastern skk, from 
the mouth of the river Tees to Tynemoutii, it is bounded by the 
German Ocean : on the north, it is separated from Northombei^ 
^nd, by the rivers l^rne and Derwent, and some artificial boiam^ 
^SkKun : on the west, it is divided from Cumberland and Westmore* 
land by the Crook-bum, and the Tees; the latter river forms the 
whole of its southeast and southem boundary. The greatest «»• 
tent of the county, from Shields on tlie north, to Sockburae on 
the south, is about tliirty-six miles ; its greatest length* fipom thtf 

peninsuhi 

♦ Gough\ Camden, Vol. III. p lOj^ 



IniiMolftof Haitlepdol onlhe etst^ to the niMthof the Orobk-btttn 
on the MFcsl, at the poiol of onbn of Doiiiani, CuraberhKul and 
Wcftmofehuidy is about ferty-iive miles ; and ks circtnnfereDce b 
OMily 180. Its superficial area includes about 610,000 acrea, eaiW 
taioiog one city, 120 parishes, ten marltet-towDs, ^8,366 houses,- 
aad l60y36l lobabitaBts. It b divided iato four war<if, all deriving^ 
dMsr Bames from i^aces which are now of nferior consideration. 
The repreaentatifcs am four, vix. two for the county, and two>' 
6r the dty. Durham pays Ibvee parts of the kind-tax, and pro* 
tales 400 men for the militia: the whole county is included with* 
ib the See. 

The geoerad aspect of this county is hiUy and mountainous; and' 
partkukily the western angle, which is a bleak, naked, and bar-" 
reu region, crossed by the ridge of hills termed the English Ap« 
ptanJnes ; though they do not in this part rise to any conskier- 
aUe height. From the eastern side of this ridge issue numerous 
alraaais» which Aow towards the sea ; and lesser ranges of hfilsi 
hfanching off from this district, spread in various directions over 
the whole county. The eastern and central parts of Durham m^ 
dude some boaotifuLmid fertile vallies; and are pteasautly Taried' 
srith hill and dale, alternately appropriated to the growth of corn, 
and of pasturage. 

The soib are fmnoos. ^^ Near the river Tees, and in some spott' 
boffderiog the <ither riveia and brooks in this county, the soH Is 
taamy, or a rich day: at a forther distance from these niters and 
bfooks, the aoii is of a pooser nature, commonly terkned water- 
shaken, with here and there spots of gravel iuterspened ; hot these 
mre of small axtent, the mkidle of none Cf( them being half a mile 
from day. Tlie hills betweea the sea, and an imagaiary fiao- 
daiwB from Barnard Castle on the Tees, to Alans-ford on the 
Derweol, are for the most part covered with a dry loam, the fra> 
ttly of which varies in ptoportkui to its depth: from this laie 
wmlward, the sumo^-as well as the skies of the hilb are moorish 
^ In 

* Granger*! General View of rt>e Agriculiure of Durham. 



19 i&vmtAiti 

' In < GOiniffy postesaii^ such a TarieQr of soil, Uie produee is o^ 
•ouTM proportioaably vinious. The usual rotalkNi ijf crops is, 
after sumoier fellow, wheat, oats, beans, or pease; and ooca- 
aiooally a crop of broad clover, In Heu of tbe Hiree last. On soma 
few spots of gravelly soil, turnips and barley arfc grown in almost 
peipetual succession, a crop of clover being soni^inies interposed. 
The produce of wheat on good land^ b from twenty to tbirtj 
bushels per acre ; in inferior land, from ten to twenty bushek per 
acre: the produce of barley is from thirty to forty bushels; of 
oats, from twenty to forty. The mannies are chiefly lime, and 
the produce of the fold-yard ; and though abundance of sea-weed 
might be collected on the sea coast, and, properly applied, would 
constitute valyable manure, yet the farmers in general neglect, or 
remain unacquainted with, it^ use. 

. Th€ farms are principally of a middling sixe, few of tliem ex* 
oeeding 200 acres. The largest portion €ff each friiin is generally 
appropriated to tilUige; but towards the western ektremity of the 
aounty, the whole b applied to pasture. About one-third of the' 
bud b supposed to be of eocksiastiral tenure; the remainder ia 
possessed by various pn>prietorB : the leasas seldom exceed sia 
^ears; aud are too frequently rendered of littie wdue by injodi- 
cious restrictions. The leas^ held of the See of Durham are fbr- 
looger terras; generally for lives, or for twenty-one years, reDeMr« 
able every seven years, on payment of an arlntrary fine. Tlie . 
4inii- houses are in genetal well situated, and commodious; but 
tbe fold yards are too few, and smidi ; and, fer want of granaries, 
the com is frequently threshed before it b dry. Threshing ma- 
cbuies have been lately mtroduoed; and machines fer the drill « 
biMbandry are used m many parts of the county. 

The cattle of Duriiam are in great repute; as for form, weighty 
pioduce of milk, aud butter, and quickness of fkttening, they are 
not inferior to any in England. Tlie sheep are mostly large, and 
covered with long wool : those denominated the Tees-water breed, 
ure moftt celebrated. In Wear-dale, the breed b small, but the 
m<*at finely flavoured : when fat, the quarters seldom weigh mora 
than from fourteen to eighteeu pounds each., 

Tlie 



The wute tends are of conaidenbk eiOeat m the western ptrta 
of the Gountj, bebg soppofed to occupy ncuiy 130,000 acres. 
In the lower parts, many, huodied acres ha?e been inclosed, and 
culthrated, within the hist thirty years. The common fields^ ex^ 
ceptiDg m the western district, are hut few; the lands belonging 
to townships having been principally inclosed soon after the Resto- 
ration. The water-sliahen grounds cover a very hirge proportion 
of the county; those bordering on the Tees, aid other rivers, are 
drained by means of wide ditches, proviucially called siells. ^' In 
other parts, were springs burst from the sides of tlie hills, endan- 
gering the ground- below, oblique cuts are made to intercept the 
water; and conduits of stone, or brick, laid along the bottom of 
them to convey it to a main conduit, which carries it down the 
hill: the earth b then thrown in again, and the surface levelled 
for the purpose of culture."* Sometimes, in the flat grounds, 
voder-drains are made; and when half filled with pebble stones^ 
are lerelled again with earth and turf. The woodlands are not of 
any coosiderable eiteiit ; and chiefly confined to the parks and 
scats of the nobility. The banks of the rivers and brooks, how 
ever, particulariy in the vicinity of Dorham, are fringed witk 
wood of long growth, and much value. The public roads are, in 
general, good; but those belonging to townships, are in many 
parts extremely narrow, dangerous, and irregular. 

** Durham," observes Sir William Appleby, *< takmg its small 
dimeDsibns into conskleration, b not to be equalled by any other 
coonty in Great Britain, except Middlesex, for its numerous and 
important coal, lead, and iron mines; its large cast metal foiui* 
deriea, and iron- manufactories, potteries, glass-houses, co|q|>eias* 
works, coal-tar and salt-works ; quarries of marble, fire and fiee- 
stone^ lime, brick and tile-kilns; grind-stone, and mill-stone; 
Hdcii nod wooUen manuiactories; trade, agricultore, and popofai* 

tioo,"t 
The MINERALOOICAL substances found in Durham are 

Mnaeroot and valuable. The east and north-east parts of the 

are particularly iiunous for their extensive coa/-mines; and 

^ Cradger** General View, p. 45. f Ibid, p, t§. 



i* vimnAMl 

ike <inan% of' this important articte b do greaf^ as to exceed all 
calcittation« The seaint (or straiaj now worked, are five lo Qiin%- 
ber: • these extend horizontallif for many mifes, and are from 
twenty to one hundred fkthoms beneath the suHace; each stratum 
ii from three to six or eight feet thick. Below these are several 
other seams of coal ; and many parts of the county, besides those 
where the pits are situated, abound with this substance. On 
many of the mines, steam^ngines have been erected for raising 
the coal with greater dispatch, than could be obtained by the use 
of horses; the expense is also much less. In the great sea- We 
collieries, many horses are continually kept under ground, for the 
purpose of draxiing the coals to the mouth of the pits: in the 
tand^salt collieries, the same kmd of work is performed by men or 
toys. 

In the vicinity of Walsingham, a beautiful black-spotted time^ 
iione b procured, for hearths, chimney-pieces, and other om»-> 
ments. This neighbourhood also abounds with fine mill -alone. 
Many excellent quarries of slate for building have been opened in 
diflerent parts of the county % and Gateshead Fell is peculiarly fa- 
Drtoos for producing what are vulgarly termed Newcastle grind* 
aonei, from being ship|>ed off at that port. Fire-stOM, of higb 
estimation in the building of ovens, furnaces. Sec, is obtained in 
various parts of Durham, and exported in immense quantities. 

The principal Lead Mines of Durham are situated in Tees-dale, 
gnd Wear-dale: those of the fonner place are not particularly sue* 
cessful; but the produce of the latter is of more considerable 
valne. The general method of working them' is similar to that 
pursued in the adjacent counties of Cumberland and Westmons 
Bind. Great hnprovenieuts of fate years have heen made by in* 
tipoducing waggon-levels, which, at the same time that they carry 
off the water, save the mObt fatigxilng part of manual labor. The 
method of smelting the ore in Wear-dale, b by tiie bbat hearth: 
but in Tees-dale, air furnaces have been introduced with much, 
•uccess. - ^. . 

Several extensh^e works for manufacturing salt from sea-water 
l^ive long been establislied at South Shields; but the f reduce of 

these 



mjKBAx; 11 



I b not «t prteit w owW cw i li l e > « fai a Mi y, Mrin^^o* 

the iil M» f iiiy •f a very ihgttlir saltspriiig at Krtley, fa Ikir 

dMHly, wliidi Im betQ thus dMcribed by Sir William AppMy. 

•* It ariwsmt tile depth of ieventy iiitiioiiu, m an engnrn pit co»* 

■titfaii te drawing water oat of coaKfliinea, at the extremity af 

a ittiiie drilt, drove 200 yaids iiortb*east Ihciein ; aad what it 

more eatraofdinaTy, tpm|^ oa/y id Mich dfift in eveiy direetioii^ 

tixM^ the pit, and evefy other eoafignous, has been escavatad 

boili above and below it many fathoms. Its mixaif with the fitsh 

water m the same pit, would have octasioaed it remahiiitg ttotally 

unnoticed, bat for an at^deat which bsfppeaed to the boiler of iba* 

cA^oe aoon after its erection. One nioniing the bottom of tio 

boAer anddenly dropt oat : the engineer, amaaed thereat, i a fe mi ad- 

tbe ondeftidKefS, who, upon etamiliatJon, fotlnd it iacrusted withe 

a vast quantity of rtrong salt, and the iron whoHy «Mtod^ 

Upon tasting the water, though incorporated with inmiense qaaa* 

titles of Iresli, it was found eaeeedingfy blackish aiidarit» on wMck 

die wo iti w gs weie etploied, aad the above meatioaed veiy falun** 

Me salt spting was discovered to arise in soch dtift onlyt and* 

has far tbese nine years produced 90,000 galkms par dtrf, Ibov 

times ^hoager than any sea>water whatever. In coNeipienee of 

tMs impoitant discovery, a large aad extensive nttanftototfy of 

iah baa been estabKsbed by a company M genttemen, wbo, aflef 

<%Konntering many dUBcahies, have brought it tovetygieatper*' 

lection, tbe qaality being most exceHent.*^ At Botfeiby, nea^ 

Darinm, Is another salt'^spring, which issues ftom a iock in tbe 

river Weare, and is only visible when the water is low : it contaias 

sODiHthat aMffe of tti6 sulphate of mngnesta, oi* Epsom sah^ Ihaii 

the spring at Kifley. 

Ilbe BMnaftdores of Dnrhant are onmerous aiid impottant. 
1W south side of the T^ is fringed with manaftctories and coat* 
itsirib. At Swalwell, and Witihton, are some 6( the fim Iron. 
wmb in England; and at Lamtey n a manufactory for converting 
Ktip^inm ihto eogthe-boaar plates, tmd cast Qietal into malleable 

uon. 



Iff 1KJESAM« 

koa. SteeUwotb Inm been efteMUied at Stwtbjp-brfd^ Smri- 
mil, Tcimi, and GateiKtacL TuBoitSy caiptts, and waitlcoal- 
pie€et» are manufiictitred at Dorlia&i : taainues and badoAada mm 
also made at Darlington; wliere a mackine bas boen eftablisbid 
for fpnrang Smx nto yam ; and another for grinding apaetaoU 
glaaies. Cottons are nianofaetured at Castle Eden, Stockton, and 
Bishop's Auckland ; and sail-cloths glass, and other articles, at 
Stockton, SundeHand, and Sooth Shields. 

-The principal Rivers of Durham, are the Tees, tbeWeare, and 
the Derwent. The Tee» rises in the vast moors which form the 
district whereb the countieaof York, Cumberkuid, Westmoreland, 
Dnrbam, and Northumberland, nearly unite. After issuing from 
the moors, the stream flows south-eastward, through the romantic 
fall^ of Tee»<lale, for nearly thirty miles, when suddenly turning 
to the north east at Sockbume, it falb into the German Ocean at 
•one distance below Stockton. The river, through the whole of 
its course, assmAites with its external attendants of rocks, nioorsw 
and mountains; being broad, shallow, and rapid, frequently lava* 
giog the valley with its inundations, and precipitating itself in vast 
aatara^ts. After emerging from the deep dell beneath the Abbey 
of Egglestone, it flows with rapkUty through the rich demesne gf 
Rokeby, below which it recehres tlie Greta ftom Yorkshire, and 
another small stream from the moors of Durham. In the highly 
ornamented tercilory which surrounds the miyestic walls aud towers 
of Raby Castle, it forms a flne feature, and preserves its romantic 
and striking character through great part of its after progjcess to, 
the sea.* 

The H'edre d<>rives its waters from the same wild range of moors 
which produces the Tees; but flowing considerably to the north of 
that river, it crosses the cential part of the county, and fiiHs into 
the sea near Sunderhmd. Wear-dale, like Tees-dale, is a mj 
wild and romantic district, and, like that also, is pleasantly inten^erw 
sed with towns and villages: emerging from its recesses, the river 
passes Bsliop's Auckland, when assu^iinganorth^eastem direction^ it 

flows 

* Skrinc*! History «f Rivcrt in Great Mtaio, 



1H7RHAM* 17 



Um mmimii to th^ eily of I^n^.^'!'!^ >< ^eady mrrouncb, 
ThcBoe pavkig northward, it runs near the walls of Lumlfiy Cat- 
4a;VMft;n«aiiig auddeoly to the s(Mith iiear Birtley, Jows towards 



f JBm DtTwaU rises northward of the Weare, m the same range 
of noots, and porsuing nearly a psknUel course with that river» 
gives aumatiou i|nd interest to a wild and mouotamotts tract on 
the DOkthem bordan of the county, till it falls into the T^ near 

DURHAM. 

Tab CSty of Durham is situated on a angular hicky enuneaoe^ 
rising near the central part of the county, and almost surrounded 
by the rrrer Weare. From all the neiglibouiii^g ppints of new, its 
appcsoaace is unique^ and striking; its pnUk edifices eihihiling 
a degree of magnifioence unexpected at a distanoi so remote from 
the lietiopc^; and ks situation add figure being so peculiar at 
to hate occanoned its being empbitically denominated the English 
Zim. The centre of the eminence is OMgcupiefl by the Cathedral 
awlcasde» which, with the streets calM the BsNejs, are hidud* 
ed withm the remains of the ancient city walls. Below the walls 
oaoee side, the slope'is ornamented with faanj^ing gardens and 
phoiBtioaB, desoendii^ to the river; on the other, the aodi* 
vity is high, rocky, and sleep. The rich meadows, the culdfated 
sides of the acyacent hilb, and the vacious seaty in the vidaity, 
add gveady to the beauty of the prospect. 

* derivi^ its mUn^ from its ^tuation, the term behig a 
i from the Saion words Diir, a hill; and Holme, a river 
By the Latins, observes Camden, it is called DvNaL- 
Mvt;aiid by the common people, Durham, or Duresme: the 

Vol., V. B btter 

* la so aiic»«fic Ssxon Poem, inserted in Hickes*i Gramm. A^gioSaxon^ and 
aiafwd hy Adduog to the Daoiili-Saxon |>eriod, which this writer fixes be» 
twtm che fe»T$ 780 and the time of the Conquest, the topography, &c. of 

This 



latter appeflaftion m derived, by Bishop Obioii, km tbt Nhumhi 
Duresme. 

The earliest historical notice of this city is eontited in the 
nioiikish legend of St. Cuthbert, from whose votaries i 

This city is ceUkrated 
In the whole empire of the Britoaa. 
The road to it is steep. 
It is surrounded with rocks^ 
And with curious plants. 
The Wear flows round it^ 
A river of rapid vatves | 
And there live in it, 
Fishes of various kinds 
Mingliug with the floodsr 
And there grow 
Oveat forests s 
There Hve in the recesses 
Wild Mlmls of Bany toits ; 
In the deep valleys 
Deer innumerable. 
There is in this city 
Also wdt kiiovm to men 
The Tcaerabfo St Cudbertfi ; 
And Ibe tod of the chasU King 
Oswald* the lion of the Angli ; 
And Aided, the Bishops 
Aedbert and Aedfrid, 
The noble associates. 
There is In it also 
Acthelwoldi the Bishop } 
And the celebrated writer fiede; 
And the Abbot Boisil, 
By whom the chaste Cudbefth 
Was in his youth gratis instrucMd ; 
Who also well recehiad the inttructtona. 
There rest with.these saints, 
In the inner part of the Minster, 
Relicks innumerable, 
Which perform many miraclesi 
As the Chronicles tell us. 
And (which) await with them 
The judgment of the iord. 



If 

n it «M *tn dlei, i c ful i twl all hi njlimj nd tkblMu 
Awiifcg to tilt hggdl,it>ppcmthat tbt Siibt dqMtod «^ 
IMftailhetMttlMiortlKcrittiKlt of MahJr» 637, ud waslwh 
ritdio Hie Cbotch at LMistene^ at Aat ^liod Ibi 8ae of 4 
Bbbop* The body was aft e n w uds iDtrtnaediii i iievr tepokhfa^ 
ooftlHuhingtlMCallMdral^wheffeit lay nmolcstad in •< 



Bat io the ytor 8/6, HaMko, bamog broaibt ofer a nStifme^ 
tUmt of DaaMi adwi a liiHiij , mtyd this pirt of thooocailffy ib « 
laail iaii— 111 Okaoner: aod £ardiiU; ihm Bbboj^of Imiktum^ 
hafiogf cw > * e d Ae saYOfr ptodkcs of the tiivad««% -pMicuMy' 
to lite ckig^, oODSoked with fiadrcd^ the Abbdt, and tboo^Mr 
a i^ oib ai o of lb« Monaitory, what miawey thc^ abotrid pandK' ibr 
«NttOioii«#Hy; wbeir tivend joined the Bislopaad Abb4f4fl m 
KeK>liCkNi, oot oidjr to qoit the pbwe, tbe pocobar aabctily of 
aAM aiBOBg Cbtbtiaili dof;f oxefted pioportioiiaMr «iiehy br tho 
Soabh PagiOi, bot also fo Tomovfe the lemakis of tboir bok^fid 
flibi^ iboi bb f^lka ni^ oat be ei|Miaed to tUeMkr uMhaof 
ftepnoAme. In fHinnoooe of tbMreadve^tbfcygiateRdtbobpljr 
t^kif isrMd fetteb^ oraanMnte and jewdi of tbe olauo aod 
ibfbet, Idgetbi^ witb St Elbriwold's atone crudfc, aa# fled 
•oai tbo Uand of Lbklli&mey wbeie tbe epbcopal See bad «o«« 
fhoid Ml years. 

^ Wbit Ibdr boly ehaige, the BMiop and hk eaanpiny pMid 
bOo tbe loooniafaoiit parts of tbe oouotiyy still chobj^ tbrir 
Aode^ as kfOritige^ee iiff the enemy's piogiear asemodto tbmOiO 
Ibrir safety. Thcb* pious ardoarnsust have been oqnaMo any lal^ 
aadfloperior to- every daageryeocunibored as they vNlte wiib tbe 
» mwiiu of St Cutfiberf ; the li^of St. €s«nild ; die booea of 
Isferts Aidao, Eadbert, Eanfred, and Etbelwold, inclosed in one 
■b or sbrine; and the ponderous cross of St. Etfaelwold, borne be- 
issatbcai.'^ 

B2 On 

* Melwold wat Abbot of Mdrost, tbe intimate friend of St (Sutbbert, and 
^moikU wccfsri in tbe Biabopncb He caused a pondcroui aof* of OOQt 
*0 bi dficaad is tb« p^oad adjoiaiiif tbe Cbarcb of tlndi«(am«. Tbo lo^ket, 

. V 



20 DUEMAX» 

Ob Ibe rtm^^^St OtMhbtft%.Mlics, the iabalriteitt .^ Lb- 
4ttAirtte Iflft ibeir taodt-aiid goods, tod .followed ti» BmIk^ mi 
hk traaiy who, wearied with tratdling^ endeavowed ftinddy lo 
depart to Irdattd, that they mtgfat deposit the Sahifs bones io ' 
gieater salety : but a sodden storm arose, and the ship wbeieiii 
thej had eotntnenced their voyage, was driven baek, and foioed 
upon the shore; the tempest being so strong, that three waveg were 
miraculousfy amoerted into biood ; and the ship heeled so much, 
that the Book of the Holy Evaiqielists, whkh was culioasly wiil-. 
ten, and adorned with gold and prtcious stones, fell out of the 
vmAf and'Suok to the bottom of the sea. In the midst of tbeiv 
|«Mtrie«ily, ^ St. Cathbert, unwilling to see his devotoat in such 
sQiTowt appeared to Huodsedus, oae of the monks, and coo^ 
WWtei that the book might be sought for on the oeighbonring 
<)oastS4 At thiet miles distance it was recovered ; and, so fitf 
itrnn being i^jmcd by Ibe salt-^water, that it appeared more beaoi» 
tiM'thAn before. Gladly did the company reoeii^e back this pre* 
eioua Bsemocial: bnt the patron Saint being in a good humoi) 
^rtttkMtiinbad not to oblige them by halves: a bridle appeared 
ipan4i Ivee, and a horse prancing to receive it, for the purpose 
of carrying die relics, gave a joy mexpressible to the wearied tm- 
velkm. This horse condocted the chest to GaakB-Miisler, and 
here it rested four months; thence it was taken to Coneagester, 
(bow Cheateivlfr*SUiiet,) and rested durii^ the Danish wars, beii^ 
B period of forty*three years; at te end of whkh, Aidme, .the 
laat Bishop I of Chester^le-Street, upon the Danes jsgpun infoatim 
Ab northern coast, removed the relics to Ripoo* in an iotcrval 
#f' peace, the holy community intending to retun,. left RqHNi* 
with all thehr paiaphemalia, after an abode of four montha. In 

their 

or foot*sU>ne, In which it was mortiied, remains still a few paces to the euft of 
the ruined church. It was held in such veneration, that, after being brok«tt by 
the Danes, in their first descent on the Island, the scattered paru were carefully 
put together, by skilful workmen, with lead and cement. This is now called Tkt 
Fitting Stone t and whenever a marriage is solemnized at the church, after the 
ceremony, the bride is to step upon it, and if she cannot stride to the end, Hft 
•aid that the ttarriage Will prove unsuccessful. HuUtaMstm^s Dwktm^F^i, /• 



tek V BO g t tM , aaofther oioidB haiipeileii: tke hofy tdm muM- 
Bol mo^ forward : tbb was at a place then called Wrdelau. At 
iMt, after much lasting and prayer, and the as^taice of m fAA 
wmnn and ber cow, DttnhQlme, *' a fribce strong by natwe^ bat 
Bot caiily leodered habitable, as it wits overgrown by a ,,tbi€k fo* 
icit, in the midst of which was a small plain, which bad beeo 
Mfd in tillage,^ was the place fixed on for the lasting abode of 
St. Cotfabtrt's lelicsy and the farther establisbroeol of his holy 
iiatemily. 

Tbe first work in which tlie pious laborers engaged, was to erect 
a widkcff tabernacle, as a reliquary for their sacred deposit ; this 
was deBominated the Bough Church; but snch a situation not 
sailiog the wishes of the devout, another temple, called Whiu 
Ckurckf was constructed in the year 9^^ also of wicker, Symeon 
Daodmensis says, facta cUlssinte de VirgU ecclesiolu* But it 
does Bol appear thai the poor wanderers erected for themselvea 
aoy habitatiofis on the Mount for a considerable thne after theis 
touuag to Danholrae ; '< for we are told, in the course of three 
years from the date of the firbt tabemade, that a diurch of stone* 
woik was heguD, and dedicated by Bishop Aldun, wherein the 
Sant's nraains were deposited. According to the eourse of events 
cxhiNlcd by the andent writers^ it was not till aOer the founda- 
tieo of Aldan's Church was laid, that the forest by which it was 
SBHo uu ded was cut down, and the skirts of the hill rendered fit 
Ibr habitation. Much labour was expended; and all the inhab^ 
taals between the rivers Coquet and Tees, to the extent of fifly 
flulesp are said to have been employed at tbe command of Uthred, 
Earl of Northumberland. . From tlie above circumstances, we are 
led to date the rise of the town of Durham m the opening of the 
dcvcolfa cestury.*^ 

Durbam seems lo have been sufficiently fortified when DuncaUf 
King of Scotiandy attacked it in 1040; for the townsmen sus- 
tained tbe eoem/t assaults for a coustderable tune ; and at length 
by tuemu d a vigorous sally, totally routed the assaihints, and 

B 3 beheaded 

* HutchinioD't Durham, Vol. II. p. a. 



m;ilu¥« 



behnied Ike tadert, wkUi urn thdr 
IplKe. 

WHhn I. k the jmr 1059, sent Robert Canki, whmn fm 
Kftd cretted fiiil of Nortlmiiiberlaiid, and TOO vetenui No ta w 
soMien, to Dnrham, to enforce kit authority; but these warrioii 
degrading themselves into freebooters, oonmiitted HBoy enora»i 
ties, afid reduced the mhabitants to the extrenest despafa*. ki 
this tefi4)er, tfiey fermed associatienB, which comiag to the Bishop's 
knowledge, he acquainted Earl Cumin of his appreben'sioas of an 
hwanec ti ou. Hie Earl treated the Bishop's caution with contempt; 
and, agreeably to the Monarch's writ, Cumin proscribed and 
murdered several of the landholders. The death of the peasants 
iMted as a summon to unsheath the sword ; and though this was is 
the severe season of February, at the decline of day, the town 
was gut round with multitudes of armed roeiu " The Evfs 
guards had taken forcible possession of the koases, as tbcir wan* 
tonness incited ; and being dispersed through the towB,iacdntenipt 
df danger, gave themselves up to ease and cnjoymeut, Jost at 
the dawn of day, the assailants broke open aH the gates of the 
town, and flying in particsi through every street, made a dieadfid 
daughter of the Normans; insomuch, that, Symeon says, the 
streets were fflled with bk>od and carcases. Many were shot up 
hi the house where the Earl lodged, and defending it bravely, the 
enraged populace could not force an entrance; therefore throwing 
in firebrands, they set the edifice hi flames. When those witkin 
saw the immment peril to which they were reduced, they forced 
open the doors, and attempted to escape the Airy of the fire, but 
were slain as they came out. At length the baildrag was reduced 
to ashes, with every thing within its walls. The fire was so vebo* 
ment, that the flames were seen to take hold of the w^stein tower 
of the Church. This afliicting chcumstance alavroed the multi- 
tude: the religious inhabitants of the city, and even those in artno, 
ceasing from slaughter, fell upon their knees, with eyes filled witk 
tears, and elevated hands, petitkniing heaven, that, by the asatft- 
tunce of their holy Saint, and through bis interposition, the sa- 
rred edifice might be spared from destruction. Quickly the wincl 

ahtftccL 



ibMM» ml M« tbt Amies fiom the Cbwdi. Thus the Bsrf, 
M the teoood of the CaL ^ Febniwy, A. D. IO69, with hie 
JOOfsmb, (one nun exc ep te d, who escaped with his wovods,) 
wm% put to death,** WiUianiy detemiioed od reveo^ for Cuoia'f 
death, detached a part j of his troops to scour the ooontiy ; hut 
tbey had not proceeded further than Alvertou, when a thick fog 
flBTOODdcd them; so that; instead of purauiog their jouiney, they 
could scaroely see each other: this operating upon superrtitipus 
nindsy and adding to the reports of St. Cuthbert's miracles, so 
abrmed them, that they retoroed with precipitation^ lest they 
should incur the Saint's execration. But William was not to be 
ao hituiiidated: he m ar ched forward, and indulged the n^igoity 
of hit heart in the qpoil and blood of his sufcyeots, and desolated 
the country in such a manner, that, ** for sixty miles, between 
Tofhand Durham, he did not leave a house standing; reducing 
the whole cUstrict, by fire and sword, to a horrible desart, smok- 
ing wkh blood, and m ashes^^f Churches and monasteries were 
not qjinred ; and it is impossible to describe the miseries in coose- 
qwBoeof tUswmlOBaetof croeity. A dreadful ftrtiine ensued; 
■nd a mofftaKty, unequalled In the annals of thb country. Tftt 
people were reduced to eat the flesh of horses, dogs, and cats, and 
al last honnm carcases. The lands lay untilled for nine yean, 
infctled by robbert and beasts of prey; and the poor remnant of 
the kdabitaBls spared from the sword, died,overwfaehDed whfawamt 
and arisefy, in the fields. «* Hoveden relates, that, on the ty- 
tint*s approach to Durham, he found the town et acuated, the 
etchiiMfirn fled, and the Church left without a rabister to perform 
any tnaed office* Tho Kinifs army being dispersed in destructive 
pnrtietoTcr the countiy between the T>oe and the Weaie, beheld 
the vflbges deserted, the whole countiy a dismal waste ; wsd the 
iahabitants, with their flocks and other property, fled into the 
amst tecret recesses of the forests and mountains. But, not moved 
tocoaqwssioo by a acene so truly wretched, the barbaiiaus set 
fire to the aaoMstety of Jarrow, and made i^joicingt over iu 
tAes.'-J B 4 Thete 



a, y«L II. 103. Symmm Duii.-*Lel. Col. V. II. p. s8o 
f Hatclumo « '• Durban, Vol. II. 1 1^*^ 



24 DUKHA^. 

tkese cahmiities induced aiiortier dbtutbance of Sr. Codfbetfl 
bones, which had now reposed for seventy-five years. The Biaho|>; 
with the concurrence of the priuci|}al inbabftants, rumored - theni 
to lindisfifme ; where another mhrade is refknted to have occurred. 
^^ On the fourth day, m the evening, the Bishop, widi a vast coo- 
coarse of people, arrived on the shore opposite to the Holy Island, 
when they found the sea at high water. The severity of the win* 
ter rendered the nig^t air intolerable to the aged as well as tb^ 
tender, and caused great lamentation ; when, by a particular in* 
terpo^tbn, the sea retired, and left a dry passage for the poor 
wanderers, who, with loud thanksgiving, and boly joy, passed 
over to the Island. But what completed the mhrade, was, as 
^ymeon asserts, those who carried the Sainfs remains, gave evv- 
^nce, that, as soon as the multitude had passed, the sea returned, 
and closed up the vacancy, which a few moments before had di- 
vided the water."* 

On 

- (^ SymMn DunelmeiuUi p. 194, RdateA, <* thtt the Kiog, wbilsl he.»bocit 
in Durham* entertaining a doubt of the incorruptible st^ce of St, Cuthbcrt't 
body, enquired diligently concerning it; and, notwithstanding the asseverations 
of several of the most pious and venerable men there, he still pretended to dis- 
believe it) and insisted on having an inspection of the sepulchre himself. Se. 
verd fiiihopft and Abbots then present asKnted to hit will, and thought it pro- 
|»er the King'* pleuure should be complied with. Whether provoked by tkft 
^ay, or his suspicion of fraud was increased by t)^ reluctance of the eccle* 
aiatiiot to comply with his desire, is not pointed out; but the King solemnly 
vowed, if he was deceived in the relations he had heard, if the incorruptibility 
of the Saiot*a runains was merely a tale to work upon the superstition of the 
vulgar, and the body was not found in the state represented to him, he would 
put to death alt those of superior rank throughout the city, who had presuineA 
to impose 00 him. A terror feU on such as heard his menaces, and they de* 
v^uUy imidorcd the mercy of God, through the merits of the blessed St. Cuth* 
l>ert, whilst the 3ishop, whom the Ring had appointed, performed the ser- 
vice of the high mass. The King, determined to satisfy his curiosity immediately 
^ter the ceremony, commanded the officers of the Church to open the se^ 
pulchre: and whtUt he stood by, be found himself sraiticn on a sudden with a 
bumipg fever, wliich di&tracted him in an intolerable manner. Seised with 
•urh anguiJi and tiisra^e, he lUshed out of the Church, leaving untastcd a sump- 
»vous banquet, wl..< h the rr^iesiastics had prepared (or Insa; and iaita«tl^ 

mounti ng 



Oil jte MilaniM of tiM|iia% 
Bkhpp, and his cfimipniom m «flKctaoB^ mtumed tp tbeir db»to» 
Jaltd eovntiy, after an abseons of four inonthsy and replaaed 4lia 
MGMd leanm of St. Ctitbhert ha hk sbnoe. lo llMir flight thqy 
had kft a ikh aad maa^ cnicifii, Ibmaediy gives by Eari Toali 
aad hm wtfe, in Ibe bope that commaQ vttccatioii might pr^mnni 
k iDTiolable; but Ibe omcifix was tbro^vn dowa by the NoraMUHi 
and stripped of all its ornaments of gold, silvery and jewellery. 
Oo the partition of huids by the Conqueror, the Church of Dur- 
han sulBLii.d its shaie of peeuklion ; bat the Bishop having se- 
cured the most Tahttble articles of the treasury, retired to Ely, 
and joined the Engli^ who were there in arms against the Ring. 
SooD aftenvardsy by the treachery of the Abbot, whom he thought 
his friend, he was delivered to the Sovereign^ who confined him in 
piiwB, whane be died misembly; aad the See coatiniied vaeaat 
ahoBt a year, when Waleher, a person of noble birtb, iran Ldv* 
rain, was appointed Bishop. 

On William's return from his expedition against Malcolm, King 
of Scotland, he considered that Durham was a proper barru:c 
agunst the Scottish incursions; and resolved to erect a Ca^k heae, 
whidi nngbt serve also to awe the aeighbourbood : or, as be eic«» 
phioed it, ^ to secure his Earl of that provhice fh>m tuaraUs and 
i n s ur re ct ions; as also to protect the Bishop qf the See and. his 
Ourchr 

After the defection of Waltheof^ Earl of Northumberland, and 
Ibs conaeqaent executition at Winchester, Bisbop Walcher puroba* 
ted of the King, the earldom of Northumberland. This being the 
first instance of the ecclesiastical and temporal power of the See 
being vested in one person^ excited the utmost malevolence in the 
peopk. They looked with abhorrence on a prelate, who» unlike 

their 

movntiog lii« horse, he (led from the city with the utmott haste, never abating 
the speed of his courser, till he arrived on the banks of the Tees. An indica. 
turn of preternatural interference, at such a time, overawed the people, and 
mac/y contributed to the veneration paid to the Saint's shrine." Tradition says, 
thac-ihe King^ Hi hi« harry, look his way down the narrow street ctlled King*a 
Gale, kmdiog tatiie Bailey, and now called Dun*Cow-Lane. 



Hwir |iittm» de« Ciitlibtft, Mbt«rt6d^ilA4 MtMlilM^CCbris- 
timty, by t nnioii ef tcmpofftl tetmily; m4 ftma iMr iMmm^ 
mice 6f bif hcter cba r >c» e r, la«t all reference of bte epkeoptl 
•fice: atlengfban aetof iqiostiee, f» which he 4de8 net appetrttt 
Wfe been privy, but which he did not exert hisMthoHiy to puoMft^ 
fitod tmdk an iosotrectioa In bis territory, m was only attayed bf 
Ml nufder in the most savage and cruel nonner.* 

Tho 

• Hit tircuimtMcei ife thus related : Syneoa tayt, *• thit dbc Biihop wai a 
^Mii oi moral life, a»cl, for virCve and ^Md matiAeri, woftiiy Um afiectioa aC 
tbe belt of rtcn ; but it it certain, from every authority, chat he dekpled bia 
power to unworthy ministers and favorites; that Leofwin, his archdeacon, 
purloined the treasure of the Church in favor of his : and that Gilbert, his kins- 
naB, to whom the care of the earldom had bten delegated, hid suffered fkb so1« 
4l«n flol only to oppress the commoii people ia vftrtaus waya, km to tanrlt, 
fab» and immolaie those of higher rank. A SakOs ooblawfcan, named Liulpli* 
emioeat for his personal virtues, possessions, and great alliaace, (he haviog mar* 
Tied Algiiha, sisler of Elfleda, » ife of Earl Si ward, and mother of Waltheof, 
the late Earl,) was in great favor with the Bishop, being frequently at hia 
^nncil, and at his table. When Gilbert iBlicted the province by frequent r«. 
piocsod oppreasioB, Kwas conceived, his evil actions were supported by tbo 
coBoinoce of the Bishop. Amidst the indiscrhaiinace depredations of tjie de* 
poCy, Liulpb's estales suffered part of the marks of the despotier*s hand, on 
which he applied to the Bishop, with remonstrances against his vicecemes and 
archdeacon. The jealousy and resentment of the Norman favorites thenceforth 
were grievously excited; and Leofwin thinking himself particularly affronted 
\y Liulph'a repeated charges to the Bishop, solicited his coadjutor Gilbert to 
murder him. This, from an equal spirit of resentment, the dq^uty readily mi* 
dei^)ok ( and besetting the house in the night-time, inhsmaoly butchered Li* 
nlph, and the greatrtt part of his family. This act of violence eocreased the 
tumult of tbe Northumbrians, by whom Liulph was greatly revered and belo- 
ved ; and they anxiously wailed a proper opportunity to revenge the horrid 
massacre of this illusttioujr and innocent family. It was in vain for the Bishop 
l# attempt appeasing the inflamed populace, by the most solemn asseveiations 
of his innocence, and detestation of the crime. He did not bring the perpetra- 
tors to justice, notvw ith^ianding the anger which he expressed against the of- 
Irnce; but, negligent of the rights of the injured, bcsuffcred the guilty persons 
•till to go at large, and exrcutc the high offices tliey held ; uhich appcaiancea 
determined the judgment of the people, that the crimes wetc perpetrsted by 
hU connivsnce, and with bis privity. It is probable he might not be anxious 

to 



vmnmMi 



Tim JErng^ WgUy hcf ii i init bit hpDlfar.Odo, BUiop «f 
BwM, iaio the Nortt, with gc^ert tofwoisb the innyrgBt^ ao^ 
to like vengeance for the massacre of the Bishop aad his r«tisaa« 
tMoyetfiiniied Ins task not as a Bishop, baiasaNannaasoldpert 
(^heiig at that tioM Earl of Kent,) and made Durham (ml tbe^ 
of Ilk power, by fobbeiy, desofaoioo^ and minder. Ifo 
i faiaaacred vestare by the imiocent blood of the relations of 
thefttbellioai: he robbed the chureb of Diufaam of a rich pastoral 
sta^ winch be pselciided was taken by the soldaeiy; aodradaocd 
the pnmoce to a solitary desert. 

Aboot tfaia time the Domesday Book was made; and as Dor- 
ham does not occur m it, a supposition aiisesy that the oonoty was 
ao wasted, as not to be worth the expence of a survey. Malcolm, 
Knyp of Scotlmidy now entered the county, to revenge on Odo, 
the enormilies he bad committed; but WiiUami scDdng bisddtst 



to rdax any part of the severities of his govennnent, thinking he should there- 
by bring the Koithunabrians earlier to submissibn. 

M«t long after the foregoing transaction, the Bishop, in exercise of hit civU 
jarisdictsoa, held a public assembly of his council and ministers at Gatesliead, 

. whither the suitors repaired. To this place he had come without a tnficiertt 
guard to secure him from injury, depending on the veneration httheito paid to the 
saciedncss of his office. Hie appearance of the populace, however, immediately' 
indicated their disposition for mischief; they were not to be restrained, were iiu' 
loleot and refractory. The Bishop was at length alarmed .for his safety, wbea 
it was too lale to procure succour. He caused his officers to assuf% the people, 
that part of the bosincss of the assembly was to make restitution to the nlationa 
of the deceased. The rage of the populace increased to turh a height, that he 
offered to bring Leofwin to trial, that the law might determine his ftfe. Bat 
the mob, tomultuourand inflamed, refused to submit to ihe common forms of 
justice. The Bishop perceived it was too late to appease them ; their ferocity 
of temper displayed a total contempt of his official authority as Earl, or of hia 
OKtity as Bishop ; they beset the house with a clamour which struck the whole 
assembly with terror ; and, on a watch- word being pronounced from every 
quarter, which some of the monastic authors have recorded, <* Skartred, g$$d 
rtd^ ties ye ihe Biskopp<" Implying, Short riddance ^ gocdriddsMce^ See, They 
iitcoveted their arnns, which hitherto were concealed under their garments. 

Jhclew guard* the Bishop brought with him, dreading no miachief, on their 

arrival. 



iAi,:R«bert; itfgaitott Bfiikoinfy « fbene o^ W tuftve oonttntnced^ 
1n^\y tbmmons to huntirily, but congeonl to Ilit rade period 
m hti t ia it was transacted. 

* WiiUam de Cartleplio, tlie next Bwbop, ni loao^ w«s among 
tlie maleeonteots on tlie aoce«ion of Wflliam Ro^, and ^ing 
into Nonnandy, hts <eniporaKties were ^ekiid into the hands of thb 
Cirown. John de Tiailbois, and Eraeaius de Burooe, were madtt 
foveniors of the Castle and Pkiktinate ; and it was not till the year 
1091 that the Bishop was restored. Soon after the resampfiofi of 
hb dignity, ** he granted to the conrent, Elvet, in the order of a 
borough, where the monks should have forty merchants' hounes, . 
Of IrAdesaietts' shops, distinct and separate from the Bishop's bo- 
rough 

•rtivAl, dUpened thtmidvet, and were reposing ioa carekstmanaer : mch wci« 
afirfounded, and put to the sword. The Bishop privately retreated to the 
church, whither he summoned a few of the chief men of each party, to propose 
terms of amity and satisfaction. ^ Those who conceived they could influence the 
mob, went out to appease them; but, without respect of persons, many were 
alain. The Bishop then commanded Gilbert to go forth, and endeavour to r«» 
€«ncile their wiath ; but be was an immediate victim to their vengeance. Some 
of the rioters now set fire to the church, whilst others guarded the door, and 
put every one to death that attempted to depart. Those that remained within, 
no longer able to endure the force of the flames, rushed out, and were instantly 
alain. The last of the assembly was the venerable Prelates his heart overwhelm* 
^d with affliction for the death of his people. Whilst his benevolence lament- 
ed their unhappy deaths, be was denied all the feelings his own approaching fate 
might have inspired in more generous bosoms ; for be could not hope that hia 
life would be spared by the savage and mad multitude. Between the impend- 
ing evils, fo.r a moment, he was indeterminate what death he should die. The 
fire urged him to the sword of the enemy ; the enemy drove him back to the 
flames. At length no time was left to irretolutioo. The fire blazed all round 
him. Putting up a short Prayer to Heaven, he advanced towards the howling 
and clamorous multitude. With one hand he made a fruitless signal to com- 
mand silence ; with the other, he sanctified himself with (he sign of the cross : 
and folding himself in his robe, he veiled his face, and was instantly pierced 
to the heart with a lance, and his body was afterwards inhumanly mangled. 
This catastrophe happened on the fourteenth of May, ic8o; the Bishop having 
held the See nine years and ten months. The leader of the riot was Eadulf^ 
turnamed Rus, great grandson of Earl Uchtred, and consequently oj affinity 
with Liulph. HuUkiHsm*s Durham^ Fv/. Up, 130. 



BUBHAM. 99 

I of Doiiiam, tliat tbey niight trade tbere, freed {n>m dutiqi 
fmjtkit to the Bishop and bis successon. Though we have aq 
picfwitt aoooont of the Borough qf Durham, yet, by infrnmoe^ 
we nay cie lquiMi e, that tiicb borough eaiated, with excksive pri- 
iriltgifiy ewQ till the ioatitutioQ of the Borough of Elvet held ao 
^aikt tnde. llbw this dioiination vas relished, or how the new 
borOM^ wpporied its authority, we are not informed/'* 

Doikmii wWained great ii^ury by fire in the time of Bishop 
namlNffd, wbflst the temporalities were in jibe hands of the Crown* 
Ib cooaequence of his fl^t to Robert, Duke of Normandy. This 
Bishop, to k^giatiate himself at Court, oppressed the biahopric 
with tasca, but without success, Kiiig Henry having an invincible 
to the principles of the Prelate. In 1112, the Bishep 
1 the Hospital €/f Kepier^ which he dedicated to $t. Egidius, 
or 6ika» aod amply endowed it:, after his rqatoration to the See, 
he improiitd the fortification^ by extending the walls between the 
Catibcdnd and Castle, removiiv the houses on the area between 
thoae edifioes, and levelling the ground ; fortified the Castle with a 
noat, improved the banks of the river, and built Framwell-gate 
Bridge. 

When Stephen usurped the Crown, David, King of Scotland| 
having taken an oath on behalf of his niece Matilda, daughte/r of 
Hemy the fliat, levied an army, and took possession o^ several 
fatresies in Northumberkuid. On this occasion Stephen 4;ame to 
Dutfaam, coacloded a peace, which not being lasting, the couu^ 
tiy fl^g^i» esperienced all (he horrors of war. The King of Scot* 
land, after oonsoMttiog the grossest enormities, advanced to |he 
adghboiiffaood of the d\f; but here his army, composed of tii^ 
fitfmt of the surrounding nations, proving seditious, he was com* 
peUed to retreat; talung, in his way, tlie Bishop's Castle of ,Nor- 
hara, oo the banks of the Tweed. By the interposition.of Alberi^, 
Bishoptif Ostia, and legate from the Holy See* a peace was estaf- 
blished between the two nations; and the city of Durham was 
honored with the presence of the members of tbis Convention, in 
April, 1139; Maud, Queen of England, with many soutbem 

fiarouf^ 

* Hutchinipa's DuthaiDt Vol, II. p 8. 



30 ttmtHA^. 

Butms, on the pttt of (he English Crown; tM fMc^ Iftoty^ 
wMi several Scottish Barons, on the part of I>a?M.' kb&fk thb 
period a coinage was estabKsbed at Durham. 

The Bbbop, Galfrid Rufiis, is not said to have taken «My ms 
tive part during these troubles; he seems rather to have occopied 
his time more agreeably to his character, in tne ornament and 
defenoa of his See. During the Prelate's last illness, his dmplain^ 
William Cumb^ gained the confidence of his household, and par- 
tkukriy such as had the custody of the castle, who entered bUi 
a confederacy to deliver up to him the palace and tower, imnedl^ 
ately upon the Bishop's decease. Having obtauied also the assist*' 
anee of the Kmg of Scotland, to whom he styled himself Chan^ 
cdlor, he induced the people to submit to his authority, which, 
by means of the most iniquitous methods, he endeavored to e!Ma« 
blish; but bemg foiled in his measures, he resorted to the mrori. 
After desolating the cowitry, his soldiers redueed tfie Hosplld and 
Chutth of St. Giles, whh the whole viiage, to asbea; modhavhig 
burnt a part of the Borough of Elvet, the Earl of Northumber* 
hnd, wilfa whom the Bishop, William de St. Bartian, was in 
league, completed the destruction, by bumuig the remainder of 
the tKMotigh. 

AAer Henry the Second succeeded, he hod a dispntt with 
Bohop Piid^; and, during his dispieasure, took possessioo of 
the ca^e and city of Durham, and, on various pretexts, deprived 
the Bishop of the atstody of so strong a posf.* This Bishop 
** granted to' the burgesses, that they sliould be for evefexempl 
from the customs called in-toU and cm-toll, and fVom mardiets 
and beriots; and to have the hke fVee custom? as Newcastle^ 

* It wat a custom for burgeues, od the demise of a Prelate, to deposita 
tlie kcyi of the city-gates at the shiine of St Cuthbert. 'On th^ death of Hialio^ 
Ihidaey, tlie officers of the Crown, who had seised th« ttiiiporaliiiea« ta»fc vio^ 
knt poaieisioD of the Vvy%^ cooCf ary to ancient iisage. A» ^ election of i 
Folate was studiously delayed^ and much oppression happened during the va« 
cancy of the See, under the influence of the Crown ofBcers, and as a creatuce 
of the King's succeeded, it is not to be wondered, that we hear no further than 
the mere mention of this infringement of the privileges of the convene. /firf« 
(iflMM'i Durham^ Vol, II, p, 8. 



Kitefter be got eovfirm^ by Piope Alexander tbe Third, whett 
k twtedy with three other Ei^Ksh Bbbops, at the coancH <tf 
litaa, A. D. 1 176.* He idso took great pains, beaidet bis ek- 
|hA tddUotis to the catbedral, to omnnent the city by several 
jMi iteiMtwtesi he built £f?et Bridge, and rebuilt the borough 
of thU namey which had been destroyed by Cumin and bis adh6- 
mis: he ooo^tmcted the city wait from the Gaol -Gate to the 
Walcr-Gate, part of wbkb is stiH remaining; and re-edified thb 
cMde, which had been destroyed by fire. The Boldon Buke, now 
t t mai n in g ha the auditor's office, ivas compiled by bis order, and 
has been adndtted as evidence, in all cases, to ascertain tbe ecc!et> 
■ailicaiA property of the Diocese. 

Tbe Castle seems to have remained in the Crown; for when 

Benf^ the Thini granled his consent to the election of Richard 

Pboie) Bidiop ofSamm, to this See, he excepte<f the possession of the 

\ efDarhamaod Noriiam. This pbus and learned prelate, by 

: with the convent, made seveniiregulationsconceraiug 

Ae privileges of the two boroughs of Dnrhara and Elvet, with re* 

epect to civil authority, weights, measures, &c. In tiie reign of 

Hcwy the Third, it appears, that Durham bad a royid and pain. 

i within itself, which Edward the First, on his acoei« 

to the Crown, made a pomt of reforming. 

AAer tbe death of Robert de InsuUi, Bishop of the See from 

1274 to IMSf Wiliiani Wii^waoe, Archbbfaop of YbA, during 

tbe vacancy, attempted to haras vtlie convent by vi^torial pretetl' 

wfakfa he carried to such a height of arrogance, as to scan. 

bis office and character. On h^ arrival at the dry, tha 

eighth of July, to exercise his supposed right of visitation, the ca- 

doors weie shut against him; and he proceeded to tbe 

of S^ Nicholas, to pronounce excoomiuntcation against 

the Wtotr and his bretfareo; but ^me youths of tbe city having in- 

t di i g e ute of hh proceedings, resorted to the church, and opposed 

hioi in so damoroos and violent a manner, that die Arcbbisboft, 

m terror, receded ftom his purpose, and was put in sueh appre- 

hearionfor htf peiaon, tfailt, escaping flxkm tha pulpit, he fieti 

down the stairs wbiefa led (o the Kho'^b, and used every expeiK- 

tioo. 



3!2 DUEUAM* 

tioii) t9l be got to the riyer 9ide neiur Kjypier. The ,Ai:clrf}isbof 
carried liis resentment so far, that, at the consepratioq of Bishop 
Beck, on the ninth of Januai;y foUowingi he obl^e^. the Prior t# 
leave York Cathedral; and . enjoined the new Bishop, upoi^his 
declaration of canonical obedience^ to excouimunicate the Prior, 
aod the heads of the convent: but Beck refused ; obse^jni^i^ " I 
.was consecrated their Bbhop yesterday, and shall I excoinniuni- 
.cate them to day? No profession of obedience shall induce me to 
§o inconsistent an act.*' 

On Bruce*s incursion, in the reign of Edward the Second, a 
party of his army surprised the suburbs of Durham whilst the hnh 
habitants were in their beds, and reduced them to ashes. 

This city exhibited a singular scene of festivity on the promo- 
tk>n of Richard de Bury, or Aungerville, to the Bishopric in 1335. 
He entertained, on this occasion, in the great hall of his palac^ 
Edward the Third, and his Queen, the Queen Dowager, King of 
Scotland, the two Metropolitans, and five Bishops, seven Earb 
and their Ladies, all the Nobility north of Trent, with a vast con- 
course of Knights, Abbots, Priors, &c It was in this year that 
Edward gained the famous battle of Hallidown Hill. Thb M<»- 
naroh again visited the city in 1356, and issued summonses for the 
military tenants to attend him, previously to the siege and surren- 
der of Berwick^ 

Bishop Hatfield, Siuccessor to De Bury, was a great beoefoctor 
to the church and city. In 13779 he granted a toll on certain 
merchiindize brought to Durham, to defn^ the charge of pav- 
ings and repairing the city walls. Letters patent were likewise 
granted by him ** to. Wilham de Ehnedon, gaoler and porter of 
the Castle, with certain profits annexed to the ofiice, amoniB; which 
are fees for sealing the measures to be used in the city. 

In the third year of the reign of Henry the Sixth|> Durham 
again became a scene of festivity, on the marriage of ^ames,, Kii^ 
OS Scotland, with Jane of Somerset, grand-daMghter of John of 
Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, as well as James's cousin, in i42A« 
In March, this year, the royal paur arrived, attended by a number 
of the English nobility of the fiist rank, and were met by t vast 

train 



tnMo of the most illogtrions pereona^ from Scotland. Tlie King 
and Queen staid here till the beginning of ApiiU 

On the anniversary of tlie installation of Bbbop Fox, Jnly 23d, 
1509, he entertained, in his palace at Dutham, the Princess Mar* 
gaRt, daughter of Henry the Seventh, who was on her progress 
into Scotland, to espouse King James. John Yonng, Somefu 
fft Herald, who attended the Princess, has related, among other 
qr oi mst a ncca, the particubrs of her reception in this city: '* The 
xxth day of tlie said monneth the Queue departed from Damtoo 
ia hjr aray, and with the preoedente companye went to the towne 
of Daihaou A mylle out of the said towne, cam before b^ Syr 
Bicfaard Stanley and ray lady bis wyffe, accompanyd of gen^lroen 
aad geaiyWroncn vary well appoynted, hys folks arayed in hys 
livcrsy, to the nomhre of 1. borsys, well mounted. 

""Then the Quene prepared berselfe to enter into the said 
towne, aad ewtrj ychoo in lyk wys, in fayr any, and rycbly, after 
the maaeie acostomed. In specyall the Erie of Northumberland 
ware on a goodly gowne of tyasill fbuned with hermynes. He 
was mooBted upon a fayr courser, hys hamays of goldsmyth 
waike, and through that sam was sawen small bells that maid a 
ineQodyous noyse, without sparing gambads. Hys gentylmen of 
honor and hys company wer well appoyated. 

*« At the iotryng of the said towne, and within, in the stteytts 
aad in the wyndowes, was so innumerable people, that it was a 6iyr 
thng for to se. And in fiiyr ordre she was conveyd to the cbardi» 
the officers of armes, sergeants of armes, trompetts, and myostrdls» 
going before byr. 

** At the gatt of the church was my lord the Byschop of the 
ayd place, and my lord, the Prior, revested in pootificalls, with the* 
convent all revested of ryches coppe, in processyoo, with the 
aossys. And ther was apoynted a phice for to kisse them. 

** Then the sayd processyon departed in ordre, and all the no* 
blesae^in lyke wys, to the Church, ui whiche way to the fount 
was a ryche awter, adorned of ryches, jwt^lls, and precyowses re- 
likes, the wich the said Byschop delivered to the said Qwene to kiss: 
and by the Erie of Surrey was gyityn byr offiynge. After this 
Vol. V. Jan. 180*. C Khe 



3^ BimHAM. > 

sfba was noble conveyd to the eattell, wber kyr lodpmg ms pm- 
pared and drest homestly. And e?ery ychou ratoumed aga^ to 
hy$ rcp^yfe, 

^ The utsfy sxiid, aad xxiiid days of the said monnoth 
8cbe sfjourntd m the said place of DuHiaro* wher tcbe was well 
cheryschtyand her co9t3 bonie by the said Byschop ; who on the 
xxiiid day held holie hall, and dowble dynoer and dowble soup- 
per to all coiuniers worthy for to ht ther. And iu the said hall 
was set all the noblesse, as well spiritiiaUs as temporaUs, gretl aftd 
snail, the with was welcome; for this was hys day of instaUacyoa. 
^ The xaiiiith day of the said raoniielh the Qwene departed 
from Durbam^ accompanied of hyr noble oonipany, as she had 
beene m the days past, in fayr manere and good ordie, for to coMa 
to the towne of the New^Castele * 

The suppression of the rebellion of the Nevflles', in the reign 
of Queen EUiabeth, oocaskmed a scene of horror in Durham ; not 
fewer than siaty-sbcptrsom being executed to satisfy the brutality of 
Sk* Geoffge Bowes^ who boasted, that in a tract of country sixty 
milea in length, and Ibrty in breadth, betwixt Newcastle asd 
Wefherby, there was scarcely a town or village Mdweeiii he had aot 
sacrificed some of tlie mhabitants! 

In the years Ul6 and 15$9> Durham was visited by that, 
dreadful scourge, the plague, whicii raged for a considerabfe time. 
In 1597 it agab returned with audi viokmce, that the pooler 
inbabitaats were compelled to live in huts on Elvet Moor^ and 
the adjoining conmonS) where the marks of arrangement of the - 
cells were to be traced till very lately. 

In the year l633, Charles tlie First resided at Durham, on his 
plvgrass to Scotland, wad was entertained by the amiable and 
pious Bishop Morton, whose expences in one day amounted to 
15001. The virtuous h'fe, and extensive charities, of this learned, 
compassionate and persecuted Bisiiop, are still remembered with 
respect and gratitude. Ai\er a variety of sufierings, and iMguat 
accusations^ by the Parliament adherents, during the Civil Wort, be 
found an asylum m the family of Sir Chris(o|>her Yelverton, hia 
political enemy, to whose sou he became tutor. 

During 



Daring At time of the Commotiweahh and lPlt>tectoratey an 
attempt wtt iiUKle to establish a tJDiversily at Durham ; the par* 
ticvlan coneeninig which hate b«eti thus related b^ Mr. PeimaDt 
« On the thirteenth of April, 1649, the Parltametit parsed ao act 
fbr abohhing of t>eans, Dettot and Chapters, Canons. Prebends, 
and all other tittes and officeis of or bel6nging to any Cathedral or 
CoUegiate Church, or ChApel, within England and Wales; and 
the iHUue and function of Dedrt, Sub-Dean, Chapter, &c. are 
tberet>jr takeb away ; and all their honors, manors, landB, &c. to> 
gether witii their charters, deeds, books, court-rolls, itc, adjudged 
ind lakten to be in the real and actual possession and seiiui^ of 
lYutees, tfaet^b bamed, in trust, to be disposed of by Parliament 

** May the seventh, l550, a petition was presented to the Pat- 
fiament, from the gentlemen, freeholders, and inhabitants of the 
codflfy of DitfhaM, praying, that ** an establishment of Courts of 
Justice might be had there; and that the College or Houses of the 
Dem and Chapter, being then empty, and in decay, might be em» 
ployed in erecting a College, School, of Academy, for the benefit 
of the Northern Counties, which were so far from the Universities; 
and that part of the Lands of the said t)ean and Chapter near the 
dty, B^t be ^t out by Trustees for pious uses." 

** Besides this petition, others of a similar kind were sent from 
the eoiitlty of Northumberland, and from the town and county of 
NewcMtle iqxm l^ie; which were referred to a Committee, to 
state the budness, and to report their opfaiions touching the de- 
siRs of tlie county. The Committee reported, ** that they so ht 
approved thereof, as that they were of opimon, that the said 
Hooaes were a fit place to erect a College, or School, for all the 
idecees and literature; and that it would be a pious and laudabla 
woik, and of great use to the northern parts.*' 

" la 1656, an drder #as made, by Oliver Cromwell, the Lord 
Protector, and his Privy Council, for founding and endowing a 
College at Durham, out of the Dean and Chapter's lauds there. 
Of this scfacDie Ohver had been a strenuous promoter, as appears 
bv a letter of bis yet extant, dated March the 1 1th, l650, ad- 

C2 dwiWd 



36 DUEHAM. 

dressed to WiUiam Lenthall, the Speaker, in wlueh he greaUy und 
earnestly recommends the prosecution of the business to him, 

'< The Letters Patent for founding the College, are dated Magr 
the 15th, 1657, by whicli the Houses late belonging to the Dean 
and Prebendaries, are converted into a University, to be called by 
the name of ^ the Mentor, or Provost, Fellows, and Scholars, of 
the College of Durham, of the Foundation of Oliv^, Lord Pr^ 
tector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland, 
&c.' By the same Letters Patent, rent charges, to the «nD«aL 
amount of 900I. were assigned for the support of the persons be- 
longing to the foundation ; and leave was also given them to piw 
chase and ei\joy lands and revenues to the amount of 6OOOL • 
year; and to take and use all the manuscripts, library books, .and 
other books, and mathematical instruments, and all other instni* 
nients whatsoever, late belonging to the Dean and Chapter, &c* 

^' Scarcely was the new University settled, when Oliver died; 
and, that they might not be wanting iu gratitude to the menioiy 
of their benefactor, they presented an address to Richard, imme- 
diately after his accession, in which they compared Oliver to Au- 
gustus, and gave him the prowess of Henry the Fiflh, the prudence 
of Henry the Seventh, and the piety of Edward the Sixth ; and re- 
commended to the vital beams of the piteous aspect of the son, 
his new erection, an orphan scarce bound up in its swaddling 
clothes. 

*^ The new University soon began to thrive so much as to ex- 
cite the jealousy of her sisters of Oxford and Cambridge, who both 
presented petitions against it to the new Protector, i|nd sent some 
persons from both places to give reasons against a third Uniw« 
sity, and especially against conferring any degrees there. But in 
a short time after, Richard, being deprived of the Protectorate, the 
ill-pieced machine of government fell to pieces, and involved hi its 
ruins this new seminary of learnmg." 

It 

* The original charter U yet in the Dean and Chapter's library, beautifully 
written on vellum, and adorned with Oliver*! picture and anni, and several cfo* 
Uematical deti^i. 



DUKHAM,. 37 

ll it % singid&r fiut, observes Braod, in bis History of New- 
castle, that George Foi, tbe founder of tbe Quakers, bas assumed 
to- himself the coosequeocey and, what be thought, the merit, of 
hafiag beta the means of suppressing tb» budable institution.* 

The pieaent magnificent Cathbdral of Durham is indebted 
ibr ila ori^ to Bbhop William de Carilepho, who, havmg pro- 
jected • change m the govemment of this Cbnrcb, which had 
hilheito been directed by the secular clergy, and their Provost, 
ehhwnfd under the authority of the Crown, and by permission of 
the Pope, a license to introduce regular canons. Conceiving also, 
that tbe Church built by bis predecessors was unsuitable to the 
Sgfuty and increasmg power of the See, he formed a plan for 
crectiag a structure sknikr to the superb fabrics he had seen dur- 
kag ids exik on the Continent. In pursuance of this design, the 
fiMmdalioo was hud on the Eleventh of August, J 093, with a so. 
kuwity suitable to so vast an undertaking; Malcolm, King of 
Sootfaad, and Turgot, Abbot ot Durham, assisting at the cere* 

Cd The 

* TW Mcouot given by Fox of this event is as follows : ** We came to Dar* 
him, wbete was a man come <io«irD from London, to set up a College Ihem, to 
make ministers of Christ, as they said. I went w ith some others to feason 
with the man, and to let him see, that to teach men Hebrew, Greek, and Latin, 
wmd dw seven arts, which was all but the teachings of the natural man, was not 
the way forto make them ministers of. Christ ; for the languages began at Babel : 
wmd to tbe Grecka, that spoke Greek as their mother-tongue, the cross of Christ 
was fooliihnfts; and to the Jews, that spake Hebrew as their mother-tongue, 
Christ was a stumbling-block : and aa for tbe Romans, who bad the Latin and 
ftallaa* they persecuted tbe Christians ; and Pilate, one of the Romans, set He- 
hnv, Greek, and Latin, a-top of Christ when he crucified him : and John the 
Dtvase, who preached the word thai was in the beginning, said, that the Beast 
md. the Whore had power over tongues and languages, and they are as wateti. 
Thos I told him be might see the Whore and Beau have power over tbe tongues 
aod the mwy languages which are in Babylon. Now, said I to the man, dost 
thoB think to make ministers of Christ, by the natural confused languages which 
^nag from Babel, are admired in Babel, and set a-top of Christ by a persecu- 
tor? Oh, DO. So the man confesi to many of these things} and when we had 
f^j diacoontd with him, be became vrry loving and tender; and after he had 
MVidcrad f«rthci of it, htnevcr set up his College," 



St jhjevah: 

ThettiiiftpcQniiMUedttw monks to l^hoar ik tlwMyvM&rk 
Mfyy eiccplhig at meaVtiiiies, and during prayer and Untm m»- 
we; ImiI no coBsiderahle piogreH had bcea nradt at the tiaM of 
his dealb, which happened within twoyearaafttf the eoa m iea ce i n ent 
4f the structure. His successor, Ralph Flamhard, wh» ff^ojed 
the bidiopffic for twenty-nine years, and wa^ equally an eneoasagor 
tf the pious woik, finished the buikitng nearly to the »oo& Tbia 
Prekte, before his promotion to the See of Durham, had givenproof 
otf* hiaability ip aichitecture, by theeieclion of thaCoNegiateChttrck 
of IVinamhoume, or Christ Chuceh, in Hanipshirt. The Ca- 
thedral erected by these Prelates, was of the form universally 
adopled by the Norman architects; a long cross, with two turrets 
ai the west end, and between them, a large and richly oraamenled 
aaehed door of entrance: the east end preliably terminated in 
a simicircular form, as the Knes of imion of ihe original work with 
the Chapel of the Nme Altars strongly indicate. The side i^sles, both 
of the nave and choir, were vaulted with simicircular arches, 
groined, and the ribs of the groins carved ; but the nave and the 
choir were open to the timber rooC The nave exhibits the next 
change of style. Bishop Poore having already given a specimen 
of his taste in the construction of Salisbury Cathedral, induced 
Prior Melsonby to conform to a more omameutal mode of ar- 
chitecture in the roof, whicii he was then building. Uuder his 
direction the whole vault was acconunodated to the poiutsd archi 
though the Norman ag*aag is used along the ribs « of the groins. 
Socoessive additions bnve rendered this Church as it now appears; 
not only an enlarged specimen of Norman building, but a <* most 
instructive series of examples, illustrating the gradual change of 
style which took place during the reigns of the tiiree first Ileurie% 
till, by degrees, the pointed had completely superseded tlie semi- 
circular arch ; and the heavy dusters of the Norman pillars were 
polished into the Ught shaAs of the early EngKsb.*^ 

Bishop Flambard translated the remains of St Cutbbert into 

the New Chiurcb, and erected a stately shrine, called the ¥crttoiy» 

near 

* Account of the Cathedral Church of Durham, publiUied by cbe Society of 
Antiquaries, p 4. 



im <hie dMr t tins «rit formed with preat elegaoec ; being com- 
posed of c<Mtly maiMe, lined and gilt: and by means of the addl- 
llotial donations of tfae uttmerous pilgriois. It was rendered on« of 
tlie richest altars in England. 

Considering that, in the diligence of his predecessors, to immor- 
iali« the meniory of their favorite and beneficent Saint, they had 
iorgotten doe homage to tlie Virgin Mary, Bishop Hugh Pudsey, 
Fatrttfcfa of Jerusalem, began to erect, at the east end of the Ca- 
thedral, a Chapel to her honor, to which females might have free 
access for devotional exerc'ses : but the work had not proceeded 
very fiir, when it was discovered that vast cleAs appeared, which 
Ibreateoed an early demolition. This manifestation, as it was con- 
ndered, of the patron Saint's dbplcasure at the innovation, induced 
tfae Bedx^p to reliuqubh his purpose as to that part of the Church . 
hut be appropriated a part at the west end for the Virgin's Cha- 
pel, which he named the Galilee : into this s:inctuary females w^re 
allowed to enter without offence;* but they were not on any ao- 
cooDt to be admitted witbiu the Cathedral. 

C4 The 

* Tiie reasoo of female exclusion is thus accounted for. ** Blessed St Cuth- 
Wrt, for 1 long time, led a most solitary life in the borders of the Picts, at 
wtikb place great concourse of people daily used to visit him ; and from wbofti, 
by the providence and grace of God, never any icturned without great com* 
forL This caused both young and old to resort unto him, taking great plea* 
sure both to see him, and to hear him speak. In which time it happened, that 
tbc daughter of the King of the province, having illicit commerce with one of 
her father** domestics, its effects v/ere perceived by the King, and he examined 
faer concerning the author of her disgrace. She, instigated by an evil mind, 
imuntiy answered, ** The solitary young man, who dwelleth hard by, is be 
who hath overcome me, and by whose beauty I am thus deceived." Where- 
upon the King, furiously enraged, presently repaired to the hermit's p!ace, with 
bis daughter, attended by several knights, where he instantly accosted the ser- 
vapi of God in the following manner: ** What art thou he, who, under the 
coloor of religion, profanest the temple and sanctuary of God ? Art thou he, 
«bo, ondcr the cloak and profession of an hermit, exercisest thyself in all fil- 
t^incss ? Behold ray daughter, whom thou by thy wiles hast corrupted : there* 
fore now, at last, confess this thy fault, and plainly declare here before this 
company io wh«t sort thou hast seduced her." The King's daughter mark- 
'at the Ene speech of l>er f^vther, impudently supped forward, and boldly 
timed '* that it was be who bad doue the wicked fact.'* At which tho 

young 



40 Dt&HAA. 

Tbe ftrengUi of the pn^udioe by 'which (entles wel« pmSuAtd 
admiasion, may be estimated from the foUowmg anecdotes* 

In tlie year 1333, on Thursday in Easter Wedc, Edward the 
Third came to Dnrham, and lodged in the Priory. On tbe Wed- 
nesday foUowmg, Qneen Philippa came from Knaresborough in 
one day to meet hiui, and being unacquabted with the custom of 
thb Church, went through the Abbey gates to the Priory, and« 
after supping with the King, retired to rest. This alarmed the 
Monks, one of whom went to tbe King, and informed him, that 
St. Cuthbert had a mortal aversion to the presence of a woman. 
VnwUling to give any offence to the Church, Edward immediately 
ordered the Queen to arise, who, in her under garments only, 
(her mantle, &c. being buried,) returned by the gate through 
which «he had entered, and went to tbe Castle; after most de- 
voutly praying that St. Cutlibcrt would not avenge a fault which 
she had through ignorance committed. — AngUa Sacra, Vol. I p» 
760. 

In 



young man, greatly imazed, and pcrcciviug that this calumny proceeded frocn 
the instigation of the devil, (wherewith he was brought into great perplexity,^ 
applied his whole heart unto Almighty God, saying as followeth: *' My Lord, 
my God, who only knowest, and art the discoverer, of all secrets, make ma- 
nifest also this work of iniquity, and by some token disprove the same, which, 
though it cannot be done by human policy, make il known by some divine 
token." When the young man, with great lamentftion, and tears unutieraMe, 
bad spoken these words, even suddenly, and in tbe same place where she 
stood, the earth making a hissing noise, presently opened, and swallowed her 
up in the presence of all the spectators. As soon as the King perceived this 
miracle to happen in the presence of all his company, he began to be greatly tor* 
mented in his mind, fearing lest, for his furious threaU, he should incur tliQ 
same punishment. Whereupon he, with his company, humbly craving pardon 
of Almighty God, with a further petition to that good man St. Cuthbert, that 
by his prayers he would crave of God to have his daughter again ; which pett* 
tion the holy father granted, upon condition, that from thence no woman 
should come near him. Whence it came to pass, the King did not suffer any 
woman to enter into any church dedicated to that Saint, which to t!iis day i« 
duly observed in all the churches of the Picis, which were dedicated to that 
holy man.** Dsvij's Ixtrart of the coming of St. Cuthbert into Siolland^ taken Jo ih 
0fthe Scottish Histoiy, p. 60. 



f 



".1 

■/ 




HUKBAM. 41 

I« die yeir 1417» two womeo of Newcastle, bdiig detenraned 
to approach the Shrine of St. Cuthbert nearer than ws^ legally 
pemutted, chsguiaed themselves in man's af^parel, but were unfor- 
toaately discovered in the attempt to complete their purpose, and 
taken into custody. By way of punishment for their intended pro> 
phanation, they were adjudged to walk, on three festival days, 
before the procession m St. Nicholas's Church, Newcastle, and on 
three other holidays, at the Church of All Saints in tiie same 
town, habited in the dresses in which they conmiitted the offence; 
procl am ation being first made as to the cause of this penance. 
The roaster and mistress of these curious females were at the same 
tiase ordered to attend the Spiritual Court at Durham, to answer 
the charge of being counsellors and abettors in this mis- 



Tbe great, or central Tower, is more modem than the other parts 
of the Cathedral, it having btien projected, ainl partly built, by 
Prior Melsonby, who acceded in the year 1233. His successors. 
Prior Middleton, and Prior Hugh, of Darlington, who was 
elected m 1258, finished the work. Prior Melsonby is also re- 
puted as the builder of the stone roof of this noble structure ; and 
the commencement of the Chapel qf the Nine Altars has been 
Jiiiiwiic attributed to bun ; though its completion b ascribed by 
Hotdunaon, to Richard de Hotoun, who acceded to the priory 
in 1289. 

No material alterations, or additions, were made in the Ci&the- 
dral, firom the above period till about the year 177^, when a 
survey being taken, and the fabric adjud<;ed in a state of insecurity, 
aad rapid decay, a system of repair was immediately commenced, 
wider the patronage of the Dean and Cha|)ter, and has been con- 
tiaocd, with little intermission, to the present time. Whatever 
npiinon may be entertained of the professional talents of the respec- 
tive aitjsts by whom the repairs have been conducted, or of their 

abilities 



* A copy of the mandate, directing the chaplain* of the above churches to 
•■e the penance performed, it preserved in Bourne's Hi&tory of Newcastle; and 
alioacopy of the return made by the chaplain of All Saints. 



4C MfEUAH. 

sk^ksm restoring the ardiitectiimt adoraments of Armtr days, 
the attention of the Dean and Chapter to the preMrvation of tfait 
augnst pile, must mdobitabiy be allowed to merit the highest 
praise. During the last twelve or foorteea years, a mm^ anHmnt* 
log to not less than from 15001. to 20001. amiuaUy, has heen 
expeuded in its improvement ; and by a judicious appropiiatioo of 
the means provided for this purpose, an mcome has been secured 
of sufficient value to defray M general chaiges of future repair* 
By the origimd benefactors, the woods grownig on the Charch 
lands were appropriated for its preservation; and since the pre- 
sent alterations were commenced, a considerable quantity of tin* 
ber has been felled, and its produce vested in t!te funds, in order 
to provide a ^omlani revenue for the necessary repaiutions. The 
munificence of the present Dean and Chapter is abo evinced by the 
donation of SOOl. annually subscrit)ed in aid of the smns deemed re- 
quisite to defray the charges of the late and projected iasprovements. 
The situation of this venerabk pile is equally bold and singatar* 
Elevated on a rocky eminence that forms the highest part of the 
dty, it bursts on the sight with uncommon graodenr; tlic base of 
the rocks which support its west eitd, being hyed by the waters of 
the Wear. From llie square called tiie Place Green, by whieh it io 
generally apj^roachcd, the whole of lire nortii front is at once bo» 
heW. This entire range preserves its original Norman character, 
with occasional introdiictions of windows and tracery in the 
pointed arch manner : but various jneoiigruilies in the stvie and 
ornaments are observable, and may be traced to the late repara* 
tions. The Porcli forming the priucijwl entrance, may, in par- 
ticular, be reniarked as one of most barbarous commixtures of 
tlie Saxon and pointed styles that ever disgraced modern arrhiteo* 
turc. On the Hoor within the Porch is a curious metallic ring, 
or knocker, sculptured with a terrinc visage, in bold relief, 9mA 
well executed, with which persons cUiming sanctuary* in the night* 
time were accustomed to alarm the inmates of the Cathedral. 

Above 

• ** In ancient times, bi-forc the house wm supplest, the abbey churchy th< 
church-yard, and all the ciicutt ihcrcof, was a sanctuary for all manner of men 
that commuted auy great otleuce, or «ny prUoocu %kUo had broken out of pri« 



DURHAM. 4S 

Above Ac grest windoir of the north transept, were fbrmerfy, 
in two nmndels, the figures of Benedictme Monks carved in re- 
lief; thcK, whicfa display the state of the art at the period when 
that ffivisioii of the hoikling was erected, liave been removed, and 
iMr plaixa occnpied by two new figures; one, a Prior, seated in 
his instaBitkNi chair; the other, an effigy of Bishop Pudsey, as 
pwtiajui CO the episcopal seal attached to hb charter to the city 
of Durham. On the octangular tower, at the west angle of the 
Ckapd e€ the Nine Altars, which forms the eastern extremity of the 
Cathedialy is the memorable basso relievo representing the event 
whidi occMioncd the latter to be founded on this spot. Apcord- 
■ig to the legend, the monks who had removed St. Cuthbert's re- 
fics fiam RipoD, in hopes of discovering a more peaceful residence, 
warn by a niion directed to Dunholme^ a place they were then 
noaeqaainted with ; but while travelling through the country with 
mfffftain steps, a woman, in quest of a strayed cow, was in- 
fermed, in dieir hearmg, that she would fiud it in Duiibolnie, 
(DnrfauD,) whither, with grateful hearts, they accompanied their 
female guide. The figures which represent the cow, the woman, 
and some other personage, appear in a recess of tlie stone-work ; 

but 

■ooi wod fled im tbt charch door, kaocking to hjve it opened : alio, c«rCatft 
laca by ia two ckaniban over ihs north door for tkac purpose, that, whenever 
inch offendcrt came, and knocked^ they iostamly let them in at any hour of 
die nifht; lad ran quickly to the Galilee bell, and tolled it, that whoaoever 
heard it, might know that some had taken sanctuary. When the Prior had no- 
tice thereof, be sent orders for them to keep within the sanctuary; that is, with- 
in the chnrch, and diurct^yard ; and that every one should have a gown of 
hlxk cloch, with a yeUo^ csosa, caUcd St. Cuthbert's crocs, at the left shoulder; 
chat every one might ace the privilege granted at St. Cuthbert's slirine, for of- 
kndcn to fly unto for auccour and safeguard of their lives, till ihcy could ob* 
tain their Prince's pardon: and that they should lie within the church on a 
grate, made only for that purpose, adjoining to the Galilee south door. They 
had likewise meat, drink, bedding, and other necessaries, at the cost of tlie 
hone for thirty-aeveo days, being only ancb as were necessary forsuch offiendera 
oatil the Prior and convent could get them conveyed out of the diocese. This 
privilege was confirmed not only by King Guthrid, but by King Alured 
likewise." HitUtumstn. Ctmi, from Davicsy Sir John Laiuscn*i MSS. mi M^* 



44 nUEHABI. 

bat were re-sculptured a few jretn 9tff>, ancl tbeir original {orow 
•oroewhat altered. 

The east front has been repaired aad modemueed : tbe windows, 
forroiDg a double raogei are all of the knoet shape, excepting 
tbe centre window of tbe upper tier, which is drcuhir, and ra- 
diated witli stone-work. These windows were originally oma- 
jnented with a profusion of painted glass, which, from various 
accidents, became so defaced and multilated, that the subjects 
could not be traced : it is now entirely removed. The south front 
preserves much of its ancient character, though some parts have 
been chisseled over to make way for the new facings. Only a 
partial view can be obtained of this side of tbe Cathedral, as the 
cloisters, dormitory, and other buUdings, conceal nearly the 
whole of the lower part. Tlie west front, consisting of two highly 
ornamented square Towers, with the Galilee between, appears to 
great advantage from tbe opposite side of the river. *' The base- 
ment line of the elevation," observes Mr. Carter, *' presents tlie 
projecting Chapel of the Galilee, flanked by huge buttresses and 
arches, springing out of the rock, to contribute due support to 
its walls, which form one vast combination of security to the 
main edifice itself.'* Above the Galilee is the great west win- 
dow, with various enriched compartments springing up to the 
roof. The architectural adornments of the towers are modem ; 
and the attempt to make them accord with the original forms, 
has, in many instances, proved unsuccessful: their summits are 
bounded by pinnacles and open worked battlements. Tlie great 
centre tower rises from the intersection of the nave and transept^ 
and is singularly rich and elegant. Round it is a profusion of 
fine tracery, pointed arches, and other ornaments; and its but* 
tresses are graced with niches, canopied, and decorated witli tra- 
cery, within which various statues are placed, representing the 
original founders and patrons of the See. The height of tliii 
tower is*214 feet. 

The interior of thb august building is highly interesting to those 
who wis!i to trace the connection between Saxon and Norman ar- 
chitecture, or to observe the latter in, perhaps, its highest stage 

of 



BUBHAM. 4S 

of perftd^KD. The covupftrison cyf these orden with the Englisb, 
or pointed styles, may also be made; as the Chapel of the Nine 
Ahan partakes, in its general ennchments and proportion, of the 
ardiitectaral character of Salisbnry Cathedral; and, from its 
singularly light appearance, forms a striking contrast with the 
matsife Norman work prevalent in the other parts of the fiibric. 

** In the inside of this structure," observes Mr. Pennant, ** is 
preserved much of the |>oiMlerous, yet venerable, magnificence of 
the early Norman style : tbe pillars are vast cylinders, twenty- 
three feet ia circumfrrence; some adorned with aeigzag furrows; 
others, loaeoge-shaped, with narrow ribs, or with spiral; the 
arches romid, carved with zigzags : above are two rows of gall^ 
ries, each with round arches or openings : a row of small pilasters 
tans roaod the sides of the church, with rounded arches inter^ 
secdng each other."* A more particular description has been 
gtvea by Mr. Hutchinson, in the following words. 

** The two extreme columns to the west, rise from bases of the 
form of a complicated cross, having pomted projections from the 
interior angles: the dimeusions of each base are fifteen feet eveij 
way, being exactly rimilar to those which support the columns 
of the tower and dome, vulgarly called the lantern : the piUarp 
are clustered, having three semicircular pilasters in each front, 
divided by an angular projection. The next column, eastward, 
rises from a base of the form of a cross, twelve feet every way, 
supporting a clustered pillar, the pilasters of which towards the 
aave, run up to the roof through the facia, between the upper 
windows. The next rises from a square base of eight feet, and is 
richly fluted, termmating with a plain capital, which supports the 
gallery above the side aisle. Each intermediate pillar is clustered 
like those described in the second place, stretching up to the roof; 
those in the intervals are circular, making the succession consist 
of a clustered pillar and a round one altcruately. The first round 
pUar is fluted, as before described ; tbe second covered with the 
z^zag figure ; and tbe third grooved with the figure of a net« 
Tbe pilbirs opposite to each other are exactly similar in omamentr 
•od dimeosioiis ; and it b also to be observed, that the bases of the 

clustered. 



46 WRUAVi^ 

dostered, Md of the round pHiars, throtig^ the wftofe bniidiit^, 
hare the same dimensions as those aboipe described. AH the sHte 
trails are decorated with pifaisters opposite to the eohmms ; and 
the interior spaces under the windows, are filfed with double pi- 
lasters, and intersecting round arches, throughout the whole 
building, excepting only in the east transept. In the Chapel of 
the Nine Altars the arches between the great colum rn are all 
eemicircular ; tlie outward members dentelied; the interior, 
zig-zagged. The under ^lery opens to the middle aisle, with one 
round arch, divided within into two arches, supported* on a centm 
pillar; the upper gallery opens with single arches. 'At the west 
end of the nave is a short cross aisle, over the ends of which rift 
the west towers. The vaultings of the side aisles are semfdrcular^ 
and crossed with groined arches in plain rolls, intersecting each 
other in the centre. In the vaulting of the nave, the ribs inter- 
aect each other in pointed arches, and are ornamented with zig- 
Mg work in the fiHets.'** 

In the middle of the nave, between the four western pillars, is 
the Bnptisterium^ or font. This b a rich piece of tabernacle work, 
of red oak, in an octangular form, terminating in a pinnacle, or- 
namented by a dove with expanded wings. The upper part is 
supported on columns. The whole is about thirty feet high. At 
a small distance further to the east, and forming part of the pave- 
ment, is a long cross of blue marble, marking the boundaiy 
beyond which females were not allowed to pass, even many years 
after they had been permitted to enter the Cathedral from the 
Galilee. 

The GaUleCy or St. Mary's Chapel, is divided by clustered co» 
himns, and simicircular arches, into five ables; the most nor- 
thern of which is now enclosed as the Registrar's Office. The sb« 
gular combination of the Norman and Pointed styles displayed id 
this building, arose from the repairs directed by Bishop, after- 
wards Cardinal Laugley, about the year 1406. Here were for^ 
merly three altars^ now wholly removed ; that in the centre wa$ 

dedicated 

' * History of Durham, Vol. 11. p, S38. 



itHaieA to the Hdfy Vhfia. Befon the steps, tritkli approached, 
it, is the tomb of the Cardhnl, who died ia 1438; and near k, 
to the jneih, a huge auiibie stone, covering the renuiins of the 
rsNEEABitB Beo^ the iwHt learned man of his tiiTie, aad of 
ahora it might tndy be said, that ^ be was a light shining in dark* 

A few other aieraoriaU of persons baried here occin% aiid 

them the foHofriag inscription* 

John Brtmleii body here doth ly, 

Who'praysed God with hand and voice; 

By mu^kei lieavenlk harmonie 

Dall myiuiiH ht made in God rrjoice s 

HU $QuX inio the He»veiict U ]yft. 

To praysc uiu stili that give the gyft» 

The breadth of the Galilef , irom east to west, is fifty feet ; its 
length, e%htj ^U The original entrance was on the north, 
from a smaR yard, adjoining the chorch-yard; but it is now en- 
teredl from the side atstes of the Cathedral. 

On the south side of the nare are deposited the remahis of the 
great Ralph, Loro NEVrtLB, who was chiefly instnimentat 
in obtaimi^ the battle of Red Hills, firom him denominated JV^'^ 
viUe^B Cross, h which David Brace, KJng of Scotland, was taken 
in 1346. The tomb of his son, Lord John, is placed 
Ralph, Lord Netille was the first layman who was per* 
■Htted to be mterred withm the Cathedral. These monnments were 
feiaierly ornamented with recmnbent figures of the great person** 
ages mclosed withm them, and surrounded by smaller carVed 6* 
gotts in alabaster, finely cut ; but are now mutilated, and nearly 
defaced. Thk outrage is to be attributed to the general disrespect 
pud to religioiis edifices during the Civil Wars. In those lament- 
Me times, the Cathedral was converted into a place of confine- 
BKnt for the ^Scottish prisoners afifer the battle of Dunbar ; and 
they destroyed or rautihited whatever came withtu their reach. 

The great Tower, or lantern, which rises at the intrrsrcti(»n. 

of the nave and middle transept, ** is supported by clusters of co- 

hnans, rising to the springing of the groins : tlie tij-rM arch sprini^- 

ay from tbtm k crowoed by an open gallery of commmjicution 

* * round- 



43 imKHAlC* 

louocl tbe inside of tfae laDtern : the apace ffom Ibe galkiy totlie 
fdodow is filled wkh rich Gom|nitaieatf, which, with the wbdow 
itidf, are well ionigined ; groined arches fcom the terminatioo of 
the hmterth; and when viewed from below, the raagnitiide and 
gratideur of its several parts are extremely striUog."* 

At each end of the nuddle transept, oo the cast side, is aa airie 
separated from the body of the transept, by one clustered and two 
round pillars ; one of the latter is grooved in the spiral form ; the 
other, in the zig-iag manner: in each aisle was formerly three al« 
tars. The windows of this transept were once richly ornamented 
with painted glass, of which little remdn% but a figure of St. 
Bede in a blue habit, and some imperfect memorials of the cni- 
cifiction. At the south end of the transept b a curious cUnk^ 
erected by the Dean and Chapter in the year l632. 

The Ckoir is divided from the transept by an oak screen, de- 
corated with festoons of fruit and fiowers, carved in a very bold 
style, and having an entablature of a rich foliage pattern. Above 
the screen is a large and fine toned organ. The length of the 
Choir is 120 feet : the floor is paved with black and white marble. 
The prebend^ stalls are finished with tabernacle work, in which 
the ancient style is but indifferently imitated, but their geneiai 
effect is not unpleasiug. On the south side is the episcopal Tlirone,t 
an elegant structure, erected about the year l6dO, by Bishop Hat* 
field, over the vault wherein he lies mterred. The throne n con- 
siderably elevated ; in the centre is a chair of state, having a ca- 
nopy of ornamental tabernacle work : it was repaired by Bishop 
Crewe in the year 1700, and new-painted and gilt by Bishop 
Egertou in 1772. The pulpit, which is on the north side, is 
adorned with figures of some of the Apostles, neatly inlaid on the 
pannelsy and nearly as large as life. " The Choir oomprehendi 
four pillars on eacli side ; two of them clustered, and two round ; 
the latter are cut in the spiral figure. The roof was repaired, or 

rather 

* Account of the Catbedral of Oarfaam, published by the Society of Antiquities. 

f When the Bishop goes to the thfone, he it always pricedcd by a peraos 
bearinf a massy gilded mact, in disttaction pf bis secular power. UuUkmsm^ 



rirticr toeir vaulted, by Prior Hbtobn, who acteded in 1^?89: 
ilis of etegadt Gothic work, th^ ribs €^ the arches termioatiiig in 
poinfs oraameiitcd with roses; the filets pierced in rof^ and 
crosses: some of the decorations of the centre roses are sbgnhtf} 
hoe next to the organ conthbs a honan figore, with three roond 
Mfs io an apron. From the ahar-rails eastward, the whole wmk 
appears nearlj of the same date; and by the architecture of this 
part, it seeing thstt the building or^nndly lernnaatod here, and 
was opened fhitfaer eastward to ibrm a connection with the east 
hamt p f , or Cba|^ fi^ the Nine Altars^ The eohmins which rise 
at the ailar-rail, aie Mftle more than the phin fadng of aeonuBMi 
waD, ornamented with longsm^l pHasters, sbgle, and belted in the 
inddle; 6ieir capitals pierced; deconitecf with figures of anmaisy 
and finished above with tabernade woA. The opening of the 
gafiery in thb part is diftrent frdm the rest of the church, and 
fcuaiiti of ihiee pointed arches, suppotted by oohinmS) whoae 
centals are richly pierced; the fillets of the arehes are piefeed, 
■id highly decorated; and there b also an bterior pilfair support- 
mg a grohieti vaulting. Here the building seenis to have hem 
brolm'off, and the east wall removed ; yet the vaulting of the 
foof it contmued, and ovcv the ahM^taUe finidwd wkh a fine 
polaCed aidi, supported on clustered piUars, ranging with tho 
ide of the east transept: the capitals, and the fillets or mooldingn 
ef the areh, are highly finiAed with pierced work, and bear bo 
degree of stmiUtade to any of the mora western parts id tiie edi> 
fee. Withk the altttuiaOs are fbttvaeata on each side of the al- 
tar table, fe Hm oliieiathig priests to rest, formed t^ pillars wm^ 
po s lh i g phmado wotfcy of the same materials and design as Hie 
woiii behind the altar, and most probably were erected at the 
same time.''* 

Hie Screen, wbieh forms the eastern termination of the choir, 
ami dividca it from the Feretory, and Ghapd of the Nine Altars, 
Is of very eiegaiit workinan^ip, hot has been greally mutilated at 
various periods shioe its erection. ^ It w^s given by Jolin Lord 

VouV. , D Neville 

* Uotchimon't Duiharo, Vol. II. p. >44« 



NeviHe at tbe tip^oce of 4001, (a nst tom in tbue tisnes;) Hm 
IVmr and Coavetit ceatritNOiiig laqpilyf by yiMigtowaidt iticon- 
flhl69Bf 1331. 6%. 8(L tbe work at it biirifig beco fcmMnly 
%i«oii§bt in Lood^D, and seat hither by mh* fiobeit JBeiTii^tiQO,^ 
tbie Prior, etnpioyttd sevea expert onsooa^ who mtm ahaott a 
)peir in erecUog it» and to whom, besides their wages, be allowed 
meat and driak till the work was fiaishedt ia 1380. Tbe drajpi 
is divided into three tiers, or stories. The lowest, or bastmeot, 
ii solids the seooad and third are opea^ so that the atataas whidi 
iUed the aichesv or father oaaepies, west aaea thioaglh b a bach 
view from the east side. The light and my pinnades, nsiog ia 
a pymihidiflai form, tierabove tier, moplaodid oanftnian, oaoaol km 
too asach adaMred.*^ Under three giaod centre canopies on tba 
wast side, were originally whok length stataes of oar ladf, St^ 
Culhbert, and St. Oswald; and all the others were likewise onMh 
aasBtad with statues of great and holy pevaomiges. The variowi 
nUna <Qn the oast side ware abo filled with historic atataas. 

iaMBftdiatdy behind the Screen, pnyeetqig hito tbe Claipel oC 
tinKineAUan, and an a level with the ebon; is Ibei Chapel aiUad 
tba JRrmoiy, where the fOf^geoas ahiine of St Oithbevt fias aa- 
eieatly di^dtad. This sbane, throa^ ** the godly deaolkm a^ 
Kibgs, Qiieena, and other estates," ia rqioitad to have hecoaia 
the richest in the khigdom; bat it ancient splendor is vanhhad ^ 
aad the iraly madLs of ito Aimer mptttatiDn, are lo he foaad ki 
tha hallow laipaeaBiaM worn in theatona floariug, by the iaat oC 
the nameaous pilgihns who viahcd the Arine in the ageaof sapac^ 
stitsan. So meritorions was this last act coa»deaad, Aat» hi ttM» 
year U84, . Walhan, Bishop of Dumbtaki, gmatad a reasissiua^ 9i 

fhrty 

* Accotiat of Durham Chthednl, paUiihed by the SotlMy of AmiqotHes ; 
in wbiflk alio U is observed, that, *< modem amhon, i»deKrf Ung tfab icveea, wy^ 
that St ia made of plaster of Paris; so judgif^ no doubt, from one of the 
nsipea by which it is known, that iii the French Pierrt ; but had tliey considered 
the impoaaibility of ita being constmcted in that manner, or made tbe slightest 
observation on its material, they would have found it wrought in the usual 
mUerial, free*ttone.'* 



DirftHAtt. 51 

ferty Aiys penance to every Totary nfio perfbmiecl it.* The re- 
mdnt of 8t. Cotlibert are aiid to faave been deposited liere, in a 
** eferf WfU ftm^Mt with nayles mnd iHither,*'f which was alter- 
warfls ia cl o s e d in a maiMe sepulchre at the expense of John Lord. 
Kevlle« Imt these have long been removed ; the shrine having 

D2 been 

* TW origu^l Indulgcoce it yet presenred in the tibniy of the Detn and 
Chapter; md a copy of it is ap p e n d ed to Br. Soittb'a edition of Bede, Not 16. 

t Hcgge'i Legend : in tbii work is the following relation of the incorruptiHSly 
ef Sl Cothbert. ** Before the day of tranilation came. Prior Turcot, with 
tone of Itfa bre^ven, determiDcd to open bis tombe, with intent to show bia 
body to ilic people, if they found it entire. Att night, therefore, they niett at 
bis aepttkhre, tad reveieotly taking off the sUioe, they found a chest well for* 
lificd with ntylei and leather, and in it another, wrapt in doth thrice double, 
m which they {bund the Booke of the Evangelists* which had fallen Into the 
aea ; A little silver akv« a goblet of pone gold, %irith an onyx atone, and an woty 
cooib: ImiI)^ openiag the third chest, they found the body of the Saint (which 
dK gnve ia ao many years had not digested) iyiog upon the right side, to give 
won to the test of the rcliques : for in the same coffin were the bones of vene* 
nfale Bede; the head of St. Oswald s part ol the bones of Aldanus, Ead£rid» 
tf>d Ethclwold, Bishops of Lindisfame : all which xeliques they placed with 
4ae l ei er e te in other parts of the Church ; and laying St. Cuthbertonhis bac^, 
tbcy placed St. Oswald's head beeween his hands. At the day of his tramU- 
tioa, Rjnalphos, the Bishop, published in his sermon to the people, the iocor« 
nptioo of St. Cuthbert*s body, which wu flexible, and now might plead pre- 
acription with the grave to be immorul. And thus in great solemnity they 
cuhriBed him beneath the high altar, ia the presence of the Abbot of St. Albans, 
the Abbot of Sc Maries, in Yorke, the Abbot of St. Gennaos, Prior Turgot, 
with thoasinds of people spectators of the miracle. ' ' 

* Tie Bad rftki Evangeluts was originally written by Cdfrid, a Monk, who 
ia 698 was advanced to the See of Lindisftme, and during his retirement in that 
MooHCeiy cnaslated the Goipds into Latin. After his decease, it was deco. 
Med with gold aad jewels by Ethelwold, his successor ; and with some cvrim 
ms pnuHngt by Bilfrtd, an Anchorite. Prefixed to it, txt the Prefaces and 
Cmmt of Euscibitts and Hieronymns; besides an interlineary Saxon Version 
by Aldred the Pfteat. At the end of St John's Gospel are ihrse lines added 
ia a coolemporary hand : 

«f Liika ae-y^idht, Scnaoo ia fi da wiaima, Onaeiataic neosfiraires 
com voce isiuta. 

And 



^2 DUB HAM. 

beeD €leAioed and plundered by tbe Commtssioiien of Heory tbe 
Eighth, who liitmelf ordered the sanctified relics of St. Cntbbert 
" to be buried in the ground under the place where his shrine was 
exalted."* A large blue stone, placed in the centre of the floor, 
is n^porled to cover the often- removed bones of tbe venemted Saiat. 

Tbe 

And afterwards; 

-4* Trinut et Uois Dcos Evangelium hoc ante sscula comtitoit. 
4- Mattheus ex ore Chiiiti scripsit. 
+ Marcus ex ore Petri scripsit. 
+ Lucai dc ore Petri Aponoli scripsit. 

+ Johannes in prochemio deinde eructavlt verbum, Deo donante, et 
Spiritu sancto, scripsit. 

Then follows a Saxon writing, signifying that it was the work of the above 
Edfrid, Ethelwold, Bilfrid, and Aid red. This truly venerable piece of antt* 
qoity was prrscrx'cd in the Cathedral till the Reformation. It afterwards fcH 
into the hands of Sir Robeit Cotton, and isyet prenenred in his Coltection in tbe 
fiiitish Museum. Iiutckinscm*s Dtuham^ Vol, It. p. 245. 

♦ Davies*s Ancient Rights and Monuments^ Ac. p. 149, cd. 1671, The 
talc of the incorruptibility of St. Cuthbert's body is also pieseived by this au* 
ihor, as follows. •' The sacred shriuc of holy St. Cuihberl was defaced at the 
visitation which Dr. Lee, Dr. Hrnlcy, and Mr. Bbthman, held at Durham, for 
the subverting such rnonuments, in the time of Henry the Eighth, at his sup- 
pression of the Abbeys. There were found many worthy and goodly jawcls, 
but especially one precious stone, which, by the estimate of those then visitors, 
and their skilful lapidaries, was of value sufT^cient to ransom a prince. After 
the spoil of his ornaments and jewels, coming near urito his body, thinking to 
have found nothing but dust and bones, and finding t!ie chest that he lay in very 
strongly bound with iron, the goldsmith, taking a great forge hammer of ■ 
smith, broke the said chest; and when they had opened it» they found hiqa 
lying whole, uncorrupt, with his face bare, and his board, as it were^ ofaforC- 
right's growth, and all his \e&tment$ about him as he was accustomed to say 
mass, and his metwand of gold lying by hin). When the goldsmith perceived 
he had broken one of his legs, as he broke open thechtst, he was troubled at it, 
and cried, ** Alas! 1 have broken one of his l^-ga." Dr, Henley, bearing him 
say so, called upon him, and bid him cast down his bon<^ Whereto tbe other 
answered, that he could not get them asunder; for the sinews and the skin held 
them 10 that they would not come asunder. Then J>r« Lee atepptd up, to tee 

whether 



DURHAM. » S3 

The Cft^l of the Nine Altars, which temimates the Cathednl 
cMl«aid, is entered from the side aisles of the Choir, hy a de»» 
oem of aeveral steps. Its length is 130 feet; its breadth, from 
the aoecB of the high altar, 5 1 feet ; thus making the entire length 
of the hnikliiBg 411 feet. The pilasters of this transept, from 
vhich rise the groins of the roof, are of an angalar pro- 
jedioo, light and elegant : on each side of the great window the 
pilasters consist of a cluster of small circular columns, one of 
hs|ger dinwnaioiis m front, and six on each side, to form the pro- 
jecting single. ** The several columns composing the clusters, are 
hcanlifully contrived to relieve the eye from the general mass; 
thej ataoding in part dear of the body of the cluster, but con- 
nected to it hy their bases, bands, and capitals, which, with the 
libs of the groins springing from them, are enriched whh foliage 
and Howers.** Every other column ** is of black marble, the 
ialeraiediate ones of white free stone, which had a beautiful ef- 
fect before they were, from the mistaken zeal of ReAHtnation, 
daobed over, and concealed as they now remam, with washing and 
ekcf.f* Thb portion of the Cathedral received its mme from the 
Nina Ahais erected beneatli the windows on tlie east side, and 
dedicated to vaiioos saints. The decorations of these altars, as 
they appeared previous to the Reformation,, have been thus 
dcKribed. ** The Nine Altars had their several screens, and co- 
vers of vraiosoot over-head; having likewise between every altar, a 
very fiur and large partition of wainscot, all varnislied over with 

D 3 &>e 

vhdhcr it wcic so, and turning ftbout» ipake in Latin to Dr. Henley, that h^ 
waf entire; yet Dr Henley aeemed not to give credit to his words, but still 
cried to have his bones cast down. Then Dr. Lee made answer, ** If you will 
DOC hdicvc IBC, come up yoursdf, and see him." Whereupon Dr. Henley did 
fttp ap, and handle him, nd found that he lay whole; Then he commanded 
thca to Cakn him down ) and so it happened, contrary to their expectation^ that 
Ml only hia body was whole, and uncorrupted, but also that the vestments, 
trhrrein his body by, and wlieiein he was accustomed to say mass, were fresh, 
ufe, and not consumed." 

^ Accooat of Porham Cathedral^ published by the Society of Antiquaries, 

f Hutchinson's Durham. Yol. 11. p. 854. 



54 vmtLUAH^ 

ine Wiodicfl and iowers, and other imagery wrark, eoaliiiiiog He 
•everti lockyers and anberies lor the sa& keeping of the vertmeats 
and omaoMnts belonging to Uie altar, with three or four IMe 
ambeties in the wall, for the same use and purpose/ Bc€k» the 
great centre wndow, it appears also, that nine cressets, or hMpa, 
were suspended, whose light was so great, as to make tiftry put 
of the Church Waibke during the whole time Ibey were kept 
bomk^. 

Many distinguished prelates, add other enunent persons, htfe 
been interved in this Cathedral, and then: remahis covemd wMi 
beautiful tombs and brasses, which have mostly been swept away 
by the hands of sacrilege or fanaticism, sbce the d^ of Hemy 
the Eighth : the principal monument now remaining, is that to the 
aaemory of Bishop Hatfield, on the sonth side of the choir. The 
baseibent story of the episcopal throne serres as a canopy to the 
altar-tomb of this prelate, whose effigies is in fine preservatkm, 
and haH been thus described by Mr. Carter* ** This beauMU 
statue has fortnn^tlely been presenred in a neaily perfect state to 
Ihb time ; a few of the most prominent parts having only suAred . 
The Bishop is habited in his episcopal dress, richly adorned with 
sculpture, pamtii^, andgiUKng, in imitation of embroidery. The 
outer garment is the chasuble in its ancient ample form, and 
nsuch ornamented. On bis himds are the episcopal gloves, em^ 
broidered on the bade;, on hb kft arm is the maniple. Beneath 
the chasuble is the linen alb, er surplice ; and under that appevtrs 
another garment or tunic, on which are richly embroidered three 
shields of arms. On the central shield are the arms of England ; 
in the two lateral ones, the Bbhop's own coat The honor of 
bearing the arms of England in thb manner, seems a proof of the 
high estimation in which this magnanimous prelate was held by 
hb sovereign^ and perhaps might have been granted to him m con* 
seqoence ai the di^inguished part he bore in the signal victory of 
Weville's Cross. The feet of the Bbhop are covered whh rich, 
embroidered shoes ; and on his head b the mitre, of its ancient 
low form." The painting and gilding which adorned the statue, 
as ^^11 as the emblazonments and arms which ornameuted the 

VI hole 



whAM^Mik, imMlvailMyluMeBMddttfiK^edlq^atUdit^ 

8oae btstHiMiy eraamtnted Ddomn^t, la tbe NernMm s^ 
mtt eoonected with diffieteot parts of the Cathedral; two of tfann 
iMfe been thus described io tbe acGOMit publUiad by tbe Sodety 
of Aflt^imics, which is also aecompaniad by efatatiuns and 
grsoid'pbaB. ^ The proportion of the door entering mto tbe 
noftb cMtter, floni tbe west end of the sooth aisle, b very strilt- 
mg, and it faasinueh theoir of a Romao arch. Ob eaeh side the 
: are three eolnauis: the two eiterior oms are uoilsd in an 
mode. Tb^ ore covered wttb diagonal moulding^i 
wfaicby by neeting at the uoltoof tbe eobmio, fonndianMMid pan» 
The single column on the left has loacoge pauoels (daced 
eaeb Mbd with a flovmr. That on d^ right has 
filled with flowers, and divided by beads : tbe or* . 
of both the capteals are varied. The architiaye is divi- 
ded into three parts; the Ant and seeood baive the cbtgonal or 
s%flig: the extotiordifidon is of uaconunon&rm; it consists of f 
sort of semi-octagonal band. The two obtiqne'liices are bsttsm sd 
flte carettos: tbe middle fkce is flat, and enriched with lenvesk 
Over aD are laid hirge pateras^ ornamented with floweti and 




The second door opens from the north side of Ifaa rteistfii fan 
lo tbe east end of the sooth sisle of tbe nave, and is equally rich 
and smgidar hi its decorations with tbe former. ** The three cao^ 
hiams on each side stand on a smbase: theit shaAs are plain, and 
their capitids rather of a simple Amn; Ibey are defaebed fvom the 
wall in the manner of tiie early English style : within tfiem is a 
flat ground, hi wfiteh is flie opening of tbe doorwiqr* Tbisgronnd 
is highly enriched wMh an uncommon variety of thn diifanal 
Bsoulding, edged with beads; and with soses in tbe pannds. Aa 
naccountafale irregularity of design occurs in the leMiand of the 
areh: tbe ai c biti ar e is Avided into four parts; tbefital^ aca* 
retto, with detached roses; the second is a bold convex, eooesed 
nidi a double finett, beaded ; the third is also convex, with a turited 
band, also bended; tbe exterior is likewise convex, and resembles 

D 4 < a bundle 



S6 .0VftK4V. 

abaodleoftwigf, wkb tIttjfoiiiigtiiooteMililbiif l«ii«i.09tjBflr 
short: these twigs are also beaded. Thb ornament jsMfi, hymnm 
small parts yet remauung, to hare been oontmue4 on each side, 
Ofer other arches." 

The ClouterM acyoin the Cathedral on the south, and were 
erected between the years 15ft9 snd 1438, at the expence «>f 638L 
17s. fid. sax hundred of which was paid by Bishop. Skiriaw, apd 
the remainder by Cardinal Langley. They form ,a qoadraagle 
of 147 feet, having eleven oped windows iu each,fi:oot, the omUiona 
and traocty of which were repaired m the pointed s^le some jemf 
ago. They are ceiled with panneb ci Irish oak, originally orna- 
mented with embUizoned shields of the anus of various illu^triout 
personages, who contributed to enrich the Church by their benevo- 
lence or piety : scarcely any of these embellishmenta are n^w di»* 
tioguishable. 

On the west side the cloisters is the Dormiiory^ whidi is entered 
by a flight of stone steps, and is an apartment of veiy hurge pro* 
portions, but ill lighted, and desokite in its aspect Under the 
dormitory were the song school and treasuiy ; in whichy, accordii^ 
to Mr. Hutchinson, are lodged, ** about ninety royal charters 
and grants, flAy-two deeds by nobles and barons, and 266 by iiv 
ferior gentry; about 131 by popes, bishops, priors, &c. and 130 
other origuMl deeds and copies : altogether 670. 

On the east side of the cloisters was tlie Fratei^house, or 
Monk's Hdl, which Dean Sudbury converted into an elegant 
Idbrary for the Dean and Chapter about the year l680. This 
apartment has just been repaued; and the excellent collection of 
books destined to fill its shelves are at present in confusion. Va- 
rious Roman uiscriptions, found in the bishopric, and in the adi> 
joining county of Northumberland, are here deposited ; as weU as 
many rrcords and curiosities, and among them a copy of Magna 
Charta, dated 13th November, 12l6; another, dated 11th Febru- 
ary, 1324; (firom these Judge Blackstone made his coUations ;) 
a manuscript copy of the Bible, in four volumes foUo, 600 years 
old; and Bede's five books of History, of the sanie date. 

The 



57 

The aS^tfier^Bbtmf wkiefa «tood on the east side of die dob- 
Im, war nosliy puBed down during tbe bte lepeiis of die Gblbe* 
dnl : its fenn vm an obking square^ termitMiting io a semi-cirde 
towards die east Its iotcmal arrangement is spoken of as bearing 
^ a stiinng fesemblanoe to tbe most andent Cbri«tian diuidies.* 
In Ibis buildiog manj of tbe aneient Prelates* were entombed; and 
i^gaast tbe east end was the stone chair, or throne, in whkh the 
new Bishops were installed. 

Fpon tbe doisters is a passage leacVog to a spacious oblong 
square, caHed the CoikgCy which occnpies the roost pleasant pait 
of the dty, and is chiefly inhabited by persons whose offices al» 
tach them to the Cathedral. Here is the Deanery and iVekn* 
dol houses: the latter being well built, and partly modem, have m 
very respectable appearance. Tbe Deanery was formerly the 
IVioff's Jodgiogs; but scarcely any of the apartments remain un* 

altered: 

* Tbegeoenl burial-place of the Mooks wm the Cemetery, or Gentry Cartk, 
which extended eastward from the Chapter House ; and io which was placed 
the Siooe Croas of St. Ethelwold, said to have been removed from the church 
at Liodiafaroe. In the Cathedral church- yard, which ranges on the north side, 
amoog numerous other meiborials of departed mertt, is an ahar-tomb to the 
nenoTy of tbe respected author of tbe Scooomy of Human Life^ aad other 
esteemed works; with this ioscriptioo, compgsed by Joseph Speoce, A.' M, 
ProficMor of Modem History U Oxford. 

If you have any respea 
For uncommon Industry and Merit, 

Regard this Place \ 

Io which are interred the Redlains 

Of 

Ma. RoBiRT Dodsliy; 

Who* u an Author, raised himself 

Much above what could have been expected 

From one in bis Rank of Life, 

And without learned Education : 

And who» as a Man, was scarcely 

Exceeded by any, in Integrity of Heart, 

And Purity of Manners, and Conversation. 

He left this Life for a better 

^ptefnber t3d, 17^^, in the 6]st Ye^r of his Ag^ 



If wjUBsmk 

mi hM% ben chum trripeJ by n mtdat aitfi(» urn *^ Hnstefw 
fkct rf maaoanf :" iti fena is oftiagtthtf» aoi ili dimf niwi irry 
lifge. Tbt rarf m viBlteily iad» in iti |—iuf coMlnniyy it n^ 
waMn the Abbof i kMno at Gkatoahuy. At tlw upper 6b4 
#f theiqiiare is a neat foufltaia, er i Cief fo i r » for tupplyiaf the 
Mgfabosring fainilits with water, wWdi iftbroagbt im pipe»fto«i 
Elvet Moor, about a oiUe distant. 

The stone Gateway at the entmce of Ae CaHege fion the 
BaOeya Waa encted by Prior Caslell, abbot the year 151S. 
Abote it was the Chapel of St. Heleni and the old Eaclieipierv 
where all the rents resenred in the chapter leaats am oMde piyw 
ablew 

When die possessions ofthe Benedictine Piiory, estaMished here 
hy Bishop Carilepho^ were snrrendeied to Henry the Eighth, m 
the year 1540, the whole endowment ofthe See^ amounted to up- 
wards of 28211. annually; and though m the time ofthe Com- 
monosreahh, episcopal estates to the amount of 6s,l2il. 15s. 9d. 
were sold by the Parliament's Commissioners, the revenues of thia 
Church are still of greater value than those of any other bishop- 
ric in Engkmd. In 1541, Henry the Eighth granted a new 
fnindalion charter, difectuig, that the Cathedral Chttieh,t instead 
of being dedicated, as befbre, to the Biessed Mary tki Vir'^ 
gin, and Si. Cuthbert the Bishop, should thenceforth bear the de^ 

nominatioa 

* The iimiul revenues of the canvcat, accoritag to Dugdale, were valued at 
1366I. lOs. 5^. aocofdiag to Speed, at i6i^. 14s. tod. 



f At the dimensioos of the various parts of the Cathediil have hitherto 1 
ooTy incidentally mentioned, it may be expedient to give t connected view of 
the different admeasurements. The entire length of the structure, exclusive of 
die Galilee, is 41 1 feet; the length of the nave is a6o feet; iu width 74; and tta 
height 69 feet, six inches ; the cross aisle at the west end ofthe nave, is 90 feet 
long, and 18 wide from the centres of the columns : the length of the middle 
transept is 170 feet; and its width, including its side aisles, 57 : the length of 
the choir is no feet, its widih 74 : the east transept, or Chapel ofthe Nine Al- 
tars, is 130 feet fong, and ^1 wide: the height of the great tower is 114 feet; 
that of each of the west towers, 138 : the extent of the Galilee, from cau to 
west, is 50 feet; from north to south, 80 feet. 



DtTBHAlC. 59^ 

\ ^fbttCtAeina^Ckria and BUsfedMaryAe Virgm: 
Md tkit it AbvM be gofemed hj a Dmr and twelve Prebetida- 
mSk The ertab Hai w oeB f, bemdes the Dean and Pkrebendaries, con* 
jiite ef ti*o A r cii d e ac ons, twelve minor Canons, a Deacon, Sub« 
dcacoi^ sixlteD Siagmfr-nKn, a Master of the Choristers, ten Cho- 
fli^tn, a Difimlj Reader, eight Ahns-meii, two Masters of the 
Gflammar School, eighteen Scholars, two Vergers, two Porters, 
t«N> SeatOM, and two Barbers.* 

b the seventh j^eer of Edward ffie Sixth, an act of Pkrliamesl 
was obtaiDed, through the iaflcieace of the Duke of Nortbamber* 
hod, bj wfakfa the Bbhopric of Durham was dissolved, and aB 
** the laoda and poisesNons thereof were given to the King, with 
MdKHity, by Letters Patent', to treet two new bishoprics ; one at 
Dai haw, with 9000 marks iwenae; and the other at Newcastle, 
with 1000 amrlu revenoe ; together with a deanery and chapter 
lhere.'*t Thia act was pracared bj the Duke imder the ptea, 
Aat the Bishoprie was too hirge , and thHf one Prehite was insu^ 
ficicat for its proper govermnent; bat the Km^ dying soon after^ 
wards, it was nei^ earned into execulioft ; and af^er the accession 
if Qpeen Mary it was lepealed, and the Bishop ** reinstated in Iiis 
See, aod all the county palatine regalities, and jurisdictions, both 
i and temporal."! From 



* WUltf informs ui, <*that the King, convening the Priory into a College of 
Sccnkrt, assigned his new Dean and Prebendaries their respective aptstmeati 
•«t of the old Monastery, within the precinis of which the Bishop, 'Dcao, Pm# 
beadancky aod other members, have very good bouses^ the best of any cafhc4ial 
IB England, according to the dignity of the Prabcnda, which arereputad bmik 
rkhly endowed than any other church, owing to the members allotting thtm« 
•dvcs, at first, their /espective dividends orshares out of the chapter Unda^ aaA 
not having them in common i by which practice (in this sole chunch of tiie new 
fbandatioo) some Prebends are of more value than others; wliereas to the tmt 
ihry aic all equal, as they night be here possibly at first, though the improve 
9eDts of estates have made a disproportion, as U now contiouea." 

Survey tfOuhedrtif^ yol k^W^ 
f How's Annala. 

I « This net for restoring the Bishopric aod Conoty Palatine to its ancieni 
ojCe, met vith gwat oppositton, King Edwvard having granted away grctt part 
of thr lioda of the Blshoprick, many whereof were confirmed by Parliament} 

but, 



(>a DfJRHAM. 

. From the Cathedral on the north extends an , ofutt acea^ caUed 
the Place, or Palace Green, on the north side of which ts tlie 
Cast LB, now the residence of the Bishop whenever he visite Dnr- 
ham. This structure stands on the ^outinuatiOB of the same 
rocky eminence on which the Cathedral b built, and from its up* 
per apartments, commands some very fine views of the city, and 
surrounding country. Whether this spot was fortified before the 
time of William the Conqueror, is uncertain; but its fiivorable si. 
1 nation for defence renders the affirmative extremely probable. 
The fortifications which or^inally surrounded the city mcluded 
the whole summit of the hill, the outward wall extending along 
the very brink of the eminence, and forming an oval figure,' 
abruptly temunated at its northern extremity by the Caitle. The 
most ancient part of the structure is the keep, or tower, whieh oc- 
cupies the top of an artificial mount, and is supposed to have been 
<^ Norman construction ; though Hutchinson, from '* the routes 
which ornament the summits of the buttresses, and the form of the 
windows,*^ is more inclined to refer its erection to Bishop Hal- 
field. The form of the keep b that of an Irregular octagon ; it» 
diameter, in the widest part, sixty-three feet, six-inches; and in- 
the narrowest, sixty-one feet. It b now a mere shell ; but appears 
to have contained originally, four stories or tiers of apart ments^ 

exclusive 

bat, after many warm debates, It at length passed by a division of aOi against 
ito. The preamble to the bill sett forth, * that ceruin ambitious persons, ta- 
king advantage of the late King's minority, made an interest by sinister practicca 
t» procure a diunlution of the Bishoprick: that it was done out of mercenary 
views, to enrich themselves and friends, by seizing the lands of the See, rather 
tha* opoD just occasion and godly aeal: that Cuthbert Tunstall, Bishop of 
Durham, was deprived upon undue surmises, and false accusations, and that the 
process against him was (alseaod illegal, Ac. That the Queen had new found. 
ed the Bislioprick by her Letters Patent, and restored all the lands in her pos« 
session; but that as neither the sentence of deprivation, nor the Queen's Letters 
Patoit, were of sufficient force to recover the lionoiirt, lands, &c to the See of 
Durham, therefore, to restore the Bishoprick to its former interest, privilegea, 
sad re^'cnuet, thetwo dissolution statutes of the last reign were thereby repealed." 

Stdtutts at Ltrge^ \, M,C, 3. 



► H«»tory of Durham, Vol, U. p. a86. 



atimm of a ms^B$ of n»lta, vMch ritt firom ikut <biiiida6oii« 
Tbe m^tn ve Mpportiil by buttresses; aed a parapet, deftuded 
.by an enbattied bmMt-work^ has run round tbesunmitof tbawbok 
JbnMing ; bat this having beeome very niiaou$» was taken &9mm, 
by tbe diraetioa of Bishop Thurlow, in tlie year 1789 : tbe princi- 
ptl entrance was on the west side. The perpendicuhir heifbt af 
ibe OMMMit on which it stands, is (orty-lbnr £set ; round Ihifr sfinee 
three pleasant temces have been formed, each ten feet w]de» and 
ownmnnimling with each other by fl^^hts of steps. 

The buildings which now constitute the Castle, liave been etecr 
led at vniious times, and by diffiereut persons, and have conso- 
qnently but veiy little uniformity. Some pails, which had suf> 
iered 1^ fiie, were restored by Bishop Pndsi(y, who acceded to 
the Biihopfic in the year 1153. He is also supposed- to have 
everted tbe first hall; but this, with other parts oi tlie Caslle, goi%| 
to decay, a new and more magnificent ball was built by Bishop 
ItefieJd, the original length of which is recorded to have been 
JSOymrda.^ From this apartment the present Uull has been 
fonned, which is of estensive proportions; its length being ISa 
fiet, ita beigfat tlartysin, and lU breadth fitly. Withm it are 
Mne casta of busts from tbe antique ; and wlMrto4ength poitiaits 
af the Archbishops, Ckanmsb, Pabkes, Wuitgift, Bjji. 
caovT, and Laud ; and of John Overall, Bishop of Norwich; 
JoBN CoaiN, Bishop of Durham ; and Launcblot Akdebw% 
Biihop oi* Winchester, Mai\y additions and alterations were i^iad< 
by soGcecdii^ ptdates, and particularly by Bishop Tunstall, wb^ 
cRded a gateway and .tower on tbe side of the Place Green, and 
Asuked it on each side with a strong wall: be also built a sniaU 
chapel, and made various other improvements. Additional apait<» 
menls were erected by Bishop Qosin ; and further alteratioos hava 
been sinco effected, by which the internal arrangement and appear- 

aim 

* In this af»9«tm<fM, on tlie cnHtitNiicMi^i) of Biihop Burv, ffi«t VttUit cn« 
tmanni the King and (2"C«o of Eaglwd, the JCiof of Scotland, the two 
Mctvopolavu^ and By^ other Bubopti seven Earli, with their Ladiet; allth« 
Nobility north of Trent; wiUi« vaUconcourieof Knight», l^sqtiires, and othct 

»p'c of diuinction; among whom were many A1)jou, Puor^, and oihci :«• 



t 



J 



it jrOSMAV. 

nee cfT riie MMhgs iMite bm fliodi aHiettdeil. tMkt^4t- 
foctkiu of Shote Bari'iB|[tcMi, the pwtent Hnop^MW Mhpfovciiietils 
iHfe been imde; wk4 a most tie wrifat ilivAiD^ im the giMefy, 
■apposed to have t>eeii «topt «p aeteral ceoturm, -agrin opened!, 
and repmred. This is one of the most perfect flpeeifMns of Anglo- 
Horasan arcbitectare eztant; and may be regarded as uni^ne, not 
wiky from the beauty of the pattern, bat also from the ** naaibt r ^ 
the mouhfings, the variety of the ornaments, and the nicety of the 
workmanship.'' Varions paintings are distriboted on the stair- 
case, and through some €f the apartments, hot not any of them 
snerit particubr notke ; the principal ornaments of this description 
htmg at the Ptehioe at Bishop's Auckland. 

Contiguous to the keep, on the east, is the great KoHh Oa$t^ 
«Mt)f, a v«ry riiOTt fiibric, erected by Bishop Langley, and now 
vsed as the jail. The outward, or lower part, was defended I9 m 
^gate and portcullis; withia which is a recess, coostracted wilk 
aaMyports and gallenes, lor the annoyaoce of aaasilants, who 
wrightforce the first gate: the upper part was secured by double 
gates. All the other gates of the dty have t>een removed. 

On the west nde of the Place Green is the Exchequer^ a strong 
•quare slooe building, erected by Bishop Neville, about the year 
1^50. Ac^ining it is the Bishop'i Lihrwy, bttth by Bishop C^ 
sin, who also greatly coiftrfliutcd towards ereetiag tiie Law 
CouTt9 sonth €^ the library, where the assises, quarter sessiousy 
&c. are held. The court for the trial oii Crown causes was much 
entorged m the year 1791. On the opposite side of the Green b 
an Hospital, or Alms-house, for eight poor men and womew, 
founded by Bbhop Cosin in the year 1^6 ; and adjoining it, at 
each end, a School-house, rebuilt about the same period by the 
above prelate, but originally endowed by Bishop Langley. 

FVom the Place Green is an avenue leading to the pubhe walo^ 
called the Banks^ which skirt the river, and were made, and are 
kept in repair, by the munificence ^ the Dean sod Chapter. 

These celebrated walks ^ accompany the bendiug of the stream^ 
and command several interesting peeps at the city, and its august 
ornaments, the Castle and Cathedral The banks rocky and ab- 

VXjfi 



mfimmt1miiA,9adii^mggi9ay 19 Urn tim on tl^t^tter, 

im^mtti kf a mlfw 4e|plb of itedet Mquislerad and ictiKd, 

M tW loiaMriiiile fle%libo«riiood of A busy iceoe of Mc^^ 

«i«lf«ttttftliciw>itb«iitifulaiidi«ne«UemUui«, Tht vanety 

of the toiiMt whkfa tbey open also k remarkaUe; dtep glad^ 

and solemn dells; scarred rock, and verdant lawn; ^Ivan ||ladoB| 

and fro«d caslrflaled edifices. From the elegant new bridge, 4ie 

iMlBiMiiiomd fcatttPe is seen to gnat eiact ; tbe Caslle and C» 

Ihadfil kAeui tbeir baMemanU and luireta together, and me »ilb 

iMOBOtivaiile B^jesty from the sacred groves which clothe tbeic 

iDcky fcu«dations> The ooabiimtioa Jiene of trees and V'^i'rgri 

r and nek, hooM sylvaa scenery and fine distance, is at mtm 

laadgfand.*^ 

Ibe BkUge BMntioned ia the pneeeding eatraef , is an efeganC 

tmctad between the yearn 1772 and 1777 f fmn 

( of Mr. Geoige NkMsoa, then arohiloct to the Dasn 

and Chapter, at whose expenoe it was baMt The old MdfBb 

at sanM distance higherap the fiver, and was onlf of 

t eriAh for tbeoassMg of fiid passengeit and hocsesi was 

iaw^bymdisadfal flood, that coaunaocadon the aftei^ 

wmn :^the siateeath of Nomnhor, 1771, and ennthmod to jisa 

til ahant-ooe o'clook the neat tnofaiog. By this time the hodf 

ef wMr ted become ao iasnsense, thsU the arehes of Slvat Bffidg^ 

being partially fhsahsd ap with mbhirii, wnald not admit #f its 

flowing off; and its weight lasoed 4own a long waU nearly acyoin- 

iag* The tosntft, then tasfaing focward with ineseasiag vdodf^)^ 

arfBBiit aoch a vast in^Mlas, that seaecely any tinngooidd wiik> 

stand its prcsanre. Poor arches of the bridge were swept awi^ 

and att tkc lewcr buildings of tim city, garden walls, ^. either 

, nr left in a wary minoas ooaditiaD. When the flood 

, in aim coarse of the day, all the low hiiids aboat HouglMli 

Set. were stftsiod widi the carcases of dtoaaied catllo^ 

ami the ^brdges cofered with com and hay, that had been washed 

down by the ir«^; which rose eight feet, ten inches, higher 

thin had erer been recorded in the aanab of Durham. Aa 

scarcely 
• W«roer't Nottbern Tour, yol. X. 



64 l^URtfAW, 

•earcely any wet bad fttleti durmg HifenX days, Whliiii mny tilBe» 
of (be city, Tarknis irasons were assigiied Ibr fhiii riliimdhwij! 
iiundation; but the most probable was, that it wu oocanooed by 
a yiolent and abnost incettant rain, whkh had debged the watt* 
cm parts of the couDty, and ks neighbourhood, otar the soorces of 
oie nver« 

Besides the new Bridge, there are two others at XKubam^ catted 
Framweli-gaie Bridge^ and Elvet Bridge. The former was eree^ 
ed by Bishop Flambard, about the year 1 120« and is a very ex- 
cellent piece of masonry. It consists of a << pier, and two eHip- 
tkal arches, of ninety feet space, so flat as to be constructed on 
the quarter section of a circle, calculated to suit the low shorea 
OD each side.* Elvet Bridge consists of nine or ien arches; it wia 
buHt by Bishop Pudsey, and repaired in the time of Bishop Foi» 
who granted an indnlgeace to all who should contribute towarda 
tiie expence : upon or near it wtre formerly two chapels, dedi« 
catcd respeeihrely, to St. Janws, and St. Andrew; ' 

Independently of the Cathedral, Durham contams sia cfaaicheB; 
Ae principal of which is that dedicated to St. NickoliUf ad i 
structure, situated on tlie south side of the market place. It t 
sisis of a nave and side aisles, with a square tower standiagiyNt^aka 
aottth-west angle. Here were the seats for the body coiy^nfe^ 
and various city companies ; but the whole buildmg being now un* 
4er repair, all' the iolemai parts have been renoioved. 

In the old register book of this pamh, under the year 1592, ia 
Ae following remarkable entry. <« Simsoo, Arington, Fetbeiw 
stone, Feowicke, and Lancaster, xvere hanged far being Egy^ 

The causes of this, apparently, detestable pvocedure, can oolj 
be ondeffstood from a retrospective view of the difierent licts under 
which they suffered. By the first, passed- in the twenty-second 
year of Henry the Eighth, the Egyptians are thus described : 

^< Forasmuch 



* lo mother part of the register, the same event U recorded in these words : 
** 1599, Simson, Arln^on, Fetherstonc, Fcnwicke,and Lancatter, Ecyptiaci^ 
suspensi/ueruni snrto SMpradicto^ August 8. 



BUBHAM. 65 

^FdnBiouGfa as before this time, diters and maoj outlandish 
|ieople, calling themselves Egyptians, using no craft, nor feate of 
merchandise, have commen into this realm, and gone from shiie 
hi abire, and place to place, in great companies, and used great 
siibtfltie a. d crafHe meanes to deceive the people, bearing them 
in band that they, bj palmestrie, could tell mens* and womens* 
lorloQcs, and so many times, by crafl and subtiltie, bave de- 
ceit the people of thenr money ; and also have committed many 
and bainotn felonies and robberies, to the great hurt and d^it 
ef Ibe people Aat they have commen among : Be if," &c. It is 
then enacted, that no such persons be permitted to enter the 
n-ilm, mider the penalty of forfeiture of all property, and of sub- 
seqoenf imprisottment, should they remain in the kingdom longer 
than Meen days after the cdmauncUment, 

This act being inadequate to its purpose, as appears from the 

f teamUe of the statute of the first and second of Philip and Maty, 

flip. 4, which commences thus : ** Forasmuch as divers, calling 

ffkemaehes Egyptians, not fearing the penahie of the statute 22 

Ifcny S, cap. 10, have come over again into this realm, using 

t idr o/</, accustomed^ divcllish, and naugky devices, with such 

• homhable limn^ as is not in any christian realm to be permitted,** 

&e. it was then ordained, that any one *^ transporting, bringing. 

Or conveying in, any such persons,^ should forfeit Ibrty pounds 

f nr every such offence ; and that every Egyptian so brought into 

t\h fcakn, who should continue ** by the space of one moneth,** 

^loiild tuAr death. The same punishment was also decreed 

vgwHl all Egyptians, or persont commonly called Egyptians, that 

slMvId be tbvod wilhm England and Wales forh/ days after pro- 

cbMMtioo of the act ; unless the said persons should " leave that 

Muglity, idle, and ungodly Kfe and company/ 

tMj in the time of Elizabeth, a doubt had arisen. Whether 
tbe peaaMes of the statute of Philip and Mary extended to per- 
imis " home wilM* the Queene's dominions, and 'l>eing of tliat 
Irllowtbip, by disgnising their apparell, and counterfeiting their 
ipeecb and behavioar f to remove wUch, it was enacted, (anno 
6 Cfii. cap. 20,) that every person who shall associate '' m any 

VoIm V. E companie 



66 DURHAM. 

compsMiie or fdlowship of vagabonds, comnMMily called, or c»U« 
ing themselves Egyptians^ &c. and doe contiDue and remaioe in 
the same, either at one time, or at several times, by the space of 
one moneth, sbal therefore suffer pains of deatk." No further 
particulars, of the person^ i^ientiooed in the register are known ; 
though their names warrant the supposition of their hafing 
been bom in this country. 

The Church of St. Mafy-le-Bow^ or Eoughf is situated on tlie 
east side of the North Bailey ; according to tradition, on tbe same 
mot where St. Cuthbert*s remains were lodged, m a tabemade of 
boughs aiid wands, when they were first brought by the monks to 
Qurham. The present edifice was built about the noddle of the 
seveuteeuth century, and opened for divine service in the year 
l6S5 : it is a neat, uniform building, without aisles, and fbmialH 
ed with a good organ. 

Si, Oswald's Chi^h is an ancient structure, occupying a fipe 
elevated situation on the eastern banks of the riviur, in that part of 
the suburbs called New EJvet : it consists of a nave, chanceli 
and side ablcs. The roof b of lyood, curiously yaulted, jointed 
with rose knots; the rafters sustained on brackets, orDamented 
witl^ cherubs, bearing shields : thb is supposed to ba?e been con- 
structed by William de Catten, who was vicar in the year 1411 ; 
but ilic body of the edifice must have been built long prior to that 
jperfodp as one Dolsinus occurs as priest here so early as 1156. 
In the windows is a great qpantity of painted gbtts, btit imd^ 
jnutiblod. 

$i. Giles's Church is, apparently, of remote origin; it liavkif 
BO aisles, and much resembling the old churci^ at Jarrow, beiQg 
narrow, long, and lofty: its lengUi is thirty paces, and its width 
seven. On the south side are six irregular wjndows; and on tbe 
north side, two. In the chancel is a recumbent effigy, cu| in 
wood, traditknially sakl to belong to one pf the Hetnk fiuDily, 
buried here in 1591. It represents a male figmt in rtwaylrtr ar- 
moor, the hands elevated^ and tbe head restk^ i^khi an hehnet, 
with a bear'spaw for tbe crest. On one of the bells is said to be 

an 



m ii Mc ii pli ott io'SuMi charaeters^ The views from tlit clnitch* 
jiid bsve been thus ^kserflbed by Mr. Hutcbinson. 

•« Tbe mv^er wIk> k oanducfed to tlus ckurch, should be ad- 
iMttcd at tht north door, tad depart from tfie south door, where 
a BoUe pcospeot opens to the vtew, too estensive ' for a pictiiie» 
aad too rich -for desenptioa. Tbe hmdeqoate ideas which ban 
goi^ can con^y, are to he kmeated by the r^adi^ who has a 
laste fer raral heaaties^ aad the ekgiaiee of hmdseape. Tbe 
Cfaardi ofSl. 6fl^ stafeids apow very elevMedgrouad, opea lotibe 
soodi, where the view k uaobstructed. la fit^nt, tbe ttKWlow 
grounds fcnn a deep descent to the Hver; da One wing dosed b^ 
the wood tailed Felaw Wood; on due othe^ by th^ hoMfrigs of 
the street. At tbe ibot of the hill the ti^t Wear forass a bean^ 
M canal, ahnost a mte m length, termiaated hy fitvet Bri<^ to 
the r^hl, and by the wsoded indMurM of OM Durham on the 
left. On the opposite shore is the Recb drouni, con^istiii^ of aa 
blended tiaet of letel UMads, from whence, by a gradual asoeiit» 
rise the two Blvets; the street of OM Ehtel ttiiu^g parallel, tb^ 
ethor obliquely, botdered with gardens^ and termmated hy Elvet 
Chnrcfa ; a handsome stmctare. The channel of the river lyia^ 
between New Ehet aad the Dallies, affords an l^^reeaMe break or 
change m the objects; the stbpftig gat^as bebig seen over the 
hnikfii^ of Elver, softened to the eye with that pteasug thil 
which the distance produces. On' tbe brink of the iscent standi 
the Baiies, object rising gradoaUy above object, guarded with 
the leflDains of the towb wall, and crowded With tbe eatkedial 
chuitb, which in this view presents the north and east Aonts, like 
dbe naiCie which binds the temples of its pretate,* givfaig the noblest 
Mpreme ornament to the c^xtal of tbe priodpaUty. To tbe i%fat 
BK^ Bridge, with seven arches, reoehres tbe stream, and hiter- 
cepis a fitrther view of tbe progress of tbe river : over it, tiee 
above tier, rise the builifings of Sadler-street, the gloomy and so- 
lemn towen of tbe goal, and the baHlemeut and Od agodhl towet 
af the castle; tbe trophies of civil jurisdiction \veariiig the asp^ 
of old secular authority, and tbe frowns of febdid po#er. B)^ 
fwceo the chief otgects, the- orthednd and castle, on the nearet 

£ 2 back-ground; 



68 DURHAM. 

back-grouod, . Soutb-ttr^t, ^ith its hangiDg gM«iis» mAen m 
fine curvature; behind ivhich Brandon Mount, with a ^t of' high 
bnd) extending towards Auckland, form the boripoo. Further to 
the right, from the bapks ef tiie river, rise the buiMmg9 ot the 
market-place* crowding the tower of tlie church, from whence 
the streets of Claypath and Gillygate extend. Thus far dtiscrip- 
tion has proceeded without much faultering; but in the other di> 
visions of the scene it is faint, and totally inadequate : whoever, 
would know the rest, must come and view it. Over the meadows^ 
in the centre, a precipice rises nearly one hundred perp^icular 
feetui height, called Maiden Castle Scar, or ClUf ; the steep vdes 
«f the bill to the right and left are cov«ired with a forest of old 
daks, and the foot of the cliff is washed by the rifer, whose^ feaa 
appears again at this point. The lofty ridge of hills clptbed with 
oaks, stretching away, forms a flg-<ag figure ; at the most distant 
point of which, the great southern road, up the new inclosed 
grounds of ^vet Moor, is seen climbing the bill for near a mile, 
beyopd which very distant eminences form a blue-tinged horizon. 
To the left of Makkn Castle Cliff you look upoti a rich valley, 
highly cultivated, extending nearly five miles in length, an*l two 
in width, bending to the south-west, through which the river 
winds its silver stream, in the %ure of an S. Haaging woods 
shut in each side of the nearer vale, where are finely disposed, the 
fdeamnt viUage of Shincliff, its bridge of three arches, the villa of 
the late William Rudd, Esq. and Houghall House, The extreme 
part of the valley b closed by the woods of Sbindiff, Butterby, 
aud Crosdale, forming an elegant amphitheatre; over these rise 
distant, hills, lined out with inclosures, giving the yelbw and 
brown tmt to the l andsca p e over the richer colored woods. The 
whole finished with an elevated horizon, on the wings of whjt h ave 
scattered the villages of Ferryhill and Merrington $ the to^ er of 
AUrringtoo Church forming a beaMtiful and lofty obelisk. One 
pf th^ greatest excellencies of this landscape is, that the g ound 
rises gradually before you, and just such a distance u maiataincd 
as preserves all the objects distinct ; not like the landicapea 
painted by the Flemish and Dutch masters. To the left you look 

down 



ckntii upon Old Durhani Honse, its terraces and Iiangng gardens/ 
with H fine bend of coltivated country stretching away through 
aoolher openiog of the hills towards the east, bounded by the high 
i*<oods of Qmirrington, and the cliffs of Coxhoe lime-kilns; more 
rtistic than the other views, and being in simple nature, affords 
a pleasiiig variety to the eye of the man of taste, who stands (If 
we may be allowed the extravagant expression) on this enchanted 
grtHtna,' 

The Ctrardi of 5!f. Margaret, situated in Crossgate, and of 
Little St. Mary, m the South Bailey, display nothing remark- 
able. The Meeting Houses are-mx : these are occupied by the 
lespective denominations of Independauts, Presbyterians, Quakers,* 
Methodirts, and Roman Catholics. 

