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Copyright, 1903, by 

Victor E. Francois 

Entered at Stationers' Hall, London 


W. p. 22 

To MY Dear Friend 

AND Former Colleague in the University of Michigan 


Professor of German in Smith College 








Introduction 7 

Pronunciation 13 

Definite article. Plural of nouns .19 

Definite article (continued). Translation of it when a subject . . 21 
Negation. Formation of questions. Present indicative of etre . 23 
Agreement, feminine and plural of adjectives. Formation of ques- 
tions (continued) .26 

Comparatives and superlatives. Possessive and demonstrative 

adjectives 30 

Of or from the. Irregular plurals 35 

Reading Lesson. Sorite 39 

Indefinite article. Some or any. Present indicative of avoir . . 39 

Cardinal and ordinal numbers 44 

Reading Lesson. Divisions du temps ...... 49 

Present indicative of the first conjugation 50 

To or at the. Imperfect indicative of the first conjugation . . 55 

Reading Lesson. Impossible ii'est pas franfais ..... 5^ 
Present indicative of the second conjugation . . . . -5^ 

Imperfect indicative of the second conjugation. Formation of adverbs 62 

Reading Lesson. Du pareil au mime 66 

Present and imperfect indicative of the third conjugation . . 67 

Some or any (continued). Verbs ending in -ger and -cer ... 70 
Reading Lesson. Un Calembour . . . . . • '75 
Some or any (continued). Irregular feminine of adjectives. Present 

and imperfect indicative of recevoir 75 

Place of adjectives. Agreement of adjectives qualifying two or more 

nouns . 8° 

Reading Lesson. Trois excellents Medecins 88 

Peculiarities of some verbs of the first conjugation • • • 93 

Future and conditional of regular verbs. Impersonal verb . . 97 

Demonstrative pronouns 108 

Interrogative adjectives; interrogative and relative pronouns. Com- 
pound tenses • • • • .112 

Possessive pronouns. Agreement of past participles . . .118 

Reading Lesson. Une Meprise 121 

Demonstrative and relative pronouns (continued). Compound tenses 

(continued) ^^i 

Indefinite adjectives and pronouns ^25 

Preterit. Place of personal pronouns I3^ 

Place of personal pronouns (continued). Formation of tenses. Cueillir 1 37 

Reading Lesson. Une joyeuse Harangue Mi 




Imperative. Place of personal pronouns (continued). Envoyer . 142 
Passive voice. Couvrir^faire, pleuvoir . . . . , .146 

Disjunctive pronouns. Hair^ partir,falloi> 152 

Time of the day. Aller, mettre 156 

Voir 160 

Reading Lesson. La petite ATendiantt 163 

Prendre 165 

Active voice instead of passive. Plaire .168 

Simple tenses of the reflexive voice. Sortir 172 

Compound tenses of the reflexive voice. Venir, sentir, s'asseoir . 178 

Reading Lesson. Enignies .183 

Plural of compound nouns. Resoudre^ dire, valoir . . . .184 

Prepositions before the infinitive. Craindre 189 

Imperative of the reflexive voice. Tenir, boire, pouvoir . . . 194 

Ouvrir, lire ............ 198 

Reading Lesson. La petite Hirondelle ...... 201 

Atteindre, introditire . . . . . . . . . 203 

Dormir, eteindre, poun>oir ......... 207 

Reading Lesson. Une Suppression spirituelle. Repartie royaU . 211 

Reciprocal verbs . . .212 

Reading Lesson. Acrosticke .216 

Place of adverbs. Senir, vetir .216 

Reading Lesson. La Tombe et la Rose . . . . . .221 

Rules of the subjunctive mood. £crire, votiloir . . . .222 

Use of fie. Mourir, rire, vivre 228 

Reading Lesson. Un Courtisan pris au pies^e 232 

Instruire, paraitre, (aire, decouvrir, conveuir . . . . . 233 

Imperfect of the subjunctive. Sequence of tenses. Acquerir, croire, 

savoir, cofinaitre . . . . . . . . . • ^Z7 

Reading Lesson. Bons Mots de Diof;ene. L"* Animal le plus nuisible. 

Reponse de Socrate 243 


Le Colimafon, by Arnault .... 

La Feuille dessechee, by Arnault . 

Le Petit Pierre, by Boucher de Perthes 

Beau Soir, by Paul Bourget 

Etoiles Filantes, by Fran9ois Coppee . 

Con sells a un Enfant, by Victor Hugo 

Partant pour la Syrie, by La Reine Hortense 

Trois Fils d'Or, by Leconte de Lisle . 

Chanson de Barberine, by Alfred de Musset 
Full conjugation of avoir and etre 
Table of endings of regular verbs 
Alphabetical table of irregular verbs 
Vocabulary, i. French-English 
2. English-French 











• 255 

256-2 ::9 

. 261 

o 28^ 



The old method of teaching modern languages was train- 
ing only the eye. The new methods aim to train the ear, 
the tongue and the eye. The author has tried to bring 
together a set of exercises giving to each of these organs 
a fair field of activity. 

Up-to-date teachers are anxious to use French in their 
classes as soon as possible, but very few elementary books, 
if any, help them to carry out their cherished ambition. 

It is the aim of the present volume to enable such masters, 
however inexperienced they may be, to make use of the con- 
versational method from the very start. 

A glance through the book will suffice to understand its 
arrangement. It is simple and methodical. 

Rules. — The book contains all grammar rules that first 
and second-year high school students or first-year college 
students are expected to be familiar with. Every lesson 
begins with a few general rules, the examples coming first 
for obvious reasons. It was decided to write the rules in 
English for the convenience of the learner. However, as 
early as possible and especially when reviewing, the teacher 
is advised to translate them into easy French and to require 
his pupils to recite them in the same form. 

May it also be suggested here that teachers of languages 
should make a more general use of the Socratic or in- 
ductive method ? Instead of giving detailed grammatical ex- 
planations to which nobody listens, let the teacher write on 


8 beginner's FRENCH 

the board a few well chosen examples, underlining words 
or parts of words illustrating the rule to be worked out, and 
let him have the students themselves find it out as if it were 
the solution of a problem. It is an easy matter if the teacher 
prompts them by well directed questions. 

Such a fine opportunity should not be missed. First, 
this method accustoms the pupils to think, to argue logically 
and to express themselves intelligibly in their mother's 
tongue, results which are the first we should aim at even 
in the teaching of foreign languages. Secondly, it makes 
interesting and attractive a subject which is otherwise dull 
and repulsive, for it never fails to create a lively spirit of 
emulation in the class room, which is most beneficial. 
Thirdly, the student remembers better and for a longer time 
a rule which he himself has found out or helped to work out. 

The arguing about the rules should be done in French as 
soon as the progress of the class allows it. 

Vocabulary. — Common words, words of every-day life, 
were especially sought after, and the stock is increased 
very slowly. The words are given in the following order 
in the special vocabularies : masculine nouns, feminine nouns, 
adjectives, pronouns, verbal forms, adverbs, prepositions, 
conjunctions and interjections. There is a general vocabu- 
lary at the end of the book. 

French Texts. — This part is the pivot of the lesson. 
It generally consists of four, five, or six easy sentences, 
plainly illustrating the preceding rules. A great effort has 
been made to have sentences connected in meaning. The 
task was very hard at the beginning. There are no irregular 
verbs except avoir and etre in the first twenty-five exercises. 
The place of personal pronouns, except en, could not be ex- 
plained earlier than in the twenty-fifth lesson, because nouns 
were needed for the application of the rules. From that 
exercise on, the use of personal pronouns as objects should 


be required in the answers as often as possible. In all the 
texts the linking mark has been used, following the set of 
rules of Dr. Paul Passy (see Linking of Words, p. 17). 

The French Text, as well as the Vocabulary, should be 
read aloud carefully several times by the teacher on the day 
he assigns the lesson. As many students as possible should 
repeat it after him. It should be studied hy heart and every 
sentence pronounced aloud again and again. 

Transposition. — It offers the learner who understands 
the rules and knows the French text by heart, a golden 
opportunity to display his progress in pronunciation and to 
master promptly and intelligently the various verbal forms 
and constructions. The books being closed, the teacher 
reads a sentence of the French text at a time and then asks 
a particular pupil to repeat it after him with the required 
changes. Care should be taken not to name that particular 
pupil before reading the sentence to be changed. Keep the 
class on the qui vive. A very profitable way to relieve the 
monotony in this part of the work is to ask a student to 
read the sentences to the class, the teacher having only to 
point out those who must repeat them. 

The preparation of the transposition work has been made 
easy by examples given after every direction. It goes with- 
out saying that the class is not expected to prepare all the 
changes which are indicated. The teacher should use his 
own judgment. The work to be assigned depends on the 
age and ability of the members of the class, the length of 
the recitation and the time the students are supposed to 
devote outside to this special study. 

Questions. — When the class uses a book not especially 
prepared for conversational work, lazy or indifferent pupils 
may answer : " I do not understand you. I cannot answer." 
In such cases the teacher is generally helpless. No such 
excuse is possible with this system. Every question has its 


answer in the preceding French text, and the answer to the 
first question of every set is given. So, all the pupil has to 
do is to imitate the example. 

At first glance the reader may think that these numerous 
questions, calling for almost identical answers, would be- 
come tiresome and monotonous. It might be so in a very 
small private class but not in a large section. 

Teachers and students know how hard it is for an 
English-speaking person to form correct questions in French. 
Yet this important side of the work is sacrificed in almost 
every text book. After years of study, students are able to 
answer questions, but cannot ask any in a correct way. 

From the very beginning, when two or three minutes can 
be spared, select one of the French texts which has already 
been studied, ask a student to stand up and form questions 
based on it. Call upon other members of the class to answer 
them fully. This is a very good way of reviewing. The 
students are obliged to do their best in pronouncing to make 
themselves understood, and it gives them confidence in 

Grammar Drill. — This part of the work affords the 
learner a chance to apply the rules he has just mastered, and, 
if it is written in English, to make a fruitful comparison of 
both languages. 

Translation. — Teachers could save themselves a great 
deal of trouble if they would follow the plan the author pre- 
sented in a letter published last year in " Modern Language 
Notes" (see June, 1902). 

At the beginning, instead of giving out for the next recita- 
tion the Grammar Drill and the Translation of the lesson 
he has just explained, let the teacher be satisfied with the 
French part of the exercise until he reaches, say, the tenth 
or twelfth lesson. Then, on the day he assigns the eleventh 
lesson, for instance, let him give out, as reviewing work. 


the Grammar Drill and the Translation of the first lesson. 
It is simply a shifting of the usual work, care being taken 
that the students be always ten or twelve French exercises 
ahead. What will be the results? First, it will lighten 
the work of the first two weeks and allow more time to be 
devoted to pronunciation. Then, in the first ten exercises, 
the pupil has seen the rules of the first lesson applied so 
many times, he has become so familiar with them and the 
words of that lesson, that he will consider as very easy and 
enjoyable a task which would have seemed to him hard and 
disagreeable if he had been asked to do it on the day the 
first lesson was explained. He will, of course, make very 
few mistakes, his confidence will increase daily, the stand- 
ard of the class will be raised and a great deal of time saved. 

Reading Lessons. — They have been added to bring 
variety and to play the part of a preparatory reader. The 
words will be found in the general vocabulary. 

Another way to use the book is to set aside for review 
work the Transposition and Questions and go ahead with 
the rest of the exercises. This plan could be followed by 
teachers who are anxious to begin reading very early. With 
that aim in mind, two lessons may be assigned at a time in 
most cases. 

New Rules. — References to the set of licenses (tole- 
rances) adopted by the Minister of Public Instruction of 
France in his decree of February 26, 1901, will be found at 
the proper place in the rules or in notes at the bottom of the 

Verbs. — Tables of regular and irregular verbs will be 
found at the end of the book, before the vocabulary. 


Graphic Signs 

Accents. — e, e, a, u, a, e, i, 6, ii. 

There are three accents in French : the acute ( ' ) , the 
grave (") and the circumflex ("). The acute is found 
only over the vowel e (e). The grave is especially used 
over the vowel e (e), sometimes also over a or u. The 
circumflex may be used over any vowel. 

Apostrophe. — 1', s', m'. 

The apostrophe (') indicates that a final vowel has been 
elided before a word beginning with a vowel or an h mute. 
That vowel is generally e; it may also be a of la (article 
or personal pronoun) and i of si before il and ils. 

Hyphen. — Asseyez-vous. A-t-il ? 

The decree of February 26, 1901, promulgated by the 
Minister of Public Instruction of France, does away with 
the hyphen. However, it was kept after an imperative fol- 
lowed by a personal pronoun object and in questions where 
the so-called euphonic t is inserted between the verb and il, 
elle, or on. 

* It goes without saying that no foreigner can master the French pro- 
nunciation from rules without outside help. The few general rules given 
here are to be used by pupils as mere references. 



Cedilla. — Fa§ade, fagon, degu. 

The cedilla is put under c preceding a, o or u to indicate 
that it is soft and should be pronounced like s in sin. 

Diaeresis. — Naif, Esali. 

It is placed over the last of two vowels to show that it 
forms a svllable bv itself. 

Simple Vowels 


la, va, ma, ta, sa, papa, 

tas, pas, fable, ine, ame, 

le, ce, me, te, se, je, ne, te. 

elle, acte, dame, table, 

6t6, h\6, priiiri, nez, et, 
pied, les, des, d^, ces, 
mes, tes, acc^, sel, 
chef, fer, fete, bete, 
tete, etre. 

a short = 

a long rr 

Approximate corresponding 
sounds in English. 

intermediate sound bfetween 
a in lad and a in father. 

a in father. 

e short =: « in b«t. 

e almost silent = ^ in sol^. 

6, e, e, e fol- The quality of that sound is 
lowed by a the same as that of e in 
consonant. th^re, ranging from a in s^le 

to e in s^ll. 

midi, fini, mardi 

i short = 

/ in mach/ne but shorter. 

gite, abime, lie, amie. 

ilong = 

/ in mach/ne. 

comme, col, colonne, 

short = 

in c^rn, shortened. 

nos, vos, dos, cote. 

long = 

o in no. 

du, vu, bra, rae, debut. 

ray^, pays, paysage. 

No similar sound in English ; 
:= German «. Pronounce 
the examples with the lips 
in position for whistling. 

see 1 short above. 

The first / belongs to the 
preceding syllable and the 
second to the following : 


Compound Vowels 

Examples. Value. 

balai, laquais, aimais, ai (see e and e above) 

aimerais, lait, fait, ai- **' 

mai, aimerai. 
au, aux, travaux, 

eau, bean, veau. 
reine, peine, veine. 
deiix, ceux, feu, peu, 

veux, aveu, bleu, 
peur, leur, fleur, valeur, 

sceur, coBUr. 
toi, moi, voix, bois. 


Approximate corresponding 
sounds in English. 

au eau (see o long 

ei (see e above) 
eu long and close 

e in f^rn (= German o). 

eu OBU short and open = e in iexn but more open 
than for eu long, 
intermediate between iva 
of wax and wa of wa%. 
00 in \ioo\.. 

01 = 

ou, tout, nous, vous, chou, ou = 
cou. ' 

Nasal Sounds 

A vowel followed by n or m ending a word or a syllable 
is nasal unless the n or m is in its turn followed by another 
n or m or h mute. 

Pronounce the following examples through the nose, with 
the mouth widely open, care being also taken to cut the 
sound short and not let the n be heard. 

an, tant, an 

chambre, rampe, iJm 

enfant, vent, en 

empire, membre; em 

vin, in 

imperial, ' im 

vain, ain 

faim, aim 

teint, ein 

tympan. ym 

bon, ton, on 

nom, ombre. om 

un, brun, un 

parfum, humble. um 

coiUj point, loin, soin. oin 

J^i !>^ = nasal a. < 
t \ I 

= -nasal i 

> = nasal 

\ = 



= w 4- 


Pronounce an in watt 
and follow above 

Pronounce an in 
angry and follow 
above directions. 

Pronounce on in \on^ 

and follow above 

Pronounce u of t«rn 

and follow above 

/■ which see. 

^ I. lis Siiment. £nf, ending of the 3d person plural of verbs, is always 
silent. — 2. Bi^«, ri<?«, viens. In words ending in />« and forms of 
: e»tr, tenir and their compounds, en has the sound of nasal / which see. 



The consonants 
same or almost the 


camp, car, col, cure. 

ceci, fafade, 


gare, golfe, gue,i aigu. 

geant, gite, gymnase. 

agneau, regner, mignon. 

hardi, haut, homme, 


not given in the following list have the 
same sound as in English. 


C before «, ^, u 
p before a, o, u 
C before e, i,y 
g before a, o, u 
g before e, i, y 

Approximate corresponding 
sounds in English. 

c in rorretrt. 
c in cell. 

g in ^o. 

s in pleasure. 

«/' in u«/on. 

f // is now silent.- Formerly in words of Germanic 
i origin, h was aspirate. Now, it merely indicates 
I that no elision can take place before it and that 
I the last consonant of the preceding word cannot 
(^be linked with the vowel following h. 

jour, jarabe, jeter. 



s in pleasure. 

fille, famine, aille. 

11 preceded 

by i 


y in t'ou. 

fusil, gentil. 

il final* 


y in jj'ou. 

qui, qualite, que. 




rage, porta, parle. 



r is pronounced more 
strongly than in Eng- 

parler, premier, off icier. 

er final ^ 


/ i.e. a in kte. 

baiser, poison, cousin, 

s between two 




like s in pleaj-e. 

nation, partial, essen- 
. tiel, minutieux, pa- 



// has often the hissing 
sound of s. 



theatre, the, thym. 







usually ks. 

exercice, examen. 

ex initial 


I fol- 

lowed by 



or h mute 











1 The u after ^ is not sounded unless it is final. 

2 Some persons slightly sound it, especially on the stage. 

3 Double //, preceded by /, are sounded as a single / in a few words : 
v/7/e, m/V/e, tranqu///e and their compounds. 

* There are few exceptions : i/, exi/, vi/, civi/. 

^ The r is pronounced in monosyllabic words and in a few other words 
hiver, hier, fier (proud). 


The consonants c, f, 1, r, when final, are generally 
sounded. The others, when final, are generally silent. See 
Vocabulary for exceptions. 

Linking of Words 

Lessen f ants. Ils^ont. 

If two words standing together are closely connected in 
meaning, the first one ending with a consonant, the second 
beginning with a vowel or h mute, they are pronounced as 
if they were forming a single word. 

This mark ^ will indicate in the texts the words to be 

The following passage translated from " Les Sons du 
Fran^ais," par Paul Passy, Docteur es lettres, Maitre de con- 
ferences a rficole des Hautes fitudes (Paris, Firmin Didot), 
contains very sensible views. 

The linking of words varies a great deal according to the 
style and the people. In the literary language it occurs more 
frequently than in the familiar style. But it is especially 
schoolmasters and, still more, not very well educated people 
trying to ** speak well," who link at every opportunity. 

In the spoken language, only words closely connected by 
the meaning should be linked. Here are the principal cases : 
(a) Article followed by an adjective or a noun : lesj^hommes. 

les^autres personnes. 
{h) Adjective followed by a noun: le grand^ours, deux 

petits^enfants, mon^ami. 
{c) Numeral adjective followed by an adjective or a noun: 

{d) Adverb followed by an adjective or an adverb : tres^utile, 

1 s and X, when linked, are pronounced like z. 

2 When linked, d is sounded like /, c and g like k» 


(e) A personal pronoun (or en) followed by a verb : il^en- 

tend, noiis^arrivons, on^ecoute, j'en^ai. 
(/) Verb followed by a personal pronoun or by en: vas-y, 

prends-en, a-t^l. 
(g) Preposition followed by its object: sans^abri, en^ecou- 

(h) The conjunction quand and the following word: 

Quand^il viendra. 
(j) The various forms of the verbs etre and avoir, especially 

used as auxiliaries, and.the following words : il^est^ici, 

il^etait^arrive, ils^ont^appris. 

Division of Words into Syllables 

1 . Gou ver ne ment, in ca pa bi li te. 

A medial French syllable must begin, if possible, with 
a consonant. 

2. hon neur, man ger. 

When two consonants stand together, they generally 
belong to different syllables. 

3. ta ble, ar bre, a gneau, crai gnons. 

The division takes place before the two consonants if 
the second is 1 or r and before ^. (Apply Rule 2 if you 
have 11 or rr. ) 

4. ex em plai re. 

X always belongs to the preceding syllable. 

Tonic Accent 

1. gouverneur. Amerique. 

All syllables of a French word, except those ending in 
e mute, must be pronounced distinctly with a slight rais- 
ing of the voice (tonic accent) on the last sonorous one. 

2. Le professeur est debout dans la salle, 

A statement being pronounced as if it were a long 
word, the tonic accent is transferred to its last sonorous 



I. Le Hvre, the hook; la table, the table. 

1 . The French language having no neuter gender, French 
nouns are either mascuHne or feminine. 

2. The is translated by le before a masculine noun sin- 
gular and by la before a feminine noun singular. 

2. Le livre, the hook ; les livres, the hooks. La table, the 
tahle; les tables, the tables. 

1. The is translated by les before any plural noun. 

2. The plural of French nouns is formed, as in English, 
by adding s to the singular. 

3. Vocabulary 

le livre, the hook. 

le papier, the paper. 

le crayon, the pencil. 

la salle, the class room. 

la table, the table. 

la boite, the box. 

la poche, the pocket. 

Monsieur or M., sir, Mr. 
Madame or M"^^, Madam, Mrs. 
Mademoiselle or M}^^, Miss. 
dans, in. 
sur, on, upon. 
ou, where. 
est, is. 

sont, are (3rd person plural). 

4. Text 

1. La table est dans la salle. 

2. Le livre est sur la table. 

3. Le papier est dans la boite, 

4. Le crayon est dans la poche. 


5. Transposition 

Replace the singular by the plural. 
Ex. : I. Les tables sont dans les salles. 

6. Questions 

1. Ou est la table? Answer: Monsieur/ la table est dans 
la salle. 

2. Oti est le livre? 

3. Ou est le papier? 

4. Ou est le crayon? 

5. Ou sont les tables? A.: Monsieur, les tables sont dans 
les salles. , ^ ^ 

6. Ou sont les livres? 

7. Ou sont les papiers? 

8. Oti sont les crayons? 

7. Grammar Drill 

The paper, the papers ; the pocket, the pockets ; the book, 
the books ; the class room, the class rooms ; the box, the 
boxes; the pencil, the pencils; the table, the tables. 

8. Translation 

I. The pencil is in the box. 2. The papers are in the 
pocket. 3. The box is on the table. 4. The books are in 
the class rooms. 5. Where is the paper? 6. Sir, the paper 
is on the table. 7. Where is the book? 8. Madam, the 
book is in the pocket. 9. Where are the pencils? 10. Sir, 
the pencils are in the boxes. 

* Or Madamgf Mademoiselle, as the case may be. 



^ Rules 

9. L'eleve, the pupil; Tecole, the school; Thabitant, the 

The is translated by 1' before any singular noun, begin- 
ning with a vowel or an h mute. 

10. Ou est I'encrier? II est sur la table. 
Where is the inkstand? It is on the table. 
Ou est la table ? EUe est dans la salle. 
Where is the table? It is in the class room. 

It, when a subject, is translated by il when it stands for 
a masculine noun and by elle when it stands for a feminine 

1 1 . Ou sont les livres ? lis sont sur la table. Where are 
the books? They are on the table. 

Ou sont les plumes? EUes sont dans la boite. Where 
are the pens? They are in the box. 

They, standing for a noun which is masculine in French, 
is translated by ils; standing for one which is feminine, it 
is translated by elles. 

12. Vocabulary 

le banc, the bench. 
I'encrier (m.), the inkstand. 
l'eleve (m. and f.), the pupil. 
la plume, the pen. 

I'ecole (f.), the school. 
il est, he is or it is. 
elle est, she is or it is. 
ils sont, they are. 

elles sont, they are. 

13. Text 

1. Les plumes sont dans les^encriers. 

2. Les^encriers sont sur les tables. 

3. Les^eleves sont sur les bancs. 

4. Les salles sont dans les^ecoles. 

22 beginner's FRENCH) 

14. Transposition 

Replace the plural by the singular. 
Ex.: I. La plume est dans Tencrier. 

15. Questions 

1. Ou sont les plumes? A.: Monsieur, elles sont dans 
les encriers. 

2. Ou sont les encriers? A.: M., ils sont. . . 

3. Ou sont les eleves ? 

4. Ou sont les bancs? 

5. Ou sont les salles? 

6. Ou est la plume? A.: M., elle est dans I'encrier. 

7. Ou est I'encrier? A.: M., il est. . . 

8. Ou est I'eleve? 

9. Ou est le banc? 
10. Ou est la salle? 

16. Grammar Drill 

Replace the dashes by the proper form of the definite 

1. — ecole, — ecoles ; — plume, — plumes; — table, 

— tables ; — eleve, — eleves ; — livre, — livres. 

2. — encriers, — encrier ; — poches, — poche ; — bancs, 

— banc ; — crayons, — crayon ; — salles, — salle. 

17. Translation^ 

I. Where is the pen? 2. It is in the box. 3. Where is 
the inkstand? 4. It is on the paper. 5. Where is the pen- 
cil ? 6. It is on the bench. 7. Where is the table ? 8. It is 
in the class room. 9. Where is the class room? 10. It is 

^ The student should be requested to supply Monsieur, Madame, or 
Mademoiselle before every answer through the whole book. 



in the school. 11. Where are the papers? 12. They are in 
the pocket. 13. Where are the boxes ? 14. They are on the 
tables. 15. Where is the pupil? 16. He is in the school. 
17. Where are the pupils? 18. They are on the bench. 



18. lis ne sont pas sur la table. They are not on the table. 
II n'est pas sur la table. It is not on the table. 

Not is translated by ne . . . pas. The verb is placed 
between ne and pas. Ne becomes n' when the verb begins 
with a vowel or an h mute. 

19. Est il dans la salle? Is he (is it) in the class room? 
When the subject of an interrogative sentence is a per- 
sonal pronoun, it is placed after the verb, as in English. 

20. Ou est le maitre? Where is the master? 

When a question contains only an interrogative word 
izvhere, how, when, etc.), the subject (a noun or pronoun) 
and the verb, the subject may follow the verb. (For 
another construction, see 31.) 

21. Present of the indicative of 6tre {to be). 


suis je? am I? 
es tu? 
estjl ? 
est elle? 
sommes nous? 
etes vous? 
sont elles? 


je suis, / am 
tu^ es, you are 
il est, he is 
elle est, she is 
nous sommes, zve are 
vous etes, you are 
ils sont, they are 
elles sont, they are 


je ne suis pas, / am not. 

tu n'es pas 

il n'est pas 

elle n'est pas 

nous ne sommes pas 

vous n'etes pas 

ils ne sont pas 

elles ne sont pas 

^ Tu, jyou, is used only in speaking to relatives and intimate friends. 
In the English exercises, you marked with an asterisk is to be translated 

by /«. 

24 beginner's FRENCH 

22. Vocabulary 

le pare, the park. 
le maitre, the master, the teacher, 
la maitresse, the mistress. 
rantichambre, the anteroom. 

la chaise, the cliair, 
ou, or. 
oui, yes. 
non, no. 

qui? who? 

23. Text 

1. Je suis le maitre.^ 

2. Vous^etes les^eleves. 

3. Je suis sur la chaise. 

4. Vous^etes sur les bancs. 

5. Je ne suis pas dans I'antichambre, je suis 
dans la salle. 

6. Vous n etes pas dans le pare, vous^etes 
dans lecole. 

24. Transposition 

1. Replace the singular by the plural (except le pare 
and Tecole in sentence 6) and vice versa. Ex.: i. Nous 
sommes les . . . 

2. Replace the first person by the second and vice versa. 
Ex.: I. Vous etes le. . . 

3. Replace the affirmative form by the negative and vice 
versa. Ex. : i. Je ne suis pas le. . . 

25. Questions 

1. Suis je le maitre? A.: Oui. monsieur, vous etes le 

2. fites vous les eleves? A.: Oui, M., nous sommes. . . 

3. Suis je sur la chaise? 

J Or la maitresse, as the case may be. 


4. £tes vous sur les bancs? 

5. Suis je dans Tantichambre ou dans la salle? 

6. £tes vous dans le pare ou dans I'ecole? 

7. Qui est le maitre?" A.: Monsieur, vous etes le maitre. 

8. Qui sont les eleves? A.: M., nous sommes. . . 

9. Qui est sur la chaise? 

10. Qui est sur le banc? 

11. (a) Qui n'est pas dans rantichambre ? 
(b) Qui est dans la salle? 

12. (a) Qui n'est pas dans le pare? 
(b) Qui est dans I'ecole? 

(Negative answers followed by affirmative.) 

13. £tes vous le maitre? A.: Non, M., je ne suis pas le 
maitre, je suis I'eleve. 

14. Suis je I'eleve? 

15. £tes vous sur la chaise? 

16. Suis je sur le banc? 

17. Suis je dans I'antichambre ? 

18. £tes vous dans le pare? 

26. Grammar Drill 

1. The chairs, the chair; the parks, the park; the class 
rooms, the class room ; the pupils, the pupil. 

2. The masters, the master ; the anterooms, the anteroom ; 
the benches, the bench ; the schools, the school ; the mistresses, 
the mistress. 

3. He is, she is, I am, they (m.) are. 

4. We are, you* are, they (f.) are, you are. 

5. Is he? are they (m.) ? are you? 

6. Are you*? is she? are we? are they (f.) ? 

7. You are not, she is not, they (m.) are not, we 
are not. 


27. Translation 

I. Who is the teaclier? 2. I am the pupil. 3. You are 
the teacher. 4. Who is in the anteroom? 5. You are not in 
the anteroom. 6. Where am I? 7. You are on the chair, 
in the class room. 8. Where are we? 9. You are on the 
bench, in the school. 10. Where are the pupils? 11. They 
are not in the class rooms. 12. They are in the anterooms. 
13. Where is the master ? 14. Is he in the school? 15. No, 
he is not in the school. 16. He is in the park. 



28. Le pare est grand. The park is large. 
Les pares sont grands. The parks are large. 
La ville est grande. The city is large. 

Les villes sont grandes. The cities are large. 
French adjectives agree in gender and number with the 
noun which they qualify. 

29. Le pare est grand. The park is large. 
La ville est grande. The city is large. 

The feminine of a French adjective is formed by adding 
e to the masculine singular. 

Exceptions : i. Le mur est jaune. The wall is yellow. 

La porte est jaune. The door is yellow. 
Adjectives ending in -e in the masculine singular are 
alike in both genders. 

2. Quel pare? What park? 

Quelle couleur? What color? 
The feminine of adjectives ending in -el in the mascu- 
line singular is formed by doubling the final 1 before add- 
ing e. 



30. Les pares sont grands. The parks are large. 
Les villes sont grandes. The cities are large. 

The plural of a French adjective is formed by adding s 
to the singular. (Cf. 2. 2.) 

Exception. Le mur est gris. The zvall is gray. 

Les murs sont gris. The walls are gray. 

Masculine adjectives ending in -s in the singular remain 
unchanged in the plural. 

31. Le pare est il grand ? Is the park large f 
La ville est elle grande ? Is the city large f 
Oil le pare est il ? Where is the park f 

When the subject of an interrogative sentence is a noun 
or any other pronoun but a personal pronoun, it precedes the 
verb in French and is also repeated after it in the form of a 
corresponding personal pronoun. (See 20.) 

32. Vocabulary 

le mur, the wall. 

I'habitant (m,), the inhabitant. 

la ville, the city. 

I'a venue (f.), the avenue. 

la rue, the street. 

la maison, the house. 

la porte, the door. 

la couleur, the color. 

grand, m. s. 
grands, m. pl. 
grande, f. s. 
grandes, f. pl. 

large, tall. 









y narrow. 
























sad, gloomy. 








qu'est ce qui? what^ Tsubject) 

comment, how, 

tres, very. 

et, and. 

mais, but. 

de, of. 

33. Text 

1. Nous sommes^assis dans le pare. 

2. La ville est grande et le pare est joH. 

3. L'avenue est tres large et la rue est tres^ 

4. Les maisons sont tristes, mais les^habitants 
sont gais. 

5. Les murs sont gris et les portes sont jaunes. 

34. Transposition 

1. Replace the singular by the plural (except le pare in 
sentence i ) and vice versa. 

Ex. : I . Je suis assis dans le pare. 2. Les villes ... 

2. Use the negative form. 

Ex. : I . Nous ne sommes pas assis dans . . . 

3. Use the interrogative form. 

Ex. : I . Sommes nous assis dans . . . ? 2. La ville est 
elle grande et le pare . . . ? 

35. Questions 

1. Qui est assis dans le pare? A.: M., nous sommes 
assis . . . 

2. (a) Qu'est ce qui^ est grand? A.: M., la ville est. . . 
(b) Qu'est ce qui est joli? 

^ Qu^est ce qui is masculine. 


3- (^) Q^i'est ce qui est tres large? 
(b) Qu'est ce qui est tres etroit? 

4. (j) Qu'est ce qui est triste? A.: M., les maisons 

sont . . . 
(b) Qui est gai? 

5. (a) Qu'est ce qui est gris? 
(b) Qu'est ce qui est jaune? 

6. Oil etes vous assis ? ^.; M., nous sommes. . . 

7. (a) Comment la ville est elle? A.: M., elle est. . . 
(b) Comment le pare est il? • 

8. (a) Comment I'avenue est elle? 
(b) Comment la rue est elle? 

9. (a) Comment les maisons sont elles? 
(b) Comment les habitants sont ils? 

10. (a) De quelle couleur les murs sont ils? 
(b) De quelle couleur les portes sont elles? 

36. Grammar Drill 
Write : 

(a) The feminine singular of the following adjectives: 

joli, gai, quel, assis, triste. 

(b) The masculine plural of:, jaune, grand, gris, etroit, 


(c) The feminine plural of: triste, gris, large, grand, 

assis, jaune, gai, etroit, joli, quel. 

Conjugate the present indicative of : 

(o) etre gai in the affirmative form. Ex.: Je suis gai 
or gaie.^ 

(b) etre triste in the interrogative form. Ex.: Suis je 

triste ? 

(c) etre assis in the negative form. Ex. : Je ne suis pas 

assis or assise.^ 

i According as the pupil is a boy or a girl. 


37. Translation 

I. We are in the school. 2. It is very large. 3. Who 
is seated ? 4. The pupils are seated on the benches. 5. They 
are very sad. 6. The mistress is not in the class room. 
7. Where is she? 8. She is seated on the chair in the ante- 
room. 9. The anteroom is gloomy but the class rooms are 
pretty. 10. Where are we? 11. You are in the park. 
■12. It is narrow. 13. The avenues are not very pretty. 
14. Are the streets cheerful? 15. No, they are not cheerful. 
16. They are narrow and very gloomy. 17. How is the in- 
habitant? 18. Is he cheerful or gloomy ? 19. He is gloomy. 
20. Is the house narrow? 21. No, it is not narrow, it is 
wide. 22. Are the walls wide? 23. No, they are not wide, 
they are very narrow. 



38. La salle est plus grande que (moins grande que, 
aussi grande que) I'antichambre. 

The class room is larger than (less large than, a^ large 
as) the anteroom. 

The comparative of a French adjective is formed by put- 
ting pins (comparative of superiority), moins (comparative 
of inferiority), anssi (comparative of equality) before it. 

Exception : Le maitre est bon. The master is good. La 
maitresse est bonne. The mistress is good. 

Le maitre est meillenr que la maitresse. The master is 
better than the mistress. 

The comparative of bon is meillenr. 

Note. The feminine of bon is irregular : bonne. 


39. La plus grande salle. The larger or the largest class 

Le plus petit eleve. The smaller or tlie smallest pupil. 
Les meilleures ecoles. The better or the best schools, 

1. To form the superlative of a French adjective, put 
the definite article le, la, les before the comparative. 

2. The French have only one form to express the larger, 
the largest. 

40. Possessive adjectives. 





Both Genders 









his, her, its 













Notes, i. Son livre. His, her, its book. 
Sa plume. His, her, its pen. 

Son and sa agree in number and gender with the fol- 
lowing noun, not with the possessor as in English. 

2. Mon ecole. My school. 

Ton antichambre. Your anteroom. 

Son amie. His, her, its friend {fern.). 

Mon, ton, son replace ma, ta, sa before any feminine ad- 
jective or noun beginning with a vowel or an 11 mute. 

41. Demonstrative adjectives. 

Ce livre. This or that book. 

Cet encrier. This or that inkstand. 

Cette table. This or that table. 



Cette ecole. This or that school. 
Ces livres. These or those books. 
Ces tables. These or those tables. 



Before a consonant. 

Before a vowel or an A mute. 

this or / 
these or 

hat ce 

cat cette 





le frere, the brother. 


le monsieur, the gentleman. 


les messieurs, the gentlemen. 

bonne ^ «"'"'• 


le cousin, ^/t^ cousin. 

I'enfant (m. or f.), the child. 

la soeur, the sister. 



la dame, the lady. 


. better. 

I'amie, the friend (fern.). 


I'actrice, the actress. 



plus. . .que, more. ..than. 



moins...que, less... than. 



aussi.. .que, as... as. 


si . . . que, so . . 


43. Text 

1. Son frere est plus grand que ce monsieur. 

2. Sa sceur est plus petite que cette dame. 

3. Son cousin est meilleur que ceCenfant. 

4. Son^amie est moins jolie que cette actrice 

44. Transposition 

I. Replace son and sa by the other possessive adjectives. 
Ex.: I. Son (mon, ton, notre, votre, leur) frere est plus 
grand que ce monsieur. 


2. Use the plural everywhere and replace ses by the other 
possessive adjectives. 

Ex.: I. Ses (mes, tes, nos, vos, leurs) freres sont plus 
grands que ces messieurs. 

3. Use the interrogative form. 

Ex. : I . Son f rere est il plus grand que ce monsieur ? 

45. Questions 

1. Qui est plus grand que ce monsieur ? ^.: M., son f rere 
est plus grand que ce monsieur. 

2. Qui est plus petite que cette dame? 

3. Qui est meilleur que cet enfant? 

4. Qui est moins jolie que cette actrice? 
Use mon instead of son in the answers. 

5. Qui est le plus grand, votre frere ou ce monsieur? 
A.: M.* mon frere est le plus grand. 

6. Qui est la plus petite, cette dame ou votre soeur? 

7. Qui est le meilleur, votre cousin ou cet enfant? 

8. Qui est la moins jolie, cette actrice ou votre amie? 
Negative answers with si (so) and use leur instead of son. 

9. Ce monsieur est il aussi grand que leur frere? A.: 
Non, M., il n'est pas si grand que leur frere. 

10. Cette dame est elle aussi petite que leur soeur? 

11. Cet enfant est il aussi bon que leur cousin? 

12. Leur amie est elle aussi joHe que cette actrice? 

46. Grammar Drill 

I. Write in French the masculine and feminine forms 
singular and plural of the following adjectives, compara- 
tives and superlatives : 

(a) cheerful, more cheerful, the more cheerful, the most 


(b) small, smaller, the smaller, the smallest. 

(c) pretty, prettier, the prettier, the prettiest. 

(d) gloomy, more gloomy, the more gloomy, the most 


(e) good, better, the better, the best. 

2. My (your*, his, her, its, our, your, their) pencil; my 
(our, his, your*, her, your, its, their) pencils. 

3. My (their, her, your, his, our, your*, its) pen ; my 
(your, his, their, its, your*, our) pens. 

4. My (his, our, their, its, your*, her, your) friend 
(fern.) ; my (vour, his, our, her, your*, its, their) friends 

5. This book, these books : that pupil, those pupils ; this 
school, these schools; that table, these tables. 

47. Translation 

I. Is that park large? 2. It is larger than your city. 
3. Are those avenues narrow? 4. They are as narrow as 
our streets . 5. Is your school small ? 6. No, it is not small. 
7. It is larger than this house. 8. How are the class rooms ? 
9. They are not wide. 10. They are as narrow as my ante- 
room. II. Are these pupils good? 12. They are better than 
your brother. 13. Is their master cheerful? 14. No, he is 
sad. 15. His pupils are not good. 16. How are those 
actresses? 17. Are they pretty ? 18. They are very tall and 
very pretty. 19. They are taller than this gentleman and 
prettier than these ladies. 20. How is this child? 21. He 
is as sad as his sister. 22. Who is the prettier, my friend 
(fem.) or her sister? 23. Your friend (fem.) is the prettier. 
24. Yes, but her sister is the taller and the merrier. 




48. (i) Du maitre, du heros ; (2) de la maitresse, de la 
harpe; (3) de I'eleve, de I'ecole, de I'habitant ; (4) des 
maitres, des heros, des maitresses, des harpes, des eleves, 
des ecoles, des habitants. Of the or from the master, the 
hero, the mistress, the harp, the pupil, the school, the in- 
habitant; of the or from the masters, the heroes, the mis- 
tresses, the harps, the pupils, the schools, the inhabitants. 

Of the or from the is translated by 
(i) du before a masculine noun singular beginning with a 
consonant or an h formerly aspirate; 

(2) de la before a feminine noun singular beginning with a 

consonant or an h formerly aspirate; 

(3) de 1' before any singular noun beginning with a vowel 

or an h mute ; 

(4) des before any plural noun. 

49. Le fils, les fils. The son, the sons. 

Nouns ending in s, x, z are alike in both numbers. (Cf. 
exception to 30* ) 

50. Le tableau, les tableaux. The blackboard, the black- 

Le neveu, les neveux. The nephew, the nephews. 
Nouns ending in au and eu take x in the plural instead 
of s. 

51 • L'amiral, les amiraux. The admiral, the admirals. 
Nouns ending in al replace 1 by ux in the plural. 

52. Est ce que le maitre est dans la salle? Is the master 
ill the class room? 

Another way of forming a question is to put est ce que 
{is it [a fact] that?) before any statement. 



53- Le maitre n'est il pas dans la salle ? Is not the master 
in the class room? 

Si, M., il est dans la salle. Yes, sir, he is in the class room. 

Yes is translated by si when the question has a negative 

54^ Present indicative of etre {to he). 


ne suis je pas? am I not? ne sommes nous pas? 
n'es tu pas ? 
n'est il pas? 
n'est elle pas? 

n'etes vous pas ? 
ne sont ils pas? 
ne sont elles pas? 


est ce que je ne suis pas? 
est ce que tu n'es pas ? 
est ce qu'il n'est pas ? 
est ce qu'elle n'est pas ? 

est ce que nous ne sommes pas ? 
est ce que vous n'etes pas ? 
est ce qu'ils ne sont pas ? 
est ce qu'elles ne sont pas ? 

55. Vocabulary 

rinstituteur, the sehoolmaster. 

le tableau, the blackboard. 

le bureau, the desk. 

le neveu, the nephew. 

le fils, the son. 

le marquis, the marquis. 

I'amiral, the admiral. 

le marechal, the horseshoer. 

I'edifice (m.), the building. 

le meuble, the piece of furniture. 

I'institutrice, the schoolmistress. 

'the same. . .as. 

Tentree (f.), the entrance. 

la classe, the class room. 

le meme. . .que 

les memes. . .que 

la meme. . .que 

les memes. . .que-' 

debout (adverb), standing. 

en face de, opposite. 

loin de, far from. 

pres de, near. 

si, yes (see 53). 

56. Text 

I. Lecole de la ville est^en face de I'entree 

du pare. 


2. Le bureau de I'instituteur est loin de la 
porte de rantichambre. 

3. Le neveu de lamiral est debout pres du 
tableau de la classe. 

4. Le fils du marechal est sur le meme banc 
que le cousin du marquis. 

57. Transposition 

1. Replace the singular by the plural. 

Ex. : I . Les ecoles des villes sont en face des entrees des 

2. Use two interrogative forms. 

Ex.: I. (a) L'ecole de la ville est elle en face de. . . ? 
(b) Est ce que Tecole de la ville est en face de. . . ? 

3. Use the negative form. 

Ex. : I. L'ecole de la ville n'est pas en face de. . . 

58. Questions 

1. Oil est l'ecole de la ville ? A. : M., elle est en face de. . . 

2. Oil le bureau de Tinstituteur est il? 

3. Oil le neveu de I'amiral est il assis? 

4. Ou est le fils du marechal? 

5. Quel edifice est en face de I'entree du pare? A.: M., 
l'ecole de la ville est en face de. . . 

6. Quel meuble est loin de la porte de I'antichambre ? 

7. Qui est assis pres du tableau de la classe? 

8. Qui est sur le meme banc que le cousin du marquis? 
Answers with si (yes). 

9. L'ecole de la ville n'est elle pas en face de I'entree 
du pare? A.: Si, M., elle est en face de I'entree du pare. 

^S> Beginner's french 

10. Est cc que le bureau de Tinstituteur n'est pas loin 
de la porte de rantichambrc ? 

11. Le neveu de I'amiral ivest il pas assis pres du tableau 
de la classe ? 

12. Est ce que le fils du marechal n'est pas sur le meme 
banc que le cousin du marquis? 

59. Grammar Drill 

Replace the dashes by the plural form of the preceding 
word and the dots by the proper form : du, de la, de 1' or des. 

1 . Le meuble, les — ; ... meuble, ... — ; 
la ville, les — ; ... ville, ... — ; 
I'amiral, les — ; ... amiral, ... — ; 

le tableau, les — ; ... tableau, ... — . 
Ex. : le meuble, les meubles, du meuble, des meubles. 

2. Le fils, les — ; ... fils, ... — ; 
I'ecole, les — ; ... ecole, ... — ; 

le bureau, les -^ ; ... bureau, ... — ; 
I'edifice, les — ; ... edifice, ... — ; 

3. Le marquis, les — ; ... marquis, ... — ; 
I'actrice, les — ; ... actrice, ... — ; 

le neveu, les — ; ... neveu, ... — . 

4. La dame, les — ; ... dame, ... — ; 

le marechal, les — ; ... marechal, ... — ; 
I'enfant, les — ; ... enfant, ... — . 

60. Translation 

I. Where are you seated? 2. We are seated on the 
benches of the same class room. 3. Where is your class 
room? 4. It is near the entrance of the school. 5. Is this 
schoolmaster standing or seated? 6. He is standing oppo- 
site the pupils. 7. Are the blackboards far from the door 
of the class room? 8. No, thev are near the desk of the 


schoolmaster. 9. On what piece of furniture are the books 
of the horseshoer's nephews^? 10. They are on the table 
of the anteroom. 11. Are the admiral's sons^ on the same 
bench as your brothers? 12. No, they are not in the same 
school. 13. I am seated on the same bench as the children 
of the marquis. 14. Are not the schools of the city large? 
15. Yes, they are very large and very cheerful. 16. What 
building is opposite the houses of the admirals? 17. Is their 
street far from the park of the city? 18. No, it is opposite 
the entrance of the park. 

61. Reading Lesson* 


L'Europe est la plus belle partie du monde. 
La France est le plus beau pays d'Europe. 
Paris est la plus belle ville de France. 
Ma rue est la plus belle de Paris. 
Ma maison est la plus belle de la rue. 
Ma chambre est la plus belle de la maison. 
Je suis le plus bel homme de ma chambre. 
Done je suis le plus bel homme du monde. 



62. Tin livre, a (one) book. Tine table, a (one) tabic. 
The indefinite article a or a)i and one are translated by un 

l)efore a masculine noun and by une before a feminine. 

63. L'eleve a des livres. The pupil has (some) books. 

^ Say : the nephews of the horseshoer. 

■^ Say : the sons of the admiral. 

^ See the general vocabulary for the translation of the reading lessons. 



The partitive article some or any, expressed or under- 
stood in English before a noun, must be expressed in French 
and is translated by des before a plural noun. (Cf. 48. 4.) 

64. L'eleve n'a pas de livre. The pupil has no {not a, not 
any) hook. 

No, not a, not any are translated by ne (verb) pas de 
before any noun, singular or plural, used as a direct object. 
De becomes d' before a vowel or an h mute. 

65. L'eleve n'a qn'un livre. The pupil has only one book. 
Mon frere n*a que des fils. My brother has only sons. 

Only is translated by ne (verb) que. 
Que = qu' before a vowel or an h mute. 

66. II a, he has. A-t-il? has he? Elle a, she has. 
A-t-elle? has she? On a, one has. A-t-on? has one? 

When the third person singular of any tense ends in a 
vowel and is followed by il, elle, on, the letter t must be 
inserted between hyphens. 

67. Qu'a-t-il? What has he? 
Qu'est ce qu'il a? 

1. What? interrogative pronoun, direct object, is trans- 
lated by que or qn'est ce que. 

2. Qu'est ce que must be used when the subject of the 
question precedes the verb. 

68. Present of the indicative of avoir {to have). 


j'ai, / have 

tu as 

il or elle a 

nous avons 

vous avez 

ils or elles ont 


ai je? have I? 
as tu? 

a-t-il or a-t-elle? 
avons nous ? 
avez vous? 
ont ils or elles? 


je n'ai pas, / have not 

tu n'as pas 

il or elle n'a pas 

nous n'avons pas 

vous n'avez pas 

ils or elles n'ont pas 


Another interrogative form is: 

est ce que j'ai ? have If est ce que nous avons? 

est ce que tu as ? est ce que vous avez ? 

est ce qu'il or elle a ? est ce qu'ils or eiles ont ? 

69. Vocabulary 

le village, the village. 
le drapeau, the flag. 
le preau, the playground. 
le fourneau, the stove. 
le couteau, the knife. 

le rideau, the curtain. 

le store, the shade {blind). 

la cloche, the hell. 

la carte, the map. 

la fenetre, the window. 

le cahier, the notebook. 

70. Text 

1. L'ecole du village a un drapeau, un preau 
et une cloche. 

2. La salle de l'ecole a un tableau, une carte 
et un fourneau. 

3. La fenetre de lantichambre a un rideau et 
un store. 

4. Le neveu du marechal a dans son bureau 
un cahier, un couteau, une plume et un crayon. 

71. Transposition 

1. Use the plural everywhere and repeat the subject and 
the verb before every direct object. 

Ex. : I . Les ecoles des villages ont des drapeaux ; elles 
ont des . . . et elles ont des . . . 

2. Use the negative form and repeat the subject and the 
verb before every direct object. 

Ex.: I. L'ecole du village n'a pas de drapeau; elle n'a 
pas de preau et elle n'a pas de , . . 


3. Use the restrictive form (=r only). 
Ex. : I. L'ecole du village n'a qu'un drapeau, qu'un preau 
et qu'une eloche. 

72. Questions 

1. (a) L'ecole du village a-t-elle un drapeau? A.: Oui, 

M., elle a un drapeau. 

(b) A-t-elle un preau? 

(c) A-t-elle une cloche? 

2. (a) Est ce que la salle de l'ecole a un tableau? 

(b) Est ce qu'elle a une carte? 

(c) Est ce qu'elle a un fourneau? 

3. (a) La fenetre de I'antichambre a-t-elle un rideau? 
(b) A-t-elle un store? 

4. (a) Est ce que le neveu du marechal a un cahier dans 

son bureau? 

(b) Est ce qu'il a un couteau? 

(c) Est ce qu'il a une plume? 

(d) Est ce qu'il a un crayon? 

5. Ou'est ce qui a un drapeau, un preau et une cloche? 
A.: M., Tecole du village a un ... 

6. Qu'est ce qui a un tableau, une carte et un fourneau ? 

7. Ou'est ce qui a un rideau et un store? 

8. Qui a dans son bureau un cahier, un couteau, une* 
plume et un crayon? 

9. Qu'a l'ecole du village? A.: M., elle a un . . . 

10. Qu'est ce que la salle de l'ecole a? 

11. Qu'a la fenetre de I'antichambre? 

12. Ou'est ce que le neveu du marechal a dans son 
bureau ? 


Restrictive answers. 

13. Est ce que Tecole du village a des drapeaux, des 
preaux et des cloches? A.: Non, M., elle n'a qii'un drapeau, 
qu'un ... et qu'une . . . 

14. La salle de Tecole a-t-elle des tableaux, des cartes et 
des fourneaux? 

15. Est ce que la fenetre de rantichambre a des rideaux 
et des stores? 

16. Le neveu du marechal a-t-il dans son bureau des 
cahiers, des couteaux, des plumes et des crayons? 

73. Grammar Drill 

Replace the dashes by un or une as the case may be, 
the first row of dots by the proper translation of some or 
any and the second by the plural of the preceding noun. 

1. — rideau, ; — drapeau, ; 

— neveu, ; — fils, ; 

— couteau, Ex. : i . Un rideau, des rideaux. 

2. — ecole, ; — fenetre, ; 

— porte, ; — plume, ; 

— cloche, ; — amie, 

3. — bureau, ; — carte, ; 

— preau, ; — ville, ; 

— antichambre, ; — cahier, ; 

— crayon, ; — salle, ; 

— tableau, ; — boite, 

4. I have, we have, they (m.) have. 

5. Has he? have you? have you*? (Two translations of 
every question.) 

■6. They (f.) have not, I have not, you have not, she 
has not. 



74. Translation 

I. The school of the city has (some) class rooms and 
(some) anterooms. 2. The class rooms of the schools have 
some windows and one door. 3. The anteroom of the school 
has no blackboards. 4. It has only chairs and one table. 
5. Where are the maps and the blackboards? 6. They are 
on the walls of the class rooms. 7. Have the schools of the 
village flags and bells ? 8. They have only bells ; they have 
no flags. 9. The windows of our class rooms have shades. 
ID. They have no curtains. 11. Where are the pupils of this 
schoolmaster? 12. They are in the playground in front of 
the park. 13. Where is the master? 14. He is seated near 
the stove of his class room. 15. Who is this pupil? 
16. What has he in his pocket? 17. He has only a knife. 
18. Have you (any) desks? 19. What have you in your 
desks? 20. We have notebooks, pens and pencils. 