The Market Place is a small square, having a Guildhall, or 
Tolbooth, on the west side; a P^nt, to supply the inhabitants 
with water, near tlie centre ; and a Piazza, where the corn niar- 
kefa, &c. are hekL on the south. Tlie Guildhall was origmally 
biflh by Bishop l\install, about the year 1555, but has since 
been repaired, and much improved : in the dining-room are por- 
trait of CuAB lbs THE Second, and Bishof Crewe. The 
Rnif, or Conduit, is a stone building, of an octagonal form, 
witb a statue of Neptune on the sunrnrit The water is brought 
frooi an bdosed spring, abour half a mile distant, originally given 
fertile use of the city, in March, 14S1, by Thomas Bitlingliam, 
efChokebagb, Esq. to John Laimd, Alderman of the Guild of 
Corptis Ctiristi, in the Church of St* Nicholas, and bis succes* 
ton, with leave ^ to convey the water to the pant, or reservoir, 
in the market-place, for the use and benefit of the inhabitants, 
paying for the use thereof to the said Thomas, and his successors* 
Ibirteett-peQce annuaffy, on the feast of St. Martin ; provided that 
no water should l>e drawn fVom thence to any otherpart of the city 
except to the Omntor^s house, in tlie market-place.*^ On the 
tweflHy firrt of July, in the same year, Bbhop Neville confirmed 
the above graoty by letters patent, and gave permission " to the 
fmtees to dig in his manor, tor tlie purpose of laying and repair* 
iiy tlie pipes, iccT When the inhabitants had enjoyed the bcnc- 

£3 fit 



7ra V/^BAU. 

fit of the spring nearly 186 years* CvObert Silliag)iaiBt a 4» 
seendant of the donor, hroke op ihe pipes which conveyed tb^ 
water to the pant, and directed its course to his own miUs, at 
Crook-hall, alledging, that '' the dtiseos bad i^fured bis torn 
and grass in coming to the spring, and also had withheld t|ie an- 
nual payment of the thirteeo-pence.'' Oa.lhis* a biU of chancery 
was filed against him by the pitizens, and the cause finally argued 
before Sir Richard Huttoo, Knt Chancellor of the Diocese, wha 
confirmed, the right of the citizens by a decree^ dated Maith 30^ 
1637. The Piazz(i, or Com Market, was constructed with the 
materiids of an old cross, which stood near the conduit, and was 
removed in the year 1781. 

A Dispensary was established, by subscription, at Dutbaiii, in. 
\7S5; and the contributions becoming extremely liberal, the 
trustees deterniincd to extend the charity, by coiivertii^ it into aq* 
liifirmaryy where tlie sick poor should be admitted without 'ex— 
pe^ce; and a large, and more convenient building for that pur* 
pose, was completed about ten years ago, on a piece of ground 
in Allergale, given by Thomas Wilkinson, Esq. of Coxhoe, la 
I790f an act was obtained for lighting, paving, and otherwiae 
improving the city ; and various judick>us alterations have beea 
effected ui^er its clauses. In 179 1 9 a small Theatre was built by 
subscription, in Sadler-gate ; and during the couise of the pa^ 
year, a Swbtcription Jjibrary has been founded, which, to the ho^ 
nor of the Uterary character of the city, bids fair to become proa- 
perous. The recreation of the mhabitants is fiirther provkled for • 
by a RacC'Cmerse; which, from a curious entry* in the Parochial 
Register of St. Nicholas, appears to have been established as early 
as the reign of Charles the Second* 

The original denominaliMi of Durham, after its civil establish*, 
ment, was that of Borough; and its local polity was exercised by 
a.Bailiff, whose appointment remained with the Bishops* In the 

first 

* ** April, 1683. It is ordflre^, that Simon Lackcnby is to keep, in lieir 
of bis Entefcommon Groond, one sufficient Bull for the lue of tke City an4 
Borough Kyne, for three years next ensuing; and to give ten shilliop towards 

• a iilvcr Plttcfor m Count,' * 



of ian oi puu^fam , wMdi was granted by Bishb|> Pbd- 
mjfhmidts other eooskfeiabte privileges, the inlmbitants wer^* 
dk h aig ed from tlie custom of Marchct, or right of the foM o^ 
the waoor, to pask tke first night ivhh every new-made bride. 
Uader Bishop MevHle, tbe chief oflker was styled, Bailiff of the 
titf ef Dwhtm ; and in the year 1565, by a new charter, granted 
by Bhhop PyUngton, the civil jurisdiction was vested in an Al- 
and t#ehe assistant Burgesses. In l602. Bishop' 
by another chatter, ve^ed tlie government in a MayOi*,' 
hvche Aktennen, and twenty-fbnr Conimon-Councilmen ', the 
latter to be chosen yelurl^ by the Aldermen, from the twelve > in- 
coipoiated companies, in equal proportions. This charter was 
rm tmuiti by Jaines the Fbst, and continued in force till 1 68 4, when 
it was sanendered to Bishop Crewe, who immediately granted 
i new charter; but some informality having been discovered iu 
the tonms of surrendering the former one, that was again restored, 
sad c<atiiioc< to direct the actions of the body corporate till the 
jcar 1761, #hen some election stratagems occasioned such divi- 
mm aauMig the corporate officers, that the parties refused to act 
aiA ctth olber, by which means the prescribed number of mem- 
ben coirid net be kept np, and the charter became vacated. 
fnm that time the chy was governed by a Bailiff' till the year 
1760, when Bishop Egerton granted a new charter, dated Octo- 
ber the secood, m which its former govermnent by a Mayor, Al- 
denna, and ConMnOniOduhciliiiMi, with some inferior officers, 
aat re^eslablisbedy and the rights of the dti^ens expl^'ned ai^d' 
coafimed. 

Neither the county, nor the' city of Durham, was represented^ 

ia PulianMtit till the reign of Charles the Second, a circumstance' 

mdoubtedly be ascribed to the vast power and influ- 

of the Bishops as returning members to Parliament was ati- 

ooosidcred as more. grievous and inconvenient, than either 

E 4 useful 

* ** Bdbre tny chatter wm granlr d for tbe govemroent of iht Burgeitts, tht 
tncnX cfifu who exercised their trades within the city, were, under special r^ 
KrictioMt and bye -laws, framed among themselves, and confirmed by the Pie- 
\*m IA wlkose timea they were respectively instituted." Hutchinson, 



nsefiil pr bononible. The exf^i^ioo of lennuBg. MmomI idm* 
more favorable to liberty ; aod what wai ottca a? oided a». a twc- 
tben, was afterwards deoMnded a«a right. U was not, howefer,. 
tOl the year 1673, that this privilege was awaided lo DmihfUH: 
an act was then passed, by which the city aud the ooualy .were 
each authorized to send two nieinbersi and from that period 4hfr 
returns have beeu regularly made. The right of electiDa far the 
dty tt vested in the Mayor, Aktemien, and Fneemeii : the ovm^ 
ber of voters is about 1000. Some illegal proceedii^ in cbo ad* 
miiaon of freemen during a contested election, m the year 17(>2» 
occasioned the passing of the famous Durham act, by which ail 
persons were restricted from voting who had not been ** possessed 
of theh franchise twelve calendar months before the day of eleo» 
tkm ;** excepting those entitled to their freedom by the laistom ot 
the borough. 

The trade of Durham is not extensive ; a few years ago it hada 
woollen mannfactor}', which furnished employment to several 
hundred persons, but has since been wholly abandoned. It also 
|M>sses8ed a large cotton manufactory, established by the Messrs. 
Salvin in the year 1796; yet thb also, afkr greatly sufiering by 
the war, has been entirely destroyed by an accidental fire, thai 
commenced on the morning of the seventh of January, 1$04, and 
in a few hours consumed the very extensive factory that had becu 
built for canyuig it on near St. Oswald's Church. The woulhMi 
business originated in a bequest made to the dty of Durham by 
Mr. Henry Smith, on the twentieth of July, 1598, of all bis coal 
nunes, then of the annual value of lOOl. and a personal estate worth 
600l. The cause of this bequest, to use the words of the Will, 
was, '' that some good trade may be devised for setUng of th« 
youth, and other idle persons, to work, as shall be tbougbt motO. 
convenient, whereby some profit may arise to the benefit of thu 
said dty, aod reliefe of those that are past work." Some }ieaia 
afterwards the trustees commenced a cloth manufactory, wbicli 
was discontinued in l6l9; and a scheme devised to increase tdc 
value of the donation, by applying it to the purchase of land, lu 
I7!>9y tlie proceed;* were again appropriated to establish a cloth 

manufactory, 



, IH/tHAM. YS 

iwmifMitnfy» mA vaiious buikUng^ were elected for tbe eomwtik- 
CBce of llie wcMluneD> mod rectptioD of the tuachiveiy ; but the 
tsUblkhmtnty as already meotiooedy has since entire^ fiiikd: Iba 
CoUiecies have also been many years abaadooed. AmoQ^ ^mavok 
Other bequests for charitable uses in this dty, are those of Bisbfift 
Crewe, and Bishop Wood, of Lichfield : the former ittft lOQL par 
vnouiii, for appreoticing the children of the poor; the latteri 20L 
annually, for the relief of small debtors ; and lOOl. to be laid out 
apoB a reat-cbarge, for the maintenance of the kidigent inbaU* 
tants. The population of the ^'city and town of Durham,'' aa 
letonied under the late act, was 3319 males, and 4211 females. 

With the eminent natives of this city, may be enumerated tba 
picfcst\oRD Auckland ; and Dr. Richard Gbet, author of 
sereial works, apd particohiriy, the Mauoria Tccbnica^ or New 
Method of Artificial Memory, He wa»bom in the year 1693, 
and havii^ received a learned education at Oxford, was promoted 
to several valuable benefices: his death occurred on the 231h of 
Febmaiy^ 177 1 * at the t%e of seventy-eight. 

KEPIEA HOSPITAL, on the banks of the Wear, about one 
nilt north east from Durham, was foumled, in the year 1 11 2, by 
Bishop flauubard, and endowed for the mamteoauce of a Master, 
aid twelve Brethren. The endowments were afterwards coufim^ 
ed by Bishop Pudsey, who also restored the buildings which had 
been consumed by fire in the reign of Stq)heu« At the DissoliH 
tioQ, its revenues were valaed at 18GI. 10s. Od« aud it was then 
granted to Sir William P^et, by lleuiy the Eighth. It aftefr 
wards came, by purchase,. into the family of Ucotk, by whom it 
was sold, b the }ear 1$58, to Ralph Cole, Esq* His sou. Sir Ni» 
dKilas Cole, again disposed of it to the families of Tem|)est, Carr» 
and Mosgrave, whoi»e descendants are yet owi^rs. The only 9^, 
nam of the monastic buildings now standing is the Gateway^ a 
strong and not uuUaudsome piece of masonry, with pointed archer 

About three quarters of a niiie eastward fitmi Durliam, is OLD 
DURHAM, a ^>ot supposed, by Mr. Hutchinson, to ivive beea 
ecfupied by the Saxons prevbusly to the foundation of the pi«- 
seuC city : and by Mr. J. Cade, iu a tract publislied in the seventh 

vokuae 



. I 



74 AtrftlTAM^ 

volttOM of Ac Ardneotogia, to hate been n RobMil sUlion. Tft^ 
latter sbppoditiou b not supported by sufficient evidence, as the 
ippearance of the ground alone by no means warranCf the conchi* 
skm of its having been occupied is a Roman camp. Some deep 
tenehes, and earthen banks, may be seen; but* the whole by far 
ltM>^ irregular and hnperfect, to furnish a distinct idea as to wha< 
might have been their origimd designation or figure. A more 
|ifefffeet work is remaining, on the brink of the river at a little dts^ 
tance, but on the opposite side. This is MaidKN Castlb, 
#hich occupies the summit of Maiden Castle Scar, and has been 
described thus. ** The Castle b inaccessible from the river by 
Itason c{ the steepness of the diff, which b almost peipendicular, 
and about one hundred feet in height. On the right and left the 
gteep sides of the mount are covered with a ibkk forest of oaks: 
the crown of the mount consists of a level area or plain, forty 
paces wide on the summit of the scar, on the front or nortl^east 
side; l60 paces long, on the left-hand side; and 170 psfces on the 
T%ht. The approach from the south-west b fortified with a ditch 
and breast-work : the entrance, or passage over the ditch, b not in 
the middle, but made to correspond with the natural rise of the 
outward ground : the ditch b twelve paces wide, and runs with a 
little curvature to each edge of the slope, now covered with wood, 
as before noted ; on one hand being fifty paces in length, on the 
<^tfaer eighty paces. After passh^ the ditch, there b a l^vel pa- 
lade, or platform, twenty paces wide, and then a high earth fence, 
now nine feet perpendicular, which it b apprehended was faced 
with mason-work : a breast-work has run from the earth fence on 
each side along the brink of the hiH, to the edge of the cliff, or 
scar. The eartli fence closes the whole neck of land, and is in 
leM^th 100 paces, formbg the south-west side of the area.*** Dr. 
Slukeley, iti hb Iter Boreale, describes thb work as foHows: 
^Eastward over the river Wear, upon another peninsula of high 
gtound, I «iw a camp, called Maiden Castle, which I judge to be 
Roman. It is almost encompassed too, by a rivulet falling into 

the 

* Hutchinson's Durham, Vol. II. p. 31a 



tknferlromtlie eait, ft ■ of an oUoiig fiNnii» 500 feelloaf^ 
tod mj steep on thiiee sides: the neck is guarded by a ramparr,. 
and without that at soaelittie distance bj a ditch^ the prospect, 
b VC17 fau;ge, more especially eastward." 

Between two and three miles from Durham, eastward, standi 
SHERBUBN HOSPITAL, founded by Bishop Puds^„ about the* 
year 1 180, for sisty^five poor Lepers, a Master, and other offocm,- 
The ancient Imildings were destroyed by the Scols, but restowed' 
by Thomas de Hessewell, who held the office of Master brtwettti 
the years 1330 and 1339^ and liave since been rebufll by Die.' 
Gregory, who was appointed Master in 1759. Tb^ standi in- a 
very healthful situation, on the different sides of an indosed aroiU' 
containing about an acre of ground. The Maiter^s U01M9 is a- 
commodious dwelling, with pleasant gardens aUacbed to it^ T\m* 
body of the Chapel is probably as ancient as the found^tien: '^ it) 
ii lighted by three narrow wmdows on the south, under omuIm^' 
aiches, and omameuted with small round piiasler^ belted and cft^. 
pitalled like those m the ea^ part of Durham CalbedraL" FronS' 
the constitutions framed by Bis^^p Pudsey, it appears, thai th». 
hoapital was to receif e both male and female kipfcrs ;, e$eh ses 
bvfiig their retpective houses on the opposite sides of the anaa; 
and the brethren b^ing. permitted to elect. tiier prior, anA the si^' 
teis their prioness, *^ Each leper was to havD a hwf and. « gallon 
of beer daily ; tliree days in thfe week flesh meat, aod four days, 
fiA ; so that one dish of meat, fish, cheese, or butter, should senw 
two^ but ON gveat .days, t<|vo dishes were to be provided, pactica*' 
larly on Quadr^esima-day, when they were allowed {xtJk m3^ 
BMo, or other fish, if th^ could be had, for one disli; audoafili«> 
chaelnias*day they were to have g^w^ a goose to every four. 
They were allowed yearly, three yards of woollen cloth, russet^ 
or wbitey six yards of linen, and six yards of oam^ with other 
necesfluies, as trusses, of straw, and boodles of reeds, with fouryole 
dogs for llie vigils of our Saviour.** By these aud smilar iruks^ 
the institution was goverued till the time of Cardiual Langley, who 
fading that the revenues had been misapplied, obtained a haaikf : 
from Pope Eugenius the Fourth, eaapoweriug him to make aeir 

regubtious. 



7€ ^CRHAAT,' 

figiriiitions. His ordimmces, dated 3n\f fM, 1454, fAcfed a 
considerBble change in the original foondatibn^ though not more, 
perhaips, than necetsary: as at thb period, the leprosy appean (o 
bate been nearly eradicated ; and two lepers only, ^*^ifthey could be 
ftmmiy'' are directed to be admitted upon the establishment. To 
Amms thirteen poor people were to be added, '' to be provided with 
meat and diink of ten-pence valoe every week, or ten>pence m 
nady moneys at their own option, and have yearly the sum of 
6 and 8 pence for iiiel and clothes." On this foundation the hos- 
pitri continued till the year 1584, when an act was passed for in- 
coiporating the brethren, and their successors, by the name of 
*^ The Master and Brethren of Christ's Hospital in Sherborne, 
near Durham:** the number of brefhren was by the same act en- 
larged to thirty. Some additional statutes were made by Bisliop 
Chandler in the year 1735 ; and under them the hospital is now 
fov(;nied. The b*brethren, fifteen in number, are each accom- 
Biodated with a oeat room, a sufficiency of wholesome diet, a suit 
ef clothes annually, and forty shiilmgs in money: the out-brethren, 
who are abo fifteen, are allowed a shnilar sum. The present 
Master it the Bishop of Rodiester, who holds it in commendam. 

About one roife south-east from Durham, is SHINCLIFFE 
HALL, the seat of Robert Scott, Esq. This mansion is sheltered 
by a beaattful amphitlieatre of hanging woods, excepting towards 
tbe south-west, which opens upon the river Wear, and a rich ex- 
panse of meadows. On the opposite side of tbe river to Shinclifl^, 
is HOUGH ALL, an ancient manor-house, erected by Prior Ho- 
tona, and forming part of tlie prebendal estates of Duriinm. This 
baildiag has been surrounded by a moat, and otherwise fortified ; 
and, accorduig to authenticated reports, was possessed by Sir Ar- 
thur Haselrigge during the Civil Wars, and for some time became 
tbe residence oi Oliver Cromwell. 

The manor of BUTTCRBY, about two miles south from Dur- 
liam, was |iart of tlie ancient possessions of the Lmnleys, of Lum- 
ley Castle; from ^hom it probably passed as a portion with Mar- 
garet, daughter of Ralph Lumley, H-ho married Sir John Clervaux^ 
of Croft. Her daughter, the heiress of Clervaux, was weddfd to 

Chnstoplier 



Chriitoiter Chaytor, wIm was JbuadpoaipKd of BatteAjs, or^ m 
it WIS theo called^ Beatarove, in the eighth year of Queen >Eliia* 
belh« In the year 1695, an act was obtaund to vest oeclaia 
lands, the property of Sir WUIiaro Chaytor, Bart, in Yodsdm 
ind Dntham, that they naght be sold to dischaige debti^ and s^ 
care portioos for younger children. Under this statute, Bult^prl^ 
WM sold, in 1713, to Thomas, John, and Humplirey DoabMsy; 
sod soon afterwards, by puicbase, became the sole properly of tha. 
htter ; save one tliird of the produce of the salt springs^ wbidf 
nas reserved to the use of John and his lieirs* Huoqihre/s 
widow devised the manor upon tri^t to be sold ; and about t|r^v/s 
or fourteen years ago it %vas purchased by Mr. Wardi of Sadge» 
field. 

The Manor-Honse, which stands in a low and recluse situalioo^ 
near the banks of the Wear, is encoo^Kissed by a moatuf^d 
round, which, though now dry, can be fiUed with water to thf$ 
depth of fifteen feet. In cleansing this moat, some years snce^ 
a coat of mail, with other armour, was discovered in a large stone 
titNigh ; snd in an adjacent field, in which an ancient hospital, de* 
dicafed to St. Leonard, is supposed to have stood, many stone 
coiins, and jars for holy water, have been dug up. The groapds 
belonghig to this manor are remarkably fertile : ** the livfy near 
the house falb swiftly over a rough channel, under high tm:hf 
shores and hangmg woods, forming a canal a mile in length, wheiy^ 
the adjacent lands make a considerable plain. These is note 
cweeter rural scene in the whole county, unadorned, and in simple 
nature; for art has not yet extended her band hither, further than 
in the ordinary course of agriculture. This place 'is as remarkable 
for its natural curiosities as its beauty: surrounded with the river, 
from the fissure of a rock in the bed of tlie cliannd^ about forty 
feet from the shore, flows a considerable spring of mU watert 
mixed with a mineral quality. The situation of the spring sub* 
ji'cts it to a mixture of fresh water, so that it is difficult to know 
hon much salt it contaais in its purest state : on several trials, it 
has yielded double llie quantity produced from sea-water. Tlie 
shore, for a eonsiderable dbtaoee, shows many ooxhigs, or small 



78 1>0RHAW. 

issues of salt water ; na&hy a dyke, or break h the rode in the 
dMDiiel of the fiver, a IHde above the spring, it b presumed s 
lock or %t& of s&tt might be won* of some value. This water b 
feptited to be an eflectual remedy for diseases caused by the 
ddeteriouf fumes arising hx smelting aad refining^houses belonging 
Id the lead-works. Hadf a pint is sufficiently purgative for the 
stiODgesI person^^t In a small ri(t or dell neariy opposite the 
ttlt spring, and irithra the distance of two hundred yards, b a sul- 
phureoos spring, a chalybeate spring, and a spring of fresh water^ 
aH bsoing through the fissures of the neiglibouring rocks. Hie 
two ibmier, as appears firom an account communicated by Mr • 
Hugh Todd, and pubtished m the Philosophical Transactions, 
were discovered by some workmen who were employed in boring 
for coal. At the depth of twelve fathoms and a half, they disco- 
vered the Sulphureous spring : they tried the rock about 100 yards 
dKatant, and at nearly the same depth found the sprmg of Fresh 
water. Both these springs issue through the holes made by the 
instrunients. The Chalybeate spring was probably opened but 
lately*, when a narrow road was cut through the dell for the use 
of a stone quarry. 

On some elevated ground between Butterby and Durham, b a 
modern Plantation, belonging to the Dcfin and Chapter co- 
ten^ an extent of about nine acres. Thb spot is intended as a 
nursery for the supply of the prebendal estates, and some mQlions 
of young trees are annually sent away, and re-planted. Trees of 
almost every variety of oak, beech, larch, pine, fir, ash, &c. are 
here produced ; and the attention paid to their growth, to the 
arrangement of the beds, and to every concern necessary to the 
improvement of the Plantation, merits the highest praise. 

CROXDALE HAU^ the seat of William Salvin, Esq. about 
one mile to the south of Butterby, occupies a loOy situation near 
the banks of the Wear, and commands a rich prospect towards 

the 

* JfoH II a term employed by the raioen of thit end the adjacent cotfotiet, t» 
ligDify tbe actual /o/i^/^tM or working of the ore. 

4 Huuhioson's Durham, Vol. XI. p. %%^. 



PVBVAM. 79 

The pkume grmuA tve bdtttiM; tind Hktmi- 
jietm wood Mid plodtatiow, raader il a very dearaUe imdtam. 
Themttior^ Cfondtk came into the hiiids of fbe Sa/t/«t pfi* 
tatbeycarl474»aBd htserci since continued in their popactrieii; 
a dnsaoHUuica imrdly lo be paralleled in the history of any ^ 
miy m tbe conaty. la the inscriptioa upon the monumeM of 
Jairaid SaliriB, io St Osuvald's Churchy he is said to be^ 9iceH' 
mu$ primm» ($ine intermiitionfij ^uadtm nominii fuit et 4eeu ife 
died io the year l663: Wiiliaai, the pfesent poMeseor, k 'Che 
twenty-fifth io vminterrapted saoeessioH. Roimd the western eg- 
tfonuty of tbe pkasoie gronnda flows a snail ritulet, named Cmj^ 
dale Beek; the channel of which is a fomand^ deli so deep aot 
flttfow, that the sao's rays are deai^y «tcluded ihvough the whole 
year; and in the days of soperstition it was thought H At abode f(k 
enk spoits. This idea occaaiooed the etocHoo of a cross, wUA 
afterwards gave name to the adjacent hiods, oelliBd (>mxdalty h, 
sevemi old wntiogs.^ Croxdatc Seur^ a neighboOrhig eliff, cotn- 
Bands a very beautiful and extensive prospect of the valley to- 
wards the west, through which the river is seed meandering to an 
extent of several miles. The vale of Botteiby, beked ronnd by 
the crystal waters of the Wear, b also beheld from tbb spot, be- 
sides odier pleasing views on its different sides. 

BURNHALL, ibrmedy the «eat of the Smith, by one of 
wbooi, George Smith, Esq. many improvementa were made, b 
now the property of Bryan Salvin, Esq. Tbe mansion b situated 
in a«low and reduse spot on the borders of a rivnlet called tbie 
Browmy, which falls into the Wear a little below Snaderiand 
Bodge. 

MERRINGTON is a long, irregular village, occupying a lofVy 
sitoation oo the lidge of a hill. The first mention of thb phice 
ocotrs during Cuimn's usurpation of dib dee, when bb nephew 
iUed the tower of the Church with armed men, and began to for- 
^jf it with a ditch and vaUam. The Church has many appeaiw 
aaees of antiqidty, aad was hwk in the form of a cross, with k 

tbwer 

• 
* Hutcbiiison*! Durham, Vol. II. p. 931. 



< 80 DURHAM. 

loiver rUng from file centre of fimraMes. The west «ideoftli# 
Mmtt h aotaioed on a betvj circular ardi, supported on bnt- 
taMef : the eait sde is also sustained on a simlhir arch, but this 
springs from clustered columns, omamented with rode Stxoa' ca- 
pitals. The tower is a massive pile, about sikty feet high, having 
jniall windows, with cireuknr arches. ^ The proipect from Mer* 
fington Church is at once wooderfolly eictensive and beautWir: 
the hill on which it stands is a ridge, or long momit, risbg with a 
gmdual ascent from the north and soutii, so as to command the 
inest landscapes withbi the county of Durham, expanded to the 
ag^e ID a kind of bird's eye view, by reason of the loftiness of the 
jBOont. The eastem end of the ridge, bebg bounded wfth hills of 
almost equal eouneMce, lifibrds but a short prospect ; the western 
lermination is at the vilbge of Westerton, distant about a mile* 
The valley through whicb runs the nver Wear, lies open to the 
view» graced with the elegant scenes near Bishop Auckkmd, ex- 
.lended up to Witton, and along the winding channel of the river 
afanoit as for as Woisingham: to the right is Brancepeth Csstle 
and its environs; to the left, the prospect is bounded by the dis- 
tant eminence of Cockfield^feU, above Raby. On the nonh, in 
the bosom of tlie vale, with mafestic aspect, rises the dty of Duf^ 
ham, graced with a variety of woodlands; on every side the city, 
villages, seat-houses, and hamlets, are scattered; and the view is 
terminated by the nM>unts of Peiishaw and Warden-low, whirh 
make an elegant break on the horiaontal Kne. To the sooth-west, 
the Yorkshire hilb above Barmiogham form the horizon, soutli« 
ward of which, is the spacious plain, wherem Northallerton and 
Thirsk lie; and with a glass it is said, Crake Castle and Yoik Min- 
ster are discoverable : Hamilton, and Cleveland liills extend east- 
ward, stretching their cultivated skirts into the vale €i( Tees: the 
pike of Roysbury, all the chain of mountains to HunscUff, and 
the environs of Flamborough-bead, are comprelieuded in the proa* 
pect, together with the Tees mouth, and a wide expanse of sea. 
On the intermediate ground, Sedgefield, Haidwwk, and the sweep 
of country to, Elwick and the Beacon are distbctly seen ; the 
acene narrows towards the norths yet many other objecU aie beau- 

^ully 



DimHAHi Si 

dMy ifiiposed io liie ysSkj.*^ The noniber of lioiues fa Am 
toviulup hClf ^ fahflbiftints ftiS* 

Neirij two miks soiitli from this -village is WINDLESTON, the 
hoyilAlt tettl of Sir John Eden, Bart, whose ancestors were re- 
sident here in the time of Qoeen Elizabe^. The estate was for- 
mtAj divided among many families, but has been aggregated by 
Meieot purchases. The mansion is situated on a gentle ascent, 
frilh an ea^em aspect: it contains a small though valuable collec- 
tisn of aotiqoitiea* 

JSAST, or OLDTHICKLEY, formerly the inheritante of the 
IMbtanu^ gave* rise to a very contested law suit between Ralph 
CfenloB and Rkbard LAbum, fa tiie year 1638, when, on a qnes- 
litNi of 11^ prosecuted hi the court of pleas at Dufbam, battle 
W9i wagtd; bnt suspended through a point which arose m the pro- 
eeediogs, and occanoned a reference to the King in Council, and 
sAerwards to tbe twelve Judges. The req;)ecttve champions ap- 
peared IB arrays and cast their gauntlets; their weapons bdng ba- 
I with sand-bags.t The diisentions hi the Parliament, and sob« 
\ •c cur r cnc e of the Civil Wars, appear to have put a stop 
lathe fiaffther trhd of the cause. Richard Ulbum was father to 
the celdmled lienlraant Colonel John Lilbukn, who was 
hom OD this estate m the year l648 ; and bekig a yoonger son, 
ms bf«d a clothier, but abandoned his profession m 1036, and 
hecawe awiattnt to Dr. Bastwick. Under hb durection he vrent 
Id HoBand, and superintended the printing of the Mcfiy Liturgy^ 
§m whidh and other presumed offisnoes, he was, on his return, 
piHoricd, whipped, fined, imprisoned, arod loaded with irons, by 
•fdar of the tyrannical court which assembled m the Star-Cham- 
her. In the year l641, be vras released by the Parliament, fa 
! be became a distmguisbed soldier ; and fa l644 was 
1 to the rank of lieutenant Colonel. His undaunted spi- 
Vol. V. F rit, 

• IiolcbiflsoQ*t Durliam, Yo4. II. p. 31^. 

^ See Rmliwonb's Collcctioos, Pan II. and also Hutchiiuon*i Durham, Vol. 
11 p. 54t, whcfcin U is obteryed, that the Batooni, &c were in the p«iteuioa 
if *clM Mr. Kalph Hodpoo. 



fsl^ apf] (Murscvefivg emrtkmft m defence o( tteiqlrmto of UbotJ* 
to which he was attached with eathiiMMitic wamllii OPCi ii o i Wit 
hiw mwy svffertBgs. From the con6dent wad tj^crft firiend ot' 
Ci;oinweil, he became bis accuser aod enemy, when Ibc focmcr be^ 
gan to Tiolate the prindples which he had flowu to «raii to lop- 
{Ktft, Fiioi aod imbeiiding in bit foUtica, he was Iwioe tried fof 
Mgh treason* but acfuitted by the juries; wboie authority hi 
boldly vindicated, in expresuoos ever confenial to British froedoBi« 
** The Jury," he observed, " by law, are not onfy ju4g99 of Af 
fact, but qf the law also ; and you that call yoanelves/iM^ cf 
ltfiWt%rt no more 2rti< Norman, intruders; and, m truth, if iim 
JURY please, are no more but cyphers to framntncc thek txrdici/ 
After his second trial, he was ordered to leave the kingdo«i» but 
obtained permission to remain, on his brother becoming secuiky foi 
bis peaceable beliaviour. He afterwards settled at Eitham, whesi 
he attached himself to the Quakers, and dkd at the age of tbir^ 
moe. His character has been diversely estimated. Uuine sepafr* 
mts him as the " most turbulent, but most upright and counigt* 
0^3, of human kind;" and Sir Henry Martin, as 9^ s«cb a ecmten* 
^U9 dispQsitk>n, tkati *' if there were none Uvii^ but him. Mm 
would be against Lilburo, and J[«tUruni ag^indt John." IliCit 
strong expressions, when qualified by the consideKatMi of hii 
actions, cf|n only be understood as characterestic of the firm 
fneigy, imd inflexible persevemuce, that dtstiogiuahed hisdefimoeoC 
conceivod principles. Equally ioipiical to the unconstitatmil 
dogmas of prerogative^ and the illegal exertions of p a rlj a girn taq 
usurpation, his conduct bar been misrepveseuted by both pactici; 
y^t, uuder an unpr^udked review, it would appeav lo bo <hr OMm 
deserving of praise than of censure. 

AYCUFFE, or GREAT AYCUFFE; a viUi^ ot conaideni* 
hie aotk]uity, situfted on the high road between DtarUngtoo msA 
Durham, was part of the ancient possessions of the See of Liodis- 
fame, and assigned, with other lands, according to Symeon Dunel- 
mensb, by Bishop Aldune, to the Bails of NarlhumberlaiMi, to- 
wards supporting the wars of tfiose times, and were not for several 
•ges restored to the Church. Bishop Flambard received a copfir* 



gniit of AydMb-ftpm Ite Croiyp, ii—ayiig, <hU ft wm 
«f tlie piaoes i^jwiovslf nUiMd bgr tlie NorUmmhiiiM 
1 8U Cuddbeit and tkc Sec. Heie, aoMtdiog to the Stt«i 
,ft«yMMiiv«ilMUMi theyeMr782; «id Mother is 7S9« 
The Cbmb aeeopies m ektated ake, at soiie dittanoe from the 
vMige jolto i m d, end had andeaa^ A Qoild dtdieeled to St. 
Mary te Viigia: the Chovch is decfeafeed to St. Acca. The 
■waber of homes i» this townihifi, as vetamed voder the latefwt, 
«ie 1C9; of faihabitaDte640. 

DARUNGTOV. 

ButUHOTOH^ ■ hHrjge aad popoloas town, of fehiote o i ig iD» 
aad a tioi o ug h by prescription, u Mtuated on die «de of a hill 
fOirtf bitiriag 10 the «Mt, at the feat of which flows the rtfor 
flkrs, oip«ff wUch fo a brMge of thios ahches. The ftyBDhigy of 
idaaiBe has been Ji ftt ertly gi«aoi but if the eiieamslaace kliBaf 
Itaa Ike fteta was ancinidgr catted the Dar, or Ddt, it Ini^ then 
he derived froas that won}, from the Stoon Inge, sipufyhtgamea- 
Asw liaiderii % opaaa fiver; add Toa^ a fik or towq. ft eon- 
sals of seteial strecai, hnmofaing from an exteaiife eqiNure ra 
the aseffcet is held; aad tau a efeahand respeotaMe ap- 



SooaaAer the episcopal 8ee was estdUisbed at Darhain^ hi tb^ 
Ihas of Kaig Edidred, 9tere, a aoUemao, die son of Wal|4i, ob* 
tdacd penainioa from die Kmg, that DMi^H^^oa, with its appaa* 
dages, sbooM be restored to St. Catbbert^ to wMch KadCiidoa, the 
tmg, Waktoa, Arehbisbop of Yodc, and Bishop Aldwiae^ beeaaie 
wfaKsaes.^ When ttshop Carile|^ temofed the Seaalirs from 
tfirCalhedbai at Dmfaam, this town was appoiated one of the 
ylscei far tbtir reciJifitiMi. 

la the fioMea Babe, Darlhigtoo is thus pertfiralariy ooticed. 
"IttbeoGOolahied forty oagangs of kmdb the baadsof iMifio 
for each of whiA the lord received fii^ thittitigs; th«ir 
F 9 sbmlde 

• LdandiColVol. II. p. 977- 



M mJBHAX. 



•trvicecaiubtedofiMiifiQg the Bbhep't mmiomB, mmmg mad 
leading the hay, for which work they received a oorody ; tncksing 
the Umits of tbecottrf^ whence the term, '« Vei;ge of the Court.** 
They were also to work at the miil, to bring one load c^ wood f<^ 
every oxgang, to carry the Bishop's baggage on bit drcuit, and 
alio to convey to him yeariy three loads of wine, herrings, and 
saH. Twehft other tenants held each an oxgang of land, and paid 
rent ar viilams, but only served as attendants on the Bishop's em- 
bassies. The Smith held eight acres, for iron-work about the 
carts of Little Walton, and for small iron- works withm Darling* 
ton Court. The Cottage-men served to make the ricks of hay, 
bear in the com, and repair the milb. The Pinder held nine 
acres of land, and had his thraves, like others, in tha( office, and 
provided five score hens, and five hundred eggs, for the household* 
The mills of Darlington, Haughton, and Kelton, paid thirty marks. 
The burgagers, dyers, and farmers, rendered ten marks." The 
/wtte. Of Jurmaf our best Uw expositors define to be a royal tri- 
bate, for the sovereign's entertainment for one night on his joar- 
uies, and it was the badge of a royal borough or viUe. 

In the survey taken by Bishop Hatfield, it appears that the toUa 
of fiiirs and markets, with the profits of the mills, suits of the te- 
nants of Whestow, bakehouse, assise ef bread and beer, profits of 
tlie borough court, and of the dyers, produced no less a sum Ihao 
90h and the farmers of the borough rights, with other receipts, 
paid a rent of fourscore and fourteen pounds, six shillings. Bishop 
Beck mcloBed a park belonging to the manor; and seveial persona 
of high rauk held lands in Darlmgton. 

The principal ornament of Darlington is the Church, which 
stands at the south-west augle of the Market-Piace, -and was 
erected by Bishop Hugh Pudsey, about the year 1 l^O. Betweea 
that period and 11 64, the same Prelate built a mansiou-> 
house near the Church; and also instituted a Deanery, with three 
secuhur Canons or Prebendaries. These works |ie is supposed to 
have effiNsted with the vast sums of public n^oney which he bad 
rigorously extorted for the purpose of redeeming the King from 
captivity, but appropriated to his own coffers. When the CoU 

kge 



kge of Prebendaries was dissohred in the re%D of Edwar^ the 
SuUi, A. D. ISSOy notwithstanding the opulence of the founda* 
tioD,*and the extent of the parish, onl>r a small portion was re- 
Mned for the maintenance of a minister; the net produce amount* 
iog to BO more tlian 92L 6s. 8(1. annually. 

The Church is a spacious structure, in the form of a cross* with 
a lower and spire rising from the centre, to the height of 180 ieet : 
the stone of which it is built, is supposed to have been brought 
fbon Cockfield-fell, a dbtaoce of about twelve miles. The tower 
iprings from uniform arches, sustained on clustered pillars ; the 
arches of the nave and aisles are irregular; and Ihe whole interior , 
view is greatly disfigured by the dbpositiou of the pews and gal- 
lecies. ^ The west door is highly finished with archings and pi* 
laslers^ cylindrical and octagonal interchangeably." Previous to 
the Dissolution, in this edifice were four chantries : one of which, 
called Marshall's Chantry, was amply endowed; and the endow* 
nests having been vested in the Crown, were, in the reign of 
Qiwcn EliTalieth, granted by that Sovereign for the foundation of 
a Grammar-School, through the solicitations of Henry, Eari of 
Dtor&igtoo, and Bishop Pilkington, whose infiuence the inhabitants 
had besought for tliat purpose. The charter was granted on the 
Jith of June, 1567 ; and a portrait of the Royal foundress, with 
the charter m her hand, was placed in the School, by the late 
George Allan, Esq. F. S. A. as a memorial of his gratitude in 
having received part of hb education there. The School, as well 
as the buflding formerly the Bishop's Palace, u situated near the 
margm of the river: the latter having become very ruinous, was, 
repaired by Bishop Cosin ; but having since hb time been totally 
ocglected, is now tanned of the Bishop's housekeeper (who holds 
Jl by patent for liie) as a Workhouse for the poor. Numerous 
cbarit«l»le donations have been made in thb parisb» but apt of 
adBcient importance to be here particularised. 

The happy situation of Darlington, its large nuirket, which is 
abundantly sapplied with com, cattle, sheep, wool, £rc. and the 
c b ra p o css of pfDviaious, render it a sort of emporium f<K roanufao* 

¥ 3 tares. 



86 JkVUMMU^ 

tmns. The mMen bomtsf h vtry fcuroUdg; ptftkidailjr 
die ordkiary kind of shift, ts tammeys, morremf » &€• 

Here is also a large manufactory of Iniens of difierenC desari|^ 
tioos, and particularly diapers, huckabacks, and checks : and the 
cotton manuf^ture has lately been introduced, and is at preaent 
in a ilounshing state, under the direction of Mr. John MorreU^ to 
f^hom the town b much indebted for hb exertions in lafor of ^k 
estabtishment. 

Near the town, a miH has been erected (or the grinding of op> 
tical glasses ; this was the first of the kind ever constructed m 
Oreat Britain, and, together with another miH for spinnmg hemp 
and flax, was invented by the late ingenions John KendrbHv, a 
native of Darihigton : here is also a third mill for spinning wool, 
by whkh, and the various manufieictoneSy the laboring poor are 
well supplied with employment. 

The improvement of agriculture has been pursued with conai- 
derable success hi the environs of Darlington ; chiefly through the 
patronage of a respectable society of gentlemen, who hold their 
meetings in the town, and vote premiums according to merit. 
About the year 1767> a navigable canal was projected to lead from 
Stockton, by Darlington, to Winston, a length of about thirty 
mOes, with various side cuts ; the estimated expence was 65,0001. 
a sum which it was clearly proved might have been soon returned 
wtth vast increase ; but the plan was abandoned, from the oppo* 
sition of some individuals, whose amusements the proposed cut 
would in some measure have internipted. Darlington, according 
to the late act, contains 945 houses, and 4670 inhabitants : of the 
latter 2158 are males, and 2512 females. 

GRANGE HALL, or BLACKWELL ORANGE, the seat of 
George AHanj Esq. is pleasantly seated about one mile sooth 
from paitmgton, of which, and of the adjacent country, it com- 
mands some very fine views. The Mansion is a respectable mo- 
dem building, and contains a very extensive museum of natural 
history, and other curiosities, which the late possessor, and learn- 
ed antiquary, George Allan, Esq. purchased fjir 700I. of Mr. 
Tonstall, late of Wyclifl^, in Yorkshire, who collected it at a vast 

expence. 



The libfuy is ab^ eittond^ ynlmbh m topognqihy 
aad aitiquityy aod coataina a greal qoanftity of raaiiascript infor* 
wrinn OB Ihb oonoCj, whose history the late Mr. Alkio was es- 
ticoMl^ aileotive to iivrastigate, aod was the original proasofer of 
Mr. Hu lc k ia s o a 's elaborate publicatiofi. A small, but fahiable, 
<rf'paultivg^ ase distribated throagk the different 



At Ibe dbtanoe of aboat three aiiles from Darliogton, at Oxeis- 
baU» aie cavities in the earthy denominated HbLl Kettles ; to the 
of which are attached, niaay fiibuloits coiyectures. The 
\ of Tiuemoath Priory, and Bromptoo, inform as, *' that 
A. D. 1 179, opoB Chriatmas-day^ at OxenbaU, in the outskirts of 
Daribigtoo, in the bishopric of Durham, the earth raised itself up 
lo a great height in the niaaner of a loAy tower, and remained all 
ibat day tiU the e?euiqg, (as it were 6ted and imiilof eabW,) when 
it sunk down with such a horrid noisci that it terrified all the vici- 
nity; when the earth absorbed it, and there formed a deep pit." 
Canwfai supposes that these pits were sunk in consequence of the 
nmwMtoo aboae meatioaed: and Lekind, in his Itinerary, Vol. VI. 
says» ** that Dr. BeUaais told him, that a Diikke, markid after the 
I of dukkes of the bishofMrike of Dnresine, was pot m into 
of the pooles called Uel Ketelles, betwixt Darlington aod 
k, aad after was found at **** bridge, upon Tese, thereby, 
wfaer GerraU (Croft, tiie seat of the Clervaux family) duelUtb, 
and that be it the people had a certain conjecture, that there was 
ipccw $ubier betwixt the y places." In the records of Bishop 
8kiflaw, who entered upon the See in the year 1389, there is nie»> 
lion of certain latids caUed titli, which afWrwards became the 
I of the Evers: it is not improbable thai the pools took 
fton^ this land ; and as the monastic chronicles above 
gaoled, were not so ancient as the event recorded of the oonrul- 
•aa, tbe chaaaiclecs cookl only have rehearsed the traditkNial tale • 
•kick tbea ptrvailad.* Many caiyectures as to the rcai origin of 
ibew pits have been foraied : it lias been supposed tkey were the 

F 4 shafts 

• Hutchinton, Vol. III. p. 19U 



8S ]>tjmffAM. 

fehafts of indent ooaLworics ; bvt thw is exttemdy bopnkMm^ m 
the diaraerer of one of the lai^gest is not less than 1 14 fbet, and 
that of the least seventy-five. Mr. Hutchuson thinks they niigfat 
have been marble^its, as ^ they resemble the woriiings in other 
countries where marling is still practised ;*' though he acknowledges 
that '' most marie and alum pits are wrought much deeper than tn 
yards, while the depth of the largest pit here is only nhMteeo ftet 
and a half; the next seventeen feet, the next fourteen, and the least 
five feet and a half.*^ The properties ascribed to the waterof4hese 
pits, are similar to those acquired by water standing in hollows 
whence marie has been obtained, which tastes pungent, and cjirdles 
milk and soap. Instead, however, of supposing them to harebe^ii 
marie pits, or of deducing their etymology from the old Germatt 
NiB-HEL, with the above gentleman, we should mdine to refier it 
to the British hal, an alkali, whence haUn^ salt ; and kiddle, or 
kidlCf a dam : Hal-ktddUs ; i. e. salt pits/ 

HURWORTH, a pleasant village, three miles south of Dar- 
lington, is situated on the acclivity of a steep hill, rising from the 
Tees, and commanding a beautiful, though not extensive, view mto 
Yorkshire. Thb was the birth-place of the celebrated matheni»> 
tician, William EmersoNi who was bom in May or June 
1701. The preceptor of his early years was his own father, of 
whom he learned writing and arithmetic, and probably the mdk 
ments of Latin ; but his fondness to books while a boy, by no 
means bidicated those superior faculties which he afterwards ex* 
erted with so much energy. When bis attachment to the amuse* 
ments of childhood had subsided, which, according to his own re- 
port, was not till he bad nearly attamed the i^ of twenty, he 
began to study mathematics with much diligence, under the diiee* 
tion of able masters at Newcastle and York. On bis return to 
Hurwortb, be was again benefitted by the knowledge of his fatheri 
who was a tolerable mathematician, and without whose books and 
iostmctions, accordmg to Emerson's observatioo, *< it is probabk 
his own genius would never have been unfolded." 

Some degree of Emerson's celebrity may, perhaps, be attributed 
to the contemptuous treatment which he received from Dr. John- 
son, 
* See Owen's and Bailey's Dictiooarict, 



DUEHAir. i9 

son, fiedor <if Hnrwoitb, and Pktbendary of Duiteniy nAmm 
niece lie had married. Tbe Doctor bad engaged to g^fe five hao* 
died pounds wHfa hb niece, who Nfed with hlniy as a maniaga 
'portioa; but when reminded of tbe promise, he chose to forget 
that it had i>een made, and treated our jouog mathematician as a 
person beneath his notice. ^ The pecuniary disapp^Nntmeflt 
Emerson (who bad an independant spirit, and wbose patrimooj^ 
though not hnr)^, was equal to all his wants) wouM easily hama 
sumountedy but tbe contemptuous treatment stung him to the 
very souL He immediately went home, packed up his ¥nSA 
dotbes, and iwnt them to the Doctor, saying, that be would scorn 
to be^beboMen to such a fellow for a single rag; and swearing at 
the same time, tfaat he would be revenged, and prove himself to be 
tbe bMer man qf the two.*' His first publication, however, did 
- not meet with inmiediate encouragement; and most prdbalAy Us 
other works would never have appeared, at least ia the authoiV 
Kfe time, if Edward Montagu, Esq. hli great admirer and friend, 
had not procured him the patronage of Mr. John Noorse, Book- 
seller and Optician, who being himself skilled in the more ab- 
stmae sciences, could compreheiKl and reward tbe merit of an^ 
tber. He immediately engaged Emerson to furnish a reguhur 
Course of Mathematics for tlie use of youthful students; and in the 
suomier of 1765 Emerson made a journey to London^ to settlt 
and iuHH tbe agreement. 

His knowledge of classical learning was not extensive; yet tha 
■Krttos to some of his volumes evince that be sometimes dipped 
into ancient authors. At one Hme, also, he conceived an intea» 
tion of transhiting the Jesuits' Comment on the Principia of Sir 
iaanc Newton, for whom his devotion was so uncommonly strongs 
that every oppugner of bis philosophy was treated by Emerson, as 
doH, bhnd, biggotted, prejudiced, or mad. The fire and impetuo* 
city of bis tero|)er, would on these occasions betraj^ him uito Ian* 
gaage of far distant analogy to tlie strictness of mathematical de* 
nonstration. 

Mr. Emerson was in person something below the common size, 
fcit firm, compact^ well made, very active, and siroiig. He ha4 

a good 



ft WRBAM. 

a gpt4« ^itn> eaimifife conDtevance, wiih a 9M3 €oiD§)eiioii» 
n kflea iod peattisOjag eyt^ and an ardoar and eagfswtm of look, 
Ihal waa very demooalcative af tbe textuie of hUmind. His diesa 
MM giotaaqnB frequently; aomctimet mean amd shabby. A very 
few bats served liiro through the whole coarse of his life; and 
whan be purchased one, (ox indeed any other article of dress,) it 
^raa perfectly indiflferent to hiniy whether the form and fashion of k 
«aaoftbedi^9 or of half a century before. One of these bats, of 
iimaiwe superficies, had, by length of time, lost its elasticity, and 
jia brias began to droop in such a manner, as to pnevent his being 
able to view the objects before him ia a direct line: this wasnot 
la be enduied by an optician; be therefore took a pair of sheers^ 
and cut it off by the body of the hat, leaving a httle to the front, 
yshicb be dextroiisly rounded into the resemblance of the nib •£ 
g Jodkay's cap. His wigs were made of brown or of a dirty flaxen- 
jcoloted bair, wfaicb at first appeared bushy and tortuous behind^ 
Itttt which grew pendulous through age, till at ki^th it became 
q^te straight, having probably never undergone the operation of 
Ibe eorab; and, either through the original mal-coofonnation of 
Ihe wig, or from a custom he bad pf frequently thrusting his band 
beneath it, the back of bis head and wig seldom came into very 
close contact. His coat, or, more properly, jacket, or waistcoat 
with sleeves to it, which be commonly wore witbont any othe» 
waistcoat, was of a drab color : his linen was more calculated 
for warmth aud duration than for show, being spup and bleached 
by bb wifo, and woven at Hurworth. In cold weather he had a 
custom of wearing his shirt with the wrong side before, aud but* 
toned behind the neck : yet this was not an affi^tation of singula* 
nty^ (f<>f Emerson had no affectation, though his customs and 
manners were singular ;) he had a reason for it; he seldom bu^ 
toned more than two or three of the buttons of his waistcoat, leav* 
iDg aU the rest open : in wind, rain, or snow, therefore, he nmst 
have found the aperture at the breast inconvenient, if hb shirt had 
been put on in the usual manner. When he grew aged, in cold 
yieatber, he used to wear what he called shin-covers; these were 
pieces of old sacking, tied with strings above the knee, and de» 

pendipg 



fodSog dttvni to the fboe, h order to ptttitnt hit legs fitiii benig 
WK^ed when he sat loo ntar the &9. 

This angiiharity of dress and figure, together with bb obtradet 
Ibr profbttod teaming, and knowledge more than buiBaiiy ocea^i 
snoed tbe illiterate and ignorant to consider him as a cunning nan, 
or neaomaacer, and various stories have bee» rekted of hk skill 
IP the black art. His diet was as snople and plain as his ^dseasf 
and hb meals gave little i utcri w p t i on either to his 8tu<ies> enqploy* 
BKDtSy or sBMisements. He catered for himself, and pretty eoo* 
slaatij west to Dartington to inake his own matkets; jwty wfae* 
he had piorkled all the necessary artkles, he not nnAeqaeally 
selected to return for a day or two, seatng himself coalentedl^ 
hi sovie piiblio4iouse, where be could procure good ale, and cona- 
paay, and passing the hours in various topics of eouv«fsatk>n» 
** The fattt tiae be made an excnrsioa to Dariidgton with kii wat 
lit, he Made a iigure truly conspicuous: this was, peihi^ Ao 
ealy tfa»e he ever rode thither; be was then mounted on a (ftth 
draped, whose kitrinsic value, indepeadsent of the skin, might b^ 
ftiriy estiasated at half a erown. Being preceded and led by • 
boy hired for that purpose, he paced in solemn state, at the rat<a 
ef a mOe and a half ki an hour, till i|i doe time be arrived a| 
Durlingtoo, and was eooduded bi the same elale, to the great 
ertiitwswisnt of the spcetaton, through the streets to the km^ 
where be wished to lefiresb bhnsdf and his beast. What klet 
Kierson Uanself entertained of the velodiy with which the animal 
mnAd move, appears ftoro this, that, when a neighbour asked 
him, towards the evening, if he was going home; ** Damn thee,** 
said be, '* what #ses thou want with uiy going home?^ Only,* 
replied the man, *' because I should be glad of your company.* 
•*Thou fool, tbouT rejomed the other, •* tlioult be home Imig 
eaoogh before me, man: tboo walks, and I ride.* Hb style 6t 
eoo v c rsai i on was genereUy abrupt and blunt, aboandbg in shni* 
kr expletives to tbe above, and often vulgar and ungntmmaticaL 
TWa occasiotied a supposition that hb prefaces were not written by 
binself, an opinion that was one day mentioned to him, and the 
liiiparity of bb cooversatiou and writing pointed out as the reason 

a 



g% imKBAic 

«f it Afiera momeotery pnise, be excbiiiied» with aoine badig^ 
Batioa, ^ A pack of fools! who coald write my prefaces bnl my-^ 
Klfr Indeed, when weighed with the vigor and energy of his miBd, 
Ihey bear every mark of l^itimacy : they could have had no other 
btber. 

** Mr. Emerson often tried in practice the effect of his mathe^ 
BKtical speculationsi by constructing a variety of instruments^ 
BMtheinatical, mechanical, and musical, on a small scale. He 
made a spinning-wheel for his wile, which is represented by a 
drawing in hb book of meehamcs. He was weU skilled m the 
sdenoe of mnnc, the theoiy of sounds, and the various scales, both 
aadcnt and, modem. He had two first strings toiiis violin, which 
be said made the £ more melodious when they were drawn up to 
a perfect unison. Hb virginal he had cut and twbted into va* 
nMis shapes in the keys, by addmg some occasional half*tones, te 
legulate the present scales, and to rectify some fraction or dbcord 
that will always remain in the tuning. Tbb be never eould get 
fegulated to his mind, and generally concluded in a passion, by 
sayiag, '^ It b a danmed instrument, and a foolish thing to be 
laied wttik.'* 

During the greatest part of hb Ufe, hb health had been stion|» 
aud unitttemipted; but as be advanced into the vale of years, in- 
ternal complaints allowed him but little intermission of paiu, and 
at length deprived him of breath an the twenty-first of March, 
1762y in hb eighty-first year. He was buried in the church-yard 
at Uurworth. About a twelvemonth before hb decease, be was 
prevailed on, after much importunity, to sit for hb portrait, wbtci^ 
was taken by Mr. Sykcs for hb friend Dr. Cloudsley, of Darhog* 
Ion.* 

SOCKBIIRNE, a small parish, comprehending only the manor 
of the same name, b accurately described by Leland, as of " a 
mile cumpace, of exceeding pleasant ground, almost made ai^ 
isle, as Tese ryver wiiideth about it. The house and land of Sok^ 

buni 

^ Tb« chief particular* of the aSove nketcH, wcf« cxtrectetl from the Life of 
Jttoeison, puMisIkJ m a perioduol paper, called the Englishman, about 178^ 



iMftftAx; 



bun fatfbe Wm nf aoMeHt tTine the teryirfieiilHM^tiK' 
CMim.^' It is probable^ observes Mr. Hutcbiiisoo, ^ tint the 
moor of Sockbimie was granted o«t early to one of the C<NMeri< 
ftr some vafiant adioa, as the follo¥Ping ceremony denotes, which 
is perfermed at this day on the Bishop of Durham's first entrance, 
into the county •* The manor is held under the Bishop of Dmw 
ham, foy Knight's service, and the following ceremony. Alitht. 
first entrance of the Bishop, the Lord of Sockbume, or his ageni;^ 
Meets hhn m the middle of the river Tees, at Neeshan, ^hen 
the water is fbrdaUe, (otherwise on Croft Bridge,) when he piie-^ 
seofs a &lchion to the Bishop, as an emblem of liis temporal power, - 
and repeats the foHowiag words.t *' My Lord Bishop, I here pre* 
sent yon with the falchion wlierewitb the champion Coiiyers slew 
the wmm, dragon^ or Jiefy Jiying ierpent, which destroyed man, 
wonn, and child; in memory of which, the King then reigniag 
gave him the manor of Sockburne, to hold by thb tenure, that, 
apon the first entrance of every Bishop into the county, this &!-: 
chioo should be presented." The Bishop then takes the fakfaioit 
■I his hand, and hnmediately returns it to the person that pre- 
sented it, sdshiag the Lord of Sockburne health, and a hMig en- 
jeyment of the manor. In the ancient pedigree of the famify of 
Ae Coolers, it is set forth, that *' Sir John Cunyers, Knt. who dew 

the 



• •* Vi<t Inq. so, R. s, t396^Vide HarUian M S S. No. tut. Art. a. 
laq. p B. JobnCooien, chiv. d. t. in fce*tail to him and the heirs male of 
laa k>dy« of the oMor of Sockbura, held of the Lord Bishop h csp. p. ser- 
vie deatooitrand. d'no epi unum fawchon. There is a drawing of this falchioa 
01 the Herald's Office, Durham Visitation. On the pommel are three Itont of 
£«flaai« fuardaot: these were firu borne by King John, so that this falchion 
WM noc made before that time ; nor did the owner kill the dragon.^ The black 
agle t« a Aeld Or fsUt m tie kiitj was the arms of Morcar, Earl of Northum* 
betlisd : this too might bt the falchion with which the Earls might be-ioveitcd, 
faeaag girt with tht sword of the Earldom" Hutckii^in, 

f ** Anonym, to the author; said to betakenout of a M S. of John Calverly, 
4taq. <cd vid. Oflgd. Bar. v. i. p 190. Bcckwith*s Edit. Bloom's Te- 
•offca, p. 199. It tM most probable the dragon slain by Conicrs, was lonM 
I>«»i*h ftorcr irbo was sacking and pluaderuig the country.*' fiutchim$j^ 



wUch i^ierlbraw and devouftd oMMiy people io fight, tod thctoeat 
of tlKpoiitei«a»Mstro«igthtftn6penoa night abide il^ tod bee, 
bjr p^videooe of Almighly Qodf overtbiew it; aod lyetb buried 
«t SocUMirBy before the Conquest; but before be did enterpriaei 
went to the cburoh in compkle armour, aod offered up hit senne 
to tht Holy Ghost; which mooaaients are yet to see: abo the 
place where the serpent ky is called Or^tione.*' 

<* How for the reader will give credit to this relation is not eiK 
qmtd; bat certaia it is, the fontily was settled here about the 
tiflse of the Conquest, and were Barons of the palatioate; forKo- 
get Cooieri then hdd the same, and was by the Conqueror nade 
Constable of Durban Casde, and Keeper of all the soldier^ arms 
tbemn; and which office was settled on him and his heirs male for 
crer, by grant under the great seal of William de Carilepho, 
Bishop of Durham. They continued lo bold the manor till issua 
ipale foiling in Sir John Conyers, his daughter and heiress^ Anne, 
married Francis Talbot, Earl of Shrewsbury, whose daughter and 
heiress married Stoner, of Stooer, in the county of Oifoid, who 
•old Sockfoume, with the manor of Bishopton, to ^k £dward 
Bbcfcctt, in whose fomily those possessions slili ooolidue. Bishop 
Bury granted free warren to Sir John Coigners in his lands at 
Sockbum, &c. and Bishop Booth granted his licence to Sir Chris- 
topher Coniers, for fortifying his manor-house of Sokbum, and 
embattling and strengtbenmg the saoM. A form-house stands on 
or near the plaee where Sockbum-house formerly was: and tha 
grey stone mentioned as the monument of Conier's vietory 99et 
his dreadful enemy, is shown to the traveller In a field adjoining 
the Church, but without any other evidence than tradition, that 
there a dragon died.** 

The tombs of the Corners, lie in a porch on the north aide of 
Sockbume Church. On one is a recumbent effigy m stone, aiqp- 
posed to represent Sir John Coniers who married ** Elixabeth, 
eldest daughter of Bromflete, Lord St. John, and Broiuflet.''t 

The 

• Hatching, Vol III. p. i49> t UMU 



The Ir^ of tiM*6giire ure crossed; the feet rest on « fioa oootead* 
kg nitfa a winged disgon : the nght hand is in the act «f wh. 
thralhbg the sword ; on the hit is s ^ield, withont device; the* 
cmt and helmet are of chain-work. Sereral other memoriab af 
thb family femain here ; and among tfaem a hlue marble in the 
piiKBKut, with the following inscription on a label of btasSf at 
enecod of which is a sword, at the other, a ihiekl, with a i 
the arms of Cooien. 



Vt iBitt 3o&e0 Contrra tniletf Hn^ Hi Ckilbttm* aui ohiic 
atno^ctimo Bie fehruaiii a° S)ni 9(^« €€€\ uonoofatet 
tuano ciii*a ate pprcict lieii0» 2imttu 

DTMSDALE was the ancient seat of the Sttrtea, who tettted 
here soon aAer the Conquest, and probably derived their naaw 
fioB the situation of their residence on the river's hanks, Sar- Teot ; 
I e. apoa Teca: they heM their nnaiior by military service of the 
Loid of Castk Baroard. The Manor-Hoose was sarro — do t 
by a uMMt; its remains have been converted kito a fiMia-houaa* 
1W parts of tile naaor became, by marriage, the property of tlie 
Place fiiniy ; one of whom, Mr. Francis Place, was an arijsi 
of cMisiderahie emineace about the latter end of the seveBtoeath 
mod begianiag of the eighteenth century. He pahited, designed^ 
and etched ; and was also a good roeczotinto engraver. His pt^ 
fimmai abilities was accompanied by great scientific knowledge; 
and Thoseshy, in his Dueatus Leodiensu^ kiforms us, that he <Bo^ 
coaerod an earth for, and a method of making procelain, whkh h^ 
pat m practice at the mansion-house at York ; and of whkh a^ 
tne ht gave Thoresby a fine mug. His disposition and piUM 
need a fondness iot a nmbling life; and though aoannaolt 
fldaty of dOd. was offered him in the reign of Cliarles the So* 
ooad, fa engage his assistance m naval drav^ings, he refused to ao* 
ecpt it^ ar he could not endure either coufinement or dependence^ 
He died in the year 1728: many sketches and drawings, which he 
made m vaiioiis parts of Great Britain and Inelarid, are stil 
ptasorved m difierent collections. 

EOGLESCUFF 



fS PUSHAM. 

EGGLESCLTFF is « pleasmit Tillage, occii|^ring » elevate 
pobt of hndy rising from the Tees, and comtnanding a fine new 
of the opposite t<»wii of Yann^ in Yorkshire. The river is here 
by a bridge of five arches, which, in wet seasons, ooca- 
such a stoppage of the water, that the low lands are fre- 
quently overflowed, and great damage done, particnhirlj on the 
Yorkshire side. To prevent similar occurrences, an elegant cast 
Iran Bridge, of one arch, has been designed, the foundation stone 
ibr which was laid on the north side of the river on the third of 
September, 1805 ; and the iron work is now casting on a new 
plan, by the Messrs* Walkers of Rotlierhara, under the di- 
rection of the ingenious Mr. Thomas Wilson, who has obtained 
a patent for the invention. The span of the arch will be 180 
ftet, its height thirty-four feet» and iu breadth twenty-seven feet* 
The eipence of erecting it is estimated at 80001. of vvhich 4200L 
is appropriated to the construction of the abutments, and the re- 
mahider for the iron-work : towards this sum the counties of York 
aad Durham subscribe in equal proportions. 

SADBERGE, a chapehy to Haugbton, is a place of remote 
origio, and was andenlly a connty in itself, having its proper 
Sherifis, Coroners, and other civil oflkers. In the time of Bishop 
Bury, it was divided into two wards, and had the privileges of a, 
wapentake. ** In the time of Bishop Langley, it was assertedg., 
ibat Barnard Castle, Marwood, Cieatham, Egglestoo, Langton^ 
Mkldlctoo In Teesdale, Newbiggiu, Stainton, and other places in 
the western extremity of Durham, were members of this wapen- 
take. There was a gaol for prisoners in Saiberge; and sundrji 
manors and hmds were held by the special service of maintaining 
the same, and supporting the prisoners."* Sadberge was origi- 
aaUy the patrimony of the church, but withbekl till Hugh Podscgr 
exchanged various manors in Lincolnshire for it with Richard 
the First. Lanibarde, after mentioning thb cireiimstance« ob** 
serves, that ** Satberge was at that tyme, and loii^c since, called 
a countye, cooteyninge (as I think) the greatest portion ot that 

whicl) 

* Hotchlnsoa, Vol. III. p. 174 



Ylwtteefi 

I JD'llMl fiwrifr» dwt, tlMiie bedptn fiact ]f«t 

Ibrftw tht BUmp-u fab €iinn qf SaOarge; wad 
that the most part of the couotiya vaortMl to covile thjtiMr» 
iMcfa tjyotkflie to tkkike that it dMNiid be called SacbbHob, 
0iSac^md igrigt the Somii irofds, whkb ngoifie the coott of 
lov pl(a% ftovi whiQb.«giiificeiiaD.SodNirgh before is aol 
I dittamx. It ttaadethe upon a bil, aad is now called Sedi- 
^ogl^ which hergh Qbe latter part of the worde) souodalk aa 
■ache ia Ibe Saxoo, as kill now with us in lngliihr» and tiw ia f 
if aay nan lake better to have it donved of Sae-btwh^ that is, the 
cent i^MB the bylli or the h^tt of plees» I give htm as ftee liber> 
tie as I aqfaelle would be ^add to etyojfe in any socbe matter of 
te gjectaw , ' ^ Wfaatfnrer was the fermer cooseqaenoe of Sadbecge^ 
it as BOW an jmigajficaat place,, ooly worthy of notice from its foi^- 
«er fsaade^. The enupence oa which it stands, rises oo each 
ade with an easy asocatji and conasands a fine view Ofer the south* 
cut part of Durham, and up Tees-dale as fi«. as the h%h grounds 
ef Banard.Castle. ThciChapeLis built of stoaesappaiently taken 
fiomtheaqi^ttriaUofmccf ancient structures. From the son^ 
Mfe by order of Bishop Hatfield, it appears that dl the hrnds 
aa Sadbe^ge were formerly held by miiitaiy senrioe. 

BISHOPTON is a. small village, lendeted aMnorabie firom 
hariaf been th|^ place where the brave Soger Coaiecs, of -the 
Coaaccs fismily of Sockbum, successfully resisted the troops «f 
VUliam Cumin, wjbo usurped the See in the twelfth century.f 
The ^pot chosen by Coniers for his stroog-Md, is a small, pbin, 
1» the east of the village, completely overlooked by ap adjacent 
Here a conical mowUf surrounded with trenches, and 
; with a steqp acclivity, is still rem a i ni ng. To the north the 
ground is marsbyt and capable of supplying the ditches with we- 
Icr: to the south it rises gently. The drcumference of the 

Vol, V. . . Q mount 

* Lambarde*s Dictionary, p. 394. 



H^ ft 0fk 'Ac timlfc*:aiten»ar4r lesWred tothe ml Bishop, .difon{!i 
Cumin's tmcxpectedl contrition. 



litt mmmoil is Mirfy le«ri,4eii - 
ft* flovdi, flnd-iixteen Anm cast t« < 
iip«n daBommbU mm Hm tap^ 

ptettwhete £lla, a Dane, «nt fk^biA km tMti 
Ibe montti «f (te Ttet; mmI it* mnm b i^ipMBtlj dormNl' 
Has dmmstMKe; JM, h tlie ^«Koa laagiii y » sierffy i ag » i 
« int; brace Nft'iSMlb; «n«^cMlm<rfQfl,iart^ TraWem 
Mtrt^tlMtfatliiiglikabttMltflft ilfMMMi; that ane i^Ms cftfef: 
Miofdiadat Jkrardm^aadilMitat TVMMtoa, a <? iHaga to tlie Mitb, 
Ui IMB Iu*c4«aflr<kaiirt%aes«f taltla^addircnagriiit^^ 

HARDWiCKI^ tiK soalaf MaMwar Russell, Esq. Aout faalTa 
«BeavaAorSad§i6iM, is mich arfebialdlla the north, ftvOe 
baaafty af its fiiaasuia groaads, and Iba tlaganee a#te uiuam a rt d 
fadkiiags. Tbasa aneia Hie cmlieii oTAa late lobn BotdoiH B^« 
-vfao bagtn bis ba|iro¥anienls about the yaar 1750: bdWelbatpo- 
dod, tba gaaiMMb wave saareelsr flMfe tban a bag; and tfaa hufft 
aUa has awe* wm a maiaby appeaiaaeew VMoas alfafalioas 
(MfatMeb made by- we pi vault pvopfwtoff wfaich giaafiy fMOQod 
tatbeamttlof bblasle. Tba aadosures of an estate Itfldy poN 
diased from the stbool of Rivbigtoa, bi Laaca s bhe , have beeh 
aaneoiad, Co eomiect 4t with ^ gromids of Haniwkba, arbicb 
bava also been tbfowa <^peB loawds Cbe east, and ievand alump 
•f laies, aad*a safpeatina pbaHatioa, eontmad to ambeRSdi tbe 
aipar of tbe westom side of Sadgebeld. Tbe eatiance bito the 
plaamie gvoonds has Ukewise been Impiofed, and tendered 
nova salabrioas, and more eheeiM. Ffom the grand terrace, a 
Am giavel walk, aboat dSO paces in length, is a dcaceot to a dr- 
eular bason of water ; and near its termination fa tbe Stuhhg 
Hbtfw, a building of the Uoiic order, bating an qien portkofo 
ftont, leadmg to Ibe ba&, and apartmentsto breaklhst and rcpofie 
hi, at the sides. Proceeding in a windwg direction, tbe path 
conducts to the L<tkc, a sheet of water covering nearly frf^r-fonr 
acres, and uniting with a serpentine river or canal, srfaich wiodi 
ttaWib tbgg«>Mnd<> biit naMter rt iifiB y ilba HMH pai |Bn lofciy* 

stsl. 



-99 

«rfe<f Jiflfe iRicml, die^Arinogof t^ M Mng #(^^ 
Ibngkclostliytbefeet Tht iiterm «f Ae tibniiy li fiiraiiM 
vtti a njlMiia ^tBtctiMi j^prnkmei btfc% tedtbtt widdomflM 



** The likcnen of things fo foul to behold^ 
*« That whal they are is not fit to be toU." 

Tbe Temfie, built on a areolar eminence in ft pleasant meadoWy 
wilh an open ^oonade; Ibe aotaUatoiir is 
hliy cohmns of the Ionic <Ofiler: tiaipdhetOB theoHtiide 
•Mfia«4oiihl<biiiUof tir AottnpeciorpQots, The interior « 
fcil mmmj bafjqg an odqgonal <bine, deeorale^ with 
ikfj^hm BoMfie, father and son. In tbe centre it Apollo 
\ jPiHw with a faiyrd wwatb: at her foot are ^tq^resanlBd 
fidow^in laigecompartmeats, are the Car- 
i Vlilwaij with a p p r o pr i a te emUemg^ and iu the comers ace 
' aH% MiWiCt PMtiQ^ ^tailpture, and Ardutecture. In re- 
la •botwcBa the wiadowv are medaUioas of tbe feor Seasoay, in 
, bgr CaoAk Tbe A>or it of ni0aaio-woik» mhid with di^ 
macbka. The Acm ia an aryficial lemblanee of a 
I cartk, with a roand tower entivt, from the lOHumt of 
la an tsliima proipect: ^^yotita the mm ii a statoe ai 
oa a padtitfl in the «idst of the rivar. The 
r ia a aopeib hoiUaig of tbe Gorinthiaa order; 
•ijitgMwo ftct hi kogth, wok 
; fefiC la height aad braadtfa. The oeflu^^ is duri- 
ded 0to various eompartments : m the centre ia an o?al, with g 
aifpncaibiioa of tbe aasemhiy and banquet of the Oods» by Hay- 
aaoft; awd aaacfoavM at the side^ tbe petition of Thetis to Jupitei^ 
mk VaoMS paasaalnf Ibe oaatus to Juoo^ attended by the Loves 
aal Oracasw A ba te Aa dooas are two paiotiags, by Haynmnt re* 
[ the avUBiataof Cupid aod Psyche, and a pcooession of 
Ofar tha ohhaaey-pitoe • a fulUangMi of h BuBp 
mMfBu^ kf Qm^ m Oannaa, estaened a aorract likeness. 

G« The 




160 DVmHAM, 

Tile other dit nions of the roMn are decorated wtth chgjail itoteo^ 
^NFork, end rick gildiDg; ««d omamented with hustt of Mhdio, 
.Vkraviqsy Inigo Jones, dee. The ^mir betwtett the finnqai ih^ 
House and the Ruin is extremely beautiful ; and many fine proe- 
pects may be obtained from diilerent poiirts in the grounds. The 
Mansion b an irregular structure, erected by Mr. Russell, in whiA 
convenience has been more studied than elegance* 

SEDGEHELD, 

Ak andent town, invested with the privilege of a tnaihef , by a 
grant from l^diop Kdlawe in the year 1312, Is sitoated on one 0f 
die most pleasant and healthful spots m the county ;.an4 so CuMd 
for its salubrity, and the longevity and hardiness of its hhabitants^ 
that the late celebrated Dr. Askew denominated' it the*Mont^diar 
of the North. Its rite is elevated, on a gravelly aaS, and open Id 
' every aspect: the surrounding country is m a h^ stale of tiltl Hh 
tion, and very productive. The prospeda are extensive and 
grand, embracing a great variety of interesting objeM. 

Cutheard, Bishop of Durham, obout the year 900, issaidtohave 

redeemed the vill of Sedgefield, with its members, with the m^ 

Siey of the Church, of three persons, named Acnlf, Etheibryth, and 

Frythlake; By tlie Bolden Buke, it appears there were twenty 

inlkdns on the manor, and twenty farmers, and that the whole viM 

joined to provide a milch C€w. The bond tenants were wd a r 

•great servility; for, besides the various payments- exacted, each 

, bondsman, who held thirty acres, wrought three days eveiy week 

/for the lord, except at Easter and Whitsuntide, and twelve dqpa at 

Christmas. 

The centre of the town forms a large square, in whidi is a mar- 
keteross; and on the east side, the Chtrck. The length of thb 
structure, observes Mr. Hutchinson, from ^ the tower to the dranccl, 
is about 73 feet; the length of the transept b nearly equal Vh that 
of the nave. The aisles are formed by rows of three piHars, light« 
a&d elegantly shaped; each ptitor being composed #f fonr perleot 
cylbders, not placed hi a square, but in a letenge MwMuid wait. 



jboiyi4J'« : m. 



30 » lo pfctent a bfoul fiant, toMrdftb^ qinlN «f llw aUvtar tjMi . 
caUuffm are Mt^ io tbe middle; the btm hate few mtmlMmi ; 
and ttM^e of the Sai^ order; bul tbe eapbalt «ft ▼wrkHMl^ ortia* 
meotcd, with fiUets of palm brancheir vine kayet, wnsaths of - 
flowers ming^ wkh birds and other figures*; in mmf paitd ddi^ ' 
cateljr pierce<U The arches are pointed^ and omameDtod iritfi,. 
moiddiogs; the outward one, z^x^g; tbejt spriogftom {alaftei* an;. 
the side walbyaod riM.ftom grotesque headiiofi the oipilaUof the : 
pillars. The chancel is iodosefl from the nave by a rkb iOOiii , 
of tabemade-work in oak» with three stalls oo each sidCi dtrided* 
by beautiftil light coluoms, and canopied. The chancel is near^ [ 
thirtj-six feet io leoglh, and neatljf wainscotted with oak. , .Tbaf 
trauepts appear to have been added to the original btalding ai , 
different limes;" probably on the fomxfatioo of two chantrietp ; 
eMahltshcd here long prior to the Dissolutioa. The organ was 
gi?en by the Rev. Theophilus Pickering, who was rector between ^ 
the years 1706 and 171 1. In tbe east windoar of the south aisle 
are the words, 3[oft« Be ^cnif Kcm Cctlfi* (Ml Nnc finwaianu t 
Henley was rector m the year 136l. Vanous ancient inscriplioos 
are on brasses, in different parts of the Church. Beibre the altar- 
rails, ott a slab in the pavement, is represented a crosier supported 
OQthebackofahMttb, a chalice in the middle of th|e sta^ i^ the 
cross at top pomted in the form of the flenr de lis: near the 8i4e is . 
inscribedy in Saxflf cbancten^ 

+ SIII: ANDREV: DE : STAVELAI : METIR: 

DE: CRETltAM: GIT: ICI : PVR: DEV: PRIEZ f 

PVR : t'AN. 

In the north aisle is a curious monument, on a dab inhnd, lepre- 
sath^ two skeletow hi shrouds, apparently male and iemale; die 
kiter having a wHMliog-sheet folded over the ifiMdle: abovekthe 
pbce for a bbel, which has long been removed, and the bscrip* 
tkm is unknown. Tbe ancient Rectory-House,^ a castellated edi- 

Q3 ., fi««f 

• TicfapcnIitioiMaod vuJg^ir mhabiiinitof Scigcfidd, were, prcvloiulyo ^ 
Urn btttmm dmwu oi the oW Rectory, alarmed by an apparitiori, dcnoinii^d ' 
^ ths 



lit* piMmmi' 

Sm^w^^kmrn t$imt ^ vry^t the ptiMit MIliBiigfwaieMdcd' 
by Utt lUv. Geoige Bmiogl^i^ in a^'pMn nialt <tyte; Mmsf 
ttlKditfaw hate been nade t^ tlm parfali fcr dMritaibte puf^ 
p40es; On the eM ride •f the imrket aquete b an EkepM, or 
Mn^bmnt^ Am* ten poor men* im^ women, ftomted in^pUTMiance 
of^ htifam^ bj Mr. Thonee Oeper, a Svigeoa^ i^ho-died in 1703. 
Al^oiiiiuf tlK hospM 10 aFrae Oraminap^ehooly for the educft- 
tiaii of rix poor ehilAea. the popiilition of SedgeMA township, 
as mn m u Omi^hj the hte act, was ua4; the aomber 0^ houses 
3^. Ihr a ppetmaie e of the hriler has heenr much improred of 
lale T^ars; many ^ ^m, whkb were prerkni^ thatched, harhig^ 
banr tiled, and rot^h-cast. A tnrelf LmenManafactory has been 
crfahished here; and nearly lOa hands are constancy employed 
m dioeHm«ri(iiig; Some additional employment is furnished by a 
QdM, erected on a small stream near the town, for forging spades, 
axes^ dte. 

A very shguKir and destructive Ic^itorm occurr^ at Se<%6- 
fieHK aad its AeighhOtfh<>od> on the mH of July, 1792. It hap- 
pened between the hours of eleven and one m tlie day, and was 
preceded by an aUuost tottil dattuest, and a noise resanibling' 
rfterberated thunder. The streets of the town were fflled to the 
dqptb of two feet*, whh pieces of rugged ice, taryiug in size, from 
that of a marble to the bigness of a man's head. All the windows 
which had a southern aspect, were entirely brolaen; and many 
bouses presented a dreadful picture of its violence and devastatioo. 
It began near Preston, and continued to ra^pe in a. sontlMMt di- 
rection to heyond Kelyoe. Ail (he opm exposed to its fury was 

destroyed; 

ifas JVdUW PgNoMi whidi fiir xnunf yats^ \iU fUMflnti) to inte l^*iiei§b^«uiw- 
IxKrf, qI tkf Rmor'i irn^ *• mk¥m n\^ hideous." Tbt i«f|>M«a or isin of Oct 
ulei< alUibittcd tp thocuniuii^ of a rcclor't wift, whou hutlMin4 havion died 
about a. week before Uiitythef (which ar^ generally let off Co farmert, and the 
rents paid on the ftOcfa of December) became due, the concealed hU death, by 
aaking bii body in a private room. Her scheme succeeded ; ahe received ctie 
en^luneiits of the living, and the next day made the decease of the Rc£t«V 
pub^. Since the Ere the appacition has not been leco ! 



dtitiqgtidi thitiMiTCfectijpiH^of tboi^a?^ 
weic lulled; •nd the cattle broke fram thtir pastiires» fpd.nutb 
vbiUe expfeMgn of tenor^ fled lo tlie b^it^tioBS o^ iiNui iof 
fceonl^ Tbe cause of thb luicoiiUBon kiod ol^ teoi^ doe& ool 
ifgcee to baift ever been adequatdgi w^s^i§ated» 

SrfOdtfroN IJPOf^r T£ES. 

That Stockton it a place of consklerabfe antiqnif]^, lAay fil 
«Mf JdfeMtf Aom it§ ffiihig mmie (d cune of the ibot mitdk hto 
ivlriiir Ilie comify lb dMdbd; Bot fTs ^ariy blktoi^ is v^fy dfcscur^ ; 
Ittd whether it derfv^ ite oyigjiKf ffom tbe vkidag« of fh« <Sa^fe; 
ori«ili|ii«tta^iiredto'eiie^^nmtfo^ea(ir^tDdM Tbe 

origiifof the euCfo it mort 6Mbol 

IMlig tite (urMtot ag^ whei^ imttbimr jealousre^, and feu> 
dai aaiBWwitiei, cieated intettiiie waHare, tbe Bisbbpn of fikirhaitt', 
Itvidg beear biffed wMi |Ndbtiti^ dfgoiiy, coosld^^red tbeihsebet 
m ga aw l ia in of Hie Ihes i(kHrpit>pertl^, as w^ as the r^ligtoti Aid 
■orak, iff Ibe protbiee committed to tbefr care ; and With Alk 
«ie«r» pcnwne able, ftom inffuence and auffiorir^, were appointed 
Id the BiAoptfa of Iforiia\tt» tttat Ih^y migbt i(ct as sbepberdb t^ 
flbck bi both a religious and a civitcapucify. Iq tbe brtt^ 
fer; fbey bd fo prevent tbe bkroaft of the $cot3» #bo* madb 
kapattoftbcbeoosiaiiipolicytodlsfMessand fevy coatrftotionl 
oa tlnriootlieni oeigbboori; bence arose tbe variotts fcitiesset 
balaMI iha Vym andr tbe 'Beesw and mmm§ tbatt Ssoom^n 
CMti^ wbMi tlood to the Miilb*of iba^Mivii^ oa Hw aai< iim w 
bvik of tbe bktSnT iHef, and eonimuidetf an eitVeiuA^ pi%specf« 
lb after agta, it became tbe occasional residence of man^ of the 
pffhtfi, nod was unproved and strengthened, as drcomstaocei 
icqdfed. DMrinf tbe GM Waaiv bfr the raipk ^ Gbnrias Hm 
lint, it was garritooed for tbe King, and partkuhrly excepted n 
tile treaty of R^ppoo, when all tbe rest of thc^ coqnt}, bot Eggs* 
eMe, was given up to tbe Scots. Previously, however, to the 
year l64d, it fell bifa tiwor bartdlr, and waraftcrwatds sonrendared 
IQ tbe hifianMnt, which ordered it to be «" sbghted and disaia» 

Q4 tlear 



tkdr and to dktimSfy ink this execated, that not a stdM i%« 
mams at evidence of its former ^leddor. The ody reBc is a 
barn, (now indeed converted hito cow-houses,) wliich appears to 
have stood withm the area. On three sides, the castle was defended 
by a moat, the channd of which is yet visible ; the fomtii was 
protected by the river: the demolition took place in the year 
l652.* Hie site is st^l a part of the possessions belonging to the 
Bishops of Durham. 

The manor of Stockton was foost probably a paroel of the See 
of Durham previous to the Cooquest. When it was incorpwited 
as a borough, is unknown ; but supposed to be in the time of 
Bishop Pudsey. Mention of a Mayor a^d B^AiS occurs in the 
year 1344 ; yet that it was incorporated previous to thi^ is evi- 
dent fiom the talliage levied '' of the borougb o^ Stoketon^" in 
the year 1283. t 

^ In the Bolden Buke, Stockton is represeuted as containing 
** ieleven villains and a ha(f; each of which hoM>i two osgaqgs; 
they pay and work as the villains of Boldep, cormgef. only.esr 
cqpted. In the same town, six farmers hold eleven oxgangs : th^y 
pny and work as the farmers at Nortop. Adam, the son of Wal- 
ter, holds one caracute and one oxgaog.for one niaroof silvec 
Robert de Cambous holds four oxgangs for half a maxc, and ooe 
oxgaof by the accommodation of the Bishop, &c« The ssuue 

Robert 

<• Tfom m EagTitlng published in tht Rev. J. BrewtteiH Misiory oC StodU 
99a* «id oopi«d from a diBwiog iapptiod to have hecn -iWKle ahout.dt^ yeit 
4647, purporting to repreteot the castle^ ihU (ortrcM appcan to havebpeo aqti^ 
draogular, uniform building;, with round towers at the angles, and squaisp 
towers in the middle of the sides. All the upper part is embattled, and pro. 
vided with narrow windows, apparently for the discharge of arrows. An M 
iD»g ftlitivt lo thia cattle^ has tho foUowing lines t 

Old Noll In his day, out of pious concern. 
This Castle demolished, soid sli, ht the horn, 

t Madox's Hist of tl^ Exchequer, p. 436. , 

{ Coma.je was the ancient service of blowing ihc horn on any invasion of the 
Scots : the tenure was very customary in the counties border tttg on the Roman 
waiJ. 



lloSbcst lias the old toft of 'die haU near las own honse, and fotys 
ttiteen-pence Ibr it. Elwin and Robert, cottagers, pay for two 
lofts twehre-peoce. Godewin, cottager, six-pence. Sjmoo,^ 
Uicksmith, for one toft, four-pence. Tlie Pinder holds six acretp 
ind bas of Sloketon, of Hertebum, and Preston, thravc^as otherst 
and four-score hens, and five hundred eggs. The ferry cf the 
lifer pays twenty-pence. Tlic whole town pays one fat cow." 

In I3^5y Stockton is mentioned among the places destroyed 
that year by the Scots : it, however; soon recovered importance^ 
as appears from an instrument, addressed by the Mayor and Bai- 
GA of Newcastle, to ^ their dearly bdoved friends in Christ, the 
Mayor, BafliA, and other honest men of the town of Stockton.^ 
Hie priiilege of a matket was granted by Bbhop Bedc in 1310; 
but it afterwards sunk into obscurity, as appears from the petitioa 
of ibe Mayor and his Brethren, in 1608, to Bishop Matthew; 
prayiog for a renewal of the market, which had been discontimied 
many yeark Aliout this period some little attention seems to have 
been given to promote the trade of the toWn ; and in 16)20, a de- 
cree of the Biikop*s Court of Chancery, determined in his favor^ 
the right of receiving duties from ships coming into the port fsir 
anchorage and plankage. in the ensuing Civil Wars, the growbig 
prosperity of Stockton received a great check: its languishing state 
may be easily coucep^ed, fVom the report made to Parliament of 
Ihe possessions of the See. '* The Bpp. has the royalties of the 
river of Tease, as whales, sturgeon, porposes, or the like, takea 
on that side of the river next the couuty of Durham, within the 
numor of Stockton, and all wrecks of the sea, but kuow not wh^ 
they are worth : — not 51. per annum. That the works, customs 
Hod service ot the copyholders are little worth : and we know of 
mo cottagers within this man'. That the living at Stockton is a 
poor peiacon, and not worth above per ann, 301. or 351. or ther&- 
atMmts.'* In 16*60, the town only contained 136 families, and 
none of tlie dni'eliings were of brick. On the return of the natkiii 
to tranquillity, Stockton again begttn to flourish, and m twImT^ 
^^\ yean, the popubtiou was increased to 214 families. In VfM 
it contariied 430 iamiBcs, « besides 100 more that were paupers/* 

Sinea 



Siaee Uot time ks popvktifxi baa mon thaa doubled itbemmw 
bee of inhabitant^ as retuzaed under the late act, was iOO^ : of 

Stockton consists of two parts^ one^ called the Bcro^tgh^ ia 
wbicfa the land is all freehold; the other,, denominated the Tawn^ 
wlNcie it is copy or leasehold, held under the vicar and vestrj^mcn^ 
and not within the Borough jurisdictiou: for this reason tbeic aiie 
two coostabhiriesy with peculiar officen, though both, form one 
pfunb. The dvil goTemment is vested in a Majpor* Aldermen^ 
anA Recorder, (wh* is always steward of the Bishop's court-ket 
aad bavooy) besides inftrior officeiei. The Mayor is elected by a 
minority of the Burgeves; yet it is not necessary, as in most co«» 
porations, thad he sbould have ficst been an Aldenuan ; but wban 
cboiea into the Mayoralty, be is afterwards styled an Aldermau, 
and so continuea as- long as be remains' in possession of his Bo- 
louglb-rightL 

The situation of tliis town on the northern banks of the Tees, 
at a convenient distance from the sea, renders it extremely favoni« 
ble for maritime trade, though it has not yet derived all the ad« 
motages which might have been expected from that circumstance. 
Its comnieice began to revive soon after the Restoratioo^ and hav* 
iag censiderably increased, tbe principal oflkers of the customs 
west removed hither from Hartlepool on the sixteenth of October^ 
l68(^; and Li\tful or free quays were set up under a commis^ 
aiooer ffoni the Exchequer in l6S3. Below Stockton, the river 
flows in avery circuitous course; and as it approaches the Gemao 
Ocean» expands into a lasgje bay, upwards of three miles wide» 
irilhm whidi many vessels, that are not eoncemed in the trade 
•f the river, seek slielter in tempestuous weather. The vessela 
legjbtered as belopgiog to this port in 1795, were 47; canj* 
iog 5733 tons. 

Stockton is probably the most baudsome town in tbe iioith of 
Sil|^and„as well for the bieadtb of its principal-street, as for the 
Ip^ neatness of its buildings. The stceet is about half a mile 
in length, and upwards of sixty yards broad at tbe market-place» 
*wMi ill in the centre, and continues nearly as broad to either 

extremity 



dieaoith or 9oath« porticulariy impressive^ Siveivl anMAeistattt: 
€ff ia difiei«Bt diiMtieM; MiA gl Ihs BifUMUi «^ 
^oase^ wUcb coolMiia teiBe go«d hMiMlfi) and im- 
hecB liUljf indosed, asd pbatad,.by a sabstripdoii. rabod aai0ii^ 
tlw prndpal iniiabilaii^ TJie Tamrn'Oaii staadaneae di» mkHia 
af tiK pttociiNiL strtat: it b a laq^e ^mmw iMuidiBt« panliy m> 
aa a laiieiii, aad rrnKTiiaing a bandsoma aaile o£aHeaM||l 
i aariaitts^ alhat aparlnaats, courtvaom, &K;. Tlia^ 
of the tow» ase scsdpAurad over tha soiilh aattaMe. Tha 
•r cMit lor itt aiw:liMi is datvLMwah Ae ninth, k7dS. 
Al a snatt dbtaaca it^ kaadsome Cohimm, tbit^M^rte t&tt hi§l^' 
of the Dofic ordac, where the mukei h heU^ and aUebstaada 
on tba s|iDt fcmedy oocapied by aa open oms. Behmr tUa aie 
tha S&aaiUds, which, though ml ki thaaMnhttS^ deliaol aan» 
dctah^ tew the nafale apf«anMica of tha streat. ' 

Stodhian was octnallf a ohifieby to Kastan, a pleasant* ^pB* 
b|a nbont two tniks to tha nory^ hot was coostittttada dbtinet 
palish in the year 17 H. During the episeopaey of Bishop Poora, 
who died in 1234^ a chapel of ease was erecttd hete, whiefe ba- 
nana and too sasall Smt the increased number of niia» 
, was taken down; and a new Cbnith cMcted^ Iha lbnad»« 
tien of which was hid Juue the fifth, 1710: and the bniWing 
nnsna J fet ditine sarnkfton the twan^>4uBt of Augosr, 17 ^^ 

The Clkm€k is a hnnisanif hritk ftbric, ttie doon. and whH 
daws cased with stone, tha loof catapod with Weslinorelattd slata^ 
iMkn«lh»aKlMdiag the tower and chanoel, b: 150 feet: iie tower 
k at tha wosl end, and b aigiity feet high* It cantaiasia^fiMt 
aicclsd ia tha ynur 1769; and the whole iutatior view m 
nd nnttimi. In the vestry b a coUeetiau of eAd dffwntf 
haaha, wincb has taHly basn aonodeied as< the fMiudatieo of a 
painihbt diriolty Lihasry, and.vamus boohs an leiigioh and akk 
nh^ WW otcasiuHaUy added to the ancient sioak, kf mmmt 
snhsaiptansnamig tha aasst asifisGtabk parbhioners. The Pmk 
hjftrrisns, Quakers, Metboch^s, and Roman Catholics, have each 
A aMetiflg-bouae in thb town;^Hhich also contains a Giaromar* 

school. 



im MftHAM. 

•dMol, Ourity-iblioal, Simday^tchd^l, and ao AlmMioufe dr' 
H o^ii l i l for poor propb. 

Hm prittdpal iMnu^KtMOtof Stocktonareaail-clo^and r^pes, 
for govcmmcBt and the nieicbant serviee, aad wkich are carried 
oo to a considerable extent. Here is also a mamifBclory of da* < 
naiksi diapen, buckubaeksY towelling, checked linens, &c. ar> 
tidas wbkb httve lately been wrought in great pei^sdion. Two ' 
dodtt for sbip-bntldiiig are likewise situated on the banks of the 
Tees; and if a proper spirit of enterprise was excited by the pro- 
pritlors, this business might become of incalenlable adirantage, as 
the sbSps buiit hereare more reasonable, and far better constructed, ' 
than at many other searports: a vessel of 800 tons burthen has 
lately been built here for the East India Company. 

An elegant Bridge ei five arches wss erected over the Tees, be* - 
low the town, between the years 1764 and 17-71, at the expeoce 
of 80001. This sum was raised by loaa, and the subttoAers eiK* 
titled to an iocreasii^ mterest, but not to exceed 5 per cent, till 
the debt was defrayed* The tolls have progressively augmented, 
aad now let for 8001. anuually. This is a)>propnated to discharge * 
the pri»€i|)al and interest of iheexpence nicurred, ontlie liquidatioD'' 
of wlimh the bridge will be thrown open, and tho charges of re* - 
pair defrayed by the county of Durham, and the North Ridhig ^f 
Yori&ahire, respectively. 

Many im|)roven)efits have been made here within the hist fbrty 
years, which may, with great prop r iet y , be ascribed to the more 
cultivated manners of the principal inhabitaBts. *^ Opulence and 
iodnstry have ghren a spur to all their altahiments, and they are* 
behind no other town in the elegant pleasures of polished Klet at 
Iheaalae time, tew nvt the mstances that have occurred, in which 
liberaUty and profitskm have lost sight of justice and |irapriaiy.* ^ 

i The shock of an earthquake was Ml at'9lock(OA «n tife ninth • 
of December, 17^0, at a quarter befere ive in the aftembon :*. 
^adoii August the second, 1783, a severe s|om of thunder and* 

lightiling Occurred, aceoaipaiiied by a shiMaer of irregidar pieces 

- of 

* BiCA^tcr'^ H sioiy of Stockton, p. 1^5. 



ml to^ itee U Ibtm ■MMrtiog fc m Ihilee lo4ft hmIm i»x» 
The leni|pcsl came- AomtlMwnt; and most of tin 
rtlMfiwitBd itwerebfolieii. Yitikty mf uher caioM vf^n 
fmmid hftte ho piHfinf down ab oM li«ii«e in llie year l?9fi: HMny 
of them were in exccUrnt presenrafioB, aaH in a fegainr aeriaH 
fion Edward the SislhtbJjiinesllbe Seconds • They weieclaioifd 
m treasure trove \ and 646*, nvei^hing -T9lb. ^oz. delivered lO' the 
Bidiop of Dorirtiu as Lord of the Manor. 
Stocktoft has been the buth^ifaK^ of ^he following disttij^ 

iasB>u Rkbo, author of the Register OffiiDe, nod 
. dnmatic |Meee9« was bom in the year 1722« His 'pn^ 
fesibn was that of a rope-maker, which he practistd in Stockfod; 
hot reasofing to London, he settled in Suh-Tavefo FieMs, 'Shalt 
wcIL Incoasistenl as it nuty appear, Mr. Reed suocesiAil^' 
oovfted the Muses; and at the tune that he was. windmg cordage, 
he c— tiitid dranias with considerable talent and ingenuity. ** Ma* 
irigd nod TrttUetta, a mock imgedy, aeted udder tbedtrtotkMt 
•fMr. GWber, m Comrt^ Garden; with notes by the author, Dh 
Hmnbag, critic and censor^general,'' a}>pearcd in 1758, and wtti 
his first production. «" It is inpdsaihle/' says a lofiewer of this 
ficce, ** to peruse hb comic soanes, wilhoat dHOrhig k tk»^ 
whfeh Ihia fceetious perfommee must have afedbd its 
m Che wnlmg." The Reghier Qfica, Mr. Raad% 
was brought out m 176i, 'and stiBheapsaiw^ 
mi, abd fiaad the aatho/a 
as a cdtic. B es idss these, he wrote the tragedy of 
JMfe; awl a cooue opers, called ''JhmJams," Aom thonosri, 
ef Aa «a»a mmms but a didMnt cast is ^jnrtm ta several of the 
ihmattiM He died on tha fifteenth ofAsffttSt, 1787, b the si]^yi> 
fifth year of hmafe. 

>BEAsa CmoaBT, Esq. bom in 17^$ roseirom aTerymfe- 
lisr rtatioa ai life at this town, to the highest magisterial honors in 
te dly of Imdqm, He was phcad with anattomey at Samhr- 
laad; and removing to the Metropolis^ followed that profession in 
the Little iiinories, and afterwards m Seething>L»nf. Marrying 
the mb wU9W of a tajdarand saksmaa, who had united dealing 




llteweibB, wid«cc>mdrtrti«iiMMiatiuMom, Oi 
liciiwrriedtlMwklmrflfMr«GMke, wiolndaeqaMi 
m hMiliwww competency at iciiM>4nAar to tte OBwe •€ Ort— w^ 
He Mw fvogfCMmly trat^feetail OwuiMtt CouMilMBfor T«w« 
Wn< City Remrariinnoer, Sferifi; AMmmm, and LodI M^for 
•f LoDfloa; and Ifember of Pte ii am ea t lor Hooiloo, in Ik«o»* 
fliibe. Hie circanutancei of lib eoiiwniloimt <o the TVwrer, friHU 
Laid Mayor, iiytiMHooiearCoanMMi, wkhtbecaoN^ aadlhe 
pofolarity ke Iheaea ob(iiiiad» «re too profia to te tee ioRrtcrf. 
Attheoonduskmof ^hismayorakyy lie Teceivcd tbe^tfaankaofiM 
CmtfoaHkm^ was praMalad aritfa a cop of K)Oi. 'nine; oad die 
obelidLbdt. Oeoi«e*trialdtwaskiicfibedtolMiaoMfy. m 
dnrdvifc, iht midam of the Ret . Mr. Taltenall, eorvitied hao* 
TUi bdy aided to Ins mt paopeity the nanar ef CMMMd 
Coait» Kent, and a jontuve 4f lOOOL jttr annom. He dM«l 
Mb houaehi Chatham Square, I^BhRuny 14th, l7*ds atlhea^eof 
Ci yean^ani nathmied m great fiuMal pomp in CholMkM 
Choick 

CMtrnTonvnt AiiLiaoir hocaroe iimed ior the gaflant m 
Han mniiaahim Mi lapsed m the Advenlore armed ohip, oam* 
Ihyhhnior Iheamnert, andhyCqpteinllrayiortheSim, 
the MnAeiite fwraieer oms tahcn m Pna|^ini m iimi. He 
laafHUrtkafavlyglorioni, lhat«he Linliof ihe 
>wMidmi u m m aa i ofmi^!y 
K aMbt Mr. AlliMM» to whnae genint Hie whole haa heea 
Samed no aenraid. 'Uit bat Amn trnpatid to Captak 
an/e oamhMst^m mifiuify iiMJiiing Mnht nmiittolrimgel^ la 
haaoflmalletlortolhaLafda of thoiyhnmyhy. AmoMOOiMt 
•tatement was gtfen by Alliaon m a letter* to Mr. Reed, <H«ntfd» 

ed 



• Tbitkatr* wriiMte.dBirmaoMiA.lHnmasa% wmte Mkiwii 

I •« Vomfafor of dK «3ih, ti min i w^lneedt wbiltiii t 
i|id yoa wmt to know tht ptttlcolm of one action. The loUowiQgUtlM 



d^kOfvt,) «ii n^MliaW been at^Aeiilieited bjr the ii^Mk creir, 
if *e en^iry Imd been dHntght decessaiy. " Mr, AlMsonifas fivinf 
iBltejesrl79S. 

SOffiTH 'RtTBOK, Csq. « mm of u iieoinmoo -talents, but stn* 
pkr d a i mr ter, was born on tbe second of October, 1752. 
ile was bred to the law, and became dbtingtiisbed for Ui 
pmMiemlt attainments, thougjh not more so than for Ml 
p io iciew cy in other %rai)dies of literary enquiry; and ** hi 
WM^ petlmpa, ^ moit soeccssAil of those persons by whom 
the Hnresttgaffon of oM English fitenitore and aiitiqdities was cah^ 
fUed in the tatler fiart of the eighteenth century.** His memory 
wm cceecdiagly retentive, and his researches comprdiensive ; bat 
Hi fageS are dis li gme d by an effected phraseology. Iltsmond 
Mkdaet was miexeeptionable; as his ingenuousness would never 
Mftr Um to act bi oppo siti on to the decisions of his miderstanding. 

On 

lnii^ tstWbcft^my Vnowle^ge; which is, I believe, better than any in thfc 
^Uip em gMPt. Oallie tint of jMoary, Dungcnesa>1fght eatt Vy north from A 
§tm ailfli, aboiat twtfre ■( noon, saw a aoow stand in fot Dnngeoasa, willed 
tomm aa«lL for one of onr crahen. Dinner being itady, Captam Bray gate 
mitn isT aH the hammoc kt up, and clearing the thip, which wu done in thft 
Itmm «0 were it dfamer. Momreun, smelling oar beef, roast pork, and plumb- 
• down In order to deprive as of it; we dined on our beef and 
I tlwy canwt Ihe pndifeg we (ought far. 

I iaformcd by fix oflfecr upon deck, that she was bearing down wtdi 
m finglKah jack flying, we went up, and soon saw what she was. Our Cap* 
tthftordtr was to heave fai the cable : I told him we had not time ; it would 
b« brtMr an bear away to the splice, and cut ; in the mean time, loosed our top* 
«Bi nad fof»4ail, cut, and bore away large : had not time to get our top-sails 
ftfliaMdf bria^ Aen witlio gun^ahot, %ife fitrd. He Immediately down Eng- 
Hrfi tmA np fiwnh ooIouts, hot did not fire at nb. I told Captain Bray his in- 
taift traa so ftfcc ns, and deairtd to pott our helm; which he gave orders for. 
Jlvdiag mmr ahip to lay in the same position, I ran to the helm, and (bund the 
halin ft-atarboard ; put it a-pon as fast as I could, ship wearing very fast, and he 
Aaviag towards oa with full sail, could not prevent boardiiig us. Seeing in 
vpIhk pwlliaa iht waa eoraing, I toUd Captain Biay she Wv^s our own; only 
AmIm lar te, ahe voold not be aUe to get a gon to bear on us. From that I 
na to cut the pikea down, cjcpecting they had their men ready to board us, 
vkich they had ; but reeeiving auch a cont^ual fire, they could not stand it. 

I called 



lit ^ILHAH. 

Oa \hk principle he abtUiard fipom the me of mimti food fbr 
the bst twenty yean of hu life; a potatoe, a hisciiif, or an t^ 
with letiioiiade» or tea, generally constituting hb whole aappmi 
during tlie day. Thb peculiar abstinence contributed to deatroy 
a cotifttitutton, naturally weak» and at the age of fifty be exhibited 
erery mark of premature decay. He died delirioas in Octobe^w 
1803. His works are numerous and valuable. His coUectiona 
of English and Scotch Songs, and of Metiical Romances, are, 
perhaps, equal to any hi print. His last publication was a tiea* 
tise on his favorite topic, abstinence from animal food* 

A Salmon Fishery to some eitent b carried on in the Teet 
near Stockton; and near the mouth of the river b a Fishery fiar 
Cockles, wliich are chiefly gathered by females from a ridge of 
sand left dry at the ebb tide in the mkldle of the stream. On 
Seaton and Greatham nuvshes, near the mouth of theTees^ were 

anciently 

I ctUcd to the pilot icveni times, with wger, who had hold of the bo b -eH y 
with hit hand, lo make her fast I laid down my moakat, ma totwud for • 
tow-line, sent some of the main-deck idlers to hand the end up^ ran aft with 
the end, reeved it through his bob-stay, bronght it to the capston, and took a 
round turn with the other part. In the mean time Captain Bray, and the pi- 
lot, had got the mizeo-top-sail sheet passed, and made it £Mt to a claet o»4hc 
aiiscn-mast, which came off. That being done, J returned to the flaus^iMt* o* 
which the action chiefly depended. About this time they madeanmMatpita 
nlly their men, and to man their forecastle ; and dropt their fore-aail, t^ we 
might not see them. One of the four*pounders in the lound-house, cleared a 
way for us, by Hhng part of their fore.saiI; renewing our rausciiietry, with 
mo$e vigour, from the quarter-deck and round-house, they fled, to a man, for 
abetter : and I perceived their colours to be struck, which I caUod out mor^ . 
Ingly, and 5red my musqnet in the air : four of ua jumped upoa thaicfo^ 
castle barracading for boarding them, amo^gyt whom waa OQr pilot ; bus, u^ 
expected, they gave us a volley of small arms i on which we nturoed witboot 
tny damage. The firing, on both sides, continued about ten minulea loagcY^ 
with three or four great guns, and so the action ended. 

** My mate, Mr* Headlam, who signalized himtell equal to aiiy, reeeivcd • 
•hot in his wrist, and one of our marines a slight vwuad by a spiinfrr : tiMit 
two were wounded after their colours were struck. Ooo of our magiom waa 
killed the first of the action. 

«» Yours. 

•• CHaisT, AiLiaoif.** 



MtHAM. IIS 

mAtAj itrf consklenble Sak-wa^ki, ** Tnices of these works 
ire Ail to beseeo^ and bave the appearance of breaet-works and 
fctti fc at w p s . By an inqnisilkm, post mortem^ atf. 36 Hatfidd^ 
(1980,) it appears that Rob. son of Marm. de Lnmley, Knight; 
fied seised of 258. rent, and one qnart of salt issning out of 'three 
nMsnages and one salt-woric, in the tenure of John de Carrowe, 
ia Seaton : and by another inqointnn of the same kind, ofC. 15 
Lingley, (1421,) that Anma, the widow of Thomas de Elmo* 
don, died seised of a quarter part of the manor of Seaton, con- 
■Mng, among other things, of a «lt-work, yalne Ss. another 
sab-woffk, and a fourth part of a sall-woi^. The farms hi the 
palish of Oreatham, lN>rdering upon the marshes, held by leases 
wider the master and brethren of Grealham Hospital, ate ooie* 
■aoted to pay a stipulated number of bushels of salt, as an acknow- 
ledgment to the hospital : these are now commuted lor money •'^ 
WINYARD, the seat of Sir Harry Vane Tempest, Bart, itfas, 
in Hk raigB of Edward the First, the property of Sur Hugh Capel, 
Knt fram whon it passed throogh various families to Thomas Badd, 
Bk). who became possessed, by purchase, early in the last cen* 
taiy : by him it was sold to-Jobn Tempest, Esq. maternal grand- 
of the present owner. The manskm has been rebdh on 
old fevodatioo, and now forms an elegant resklence. The 
and pkasore grounds are extremely (feasant, and, by the 
-niermtxture of wood and watery render the scenery, 
mm some some pomts of Tiew, uncommonly attractive. 
GREATHAM, or GRETHAM, is a pleMant viHage, steKfiog 
pow «i eminenoe at the south-east comer of ^ county, ilear the 
of the river Tees ; being situated about one mile north of 
river, and two mBes wtet of the sea. The Parish Church, 
i vrai very nunoos and decayed, and contaimng no memorii^ 
of ita aatiqufty worlliy of remembrance, was taken down, and f>^ 
osi a pfarfn but neat phm, and a square embattled tmver 
I «l Che weal ewd^ n the year 1792. The only parts of )he 
eld dwdi which were preserved, were two rows of pHlars, ttast 
dMded the church mto a nave and two aides. 
VouV. Feb. 1804. H In 

• BrewiUT*! Hhtory of Stockton, p.' 6fl. 



In tht ehMoe^ib t nniral aMpunNMil of Vtitk «nd whiH nmr- 
M^ with the Mbmwc ioacripti^s : ** Ia m^fvory of Ralw 
BlUDi^VY, E«e. 4u miiHf^ Qmm^lor at Uf« bom m thk 
piartlh« wbo bequMtUHl a iaiye folupe, acquired im a gi?at nrt* 
Mf0 b^r bmaMitiet and iattgrily. 4o rt« purehasing qf b^oks cat- 
C^timHi to promote iht intmtsts qf virtm UBd religion, wnd ihf haf^ 
finets qfmtifjcind* Ut iki Daeewitier 2a, i7M, in tl>a atvcntj^ 
ifceod year of his age." lu tofmqvmm «r tbf Mefiaite laaoprr 
of the beqiiefll^ and the «]uecHtiM of il being Ml to Ihe Conit <tf 
Ghaoocry, it waa «et nrida by a decree of thai court, ^^gml Ifae 
atocHii, l7dl,«ai^vQroftheiieatofUA* The properly iyleaded 
to baire been thus n^plki, aoMHintad to above 40,0001, 

The Mmfbcf of inbabiiaptB in Greatbwa towntUp, accofding io 
the latum under the poiHilatiQB act, I80jl» i» 4$^ ; of wbkib gOS 
9rt males, and 253 fmmleM. 

6REATHAM HOSPITAL adjoips the village of Oveatha«i» a 
gtlklotheKi»e, end was founded by Bpbtfl de StichiU, Bi*a|i 
of DuiiMiQ, iniheyew 1272; Ae hods he appeafimled IP Ikil 
pofposebcMgapart oftbeforfeftiiiiesof thelWontfbadfiiiBil^ in 
the nsign of Ueiuy the ThinL Some diimoee of opinfeo iias 
nriscn «nv>ng aatiquaries oo the subject of this ibnodatioo. Onset 
airfstakes tiK dato of the fooodaiion» as well as the smmsio of list 
fawiden DogdUe does the eane. HntchMsao aqUi « the Sad 
of ioiaestdr, ot Peiler de Mootlofl, fab son, wns poesssaedof Ike 
manor of GsealhMn.''t Peter de Montfort was oadoubtedly tfia 
peooaar, but he was not SumnViso«« but his cousin. Aalhis 
Itts Ml beesi beftee iwreeligated, wo oftr the feUowing 



A rfuait tmie before the oeleheeled hiMle of Lewes, aba King 
kid aiege to Northampton, where Mfen Barons and siaty Koigbls 
were made prisoners. Aaaong the peraans of note Mumomtad 
on this oeenssan by Bishangtr, the continMator of Matthrv Ailisi 
is Peter de MoB^btt. Matthew of WewUmaslfr calls Mm Petrc 
dt Mont«Bat, Jum. nwd 'IMal's noteon Rapin (ftaw IWikea. p. 

♦ The words o? hit WUL f HvUPfy p( J?lirl«w. VoJ- '• P- *»T' 



19, and ihwnM, > M8> itidfn km P#liir ^ M«iitfM; Hit 
^ufs coicW% Ha4 be bem SiRBU9i»> ?oii, the sAliliqa jmiitr 
mU not faai!^ bfsw i^ied. At th^ h^il^ qf fivfibw, ike ode. 
hlScdSilllOI^Earlpf IyeiQe8t«r,l09tb^lif«; ind 9i Ae lafiit lime 
ilcvT;, Ue soo, Pet^ 4e QlopMbrlt ^ ni9i^ ^tbf r» wba ftvghl 
eo ihi Mme vde, ivert Mvjn, Efiw^t, Ae Kii||*4 ion, pu^e «h 
dot to Ihe MoqIo of Evi^Miaio, tlialt tl^ b^di^sf^f tW ibid AomUL 
be decentl; tfitftri;^ ; bulbt^Dfio^ bpf^W etftfPlioaB toilMl W 
Beofj, awl amted pessoneUj al bi» entqui^ ; dUibfMifnr.) Ite 
mmm #f Sioiod weie ibemefiiUy nutj3«t)cd ; bit hepd wt^ fmk 
^ Bf^ger de Mortimer, a» a Mgoid of vK(aiy, %^ Us irifei bb 
body wee iotened with tbat of bis «aP ia tba Abbif of Byrnbiw, 
Na lemicuhr dinjuctiofi «»• p«id to ibf reinme of Pater. 
Ainoogil the names of the illustrious persons taken iirisoilMa or 
iw wde d 'm tim battle, we fiad '' Qoy de Moatfb«t» ioa of tha^ 
Suit P«ter da Mpntfi^, Jim|. 4«*^" (Maltbew of Wesliniwttr^ 
Ihw botb fiitber and #Qn vtn^ eog9ged ia the mae aaase t oaa 
Jprt bb lifi», Ibe other |i^ liberty and tumit: md, aritbout all doahir 
<bf latter is tba persoo wnboie aame ac^an ia the original deed ai 

Tba M4par of GiFathain ibus Cwfailad, beios pert af lbepr»< 
p0^» as Iba drad it cil^ of « Peter de MonlfiMrt, Oe £^s 
Heoiy gave to bis faithful and well beloved Thomas de 
But the King discovering that the privileges of the palati- 
nate of Doiham prevented the confirmation of this grant; h^ sooa 
aftd-waidi executed n deed 9f revocation, in wbkb |»e 9i|awa> ia 
iKir <aU axtear, all the iara rcg^^lw of tba Bishops «)f Dnihaai. 
It Mgbt baaa beM iMgiDad, that the Bishop, upon this, ywM 
laae tahca poa tes s i a n of the ibrfeited famds immcdiatrfy. Perhaps 
Jte did so. Bat the next deed we meet with, n a grant of P^ter 
de Montfbrt to Robert de Stichfll, of tbe Ijinds in qu^tiop, 
Fsafls tba aames pf tbe witpessei to tbe daed, it appearp to bnvt 
baaa aaamted witUa Ihe palatimita ; aad cbecrMly resigaad bf 
' to tbe Bishop, (perhaps he made a virtue of a necessity,) in 
with his intentioo to found an Hospital. Tliat this 
H^ aai 



w 



nd DURHAM. 



was tbe'taiet it ttniend tM more apperenty bj Itis caHiog it m 
the deedi a amfirmatum, as well as a gift and a grant* 

Robert de StiehiH, kiowiiig that no coniforU eqoaRcd those 
of feilgion'm rockimg ike cradie qf declining age, united with 
hia ckaritable foimdation « rel%ioos establishment, and enjoined 
that the membera of bis Hospital should Kve together according' 
to the habits of the tiroes in the manner of Monks, (more mom.* 
dkanm;J that they should live in one house, and mess at one 
table; and that they should consbt of one Master, five Priests, and 
Ibfty poor pelppns. This Hospital was dedicated to God, St. 
Ma^t and St. Cothbert. The foihidation and grant of Biiliop 
SMehU were con6iTned by the Edwards Third and fourth : the 
latter gianted the master and brethren a weddy knarket and two 
annual fiurs* 

In the time of James the First, this Hospital was re-fbundcd; 
and « new charter granted, dated fOth July, \6lO. It ia tbera 
called Me Hospital qf CM in Greatkam : the five priest! of cooise 
wwe not re-estabUshed, and the number of brethren wis reduced 
to thiitoen. The establishment at present consijrts of one Master, 
(who is a layman,) one Chaplain, six Brethren, ' mamtained wboHy 
in the Hospital, six out Penstoners, and one Bailiff of the Manor. 
Besides the mahiteaance and pensions of the brethren, a certab 

quantity 

* Wbaitoo, from Rob. de Gray»tanet, in the Anglia Sacra, p. y^t, ccU 

forth, ** nam iptam villam episcopus emerat a quodam Bertramo cognomtne." 
In the list of Knights from Durham at the battle of Lewes, 1164, we find S\t 
Htobert (or Roger) Bertram de Gretham. See Hutchmton, Vol. !• tiS. !■ 
■Mam to this, it nay be said, the Bishop could m>t parchve the landa of Bef< 
(ram, because ihey were not then in Jiis ^ssessioo. The grant itself is a paoof off 
this. When Northampton wai uken by the King's troops, Roger Bertram wa^ 
made a prisoner at the same lime with Peter de Monifoit. As he was in arms 
against the King, he might probably be liberated by the successful rebellion of 
the Earl of Lciccfeer ; and if a conjecture may be made in a case of uncertainty, 
he might acli tiis landa to hit kilow phaoMr Peler ; or, which is raore'likeiyr 
bt might die (and Peter might purchase ihem) in the intermcdialt space betwcdf 
the bettlea of Lewes and Evesham. This conjecture is founded on the cir- 
cnmatance, that though his name is mentioned at the former period, it is aU»* 
father omitted at the latter, aotwithstaoding the names of the principal persoqa 
011 both aides are recorded ia history. 



^fnaOky of A^igb, peady prep«red fort^ oven, is dfatributMl 
monthly to poor penoni of the vfllage. 

The original buildings of the Hospital are now no more. They 
formed a q«uidnuigle» or at least thvee sidei of one, a little to the 
north and west of the parish Church. An excanUkMi in the 
groond, surroanded by a line of trees, marits the situation of the 
ancient dormitory, and other necessary buildtngs. The habitation 
of the brethren has been tAken down during the last year, 1803, 
and another, on an elegant plan, drawn' by Jeflfery Wyat, h 
rrrctmg at the sole expence of the Earl of Bridgewater, the 
ptvscnt Master. The building hitely removed was in a tery 
decayed state, and consisted of two rows of arches, supported by 
octagonal pHlars, built up bdth on the north- and south Mes, with 
a small porch in front, as if it bad formed the nuddle aisle of t 
Chan*.* 

The Lodge, or Mansion-Honse of the Blaster, is pleasantly litit* 
ated in n garden surrounded by trees , and commanding a fine view 
of the river Tees, and the Cleveland hills. Over the door n the 
ibUowing inscription, under the arms of Mr. Parkhurst, one of the 

fcrmer masters. 

** i£daiciiiiD boc cxlnii eonevit 
DoAMftKoa pARKHu&ftT Arm. 

Hujuft Hospiulii Magister 
Et comitatui Palatini Dunelracmis 

Caocellariut Tcmporalli. 

Aooo Stiutit, t?^^." 

Wiibin the garden, on a rising ground to the left, is the Chapel 
of the Uospiul, rebuilt also by the present Master in the year 
i73S» It occu|>ies the chancel part of the old chapel ; and 
contains the two following iuMiriptions, preserved in the demoU- 
boo of the ancieot building. 



OffM pr»iiriwht Nicbohi UdhDe, JohMnit Kttfn^ tt WUklrai 
Bitfield, ckrkomm doMiorvai ^MNMiafn bu jut lioipitaiii magutro. 
rmn, ac ptrnMuiB fun4atonim auorum beocfactoruni ac pro oawium 
fiddium (Icfunctorum, f^pornm animabus propitictur Dcut, Amen* 

H3 This 

' Tlijs akcfBftioo appcan to have ukeo plict whro the Hc^ital wai it-foanded 
by jBfDft <bc r>nc« ' 



is iuscribed on the brass edging of m lotnb-sCOM. 

^ Hie jaMt MigMief WiMmts 6m U'MHimw iMft ppm 
4octor ^tto^dam cuitot ddmu* Utiiu^ oiKe pco «Ov«^* 

Tbe boetlireB of this Hosf^tal are cefebiatid for their Ipi^pevity. 
The ages of the sb^ brethreo last yeur were ai&Uows: 06, 82, a9» 
80, 8Q| 63. Total mimber of years 483. Tbe Rev. Janiet 
^QTseoian, Cbaptais of the Hospital, and Vicar of the Parisb, died 
ia the year 1790, aged S8« having iUed these oflk^ dtuiog 60 
years. 

Dorm^ ParUuirst, L. L. B. aiKl his father, John Parkhurslt 
L. L..B. havii^^eiyoyed the mastership of Greatbam Hospital 
from the year 1676 to 1764-, (88 years,) the latter buQt, at 
bis own expeoce, and endowed an Hospital in tbe same village for 
sU poor Femiiles, in the year 176i, who shidl be widows^ er 08- 
mfu-drdt and upwards of fifty years of age, setded ioi or beloqging 
toy-t(ie town of Greatbam, if fit objects of charity. If no woman it 
'Greatbam be found of tliis description, then to be elected fiom 
some town or place in the naigfaboiiibood. Six neat apartments 
of brick, with a sniatl garden annexed fo each, are appropriated 
to this purpose. The endo\uiicnt consists of lands situated in tbe 
parish of Stockton, tbe rents of which are thus applied, vis. 
4l. 168. Od. a-piece by twelve monthly payments ; 4s. at Christ* 
mas; 2s. at Easter; and 2s. at Whitsuntide ; on the first day of 
October, a gown ready made, to be all of the same color, and 
detfent ; a reasonable and sutKcient quantity of coals and Aiel ; 
mid when any are visited with sicknes, or incapable of takio|^ 
cate of themselves, a fit person of their own sex is to be emplovcd 
and paid for attending them. The women to keep thehr apart^ 
jnents ekan and Deat» umA be tfmi and peaeeabk m tlieir Mm- 
viour, and constantly attend divine servke' in the chureh and 
chapel. The residue of tbe fUnds of thb Hospital, if any, to phce 
out poor boys belongmg to tbe tow^ of Greatbam, apprentices to 

such 



wjHh 



am dc MiddiltOD was MMtcx/rom 131 1 to 1351 



MWMAU, Hi 

liAtiadiMMlbetraiteefidMb tMtak pfdp^. Th« l^ipohtiMM 

«f iIm poor imttim) tiid the regalaHoii, iec. of lli« HospihU, i^ In 

' of Ibe Hospital of Oreiitlttin fWr tlM tfnie b^iiiK, who 

' lo ^my the nil€» M oeoasioft shiUl re^Hire. 

SMn>M« or 8£ATOl9 CAREW, so eoHed from a (koiay of 

■iMDiM wtio were ovraers io the reign of Rkberd the titH^ k t 

Nithiff ^MiS^> iheatMl on the borders of the tfra, and 

; of cottaifeft, ioiMdug three sides of a qUatfl«l%l«< 

lleoceoiinaodaifionA aft reasooaMe; and a net^ and respettahle 

in liai fattoly been built ht the leception of cooipany : a row of 

lodgiog-boiiMa eooHmiiiieales widi the itin» both oo 

groimd mod second ioors. Tile prospects to the oorii and 

I are tety beau^dil. 

HARTLEPOOL, 

AWCIKNTLY called Htortn, H^crtkn, and H^ortncise, fa said, 
m Ifce Cfirooicle of lindbfatDe, to have been btiftt '^ by Eegitig, 
Bofaop of the f loly Isle, and given to the dee (ot eter, somewhat 
befm Eardoff fled the Isle.'' Before this, about the ytar 640, 
hoirerer, a nioiiasiery bad been founded ** at or near tli» place, 
bf a rel^oos woman, nanted Hfeu, of, a$ soitie Copies have if, 
ft. Bega, wbeteof St. Hilda was some time Abbe^s.^ No ftirther 
ftaors of tbcs estabUsbment can now be distbtered ; but it is sop- 
pQted to have been destroyed hi (be year 800, ii/Ueti 'fynemoUfh 
skI Hartoesa ware bomt by the Danes. 

Ha rt kpoo i ht siftrated on a pfotnontory, nedrly encoitipassed by 
the German Ocean, which, on the south ^dh of the totvn, forms a 
bay, extremely fSivorable fbt the irception of vessels, 
landing of troops from the Continefit. Tli^se circumstanced 
it a pfakce Of great hnportance To the Nomiaii^, ahd tb^ 
of Bnu were thence induced to seciure it by fortifications. 
This hnaSty obtamed possession of Hart and Hartncss, with many 
svhrr manors, by tlie marriage of Robert de Brus, or Bfuce, an 
•ttendant oo William the Conqueror, with Allies, daughter of 
Foile de AtfaoelL WHiiam de Bruce, gr4nd&oii of Robert, ob- 

H4 taioed 

^ Tnotr's NotUia, 



^iO BVBffAM. 

I^iiied die graqt of a ttwsUt ; and Kill; J^bp, b; ? iiMtm^ittiti 
the eighth of February, in the seoead year of his rei^, ^' giaotad 
aod coofirmed to his subjects of Hartlepool, thai they shaald ba 
free burgesses,* and hold the same liberties and piivile|aaca the 
burgesses of Newcastle." Thus Harttapool gradually «advi#aed 
to importauce. The commodious situation of tba isthmus which 
forms a crescent, in which, from its e&teaded/pmnt, shipa couU 
^ moored in safety from the storms at north-east, as well as ftom 
the heavy seas which break upon the coast by the. uapetttfras 
tides, and tlie inflipe or conent setting up the mpotb of the lifer 
Tees, induced Robert de Bruce, son of the last meotionQd Robcft, 
and grandson of William, to build ^< the liaven and wall aboot 
the towne of Hertlepol^, with ten towers oi| eache syde of the ba* 
ien, and a chayne to be drawne between them i;ear the baveo, 
wliidi haven would hold a C sayle." 

Bishop Pudsey, ambitious of honors both civil and eccksiaiti- 
cal, when he purchased the earldom and wapentake of Sadbeige, 
of Richard the First, in the year 1189, included Hartlepool in the 
purchase, which being confirmed to him by King John, this place 
was held of the prehites of Durham, as chief lords of the See. 
On the claim of Robert Bruce, in 1305, to the Crown of Scot- 
land, a forfeituie of his possessions took phice, and Edward the 
First granted his estates to Robert de Clifford. Thov^ this was 
an infringement of the privileges granted to the Bisho|i8, they do 
not appear to have contested it ; and in the firit year of Edward 
the Second, De Clifford joined with Anthony de Bee, to suppait 
the honor and dignity of the Kmg with their lives and fortmws* 
In this fiimily Hartlepool continued till the diirteenth of Richard 
the Second, when Roger de Clifford died, seiaed of the manors of 
^arty Hartlepole, ice. It seems, however, from various evideoces, 

that 

* Brady, in hit Treatiie on Boroughs, iaforms us, <* that the Hbe|ty here 
granted, consisted in ■ freedom to buy and sell without disturbance, from 
paying toll, pontage, pastago-money, lastage, sullage, tec, in the markets aod 
fair^ in these burghs, and in coming to and going from them ; aad on these ae- 
<pmn*. tiie burghs were denominated fice burghs.*' Page 33, Api^dix t^ 
£d::. 1777. %xo. 



BUBHAM. Itl 

tka Ike CliSNdt hdd the manor under |he prelates of Dodian, 
at lonb panmoont. . . 

When Ihe SeotB, in the year I535t ravaged all the conntiy tm 
the banks of the Tees, the terrified inlvibitaDts of Hartlepool flew 
to their ships with sttch effircts as they could readily remo^ am} 
pat lo sea for safety. How the 4ovo could be so easily sur* 
mideied b surprisiog, except for treacbeiy, the appearaoce of tbo 
fi>r tification i^ being so solid, that a long siege could baive been 
sntlaaocd : however, the enemy were satisfied by a laige contribu- 
tKMiy which saved the whole neighbourhood from destruction. 

T« 

* Tb«eare cUtcribod by Mr. HucdOmon as follows: <« F«w ptttott m tbs 
k'mgdom five ao perfect an idea of the fortificatiooa of former times as H«ftU< 
pool. A loBg extended wall, strengthened by demi-bastions at iotervali, sonne 
romidcdv ochcrs square; various gates and sally-poits, secured by machicoli* 
iJOM, and the poitcnllis ; some of the gates defended by angular, others byaquam 
inneia; all the variety appearing whkh bad grown into use in that age. As 
the'wall ruaa along the edge of the creek, behind the point of land which pfni 
jccts itsdf into the sea, and from thence turns to cross the isthmus to the oppo* 
she cliff, the figure it forms is not regular, giving Bru a triangle, and then run* 
ttog with a sweep or bend north and eastward. At the ness end, or north*«ail 
point of the wall to the sea, it finished with an acute angle, rising on the brow 
of lo£ty socks : the foundation has of late years been wasted by the washing «^ 
ibe waves, and that part of the wall is now gone : it was exactly similar to tht 
ness or point of the Ronun wall opposite to the Castle of Carlisle. For acaA» 
slderable space from the sea, the wall is much broken ; and at the distanca oC 
aboot twenty paces, are the remsins of a square bastion : fi»m thence about foit]^ 
paces, is a round bastion, piojecting from die wall, about two thirds of a circle 
■a girt nearly thirty feet: in the front of this'bastion, at the distance of alMM4 
five yards, is a high ridge of earth, probably cast up bv sssailauts. From tht 
HMwd bastion, at aboot forty paces, is a square bastion, about ten feet in fronts 
a«d piojectMig about seven feet from the line of the wail ; from thence, at abottt 
tbcty-aix paces, is a round baaioo, somewhat larger than that before described«. 
making a projectson of about tea feet, not so prominent as the others. In al^ 
Iha part described, the wall forms a straight line ; and the ground gradually in. 
iliac^ and lalls from the ed^ of the cUffs where the wall begins. At the dis- 
tance of about thirty paces the wall forms an obtuse angle, guarded with a tunci 
or kfiffffa: §nHP whenop ii a kind of horn- work, projecting imo the field for a 
fOBsiileraMe distance, of an angular figure, having two terraces, oneabove another, 
viih the ftnm^ ^ ^ S^ffcis : ihe moon* work appears throogb the broken 

surf.' 



IM DUBltAHf. 

To iht OUfbnls the Lundeyt saeceeded as p6$ses9(^8 of HaHte^ 
pool; and m the time of Bishop Matthew, <' Lord Jofaa Lmnley 
M tip a pretence that Hartlepool was oot wfthin (he Rberty royal, 
Irnt was entirled to a spedaf frandiiae, as hemg a county or fiberty 
dutiiict ftom the palatinate/ These disputes were at last settled 
hj atbitratiou io iavor of the See. The Lnmleys matofufied 
possession til! 177(^> ^hen the whole tnanor, towii» &c. were par« 
efaased by Sir George Pococke, with mhtst lieirs St stHt confmoes. 

Hartlepdol 

iMf. From thence rs an extensive prospect of the sea and coast towards Sim* 
deriandy comroaoding Hawthorn Hive, or the Beacon Point, Euingtoiiy Elwkk 
Beicoa, «id a \m% cratt of coomry. At about chifteeo fom ffoai tlie an^le, 
dler« li tht appearance of t sally-port \ bni the wtU has ben repaired and ilitMd 
hi nodem tioMS, so that it is not possible to aKcitaio more oonctrasng it AC 
Ar distance of shout sixty paces is a round bastion ; at about sixty paces fov* 
Aer the great land gate, being the chief entrance to the town from Dnrhaoif 
dpeuiilg upon a road forced over a level marsh, easily broken up or flooded in 
aaieg*, This ga4e seems to have been strengthened with a wet ditch, and pro- 
bibly a drawbridge. The whole wall, towers, and gateways, are of exccUenc 
mtsonry, built of lime^sione, which is won in ih< mo* ban lis, of so soft n nature 
l» the bed or quarry, that it may be squared with an adsc; but when exposed 
ta the Sir, becomes remarkably hard and dursble : the arch of this gateway It 
fibbed t tfld, besides double gates, had iu portcullis: the width of the pMttgt 
h text feet, and of the whole gateway tower about thirty feet : the projection it 
aM mnch above a foot from the lace of the wall : it appears to have had a acroog 
ti»wer for hs superstructure, entered si each side fronn the parapet of the wall. 
The approach to tlm town from this gate was by the side of the haven, which 
MMtt have made a fine appearance ; as ihe bason, if we may judge from the pre* 
cent sltke or morass, consisted of several acres, where a hundred mil might lit 
aioo^. From this gateway the wall which secured the haven begins, and rant 
in a direct line, the water at high tide coming up to the gate. Ic is somewhat 
more than eight fed thicks fxed on each side with dressed stones, with a peio» 
pet guarded by a breast-wsll and embrasure, now gieaily decayed. Theroii u 
water-gate in (his wall, formed by a low, pointed arch, about twenty«four feat io 
spjice, and ten feet high, for smill crafk to pass in and out of the haven withoal 
removing the boo'.n-chain^, afterwards noted: this gateway projects ftoatthc 
it-all about eighteen inches, has had flood-gates, and also a wafch tower, aa w« 
a^prt'Iiciid, from the remains of the superstructure. From thence, M thedis* 
unce c/f about seventeen paces, is a square bastion, abouc eight fret in front | 
nd nearly one huddfed pacos distant is auothrf square baatlon \ and ffom thence^ 

•bout 



Itailepooi b taOt on tti« wMtem M^ of a hflT, und chkty 
of one ptittdpftl street, bimI sot»« smaller ones, that ma 
la tlia Muiimer months Itb imH^h frequeitted for set* 
hatbk^; and additional baiktiags, and other accotnmodfltiom, 
kavt of bte yean been creeted for the ivceptioD and conreiilieAce 
^tkt visiton. Hie surrounding prospeets are iotereslhig; and 
te focksy whkfa skirt the coast north of the rovm, being for some 
^■tiaet escavalady and tendered caiYemoos, by the vtolenee of thtf 
wa?es, aflbrd agreeable and romantic retreats at low water. Hui 
tritle of HarttqKM>l is not exteuHire; a circoiustance that may 
fomkkj be ascrfted as moch to the negleeted state of the faaibomv 

aa 

abom Kvcnty paces, it a lofty rouad tower, vtmftioing very pnfed^ «v«tba 
penpet and enbrasurea : opposite to it, at the distance of tbtrty-«iz feet, stoo4. 
anocKcr tower, exactly similar in dimcnsioiii, as the facia and foundations plainly 
skew. This was the grand entrance into the haven ; and by the apace between 
At towers, one may judge of the size of those tcssels which were moored there* 
■, a thirty gpn ihip, being tbirfyawo feet wide. This entrance was guarded 
by lar^ boom-chiiM stretched from lower to tower, the reouintof the loopf 
bdoo^inj to aucb chains being still visible in the walls of the tower. Altett 
ptces distance are the foundations of a round bastion, near which is a modera 
^|ite, whcie it is presumed foimerly was a small door- way for the convenienco 
of persons landing from boats: at t>enty-four |iaces distant, (he Wall forms aa 
a^^ and tama cowarda the soa: this angle is defended by a half-moon. the 
oaiaoceiaio tkv haven had the- pacnliar security, that vassefs coming from tlia 
Kt most nee cssa lily double the cape or point of the isthmus^ and . tbcn preoeecl 
along the whole nnge and stretch of the south wall, within reach of the engines 
wd tourumcnts of war, and pass the half-moon which guarded the angle ot 
t^ wall. At ch« distanteof sixty paces from the aii^Ie is a square bastion, and' 
acir It A lai^ breach in the wtll ; frt>m the square bastion, about doe hundred 
md. twenty paces, is • round bastion \ and next stands the gateway, ndw aaOed 
^ Water G^tet which only communicates with the land at law wataCf aoA 
kids to the High Street : the aich of thi»^teway is poiu^:d, about eig)it feef in 
width, and defended on each hand by angular turrets, with the fronts project*^ 
y^l atigUf^B flot commoaly met with in old fortifications* From, this gate the 
wan adirancce to and buti upon the rock near its point, where the pier and 
WKok bigios. Tfaa whole of this south part appews much aiore modoni llito 

the aorth and wcu sides.** Hhfory of Durham^ i^ol. Ill, p. 15, etseq. Since 

the above was writici>, the fuilificaiioiu have been repaired, and some addi* 
tioaal baucrics cos)Uf|iLud, ao that the bay is now m a very respectable Mete of 



f24 PURHAM* 

m» to Its diataDce from the places where the great 8tt|^ eovHio- 
4itk^ of this coiroty, coal and lead» are abundant. The Slake,^ 
9n the west side ot* the town, might, by a due <kgree of public- 
spirited exertion, he made productife of much benefit; a^ its wa- 
ters could be applied to cleanse and deqpen the extensive bason 
below the towo^ and vessels of a hitfe siae be admitted to approach 
the very walls. The fishing business is consideiable, and great 
ifariety of fine fish are caught, and sent into the lobBd parts of 
the country. 

The Church, or rather Chapel, (this town being btclideii m the 
parish of Hart,) is an irregolar structure, of djferent ages and 
sidles of architecture: the tower and nave are the most ancient: 
before the Reformation several chantries existed here. Some 
^ery old hot mutfkited monuments remain m the church-yard; 
reported, but apparently without foundation, to have belonged to 
the Bruces, one of whom, Robert de Brus, before 1275, estab- 
lished a Monastery for Grey Friars, the ruins of which may yet be 
traced at some little distance from the Church. The other public 
buildings are a Town-Hall, a Free-School, and a Custom- House. 
The civil government is vested in a Mayor, Aldermen^ Recorder, 
ind Common-Couneil. Tlie number of mbabitants in this town- 
ship is 993; of houses 250. 

Within a few yards of the Water Gate, on the south side of the 
town^ is a Ckalybeaie Spring, covered every tide by the sea: it Is 
impregnated with a small degree of sulphur, which evaporates very 
quickly, leaving a sediment, with salt of tartar. Tlie water as* 
cumes a whitish cast with spirits of hartshorn ; with galls it turns 
to a pink color ; but with syrup of violets it subsides into a green. 
A gaUoo wiD yield 120 grains of sedunent, two parts of which are 
fArous, the rest lime-stone. 

' The fishermen, who, except during the bathing season, are al- 
most the only persons resident at Hartlepool, are a rude but 
athletic and courageous race, very expert in their profession, and 
ever re^dy to brave the violence of the storm ta rescue tlieir iel-* 

low 

* S!aAt ii a common term iip the north for a lake or broad cxpaate of inter* 



mjKBJOt 1*5 

im cases of < sUpwredr, which iSreqacKlly ^tair oii 
tUi coMt: to aid tbetr intrefttd ttietttooi, a Life Boat has hiMf 
htm cstabfisbed here by paUic suhscriptioo. 

About five anlet north firoia Hartlepool, Uoae of the moit^iaN 
golar and rotnanlic dusters of rocks io> the* north of Eogkiiidi 
The genefal name is the Black Halls, so eaUeil from tho vta^ 
mm caverns; some of vibith ran inady >rards be}oiid the hght of 
daj; athers are open, ami supported by aatuial pillars, 'lliee^ 
fceie been formed by tbe force and coostiint action of the waves^ 
which bfsfe al^ separated enormous masses from tbe const, misb* 
■g some entirely away, but leaving others striding like the vast 
to w e r s of a cathedral: ia some places tbe rock b perforated so as 
to nwmbli a line pobited arch gatesray« 

CASTLE EDEN, derived tradkionaily from Catiie in tk0 
Ikmh^ is the seat of Rowland Burdou, Esq. one of the parKaraent^ 
arj rep re scn tatifes fsr this county, a most respectaUa and worllq^ 
cfaarader, to whose patriotic exertions, not only this nigbboor* 
hood, bat a veiy considerable portion of Durham, is indebted 6ir 
its uRprovement in trade and agrieuHuve. Castie Eden origi- 
Mlly bekmged to the See of Durham, from which kwaseaily 
anrped by the Earis of Northumbcriand. After the Con^uest^ 
it cane into the possessioo of Robert de Brus, who gave it to tiia 
Pkior and Convent of Gisbume, by whose saccessors it was fe» 
till the period of the Dissolution. The present owner bo- 
possessed, by purchase, from — ~ Bromley, Esq. of the^ 
of Warwick. The MansMHi was rebuilt by Mr. Burdont 
It is a spacious and haadsonie castellated edifice, beaatifttlly sito* 
aled on tbe top of the woody piecipace that forms the soollieni 
' of the romantie d^tile called Castle Edxn Deaw^ 
a fine land and sea prospect. Tiie Dean e«* 
about three miles i'lom its entrance oa tlie sea shore, and 
a waving aourse, comtitates some of tlie finest Kenery ia 

the 

* The Saxon word Den^ or Dent^ ti^ifin i valley or wo^dy place, bot i» 
^Kty diffefcnl from CUn^ which U a defile, or valley between hiiU. A Dtn^ or 
Ata, tiolu toddcoly from the common level of th« count ty, and cannot h% 
Mrs US cb< spectator U close upon the borders. 



tlie m w U Sp htm§ 4w»» I*oo4y, adirodky; la M«ypifte»rib« 
HiM^ IIk radtf id emttly lAliy » tbdr jlratat and appMach aa 
nearly with correspondtnt aoglpfl» a» lo joMy tht kka of diair 
kaMf becQ torn aaaader biy toioc gpaat aatiinii oonvulsioo* W 
lioas detadwd anasaet^ Ibat seam to bata been mil from tht wbih 
aril; lie in the boHoai of Ibe Devv ^i^h treet and bnnhwaod 
t pomm g ofon tbeaii. At tlw bead of tbe dell it a nitfiari caa* 
aade, wbich isaties froaa the ciafioe of a rock, and falls iota a fa»* 
aoo called Ononer^s Fool; and near the cnlraoca b a saq uesta ia J 
teHage, where a small society of FVench emigmat piiesls Ibaod a 
kap|>y asylom daring tbe mlence of the troubles which so kta^ 
wvaged their ill-Atad eonatry. A safe road has bean 
through the Dean, by which its most beaatiftd featoics bhai 
diiplayed to the admiring Ttsitor. Tbe chief part of tbe Peao be- 
longs to Mr. Burdon ; the other parts are tbe property of tbeReir« 
Mr. Bmndling, of Sbotten, a village to the north 9^ Castk Edao, 
and Mn Maire, of Hardwicke Hall, a pleasant lasidenoe on Sb^ 
sme side, near tbe sea. 

- On an emiaance, separated by a deep and nairow valley fioaa 
Ihe site of Mr. Burdon*s niaasio:i, to the sonth, is the viUa^ 
(!barob» a very neat struetaia, erected by that gentleman in the 
year 176-^ Under his fbstaring patranage also, two spaoioaa 
•faaaes of brick were bdit ; and a cotton mauufiKslory bagaa at 
Castle Eden in 1792; but tbe latter was soon af^erwatrk removal 
la Dnrham, and a sail-cloth manufiMrlofy es|taWihbed m its plaoa* 
At tbe entraoce of tbe road leading to tbe Castle, near the mmmm^ 
fi^tory, is a handsome castellated lodge, bniit from tbe designs of 
Mr, Atkinson. A new road has also been opened from Noitod t# 
Qisbop*W^reaioulb, which, from several paiuts» caainMnds giaw4 
and extensive views of the tea, and cannot be passed in a ooogenial 
aMSon without eactting considerable admiration. The ag i ku ltWaa 
qf Ibe district has likewise bean greatly improved; and a bleak 
and barren country is now begiiming to assume an aspect of tier* 
tility. The improvement may in some measure be estimated 
by the hicDease of popuUrtioo, which, in this small parish, since 



17929 hm nme Hum doubled: m that ]fc«r it$ iBbabitiits m«p 
mAj 140, bul under tbe hte act wese retAirnod at 96it 

HAWTHORN u a MnaU village, plcasaDtJy situated on abilL 
about a nile from the sea, and coutiguoas to Hatvtkam Dtmh oa 
tbe •mOJi side of whicb is an emiaeoce called Beacou-Hill, wheir 
formerly lighted to warn mariners from tiiis da 
** Tbe shone is roeby, ai^t brobeo ioloamuhitac^of < 
i; ami rbe o&i^ is f^ll of ivKks and shoals, bi the a^oayib 
of a deep and oanow creek, where the rooks are the moat hrobeab 
twgged^ and roflaaotic, Admiral Miibanbfi built a sutvimer retfea!, 
•rJuch he named Sailart' JHmii; at high tide it aUtto«t overhaAfs 
Um wavce, and looks upou the UMiat stormy and abakco part ^ 
IkeilMMt. 

** In this part of tlie country are retained some aiMcient euftoM» 
Cfidestly derived from the Ramans; partieubrly that nl'dieffiai^ 
■p a figure of Ceres during harvest, i^hich ia placed io the Md 
wbibt the leapers are laboriHg, and bffougbt home on the laKt 
cfeoing of reaping, with music and great acclamation : afUf Ibia 
&ast ia made, caUed tbe mcU suppifp from tbe audcut aacrifica «f 
■onglyig tbe new meal.'** 

At SEAHAMy a small village ou the coast, is a aaauner mt 
of Sir Ralph Milbaoke, Bart, ooe of tbe Bleaibeia of V^ 
for this county. This place ia said to have beco r tita ia^ 
lo tbo See of Durham by Kiag Atfielslan; by what meaw ilma 
iiWwaida alienated, is uoknoiwA; it if now lireehokL A Hour 
coflin was dog up iu the cluircb-yard a hm years i^o, and| 4ofll 
tbe inarrifilion, Hiejiicci Riahardu$ vk de ScMam^ oo tbe eo«^ 
mm aupposed lo have contained the reamius of Ricliard ih 0«^ 
km, wbopa name occurs on tbe list of incumbents m Ihe yew 
1493. 

HODOflTON LE SPEING, an eatensive viUage, silualed « 
tbe bead of a beaut ittil vale opening lo the west, aud sheitesfd Aom 
the Ueak winds of tbe north amd east by a chaui of biiis» fim# 
part of tbe great possessious of tbe See ol' Parbani, aadpsiebar 



« HutchintoA*! Durham, Vol. II. p. ^Sa. 



W^ by tuatiy respectable families. Tlie reefory is ofteof Ibt 
richest in the couoty, tod eontaias no fewer than fbuHeen v9« 
hg<^; yet sudi ivas the general iguorance, and sc^ small was «he 
comrnunication between this and the other parts of England, that 
even on the accession of Qoeen Mary, the prockiniations iasned 
by Edward the Sixth, ordering a change of worihip in the reapeo 
ilve churches, are strongly reported to have been miheard of by 
Hie Bihabitants. The first material advances towards hnprove* 
flieiit, were made by the tienevolent and pkms Bsrnabd Gil- 
WN, Wbb was presented to the rectory by Bishop Tunstall, and 
whose boundless charity, and meritorious exertions toenlighteii 
Iris fellow creatures, obtained him the pre-eminent appellation of 
the Northern Apostle. Mr. Gilpb descended firora a very respecK 
aUe femily, and was bom at Kentmire, in Westmoreland, in the 
year 1517. His early years were passed at a public Grammar 
Miool, whence, at the age of sixteen, he was removed to Queen's 
College, Oxford. Here his. great progress in scholastic divinity, 
and the branches of abstruse learning connected with it, allracted 
general attention, and occasioned his appintnaent to supply the 
college newly founded by Cardinal Wolsey. Having been bred to 
Ihe belief of the Roman Catholic reKgion, he for some dmef con- 
tinned steady in his adherence to that taith ; and even held dispu- 
tations in ils defence; but the eloquence and superior knowledge 
•f Filter Martyn, with whom he last argued, induced him to gire 
Up the cause: *' he owned publicly that he could not mamtain it, 
•od determined to enter into no more controversies till he gained 
Aill fcifbnnatioii of the subject." He afterwards communicated 
kb doubts to Bisiiop Tunstall, his great-uncle by the female side, 
nnd » they were in no degree undiminished after some years further 
study, he determined, by the advice of that prelate, to visit the Con- 
tinent, that he might satisfy his mind by conversing witli the most 
cmfaient Protestant and Catholic professors. " His priiici|ial ob^ 
jeelion to liie sclieme was, that it would prove too expensive : but 
w to that, Tunstall wrote to him, that his livbg (Norton, in ^his 
dioeese) would do something towards his maintenance, and he 
would supply deficiencies. This, houtver, did not remove the 

difficulty; 



DUBHAM. 129 

diflkuhy ; Mr. Oilpm's notions of clerical duty were so strict, that 
lie thought DO excuse could justify non-residence for the consider- 
ahfe tone that he intended to be abroad. He could not, there» 
fere, think of supporting himself with any part of the iooome of 
his lifing ; and resolved, if be staid the shorter time, to rely upoo 
his own firugal management of the little money he had, and to 
leave the rest to the Bishop's generosity. Accordingly, he resigned 
Us living in fiivor of a worthy man, with whose abUities and cba^ 
ndar he was well acquainted, and then set out for London, to 
Rccsve his last orders from the Bishop, and to embaik. The ac* 
comt of his resignation reached town before him ; and gave Tun* 
stidly who was anxious for his kinsman's thriving in the woild^ 
great coooerD. ** There are your friends,'' he observed, ** endeavor- 
ing to ptovide for you,, and you are taking every method to fm^ 
tiate their wishes ; but be warned by these courses; you will pre^ 
so^y bring yourself to a morsel of bread.** Mr. Gilpin b^ged 
the Bishop would attribute what he had done to a scrupulous con* 
scieooe, which woukl not permit him to act otherwise.* 

On the CoDtment, Mr. Gilpin became acquainted with the mo^ 
csleteated controversialists of the age^ and, by attending the most 
diftngiHibed coHeges and schoob, obtained a thorough acquaint- 
ance with polemics ; yet, as bis researches were directed solely to 
the caose of truth, and not to the substantiation of received opi- 
fliaaSy be now became a convert to the principles of the Refor« 
■■tioa ; and, in the year 1556, returned to England ; though the 
pcrtcciitioo against Protestants under the bigotted Mary, was still 
; in all its horrors. Soon af^er his arrival, Bishop Tunstall ad- 
him to the arch-deaoonry of Durham, to which the rec- 
iMy oif Easiqgton was annexed ; but these benefices he was com- 
fcied to re^gn, through the strong q)position raised by the Ca- 
^Mk cleigy, by whose influence a chaige of here^, consi^ng of 
thirteen articles, was preferred against him, but dismissed by the 
fiKadshijp of Tunstall, who soon afterwards presented him with 
Ihr redoiy of Houghton le Spring. 

Vol. V. I When 

• HaUhiOioa'ft Durhun, Vol. II. p £i7* 



ISd DURHAM. 

When (fait paridi was thus comniitted to bis dtnection, the igno- 
rance of the inhabitants was extreme ; bat Mr. Gilpm, whose le* 
•ohifioB to undertadce, was equalkd by hb industry to accom[4isb» 
soon eActed a considemble change both in their morals and con* 
d^iot Hb assiduity in the discharge of the duties of hb function 
^vas exeanplary. ** When he^t took upon himself the care of a 
tNubb, he hid it down as a maxhn, to do ail the good inhb power 
there ; and hb whole conduct was one straight line, drawn to thb 
point. He set 'out with making it hb endeavor to gain the aflec- 
tion of hb parishioners : many of hb papers show how mafettid a 
jxrint he considered thb. To succeed hi it, however, he used no 
aervfle compli«ices ; he studied that hb means should be good, as 
wen as hb end. Hb behavbur was free, without levity ; obl^tag^ 
without meanness; and insinuating, without art. He conde* 
scended to the weak, bore with the passbnate, and compKed wHll 
the scrupulous ; and in a truly * apostolic manner,* became all 
thmgs to all men. 1V> hb hunuuiity and courtesy, was added an 
unwearied application to the instruction of those under hn care. 
Be was not satbfied whb the advice he gave m pubhc, but used 
to teach in private ; and uiduced his parishioners to come to fahn 
with their doubts and difficulties. Hb manner towards those he 
thought well-disposed, was most engaging: 6ay, hb repioof was ao 
ieonducted, that it seldom gave offence ; the becoming gentleness 
with which it was urged, making it always appear the efiect of 
fnendship. Thus with unceasing assiduity did he employ himself 
in admonishing the vicious, and encouraging the welf-4is|H>sed, by 
which means, in a few years, he made a greater change in the 
neighbourhood, than could well be imagined: he attended to every 
thing which he conceived might be of service to hb parish 
ioners. He was assiduous to prevent aH law-suits; and hia hd 
was often thronged with people^ who came to submit theur difien> 
ences to hb judgment ; lor though he was not much acquakited 
with law, he could decide equitably, and that satisfied ; nor coidd 
hb Sovereign's conunission have given him more weight than Im 
•wn character.*^ 

During 
^Jjblckioson'i Durham, Vol. 11. p. 55s. 



DVMMMU. 131 

Dmiog Ae cwly pM of Mr. Oilpiorrraidtticie at Ho\ig|leO|. 
his idigioiis opiwioiiv f hoogb vnfoliM wilb exlrcofe reatrve, waw 
nmdt the fiMUkhtion of a second McusaCiOD before Bishop Tiitt- 
stally who agaiB^ however^ feuad neaos to jprolett Mm z hut hit 
caous were not to be tbns sileoccri, anil thirty-lwef ailiclot weit 
cxlabiled as cfaaigea agaiati hiai before Boatwr, BMiop of I^oih 
do% whi9 gave orders ibr his kuoMdiate a|^iefaeMMi\ aad oqb* 
vegwce to the Metropolian QOpa^ivherkBewtheiaiphKablraed 
of this bigotled pielale^ picpaied for matftjfrdoaa^ but ai» aeddeur^ 
Iqp wfaich hit lag naa broken, retarded his journey) and heiotfeho 
vaaagMi able to tiaveV the death of Queen Maty occasloBed hU 
baaig GfaeiaiMi, and thoa rekased hha from perstcaitkm^ 

The haspitnity aad charily of Mr* Gilpia, ilreM only bouidbd 
by his aseana ; and the hitter^ regubled by die aioal exact eoono* 
aq^ enabled hiai- to eaeente laeie than less strict aecomptam 
cMd anagne poesible. "< Hia hospidlblt manner ai lividg aM 
thaadodialiaBof thewhakooanny. lytery Sanday^ ivous Mft' 
i till Easter, was a sort of public day with him : and dc«*^ 
aca8b% he capeet e d to. see atthis paridaoneis and- their 
Fer their leeepftion, he had three lableawaHoofeKd) 
the fsaty fiw gentkaaea ; the aecondy f6t busbnadmen, and fkn 
aKsa;aadthedaid^fMrdhyMMinrers. When he waaabaeut front 
haSM, ao aharation ana ttadem his>fiHailyexpenGeS: the 
wave ftd aa osaaiy and hia naigbboan eatettained. He i 
■s ■aafly, cfCTf pScta^ht^ tarty bushela of eoitt, twenty 
af aaalt, «id a whole ox ; hcsdcsba proportionable qnaaaily of 
other hiadb of profision. Stmngara and traaellen louid. iai hia 
haaaeacheesAlaeeeptiott; att wave weleeaM- that oame^ andaaaai 
&ear horses had so much care taken of them^ that it w«»haaiO<^ 
saaailf saM^ Iha^ * if a hoiae waa turned hsose ki any pait of the 
iiiiBBiij), it woaM hnmedmidg^ anhe its w«f to tka Rietor af 
HaaghOon'ai' So oalsaairr war the feme of liir baspitalily aiak 
thar even the great Loid Bofitigh'coadeicanded loTisii 
I hb ftlam ivam transactiag aopna state baaineBs hr Saeiar 
tahiaf his^faaaev tokkhkn, ma»tliaiwaiindaof 
\% smtohy; 



152 DtfttfAM, 

sincerity, ** He bad faetrd great things in Us cotimieiidation^ bat 
bad now seen ifbat far exceeded all that 'be bad beard." 

Tbe endeavors of Mr. Gilpin to promote and establish the 
bappibess of his fellow-creatttre»y were not, however, con6ned to 
bis cure. At tbe period in which be lived, " Redei<hle and Tyne* 
dale, in Northumberland, of all barbarous places in tbe north, 
were looked upon to be the most barbarous, being the commoit 
theatre were tbe Scots and Englnb were continoally acting thdr 
bloody scenes. Inhabited by a kind of desperate banditti, ren- ' 
dered fierce and active by constant nqnne, warfare, and alarms, 
they lived by theft, and used to plunder on both sides of tbe bar- 
rier. In thb dreadfid country, where no man would then even 
ttevel that could help it, he never failed to spend some part of 
the year :** the success of his disinterested exertions was very 
great ; as bis readiness to petfomi good ofiioes was equal tm hm 
ability to give advice, and bis person became revered and sacmi 
among the most desperate of the ferocious bands amidst whom he 
ventured, 

* Among the various benevolent purposes to which be appiopri* 
ated his income, was tbe building and endowment of a Grammar^ 
School in this village ; which still fiourisbes, and has given educ»» 
tion to many eminent men. He also fitted up part of his own 
house for the reception and tuition of scholars ; and was at the' 
expence of paying for the education and maintenance of othen, 
whom be frfaoed at tbe houses of di^Krent parishioners. Many of 
tiie children, whose early mstniction he bad thus provided for, he 
afterwards sent to the Universities, and there either >wholly sup- 
ported them, or furnished whatever assistance the drcumstanoes 
of Hie students required. 

The death of thb truly estimable man was preceded by an on* 
fcrtunate occurrence, that considerably added to the iufinnitiea 
of declining age. While crossing tbe mafket-pbce at Durfaani, 
he was ran at by an ox, and so grc&tly bruised by the violence 
with whicfa the animal pushed him down, that hb life was for 
some time in extreme danger; and though he recovered suflident- 
iy to leave his chamber, yet he never regained his former strength, 

and 



BURHAM. 193 

mi coofnraed lame tiil the end of Ms days. He died b Mwob, 
1583, in the sixty-sixth year of his age. At the west end of his 
DMRonieDf, in Houghton Church, is the following inscciption In 
mscd cbaractersy divided by an eBoutcheon, dvplayiog a boar 
festisg against a tree, with m crescent cut on the aid^ of the boar. 

B£RN£RD OBIT QUA 

GILPIN R£ RTO DI£ M 

CTOR HV ARTII AN. 

JVS £CCLIi^ POM. 1585. 

The Church stands on a rising ground, in the centre of a square 
«ea, formed by the buildings in the lower part of the village; it is 
eoastracted in the fonn of a cross, and embattled, with a low tower, 
, tenninating in a spire, rising from the centre. Among the nio- 
Muneots is an altar-tomb, on which lies the effigy of a Knight in 
armoarg with clasped hands, bearing a shield on bis left arm, and 
iffiosiog bis head on a pillow. This is traditionally said to represent 
Sir John U Sjmngy the head of ancient resident family : but Col* 

• fiaat* refers it to " Sir Rowland BELASiSE,of Bewley ; knighted 
at the battle of Lewes, in Sussex, 48th of King Henry the Third, 
when the King was taken prisoner by Simon Montfort, Earl of 
Leicester, and otlier Barons." The Belasise family inhabited 
HortOD-House, in this parish, in the time of Cardinal Langley. 
Some other memorials of them remain in the Church ; one of 
which is a brass plate, dbplaying en^ved portraits of Margery 
Belasisr, and her twelve children : the former died at the age of 
mnety, in the year 1587. Another inscription records the me- 
mory of Major Thomas Lilburn, who died in the year 

* 1^5. In this Church was formerly a chantry, and two guilds." 

Tbe Rectorial Mansion k a handsome stone edifice, fomiing one 
sde of a conrt, having a lodge at the entrance, and being flanked 
by a chapel on one side, and an ancient tower on the other. The 
btter was erected about the year 148S, by the then incumbent, 
John Kelyng, who began to fortify " and embattle a house abore 
the lower porch within hb rectory with a wall of lime and stone, 
|od to make a fortress of it without license." Thb offence, how- 

1 3 ever, 

♦ Peerage, Vol. III. p. «44- 



09m, wa^ pttdmed hy KAbp Diidby ; «id, in eooaideratioa (^a 
dne paid, Itkoly wis graoled by ibaft pveiate^ '' to embattle tber 
hMne, and make it a fortesi for himself, and fuecesson for ever.** 
the redory was afterwards repaired by the benevolent Beroaid 
Oilphi ; but having again beeome ruinous, was rebuUt, together 
with the chapel, by the Rev. George Davenport, who was rector 
between the years l664 and 1667. The south front commands 

6ie and extensive proqiect. Among the eminent Rectors of this 
parish, besides those already mentioned, may be enumerated, Enia* 
nuel Barnes, a person of great emdition, and son of Bishop Barnes ; 
Augustin Lmdseil, afterwards Bishop of Hereford^ noticed in Fut 
lert Worthies, under Essex; Dr. Peter Heylin; Dr. Sancroft, 
afterwards Archbishop of Canterbury ; Dr. Bagshaw, a famous 
preacher in London, in the seventeenth century; Sir George Whe> 
ler, an antiquaiy and traveller; Dr. Seeker, afterwards Archbtshop 
of Canterbuiy ; and Mr. Rotherham, a celebrated polemical 
writer. 

The Granmar-School is a convenient building, standing in the 
Church yard, with the Master's house a^joming ; over the door is 
this inscription : 

schola de keepier* 

ab eliz. anglii£ &ecnina, 

a: mdlxxiv. fvndata 

EX PROCVRATIONE I. HEATH, AR. 

£T B. GILPIN, RECT. ECCL. HOVGHTO, 

C. H. f M. B. ALVMNVS POSVIT. 

A*. M. DCCXXIV. 

On a line which the School to the sooth, is an Hospital for the ie« 
caption of six poor people, who have each a certain sum, arising 
fiom difierent bequests annually, aUowed for theur mamtcnaDce. 
The popuhition of this townshqp, as returned under the hte act» 
was 996; the number of houses lfi2: many of the htter are huge 
and reflpectabk bttiUings, 

BISHOP 

* Kepier, neir Durhun, was the teat of the Heaths, and it it conjectured 
thit was called Kepier School in complisnoit to that hmilf. 

t Chrittopher Hunter, of Durham. 



BIffiOP WEittBftOUIH AKB SUNDERLAND 

Abb so iutimafely united by buildings, and other local dream- 
stances^ that they may be said to form only one town ; though the 
parishes are distiuct, and have separate and independent places of 
wofship. Sunderland is comparatively of modern origin, and has 
anived at its present importance from the convenience of its port ; 
bat Bishop Wearmouth is a place of remote antiquity, and though 
ks history is involved in much confusion, clearly appears to have 
been of consequence in the Saxon ages, as it was restored to the 
See of Durham by King Athelstan at the beginning of the tenth 
century, uuder the distinguishing appellation of the *' delightful 
viUa of South Weremouth." 

The more ancient part of Bishop Wearmouth occupies the 
•ootbem acclivity of an eminence south of the river Wear, and 
about one mile and a half distant from its junction with the sea. 
Od the crown of the eminence is the Church, beyond which, to 
the north-east, a range of modem and handsome buildings 
have been erected on the Pa7i«-fields, and connect with Sunderiand. 
Tbe hitter extends along the southern bank of the Wear, almost 
to the tea-shore ; the upper part stands on the side of a hill| 
faraig a yrery quick descent both to the river and to the sea. 

Btthop Wearmouth Church is a very ancient structure, sup* 
pesed by Hutchmson to have been founded very soon alter the 
Rstitntk)o made by Athelstan : its original architectmre, however, 
hM, ID a great measure, been obliterated by subsequest alterations. 
It it a low bttiklkig, embattled, with a squave tower : the interior 
mviits of a nave, ai^Jes, and chancel ; the latter was gieatly alter- 
cd, md iqi^oved, by the Rev. Mr. Smith, who heU the rectoiy 
about Ibe conuneiicewent of the last centuiy. The nave is divi* 
d«l fron the aisles by two rows of three round columns, with rolls 
lor capitals, supporting drcuhur arches. '' The rector of Bishop 
WeariBOuth for the time bemg, is Lord of the Manor, and holds 
his courts, the customs and copyholds of which are of the same 
aatttie with the customs and copyholds of the Bishops's manors."* 

14 Tht 

• Ualchioioo, Vol II. p. 514- 



196 DURHAM. 

The preteni idcimibeDt b Hie jcdebnted Dr. WilUftm Palc), Aidi»> 
deacop of Carlisle, author of Moral and Political Philoiopky ; Na* 
iural Theology ; and some other popular and esteemed woiks : the 
living is one of the most opulent in Durham. Near the Churdi 
is an Hospital, or Aims-House, erected and endowed for the mfun* 
tenance of twelve poor men or women, hy two sisters, Mrs. Jane 
Gibson, and Mrs. Eupbemia Redmani m the year VJ27. At that 
time, the produce of the endowment amounted to only 31. annu- 
ally to each person ; but from the increase of the value of land, 
$61. is now distributed among them every year. Another Alms^ 
House, for twelve indigent men or women, was built and endowed 
by the Rev. Dr. John Bowes, in the year 1725 ; but the allow* 
aqce for maintenance is very small. This building stands at the 
end of a square called Wearmouth Green, whidi, before the divi> 
sion of the parishes, was used as the market-place ; but the mar- 
ket has since been removed to the High Street, in Sundeiiand. 

But the principal stucture on the Bishop Wearmouth side, 
and by far the greatest curiosity in this part of the countiy, is 
the magnificent Iron Bridge, of a angle arch, which has been 
thrown over the river Wear; and connects with the new road lead- 
ing to Newcastle and. Shields. This noble fabric b indebted for 
its origin to the genuine patriotism of Rowhmd Burdon, Esq. of 
Castle Eden, who, assisted by the scientific abilities of Mr. Tho- 
mas Wilson,* Engineer, invented, and obtained a patent for the 
plan on which it is constructed. The principles of this plan are 
essentially different from those employed in any former bridge, 
attempted with similar materials ; as it does not consist of long 
ribs of metal, approaching towards the centre, and sustained upon 
the abutments, but is constructed with arch^pieces, ox4flock$, 88 
they are technically termed, " answering to the key-stones of a 
common arch, which behig brought to bear on each other, gives 
them all the firmness of the solid stone arch ; whilst, by the great 
vacuities in the blocks, and their respective distances ni their hite* 

nt 

* This gentlemaD resides in a neat hous^i constructed for the purpose, at the 
Jicad of (he Biidge : since the finishing of the latter, he has erected some other 
caM iron budges in different parts of (be kingdom. 



wlipMifioa, tbe arck fceeonet infinitely ligttttr dian that ofstoiiei 
«ad by tbe tenacity of the metal, tbe fwrts ape so intiiiiately €o»> 
aeded, tbat tbe accanite calcobitkm of tbe ektiados and iotradot, 
«a aece ss aty in stone aiches of attgaitude, is rendeited of muck 
kaiconseqaeiior.'^ The blocks are wholly of cast iron; ea<^ of 
Ikem five hti in height, four ^cbes ia thkboess, two feet fo^r 
■ekes and a half in length at top, and two feet four indies a| 
hottoni. The blocks are all cast in one piece; but it may be ne- 
essMiy, for the sake of pers(Ncuity in description, to consider tliem 
as formed with bars of iron of tbe above dimensions. Each btosk 
will then appear to be composed of three pieces, placed honion- 
taDy, and two otiiers in a vertical direction ; the former crosang 
the Utter at each extremity, and in tbe middle. B^ tliisconstmo- 
lion, a square vacuity is left both above and below tbe piece which 
crosses the centre ; and as the vertical pieces arc not placed at the 
Olds of tbe cross pieces, but about five inches inwards, tilien two 
blocks are banded together, the void space between the now 
rndted ends of the blocks, is of the same extent as tliat between 
the uprights. On each side of the horizontal or cross pieces, is a 
ied groove, three inches broad, and three-fourths of an inch deep: 
hi these grooves bars of wrought, or malleable iron, are inserted, 
of sufficient length fo connect several blocks, am) are Astened by 
square bdts driven through holes left at equal distances in each of 
tlie cross-pieces ; by these means the blocks are all firmly wedged 
together, ^rhe Arch is the segment of a circle about 444 feet 
jfi diameter, and is 236 feet eight inches in its chord, or span; it 
is ibmied by sia ribs; each rib consistkig of i 05 blocks, which butt 
en each other in the eame manner as the vossoirs of a stone arclu 
The ribs are res|)ectively placed at six feet distance, but are con- 
nected and braced tpgether by lioUow tubes or bridles of cast 
iron, with projecting shoulders at each end, into which tbe bolls 
that &sten the bars of malleable iron to the cross-pieces of the 
bk)cks are also driven, and made fast by keys, or fbrek>cks, 
Ikat pass through the tails of the bolts and shoulders of th? 

bridles^. 

* S<c Spftlfiraiion of Patent. 



bridles.^ The vtncd due, or spring of Cbe sidi, Is only dnrtj- 
4Mff feet; of course the spandrils require but Ikde fiMing iq» ; yel 
tM it efiected io the iiwst light and elcgatit nnnocr, by iron cvr*- 
eletf placed upon the ribs, and gmduaUydiorioishinf fnm the 
abatinents to ttie centre of the bridge: these support the (rfaflbra^ 
%Hach is a strong franw of timber, cohered with marie, fine staH% 
grafel, &c. whh foot-paths of free-stone, and bounded by m Deal 
jvon balliistnide ; above which, on each side, is the ibllowiog h»> 
Ibiiption, chosen as a pious record of tlie sucoessfiit eenipietioo 
of tile work: 

NIL D£SP£RANDUM AUSPICE DEO. 

The whole weight of the iron that fonns this immense structure 
is 260 tons; of these 46 are malleable, and 214 cast. The piers, 
or abutments, are piles of almost solid masonry, twenty-four feet 
in thickness, forty-two' in breadth at bottom, and thirty-seven at 
top. The south pier is founded on the solid rock, and rises from 
about twenty-two feet above the bed of the river: 00 the nortb 
side, the ground was not so fiivorable, so tliat the foundation waa 
obliged to be carried ten feet below the bed. The first stone was 
bud on the twenty-fourth of September, 1793 ; with this inscrip^ 
tion^ written by Sir Pepper Arden> now Lord Alvanley. 

i2"o 

* ** This cooitruction,** obscnres the editor of the Supplement to the Encycio* 
pedis Britannica, under Arck^ ** is beautifully simple, and very judicious. A^ 
vait«dditio« of strength, and of stiffness, is procused by lodging the wrought 
iron bars in grooves formed in the cast-iron rails t and for this piirpo« it is of 
great imporUDce to make the wrought iron- bars fill the grooves completely, and 
even to be so tight as to require the force of the forelocks to draw them home 
to the bottom of the gcpoves. There can be no doubt, but that this arch is 
able to withstand an enormous pretture, as long as theabutmenu from whicli 
it springs do not yield ; and of this there is hardly any risk. The mutual thnut^ 
of the frames (or blocks) are all in tlie direction of the rails, so that no part 
bears any transverse stiain. Wc can hardly conceive any force that can ovenr- 
come the strength of those arms by pressure, or by crushing them. The man* 
ner in which the frames »rc connected into one rib, effectually secures the but« 
ting joints from slipping ; and the accuracy with which the whole is executed^ 
prcvcnu any waiping or dcv^on of a rib from the vertical plane." 



DVttBAM. l^ 

Qoo TniPOEB 

Civivx Gallicokuic Akdor Visamus 

PKAVA JUBBNTIUIC 
CtJITtt TUXBAVIT EUROPBAS 

FiBBit Bbllo, 

JUhmdiu Murdon, Armigtr^ 

Mjilioba COLBVt 

VEDRifi 

KlPASi SCOPULIS pRiCEUPTAS 

Pontb ^onjunxit Fsrrbo. 

7bLICITBR FUMDAUmA POSUXT 

Octavo Calrnbas Octobrxs, 

AnVO SaLUTII HUICAMA 

M.DCCXCIIL 
CxoRcix Trrtii XXXIIT. 

Adstantr 

CVLIELMO HtNRICO LaMRTOW, ARMrCRR« 

PROVINCIALI SVMICO MaCISTRO 
FrATROMQUR SoClETATXt ARCHXTRCTOiriC Jl 

£t Procrrvm Comitatus Dunelmbnsis 
Spictarili Corona, 
. PoPULi QuoQUR Plurima Comitantr Catirva. 

MSMRANT VrITICIA DlU 

NoM Irrita Sprx. 

The nroo-work was cast by tfae Messrs. Walkers, of Rolherfiam; 
md the ucb was turned upoo a very light but firm scaffolding, ao 
judksovdj coostmcied by Mr. Wilson^ Uiat not any intermptHia 
«as girai to the paasagc of tbe numerous vessels lliat navigate the 
faasy river of SnoderbuML Tbe luode of bracing tbe ribs was 
ae simple and cspeditioiis^ that tbe whole was put together, and 
I over file river, in ten days, and tbe scafiblding iaimedialGly 
The biidge was opened tor general use on tbe ninth of 
Aogosf, 1796, after a very splendid ceremony and procession, in 
vibcfa tbe proviadal grand lodge of Free-Masons in the county of 
DiMriam sustain^ a disthiguisbed parti Mr. Burdon beiug for that 
day appointed Grand Master: the number of spectators was cony* 
poted at 80,000. 

Thus was this important undertaking brought to a sucressfbl 
conclnaion ; though during the progress of the work, the malignant 

and 



)40 DURHAM. 

aixi illiterate had endeavoured to inqiede its execution by direfu\ 
forebodii^. The expense amounted to 27,000). of tliis sum Mr« 
Burdon, with a liberality worthy of the highest praise, subscribed 
$3,0001. the remainder was raised by subscription amoug the 
neighbouring gentlemen. To defby this expense, a small toll is 
levied on all passengers, which already produces more than the 
interest ; and the overplus bemg applied to liquidate the principal, 
when that is effected, the bridge will be thrown open.* The 
centre of the arch is nearly 100 feetTrom tJie surface of tlie river 
at low water, so. that vesseb of from 200 to 300 tons burthen can 
pass under it without striking their masts. The vast utility of this 
structure may in a sligbt degree be estimated from the increased 
Intercourse it has occasioned between the inhabitants of the oppo- 
site sides of the river, and which is rendered strikingly apparent by 
the receipts taken at the ferry below the bridge : these, prior to 
its erection, did not amount to 2001. per annum ; but have since 
progressively increased, and now produce upwards of 5001. 

Anotlier structure on the Bishop Wearmouth side, but originating 
with the inhabitants ofSunderhwd, is the Sunderland Subscription 
Library, the foundation of which was laid on the sixth of May, 
1801, in "the name of Almighty God, the fountain of Intelligeoce, 
and the source of niiud.'' The principal room is about tfairty^one 
'feet in length, twenty broad, and tif^een in height: on the same floer 
are two smaller apartments, for the accommodation of meetings of 
the members, committee, &c. The ground-floor is disposed into two 
shops, one of which b oocupied by the Librarian, a respectable 
bookseller. The institution commenced in Febmaiy, 1795; and 
though its progress was not rapid for a few years, of late its 80c» 
cess has been more decided, and the o^ection contains a variety 
o^ valuable books. 

The Borough qf Wearmouth is noted in the Bolden Buke; and 
a charter of privileges was granted to the Burgesses by Bishop 

Podsey, 

* lu tfacbri<)ge now constructing by Mr. Wilson, between EggUscUfifc and 
Yann, (sec page 96,] the bars of malleable rton which connect the case iron 
blocks, are all to be inserted in cavities ti;/Mtn the blocks, and being thus pre- 
served fiom the action of the air, the fabric will probably be more durable. 



WSHAM. HI 



ftAej, tlwNit die eommiMenent of the rdgn of IKdvurd tU. 
FksL la mother gdml bj the ttme Pielale^ dated 1154, ere the 
wndsy Dc Btirgo de Werenmt, alias ffereimntth, modo Stindtr- 
Umd JMita mare. • Some privileges were also granted to the btti- 
gesBCS hy Henry the Third. 

-. SoKDBELANO, being Originally part ofWeannouthperisby i$aoC 
by historians as a distinct place^ till its increasimg con»» 
; forced it mto notice. The Bishops^ in right of their pak- 
tiae anthority, leased ont the ferry-boats and passage of the river; 
lait no grants of anehonge or beaconage appear to have been 
apnde prior to liie time of Bishop Tvnitall, during whose prelacy* 
it nay tbopefore be supposed to have obtained eoasequence. 

Aficr the statute of Henry the Eighth^ by which the palatine- 
jnrisdiction was restrained and mutilated, Sunderland became of 
cansei|uc nc< » and assumed munidpai importance, baring its ofi<ers 
efdHtnctKM and police. Desirous of encouraging its rising trade, 
Birimp Morton, m the year 1634, incorporated the bui^essesand 
iahabitantS) by the title of Mayor, twelve Aldermen, andCom- 
■ennlly of the Borough of Sunderland, and gifted the privikge' 
ef a anrket and annual fimrs.* Thbcharter, through the distrao* 
tioos of the times which followed, was suffieied to eipire ; but. 
though the corporation lost its authority, the inhabitants coutestqf , 
their rijgbts in various law*suits, particulariy touching the herbage 
ef the town moor, and its soil; and it was affirmed,- that ** Sun*, 
derland is an ancient borough, dec. that the twelve inftiior bur*- 
gmes are called staUingcrs; and that each freeman, oocupying a 

house, 

* The charter states, " That Sunderland had beyond the memory of man 
beta aa aixiient borough, known by the name of the New Borough of Werc' 
SMvch, conCaiBtog in itself a certain port, where ships had plied, bringing and 
car ryiof anerchvidijtc, as well to and from foreign parts, as from other putt 
^ this kjngdoai : the arUclet tbercm specified, are ara-coals, gnod^atopci, 
rvUnoiwt, and wbet-stooea. It also states, that the trade %iras then greatly in-i 
creased by the multitude of ships resorting thither; and that the borough an* 
cieody enjoytd divers liberties and free custom^ as well by prescription, at by 
viuac of sundry charters from the Bishops of Durham, coufiimed to them by 
«bc Crowns which, from defect in form, proved insufficient for the ftupportof 
the Mcieot libcfUCSy privilefei tad Um customs of Urn b0rou^h." 



i4f DtmRAir* 

Imise, bod cMnmmitge fortwolwrKs wdlburcowf; woimA 
aMmger for one cow ; ami that tke widow of a itoona, or jial- 
Kf^r, hemg an infaabitaat, lad tiM Ubb comnoMge after tlw 
btMbaad's deaffc.** 

When the regal jurisdiction of the Bishops cff D^teai was eor- 
tilled by Hnntj the Eighth, the consenortorsUp of the river 
Wear, and port of Sanderland, was vested in the Crawa. Sinoe 
that period, variotis acts have beea passed for the picouiiiliafl 
and improvemtnt of the river and- haven, mid certain commia^ 
sioners appointed as conservators. On the resloralioo of Cfaarka 
the Second, that Monarch dhected a comansskm to the Mqfor, 
and four senior Akiennen, of Sunderhad, and to Walltf Sttrickr 
Esq. toadmiiiistertheoathsofsapreniaey and ohedieace to the 
iahabitanfs; and b the twentieth year of his reign, ha gianted 
Ma-leflers patent, for erecting a hght-faoose, piers, ^. aodlisr 
psevcntlng ii\piry to the harbour^ by heaving oat iMlhrtt^ «Rder 
acvere penalties. 

• Tariaua eonJeetBrcs," observes Bfir. Hutdnasov, *• la»a 
tant made touching the derivation of tkt name of Sn u d eihw t ; 
some insisting that it is the ancient Saxony S am fe rtowrf , sign^/ing 
arpartieufair precinct, with privileges of its own; others, that the 
mftte is e:ipres9ive of a peainsuhi, severed and separated from the 
nain fend ; and this hitter appears the mcyst probable ; for we see, 
by the ancient records, that in Bishop Hatfield^ time, Hynden^ 
waaa pkceheld by Thomas Menv^n for the plying of ships: if 
the sea, ki the beginning of the fourteenth century, formed % 
creek or bay there, the land on which Sunderland now stands, 
would, at high water, be almost totally dissevered from the main; 
and the deep gullies shew a probability that such was the case. 
The shore has greatly changed its figiiie in the course of 40a 
years; and perhaps some art was used to exclade the sea from 
that course, when tlie haven of Snnderhmd grew into fame, and 
the coal trade began upon the Wear.'^f The 

* Hyndcn Lodge is nearly midway between Sunderland and Hynden Bay, oei 

the south. 

i History of Durhan, Vol* XI. p. js6. ^ 



IKIBKAK. t#3 

Hie iMbov of tarfalari m ftraMd hf hra pien^ iihNl«l«i 
tbttoiithaaiiiorliisidwoflkemcr: tfaatoi tki aoutb^deitof 
hag slrndbg, afti bat uodkrgoae aiv^ml repair^ haviog ban 
MMbdaongedb^rUieysfa^^^iBNovanibnv 177K* ^ TtMl«i 
tbe Mfflti aide has been ooMtmctod aiiioe Ibe ytm ^7^ a«4 
g watty co wC ri bntea to the facariljr of tbc Aifipia^ by caaUiog tbc 
I to aeqttiri greater font to seouc away the taiid^ wMdl 
labarattbeeatraacaaf the bariMNir. Fataieelgi^ Ibe lam^ 
•f Iba rivci ^ was mucb ioipeded Ikow Ibe waut af aeulBr 
deptb of watet to adiuk diipa of any ^w w i rierabk bmlbaa 
tapHltoseawbblbMrwbalrlaiiuif; lo leaatdy whicb, sodivoar 
sels wan obliged to laike part of tiieir cargoes ia tbe opeiA 90tA 
lywbicbtbafaeel-nca, wte bring dow* tbe coablioiiitbafllaiiH 
wava oftcs exposed, ia sadden stotau, la danger/ and aan irt ii ia a i 
lost This caofameacok, by the emction of tbeaortli piar,, and 
oCber Rccal iaiprovtOMiilB, in a great measure raaioaed; tba l^t 
wow iowa sixtrea feet, and admits vessels of 300 and 40a Umi 
harthm. Near Ibe oitremity of tbe aortb pier, aa elegaal eiifl*- 
im igbt4Kmse has beee buit» ftaoi the desigp» of Mr. PicfcmasI, 
B^bwer: it wasfiabbed » 1802. Balaie its esectios^ tbe oa^ 
ligiiai to euaUe asanuers to enter tbe noath of tbe river diudag 
Aenigbt, wasafauitefabo«ladofitbft«ac«4lBflr. Tbewiacbofa 
aery vahiablefeml at the moutb of tbe haiboftir ia tbe year 17^» 
gMa riar ta a subseriplbn iar tbc batbfing of a Ufa4lk«t; aad 
one, oa a saatkr plaa to Mr. Oreatbead'v was accosdii^y aaa- 
itrMled by Mr. W. Wake, of Monk Wearmouth. 

Tbe trade of Sunderland has long been in a state of progressKe 
bcrease; but its augmentation during the latter part of the last 

i^ntury 

• Seep. 63. 

♦ Wilkcr's Gaxelteer. Thecbnger wm, iiwlwd, ao^iwf* tbattmny«£t^ 
brgrr vestcU belonging to the port were obliged to uke in rticir OM^oe* tt 
Sfeieia., thougb their voyage wm not Wifte^uetiUy delayed by d« bif tt the 
Kooth of th$t barbonr; tnd t liect of a coMiera haa been knawn ta le«*e Sundpr- 
Uod, delfver their cargoes in London, and afterward* return, before another 
€«tt at Shickls, which w«i laden when the former Jeparted, had b««i tUc to 
g<t o>tr the hv. 



144 JPUBHAV. 

century has been rerj npk). The inportBiwe eoni^ floor, wioe^ 
q^irituoos liqvors, timber, tar, deds, Au^ iron, Sec The ex* 
ports are coal, lime, gbn, glaas bottles, grind-stones, and eop* 
peias. The ooal trade is the principal, and furnishes employment 
Smt nearly 530 vessels, independent of the keds,^ which convej 
the coal from the staiths to the ships, and are 492 in number. 
The coal is chieiy conveyed to the Metropolis; though great 
^antkies are sent to the diftveot ports of the Baltic, and in time 
e€ peace, to France and Holland: the whole quantity aoBuaUy 
exported from Sunderland, amounts to about 515,000 Newcastle 
chaldrons.f The number of persons dependant on this^mde it 
very great; and even some years ago, when the consumptioo was 
by no means so considerable as at present, they amounted to up^ 
^rards of 26,000, on the river Wear only. Hie lime is princi- 
pally sent to the coasts of Yoikshire and Scotland. 

The parish of Sunderland was separated from Bishop Wear- 
mouth, and establisbed as an independent rectory, by an act of 
Parliament passed in the year 1719' The preamble states, " that 
Sunderland contains 6000 souk and upwards; and that a beau- 
tiful Church had been erected, together with a vestry room, and 
dwelliiig house for the miuister.'' By this act abo, a " vestry, 
or association of inhabitants, was instituted, consisting of twenty- 
finir persons, having freehold estates of the yearly value of lOi. 
to be chosen by the parishioners, and to contmue in o$ce three 
years; and so a succession to be chosen every three yean, la 

these 

• The kreU are flat bottomed craft, each made to contaiotcn Newcastle cHaU 
diOM, (about «64 tons,) and marked with nails at the head and stenn that it 
may be readily known when they have their proper lading aboard. " Thetr 
name," observes Mr. Brand, in his History of Newcastle, "is vcryaoctcnt, 
and of Saxon origin, for a ship or vessel. On the first arrival of the Saxons 
in this Island, they came over in three long ships, styled by themselves (aa 
Vcfstegan informs us) ketUs, or ktuks. In the chartulary of Tyncmouth monas- 
tery, the aervanu of the Prior, who wrought in the barges^ are called (A. JX 
1378) ktleri: an appellation pla^inly synonimoua with our i<c/«c».'» 

> The Nftwcatfle chaldron is 53 cwt. equal lo 134.1 cobic feet : the tendoQ 
chaldron it equal to aboat %% cwt. or 7 a cubic feet. 



ibne officers una Vested a p^\m to nmte <m(iiianc«»^rtd bye^^aw) 
fw the regulation of tbe paryi; to W raitMied by the justices; f6 
appoint m sc a v e nger, and to assess on eftttt^^real and' persdnaT, 
afld flock ui tfmde, a suSeiedt ftum for tbe purposes therein men^ 
tmed, and particularly for paying tbe rector a yearly stipend of 
aoL and to tbe clerti lOl." TfaeOhnroh Is a spacious and baod- 
r fiibric f tbe east end has a particnlariy light %uid elegant ^fr 
tbe altar being placed in a circular recess, sonnouiit^ 
by a d«Bie. This altera^n was projected about tbe year 1735; by 
die Rev. Mr. N^fombcj who was then rector. - A new roof liii^ 
been just built, nnder the direction of Mri Wilson, the archtMf 
of Weamouth Bridge; and it may be remarked, that the eipehce 
of eoastruclHig it, together with nineteen new wiiklows, has been 
defiayed by tbe money obtained fbr the lead that wasremored from 
tie old roof, and which appears to* have originally cost only 24l. 
This boikling not being sufficiently large' f[>r the fotreasing popu- 
hliooof tbe town, about the year 1/fO, a veiy spacious Chapel 
tfEase wfWCMcted under the patronage of John-Thorahill, Esq.' 
a respodatile neigbboonng gentleman* iBesides^ fbese places of 
wanlip, here are serend meeting bouses for tbe respective deno- 
MwiiOiH of Methodists, Presbyterians, Indlep^nd^Ms, Baptists, 
Qoakcis, &c. The principal Methodist meeting was opened in 
AngoBty 1753 : it is a handsome building, and capable of con- 
twng 1500 people. Several benevolent institutions etist in dffi 
ierent parts of the town ; particuli^y, a Dispemary, established 
m 1794; a Humam SocUiy^ biguA about the year 1790; a Cha* 
rky fon decayed seamen, and seamens' widows; a Schbol for 
giris, fo un d e d about the year l770, in pursuance of a beqdest 
■ade by tbe late Mrs. Donnisoti ; and a Blut- Coat School fat 
bajs: for the bifter a new school^hoUSe is erecting by subscription: 
^e expeaee of education isohie% deftuyed by the money collect- 
ed from conunonicanls at tlie limes of aditiittistering the sacrament! 

Daring tbe but war, of»»lbemoiVr eastward of the town, very 
fUiiMiH mid cobnnodlous ^rmdkamen' erected, together with 
a gHDd^foom, and ^ber aeconmtodations : they lire sufficiently 
fapaiioui for 1800 men^ iadependenr of offlcerti^ Btc. At a short 

FoL. V. K distance 



146 BvnnhM. 

iUtum to Hm mA^ oo ike ray edge of the Ma b«iA«, k « 
strong Ch^ybtam sfiribg, aaid to be leaice^ less patmlal than tht 
cbaljfbeate i^Nriiig at HaviowgMie : itoatualkNi rcadcis the «ppo- 
tttioa extremely pmbebie, tfait it trill> eie laiig» be detUoyect by 
the lavages of the aea. 

For the amoMHieat of the inhabitants, a famge Atiemllfy'roem 
and JheiUn have been built: the former imdcr tb^ impeclioa of 
Ibadirectoa of the Muster RoU for Seameoi who use it for dieir 
own meetjpgi op paitiouhur oecasioos : the httec is the paopeitjl 
of If ^ Stephen KeaMe; at is a neat edifice, aad, whea fyU» wiM 
eootapa about 801. but its inoenvenieot sitaatioa^ u a aawow 
fauie» lenders it ahnost maocessiUe in a wet q^ht, as ao lim r h i g a 
can approach the doors. To fiualMate the purposes af tiadi^ two 
Baaibi have been established here within tiMse few years. 

ThepopuhUion of SuuderUnd, as retoraed under the late ac(» 
was J2,412 : via. 4iKtt males, and 7510 femakt : the miinber of 
houapsi 1579. Of Bishop. Wearmouth, the papuhtson was 61 2fi: 
Tiz. 2f06 males, and 3430 iemries: the aumbar of faaasea^ 800. 
Of Bishop-Wearmoulh Pans, the popuktma was 5Si: vis. 279 
nak% and 2^ femalee : the aumber of h euas s , 5C. Thepop»» 
latioo, theretee, of the whojb pbee, as appears from these re* 
turn, was 19,102 : the houses, 2325. The number of ] 
actually residing here, must, howevei; Jbe coDsiderably 
as no saibrs, nor othos employed on the water, were inchuied 
m the above retutae* The most respectable buildhigs are in 
Bisbop-Wearmouth, and the liifjk Street of Soadeibad ; the 
lower part of the hitter is, however, much disfigured by the stalk 
and shambles which are suffisied to stand on each side the high- 
wi^. Many of the mhabitants derive employmeat from a paiem 
Bcpery^ established since 1795, on the banks of the river, aboai 
OSM mile firom Bishop- Wearmouth; fiom the nsamifactuie of bot* 
des and broad ghns; and of white and bmwaearthca-ware. Ad* 
ditiomd employmeat is fiiraished by a ca p p era a mamifiutory ; and 
various iree^one quarries in the neigfabourhead. Aa 
socoe to a stranger, is dispb^ by the number of the lower i 
mhabitants, who attend the nmogof thetide osi the saa-shova ba* 

low 



hm Ae Imfb, and wA mail iwnd-bftskett catch tbe snmU oodir 
tltttare floated in by the waves. At these times, (fiSEerent panks^ 
cthvm ten to thirty ar forty penons, chiefly woomb and giil^! 
nay be seen entcriog the Water, and exhibhiog considerabfe dcx- 
taitjf io advancing or reeeding, aecordiiig to the strength of fte 
wafety whidi fieqoently caver them from the middk dowmvards. 
As the eoals are caught io the baskets, they are thrown in heapa 
on the sand, and afterwards carried away, either to bum at hoBM, 
ar be diq>oted of to the less venlarous. It has been asserted at 
a fiKt, that, previous to the establishment of the varioas flMnd- 
fiKtoiies in this vicinity, that apwarda of 500 poor people have 
been engaged at one time in this smgular occupatioa. 

IfOMX WEARMOUTH, wUch holds neariy the same leh- 
tioa to Sonderland, as Southwaifc does to London, is situated oa 
the BMtfa aad apposite banks of the Wear. Its antiqmty is remote, 
sad petlMpa connected with a refigiaus society, established here 
by the saase St Bega' who founded the roooasteries at St. Bees, 
in Coaubcrhaid, mid at Hartlepool in this county. This estid>lish« 
meat was probably swallowed up in a more splendid fbundatkm 
by B ca edirt Biseop, or Biseopias, who, m the fourth year of Eg* 
fial, Kiag of Northumberiand, (A. D. 674,) obtained a grant 
of siaty bales of land, on which he built an abbey, and dedicated 
ittoSt.Felav. Bisco^ns was an Englishman, and has the o^edit of 
[ been one of the fast persons who introduced the useful and 
arts mto this kingdom. Lambarde, who seems to ie« 
0vd the flse arts with sovereign contempt, thus speaks of Um : 
^This OMB kboured to Rome five several tyraes, for what other 
I find not, save only to procure popa-holye privileges, and 
for his monasteries, Jarrow and Weremouth ; 
fivinC be gotte for those hoases, whercm he nourished 600 
great liberties ; then brought he them home from Rome, 
gUtiert, fr^^nuwrns, and iingen, to th' end that bis 
( migfat so shyne with workmanshipe, and his churches so* 
wMi mdodye, that sunple souls ravished therewithe, should' 
of thcime nothmge but heavenly holynes : m this jolitie 
tfacttc bouses, and other by theiie exam|^ embraced 
KS the 



US I>VBKAK. 

Hie lik€, liH Ifingaar and HiO^ the Damth pyin^ (A. D. 
870,) weare imed byOed to abale tiutird pride, ivlio not only 
fyfod abd spojM tkem, but abo . aHnost all the religioys boiiiea 
oa the north-east coast of this Islaad. And of these UiHiges Bedat 
and others, note him the first author, ascribioge iondlve to has 
praise, that whiche worthelye maj be written to hi$ discommeis* 
dation ; for by theise and siiche other vanities of iviU worsliip, the 
spiiilHal service of God began lirst to be weakened.** IVough oi|c 
author is thus severe upon the conduct of the £ogti«h'' SaiaU 
(whose followers, Irom his name, obtained the appellatioii of Be-. 
nediotine9,> posterity nuist regard his meptory with moie J^isticc^. 
and revere the man that at such an early .peiiod,. could coqibiit 
the prejudices of ignorance, and introduce into U$ conqtJcy> mm^ 
fill and el^aat improvements. 

It appears from Bede,f that, - soon after Biacopiqs bad laid the 
foundation of his abbey, he went lOiFnmoe, and engaged a ff^eal 
uambec of masons, and brought them over \o build his ChwKh 
with stone, afler the manner of .the Romans, which' he .admired. 
<f The Church was dedicated to St. Peter; and he iir^ the 
wotkiaen to labor so diligently, thai in a year after mass was said 
in it. WhcA the work was fAr ^fdvanoed, be sent ageafta into 
France, to jpvocure, if possible, some ghLss-maktrg ; a kbd of 
workmen altfogetfaer unknown to the Saxons at that period^ His 
ajgents succeeded, and seveml of these artimm came over into 
Britain, and not only gkiaed. the. windows in the: church and »»• 
nastery which Benedict had built, but also i^nicted the Saxona 
in the art of making glass, for windows^ lamps, drmki^ vasnis, 
and other uses.^f Thus Monk Wearm«uth had the honor of beic^ 
the earlieat f^lazed church in Sugland : before this tiip% .the wip* 
dows were either latticed, or, at best, fitted ap with.^ne Uneo 
cloths, stfetched upon francs of wood. 

Nothing further oc<;urs respecting the remote antiquity of thb 
foundatbn, nor bow it was restored after its destruction by the 
Dane9> but that it was restored, is evident iirom its haviDg boen a 

second 

* Hist. Abbot Wercmathen. 1 f Stmtt't Chronicle. 



DOBUAM. 149 

dMtrojwd, dtlfiiig.the.imipttbc»!4f the Seoti wsOet 
Kkg Malcoko, in tht year tO?0« wIkiihuhi; pitti of the pifati. 
mtt wete rma§td by fiit. ':It seeing prokibk^ that the enp^A^ 
tioQ of Maloolm vms, in iba^e di^||ve«j fitarad to favor llie ietmat 
«f Wd^r AtbdiBg, wko, witb his motiRr, ssters, and praKiiNi 
aft i J ii j Hs, vas ^ulMrked, and lying m the haveo, waitiB^ wM 
and tide for bia vojra^e to Scotfand,^ 

The moakB, who neie ihas eapelltd from • Weamootfo, appear 
lo ^ave Cabm atfuge at. larrow^ wkicb probably becoming too 
awvded'fiwn tkia inornate, sent forth a colony tbat settled at 
MaUossy in ficotkndv but aoon afterwards returned, %y the orders 
al llMbop Walcber^and was -by him fixed at Weamiouth. Hera^ 
Wwefer^ Ibe BtuedkUoes did not remain ; . for Biifaap- Wiliam de 
OarikfriKS in the year 1083, removed them to Durfaara ; and 
faoi tbb period Weannoutb became a soliordiDale ceU to Iba 
■nnaitrry in that city. Its annual valae, at tb^ Dissoluiibi^ 
s— wiled to oaly H6L 9s« 9^. 

Sewaral reoudns of the.monastie boiidiogs occur in the parts 
: to tbe 'QtdT^ which is an irregdnr buildmg, only €Qtt> 
«f a towor, nave, and one atsie : the former is the moA 
, probaUy, of tbe ekventfa century, and is supported on 
heavy, low aeehes. On tbe north wail of the chance) is a momi^ 
■eat of the Uilloo family, to which a mutihued effigy of a mnq^ 
in a oont of nail, with elevakd hands, aud a sword sheathed at 
bis kA side, appears to have belonged. 

Monk WearmoQth has shared in the growwg prosperity of Sui»- 
4arlmd^ and iu popnklion and buildings have greatly increased 
wfriui tbe last forty yean. The number of inhabitants was le- 
patt«d under Hie hite act at 5342; of these 1 103 are returned as 
saadea^s m the part called Monk Wearmonth town; and 4339 
aa islinbilBtiis of Monk Wearmonth shore. The* total number of 
\ was GQ3. The laboring class of males derive their chief 
: ftom 8bip4mildhig, and tU dependent branches; so- 
vaial jatds being esi^kUshed here for that purpose 

f llif|im, E«lgsi'« mUx» wm married to Malcolm loqa «to their anivil in 
that country. 



a^ 0CRHAK. 

1 QbTulwbll Uiuis, a gigmtk tkdefion, md tivo 
xoinsy vmit discovefed about fortj^five yean agOi together with a 
^snall am of unbaked day: the hitter is bow in the po tnio a «f 
Mr. Wilson, of Wearaiouth Bridge. The ibUowing particuhrs of 
Ae discovery were comDsunicated by P. ColIiasoB, the historian 
of Sonsersetsfaire* to the Gentleman's Magaoney hi October, 17^. 
** A few weeks ago, a gentleman ftom Durium showed me some 
large teeth and two Roman coins. Hie teeth, be said, he took 
out ofthe jaw of a gigantic skeleton of a man, and the comm weae 
found ill a grave near it. The aooount he gives is in substance 
. as follows. Upon Fulweli Hills, near Monk Wemnonth, wtlMki 
ja measured mile of the sea, there are qnarries of Udm, wMA he 
tents ofthe proprietor. In the year 17^9, he removed a lidge 
of lime stone and rubbish, upon one of these qnarries, which 
about twenty-five yards in length from east to vrest, its 
cuhur.heigbt about a yard and a half, its breadth at the top fsaa 
near six yards, and the sides were slopmg like the ruins of a fssH^ 
{Not. la the middle of this bank was found the skeleloii of a hu* 
«aa body, which measured nine feet m inches in length ; the shs». 
bone measuring two feet three inches from the knee to tlK i 
the head lay to the west, mid was defended from the i 
bent earth by four large flat stones, which the lekiter, a man of 
great probity, who was present when the skeleton was measured, 
and who hunself took the teeth out of the jaw, saw removed. The 
coins were found on the south side of the dEcleton, near the right 
hand.*" 

HILTON CASTLE, the ancient baroaid reskhrace of tte 
Hylt&nSf is situated hi a pleasant vale, on the 4iorth side of the 
Wear, about three miles from Wearmoulh. This ftmiiy wasie 
possessJon of the manor as early as the tune of Kmg AliielstaD, 
and continued seized till the year 1746, when John HiHon, Esq. 
the last male heir, died, bnvii^ previously beqaeathed hisestateeto 
^is nephew, Sir Richard Musgrave, of Hayfon Casde, Cu mbw IaiKi, 
This gentleman died in 1755 ; but the GasUe, and needy afi Hn 
Cimily estates, had before been soM, under a legal decree, to dis- 
charge the debts of Mr. Hilton, AAerwardS| in 1758^ the Castle 

^aml 



mi Ifaaor of HikoB, wMi other lnids» were pufdmacd by Ito. 
Bo««t» idkt of QtoTgt Boww, of Gibaidey and mother of tbt 
Ime cdebrattd CouutcMof Stiitliinore» whote descendants «e stiO 



la a maoaacripl acoooot of the former proprietors of this Cas* 
tJe,aitbe pospevioo of theMosgravesof Hayton, it is observed, 
thai seireral naaMs oeetir in the pedigree of the Hyltons, lemark* 
able for their Icamiiig and piety; bat that those highly renowned 
tm tbair umrlial decdn are ahnost iimwnerable. << War seems to 
baie becB their pecaliar genhn, and recreation; nor has any fa- 
aiy baco More lavish of their blood b defence of their countr/s 
cHHe. Since the thne of the Conquest, it is remarked by the 
HyllonBy thnt one was slain at Feversham, m Kent; one in Nor- 
mandly; one at Mentz, in Fmnce; three in the Holy Wars, under 
fikhard the Fiiat; one in the same, under Edward the First; three 
at the bflttfe of ftourdeaax, nnder the Black Prince; one at Agin- 
eaart; two at Berwick opon Tweed, against the Scots ; two at the 
kaltfaof St. Albans ; five at Market Bosworth, and four at Flod- 
den FiekL" This family was not only one of the most eminent, 
bat also one of the most opulent in the bishopric. 
When, or by whom, lUton Castle was founded, has not been 
or are we acquabted with the form or extent of the 
tstmctnre, it having undergone several important alteta- 
fkm. Its present form is that of an oblong square ; the central 
|Nit is evidently the most ancient ; the sides are of modem con* 
itmctioo : its geneinl appearance is that of a fortified mansion, 
** The icn U t of the west front consists of the great entrance and 
defieoded by square projecting turrets, crowned with 
; parapets, which cross the angles transversely, like those on 
the old towettat Lnmleyi so as to ms^e an aperture on each face 
of the aqnare, fbrthe porpoie of annoying iissaihmts; the centre is 
t by dicolar tmvets; and the battletoients of the ancient part 
with figwes. On this front are several shields of 
Wfmtd so faitgalaity, ai to testify tUU thb front did 
Bitint receive tbem. In the highest f^ce are the royal arms, 
thret fkno de lb quartering three lions passant; and beneath, in 

K4 acoi^osed 



152 PUKttAM. 

^ ijUMfv^ed fow, Uie miaifi of .GKa>«tolie,: iMtptej, Biid»aiit, Percy, 
(^Ic, Couyers, au(i oakera. The oast ftopt has* an- ancient tonwer 
in tlie centre, uitb a square proj4»:tiuig fr^ot, witboat lurrets: it ii 
ornamented willi tlie arnis of the Hiltous, without quarterinfu."* 
The interior consists of five stories ( llie rooms are chiafljr flmaU, 
and, exhibit every symptom of neglect, Iieiog wboUy unfwiiiialied, 
and ill a complete state of decay. ,The saloon is the only spacious 
^rtmeut, and was oiice ^wiy omamtntied wilh .representafioiis 
of various kinds of Mu and other tigwcs. On aismaU eiuMMBDoe 
n/ear the Castl^ is a ruined .Ciia|)«), beneatkMdndi aeveial <»f the 
Ililtons lie buried, licence having bepn prqcitfed for tkit piUpoaei 
from tlie Piior and Convent pf Durham. Bisliop Gibaon mcft- 
tions it as a ** iiue structure, wherein there were Cbaplaias la coa^ 
slant attendance.*' • . ,..•*» 

BOLDEN is ouly of note fromi baviiig givea titfeito Uie inpofiB-^ 
cial Domesd^y-Boojc, 9nlled the Boliien Buke ixsm Ua frequ^atrcK 
ference t^ service within this manor. Tbe vitlaitls.lield. iMukf' 
severe t^nu^es, being obligefd to jUdior tbroe days :io ^acb >Mak» 
excepting tlie weeks of Easter and WbitsuMtide, atift tbilrteeu da^ 
at Christmas ; besides making various paynMols. 

^VHITByRN, a small village, situated on tbe MUtiiem laeeli- 
vity of an eipuience, risiog near tbe sea shore betmreeB SundeiteMl 
an() Shields, has, from its es^trenie p|casantiitss« becotae.tbe ns»- 
dence of several respectable families;* and among others, that oif 
Sir Hedworth Williamson, bereditivy Uigb Sheriff, of DuiiMm, 
who possesses a p9rtioo of tbe inamoir. The iftbonng. class of kh 
babitapts are cbieBy. employed in (he fisbiog tndei and gnoat 
quantities of fipe (Miar^ caught off the coasT, 'add eotivejed to 
the Sunderland an4, Shields markets. " Several copper < rmm' 
have been iomid at this pl^c^^ of. ^Mch the most wete Conttaaili^ 
ni/us, with tbe sun on tlie reverse^ and the words ^o^t itvokto^ comki: 
one of them was a.il^iaxentiiis, with. soiuething like « triemplMd' 
acc)i pn the reverse, .and these word% Qnwrptu^nri wrim : there 
were ^q one or two of iickuMs'si and as iwiDy of Maunanus'f J' - 

The 

* Compltte History pf Durham, p. 6ao. 



OUUIAM* 11$ 

Tbe wft^hote, iM^tweai <ke iiortb pier of Squd^IaBd Haibqiir 
■od SoutkShkkky ts bcN|Dde4 by lofty rocks, wbiqh mptaoD^ ««. 
tone 1 sii^Qial' and grotesque appearaiKe» p«fticiilarly about one 
inle Irodi the Suler VouiHf where an enomiDus craggy mass, hear* 
'm§ the name of Marston Rock, has been' detached from the 
oeaft fay tfai: violence of the sea, and al Ingh water is fifty or sixty 
yardi from the hmd, though within memory it was so near as to 
hate been reached by a pbmk. Ail the intermediate part faais 
been washed away, and even a large aflerf ure formed by the focpf 
of the waives in the body of the rock» through which sailiag-boata 
hwe fm|nenliy passed at oonvenient Aa^ss of the tide. Vart 
Bombers of sea-lbwl used to build their nests on this rock, and 
the quantity of manure they left was so great, thai it was colkeled 
at the c3q>iration of «¥ety five or seven yeaiB, and gciaeraUyi *sdVI 
for eighty or a hundred pounds. To facilitate its conveyance to 
the siunmit of the diSS^ a circular hole was made in the roof of a 
netm or cavern m the rocks, through which it was drawn in bas- 
kets. Adjacent to Marston Rock, are other large and irreguhr 
maiinrn that have been separated from the land, and rear their gk 
gautic fonns with considerable majesty. 

WESTOE is an extremely pleasant village, situated on an emi-* 
nence about ten miles from South Shields, and comniandiug ir fine 
view of the German Ocean. It cousists chiefly of one street, 
farmed by respectable buildings, and inhabited by successful m»-. 
lidme adycnturer?, who have retired hitlier from Shields. ♦ 

SOUTH SHIELDS, 

Thr second place in Durham, both with respect to trade and 
populaiion, ranges along the southern bank of the Tyne, near its. 
junction with the sea, and, together with North Shields, on the 
opposite side of the river, in Nortlinraberland, forms a very consi«' 
derable maritime port. The eminence on the south pohit of the 
hafhoiir, was unquestionably the site of a Roman station, though 
its name lias not hitherto been assigned by any of tbe learned an- 
tiqnaries that have noticed it. Horiley, indeed,* who supports 

the 
* Britannia Romana, p. 449. 



1S4 WEKAM* 

Ae opbimi of the Tftie fatving been Ibe Vkirm of FMeniy, ob- 
mrvw, tbat Ae Os^ r^frcr of thsit author nay as wall be tte 
«* name oftbestatiooac of the lifer's aBOntfa,** and tbatoalea it 
fli^ h does not seem to be naawd eitber ia Ploleaiy, the Itmeiaty^ 
(Aotannos's,) or the Nolitia. Had that gentlemaB, bowefar^ 
Ibeea fartmiate enoogb to bave een the Itmeiai]^ of fiicbani of 
Cireiice8ler»* be would have discofeved tbe ap|ielfaitkm A4 TYaow, 
and imdoiibtedlj reftrred it to its proper place. South Sbiekb^t 
Tbe prooft of thb having been a Roman station, are pootive aa 
#dl as presumptive } among tbe bitter may be nientioBed itssitiia- 
<an at the end of tbe rcNKi, named tbe Wreken Dyke, and its in* 
^avtanee towards tbe defence dL the month of the T>ne: tbeibiw 
aMT are esUdblidied by tbe Roman altars, coias, and other relics 
W that people, fdncfa have been dog up here st difiereot tiaiea^ 

Mr. 

* Firit piibltthcci by Dr. StukcU/ in the year 1757. 

-f M Cive me leavct** oUerves Dr. Hunter of Dorham, in t letter to Roger 
Oalcf Etq. daled M«y »7ib, 1735, ** ^^ attempt the recovery of One of the Ro* 
■MO stations in this county, both requisite for the aecurity ol tbe oavigatioo in- 
10 ibe northern seas, and the piotection of their frontiers beyond tbe rW*r 
Tyoe; thereby saving the great expence and trouble of building the wall as far 
aa the sea at Tinemooth, no less than three miles. I mean the near South Shtelda, 
at the entrance of the river into the ocean, and which cannot but have flourished 
liN the Ptnish Invasion, as Mr. Lelaod hat it in his Collectaaea, VoL IV. ^. 
43* -£ reiiont Tinemutha J%xt nrhs vastMtd a Dtms, Urfa wmint^ mki natut trwt 
Ostulnru r^.v. The communication there was with Bincheater, ia visible in ac» 
veral places; as is the angle where tbe paved way goes off from the military 
way leading to Lanchester, about three miles to the north of fiiochestcr, and 
passes to the north-east through Brancepeth Park, thence a little to the sonii of 
Brandon, and is lost in the euhivated grounds ; but appearing upon DnibaiD 
Moor in the same direction again, passing by Hag-house, and below upon Kar»* 
brass Moor, is very visible, tending past Lumley Castle, in a direct line, to* 
wards South Shields, passing about a mile east of that of Chester-io>the-Streec, 
without any signs of communication therewith. Two elevated pav e m e n t s in 
the river Tyike, the one at the west end of South Shields, tbe other on the nonk 
Mdoof the river, near the end of tbe Roman wall, proper for their safe hod* 
sn§ at different timca of the ebbing and flowing tide, fuUy »hew ita neccaar/ 
oontspondcnce with SegeduwuMy the first itatioo upon the %iraU. But anothcf 

milittry 



OCSKAM. lis 



Mr. Honleym^ntioM aaidlarfiUdihe 
wslcanwroftbetMioo, and !»iiicii Dr. HMrtor «ftawwb faal 
laDWKdtotlieLibnijatDiiiliaai. Tbe km^MiMi ww cftdfd; 
UA the sides displayed the usual sacriici^g iwaid^ aad a« the 
back was sculptured the knife. He also notices two othemotiees 
Chit were found here; one of which was built up in a quay «al|^ 
aad the other sent to Dr. Lister, at York, who published the «&• 
obboatcd part of the inscription in the Philosophical Tnuuao* 
tions: tins Hordey reads as follows: Dit Moirihufnsahaeim* 

pertuoris Mud Amilii Anitmini Augusti pit f diets htbam 

wterko oh redkum: another ahar, noticed hy Du Lister, was de» 
&aled to the Dejb Matbbs. 



Bilitary way» CJlHed Wrekcu Dyke, which passed from this stttion to the wci^ 
hu hathoito firustntcd the enquiriet o f oor late antiquaries : Mr. Honley faioiid^ 
poiflfeed oat its doctust very jusktyy over GMcsfacad Fell, wliere itpvieddte 
fttUic road, and a little to the west the Roman way, goiag to the tooth fnNH 
Newcastle to Chester-ia-tfae-Strect, and afterwards running through Lamcsley 
lod Kibbleswofth fields, it advances to the sooth- west over Blackbura Moot, 
and tkfoogh the to waafai p of Hedley. It comes next to Causey, a v illage which 
owes iu name to it, and from thence ascends a high hill, and tenninates at * 
aqnaic fortification upon the top lihereof at Stanley, the Seat of the Hon. Sir 
NiclioJts Tempest, Bart, who, I tm told, possesses several Roman coins fouad 
theieiiL This place, though not above three miles from ChestefMn-the-Strcet^ 
aod Ibar from Lanchester, seems to have no immediate communication willi 
eiihcr of them, no vestigia of any pivcd way appearing upon the moors adjoia- 
ifl^ aad being situated as Chester itself, at the termination of a military way, 
gives nc convincing reuoa to believe the use of each has been the same, name- 
ly, to guard herds of cattle at grass, for the subsistence of the two garrisons at 
So«th Shiclda and Pons ^Hj, and for victualling ships resorting to the first 
place : whereas had its elevated situation been intended to form a eastrum expia^ 
fUarmm^ then mast the advantage of paved ways to the next station, have been 
aeccaaary fior the apaedy convcyaocc of intelligence. Though this last miliury 
^ay hcais the name of Wreken Dyke, I am apt to believe that name is rather 
doe fo the way leading from Binchester to South Shields, espccialiy from tha 
authority of Ralph Higdcn, who tays, that Wfeken Dyk^ «r Rcken Dyke, 
pasaed from the west of England, and ended at Tinemouth. I dare not affix a 
Roman natne to thii cur station,- without the authority of Inicrtptions.*' 



is6 MmHAif. 

..u|o dialing i^lsMtefiMMidati^ 

Iff. i3M|^i* «*^iMr:tbe tuki»^ Hw moiiMciy, ami Mdliof tkm 

■fM castk waN, m tlie ycar.l7B9, wat found an altar wkh tke 

'IdOmfhgixmrifUhn: 

u O. u ' 

PRAII • COH 

IIII KINCO 

NVM. 

, Jovi uptime Maximf 

Aclita Rufus 
frafechu cohortis 
nil . Lhtg» 
- 1 " ' wm, 

*^ Od one side are Ihe prefericulum^ securis, secespita, and ox« 
liead;. qp the other a patera with festoons. Here was dug up also 
ft itpne altfHit one foot nine inches by one foot ten, with the fol- 
lowing iiitei«|>tion; the first line completely indistinct, and th^ 
^Kfond tery obscure: 

fYFVM CVMBA 
ARII . MPLVM 

FECIT CIV 
MAXJMINVS 

LEG VI. V 

EX VOTO. 

which has been thus differently read: 

CyTUMy CumUs 

tt Templum 

Jetit Caitu Julius 

MMximnus 

Legionis sexta vicifkis 

Lx veto A 

Cippum eum kasis or, PukUcwm ttviam kasiHam, 

"Wbatevvf 

* AddktoM to lb* Briuimia, Vol. III. p. 154* 

f ** This ioKriplion hu been referred tp Maximinuf, afuiwards ^mpcrof 
from A. D. 135 to A. D. 138. Hii fuU name wai Caitu Juliiu T/rw Maxi. 

mifMUi 



IW 



«• W liate f c r cemtnictioii/ contiDUes .Mr. Gongli^ tfttv 
fnAtmy nntteryi *• An.' inbiiltion imy W thoogbtcapdbki of te 
kf impeiiect state, it '€eA«Dljaicdbe»tot[is|riMe wbiiiiiift.ins 
d h to x w d, or to wUkfa it bel<mg9d^ m 6e^;Kt[i^ «ooi^uiMi tk$t 
faM w»t lihlieito be«ii admowledged.'* Ht tfteHrardfrrafieriit to 
S«itli Shiel<li; Mid remnfa, that wtnUefw «^ ome wc aAifit for 
tUi Itttiwcto to tktk noticed statioD, the diieofdy of tfaeae.t»o 



on all tbt imcnpciOM dwt inenttoa liioi ;* though Ami^» Vi<tlorfi|U« 
IwB oolf C. J. lftximtou«» without the aiiditton of Venx, . Ui« rank U alto 
•mittcd io thU inscription : Julius Capotilinuj, who wrote hi« life, does not^ 
indeed, mention his being raised to the command of a legion. He was a par- 
ticular favorite with the Emperor Severus, who, on account of his great bodify 
mno^ and activity when a comtnon soldier, plactd him aMut-his-p«ncM at' 
o«e of IftB guards, and ibtnisttd to hina dM charge of flBvaral.tlitilBrypoili; 
{pr •# Casaubon uaderstaads /acij etiam miUtifc * Stvcro gdjutus^ which aoay 
o«Iy mean that he promoted him in different departaients. Under his ton and 
saccescor Caracalla, he was a Centurion, and commander of small detachments, 
a»d held other ranks in the army frequently.f Under Heliogabulut, he wu 
•aly pronioted to the rank of Tribune ; and Alexander Severus made htm 
Trifaone of the ncw-faiaed finiith kgion; hst at las^ fatally for Uttialf, tf» 
paitrd him a commander io chief. We may therefora fairly coodude, that 
the rank be bore in Briuin may have been Centurion, or a Tribune, of the sixth 
legion : tke first under Severus, or Caracalla^ who spent much time on this 
Jslami : the latter, under Alexander Severus, who, according to his biographer, 
Lampridius, not only was in it, but lost his life in it. Thus the inscription ia 
l» b« mppltcd with a ccmnrial mafk, or the leuon TR, or TRIB; •and tha ^ 
kk Mr. Horalcy,t between the reigns of Alexander Sevcf us and Cba 
may be filled up with ojore certainty than he has done by an inscrip- 
tion ia Cumb. IX. barely from the Icttera P£TVO, making the name of Per* 
petaoosy who was Consul A. D. 137 ; and thus, without confining the daU of 
ilu inacriptioo to some little time before A. D; 145, we liave thirty years to 
mi^e in. If Mr. Horsley is right in his conjecture on two inscriptioot in 
Scndand, III and IV, parts of the wall were built Exvoto; we cannot there- 
foot be aarpriaed at seeing the phrase applied to other buildmgs besides a tcm- 
fk." Mriwutid, yd. III. p, «55. 

• See Gruter CLl. 5 CLV. III. 6. 

t Of Una daxit ccnturiatej, et cataas mititares dignitates sgpe tructavit 

I Britannia lUnana, p« §7. 



wsm WI6W piODMHy cmiVfHt oivr ise nfvr wicn 
nH «f ili iMtmMf t» bmid Am fini CkriitiM drarcfa •! 
prochin it » phoe of no IMe c o i e ye Dee , wid to 
liMPO bNB dfoofitMl wkh t temple^ ftod otbcr piiUk bidMiogs^ 
md tibom eroded bgr ti^ Ubendity and deretkNi of Maximintti. 

JB ^j fip t b fli ifc now m the p eM eMJo n of tlie Society ef 
of homim.'^ Mf. Ooogh't opinbn rehlife to the 

\ of thb statioD has been corroborated by recent disco- 
veries; as various Roman coins^f broken inscriptions, and the re- 
nanwof an Hypoemutf or Sudatorff were dog op here in the be* 
gftming of the year 1798 : a slight dravring of the latter b in the 
possession of Nicholas Fairies, Esq. of thb town, as well as some 
ftagroents of the building, and several coins; particularly a small 
grid ooe, in veiy high preservation, of Marcus Aurelius Antooi- 
ant* That the station itself was in beii^ in the time of this Em* 
peror, appears, observes Mr. Horsley, ** from the altar and in- 
scription found here; but I am apt to think it was abandoned not 
very long after, perhaps at the building of Severus's wall, and the 
station erected at Cousin's house, or a Uttle after." The ktter , 
j iypoii li a n it inaccuiate, at the couu mentioned in the note evi- 
doitly pmve, for Sevems died at York either at the end of the 
year 210, or beginning of 211. \¥hen the station was really 
abandoned, is uncertain ; but assuredly it was not so eariy as the 
time of Valentinian. The site of the station comprehends tevexal 
acres: part of it is now occupied by a boilding called the Law 
House. In the adjacent grounds, broken pottery, and fomdn* 
tions of bouses, are frequently dug up. 

Whatever might have been the splendor of Ad Tinam, it most 
probably very qoickly vanished after the departure of the Ra» 

* Additions to the Britannia, Vol. III. p. 155. 

f ** The following are the descriptions of t%iro of the coins : Imp, Gmdhs Anf* • 
(caput Cidudii GotAidJ Marti PaciferQ. Figura militaris statu^ iextra rgmum cUt 
portatdenSf Jinutra hastam — cirdUr A, D. t68.*-g. /). N, VaUntinianus P, /*. 
A^. {caput Valentiniani) gloria Rtmanerum, Figura militaiu, itxtra captivum 
iilnhu trakaijf Jinistra iaUram tentiu^^circiter A, Z>. 971.'* Hntkfy Uag. K«/« 
V* p, tt9i probably from tbeTyae MNfcuiy. 



mnt: efcn tenatiie watfecgottMi; and tke pt u mt , T| ' 'W *>iiwi 
•f Um Imts oMBt be aoQglit in mopt bmmkh taaictt. There-k 
BifleJtoqM iMit H orighitid widi die fabiiBitu wto i i wyiuim 
dbtTyne, «idl who, on both iMa of tbe rhitr, erected • ftw nt 
•enUe biit% or sheda, called Skiddsj or SkeOt, ehiKMl wifee* 
mdymtht Borthem dislrict, lo ecieen theaaebes fitM the eere- 
Blj of the weather. The te-fetched inftience of ShieMa bengitt 
con o| i ti ou of St. Hflda, to whom the church k dedicaUd, is um- 
worthj of a reonrk. 

ThepMeotiBpoitaiieeofSottthShidds has princtpally anM 
froni ite very fhvonible aituatkNi ^fer comnerckl putpoees; bat its 
■ppiai ■!€« k much dkfigured^ thoogh rendered extreoMlj flinga- 
lar, by a vast anniber of hig^i artificml hiUs, extending on tiie 
cart and south aides of tbe toam, formed by the ciaden from the 
selr<ioriM| tbe refase of the glasa^houscs, and the ThaoMs gravel 
that has been tsken up as bsNast by light ootKers, and aftei w> a rd s 
tmawu oat near the dver^ banks. Some of Hie hiUs are bulk 
apoo; and have a very curtous aspect when viewed from the south 
as the road near Westoe. Most of the streets are narrow, and 
iacoaveMcut, and the houses indifferently built, with the eacep* 
lioa of those in tlie Market-Phice, and on the Bank Top. Thk 
■ay be ascribed, principally, to the whole town, three tiouses, 
«id a Meethig-Hoose excepted, being held by lease under the 
Dean and Chapter of Durham, a tenure by no means favorable 
lo onprovement. 

SooAk Shields was fbnnerly famous for its salt-woiks; aad be* 
tween sixty and e^ty years ago, nearly 200 huge iron pans were 
constantly employed in the manufacture of that useful article; but 
thk trade has been decUomg for the last fifty years; the mam^M>- 
toKTs havmg lost the London market, whkh k now chiefly snp- 
pfiod fifom the works at LiverpooL The numberof pans now em^ 
ptoyed for making salt in thk town, k only nine : these are sop- 
pied with sea-water from reservoirs filled by the tide, and the 
water bekg evaporated by boiling, the salt remains, and k alleN 
wards refined for use. The graand formerly occupied by the 
paaa^ has been converted into yards and docks for building and 

repairing 



w ya irii^; ahi|>s; aod fiom ShMdft Hubonr (or Tyncmeath Ht* 
yee) bdng.tke great readfeevoiis for the aftiippHig taioeB v^ nr the 
€m1 trade, these docks are coottuiUy empteyed : thediyJdodcs, 
Hhich are itioe in wmA^eri ase ceoveoicoty and saflkieDtiy capih 
dons for thirteen teasek. Another princ^Ml bnuich of trade 
arises from the glassHvotks: here are three ghM-houset for iM 
jBMnu&ctore of erovn glass ; four, for that of bottles; and one 
white ghus manttfactory« 

A new mode of bsurance, termed Mutual^ was introduced 9k 
Shields, a few years ago; by the ship owners; a oerOun mmber of 
wfaoim agree to lastwe a gifen sum en eaeh other'a ship; and when 
a loss happens, the suffiyer receives the amount insured on his 
ship from the other memb«'rs, who pay in the same piopoition as 
their own ships are insured : no premium is gtren; the cousidtei»> 
tion being, '< the risk eaefa takes upon the other/ These an 
caUed insurance CInbs; in some of them every mendber takes 
I2Q0I. upon each ship; while m others, various sums, from 200k 
to 15001. are taken upon each ship by the individuals of the so- 
ciety, who contribute to any k>ss, in the same mtio as their own 
insumnce. Speaking generally, it may be affirmed, that all the 
ships of the Tyne, now amounting to some himdred vessels, and 
averaging about 250 register tons each, are msured in this maa- 
ner. The greatest part of the ships registered at the Newcastle 
Custom-Hoiise, belongs to North and South Shields, and, besides 
carrying on tlie coal trade, are much emj^yed in the Baltic 
trade; and in war time, in the royal transport service. The sea- 
men and pilots are reckoned among the most skilful and expert in 
the kingdom. 

CkwsWerable advantages would aocrae to ShieMs, if the Mill 
J)mi, a small bay, or inlet, at the upper end of the town, was 
formed into a wet dock, for which purpose it would seem to have 
been naturally intended, from its convenient situation ; but this im- 
provement, which, from the vast increase of shipping in the Tyne, 
is much wanted, is about to be lost to it for ever, as the dam 
is now fiUing up by direction of tlie Corporalinn of Newcastle, 
who are Conservators of the river, and hold their ground under 

tlie 



the Dim •• . ^ . 

fPvgttjriBcnaaed, scared; anj timig bas bceo hitely tzpa^M by 
Uus body, cither m the pceservatiOD or improveiiient of the hai^ 



Ibeam^MsMiBB ia the tiade of SUddt was particularly great 
dn^g ibe laat ocotary; ami tokleas M^ or sotyyeaiv aiiioc^ 
the mmber of diips betongiiig to tfab totro is said to totvt beea 
ealj tour;* though they now amount to upwards of 500. The iu« 
i of popidatioD lenderiog a market necessary, a charter was 
I m 1770, by Bishop Trsfor, empowering the UudHtaoU 
la hold % market wecUy, and two ftirs aammlly. The niarkefr^ 
yhca is a spacioos square, boilt, with the excqption of the Cha» 
pd, whicb fmas the south side, about the ;ear 1768 ; the houses 
are mostljr food: hi the centre is a respectable Toum-Hoase, with 
a minnnade bcaeath, erected at the eipenoe of the Oeaa aad 
Charter. 

The Ckapd as parodual under Jarrow ; but wboi it was Ibunded 
is uuhiown; and no part of its antiquity caa be traced m the 
brnhBag, as it has been twice altered, and much enhrged, witbui 
the last fifty years. The mteiior is neatly fitted up; and on tbt 
dahk abofc the chandelier, is pseserted a veiy clcpnt model of 
the Lin Boat, presented by Mu Henry Grcathead, the mvea* 
tar, who resides m this town, where the first boat on tUs pha was 
iM i s t i a it ad, Tbe fiiUowmg mseripthw, coaunemorativil of the 
fiite of aa entire finaiy, is recorded on a neat tablet: 

To the Memory of Geo : Tsom an of Haitoo (io 

this County) Esq'** who died January 19 * 1785, aged ^t 

Yean, Also of EstiA hU Daogfater ao Infimt, 

AM of Aita fab Dangtaer, who died 00 the it*- Nov** tTM 

Afed'ttiCotoff bytba oonedlagialaeacaofa co mnwp tloii, 

Jost ■• fhs wai anerif^ H World in which her Beauty 

her Cendencaa, and arcompliihroeata would have attraeted 

nniwnal ertwm Likewiie of George John and Henry hit Sony. 

Who fCtanitBff from Quebeck were th!p%/rrcked 

On tht lindi lad oa the 17^' Dec'* 1797. 
Gsaaaa egad 19. Joaa ao* UmaT tS Yein. 
Vol. v. L Which 

• if utchioMni IKubna, Vol. It, p. 483. 



•f ilwtr tmmi^'m^ PiMflt with fim most Poiyn ntS o n oWy 

4titt«'d t Gloom over tht whole Circle of the neighbourhood i 

lor the plcMifig Expectatioot which the Manhood of 

Gcoffe htd already ooafirmed, theleta raatnia 

Tears ofliit Bfethan pi««iMd t» fdMH, 

Mo l» tiK tteaMffor M aOidrd FaraBt*^ lat. 

fiiMiaif^lMp«TaoiiAS who died Maitb. i% iTS^Afed i8 YmH 

This lloAttOMnt, theiad Memorial of no common derattation 

If cooaecrated by the Widowed Wife, and childless MOTHER. 

Stranger, if thou hast met with affiiction, 
Foofo 0^ Ae rapid IletlTQClSon olihia onn flDttriihitg t«»^ 
And IB coMMnqitrfng thilorrbwi of aSoiloia ] 
Eocgct for fr while China own. 



On the 19^* of March 1803 

having borne with the meek and resigned Spirit of a ChHi^M 

the tepMted depritatiotia of her Husband and CMdia» 

it pleased God to call from this Trial 

#f bar Fortiludt aod SubpaiiiMa 

Asm YioMAN^ 

The Wife and Mother of the above recorded deceased 

Aged 60 Years : 

by Wbdia Death tt» mAge df the existtnce ofthis tmilftemliwBi 

«a^ thii p«tff iCfltoofkl^ 

NmIt the. towfr of the Chuicby 00 the ouUide, w«s interred 
^ Oiithoif of Sir WiUiua Hmdtonr Km. ai|d Bvt. mm Io tbt 
Eari of AbenoffKi aod latofermil to Hfiaricflta» tha hte qacmh 
motber of our tovertigoe Lord Kiog Charies the Secondy that is 
BOW ofer Englaod^ Sec/* Ik died on the 28th of Jfune, in the 
yen 1681. In the church-^ard are sereral memorials of loDge* 
Yity ; paflicularigr arrecord of tfaedeatht of lUlph Harri^nh umI 
Darciif^ hit wife; the IbraMr at the age of oiiM^fuei|htt the buter 
at that of ninety-three; after ** Bvittg man and liHfe together, se- 
venty-four years.*^ Another bscription mentions the death of 
Mr$. Dorcihy Wauon, wife to W. Watson, Esq. Sheriff of Yoifc, 
who died m 1705, aged aigb^thraai having '^ lived to see the 
fourth generitioii, Io the ttumber of n6 chiklpn^ spmng froui 
Mmdf." The soutb-weflt ptoepatt from the ckuitb-yiurd h into- 

reitiD^ 



Tkik wqr ■ihriniHe lOffotiMi^.tbe LifS-BoAT»* wbidi hai 
' bwUhe,i»e«|if 9f BTMmi^ tbe eijinleii^ of lereral hiu^ 
\ in diffisreiil ptrtt of the kiagdom, owtt its origh to a 
ioctt^ of gentieiiieii, who held their meetings at the Lgm-Hoiue^ 
lentioiiid ai bMBg been esectf^ oo the aite of the &oiiii» 

Tbe ad i e B w iWBteuggeiledhylheatelanctolytoaiaf^ 

aew <it the Adfeotore^ of Newcastle, hi Seplaiiher \f^ who 

.dra|iped off from her rigging, one by one^ as she by ilMMM'aft 

iheUcfdmidj near the entrance of the harbour, <* in the midst 

«f iraaadbaa hmiken> in the prceence of thousands of qpccl»- 

lots, not one of whom codd be jpmaibdnpmi^ by ai^ snaai 

to ventsre out td her assistance, hi any boat or aoUe ofthaeam 

amnooQstnictioo. On thb the geotfemen of SoitlSi SUeMs (mA- 

wtHkermi(yike Mnof^AeoM o^ the IdivhHauafJ called a maeting of 

the hihihslHts, at whkh aoammillae was emomfed, and prt- 

wmns were oAred fer pfana of a BoM^ which sbauld be ti^hasl 

caknlaledtobnvethedaDgenof Aesea, paitienlttiy af bmksB 

Ifaiqf proposals were presented; but the p ta ft ie na e wia 

^ given to Mr. Greathead's, who was unmediatdy <B- 

ledeJttftwBdaBoatalthe qpencf of tba eommittce.''t Thr 

udBty of the new fes^d waa int eapenenetd on tha thotitii 

day of January, hi the year 179^9 when ft pat to se% ftr iha 

L 8 ^'ghnfens 

a ThU appe&itkm appears to bave originated with the cMiiBon people of 
JUaldsv wha, viaieniiif the impaiaUelediiiccess of the Boat in the pnaenratloa 
^itt^ ^ee tlmt mnt in memorial of its pre-eroioeot utility. 



to Sovland Bocdon, Etq. from the Rev. William Tumer, 
le tlw Lilemy and Philosophical Society at NewcaiOe-upoa-Tyne, 
in a ** tUfon of ^ Bvldenoc* ^c. respecting the Life-Boat," a small 
wneaAf pnltf***^ by Mr. Greathea4« by whose permission the fol* 
^oa Ibe « Coaatniction of the Ltfe-Boat,' an^ * Directions for 
t,' are cxisifted, 
•> Tkiengtb is thirty leett the breadth ten feet; the depth, from the lop of 
te gnowik lo dM lowar ftrt of ths 1^ la midship), three feet four iochw; 
\ from 



ltf4 vifmjkM. 

^^ glorious pmpote of reseiuq; wCrtnt uafoifimie noirfwn^ ute 
werar Ibe sport of the tcmpetl in the offiog; a nmnber of «sik 
jackets bebg provided for (be crrw» in ease their boitdtoiplMfaMI 
theexpectationsoftlie inventor, ami fiuMla 111 olgiet: hit Ike 



from Ac guowile to tbe plttfbnib ftfdkht} tw» Cm fbor IibIii; homfka tn^ 
of the mtmuf (Mkmd§ belag tUa&la^) lo tfat bottom eClhe l(cd, fivete 
nte inilMi* Tbe kid 1$ t f laa|i of tbcpt iocbet thick* of a piopoitioQato 
bttfftk io jaidabipty nanowiog gndotily toward tbe ends, to the breadtb of 
ibe atems at tbe bottom, and forming a great comrexity down%ifard ; tbe atrab 
ate atgmenti of a circle, witb constdenble rakes; tbe bottom aaetfoa,«otba 
ftbor-beads, is a cttrve foie and aft witb tbe tweep of ibt kailialeiaer ^ipato 
iaa » aaiaU n/f cnnteg fmm tbt heel to tba floor bandit a .bMfli ftaok ia 
woashainoo tucb aide nett the floor-beaday witb a donb^ rMii or groove, 
of a ttmiiiar tbickaess witb tbe keel, and oo tbe outside of tbia are fixed two 
bilge-trees, corresponding nearly with tbe level of tbe keel i tbe ends of die h^ 
torn section form that line kind of entrance obaenrable bi tba lowor pait of tha 
bow of tbe ishtngboatf-'caned a oMr, mocb oacd hi tba aaithi fawn^fbit. faiftlo 
< a i o p^ftbeatam,St ia mom cUsptkal, formhuga aaeiidanhla pnjeptioot ^ 
■uka»lyoaa tbe floor ibtadi to tbe to^ of tbe gmivrale, flaoocb off oo each aide, 
im proportion to about half tbe breadtb of tbe floor ; tbe breadtb la cootimMfl 
lir forward toward tbe ends, leaving a sufficient length of atnigbt a!do afe llh 
top; tbe sheer is regular along tbe atnigbt aide^ and mom tk ar H id lom itil the 
ends ; die gunwak fixed on tbe oOlsldc, ia tbrat iflchm thioht thtildm from 
'tbf undor part of the gumvale aloog tba whole lei^th of the r^ular abeer» cx« 
mndipg twcoty«ane ieat aia iacbea, am caaed witb U^j of cork, tix the depfb 
of sixteen inches downward , and tbe tbickncu of ibis casing- of oork being lanr 
inches, it projecta at tbe top a little without tbe gunwale i the cork oo tbe oou 
side is secured with thin plates or slips of c^^er, and tbe Boat is fKicned 
-w'lxha^pcr nails; the thxMfts (or seats} are five in number, iotHehmhdp < 
sequcmly the Boat may be rowed with ten oars; the tkiaarts are flnal^r i 
ioncd ; the side oars are short,* with iron tholes, and rope grommcta, ao tiat 
tbe rower can pull either way. The Boot is steered with an oar M each eodt 
and the steering oar is one third loi^gar than the rowing oar; tbe ptatfOrm 
placed at the bottom within the Boat, is borioontal tbe tcngib «f the madabtps, 
and elevated at the ends, for tbe convenience of the steeiamaft, to give hiaika 
greater power with the oar. The imcnal part of tbe Boat next tba sidaa, Imm 
tbe-uoder part of tbe tktmm down to tbe platform, k cmod with cotk; tbe 

whole 

* Tbe sboit oar ii awra maoageable, in a high ac«, thoa tbiioog oar, and '^U 
atrokaia mom certain 



US 

wtter, il rode ^rionipliaiitly om emj ng"V '^^'B^* ^ V^M^ 
^ the honor* of tbtiiotm. The wredi was approached iq sf)^ 
of the demeott; and Uie wretched crew, eqmill^ affected irid|^ 

JL 3 astomshment 

»bok quaoticy oC whicli, aflixed Co ibe Life>BoaC« it neatly wnn honclred 
wtigjhi : iIk cork .Mbpnlibly caBtfH»Mi teodb !• the b ^a y iaot.of the Bai» 
wkcB liaU •£ wtftTi if a good rfrficg wbca foiaa aloognde a vcMtl,* and ii i^ 
friacipal OM i» iMtping the Soot io i twtt ya ai tioo i» At iff, otfartat^ 
iMof Iht a very Ihroly and qokk tfiyofiai«i.to iwoirar ffom aoy lyiMiaal 
orAyiclwlMththenMy fwiftwr IfoitlitMfMof akivy wata ; hmt ftchwira 
ofthacoffkgthaadmirabkconaruoli— of4>MtBoatgt»ct itadackUd prai^OM* 
ocaoa* TIk cacU being liniilar, tlie Boat can be rowed eilher w«y» aod thia> 
pecnliaricy of formaUevialft bar an riiingover the wavat; tbe cocvatiMa o£ ibo 
heal and botlooi £iciliiatea bar ■o>amani in tnmiog^ and coairibalea to «b# 
CMtof cbe j te Bwy , aa a a^fla icioba of tbc ttcarfng oai bat an immadiala c|bc% 
tbe .Boat awwing, at ii warn, upon a centres tbe fine cntnnce below it ^imk 
in dividbif tbe. waoct, wbcn rowing iigainai tbem ; and, conUiined wiibtbo 
convcsity of tbt bottom, and tbe elliptical IbriB of tiM Hea^ admitt beripiiaa 
with w u ad erfn l buoyancy in i high aea, and to launch forward with rapidity^ 
iritboot abippnig any water, when a common boat would be in dangtr of> 
being €Ued. Tht JUuackhig or apraading form of tbe Boat, Irom tbn.floor^. 
bcndamtbafammte, gifiM bar a comparable baarii^l and tbe conti nn al ipn of 
tbe batadtb well forward, it a gaeal tnpport to licr in tbe tm; and it hm bean 
fonnd by aap c r ien c e, that Bo«t of tbiacomtmotion aie tbe bait t m b om fo» 
aowing .agaiwt tbe taibulem wavet. The iotemal ihallowneia of the Boat, 
from tbe gnnwala down to tbe platform, the convexity of the fonn, and the 
bnik of corfc wiibin, kave a very diminitbed tpace for the water to occnpyi 
m that tbe Ufo-Boou wbcn filled with water, contakat a comidafablylctt.q«iao. 
tiiyibnn the common boat, and it in no dti^tr either of tinking or ovettnre* 
m^ U may be p t mn re ad by tome, that in caaat-of high wind, egitatad aea» 
and bfoken wavet, a Boat of inch a bulk could not prrvail agtimt them by 
tbe force of tbe oani but the Life«Bott, from her peculiar form, mayba. 
mwod sM^t wbcn the attempt in other boau would fail 

M Tbtm Boma are bnilt of two ti^m ; one to row with ten otrt, the other 
witbaiiK ^ ^ cooveniaocy of tbote placet where a laiser number of banda 
cpmM, on tbe Midden, be obtained. Bach of these Botfp lequite two men be- 
tidet tbe rowcn, who ought to be acqoa'uited with the lets of the tidat where 
Ibe Bom it likely to be. uied ; theae are to itattoo thrmtdret, one tt etch end, 
ef Che Boat, clipped with a long iKvcep, for the purpota of ttaeting » for by 
iW Ibat bct^ m^« fofo-and-aft pariectly simUar, the rowt and itccrt either 

wty 



i99 sPMriklLlf* 

A0M'top|fly irtiHgfarfy 'OffftBtott ippcopi'iBtdy iMffowcd) tlong* 
ii^d'tljrir riiattflftd v«8«d, miditfbiiigrdugeiToiiitlietraiMa- 
Ahisab]r9t>tliitw«openkigto8watl<>wttaemupfinrever« ReOorad 
tDlife nod faopci thej were removed, aod coDfeyed to had, tothe 

nMpfliible 



tHf with ff^ad mtti bt I* -whom ^ rewrites, becoiaei 
driMTttMtbevMycaiifisltokjBep AoMn^mltofAitwiur. Tlietow«iBmw 
iiiAli iMfcid, wfeh thmr •«« itnif oirtr t& iroa tfaoH pfovicka wtth-s 
, wlrich «eablMlhi iwran, tawdty by fknig ibM, toiviriMMR 
i turrtagtliBBoi^ m ubi BB iiWw i'dfiafcpteimporti^cehibtokga 
In going 10 a -wicck. If ffow iImi^ih poiafc of luid fron which !• 
findi oiff tlM Boit cm be «biiioe4, it will he f^aad mdviohle to launch her so 
Aat the nvy hnd thceet at much as poaatble: the ateennipA most keep hU eyo 
•sed opoo ^ wavM or braahen, md WKoar^atheiowen A^M^IoiItt 
Boat, aft Ac vlau to diaai : the 8oik| «has aided hj the faiee M ikt o«n^ 
lioodMa oviar tfia wavict wHSivMt rapldky, witboot ahipplog asf wm«; Itio 
mdmuf h&n to obierve, tb* Aere is often a acrong tdhix •Of dMaaa aev 
unnAed vencU, wUcb rsquircaboth dltpatcfa aod care In Ihe pereoos emplojpw 
ad» (b«t the Boot be not danaged by Mrikiog the wnek. In Wtoimiog from 
the wPMk, <fhould the Hrhid blow towaid the laod» At Boat will come o« 
ihore ^(TilbMt Miy other efibrt 4hao tbat of ttaer^g. 

** Thoie Boala are ptiolad wbita on 4lw ootaidai ifak coloor mofo UMmcdW 
mitf i«lieviog -the eye of the apefltaton, ai their riaiog from the hollow of cho 
*a, KbanooyMher! d» bottom « at ^fiiat ▼smMKd for Che more vlouteinipeek 
tionof poiebawn; bot it may i>e painted «ften««rds, ifpicferred. Theoan 
wbidh Ae Boat is pioflded with, are made of frof the beat qoaltty, li it baa 
been fbood b^ eicperieode, that>a lovemh oar, that will dmta clean and ligb^ 
ii too pliant among (ha bi mfc crs; and if it be made ttroag and beaivy, fhe io%»w 
en tte sooner exhausted, as the porchaae ia nocesiarUy abort, fimm thair rwriag 
doable baolted) this ciroomitaoce makes tibe'firoar, when made ttiff, mimk 
td ^ preferred. She Is also furoMhed with pooyt, or ecu, which aie better 
cMciUifted than boat^iooks lo push oiF (vom soft sand ahioog the breakert, 

•• These BoaU have also, when situation readers it oeoesmry, acarrlafe, or 
t/dck, for the purpose of transponrng iliem fiom their boauluMtae to aha pobut 
ef teid nea««at the wmek, or «irhete they win be abletoheadfheaMnoatdi# 
reedy ; Ihe loHera of the trucks are made concave, for the p orpo a e of foHta^ 
them t>v«rq»tfrs, Or oars, bid hug e h wap i on fhesand, if it should not be ao^ 
liciently hard to bear the weight of the Boat.** THeao initructions are occom- 
panitfd by a ■crofig itcomme o dation for *« practiatog the Boat in rough weather, 
by whitfh vntMotf experience win be gained, and the danger liecome less, ffMB 
i^h n^'dl-grouoded confidence the people will have ia the Boat,*' 



Mratif. Jar 





«t lie iuKiiw, mmnAUkm<i[mttn^im9imn$ih 
Mil *1niHiiin " 

le above ptmd, tkeIife8o«ttaiiMMDiqpciMl(f «i- 
the InmHoe, eni, pmnmnlyt dufegetoqf cfite lor 
BilnKted, end oeoer, in a jiogle ioflbwcc^ fiiifed 
Tke iMHBber iof pesona aaood at tlw mouih of the 
hetwcentwAoadtluniteiidhad; anla^ 
have the wmi mmfioytii im tiM laa— jfiaii'it of ibe 
of its perfect ateMoth «' that Ite cOrk^jackaH 
ivUdiiaefe prcwrided for tlietDto owar ai a ptacaotion agMiiataogr 
aoddeot, have luog «aoe ceaaed «a bo tmdJ' Tbe «i- 
r fliiity of Ibfe veaari aaj^ iodeed, booasily eooDciMdy 
tmtk At d a ooaitano e ti its Jmbg beco naie tbao oooe fdkA 
mUk water, aod yet paf fonuio g its oflke^ and cooveyng the foe- 
acrwd sfnni over the Agiog billows in eomplete safety. 

For aonae jears» tfie infenoily and iahor of Mr. Gfeatbcad 
wave kj ao sasansodkiwitly rcioonented; for, wawng the idoa 
of iMtiutmipn^ when Ibe paasriwatino of bnman life woi the 
oljecty he nrg^ealed ia mamt hb invention by patent, asdl oran 
filHM and models, fiom which the UJa-Boat nnghl be 
by othecs. The attentMn of the legisfaUBre was at 
is^gthy h s w o iii , attraetod hy tbe.oelabrity and uacMness of his 
sphsir, and, on the trport of » coasaittee, appointed, in Feb* 
maiy, 1802, to enquire into the utility and originahty of thoii- 
1900L was voted hnn as o cwnratd by the House of Oom* 
Within the hMt thne or fonr yom, he has also been paa- 
I with n JMfda^im Aam the Royal HuawM Sodoly, om *h^ 
(fioostho Oorpontionof thoTmity Hoose of Dcfft* 
I; » fidd Modrfhso, and fi% guhM^ ftonthe Soda- 
1y of Smi ^one hnwd sod ffunens ftom the snbsndhhw m UoydTa ; 
<«fao also Yoted 20001. for eoconraging the building of life^Boats, 
ea di&font parts of the coast;) and duiing the last uKmtb, an 
AffuA diamond liiig from the Emperor of Enssia. 

La Oo 



101 »9tSAM. 



Ott m. HMOmir^ nmnimwli\iM fcgfaittfaiC— mitHtrflha 
"ffeoeeof ComroooB, liewMdBBiidllaei|d«iB«lMtbidlmi|gBilKl 
to him tbe pttticulHr tmitiMUba^ Hic Life-Bot; oawhidiiM 
ttatod, tbat bt bid conoeured the priodple of the ianeiitiQO, ftrai 
the propertiet of a iphemd, wbkh '^ if divided into qvfrtefii 
cacb qoirter is ellip^» and nearly P wt nib i M the half of a 
wDodeo bowl, faafing a cnrvatiua witb pfqjoding andf : lUi^ 
thrown into the tea, or broken water, cannot be opiet^ wx lie 
with the bottom upwards.* This iUustration is confirmed by the 
^ope dibted evidence given by Mr. Thomas Hindfrwdl, ship 
owner, of Srarborough, who observed, that '< The peeaUar m^ 
tuve of the curvatore of the keel of the Life- Boat, is the fonndi- 
ticHi and basb of its excellence! it regulates, in a great OMasure, 
the shear with the elevation towards the ends. This coostinctM|i 
qpreads and repels the water in every direction, andeaaUes the 
boat to ascend and descend with great facility over Ihe breaketi. 
-The ends being reduced regnlarly from the centre to less than one 
third proportion of tl» midships, both ends are ligbter than the 
body section. By means of the curved keel, and the centre of 
giavity being placed in the centre of the boat, she preserves eqni- 
libriom in tbe midst of the breabas. The ioteinal shaUowness of 
the boat in tbe body section, occasioned by the cosveaity of tbe 
keel, and the shear at the top, leaves so smaH a space for tbe wa- 
ter to occupy, that the boat, though filled with water, is m no 
danger of sinking, or upsetting. Tbe buoyancy of the boat, when 
fined with wat^r, is abo assistod by the cork being placed ahosef 
•the water hne." 

Oue of the most early patrons to the Life-Boat, was tbe Dohe 
•of Northomberiand, who, with distmguisbed liberality, had a 
boat constructed at bis own expence, to bt kept at North ShieUs. 
This has been Iha means of savmg many vihiable Jivos» as the 
wrwdis, fiom the situation of the harbour, fipeqoendy happen on 
the NorAunberland stde.^ Meariy diirty other hfe-bonto have 



• An extraordioarv instance of the efficacy of the Life- Boat, occurred oq 
thUsidein November last. The Bee, of Shields, wu stranded on tbe #fack 
Middens, nearly [opposite Tiocfnoath Caalle. Here, in the midst of rocki, 

nvhert 



OTMlAv: tOB 




I tan hidft hf Mr. GreMmit itko bn 

MS. popofeftly to atNnd to tbeir u ntmBti u n ; f»o of 
I W€9t bwlt for tiie Frim EogfaT of Dommik, one fer tke 
» of Kiuna, mid one fcr the King of Prussia : most of the 
I ne stationed on dffivent points of the Eoglisb coast. 
It has been mentioned, tint Oie life-Boat originated with the 
; at the Law House; to that meeting also the adventurous 
r is JedchHed for additional safety m miT^tinglfac eastern 
i of this kmgdom. We allude to the^/bitfia^Light« cstahUsh^ 
ed a few jssn ago near the Newarp Sand, on the Norfolk shoiep 
snd which was originaUj projected by Mr. Ciithbert Marriiail« 
a fonner member of that society, but now deceased : this light 
has pretented the loasof much property, and many valuabfe lives; 
The sen pmspcct from the Law Uouse, including Tioemouth 
L«ht-Hoyse, Prioiy, and Castle, with Clifibrd's Fort, and tho 
haven crowded with shqps at full tide, is one of the grandest in 
the kmgdoro* 

The popoktion of Sooth Shields, as enumerated under the act of 
1801, was 12,304; that of the rest of the chapelry, indudiog the 
handets cf Westoe and Hartoo, and the out-tehis, 605 ; malddg 
a total of 12,909. This, however, is sujiposed to be coosidenUy 
bdow the real number, which, at the bcginoiiig of the present 
year, viras compoted at 1 5,000. The number of houses in Sbieldp 
is about 1 300. The children of the poorer datsen reoeivie «duc^ 
tion U a Ckariiy School, established in 1769> tor forty boys, and 
twelre giris^ For the recreation of the more re«j)ectable inhaU* 
tmtM, a neat Theatre has been built ; and buba^ription Assembly 
looms are opened (luring every ivialer, 

Jf ARROW, anciently called Gyrviy, or Ghty, about half a 
mile sottfh of the river Tyiic, and tno uiilcs i'toni South Shieldl, 



; the so, tweUcd by a souih-ea&^crly wind, rau inqiuntain& IWgli, and fell 
in tremendous breakrn, the only refuse of the crew from iinn)cdiale death, 
W4$ to Climb up into the shrouds, i^hich they Tnstaiitly effected. Their dresd* 
fbl fiiuatioo bcmg perceited from the land, the Life-Ooat wm hdv« ooti m4 
i; tn^ intke count of aaboiir, tha^men vcrc taken fr<^ tfaetr periloiv 
•d landed is tafeiy at ^|th Shictds. 



0i msMtumk 



raflMftof mhMmM* mmt^pmc^ Aaatjkh^ 
mafymmUmg «f « frw mttn caM^gci, m wotkai ^hmdkpmi 
Hmtwmsot ^mmmta J. The htter vts Auikd about 41^ i^ 
tocnlk 3^ of Egfrid, King of NortkMnbMlaiid, (A. S. 6ftS^ 
tliioui^ tbe ntueoce of Bcntdict BiKapas, who hMl bcAte IndU 
Hm WMMilay al Monk Weafnoodu In the iith jonr after Iba 
l ai to f a tioa of Kiog Etheitcd, it was bunt by tbe Danes; 9md 
agib in tbe teftiitb ^^r of King Odbeft, it saftteil aiaiibir skh 
BeiBgatbirdtiaieitslored»|u-obaUy daaag the con* 
^ of the scat af tbe epinopii See at d^estefvle-Stsset, it 
«g«h btcaiae nilgect to iiMfortuae» and was Aeqaenllj piliegoi^ 
and bad under cootribatiooy diuiag tbe piOTinciil war which ^U^ 
Incled this part of fht Island^ when the Bmisb aad Saaan Sov^ 
awgpwwefeco n t c w dipg fM'wastefy: nor weve its woes yet at an 
and, fcr on Ae imiptJoN of the Nonnaas, into the northsw pada 
af the tingdom, it was once more destroyed by fire. 

Soon after tbe appoiutroent of Bisbop Walcber, who was pte» 
»ated tathe See by Wilfiam tbe Conqneror, that piekte kiited 
the nanks Aldwhi, £KWy, and Renirid^ who had iaed thaar 
aback at Miinkdie8ter» (now NewfCasHe,) and were greatfy e^ 
I for piety, to take up their vesidenee witbiu bis diocese ;ah-> 
I, that be tbougbt it preferable far tbeia to be under tha 
(aaenuBeat of aa Ecclesiartic, than of tbe Cifil ^pewar; ^ Haals. 
ihsslttr being, at that period, included in the jurisdiotiaa of tha 
Earl of Nortbumberland. AMwio, and hb asMMbtes, haaaig 
aceepled tbe invitation, were received by tbe Bishop with gteat 
laspeer, and had Jarrow given to them for ii pboe af i 
Here, according to William of Matmsbory, they feaad 
witboat rooft, and scarcely retaining any vest%es of former splen* 
dor :* these, however, they quickly covered with a roaf of mw 
helm timber, tbatcbed with straw, and agam commenced tbe ce* 
lebration of divme ordinances. Being joined by several bretbreo 
from difiereot parts of tbe kingdom, tbey formed a design to re* 
build tbe churcb, and restore tbe ruined monastery ; and several 
si4iaoent manors were granted by Walcher, to enable them to 
Adil thefar intentions. Earl Waltbeof afterwards enlaiged their 




wt 

OjVie^lBtff raOOMM lINIIJy vMI 'penVIMIIMBI 

i %f St. Otfirai 10 tiMk oM <gliibtiifaniit. 
:oftbemaet3r,tfterAe«EpiilMiioftheineiii» tnm 
t«4mRMi of tlietanlkrai: AUhm, wUi 
Hb MlMren» deputed to MfelfOii;^ Reofiid, with obother poi^ 
f«t Id Whitbsr, m TorbUn, (wheoce, aAcc t tlMt vetMoM^ 
Bflt mmj miftringi, they femofed to Yoifc, tad fouodtod Ao 
Abbey of 8t MnyO and BUwy; with Us aModttei, 
It Janww* BUop Wilkai de Omkpho, fAo had 
Iha grantB ov his predecessofy Waklicr) soon aflemvaidi fsittovad 
the amatcs of this csteblishmcot to Darfaam, aad theattefaith it 
was ody a cell to tint raonasleiy. On Ihe DiisolatioBi Ms *re* 
venan were valaed, aceoniiag to Speed, at 401. 7s. Sd. 

The aMoastaiy was dedicated to St PMiU ^mi approprielpd to 
the mciHioii of BenedidineB. Its fenttkis, toflelber mMiihe 
CbmO^^ecaffj Ihetuainiit of en elevated ridge, biitdispl^^ Iil4e 
worti^ of Dotioe, as might lie expected in a baildhig io faywiitljr 
dinddehid. Tlw wiadows wens sbmU and nanow^ and 
lariy eeattered at dUSMent heights : soBM idics of Samoa 
occur on the monldings of a round arched wiadow* The Chundi 
appeals, firoas the sitoatlon of the tower, to have been m the fcrm 
ofaeroes; but soaaaay parts are destroyed, that tliis «aanat hr 
pesitivdy afinned. The present edifice is fenned by part of llr 
awacsit biuidiags» conaeeted with a pardon, rd>ailt ia the yeer 
1783. in Ibe north wail of Ihe old stnistttre, cut on a stoae^ 
that passed quite tiiroughit, was an inscriplaoo, which Ceiiidea» 
and ather antiquaries hmve noticed, but wot aocuiately, Mr. 
Hutcfcaison desfitibes it as Mows. 

T. DEDICATIO BASILICE 

SCI PAVLI Villi KL mAI 

ANNO XV CCFAIDI REG 



CEOLFSIDI ABB £IVSDBM Q 
Q. £CCLES J>0 AVCTOR£ 
CONDITORIS ANNO IIII 



• Vide Monk Wear mouth, p. i47.,<^'^f- 



'The 



<• 11k irti diaiMterliaB ^en «iritled by >A Mic 1^^ 
piumm It » t oompoimd, fMut lor io ftfocHm, mad wfMm 
FrofiHeiur Deu9. BelowtheAM fine the stone k iMfK as if 
k Imd aufieped an obKtenitton. The wbok iMcriptiofli b « R«* 
num characters, except one Saxon E» and t#o aqoare or black 
letter O**; from which, and the shoation of the stone, one readiy 
' determines Ike inscriptioB to be ofeqoal date with the repaiss that 
were made after the Nonnans destroyed the monastery, aiidtini 
|l was only a modern BMaaorial of the antiqaity of the feonda* 
tion.'^ Since the lepairiog of the Church, ti|e m sa i p t ion has 
been repfaMcd hi a situation to preserie it from iqfury. 

lulbevestfyiscarsfiilly preserved a kirfa and ancient Ckmit 
fX oak, traditionally said to hare been the seat of Vsw BnABLB 
Bsra, the pre-eminent boastof this monastery. It b fery mdely 
Aime^ and, with the exception of the back, b uadoubtmOy ef 
great age; but there b no authentic testimony of its efer kaving 
belonfed to that learned writer: indeed, it b m the grcalasC de- 
free improbable, that this, of all the fumitnre of the monaatery, 
should have escaped the rspeated devastations committed beve by 
the Danes and Normans. 

The exact place of the natitity of Bede has not been aseeitaai- 
ed by historians, Ihougk Jarrow 19 generally oonsidefed as having 
that honor. That he was bom in a part of thb county, contigii- 
•OS to the river Wear, b certahi s tMit ttie precise spot b not known. 
Hb birth ococarred in 672 : when seven years ai age, he was re- 
eelvsd kito the monastery at Wearroooth, and under Benedier, atid 
hb successor Ceolfrid, Us mfiint mmd acquimd the rudhnents of 
that knowledge which has rendered hb menioiy immortal 1 not so 
much, perhaps, from its comparative value vrith the more useful 
erudition of modem times, as from its havuig k>een obtained m an 
age when almost every species of learning was shrouded by tho 
mbts of superstition and ignorance. When only nmeteen, he was 
ordained Deacon, and even at tliat eariy age, was regarded as ex* 
f mplary for his piety and studious life. He was now removed to 

the 

♦ History of Durham, Vol. U. p. 476. 



Oe mm PmmiuBim «t Jaifow, md lib acqaitemenlt npkRy in- 
CRMcd under the tuition of John of Beveriej, tlien Bishop of 
H^pMad, or Hc^Mm; by iriioni, at the age of thirty, hems 
onhined a Nesli prepaiatory to an intended journey to Rome at 
die mqneit of Fope Sergius, whose admiration had been excited 
by thefcpoits he had facaid of the iirogressof oar IHiistrions scho^ 
kr k the farious branches of learning. The death of Sei^ns 
p i e f ea t d l his going; Init that pi^rention did not exdte his regret; 
Ntiremeoty and iqoessant appKcation, being more congenial to his 
iadinalioDS. ** By remaining m hit mooasteryy and habituating 
himsdftoa reduse Bfe, he had safikient thne to make htmseff 
master of every branch of literature which at that period wai 
Inoan in this Isbnd ; and his acquirements were made uMioul 
any q)paretit desire of fame or promotion, but merely to render 
h imtif useful to society, and for the promotion of religion and 
vhtae." He died in 735, in the sixty-third year of his age; and 
being afterwards canonised, was enrolled in the Romish calendar 
of Safaita. Hb character has been thu^ depicted by ¥r3liam of 
Mslmshnry. '* He was a man, that, although born in an ex» 
ticne comer of the world, yet the light of bis learning spread over 
dl parts of the earth. All the hoiirs which he had to spare from 
tbemooaslicexerdsesof prayer, and singing in thechoin by day 
and nigfat, <in wfaicb he was constant, and very devout,) be moH 
diligeotly spent b study, and divided his whole time between thit 
sad h» devotions.** Hb works are numerous ; but hb Eodesaul^ 
cat History b mo^ known, and most valued: various of hb trea* 
rises on different parts of scripture are preserved in the Bodleiaa 
Unary. About ope mile west of Jarrow, ir a Ife//, atilt called 
St Bcde*s, to which it was customary, almost as late as the mid- 
dle of the last centuiy, to convey diseased children, and, after 
dropping m a crooked phi, to dip them for the r€Couenr of their 
hcahlis: ronnd the veil, also, on e%«ry Midsummer eve, was a 
great resort of the. neighbouring people, with bontires, music, and 
dancing. Bede was first buried in hb own monnslery ; but hb ro- 
lirs were afterwards removed, and interred in Duiham Catbedral« 

iatrow 



17^ ' SCEOAIC. 

Jairow may oomt he tanri^qed at fdwtrim to uqM>tMW% m 
very e&tepsure Colliery Inviag l^i^eii opened here iBScftedB^hf^ 
by Siinou Temple, Esq. wko lia» eBecled a iuodiDm mauMiQa ftr 
bifl own residence, siid a row of low boiuet, eiteftding io a riant 
Ime for upwards of balf a mile, oa Ibt NawcMtie lo^ fi^f th« 
abode of the pit-men» The celebratioo of the opening of tbe cA 
Hary was accompanied by a grand ftte, to which Mr* Ta«ip|e » 
]rited all the workmen employed in his faiioasxoncenisy fs w«U as 
fiiends, so that more than a^ thousand penoos partook of the eii^ 
tertainment. The fiete commenced by a piooession beaded hf 
llr. Temple^ and three sons; and the early part of tbe day was 
pused in the benevolent acts of bying tbe fooudationa of three 
buildings^a ScAoo/forGhiklreo,a5rfiumry for females, andaFsaer* 
loMse, and Hospital; all for tbe benefit of the families of those em* 
ffeyed by Mn Temple, and to be pupported at his expeace^ Se^ 
lesal ooal-waggoua were then filled at the pit, and conveyed op 
lliip4»oard, under the baanera of the South Shields Volunteer^ 
and a general discharge of artillery, with appropriate music ; tbe 
XBOiaiBdar of the day was spent in feasting and rcjoicii^ Tha 
foabave itf Uie best (piali^^ and the annoal reoeipts lue expected 
la be immense. 

JbiToto SkiMi extending oa the nortb-east towards Shields; and 
wniting witbtbeTyue, appears at high water like a capacious bay ; 
fcttt when the tide is down, it is left dry, and admits the passagjp 
^ caifiages round its whole extremity. This we are informed, 
by ancient authors, was the principal port of Egfirid, King of Nov-- 
Ihamberland, and where his entire navy lay moored. It has 
jiace been washed full of sand, and is not at present of any use; 
though various schemes have been projected to render tbe ground 
af service. Its extent from east to west is nearly a mile ; Hs 
iNreadth about half a mile. A smaU rivulet, called by Leland tba 
Poar, rising in the Boldea Hills, flows througb the midst of it, 
into the Tyne. The population of the lownsUp of Janrow, Monk* 
ton, and Hedworth, as returned under tl>e late act, was 166*6: 
^ number of houses 307 : both tbe number of buildings, and of 
inhabitants, have since, however, greatly increased. 

GATESHEAD, 



r 







L»»A^ nM ^, t t^r.,..^,t,»J t^ mmr- a*J^ f^.-^s^ . 



GATESHBAD, die GaetAeved of tlie SasMS, and aappoted, 
bgr GiBricsnd BMtov to be the Gct^roKitfiMi of tlie ftooniHi 
priuB^aily cottiitt of one kmg ^tntU tanging akm^ e steep do* 
eeai( and temoMfted by the Bridge leading over the l^ie to 
Nef»cMt|g, Hie etymology of its name has occasioned vaiiooi 
of these saffidently ftncMil: Mr. Biao4 
ems most eorreet, derives it fiom the Sasoa 
the heady or lerminatioii, of a military road, or wmy^ 
r in theae parts, b commonly denominated gak* Being immc^ 
diiiely on the Romna road leading from Che9ter*le-Stffeet, thete is 
acanoely adoabt of its hamg been occupied by the Romans; and 
thsspinien is conobointed by the diseoveiy of an am full of Ro* 
aHBoama^ oa widening the main road leading lo the^ IVne-Bridgt 
^ km yenia ago. .Most of the coins were distributed 
the wwihnsfw, and aie lost ; yet several of ibem, ia good ] 
lim^ of the Eo^Mr Adrian, are now in the hands of David flIOv 
ihsanos, Esq. NewcasUe. 

Urn ia a borongh by pnescripAon, but not privileged to send 

MnAeis lo Fasfiaasent. The csiliest hnown record lelathig t^ 

i^oecors in the time of Bishop Pndsey, and b dated ll64i, when 

imt pselate gpraated l>y charter, to hb burgesses of Gateshead, the 

W^rnlj of hb faest; and by the same charter, fiirthaiv ^Am 

0tk!MhmU hmpc h^ rigki of hi$ burgage simiUar Uhertm to ikmg tm^ 

Jgidly ^ taryeiifj qfNewentlU in right qf their burgagee; and 

Hpfrthiy shall haie firee passage within the liberties of the paht^ 

Mite with their foodly dear of all does and exactions." Sevcnd 

WjMidmg prslates had their keepers of the parii and casde here. 

Ib1M7« Hbhsp'Tamlea. granted a ehmter lo the company of 

XHowOk «Udp the hoeoogh of Gateshead; in lBo% Bblwp 

Mmtfaew bMapoiatod sundry tmdes; andm l66l^ Bbhop. GostH 

iaoBiposnlcd thesn into .ope oommonalty« Duriag the retgD of 

Edward iheSiath^ tbb borough was imited to Veivcastle; but in 

4k wnywfdii^ aupi it waa re-unitf d to the See of DurhaoL 

AevMNis to .|br act of the seventh of Edward tbe 9ixth, by winch 

OatsebesJ waa^mMpesad. to Newcaaile, it appears tern ^Isyp^t 

.ianab,* that the Mayor and Burgesses of the btter pbce, had 

obtained 
• VoL II. p. 4aft. 



kiiMtir^; Of ''Am^hiiMge, fa a Free-Skbboi; flMua Itt'tlb ifeiit 
1701, by HiJb Rer. Theof^ilus Pickering, rector of tfab'pirisln 
Tbe ^(^14reii educated here are taught ^f&metic and narig a Uofl; 
and the (^reek and Latin languiigei. ' - 

' T\it trade of Gateshead in less extensive than its fkvoonMfe ft 
tuathm would appear to indicate, and %i ihis respect its coAtiguit^ 
koNe^casdeis, perhaps, of disadvantage. It^ howeyer, possesses 
a^rfd mamiftctoriesi particularly of cast and brought hroo, wld- 
ting, &c. The popuhtion, as statM 'in the late returns, was 
{^74 maieSy and 4623 females; but these numbers are said to hk 
oter-rated; the houses were returnee) as amounting to lIOl. A 
jgreat improvement was bade here a few years ag6, by forming a 
ilew and Wide street from ifae head of the narrow and steep desceol 
^iJMd At Bottle Bank, and carrying it round in a curve fine to 
fh^ Bridge; by wfaiidi means the former dangerous, and, inwSi^ 
tier, afanost impassable, road fot carriages, may be entinef^r avoids 
ed. It is observed by Hntchinscin, Ijiut on what authority is wA 
Ittdntioned, that baniel De Foe itsided at Gateshead when he 
tompoaed Ui cd^brated AdvMures of Rcbbson Chisoe. life 
view of the river Tyne, and town of Mewcasde, ftbta the brow ik 
Hfe eilHiieoce a little to the noifli df the Hexham road, ^o the 
CMiteshead skle, is uncommonly grand. 

€fttU$head Fell; a bleak and elevated ridge, extAidbig boothward 
from the viHage, bas been iilready mention^ as'ftqiofis'feritb 
grindidoHe iiuarries. Hoe, fai the year 10£i;' a Vilstory wiisdb^ 
Ihhied by WtUbm the Coniiueror over the cdmbtnM'fohses of fid^ 
gar Athefing, hehr to the crOwn tsfScotlitod, with Mahrohu, khig 
of Scots, add some Dafatsh Piiates.' The tiohqneror, nftot ffiift 
iMlMle, marched to )4ewcastte, bid ahnost levdled ft with th^ 
ground, to prevent it agab becobiibg a flaee of trefoge 16 hii 
enemies.* 

Here lies Robert Trollop, 
Who made yon stones roll up i 
When Daith took his soul up. 
His b^dyiiU'd this hole up. 

* Brtnd's Newastle, Vol. 1. p. 401. 



MLVKMBIVUttlll CMVfaE^ r Mil «r Sir tkamii Iftniy 
liddd, Bttt Is about one nA» west of die Rivftr 1\eaiii, fioM 
«Utb the gr^ttoi genffy tises to a coniidetflMe extent The )^ 
: tntfoioo occupies part of the 4te of «n aneieril eMfev uMAi 
I to temre formed t qttddtafigley Inmiigt square k^w^rtfteMh 
ai^ coiaieaalbyacortAiwidl: twooftfaet6WeittfeMltdip 
fate offices; theotlienarepartly kiniitis, Mdfiiatiii^ with ivy. 
-fbe of%in <^ An fortress is oaeertaifi; kut, froM ittr gHMs, 
wytb, fa varioos old writings, fs ealted JCspcMy^Mm, and ita^MN 
weaAf BhttddoBOO, witb great proMbility, 'faiagiaes it to be Dli* 
Mb. Tbe standard of Ae Banes was named Aiyfbi; Imm Me 
CQ^jectmes that the term Aa^bis^/ke/ni, signifedihe Sliong4old of 
^e Banish stnidard; and Xifffbip^wea^^ tbe Dane^ woe, fioii 
some dirfeatwUdt that people sostaioedheite.; v>eath, fa'fhanoitfi 
coantky disloct, bdng expressive of sorro^r. In corrdboMioii of ^ 
npfaion of {tsaDttqaity, he obserfes, thai, <* it most faa^ beM« 
feitrcsB before Mtxj records now extant; as Ibeie isno hMise la 
eiAattk and kemdfate this house fodnd fathie BtshopTfl aicUv^ 
ibom^ of evet; other Castle fa Ih^^mnty there Is^tbatevidieaee;^ 
Die manMm ib fatended fol>e r^buft: the salobnil^paofau^, b*t 
th6 apartments aregenenAy smaB. On the north and west it W 
sbelttfed by a fine forest of oaks; tolfaeeastiteonmiaadsaple^ 
■■t ficw over Lamesley Vale; and immediatety opposite fa the 
is Gatcsbead-feO, wild and shaken, yet covered with a 
( of rude hovels, inhabited by the families of the quarriers 



la ie i if o fth, aarf some other amnoia, wcfegmoted, by Bishop 
i, to his nephaw Richard, to hold by homage, and the 
tofbaIf[a Knights fee. It afterwards passed through vari- 
i ta m kmrk of Ae l^Hmkys, wUflbhaosMeitinctfa 
masriad Sir Hem^ Boynton >aboui the o»mmtiw» 
mBstdfiha ii9«i ofHansgr tba Sevanlh. Tteirdti«bteraad 
hsbem maofad 8ir Hatey;GMoaii% jwhme demettfaat. SirWil- 
fcmOascB^, fallmiMyear^JiaamstibeJiiBlt^jaMitlorni^ 
«m LidMI, Asq* msmtar tptlbofaesant aamar. 