75' Cardinal numbers. 

un, une i 

deux 2 

trois 3 

quatre 4 

cinq 5 

six (siss) 6 

sept (sett) 7 

huit (ziret, short) 8 

neuf 9 

dix (diss) 10 

onze II 






dix sept (diss) 

dix huit ( " ) 

dix neuf ( " ) 

vingt (z'in) 

vingt et un (vinte-un) . . 
vingt deux (pron. t) . . 






vingt trois (pron. 


vingt quatre( 

) • • 

vingt cinq ( 

) • • 

vingt six ( 

) • • 

vingt sept ( 

) • • 

vingt huit ( 

) • • 

vingt neuf ( 

) • • 




trente 30 

trente et un 31 

trente deux, etc 32 

quarante 40 

quarante et un 41 

quarante deux, etc 42 

cinquante 50 

cinquante et un 51 

cinquante deux 52 

soixante 60 

soixante et un 61 

soixante deux 62 

soixante dix 70 

soixante et onze 71 

soixante douze y2 

soixante treize 73 

soixante quatorze 74 

soixante quinze 75 

soixante seize y6 

soixante dix sept yy 

Notes: i. Cinq livres; cinq, cinq^enfants. Five hooks; 
five, five children. 

Six villes ; six, six^ecoles. Six cities; six, six schools. 

The final consonant of the numbers cinq, six, sept, huit, 
neuf, dix is not sounded when they are followed by a noun 
or adjective beginning with a consonant or an h formerly 
aspirate and is pronounced in all other cases. 

2. The conjunction et is used only in 21, 31, 41, 51, 61, 71. 

soixante dix huit 78 

soixante dix neuf 79 

quatre vingts {vin) .... 80 

quatre vingt un 81 

quatre vingt deux 82 

quatre vingt dix 90 

quatre vingt onze ..... 91 

quatre vingt douze 92 

quatre vingt treize 93 

quatre vingt quatorze . . 94 

quatre vingt quinz-e 95 

quatre vingt seize 96 

quatre vingt dix sept ... 97 
quatre vingt dix huit . . 98 
quatre vingt dix neuf . . 99 

cent 100 

cent un loi 

cent cinquante 1 50 

deux cents 200 

deux cent trente 230 

trois cents 300 

mille 1000 

douze cent trois 1203 

deux mille 2000 

deux mille cent 2100 

un million 1,000,000 



76. Ordinal numbers. 

premier, premiere . 
deuxieme or second, 






huitieme . . 




















1 2th 




1 6th 

dix septieme 17th 

dix huitieme i8th 

dix neuvieme 19th 

vingtieme 20th 

vingt et unieme 21st 

vingt deuxieme 22nd 

trentieme 30th 

quarantieme 40th 

cinquantieme 50th 

soixantieme 60th 

soixante dixieme 70th 

quatre vingtieme Both 

quatre vingt dixieme. . . 90th 

centieme looth 

millieme loooth 

milhonieme i ,(X)0,oooth 

To form any ordinal number, add -ieme to the correspond- 
ing cardinal (except premier; fem. irregular: premiere). 

Notes: i. However, notice the slight changes or addi- 
tions in quatrieme, cinquieme. neuvieme, trentieme, etc. 

2. Unieme, deuxieme are respectively used to translate 
first and second in 21st, 22nd, 31st, 32nd, 41st, 42nd, etc. 

3. Le or la onzieme. We do not elide the vowel of le 
or la before onzieme. 

77. Vocabulary 

le jour, the day. 
le mois, the month. 
le siecle, the century. 
le temps, the time. 
la seconde, the second. 
la minute, the minute. 
la parti e, the part. 

rheure (f.), the hour, 
la semaine, the week. 
ranne^(f.), the year. 
la division, the division. 
il forme, he or it forms. 
elle ferme, she or it forms. 
ils or elles forment, they form. 


78. Divisions du Temps. 

1. 60 secondes forment une minute. 

2. 60 minutes forment une heure. 

3. 24 heures forment un jour. 

4. 7 jours forment une semaine. 

5. 30 jours forment un mois. 

6- 365 jours forment une annee. 
7. loo^annees forment un siecle. 

79. Transposition 

1. Double every number. Ex.: i. 120 secondes forment 

2 minutes. 

2. Triple every number. Ex.: i. 180 secondes forment 

3 minutes. 

3. Quadruple every number. Ex.: i. 240 secondes 
forment 4 minutes. 

4. Decuple every number. Ex.: i. 600 secondes forment 
10 minutes. 

5. Deduct one from the first number of every sentence 
and use the negative form. Ex. : i. 59 secondes ne forment 
pas une^ minute. 

6. Use the ordinal numbers. Ex. : i. Une seconde est la 
soixantieme partie d'une minute. 

80. Questions 

1. 60 secondes forment elles une minute? A.: Oui, M., 
elles forment une minute. 

2. Est ce que 60 minutes forment une heure? 

3. 24 heures forment elles un jour? 

4. Est ce que 7 jours forment une semaine? 

^ Mft one is translated by ne (verb) pas une ; not a by ne (verb) pas de. 
(See 64.) 

48 beginner's FRENCH 

5. 30 jours forment ils un mois? 

6. Est ce que 365 jours forment une annee? 

7. 100 annees forment elles un siecle? 

8. Qu'est ce qui forme une minute? A.: M., 60 secon- 
des . . . 

9. Qu'est ce qui forme une heure ? 

10. Qu'est ce qui forme un jour? 

11. Qu'est ce qui forme une semaine? 

12. Qu'est ce qui forme un mois? 

13. Qu'est ce qui forme une annee? 

14. Qu'est ce qui forme un siecle? 

15. Quelle est la soixantieme partie d'une minute? 
A.: M,, une seconde est la. . . 

16. Quelle est la soixantieme partie d'une heure? 

17. Quelle est la vingt quatrieme partie d'un jour? 

18. Quelle est la septieme partie d'une semaine? 

19. Quelle est la trentieme partie d'un mois? 

20. Quelle est la trois cent soixante cinquieme partie 
d'une annee? 

21. Quelle est la centieme partie d'un siecle? 

81. Grammar Drill 

1. Give the odd numbers from i to 21. 

2. Give the even numbers from 2 to 30. 

3. Give the multiples of 3 up to 99. 

4. Give the multiples of 4 up to 120. 

5. 58, 814, 1204, 1492, 1643, 1789. 1824, 1870, 1903. 

82. Translation 

Use no figures in writing out this exercise. 

I. We have 4 generals and 2 admirals in this city. 

2. This general has 3 sons and this admiral has 5 nephews. 

3. The city has 7 schools, 6 parks, 8 avenues, 92 streets and 


60,000 inhabitants. 4. Our school has 45 windows, 16 doors 
and 2 playgrounds. 5. Your class room has 12 benches, 3 
blackboards, 5 maps and 2 desks. 6. The schoolmistress has 
in her desk 4 pencils, 2 inkstands, 7 books, 10 pens and 14 
notebooks. 7. The divisions of time^ are the second, the 
minute, the hour, the day, the week, the month, the year 
and the century. 8. 180 minutes form 3 hours. 9. 91 days 
form 13 weeks. 10. 52 weeks form one year. 11. 312 weeks 
form 6 years. 12. 120 hours form 5 days. 13. 210 days 
form 7 months. 14. 1460 days form 4 years. 15. 1000 
years form 10 centuries. 16. 20 is the fifth part of 100. 
17. 30 is the sixth part of 180. 18. 53 is the ninth part 
of 477. 19. 42 is the eleventh part of 462. 

83. Reading Lesson 


L'annee a douze mois. Les noms des douze mois de 
I'annee sont: Janvier, fevrier, mars, avril, mai, juin, juillet, 
aout, septembre, octobre, novembre et decembre. 

Janvier est le premier mois de l'annee; fevrier est le 
deuxieme ; . mars est le troisieme ; avril est le quatrieme ; 
mai est le cinquieme; juin est le sixieme; juillet est le 
septieme; aoiit est le huitieme; septembre est le neuvieme; 
octobre est le dixieme; novembre est le onzieme et decembre 
est le douzieme, le dernier. 

Janvier, mars, mai, juillet, aoiit, octobre et decembre ont 
trente et un jours. Les autres mois, excepte fevrier, ont 
trente jours. Fevrier a vingt huit jours dans les annees 
ordinaires et vingt neuf dans les annees bissextiles. 

Le premier Janvier est le premier jour de l'annee; le 
trente et un decembre est le dernier. Le vingt deux fevrier 
est le jour de I'anniversaire de naissance de Washington. 
Le quatre juillet est la date de la fete nationale des fitats 

1 Supply the. 


Unis. Le quatorze juillet est la date de Tanniversaire de la 
prise de la Bastille. 

L'annee a quatre saisons. Les noms des quatre saisons 
de Tannee sont: le printemps, lete, rautomne et I'hiver. 
Le printemps est la plus agreable des quatre saisons. 

La semaine a sept jours. Les noms des sept jours de la 
semaine sont: lundi, mardi, mercredi, jeudi, vendredi, samedi 
et dimanche. Lundi et mardi sont les deux premiers jours 
de la semaine. Samedi et dimanche sont les deux demiers. 


Review §§ i8, 40, 48, 49, 50, 51. 

84. Sonner, to ring. Dessiner, to draw. 

The regular French verbs are divided into three conjuga- 
tions. The infinitive present of the first one ends in -er. 

85. Present indicative of sonner (to ring). 

je Sonne, / ring, I do ring, nous sonnons, we ring 

I am ringing 
tu sonnes, you ring vous sonnez, you ring 

il or elle sonne, he or she rings ils or elles sonnent, they ring 
The endings of the indicative present of verbs of the first 
conjugation are: f _e f -ons 

singular -j -es plural S -ez 

I -e L -ent 

86. I. Present indicative of sonner (interrogative form). 
( sonne je? )do I ring? sonnons nous? 

\ est ce que je sonne? \am I ringing? 
sonnes tu? sonnez vous? 

sonne-t-il? sonnent ils? 

sonne-t-elle ? sonnent elles? 



1. The auxiliary verb to do has no corresponding form 
in French. We say Ring I? instead of Do I ring? Ring 
yoiif instead of Do you ring? etc. 

2. Final e mute of the first person singular must be 
accented (e) when followed by je. 

Such forms as sonne-je? dessine-je? are avoided in con- 
versation. Therefore always use the form est ce que in the 
first person singular of any tense. Either form may be 
used in the other persons. 

87. Present indicative of sonner (negative form), 
je ne sonne pas, / do not ring, nous ne sonnons pas 

/ am not ringing 
tu ne sonnes pas 
il or elle ne sonne pas 

88. Le travail, les travaux. 
A few nouns ending in -ail replace -il by -ux in the plural. 

89. I. Qui critiquez vous? Whom do you criticise? De 
qui parlez vous ? Of whom are you talking? 

2. De quoi parlez vous? Of what are you talking? 

1. Whom? interrogative pronoun, direct object or object 
of any preposition, is translated by qui. 

2. What? interrogative pronoun, object of any preposi- 
tion, is translated by quoi. (See 67.) 

vous ne sonnez pas 

ils or elles ne sonnent pas 

The work, the works. 


r^difice (m.), the building. 
le chapeau, the hat. 
le pardessus, the overcoat. 
I'animal (m.), the animal. 
le bateau, the boat. 
le travail, the work. 
I'avis (m.), the advice. 
la tour, the tower. 

la classe, the class, the class 

sonner, to ring. 
deposer, to lay down. 
dessiner, to draw. 
examiner, to examine. 
critiquer, to criticise. 
ecouter, to listen. 


91. Text 

1. Les cloches sonnent dans les tours des^ecoles. 

2. Vous deposez vos chapeaux et vos pardessus 
sur les tables des^antichambres. 

3. Nous dessinons des^animaux et des bateaux 
dans nos cahiers ou des cartes sur les tableaux 
des classes. 

4. Le maitre examine et critique les travaux 

5. Nous^ecoutons ses^avis. 

92. Transposition 

1. Replace the plural by the singular and vice versa. 
Ex.: I. La cloche sonne... 2. Tu deposes ton... 3. Je 
dessine un . . . 

2. Conjugate sentences 2, 3, 4 and 5 in the present in- 
dicative. Ex. : I . Je depose mon . . . Tu deposes ton . . . 

3. Use two interrogative forms. Ex. : i. (a) Est ce que 
les cloches sonnent dans. . . ? (b) Les cloches sonnent elles 
dans . . . ? 

93. Questions 

1. Qu'est ce qui sonne dans les tours des ecoles? A.: M., 
les cloches sonnent. . . 

2. Qui depose son chapeau et son pardessus sur la table 
de Tantichambre ? 

3. (a) Qui dessine des animaux et des bateaux dans son 

cahier ? 
(b) Qui est ce qui dessine des cartes sur les tableaux 
des classes? 

4. (a) Qui examine les travaux des eleves? 
(b) Qui est ce qui critique leurs travaux? 

5. Qui ecoute les avis du maitre? 


6. Ou les cloches sonnent elles? A.: M., elles sonnent 
dans . . . 

7. Que deposons nous sur les tables des antichambres ? 

8. (a) Qu'est ce que vous dessinez dans vos cahiers? 
(b) Que dessinez vous sur les tableaux des classes? 

9. (a) Qu'est ce que le maitre examine? 
(b) Que critique-t-il? 

10. Qu'ecoutez vous? 

11. Dans les tours de quels edifices les cloches sonnent 
elles? A.: M., elles sonnent dans. . . 

12. Sur quoi deposons nous nos chapeaux et nos par- 
dessus ? 

13. (a) Dans quoi dessinez vous des animaux et dea 

bateaux ? 
(b) Sur quoi dessinez vous des cartes? 

14. (a) De qui le maitre examine-t-il les travaux? 
(b) De qui critique-t-il les travaux? 

15. De qui ecoutez vous les avis? 

94. Grammar Drill 

Replace the dashes by the plural form of the preceding 
noun and the dots by the proper forms : du, de la, de 1', des. 

1. Le chapeau, les — , . . . chapeau, ... — ; 
la classe, les — , . . . classe, ... — ; 

le cahier, les — , . . . cahier, ... — ; 
I'avis, les — , . . . avis, ... — : 
la carte, les — , ... carte, ... — ; 
I'animal, les — , . . . animal, . . . — . 

Ex.: I. Le chapeau, les chapeaux, du chapeau, des cha- 

2. Le bateau, les — , . . . bateau, ... — ; 
la tour, les — , . . . tour, ... — ; 


le travail, les — , . . . travail, ... — ; 

Tenfant, les — , . . . enfant, ... — ; 

le pardessus, les — , . . . pardessus, ... — ; 

la cloche, les — , . . . cloche, . . . — . 
3. Translate : I listen, we listen, they do not listen ; you 
are examining, he is not examining, do we examine? do 
they lay down? we lay down, she does not lay down; you* 
ring, you do not ring, is she ringing? they are not criti- 
cising, I am criticising, do you criticise? 

95. Translation 

I. Who rings the bell of the school? 2. Do you ring the 
bell? 3. No, the nephew of the schoolmaster is ringing. 
4. In what class room are you? 5. We are in the class room 
opposite the park. 6. Does your teacher lay down his hat on 
the chair? 7. No, he lays down his hat on the table. 8. 
Where are the pupils' overcoats ? 9. They are on the chairs 
of the anteroom. 10. What are you drawing? 11. What 
are we drawing? 12. I am drawing an animal on the black- 
board of the class room and my brothers are drawing (some) 
boats in their notebooks. 13. Who is examining the works? 
14. The master examines our notebooks. 15. Do you listen? 

16. The pupils do not listen to^ the advice^ of the master. 

17. They are criticising his work. 

1 Omit. 2 Use the pluraL 




96. Le bal, the hall. Les bals, the halls. 

A few nouns ending in -al form their plural regularly, by 
adding s to tl)e singular. (See $!•) 

97. (i) Au maitre, (2) a la dame, (3) a I'enfant, (4) aux 
maitres, aux dames, aux enfants ; to the (at the) master, lady, 
child; to the (at the) masters, ladies, children. 

To the and at the are translated by ( i ) au before a mas- 
culine noun singular beginning with a consonant or an h 
formerly aspirate, by (2) a la before a feminine noun sin- 
gular beginning with a consonant or an h formerly aspirate, 
by (3) ^1' before any singular noun beginning with a 
vowel or an h mute, and by (4) aux before any plural noun. 

98. Je parlais, / was speaking, I used to speak 
tu parlais, you zvere speaking 

il parlait, he was speaking 
elle parlait, she was speaking 
nous parlions, zve were speaking 
vous parliez, you were speaking 
ils parlaient, they were speaking 
elles parlaient, they were speaking 
The endings of the indicative imperfect of the first con- 
jugation are: r _ais [ -ions 
singular \ -ais plural -j -iez 
I -ait L -aient 

le bal, the hall. 

rambassadeur, the ambassador 
I'hote, the host. 

99. Vocabulary 

rinvite, the guest. 
I'etranger, the stranger. 
le general, the general. 



le son, the sound. 
le violon, the violin. 
rinstrument (m.),the instrument. 
la princesse. the princess . 
Tambassadrice, the ambassadress. 


I'hotesse, the hostess. 
assister a, to be present at. 
parler, to speak, to talk. 
presenter, to introduce. 
danser, to dance, 

100. Text 

1. Nous^assistons au bal de rambassadeur. 

2. Vous presentez letranger a Thote et a 

3. ^ ambassadrice parle au general et a la 

4. Les^autres^ invites dansent aux sons des 

I o I . Transposition 

1. Conjugate every sentence in the indicative present. 
Ex. : I. J'assiste au bal de Tambassadeur. Tu assistes. . , 

2. Replace the singular by the plural and vice versa. 
Ex.: I. J'assiste aux bals des ambassadeurs. 

3. Replace the present by the imperfect. Ex.: i. Nous 
assistions au bal de Tambassadeur. 

4. Use the negative form. Ex.: i. Nous n'assistons pas 
au bal de I'ambassadeur. 

102. Questions 

1. Qui assiste au bal de I'ambassadeur? A.: M. 
assistons au bal de Tambassadeur. 

2. Qui presente I'etranger a I'hote et a Thotesse? 

3. Qui parle au general et a la princesse? 

4. Qui danse aux sons des violons? 


5. A quoi assistez vous? A.: M., nous assistons au 


6. A qui est ce que je presente I'etranger? , 

7. A qui rambassadrice parle-t-elle ? 

8. Aux sons de quel instrument les invites dansent ils? 

(Use the imperfect.) 

9. Assistiez vous au bal de Tambassadeur ? A.: Oui, M., 
nous assistions au . . . 

10. Est ce que je presentais I'etranger a Thote et a 
I'hotesse ? 

11. L'ambassadrice parlait elle au general et a la prin- 
cesse ? 

12. Est ce que les invites dansaient aux sons des violons ? 

103. Grammar Drill 

1. The ball, the balls ; of the ball, of the balls ; to the ball, 
to the balls. 

2. The princess, the princesses ; of the princess, of the 
princesses ; to the princess, to the princesses. 

3. The guest, the guests ; of the guest, of the guests ; to 
the guest, to the guests. 

4. The host, the hosts; of the host, of the hosts; to the 
host, to the hosts. ^ 

5. The sound, the sounds; of the sound, of the sounds; 
to the sound, to the sounds. 

6. The stranger, the strangers ; of the stranger, of the 
strangers ; to the stranger, to the strangers. 

7. The lady, the ladies ; of the lady, of the ladies ; to the 
lady, to the ladies. 

8. I am dancing, I was dancing; he is speaking, he used 
to speak ; we introduce, we were introducing ; they are 
drawing, they used to draw. 

9. You are present, you were present;* are you speaking? 
were you speaking? are we criticising? were we criticising? 
does she dance? was she dancing? 


« 104. Translation 

(a) I. Where are you ? 2. We are at the ball. 3. Where 
is the host ? 4. He is introducing the strangers to the other 
guests. 5. Where are the princesses and the ambassador? 
6. The ambassador is standing near the door. 7. To whom 
does he speak? 8. He speaks to the hostess. 9. The 
princesses are seated near the general. 10. To whom are 
they speaking? 11. They are speaking to the ambassadress. 
12. Is she present at the ball? 13. Yes, she is dancing. 
14. Do you dance? 15. We do not dance to the sounds of 
the violin. 

(b) I. My brothers were present at the class. 2. We 
were drawing. 3. The master was speaking to the pupils. 
4. He was criticising their works. 5. We were listening to^ 
his advice. 

105. Reading Lesson 


Napoleon premier donne un jour a un jeune lieutenant 
un ordre difficile a executer. 

L'of ficier hesite et murmure : « Sire, Texecution de cet 
ordre est impossible.)) 

« Impossible ! crie Napoleon f urieux, impossible ! ce mot 
n'est pas fran9ais.)) 


Review §§ 18, 28, 40, 63. 
106. Rougir, to blush. Remplir, to fulfill. 
The infinitive present of the verbs of the second conjuga- 
tion ends in -ir. 

1 Omit 



107. Indicative present of rougir. 

je rougis, / blush, I am blushing, nous rougissons 

/ do blush 

tu rougis vous rougissez 

il rougit ils rougissent 

elle rougit elles rougissent 

The endings of the indicative present of the second con- 
jugation are: r _is |- -issons 

singular j -is plural ] -issez 

I -it 


108. Indicative present of rougir (interrogative form) 

rougissons nous 

est ce que je rougis? do I blush f 

am I blushing f 
rougis tu? 
rougit il ? 
rougit elle ? 

1. In the first person singular, use the form est ce que. 

2. In the other persons, use either forms. 

rougissez vous r 
rougissent ils? 
rougissent elles ? 

109. I. Who? interrogative may be translated by qui or 
qui est ce qui. 

2. Whom? interrogative may be translated by qui or 
qui est ce que. 

no. Vocabulary 

I'ami, the friend. 
le choix, the choice. 
les parents, the parents, the rela- 
la punition, the punishment. 
la conduite, the behavior. 

diligent, -e, industrious. 
obeir a, to obey. 
subir, to undergo, receive. 
rougir (de), to blush {for). 
rejouir, to rejoice. 
choisir, to choose. 

bien, well. 

6o beginner's FRENCH 

III. Text 

1. Mon frere n est pas diligent. 

2. II n'obeit pas a ses maitres. 
T,, II subit des punitions. 

4. Nous choisissons bien nos^amis. 

5. Vous ne rougissez pas de votre choix et de 
votre conduite. 

6. Nous rejouissons nos parents. 

112. Transposition 

(Choix and conduite must remain singular and parents 
plural throughout.) 

1. Conjugate every sentence in the indicative present. 
Ex. : I . Je ne suis pas diligent or diligente. Tu n'es pas . . . 

2. Replace the singular by the plural and vice versa. 
Ex.: I. Mes freres ne sont pas diligents. 

3. Replace the negative form by the affirmative and vice 
versa. Ex.: i. Mon frere est diligent. 

113. Questions 

1. Votre frere n'est il pas dihgent? A.: Noh, M., il n'est 
pas ... 

2. N'obeit il pas a ses maitres? 

3. Subit il des punitions? 

4. Est ce que vous choisissez bien vos amis? 

5. (a) Ne rougissons nous pas de notre choix? 

(b) Est ce que nous ne rougissons pas de notre con- 
duite ? 

6. Rejouissez vous vos parents? 

7. Qui n'est pas diligent? 

beginner's FRENCH 6l 

8. Qui n'obeit pas a ses maitres? 

9. Qui est ce qui subit des punitions? 

10. Qui choisit bien ses amis? 

11. (a) Qui ne rougit pas de son choix? 

(b) Qui est ce qui ne rougit pas de sa conduite? 

12. Qui rejouit ses parents? 

13. Votre frere est il diligent? 

14. A qui n'obeit il pas? 

15. Qu'est ce qu'il subit? 

16. Qui choisissez vous bien? 

17. De quoi ne rougissons nous pas? 

18. Qui est ce que vous rejouissez? 

114. Grammar DriH 

1. I choose, they choose, she chooses; you* rejoice, we 
rejoice, they rejoice; you obey, I obey, he obeys. 

2. They undergo, you undergo, he undergoes ; we do not 
blush, she does not blush, they do not blush. 

3. Am I choosing? do you choose? do they choose? 
does she obey? are we obeying? do you* obey? 

115. Translation 

I. My brothers are industrious. 2. Where are they? 
3. They are at^ school. 4. Do they obey^ their teachers? 
5. They listen well to^ their advice.^ 6. They do not blush 
for their work. 7. They rejoice our parents and their teachers. 
8. Are these pupils your friends? 9. You do not choose 
well. 10. I do not blush for my choice. 11. Do you receive 
punishments? 12. The teacher is sad : we are not very indus- 
trious. 13. We do not obey. 14. We do not listen. 15. And 
you receive punishments. 16. We blush for our behavior. 

1 Supply //^<?, 2 Supply a. ^ Omit. Use the plural. 

62 beginner's FRENCH 


Review §§ I9> 20, 28, 29.1, 31, 4i» 52, 98. 

116. Ce livre ci, this book. Ce livre la, that book. 
Cet enfant ci, this child. Cet enfant la, that child. 

Cette salle ci, this class room. Cette salle la, that class room. 
Ces eleves ci, these pupils. Ces eleves la, those pupils. 

When it is necessary to mark a sharp distinction between 
the adjectives this and that, these and those, put ci after the 
noun preceded by this or these, and la after the one preceded 
by that or those. 

117. Imperfect of punir (to punish). 

je punissais, / was punishing, nous punissions 

/ used to punish 
tu punissais vous punissiez 

il punissait ils punissaient 

elle punissait elles punissaient 

The endings of the indicative imperfect of the second 
conjugation are: f -issais f -issions 

L -issaient 

r -issais r 

singular \ -issais plural \ 

I -issait L 

118. Grand (m.), great; grande (f.), great; grandement, 

Rapide (m. and f.), qmck ; rapidement, quickly; plus 
rapidement, more quickly; le plus rapidement, the most 

Je parle rapidement, / speak quickly. 

I. French adverbs are formed by adding -ment to the 
feminine form of the adjective. Their comparative and 

beginner's FRENCH ' 63 

superlative are formed like those of the adjectives. (See 
38, 39.) 

2. Adverbs are placed immediately after the verb. 

119. Le livre est sur la table, n'est ce pas? Oui, M., il 
est sur la table. Is the book on the table f Yes, sir, it is on 
the table. 

1. A third way to form a question is to put n'est ce pas? 
is it not so? after any statement. 

2. Yes, after such a question, is oui, not si. (See 53'.) 

120. Vocabulary 

le devoir, the duty. 

la fille, the girl. 

la reputation, the reputation, 

jeune, young. 

meilleur, -e, better. 

punir, to punish. 

cherir, to cherish, to like. 
remplir, to fulfill. 
jouir de, to enjoy. 
reussir, to succeed. 
grandir, to grozv. 
mieux (adverb), better. 
rapidement, quickly. 

121. Text 

1. Je punissais ces^eleves ci et je cherissais 
ces^eleves la. 

2. Cette jeune fille la remplissait mieux ses 
devoirs que cette jeune fille ci. 

3. Ce maitre ci jouissait dune meilleure repu- 
tation que ce maitre la. 

4. Ces^enfants la grandissaient plus rapidement 
que ces^enfants ci. 

5. Ces maitresses ci reussissaient mieux que 
ces maitresses la. 

122, Transposition 

I. Conjugate every sentence in the imperfect. Ex. : I. Tu 
punissais ces. . .et tu. . 

64 beginner's FRENCH 

2. Conjugate every sentence in the indicative present. 
Ex. : I. Je punis ces eleves ci et je. . . 

3. Replace the singular by the plural (except " une meil- 
leure reputation ") and vice versa. 

4. Use the interrogative form n'est ce pas. Ex.: i. Je 
punissais ces eleves ci, n'est ce pas? 

123. Questions 

1. (a) Qui punissait ces eleves ci? ^..- M., je punissais 

ces . . . 
(b) Qui est ce qui cherissait ces eleves la? 

2. (a) Qui remplissait bien ses devoirs? 

(b) Qui est ce qui remplissait mieux ses devoirs que 
cette jeune fille ci? 

3. (a) Qui est ce qui jouissait d'une bonne reputation? 
(b) Qui jouissait d'une meilleure reputation que ce 

maitre la? 

4. (a) Qui gnandissait rapidement? 

(b) Qui est ce qui grandissait plus rapidement que ces 
enfants ci? 

5. (a) Qui est ce qui reussissait? 

(b) Qui est ce qui reussissait mieux que ces maitresses 

6. (a) Qui punissiez vous? A.: M., je punissais ces. . . 
(b) Qui est ce que vous cherissiez? 

7. (a) Qu'est ce que cette jeune fille la remplissait? 
(b) Qu'est ce que cette jeune fille la remplissait 

mieux que cette jeune fille ci? 

8. De quoi ce maitre ci jouissait il? 

9. Comment ces enfants la grandissaient ils? 

10. Comment est ce que ces maitresses ci reussissaient ? 
Use in the answers the indicative present and the negative 

and the affirmative forms. 

beginner's FRENCH ' 6$ 

11. (o) Punissez vous ces eleves la? A.: Non, M., je ne 

punis pas ces eleves la, je punis ces eleves ci. 
(b) Est ce que vous cherissez ces eleves ci? 

12. Cette jeune fille ci remplit mieux ses devoirs que 
cette jeune fille la, n'est ce pas? 

13. Ce maitre la jouit il d'une meilleure reputation que 
ce maitre ci? 

14. Ces enfants ci grandissent plus rapidement que ces 
enfants la, n'est ce pas ? 

15. Est ce que ces maitresses la reussissent mieux que ces 
maitresses ci? 

124. Grammar Drill 

Use ci or 1^, as the case may be, after every noun. 

1. This flag, that flag, these flags, those flags. 

2. That stranger, this stranger, those strangers, these 

3. These balls, those balls, this ball, that ball. 

4. Those bells, these bells, that bell, this bell. 

5. This ambassador, that ambassador, those ambassadors, 
these ambassadors. 

6. That actress, these actresses, those actresses, this 

7. I was growing; you were not growing; were they 
growing ? 

8. We used to fulfill ; was she fulfilling? You* were not 

9. You were not succeeding ; I used to succeed ; were they 
succeeding ? 

125. Translation 

I. My parents used to blush for my reputation. 2. I was 
not industrious. 3. You were not fulfilling your duties. 
4. I was growing very rapidly. 5. I did not like my 

66 beginner's FRENCH 

master. 6. I was not succeeding. *j. And you did not 
blush for your behavior! 8. Who used to enjoy a good 
reputation? 9. These teachers used to enjoy a better rep- 
utation than those masters. 10. They used to punish their 
pupils. II. They were only fulfilling their duty. 12. Were 
you receiving punishment? 13. Were you obeying^ your 
parents and your masters? 14. We were not blushing for 
our work. 15. Yoti were succeeding better than your brother. 
16. This gentleman used to choose his friends better than that 
gentleman. 17. He used to enjoy a very good reputation and 
was succeeding very well. 

126. Reading Lesson 


Napoleon trois, empereur des Franc^ais, cause un jour avec 
sa femme, I'imperatrice Eugenie. 

Comme elle parle un peu etourdiment, son mari demande 
par maniere de plaisanterie : 

« Quelle est la difference entre un miroir et vous meme ? » 

L'imperatrice cherche en vain une reponse a cette ques- 

« Eh bien, continue Napoleon, la difference est que le 
miroir reflechit et que vous ne reflechissez pas.)) 

« A votre tour, riposte vivement Eugenie, quelle est la 
difference entre un miroir et vous meme?)) 

L'empereur reste muet de surprise. 

;(Eh bien, mon ami. c'est que le miroir est plus poli.» 
1 Supply a before every object. 




127. Perdre, to lose. Descendre, to go down. 

The infinitive present of the verbs of the third conjuga- 
tion ends in -re. 

128. Indicative present of perdre. 

je perds, ,/ lose, I am losing, nous perdons 

/ do lose 

tu perds vous perdez 

il or elle perd ils or elles perdent 


est ce que je perds? je ne perds pas 

perds tu ? etc. tu ne perds pas, etc. 

The endings of the indicative present of the third con- 
jugation are : j- .s j- _ons 
singular ^ -s plural -{ -ez 
I - I -ent 

129. Imperfect of perdre. 

je perdais, / was losing, I used nous perdions 

to lose, I did lose 
tu perdais vous perdiez 

il or elle perdait ils or elles perdaient 

The endings of the indicative imperfect of the third con- 
jugation are the same as those of the imperfect of the first 
conjugation (see 98). 

130. Diligent, industrious. Diligemment, industriously. 
French adverbs ending in -emment are derived from ad- 
jectives ending in -ent. 


131. Vocabulary 

le repas, the meal. 

le pensionnaire, the boarder. 

le voisin, the neighbor. 

le temps, the time. 

la salle a manger, the dining 

la main, the hand. 
la sonnette, the {small) bell. 

perdre, to lose. 

attendre, to wait for. 

entendre, to hear. 

tendre, to extend^ to hold out. 

descendre, to go dozen, to come 

impatiemment, impatiently. 
enfin, at last. 

132. Text 

1. Nous^attendons impatiemment Theure du 

2. Vous perdez votre temps. 

3. Enfin les pensionnaires entendent la son- 

4. Vous descendez a la salle a manger. 

5. Je tends la main a mes voisins. 

133. Transposition 

(Main must remain singular throughout.) 

1. Conjugate every sentence in the indicative present. 
Ex.: I. J'attends. . . Tu attends. . . 

2. Replace the present by the imperfect. Ex.: i. Nous 
attendions ... 

3. Use the three interrogative forms. Ex. :i. (a) Atten- 
dons nous. . . ? (b) Est ce que nous attendons. . .? (c) Nous 
attendons. . ., n'est ce pas? 

134. Questions 

1. Qui attend impatiemment I'heure du repas? A.: M., 
nous attendons ... 

2. Qui est ce qui perd son temps? 

beginner's FRENCH 69 

3. Qui entend enfin la sonnette? 

4. Qui est ce qui descend a la salle a manger? 

5. Qui tend la main a ses voisins ? 

6. Qu'attendez vous impatiemment? ^.; M., nous atten- 
dons. . . 

7. Qu'est ce que nous perdons? 

8. Qu'est ce que les pensionnaires entendent enfin? 

9. Oil descendons nous? 

10. A qui tendez vous la main ? 

(Use the imperfect and the negative form in the answers.) 

11. Est ce que vous attendiez impatiemment Theu're du 
repas? A.: Non, M., nous n'attendions pas. . . 

12.. Perdions nous notre temps? 

13. Les pensionnaires entendaient ils enfin la sonnette? 

14. Est ce que nous descendions a la salle a manger? 

15. Vous tendiez la main a vos amis, n'est ce pas? 

135. Grammar Drill 

1. I am waiting, we wait, they do wait. 

2. She does not go down, you do not go down, we do 
not go down. 

3. Do you* hear? are they hearing? do we hear? 

4. We extend ; does he extend ? I do not extend. 

5. Are you losing? we are not losing; they lose. 

6. I was going down, they were going down, you were 
going down. 

7. You used to lose, they used to lose, I used to lose. 

8. We were not hearing, she was not hearing, you* were 
not hearing. 

9. Were they extending? were you extending? was she 
extending ? 

10. They used to wait, were you waiting? we were not 


136. Translation 

I. Who is waiting? 2. Who loses his time? 3. Who is 
waiting for^ the meal time? 2 4. These gentlemen are wait- 
ing impatiently for^ the meal time.^ 5. Do you hear the 
bell? 6. It rings. 7. Is it ringing? 8. Don't you hear? 
9. We hear at last. 10. We do not lose our time. 11. The 
hostess is examining the dining room. 12. To whom does 
she hold out her^ hand? 13. She holds out her^ hand to her 
friends. 14. She does not lose her time. 15. She introduces 
the strangers to the other boarders. 16. Who is going 
down quickly? 17. Our neighbors go down quickly to the 
dining room. 18. They hear the bell. 19. They do not extend 
their^ hands* to their neighbors. 20. They do not lose their 


Review § 63. 
137. (i) Du papier, (2) de la viande, (3) de Teau, (4) 

des olives ; some i^any) paper, meat, water, olives. 

Some or any, expressed or understood before a noun, 
must be expressed in French and is translated by (i) du 
before a masculine noun singular beginning with a con- 
sonant or an h formerly aspirate, by (2) de la before a 
feminine noun singular beginning with a consonant or an h 
formerly aspirate, by (3) de 1* before any singular noun 
beginning with a vowel or an h mute, and by (4) des before 
any plural noun. 

1 Omit. ' heure. ^ the. ^ Use the singular. 



138. Indicative present of manger (to eat). 
je mange, / eat , nous mangeons 
tu manges vous mangez 

il or elle mange ils or elles mangent 

je mangeais, / was eating nous mangions 
tu mangeais vous mangiez 

il or elle mangeait ils or elles mangeaient 

In verbs ending in -ger, supply a silent e after the g to 
keep it soft (p. 16) whenever the endings begin with a or 0. 
Compare in English to singe, singeing; to tinge, tingeing 

139. Indicative present of placer (to place, to put). 
je place, / place nous plaqons 

tu places vous placez 

il or elle place ils or elles placent 

je plagais, I zvas placing nous placions 
tu plagais vous placiez 

il or elle plagait ils or elles plaqaient 

In verbs ending in -cer, put a cedilla (,) under the c to 
keep it soft (= s) whenever the endings begin with a or 0. 
Compare in English noticeable, serviceable, faqade, etc. 

140. Vocabulary 

le poisson, the fish. 

le fruit, the fruit. 

le legume, the vegetable. 

le pain, the bread. 

le biscuit, the cracker. 

le fromage, the cheese. 

le sel, the salt. 

le poivre, the pepper. 

le radis, the radish. 

le garden, the waiter. 

le vin, the wine. 

le lait, the milk. 

le verre, the glass. 

le the, the tea. 

le chocolat, the chocolate. 

le cafe, the coffee. 

la servante, the maid. 

la viande, the meat. 

la creme, the cream. 

la moutarde, the mustard. 


I'huile (f.), the oil. 
I'olive (f.), the olive. 
la biere, the beer. 
I'eau (f.), the water. 
la tasse, the cup. 
chaque (m. & f.), each, 
manger, to eat. 


placer, to place, to put. 
demander, to ask for. 
verser, to pour. 
quelquefois, sometimes. 
etc. (et cetera, et ainsi de suite) 
and so forth. 

141. Text 

1. A chaque repas, je manp;eais du poisson, de 
la viande, des legumes, du fromage et des fruits. 

2. La servante pla9ait sur la table du pain, de 
la creme, des^olives, des biscuits, etc. 

3. Vous demandiez quelquefois du sel, du 
poivre, de la moutarde, de Thuile, des radis, etc. 

4. Les gar9ons versaient du vin, de la biere, 
de Teau ou du lait dans les verres des messieurs, 
et du the, du cafe ou du chocolat dans les tasses 
des dames. 

142. Transposition 

1. Conjugate every sentence in the indicative imperfect 
and repeat the subject and the verb before every direct ob- 
ject. Ex.: I. A chaque repas, tu mangeais du poisson, tu 
mangeais de la viande, tu . . . 

2. Conjugate every sentence in the present of the indica- 
tive and repeat the subject and the verb before every direct 
object. Ex.: i. A chaque repas, je mange du poisson, je 
mange de la viande, je. . . 

3. Use the three interrogative forms. Ex.: i. (a) Man- 
geais je du. . .a chaque repas? (b) Est ce que je mangeais 
du...a chaque repas? (c) Je mangeais du...a chaque 
repas, n'est ce pas ? 


143. Questions 

1. (a) Qui mangeait du poisson a chaque repas ? ^.; M., 

je mangeais du poisson a chaque repas. 
(b) Qui est ce qui mangeait de la viande a chaque 
repas ? 
• (c) Qui mangeait des legumes a chaque repas? 

(d) Qui est ce qui mangeait du fromage a chaque 

repas ? 

(e) Qui mangeait des fruits a chaque repas? 

2. (a) Qui est ce qui plagait du pain sur la table? 

(b) Qui pla(;ait de la creme sur la table? 

(c) Qui est ce qui plaqait des olives sur la table? 

(d) Qui pla(;ait des biscuits sur la table? 

3. (a) Qui demandait quelquefois du sel ? 

(b) Qui est ce qui demandait quelquefois du poivre? 

(c) Qui demandait quelquefois de la moutarde? 

(d) Qui est ce qui demandait quelquefois de Thuile? 

(e) Qui demandait quelquefois des radis? 

4. (a) Qui versait du vin dans les verres des messieurs? 

(b) Qui est ce qui versait de la biere dans les verres 

des messieurs ? 

(c) Qui versait de I'eau dans les verres des messieurs ? 

(d) Qui est ce qui versait du lait dans les verres des 

messieurs ? 

(e) Qui versait du the dans les tasses des dames? 

(/) Qui est ce qui versait du cafe dans les tasses des 

dames ? 
(g) Qui versait du chocolat dans les tasses des dames ? 

5. Qu'est ce que vous mangiez a chaque repas? A.: M., 
je mangeais du. . . 

6. Qu'est ce que la servante plagait sur la table? 

7. Que demandions nous quelquefois? 


8. (a) Qu^est ce que les gardens versaient dans les verres 
des messieurs? 
(b) Que versaient ils dans les tasses des dames? 

144. Grammar Drill 

Replace the dash by the proper translation of some or any. 

1. — cafe, — moutarde, — eau, — verres, — creme, 

— lait, — viande, — tasses, — sel, — fromages, — poisson, 

— legumes. 

2. — chocolat, — huilc, — fromage, — pain, — biere, 

— poivre, — fruits, — vin, — olives, — temps, — biscuits. 

3. I am eating, we eat, do they eat? You were not eat- 
ing, were you* eating? She was not eating. 

4. Does he place ? they do not place, we are placing ; I was 
placing; were we placing? They were not placing. 

145. Translation 

I. At last the boarders heard^ the bell. 2. The maid 
servant was ringing in the dining room. 3. She was losing 
her time. 4. At meal time,^ we used to go down to 
the dining room. 5. I used to place my overcoat on one of 
the chairs of the anteroom and my hat on my overcoat. 
6. Did you eat^ some meat at each meal? 7. We used 
to eat meat^ and vegetables. 8. Who was eating some 
olives and radishes? 9. The ladies were eating olives, and 
the gentlemen radishes. 10. The waiters were putting in 
front of* the boarders (some) bread, salt, glasses and cups. 
II. One of my neighbors was very merry. 12. He used to 
pour water in the glass of the hostess. 13. She was some- 
times very sad. 14. I used to ask the^ maid servants for® 
some milk, cream, or cheese. 15. The hostess used to place 

^ Use the imperfect. - Say : at the hours of the meals. 

^ Supply some before every word where it is omitted. 

* devant. ^ Supply to. ^ Omit. 


in front of the ladies (some) coffee, tea, milk, or chocolate. 
1 6. The gentlemen used to ask the^ waiter for^ some beer or 

146. Reading Lesson 


Un jour, un acteur, tres fameux pour sa fatuite, tombe 
subitement malade et est oblige de garder le lit. II charge 
un de ses amis d'annoncer a son directeur qu'il est incapable 
de jouer ce soir la. A cette nouvelle, le directeur, affectant 
une profonde tristesse, pousse cette exclamation: (("Quelle 
fatalite (quel fat alite) ! » 


Review §§ 28, 29, 30, 137. 

147. Le beau pare, the beautiful park. 

Les beaux pares, the beautiful parks. ' 

Le bel enfant, the beautiful child. 

Les beaux enfants, the beautiful children. 

1. Adjectives ending in -au take x in the plural. (Cf. So*) 

2. Bel is used instead of beau before a masculine noun 
singular beginning with a vowel or an h mute. 

Masculine Fbmininb 

longs J 1 longues 

. { handsome, 1 , ,, 

beau , ... I belle 

, A beautiful, r , „ 

beaux .. belles 

L fme J 

Some adjectives form their feminine in an irregular way. 

1 Supply /o 2 Omit. 


149. Un bon livre, a good book. 

Some French adjectives are placed, as in English, before 
the noun they quahfy. 

The most common are: bon, long, beau, joli, haut (high), 
petit, grand, large, vaste (vast), habile (skilful), immense, 
excellent, mauvais (bad). 

150. De bon the, (some or any) good tea. 

De bonne creme, (some or any) good cream. 
De bonnes olives, (some or any) good olives. 
Some or any, expressed or understood, before a noun, is 
expressed in French and translated by de (d*) if the quali- 
fying adjective precedes the French noun.^ 
151 • Recevoir, to receive. 

There are a few French verbs the infinitive present of 
which ends in -oir. All are irregular. Those the infinitive 
of which ends in -evoir are conjugated on the same model. 
.152. Present of the indicative of recevoir. 
je regois, / receive, I do receive, nous recevons 

/ am receiving 
tu regois vous recevez 

il or elle regoit ils or elles reqoivent 

I. The endings of the indicative present of the verbs 
in -evoir are : . r -ois f -evons 

singular \ -ois plural j -evez 

I -oit I -oivent 

^ One of the licenses adopted by the French Minister of Public In- 
struction in his decree of February 26, 1901, is the following: 

'^Article Partitif. On tolerera du, de la, de /', des, au lieu de de partitif 
devant un substantif precede d'un adjectif. Ex. : de ou du bon vin, de 
bonne viande ou de la bonne viande, de ou des bons fruits." 

Prof. Cledat, in his " Commentary " on the decree, rightly warns 
foreigners not to avail themselves of the above "tolerance" except be- 
fore expressions which may be assimilated to nouns of species. They 
should never do so either before abstract expressions or before indefinite 

beginner's FRENCH 


2. The cedilla under the c before a, o, u indicates that 
the c is soft (= s). (See Pronunciation, page i6.) 

I53« Imperfect of recevoir. 

je recevais, / used to receive, nous recevions 

/ was receiinng, I did receive 

tu recevais vous receviez 

il or elle recevait ils or elles recevaient 

The endings of the imperfect of verbs ending in -evoir 

are : f -evais f -evions 

singular \ -evais plural \ -eviez 

I -evait I -evaient 

154. Vocabulary 

I'hotel (m.), the hotel. 
le magasin, the store. 
I'administrateur, the adminis- 
I'arbre (m.), the tree. 
le lac, the lake. 
Teglise (f.), the church. 
la fleur, the flower. 
la pelouse, the lawn. 
bon, -ne, good. 
long, -ue, long. 

beau, belle, beautiful, fine. 
haut, -e, high. 
excellent, -e, excellent. 
mauvais, -e, bad. 
vaste, vast. 
habile, skilful. 
immense, immense. 
devoir, must, ought. 
apercevoir, to perceive, notice. 
recevoir, to receive. 
avoir, to have, 

155. Text 

1. Chaque grande ville doit avoir de larges 
rues, d'immenses.^^h6tels, de belles^^eglises, de 
hauts^edifices et de grands magasins. 

2. Les grandes villes doivent aussi avoir d'ha- 
biles^administrateurs, de bonnes^ecoles, de jolies 
maisons et de beaux pares. 

3. Dans les pares, vous^apercevez de hauts^ar- 

78 beginner's FRENCH 

bres, de longues^avenues, de jolies fleurs, de 
vastes pelouses et de petits lacs. 

4. Des magasins de la ville, nous recevons de 
bon the, d'excellent cafe, de bonne huile, inais de 
mauvaise viande. 

156. Transposition 

1. Put the singular subjects and verbs in the plural and 
vice versa, and repeat the subject and the verb before every 
direct object. Ex.: i. Les grandes villes doivent avoir de 
larges rues ; elles doivent avoir . . . 

2. Drop the adjectives everywhere. Ex. : i. Chaque ville 
doit avoir des rues, ... 

3. Replace the present by the imperfect and repeat the 
subject and the verb before every direct object. Ex.: i. 
Chaque grande ville devait avoir . . . 

4. Use two interrogative forms. Ex.: i. (a) Est ce que 
chaque grande ville doit avoir. . . ? (b) Chaque grande 
ville doit elle avoir . . . ? 

157. Questions 

1. (a) Qu'est ce qui doit avoir de larges rues? A.: M., 

chaque grande ville doit avoir de . . . 

(b) Qu'est ce qui doit avoir d'immenses hotels? 

(c) Qu'est ce qui doit avoir de belles eglises? 

(d) Qu'est ce qui doit avoir de hauts edifices? 

(e) Qu'est ce qui doit avoir de grands magasins? 

2. (a) Qu'est ce qui doit aussi avoir d'habiles adminis- 

trateurs ? 

(b) Qu'est ce qui doit aussi avoir de bonnes ecoles? 

(c) Qu'est ce qui doit aussi avoir de jolies maisons? 

(d) Qu'est ce qui doit aussi avoir de beaux pares? 

3. (a) Qui apergoit de hauts arbres dans les pares? 


(b) Qui est ce qui aper^oit de longues avenues dans 

les pares? 

(c) Qui apergoit de jolies fleurs dans les pares? 

(d) Qui est ee qui apergoit de vastes pelouses dans les 

pares ? 

(e) Qui aper^oit de petits laes dans les pares? 

4. (a) Qui est ee qui regoit de bon the des magasins de 

la ville? 

(b) Qui regoit d'exeellent eafe des magasins de la 


(c) Qui est ee qui regoit de bonne huile des magasins 
* de la ville? 

(d) Qui regoit de mauvaise viande des magasins de 

la ville? 

5. Qu'est ee que ehaque grande ville doit avoir? A.: M., 
elle doit avoir de . . . 

6. Qu'est ee que les grandes villes doivent aussi avoir? 

7. Qu'est ee que j'apergois dans les pares? 

8. Que reeevez vous des niagasins de la ville? 

158. Grammar Drill 

1. Some fish, some good fish; eream, bad eream; wine, 
good wine ; beer, exeellent beer ; radishes, bad radishes. 

2. Some tea, some bad tea ; glasses, beautiful glasses ; 
eheese, good eheese; mustard, good mustard; water, bad 
water ; olives, exeellent olives. 

3. Some masters, some skilful masters ; flags, large flags ; 
paper, good paper ; pens, bad pens ; sehools, beautiful sehools ; 
playgrounds, small playgrounds. 

4. I am reeeiving; do you receive? We do not receive. 

5. He must; must they? I must not; we must. 

6. She notices ; are we noticing ? you do not notice ; I 

8o beginner's FRENCH 

159. Translation 

I. The schools of the city are immense buildings. 2. They 
have wide doors and high windows. 3. Each school must 
also have vast class rooms, long blackboards and immense 
playgrounds. 4. We must also have excellent administrators 
and skilful teachers. 5. The pupils must have good paper 
and good pens. 6. You must have large cities. 7. They 
have beautiful avenues and long streets. 8. Strangers^ notice 
also beautiful hotels, large parks, high churches and vast 
stores. 9. I notice in this park beautiful flowers, large lakes, 
beautiful trees and pretty lawns. 10. Hotels, must have 
large dining rooms. 11. At each meal, the waiters place in 
front of the boarders good water, excellent cream and good 
milk. 12. They must not place bad wine or bad beer on the 
tables. 13. A village has small houses and bad streets. 14. I 
receive from the small store of the village bad tea, excellent 
chocolate and good coffee. 15. We have excellent friends 
in this village. 


Review §§ 64, 137, 149, 150. 

160. Un mur gris, a gray wall, 

Un chapeau rond, a round hat. 
Un fruit doux, o nveet fruit. 
Un livre frangais, a French book. 
Un visage souriant, a smiling face. 
French adjectives (a) of color, (b) shape, (c) taste, 
(d) nationality and participles used adjectively are placed 
after the noun they qualify. 

1 Supply the definite article M<f before nouns used in a general meaning. 

beginner's FRENCH 8t 

Note. The place of the other adjectives except those 
cited in 149 must be learned by practice. 

161. Blanc ) . (blanche 
blancs ) ^ blanches 

frais I f I, S ^^^^^^^ 
frais ) ' ^ fraiches 

The preceding adjectives form their feminine in an irreg- 
ular way. 

162. Du vin rouge, (some or any) red wine. 

De la biere anglaise. {some or any) English beer. 
De Teau fraiche, {some or any) fresh water. 
Des livres franqais, {some or any) French hooks. 
When the French adjective follows the noun it qualifies, 
translate some or any, expressed or understood, according 
to the general rule § I37« 

163. '(i) J'ai des freres et des cousins diligents. 
/ have diligent brothers and cousins. 
J'ai des soeurs et des cousines diligentes. 
' / have diligent sisters and cousins. 
(2) J'ai des soeurs et des freres diligents. 
/ have diligent sisters and brothers. 

1. French adjectives qualifying two or more nouns of the 
same gender become plural and take the gender of the nouns. 

2. Qualifying two or more nouns of different genders, 
they become masculine plural. 

164. Vocabulary 

le visage, the face. 
la pension, the hoarding house. 
la nappe, the table cloth. 
la serviette, the napkin. 
I'assiette (f.), the plate. 
entrer dans, to enter. 
pendre a, to hang from. 
blanc, -he, white. 

propre, clean. 

sou riant, -e, smiling. 

vert, -e, green. 

rouge, red. 

frais, fralche, fresh. 

anglais, -e, English. 

suivre, to follow. 

a suivre, to he continued. 