Oil the b«||lu Of the pem^t. abna qof mifo fi^ 

,iiviCb the l^^ U SWALWEI^L, a place fsunoiu for its tron-woriif, 

.rlwIUdl I wejK «rigii»My eflabfifhed here about iiie year 1 6^1 ^hor 

A(r.. .^Anbrose Cra«Mey, wba» from the humble couditioQ of a 

.epQipqil Uacksi^ht raised hiniself to afflueiice and oo|^ilit^, by 

bb indii»tJ7) ioventi^n, and, vigfmus perseveraoce ia promotion 

. the Jnidt wfid manufactures of his couutry. All this part of Djur- 

.faaait eampvebeoduig Swalwell, .WinUtoOy Wiobtoi^ Mill, ^igfi, 

.and L4>w» TeaiQy dec. may be said to have, beeu colonized by him; 

. fyf the ailnation bi^ig favoratde for the purpose* he reipoited hi- 

.Iher hi# manufactories, from Simderlaiid,^ and, by- the multitudes 

.0^ jworkmen en^^f^j^d was the district peopled.^ The varieQ of 

iffticlet.miinnfiK^uced here is immense; and, ^faking, in general 

ttma^ alupost every fi»rm of which iron or stpel is susceptible is 

bare pMMbwed* Aaohors of the hufest siae, mo^nng-chams, saws» 

.nailsy m^Utock% h^es, i^des, cast«kon pots, kettles, &e. are 

f jamoMg the gpods msmifactmied ; andoonicgied to the various dock* 

, yaofsy the East ^ West Indies, and mauy other pails of the 

^oildL .,The,b9gie friroaces for the anchors, and the whole Cyck>-> 

.Pftfi xnnymant emplo}ed in their fonnationi excite the most 

^ Jiii[e|y seiisatioi^i and the images, observes a modern author, ** coin 

. mved bjf the ininAabk Vhgiiy are heq^ justly tepresentod.** 

Acciplunt^ reddunique ; alii sttidenlia tln^int 
jEra lacu: Cemit impt'ifij incudHms antrum, 
Jiii inter sae, nudtavi brachia tollunt 

. ■ • • . • . , Ana^itt^ B. a. 

* ' ' • ■ ' i .' 

The goods mamifiutlured lwf)e,vare<coniit^ tatbeMetropdiiia 
vtmKkB behMigibglotbe (Wiipp^ ihat nim.caiiies.oB tbabiiiH 

^ ness, tbe'CVai0^« having become ealiBct m> the year I7S^. ' Hie 
iron imported m said to be doty free; Mf« Aoibrosa Ciawky bar- 

'ing had the addsess to obtain an.eiemptk>n:fraii toU» with other 
privileges for hisiiMtory^ of the Corposation of Newcastle^ oo the 
payment of 6L 135. 4d. anouaUy. His name is remembered 

with 



i^lb ttf Bcf iitkw i-aiid'rtyflt; ttic iggalrtbfcfl which he .IhmieJ fiiT' 
fSbt g««^nkh«fit of flie workmoi, aad the- eateblWiineDtft ^hiob he^ 
fcmMd fbr their benefit, havng been atlavltdi wiMi the mott oIm^ 
liry.eAcfs. The cod» of laws whkh be'dte^ up, with eertaia» 
anendtnents and additions, that have since b^ep deeil^ ,€3IP^f 
dient, teivi, to a^^ktab exl^nt, da|>efaedied thfc general law of t^e * 
ksd, and beeome kicall j established. ^< To put. those taws in exe*, 
caiioa, a eoart'of afbitmto^ (chosto fiom the superior classes oC* 
those employed) was constituted at Whihitony to be bot|len every, 
Im weeks fbr heaiin^ aotl detemuB&itg jcaaes amoog ibe workmeoi' 
to which aN hacve an appeal: the ^te are fixed. beyond innovation*, 
ai a moderate rate. Tbis iostkutito. has the roost happy and exf*: 
leiMve nee: it quiets the diftrences of the pc^le^ settles theiC' 
cUbbs )o justice in an easy and expeditious manner, preservest 
them from the expeoces and -distress of conlnioa Jaw, and the ooin 
sone missfies of s prison. As a further protection to dvilisatiDn^ 
8ch«>o1s are established at Winlatoa, Winlaloo MiH, and Swahveil^ 
f»r the sole beaiefit of the ' worknieiis* children, wliere they are in- 
atmcled to reading, writing, and accounts. The poor and'dis* 
tresKd were also the objects of the fbonder's solicitude; and)bc 
appointed a sargeoo fsr the idief of all the persons employed, by 
wliose tianely assbtance maoy ihres and liinbs have beeu preserved 
to the poblic. When a woduHin is ill, he has* nK>pey advj^Ked 
by the agent ; when superannuated, or diiabled^- he Ihm a weekly 
tnantenaoce; and when he dies, his family is provkied for*^ 
Ssoh^of the workmen is allowed a convenidnt houiOf wilb jpk»ig 
of cod, nndn small pitee of growid for a, garden,. Some new 
stsil yorhs have liAely been established beret 

WINLATON is sittialcd on a high lidge of bad, inchoiHg to 
dmP ejwca <suM»Tyocfiveis; ' Before the:i|K(<9di¥;tioA of the* iron- 
works, it only consisted of n few deserted cottage but now coa- 
tuM upwards of 580 houses and 3021 inhabitants jnipsCof whom 
are einpiayid in the manofhetare of nail% he WiHl^ATOK 
if lu wis arignmUy bnilt fbrgdndkit^sam; buti»iing beenap- 

Ma. , p^pri-dted 

* IIutchiiuoo!t Darluin, Vol. II. p. 443. 



184 l^UftHABC. 

terable, but so obscured by buildings, as to render it ahnosl 
Impractiaible to ascertain the exact dimensions of the campi 
though it appean to have formed a square of about 100 paces^ 
1¥ithin the area stands the Church, and several cottages. Many 
Roman inscriptions, and other remains, have been found here ; 
and particularly an urn, of an uncommon form, nearly a yard 
bigfa; though not above seven inches wide, and having in the cen- 
tre a small cup, imaghied to have been used either as a lachrima* 
tory, or paterae.** This, as appears from a manuscript note b^ 
Dr. Hunter, written on the margin of the Britatinki, was dis* 
covered by a ploughman, in a cavity formed by six upright 
stones, covered by a seventh, against which the coulter of the 
plough had struck. 

Several of the inscriptions, and other remains, dug up here, 
liave been noticed by Dr. Hunter in the Philosophical Traiisao- 
tions. Among them b a figure on a grave-stone near the church 
door, described as a man in a Roman dress : on this, which is rer 
presented in the Britannia Ronaana, Mr. Horsley's remarks are as 
ibllows. ^' The image is very obscure ; nor do I see how it can 
Ike discerned, whether it has been male or female ; for there b no 
inscriptioii, and the features are (juite gone : there have been two 
dolphins, one on each side the figure, which is somewhat peculiar. 
I doubt not but it has been sepulchral ; and that the image was 
intended to represent the person deceased.** On this subject the 
following quotation may not be impertinent. *< When the ancients 
erected their own tombs in their lifetime, they pf>en left the in* 
scriptions, and sometimes their effigies, to l>e cut by their rela- 
tions or friends after their decease. $o Corius, in lib description 
of a large fiineral vault lately discovered near Rome, has given us 
the draught of a marble coffin, with the bust of the deceased per- 
son cut upon the side, but only a round ball for tlie head, which, 
doubtless, was designed to have been afterwards finbhed; and 
upon dottier there b a whole human figtire, finished, except the 
be^d, which b lefl in the same manner as the former. And ip 

several 

^ GibaoA*! Camden. 



DURHAM. iSf 

ieveral of the uich^ made io tl]<p side of tbe momimeot which coiw 
tained two urns, tbe inscriptioa Js cut over one only 4 am) .that 
part of the stone which was found over the other is empty^ the 
parson being then lhrin|; for whom that urn w^s desigqed.*^ 

Among tbe inscribed stones, is on^ erroneously reierredy br 
Bvdiop Gibson, to Lanchester; though Pr. Huqtefs account 
proves that it was found here ; it is stated by Horsley to be se^ 
polchral, having the '«bgte word HAVE* for AVE^ as m 
Gmte, Have Mciitina suavissifna, '^ l^qe custom of thus saluting, 
as it were, the dead, or taking their last farewell of them, is verj 
well known, and it may seem almost needless tp produce any lo^ 
stances of it. Thiis i^ea^ bids eternal adie^ to Pallas:"! ^ 

Siiht tttimvn miM, maxumt-MU 

Thus also a passage in CatuHus : Av^ at^ut vale. Yarious othei 
stones fbond bere, were mscribed With centurial marks, and letters 
rderring to cohorts of different Jegiond. Several Roman attars 
htfe also been discovered at this station t one of them, erected fd 
Ifae kiqd God Vitires, has this iuscriptioif ; 

3Dfia 

yiTiJ8,i 

MXIM/ 

vs. 

Tbe letters, observes Horsley, *< are meanly cut. On one sid4 
of tbe attar b a bdar, and a toad on the other." On the face of 
aaotber altar, relerred, by this writer, to Korthumberland, but 
•ctoaBy removed from a bam at Ebchester, by order i^ Dr. 
Afootague, late Dean of DuHiam, and deposited m the Dean and 
Chiq[>ler'is library, with most of the above remains, was a muti^ 
lated tnsciiption, which he rends thus: Minerva Julius Onenim 
Actarhif cohoriis quarta Britt&num Anianinics votum soivit liben* 
tissime meriio, Aetariua was tbe appellation of an officer who 

* Cot. Monoroent |.iv. Aug. p. SQ. f Britannia Romapa, p. s88. 



med to.pfOTidecoro for the tiioppt^ Since the tnhe of 4he tbovy 
ao^qi^ry, several other iuacribed stooes and. altars haye beep 
found, and are repr^ented in. the Hbtoiy pf Durbauiy VoL IL 
p. 453. 

,^. Hutdiiiison observes, thisU the Great Roman I^ad, nbich 
|ed to this station frq^ the i^ihivardj it reina^ably pecG^ 
wher^ tl^e iudos^^es pf coi^mpo lands bs^ not been made. ** It 
is formed in three dLiiuct ^ts^ with four ditches ; a centre road, 
prot)^y for carriages and c^falry, fortj-two fy^i in ni^tb, vi'U}^ 
a narrow road on each side^ for foot paasen^n, twelve feet wide.** 
Some vestige of a 9qaaj» watch tower, be^v^en qne and twpmi^a 
to the south, have been noticed by Dr. Hunter. 

Oyer a deep and ronrantic dell, called Causry 6urn£, near 
Taofield, is a remaHmWe Arch, OMntmetid about the year 1729, 
to obtain a level for the passage of coal waggons. The span of 
the arch is 103 feef : it springs from abutments about nine feet 
Jiight and being semicircular, the entire elevaUiou i& {il^out siaty 
^t. The level is preserved by embm^^^Vpents of earth, in «oiw 
^ces forty foet bigh^ The expence of constructing it, is said to 
J^ve b^o 12,0001. Thb was defrayed by the Associates, localij 
termed the Grand Allies. The name of. the architect a|]|)f»ars; tp 
have been Ralph Wood, a common mason, who is reported to 
iMve built a former arch, which foil for want of weight ; and that 
a dread of the second arch experiencing the same fate, induced 
him to commit suicide. 

CHESTER-LC-STREET, a req)ectable village, pleasantly si- 
tuated in a Talley to the west of the river Wear, and on the Ro* 
ff^ Military Way leading, to Newcaftle, is suppofed, by Camdei^ 
fo be the ConderQ^m of the Romans; but, apparently, ftom we- 
suCcieiit evidence; no iuscrqptipu^ nor other d^ta, t^ipg been 
found to warrant the |)osition. By the $aM>ns it waa called Ccos- 
uastre;^ or CuncagcsteTf and uadcr that name became the episco. 
jial Se^ of Durham; Eordiijpb, th«n Bisiiap» having removed hi* 
ther fcom Craltc-Minster about the year 8&3, and built a Church 
/or the reception of St. Cuthbert's body. %«lric, fourt(i Bishop 
^f Durham, dissatisfied with the humble church of wooden mate* 

rials 



frbffic During the progtCM of the woifc, amch trmijnie ^np 
4imv«r€d»' which tU BishiTp Imis&md to :^ggraiulii» thefoo- 
omery of Peterbofoug^ wliese he lad beea a iboii)c.' 4ft<>t tip^ 
See ted beea vennMed lo Durban, Ibis plase, divetted ^f ilp 
«tale aad aathonty, became a mere poiochial redioiy, UU Bidiep 
Beck made the Chuixh coUegiate, and estahlisbed a Elffap,. vitk 
Mica PleheDdariefl, five Chapbiaa^ thtee Deacons, S^ ^ TH^qs jt 
<entinae<l till the Dissolution, when what was estimated in the 
idgnof Edward the iirst, at 1#61. a3s. 4d. had no higher valua- 
tion in the twentiedi of Henry the Eighth, than 771 tSs, $d. - 

The piesent Cliuiah is a handsome stone edifice, with a wnc^ 
fide odes, and tower: the base of the latter is of a square form ; 
but above the roof of the Church it assumes an octagonal shape, 
apparently more modern ; and is terminated by a yeiy elegai^ 
stone spire, one pf the finest in the north pf England ; the' «nlif!^ 
M^t is 156 feet. The interior is neat, and well pieserved; k 
eontams a sbgular arrangement of monnmeuts with effigies of the 
deceased ancestry of tlie noble family of Lnniley. The series is 
as follows: liulph, tlie unhappy minister of Bishop Walcber, who 
was massaesed at Gateshei^d during the reign of William the First. 
CtndMs filios Lialphi. William de Lumley. William Luroley, 
nil. Wiiiiam de Lmnley. Roger, temp. Edward the Pirit. 
Eobert de Lumley. Sir Marraaduke de Lumley, temp. Edward 
the Third. Ralph, first Lord of Lumley, temp. Heury the 
Fourth. 8ir John Lumley, temp. Henry the Fifth. George, 
Lord Lusnley, tenp. Edward the Fourth. Sir Thooras Luodcy, 
temp* Henry the Seventh. Richard, Lord Lumley, temp. Heniy 
Ifae Eighth. John, Lord Lumley, temp. Henry the Eighth.* 

The Deanay- House f now the seat of the ancient family of 
Uedwortb, is very pleasantly situated ; it commands a fine view 
of Lumtey Castk^ and is surrounded by excellent meadow grounds. 
The raanor of Chester Deanery is copyhold, belonging to the Bi« 

shop» 

* A very partkalar docriptlon of these figaxet is inserted Id Huichiiisoa*« 
Durham, Vol, 1I« p. 392, 



Mmp, And* iti jhAHt^miB very ottim^^ ;' ft hat' a eorod^r) atij 
^pi^ mniie to the ward. ' - f - ; . 

•Thi^ fiBage,* being on the great fMSt rdad froiki LobdiU to Edib* 
burgby and contigiiot^ to ntimerons c'oaf-Worics, IM fa^dodie pb^ 
)MiIou8. The township, as returned under the lat^ act. contains 
1662 inhabitants, and 959 houses ; most of the latter are 6f stbne. 
Th^ ntt chiefly arranged in one street, nearfy a mile'in 'length. 
On the ad^oinii^ moor is a race course. 

LUMLET 

« »* At Whikbill, Or Whitwdl, ift thil netghbootbood, it i blast fbmace^ 
,wfaicli makes irmMncul frois iroo-Mont,. dug out of pits lo the iK%libo«ring 
fells. These fells have beea very wioch worked for iroOi4tOoc, (yippose^ hf 
the Danes when they were in possession of the kingdom,) as appeals from the 
'great quantity of scoria or cinder which is found upon the fells, and extends 
many^ miles westward. The method in those times had been to melt the iron, 
ttooe with aharcoal in a lat^ smithy hearth, called a bloomery, and then to 
'tnotfMK iHtrtfa to mdt it down again, lod r«duoa it to btiwiron for all mitniir 
of country uses ; and wboo the vrood lailed, they removed their hearth^ tp 
wiiere it was more plenty ; so that evidently they must have blown their bloomy 
bpllows either by hand or with horses, or have known the use of air-furnaces, 

* as the most scoria or cinder Is found upon the high grounds, %i4iere no water 
cotdd be obtained. About three miles west of Chester, is a place caTled the 

,01dFumKe, where very Irttly wm to be seen the bottom of a fumaee heartlit 
ioeordiiig to the luoal mode of building them now, but of much amaUer di. 
meoaioos. They had blown the bellows with a waUr-whee), as appears by 
the cut of a water- race to convey it to the wheel from an upper part of the 

* bourne. On the opposite side of the bourne is a phce called the Alum Well, 

* from the water having a strong aluminous smdl and taste. The method of 
. mikHiff metal Is by puUing into a large fornace, abo«t 34 leet 1* height, aad 
, la or 13 wide in the broadest part, but contracted at top and bottom, « c^« 

tain number of baskets of coal or cinders, to a oertaif npmber of boxes of irqp* 
stone, calcined for the purpose, and a quantity of lime-stone sufficient to flux 
it : when a sufficient quantity is melted into the hearth, or bason, at the bouom 
of the furnace, it is then tapped with an iron bar, and run off into met^l pigs, 
or laf)ge vessels pitpa red in loam, (a composifkm of aaild, clay, fto.) fordlf* 
^rent vses, such as brew ing yeutiB, soap pans, mgiae pumps* ^ykod^s, cfn- 
nou of all sizes ; and the iron-stone and coal used here, are allowed by the beat 
judges at his Majesty's Warren at Woolwich to make the strongest and soundest 
cannon th^t air proved there."— From the information of Mr. Smith, a^eiit of 
these works,— '//«/tAi«itfa*j Durham, Vet. 11. p, 398. 



JJMLE% &M1I^ abPAt a nuk U> )be eail of €be«le^Ie. 
5t|fi^ i^ OQt of the seats of tbe E;ari.of Scarborpu^ It sUqdf 
w#«^^i^*Uy p(i 9 fine elevated sitoation, bounded od tbe north kj 
Lumley JB^. and rinqg gradually on tbe south, and west fr^m 
tbe river Wear: tb^ east front 19 near the brow of a vei;3r deep^ 
weU^wooded valley, through which the Beck wiads towards the 
river. This stately mansion forms a quadrangle, wHh au area m 
the centre; at each angle are projecting turrets, or observatories^ 
of aR octangular form, wliich overhang the face of each square of 
the base, and are machiolated, for the purpose of annoying assai^ 
ants : Ihcy, however, give to the general building a singular ap- 
peanqee. The whole is composed of a yellow free-stone^ which 
gifea a bri^t and beautiful tint at a distance. The. chief entrance 
to the Castle is at the west front, by a noble double flight of stepsy 
and n platforai filling the whole space between the towers: the 
front IP the aoQth is modem, and brought almost parallel with 
the tower^ being sixty-iive paces in length: the front to tbe north 
.is abarured fa^ offices; but towards the east, the Castle retains its 
mfikmi fonUf aQ4 bas.a^ most august appearance: its projeotii^ 
gatewa^r, comman^d by turrets, and machiolated galleiy, are bold 
jmi stitfly. . Above .tiib gate are six shields, with amv:)riai bea^- 
'mgi, deopty carved in stone, with their crests, cotemporary with 
lbeh>yiding; and which ascertain the date of its alteration by Sir 
Rripll X«tuiiley,.in the reign of Richard tiie Second; when he ob- 
taiiied liceiice from tlie King, in 132JI, as weU as from Bishop 
Skirfanr, to repair his Castk of Luip^ey, and to build a waH witk 
iKUtaa and stone, and to embattle the structure. It appears that 
the ^r^;ioal fabric had been constructed by Sir Robert Luraley, 
ifli tffe reign of Edward the First, and enlarged by bis soa,*Sir 
Marroadufce. There are three stories of apartments in this front, 
hmog muJiiooed windows, guarded with iron : a narrow space, 
ftr a terraoe, between the walls ajid tbe brink of the precipice, 
is gwrded by a curtain. The uniformity of this front, the ai;^ 
tingeiBent of the arms, and tlie uiiole appearance of its masonry, 
teitiQr this to be a part of the original structure, and a grand mo*' 
dd of the taste of the age. 

A beautiful 



t9^ #iyilllHICi 

tttttH^ iifttoihe HaH. At iht botMu df <to aWnue #bfcli? leads to 
lite hoi^y h 411 fine bason of watter, a salmon lock, and fidheiv 
Ifian^s cottage ; and on fttf opp^mite elevated land, the view of the 
iS^ftm of Chest^r^ the Ihsnttfrj House, and Cburch, compose % 
Rinsing distanee ; but the more extended landscape eomprehendfi 
Ae Honse of Flatts, Pelton Village, and the great Northern Road ; 
Whilst the back «cene diq)lays broken and irregnlar groun<k, it»* 
leripersed with cottages. To the kft^ tullinition brightens the 
"prospect ; and fte winding stream of the Wear ad€b beauty to th^ 
]^tQre, whifchy on one hand, presents the view of the town 6( 
Great Lnmley, and, on tlie other, Walridge, with the Hermitagitf^ 
and several hamlets in the vale. The distant landscape is tenni* 
rated by Plawsworth, and the plantations above Newton VkdM. 

The gteat Hall measures ninety ficet in length ; it is omaftiented 
with ft gallery for minstrelsy ; and ei^ibits a striking featuM df 
.«iic«ent thnes, feudal performencesy and old English mafondrl. 
A Kmght in AiH armour, on horseback, graces this apartment ; 
«nd the walls are decorated with an arrangement of iroagiQafy 
'portraits in the following order : 1, Liulphos. 2> Uchtred. $» 
Onliehmkk. 4, Sir William de Lnmley. 5» WHliam de Lumlcy. 
6, Shr Robert de Lumley. 7> Sir Marmaduke Lumley. 8, Sir 
)lalph de Lumley, the first Baron, m his robes. 9, Sir John de 
Lumky. 10, King Ridiard the Second sitting in a chair of state> 
Lord Lumley m his robes kneeling, above the figure R. R. H« 
An* D'no 1385, A^ Reg. 8. 11, Sir Thomas Lumley.^ 16, 

George, 

^ He received knighthood as a reward for his military proweac» and wu 
cmptoyed by government in several momentous ne^^ociations : in the tSth, taUi, 
and atst, of Henry the Sixth, he was guarantee for the Ring of £ngland io the 
Scottish treaties; in the 33d year of the same reign, he was made governor of 
Scarborough Castle for life; a most distinguished trust; and was entrusted In 
many other appointments of government. It appears that he was equaUy a fa* 
vorite with King Edward the Fourth ; for in the first year of that reign he ob« 
taioed a reversal of his grandfather's attainder ; had summons to parliament for 
the remainder of his life ; and was employed in various confidential matters by 
bis Sovereign, particularly in the ncgoctations with King James of Scotland^ 
touching his man iage. HuUhmon^s Durkim^ II, 403.* 



Oeorge, l/ni Ixnhiiy. 1^, Sir ^tbdnas Lumt^y, who marriell 
CEulielli, natural dmighter of fedmrd the Fourth. 14, John ie 
lanky. 15, Richard de liindle;. 115; George Luinfey. if^ 
EGzabctfa, daughter of John Lord I^ardy of Chiebe, and second 
nife of Sir John Ldmley, Who was reslore'd m btood the first iX 
BdWard, and had the ancient bar<lny restore<). Her father, George. 
Loid Lumley, had b^n attainted m the reign of Henry tlie 
SgUth, for joiiibg tiie itorthem tebels in What they denoniihatea 
1%e Ptl'gripiage of ^racc. 

The Great Dining- Rocnij in the soutli-West foHver, ih elegautQr 
tttRcOed, and has a vaulted roof. The view fr6ni tlie windows, 
eonmondbg the adjacent meaddwft, the hanks df the Wear, ttie 
canal formed by the curvature of the stream, and froui anoUier 
)Mntof the room, the averiue prosj^t, ^ith Chester and other oh- 
|ect^ are deUjgfatfaL 

In die Little Dining'Roojh are several fine portraits, particu- 
hwly 9rE John Lorp LuVley, 156S, a three-quarter piece! 
TWo other portraits of this nohkmau are in the Music-Room ; one 
dialed 1598, the other 1591. Sir John Lord Lumley was in liigh 
citation at Court, with sniall alloy, during th^ contrarily-dUpd-^ 
M reigns of Edward the Sixth, Mary the First, and JElI^abetlL 
By Edward, he was restored in hfootf, as above related. In I55i 
he was created a Knight oF the Bath, and, with his lady, attended 
Mary at her coronation : he was one of the noblemen who iiitro- 
doced the first Russian Ambassadors to Court ; and was in employ 
dttrifig the early part of the reign of Queen Elizabeth ; but being 
tospected of some intrigue concerning tMe Queen of Scots, he, and 
his father-in-law, the Earl of Arundel, with whom he >tas a grezft 
CiTorite, were arrested. Afterwards regaining the royal favor, l^e 
was again admitted into confidence, and *Wa9 one Of "the LArd« 
"Commissioners on the iHal of the Unhappy Qiieen in whose cau^ 
he had 'siiflfered ; and, to tlie surprize of his hearers, delivered hfs 
opjaiou, that the sentence was justly pronounced. He Was ohe 
also who condemned Robert Devereux, Earl of Es^ex. But, not- 
with^taodiog Lord Luniley's expressions against tlie miforluiiate 
Mary, her son, King James, bestowed on him'rtiahy niarks of royal 

condescension 



€oii(fe»ceiision 8od fiivor. Camdea affirms, ^* thai he had so grett 
a veoeratipD for the merapry of hja ancestors^' that he. caused mo- 
puments to be erected for them iirthe Collegiate Church of Chea- 
teMD-the-Street, m order as they succeeded one aaotber^ from 
Uulphus dowD to his owd tinier which he had either picked out 
of the demolished monasteries, or made new.* Thi^ NobleniaB 
had collected an extensive library, with the assbtance of the celcK 
brated antiquary, Humphrey Lbuyd^ The books were afterwards 
purchased by James the First, and form, according to Grangei^ 
a very valuable part of tlie British Museum. 

In this room is also a portrait of Joanna Fitz-Alan, first 
wife of John Lord Lumley, and daughter of Henry, Eari of 
Arundel. She is clotlied in a black dress, gracefully ornamented 
with strings of jewels. Her learning was uncommon ; she trans- 
slated the Ipbigenia of Euripides into English, and some of the 
orations of Isocrates mto Laim : the M$S. of the latter, in her own 
writing, are preserved in the Royal Library at Westminster. She 
was mterred in tlie chancel of the church at Cheam, in Surrey. 

In tlie Music-Room is a fine fuU-length of Thomas Ratclifjv 
Earl of Sussex, arrayed in while armour, and gold brocade 
breeches : in hb right hand is a staff; his left is resting upou a 
nvord : near him, on a table, is phiced hb helmet, with an enoiv 
mous plume. This Nobleman seems to have been a favorite both 
with Mary and Elirabeth ; and was, in both reigns, Lord-Deputy 
of Ireland. By Mary be was also appointed President of the 
North ; and in that capacity he suppressed the rebellion of thp 
Earls of Northumberland and Westmoreland. In the rdgn of 
£li2abeth, he was the spirited rival of Leicester ; but hb death d^ 
termined the contention. 

Robert, Earl of Salisbury, Minbter in the last years of 
Elizabeth, and first of James the First. He is dressed in blacky 
with the George suspended from lib neck by a green ribband. 
Above his head is the motto, Sero sed serio ; and on a table, a let* 
ter directed to him by all his titles. 

In the Drawing-Room is a fine three-quarter length, on wood, of 
Anprew DoRiA ; with the inscription. Pater pairiit. He is 

portrayed 



tmwMr^ ids 

p«tii|td fcl biMJc, hfM a eq> mi his head, t loq; liearf, nii 
Iw neck, a cottv «f the order erf the Fkece, pendant; a 
\ m hu hand, and a digger m hk girdle. Dork was tt 
Oeooeae fiunify, " and appears literally to hate beeii 
a Mrribr hy frtuftuUm^ hanog been equalfy engaged for and 
agVDit Fiaocis the First, and Charles the Fifth, to both of whom 
he ncccsriTdy prated of service and injury. He nobly refused 
the s o feie ignty of hb own country, and preferred to have his name 
neoided u its deliverer, by reptessmg the conspiracy of Le^ de 
Fnoo. He died at Genoa 1560,^^94." 

Sir AiTTHOify BbowhBi Master of the Horse to Heniy the 
TIM, aad one of the eaecotois to his will. This is a very curt' 
oas half length. He is portrayed with a busby beard, a bonnetf 
and tte iuignia of the order of the Garter. 

Sia GaoRoa Savillb, afianoed to the Lumleys by the mar** 
nge of bis sister Baibara with Richard lale Lord Scarborough, 
vboae second son inherits the SalHle estates, and bears the fa> 
■dyauna. 

Labt Stdnbt ; Holbein, tliis lady was daughter to Secret 
tsiy WaW^faam, and wife to Robert, £arl of Essei. 
s HiiTBT HoWAXD, Earl of Surry, half lengdi. This accom^ 
pahed naMeman was among the numerous victims who iUl hf 
tt^etyramiyofHeiiiy the E^h. The suspicion of the Mmlarch 
wsscxdted by baa having quarteted the arms of Edwaitl the Con* 
Icaor with his own; and the crhna imputed to his chirgefrom 
Ihat simple act, was aspiring to the throne: for this he was eon;*' 
dsaned, and beheaded, is the year 154<t 

BoBBBT DUDLBY, Earl of Leicester; three-quaiiar length, 
dsted 1587. He isanayed in a very splendid dress, ornamented 
ailh a piolusioB of pomt-hM*e, according to the fashion of the* 
tioitt: round his neck is the collar of the order of the Garten 

Hbnbt Fitz-Alan, the last Earl of Arundel of that name. 
This nobleman greatly distinguished himself by liis valor 19 lha< 
RigD of Uaniy the Eighth, when he ran with lus squadron ekiae 
iadcr the waUaof Booiogpie, and quicUy oecastoned its surr^dcr. 
Attsched to the Princess Mary by the ties of teligioo, be was 
•VoL.V. MABCHr N partlcuhrly ' 



lit »immM* 

^rriflffhrir tnrtrmriiiitil' ia fAnhT uMH^thk ttMiei,aaA'«M 

p|^e4. biiQ* in Iba Qhma's favor, he cetifed l«^ FrvicQ. Ob bk 
lelum from that covau;^, ha ntiodifeed (he me of ftoecfaMiat* 
^bnd. H« di^ ib llie year 1 A79» 

. Vadoua other portraits am scattered thiough diffemit apart* 
maots; but Ihc *' curioui old picture of Chaucer*" aMatiooadb|r 
I^. Stukek^y in his Iter Boieale» a* Imog preeerved ia tbii Cm^ 
tie, is not oow to be found.* . / . 

B^efa qt^ aid two uiilet noitlKMlwaid from Lmtiey Cas* 
tK i*^ W c^leiifted situatioii on (he oovlh baok of the Weif, i 
|4Jd«T0N JMdJU £»rMwijF called Harraloo Hall, the 
dence of Lady Anne l^M^toii, who ooeapies il im rifht «f faec 
eldest sen, a laiaor* This ei^te was aaeienUy the seal; ef the 
lyArc^i wba coqveyed it to the Hedmattht the last mak lin9 
^wbich AoMbP died i» the year ]6S8t katiagtvo daoghtem coi^ 
heiresses; one of whom married Ralph Lambtoo, Esq. .a^aaafat' 
bs|B^ ofM^Iia«ibMMs,.of tambtoB HMy o/t the oppOHfta Me 
of the Wear: the other miMmd Sit William WiUjimaai^ But; 
^ Mouk^Weamiouths hut her moiety was pmrhaarri %. Wifiam 
Xipihtoq» Esq. b t7Us and the whale estate haa iMfli thai pan 
xkxl vsmaioed.io the fimiily. The kte WtUiMn Henry Ijmdnii^ 
who died of « ^onsumplioK nt Pisa» in Italy, m the year 1796^ 
im one of the most astkndUe of human hv^; and tbongk 
snatciied frnm (he world nt the early 1^ of thirty^wo, had diai- 
played so many illustrioi|M|uaiite^ that his memoiy will fie cha^ 
rjUhad as lei^ as virtue cootimiea to he ia|)eetad. The Hai is a 
laodem buildiagi erected by Boeoai, but diqrfays coandenMa* 
incmvmitief both m its das^ and aiacnliaii. llieLihiaiyian 

well' 

♦ The Ibnowing anecdote is elated by Mr. Pcnnim. «• When Jama the 
ntm, la «ne of his pi^csses, vm encemined in this Ctstfe, Winism Jtmct 
Btakep of Darhsm, • ntetioii of Ae boiiee, In onler to give hit hfajesty » 
Sde»oitheiaipoitsm» of tht faaillf, wMtwd Im widui iMgi dRatt of dieif 
ancestry^ to • period c? ca baynood UUef ^-«< Q, noo^'* said iho Kji^ 
*png M farther i kt me digest the luiiwicdge I ha ^^aUicd J ibr,hywyi>u^ 
I did oa ken Adam'a aamc was Lumley/* 



wot pN^OTHMKi^ qvNHmflgMnr tp0iiiKii% inni II aof gflRij 
goim toofid Ht feMMM ft 1^ tfdecdoi <if liutliors, if faffaniSUd 
I11M14 fe# Afiiiijf paiiiiki^ Mtf M^ong fMm n ftl^ibllltegUi 
yoriMif •r tile IM OeneMl 3onK LiIMbton, b3r Sir JoAehi 
IU^imMs. Cte gittoA tre pktesadt; fllid tB« tUte tBMu^ a 
ka&gilig1lf«6d 61I tll« MitlWMi tMnk ottttt'WtfAt, tthtitkhf b^u- 
AM. A MdhkMt enisfs, ttal «i Midttnotrt mdtiti, tt serp^ 
iritfdi idftsfed the ifver Msr rtift ftpot, WiU d^stroyMl b^ one of 
Ike UmAAofO, by iiMiifls of ft co*t of Hi2ord; aa<f n ntmilKted 
iHlae, or effigy, h poidted oift By the ttifgM-, td give dedieitfe 
to the fide. A eonka! ettinerioe in the ne^UbouHioO<f b aNo 
fitted Worta^Hill, with teferettce fo tli« ssmie ^toiy; bat no ^- 
toRbof aoytealevetl^ott which ^ ootlM liiV6 b^ai fbiMM/tde 
to be BMt inn* 

AlMrt t#o ttM and a hM sotffh ftom Lmtitey 6a(kr/ Is 
tiOGHEN HALL> the desert^ itahOm Of Cart Ibbason, £^. 
tUisMt faatbrnmitieh cdebmted bytt^iaets, fbt the ^MviVjf 
ted ytcMreiqM bMuiy Of iftf * uMnty^ MM eeMiofy WHh gHtfl 
JkMttds 9 HMMgh'ttt^ tn^peeMd Mat^ in iMkJh the ^rotmcb hre tfibW 
lipf, ftid the Mhiig Of flie troodidf Iftte year^, not Ai di a M ly ^ 
HWI Acan Jb fiiflMi ehKMiL Th^ eftthtenbe on ivfiMf flw InB 
li taSC, b bowded on tile cast by de^dtA^ add on tli^ other 
I fldel by fhe fiver ¥^ear, wfaidi fhM throagh li low ir06kjr 
wMfa dH^nt degrees of fsp<dity. lit some phtdes fflfc 
fits perpeiidieiikfiy to fhe hdljfht of od^ htmdtt^ ^et; Ik 
the giMnd sloped gctftly to the bridfc of thefriver. tM 
liew of the laiMof Finchale Pifoiy, from tbeteM<« fbrn&ed A 
Aabottottof Acrchffyisi^hitefestitigaiidghiod. Th^sotftX^ 
emaspeet of the rodts was fonneiiy planted #ith vines, and Otlv^ 
Stot tiees* 

HIVCHALE^ a sedttded spot 00 th^ wi^fern side of the Wear, 
appcarr to have been a pbvce of some Obte id the S^iOn tiities ; i 
#^Mri bchig held here m the yes6r 79^> daring the prdrcy of Iti^- 
btM, BUiop of Lia^sfkme : another synod ^$ hetdf here hi 79^ t 
md, i»^peaiallNM»Lehldd, a tUrd, h the year Bla. ffr Ar« 
Wg ii Ba^ of the twelfth centuiy, it became the retreat of Oodric, 
I oitife of Norfclk, who bad durice been on pilgrimafeto Jerusa- 

N 2 lem. 



196 tTOBha^. 

, Idm wd, •a agj Bug tatlM ktgtod of Ui IMmft mudittcifd ky 
^ a.TifioB to retire hith^j^ wbkh baving doat, be erected a henoi- 
tlge and a chapel, and, by his severity of disci|)line« and UQcoin- 
. aaQD ausleritiesy obtained so much reoowQ, that be wfs adnUfaed 
inio the calender of saints. Soon aAer Oodiic settled here, 
M Bishop Fiambard <about U2d) granted to the monastery of 
I>i|rham»in free abns, the hermitage of Fincbalr, with its waterp» 
fishings, fights, and privileges, subject to Godiic's Hfe, who should 
.bold of them; and atlerhb death, that it nyght be the habitatioo 
.of anch of their brethren as they should i^ipoifit." The h^rmiCs 
, decease occuned in 1 170, about sixty-six years from the day be 
haci fixed bis residence in this retreat: ten j^ears afterwards (A. IX 
Ji8p) Bishop Pudsey granted a foundation charter for a cell at 
Fiochale; but it does not appear to have been carried into effie^ 
tfll II9S9 when Heniy, the Biahop's son, founded a Pnory here 
jbr Benedictines, subordinate to. the nionasteiy at Durham. Its 
josaessinns were ai^gmenfed by various beneiactionsiand at the 
•period of the Dissolution, were, according to 6p^, valued s|jt 
,1461. 198. id. per annunu It then consisted of a Prior and efgbt 
^Vf,oBkM^ Soonafijerwards it was granted to the See of Dttihami 
land has been appropriated to tl^ support of one of the Prtbendf. 
. The niin$ of Fincualk Pbiory are beautifully sitoaled in % 
)ow vale, bordering the river, which flows in a ciicuiar direction 
iMoeath the clifi^ of Cocken. They cover an extensive plot of 
gfomd^ but are so n^uch dilapidated, that the original appropqa* 
liop of their respective parts can only be traced with difficulty* 
The Church was in the form of a cross, but small, and apparently 
without aisles. The nave, and part of the choiri seem to. have 
been originally open at the sides, as the spaces between the pillars 
which supported the arches whereon the roof was sustained, ai^ 
filled up with roa^niy of a different kind of stone, and in an infe- 
rior style of architecture to the remainder of the building: the 
arebes of the windows that have been made in the parts filled up. 
fure also of another shape. At the intersection of the nave an^ 
transept, are four massive cohmms with octagonal capitals, whid^ 

form 



,. DUVHAU. IJf 

I «qiiad»aii|^6f twenty-one fbet.' These appetr to fiove sop- 
povtoil a Icvw tower «nfl*ipire* on pcnnted arches, one of whi^ 
«ts{k;Hb^ till wHhki these few ycars.bat k now fallen* In one 
eC the cokram fire the remanis of a stone staircase, that led to 
ttesape f stmctuge. The cloisters, refectory, and PHoi^s lodging 
seem to have fungeil on the sooth of the Jiave: the former wan 
rounded no area about twenty4btnr yards square. The refectoiy 
was a handsome apartOKat, nearly twelve yasda kt length, and 
eight in bieadth. Beneath it was a spacious vault, now part^ 
fitted with rublHsli, supported in the ceotre by fonr plain QcfagOir 
nal pillars, firoiu which the groius rise, and extend to the pihsteM 
in the side walls. The ribs are of hewn stone ; and the woi1iroaii» 
ship of the whole vault extremely good. Many parts of the mna 
are covered with ivy, and, in conjunction with the rocky banks of 
the Wear, partially fringed with wood, cynpose some intei^esthig 
landaeapes. The hermit Godric, and Henry de Pudsey, tho 
founder, are reported to have been buried within the chtirdfau 
VtM the Priory is a Farm-House, the appendages to which oc- 
cupy various portions of the ruins. 

N£WTON HAUL, a seal of Sir Thomas Lkldel, Batt. but now 
inhabited by the Rev. John Fawcett, M. A. stands on a lofty site 
between one and two miles sonth of Finchale. The Mansion b a 
plain modem edifice, sheltered by plantations, and commanding a 
very fine prospect of the City and Cathedral of Durham, besides 
other Riteresting views to the south and east. 

About two RMles north-west feom Duifaan, on a p lw M on t ciiii* 
Brace, rising above the river Bnme, or Browney, at BEAR 
PARK, formerly called Beawrepaire^ are the ruins of an ancient 
mansion, or pleasure-house, which belonged to the Priors of Dur- 
ham Monastery. Beaurepaire was originally part of the posse*- 
sioos of the See, but was obtamed m exchange, about the yeai 
1250, by Prior Bertram, wboerected a smaM house and chapal 
here. Hugh de DarI'mgton hnproved the buildings, and indoted 
the park ; these were pillaged and destroyed by the Scots m the 

N 3 wign 

• See View of f lo^haU Piiory in Sccvcot's Moniiticon, 



Ill OfTMAIf.. 

4fl%a of^wand tfie Stdtad, and agaiii b| IM ;tte li40, pteviMii 
|9 Ike battle of HewlM doss. At that period BeKnraptm mi 
IwU by Moi? Fmiooiv wbo is supposed to hsve lebuflt the hoam 
VIkI ebvpel. 4fter the DiMolutjoo, the mani^r mm appfopriuM 
^ fbe sopport of the Dcfii and C3b«pter, and now forms part of 
|ha Dean'i estate. The raiosAf the Chapel ar^ the most peifcet^ 
lad display some neat oraameptal arphitectum t soma remaios of 
^ refectory and dormitory ai^s also staadiiig. 
\ Bepur^iaire was mndered memorable from the drci|mstaaoa of 
9avid,' King of SeoCs, eaeampiog here with his army before tba 
arisbrated battle of Rbb Hills, or Nevillb's Cross,* as it 
was allerward» leniied, A<om an elegant Stone Cross erected to re-> 
$09d the vietory by Lord Ralph Neville. The battle, which waf 
fought on the sefenteenth of October, 1346, and lasted only tfare* 
kouis, was uuconmionly destmctive: the English archers, wh4| 
were ip front, %vere at £rst thrown into oonfnsioo, and dnvan 
bach I but being reinforced by a body of horse, repulsed their op? 

poneots, 

• s Ift the OWonlquc »f William dc Packuiglo», it tbe fdllowing narrative of 
f^riioUiffi s<»)c^rolas tl»'>* memonihlf ^og^gcmn^ " A^^^^ tlu* tymt, by 
t^ muac of yhilip ValQy$, Kin| of fnncp, 0«vid, King of Scottei, cslerid 
yn to the north marches, spoiling and bufning, apd toke by force tbe Pyle of 
Lydelle, and causid the noble Knight Walter Selby, Captayne of it, to be 
^hyne afofe hb ownc face, not sufflerinK him lo much at to be confessed. And 
yftrr he cam to the coste of Vyfh^m, and ' lay there, at a place caollid Beau* 
fCfMke, a Manor «f t]ia Priorof Durannt, lel in a park; and tbither faiQfto4 
9np>' ^ thu| cufi0(y a^ute^ comj^undiog with him to spare their groMi^dc^ 
flA mpup. Then Willif<n Soucb, Archbishop of York* the Couola of 
Anegps, Mounseir John de Montbraye, Mounseir Henry de Percy, MouoKir 
Rafede >?eville, Mounseir Rafe de Uastingcs, Mounseir Thomas de Rokeby, 
{btti Shtri^* of Yorkshire, and other Knighu and good men of tbe noitli, 
aiarchad to^vtrd the SooMta, and firM lay yn Akeland Park, and in the motm* 
ligancvusinvid witb $yr Wylliflm JOuglfa, killing «f bUbsad son mesno; and 
^1 y^iih mucb p«yn«f <fcapid t^ Kurrpalre, tq l^iqg Pavid, declaring tba 
^Taming of the ^nglifh host. Wber |hep Ring David issued^ and fougbte upoa 
a More ncic to Duresme toune, and there \cas taken prisoner, and with bym» 
^yr U'yl]i.tm Duglas, the Counte of Menethe, and the Couote of Fyfe, and 
grrace nunibrc of the communes of Scotland slayn. The King, because he waa 
V ond d in the face, he Ka$ carid to Wcfk, aitd thens brought to London,** 



tlMi^fMVfloM to Ike fight, heisMidtdbfti^regaMMI theBi^ 
BA «i4i ciateniil, m • ft# snd imditeiptlMi Im«>, hjr m WMiili 
oQnipeteol to reiist the power of bis more hardy Tetenuil. 'N«^' 
r, fcoght Willi gfMt bMvefy, or r«tfa«r desperatioo; for ht 
lo ttli quarter, aitd was ukfea tXm wllfi difliailty. 
* The Scotch KSnig, though he bad two tpeats hanging fa hit 
bsdjr, hisiegdeiperately woond^d, and being dbanued, hb sword 
hatkif heeo heat out of hk hand, disdained captitity, and provo- 
bed the Eoglkh by opprobriooa laagoage to kfll him. When 
3ohB Cop ek nd, who wasQovemorof Roxboroagfa Castle, advised 
hiai to yield, he atmch mm on the race with his gauntlet so fierof* 
ly, that he knocked out two of his teeth. Copeland conveyed him 
Ottt of the field as his prisoner. Upon Copeland*s refusing to de- 
fiver iq> his Royal captive to the Queen, (Philippe,) who stayed 
at Newcaade during the battle, the King sent for him to Cahis, 
where he excused his refusal so handsomely, that the King sent 
him back with a reward of 5001. a year in lands, where he himself 
sbottM dwae itf near his own dwellangt and niade him a Kaight 



The gromid where the battle was fiought is about one mile west 
from Durham ; it is hilly, and in some parts very steep, particu* 
lady towards the river. Near it, in a deep vale, is a small moaati 
or hillock, called the Maiieii* Bmoer^ on which ''the Holy Co^- 
fmtoL CMb, wherewith St. Cuthbert oovefsd the cbaliee whea 
he Qsrd fo say mass," was displayed on the pomt of a spear, by 
the monks of Durham, wlio> when the victory was obtained, gavo 
Botjce by signal to their brethren stationed on the great tower ef 
the Cathedral, who immediately proclaimed it to the iohabitaaii 
of the city, by singiag Te Deum. From that peiiad the victoiy 
^Mt amraally commemorated in a simHar manner by the choristers, 
tiR the occurretice of the Civil Wars, when the custom was dis* 

N4 continued; 



* ftymcr*t Red. torn V. p. 54a. For lome other particulais o( ibc Uulf, 
fee BcauUcs, Ike Vol. I. p. %%%, 



1} tmt ngw nmmi oa Ik: 
^ wjibiDtlietostfQttftMior fiAMMycM, The Onm t w dti 
1^ I<ofd NerOle Mood oour Die m4 tUk, but wm dtfiioed mi 
VokieD down iatbe year MI99; smne it«|p% tad part oftbahafi^. 
^reiaaio.^ 

. BKA^CEPETU CASTLE, aa irMSular but ttatdy pila, mm 
erected by the family of.tbe Buimers; mqU piobaUy dariai tha 
fudy part q( t|ie usurpation of Sleph^ wbta, to atreagtban kia- 
qm cause, he g^?e the Bafoae penuisMOD to baiid fort raa s es , and 
embattle their mansions, at their owi| cboicfi, EmsMit daiisbter 
9nd heiress of Pertram Bulmer, married Robert ^erill, graadsoQ 
pf Gilbert de NeviU, who caqte intp Enghuid with the Cooqueior ; 
tiy whom she had two children, a son and daughter. Heaiy, the 
9P0| assisted the confederate 9WH^ aglNlttt King John, to wboot, 

^ ** Op the welt ftide of the city of Oarbain, wlMrt two los^ past each 
pther, a mqit famooi and elegant croM of stope-work wu erected ^ the honor 
of God, ftc. at the sole cqiI of Ralph Lord Neyille, which croas had tevai 
•tepi about it, every %ray iqaared to the socket wherein the sUlk of the cross 
ttqpA, which socket was fiMtcocd to a large square stone ; the sole or bottom 
stoat being of a great thickness, vis. a yard and a half every way :. tidt atOMS 
mu thfi fighuh step. The stalk of the cross %ras m length thr«e yards md m 
half up to the boss, haying eight sides all of one piece; from the socket it wv 
^ed into (he boss aboye, into which boss the stalk was deeply soldered witli 
kftd. ' In the midst of the sUlk, in every Second square, wu the Nevil's Cross t 
« saltiit in a scuCdheoii, being Lord Nevil*s atms, finely cut; and at every 
^oroer qf thf socket, wns a pictvve of one of the four EvangelUis, finaly m| 
forth and parvd. The hoes at the top of the stalk was an octapgMlar stoat, 
finely cpt and bordered, an4 most curiously wrought; an4 in every square of 
the nether side thereof was Nevirs Cross, in one square, and the bull's head ia 
<he next, 90 in the same reciprocal order about the boss. On (he top of the 
koa was a stalk of stone, (being a croM a little higher than the rest,) whereoa 
WIS cut, on both sides oi the stalk, tht picture of our Saviour Christ, cmeU 
fied ; the picture pf the ^Jessed Virgin 00 one side, and St- John the £v«figt» 
list on the other ^ both standiog on the top of the bqss. AU whicfi picture 
were most artificially wrought together, and finely carved out of one entire 
icone; some parts thereof, thorough carved work, both on the east and wee| 
sides, with a cover of stone likewise over their heads, being all most finely 
and curioHsly wrought togeihei out of the saipe hollow «toiie, whifh COVfT had 
a coveiing of lead." pavu*s Rights and Monumptts, 



ki AcicfcnfMadi of Us leigii, he ga?e l6o maiks to be KttopBiI 
Id ftvor; and, as a pledge cyf fiitiire fidelity, delivered twoboaHiget; 
ami las eastte of ftaocepetfa, inlo the Kingfs hands, to be held at 
Ui pkame. Henry dying without issoe, in the eleventh year eff 
Hcory the Third, bis sister, Isabel, became his sole inberitiix, and 
was anified to Robert Fitz-Makhed, Lord of Raby, by whona 
At had a son, called Geoffrey, who, in honor of his mother, as* 
aaaied the name of Nevill: from thu marriage sprang the iamoui 
EkIs of Westmoieland. On the rebellion of the Nevills, in the 
le^ of Qneen Elicabeth, the castle and lordship of Bratooepetk 
hfcwift forfeited, and were vested in the Crown by a special act} 
hut b the eighth of Charles the First, they were sold, under tfaa 
authority of Letters Patent, to Lady Middleton, and others. Three 
yean afterwards, they were made over to Ralph Cole, £aq« of 
Newcastle, in trust for his son, afterwards Sir Nichofais Coh^ 
His 808, Sir Ralph Cole, in consideration of the sum of l6,800t 
and aoooHies on the lives of himself and wife, conveyed them, in 
April 1701, to Sir Henry Bellasyse, Knt wImmc graud-dattghter 
dying in 177^9 devised them to the Earl of Fauconberg. Soon 
afterwardathe Earl sold tliem to tlie late John Tempest, Esq. but 
they have since been paichased by William Russell, Es^ the pra» 
sent resident. The whole estate consbts of about 4600 acres, all 
of freehold tenure. 

** The Castle of Bcan^th,** observes Ldand, *' standeth on a 
lock among failles higher than it." This is not strictly aecurate: 
to the south-west, indeed, the walls rise from ^ rooky, predpic^ 
nearly forty feet ia height, watered by a small rivulet; but on the 
east, and part of the north, the ground is neariy level for a 
considerable distance: on the latter sides, the Castle has been de- 
fended by a nioal : the hiHs to the west are lofty. This Castl^ 
continues Leland, '^ is strongly set and buildid, and liath two 
cooftes of high buildbg : there is a little mote, that henimeth a 
great piece of the first court. In this court be three toures of 
logging, and three small, ad ornamenium. The pleasure of the 
Castle is in the second court ; and entering into it by a great toure, 

I saw 



(M>aftNeiai,tbe fimErk of Wcilttetfand, buikU imA «« 
m» liOMM» A.I>. 139A. Tbe Eiit tint Bov sif^ iMHb set a imm 
^tMtafwotktDil."'t TIm priKipil court, or oca, »«€ moo* 
Itogultrfefn; haiiiigthe blMiy of tke Cntkonthe aoutb^wtftl 
akk* The cotruice to the arm k on th« IlOfd^ by a yitewj dov 
fodad by two aquare toners ; from which, to the cast and weit^ 
a aaU and parapet eateadi, aod oooneeia with the Caalfe. Ba» 
Iweea the latta* and the gateway, on the eaal Mda, are two haga 
aqoaie towers, oommaBicatiBg with the wail, with pf^fSdhig a»< 
gle% hating a maU timet at the auaunit of each an^, siulaiaed 
aft oorhbs, apenat the sides, bat not in froof. ^ Fk'oni the gala 
aa the wast, the wall is high, the pampt hi taa^r ^aats haagwg 
an aarhles: where the wail foran anglesi it ie fcmished with sasaH 
aqoare lanetsyon the area side sikpparted by an aich ; and m Iha 
ioor of each is a square apertare, lo receite materiab froas pas 
aaos befew, whereby the guard should aanoy those who as sa il e d 
4tt walL** The neMan pile is veiy inegiilar, from subsequent ad« 
Aliens nnule to the ongiaal buikUag, which appeacs to bavecofti 
aisled of four distinct quadrangular towers, banng par\jestiag my 
fjk§ aenrhig as buttresses, and provided with simitar turrets la 
those on the walL Various modem hnpcorements hufe been 
made in the interior for domestic purposes; and several of tha 
apartments are spaoous, and handsoaiely itted up. These tm* 
pravements have been chiefly made by the present piapfitlar, who 
has also created an ornamental Green House, and made setenl 
jadidaus alleiations Ut the pleasure grounds and parfi. 

Near the Castle, ^ is the paroch Cbirch of Saint Brandon, a| 
Branspeth; in which be <^rrers tumbes of the NeviUes.*) Thiaia 
im ancient structure, of the conventuai fona, hat appareatly of 
difieient ages. The inside b neatly decorated ; particuhdy tha 
ehancal, which is divided from the navf by a pomted arch, closed 

with 

9 Gulci, billete* Or, and a lioo rampant of the Mcond, are the BuImeiV 
arms : the crest is a bull pasaant. Hutikiiuon^ 

i'lixn. Vol. I. p. 6i-.;i. % Ibid, p. 8«. 



pltt fillip «|d ftdfl, caiofM and fipiabed to tU 
pade woiL lo tli« midil «f the divicel is ibe mooameiil adi 
|l«liill.fbce of Maec^asbt, dwig^ter of HMgbf first Eui of 
SlnSwdy tod finl wife lo lUlpb, the fini ^1 of W«ctnKuichiA 
The UHnli diiplqfs fU Mgifs bolb of Ibe E0rl and bit bdy ip 
arood: die fonoer is icpieseoted in a faelmet and coat of mailj the 
bands elevated with gauntlets, a collar atu4d«d with gems ioiis4 
the nedk, and on Ihe bvewt, « sbie|d with tbe anns of NeevIL The 
latter has a \u^ qrowped bpnoet ; and a oiantle drawn dose ovtpr 
the ttetf wbicb i?at on two dogs eouchant. On tbe sonth of thf 
^nncd isfl porch, or chapel^ wherein several of the NeviUa haf» 
been inteired; and in which twe table monuments of tjut fmlf 
jet renaio, but without inscriptions, f^ Ther lyetb in tbet d^ 
fidk," lajs Lelandt ^ a Gountes of Westmerland, sister to Boudi^ 
ArcUmbop gf Yo|fc: also the Lord Neville, father of the Erin 
that now is. This Lord Neville died, his father the Erie jet 
]jvB^; whei^pon tiie Erie toh much thought, and died at Moma- 
hj Castelle, in Ricbmondsbir, and ther is burisd in tbe parodi 
icfaircfa. Tbe Erie of WiMtmerland that is now, had «n ekter biw* 
ther, and he lyetb in a liile tonibe of niarble, by tbe high akas^ 
om the south side; and at the feete of b^n be buried four cbilim 
nf the ^le's that now lirefb**^ At the end of the noith ti». 
aept is a recnmbeiit eflSgy, supposed of one of the Boberu cfe 
IffpUlf of a Gokman size, finely cut in stone. The fignreappetm 
jo a coat of mail, and hood of ehain-work; on tbe kft arm a 
ahield, with tbe ano^ of Nevill, and a hibel of five fiambeaax ; the 
kgi 9Xt crossed, and siipported on a lion; and beneath the cnshioa 
thet sustains tbe kf^ is a j^poop of lions : on tbe left side is a bear, 
SMUzkd, In this trapsept are likewise two ancient tombs, snp* 
posed to beWng to the Quhaera.t Baiph Lord NevUl, and Isabel 
bb wife, by licence granted by Bishop Dudley, September the 
^Olh, 1493, founded a chantry here: a second ohantry was abt 
^iiinded ni |his Churcb| but by whom is nnknowu. 

Between 

* Itiiu Vol. L p. 9a f Hatchii|ion| Vol. III. p. ^i%, 



104 MlttAM. 

- Aetween one and two miles noith of BraneepeA it BkANDOlf 
'HlLL^ a loAy eminence^ to particiilarly situated as to command 
« fww^ in clear weather, of no fewer than eight castles, and a T&st 
•tange of country. On the saromit is a remarkable Tuthulvs, of 
Id oblong form; I20 paces in circumference at the base, and 
llbottt twenty-fbor feet in perpendicular height : it does not appear 
H have e?er been opened. 

' LANCHESTER, a small straggling village, but of much ce* 
lebrity, from its contiguity to the Roman station Gidnnibanta, 
is uhmted on the Smallhop beck, which, at the distance of about 
batf a mile, unites its waters with the river Drowney. The parisll 
Is very extensive, and was formerly a rectory, havmg seven chs* 
felries, and a revenue suflkient for the maiirtenaoce of a Dean and 
aeven Prebends, who were estabUsbed here about the year ]285| 
by Bishop Beck ; but the College was dissolved at the suppression 
«f religious houses; and its possessions so dissipated, that a veiy 
aeanty allowance is now all that belongs to the officiating mini»> 
'ttr. The statutes for the government of the Dean and PrebeiKb 
were drawn up by tlie above Prelate, and confirmed by Edward 
the First, in the year 1293- The Church b a handsome fobric, 
witb a square tower and battlements. Tlie interior has been late* 
iy fepaired ; and the windows display various fragments of pamted 
glata. In a recess in the wall of the north able b a recumbent 
figure of an ecclesiastic dasping a chaliee; supposed, by Hutdiii»- 
soo, to be the efligy of Dean Austell, wlio died in 146l . An in- 
scriptioci in black letter, on a brass phite that was formerly fixed 
to a stone in the middle of the chancel, records the memoi^ of 
fima Rudd, whose death occurred in September, 1490. The 
cover of the sacramental cup b a Roman patera, traditionally 
reported to have been found at the station, but at what period is 
unknown, unless the date 157I9 engraven ou tt, may be pre* 
tfumed as the real era. The number of houses in thb township, 
according to the Kite returns, was 137; of inhabitants 635. Hie 
common lauds of tJiis parish, to the supposed extent of 20,000 
«cres, Have been inclosed under an act of the twelfth of lib' pre- 
sent NLijesty, and great improvements in cuUivatioo have since 
taken flac^ The 



WPWAH. i2C« 



4 Tbe Bo im n i t»ti>p ;^caipio a fiagie n iM ic^ ie flbont faiif i mile 
^ovth-west fion the village ; but the ouUtiie of the prospect from 
it» ii bouoded by still higher' grounds at the respective disUoott 
of two^ three, apd peifaaps foup; milei. This sort of sitttatkiBy as 
Bfr. Honley has lemacked, is observable at Elsdon, in Northumi 
beriaod, and several other places; and has the advantage thai 
an enemy could not come over the rising grounds, hat they aioit 
immediately appear to the garrison. • 

It is remarkable tliat this station, w Inch has survived the iBvagea 
of cultivation io an extraordbary degree, and is one of the rkmI 
perfect in the kingdom, u no otherwise mentioned by Camden; 
than to ootke, that he " once thought it LongovicusJ' Tbk 
qpinkm of ^ name was also entertained by Mr. Gale, and Dn 
{imiier; but Horaley, pu more probable evidence, refers that 
station to Lancaster, and affirms this to have been Glarmibmm; 
as it is called w the Notitia, an^ which corresponds with tha 
GkM09aua of the Ilinenury. *' I son apt to think/' cohtuiuca 
Ihb gentleman, '* that the fiiBt name of this town (village) has' 
been Glancbester; composed, as usual, of the first sylhibleof the 
old Roman name, with the word Cbester amiexed to it: the Q; 
Ibr the sake of an easier pfonunciation, might be dropped. If 
Clanoventa signify a l^ak or hill near a rivet, ven, otvmt, m 
the British tongue, signifying a river, the sitiiution of thestadoi| 
is nol unsuitable to this etymology ; foi it stands on a high ground^ 
with a river (the Browne^) on one «ide, and a rivulet»(the Spiialb 
bop) ou the other, and not £ir from either/'* .: 

Whatever name may be affixed to the station, it has evUcndjr 
been of considerable importance. The Watling $ireeC p'Mset H 
withm a few yards on the west ^de; ^id nuAietous mouumculs^ 
altaif, coins, and other reUcs, have at various times been foun^ 
bne; but it does not appear that the store is even yet ej^hausti^ 
as scarcely a year passes, without some memorable vesli^e of Rot 
man piety, either to the gods, or to the dead, bciog turuod up bja 
the plough. Previous to the enumerutioa of thebe, hcAvever, Wft 
fb^U insert a deso^tion of the station . itselt, in the Words 06 
Mr. Hutchinson. f 

^-Thii 

* Britannia Romana, p. 4^0, 



iovtfo, Md l60 Ann «iit fo iv«0t, wMAi Ite i«IIum* ft hit 
Murvkred raauj ages leM ttdtihiM dm toy struettife of tk Uad 
k tiM northern coMtits; bat of late nttiy of tbrston^ tet« 
bcto removed, t» Mom the ac^jaeeiit lainhy imd make ffie toadt^ 
Id some puts tbc wall yet remabs perfeiit; the Otftaide is perpeo* 
diovlar^ 12 feet io height, built of ashler work, hi regcdar coor^er, 
each stone being about nue incbes deep, and tivelte long : by 
aame hif e stones which tie near the fbof of the waD, it is eri* 
dant there wasa parapet^ with a walk» nearly tbteeftet wide at the 
top« At the west entrance a stone was dog op, wlneli shews thai 
mkk fortifications had more ornament than is commonly apprehend* 
cd« The inside of the valhim is built of ashler wofk ; but, from the 
gronnd^orfc upwards, at the distance of iboal IH) ibehes, it S* 
niiMshes gradually in thicknc9, in steps ritrmtngpafidM through thtf 
whole structuie, by which those withict might ascend the waH, ftml 
iHtantly line the parapet wi^ troops on^ approach of an enemy. 
The wall tfans broken tbvongh is eight feet thick at the psesent 
awrface, dhninishaig to somewhat moro than four at the lopt 
tha interior part between the fteh^ is formed of thin sfooea, 
placed BcliBinf , featheF>wise, tier abofe tier, rail through with 
Morlar nixed with rough gravel What is lemarfcable, there ap* 
pear no thrpugkt, as the masons call those stones wfcidi bind the 
Vmidhiss by gomg through frooi face to face, or mt« the heart 
^ the waD« There was an entnmee in the centre of each side of 
the square, andtothe west a wkle ditch: the gronnd has been onl* 
limed many years on (he other sides, a& well as witbm die tal- 
Imn.'^ To this may be added, that Ihe site of the Pkietorium to 
ilBl clearly distmgnishable, and also a resenroir near the statbn, 
kto which the stream was conducted by a channel, or aqedoc^ 
Ibat may be traced winding along the risbg ground, to (he dia> 
iMice of about two miles and a half notfh-wast; where are fite 
mall springs^ whose waters appear to hate been coHeeted into at 
cnpadous bason, formed for the purpose, whence they are at first 
OOoveyed towards the station by two duumeby wbkh are aflcp* 
Wards united. 

Many 
• History of Durbami VoL II. p. 367. 



Umfmmkmoe t w a i hgw 1mm fctea Satat MA h Mijl at oiit 
A» ililMs and MMUg tivnn the flMii9 of what b aqqiMttd t# 
htM baea a Bi/lmewik Theta weic femied wilh tqtiare t 
aqppaittd aa piUan, d^oat iwa IImI five iaebes Ugliy 
Ibia a yaid dialant fironi tmdk other. Upon the sqoaie at^nea wat 
apkftanagi abeal four inches tkichy of Ibiie and amall piaeet of 
faikk: btia the marfci of fire and nmoke were very visible. B^ 
bii Ihe ficat flaor was aaoiber, en idiich the upper piUars rested; 
the intervals between the lower piUaia being filled up with caitk 
aad laU»ilh« Above the fermer was aa apartaKOty foar ytfds 
al Ihe aaMead of which was an. altar, iaseribedaal 



rORTUNifi 
ATG. »ACR 
P. iEL ATTI 
CVS PRiEF 
V. S. L. If. 

F^rttmm JMguid Saenm PtAlUtt JBiiut Attkui lV</*deMi 
mhU libemi meriio. '* The wofd Prff^ec^u^' <^bserves Haivhgf^ 
^ without mrj thnf foUowiog, is not uncommott in iascriptiaas*! 
Tha above altac is sow m the I>caa and Ghaptai^s Library; tofe* 
ihBBwichaoaealbersfiNiadbeie» and two oblong staoMioMftad 

IMP. CSS. M. A/T. CeRDlA 
KvS. P. v. AvG. BaLI^vU. CvlC 

BaSiLiCa a 6Lo INiTRVXiT 
fVLZ cfl LvCiLAKvM. L£o A/C 

PH. PR CvRA/T« M. AVR 
HTUtUlO PRE. COU I I. G<>R 

I*P. CiMAR. VL ArToNiVS 

a#RIHANVS. P. F. AVC • 

FRINCIPIA £T ARMAVBM 

TARIA CONLaPSA REsTiTv 

IT PER MERCiLiVM. FvSCvM. LEG 

AVG. PR. PR. CvRaNTE. M. AVR 

QVIRINO ?K, CoU. I L. COR. 

TJie 



lot ^^VmiTAlll. 

Hie former Mr. Hotsfej reads as feilaw9: ' hi p et ni m' Cmar 
Marcui Antdnku G&rdi4mms plus filix Augmhu Balnatm am 
fimiilica a solo tnitrmiiiper Gnaium Luciliamtm legatum Jugustet* 
Um Propraforum curante Marco AureHo Qmri$to prafecto Cohort^ 
frimtg LegUmii Gordiana. The latter thus: Imperator €e$ar 
Marau Amomus Gordianus piwfelix Augmtus principia ei arma" 
metuaria conlapm resHtuitper Mereiliam Fuscutn legatum Amgui* 
ialem Propratorum ctararOe Marco AureHo Huirino pr^rfecto (V 
konisprifiut Legionis Gordianm. 

Tfaete, comimies our aatbor, '* am two carious and otefiil m^ 
acriptioas; and val«able» as (bej have pieserfed to vs the jomiet 
of two Propnetors, which otherwise must have been lost; for, at 
Mr. Gale observes^ from Viriw Lupvs^ who was Proprstor under 
Severus in 208, to Nonnius mUippus (whom he believea to have 
aurceeded the latter of those here mentioned) in the year 243, 
the name of no other PraprcUor^ or Legate, is any where else to 
be met with. It is highly probable that the two here mentioned, 
imowdiately succeeded one another, because both inscriptions werr 
fleeted not only under the same Emperor, but also under the 
ianie Commander of the Cohort, Aurdius Quirinus, Wh^ badtfae 
care of both these works. The Basaliacm of the ancients were 
pubtio buildings, in which causes were heard, and merchants met 
for business: they were adorned with covered walks, and have 
been described by Vitnnrins, and from him by Palladio. Con* 
^ming the hitter inscription, it may not be amiss to o^rve, that 
the Emperor^s name is here at length, Anioniui, as il is printed 
also in the Fasti Consulares: we have likewise some other in- 
stances of it in Mootfaucon. Mr. Gale says, t^t the Armamen- 
taria signify the arsenal; and Principia, the quarters eidier of the 
legioudary soldiers, called the Principes, or the pbce where the 
ensigns were kept: but, from a passage in Tacitus, In ipsi9prvi^ 
0ipiis Mtuprum ausa^* one would rather conclude the hitter to be 
the GeneraFs pavilion * Another stone notked by Horslcy is 
inscribed as follows : 

GENIO 

• Hist. Lib. I. Cap. 48. See alto Gordon's Icin. Add. p. 14. 



BURHAM. 209 

GENIO PRiETOR 
CL EPAPHRODITVS 
CLAVDIANVS 
TRIBVNVS COH 
:I LINGVL P M. 
Qtnio Pritiari Ciaudim Epaphroditus Claudianui Trtlmnus CohoT" 
tis Sccund4t Lingonum, Voium Libens Posuit McrUo : this stone 
looks like a pedestal, and seems, b^f its regular square cavity at 
top, to have had something fixed upon it ; and it is my opinion 
that thb stone has sustained some pillar, or somewhat of that na- 
ture, and that the monument has been erected to the honor of 
Gtnims, the Prtetor; Genius being a proper name, frequent ia 
Gniter. This compliment is paid by Claudius Epaphroditus 
Claudianus, the Tribune of the first or second Cohort of the Lt- 
goncs : the second Cohort of these people was in Britain, as ap» 
pears frodi other mscriptions ; and m Camden (Gibson's edition) 
a small I is set before the other in this inscription, so as to make 
it plainly the second : there b, I think, room for it on the stone^ 
but the part where it should be, is broken, or worn."* 

On another St onediscovered here,and represented in the Britannia 
Romami, is a Corona supported by two winged Victories, with tha 
Qfoal symbols and drapery, and in the common attitude. With- 
in the Corona b inscribed in three lines, LEG. XX. V. V. FEC. 
Ltgio Viccssima valcru ^ictrix fecit ; and beneath the last line a 
boar, which Horsley observes, may imply, that tlib memorial was 
erected aAer some victory over the Caledonians, obtained by thb 
Legion. 

Among the altars described by the above writer as heioQgiof 
to thb station, b one to the local god Viiires, three to the god 
Mmn, m»d tkree without inscriptions: on one of the latter b a rude 
•calpliire» topposed of the pem Moires ; on the second a toad, 
with the usual sacrificing instruments ; and on the third, two rude 
pSttien, sopportiog a pediment. On the opposite sides of ano- 
iIkt altar, which thb geutleraan obtained here, but of which the 
capital was brokea off, were the remains of inscriptions in two Ian* 
gatges, Greek and Latin, as follows. 

Vol. V. O 

* Brittniiia Romnia, p. 191. 



tli INTBVAIC 



. . croi 

•^AOT 

. ITTANO 

. , C 



4 , PIO 

T. FL. TITlxNVS 

TRIB 

V. S. L. L. fil. 



^ To have inscriptions both before and behind^ is a singuhr 
curiosity^ of which I remember no paraHel instance m Britain ; 
unless the beautiful altar in Cumberland* be taken for such ; but 
to haVe such inscriptions in two different languages, is ^et more 
remariiable. The Latin inscription seems much the same with 
the Greek one, excepting the different language and character ; t 
shall therefore speak to the former, as being more easy and pei^ 
iect : Miculapio Titus Flavins TUianus Tribunus Votvm Solvit 
libentissimc merito* That there were some in this part of the 
Island, who were willing to pay regard to the gods which presided 
over health and recoveiy, appears from the acutpture at Rising* 
ham, m Northumberland. This is the second instance of the 
Greek character used in such inscriptions in Britain : the other is 
the famous altar at Corbridge : no doubt they have been erected 
by some auxiliaries that came from Greece, or its neighbouE^ 
bood.'^t 

The last altar mentioned by Horsley, is dedicated to Jupiter, bj 
^ the Cohort of Varduli horse : it has the following mutilated io* 

scription : 

. Om 

... ATI COH. 

VARDVLOR 

CREftX 
V S LL M. 

The true reading of tfiis has given rise Yo vatioea toig«olivta 
among antiquaries, but is most Mtely as fofl«ws : 4<m Oj pi fl iai u 
Maximo texatatio Cohortrs Vardulorum Cixnmm Rmmnmrum Mqt^ 
turn, ifc. This wUl appear more evMe^t fttMn tiM next i a stt ip 
tion, which is on a large altar/ found «l tiib atatiooy end uom 
standing against the west wall of Sir Thomas Ckiverti^ manakm 
at Greencroft, about one mile firom LAndiesler. NVai . 

* Sec Betutl«9 VoL III. p. sot. f Britsoma Robmiu, p. 994, 



DUltRAll. 9il 

NVM. AVO. ET 

OES, CoH. II 

VARDYLoRM 
C. R. E. 3X* . SvB AT 

TISTO AVEN 
To. LEG. AvC. PRO 
P*. TIRANVS TRIB 



lU^ «bieTV«s Mr. Gtk» in a ktter to Dr. Hunter, dated 
JiHRy I7M» die year in wbieh k was discovered, *' is ver^ curi- 
OH| as it gifti ua tfae naaie of a Ltgatus Av^utalU, and Pro* 
pcsBtor hitlierto unkao^a in Britain, and wbicb ought, as I tbink^ 
to be wtaA at follows: Nwmni AtiguHi et Genio Cohortis sectmda 
V^rAtUrwm Civinm RommmMrum Equit^r MiUieria sub AmHhio 
Lggaio Ai^mii praprmtore* F. Tiramu Trikunus dot, 
Hi§» Tbe Fonia/} wcie a people of Spain, admitted^ 
li the wDida ^maai Btmandnun may denote, iq tbe freedom of 
tke <Mj of Ronae ftr soaieextniordiBaiy merits or by some Em- 
pnorV fiivor; periiapst tbek eountrymao Tnyan's. Thb was a 
friirilege fitquetitly confened opon foreif^pers, even to whole 
towns aad nations, and was at last oommunicated, fa|y Antoninus 
FSns, aa imiM an eammt0e mt^ptetki b|y which it seems as if t)iis 
altar kad Wea erected befoie the general grant of that Emperor; 
kr it woidd have been no great honor for these Varduli to value 
Ihfsflffii npon, if they had eigoyed it only in common with all 
Ike leit of tbe wiofid." Near the above altar, at Gieenoroft, are 
some other relics from this station; and among them a soulpturt 
euctly Miihr to one on a Itone binit up m the veslry wall of 
Chareh^ s^iposed a Genius by Uorsley, and which 
a male fignrr, naked to the waists sustaining a comu- 
eopsi ki one hand, and holding an altar in the other. 

In pkMigbing a 6eld on the north-east side of the station, in tbe 
year 179^9 * P^^ui votive altar, twenty iiiches in height, now in 
the possession of Captain Omsby, of Laiichester, was discovered, 
karing the fiaUowing inscq|»tkm neatly cut. 

O 2 D£0 



312. DURHAM. 

DEO 

SILVANO 

MARC. DIDIVS 

PROVINCIALS 

B. F. COS 

V. S, LL. M. 



Deo Silvano Marcus Didtus Pr&vincialis Beneficiariui Cenful* 
tiSf Votum Sohii Ldbentissime Merito, Besides the above ia* 
scription, there is, on one side, a iuint ontline of tbe SecupiUh or 
Cutter. Two other altars found at this station are now ia our 
possession : one of them, about ten inches and a 4ialf bigb, and 
six inches wide, b much ornamented, but has no inscription ; tbe 
other, nearly the same size, has been inscribed with three lines, 
but the letters are too illegible to be made out. This was disco* 
vered on the wall of the station, about a year and a half ago, by 
Mr. T. W. Greenwell, of the Ford, whose fether is Ike owner of 
the land; and has had several rude fcolptiires that wck fimnd 
here built up in his garden waH.^ Several Rohmo coins, one of 
them an Antoninas in good preservation, and other aotiqoes, 
found in the area of the station, or the 8<yaceot fieUf, are k the 
possession of tbe Greenwell famHy. 

GREENCROFT, a deserted seat of Sir Thomas ChiTering, oc* 
copies an elevated and oommaBding situation, whence the view of 
Lanchester, and the winding *vale, u extremely btautifiiL Tbe 
grounds are pleasant, and contain some fine woods, and also some 
ornamental buildings. The mansion in a spsidont but pbua strata 
turc, sheltered by plantations. 

CROOK-HALL, called Croke Hugh in tbe records of Bishop 
Langley, is about one niHe and alialf north-west from Greencroft^ 
but in Lanchester parish. This was formerly tbe estate of tbe 

Hiltans. 



* In HiUchiiuon, Vol. II. p. 368, is« cat, purporting toreppeient tbe 
two most remarkable of theae sculptures : they are, however, extremely dU- 
timilar. The first, which is the cut of a female figure aastaining a cornneopit, 
is evidently a Roman warrior, leaning agt'uist tbe side of his horse. The other 
a too far obliuratcd to be traced, but ii wholly unlike the rcprescoution. 



]>nRHAM. S13 

Jtiltmi. WMhrn de Hilton alienated it to Peter TaKol, from 
whom, by various possessors, it became tiie property of the Ba^ 
km. Mr. Thomas Bakbr, ibe ceJebiated Hisloffi^ of St 
JohoTs College, was bom here.* 

WOODLANDS, between tbree and foor miles nortb-west from 
Lanchester, is the rtry appropiiate name bestowed on tbe seat of 
Thomas White, Esq. by whose most praisc^wortliy exertions se- 
wral hondied acres of a dreary and bleak tract t»f country have 
been covereii with flomishing woods. The land was purchased of 
the commissioners appointed under the act aiready^ mentioned for 
inclosing the common lands of this parish, and the improvements 
were soon afterwards began. The phmtations compcchend both 
fwest and fruit trees, and many hundred thousand are now grow> 
ing oo the estate. For this attention to planting, Mr. Wlute 
has been honored with seveial siKer and gold medab by the So> 
defy of Arts. The mansion is a neat structure of his own build- 
isg : before it is a pheasant htwn, and some small pieces of water 
litely fbffOied, tbe termiontions of which are so judiciously con» 
ccaled by woods, as to excite the idea of much greater extent 
than they really possess. The aqueduct that supplied the station 
«t Lancbester runs through the grounds, and in some |)arts of its 
comae has been agam appropriated to the conveyance of water. 

BRADLEY HALL, a neglected and dilapidated mansion of 
tbe Bowes fiimily, lies m a iine valley, bordering on Houslip 
Beck. It was embattled by licence from Bishop Laogley in the 
reign of Henry the Sixth, and was fortified with deep moats and 
a curtam walL In the front is a projection apparently of tbe 
age of James the First, with large windows, and in a more finished 
style than the other parts of tlie building. The lower apartments 
aie vaulted. 

WOLSINGHAM 

Is an irregular town, pleasantly situated in the vale of the 
\\car, on a point of land formed by the confluence of llie Wear 

3 a"^ 

• See ParticuUri of hU Lifr, Vol. II. p. 74- 



SU »DmH4ll. 

ttd the Wesertw, Tii6 Ouirek sttodt #n a nmg gfoiind on tlie 
north aidty hot ditpbiTt aoibiiig fenuuluMe. Nmi it are sosbo ro* 
asains x>f a ooaticbiable biiildipg, incloied with a deep aooat, m^ 
posed, hy seme writers, to have been part of a monastery foqadcd 
hj Henry de Pudsey ; but Hutchinson refers them to the ancient 
Manor-house of the Bishops', which is ncntiooed m Hatfiekfs 
^rrey. The inhabilantB of this parish, according to the Into 
fetnms, amount to 183^ : the houses to 398. The views down 
the Wear from the hill above Wolringham, indnde a very es- 
tensive and beautiAiily dhrersified tnct of country. Between Ibb 
town and Stianhope, the commencement of the lead district ia 
every where intimated by large parcels of lead lying near the 
sides of the road, and from the bhie unwholesome vaponra 
arising from the smelting nuUs in Boltihope. On Bdjihope Com- 
$non, m the year 1749, was found a Roman allar, with an in- 
scription to this purport. SUvano invicio sacntm C. Taiut Fettft* 
flat Miciamu pntf. Aim Sdkosiem, o^ uprym eximm Jmmm c&fh 
fiort, 9110m muUi antece$sore$ ejtis pradari nam poiuawd^ Vptwm 
iohens lubenUr potuit. 

STANHOPE 

Is a small tow-n, on the north banks of the Wear, chie^ In- 
habited by miners. The privilege of a market %ras origioaliy 
granted it by Cardmal Langley in the year 1421, and revived 
by letters patent in the year 1669, through the mflnence of Di; 
Basire, the then rector. Tbe Church is a plam and ancient f»» 
brie, standing on a rising ground to the north of the town. On 
the west side is an eminence, called Castk Hill ; its sonthero 
foot is washed by the Wear, from which it rises to the height of 
108 perpendicular feet. The summit is of an oblong figure, 
Wnxtyj paces in width, divided by a ditch into two urregular 
parts; another ditch defends the acclivity to the north and east, 
where tbe ascent is «*asiesr. A wall of ashler work, stiongly cO' 
nieoted, is supposed to have been carried round the whole sum- 
mit, from the remains of foundations discovered a few years ago. 

In 



9 

In m gmit of lands made by Bishop Beck, this is deoominated the 
Cattk of Stanhope ; but no other records con^romg it are ex* 
lant. Tmdition reports it as having been ^ fortress of remote 
ofigio* and deniolisbed during an incuvsioo of the Scots, At a 
short distance from the town, on the west, b a spacious old builo- 
Jnf, called Stawkcpc Hall, fooncrly tbo maoor-house of the ar- 
dent familjf of Featherstoniuiugh, the last of whom was slam at 
the battle of Hockstet. The living of this extensive parish is 
srorth about 2000U per anuMUi. Id the returns under the popup 
htioQ act, the inhabitants ot Stanhope township are enumerated at 
1239 ; the houaes at 196 : the inhabitants of Staohope Forest 
quarter, at 2143; the houses, at 386: and the inhabitants of 
Stanhope Park quarter, II69; the houses, at 131 « Near 
tkis town, on the north, is a cavern of considerable length, said 
lo abound with stalactites* and to extend nearly a mile. 

Stanuope Park, a brge tiact of elevated hmd, bdongiqg 
to the See of DuriiaHH between Stanhope md St. John's Weardalc; 
and the hills on the opposite side of the river, are regarded by 
kiitorians as the places where the armies of Edward the Third^ 
and of DougUs, the Scotch chieAain, were encapiped fifteen days 
in sight of each other, without coming to n decide eagagemeut 
The English army consisted of about 60,000^ chiefly foot soldiers; 
the Scotch force was wholly composed of cavalry, and, accord* 
k% to their own historians^ amounted to 24,000. The Scots al 
length evacuated their camp in the night, and retreated towards 
their own country with so much privacy and celerity, that the 
Engltsb could 00^ overtake part of the rear gtiard, who were 
made prisoners. Edward is said to have '* wept tenderly,," when 
he found they bad escaped with such small loss. It was in this 
pack thdt the BMiop of Durham anciently held his great forest 
knots ; the tenanb being obliged to erect a tabernacle, to fumisb 
the necessaries for him and his suite, to maintain his dogs, 6tc. 
and be had here his master of the forest, his bow*bearer, and 
other subordinate orticers. The circumference of the park is up> 
wards of twelve miles : Leiand mentions it as being rudely iuclosed 
aithslofie. 

a* ST, 



ST. JOHN'S WEARDALE, 

Though only a chapelry to Stanhope, has the privilege of a 
market, which appears to have been establbhed for the benefit of 
the workmen employed iu the neighbouring lead mines. The 
Chapel is a handsome building, and was rebuilt by the late Sir 
Walter Blacket. The town is seated on the south of the Wear, 
in a narrow part of the vale. The slopes ascend swiftly from the 
river ; and at about the distance of two miles northward, rise into 
mountains. 

" Near Hare-hope Bourne is a smgular piece of antiquity, 
called The Castles. This is an inclosure of an oblong figure 
at the foot of a high ridge of hills : the interior space, an incliiiiog 
plain, is in length, on the south sic^e, 90 paces, and on the north, 
63 ; the width is 70 paces : it is defended on every side by a lofty 
mound, or vallum, of loose pebbles, with an outward ditch : large 
oaks and birch trees now grow among the pebbles ; and what b re- 
markable, juniper trees are come to a \'ast sixe and strength of sta- 
ture upon it. The interior space appears to have been ploughed.** 

WITTON CASTLE, formerly an embattled mansion on the 
south banks of the Wear, was the baronial mansion of the Lords 
de Eures or Evers, who held it of the See of Durham by mili- 
tary service. From them it has passed through various possessors 
to tlie Hopper family. The old Castle was lately burnt down, 
while undergoing a thorough repair. The present mansion b a 
handsome and convenient dwelling. 

BINCHESTER, the seat and manor of the Wren family, is a 
place of considerable antiquity, being the undoubted site of tbe 
Roman station, called Vinovium by Antoninus, and Binovium by 
Ptolemy. Its figure and extent seem nearly similar to those of the 
station at Lanchester ; but the walls having been destroyed, and 
the area hicloscd and cultivated, its exact dimensions and form 
are very difficult to ascertain. It occupies the brow of an erai- 
prnce, about one mile north from Bisiiop Auckland, and rising 



on 



« Il'itrhirjson's Djrhamj Vol. III. p. 31O. 



»0ftHAll* 1117 

M tte west fiom the river Wear. Thearea inclines to the ea4^ 
and oonmniids an eatensife prospect, particularly to the north 
and sooth. From the washing of the river at the soulb-west au* 
^ the bonk has been partly .underminedy and the foondations 
of the Tallom kid open ; these consist of very large blocks of 
ftooe, phiced transversely : some remains of stone aqueducts have 
abo been discovered through the sinking of the soil. The Watling 
Stnet either passed through this station, or close by its western 
lide : and Dr. Hunter mentions a military way» leading from it 
towards Cbcster-le-Slreet» and which he pursued to Brancepeth 
Pufc, but could trace it no further. 

In the seventh volume of the Archsdogia are some partkulars 
eoocenung this stalion, commanicated by John Cade, Esq. who 
expresses his opinion^ that it was sacred to Bacchus, and derived 
its name Vinovium from the festivals instituted there in honor 'pf 
the God. With reference to this idea, and to the particular ap- 
propriate representations^ discovered here, Mr. Hutchinson ob- 
serves, that, '* it was suitable to the PriajMan Dedication m every 
degree, as few of the Roman stations lie in a more fertile and 
aboadant soil ; and probably in its environs, much sheep, cattle^ 
sad horses, were bred under the auspices of that Deity." 

So numerous have been the antiquities discovered at thb station, 
that Mr. Cade calls it an mexhaustible repositor}*. Anioug them 
are Roman coins, altars, fragments of pottery, and rude sculp- 
tures. Mr. Wren, the proprietor of the station, '* has in his col- 
lectjoo some elegant iutaglios found there, with a variety of silver 
and copper coins, both of the Upper and Lower Empire, to tbfr 
time of Valeutiniau and Tbeodosius. Perhaps the Roman poCteiy 
at Viuovium has lieeo equal, if not superior, to most iu Britain.- 
I have seen some fragments of bowls ajid vases enriched with vine 
branches ; and others entire, which appear to have been used as 
sacrificing vessels ; together with a vast variety of specimens of 
difieient compositions, some rebembling terra cotta ; and others of 

glass." 

• SecHiiloryof Duihain, Vol. III. p. 346, 348. 



ijkm/^ VarhHw mtM tad hchryiiMitoriefl hare also been AtMiH 
here; togetker with some seals cut or coane coraeteis : dn^ne 
cornetiaD was the figure of Baoehas, with a thynas* Tiro of tlie 
allars betonging to tUs station are mseribed to the Dem M^tpa t 
•n a tbifdy though ancb fleftced, Camden treeed the followuig 
words: 



TRIB. COHOR. I 

CARTOV .... 

MARTI VICTORI 

G£N10 LOCI 

BT BONO 

EV£NTVI. 



tHhwms Cohortis prima Cartoo, — Marti victori loci et h<mo Evew" 
iui. On this Horsley observes, '< that the Romans made an ima- 
ffOATj god of Bonus Eve»iius, h certain ; but I have some jealousy^ 
thitty instead of Cartoviorum, we should read Camoclorum : the 
Cohors Comovionim is in the Notitia, and was at Pons JElii,'^ 

Binchcster has been possessed by the Wrens from the time of 
James the First ; about tlie commencement of whose reign, the 
mansion-house appears to have been erected. It is a venerable 
building, with wiogs : its environs present a variety of beautiful 
prospects. 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, 

An ancient borough by prescription, is delightfully situated o» 
an eminence, boonded on the north by the Rivex Wear, and on the 
south east by the River Gaunless, which flows into the Wear a lit* 
tie above the town. The ground on which it stands is nearfy 140 
feet above the level of the plain below ; the descent on each side 
is partly formed into hanging gardens, and the buildings occupy 
the brow and remaining portion of the decUvity. The manor b^ 
longs to the Bishops of Durham, who have a beautiful Palace 
here. The first Prelate who chose it for a resideuce was Bishop 
Berk ; and to this, perhaps, is to be ascribed the present impor* 
tance of the town. In 

♦ Archjcologia, Vol. VII. 



Hiht'BeUtnWkBfhkttiMliarikAelimdfWA^ and h 
thitnd to coBtiii^ ** tmtiAy*imo filMos, eaeh of vAouk hM at 
oillMig of laad, veiiderii^ two chaUlers of aver-malty and oat 
wWl orwehitofstal-mally and the like of ncal or bread com 
and otta» dgbtpence of averpenBiea, Idd. camage, one ben aad 
tea eggt ; three cords of wood-Joodt^ if biought to Auddaiid> and 
hpo and a half if carried to Durham: they wraughl two days in 
each veek irom the day of St. Peter ad Vincula to MailiDiBa% 
aad fiom tfaeaoe one day iu each week the rest of the year: be* 
sides they each prepared four portions of land in aatumn, with tfat 
wiiole family, except the housewife, and for each carocate ploagh* 
•d and harrowed two acres and a hatf extra work. The whob 
wB provided a nukh oow : the headtuirough man had an oxgang 
afhodfor hissennce; the smith had the like; the punder bad 
|£ acres, and had the custooMiry tknves, rendering fborscove hens 
and five bnndred eggs. The tolls of beer (big or barley) prodt- 
ced 8a* and the mills 24 marksv Seventeen cottagers wron^l 
! di^s at hay, and had a lailhing a day. The borough was 
•at, with the profits of the borough-court, &c. at 
m. 138. «d. The MUngmiU prodoeed 46s. 8d. The park SL 
With 50 acres of meadow therein, Cs." 

A Grammar School was estabKshed here by lames the First, 
an the pctitioo of Anne Swyfte, who endowed if to the amonnt of 
lOl. amiualiy. The endowment was augmented by Bishop Nei^ 
and his benediction was coafivmed by Bishop Morton ; who also 
sppropriirted the okl Chapel (the mother Church being at St, 
Andrew Aoddand) for a School House. Since his time, how« 
eier, the Chapel has been rebniU by subscription, and opened for 
dhrine service, the School being confined to the apartments on the 
gpomd ioor. Hie present Bisliop also has improved it consider* 
aUy at his own expence ; and a new tower has been added to the 
west end, from an elegant design by Mr. Atkinson. 

TIk Bishop's Palacb, or Castlr, stands at the north angle 
ef the town, and, together with the courts and offices, covers about 
filt acres. '' It stondetll," says Leland, *\on a litle liiH betwixt 
tao rivers. Ther was a very auncient manor^phiee longing to the 

Bishop 



290 DURHAM. 

Bishop of Darearae at Akeland : Antoniiis de Beke began first to 
CQcastellate it; he made the great haulle : ther be divers pMbn of 
black marble^ speckled with white» aud the exceeding faire gret 
ebambre, with other three. He made also ao exceediag goodly 
^apelle ther, of ston well squarid, and a college with Dene and 
Prebends yn it, and a quadrant on the soatli-west side of the cas* 
telle for niimsters of the cdlege. Skirlaw, Bishop of Dnresoie, 
made the goodly gpite- house at entering into the castdle of Akie« 
land. There is a faire park by the castelle, having fallow deer, 
wiki bulls and kkie." 

Almost all the buildings mentioned in this description hare 
been destroyed ; chiefly by Sir Arthur Haselriggey on whom this 
' place was bestowed by the Parliament^ and who, attracted by the 
beauty of the situation, having determined to make it hb principal 
residence, erected a magnificent house with the materiids. Oa 
the Restoration, the former Bbhop^ the munificent Cosina, was re< 
called to his diocese. " He liad a palace," observes Pennite#, 
*^ ready for his reception ; but by an excess of piety ckclined ma^ 
king use of it, from the consideration, that the stone of the anckul 
Chapel had been sacrilegiously applied towards the buildiog c( 
this late habitation of fanaticism. He therefore pulled it down, 
and restoring the materials to their ancient use, built the present 
elegant Chapel ;" beneath the floor of which the pious re-founder 
lies uiterred. The other pans of the Castle have been erected at 
diflferent ti^nes; and the whole pile is hi consequence of an irregu- 
lar form. The entrance from the town b through a new Gothic 
gatewa}' and screen, extending 310 feet, designed by Mr. James. 
Wjfiitt, and from thence to a Gotliic |K)rch and vestibule, whkb» 
on the right, conducts to the Chapel. Thb b eighty -four feet in 
length, and forty>eight broad : the roof is supported by rows of 
clustered pillars; it has been lately decorated whh a new altar>. 
piece, and a picture of the Resurrection, by Sir Joshna Rey- 
nolds; being the origijial design made by him for the new painted 
window at the cast end of Sulisbur}' Cathedral. Here b also a 
hnnd^ioine monument by Nolkkins, to the memorj of BisuoP 
Thevor, who b represented sitting with a book. On the left, 

the 



DUBHAM. 2S1 

tbe vestibule leads into the Hall, a very, elegant apartment, and to 
the staircase of the Anti-Room, and Great Drawing-Room ; the 
latter is sixty feet long, and thirty broad: its internal finishing, 
together with part of the Anti-Room, staircase, and vestibule, 
was lately executed from designs by Mr. Wyatt, at the expence of 
the present Bishop. In the Dining- Parlour, fifty-four feet by 
twenty-four, are full-length paintings of Jacob and the twelve 
Ratriarcbs, by Ribera, more knowir by the appellation of Spag« 
Boletto. These are finely executed : they were purchased at aa 
auction, and presented to the Pabce by Bishop Trevor. Here are 
hkewise four heads of tiie Evangelists, by Lanfranc ; a painting of 
the Four Fathers of the Latin Church, by Blocemart ; and ano- 
ther of the CoRNARO family, by Titian. This is a very fine per- 
formance : it contains representations of three fuU-grovvn persons 
arrayed in flowing mantles, and of six children, all kneeling, and 
adoring the cross. In the Breakfast-Room is a good portrait of 
Ttcho Brahe, the Danish astronomen 

The park and demesne lands connected with the Castle contain 
$00 acres: the ground near the mansion has been judiciously laid 
out b slopes and terraces, so as to command a great variety of 
prospects. The nearer landscapes are composed of wild and ir- 
regular vroodlands, bold difis and eminences, mingled in a pio* 
tureH|ne manner; the more distant views are com}.*osed of rich 
coltivated grounds, animated by the windings of the Wear. The 
nver Oaunless flows at the bottom of the lawn, and is crossed at 
fooie distance by a stone bridge, at tbe building of which, in the 
fear 17 ^7 1 a Roman urn of greyish clay was dbcovered, filled 
arilli ashes, earth, and human bones.* 

From an inquisition post mortem, taken in the fourteenth year 
of Bishop Skirlaw, it appears tliat Dionesia Pollard died seized of 
ioertain lauds held here in socage, by the tenure of presenting e 
Aulchion to the Bishop on his first coining hilher after altaiulng 
that dignity, Tlic ceremony is still continued, aud accompanied 
with the following address. *< IMy Lord, I, in behalf of myself. 



Cyll'fi Manuicriptc. 



ts weH us some Mher f^os^etoon of tbe Pollanf s liuidB, do bntnbfy 
present your Lotdship with this fiiulchion Bt your first coming 
bete, wherewith, as the tradftion goedi, he slew of old a venom- 
ous serpent, which did much harm to man and beast, and by 
performing this service we hold our lands/ 

On the north-west side of Bishop Audtland, is Nbwton Ca1» 
Bridge, a stately fabric, crossing the Wear, erected by Bishop 
Skirlaw about the year 1390. It rises to a great height above 
Ae river, and consists of two arches; one of a circular form, 101 
feet in the span ; the other a pointed arch, of ninety*one feet span. 
On the north banks of the river, beyond the bridge, is NEWTOif* 
Cap, a seat of the Bankes family : the situation is lofty, 9nd the 
surromiding prospects exceedingly beautiful. 

ST. ANDREW AUCKLAND is celebrated from the Church 
having been made collegiate by Bishop Beck, though there ap* 
pears to have been some previous foundation here. The edifice 
stands on a rising ground, in a valley near the banks of the Oaun* 
less: it is built in the form of a cross, with a tower at the west 
end. Within is a curious figure, m wood, said to be an efiigy ef 
one of tlie Pollard family : it represents a cross-legged Knight, 
in a coat of mail ; the hands are elevated, and the feet rest on t 
lion. At the period of the Dissolution, here was a Dean and 
eleven Prebends, whose possessions were valued at 1791- 13s. lOd, 
Most of the estates were granted away in the first of Edward 
the Sixth ; so that the living is now only a donative, or curacy, 
with a small income. 

WALWORTH HALL, or HIGH WALWORTH, about half 
a mile east of Denton, was anciently a seat of the Nevilhf from 
whom it passed, by the marriage of a daughter of Ralph Lord 
Neville, to Sir Gilbert Hausand, Knight, in whose family it coih 
tinued several generations ; but was at length sold to the Jtrm^ 
sons. Thomas Jennison, Esq. who was Auditor-General ta> Qtieen 
Elizabeth, made great improvements here, and erected a manor- 
house in the ornamental style of that age; the south front, fiaiAed 
by circular turrets, and the windows, decorated with painted 
glass, displaying the arms of the then Knights of the Garter. The 

widow 



iridow of Balph Jfonino, who was master of the stag-botukb to 
GcM^ge the Secondi told the estate, about the year 1759, for 
iSfiOQL to Matthew SCepbeosoo, Esq. of Newcastle, who, sosse 
tine afterwards, again sold it to John Uarnson, £«q« 

PIERSBRIDGE, or PRICSTBRIDGE, a smaU village on 
the basks of the Tees, and near the eoliance of the Watli^g 
Stteet from Yorkshire, oocupies some portion of the site of a con- 
flderable Ronan statioo, which {iorsley coiyectures to have beso 
the Alaga of the Notitia. The north and west sides of the vallum, 
and pari of the south side, are very conspicuous. The Romao 
road pasMs it a few yards to the east ; aud the foundations of aa^ 
■wif f bfidge, which crossed the river in the same direotioo, 
were visible till the great flood in the year 177I9 when they weie 
CBliicly washed away. The present bric^ a stone fabric, is bo- 
tweeo two and three hundred yard* to-ihe west. Many Roman 
coins have been, and are stiM, met with at this station, particuiarijy 
after rain : the foundatkms of buildings are every where found 
when the earth is opened ; and an a({ueduGt, which supplied the 
gairisoa with water fion a livulet on the north side, was disco- 
vend about the ba gi n nin g of the last century, finely arched, aboat 
ana yard wMe, and a yard and a quarter deep. An onyx, with 
a %ure of Psyche, and a fine silver Otho, now iu the Pembroke 
collection, have also K>een found here ; as weU as other antiquities, 
and anong them a Roman altar, with this mscription. 

D : M 

CONDATl 

ATTONIVS 

QVINTIANVS 

lUN ECCE IMP. 

EX IV. S. SOUL. A* 

Dii Mam'bmi Omiati Attonius Shuniianu$ Men . . , ex jussu 
Buupium idvit libenti animo. This, observes Horsley, is a fu- 
actil monument, erected to one Omdatm in the usual tenor of 
sadi ascriptions: though Gak and Tlioresby have, from this 

inscription, 



f^4 DtJWtiAU. 

inscription, mistakenly supposed Piersbridge to be the CondtOc 
of tlje Itinerary.* Near the bridge are some remains of a cbapel^ 
founded by Baliol, King of Scotland. During the Civil Wars, 
a skirmish occurred here between the Royalists, under the Ma^ 
quis of Newcastle, and a party of the Pkrliamenfs forces, in which 
Colonel Howard, and many of the lower ranks, were killed. 

The road between Piersbridge and GAINSFORD indudes 
many beautiful prospects. The latter Tillage b situated in a de* 
lightful valley, watered by the Tees ; the buildings form a square, 
inclosing a green. The manor is extensive, and mentioned by an- 
cient writers, as comprehending great part of that side of the 
county. It was given to the See of Durham by EgfHd, Bishop of 
Lindisfame ; but afterwards resigned, with other townships, to 
the Earb of Nortbumberiand, for support against the Danes. 
In the time of Edward tlie First, it came into the possession of the 
Baliohy by the marriage of Hugh Baliol with Agnes de Valencia' 
who, as appears from an inquisitiou taken under tile statute Qteo 
Warranto^ in the year 129S, had free warren here, and other 
privileges of a royal franchise. BoLAM, in thb parish, gave birth 
to Sir Samubl Garth, some of whose femily have monuments 
m the Church. This gentleman became Fellow of the College of 
Physicians, and obtained much celebrity for hb conduct during 
the contention generated by the edict passed m July, t6B7y f^ 
giving gratuitous advice to the ne^hbouring poor. On this occa- 
sion, he publbhed hb celebrated poem of the Dispensary, which 
being well calculated to accord with the state of the public 
feeling, obtained much applause. His influence in the estabUsk- 
ment of Dispensatories, indeed, redounds greatly to his praise, 
and, together with hb active benevolence, and extensive charities^ 
deserved, as it has received, the grateful acknowledgments of po»> 
terity. He died in January, 1717*18, and was buried m the 
Church of Harrow on the Hill, near London. ** Hb death,'' 
observes Pope, in a letter written shortly after, ^ was unafiected 
euougb to have made a saint or a philosopher famous : if ever there 
was a good Christian, without knowing himself to be so, it was 
Dr. Garth." SELLABY 

* Britannia Romana, p. S96. . 



SS5 

SELIABT H4LL ba bautfil vik of fiw^itae and Um- 
lAiiiltbirtheiilaEariof Didii^^oo, bgr whan it w«t p«u 
of At JWiimiwi, The groondt are disposMl irith gi^eat 
ime and jwlgiiiaol» and afford a amgular cUfenky. of pIcoAg 
fievi: ^ Habka are apcH arranged, lofty> and enkrttled tlia 
flaw, on kaviqg Ibe high road at Orandbank, oo the waj lb 
SeHaby, k uocofDnioiily rich aod extensive. It comprehaRdi 
anriy the whale Vdfe of TeoMlale, from tliis point to the dooA- 
mfft blae BMwmain of Ctom*^ iiiiCiiiiiberiaiuL 

WIMSIOM, A maaor which hdaoged to the late Duke of 
r» wai^ in theieq;a of Hem; the Fifth, parcel of the 
»of the Smiffpi of Biaiihai, of whon Henry, Lord Scroph, 
arat haheaded far treaion egiiait that Montoch> . TheviUage oc- 
iinpier the ridge of a biU linng fimn the TaeS) oaMT wfaieh ia a «a- 
bb itooft BiNga of onaatvh, eikcted in tha year I7fi4» ftoto H do* 
a^ by the lalattrThonmBobiolDii. The i^pan it lit feet 
Bene the Toca quilt the romaulk tctaat whichhadi 
illaetoiilt ta nreet and» wtcndcf hmi^jjhgitttrateraoaer^ 
mfc^ottdahkkly wdoded haafai^ 6oa» klo a lefd oMutry, and 
■■tnnni a more.placid, though aearcdy kai beautiM, cbaiaeler. 
IWwvrfttantbe Aectory-Hoitae h eilreine^ fine: from tUi 
pcaccMraoett, Dr, Bmgcit has been hoely prolnolod to fill the 
tpitrnpal Seat A 8^ DaM'a. 

SBJB house; the teal of ---~Harmio» Etq.it a retpod* 
abia mtirm boiMii^; thegroandt aie pknteyt, and onuuneatad 
aUi tonM thriving pfamtatiHit. Mr..HarrifDa hu in hit poteea- 
Mnabird'taett.airiooalypetrifiedt from a ffir^i^^rmg^ 
the noath bank of the. Tec% opponte WycliQe. 

STAINDROP, 

Air ancient toam, tented in a beantifiil vale^ aw originally a 
Soyal viUe, as appears fiom Caonte granting bit mansion-house 
bete to the Monastery of Durham, together with many other ma- 
;atthe hdyshrioeof St. CuUibert. Bishop 
r should pottest toch a rich 
Vol. V. ? ffftf 



tt6 .9V1 

4it^9Ami4kep9mtsSiKmM^»h M*iiMiuII»!Mf fMMd Aem 
4o,tlK aftM^^ ^ '^^^ '£tx>» ^AttrntiB Aji«e^ At Nor, 
ymteii SlaMMis andSlrfdhnapBhiM, toDtlfiM, gitalcikiMi 
^ tMNtfMl, tBdi wiiceMr to tlv NeiiUs^ te b^ hoUm tf in ii 
ci|lite,i with t festoraed mift dF ifiMr poMnds. In tkt ymt : 1S43, 
JUipi de Ncvill, of Baby^obteidHl m gvMit turn fMr VouMf, 
.tadtlncoinreit, to founil tUtat cbntritt^ %tmairaf CkmA, 
9;^ Ntvill, fiftri of WctlMOivlaiid, waB««^fiMi b^ Mhip 
Hatfield, in 137^ to «lHKt a Colege ^ ft MflMtar or Wmite^ 
aJgU aiafiMbsi to be oonliMilly ictidwl, ftw j6««kr ISMn, 
lift EM|uiRt» six detajed OentlkiKa, «ad «U ntlnr ^ 
vim ibdiKiinmifltiiig.i^ if 
•CUs «udleiil «staMiftbMMfitt * Mt befomed of ib 
•«Bdit.dk0ltv>^ to itofowKliflms. hftMmibMxmiei 
^l70k«s.^ MMmat M«lile^ LtbiHl' dtoutbet tho OonfepiB 
«>M Mtbo im4i aidi of Hm ObUMh, and Hiuaglj^aMa il«f 
•alalia,*' By b«fcaliorifo»BUi^ HalieM, af |ba«liiadalaas 
IhiAciac, Johii de NeiM, Lardxtf Bafcy, aw> }ai i i lt gul to»olda 
^mUymaiiBet atfltaiMiMp: of Ma yeait tUi mMM tm km 
talNady tollM'gaadt ailtaatagaaf tbaiaiNiUitaala* •- > 

Tha Chaidi is an ii«eie«t Mnq 4iitbili anbnMlid Imrtf tt 
^ifc'iteslMl: Jtc#niirta6fanaw»aidaaUfes,-atodclHBicA ''bi 
the south aisle, as I heard," says Lebiodr '* iNb kuiMl tie gN>^ 
4Mi0r and grandadam of ibt/e #id^, and tbey mada a esbk^tuie 
Uilirri' Intha>ivaul<ifliisWeappmtbata«bM^andii«ipi^ 
«irf}i5, ^facirear^iia Kali a cf^net, and a twnbe of a ««» ddd, 
tad a 4at imobe «arll rtiamioris. Thfer is a Hit lanlbe also, «M 
a plaync image of bmtif^ and a wi^are, «i4ier is bavM iMmi 

sop 

• The licence granted by the Biihop did not iturict the founder either » . 
■ufAcn^ ortoodtiioi^ 4bc(e%roMioa t^^t^in Wiy na mm^cewlisptil^tnk^P' 
UTMs tt atusptMferibfs '^ and i( is mott prohibit that the E^rl iatcoded tbj^ 
house for the reception of his miliury retainers, or those servautf most imme* 
diately about his person, fsex vatkctohtmj who should iK reduced by misfor- 
tanei, or otherwise disabled j ttid'ln that lente,^ afppdlntlom'of srdjf^v*^^ 
Mid jmUntimm wHl M^itoaMir f a p i > «ay^i4aiiadl nftttiiMit^<''<***^ 



ffVWAHm 



t^T 



hmi N^VfUt. : Bichayd by Mkan hk, S wi^ v^s 

Spitrt W)^9 iisi^ pf Xhresmfi, <3porg() was 

^g^JKi^on^ WAS ,IfOr4. fiwrgevpnijf; »od| as^ [ remcm* 

[^jP^ITIcaa tbat wa# lord P^IcorMdge- Bqfif KmUe^ 

*W(Mmerhn4 of thai name, is. Iiuried yn a i^t 

; of aU|bii|ter.7o Ibe quite of S^antharp Cpllegf, and 

f bis fiitf lyjiG^ oil U»e lift bond of bynn; aad on fbe iigbt 

> ^ iinage i»f .Joban bis 2 wife ; but sbe is buria^iit 

jMr.motber G(tfariff« Swinefard^ X>ucbe« pf J^n- 

|oiiib4>f fijiUH, Ead of We0ti»o9)^laiKl| mentiqiied in 

^lki?%iesof lbe£arlaiidbist»rowms;^ Mbis 

Af^^gartl^ ivfif bailed at ffrax^cepetli, as bas ^i^alrm- 

' t^Ml Pfiff ^ l^aod iras infpm^ j^ ibis sln^iite* 

|l^ ii|>iei^ed ia 4irinoMr» witb bis bead xcstif^ onhis 

,Ml/eeta^^ I^. ,.,Hera i^ also a tajUe n^poniiiitpt pf 

ly ^js^c^ yiUai tp U»f nWfftory of ^ Wll^ir» 6ftb fi^rl ^f 

luri Jl^ %^ f^fh W^ ^ r^kmf witb hiwaif. 

bjr rii9f9)beiil, %ams^ . fto^ tb? }ud^ o^ Ibe 

a land of colonnade formed by small carved pillars^ 

ited figures of tbeir children. Some otber ancient 

enaiA iw Ais Abries and naar Ae-altar is a auperb 

mononoeiit (br tt»e late Henry, Carl of Darlington, 

ted in a reclining attitude ; beneath is a fine *rq>re- 

Rabv Castle. He died ia September 1792^ In the 

k a neat free-akMna momiiieiit to the mamory of 

ei HonouraUe Mm. Rabt Vamb, of ^rs 

benignant diq[K>8Hton, and extensive cliarities^ptocured 

btesadgs of die poor. The populHtion of Stain- 

V as returned under the late act, was li 56 ; the nuv- - 

l$X Matiy of Ib^ latter ase^meU biailt»«iiddMefy 

alaect, ^TBltodtng about half a laile aaK vnd 




ABT CAfrtiSf (be magnificent seat of William Itarry Vane, 
Eiff of Dariiogton, and Lord Lieutenant of this coun^« it situa* 

Pa ted 



ted Aont one inife north from SteilDdrop^ ofi Hie east tide of ta 
ektensive park. This nobk pife is indebted for its spfend^r to 
John de Nevill, Earl of Westmoreland, who» in the year 1379/ 
obtained a licence* to « make a castle of his manor of Raby«, and 
to embattle and crenellate its towers, Sec." One part of the 
building, however, appears to be of more ancient date ; and se- 
veral alterations, though not particularly coimected with its ex* 
temal form, have been made by different possessors. The genenl 
tSsct of the Castle is uncommonly imposing; and its extent, gran- 
deur, and pi^servation, are powerfully calculated to impress the 
mind with a vivid idea of the magnificence of the feudal ages. 

The situation of Raby (Xsde b extremely fine, though not 
lofty: it occupies a rising ground, with a rocky foundation, and 
is surrounded with an embrasured wall and parapet, inclosing 
• about two acres of land. " Raby,*^ says Ldand, ^ b the largest 
eastel of logginges in all the north country, and b of a stitNig 
building, but not set other on hill, or very strong ground.' As I 
entered by a causey int6 it, ther was a litle stagne on the right 
honde : and m the first area were bift two towres on a edi eodeas 
entres, and no other buildid: b the 2 area, as in entiing, was a 

great 

. « A fluplicate of tkift licence, io the Frescb Jangv^ge, U pm^ivcd mofqm$ 
the ercbtvct of the See of Durham : the following U a irantlatioo. 

** Thomas, by the Grace of God, Bishop of DuHiara, to all those who 
shall see or hear these our present letters : Know ye that we, of our dear wad 
especial favor, and for the great tove we bear to Our dear and ^ithfiil John de 
Nevill, Knight, Lord of Raby, who hath long been of our coowU, aod fn 
•qr service, have granted, and as mach as in us is, do license him fall|^ K- 
cording to bis wiU, to makea Castle of his Manor of Raby, which is witlMO 
our Royal Lordship, and in our Bishopries of Durham, and all the toweia, 
houses, and walls thereof, to embattle, and crenellate, without restraint, hin- 
drance, or molestation ;— or other our subjecu, or living within our Royal 
Lordship, to have and to hold to him and his heirs for erer, provided U ahaU 

, not be prejodicial or injurious to us, our Chorch at Durham, nor So oar tac* 
cesaors in time to come. In witness whereof, we have caused these oar Ictten 
patent to be made. Given at Durham by the handa of William de Elmden, 
our Chancellor, on the tenth day of May, and in the thirty-third year of our 

' ConiecraiioB. 

•* By Writ of Privy SeeL* 



pm^ Mte'of jpQoi njlh » towr, .and ^or 3.oid|4m tha right bond*. 
11wi| wen al the chief towvn of the 3 courts, at in thf^ bait of 
the casteL The haal, and' all the houses of o(fice% b^ hrge an^ 
glMely ; and in the haul I -saw an incredible great beam^ of an 
bait. Tber b a tower in the castel, having the inark of 2 leapitalci 
B's firom Bertnm Buhner: Ther is another tower bearing tha 
name of Jane, ba^ttard sister to Henry III,, and wife to Rafe Ni^ 
viUe« the first £ri of We^meriand* Ther Ipng 3 pa^s to itaby^ 
wbetcof 2 be plemsbed with dere : the middle park bath a lodge, 
kit" 

The outward area of the Castle has but one entrance ; thia is 
ee tbe north side, by a gateway defended by two square towers, 
and flanked by a parapet with turrets. Tbe inner area has two 
aatrances; one modem, opened by the hite Earl; the other an^ 
cicnt and grand, being the principal entrance to tbe Castle. This 
is fiom the west, by a double gate, and covered way, rtrengtbened 
by a square tower on each side, which are connected by a bang* 
iog ffUkry extending above the pAe : here are three shields of 
anns of the Nevitts, quartered. Tbe coveted way is nearly four* 
teen yards m length, with a groined roof, and circular arches: 
each gate has a portcullis. This entrance is fhnked with squaia 
towers at inegular distances; between the most northern of which, 
is a communication by a gallery with Cliflbrd's Tower, a laige 
aynre bolwark opposite the outward gate. From Clifford's 
Towart eastward, is a hanging gallery, which communicates with 
a amaller square tower, strengthened withturret^: ^m this ea« 
tends a curtain wall, which conceals a recess, and acyoins to the 
,Bew entrance formed between two small square towers, and lead^ 
iog lo tbe hall. Hence a modem curtam wall connects this par| 
of the Castle with a lofty tower, apparently of more ancieu^ Qrigiq 
than any other part of the buildkig. " Its figure is that of ai) 
aodent arrow head, with tbe sharp edge or point to the south i 
it has four tiers of apartments, or floors, and tbe southernmost 
niggles are furnished with turrets. . Tbe masonry is excellent ; the 
front is cbiaieled, the joints art coropacr» and the interior parts 
of the wall arc run with hot lime. From tlie top is a most eiten- 

P3 sivt 



sht pr&specii ^M near tlie Mnnndti iAb6(f in'ttb '<lrtiNi^oA» 
ikh» (be fWd ITs (meiitkm^ by Ldmil) Id die M drnfad^, fhM 
#ilichy «id the name tbe tower nam bean, It fcat been Mbted, 
that it was buik by Berttam Doliiier.* Mr. ButebioMiiB, boW 
ever, Awn whose deacription this extract is made, eoit|eeturef it 
to be of jfet gteater antiqdity, eten of the age of Canute, and to 
have formed paft of the tnansioA given by Irim to tbe ChQitb» 
with Staindrop, and other lordships. This opinion, which is 
supported by a reieiencelo the dnguhr figure of tiie tower, b, 
perhaps, sufficiently refuted by tbe general tradition which reftrs 
it to Bertram Bulmer; not, we sfaonid suppose, tlie first, bat tbe 
se<;ontf of that name, wlio lived in the reign of Stephen, and was 
son of Ancatellus, Bertram's brother, and rehted to the Nev9h 
by the marriage of the benress of Bertram with Robert, Lord 
Mefill, Baron Of Raby. Some intermediate buildings, between 
flris tower and the main pile, are said to have been destroyed by 
«e.' 

The mterior of tbe C^le is distributed into a great nomber of 
apartments ; many of them handsomely fitted np. Tlie Entrance 
Hafl is uncommonly grand ; its vastness, and apparent stat>iBty, 
ifevef failing to excite admhation. Hie roof is aKhed, and sup- 
ported on six inNars, with capitals, diverging and spreadmg along 
flie ceiling. Here bis Lord^ip's visitors quit their carriages, 
which are admitted into the Hall, and afterwards pass off on tbe 
opposite aMe, through the nmner area and covered way. At one 
eM b a flight of steps, leadhig to the Presence Chamber, Music- 
Room, Bittiard-Room, &c. ail which are very neatly decorated. 
Above the Halt is another spacious apartment, ninety ftet m 
fength, thtrty^six in height, and tbirty-lbur in breadth. TUs 
^oom, which at present has no particular destination, was the 
phct where the ancient baronial festivals were celebrated; and 
^06 Knights, who held of the Nevilles', are recorded to have been 
entertained here at one time. The west end b erossed by a stone 
galtery, whence tlie minstrels poured forth their animating strains 
in the hours of revelrx*, or of St'cnifnl prtparaiion ; 

«' V/ben 



O^icfii OT Hk siMuwr Bpttitfiicfi(!B bsv6 becti nOllowittf 6ut fipbfii' tM 
yhAsi ivvm.1i ttt" or gfcal ^oiiditj md streiigfii. Tm Kifdieii » il 
sqmn^ of thirty feet^ wHIi «ft atebedroof^ ftocl cdpdht ligbts'tntM 
ceiitie ; k hss Kkcivuit-flve wiiNloWsy firom cscb of wUtb' st^ps Ac* 
sBBitf ; bttt onljr in one insttoce to tbe Hoor ; and before ^faem n 
gallery running round the whole interior of the Mric : ft has three 
th i w rni es , beaidet narrow passes cbannelfedhi the waHSy'lhtough 
iMch tfie |»rovisions are supposed to have been ancietatly smed 
ap in the j^reat Banqueting^Hooni. Tbe ancient oven was pr^ 
poUb n cd to the mnniiicence displayed by its princely possessors; 
and is mentioned by Pennant as being converted into a wine cellar, 
** the sides being divided into ten parts^ each hokliuga hogibead ^ 
wine in bottles.'' 

Ito parky pJgjawim gwiunds» and plantations, of Raby, aocorf 
uilb the extcat and d%nity of the Castle. Many parts command 
teiy beaotifM and enhrged prospects, where the woods sweep 
over the ridng grounds of a diversified tract of country, 9fa4 the 
distant eminences blend with tbe honioii : one of tbo teffrace9 is 
Bpwf rdi of 7^0 yaids in length. On the estate is an eatensivie 
htm ; tD sibieh partioular attention was given by the late Earf, 
who fatiodooed every agricultural improvement, and erected 
many oaefiil buildings. Tbe iarm-yard is axdaded frooi tbe 
Castle by an embattled screen^ over the gateway of which is arade 
scolpCiira of a boll, bearing aa easign and roantie, adormkl' with the 
NevUlasr aroni thb was removed hither ftom Bolmer's Tower. The 
dog kennelsi and stables, are built in an ornamental style, and Ju* 
didoasly shuated, so as not to detract from the grandour of the 
Castle : from particular points of view, they fonn gaad. objects in 
tbe diftrent prospectSi 

Baby Castle oonChiued to be the grand residence of the No- 
fiOs HU the reign of Elizabeth, when Charles, the sixth and last 
Earl of Westmoreland of tliat family, engaged in a weak conspi- 
racy to dethrone his Sovereign. Being obliged to abandon his 
couBtiy, he flod t^ the Netherlands, where he died a miserable 

P4 exiie. 



i»k,iDl584. HbiniMiiMeilitowmdMtai^fiMMtlsMd 
in tbe nign of James the Fbst, were cmnigiied by gnmt to otmm 
dimm of LoiidoDfi>r«k: of them the CMtli and iIumhm of 
Biiby ymt pmchaaed by Sir Heory Vaoei Kot^ ftom vfaom thqr 
hiive detoended to tbe preieot noble poMessor. 
. Oo CociqriBtp Fell, north of IUI9, tue aany foes and 
ancieiit eatreoGfaipentfi of unknovm origio ; but the «ost lenwk^ 
ible appearance here, is that of the Dj^, or Break in the stnta, 
by which the seam of stone, and of coal (with wUch this district 
aboti9ids) ate <' thrown op to the southward, three fttbooia.'' The 
9reak is about fifteen or siKteeo yards in width, aad,aco«di%to 



• The following i« a copy of a PertkuUr of the Ca»de, bods, toiemcnu, 
•fc. potsctiid in the Lordship and Manor of Raby, by Sir Henry Vine, the 
elder ; with their rents, and respective values. 

S '• tapfiMis. The Castle of Raby, and y« iitetfaemf: Item, The Lord- 
fbipand M«iHvqf W>y. Item, the |^ parke SCarwoi Carr Litde PitIm 
and Crowe Close, conteyping by estimation two hiindr«d luid 4w«iO scMs or 
thereabouts, i^ol. Item, The Middle Parjce, conteyning by estimation thicr 
fcithdred and fbure acres or thereibouu, tpol. Item, the Best Parke, amtcya. 
Ing by otfnCMion aeaven hundred sixtU one acres or thereabouts, being now 
f^lMlodouft besides y* game of 400 Deere, and a Race of Mares, and Cool^ 
totiipmimb^f of fliftie, iigl. Item. The aiaugfaier Cloit, 41. lOi. tern. 
One great pasture ground called the high Wood, conteyaiog by esli metal 
one thousand seres or ihercabouU, 1 »0l.. Item. One Close of mcMlow or paa. 
ture called Howktt fields, conteyning by estimation fourscore acres or theie. 
ihMts, 401. Item. Ceruine Closes of Meadow and Pasture Ground called 
Suiodrop Carrs and Raby, now intack m yf possmion of Cufbbert Dam. 
ton, 9I. Itam. Three Closes at the East PkrM Gatt^ htti in y* poesenioa of 
Charles Wsison, 3I. Iwm. A CapiuU mc^syagp wt«» ocrtaina suable liada, 
meado^Y »«<> pasture grounds inclosed, in Suindrop and elscwhefe, Itte |ior^ 
ohssad of Mr. Ewbsncks, of the yearly value and rente of ao4l. 4s. 8d. Iim^ 
aClosiol paatnre called Kettlebedd, it gs. 4d, Item. One Tenem*. caUed 
HUl howae w«* certsine closes of meadow or pastoieadjoynhig, in the Occo, 
pation of ^Iph Hodgson, 81. Item, y*. Coll^, Delfc, or CeletoyM, Ultlw 
purchased of U^i, Jlosse, within y; LofP. of ^t\^, 400L ItMn, y*. R«,. 
torie and Tithes impropriate of y« Colledjia^ and Parriah ChMrch of Stttiadrop|i 
p. ami *70l. IDS. td. Item, two Make mUU in ^^ind^opp aforesaid, called 
.the Ea« mtll and the West mUl, both in the Occupation of Mr. Conyer. of y 
picsent y^rly rente of 5 il. fc. Item. Tbe Increa« Reota In Raby XoM p. 
Ann. 64I. 17$. 9d. -> /^ P. 



wmtum. ts$ 



mMwtkHmmi^lM oT tubflaiiM es DertyyOdft 
wad h •dwr vetpedi, pm m Uhg fkaan^wffem9toot$ 
totbednlocirtedstnUof tkitcooi^y* Obe of the shafts of m 
CoHiny bene it oed for the p w poe e of caitiiis shot. In thb open* 
liao the Umi^ when snfficinitiy heated, is jHmoned with araeoic, 
Mid povied thfough an koa siefe, with dlflfereot sixed petfuratioiis^ 
into a kife tub of water, phiotd to leoeife it at the bottom of 
the shaft The shot attaia their globokr form by this process, 
wad Me then shaken in a barrel with bladc4ead dust, by which 
■Mins Ihegr beeoBM polished for nse. The depth of the fall is 
tw«aty-fi«e tinhorns: between two and tliree tons of shot are ead^ 
■BMie by dus method in one day. 

STREATLAM CASTLE, the seat of John Lyon Bowes, Eail 

of Stralhmore, stands in a secluded but romantic vale, surrounded 

bj hi^ and inegnhHr hills, nearly three miles westward from 

Rahy Cas^ The present mansion was erected on the foundation 

of the old Castle at the beginning of the httt century, and several 

of the apaitments are retained in it ; but the general arrangement 

ii tery diffnent, as appears from a painting of the former, whidi 

is stiD preserved here. The first castle that stood on thb spot \k 

Iboog^ to have been buih in the thirteenth century, by Sir John 

Tkayae, who asarried Agnes, daughter and heiress of Ralph de 

le Hay, Lord Fercy, and niece to Bernard Baliol, grandfather to 

tlK King of Scots of that name, by whom Streatlam, Stamton, 

aaid other estates, vwre given to her in dower. Alice, the issue of 

tUs marriage, and sole heiress, married Sir Adam Bowes, firom 

whom the pieaent Earl inherits in right of his mother, the 

infte cdebrated Coualesss of Stralhmore. This Castle was rebuilt 

in te fifteenth eentuiy, by Sir William Bowes, who was knighted 

Csr his valor at the battle of Vemoyle, in France, itf 1424 : many 

otheti of this family have been renowned for their braveiy. The 

path dbplays some rich natural sceneiy, and is stocked with fine 

deer : it has lately been considenibly enlarged by Lord Strati^ 

more, who has re*united the Stainton estate, by purchase from 

the 

• Hi»tof7 of Puiham, Vol. III. p. 503, ei sef. 



B«^ who «ta dotdy hrritged Iwt f* mmm dajiB afttrfai Ud 
ftrtitt Ln<y St wtl— om ftim L»trf— > 

BARNAltD CASTLE 

ft ileep mov^t ftoa tbe rir^i Tetft. lU: mm^ tmi pfriM^ a» 
^ are deimd ftofi» alorinidiiUe cmHk oftcted m tfe imuiiil ^f 
ft rock on the west side soon aftti, Ibt CohqimU Ibt vuiot of 
wlilpb cover an extfBMfe |plo| of groups* The arfaofei dttiikit ap- 
peals to bave been oogiaally caUed Mwrwoodi aad Ift'kareb^ 
lM§ed to the Wapefttako of Sadberg ; e oft se nw e Bt ly ik ntuMUned 
fifte:fn» the palalHie jwriidietioii of the Bisbop^ till Iba. anneas- 
liOD of Sadberg to this See* Mamood abo appeftn to bavt been 
Ibe name of an ancieot town fibomt balf ft mile fan Baniard Ca^ 
l^f of wbicb tbere is 119 other trace tbaoan oM buiMuig^ saki lo 
bate been tbe churchy but now lufed as a bam. 

The town is popubus, and extends m length about a niHe ; it 
possesses one of tbfc birgest com aiaifcets in Ibe noith irf England ; 
bat the Mwrket-Crcsg, Toik^oih, or Town Hoosr, mud ShamUcs^ 
are very mconvenieiUly situatedi being m.thetery todd^^f tie 
fooy. In this respect, perhaps, as well as by tbe mdifeent pair- 
ing, the iiibabitants appear to b^ve bad refiereftee to a charter b^ 
stowed, by Hogb Balbl, who, after allowmg tbem to usetbeir 
oivn ovens, granted to each of its Burgesiea *' caperr vnna aalo 
ostiiuu suiuii pro doniibus suis edificaudis et fvnium coll%efe m 
via ante ostium, usque mediam viant." Tbe Madcet-Cross itself 
is a neat fcee-stone building, open at tbe sides for populaa aoeaa^ 
modation* The ChurcK or rather Cbapel, Bamaid Caslk foriMig 
pnrt of Gansiord parish, oflers notbuig remarkable but an andettt 
base hell, said to have been brought from Egg;leston Abbey, and «• 
octagonal font of black marble, having 011 four sides, devices, ap« 
parcntly symbolical of llie Trinity ; and on the other four, shields 

inscribed 



t 



0nt^ ; aad iwdter the iMt act^ im« lelwimd at ^l^^ tito mIi^ 
WkBtf»a2t66| adodk^lhe^idier fi«rt0^tlielM^^ Tht 
hbOTii^ chM we cUcAy mmfioyei in.thB iMmfiwtine of Scalch 
capbtec^ or tmniesi vod in the tflmiag md ftdduog buafaMMt. 
Of lata jrarsi the woolka tiade bat gfe$Ay dadioed^ ihramb the 
ne of the cattco baiachai> 

%/kMMSMB Castls was founded hj BetamA, aoB of CNqr 
Biiiol, who came iota EnglUiid with the Cm^uatm, mad oft 
«hQi9 Waiian lUiiuf bettowcd the fbitits of Te««Me and Maiu 
wood, and the ikh loidihipe of MkkUateo awl Gaittfaid, with 
all their loydl fraocbisei^ libertiei^ and ionanaitin* Bcmaidy eett 
of the former Bernard, ^nmttd the inhahitaila fiee hurgage : thb 
was oDofinaedt with additioaal lahertirs, 1^ hk joo and i 
Hugh Baiiol, io whoM time Alexander, King of Scottand, 
ao irmptieQ into England, and hamg aubdocd all the fertn e ia e i 
JB Northnaberiand for Lewis c^ Franoe, came befene the Castle 
q£ Bernard; when Eustace de Vesty, brotheMn4aw to Alexander, 
being oa a recoanoiteriag party, was killed by an arrow from a 
csom^bow; hot it does not appear that the Castfe was assailed. 
4ohn Baliol, tlie next posiMor, founded an hospital, which sur* 
Tived the Dissolution, aMstiV receives thaeealBK^womea. Thb 
dhiefiain was the suooessA)! ^aMaU to the craan of ScotbRid ; 
which was awarded bhn by Edwapd the tirU. In his time the 
ftffffh**r^ and privilcfes of this W^etty^ and its iodependenoe of 
the palatiaatc, were pretty distinctly, a^cerlEiiatd/ 

On 

* By various records it appears, that here were an iiinrrant judge to dispense 
juftiicc : a chief bailiff of the liberty ; a con:>table of the castle ; a forester ; and 
a fofter of th^ castle, vrith separate f^es ; tnd coronci for t!tc liberty, appoinud 
by the lord. The Bishop or Durham had also an eschcator ; but this was m>t 
M the reign of Fliilip and Mary. Spearman, in lah Enquiries, says, ** that 
Eabert deCHdiefhoe, and John dcSapy, successively exercised the escheatorship 
flf Barnard CasCte, by grant from the crown " The lords of the liberty had 
■iciaitly dhren knights fees, wardships, marriages, and reliefs there ; arid 
bd Ae goods of the ne(f, or native, which thty frequently :nok in:o their handi* 

THt^y 



Kt Ob uw ttUNWiviiil mHMmii 6r Bncn, hm €sl8lvs w€t€ citiiiKd 
ikj'Biibop Bmk^^a ibtijuftregMa x^ bb potaiAiite; but King 
•Sdward; to hHttUe tiK ptooA Prelnte, and at ffae same time to 
tbddge the off«rgiowii p^mtr of a iolject, sened the palatiMte;^ 
and fvbeo it wa» nestored to the See, it wtis 'found mutilated 
Mid mbfidged of mmty of the pritileges It had ^Med bj ^a 
fuicitmes of Bdbl and Riice, Bishop Oodtrin informs us, 
that Beck made considerable reparations m this Casth <fttriOg the 
time it reomned in his possesrion. Edward, iti&' determined to 
iBortify the B iAo p , and abridge his power; gave the 6istle, and 
JlasMmbeiBy toGu; Beauchamp, Eari of Warwick, in whose family 
itoontiMiodforfifedesoents. It afterwards came to the Crown; and 
JUchMi the Thirdtook great del^t in the place, and coutrtboted 
jBUch to its tstahKAmwit ; his cogniaance appearing not only in 
the vails of the Caatle^ bat in several parU of the town. On hn 
death, HcDiy the Seventh came into possession, and it has been 
a Crown domain ever since. The Castle, honor, and piifiieges, 
with the parks, lands, wd appurtenances, were pttrchased by an 
.anoeitor of the present Earl of Darlington ; and King Charles tlie 
I First, 1640, granted to Sir Henry Vane, sundry privileges an- 
nexed to Ills manor of Raby, and honor of Castle Bernard. WiW 
.Umn the Third, in 1699, created the latter a barony : itiinow 
:the second title in the Earldom of Darlington. 
. Mr. Hutchinson describes the remaiA of the Castle as coveth^ 
- abottt six acres and three quarters of ground: the parts of chief 
.strength stand on the brink of a steep rock, about eighty peipen- 
dicukr feet above the Tees, on the north-east comer of the prin- 
.cipal area, oommanding a most beautiful prospect up the river. 

The 

They had free warren and chace, wiih extent of large moon and wattes, in 
which they bad the soil, mines, quarries, and other perqoisitrs, from whence 

* they made the grant before speciiied. They had the rtura of wiHs and wsr- 
ranu awarded thither, so that no officer or minislef should enter these, hat by 

' writ of ^ RM omitfos : also, ** markeu and fairs, pillory, dec. ^^ and that 
none should keep aIe.houses within that liberty, without the licence of the 
steward in open court, for which there was a yearly rent of brew* farm, s»> 
c4enUy paid to the lord." HuUkvum's VurUm^ VpL JII. p. 139. 



wi IhrhtttMuivliwIdhgii fay m 4mf 
ilhenatofliwGMde. Tins am k'ftaMid 
«ilk a bi^ wiA wkmg the edge «f liift«Mk»Mwid B»%-gfllei 
31k pOewayto the Fbttoopais.ftoiM«)aigeaMa.toUieuciiHt 
iea4 whkh conwMiaiceted with the^fcid. Thntne, legetber 
vith Ihet hefovK deKiibedy weve eaoeMllyitttd to receive tbt cat* 
de ef tl^ adiieceet'cowitiyr in tiHies.of iDfeMoa>aed pobiie danger^ 
The gelelyey but BMntioiied k defended. fay •dewheetioD, mid 
the biokai «ildb shew eppeerenGet of ni e Awge end ont-weihi. 
At e toin of the wall, aouthward, mav^ a tower whieh fleeied 
the. wall lawaBde the gete, frem whieb over the Ibene wae a 
dn»4ttidge. Thieeita eontribs the lenueae of some odifiees, one 
of wUeh '» called ihnBdMbuiy's Tower. Ue dnrfstvoag-taoMb 
Mind jon aMnc elevated groend than any within Ih^ aetet'dO' 
•oihad; tfaey were twrooaded fay a-diyditeb, orooviied way, 
with saeU gatewap thioiigh the nteneetkg wnllk: thii ditfeh li 
temnneted on one hand fay a tidly-port, tint eonunanded the 
hod^e to the west; and on the other by a selly-pott to the north; 
the covered way almost snrronadhig the nmer Antfess. The 
in which the chief etaotions weie arranged, is abnosl dreo- 
. the bnildiiigs aee of difaraal eras. Northward, ike mSk 
of modem and superior aachfteetore, eopporled I9 strong 
aad defended faya square tarrettowaids the east: tti 
tl» eontb, the wall j|ipearB very ancient and thiok, aadhas been 
iMngtfnmed by trains or lines of huge oah beams, 4lfp0Bed n 
tisB in the centre of the wall, at equal distances^ so as to'-render it 
film agamst batterng ei^gfaies: on each side of the sally-port to tiie 
biidgd,vuthmtbegate, wasasemieireahurordenii-faastion, loaded 
with earth to the lap, veiy strong, and of r^gh mason woti, 
bnOt ehiedy of fahw finis; the gnalest part of one of these has- 
tions slill mnams: hesenrv seaae of the most ancient parts of the 
Castle. The west side of the arm has contained the priadpal 
lodgings, in some ports six stories h%h; the state rooms stood ih 
tbb quarter ; two hrge pcnnted windows, looking upon the river, 
, 9. ' • * seem 




, w mMmmoAf faring » nMl; 

vMk if iWr^ Aet kt 4iMKt«r; the vtiin o^ tb« mmem t# 
Ae ifpir ■pulnwaii fte dniunlhil is tbe wiH. In the •«. 

jiqRMi theit ill ppH, to Di y p l y HitgtifiMi aidcallb stloMii 
iriAn tbt ««lls 0f tiMoateraNMai timetof pabiiednger^ iir 
whvA p>ttiec<i>o Hit «i(iaetnt kids pwl r m^ iiiled CaHii. 
SHvdiiM, te Ibe GiUkkuHL BjfAtnpMUce if tiMJ 
mAikt apfunat ^of llwluiiiKiiigikitikscMbcil^ KJii 
4U« !• dttenMM, tbtte im» lh» «olks wt BadMvd^ Oite^ 
<3kiiWit(or> wlio« k is «ui» poMMd iUi CMlieiftnglit«r Mi 
frjfc. LciftiidMrimMiiliMQf • ^kkdiapelk'' vtlMC«l^ 
but IM iBMiWMinnMi of Abe ImildiDg.* 

TlMe wtar aiea of die Castk B oair flsed ai • 1 
aiil oydier fpirti licbNed by Mm valbbiM bc«»lci 
j|it», ^fttbnpd. giMML The m«U Ibst •onottnib tbedrctifer «rai, 
Ima j|HT>w pfwnflf nuMMMg ihroagh tht Middh^. af «aartiy ■<■ 
Asieiit iBitfQt.4a fMknk aao poiMn to craq^ tl»ou§b«. Maay po^ 
tlkMii ^ llie mm aw vicMy nmlkd will ivy, afeiri piBHBtiHKJr 
.fiaer sjM^ pQitimih% Ami tbe fotttb bankof tht mary mMtk 
,VQib|i tbt toot ^yflbt jack oa whioh tlw GMyestMidi, HdiilHte 
#id«« aia^o«thi^ aritb fine waoiL Sir Gto^geBaaaa, afttaial 
h»k oaltieramaMr^flbeiobdiiNMiafdiefadsafWfe 
jnd NqrUamibartaiMli iii.lbei«i«aof BiB^bcth, 
♦fibttfcrtyewtaadaraiitdibaaJioiapQaar af thainfOigcoliiar 
ekr«ii dayi, «li«a be aiwiadnifld fa bi>Baiablt loaHi Ukt 
bo4ge^ wbicb tbfa cfOfM tha Taa^ v« itMlrcyad ia«lie4 
tkefiKseiii bu^gc neabuik Ja ii»t6» -aal^oiMliaf twoi 
caiaMbfs» thk 

* Hutditnsoi*^ DurliuD, Vol* HI. p. H^ 



Hk »f lh> T§ni§k$mwdii^ mkk |iM« imini mt wwafc ^k^m. 
ladcf^, l|ie.i<MemNKe^«lMfiiKriiTOBils«Miit»toW^^ 
ttd GiNisfMi^ |N9MBt« sudi « ripk«MbiiirtioB of dnmiiig ^k^ 
jtrts, IhKt the inti latorhily iiyaiifci c— M not i< f fc< <# 



. OAiScVtmid €«itk.lfc>or b Aail HiLL, ivkMi batteeii'fttlfr 
iMi bf 4t liieaitHm>ri^ Md liMp Miiih, ^craiMliogi inp mOfwtl 
ribk4ilp«tflMnyOMMotf^fidMMtlM9itB(v nd-isaw^if jyew* 
of' Sbott»iriMeteaitf^iML Hk |im|icel ftMiM 

WW a buating seat of James the Second's, awl oMiMidy mcM 
tlmmnim Umifmjpmm^^m the adghbooriiood dbiMind»^tliMtes. 
Ummikmthe rrtiitinfi of lim|j ii a , #m Kiii|fs IhwiMMaD, vtA 
left lib fnitiy io Aaw ifct fef of tfs«:Ro(yi^ mamer. In odo> 
ia^liH gM»i aod'tho EmA of DarVagloo, «bo im^Mie of 
in Bogfandyfre^OTifly wmIi iiiilnr. Mnpky 
I Wilk iMraaoBsibr tiiriMg irai, wid «nMt b«q» 
of noo scoria yet remain on the land. 