82 beginner's FRENCH 

165. Text 

1. Nous^entrons dans la salle a manger de la 

2. Vous^apercevez des nappes et des serviettes 
blanches, des^assiettes propres et des visages 

3. Des rideaux blancs et des stores verts pen- 
dent aux fenetres. 

4. Les gar9ons placent devant les pensionnaires 
du vin rouge, de I'eau fraiche, de la biere an- 
glaise et du. pain blanc. — {a suivre.) 

166. Transposition 

1. Conjugate every sentence, except the third, in the 
present of the indicative, and repeat the subject and the verb 
before every direct object. Ex.: i. J'entre dans. . . 

2. Replace the present by the imperfect and repeat the 
subject and the verb before every direct object. Ex. : i. Nous 
entrions dans . . . 

3. Use the three interrogative forms. Ex.: i. (a) En- 
trons nous dans. . . ? (h) Est ce que nous entrons dans. . . ? 
(c) Nous entrons dans. . ., n'est ce pas? 

167. Questions 

1. Qui entre dans la salle a manger de la pension? A.: 
M., nous entrons dans . . . 

2. (a) Qui est ce qui aper<;oit des nappes blanches? 
(&) Qui apergoit des serviettes blanches? 

(c) Qui est ce qui aper^oit des assiettes propres? 
{d) Qui apergoit des visages souriants? 

3. Qu'est ce qui pend aux fenetres? 

beginner's FRENCH St, 

4. (a) Qui est ce qui place du vin rouge devant les 

pensionnaires ? 

(b) Qui place de I'eau fraiche devant les pension- 

naires ? 

(c) Qui est ce qui place de la biere anglaise devant les 

pensionnaires ? 

(d) Qui place du pain blanc devant les pensionnaires? 

5. Ou entrez vous? A.: M., nous entrons dans... 

6. Qu'est ce que nous apercevons ? 

7. (a) Oil des rideaux blancs pendent ils? 
(b) Ou pendent des stores verts? 

8. Qu'est ce que les gargons placent devant les pension- 
naires ? 

168. Grammar Drill 

Replace th^ dashes by the proper translation of some, any 
or no (see 64), as the case may be, 

1. — vin, — vin rouge, — bon vin, — vin frangais, — vin 
blanc ; je n'ai pas — vin ; — biere, — mauvaise biere, — biere 
anglaise, — biere fraiche, je ne verse pas — biere ; — nappes, 

— belles nappes, — nappes propres, nous n'avons pas — 

2. — eau, — mauvaise eau, — eau fraiche, — bonne eau, 

— eau propre, elle n'apergoit pas — eau; — bon fromage, 

— fromage, — fromage fran^ais, je ne mange pas — fro- 
mage ; — tasses propres, — belles tasses, — tasses, — tasses 
vertes, elle n'a pas — tasse. 

3. — visages, — visages propres, — beaux visages, — 
visages souriants ; — papier blanc, — bon papier, je ne rec^ois 
pas — papier, — papier anglais, — excellent papier, — pa- 
pier propre; — creme, — bonne creme, — creme fraiche, 

— mauvaise creme, elle ne place pas — creme sur la table ; 

— huile, — bonne huile, — huile jaune, — mauvaise huile. 

84 beginner's FRENCH 

169. Translation 

I. Large hotels^ have vast dining rooms. 2. Each dining 
room has small tables and beautiful chairs. 3. The waiters 
place every day on the tables white table clothes and fresh 
flowers. 4. They must also place before every stranger beer, 
red wine or white wine and water. 5. Gray shades were 
hanging from^ each window of my boarding house. 6. We 
used to receive clean napkins every week. 7. At meal time 
I used to examine the dining room. 8. I used to notice long 
tables and poor chairs. 9. The windows had no curtains. 
10. The maid servant was entering^ the dining room. 11. 
She was placing before the boarders clean plates and knives. 
12. At each meal, my neighbor used to ask the* hostess : 
*' Have you fresh water ? " 13. We used to notice the smiling 
faces of the other boarders. 14. Strangers^ used to ask the* 
waiter for^ white wine or English tea. 



Review §§ 49> I37» 160, 162, 163. 

170. L'ceil bleu, the blue eye. Les yenx bleus, the blue 

1 . The plural of ceil is irregular : yeux. 

2. The plural of bleu is regular: bleus. (Cf. 50«) 
171 • Un gateau delicieux. A delicious cake. 

Des gateaux delicieux. Some delicious cakes. 
Une figue delicieuse. A delicious fig. 
I. Masculine adjectives ending in -x are alike in both 
numbers. (Cf. exception to 30.) 

1 Supply f/te. 2 Replace by at. ^ Supply into. 

* Supply io. 5 Omit. 



2. Adjectives ending in -x replace -x by -se in the 

172. S^^ ^ dry 



doux ) sweet, ( douce 

doux ^ soft I douces 

The preceding adjectives have an irregular feminine. 

I73. Imperfect of avoir {to have). 
j'avais, / had, I did have, nous avions 

/ was having, I used to have 
tu avais vous aviez 

il or elle avait ils or elles avaient 

174. Vocabulary 

I'oeil (m.), the eye. 

les yeux, the eyes. 

les cheveux (m.), the hair. 

le manteau, the cloak. 

le dessert, the dessert. 

le gateau, the cake. 

le raisin, the grape. 

la joue, the cheek. 

la robe, the dress. 

la figue, the fig. 

la fin, the end. 

la suite, the continuation. 

la droite, the right side. 

la gauche, the left side. 

de gauche, 

bleu, -e, blue. 
rose, rosy. 
pale, pale. 

blond, -e, fair, blond. 
noir, -e, black, dark. 
brun, -e, brown. 
rond, -e, round. 
plat, -e, flat. 
delicieux, -se, delicious, 
sec, seche, dry. 
.dou-x, -ce, sweet, soft. 
mur, -e, ripe. 
suite et fin, concluded. 
de droite, on the right side, 
on the left side. 

175. Text {Suite et Fin). 

I. Ma voisine de droite a des^yeux bleus, des 
joues roses, des cheveux blonds, des robes et des 
manteaux gris et des chapeaux ronds. 

86 beginner's FRENCH 

2. Ma voisine de gauche a des yeux gris, des 
joues pales, des cheveux noirs, des robes et des 
manteaux bleus ou bruns et des chapeaux plats. 

3. Au dessert, nous mangeons des gateaux de- 
licieux, des figues seches, des raisins doux et des 
fruits murs. 

176. Transposition 

1. Conjugate every sentence in the present indicative and 
repeat the subject and the verb before every direct object. 
Ex.: I. J'ai des yeux bleus, j'ai des. . . 

2. Replace the present by the imperfect and repeat the 
subject and the verb before every direct object. Ex. : i. Ma 
voisine de droite avait des yeux bleus ; elle avait des . . . 

3. Use the three interrogative forms. Ex.: (a) Ma voi- 
sine de droite a-t-elle des yeux bleus,. . . ? (b) Est ce que 
ma voisine de droite a des yeux bleus,. . . ? (c) Ma voisine 
de droite a des yeux bleus, . . . n'est ce pas ? 

177. Questions 

1. (a) Qui a des yeux bleus? A.: M., ma voisine de 

droite a des yeux bleus. 

(b) Qui est ce qui a des joues roses? 

(c) Qui a des cheveux blonds? 

(d) Qui est ce qui a des robes grises? 

(e) Qui a des manteaux gris? 

(/") Qui est ce qui a des chapeaux ronds? 

2. (a) Qui est ce qui a des yeux gris? 

(b) Qui a des joues pales? 

(c) Qui est ce qui a des cheveux noirs? 

(d) Qui a des robes bleues ou brunes? 

(e) Qui est ce qui a des manteaux bleus ou bruns? 

(f) Qui a des chapeaux plats? 

beginner's FRENCH 87 

3. (a) Qui mange des gateaux delicieux au dessert? 

(b) Qui est ce qui mange des figues seches au dessert? 

(c) Qui mange des raisins doux au dessert? 

(d) Qui est ce qui mange des fruits murs au dessert? 

4. Qu'est ce que votre voisine de droite a? A,: M., elle 
a des yeux bleus, des . . . 

5. Qu'a votre voisine de gauche? 

6. Que mangez vous au dessert? 

178. Grammar Drill 

1. Some ^ tea, green tea, good tea, English tea, bad tea, 
she pours no tea; some mustard, good mustard, French 
mustard, fresh mustard ; we have no mustard ; some bread, 
good bread, French bread, bad bread, white bread, fresh 
bread; you have no bread. 

2. Some eyes, large eyes, brown eyes, beautiful eyes; 
some dresses, blue dresses, fine dresses ; some hats, black hats, 
beautiful hats, round hats ; she has no hats. 

3. Some figs, good figs, fresh figs, delicious figs, bad 
figs, dry figs, fine figs, ripe figs; some cakes and grapes, 
delicious cakes and grapes. 

179. Translation 

(a) I. We enter the^ store. 2. My sisters choose gray 
hats and clqaks and you choose black dresses and hats. 
3. Our neighbor on the left is prettier than your neighbor 
on the right. 4. She has rosy cheeks. 5. She is also 
younger. 6. She blushes more quickly. 7. She has large 
brown eyes. 8. They are very sweet. 9. These girls have 
fair hair^ and those girls have black hair.^ 10. Those ladies 
are choosing round hats and these ladies are asking for^ 
flat hats. 

* Supply info. * Use the plural. * Omit 

88 beginner's FRENCH 

(b) I. Our hostess had pale cheeks and gray hair.^ 
2. At each meal, the boarders used to eat excellent fish, 
fresh vegetables and good meat. 3. Yes, I was also eating 
dry bread. 4. The maid servants used to pour fresh water 
in our glasses and bad tea in our cups. 5. At dessert,^ we 
had ripe figs, white grapes and sweet fruit.^ 6. We had 
no coffee. 

180. Reading Lesson 


Quelques docteurs eminents de la capitale entouraient 

le lit de mort de Dumoulin, le plus celebre medecin de son 


A leurs expressions de douleur et de regret, il repond : 
(( Messieurs, je laisse derriere moi trois grands medecins.)) 
Chacun, esperant entendre prononcer son nom, presse le 

mourant de preciser. 

Dumoulin murmure avec effort : « L'eau, I'exercice et la 




Review §§ 50, 171, 173- 
181. Beaucoup de pain, much bread, 
Beaucoup d'amis, many friends. 
Peu de viande, little meat. 
Peu de crayons, few pencils. 
Such words as beaucoup, peu, etc., are called adverbs of 
quantity in French. They always require the preposition 
de (without the article unless it is used in EngHsh) before 
the noun or nouns that they modify. 

1 Use the plural. * Supply ^Ae. 



182. Avez vous beaucoup de livres? J*en ai; j'en ai 
beaucoup; j'en ai cent; je n'en ai pas. Have you hooks? 
I have some; I have many; I have a hundred; I have none. 

1. When a noun is understood after some, a noun of 
quantity or measure, an adverb of quantity, or a number, 
it is expressed in French in the form of the pronoun en 
{of it, of them) immediately placed before the verb. 

2. None is translated by n'en (verb) pas. 

183. Le verrou, the holt; les verrous, the holts. 
Le bijou, the jewel; les bijoux, the jewels. 
Le joujou, the toy; les joujoux, the toys. 

Nouns ending in -on form their plural according to the 
general rule except half a dozen which take x. 

184. Imperfect of etre {to he). 

j'etais, / zvas, I used to he nous etions 

tu etais Vous etiez 

il or elle etait ils or elles etaient 

185. Vocabulary 

I'oncle, the uncle. 

I'oiseau (m.), the bird. 

le joujou, the toy. 

le bijou, the jewel. 

le jeu, the game. 

la famille, the family. 

la tante, the aunt. 

la niece, the niece. 

la fille, the daughter. 

nombreu-x, -se, numerous, large. 

heureu-x, -se, happy. 

joyeu-x, -se, joyful. . 

beaucoup, m,uch, many, a great 

tant, so much, so many. 

autant, as much, as many. 

peu, little, few. 

moins, less, fewer. 

plus, more. 

assez, enough. 

trop, too much, too many. 

combien, how much, hozv many. 

que, than, as (when following an- 
other as or so or same). 

mais, but. 


i86. Text 

1. Votre famille etait tres nombreuse. 

2. Vous^aviez beaucoup d'oncles et de tantes. 

3. Vous^aviez autant de neveux que de nieces, 
mais moins de cousines que de cousins. 

4. Vos fils n etaient pas joyeux : ils^avaient 
beaucoup d'oiseaux, mais peu de joujoux et de 
jeux ; ils n'en^avaient pas assez. 

5. Vos filles etaient^heureuses : elles^avaient 
beaucoup plus de bijoux, de chapeaux et de robes 
que leurs^amies ; elles_en_avaient trop. 

187. Transposition 

1. Replace votre in the first sentence by the other pos- 
sessive adjectives singular. Ex. : Ma (ta. . . ) famille. . . 

2. Replace vos in the first clause of sentences 4 and 5 
by the other possessive adjectives singular and plural. Ex. : 
4. Mon (ton. . . ) fils. . . 

3. Conjugate the sentences 2, 3, 4 and 5 iri the imper- 
fect. Ex. : 2. J'avais. . . Tu avais. . . 

4. Replace the imperfect by the present. Ex.: i. Votre 
famille est . . . 

5. Drop the adverbs of quantity, the comparisons, the 
word mais and the negations. Ex.: 2. Vous aviez des 
oncles et des . . . 

188. Questions 

1. Qu'est ce qui etait nombreux? A.: M., votre fa- 
mille. . . 

2. (a) Qui avait beaucoup d'oncles? 

(b) Qui est ce qui avait beaucoup de tantes? 


3. (a) Qui avait autant de neveux que de nieces? 

(b) Qui est ce qui avait moins de cousines que de 
cousins ? 

4. (a) Qui n'etait pas joyeux? 

(b) Qui est ce qui avait beaucoup d'oiseaux? 

(c) Qui avait peu de joujoux? 

(d) Qui est ce qui avait peu de jeux? 

(e) Qui n'avait pas assez de joujoux? 

(f) Qui est ce qui n'avait pas assez de jeux? 

5. (a) Qui est ce qui etait heureux? 

(b) Qui avait beaucoup plus de bijoux que ses amies? 

(c) Qui est ce qui avait beaucoup plus de chapeaux 

que ses amies? 

(d) Qui avait beaucoup plus de robes que ses amies? 

(e) Qui est ce qui avait trop de bijoux? 
(/) Qui avait trop de chapeaux ? 

(g) Qui est ce qui avait trop de robes? 

Use the present indicative and the pronoun en whenever 
it is placed between parentheses. 

6. Ma famille est nombreuse, n'est ce pas? A.: Oui, M., 
elle est tres nombreuse. 

7. (a) Combien d'oncles est ce que j'ai? A,: M., vous 

en avez beaucoup. 
(b) Combien de tantes est ce que j'ai? (en) 

8. (a) Est ce que j'ai autant de neveux que de nieces? 

(b) Est ce que j'ai moins de cousines que de cou- 
sins? (en) 

9. (a) Mes fils ne sont ils pas joyeux? 

(b) Combien d'oiseaux ont ils? (en) 

(c) Combien de joujoux ont ils? (en) 

(d) Combien de jeux ont ils? (en) 

(e) Ont ils assez de joujoux? (en) 

(/) Est ce qu'ils ont assez de jeux? (en) 


lo. (a) Mes filles sont heureuses, n'est ce pas? 

(b) Ont elles beaucoup plus de bijoux que leurs 

amies? (en) 

(c) Est ce qu 'elles ont beaucoup plus de chapeaux 

que leurs amies? (en) 

(d) Elles ont beaucoup plus de robes que leurs amies, 

n'est ce pas? (en) 

(e) Ont elles trop de bijoux? (en) 

(/) Elles ont trop de chapeaux, n'est ce pas? (en) 
(g) Est ce qu'elles ont trop de robes? (en) 

189. Grammar Drill 

1. Many families, too many friends, few sons, so many 
daughters, more cousins ; we have no nieces. 

2. How many toys ? many jewels, fewer games, as many 
birds; they have no books. 

3. More curtains, fewer cloaks, many dresses, too many 
hats; she has no boxes. 

4. Much paper, many pencils, too many pens, more 
pupils, how many books? we have no knives. 

5. Too much salt, meat enough,^ little beer, -much bread, 
less pepper; we eat no fruit. 

6. Little coffee, how much milk? so much tea, more 
grapes than figs, as much wine as water; you don't see any 

190. Translation 

(a) I. Was his family large? 2. How many sons had 
he? 3. He had many. 4. But he had fewer sons than 
daughters. 5. How many nephews had your masters? 
6. They had few, but they had many nieces. 7. Had you 
many friends in this town? 8. I had many. 9. I had 
1 Say : enough meat. 


twenty. lo. You had as many as your brother, ii. He had 
none. 12. Were you numerous? 13. We were ten. 

(b) I. Our neighbor's nieces are not joyful. 2. They 
have not enough dresses, cloaks and hats. 3. Their friends 
have fewer and are happy. 4. My cousins arq happy. 
5. They have so many birds, books and games! 6. They 
have much more than their little friends. 7. These children 
have too many toys and those children have none. 


Review §§ 40» 85, 98. 

191. Un verre d'eau, a glass of water, 

Une livre de bonbons, one pound of candy. 
Nouns of quantity and measure require the preposition 
de (without the article unless it is also expressed in English) 
before the noun or nouns that they modify. 

192. Indicative present of preferer (to prefer). 
je prefere, / prefer nous preferons 

tu preferes vous preferez 

il or elle prefere ils or elles preferent 

Imperfect: je preferais, etc. 

Some verbs of the first conjugation have an e before 
the last syllable of the infinitive; that e is replaced by an e 
before the mute endings e, es, e. 

193. Indicative present of mener (to lead, to take). 
je mene, / lead, I take nous menons 
tu'menes vous menez 

il or elle mene ils or elles menent 

Imperfect : je menais, / was leading, taking, etc. 



Some verbs of the first conjugation have an unaccented 
e before the last syllable of the infinitive; it is replaced by 
an e whenever the next syllable is mute. 

194. I. Indicative present of appeler {to call). 
j'appelle, / call nous appelons 

tu appelles vous appelez 

il or elle appelle ils or elles appellent 

Imperfect : j 'appelais, / was calling. 
2. Indicative present of Jeter (to throw). 
je jette, / throw nous jetons 

tu jettes vous jetez 

il or elle jette ils or elles jettent 

Imperfect: je jetais, / zvas throwing, etc. 
Verbs ending in -eler and -eter double the 1 or the t, 
instead of replacing the unaccented e by an e, before a silent 
syllable. Cf. in English, to impel, impeWed ; to pet, petted, 

195. Vocabulary 

le desir, the wish. 

le cocher, the coachman. 

le theatre, the theater. 

la mere, the mother. 

I'invitee (f,), the guest. 

la demoiselle, the young lady. 

lassiettee (f.), the plateful. 

la fraise, the strawberry. 

la douzaine, the dozen. 
la limonade, the lemonade. 
preparer, to prepare. 
cedej-, to yield. 
preferer, to prefer. 
mener, to lead, to take. 
appeler, to call. 
generalement, generally. 

pour, for. 

196. Text 

1. Ma mere cede a mes desirs. 

2. Mon frere appelle un cocher. 

3. Je mene mes^amies au pare ou au theatre. 

4. La servante doit preparer pour mes^invitees 
une tasse de the ou un verre de limonade. 


5. Ces demoiselles preferent generalement une 
assiettee de fraises, une douzaine de bonbons et 
un verre d'eau fraiche. 

197. Transposition 

1. Conjugate every sentence in the present of the in- 
dicative. Ex. : I . Je cede aux desirs de ma f ille. Tu cedes 
aux desirs de ta . . . 

2. Replace the present by the imperfect. Ex. : i . Ma 
mere cedait a . . . 

3. Use the three interrogative forms except in sentence 3 
(see 86. 2). Ex.: i. (a) Ma mere cede-t-elle a...? 
(b) Est ce que ma mere cede a. . . (c) Ma mere cede a 
. . . , n'est ce pas ? 

198. Questions 

1. Qui cede a vos desirs? A.: M., ma mere cede a. . . 

2. Qui est ce qui appelle un cocher? 

3. Qui mene ses amies au pare ou au theatre? 

4. Qui est ce qui doit preparer pour vos invitees nne 
tasse de the ou un verre de Hmonade? 

5. (a) Qui prefere generalement une assiettee de fraises ? 

(b) Qui est ce qui prefere generalement une douzaine 

de bonbons ? 

(c) Qui prefere generalement un verre d'eau fraiche? 

6. A quoi madame^ votre mere cede-t-elle? 

7. Qui monsieur^ votre frere appelle-t-il ? 

8. Oil menez vous vos amies? 

9. Qu*est ce que la servante doit preparer pour vos in- 
vitees ? 

10. Qu'est ce que ces demoiselles preferent generalement? 

1 We use monsieur, madame, mademoiselle or their plurals as a mark 
of politeness before the adjective votre or vos followed by a noun express- 
ing a member of the family. 

96 beginner's FRENCH 

199. Grammar Drill 

Replace the dashes by the preposition de. 

1. Un verre — vin, une tasse — lait, une douzaine — 
fruits, une assiettee — raisins. 

2. Deux douzaines — amis, quatre assiettees — gateaux, 
cinq tasses — the, trois verres — eau. 

3. Beaucoup — legumes, moins — pain, plus — fraises, 
assez — limonade, trop — bonbons. 

4. He prefers, do we prefer? they prefer. 

5. I am leading, do you lead ? she is not leading. 

6. We call, does she call? I am calling. 

7. You are throwing, do they throw? he is throwing. 

8. I am yielding, do we yield? they do not yield. 

200. Translation 

I. What do you prefer? 2. Do you prefer a cup of 
coffee or a glass of wine? 3. We prefer a cup of chocolate 
or tea and a glass of water. 4. We yield to your wishes. 
5. You are our guests. 6. We have good fresh, water. 
7. Whom are you calling? 8. I am calling the maid serv- 
ant. 9. She is preparing the lemonade for our friends. 
10. We are going down to the dining room. 11. You enter 
first.^ 12. These young ladies are seated near the windows. 
13. They generally speak of their dresses, hats,^ cloaks and 
jewels. 14. These ladies prefer round hats, gray cloaks and 
brown dresses ; those ladies prefer flat hats, blue cloaks and 
black dresses. 15. You notice on the table many plates, two 
dozen (of) glasses and cups and four or five platefuls of 
cakes, candies and fruit.^ 16. Does your sister prefer straw- 
berries or grapes? 17. She prefers strawberries. 18. Our 
brothers are calling three coachmen. 19. We are taking our 
guests to the park. 20. I prefer the theater, but I yield to 
the wishes of my sister and my friends. 

* Supply the. ^ Supply of their before every noun. « Use the plural. 



201. I. Dauser (to dance). 


je danserai, je danserais, ■• 

/ shall or -mil dance I should or would dance 

tu danseras tu danserais 

il or elle dansera il or elle danserait 

nous danserons nous danserions 

vous danserez vous danseriez 

ils or elles danseront ils or elles danseraient 

2. RoTigir (to blush). 

je rougirai, etc., je rougirais, etc., 

' / shall or will blush I should or would blush 

3. Tendre (to extend). 

je tendrai, etc., je tendrais, etc., 

/ shall or will extend I should or would extend 

4. Recevoir (to receive). 

je recevrai, etc., je recevrais, etc., 

/ shall or will receive I should or would receive 

The endings of the future are : 

{-ai r -ons 

-as plural 1 -ez ' 

-a l -ont 

The endings of the conditional^ are: 

singular -j -ais plural ■{ -iez 

C -ais r -i( 

\ -ais plural ■{ -i( 

ait I -aient 


1 It will be noticed that the imperfect and the conditional have the 
same endings. Those of the imperfect are added to the root and those of 
the conditional to the infinitive. 


beginner's FRENCH 

The future and the conditional of any regular verb are 
formed by adding respectively the above endings to the in- 

Note. Drop the final e of the infinitive of the third 
conjugation and -oi of the five verbs ending in -evoir be- 
fore adding the terminations. 

202. I. AvQir (to have). 



/ shall or zvill have 
tu auras 
il or elle aura 
nous aurons 
vous aurez • 
ils or elles auront 

2. Etrc (to be), 
je serai, 

/ shall or will be 
tu seras 
il or elle sera 
nous scrons 
vous serez 
ils or elles seront 

J aurais, 

/ should or would have 
tu aurais 
il or elle aurait 
nous aurions 
vous auriez 
ils or elles auraient 

je serais, 

/ should or would be 
tu serais 
il or elle serait 
nous serions 
vous seriez 
ils or elles seraient 

The future and the conditional of avoir and etre are 
formed irregularly. 

203. Pref6rer {to prefer). 

je prefererai, 

/ shall or will prefer 
tu prefereras 
il or elle preferera 
nous prefererons 
vous prefererez 
ils or elles prefereront 

je prefererais, 

/ should or would prefer 
tu prefererais 
il or elle prefererait 
nous prefererions 
vous prefereriez 
ils or elles prefereraient 


In the future and the conditional of verbs of the first 
conjugation having an e before the last syllable of the in- 
finitive there is no change in the spelling. (Cf. 192.) 

204. I. Mener {to lead, take). 


je menerai, je menerais, 

/ shall or will lead I should or would lead 

tu meneras tu menerais 

il or elle menera il or elle menerait 

nous menerons nous menerions 

vous menerez vous meneriez 

ils or elles meneront ils or elles meneraient 

2. Appeler (to call). 

j 'appellerai, etc., j'appellerais, etc., 

/ shall or will call I should or would call 

3. Jeter (to throw). 

je jetterai, je jetterais, 

/ shall or will throw I should or would throw 

Rules I93> 194 are applied also in the future and the con- 

205, I. Acheter (to buy). 


j*achete, / buy nous achetons 

tu achetes vous achetez 

il or elle achete ils or elles achetent 


j'achetais, / was buying 


j'acheterai, / shall buy j'acheterais, / should buy 



2. GtlBT '(to freeze). 


il gele, it freezes 


il gelera, it will freeze 


il gelait, it was freezing il gelerait, it would freeze 

The verbs acheter, geler and a few others follow rule 
193 instead of I94> i-c, the unaccented e preceding the 
last syllable of the infinitive becomes e before a mute vowel 
and the t or the 1 is not doubled. 

206, Lundi, samedi, le 14 mars. 

On Monday, on Saturday, on March 14. 
The preposition on is omitted in French before dates. 

207. Une demi douzaine, half a dozen. 

Une douzaine et demie, a dozen and a half. 

Quatre livres et demie, four pounds and a half. 
Demi agrees only when it follows the noun. However, 
according to the decree of the Minister of Public Instruction 
(February, 1901), the agreement of demi, when preceding 
a noun, will no longer be considered a mistake. 

208. Vocabulary 

ranniversaire (m.^, the anniver- 
le panier, the basket. 
le bonbon, the candy. 
le biscuit, the biscuit. 
le plaisir, the pleasure. 
le cri, the cry. 
I'ordre (m.), the order. 
la naissance, the birth. 
la livre, the pound. 
la douzaine, the dozen. 
la demi douzaine, the half-dozen. 

la confusion, the confusion. 

aimable, amiable, kind. 

demi, -e, half. 

celebrer, to celebrate. 

repeter, to repeat. 

regner, to reign. 

Jeter, to throw, to utter. 

acheter, to buy. 

jouer, to play. 

amener, to bring. 

hi en, very. 

plusieurs, several. 

beginner's FRENCn iOI 

209. Text ,'^ ^;- '>-^ ^"-; ^^» • "'•> 

1. Lundi, je celebrerai mon^anniversaire de 

2. Notre servante achetera plusieurs paniers 
de fruits, quatre livres et demie de bonbons et 
une douzaine de boites de biscuits. 

3. Mes freres seront bien^aimables; ils^ame- 
neront une demi douzaine d'amis. 

4. Nous^aurons beaucoup de plaisir ; nous 
jouerons, nous danserons, nous jetterons des cris. 

5. La confusion regnera dans la maison. 

6. Vous repeterez mes^ordres a la servante. 

210. Transposition 

1. Conjugate every sentence (except the fifth) in the 
future. Ex.: i. Lundi, je celebrerai mon...; lundi, tu 
celebreras ton... 2. J'acheterai . . . ; tu acheteras... 

2. Replace the future 

(a) by the present of the indicative. Ex.: i. Je ce- 

lebre mon. . . 
{h) by the imperfect of the indicative. Ex. : i. Lundi, 

je celebrais mon... 
(c) by the conditional. Ex.: i. Lundi, je celebrerais 

mon . . . 

211. Questions 

1. Quand celebrerez vous votre anniversaire de nais- 
sance? A.: Je celebrerai. . . 

2. (fl) Combien de paniers de fruits votre servante 

achetera-t-elle ? 
{b) Combien de livres de bonbons achetera-t-elle? 
{c) Combien de boites de biscuits achetera-t-elle? 


3. Polinqucd vostireres seront ils bien aimables? 

4. (a) Qu'est ce que vous aurez? 

(b) Jouerez vous? 

(c) Danserez vous? 

(d) Que jetterez vous? 

5. Ou regnera la confusion? 

6. Qu'est ce que je repeterai a la servante? 

7. Que celebrerez vous lundi? A.: Je celebrerai mon. . . 

8. Qu'est ce que la servante achetera? 

9. (a) Qui sera bien aimable? 
(b) Qui ameneront ils? 

10. (a) Qui aura beaucoup de plaisir ? 

(b) Qui est ce qui jouera? 

(c) Qui dansera? 

(d) Qui est ce qui jettera des cris? 

11. Qu'est ce qui regnera dans la maison? 

12. A qui repeterai je vos ordres? 

212. Grammar Drill 

1. A cup of chocolate, a glass of water, a plateful of 

2. A pound of candies, half a pound of bread, two pounds 
and a half of tea, a basket of fruit. 

3. Three glasses of red wine, four baskets of fresh bis- 
cuits, five boxes of ripe strawberries. 

4. A dozen^ friends, half a dozen^ young ladies, two 
dozens and a half boxes of flowers. 

5. Little pleasure, too many cries, more lemonade ; I have 
no wish. 

6. I repeat, do you repeat? we were repeating, they will 
not repeat, I should repeat. 

7. He is throwing, do we throw? I was throwing, shall 
you throw? she would not throw. 

^ Supply o/. 2 Say : a half dozen of. 


8. We do not buy, are they buying? I used to buy, who 
will buy ? you would buy. 

9. You* celebrate, does she celebrate? we are celebrat- 
ing, he was not celebrating, shall we celebrate? they would 
not celebrate. 

10. Are you calling? I am not calling, who was calling? 
you shall not call, would she call ? 

213. Translation 

I. We shall celebrate on Monday the birthday of my 
brother. 2. How many guests will you have? 3. We have 
many , guests when we celebrate that anniversary. 4. My 
brother will be the host and I shall be the hostess. 5. We 
shall receive our little friends in the immense dining room. 
6. My cousin generally^ brings several friends. 7. Will 
you utter cries? 8. We shall utter no cries. 9. But con- 
fusion^ and pleasure^ will reign in the house. 10. The 
guests will play or dance to the sound of the instruments. 
II. They will have a great deal of pleasure. 12. I shall 
buy a dozen baskets of fruit. 13. I shall choose ripe fruit. 
14. Our mother will be kind. 15. She will yield to my 
brother's wishes. 16. And we shall also^ buy six pounds 
and a half of biscuits and a half dozen boxes of candies. 
17. I prefer candies^ to cakes.^ 18. We shall have no cakes. 
19. The maid servants will pour lemonade in the glasses and 
tea in the cups of the guests. 20. I yield to your wishes. 
21. I shall repeat your orders. 22. You are very kind. 
1 See 118. 2. 2 Supply the. 





Review especially §§ 64, 137, 150, 162, 163, 182. 
214. Vocabulary 

une centaine, (about a) hundred. 
nombreu-x, -se, numerous. 
magnifique, magnificent. 
exquis, -e, exquisite. 
charmant, -e, charming, pleasant. 
sauvage, wild. 

le boulevard, the boulevard. 

I'habitant, the inhabitant. 

I'air (m.), the air. 

le beurre, the butter. ' 

I'espace (m.), the space. 

le bosquet, the grove. 

ranimal (m.), the animal. 

I'elephant (m.), the elephant, 

le lion, the lion. 

le tigre, the tiger. 

le serpent, the snake. 

le singe, the monkey. 

la campagne. the country. 

I'allee (f.), the lane. 

la menagerie, the menagerie. 

enorme, enormous. 

superbe, superb. 

feroce, ferocious. 

vilain, -e, ugly. 

tout, -e, tous, toutes, all, every, 

il y a, there is or there are. 
il y avait, there was or there were. 
il y aura, there will be. 

il y aurait, there would be. 

215. Text 

1. Dans toute ville, il y a de nombreux boule- 
vards, des magasins magnifiques, de tres beaux 
theatres, beaucoup d'habitants, et ainsi de suite. 

2. A la campagne, il y a de bon^air, des 
fruits delicieux, de jolies fleurs, du lait exquis, du 
beurre et du fromage frais, beaucoup d'espace, 
nlais peu d'habitants. 

3. Dans chaque pare, il y a de longues^allees, 
de petits lacs bleus, de beaux^oiseaux, d'immenses 
pelouses, des bosquets charmants, des centaines 
d'arbres, etc. 


4. Dans^une menagerie, il y a des^animaux 
sauvages, d enormes^elephants, des lions superbes, 
des tigres feroces, de longs serpents, de vilains 
singes, etc. 

216. Transposition 

N.B. Repeat the expression il y a before every noun in 
all the changes. 

1. Drop the adjectives and the nouns, and adverbs of 
quantity and replace mais by et. Ex. : i . Dans toute ville, 
il y a des boulevards, il y a des magasins, il y a . . . 

2. Replace the present 

(a) by the imperfect. Ex.: i. Dans toute ville, il y 

avait de . . . 

(b) by the future. Ex. : i. Dans toute ville, il y aura 

de nombreux boulevards, il y aura des . . . 

(c) by the conditional. Ex.: i. Dans toute ville, il y 

aurait de nombreux boulevards, il y aurait 
des ... 

217. Questions 

1. (a) Dans toute ville, y a-t-il de nombreux boulevards ? 

A.: Oui, M., il y a de nombreux boulevards or 
il y en a.^ 

(b) Est ce qu'il y a des magasins magnifiques? 

(c) II y a de tres beaux theatres, n'est ce pas? 

(d) Y a-t-il beaucoup d'habitants? 

2. (a) A la campagne, est ce qu'il y a de bon air? 

(b) II y a des fruits delicieux, n'est ce pas? 

(c) Y a-t-il de jolies fleurs a la campagne? 

(d) Est ce qu'il y a du lait exquis? 

(e) Y a-t-il du beurre et du fromage frais? 
(/) II y a beaucoup d'espace, n'est ce pas ? 
(g) Est ce qu'il y a peu d'habitants? 

1 Both answers should be required throughout. 

I06 beginner's FRENCH 

3. (a) Dans chaque pare, il y a de nombreuses allees, 

n'est ce pas? 

(b) Y a-t-il de petits lacs bleus? 

(c) Y a-t-il de beaux oiseaux? 

(d) Est ce qu'il y a d'immenses pelouses? 

(e) II y a des bosquets charmants, n'est ce pas? 
(/) II y a des centaines d'arbres, n'est ce pas? 

4. (a) Dans une menagerie, n'y a-t-il pas des^ animaux 

sauvages? A.: Si, M., il y a des animaux 
sauvages, or il y en a. 

(b) Est ce qu'il n'y a pas d'enormes elephants? 

(c) N'y a-t-il pas des lions superbes? 

(d) Est ce qu'il n'y a pas des tigres feroces? 

(e) N'y a-t-il pas de longs serpents? 

(f) Est ce qu'il n'y a pas de vilains singes? 

5. Dans toute ville, qu'y a-t-il? A.: ^I., il y a de nom- 
breux boulevards, il y a des. . . 

6. A la campagne, qu'est ce qu'il y a? 

7. Dans chaque pare, qu'est ce qu'il y a? 

8. Dans une menagerie, qu'y a-t-il ? 

(Negative answers.) 

9. Y a-t-il peu de boulevards dans les villes? Non, M., 
il n'y a pas peu de boulevards, il y a de nombreux boule- 
vards, or il n'y en a pas peu, il y en a beaucoup. 

10. Est ce qu'il y a beaucoup d'espace et d'air dans les 
villes ? 

11. Est ce qu'il y a des theatres a la campagne? 

12. A la campagne, y a-t-il beaucoup d'habitants? 

1 This is a rhetorical question in which the meaning is not really 
negative. Therefore we use c/^s, not ^^. 


218. Grammar Drill 

1. Some air, good air, fresh air, much air ; there is no air, 

2. Some stores, large stores, French stores, numerous 
stores, hundreds of stores ; there are no stores. 

3. Some animals, fine animals, wild animals, few animals, 
a dozen animals ; there were no animals. 

4. Some space, too much space ; there is no space. 

5. Some lakes, small lakes, blue lakes, small blue lakes, 
pleasant lakes, numerous lakes, so many lakes ; I notice no 

6. Some flowers, beautiful flowers, exquisite flowers, red 
flowers, boxes of flowers ; I do not buy any flowers. 

7. There is, is there? there is not; there are, are there? 
there are not. 

8. There was; was there ? there was not ; there were, were 
there? there were not. 

9. There will be, there would be; would there be? will 
there be? there will not be, there would not be. 

219. Translation 

I. In the schools of this city there are numerous class 
rooms and vast anterooms. 2. There are in our class room 
many desks and benches, high windows, long blackboards, 
immense maps, but few pupils. 3. There are in a large city 
magnificent avenues and streets, numerous schools and 
churches, immense hotels, high buildings and hundreds of 
strangers. 4. There are in the dining room of this hotel 
numerous tables, pretty chairs and many waiters. 5. At the 
windows, there are blue shades and yellow curtains. 
6. There were on our table clean plates and glasses, fresh 
cream and milk, delicious radishes, exquisite figs and grapes, 
many beautiful flowers, and so forth. 7. There will be in 
the menagerie of the park fine lanes, small groves, and many 

I08 beginner's FRENCH 

animals : tigers, elephants, lions, monkeys, snakes, etc. 8. In 
the country there would be numerous birds, large lakes, 
high trees, and more air and space than in the cities. 


Review §§ 41 > "6. 

220. Ces bijoux sont beaux: celni ci est celui de ma 
tante, celni 1^ est celui de ma cousine. These jewels are 
fine: this one is that of my aunt, that one is my cousin's. 

Voici de jolies f raises : celles qui sont dans ce panier sont 
plus mures que celles que nous avons dans notre jardin. 
Here are pretty strawberries: those which are in this basket 
are riper than those which we have in our garden. 

1. Demonstrative pronouns. 


Masculinb Fkminins Masculinb Fbmininb 

, . „ 1, ( that, those 

celui celle ceux celles \ , 

^ the one, the ones 

celui ci celle ci ceux ci celles ci this, these 

celui la celle la ceux la celles la that, those 

Note. Ci and la are not used when the pronouns are 

followed by the preposition of or a relative pronoun. 

2. The relative pronouns which, that are always ex- 
pressed in French and are translated by qui when subject 
and que (qu*) when direct object. 

221. C'est mon frere. He is my brother. 

Ce sont mes freres. They are my brothers. 

C'est celui de mon oncle. It is my uncle's. 

Ce sont ceux de mon oncle. They are my uncle's. 

C*est le plus grand. He (it) is the largest. 

Ce sont les plus grands. They are the largest. 


He is, she is, it is, and they are are translated by c'est 
and ce sont when the attribute is a noun, a pronoun or a 

222. Void son frere : c'est le meilleur homme du monde. 
Here is his brother: he is the best man in the world. 

In is translated by de after a superlative. 

223. Lequel de ces enfants est votre cousin? 
Which one of these children is your cousin f 
Laquelle de ces jeunes filles est votre cousine? 
Which one of these young ladies is your cousin? 

Which, which one, interrogative pronoun, is translated by 
lequel, laquelle, lesquels, lesquelles. 

224. Vocabulary 

le fauteuil, the armchair. 
le salon, the parlor. 
le jardin, the garden. 
la chambre, the room. 
confortable, comfortable. 
occuper, to occupy. 
louer, to rent, to let. 

vendre, to sell. 

a louer, for rent, to let. 

a vendre, for sale. 

voici, here is, here are. 

voila, there is, there are (when 
pointing to the person or ob- 

225. Text 

1. Voici de jolis fauteuils; celui ci est celui de 
mon pere, celui la est celui de ma mere; c'est le 
plus confortable du salon. 

2. Voila de belles* chambres: celle ci est celle 
de ma soeur, celle la est celle qui est3 louer; 
c'est la plus belle de la maison. 

3. Voici de beaux jardins; ceux de droite sont 
ceux de mes neveux, ceux de gauche sont ceux 
que mon frere loue; ce sont les plus grands de 
la rue. 


4. Voila de jolies maisons; celles ci sont celles 
qui sont_a vendre, celles la sont celles que 
nos^amis occupent; ce sont les plus charmantes 
de la ville. 

226. Transposition 

The first clause of every sentence must not be altered. 

1. Put in the pkiral singular pronouns, adjectives and 
verbal forms, and vice versa. Ex.: 1. Voici de jolis fau- 
teuils : ceux ci sont . . . 

2. Replace the present by the imperfect. 

3. Use the interrogative forms. Ex.: i. (a) Voici... ; 
celui ci est ce celui de mon pere? (b) Est ce que celui ci 
est. . . ? (c) Celui ci est. . ., n'est ce pas? 

227. Questions 

1. (a) Lequel de ces fauteuils est celui de monsieur 

votre pere? A.: M., celui ci est... 

(b) Quel est celui de madame votre mere? 

(c) Est il confortable? 

2. (a) Laquelle de ces chambres est celle de mademoi- 

selle votre soeur? 

(b) Quelle est celle qui est a louer? 

(c) Est elle belle? 

3. (a) Lesquels de ces jardins sont ceux de messieurs 

vos neveux? 
' (b) Quels sont ceux que monsieur votre frere loue? 
(f) Sont ils grands? 

4. (a) Lesquelles de ces maisons sont celles qui sont a 

vendre ? 

(b) Quelles sont celles que vos amis occupent? 

(c) Sont elles charmantes? 


228. Grammar Drill 

Replace the dashes by the proper demonstrative adjective 
or pronoun. 

1 . Voici des chapeaux : — de ma cousine est — qui est 
sur la table ; — qui sont sur la chaise sont — que je choisis, 

2. Voila des robes: — la est — de sa soeur, — ci est — 
que — demoiselle achete. Pref erez vous — ci ou — la ? 

3. Les oiseaux que vous apercevez sont — de — enfant ; 

— de mon frere sont dans sa chambre. Je prefere — ci a 

— la. 

4. Voici des fraises : — ci sont plus f raiches que — qui 
sont dans — panier ; — sont les meilleures. 

229. Translation 

I. Here are the friends (fem.) of my daughters. 2. I 
prefer these to those. 3. Those on the right are more cheer- 
ful than those on the left. 4. Which one of these young 
ladies is the prettiest? 5. The one who has a blue dress and 
a gray hat. 6. She is the sister of the stranger who occupies 
that house. 7. She is the most amiable girl in the parlor. 
8. Who are these children? 9. They are my niece's.^ 10. 
Which one do you prefer ? 11. The one who is uttering 
cries is the one whom^ we prefer. 12. Those who are seated 
on the bench are not diligent. 13. There are pretty flowers 
and many vegetables in the gardens that we see.^ 14. Are 
these the ones which are to let? 15. This one is for sale, 
that one is my neighbor's. 16. It is the largest in the 

^ Say : those of my niece. ^ que. * apercevoir. 





Review §§ 68, 173, 220. 

230. I. Quel livre? quelle maison? 
What hook? what house f 

Which? or what? modifying a noun or used as attribute, 
is an interrogative adjective and is translated as above. 

, 2. qui? 

qui est ce qui? 

(de) qui? 


qui est ce que ? 

3. qu'est ce qui ? 

qu'est ce que ? 
(de) quoi? 

\ zvho? 

whom? (object of a preposition). 
whom? (direct object). 

what? (subject). 
> zvhat? (direct object). 
what? (object of a preposition). 



lequel ? 
duquel ? 
auquel ? 


laquelle ? 
de laquelle? 
a laquelle ? 

which one? 

of or from which one? 

to or at which one? 


lesquelles ? 
desquelles ? 
auxquelles ? 

The above list contains the interrogative adjectives (i) 
and the interrogative pronouns (2, 3, 4). 


lesquels ? 
desquels ? 
auxquels ? 

which ones? 

of or from which ones? 

to or at which ones? 

beginner's FRENCH II3 

231. List of relative pronouns: 

1. qui, who, which, that (subject). 

(de) qui, whom (object of a preposition). 
que, whom, which, that (direct object). 

Masculine Feminine 

lequel laquelle which, who 

duquel (dont) de laquelle (dont) of or from which, whom 

auquel a laquelle to or at which, whom 

Masculine Feminine 

lesquels lesquelles which, zvho 

desquels (dont) desquelles (dont) of or from which, whom 

auxquels auxquelles to or at which, whom 

Lequel, laquelle, lesquels, lesquelles (subject or direct 
object) are seldom used; they sometimes replace qui or que 
to avoid a double meaning. Duquel, etc., auquel, etc., are of 
constant use. 

232. I. Le monsieur dont (de qui, duquel) je park. The 
gentleman of whom I am speaking. 

2. Le monsieur dans la maison de qui (duquel) j'habite. 
The gentleman in whose house I live. 

The relative pronoun of whom or whose has three dif- 
ferent translations: de qui, duquel, etc., dont; the relative 
pronoun of which has two : duquel, etc., dont. 

Notice that dont is used only at the very beginning of a 
relative clause. If a preposition begins the relative clause 
(see example 2), dont cannot be used. 

233. A qui est ce livre? JVhose book is this? 

A qui sont ces livres? Whose hooks are those? 
Such expressions are idiomatic and cannot be translated 
literally. Whose hook is this? must be replaced by: To 
whom is this hook? etc. 



- 234. Parler to speak; parle, spoken. 

rougir, to blush; rougi, blushed. 
perdre, to lose; perdu, lost. 
recevoir, to receive ; regu, received. 
avoir, to have; eu, had. 
etre, to be; ete, been. 
Past participles of regular verbs are formed by replacing 
respectively -er, -ir, -re of the infinitive by -e, -i, -u; of the 
verbs ending in -evoir by replacing -evoir by -u. The c of 
those ending in -cevoir takes then a cedilla : 5. 

Note. The past participles of avoir and etre are irreg- 

235. Past indefinite: 

J'ai (tu as, etc.) parle, rougi, perdu, regu, eu, ete. 
/ have spoken, blushed, lost, received, had, been. 


J'avais (tu avais, etc.) parle, rougi, perdu, regu, eu, ete. 

/ had spoken, blushed, lost, received, had, been. 
Compound tenses are formed exactly as in English. 

236. Vocabulary 

le voisinage, the neighborhood. 
la question, the question. 
demeurer, to reside. 

il est question de, it is a question 

avec, with. 

237. Text 

1. II est question du bal auquel nous^avons^as- 

2. La demoiselle avec qui (avec laquelle) 
vous^avez danse est tres jolie. 

3. C'est une jeune fille dans le voisinage de 
laquelle (de qui) ma famille a demeure. 


4. Ces^etrangers sont ceux dont (desquels, de 
qui) I'hotesse a parle. 

5. Les fauteuils sur lesquels nous sommes^assis 
sont tres confortables. 

238. Transposition 

1. Conjugate every sentence. Ex.: i. II est question 
. . . j'ai assiste. 2. La demoiselle. . . j'ai danse. . . 3. C'est. . . 
j'ai demeure. 4. Ces etrangers.. . .j'ai parle. 5. Le fauteuil 
. . .je suis assis. . . 

2. Replace the singular by the plural (except ** le voisi- 
nage ") and vice versa. Ex.: i. II est question des bals 
auxquels j'ai assiste. 

3. Replace the present by the imperfect and the past in- 
definite by the pluperfect. Ex. : i. II etait question. . .nous 
avions ... 

4. Use the interrogative forms. 

5. Use the negative form in the principal clauses. 

239. Questions 

(Negative answers.) 

1. Est ce qu'il est question du bal auquel vous avez 
assiste? A.: Non, M., il n'est pas. . .nous avons. . . 

2. La demoiselle avec laquelle j'ai danse, est elle tres jolie? 

3. Est ce une jeune fille dans le voisinage de qui votre 
famille a demeure? 

4. Est ce que ces etrangers sont ceux desquels I'hotesse 
a parle? 

5. Les fauteuils sur lesquels vous etes assis, sont ils tres 
confortables ? 

6. De quoi est il question? 

7. Qui est tres jolie? 

A.: M., il est. . 

Il6 beginner's FRENCH 

8. Qui est cette demoiselle? 

9. Qui sont ces etrangers? 

10. Comment sont les fauteuils sur lesquels vous etes 
assis ? 

240. Grammar Drill 

1. (a) Which book did you^ receive ? (b) Of what book 
did you speak? 

2. (a) Who is this gentleman? (b) Of whom are you 
speaking ?2 (c) To whom did he sell his house? ((/) Whom 
did you notice? 

3. (a) What is' on the table? (b) What did you sell? 
(c) Of what did they speak? 

4. (a) Which of these teachers is your friend's? (b) Oi 
which of these teachers did you speak? (c) Which* of 
these teachers did you obey? (d) Which of these teachers 
did you like? 

5. (a) The book which is on the table of the parlor is 
not the one that I have bought, (b) The gentleman of 
whom we are speaking,^ is a stranger, (c) The lady in 
whose garden^ we have been, is very pretty, (d) The child 
to whom you have spoken, is her son. (e) The garden in 
which we have been, is the largest in the neighborhood. 

6. Whose toy is this? Whose are these games? Whose 
birds are those ? 

241. Translation 

(a) I. Who are these gentlemen to whom you held^ out 
your^ hand? 2. They are those who -were at the balls at 
which I was present.^ 3. They are those in whose neighbor- 
hood your brother lived.^ 4. Of what did you speak ?^ 
5. We spoke® of the trees which are growing in the garden 

^ Replace did you, did they, etc., by have you, have they, etc. 

2 Say: is it [a] question. ' Supply there. * Supply to. 

6 Say: in the garden of whom. * Use the past indefinite. ' the. 

beginner's FRENCH II7 

in which we were. 6. Whose flowers are these? 7. They 
are those of the children of the hostess. 8. Which would 
you prefer? 9. These or those? The red or the white? 

10. I should prefer those near which you are standing. 

11. I prefer these. 12. Of which do you speak ? 13. Those 
of which I speak are the ones which are near the wall, far 
from the bench on which you are seated. 14. They are very 
beautiful. 15. They are the most beautiful in the whole^ 

(b) I. The family in whose house we lived^ rent^ rooms. 
2. Those, the windows of which you see,* are the ones which 
are to let. 3. Here are those of which I spoke.^ 4. This one 
is that of a stranger whose friend my nephew is.^ 5. Which 
one would you rent? 6. I should probably choose this. 
7. From the windows of the room in which we are, we see 
the country. 8. It has also a stove, a table, chairs and arm- 
chairs, white shades and curtains. 9. It is the most cheerful 
in the whole^ neighborhood. 10. The chair on which I am 
seated, is comfortable. 11. Those on which you are, are 
green and yellow. 12. They are not pretty colors. 

1 Use the past indefinite. f 

2 Say : of all the , . . 3 Uge the singular. 
* Say : Those of which you see the windows. 

fi Say : of whom my nephew is the friend. 






Mascuunr Fbmininb 

les miens les miennes 
les tiens les tiennes 
les siens les siennes 

les notres 
les votres 
les leurs 

243. Le fauteuil que j'ai achate, the armchair which I 

Les fauteuils que j'ai achetes, the armchairs which I 

'Lai chambre que j'ai occupee, the room that I occupied. 

Les chambres que j'ai occupees, the rooms that I occupied. 

Any past participle conjugated with avoir agrees with its 
preceding direct object. Therefore it does not agree when 
there is no direct object or when it follows the past participle. 






le mien 

la mienne 


le tien 

la tienne 

his, hers, its 

le sien 

la sienne 


le notre 

la notre 


le votre 

la votre 


le leur 

la leur 

244. Vocabulary 

le besoin, the need. 
la dentelle, the lace. 
agreable, pleasant. 

preferable, preferable. 

rapporter, to bring back. 

avoir besoin de, to be in need of. 

ne. . .plus, no longer, no more. 

245. Text 

1. Cette chambre est celle que mon frere a 
choisie; elle est plus^agreable que la mienne; c'est 
la plus^agreable de Thotel. 

2. Ce fauteuil est celui que ma soeur a re9u; il 


est meilleur et plus beau que le mien; cest le 
meilleur et. le plus beau du salon. 

3. J'ai aper9u les rideaux que mon^amie a 
achetes; ils sont preferables aux miens. 

4. Voici les dentelles que ma tante a rapportees 
du magasin; elle n'a plus besoin des miennes. 

246. Transposition 

1. Replace mon, ma by the other possessive adjectives and 
le mien, la mienne, les miens, les miennes by the other pos- 
sessive pronouns. Ex.: i. Cette chambre. . .ton frere. . . ; 
elle est . . . la tienne . . . 

2. Replace the singular by the plural and vice versa (the 
last noun of sentences i and 2 must remain singular). 

3. Replace the present by the imperfect and the past in- 
definite by the pluperfect. Ex. : i. Cette chambre etait celle 
que mon frere avait choisie. . . 

247. Questions 

,/ I. (a) Quelle chambre monsieur votre frere a-t-il choi- 
sie? A.: M., cette chambre est celle que... 

(b) Est elle plus agreable que la votre? 

(c) Est ce la plus agreable de I'hotel? 

^ 2. (a) Quel fauteuil mademoiselle votre soeur a-t-elle 

(b) Est il meilleur que le votre ? [regu? 

(c) Est il plus beau que le votre ? 

(d) Est ce le meilleur du salon? 

(e) Est ce le plus beau du salon? 

^ 3- (^) Qi^iels rideaux avez vous apergus? 

(b) Sont ils preferables aux votres? 
/ 4. (a) Ou sont les dentelles que madame votre tante a 
rapportees du magasin? 

(b) A-t-elle encore besoin des votres? 


(Negative and affirmative ansv^ers.) 

5. (a) Cette chambre est celle que vous avez choisie? 

A.: Non, M., ce n'est pas celle que j'ai choisie, 
c'est celle que mon frere a choisie. 

(b) La votre est elle plus agreable que la sienne? 

(c) La votre est ce la plus agreable de I'hotel? 

6. (a) Ce fauteuil est ce celui que vous avez requ? 

(b) Le votre est il meilleur que le sien? 

(c) Le votre est il plus beau que le sien? 

(d) Le votre est ce le meilleur du salon? 

(e) Le votre est ce le plus beau du salon? 

7. Vos rideaux sont ils preferables a ceux que votre 
amie a achetes? 

248. Grammar Drill 

I. This pen is mine, that one is yours. 

2., That notebook is hers, this one is mine. 

3. This bird is theirs, that one is ours. 

4. That armchair is yours, this one is mine. 

5. These gardens are his, those are theirs. 

6. Those laces are hers, these are ours. 

7. These toys are yours, those are mine. 

j/ 249. Translation 

I. Where is the room which you rented?^ 2. It is near 
yours. 3. Mine is pleasanter than yours. 4. It is the 
most pleasant in the v^hole house. 5. These are the ones 
which my parents chose.^ 6. They are preferable to mine 
and yours. 7. They are the largest in the hotel. 8. Whose 
chairs are these ? 9. Those on which we are seated are 
mine. 10. There is the one which I received ^ from my 
aunt. 1 1. You do not need hers. 12. It is the most com- 
fortable in the whole room. 1 3. Where are the hats which 

i Use the past indefinite. 


your sister brought ^ back from the store ? 14. Here is hers, 
there is mine. 15. Which is the prettier? 16. Hers is 
prettier than yours. 17. It is more expensive than mine. 
18. It was the most expensive in the store. 19. She also 
bought^ some pencils. 20. I do not need yours any longer. 

250. Reading Lesson 


Un jour, un paysan portait un panier de poires au 
chateau d'un grand seigneur. II arrive au chateau et sur 
Tescalier il rencontre deux singes, habilles comme des enfants. 

Le paysan ote respectueusement son chapeau. Les singes 
approchent du panier — ce sont des animaux gourmands — 
et devorent une grande partie des poires. 

Ensuite le paysan monte chez le maitre du chateau. 

« Monseigneur, voici les poires que vous avez comman- 

« Mais pourquoi n'as tu pas rempli ton panier ? II est a 
moitie vide.)) 

« II etait plein, monseigneur, repond le brave homme, mais 
sur I'escalier j'ai rencontre vos deux fils. Ces messieurs ont 
trouve mes poires a leur gout et je n'ai pas ose protester.)) 



251. Ceci est bon, cela est mauvais. This is good, that 
is bad. 

C'est bon. This or that is good. 

This and that, opposed to each other, are respectively 

1 Use the past indefinite. 


translated by ceci and cela when representing something 
just named or pointed to. Ce is vague and appears as sub- 
ject only before the verb 6tre. 

252. I. Celqui est bon est cher. What is good is ex- 

Ce que j'aper<;ois est beau. What I see is fine. 

2. T'ai ce dont vous avez besoin. / have what you are 
in need of. 

3. Voila ce a quoi vous visez. That is what you aim at. 

1. What, relative pronoun, meaning that zvhich, is 
translated by ce qui when a subject and ce que when a 
direct object. 

2. Dont is the only possible translation of of zvhich, of 
what, when its antecedent that is tran«;lated by ce. 

3. A French preposition always \precedes the inter- 
rogative or relative pronoun which it governs. 

4. Which or what is translated by quoi when object 
of any preposition but of (see 2 above) if its antecedent 
that is translated by ce. 

253. Est ce bon? Is that good? 

In questions, ce is placed after the verb as if it were 
a personal pronoun (see 19). 

254. Past future of parler, rougir, perdre, recevoir. 
J'aurai (tu auras, etc.) parle, rougi, perdu, re(;u, 
/ shall have spoken, etc. 

Past conditional of the same. 

J'aurais (tu aurais. etc.) parle, rougi, perdu, regu. 

/ should have spoken, etc. * 

Compound tenses are formed exactly as in English. 


255. Vocabulary 

le marche, the bargain. 
la qualite, the quality. 
I'experience (f.), the experience. 
la pratique, the practice. 
cher, chere, dear, expensive. 

mauvais, -e, bad, poor. 
tout, all, everything. 
manquer de, to lack. 
viser, to aim. 
bon marche, cheap. 

meilleur marche, cheaper. 

256. Text 

1. Ceci est cher, c^la est bon marche. 

2. Ce qui est de mauvaise qualite est genera- 
lement meilleur marche que ce qui est de bonne 

3. Tout ce que vous^avez achete est bon 
marche, mais mauvais. 

4. La pratique est ce dont vous manquez. 

5. L'experience est ce a quoi je vise. 

257. Transpositioii 

1. Replace respectively the present indicative and the 
past indefinite 

{a) by the imperfect and the pluperfect. Ex. :i. Ceci 

etait cher, cela. . . 
{b) by the future and the past future. Ex.: i. Ceci 

sera ... 
(c) by the conditional and the past conditional. Ex. : 

Ceci serait . . . 

2. Conjugate the relative clauses of sentences 3, 4 and 5. 
Ex. : 3. Tout ce que j'ai achete est. . . Tout ce que tu as 
achete est . . . 

3. Use one of the interrogative forms. Ex.: i. Ceci est 
il cher ? Cela . . . ? 


258. Questions 

1. (a) Qu'est ce qui est cher? 

(b) Qu'est ce qui est bon marche? 

2. Qu'est ce qui est generalement meilleur marche que 
ce qui est de bonne qualite? 

3. (a) Qu'est ce qui est bon marche? 
(b) Qu'est ce qui est mauvais? 

4. De quoi est ce que je manque? 

5. A quoi visez vous? 

(Negative and affirmative answers.) 

6. (a) Ceci est il bon marche? A.: Non, M., ceci n'est 

pas bon marche, ceci est cher. 
(b) Cela est il cher? 

7. Ce qui est de mauvaise qualite est il generalement 
plus cher que ce qui est de bonne qualite? 

8. (a) Est ce que tout ce que j'ai achete est cher? 
(b) Tout ce que j'ai achete est il bon? 

9. Est ce que j'ai beaucoup de pratique? 
10. Avez vous beaucoup d'experience ? 

259. Grammar Drill 

1. This is bad, that is good. That is cheap, this is ex- 
pensive. That is beautiful. 

2. What is bad is cheap. What is sad is not interesting. 

3. What you hear is pleasant. What I notice is ex- 

4. He asks for* what -he is in need of.^ You have what 
your friends aim at.^ 

260. Translation 

I. Our brothers have many qualities. 2. But every- 
thing* they buy is of poor quality. 3. They do not buy what 
1 Omit. 2 Say : that of which. 

* Say : that at which. * that which. 

beginner's FRENCH I25 

is expensive. 4. And what is cheap is generally of poor 
quality. 5. Experience is what they are in need of. 6. 
Practice is what they must aim at. 7. Do you have what 
they lack? 8. Yes, we generally ask for what is expensive. 
9. Every day, I repeat to my sister: 10. This is cheaper 
than that. 11. That is good, this is bad. 12. All that is^ 
bad is generally cheap. 13. Everything that is^ good is 
expensive. 14. We do not need what is cheap. 15. I do 
not examine what is of poor quality. 16. I buy what is 
expensive. 17. That is generally of good quality. 18. Ex- 
perience is not what we are in need of. 19. Practice is 
not what we must aim at. 20. We have what you are in 
need of. 21. We have what you must aim at. 


Review §§ 138, 152, 181, 201. 

261. Vous reussirez si vous etes diligent. You will suc- 
ceed if you are (will be) industrious. 

Vous reussiriez si vous etiez diligent. You would suc- 
ceed if you were {should he) industrious. 

The verb of a clause beginning with si {if) is never put 
in the future or in the conditional. If the future or the 
conditional is used in English, replace them respectively in 
French by the present or the imperfect indicative. 

262. Vous regretterez le temps perdu quand vous "serez 
grand. When you are old, you will regret the time you 
have wasted. 

The verb of a clause beginning with the conjunction 
quand must be put in the future when that of the principal 
clause is in the future or expresses futurity. 
1 Supply which before is. 


263. I. Present indicative of nettoyer {to clean). 

je nettoie, I clean nous nettoyons 

tu nettoies vous nettoyez 

il or elle nettoie ils or elles nettoient 

2. Imperfect. 

je nettoyais, / was cleaning. 

3. Future. 

je nettoierai, / shall clean, 

4. Conditional. 

je nettoierais, / should clean. 
In verbs endipg in -yer, the y becomes i before an e mute 
(cf. in English to tie, tying). 

In verbs ending in -ayer, the y may be kept. 

264. List of indefinite adjectives and pronouns. 

chaque, each, every. 

chacun, -e, each one, every one. 

aucun, -e (with ne), no, none, 

quelque, some, a few. [nobody. 

quelqu'un, somebody. 

quelques uns, some (pron.). 

quelque chose (m.), something. 

quiconque, whoever. 

tout, -e, tous, toutes, all. whole. 

tout, all, everything. 

tout le monde, everybody. 

on. one, people, they. 

personne (m., with ne), nobody 

rien (m.). nothing. 

nul, none (only as subject). 

nul, -le, no. 

tel. -le, such. 

certain, -e. some. 

265. Personne ne parle. Nobody speaks. 

Je ne parle a personne. / speak to nobody, 

Rien ne bouge. Nothing moves. 

Je n'ai rien. / have nothing. 
The verb of the clause in which the indefinite words 
rien, aucun, nul, personne are used, is preceded by ne but 
not followed by pas. 

266. J'ai quelque chose de bon. / haz'c something good. 
Je n*ai rien de bon, / have nothing good. 



ftuelque chose and rien, modified by an adjective, re- 
quire the preposition de immediately after them (cf. the Latin 
nihil bo7ti). 

267. I. On parle frangais ici. French is spoken here 
{one does speak French here). 

2. Ici Ton parle frangais. Here French is spoken. 

3. Parle-t-on frangais ici? Is French spoken here? 

1. On {one, people, they) is always singular and used 
only as subject. 

2. L' is sometimes added before on for sake of euphony. 

3. In questions, on is placed after the verb as if it were 
a personal pronoun. 

Notice that the English passive voice is often replaced 
by the French active. 

268. Vocabulary 

le chemin de fer, the railroad. 

le voyage, the trip. 

le voyageur, the passenger. 

le soir, the evening. 

le sommeil, the sleep. 

le wagon lit, the sleeping car. 

le doute, the doubt. 

le repos, the rest. 

la portiere, the car window. 

la campagne, the country. 

la destination, the destination. 

interessant, -e, interesting. 

court, -e, short. 

obscur, -e, dark. 

content, -e (de),^ pleased (to). 

profond, -e, deep. 

voyager, to travel. 

en chemin 

regarder, to look at. 
remarquer, to notice. 
sembler, to seem. 
arriver, to arrive. 
essayer (de),^ to try {to). 
tomber, to fall. 
trouver, to find. 
faire, to do. 

avoir sommeil, to be sleepy. 
rarement, seldom. 
par, through. 
sans, without. 
encore, still, yet. 
quand, when. 
si, if. 

pourquoi? why? 
parce que, because. 
de fer, by rail. 

1 The preposition between parentheses is the one required by the 
preceding word when an infinitive depends upon it. 

128 beginner's FRENCH 

269. Text 

1. Quand^on voyage en chemin de fer, on re- 
garde par la portiere, mais Ton remarque rare- 
ment quelque chose d'interessant. 

2. Un tel voyage semble court a certains voya- 
geurs et long a d autres. 

3. Le soir, personne n'aper9oit plus rien dans 
la campagne obscure. 

4. Si quelqu'un a sommeil, il entre dans le 
wagon lit. 

5. Tout le monde essaie de trouver un peu 
de repos, mais aucun des voyageurs ne tombe 
dans^un profond sommeil. 

6. Sans nul doute, chacun est content d'ar- 
river a destination. 

270. Transposition 

1. Replace the present 

(a) by the imperfect; 

(b) by the future (keep the present in the clause be- 

ginning with si) ; 

(c) by the conditional (use the imperfect in the clause 

beginning with si). 

2. Use the interrogative forms. 

271. Questions 

1. (a) Quand on voyage en chemin de fer, par ou re- 

garde-t-on ? 
(b) Que remarque-t-on rarement? 

2. (a) Un tel voyage semble-t-il court a tout le monde? 
(b) Semble-t-il long a d'autres? 


3. (a) Apergoit on encore quelque chose, le soir, dans 

la campagne? 
(b) Pourquoi n'apergoit on plus rien? 

4. Si quelqu'un a sommeil, ou entre-t-il ? 

5. (a) Qui essaie de trouver un peu de repos? 

(b) Tous les voyageurs tombent ils dans un profond 
sommeil ? 

6. Sans nul doute, ou chacun est il content d'arriver? 

Use quiconque in answers to questions 7 (a and b) 
and ID. 

7- (^) Qui regarde par la portiere? A.: M., quiconque 
voyage . . . , regarde . . . 
(b) Qui est ce qui remarque rarement quelque chose 
d'interessant ? 

8. (a) A qui un tel voyage semble-t-il court? 
(b) A qui semble-t-il long ? 

9. Qu'aperqoit on, le soir, dans la campagne obscure ? 

10. Qui entre dans le wagon lit? 

11. (a) Qui essaie de trouver un peu de repos? 

(b) Qui est ce qui tombe dans un profond sommeil? 

12. Qui est content, sans aucun doute, d'arriver a destina- 

272. Grammar Drill 

1. Each trip, each traveler, every evening, every city. 

2. Any^ car window, any rest, any city, any doubt. 

3. Some^ trips, some books, some ladies, some evenings. 

4. All travelers,^ the whole* trip, all car windows,^ the 
whole* city. 

5. Such a*^ doubt, such a railroad, such a lady. 

^ Use aucun and nul. ^ Use quelques and certains. 

8 Supply the after all. * Say : all the ... ^ Say : a such . . . 

130 beginner's FRENCH 

6. Something beautiful ; nothing sad ; one hears the bell : 
somebody tries to enter ; some of your friends are entering ; 
nobody looks out of the car window. 

7. I notice everything ; you notice nothing ; they perceive 
nobody ; whoever is sleepy tries to find some rest ; everybody 
falls ; none of the ladies seems pleased ; each one is sad. 

273. Translation 

I. Do you seldom^ travel by rail? 2. Yes, such a trip 
is not interesting and seems long. 3. When you are seated 
near the car window, do you not notice anything beautiful? 

4. Without any doubt, I perceive villages, trees, houses, etc. 

5. But one seldom perceives anything pleasant in the 
country. 6. When we^ arrive near a city, everybody tries 
to look out of the car window. 7. They- examine the build- 
ings, the avenues, the parks, etc. 8. It seems fine to some of 
the travelers and gloomy to others. 9. In^ the evening, 
every one is sleepy. 10. They^ enter the sleeping car. 
II. We also^ enter. 12. We try to perceive something. 
13. If somebody looks out of the car window in^ the even- 
ing, he will not notice anything any longer. 14. Everything 
is dark and sad in the country. 15. Will everybody fall 
into a deep sleep? 16. No, without any doubt, nobody will 
find any rest. 17. At last we^ arrive. 18. None of the 
travelers is sorry to* arrive at his^ destination. 19. Every 
lady seems pleased. 20. Some travelers find such a trip 
long, others find^ it^ short. 

1 See 118. 2. 2 Say: one (see 267. i). ^ Omit. * de. 




Review §§ 138, 182, 193, 235, 252. 

274. Preterit or past definite. 
parler {to speak) rougir {to blush) 

je parlai, / spoke je rougis, / blushed 

tu parlas tu rougis 

il or elle parla il or elle rougit 

nous parlames nous rougimes 

vous parlates vous rougites 

ils or elles parlerent ils or elles rougirent 

perdre {to lose) recevoir {to receive) 

je perdis, / lost je regus, / received 

tu perdis tu regus 

il or elle perdit il or elle regut 

nous perdimes nous re^iimes 

vous perdites vous regiites 

ils or elles perdirent ils or elles regurent 

The preterit, or past definite, 

(i) of the first conjugation is formed by replacing -er 
of the infinitive by: 

r -ai r -ames 

singular ■{ -as plural ■{ -ates 

I -a I -^rent 

(2) of the second and third conjugations by replacing 
respectively the endings -ir and -re by: 

r -is r -imes 

singular ^ -is plural < -ites 

I -it L -irent 


(3) of verbs ending in -evoir by replacing -evoir by : 
r -us r -times 

singular \ -us plural -j -utes 

I -ut I -urent 

Note. The c of verbs ending in -cevoir takes a cedilla 
before u. 

275. Preterit or past definite. 

etre {to be) avoir {to have) 

je fus, / was j'eus, / had 

tu fus tu eus 

il or elle fut il or elle eut 

nous fumes nous eumes 

vous futes vous eutes 

ils or elles furent ils or elles eurent 
They are irregular. 

276. I. Je parlais, / was speaking, I used to speak, I did 

2, Je parlai, / spoke (once). 

3. J'ai parle, / spoke, I have spoken. 

1. The imperfect is especially used in description. 

2. The preterit is especially used in narration. 

3. The past indefinite is especially used in conversation. 

277. Je vous choisis. / choose yon. 

Je I'ai choisi. / have chosen him. 
Je vous parle. / speak to you. 
Je lui ai parle. / have spoken to him. 
II nous a parle. He has spoken to us. 
II leur a parle. He has spoken to them. 



Personal pronouns used as objects. 

(2) As object of the 

(i) As direct object : 



him, it 
her, it 



= le 
= la 

= les 



preposition to: 
= to me 

= to you 

r to him 
lui = < to her 
I to it 

= to us 

= to you 

leur = to them 

All personal pronouns, direct objects or objects of the 
preposition to, are placed immediately before the verb in 
simple tenses, and immediately before the auxiliary in 
compound tenses. 

Notes, i. The preposition to must not be expressed in 
French since it is included in the personal pronoun. 

2. Me, te, le, la become m', t', 1' before a verbal form 
beginning with a vowel or h. mute. 

278. J'y demeure. I live there. 

There, representing a place just mentioned, is translated 
by y, which follows rule 277. 

279. Un bel homme. A handsome man. 

Un bel abricotier. A beautiful apricot tree. 
Some French adjectives have a double form for the mas- 
culine singular. Beau is used when the modified noun be- 
gins with a consonant or an h formerly aspirate, bel when it 
begins with a vowel or a mute h. 



280. Vocabulary 

rhomme, the man. 

I'aine, the elder {eldest) son. 

le cadet, the younger (youngest) 

le pere de famille, the head of 

the family. 
I'abricot (m,), the apricot. 
I'abricotier (m.), the apricot tree. 
le lendemain, the next day. 
la question, the question. 
suivant, -e, following. 

emmener, to take along. 
derober, to steal. 
donner, to give. 
enlever, to take away. 
adresser a i fo ask (somebody a 
poser a J quesiion). 
conseiller a (de), to advise (to). 
eviter (de), to avoid (to). 
defendre a (de), fo forbid (to). 
cueillir, to gather, pick. 
aussitot, immediately. 

281. Text 

1. Un^homme qui avak deux fils, leur defendit 
de manger les fruits d'un bel^abricotier qui etait 
dans le jardin. 

2. Un jour, I'aine y emmena le cadet et lui 
conseilla de cueillir des^abricots. 

3. Celui ci I'ecouta : il^en deroba, en mangea 
et en donna a son frere qui en mangea aussi. 

4. Le lendemain, le pere de famille remarqua 
qu on_avait_enleve des fruits de son^arbre. 

5. ILappela I'aine aussitot et lui adressa (posa) 
les questions suivantes : " As tu evite de faire ce 
que je t'ai defendu ? As tu derobe des^abricots ? " 

(A suivre.) 

282. Transposition 

I. You are the elder son. Repeat the story with the 
necessary changes. Ex.: i. Notre pere nous defendit.. 
2. Un jour j'y emmenai mon frere. . . 


2. You are the younger son. Repeat the story with the 
necessary changes. 

3. There are four sons (les deux aines et les deux cadets). 
Repeat the story with the necessary changes. Ex.: i. Un 
homme qui avait quatre fils, leur defendit. . . 2. Un jour les 
deux aines ... 

4. Replace the past tenses by (a) the present, and the 
pluperfect by the past indefinite, (b) the future. (No 
change in the direct discourse.) Ex. : i. Un homme qui a. . . 

283. Questions 

(The pronouns placed between parentheses after the ques- 
tions are to be used in the answers.) 

1. (a) Qui avait deux fils? (en) 

(b) Que leur defendit il? 

(c) Ou etait ce bel abricotier? 

2. (a) Qui I'aine emmena-t-il, un jour, dans le jar- 

din? (y) 
(b) Que lui conseilla-t-il ? 

3. (a) Le cadet Fecouta-t-il ? 

(b) Deroba-t-il des abricots? (en) 

(c) En mangea-t-il? 

(d) A qui en donna-t-il? 

(e) Le frere en mangea-t-il? 1 

4. Qu'est ce que le pere de f amille remarqua le lendemain ? 

5. (a) Qui appela-t-il aussitot? 

(b) Quelles questions lui posa-t-il? 

284. Grammar Drill 

I. Replace the dashes by the proper French personal pro- 
noun object: (a) by me or to me, (b) by yon* or to you*, 
(c) hy him or to him, (d) by her or to her, (^) by us or to 
us, (f) by you or to you, (g) by them or to them. 

136 beginner's FRENCH 

H — appela. Us — parlerent. Us — rejurent. H ^ 
adressa cette question. 

2. I ate^ it,2 we ate them, he ate it, did you eat it? they 
ate them. 

He punished^ me, you punished us, did she punish you? 
I punished them, they punished her. 

Did she hear^ me ? we heard them, you heard us, did they 
hear them? I heard you. 

I perceived^ her, did you perceive him? they perceived 
us, we perceived them, did she perceive you? 

They had^ it, did you have them ? we had some. 

I was,^ was he ? you were, were you ? they were. 

285. Translation 
I. A man had^ a garden. 2. In his garden there were^ 
two beautiful apricot trees. 3. That man was^ the* head of 
a family. 4. He had^ only two sons. 5. One day, the 
parents took^ them along into the garden. 6, When they 
arrived^ near the apricot trees, they forbaje^ them to take 
away the fruit^ of those trees. 7. You must avoid those 
trees or we shall punish you. 8. The next day, they 
noticed^ that some one was stealing their apricots. 9. At 
once they called^ their sons. 10. They asked^ them many 
questions. 11. What have we forbidden you to do? 12. 
Who has stolen our apricots? 13. Who has eaten them? 
14. Who advised® you to pick them? 15. Who is blush- 
ing? the elder or the younger son? 16. We took® our 
friends along into the garden. 17. They perceived® the 
fruit. 18. They advised® us to pick some. 19. We listened® 
to them. 20. We stole® some. 21. We have given some 
to our friends. 22. I have eaten some, he has eaten some, 
they have eaten some, we have eaten some. 

* Use the preterit. * Replace by a or omit. 

* Suppose it is masculine. ^ Use the plural. 

* Use the imperfect indie. ^ Use the past indefinite. 




Review §§ 243, 274, 276, 277, 278. 

istpart Personal pronouns direct Verb or ^^^Pf* ^^f^P^Il^^lP'^ 

'"'^"' negation objects or objects of ... auxiliary ^^^^J.^^ ^^^^ 

je me 

tu te 

il , ^^^ 

elle le . . ^^ (past 

ne I lui y en or pas \ • • 1 x 

on la -^ -y \ participle) 

nous nous 

vous vous 



les leur 

When two personal pronoun objects must be placed be- 
fore the same verb or auxiliary, it is simply a question of 
importance. Therefore, the first and second persons precede 
the third. When both pronouns belong to the third person, 
the direct object comes first, i.e., precedes the personal pro- 
noun object of lo. En always comes after y and both must 
follow any personal pronoun. 

287. Cueillir (to gather, to pick). 
flnf initive :^ cueillir 

1 To facilitate the study of irregular verbs such as cueillir, French 
grammarians considier as primitive tenses those marked above with a f. 
a. For the formation of the future and the conditional, see 201. 
6, The present participle is supposed to form three derived tenses : 
(a) the pli\ral of the present indicative, (d) the imperfect indica- 
tive, and (c) the present of the subjunctive by replacing the 

Imperfect indicative : 
Past indefinite : 
Future : 


fPresent participle: cueillant^ 

fPast participle : cueilli 

t Present indicative: je cueille nous cueillons 

tu cueilles vous cueillez 

il or elle cueille ils or elles cueillent 
je cueillais 
je cueillis 
j*ai cueilli 
je cueillerai 
Conditional : je cueillerais 

Imperative: cueille, cueillons, cueillez 

Present subjunctive : que je cueille 
Imperfect subjunctive : que je cueillisse 

288. J 'en ai cueilli. / have gathered some. 

Je n'en ai pas vole. / have not stolen any. 
Nous en avons mange. We have eaten some. 

En is never the direct object. Therefore past participles, 
conjugated with avoir, never agree with it (see 243). 

ending -ant respectively {a) by -ons, -ez, -ent ; {h) by -ais, -ais, 
-ait, -ions, -iez, -aient ; {c) by -e, -es, -e, -ions, -iez, -ent. 
The endings of the present subj. of verbs in -evoir are: -oive, 
-oives, -oive, -evions, -eviez, -oivent. 

c. The past participle forms all compound tenses with the help of 

avoir and etre as in English. (See 235, 305.) 

d. The present indicative forms the imperative by dropping the per- 

sonal pronouns of the corresponding persons and the final s of 
the 2d person singular in the ist conjugation. 

e. An easy mechanical way to get the ist person singular of the im- 

perfect of the subjunctive is to add -se to the 2d person singular 
of the preterit : tu parlas, que je parlasse ; tu rougis, que je 
rougisse ; tu perdis, que je perdisse ; tu re9us, que je re9usse. 

1 All irregularities in various tenses will be printed in heavy type 

beginner's FRENCH • 139 

exemplaire, exemplary. 
inutile (de), useless (to). 
repliquer, to reply. 
refuser (de), to refuse. 
aj outer, to add,^ 

289. Vocabulary 

infliger a, to inflict upon, 
desobeir a, to disobey. 
repondre a, to anszver. 
alors, then. 
cependant, however. 

290. Text {Sttife et Fin) 

1. Son fils lui r^pondit : "Mon frere en_a 
cueilli, en_a mange, m'en^a donne et j'en^ai aussi 

2. Alors le pere appela le cadet et lui de- 
manda: "Pourquoi m'as tu desobei? Pourquoi 
as tu derobe des^abricots?" 

3. Celui ci lui repliqua : " Vous nous I'aviez 
defendu, mais mon frere me I'a conseille. 

4. Je I'ai ecoute; cependant je n'en^ai cueilli 
que quelques^uns; je n'en^ai mange que deux ou 
trois. Je lui en_ai donne autant : il ne les^a pas 
refuses et il les^a manges." 

5. ILest^inutile d'ajouter que leur pere leur 
infligea une punition exemplaire. 

291. Transposition 

1. You are the elder son. Repeat the story with the 
necessary changes. (No change in the direct discourse.) 
Ex. : I. Je lui repondis : . . . 

2. You are the younger son. Repeat the story with the 
necessary changes. (None in the direct discourse.) Ex.: 
I . Mon frere lui repondit : . . . 

3. There are four sons (les deux aines et les deux 


cadets). Repeat the story with the necessary changes. (Use 

the plural in -the direct discourse.) Ex.: i. Ses fils lui... 

4. Replace the preterit and the present by (a) the future, 

(b) the conditional. (No changes in the direct discourse.) 

292. Questions 

1. (a) Que lui repondiU son fils? 

b) he cadet a-t-il cueilli des abricots? (en) 

c) En a-t-il mange? 
rf) En a-t-il donne a son frere? (lui) 
e) Celui ci en a-t-il mange au^si? 

2. (a) Qui le pere appela-t-il alors? 

b) Que lui demanda-t-il ? 

c) Le cadet lui a-t-il desobei? 

d) A-t-il derobe des abricots? (en) 

3. (a) Qu'est ce que le cadet lui repliqua? 

b) Est ce que leur pere leur avait defendu de cueillii 
des abricots? (le) 

c) Qui a conseille au cadet d'en cueillir? (le lui) 

4. (a) Le cadet a-t-il ecoute I'aine? (le) 

b) A-t-il cueilli cependant beaucoup d'abricots? (en) 

c) Combien en a-t-il mange? 

d) Combien en a-t-il donne a son frere? (lui) 

e) Les a-t-il refuses? 
/) Les a-t-il manges ? 

5. Qu'est il inutile d'ajouter? 

293. Grammar Drill 

I. I give it to you, they give them to us, he was giving it 
to him, we gave^ them to them, will he give it to him ? he will 
not give it to him, he will give it to you. 

I speak to him about it,- he spoke^ to me about it, has he 
spoken to you* about it? we shall speak to them about it. 
1 Use the preterit. ^ Translate by ^n. 

beginner's FRENCH I4I 

They will take you (along) there, were they taking him 
there? I do not take them there, we have taken her there. 

I forbid him to do it,^ were we forbidding them to do 
it?^ he would not forbid you to do it.^ 

2. I gather apricots, do you gather them? we gather 
some, they were gathering some, will they gather any? she 
will not gather any, you would not gather any. 

294. Translation 

I. Then the younger son added :^ 2. My brother took* 
his friends along into our garden. 3. He advised* them to 
pick and to eat apricots. 4. I repeated* this to him: 
5. " Our father has forbidden us to do it."^ 6. He did not 
listen* to me. 7. He answered* me: 8. You^ will gather 
fruit. 9. You will give some to me. 10. You will eat some. 
II. You will also give some to my friends or I shall inflict 
upon you an exemplary punishment. 12. Then I did not 
refuse* to do it. 13. I have disobeyed you. 14. However, we 
have not stolen many. 15. My brother has gathered half 
a dozen. 16. I have gathered as many. 17. His friends 
were asking us for some.® 18. I have given them one. 
19. They refused* it at once. 20. My brother has given 
them three. 21. They did not refuse* them. 22. They 
have eaten them. 23. I blush for my behavior. 24. It is 
useless to punish me. 

295. Reading Lesson 


Un roi de France visitait son royaume. Un jour, il arriva 
aux portes d'une petite ville oti il fut re^u par le cure, accom- 
pagne de toute la population. 

Or, ce cure etait un original. Quand il arriva aupres du 

1 Say : T forbid it to him. ^ Preterit. ^ Use the 2d person singular. 
^ See note i above. * Past indef. * Say . some to us. 


roi, il le salua tres humblement et lui dit : « Sire, je n'ai pas 
rintention de vous faire un long discours ; mais, a I'occasion 
de votre visite, j'ai compose une petite chanson que je desire 
vous chanter.)) 

Et il entonna aussitot une chanson dans laquelle il souhai- 
tait au monarque la bienvenue et un long regne. 

Le roi applaudit et cria : « Bis ! Bis ! » 

Le pretre repeta sa chanson avec encore plus de gaiete 
et d'enthousiasme. 

Pour lui temoigner sa satisfaction, le roi lui donna dix 

Celui ci, en les recevant, cria a son tour : « Bis ! Bis ! 

Le roi, charme de I'esprit du cure, doubla la somme. 


Review §§ 40- 2 ; 243; p. 13 (hyphen) ; note d, bottom 
of p. 138. - 

296. Montrez-moi ce livre. Shozv me this hook, 
Montrez-le-lui. Show it to him. 
Montrez-le-nous. Show it to us. 
Montre-m'en un. Show me one. 
Montres-en un. Show one. 

1. Personal pronouns, direct objects or objects of to, are 
placed after the verb in the same order as in English when 
it is in the imperative affirmative. When the imperative is 
negative, follow 277 and 286. 

2. When placed after the verb, the personal pronouns, 
direct objects or objects of to, are translated as in table 277, 
except moi and toi instead of me, te. However, moi and toi 
become m' and t' before en or y. 



3. The second person singular of the imperative of the 
first conjugation ends with s before en or y. 

297. Envoy er (to send). (Review 263.) 
Infin. : 
Pres. part. : 
Past part. : 
Pres. ind. : 





tu envoies 

il or elle envoie 

Imperf. ind. 
Preterit : 

Past indefinite: j 
Future : 
Conditional : 
Imperative : 
Pres. subj. : 
Imperf. subj 

nous envoyons 

vous envoyez 

ils or elles envoient 



'ai envoye 



envoie, envoyons, envoyez 

que j 'envoie 

que j'envoyasse 

298. J'y ajouterai quelque chose, / shall add something 
to it. 

Y means also to it, to them (things). 

299. Vocabulary- 

la route, the road. 
I'aise (f.), the ease. 
I'adresse (f.), the address. 
la permission, the permission. 
I'expression (f.), the expression. 
la gratitude, the gratitude. 
sur, -e, sure. 
montrer, to show. 
garder, to keep. 

envoyer, to send. 
emporter, to carry away. 
deviner, to guess. 
desirer, to desire. 
recommander, to recommend. 
reflechir a, to reflect upon. 
salir, to soil. 

rendre, to return, give hack. 
plutot, rather. 

a votre aise, leisurely. 


300. Text 

1. Montrez-moi les livres que vous^avez trou- 
ves sur la route. 

2. Examinez-les ^ votre aise mais ne les salis- 
sez pas. 

3. Ce sont ceux que mon frere a perdus, j'en 
suis sur. Reflechissez^y bien: ne les gardez pas; 

4. Donnez-moi son^adresse; je les lui enverrai; 
ou plutot emportez-les et envoyez-les-lui. 

5. Recevez Texpression de ma profonde grati- 
tude et de la sienne. 

301, Transposition 

1. Use the singular everywhere. 

2. Use the first person plural of the imperative in 2 and 3. 

302. Questions 

For the answers, translate the sentences between paren- 
theses. If there is no sentence, see 3<>o« 

1. (a) Devinez ce que j'ai trouve? (You have foynd 

some books.) 

(b) Devinez ou je les ai trouves? (You have found 

them on the road.) 

(c) Est ce que je dois vous montrer les livres que 

j'ai trouves? (Show them to me.) 

2. Me donnez vous la permission de les examiner a mon 
aise? (Examine them at your ease.) 

3. Que me recommandez vous? (Do not soil them.) 

4. (a) Est ce^ ceux que votre frere a perdus? 

* Used for sake of euphony instead of sonf ce. 


(b) En etes vous bien sur? 

(c) Dois^je bien y reflechir? (Yes, do reflect 

upon it.) 

(d) Est ce que je dois les garder? (Do not keep 

them. ) 

(e) Est ce que je dois les rendre a votre frere? (Re- 

turn them to him.) 

5. (a) Desirez-vous son adresse? (Give it to me.) 

(b) Les lui enverrez vous? 

(c) Est ce que je dois les emporter? (Take them 

away. ) 

(d) Dois-je les lui envoyer? (Send them to him.) 

6. £tes-vous content? (Yes, sir, receive the expres- 
sion. . .) 

303. Grammar Drill 

1. Show it, do not show it, show them, do not show 
them, show some, do not show any, show me, do not show 
me, show it to me, do not show it to me, show them to us, 
do not show them to us, let us show it, let us not show it, 
let us show them to him, let us not show them to him. 

Keep it, do not keep it, keep them, do not keep them, keep 
some, do not keep any, let us keep them, let us not keep them. 

Soil it, do not soil it, soil them, do not soil them, let us 
soil it, let us not soil it, let us soil them, let us not soil them. 

Give it back, give it back to me, give some back, do not 
give them back to him, let us give some back to them. 

2. I am sending it to them there, do you send it to them 
there? I was not sending them to you there, they sent some 
to me there, she has not sent it to him, will you send them 
to us there ? he will not send any to you there, we would send 
some to them there, send it to me, let us not send it to 

146 beginner's FRENCH 

304. Translation 

I. Somebody has lost his books opposite your house. 
2. Did you find^hem? 3. We found^ some on the road. 
4. Show them to me. 5. Let us not show them to him. 
6. They are^ not yours. 7. Are you sure of it? 8. Give 
them back to me or rather send them to me. 9. Let us not 
give them back to him. 10. And we shall not send them to 
him. II. If you do not return them to me, you will receive 
an exemplary punishment. 12. Let us keep them. 13. I shall 
speak to your uncle about it. 14. We forbid you to do it.^ 
15. He will inflict upon you a good punishment. 16. Let us 
reflect upon it. 17. Let us show those books to him. 18. Let 
us examine them leisurely. 19. You are soiling them. 
20. Let us not soil them. 21. Let us not return them to him. 
22. They are his. 23. What is the address of your parents? 
24. Give it to us. 25. We shall send them to you there. 
26. Give them to me rather. 2^. I shall take them away. 
28. Take them away. 29. My gratitude is very deep. 30. 
Receive the expression of it. 


305. Etre envoye, puni, perdu, rcQU (/o he sent, punished, 
lost, received). 


je suis envoye (e) puni(e) 

tu es envoye (e) puni(e) 

il est envoye puni 

elle est envoyee punie 

* Past indefinite. * c'^st or ce sont according to the new decree. 
* We forbid it to you. 





nous sommes 

envoy es (ees) 

punis (ies) 

vous etes 

envoye (ee, es, 


puni (ie, is, ies) 

ils sont 



elles sont 



je suis 

perdu (e) 


tu es 

perdu (e) 


il est 



elle est 



nous sommes 

perdus (ues) 

regus (ues) 

vous etes 

perdu (ue, us, 


regu (ue, us, ues) 

ils sont 


• perdus 


elles sont 


regues . 



envoye(e), puni(e), 


a(e), re9u(e), etc. 


je fus envoye(e), puni(e), perdu(e), regu(e), etc. 


j'ai ete envoye (e), puni(e), perdu (e), re9u(e), etc. 


je serai envoye (e), puni(e), perdu (e), re9u(e), etc. 


je serais envoye (e), puni(e), perdu (e), reQu(e), etc. 
Past participles, conjugated with etre, agree in gender 
and number with the subject of the clause. 

306. Je suis alle(e). 1 have gone. 

Elle est revenue. She has come hack. 
Vous etes sorti (ie, is, ies). You have gone out. 
The following past participles, conjugated with to have in 
English, are conjugated with etre {to be) in French. Apply 
305. The French considers the state, not the action. 


beginner's FRENCH 

alle, -e, gone 

tombe, -e, fallen. 

arrive, -e, arrived. 

venu, -e, come. 

entre, -e, entered. 

revenu, -e, come back. 

parti, -e, departed. ' 

devenu, -e, become. 

reste, -e, remained. 

mort, -e, died. 

sorti, -e, gone out. 

ne, -e, born. 


Inf in. : 


faire plenvoir^ 

{to cover) 

{to do, make) 

{to rain) 

Pres. part. : 


faisant plouvant 

Past part. : 


fait plu 

Pres. ind. : 

je couvre 

je fais 

tu couvres 

tu fais 

il or elle couvre 

\\ or elle fait 

nous couvrons 

nous faisons 

il pleut 

vous couvrez 

vous faites 

ils or elles couvrent ils or elles font 

Imperf . ind. : 

je couvrais 

je faisais i 

[ pleuvait 

Preterit : 

je couvris 

je fis i 

I plut 

Past indef . : 

j'ai convert 

j'ai fait i 

[ a plu 

Future : 

je couvrirai 

je ferai i 

1 pleuvra 

Condit. : 

je couvrirais 

je ferais i 

I pleuvrait 

Imperative : 






. (none) 



Pres. subj.: 

que je couvre 

que je fasse* qu'il pleuve 

Imperf. subj. 

que je couvrisse 

que je fisse qu'il plut 

308. La rue est couverte de boue. 
with mud. 

The street is covered 

^ It is irregular throughout. 

^ Irregular persons of verbs, ending in -ot'r, cannot be especially marked 
because there is no model on wMch to base a distinction. 



1. The partitive article (du, de la, de T, des) is omitted 
after the preposition de to avoid the repetition of the same 

2. After some past participles (covered, dressed, adorned, 
etc.), with is translated by de. 

309. Vocabulary 

le temps, the weather. 
le vent, the wind. 
le froid, the cold. 
Thiver (m.), the winter. 
le silence, the silence. 
la boue, the mud. 
la neige, the snow. 
la terre, the ground. 
la nature, the nature, 
h. feuille, the leaf. 
calme, calm. 
mort, -e, dead. 

plein, -e, full, filled. 

revenu, -e, come back. 

geler, to freeze. 

troubler, to disturb. 

depouiller, to strip. 

couvrir, to cover. 

pleuvoir, to rain. 

faire du vent (impers.), to be 

quel temps fait il? how is the 


310. Text 

I II pleut; il fait du vent; les rues sont 
pleines de boue. 

2. II gele; le froid est revenu; la neige couvre 
la terre. 

3. En shiver, la nature tombe dans^un profond 

4. Tout est calme et triste : rien ne trouble le 
silence de la campagne. 

5. Les jardins sont depouilles, les feuilles sont 
tombees, les fleurs sont mortes. 

150 beginner's FRENCH 

311. Transposition 

1. Replace respectively the present and the past indefinite 
(a) by the imperfect and the pluperfect, (b) by the future 
and the past future, {c) by the conditional and the past con- 

2. Use the interrogative forms. 

312. Questions 

1. (a) Quel temps fait il? 

(b) Pleut il? 

(c) Est ce qu'il fait du vent? 

(d) De quoi les rues sont elles pleines? 

2. (a) Est ce qu'il gele? 

(b) Qu'est ce qui est revenu? 

(c) Qu'est ce qui couvre la terre? 

3. En hiver, dans quoi la nature tombe-t-elle ? 

4. (a) Qu'est ce qui est calme? 

(b) Qu'est ce qui est triste? 

(c) Qu'est ce qui trouble le silence de la campagne? 

5. (a) Qu'est ce qui est depouille? 

(b) Qu'est ce qui est tombe? 

(c) Qu'est ce qui est mort? 

313. Grammar Drill 

1. She is sent, we are lost (m.), were you being lost (f. 
pi.) ? they were sent (m.), I have been sent (f.), they had 
been lost (m.), will she be lost? we should be sent (m.). 

2. I have gone (m.), she has gone, have they gone (m.) ? 
we have gone out (f.), have you gone out (m. pi.) ? he has 
come, they have come (m.), have we arrived (m.) ? she has 

3. I am covering, they cover, were you covering? We 



covered, she has covered, they had covered, you* will cover, 
we would cover, let us cover. 

4. He makes, she was making, are you making? they 
made (pret.), he has made, shall we make? they make, I had 
made, let us make, you would make, do not make. 

5. It was raining, will it rain, it rained (pret.), has it 
rained? it would rain, it is raining. 

314. Translation 

I . Winter^ and cold^ have come back. 2. The cold is strip- 
ping our gardens and our parks. 3. Leaves^ have fallen and 
cover the ground. 4. Flowers^ are dead. 5. Everything is 
dead. 6: Silence^ reigns over^ nature.^ 7. How is the 
weather? 8. It has rained and it is raining. 9. The streets 
are covered with mud. 10. It has been windy and it is 
windy. 11. When did your sister come^ back from the 
country? 12. She came^ back on* Tuesday. 13. It had 
rained. 14. She has fallen. 15. She was covered with mud, 
16. I am very sorry for^ it. 17. How will the weather be 
this winter? 18. It will be windy. 19. If it is windy, it will 
rain. 20. It has frozen, it is freezing, and it will freeze. 
21. Snow^ has fallen, snow^ is falling, snow^ will fall. 22. 
It will cover everything with its white cloak. 23. Nature^ 
will fall into a deep sleep. 24. Birds^ will not disturb it. 
25. The streets will be quiet and gloomy. 26. They will 
also be filled with snow. 

1 Supply the. ^ Replace by in. ^ Past indefinite. 
* Omit. ^ Replace by <?/*. * 




Review §§ 107, 117, 192, 305, 306. 

315. moi, /; me nous, zve; us 

toi, you* vous, you 

lui, he; him eux, they; them 

elle, she; her elles, they; them 

1. Elle et moi, nous sommes toujours en retard. She and 
I are always late. 

2. Lui a raison, moi j'ai tort. He is right, I am wrong. 

3. C'est moi qui ai parle. // is I who spoke. 

4. II parle de moi, de lui; avec elle, avec eux; pour moij 
pour vous. He speaks of me, of him; with her, with them; 
for me, for you. 

The above personal pronouns are used : 

1. In a compound subject. Notice that when there are 
several subjects of different persons, one of them being of 
the first or the second person, they are all summed up before 
the verb by nous or vous. 

2. When the subjects are emphatically opposed to one 

Then the emphatic forms moi, toi, nous, vous are fol- 
lowed by the ordinary forms je, tu, nous, vous. Lui, elle, 
eux, elles are not followed by il, elle, ils, elles. 

3. When attribute of the verb etre; also when the pro- 
noun subject is separated from its verb by any other word 
but ne or a conjunctive pronoun (see 277). 

4. When object of any preposition but to. 



* 316. 

Infin. : 




{to hate) 

{to depart) {to 

6e necessary f must) 

Pres. part. : 



Past part. : 




Pres. ind. : 

je hais 

je pars 

tu hais 

tu pars 

die 1'^=''* 

die JP^-^ 

il faut 

nous haissons 

nous partons 

vous haissez 

vous partez 

„ \ haissent 
elles ^ 

elles \ ^^''^' 

Imperf. ind. 

: je ha'issais 

je partais 

il fallait 

Preterit : 

je hais 

je partis 

il fallut 

Past indef . : 

j'ai hai 

je suis parti (e) 

il a fallu 

Future : 

je hairai 

je partirai 

il faudra 

Condit. : 

je hairais 

je partirais 

il faudrait 

Imperat. : 







Pres. subj.: 

que je haisse 

que je parte 

qu^il faille 

Impf. subj.: 

que je haisse 

que je partisse qu'il fallut 

317. Vocabulary 

le climat, the climate. 
I'accord (m.), the agreement. 
I'ete (m.), the summer. 
le chant, the song. 
la saison, the season. 
la recherche, the search. 
la pitie, the pity. 
desagreable, disagreeable. 
clement, -e, clement, mild. 

muet, -te, mute. 

devenu, -e, hecom^. 

embellir, to beautify. 

hair, to hate. 

partir, to depart, go away. 

falloir, to be necessary, must. 

etre d'accord, to agree. 

avoir pitie de, to have pity on. 

presque, almost. 

fester, to remain. 
1 /zaiV is regular. It isgiven here to show where the diaeresis is not used, 


318. Text 

1. L'hiver est^arrive; c'est la plus desagreable 
des quatre saisons. 

2. Mes freres ne sont pas d accord avec moi: 
eux preferent I'hiver aux^autres saisons; moi, je 
le hais. 

3. Presque tous les^oiseaux sont partis h la 
recherche d'un climat plus clement. 

4. Ceux qui sont restes avec nous sont deve- 
nus muets. 

5. II faut avoir pitie d eux. 

6. Car ce sont^eux qui, en_ete, embellissent 
nos jardins et nous rejouissent par leurs chants. 

319. Transposition 
I. Replace respectively the present and the past indefi- 


(a) by the imperfect and the pluperfect; 

(b) by the future and the past future; 

(c) by the conditional and the past conditional. 

320. Questions 

1. (a) Quelle saison est arrivee? 

(b) Laquelle des quatre saisons est la plus desagre- 

2. (a) Qui n'est pas d'accord avec vous? 

(b) Preferent ils I'hiver aux autres saisons? (le) 

(c) Haissez vous I'hiver? (le) 

3. (a) Qu'est ce qui est parti? 

(b) A la recherche de quoi sont ils partis? 

beginner's FRENCH 155 

4. Que sont devenus (what became of) ceux qui sont 
restes avec nous ? 

5. Faut il avoir pitie d'eux? (en) 

6. (a) Qu'est ce qui embellit nos jardins en ete? (les) 

(b) Qu'est ce qui nous rejouit en ete? 

(c) Par quoi nous rejouissent ils? 

a2i. Grammar Drill 

1. He and I (we) have come; she and you (you) agree; 
they and we (we) hate winter ; he^ has gone out, / have 
entered; they (m.) succeed, w^ do not succeed; it is / who 
have done it ; it is he who has come ; for me, for you, for 
him, for them (m.), with her, with us, with them (f.), with 

2. They hate, we were hating, will he hate ? is he hating ? 
they hated (pret.), let us hate, we should hate. 

3. They were departing (going away), they (f.) had 
departed, you departed (pret.), will she depart? do not de- 
part, they would depart, we (m.) have departed, let us 

4. It will be necessary, has it been necessary? it was 
necessary (pret.), would it be necessary? it used to be nec- 
essary, is it necessary? 

322. Translation 

I. I introduce my friends to you. 2. They^ remained^ 
in^ the country for* two months and we remained- there 
only for* one week. 3. When did you come^ back, gentle- 
men? 4. IVe arrived^ on Monday and he returned on 
Tuesday. 5. What disagreeable weather, is it not? 6. Is 
the weather more pleasant in^ the country? 7. Do you 

1 Use the emphatic forms for the subjects in italics. '^ Past indefinite. 
3 Replace by at * Omit or replace by during; (pendant). 

156 beginner's FRENCH 

hate winter ?i 8. We hate it. 9. / prefer it to sum- 
mer.^ 10. It is also the season that our parents and we 
prefer. 11. You do not agree with us and with them. 
12. Why do you prefer summer?^ 13. Our dimate is not 
mild in winter. 14. It is windy, it rains, it freezes, snow^ 
falls. 15. I pity you. 16. One must^ pity me. 17. For I 
hate cold.^ 18. We shall be in^ the country in summer. 
19. It will not rain, it will not be cold. 20. The streets will 
not be full of mud. 21. They will be clean. 22. Birds^ 
will not be mute. 23. They will have become joyful. 24. 
Their songs will rejoice us. 25. The gardens will be full 
of flowers. 26. The trees will be covered with leaves. 27. 
Flowers^ and leaves^ will beautify the whole country. 


Review §§ 75, i39, 207. 

323. Quelle heure est il? What time is it? 

II est 3 heures // is 3 o'clock 

II est 3 heures et 5 minutes or 3 heures 5 3.05 

II est 3 heures et 10 minutes or 3 heures 10 3.10 

II est 3 heures et quart or 3 heures 15 3.15 

II est 3 heures et 20 minutes or 3 heures 20 3.20 

II est 3 heures et 25 minutes or 3 heures 25 3.25 

II est 3 heures et demie or 3 heures 30 3.30 

II est 4 heures moins 25 minutes or moins 25 3.35 

II est 4 heures moins 20 minutes or moins 20 3.40 

II est 4 heures moins un quart or moins 15 3.45 

II est 4 heures moins 10 minutes or moins 10 3.50 

II est 4 heures moins 5 minutes or moins 5 3.55 

II est 4 heures * 4.00 

1 Supply the. 2 s^y: it is necessary. ^ T? enlace by at. 


It is, of the time of the day, is 

translated by il est. 


Infin. : 



(to go) 

(to put) 

Pres. part: 



Past part. : 



Pres. ind. : 

je vais 

je mets 

tu vas 

tu mets 

il or elle va 

il or elle met 

nous allons 

nous mettons 

vous allez 

vous mettez 

ils or elles vont 

ils or elles mettent 

Imperf . ind. : 


je mettais 

Preterit : 


je mis 

Past indef. : 

je suis alle(e) 

j'ai mis 

Future : 


je mettrai 

Condit. : 


je mettrais 

Imperative : 

va, allons, allez 

mets, mettons, mettez 

Pres. subj.: 

que j'aille 

que je mette 

Imperf. subj.: 

que j'allasse 

que je misse 

325. Vocabulary 

le dimanche, Sunday. 

le dejeuner, the breakfast. 

le service, the service. 

le fidele, the faithful. 

le quart, the quarter. 

les vetements (m. p\.),the clothes. 

I'heure (f.), o'clock, time. 

la volee, the flight. 

la messe, the mass. 

la coutume, the custom. 


dejeuner, to breakfast. 
aller, to go. 
commencer, to begin. 
inviter (a), to invite (to). 
sonner a toute volee, to ring a 

full peal. 
mettre, to put, to put on. 
de coutume, usual, usually. 
de bonne heure, early. 
tard, late, 

158 beginner's FRENCH 

326. Text 

1. Chaque dimanche, je mets mes plus beaux 

2. Je dejeune a huit^heures un quart, beau- 
coup plus tard que de coutume. 

3. Apres le dejeuner, je vais a 1 eglise. 

4. Le service commence a dix^heures et demie. 

5. J'arrive a la porte de leglise a dix^heures 

6. Les cloches sonnent a toute volee et invitent 
les fideles a assister a la messe. 

7. J entre dans I'eglise. 

327. Transposition 

1. Conjugate sentences i, 2, 3, 5 and 7 in the present. 

2. Replace the present (a) by the future, (b) by the 
past indefinite, (c) by the conditional, (d) by the preterit, 
(^) by the imperfect. 