EGGLESTON was part of the possessions of the Earls of West- 
mofdand; but is now the property of William Hutchinson, Esq. 
whose fiuDily obtained it by purchase in the beginniag of ihe4ast 
c a itoijU In this disi net are lead-onine^, which have been wroi^gl^ 
from the time of Edward the Sixth: varioua ancient wpriiii\|s 
bare .also been traced bere^ and^ by the diffieient in^emenU 
iomad 'm them, are supposed to iuive been wrought by the Ho- 
■BBS. 0|a the average, ten ounces of silver are extracted from each 
fiHiier (t^Qwt.) of lead produced in Teesdale. BGGLBSTO^ 
HOUSE, the seat of Mr. Hulohinsoo, OGci\p«es a loQj site oo tfa^ 
I of the river, and is screened from the north by jpiantatioas 
; oo the slcjpet of the bills% The garden cootaios one of the 
best botanical collections n England, upwurds of JOO differeqC 
plauis being arrai^d here: several pleasant walks are cut throng 
the rocks borderiog on the Tei^. Tbe pastes oouod IfiQ vilUge 
hare been alio .iodosed, and p^ted^ b^ Mr. Huti:hiBsoQ; aud 

the 



MO wnauBU. 

^fttlndhf sitaatedui'^iiiiikl of ihb geutfemtn^t bolnictl gar* 
deiw. /Near £gglc8too, on the north, we €zteosne works, tor 
flUelting, refioiogv aoil fodadig lead. The Qimkera, and Iah^ 
don GonsfMirir* haie also aofse yety ingeoiouB oiaclnDery aod 
mills here, for breaking and cleaoaog the ore aad ilag, the kmah 
lfen*of ihe ttcfiiw Mn Hall, now of Atkeodale, in YorWAne* 
The proipect ironi Nemal Edge, north of the uMk^ k one of tlm 
BMMl eitensivo and diittfiified in the county: on tbetaltit eoni^ 
nandt the whok imegaled Vale of Cleveland, wMi the sea neat 
Hunadiff Point; andon the aoirth^west, the bewniftd wnwihigs of 
Ihe Tees, with the dirtantmamrtansof Yofinhiie, Westmoidmd. 
and Gumbierland* 

One mile north of Eggleston is an ancxot inmain> called the 
Standimo StoNbs} this or^g^naBy coMHted of a Calm hi Cho 
oentre, sorroonded by a ttench; and that lyto tinKHmsmd^by 
n circnlar arrangement of rough stones, many of wUdi ha^ b^cil 
lemoved,. and broken, to repair the roads. Near a brook, atn 
small chstanee, is a large baoow, crossed from aait to wesi by n 
row <tf stones. 

MIDDLETON 

Is a small market-town, occiipymg a singular ntnation among 
h3b, and extending, in somewhat of an oval form, round an e|L« 
lennve green. The inhabitants are chiefly engaged in mining ; 
and almost every house is either used as an ale-house, or for the 
sale of some kind of goods. The Church is an ancient but small 
building; but the living is worth 15001. per annum. The parbli 
extends nearly twenty miles from west to east, and between two 
and three from north to south. The whole of the northern half 
is one series of lead-mines; in which, the country being exceedmgty 
mountainous, the mode called Hushing is chiefly pYactised. The 
bushings frequently raise and discolour the waters of the Tees, de- 
stroying its fish in great quantities. Some horse levek have been 
carried beneath the hills to an extent of five mile^. The west 
side of the parish was anciently part of Ihe extendv^ fbrent calkd 

Teesdale 



TetMk or Marwood Forest^ and ! was well sticked about 145^; 
wfacD die Kihop made Jahn KeviH, Earl of Westmoreland^ to 
Ibreflter. In the'winJter of 1673, four hundied deer pevitted in 
Ae snow. .Tlie houses in this township, according to the hte fe- 
tnnn, are 140; die populKtibn, 796. * 

14cmr Middleton is the ford into Torlcshlre/ called Si^ SndSf 
where many acddents have happened in the crossing the ri^, tM 
Hmm h^ag at times very' rapid, and old and yornig, male and fe* 
ande, obliged to wade through it, thorfgh ridng above the waist; 
Two niBes higher up is Wyncu Bsidgb, constructed wfth wood; 
aospcnded on two Iron chaftis, which rearch ftom side to side, and 
are a^amU in the rocks. This fabric Is sxty^three fcet m length, 
fbcMigft acahely more' than two feet liroad: Its height above 'lint 
ttfer, wUch fidb in repeated* cascades, is fifty feet. The trenm^ 
kos flibtkni of the bridge, and the dashing of the waters beneath, 
fiU the bosom of tfacf stmget with coliaiderabte apprebeukm and 



Three miles from Wynch Bridge is High FoBCBy or J%nw 
FaUf m stdbllme eataract, darlbg its Waters over a huge rock of 
black iMiUe, seventy feet bight Above the M, the river is 
dosdy pent up, and sweliing into rage, heii precipitates in an^ 
fill croA into a reservoir more than sixty feet deep. TVanqtiaiitj 
and ease is not iu de^y : 

•* Vbll fwift ^ dnhes on tlteitcky imtaiidty 

When; throagl^ • thapdeu bietk the almiB fwoandf. 

At high in air tbe bursting toxneau flow^ 

At deep recoiling turgct foam below : 

Prone down the rock the whitening thcet descends, 

And viewless Echo's car, astooishM, rends. 

Far seen throngb rbing mists, and ecateteis show'rs, 

The katftf CBVtm,. wM^sarroondtng, low*fs i ' 

Sdll throu^ the gap the struggling river toils. 

And still below the horrid cauldron boiU.# 

BvANt. 

The donds of ipray ariang from the descending waten, assaaoe, 

when cnlightcacd by die beamsof the sun, all thebrilliant beaoUes 

VOL.V. Q of 



ifflk^ nMnm^ b ^i^r it pfcnenU |^ ffff .|fiflfac«f|t,:t^Q|||ibii(i^ 

^rWtM-wUb a boMMlleis ^ma^ O^l^ri^ ^ '<4fMltes,fttid c% 
ddvMy iC^i^md fi]9g4)f , which form «i ftvUeis mi^ of pnsmfi 
that operate on the sun's rajs like so maiqf ajfik^ l^^tl?^ 4tr 
coraling thefn ta tea tbousend divectioos jn the . mast - l^nHiint 
mmnetp Tbeforceand boSiRgof Uiewatenatth^bottoffioflhp 
fidly has excavaled seveml caverm in t)ie solid marU^ but pf 
difficult aoce«S) accept durii^ severe frosls* Ijlfre the 4ninei#f 
If^ifttaod the boUuust my w^er mi^ puch ssiitfcctioa ; .#f 
ftia^ificpilion of t^e r<M^ 9Dfl ithe iiiaqy. qifioi^ criap^ tfa4 
fMha them, tiniishiac ovaierouB f ltffx#i to,gcaUfy4bs|r nynrh fW^ 
Xlfp 4>9aotifal Biiroet £ose hs|s hefen^met ivithh^; iMid Pf^ &T 
distant vyaattisoovfrod l|ie Gentiaxia Vefna, thc^gh aot prainoQi^ 
luMMTJi^ Id v^aist 19 (3mt Bri^^ IV omseof tha&U m^lhf 
heard 9uug 1^ iDund the im^i .a^aovm#t«ace |>elfvf lil^ 
the rocks rise in square colomns, to the perpendicubur hcigm>|g^ 

. ClAl^u^BPV i&l^^Tk 9Mi9tfiar 4l4|^ft on |h^ ,IV^ # MM^ 
frMT wles fib9^re4hff* jHifh Farce, 1|bvv i^if h. its wild fpd npMf 
Jap %4i(*4^ <(^>'>^ • ^fectad^ <lf ipst and g^ti^ ^mVlafi^ 
^ river isBues^frc^ a d^ iv>;4 lethw^^ pool, or nii»itan^H#V 
called the Weeld^ and precipitating itself 'OV^r a. YfMt h^mtf 
af whin, or basaltic rods, b dashed from steeep to steep in sheets 
of feam, formkigachain ^-aaacades tfarosigh a idesoent of 600 
jards. Of«rlhodeepestand most-aMFftdfMrtofthegalphywhefe 
the rocks approach nearest to each other, is titrown a beam of 
ttmhery serving for a bridge, which none but the most icsoluts 
can pass without horror. The Weeld is about one mile and a 
half b length; and xeceives the waters of tbe Tees, afler their 
descent from the deq> and narsow gieos- which ace ompan y their 
progress from theeletated regions of Ciosa^M. 



XxT the time of the Roman mvamn, Essttx, with ell Mid- 
DLESBX, was hihaUted by the people called TVinobarUes, or TH^ 
wovames; an appeDatioD obtamed from the ^toatioo of tbett 
cmifitTy on the borders of the broad expanse of watei^ formed %^ 
the Thames : tfias the tribe mbabiting the low peninsula of Cbll^ 
waj m Scotland, were termed Wovantes. The name Thinavant 
woold faave been given by the Britons to the Couniry beyond Me 
Sensdnit; and its inhabitants called Tranovanti, Tranovantyjyr, 
Teanoyantwts, 8ccf The THnobanies^ as iqppean from the 
testimony of andent wnters, possessed two considerable chies, or 
fwtified atatioos : one of' them occupied '^ the eminence betwixt 
tte Tluiaaes and the Fleetbrook,''t the centre of modem London; 
the other appears to have been at Colchester, in this coun^. 
Diss entioos among the Trinobantes paved the way to tlie eonqoest 
of Brilwa by the Romans; Mandnbrathis, a Prbce of this na* 
tian, having been the first to invite Csnar to invade the conntry. 
For Ais pntpose he went to Gaul, and retrnnrng with the Ro> 
nana, became instrnroental, by h» uAuence, to the subjugation 
of the Britons; the Trinobantes setting the base example of sab- 
mission to the invaders. 

On tlie subdivision of this Island by the Romans^ under Con? 
slantine the Great, Essex was hicluded m that part named Fla« 
TIA Cjesabihnsis. From the Itinerary of Antoninus, five 
principal stations appear to have been either formed, or occupied, 
by the Romans in this county. These were DyrolUum, Ouarvma* 
£fu, Cam^niuw, . C9m'^{i9,(ltHn9m, p^.M,4t!^vi Thes^jtlaces 

Q% Wife 

* Cambriaa Rcgisttr, Vol. II. p. lO. 
f Wkitakcr't Hiitory of the BiUom. 



144 B88EX* 

were all seated on the road which formed the fifth Iter, from Lon- 
dttoum to Tenta Icenoram. Camulodanuni was unquestionably 
the principal station in Essex ; and though its rite has been mudi 
contested by different writers, an attentive examination of the 
pfaKcs assigned by the various di^utants, combined with a know- 
ledge of the antiquities discovered in the vicinity of each, will ad* 
mit little doubt of Colchester being the real situation.* 

. Essex formed a separate and dUtiiict huigdom during a certaip 
period^oftheSacon'Hq»tarcfay, and was cstte^ East-^SeaM; but 
ibfi times of its first est^bUshmeat an4 teriniuati^^ as a Saxon 
Ipngdom are not authenticate* Tu^rt. spates that Uijs and Easf 
,An^ were originally occupied by the. Saxons at i^early the aamt 
iinie ; and tb;it ^rkei^'n was the fifst King of the former; coa^ 
joaendng bis ^eign in 5^7t and dymg in 587, It is id^erved hj 
Rapin^ that, of all the kingdoms of the Saxon Heptarchy^ Esaei^ 
is less noticed by histQriaoa than any of th^ ji^theiis* 
; , By the Domesday Boofcit appears, that riinety lai^owners c^ff 
ibis county wera deprived of their lands hy the. Conqyerar i diir^ 
whose reign the wlfole dvil and ecclesiastical ^qvenmwat of |b^ 
^kiagd^o^ and of each county, underwent ,very ^opskleraUIrK 
;cltfuign. . That of Esiex was now governed and tyranuiaed oviqr 
.by Nofmaq Baroqs, who constructed castles on their estalei: for 
personal security, and to awe their dependant vassab^ lathe 
^Civil Wans |>etween t^ bouses of York and Lanc^^i, and fn 
those of Chaf^e^'a time, this coonty su&red much from the in- 
terference of the De Veres in thei former, and during tbe.lqqg 
siege of Colchester in the latter. Formerly there were twelve cas- 
tles, or fortified buildings, in this count> ; four of which )iave 
.been denominated Roj^l CastUs, as built for national securifSy. 
Tbesp are Colcheter, Hadleigb, I^a^gqard, Fort| aod Ti^iory 

Fq^. 

* In our lecond volume, p . 4. oo the authority of Camden and Horeley, we 
nave'Tcfcrred to Maldeci' af ' the real ^mulodunom; a more CDmprebenslve 
iavestiptton of authoritiea, aad a yUjI to^acli of the aMigned stations, have is. 
(faced III to decide above. 

"f Anglo Saxon History^ Vol. I. p. tfS. 



loTL * /Ite ol hfl'ff gh t w«|e €iu^fffUe4,i9qn^'on5; but fi^raied for 
§riait fllr^Bglii andafc^ty. These w^re» Candficld and Hediog- 
bam, beioOfiog to the De Veres, JBarb of Oxford. Clavering an4 
BaJBJgfc, belooging' 40; Sqene, of £saex^ wlio possessed beside! 
tkese^ fi%-threQ olfier Lordships in this county. Ongar,. belonging 
tb Ucbaril jlie Ljicy« pic^y,, first possessed b^ the Duke of 
GioucQfleff, H%h Constable , of England. Stanstead-Monttichet; 
Wtomiiif . to . De . Moutfichet ; and Walden, to OeofTr^ de 
HaiHteri^ i^ the ti^.of the Domesday Survey. These very 
Ibmiidable tortresses, though once- the pride of (he nobility, and 
terror of the peasantry, are mostly razed to the ground ; the only 
paste remaining at tb«ur hig^h keeps, and wide fosses. . At CoU 
cheslcr, Hadleigh, Hedinghami and Walden^ some parts of the 
inddiBgs or walls renjiain. 

; TWs coun^ is bounded by Suffolk and Cambridgeshire on the 
Mat|i,.by the countiea of Hertford and Middlesex on the. west, by 
the liver Tbapies on the souths and by the Sea on the east. Its 
fslcat^ fqoipi east to west, is estimated at sixty, miles; and from 
•artb la sQUtb, at about fiAy: its circumference is computed at 
225 milea. It is divided into twenty parts, of which fourteen are 
hoBdiedB; five, half-hundreds; and one, a Royal liberty. These 
m fubdiioded into about 400 parishes and townshi|>s, and twen- 
^live tewDS; containing, according to the late officii report, 
39^398 booses, and 29^,437 ^habitants; of whom I L 1,356 are 
Males, and 115,081 females. 

Eiiex composes part of that tract of country on the eastern side 
of Ei^hmdy which forms the largest connected space of level 
jPDond io the whole Island ; not one lofty eminence or rocky ridge 
being fbond m several contiguous counties. The surfieice of Esset 
isoot^ however, totally flat, having many gentle hills and dales; 
and towards the north*we8t> whence most of the rivers proceed, 
Ike coiiofry rises, and presents a continued inequality of surface. 
The nsofit level tracts are those of the southern and eastern hun- 
ind% Tbe sea-coast is broken into a series of islets and peninsu- 
la, deeply cut in by arms of the sea, and exhibiting evident to- 
of tbe force and effects of that restless element. Extensive 
Q a salt 



^4$ 

salt in^l^^1>6ide^ nibit of tbe cbmll, fMigmMfkti oTwhUh If 

firoiected by embanktoents. The banks of the Thames, m& Ihi 
bwer part oC the sea, aVe HkeWi^ toir add marshy. This eovsi^ 
lies under a proverbial impata^onf 6f bemg partkulariy on b e altty t 
^uf this character cAn only dppl]^ to a sMR ftert of h'; as thtf 
middle and northern districts are justly i&oied for a fids diy floB; 
with a wkolesonie clear air. That part knoWvi by th^ niate eif tbi 
Hundreds qf ^sscx^ bordering on the sonth c^ast, ftoai ilihH# 
ana marshy situation, and exposure to the eas(eriy widds arid ste 
fogs, is certainly inimical t6 health, and many mCemutting fc» 
^rs proceed from these causes. 

fisoex derives many advantages froraf its maritime trsMe, ts fP«B 
as from its Vicmity to the Metropolis. The conveniency of waiCnw 
carriage, and goodness of its roads, give it a commerdal sapeik' 
ority over many other counties. Its surface is generally lei^; 
the greater part is inclosed, and rendered itighly produetiv^s by ttw 
skilful management of the agriculturdlsfs. The prfac^ prdil 
dudions are wheat, barley, oats, beans, peaK, turnips tames^ rafie^ 
mustard, rye*gniss, and trefoil. Many acres are also appropiiiiieA 
to tiie cultivation of Hdps, carniway, coriander, teasel, and vsoiQiitt 
horticultural plants and roots. Hie htter are cOnflned to the 
large towns, and to the laiids adjoining the Metropolis. Almoit 
every species of soil is to be found vrithin the fitntts of Essex, fiponr 
the most stubborn to the mildest loam. The north-west sid^ b 
characterized by a chalky substratum; biit the east and south 
sides abound with marshy and boggy hmd, having atbundance of 
gravel intermixed. Of waste Itfnds and fbn^ts^ Messiv. GrigsgaT^ 
imputed the county to' contain fifteen thousand acres; the greater 
part of which, they observe, is <:apable of producing com. Siooe 
their report, however, many districts have been inclosed and eiil» 
tivated. From tlic extent and variety of soil of this county, it i» 
totally imipossible to preserve one ofnifbrni s^em cffkrmiri^ : thfi 
most established and prevailing tiiode is described asfbltows by the 
above g^futieuieiu " tn the eastern part, the^ land is chiefly of ir 

strong 

• General View of the* Agriculture of Ettex. 




mwe A^tMril' poitioti of meadow, la oncfer tlir plough, and j^ 

^■y conikimMe v^ui^ of etary ^rt of gmb an^ pt\^, 

turn 9fpmnfi mo#6 of rreatini^tlie heavy land here, as M 

oliMr p«t ^ tb«^o«nlryi is to n^faifer Mbw tt ere 17 third 

m U m Hh, WBdi fa mtm parts, er^ry second or tMrdyrar ; aftet 

vidafc, fa the ifa» H » parN, a«tB *r barky are sown, and the hmd 

hii-dbwu witbdofer^ ttoMI and ryegrass ; and hsfUtg lain one 

fcaa, fa agrfd* fawbw up s#on after Mkhathnas, and wheat is 

> aftor wlicb, if tite 4and k clean, and m good c^idition, ibe 

lAai.««iop •f bams, and tlienr fallows agaitt. Hie next 

ft^ yw mly h wheait, beana well hoed, and then wlfe^ 

Oa the lighter tench are sown^ first, turnips, for wYdtH 

fa liwaya ituiAe, and the llnd Acn manuted. Barley, 

witfa c faa u, AmL whicb is fed off the ensuing years, sdceeedi 

iap of imripH then^ ^'HMt npon^ the clover lay ; arid after 

ftaac b9> ^fAkitt Ihe elofet Ails, (a drcumstfmee not initl- 

wm^nim fand fa ^coosidicM nnfit for wheat, and peas are sown 

faitftalMMi^ IWmA ihn nriddle ^ fissex, and the northern part 

haiifcring*'ttp«i^ Quiblk^ the s«o«i tarits eonsiderahfy ; «ome being 

4|bl, witk afadlqr cfay» or gravelly sand, at a ftwt or a foot abd 

Mf bAimihttmrUtei odier parts-are moist and Unding, aflbrd:. 

m§ m qMk v^gefalfaBv and reqniring constant attention in the 

lo prevenril ekhanatmg Itself by a spontaneous 

Ihi ptongh fa asett t6 oecnpy a hirge part of fliis dia- 

tody na littk more meadow or old pasture gtoin^s Bte fi)niid, 

Ifaift mil aqppiy faiy aiid fted ibr the hones on flie fSimts, and 

j 6ad far a fcw eowa keft6ftth& pikpott of aodtling, and dry 6a^ 

I Ifaitad Aacp^ wWcli ate prioitj^lly bougfal in one year, and aoM 

oiilttefMBt; Heit cwrryiOftof gnlin, pulse, and artttcfal grass, 

I ii <amii| wMi atai4 wteli-mani^ed and productive bop-groimd»» 

' ffhfahv ftoili Ibe vaai tapeoce of cnlllvalihg, and uncertain pn> 

I dnoe, mm iMpt hi Iho hands of the most opulent famdholders, to 

I mkmmlttfmt, lyos Ifaa whole, hictative.^ The centre of Es^ 

Q4 sex 

• Gfifii' GcBCttl View of tbt ^ricMlturtof Euex^ 



^ other manwresy are applied advaati^eooaly to the aaiL Ib 
die northwest part of the county, the land m reodeied most fm* 
ductive by one crop only, and then Ulkm ^ eieept, indeed, whnt 
it will bear turnips or clover. Here is but UtUe meadow or pno* 
tuie ; but, in consequence of frequent follows^ vei; fKat erapa al 
wheat, oaU, and barley, are firequeqtly obtained* The hitler 
grain is malted on the spot, and sent to the Xjoadoa market, when 
it is in bi^ esteem. In the western part, bpcdeiiag the rivtr Lem^ 
and including the forests of Epping and Hahiault, is ^und an io 
mbture of soils, from a wet, heavy, tongb clay, upon a life i 
. to a light, tender, thin soil upon gravel. The tile earth is oftm 
used in tbe manuiacturing of coarse earthen pots, tiles, &c. . E«* 
dusive of tbe forests, the greater part of this district it paatma 
(and, appropriated to the daiiy, and suckling of calves. Maaj 
districts on tbe east side of the conuty aft extremely prpdndm 
m tbe various crops of wlieat, beans, oats, cok-eeed, rape, oodaw* 
der, and mustard. <' Tbe wheat is not unfrequent^ fikmd to nan 
to a load an acrf ; oats (particularly the Pobwd) to 
twelve quarten; and beans, and other com, m proportioiu 
of this land has been known to produce five or sijl ol the.] 
jexbaustiug crops successively. Wheat has been mumkikmt siio» 
cessive years upon the same field, and ,tb^ crops apod an awriga 
have amounted to four quarters pei acre. This part of the oa«i» 
|ty, in particular, is tilM wilh great spirit and Judgment, though 
at a very great expeoce." 

Though Essei^ is not highly celthratod fi>r iti JMraw, yet those 
in tlv& parish of ^ppiog, and its vipnily, are fiunous fiwr the iich» 
yotess of their cre»im and butter. The butter m rooatly sent to Lodi* 
don, where if, bears a high character and price. In the selectioQ 
of cows for tlie diiiiy, those of Hold«;mes% Leioeslec, and JDeifoj^ 
are usiially preferred ; though tbe Nosfolk, Suffolk, Linaoha, 
.Welsh, and other breeds, ar^ often uidiscfindaateiy Uehded. Tba 
jpopipioQ proct^ of making the Epping btrnttt is to let Iha asilk 
^taud twenty- four hours, when (he cream is skimmed off, and the 
milk is driwii into vessels (not lined with lead) of an mcseased 

depth. 



imvu U§ 



homh daribg wfaidi tkae tbe risii^ cfeam is occasiooaUy 8kiiiuiie4 
d£ It b afkenraids jNit into 4cc|ier veaseb, (which is called tre^ 
f,J when aQ the wammg cveam, or ridy ofilk, is sefwate^ 
1 it* The hotter made fiou^ these l^skimmiqgSy or after .fleet* 
r it of a paleff Golar,aiid inferior quality, to that nade from dm 
iot ddauned cKam $ is cbiuped sq^iatefy, and sold at \ow^ 
Ths ihumiied niilk is camnoDly applied to the feedio| 
[ of yopig pigs and porkers; and ituppears, ftomnf 
pealed expetineBts^ that the fet of these animals is firmer, aixt 
** wtirity svpeiior tp t^i of hogs fetieDed upon peas or ineal.'? 
On a ealcniatioii, that two acres of ifime pasture, at tweotyi 
three shilliogs each, wiUsiipportacow oae year, and niaki^ at 
iowanee for aU usual eitpeBoes and receipts, od a daky of twenty 
cova, Mr. Vaocoover makes it appear, |hat the amiuai profits of 
I a dairy will be. a03l. Os. 8d. To produce this profiti bovi^ 
*f it is oecessaiy that the dairy be of prime qaality, acid rcgu^ 
hted by the moa skilful and atteative managemeot. Each cow 
is allowed to give suck for forty weeks in tlie year. In the fir^ 
twenty-six, iu milk will produce six pounds of butter per week^ 
and in the other fourteen, about four ponoda per %veek ; thus yieldr 
i^g abom 212 pounds yumualiy. The milk from each cow is alsy 
fe timatrd to suppc^rt twelve pigs, and twenty calves, during tbf 
above pcaiod* 

Easex is proivarbaally distins^uished for lU^Cahes^ of which more 
are bred or fiittened here than in any other English county. Th^ 
slack of co^ ift.^fly appropriiOed to the dairy, and grazing; to 
thcoi an^ be added, suckling as an object of great attention with 
the Essex fiwmer. The North Wales cows are, by some persons^ 
preferred for this purpose ; but the Devonshire breed has bee^ 
fenod g4»tly superior to all others; '' not only for the dairy, and 
mckh^gy hult in their disposition to keep in good order during the 
term of thoir miifc,'aod in their great aptitude to feed, or to fatten 
sAeiwanb? thus uoitaig at pnce, all those qualities which an 

supposed 

* YaoooMycr'4 pcocul View ol llie Afci^ulture of Emcx* 



J^iotlgbtfdritrtli^Dtfii^p^rllMrorfff^ 1hMiex0i^ 

tt^ t^Utti tllat are 6mi iHChk^ Mr etias^^ gmi^ n mi h m a^ wm 
%ttkx^ ttoih otheki fOrH tf Ibt Mbgd^i KHd^Hlt^M^^ iMmim 
fife t6t«ddtrfni<diei^. To ^W6<e tHiirt iHMidiigt 
JMImM II snttH bttH, of «^ift>tw« <i«m^4^Mv irfaiQli b 
ymA'tff Aft i^ttwAor of ilHMigh^; vrhti^ tiieO, Md a Mia 
iki^6fpO«vd<Af^<9ia3k, Helped f(^^ Tla^ii 

if^' titefh ikMrndvi^ anM' evMifiiig; jum li«(llrif mkMb^ ; aadi ii 
fkuki td HdlMdi tMr ^K^SHg, ftom ilr 9i^)0iM« m« eo mpi iahi g 
k)U^^ IrAis nutrfti6ds opiate l> aise tIcttniHf iwKftfM <i> wtiliMia^ 
tt€ v<!id :ii dttf tfm tiiafoaged, is gctietlAjr MidiMtAtMhpknIf 

]' P^dtdis 9t^ ttMmud to cdtisM^fMt extent i» cMllrait pti#i 
^ f6^' <*6iinty, and afe occ^ioiililfy employ fo pl%pflre • tieM 
iSf Wd^. lit the' Rght kmfc, they ftll<»w ^«nd iMnura m IW 
BtM^, fffooghifi^gr' fi^or fttm>w ridges, and plaaffaig two row»«r 
At^ at eight indies afnttl 6n eslch ridge". I0 HMfettrl^ pm 4$ iIm 
tafnmer, ibe fQrr6>*s are ploughed, and the pliM c a tt ti d qi aoi 
much as possible. The crop is obtaiued by splitting doirft tte 
Mges^^iiifh a dotible-ftreasted plough, and SOO btt^b perwsne it 
iM^med the iirerage produce. Near IM»rA»« samtextBism 
t(6tatoe ^mids^ ^hkh are cows! antty app r oprial id l» tMs «i»»; 
^o support a saeceesion of crops, It b iwoesaary t» 90ppiy tlM 
Umd Wifh ahundaoee of nrairare, most of which- it ohMiMi fiMI 
IiOnd<^. 

CaVbngfs, tfiongh hitely ihtroduced into Eiaeit, as ibo#fcft Ml* 
fto, ^qV, &c. are now f^laed th great nttwiben, and ate «sl«M»^ 
M a g6ocf ^uccvHlsmeinn for f iinfip^. The land is piisiagbed iaM 
Ibtir fifrrowed rtdgcs, whh about 400 bushefa of Idng dung pat 



•^Vttkoovrr'* General Vi^ir 6f the Agrieukote of Eiteif. 



9» 



tMer m fmMt6A iomu o* the $p0t where the phot is iitteoded f# 
itfiud. A b«gr ^Mi» the ftott iMy ^ ^ di'i»l>^ 
Ihm m ikb mdsM; and aiwthiMr wWairii^iilhai applied tQtbf 
iMd phiil*! aftflt whidi, plMgUig: the mteitalsr hoak^ h4 
moMiag ap the plants, fallow of comie. The dmnhhead cafep 
hi^Ditpiiefcmd; additshtfiid be pi:^ri9il8iy trasqiiMted inm 
ito M^fc ed, befbra it is oemiiiitteti |a tbc^ held. 

Among tlie more tare plants coltirated in Essex, aie cdntwdbfy 
iMsst ihMl camftvoy* Hie s^edi of these tfre eotnetiiaca sofvff to- 
fstherowrljift the spring, upoa a strong old. 1^1, ooeft p io tt ghe i t 
iid am oftsa very: psofluririe to the pcot^ietom; The mode 4f 
erilivaio^ these phmtik: rather ringnlar; and the fitrmaFfra^ 
fMatty eagages #ilh some Ishdrsar to share the ^f^ pkofitl of m 
6Mf apcm condllioa of his hoeiog aod fna*agil|g the crbps? Iha 
fanrier pnvides the la^d, ploughs it, psys all parifeh rales, aad aho 
CvtheseedL The hd»orar Sows it, heeps if dean bj fteqoeatbeto^ 
mp, cats, thileshes, aad ^paipaees' it for the aurhet ; ishen ttts 
pia d ae e ia c^nal^ dividsd^. Thisceatec6a*GonitBOf% htotttfaaea 
jeers, somatiiiies ku^. ^ Jb the .first, the sefend seeds o6«a 
up, «id whta of iaffieltot grasslh;* ai« setoul frith a hoe ; aai 
ihs eoriiwdrt, which is ananali is.ripe hefe se ianrfesT, and pnK 
daeesa rietsmftomten toiburtemhoadrad tedight an acre:aa 
IhasecoBd year,, the t^asei nmt <tf svllieh wiH nm BsMr,> yhUrii 
l6ad,oresK seorrisiiffii. df fillly hefds oMah staff p dad the teiii. 
ways, ftoin tfaea to she Uondved wei^ of, seed : the third year) 
tbi tdisel deihrti, aad the camvay is in p^Hbetioiiy tloi wiH 
|isli aa e^fwd fMk with the corfaodra; and «iest «f Ae teasd 
that did not nm last wMn, wiH produed heads thisy aada&iid a 
ftMh ot fifth part of the cTop it did the pre^^liog ^etUoo ^ hf 
vhitfe tkae the phitits are generally exhaaAed ; tioa|sh a fburti^ 
sad eveo fiMi, year of earraway has heeik lommi to socceod."* 
The aofiaiidcr, or eoi^ aa saane call it, and the canraway, roust 
he headi e d mth great care when ripe ; abd women aad chjldPMl 

* Grigp* GciMnl View. 



%it gttKinHy ciBploy«d 16 tut HfiM % ftkmi wWck are Hbtm- 
^jnafds pkced m oiotlis, and commoiily Hinsbed ott siil-dpdi, id 
Ifae i»i(Mie of the iiekl. The teasel k aliv«Q^i»y wonm^^iKho 
leave a ttafli with the head six or eight inches in ledglfa, By>iaisdi 
ft is boond m bunchet or gleans, of twenty-life heads each ^ tie 
like ^vmber of g^s conKtStiites half a sta£ ToasfeU'i^jpuw 
ehased and used by wooUen raanafceturers, who. lix then oa 
Aadles, md.by the hand, or niaddaery, they flirt applied .to ttt 
suHaoe of cloths, to raise the napi which is cut hH"* bjf tbm do^ 
tfaiars'^iears. . . ;. 

' Few couDties have less luinMBk than Euex ; wttich is also oeas^ 
ij exemflt from qoariies, or any mass of iod(s. In consequedct, 
Ibe houses are ahnost wfaoUy built with biic^ ; and many of tWoi 
are snignlar and corioos specimens o€ biidHRtbiteetiDe. la eon* 
ttmcdng the canks, the roonaslic buikliBgs» and many of the old 
wansioD-houses, the buikleia have endeavoared to render tlseaa 
fiot oaiy dwaMe monumeiits of their skill, but also exafiiplesrof 
4heir teste, dh|dayed by a variety of ornaments in Ike comicea^ 
doon, pilasleiB, and particularly in tfaechioBnies. The latter a«t 
atudiously varied in their shape and woriinianship, aad are sec^ 
with zigaag grooves rannlng round tliem, with spiral and with diai^ 
inond and squaie grooves, and several other whimsical adommeutSL 
- Some Mineral Wmun ris^ in the county, but Urn Jbave obtaiBdd 
suucb mpute : that of TUbury is oecasionaUy reaaited to, mil 
ibund to he impregnUed with some earthy and mnrialic sakH. 
He iashioMOile and osefal practice of sea-buthing ha» exteUei 
Ms influemie to Esma, and a ftw phces on- the coast aie 
annually visited by many pessoos, who seek pleasoie or heakk^ 
^ m bofttthig the briny waves.*' Ftis* are |4eotiAil on the oaM| 
and in the varbus creeks of thb comity i some of the ia 
about Colchester, and the Mency Island, are celebrated foe \ 
iKkt Oyster-beds. These afford a considerable. aiticlefor e aip to 
tation ; and the true breed are highly valued in the Metropolis. 
' The eastern counties of England am recorded to have been tbfe 
first pbces inhabited by the wooUen maiiofiH:turers, who camt 
over from the Coutiuent for the purpose of working up the Eiig* 

lish 



K, J wtwRr cr^ 'cbc^ aot sMn.:t<x iiiint M^iiind ittqr peculiii 
of u m n ^S ui f M , JtHl Ibt ml ml tO^om f ^m Mi t m 
pradisQd iQ tbe lA^.Gimtite»«ilferctbeJMtf pf Aif>iC— >pdb< 
rJUl)^M•%»4«it4llo•eLf«rt^ Semf^f.tif^MlKiigAlColf 

4n«Uy, pud. mm ^fik^M it# inflfie^flfi lo.iif«r^,ii^l|Mm« 

.aad nll«gM» aa$l luaoyof ||ie |)9«r;U|i)fMtwi» wtre lliai 

1 itt the arts of weaving, ^nniig, a^ddraiwVig of wool, .i 

In the etrl^ period of our hitloiy/ it j^ le^poenM^r pn^uwed^ 

that t|M wJHtle, or greater paKi, of Ei4ex:W^ 00^ eiilcMvc^/ot^^c 

Doii^f tbe Bdtisb aod BoMip. govennaeoti^. Qian|[ pacts ni«tfl 

bwa bcco cleaved, for iMioiif, foadsi'aqdcnltmtion:.yatiatblt 

tiaee of Ki«g Stephen, it appears tbi^ the priodpal poctioa of thff 

oouBtj vftts either fbiest, or sutject to, forest Iws. In his.reign^ 

a laig^ tract ioJhe aoith^east part of the county «fas di»«' 

i, and cultivated ; and the remaining part, north of $taae^ 

SCiaet,^ was disafibrested by Kiqg John. Henry the Third, in tlie 

twelfth year of his reigpi, directed perambiilalioiis to be taken of 

Waltl^Bi Fonst, m order to-ascertain its extent and val^e; and 

about the same tine had laifge tracts cleared for the plough. 

lUs judicious plan was pursued by £dward the Knt, hi the 

twugysiith and Iwenty-eighth years of hb reign: yet nioph forest 

hHMistin reoMoied; aadPaul, Viscount Bayuiqg, ^hnpny other 

frrtlrmrn of the county, purchased of the Crown, and disaffi>rH|e4 

aeveral parts of it« These preceedmgs, conbioed with the more 

cfptaWe deciaoos of subsequent inonaidis, occasioned the forests 

to contract theor boundaries, and )be less iujurious to the puf^ 

Whist the forests continued in the Crown, and w^e under the 

leeal go^moieal of arbitixiy foresters and stewards, the subject 

whose eitate was contiguous,- saCuod repeated oppre|»$iens. The 

p iet apce was partly redressed in the perilous reigir of King Johi^. 

vfaen the Barpoacoiapiisively procured frop that Uonarob» the 

Charter 



I dMBUUUsellhccoymy to BUkop Stortford, lee. in Htrtfordshlrc 



im 



■ad fCripptfl ^f thcMr opfNWsrfvc prMlq{cs; tpiMIt 

iMt iwMMMd. 'TlM ftiMi 4»f EypiDg and HiiiMuU iM rettki 

<ftr Entx vvat deenedhigMy honoiiiy, aod geoerttljrbe-' 
Hovrecl qb tonie aitfflrl6iii penoo. The fltewviMiip wt» riso m 
office of giwt cooseqaenoe, and uatmliyeiijoyed by someof tb* 
nobility* it -caatiiKied b tke De Veres, Baris df Oifofd, fir 
mmtj geoemtiofis; bat was itkea from ibem by Bdward die 
Awiihi thrcwgfa tbetf aAerencette tbe Laneasliian party. Oa 
Ibe aeccsiioa of Heaiy tbe StvMtb, it wai nestored by gtant le 
John, Earl af Oxford. The Steward had power to sabsfitatv • 
BeateoaBt, ana riding^forester, and three yeomen4bresterB, hi tb« 
Ihree bailiwicks of tbe forest. He also had many lacrative priti^ 
leges, andwaskecpcrof HaveWfi^ at Bower, and <rf'tiiebease and 
path diere. 

Previous to -the Dtssolution, Essex contained no fewer -tbmk 
Ibily^teven rel%ions hous^i of these two were mitred ifMes7 
Waltbam Holy Cross, and St. John^, Colrhester: six comMoii 
Mbie$; Biley, Coggeshalt, St.Osytfa, Stratford-Langthom, TRtc^, 
and WaMen: twenty-two Priories; Burden, Bladunore, St. B4- 
Mpb, Bycknaere, Maiden, Chelmsford, i>Qnmow, Otcy Mava 
Cdcbester, Earls Cohie, Hatfield Brood Oak, HatfieM Pteftfcll, 
Hofkesly little, Latton, Lees Little, .Mersey West, FmtMdt 
PrMewell, Stansgate, Takeley, Tiptree, Toby, and ThrembaH: 
three Nwmeries; Barking, Hedingham, and Wickes: three Cbl- 
lega;^ Halstead, Pleshy, and Layer Mamey ; two Praceptorief^ 
TemplarB; Cresnng, and Maplested Little: nine Hospiiah: Bodt- 
^g, Brook^Street, Sonth Weald, Crouched FVfars, MedbgliaiA 
Castle, Homchurch, IMbrd Oreat, Newport, St t>flei^ at Md* 
dkn, and St. Mary Magdalen at Colchester. 

Thepriueipal Ritbrs, properly belonging to-this^connty, are 
IIm Cohie, the Blackwater or Pant, the Cbelmer, tbe Crouch, tba 
Ingerbourn, the Boding, and the Cam. Besides Aeae, EsMxpar- 
lakes of <«t|ier ijyai^ wbicbaeKTaJisi 



ilBflii^liM^ «|iait<Hlt(Wyl toiphtMwtl i(,H>4»afkff^aiid»vri»)ppill 
into a wide estuary, and is iia?igable from tbe sea to wkiiJiiilM 
miles of Cokbester. 

The Blackwater, called also m)^ Autf in tlie first part of itf 
ntog|re9B|.lias its source fiear DeNen,,on .the borders^ of CmD* 
brid£eshirc« ,and, with a constantly meandering cpurse, passes 
tbroudi Bockjpg Bnd Cojrgeshall : near Witdam it receives iinoth^ 
stream: flowing soi)th;ea8t, it, unites u it h the Chelpier a, little be^ 
low Maiden, and then joins tbe jtvaters pf ^he Occ^n. Here ft 
forms 4U1 exteiji^ive estuary,. apd at bigb tides the ^^yafers ipundata 
^ hrge tract of country, ■ » 

Tit^Chelm^r has its priginal^ring 9^r Tb?xstead, ^nd foilowW 
a SQpflar . course with the forqier rivers, pa^^ n^ ar tjie town fix^f^ 
fnoTj of Duumow, mA at Chelnis6>rd receives )K>n)e other streams. 
It. now takes a Jiorth-.easterly direction,, and flowing through/^ 
pleasant valley, receives several tributary brooks, and joins the 
Bla^kwater near Maiden. 

Itie Crouch and Ingerboum are small riveips, wbi^h rite ia th^* 
aouthemaide of the county, and slowly pi^ through a. 9))ott 
pomne ip the Thames. The Boding, asmalUtreaMiMhas ^^.q^ 
puUm course in V^iting Qngar, and several villages jn its j)ijo* 
gicfls to Wanstead, Ilford, and Barking. It is n^a^e j^s^vigahle to 
Dfefd Bp^.. The Qam takes a different direction to a^y of the 
foimef, and rising .at three .sp^ngs.m^r Ne^yporl, passes Aud» 
Iq^End, db^terton^A^c. apd pMmMes a ^prth^ro CQUi;|Be to CJ^m- 
biif^e^ire. ^ 

Tbe Lea a^ad the S(0t constitute the western btoundaijy of the 
coooty, separathig it fro.n^ Middlesex ^nd Ij|ertfordslvre; and Ih^ 
Stoat divides it from the county of Suffolk to jrlie north. NMnHh 
lOQS other smaller ^tneams have th^ir ci«e in Essex, and fall f^}^ 
>to tbe Thames or the Ocean. Some of the estuaries and creeks 
sn celebrated for their oysters^ 

E«ei 



' Essex u iih Ihe tKooiM ef Loodod, tad eotttaurttnt itadU 
deaconries, and fifteen Deanoies: it retumt dgfct"' tmibtw td 
rbHiliiHeiir, viB« two for tbe coanty, two for Mildtii, twoibr 
Harwich, and two for Cotebesler: is ia tbe Hook Cimiity paya 
Hmify-fotir parts of ttekad'tazt and provkka 9^0 asw fiir tho 



CHEUfSiX>BI>, 

Hie shire town, is pleasantly situated near the centre of tha 
county, at the confluence of the rivers Cbelmer and Cann, from 
the ancient ford over the former of which it evidently derives its 
fiaiiie. Camden, without any authority, but its distance from 
the supposed site of Caraulodunum at Maiden, places Canonium 
tiere, though '^ every circumstance,'' it b observed by Mr. Gougb, 
< is against assigning such antiquity to this town ; there was not 
even a road near it till Henry the First's time, when Maurice, 
Bishop of London, to whose See it had always belonged till Boii- 
ner^s time, built a bridge over the Chelmer."* Maurice possessed 
the episcopal dignity about the year 1100, and to his bridge thb 
town owes its hnportance, as it occasioned the great road, which 
before passed through Writtle, a village two miles to the west^ to 
be brought to Chelmsford, and from that time the latter increased 
both in houses and population. In the first year of King John, 
WiUiam de Sancta Maria, Bishop of London, procured the grant 
of a weekly market, and other privileges ; these were afterwards 
confirmed by Edward the First. 

The town and manor of Chelmsford were granted by Bishop 
Bonner to Henry the Eighth in the year 1545. Queen Eliza- 
beth, in July 1563, bestowed them on Thomas Mfldmay, Esq. 
whose family have continued proprietors from that period. In a 
aurvey taken for the Mildmays, in 1591, are these particulan : 
^ Chelmiersforde is one ancient goodly manor, scituate in the 
liearte of the county, in good and wholesom air, conveniently and 
well boused, and well built for timber and tile. The chief manor 

house 

* 

* Addittoas to the Brtt«imia, Vol. II. p. 55. 



BSSXZ. S57 

iNNBe was in (be fime of Edwarde the Thirde, brent and wasted 

i^ fire ; and before that it seemed to have been some anoint ba- 

Whhin this manor is situate the town Cbehnesford, some- 

f written the Burroweof Cbelmesford, well situated with moie 

^500 habitations, divers of them seemly for gentlemen, many 

and the residae of the same babitatioiis for victuallers 

I of city-like buildings. This town is called the shire 

not only by the statute of eleventh of Henry the Seventh, 

: custody of weights and measures, but so reputed and taken 

before by the keeping of all assizes and sessions of the 

&c« In the eleventh of Edward the Third, four mem- 

! sent from Chelmsford to a Council held at Westmmster, 

9rd is a respectable town, chiefly formed by four streets. 

_ ' Ibe centre b the Shire Hall, an elegant, commodious, and 

iriengned structure, erected at the expense of the county, 

designs, imd under the immediate direction, of J. Johnson, 

f architect, who having completed it to the satisfaction of his 

and at an expense less than the original estimate, was 

in pursuance to a vote passed at the quarter sessions in 

widi a silver cup of elegant foruu The front of the buOd^ 

f wUte stone, with a rusticated l>asemeiit, and ornamented 

three-quarter columns, supporting a pediment. The 

y^jftai 't>f the facade is further ornamented with three appro- 

cnbfematical basso-relievos. In the basement of this 

is an open space for the com exchange, and apartments 

I courts of assize, sessions, &c. Above is an elegant assem- 

rMunty room, which extends the whole length of the build- 

» furnished with a music gallery, two handsome chan* 

' and sculptured marble chimney-pieces. Behind thb is a 

D, and several other convenient apartments Contiguous 

1 8bkt Hall b a neatly sculptured Conduit^ having the figure 

^Utiad at the top. On the diflerent sides above the pipes 

the water issues, are the foUowiug appropriate inscrip- 

' Badgnus Benignis.' Bountiful to the Bounteous. ^ Ncc 

\jwrcU** libeial to the Covetous. * Nee dimimitUlargU 

Not diminished by bestowing. ' Sic charitas a Deofonte* 

Vol. V. AraiL, 1804. R Thus 



Thus C^rity from th^ Ue^vepHyfouptm^ J^kt^ ^fl ii Imi^ 
i^QiV a spring about a cpiarter of ^ ipUe 6*091 the towiu Wl^ 
tJie original ConduU was built i3 unknown; tbe present ii{as ece^ 
ed a kw years ago, cliiefly from subscriptions of tbfi inbabit^nti^ 
and gifu of lOOl. e^ch, from tb^ Sun mi Roynl SKcbaoge flvf 
Offices. 

Tbe Church is a ^cious and bandsonxe building, dedicated tq 
St. Mary. The body is modern, and was erected fiom desigos b5 
Mr. Johnson, in place of the more ancient part, whicJt fell to tbi; 
grou(id, with a most tremendous crash, on the nigbt of the sevf^f 
tcenth of January, 1800, At tt^e w^st ei¥| is a scjuare flint towe^, 
with pinnacles. When the original Church was fqimdfd is uiyxir* 
tain ; but, from an inscription which was placed 0^ the soutji ^de 
of the centre aisle, it apj)ears to bare bee^ repaired by si^>sci^p» 
tion in the year 1424: in the CaLhoU^: tuues it oontaioed fevv( 
gviilcis or chantries. The burial-place of thf^ MildmayM is 00 t^ 
norlb of the chqncel: Bei\iamin, Earl Fitzwalter^ and Frederiai^ 
his countess, daughter to the g-#4Pt Puke of Schombecg, 9X% 
among the number of that family who. lie hewi interred. la »^ 
building the body of ihe Church, tbe ancient character of its aim 
9hi,tecture has been preserved; but t be interior is eleg^tly onuv* 
ineuted in a modem style. At the west end is a gaikiy, ia wfiicis 
is a fine orgini, erected by Hancock, in 1772; but ajnce improve^ 
by Russell. The new building was opeued for divine serv^c^ if\ 
September 1803. 

lu this town is a Free Grammar School, founded, aud liberallj 
endowed, in tl,ie year 1552, by Edward the Si^th^ on tbj9 peUtioo 
of Sir William Petre, Knight; Sir Walter Mildmay^ Kui^h^ 
then one of the General Super?i^w of the Court of Augmei3ijt% 
tions; Sir Henry Tyrrell, Knight; and Thomas MUdmay, Esq, 
The Governors were at the same time constituted a body corpo* 
rate. The common seal is of brass, having a rose eugravco 09 it, 
and round the edge this inscri|»tion : COE. SIGILL. GUB.POSS, 
REV. E. BONOR. LIB. SHO. GRAM. REG. EDRI. VIOi 
IN CHELMSFORD IN COM. ESSEX. The School Hous^ 
was rebuilt in the year 1782, by R, Benyon, Ea^. than acting 

<5oven^r. 



tM eiMffkySdM^ iippDCtefl by a«b«HJ(4lpn ; out {m9dfiio^ 
Ih0 nMotMOth tf Angati^ \713^ £^ iifty Ih»^; ^ ottier ii| 
Ajpsil, )ri4, fcr IMO^ giria. Hm Sdi(¥4 lUvm sf^ck ^ 
lli» MTtlh^Ml MBMr of tiMft ChuToh* Y««4 j lifti^iWft ^ it 9ir^ 
lbM»iift»»-JfoiiMifilr dinyMl fwOkK Tbvr 3rii%0» mcU^ b^ 
Bidiop Maurice, over the Chtlmet, baWgg gf!^ dacsQ^ wa^ 
itbttik with •!!• arch i* U»jf^i^ 1787, Ifow ai 4^|U0a ky. Mr. 
JahnflBD. Tkis bnise mtilift die h^m^l of MovifW^M, yfUk 
C lighMfe rdL Ntar it, w tke MoulshaHi «ida» «tiiick dpe &mm^ 
ft apaoioHt upd mU-«Rf»n^ ston^ buil4ingv vbicli ij^^s 
t iu 1773^ bj «a«wbit«rct munedHyJyard^ l^t has sioce 
I wmch Mi|MN>¥«d % Mi. X^Iimqii. The fieooi, is iormAd by ^ 
I houtt oe^upiad by the gaoler: ftom this we^tward^ 
t ailaige paved y^, teniiiiuiled byjh^ Hoi|]ital» op Wa<4 
fcc ftaait cHioiiiafa^ and a feiy naal and cpnuenietU Chapel. 
9m Urn mBtih-sVk, mtt Iht ii?er« is a double tmi^ of calk ; aa4 
kt^m^ aootbar lai^a ^fi^ aocui^ed by a wall and iroa palisa* 
daei^ aptwnpiiited lo tlMl u^a of the Gonvicts emi^k^d in pfckiog 
^ttakiogvopei. On tha south sida^ ftom the boose, 
^acangeof sapaiateaeUafor ooodBoiiicd cmiinals, behind 
whiih,- tm tl» offptiU $ida of a paved yard, are apai:tnients Cqc 
dAtao, mmtwtFOli^ dispasad. Ewiy jiard is provided witb 
csceUeot qpring water, which, with the general attentiop paid to 
giCBitiy coatribults to the health of the prisonrrs. la 
I aae alsoax Ahns-Housu^ endowed for the relief of thi$ 
MM naiBkr' of pqoc people, by Thomas Mildmay, Ea% in the 
jnr 1565: Ihcpecaaiiidwallu^ were erected by Wilbam Mildn^ay^ 
Ba% io 1756* Within this hamlet, near the ri?er, stood a Dor 
aaakaA PMry, the ska of wbidi atiU ratams th^ appeUatioa of 
the Friars. Camden, and some other writers, have attritiuted its 
iNuidatkMi to Makobii, King of Scodand: but Ibb ifreyid«si)tly a 
■■lake, as, according to the remaik of Bishop Tannax,* ihs 

K if MaMiBf 

• Notitia. 



t69 SMix: 

Bfaleoltii8ifere€itinct lofig brfoire the DbmineaB^ ditracd foot- 
iDg in EoglamL At the DisaohitioD, the revenues of tins house 
were esttmated at 91 6b. 5d. In the thhty-fiahof Henrjf the 
Eighth, it was granted to Anthony Bonml; but has ancebe- 
eome the property of the MiWmays. Th<mas Langford, who 
lived m tfie re^n of Edward the Second, and compiled a Vmm- 
sal Chronicle ftom the Creation to his own Hmes, besides odier 
curious pieces, was a Friar in this house* 

On Gallywood Common, near Cheknsfiwd, is a Race Omne, 
on which three phtes are run for annually. One of them, of the 
valoe of 100 guineas, is given by the Queen, The others, of fif- 
ty guineas each, are provided by the subscriptions of the inhahi* 
tants, and of the neighbouring nobility and gentry. The support 
of the Uboring classes is cbiefly derived from the general busioets 
of the county, and from the multitude of carriers and passengen 
that take this road to the Metropolis. The numb^ of inhabi- 
tants, as returned under the bite act, was 3755 ; of houses £55. 
The country surrounding Chelmsford is extremely pleasant, and 
fertile : the soil principally coi^ts of a deep rich loam, iote^ 
mixed with vems of gravel Several flourishmg plantations of 
hops are establbhed m the neighbourhood. Within the last six or 
seven years, two extensive ranges of Barracka^ with aocoramoda- 
fions for upwards of 4000 troops, have been erected in this pa- 
rish: tliehirgestisatthe westendofthetown; the other on the 
southern side. 

At a small distance west of the latter, begins a line of embank* 
ment for defending the approach to the Metropolis, consisting of 
star batteries and parapets. It has been carried a conskkruMe 
way in a soolbeast direction; but is not yet completed to thecv 
tent proposed. This line is one among the numerous works noir 
carrying on hi this country to defeat the purposes of the projected 
invasion. 

Philemon Holland, M. D. the Translator-General of hit 
age, and the first that rendered Camden into English, was born 
atChehnsford, intheyear 155U He was taught the first rudi- 
ments of leammg at the Grammar School, and was then sent to 

Trinity 



TMlj Colle^, (kmbridge; m wMcb he was tftetwardt a^jkaackl 
t^ a FHkmship. R^motiog frem the Unhefsity, he settled at 
Cofeotry, where be became bead Master of the Royal Free 
Sthool, and Tetaloed that situatioQ many years. Hera also 
be comroeneed Physician, having taken bis degrees at Cam- 
bridge : but his celebrity appears to have arisen more ftom the 
number of kanied works which he tianslatedy than from ddwr 
his scholastic or medicinal profession. Among bis TninslatkNis» 
are Lity, Pliny's Natural History, Plutardi's Morab, Suetonius, 
Amroianns MarcelKnus, Xenopboii's Cyropaedia, and the Bri- 
tannia: to the latter he also made rarious additions* Hewasin- 
deiatigable in study; and of a comprehensive, wett-informed judg* 
■Mnt; though his style is somewhat tinctured with the conceits 
and quaintness of the age. He espired on the ninth of Februaiy, 
16369 in his eighfy-lit)h year; and was buried in St. Mai/s 
Chorch, Coventry. The following epigram is attribnted to Um, 
and said to have been made on writing a large folio voloma with 
a single pea. 

Wkh oae loU pen I wrote thU book, 

H94t of a giey 900M quill ; 
A pen it was when I it took, 

A pen I leave it itill. 

MOULSHAM, the seat and manor of the Mildmays, was, prior 
to the Norman Conquest, parcel of the possessions of the Abbey 
Church of St. Peter's, Westminster; but becomug vested m the 
Crown at the Dissolution, was sold by Henry the Eighth, on the 
twenty-third of July, 1540, to Thomas Mildroay, Gent, oue of 
the Auditors of the Court of Augmentations. Tliis gentleman re* 
baQt the manor-house, *' so that it was then accounted the great- 
est Esquire's building within the county of Essex.*'* Since that, a 
large modem fabric has been erected on its site, by Benjamin, Earl 
Fit» Walter, from the designs, and under the direction, of the ce- 
kWated Italian architect Leoni. This building, now calle<l 

R 3 MOULSHAM 

• AlKicot Sonrcy io the poaseitioo of the Mndmay hrnWy. 



qouit in Ibt c««t»^ «mI ooianMUMlmg « mm of Danbnrj HU 
^r^oi the pmoA frofdf wbieii bm an owmmwitfil ptdinMDl, dit>> 
pli^g the family aoas io iMUMO-telievo : tbove are the statue* 
of ilfollo, J)wna» and Mevcury. Tiie interior is dsiposed nritb 
great jttdgmfiiit; and an easy access is <4>tained Co Ihe apartaieDl3 
c^ tbe difiaent sides of die quadrangky by vcans-of n continMfd 
galf4ity ^>^ eqch floor, 

AoioQg 4be family portraits in this anuBUMH are those of Sir 
Tu^MAB MiLDMAY, to whom die manor was sold by Henry the 
Eightbi SlB Walteb Mildmay, founder of Sfnaanel CoUc^e* 
Cambridge ^ Sir H«nby Mildm ay, represented as dead» and 
oiiEersd witb a Uaek velvet pall; B&njamjn» kde £m1 Fit^ 
Walter; FafiDEftiCA^ bis LAdy; Robert, Earl of (loklemesse» 
her fint busbapd; and Maikcuart, ber father,, tiie . bmve 
Dwhe of Schomberg, Here is also an ancient paint/og of M atilt 
DA« diHighter of the Lord Robert Fitx-Walter, wrbo jwas poisoned 
at Duumow by King John. The Mildniays trace their dewot 
from Hugo Miideme, or Mildme, who lived about the year 
1U7: Walter Mildmay settled at Writtk, near Chelmsfoid, 
about the end of the reign of Henry the SevenAh, and was father 
of the above Sir Tbonias, who had fbor sons, eadi of whom be- 
came the head of a respectable family. Sitl Walter, the 
youngest, the founder of Emanuel College, was bom at Moub* 
ham, and became Chancellor of the Exchequer, and Privy Coun* 
seilor to Queen Elizabeth : he died in the year 15Sp. Several 
others of this family have held honorable situations uiider difierent 
sovereigns. 

* Nearly two miles west from Moulsham is WRITTLE, former- 
ly a market town, but long divested of its trade by the increased 
importance of Chelmsford. Here Morant, and some other anti- 
quaries, have placed the Casaromagut of the Itinerary ; but there * 
b no evidentc, as IVIr. Gough observes, of its ever having been a 
Roman station. Kear the village is a square plot of ground, in- 
closed by a deep moat, supposed to have been the site of a palace, 
recorded, in Stow*s Annals, to have been erected by King John, 

. about 



Umn tkktf 9fid (9tif yeunf^^ Tkti GhMrth b m tn^rt itwl 
i|lfcious binlding, coupBriig of a navte, cbuMel^ ted vdt ttista^* 
w& an embaltM t«wer at Ae west ead. It i» dcdkaled t# All' 
SfUttU; and wppmn- to baiva beta ^mo, with ks ilppiirt«iuHN»>' 
to the moQk$ of Bermoodioyy ia Sorrey, by King Stepbem in 
tbejcar U03»k wvgnntcd to tbtlaglMi HMpitnlOf tbeHiiij 
Ghost at Ronie, by King John ; but Hs pOMtHioHs were aAei^ 
wvda seiied by the Ciown, at belonging to fm atien pntty^ add*- 
io l$59f bestowed on tbe Warden and Fellows of New CoUegBi 
Oxford, tbroogjb the interest of its fonnder, Wyckham, Bislio|i of 
Wiacbester : it is still a peculiar jurisdiction bekta^ag to tbat 
Colkge, and as such exempt fkoni e^nscopal visittition, WitUlJr 
tte Cbofcb are several elaborate monuments, and many iusorip^ 
tiom, to ihe memory of respectable families who bate resided in 
till parisb, which- is supposed to be tbe largest in tbe county, its 
dRamiierence being estimated at fifty*two mile^ Amttig theM 
iiandcfBiit tomb to tbe memDi;y of Sib John Oomyna, Kot« 
Chief Baron of the Eiichequer, who erected tbe bnge maaiioU 
called UYOULANDfii near Chelmsford, now occupied by Coine« 
imH. Kortiigbt, fsq^ On the tomb is a bust of this able and 
Vri|^ Judf^ in hb Baron's robes -, aud engraven on an etitabbh 
tiK of grey marble bit character^ which oouclades with Iba Mf 
Wviog beautiful e«tnct from Horace : 



-Cal puAot et Jusiitiae toror 



ftc^rtupii fldei, ilu^ue t4:f4tMi 
Qulade allMt lavADicntpSreni .• 

la tbe reign of Edward the Confessor, the extensive Lonlship of 
Writtfe, from wliich at different times no fcMer tlian nihe manors 

114 have 

* Jhac lio^ havt (>cfQ thus (rvslaudl by FraofU ; 

6h« vbert iMI IMils of kmI »iMif^ I 

Of Jsttkc puri^ the HMer fairi 

And Modesty, untpoitcd maid ; • 

And Truth, in artless guhc array'd; 

Amtfng tHe race of human kind, 

X match for this Justinian find ? 



iMNte keen tepottedy wss held by Biri HtroM, mi whose dcAit 
awl death it Ml uito the bands of the Oanqiieror, who retained a 
mry conriderable pait at the tii&e of the Domesday Survey. In 
the raign of Henry the Thirds the manor of Writtle was hi the 
possetnon of Philip de Athene, and afterwards of WUlnni Loo^ 
Espe^, £arl of Salisbury. From him it passed, through ▼arioua 
families, to Thomas of Woodstoek, Duke of Qloocester, and High 
Constable of England ; afier whose unthnely firte^ in 15979 it was 
obtained by Thomas, Earl of Stafford, whose descendants conti- 
noed possosors till the decapitation of Edward, Eaii of Stafibrd, 
in the year 1521, when nil the family estates fell to the Crown. 
Queen Mary, in 1553, granted Writtle, with other manors, to Sir 
William Petre, Knt. whose issue still enjoy it. The number of io- 
babitants in this parish, as returned under the Population Act, 
was 1599 ; the number of houses 286. 

Writtle was the birth-place of the celebrated John Bastwick, 
II. D. He was bom in the year 1593, and educated at Eraanoel 
CoUege, Cambridge, but obtamed his degrees at the University of 
Padna. Granger describes him as too intent upon the rtforma- 
tion of govenmient and religion, to attend particularly to the bo- 
sinass of his profession. However this may be, it is certain that 
his writings incurred tlie displeasure of the Star-Ohamber, by 
whose onprindpled and infamous decision he was deprired of hb 
ears in the pillory, and sentenced to perpetual imprisonment in St« 
Mary's Castle, in the Isle of Sdlly. In l640 he was released bj 
order of Parliament, and bis sufferings compensated by a grant of 
59001. from the estates of the Archbishop of Canterbury. He 
died about ten years afterwards. 

In this parish, about four miles north-east from the Church,' in 
the middle of a wood called Highwood Quarter, was formerly a 
Hcrmiiage. founded by one Robert, a monk. In the time of King 
Stephen, who gnmted the land, and other requisites for the mi* 
dertaking. Additional beneActioos were made by Henry the Se- 
cond, in whose rrign it became attadied to St. John's Abbey, 
Colchester. Soon af^er the Dissolution, its possessions were alienated 
to Sir Wiiiiara Petre, Knt. in whose posterity they still remam. 

SPRINGFIELD, 



96i 

SmNOnBLD, a imaH Tillage, Amd one nBe noith-eflHil 
ftom Chelinsford, is called, by Norden, Campus Aqutaticm^ frooft 
the number of springs ridng in the neighbottriiood* At the time 
of die Domesday Sonrey, neariy the whole parish was in tlie pdt^ 
aesMQ of Ralph P^verel and Robert Gemon. Sprimsfiblb 
Lyons, sHoated on a fine emmence in this parish, is the seat of 
die Dowager Lady Waldiam. Sprinofibld Place is oocu^ 

pisd by Brografe, Esq. 

NEW-HALL, an extensive Lordship in the parish of Borebam, 
was originally a parcel of the possessions of Waltham Abbey ; but 
was exchanged, in the twenty-fourth of Edward the Third, for 
other manors in this county, with Sir John de Shardelowe, Knt 
whose brother, Sir Thomas de Shardelowe, again exchanged it, 
with other estates, for the manor of Bradeker, in Norfolk, then 
the property of Sir Henry and Thomas de Coggeshall. Thb t^ 
teStj retuiied it till the tenth of Henry the Fifth, when it became 
the joint property of Sir John de Boreham, and others ; but soon 
afterwards appears to have been possessed by Richard Aired, who 
held it of Margaret, Queen of Henry the Sixth. During the wait 
b etw e en the rival houses of York and Lancaster, it fell to the 
Oown, and was granted to Boteller, Earl of Ormond, a strenuous 
partiian of the Lancastrians, who was made prisoner at the battle 
of Towton, in I460, and beheaded. It was afterwards bestowed 
oo Thoou», his younger brother, by Henry tlie Seventh, who also 
granted permission to fortify the manor-house with walls and 
towers. The spacious mansion called New-Hall, of which a 
large portion Is now standing, is supposed to have been btdlt 
through this license. It was afterwards adorned and improved by 
Henry the Eighth, who obtained the Lordship in exchange, from 
Thomas Bollyn, (father of Queen Anne Bollyn,) Earl of Wik- 
ihire, whose father had married the eldest daughter of Thomas, 
Eari of Omiond. Henry was so charmed mith the situation, that 
be eretted It iuto an Honor, and gave it the name of Benuliatp 
nmkingtt a phice qf frequent residence; and here, in 1524^, he 
kept the feast of St. George ; his daughter, the Princess Mary 

also 



idM puidcd hut^m9mlj9U% la 1^7^ Queoi-] 
^d» ivjUi otb«f Gpotigu^ua maoersy to* Thonws Raldii^ Sad of 
Ai^foUKf who 1^ itodeivd lieif estentiid aerace botb in.<SGOttead 
Mad telaod. TUf oobiewan dyiag without isf tie, was tqccwwM 
Jb> hit ^fqthtrt wboie son and hair, Robert, larl of $us^s^ 90U 
it^ ibout the ^ar 16'30» for 30,0001. to ViUiers, Duko of Bode- 
iy^baiiH who ma assassinated by Fulton mt Poitmouth. Uys sov 
George having espoused the Royal cause, was nttaiuted by tl^ 
Parliimiifnt, and his estates ordered to be sold, Sooo afterwards, 
in April, l£51, New^Hail was purcbasad by Oliver CrpniwsU, for 
the sum otjivt ihiUuig9, though its annual vakie was then con* 
putMl at 13(^. 12sidid. 

Cronwell retained possession but a short period ; for being mort 
poised with the situation of Hampton Court, he g^ve a sua of 
liipoc;j, and New-Hall, iiK exchange for it. The lattar was next 
porchased by three Merchants of London, for 16,0001. but, after 
|he Restoration, it became the property of Monk, Duke of AUio« 
mniiple, who lived here for some time in great splendor. Chnsto* 
fiber, Us son and heir, married tUaabeth, graud-daughter to Wil- 
liam Carendisb, Earl of Newcastle who, 00 her husband's defttb, 
succeeded to this estate: thb lady, ui 1691, was again married, lo 
Ralph, Duke of Montague; after which New-Hall was deserted, 
^ became ruinons. Before the decease of her Grace, who died 
iu 1734, the reversion of this Lordship was purchased by Be^ia- 
mia Uoaie, Esq. Three years afterwards, the mansion of Now* 
IHall, with tlie gardens and park, was sold by this gjentkman to 
John Olmius, Escj* afterwards Barou Waltham, who pulled down 
a very considerable portion of the biiildiiig; some valuable mar* 
bles, and otiier materials, having been previously removed by Mn 
Hoare, to a new and handsome mansion, cvccted for himself at 
some distance on the road to Colcke4er. Nkw-Hau« has siooe 
beau purchstfed by some opuleut Roman Cnthohcs, nod is occu* 
pied by English Nuus, who were driven from Lieg^ during tho 
Fceiich Revolution, and here direct the education of about eigjbty 
Catholic >0Mng laiiies. Tola buililiiig, iu its most fimirishii^ state, 
wan one of the largest in the kingdom, and consisted of two qua- 
drangles^ 



*6y 

fenfe 9omH. f ti <l« fM t ftc«r ^twicllng Is thi 
Ai/, a-8p«do9itad gttmfil apftrttteat^ ttwatoi^i nincty-Bix 
length, &lty wide^ avd tety high. This litis b«eo lately 
ad mHo a C^ptl, ka4 laM Mt in a vary jtMlidoas ttiaiiner. 
Ob iIm eart side are tl«e annsvf Henry the Eighth, finely wrought 
m fw e ^ oa e : the fMiifKMvt>rk is acutptared with delkafe f(>liagc ; 
hatith ttie aras k Ibe fottowiog inscr^liody {^fi)Mrted by a Ktm 
aadibia&: 

The whole is indond m a frame of atooe ; the outside lemheltisiied 
whh jnihtary joBtruoiento and tit>|»hies. Over the por^ Hi Ibi 
eatraticf is the anus of Queen EhsabeCh, with tbtle iiiscriptiooft; 

Viva Elizabdla. 



En urn la piu savia R>;g1tia, en cido la piu lucente itella i 
Virgtne magnattiiba dotu dlvina legiadra honeata ct belJa. 

Id the splendid Chapel belonging to this niansbn, which was tiike» 
^ouu t)et\veen fifty and sixty years ago, was first erected the niaf^ 
nlllkent painted window now io St. IVIargaret's €ba|>el^ Wesln 
nunster. 

BOft£MA^Y, now a pleasant village, is, from its name, sup* 
posed, by Morant, to have been a market-town in the Saxoa 
firaes. Al the period of the Domesday Survey, the whole manor, 
was held by Eustace, Earl of Bologne, Suene, of Essex, and WJk* 
Bahi de Warrenne : it is liow divided among various families^ 
fn the Ctmrch, in a part called the Sussejc Chapel, from its havii^ 
been built al the expence of Sir Tliomas Radcliffe, afterwards Earl 
of Sussex, who, with his father, grand father, and nine other per* 
sbiQ of Uiis nol)!e family, lies buried in the vault beneath. In the 
Ctiaj^el are the mutilated remains of a splendid monument, erected 

• Tfcii iI*€ripi^oii refew t« a magnificent gate- way which fomieTly led into 
sWcbirf Court, and from which the arms wcic removed into ihc Hall. 



by Eurl Tlittiaa9» to porpetmte the memoiy cf WmmtM a«d i 
relatives, »t an expenee of nearly SOOl. Oa the top ase 
bent figoresy in armoury of Robert BadclifFi firat Earl of 
Sussex of that family, who died in 1542 ; Hbnet, hit ion, oWk 
1556; and Thomas, bb grandson, the builder of theCbapd, 
who died in 15S3. The bodies of the two former, with thoae of 
their ladies, were removed hither from the Church of St. Law- 
rence Pountney in London, in pursuance of the will of Earl Tho^ 
mas. Three long inscriptions, in Latin, on tablets of black mar- 
ble, record the titles and conduct of these exalted personages. 
The leaden coffins in which the bodies are inhumed, are now 
bricked up at one end of the vault ; several of them are cast b the 
bomao form, and hiscribed with the name, &c. ci the person in- 
closed within. In the Cburcb-yard is a neat octagonal roauso* 
leum for the Waltham family, built of stone and white brick : the 
late Lord Waltham, of New-Hall, wa^ buried here. On the ftout 
is this inscription ; 

MAUSOLEUM 

GENTIS WALTHAMIANiE. 

M.DCC.LXIV. 

' GREAT BADOW, between one and two miles south-east from 
Chelmsford, is an extensive village, inhabited by norany respecta- 
ble ^milies, who have chosen this phice of residence from tlw ex-. 
treme pleasantness of the situation. Previous to the Conqoeat, it 
fonned part of the estate of Algar, Earl of Mercia, whose eldest 
son. Earl Eadwine, succeeded him, and, prompted by ambition, after 
ibe death of King Harold, solicited the citizens of London to choose 
brni for their Sovereign. Being disappointed in his hopes, he 
submitted to the Conqueror, on condition that the latter should 
give him his sister in marriage ; but the crafty Norman no sooner 
obtamed firm possession of the throne, than he treated Eadwiae 
with contempt and insolence, and refused to perform hb engage- 
ment. Tlie Earl flew to arms, and was skiin in battle, after dis- 
placing great bravery and resolution : his possessions were then 
seized by the King, who granted the Lordsliip of Badow, with 
other valuable cbtatcii, to the Monastery of the Holy Trinity, at 

Caen. 



EiStt. 9Q 

Omd; ib NbnMttdjr. ' ta Hie i«^ of lltory Ae Fir^ it wm 
•gHi p o te ej ic d by tii^ Crown, tnd about that period became the 
fnpmiy of the Ea?b of Oloooester: it has shoe been tested in 
tumy noble fattiUet; but is now, we beliete, in the possession of 
te HotiUott famify. In the Church were formeriy two chantiiea 
of some talne. According to the late enunieratioo, this parish 
contains 96l booses, and 1445 inhabitants. 

In the Church of LITTLE BADOW is a costly monimi^nY^ 
eteeted to the memory of 9ik Hbnrt Mildmat, Knight, of 
Grace's, in this parish, who died in October, 1639. Tlie Knight 
is repnsented in armour, redining on a pillow under a kind of 
dome, supported by pillars of black marble : at the foot are two 
Stamkt iigurts, kneeling; one represents an elderly lady, arrayed 
in a hood and scairf ; the other, a young one, superbly dressed in 
Ihe babiC of the times. A Latin Inscription on an oval tablet, 
mentions Sir Henry as a soldier in the Irish wars, and that he re^ 
eeived the honor of Knighthood in the field. In recesses b die 
sooth wall of the centre aisle are the carved figures of two feniaksi 
whom traditiou represents as sisters, and tlie founders of tlM 
Cfattfch. In a letter now in our possession, from the lute Joseph 
Stmtt, Esq. author of Regal and Ecdesiastkal Aatkiuities, mid 
other esteemed works, are the tbUowing particuktrs relating to 
tlieao figures. ^ At Lhtle Badow, we opened two graves ki the 
waH of the Church, over whkh he the efigies of two womea» 
ipho, by thctr dress, appear to ba?e been buried there in tlie thiik> 
teeath century. We Ibund three skeletons ni one, and two in the 
other, without any appearance of wood, coffin, or Uuen, or any 
oibrr eovering for the. corpse."* Dh Ridiard de Badow, vrho 
fiiuinlid Uiurer sily Hall, in Cambrkige, on the site now oocupiei 
by Clara Hall, sprung ftom a fiimify whkh derived its name e>- 
Iher from tins or the former parish. 

SANDON, a sauill viUage, derivnig its mune from its sltoatkm 
on a sandy bill, is celebrated as having been the rectory of the 

learned 

• Mr. Scrult adds, that he shall make, at hit leisure, a liu!« phimpirt, with 
engravinp of the moo^imtm: ihii, iC cv«t publUhad, has not come !• our 



J09pnpili#o bf kar btt9b9)Hl, ivoitmi pMljF in Eu^iih, aad-piilif 
IB LiUmi* |t w fb^orwi ii« V^aewifei'* Agrirtilinfat Siirvfji «f 
SlMs». that the kysMW of bttttar^middiig 1m htm in & gait 
wnumw relinqmhed in tkb pariih, fi^m the wantof g^odk ipiiiif 
wafer, and from a siodiy tasle vkich k cqaMMMicatod to lli» 
Im H of when the eows feed upoo aome paftiait— pattuges, otowftea 
they are foddered with the hay whieh is mowa froea then. Ub 
ffiect^ wbici) has hitherto baflkd eyeiy aiode of pMrcMtioii^ faa» 
oecaaioned a very geneffal attettlkm to be given to the wirhMng ot 
cafaree. 

DANBURYy contracted fioai Dtmabursh tho tens mt easlte 
of the Danes, is a sinall viUage, pleasuilly nlual^d within anift 
oeai) the area of an andeot Encaatpmenty about SflD yaidb til 
ciicuniferenoe.^ The akuatioo was well chosca; Daabury Uiik 
being oansidesiMl as the highest emineacein Essex^ and eamaMwU 
hlf a very eKlenswe prospect of the stmoondaig coaatty. Oa thai 
aoath side thr gfaids k still needy thir^'ftet deep; aid the 1 
nay he tmced la a oonsidefablB distaaee on the dtber 
Danbiify, in the tkne of Edwanl theCeiifeBsorv wne bekt hj Am 
Spg^. « Saxon; but at the compilalton of the Stontnday Boohy i* 
was the piopctty of Qefllery de MandBviUe. Soon aiAerwarda^ 
the chief portion came to the innily <tf De Shneto Ckto, oiSti 
Clere, who retaimd it, at leasl, til Hie nq^ of Edward the Fsfsff 
k whose time WiUiam de St» deie waeSheaff of Essex, andhstd 
a pack at Danbnry. The estate heU by thii fcnifyia aitU caHed 
St. Clete's manor. From them it p asssd s^itoessively to the l%ts% 
Sails of Oxford^ totheGVe^, ef Wilton, (ftomwhesa, ftwsftsr 
years, it went to Sir Gerard BcaybrodGe, who manied ene of the 
daughters of Lord Reginald de Grey;) and to the Lords D^JsrtmaL. 
Afterwards reverting to the Grown, it- was gtanted^ by EJwtrd 
the Sixth, to William Patr, Marcpiis of Northampton, whoalk* 
Bated it to Sir Walter Mildmay, Knight, by whom the manor- 
house, called DANBURY PLACE, now the seat of L. D. Ff^tche, 
£s<}, was ereqted at about half a mile from the Church. 

The 



ififfy i^ M^y^ 140^ vW« tte MXt aod pwt «f 1^ «4fiaiip<it 

99 ficft bar Vst^tfiu^ and «0D«miie4 tww^y fb«| downwank Tim 
«|lg^ef4elEti^AQ4^i|iskii«Ma994 i^apwrti^ wtfthia wbMUtt 

vodiw; «3?im fonM in t)»f ¥«U» iw^ (1^ «%m ^^ tiv<» ^ro«H 

kggeA H^WsMa, ^HTioifsly fa^yed iH wood, mKl ifi g04Ki pmei^ar 
Urw A sM;94i(,efl^ wu faiwer^ pl^ii^ t>«9«4th a Uki»«ifQbi«i 
tH^ 90f4^ ai^f;: bul nvhftft ibi* pfgrt wa« rebivk, in |h» ye^ 1776^ 
^ fo^re iM^ i«iaavi|d into Ui« iKM-t,b 9js^, nkera it y«4 raaiiijw,' 
)t h|« Im^ ^^iDCfti^^ wh«lber t^^ei^ iigMT^a wwe mtfnM to ««h 
|fM«i4th« $(n CicrUf or tM i>'ilrc/e«) hut, as Hie arcbes yiid«r 
lAMi ^y ^ 9^ mn^^r^^ fi^v*)) w4tK Oit CNfch, ttd^nabi 
9^ sc^vcdaf fe^^yi gyf tk^ir Ua\iQg b^l^iAfed |« tii# iiwnM 
i4v99q «nni HRP?^ emU9«9ui^d ia s^vocal smaU €oqipa(t«»en|a of 
the a^tiq^ wawsc9il GeUi«g of l(ie ebaocaL T^s fe^t o(t eMi oC 
the figures are 9U|ii|K>cUd by a lion; bat each. boiH 9» w«U aik 
Kwigl^ is, ia ^ diflSmpt poiitioiL One of the ICaigMa^ it. i» a 
|**yw #^v^. ^^^^ hi» «irosd sheathed; another iiai the ael «fi 
di««i9K bk, sword; aad Uie third, of returning his sword ta thu 
icabbajcd.* In QctoVer, 1779* »« soioe workmea vaere dig^ag % 
grave jnst beneatb one of the arches in the north wall, they disir 
ooflcced a ktden coffin, about thirty u^ches from the suHape oC 
tlys favi^ment,. Tbia was opened a iew days aAerwards, thro«fg|i 
the htfufffor of Mr. T. Wliite» who supposed (hat it pijght conlabi 
** t^e koda of tl)e J^^niglbLl TempliMr represented by tbe ctfgy*' m 
Ibf ajDch abore ; npd wbe^ a^uie years afterwards, sent some paff 
t]qvbu[4 of the dis^veiy to the Qentleman's Magaiinei Vol. ^Qi 
p. .^97. from wl^ich the following is an extract 

** Qn r4istn(^tb« lead coffin« tliere was discovered an elm eoftii 
iodosed, about ouciburtb of aM,i|igh thicki very firm and entire» 

Oa 



* ThcM i4«fH hum Mie tiig«tvsd for Oough^ SepulchrsI MonunMnt< 
Vol, I. p. VII. p. 31. 



On removing the lid of ibis coffin, it WM Ibond to endoee t ibcl 
iibout three quaiten of an inch tfiick, which was covered vridi • 
thick cement^ of a daifc olive coloor, and of a reaboos natiipe. 
The Kd of this sbeli befaig carefiilly tricen ol^ we vrere pr eaeu te J 
with a view of the body, lying m a hquor, or pickle, sonewhat 
vesemUmg ranshroom catchup, but paler, and of a thicker coo- 
abtence. The taste was aromatic, though not very pongent, par* 
taking of the flavour of catchup, and of the fNckleof Spanidiolivea. 
The body was tolerably perfect, no part appearing decayed, but 
the throat, and part of one arm: the fle^ every whete, except on 
the ftce and throat, appeared exceedingly white and finn. 
The face and throat were of a dark colour, ap p roaching to biad[ : 
tfie throat was much lacerated. The body was covered with a 
kmd of shirt of linen, not unlike Irish cloth, of superior fineness; 
a narrow, rude antique lace was affixed to the bosom of the shirt; 
tfie stitches were very evident, and attached very strongly. The 
Knen adhered rather closely to the body ; but on raising it fttmi 
the breast, to examine the state of the skin more minutely, a con- 
siderable piece was torn off, with part of the hice on it. 

** The coffin not being half full of the pickle, the face, brettt, 
and belly, were of course not covered with it. The inside of the 
body seemed to be filled with some substance, which rendered it 
very hard. There was no hair on tlie bead ; nor do I remember 
any in the liquor; though feathers, flowers, and herbs m abun- 
dance, were floating; the leaves and stalks of whidi appeared 
quite perfect, but totally discolored. The coffin was not placed 
in a position exactly horixonlal, the feet being at least three inches 
lower than the head. The pillow which supported the head, in 
process of time, decayed, and the head fell back, lacerating the 
throat and neck, which, with the fiice, appeared to have been dia* 
colored from the decay of the cloth, or snb»tance, which covered 
them. Tlie jaws, when the coffin was fint opened, were dosed, 
but Oil being somewhat rudely touched, expanded ; owing, a§ was 
supposed to the breakmg of some bandage that boiuid them to- 
gether. When the jaws were opened, they exhibited a set of teeth 
perfectly white; which was likewise the eoUtm of the palate, and 

aU 



sssix. SZS' 

aB tlie iuide of the moiitfa. ' The limbs vrtrt of exoeOeDt sytiHiivB- 
tryr the gcaenl appearance of the whole hody cooveyed the idea 
of heartj 5011th, not m the least enmdated by sickness. The 
length of tlie oorpie very fittk exceeded five feet^ though the shell 
that indosed it was five feet six inches within. When the parishio- 
men, and others, had satisfied their curiosity, the shell, and 
woodencoffin, were fiistened down; the leaden coffin was again 
Mldered ; and the whole kA, as nearly as drcumstances would 
admit, tn $iatu qnoJ* 

In Ifr. Stnitt's letter, before mentioned, and which is dated 
August the sixth, 17^9$ are some particulars that render it veiy 
doobtful whether the remains thus mspected were really belonging 
ID one of the cross-legged eflSgieSy as supposed. '' We dug at 
Danbuty," says this gentlenuu, '* and found a skeleton of the hero 
who was heried in the tomb, and whose efiigies was the cater of 
JL* It had been interred in the same manner as those at Little 
Badow ; that », without any appeatance of wooden coflbi, or li* 
aen, or aiiy other covering. '* I am now convinced," he conti- 
' that the nuxle of burying in pickle, is not so old as the 
t of the Knights Templars. The body found ia pickle..ten 
jcars.ago, wa9 nothing less than one of these old warriors : it lay 
at some di^taoce fropu. the wail, and was covered witli a laige flat 
stone, on which was a cro$$fteury; and formerly an inscription in 
brass, not imlikely the following, nientiooed by Weevet: Hicjacei 
Geraldus quondam filiui ei Herts Gerardi Brayhroke iiiU$is pd 
Mis XXIX Marcii M.CCCCAXIL The body had every ap- 
peataoceof youth, and was little more than five feet high; but 
being probably the son and heir of the above knight, was buried 
ki this expensive manner." 

On the west side of the road leading from Daobury to Wood- 
ham Feny, are the ruins of BYCKNACRE PRIORY, founded 
for Bbck Canons by Maurice. Fitz-Geffery, Sheriff of £ssex in the 
reign of Henry the Second, who considerably iucreased the en- 
dowments, and granted the site of a Hermitage, which previously 
stood here, to the Canons. In the reign of Henry the Seventh, 
the possessioos of this house had been so much lessened by nogleot 
VoL.V. S an* 



iHort InattentioBi that is wai abnort ab af w k a ad ; and, M the pMi* 
«tbb«f the Prior and Moula of Eltiof Spittle, Lbodoii, wal graot- 
«6 by the Kmg to that HtMpitaL AAer the Diasoliitkm, the tea- 
bd^ of Bycknaere, with the fite of the Piiorj, was gif^ by Hcaly 
iiak Eighth to Renry Foisted, who» eleven years dAerWards, b 
154a, soM It to Sitr Walter ttddn&ay;tif MOse gftndson it w«s 
paithased by Geotge Batringtoii, Esq« of Litlfe Badow, and is 
iftillfowessedbyhbdeseeiidaiitB* '' 

Alt Mdeiit find (K)|Milotis bonMgh tnd Mmfcc^-tkmti, situated 
On th^ acclivity 6f an ettrinence ^Mmth-v^est from the estuary of tile 
mackwater, or river Idtmafnmy bail been frequently ass^^ned as 
Ihe ROMln Oifhutodurtum ; but on very Insuffckxit evidence, as 
Hekb^r its locti situation, toor the antiqikltiesdfecbvered here, wU 
%ahtant % befag HefeiiMI to thsl peoj^. Its an^oides, indeed, 
i9Vk Ihb eKdsption of ah entreocliment fbrmed by Edward the 
^d(fr,^aflfe'eonflMd io two Roman Coins", one of Vespasian, wMi 
tHle ^leg^hd SALViS AVGTSlt ; the other, a gold one, In fine 
)lMe#via(tion, of M^lrb and A^p^ina, with the legend NBRO 
<aAV6. DIVI T. CXS. AVG. GERM. IMP. TR. P. COS. 
t>(>llhel«venfe,tbe Etaiperefr and his inodier«e«ted in aear dtawa 
^tiySele^atilk: on irti ensign, ^ttied by Agrippi6a, li the inseri|>- 
«lkm AOillP. AVO. OIVI. GLAVR NfiROWS C«S. MA- 
Tm. abov* ^EX s. c* 

The earfle!^ nient^ of Maldeh by historians refers 1<f the year 
91s, when Edwahl the Eldei: encafflpted lieve to impede the pro- 
gress of the Danes, while a fortificalioto Was constructing at 
Witham. In 9^ h^ again encamped at Afal^, and, accordbg 
'to Bfarianus, built a Castle here; but as no trac^ of Ihb struc- 
ture <:6n be (bund. It seems probable, theit our aiAhOr aNodcs to 

the 

• ThU cdiB is regtrdcd with ^ ifltMHi if%nei«tioti, tlitt MoiViit, OOr RiMbriiB, 
.^•biervw, H h alwaytcOQiigaed to dit cikrc of «iiodf tbefitiliii of hbil^ka Isr 
tthe time being. 



side of the town, ami apparently bclosed about twenty-four acte^ ; 
it appears to |iafe be^n of aq oblppf form : 4j|jir^ a^jesof the ram- 
part qui ^ be traa?d; the pib.ef js defied by bufldipjs. If^ 
strength wa^ probably potisider^blei 9s in ^21, a g^t finoy cif 
pane^ are said to \aL\p b^c^ it wilhprtt f^t^X^ fti ^e ycai: 
993, it yras a^n attacked b^ tlie P^js^ forces^ opipaianded by 
Unl^f, and Mf fp^^ of Ejwrl 9yrbf Didtb* V9^ ^dv^wd \o fcfeyft 
it, l^ing dcffa»edj JMid tbf l^j\ \m^\i %^^9 W93 ^Qinp^Hed <0 
admit the €onqiierf>n |n tjie D9q^e9j^ay Survey, ly^ald^ 19 
styled a half hundred; and had then 180 houses and a hall^ Kiek} 
by the Burgesses of the King, who had also a house here m hb 
own pos^firinn/ 

Wi wo ftW J f was eoMlituted m boron^ is mknown. Its 
first dnrter appears to have been granted by Henry the Second^ 
at the reque^ of William de Mandeviile, f^xx] of JSssex. Anoiong 
^ pmjkx(9 sfqiie4 JtP tbfe Pmsi^ws by ^i? ChaDler» ym aa 
cxe«pliop Aaoiidi loiieigp sfinnae^ttuept the finding .orvs^ oo> 
caiianiliy, jbr 4be Wngfa use, <w fef^ 4mj% at their own expence. 
By another charter, granted by Qneen Mary, b the year JSSS, 
tbe boipugli was inco^rated| and its government ve^ed in two 
Bailifl^ to be cl)o^ annually^ rix Aldermen, eighteen Capital 
Borj^esses, 4cc. The right of returning the Members to Parli^ 
jnent is.confin^d to tho^e ,who obtain their freedom by birth, ina^ 
ri^, or senrifude : .the; number of voters is abou^ 200. . The first 
return was made i|i the ye^r 1329* The custom of Borough 
Ei^lisb> by which th^ youngest 3on succeeds jto the bursjage-tene* 
Aien^ op the .death of his father, ^till pi:evai)s bete. 

This town consists of one principal street, exten<^ne nearly a 
nuk east .and west; a cross-street of considei^able Jeqgtli, „and se* 
vera! smaller avenues i^d bafJc lanes. ,Tbe descent from the up* 
per part to the river is vei^ fteep: mpny of tlfe hous^ are ^oo^, 
having, been rebpilt within the ^t forty or fipjQy yfars. TJie in.i* 
port tratic '^ considerable ; and consi^^s q( coal, jrop^ d^, p^, 
ke, 4^t 9>rnig tides, the riv^r ,w;iU lirin^ iip iressels that ^ngv 
mfjia fiBct water; Jhot {be co^is are brought tp the town n^ Ijght^rs 

S2 The 



^76 Bflssk^ 

The number of houses, at teturned in 1801, was 454: of inhabi- 
tants ^358. 

Maiden had formeYly three parishes, but the rectories of two 
of them have long been consolidated. The principal Cburdi, de* 
dicated to All Sainis, b an ancient and spacious edifice, with a 
square tower, termmated by a spfae in the form of an equilateral 
triangle. In the south, or D'Arcy's aisle, were three chantries, 
fbunded in the reign of Henry the Sixth, by Robert D'Arcy, Esq. 
of Danbury ; several of whose family were buried here. On a 
stone of white marble, m the chancel, is a Latin epitaph to this 
effect: 

The deposit of John Viknov, Gent Turkey Merchtnt, trho 
h|ih oflen cfotted the leat, tempced thertto not ao much by the love 
of jtiai at an ardent desire of beholding the wondeiful works of God 
in the deep. He houu of this sepulchral stone, m not the least re- 
ward of his labors^ it being discovered among the ruint of Smyrna s 
he also brought to light some choice ancient mannscripts, ttonumenta 
of that anciqae city ) with these he enriched his native eoontry. Ifo » 
jsno^ safiely arrfvod at the haven of (est. He died Janotry tath, 
1653, aged 84. 

Many other commemorative bscriptions are in this Church ; 
and hi the Church Yard is a mural monument to the memoiy of 
Dr. Isaac Dorislaus, of whom Salmon observes, from an un* 
known writer, that he took his degree of Doctor at Leyden, and 
was sent for to Cambridge by Lord Brooke to read History ; btit 
being thought to speak too freely in favor of the people, was for* 
ced (o leave the University, and afterwards settled at Maiden. 
Near this Church is the Town- Hall, a large ancient brick build- 
ing, but not otherwise remarkable. 

St, Mary's Church is a sfmcious pile, situated m the lower part 
of the town, and recorded to have been founded by Ingelric, a 
Saxon nobleman, before the year 1056 : the tower is a massy 
structure, and, with part of the Church, was rebuilt in the reign 
of Charles the First. St. Peter's, the parish united to All Saints, 
liad formerly a Church, of which the tower only b now standing; 
attached to it, is a building, erected by Dr. Thomas Plumb, 

ArchdeacoQ 



£88BX. 1^7 

Aicbdcacoo of Rochester^ for a Grammar School, «nd Libragy. 
Tbk geBtkman wa» born at Maiden in the year 1630, and in the 
hlter part of his life became a great beneftctor to his native town* 
at wdl as to several other places. The books contained in the 
library were his own collection, and are ordered to be lent out 
op the value being left in the hands of the Librarian. He also 
appropriated the rents of a (arm at Iltneji to keep the School and 
Library in repair. Besides these charities, he gave 2001. to build 
a W<»fcboase for the poor; and about lOOOl. more, to establish 
the trade of weaving sack-cloth to employ them. The Plumian 
Professorship of Astronomy and Experimental Philosophy at Cam- 
bridge, was founded through a bequest of 1902I. left by him for 
the purpose* He died in the year 1704. At the west end of the 
town is an extensive range of Barracks^ lately erected. Richard 
deGravesendy Bbhop of London, about the year 1291, founded 
a small Priory for Carmelites, or White Monks, in Maiden, 
which continued till the Dissdution. Several eminent scholars 
aft mentioned by Bale, and others, as having been inmates of this 
nMMnstcry. 

. la the forty-seventh vplume of the Philosophical Transactions, 
is an aocoont of EowAEO Bright, a shopkeeper of this town, 
who was so enormously fat, that his siae and weight are almost 
onparalleled in the history of the human race. At the age of 
tin^fe years and a half, he weighed 144 pounds: increasing in 
bulk as be grew up, in seven years more he weighed 356 
imads. He went on increasing, and probably in pretty nearly 
the same proportion; for the last time he was weighed, which was 
aboat thirteen months before he died, his weight was 584 
poooda: at the time of Us death, he was manifestly grown bigger 
his lapt weighing; so that, on a (air estimation, his weight 
ilwa have been 616 pounds. He. measured five feet nine 
! and a half in height. His body round the chest, was five 
fieel MX inches ; and round the belly, six feet eleven inches : his 
arm in the middle measured two feet two inches, and his leg two 
ktt e^t indies. He died at the age of twenty-nme, in the year 
1730; after his deatli, seven men were buttoned in his waistcoat. 

S4 TiU 



m A y^ 6r t^o be/bft lib dtoih, ht ^rte tem^Sfely M 
active oiau ; but att^rwatd^ hto <!Xtictne dotpulenc^ so oterpowtt^ 
^a his strength, that life seefned barthensotn^. Be left tt tiid6W 
pregnant of her sixth child: his cbffin was sb enormously larg^^ 
that an dj[>eding was obliged to be eut hi the wall and sttttMAse, t» 
let it do^n into the shbp; aUd it ^as carried to the grave upon ft 
carriage. 

BIL^IGH ABBEVi dearly one mile ^rest from Hahko, Wm 
funded, in they^r 1186, by Robert de Manteli, for Monks of 
the t^renioUsthitehsi^ order. Their possessfoas Were afterwards 
increased by various benefaictions, the annudl value of Which, at 
the DissoTutibtl, 'Recording to Speed, amounted to- 196I. 6s. M, 
and nine Canons were then nididtaihed on the foundation. Some 
parts of the monastic bulldhigs ^te hoW standitig, but liif))yroplriated 
▼ery difler^nity frdm their original use, being cokinetted wMi a imM 
ftirra; and the Chapel, which is the nftost pert^t remain, eAiploy- 
ed as a hog-slye, &c. Hib Was a handtonie though small iipaM- 
ineut; its length being only thfrty-six feet, and its brteidth eighteeh^ 
The roof is formed with very fine-grained lime-stone, tM IM' 
joined drcli^ supported by three slender Porbeck cblmMs. 
Here Henry Bdurcli'rer, Eatt of Es^, who tiled April the fiMiMi, 
1483, was buried; together with Isabel^ his lady, and the Lady 
Mary NeviTI, 6f Essex. 

' riEYBRllbGE, a sm^ vfllage, opposite tdMdeta on the taortli 
nde of the Black^l^teV tlVer, is tfaooght to have <AtMbM kt pre- 
sent name from dn <ittcient btidge cf five ardies, feeheath Which 
the main stf^am is said to have formerly run, though it now flbws 
at s6me dist^kite tht'OUgh Full Brid;^. Its orighid appelhMMi 
appears to have been Tidwdldifune^ and by that name this ttA 
twelve other lordships were given by King Atkebtita to the CatiiS 
dral Church of St. Paul : it still belongs to the Dean and CSiapteIr 
of that Cathedral, together with the andent man6r-house, called 
Hbybripgb Hall. Between this plaee and Maldeo, is m 
raised Causeway, which exbted befote the time of Edwatd tke 
Second, who ordered ft (o be surveyed in the year 1S!24. 

LANGFOilD 



BMBX. flf^ 

LANGFORD HALI^ a modern white house, shmdiiig in i 
finely wooded park, is the seat of Nicholas Westeome, Esql 
whose ftmiiy obtained it in the jear 168O, by purchase from the 
Mphew- of the celebrated physiciao, Dr. Williani Harvey. ' The 
▼iUage of LANGFORD derived it name form the L&ng-Ford httt 
io the Saxoo times, when the waters of the Bladtwater spread 
over a mucti wider surface than at present. The meadow grounds 
bordering the river in this neighbourhood are extremely fertile. 

In tbe parish of Great Totham, on the north side of Blackwater 
Bay, are a considerable number of defaced tumuli, caHed the 
Borough Hills ; probably a corruption firom Barrow HHU. 
These are supposed to have been raised indiscriminately over the 
bodies of the Danes and Saxons that fell during the battles fought 
00 the hivasions of the former, who frequently landed on this 
coast. 

TOLLE8HUNT-MAGNA, a corruption from ToUtshunb- 
Malger, is one of three acyoinkig parishes of the name of TolieSi' 
hunt, Imt distmgiiished from each other by additions derived from 
the names of their former owners. The manor of ToUediiml^ 
Malger, ddled also ToHeshunt-Beckingfaam, from tbe Beddug* 
faanu, Io whom it was granted by Henry tiie Eighth, was settled 
in the year IJlh by Dr. Daniel Williams, wlio had pyrohsned ^e 
ferersion, on a Society in New England, for the purpose of pwM 
moliBg the oonversion of poor Indiai^. An ancient lirick gate^ 
way belonging to the manor-house is yet standing, hating fisur 
embattled turrets. 

In tbe parishes of ToUeshuiU D*Arcy and ^Iksbwy^ *' a 0011* 
sUenible improiwment has krfely been made in the rough nMirsbea 
hy removiag the ant-hills. The operation is peifsrmed by cb^ 
piag rooiMl the hiHs with a heavy adze, or gruMriBg-holtf, flK^ cvt-^ 
dng edge 0/ which is cireular, and ten and a half hiehe* wtdei 4be 
depth of the t>lade, inetuding its neck to tlie eye, or wfaete the* 
handle is fastened, b eight and a half inches : from haff a doaen^ 
to half a score strokes will belt tbe hirgesttiHI, and loosen it from' 
its seat, which is always lef^ lower than the acyoining surface of 
the marsh, to receive and hold the raia*water, by means of which, 

S4 t^e 



tfie BBti Bre more completely destiojed. Boyi follow tlie grabber, 
and carry the ant-bilb iuto tbe rills, and low places in the marsh j 
and tbus a considerable increase of surface is obtained, that in the 
course of a year becomes profitable by getting coated with grass, 
and at fm cxpence which seldom exceeds fifteen sliilliugs per 
acre."* 

About three miles north from Maiden is WICKHAM- 
BISHOPS, so called from tbe Bishops of London, to whose See 
it has belonged fronvtj^^ifin^cniorial, having had a residence and 
park here: the latj^| wa^ ipdosed, in the year 1373, by Bishop 
Courteney, who Qii^t^fued a Tu^euse iVom Edward the Third. The 
ancient nianor ^ ^W^ '^^ ^^ pulled down many years. The 
Church b nearly a mile west from tbe village, 

HATFIELD PEVERBL, with thirty-four other lonkhips in 
thb county, was given by William the Conqueror to Ranulph 
Feverel, a Norman soldier, who had attended him to England, 
and afterwards married Ingelrica, the daughter of a Saxon Noble- 
man, a beautiful woman, who had borne a son to tbe Conqueror. 
In the time of William Rufus, Ingelric, to atone for the errors of 
her past hfe, founded a College here for secular Canons, and de- 
dicated it to St. Maty Magdalen. William Peverel, lier |egiti- 
Aiate son, converted the College into a Monastery for Benedic* 
tkws, and greatly increased the endowments, besides giving his own 
mansion to the Monks for a residence. Tbe annual revenues ai 
Hum Priory, at the Dissolution, were estunated at 831. 19s. 7d. 
It was soon afterwards granted, with other demesnes, to Giles 
Leigh, Esq. by the marriage of whose two daughters and co* 
beiresief, with the AUtym, they passed into that family, whose 
descendants continued possessors till about the year 1768, when 
tbey were sold under an order of Chancery to Peter Wi^ht, Esq. 
This gen t l ema n pulled down tbe mannon, which adjomed the 
Church, and erected a more elegant house on an emhienoe at a 
little dislsiice. The building b called the Pbiort ; hot the only 
remains of tbe orignial foondation b the Churchy now made paro- 

chiaL 

4 * Vancouver's Agriculture of Emcx. 



S6SBX. Ml 

chaL An ancient statue in one of the Kindows is mentioned bj 
.Weever, as the image of Ingelrica, the foundress. Several in* 
scriptions to the niemoiy of the Alleyns are preserved in the 
diancel. 

. TERLING PLACE, the seat and manor of lieutcuant Coio* 
nel J. H* Strutty was once appendant to Ely Cathedral, but dis- 
severed from that See by William the Conqueror, who gave it to 
Ranulpfa Peverel. In the year iS:ii% k was held uiuler il^e Bo- 
buns. Earls of Hereford aud E8se\^ %y (h^ Hibliop of Nijrwich, 
who bad a palace aud park here, and t^Wi iiblia^ici, u hull pos- 
sessed the privilege of sanctuary ; aud is roBdfaftsd at liaviug sheU. 
tered the celebrated Hubert de Ber^fi troinr the iiidtgiiution of 
Henry the Third. Henry tlie Eighifi liud iiUcj i» J^c^Td^nif here^ 
as appears from the date of several acts of that Monarch ; and in 
paiticular from the patent creating Sir Edward Seymour, Viscoutit 
Beauchamp, dated 1536, in which year the Monarch gave this 
manor to the Lord Chancellor Audlcy. From him it has passed 
through various families to the Sirutts^ who became possessed by 
porcfaase about the middle of the last century. 

WTTHAM 

is generally reputed to have been built by Ed^vard tlie Elder ; 
tbougb it is probable that it was only restored by that Sovereign, 
at least as far as regards the part situated on Cheping Hiilf round 
the Cbarch, which stands about half a mile north-west from the 
Other part of the lawn. On this eminence, ** near the south side 
of tlie Chnrcfa, are considerable remains of a circular camp, de- 
fimded by a double vallum, almost levelled within on the south 
tide, but very plain on the south-west, where the present road 
runs along the outer bank ; the river defendiug it on tlie west side, 
where the works are lov^er : a road runs through it from north to 
soulh." *From this camp, and the considerable quantity of Ro- 
man bricks worked up in the body and tower of the Cliurch, 
Mr, Gough seems inclined to consider Witham as the Canonium 

o{ 
* Cough's Additions to the Britannia, Voi. 1 1, p. 56. 



of Antonhitts ; and thb opinion ts greatlj strengthened by the ciiw 
cumstince noticed by Monmti of two Roohm coins, of tbe tm- 
perors Valens and Grmtiani having been found in leveffingtbc 
fortifications. 

The manor of Witham was anciently possessed by Earl Harold ; 
and afirerwards by Eustace, Earl of Boulogne, who married Ooda, 
nster to Edward the Confessor. King Stephen bestowed it on thtf 
Knights Templars ; from whom it passed to the Knights-Hospital* 
krs of St. John of Jenisakm, who retained it till the ge neml sup^ 
presiimi. la the thiie of Eari Eastace, it was called the Honoor 
6f Bonanda ; and was one of the foor ancient Homntrs that existed 
in this kingdom. The privilege of holding a market is reported 
to have been first granted to Witham by Richard the First ; but 
this is prolmbly a mistake, as it was then held on Chfping Hill, 
whkh evidently derives its name from merchandic« being sold 
there, and carries us at once to the Saxon times. By an enquiry 
made in the reign of Henry the Third, it appears, that one 
Geffrey de Lyston held land m Witham, by the service of carry- 
ing flour to make wafers on the King's birth-day, whenever bit 
Majesty was in the kii)gdom. 

In the Church, among other mciiuments, is a large tomb, 
erected in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, to the memory of Judgb 
Heathcote and his Lady, whose eflUgies appear on it. The 
chief trade of Witham arises firom the passage of travellers and 
carriers; and in the summer season, from the company who 
attend to drink the chalybeate iiiaters at Witham Spa,* about 
three quarters of a mile from the town. The number of inhabi-' 
tants in thb pati»h, as returned under the Population Act, was 
2186 ; the number of houses 401. Many of the hitter are welW 
built, and inhabited by respectable families. Near the entrance 
of tlie town from Cdchester is a handsome mansion, now the seat* 
of Thomas Kynaston, Esq. but formerly belonging to the late 

Eari 

• An Esiay on ihc virtues of this spring was pubUih«d in the year 1737, by 
Dr. Tavcrner, a Phyiicitii of this place, and great expectations were then enter* 
tained of the town becoming very flourishing fioin the influx of visitors. 



Bail AlMontt, Irlio Mged aid ttHtHaked her pmcM Majcilf 
kflc, OB faar anral m tbii cdiutfy from Oeiwtnj. 

FAULKBOURtffi HALL, bchMtti ene and tiro niks nofth* 
vest fion WitlMm CIniicb, is the stat <tf Coloiid Jobs BuBodk, 
OBi of tiifc ttenbaia for the covat j» whose hmily bmt posacssad 
it trom the jtm 1637» whon it was pmchased of the Forioctiiu 
hj Sv Edward BaUoch, of Lofis» in tbiaooimty« The wiasioit 
isastasdtya*dspacioiisboildhig,of difar«atena; pntof it A* 
pbjB a tower gateway of curioui arohHaatiirr^ aod is supposed to 
hata been afected bj the Bail of GlouteiAer, s*oat the tana oC 
King Stapfafcn, or Herny the SeooiML Vatioiii ha p r ofe aMnio 
haie beeb made io the house and grotaub Iqr the.pnsoDt fiunly. 
Several of tfaa apartments contain good paiatings by Yan* 
dych, VandeveMe, Biidnwl Angelo, Su WiUiam Beeohey^ Sai^ 
toriu^ and other masters. Maafy fine springs, rise Ai tho 
grooiidt, which are extensire and pleasant : hare also is a Cfedbr 
Trie, cdnjcctulad to be the largest k the kaigdoai, its girth at 
Ik iachaa firora the ground, being eighteen feet, nine inches; at 
IM tint from the grooad, foarteea feet, nine inches: itsiwigbl 
ta the frst branch, is nineteen feet. A Raman Villa u supposed to 
have stood at FAOLKaouRNB, from ai silver con of Domitiaii,. 
BRationed by Bwbop Gibson to hare been found under an old 
wall, partly composed of Roman bricks. The manor of Faolfc^ 
bouma was given by William the Conqoeror to his nephew, Hano 
Dapifer, wboae niece and ooheiressy Mabil, was married to Bo» 
best, Ettri of GkNsaester, natural son to Henry die Eirat Fnnw 
bun it passed through various famiKes to the Foitesones; of whom^ 
Sir lofan was Lard Chaacelor of Engkad k the reign of Heniy 
iheSialli. 

At ORESSiNO, called Cressing TtmpU, from the Kdghta. 
Tcmpkci, was a ftece p t o ry of that order, to which the manor 
was granted by Kmg Stephen about the year 1150. In the 
Chnrch is a very ancieat monunsent to the Nevill family. 

R1V£N-HALL was, previous to the Conquest, part of the 
poHesskns of Qoeen Editha* It afterwards came to Eustace, 
Eari of Boakgne, the heiicn of whose tamily having married 

King 



id4 

King StepbeOy it fdl to the Crown. In the thirteonfa of King 
Jofao, Riven-Hall wis held by Ralph de ReA, whose sister and 
heiress manried Robert de Scalariis : the descendants of this 
narriage were tbe celebrated Lords Scales, the kst of whom, ia 
146D, fell a sacrifice Jo his adherence to the Home of Lancaster* 
His daughter married Antony Widville, Earl Rifers, who be- 
queathed this manor to Sir Jeffiry Gate, in whose liynily it coiiti* 
lined till the year 155S, when Sir John Gate was beheaded for 
having espoused the cause of the Lady Jane Grey« It was then 
seiaed by the Crown^ and has «nce passed through varioas pos- 
sessors to the Westerns^ who are now seated at Foelix Halt 
. FOELIX HALL, the seat of Charies Callk Western, Esq. one 
of the representatives for Maiden, is a neat modem buiMiiig^ 
standing in a small park, pleasantly situated about one mile ftom 
Kehedon. The mterior of the house is elegantly fitted np ; and 
the gardens are laid ont wnfh much judgment. 

The Church of INWORTH has a small ancient porch on the 
south side, remarked as bemg built with a mixture of fiints and 
Roman bricks : on the fit>nt is a bride cross, and within the 
porch a very antique brick lozenge. In the inside of the Church 
are some remains of a kind of mosaic pavement ; and in a lecesa 
of the south wall, near the altar, the pisdna fonnerly used by the 
Romish priests at the solenmities of the Eucharist. 

BRAXTED LODGE, kte the seat of Peter Du Cane, Esq. is a 
handsome mansion, pleasantly situated on a gentle enuoence, near 
the centre of a small park, and commanding some agreeable pros* 
pects of the surrounding count ly. 

In the parish of Bradutead, at TIPTREE, was an ancient Prbfy 
for Black Canons, founded before the time of Edward the First, io 
the ninth <^ whose reign the Prior had Ikense to impari^ siaty 
acres of land. This coirtinued till the year 1523, when Cardinal 
Wolsey obtained a grant of its possessions to increase the endow- 
iiients of his t» o Colleges. Its annual revenues were then valued 
at 221. 16s. id. 

LAYER^MARNEY derives the latter part of its name from 
tbe nol/le fiuiiily of Marney, who held tbe manor from the time 

of 



if Henry the Second to that of ITeiiiy the Eighdu WilUam dt 
Mamey obtained license from Heniy the Tbifd to incloM a paik 
ftere, ** within the precincts of the forest of Essex :** he bad also 
fiberty of free warren wHbin his manor. Sir Henry Mamqr was 
a man of great talents and bravery : he was Privy Coonsdlor tm 
Henry the Sevoith, and Heary the Eighth ; Knight of the Oai^ 
ter, and Keeper of ' the Privy Seal : in 1523, he was also created 
Lord Mamey, but died the followmg year, and was buried in tiie 
chancel of Layer-Mamey Church. Thb nobleman is supposed ta 
have erected the extensive mansion called LHyer-Matney HaU^ 
of which the grand entrance tower, and great part of the south 
side, is yet standmg. John, second Lord Mamey, died in Aprils 
1525, leaving two daughters, who sold this manor to Sir Brian 
Tuke, Secretary to Cardinal Wolsey, of whose descendanli it was 
purchased by Sir Samuel Tryon, Bart. It has sinoe become Ifat 
property of the Corsellis, a fiimily naturalixed in the rdjgn c( 
Charles the Second. 

LATER MARNEY HALL was originally a veiy large qua- 
drangular building, inclosmg a spacious court; the chief entraaea 
to which was the tower gateway that now remains. Thia b bmk 
of brick, and consists of a lofty centre of two stories, flanked at 
each angle by an octagonal tower risbg from the gronnd to tome 
height above the centre. Each of the octagonal towers contains 
eight floors, lighted by small pomted windows : the centre stories 
are lighted by two large square windows. The summit, chimnies, 
and divmons between the windows, are curiously ornamented witli 
aodptiired mouldings, of various patterns. Attached to the «ast 
and west sides of this gateway, aie considerable remains of the old 
mansion, now converted Into a farn^-house, and offices. Tbeitower 
is situated on high ground, and from the uppermost stories con^ 
I a very eitensive tract of eountry, padiculariy to the soitth 



About fiAy yards distant is Layer Mamey Churdt, an ancteot 
kckk binkling, in whkh William da Mamey, by Ikense, daled 
in Hieyvar ISSOp ibundad a CoSege for a Warden and two Cliafv 
luis; tbc hititfr to oAciita in the two chantries, which he had 

also 



*• ibturfed Imm, mi migr^ wilb Ibf ad? oihmv md Hir^ 
moMofhmd. Tim eiiat wi.of ^ mrih sMCf pdhd the Cb9pd, 
«i»i hcgad by Honiy, 6at Lord Mtfney^ who «9Ub^3bed twt 
belt, to pr^y for Ihe loirifi of lu# wives, JuoMelf^ wl a»- 
Several fine old moauments, w\ib ^&&^ of tbe l4M^ 
lfaiiiey» dod others of thb fiunilyy are cantaiiied i« tbaChitiiph. 
in the cfaaacd i» also a fuoniuneBt to tba laemoiy of I<uchQla» 
CoracUis, Eiq. ooe of tb^ first of Uiat oame wj^o poaaewed Um 
nBl»or> imviof an iosciipliooy m which be is ftlsely «ud to bav^ 
taught '* the £aglish the admiraUe art of Pnoting/ 

Near the €fai»rch, m the. paush of G&fi4T Bii(Ctf^ is Ibe aiti- 
fidal moiinty or beep of a Caulc, recorded as baviog been fprti- 
fied against Ileary the Third, by Sir Ralph Garpon, who tb^ 
held the aianor; but supposed, by Moraot, tp.be » *' continue* 
liaii of Ihe ttupeadous Roman works on Lesden Heath," wfaidi 
nay be traced stiU further than this spot Tbe mouQt is aur- 
founded by a trench. 

COPFORD HALL, tbe s^ of J. H. Hanison, Esi|, ^ a 
baiw^nrrr^ maasioD, md to have been some ^iioe^he residence erf* 
Bofloer, Ksbop gyf Loodoo^ Ao which See tke wmox beloi^ged 
yrtvioos to the Cou^Most. The ^roufida ase pleasant^ and oraa- 
awarfad with seveml|Meces of water^ 



COLCHESTER. 

Tbb eariy faiatory of Colchester, 4he piiadpal 4o»ni io JSmeji, 
hw& ocoasioiied nnich diyntatiow anaag anliquaiias* nsMoioitw 
origin is, however, oadoiibted; and wbm the vamus aotboniiaw 
wt atteatively cuunkiedl, aad oaaipiiwfijl ivitb; thf actual rituario^ 
of the town, and tbe nonierous ancient waowiriab that have bfiup 
discovered m it, not the slightest doubt can remain of its baviiy 
^een tioth a British and a Roman «ity« Ulas, pavemanta, and 
•coiM, -are almost daily brought to light by the spade or plou^s 
^every pubic bwMiog disphjfa Buman osatariab wodiad np in ita 
-walk, eilh^ ia m gneatar -or fesatpBapor1ion;a«d4hei«m|Murta9 

w4 



raifltd 16 defimd H oil Itt wcti and KMlb 
«dtt» evidently testify its <m^iMil frandeiiraod importMice. 

The fBOGftt name of Cokbester was (kmmhdmmm, snd uadcr 
IhitappeUatioa it occvrs io Dion Caooius^ ivlio eipMBsly ineatiaai 
it as tiMnaideMe of tba British King CuBoWline^ asil liia capital 
#f tbt TiaBK>baiit€a. That this wafithe updoubt^d site of CanMl*- 
daaiNBt is de«M>iistiBted by the oamber of goid, silver^ and brass 
CMBs tiuil have been discotered here, luimg tlie letters CVNO, 
or CVNOB. oa one side, for Cunohiliiie; a«d C\M.m CAMV. 
oa the other, for CaimilodiMittm.* On oae 4if tiiese-coia^, neo- 
taoned i>y Moi«at,t as bemg ia las ov^n po«8essio% are the words 
CVNOB . • . ftEX( OB the reverse, a horse feeditig; and belov 

Ji . . aiv. 

Whea Csssar iqoitted Bdtaia after Us secoial cnipeditioa, Maa- 
dubratiosj was Soveroiga of the TciuoiNiiites, and most psobaUJir 
had Jiis seal at Camidodttnunu On bis death, tiie vacant goven^ 
anfot caoM into -the possession of bis brother Teawint, whose soq^ 
Canofailine, beii^ aasious to obtain a knowledge of Roman maa- 
Bn% wnaX over to the Continent, and, •aAar visiting tlie ^mp of 
Augustus, returned Io Rome with that Empevor, and waspablic^J 
•ilttled by the appdktion of Friend to the Commoowealtk. Iluf- 
kg bis residence in the Capitol, Cuaobiiine is supposed Io have 
obtained a considerable iosigfat into the Roman arts, tlie know- 
ledge of wfaidi, on his vetuni and accession to the throne, he en- 
deavored to extend for the benefit of his people; and under his do- 
minatioB, the Britons began to advance in refinement 

On the decease of Cunobilme, about the year 42, his son Gui* 
dsiia, or Togodunmos, succeeded to the^goveroroent of tlie Trino- 
i; and ambassadori were seiit to Rome, to demand the ar* 
t of some fiigitive Britons^ to whom the£niperor Claudtushad 
{NPOtactioik Thi| demand being evaded by the Esnperor, 

the 

* Mftsy of cbeie coins are detcribed in Camden md Morant, and others art 
aoikcd ia tht Hittory of CokhcMcr, laiao. published in that town in the 
year 1803. 

t Hiatoryt)Ttaifcc,Vol. 1. p. t|; * t Sec page a^|. 



3M SMKX. 

f^ payment of tbe tribate which C«sar bad imposed was wHb^ 
leM. The Romaos^ ei^rly seizing the opportunity, commenced 
war, and, under the command of A. Plautius, a skilfiil genera^ 
defeated Ouiderios, who retreated across a river; but was followed 
00 qiiiddy by the Romans, that he was again forced to engage 
with his wearied forces, and, after ?aliant!y defendhtg himself, was 
shin. Arviragus, (or Caractacus,) his brother, by a successfid 
stratagem, saved the remnant of the British army, and had nearly 
eftcted the discomfiture of Plautius, who, in tlie eagerness of pur- 
suit, lost many of his soldiers in the bogs and marslies. 

^ The death of Ouiderius, instead of mtimidating the Britons, 
inspired them with fresh courage; and, that they miglit eflfectually 
revenge his loss, by the extermination of the Roman army, new 
forces were raised in every province with which the Trinobantes 
were in league. Plautius, apprehensive of the danger that dark- 
ened around and threatened him on every side, informed the Em- 
peror of his situation; and securbg the conquests he had already 
made, he waited the arrival of Chiudius, who, with a large army, 
soon landed in Britain, A. D. 44, and joining hh forces with those 
of Claudius and Vespasian, passed the Thames. The Britons, 
posted on the opposite bank, resolutely sustained the onset, and 
bravely encountered the Romans; but finding tliemselves unable 
to maintain the contest against such a powerful foe, after consider- 
able loss, fled mto the adjacent woods."* 

Claudius pursuing his victory, proceeded to Ciimutodunam, of 
which he took possession, and established m it a colony of Romau 
veterans, consisting of the second, ninth, and fourteenth legions. 
On this occasion, it obtained the name cf Colonic ; probably as m 
pre-eminent memorial of its bemg tlie first Roman colony planted 
in this Island ; and the Itinerary of Antoninus, it is distinguisb- 
ed both by that appellation, and by its ori^'nal one of CamulodiH 
num. It was also called Colofda'Camulodummi^ as appears from 
the money mentioned by Camden to have been struck by Clan* 

diuty 

• Uittory of Colcbctter, Vol. I. p. i^ 



m 

<I»L CAMALQiDVN.^ lit MiAer 
by 11119 miAort «mI copied bMMfa,' if if 
CoUmim Victricendi, from the v«l«ffeiis ^ the ftmteetdk 
UpoQfWham falhuit conduct bad docMened them to beiQiledy 

CN. MVNATIVS. IC: r. PAl. ' ^* 

AVR£I.IV$:BAS$VS. ' . 

PROC. AVO. 

PRiEF. FABR. PRi£F. COH. Ill, 

^AGITTARIORVM . PRi£F. COH. 11. 

ASTVRiriff. CEKSITOR. CIVtVM. 

ROIIANdRVM COLONXiS. - V 

VICTRICENSIS. 
OyM. EST. IN, BRITANNIA. y 

CAMALODVNI. 
CVRATOR. VliE. NOMENTANA. 
PATRONVS. EIVSDEM. MVNICIPIL 
FLAIIEN. PERPITWS. DWIfVIRALI. 
POTESTATE. JU DlLlS. DEDI- 
CATOR. IllL 

After establishing hb colony, Cbudias reduced the acy«oeiitt 
jDontry mto a Roman province; and hani^ eppo^ited PhMiUoe 
B c prmt o r ^ he retiimed to Romet whexe a magnificent trmmph* 
lesdecreed to him by* the Senate, and annivenary guom mut^, 
tatcd in commemoration of his victory. He was also, contrary to • 
the Qfoal custom, several times saluted Iscpbratob ; triumphal^ 
•rches were ordered to be erected to his glo^y ; and. the surname * 
sf Britanaicus was entailed upon his fiimily. His success Mtt^ 
eipally the subject of rejoidog at Camulodunum, where a Temple . 
Vis raised to his memory, and himself worshipped as the tutdaf t 
Aeity of the colony, •, 

VoL,V. T Phntui^, 

* ICedilt ilto were ftruck in commemor^ttoo of the etubUibment of ^m 
Rmbmi o^looy ; hcvi^f on ooctide, the effigies of Claudius, with the legead 
n. CL AVD. CiES. AYO GER. P.m. TR. P. XII, IMP. XlIX jmd oa 
AiiSNne, apiosfhdrava byaoox and i oow yokid, drifoby • man* 
above tbcm. COL. CASIALODVN. AVC, * Cmdtn. 



m 

f9mf^emMenibky«iri tiotbciag reodfed abottt t^ jmm 
4jb Oiloriui 8^pttla was aeiitbj QwldiiMio faiivteadU Oahfe' 
arrival in Brititn, he fiMmd that various inroada had Jmm anie am 
the territories of the Roman aUies, and immediately taking the 
field, put many of the BatWes to the sword, and di^iened 
tl^ remainder. The, desire of iodependedee was not, however, 
destroyed ; the neighbouring states again flew to arms, and having 
obtanied the assistance of the Iceni,^ a powerful forpe was raised 
against the Roman power; but Ihe superior disdpUue of the Ro- 
man soldiers onoe nuwe prevaibd» and the Britians vrere defeated 
with great slaughter. Stilt the native spfait of the Ishmders re- 
mained unconquered ; and the Silures, ancf other states, headed by 
the gallant Caractacus, steadily opposed the progress of the Ra- 
man arms. Their bravery, determined a# it wa% bad not its d^ 
served success; Canctacus was defeated, and the eoontiy of the 
Silures reduced to Roman bondage 

Ostorius, to secure his newly-acqtlited territoiy, drew forth tbe 
chief part of the veteran legions from Camulodunum ; and to this 
ailMsilte the destruction of diat tolony by the Britons, udder the 
ymitftd Buoduiea, or BoadJcea,t is ce rtaitily to be attributed ; for 
tl^Tthi^baHtes, no long^ over-awed by the immediate presence 
o^tttiy ^HMsidei^ble military bbdy, unit^ with the kdMU*, whom 
thii ^^pfnMlon exeitised by the Roitians had agam driven to arms. 
Slfi^ iWlings^ itesulthg ftom sfmihirity of cause, mflamed tbe 
TMibbnites, wild begin t6 cbutider the temple erected to Claudius 
«I^Me badge of eternal servittide ; atid the demands made by the 
pHests ibr it^ support, as eventually tending to the destruction of 
thM- elates, lie cupidity of Catus Decianus, tlie Procurator, 
combined vrith the other causes of revolt, and the insurrection was 
80 sudden and complete, that the whole foundation of the Roman 
power appeared to totter. 

Caihulodunum was the first sacrifice to British vengeance ; the 
impending destruction is recorded by Tacitus, as having been 

' • See BesoUet, Vol. II. p. 4. f Xbi^, p. 5. 



2ti 

ibyftiifiUpiod^el <« Ibt tattge of TIdxfty,'' sa|$ iMb 
Ugtafini, ** wWhout any ttriUfe canae, Ml down^ and tmned 
feMhraMl,«8ir;kldiiigrtoA6eoeQiy. BntlMisaaalic women fbie- 
foMtfaecppmeliiogdMMbii; stftasefeioiieswlKre beard in tha 
aomty* ttd hiHiHfaigs moanded ill tbe theatre ; and an apparitkni 
ef a aolaHydeiteyady ivat 9een in the astoaiy of the Thanici* 
tkt taa looked Maodyi and in tiie ebb» tbeeffigifsi of hiMOBli bo« 
die»mi«4eft VfkMi the •hovcf.''^ TbesefiiUed prodigies strangl; 
ottill Ae aiHwefaaM ioaand alarm tbat prewlifed among the Ro* 
BMW, itlMMtiieBfiComt^etit then fbnxagahstti^ deroted colo* 
ny. Their fears had not been excited upon slight grounds : fiia 
and lirioghter marked the progvcss of Bttflduica; and Camulodu- 
■Ml, the soat of B rtian tytaany in Briuiiii was ottrwhebned ia 
itsowaraMk/aAarafiBablevesittanee from tbe soldiers who re^ 
oMkMiitbeia; andwho deftnded tbemseifas fei two days within 
fketample. 

IhltbeearlieatkitdligeaeeoftiusftfmudaU^ mnrractkm, Soe* 
tha Romin aenehd, hastened with his wbok 
fiom An|le0ear^ tdtwatf at fiMuoAMe to stem tbe torrent 
df BiflisbTengenoe* London and Vemjim fell succes^vdy'be* 
late the anattltt iff tbe hnsbed Queen, and tbdr iH-fofed faihabk 
lata Wfffe mmsai'ied withaat renmafe mt pity. At lengthy Sueto* 
lAto^ chuslag anadyattt a f aoao fMMHiao, rasolfcd to try th^ evsanl 
of a battle : the Brilons, feadered uapradentby success, and confi- 
defll in tite mal tita d t of their mmibers, adnmosd with rashness to 
Iheatfaeh, and ^iroaaan iojudidoos disposal of their feroe, preci- 
piMed tHeir own daiaat. So complete was the overthrow, that 
thia is mdaded asthe last irigpaaus effort made by the Britons to 
Reof«f^ their lost nidqpeodence. 

Ifoiaot, oo the authority of Pliny4 and tbe evidence of tbe 
^ daily discovered berei assumes, and with every ap« 
I of probability, that Caronlodunum was very soon rebuilt 
after its ftttat u ae rt hr o w , << Ofaatnaaibcn of coins,^ be observes, 

T2 " trtn 

• Aooil. L, XIV. c 3t, +S«e Beautiet, Sec. Vol. 11. p. ht^'^f:^ 

tNal.Hitt.L. XI. p»7i. 



^ €9m of CSMidkis hinsdf, aid of VaaptM, lltei, . 
ind their wftttS successors, are ^Mmd b and about tho phoe; 
not in heaps, pots, or large quantities tog^Iier, as if Uwy had 
been designedly baried, but dispersed dl about, as if aoctdentalty 
lost at different times: butkeliy I may say, have baan fbaod, b«t 
chiefly in the higher parts; a certain proof that the Rooim d^ 
stood there.** This argument m favor of tlie«ariy iieb«ikiMi§, and 
subsequent occupation, of Camulodoanm by the Eonaansj ia 
strongly corroborated by the many other antiquities of that pee* 
pie, that have been discovered wASm its (Hwdnls and iie%hbotiff" 
hood.» 

<* There are more Roman remains m and about this io«r%* 
conthroes Morant, ^ than m any other part of Soath BritaNU 
Immense quantities of Roman bricks and titcs are to be seen ia^ 
eiorporated, or rather are the chief materi^inaii the oiMtWK 
cient and public edifices. The town-wails, the Castle^ and the 
Churches, are half built with them; and m several partsevcathe 
Roman warfcmanilrip is copied. The bricks are gCMiaIfy abottt 
c^hteen inches long, eleven broad, and two thick; e«ieee<btf|y 
hard, and well baked. The Supellex Ramam of aU kinds atm 
abound here ; hardly any place bring dug np, without oms, Tasea, 
and potterie of all sorts, or at least firagments of ^hen, beii^ dj^ 
dowred. Septikbral urns, with tlie ashes therein, are lasewise 
frtquently found; as well as lamps, rings, intaglios, cimimp dee.. 
A remarkable Sepulchral Um, m particular, was taken up here «. 
fsw years ago. It was a large Yessel, made of thick coarse li|^t 
clay, containing twenty gallons: within was ao um of bhck 
earth, holding about two gallons, and having in it the adies of a 



* The numerous antiquities found at Colchester, wrre niiny ccnturim sg^ » 
subject of remark : the following ptsMge «ceun k ICtrianm. *• Civtos wur 
cminentissimai aamcranda {Colhcmi» §eil) ai noo Tftlia^a» q>ofl>gfMionc»» 
dmriones, denique piratarum immisaioqety Tari«qoe caauam afflictatioocs, 
omnia Cif itatis memoralia ddeviasent. Traditnin umen Helcnam, qoondant 
Imperil matrem» ex hac Civitate natam et educatam.— -Conjicltur et'iam ex hit, 
qua de terra fosasnes eruerunt, tarn ferrum qoan lapides, tarn mn atgoata 
f^uam ardificia sub terra in? eott.*' 



t'hiy, M iMy be'fl«|ppbied, becaoie there were tlim *wMi 
k; two bottles of elty l«f ifteeaie, twa ckj kmpB, one inelaLip|>s- 
eel ibr oinlineBt, and a speeuhmi «f polbhed metal, ancieiitiy 
lued for a looking-glass, "f 

la the year 1738, several C/nw were discovered just within St. 
Botolpb's Gate, together with a Ronna lamp, some pieces of 
meked metal, and two coins of Domitiaa. Aoother am was 
Ibond io March, 1749^0, in Windmill Fieki, near the west end 
of the town, boMhig aboot a pint, and within it, two tai^ 
eons of brass; one of Antoniniis Pins, the other of Alexander Seve* 
ms. Near it was a leaden coffin, wrought all over with loienges, 
with aa oscabp shell in each. Within the coffin was a scuU, and 
some rcmahis of the vertebv, together \vith two bracelets, four 
hodldas of jet, and one very small bracelet of wrought brass. 
Another urn, twenty-two inches iu diameter, and two foet, four 
iaches deep, was found, in the year 1753, m a field on thesoath 
side of the London read: in the urn was a metal spectdmn. A 
snail brass statue of Mercury, and a ftugoMnt of another^ >vppo- 
sai to have been a Yemis, have also btea discovered near thb 
lown.f 

The Teuelhitd Favemaaw are generally foond at between 
three and four feet beneath the surfcce of the growid. In the 
Cfanrdi-Yard at St. Mary's at the Wall, there appears to have 
been several, as lessene have been ftequaolly duglip m many dif* 
Icrant pfaMvs. In the year 1748, part of one was discovered in a 
garden, in the parish of the Holy Truilty ; and m the earth flang 
ap, was some Aagments of a fignsed am, and a coin of Coostan- 
tine, tf i« younger brother; aad another iragment was foaad in 
17«5, m a garden in the High*5tieet, belonging to Mr. John 
Bernard, an apothecary. It consists of a pbhi border of red lea* 
ore, each about an inch square, mckMing a corions oraamental 
centra of dmh^work, and squares, composed of Mack, whUe, 
iod and yellow dies. Of this pavement, Morant has given a 
reprasnilatioo. Many Roman jAumi, fiagmcnts of 

T3 

• Uiitory of Eoex, VoU I. p. t8». ♦ Ibi4. i«3. 



im^A vemht manAmg iMtraaedts, Bmmui htmMh ml 
.antiqiatiM baye also beeo fbuod facie; and bit«ly» io t field near 
the west end of the town, part of a Bonmn Hyp oannt was dis. 
covered. 