3. Use the interrogative forms. 

328. Questions 

1. (o) Que mettez vous chaque dimanche? 

(b) Quand mettez vous vos plus beaux vetements? 

2. (a) Dejeunez vous de bonne heure? (negative) 

(b) Est ce que vous dejeunez tard? 

(c) Quelle heure est il quand vous dejeunez le di- 

manche ? 

3. (a) Ou allez vous apres le dejeuner? 

(b) Allez vous a I'eglise apres le dejeuner? (y) 

4. Quelle heure est il quand le service commence ? 


5. (a) Ou arrivez vous? 

(b) Arrivez vous a la porte de I'eglise? (y) 

(c) Quelle heure est il quand vous y arrivez? 

6. (a) Que font les cloches? 

(b) Comment sonnent elles? 

(c) Qui invitent elles? 

(d) A quoi les invitent elles? 

7. (a) Ou entrez vous? 

(b) Est ce que vous entrez dans I'eglise? (y) 

329. Grammar Drill 

1. What time is it? It is half past 5, it is 20 minutes 
to 2, it is a quarter past 11, it is 5 minutes to 9, it is 10 
minutes past 7, it is not half past 10, it is 25 minutes to 9, 
it is a quarter past 8. 

2. We go, were you going? he went (pret.), she had 
gone, are they going? I shall go, let us go, would they go? 
we have gone, we went (pret.), do not go, he is going. 

3. You are putting, they will put, have they put? we 
shall put, had you put? she was putting, you* would put, 
let us put. 

330. Translation 

I. Do you go to church^ on Sunday? 2. We go there 
every Sunday. 3. Everybody puts on his fine clothes. 
4. My family breakfast^ usually at 8 o'clock. 5. We shall 
breakfast much later. 6. After breakfast,^ we shall put on 
our finest clothes. 7. Will you go to church?^ 8. Where 
is your church? 9. It is in the neighborhood. 10. Do you 
hear those bells? 11. They are the bells of our church. 
12. They ring a full peal. 13. They are calling us. 14. Let 
us obey them. 15. They invite us to be present at (the) 
service. 16. Let us be present there, let us go there. 17. At 

1 Supply //5(?. 2 Use the singular. 



what time will the service begin? i8. The faithful arrive 
at the door at ii o'clock. 19. But the service will com- 
mence later, at a quarter after 11. 20. You will arrive 
at church^ at half past 11. 21. Enter there. 


Review §§ 181, 262, 324. 
331. Infin. : 

Present part. : 
Past part. : 
Pres. ind. : 

je vois, / see 

tu V9is 

il or elle voit 
Imperf . ind. : 
Preterit : 
Past indef. : 
Future : 
Condit. : 
Imperat. : 
Pres. subj.: 
Imperf. subj.: • 

voir (to see) 



nous voyons 

vous voyez 

ils or elles voient 

je voyais 

je vis 

j 'ai vu 

je verrai 

je verrais 

vois, voyons, voyez 

que je voie 

que je visse 

332. Vocabulary 

the minister. 

le ministre, 
le pasteur, 
le pupitre, the desk. 
les assistants (m. pi.), the per- 
sons present. 
le commencement, the beginning. 

le sermon, the sermon. 
Dieu, God. 

I'auditoire (m.), the congrega- 
I'orgue (m.), the organ. 
I'organiste, the organist. 

1 Supply ^Ag. 



le sujet, the subject. 
la personne, the person. 
la ceremonie, the ceremony. 
la ferveur, the fervor. 
la bonte, the kindness. 
I'attention (f.), the attention. 
la musique, the music. 
jouer de, to play (an instru- 
retourner, to go back, 
chanter, to sing. 
prier, to pray. 
finir, to finish. 
etre fini(e), to be over. 

voir, to see. 

mal, badly. 

directement, directly. 

devant, before, in front of, 

pendant, during, for. 

avec, with. 

sur, about. 

depuis, since, from. 

jusqu'a, until, to. 

chez, at, to, in the house of. 

chez moi (toi, lui, elle, nous, 
vous, eux, elles), at, to, in my 
{your, his, her, our, your, 
their) house, at home, home. 

333. Text 

1. Je vols beaucoup de personnes assises sur 
les bancs et le ministre devant son pupitre. 

2. Pendant la ceremonie, les assistants chan- 
tent avec^expression et prient avec ferveur. 

3. Le pasteur fait un long sermon sur la bonte 
de Dieu et I'auditoire I'ecoute avec la plus grande 
attention depuis le commencement jusqu'^ la fin. 

4. J'entends aussi de bonne musique: Torganiste 
joue tres bien de I'orgue. 

5. Quand le service est fini, je retourne direc- 
lement chez moi. 

334. Transposition 

1. Conjugate in the present sentences i, 2, the last clause 
of 3 and 5 and the first clause of 4. 

2. Replace the present (a) by the imperfect, (&) by the 
past indefinite, (c) by the future, {d) hy the preterit, {e) by 
the conditional. 

3. Use the interrogative forms. 


335- Questions 

1. (a) Qui voyez voiis dans I'eglise? (y) 

(b) Les personnes que vous y voyez, sont elles debout 

ou assises? 

(c) Le ministre est il debout ou assis? 

(d) Devant quoi est il debout? 

2. (a) Pendant la ceremonie, que font les assistants? 
(b) Comment chantent ils? 

, (c) Comment prient ils? 

3. (a) Qu'est ce que le pasteur fait? 
(b) Son sermon est il long ou court? 

• (c) Quel en est le sujet? 

(d) Que fait I'auditoire pendant le sermon? 

(e) £coute-t-il le pasteur avec peu d'attention? (le) 

4. (a) Entendez vous aussi de bonne musique? (en) 

(b) Qui joue de I'orgue? (en) 

(c) En joue-t-il bien ou mal? 

5. (a) Le service fini, ou retoumez vous? 

(b) Est ce que vous retournez directement chez 
vous? (y) 

336. Grammar Drill 

1. What time was it? it was a quarter to 4, it was 10 
minutes past 2, was it 25 minutes past 6? it was half past 3. 
what time will it be? it will be 20 minutes to 5, it will be 
a quarter past 9. 

2. I go, you went (pret.), was he going? they will go, 
she has gone, go, shall we go? you would go, they (f.) had 
gone, let us go. 

3. He is seeing, have you seen? we used to see, do you 
see? let us see, he will see, you had seen, would they see? 
we saw (pret.), we shall see, see^ they used to see. 

beginner's FRENCH 1 63 

337. Translation 

I. What are we going to^ do? 2. Let us enter the 
church, 3. You will see there many strangers. 4. The 
ceremony has begun. 5. Here is the pew^ of my family. 
6. The sermon of the minister is very long. 7. He has been 
speaking for^ one hour. 8. He is speaking about* the kind- 
ness of God. 9. We listen to him attentively. 10. The con- 
gregation is seated during the sermon. 1 1 . What shall we 
do during the service? 12. We shall sing with the other 
persons present. 13. Your sisters sing with expression. 
14. I hear them very well. 15. You do not pray with the 
greatest fervor. 16. I have been praying for^ one hour. 
17. I am also listening to the organ. 18. The organists 
of this city do not play well. 19. You will hear some good 
music when you are present at (the) service in my church. 

20. When the service is over, shall we return to your house ? 

21. We shall return directly there. 22. We have remained 
from the beginning to the end. 

338. Reading Lesson 


^C'est la petite mendiante 
Qui vous demande un peu de pain. 
Donnez a la pauvre innocente, 
Donnez, donnez, car elle a faim. 
Ne rejetez point ma priere, 
Votre coeur vous dira pourquoi. 
J'ai six ans, je n'ai plus de mere, 
J'ai faim, ayez pitie de moi. 

^ Omit. 2 Say: bench. ^ Say: he speaks since. 
* Replace by : of. ^ Ct. note 3 above. 

164 beginner's FRENCH 

Hier, c'etait fete au village, 
A moi personne n'a songe; 
Chacun dansait sous le feuillage, 
Helas! et je n'ai pas mange. 
Pardonnez-moi, si je demande, 
Je ne demande que du pain. 
Du pain, je ne suis pas gourmande. 
Ah ! ne me grondez pas, j *ai f aim. 

N'allez pas croire que j 'ignore 

Que dans ce monde il faut souffrir; 

Mais je suis si petite encore, 

Ah ! ne me laissez pas mourir. 

Donnez a la pauvre petite, 

Et pour vous comme ellc priera! 

Elle a faim; donnez, donnez vite, 

Donnez, quelqu'un vous le rendra. 

Si ma plainte vous importune, 
Eh bien! je vais rire et chanter; 
De Taspect de mon infortune 
Je ne dois pas vous attrister. 
Quand je pleure. Ton me rejette, 
Chacun me dit : filoigne-toi. 
ficoutez done ma chansonnette, 
Je chante, ayez pitie de moi. 

Boucher de Perthes. 




Review note b, bottom 
339- ■ Inf in. : 

Pres. part. : 

Past part. : 

Pres. ind. : 

Imperf . ind. : 
Preterit : 
Past indef . : 
Future : , 
Condit. : 
Imperat. : 
Pres. subj. : 
Imperf. subj. 


of p. 137; §§ 139, 306, 324, 33I' 
prendre (to take) 

je prends 
tu prends 
il or elle prend 
nous pjenons 
vous prenez 
ils or elles prennent 
je prenais 
je pris 
j'ai pris 
je prendrai 
je prendrais 
prends, prenons, prenez 
que je prenne 
que je prisse 

340. Vocabulary 

le spectacle, the spectacle, show. 
le billet, the ticket. 
le guichet, the ticket office. 
le haut, the top. 
Tescalier (m.), the staircase. 
la representation, the perform- 
la place, the seat. 
I'ouvreuse, the (female) usher. 

la salle, the auditorium. 
la scene, the stage. 
I'espece (f.), the kind, sort. 
monter, to go up, climb. 
prendre, to take. 
quelquefois, sometimes. 
jamais, ever, never. 
deja, already. 
tou jours, always. 

en retard, late (person). 

1 66 beginner's FRENCH 

341. Text 

1. Nous^allions quelquefois au spectacle. 

2. La representation commen9ait generalement 
a huit^heures. 

3. Nous n'etions jamais en retard. 

4. Nous^arrivions a la porte du theatre a 
huit^heures moins^un quart. 

5. Nous^achetions nos billets au guichet et 
nous choisissions toujours de bonnes places. 

6. Nous montions et au haut de Tescalier une 
ouvreuse prenait nos billets. 

7. Nous^entrions et nous voyions la salle et 
la scene. 

8. II y avait dej^ beaucoup de personnes dans 
la salle. {a suivr^.) 

342.. Transposition 

1. Conjugate sentences i, 3, 4, 5, 7 and the first clause 
of 6 in the imperfect of the indicative. 

2. Replace the imperfect (a) by the present, {h) hy the 
conditional, (r) by the pluperfect, (^) by the future, (^) by 
the preterit. 

3. Use the interrogative forms. 

343. Questions 

1. (a) Oil alliez vous ? 

{b) Alliez vous tres sou vent au spectacle? (y) 

2. Quelle heure etait il quand la representation com- 
mengait ? 

3. (a) £tiez vous generalement de bonne heure ? 
(6) £tiez vous jamais en retard? 

beginner's FRENCH 1 67 

4. (a) Ou arriviez vous? 

(b) A quelle heure y arriviez vous? 

5. (a) Qu'est ce que vous achetiez? 

(b) Ou achetiez vous vos billets? (les) 

(c) Quelle espece de places choisissiez vous toujours? 


6. (a) Est ce que vous montiez I'escalier? (le) 

(b) Qu'est ce qu'une ouvreuse prenait au haul de 
I'escalier ? 

7. (a) Entriez vous? 

(b) Voyiez vous la salle? (la) 

(c) Est ce que vous voyiez la scene? (la) 

(d) Voyiez vous la salle et la scene? (les) 

8. (a) Qu'est ce qu'il y avait dans la salle? 
(b) Y en avait il deja beau coup? 

344. Grammar Drill 

1. I see, they saw (pret.), you* used to see, shall they 
see? did he see (pret.) ? they have seen, do not see, would 
he see? she had seen, we were seeing, I shall have seen, they 
would have seen. 

2. He is taking, were we taking? they took (pret.), are 
you taking? I had taken, she was taking, he has taken, they 
will take, let us take, we shall have taken, did you take 
(pret.) ? you had taken, I shall take, would you* take? you 
would have taken, do not take. 

345. Translation 

I. My family used to go to the theater when we were 
residing in the city in winter. 2. We seldom go there when 
we are in the country. 3. At what time did the perform- 
ances begin? 4. They used to begin at 8 o'clock. 5. But 
many persons were already arriving at the doors of the 

l68 beginner's FRENCH 

theater at 7.30. 6. Did you use to buy your tickets at the 
ticket office? 7. I never used to buy them there. 8. They 
are too expensive there. 9. My brother used always to 
choose our seats. 10. He used always to buy good 
ones.^ II. When you have bought your ticket, what do you 
do? 12. I climb the numerous staircases with the other 
persons. 13. There are many female^ ushers. 14. They are 
waiting for you at the top of the staircases. 15. You give 
them your tickets. 16. They take them. 17. They also take 
your hat and your overcoat. 18. Then they lead you to the 
seats which you have chosen. 19. Many people enter the 
auditorium. 20. Nobody is late. 21. Where is the stage? 
22. I do not see it. 23. It is opposite you. 24. We have 
the best seats in the whole auditorium. 



346. Ici Ton parle frangais. French is spoken here. 

Son pere le punit. He has been punished by his father. 

Instead of the passive voice, the French often use the 
active voice with the name of the agent as subject and with 
on (see 267) as subject if no agent is specified. 

347. Quand allez vous a I'eglise? When do you go to 

Je prends mon paraplnie lorsqu'il pleut (quand il pleut). 
I take my umbrella when {whenever) it rains. 

When is translated by qnand when it begins an inter- 
rogative clause. Otherwise, it is translated by quand or 
lorsque (lorsqu' before a vowel). 

1 Omit and use en before the verb. ^ Omit. 



348. Infin. : 

Pres. part.: 
Past part. : 
Pres. ind. : 

Imperf . ind. : 
Past indef . : 
Future : 
Condit. : 
Imperat. : 
Pres. subj. : 
Imperf. subj. 

plaire (to please) 



je plais 

tu plais 

il or elle plait 

nous plaisons 

vous plaisez 

ils or elles plaisent 

je plaisais 

je plus 

j'ai plu 

je plairai 

je plairais 

plais, plaisons, plaisez 

que je plaise 

que je plusse 

349. Vocabulary 

le coup, the blow, time, rap. 

I'acteur, the actor. 

Tartiste (m. and f.), the artist. 

le public, the public. 

le decor, the scenery. 

le vaudeville, the vaudeville. 

le melodrame, the melodrama. 

I'opera (m,), the opera. 

le restaurant, the restaurant. 

la comedie, the comedy. 

la tragedie, the tragedy. 

la piece, the play. 


precis, -e, precise, sharp. 
grand, -e, grand. 
comique, comic, light. 
frapper, to strike, rap. 
pleurer, to weep. 
souper, to take supper. 
lever, to raise. 
representer, to represent. 
applaudir, to applaud. 
plaire, a, to please. 
tantot, — , sometimes, — . 
lorsque, when, 


350. Text {SuiU et Fin) 

1. A huit^heures precises, on frappait trois 
coups et on levait le rideau. 

2. Nous voyions sur la scene les^^acteurs, 
les^actrices et les decors. 

3. Tantot les^artistes jouaient une comedie ou 
un vaudeville, tantot ils representaient une trage- 
die ou un melodrame ; tantot ils chantaient 
despairs de grand opera ou d'opera comique. 

4. Nous preferions la comedie. 

5. Si la piece plaisait, nous^applaudissions. 

6. Lorsque le sujet etait triste, le public pleu- 

7. Quand la representation etait finie, nous^al- 
lions souper au restaurant. 

351. Transposition 

1. Conjugate in the imperfect sentences 2, 4, and the last 
clauses of 5, 6, 7. 

2. Replace the imperfect (a) by the preterit, (^) by the 
future (use the present after si), (c) by the present, (rf) by 
the past indefinite, (^) by the conditional (keep the im- 
perfect after si). 

3. Use the interrogative forms. 

352. Questions 

1. (a) Combien de coups frappait on? (en) 
(^) Quand frappait on trois coups? (les) 
(r) Que faisait on ensuite? 

2. (a) Qui voyiez vous sur la scene? (y) 
(&) Que voyiez vous sur la scene? (y) 


(c) Est ce que vous voyiez les acteurs, les actrices et 
les decors sur la scene? (les y) 

3. (a) Tantot, que jouaient les artistes? 

(b) Tantot, qu'est ce qu'ils representaient ? 

(c) Tantot, que chantaient ils? 

4. Que preferiez vous, le vaudeville, la comedie, la tra- 
gedie, le melodrame, le grand opera ou I'opera comique? 

5. Si la piece etait bonne, que faisiez vous? 

6. Lorsque le sujet etait triste, que faisait le public? 

7. (a) Quand la representation etait terminee, oil alliez 

(b) Pourquoi y alliez vous ? 

353. Grammar Drill 

1. I take, you have not taken, you* were taking, had we 
taken? do they take? they took (pret.), let us take, did we 
take (pret.) ? I shall not take, we should take, he will not 
have taken. 

2. I please^ him, we are pleasing them, were you pleasing 
me? they pleased (pret.) him, she had not pleased them, you 
will not please her, it pleases me, I shall have pleased them, 
should we please you? if you please,^ please him, they have 
pleased us. 

354. Translation 

I. It is exactly eight o'clock."* 2. The performance is 
going to* begin. 3. It will begin when you hear^ three raps 
on the stage. 4. Do you hear them ? 5. Look at the curtain. 
6. It is being raised.^ 7. What do you see on the stage? 
8. I see pretty scenery there. 9. The artists are arriving. 
10. They enter sometimes through the doors, sometimes 
through the windows, ii. Will they represent a melodrama 

^ P/atre is an intransitive verb. ^ Say : Eight o'clock precise. 

2 Tf it pleases you. * Omit. '' Future, « One is raising it. 

172 . beginner's FRENCH 

or a comedy? 12. What are they going to^ play? 13. The 
play that we shall see this evening is a vaudeville. 14* I 
prefer tragedy. 15. / hate it. 16. When the actors and the 
actresses represent such a play, I weep during the whole per- 
formance. 17. This actress is very pretty, but she does not 
play well. 18. She does not speak with expression. 19. She 
does not please me. 20. I shall not applaud her when she 
has finished. 21. Do the other artists please the public? 
22. Some please us, others do not (please us). 23. I shall 
take- you to the opera on^ Tuesday. 24. They sing there 
sometimes airs of grand opera, sometimes airs of comic opera. 
25. That will please you, I am sure (of it). 26. After the 
performance, we shall take^ you to the largest restaurant 
in the city. 27. We shall take supper there. 28. That will 
also please me. 



355. Je m'amuse. / enjoy myself. 

Vous amusez vous ? Do yoti enjoy yourself (yourselves) ? 

Je ne m'amuse pas. / do not enjoy myself. 

Amusez-vous. Enjoy yourself (yourselves). 

Ne vons amusez pas. Do not enjoy yourself (yourselves). 

1. Many verbs which are not reflexive in English are 
reflexive in French. 

2. The rules concerning the place of personal pronouns 
objects must be applied (see 277, 278, 286, 296). 

1 Omit. * Replace by /ead. 

beginner's FRENCH 1 73 

35^' Examples of conjugations of reflexive verbs. 
I. s'amuser 2. se rejouir 

{to enjoy one's self) (to rejoice) 


je m 'amuse je me rejouis 

tu t'amuses tu te rejouis 

il or elle s'amuse il or elle se rejouit 

nous nous amusons nous nous rejouissons 

vous vous amusez vous vous rejouissez 

lis or elles s'amusent ils or elles se rejouissent 


je m'amusais je me rejouissais 


je m'amusai je me rejouis 


je m'amuserai je me rejouirai 


je m'amuserais je me rejouirais 


amuse-toi rejouis-toi 

amusons-nous rejouissons-nous 

amusez- vous rejouissez-vous 


que je m'amuse que je me rejouisse 


que je m'amusasse que je me rejouisse 

3. se rendre . 4. se decevoir 

(to surrender or betake one's self) ( to deceive one's self) 


je me rends je me degois 

tu te rends tu te deqois 

il or elle se rend il or elle se de^oit 



nous nous rendons 

vous vous rendez 

ils or elles se rendent 

nous nous decevons 

vous vous decevez 

ils or elles se degoivent 

je me rendais 

je me rendis 

je me rendrai 

je me rendrais 




que je me rende 

que je me rendisse 


je me decevais 


je me de^us 


je me decevrai 


je me decevrais 


* deqois-toi 


que je me devolve 


que je me degusse 

357. sortir {to go out). (Cf. partir, 316.) 

Pres. Part. : 


Past part. : 


Pres. ind. : 

je sors 

nous sortons 

tu sors 

vous sortez 

il or elle sort 

ils or elles sortent 

Imperf . ind. : 

•je sortais 

Preterit : 

je sortis 

Past indef . : 

je suis sorti (e) 

Future : 

je sortirai 

Condit. : 

je sortirais 



Imperat. : 
Pres. subj.: 
Imperf. subj.: 

sors, sortons, sortez 
que je- sorte 
que je sortisse 

358. Vocabulary 

le trottoir, the sidewalk. 

la promenade, the walk. 

sortir, to go out. 

se hater (de), to hasten (to). 

s'habiller, to dress (up). 

s'acheminer, to direct one's steps. 

se rejouir (de), to rejoice {to). 

se rendre, to betake one's self. 
se plaire (a), to take delight 

faire une promenade, to take a 

lentement, slowly. 
vers, towards. 

en route, on the way. 

359. Text 
I. Je me hate de m'habiller. 

2. Je me rejouis de faire une bonne prome- 

3. Je sors de la maison, je descends I'escalier 
et j'arrive sur le trottoir. 

4. Je m'achemine lentement vers la ville et je 
me rends au pare. 

5. En route, je me plais a regarder les mai- 
sons, les^hotels, les^eglises, les^ecoles, les thea- 
tres, etc. (^ suivre.) 

360. Transposition. 

1. Conjugate every sentence in the present. 

2. Use the third person singular of the imperfect. 

3. Use the first person plural of the preterit. 

4. Use the second person singular of the future. 

5. Use the first person singular of the conditional. 

6. Use the interrogative forms. 

iy6 beginner's FRENCH 

361. Questions 

1. Qui se hate de s'habiller? 

2. Qui se rejouit de faire une bonne promenade? (en) 

3. (a) Qui sort de la maison? (en) 

(b) Qui est ce qui descend Tescalier? (le) 

(c) Qui arrive sur le trottoir? (y) 

4. (a) Qui s'achemine lentement vers la ville? (y) 
(b) Qui est ce qui se rend au pare? (y) 

5. En route, qui se plait a regarder les maisons, les 
hotels, les eglises, les ecoles, les theatres, etc.? (les) 

6. Que vous hatez vous de faire? 

7. De quoi vous rejouissez vous? 

8. (o) D'oij sortez vous? 

(b) Que descendez vous? 

(c) Oti arrivez vous ? 

9. (a) Vers quoi vous acheminez vous? 

(b) Comment vous y acheminez vous? 

(c) Ou vous rendez vous? 

ID. (a) En route, est ce que vous vous plaisez a regarder 
les maisons et les hotels? (les) 

(b) En route, vous plaisez vous a regarder les eglises 

et les ecoles? (les) 

(c) Qu'est ce que vous vous plaisez a faire en route? 

362. Grammar Drill 

I. Do you go out with me? we shall go out with you, 
she does not go out with us, I was not going out with them 
(m.), they went out with you, would you go out with her? 
Let us go out with them ( f . ) , were they going out with you ? 
We did not go out^ with her, they are going out with us, I 
should not go out with you*, go out with them (m.). 

1 Preterit. 

beginner's FRENCH 177 

2. I take delight, did we take^ delight? will they take 
delight? we were taking delight, she would not take delight, 
let us take delight, you took^ delight, they take delight. 

363. Translation 

I. Where do you go?^ 2. Why do you dress up? 3. We 
are going to^ take a walk in the park. 4. To what park will 
you go? 5. We shall go to the large park in front of our 
church. 6. Our neighbors are also going out of their house. 
7. They are directing their steps towards the country. 8. We 
shall direct ours towards the city. 9. We rejoice to go out. 
10. It has been freezing for* three hours. 11. The sidewalks 
are covered with snow. 12. Do not fall while^ going out. 

13. We shall go down the staircase slowly when we go out. 

14. What will you look at on the way? 15. We shall take 
delight in looking at everything that attracts^ our attention : 
persons, buildings, birds, etc. 16. Will you go out this even- 
ing? 17. Where will you go?^ 18. We shall go to the 
theater. 19. Take me along, 20. We should take you along 
with us, but .. , 21. I never go out in^ the evening. 22. You 
will go out in^ the evening when you are taller. 23. Little 
girls^ do not go out in^ the evening. 24. That does not 
please me. 

1 Preterit. * Say : It freezes since. 

2 Say : betake yourselves. ^ En (followed by the pres. participle). 
^ Omit. * Future. ■• Supply the. 





Review §§ 243, 305, 306. 

364. Je me suis amuse (e). / have enjoyed myself. 
Nous nous sommes amuses (ees). We have enjoyed our- 

1. The compound tenses of reflexive verbs are formed 
with the help of the auxiliary etre, never with the help of 

2. As etre is used in this case instead of avoir, the past 
participles of reflexive verbs follow the rule of agreement 
of past participles conjugated with avoir. (See 243.) 

365. Compound tenses of reflexive verbs. 

je me suis 
tu t'es 
il s'est 
elle s*est 


amuse (e) rejoui(e) 

amuse (e) rejoui(e) 

amuse rejoui 

amusee re joule 

nous nous sommes amuses (ees) rejouis (ies) 

vous vous etes amuse (ee, es, ees) rejoui (ie, is, les) 

ils se sont 
elles se sont 


je me suis * rendu (e) 

tu t'es rendu (e) 

il s'est rendu 

elle s'est rendue 

nous nous sommes rendus (ues) 

vous vous etes rendu (ue, us, ues) degu (ue, us, ues) 

ils se sont rendus degus 

elles se sont rendues deques 


degu (e) 
degu (e) 
degus (ues) 




je me fus amuse(e) rejoui(e) 


je m'etais amuse (e) rejoui(e) 


je me serai amuse (e) rejoui(e) 


je me serais amuse (e) rejoui(e) 


que je me sois amuse (e) rejoui(e) 


que je me fusse amuse (e) rejoui(e) rendu (e) de9u(e) 

366. Yeniv {to come) Sentil (to/eel) s'SLSSeoil {to sit down) 

rendu (e) de9u(e) 

rendu (e) de(;u(e) 

rendu (e) de9u(e) 

rendu (e) de9u(e) 

rendu (e) deQu(e) 

Pres. part, venant 



Past part. : venu 


s'etant assis(e) 

Pres. ind.ije viens 

je sens 

je m'assieds 

tu viens 

tu sens 

tu t'assieds 

\ Ivient 
elle ) 

„ \ sent 
elle ^ 

,. > s'assied 
elle ) 

nous venons 

nous sentons 

nous nous asseyons 

vous venez 

vous sentez 

vous vous asseyez 

ils ) . ^ils ) 


Impf. ind.ije venais 

je sentais 

je m'asseyais 

Preterit : je vins 

je sentis 

je m'assis 

tu vins 

\ Ivint 

elle ) 

nous vinmes 

vous vintes 

eL j ^^'^"''* 

1 The past anterior (I had 

amused myself) is 

formed with the help of 

the preterit and is especially i 

ised after conjunctions of time like when. 

as soon as, after, if the verb of the principal clause is in the preterit. 



Pastindf. : je suis venu(e)j'ai senti 
Future: je viendrai je sentirai 

Condit. : 
Imperat. : 

je viendrais je sentirais 

je me suis assis(e) 
je m'assierai 

(also asseyerai) 
je m'assierais 

(also asseyerais) 
que je m'asseye 

viens sens 

venons sentons 

venez sentez 

Pres. subj. : que je vienne^ que je sente 
Impf.subj. : que je vinsse quejesentisse que je m'assisse 

367. La ville a ses plaisirs. City life has its pleasures. 
Cette ville est belle: j'en admire les monuments. This 
city is beautiful: I admire its momiments. 
Its and their are translated 
(i) by son, sa, ses when the thing possessed is in the 

same clause as the thing which possesses ; 
(2) generally by en . . . le, la, V, les when they are in 

different clauses. 

368. Vocabulary 

I'etalage (m.), the display, show 

la vitrine, the window (of a 

la chaussee, the causeway, street. 
la connaissance, the acquaintance. 
fatigue, -e, tired. 
penetrer dans, to enter. 
traverser, to cross. 
admirer, to admire. 

s'asseoir, to 

manquer (de), to fail. 

saluer, to greet. 

rencontrer, to meet. 

s'arreter, to stop. 

se reposer, to rest. 

se diriger, to direct one's steps. 

franchir, to cross. 

sentir, to feel. 

parvenir a, to reach. 

se mettre (a), to begin (to). 

sit down. 

1 The ist and 2d persons plural are formed regularly; see note ^, p. 137. 
All the compounds of Tjentr are conjugated like vemr. 

beginner's FRENCH l8l 

369. Text {Suite) 

1. EUe s'arrete aux vitrines des magasins et 
elle se met a en^admirer les^etalages. 

2. Elle ne manque pas de saluer les^amis et 
les connaissances qu'elle rencontre. 

3. Elle traverse la chaussee et elle se dirige 
vers le pare. 

4. Elle y parvient; elle en franchit I'entree et 
elle y penetre. 

5. Elle se sent fatiguee; elle s'assied sur un 
banc et elle s'y repose. 

370. Transposition 

1. Conjugate every sentence in the present. 

2. Use the second person plural of the conditional. 

3. Use the third person plural of the preterit. 

4. Use the first person singular (feminine) of the past 

5. Use the third person singular of the future. 

6. Use the second person singular of the imperfect. 
. 7. Use the interrogative forms. 

371. Questions 

1. (a) Qui s'arrete aux vitrines des magasins? (y) 

(&) Qui est ce qui se met a en admirer les etalages? 

2. Qui ne manque pas de saluer ses amis et ses con- 
naissances? (les) 

3. (a) Qui est ce qui traverse la chaussee? (la) 
{h) Qui se dirige vers le pare? (y) 

4. (a) Qui est ce qui y parvient? 
(h) Qui en franchit Tentree? (la) 
(c) Qui est ce qui y penetre ? 


5. (a) Qui se sent fatigue? 

(b) Qui est ce qui s'assied sur un banc? (y) 

(c) Qui s'y repose? 

6. (a) Devant quoi s'arrete-t-elle ? 
(b) Que se met elle a admirer? 

7. (a) Qui salue-t-elle ? 

(b) Est ce qu'elle salue les connaissances qu'elle ren- 
contre? (les) 

8. (a) Qu'est ce qu'elle traverse? 
(b) Vers quoi se dirige-t-elle ? 

9. (a) Ou parvient elle? 

(b) Que franchit elle? 

(c) Dans quoi penetre-t-elle ? 
.10. (a) Comment se sent elle? 

(b) Que fait elle? 

(c) Oil se repose-t-elle ? 

372. Grammar Drill 

1. I have amused myself, she has rejoiced, we (m.) have 
betaken ourselves, they (f.) have deceived themselves, you 
(m.) had (pluperf.) amused yourselves, we (f.) shall have 
rejoiced, they (m.) would have betaken themselves, she 
would have deceived herself. 

2. She comes, were you coming? we came,^ you will come, 
they (f.) have come, they would not come, do not come. 

3. I reach^ there, we shall reach there, she did not reach^ 
there, was she reaching there? we should not reach there, 
reach there. 

4. He will feel it (m.), are we feeling it? they would not 
feel it, you felt* it, feel it, you have not felt it. 

5. We sit down there, you sat down* there, will you sit 

1 Preterit. ^ parvenir, conjugated like venir. 

beginner's FRENCH 1 83 

down there ? we should not sit down there, were they sitting 
down there? let us not sit down there, they have sat down 

373. Translation 

I. Why does everybody stop on the sidewalk on the 
right? 2. There is the large store of which I have spoken 
to you. 3. All the ladies stop there and admire its displays. 

4. We shall cross the street and we shall stop there also. 

5. If you begin to look at every window that we shall see 
on our way, we shall never reach the park. 6. Ladies^ take 
delight in stopping in front of every show window. 7. If 
we meet some friends of yours,^ shall we greet them? 
8. We shall not fail to do so.^ 9. Do you see that gentle- 
man who is resting in an armchair on the sidewalk in front of 
the hotel ? 10. Is he an acquaintance of yours ?* 11. Yes, he 
is a good friend of mine.^ 12. If he saw us, he would not 
fail to greet us. 13. At what time shall we reach the park? 
14. If we hasten, we shall reach there in a quarter of an® 
hour. 15. When you feel tired, we shall sit down. 16. 
Here is the park towards which we direct our steps. 17. Shall 
we enter there? 18. Its entrance is superb. 19. Let us 
cross it. 20. I feel tired. 21. Here are some chairs. 22. 
Take one of them. 23. We shall sit down a few minutes. 
24. When we have rested, we shall go home. 

374. Reading Lesson 


I. Mon premier est un metal precieux, 

Mon second est un habitant des cieux 

Et mon tout est un fruit delicieux. 


^ Supply the. 2 Say : Some of your friends. 

^ Replace by it. * Say: One of your acquaintances. 

^ Say : One of my good friends. ^ Omit. 

184 beginner's FRENCH 

' 2. Cinq voyelles, une consonne, 

En frangais composent mon nom, 
Et je porte sur ma personne 
De quoi Tecrire sans crayon. 


3. Tout parait renverse chez moi. • 
Le laquais precede le maitre, 
Le manant vient avant le roi, 
Le simple clerc avant le pretre ; 
Le printemps vient apres I'ete. 
Noel avant la Trinite, 
C'en est assez pour me connaitre. 


4. Quelqu'un propose dans une societe I'enigme suivante : 
« Je ne suis pas ce que je suis, car si j'etais ce que je suis, 
je ne serais pas ce que je suis.)) En voici la solution : C'est 
un valet qui n'est pas le maitre qu'il suit, car s'il etait le 
maitre qu'il suit, il ne serait pas le valet. 



375. I. La plate bande, les plates bandes, the border, the 

2. Un chef d'ceuvre, des chefs d'ceuvre, a masterpiece, 
some masterpieces. 

3. La contre allee, les contre allees, the side alley, the 
side alleys. 

1. When a compound noun is formed of two nouns or 
of a noun and an adjective, both words are put in the plural. 

2. When it is formed of two nouns connected by a 

beginner's FRENCH 


preposition expressed or understood, the first one alone is 
put in the plural. 

3. When it is formed of a noun and an invariable word, 
the noun alone is put in the plural. 

376. Je vois des enfants jouer dans le pare. / see children 
playing in the park. 

After verbs meaning to feel, to see, to hear, the English 
present participle is replaced by the infinitive in French. 





{to solve, decide) 

{to say, tell) 

{to be worth) 

Pres. part. : 




Past part. : 




Pres. ind. : 

je resous 

je dis 

je vaux 

tu resous 

tu dis 

tu vaux 

il ) ^ . 
.. \ resout 
elle ) 

elle \ 

,, > vaut 
elle J 

nous resolvons 

nous disons 

nous valons 

vous resolvez 

vous dites 

vous valez 

^ f, { resolvent ,. { disent 
elles ) elles \ 

elles 1^^'^"' 

Imperf. ind. 

: je resolvais 

je disais 

je valais 

Preterit : 

je resolus 

je dis 

je valus 

Past indef . : 

j'ai resolu 

j'ai dit 

j'ai valu 

Future : 

je resoudrai 

je dirai 

je vaudrai 

Condit. : 

je resoudrais 

je dirais 

je vaudrais 

Imperat. : 










Pres. subj.: 

que je resolve 

que je dise 

que je vaille* 

Impf. subj.: 

que je resolusse 

: que je disse 

que je valusse 

1 The ist and 2d persons plural are formed regularly ; see note b, p. 137. 



378. Vocabulary 

le chef d'oeuvre, the masterpiece. 
le sculpteur, the sculptor. 
Tequipage (m.), the equipage. 
I'apres midi (m. or f.), the after- 
la statue, the statue. 
rautomobile (f.), the automobile. 
la bicyclette, the bicycle. 
la peine, the trouble, the ivhile. 
celebre, celebrated. 

delicieu-x, -se, delightful. 

ideal, -e, ideal. 

passer, to pass, spend. 

repasser, to repass. 

se lever, to get up. 

se promener, to take a walk. 

resoudre (de), to decide (to). 

dire, to say, tell. 

valoir, to be worth. 

faire beau, to be fine (weather). 

379. Text (Suite) 

1. On se dit: il fait beau, il fait delicieux, il 
fait un temps ideal. 

2. On resout de passer Tapres midi au pare. 

3. On_y aper9oit de longues^avenues, de petits 
lacs et de belles statues, chefs d'oeuvre de sculp- 
teurs celebres. 

4. On_y voit de superbes^equipages, des bicy- 
clettes et des^automobiles passer et repasser. 

5. On se leve, on va et Ton vient, on se pro- 
mene et Ton se plait a admirer la nature. 

6. Cela en vaut la peine. 

380. Transposition 

1. Conjugate sentences i, 2, 3, 4 and 5 in the present. 

2. Use the first person plural of the imperfect, wherever 
it is possible. 

3. Use the second person plural of the future, wherever 
it is possible. 

4. Use the first person singular of the preterit, wherever 
it is possible. 

beginner's FRENCH 1 87 

5. Use the third person plural of the conditional, wher- 
ever it is possible. 

6. Use the second person plural (masculine) of the past 
indefinite, wherever it is possible. 

7. Use the interrogative forms. 

381. Questions 

1. (a) Que se dit on? 

(b) Fait il beau? 

(c) Est ce qu'il fait delicieux? 

(d) Fait il un temps ideal? 

2. Ou resout on de passer I'apres midi? (le) 

3. (a) Quest ce qu'on aper^oit dans le pare? (y) 

(b) De qui ces statues sont elles les chefs d'oeuvre? 

4. (a) Que voit on passer et repasser? 

(b) Est ce qu'on voit beaucoup de bicyclettes passer 
et repasser? 

5. (a) Se leve-t-on? 

(b) Va-t-on et vient on ? 

(c) Est ce que Ton se promene? 

(d) Que se plait on a admirer? 

6. Cela en vaut il la peine? 

(Use les promeneurs instead of on as subject in the 
answers to questions beginning with qui.) 

7. (a) Qu'est ce que les promeneurs se disent? 
(b) Quel temps fait il? 

8. Qui resout de passer Tapres midi au pare? (I'y) 

9. (a) Qui est ce qui apergoit de longues avenues? (en) 

(b) Qui est ce qui apergoit de petits lacs? (en) 

(c) Qui est ce qui apergoit de belles statues? (en) 

(d) Est ce^ des chefs d'oeuvre? (en) 

10. (a) Qui voit de superbes equipages passer et re- 
' passer? (en) 

1 See note p. 144. 

1 88 beginner's FRENCH 

(b) Qui est ce qui voit des bicyclettes et des auto- 
mobiles? (en) 

11. (a) Qui se leve? 

(b) Qui est ce qui va et vient? 

(c) Qui se promene? 

(d) Qui est ce qui se plait a admirer la nature? (la) 

12. Qu'est ce qui vaut la peine d'etre admire? 

382. Grammar Drill 

1. They have not decided (solved), I shall decide, were 
you deciding? they did not decide,^ we decide, you would 
decide, does she decide? we decided,^ will you not decide? 

2. He says, she said,^ they did not say ;^ we shall say, 
do you say? would you say? they have said, have they said? 
I used to say, I did not use to say. Let us not tell, tell, tell 
me, tell her,^ tell him,^ do not tell her,^ say to yourself. 

3. I am worth, is it^ better?* you are not worth, they were 
not worth, we were (pret.) worth, she has been worth, will 
it be^ better?* we would not be worth. 

383. Translation 

I. In summer, this long walk was delightful. 2. How 
was the weather? 3. We used to say that it was ideal. 
4. Did you seldom come to this park? 5. I have already 
told you that we used to come whenever^ the weather was 
fine. 6. That was worth the while. 7. We had decided to 
spend all our afternoons in this park. 8. We used to come 
to^ admire beautiful^ nature. 9. In front of what did you 
use to stop? 10. We used to stop in front of the statues 
which beautify the lawns. 11. The sculptors who (have) 

^ Use the preterit. ^ Supply io. * Supply worth. 
* Use the adverb mieux. ^ Replace by when. 

« Omit. '^ Supply the. 

beginner's FRENCH 189 

made them are famous. 12. We used to take delight in ad- 
miring these masterpieces. 13. They are worth admiring.^ 
14. Do you see tliose wide avenues? 15. When it was fine 
weather, one used to perceive automobiles and bicycles there. 
16. They were passing and repassing. 17. Tell me, did you 
use to take walks there? 18. When we reached^ one of the 
entrances of the park, we felt^ very tired. 19. We used 
to sit .down on chairs for a quarter of an hour. 20. Then 
we used to get up and direct our steps towards the large 
lake, near which we used to see many carriages going and 
coming slowly. 



Review §§ 118, 267, 339, 375- 

384. Je vais mc promcncr. / am going to take a walk. 

2. Je m'amuse k regarder les enfants. / enjoy watching 
the children. 

3. Je crains d'etre en retard. / am afraid I shall he late. 
4. J'ai la permission de sortir. / have permission to 

go out. 

5. Je suis pret a partir. / am ready to depart. 

6. II est difficile de comprendre cela. It is difficult to 
understand that. 

C'est difficile a comprendre. That is difficult to under- 

When two verbs having the same subject are used in the 
same clause, the second one depending on the first, the 
latter is put in the infinitive unless the first is the auxiliary 
verb etre or avoir. 

1 Say : the trouble of being admired. 2 imperfect. 

1 90 


1. The first verb may require no preposition before the 

2. It may require the preposition a. 

3. It may require the preposition de. Some require either. 

4. Nouns generally require the preposition de. 

5. Some adjectives require a, some de. 

6. When an adjective is preceded by il est, it requires de 
before the following infinitive; if preceded by c'est, it re- 
quires a. 

No general rule (except for 6) can be given. Practice 
only will accustom students to use the proper preposition. 
The preposition to be used is found between parentheses 
after every verb in the special and general vocabularies. 

385. Infin. : 

Pres. part. : 

Past part. : 

Pres. ind. : 
je crains 
tu crains 
il or elle craint 

Imperf. ind. : 

Preterit : 

Past indef . : 

Future : 



Pres. subj.: 

Imperf. subj. 


craindre (to' fear) 



nous craignons 

vous craignez 

ils or elles craignent 

je craignais 

je craignis 

j'ai craint 

je craindrai 

je craindrais 

crains, craignons, craignez 

que je craigne 

que je craignisse 

386. Vocabulary 

le parfum, the perfume. 
le soleil. the sun. 
le parterre, the flower bed. 
le chemin, the^ road, way. 

la centre allee, the side path. 
la plate bande. the border. 
la branche. the branch. 
marcher, to n'alk. 



respirer, to breathe, inhale. 
s'amuser (a), to enjoy, 
s'attarder (a), to stay late, tarry. 
se coucher, to go to bed, set. 
se divertir (a), to enjoy. 
craindre (de), to fear. 

prendre garde (de), to take care 

not (to). 
reprendre le chemin de, to go 

back to. 
voluptueusement, with delight. 
trop, too, too many. 

387. Text (Suie^ et Fin) 

1. On s'amuse ^ regarder les^enfants jouer sur 
les pelouses et dans les centre allees. 

2. On prend garde de marcher sur les plates 
bandes des parterres. 

3. On respire voluptueusement le parfum des 

4. On se divertit ^ ecouter les^oiseaux chanter 
sur les branches des^arbres. 

5. Mais le soleil se couche: il est sept^heures 

6. On reprend le chemin de la maison et Ton 
se hate, car on craint de s etre trop^attarde. 

388. Transposition 

1. Conjugate every sentence (except 5) in the present. 

2. Use the third person singular of the future. 

3. Use the first person plural of the imperfect whenever 

4. Use the second person singular of the conditional. 

5. Use the third person plural of the preterit (use the 
imperfect in the last clause of the fifth sentence). 

6. Use the first person plural (masculine) of the pluper- 
fect (use the imperfect in the last clause of the fifth sen- 


389. Questions 

(Use les promeneurs instead of on as subject.) 

1. (a) Qui s'amuse a regarder les enfants? (les) 
(b) Oil ceux ci jouent ils? 

2. Qui prend garde de marcher sur les plates bandes des 
parterres? (y) 

3. (a) Qui respire le parfum des fleurs? (le) 
(b) Comment le respirent ils? 

4. (a) Qui est ce qui se divertit a ecouter les oiseaux? 

(b) Ou ceux ci chantent ils? 

5. (a) Qu'est ce qui se couche? 
(b) Quelle heure est il? 

6. (a) Qui reprend le chemin de la maison? (le) 

(b) Qui est ce qui se hate? 

(c) Que craignent ils? 

7. Que s'amuse-t-on a regarder? A.: M., on s'amuse. . . 

8. Que prend on garde de faire? 

9. Que respire-t-on voluptueusement ? 

10. A quoi se divertit on? 

11. (a) Qu'est ce que le soleil fait? 
(b) Est il sept heures cinq? 

12. (o) Quel chemin reprend on? 

(b) Est ce que Ton se hate? 

(c) Pourquoi? 

390. Grammar Drill 

1. We fear, they did not fear,* had he feared? we should 
fear, fear nothing, I shall fear, was she fearing? you have 
feared, he feared.* 

2. I take care not to fall ; one would take care not to 

1 Use the preterit 


look at; have they taken care not to do that? he took^ care 
not to walk ; shall we take care not to cross ? you were taking 
care not to talk ; take care not to fall. 

391. Translation 

I . Where would your friends go if the weather was fine ? 
2. They would direct their steps towards the park. 3. They 
would not tarry to admire its entrance. 4. It is not worth 
looking at. 5. Would you go with them if the weather was 
ideal? 6. I do not say no. 7. We should take care not to 
cross the streets. 8. What would you fear? 9. We should 
fear to meet an automobile. 10. How would you spend 
your time? 11. We should go and come in the side paths. 

12. We should look at the children playing on the lawns. 

13. Would your friends enjoy looking at them? 14. I am 
sure of it. 15. When my friends were^ tired, they would 
take chairs and would sit down.^ 16. What would you listen 
to?^ 17. We should listen to the birds singing in the trees. 
18. They fear nothing, they fear nobody. 19. My friends 
and I would* also breathe with delight the sweet perfumes 
of the flowers of the borders. 20. Children should take 
care not to pick any nor to walk in the flower beds. 21. That 
is forbidden. 22. When the sun set,^ we should go back at 
once to our homes, 23. Would your friends hasten? 24. 
rhey would not tarry. 25. Would they fear being punished ? 
26. I shall not tell you.^ 

1 Preterit. 2 Conditional. » Omit. 

* Supply we, 5 Say : it to you. 




Review note d, bottom of p. 138; §§ 296, 355, 356, 384. 

392. En entrant. In {while, on, by) coming in. 
Apres avoir dine. After dining. 

French prepositions require the infinitive except en 
which always requires the present participle as in English 
and apres which always requires the past infinitive. 

393. Infin. 

, : tenir^ 


ponvoir (can, 

(to hold) 

(to drink) 

may, to be able) 

Pres. part. : 




Past part. : 




Pies. ind. : 

je tiens 

je bois 

je peux 
or je puis 

tu tiens 

tu bois 

tu peux 

elle ) 

'■ Ibcnt 
elle ) 

•L i-' 

nous tenons 

nous buvons 

nous pouvons 

vous tenez 

vous buvez 

vous pouvez 

ils ) . ils ) , . ^ ils } 
„ \ tiennent „ } boivent ,, } peuvent 
elles ) elles ) elles ) ^ 

Tmperf . ind. : 

je tenais 

je buvais 

je pouvais 

Preterit : 

je tins 

je bns 

je pus 

Past indef . : 

j'ai tenu 

j'ai bu 

j'ai pu 

Future : 

je tiendrai 

je boirai 

je pourrai 

Condit. : 

je tiendrais 

je boirais 

je pourrais 

Imperat. : 







Pres. subj. : 

que je tienne^ 

que je boive^ 

que je puisse^ 

Imperf. subj.: 

; que je tinsse 

que je busse 

que je pusse 

1 Tgm'r is throughout conjugated like ventr, which see (366) ; s'entretettii 
and other compounds of tenir are conjugated like tenir. 

2 The I St and 2d persons plural are formed regularly. 
' It is irregular throughout. 


394. Vocabulary 

Tevenement (m.), the event. 

le membre, the member. 

le diner, the dinner. 

la bibliotheque, the library. 

la faim, the hunger. 

la soif, the thirst. 

accoutume, -e, usual. 

diner, to dine. 

se regaler de, to regale one's self 

with, to have a feast of. 
s'entretenir de, to converse about. 
boire, to drink. 
pouvoir, can, may, be able. 
avoir faim, to be hungry. 

avoir soif, to be thirsty. 

395. Text 

1. A I'heure du diner, rendez-vous a la salle a 

2. Asseyez-vous a votre place accoutumee. 

3. Si vous^avez faim, mangez ; buvez, si 
vous^avez soif. 

4. En mangeant, entretenez-vous des^evene- 
ments du jour avec les membres de votre famille. 

5. Au dessert, regalez-vous de gateaux et de 

6. Apres^avoir dine, levez-vous de table et 
dirigez-vous vers la bibliotheque. 

396. Transposition 

1. Use the negative form of the imperative. 

2. Use the second person singular of the imperative (af- 

3. Use the first person plural of the imperative (negative) . 

4. Replace the imperative 

(a) by the imperfect in the second person plural; 

(b) by the preterit in the first person plural ; 

(c) by the past indefinite in the third person singular 

feminine ; 

196 beginner's FRENCH 

(d) by the pluperfect in the first person plural (mas- 
culine) . 

397. Questions 

1. A I'heure du diner, ou est ce que je dois me rendre? 
A.: Rendez-vous a la. . . 

2. Ou m'assierai je? 

3. (a) Si j'ai faim, que dois je faire? 

(b) Si j'ai soif, qu'est ce que je dois faire? - 

4. (a) En mangeant, avec qui est ce que je peux ra'en- 
tretenir ? 

(b) De quoi puis je m'entretenir avec eux? 

5. Au dessert, de quoi me regalerai je? 

6. (a) Apres avoir dine, qu'est ce que je ferai? 
' (b) Ou pourrai je aller? 

(In the answers to the follov^ing questions, use the first 
jv.rson plural of the present indicative.) 

7. A I'heure du diner, qui se rend a la salle a manger? (y) 

8. Qui s'assied a sa place accoutumee? (y) 
9* (^) Qui mange s'il a faim? 

(&) Qui est ce qui boit s'il a soif? 

10. (a) En mangeant, qui s'entretient avec les membres 

de sa famille? 
(b) Qui est ce qui s'entretient des evenements du 
jour avec eux? (en) 

11. Au dessert, qui se regale de gateaux et de fruits? (en) 

12. (a) Apres avoir dine, qui est ce qui se leve? 
(b) Qui se dirige vers la bibhotheque? 

■ « 

398. Grammar Drill 

I. I converse with my friends ; did she converse^ with her 
friend ? you will converse with his friends ; we have con- 
versed with your friends ; let us converse with our friends ; 
1 Use the preterit. 


would they converse with their friends? we conversed^ with 
them; you were conversing with your friend. 

2. You* drink milk; he will not drink tea; were we 
drinking wine? he has drunk good wine; we drank^ fresh 
water; they are drinking water, should we drink chocolate? 
let us drink when we are thirsty, are you drinking beer? 
they drank^ no coffee. 

3. We may, he could,^ will she be able? you have been 
able, I cannot, will you be able? she was^ able, can they? 
you would be able, we were^ able, you were^ not able. 

399. Translation 

I. After taking a long walk in the park, you returned^ 
to your house. 2. Your friends wished^ to^ stop in front 
of the stores, but you said^ to them : " We cannot stop, let us 
not tarry, let us hasten, we are already late." 3. After enter- 
ing the house, you said^ to them : " Let us lay down our hats 
on the table of the anteroom and let us rest in the parlor 
while waiting for dinner time." 4. Your sister came^ and 
said^ to you : " Did you not hear* the bell ringing ? It is 
half past six, it is dinner time, come to- the dining room." 
5. Your friends went^ there with you and the other members 
of the family, who were^ already seated in their usual seats, 
got^ up and greeted^ them. 6. Your father said^ to every- 
body : " Ladies and gentlemen, here are chairs, here are your 
seats, let us sit down." 7. Everybody seemed^ to^ be hungry 
and thirsty. 8. You heard^ your little brother saying to his 
neighbor : " Are you not hungry ? Are you not thirsty ? 
You do not eat, you do not drink; you can have a feast; 
do not tell anybody,^ but the maid has prepared a delicious 

1 Use the preterit. ^ Use the imperfect. ^ Omit. 

* Use the past indefinite. ^ See note i and say : betook themselves. 
* Say : it to anybody. 



dessert; I have seen it; that is worth the while." 9. You 
talked^ with your guests while eating and you conversed^ 
about what you had done and seen during your walk. 
10. That is a more interesting subject than the events of 
the day. 11. After the dessert, everybody will get up and 
direct his steps towards the library. 12. You will say to 
your friends : *' Choose the most comfortable armchairs, sit 
down and rest yourselves. I am sure that you feel tired." 
13. They will answer you : " We can stay only half an hour, 
we must return home.'* 




Review §§ 

286, 307, 393. 


Infin. : 

ouvrir (to open) 

lire (to read) 

Pres. part. : 



Past part. : 



Pres. ind. : 

j ouvre 

je lis 

tu ouvres 


il or elle ouvre 

il or elle lit 

nous ouvrons 

nous lisons 

vous ouvrez 

vous lisez 

ils or elles ouvrent 

ils or elles lisent 

Imperf . ind. : 


je lisais 

Preterit : 

j 'ouvris 

je lus 

Past indef . : 

j'ai ouvert 

j'ai lu 

Future : 

j 'ouvrirai 

je lirai 

Conditional : 

j 'ouvrirais 

je lirais 

Imperat. : 

ouvre, ouvrons, ouvrez lis, lisons, lisez 

Pres. subj.: 

que j 'ouvre 

que je lise 

Imperf. subj.: 

que j'ouvrisse 

que je lusse 

^ Use the preterit. 


401. Vocabulary 

le journal, the newspaper. 

le roman, the novel. 

le morceau, the piece. 

le piano, the piano. 

la soiree, the evening reception. 

favori, -te, favorite. 

un.. .quelconque, any; some... 

or other. 
executer, to play. 
se mettre a (noun), to sit down 

parfois, sometimes. 

402. Text 

1. Asseyez-vous dans^un bon fauteuil et repo 

2. Lisez le journal du soir. 

3. Cela fait, ouvrez un roman quelconque. 

4. Mettez-vous parfois au piano et executez 
quelques^uns de vos morceaux favoris. 

5. Tantot allez au theatre ou au bal. 

6. Tantot rendez-vous a une soiree et diver- 
tissez-vouscy autant que vous pouvez. 

403. Transposition 

1. Use the first person plural of the imperative. 

2. Use the second person singular of the imperative. 

3. Replace the imperative 

(a) by the conditional in the first person singular; 

(b) by the preterit m the third person singular; 

(c) by the pluperfect in the second person plural 

(mascuHne) . 

404. Questions 

1. (a) Oti m'assierai je? A.: Asseyez-vous dans... 
(b) M'y reposerai je? 

2. Qu'est ce que je lirai? 


3. Cela fait, qu'est ce que j'ouvrirai? 

4. (o) Ou me mettrai je parfois? 

(b) Quels morceaux est ce que j 'executerai ? 

5. Ou irai je le soir? 

6. (a) Est ce que je me rendrai a une soiree? (y) 
(b) Est ce que je m'y divertirai? 

(In the answers to the following questions, use the third 
person plural of the future.) 

7. (a) Qui s'assiera dans un bon fauteuil? (y) 
(b) Qui est ce qui s'y reposera? 

8. Qui lira le journal du soir? (le) 

9. Cela fait, qui est ce qui ouvrira un roman quelcon- 
que? (en) 

10. (a) Qui se mettra parfois au piano? (y) 

(b) Qui executera quelques uns de ses morceaux 
favoris? (en) 

11. Qui ira tantot au theatre ou au bal? 

12. (a) Qui se rendra tantot a une soiree? (y) 
(b) Qui s'y divertira autant qu'il pourra? 

405. Grammar Drill 

1. I am reading, they have read, was she reading? we 
should not read, do you read? we read,^ you had not read, 
let us read, did he read ?^ will she read ? do not read, he will 
have read. 

2. We were opening, have they opened? you will not 
open, I have opened, they did not open,^ does he open? she 
had opened, I am opening, the door is open, they would 
open, let us not open, will she have opened? open, I would 
have opened. 

3. I could not,^ you may, shall we be able? they have 
been able, he cannot, they had not been able, will she be able ? 
you were^ able, may we ? I should be able, we were^ not able. 

1 yse the preterit. ^ yse the imperfect. 


406. Translation 

I. After dining, my father got^ up and said^ to the 
other members of the family : '' Let us go to the Hbrary." 
2. The maid quickly opened^ the door. 3. We sat^ down in 
comfortable armchairs. 4. What did you do?^ 5. Every 
evening, my father opens the newspapers and reads them 
from beginning to end. 6. That is his dessert. 7. My sister 
will probably read a novel. 8. Sometimes she says to me: 
" Let us sit down at the piano, let us open it and (let us) 
play some piece or other." 9. If I do not feel too tired, I 
sit down at the piano with her and we play a few of them. 
10. Can your father 2 read when you play the^ piano ? 11. He 
does not hear us. 12. That done, how do you spend your 
time? 13. After playing all our favorite pieces, we shall 
converse about the events of the day. 14. Do your brothers 
stay at home in* the evening? 15. No, they seldom stay 
there; they stay there when it rains. 16. Sometimes the 
elder says to the younger: "Let us go to the ball." 17. 
Sometimes the younger will say to the elder : " Let us go^ 
to some theater or other." 18. Do you and your sister* go 
out much? 19. Sometimes we must go^ to an evening re- 
ception. 20. Sometimes we go to the theater. 21. Some- 
times we are present at a ball. 22. Then I say to my sister : 
" Let us enjoy ourselves as much as we can." 23. And we 
dance from the beginning to the end. 

' 407. Reading Lesson 


C'etait sur la tourelle 
Du vieux clocher bruni. 
La petite hirondelle 
fitait au bord du nid. 

^ Use the past indefinite. 2 ggg note, p. 95. ^ Supply of. * Omit. 
5 Replace hy: betake ourselves. ^ Say: Your sister and you (aiS- *)• 


« Courage, dit sa mere, 
Ouvre ton aile au vent, 
Ouvre-la tout entiere 
Et t elance en avant.)) 

Mais rhirondelle hesite 
Et dit : « C'est bieii profond ; 
Mon aile est trop petite.)) 
Sa mere lui repond: 

¥. Quand je me suis jetee 
Du haut de notre toit, 
Le bon Dieu m'a portee, 
Petite comme toi.)) 

L'hirondelle legere 
Ouvre son aile au vent, 
L'ouvre bien tout entiere, 
Et s'elance en avant. 

Elle vole, 6 surprise! 
Elle ne craint plus rien; 
Tout autour de I'eglise, 
Comme elle vole bien! 

Et sa mere avec elle 
De tout son coeur chantait 
Sa chanson d'hirondelle 
Au Dieu qui la portait. 





Review §§ 
408. Infin. 

Pres. part. : 
Past part.: 
Pres. ind. : 

Imperf . ind. : 
Preterit : 
Past indef . : 
Future : 
Conditional : 
Imperat. : 

Pres. subj.: 
Imperf. subj. 

118, 201, 243, 261, 376, 392. 
atteindre (to attain) introduire (to intro- 

(Cf. craindre, 3^50 
tu atteins 
il or elle atteint 
nous atteignons 
vous atteignez 

duce, put) 
tu introduis 
il or elle introduit 
nous introduisons 
vous introduisez 

ils or elles atteignent ils or elles introduisent 

J atteignais 
j 'atteig^is 
j'ai atteint 
j 'atteindrai 
j 'atteindrais 
que j'atteigne 
que j'atteignisse 

j 'introduisais 
j'ai introduit 
j 'introduirais 
que j'introduise 
que j'introduisisse 

409. Vocabulary 

le matin, the morning. 

I'exemple (m.), the example. 

le palier, the landing. 

le bouton, the button, the knob. 

la chambre a coucher, the bed- 

la cle, the key. [room. 

la serrure, the lock. 

tourner, to turn. 

tirer, to take out. 

atteindre. to reach. 

introduire, to put. 

s'avancer a tatons, to grope one's 

doucement, gently, noiselessly. 
par exemple, for instance. 
a tatons, gropingly. 
6 heures du soir, 6 o'clock P.M. 
2 heures du matin, 2 o'clock a.m. 
de quelle maniere? in what man- 
vers, about, tozvards. \nerf 


410. Text 

1. Si votre frere allait a un bal, par exemple, 
il rentrerait vers deux^heures du matin. 

2. II monterait doucement I'escalier. 

3. Il^atteindrait le palier et s'avancerait a 
tatons vers la porte de sa chambre a coucher. 

4. II tirerait la cle de sa poche et Tintroduirait 
dans la serrure. 

5. II tournerait la cle et le bouton et ouvrirait 
la porte. (a suivr^.) 

411. Transposition 

1. Conjugate every sentence in the conditional. (Keep 
the imperfect in the clause beginning with si.) Ex.: i. Si 
j'allais. . . , je rentrerais. . . 

2. Replace the conditional and the imperfect 

(a) by the present in the second person singular; 
{h) by the future in the third person plural (use 

the present after si) ; 
(c) by the past indefinite in the first person plural 

(masculine) ; 
{d) by the imperative in the second person plural. 

Ex. : I. Si vous allez. . ., rentrez vers. . . 

3. Use the interrogative forms. 

412. Questions 

1. Qui rentrerait vers deux heures du matin s'il allait 
a un bal? A.: Mon frere rentrerait. . . 

2. Qui monterait doucement Tescalier? (le) 

3. (a) Qui est ce qui atteindrait le palier? (le) 


(b) Qui s'avancerait a tatons vers la porte de sa 
chambre a coucher? 

4. (a) Qui est ce qui tirerait la cle de sa poche? (Ten) 
(b) Qui I'introduirait dans la serrure? (y) 

5. (a) Qui tournerait la cle et le bouton? (les) 
(b) Qui est ce qui ouvrirait la porte? (la) 

(In the answers to the following questions, use the 
second person plural of the conditional.) 

6. Si nous allions a un bal, par exemple, a quelle heure 
rentrerions nous? 

7. (a) Apres etre rentres, qu'est ce que nous ferions? 
(b) Comment le monterions nous? 

8. (a) Qu'est ce que nous atteindrions ? 

(b) Vers guoi nous avancerions nous? 

(c) De quelle maniere nous avancerions nous? 

9. (a) Que tirerions nous de notre poche? (eii) 
(b) Oil rintroduirions nous? 

10. (a) Que tournerions nous? 

(b) Qu'est ce que nous ouvririons? 

413. Grammar Drill 

1. They attained/ you do not attain, had he attained? 
let us attain, I should not attain, did he attain ?^ I attain, was 
she attaining? you will attain, we have not attained, we 
shall have attained, you* used to attain. 

2. We were introducing, have we introduced? they are 
introducing, they had introduced, do not introduce, you did 
not introduce,^ he introduces, will they introduce? I intro- 
duced,^ she would have introduced, you used to introdiKe. 

3. He opened,^ will you open? she has opened, had they 
opened? we were opening, he does not open, shall we have 
opened? you* would not have opened. 

1 Use the preterit. 


414. Translation 

I. Do your brothers go sometimes to a ball? 2. They 
seldom go there. 3. At what time- do they go out every 
evening? 4. They generally go out at 8 o'clock. 5. At 
what time do they come home? 6. They come home about 
half past one a. m. 7. They open the doors noiselessly, but I 
hear them going up the stairs. 8. Do they take you along? 
9. I very seldom go out with them. 10. What do they do 
when they reach the door? 11. On^ Monday, for instance, 
when we reached^ the door, the elder took^ the key of the 
house out of his pocket and gave^ it to the younger, saying^ 
to him: " Open the door." 12. The latter took^ it and put^ 
it into the lock. 13. Then he turned^ the key and the knob 
and opened^ the door. 14. If I am with them, they do not 
go up the stairs noiselessly. 15. When we have reached the 
landing, we grope our way towards our bedrooms. 16. When 
I have found my door, I put the key into the lock. 17. Then 
I turn the key and the knob and I open my door. 18. I hear 
my brothers opening theirs when I am already in my 



Review §§ I37, 234, 3o8, 364, 365. 

415- La bougie allumee. The candle {having been) 

La ville prise. The town {having been) taken. 

Past participles conjugated without any auxiliary must 
be treated as adjectives. 

1 Omit. 2 Use the past indefinite. ^ Supply whiU (en). 




Infin. : 


Iteindre {to 


{to sleep) 


{to provide) 

(Cf. sortir 357.) 

(Cf. craindre 385 
or atteindre 408.) 

Pres. part. : 




Past part. : 




Pres. ind. : 

je dors 


je pourvois 

tu dors 

tu eteins 

tu pourvois 

i'ne V^^ 

.. \ etemt 
elle \ 

die jpou'-^oit 

nous dormons nous eteignons 

nous pourvoyons 

vous dormez 

vous eteignez 

vous pourvoyez 

ils ) dor- 
elles \ ment 

elles \ ^^^^^"^"^ 

ils ) 

elles \ P^^^voient 

Imperf. ind. 

: je dormais 


je pourvoyais 

Preterit : 

je dormis 


je pourvus 

Past indef . : 

j'ai dormi 

j'ai eteint 

j'ai pourvu 

Future : 

je dormirai 


je pourvoirai 

Condit. : 

je dormirais 


je pourvoirais 

Imperat. : 










Pres. subj. : 

que je dorme 

que j'eteigne 

que je pourvoie 

Impf. subj.; 

que je dor- 

que j'eteignisse quejepourvusse 

417. Vocabulary 

le bee de gaz, the gas burner. 
le perfectionnement, the improve- 
le lit, the bed. 
le lavabo, the washstand. 
le tapis, the carpet. 

1 Is conjugated like voir (see 331), except in the preterit, future and 

le mur, the wall. 
rallumette (f.), the match, 
la lampe, the lamp. 
la bougie, the wax candle. 
la lumiere, the light. 
la commode, the bureau. 



la sorte, the kind. 

la descente de lit, the bedside 

la mousseline, the muslin, [rug. 

moderne, modern. 

eleetrique, electric. 

frotter, to rub, scratch, strike. 

allumer, to light. 

presser, to press. 

eclairer, to light up. 
orner de, to adorn with. 
tapisser de, to paper, hang with. 
dormir sur les deux oreilles, to 

sleep soundly. 
eteindre, to extinguish. 
a petites fleurs, with small fig 


418. Text {Sutfe et Fin) 

1. Mes freres prendraient une allumette, la 
frotteraient et allumeraient une lampe, une bougie 
ou un bee de gaz. 

2. Si la maison etait pourvue des perfectionne- 
ments modernes, ils presseraient le bouton de la 
lumiere eleetrique et eclaireraient la chambre. 

3. Ils verraient le lit, le lavabo, la commode, 
un fauteuil, des chaises, une table, le tapis, la 
descente de lit, les fenetres ornees de rideaux de 
mousseline ou de dentelle et les murs tapisses 
d'un papier a petites fleurs. 

4. Ils^eteindraient la lumiere, se coucheraient 
et dormiraient sur les deux oreilles. 

419. Transposition 

1. Conjugate every sentence in the conditional. (The 
first clause of the second sentence should not be altered.) 

2. Replace the conditional and the imperfect 

(a) by the present in the third person singular; 

(&) by the imperfect in the second person plural; 

(r) by the future in the first person plural; 

(fl?) by the imperative in the first person plural. 


(In c and d, use the present in the clause beginning 
with si.) 

3. Use the interrogative forms. 

420. Questions 

1. (a) Vos freres prendraient ils une allumette? (en) 

(b) Est ce qu'ils la f rotteraient ? 

(c) Allumeraient ils une lampe? (en) 

2. (a) Si la maison etait pourvue des perfectionnements 

moderhes, presseraient ils le bouton de la lu- 
miere electrique? (le) 
(b) Est ce qu'ils eclaireraient la chambre? (la) 

3. (a) Verraient ils le lit, la commode, les chaises, etc.? 


(b) De quelle espece de rideaux les fenetres sont elles 

ornees ? 

(c) De quelle sorte de papier les murs sont ils tapisses ? 

4. (a) Est ce qu'ils eteindraient la lumiere?" (la) 

(b) iVpres Tavoir eteinte, se coucheraient ils? 

(c) Comment dormiraient ils? 

(In the answers to the following questions, use the first 
person singular of the conditional.) 

5. (a) Qu'est ce que vous prendriez? 

(b) La frotteriez vous? 

(c) Qu'est ce que vous allumeriez? 

6. (a) Si la maison etait pourvue des perfectionnements 

modernes, que presseriez vous? 
(b) Qu'est ce que vous eclaireriez? 

7. (a) Quels meubles verriez vous? 

(b) Est ce que vous verriez aussi le tapis, la descente 
de lit, les rideaux, etc.? (les) 

8. (a) Qu'est ce que vous eteindriez? 

(b) Apres avoir eteint la lumiere, que feriez vous? 

(c) Comment dormiriez vous? 


421. Grammar Drill 

1. You were sleeping, I have slept, do not sleep, will 
they have slept? we slept,^ will they sleep? I do not sleep, 
we had slept, have you* slept ? I was not sleeping, does she 
sleep ? 

2. She will have extinguished, shall we extinguish? he 
is not extinguishing, I extinguished,^ we extinguish, they 
would not have extinguished, were they extinguishing? 
I should not extinguish, let us extinguish, you had not ex- 
tinguished, have they extinguished? we extinguished.^ 

3. We provided,^ you will not provide, provide, have you* 
provided ? you would have provided, he is providing, she did 
not use to provide, I have provided, are you providing? will 
he provide ? we used to provide, they provided.^ 

422. Translation 

I. Why do you scratch a match? 2. I am going to light 
a gas burner. 3. I must light up the staircase. 4. Why do 
you not press the button of the electric light? 5. Our house 
is not yet provided with all the modern improvements. 
6. Do you see the staircase ? 7. Take another match. 8. Put 
out that lamp. 9. We shall climb the stairs gropingly. 10. 
We at last reach the landing. 11. Wait. I cannot find the 
door of my bedroom. 12. While waiting, you hear your 
friend putting the key into the lock, turning the key and the 
knob and opening a door. 13. He strikes a match and lights 
a wax candle. 14. Enter; we shall sleep in this room. 

15. You can see that I have chosen the largest in the house. 

16. Muslin curtains adorn the two windows. 17. Mine are 
adorned with lace curtains. 18. A blue paper with small 
figures covers the four walls. 19. Those of my bedroom 

1 Use the preterit. 


are hung with a green paper with large figures. 20. Here 
are the two beds, the washstand and the bureau that my 
mother has given me. 21. This carpet and this bedside rug 
I (have) received^ from my aunt. 22. There are two arm- 
chairs and half a dozen chairs. 23. Sit down. 24. I feel 
very tired. 25. Let us go to bed. 26. In what bed shall I 
sleep ? 27. Take this one ; I shall take that one. 28. Let us 
sleep. 29. Sleep soundly. 30. I shall put out the light when 
you have gone- to bed. 

423. Reading Lesson 


En 1640, Louis treize assiegeait la ville d' Arras que les 
Espagnols occupaient. Ceux ci .firent graver sur une des 
portes : 

(( Quand les Frangais prendront Arras, 
Les souris mangeront les rats.)) 

La ville prise, un soldat frangais effaqa la lettre p du 
quatrieme mot et on laissa subsister I'inscription ainsi mo- 


Lors de la visite de Louis quatorze a Beaune, Sa Majeste 
gouta le vin que le maire de cette ville lui offrit et le trouva 

— Oh ! Sire, dit le maire, il n'est pas comparable a celui 
que nous avons dans nos caves. 

— Et que vous gardez sans doute pour une meilleure 
occasion, lui repartit le roi. 

1 Supply them. 2 Use the past future. 





Review §§ ii8, 243, 356, 364, 365, 377- 

424. lis se regardent, or on se regarde. 

They look at themselves, or they look at one another, 

lis se regardent Tun Tantre, or reciproquement. 

They look at each other. 

lis se regardent les nns les autres, or reciproquement. 

They look at one another. 

1. Beside reflexive verbs there are reciprocal verbs which 
are conjugated on the same model. 

2. The reciprocal verbs are used only in the plural except 
when on is the subject. 

3. Each other, one another are then translated by nous, 
vous, se. 

4. To avoid a misunderstanding, Pun Tautre (two), les 
uns les autres (more than two) or reciproquement may be 

425. Vocabulary 

le tour, the turn. 

le retour, the return. 

I'oreiller (m.). the pillow. 

le traversin, the bolster. 

le matelas, the mattress. 

le drap, the sheet. 

le couvre pieds, the counterpane. 

le bonsoir, good evening, good 

la couverture. the blanket. 
double, double. 
baisser, to pull down. 

se deshabiller, to undress. 

se parler. to speak to one another. 

s'enfermer a double tour, to shut 
one's self in by locking the door. 

s'endormir, to fall asleep. 

se dire bonsoir, to bid one an- 
other good night. 

promptement. quickly. 

immediatement. immediately. 

comme, as. 

de retour de, on coming back 

beginner's FRENCH 2I3 

426. Text 

1. De retour du bal, mes soeurs se sont^enfer- 
mees a double tour dans leur chambre. 

2. Apres^avoir baisse les stores, elles^ont^ouvert 
le lit. 

3. Alors elles^ont vu les oreillers, le traversin, 
le matelas, les draps, la couverture et le couvre 

4. Elles se sont promptement deshabillees. 

5. Apres^avoir eteint la lumiere, elles se sont 

6. Elles ne se sont pas parle comme de cou- 

7. Apres s etre dit bonsoir, elles se sontjmme- 
diatement endormies. 

427. Transposition 

I. Replace the third person (a) by nous, (b) by vons. 
, 2. Replace the past indefinite 

(a) by the pluperfect in the first person plural (mas- 

culine) ; 

(b) by the past future in the second person plural 

(feminine) ; 

(c) by the past conditional in the third person plural 

(masculine) ; 

(d) by the preterit in the second person plural ; 

(e) by the future in the first person plural; 

(/) by the imperfect in the third person plural; 
(g) by the present in the second person plural ; 
(h) by the imperative in the first person plural. 

214 beginner's FRENCH 

428. Questions 

• I. (a) De retour du bal, qu'est ce que vos soeurs ont 
fait? A.: Elles se sont. . . 
(b) Comment se sont elles enfermees? 

2. (a) Qu'est ce qu'elles ont baisse? 
(b) Qu'ont elles ouvert? 

3. (a) Qu'est ce qu'elles ont vu? 

(b) Ont elles vu le matelas et le traversin? (negative) 

4. Se sont elles lentement deshabillees ? 

5. (a) Est ce qu'elles ont eteint la lumiere? (la) 
(b) Apres Tavoir eteinte, qu'ont elles fait? 

6. Se sont elles parle comme de coutume? 

7. (a) Est ce qu'elles se sont dit bonsoir? 
(b) Quand se sont elles endormies? 

( In the answers to the following questions, use mon f rere 
et moi, nous as subjects.) 

8. De retour du bal, qui s'est enferme a double tour dans 
sa chambre? A.: Mon frereet moi, nous nous sommes en- 
f ermes . . . 

9. (a) Qui a baisse les stores? (les) 
(b) Qui a ouvert le lit? (le) 

10. Qui a vu les oreillers, les draps, la couverture, etc.? 

11. Qui s'est promptement deshabille? 

12. (a) Qui a eteint la lumiere? (la) 
(b) Alors, qui s'est couche? 

13. A qui n'avez vous pas parle comme -de coutume? 

14. (a) A qui avez vous dit bonsoir? 

(&) Qui s'est immediatement endormi? 


429. Grammar Drill 

r. We fell* asleep, will they have fallen asleep? I am 
falling asleep, has she fallen asleep ? you* were falling asleep, 
fall asleep, they would fall asleep, I had not fallen asleep, 
will you fall asleep ? let us not fall asleep, he would not' have 
fallen asleep, we used to fall asleep. 

2. We shall bid one another good night, were you bid- 
ding one another good night? had they bidden one another 
good night? you bid one another good night, they will not 
have bidden one another good night, we have bidden one 
another good night, they bade* one another good night, bid 
one another good night, we should bid one another good 
night, let us bid one another good night, vs^ould you not have 
bidden one another good night? 

430. Translation 

I. Did^ you go^ to the ball? 2. Yes, my brother and P 
went there and we enjoyed ourselves very^ much.^ 3. At 
what time did you go home? 4. It was^ i o'clock a. m. when 
we arrived at our house? 5. Did you light a lamp or a gas 
burner ? 6. No, we groped our way towards the door of our 
bedroom. 7. Nobody heard us coming home. 8. Did you 
shut yourselves in by locking the door? 9. No, we did 
not shut ourselves in. 10. We fear nothing. 11. We sleep 
with^ our door open. 12. On coming back from that 
ball, who lighted the candle? 13. My brother lighted it. 
14. Who pulled down the shades? 15. /* pulled them down. 
16. Who opened the bed? 17. He*' opened it. 18. (It is 
also) P (who) took the pillows and the counterpane and 

1 Use the preterit. 

2 Put every past tense in the past indefinite throughout this exercise. 

3 Replace by : betake yourselves. * See 315. ^ Omit. 
* Supply there. "^ Use the imperfect. 

2i6 beginner's FRENCH 

threw them on a chair. 19. He^ took the blanket and placed 
it on another chair. 20. It was^ not cold. 21. We kept only 
the bolster, the sheets and the mattress. 22. While undress- 
ing, we spoke to each other. 23. We conversed about what'^ 
we had done, said and heard at the ball. 24. Who ex- 
tinguished the light? 25. P extinguished it, for he^ went to 
bed first."* 26. After going to bed, we bade good night to 
each other. 2y. We immediately fell asleep. 

431. Reading Lesson 


Pour comprendre cet acrostiche, le lecteur doit se rap- 
peler que le lonis est une piece d'or de 20 francs. Autrefois, 
il valait 24 livres. On I'appela louis parce que la fabrication 
en fut commencee sous le regne du roi Louis treize. On 
suppose que I'acrostiche suivant fut fait sur Louis quatorze, 
par quelque solliciteur pauvre. 

Louis est un heros sans peur et sans reproche. 

On desire le voir. Aussitot qu'on I'approche, 

Tin sentiment d'amour enflamme tous les coeurs ; 

II ne trouve chez nous que des adorateurs; 

Son image e§t partout, excepte dans ma poche. 



Review §§ 118, 243, 277, 286, 375- 
432. II se lave les mains. He washes his (own) hands. 
II lui lave les mains. He washes his (somebody else's) 

Elle me lave les mains. She washes my hands. 

1 See 315. 2 Use the imperfect. « See 252. i. * Supply (At, 



Before nouns expressing parts of the body, the possessive 
adjective is generally replaced in French by the definite 
article and the possession expressed by a corresponding per- 
sonal pronoun object. 

433« J'ai bien dormi; je me suis leve assez tard. / slept 
well; I got up rather late. 

Adverbs are placed after the auxiliary in compound 

Exception. Adverbs especially expressing time and 
place and all adverbial phrases are placed after the past 
participles in compound tenses. 

434. Infin. : servir {to serve) vetir {to dress) 

(Cf. sortir,357.) 

Pres. part. : 
Past part. : 
Pres. ind. : 

Imperf . ind. : 
Preterit : 
Past indef . : 
Future : 
Conditional : 
Imperat. : 
Pres. subj.: 
Imperf. subj. 


je sers 

tu sers 

il or elle sert 

nous servons 

vous servez 

ils or elles servent 

je servais 

je servis 

j'ai servi 

je servirai 

je servirais • 

sers, servons, servez 

que je serve 

que je servisse 



je vets 

tu vets 

il or elle vet 

nous vetons 

vous vetez 

ils or elles vetent 

je vetais 

je vetis 

j'ai vetu 

je vetirai 

je vetirais 

vets, vetons, vetez 

que je vete 

que je vetisse 

435. Vocabulary 

le bonjour, good day, good morn- 
le champ, the field. 

I'essuie main (m.), the towel 

(especially for the hands), 
la main, the hand. 


beginner's FRENCH 

la dent, the tooth. 

la serviette de toilette, the towel. 

la hate, the haste. 

laver, to wash. 

brosser, to brush. 

souhaiter, to wish, bid. 

s'evciller, to awake. 

se pcigner, to comb one's hair. 

s'aider (a), to help one another 

se servir, to make use. 
se vetir, to dress (up). 
assez, rather, pretty. 
profondement, soundly. 
sur le champ, 
tout de suite, 

at once. 

a la hate, hastily. 

436. Text 

1. Mes soeurs ont profondement dormi et le 
lendemain elles se sont^eveillees assez tard. 

2. Elles se sent souhaite le bonjour et elles se 
sont levees sur le champ. 

3. Elles se sont lave les mains et le visage et 
elles se sont brosse les dents. 

4. Elles se sont servies d'essuie mains et de 
serviettes de toilette. 

5. Elles se sont peignees et se sont^aidees 
Tune Tautre. 

6. Enfin elles se sont vetues a la hate. 

7. Elles se sont rendues tout de suite a la 
salle a manger. 

437. Transposition 

1. Replace the third person (a) by nous, (b) by vous. 

2. Replace the past indefinite 

(a) by the past conditional in the first person plural 

(feminine) : 

(b) by the pluperfect in the second person plural 

(masculine) ; 

beginner's FRENCH 2ig 

(c) by the past future in the third person plural 

(masculine; more than two. See 424. 4) ; 

(d) by the imperfect in the second person plural (mas- 

culine) ; 

(e) by the present in the first person plural (mas- 

culine) ; 

(/) by the future in the third person plural (mascu- 
line) ; 

(g) by the preterit in the first person plural (mas- 
culine) ; 

(h) by the imperative in the second person plural 

438. Questions 

1. (a) Comment vos soeurs ont elles dormi? 

(b) Le lendemain, se sont elles eveillees de bonne 
heure ? 

2. (a) Que se sont elles souhaite? 

(b) Se sont elles levees sur le champ? 

3. (a) Se sont elles lave les mains? (les) 

(6) Est ce qu'elles se sont lave le visage? (le) 

(c) Se sont elles brosse les dents? (les) 

4. De quoi se sont elles servies? 

5. (a) Se sont elles peignees ? 

(b) Se sont elles aidees reciproquement ? 

6. Comment se sont elles vetues? 

7. Ou se sont elles rendues tout de suite? 

(In the answers to the following questions, use votre 
cousin et vous, vous as subjects.) 

1. (a) Qui a profondement dormi ? ^..\Votre frere et 

vous, vous . . . 
(b) Qui s'est eveille assez tard le lendemain? 

2. (a) A qui avons nous souhaite le bonjour? (le) 
(b) Qui s'est leve sur le champ? 


3. (a) Qui s'est lave les mains ? (les) 

(b) Qui s'est lave le visage? (le) 

(c) Qui est ce qui s'est brosse les dents? (les) 

4. Qui s'est servi d'essuie mains et de serviettes de toi- 
lette? (en) 

5. Qui s'est peigne? 

6. Qui s'est vetu a la hate? 

7. Qui s'est rendu tout de suite a la salle a manger? (y) 

439. Grammar Drill 

1. I dress myself, will they dress themselves? she has 
dressed herself, dress yourself, they would have dressed 
themselves, she was dressing herself, you did not dress* 
yourselves, do we dress ourselves ? you will not have dressed 
yourselves, we should not dress ourselves, had they not 
dressed themselves? 

2. I make use of pencils, we used to make use of them,^ 
they did not make* use of them, will he make use of them? 
make use of them; they make use of paper, I should. make 
use of it,^'let us not make use of it, you have not made use 
of it, had she made use of it ? we shall have made use of it, 
you* would have made use of it. 

440. Translation 

I. When my brother and P awoke* the next day, we 
spoke to each other and we bade each other good morning. 
2. I asked him:*^ "Did you sleep well?" 3. He answered 
me that he had slept soundly. 4. I said to him : " You may 
still remain in^ bed one or two hours.^ 5. Are you no longer 
sleepy? 6. I am going to get up." 7. I got up at once. 

1 Use the preterit. 2 g^e 182. ' See 315. i. 

* Put every past tense in the past indefinite. ^ Supply to. 

• Say: at the. ' Say: one hour or two. 


8. My brother asked me : " What time is it ? " 9. I answered 
him:^ " It is quarter past seven." 10. I had awakened later 
than usual. 11. My brother got up with me. 12. I had 
already washed my hands and he had already washed his 
face when the waiter brought us towels. 13. We made use 
of them at once. 14. He had already dressed when we 
heard at last the bell for^ the breakfast. 15. I said to him: 
" Go^ to the dining room." 16. Do not wait for me. 17. I 
have not yet dressed. 18. I shall hasten as much as I can.* 
19. I shall dress quickly. 20. And he went^ at once to the 
dining room. 

441. Reading Lesson 


La tombe dit a la rose: 
(( Des pleurs dont I'aube t'arrose 
Que f ais tu, f leur des amours ? » 
La rose dit a la tombe: 
« Que fais tu de ce qui tombe 
Dans ton gouffre ouvert toujours?)) 
La rose dit : « Tombeau sombre, 
De ces pleurs je fais dans I'ombre 
Un parfum d'ambre et de miel.)) 
La tombe dit : « Fleur plaintive, 
De chaque ame qui m'arrive 
Je fais un ange du ciel.)) 

Victor Hugo. 

1 Supply to. 2 Say: of. 3 Betake thyself. * Use the future. 

6 Cf. note 3. 





Review the formation of tenses (p. 137), the present 
participles and present subjunctives of the preceding irregu- 
lar verbs. 


parler parlant 

punir punissant 

perdre perdant 

The present subjunctive of any verb 
present participle by replacing -ant by - 

443- Exceptions. 
Infin. : avoir (to have) 

Pres. part. : ayant 
Pres. subj. : que j'aie, that I may have 

que tu aies 

qu'il ait 

qu'elle ait 

que nous ayons 

que vous ayez 
^ qu'ils aient 

qu'elles aient 

Infin.: faire (to do, to make) 

Pres. part. 
Pres. subj. 

que je fasse 
que tu fasses 
qu'il fasse 
qu'elle fasse 


que je parle 
que je punisse 
que je perde 

is formed from the 
e, -es, -e, -ions, -iez, 

etre (to be) 


que je sois 

que tu sois 

qu'il soit 

qu'elle soit 

que nous soyons 

que vous soyez 

qu'ils soient 

qu'elles soient 

pouvoir (to be able, 

may, can) 
que je puisse 
que tu puisses 
qu'il puisse 
qu'elle puisse 


que nous fassions que nous puissions 

que vous fassiez que vous puissiez 

qu'ils fassent qu'ils puissent 

qu'elles fassent qu'elles puissent 

Faire, pouvoir and etre are the only verbs the present 
subjunctive of which is irregular throughout. The first and 
second persons plural of the other irregular verbs are regular. 
444. I. II faut qu'il soit puni. // is necessary that he 
should be punished. 

II se peut que je fasse ce travail. It may be that I shall 
do this work. 

2. Pensez vous qu'il vienne? Do you think that he may 

Je ne pense pas qu'il vienne. / do not think he will come. 

3. Je veux (je doute, je suis heureux, je regrette, je 
crains, je suis triste, etc.) qu'ils reussissent. / wish (I doubt, 
I am happy, I regret, I fear, I am sad, etc.) that they should 

4. Vous etes le seul (le meilleur) ami que j'aie. You are 
the only (the best) friend I have. 

5. Je veux vous parler avant que vous partiez. / zvish 
to speak to you before you go away. 

The subjunctive mood has no future tense. The present 
replaces it. 

The subjunctive mood is not used in a principal clause. 
It is used in secondary clauses in the following cases : 


1. Impersonal verbs implying necessity or ' 

2. Negative or interrogative verbs. 

3. Verbs expressing will, feeling, emotion 
except hope. 

4. Superlatives. 







in order that. 


™"^' \ although. 
bien que, J ** 

avant que, before. 

a moins que, unless. 

jusqu'a ce que, ////. 




Pres. part. : 
Past part. : 
Pres. ind. : 

5. After one of the following conjunctions : 
afin que, 
pour que, 
de peur que, 
de crainte que, 
sans que, without. 

que (used for any of the above conjunctions 
and for si), and a few others. 
445. Infin. : ecrire 

{to write) 




tu ecris 

il or elle ecrit 

nous ecrivons 

vous ecrivez 

ils or elles ecrivent 

j 'ecrivais 


j'ai ecrit 

j 'ecrirai 


ecris, ecrivons, ecrivez 

que j'ecrive 

que j'ecrivisse 

Sonffrir {to suffer) is entirely conjugated on the same* 
model as ouvrir (which see 400). 

Imperf. ind. : 
Preterit : 
Past indef . : 
Future : 
Condit. : 
Imperat. : 
Pres. subj.: 
Imperf. subj.: 

vouloir {to will, 

wish, want) 
je veux 
tu veux 
il or elle veut 
nous voulons 
vous voulez 
ils or elles veulent 
je voulais 
je voulus 
j'ai voulu 
je voudrai 
je voudrais 
veuille, veuillez 
que je veuille^ 
que je voulusse 

446. Vocabulary 

le medecin, the physician. 
le docteur, the doctor. 
le pharmacien, the druggist. 
le pouls, the pulse. 

la langue, the tongue. 
la prescription, the prescription. 
la garde malade. the nurse. 
gauche, left. 

1 The 1st and 2d persons plural are regular. See 443. 



possible, possible. 

penser, to think. 

tater, to feel. 

soigner, to attend, to take care of. 

guerir, to cure. 

souffrir, to suffer. 

ecrire, to write. 

remettre, to hand, give. 

vouloir, to will, want, wish. 

faire venir, to send for. 

faire preparer, to have {some- 
thing) prepared. 

se porter (bien), to be {in good 

dangereusement, dangerously. 

tot, soon. 

^^^" ^^^' j in order that. 
pour que, ) 

il faut, it is necessary. 

il vaut mieux, it is better. 

447. Text 

1. Quand vous ne vous portez pas bien, il faut 
que vous restiez dans votre chambre et que vous 
gardiez le lit. 

2. II vaut mieux que vous fassiez venir un 
medecin afin qu'il vous soigne. 

3. Quand^il vient, vous lui dites: "Docteur, 
je souffre beaucoup; je veux que vous me gue- 
rissiez le plus tot possible." 

4. Vous lui tendez la main gauche pour qu'il 
vous tate le pouls et vous lui montrez votre 
langue afin qu'il puisse I'examiner. 

5. II ne pense pas que vous soyez dangereuse- 
ment malade. 

6. II ecrit une prescription et la remet a la 
garde malade pour qu'elle la fasse preparer chez 
le pharmacien. 

448. Transposition 

I. Replace everywhere the second person by the first, 
second and third persons singular. No change in the direct 
discourse. Ex.: i. Quand je ne me..., il faut que je. . . 

226 beginner's FRENCH 

2. Replace the second person by the first and third per- 
sons plural, the third singular by the third plural and mede- 
cin, docteur and garde malade by medecins, doctenrs and 
garde malades. In the direct discourse, use the first person 

3. Replace the present indicative by the future. No 
change in the direct discourse and in the subordinate clauses 
except in the one beginning with quand. 

449. Questions 

1. (a) Quand je ne me porte pas bien, ou faut il que je 

reste? A.: M., quand vous ne. . ., il faut que 
vous ... 
(5) Que faut il que je garde? 

2. (a) Qui vaut il mieux que je fasse venir? 

(b) Pourquoi vaut il mieux que j'en fasse venir un? 

3. (a) Quand il vient, que faut il que je lui dise? 
(b) Qu'est ce que je veux que le medecin fasse? 

4. (a) Qu'est ce qu'il faut que je lui tende? 

(b) Pourquoi veut il que je la lui tende? 

(c) Que demande-t-il que je lui montre? 

(d) Pourquoi demande-t-il que je la lui montre? 

5. Le medecin pense-t-il que je sois dangereusement 
malade ? 

6. (a) Enfin, que faut il que le docteur fasse? 

(b) A qui vaut il mieux qu'il la remette? 

(c) Qu'est ce que je veux que la garde malade fasse? 

450. Grammar Drill 

I. She has not wished, are you wishing? I was wishing, 
we shall not wish, you had wished, we wished,^ would you 
wish ? she will not have wished, he is wishing, I should have 
wished, I am sorry that he wishes to^ depart. 
1 Preterit * Omit. 


2. Were we writing? write, will he write? you wrote,^ 
they do not write, we should write, I have not written, she is 
writing, you* had written, we should have written, you* 
must^ write. 

3. She has not suffered, shall we suffer? they did not 
suffer,^ I am suffering, you would not have suffered, you* 
would suffer, we have suffered, let us not suffer, I had 
suffered, were you suffering? I do not wish you to^ suffer. 

451. Translation 

I. My father is dangerously ill. 2. We wish him to* 
remain in his room. 3. He must^ keep his (the) bed. 
4. What is the matter with him?^ 5. He suffers a great 
deal. 6. You must® send for your physician as soon as pos- 
sible. 7. It is better that you [should] also send for a nurse 
in order that she [may] take care of him. 8. When the 
physician comes,^ you will say to him : " Doctor, we wish 
you to^ attend our father." 9. When he enters^ the^ bed- 
room, he will say : " Good day, sir ; how are^ you ? What 
is the matter with you?^^ Where do you suffer? Hold out 
your left hand to me, in order that I [may] feel your pulse. 
10. You must® also show me your tongue in order that I 
[may] examine it." 11. Afterwards, he will sit down at the 
desk.* 12. He must® write a long prescription. 13. After 
handing it to the nurse, he will get up and go out. 14. You 
must® wait for him in the anteroom. 15. You will ask him :" 
''Can you cure him? what must® we do?" 16. He will 
answer you : '' It^^ jg nothing ; he must® remain in^^ bed. It 
is possible that I [may] cure him within a few days. 17. You 
must® have the prescription prepared as soon as possible." 
18. You will send the nurse to your druggist. 

1 Preterit. 2 Say : il faut que tii . . . ^ Say : that you should . . . 

* Cf. note 3 above. ^ cf „ote ^ above. « Say: what has he. 5* 

■^ Use the future. » Supply ////r;, ^ Use: se porter. 

W Cf. note 6 above. 11 Supply to. 12 Replace by that. 
1* Say : at the. 





Review §§ 305, 444, 445- 

452. Craignez vous que je tombe? Do yon fear I shall 

Je crains que vous ne tombiez. / fear you will fait. 

Je ne crains pas que vous tombiez. / do not fear you will 
fall. - 

Formerly, after verbs meaning fear (craindre, avoir peur, 
trembler), take care (prendre garde) and prevent (em- 
pecher), when used affirmatively, and after the conjunc- 
tions de penr que, de crainte que, a moins que (see 444* 5)> 
the particle ne was required before the verb of the secondary 
clause, although affirmative. According to the new decree, 
ne^may be left out in this case. 


Infm. : 




{to die) 

{to laugh) 

{to live) 

Pres. part. : 




Past part. : 




Pres. ind. : 

je meurs 

je ris 

je vis 

tu meurs 

tu ris 

tu vis 

ille ["•'^'^ 

il ) . 
11 i nt 
elle ) 

11 r vit 
elle \ 

nous mourons 

nous rions 

nous vivons 

vous mourez 

vous riez 

vous vivez 

lis ) 

dies f"^^^^^^* 

lis ) . 
elles } "^"^ 

ils ) . , 
.. ). vivent 
elles J 

Imperf . : 

je mourais 

je riais 

je vivais 

Preterit : 

je mourus 

je ris 

je vecus 

Past indef . : 

je suis mort(e) 

j'ai ri 

j'ai v^cu 



Future : 
Condit. : 
Imperat. : 

Pres. subj. 
Impf . subj . 

je mourrai 

je mourrais 




que je menre^ 

je rirai 
je rirais 

je vivrai 
je vivrais 


que je rie que je'vive 

queje mourusse que je nsse que je vecusse 

454. Vocabulary 

le surlendemain, two days later. 
I'intervalle (m.), the interval. 
le medicament, the medicine. 
la visite, the visit. 
la crainte, the fear. 
la pilule, the pill. 
la cuilleree, the spoonful. 
la convalescence, the convales- 
desagreable, disagreeable. 
avaler, to swallow, to take. 
ordonner, to order, to prescribe. 
remercier de, to thank for. 
s'en aller, to go away. 
parti r, to depart, to go away. 
mourir, to die. 

devenir, to become. 

revenir, to come back. 

revivre, to revive. 

rire de, to laugh at. 

en vouloir a, to bear a grudge 
against, be very much dis- 
pleased with. 

entrer en convalescence, to be- 
come convalescent. 

toutes les deux heures, every two 

avant que, before. 

a moins que, unless. 


bien que, 

de plus en plus, more and more. 


455. Text 

1. Avant que le docteur parte (s'en aille), il 
faut que je le remercie de sa visite. 

2. Je lui dis qu'il faut qu'il revienne le surlen- 
demain, a moins que je ne meure dans Tintervalle. 

3. II rit de mes craintes et je lui e'n veux, 
quoique (bien que) ce soit le meilleur^ami que j'aie. 

1 The 1st and 2d persons plural are regular (see 443). 


4. Il^ordonne que j'avale une pilule toutes les 
deux^heures et que je boive une cuilleree d'un 
medicament desagreable avant chaque repas. 

5. Ma famille craint que je ne devienne de plus 
en plus-dangereusement malade. 

6. Mais, apres quelques jours, -j entre en con- 
valescence, je revis, je suis gueri(e). 

456. Transposition 

1. Replace everywhere the first person singular 

(a) by the second and third persons singular; 

(b) by the first, second and third persons pkiral and 

docteur by docteurs. 

2. Replace the present indicative by the future. 

3. Use the interrogative forms. 

457. Questions 

1. Avant que le docteur s'en aille, de quoi faut il que vous 
le remerciiez? 

2. (a) Que lui dites vous qu'il faut qu'il fasse? 

(b) Le medecin craint il que vous mouriez dans V'm- 
tervalle ? ( Negative. ) 

3. (a) De quoi rit il? 

(b) Faut il que vous lui en vouliez? (Negative.) 

(c) N'est ce pas le meilleur ami que vous ayez? 

4. (a) Qu'est ce qu'il ordonne que vous avaliez? 

(b) Quand faut il que vous en avaliez une? 

(c) Qu'ordonne-t-il que vous buviez? 

(d) Quand faut il que vous en buviez une? 

5. Qu'est ce que votre famille craint? 

6. (a) Apres quelques jours, que faites vous? 

(b) Est ce que vous revivez? 

(c) £tes vous gueri(e) ? 


458. Grammar Drill 

1. We were starving;^ are you very thirsty?^ we are 
tired to death f they died ;* she will have starved ;^ let u§ 
die; you* shall not die; is she starving?^ we should be very 
thirsty;^ you would have been tired to death ;^ he wants us 
to** die. 

2. We are not laughing, they have laughed, were you 
laughing ? I had not laughed, will you laugh ? I am laughing, 
they laughed,* you* would have laughed, they would not 
laugh, laugh, we must® not laugh. 

3. We lived,* will they live? he is living, were they liv- 
ing? you live, we have lived, you would not live, she had 
lived, we shall have lived, let us live, I fear that they will 
not live. 

459. Translation 

I . I say to the physician : You must^ come back as soon 
as possible. 2. I fear that my father will die. 3. Do not 
laugh at my fears or I shall be very much displeased with 
you. 4. Before you depart, you must^ tell me whether^ he 
is dangerously ill. 5. You must not® laugh at me. 6. You 
are the best friend that my father has. 7. I wish you to^^ 
cure him quickly. 8. When the nurse comes" back, your 
father must*^ take two pills every three hours. 9. When must 
he^^ take the medicine? 10. It is not disagreeable. 11. He 
must*^ take it before his meals. 12. How many spoonfuls 
do you prescribe (for) him to^^ drink ?^* 13. You must^ 
give him two spoonfuls.^* 14. You must not® send for me 
unless in the interval he becomes worse (more and more 

^ mourir de faim. ^ mourir de soif. ^ mourir de fatigue. 

* Preterit. ^ Say: that we should . . . 

* Say: it is not necessary that we . . . 

' Say: it will be necessary that you . . . ^ Say: if. 

' Say: it is not necessary that you ... "^^ Say: that you should . . . 

^1 Use the future. *'^ Cf. note 7 above. 

^8 Cf. note 5 above. ^* Supply : of it 


sick). 15. The physician comes back two days later before 
you send for him. 16. You say to him: " Although you are 
the best friend that we have, we* shall be very much dis- 
pleased with you unless you cure my father within a few 
days." 17. " He will not die. 18. In five or six days you 
will laugh at your fears. 19. He will become convalescent. 
20. He will revive. 21. He will be cured. 22. And you 
will thank me for my visits." 

460. Reading Lesson 


Un matin, Lx)uis XIV dit au marechal de Grammont: 
« Monsieur le marechal, lisez, je vous prie, ce petit 
madrigal et voyez si vous en avez jamais vu un si imper- 
tinent. Parce qu'on sait que depuis peu j'aime les vers, 
on m'en apporte de toutes les fagons.w 

Le marechal, apres I'avoir lu, dit au roi: 
« Votre Majeste juge divinement bien de toutes choses : 
il est vrai que voila le plus sot et le plus ridicule madrigal 
que j'aie jamais lu.)) 

Le roi se mit a rire et lui dit : 

« N'est il pas vrai que celui qui I'a fait est bien fat? 

— Sire, il n*y a pas moyen de lui donner un autre nom. 

— Oh bien ! je suis ravi que vous m'ayez parle si bonne- 
ment; c'est moi qui I'ai fait. 

— Ah! sire, quelle- trahison ! que Votre Majeste me le 
rende! je I'ai lu brusquement. 

— Non, monsieur le marechal, les premiers sentiments 
sont tou jours les plus naturels.)) 

Le roi a fort ri de cette folic et tout le monde pense 
que voila la plus cruelle petite chose que Ton puisse faire 
a un vieux courtisan. 

Mme de Sevigne. 




Review §§ 443, 444, 452. 

Infin. : instruire (/o paraitre 

instruct, teach) (to appear) 

Pres. part. : instruisant 
Past part. : instruit 

Pres. ind. : 

1 instruis 
tu instruis 



je parais 
tu parais 

> parait 


taire (not 
to say) 


je tais 
tu tais 


nous instruisons nous paraissons nous taisons 

vous instruisez vous paraissez vous taisez 

ils ) . . ils ) . ils 

V incfriiic/anf \ 


Impf . ind. : 
Preterit : 
Past indef . 
Future : 
Condit. : 
Imperat. : 

Pres. subj. 
Impf. subj. 

elles ) 



j'ai instruit 






que j'instruise 




elles ) 

je paraissais 
je parus 
j'ai paru 
je paraitrai 
je paraitrais 
que je paraisse 
que j'instruisisseque je parusse 

Decouvrir (to uncover) is conjugated like couvrir (see 
307), and convenir (to agree, to he proper) like venir 
(see 366), 


je taisais 

je tus 

j'ai tu 

je me tairai 

je me tairais 




que je taise 

que je tusse 

234 beginner's FRENCH 

462. Vocabulary 

le parapluie, the umbrella. 
le samedi, Saturday. 
incertain, -e, threatening. 
respecti-f, -ve, respective. 
rare, rare. 
gronder, to scold. 
instruire, to instruct, to teach. 
paraitre, to appear, to seem. 

convenir, to be proper. 

se laire, to be silent. 

se decouvrir, to take off one's hat 

or cap. 
excepte, except. 
de peur que, 
de crainte que, 
en classe, to school. 

. 1 ^'''' 

463. Text 

1. Les parents veulent que leurs^enfants aillent 
en classe chaque jour, excepte le samedi et le 
dimanche, afin que les maitres lesjnstruisent. 

2. Lo;-sque le temps paralt incertain, il vaut 
mieux qu'ils prennent leurs parapluies de peur qu'il 
ne pleuve. 

3. II est tres rare qu'ils soient en retard. 

4. En^entrant dans leurs classes respectives, il 
convient qu'ils se decouvrent, qu'ils se taisent et 
qu'ils s'asseyent a leurs places accoutumees. 

5. II faut qu'ils se mettent au travail tout de 
suite de crainte que le maitre ne les gronde. 

464. Transposition 

1. Replace every third person plural representing enfants 
by the other persons singular and plural. Ex.: i. Mes 
parents veulent que j'aille en classe. . . Tes parents veulent 
que tu . . . 

2. Replace everywhere the present of the indicative by 
the future. 

3. Use the interrogative forms. 


465. Questions 

1. (a) Quels jours de la semaine nos parents veulent ils 

que nous allions a Tecole? A.: Ils veulent que 
vous y . . . 

(b) Faut il que nous y allions le samedi et le di- 

manche ? 

(c) Pourquoi nos parents veulent ils que nous y 

allions ? 

2. (a) Lorsque le temps parait incertain, que vaut il 

mieux que nous prenions? 
(b) Pourquoi vaut il mieux que nous les prenions? 

3. Sommes nous souvent en retard? 

4. (a) En entrant dans nos classes respectives, que con- 

vient il que nous fassions? 

(b) Convient il aussi que nous nous taisions? 

(c) Oil convient il que nous nous asseyions? 

5. (a) A quoi faut il que nous nous mettions tout de 

suite ? 
(b) Pourquoi faut il que nous nous y mettions tout 
de suite? 

466. Grammar Drill 

1 . They taught^ their pupils ; had they taught you ? she 
was teaching her daughter ; teach us ; would she teach you ? 
we have taught them ; I teach the pupils ; will you teach me? 
he wishes me to teach his sons. 