Hie Bomenie quantity of Romaii medals and corns thai hare 
lieen disoovered in etery part of the wide extent upon wUdi Col- 
dieater ift situatedt and which receives daily aqgai en ta t i o p horn 
the same source, cany a full and dear coorictioB of it% aocieal 
Hiaipiitttdli^ and of a long rasidence of the ftooMi peoples for nol 
only an occasional coin in the era of the Ufiper or Lower Boflifea 
Empire has con»e to tight, but many a series from the finl landing 
ff U19 Roniansin Blitain^ to the time i3£ their final departiins* 

Another proof of the continued aeiidence of the Romans al 
Cokhesler, arises from the many strong entrenchments, stretcUng 
from Qorth^to souths westward of the town. These areaap^oaed 
to be the remains of the Castra, CasuUa, and Prmsidia, Ifaat^ ac* 
•ording to Tacttua« were fonned abootshe andent Cb/ontc. ** To 
give any idea of the ny^tnde of these worica, witboot an aeca* 
rate survey, is hasdiy possible. The first rampart crosses the 
road a little to the eastward of Lexden, and extends southward m 
considerable kay; and northward nearty in a strait line, to the 
rtver; tbettce it proceeds to the road leading to West-Bcrgholtv 
beyond whicfa it is defaced, by the cultivation ,of the iodosed 
grounds. The furthest and most considerable rampairt is nearly 
pamHd to the first, and extends southward a oonsiderahle way 
tDwards Bfessey Island; and northwatd to the river, where it ia 
eoothmed across Bef^oh Heath, beyond whiah place, though it 
midoabtedly went much fottber^it is difficult to trace it wMi any 
CMatnty: in the space between these ramparts are many othem 
imsitacted at right angles; and some apparently in other direo- 
lions: al» three ramparts, parallel to each other, and to the two 
tbove described. The area inclosed is veiy laige: from tfae hei^t 
and strength of the western rampart^ it is conjectuffed that the 
eamp formed here waa for the defence of Colchester by the Romans ; 
and by the ramparts extendmg northward beyond the river Colne, 
and southward to the Mer?ey ]s\md, a line was formed, which 

completely 



iiiiBnliiflv iffnird the coaotis •^iSa^^^nf fham iIia hoitilAiBtBB* 
>m of the Biit^MD. The isbuid itself, fkom its plown^netii ,u4 
tgfofemmce of aitimtion, becajne theharbom, or,, f|8 p|t were. Up 
RftiDg-place, of people possiog to and ftom Rome. The m^f^ 
bcmtifiil pfif imentfly sod oiher imtiqiulifs, jet ntiniMiiing |^re, 
afideotly iudicate how aiuch it was freqi^eiiAed. A|Mvu|»iii»- 
loQg to the east of Bere Churchy is avei^r h^h pmpntf eaitted* 
hig 10 B direct lioe betweep OMftistntx wi llenpey.I^hiad : itt «p* 
ycanmce leads to a conjecture, that k fias thrown op &r the 
easier und more expedjiUons tiavelling to mud fiow the hitler*?* 

From the name Gn/mc's Jh/ckc given to ppul of the ahoirewoihi 
OD Lexden Heath, Mr. Gough mfers then) to JK of AMan \ 
Dr. Stukeley, be observes, who engraved sia pItfM of .1 
«« affirmed them a Biitish Circus, ^c and the pit at the sout h wai t 
corner^ called Kiiy Coei's Kitche«» to be an AmphitheaHe* This 
hat cotyecture is jusUfied by t^ Dofcbesler Amphilhiafrp, msufL 
the situatioa of the l^anks, hi^vipg the djtjJi jometiawi withii^ mud 
sometimes without, and ramiiug in some parts t^pk asa^panl* 

U diiecti^.''t 

It was a maaim of Roman polky, to entrust the gtwiamlM^it rf 
particular districts m conquered piovioces, to the dei<?tuilnfs of 
the native Princes who origioaUy possessed the sovaacign powaf. 
The district of which Colonia'CamMloduninn vitas the capital, is 
reported to have been amoof the number ; but tiie tvidcaaes of 
this assertion seem too w^ to merit confidence. On tiiis iiaai 
the Roman historians are atent ; and the British' wiiters who »• 
port the tradilioo, are not suffidanlly lesptcMrfe lo w a psBt Bd^ 
pKciCbdieC The tradition itself ns repeated by Monrt tern a 
Aort chropiclet to the Oath-Book of Cokhr^ev, ia aaeampamed 
hj particulars of such a romantic cast^ that a cinwsidsi^Me defma 
ef doubt would be excited of it» autbeolicilgs om if ooivobofa- 

T4 i . Ml 

* History of Colchester, Vol. It. p. tso, tt seq. 

f Additions to ths Britimua, V($l. II, 9« |9» 

t $«ppotcd, frovi the hand, to have hen writWo about tba coonDOMe* 
t of the reifn of Edward tbt Third. 



«96 Bine- 

ied iqr dM tatteony of mote KpobAfa tiitlion. At the tak, 
mai its ccrfhrtenl tppendagea, luife not aoitcquendy Engaged die 
«tteiitien of the learned, a condeoied retiew of the drcumstaooea. 
turf not be iinaoee{>table. 

Coe% the secood of that name, a British Prince, and descended 
ifooi a long line of British ancestots, is said, in the relations aUo* 
tied to, to have been invested by the Romans with the govenunent 
•of the district of which Camukxlonnm was the diief station, some 
time aboQt the period when the Roman empfae was distracted by 
tlie numeroos usurpers of the Imperial Purple, whom lustory has 
stigmatised by the appeUation of the Thirty l^ants. Iliis was 
near the middle of the third century ; when Coel, taking advantage 
4»f the general confiision, assumed independence, and having re* 
paired the buildings and pnbUc works, gave to his capittil the name 
ctCaer^CM. As a means of perpetuating this assumption of 
power, he is supposed to have become tributary to Caiausius, and 
ithe mother usnrpers of Imperial dignity who renounced their alle- 
-giao^ in Britain* 

Constantius Chlonis, great nephew to the Emperor Clandhn, 

'Wrfeo had been invested with sovereign siuthority ooder Diodeiiiaa 

•and Bfaiimilui, embarked at Gessoriacum, or Boulogne, with m 

.powerful army, to chastise the revoUers, and reduce Britain to its 

foiwer slate of depewdence. Havbg safely landed; be commenced 

the siege of Caer-Coel, as being the focus whefeb the flame df 

SMOrreetion had been elicited. The resistance opposed to hk 

•mmt was so detenmned, that the siege was procrastfanted 

to the omisosi period of three years, and e%*en dien seemed very 

idistant laom n snccesstul termkiation. In thb state of aflUrt, 

iCoBstalius beheld Belena, C6&n daughter, who Mas bom m this 

cHgr, and poss es s ed the most fincinaling charms of person, as weB 

•a 4he osoit HBcoannon endowments of mind. Struck with her 

ihiattty, and interested by her acquirements, Constantius became 

yiolently enamoured of the British Pnncess ; and bcfiuted not to 

make peace With Coel, oja condition of receiving the accomplished 

H^Aeoa as his bridfc. * 

Hitherto 



SS9SX. ^i 

I^Aerto the g^ient tradition is coirastent wttli itself, but It 
now brandies off Sn difletent dhrectioit^: ooe account asserts that 
Hht marriage was iinmediatelj celebrated with suitable splendor; 
anotber, that Helena was the mistress of Constaittms before sba 
became his wife^ Both, however, again unite in affirming, that 
Qmitaniittc, sumamed the Great, was the issue of this tntercoorse^ 
atid that he alsdwas bom at Caer-Co^'L Even the poets have re- 
hted the chcamstance, but on this ground they may be allowed 
lo wander, and celebrated the birth and birth-place of (Jonstantfaie 
li terms of hyperboUsm : thus Necham : 

From Cokhoter there rose a starre. 

The rayes whereof gave glorious light 
Throughout the world in climates farre, 

Gveat CoiffTANTiNC, Rome's Emperor bright. 

Such are the outlmcs of this splendid fable, which, besides tUt 
iomaiitk hue of its coloring, contradicts tlie evidence of the best 
informed writers on Roman History. According to Gibbon, the 
<Wfalioa of Constantine to the rank of Casar, and admittance to 
aovcreign power, preceded his recovery of Britain from AHe*> 
tus, who had assassinated Carausius, and usurped his dignity. 
Long previous to that event, therefore, he must have been mar*^ 
lied to Helena, from whom he was divorced on his second mac* 
rtage with the daughter of Maximian, and at which penoii Co«« 
Haotiae was eighteen years of age. The evidence resulting irom 
this evident anachronism, is not the only proof of the instabibfy 
of the tradition. Our eloquent historian derues ibat a Britisb 
King was the father of Helena, and gives (bat liooor to an inn* 
keeper ; at the same time, he observes, the legality of her matrngft 
. may be defended ^* against those who have represented lier as the 
concubine of Constantme.* Eutropius (x. 2.) expresses, in a 
frw words, tlie real^nitb, and the occasion of the error, ex obseu' 
ripri matrimonio ejus filius." 

The real biilb-placeof Constantine^ who was the first Romas 
Emperor that openly avowed the belief of Chnstianity, isaupposed 

to 

* Dediae and Fall of ihc Komm Empire, Vol. I J. 8vo. Edit. p. 190. 



99^ 

te lure been at NtMaas, ia Dscia.'* ^' Ai to CpoitilUtiDie khg 
hon io Britain," siys Mn Gougb, '* Ihis reaU op^ on tfae loti- 
»ooy of Briti«h auUiori ; all the Contineiital ones ftuog the phkle 
of hit nativity in other places or passing it over in sileooeu Uiw 
^r these doiibts, Colchester has littk reason to mtkt that boast 
of ity to which certainty is so essential a baab. Even all that 
bas been advanced about King Coel, rests apon $ffdi weak amha- 
lities, tba U can bardly pass for truth in any degree; othcffvriae* 
one might suspect that if such a person existed, his true name waa 
Cdstius, and that he was a Roman ; for, allowing Udena to bt bio 
daughter, which is by no means clear, how should the daughter 
of a Briton have a Greek name Tf In proof of the uncertainty of 
the history of King Coel, it may be observed, that Carte, though 
lie gives credit to the tradition of Helena being his daughter, 
places his kingdom between the walb of Hadrian and Antoonius ; 
and, instead of allowing him to be Sovereign of the Trinobanteai 
calls him the Monarch of the Cumbrians. However 

* ** Tbffc »re tbree optnlona,*' obiervcs Mr* Gibboa, ** with rcgwd to tht 
.fplaccof Coottaotioc's birth, i. Our English aotiquaries wece used to dw«U 
with rapture on the nvords of his panegyibtt * Btitawnius illic oriend^ nokili^ 
/tcuii .** but this celebrated passage may be referred with ss much propriety to 
the accession, as to the nativity, of Coastantine. t. Some of the oMdcm 
Creeks have inscribed the honor of hb birth to Drepanm, i lowo on t\t 
-giilph of Nicomedia, (Cellarius^ Tom. J I. page 174,) which Cooitsnliiit dig* 
liified with the name of Heleoopolis, and Justinian adorned with many H^Uv- 
did buildings, (Procop. de iEdificiis, v. 1.) It is, indeed, probable enoagb» 
that Helena's father kept an inn at Drepanum ; and that Constantine might lodge 
there when he returned fioiK a Persian Embassy, in the reign of Aurelian : but 
in the wandering life of a soldier, the place of hia marriage, and the placca 
whert brs childien arc bora, have very litde coanidiaB' wkk each odier. a< 
The claim of Naissus is supported by the anonymous writer, published at tbe 
aad of Ammianus, p. 910, and who, in general, copied very good matcriala; 
and it is confirmed by Julius Firmicius, (De Astrologia, L. s. c. 4 ) who 
flourished under the reign of Consuntinc himself. Sooae objectioos have bce% 
raised apinst the integiity of the text, and the application of the passage of 
Tirmicius ; but the former is established by the best M$S. and the lattei is very 
aUyddawlcdby Lipstiu, de Magnitudioe Romana, L. 4. c ii.ctSuppWment.'* 

Dccliwe, &t. of ike RtmM tmpitt, 

i Add^ions to the Britannia, VoU II. p. ^8. 



Hovefttr mivoidqr •( credit Bwy 4^ Ikf taditfeii which usagm 
Cokheiler M the biilbpiaQe of CoMtaatipe opd Ua iHMnitl p» 
lent, it was probably ibuoded oq womt portknhr o ccmrcp o e i in 
the history ol* thb ci^, whereio Ihey were the chief actoia. Whca 
CoDiteotiiis came info Britain^ he was accovpatted by bit smi 
Cpaiteotine, and not uoiikely by his wife Heteaa, who, thoogh 
nepiidiated finom Baiims of state policy, mi^t yet retain the ehi^ 
pboe in his affisctioos : or, if thb idea should be supposetHutciUH 
ble, ftom the known piety of Helena, and her attachaient to the 
Chriitiao religion, the cofgectnre may still be warranted, that she 
accompanied the eipedition from feelings of parental lote. Coo* 
itantiiis pasted a cowderaUe time in Britain previoas to hb de- 
ccaie at York, in 306 ; and as there b much reason t6 beliefo 
that Cokiiiia was^then a very flooriBhiog and imporlant station, 
a itroog probability results, that he, at lent, made it a place of 
eeouiamd residence. Hence then commenced the connection be*^ 
tareen hb fiunfly and thb city ; for such it unquestbnably was, it 
the rehtioo be true, that Adelfius, Bishop of Colon, (Colcnia,J 
was present at tbe Council of Aries, in the year S14.* Constan- 
tins fauDseif was a covert suppor^r of ChristiaBity ; and ConstantBM 
and Hdeoa being its arowed upholders, became as sudi inoM 
otfilled to the veneration of the inliabitauts ; who, among the pi^ 
eus hbors of Helena, euumemle the foundation of St. Helen's 
Chapel. AJtter her departure from Britain, Helena made a joar« 
nqr to Jerusalem, where she b fabled to have diKorered the cross 
M which liio Samur wm crucified ; and to thb drcatnstance th6 
amis of Coldiester, whkh disfilay a cross between three corooelSi' 
are-attrtbuted. 

Under the Sason domination, Coicbestec, then called CMmt- 
eeoMer, or ColtiMxaster, lost much of its ancient conseqncoce ^^ 
the incffcftsed importance of the Metropolis, and its more favoiiable- 
atiiatrm for^ trade and eomaierce, having, in a great measure, 
caottibvted to it« decay. The Dsnes afterwards obtained prases* 
jioa, and were established here, and in the adjacent coontry, by 

tbe 

♦ ^nnt, V<J. X. p. S4* 



300 BS8BX. 

Ae treaty conduded between the Orett Alfred, and the Daiiisli 
Chief, Oothram. On the tfeath of the latter, AlfitNl agam be- 
cmae the nominal master of 1 hb district, but was long nuibk to 
aobdde the Danish forces, who were continually receiving supplies 
fay sea. Having at length constructed a superior navy, the 
Danes, deprived of their accustomed rehrfbrcements, submitted tcT 
acknowledge bun as their Sovereign ; but appear to have still kept 
possession of Colchester, as their principal strong-hold. 

On the death of Alfred, and accession of hb son Edward, calt 
ed the Elder, the Danes re-commenced their usual coiu^ of de> 
struction and plunder, under the command of Ethelwald, Alfred's 
nephew ; who intending to possess himself of the sovereignty of 
Britain, had assembled a large army of Danes and Normans, ant) 
landing in Essex, became master of Colchester, and the ceigh^ 
bouring country. Ethelwald bemg defeated, and slain m the fol- 
lowing year, (905,) the Danes returned to thehr allegiance ; hot 
with so little smcerity, that Edward found it n^essary, within a 
few years, to estabHsh fortifications at Witham and Maiden,* to 
Ttstrain then* incursions. In $21, Edward, finding the time fo- 
vprable for a design he had long meditated, a^mbkd a large acw 
my^ and laid siege to Cokie-ceaster, which appears to have bees 
taken by assault, as the Danes were all put to the sword, with 
the eseeption of a very few, who leaping over the walls, fled into 
East-Anglia. Edward b thought to have re-peopled the desolated 
aity by a colou^f of West-Saxons ; and, in November, 9<2, as ap- 
pears Arom the Saxon Chronicle, he either rebuilt or repaired the 
walls. From thb period to the Nonnan Conquest, the annals o€ 
Colchester oflcr nothing remarkable. 

From the Domesday Book, Colchester appears to have been, 
at the period of its coinpildtion, a very consklerable town* 1^ 
number of Burgesses, who then hdd houses under the King, wat- 
276' ; the number of houses in their possession, 555 : beskks tbeae 
the Bbliop of London hekl fourtete houses here ; Eudo Dapifer, 
five liouses, and forty acres of land ; H»mo Dapifer^ one house, 

and 

* #ee p»gft 074 9gid tSt. * 



^ 



801 

nd cmemirtf.Q^htlli and EtrlBitfttce^ lircbp^ lioiises; thii^ 
two jollwr hooaea wei% b^ by .difiereot peiBOiis^ . Eudo Dapifier, 
mko bad much laod ia' Essex, made Colchester his prinoipal resi- 
deaee, and is, said, in the Monastiooo/ to have fouoded Uie Casr 
tk; though it b probable that he oqlyxeboilt it on the rite of a 
Bioie /Hicieiit fortreai. Ia the reign of Henry tbeSecondy tha 
fiBt-fivm of the tojip was let to the Sheriff of Essex for an annual, 
sum; but the rents being exacted with great rigor, Henry soon, 
sfLerwar^is renritt^^d tlie imposition to tb^ Buigesses, on their en* 
^igifjg to pay toriy-tw o }>ouuds yearly. 

Daring the commouoiis in the time of King John, Saher de 
Qiiincy, EmiI of Wincliesier, besieged Colchester, (A, D. 1215,) 
mh an armi^ of foreigners ; but hearmg that the Barons assembled 
ia Londoii were ■ddvancm^ to its relief, he retired to St. Edmund's 
Hory. SooQ afterwards, however. Saber, or some of hit party, , 
uhedwd possession, aod hdving plundered the town, pkieedag»r* 
nmn m Ihf^ Cattle; wlircli was quickly invested by the King, and. 
oUiged to surrender. In tlie year 1218, Colchester waa taken, 
by the toldiera of Prince Louis, son of Phillip the Second of 
Ffincr, who had been invited mto England to assist the Barony;? 
hiU instead of remaining ikithful to the cause they had under- • 
tttkecj ihoughl die opportunity fiivorable to make conquests for. 
tiieniaelvca. The Castle walls were now disgraced by the banner 
ofFimce; which, however, was not sufiered to wave, lo^g; foi;the 
Btroos haviug submitted to their new Sovereign,. Henry the Third, 
coDaoUdatcd their ftlrength^ and expelled the vain-glorious Prince. 
ffom the kingdom. 

In tbe rtign of Edivard ihe Tliird, one Lionel de Bradenham, a 
powerfal and avaricious man, endeavoured to possess himself .of. 
Ik^ eadostve fisbeiy of the river Colne, which had been granted 
to the Burgesses by Rkhard the First. Being foiled in hb at- 
tcai|il by Robert de Herle, the Lord Admiral, he beset the aye- 
ooes of Colchester witli a band of daring outlaws, and for three 
»Mithf kept the iohabitanta m perpetual alarm, by endeavouring. 

to 

• Vol I. p, if4. ^ ^ 



piirdMse Mb ferMlAl M» ^ a l«rg» mm of wmmty. On Ae ni- 
sing of the greet naval armaiaciit to blockade Calais^ Cofchealiv 
furnished fite ships and 170 marinere. la this reign, in the ymn 
^348, aad 1560, num;^ of the inhabitants fell victinis to tha 
league. In 1455 Colchester was visited by Henry the Siith; but 
Ac occasion of his coming is not vecorded, though much page* 
aotry was displayed in consequence. 

Duong the attempt to place the accomplisbed but ifl-fatcd* 
Jane Grey upon the throne^ the inhabilants of Coldieater 80|>* 
|)iorted tlie iuterests of the Princess Mary with so much ferror, 
that a very few days after the latter had obtained secure poasea* 
akm of the Crown, she visited the town, purposely to dispbiy her 
ah^Hig sense of the attachment of its inhabitants. Sbe was ra- 
edved wHlh great rejoicings, and on her departure presented vrith 
a sSver cup, and 201. m gold ; a sum regarded in those times as 
woiffay the acceptance of a Sovereign.* Her gratitude, however, 
was less powerful than her b%otry; and various persons, both 
male and female were here coaraiitted to the ilimes, to expiate' 
the crime of opposition to the religions oi^dinanees prescribed by 
the existing laws. Colchester, indeed, at this period, was distin- 
giohed for the diversity of its religiotis sects; and the flames of 
persecution were lighted Up by the bigoted Queen, to amalgamate 
flie contrariety of opinions into one uniform belief. The strango 
and absurd tenets of the sect named the Pamiiy qf Love, were ptoJ 
pagated here by Christopher Vitels, the disciple of Henry Nidio* 
hs, of Delft, its original founder, and obtained many converts. 
Various other fanciful systems were also extremely curient; and 
so oomerous was the resort of votaries, that Colchester, to use the 

aflected 



* The value of this gift can be betur appreciated by an extract from the 
Chamberlain of Coldtester's accomit of the charges incurred by the purchase of 
vtrious anickt of food, in consequence of this visit. Item. For 3a dozen of 
Wad, 398. For 49 gallons of claret wine, 48s. Ten barrels of beefy-*. 
A quarur of beef, weighing five score and ten pounds, 9s. td. A »ide of beef, 
weighing seven score and five pounds, tss. td. A vcal, 41. Half a vct^ 
ts. ad. Two muttons, 9*. 4d. lee* 



\ikt9g^^ Mdn^ lie irotorft^dtit kp«A a 
m, mi as a- trnt rnkufm a. Murfjiirtkl e, gire gfeot light t<i «B^ 
^^■tfvftDy finrftka cdHfort of Hmr eonidetioe, came to canfem 
dnre 6aaa dims ptooetf of thr iieaiaae."* The acoeMioii 94 Eliga* 
tba pjia- wUdi ktolerMice bad kindM; aad 
\ af d»40WB, who ware awaking their axpeel«l« 
fte in- the depths of a ptiioav ware set at Kfoerty. Soon aAaiw 
ands oanliy FJeming^t wbam'lhe bhM>dy and onrelenting paliqr 
•f the Dtdoe af iUfa had expellad fiom then* nalivfe pfaias, soagbC 
SB tsylnm at Colchester; and, in retvira for the protection afforded 
test, iatsoduoed the nHain&elare of bays and says, which render- 
«d Iha town maia floaiisfaiBg than It hadbeen for many jfears; la 
the aataanml pragiass of fiUaabeth m the year 1679t that Saaa- 
fiflB dJBBiiii heia two days. At 

*' CaaAit^oa mt the Family of Love, by W. WllVtogion, 1579. 

f M A* J>. i|8o^ Tho protactioa the f iemingi htd teceived on ibeir liftf 
chasing Colchester for.a Msidence, and the-^acouragement tbey had cxpciU. 
caccd in the ten years thai had elapsed since- their establishment, were themeasa 
of gteasly increasing their numbers. The regularity and method of their pro« 
cecdftagB, both ift civil and religious matters, as well as what related to tiKtr 
■MilfKtdtea^ mads diem examples for imitation. They had formed diem<^ 
•dvaa isilo a ooegregWMS^ or distiootbody, aod arcry one acknowledged aa a 
vonber, bad faia name enrolled in a register. Thsy were permitted Co tntSi» 
orden and regulations for carrying on their trade, which gave them a dcgiee oT 
credit unknown before : they supported the poor and indigent of their ow« na* 
tiao, not auff^ring them to become a buithen to those whose hospitality had 
giaai them an asylatti; and for ihe purposes of neligton, they had the Chof^ 
of SL 0ika anignad ltea» wlierain the doctrines of Luther wene e«pouiidedr 
by a mialsttr cbotca from among ibcmaelves. Thcsa liberties^ Ut greater thaa 
my their own country afforded, tempted ma(iy» who h;^d otherwise no rational 
motive, to leave their native soil, and associate with their brethren thus esta- 
Milfaed« *nwir numbers daily inc:eaaad, and Colchester was upon the potnC 
af Itecoming a colony of 4Qeinitigs, m well as of endurmg the incommodious 
Chonaaaaces of dcartl^ Wid dcatnesa of ^'OvisiofK The coogregatfon wae 
naable to lesuain tttia ittcr4ues aiidt|e'B«<l4fiii and Aldcfoen, to prevent fur^ 
thrr accumulatio* to a body already too imweildly, were obliged to'issase ^ 
command, that no stranger should, for the future, be permitted to rrsida.ia 
the prectllCtl pf the lowo, withoat their special consent.*' 



«0i 

M the cmiiif iictjHMiit ef Ae dcitrttifH < 
Cteries tiM Fbst and his PnrliaaMal, IheiriMWlMtsori 
took pwt with the faitt^, and in iSiS, pctilioMd tbit that 
BMght bt better fortified. The tarn of 15001. 
^nated for rapairiog the vralis, and p iofidBiig other m^tms of <te» 
ftnee^ Soon afterwards sobm unwarraated acts of oatrage wtiw 
oommitted by the loner classes against the Luou finkiiljr; hot tbo 
hoCTors of cttil war were not fell in aU their seierily till the ; 
t€4iSf when the memorable siege of Gokhester rcdaoed the J 
bitants to the greatest dbtress. 

. At tUs period, a design was conceived by manj of the nobiiitf' 
and gentry in diSerent parts of the kingdom, to restrain the on* 
due exercise of Parlkmentary power, and restore the tectioBs <vf 
giiremment mto its former channd. Frequenl confcwiwci fo? 
promote these purposes were held in various counties, and parti- 
cnlariy m Kent, where great numbers assembled under George 
Goring, Earl of Norwich, who, without sufficient experience, 
aasnmed the oflke of GeneraL Havh^ marched to Bhickheath, 
In expectation of being joined by the Londoners, the Piarliamenfs 
jGrmy, commanded by Lord Fairfax, advance^^ encounter tho 
aewly-raised forces, who immediately retreated, and dividing into 
two bodies, one took the road towards Rochester, the other to- 
wards Maidstone. The former were overtaken, and defeated: 
the latter again advanced to Blackheatb, still hofmig to receive 
assistance from the Metropolb ; but a detachment coming agains^ 
them, the greater number dispersed. The remainder, with Lord 
Goring, crossed the Thames at Greenwich, and look post at Mile-^ 
End, and St ratford-le>Bow, wheie they remained tive days> and 
were joined by many Kentish-men, and London apprentices. 

In the mean time, the Royalists in Essex exerted themselves 
with great success, and having seized the Committee of F^riia* 
ment sittmg at Chelmsford, assembled a considerable force, ma^ 
under the command of Sir Cbailes Lucas, sarched to Bfentwood, 
and joined the Lord Goring, who had advanced to meet them ; 
their united strength was quickly mcreased by the junction of de* 
tadied parties from various quarters; and the army thus drawm 

together 



90S. 

topXbtt^ mm mtixMild ikw ilbot, aid ^h&m. THs 
IKrce befl^insaffideiit to cope with FUWm wh»'wwt]Mnindo«6^ 
parsiiity k was determiited to proceed la Cotchetter. 

Tbe ialiabbaiitSy wnliiiig to prevent tfac^ ditnuoeiof the lUqftl*^ 
hib, dint legates, midcollecledatiooporUmaCsittjhonefo* 
defeod tbe paMige; b«t, on tlieappmieb'<iVSirCirailBiLinH»/ 
witii some compenies of cavilrf » they tbouglit tf most prudeot tp * 
dtKfer up tbe town, on « pioiiibe tfaatit riibuld bepreMrndfrepD 
piBage» and none of the towns-people il^and.' The mda fmm > 
bad now aitived; and the approach of iWate being qdbldjrifji* * 
prdiendedy guards were posted at evmj avemi^ the walli fsd« * 
strengthened, and every thing assomed tbe appeanmceof m'vigop^A 
oos resistance. The next day, June the tfabteeutti, thcPaila i 
■Mnt army arrived on Lexden Heath; and RuHbx.smnoioned* 
Lord Goring to surrender the town, and'cansebisfovcef tolfegr' 
down their arms. To this message, an insolent negative was ra-' 
tamed by the Earl; and an assaoH was immediately conaKnced: 
tbe sobttrbs were tWd after a dreidlbl codttst, and notbfaigbot * 
tbe BSostd e t ei i ui neetMraveiy pseventBd tiie ptoce ftosn bamgcsfttiad^' 
Some loot soldiers of the enemy had entered with tbe'rettsatittg.: 
Boyalisis, but were again driven out by tbe pilMS of the RoyaKrt 
ofieers, who, in tho conMon, closed the gate upon «Mfy <lf > 
tbearownpeopb. Tbe aisaok continued between seven and eigbC^ 
boon; till al kagUi, wearied 1^ tbe obstinata detece of the bd> t 
sieged, tbe troops of Faiiftx; retmated in mtich disosdsf. 

Bemg thus repeUed in a genend assault, Rarfim co m m sn eed n 
r^uhur blockade, and, after a protncted i useslmeBt of 
weeks, in wbicb many vigosbos sallies had baes iimdanitbvai 
siMoess, obtabedpossesrionoftbetowm Tbe terms of snitender 
urcre unasnally severe, as the Ruiiamentaiy Ocneml refiwed to 
promise quarter to any but tbe common soldien, and oflkers un- 
der the rank of Captains. The necessity of the case admitted no 
akeraative, and to thb bard conditfoti tbe Royalist officers were 
ob^ged to submit; every usual kind of provbioa bavkig been loi^ 
nhanstedy.aad both inhabitants and soldiers reduced to satisfy the 
gCtavrngs of hunger on botscs, dogs, a^d other animals. 

Vol. V. U - Soon 



ci «C Ww'imI'IhM al i|MiMoQ(-iMI,jMSirCharfeftX«caii^ 
Sir George Lisb^ «■< Sir Boniiid Qease jn^ coi^ifiMMd |o «iiiE» 
AmA. The smoa of tlw |Mte<^e, MfiHinaHy it^ 
iidfctMVwti^ tel» ''liAM ae 1^ «id ebuttoalt a dAnoe, ik 
wm mtmrntj^ fet Ike. csMipkof. olhen^ and that tbe pease of 
tha Ingdavt iB%hl he oo. 9«Mediitarbedia tiieivmiiMr, ihat 
soaa MlilHsr jiMtiQi iheuM hs «wiii(0(l» asd tbeffefiMe tbaft the 
OmkU had dhihimfadi tliatillMyllvMsiNHiMbepieitQtIydbeC 
to4aiiLy The thm tAifaaafu officers were tiiaa ooadiid^ 
t^lheCeede^ but h h f i w i hcea dietaeerti that Gaicoyia w«i » 
hia MiilciMe vatMntiBed^ and hiaidelf ordeted ta be 
I^Ah th»e<her pdeoaar » Sodq aAerwards, Goleael Ire* 
tonma dhpalehed la iofefttSif Cbailea Lmw, wd Sir Oeofps 
liji^ to pa^MK fiM doalb. AAtereaerdeckthasaaMkemh^. 
they mre led taa ya e ajp atrfyoand, oaiy a Aw pa<n dielaot 
fioM the aarth wtU o£ IheCegyh, and tbeee atibaiiUed to theic 
banfcftlewiththefiMitintt^bnimjr* Thebodiei<]f the heo 
Knighli^ wBe pmatdgr inlonad ia the i^aidt of the I^ocee imiif^ 
iaStLMee'eChneh. 

iUfar tUa caeoutiea, Ibcr Lord Oedhg, UrdCapelpt aad tfas 
dhere fcewv leen anond «f «lak quartes aeprieoqeKt.af mrr 
bat thh pmaiee the pataoMMiit jindietiao of the ftiriiawat 
thodgU f>aepee la diMMd iiL Mpoci l» Ufd Ga^ aiba a^ 
peached, aadi heaagltl toi twU whea wAaaii; to adawwladge the 
aathoeityaf the/eoart» be arae coadaamed te^dle, aadaitfeved the 
pai^afhhaeataKeial^lardB^ lS49k iiAer the aarreader of the 
tmm, acomribattoaoru^OOOl. waaiaipeeedoo thaUidbitaalas 
of wfakh earn 20001. was afWfward$.i«utted ; 20D0L aae bestemd 
to tdiefa the dietreMes of tbe poor, and Ibe eeaiaioiag lO-^OML 

. . . diitnbate4 

* CUrcadoo^ Book XI. f . ^o^ 

f The ttrengdi tnd pcnonftl counge of Anhur> Lord Cipe!» who fought 
en the tide of Lord Goring, wat, id the fint unmh, • Mngolafly tompic— m : 
hi the tarault, no her ceeld hd iwind » hiUa tht'ilaadg)eg» lUUweiee* 
c«rad by » cane only, bdongiog to thU nobleman* 



96r 



300 i Btiiii^ awl mAiv oUmt iMUdiA^, hltd beta hartxt, 6t 



tiSaiUmA mm t m tt ^tOj AflMHied j lh« msigisrittfefl Mh^ ' 
oU%dl tB nippljrtbr vicvmrf tocSaf 1^ dRct tfaeir destnidfoir. 
la Iha jpcar td66v *• dMMilpri^ue, iifftkR lavAged Lonioa, 
fMfr X i ^ Hi baaefal aMMMT W CMeheste^, atAf befere the tonxst^ 
gbn lad aflised 19 act, iMrtf ^^000 persona imd ken meplMty 
bjiiaitaAmMe. 

GalabMat ia pmci|Ndl^ iltlialM dn (M stttllrtitt sMidtibrtlk^m 
ttptal of a iaa i— famnjf, iUag'fram ffte i^ter Colae, whkA flo«irg 
otttheaortiiaiideaitMn^ MMfkiishriglMela Aevpcrtdtttecttlif^ 
N i i > Il yi h a ; y tiiB eaii ^aniter of fbe torn*, llrt ^^ace ibctosed 
by iha atiiiatt ot Hn aaalmt' wiMli^ ftifM If pA9fKM6ffi aWy liivifi|{ 
iti t iii gi II I wii J t w a ai J t Ifce iotfh and Mith: tite boSdings Wiflt- 
oat the walls are rery irregularly disposed, chiefly on the *mth 
•iieait TMa prindpal stiter, \kiih' fum wtatAy esaifl wtiA iteitky 
iiMHitkiHpafaUcWgiani^ ^MmAlmtaMiy hatgd t^iOjpSy and respect- 
able liMiaa; bat k so iuowh at dbfigiue^ by the old maitet-hoaM, 
aaA olliar aanll baildiags, wfaieir sCaiid Hear tbefDiddlectf the 
stanit Mdoktnicilth9fMM)i;e: PMt ofthe townwaarpavetf aiT 
aaifM^ l lia y ia r 1473^ I* ^^ f^iof Jamea the First, tta aet 
naaohiancdfor fanaaglbewbole, aact itsprottsfons were enforced 
by andllier act pMsed^ in 1750 ; by tb^ie, the iand-owners, and 
pi u p tietoB i Of biddiOKis mt oitfewd to pave, and keep in rqiair, 
aB tbc aniys«dontigaoQ8 lo- tbebr rcsipeeti^ possessions. 

Oteat alliiitioD naafeimerly girea to the preservation of the 
!fM§, bat tbeyara near lap tfgMat degree destroyed; and w&at 10- 
matas^ iaaoljr kept in nepair by those who hate gardens, or othcf 
gnnsnda, ail jwwi u ag. The watseonsist of ston^ tnd Roman biick, 
oailecl by a ^my itmng ccMMf . The fhrckneKii vsities, bnt is, in 
^encnil, Aaai se^a to eight feet. Tlie inclosed area contains ra- 

U 2 tber 

* A very extended account of tbc evenu of the itege of Colchester mty Ife, 
Mtn in Morant*s Essex, Vol. I. p. 59, «^ J^^ compiled from Ru»hworth, 
CSmidoD, Whitlockei ice. 



50B £^n.^ 

tfier more than 108 acres: tke drcuidmiioe of the wallt bAtg 
ooe mile and thrre quarters. Edward the EMer, as abeady ineiH 
tioned from the Saxon Chronicle, repaired or rebuilt them, after 
the defeat of the Danes in 921 ; and Raohanl the Second is re- 
corded to have exempted the Biuf^sses hom^bteharge of retom- 
ing members to Parliament three several timesy on acooualt ii the 
great expense they were at " in repairing their wall with Kme and 
stone against all invaders.** The like exemption vras granted by 
the Henries, Foorth and Fifth ; hot since the siege m the time of 
Charles the First, the walls have had no public labor expended oo 
them. When in their perfect state, the town was entered by foot 
princyal ^ites and three posterns^ most of which are now destroyed. 
The walls were strthgthened by several bastions, and eo the west 
defended by a small ancient fort, called Colfynge's Caud; die 
arches that remain, are formed of Roman bridu On die nmfk 
and west sides were deep ditches, in the places vbmt open t» 
attack. 

On an elevated spot, to the noi)h of die High Street, aad 
commanding a fine view of the winding valley to the north ' 
and east, stands the Ca$tx«b. The outer waits are nearly per* 
feet, and by Uieur vast diickness and solidity, evkne the ms- 
portance that in the early i^^ vras attached to dns aitnatmu 
The whole building is constructed with a mixtare of slone, tmtt, 
and Roman bricks; but the latter are chiefly in- pieces, c o n veying 
the idea of their having been taken ftom some more ancient iM^d- 
ing. Norden ascribes the erection of this fortress fo'Edward the 
Elder; but the Monasticon, before i|iioted, refers it to Eiido Da* 
pifer, Sewer or Steward to William tbe Conqueror: m its | 
structure it is evidently Nonnan; though, from the imi] 
qjuantity of Roman brkks' worked up in the vralls, it seems pao* 
bable that it was raised upon the site of some Roman ImBdiiig, 
and with a la^ portk>n of its materials. The traditkm, hidced^ 
as recorded in the Colchester Chronicle, clearly points oot a laote; 
ancient edifice on this spot; infmndo Palatii Oglis quondam Regit: 
now if, according to the bgenious supposition of Mr. Gou^, 
Co^l, or Coelius, was a Roman name, the origio of the fortress 



111 once MmBonti ; tm), nnkn tone ^wckms str u d tt re 
(ad previouslj occupied this ipot, there seems great diflkiilty fn 
acomiuting for ludi a large space as the Castle and its ramlNirtB 
cofety aod sittiated so near the middle of Colchester, remaining 
anoocupied till the time of the Normans. 

The Castle b bnilt m the form of a paralMogram, the east and 
' wesi sides measuring 140 feet each, the north and south sides 102 
feet each : at the nortb^asland north-west angles are projecting 
square toivers; at the south side, on the west face, it another square 
tower; and on the east face, a aeniidrcular tower; the external 
radius of wliich is twentj feet. The foundations are thirty fe^ 
thick; tfie lower part of the walls twelre feet thick, and the upper 
part nearly eleven. The principal entrance is near the soutt- 
west tower, beneath a strong semicircular arch, with three-quartar 
columns; having capitals, oruamentcd m the Norman style: this 
was ancientfy defended by a portcullis. On the right, withm 
fte entrance, is a nidie, where the guard oir parter was stationed^ 
the leisure and iiksomeness of whose calling is expressed by the 
figures rudely sculptured on the adjacent stones. At a little dis- 
tance beyond is a square room, at the further end of whkh Is a 
iight of stairs leading to the vaults. 

^ At the foot of the stairs is a vault twenty-six feet in length, 
and twenty-one in breadth, having at the further end a narrow 
passage, whkh b bricked up, to prevent aocklents arisbg froat 
the ruinous state of the arch of the vault to which it leads. On 
the right of thb fmt vault is a passage, that has been broken 
throoghthe wall into an adjacent vault: thb, whkh b notpene;- 
tritcd by a single ray of light, b of the seine dimensiens as the 
£tU; and through a diasm at the further end, b a way to a third 
vault, of the same breadth of the' others, but much kmgen When 
these vaults were first discovered, which b not more than eighty 
or ninety years ago, they were full of sand, to carry off whkh, an 
opening was made through the feundalkm wall, near the north- 
east comer ; but thb passage is now dosed up. The origioal do- 
scent into these vaulu b still hidden, the present staircaia break* 
■9 through tbe4rrown of the arch ; it seems prabkble, thcnsfore; 

U 3 that 



wM^ir 19 ti^ ioutfi iraUf !• a well, npw iMPchad owr; t^ Ibe 
^inm4^dtm% whiob, tha vrorkin^ vboie ^mUmty induced timn 
t» dwcwNidy diflooveied, about lialf w«y down, uu M^hed pasf9St» 
leadiog towards the toatb; but Dos wiaf not eapbnd. 
' '^B^yoed the iliun i» the entmnoe to a large amat fooneriy 
hKlp9ed|i|y'eioof, auddiiaded by ewaHnuuiiqg north aadaoulb* 
Tbis^iliace included, upon its diftieot floocs, tbe frindpal ayait- 
ineutS4>f theCesUe; and also a gallery that nm between the waH 
•wW^ grosses the area, and that which is demolished. At tbes 
fouth end of the gallery, on the ground floor, is a s^ron^ arched 
imMiy thet receives a scanty portion of light througka small aper* 
tfue in the south wall of the castle; this miserahle hol< as tradi* 
lien «yeit% vus the last lodging of Sir Charles Lucas, end Sir 
(Seorfe lisle. 

^ At* the eidvenuty of a waH which atpamtei this area fronn 

leepudt is a door abore and below, which led into ep^rtmeats 

that filled the space between the east waU of the Castle and the 

gellsiy* At the louth ead of tUs j^ce, in the south-east tower, 

nn the ground floor, is a itroog arched room, the waUs of which 

are of extraordinary tliiduiesp. In the south-west tower is the 

grand staiicase, which is circular, aivhed above, and built of 

stone. This leads to a modem room, used for a Subsyytioo li* 

bury. An arcade of inodeni workmanship, which runs aku^ the 

north waU of the Library, conducts to the ancient Chapel. Tbie 

is a venerable piece of architecture ; the beauty of its proportions 

iMhe the Qe^ notwithstamtiqg the massiveness of its constructioii* 

The roof is strong^ arched { the light enters through five windows; 

two of which have been enlarged, but the otheis remain nearly in 

$jlm\i ongM state/' The length of this Chapel is foity-seveo 

<e0t, the width nearly forty; the height proportionable. Aq 

aacbed vault beneath is iised for the confinement of prisoners. 

<Mn the north-east and north-west toners, upon the same floor 
as the Chspel, are various small rooms, or recesies) and in the 
IsAter, is also a stairsase, which descends from the upper part of 
(be tower, ami terminates at the fisst flooir. ^ At the foot of the 

stairs 



MSKt. '311 

stilrsy'fa iht nottlr wM ofUte Cttfc, b^ tatty^pM, wm dokbd 
up, frfakh opened apoo aa libottiMiit t»f the tMnVh^vMI tontr. 
This^aHy-porty which is fane ftet wide, am) th^ great doorway in 
the south* wally are the only original eofraneeti toto the Ota/At. 
From the principal staircase in f hi! north-^tist lower, anoftet lligbt 
* of iteps leads to what was (hfcaecotod floor: the walliitftfiift ^tory, 
of which hot a very small port reitaaiiny were idbe feet thick, 
Tlie dome which covers the staircase, the passage {brtncri «qMN», 
th» west and north wall of the CaAle, and the stnall^ room npoo 
the summit of the north-east tower, are all of modem construc- 
tkm. The great doorway hi the uorifa waU, and At smal portfai 
the east wall, are likewise modem, aod hate been ibrmed^with 
great labor,' by the enhirgement of a narrow whidow in each phee. 
Seferal of ttie windows have also, with no less htior, been en* 
fcirged; in their original stale, but a very scanty portion of ttgbt 
oould have (bund entrance iiito the interior apartments. The pe- 
cufiar construction of these wmdows, so entirely different IRroni 
any m modem buildings, is worthy observatfon. An arched 
nicbe, about three feet deep, formed Ae iiiner openhigof thewb* 
dow; in the l>ack of which niche, another, of less dhnenrions, grt* 
doaBy decreasing m breadth, penetrated aboot seven ((iet ffarthct, 
at the extrenuty of which, a narrow aperture, only dgjit indite 
wkie, lined with hewn stone, was niade throogh 'flie temahnag 
thickness of the vraU. From the floor of the rooms, an ascent 
was made to the narrow aperture of the wfaidow, by a sttudl flight 
t^steps.** 

Seveial horlaontal bands, or fillets, of Roman bride, disposed hi 
perpendicuhir and oblique hiyers, run round the outside of the 
whole building. On the north aod east sides, the Castle was de- 
eded by a high rampart, raised upcsi t more aatient waff( and 
by a deep fbss, now partly filled up. On the south and west Sides, 
it was strengtiieoed by a massive wall, in which were two gates : this 
has beeo pulled down some years, and its site is occupied by a 
aoses. The Castle, with its pracincts, eallad tho 
O 4 Bailey, 

• HiitoryofColchesler, Vol. 11. p. 155, rr. stf. 



dictioa of tlw boioiifh o$cei9. OngmUy, i«deed« the tovm wa* 

f<^udatOfj to the C«sllei but an «xeiiiptiou from all serrioe^ finet* 

kc. waa purchased bjf ^ Burgeises from Queen £ii2ibeth, and 

afterwards confirmed by Parliameur. 

Colchester Castle came very early into the power of the Crows* 

The Empress Maud granted it to Alberic de Vere, ancestor to the 
^ Veres, Earb of Oxford; but it b not certam that be was ever in 

jposse^sion. It was next bestowed, duriqg pleasure, on Stephen 
, Hareugood. Henry the Third, in 1256, gnmted it to Guido de 

la Ri^pe-Ford, or Rochford; but thb noblepian falling into dis- 
. grace two years afterwards, he was deprived of hb estates, and 

banished. By Edward the First, it was successively bestowed on 
. John de Burgh, Bichard de Holbrook, and Laurence de Scaccaris,, 

Sheriff of Essex; to the latter it was granted for a county gaol; 

and itp demesnes were ordered to be plouglied and sown for the 
, King's use. The next possessor was Robert de Benhall, Knt to 

whom it was granted for life, by Edward the Third; from whose 
..reign to that of Charles the First, it was granted to various noUe- 
. men during li& or pleasure, by successive Sovereigns. Of the lat* 

ter Monarch, James Hay, Earl of Carlisle, purchased the rever* 

sion to him and hb heirs for evef. It was then held by Sir John 

Stanhope; and has suite passed througli various families, chiefly 

by purchase.^ 
The town and suburbs of Colchester comprehend tnelve pn* 

rbhes, of which dght are withm the waUs; but some of the 

churches are destroyed. The imainder, with the ruins of St. 

Johns 



* OoeAf its poMflMMV %kras a Mr. Joha Wbtely, who booght it io tht yett 
1683, for the purpose of pulling it do%^, and difpoting of the natcrialt to 
advantage; but this intent wu defeated by the solidity of the building, and 
strength of the cement. Much damage was, howcrer, done; large quantities 
of the Roman bricks were taken away, and most of the free-^tonc of the door 
and window cases, and interior of the arches. Thetopsof thotowefaaiid 
walls were forced do%km with screws, or blown up with gunpowder t but the 
expense of effecting this destruction wu so great, that the idea wasi 
n% the price procured {or the materials would net defray the charges. 



B8S1X. ^ .5ie 

Mm'tAbqF, StBaMpli'tFriof7,«odtliellool-H«n,cmtit^ 
Hm cbief of the aicwirt and public bttOdiogs. St. fouifs ABB^Tt 
fo called from its dedkation to St. Johu^Baptistt nvus a very tm^ 
nificent stnictaie, founded by Eudo Dapifer, in the year lOj^. it 
occupied a pleasaot eminenoe without the walls, on the ^south side 
of tlie town; but only the entrance gateway, and soine fja^gmeBli 
of the other parts of the building, are remaiuing On some pof* 
tioa of its site, a wooden Church bad previously stood, dechcated 
to St. John the Evangelist, whose influence was rqiorted to haie 
performed several miracles near this spot: this occaaoned Eiid^ 
to Biake choice of it for hb intended foundation* When te 
biiilcyngs were sufficiently completed, be procured two Beaedictiae 
Monks from Rochester, to reside in it; but they, beconungdistft- 
tisfied with their treatment, returned, and their phKres were ai||p» 
plied by two others, who, like the former, were not content with 
the small endowments granted by Eudo, and soon went back t^ 
tbeir brethren at Rochester. The care of the foundatioo was then 
committed to Stephen, the first Abbot of St. Maiy's, Yoik, wh« 
placed in it a provost and tneive Monks; and the furtherance of 
the buildiBg being referred to William, a Priest, and nephew to 
Eudo, who spared neither attention, nor eapens^ the Abbey waa 
completed m a snperb, style by the commencement of the year 
11(H, when it was consecrated by Maurice, Bishop of London. 
At the same period, it was liberally endowed by the founder, ani 
other devout persons; and Hugo, one of the Monks, wasaiqiohil- 
ed Abbot. Eudo, who died at his Castle of Preaux, in Normaa. 
dy. was, at his own desire, brought to Enghud, and buried hers 
in February, 1 120. Many other eminent perMus are suppoaei^ 
by Browne \^lllis» to have been hiterred here.* 

This Abbey continued m a very flourishing state till the tune of 
tbe Dissolution, llie Abbot haviiig the privilege of sitting m Paiu 
Ijament; and the foundation itself possessing the same privil^ea 
as St. Peter's, Westromster. At tbe snppressioii, its amiual re- 
venues were, accordmg to Dugdale, esthnated at 52S1. 17s. lOd. 

but 

* View of the Miued Abbeys* 



'514 SMBX. 

Irntllrissiicn is Ibouglit td }mit been im bdowtheachral prododc. 
•John B«die, ihe last AMiot, was trttainted of fafgh treason, fer 
lefbtiDg lo acknowledge the Kmg^s supremacy, and on December 
the first, 1539, ^^s hanged ** upon the same gaHows which the 
Abbots of St. Jofin bad granted the Burgesses of Colchester fiber* 
iy to erect in the manor of Oreenstead.** Henry tiie E^tb, hi 
'1544, granted the site of the Monastery to Sir Thomas IVArcy, 
•Knight, for twenty-one years; and Edward, his 'auccessor, fa 
15479 granted the reversion to Dudley, Earl of Warwick, from 
1»bom it passed to John Lucas, Town*Clerk of Colchester, and 
Master of Requests to the King. This gentleman converted the 
Abbey into a family seat, a circamstanoe that great^ contributed 
^ lis destmction, as John, Lord Lucas, his descendant, fidar 
hreiher of Sir Charles Lucas, assbted the Royalists during th« 
siege of Colchester, and baring admitted a ganfeon, his house 
^n» stormed on the fourteenth of July, 1 648, and a cottsideral>le 
l^art of it twittered down. At that time, it appears to have con- 
sisted of the entrance gateway, and two qnadranguhr pHes trf" 
kufldkig, inclosmg courts. The garden waUs, which st9i reroaia^ 
iMlode between thirteen and fourteen acres. The Gateway is 
Mlt with liewn stone and 4int| the workmanship is very neat. 
The Abbey Church wa^ a singular bnildmg ; having a tower n tb« 
centre, with circular angles, terminated by snmll comical ipires: . 
the west fronts also, wai furnished with circular tarrets.t St. 
Jolm^s Abbey had the privilege of sanctuary. 

Near the aortb-west comer of St. John's garden. Is St. OHes*^ 
t}9htrchy a small Imilding, partly in ruins, of which the ^nuicel 
4nty t) now used for divine service. This was the burial-place of 
the Lucas family, several o/whom are commemorated by inscrip* 
tion9. Here also, with his fellow sufferer Sir Charies Lucas, was 

mtemed 

* from the architcclHre of tliU atruoture, it may be auppoaed of Utcr «ceo« 
tioR than the otbu paru of ibe Abbey; probably towarcU the end of the twsillb 
century, or beginning of the thirteenth; tee vignette to Uus Volume. 

i A drawing of this structure, tn the CoUonian Library, Nero. VIII. a3« 
Eas beea engraved (or Moraot'i £aMX. 



'nSI'''!-''rilii!if;!Tl' 




:3tS 

UirotJi THIS Makble lv the Bodis* 

Or THE TWO MOST VALIANT CAPTAtirt 

"^S^. OaARLct Ltcas, andS*. Otorcb Lislb, Kktc 

I W«0 rOR TNMft IflflllttirT LUITALTY 
To T«tilf S0VIftjAUf« . 

Wnxx oil THB »S^. Day i>v A/VG VST* 16489 

By th^ Command of S^, Tho. Fairfax^ 

Th£n General of the Parliament Army, 

" '*• In corn BXOVD SARBAROVfLT MVRDSRED.'* 

lAl^dbMt dfataMs, noillhCHt &om St Mta'«, fera the-reiMw 
«|. Av* B0TatiPB*6 PAioftT» wUch, like tfie fcMier, owm ito 
pjapfiil iliiBiiliiiniit»dieiiBg<»in;i6^; H»stHiclrtebfne- 
nljr leportod to fatve-bem €o«idiBd hy a mwk-iianMd fiyriulpli, 
.in. the bcgbaiDg of tte tmlftli ctetary; tboua^h 
;af . Ae ruftM mmu to iBi|ily k roadruiteiibr fhne. 
i tint JMory alid pteeed on hb iomdattum, to- 
ft of -Hm oiricr of St. Augualiiie. Tbis wtt iheootlM 
: of tkoionler in Eogland^ as mpfe^nimm-n Ml t** 
■Mi % MpB ^f^lMcbal II. 10 Attgint I14«. By tbis boH, fiiu 
iw^ptig Us teethm, tnd nocenon, ^R«re JnwMod with liberty to 
! iMr nemben asthey jildged expedi«iil; mnA 
to. govan ail otlMn by their own inies, hnvingfiA 
■nlhwiiy oter owy other eslahlfiflhineiit for Aogiistme Onions ib 
.•'':> EagkiiA 

• . • ' * ■ * * 

.* ?^^^5^^ ^^ ^^ ^^y ^R bto the mtrble t accordioj^ to tnditioo,.^ 
WM doAeby the ^ooimand of Charles the Second, from the following cicpttm* 
Meiec.* *'Cvcorge Villiers, Duke of Buckiogham, Who had married ths only 
^tttffKkt* of -Cener^l Htfirfay, applied to the King for penni»»ion to have it 
HUtig^WftBtbied on the memory of hi» father-in-^Iaw. - TheKin^ ftientiofl* 
i4||i|oi|iiHi to i<or4 tticw, wbe replied^ thrt, lie ' woeld roid^ acetdt cd 
ht|.|||ptfy> with, i^ovided he would, periolt him to inMt «d itf fBd|a» 
' dei^ir Cbarlcs Lucas, and Sir George Lisle, were barbarously murdered for 
thM'leyaUy to Charles the First, and that his son, Charles the Second, ordered 
tfa tfUfi i uo ria! of tt^ir loyalty to be erased.' The King, struck with theobif 
■ei^itei, is Mid to have immediately ordered the leCten of the original ii^ 
rcripcioa to be ea^wnau deep ai ponihlc. 



3l€ 

Sni^iiid. It Iflieirise exempted Ihein from every kkid of secahr 
•od eodesiastiail jurisdiction; and directed that, after the death 
of Emulphy the succeeding Priors should be dected by the Canons, 
and consecrated without fees. The possessions bestowed by the 
founder^ and other benefiiclorsy were increased by Henry the 
Tirsty who granted the Canons the whole tythes ct hb demesnes in 
Hatfield Regis, or Broad-Oak ; and confirmed the sergeantry, and 
lands ghren by Hugh Fitz*$tephen, on condition that on every 
Welsh war, they should find a horse of five shillmgs value, a sack, 
and a qiMir, for the King^s use, for forty days. The revenner 
were st31 further augmented by various donations; and at the pc» 
nod of the Dissolution, theu* annual amount was esthnated at 
134L 13s. 4d.^ The site and possessions of the Priory wete 
gnmted by Henry the Ei^th to the Lord Chanodlor Audiey, 
but have since passed into various families. 

Veiy little of the monastk buiklngs can now be diseovered, the t 
|Mits that reaMin having been worthed up in the walls of a brew- 
house, erected on their site. The Priort Church continaed 
perfect till the time of the siege, it having been parocbnl as well 
m cottvcntual: it was then m a great measure destroyed. The 
coDtemBng parties aocose each other of having wantonly occa- 
skmed its demolilion. Its rums ate extremely iaierestkig to 
the architectural antiquary, firom pieseatiiig some cmriotts sped- 
mens of MA ornaments, and of interiaced aicliea, fifim which 
the kica of the pomted arch is thought by some lo have beeneoii- 
CMved. In its origmal state, the fength of this edifice withm the 
walls, was 108 (ttt; its breadth, including the nave and aides^ 
nearly forty^foor feet. The west front was h^hly decorated: oo 
fliis skie was the principal oitrance, whkh still reroams. The 
doorway is a fine semknrcular retiring arch, havmg various mouU- 
kigs constructed with small, thm bricks, and hewn stone, m at 
temala sucoesskm. The raouklings rest on three-quarter coltmuv, 
<if whkh there were five on each side, each havmg diftrent 
capitals,' ' charged with sculptured foliage, and figures of ani- 
mals. Above the door-way b a double row of iuterlaced circular 

archea 

• Pat. s8. HCBi VIII. 4. p. iM. 



5ir 

drtMiBfty of tte ftonl. Above thMevebes^ neu the oMlre, we 
tfie renMUDs of a lei«e dreolnr opemng, wfafeh arfnkted light failo 
m giileiy ttet ftnntd e fisiige betweeft imo ^^tMely towMT diet 
oaoe ilood et ^ angks of this end of the boiMHig. The neve wet 
i t |i e feted fttwn the eiatet by wwri of chtuiercohMWtt, fivefteleed 
e betf is diameter, Mpperlii^ semidrcithir arehee. On the north 
nde u of these colonns, with their arches, afe yet standiog; bnt 
on the tooth; two only now remain. Both the ookuans and aMiMe 
aie prindpaHy buik with broken Roman bridis, and appeal to 
have been covered with a kind of stueco. The north aisle seems 
tft hare been altered, the windows being finished in the pointed 
s^. Several tembS) and broken stones, are scattered among'the 
vegetables that ate coWvatedb the uMMe; the whole aieabeiog 
appropriated as a garden* 

AtseaiedislnieetotheeastofSt.Botoiph's^ isSr. JfciyJWbg. 
dmiai^s Hospitah oc%kMMy founded by Eudo Dapifor, hi the reign 
ef Heny the Fbst, for persons aflieled with the leprosy. The 
itluwuiH was angmented by Kmg Stephen; and Richard the 
FEnt granted the brethren liberty to hoM a two^ys iair. In the 
rd«n of Edwwd the Firsts the tythes of St. lohi's Abbey, and* 
ether revenues belonging to this Hospital, were withheld by AdafA 
daCnmpii, tenAbboiof St. JohnV; who also ctaMy obtained 
powrssion oflhe connnon seal, wad charter, and eapelled the hve-" 
tecB; who, however, were itiu st ett d» and had their prWilsges'. 
leisond, byotderof ftrinunent. After the suppression of Ifaial 
Hospital, in the re^ of Edward theSixth, its posseslions were 
nMeb dissipated, and the Chapel endrrly destroyed; butintiie: 
year 1610, it was w fonnded, for a Master, and five poor Ren**^ - 
swese, namavried, under the thle of the College or Hospiiri of < 
King tanes, and the. bmhreo weie hMOfpoiated. What is now 
cafed the Hospital, consists of ^a few old buildings, on the north, 
of Mngdalen Church. In the church of 8t. Leonasd, which is 
stn further to the east, and not very distant fixMn the river, -wcre^« 
fssniiriy two Chantnes: one of them was founded in the reipi of*. 
Uward the Fourth, by Peter Baiwick, and en the SupDpearibn^^ 
^ valued 



S^B, £M^ : 



On iWM0(lb'4ml«icU<tf CoUMBtltrf bStvAfer/s FirWi» wit 
a-lioMilery 0f OomtA^ i^mm, fomM «bt«tdtt ytw 1244^ 
iN^wA tlMt Older Ant cMne inio BngtiMicL II nftiiwm jb nmkpMql 
sefoni fttleffltioiw; aod, ia 14079 becams Itm mnA €# the rirfi 
QmU of St IMeB, with whoee po w wi e ai four Ch«itnet«sli-. 
bliebod Imk, and hi llie Church of St. Nicholas vetoMc«ifo« 
•rated*. Soot after the ]>iieoh]tioiH iH se^eouea weiti ffvmH w i t# 
Sir ThooM Jkitdky, Lord Chaneollor. !« \6Q^, the 
baiUhip bariDg been otnvorkd into a iw^Um^fhrnm, 
bkad by Sie Hwrbotde GriuMftoft; but wfefapaMly 4 t Hie yed duriag 
tl^aege* The aemaias liegefittad u^aaa ma ih hoiMfl i hH I 
tmce been eotirely ttken down. 

The nfMl cemdevahie Church inrim the walK if 
Sik Jbii^. and apptaie to have heeo fo«Mk4 about the feigiief 
Ednard ^ Stecettd. If oanaiitft of a bi4y» ctaoeet^ auAM^ 
aUn, withaiqnaietoMer>ettlieive»teAdv ||i> the aoolkflUe ia . 
a nKmummUt to Aathur Wiutl^, Ee^. iMomm of .the- Ioini^ 
yfikm fauudid Alna-housoB foi twelfH pool* pirsboa hi St^^ Bo* 
toipi^tpariih. ^li/ SaMi/4€Wdli«Mhttilthefc#e.thayQavl34fc 
As toMffieauMtly of flinty ktijbgronty fcaawdl^uaality otitdga - 
naab at the aaglii^ Neat tb» eaA fale^ in thit pariah^ mmm 
M itw ui y of Gre^ fribm lnaiitJ ai theyeiup iac»; hyaobeil^ 
Lard Fit»-Wulter, who^ a abort tiiae beftarfatMfataaia, b tMftr 
fefeeQadodlohaveaMnied4behahil4fthiaoadeit Gnl>aan0 
fia^MUb. of this house Kiiiain^ aod thoea itnindaepoaaiad #ilh - 
other huit di a gii fir. NicMaa Outtck k par%>k saioi, the lowir 
hafhig fidkn upoa the boifyaddch^aceiafarye 
tho woffkaien, who had bees eaiphijwA tar repahU, fforai 
lai this parish iteads the Chi^ of &« Hdem, aooaated ftotti ito 
dcdicatiaato Helesa^ tbe mother of CoOBtaDtioe; and trachtionaily 
aw M ta d to hare been Ibwided by her. Eiido^ iiuader of St. 
Jaha^ lebttilt it about tho yeatf UQTS: h ia«>w repaired in tho 
ma de w a^le, and used as a Quahenr Meethig^lause. In JHmfy 

Church 



IMBS* MfP, 



# 



Chiin0l k mwmmmmA l» Ate mmmnqt of. Dt. Wi luam Ocl- 

QMOiBlMbiibrVrilMMtiherint: litwiUMllioffofMiEaflqF 
oa Ibe LoaditMM; calkkd ile i^tgmte^ wd Mat «tiwff wmIm. 
Su EutmnUd's m » MMtt buikling, 9lmdim§ in tiMt aMik of tW 
I%li Sivaet* «ladi» after lying ia miaf oaifly lO^yatn^ wai nr- 
paind at tbt cu piapt pf Ike i^arMaooef^ and agaio opened £m- 
dwBa aNffko ia 17^0; At a mM dMaace aortb^west m- Iha 
Uoot'HaU^ wbcra tke Caorts ave MA, aad tbe |»ablic btttiaait/ 
ti— rwcted; Ikn buildaig was fiMiadad bj Eada Dii|Mler. Ad* 
jianiif, aadyarilyb«0Mtbii» ia the Tam Gaal; and litbiad ir« . 
Ilia Tkmim. &. Mmtin% mm laanded ab«iat tbe year ia37».tfaa. 
10 partly aaaipoiad of Waaww hmA, but h now ja jniiai^ 
bceu daaMfed dunag the sicfe. &* Paier^i wat fiiaiidad 

to tba Cooqpiest, and ia the only Charcb io this ta«ra . 

I ja tbe TWiaiaifcy Boolu Iq tbe yaK 17^ itwMva* 
pabped aad iiMirtiiniifd, aad bad a oeiv bcick towat ftactad ai tba 
wattead: the origiaal 'tower atopd al the inteneetioa of tbe bo^f- 
aad abaned. Befoge tbe Piawbitkini a cbaatiy aada gaMd aa* 
iifeadialbiaCbardu A. lfaiy*« etaadeoaai tbe aaudMnettcM^ 
ocaartbetown» iaa bigb siHmlioa: tbe body oClUt Cbarib aM- 
the year 1713; aad ia I739f tbe aacient toawr waa-^ 
tMLva feet, aad r^aimL Sooie of Iba boaaei ai 
tbif toam are of •contadtiabia age; aad two i^MMOt datm m^ 
wmm eawa d oa wood in diflfeieot bi»ildioy, wbkb have aoceaiea ■ 
cd eerval diyafatinai aooas a«li(%a«iie8, at Io tbe tiaie ataa* 
Arabic numerala aaee iotfoducml into Ei^gland.^ Gokbeyter m 
oaaoftbatomaaHihidaibitha^ofSirThoiafltWhila;!^ appy 
oiber cLaii t ab i ti bmafiictiaaa bare beca giwa^ by varbaf ptnmm^ 
ftff Aftuaaof tbapaor. A Ftm School, and neveral CAanQ^fcW^ 
bawRT beea titabliihtd. hea> far tba edacHten of youth; andranoa^ 
Mming-Mouiei bava baco^baih ior difoeut rcligioae recta. 

CoicLeitar 

* Sec Mount's Esiex, Vol. I. p. i$i. Pfiilosopbical Tran^actioM* Ah^. 
1699. Bibliothcc* Litcraiia, 1711, &c. 

t Sec BctoUfSy Vol. I. p S^. 



CMchester was idooiporal«d by cbaitfcr of IMmhI tbe finf^ 
Aited 1189; »Ki It theMmietliiie, tbeBotstwiwttieiimrted 
widi mmy valimMe pfifSeges, poitkalwly tht exchism right of 
fiBlMi7 0QtbeColiie,«R>mtheNortbBrklgeto W«9l4ieM These 
privileges have been confinned and extended by many subseqaeat 
Kings, and partieolariy by Henry the FMb, the initial Letter of 
nhese Charter represents St. Helena before the cross, finriy ilfci- 
minated. The last charter, and by which the town is now go- 
ireraed, was granted by his present Majesty in the year 1763^ 
Its provisions are nearly the same as those in former charters 
gianted by Charies the Second, and Wiffiam and Mary, bat whidi 
had been surrendered on diftrent occasions. The eotporate oft- 
cars consist of a Major, Recorder, Town-Clerk, twelve Alder- 
' men, dgfateea Assistants, etghteen Commoo-CovMlhneD, and in* 
ferlor servants. The right of returning the Members to PM)ia- 
Mient is vested m the Corporation and free Burgesses not reeeifinf 
doss: the number of voters is about 1460. The earliest return 
svns made in the twenty-fifth of Edward the'First. 

Colchester has been a BMtthe t ^ twwn time immemorial ; iMrt thia 
prfvflege was confirmed by the charter of Ricbatd the FInt. The 
mmber of hihabitaats retitmed under the hite act, as residing^ 
within the walls and solnirbs, was 10,089; the namberof houaea, 
1795. A oonsideralile portion of the trade of tiiis town arises 
from the Oyster Fishery; Colchester oysters having been long ce^ 
lebrated lor their goodness and flavor. Tlie fblkmiog particolaia 
lefarting to this fishery, are condensed firom the aceouat p ublM i cd ' 
%y Dr. Spnitf, in the History of the Ro^vl Society. 

The spawn of the oyster, catted spat by the Ushemen, kta^ 
li April and May, and about Midsummer and Michaelmas: the 
stones, oyster-shells, pieces of M'ood, and other substances to 
fMiich it cleaves at the bottom of the sea, they call cultc^. The- 
spat, when first cast, is like the drop of a camtle, but no larger* 
than a spangle : in ti^enty-four hours afterwards, it is conjectured 
that the shell begins to be fotmed. After the o}istcrs have first^ 
spawned, they are sick, but soon begin to ^et well, and m August 
are perfectly so: the male oyster having a black substance in the 

fin. 



fit, ii termed Uadi tick; flie iemale havfag a niiky sulntance yb 
the fin, IS termed wbite sick. MThen the oysters are taken, the 
snaH brood is separated Ifom the cultch, which is then thrown ia 
agiin; hot if the spat is so smdi diat it cannot b^ sefered from 
Ibt cultdi, the fishermen ai^ permitfed 1o take the latter witli the 
spat. The spat and smaH oysters thas taken, are spread upon 
places catted beds or layers, near the ed^ of the river, where they 
gmw and fatten, and in two or three years, the smallest become' 
oysters of the legal size,^ and are then removed from thar Inj*' 
ings, or beds, into pits cut in the marshes, where they fatten fbr 
sale. In some of the pits, in a few days, a green color is com* 
aunicated to the fin of the oyster; and tbougli the method of gtv* 
ing this quality to the pit is kept a secret, there seems reason to 
believe, that it arises from sowing the Wttom of the pit with the 
seed of a partkular vegetable, on which the oysters feed as i| 
springs tip. As the cultch b so very necessary for the oysters to 
ipat upon, it is made felony to carry it away after the month of 
May; and penalty are hnd by the Admiralty Court on those who 
destroy or purloin it at any time. The penalties are, however, . 
■wniitiint to prevent the romoval of the cultch, as the fishermen 
€m freqaently carry so much out of the river covei^d with- spat^ 
at vriU enable them to discharge the fines many times over. 

Tbongh the produce of this fishery has obtained the general 
aame of Cokhester Oysters, yet these are of several kmds. The Pye* 
ieet, which n most id request, is a small thick oyster, with a deep ' 
dear shall. The eie^ wherein this species is found, extends from 
the mer to the Strode at the entrance of ^rseylskind. The' 
MBdber of oysten whidhare natives of this creek, cannot be vtty ^ 
gant; neither can the whole produce of the river, with its various • 
cnaka, be aaywiw adequate to the vast quantities sold uodiffr the/ 
dsBomination of Colchester Oysters. The great demand daily 
fbr them, has obliged the merchanto to procure oysters from 
rpbees; these are strewn upon the Colchester laylAgs, and 
VoL.V. Ju KB, 1804. X , when 

* I^ iJ2ci« koewD from s atiadtrd ical«, or oyiUr cast in bruit which i# ^ 
kept by tbt MagUtntM, or Witer*B«tliff. 



itewledAi tbt natiind {vroduce 9t Ihb fiabeiy.^ 

ColcbitUr hftd aocienU^f the ngbt of prtbate and cMPoUing of 
wiUa, which k coDtinued to eatrcise till about tbt year 1^60> 
wa^ among the pttvileges that it itill a\ioyi from propcE^ptioa^ ia 
the right vested in a Femme^Ccvcrt, or Married Wooian» who, if 
hfit astate Iks in tha town, can ooimy it by dead witbovt being 
ofaUgsd to. piu a finci basing previously dedarod ber consent be-* 
fore the Mayor. 

Pit. Samubl Haesnbt, wba was socoessiYdy Bisbop of Chi- 
cbaiter and Norwich, and ArcMnsbop of York, was the son of a 
Bnket in tbiatowni where he was bora m the year 158>. At the 
1^ of fifteen he was admitted into Kisg'a College, Cambridge; 
but aAerwaids he removed to Pembroke HM, of wbicb he waa 
ebcted FeUow in theyear J583; and» on the resigjaalioa of Bbbop 
AndoMTSi in ifiOi, ebosen Master, ^e now obtained varia«a 
c^Mrdi. preferments; but being a fi|vorer of the teoeta of Armi* 
njajsj^m, wa$ accused of varians misdemeanors by the Puiilaft 
pwty, m May^ l634* He dped in the year l6at, and mm brn^ 
riad in the Charch el ChigwelH whese he bad established a Aa** 
ScbooL One of his publicationa waa intitled, << A Diaaovaty wt% 
the fraudulent Practices of John Panel, ia his Proceedi^gi caik». 
cfpMV the piatandad Poasession and Piwyommisina of WilMaiM 
8oam«i at Nottingham^ and athei9: delecliog^ in soma Sort, Iha 
daaailfal Trade m these hitter Jhg% of casting oat OetikT 

.MHJU&ND, ao named from being that dblanae north fine 
Cakbest^, iaa» exlenswe panrii,ehie% belongiag tatfaaBomcsaea * 
<rf that Uww, 10 wham the estate aacieatl» caMad Kill's Woad^ ami • 
King's*Wood Heathy was granted either by Uatwy the First, m . 
timaimfar Stephen. U ^krwaads.reieilad la the Groaai^ hul 



a TheJiU«isat,olifitvctMr. WkiUlMai ia ha Utftory U Um^mmt fiat 
taugbt lu the art of fattemog our oystera in artificial beds; the feedtog piu 
being fint iovenled about ninety years before Christ, antt firrt constructed upo» 
die short of Bal«; and even as early as the reign of Vespasian, the British oy* 
•tef was deoBsd frmooi imong the Romans, md thoaght worthy to bt carried 
imo Italy. 



Eigbtb. This ottte was of^ioally part of. tbt Ba^ Forat, b«l 
thegretlest portion b now cultiratad. A manor in this parish 
wai possessed by the Abbots of 8t Osjtfay and still retains the 
wme of Abboti^ Hall. Tbe number of inhabitants^ as returned 
under the hte act, was 299; of houses, 44. Tbe mansion inha* 
Uted by tbe rector, b close to tbe Church-Tard, and commands 
a fine view of Colchester. 

WrVTNHOE, or WIVENHOO, a populous and fespectable 
village, about two miks south-east from Colchester, stands on the 
acclivity and summit of a pleasant eminence, on the north side of 
die Colne, of which it commands a fine prospect down to Mersey 
Island. At the time of tbe Domesday Survey, thb manor was 
possessed by Robert Gremon, and became parcel of hb barony of 
Stansted-Montfiehet. li was afterwards the property of the Ba- 
tmfUM, or De BaiailcM; and, b the reign of Henry the Third, 
Sonon de Bataile obtained the privilege of free-warren in hb ma* 
■ors of Wyncnho, Fateswyke, and Stbfede. From the Bataites it 
passed, by roarnage, through the Sutton, Walton, and Howard 
iuBiIies, to John de Vere, twelfth Eatl of Oxford, of that name, 
who having espoused the Lancastrian interest, was beheailed in 
1461 ; and hb estates being confiscated by Edward tbe Fourth, 
Wtvenboe, with other manors, was granted by that Monarch to 
hb brother, the Duke of Gloucester, afterwards Richard thd 
Third. Henry the Seventh restored the De Vere» to tMr honors 
and inheritance; and thb manor continued in their p6sselsion till 
the prodigality of Edward, the aevenleenth Earl, Occasioned it to 
be sold to Roger Townsend, Esq. who was khigbted at sea fi»r hb 
biavcry in the engagement with the Spanish armada. From the 
Townsends it passed, by sale, about the period of the Re^ration, 
to Nicholas Corselles, Esq. whose descendants are the present 
owners. WIVENHOE HALL b pleasantly situated north*west 
iioai the viUage: wtica in poaMSsioo of tbe Eatb of Oiford, it 
wmmha§t and tl^fl^ boildiog, hanug a fine tower gateway of 
considerable beigM, and aarvbkg for a sea^nnurk. Tba p op q i a tia it 

X2 of 



of MKfenboe^* m eumnetalMl oador tile kie M^ wti l«9t; Om 
Mimberof brasei 177* 

MERSEY ISUND 

Is situated at the cptifluence of the rivers CoIiie and Blackwater, 
beiug separated from the main land b}; the small creek or channel 
called the P^e-flcet, where the best-flavored oysters are produced. 
Its length, from north-east to south-west, is about five miles; its 
greatest breadth about two miles. The only road by which it can 
' be entered, is a causeway called the Sirode, a contraction from 
L'est RodCf which crosses the Pye-fleet creek, and is covered by 
the sea at high-water. This Island possesses many natural beau^* 
ties; is well wooded, and beautifully varied with hill and dale. 
On the sea-coast, the shore is bold and commanding; but on the 
north^ it is flat and shelving, and skirled by a great extent of salt 
marshes. Tlie soil in the higher parts, consists of a dark-colored 
friable mould, with a sandy or gravelly loam beneath, a^d a deep 
hazel-colored strong earth on a brown tender clay. The embank- 
ed macshes, and heavy high-huids, have been much improved by 
the appUcation of chalk, in the proportion of about eight loads 
per acre. The farms are separated from each other by thick 
hedge-rows, but the inclosed fields are generally small. The ave* 
rage produce of barley and oats, is about forty busliek au acre ; 
of beans, tliirty-two bushels; and of wheat, twenty-eight bushels 
aq acre. The inhabitants are supplied witli excellent water from 
various springs. 

This Island was unquestionably known to the Romans^ as nu- 
merous Tessellated Pavements, and other antiquities belonging to 
that people, have been discovered here: an eminence on the road 
to Colchester has also the name of lloman Hill. Dr. Cromwell 

Mortimer, 

• The following custom, anciently obterved In ^ nuinor of ¥riTenW>p, it 
mentioned by Mount. ** Ric. Borre tenet unum MeMMgiaai r . . Et debet tal* 
lagtaiii« Kctia ctrie,. ct Mtfdut bocnodo; quod si Martttit TOluerit filiam 
MUm cum quodam libero homine extra viUtm, faciei pacero domtAi pro mart* 
\Mg\o, Etiieara maritaverit alicui cuitunurio ville, nihil dabit pro Matitafio. 
txunu Mamrii 4e Whknh, latb Ed. II. et i8 Dec. 40 Ed. III. 



5f5 

BUrlimer, Seercdry lo the fto^ Sodefyy wfio fiist gave a paki- 
colar cktcriptiofi of tbe pavements, supposes, fnm thtir naniber 
and ijiterrity, that some Roman Draior had a tilla od tbe spot 
where they were found. The Count of the Saxon Shore is ako saM, 
bj Moiant, to have certainly had his residence here. During the* 
lavasioas of the Danes, this was frequently the hmding-place and 
setmt of their ferocious bands; and the Great AHired is recorded 
to have besieged a large party of them for some time on this Ishnd 
in the year 894: several tumult remam m diiereut parts. 

Thb Island is divided into two parishes, named, from their !«• 
spective situations, Wkst-Mbrsby, anJ East-Mbmbt. Great 
part of West'Mcrsey was given, by Edward the Confessor, to the 
Friory of St. Audoen at Rouen, in Normandy; and a cell of Be* 
nedictrae monks belonging to that House was soon afterwards 
finrnded here ; but on the suppression of the alien priories, it wat 
granted, by Henry the FifUi, to Archbishop Chicheley, who set** 
tied it oo the collegiate Church which he had previously • foimded 
at Higbam-Ferrers^ in Northamptonshire. Oo the Dissolution^ 
in the reign of Henry the Eighth^ the manor of Wesi>Mersey, and 
other estates, were granted in capite to Robert D'Acres; but werar 
afterwards given, by Edward the Sixth, to Thomas Lord D*Arcy; 
of Chich. In making some alterations at West-Mersey Hall, 
which stands near the Church, about the year 17dO» the work* 
men discovered a very fine Teskliated Pavement, eatendmg tweo* 
tj-ooe feet and a half in length, and eighteen and a half in 
breadth. This was inspected by Dr. Mortimer, who fomid iC 
composed of various colored tessene, about half an mch and three 
quarters of an inch square. From the parts that were uncovered, . 
it appeared, that at each angle within the borders, were red wad 
Uue wivaths interwoven : neat to them, on tbe north and shuth 
ades, were squaae white fl|Kices, bordered with block, with a rose 
ia each, shaded with red, yelbw, and white. On the east and 
west aides were aimihir spaces, tioidered with fret^work, variously 
diadcd, and each containmg a wresth of ivy leaves. Within these 
ipacc:s was a large square, tbnmng the middk of the pavement, 
bounded on the south and east by rows of diamonds or lozenges, 

X 3 twelve 



t»dm iaciws io ^Miieler, bordwed vidi white, tmb eonltipiDg a 
bi0(0riH«0lh€mi8iiig at right anflM|«iid tHtwiitily oanpowd, 
QBtpfbluki bloey and white tetsene; the other of re^ yeUow, 
imd while; the ioteraiediate qnces were triaqgular, aod were 
9^m wdbdifided into traiglnof various colors. The oestre was 
filled up with diftrent sqaares, contatnhig wreaths and r esa rion s 
floweis. Part of this (Mnrement extended ioto the Church-Tard, 
which is asserted, oo good authority, to cootaio a dirersity of 
these paveraents lying contiguous to each other, aod extending 
nei^y 100 feet from east to west, and ahout fifty from north to 
south* A pavement of red tessera^ each an ineh and a haK 
square, and disposed in the form of star-like rays, was also found 
in the chancel, together with two ancient brass comA, Other an<i 
tiquities have been met with in the a^iaoeiit lands, particularly 
buckles, haips, and styli. A brass ring, five inches in diameter, 
pieioed with small holes, supposed to have been the rim of a Fipi* 
de^or'^ or Sling^s bag, has also been found here ; together with 
various Roman Patent^ some of which are preserved in the Brilish 
MuseiDD. The lower of £ast*Mersey Church serves as a sea- 
mark, and had formeriy a beacon on its summit The number 
st hihd>itants in both parishes, as returned under the popuhrtioo 
act, was 89fi; of houses, 154. 

ST.OSYTU, anciently called Cise, and Ckich, derwes its pre* 
sent name from Saint Osyth, daughter of Redodd,^ King €^ East 
AngUa, and vhgiiMrife to Si^ere, a Christian King of the East 
Saxons. She was bosn at Qoarendon, m Buckinghamsfaiie, and, 
aecording to the monkish legends, made a vow of virginity at an 
early age; but was compelled, by her fiUher, to marry. The 
marriage, however, was never consummated; for, in the absence 
of her husband, she assumed the veil ; and having afterwards 
obtained his conaeirt to the fiilfihneot of her vow, she retired to 
Chkh, and founded a Chmrch and Nunnery. This estabhsb- 
SMat was phmdered and destrsyed by the Danes, under Ingoav 
and Hubba; and the royal foondieu herself beheaded near an ad- 
jacent fountain. Her remams were fint interred before the door 

of 

* Lei. de Script. Brit. 



•fberCluirdiy but aftcrwraiis rttttoved to Ajliihuij, where roany 
BttiBcks are fiibled to liave been wrought through herioleroesiioD.* 

After the Danes bad obtained regal doinfaHition m Eagland, 
Cluch St Oqrth was ^tm, h^ King Canute^ to Earl Oodwii^ 
the cdebnted Earl of Kent, who granted it to Christ Charcfa, 
Cantorbnry; yet at the 4ime of the Domesday Surtey, it belonged 
to the See of London. About the 3fear 1118, Richard do Bel- 
nes. Bishop of London, established a Priory for AosAi Canons, 
on the supposed site of the nunnery erected by St. Osyth, to whom, 
in eo^junctioo with St. Feto and. St. Paul, the new foundatioa 
was dedicated. The possessions of tbb Priory were greatly in* 
creased by different benefactors; and at the period of die Disso« 
lutioD, its revenues, according to Speed, were valued at 75%\. 5s. 8d. 
par annum. A Prior, aa Abbot, and eijghteen Canons, were then 
supported on the foundation. The site of the Priory, and various 
manors belonging to it, were soon afterwards granted to Thomas 
Lord Cromwell, on whose attainder they reverted to the Crown. 
Edward the Sixth re-granted Cbich St. Osyth, and other manors, 
to Thomas Lord P*Arcy. Elizabeth, eldest daughter of the last 
Lord D'Arcy, married Sir Thomas Savage, afterwards Earl Riv^i, 
whose family continued possessors till the beginning of the eighteenth 
cnitnry, when these estates were bequeathed, by the Hon. Richard 
Savagte, to Bessy, his natural daughter, who married Frederic 
Zuleistein de Nassau, Earl of Rochford. < 

The remains of Bbbop de Belmeb' foundation is now the seat of 
F. Nassau, Esq. of the family of the late " Earl of Rochford, whose 
grandfather, by marriage, acquired the estate ot the Lords D'Arqr 
of Cbich. The quadrangle is almost entire, except ^part of the 
north side, occupied by some modem apartments. The entrance 
is by a beatiMM- -gateivay of hewn stone, witfi ttnf, having two 
towers, and two posterns: the tables and offices that form the 
east and west sides of the court have g^reat marks of antiquity, up^ 
ciaUy the lisniiar: to the east are tbiee tovum, one lasgeraad 
JoAier than the rest, conmsanding an extensive pnMpect, Among 
the ivy-giown ruins in the gardens is a pier, with thb modem in« 
sciqytion, expressing tlie ancient magnificence of the place : 

X 4 Vtltti 

O V9 ec Beauties, Vot I p. 343. 



quam ceraii macerict 

confervaU est 

t 'ad AugustiDiani coenobti 

limitet dctigoaiidot. 

T« Tcro 

iftkr bujua loci tmaBnitatei. 

gratulare 

vblegaU jam i&ta 8uperslitio»: 

quae 

Domictllum tarn soperbuni 

Scgnitiei coiUecravU 

et 

Socordic 

A. p. Cl3l3CCLX.»" 

Jo the Church at St. Osythf are several defaced monuments tQ 
the memory of the (^rds D'Arcy, and others of the same family, 
that were buried here; particularly Thomas Lord D'Arcy, who 
had several considerable employments under Henry the Eighth 
and Edward the Sixth, and w^s created Knight of the Garter ip 
the year 1551. Bishop Belmei.% the founder of the Priory, was 
also interred in tliis church in 1 1 27, by desire of the canons. The 
population of this parish, as returned in 1801, was llSS; the 
number of houses 22/. 

THORPE, KIRKBY, and WALTON, arc three contiguoiwr 
parishes north-east from St. Osyth, which compose a district ge- 
nerally called the Sokcns; a name derived from the Saxon Soc^ or 
Soca, signifying immunity, peculiar privily, and jurisdiction. 
The customs with respect to land are still particular. The lands 

are 

* Clough*a Addillom to Camdco, Vol II. p. 59* 

-f The distinguished celebrity of this taint, may be seen by the following 
extnctfrom Newcouit's Repertorium, Vol. II. p. 455. " Richard, Bishop 
of London, fbander hereof, caused the Mtm $/$i. Osyik to be translated to iIm 
Church of St. Paul with great aolcninity, in the presence of WiUiani Corbell, 
or De Corbvill, the first f rior of this House, Archb. of Cant and oihef 
Bishops, remitting xx days penance to all that came to worship it; and relax-* 
ing every year vii days penance, to til that should devoutly come hither to 
eclebrate her festival." 



fW> m t fly e np y h o M, brt ncftiy egad to fteehokb. TbeteMUitt 
ptj t w d fc pc ncc Ml mat for a fine, and two shUlNigt for a collage. 
** Tbey may pull thdr hoosas daim wkbout a luxose; cut dowA 
tiidr smali tnes; gnot a Icatt^ even for Afty years; and, indeed, 
do fliaat tUoft coolniry to tbeciMtomof oilier copyholds."* Tkie 
Lord of thtae Ifane Manors, wUoh passed with 8t. Osyth, firoaa 
TlionMS, Loid KAfcy, to the Earl of Rocfaford, « styles himself 
Lord of the Liberty, Franchises, Dpimnioq, and peculiar Juris* 
diction, of the Sokeos, b the county of £$sex: and appoints a 
Coamissaiy, who takes tlie title of Oflkial-principal, and Vicar- 
^eaeral, in Sphitual Causes to the same Lord. Thb Commissaiy 
fceepa a court at Thorpe every three weeks, as occasion server 
aad pmvcs wills and testaments within the Sokens, which wills are 
kept m the church of Thorpe. The Lord of the Sokens hath also 
tkis peodiar pririlege, that no bailiff can arrest within then> but 
lnsowD.*t 

This dislriet was granted to the cathedral of St. Paul, by King 
Albelalaa, before the year 941, under tlie name of Eadutfes-nesa; 
from Eadulfg a 8axon Thane ; nnd the promontory at Waltoni 
called the aosf, or nets^ which juts northward into the occau. This 
promontory formerly extended much further to the esist, but haa 
bccB greatly encroached upon by the sea: and the ruins of build- 
Bgs have been discovered under, the water at a considerable dis» 
tance, particuUrly on a shoal, called West-Hocks, nearly fivft 
miles from the 6hore, which is left dry during great ebbs. The 
spot where the ruins are found, b distinguished by the appellation 
of «*e Team, The wall thrown up to keep out the sea, gave name 
to Waltoa parish; within which is a Light- House of brick, eighty 
6et h%h, erected by tlie Master, &c of tlie Trinity-House. 

Bet we e n the pillars of the south aisle in tlie Church at Thorpe, 
is the figure of a Knight cross-legged, apparently of the age of 
Henry the Thkd, or Edward the First. Ou his left arm is a 
ahield; bis head rtsts upon a cushion, and his feet on a lion 
fKMichant: above is a shield of arm^, said to be those of Salberglie. 

Tlii# 

♦ Mprant, Vol. 1. p. 481. f Ib.d. 



TUt igpre is tnriifionally afimad to r^fth0Am 0wner«r Lioi- 

MerUaU, a Jwaoriathiftparuh. V^kAimlk^nkmgked'mmkm 
of Ibii quarter, good waler itcitranni;f icatte. Tha number of 
ptnoos iohahitsig the Sokem, m lotviiiodi Moder tin act of IMl, 
was 18i9; die ooodbrr of bomes withia the «mmc dotnct, d7€* 
Between Wtthon and Harwich are aarenl mnU isUndSy thatliooe 
beenfofioedby tbesea: one of theseiscalM F^iot^ Uand^ ftowi 
tne great inisber of pewki tbat harboor tben. 

HARWICH, 

A POPULOUS maiket aod sea-port town, tbougb oidyacho- 
pelry to Dover-Coiirt, is situated at the north-east extrenity of 
this county, on a point of land, bounded on the east bj tlje aafi» 
and on the north, by the estuaries of the Stour and OrwelL Tb^ 
name of Harwich is derived from the Saxon words, Hcrcg ao ar« 
my, and WiCf a castle, or fortification: firom these words it h^ 
been supposed that a Saxon army was stationed here to prevciit 
the descent of invaden. It is also probable that the Romaus had 
a very considerable station near thb place, as the remains of an 
ancient camp, of great extent, may yet be traced* On one side 
the rampart is, m several places, from ten to twelve ftet high; 
and the ditch, though in a great degree filled up, six leet deep, 
and nearly forty wide* The high road leading to it, and to the 
town, b called the Sired : here several Roman coins have been 
found; and in a small adjoining farm, belongu^ to the vicai^ge 
of Dover-Court, a Tessellated Pavement has been discovered.* 

The eariiest historical notice relating to tins neighbourboo^y 
occurs m the Saxon Chronicle, where a battle is mentioned to 
bave been fought at the mouth of the Stour, between the fleet of 
King Alfred and sixteen Danish ships, in the year 885. Tbe 
Danes were completely defeated, and every sail takes; bat the 
English were soon afterwards worsted in a second engi^genieiit with 
a more powerful fleet of tbe enemy: thehr particular loss is not 
recorded. Hamicli 

* Moram's Eises, Vol I. p. 499. 



Humb did aot 8Hm anjr impoftance asa town, til tA»r Hit 
line of ItM CMqnot. lU^AtA coaMealbk motmrnmnm^nkk 
the decay of OrwcUf which is recorded to have stood on the W e st . 
Rodoy* and to have been ovcrwheloMd f>y the action of the kea, 
togeter with a large adjoining tnet of land. Edward Ihe^' 
wui, tivaagh the iafloenoe of his brother, TbomoB de BiotlMi^ 
loBy tboB Lord of the Manor, madto it a borough coqwiate, aadl 
■whet town, by ehartcry dated in the year 1318. This chatter 
aai conHmied by ^wrions e mMJCj ed i i i g lioaagchs; but a new oae^ 
with BMMc ample |mf ilegce, and ander which the civil jarisdietio«. 
ii BOW eierasedy was granted by lames the Firsts in the IwdMb 
yeir of his Sovereignty. ^ this the local government was vested 
in a Mayor, eight Aldermen, twenty4ow capital Burgesses, a 
Recorder, and inferior Officers. The power of fetuming two' 
MeaibciB to Fsriiaoient, which had been discontinued from tlie 
sevfotoendi of Edward the Third, was at the same time restored i 
the right of election being invested in the corporate oflfeers. 

This town consists of three principal streets, and various lanes 
bnucUag edT m diftrent directions. Fonnerly it had several 
gattSy and was sanounded by ancient walls ; and two instances 
tre upon record, of a toll having been levied, to repair or rebuild 
the ktter, in the reign of Edward the Third. There was also a 
Castle here, and various small fort% or block- houses, but these 
are entirely destroyed ; the sites of the latter are covered by the 
Ma, which is slowly, though constantly, encroaching upon the 
land. Some ibrtihcatlons on the land-side have been lately 
formed* 

The Chtrch, or father Chapel, is dedicated to St. Nicliohis, and 
was founded, about the commenceBMUt ct the thiiteenth century, 
bv Roger Bigod, Earl of Norfok. Within it, among other mo- 
mmwnts, is one isf good workmanship, to the memory of SiB 
William Clarke, Knt. Secretaiy of War to diaries tiie Se- 
fond, who, in Jtrae l566, was mortally wounded in the memora* 
hie sea fight between the fleets commanded by the Duke of Albe- 
marle, aud the famous Dutch Admiral, De Ruyter. Tlie other 

principal 

♦ Sfc pige 319. 



priDOpttl btdldiogs are the Tnct^Hali mid Chtot ; the BduoU 
M^mef and the Cmtom^HiMae : the former whm tAm\t aboul forty 

The inhabitants of Harwich are chiefly mqiported by ship- 
ViiildiOg, and various maritiine eonploymentsw The j^ard ftir 
bttidin^ wnd repairing ships is ray convenieiity and ftunished wkb 
tfie necessary store-houses, buiaches, &c* Hme seferal third 
rates have been built, besides other large vesaek of considerahift 
biirtheo. The harbour is deep and spacious, and the aachorag* 
good. Upwards of 100 sail of nen of war, with ft^ates^ and be- 
tmtta 300 and 400 colliers, are recorded to have been riding here 
at one time without endangering each other.* Fov the safe giii% 
dance of vesseb into the harbour, a Light-Houie has been erected 
on a hill below the town« 

Many smacks belonging to thb town are employed in the North* 
Sea fisher; ; their burthen has been calcuhted to amount to more 
than 3000 tons, and the number of seamen tliey euqiloy to about 
500« In addition to the advantages arising from this source of 
liade, tlie inhabitants derive considerable profit, particularly io 
times of peace, from the multitude of passengers that stop here on 
their way to and from Holland and Germany, this being the sta* 
tjon of the packets between those countries and England. Har* 
wich was the usual place of embarkation and landing of Wilham the 
Third, and the Geoi^, First and Second, on their respectn^ 
joumies to the Continent, and return to Great Britam. Her pre* 
sent Majesty also landed 'here on her first entrance into thia 
kingdom. 

During the proper season, Harwkh is visited by much coonpa* 
ny, who flock httlier for the purpose of sea-bathing. The aocom* 
modations are respectable, though not equal to those at the move 
fashionable places of resort. Bathing machines have been mtro* 
duced witliin these few years ; and are more used, because it is tl^e 
Qiode, than from necessity, as the private baths are very neat and 
convenient. Tlicse stand in a large reservoir of sea-water, which 

* Tour through Qieat BriUin^ Vol. I. p. 48. 



ttcbtBgMl by ^iwty tide, and snpfriied n^ fipeshfl f torgver y hdiir, 
by t owtrivaaoe oa 1^ priodpAe of a oatmal i^oa. la two of 
the bntbs dw seawiter i» made hot for the lue of invriids ; for 
wJiofeiiiitbcr accDtiuaodatieii a steam or vapor both lias abo been 
oottstmcled. Pkutiea are frequently made by. the visitorB, for 
muUag up the Or\?eU aod Stour, aad makmg abort trips, on the 
boti»i of the oceeo. The aeeoery on the Orwell is extretnelp 
l^eaasmt, its badn beiag studded with elegaiit vHlas and pleasure 
gioQ^ds. 

Oo the soath side ot Harwich is a CUiS which divides OrweK 
Haven firom the bay that extends to Wahon Ness : this oootasas 
many acres of land, aod its greatest height is about fifty feet. Al 
the bottom.is a stratum of cby of a bluish colour, about ode foot 
thick, which is succeeded by a stratum of stone, of nearly the 
Sime color aad -thtekness ; within this some fossil shells and petri* 
ftctioos are embedded. Above the stone are various strata of 
dqrt similar to that already mentioned, rising to the hiight of 
somewhat moie than twenty feet. The streets of Harwich are 
mostly paved with masses of this clay, which have fiiUen from, the 
cii^ aad become indurated by exposure to the air: the town-wall% 
as appear! from their remains, were also formed of this substaocci 
whieh, by lapse of tune, assumes the hardness aod durability of 
slaae. Above the cli^, adverting to within two feet of its.sup- 
JKe, ve difioeent strata; as fine sand, and stone and gravel mixed 
with small pebbles, and blended with fossil shelb of the bivalve 
aad iuilanaii kinds: these are sometimes found separate, and souie- 
tiases m lumps and masses, intermixed with sand, and other ad« 
vsolilioaa iMxlies. The upper part of the cliff is common sandy 
tattlv io which a few veins of a '* white friable substance," (sup- 
posed to l>e tak,) '^ resemtding isinglass,'* have been found.* Vari* 
ous teeth of hurge animals, and bones of an extraordinary sizci 
have been discovered in the fallen masses of this cliff. Tbese are, 
by some writers, supposed to have belonged to the elephants 
brought into this country by Claudius io the year 43. 

At 

* Moram*! Essex, Vol. I. p. ^oo. 



AttheaMdMiAattmify of SoSrik, biit Hill 
belMgiHg to tbbcoiaitiy^ and iinBMd«tely«|]|iMlt.t» Utnvkl^ it 
Lanouard ForTi r Tery stmig firatiicalM% tveded for the 4e*> 
fence and wtamky of tin karbotr m the rtigo of Jrhms the Fint. 
Tiisk bwh upon a poiat of laad, mnted to Waltoo-Colaaas^ b«t 
aa avrouaded by the sea at b%b water^ as to beea«ie rd isIrd^ 
RCRrij a mile ftonrtbe shore. Tradhion affirast that the ovUeta 
of the Stour aad Orwell were andeatly on the north side tbnMigll 
Walton Marshes in Suffolk, and that the plaoe called the Fleeli 
Wat a part of the original channel. This is piobahiy true ; the 
viafonce of the sea, and the strength of the land«flooda» havang 
effected great changes on this coast. The soil not beiag fimnw 
adble, the laying of the fovodatioos of Langoard Fort was oriy ae» 
compliflhed after considerable bhor, and at a vast expeoce. It 
completely commands the entrance of the harbonr, which, thoogh 
between two and three miles wide at h%h-water, b too shaMaw to 
admit the passage of ships, excepting by a narrow and deep rhiR 
nel on the Sulblk side. At some dbtsaice from the fort, a» • 
spot catted, by Bishop Gibson, ffa^on^ oi Peiixitaa CattUy vari^ 
ORS fimgments of nnwy coint^ and of ber Rsas aa antifHitiis, bapse 
been dug up at difiercnt times. The iahRbilanta of 8t« ^ftohaha 
parish, a0 retonied under tfce bCe RCt,.wpetfe 2371 ; tbo bonnt 
445. Formerly ntucb copperas was manofRctuted in Ihia disRacC ; 
bttt the decrease of the coppc«Rs-stonc occasioRed the bioiaesa to 
be gtfen np. 

DOVER -COVRT, nbont one mSe soRtb-wesI fiiRa iiRnrfab» 
was, in the CadioHc tinies> gieathf celebrated for a RRmtRJaRi 
ttood, m Crueifix, enshrined in the Cbuith, which, fiiMW ila a«^ 
posed sanctity, attracted many witors and pilgrims. Ila 
was thooght to be so great, that the valgar knagmed any att 
to dose the Chureb-doors upew if, wovM be attended with i 
death; they were Iherefbre left open n^ and day. iFhis fcncicd 
security proved fatal to three mi^judgklg; dkH^jb well WBiiiiRg 
men, who, together with a fonrth compaMon, that escaped, entecw 
ed the Church by night, m the year 1532, and remored the 
Rood to the distance of a quarter of a mile, and burnt it ; 

bemg 



SS5 

I to thit action by a wiA -to prevent the idohtiovi 
vonUp paid tail by the Catholics. For this act, deaommaled 
Uoof and sacribKey tiiey were oondemned to die ; and were 
^wged at dMbreal placet, in this part of the county ; bat ^ the 
Spirit of God," obserfes Fox, ^* did more edify the people in god- 
hf kaming, than all the sermons that had been preached there a 
long tune before.*** In the Chnrch was also e<<tabli$hed a Guild, 
dedicated to St. George, the possessions of which were sold by 
Qaeen Elisabeth. The elms that grow in this parish are of a 
ationg, knotted, and crooked kind, and famons for their durabi- 
%wbea used in the construction of agricultural implements^ 

At WJX, or WICKES, between six and seven miles west from 
Dovfi-Coait, was a Nunnery of the Benedictine order, founded 
in the reign of Henry the First, and dedicated to tlie Vir^ Mary. 
Ibis was soppicsted under the Pope's Bnll^ granted to Cardinal 
Volsey, and its revenues, then estimated at llie annual value of 
JttL Us. 3d. appropriated towards the sippport of the College 
iiM«ded by Woisry at Oiford. Soon afterwards the possessrons 
ef the Hmmny were conveyed to the Cardinal's College jat Ips-- 
wch; but after Wobe/s ftdl, became vested in the Crown ; and^ 
the ate of the Nunaeiy was first granted, by Heniy the Eighth, 
le Sir Adam Fortescue, nmd agam to Edward GiB>ert, Esq. with 
Qaan ta alienate it to the Vss^t, from whom it has passed 
tlseogli varioofl families. No parts of the Nunnery are now se- 



MiSTLEY HALL, the residence of Francis Hale Rigby, Esc^ 
it situated oo a pleasant emineuce, about one mile south from 
Maaiia^lauii and at no considerable distance from the river Stour. 
Has manor, at the time of the Domesday Survey, was held by 
the wife of H€nry de Baaib ; from whom it passed through seve- 
nl inailiefli and, ia the reign of Henry the Eighth, came ha^ 
tk pnwsiinn of ibt Crown. Edward the Sixth graaUd it to Sir 
Mm RahMfirrrit, whose hews sold it to Paul Viscount Eayning^ 
Aane, bis grand-daughtari conveyed it, by marriage, to Aubrey 

de 

* Fox'i Act! and MooamcDU, Book. 11. 



3$S Abut. 

4e Vere, the last Earl of Oxford, by whom tbe wf t iikm wa^ 
sold, aboat the jear 168O, to Edward Rigby, Effj. from wbom 
die present owner is descended. The Hall has been mncfa tni^ 
proved by this family, and some elegant gardens and pfantation* 
bid out with great taste. 



MANNTNGTREE 

ts a small irregular town, sitoafed on the southern banks of tbe 
river Stour ; and though only a chapelry in Mistley parish, has 
the privilege of a market. Whence it derived its present name is 
uncertam : its ancient appellation was Sciddinchou, and by that it 
is mentioned in the Domesday Book, at the period of compOtng 
which, it was held by Adeliza, Countess of Albemarle, half sister 
to the Conqueror. It afterwards became the property of Maud 
de Clare, Countess of Hereford and Gloucester, who bestowed the 
manor on the Nunnery of the order of St. Augustine, at Canon* 
Leigh, ID Devonshire. After the Dissolution, Manningtree, eall- 
cd Many-tree, alias Scidinghoo in tbe grant, was given, by Henry 
the Eighth, to Sir John Rainsworth, and has descended from hhn 
in the same manner as Mistley-Hall. The river Stour was made* 
navigable from this town to Sudbuiy, in Suffolk, by an ae^ passed 
in the fourth and fifth of Queen Anne. Its prtndpal imports are 
deals, com, coals, iron, and fish. Here was formerly a Guildp 
dedicated to the Holy Trinity ; the revenues of whk^ were valued 
at 81. 5s. 4d. per annum. In the certificate of clmntry lands, this 
place is called '* a great towne, and also a haven towne, having 
in yt to the number of 700 howseling people.* 

At DEDHAM, a decayed market-town, and famoos for it» 
clothing trarde as early as the reign of Richard tbe Second, is • 
Free Grammai^School, founded about 1570, and endowed the fbl* 
lowing year for the education of twenty scholars, by WWiam Little, 
bury, Gent. The donation was confirmed, and the Governors 
incorporated by charter of Queen Elizabetli, dated May the four- 
teenth, 1574. The Church is a haodsome and sfmciotts buiUUog. 

The 



The popiihlioii <»f Dedlim, as asoofUuKd miet llie hiA Mf| 
was 1537; tbe omnber of hotises, 8034 

At LITTLB HORK£SI£V, near the north side of tbe 
bhorchy was a PHary, now wholly destroyed, ibuodedt in the 
reigii of Henry the Fh^st, for Ctuniac monks, by Robert Fitsh 
Oodebold, and Beatrice, hb wife. This was subordinate to the 
Monastery of that order atThetford, in Norfolk: itsfevenuei^ 
wfaeo it was suppressed by Cardinal Wolsey, to support his Col- 
lege at Oiford, were valued at 271* 7s. 1 Id. annually. 

STANWA Y, so named from its skuation on the Sioneuay, or 
IhNiian mlKtary road leadmg flrom Stortibid> tkroqgh Dumnow^ 
Biahitre^, and Coggeihall, to Colchester, was anciently the piOp 
perty of Earl Harold, and at that time tbe chief of a very exten* 
"aive district. It is now divided into various mnoon^ tbe posses* 
sions of diftrtmt families. In this parish, ^< on the south side ai 
the London road, were found, in the year 17^4, a number of 
larfe bones, vertebrse, and tibisB, with their joints, lying in a sln^ 
turn of sea-sand, and small shells. Thb bed was about a yard 
thids; and above it another of ooze, or river mud, of three 
iocbes in tfaidmess, over which were several veins of yellow saod^ 
gravely and mould: the tilme were much corroded, but the other 
bones perfectly weU polished.^ 

Hie manor of GREAT TEY was, in the tenth century, poe> 
sessed by the Saxon EaH Alfgar, whose youngest daughter, JEthel- 
leda, conveyed it to Duke Athelstan by marriage. On the death 
\A thb nobleman, it was given to the Monastery of Stoke, near 
Meyfamd; but at tbe period of tbeDomesday Survey, it was po§- 
seased by Eustace, Earl of Boulogne, whose grand-danghter, 
Ifand, married Stephen, EaH of Blois, afterwards Kbg of Eng- 
had. Stephen gave it to hb third son, William, who, in the 
year 1 1£2, granted it to Rielmrd de Lucy, Chief Justice oi Eng* 
hod, by whose daughter, Maud, it was conveyed, wiUi many 
other estates in Essex, Norfolk, and Suflblk, to her huobind, 
Walter Fitx-Robert, ancestor of the noble family of the Fitz- 
Vol. V. Y Walten, 

* Qpngb*! AMitlom !• ths BrUusit, ^ol. II. p. 49. 



MB 

mMr6, lAo Muikdl it till the death of Rfberli LonI Etz-Wil* 
ter, b the year 1432. 9doii afierwaids it was poaiessed by Sir 
John Mantgomery, Kitt. whoee daiq;bter, Phflfipti mrried Fnui- 
«ii Bryin, B«q. Who^ in 153t, had license to sell it to the Loi4 
ChanoeUor Aodley. In Us family it continued tiU tbe year 
1704> Vfheh it was sold to Qboit^ Cresseneri Bsq* of Laodon^ 
whow son diqpoaed of it to lluMnas Astk, Esq. tbe kite emioial 
tntiquitry. 

Thb manor is of considerable eatenfj being abont sefeoteea 
miles in cfrcumfetenoe: tbe lands, which are mostly arable, are 
reaarkably prodactifei and have long been in a state of high cut 
limtiMu Tbe villain or copyfadd tenants bdoogyig to thb ma> 
nor, were boimd by their ttnaf«s to plough the Lord's land, to 
mow bis grass, to reap his ooroi and to cut underwood in his 
grounds ibr firing. They were also obhgod to Bud«e tbe Lord's 
ieoce* round his woods within the manor, but were permitted to 
^oter one rod witinn the woods to cut the underwood for thatpui^ 
pose; Ibe aurphis mitteriils being allowed them for their own use. 
Many estates in tbb ananor w^re sulyect to the Manhcia JMa/ss- 
turn, whidi custom has commonly been supposed to be a right 
whkh the Lord bad of passing the first night after marriage with 
his female villain. « The best historians," says Mr. Astle,^ *' as 
tntt as several foreign authors, have given many marvellous pa^ 
ficulars oonoeming thb custom; but, on diligent eoquiiy, lav 
of opmiou, that this kmd <tf inteicourse between the Lord and bb 
Amale vilhin never eiist6d. I am persuaded the Marcheta was a 
oompact between the Lord of the Manor and hb villaia^ for the 
ttdttaption of an offonee committed by the unmarried daughter 
of hb vassal; but more generally h was a fine pid by a soheman, 
or a vilbun, to hb lord, for a license to marry bb daughter; and 
if the vassal gave her away without obtaining such liceneei he was 
liable to pay a fine. The probable reason of the custom appears 
to have been this: persons of low rank residing on an estate, weiv 

geoeraHy 

* lUustrationi of the tenures and cuatomt of thU manor, by Mr. Attle; 
j>riot»i ia^ Afdtm^gi»f Vol. XU.^. t^— 40. .. 



genenJly Ai^r (licrlfH gUhm, or w«ff» •ttbjwtcki te ione ^oditf 
of ienrke ttmilar to th« a^cripfi ififka; Ibf teotnti were bottMli^ 
resMe po Ibe esUU, aod to j^rforp tftfH^ stmcct to the UMi 
As ivomea oeeessaiily followed tbe feskkiioes of Ibeif hnbittdl^* 
the eooiequcQc? wai, tbat when a woman of low rank BMwrM » 
strainer, the lord wat deprived of pari 0f hk live stock; he thero^ 
fore required • fine to hidaiQiiify him for the loss of his propeHj. 
In proceae of time, tbie comptoiilioa wa$ tbtown iirto the kg^ 
p^ mm of qait aentfl, m nppMfi by an andeot nitftymt iWe 
manor.'' 

MARSS-HAJX% i^QOt three mitei wett firom Oreat TWy, wai,^ 
in tbethne of tlie Conqueror, held oedct Hugh dil Montibrd, by 
Nig^ wbo9e fiimily aftefwards bicame the cUef lards of Che Mm 
nor, and obtained the name of Merkeshall from tiieur place ott^ 
ttdence. Thb family possessed the estate till the beginning of the 
mgn of Elizabeth; when it was sold to John Cole, Esq. whose son 
and heir again sold it to Edward Deraugh, Esq. His youngest 
•on, Wniiam, succeeding his father, disposed of thjy manor, in the 
/car 1605, to Robert I^onywood^ Esq. of Charing;, io Kent, who^ 
posterity still enjoy it. The manor-house was partly rebuik by 
the latter gentleman, who erected a new and handsome front, over 
{he porch. of which are various quarterings of the fawily arms« 
it stands on a rising ground, near the Church, m a pleasant p^i 
wbidi has been much improved by t'ilmer Honywood, Esq. tb^ 
present proprietor^ and one of the representatives for the com^y 
of Kent, who having lost his election for that shire in 179^, made 
this his principal residence. In the Dining-Room is an original 
portrait of Mr9.Maby Honywoop, mother to the first of tha^ 
aame who owned tliis estate. She is arrayed in a widow> habit^ 
with a book m her hand; and on her hat is inscribed in gplde* 
letter^ iBTATis ^VM 70; ANo ]>nj. 1597* Thiy lady became 
memorable from her great age, and the mukitvideof h^ lawfuf 
descendants, whom she saw before her death, whiob happt^nad if 
1620, ui her nkiety-tbird year. The number of her oiwp nlvfr 
dr» was siateen ; of her grand-children, i 14 ; of her great grand* 
childrM, t28 ; and of those m the fourth geoeratioa, nine; hi all 

V4 867 



340 HMtX, 

56/. Thoogh ahe lived to such a gteat age, she was much oppressed 
by id^iousAielaiicholy; and a singular stoi^, connected with this 
afliotioo, is related by Faller, on the authority of Morton, Bishop 
of Durham^ to whom she herself told it. He observes, ** that 
being nach afficted in 'mind, many ministers repaired to her, and, 
among the rest, Mr. John Fox, the Martyrologist; but that all hts 
counsels proved ineffectual ; insomuch, that, in the agony of her 
soul, havbg a Venice glass in her hand, she burst out into thu ex* 
pKssioOy ' I am as surely damned as this glass is broken!' which 
she immediately threw with violence to the ground ; but the glass 
ivbounded, again, and was taken op wh6le, and entire, being still 
preserved in the ftunfly." She was buried in the village Church, 
where a monoment was erected to her memoiy, en which she is 
represented kneeling. 

COGGESHALL 

Is a market town, partly situated on low groimd, near the 
north side of the river Blackwater, and partly on the acclivity of 
a pleasant bill rising on the same side. Morant affirms, that '< it 
o^es its existence to the abbey, whose foundation here drew round 
it a number of inhabitants and dependants:" but some other an- 
tiquaries, and particularly Mr* Drake, suppose it to have been 
of Roman origin : indeed, this gentleman argues strongly in fa- 
vour of its being the Canoniun^ of Antoninus.* Its distance, be 
observes, exactly answers to the numbers of the Itinerary, which 
places Canonhim between Camulodunum and Caesaromagus: the 
latter he supposes to be Duiimow, from which a military way 
runs in a du^t Kne to Colchester. The opinion of Coggeshatl 
benig the station Canonium, he endeavours to corroborate by 
mentioning some Roman coins, and other antiquities, that have 
been found in this vicinity. Among the latter was an *< arched 
vault of bricke, and therein a burning lampe of glasse, covered 
with a Roman tyle some fourteen inches square, and one urn with 

asbes 

• Ardueologia, V<^. 5. p. 137—142. 



I^£X..: 341 

# ' 

i Md hmm ; fr^din two sacofciog dishes of ^polisbed red, 
Earthy bjiving tbe bottom of Qoe of them with ^ire Roman letters, 
mscribed Coccium/** In a place called Westfield^ also, |[ three] 
^ttarten iff a nule from Cogge^allY.aod belonging to the Ablky/ 
was found, by to^chin^ of a plough, a great brazen pot, the. 
Bipoth of which wa» closed with a uhite substance like jpaste oi;* 
day, as bard as b^mt brick : when that ivas by force removed, 
there was found another pot, of earth ; and within it a lesser pot, 
of earth, of the quantity of a gallon, covered with a matter 
^e velvet, and fastened at the mouth with a silk lace : in it were 
•ome whole bones, and niany pieces of small bones, wrapped up in 
fine flilk.''t These reiuaais, tlioii^h judged insufficient, by the best 
informed antiquaries, to prove that Coggeshall was the actual 
site of a Roman station, are yet admitted as evidence of its hav- 
JBf been a Roman villa. 

In the reign of Edward the Confessor, this lordship belonged to 
Colo, a &UO0 ; bift at the time of the Domesday Survey, it was 
held by Eustace, Earl of Boulogne, whose heiress, ly^aud, con- 
vcyed it to the Cropi by her marriage with Stephen, Earl of Bloisj 
afterwards King of £i;igland. In the year 1142, Stephen, &nd 
bis Queen, founded an Abbey here, near the river, for Cisler- 
dan Monks ; and having dedicated, it to tbe Virgin Maiy, en* 
dowed it with this and other manors.. In 1203, King John granted 
tlie Abbot, and his. Convent, permission to inclose and impart 
their wood at Coggeshall ; and in 1247» they obtained liberty of 
fre^warren ffrom Henry the Third ; who also invested them with 
tbe privileges of holdjing a market weekly, and aq eight days an- 
imal fair. In the reign of Edward the Third, the monks founded 
a dnotry in their church, to pray daily for the King, the Queen, 
and Ihdr issue ; in consideration of which, the Sovereign, on the 
dereoth of January, 1344, grante^ them a hogshead of Rc4 Winc^ 

Y 3 td 

♦ Weever's Funeral MonuwcnU, p. ii8. " Ceccilm is only the potlerl 
■»fk, and not peculiar id die veisels found here, since it occun on otheri In 
£n|ltod, and elKwhere." Gou^h*s Additions to the Eritannia^ VM: m^p^ |i. 

t ^eever'5 Fun. Mpn. p. 119. 



to be ddheiefl io Londmi by tke Kbgfi ptMeum of tte wiM 
liellar, ^vety year ^t Easter.* A tecond dMofty was ibunial 
bere, Id 1407, by Joan de Bohua, Countess of Hereford, and 
dtfaerSy who bestowed some ndoable estates npeii the noalES ftr 
its suppott. On the samnder of the Abbey, Febraaiy Ibe fiM« 
|£38, its adtaoal revenues were, according to Speed, talosd •• 
i^\. 88. In the same year Henty the Eigihth gianted the mattor 
of Coggeshall, and other estates, to Sir Thomans Seymour, brothet 
of Edward, Duke of Somerset, who, in 1541, exchanged them 
with the King. Since that period this manor has been divided, 
and passed through varioos families. Only a small part of tbo 
i^bbey is now remaining : near it is a bridge of three arches^ 
originally built by Kmg Stephen, over a channel that was col to 
oonvey the water of the river nearer to tiie Abbey. 

Coggeshall was formerly very celebrated for its clothing tmdey 
and particularly for a kind of baixe of superior fine stuff, manAftc- 
tured here^ and called CoggeshaH Whites : but this btnioess has 
been on the decline many yeara^ though it still ftimishes smie 
^ployment to the labouring mhabitants. Hie population of lUs 
town, as ascertabed under the late act, was 246$ ; the mmibet 
of houses 593. 

The Church is a spactous edifice, dedicated to St. I^eter, «n4 
has a large square tower at the west end : near St are three 
un-eiidowed alms-houses. Anioiig the benefactions given for the 
support aitd education of the poor inhabiiants, is the anntial suili 
of 1601. payable by the Master and Fellows of Pembroke HaB, 
Cambridge, out of the estates bequeathed to that College for 
charitable purposes, by Sir Robert Hitcham, Knt in the yux 
1636. 

LITTLE COGGESHALL, now a hamlet to Co^ediaD, wtt 
formerly a distinct parish, and had tw6 Churches ; one of therfi 
erected by the monks of St. Mary^s Abbey, in the field called the 
JParki for their own use ; the other as a regular parish church : 
The former has long been demolished ; but the latter b poW used 
tsabam. 

• Monai's Essex, Vo). t. p. 163. 



firom .flnggiihay, ii t» dhbowte 8ioMiBMiit» of 'Mripiiii f oIqomI 
wmMtf to tbM «f iKMf tf Sir Anthohy Maket tnd Iw Lady, 
tbb naiK>r ip the ragn oi Omen FlbraheUi. The 
i it ■iipyiittii bj piUan ef the Ceriothiaa onder: oa tfaekft, 
I m anh, aie tht e^igics of Sir Aothaoy Md bb Udy, 
kamVoig ; and «■ the ti^ Hm figjuite of his joq and daagker- 
•ia^iw, in tiwilni /fNMlaTCi. Se^end ^than of this fimdy wtae 
abo baaed hefe. 

BLACK KOTLEY, am Bifinliet, fareooimed ae the bkth* 
|daot of the kamtd William Bbdall, Bitfaap oiP Kilmaie, in 
Inkod ; wmi. of the ytt note eaiobraled oatataiist; M|t. John 
Aat. The iMrmer «as bora io the vcar li7(9, and ar^ educated 
Jit Enanud Cotfe^ey Cambridge, whtte he diiiained a F^Moflnhip 
al Ife age nftweaty^tfaret. In l6M he befaane Chapbia to Sir 
llwry Weltta, aad aotoiBpanicd jfeat gyitleaiain on hi> tiaihaiiy 
io iwiiqpahliccf Yeone, vteie he ablahiad liK fim 

Anioaio de Boiainiiy Aiefabiahap of Spahtro, arbom he 

aa tho hoq/k intitided, De MepubUea Eccledaadea. He 
m itee intimacy with FaAer Paul Saipi, a4o 

I hiaa ^fith kirn aaautcrqiH History of the €o«aeil of Tnoft, 
md 0lktr iwlfahk mitkifpi. In tb^ year ifisr, be waeeksled 
ftofaal ef Tnaily CoUe^je, XMIm, and two yean aAeraraads, 
fprfrscdto thoiSfM of Kikiore and Aidagh ; bot faeiag imnttcal 
tQ plniaiitiM, ^ migned ibe laUer Uahoprio. His epiMaapal 
was oflMttipla^ ; aad by bis £*■>! Jfct coocilbting eo» 

be eftded a cooadeiable refonnfion hi the conduol of 
«he iohabilaali of Mb dioceie, which had been prnfieosly ^nan- 
dcaadaaxMM^ tbeiaosttorbitleataRd IbentioQtailiicfaiiid, Ue 
Baok of €fi>wmmoa Prayer was, through his iuOneoot, ti yi< a l e d 
JalollwIaiAlangMie; as was abe the Now Tectement ; boltM 
fanner oirif eras {HiUirfiedtti Jus iinse. CN|lbebceahingoot ofthe 
feebeOion w l641, our Prekite was not at first molested, from the 
levereoee which his character had excited in the minds of the 
coa smo n people ; but he was afterwards seiaed, and imprisonedi 
fiw haTing refused to deliver up some Protestauts whom be had 

¥ 4 < sheltered 



iheltmd io Us bovie. He £mI at the end of FebMny, urtbe 
Mine year, and was interred in the Chmrcb-yard at Kihnore. 

John Rat, M. A. was bom in the jear l624. His father, 
who pursued the humble occupation of a Mackwnith, peroeivisig 
that his son possessed a Tigoroiis genius, sent him to school at 
Braintree, and thence to Cambridge, where he was admitted into 
Catherine Hall, but afterwards removed to Trinity College. Here 
' he became distinguished for his skill in natural history, and par* 
ticolarly for hb knowledge of botany, which grew into a favorite 
study, and was pursued with partkuhur avidity, from his ex> 
ample. His industiy, and steady application, obtained him niich 
renown ; and the better to iocfease his acquaintance with |he works 
of Nature, but eqwcially those of the vegetable kingdom, he made 
several joumies through the chief part of Great Erilkiin. He «lw 
visited various coontries on the Continent with the same utentiott, 
aoc6mpanied by the great W^Uughby, who was likewise his eom- 
paiiion in several of his home joumies. It is remarkable^ thaf the 
sublime and beautiful scenery of Nature, which has of late given 
eloquence to the pen of so many travellers, was, in the imtt of 
Ray, entirely disregarded ; and it has been observed, with equal 
proprietyand trath, that though our natnialist, in his diffcwrt 
excurskms, <' passed through the vaUies of Derbyshire, ascended 
the mouBtams of North Wales, and beheld the glories of the Cnm- 
berland lakes, yet, from the whole of his itineraries,* not a single 
sentence can be gleaned expressive of that wcoder and delight 
with which eveiy one at the present day b irresistibly aftcted«''t 
Towards the hitter part of hb life, Mr. Ray removed from €ai&- 
bridge to thb hb native place, where he died in 1706, in hit sc^ 
venty*eighth year. He was buried in the Chnrch-yaid ; wbeee a 
neal pedestal monument was erected to hb memory, at the ex- 
pence of Henry Compton, Bbhop of London. It b inscribed 
with an elegant Latin epitaph, whkh has been thos traMhtcdb 

Tkoi# 

* Published in ibe ** Select Rcmaios," with his life, by Dr. DurhaiQg 
portrait, &c. Bvo. 1760. 

f Annual Revie»r, VoL I. p. 45Q. 



THoofKiokhtAsafiow tomb tUiUoitiioQft Rat 

lahumed lici, fut mould 'ring into clay, 

O'er the wide world his works their beams displa/i 

As bright and everlasting as the day : 

To those just Fame ascribes immortal breadi» 

And in his writings heoutJiires kitdeith. 

Of cv*ry acienctf, cv'ry part he knew ; 

Read in all arta, divine and human too t 

Like Solomon, and Solomon alone. 

We as a greater king of knowledge own, 

Our modern sage dark Nature's secrets read, ' 

^rom the tall cedar to the hyssop's bed ; 

From the unwkldtest beast of land or deep. 

To the kast ii^ect that has power to creep. 

Nor did his artful Ubors only show 

Those plants which on the earth's wide surface growj 

But, piercing e'en her darkest entrails through, 

AH that was wise, til that was gre^ he knew. 

And Nature's inmost gloom made clear to common view. 

From Foreign stores bis learning brought supplieB| 

Exposing treasures hid from other eyes; 

And in his wisdom was his country wise. 

But, what's yet more, he was ao ratiekly great, 

That Envy unrepining sav hia state; 

For, rare accomplishment, his humble mind 

Possess'd a jewel which it could not Hnd. 

A high descent lent noihing to his fame ; 

Virtue, not birth, distinguish'd his great name ; 

Ticlei and wealth he never strove to gain. 

These be would rather metit than obuin. 

His pcivaic life in humble shades he spent; 

Worthy a palace, with a cell content : 

Unwearied, he would knowledge still pursue} 

The onty thmg in which no mean he knew. 

What more did add to these bright gifts, we find 

Him blest with an untaimed purity of mind ; 

England's blest Church engross'd his aealouaciM^ 

A truth his dying acceikU did declare. 

Thus lost he in retirement his great breath ; 

Thus dy'd he living, who thus lives in death ; 

Thus has Heav'n caUM hit aga's glory home. 

And the bright wonder of the age to come. 

I g C was bom 19. Nov. i6t8. 

< dyed 17. Jan. lyoG. Ur. 



Mr. Ray was tbe suAor of serenil esteenwcl ivmla : Aoiekiioft a 
request, are * The Wisdom of God ipaoifested in the Woiks of the 
Creatioa;' ^ Discourses on the Ch^os^' ^c. * ^ynopsif Methodicm 
Stirpium Britanniparum ;* ' Catalogue of Eoglisb PIputs;' « %« 
wcpsis Methodica Avimm et Piseium, ^c/ 

Several fragments of aBtiquity w«« dhig apin a fidd at Black 
Notky in the year 1752 : among thera was an oblong Uue glass 
vessdi with white bands running round it at unequal distances ; 
various pieces of earthen-ware; a ooppar vessel i|rit^ ^ small ned[» 
and globular body ; dpd another fragment of copper^ tike a fluted 
eolumui temunated at one end wMi a ram's bead, and in its ge* 
neral resemblance mnflar to one given by Count Cayhis (i. idL 
1.) as a knife handle.* 

BRAINTREE 

Is a large straggling town, situated on rising ground* and con* ' 
sected on the north with Backing, or Bocking- Street, one of the 
most considerable villages in Esstx. In the Domeaday Book, 
this manor is comprehended awler the mne of RamtSy and was 
then held by the Bishop of London, to whose See it continued 
attached tiU the reign of Edward the Siith, when it was granted 
by that Monarch to Robert, Lord Rich. In ihb /amily it re* 
mained till the year 1673, when, on the deatk of Ckarles, Eari of 
Warwick, it became 4he property of his sister and co-heiress, the 
Lady Frances, wife to Nicholas, son and heir to Sk Frauds Leak, 
Earl of Scarsdale, whose successor, Robert, sold thb estate, in 
1701, to Herman Olmius^ Esq. ancestor to the late Lord Wal- 
tharo. The ancient m«nor-hoase was a pabce of the Bishops of 
London, but has long been destroyed. 

Brainlree was made a distinct parish about the time of King 
John, or Henry the Third : the former of \%'hom constituted it a 
market-town, through the interest of William de St. Maria, Bnbop 
of London. At that period, bowever, it was only a hamlet to 

Raines, 

* Gough'i Additlossto the BtiUonla, Vol. II' p. 5|^ 



•47 

iB4lhtfttriAilwIf vat odM G|Be»t Kain^ bu^ few 
At ncmie #f houief aini populi^jtiOBy Bramtree al kogtb beoama 
theclMef place, and gatt iU own n%me to the district. Its rise it 
sappoaed to be oauog to its coofeaient utuation on tiie high road 
fiom London into Suffolk and Norfoik, and to the building of inni 
aad iMlgiag-houses for tba reception of the numerous pilgijaui 
Aoaa the «>iali» who, m the day* of superstidon, were GOutiottaU|r 
taivdiiag to tfae shriaea of S^. Siidmund, and our Lady of Walr 
• AAer Ibe RefiM'niatioo^ tlia t^wn was desert^ of iia 
but again obtained consequence from Ibe Flemings, who 
jHitod befe k the re^ of Elitabeth, aAer being expelled fixm 
Iha Netberiandi by the JMm of Alva» and wbo first introduce^ 
tta bayaud aay roanufadiU'e: Ibis business h still cfr^ 09 hen^ 
bal aat to so great an extent as formerly. The govemmeol of ]tb^ 
tonn m tested in a select vtetry, ooaipoeed of twenty-four parishf 
ioocn, wbo» as early as the year li84» were slyled Qofemors of 
tka TowBfe aad Town Magisirates. 

Hk Ckmek is a spacious structure, on Ibe aoutb side of t)^ 
mmut oeoapying a high spot of ground, which apH^sa to ba?^ 
ItaatliejileoA'acarop, It consists of a nave, chancel, aad side 
faariif a 4oDy ipiifie risiag from a tosver at the west eo4i 
k siitb slate: the body of Ifae edifice is mostly flial. This lis. 
warn feuaded in the reign of EdiA-ard the Tbud, a& appeaar 
I the amis whscb decorate it, of the neighbouring gentry niio 
i at that time; and also fnain the WiH of John de Nayliug* 
who, in 13*9, bequeathed a' '' &ack Bmliock towards the 
; of tlie Chatrfa." It has since been greatly enhuged, parti* 
fhriy in tbe aeign of UeMy the Eighth, when tbe roof was 
and the sooth aisle built. The expenoe of these al- 
t partly defrayed by receipts arising from the pe|w 
<waaooeiaf tlu^e Piay« acted in' the Church. Tlie first Pkiy, in- 
titaM fit. SmithiMt was acted in 1528; the second, named Si. 
Jhdrew, on ibe Sunday M6m Heliqoe Sunday, ia 1525; and 
^ tfaird, caMad Piacy Dacy, alias St. Ewestacy, in 1534. After 
the Reformation, the Phiyers' robes were sold by the Cbiirchwar* 

dens 



6eug for fifty sbiHings, aiM) the phiy-books for tmxAf AiKngf.* 
In the cbaocel h an inscription to the memory of Dr. ^AMtBL 
Colli Ks, who was the son of a nuniater of tfait parish, and for 
some years principal Physician to Peter the Great, Czar of Mm- 
co?y. 

This town abounds with dissenters of different denoRMtioaK 
The streets are mostly narrow, and incommodioiis ; and many of 
the bofldings are of timber, and very oM. The immber of 
houses, as returned under the act of iSOt, was 454} of inhabi- 
tants, 2821. Various bequests h^tt been made for the lerriea 
of the poor; the ino^ celebrated, though not the most talaihN 
was the gift of Heniy Smith, Esq. Aldennan and Mter, of LiAr 
don, who, in the reign of Charles the First, kft $8001. to |mv« 
chase an estate in this county; the proceeds to be distiinted 
among the poor of the five parishet of Braiotree, Henbane Tei» 
ling, Tolleshunt-D'Arcy, and Dover-Court. 

BOCKINO principally consist! of one long ttieeC, ^eiteodag 
tiong the high road, and containbig several good bouaes, iniMbil* 
ed by respectable fiiniilies. In the reign of Kbg Ethdicd, itxwai 
possessed by Athelric and LeeiWine, two noble Saxoosi who^ ia 
the year 1006, granted it, with other hnids^ to St. Savioarii 
Aiory, Canterbury, for the support of the monks* St. SawiA 
was then the name of the Cathedral Church in that city ; 
when it was rebuilt by Arcbbbhop Lanfranc, after its t 
by the Danes in 1011, it was dedicated to 4he Hnfy Tikkf^ 
and by that appellation it occurs in the Domesday Book, as hmf 
in possession of Bockinge. It conlinoed attaafaed to that. See Jil 
the Dbsolution, when Henry Ike £%hih alienattd it, in the yaar 
1540, to Roger Wentwortb, Gent, and AKce, hia vifty ui< 
deration of 8761. lis. Sd. Roger, the gnrat'^raodaov, 
tuo wives; by the second of whom, Eliiabeth, daughter of Sk 
Robert Barker, of Orimston Hail, Suflblk, this manor passed to 
Sir Tliomas Barker, her brother, whote son. Sir WiUiani, malt- 
g^'^d it to Prisca Coboume, Widow, of SttaAfocd^le-Bow. Ta 

tUi 

* Moranf* Euex, Vol. II. p. 399. 



llitfhdytiieniorlipgedpreiiiiieftiweie^bctte^ Comt of 

Oiaiic^, abottt the hrtter end of the seventeenth century ; and in 
17CH, by ¥rOI, dated May the »xth, she bequeathed them to the 
Corporation of the Sons of the Clergy, towards the maintenance 
of tbe poor widows and orphan children seeking relief from that 
establishment. 

The pnncipal trade of this extensive vilhige, io addition to what 
arises from the passage of goods between the Metropolis and the 
more eastern counties, is the manufacture of baize ; though this 
has greatly decreased within the last fifty or sixty years. On ibe 
' Pant, named the Btackwater, in the lower part of its course, 
I flows through it, are several falling and com milb. The 
-of houses, in 180:^, was 623; that of inhabitants, 2680* 
' The Church is a ^radons building, standing on an eminence, 
betweea one and two miles norlb-west from Bocking-Street. (t is 
dedicated to the Virgb Mary, and supposed to have been built 
aboot the time of £dward the Third. Before the Reformation, it 
etBtaioed three altars, and five chantries. In the south ai^ are 
tfte efligies of a man and woman, supposed to represent some of 
*e Dorewaid fimuly, who possessed a subordinate manor in this 
parub daring the greater part of the fourteenth and fifteenth cen« 
tnries; and one of whom, John Doreward, Esq. founded and en- 
dowed ail HospiuU here for seven poor people, in the reign of 
Hcwy tbe Sixth. This Hospital still exists ; and also a Chariiy^ 
School, endowed by Dr. Gaiden, Bishop of Worcester, for edu- 
cating thirty poor boys. 

Booking is a peculiar belonging to the Archbishop of Canter* 
hwy, bemg only subject to his jurisdiction, or to that of his Com- 
miiry, wbo is called Dean of Bocking. It is also considered as 
Ike dttef <tf the four peculiars in this county, and of the three in 
SnMk, which belong to the See of Canterbury. 

RAINC, formerly called Little Raiiie, to distingqish it from 
Ofeat Raine, or Braintree, it pleasantly situated about two miles 
west from the hitter* The Church is an ancient buildiug, supposed 
far have been founded soon afler tbe separation of the parishes, and 
»» very fimotis^ .m the Catholic times, for an Altar and Chapel, 

erected 




§30 

#f«GleiluitlMMiifliiide fetlieinbr^rtlMVk^ Hll 

Altar was mtteli freqaebted by pragoMit woumi, wbo somM^ i 
thrfr iopplieatbtti to Uit Vkgib, to dbtain H aofe ddlNi^i j 
according to traditMm, with tiieh great sucoeaii tint the i 
^ go ere long, and say your prayers at Bmae," 
non proverb. 

At PANTFIUJ), a smaH, yet pleasant viUafS, 
Pant, wfaenoe it derived iu name, a Priokt of 
mottks, ssbordinate to the Abbey of St. StefAeo'sp at 
N<Miiiandy , to whidi tiiis manor was ^cn by Wakran 
is the time of the Conqueror, was feaodcd befone the year 
when the modes obtasaed Keence of frae^wamn. On thai 
skm of Alien Priories, in tke feign of Hemy the fifth, thi»i 
was granted to John WoodhoMe^ ofNorMk, tohoMby'i 
we of k Red Ro$e. If aHe^wardi ra? erted to tie Ciowwf vi 
was again granted by a simibr tenure^ by Edward the F 6 u tflfc» 
OiesiM, widow of John Heode, Esq. who idienated it to i 
Bonchier, Aidibisfaop of Caaiteibury. By this Ihwlale si ww 
ghrentotheCalfaedialatCaiiterbary; bu^ after the gcMof S«|h 
pression, it was bestowed, by Henry tkie £%fatl^ on 8k Oiltt 
Capell, of ftaine-Hall, and has sitoec^ passed thrai^ varians ft* 
ntties. 

OOSFIELD^ an extensive parish to the weAaflMrted, is a«l 
mention^ in the Domescfaiy Book, it btkg indudatf in the a4i*» 
cent lordships fill about the tiftie of Ifanry the tesoirid, whaitf Jl 
was made a distinct parish. The binds are divided into oneJlHK 
nors, and were originaMy held by diffieralt fiunilies, but 
united m the reign of Richard the Second ; awl thongh 
parated in the seventeenth and eighteenlfa centories^ have 
more become the property of an iodividiudy the pcesenl 
of Buckingham. 

GOSFIELD HALL, a seat of dib nobleman, was^ very i 
ter tkt Conquest, in the posseaiioa of Robert de Ckie, Easlof Ohitt* 
eester, and is sti H part of the Ifonour of Oh|ie,towlisdi itpays wo» 
knowfedgment. Frmn this family it wasafcwaied to tile Kcnei^Eiria 
of Oxford, and held efdiem by Adam deOosfeM:Mir«tbeieigpa 

of 



#rSd»ardtlie FM ttui Secood, it was die pioperty of J^lm Bel- 
lowes. Chevalier, whose name appears to have been given to the 
bxdsbip. It afterwanjs passed to the Rolfci ; and from them, by 
an heiress, to the Wentworthst of Lodham Hsdl, of whom Sir 
Boger was Sheriff of tbb county in the year 1^99 • The heiress 
of the latter family married Richard, second son of Lord Ryche ;; 
from whom it passed to the Lords Grey; but at the bc^mniog of 
^the eighteenth century, was sold to the MiUingtons ; and agsun in 
a short time to John Knight, Esq. who dying in 1733, bequeath- 
ed this manor and lordship to Anne, his wife, second daughter to 
James Craggy, Esq. Three years afterwards, this lady married 
Bobert Nugent, Esq. afterwards Earl Nugent, fiom whom, in 
1788, these estates becaau the property of George, Marquis of 
Buckingham, the present proprietor, who inherits in right of his 
hdy. The mansion called Gosfidd Rally* though greatly altered, 
presents an interesting qiecimen of the domestic architecture that 
prevailed in the constriction of the residences of the nobility di^ 
ring the xe^ of Henry the Seventh, who strictly enforced the 
andeot prerogative of the Crown, which had been compounded 
by the osurper Stephen, m prohibitiag his subjects from erecting 
Castles; yet here, as in other cases, were the restrainta of the 
kw proved ao insuffident security against the vidence of the 
timtiy its provisions were evaded ; and the houses erected at the 
above period, thou^ not coming within the description of a for- 
tiess» were equdly as strong, and wdl secured, as many of the 
baronial Castles. Thb building was a large pile of brick, inclosing 
a qnadranguhtr court; into which all the lower tier of windows 
opened. There were not any wuidows on the ground floor of the 
outside ; and those of the upper stories being strongly barricadoed, 

no 

* The annexed Prinu, presented to thii Work by that liberal patron of Ao- 
ti^aariaa and Topographical History, the Marquis of Buckingham, rq>rescnt 
the most peculiar chartieterestics in the ancient part of this mansion. Plate i. 
«tfat Wdt ffonit t the two lower windowt do not belong to the original build- 
iH» hilt have hiea lattl^r teradaced. ThftcntrAncc isl the Centre wes (Anttctod 
by wUdomrf ptojoctkg from closets, from wbkh asuilaats vould be op^ose4 
w/Uot danger. P]at« a displays the Interior of the Quadrangle, 



SBft ttSMi 

bo admittance could be forced h\d with great AfltciiRy. 
Mde of the quadrangle reitrainr nearly in its brigioal sta^e; M 
the north, east, and south frcAits, were built by JofcoKn^h^ 
Esq. who owned the estate at the l>eginntng of the last oeotory. 
Various alteratious have been made by the late Lord Nugenf ; and 
additional improvements have been eflected under the direction of 
the present noble proprietor; the east and sOtith sides having bees 
enlarged by different rooms and passages. The House, as origi*. 
nally built, consisted of only one .room in thickness ; and gomo- 
quently there was no other eommnntcation round the inside, bat 
by passing through every rot>m. - The west side is yet in tUssnrtei 
and the first floor is occupied by a long galler}*, iM feet in fengfh^ 
and twelve in width : this gallery is called Utteen EN%ahtk*s, ia 
commemoration of that Sovereign bai0ng twioe visited tlie Llidy 
Ryche at GtosHeld. 