2. "Will he appear? they have appeared, she does not 
appear, you would not appear, appear, had you appeared? 
you appeared,^ I should not have appeared, we were ap- 
pearing, I fear that the weather will appear threatening. 

3. Let us be silent, we should not be silent, they were 
silent,^ is she silent? we have been silent, will you be silent? 

1 Preterit. 

2'}^(i beginner's FRENCH 

she had not been silent, you were silent, you would not have 
been silent, I wish you to be silent. 

467. Translation 

I. On^ what days do you go to school? 2. We must 
go there every day except Saturday and Sunday. 3. Who 
wishes you to go there? 4. Our parents wish us to go 
there. 5. What do they wish the teachers to do? 6. They 
wish them to educate us. 7. Do you take your umbrellas 
every day? 8. It is rare that we take them. 9. When will 
it be better for you to take them? 10. We shall take them 
when the weather appears to be threatening. 11. Why do 
you hurry? 12. We are late and we hurry lest our parents 
and our teachers should scold us. 13. Do you fear that it 
will rain ? 14. Yes, the weather seemed to be threatening 
this morning. 15. I fear that you will be late. 16. What 
does the teacher want you to do when you enter your 
respective class rooms? 17. He wants us to take off our 
hats. 18. Is it proper that you should be silent on^ entering 
the school? 19. Yes, but it is rare that we are silent. 
20. When you are seated at your usual places, what does 
the teacher say to you? 21. " Gentlemen, be silent, start to 
work at once lest I scold you or punish you." 22. And we 
are silent and start to work at once. 

1 Omit. 2 gn. 






§§ 444, 452; note e, bottom of p. 138. 




Infin. : 



Preterit : 

je parlai 

je punis 

tu parlas 

tu punis 

Impf. subj. 

: que je parlasse, 

que je punisse, 

that I might speak 

that I might punish 

que tu parlasses 

que tu punisses 

qu'il or elle parlat 

qu'il or elle punit 

que nous parlassions 

que nous punissions 

que vous parlassiez 

que vous punissiez 

qu'ils or elles parlassent 

; qu'ils or elles punisser 


Jnfin. : 



Preterit : 

je perdis 


tu perdis 

tu eus 

Impf. subj. 

: que je perdisse, 

que j'eusse, 

that I might lose 

that I might hofue 

que tu perdisses 

que tu eusses 

qu'il or elle perdit 

qu'il or elle eut 

que nous perdissions 

que nous eussions 

que vous perdissiez 

que vous eussiez 

qu'ils or elles perdissent 

; qu'ils or elles eussent 

Infin. : 


Preterit : 

je fus 
tu fus 

Impf. subj. 

: que je fusse, 

that I might he 

que nous fussions 

que tu fusses 

que vous fussiez 

qu'il or elle fut 

qu'ils or elles fussent 



The first person singular of the imperfect subjunctive 
of any verb, regular or irregular, is formed by adding -se 
to the second person singular of the preterit. 
469. Je suis content ) qu'il travaille. 
Je serai content C qu'il ait travaille. 

/ am glad ) that he works. 

I shall he glad \ that he has worked. 
Je doutais 

qu'il partit. 
qu'il fut parti. 

je doutai 

j'ai doute 

je douterais 

I used to doubt 
I doubted 
I have doubted 
I should doubt 

I that he departed, 
that he had departed. 




Compound tenses. 
470. Infin. : acquerir (fa 
Pres. part. : acquerant 

Past part. : acquis 

Pres. ind. : j'acquiers 

tu acquiers 
il or elle acquiert 
nous acquerons 
vous acquerez 
ils or elles acquierent 


Present subjunctive. 
Past subjunctive. 

Imperfect subjunctive. 
Pluperfect subjunctive. 

croire (to believe; 
see 263). 


je crois 

tu crois 

il or elle croit 

nous croyons 

vous croyez 

\\s or elles croient 



Iniperf . ind. : j'acquerais je croyais 

Preterit: j 'acquis je crus 

Pastindef. : j'ai acquis j'ai cru 

Future: j'acquerrai je croirai 

Condit. : j'acquerrais je croirais 

Imperat. : acquiers crois 

acquerons croyons 

acquerez croyez 

Pres. subj. : que j'acquidre^ que je croie 

Impf. subj. : que j'acquisse que je crusse 

Infin. : savoir (to know thoroughly) 

Pres. part. : sachant 

Past part. : su 

Pres. ind. : je sais 

tu sais , 

il or elle sait 

nous savons 

vous savez 

ils or elles savent 
Imperf. ind. : jc savais 
Preterit : je sus 

Pastindef. : j'ai su 

Future: je saurai 

Condit. : je saurais 

Imperat. : sache, sachons, sachez 

Pres. subj. : que je sache 

Impf. subj.: que je susse 

Connaitre (to know, to be acquainted with) is con- 
jugated like paraitre (see 461). 

Connaitre is never used before a clause, and savoir is 
never used before a name of a person. 

1 The first and second persons plural are regular. 



471. Vocabulary 

le progres, the progress. - 

le zele, the seal. 

le coeur, the heart. 

I'effort (m.), the effort. 

le devoir, the written exercise. 

le soin, the care. 

les jeunes gens (m. pi.), the young 

la connaissance. the knowledge. 
la legon, the lesson. 
studieu-x, -se, studious. 
rapide, rapid, quick. 

essentiel, -le, essential. 
satisfait (-e) de, pleased with. 
exiger, to require. 
travailler, to work. 
acquerir, to acquire. 
croire, to believe. 
connaitre, to be acquainted with. 
savoir, to knozv. 
jamais, ever. 
par coeur, by heart. 
de leur mieux, the best they can 
or could. 

472. Text 

1. Le maitre voulait que ses^eleves acquissent 
beaucoup de connaissances et fissent des progres 

2. ILexigeait qu'ils travaillassent avec le plus 
grand zele et qu'ils sussent leurs le9ons par coeur. 

3. II etait essentiel qu'ils repondissent de leur 
mieux a ses questions et que leurs devoirs fussent 
ecrits avec le plus grand soin. 

4. Cependant, les^eleves ne craignaient pas que 
leur maitre les punit. 

5. Celui ci etait satisfait de leurs^efforts et il 
croyait que c'etaient les jeunes gens les plus stu- 
dieux qu'il eut jamais connus. 

473. Transposition 

I. Replace every third person plural representing §Uves 
by the other persons singular and plural. Ex. : i. Le maitre 
voulait que j 'acquisse . . . 


2. Replace the imperfect indicative (except c'etaient in 5) 
(o) by the preterit. Ex. : i. Le maitre voulut que. . . 

(b) by the past indefinite. Ex.: i. Le maitre a 

voulu que . . . 

(c) by the conditional. Ex. : i. Le maitre voudrait 

que. . . 

3. Replace the imperfect indicative by the present (see 
469). Ex.: I. Le maitre veut que ses eleves acquierent. . . 

4. Replace the imperfect indicative by • the future and 
every third person plural representing eleves by the first 
person plural. Ex.: i. Le maitre voudra que nous acque- 
rions ... 

474. Questions 

1. (a) Qu'est ce que le maitre voulait que vous acquis- 

siez? A.: II voulait que nous. . . 
(b) Que voulait il que vous fissiez? 

2. (a) Comment exigeait il que vous travaillassiez ? 
(b) Comment exigeait il que vous sussiez vos legons? 

3. (a) De quelle maniere etait il essentiel que vous 

repondissiez a ses questions? 
(b) Comment etait il essentiel que vos devoirs fussent 
ecrits ? 

4. Qu'est ce que vous ne craigniez pas que le maitre fit ? 

5. (a) De quoi celui ci etait il satisfait? 
(&) Que croyait il que vous fussiez? 

475. Grammar Drill 

I. Have they acquired? we v^ere not acquiring, he is 
acquiring, will you acquire? you* acquire, will she acquire? 
acquire, they will have acquired, you acquired/ we had not 

1 Preterit. 


2. Would you believe? she had not believed, we believe, 
we used to believe, one would have believed, we believed,^ 
does she believe ? we shall believe, let us believe, they did not 

3. They have known, did you know?^ we knew,^ you 
would know, know, you will not have known, do they know ? 
we shall not know, you* do not know, you must know. 

4. They are acquainted with, she was acquainted with,^ 
you will not be acquainted with, were we acquainted with?^ 
they had been acquainted with, are you acquainted with? 
we have not been acquainted with. 

476. Translation 

I. What did your teachers wish^ you to* do? 2. They 
wished me to^ work the best I could. 3. They wished me 
to** be very industrious. 4. How did they require you to^ 
know your lessons? 5. They required every pupil to*^ know 
them by heart, but it was rare that we knew them by heart. 
6. Had you to® write your exercises with much care? 7. Yes, 
each exercise had to^ be written with the greatest care. 
8. What was it essential for the students to* do? 9. It was 
essential for us to® reply the best we could to the answers 
of the teachers. 10. What did your teachers tell you every 
day? II. Every teacher used to scold us and to tell us: 
12. "I should wish your progress to^ be quick, I should 
wish you to^ work with more zeal. I should wish each one 
of you to^ acquire a great deal of knowledge. 13. Your 
parents wish us to° teach you, but it is rare that we are 
pleased with your efforts. 14. You are the least^** studious 

^ Preterit 2 imperfect. 

' Put in the imperfect every past t«ise of the principal clauses. 

* Say : that you should ... * Cf. note 4 above. 
^ Say : was it necessary that you ... ' Cf. note 6 above. 

* Say : that the students should ... ^ Cf. note 8 above. ^^ mains. 


young people that I have ever known." 15. Did you fear 
that your teachers would punish you? 16. No, we used to 
believe that they were the most amiable men that we had 
ever known. 

477. Reading Lesson 


Diogene, voyant un maladroit lancer des javelots, alia 
s'asseoir pres du but et comme on lui en demandait le motif, 
il repondit : « Je crains qu'il ne me frappe.)) 

Un jour, le meme philosophe visitait la ville de Myndus 
et voyant qu'elle avait des portes tres grandes et magni- 
fiques bien qu'elle f ut petite, il s'ecria : « Habitants de Myn- 
dus, fermez vos portes de peur que votfe ville ne s'enfuie.)) 

l'animal le plus nuisible 

On demandait au philosophe Bias quel etait I'animal le 
plus nuisible. II repondit : <( Si vous parlez des betes feroces, 
le tyran est I'animal le plus nuisible que je connaisse; si 
vous parlez des animaux apprivoises, c'est le flatteur.)) 


Dans sa derniere entrevue avec son mari, I'epouse de 
Socrate, Xantippe, connue pour son humeur acariatre, s'e- 
criait en pleurant : « Mourras tu done condamne injuste- 
ment? — Prefererais tu, lui repondit il, que je mourusse 
condamne justement?)) 


List of poems for memorizing prescribed for elementary classes by 
the Regents of the University of the State of New York. Two of the 
prescribed poems have been given as reading lessons : " La Petite 
Mendiante," on page 163, and "La Tombe et la Rose," on page 221. 


Sans ami, comme sans famille, 
Ici bas vivre en etranger; 
Se retirer dans sa coquille 
Au signal du moindre danger; 
S'aimer d'une amitie sans bornes, 
De soi seul emplir sa maison ; 
En sortir suivant la saison, 
Pour faire a son prochain les cornes; 
Signaler ses pas destructeurs 
Par les traces les plus impures; 
Outrager les plus belles fleurs 
Par ses baisers ou ses morsures; 
Enfin, chez soi comme en prison 
Vieillir, de jour en jour plus triste; 
C'est I'histoire de I'egoiste, 
Et celle du colimagon. 



beginner's FRENCH 245 


De ta tige detachee, 
Pauvre feuille dessechee, 
Ou vas tu ? — Je n'en sais rien, 
L'orage a brise le chene 
Qui seul etait mon soutien. 
De son inconstante haleine 
Le zephir ou I'aquilon 
Depuis ce jour me promene 
De la foret a la plaine, 
De la montagne au vallon. 
Je vais ou le vent me mene, 
Sans me plaindre ou m'effrayer; 
Je vais ou va toute chose, 
Ou va la feuille de rose 
Et la feuille de laurier. 



Je suis le petit Pierre, 
Du faubourg Saint Marceau, 
Messager ordinaire, 
Facteur et porteur d'eau. 
J'ai plus d'une ressource 
Pour faire mon chemin : 
Je n'emplis pas ma bourse; 
Mais je gagne mon pain. 

Je n'ai nl bois, ni terre, 
Ni chevaux, ni laquais ; 

246 beginner's FRENCH 

Petit proprietaire, 
Mon fonds est deux crochets. 
Je prends comme il arrive 
L'ivraie et le bon grain ; 
Dieu veut que chacun vive, 
Et je gag^e mon pain. 

Contre un bel edifice 
J'ai place mon comptoir ; 
La, sans parler au Suisse, 
On peut tou jours me voir. 
Pour n'oublier personne, 
Je me leve matin 
Et la joumee est bonne 
Quand je gagne mon pain. 

Comme le disait Blaise, 
Feu Blaise, mon parrain. 
On est tou jours a I'aise 
Lorsque Ton n'a pas faim. 
Dans les jours de misere 
Je m'adresse au voisin; 
II a pitie de Pierre, 
Et je trouve mon pain. 

Boucher de Perthes. 


Lorsqu'au soleil couchant les rivieres sont roses 
Et qu'un tiede frisson court sur les champs de ble, 
Un conseil d'etre heureux semble sortir des choses 
Et monter vers le cceur trouble. 


Un conseil de gouter le charme d'etre au monde 
Cependant qiron est jeune et que le soir est beau, 
Car nous nous en allons, comme s'en va cette onde : 
EUe a la mer, — nous au tombeau. 

Paul Bourget. 


Dans les nuits d'automne, errant par la ville, 
Je regarde au ciel avec mon desir, 
Car si, dans le temps qu'une etoile file, 
On forme un souhait, il doit s'accomplir. 
Enfant, mes souhaits sont toujours les memes: 
Quand un astre tombe, alors, plein d'emoi, 
Je fais de grands voeux afin que tu m'aimes 
Et qu'en ton exil tu penses a moi. 
A cette chimere, helas ! je veux croire, 
N'ayant que cela pour me consoler. 
Mais voici Thiver, la nuit devient noire, 
Et je ne vois plus d'etoiles filer. 



Oh! bien loin de la voie 
Ou marche le pecheur, 
Chemine ou Dieu t'envoie! 
Enfant! garde ta joie! 
Lis! garde ta blancheur! 

248 beginner's FRENCH 

Sois humble! que t'importe 
Le riche et le puissant! 
Un souffle les emporte. 
La force la plus forte, 
C'est un coeur innocent! 

Bien souvent Dieu repousse 
Du pied les hautes tours ; 
Mais dans le nid de mousse, 
Ou chante une voix douce, 
II regarde toujours ! 

Victor Hugo. 


Partant pour la Syrie, 

Le jeune et beau Dunois 

Venait prier Marie 

De benir ses exploits: 

(( Faites, Reine immortelle,)) 

Lui dit il en partant, 

« Que j'aime la plus belle 

Et sois le plus vaillant.)) 

II trace sur la pierre 
Le serment de I'honneur 
Et va suivre a la guerre 
Le comte, son seigneur. 
Au noble voeu fidele, 
II dit en combattant : 
« Amour a la plus belle, 
Honneur au plus vaillant.)) 


On lui doit la victoire: 
(( Vraiment,)) dit le seigneur, 
(( Puisque tu fais ma gloirti, 
Je ferai ton bonheur. 
De ma fille Isabelle 
Sois I'epoux a I'instant, 
Car elle est la plus belle 
Et toi le plus vaillant.)) 

A I'autel de Marie 

lis contractent tous deux 

Cette union cherie 

Qui seule rend heureux. 

Chacun dans la chapelle 

Disait en les voyant: 

(( Amour a la plus belle, 

Honneur au plus vaillant.)) 

La Reine Hortense. 


La bas sur la mer comme I'hirondelle 
Je voudrais m'enfuir et plus loin encor ; 
Mais j'ai beau vouloir, puisque la cruelle 
A lie mon coeur avec trois fils d'or. 

L'un est son regard ; I'autre son sourire ; 
Le troisieme enfin est sa levre en f leur ; 
Mais je I'aime trop, c^est un vrai martyre: 
Avec trois fils d'or elle a pris mon ccEur. 


Oh, si je pouvais denouer ma chaine ! 
Adieu! pleurs, tourments — je prendrais I'essor. 
Mais non ! non ! Mieux vaut mourir a la peine 
Que de vous briser, 6 mes trois f ils d'or ! 

Leconte de Lisle. 


Beau chevalier qui partez pour la guerre, 

Qu'allez vous faire 

Si loin d'ici? 
Voyez vous pas que la nuit est profonde, 

Et que le monde 

N'est que souci ? 

Vous qui croyez qu'une amour delaissee 

De la pensee 

S'enfuit ainsi, 
Helas! helas! chercheurs de renommee, 

Votre fumee 

S'envole aussi. 

Beau chevalier qui partez pour la guerre, 

Qu'allez vous faire 

Si loin de nous? 
J*en vai's pleurer, moi qui me laissais dire 

Que mon sourire 

fitait si doux. 

Alfred de Musset. 




I. Avoir 


avoir, to have. 


ayant, having. 


j 'ai, / have. 

tu as. 

il or elle a. 

nous avoiis. 

vous avez. 

{\s or elles ont. 


j'avais, / had, I used to have. 

tu a-^ais. 

il or elle avait . 

nous avioflg. 

vous aviez. 

ils or elles avaient. 


j'eus, / had. 

tu eus. 

il or elle eut. 

nous pjjrrip^ 

vous eutes. 

ils or elles eurent. 


j'aurai, / shall or will have. 

tu auras. 

il or elle aura. 

nous aurons. 

vous aurez. 

ils or elles auront. 


avoir eu, to have had. 


eu, -e, had. 


j'ai_£t4, / have had, I had. 

tu as^^^. 

il or elle a eu. 

nous avons eu. 

vous avez eu. 

ils or elles ont eu, 


j'avais eu, / had had. 

tu avals eu. 

il or elle avait eu. 

nous avions eu. 

vous aviez eu. 

ils or elles avaient eu. 


j'eus eUj, / had had. 

tu eus^fiu, 

il or elle ^t eu. 

nous eiimes eUj, 

vous eutes eu^ 

ils or elles eurent eu. 


j' aurai eu, / shall have had. 

tu auras^ eu. 

il or elle aura eu. 

nous aurons_eu. 

vous a urez e u. 

ils or elles auront eu. 


beginner's FRENCH 


/ would or should have. 
tu aurais. 
il or elle aurait. 
nous aurions. 
vous auriez. 
ils or elles auraient. 


that I may have, that I have. 
que j'aie. 
que tu aies, 
qu'il or qu'elle ait 
que nous ayons. 
que vous ayez. 
qli^ls or qu'elles aient. 


that I might have, that I had. 
que j^gusse. 
que tu Qijssfcs. 
qu'il or qu'elle ^. 
que nous eussion§. 
que vous eussiei. 
qu'ils or qu'elles eussent. 


/ would or should have had. 
j 'aurais_ey. 
tu aura is eu^ 
il or eile aurait _fiu, 
nous auriong.fiii. 
vous auriez eu. 
ils or elles auraient eu. 


that I may have had. 
que j'aie eu. 
que tu aies eu. 
qu'il or qu'elle ai t ^u. 
que nous ayons eu. 
que vous ayez eu. 
qu'ils or qu'elles aient eu. 


that I might have had. 
que j'eusse eu. 
que tu eusses eu. 
qu'il or qu'elle eut eu. 
que nous eussions eu. 
que vous eussiez eu. 
qu'ils or qu'elles eussent eu. 


aie, have. 

ayons, let us liave, 

ayez, have. 



2. Etre 


etre, to be. 


etant, being. 


je suis, / am. 

tu es. /' ; .' ' 

il or^We est 

nous sgrnmes. 

vous etfis. 

ils or elles sont . 


j'etais, / waSj I used to be. 

tu etais. 

il or elle etait. 

nous etions. wCriJG^ 

vous etiez. 

ils or elles etaient. 


je fus, / was. 

tu fus. 

il or ellefut. 

nous fumes. 

vous futesT" '^ "^ 

ils or elles furent. 



je serai, / shall or will be. 

tu seras. 

il or elle sera. 

nous serons, 

vous serez. 

ils or elles seront. 


avoir ete, to have been. 


ete, been. 


j'ai ete, / have been, I was. 

tu as ete. 

il or elle a ete. 

nous avons ete. 

vous avez ete. 

ils or elles ont ete. 


j 'avals ete, / had been. 

tu avals ete. 

il or elle avait ete. 

nous avions ete. 

vous aviez ete. 

ils or elles avaient ete. 


j'eus ete, / had been. 

tu eus ete. 

il or elle eut ete. 

nous eumes ete. 

vous eutes ete. 

ils or elles eurent ete. 


j'aurai ete, / shall have been. 

tu auras ete. 

il or elle aura ete. 

nous aurons ete. 

vous aurez ete. 

ils or elles auront ete. 




je serais, / should be. 

tu serais. 

il or elle serait. 

nous serions. 

vous seriez. 

ils or elles seraient. 


que je sois, that I may be, that 

I be. 
que tu sois. 
qu'il or qu'elle soit. 
que nous soyons. 
que vous soyez. 
qu'ils or qu'elles soient. 


that I might be. 
que je fusse. 
que tu fusses, 
qu'il or qu'elle fut. 
que nous fussions. , 
que vous fussiez. 
qu'ils or qu'elles fussent. 


j'aurais ete, / should have been. 

tu aurais ete. 

il or elle aurait ete. 

nous aurions ete. 

vous auriez ete. 

ils or elles auraient ete. 


que j'aie ete, that I may have 

que tu aies ete. 
qu'il or qu'elle ait ete. 
que nous ayons ete. 
que vous ayez ete. 
qu'ils or qu'elles aient ete. 


that I might have been. 
que j'eusse ete. 
que tu eusses ete. 
qu'il or qu'elle eut ete. 
que nous eussions ete. 
que vous eussiez ete. 
qu'ils or qu'elles eussent ete. 


sois. be. 

soyons, let us be. 

soyez, be. 





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a, pres. indie, of avoir. 

a, prep., to, at, in, on, for. 

abricot, m., apricot. 

abricotier, m., apricot tree. 

acariatre, pee/ish. 

accident, m., accident. 

accompagner, to accompany. 

accomplir, to accomplish ; s' — , to 
be accomplished. 

accord, m., agreement ; etre d' — , 
to agree. 

accoutume, -e, usual. 

acheminer: s* — , to direct one's 

acheter, to buy. 

acquerir, irr., to acquire, get. 

acquissent, imperf. subj. of ac- 

acrostiche, m., acrostic. 

acteur, m., actor. 

actrice, f., actress. 

adieu, m., good-by, farewell. 

administrateur, m., administrator. 

admirer, to admire. 

adorateur, m., worshipper. 

adresse, f., address. 

adresser, to ask ; s' — , to apply. 

affecter, to affect, pretend. 

afin que, in order that. 

agreable, agreeable, pleasant. 

ah! interj., oh ! 

ai, pres. indie, of avoir. 

aider, to help. 

aie, pres. subj. of avoir. 

aile, f., wing. 

aillent, pres. subj. of aller. 

aimable, amiable, kind. 

aimer, to love, like, be fond of; 

s* — , to be fond of one's self. 
aine, m., elder or eldest son or 

ainsi, thus, so; et — de suite, 

and so forth. 
air, m., air. 
aise, f., ease, 
a j outer, to add. 
Alfred; see Musset. 
alite, -e, bedridden. 
allee, f., lane; contre — , side 

allemand, -e, German. 
aller, irr., to go; s'en — , to go 

allumer, to light. 
allumette, /., match. 
alors, then. 

ambassadeur, m., ambassador, 
ambassadrice, /., ambassadress. 
ambre, m., amber. 
ame, f., soul. 
amener, to bring. 
ami, m., friend. 




amie, /., friend. 

amiral, m., admiral. 

amitie, f., friendship, affection. 

amour, m. or f., love, affection. 

amuser, to amuse; s' — , to enjoy 
one's self. 

an, m., year. 

ange, m., angel. 

anglais, -e, English. 

animal, m., animal. 

annee, f., year. 

anniversaire, m., anniversary; — 
de naissance, birthday. 

annoncer, to announce. 

antichambre, f., anteroom. 

aiOVLt{pronounce ou), m., August. 

apercevoir, irr., to perceive, no- 
tice, see. 

appeler, to call. 

applaudir, to applaud. 

apporter, to bring. 

apprivoise, -e, tame. 

approcher de, to approach. 

apres, prep., after. 

apres midi, ;;/. or f., afternoon. 

aquilon, m., north wind. 

arbre, m., tree. 

Arnault, prop, n., a French poet 

Arras {pronounce the s), f., Ar- 
ras, a city in northern France. 

arreter: s' — , to stop. 

arriver, to arrive. 

arroser, to water, bathe, wet. 

artiste, in. or f., artist. 

as, pres. indie, of avoir. 

aspect (pron. aspe), m., aspect, 

asseoir, irr., to seat ; s* — , to sit 

assez, enough, rather. 

assieger, to besiege. 

assiette, f.. plate. 

assiettee, /"., plateful. 

assis, -e, past part, of asseoir. 

assistants, w. pi, persons pres- 

assister a, to attend, be present 

astre, tn., heavenly body. 

attarder, to delay; s* — , to tarry. 

atteindre, irr., to reach. 

attendre, to wait for. 

attention, /., attention. 

attrister, to sadden, afflict. 

au {contraction of a le), to or at 

aube, f., dawn. 

aucun, -e, any, no, none. 

auditoire, m., congregation. 

aupres de, prep., near, 

aussi, also, as. [soon as, 

aussitot, at once ; — que, as 

autant, as much, as many. 

autel, m., altar. 

automne (do not sound the m), 
m., fall. 

automobile, /., automobile. 

autour de, prep., around. 

autre, other. 

autrefois, formerly. 

aux (contraction of a les), to or 
at the. 

auzquels (contraction of a les- 
quels), to or at which. 

avaler, to swallow, 

avancer; s' — a tatons, to grope 
one's way, 

avant, prep., before; en — , for- 

avant que, conj., before, 

avec, with. 

avenue, /,, avenue. 

avis, m.. advice. 

avoir, irr., to have ; — besoin de, 
to be in need of. need ; — six 
ans, to be six years old ; il y 
a, there is or there are. 

avril, ;«., April. 

ayez, ayons, pres. siibj. of avoir. 




baiser, m., kiss. 

baisser, to pull down. 

bal, m., ball. 

balai, m., broom. 

bande; plate — , f., border. 

banc, m., bench. 

Barberine, prop, n., Barberine. 

Bastille, f.. Bastille, a famous 
prison, destroyed by the Paris- 
ian people on July 14, 1789. 

bas, -se, low ; see ici and la. 

bateau, m., boat.- 

battre, irr., to beat; se — , to 

beau, bel, belle, beautiful; avoir 
— {infin.), to do something in 

beaucoup, much, many; a great 

Beaune, prop, n., small city in the 
department of Cote d'or, fa- 
mous for its wine. 

bee de gaz, m., gas burner. 

bel, belle; see beau. 

benir, to bless. 

besoin, m., need ; avoir — de, to 
be in need of, need. 

bete, f., beast, animal. 

beurre, m., butter. 

Bias {sound the s), prop, n., one 
of the seven wise men of 
Greece (b. c. 600?). 

bibliotheque, /., library. 

bicyclette, f., bicycle. 

bien, well ; very. 

bien que, conj., although. 

bienvenue, /., welcome. 

biere, f., beer. 

bijou, m., jewel. 

billet, m., ticket. [encore. 

bis {sound the s), adv., bravo, 

biscuit, m., biscuit, cracker. 

bissextil, -e, leap (year). 

Wane, blanche, white. 

blancheur, f., whiteness. 

ble, m., wheat. 

bleu, -e, blue. 

blond, -e, blond, light, fair. 

boire, irr., to drink. 

bois, m., wood. 

boite, f., box. 

bon, -ne, good; — marche, 
cheap; — mot, witticism. 

bonbon, m., candy. 

bonheur, m., happiness. [day. 

bonjour, m., good morning, good 

bonnement, simply, frankly. 

bonsoir, m., good evening. 

bonte, f., kindness. 

bord, m., bordeir, edge. 

borne, f., limit ; sans — s, bound- 

bosquet, m., grove, thicket. 

Boucher de Perthes, prop, n., a 
French poet (1788-1868). 

boue, f., mud. 

bougie, /., wax candle. 

boulevard, m., boulevard. 

Bourget (Paul), prop, n., a mod- 
ern French novelist. 

bourse, f., purse. 

bouton, m., button, knob. 

branche, f., branch. 

brave, brave, good. 

briller, to shine. 

briser, to break. 

brosse, f., brush. 

brosser, to brush. 

brun, -e, brown. 

brunir, to turn brown. 

brusquement, abruptly, rudely. 

bureau, m., desk. 

but, m., aim. 

buvez, pres. indie, of boire. 

buviez, pres. subj. of boire. 



C = ce. 

cacher, to hide. 

cadet, m., younger, youngest son 
or brother. 

cafe, ;;/., coffee. 

cahier, m., note book. 

calembour, m., pun. 

calme, calm. 

campagne, f., country. 

capitale, f., capital. 

car, conj., because, for. 

carte, f., map. 

cause, f., cause. 

causer, to chat. 

cave, f., cellar. 

ce, cet, m., cette, f., ces, pi. dem. 
adj., this, that ; ce . . . ci, cet . . . 
ci, cette . . . ci, ces . . . ci, this, 
these ; ce . . . la, cet . . . la, cette 
... la, ces . . . la, that, those. 

ce, dem. pron., that, he, she, it, 

ceci, pron., this. 

ceder, to yield. 

cela, pron., that. 

celebre, celebrated. 

celebrer, to celebrate. 

celle; sec celui. 

celui, m., celle, /., ceiix, celles, pi 
dem. pron., this, that, these, 
those, the one, the ones. 

celui ci, m., celle ci, f., ceux ci, 
celles ci, pi. dem. pron., this, 
this one, these, the latter. 

celui la, m., celle la, f., ceux la, 
celles la, pi. dem. pron., that, 
that one, those, the former. 

cent, hundred. 

centaine, f., about one hundred. 

cependant, however; — que, 

ceremonie, f., ceremony. 

certain, -e, certain. 

ces; see ce, adj. 

cet; see ce, adj. 

cetera; et — , and so forth. 

cette; see ce, adj. 

ceux; see celui. 

chacun, -e, pron., each one, every 

chaine, f., chain, fetter. 
chaise, /., chair. 
chambre, f., room; — a coucher, 

bed room. 
champ, m., field ; sur le — , on the 

spot, at once. 
chanson, f., song. 
chansonnette, f., Jittle song, 
chant, m., singing, song, 
chanter, to sing. 
chapeau, m., hat. 
chapelle, /., chapel, 
chaque, adj., each, every, 
charger, to intrust, ask. 
charmant, -e, charming, pleasant, 
charme, m., charm, 
charme, -e, pleased, 
chateau, m., castle. 
chaussee, /., causeway, street, 
chef d'oBUvre, m., masterpiece. 
chemin, m., way, road ; — de f er, 

cheminer, to walk, go, advance, 
chene, m., oak. 
cher, chere, dear, expensive, 
chercher, to look for, seek, try 

to find. 
chercheur, m., seeker. 
cheri, -e, beloved, dear, 
cherir, to be fond of, like. 
cheval, m., horse, 
chevalier, in., knight, 
cheveu, m., hair. 
chez, at, to, in the house (or 

shop) of; — moi, home, at 

home ; — nous, among us ; — 

soi, at home. 
chimere, f., idle fancy. 
chocolat, m., chocolate, 
choisir, to choose, select. 



choix, m., choice. 

chose, /., thing; quelque — , w., 

ci; see ce and celui. 

del, m., sky, heaven. 

cieux, pi. of del. 

cinq, five. 

cinquieme, fifth. 

classe, f., class, classroom ; en — , 

cle, f., key. [to school., 

clement, -e, clement, mild. 

clerc, m., divinity student. 

climat, m., climate. 

cloche, f., bell. 

clocher, m., steeple. 

cocher, m., coachman. 

coeur, m., heart. 

coiffer, to fix the hair of. 

coin, m., corner. 

colimagon, m., snail. 

combattre, irr., to fight. 

combien, how much, how many. 

comedie, /"., comedy. 

comique, comic. 

commander, to command, order. 

comme, as, like, how. 

commencement, m., beginning. 

commencer, to begin. 

comment, how. [drawers. 

commode, f., bureau, chest of 

comparable, comparable. 

composer, to compose. 

comprendre, irr. (like prendre), 
to understand. 

comptoir, m., counter, desk. 

comte, m., count. 

condamner, to condemn. 

conduire, irr., to lead, take, drive. 

conduite, f., behavior. 

confortable, comfortable. 

confusion, f., confusion. 

connaissance, f., knowledge ; ac- 
quaintance, [tre. 

connaisse, pres. subj. of connai- 

connaitre, irr., to be acquainted 
with, know. 

connu, -e, past part, of connaitre. 
conseil, m., advice, 
conseiller, to advise. 
consoler, to console. 
consonne, /., consonant, 
content, -e, pleased. 
continuer, to continue, go on. 
contractor, to contract, 
contre, against. 
contre-allee, f., side path, 
convalescence, f., convalescence; 

entrer en — , to become con- 
convenir, irr., (like venir), to 

agree; (impers.) be proper. 
coquille, f., shell. 
come, f., horn ; faire les — s a, to 

laugh at. 
couchant, setting. 
coucher, to put to bed ; se — , to 

go to bed; set; chambre a — , 

couleur, /., color, 
coup, m., blow; time; rap. 
courage, m., courage. 
courir, irr., to run. 
court, pres. indie, of courir. 
court, -e, short. 
courtisan, m., courtier. 
cousin, m., cousin. 
cousine, /., cousin. 
couteau, m., knife. 
coutume, /., custom; comme de 

— , as usual. 
couverture, /., blanket. 
couvre pieds, m., counterpane, 
couvrir, irr. (like ouvrir), to 

craindre, irr., to fear, 
crainte, f., fear, 
crayon, m., pencil, 
creme, f., cream, 
cri, 111., cry. 
crier, to cry, exclaim, 
critiquer, to criticise. 
crochet, m., rag-picker's hook. 



croire, irr., to believe, 
cruel, -le, cruel, 
cueillir, irr., to gather, pick, 
cuilleree, /., spoonful. 
cure, m., curate, priest 

d' — de. 

dame, f., lady. 

danger, m.. danger. 

dangereusement, dangerously. 

dans, in, into, to. 

danser, to dance. 

date, f., date. 

de, of, from, by, with ; than ; 

any, some. 
debout, adv., standing, erect, 
decembre, m., December. 
decor, m., scenery, 
decouvrir, irr. {like couvrir), to 

uncover ; se — , to take off 

one's hat or cap 
defendre, to forbid. 
deja, already. 
dejeuner, to breakfast. 
delaisser, to forsake. 
delicieu-x, -se, delicious, delight- 
demander, to ask, ask for. [ful. 
demeurer, to live, reside, 
demi, -e, half, 
demoiselle, f., young lady, 
denouer, to untie. 
dent, f., tooth, 
dentelle, /"., lace, 
deposer, to lay down, 
depouiller, to strip, 
depuis, since, from, 
demi-er, ere, last. 
derober, to steal. 
derriere, behind. 
des {contraction of de les), of 

or from the. 
desagreable, disagreeable, 
descendre, to come down, go 


descente {f.) de lit, bedside rug. 

deshabiller, to undress ; se — , 
to undress one's self. 

desir, m., wish. 

desirer, to desire. 

desobeir a, to disobey. 

desquels = de + lesquels. 

desseche, -e dried up. 

dessert, tn., dessert. 

dessiner, to draw. 

destination, f., destination. 

detacher, to detach. 

deux, two. 

deuxieme, second. 

devant, before (place), [come. 

devenir, irr {like venir), to be- 

devenu, -e, past part, of devenir. 

deviens, prcs. indie, of devenir: 

deviner, to guess. 

devoir, must, ought, to have to, 
be obliged to ; owe. 

devoir, m., duty ; written exer- 

devorer, to devour. [cise. 

dictionnaire, m., dictionary. 

diete, /., diet. 

Dieu, ;»., God. 

difference, f., difference. 

difficile, difficult. 

diligent, -e, diligent, industrious. 

dimanche, m., Sunday. 

diner, to dine; m., dinner. 

Diogene, prop, n., Greek Cynic 
philosopher (b. c. 4i9?-324?). 

dire, irr., to say, tell ; se laisser 
— , to let one's self believe. 

directement, directly. 

directeur, ;;?., manager. 

diriger, to direct ; se — , to direct 
one's steps. 

discours, m., speech. 

dit, pres. indie, and pret. of dire. 

dit, -e, past part, of dire. 

divertir, to amuse ; se — , to en- 
joy one's self. 

divinement, divinely, admirably. 

division, f., division. 



dix, ten. 

dixieme, tenth. 

docteur, m., doctor. 

dois, doit, pres. indie, of devoir. 

done, therefore ; then ; see ecouter. 

donner, to give. 

dont, whose, of whom, of which. 

dormir, irr., to sleep. 

doucement, gently, noiselessly. 

double, double; see enfermer. 

doubler, to double. 

douleur, /., grief. 

doute, m., doubt. 

dou-x, -ce, sweet, soft. 

douzaine, f., dozen ; tine demi — , 

half a dozen. 
douze, twelve. 
dotizieme, twelfth. 
drap, m., sheet. 
drapeau, m., flag, 
drogue, /., drug. 
droit, -e, right. 
droite, f., right side; de — , on 

the right. 
du {contraction of de le), of or 

from the. 
Dumoulin, proper name. 
Dunois, proper name. 


eau, f., water. 

eclairer, to light up. 

ecole, f., school ; a 1' — , to ,school. 

ecouter, to listen to; ecoutez 

done, do believe. 
ecrire, irr., to write. 
edifice, m., building. 
effacer, to erase, scratch out. 
effort, m., effort. 
effrayer, to frighten; s' — , to be 

eglise, /., church. 
egoiste, selfish. 
eh, interj., ah ! — bien! well ! 

elancer: s' — , to spring, iXy 

electrique, electric, 
elephant, m., elephant, 
eleve, m. or f., pupil, 
elle, she, it, her. 
elles, they, them, 
eloigner: s* — , to go away, 
embellir, to beautify, 
eminent, -e, eminent, great, 
emmener, to take along, 
emoi, m., emotion, excitement. 
empereur, m., emperor, 
emplir, to fill up. 
employer, to employ, use. 
emporter, to carry away. 
en, prep., in, into ; as a. 
en, pron., of him, of her, of it, of 

them ; for it, about it, from it ; 

encor (poetical), encore, still, yet. 
encre, f., ink. 
encrier, m., inkstand. 
endormir, irr. (like dormir) : 

s* — , to fall asleep, 
enfant, m. or f., child, 
enfermer, to shut; s' — a double 

tour, to shut one's self in by 

locking the door. 
enfin, at last. 
enflammer, to inflame. 
enfuir, irr. (like fuir) : s* — , to 

flee, run away. 
enigme, f., enigma, riddle, 
enlever, to take away, 
enorme, enormous, 
ensuite, afterwards. 
entendre, to hear, 
enthousiasme, m., enthusiasm, 
enti-er, -ere, entire. 
entonner, to strike up. 
entourer, to surround. 
entre, prep., between. 
entree, f., entrance. 
entrer, to enter; — dans, to en- 



entretenir, irr. {like tenir), to 
entertain ; s' — , to converse. 

entrevue, f., meeting. 

envoler; s' — , to take flight. 

envoyer, irr., to send. 

epouse, f., wife. 

epoiiz, in., husband. 

equipage, in., equipage. 

errer, to wander. 

escalier, m., staircase. 

espace, m., space. 

Espagnol, m., Spaniard. 

espece, f., sort, kind. 

esperer, to hope. 

esprit, m., mind, wit 

essayer, to try. 

essentiel, -le, essential. 

essor, m., flight; prendre 1* — , to 
soar away. 

essuie main, in., towel. 

est, prcs. indie, of etre. 

et, and. 

etalage, m., display, show-win- 

£tats Unis, in. pi., United States. 

ete, rn., summer. 

ete, past part, of etre. 

eteindre, irr., to extinguish. 

etes, pres. ind. of etre. 

etoile, f., star. 

etourdiment, heedlessly. 

etranger, m., stranger, foreigner. 

etre, irr., to be; — alle(e), ve- 
nu(e), etc., to have gone, come, 

etroit, -e, narrow. 

eu, -e, past part, of avoir. 

Eugenie, empress of the French, 
wife of Napoleon III. 

Europe, f., Europe. 

eut, imperf. suhj. of avoir. 

eux, they, them. 

eveiller, to awaken; s* — , to 
awake, wake up. 

evenement, m., event. 

eviter, to avoid. 

examiner, to examine, 
excellent, -e, excellent 
excepte, except, 
exclamation, /., exclamation, 
executer, to play; carry out 
execution, f., execution, 
exemplaire, exemplary, 
exemple, m., example ; par — , for 

exercice, m., exercise, 
exiger, to require, 
exil, m., exile, 
experience, f., experience, 
exploit, ;;/., deed. 
expression, /., expression, 
exquis, -e, exquisite. 

fabrication, f., making, casting. 

face, f., face ; en — de, opposite. 

fagon, /., fashion, kind. 

facteur, ;«., porter, postman. 

faim {pronounce m like n), f., 
hunger ; avoir — , to be hungry. 

faire, irr., to do, make, take ; 
(weather) to be; — venir, to 
send for; — preparer, to have 
(something) prepared. 

fais, fait, pres. indie, of faire. 

fait, -e, past part, of faire. 

faites, prcs. indie, of faire. 

falloir, irr., to be necessary, must 

fameu-x, -se, famous. 

famille, /., family. 

fasse, pres. suhj. of faire. 

fat {sound the t), m., fop, cox- 

fatalite, f., fatality. 

fatigue, -e, tired. 

fatuite, f., foppishness, conceit. 

faubourg, m.. suburb. 

faut, pres. indie, of falloir. 

fauteuil, >«.. armchair. 

favori, -te, favorite. 



femme, f., woman, wife. 

fenetre, /'., window. 

fer, m^ iron; en chemin de — , 

by rail, 
f erai, fut of faire. 
fermer, to shut, 
feroce, ferocious. 
ferveur, f., fervor, 
fete, f., feast, festival. 
feu, -e, late, deceased, 
feuillage, m., foliage, 
feuille, f., leaf, 
fevrier, m., February, 
fidele, faithful. 
fidele, m., faithful. • 
figue, f., fig. 
fil, m., thread. 
filant, -e, shooting. 
filer, (of stars) to shoot, 
fille, f., girl, daughter. 
fils {pronounce the s), m., son. 
fils, pi. of fil, which see. 
fin, f., end; stiite et — , con- 
fin, -e, fine. [eluded, 
fini, -e, over, 
finir, to finish, end. 
firent, pret. of faire. 
fissent, imperf. subj. of faire. 
flatteur, m., flatterer. 
fleur, /._, flower ; en — , bloom- 
ing, rosy. 
folie, f., folly; joke. 
fonds, m., capital, 
force, f., strength. 
foret, f., forest. 
former, to form, make, 
fort, -e, strong, 
fort, adv., very, very much, 
foumeau, w., stove. 
frais, fraiche, fresh. 
fraise, f., strawberry. 
franc, m., frank. 
frangais, -e, French, 
t Frangais, m., Frenchman. 
France, /,, France. 
franchir, to cross. 

frapper, to strike, rap. 

frere, m., brother. 

frisson, m., shiver. 

froid, -e, cold. 

froid, m., cold. 

fromage, m., cheese. 

f rotter, to rub, strike. 

fruit, m., fruit. 

fumee, f., smoke. 

furieu-x, -se, furious. 

fussent, fussiez, imperf. subj. of 

fut, pret. of etre. [etre. 

fut, imperf. subj. of etre. 

gagner, to gain, earn. 

gai, -e, cheerful, merry. 

gaiete, f., mirth. 

gargon, m., boy; waiter. 

garde, m. and f., guard ; — ma- 
lade, m. and f., nurse ; prendre 
— de, to take care not to, be 
careful not to. 

garder, to keep. 

gateau, m., cake. 

gauche, left. 

gauche, /., left side ; de — , on the 

gaz, m., gas. [left. 

geler, to freeze. 

general, m., general. 

generalement, generally. 

gens, m. and f. pi., people; 
jeunes — , m., young people. 

gloire, f., glory. 

gouffre, m., abyss. 

gourmand, -e, gluttonous, vora- 

gout, m., taste. 

gouter, to taste. 

grain, m., grain. 

Grammont, one of the wittiest 
courtiers in the court of Louis 
XIV. (1621-1707). 

grand, -e, grand, great, large, 



grandir, to grow, 
gratitude, f., gratitude, 
graver, to engrave, carve, 
gris, -e, gray, 
gronder, to scold, 
guerir, to cure, 
guerre, f., war. 
guichet, m., ticket-office. 

' means h formerly aspirate ; see p. 16. 

habile, skilful. 

habiller, to dress; s* — , to dress, 
dress up. 

habitant, m., inhabitant. 

habiter, to inhabit. 

'hair, to hate. 

haleine, f., breath. 

'harangue, f., harangue. 

'hate, /,, haste ; a la — , hastily. 

'hater: se — , to hasten. 

'haut, -e, high, tall. 

*haut, m., top. 

helas, {pronounce the s), alas. 

'heros, m., hero. 

hesiter, to hesitate. 

heure, f., hour; de bonne — , 

heureu-x, -se, happy. [early. 

hier, yesterday. 

hirondelle, f., swallow. 

histoire, f., history, story. 

hiver {sound the r), m., winter. 

homme, m., man. 

honneur, m., honor. 

Hortense, wife of Louis Bona- 
parte, king of Holland (1783- 

hote, m., host. [1837). 

hotel, m., hotel. 

hotesse, /., hostess. 

Hugo (Victor), one of the great- 
est French poets (1802-1885). 

huile, f., oil. 

'huit, eight. 

'huitieme, eighth, 
humble, humble. 
humblement, humbly, 
humeur, f., humor, disposition, 

ici, here ; — bas, here below, 
ideal, -e, ideal. 

ignorer, to ignore, not to know, 
il, he, it. 
ils, they. 

image, /.f image, picture, 
immediatement, immediately, 
immense, immense. 
immortel, -le, immortal. 
impatiemment, impatiently, 
imperatrice, f., empress, [sical. 
impertinert, -e, absurd, nonsen- 
importer, to be of importance, 
importuner, to annoy, 
impossible, impossible, 
impur, -e, unclean, 
incapable, unable, 
incertain, -e, uncertain, 
inconstant, -e, fickle, 
infliger, to inflict, give, 
infortune, f., misfortune, 
injustement, unjustly. 
innocent, -e, innocent, 
innocente, f., innocent little girl. 
inscription, f., inscription, [once, 
instant, m., instant; a Y — , at 
instituteur, m., schoolmaster, 
institutrice, f., schoolmistress, 
instruire, irr., to instruct, teach, 

instrument, m.. instrument, 
intention, f., intention, 
interessant, -e, interesting, 
intervalle, m., interval, 
introduire, irr., to introduce, put. 
inutile, useless. 
invite, m., -e, f., guest. 



inviter, to invite. 
Isabelle, ^prop. n., Isabella, 
ivraie, /., tares. 

jamais, ever; {with neg.) never. 

Janvier, m., January. 

jardin, m., garden. 

jaune, yellow. 

javelot, m., javelin. 

je, I. 

Jeter, to throw, utter. 

jeu, m., play; game. 

jeudi, m., Thursday. ' 

jeune, young. 

joie, f., joy. 

joli, -e, pretty. 

joue, f., cheek. 

jouer, to play ; — de, to play. 

jouir de, to enjoy. 

joujou, m., toy. 

jour, m., day; de — en — , from 

day to day. 
journal, m., newspaper. 
joumee, f., day. 
joyeu-x, -se, joyful, joyous. 
juger, to judge. 
juillet, m., July. 
juin, m.j June. , 

jusqu'a, until, till, to. 
justement, justly. 

r = le or la. 

la, art, the. 

la, pron., her, it. 

la, there ; — bas, yonder ; see ce 

and celui. 
lac, m., lake. - 
laisser, to leave, let. 
lait, m., milk. 
lampe, f., lamp. 

lancer, to throw, cast. 

langue, f., tongue. 

laquais, m., footman. 

laquelle; see lequel. 

large, wide, broad. • 

laurier, m., laurel. 

lavabo, m., washstand. 

laver, to wash. 

le, art, the. 

le, pron., him, it. 

legon, /., lesson. 

Leconte de Lisle, prop. n.,a rnod- 
ern French poet. 

lecteur, m., reader. 

leg-er, -ere, light. 

legume, m., vegetable. 

lendemain, m., next day. 

lentement, slowly. 
lequel, laquelle, lesquels, les- 
quelles, who, whom, which, 
which one, that. 
les, art., the. 
les, pron., them. 
lettre, f., letter. 

leur, poss. adj., their. [theirs. 
leur, pron., le — , la — , les — s, 
lever, to raise; se — , to get up. 
levre, /., lip. 
Her, to bind, tie.. 
lieutenant, m., lieutenant. 
limonade, f., lemonade, 
lion, m., lion. 
lire, irr., to read, 
lis (sound the s), m., lily. 
lit, m., bed. 
livre, m., book. 

livre, f., pound. ^ 

loin, far; — de, far from. 
long, -ue, long, 
lors, at the time of. 
lorsque, when. 
louer, to rent. 

Louis, prop, n.; Louis XIII., 
king of France (1601-1643) ; 
Louis XIV., king of France 



loiiis, m., louis, twenty-franc 

gold piece, 
lu, -e, past part, of lire, 
liii, he, to him, to her. 
lumiere, /., light. 
lundi, tn., Monday. 

M. =. Monsieur. 

m* = me. 

ma, f. poss. adj., my. 

madame, f., madam, Mrs. 

mademoiselle, f., miss. 

madrigal, m., madrigal, love 

magasin, m., store. 
magnifique, magnificent. 
mai, w.. May. 
main, f., hand. 
maire, m., mayor, 
mais, but. 
maison, f., house, 
maitre, m., master, teacher, 
maitresse, f., mistress, school 

majeste, f., majesty. 
mal, adv., badly. 
malade, ill. sick ; garde — , m. and 

f., nurse. 
maladroit, m., unskilful man. 
manant, tn., boor, 
manger, to eat. 
maniere, f. , manner ; par — de 

plaisanterie, in a joking way. 
manquer, to fail ; — de, to lack, 
manteau, m., cloak, 
marche, m., market; bon — , 

cheap ; meilleur — , cheaper. 
marcher, to walk, 
mardi, m., Tuesday, 
marechal, m., marshal ; horse- 

mari, tn., husband. 

Marie, prop, n., Mary (the holy 

marquis, m., marquis. [March 

mars (pronounce the s), m., 

martyre, m., martyrdom. 

matelas, m., mattress. 

matin, m., morning; adv., early. 

mauvais, -e, bad. 

me, me. 

medecin, m., physician. 

medicament, m., medicine. 

meilleur, -e, better, best ; — mar- 
che, cheaper. 

melodrame, m., melodrama. 

membre, m., member. 

meme, same ; self. 

menagerie, f., menagerie. 

mendiante, f., beggar. 

mener, to lead, take. 

meprise, f., mistake, blunder. 

mer, f., sea. 

mercredi, m., Wednesday. 

mere, f., mother. 

mes, pi poss. adj., my. 

messager, m., messenger. 

messe, f., mass, 

metal, m., metal. 

mettre, irr., to put; se — a (m- 
f in.), to begin to; se — au pia- 
no, to sit down at the piano; 
se — au travail, to start to 

meuble, m., piece of furniture. 

midi, ;«., noon. 

miel, m., honey. 

mien, poss. pron.; le — , la — ne, 
les — s, les — nes, mine. 

mieux, adv., better, best ; de leur 
— , the best they can or could ; 
— vaut, it is better. 

ministre, m., minister. 

minute, f., minute. 

miroir, tn., mirror. 

misere, f., misery, poverty. 

missent, imperf. suhj. of mettre. 

mit, pret. of mettre. 



moderne, modern. 

modifier, to modify, alter. 

moi, I, me, to me. 

moindre, less, least. 

moins, less, least, fewer; a — 
que, unless. 

mois, m., month. 

moitie, f., half; a — , half. 

mon, poss. adj., my. 

monarque, m., monarch. 

monde, m., world ; tout le — , 
everybody; etre au — , to be 
alive, living. 

monseigneur, m., my lord. 

monsieur, m., sir, Mr., gentle- 

montagne, /., mountain. 

monter, to mount, go up. 

montrer, to show. 

morceau, tn., piece. 

morsure, f., bite, sting. 

mort, f., death; lit de — , death- 

mot, m., word ; bon — , witticism. 

motif, m., motive, cause. 

mourant, m., dying man. 

mourir, irr., to die. 

mourras, fut of mourir. 

mousse, /., moss. 

mousseline, f., muslin. 

moutarde, f., mustard. 

moyen, m., means, way. 

muet, -te, mute, dumb. 

mur, -e, ripe. 

mur, m., wall. 

murmurer, to murmur, mutter. 

Musset (Alfred de), a French 
poet (1810-1857). 

musique, f., music. 