The principal paintings that were in this mansion hav« beea 
temoved to Stowe : a few goorl fiictdres still remain in the Bredb* 
foit'Room; and in the Dining- Room are many TaluatHe origind 
portraits, particularly of George the First; John, Duke of 
Itfarlborough; RussBL, Earl of Oxford; WiLLfAir, Earl of 
Cadogan ; JoriN, Duke of Argyle; Fit Bt> brick. Prince of 
Wales; the Lord Chancellor Shaptesburt; Richard, Vi9^ 
count Cobhani ;$ir William Wykdham ; andf Dr. HallbT. 
In the Librany is an ancient sculptured Chimney-Piece in stone^ 
deserving notice from its subject and execution. It represents, in 
bold relief, the memorable Battle of Bosworth Field, between 
Richard the Third and the Earl of Richmond ; and contains tweflh 
ty-four figures on horseback, with the King lying prostrate under 
his own charger. Most of the personages introduced are known by 
the armorial bearings on the shields. Among others, are the Duke 
of Norfolk, the Earls of Surry and Northumberland, Sir Sirooo 
Digby, Sir Walter Blount, Sir William Herbert, Lord Stanley, Sir 
George Stanley, Sir William Brandon^ Lord Edward Stafford, Sir 
Gilbert Talbot^ Sir R. RatcUft^Sir J* Tyrrell, Edward Lord Loiel^ 
and the Earl of Oifbrd. At the eatremities of the Chiaiiiey* 
Piece are smaH statues of Henry the Seventh and his Qneeo, 

* exactly 



mmdfy raembUog those on the monntnfirt at WestaSnster Ahbey* 
Tbe exact date Of thb sculpfure ttf Uncertain, but it is faiown to 
be of considerable antiquity, it havhig been removed, in the year 
1687, from BoSs' Halt, a smaU house, belonging to the Eails 
of Oxford, one of whoiti was a partisan of the Earl of Rich-* 
mood. In the Green Vkltet apartments are various portraits of 
the Craggs' family ; among them, those of jAM£d Cbaogs, Esq/ 
Postmaster Oeneral ; the R%ht Hon. JAMEa Crao&s, Secretary 
of State ; Mrs. €raoo6, his mother, sister to- Majo^GkoeIal 
Kichards ; and Major-Qbnbeal Richards. 

Tbe P^'at Ooslield is extensive, and contains many fine old 
trees : h i:; also ornamented by a noble ahect of water, that was 
eafauged, to tbe extent of. \02 acres, by the ktccLord Nugent. 

At a short distance from the Hall, to tbe east, is the vilhige 
Gbrdb, io which is a small Chapel, or Chantry, bnilt by Tho- 
nas Roifc, Esq. and repaired, m the year 1560, by Sir John 
Wentwortli, as a burial place for his family. Adjoining the 
Cbsntiy ia a private Chapel, in whidi Is a large marble monument 
to the memory of JohK Knio&t, Eiq. .who died in 1793, at 
the age of fif^, executed by Mieenialrer, 'tmder tbe dheotioarof 

Pope, wfaa also wrote the epitaph, which is as ftttows: 

* 
. O f fiMffcrt pttern 10 « ftWf^ Hfe^ 

Whotf public virtue knew no party n|e ; 

Whose private name a)l titles recommoMi, 

The pious son, fond husband, faithful fricdd. ' 

In manners plain, in sense alone idin'd ; * ' ' ' 

Good withouc show, and without wcakacH kkd : 

Xo Reaaon's equal dictaten ever, tmc i 

CAlm Io rcaolve, tnd oonatant to pnrsoe ; 

In life with ev'ry social grace adom'd ; 

In death by Friendship, Honor, Virtue, xnoumM ! 

On (be pedestid are siiort iiiscriptions, that have bam added in 
commemoration n^ Robert, Earl Nugent ; UeulenantrColontl 
Edmnnd Nugent, his son ;• Margaret Nugent, hb sisltr; and Am* 
Ciaggs, who was fint married to James Newsham, Esq. secohdly, 
to Joho Kni^^ Ea^. and tostly, to Eobert Nugent, Eiq, after- 
VOL.V. Z wards 



cteiw4 W^ ¥l^ ^nmol^. tfufflif$ ;^ qi^, $>r Sir $o^ WentwoiUi^ 
iM^ iji$ilfi4|b ,idip>di6d betwoeathe yeaa. 1534t aud U3S» tbe 
qIMm fpll S« John WeofwQiib, $xi^ hi^ l^d:^4 Here if s^lso a larg^ 
tibto tnppwMfntt. of Pur^l^f^mj^I^Iei^ tp. tb^ memprj of Sir Bicih 
0gi, aDpQwt 99P> o^ I^ Syc^ vvijip. n^aip^Ui^ Mr^ of the 
Wej|twQrtb$« Tbo Pormna^ is a Q«at« coovepieBt dweHing,, 9d< 
j^iot tbcCh^cbK ^ >^ lBo^ p^siQs^ b}| the Key. J. Tbudoifi 
111^^.1^9 M^dM^ wi(bil^cl^.a^^oM,.tbe,B^tufe of (be m^ 
and tbe mode ofc^Uivalipqi b^ adapl<^ fo$ this.parttof thft 
^om^f MoHt b^ «, fiilif ^aitAvw tbe GburMiisGo6]?i^ 
^MQB,. a,b«Ad^ofDe,AipdeBi:bu^ldMif» witb i^early^ 200 acm of 
lancl ^wi»umii(« i^ tkp ,s^% and J!fPrwrttf, Qf lanHtt GtMKl«T« 

: I»4kjhrg« iiiidiP99Ml0iis»t<mih plfias^ situated Jifar tba nm 
fio)ii^ ;otii tbt; «c4it>j|y. ^fi t^ .ffllV^lgr Wiima^ m»d derifiig iti 
iMio-ftfim tii«t SM)P,¥Wd^.#pifyipg A««My j^ laEir 
ward tbe CflnfeiMr'»iti<i^Jt( wa» bald by. ^ad Godwin, aod dimf 
.adkemen and freemen ; but on the Conquest, it appears to bate 
been divided among tbe tiam Nermai ohi«f% Biclafd FitiGil- 
b^, Earl of Brion ; WflKanip d<! Waren, Earl of Wareo, and af- 
terwards of Surrey j^ ^Md,I^|>ert Malet, who had also tbe barooy 
of Aye in Suffolk* 

The mark€filWBaim».pDabaW>.«iUibUBMi«Uh«.SM 
as a hill at the upper end of tbe^aMm^ oii.wbailii it was bekl for 
several centuries after the Conquest, hastfaenameof OA^tn^ BUI. 
TM the year, 1^ J I it ajipe^i^ to b^re belonged to the Crown; but 
about that tinie, Henry the Third granted it to Abel de St. Ma^ 
itii^lvhi.Md twif lfalig)iM:-fiMai«(IMalead:aMBeldiap^ 
JkkhualrdbiOtoie^ Eadfof Qiowe^ter wid i^ertlordr who inbeiited 
4iHi roaaor ftam.RidiMPd rit9<6|ibfft., Uiq^ de Verf» fo^ 
.Bad of 0%B»d, iaimU^ Aiml^t^^^VM^k^M^M? & otat- 
4tt at 1 Ubl^taad. ti> j|«i|Mejtidiot^ m bw^Afm^ QW hJiF ^m^^f^' 



bti at Castte Hedm^hnn, AkI tdtVi ColU^r I^Y flill dtifefreiioe 
im ai^oitfd, oi AM% ccHiMitiilg fo p«^ hidT a ibieiyi yitorly ^ 
the Earl, and ptoiribg hk right t» il DtttHtd af Hdlst^, boith 6y 
prescripliiBi and the KiBg^« gtrftit. AbMtf fSis pi^%>3*, il* appcaiv 
to have bwp bddsoiiiewhans <yflth(» Kh^!^ fa%il^ay ; &ht if ms 
jttow removed to in aneietat itMoii dti Cft^g ffill> ^liere ft 
confimied till th4 Niga df Bli2a(beth,* ivhifd ft ihu ft^ttt removed, 
asd fixttl iA H» pMent' rffititioti; ttikr \A€ citiM 6f th^ tbwh. 

The dlMtfl, dedlWed 16 St. AddreW, htA(AA boUdinji, coo- 
siitiii^of a naive, tfaaMel, and Ate aisks, WHH'li tbWli^ iM ipm 
at the west end. The spire is of wood, and is the thtfcT (liat ^ 
been eiectedon tiie jlresent tolvci', d^ ttto^ <bhbei''biMii*g Keen 
atmck by l^hlHing^ atid* destn»^. the MkmA'nlfitk Was raisi^ 
JO the year 1717» at tteeiipenetf'df^ Ifr. SUnM Firfce, an Kjp^ 
thecaiy of tUt lowov <» whieKMteMito tb^ibltoWbgUnei'Wera 
vntteol^Psm: 

Yicur n« thh tjnn^ afkslA gtvSi 

To biiildifift nutf*d by cofteod hifadi | 
That fabric rUcs high tt Hoi¥*a 
# Wliose basis on dcvocioo ttaoda* 

While yet we 4rh/ this titil breitli; 

We cao our hope and fsith dicltiv I 
But cbarity faieyondt our death 

Will ^vef itt our' works appear. 

Bkst be he call'd among good ifttn 

Who to his God this oolooiA raised 1 
Tho"** lightning sliake the spire a^in, 

TH^'m^ wb6 built it shall be prais'd. 

Yet spiiea and towers in dual ihaU lie^ 

The weak cl6>ru of haman painai 
And Fatth and Hope t^eaaehra sh^ die^ 

Wbil4 deathleii tfbaMty r^naiV 

A^ 0luBi6y' wii ftmM^iii tifi Chotch, tot a Miifer anif fivt 
Prittl^ by Bafttaotemcfi^, Lofil B^dtdtiet*; tind^ a liccnca ob^ 
kom EdWM'flMf'ThiM^^iil iScd, iy ^QligftT Botrv- 



356 .Esan. 

CHiER, Earl of Essex^ and Lord ChaaceHor' of England, who 
Vas buried l^ere, and whose jnonament is sopposcfd to be in the 
south aisle, together wkh another ancient tomb of the Bovrchicrs, 
on wliich are (he effigies of a Knight cross-kgged, and his lady. 
A third tomb, of a similar description, was removed betii'een fifty 
and sixty ^rs ago. In the chancel is. a moDument inscribed to 
the memory pf SiB Samuel Tryon, Knt. and Bart, a former 
owner of this manor, who died, id l6^6. The College for the 
Chantry Prints is yet standing near the middle of the to\i-n : its 
revenues, at the time of tbe Supptessioii, were valued at 34l. 4s. 
S4. ^nniially. 

^tnoi'^ fh^ chariUble ben^fiictions made to this town, is a 
Grammar-SciiOQU ftmnded, \% the y*ar' li94, by DamcMaiy 
*Ramsey, for focty ppor cj^ldraa of.Halstead and Colne-Engaine; 
or, ill default.of a suffident uiuiibei from these plaices, the number 
"wanted to be chosen from the children of the poor ilJiabitadts 
within the circuit of eight miles of the former. Tlie direction of 
this School was vested, by the fcundiess, in the Governors, &c 
of Christ's Hospital, London. The popufation of Habtead, as 
ascertained in the year 1802, amonnted to 33SO ; the houses (o 
784. At a house in this parish is a Greek mscription, brought 
from a village near Smyroa, where it was erected 150 years be- 
fore Christ, to the honor of Crato, a musician. 

COLNE-ENGAINE, a small' village, caUed Little Colne iu 
tlie Domesday Book, received the appellatiou of Engaine from • 
respectable family of tkil imme, who possessed lands here from 
the year 1218 to 1367, when it became extinct. The Oittrck 
is an ancient fabric,' pleasantly situated on an eminence : at the 
west end is a handsome brick tower, built in the reigu of Henry 
the Seventh, which, on the east side, has the figure of a mullet, 
one of the badges of the De Veres, Earls of Oxford. The num- 
ber of mhabitaAts, as retimed under the kte act, was 104 ; of 
these about twenty-three families derive sustenance from spinning 
W09I for the baize maQufaQh|rar$'at'Co|geaiiBll aad Oofchatcr. 
•. COLNE PARK, in this pwi*, is the seat and property of 
'"rtiij^p rtills. Esq! tp v^hom U wm ^qyis^, bjf.tbd »oo of Mr. •^• 



367^. 

liflli,'of Goleiieitii;.:ivlMi piidiMM it, kktbt yM 17€^ i>f Sir 
Tbonas IL Q»gt, of Coldfamn fUH, ia Sufiblk. Tbe amanrnv 
n a iMtodj i B t MUiof of vkite bikk, «recled in 197t, mNI 
ataads oii a- nang froood^ soironaded willi woads aMJ phata- 
tioBi. It b fltaatM ia tbe oenlK af a lawQi edied Siarivf^ oc- 
SiMrrtves, wfaicb obtainad that /appeUiiion. from, a fkipi^ flo; 
nanad,^ who Md it iii tha vei^i of £di^ Uw Flntr k trnmnU 
lonvaids poiMsed by tbe PriaryawlCaQvantaf.StFBo^pll^l^ 
Colchester; bat in 1506| was the propolyofJohade Vere, Eadt 
of Oxford, whose successors rataiacd k till iMSt of the ^unjlyt 
estatea were alienaied by tlieseveBleeiilhEaYl..i North .Aom the? 
naosioa i&a colmao of Fortbnd stone, of the Ionic or(lar»,ereels4 
by J. Soaae, £sq. aafaiie8t> hi the ytor. I7dU ^^s^riyaMins. 
iactodet about llOaeres. • ' 

EARLS^COLNE; caUed abo Great; Cohie^.taad Cotne Mm^: 
cbonsn, obtaioed the appellatjoa of lEdrh firoiti ihe Dt Vem^ 
who, with littk kleituptiatt^ were lords of the manor irop^th^ 
Nonnan Coa^udst iiltbe year l$%$i, when it was saki by Ei^ti4 
the sefemaeilh £arl, to hi^ steward, Roger liadachtadea».of ^a* 
ancient family, settled at Woodchurch, in Kent. Mary,,.|ha» 
heimsa of tha HarhalieDdens, eonveyed it^ by Insrriage, to Dmiiel 
Aiidrowes, Esq. ml^S; since wbkh, it bas. passed, by maiM^ 
aba, thnathtwoorthrsaotheif6miHe0. ,The Earis ofOxfprfl 
bad an ancknt mansiao near the Cbaich, caUed Hall Plape» b^ 
thb waa demohsbed before Leland s lime, 

Aubrey de Vera, who acoompanied tbe Cooqaaior to Fiig)mKl» 
iwmdcd a Benadicliae Paiaaar here, prsnioua to the year lAOOg 
ia honor 4>f St. Mary^ aad 8t Jobd tbt Eyangelist Having jic^ 
ly endowed k^ 1^ aMe it su(]fotdii«le to Oh /ssikhu Abhty» 
ijsaoded by Cbsa, at Ahiagfdaa, iu^BerlMhire; aiid,afterwarj(|B be^ 
caaie a roook on hb own estafahshmeat. .Hei« abo be was |>uried, 
iBgrtbef wkh Baatrke, hb wke : tbe hfNtipb» aff f iveo by Wee^r, 
fima tbe book of Cobe Prioty^ wvas safiiUows : 

^' HerelyeihAoLiHY o4 VEE»,thefirtl Irieof GwuifK, tin 8<»mi« 
of ALraoMfUs t>E V»ia, the whkhe aWlmmy wm tbe FmuBltr 
of tbt» pbcs; m^ Atrtavt* b> ^Vyf. ^istsr 9i Hyng Wifi.x.i.A^ 

UatfONftUEIlOUE. 

Z3 Beside 



atiarA soppoitad bypllm efblAflk OMoUii^ b4iiedCiiHi«rihi 
Kn^lbt m anodur, fa a racumlMBt pottttpe : above, avelbafifaml 
df fait eight childfeD, m devotiooai'attililBlet; and bduMi awtfai> 
fimrit J ainM. On the other nMUmiMit bthdefiyetof Laot: 
DiLuCB, carkmily executed, aod the figum of her tIdUit mm, m. 
anaoiirvat her feet: varioui candiigt, aad other deg wrat ioo ^ o* 
nament^fttooib. 

Little Minpleslead was, in the seign of tht UMqper SitphWi 
aested in Rbhert Doisnel, whose daughter, Jalluiat BMuried 
William Fit2-Audelin, Steward to Heniy the Second* ad, 
with her husband's pomissioo; gave the whole paiab, .and its ap- ' 
purtenancet, to the Kniglits Hoipitakrs. . This dowatioo wtscea-^ 
firmed by KtagJobn; and the ndue of IJm gift waa incMaaed % 
Hemy the Third, who granted the biselltten liberty of fne^wwcB^ 
Heta a PiecelMoiy^ was estabhsbed under thefa|ipeMatioa of le 
Hospital f which became extremely flourishing fiwotrthegifito of aa< 
merous benefrctors. On the DiMofation, its pasyfinat, «Ui 
Temple Snttoir and Chawietb, were granted, fagr Htary the.Bighthi 
to Oeoige UaqMV, Esq. who alienated little Itfeplestend ta John 
WiauBin, Esq. an Auditor of the Kin^s nveiteB. Fdinari^gtand* 
son of this gentknno, was a Mlower of Bobert Dafetena, IM 
of Essex, whbse nafotanate dcatiqr .was pwdy jtcsawefipJ hy 
the former's negligence m the delivery of a latter nnlilMtid to baa 
by di^ Earl for te«Q«aen. The suhee^juant iiita of Us jnuter lo 
affaeiad ^liimi that he vowed never warn .lo reslon a bed: sod 
Mdnnit observes^ ^hewa^as goodashiswosd; fiHrhecanseda 
hsge tree to* be cot ont so m othmg in Iba sha|iBof a bed and hal» 
stMV'on wUch he by.'' In l(i6«y Sir WiMimn Wsmbm mM 
this' estate, ibr 4000L to Sir Mark Ouyon, SmU finyn whoin 
It has passed hito otlMir fiuaiiies. 

The C%arc4 is a. small lowodifice, oelebsnted froteksgwKial 
form aesemUiog the Church of thi Holy Sepnlohre at Jcrusriwa, 

aod 

♦ Morant calk it % Trcccptory of the Knights Templars, having confused tf»i» 
order with the' Knfghts' Hoipiulers, who alone appear to hive pouiaeA thit 
nranor. Had tt belonged Cb the fbrmer, U'^-#ottld undaubltAly htvrf becntup- 
jpmmcd in i3i«, when the order of Koigba Templars wai inally dUfolved. 



mi*iit^Tmtib<3hmfeh*9^himdtm. The prindpil emiaaee b al^ 
lh»«vcil tmif ky m porch^ witli tlunw doora: tbb lends ioto' the' 
tfpdrfef pert, wliicli.it jutt tbtrty ftet in dienietery aud Ium ape-^ 
wljrle^ eooaidliiig of six dmteredt ooluflMn» sepportiiig. poiuledi 
«dm : the toof it of woed. The whole let^th of the Cburth ia 
tevatity i«et ; the east ead is aemicifDttlar. This tlnieture-it dedi-' 
cated to Sl« Joko, of Jattmktat laad it imdidonaii^ said (to have 
iMdftlie priwItgeDf tatictiiaiy. 

Tbe mmm of Hi^WKWOOD, in the pariah of 8ible*Hedia^ 
hMRt was held of Cke£aiis ot Oxiofd, aboul tlie Arign of Gdivard. 
Ike Fiiat, by Slepheri tiawkewood, as aiict:ttor of the hmom Sift| 
JoBN UAWKWboo» wihoae extmorduiary eiploits have procUfe4> 
faM SB ioMDortal, yet aot.iitr^ faoitOKaMe, jreKowa. .He wnt bom; 
m this fltUafe,. io'the mpk of Edwbrd the Seeoml. Hit Iktfae^/ 
Qi l be K Hawhwead^ was, by ooeopatiae^ a taiaifr ; aud .appreii*; 
tiead hit toir, at ao eaf ly agj^, «o a' tailor io iiOffkrv. The.j 
jaiatli* flMat peobaUy dtsHMQ^bit pmfHdoiif eotfred^ at a torn- f 
aao tohfiarit in the araty which £dward the Uml wat them- 
;.«bff. the Fteudi .wars. Uthis.aemce he iehav'ed so 91I-. 
yylhaiha waattdaaaaed to the laak of Caplaaa^.aad ImgjbuA, 
bj the King. He afterwards gave 0aiioekit pwo^ of J^s valor aad • 
conduct at the Battle of Poitiers, and was held in much esteem 
by Edward the Black Priuce. On the termination of the war, 
be became an adventurer, and having joined tlie bands called the 
kite VdmtrSf committed gvtat depredatioiftin th^ eattero parts' <^'. 
Fmc* : theis attocimcs were to tuccetsftil, that , tliey tpte«d tar* 
rar ewttt to the gutai^ of Avigi»oo,'at that period the resi'ieboa of 
the Popeaad Caidinals; aad;their piiowess wat so mvch ditaded, 
that tie Pope« to prevent their expetted visit, was aihtent to paiw « 
dan thahr patt offeotet, atid« v^at they pHibaMy cofisidered 9m mi 
gfeaier womeiir, to give them vdmn » ktrge i»m» of niioiiey.' Hie t 
ConpajiioM tepuratiug their tones, our Knight aammed the com*- 
BMUMi 4*1 a aelcct troop, called the Whde Band, contistiug of about 
6000 horse, and 1500 toot, mostly of hit own countrymen. With 
these he atsisted John, Marquis ot Mons-serrat, agal.st tlie Duke 
of fifUau ; yet| on the marriage of Lionel, Duke of CbireiiGe, 

thifd 



tefy he <lbdmgi4 sMes, and obUftMd to mmM^fi^mmm Jbf lit'««ck* 
cm, thtt Bania^bas, tiM Dulw% |if0lli<r» ^tft 4im Mi Mtanl 
daiigtitor, the Lsif AhmIni^ in iMiifaig^i nMx % Mwnut' •f 
1^,000 fl«rim annimHy. NolwilhsianAif lhl> vIlMtc, he w^ftm 
beeanie the enemy -of the Duke of Mikiti; aceording^^ wbmm wh^ 
thon, la revieQge ibr fhe death of UomI^ nrho 4ied iMnt £•» 
Months of his weddmg, and whom heiMpKted to^motetDpaaK 
8C»ed. Others altrihote the change 1o « des^ of meMMng lib 
iMne, hj eotenng faM the aerviee of ether Mncea. Ha oaar. 
^hindered niMy towM hi Lnibavdy, mid $Mmn ^ ttie Manioii' 
of Btte, for fiO,OCO cranriK. %09tfy «ikepiraidt he MeoicteA the 
te>amti«hidi had i«v«ltfd Am A)pe OMgMy tl^bZ^vi^^ 
Tenee, and iras^rcwarded with domhiieii oter five 4>f ^heaa^ Hit 
fatee w»B at this {leriodaagfMity thai his «aM|i 
by aeveral sMes of Italy, and particidavly by the mal 
wealths of Florenet and Piaa, whidi were then 4jiwil< a wMag §m 
Sovereignty. Hie Fbreiithiea oflhring the most 
Mtm, he fought for a while ki their iotenst ; but i 
went 01W lo their enemiei, on which Oicaaian H 
tidi -of LncaaTs was oppUed to lih». 

KuUa fido pictasquevIrU qui castta Mquuntur, 
Venalesq; manut, ibi fas ubi maxima merce&. 

Agaiabecomh^gapntiwiofFlomoe, be Mademd it^ t^nbSe 
stieh etectiwl aid« that on his death, m 1394» the tienate, Smn i 
gBBtiloda of his sennces, dccieed th^ hia '* body aiMMiM.be dope. 
sittd m the Cathedral of Saoda Bfada FbcUa, wider a suaBfAn* 
OHs vionumcDt; over which theire is his pi a l a a e on^^ hota ah a d it 
aiMod at all points, with hawfca flyiog thraagh a wMd 0« his 
sUdd, brag the ffeba6 4>fhiaaaaae."* StAm^hiM^mbfUmh^ 
Domitia^ was bosa in Italy, but natuodiaed m Fiighaidi and 
knighledin the etghtb of Heni^ the Foarth« Most of hb weatlh 




• Hmm, Vfld. ^t. f> >S8. Mc G^gh obttlrve^ tbai " it accm» most^ 
prfbabk the monument at SIble-Hedingham contained bis body.** Additiooa 
to the Britannia, Vol. II. p. 58. 



hk iMMior m Sible-Hediugham CN>di* Map^ histo^jsv^ ar^? ^Ip-. 
qfml 49 bis f^mm'f for A»^llui\j;-fJHily on {il^ miliU^ cj.ia/^ctpr, 
t];^ lose the rem^O^bf^nc^ of Ub f4"U% W A^ iioirffJEMpl^tjon pf , 
)hi bribery and martial talents, 

Tlw p4ir>9bef of Sjaue .HEPINGHAM, Had C^k-Hedic^- 
ham, a|ipear to hav^ been ^9Un^cti^ tUl affer the CoQifijiedt^ «ii» 
iifijf do mt Accur 9(1 distinct parishes lill about tfae •ojtp^pfno^ 
i«ent pf the neign of Henry ^e Third. Their ^\\mtion i^ fpj. 
pjkaa^nty Ibe lands h^g varied with gentle ^miqence?^ ^nd w^tti^r 
^y rills, and small fijtreams« At the thpe of tbe gm}^ fW^i 
Sible-IMipghmi W9S held by lEloger Bigpt, by the •m^rrifi9& ^, 
whose iei:oQd daughter it W9s conveyed to the D^ Vere^ 6aHs qf ' 
0;di;ird, from w^ioiu it descepded in the same manner ;|s Hediflf^- 
Imm C^tle. The CAorf A is » Qcat «ind t(>l^Tabfy ^pacipid bMi)#« 
iog, npposed, from its ornaments of h^vvks c^urv^ 941 MfiiiP^i Ml 
h^re beenejrect^ by spme of tlie I]?w)(VKM)d fomily, aU>ut'tfie' 
r^ of ^wai^ the Thirdf The seal to two of Sir Jpfai) II«w|e»^ 
wood's kiUr^ in |be British Mu3eMm » a haivfc percht; «md thMl^ 
00 tbe tower of this structure are finMlar. A ehaplry laii^s fi^fiAdt 
t4 )|ere by h¥ execntp^ : fbe bo^ise ajip^iated for 4he r^^Qcr of, 
tb^ Priest slai^df at soiife diO^iKe frpni ibe ChuKcfa, wd ^iV bfltiff . 
tbe pamf of thp lla^agp, it having been pri^itvdiy built fpr the 
r^eppticm 4ffd eetertaiqtii^t of devout pilgrims. The cenotaph 
ta the inepv»ry pf Sir John Hawkwood lias long bopR dfui>plished{ 
it stood under aji ar^h J" ^^ 9iwih aisle. Tiie poptdatiou of this 
|)3W^b» ff equnienv^ ia 130$, was 1666; the numbe; of lipusas 

DSDlfAQHAMt or CASTL&H£I>INGHAM, as it \m hn§ 
bmn called, frpin th? Cfuale erepted here m the NoruMm tim^^ 
ff«s tbe bead vf lb? e^feu^ve barony bebngiog to tjie Veres^ Eiirb. 
of OaIoi^, I9 whose ancestor, Aubrey de Verq, it was given» 
w^ niany oilier lordships, by William the Conqueror^ atkr tbe^ 
defeat of U4rold, s|t the Eattle of Hastings. It continued in tbi^ 
fsmOy, with but little interruption, till the year 16*25; being 
beld immediatcjy of tbe Crown, and exclusive of all other lord* 

ships. 



Stf4 ESSEX. 

ships. Heury the SecOud treated it au Honour ; and it had then 
twenty-eight dependant Knights'-fees. ' 

Aubrey, or Alberic, the first Earl of Oxford, and his wift Lucia, 
who became the first Prioress, founded a Benedictine NUNKERY 
here before the year lipo. This was dedicated to St. Mary, St. 
James, and the Holy Cross, and very amply endowed ; thoiigli at 
the Dissolution, its annual revenues were valued at only 29^* l^^* ^^* 
Henry the Eighth granted its possessions to John, sixteenth Eari 
of Oxford, who was then patron. The Nunnery, and part of 
the Chapel belonging to it, is yet standing ; the former has long 
been converted mto a farm-house. An Hospital^ sometimes call- 
ed the New Abbey, was also founded here about the year 1^50, 
by Hugh, fourth Ear! of Oxford, and endowed for two or three 
Chaplains, a Clerk, Servant, and some poor and decrepit people. 
Thb building stood on the south-east side of the Castle, but has 
been destroyed many years. 

The Churchy dedicated to St. Nicliolas, is an ancient stone 
ftbric, with battlements of brick, supposed, from the ornaments, 
and the carvings of the boar and mullet on different parts of the 
strueture, to have ben erected by the De Veres; and proba- 
bly by Alberic, the second Earl, who appears to have endowed it 
in the reign of Kmg John.* The present tower, which stands to- 
wai^sthe south-west, was biult about the year l6l6. The tinh 
ber-work of the roof is variously ornamented; and supported on 
circular and octagonal pillars. Tn the midst of the chancel is a 
stiperb, but somewhat mutilated monument, covering the remains of 
John de Verb, sixteenth Eari of Oxford, who died on the nine- 
teenth of March, J 539. This nobleman was Great Chamberiahi 
of England, Chancellor of State to Henry the Eighth, and Knight 
of the Garter. On the tomb are incumbent figures of the Eari 
and his nife, the Lady Elizabeth; together with the arms and 
quarterings of the family, encircled by the garter. Oo the sooth 
and north sides, arc ctCgies of their children, four sons, and four 
dhuglrters, who are represented kneeling, with a book open before 

* eacbr 

• Mon. Ang, Vol. I. p. lOti. 



V 




-^ift'MMlU. 



-cadi. An iMcri|y(fon, 'engraven on brass, (hat went rbund tM 
tomb, was torn off in the time of the Civil Wars. Various Iran^ 
IMni» gauntlets, and other warKke remains, belonging to the De 
Teres, are displayed m different parts of the chancel. Here are 
•bo some monuments of (be Ashhunta, who possessed this estate 
kb the last centutV, iand several of whom are intelred in the vault 
beneath. Ti>e ivumUer of inftabit7it»ts in 'this parish, as returned 
lintf^r thi" hl€ act, was lOfi^ of houses, 243. 

HEDINOlIA^l C\STLE giandsnearthe vlflage, on an emi- 
nenet, which, from its re^l^r form iu that fnirt occupied by the 
f(irtr«s», aji]>€ars to have been heitjfjteiwd and improved by ait. 
Id lis origitial stale it covcrefl fi tnurh larger area than at present; 
bitt'thr kecpr from the great stmigth and «olid{ty of ilswalls, ba^ 
aloiir re^inted the mv^gt^n of ittnc arid' of man. ItB architecture b 
of the pure Anglo-Norman style i and though the exact period 
4if lis erectbn is uncertain, iU general resenil>biice to the GastleS 
known to Imve ticen constructed ^on after the Conquest^ and its 
paitkular ftitnitarity to lUiche^ter Castle, buflt by Outtdtdphnr, 
Bishop of that See, bctxveen the years 1088 and MO?) ioarcely 
l#««e a di>ul>t of its liavinj; been raised about the same era. The 
wvtif are from eleven fec^t s.h itiches to twelve feet six mcfaes thtdk 
■t the boUoni; and from nine t'e^t six inches to ten feet thick itt 
the top. The eastern w«il] b at least one foot thicker than the 
■^t Mraf : E^drcoiMfance that seems to have been purposely ood- 
•aiMd.fo oppose a greater resistteoe to the weather, as the biosI 
ftoraqf winds in jthis eonatry arise from that quarter Its shape ii 
aeailf aqoaie; the east and west sides measuring about liftyfl v c 
Ael;. tke north aUd soutli, about sixly.two : its height ia- latlier 
iMvethao 100 feet. At each angle, on the top, was fbrmeriy t 
^inrM, whieh^ .with the pbtferm, or upper story, were embattled: 
• Iwoofthaae tlirrets are destroyed, together with the battlfmento 
aild panpet walK The. materials of which it is composed, are ir- 
jC|g!|fau' flints, and stones, embedded in grout, or fluid mortar: 
the whole outside is- cased with squared stone, laid with great 
.^fatae^ and HPfMterit^r* This ^lone ^p^ra tojiave beeu brought 
? .... ^ from 



IhW the qiMMfiet fli Baraiclir m NnHtMOiplMriMr: k' b 
lioat^ a<d <inni torfau r Doinpriw of wimif o Anifc mri eaitk* 

Tbe ongioal entiMfte »or the west side, hj a flight of stum 
wackiui to the prhieipsil docMP m- the first story, the ^ooves <br 
Ihe porteuUU oo each aide of which may yet he seen* Ahout 
fix feet witUnr the entMncoy od the Dortb^^ h a ckcidaF ttoir-eas^ 
Je seeadi o g to tbegrootid ftoor^ aiMi atdendingf to the upper stoiiee. 
The ground floor may bow, boweeer^ be entered 6om wkhoal, hj 
two openuig^, ma(fe with gmit tebor ia the eanem waH, aboat the 
year 1720, by the thea proprieter, for the ptfrpote of eonfeitaig 
this flooif ioto-an out-hoUie. The intorier eoiisbte of fi^e itoimi 
aad was oonitructed with ef eiy alteotioii to secuiily firotat the 9th 
taeks of eitemal enetaies. <'At the bottodi, where the dao§cr 
wae inoft apparent, the* waHt are thickest; aadthcfaperlaffai^i^ 
men loop-liole, simple ia its form, soflkieiit dbilj^toadiail a-sW^j 
lighty and to allows the discharge of oflenaiife weapfitaa imn wiMirc 
abofe^ tbe wiB«kw» ibcvease in- si^ noA are soaKwiwrtyninaMBBi 
•d: above these^ th« Upertttrei are stUbfrgtr, aMi sitaaar «mhet 
liriuoeat^: in> the near storyvthe-friodowv Ae* dbabfe, adaMtti% 
nore air and lights andia the uppo^ ♦r atlie steifje^ th4y Hre iicU| 
#inimeated with the imal aig*ail||tof that age: thbs^ in propoHiott 
m tbe difUMce irooi danger was awe a te dj tlie- architect steals to 
have idtredMtfd into Us straethr^ air,.light^.aitfdoraaiienti"* 
. Thtf geoaod float had oHginallyp da light bal froiB*tfai^ Mlp> 
MaB> aad Ml its coastraetioa diiptajii only* messh^stienglli,' wM»- 
out omament. Tbe eatiaoce story is ntaie lofty; iM arch er a t» 
eemewfcal.more cnriMlishedj and tbe aadutecfun-is aHogettar af 
a hghtetr kind. Tfaestoiy aeirt m suooisrien is tbe Aivboij^y d^ 
HaU of Audience and Ceremoay;. tbia'is a* ooUe apMtmertl,. iWa- 
t)r-<igbt feet by tbtrtytoae^ eaclasive of tUe space oetapiid hf 
.a gallery which aarrounds it, and is^carHed thtongta the Tclry cea- 
tre^of tbe watts? It8beight,.freai tbe* floor to- the eewtfo of a 

great 

« Letter ef Uwk MjittdKc^ Bt^. peblltM ittAi^^i Vohitnt of 4c 1% 
Ptm MunimaiUL From this ge&Ucaian't iccoisnt of Hcdinghaai Cattle, most 
•f die above particulan art derived. 



ptr |wt«|i8*tiiail9raii« fiieH, aa^ ta the wli iy twenlj"«i§ht tet» ' 
Hew Ifae s^e of buildiog k.fititt BK>n emboUttbed;. the bates and 
iipitals of tilpa piUan, tba mouldiagfl^ hs^ diipkyiiif -imm aiaba-^ 
late ornaineDts. In thi$ chaiDber, the ancient Barons .oecaurad 
Ilia hpiaagfi o£ thw fiaadalr tewatsi and catastaiaadtiieif visiton 
« all ^ •ftctftaipoi hasptatt^ «if the tiMcs^ AlKMfir it tlia ntk 
tii^arjippa«o|ost.ioei;>aiid ofmt it tha phitfarni|. wluob t0» 
waH(# H' Yiqw of tba sttnaandiof coimliy to- aaoMidaraUe aKieall 
Xm Ihcrlo^pikojaa'aiid WMMkwrs^ooiiBQst^ef tbe floorsf. ai« a^v^a 
littjl oC aaaeaiea innwag into tba boarlr o£ the wail;, tbese. waaa 
fniPaUy iiiteflled.at:sfe«|Mif.ptotes;foi tba aeldiess* U iaobtctf- 
«MV tiMt:tba.on»nfOla.of Ae ifiipoitB^ aad basas- 0f the saAa 
4icb».aM)attydifetbsoii§|u>ul*tl|a)whokibaildiiig; a aireunMlaoat 
tatatnnwn ftotf its .frequent oceatrence ioislfiictims of the seme 
HS^toibMtooiaadislidguiiMqg daiiilBteiitlic o£ thai Aiigto*Mafr 
vaB' aQpa» 

. ThB.JWUia^y or iMaeaOouet ia^wbichlhe Cattle staadt^ mm 
taiH.jiaariy thitti aitet*. WkUs thb «»eee teteral towert) aad 
4AtehiiiMin§fi, Ibaf a|if»earler httfe been bu% bjT John db ¥^l«( 
the thklftt4liEttl»aooit> after tbe battle at Botamrtb Field; mi 
«we^ flMttlJi^ deifrqyed about tbe yeat 159^^. hj vmrraat horn 
ldtai)d»ittei sevflitemth Bailj Soaoo edber baiidingt stood^la 
4he<Mtci^c»a]t^onitbe;titetaDWoec»fried: hy a bandtomfe mtuk 
«t»btii9a aadAreflctt} tbeee wete buik hji Robert AtbhUffti^ 

^ idb<«tttbe>]|eai»iri'9» 

11m#i tba>eafHft'AiMe wbto thb OaBlle was ereeted cafmoi' be 
narHeiatd^itbetBifa fiAirMtoOBfta beiitwe tbat it wee buik byrtbe 
fitVme»,ipfaeiiaa(ldiead3f'8lated^fio$seited>thelofdsMr» froat tbe 
€eti|MtMttt1fittr: aild thatit*wae raited befote the 3r«ar IISO, 
4aceiftil^.aa,fafieiis. aatfbonbavetratordMtbttdeetboC lAaadi 
«iie t* Kbigi Sb-pbta» tai.faepfeoiag/' at HdHoinghain C»0^f 
Moogiag to) Albede difViai^ Barl of 0%(m4r U is probable^ 

therdbiei 

. • Sifti)r. )Db|fir4«! An|lo*NaMMa Aft«iq»ki4|, p. 9t. H«i«y'4 Huterjf . 
of fiogland, Bvo. VoL VI. p. 192* Gro*c's Amiquiues, &c 



tod drai^ 

ttereibre, Hittit ow«s its ori^ to tlie general p tm&Am iH Mel 
emles firmit^ hj Stephen, aiif) tint k m^ MH dlher hj' IM 
first Aubrey, Earl of Oxfoid, or by bis tueeeasor; fhe former of 
wbom was slaio by Ibe rabbb at LonddiiiD 1140; tke litter dM 
in 1214-. 

During the contest bet'^een the Barons wti King John, it iva| 
taken by the latter from Robert, tbe tbird £aft, in l^l6. Tbe 
following: year, after tlie accession of Henry tbe TkmA, it ag^ 
became an object of contention, and was sarrendeted to Pridoe 
Lewi<', the Datipbin of Fnlnoe; wbo, however, was soon aftei^ 
wards di^po69essed by tbe joint moderalion and ftnuiess of.tha 
£aH of Pembroke, governor to the >oiMig King. Robert.de Vai% 
who had t )ken siich an active part in lator of the En-ons, that 
lie %ras by name excommunicated by Innocent tbe Third, was at 
ao pardoned, ami restored to bis inheritance. fVom this period^ 
wotbing particular occors relating to the Castle, tBi the tltiM"af 
John, tbe tweltili Earl, to wbom it passed in almost unioterrailted 
aoceeswon. Tbb nobleman espouaed the cause of the Lanenitrianw» 
and rontinaed so firm m his-lillegianoe to Ifonty.tbe Biiblh,^tliit 
Edward the Fpurtfi, at a Parlauiient heM on Nbvnnlier tbt 
firarth, in tbe first year of his reign» cahsed hrni, though then aetrl^ 
abty years of sige, to be attainted, whh Aubrey^ his eldest soo^ iod 
afterwards, i«ith several others, to be beheaded on Tower ^A 
John, bis second son, immediately took the title tff Eait af Oth 
Ibrd; %M seems, during the first part of EdwaitHs nign» to halt 
been actually employed in the restoration of Ms deposed Savan||FI 
ai which object, be, with his firienday s o c c e ed ad for a Awt tlne^ 
and was re*instated in his estates and honovs. The auJMiiar 4^ 
tone of Edward having once more regained the aaccndaocyv ^ 
Earl, after Ibe decisive battle of Baraet, fiad mto Fraolb^, whsaos 
returning in a short time whh a small Atce, he satpriasd Sn* M^ 
chad's Mount, in Cornwall, but was soon obifNHo yieM b i i asrlf 
a prisoner, and was sent by the Kmg to the Castle of Hamaie^ 
in Picardy, where he was closely confined for about twelve 
years; but at length escaped, according to some accounts^ thraugh 
an intimacy with the wife of his keeper. In the MMn tkaa^ Ua 

- - amph 



&SSEX. 869 

Ample estates were confiKated ; and, id tbe £r8t year of Richard 
the Third, this Castle, lordship, and manor, ^<ere granUd for 
life to Sir Thomas Montgomery ; who, however, did not enjoy it 
any considerable time, as, on the accession of Hepry the Seventh, 
after the victory at Bosworth, the act of attainder was repealed, 
and all the Earl's estates and honors restored to him. No one, 
iadeed, contributed more to raise the Earl of Richmond to the 
throne of England than this nobleman : for, on his escape from 
the Castle of Hammes, he joined the E;irrs adherents, accompa- 
nied him to England, and commanded the vanguard of his army 
with the greatest zeal and effect. 

" This John de Vere, thirteenth Elarl of Oxford, when unen- 
gaged in the affairs of his Soveriegu, (for he wus his principal ser- 
vant both for war and peace,*) seems to have passed much of his 
time at this Castle. He appears to have been a wise, magnificent, 
learned and religious man ; f and to have lived in great splendor, 
and much hospitality. These qualities seem to have drawn the 
jealousy and resentment of his master upon this old and faithful 
servant, and that at a moment more proper to extinguish, than 
to actuate the sordid passions ; at the close of a sumptuous and 
expensive entertainitieut given by the Eurl to Henry the Seventh 
at this castle. I'he story is authenticated by our best historians/'^ 
and is thus related by Lord Verulan. 

** At the King's goin^ away, the Earl's servants stood in their 
hvery coats and cognizances, ranged on both sides, and made a 
lane. The King called the Earl, and said unto hun, ' My Lord, 
I have heard much of your hospitality, but! see it is greater than 
the speech : these handsome gentlemen aud yeomen^ wiiicb I see 
on both sides of me, are sure your menial servants/ The Earl 
smiled, and answered, ' It may pl^aue v(>ur Grace, that were not 
for mine ease : they are most of them my retainers, that are come 

Vol. V. A a to 

• Sir Fraijcia Bacon's Uist. of Hcnrj the Seventli, p. 221. 

♦ ColUiuU Noble Families, p. 25?. 
} Lttttr of Loiis Maj«u4ie, Esq. Vetusta Munimcutt. 



870 sssEX. 

to do nae service at such a thne as tbtt, and chiefly to see year 
Grace/ The King startled a little, and said, * By my faith, roy 
Lord, I thank you for your good cheer ; but I may not have my 
laws broken in ray sight. My altornfiy must speak with you i 
End it is reported that the Earl compounded for no less than 
15,000 marks for this offence against the Statute of Retainers." 

This Ear! survived his ungenerous Sovereign about four years. 
On his death, his body was conveyed from the Castle to the parish 
church, where it lay in state previous to it$ interment at Coloc 
Priory. The great and expensive parade attending the fuuerals 
of noblemen in that age, may be estimated from a document pre- 
served in the British Museum,* and which contains these words ; 
" there were given of black gounes the number of nine hundred 
and more ; and so was my Lord brought to the parish church, and 
laid in the quire." 

Edward, the seventeenth Earl, was noted for bis unbounded 
profusion, which occasioned him to alienate many of the family 
estates. His first wife was Ann, eldest daughter of the Lord 
Chancellor Burleigh, by whom he had three daughters ; his se- 
cond, Ehzabeth, daughter of Thomas Trentham, Gent of Roo- 
cester, in StaflTordsbire, and Maid of Honor to Queen Elieabeth : 
by this lady he had one son, named Henry, who succeeded to the 
earldom. Among the other estates which the extravagance of 
Earl Edward obliged him to part with, was the Honour and Cas- 
tle of Hedingham, which was secured by Lord Burleigh, most 
probably wiih a view of providing for his three grand-daughters, 
previous to tliis, however, the Castle was dilapidated, and most 
of the buildings raeed to the ground, under the Earl's warrant 
The Parksjwhich were three jn number, and contained several 
hundred acres, were parted, and let to several tenants in allot- 
ments. 

Henry, the Eighteenth Earl, was, by the prudence of his mo- 
ther, and the assistance of her opulent relations, restored to this 
estate bv agreement with his three half-sisters, and their husbands. 

Oa 

•narl.MSS.p.295. f. 15a. 



IslEX. 871 

Oq-Us destb, without iflsae, in l626, it was held injointare b^ 
bis Couotess Diana, second daughter of William, second Earl of 
Exeter, after whose decease, in 1655, it passed into his mother's 
finiii) I \vtiu rtuinici u lAl the year 1713, when it was purchased 
bj Robert A&hhursl, Esq. second son of Sir William Asbburst, 
Kilt Lord M^yoT of Luctdon in 1 693. The Asbbursts were suc- 
Ciedtjd by Sir Henry Iluughton, of Houghton Tower, in Lanca- 
sMre; but xhc present pcjssessor is Lewis Majendie, Esq, who in* 
hibitjt til*- Qiiinsjun erected in the beginning of the last century. 

TWINSTEAD HAL!., late the seat of the learned James Mar- 
mi, LL, J)* sirinris on a commanding eminence near the village 
Cfmrcb. It h B spacious and handsome building, encircled by 
flmrtint gardt^ns, inclosed by a deep moat, over which is a light 
bridge^ fe»diug into Lhe adjoining meadows. 
In itii^cbiincel of ihe miail and ancient Church at M IDDLETON, 
OH m bluck marble &kb, is a male figure, the body and other 
|iftrtf iculfitured on ihta slab; but the head inlaid, and of white 
narblc* Around it are various ornaments; and on the verge oC 
Ibe stone the rcmaiue uf the following inscription : 

ikaQc ^aCatjTia^uiu^ jltiUiUton. qui Mil Knns liomiii« 

OELCflAMF IIALf.f situated in the parish of Belch amp- 
W4lti?r, it Ibe seat and firoperly of the Rev. Samuel Raymond, 
ijiaa^i^i wbpat^ aiicefilora came into Eaglaqd with Wiiliaui the Con- 
qu«rorT iind whose family have re&ided in this neighbourhood for 
tilt ki^t 3^^ y^ara* 'ihi- present mansion is a substantial and 
cofniuar f J ru^^ building, liavingits principal, or south-eastern front, 
dDms^uit <! mostly of ibrei^u bricks. It stands in a pleasant lawn, 
ilt^lpg locally lo a akn^ill nver, that (lows \vi;hin about 200y;irds 
of Uxe Uimu 1'^ tlie st^jth is an extensive apd spacious terrace, 
ikin^d wjib Jofty Ui^es, and terminated at one end by an ancient 
hdiLdrug, onuiuKnitcd ^itli 3ome painted gl,a$s. At the other end 
is a lofty mount, having another ornamental buildrigon itssum- 
Aa2 ni\^ 



mit« This mansion contftins a collection oTpiGturet by i 
the most esteemed masters ; among them are the following: 

A large picture, containing three subjects^ by old Teniert* 
Christ appearing to the Virgin Mary, in the character of a Gar- 
dener ; Rubens. A Landscape, with an approaching Storm; Jacob 
Buysdael. Two pictures, representing Architectural Ruins ; Vi* 
viani. Christ in the Garden ; Ben. Luti ; a very fine specimen of 
this artist's talents. A Landscape ; Both. Another, finely paint- 
ed ; by Wynants ; and a third, by Waterloo, an artist famous for 
his etchings of trees, &c. The Wise Men's Offering, an altar- 
piece; Albert Durer. This picture, with a large gun, some pis- 
tols, and powder-flasks, inlaid with gold and ivory, were presented 
to the Raymonds, by Sir William Harris, a sea-ufficer, who took 
them, with other property, on the defeat of the Spanish Armada, 
in 1588. A three-quarler portrait of Si a Hugh Middlbtok, 
Bart, in whose public spirit the New River originated, and was 
brought to London; another of hi^ Wife: both by Cornelius 
Jansen. Sir Hugh resided al Goldingham Hall, in the parish of 
Bulmer, adjoining Belchamp. 

The CAwrcA of Belchump- Walter, dedicated to the Virgin Mary, 
is lofty, and neat ; and contains an orchestra, with a fine toned 
organ. Here is a large vault btlongiug to the Raymond family, 
to whom there is a fine marble monument in the chancel. A 
Sunday School, for fifty poor children, has been established in 
ibis village by Mrs. Raymond. 

InBORLKY Church is a sphndid monument to the memory of 
several individuals of the Waldegrave family, who have held the 
manor from the time of Henry the Eighth. This monument b 
fourteen feet in height, nine in Jength, and hvt broad. Under 
a rich cornice, supported by pillais s>f the Corinthian Order, are 
incumbent figures of Sir Eowarj) Waldegravb, and hit 
Lady Frances ; the former of whom died in 1 56 1 ; the latter 
in J 599. Near them are the effigies of their ^ve children, two 
aons and three daughters; at the top of the canopy are the family 
arms ; and round the edge a Latin inscription. The whole is gilt 
and painted, and inclosed by iron palisadoes. 

LISTON 



B89EX. 8f3 

LISTON HALL, ihe seat of Campbell, Esq. re a hand. 

tome modern building, with wings connected by piazzas. It ia 
very pleasantly situated on the bordei^ of the county near the 
river Stour, and encompassed by h small park and gardens. This 
manor was given by William the Conqueror to Hugh de Gurnai^ 
one of bis officers, who afterwards became a monk in the Abbey 
of Bee, in Normandy. From this family it passed to the De Lu- 
Um9y who settled here either in the reign of Henry the Second, or 
King Jobo ; and held the lands here by the sergeantry of " mak- 
ing and placing five wafers before the King, as he sits at dinner oa 
the day of bis Coronation.'*''^ By the same tenure, with but Httle 
▼artftdoQ, the manor of Liston was held for nearly five centuries; 
Ibough during tbat period it passed through various families. 

GREAT YELDHAM is an extensive parish, but thinly hihabi- 
ted : the lands are well cultivated, and divided into arable pas« 
tore* and meadow, interspersed with flourishing plantations of 
^opt. Here is also some fine timber ; and a remarkable ancient 
oakp which stands near tlie Church, the trunk of which is upwarda 
of nine yards iu circumference. The Church \% a strong stona 
buiiding, supposed to have been erected by subscription of the 
Deigbboaring gentry, about the time of Edward the Third : it it 
pleasantly situated on a hill, and is ornamented with a ne^t altar- 
)>iece, and tome painted glass, put up about fifty years agd. Hera 
it a handsome mouament to the memory of the Dowager Laciy 
Viscountess Batem an, daughter to Charles, Earl of Sunderland, 
who died in February, 1769. Within a little distance of the 
Church it a house, anciently used for dressing a dinner when any 
of the poor inhabitants were married ; but now converted into a 
SckaoL 

latteycar 1800, a skeleton, and various Roman antiquities, 
were disoovered by a laborer in a field belonging to Bradfield 
Farm, in the paitshof Tofpbsfield, adjoining Great Yeld- 
ham OQ the north. Among tliem was a metal vase, or Prxjcri" 
t, with a handle ; a metal Patera, bossed in tlie centre ; three 
A a 3 elegant 

" Morsnt'i Eiicx, Vol. IL p. 3S0. 



374 ESSEX. 

elegftnt litfle cups, of redSamian ware ; a Roman coin, much (le- 
faced; and a sword-blade, greatly corroded, and foand lying across 
the breast of the skeleton.* 

Northward from Toppesfield, are the contiguous parishes of 
RIDGWELL, BIRDBROOK,andSTURMERE, through which 
a Roman military Way is mentioned, by Dr. Salmon, to have 
passed from Colchester towards Camboricum, An account ci 
this road, and the anti<|uities discovered on either side, was com- 
diuiiicated to the Society of Antiquaries, in February, I80I,by 
Thomas Walford, Esq. of Whitley ; from whose letter the follow- 
ing particulars arc derived. 

Ridgwell appears to have obtained its name from the Rwnstt 
ridgeway, a road, which passes near it, on the 8outt>-west ; ami 
which, in the jrear 1790, was very visible ; but can now hardly be 
traced, from the effects of cultivation. Nearly midway, betweeA 
the load and the village, in a field, called Great Ashley, manjr 
Roman antiquities, as coins, tiles, and tessera?, were found previ- 
ous to the year 1 79* 5 when it was first discovered to have been tht 
site ofaRoMAir Villa; and a very accurate plan of that paft 
which had not been previously disturbed, was taken by Mr. 
Walford.t 

• The entrance of this villa was on the south-west firo0t» 
into a t)arrow porticusy between sixty and seventy feet long, and 
only nine wide, wifh a tesselated pavement, nearly entire ; the 
tessers one inch long, three quarters of an inch wide, and half an 
inch thick, all entire : in the? centre were six squares of laigC 
brick, of which five only were perfect; part of the sixth having 
been disturbed by the plough. These squares, which were ex- 
actly three feet every way, and seven distant from each other, 
were probably the foandations of pillars, which formed a Colon- 
nade to support the roof of the porticos. The tiles, or bricks, 
in these squares, were sixteen inches long, twelve inchetsfidcat 
one end, thirteen at the olbej*, and three quarters O^n inch 
thick; the edges, which were turned up an inch and a qrfrtar 
high, ware thicker than the other part of the tile. These were 

placed 

♦ Arch«oloo'. XIV. t Ibid. Vol. XIV. 



B^BX. 37S 

placed with their edges downward, upon a thick be of sand ; and 
upon them was laid a considerable coat of mortar, made with 
pounded bricka and lime, to cement the bricks which lay above^ 
and which were fifteen inches and a half long, eleven inches wide, 
and about one inch and a half Uiick : six of these, with a small 
piece or two to fill up (he cenlre, formed the square of three feet, 
as above mentioned . 

** From the porltcus, an ascent of one step led into the Cryp' 
t^^partku$^* which was paved with red tesserae, in strait linef^ 
but lar|;er than the former. This appears to have led to the prin- 
cipal room, as a great number of very small tessera?, of various 
eolors, were found, and some pieces with eight or ten, that had 
DOi been sef^rated, that had certainly formed part of a beautiful 
pavement, formerly broken up by the plough. The pavement 
which remained of the crypto-porticus, was but four inches below. 
tiMt forcow ; therefore, supposing a step out of this into the prin« 
dpal room, the floor would have been even with the present sun* 
iice; aod, consequeotiy, must long ago have been disturbed, 
Tbat there were rooms beyond this, is ascertained by the remains 
of a wall, extend'mg ten feet further than any other part; and 
further proved by numerous pieces of wall, painted in stripes of 
ye)k>w, blue, purple» brown, crimson, and green ; which had 
tvidently fallen irom . the aides of the rooms where they wera 

foaad/' 

One of the rooms appears to have communicated with an Hypo* 
cwff, recorded to have been met with here about fifty years 
tgo ; and most probably was heated by it, as a very perfect flue 
wit remaining, which extended sixteen feet tight inches under 
the floor ; the arch was turned with large bricks, abutting upoa 
nibble stone ; the sides and bottom were of the same ; its 
width was twenty-oue inches, and its height thirty-three inches 
dear; the mouth of the flue was covered with a large stone; and 
Dear it were found a considerable quantity of wood, coals, part of 

A a 4 a hand-mill^ 

•The Crypto^ porlicus wa» an inclosed or private porticos, so called to dU- 
tingatih it from the porlicus whoM roof was lopporte J by pillars. CosUl'w VU^ 



37& BSSK1& 

a band-fttiU, two pieces of stag's horn, two brass fibulae, and se« 
veral copper coins. 

Amoiig the other remains found in different parts of the roint' 
were many fragments of atera^ and pots of various kinds of Ro* 
man earthen-ware ; many fragments of glass, two^eigbts of an inch 
thick, " which had evidently beerfused in the windows ; one piece 
perfectly flat, \«ith a round edge, formed to fit a groove ;" a grea^ 
number of oruameoted tiles ; and the fragment of another ti]e» 
with the figures^' twice repeated; two ivory styles; an ol>loDg 
brass fibulae ; a fibulae, nearly circular, with ornamented ends ; » 
silver coin of Doniitian, infioe preservation ; another of Oiacilia 
Severa, very perft ct ; copper coins of Nero, Vespasian, Donii- 
tian, Trajan, Carausius, Constantine the Great, Constantine, Jun« 
Theodosius, and Arcadius ; and a *' small British coin of gold, si* 
miliar to figure 55 m Camden's Britannia, page £5." 

In Birdbrook Parish, on different sides of the turnpike-road 
which appears to have been formed for a considerable space oo 
the Roman Military Wayr various ikeletOM have been found. 
With' some of them urns were discovered ; but the greater number 
had neither urns, nor any other antiquity. The ground where 
they lay, is quite level, having no traces whatever of tuznuli ; 
thus verifying the observation ot Strutt, ** that not many Roman 
antiquities have been found in barrows, but large quantities 
in the more common burying*grounds, near their stations; 
and without their cities, or on the sides of then great roads; and 
these are most frequently discovered without the least vestige, or 
mark, of any kind of funeral monuments/'^ Two skeletons, 
fouud with two urns, in Oxley ritkl, l)eloaging to Cbadwell Faroi» 
lay in a very singular manner; being " orra in arm, each dasp» 
ing the same urn ; and the right leg of one laid across the left leg 
of the other, the lower uro being placed between their hips." la 
the year 1792, at a little distance from the tumpike-road, a sin- 
gle skeleton was found, with two urns ; the one placed lengthways 
between the feet ; the other elasped by the left arm, with the 

B)gutli 

• Antiquilier, Vol. 1. f. 6%, 
S 



moQlb downwards: one of the urns was broken with tbe pick-axe 
the other was preserved by Mr. Walford : it is about seven incfae* 
high, and three wide at the top, with the sides indented. A small 
Quantity of red earth was inclosed within these^ similar to the soil 
in wliich they were deposited. 

A Utile to the north-west of Watsoe Bridge, which divides i\m 
parishes of Birdbrook and Steepkf-Bumstead, and immediatelj 
above the river Stour, is the site of a Roman Camp^ or stalioa ; 
part of the west vallum is still remaining; the north-west end was 
destroyed so lately as the year 1793. Many stone fouodationi 
of buildings have been dug up here ; and several skeletons, with 
urns and coins, discovered in a neighbouring freld : in adeki also, 
OD the opposite side of the Stour, many Romaln coins have been 
found. 

In Ford Meadow, about a furlong from the camp, a worknmo, 
stubbing gravel in February, 1793, discovered a small unr, co- 
vered with part of a Roman brick, containing one gold, and twen- 
ty-nine silver coins^ of the Lower Empire, in very fine preserva- 
tion. The gold coin was of the Emperor Honorius : the others 
were of Honorius, Arcadius, Magnus Maximus, Gratian, V^a- 
leotinian the Elder, and Julian. The urn was of light brown 
earth, slightly baked. About one mile and a half westward from 
Ford Meadow is a large tumulus.^ 

WHITLEY, in the parish of Birdbrook, and nearly centrically 
situated between Birdbrook, Bathome End, and Ridgwell, is the 
property and resideiKe of Thomas Walfurd, Esq. who has greatly 
embellished and improved the estate by various plantations, and 
laying out the grounds in an ornamental style. A screen of fin 
and forest trees, combined with sycamort^s, chesnuts, larches, &c. 
mtettds from the house to a small hill, planted with cedars, cy- 
presses^ 

* Some other anttqnitios, and, in particular, a number of British coins, art 
■Mottaned bj Mr. Walford, to have been found to the right of thetMilitarj 
Waj. beyond Haverhill, in Suffolk ; these will be mentioned in our de* 
scription of that county. In addition to the particulars coniniunicBted to the 
Soctctj of Antiquaries by Mr. W. that gentleman is now preparing for publi' 
cation, a History and Descriptton,tritl) rintcs, of (he Roman Antiquities fouafl 
ia Ibe Parish and Viciriiy of Birdtifo*-^* 



S7S iMEm 

presses^ and bureb. The prospeci hence^ comoiaiMiiag scMne 
ine scenery, is ediivened by the grand embattled Castle of He- 
dbghuoi, and the Churches of Teppesfield» Ridgwell^ and Bird* 
brook. At a short dbtance is a wooi of about seven acres, laid 
out in pleasant walks, and ornamented with various seats and 
buildings. One of them, called ttie HermUnge^ is most agreeably 
situated among the ttees, and consists of three circular apartroenti* 
It is built with rag-stone, timber, and bark of trees : the whok» 
•owred with thatch, paved with pebbles and tiles, and rasticated 
with moss, &c. Several other rural and ornamental scenes and 
objects are containedin these grounds. The flower giu'den com* 
prises « rich and choice assemblage of exotic shrubs and dowers, 
besides a*collection of rare English plants : this ^x>t is decorated 
with a building, appropriately named the Tempie qf Fhra^ aixl a 
Summer-house, fancifully ornamented wit4) trellis-work. This 
estate was purchased, by Thomas Walfbrd, M. D. of FiBobioteidt 
(ancestor to the present proprietor,) in the year lG57» 

BIRDBROQK HALL, with other estates in this vicinity, it 
the property of Sir William Beaumauiice Rush, Knt, of Wimble*- 
dou, in Surry ; whose family purchased this manor^ in the ye«f 
17 16, of the Honorable Lord George Howard, who possessed il 
in right of his wife. 

The manor of BATHORNE HALL, Ibe property of Geor^s 
Pyke, Esq, was purchased of Charles, Lord Stanhope, by George 
Pyke, Esq. of Birdbrook, m the year 16*48. BATHORve Houas^ 
llie present residence of the above gentleman, was erected in l66^ 
but was modernized, atid much improved, in the year 1801. U 
stands in a large park, partly disposed into pleasure grounds. 

HARSTED HALL, a reputed manor in Birdbrook Parish, it 
distinguished as containing some of llie finest oaks in the whuia 
county. 

STURMERE derives its name from its vicinity to a Mere fomed 
by the rivor Stour, and though now only an obscure villsge, was 
formerly of great extent and consequence, and is said to have 
extendi.'d into both Sutlblk and Cambridgeshire. Even the towo 
of Haverhill, in the former county, was once a hamlet to Stur* 
mere ; and the latter is still '' rated acd assessed to the laud-tax 

by 



hy t warrant directed to two of its infaabitants to assess SturaieM 
with its liamlcts Haverhill «M Ketton/'* 

BOWEft HALL, in the parish of Bumstead-St^cijile, tvas, kr 

the reign of Edward the Third, the property of Sir John Knivet, 

Chief Justice of the King's Bench, and Lord Chancellor. It was a(^ 

^rwards alienated: and in the year 1455, came into thepo s s ess ioa 

of tlie Bendish family, which for a long period held lands in tlus pa* 

rish. Sir Tuovas B«kdI8H, Bart, whowas bom here, wasadis^ 

txngoished partizab of Charles the First's, in whose cause be was 

some time imprisoned by ttie Honse of Commons; but after fats 

liberation, obtained so much renown for his integrity and taientfl^ 

that, in l647, he was sent, by connivaoce of the Parliameut, a» 

Ambassador Extraordinary to the Ottoman Porte. He continued 

in Torkey fifteen yearB, transacting the business of his embassf 

with great address and spirit ; and ttiougfa letters for his recak 

were sent to Constantinople by the Protector, Oliver, be refused 

to obey the mandate, or to resign his commission, witfaout tb« 

King's order. On this refusal, he was impeached for high trea* 

son; and probably only escaped death, by his determination not 

to return to England while the enemies of royalty bdd supreme 

power. After the Restoration he was recalled by Cliarles the 

Second, with many promises of reward for his services ; tlion^ 

they do not appear to have been fulfilled. He died here, in his 

own mansion, in l674, «id was buried in the Chmrch^ where many 

others of his family lie intombed ; and some of whom are comtne* 

morated by elaborate monuments. Since the death of Sir Henry 

Bendish, Bart the last male heir, wtK>died in i7l7« this estate 

hns become the property of the ^ndenons. The mansion is a 

handsome and convenit.nt building, pleasantly situated in a small 

park, with contiguous gardens. 

HEMSTED, or HEMPSTEAD, a reputed chapelry to Great 
BiTDpford, contains two manors ; one of which called IJemsted 
Hall, was purchased, in the reign of Charles the First, bj the 
<^ctel/rated physician, Dr. William Harvey, or his brother Eliab 

Harvey, 

♦ Morint'* K«cr,A'ol U. p. S47. 



Uanrey^ Esq* The burial-place of ibis family is ibe vault be* 
neatb Hemsted Cbapel, where several monumeQU are erected to 
their memory. Among them is ooe for Dr. Hart ey, dbplay- 
ilig bis busty and iuscribed with a Latiu epitaph, recording hit 
iCscovery of the circulation of the blood, and other circumstances 
connected with his professional knowledge. He died in the year 
1657 1 at the age of eighty* 

lu the parish of Ash don, separated from Bartlow, in Cam- 
bridgeshire, only by a small rivulet, are four large contiguous 
B^rotof, called the Bart LOW Hills, from their situation be- 
ing not very distant from Bartlow Church. These are vulgarly 
legarded as the tumuli raised over the slain in the battle fought 
between Edmund Ironside^ and the Danish King, Canute, in the 
jear I016; but as this tradition is not supported by any historical 
authority, it cannot be considered as deserving of credit. Indeed, 
the testimony of ancient authors is decisively against it, as from 
them it appears that Canute,after plundering Mercia, was retreat* 
tag '^ to his ships, when attacked by Edmund, and that the bat* 
tie was fought at Assandune.'^ Ic is therefore evident, that the 
place of action should be sought for rather in the vicinity of the 
•ea, than at the northern extremity of the county. Mr. Gougbi 
from the similarity of the name, and other circumstances, placet 
it at Amwgdon^^ in Rochford hundred, and that with every ap- 
poarance of probability, as will be seen in our description of that 
pari of the county. Camden, speaking of the Bartlow Hills, 
says, he was informed, that, " Tn digging down a 6flh and sixth, 
tome time since, they found three stone coffins with broken hu- 
man boues in them ;** and Ilollinslied affirms, " that two bodies 
were found in one stone coffin, one lying with the bead towards 
tha feet of the other."f On this evidence, Mr. Gough obscr\'et, 
we do not find the use of stone coffins among the northern 
nations in their Pagan ;state, and the Danes were not converted 
till long after the time the battle was fought. The real occasioa 
of raising these barrows, must, therefore, be regarded as at pre- 
sent unknown. ilADSTOCK, 

• ht\um\U, Vol. IT. p. 51. Cough's £dit. t Ibid. p. 46. 



HADSTOCK, now a small mean village, nearly adj&mtng 
Citrobndgeshire, bad formerly the privilege of a market^ which ap-^ 
pears lo have been procured, in the year 1337, through Ihe in- 
terest of the Bishop of Ely, who held the manor of the King, oi 
impitfj as part of his banuiy. The Church consists of a nave ani 
transepts, with a small tower rising from the intersection in tb« 
centre. Dr. Salmon, and others, suppose the Ikcfting Pf'ay to 
have passed near this village from Royston. 

GREAT CHESTERFORD is a small but ancient village, si- 
taated on the east side of tlie river Granta, which, in this part of 
its course, divides Essex from Cambiidgcshire, ard is by som« 
authors erroneously named the Cam. This was the undoubted 
site of a Roman station^ as is evident from the numerous Roman 
coins, uras, and other antiquities, that have been dog up here^ 
as well as from the ren^ins of the encampment itself, which, till 
vnthin these few years, might be completely traced, and is yet 
visible in several places. Its name, however, like those of all tbe 
other stations in this county and neighbourhood, has been much 
contested. Dr. Stukely, and Baxter, make it the Camboricvm 
of Antoninus ; and Horsley calls it Iciani ; a station which Dr. 
Salmon, on very insufficient grounds, refers to Colchester, the site 
of the real Camulodunum, which this author places at Castle 
Camps, in Cambridgeshire. Mr. Gough seems to incline to tbe 
opinions of tliose who make Chesterford tbe ancient Camboricam. 
Dr. Stukeley, who visited this station in the year 1719, and 
deicribed it in his lliuerarium Curiosum, says, that, *' tbe Ibuu- 
dation of the walls was very apparent, quite round, though level 
with the ground, including a space of about fifty acres. Great 
part of it serves for a causeway to tbe public Cambridge road 
from London ; tbe Crown lun is built upon it ; the rest is made 
use of by the countrymen for their carriages to aud fro in the 
£elds ; the earth is still high on both sides of it. in one part, 
where tliey have been long digging it up for materials in building, 
aud mending the roads, I measured its breadth twelve feet, and 
remarked its composition of rag*stone, flints, and Roman bricks, 
bound together by a strong cemeot. Tbe bricks are fourteen 

inchea 



iuebe^ and a half long, ami nine broad. I remarked, thai ihfi city 
was just 1000 Romau feet in breadth, aixi that the breadlbAo 
tfke leBgth was as three to five, of the same proportion as they 
sake their bricks ; it is pointed obliquely to tlie cardinal points; 
italength from north-webt to south west, whereby wholesomeneis 
is so well providad for, according to the direction of Vitruvius.'' 

The most numerous of the coins discovered here, are those of 
Caligula, Trajan, Constantine, and Constantitis ; though many 
«f the early, as well as the later Emperors, have been also dug 
tip, and a large parcel of very fine ones ivas found here in a pot 
» 1769.* A broose bust, various fibula, with brass and gold 
uteiibils and instruments, have likewise been met with ; as well 
•6 many urns and entire skeletons; *' and a small uro also of red 
•artb, coutainitig several written scrolls of parohmeot, but dis« 
persed before any account or explanation could be obtaiaedi 
A stone trough, the only one of the kind, perhaps, in England^ 
^scovered here, and some time used for water at a smith's forg^ 
was in the hands of the late Dr. ,Gower, of Chelmsford, who siip« 
posed it to be a receptacle of ashes, of the kind called, liy Moniv 
ibucon, and others, ^uitlorium. It is a half octagon, with aflat 
-back, about three feet long, and about a foot or eighteen inches 
deep; in four compartments are reliefs of human figures down ta 
"the waists, in tolerable preservation. That in the middle, which 
seems older than the others, has nothing in its hands ; Uiat to the 
light holds a kind of patera with a handle ; one to the left, in a 
foludamcntuju, has a singular weapon, like a trident, with a bar 
jK:ross the top, or perhaps a vexillum ; the other, but half a fi- 
gure holds a spear. These may represent one |)erson in different 
characters, or a family."t Besides the station itself, which Dr. 
Salmon, in his Antiquities of Essex, states as being a mile in com- 
pass, a smaller camp may be traced near the Church ; and seve- 
ral 

• Gougli'i Additions to the Britanuia, Vol. 11. p. 6*2. 

t Gougb** Additions, &c. Vol. II, p. 6f, Mr. Horslcj, who ditcoTcred 
thU trough in a mill at Cbeiterford, had it wgrsvc^, but terj wretched^, for 
the Britannia Roaiaaa. 



•MIX. S83 

ral others have been noticed as reraainiog within the circuit of « 
few miles. 

In the reign of Edward the Confessor, this manor was the pro- 
perty of Earl Edgar ; but at the time of the Domesday Survey, 
it belonged to the King, and had the privileges of a royal demesne* 
It was afterwards possessed by several noble famihes; and in I502f 
glranted by Maurice, brother to William, Marquis of Berkley, 
and Isabel, his wife, to the Abbey of St. Peter's, ai Westminster; 
but, on the Dissolution, Henry the Eighth bestowed it on the 
Lord Chancellor Audley, from whom it has passed to the present 
Lord Braybrooke. 

The Churchy dedicated to All Saints, is a large building, an«l 
had a chantry founded in it by William Hoideu, Gent, under ii« 
cence granted by Henry the Eighth r its annual revenues amount* 
ed to 91. 9s. 7d. In the certificate of the chantry lands. Great 
Ciiesterford is called ** a great towne, and populous, having in yt 
to the number of 500 houseling people, and more/' Morant also 
affirms, that it had formerly a market. The inhabitants of the 
parish, as enumerated under the Late act, amounted to 60O ; the 
booses to 128. " The many Roman roads," observes Mr. Gougfa, 
^ that still retain their name, or ridge, about this ancient station, 
deserve to be accurately traced.*' 

WALDEN, OR SAFFRON-WALDEN, 

Is a large, straggling town, deriving i^s name, Walden, from 
the Saxon words WeM and Den, signifying Jl^oody Hill; and the 
term Sqffron^^ from the great quantities of that planLformerly cul- 
tivated in its vicinity; but the cultivation of ^hitjh round (his spot 
has long been abandoned, its situation is pecuHar; and Dr, 
Stukeley, who, without sufficient authority, conjecture sit to have 
been the site of a Roman station, calls it *^ the xwoti beautiful be 
ever beheld.'' A narrow tongue of land, he continues, " shoots 

itself 

* Saffron if said ta ha^e been first brought into England, and first growu ia 
£(tex and Catabridgcshire, in the reign of l:^ward the Third. 



tt4 ESSEX. 

kself out like a promontory^ eocompaased with a valley in tiie 
form of a horse-sboey inclosed by distaDt and most delightful hills. 
On the bottom of the tongue stand the ruins of a castle ; and on 
the top, or extremity, the Church, round which, on the side of the 
hill, and in the valley, is the town built; so that the bottom of the 
Church b as high as the town^ and seen above the tops of the 
bouses.*** 

At the period of the Doomsday Survey, Waldcn was one oflhe 
namerous lordships possessed by Geoffrey de Mangaville, a Nor- 
man Chief, who accompanied the Conqueror into England, and 
whose services were rewarded with 1 1 8 lordships, of which forty 
were in this county. This nobleman founded a Ca$t/e here, nnd, 
according to the expression of Camden, " first gave life to the 
place," which afterwards became the head of the barony and ho- 
nor of Mandeville. This Castle occupied the highest part of the 
town, and, from the remaining fragments, appears to have been of 
great strength; the walls having been composed of small ftiotv 
4K>und together by a very strong cement. Geoffrey, grandson of 
the above, was a man of great personal bravery; a quality whichf 
in his turbulent age, was of the first necessity. King Stephen made 
him Keeper of the Tower of London, and created him Earl of 
Essex ; probably with a view of retaining him firmly in bis inte- 
rest ; but the more advantageous offers of the Empress Maud al- 
lured him to her party. Besides very ample grants of land, she 
constituted him Hereditary Sheiiffof London, and of the shires of 
Middlesex,* Hertford, and Essex I she confirmed to bim the pos- 
session of all his forts and castles ; and gave him liberty to retain 
and fortify the Tower of London at his pleasure. She also granted 
liim liberty to remove the market from the neighbouring town of 
AVtrporf, to his Castle at fValden^ thereto hold it twice weekly, 
on Thursday and Sunday ; with the right of all tolls, customs, &c. 
Stephen being privately informed of the defection of the Earl, 
caused him to be arrested at St. Alban's in 1 143 ; and, before he 
could obtain bis liberty, he was obliged to surrender the govern- 
ment 

♦ Letter to Roger Gale, Etq. Galc't Letters^ p. 119. 



uitJb S8S 

ment of the Tower, together with his own castles of Waldeti and 
Plesby, to the King. Inflamed by veogeaoce fpr this treatmentt 
with a band of desperate partisansy he ravaged the demesnes of 
the Sovereign, and his adherents, without mercy ; ^ut was at 
length shot by an arrow (A. D. 1 ]4-4> wliile besieging the Castle 
of Borwell,* in Cambridgeshire, when under sentence of ex* 
commonication for having plundered the Abbey of Ramsey, in 
Hontingd onshire.f 

Besides the growing importance obtained by this town through 
the removal of the market from Newport, its consequence was 
further advanced by the founding of a Benedictine Priory here by 
the above Earl Geoffrey in the year 1 136 ; and which was con- 
verted into an Abbey in 1 190. J It stood on the spot now oc* 
copied by Andley House ; and was supported by considerable en*" 
dowments, arising from estates and churches in various counties. 
At the time of the general suppression, its possessions were, ac- 

Vol. V. B b cordhig 

e Beaatiet, Vol. II> p. 149. 

f " Lying at the poiDt of death, ready to gire up his last gasp, diere came 
by certain Rnightt Templars, who laid upoD him the habit of their religious 
piolession, signed with a red croas ; and afterwards, when he was full dead, 
taking htm up with them, inclosed him in a leaden coffin* and hung him up 
€n a tree in the orchard in the Old Temple in London ; for, in a reverend aw« 
of the Church, they dnnt not bury him, because he died excommunicated ; to 
fearful in those days was the sentence of excommunication. A violent invadet 
be was of other mens* lands and possessions, and therefore justly incurred the 
world's censure, and this doom of the Church ; but I must leave bim, where 
baried, or where not, Ood knows/'. RegUter Book of WaUteH, quoted by 
Camden and Weever. The exconununicativa being afterwards taken off, he 
WAS prtvetely buried. 

X Among the eminent person! buried in the Abbe^f Omreh, were Geoffrey, 
tan of the Ibaider ; Humphrey de Bobun, fifth Earl of Essex ; bis son Hum^ 
|hiey, the sixth Earl's wife, with three of her sons, and a daughter ; the wife 
of John, seventh Earl : Humphrey, ohitli Earl, and his wife ] and Humphrey, 
tto of Thomas of Woodstock, Duke of Gloucester, and his wife. In the 
CU^C^Ifoauf were buried ihe hearts of the founder's second son, and of Wil- 
]isa the feortb Eatl ; together with the body of Beatrix de Say, the founder's 
•iitar, <huf;V%Qmnden, M H p. 6^ 



cordiDg to Speed* valued at 406L Ids. ild. perftonam; aod 
were granted, by Henry tbe £i|^tb» to the Lord CbgDcellor 
Audley» who Boon afterwards obtained licence to enUifB his parkf 
by inclosing 200 i&dditional acres. The grant included the manor 
of Walden, which has passed from tbe MagnaviUea to Geoffrey^ 
Fitz-Pien, who was girt with the sword of the earldom of Ease^ 
tbe day after tlie coronation of King John, in 1199- Ceofiriy» 
his son and successor, assumed the nameof Magnavillei butdy* 
ifig wiihoui iuue, in I2l6, his estates and trUe desc en ded to his 
brother William, who entailed them on bis sister Maud, wife of 
Humphrey deBobun, Earl of Hereford, and Lord High Contlar 
ble of England ; one of whose successors had licence to embattle 
bis manor-house at Walden in 13^7 • The youngest daughter mi 
co-heir to the last of the De Bohuns, married Henry, Earl of 
Derby, afterwards Henry the Fourth, whose son, Henry the FiAb» 
inherited this manor as parcel of his mother's oioiety* From 
this period it appears to have remained in the Crown» till granted 
with the site and possessions of the Abbey, to the Lord Chancellor 
Audley. Margaret, only surviving dauf^ter, and sole heiress 
to this nobleman, was twice married: first to the Honorable Henry 
Dudley, slain at the battle of St. Quintin ; and secondly* to 
Thomas Howard, Duke of Nerfolk, who being attainted of trea- 
son, for attempting to release Mary, Queen of Soots, from im- 
prisonment, was beheaded, and his estates forfdted to the Crown. 
They were, however, restored in the following year, 1584, to his 
son, Thomas Howard, who was knighted for his bravery against 
the Spanish armada in 1588, made Knight of the Garter in 
1597» and created Earl of Suffolk in 1603. The honours la* 
vished on thb nobleman by Elisabeth, were increased by her suc- 
cessor, James, by whom, in I6l6, he was made Lord High Trea- 
suref, and appointed, with other Lords, to exercise tbe important 
office of Earl Marslml of England. It was -this nobleman who 
erecU^ the magnificent mansion, or palace, at Audiey Eod ; and 
gave it that name from respect to his maternal ancestor, the Lord 
Chancellor, from whom he derived the estate ; and whose de- 
scendant, Lord Braybrooke, is now proprietor. 

Walden 



Walden mm intde a corf)onite town, by Edward tbe Sixtb, ia 
the year 1549, at tbe iatercasskxi of Jofan Sostth, Esq. brother to 
tbe celebrated Sir Tbomas Smith. Its govemoieot was then vest* 
ed in twenty persoos, oat of whom a Treasorer^ or chief Officer, 
and two Cbaanberlaios, were anouallj cfaoseD. JThese officers' 
wer^ by charter of WilHaai the Tbitd, cbenged into a Mayors 
twelve Aidenaen, a Reoordsf , Town Clerk, 6tc. by wboni the po* 
koe ia BOW regulated. 

Ia Dttgdals's Baronage, a notMe tourmommt b reeorded as. 
having been held lierein the year 1 %5%f ^ in wUdi Roger de Lei* 
home enconntered with Emaold de Monteaei* a vnliant Kaighty 
and onliappily ran his lance into his throat under his helflnet, it 
wanting a collar ; whereupon Montenei fell frooi his bcMrse, and 
died instantly ; upon which it was supposed, by aooae, th^ he had 
left hM lance without a socket on purpose, in fetenge for a broken 
fag be bad reoeived from Montenei, in tilting with him at a for- 
awff tournament. 

The Churchy dedicated to tbe Holy Trinity, is a spacious and 
moat ^eg^ pile of English avcfaitectnTe, cfaieiy of the age of the 
Henries, &veath and Eighth ; in the reign of the latter of whom, 
the eaet cad, and part of the seulh aisle of the chancel^ warebvik 
by the Lord Chancellor Audley, who is internsd in the vault be* 
aeath, tog^ber with several of the Ea els and Cou^nTasaas ov 
SvvvoLB. Walpole ci^ls it one of tbe lightest and mottbeauti-^ 
fal parish churches in England. It consists of a nave, chancel, 
sad sideaisleSfWithanembattkd tower at thewestend. Several o( 
the windows are richly ornamented with mnllions and tracery; be- 
iweeD Uiosa in the nave are carved niebes for statues. This £sbria 
itts thoroughly repaired in the years 1 79 ^ ^ end 3, at the expenoe 
of little less thanSOOOL To this the late Lord Howard ccntriboted 
lOOOl. for repairing the roof of tbe nave, and about 18001. mora 
fcrthe repairs of tbe middle and south chanoats, bolh which, at 
that time« were his Lorctohip's property. Besides these magnifi- 
cent contributions, he was a most generous benefactor to the pa** 
ridi, bat particularly to the poor, to whose use he bequeathed. tbe 
iatercst of a suAcientsum to dotba twelve of each sex annually, 

Bb^ for 



Mt^ mtx: 

f(Mr ever. His LordAip died in May 1797» 8t Avdtey iMf 
end isboried with hisenoestore iatbe family vault ia tbisChurdi.' 
A bandaoine pew-gallery was erected for btm l>y Mr. Ivory, be- 
tween the nave aod chancel. The altar-piece 18 a painting by the 
Rev. Mr. Peters, cofned from Corregio. The monument for Lord 
Andley stands in the south aisle ; and under an ardi adjoining to 
the chancel, is a nmtUated epitaph to Uie memory of John I^eche, 
vicar of Uiis parish from the year 1489 to iS^lf and said to 
have built the church.* Many other monumental inscriptions 
Appear in different parts of this fabric, the height of which is I90 
leet, and the breadth ninety : the interior isparticolarly neat and 
uniform. 

At the south-west end of the town are some Aku- Hornet^ 
founded in the reign of Bdward the Sixth. Here is also a Frtt' 
School of ancient foundation, on which some additional endow- 
ments were bestowed by that Monarch, through the influence of 
Sia Thomas SiiiTH,t Secretary to Edward the Sixth, and 
Queen Elisabeth, who was a native of Walden, and is supposed 
to have been taught the rudiments of education at this School. 

At an oM house in this town is a carious relique of old English 
workmanship. " It consists of a large oaken beam, eight foet six 
inches in length, and one foot three inches in breadth at the cen- 
tre, "beautifeUy carved in relief with the folbwing devices. Hie 
-figure of a ton is cut in a scroll between the syllables mtd and 
PTL, and being read after them, makes up the word Myddylton^ 
probably the name of the person who once possessed the tniildin^ 
and upon the side of the vessel is a single letter, seemingly an n, 
to denofe his chnstian name 3 the date of theyear^ also, 1387, vk 
Arabian figures, is placed at two tranverse angles of the same 
letter. It n observabje, that all the'letters, figures, and the bolt 
of the ton, are formed of tbe twigs of ^ines stripped of their 
leaves*''! The number of inhabitants in this town, as returned 

under 

* Gough*s Camden, Vol. IL p. 61. 

t Bfiutif tj Vol. 11. p. 63. t See EngrsThig of thisBetOi pubUikcd by 

the Society of Aatiqntrtet in 1758. 



tnuL 389 

' the act of 180^^ was 3^81 ; that of houses 689. On the 
freen behind the Castle, a singular work is mentioned as existing, 
by Dr. Stukeley, called the Maze^ which he supposes to hdve been 
a British Cursns, or place of exercise for the soldiery. He de* 
scribes it as formed by a number of concentric circles, with four s 
outworks issuing from the four sides, all cut in the chalk. About 
half a mila from the Castle, on the western side, are the remains 
of an ancient encampment, of an oblong form, called PcU^Ditchet^ 
or Repel'DHckes. The south bank is 730 feet fong, twenty high, 
•and .fifty brortl at the base; and six or eight feet wide at top : 
the west bank is 588 feet long : both banks and ditches are ex- 
tremely bold, and well preserved. 

AUDLEYEND, or AUDLEY HOUSE, with its demesnes, 
contmued in the possession of the Eark of Suffolk, who derived 
it from the Lord Aiidley» as related* under Walden, till James, 
the third Earl, sold the house and park to Charles the Second for 
S0,000l. Great part of this sum remuned on mortgage ; and the 
hearth-tax* is said to have been pledged to the Earls of Suffolk as 
collateral security; but this tax being taken off after the Revolu- 
tkm, the premises are understood to have been restored to the fa- 
Biily for the value of the mortgage- Henry, the tenth Earl, dying 
without issue in the year 1745, the title devolved on Henry 
Bowes Howard, a descendant from Thomas, the first Esrl ; and 
the Essex estates, including tlie house, were some time in litiga* 
lioo between the late E^rl of Effingham, and the representatives 
of the two daughters of James, the third Earl, who made an act 
of settlement in their favor in the year J687* The present noble 
possessor, Richard Aldworth Nevill Griffin, Lord Braybrooke, 
obtained the inheritance, by the bequest of the late Lord Howard, 
in 1797 ; to whom, indeed, he was the nf arest relation by the 
fomala line,t 

Bb3 AuDtET 

• Mortnt*! Emoc, Yd. 11. p. 550. 

t LonI Braybrooke if Lard Licttfenaat of the county of Eftex; un office 
<W hu beeo conferred oo aetsnU of tko poMStiors of f bit maoii<m. 



890 Bsfsx. 

Aus^LtT Hoir«E it mtoattd io a finely wooded perit, at the 

distance of about one mile west from Saffrou Walden. The prer 

sent jpansioD, though a large and magnificent ttnieture* consists 

only of a siuall part of the original buildingi as it has suffered dif* 

(erent curtailments at various times. In its original and perfect 

statCt it was justly ranked among the mostsplendid and capacious 

mansions of this country ; and, if not snperiofi was nearly equal 

to the palaces of Hampton Court, Nonsuch, and Richmond.—* 

At the period of its erection* it was a prevailing fashion to boild 

large, rather than comfortable, or handsome, houses, and to aim 

at magniiudet in preference to beauty or etegance. Influenced 

by this sentiment, Thomas Howard, the first Earl of Suffblky 

determined to have *^ an immense pile of building," as Walpole 

observes ; and vast sums were expended in the erection and eon 

bcllishment of this structure. It is sud that this £arl sold an. 

estate, which was valued at 10,0001. a year, for the purpose of 

carrying on, and completing, these works; and that he wasas- 

sisted by ^* large contributions'' from his uncle, the Earl of Nor> 

thamptoiu A model* of the intended building was procured 

from Italy, which cost 5001. and the whole expence of erecting 

the house, is stated to amount to I90,000l.t It appears thai 

different architects, or builders, .were employed; as Walpole 

names twopenomofequ&l pretensions to this honor; JohnThorpet 

and Bernard Janson. The former, observes Walpole, *^ was a 

capital artist, who designed, or improved, most of the principal 

and palatial edifices erected in the reign$ of Elizabeth and James* 

From 

* At Ibe lime of erecting this baildlag, it was » commoa practice to hive 
ruadeU of houtes, instead of architectural p)ans, elevations, &c. Ou^ of ttiese 
working patterns waa made for the teniponir3r palace used by Hcnrj the Elighib, 
id the Champ de Drap d'Or, m France. A similar kind of model has also 
been made for a palace intended to be built at Richmond, which Mr. Gougb 
M^sv as designed by his present Majesty, and cost 7001. This is shewn at 
Hampton Court« with another designed for the late King. 

♦ »• I have heard my Lord Treasurer Suffolk once tell King James, that ta- 
sidtf and outside, m the foruirnrc, it coitbim t<M),<K)Ol. sterling.*' MS^ Kfitf 

' §fPhiUp Earl »/ Fembrcke, in hU copj; of Jint€$*i Stonthotge. 



ESSfiX. S9l 

From a Tolume of bis drawings, in the possession of the Earl of 
Warwick, it appears that he either designed, supervised, or pro- 
posed alterations to the buildings of Somerset House; Buckburst 
House, in Sussex ; Burleigh House ; Burleigh on the Hill ; Hol- 
land House, at Kensington; Ampthill House, Bedfordshire; 
Copped Hall ; Giddy Hall; and Audley Inn, in Essex." The 
taste of all these stately mansions, continues Walpole, " was that 
bastard kind which intervened between Gothic and Grecian archi- 
tecture ; or which, perhaps, was the style that had been invented 
lor the houses of the nobility, when, oa the settlement of the king- 
dom, after the termination of the quarrel between the Roses, they 
first ventured to abandon their fortified dungeons, and consult 
convenience and niagnitience." it is probable that the works at 
Audley End were executed under the direction and superintend 
dance of the noble Proprietor himself. When the mansion was 
completed, it consisted of various ranges of building, which sur- 
rounded two quadrangular courts. That to the west was very 
spacious, and was approached through a grand entrance gateway 
between four round towers. On the north and south sides were 
corridores, supported by columns of alabaster ; and on the east 
side was an entrance into the Great Hall. Passing through this, 
there was a smaller square court, three sides of which remain, 
and constitute the present mansion. In its perfect state, the en- 
tire pile appeared like a large college, with numerous turrets, cu- 
polas, and pinnacles. The rooms were large, inconvenient, and 
many of them unpleasant ; and to keep the whole in good repair, 
required an immense fortune : great part was in consequence 
pulled down, and the materials sold. The marble pillars of the 
Chapel were purchased by Lord Onslow ; and King William 
bought some pieces of tapestry, now preserved at Windsor, for 
which he paid 45001. At the east end of the building was a gal- 
lery measuring 226 feet in length, thirty-two feet in width, and 
twenty-four feet in height. This, with some other apartments, was 
taken down by the Countess of Portsmouth in 1749. The west- 
ern quadrangle, 8a)s Mr. Walpole, was destroyed by the advice of 
" that injudicious architect," Sir John Vanbrugh, who dwigned 
tlie uncouth screen at the south end of the Hall. 

Bbi Thj 



^9* IKSSIX. 

The ivestern, or grand eotraiice front of the present manmo, \m 
ornamented with two uniform projectii&g porches, each havings^ 
yenteen marble columns at the angles. Some of these are white 
with black bases aud capitals ; the others are of dark veined 
marble, with white bases and capitals. The ballustrade of these, 
and of the house, is perforated, and variously ornamented ; and 
the sur^imit is adorned with eight turrets, and several cluttered 
chimnies. All the windows are large, and square*headed« with 
Qumerous stone muUions ; and many of them project from tho 
fooms. Attached to the west front are two leaden water spouts* 
which were probably placed there when the house was in the pos- 
session of the Crown, being inscribed thus : 

I. R. 1636. (for James Re?,) an4 W. M- 1«39. (for William and Mary.) 

The various apartments were furnished and decorated in a 
eostly and elegant style, by the late Lord Howard, who employed 
different artists to render the interior highly splendid and hand- 
some. The Hall still preserves part of its ancient character ; and 
though some injudicious alterations have been made, it presents 
an interesting specin^en of the magnitude and ornaments which 
characterized these apartments in old baronial mansions* It has 
a double flight of §tone st^rs at one end ; and a curiously carved 
apd ornan^^qted wood spreep, with hatch, and music gallery, at 
the other J it. is lighted by five windows, the largest projecting 
from the centre, and reaching nearly from the ceiling to the floor. 
In this recess is a large handsome marble pedestal, with basso^ 
relievos in the plinth. 

At the top of \he Hall stajrs is the Saloon, or as it is sometimes 
termed, the Fi^h-Room ; so called from a stuccoed ceiling, orna- 
mented with pendantives, and numerous fish, \n different com- 
partments. The frieze, cornice, pilasters, and other parts, are 
richly decorated with carving and gilding; and the chimney-piece 
contains some beautiful miniature paintbgs, with arms of the 
Howard family, &c. In this elegant apartment are also full 
length portraits of the following distinguished personages, copied 
from Holbein, Kneller, and other roasters ; and all of whom arp 

in 



ctstx. 398 

is tome degree coonected with the history of this estnte and loan- 
iioo. These paiatiogs are let into the pamielst on one of which is 
the following inKription. 

" HmaT Till. A. D. 1559, oaANTi^ tbb MowAfTtaT or Waxt 

am, ON TBI SiTB Ot WtilOH THIS HpVtB WOW STANDS, TO 
LoBD Cbancbllor AvoELtT. Elizabitu. A. D. 1597, BT 

SPtCIAt WbIT, SUMMOHBO to PaBLCAMBNT TnOMAS LOBD 

Howard db WALOiB, in tbb nizt Riign orbatbd Eabl 
or SorroLK. Hb bvilt tbis Hovsb A. D. 1616. Attbb 
MA'VT Rbouotions, it dbsobnobOj a, D. 176S, toSib John . 
QKijpm QRiwwtVf K. B. oon#ibisbo Lobb Uowabd ob 
Walobn, Gbo. 3. A. D. 17a4. He, among otbbb Additions 

An9 AltBBATIONS, BBI ITTBD (tbb CtlLINO bxcbpted) tbis 

Saloon, to oommbmobatb thb noblb Familibs thbougb 

WBOM, with GbATITVDB, BB HOLDS TBBSB POSSESSIONS.*' 

Hbnrt TB£ Eighth; from an original, hy Holbeisi at 
Kensington Palace. 

QuBBW Elizabeth ; from an original, by Zuccaro, at Hat* 
ield House. 

LordChamcbllob Avdley, K. 6. from Holbein. 

MABOABET/daughter and heiress of Lord Chancellor Audley, 
second wife to Thomas, Duke of Norfolk ; from a Portrait in the 
po ssess ion of the Norfolk family. 

Thomas Howabd, Duke of Norfolk, K. G. 1579. 

Thomas, Eabl or Suvtolk, Lord High Treasurer to James 
the First, and youngest son to Thomas, Duke of Norfolk, by 
Margaret, his second wife ; at Knole, the seat of the Duke of 
Dorset. The original was painted at the time he was Lord Cham- 
berlain. 

Thbophilvs, Eabi* op 8vppolk» K. O. eldest son of 
Thomas, Earl of Suffolk ; from a.i original in the family. All 
the above were copied by Rebecca. 

James, Eabl op $uppolK| K. B. eldest son of Theopbilus; 
from an original late at Diogley, in Northamptonshire, the an* 
fient seat of the Griffin family : copied by Zeeroan. 

SuSAfiVARt 



394 KSSEX. 

ScsANNAB. daogbter of Henry, Earl of Holktid, ^t mfe 
of Jamesy Earl of Suffolk ; by Zeeman, from the original at 
Dingley. 

Ladt Essex, sole daughter of James, Earl of Suffblk, by bis 
first wife« and the eldest of bis two co-beiresses, marr^ to Ed trard, 
kbe first Lord Griffin, of Dingley ; originals by Sir Petei-Lely. 

Edward, first Lord Griffin ; by Zeeuiao, from Sir Pe- 
ter Lely* 

Jambs, Lord Griffin, only son of Edward Lord Griffin; by 
Zeeman, from Sir Godfrey Knelier. 

Elizabrth, Countess of Portsmouth, eldest daughter of 
James, Lord Griffin ; by Jervis. 

Honorable Ann Whitwell, youngest daughter of James, 
Lord Griffin ; by Rebecca, from Degarr. 

John Griffin Griffin, Lord Howard de Walden, and Baron 
Braybrookc^son of William Whitwell, Esq. of NorthamfitODSibire, 
and of Ann, his wife ; by Rebecca. 

In the jMti'Rmm are some curious old portraits, aauMig which 
is a half length of Lord Chancellor Audlet ; presuued to be 
by Holbein, Sir Thomas Audley, says Lloyd, ia his State Wor- 
thies* had a ^' soul which ennobled his body, and a body that 
graced his soul ; the one quick, solid, apprehensive, and judi*. 
cious; the other, tall and majestic." 

Portrait of Algernon Percy, Earl of Northumberland ; Van* 
dyke. This noUeman is represented at full length, resting on 
an anchor. 

A small head of Thomas, Dure op Norfolk : supposed to 
be painted by Mytens. 

Sir Benjamin Rudger ; ^j the same master. 

In the State Drtsmg-Room ia a vi^able fall length portrait of 
CrEORGE the Second, by Pine. This picture is acknowledged 
to be the most correct likeness extant of this Monarch ; and hi* 
present Mi^ty has, in consequence, had it copied for his own 
collection. It has bem engraved in Mczaotinto by Dickinson* 

Prince Ferdinand, and The Prince op Brunswick; half 
IfDgibSi 

T!ie 



E99BX. 395 

Tba SitUe Btd-tlaom is fitted op in a most soaiptuoiis aud elf* 
gaot style, with blue silk bed furniture, oraainenced with gold 
lace, ^c. The Library ^ t)K>ttgh not larg^ ooDtains a collectioD 
ot choice books; aaM>og which are two volimies of penned sketches* 
by Ghessi, whos^ execution nearly resembles Callot's: The sub* 
jects are oMSily portraits of distinguished characters in the court 
of Lewis the Fourteehth* This apartment u embellished with por* 
traits of thei late Lord Howard, and his two wives. These were 
painted by the present worthy and scientific President of the Royal 
Academy, who has not only perpetuated a good likeness of his 
Lordship, but has given interest and value to the picture, by the 
style of composing it, and the historical emblems in the back 
groQUd, he His Lordship is represented seated in a contempla- 
tive position in his tent, with his military coat thrown over his 
shoulders. 

A portrait of Lord Beat brooks, by Rdtnney; and another 
of General HsRVEY, by Abbot. 

Over the cloisters is a long Galierjf full of pictures ;^ and among 
them, a sweet little Landscape, with figures, by V. Goyen, dated 
1642. A pair of Landscapes, by Vernet. A Winter Seems view 
in Holland, with figures ; by Berkley. A House on Fire ; Van* 
demeer. And the inside of a Church ; P. Nee& 

Ai the north-west corner of the House is an elegant domestic 
CflaFEL, which was constructed, and highly ornamented, by 
tbelate Lord Howard. It is fitted up in imitation of the most im- 
proved style of Eogliih architecture, with clustered colunms, 
pointed arches, and fan-groined tracery ; and, in imitation of a 
Cathedral, it has a nave, side aisles, and transepts in miniature. 
At one end is the family seat, or gallery, the roof of which is de- 
corated with the family arms, combining all the quarterings. The 
windows are filled with painted glass, by Pickett, of York, who 
executed them in 177I9 from desigps by Biaggio Rebecca 

Thegromnd$ at Audley End are pleasingly diversified with hill 
and dale : the summits and sides of the former are richly adorned 
with wood ; the latter is enlivened with the clear watersof the river 
Grants, which forms a wide catial in front of the hou^c. A hand- 

fome 



996 BMSX. 

some Bridge of three arches was built across this river by the late 
Mr. Adams, in 17fi4. 

Oo the top of Rmg'HUl^ to the west of the manstODy is a cir- 
calar Temple* [occupyiog the site of au eacwul tower, which Dr. 
Stukeley has given a print of, with some account, in his Itinerary, 
but which appears to have been only the remains of a Warren* 
house, or Belvidere. The whole summit of this hill is inclosed 
with an entrenchment nearly circular, including an area of about 
fifteen acres. Salmon supposes it to have been the Canomum of 
the Itinerary, and that the Ermine-Street passed it from Baik- 
way, in Hertfordshire : but these conjectures are not supported 
by other antiquaries. That a military Way was near it, is, bow- 
ever, evident, from the names ofStr^iey (now Littlebury Green) 
and Slnliall, a neighbouring village ; as well as from other cir- 
cumstances : this Way appears to have communicated with Ches- 
terford. 

At LITTLEBURY, a village about one mile north from Aud- 
ley End, was another encampment, within the area of which the 
present Church is built. The latter Is a small, plain ftbric, having 
a body, chancel, and side aisles : near it is an Alm$-HoH9t and 
FreC'Stkooi. This manor, and that of Hadstock, were granted, 
by Queen Elizabeth, to Thomas Sutton, Esq. the munificent foun- 
der of the Charter*House, wlip bequeathed them, in I fill, to 
Thomas, EarlofSufiblk, on condition of the latter paying 10»000l 
within one twelvemonth. After the death of the tenth Earl, in 
1746, Littlebury became part of the allotment made to the Earl 
of Bristol, by the deed of partition made in consequence of the 
decision 4vhich vested that property In the descendanU and co- 
heiresses of James, third Earl of Suffolk. 

Mr. Hcnrjf Wwrtanky^ a descendant from an ancient family 
established at Walden. and celebrated from his lamentable fate 
in the L'«ght-house enected by himself on the Edystone Rock, 
was a resident in this village. This gentleman was *' Clerk of bis 
Majesty's Works at Newmarket, and also of those at Audlfy 
Knd." Of the latter be published a book, containing twenty-ooe 

coarsely 



' ^ tua. 997 

coarsely eograved pridtB of plans, elevations, bird Wye views, &e. « 
This work is become rare ; and, though very badly execoted in 
regard to tiie drawing and engraving, yet it is a curious and in* 
Ceresting representation of a magnificient mansion, whose character 
and extent would otherwise have been forgotten. Mr. Winstanley 
was al one time a prisoner in France, and was olTered a liberal sa-^ 
lary, by the French King, to remain in that country, which be 
refased. He invented the famous water«works near Hyde Park 
Comer. After his death, the govemtnent allowed his widow 1 00^. 
a year, during her iiMowfaood ; but she soon married Tessier, a 
French painter, and concealing the marriage, continued to enjoy 
the pension. Winstanley's prints, plans, &c. were dispersed after 
the death of his widow. H is portrait, with prints of the Edystone 
Ught>boose, were lately b the possession of Mr. John Stanley^ 
a Bookseller at Walden. The memorable storm, in the year 
1703, destroyed both the Light-house and its architect.* 

In Ckritt'Hall Park, about five miles west from Littlebury, at 
the north-east comer, is an earth-work of a circular form, with a 
ditch five or six feet deep, and mounts raised at four places near 
the edgc.t * 

SHORTGROVE, about two miles south from Audley End, is 
the manor and seat of— -^Smith, E«q. by whom it was purchased 
of the Hon« Percy Wyndham, a descendant from the Earls of 
Thomond, who were seated here during great part of the last oen* 
tury. The mansion is a handsome building, with wingi, occu* 
pymg the summit of a pleasant eminence, and having in front the 
river Granta flowing at the footof a lawn encompassed by plaiita- 
tions. Behind the honse is a second lawn, with pleasure grounds, 
and canals, supplied with water from the river, by an engine in- 
vented by Dr. Desaguliers. 

NEWPORT, andeotly amarket-town, is now a long straggling 
village, chiefly Consisting of one street, occupying the sidf*sof the 
high road, and neariy uniting on the north with the hamlet of Birch* 
aogre. In the reign of Edward the Confessor, it belonged to Earl 

Harold, 

* BesiitM% Vca. IT. p. I9i, t Moraitt't tsaet. Vol. 11. p. 605. 



998 UsttiD 

Harold, tfterwardt King, on whose dafeat aod daath at tbe faaUle 
of Hastings, it became the property of the Conqueror* Maud, 
the Empress, granted lands here to Geoffrey de Magncville ; and 
also the privilege of removing the market to the seat of bis own 
barony at Walden :* it does not, however, appear to have been 
entirely removed till after the tine of H«afy the Tbird.f la |he 
year 126S, it was held by Gerard de Fumivall, who obtained the 
privilege of holding a fak here from King John, to whom, four 
years afterwards, the patent was again surrendered, together with 
Aetown and Cattle :t of the latter, no further particulars are 
known. The manor was afterwards po ss e s s ed by various Csroilies ; 
bot not finally granted from the Crown till the reign of Edward 
the Sixth, who bestowed it on Richard Ferasor. About the time 
•f Charles the First, it became the properly of the Earls of Suf* 
folkj and on the partition of the estatsa in the last oentury, 
was allotted to the Earl of Bristol, who- soU it to the Earl of 
Thomond* 

The dmek^ dedicate to St. Mary, is a spacious building, con** 
ttsting of a nave, side aisles^ and chancel, with a Ipfty tower at 
the west end, having embattled turrets. Before the year 1S5S, it 
belonged to the collegiate Church of St. Mardo-le-Graud, in 
London ; and, with that, was bestowed on.the Monastery of St* 
Peter, Westminster, by Henry the Seventh. An HospUal for a 
Master and two Chaplains was iuunded here by Richard de New* 
port, in the reign of King John, and dedicated to St. Leonard and 
St Mary. On the Suppression, iu revenues were valued at 2SL 
10s. 8d. The original building is yet supposed to be standing oo 
the Birchaogre side. A Free GramsMf'Soiool was ibanded hei^ 
in the year 1588, and endowed with rents to the amount of tSh 
lOs. annually, by the Will (dated February 20th, 1686) of Joyce 
Eranckhmd, of Stanstead Abbot, Hertfordshire. Of this sum SOl. 
was bequeathed for the support of a School Master ; 2L to thf 
Master of Gonvile and Caius Colleger Cambridge, for his trouble 

in 

• Sec p. 384. t Fleas, &c. 37 Hen. IlL Rot 15. dorio, 

} Csrts Antiqow, nu 15, aod 9f . at PUcits, 9 Job. rot 9. 



in duQCtiBg the goveranient of the Sdaool, and iruiliog it oooe 
aiuiotlly ; (at which tiMraal visitatiooi he b directed, by the Wil], 
te lenove three» fooTi or more of the scholars to Us own College ; 
there to pkee them in the Seholarships of the foundation of the 
said Joyce Franklandy and William Saxie, her son ;) and theie- 
maioiBg IL lOt. for the repairs of the School«Honse. 

The eodowments, whidi oonsist of the tythe ci Bametftiii^ in 
Sbny, two houses in Distaff Lane, Loodooy and two houses or 
tttwinents at Hoddesdon^ in Hertfordshire, were Tested in certain 
trastces to be applied under the direction of the Will ; . but the 
trustees having grossly neglected their doty, a decree of Chancery 
was obtained in the seventeenth of George the Second^ for eft* 
forciog attention to the obfects of the charity, and for vesting, the 
psoperfy in new trustees. From the inquiry which preceded the 
(iecree» it appeared, that the annual revenues had greatly iocreaa- 
ed,from the rise.of rents and in^>roveroents in agriculture; that 
the Mister of Gonyile and Caius CoUege had not visiled Che 
aoheol kw eight years, though in the receipt of 71* annually finm 
its proceeds; and that '^ the sum of 14461. not applied pursuant 
to the WilV was then in the hands of the schoobnasten Tbia 
iaqoiry and decree, have not, however, been followed by their 
eipecied coosequeoces : the new trustees have displayed alioost 
^^uX inattention with the former ones ; and the property be- 
qaeathed for the support of the school, now supposed to produce 
n«tt4y 200L can be only considered as the endowment of a sine* 
cute held by Uie Master* An investigation into this fraud on the 
perposes of benevolence, is, we understand, now making by a 
comaiittee of the most respectaUe inhabitants of Ne%rpor t and its 
^^icioity, and a second appeal to tJie Court of Chancery is project- 
ed. The inhabitants of .this parish, as returned under tUe lale act, 
woonted lo 66^ ; the bouses to If? ; a few of the latter are 
good buildings; but many, even in Newport itself, are only 
itched cottages. 

At CLAVERING, a small village, but formerly the bead of 

the barony of Clavering, are the. keep and moat of an ancient 

Csttle^ the walls of which have been long destroyed. This manor, 

.9 at 



400 BISSX* 

at the time of the Dometday Sarvey, was in the possenion of 
Suene, the greatest landholder in this county, wherein he had 
fifty-Ave Lordships. Hugh de Essex, his ^raodsooy heing yen- 
quisled in single combat, on a charge of cowardice, by Robert de 
Montfbrd, hisestates were seized by Henry the Second, who grant- 
ed Clavering to Robert Fits-Roger, the son of Alice, Hugh's wife, 
whose descendants obtained the surname of Clavering from their 
residence here. This family continued owners till the latter end 
of the reign of Edwerd the Third, when it was conveyed to the 
Nevilles, Lords of Raby, from whom it has ptssed through va- 
rious noble families to the Barringtonif several of whom hmve re* 
prsseoted this county in Parliament. In the Church are various 
monuments of the BarkcM^ who held a minor in thu parish ; and, 
under an arch in the north wall, is an ancient tomb of some un- 
known personage, whose effigy is represented in armour, with 
his right hand on his left-breast, holding a sword. 

BERDEN, to the south of Clavering, was the site of a small 
Priory of Augustine Canons, founded by the die Rod^ardif who 
held lands here in the time of Henry the Third, and dedicated to 
St John the Evangelist. At the period of the Dissolution, its 
possessions were valued at 29U 6%. 4d. and were granted to Henry 
Parker ; but afterwards alienated by Sir Thomas Ramsey, to the 
Governors of the Hospitals of Christ. Bridewell, and St. Thomas, 
in London. The learned Josxph Midb, A. M. was bom at 
Berden, in the year 1586. In 16*02 he became a student at 
Christ's College, Cambridge, of which he was afterwards chosen 
Fellow, and was remarked for bis iutense application. His love 
Sor knowledge was particularly displayed by bis refusal of several 
valuable preferments, from an apprehension that the duties at- 
tending them would interrupt bis pursuits. He died in the year 
1638 : bis Comment on the Apocalypse is geoerally regarded as 
his most valuable work. 

DEBDEN HALL is a handsome stoue mausion, erected by 
Mr. Holland for thelate Richard Muilman Trench Chiswell, Esq. 
whose widow Is the present resident. The grounds are pleasant^ 
and aie interspersed with gardens and plantations. DMcn Ckurck 

which 



Esjkxi 401 

tvUch stands at a little distance, owes 86me portion of its Qeat- 
ness to the late Mr. Cbiswell, who erected several family monu* 
ments, richly ornamented in the pointed arch style, in an octan* 
gular Chapel at the east end. The font, an elegant piece of work- 
manship in Coade's artificial stone, ornamented with statueSi 
was also of his gift. 

THAXTED 

Is an ancient town, and probably existed in the Saxon limes, 
as the Church is recorded* to have belonged, in the reign of Ed- 
ward the Confessor, to the College of St. John Baptist, at Clare, 
in Suffolk. After the Conquest, the lordship of Clare, and many 
other manors, including Thaxted, were given to Richard Fitz-Gil- 
bert, ancestor of the noble farbfly surnamed De Clare, who held 
this manortill the year 131 4, when Gilbert Declare, sonof Gilbert, 
saroamed the Red, being slain at the Battle of Bannocks-burn, his 
estates were divided among his three sisters and co-heiresses. 
Margaret, the second sister, was married to Hugh de Audley, after- 
wards Earl of Gloucester, who obtained Tliax ted inrightof his wife. 
Id the reign of Edward the Secbnd, it was held as parcel of the 
earldom of Gloucester, by Bartholomew, Lord Badlesmere, to 
whom the liberty of free- warren, and of holding an annual fair 
here, were granted by the King. His son, Giles de Badlesmere, 
dying without issue, this manor was equally divided among his 
four sisters, all of whom had married into noble families. Three 
parts of the manor came afterwards into the possession of the 
Mortimers, Earls of March, and were re-united with the Honor of 
Clare, which this family had obtained by marriage : the fourth 
part descended to the Le de S|)encers, and from them obtained the 
name of Spencer's- fee. The Honor of Clare having reverted to 
the Crown by the marriage of Elizabeth, daughter of Edward the 
Fourth, to Henry the Seventh, was settled, by the son and suc- 
cessor of the latter, on Catharine of Arragou, afterwards his 
Qae^, who, in 1514, granted the •* manor and borough of 
Vol. ¥• Cc Thaxted" 

♦ Monisticon, Vol.1, p. 1009. 



40d BSStX* 

Thaxted" to Sir John Cutis, Knt. to bold during ber life, under 
a. rent of 671* 7s. and soon afterwards, the reversion, in fee-farm, 
was granted to the same Knight by tbe Ring. Sir John Cutis, 
Knt bis great grandson, was renowned for his hospitality* and 
magnificent style of living, which seems to have en>barrasaed his 
circumstances, as be was obliged by licence, dated April, 1599> 
to vest the ** manor and borough of Tbaxted, and Spencer's fee," 
in trust to Thomas Kemp, Edq. who had before purchased a re- 
puted manor in this parish, called ColdhamVfee. Soon after* 
wards Tbaxted became the property of Sir William Smytb, Kot* 
of Hill-Hall, in this county ; and hassioce continued in tbe pos- 
session of his descendants. 

Tbaxted was incorporated by cbarter of Philip and Mary, and 
its goverament vested in a Mayor, Bailiffs, and Chief Burgetaea. 
Tbis cbarter was confirmed by Queen Elizabeth^ but rendered 
valueless, either by tbe fears or poverty of tbe corporate Oflicers, 
who, on being served with a Quo If^arratUo in the timeof Jamea 
the Second, thought fit to retire from their offices in silence. From 
a visitationof heralds in l637> it appears, that Tbaxted bad then 
a Mayor, Recorder, two Bailiffs, and about twenty prbcipal Bur- 
gesses ; of whom (en bad passed the mayoralty, and that they 
had a common seal, but no arms. The market, which had for a 
long period been discontinued, has of late years been revived, but 
is Dot much frequented. It is probable that it was first granted to 
Bartholomew, Lord Badlesmere, by Edward the Second, at the 
time when the former obtained the privilege of a fair here, and 
liberty of free- warren. Tbe number of houses in thia town as 
ascertained under the Population Act, ia 1 802, was S(>5 ; of in- 
habitants 3 8£)4. 

The Church, a very large and beautiful structure, appears, 
from the various arms and cognizances on its several parts, tu 
l>ave been built at difi'erent times in the fourteenth century. 
Its dedication seems unknown, as it is ascribed, by different au* 
thors, respectively to St. John Baptist, to the Virgin Mary, and id 

• Beauties, Vol. II. p. 117. 



404 mtXm 

portions of the Church are most distinguished for superior ele- 
gance and taste, displayed in iheornaments and disposition of the 
parts. The chancel was began by the house of March, but com- 
pleted by Edwurd the Fourth, as appears from the various armo- 
rial bearings of that Sovereign, who is also thought to have been 
at the charge of the north porch. E<imun(l, last Earl of March, 
is supposed, from the arms on some of the arches, to have built 
the tower, which was intended to have been erected at the inter- 
section of the nave and transept, but probably tins design was 
abandoned from a fear of injuring the other parts of the building 
by its weight. This nobleman died in the year 1424. A chantry, 
valued, on the Suppre.«8ion, at 111. l^s. lOd. per annum, and 
twenty obits, besides various altars and chapels, existed here in 
the Catholic times. This Church underwent considerable repairs 
during the last century. 

The charitable benefactions for the use of the poor inhabitants 
of this parish are considerable. The estate called Yendleys, de- 
riving its name from Thomas Yendale, who resided on it in the 
reign of Henry the Sixth, was, on his death, vested in feoffees in 
trust for bis four sons, and their issue; or, in default of such issue, 
to be sold for the benefit of the church and poor, and for the re- 
pairs of the adjacent high ways. ^Tliesons all dying childless, the 
estate was sold, in the fifth of Ifeitfy the Seventh, and the produce 
established as a fund for the payment of the tenths and fifteenths 
that might be levied on the parish by the government; or, when 
not wanted for this purjx)se, the revenues were to be applied to 
general uses. The mode of taxation by tenths and fifteenths having 
been long discontinued, ihe profluce of the fund is now applied to 
the support of a School, repairing the Church, improving the high- 
ways, &c. William, I^rd Maynard, by Will, dated May the 30th 
l6y8, bequeathed 40001. for purchasing the rectory of Thaxted, 
or some other of equal value, to be vested in trustees for the pur- 
pose of increasing the salary of the minister, repairing and beauti* 
fying the Church, marrying poor virgins, binding out apprentices, 
relieving poor people overburthened with children, and for other 
purposes. 'J he rectory of Thaxted being eutailed in such a man* 

ner, 



flBBX. 405 

Qer, that it could not be obtained, that of Potten, in Bed ford** hi re, 
and some estates in Sutfolk, were purchased with the above suoi ; 
thtf proceeds of which are a{>plied according to the dirtctions of 
ibe donor. Auioag the other beiiefactions> are endowments for 
j^bu-HouiCB sUoated in difl«frent parts of the town : one of the 
bpiMingis appropriated to this use, is the 2iuc\ei\i Ckantry^house.' 
The ancient Gi//7(//ia// ia now the parish workhouse : the Mate hail 
is used far the school. 

Sahvbl Purcii a$» B. D. was Ijom at Thaxted in the year 
\m7i and received bis education at Cambridge. Granger repr«« 
seota him as a man of general learning ; and observea, that, with 
great pains and industry, he enlarged and perfected Hakluyt's 
CoUectioo of Voyages and Travels, ** a work not only valuable 
ioT the various inetrucLiou and amuscunent contained in it, but 
also very estimable ou a naiicual, and, I may add, a religious ac<* 
count.'' He died in l6'29, in distressed circumstances, through 
the charges of publicatiOQ. His compilation, called Purckas ki0 
Fi^rhnagty SfC, extend to five \*olume8 folio. 

In the CJkMrck at GREAT BRADFIELD, formerly a market* 
town* was a chantry (bouded and endowed with the sum of *6*I. 
)3s, 4d. anuually, by the celebrated William Bbkd low Bt^ 
sole Serjoanlrat-law for seventy*three days in the reign of Queen 
Mary*. Tfa^ gentleman died in the year 1584, and was buried 
in the chancel, where a long Latin epitaph records his abilities and 
virtues. 

AcTlLTEY, anciently called TUetna^ was an Abbey of Cii« 
tercian Monks» Ibunded iu the year 1 193, by Maurice* Fits- 
Gefiery, who endowad it with the whole manor. This Abbey was 
dedicated to St. Mary, aud situated in a beautiful vale, surround* 
ad by trees. The only remains are part of a cloister, and a small 
buijdiog in the pointed style, now used as the Parish Churchy bat 
traditiooally said to have l)een the Stranger's Chapel, which stood 
at the Abbey g^te, ThiB east window is oroaroenied with tracery^ 
C c 3 and 

* This was the same JSIaurice that founded the Piiory at BycknacM ; 
•w p. 273. 



^0& B88BX. 

aod OD each side ie a tiicbe for a statue: in the interior are four 
ancient stone stalls. The possessions of this Abbey were, ai the 
period of ibe Dissolution, valued at 176L 9s. 66. per annum, ac- 
cording to Dugda^e ; and were then granted to the Lord Chancel- 
lor Audley. Thomas, first Earl of Suffolk, sold the premises, ia*^ 
eluding the manor of Tiltey, for 5000). to Henry Maynard, Esq. 
in whose family they still continue. 

In the paribb of LIFILK DUNMOW was a Priory of Au- 
gustine Canons, founded to the honor of the Virgin Mary, in the 
year 1104, by the Lady Juga, sister of Ralph Baynard, who held 
the manor at the time of the Domesday Survey ; and from wboee 
family Baynard's Castle, in London, obtained its name. Its an- 
nual revenues, on tlie Suppression, were estimated, according to 
Speed» at 1731. 2s. 4d. Henry the Eighth granted the site of the 
Priory, and the manor of Little Dunmow, to Robert, Earl of 
Sussex ; but they have since been in the possession of various fa- 
milies. The monastic buildings were situated on a rising ground, 
south-west from the Church, but are now entirety razed ; and 
some part of the site is occupied by the present manor-house. 

The Priory Church was a large and stately fabric :_ tlie roof was 
sustained on rows of columns, having capitals ornamented with 
oak leaves, elegantly carved ; *' some of these remain in the part 
now used as the parish Church, which includes only the east end 
of the choir, and the north aisle.^ 

*' Here, under an arch in the south ^all, is an ancient chest-like 
tomb, supposed to contain the body of the foundress, Lady Juga. 
Near the same spot is a monument, said to have been tliat of 
IV alter Fitz- Walter, the first of that name, who died anno 1 198, 
and was buried with one of his wives in the middle of the choir, 
whence it has been removed to its present situation. The figures 
of Sir Walter and his I^y are well executed for the time they 
were done, but are much defaced, probably by the removal, par- 
ticularly the man, whose legs are broken off at the knees : tba 

Lady 

* Gough «ays, ihe preient Church is " ooly tbe $ouih nuU and five arches of 
the nave." Liuanniu, Vol. U. p. d4« 



fiSSEX. 467 

Lady has on a tiara, or milre-like bead-dress, ornamented with 
lace, ear>rings, and a necklace. Sir Walter is represented in plate 
armour, under it a shirt of mail, which appears at his collar, and 
below the skirts of his armour. There is something remarkable 
in the appearance of his hair, which seems to radiate from a cen- 
tre, somewhat hke the curl of a wig, but curling inwards. This 
fashion of hair, or wig, (for it appears doubtful which was intend- 
ed,) is observable on divers monuments of the same age, as is also 
the head-dress of the Lady. 

** Opposite this monument, between two pillars on the north 
side of the choir, is the tomb of the fair Matilda* daughter of the 
second Walter Fitz- Walter, who, according to the Monkish story, 
unsupported by history, is pretended to have been poisoned by the 
contrivance of King John, for refusing to gratify bis illicit passion. 
Her figure is in alabaster, and by no means a despicable piece of 
workmanship. Both this figure, and that of the Lady Fitz- Wal- 
ter, afibrd accurate specimens of the necklaces, ear-rings, and 
other ornaments woru by the ladies in those days."^ The Fitz- 
1^ alters are said to have possessed this lordship as parcel of their 
barony for eleven generations* 

The ancient and well-known custom of this manor, of delivering 
a Gawfoon, or flitch of Bacon^ to any married couple who would 
take a prescribed oath, is supposed, by some writers, to have ori- 
ginated in the Saxon or Norman times : others attribute its insti- 
tutioa to the Fitz-Walters, but with what propriety is uncertain. 
It appears, however, from the different entries in Register, as 
' secundum formam dwiationis^* and * seamdum charter formam/ 
to have been imposed on the (Possessors of the manor b^ some be- 
nefactor. The earliest deliwry of the bacon on record,t occurred 
io the twenty-third of Henry the Sixth, when Richard Wright, of 
Bradbourge, in Norfolk, having been duly sworn before the Piior 
•od Convent, bad a Flitch of Bacon delivered to him, agreeably to 
C c4 the 

* Groia*t Antiquities. VoL VIII. p. 67. 
t Maouscripfia th« Culiege of Arm% marked L. 14> p. C26. 



j^ftS ESSEX. 

the tenure. The ceremonial established for these occasions, con- 
sisted in the claimant's kn^ling on two jiharp-pointed stones in 
the church-yard, and there, after solemn chanting, and other rites, 
performed by the Convent, taking the following oath : 

You shaJl swear bj custom of coufcssion. 

That you ne'er made nuptial transgression ; 

Nor since you were married man and wife. 

By hooseheld brawls or contentious strife, 

Or otherwise at bed or at board, 

.Offended eadi other in d^ed or in word : ' 

Or sinpe the pari&h«clerk said Aroen,- 

Wishcd yourselves unmarried again j 

Or in a twelvemonth and a day. 

Repented not in thought any way ; 

But continued true in thought and desire. 

As when yoajoin*d bands in boly qoire. 

^ to these conditions without all fear. 

Of your own accord you will freely swear, 

A whole Gammon of Bacon you shall receive. 

And bear it hence with love an3 good leave ; 

For thb is our custom at Dunmow well known ; 

Tho' the pleasure be oars, the Bacon's your own. 

In the Cbartularly of the Priory, now in the British Mtiseum, 
three persons are recorded to have received the bacon previous to 
the suppression of the religious houses. Sioce that period, also, 
the bacon has been tl^ice delivered ; in these cases the ceremoniet 
have been performed, a^ a court*barou for the manor held by the 
Steward. Tlie last pefsons that received it, were Jobo Shake- 
shanks, woolcomberi fmd Aui>e i^is wife, of Wethersfield, who 
established their rig))t on the £Otb of June, 1751. Mr. Gough 
mentions the custom^ as abolished ; but we understand ic is only 
dormani either through the want of claimants, or from their neg- 
lect to enforce the demand. Several of the Hallet fafoily^ who 
possessed the manor, lie buried ip the Church. 

^ GREAT 

* In a volume of Poems, Istelf published under %e title of Syr Heginalde, 
or, The Black Tower, by £. W. Brayley, and W« H^r^rt^ is a Ballad foonded 
on this custom* but the castrophe it varied. 



EStBX. Mi 



GREAT DUNMOW 



Is supposed, by several Antiquaries, to have been the site of 
a Roman station. Bishop Gibson has assigned to tt the name of 
Cctsaromagvs ; and Mr. Drake, in a letter, puUished in the fifiU 
volume of the A rchaeologia, strengthens its claim to this appelU* 
tion ; not only by referring to the situation of Dunmow on a Ro* 
man road, but also by mentioning Roman coins that have been 
found here; particularly a gold coin of Honorius, and some large 
brass of the Emperor Commodus. In Lord Maynard's estate, 
adjoining Dunmow, Roman Denarii have also been found, of Gal- 
lienus, Tiberias, Posthumius, Victorinus, and others of the thirty 
Tyrants. 

At the time of the Domesday Survey, this manor was held by 
llichard Fitz- Gilbert, and Hamo Dapier, in the last of whom i^ 
appears to have centred, and whose niece, Mabel, obtained it at 
parcel of her inheritance. It afterwards became incorporated 
^ith the honor of Clare, and descended with that to the House of 
York. Henry the Eighth, in the year 1503, gave this manor it^ 
dower to his Queen, Catherine of Arragon ; but it having revealed 
to the Crown, Edward the Sixth granted it to William, Marquii 
of Noithampton, It next became the property of Sir Richard 
Weston, a Justice of Common Pleas; but was finally purchased 
of the Crown by William, fir&l Lord Maynard, in the year 1634:, 
His descendant, Charles, created. Viscount Maynard, in l75-i|bj 
his present Majesty, is now proprietor. 

This town is pleasantly situated on an emipence near the river 
Chelraer: it consists principally of two streets. The privilege of 
holding the market was granted by Henry the Third, in the year 
i253. The government is vested in a Bailiff and twelve Burgesses^ 
chosen under a charter granted in the second and third of Philip 
and Mary, and afterwards confirmed by Queen Elizabeth. The 
number of houses, as enumerated in 1 802, was 3<)2 ; the number 
of inhabitants 1 828. The poorer classes derive employmeul from 
the manufacture of baize and blankets. 

5 The 



41) E<tEX« 

Queror. Its cbjef cndowmeota were derived from th%i familyy 
fiui from the De Veres, Rarls of Oxford, wbo afterwards ol> 
taiiaed.iUe patrooage : several individuals of tbese families are said 
to have beeo buried bere. At tbe period of the Dissolutioo, its 
possessions, according to Speedy were valued at 701. jps. 5d. 
annually. 

BASSINGBOURNE HALL, a large and handsome modem 
building, derives its name from the ancient family of Bassing« 
bourne^ some of whom were settled here as early as tbe time of 
Henry the Th'u d. From them the estate passed through various 
families to Francis Bernard, Esq. who purchased it in tbe year 
I745,undcr a decision of the Court of Chancery. This gentleman 
erected the present mansion, which stands on an eminence, and 
commamljj a fine view of the adjacent country : the front is very 
elegant. It is now the residence of Sir Peter Parker. 

STANSTKD MONTl'lCIlETis oneof the largest parishes in 

Essex, its circumference being computed at nearly forty miles. 

Its name, Stansted or Sfonestead was probably derived from a 
Vicinal Way, whir:h branched off from tbe Roman road from 

Bishop Sortford to Colchester, and runs through it in tbe direc* 
lion of Stansted-Street, towards Great Cheslerford : the appella- 
lion, Montticbet, appears to have beee gvveu it in contraMiistinc* 
lion t« Stansted in Hertfordshire, and probably arose from a large 
artificial nK)unt of earth, still remaining, on uhich stood ^e keep 
of a Castle, erected here by William Gernon, sumamed Mootfi« 
cbet, who inherited tbe Lordship from bis father Robert, to whom 
it had been given, with several others in this county, by the Con- 
queror* After tbe erection of tbe Castle, it became the bead of 
the Barony of Mont(ichet ; and some remains of the lL»rtress are 
}et visible about a quarter of a mile from the Church. 

STANSTED HALL, the seat of-—- Heath, Esq. is a large 
brick mansion, standing on the summit of a hill, and command* 
ing a fine prospect to the north. Tbe gardens are pleasantly laid 
out ; and the grounds contain several plantations and nurseries* 

HALLINGBURY PLACE is a spacioos edifice, situated oo 
an eaunence in an extensive park, and now tbe seat of J. Hou- 
Won, Esq. The grounds have t)cen greatly improved, and the 

whole 



ESSESC. 41 S 

whole rendered a very desirable and pleasant residence. This 
manor was purchased by the Uoiihlons in tbe year \7*27t under an 
act of Parliament, which vested the manors of Great Halling- 
bury, Walbury, and Monkbury, in trustees for the discharge of 
the debts of Sir Edward Turner, who previously possessed them. 

GREAT HALLINGBURY, anciently called IlaUingbury 
Morley, from the Lords of that name, its former possessors, 
passed by marriage through the faniilies of the Loxels and Par^ 
kers; one of the latter of whom bore tHe title of Lord Monte- 
gle in right of his mother, and was the person to whom was sent 
the mysterious letter recorded as having been the occasion of the 
discovery of the Powder-plot. From this family it was obtaineij 
by Sir Edward Turner, Knt. afterwards Speaker of the House of 
Commons, and Lord Chief Baron of the Exchequer ; after the 
decease of whose son, it was purchased by the Moublons, as 
above mentioned. Several of the Lords Morley and Montegle 
fie buried in the Church. 

WALLBURY, which gives name to a manor in Great Hal- 
lingbury parish, "and was anciently termed Walia^ is an irregu- 
lar oval Camp on a steep hill, inclosing about thirty acres, with ai 
bold double bank, and on the north some additional work on the 
brow of the hill. A road enters it on the east side, but does not 
•ppear to have been continued to the west, where the river Stort, 
at the distance of two or three meads, defends it. Here is, how- 
ever, a gap in the inner vallum, and the ditch is filled up on this 
side, but the outer bank is very steep: another road crosses it 
from north to South. Just within the west bank stands a farm^* 
house of tbe same name ; the south part of which, particularly, 
the cellar, is built of rough work, strongly cemented together, 
^th some })ointed arches. The area was a rabbit warren, tiU 
ploughed up about sixty years ago, but is now dividt d into seve- 
ral fields." * The area contains about thirty acres, according to 
I)r. Salnoon, who imagined it to t>e tbe Jiauna of Ravennas ; not 
reflectiogi observes Mr. Gougb^ that the writer was describing 

the* 
» 
• Coagh'5 Camdeo, Vol. II. p. 65. 



414 KSSBX« 

the south-west coast of Britain, and that all his stations aosvef 
to places in Devon and Dorset. * 

HATFIELD-REGIS, or HATFIELD BROAD-OAK, was 
formerly a considerable market- town, but is now only a scattered 
village with very little trade. It was anciently part of the Ring's 
demesne, whence it derived the name of Regis; as it did that of 
Broad-Oak, or Brad-Oak, from an oak of extraordinary size sup- 
posed to have flourished here in the Saxon times. In the Church, 
carved in wood, is the mutilated effigies of Rubsrt de Vshb, 
third Earl of Oxford, who was buried here in the year 1221. 
Kear the east end of the Church, on a spot now converted into 
gardens, stood a Benedictine PaiORY, founded about the year 
1L15, by Aubrey de Vere, father of the first Earl of Oxford. It 
was dedicated to St. Mary, and St. Melanius Redouensis, a British 
or Armorican Saint, to whose glory a flourishing Abbey was erect- 
ed at Rennes, in Bretagne. To that Abbey the Priory at HatfieM 
vras originally a cell ; but is supposed to have Vicen rendered inde* 
pendant by Aubrey de Vere, the third of that name, or his son 
Robert, whose efligies has jnst been mentioned. Its possessions 
were greatly increased by diflerent benefactors ; and, on the Sup- 
pression, were valued at 1221. 13s. 2d. annually. Aubrey de 
Vere, the founder, ** enfeoffed the Convent, with all his tithes in 
the parish, by a grant, to which was aflixed by a harp-string, a 
short black-hafted knife, instead of a seal.'*t Henry the Eighth 
granted the site and revenues of the Priory to Thomas Noke, to 
whom they were confirmed by Queen Mary. His son, Robert, 
•old them, in the year 1564, to Thomas Barringlon, Esq. whose 
family were settled at Barrington Hall, J in this parish, about one 
mile and a half north from the Church, as early as the reign of 
Henry the First. From this oMnsion, great part of which has 
been pulled down, and the remainder converted into a farm-bouse, 

the 

♦ Gough*8 Camden, Vol. U. p. 63. i Ibid. p. 54. 

t The BarentOM had the custody of Hatfield Forett as early as the time of 
King Ethclrtd, lather of Edward the Confessor. M4frtU*$ EiiC9, Vol. 11. 
p. 503. 




LEES PRIORY, 

Ecsex. 



nsBx. 415 

the Barrmgtons removed to the Priory^ and resided there till 
about the beginuing of the last ceatury, when it whs taken down, 
tbrough the misappreheosioa of a workman, whom Sir Charles 
Barringtoo had consulted aboat repairing U : this Sir Charles re- 
presented the county in seven Parliaments. Dying without issue 
he bequeathed this estate to bis sister, Anne, then married to 
Charles Shales, Elsq. and her obildreii. John B.irrington Shales, 
£sq. her second soo, who succeeded his brother, Riche, erected, 
the present BAUR I NGTON HALL, at a little distance v^nh 
from the site of tlie Priory. This is a spacious hrick mansion: 
tbe lAm§ Rmm on tbt: groaud floor measures 1 QO feet in length, 
sad twenty tn breadth ; the ceiling is ornamented with stucco- 
work, aad supported an t<trg</ columus. 

GREAT CANI'MKLDj or Canfield ad Ciutnim, as it is somc- 
tiaica Cdllc^t oblLtiumJ its Irtllt^r appellation from a Casilc belong- 
ing Itj thti De Veres, iCiirh of Oxford, by one of whom it is geue- 
itftUy supposed to hkive hi^.i\ built: the mount, or keep, still re- 
fxiaint tand is pUdtcd uiUi in^^s ; the area in which it stands is 3ur- 
roiiiifled by a deep moaU eticompa^sing about two acres. Thia 
pUcr, fri>iu the siiiiillvude of the name, and from its situation 
bekig ^t no g^<^^t th&iante from ihe little river Can, has bern 
itietigbl the aiicietil CanJuium; bu\ appareutly on insufiicieot 
poondt. 

In £ii€ pariib of LITTLR LEES, and oearly adjoining Felited, 
««a a Pniouv of Auuu:»tiiie Canons, founded about the year 
l^^^by Sir Ilalpb Geriion, ADd dedicated to the Virgin and St. 
Jvbci tin* Hvangeh&t. Us revenues, »t the period of the Dissolutiou, 
wrre v«]u<}d m l l ^L Js, UL annually. The site of tlie Priory, 
villi other maijorsif wtre ^runted, by Henry the Eighth, to Sir 
Rkbarcl fUcb, ^d ennnent Lawyer, whose talents rendered him a 
very uoefuj asj^i^tant in tim scheme of suppressing the religious 
ItoiMc^ 111 the retgn (if E'^Hward the Sixth, he was promoted to 
tb^ Cbaiicellor^bip, and alio created Baroo of Lees ; but on the 
rfowtifall of the Duke of Somerset, he was obliged to resign the 
Satis. He aAerwards retired to his seat at Lees Priory, the 
baiMingf of which he had enlarged, and formed into a inagnificrnt 
7 dwelling. 



416 BSSEX. 

dwelliog. In its most perfect fttate^ this mansion consisted of two 
quadrangles of brick» surroun^ting an outer and inner court, and 
encompassed by a park of 400 acres. Two other parks, of nearly 
equal extent, were also connected witb it, by Sir Richard ; and 
other improvements were made by his successors. These succes* 
sive additions so greatly increased its splendour, that, on the death 
©f Charles Rich, Earl of Warwick, in 1 673, Dr. Walker, in his 
funeral sermon, scrupled not to sound its eulogium, by calling it, 
•* a secular Elysium ; a wordly Paradise ; a Heaven upon earth.*' 
In this buildings the Princess Elizabeth was confined during some 
part of the reign of her sister Mary. The estate now belongs to 
Guy's Hospital, by the direction of the governors of which great 
part of the building has been destroyed ; but two sides of one of 
the quadrangles, and a fine tower gateway, yet remains. The 
latter has an octagonal tower at each corner, with embattled tar« 
rets. The other parts that are now standing are occupied by a 
respectable farmer. Near the house are some of the large fish* 
ponds that belonged to the Priory. 

PLESHY, though now only an obscure village, was formerly 
a place of considerable importance, it having been the seat of the 
High Constables of England, from the earliest institution of that 
office, till nearly four centuries after the Conquest. Mr. Gongh 
conceives it to have been the site of a Roman station, ''^ but has 
Dot ventured to assign it a Roman name. Morant who bestowed 
very little attention on this subject, has yet referred it to the 
Roman times; supporting his opiniontby a reference to an Entrench* 
ment^ which surrounds the village, and within the area of which 
• strong Castle was erected, m the Norman age, the keep of 
which still exhibits a proud specimen of ancient grandeur. 

** No massy door 
Grates on harsh binges oVr the niin'il floor ; 
No pointi'd arch, with dread portcullis hung, 
Bids horror stalk the tiraid hinds among ; 
No deep dark dongeon strikes their souls with fear^ 
Nor swelling tow'rs^their threatening turrets rear. 



To 



* History tnd Aotiquitict of Fleshy^ p. ?.' 



ESSEX. 41T 

•—Yet still remains, and marks the ancient bound, 
Tlie bold abutment of the outer mouud ; 
StHI with a slew and pausing step w« tread 
High o'er the lofty arch, and hence are led 
To mount the keep, whose hard access of yore 
A moat detended, bnt defends no more; 
For where of old did guardian waters flow. 
Now spreading ash and humbler elders grow." • 



Uri 



'The entrenchment begins to the west of the Church, which 
stands just without it, and falls into the fosse of the keep on ih^ 
If est side. The vallum, with a noble fosse, is very perfect in parts of 
the north, east, and west sides: and the four roads which lead into 
the camp, are easy to be traced. That which enters the west side 
ruDDiog by the Church, may be followed by piece-meal almost 
to Chelmsford, to the west of the Waltbam road. By its side 
have been found many human bones; a bit, of iroo ; a stone 
coffin ; a glass urn, with bones in it ; and some tesseras of pave« 
ments. The circumference of the vallum is within a few yards of 
a Roman mile." f Several urns, and other antiquities, have been 
ibund within the distance of a mile from the intreuchment; and 
lome Roman bricks are built up in the tower of the Church. 

These remains seem sufficient to evince the Roman origin of 
Plksht Castle : the keep, and moat that surrounds it, must, 
however, be referred to the Normans ; and with most probability 
to Wiliiam de Magnaville, second son of Geoflfrey de Magnaville; 
to the latter of whom Fleshy had been granted by the usurper 
Stephen, who bad obtained it through his marriage with Maud, 
grand-daughter of Eustace, Earl of Bologne. This William pro- 
cured licence from Henry the Second to fortify his C^tle at 
Fleshy ; andiiere he solemnized his marriage with Hawise,daugh* 
ter and heiress of William le Gros, Earl of Albemarle, 1 1SO.J The 
earth-works,'' observes Mr, Gough, "may defy the injuries of 

Vol. V. July, 1804. D d tim« 

• History tnd Antiquities of Fleshy, Introduction, p. xvi, 

t AntiqmtiM •f Flediy, p. 3. 
I Ibid. «. Milltt CaUlofne of Honour, p. 843 



4^8 ESSEXr 

time and cultivation ; but of the buildings that once adorned theor, 
remains only the bridge leading across the moat to the keep* 
This bridge is of brick, of one pointed arch, strongly cramped 
together with iron, eighteen feet high, and eighteen wide, and re- 
markable for the singular circumstance of contracting as it ap- 
proaclies the foundations. Foundations of brick run from the 
end of this bridge to the left round the keep; and on each side of 
the way to it are foundations of large rooms, and angles of stone 
buildings. The site of the Castle has been a warren ; and four 
ragged yews occupy the keep, in planting which some founda- 
tions w6re laid open." The form of the keep is nearly oval : its 
breadth at top is about forty-five paces ; its width twenty-five ; 
its circumference is upwards of 89O feet 

Humphrey de Bohuu, grandson of Humphrey, surnamed the 
good Earl of Hereford, who had succeeded to the estates of the 
Magnavillee, obtained leave of Edward the First, to enlarge bii 
park at Pleshy, by inclosing 150 additional acres. His descend- 
ants continued owners till the death of Humphrey, the last male 
heir, in 173^, wbenTuovAS of Woodstock, afterwards Duke 
of Gloucester, sixth son of Edward the Firsts became possessed 
of Pleshy, and other immense estates, in right of his wife Eleanor, 
eldest daughter and co-heiress of Humphrey: in her right, also, 
he became High Constable of England. 

The buey life and tragical fate of this nobleman, occupy no in- 
considerable portion of the annals of Richard the Second ; and 
though the turbulence of the age, and the degrading system of 
favoritism pursued in the court of that weak Monarch, necessarily 
connected hira with the violences practised in the early part of 
Ms sovereignty, there is no evidence of his having acted wantonly 
cruel, or of having supported his own administration by unmerit- 
ed severity. His character appears to have been that of the blunt 
Enghsbman : too haughty to submit his judgment to the trammels 
of courtly s)Cophancy, and too honest to tarnish his principles 
by unconditional submission to kingly despotism. The favorites 
of Richard knew that his destruction could not be effected by open 
?iolence| so much was the popular voice in his behalf; they had 

therefore 



ESSEX. 419 

therefore recourse to private assassination ; and the King was so 
ready to forward their schemed of vengeance, that he descended 
even to the hase treachery of arresting the Duke himself, under 
pretence that he wished to consult hhn ahout business in the 
city of London. 

When this arrest was contrived, the Duke was at his Castle at 
Fleshy, with scarcely any more company than his own family and 
immediate retainers* The manner in which it was executed is 
thus relHted by Froissart: **The King set out one afternoon from 
Havering at Bower, (whither he had come under pretence of re« 
creation and hunting, having left part of his attendants at EUham 
with the Queen,) and came to Plaisy about five o'clock. It was 
£ae warm weather ; and when they entered the Castle of Plaisy, 
they were surprised to hear, * Here comes the King ! ' The Duke 
of Gloucester had just supped, for he was very temperate, and 
sat bat a little wbik at table, whether at dinner or supper. He 
came out to meet the King in the court of the Castle, and paid 
hb respects to him as to his Sovereign, for he was a nobleman of 
great politeness. The duchess and her children, who were there, 
did the same. The King went into the hall, and then into the 
apartment: a table was presently spread for him ; and after a 
short supper, he said to the Duke, ' Good uncle, order five or 
six of your horses to be saddled : you must go with me to Lon* 
doo; for tonnorrow I am to meet the Londoners, and we shall 
find there my uncles of York and Lancaster, without fail : I 
mean to take your advice on a petition they are to present to me; 
and order yoor steward to follow with your people to London, 
where they will find you I' The Duke suspecting no harm, 
obeyed him forthwith. The King presently finished his supper, 
and rose up. Every body was ready. The King took leave of 
the Duchess, and her children, and mounted his horbe : (he Duke 
did the same, and set out from Plaisy, attended by only seven of 
his people ; three esquires, and four servants. They rode hard ; 
for the King was in haste to get to London, and all tiie way talked 
with his unclfe of Gloucester, till they came to Staclforte, (Strat- 
ford) and the river Thames. When the King came to the place 
D di where 



430 ESSEX. 

nvhere the ambush lay, be rode oq before^ and left his uitcle ; aod 
then suddenly came up the Earl Marshal (Thomas Movbry) 
behind him, with a great troop of men and horses, and sprung 
on the Duke of Gloucester, saying, ' I arrest you by the King's 
orders/ The Duke «vas thunderstruck, and saw he was betrayed, 
and began to call aloud to the King. Whether the King heard 
him, I know not; but he did not turn back, but rode on fasi^ 
and his people followed him." * 

The particulars of this arrest, as related by Walsingjbam, Fa- 
bian, and other historians, are somewhat diversely told ; but the 
King's treachery is manifested by most of them. After being decoy- 
ed from Fleshy, the Duke was hurried to the Thames, where he 
was put on shipboard, and conveyed to Calais. Here^ after a few 
days imprisonment, he was smothered by ruffians, engaged for the 
purpose among the servants of his enemies. Not daring to make 
the manner of his death public, the King^s minions rqxurted that 
be had died of an apoplexy. His body was brought to Eloglaiid^ 
and conveyed with little pomp " to the Castle of Plaisy, where it 
was laid in the Church which the said Duke had bulk and found- 
ed in honor of the Holy Trinity." f His remains were afterwards 
removed by his Duchess, and finally interred on the soath side 
of the shriue of Edward the confessor, in Westminster Abbey* 
Whatever degree of mystery had been thrown upon the manner 
of the Duke's death, during the remainder of Richard the Se- 
cond's reign, it was wholly dissipated by the Inquisition made by 
command of the first Parliament that assembled after the acces- 
sion of Henry the Fourth. It was then foimd '' that he had 
been fraudulently and wickedly smothered by the Kmg's orders 
at Calais ; *' and two or three of the assassins were afterwards 
executed. I The Duke was put to death in September, 1397* 
' The 

* Antiquities of Fletbj, p. 76. 
t Froijtsart. 
X <' Among the persons more remotely concerned in the Duke of Gbocettor't 
dcatli, it is remarkable that John Holland, Duke of Exeter, hmif-brother to 
Richard the Second, met bis punisbment in the next reign at Pleahj. He had 

engaged 



BS8EX 4Sl 

Tha poMeBsioDt of the Duke, which, oo his murder, had been 
seised by the Crowo, appear to have been restored to bis widow, 
Eleanor; and Fleshy, with other estates wae after her decease^ 
held by Edmund, Earl of Stafford, in right of his wife Anne, the 
Doke's daughter ; but, on a partition of the estates of Humphrey 
de Bobun, between this lady and Henry the Fifth, her first cou- 
sin, the Castle, Park, and Manor of Plesby fell to the Crown, 
and from that time became parcel of the Duchy of Lancaster, 
Edward the Sixth granted the Manor, with the Great aud Little 
Parks of Pleshy, to Sir John Gates, Knight, to whom also the 
College, ice. founded by the Duke of Gloucester, had been pre* 
vtously given by Henry the Eighth. On his attainder and deaths 
for conspiring to raise the Lady Jane Grey to the throne, they 
again fell to the Crown. The Great Park was soon afterwards 
obtained by Robert, Lord Rich, and became incorporated with 
the demesnes of Waltham-bury, among which it passed to the late 
Lord Waltham. The Little Park, and the Mount, were purcha- 
sed by Sir Robert Clarke, constitute<l one of the Barons of the 
Exchequer in the reign of Elizabeth, from whom they huve pass- 
ed, by descent and purchase, to John Jolliffe Tuffuell, Ej>q. the 
pitsent owoer.''^ 

D d 3 The 

engtged with lilt brother, the Earl of Kent, aad other Lords, in a conspiracj 
against Henry the Fourth: while the rest were caballing at Windsor, he staid at 
London, and, upon failure of their design, attempted to make his escape in a 
boat ; but finding the wind contrary, he toek horse, and, with one Sir John 
Sdhcirele, nade the best of his way to thecout of Essex, in order to get abroad. 
After sercral unsocceasful attempts to potto sea, the wind being against him, 
be retired to a friend's boose : while at sapper there, tlie county rose upon him, 
and seizing bim, brought him first to Chelmsford, and then to Fleshy Castle, 
as the safier place. The populace flocking thither in gteat numbers, he was, on 
the evening of St. iVIaurice's day (1400) brought out, and beheaded on the spot 
where their Lord, the Duke of Oloocester,had been arrested by King Richard. 
Ueceniesfted, with tears, that he had sinned grievously againa God and the 
King, ia not diKk)siog the conspiracy to which he was privy," 

Antiquities of Plahy, p. 154. 

• Antiquities of Pleshy, p. 154^159. 



423 BstBX. 

The COLLEGE; already mentioned to haVe been founded litre, 
(1593,) by Thomas of Woodstock, stood on the south side of the 
Church, and was endowed for a Master, a Warden, eight Chap* 
lains, two Clerks, and two Choristers. The original endowments 
were greatly augmented by subsequent benefactions ; and on the 
Suppression, its revenues were valued at 1431. 12s. 7 Id.* annn* 
ally. Not any part of the buildings now remain; andevenr the 
site is hardly to be distinguished, it having been long ploughed 
up, tliough it still bears the name of the College Field. The 
College Church was built in the Cathedral form, with a tower in 
the middle, and several illustrious persons were interred in it. 
The greatest part was, however, demolished by Sir John Gates ; 
and when Bishop Compton was promoted to the See of London at 
the beginning of the last century, scarcely any more than the 
tower wa9 remaining : to this the Bishop added a neat body of 
brick, which, together with a chancel, since built, now consti- 
tutes the Parish Church : tome of the old arches of the transept 
remain, but are bricked up. Against the south wall of the chan- 
cel is" a handsome monument to the memory of Sia William 
JoLLiFFB, Knt. who died in 1749: and against the north wall 
is another, in commemoration of'SAMUsL Tufpnsll, Esq. his 
nephew, to whom, and to his eldest son, he bequeathed his pos- 
sessions. Some memorial of the former consequence of Pleshy 
may perhaps be found in the election of a Mayor, who is chosen 
annually on the court-day held for the manor, out of the free* 
holders of the village. 

LANGLEYS, the seat of John JoUiiTe Tuffnell, Esq. a manor 
in the parish of Great Waltham, was formerly called MarsJMs, 
from an ancient family of that name, which resided here from the 
time uf King John, till the reign of Edward the Third, when it 
passed to the Langleys, from whom the present owner is descended. 
The mansion was built by the late Samuel Tuflfnell, Esq. It is ^ 
handsome building, standing on a pleasant eminence, bounded by 
the river Chelmer on the north, and by a small rivulet on the 
south. The park and grounds are judiciously laid out. 

The 

♦ Tmnntr. StDeroft*t MS. Valor. 



ESSEX. 4f5 

The RODINGS are eight cootiguous parishes, distragDisbed 
by the various prefixes of High, jintftorpe, White^ Leaden^ Mar* 
^aret, Bemert, /ibbess, and Beauchamp; all Mrhicb names have 
been given them since the comprlation of the Domesday Book, at 
wfaick period ttiey were known by the general appellation of Rod" 
htgi ofily: Marrels Riding, formerly a distinct parish, has long 
been a hamlet to that of White Roding. This district, which ap« 
pears to have obtained its dame from the River Roding, which 
runs through it, is very fruitful, hut proverbially distinguished 
for the badness of its roads, and the uncouth manners of the in- 
^bitaots: in both these respects, however, it is much improved ; 
and with regard to the cultivation of the land» is not inferior to 
most places in Essex. 

The Churches of Willtvoehall-Dou, and \VituNOB'« 
MAtsh 8pain, are both situated in the same church-yard ; but do 
not display any thing pecuHarly remarkable. WARDENS 
HALL, in the former parish, is a spacious brick edifice, now the 
seat of William Mills, Esq. whose father obtained it in marriage 
with Selioa, daughter of 6ir John Salter, Knt. and Lord Mayor 
of London in 1740, by whom it was built. The grounds are 
iiogularly disposed, and furnished with various fish-ponds. 

At FYFIELD a great number of Celts were found in the year 
1749 ; together with a large quantity of metal for casting them ; 
and in a field called Stock ling, between Fyfield and Ongar, a 
coffin of hewn stone, with others of tiles, many skeletons, and va« 
noos fragments of urns, were discovered in 1767.'^ 

ONGAR, OR CHIPPING ONGAR, 

If an ancient market town, chiefly consisting of one long and 
wide street, situated within the area of an extensive Entrenchment, \ 
which may yet be traced on its difierent sides. On the east are 

D d 4 the 

» GoBgfa's Cam^eo, Vol. II. p. 51. SepokhnU Monuownti, Vol. I. 
lotrodoctiooj p. zxiv. 
t Congh'i CtndeD, VoU IL p. 51, fignre 5, pUce I. p. 41. 



A24 ESSEX. 

the keep and other remains of a strong Cv^ie, erected hy Riobard 
de Lucy» Chief Justice of England in the reign of Henry the Se« 
cond, to whom this Lordship was given, by William, Earl of 
Mortain and Surry, and son to Kbg Stephen, and by wiiose 
interest it was created into an Honor. Mr. G >ugh ^supposes 
the Castle to have been formed out of a more ancient and ex- 
tensive work, of either Roman or Saxon origin. The keep i^ sur- 
rounded by a deep and wide moat, commonly filled with water, 
and is also defended by immense fosses. Its sides are now plaot- 
ed with trees and shrubs ; through which a steep winding walk 
leads to the summit, whereon stood the principal buildings : tbeie 
becoming ruinous, were pulled down in the reign of Queeo Eli- 
zabeth, by the then owner, William Morrice, Esq. who erected in 
their place a handsome mansbu, which, from its height and lofty 
situatioQ, commanded some fine views over the surrounding 
country. This building was demolished about the year J 744, 
by Edward Alexander, Esq. who had purchased the estate, and 
who had an embattled summer-house erected on the site of the 
former dwelling. The descendants of this gentleman are atill 
owners of the Castle and manor. 

The market is not much frequented ; though, from the term 
Cheping being affixed to the name of the town, it is probably of 
remote origin. The Chuich is a small neat structure, apd has 
''many Roman bricks worked into it. ;" ^ the windows are siugo* 
larly small, more resembling castellated loop-holes than church 
windows. Withiu it is an inscription, recording the family and 
interment of Jane, daughter of the Lord Oliver Cromwell, of 
Fincbinbrook, in Huntingdonshire, and wife of Tobias Pallavi* 
cine, Esq. Foundations of Ruuian buildings are said to have 
been dug up in the Church- Yard ; f and, as a collateral proof of 
the antiquity of the town, the principal road from London to 
Colchester is recorded to have led hither by Old Ford. Ihe po- 
pulation of Chipping Ongar, as relumed under the late act, was 
595; the number of houses ill. 

GREENSTED, 
• G'ugh'i Camden, Vol. II. p. 51. 
♦ History of li»ex. Vol. III. p. 317, edit. 1770. 



435 

GREENSTED, called also Greensted near Ongar, to distia- 
^iah it from anotber Greensted adjacent to Colchester, has be- 
come much celebrated from its Churchy which is considered by 
socoe of the best informed antiquaries/ as one of tlie most singu- 
lar and ancient in Great Britain ; as far, at least, as regards the 
body or nave. This is entirely composed of wood ; the sides being 
/ornied of the trunks of large chesnut trees,t split or sawn asun- 
der. These are set upright, close to each other, and let into a 
iill and plate ; at the top they are fastened with wooden pins* 
'* On the south side are sixteen, and two door posts ; on the norths 
twenty-one, and two vacaoci*»s filled up with plaster. The west 
4Dd 18 built against by a boarded tower, and the east by a chancel 
of brick ; on the south side is a wooden porch ; and both sides 
are strengthejied by brick buttresses; the roof is of later date, 
and tiled ;|" but rises to a point on the centre, as originally form- 
ed. The ientire length of the original part is' twenty- nine feet, 
nine inches ; the width, fourteen feet ; and the height, to the 
spring of the roof, five feet, six inches. 

Ill the account of this Church, communicated to the Society of 
Anticfuartes by Smairt LethieuUier, E^q. and annexed to a view of 
ity pubhshed many years ago, it is said, that the inhabitants have 
a tradition, that the corpse of a King once rested in it. This 
traidttion Mr. L. imagined to have been founded on particulars re- 
corded by some of our old writers, and instances the following : 
(d a iiiaDuscript preserved in the Lambeth Library, intituled, 
yUa d Ptmw Smnctt Edmundi^ are passages to this efiect : *' In 
the year 1010, and the thirtieth of King Ethelred, St. Edmund, 
by reason of the invasion of Turkil, the Danish chief, was taken, 
by Bishop Ailwin, to London; but in the third year following, 
juried back to St. Edmund's Bury : a certain person at Staple- 
ford hospitably received his body on its return/' Another MS. 

cited 

* Ducarel, LetltieuIIicr. Guiigh. 

t History of l':s^x. Vol. HI. p. 333, e<iil. 1770. 

7 



f6 BSSIX. 

cited in the Monasticon, and intituled, RegiitntmaatMiSmicli 
Edmwidif has this sentence: Idem apud Avvoslk ioipltabtittur 
ubi m ^us memoria lignca capella perwumet uique hodie ; u e. * His 
body was likewise entertained at Aungre^ where a wooden Ckapelp 
erected to his memory, remains to this day/ 

In the Application of these extracts, Mr* L« observes, that, 
' the parish of Aungre, or Ongar, adjoins to that of GreensCed, 
fWhere this Church is situated ; and that the ancient road from 
London into Suffolk, lay through 01d«ford, Abridge, Stapleford, 
Greensted, Duumow, and Clare, we learn not only from tradi- 
tion, but likewise from several remains of it, which are still visi* 
ble. It seems not improbable, therefore, that this rough and un- 
polished fabric was first erected as a sort of shrine k>r the recep- 
tion of the corpse of St. Edmund, which, in its retam from 
London to Bury, as Lydgate says, in his MS. Lifo of King Ed- 
mund, was carried in a chest : and, as we are told, in the Register 
above-mentioued, that it ramained afterwards in memory of that 
removal, so it might, in process of time, with proper additions 
made to it, be converted into a Parish Church ; for we find by 
Kewcourt, that Simon Feverell succeeded John Lodet as rector 
of Greensted Juxta Ongar^ in 1328. He says likewise, that 
Richard de Lucy very probably divided the parishes of Grmsted 
and Aungre^ and built the Church at Aungre, in the reign of 
Henry tlie Second.'' 

GREENSTED HALL, the seat and property of Craven Ord« 
Esq. one of the Masters in Chancery, is a neat modem building, 
situated near the Church. This estate was formerly included in 
the Honor of Gloucester. 

OTES, in the parish of High Laver^ was formerly the seat of 
the MoihamSf of an ancient family, originally settled near 
Masham, in Yorkshire, but who removed hither in the reign of 
James the First : on the death of Samuel, the last Lord Masham, 
this estate was sold to the Palmers. In the Church- Yard are se* 
Tcral monuments of the Masham family; and also a plain marble 
tomb to the memory of the great Philosopher, John Locke, 
vho wa^ the guest of the Mashams during several years previous 

to 



sssBX. 42^ 

|o his decease. The epitaph, writtea by himself ia Latio, hat 
|>een thus translated : 

Stop, Traveller! 

Near this Place lielh John Locke. 

If you ask what Kind of Man he was« 

He answers, that he lived content 

With his own Fortune. 

Bred a Scholar, he made Iiis Learning 

Subservient onl y to the cause of Truth. 

This thou If lit learn from hjs Writings, 

Which will shew thee every Thing else 

Concerning him. 

With greater Truth than tlie suspected Phras«a 

Of an Kpitaph. 

His Virtues, indeed, if he had any. 

Were too little for him to propose 

As Kf atter af Praise to himself. 

Or as an Example to thee: 

Let hb Vices be buried together. 

At to an Example of Manners, if you seek that^ 

You have it in the Gospbl: 

Of Ficet, I wbh you to have one no wher«. 

Pf Mortality, certainly, and may it profit tkee. 

You have one here, and every where. 

This Ston^, 

Which will itself perish in a short Time, 

Records, 

That he was born Aug, 29, 1693; 

That he died 

Oct 28, 1704. 

HARLOWy a disused ODarket town, was formerly a place of 
coptiderable trade,aDd had a large woollen manufacture, but this 
^at long been removed, and the inhabitants are now chiefly sup- 
ported by spinning, and agricultural employments. Some ad- 
iiaotages are, however, derived from Harlow-bush Fair, which is 
held annually, for the sale of horses, cattle, &c. on a common, 
^bout two miles from the town, and much frequented. The 
(^urchf dedicated to the Virgin, and All Saints, was partly de- 
moliafaed by fire, at the beginning of the last century, but was 

5 sooo 



498 ESSEX* 

soon afterwards restored, and ornamented with much painted 
glass, chiefly at the expence of the Rev. M^ Taylor, then vicaft 
and the neighbouring gentry. The original structure was in die 
cathedral form ; but the tower, which rose from the centre, baa 
been replaced by a cupola. 

In the parish of LATfON, about three miles south from the 
Church, was a Priory for Augustine Canons, dedicated to St. 
John Baptist. The time of its foundation is unknown ; but it was 
certainly built before 1270, as it is mentioned in the Lincoln taxa- 
tion for that year. The Priory Church consisted of a nave and 
transept, in the pointed style ; the remains are now used as a 
barn. The value of its possessions are not recorded : Henry the 
Eighth granted them to Sir Henry Parker. 

NETHER HALL, in the parish of Roydon, near the conflu- 
ence of the rivers Lea and Stort, was foruieily the seat of the CoU 
family, which appears to have been settled here as early as the 
reign of Edward the Fourth. The ancient mansion, which bad 
been converted into a farm-house, was demolislied about the year 
1773 ; xhegaieua^ only being left standing, through the strength 
of the work, which rendered its destruction too expensive. This 
remain is of brick, and consists of two floors, with an half hexagon 
tower on each side the entrance : the upper part of one of the 
towers has lately fallen, and the space between them is in a very- 
ruinous condition. Each floor is occupied by only one rooniy 
measuring about twenty-sev^n feet by twenty-three and a baU^' 
and lighted by large windows : the ceiUng of the upper story bai 
fallen in. The ceiling of the first story is sustained on wainscot 
arches, resting in front on three blank shields, and a truss com* 
posed of a radiant rose ; and at the back on four trusses ; the firrf 
afid third of which represent griflfins ; the second and fourth, • 
bear and ragged staff: the most western of the shields is support* 
ed by two horses; the second is held by a spread-eagle, supported 
by a lion and onicorn ; and the third rests on a lioness and bait 
duoally crowned. Near the chimney is a colt's head, in an orna- 
ment of the carving. This story has been wainscotted to about 
the height of eight feet : above the wainscot, oo the plasteri are 

various 



■■--:- 1 



3Ji^tt 



4^ 



imiiif 



ES9BX. 499^ 

various figures in coropartmeDts, wretchedly painted, and pur- 
porting to represent the most eminent personages of Sacred, 
PfofaoQ, and Fabulous History. On the summit of the gateway 
are some remains of two curiously twisted chimnies; and beneath 
the windows, above the entrance, is a machicolation, and a trefoil 
omaaaenta with shields and fieurs de lis. The whole building was 
surrounded by a moat ; and the moat itself encompassed by a walU 
Several of the Colis^ who are supposed to ha ve erected this man- 
sion, are buried in the Church at Roydon. Thomas Colt, Esq 
w«8 employed on some foreign embassy by Edward the Fourth. 

EPPING 

Is an irregular town, to the north of Epping Forest, consist- 
ing of two parts; one round the Church, called Epping- Upland ; 
the other nearly a mile and a half south-east from the Church, 
called Epping Street. The latter is by far the largest, and 
consists of one wide street, nearly a mile in length, situated on the 
high road to Newmarket, &c. on a ridge of hills, that extends to 
a considerable distance north and south. Here the market is 
held : the chief commodities exposed for sale, are butter and 
poultry, which are mostly purchased for the use of the Metropolis. 

At the west end of the street is a small new Chapel; and near the 
middle are the Shambles : the latter are partly decayed, and have 
a very mean appearance. The inns and public-houses are nu* 
merous. The number of houses in both divisions, as returned 
under the late act, was 315; that of inhabitants 1726. This ma* 
nor was part of the endowment bestowed on Waltham Abbey by 
Earl Harold. 

Epping Forest is an extensive tract of good woodland, de- 
riving its present name from the town of Epping, but formerly 
called Waltham Forest, and in more remote ages, the Forest of 
Essex. Since it was known by the latter appellation, it has, how- 
ever, been greatly curtailed, many thousand acres having been 
grabbed up, and the land cultivated. This Forest is under the 
jurisdiction of a Lo-^d Warden and four Verderers ; the former 
title is hereditary in the family of Sir J^mesTilncy Long, Bart. 

The . 



4M BSSfiX. 

Tbc Verderers are elccCed by the freeholdert of the ceutity, atid 
letain their officers during life. The forests right are as various 
as the tenures of the different manors that surround it. In this 
Ibresty though within twelve miles of London^ wild stags are yet 
found; and a stag is annually turned out on Easter Monday* 
under an estabUshment patronized by the ptincipal merchants of 
the City. The 8tag*hunt is well supported : the kennel for the 
bounds, and the building belonging to the hunt> have been lately 
rebuilt at an expeoce of several thousand pounds. 

COPPED HALL, the seat of John Conyers, Esq. is justly 
ranked among the greatest ornaments of this county. Its grounds 
are boldly irregular ; and have been highly improved by numerous 
groves and plantations, which crown the eminences, and sweep 
over the sides of the hills. Grand and very extensive distances 
are also presented from different stations ; and it may be truly 
said, that Nature has liberally decorated the demesne with many 
beautiful and picturesque features. The House, a neat white 
brick* building, stands on a knoll, near the centre of a large park, 
which^with the contiguous lands included in this estate, compose 
an area of 4000 acres. Above 400 acres of this land was, about 
thirty years ago, an unprofitable waste, covered with hornbeam, 
pollards, brush- wood, &c. and infested with gangs of wood and 
deer-stealers, whose race bad haunted the close covers of Epping 
Forest for centuries, and was in the constant practice of commit- 
ting depredations. The praise-worthy reformation of many of 
these outcasts has been effected by a laudable plan of the present 
proprietor of Copped Hall, who, after suffering greatly from their 
dissolute manners, enticed them to live in small cottages which he 
had built on purpose, at a distance from each other, and appro- 
priated to each a proper quantity of garden ground. He also 
provided them with labour, and agreed to supply them with fire- 
wood. By this judicious scheme, the idle have been inured to 
habits of industry, and a large tract of waste land rendered sub* 

servient 

* The brick- worV of this house is mnch id mired for the closeness and Dca^> 
ness of its jointing, and for the sqaarenesi and symoietry of the bricki; tb« 
latter were aU cast in iron mouids. 



UBix. 481 

•enrleiit to public utility. Amoog tbe other improvements thai 
have been made, may be ranked the cultivation of a pieca of 
ground, called the Warren. About sixty years ago, this tract, 
censistiDg of 101 acres, was offered to a speculating farmer, on a 
lease of fort^ears, at 2s. 6d- per. acre. These terms, however, 
he Infused, supposing the land totally unproductive. The ground 
was then pbughed, and sown ^iih the seeds of almost every kin9 
of tree, indiscriminately thrown in, and left to tbe operations of 
nature. The young plants sprung up ; and though no particular 
attention was paid to them, have thriven with so much vigor, as 
to form ooie of the finest and most valuable woods in this part of 
tbe county. One tree, in particular, a Ctdar of Libanunty is en- 
titled to distinct notice, from its rapid vegetation. The seed 
from which it was raised was sown in the year 1747* The 
med^m girth of tbe bole is near twelve feet ; and tbe branches 
extend upwards of eleven yards on each side. In the old build- 
ing, called Copped Pall, f was the chapel, wherein the painted 
glass now at St. Margaret's, Westminster, was put after its re- 
moval from New Hall. The present mansion was erected be- 
tween tbe years 1753 and 1757 ; but has since been greatly im- 
proved under the direction of Mr. James Wyatt 

Near Copped Hall Park, on the south-east side, are the traces 
ofanancientCamp,called Am BR ETs, or Ambers BURY Banks 
conjectured to have been of Britbh origin. ^* This entrenchment 
is now entirely overgrown with old oaks aud hornbeams. It was 
ibnnerly in the very heart of the forest, and no road near it, till 
tbe present turnpike road from London to Epping was made, al- 
most within the memory of man, which now runs within a hundred 
yards; but it cannot be perceived from thence by reason of 

the 
* The wood of tbe Cedar is famoas for preterTiD^ ininiat bodies froni pa- 
tve&c(ion ; it is also reported to j^idd an oil, whose qaali(ic!> render it an ef- 
fectual preservative for books and manuscripts. 

t This was a large quadrangle, surrounding a court, and including a gallery 
*fty.slx yards long, erected by Sir Thomas Henneage, to whom tlie manor 
wai granted by Queen Eliiabeth. The gallery was destroyed by a hurricane 
ia tbe yev 1699. 



433 ^SSKSr 

tbe wood that covers it. Its figure is irregoiar^ rather longest 
from east to vest, and oq a gentle declivity to the souih*east. It 
contains nearly twelve acres, and is surrounded by a ditch, and 
h^b bank much worn down by time ; though where there are an^ 
gles, they are still very bpUd and high. There are no regular 
openings or eiHrances, only in two places, where the bank has 
been cut through, and the ditch filled up ver> lately, in order to 
make a strait road from Debden Green to Epping Market. The 
boundaries between the parishes of Waltham and Epping run ex* 
actly through the middle of this entrenchment.''* 

WALTHAM, OR WALTHAM HOLY-CROSS 

Is a large, irregular town, situated on low ground neai; the river 
Lea, which here forms a number of small blaods, and ts skirted by 
fruitful meadows, that have long, been famous 6>r the succulent 
and nourishing qualities of the grajM. This spot was originally 
part of the Forest of Essex, and deriving the appellation of fTo/- 
tkam from the Saxon words Ham, a place, or hamlet ; and Wmldy 
woody ; the whole site being anciently overgrown with trees. The 
addition of Holy Cross arose from a certain miracttlous cross to 
which the Abbey, founded here by Carl Harold, afterwards Kmg, 
was dedicated. 

The first amotion of Waltham occurs iu the time of Canute the 
Great, in whose reign tlie then owner, Tovy, or Tovius, Stand- 
ard-bearer to that Monarch, attracted by the quantity of game 
thatabounded in the Forest, founded here a Village and a Church; 
placing three- iscore and six dwellers in the former : and in the lat* 
ter, two priests. After his decease, Athelstan, his son and heir, 
squandered his inheritance; and Waltham reverting to the Crown, 
was bestowed, by Edward the Confessor, on Earl Harold. The 
gift was, however, made conditionally, as appears from the grant 
now remaining in the Tower ; that Harold should build a Monas- 
tery 

* eoQgh't Camden, VuLK. p. 49, frotn a MS. Letter, written by Mr. 

Lhieallier. 



zi%tX4 433 

tery to the place, *^ where was a iittU Convent^ subject to the 
Caoons, and tbeir rulen ; '* and should fnrnisb it with all neces- 
saries, relics, dresses, and ornaments, ''m memoriam met, et con* 
jugis mee EaditheJ* The Convent here mentioned, was the ori* 
ginal foundation of«Tovy, which he had himself augmented, by 
increasing both the number of priests, and value of the endow 
raeots.* 

The same year, 1062, in which the grant was dated, Harold 
re- founded or enlarged the building erected by Tovy, and endow- 
ed it as a CoLLEGB, for a Dean, and eleven secular Canons, 
of tlie order of St. Augustine. A distinct manor was allotted for 
the maintenance of each Canon, and six for the support of the 
Dean, as appears from the charter of confirmationi granted by 
Edward the Confessor. The Church was at the same time en- 
riched with a vast number of relics, and many costly vessels, f 
The possessions of the College were afterwards considerably aug- 
mented by various benefactions, and it contmued to flourish till 
the reign of Henry the Second. 

This Prince, in the year 1 177, deputed Richard, Archbishop of 
Ceolerbury, who, in a late vbitation, had suspended the Dean, and 
discovered many irregularities in this College, to accept the re- 
signation of its inmates ; and having procured a charter of licence 
from Pope Alexander, he soon afterwards changed the old found- 
ation of seculars into an Abbey of regular^Canons, of the same 
order, augmenting the number tot wen ty- four and proportionably 
iDcreastog their revenues. The cause alledged in the charter for 
this change, is the dissolute lives of the Canons. '^Cum in ea 
omonici cleriq. minus religiose, & aequaliter vixissent, ita quod 
imfitmia convcrsationis iliorum multos scandalisasset ; " and because 
(to ase the King's own words) it was fit that Christ his spouse 
skoyid kme a nao dtmry^ he not only confirmed the primitive pa- 
tjinxuiy, with all since bestowed, but himself gave the rich ma- 
nors of SewardstoBe and Epping. Additions were probably 
made at this time, both to the Monastry and the Church, 

Vc^L. V» Jolt, 1 804. E e «mI 

•MsrltUa MiDOMript, No. S77«. t IWi4, 



434 Esstx. 

and the whole was re-dedicated to the aforeaaid Holy CrOMp and 
St. Laurence. All the Caoons oq the old foundi^tion weie ex- 
pt^lled from the new eslablUhmeot, bat otherwise sufficiently 
provided for. 

The first Abbot was Walter de Gaunt, who was indulged by 
the Pope, in the year i l^l, with the use of the pontificals, and 
exempted from episcopal jurisdiction ; the latter privilege being, 
iq fact, a confirmation of Henry's charter, which thus defines the 
ancient liberties of Waltham Church : Semper fidi ngaU$ cttftUd 
rj^ prwiitiva sui fundationty nuUi €fchiepiscopo vel qnscopo, ted 
temtum eccksur Romanaet Regix dUpotUimd iddfftcta; and tbisr 
privilege has descended in part to modern times, Waltham bang 
still ex,empted from the Archdeacon's visitation. 

Riebard the First; by his charter dated at Winton, (Winches- 
ter,) in his first year, granted to these Canons his whole manor of 
Wakham,. with the great wood and park called Harold's Pafk,460 
acres of esaart lands, with various privileges, and other estates, 
liberties, 6cc. He also, by another charter, confirmed all the 
former grants, and made further gifts to the Monastery, among 
which was the stately mansion called Copped Hall, but appointed 
the latter to be held in fee, and hereditarily, of the Church of 
Waltiiani Sonde CrucU, by Robert Fita-Auchcr. 
- Henry the Third not only augmented the privileges of Waltham 
Abbey, but also bestowed on it many rich gifts ; and from ha 
time it became so dbtinguisbed by a serlea of royal and noble be- 
nefactors, as to rank with the most opulent in the kingdom* This 
Monarch* to avoid the expences of a Court, frequently made tha 
Abbey bis place of residence ; and to provide ip some measursi 
for the increased consumption which his presence and retinue oc* 
casioned, he granted to the inhabitants of Waltham, the privir, 
lege of holding a market weekly, aad a seven days {air aanuaUy i 
the fair is now only held on the third and ficturteenth of May» 

Henry s favors to the Monastery were not entirely dieiotarest- 

ed ; as appears from his reqoiring its occasional participation in 

his distresses, as well as bounty. |n the year 12^8» thf Parlia« 

nent having refused the King money, he procured from the Pope, a 

7 . . fiesseng^ 



ZHW3L 48S 

nesseogori naioed Mftntaetuty to come to England, and ask a sap- 
p^ from the Abbiet and Chuicbes. The Abbot of Waltham was 
among the first applied to on this occasion ; and, partly by threats^ 
partly by intreaties, was induced to issue a security for 5KX) marks. 
A similar appUcation was made at another time to the Abbots of 
\Valtban» Si, Alban's, and Reading, Cor the sum of 5000 marks, 
which the King iiad promised to the yotwg Earl of Gloucester, 
as a marriage portion with his niece, the daughter of Guy, Earl 
of Angonlesme. But this was not successful ; the three Abbots 
declarii^ thai they were unaU e to raise such a sum ; nor covkl 
tbey justify so doing* even If they were. 

in this re%p, great disputes took place between the Monastery 
and the iowosmeiiy respecting the right of the former to pastuie 
cattle on the acdoioing grounds, and several outrages were cofu« 
mitted by the iababitants. These were at first overlooked from 
prudential motives ; but similar ofiences having been repeated dt:^ 
rio^tha absence of the Abbot, he n^soWed to seek redress. The 
lowaa-pe^H^e, dreading the consequences of their rashness, solicit- 
ed a bromlqjff or reconciliation, and engaged to make good all da* 
osageaf txut» while the Abbot and Convent were deliberating on 
(he proposal, they hastened to the King, and laid the blame of 
all that bad happened oo the mooks. This proceeding was the 
Sfpal ibr direa hostility. The Abbot denounced sentence of ex* 
communication ; the people flew for redress to the Common Law* 
At length tjae matter came to a hearing before the King's Judg^, 
wbeo the tawnamen being proved the aggressors, were amerced in 
a fine of twenty marks ; but, on their submission, the fine waa 
remitted ; and the Abbot, in the end, assoyUd them from the ex- 
commonicalion. 

This contention was no sooner over, than another commenced 
between the Abbot and the Lord of the neighbouring manor of 
Cheshont» respeotiag some land in the occupation of the for* 
mmf aad which was datmed as parcel of the Cheshont manor. 
Tbe Abbot, after much litigation, was suffered to retain posses- 
sion ; hot the aflair was soon afterwards renewed, and continued 
* subject of dispute till the Dissolution. During these unpleasant 

£ e2 akercatioQiy^ 



4M BSSEXv 

ttllercalietis, tbe monks were charged by Uiinr enemies Vitb re* 
Reiving much affectionate coDSolatioQ from tbe holy suten in the 
poDoery at Cheshunt.^ 

lu the year 1^42, we learn from Matthew Paris, that tbe con- 
ventual church at Waltbam, was again solemnly dedicated, tbe 
King and many noble personages being preaenu This was proba- 
bly in consequence of some additions that had b^n recently made 
to the original fabric, but of the extent of which we'^re at present 
.unacquainted. The last event of importance recorded of Waltbam 
Abbey, prior to the Disiolutioo^is the accidental meeting between 
Thomas Cranmer, afterwards Archbishop of Canterbury, and the 
prelates Fox and Gardiner, which ended so remarkably in tbe ad- 
vancement of tbe former, and drew with it atratn of consequencei 
highly interesting to that age, as well as to succeeding times. 

This Abbey having existed d uring the government of twenty*se^ 
ven Abbots, exclusive of the Deans belon^ng to the first foonda* 
tlon, was dissolved in the year 1 539 : its annual revenues were then 
valued at pOOl. 4s. 1 Id. according to Dugdale; Or, as recorded 
by Speed, at 10791 Hs. Id. The last Abbot, Robert FuHer; 
may be reckoned among the literati belonging to this Monastery. 
From bis History, written in 4€o p&ges folio, tbe fair manusciipt 
of which was in the possession of the Earl of Carhsle, Fuller, his 
namesake, afterwards curate of the same Church, professes faitb* 
fully to have compiled almost all the materials of his account of 
Wailham Al>bey, as given at the end of his '^ Church History .'^• 

The site of the Abbey was granted, for tbirty-one years, to ^r 
Anthony Denny, who dying about the second year of Edward 

the 

♦ A sample of these tales may be seen in Fuller's Church History. This 
suthor relates, that Sir Henry Colt, of Nether Hall, who was a great faTourite 
with Henry the Eighth for his merry conceits, weiitxlote one night to Waltham 
Abbey, where berog inforraed by bis spies, that some of tte monlt were m- 
dulging in female converse at Chisbunt Iilunnery, he determiued to i n S e io tpt 
their return. With (his intent he had a buck-stall pitched in tbe pacrow^t part* 
of the meadow or marsh, which they haU t* cross in their way home ; and tbe 
^onks getting into it in the dark, were inclosed by his servants. Tbe next 
morning, Sir Henry presented them to the King» who heartily langUng, de* 
•Uf«d tbAt« ^ be bad often taeniweeteri bot never falter vtoisoa.'* 



ilie'Sixtb, h\9 widow bought tbe revereion jn fee' fmta that Mo* 
Hattls for somewbat more than SOOOl. Sir Edward Denny. 
giftode)»ld to Sir Antbony, created Earl of Norwich by Charles 
libaFir^ wastbeoext posseaeor : from him it passed, by the mar- 
liaga'of his cbiQgbt6r» to the celebrated James Hay, Earl of Car- 
bilt : it has stnce rome iato tbe possession of tbe family of Sir 
WUltain Wake, Bart. 

The Mh^ Houm is said to have been a yery eittensive build* 
kgf but has been wholly demolished many years. Another large 
■ttosion, erected in its place, wae, in the year 1770, sold to James 
larwtck, Esq. who soon afterwards bad it pulled down, and let 
tiM mte, and surrounding grounds, to a gardener : within them is 
a tolip tree, much celebrated, and reported to be the largest in 
Knglaod. 

A ^teway into tbe Abbey -yard, a bridge which leads (o it, 
aonie ruinous walls, an arched vault, and the Church are the only 
vatttgea of the ancient magniiceuoe of Waltham Abbey. The 
iirmer of these remains are of a much later style of architecture 
than the Church. Adjoining to the gateway is the Purter*s Lodgei 
and a piece of ground called R&mtlandf as Peier-pence were 
termed Romacot : this name it is thought to have derived from' 
btireiits being impropriated in former tiinei the nurfihe Hoiif See, 
On tbia spot King Henry the Eighth is reported to Uave had a 
small house, to which, in his visits to Wahbam, he frequently rt-^ 
tked for his private pleasures. 

• r.The Abbey Ciiukch, which was built in the usual form of a 

ett)a8y and consisted oi a nave, transept, choir, ante-chapel, dcc.waa 

- myery connderable structure, and covered an extensive plot of 

'- . fMiid* Some idea may be formed of its extent from knowing the 



■'^ Utaaftioa of Harold's tomb, which Mood abeut ISO feet east from 

f* fte lermioation of the present building, in what was then proba- 

Jf Vy tbe east end of the choir, or rather some chapel beyond it 

' Tbe iotersection of the transept is still visible : above this rose 

llie ancient tower, which contained a ring of five great tuneable 

bells, afterwards purchased by the parish, of the King's Commis- 

siooera. Part of this tower falling through mere decay, the 

£ e 3 remainder 



43§ ESftiXf 

renroiDder was blown gp by underminers,* and tbe whole dioir, 
the tower, transept, and tbe east chapeJ, were demolisbed, so that 
nothing was lefl standing but the west end, which has since been 
fitted upy and made parochial ; and coostitutes tbe present Church, 

This venerable relic* though much disfigured and muttlated, 
contains several interesting and curious specimens of the oroa- 
mented columns, semicircular arches, and other characteristics 
of the Normao style of architecture. Its length, from tbe western 
entrance to the altar, is about nioety feet ; and its breadth, incln* 
ding the side aisles, forty*eight. Tbe body is divided from the 
latter by six arches on each side, supported by pillars : five of 
them are semicircular, and are decorated with rude zigzag orna- 
ments ; the sixth, or western arch, is pointed, and apparently of a 
later construction. The pillars are extremely massive ; and two 
on each side, which correspond, have wavy and spiral indentations, 
similar to those of the nave and choir in Durham Cathedral. 
Above this lower range of arches rise two tier of smaller ones, 
formed and ornamented in the same manner. The upper row of 
these enlighten the root , and at the bottom of the lower tier is tbe 
narrow passage usual in cathedral and conventual Churches, 
called ti\foria. Tbe roof itself is of timber, modern, and but lit- 
tle ornamented; the side aisles are surmcunted by galleries, which, 
with the pews in the nave, have been lately erected for tbe accom- 
modation of the paribhiouers.t 

At the west end is a heavy square tower having the date 1558. 
Xi was repaired tahoxii six years ago ; and a new window was 
then introduced, it is built with stone, is embattled, and rises to 
the height of eighty-six feet. The original charge of building, in 
1558, independent of materials, was 33s. 4d. per foot, for tbe firs^ 
fifty-three feet^ and 40s, per foot, for the remainder ; which ex- 
pence 

• " Anno 1.556. Jiupr'inih» for c<iles to anderminr a pircc ofllie steeple which 
stood a(Ui the Cirsi inil, 'ik/'-~C)iurcliwurdcu»* Accounti. 

f Sc!c« Views of London and its Environs, No. II. 



I was defrayed by the parisboners frbni their stock in the 
cinifeii*bo3c.^ 

From the south side of tlie Church projects a Chapel, formerly 
Oar Lady's now a school- room, under which is a beautiful arched 
cfaanieMioose, or crypt; " the fairest," sa)S Fuller, " ihat ever I 
aaw," Tlns*was once a pUce of worship, hating its priest, &c» 
aad adorned with its altar aod reading desk, the latter of which 
was eovered with plates of silver. f Jn the parish books a receipt 
of 158. is iDserted for old timber sold from the little vestiary of 
St. Oeorge^s Cbapel, but where this was situated is unknown. 
A third little chapel, or out-building, at tlie south-east end of thd 
present Church, is now a repository for rubbish and broketi 
tomb-stones. 

E e 4 Almost 



* This Mock was StquiredTrom rnrious sources, as the sale of stone, lead, 
Md timber/ from the rootiMtic buildings ; but chiefly by the sale of the goodi 
of • brotkerbpod beiongtng to tbis Church, consisting of three Priests, tbre^ 
Choristers, and tvro Sextons, which was not dissolved till the reign of Edward* 
the Sixth. Two hundred and »eventy>oDe ounces of plate, the property oftliif 
fruteniity were sold at several tiroes for 671. 14s. 9d. Alany rich dresses were 
likewise disposed of at the same lime, particulaly a cope of cloth of gold to 
Mr. Denny, for SI. 6s. 8d. together with two altar-cloths of velvet and silk, 
valoc tL The reason of this plate not being seised by the King's conimissioh- 
ers, is thought to have lieen owing to the intercessiouof the Lord Rich, n nft* 
five of this county, on account of the intention of the parish t(» build the above 
tower. Fuller says the l>ells purchased from the old steeple were for some 
years hung in a temporary timber frame erected at the south-east end of tlio 
church-yard, where then stood two large yew trees, and remained there till the 
pveaent one was completed; but that, notwithstanding gifts of timber, &c* 
tbefamU fell so short, that the said bells were ohiigcd to be sold to raise mord 
jBoitey ; so lliat \V«ltha», which formerly had " tteepU-Uis htUt, now bad • 
Uil'Uu steeple.'* Jlittoryaf Waltham Abbey, 

t In Che churchwardens* accounts, mention is made of six annual cbit9, to 
defray the eipences of which, lands were left by will, and a stock of eighteen . 
cown let out yearly to farm for 18s. I'he sum allotted for each t^it was thus 
expended : to the parish priest, 4d. To our lttdy*s priest, 3d. To the churnel 
pf test, Sd. To the two clerks, 4d. To the children, (choristers,) Jd. To the 
iciton« td. To the belhDmn« 2d. For two lapcrsi td. For obiatioa^ 2d. ^c. 



iL40 EME4. 

Almoet every ornameatal. vestige of grandeur and aatiqni^ 

which formerly distinguished the exterior of this Churcfa» has been 

industriously demoiiehed or defaced ; and what remaioSy owes its 

preservation chiefly to the durable nature of its materials. Modi 

of the beauty of the outside is obscured by modem reparations^ 

The windows in the north aisle, which were once semicircular* 

have, in genera), been made square ; a few are pointed* In other 

parts they retain their original shape, but their ornaments am 

filled up with plaster. In the inside, the hand of vtokoce is lets 

conspicuous, but every thing displays marks of the most wretdied 

parsinK>ny. The simplicity and grandeur of the ancient remains 

are much injured by the glare of whitewashing. The brasses 

are torn away from the gravestones* and it is with difficulty 

that their impressions can be traced: two or three monuments, 

more modern, but uninteresting, are all that remain. The 

pews are of deal, mean, and for the most part, unpainted ; the 

floor is badly paved, and the figures of the altar-piece disgrace 

the edifice in which they are placed. The south aisle is but 

little altered, and the windows retain nearly their original forms : 

that to the north has been more modernised. Towards the east 

end of it is a handsome screen of wood, displaying the arms of 

Phillip and Mary. Near this, formerly stood a painting in glass 

of tlie founder Harold, which was destroyed by the puritanical 

xeal of the fanatics about the beginning of the reign of Charles 

the First. The font is apparently very ancient. 

In this Church, besides the founder Harold, were interred 
Hugh N EVIL, Protbo-forester of England, who died fall of years 
about the sixth of Henry the Third, anno 1 222 ; his body, says Mat^ 
thew Paris, was buried in the Church of Weltham, under a noble 
engraven marble sepulchre : John N evil, his son, and the heir of 
his virtues, as well as his revenues, and offices ; (both of these were 
good benefactors to the Monastery:) Robert Pass lew, Archdea- 
con of Lewes, a creature of Henry the Third, much hated in his life- 
time for his exactions and mean compliances, who died in disgrace 
at his house at Wallham in the year 1252 ; and later, Sir Edward 

Denny, 



Esssx. 441 

Deonyt sod of Anthony, Lord Denny ; together with a great num- 
ber of persons^ of rank and authority. 

Harold was interred at the east end of the Abbey Church, at 
the distance of about forty yards from the terraination of what 
forms the present structure. His tomb was plain, but of rich 
grey marbJe ; and had on it a sort of cross fleury, *' much de* 
scanted on by art :" it was supported by pilhirets, one pedestal of 
which Fuller mentions to have been in his possession at the time 
of his writing his History. The epitaph is said to have been only 
these two expressive words, Harold u^lix ;f but Weever gives half 
a dosen lines of barbarous Latin, which are probably genuine, a« 

they 

♦ The anfortnnate Harold offerred up his rows, and prnytrs for victory ia 
Walthan Church previous to his engngement with the Norman iiivuder : in 
which, by the shot of an arrow through the left eye into his brain, he waa 
skui* on Satitrday, the I4th of October Hm;^, having reigned nine montiis nnd 
odd daya. Hit body« by the Aiediation of Itit oiotber Githa, and two religioas 
men of this Abbey, called Oregod and ^tVric being obtained of the Cun^ueror* 
{who for some time denied it burial, afliriuing that it was not fit for hioa whose 
ambition had caused so many funerals.) was, with the bodies of his two bro- 
tbcis, Gfrth and Leojmln, slain at the same time, brought hither, attended by 
aainail dejected remainder of the £ngliah nobiUty« and with great lamenutioa 
aolemnly interred. 

Previous to the contest. Girth, the brother of Harold, with a prophetic forc^ 
boding is said to have -advised him not to set his crown and life on the doubt- 
Ail Issue of a smgle battle ; oaring, if the Monarch's conscience any ways up« 
hrmdtd him fur bis engagcmenta with the Duke of Normandy, to head the 
troops* and take the event of the day on himself, while Harold retired, and re- 
served him for fresh encounters. *' If,*' said he, *' you will commit the charge 
to me, I will perform both tlie part of a kind brother and a courageous leader ; 
for being clear in conscience, I shall sell my life, or dlscumfit your enemy, 
re felicity." But the King not liking his speech, answered, " I will 
> toftt my back with diihonor to the Norman, neither can T in any sort 
difsst the reproach of aba^ mind." This heroic anawer, however, instead of 
promoting emulation among his followers, was imputed by them to obstioacy* 
and the King was abandoned to the thickest of the 6ght, and the kingdom to 
strangers and slavery 

Harskl*e two brothers lost their lives fighting manfully under his banner, 
*• which was brondet (aaith Robert of Gfoucester) with fygiir of a man fvglit- 
ingbiaet al about wyth gold and preciese stons, which Baner afbir the Bataile 
Dec Wiiliam sent to the Pope in Lokne of the victery." fVeeur, p, i>43. 



#4S isssEt. 

tbej are preserved in a very ancient manuscript once belonging t6 
the Abbey* In the reign of Queen EHzabeth, a gardener be* 
longing to the above-named Sir Edward Denny, discovered, io 
digging, a large stone coffin, which, from the fpot where it lay, was 
supposed to contain the royal corpse: the remains, on being 
touched, mouldered into dust. A second coffin within these few 
years has been found near the same place, containing an entire 
skeleton enclosed in lead, which conjecture has indenttfled as one 
of his brothers. 

The history of Waltham Town is so nearly indentified with that 
©f the Abbey, that the completion of the latter leaves but little 
Id record with respect to the former. I'he various streams of the 
river Lea in its neighbourhood, are traditionally supposed to Bow 
in the same channels which the Great Alfred made to divert tbo 
current when he drew off the water, and left tl>e Danish deet on 
ahore. The number of houses ki this parish, as returned under the 
late act, was SQ6; of inhabitants, 18^7. Some of the inhabitants 
derive employment from the manufacture of printed linens, and 
the making of pins : for the latt*ir purpose some large new buildings 
were erected about six years ago. Ou one of the branches of the 
Lea, near the town are some Gunpowder Milis, now in the occu- 
pation of Government : th(>se have been partly rebuilt since tha 
}'ear 1801, when considerable damage was done by the blowing* 
up of the Corning-house. Among the natives of this parish are 
recorded Roger ds, Waltham, Canon of St. Paurs, a writer 
in the thirteenth century : and John de Waltuam, Keeper of 
the Privy Seal to Richard the Second. 

Jn Chingford parish is an ** estate," says Morant, " holdeo of 
theReclor, called SCOTTS MAYIIEWS, alias BainwoODS, 
the owner of which, on every alien<itiony Mrtth his wife, man^sef* 
▼Ant, and maid-servant, each single on a horse, come to the 
Parsonage, where the owner does bis homage, and pays his relief, 
in iDanner following. lie blows three blasts with his horn; car- 
ries a hawk on his fist; his servant has a greyhound io a slip ; 
both- for the use of the Rector. lie receives a cbkken for his 

bawk, 

•Har. WS.S776. 



a peck of oatsfor bis horse, and a loaf of bread for bis 
freybound* They all dioe ; after wbich^ the Master blows three 
blasU with bis bom, and they all depart.** 

HIGH AM HILLS, in the parish of Woodford, is the seat of 
iobn Harmany Esq, who purchased the manor about ten years ago 
of William Hornby, Esq. formerly Governor of Bombay. The 
Hooae, a square brick building with wings, is seated on a high 
ndge of ground, which slopes to the east and to tlie west : In both 
these directtonB the prospects are ex tensive, diversified, and beau« 
tiful. Oo the north-west the eye is directed over a finely wooded 
coaotiy into Herlfondshire; to the west and south-west are the 
bilk of Highgate, and the spires of the Metropolis. The east 
frootoororaands a rich woodland prospect over parts of Hainault 
Forest, the Vale of the Thames, 6cc. which are shut in by a ridge 
of the Kent hills. On the western side of the house is a fiue Park, 
bounded by parts of Kpping Forest to the north and south, and 
by a piece of water at the bottom. The whole is encompassed 
by a winding walk, which, contiguous to the house, is ornament* 
ed with numerous indigenous and exotic trees and shrubs, and is 
afterwards condueted through the Forest. Tlie house was built 
by the lale Anthony Bacon, Esq. who sold it to Governor Hornby. 
Tbe latter gentleman enlarged it, and improved the general fea*^ 
titves of tbe demesne ; but its principal ornamental beauties lm\'e 
been created by the present proprietor. The manor, connected 
wttfa this estate, was, in the time of Edward the Confessor, tbe 
property of Haldam, a freeman. At the time of compiling the 
Domesday Surv^, it belonged to Peter de Valoines, siiicc which 
it has passed through various families. 

Near Wooi>pord BainoE is an Jrtificud SUtU Mannfadofy^ 
tbe property of Sir James Wright, Bart, who has a patent for the 
iaventioo. This slate is used for covering roofs and fronts of 
bouses ; for making pendant frames for hayrickb, and stacks of 
com, and safeguards to preserve them from vermin : it is also used 
for water-pipes and gutters. The buildings where the manti fee* 
ture is carried on, are of this slate, and were erected about thirty 
years ago.* , CLAYBERRY 

• L71009* fariruit of Loaion, V«I. IV. p. S87. 



Mi ESSBX. 

CLAYBERRY HALL, the sent of Jamet Haldi^ E#qJfHli»^ 
ted at a short dirtaoce from Woodibrd Bridge, on a high spot^ 
j^round, commanding some fine prospects of foittt scenery, and 
grasing land. Tbe groandd have been improved, andgrftttlj ^- 
larged, by the present possessor, who purchased the estate and 
mansioa of Luxborough IJtmse, the latter of which he baa p^ed 
down, and annexed the farmer^ with some others, to his owe de- 
mesne. The House is a neat modern building, with a prq|ectiDg 
portico in front : ibe park abounds with fine limber. The estate 
was purchased by Mr. Hatch, in 1789, of Montague Bargoyne, 
Esq. who obuined it by his marriage with a MisS Harvey. 

WOODFORD is a Urge village, oensisling prioctpaUy of neat 
aud respectable houses, mostly occupied by merchants and trades- 
men of London. This manor is the property of Sir James Tyloey 
XiOng, Bartr The custom of the roaaor is that called Borough- 
English, by which the younger son inlierits. In the Church-yard 
is a remarkable Yew tree ; its girih at three feet from the ground, 
is eleven feet, nine inches; at four feet and a half from thegroiiod, 
fourteen ^eet, three inches : the spread of its boughs forms a cir- 
cumference of about 1 80 feet.* Here also iaa lofty marble eo- 
Inan of the Corinthian order, to the memory of *' the ancieDi 
aodknightly family of Godfrey, which fioarisbed n^ny yeartf 
iil the county ofKeyt/' The celebrated Sir Edmuodbary God- 
frey was of this family. 

In an old mansion called HEARTS, at Wodd?oeb Row, re- 
sided the hue Richard Warner, Esq. who planted a boUoical 
garden here, and was very successful in the culture of rare exotics. 
The Plantct IVoo^ordiensts^ written by this gentleman, and pri« 
vately circulated, was the result of the annual hetborisationt of 
himself and acquaintance in this iieighbourhoo<l. The Hbose was* 
built in the year l6l7» by Sir Humphrey lIsDdibrtb, llasterof 
the Wardrobe to James the First; who is said to have been fre- 
quently entertained here when hunting in the forest. The pre* 
sent owner, Jervoise Clark Jervoisei Esq. obtained it by hia mar- 
riage with Mr. Warner's neice. 

Near 

« I^rwD> EnviroUt of Loaion, Vol. IV. p. S3r. 



iss£X, 443 

Near tbe eastern boundary of the parish of Walthamstow, 
and adjointng that of Woodford, is a New House, lately erected 
00 an estate called HEATHCROFT-GRQVfi. It is the proper- 
ty ofi and was built by Charles Cooke, Esq. from designs by 
Mr. Edward Gtfibrd, Architect, tvho has displayed much taste 
and judgement in the elevation of the two fronts, and in the sim- 
pKcity and compactness of tbe interior arrangement. It stands 
on the westerc side of a hill, which commands a finely diversi5ed 
and extensive prospect over the vale of the Lea, and over tlie 
Metropolis. The west or prmcipal front has a semicircular por- 
tico, supported by four Ionic columns, twenty-two feet in height; 
and to the centre of the House, which is nearly square, are at- 
tached two small wings. The grounds, though not extensive, 
have been laid out, and planted with muth taste, by Mr. Sandys ; 
and tbe proprietor btts contended with great difficulty ofsttoation, 
in forming a piece of water of three acres on the side of the hill. 

The FOREST HOUSE, anciently called Goring Hou$e^ from 
having been the seat of Charles Goring> Earl of Norwich, in th^ 
feign of Charles the Second, is a square plain building, now the 
pn^ierty of Samuel Bosanqnet, £«q. whose family acquired it by 
pur^iasefrom Sir John Heathcote, Dart. 

LEYTONSTONE, a chapdryin tbe parish of Leytoo, is a 
long atraggting plBoe> containing many houses, inhabited, lite 
flMMt other vilk^es in this vicinity, by traders and merchants #f 
tbe Metropolis. 

LEYTON, or LOW LEYTON, so named from its sitoation 
on law ground near the river Lea , is a pleasant village, chiefly 
conaitting of respectable houses, emboeomed in trees. Various 
Antiquities have been CcHiod in this parish ; but die evidence of its 
having been 4he site of a Roman station, though stipporied by 
Canadoo, and some other antiquaries, does not appear to be suf- 
ibiently strong to warrant its being positively asserted. Camden 
himdelf speaks with hesitation ; and ihougli wilting to suppose it 
thcf Dmroiiium of Antoninus, from its name Ley ton, or the Town on 
the Lcjf^ retaining some traces of the former appellation, which 
** in British signiBes IVaUrofLey/' acknowledges that, to justify 

this 



44d BSftElU 

tbis optnioBy ibe dist&Dce of Ourolitom from Loodoo (filteea miles) 
Qiuat be regarded aa inaccurate. It is Lherefore inoat probable^ 
tbat the remains discovered at Leyton^aod in its neighbourhood^ 
belonged only to some Roman villas. That the arguments ibr 
the site of Du roll turn being in tbis parish, are not incooleatiblfi 
h eviuoed by the contrariety of opinions respecting that station ^ 
Baxter places it at Waliham ; Salmon, at Cbesbunt ; and Stukeley* 
at Romfo^rd. The following partieqlctrs of Antiquities discovered 
bere are given by Gough''^ from a letter of Mr* I^ethieullier's. 

*^ In the year 17 18, Mr. Gansell (then owner of the maoQl** 
bouse) having occasion to enlarge his gardens^ on digging up 
about two acres of ground^ found under the whole, very largfs 
and strong foundation's^; in one place all stone* with cQUsidtrabifl^ 
arches, an arched door- way with steps down to it, but filled up 
^ with gravel. In many of the foundations were a great quantity 
of Rooum tiles and bricks, mixed with more modern matehalst 
and several rough and broken pieces of bard stooe, aome part of 
which, when polished, proved to be Egyptian granite : two large, 
deep wells, covered over with stone, : and in digging a poiid» aftec; 
the workmen had sunk through a bed of clay about ten feet, they 
met with a great quantity of oak timbert mortised togetkar lika a 
floor, grown very bard and black, but uncertaiii bowAr it raatb* 
ed. Several Roman brass and silver coinSi both Cooaular and 
Imperial, to the tio^of Julius Cssar, were acattared aboot; at 
well as some silver coins, with Saxon characters. The ground wbara 
these diiicoveries were made, acljojns the ChorchrYajd, wbere, 
some time before, a large urn of coarse red earth waa found." 

The Church at Ley ton is of brick, and consists of a nave^cfaattn 
eel, and north aisle, with a tower at tba wfst eod* The interior 
walls are covered with escutcheons and oioaumaBta; many of 
them in commemoration of enuneot parsons, who have baea ut* 
tarred here.t Among the tombs in the chancel, is a meoiocial oi 
the much celebrated Historian and Mttquary, ioav Stbtpb». 

who^ 

♦ Britannia, Vol. IT. p. 50. 

t Sae LyioD'a Environs, Vol, IV. p. 165. 



£$s£x» 447 

wboy by licence of tbe Bishop of Loodou, though ne\*er iodacted, 
held this vicarage during the long period of sixty-eight years. He 
was buried here in 1757$ at the age of ninety-four. la the north 
aisle is tlie monument of CHARLts Goring, Earl of Norwich,, 
who died in 1670 ; and a marble tablet to the raeosory of Mr. 
Wif.tf AM 6owTER» a learned and eminent Printer, whose Life* 
as written by Mr. John Nichols, his apprentice, partner, and 
successor, and at whose charge the tablet was erected, contain^ 
nMny interesting particulars of tlie State of Literature, and of 
Lkarary Characters, through great part of tbe last century. Mr* 
Bowyer died at tbe age of seveuty-four, in the ye^r 1777. At^ 
LeylOD is a Fk^^School for twenty poor hoys of this, and the ad- 
joiaing parish of Walthaoistow ; a Schoql of Industry for thirty, 
girls; and four Sunday Schools, supported by subsoriptioo* in 
which ISO child^eo receive ediieatiou. 

Sir Thomas Roe, the first English Ambassador to the East, 
wm bora in this parish, about the year 1580. In l604 be was 
knighted, and went on a voyage of diecui ery to the West Indies* 
In l6t4 be was sent by James tbe First, on an Embassy to tlie 
Great Mogul, firom ti^hose Court he removed to that of the Grand 
Sigaior» where he obtained very essential advantages for hiscoun- 
try men. On his return, he was made Chancellor of the Garter, 
and a member of the Privy Council. He died in the year l544. 
Tbe cekbrated Alexandrian Manuscript of the Greek Testament, 
of wUch a fac simile was published by Dr. Woide a few yeaia 
ago, vras brought by Sir Thomas into this coantry. 

About one mile fiom Leytou, to the south, is the manor of 
&UCKHOLT, n^re are some remains of an ancient Entrench* 
ment, now nearly obscured by trees, whick have been planted 
Over tbe chief part of the area. It is situated on a small emineece^ 
nsiog from the river Lea, and appears to cotwist of a square em- 
inclosing a circular one. The latter is about thirty- 

t yards in diameter, and is surrounded by a moat, about six 
yavdt in width : the former has traces of a double rampart, <!!:• 

I by a ditch. 

Nat 



44S Tiitx. 

Not far distant, on a branch of the Lea, are tke Tihflv 
BIr LLS, said to have anciently belonged to tlieKaightft Templars, 
jind afterward* to theTCnights of St. John of Jerusalem, In the 
year 1720, they were used for brass works; but are now appro* 
priated to the manufacture of sheet lead. 

The celehrated Bow BRiDaB crosses the river Lea, and is si- 
tuated near the village of Stratford, about two miles to the east 
of London on the great Essex road. Stowe, Leland, and other 
writers, concur in ascribing the first erection of this Bridge ta 
Maud, or Matilda, the Queen of Henry the First ; as well as io 
the derivation of its name of Bim^ or arched Bridge, which it h 
said to have received from its being the first arched stone bridge 
erected in this county. The particulars of its foundation are 
thus related by Stowe. 

'^ This Matilda^ whea she saw the forde to be dangerous for 
^em that travelled by the old foord over the river of Lue, (for 
she herself had been we!l washed in the water,) caused two stone 
bridges to be builded, of the which, one was situated over Loe, 
at the head of the town of Stratford, now called Bow, because 
the Bridge was arched like a bow ; a rare piece of worke ; for be- 
fore that time the like had never been seen in England. Tbeofther 
over the little brooke commonly called Chavelse Bridge. She 
made the King's highway of gravel between the two Bridges i^ and 
g^ve certain manors to the Abbess of Berking ; and a roiU, com- 
monly called Wiggon or Wiggen Mill, " for the repayring of the 
Bridges and highwaie. But afterwards Gilbert de Mouotfichel 
fonnded the Abbey of Stratford in the marishes, the Abbut whece- 
of, by giving a piece of money, purchased to himself the maDon 
and mill aforesaid^ and covenanted to repair Uie Bridget and way» 
lill at length he laid the charge upon one Hugh Pratt, who lived 
near the Bridges and causeway, allowing him cei taie loaves a£ 
bread daily ; and by the alms of passengers he kept them in dee 
repair ; as did his son William after him> who, by the assjatance 
of Robert Passelew, the Chief Justice in the time of Henry the 
Third, obtained these tolls — Of every cart carrying com, wood, 
coaly &C. one penny; of every one carrying tatd, two-pence; 

and 



cssEX. t49 

dnd of one c&rryiog h itad Jem, eightpeoce ; aud put op a bar 
with locks on Lockebregg? : bat Philip Bastet and the Abbot 
of WalthaiDi haviog broke the bar rather than pay the toll, the 
Bridges and causeway remained unrepaired; In the mean time 
Eleanor, Queen of King Henry the Third, caused' them to be 
mended at her own charge by William the keeper of her Chapel ; 
and WtlKam de Carteton k^pt them afkrivards in repair, till a 
new agreement between the Abbess and Abbot took place ibr that 
purpose."* 

The teoants'of the abbey lands seem, in the seveotesnth century^ 
to have been unwilling to fulfil their agreement ; for in 1 69 1 
an information was laid in the King^s Bench against Buckeridgef 
and others, ft>r not repuring a high^way, raiime temtnt, by 
reason of their holding, or tenure, between Stratford and Bow*: 
It was tried at the bar by an Essex jury, The^ evidence lor tho 
King was, that Maud, the Queen of Henry the First, built this 
Bridge, &c (to the tenor before mentioned :) that at the Dissolu- 
tion, the Stratford Abbey lands being vested in the Crown, werei 
granted to Sir Peter Mewtis, who held them charged for the re- 
pairing of thb highway ; and from him, by several mesne assign- 
ments, they came to the defendants : these facts being proved, 
the possessors of the abbey lands were ordered to abide fay the 
tenuraf 

The many necessary reparations Bow Bridge has undergone in 
a coarse of centuries, render it impossible to say what part of the 
original structure is at this time remaining. The present Bridge 
consists of three arches, and bears evident marks of antiquity 4 
A new cut, across the meadows and low grouiKis, was made 
from the river Lea about twen^<^five years ago; by which several 
miles were saved in the course of the navigation to Ware, in 
Hertibrdsbire. 

Vol. V. JULT, 1804. F f WEST- 

^ Stows*t AnDsit, adit iMt, p. 159. 
i t Bioraat*t EMet, Vol. I, p. SO. 

tSdta Viswf, No. 7. 



i5# , ESSEX. 

WEST-HAM, » )mtfft ViUag^ pltasaolly sfittiniedateutfoiir 
miles from Wbiteckapel, had. fMrmerly a markft^ Ihe diarlei 
for which was procured^ '^^ i353» by Richard d6 Maotficbet^ 
whose anoesior, William de Montfichet^ bad built am Abbbt «I 
Sttt^TFOED*LANGtHOEVK, ift ibw parisb, in tbe year U35^ 
and endowed il with the Biaiic»r of Wes^-Hain, and ofcbec f twlwifc 
On the Dissolution, it became the property of the Crown; but 
has since beien divided, and passed through varioimfaQMUes* Tbe 
Abbey was founded for Cistercian Monks, and dedicated ta tbe 
Virgin Mary, omI All Saints. "" This houae," sdys Ldaod, '' first 
sett among tbe low uiarishes, waa after, with sore fludes, deiacyd, 
and removid to a ceU, or graunge,. loogynge to it, eanliyd Bar* 
ffeitedtf in Estsex, a mile or more from Bitierka. Theamfloks re^ 
maimd at Burgiestede untyll entrete was made that they nigbl 
hwe some helpe othtt wyse. Then one ef the Bicbarda^. Kings of 
England, toke the ground and Abbaye of Straiford iata hb pfo- 
lection, and ro^cdifietigeii, brom^^ the fomyde moahs atftyne 
to Stratford, wh^e amongfB the mairsches they re^inhafa^^/'* 

In the year ld07» the Abbol of Stratford-Laog^home waa snm- 
mooed to ParHament : and in 1 335, John da Bohua, Earl of Here*- 
ford and Essex, Utg|i Constable of England, was buried mtfae 
Abbey. On the Disaohition, its revenues were valued at 6SiL 
3s. ]jd. annually ; and its possessions were granted, by Henry 
tbe Eighth, to Sir Peter Mewtis^ or Meantis, who bad^baen Am- 
bassador to the Court of France. Henry Meantis, Eeq. a tleaean* 
dant of Sir Peter's, alienated tbe site of tbe Afc^sry, wi^ the Ab- 
bey mills, and 240 acres of land, to Sir John Nults, in tbe year 
l633« Since tfaat period it has been possessed by dif&rentfamir 
Ties. Margaret,^ the unfortunate Ooontesa of Salisbury, wkooi the 
remorseless limry tiie Eighth caosed to be beheaded in heroU 
age, on a charge of high treason, appears to have Maided within 
4be precincts of the Abbey at the time of its dissdufion. 

The chief remains of the monastic buildings now standing, is a 
brick gateway, which wae formerly the entrance to the conventual 

precincts, 

• iHnemry, VoF. VIV^'9. 



precInctrTy and an omainented arch, wbieb appears to hai^ beta* 
the entrance to the Chapel. ^ The foundationa of the Conventf 
were dug up, and removed, bj the present proprietor ; in ddng 
oi which, no antiquities worthy of note were found, except m 
smalt onyx sea), with the impress of a gHfHn, set io srfrer, oi^ which 
is the fbllowiog legend, * Nuncio vobis gauditm et Mlutem ; per- 
haps the prioiy seal of one of the Abbots,"* The site of the pre- 
cincts was moated, and contained about sixteen acres: the Abbe/ 
stood about three fxirlongs south-west from the present Church. 

The Churchy defeated to All Saints, i« a spacious edifiee^ con« 
sisting of a nave, chancel, and side aistes to both: at the west 
end is a square tower, seventy-four feet in height. Various emi-» 
nent persons have been buried in the interior, which contains se^ 
vera! handsome monuments. In the Chnrch-Yard was interred 
GfioaoE Edwards, Esq. F. R. S. who was born at ^ratford* 
Laogthome, and became celebrated for his aci(uaintance with 
Natural History, but particularly that of birds : bcsides^ various 
papers in the Philosophical Transactions, he published seven quarto 
volumes on Subjects in Natural History, upwar* of COOof which 
had never been before described. He died in the year 177df at 
the age of eighty-one. 

Numerous benefactions have been made in this parish for cha« 
ritable purposes. A Charity School was instituted here, iu the 
year I7^> for ten boys ; but the endowments having been greatly 
increased by bequests from different persons, forty boys and twen- 
ty girls are now educated and clothed ; and on leaving the school, 
receive five pounds each as an apprentice fee : the expences are 
defVayed with the interest of the capita), aided by voluntary gifts, 
and collections made at an annual chanty sermon* A School for 
clothing and educating forty poor girls has also been established 
in this parish, under the injunctions of the Will, dated I76lf 
of Mrs. Sarah Bonnell; who left 30001. in various stocks, for these 
purposes. West-Ham parish is divided into three wards, bearing 
the appellations of Church-Street, Stratford Langthome, and 
Ff2 Plaistow: 

• LjtMif iKfiroos^ Vol. IV. p. 949. t«t. 179«. 



45t MSAX. \ 

Pki«tov : tbo colleciWa number of inbabiUnts U 5485 ; of hooses 
1 105 : many of the former are employed in some manufactories of 
pnattog calicoes. The Wat-Ham WaUr^workt^ built oo the river 
I^ea, are worked by a steam, and a water engine : they supply 
^ater tothe villages of Stradford-Langtborne^Bromleyy and Bow; 
Stepney, Bethnal Green, and the lower part of WbitechapeL 

At GREEN-STREET, a hamlet in East-Ham parish, about 
one mile north-west from the Church, is an ancient mansion, with 
a brick tower adjoining, in which, according to the current tra- 
dition, Anne Boleyii, Queen of Henry the Eighth, was at some 
period confined. This tale is evidently untrue, as the tower is o' 
more modern date. The mansion itself, is supposed to have beei^ 
the residence of the NeviUSf of whom Earl Edmund was buried 
in East-Ham Church. It afterwards belonged to Sir Francis Hoi- 
croft, and still later to the Garrardt: it has since passed through 
various families. 

The Church at EAST-HAM, dedicated to St. Mary Magdalen, 
is supposed, from its form, to be of considerable antiquity. Like 
the Churches of the primitive Christians, most of which were ori- 
ginally Pdgan Temples, or Basilicot, it consists of a sanctuary, an 
ante- temple, and a temple; or, as they are now called, a nave and 
two chancels. The upper chancel, or sanctuary, is semi-circular at 
the east end, and has narrow pointed windows : on the south side is 
a piscina, with a double drain, divided by a column forming two 
plain pointed arches, between which is a bracket for a lamp. On 
the south wall of the lower chancel are several Saxon arches, with 
zig-zag ornaments, which appear to have extended into the i^ave.* 
Behind the coomiunion table is a handsome monument to the me- 
mory of Edmund Nevill, Lord Latimer, and (reputed) se- 
venth Earl of Westmoreland cf that family : the effigies represent 
the Earl and his Lady, Jane, Countess of Westmoreland, in kneel- 
ing attitudes. Several other distinguished personages have been 
interred in the Church and Church^Yard ; and among them the re* 
nowned antiquary Dr. Stukeley, who, as appears by the re^ 

gister, 

♦Lyioiis* Eoriroos, Vol IV. p. Ue, 143, 



Btsix. 453 

gitter, was buried in March 1765. The spot choaeo fer his bu- 
lial-place was fixed on by himself, during a visit to the Rer. Bin 
Sims, • former vicar of this parish : by his own request, the turf 
was hud smoothly over his grave, without any monument."* 

BARKING, 

Distinguished in the maps as a market town, though now 
undeserving of the name, is supposed to have derived its present 
appellation from Burgk-ing, the Fortification in the Meadow, 
some considerable entrenchments being still visible in the fields 
adjoining a farm called UphaU^ about a quarter of a mile north 
from the town. The form of this entrenchment " is not regular* 
but tending to a square ; the circumference measures 1 792 yards : 
the inclosed area contains forty-eigbt acres, one rood> and thirty- 
four perches. On the north, east, and south sides, it is single 
trenched ; on the west side, which runs parallel with the river 
Roding, and at a short distance from it^ is a double trench, and 
bank : on the south side is a deep morass ; but on tbc north and 
east sides the ground is dry and level, the trench, from frequent 
ploughing, being almost filled up. At the north-west corner was 
an outlet to a very fine spring of water, which was guarded by an 
inner work, and a high keep, or mound of earth."! 

Ffa Whatever 



* LysoDS* Enrirons, Vol. IV, p. 148. 

1 QaoCed by Lyions from • Mtnuacript Historf of Barklns, writt«a by Mr. 
LcthieoUkr. rad now in Uie potitwion of Edward Uu)»e, Esq. who msrried 
Mr. Lli Bieoe. " Mr. LethienUicr Uiinks that this eotreQcbnietU was toolargf 
lor a canp; hia opinion tboreforo it, that it was the site of a Roown town , but 
be cooletses that no traces of buildings have been found on the spot, and ac« 
conntsfor it on the supposition that the materiab were used for building Bark- 
ing Abbey, and for repairing it after it was burnt by the Danes. As a confir* 
■aHoo of this opinion, be relates, that, npon Tiewing the rains of the Abbey 
Cbarcbf in tf 50* ha found the foundation of one of the great pillars composed 
in part of Roman bricks ; a coin of Magnentius was found alco among the 
0008.** XysMt* Jl^avifMs, V^t. JV. p. 58. 



Wkfti^cr may hftte beon tbe origiti of Barkiog^its ^xtnteqofl&oe 
in aA«r tunes was certainly owing lo its Abbey, tke fouBding of 
vUcfai aad subsequent cstabHsluiMiiCy attimclsd an incrcaaiog po«- 
pulation. Tliough xMice extremely floitrishiag, scaroelj any ves- 
tiges of this Abbey are remaining ; nor have any of the buildings 
been standing withm tbe memory of man. The ensuing particu- 
lars of its history are narrated by Lysons, from the Manuscript, 
by Mr. Lethieullier. 

'' Baukimo Abbey, dedicated to the Virgin Mary, is said to 
liave been tbe first Convent for women- established in this king- 
dom. It was founded about the year 670, in the reign of Sebbt 
and Sighere, Kings of the East Saxons, by St. ErkenxDald, Bishop 
of London, in compliance with the earnest desire of his sister Ethel- 
burgh, who was appointed the first Abbess. The founder was 
nearly allied to the Saxon Mouarchs, being great grandson of 
Uffa, the first King, aud second son of Anna, the seventh King of 
the East Angles : he was also the first Bishop who sat in the See 
of London after the building of St. Paul's Church by King Ethel- 
tert. The monastic writers speak in very high terms of his piety 
and ?eal in the discharge of his episcopal functions ; and tell us, 
that, when he was grown weak through age and infirmities, he 
was carried about in a Utter from place to place throughout his 
diocese, constantly teaching and instructing the people till his 
death, which happened about the year 685, whilst be was on a 
visit to his sister Ethelburgh, at Barking. After his death, great 
disputes arose (as we are informed by the monkish annalists) be* 
tween the Nuns of Barking, the Convent of Chertsey, and the Ci. 
ti^ens of London, about the interment of his body, eadi cbuoiing 
•D exclusive right to the bones of the venerable prelaie. Nor 
was this dispute terminated without the intervention of a miracle, 
which declared in favor of the Londoners, who having obtained 
the body, bore i^ off in triumph : on the road they were stopped at 
Ilibrd and Stratford by the floods : upon this occasion the histori- 
ant record another miracle, by which a lafeand easy passage mm 
procured for tbe corpse of tlie holy man and krta stteDdants. Tba 
Bishop was canonized, and fref[uent miracles were fiaid to bo 

wrought 



455 

i at ba toiBb. So in^ly wm liis tneinoTy revered, tbat^ 
io the rogB of StepbeOf a tnogniBo e nt tkrtae was erec ted agmst 
the east ivall of St. Paul's Caihe^U into wfaicb his bones were 
Iraoalated nitb great solemtuty ; and vast sums were expended, 
Aom tioM to. time, m iHbraiog it with gold, silver, and predoas 



** Ethelburgb, tbe founder's sister, before-anentioned, was tbe 
first Abbess : tbe ttoie of her dtoth is oneertatn; but she was bu* 
lied at Barking, and teceived tbe honor of canonisation. Her 
aoccesBor Hildelitba, wbo bad been sent for by the founder 
o«t of Fraooe, to tnstmct bis sister Etbelburgh in tbe duties of 
ber oew stetioo; she also obtained a place antiong fhe fiombh 
Sainli^ Allor ber, several Abbesses of tbe royal blood succeeded ; 
Oawytb,da«ghterof £difntb, Xing of S^^optbumberland ; Ethel- 
borgb, wife to Ina, King of tbe West Saxons, wbo was canonized ; 
And Cotbboigb, sister of King Ina, wbo bad been a Nun at Bark« 
iDg in tbe time of St HildeUtba : she died about tbe middle of the 
cigfatb •eeotarj. Notbasg more is known of this Monastery till 
tbe year €70, when it was burnt to tbe graund by the Danes, and 
tbe Nuns .ehber slain or dispersed. It lay desolate about one 
bnodfod years, being within the territories which were ceded by 
AlAred to Oormund, the Danish Chief. About the middle of tbe 
tenth century it was rebuilt by King Edgar, as an atonement for 
bis having violated tbe chastity of Wulf hilda, a beautiful Nun at 
Wiltoa, pAtoak be appoimed Abbess : he restored the Monastery 
to its former splendor, and endowed it w«th large revenoes. After 
Wirff bilda bad presided Over the Convent many years, some dis« 
seotioas asoae between ber and the Priests of Barking, who re- 
ferred tbetr catiae to EUrsda, tbe widow of Edgar, and mother of 
Etheked, whom they i«i|oesied to «^ Wulf bida, «iid aasome 
tbegovemowDthera^lf; a proposal to which she readily assented. 
Wttlf hida retired to a religious bouse whkb she bad foonded at 
H orloo, ID DevoBsbire ; and tbe Qoeen patting herself at tbe bead 
of this Monastery eo n t im ied to preside over it, as the historians 
bform us, twenty years ; at Jibe end of which term, a violmt sick* 
\ ieiging ber at Barking, she repented of tbe injury she had 
- Ff.4 done 



45£ 

done to Wul(hil<Ub nni re^iMtated ber in her former sitnalioa. 
WiUfbildAy seven years afterwards, died at London, wUtber sh* 
had retired to avoid the Danish army, then invading England, 
and was enrolled among the Rombh Saints, being the fifth Ah* 
bess who bad received the honor of canonizaiion. At the time of 
the Norman Conquest, Alfgiva, a Saxon lady, who had been ap« 
pointed by Edward the Confessor, was Abbess. 

*' Tbe historians. Carte and Brady, relate, that William the 
Conqueror, soon after his arrival in England, retired to Barking 
Abbey, and there continued till the fortress he had begun in Lon« 
don was completed : hither, they say, whilst preparations were 
making for V\s coronation, repaired to him, Edwin, Earl of Mer* 
cia, Morcar, Earl of Northumberland, and many others of the 
nobility and great men of the land, who swore fealty to him, and 
were reinstated in their possessions. Others (among whom are 
Simon Dunelmeosis, and Roger Hovedun) affirm, that Berkhamp- 
stead was the place of the King's abode ; but there are strong cir- 
cumstances in favor of the former opinion. BerkhamMead Castla 
was not built till after the manor was given to Earl Morton by the 
Conqueror; yet, admitting that a mansion might have previously 
stood there fit for a royal residence^ the pioxunity of Barking to 
Loudon, certainly rendered that place a mdre convenient station 
lor the new Monarch. 

^< After the death of Al%iva, Maud, Uenty the First's Qiteeo, 
assumed the government of the Convent ; and it is not improba* 
ble this connection with Barking induced her the more readily to 
build the Bridge at Bow.^ Maud, wife of King Stephed, followed 
the example of her aunt, on the death of Agnes, the Abbess^ in 
11 36 ; but she soon resigned the charge to Adeliza, sister of Paris 
Fits- John, a Baron of considerable note, who was slain in a bat- 
tle near Cardigan. During her government, Stephen, with his 
Queen, and the wbole Court, were entertained for several days at 
the Abbey* Her successor was Mary, sister to Thomas i Becket, 
Archbishop of Canterbury, whose appointment is said to have 
^n intended, by Henry the Second, as an atonement for the in* 

jostice 



justice he had done her fkmily, wha were batiMitfil tbe kiagdoni 
as a pnntshment for the Prelate's insolence. 

'^From the time of Mary ^ Beckett bat few reinai1cab1eoccur«> 
rences are connected with the history of this Abbey. The moat mar 
terial, as it affected the interest of its inmatesi was a great inuo^ 
dation, which happened about the year 1 376, and broke down tJtm 
banks of the Thames at Dagenham. It is first aaentioned in a 
record of the ensuing year, when the Convant petitioned that 
they might be excused from contributing an aid to the King^ at 
the time of a threatened invasion, on account of the eapenoes thej 
bad been at in endeavoring to repair their damages. The pdea 
was allowed; and the same reasons were generally pleaded witli^ 
success, as an exemption from contributions of a like nature^ 
In 1380, and 1382, the Abbess and Convent state, that their in* 
come was then diminished 400 marks per annum, by inandation^ 
and that they had scarcely sufficient left to maintain tbem. In 1 409, 
they state, that they expended 120001. to no purpose, in endea* 
voring to repair their banks. The next year it was set forih« 
that the revenues of the Convent were sunk so low, that none of 
the ladies had more than fourteen shillings per annum, for 
clothes and necessaries* In consequence of these several peti- 
tions, they obtained frequent exemptions from taxes, and other 
burthens; writs to impress labourers to work at their banks, and 
licence to appropriate certain Churches to the use of the Convents 
Eleanor, Duchess of Gloucester, retired to Barking Abbey after 
She naurder of her hosband in 1 397* and died there in 1399; hav« 
tng, as some say, professed herself a nan. Daring the time of 
the Queen Dowager, Catharine de la Pole, £dmund and Jasper 
Tudor, her sons by Owen Tudor, were sent to be educated at 
this Abbey, a certain salary being allowed to the Abbess for 
their maintenance. 

'< The nuns of Barking were of the Benedictine order. The 
Abbess was appointed by tlie Ring till about the year 1900, 
when, by the interference of the Pope, the alection was vested in 
lee Convent, and confirmed by the royal autbority. The Abbess 

of 



flffiackiugwii OM ofUia four whowtreBarpoetiet'iaqghtof 
their station; for beipf^ potBetsed of ibirUea KoigMs' &m ukI m 
haUf'^tmhM her Itndsof 4he Kit^ by a iiaroi^y aud, though her aez 
yiavoatcd her froiai havijBig a seat in Parliamentt oratiendiqg;the 
King in ihe wars, yet she always furnished her quo^ ef men, and 
luMd preeedency over the A hbessea. Id her Convent sjie al vajsli- 
vedin greatslaAe; her househoUl consisied of Chapkttnssan Esquire^ 
fieatleosen, GeiiUe«oaieo» Yeomen, Grooms, a Clerks a Yeo* 
fluaii^Jaok, & Groom-Cook, a Pudduig-^Vile," dec. f 

iBaricti^ Akhey mm surrendered to Henry the Eighthin Novem- 
ier^ 1539, ^"^'oa an anmial pension of fiWmarks laas gpsanted to 
Dofothy Barley, the la^ Abbess, aad various smaller peooMna tS 
Ifaa nuns, who were then thirty in •umb0r. The site of Ihe oon* 
ventaal bnildingB, with the demesne lands o( tfa^ Ahbey> were 
granted, by Edward she Sixth, to £d««ard Fynes, Lord Clinloiw 
who iht nest day conveyed ihem to Sir Richard Sackville* Since 
that penad they have passed through various lamihes io the widow 
of the late Joseph Keeltag £$q. The manor of Barking, which 

probably 

-* The olbor tkree were Wilton, SbaAecbary, and St Mary« Winciieiter. 

t ^ Aanng the Cottonkin Manvtcripu in tbe Bnthh Muaepis, is «ie cati> 
Hied ' Hie Cbwge Jougjnge Co the Office of CtUarttt of £arking," in which ii 
fully itated the sums she was to collect, with the nature and quantity of tbs 
provisions she was to laj in, and the manner and proportion in which thej wers 
to he distributed. Among other things, she was to < bake with elyt on Scbere* 
Thursday,' (tlie Thursday after Lady 'day 3) to provide % peee of wli«te, aiMl 
three galioni of aillk ibr frimeto on St. Aibovgfa't (EcfaalbBrgli'i) day; tlMS 
galkaa of gtda qW Sot besons ; marybonet ta aake white woftyt j criptit and 
cr o iB-k aUt at Shroftyde ; oontes for tbe Convent at .Sbroftyde; twelve aaibbe- 
cles, and nine schafl eles, to bale on Scheca-Thnraday ; one potel tyre for tks 
Abbess the same day, and two gallons of red wj^ ne for tbe Convent ; half a 
goose for each of the nuns on the feast of the Assumption, and the same on St. 
Alburgh't day ; for every lady a lyvercy of sowse at Martinoia^ a whole heg% 
Ibwse (ttoatiidng of the face, feet, and gtoin) t» aerve diree ladiet. She was 
to pn^ to every lady in the Convent 9d. a year for raschew-«]ver ; (moiiey la 
key kntler -^ dd. for her cripsis and Qrop-kaket at Shroftyde ; 1 }d. a week for 
ey-silf or (egg^money) from Michaelmas to Allhallows day ; from that day till 
Baster l}d. a week ; and from Easter to Michaelmas l|d.' The whole baa beca 
piloted in DsgdAlc^s Monasticoa." Ly%Qn%* Envircns, Fal. IV. p, ^. 

9 



IMobiUyfenBed part of tbe origiiial ^nAcmmmi^ti^Abbey^ 
coiithitfpd in ihe Crown from tbe D'mokitioa till Ihe yeiur l^2<, 
wfaeo Charles tbe Seoood eold it to Sir Tbonm Fanabaw, for iko 
«inn of 2000L reaerviog % fee farm reiit of xStii, whick it aov 
payable to tbe JSIarl of Sandwich. Tbe oiaaor baa become tbe 
property of Edward Hube, Esq, in rigbt^of Mary^bis wife, niece 
to tbe late Smart Letbieuliier, Esq. who obtained it by purchase 
4o tbe year 1754^ "The whole revenues ^f the Abbey, accordiag 
Ao Speedy were ^ued» on tbe Suppresatoo, at lOMK 6s. Sid. 
annisally* ... ^ 

Tbe jibbcy Churchy and cont>en/«a/ ^jii/i/ur^f, occupied an exIeaH 
f ive plot of ground, tboogjh hardly any reaoains are now stand- 
log. Tbe site of tbe former may be seen just witbout the north 
wall of tbe present Church-Yard. Mr. LetbiettUier, by employ* 
tog persons to dig among the ruins, procured a ground ptsn * of 
Ibis edifioe, from which ii eppears to have been constructed on 
ihe general plan of Cathedral Churches. Tbe whole leogtb, (roto 
east to west, was 170 feet; the length of the choir, sixty /eet; 
tbe length of tbe trana^pt, 150 feet; the breadth of tbe jsav» 
and side aisle, ibrty-four fe^t; tbe breadth of the transept, twett- 
ty-eigbt feet ; the diameter of the base of tbe columns that sup- 
ported the rooC was eigiht feet and a imlL Among tbe rnioa an 
ancient fibula, and a gold ring, have been found ; both of wbkb 
Xthe former from its legsods, tbe l^AUtv from tbe Salutation ^ 
ibe Virgin Mary, eng^ven on it) seess to have belonged to some 

of the inmafias of tbe Couvent.t 

At 

* Smee engmted ibr Lyioni* EnviroiM, Tol. IV. 

t '' Iq the Harlcinn collection, at the British Moseunij is in aocicot sunrey 
o( the manor of Barking, without date, and imperfect. In this sarrey, tbe 
services due JTrom the inferior tenants to tbe Abbess and Convent are stated at 
large. One of the tenants, named Robert Gerard, was, among other service^ 
to gather a foil measure of nuts; called a pjfhot, four of which should make % 
bushel ; to go a long journey on fool, once a year to G>lche5tcr, Chelmsford, 
Fly, or the Hkc distances, on the business of the Convent, carrying a pack ; 
and other shorter journey, such as Brentwood, kc, maintaining himself upoo 
pie road. He was to pay a fine for the marriage of his daughter, if she morried 

beyond 



'460 ESAKX. 

* At Ibe entrance of Barking Church- Yard is an ancieBt equaic 
embattled gmewthf^ with octagonal tarrets, also embaltledy riaiog 
from the ground on each side. The entrance arch is pointed; 
above it is a niche, with a canopy and pinnacles. The apaiV 
inent over the entrance is, in an old record, named, ''The Chapel 
of the Holy Rood lofte at te-gate, edified to the Honor of Almtghtj 
God, and of the Holy Rood.'^ Against the wall in this Chapel 
IB a representation of the Holy Rood, or Crucifiction, in alto- 
relievo. This structure is generally called Fire^BeU'Cate^ from 
its anciently containing a bell, which Mr. Lysons imagines to 
have been used as a curfew-belL 

The parochial Churchy dedicated to St. Margaret, consists Of a 
nave, a chancel, a south aisle, two north aisles, running parallel 
to each other the whole length of the building ; and a square em- 
battled tower, standing at the west end. Against the sooth waM 
of the chancel is a monument to the memory of Sir Charles 
Montagu, brother of tlie first Earl of Manchester, who died in 
.1625, at the age of sixty-one. The figure of Sh- Charles is repi^- 
sented sitting in a tent, with his head reclined upon a desk, on 
^hicb are his helmet and gauntlets: the entrance of the tent n 
guarded by centinels; and near it stands a page with his horse. 
Various other monuments, and many funeral inscriptions, arc 
conUined in this structure ; and near the steps of a small Chapel, 
at the east end of the north aisle, is a marble slab, with a muti- 
lated epitaph, supposed, by Mr. LethieuUier, to have been in> 
scribed in memory of Mauritiia, who was made Bishop of Lon* 
don in the year 1087. Mr. Lysons admits it to be of that age, 
but imagines it to have commemorated the interment of some 
other person, who was buried during the Bishop's life. The re- 
mains of the inscription are as follows: 

••••AVAXCII XPX LVKDONBNSIS AlFOITB AbDB BB •••••• 

«v0it,0iva»#v0^i0>»,^« Thr*»* 

bcy«nd tbe limiti of tb« nanor, otheririse to make bis peact with the Abbe« 
•s weiras b« could ; and if his daogbter ii«s to haT« a bastard chUd, he was to 
wake the best terms that he could for the fiae called Kyldwyte: it appears 
al», that he conld not sell his ox, fed bjr hUnself, without the Abbess's per* 
mission. Some of the tenants were obliged to watA and guard thicres in the 
AbWff9*s prison," 



lltfee Cbantries w^ footuM here previoos to the Diisolutkm ; 
but they do not appear to lytve ai^ partica)ar eodowments. The . 
Cborch itself was appropriated to the Abbey^and the Vicar waa- 
dieted bj tbe Lady Abbess.* 

A ^lacious aiMi conveineot H^orkkouu Was built at Barking in 
1787# aoder tbe powers of an Act of Parliameot, obtained tbe 
preceding year ; within this are appartments appropriated to tbo 
education of poor children. The above act contains some regu* 
lations respecting the wharf slI Barking Creek, on the River Ro« 
diog> which was made navigable to Illbrd about the year 1730 ; 
and supplies the neighbourhood with coals, timber, &c. Near 
tbe wharf is a very large flour mill, that formerly belonged to. 
Barking Abbey. The river flows in two In^nches on the westsida 
of the town, and about two miles below unites with the Thames* 
Tbe fishing trade is carried on to a very considerable extent, and 
brnishes employment for many of the inhabitants* 

Tbe Market House was built by Queen Elisabeth ; and, together 
with the market-place^ was granted, by Charles the First, in. 
J6i6, to Samuel and John Jones, who tbe same year conveyed 
them to Thomas Fanshaw and others. In l679. Sir Thomaa 
Faoshaw gave the profits of the market, and of an annual fair, 
held on the twenty-second of October, to the poor of the parish ; 

but 

a f' la the year 145^« after several disputes between Catherine de la Pole, 
and Sir John Greening, then Vicar, an award was made to ttie^following effect ; 
ttmt, instead of a ho|^ » 0Mie, a aheese« and a l«rob« whicb tbe Vicar bad 
heretofore received of the Iiady Abbess, he and his successors slioald have tbreo 
yards of good cloth, two ells broad ; provision every day in the Convent for 
biflMslf, and his aervanc, so long as he should not be of a Utigiovs and oanten- 
tio«a disposition, he sitting at the chaplain's table, and histtervant with the 
dotnestict of the Convent: but if tbe said Vicar shoold, withoat licence of the 
Lady Abbew, or her depaty, have any familarity or ditcoane with any one 
m Um of the muis^ heaboald, for the first offence, (aftn proper adnuNiition,) 
laae Ins di«t form week ; after a seeood admeeitioiw forlekanootb's diet ; and 
if lie sheeld ofiead % third time, he sheald be ezckded tbe Cdnvent dering 
lila, nalfureatered by tbe Lady Abbess's speoialgrace andftrvor. In all othaa 
aeepacts be was to be satisfied with the ptpfits of tbe vicarage ; which were Ihca 
▼aiaed at %7L 5s. Sd. per annom."-r£.yfeiM* Envimt, tfkdfnm an aacsanl 
Britimg n^m in tke pcumion of the Viear of Barking. < i 



4Bv zstnSL 

but «be totl» am now of iiftlei vahrey belag let| siHGe t^ 4ecfio6 
<lf the nmrket^ for 1 (H^ per aanun. Tbe psrUh of Burking is 411- 
iritfed into (bur wsrtft, each of wAikh hat dislinet oflteers. The 
popolation of Barking-town ward, as ascertained under the 'kte 
act, was 1 585 ; the nomber of bouses 39S. S^eral Sajton cotaSp 
among which was one of King' Btirgred, are mentioned by Mr^ 
Lysons to have been found towards'f besouthreast part of tbe town, 
in the earfy part of tbe last century. 

' Several hundred acres of land in BaHbing, add tbe adjoning 
parishes of Little ITftOTd, East- Ham, Leyton, and Waaaled, art 
appropriated to tbe growtbof potatoes for tbe supply of tbe Lwh 
don maHcets. The prbfitsr are considerable^ aa the produce fnm 
ttte mode of cultivation, and tfbe qualrty of die soH, is abiiadant 
The general practice, near Ilfbrd, rs to select tbe smallest potatoes 
of the precedhrg year's growth, or to cut tbe large onee ittto pieces^ 
leaving two or three eyes in each ; these are ptanied regalariy ia 
the spring; and in October the potatoes are generally taken op, 
and bou^d for winter consumption,* 

EAbTBURY HOUSE, about one mile south-east from Barit- 
mg, is an ancient and very spacious brick edifice, having octan* 
gnhr towers, and curiously ornamented cbimnies : some of the 
rooms are paints in fresco. This mansion is associated by trar 
dition with tbe Gunpowder-plot : one account asserting that the 
Conspirators held their meetings here ; and another, that it was 
tfie residence of Lord Monteagle when be reoei^^ tiia Latter thai 
led to tbe discovery. Prevkiue to the Disaokitioii, the BMnor of 

Eastbory 

* The potatoe was kitrodaoed into £ngluMl about tbe laltBr ead oC dio ik« 
teendi contwj, and was then cultKrated oaAy m botanical gardeoi mmtfMktmtf^ 
Genrnrdoboerras, that itttaate and virtaas we ec nearly tiaMlarto tlioofto(tb» 
BaUta Hupmmmm, then in much esteem in tbit oonnty. When Ptekmna 
pubUafatd Ilia *« Paraditot TcrreMf ii^" oar coMnioa potatoei^ tkem eaUe^r So* 
$Um Vlrginimtt, wem beOMOO onee eoounoar end were peepaied the mmm wayi 
m tbe S pen i i h potatoes, being roaatei under tbe enibera» and eetea wtib Mcb 
mdingar; or beked witti wartmr, »ogart and iplee*< Of tidied by lU c eii 
it-ndceie; m all wfaioh wayn^ aa^ft Pkrltwiaoii» tbe VifghOaa polnsee, beia^ 
dvasMd, naketfa akaoit a* deKcAte meqt etthe fbnner. L^m^ SimrmHh r^U 
IT. p. 57d. 



lo fllNfc y wi0 y#»c6t <rf tbe^ yattggww erf Barkmg ilibbey; ttdoit 
baldiig» to- the Sterry fainUif , 

At GREAT ILFORD^ a cbapelry m Barking f ariri^ it «« 
Hospital f founded in tbe raign of Staphen, by Adeliza, Abbess of 
Barking, for a Prior, a Waiden, a Master, two Priests, and thir- 
teen Lepers. Ralph Stratford, Biabop of London, draw up a set 
of statutes for thisestabfishanent in the year Id4$,ordaioing, among 
other things, that every leper, on his admission, should take aa 
oath of chastity, and of obedience to the Abbess and Convent of 
Barking. On the Dissolution, its revenues were valued at l61« 
Js. 6(d. per annum. Queen Elisabeth granted the site and pos- 
sessions to Thomas Faoshaw, Esq. his heirs and assigns, condi- 
tionally, that they sliould appoint a master to keep the Chapel in 
repair, together with apartments for six paupers, each of whom 
should receive an annual pension of 21. 5s. Od. The Hospital 
estate thus cbarg/ed, descended to Thomas Fanshaw, Viscount 
Dromore, who, in l66d, granted a lease lor 1000 years to Tho- 
mas Allen, Gent, from whom it passed through various families to 
the Ga$coign€$f who obtained it by purchase in the year 17399 and 
are still owners. The Hospital occupies three sides of a small 
quadrangle ; the apartments of the pensioners arc situated on the 
east aad west sides, and the Chapel between them on the south : 
the latter has undergone various alterations and repairs, but ap- 
pears, from its general style, to have been erected as early as the 
fif^nth century : its length is about one hundred feet; its breadth 
little more than twenty, 

ALDER SBROOK, in tbe parish of Little Tlford, became cele- 
brated, in the last century, as the seat of the antir^uary Smart 
Lethieullier, Esq. who much improved the grounds, and erected a 
small hermitage, in which he deposited many of the antiquities he 
had collected io his travels, and through his influence. This 
stfuctoce has been levelled, togetlier with the ma nor-hquse^ which 
was pulled down immediately after the manor had been ^Id, by 
Edward Hulse^ Esq. to the late Sir James Tyfney Long, Gart. 
Tliesite of the mansion^s now occupied by a farm-house. At 
tbe north- west corner of Little /{ford Church, is the burial-place 

of 



•f tte Letbieiillier ftoulyi to several of irkomluyMbomeairUf 
moDumeots baTe been erected in tbe apartment over it. On that 
lo the mtoiory of tbe late Antiquary is the foUowii^ inscription 

In Memory 0/ 

Smart LBTBiEVLttifi^ Esq. 

A Gctttleiatn of polite Litertture mud elegant Testt^ 

An Encotirager of Art And ingeuiens Artistt, 

A studious Promoter of literary Enquiries^ 

A Companion* and a Friend, of learned Men ; 

Industriously versed in the Science of Antiquity, 

And richlv possessed of the curious Productions of Nature ; 

But 

Who modestly desired no oiher Inscription 

On his Tomb 

Than what lie had made the Rule of his Life ; 

To DO JUSTLY, 

To LovK Mercy, 
And to waik homklywith bii God. 

He was bom Not. 3d. 1701, 
And died withbnC lisae Aug. 27tb. 1760. 

In tbe parishes of Ilford, East-Ham, West-Matn, LeytOD,and 
Wansted, on the level part of Epping Forest, a great mart for 
cattle, brought from Wales, Scotland, and tbe nor:h of England* 
18 held annually, from the latter end of February till tbe beginning 
of May* The business between tbe dealers is principally trans- 
acted at the sign of the Rabbits, on the high road^ in Little Ilford 
parish.* 

The Manor of WANSTED " was granted by Alfric lo tbe 
Church of Westminster, and confirmed by Edward the Confessor; 
but before the end of that Monarch's reign, it became, probably 
by exchange, the property of the Church of St. Paul, and was 
afterwards appropriated to the Bishop of London ; under whom* 
at the time of the Domesday Survey, it was held by Ralph Fitr 
Brien*^ It afterwards passed through various possessors to Sir 
John Heron, whose son, Sir Giles Heron, being attainted, bis 
estates were seized by the Crown ; and this manor was granted, by 

Edward 

♦ Lysons' Eufirons, Vol. IV. p. 157. 



AdwtMfbe tetby to-ftobert, Lord Rich ; wbo made it bis coilin* 
try residence, and is supposed to baire rebuilt tbe maaor-bouse, 
'Cbeo called Nahd-HaU Ngwc. His son sold it to Robert, Earl 
of Leicester, who enlarged, and greatly improved the mansion ; 
and id May, 1578, 'entertained Queen Elitabetb in it for several 
days : here, ako, the same year, in September, he solemnized bis 
marriage wi(h the Countess of Essex. On the Earl's decease, in 
1588,^ Wansted, with other lands in tbe adjoining parishes, be* 
came tbe property of the Countess> his widow, who afterwards 
married Sir Christopher Blount, and, by some family convey- 
aiice$, this manor became vested in Charles Blount, Earl of 
Devonshire, on whose death, without lawful issue, in the year 
1606, tl appears to have escheated to the Crown. The following 
aatumn, James the First spent some time here, after his return 
from a western progress. It was afterVvards the property of 
George, Mkrquis of Buckingham ; of wbom^ in 1619, it was pur* 
chased by Sir Henry Mildmay , and his wife Anne. Their descen- 
dant, Sir WiUiam Mildmay, and others, conveyed it to Sir Joeiah 
Child, whose ton. Sir Richard, afterwards created Kdt\ Tyloey, 
erected tbe present fF'ansted House in the year 17)5, near ihe site 
of Ihe aodient ooiMion. His grandson, the late Earl Tyln^, dying 
without issue, is the year 1784, tliis manor, with other large 
estates, devolved upon his nephew, Sir iames Tylney Long, Bart^ 
of Draycot, in Wiksfaire ; whose only son, James, succeeded to 
his title and inberitancey in 1794 ; but being a minor, his seait 
Voi« V. JuiY, 1«04. G g at 

* At ttM tune of Ids deatli, tbe Etrl was mochinvdlved in debt ; ^md an »■> 
vcntorj and efttimst/B wat in conicqntnce taken of •U bu propeHj^ tt%\ mi4 
penooa], the original of which it now in the British Muaf um. Pionilhis it ap^ 
peart, that the faraitore, library, hors^S &P« <(t Wansted, wcjre valued at 
IIIVI. 6t. 6d. Tbe pictures, among which were three portraits of Henry the 
£igh!h, the Qaeens Mary and Elizabeth, Lady (*a»imere. Lady Kids and 
thirty^k echtf* not pefticularited, were Talued at 1 11. iSs. 4d. Ihe library, 
conbtiog only of an old B3>le« tbe Acts and Monomtnts, old and torn, sevea 
P^aUen, and a Service Book, was estimated at 13t. 8d. The horaes wete t^ 
bedatill^]. Ot. 8d. Tbe bill for the Earl's /unj^ral avdvinted to the enorr 
■91U Mm (in that age) af 4000L 





4^ BS^BJC - 

at, VVanaied bas been let, ai}d%ift Bo^r i^ ibeocoufstipnof die 
Prince de CoihJ^. ,. i .- . 

WANSTED IIOySE Ua tciy laige apd imguificcnt;! 
staudiog in an exteDsive park, and aurroModed witb | 
pleasure grounds. The principal front is 260 fett U| leog^ \ 
entrance is in the centre, beneath a grand portico of six < 
columns; havioga flight of steps on each side, aadin tte;| 
Quns^.the arms of the Tylnoy fiMPily, findy sculfti^p 
gardeu front has a pediment, enrich^ mth a I 
supported by six three-qg^rier columus* • The whole I 
cfsed with Pordiind tftooei its depth is between seyeo&y aaii| 
feet. It consists of two stories ; the uppermost Coolaii^ { 
Room, State Bed Chambers, and other principal ap 
Qver the door leading mU> tbe Great HaH, i8a«tcdallioao( 
Campbell, the architect; who obtained great and deservttd { 
tation frpm the science and juiigment displayed by Ininif Vks 
comstructioQ of this edifica 

The Greai Hidh ^ly-one feet by thirty^six* b deoorafed in ^ 
tbe eplcrsdor of the last age*. The ^eiliag was gilt and paiiUed by 
K^t^i and disptey? personifieatloas 6f Mornirtg, Noon, ETenDg, 
and Night* The walls are ornamented with paiaiings Btmi Che 
Rpm«n. Hiatoiy, by Cassali ; representing Coijblanus, and lis 
Mother; Porseioia; and Pompey's last intenvieWwHhhui family* 
Here also is a portait of K^n^, who punted Mv^rdt ccdlkngi helc^ 
bfsidet that of tl»o HaU ; and two* latge ttatties br6ugbl from 
the ruins of Herculaneum ; one of'Domitiito s tbifrotk^ id LiiriA, 
wife to Agrippa. Several suites of rooms extend from each side 
thiA apartment ; anooag them is a Balt-Reotas, aSaloov,^*^ Ibiltr 
spacioQs and w«ll-proportioo^d Stftte Bed-Ohafhbi^. 

The Bali'Room, seventy-five feet by tWtehty-seven, is ni^tfi- 
cently fitted up, in the taste of the last century ; the furniture . 
being richly embossed and gilt, and the walls hung witii tapestry. 
The latter is well executed, and represents the story of Tde- 
Oiachus, and the Battles of Alexander, it>'two compartoBenta* 
Over tbetsWmney is a fine paititingof Portfa, the wife ofBrutiis/ 
by Schalken. The Sfl/w», thirty ffeet sqoare/i^htghTy embeUisbed, 
t , '^ 




u 
o 

a 

a I 

H 



sssEX. - 467 

and contains sereral statues^ and a picture of Pandorarby NolU« 
keps, father of the scolptor of tbat name. In the Bed' Roonu are 
varioua paintings ; among them is St. John, and the Vir^n, by • 
Raphael ; Apollo and Narcissus ; Cupid> by Corregio ; Venus 
Sleeping; Venus and Adonis; Cupid and Psyche; Diana and 
Eodytoioo; and^veral viewSc The principal Dintng-Room, forty • 
feet by Iwentjr-seven^ is embellibhed with paintings, by Cassali • 
representing Sophowsba taking Poisoa; the Continence of Scipio'; 
ai^d Alexaiyier dirctcting Apelles (o paint Campespe : some good 
landscapes^ and.yiews^of ruins, are also contained in this apart- 
ment. Various paintings are distributed through the other roonis ^ 
the best I are St. f^ncis, and a Hoty . Faknily, by Gotdo ^ Herb* 
diaa^ wjth the Head of St. John Bitptist, supposed by Titian $ i 
some Flower Pieces, by Bapttste; Lord Chixf Justicb • 
Gl7Hhb, and bis Fan^lly, by Leiy ; Bqd Sm Josiah Caito. 
On the ceiling of one of the DrawingfRvomi H a painting of Jopi*» ' 
ter and Semele; ind in tbe centre of the Chimoey Piece, Is tbe * 
£inily crest, a flying eagjle with a snake, in wkiteina^ble. The ■ 
pruspectt from several of tlie apartments are extrdraciy beautiMi • 
and ifidfide a very extensive part bf tlie surrou tiding coubtry* 
^Ftom the cbtrance to tbe Park, ai\ theWesI, the load to tfa»' 
Hottse is Girted by rows of 6neelms, and innds found a circular ' 
pifecajof water, extendingidonsiderftbly iieyood each extrenkily of' 
the OMosion ; iNrhichi from this approach,, has an aspeet'of tnoch 
gfandtttr. Tiia gardens and pleasure grounds were laid out by 
Sir BidMrd CUld^ before the building of the house* Opposite 
ibebackTrodtiian'esBy ascent, through a pleasant vista, to the 
rifcr Roding, which is formed into canals, and has near it a cu*> 
rtous GrotiOf constrodted by the second Earl Tyhiey, at an ex- 
pence of fSOOOl. independmit of its costly materials. Tbe slopes 
or elevated grounds bordering the river, are planted with trees» 
as well as various other parts. .• 

On tbo aoutb side of tbe ParJc, nearly adjoining the ground at 
AUersbrook, a TeuakUed Pavement was discovered, in the year 
1735, by some laborers, who were digging holes to plant an ave- 
nue of trees from the gardens. 1 1 s extent, fromnorOi to south, 

Gg2 wa 



468 ES8BX. 

was about twenty feet; and from east to we:>t, about sixteen^ 
The tesseras were of brick, aod of various si^es and colors : on the 
oataide they were red, forming a border of about one foot in 
breadth, within which were several ornaments, and in the centre, 
the figure of a man, mounted on some beast. A small brass coin 
of the Emperor Valens, a silver coin, and several large pieces of 
Roman brick, were found among the ruins* Mr. Lelhieullier 
supposed it to have been the Pavement of a Banqueting-Room, 
belonging to a Roman villa. About 300 yards further to the 
south, ruins of brick foundations have been met with ; together 
with fragments of urns, paters, Roman coins, and^other antiqui* 
ties** 

. « Wansted Church, dedicated to the Virgin Mary, was repair- 
ed and enlarged in the early part of the last century, prioci* 
pidly at the expence of the first Earl Tylney ; but being still found 
small and incommodious, it was resolved, at the instance of Dr. 
Glasse« the present Rector, to pull it down, and build a new 
Qiarch on a larger acale^ nearly adjoming to the old she. The 
first stone of the present structure was laid on the thirteenth of 
July, 1787 ; and it was finished and consecrated in l790u The 
building is of brick, cased with Portland stone, and having a por- 
tico of the Doric order : at the west end is a cupola, sopported 
by eight Ionic columns. The inside is extremely neat and elegaiit» 
without any undecessary embellishment : it consists of a chaocd» 
nave, and two aisles, separated by colnnms of the Cortnihian oiw 
der. The Pavement (which is remarkable for Its beanty and weat* 
Bess) is of stone, brought from Pdnswick»: in Glodestersfaire. 
In the chancel is a beautiful window of stained gjais, by El^too* 
of Birmingham, representing Ottc Saviour baring the Cross, from 
the picture at Magdalen College, Oxford. In the east window of 
the north aisle, are the royal arms ; in the south aisle, tboae oi-, 
the late Sir J. T. Long, Bart. la the chancel is. a superb momi- 
ment, with the effigies of the deceased in iVbite marble, to tha 
Oiemory of Sir Josiau Cuilp^ Bart, who died in the year 

• Co«gl)'f C*B»<1en, YoU IL p. 50, - Lvwni* Euviroai, Vol. IV. p, 25*. 



ESS£X. 4Q9 

1 6$9.'** The population of tbit parish, at enumerated under tb^ 
lace act, was 9IS ; the number of bouses, ](i2. 

VALENTINES, Ibe seat of Charles Cameron, Esq, was sold to 
bis father by the co-beiresses of Sir Charles Raymond, Bart, who 
purchased it of Robert Surmao, Esq. by whom the mansion (origi* 
nalty burtt by James Chadwick, Esq. son-in-law of Archbishop 
Tillotson) was enlarged, and the grounds improved. Within the 
former ai^e some valuable pictures, particularly the original of 
SouthwarkFair, by Hogarth : and some fine carving by Gibboi^s. 
In the Hut-bouse is a remarkable f^ine, of the black Hamburgh 
sort, which was planted in April 1758 ; and produces from ihree 
hundred weight of fruit tu four hundred and a quarter annually* 
Tlie stem is about fourteen inches in girth, and the branches ex- 
tend 200 feet. The profits on the grapes have, in some years, 
been supposed to amount to 3001. f In the gardens is a Tulip 
Trcf, upwards of four feet and a quarter in girth, a h\ about eighty 
ieet high. In a field behind Valentines, a stone cotUu, « jt taining 
a human skeleton, was found in the year 1724; and in the same 
field was discovered, in 1746, an urn of coarse earth, filled with 
burnt bones. X 

HIGHLANDS, a seat near Valentines, was built by Sir Charles 
Raymond, whose heirs sold it to the late EarlTylney : near it is a 
mausoleam, which forms a conspicuous object for several mi^ei 
round, and was also built by Sir Charles, who intended it as 4 
ininal- place (ot his family, but it has never been apprppriated to 
tbatute. 

ALDBURY, ALDBOROUGH, or ALDBRO' HATCH, situ- 
ated in Hainault Forest, is a large and handsome mansion erected 
about the year J 730, by Martin Bladen, Esq. one of the Lords of 
Trade, at the expence of 1 4,0001. It is now the property of the 
Middlcionsp who obtained it by marriage towards the middle o^ 
die last century. 

G g 3 lo 

•Lyioiu'.Vol. IV. p. 130. 
I Gilpin'i fortflt Scenery, p. 150. Lysons* Eovirona, Vol. IV. p. S7. 
Ifjtoat'* Vol. IV. p.' 87. from Letluenllier't M«iiiiicripti« 



470 ES8EX 

Id Hainauit Fortstf about one mile from Barking Side, is a re- 
markable oak, called FAIRLOP OAK, of such great age, that 
** the tradition of the country,*' as Mr. Gilpin haJB observed in bis 
Remarks on Forest Scenery, ** traces it halfway up the Christian 
era.** It is a very noble tree, and latterly, considerable attention 
has been employed to preserve it ; the extremities of the decayed 
branches having been sawii off, abd Mr. Forsy th*s composition ap- 
plied to keep it from further decay. The stem is rough and 
fluted, and measures about thirty-six feet in girth ; the branches 
overspread an area nearly 300 feet in circumference. Round this 
oak, on the first Friday in July, a yearly Fair is held, which ap- 
pears to have originated from a man of a singular character named 
Day,*** who, upwards of eighty years ago, is said to have com« 
inenced the practice of dining with his friends annually beneath 
the shade of the tree. The stalls, &c. extend in a circle round 
the oak ; and in fine weather the fair is attended by a considerable 
multitude. 

BISHOP-HALL, in the parish of Lambornerwas the residence 
of HenrySpencer, the warlike Bishop of Norwichy who suppressed 
Ket's rebellion in the reign of Richard the Second. The site is 
surrounded by a moat« inclosing an area about 200 yards square, 

LOUGHTON 



* " Mr. Day, who was a block and pump maker in the pariah of St. John, 
Wapping, had a small estate near Fairlop Oak» nirhither he used to repair an* 
noally on ike drat Friday in Jaly ; when it was bis custom to inWte a seleet 
party of his neighbours to accompany hira, and dine under the shade of tks 
o.ak» on beans and bac6n. In coarse of a few years, other parties wete 
farmed on Mr. Day's anniversary, and sailing l>ooths erected for their ac* 
comniodation : these increasing progressively, booths were erected also, by per* 
tons who brought varioitis articles for sale ; and about the year 17«5, the place 
begaa to exhibit the appearance of a regular fair, several sackv of beaas, wHh m 
propQrtioiwte qanntit;y of bacou, which he distributed from the tronk (tfjtb0 
tree, to the persons there assembled. For several years before Mr, Day's dea^v 
the pump and block makers of yT^pping went annually to the fair, in a beat 
mude of one piece of entire 6r, cov^ed with an awuing, moanted on a coacb- 
carriage, snd drawn by six horses, attended with flags and streamers, a band of 

Baai«, 



ES9tt. 47 1 

'IXi>UGHTON HALL is tf lafg^ irregular bailding, occupy ing; 
a pleiMOt sitaatkPD) and sttfrdonded by beaotlfol prospects; ihe 
«d{JBcent country is scattered whh numerous seats, and respecta* 
Me villages. Hither Ifae Princess of Denmark, afterwards Queen 
Anne, is reported to* have retired from the court of ber father^ 
JkmettlieSeooiid, when fte saw him pursuing the arbitrary mea- 
•ares which terminated in his expulsion from the Throne. 

COOPERSALR, in the pari^ of They^on Gerhon, ijas been 
Che seat of the jfrckers^ from the time of Henry the Fifth, ^ho is 
uUi to hate changed flie name of their ancestor, Simon de Bois, 
to Archer^ from the dexterity he displayed in a shooting match 
with the King at Havering Bower. The Mansion is a spacious 
edifice, standing on the acclivity of a hill, and surrounded by 
lawns and pleasure-grounds. 

illLL HALL, the seat of Sir William Smith, Bart, in the parish 
of TfaeydoD If ount, is a large and handsome quadrangular build* 
ingy occupying a high and commanding eminence, whence the 
prospects are extensive and interestbg. Tlie front is extrenaely * 
elegant, and a neat cornice runs round the whole building. This 
maosion was begun in the year 1548, by Sir Thomas Smitb,**^ prin* 
clpal Secretary to Edward the Sixth, and Queen Elizabeth, who 
dbtained it in jointure with his second wife, Philippa, (widow of 
Sir John Hampden,) and afterwards purchased the reversion. 
9sf Tbemas did not live to complete it, but left provision in his 
MFIH Ibr that purpose. Considerable alterations were however 
G g 4 made 

wtmt, and a gmat number of persons, both on foot and on horseback. Tfii^ 
costom is stiU cootiao«ii. A fow years before Mr. Day died, his fkvorite 
oak lost « laj^ liol^ oat of whicb he procured a coffin Co be made for bis own' 
iofarmctlt. Ui^ ^eath happened on the 19th of October, 1767, at the age of 
eij^ty-foor. His remAios were conveyed to Backing by water, piirsnant to bia 
own reqacst, accompanied by six journey men pump and block makers, te each 
oi whom he beqaeathed a new leathen> aproi^ and a guinea : there it a tomb* 
etone In Barking Chorch-yard to his memory." Lj/iCM*, VoL IV, ^. ^46 : 
Ftooi a pamphlet entitoled the Origin of Fairlop Fair, annually held round 
tha gTMll Oa)[, on HiNftatdt Fortst> in Esatm, Uc* 

• Beaatie^ Vol. II. p. 63. and Vol. V. p. S88. 



47t tsb&u 

made by his successors; several of wbami tog^|h«r nHb hUOtd' 
lie buried id ibe ps^o^h^^hurch. Agtiost tUe B(>ftb w^U of llie. 
chancel is ibe monument of Si k Thomas whoee-cffig^ ia a re* 
curobeut position, is placed beneath an arch^ canopy : \be intcrip^ 
tions are in Latini and commemorate his attaiiinseiitsaDd virtues*. 

ALBYNSi the seat of John R. Abdy, E6q« i& a spacious and . 
commodious edifice, in ^beparisliof S^pleford^AUbots, supposed, 
by some to have had Inigo Jones for its architect ^ but Walpole 
appear^ inclined to refer it to one of his scholars* .The Abdj 
family obtained the manor by purchase in the re^ of J/ivi^ ibe 
First. Sir Robert Abdy, Brart. who represented th^ countj iis so-. 
veral Parliaments betwein the years 1727 i^id, iT^fiy poei esKd - 
considerable knowledge on subjects of antiquity and natural 
history. 

The manor of N AVESTOCK was part of the possessioos of the 
Cathedral of St. Paul so early as the reign of EU)gar» but having, 
been separated from that Cburch was restored by William the Qoor 
queror. Henry the Eighth obtained it by exchange for Qthsr laads 
in 154-^. Nine years afterwards. Queen Mary granted it to Sir. 
£dward Waldegrave, who had been imprisoned in her service* and 
whom she also created Lieutenant of Waltham Forest, and Chan- » 
cellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. It is now the properly of his 
descendant, the Earl of Waldegrave, whose scat, called >I ate* 
STOCK llALLyis a plain brick building, pleasantly situated amidst 
gardens and pleusure-grounds. In the Church is a neat mural - 
monument to the memory of the two first Earls of Waldb* 
OKave; one of whom died in I741» the other in 1763* 

Near the Church at BLACKMORE,was a PaiOEY of Austia. 
Canons-regular, founded about the reign of Henry the Second, by 
Sir John de Sauadlort, or Sampford, and dedicated to St. Lau* 
rence. After i\\e dissolution, the manor and site of the Prioiy 
were granted, by Henry the Eighth, to John Smith and bis heirs. 
The Church is a small aiicient building, supposed to have been 
appropriated to the use of the Priory. The manorhouse of 
Blackmore is called Jericho^ and said to have been, the occasional 
jetreat of Henry the Eighth^ when in pursuit of illicit pleaaures. 

Thobt 



TlioBV PEtanT, in tb» ^mih^i MOUNTN£Y'S«ING, or« 
M It 18 comipify fMtmouaced, MMimashtg^ wa& founded' for Au-> 
goilkM CaaoM, bjrAfiefaal de Cupusi bis wifri ud aon, betvreea 
tlie Tears 1141 ciid 115K Oo Ibe tuppretsioii of the smaller 
mooMtoriea in 15i6, itsrtvaiiaes wen valued aft 751. $b. |Oid« 
asDually ; aod ware then af>proprfated to the Collegea b^gap ^ 
Cvrdiaal W u b cy ^ After bis iall^ the manor of Tboby was grauted, 
by Henry tbe Eightb, ^to Sir Ricbard Page* Kot, since whicb it 
bnn passed tbrwn^ Tnrious families to ihe Bkntpt$t ivbo obtained 
it by marriage about tbe year 17 50. 

FITZ-WALT£ftS, voignrly baHed the Hmmd'Himte, in tbe pa« 
fisb of dbenfitld, is tbe mansion and seat of Thomaa Wright, Esq^ 
but was anciently tbe property of Abe Fits- Walter family; wbo ap- 
penr to bave beld it by the service of providing a pair of g^lt spurs 
at tbe Coronation. Tbis bouse has a very singul ar appearance ; its 
form being nearly octangular, with tbe cbiAnies rising in tbe centre. 

BRENTWOOD, or BURNTWOODt ass it ia generally pro- 
ncsMiocdy formerly a markelttdwn^ is a chapelry in tbe parish of 
South Weald, situated on a oommanding eminence on eacb side, 
tbs iiigb rond tei Harwach. Being a considerable thoroughfare,: it 
contains aiaoy inns, and public bousfcs; but the boildipgs. aro 
moiUy irregular, and mean. Tbe Ciowa Inn is of very ancient 
fotuKiation ; and, even in Salmon's time, was reputed to bave had 
that sign for 500 yeara* Tbe assisf s were once held liere; and io 
tbe HighStreetare tbe remains pf a TMXfn-HaUaDdPrijon^ now in« 
babitedby a farrier, andotberpersons,on condition of putting them 
in repair, when tbe assizes are again removed thither. Here also 
is a good GroMUMT School^ the endowments of which were given 
by Sir Anthony Brown, in 1 557« The Chapel wa;5 founded about 
tbe year 1221, at tbe intercession of David, Prior of St. Osyth, 
kr tke nse of the tenaats of a manor belonging to that Monastery i 
it is a small ancient stmetore, consisting only of a body and chan- 
ce). The number of inbabKants in tbis township, as returned un« 
der the late act, was 1007 ; that of houses, 182. 

Camden supposed the Casaromagus of the Itinerary to have 

I somewbere io the neighbourhood of Brentwood; but his opi- 

nioo 
« BiHorysf Ims* p.|6f. £dift. 17«]|p 



474 

tkkon (oTIdred, indeed, vf'uh IraatdiiUieiMfir) hiAiKHiieVQ jiKpmrt- 
edbyotllefaiitiquanes. SomepiOeilu^aiMlothfMMrlMDvemby 
are, how0iF«r, meotiooed by Sulmoo,* tD-llAveb^Mi /odud ob% 
Military Wny^ leadiog from BilterkAy toMarria Qagar ;, %9 ^1 as 
two Romeo lares, dug up nar Sbtofiakl. A^ SaatW* W«aU» alsQ 
on the Boutfa-westerD verge of Weald HaU Parkf are Iraoea of a 
circalar cainpi single ditched, indudiDg aboUt aewao aoras^ su^ 
posed to have been a Casira Expioratyrum^i 

WEALD HALL, the leat of Christopher Towcfs, £sq. is a 
handsoroe building, situated in a lai^e Park, ia whieh iaa Prospecl 
Hdose, formed libe an embattled tower, conueaodikig aaexl9i- 
rive and intertsting view. The gfoonds coataia pMam iae wooc^ 
and are diversified with pleasant g a rde n s . 

At BROOK-STREET, a hamlet to Sonth^Waald, Ma an 
Hospital for lepers, Ibaaded before the year ISM, by Ike 
Brnyns, of South Okendon, whooe family retained the preaeala* 
tion of the Master or Warden. This was granted under the i 
of a Free Chapel tb Sir Aathony firowo, bat has i 
telled oitt, and i»now held by difiereot persona. 

DAGENHAM PARK is the property of Sir: Riobard Neam 
Bart, who obtained the manor by purchase in the year 1773» ami 
has smce pulled down the ancient maoor«hoBae» and erected aa 
handsome mansion on a new site. 

The district called the Liberty of HAVERING ATTK 
20WER4 was part of the ancient demesnes of the Saxon Kmgh 



• History, he. of Eatn, p. f 64i I lUdw fttl 

} Tbe origin of the n»nie of Havering Is thus related by Morant, froA ih% 
iraditiont preserved by Tarioas authors. " At tbe time tbat tbcr Chiifcb dt 
CHaver'mg, in this connty, was about t« be conaectM«d| Bdward the GoaiiaaQa 
riding tbat way, alighted, cat of derotaao. taba prcstot 9k ths ca(m9emitifiv. 
P^ipg thf pro«eaao;i, a fair old nan csae t^ tbe King, and begged atmaQf 
htm, in the name of God, and St. John tbe £vjiii^liit. The King baTiog no> 
thing else to give, as his Almoner was not ^ band, took tbe Ring from ^ia 
^ger, and gave it to the poor man. Some years afterwardt, two Xngtish pil- 
grims baring lost their way at they were tra^Uhig hi Ibe' Bii^y tmiS, #rey 



ESSEX. ^75 

.ftod includes the parishes of Hornchurcb, Romford, and Havering* 
It still possesses peculiar privileges* both from prescriptive rights 
and a charter granted by Henry the Fourth , since confirmed 
by various Sovereigns. At Ha vsrj kg Bo wERare some remains 
of the walls of an ancient Palace, reported to have been built or 
improved by Edward the Confessor, and afterwards occasionally 
inhabited by several Kings. Its situation was uncommonly fine; 
the site commanding several extensive prospects over parts of £s* 
sex, Hertfordshire, Kent, Middlesex, and Surry, as well as of 
the river Thames. Havering Park contains about 1000 acres, 
and is now let on lease from the Crown. Near