Myndus, a proper name. 

n* = ne. 

naissance, f., birth; anniversaire 
de — , birthday. 

Napoleon, prop, n.; Napoleon I., 
emperor of the French (1769- 
1821) ; Napoleon III., em- 
peror of the French (1808- 

nappe, f., napkin. 
national, -e, national. 
nature, f., nature, 
naturel, -le, natural. 
ne, not ; — ... pas, not ; — ... 

que, only; — ... plus, no 
neige, f., snow. [longer, 

neiger, to snow. 
neuf, nine. 
neuvieme, ninth. 
neveu, m., nephew. 
ni, neither, nor. 
nid, m., nest. 
niece, f., niece, 
noble, noble. 
Noel, m., Christmas. 
noir, -e, black, dark. 
nom, m., name. 
nombreu-x, -se, numerous. 
non, no. 

nos, pi. poss. adj., our. 
notre, sing. poss. adj., our. 
nous, we, us, to us. 
nouvelle, f., news ; a cette — , on 

hearing this news. 
novembre, m., November. 
nuisible, harmful, injurious. 
nuit, f., night. 
nul, -le any; (with neg.) no; 


6, inter}., o! 
obeir a, to obey. 
obliger, to oblige, compel, 
obscur, -e, dark, 
occasion, /., occasion, 
occuper, to occupy. 
octobre, m., October, 
oeil, m., eye» 



OBUvre, /., work; chef d' — , m. 

off icier, vu, officer. 
offrir, irr., to offer. 
oh, interj., o ! ho ! 
oiseau, m., bird, 
olive, f., olive, 
ombre, f., shade. 
on, I'on, one, they, people. 
oncle, m., uncle. 
onde, f., water. 
ont, pres. indie, of avoir. 
on2ieme, eleventh. 
opera, m., opera. 
or, conj., now. 
or, m., gold. 
orage, m., storm. 
orange, f., orange 
ordinaire, ordinary, usual. 
ordonner, to prescribe. 
ordre, m., order. 
oreille, f., ear. 
oreiller, m., pillow. 
organiste, m., organist. 
orgue, m., organ, 
original, m., eccentric man. 
omer, to adorn. 
oser, dare. 
oter, to take off. 
on, or. 
ou, where. 
oublier, to forget, 
oui, yes. 

outrager, to outrage. 
ouvert, -e, past. part, of ouvrir. 
ouvreuse, f., (female) usher. 
ouvrir, irr., to open. 

pain, m., bread. 

pale, pale. 

palier, m., landing. 

panier, m., basket. 

papier, m., paper. 

par, by, through, out of, about. 

parait, pres. indie, of paraitre. 

paraitre, irr., to appear. 

parapluie, iii., umbrella. 

pare, m., park. 

parce que, because. 

pardessus, di., overcoat. 

pardonner, to forgive. 

pareil, -le, such ; du — au meme, 
tit for tat. 

parent, )n., parent, relative. 

parfois, sometimes. 

parfum, m., perfume. 

Paris, m., Paris. 

parler, to speak. 

parrain, m., godfather. 

parterre, m., flower-bed. 

partie, f., part. 

partir, irr., to depart, go away. 

partout, everywhere. 

parvenir, irr., to reach. 

pas, m., step ; ne . . . — , not. 

passer, to pass. 

pasteur, m., minister. 

pauvre, poor. 

pays, m., country, fatherland. 

paysan, in peasant. 

pecheur, m., sinner. 

peigner, to comb ; se — , to comb 
one's hair, comb each other's 

peine, f., pain, sorrow, trouble ; 
a la — , in the attempt. 

pelouse, f., lawn. 

pendant, during. 

pendre, to hang. 

penetrer, to enter. 

pensee, f., thought. 

penser, to think. 

pension, /., boarding-house. 

pensionnaire, m. and f., boarder. 

perdre, to lose. 

pere, m., father. 

perfectionnement, m., improve- 

permettre, irr., to allow. 

permission, f., permission.. 



personne, /., person ; sur ma — , 
about me. 

personne, m., anybody; (with 
neg. ) nobody. 

petit, -e, small, little. 

peu, adv., little, few. 

peur, f., fear; de — que, lest. 

pent, pres. indie, of pouvoir. 

pharmacien, m., druggist. 

philosophe, m., philosopher. 

piano, m., piano. 

piece, f., piece; play. 

pied, m., foot; du — , with his 

piege, m., trap, snare. 

pierre, f., stone. 

Pierre, prop, n., Peter, 

pilule, /., pill. 

pitie, f., pity. 

place, f., place. 

placer, to place. 

plaindre, irr., to pity; se — , to 

plaine, /., plain. 

plainte, f., complaint, doleful 

plainti-f, -ve, plaintive, mourn- 
ful, sad. 

plaire, irr., to please. 

plaisanterie, /., joke; par ma- 
niere de — , in a joking way. 

plaisir, m., pleasure. 

plat, -e, flat. 

plate bande, f., border. 

plein, -e, full. 

pleur, m., tear. 

pleurer, to weep. 

pleut, pres. indie, of pleuvoir. 
pleuvoir, irr., to rain. 
plume, f., pen. 

plus, more, most ; ne . . . — , no 
more, no longer; de — en — , 
more and more; — de, (num- 
ber) more than. 

plusieurs, several. 

plutot, rather. 

poche, /., pocket. 

point, m., point; ne...— , not 

poire, /., pear. [at all. 

poisson, m., fish. 

poivre, m., pepper. 

poll, -e, polished, polite. 

population, /., population. 

porte, /., door, gate. 

porter, to carry; se — , to be (in 
reference to health). 

porteur, m., carrier. 

portiere, /., car window. 

portrait, m., portrait, picture. 

poser, to ask. 

possible, possible. 

pouls, m., pulse. 

pour, prep., for, to, on account of, 
in order to; — que, in order 

pourquoi, why, the reason why. 

pourvoir, irr., to provide. 

pousser, to utter. 

pouvoir, irr., to be able, can, 
may; il se pent, it may be. 

pratique, /., practice. 

preau, m., playground. 

preceder, to precede. 

precieii-x, -se, precious. 

precis, -e, precise, 
preciser, to make a more definite 
statement, to state the names. 
.preferable, preferable. 
preferer, to prefer. 
premi-er, -ere, first ; mon — , my 

first syllable. 
prendre, irr., to take; catch; — 
garde, take care, be careful not. 
prenne, pres. subj. of prendre, 
preparer, to prepare; faire — , 
to have (something) prepared, 
pres de, prep., near, 
prescription, /"., prescription, 
presenter, to present, introduce, 
presque, almost. 
presser, to press, urge, 
pretre, m., priest. 



prier, to pray, beg. 
priere, f., prayer, 
princesse, f., princess, 
printemps {pron. tan), w., spring, 
pris, -e, past part, of prendre, 
prise, f., capture, taking, 
prison, f., prison, 
prix, m., price, 
probablement, probably, 
prochain, m., neighbor, 
professeur, «z., professor, teacher, 
profond, -e, deep, great, 
profondement, soundly, 
progres, m., progress. 
promenade, /.. walk. 
promener, to take out for a walk, 

drive ; se — , to take a walk, 
promeneur, m., promenader. 
promptement (pron. mp like n), 

prononcer, to pronounce, 
proposer, to propose, 
propre, clean. 

proprietaire, m., landlord, owner, 
protester, to protest, 
public, m., public, 
puis, then. 
puisque, since, 
puissant, powerful, 
puisse, pres. subj. of pouvoir. 
punir, to punish, 
punition, f., punishment. 
pupitre, m., desk. 

qu* = que. 

qualite, f., quality, 
quand, when, 
quart, ;«.. quarter. 
quatorze, fourteen, 
quatre, four, 
quatrieme, fourth, 
que, conj., that, than, as; ne.. 
— , only. 

que, pron., which, whom, what; 

see ce. 
quel, -le, what, which; — ...! 

what a . . . ! 
quelconque, some ... or other. 
quelque, some; — chose, m., 

quelquefois, sometimes, 
quelqu'un, somebody. 
question, /., question ; il est — , 

the question is. 
qui, who, whom? which, that; 

see ce. 
quiconque, whoever. 
quoi, what ; de — , what one 

quoique, although. 


radis, jn., radish. 

raisin, m., grape. 

raison, f., reason; avoir — , to 

rapide, rapid, quick. [be right. 

rapidement, rapidly, quickly. 

rappeler: se — , to remember. 

rapporter, to bring back. 

rare, rare. 

rarement, seldom. 

rat, in., rat. 

ravi, -e, delighted. 

recevoir, irr., to receive. 

recherche, f., search. 

recommander, to recommend. 

reconnaissance, f.. gratitude. 

regu, -e, past part, of recevoir. 

reflechir, to reflect. 

refuser, to refuse, decline. 

regaler, to regale; se — , to re- 
gale one's self, have a feast of. 

regard, m., look. 

regarder, to look at; — par la 
portiere, to look out of the 

regne, m.. reign. 



regner, to reign. 

regret, m., regret. 

reine, f., queen. 

rejeter, to repel, send away, 

rejouir, to rejoice; se — , to re- 
remarquer, to notice, 
remercier, to thank, 
remettre, irr. (like mettre), to 

hand, give. 
remplir, to fill, fulfil, 
rencontrer, to meet. 
rendre, to render, make, return, 

give back; se — , to betake one's 
renommee, /., fame. [self. 

rentier, to reenter, go or come 
renverser, to upset. [home. 

repartie, f., repartee, retort. 
repartir, irr. (like partir), to 

repas, m., meal. 

repasser, to repass, pass again, 
repeter, to repeat, 
repliquer, to reply. 
repondre, to reply, answ^er. 
reponse, f., answer. 
repos, m., rest. 
reposer: se — , to rest. 
repousser, to repel, push back. 
reprendre, irr. (like prendre) : 

— le chemin de, to go back 

representation, f., performance, 
representer, to play, 
reproche, m., reproach, 
reputation, f., reputation. 
resoudre, irr.: se — , to decide. 
respecti-f, -ve, respective, 
respectiieusement, respectfully. 
respirer, to breathe, inhale, 
ressource, /., resource. 
restaurant, ;«,, restaurant, 
tester, to remain. 
retard, tn., delay; en — , late. 

retirer; se — , to withdraw. 

retour, m., return; de — , on re- 

retourner, to return. 

reussir, to succeed. 

revenir, irr. (like venir), to come 

revenu, -e, past part, of revenir. 

revienne, pres. subj. of revenir. 

revivre, irr. (like vivre), to re- 

riche, rich, wealthy. 

rideau, m., curtain. 

ridicule, ridiculous. 

rien, m., anything; (with neg.) 

riposter, to retort, reply. 

rire, irr., to laugh. ' 

riviere, f., river. 

robe, /., dress. 

roi, m., king. 

roman, m., novel. 

rond, -e, round. 

rose, /., rose. 

rose, rosy. 

rouge, red. 

rougir, to blush. 

route, f., road; en — , on the 

royal, -e, regal, kingly. 

royaume, m., kingdom. 

rue, /., street. 

s'=rse; also si before il and ils. 
sa, f. pass, adj., his, her, its. 
Saint Marceau, prop, n., a former 

suburb, now a part of Paris. 
saison, f., season. 
sait, pres. indie, of savoir. 
salir, to soiK 
salle, /., class room : auditorium ; 

— a manger, dining-room. 
salon, m., parlor. 



saluer, to salute, greet, bow to. 

samedi, m., Saturday. 

sans, without, but for; — que, 

satisfaction, /,, satisfaction, 
satisfait, -e, pleased. 
sauvage, wild. 
savoir, irr., to know, 
scene, f., stage, 
sculpteur (do not pronounce the 

p), rn., sculptor, 
se, one's self, himself, herself, 

themselves, one another, to 

one's self, etc. 
sec, seche, dry. 
second, -e (pronounce c like g), 

second ; mon — , my second 

syllable. • 
seconde (pronounce c like g) , f., 
seigneur, m., lord. [second 

sel, m., salt. 
semaine, f., week. 
sembler, to seem. 
sens, pres. indie, of sentir. 
sentiment, m., sentiment, feel- 
sentir, irr., to feel ; se — , to 'feel 

that one is . . . 
sept (do not pronounce the p), 

septembre, m., September. 
septieme (do not pronounce the 

p), seventh. 
serais, serait, condit. of etre. 
serment, m., oath, pledge, 
sermon, m., sermon. 
serpent, m., snake. 
serrer, to shake. 
serrure, f., lock. 
servante, f., maid-servant. 
service, m., service. 
serviette, /.. napkinr. 
servir, irr., to serve; se — de, 

to make use of. 
ses, plur. poss. adj., his, her, its. 

seul, -e, alone. 
severe, severe, stern, 
si, conj., if. 
si, adv., so ; yes. 
siecle, ni., century, 
sien, poss. pron.: le — , la — ne, 
les — s, les — nes, his, hers, its. 
signal, m., signal, sign, [one's, 
signaler, to signal, mark, 
silence, ;»., silence. 
simple, simple, mere. 
singe, m., monkey. 
sire, m., sire, 
six, six. 
sixidme, sixth. 

societe, f., society, company. 
Socrate, prop, n., Socrates, a 
famous Greek philosopher (b. c. 

soeur, f., sister. 

soi, one's self ; chez — , at home, 
soif, f., thirst; avoir — , to be 

soigner, to take care of, attend. 
soin, m., care. 
soir, 7n., evening. 
soiree, /., evening party, 
sois, imper. of etre. 
soit, pres. siibj. of etre. 
soixante, sixty. 
soldat, m., soldier, 
soleil, m., sun. 
soUiciteur, m., solicitor, 
solution, /., solution, 
sombre, gloomy, dark, 
somme, /., sum. 
sommeil, m., sleep ; avoir — , to 

be sleepy, 
sommes, pres. indie, of etre. 
son, sa, ses, p-oss. pron., his, her, 
son, m.. sound. [its 

songer, to dream, think, 
sonner. to ring, 
sonnette. f., (small) bell. 
sont, pres. indie, of etre. 



sorite, m., series of syllogisms. 

sors, pres. indie, of sortir. 

sorte, f., sort, kind. 

sortir, irr., to go out. 

sot, m., silly fellow, fool. 

sot, -te, foolish. 

souci, m., care, anxiety. 

souffle, m., breath. 

souffrir, irr., to suffer. 

souhait, m., wish. 

souhaiter, to wish. 

souper, to sup, eat supper. 

souriant, -e, smiling. 

sourire, m., smile. 

souris, f., mouse. 

sous, prep., under. 

soutien, m., support. 

souvent, often. 

spectacle, m., spectacle, show. 

spiiituel, -le, witty. 

statue, /., statue. 

store, m., shade, blind. 

studieu-x, -se, studious. 

subir, to undergo, get. 

subitement, suddenly. 

subsister, to subsist. 

suis, pres. indie, of etre and of 

Suisse, m., porter, door keeper, 
suit, pres. indie, of suivre. 
suite, /., continuation ; _ — et 

fin, concluded; tout de — , at 

suivant, -e, following. 
suivant, prep., according to. 
suivre, irr., to follow; a — , to 

be continued, 
sujet, m., subject. 
superbe, superb. 
supposer, to suppose. 
suppression, f., suppression. 
sur, -e, sure, certain, 
sur, on, upon, about, 
surlendemain, m., two days 


surprise, f., surprise. 

sussent, imperf. subj. of savoir. 

Syrie, prop, n., Syria. 

t' = te. 

ta, f. poss. adj., your. 

table, /., table. 

tableau, m., blackboard. 

taire, irr., not to say; se — , to 

keep silent. 
tant, so much, so many, 
tante, f., aunt. 
tantot, presently ; — . . ., — . . ., 

now . . ., now ... 
tapis, m., carpet. 
tapisser, to cover, hang. 
tard, late. 
tasse, f., cup. 
tater, to feel, 
tatons; a — , gropingly. 
te, you, to you. 
tel, -le, such. 
temoigner, to show. 
temps, m., time ; weather ; dans 

le — que, while. 
tendre, to extend, hold out. 
tenir, irr., to hold, 
terminer, to end. 
terre, /., earth, ground ; estate. 
tete, /., head. 
the, m., tea. 
theatre, m., theater. 
tiede, tepid, lukewarm. 
tige, f., stem, stalk. 
tigre, m., tiger. 
tirer, to drav/, take out. 
toi, you, to you. 
toilette, f., toilet, 
toit, m., roof, 
tombe, f., grave, 
tombeau, m., grave, 
tomber, to fall. 
ton, ta, tes, poss. adj., your. 



tort, m., wrong; avoir — , to be 

tot, soon. [wrong. 

toujours^ always. 

tour, f., tower. 

tour, m., turn; a votre — , in 

your turn; se£ enfermer. 
tourelle, f., turret, 
tourment, m., torment. 
toumer, to turn, 
tout, -e, pi. tous, toutes, adj., 

all, whole, any; — le monde, 

tout, pron., everything, all; mon 

— , the whole word, 
tout, adv., wholly, entirely, 
trace, /., trace, track. [quite. 

tracer, to trace, draw. 
tragedie, f., tragedy. 
trahison, f., treason, treachery. 
travail, tn., work, 
travailler, to work, 
traverser, to cross, 
traversin, tn., bolster. 
treize, thirteen. 

trente, thirty; — et un, thirty- 
tres, very. [one. 

Trinite, f., Trinity Sunday, 56 

days after Easter, 
triste, sad, gloomy, sorry, 
tristesse, f., sadness. 
trois, three. 
troisieme, third. 
trop, too, too much, 
trottoir, m., sidewalk, 
troubler, to disturb. 
trouver, to find, 
tu, you. 
tyran, m., tyrant 

un, -e, art, a, an. 

un, -e, adj., one ; 1' — , pron., one ; 
r — I'autre, each other ; les — s 
les autres, one another. 

union, f., union. 

ya.,pres. indie, and imper. of aller. 

vaillant, valiant, brave. 

vain; en — , vainly. 

vais, pres. indie, of aller. 

valait, imperf. indie, of valoir. 

valet, m., man-servant. 

valeur, f., value. 

vallon, m., little valley, dale. 

valoir, irr., to be worth; il vaut 
mieux or mieuz vaut, it is bet- 

vas, pres. indie, of aller. 

vaste, vast. 

vaudeville, m., vaudeville. 

vaut, pres. indie, of valoir. 

vendre, to sell. 

vendredi, m., Friday. 

venir, irr., to come. 

vent, m., wind; il fait du — , it 
is windy. - 

verrais, eondit. of voir. 

verre, m., glass. 

verrez, fut. of voir. 

verrou, m., bolt. 

vers, prep., about, toward. 

vers, m., verse, line. 

verser, to pour. 

vert, -e, green. 

vetement, m., garment; />/., 
clothes, dress. 

vetir, irr., to dress : se — , to 

veulent, veut, veux, pres. indie, 
of vouloir. 

viande, f., meat. 

victoire, /., victory. 

vide, empty. 

vieil, vieille; see vieux. 

vieillir, to grow old. 

vieux, vieil, vieille, old. 

vilain, ugly. 

village (pronotmee 11), tn., vil- 



ville (pronounce 11), f., city. 

vin, m., wine. 

vingt, twenty; — deux, twenty- 
two; — huit, twenty-eight; — 
neuf, twenty-nine. 

violon, m./ violin. 

visage, m., visage. 

viser, to aim. 

visite, f., visit. 

visiter, to visit. 

vite, fast, quickly. 

vitrine, f., shop- window. 

vive, pres. subj. of vivre. 

vivement, quickly. 

vivre, irr., to live. 

voeu, m., vow, wish. 

voici, here is, here are. 

voie, f., way, road. 

voila, there is, there are. 

voir, irr., to see ; voyez vous pas 
= ne voyez vous pas. 

voisin, m., neighbor. 

voisine, f., neighbor. 

voisinage, m., neighborhood. 

voiture, f., carriage. 

volee, f., volley; a toute — , full 

voler, to fly; steal. [peal. 

voluptueusement, with delight. 

vos, pi. poss. adj., your. 

votre, sing. poss. adj., your. 

votre, poss. pron.;' le — , la — , 
les — s, yours. 

voudras, fut. of vouloir. 

vouloir, irr., to will, wish, want ; 
en — a, to bear a grudge 
against, be displeased with. 

vous, you, to you, each other, to 
each other ; — meme, yourself, 
voyage, m., trip, travel, 
vbyager, to travel, 
voyageur, m., traveller, 
voyant, pres. part, of voir, 
voyelle, /., vowel, 
voyez, pres. indie, of voir, 
vrai, -e, true. 
vraiment, truly. 
vu, -e, past part, of voir. 

wagon lit, m., sleeping-car. 
Washington, prop. n. 

Xantippe, prop, n., wife of So- 

y, there, in it, to it, to them; il 

— a, there is, there are. 
yeux, pi. of oeil, eyes. 

zele, m., zeal. 
zephir, m., west wind. 


Verbs marked with an * require the auxiliary Hre in their compound tenses. 

A.; see o'clock. 

a, un, -e. 

able; to be — , pouvoir, irr. 

about, de ; vers ; see hundred. 

acquainted; to be — with, con- 

naitre, irr. 
acquaintance, connaissance, f. 
acquire, acquerir, irr. 
actor, acteur, m. 
actress, act rice, f. 
add, a j outer. 
address, adresse, f. 
administrator, administrateur, m. 
admiral, amiral, m. 
admire, admirer. 
adorn with, orner de. 
advice, avis, m. 
advise, conseiller a (person) de 

(in fin.). 
after, prep., apres. 
after, conj., apres que (indie). 
afternoon, apres midi, m. or f. 
afterwards, ensuite. 
agree, etre (irr.) d'accord. 
aim, viser. 

air, air, m. » 

all, adj., tout, toute; plur. tous, 

all, pron., tout, m. 
almost, presque. 
along; see take, 
already, deja. 


also, aussi. [subjunctive). 

although, quoique, bien que (with 

always, tou jours. 

ambassador, ambassadeur, m. 

ambassadress, ambassadrice, f. 

amiable, aimable. 

an, un, -e. 

and, et; see forth. 

animal, animal, m. 

anniversary, anniversaire, m. 

another, un autre ; see one. 

answer, repondre a. 

anteroom, antichambre, f. 

any, part, art., du, de la, de V, 
des ; de. 

any, adj., tout, quelque; (with 
neg.) aucun, nul, pas de. 

any, pron., quelqu'un, quelques 
uns ; en; (with neg.) nul, au- 
cun ; — one, quelqu'un ; (with 
neg.) personne. 

anybody, quelqu'un ; (with neg.) 

anything, quelque chose; (with 
neg.) rien. 

appear, paraitre, irr. 

applaud, applaudir. 

apricot, m., abricot. 

apricot tree, m., abricotier. 

armchair, fauteuil, m. 

arrive, *arriver. 

artist, artiste, m. or f. 

as, comme ; — ... — , aussi . . . 
que; — soon — , aussitot que 



(indie.) ; — soon — possible, 
le plus tot possible ; see much, 
many, same, so and usual. 

ask, demander a (person) de 
(infin.) ; — for, demander; 
— somebody a question, poser 
or adresser une question a 

at, a; see last, once, present, 
school, the. 

attend, soigner. 

attention, attention, /. 

attentively, avec attention. 

attract, appeler. 

auditorium, salle, f. 

aunt, tante, f. 

automobile, automobile, /. 

avenue, avenue, /. 

avoid, eviter de (infin.). 

awake, s'eveiller. 

away; see carry, go and take. 


back; see bring, come, give and 

bad, mauvais, -e. [go. 

badly, mal. 

ball, bal, m. 

basket, panier, w. 

be, etre, irr.; (weather) faire, 
irr.; there is or are, il y a ; 
(when pointing to) voila. 

beautiful, beau^ bel, belle. 

beautify, embellir. 

because, parce que (indicat.). 

become, *devenir, irr. ; — conva- 
lescent, entrer en convales- 

bed, lit, m. ; bedroom, chambre 
(f.) a coucher; bedside rug, 
descente (f.) de lit; see flower 
and go. 

beer, biere, f. 

before, prep., avant (time) ; de- 

' vant (place) ; avant de (i>e- 

fore infin.). 
before, conj., avant que (sub- 
begin, commencer a (infin.) ; se 

mettre (irr.) a (infin.). 
beginning, commencement, m. 
behavior, conduite, f. 
believes, croire, irr. 
bell, cloche, /.;. (small), son- 

nette, f. 
bench, banc, m. 
best, meilleur, -e, adj.; mieux, 

adv.; the — they can or could, 

de leur mieux. 
betake one's self, se rendre. 
better, meilleur, -e. adj.; mieux, 

adv.; be — , valoir (irr.) 

bicycle, bicyclette, /. 
bid one another good night, se 

dire (irr.) bonsoir. 
bird, oiseau, m. 
birth, naissance, f. 
birthday, anniversaire (w.) de 
biscuit, biscuit m. [naissance. 
black, noir, -e. 
blackboard, tableau, m. 
blanket, couverture, f. 
blind, store, m. 
blue, bleu, -e. 
blush for, rougir de. 
boarder, pensionnaire, m. or f. 
boarding house, pension, f. 
boat, bateau, m. 
bolster, traversin, m. 
book, livre, m. 
border, plate bande, f. 
boulevard, boulevard, m. 
box, boite, f. 
branch, branche, f. 
bread, pain. m. 
breakfast, dejeuner, m. 
breakfast, dejeuner. 
breathe, respirer. 



bring, apporter; — (persons), 
amener ; to — back, rapporter. 
brother, frere, m. 
brown, brun, -e. 
brush, brosser. 
building, edifice, m. 
bureau, commode, f. 
burner; see gas. 
but, mais. 
butter, beurre, m. 
button, bouton, m. 
buy, acheter. 
by, par; see rail. 

cake, gateau, m. 

call, appeler. 

calm, calme. 

can, pouvoir, irr. 

candle; see wax. 

candy, bonbon, m. 

car window, portiere, /.; sleep- 
ing car, wagon lit, m. 

care, soin, m.; take — of, soi- 
gner; take — not to, prendre 
(irr.) garde de (infin.). 

carpet, tapis, m. 

carry away, emporter. 

celebrate, celebrer. 

century, siecle, m. 

ceremony, ceremonie, f. 

chair, chaise, f. 

charming, charmant, -e. 

cheap, bon marche. 

cheaper, meilleur marche. 

cheek, joue, f. 

cheerful, gai, -e. 

cheese, fromage, m. 

child, enfant, m. or f. 

chocolate, chocolat, m. 

choice, choix, m. 

choose, choisir. 

church, eglise, f. 

city, ville, f. 

class, classe, f.\ — room, classe, 
f.; salle, f. 

clean, propre. 

climate, climat, m. 

climb, monter. 

cloak, manteau, m. 

cloth; see table. 

clothes, vetements, m. pi. 

coachman, cocher, m. 

coffee, cafe, m. 

cold, froid, -e; be — {weather), 
faire {irr.) froid. 

color, couleur, f. 

come, *venir, irr.; — back, *re- 
venir, irr.; on coming back 
from, de retour de ; — down, 
descendre ; — home, *rentrer. 

comedy, comedie, f. 

comfortable, confortable, bon, 

comic, comique. 

confusion, confusion, f. 

congregation, auditoire, m. 

convalescent; see become. 

converse, s'entretenir, irr. 

counterpane, couvre pieds, m. 

country, campagne, f. 

cousin, cousin, m.; cousine, /. 

cover with, couvrir {irr.) de. 

cracker, bisctiit, m. 

cream, creme, f. 

criticise, critiquer. 

cross, traverser, franchir. 

cry, cri, m. 

cup, tasse, f. 

cure, guerir. 

curtain, rideau, m. 

dance, danser. 

dangerously, dangereusement. 

dark, noir, -e, obsciir. -e. 



daughter, fille, f. 

day, jour, m.; good — , bonjour, 

in.; next — , lendemain. ul; 

two — s later, le surlende- 

dead, mort, -e. 
deal; a great — , beaucoup. 
dear, cher, chere. 
deceive one's self, se decevoir, 

decide, resoudre {irr.) de (tn- 

deep, profond, -e. 
delicious, delicieu-x. -se. 
delight; with — , voluptueuse- 

ment; take — in, se plaire 

{irr.) a {in fin.). 
delightful, delicieu-x, -se. 
depart, *partir, irr.; s'en aller, 

desire, desir, m. 
desire, desirer. 
desk, bureau, m.; pupitre, m. 
dessert, dessert, m. 
destination, destination, /. 
die, *mourir, irr. 
diligent, diligent, -e. 
dine, diner. 

dining room, salle (/.) a man- 
dinner, diner, m. 
direct one's steps, se diriger, 

directly, directement. 
disagreeable, desagreable. 
disobey, desobeir a. 
display, etalage, m. 
displeased; be very much — 

with, en vouloir {irr.) a. 
disturb, troubler. 
division, division, f. 
do, faire. irr.; see 86. I. 
doctor, docteur. m. 
door, porte, f. 
doubt, doute, w. 

down; sec come, go, lay and sit. 
dozen, douzaine, /.; sec half, 
draw, dessiner. 
dress or — up, s'habiller, se ve- 

tir, irr. 
dress, /., robe, 
drink, boire, irr. 
druggist, pharmacien, m.; to the 

— , chez le pharmacien. 
dry, sec, seche. 
during, pendant, 
duty, devoir, m. 

each, chaque ; — one, chacun, -e ; 

— other, Tun I'autre. 
ease, aise, /. 
eat, manger. 
educate, instruire, irr. 
effort, effort, m. 
eight, huit. 
eighty, quatre vingts; — one, 

quatre vingt un. 
elder son or brother, aine, w. 
electric, electrique.. 
elephant, elephant, m. 
eleventh, onzieme. 
end, fin, f. 
English, anglais, -e. 
enjoy {something), jouir de ; — 

{doing something) , s'amuser a 

{infin.) or se divertir a {in- 

fin.) ; — one's self, s'amuser, 

se divertir. 
enormous, enorme. 
enough, assez. 
enter, *entrer dans, 
entrance, entree, f. 
equipage, equipage, nt. 
essential, essentiel, -le. 
evening, soir, m.; good — , bon- 

soir, m.; — reception, soiree, /. 
event, evenement, m. 



ever, jamais. 

every, chaque, tout; — three 

hours, toutes les trois heures. 
everybody, tout le monde. 
everything, tout, m. 
examine, examiner. 
excellent, excellent, -e. 
except, excepte. 
exemplary, exemplaire. 
exercise, exercice, m.; written 

— , devoir, m. 
expensive, cher, chere. 
experience, experience, f. 
expression, expression, f. 
exquisite, exquis, -e. 
extend, tendre. 
extinguish, eteindre, irr. 
eye, oeil, m.; — s, yeux, m. pi. 


face, visage, m. 

fail, manquer de iinfin.). 

fair, blond, -e. 

faithful, fidele, m. [mir, irr. 

fall, *tomber; — asleep, s'endor- 

family, famille, /.; see head. 

famous, c61ebre, fameu-x, -se. 

far, loin; — from, loin de. 

favorite, favori, -te. 

fear, crainte, /. [peur. 

fear, craindre, irr.; avoir {irr.) 

feast, fdte, /.; to have a — of, se 

regaler de. 
feel, sentir, irr.; {pulse) tater. 
ferocious, f6roce. 
fervor, ferveur, /. 
few, peu de; a — , quelques, adj.; 

quelques-uns, pron. . 
fewer, moins de. 
fifth, cinquieme. 
fifty, cinquante. 
fig, figue, /. 
figure; with small (large) — s, i 

petites (grandes) fleurs. 

et cetera, et 

filled with, plein(e) de. 

find, trouver. 

fine, beau, bel, belle. 

finish, finir. 

first, premi-er, -ere. 

fish, poisson, m. 

flag, drapeau, m. 

flat, plat, -e. 

flower, f leur, /. ; — bed, parterre, 

follow, suivre, irr. 
following, suivant, -e. 
for, prep., pour; {during) pen- 
dant; — instance, par exemple; 
— rent, a louer ; — sale, a ven- 
for, conj., car. 
forbid, defendre a {person) de 

{in fin.). 
form, former. 
forth; and so - 
ainsi de suite. 
forty, quarante. 
four, quatre. 
fourteen, quatorze. 
freeze, geler. 
fresh, frais, fraiche. 
friend, ami, m.; amie, f. 
from, de ; — the, du, de la, de 1', 
des; — the beginning, depuis 
le commencement. 
front; in — of, devant. 
fruit, fruit, m. 
fulfil, remplir. 
full, plein, -e; see ring, 
furniture; see piece. 

game, jeu, m. 

garden, jardin, m. 

gas burner, bee (m.) de gaz. 

gather, cueillir, irr. 

general, general, m. 

generally, generalement. 



gentleman, monsieur, m.; gen- 
tlemen, messieurs, m. pi 

get up, se lever. 

girl, fille, /. 

give, donner ; — back, rendre. 

glass, verre, m. 

gloomy, triste. 

go, *aller, irr.; — away, s'en 
aller, irr; *partir, irr.; — back 
to, retourner a, *rentrer a ; — 
down, descendre; — home, 
*rentrer, retourner a la mai- 
son (chez soi) ; — out, *sor- 
tir; — to bed, se coucher; — 
up, monter. 

God, Dieu, m. 

good, bon, -ne. 

grand, grand, -e. 

grape, raisin, m. 

gratitude, gratitude, f. 

gray, gris, -e. 

great, grand, -e. 

green, vert, -e. 

greet, saluer. 

grope one's way, s'avancer a ta- 

gropingly, a tatons. 

ground, terre, f. 

grove, bosquet, m. 

grow, grandir. 

guess, deviner. 

guest, invite, rn.; invitee, f. 

hair, cheveux, m. pi. 

half, demi, -e ; — a dozen, une 

demi douzaine. 
hand, main, f. 

hand, remettre, irr. [tapisser de. 
hang from, pendre a; — with, 
happy, heureu-x, -se. 
hasten, se hater de (infin.). 
hastily, a la hate. 
hat, chapeau, m. 

hate, hair. 

have, avoir, irr.; to — (some- 
thing) prepared, faire prepa- 
rer; to — (with past part, of 
intrans. verbs of motion), etre, 

he, il, lui. 

head of a family, pere (;».) de 

health; to be in good — , se por- 
ter bien. 

hear, entendre. 

heart, coeur, m.; by — , par coeur. 

help, aider. 

her, pron., elle, la, lui. 

her, poss. adj., son, sa, ses. 

here, ici ; — is or are, voici. 

hers, le sien, la sienne, les siens. 
les siennes. 

high, haut, -e. 

him, le, lui. 

his, poss. adj., son, sa, ses. 

his, poss. pron., le sien, la sienne, 
les siens, les siennes. 

hold out, tendre. 

home, chez moi (toi, soi, lui, 
elle, nous, vous, eux, elles) ; 
a la maison ; see go. 

horse-shoer, marechal, m. 

host, bote, m. 

hostess, hotesse, f. 

hotel, hotel, w. 

hour, heure, f.; every three — s, 
toutes les trois heures ; one or 
two — s, une ou deux heures 
or une heure ou deux. 

house, maison, f.; at, to or in 
my (your, etc.) — , chez moi 
(toi, soi, lui, elle, nous, vous, 
eux, elles) ; at, to, in the — 
of, chez le, la, 1', les. 

how, comment ; — much, — 
many, combien de ; — is the 
weather? quel temps fait il? 

however, cependant 



hundred, adj., cent. 

hundred, n., centaine; about 

one — , une centaine. 
hungry; to be — f avoir {irr.) 


I, je, moi. 

ideal, ideal, -e. 

if, si. 

ill, malade. 

immediately, immediatement. 

immense, immense. 

impatiently, impatiemment. 

improvement, perfectionnement, 

in, dans, en ; — winter, en hiver ; 

— front of, devant. 
industrious, diligent, -e. 
inflict upon, infliger a {person). 
inhabitant, habitant, m. 
inkstand, encrier, m. 
instance; for — , par exemple. 
instrument, instrument, m. 
interesting, interessant, -e. 
interval, intervalle, m. 
into, dans, 
introduce, introduire, irr.; {to 

another person) presenter. 
invite, inviter. 
it, il, elle, le, la, ce, cela. 
its, adj., son, sa, ses ; en . . . le, 

la, les. 

jewel, bijou, m. 
joyful, joyeu-x, -se. 

keep, garder. 

key, cle, f. 

kind, aimable, bon, -ne. 

kind, sorte, f. 

kindness, bonte, /. 

knife, couteau, m. 

knob, bouton, m. 

know thoroughly, savoir, irr.; to 

— a little, connaitre, irr. 
knowledge, connaissance, f. 

lace, dentelle, /".; — curtain, ri- 
deau (m.) de dentelle. 

lack, manquer de. 

lady, dame, f.; young — , de- 
moiselle, f.; ladies and gen- 
tlemen, mesdames et messieurs. 

lake, lac, m. 

lamp, lampe, f. 

landing, palier, m. 

lane, allee, f. 

large, grand, -e; nombreu-x, -se. 

last; at — , en fin. 

late, tard; en retard {person.)-, 
two days later, le surlende- 

laugh at, rire {irr.) de. 

lawn, pelouse, /. 

lay down, deposer. 

lead, mener. 

leaf, feuille, f. 

left, gauche, /.; see side. 

leisurely, a mon (ton, son, notre, 
votre, leur) aise, f. 

lemonade, limonade, f. 

less, moins de {noun). 

lesson, legon, f. 

lest, de peur que, de crainte que 
{subjunctive) . 

let, louer; to — , a louer. 

library, bibliotheque, f. 

light, lumiere, /. 

light, allumer ; to — up, eclairer. 

like, aimer, cherir. 

lion, Hon, m. 

listen to, ecouter. 

little, adj., petit, -e. 

little, adv., peu de. 



live, demeurer. 
lock, serrure, f. 

lock; sec shut. [plus. 

long, long, -ue ; no — er, ne . . . 
look, regarder; to — at, regar- 
der ; to — out of, regarder par. 
lose, perdre. 

M.; see o'clock. 

Madam, Madame. 

magnificent, magnifique. 

maid, servante, f. 

make, faire, irr.; to — use of, se 

servir {irr.) de. 
man, homme, m. 
manner, maniere, f. 
many, beaucoiip de ; as — ... as, 

autant de {noun) que; how 

— , combien de {noun) ; so —, tant de {noun) que; 

too — , trop de {noun). 
map, carte, /. 
marquis, marquis, m. 
master, maitre, m.; — piece, chef 

(m.) d'oeuvre. 
match, allumette, /. 
mattress, matelas, m. 
may, pouvoir, irr. 
me, me, moi. 
meal, repas, m. 
meat, viande, f. 
medicine, medicament, m. 
meet, rencontrer. 
melodrama, melodrame, m. 
member, membre, m. 
menagerie, menagerie, f. 
merry, gai, -e. 
mild, clement, -e. 
milk, lait, in. 
mine, le mien, la mienne, les 

miens, les miennes. 
minister, ministre. tn. 
minute, minute, f. 
mistress, maitresse, f. 

modem, moderne. 

Monday, lundi, m. 

monkey, singe, m. 

month, mois, m. 

more, plus de {noun) ; no — , ne 
. . . plus ; — and — , de plus en 

morning, matin, vi.; good — , bon- 

most, plus. [jour, m. 

mother, mere. f. 

much, beaucoup de {noun) ; as 
— ... as, autant de ( noun ) que ; 
80 —, tant de {noun) 
que; how — , combien de 
{noun) ; too — ,trop de(noMn). 

mud, boue, f. 

music, musique, f. 

muslin, mousseline, f.; — cur- 
tain, rideau (m.) de mousse- 

must, devoir, irr.; falloir, irr., 

mustard, moutarde, /. 

mute, muet, -te. 

my, mon, ma, mes. 

napkin, serviette, f. 

narrow, etroit, -e. 

nature, nature, f. 

near, pres de. 

necessary; to be — , falloir, irr., 

need, besoin, m.; to be in — of, 

avoir {irr.) besoin de. 
need, avoir {irr.) besoin de. 
neighbor, voisin. m.; voisine, f. 
neighborhood, voisinage, m. 
nephew, neveu, m. 
never, ne . . . jamais. 
newspaper, journal, m. 
next day, lendemain, m. 
niece, niece, f. [m. 

night, nuit, f.; good — , bonsoir, 



ninety, quatre vingt dix ; — one, 

quatre viiigt onzc. 
ninth, neuvieme. 
no, ne . . . pas de, aucun . . . ne, 

ne . . . aucun ; nul . . . ne, ne . . . 

nul ; — more, ne . . . plus. 
no, non. 

nobody, personne, m. (with 
noiselessly, doucement. [neg.). 
none, nul . . . ne, aucun . . . ne^ ne 

. . . aucun ; n'en . . . pas, 
nor, ni; (a//^r prendre garde) ou. 
not, ne . . . pas ; — a, — any, ne 

. . . pas de ; ne . . . aucun. 
notebook, cahier, m. 
nothing, rien , . . ne, ne , . . rien, 
notice, remarquer, apercevoir, 
novel, roman. m. [irr. 

numerous, nombreu-x, -se. 
nurse, garde malade, m. or f. 

obey, obeir a. 

obscure, obscur, -e. 

occupy, occuper. 

o'clock, heure, /.; two — A.M., 
deux heures du matin ; six — 
P. M., six heures du soir. 

of, de; — the, du, de la, de 1', 
des ; — it, — them, en. 

office; ticket — , guichet, m. 

oil, huile, f. 

olive, olive, f. 

on, sur; omitted before dates. 

once; at — , aussitot, tout de suite. 

one, adj., un, -e ; — or two hours, 
une heure ou deux or une ou 
deux heures. 

one, pron., on; — 's self, se; — 
another, se, I'au- 
tre; the — , celui, celle ; the 
— s, ceux, celles : this — , ce- 
lui ci, celle ci ; that — , celui 
la, celle la. 

only, ne . . . que. 

open, ouvrir, irr. 

opera, opera, m. 

opposite, en face de. 

or, ou. 

order, ordre, m.; in — that, 

pour que, afin que {suhjunct.) 
organ, orgue, m. 
organist, organiste, m. 
other, autre; some... or — , un 

. . . quelconque. 
ought, devoir, irr. 
our, notre, nos. 

ours, le notre, la notre, les no- 
out of, par. ' [tres. 
over; to be — , etre {irr.) fini, -e. 
overcoat, pardessus, m. 

pale, pale. 

paper, papiet, m. 

parent, parent, m. 

park, pare, m. 

parlor, salon, m. 

part, partie, f. 

party; evening — , soiree, /., 

pass, passer. 

passenger, voyageur, m. 

path; side — , contre-allee, f. 

peal, volee, f.; see ring. 

pen, plume, f. 

pencil, crayon, m. 

people, on, m.; young — , jeunes 
gens, m. pi. 

pepper, poivre, m. 

perceive, apercevoir, irr. 

performance, representation, f. 

perfume, parfum, m. 

permission, permission, f. 

person, personne, f.; — s pres- 
ent, assistants, w. pi. 

physician, medecin, m. 

piano, piano, m. 

pick, cueillir, irr. 

piece, morceau, m.; — of fur- 
niture, meuble, m. 



pill, pilule, f. 

pillow, oreiller, w. 

pity, pitie, /.; to have — on, 

avoir (»Vr.) pitie de. 
pity, avoir (»Vr.) pitie de. 
place, placer, 
plate, assiette, f. 
plateful, assiettee, /. 
play, piece, f, 
play, jouer; {instrument) joiiei 

de; playground, preau, m. 
pleasant, charmant, agreable. 
please, plaire {irr.) a. 
pleased, content (e) de (infin.) ; 

— with, satisfait(e) de. 
pleasure, plaisir, m. 
pocket, poche, /. 
poor, pauvre ; mauvais, -e. 
possible, possible; it is — , il se 

pound, livre, f. 
pour, verser. 
practice, pratique, f. 
pray, prier. 
precise, precis, -e. 
prefer, preferer. 
preferable, preferable. 
prepare, preparer; to have 

(something) prepared, faire 

(irr.) preparer. 
prescribe, ordonner. 
prescription, prescription, f. 
present; to be — at, assister a. 
present, presenter, 
press, presser. 
pretty, joli, -e. 
princess, princesse, f. 
probably, probablement. 
progress, progres. m. 
proper; be — , convenir, irr. 
provide with, pourvoir (irr.) de. 
public, public, m. 
puU down, baisser. 
pulse, pouls, m. 
punish, punir. 
punishment, punition, f. 

pupil, eleve, m. or f. 
put, placer; mettre, irr.; to — 
on, mettre, irr. 

quality, qualite, f. 

quarter, quart, m.; a — of an 

hour, un quart d'heure. 
question, question, /. 
quick, rapide. 
quickly, rapi dement 
quiet, calme. 

radish, radis, m. 

rail; by — , en chemin de fer. 

railroad, chemin de fer, m. 

rain, pleuvoir, irr. 

raise, lever. 

rap, coup, m. 

rapid, rapide. 

rapidly, rapidement. 

rare, rare. 

rather, plutot. 

reach, parvenir (irr.) a; attein- 
dre, irr. 

read, lire, irr. 

receive, recevoir, irr.; to — a 
punishment, subir une puni- 

reception; evening — , soiree, f. 

recommend, recommandcr de 

red, rouge. 

reflect upon, reflechir a. 

refuse, refuser. 

reign, regner. 

rejoice, (somebody) rejouir; 
(doing something) se rejouir 
de (infin.). 

relative, parent, m. 

remain, *rester. 

rent, louer ; for — , a louer. 



repass, repasser. 

repeat, repeter. 

reply, repondre, repliquer. 

represent, representer. 

reputation, reputation, f. 

require, exiger. 

reside, demeurer. 

respective, respecti-f, -ve. 

rest, repos, m. 

rest, se reposer. 

restaurant, restaurant, w. 

return, {give back) rendre; {go 

back) retourner; on returning 

from, de retour de. 
revive, revivre, irr. 
right, droite, f.; on the — , de 

droite; see side, 
ring, sonner; to — a full peal, 

sonner a toute volee. 
ripe, mur, -e. 
road, route, f. 
room, chambre, f. 
rosy, rose, 
round, rond, -e. 
rug; see bedside. 


sad, triste. 

sale; for — , a vendre. 

salt, sel, m. 

same, meme. 

Saturday, samedi, m. 

say, dire, irr. 

scenery, decors, m. pi. [en classe. 

school, ecole, /.; at — , a I'ecole, 

schoolmaster, instituteur, m. 

schoolmistress, institutrice, f. 

scold, gronder. 

scratch, frotter. 

sculptor, sculpteur, m. 

season, saison, f. 

seat, place, f. 

seated, assis, -e. 

second, seconde, f. 

see, apercevoir, irr.; voir, irr. 

seem, sembler; paraitre, irr.; to 

— to be, paraitre, irr. 
seldom, rarement. 
sell, vendre. [{irr.) venir. 

send, envoyer, irr.; — for, faire 
sermon, sermon, m. 
service, service, m. 
set, se coucher. 
seven, sept, 
seventy, soixante dix. 
several, plusieurs. 
shade, ombre, /.; {blind) store, 
she, elle. [m. 

sheet, drap, m. 
short, court, -e. 
show, montrer. 
show window, etalage, m. 
shut one's self in by locking the 

door, s'enfermer a double 
^ tour, 
side, cote m.; — path, contre-al- 

lee, f. ; on the right — , de droit ; 

on the left — , de gauche. 
sidewalk, trottoir, m. 
silence, silence, m. 
silent; to be — , se taire, irr. 
since, depuis. 
sing, chanter, 
sir, monsieur. 
sister, soeur, f. 
sit down, s'asseoir, irr. 
six, six. 
sixteen, seize, 
sixth, sixieme. 
sixty, soixante. 
skilful, habile, 
sleep, dormir, irr. 
sleeping car, wagon lit, m. 
sleepy; to be — , avoir (irr.) 
slowly, lentement. [sommeil. 

small, petit, -e. 
smiling, souriant, -e. 
snake, serpent, m. 
snow, neige, f. 
so, si ; — much as, — many as, 

tant de {noun) que. 



soil, salir. 

some, part, art, du, de la, de V, 
des ; quelque, certain ; — ... or 
other, un . . . quelconque. 

some, pron., quelques uns ; en. 

somebody, quelqu'un. 

something, quelque chose, m. 

sometimes, quelquefois, parfois; 
— ...» — . . ., tantot . . ., tan- 
son, fils, m. [tot . . . 

song, chant, tn. 

soon, bientot; — er, plus tot; as 
— as possible, le plus tot pos- 
sible; as — as, aussitot que 

sorry, triste. 

sort, sorte, f. 

sound, son, m. 

soundly, profondement ; to sleep 
— , dormir {irr.) sur les deux 

space, espace, m. 

speak, parler. 

spectacle, theatre, m. 

spend, passer. 

spoonful, cuilleree, f. 

stage, scene, /. 

staircase, escalier, m. 

stairs, escalier, m. 

standing, debout {adv.). 

start to work, se mettre {irr.) 
au travail. 

statue, statue, /. 

stay, *rester. 

steal, derober. 

still, encore. 

stop, s'arreter. 

store, magasin. m. 

stove, fourneau, m. 

stranger, etranger, m. 

strawberry, f raise, f. 

street, rue, /.; {causeway) ch2i\is- 

strike, f rotter. [see, /. 

strip, depouiller. 

studious, studieu-x, -se. ♦ 

subject, sujet, m. 

succeed, reussir. 

such, tel, -le. 

suffer, souffrir, irr. 

summer, ete, m. 

sun, soleil, m. 

Sunday, {last or next) dimanche, 

m.; {every) le dimanche. 
superb, superbe. 
supper; to take — , souper. 
sure, siir, -e. 
sweet, dou-x, -ce. 

table, table, f.; — cloth, nappe, 

take, prendre, irr.; (o person) 
mener; {drink) boire, irr.; 
{s-djalloiv) avaler ; to — away, 
emporter ; {steal) enlever; to 

— along, emmener; to — care 
of, soigner; to — care not to, 
prendre {irr.) garde de (m- 
fin.) ; to — delight in, se 
plaire a {in fin.) : to — off 
one's hat, se decouvrir. irr.; to 

— out, tirer; to — supper, 
, souper ; to — a walk, se pro- 

mener, faire {irr.) une pro- 

talk, parler. 

tall, grand, -e. 

tarry, s'attarder a {infin.). 

tea, the, m. 

teach, instruire. irr. 

teacher, maitre, m. 

tell, dire, irr. 

ten, dix. 

than, que. 

thank for, remercier de. 

that, dem. adj., ce, cet, cette; ce 
... la, cet . . . la. cette ... la. 

that or — one, dem. pron., celui, 
celle ; celui la. celle la ; cela ; ce. 

that, relat. pron., qui, que. 



that, conj., que. 

the, le, la, 1', les; — one, celui, 

celle; — ones, ceux, celles. 
theater, theatre, m. 
their, leur, leurs. 
theirs, le leur, la leur, les leurs; 

en . . . le, la, 1', les. 
them, les, leur, eux, elles. 
then, alors; puis. 
there, la, y ; — is or are, il y a ; 

{when pointing to) voila. 
these, dem. adj., ces ; ces . . . ci. 
these, de7n. pr., ceux, celles ; ceux 

ci, celles ci. 
they, ils, eux, elles. 
^hink, penser. 

thirsty; to be — , avoir (irr.) 
thirteen, treize. [soif. 

thirty, trente. 
this, dem. adj., ce, cet, cette; ce 

. ; . ci, cet . . . ci, cette . . . ci. 
this or — one, dem. pron., celuT, 

celle ; celui ci, celle ci ; ceci ; 

those, dem. adj., ces ; ces . . . la. 
those, dem. pr., ceux, celles; 

ceux la, celles la. 
thousand, mille. 
threatening, incertain, -e. 
three, trois. 
through, par. 
ticket, billet, m.; — office, gui- 

chet, m. 
tiger, tigre, m. 
time, temps, m.; {o'clock) heure, 

f.; meal — , I'heure du repas; 

what — is it? quelle heure 

est il? 
tired, fatigue, -e. 
to, a, de; — the, au, a la, a 1', 

aux; — the end, jusqu'a la 

fin ; see house, 
tongue, langue, f. 
too, trop; — much, — many, 

trop de {noun). 
top, haut, m. 

towards, vers. 

towel, serviette de toilette, /.; es- 

suie mains, m. 
tower, tour, /. 
toy, joujou, m. 
tragedy, tragedie, /. 
travel, voyager, 
traveller, voyageur, m. 
tree, arbre, m. 
trip, voyage, m. 
trouble, peine, f.; see worth, 
try, essayer de {infin.). 
Tuesday, mardi, m. 
turn, tourner. 
twelve, douze. 
twenty, vingt. 
two, deux. 

ugly, vilain, -e. 

umbrella, parapluie, m. 

uncle, oncle, m. 

undress, se ddshabiller. 

unless, k moins que {subjunc- 

until, jusqu'k. \tive). 

us, nous. 

use; to make — of, se servir 

{irr.) de. 
useless, inutile, 
usher, ouvreuse,/. 
usual, accoutum^, -e; as — , 

comme de coutume. 
usually, gdndralement, de cou- 
utter, Jeter. [tume. 

vast, vaste. 

vaudeville, vaudeville, m» 
vegetable, legume, m, 
very, tres, bien. 
• village, village, m. 
violin, violon, m. 
visit, visite, f. 




wait, attendre ; — for, attendre. 

waiter, garden, m. 

walk, promenade, f. 

walk, marcher. 

wall, mur, w. 

want, vouloir, irr. 

wash, laver. 

washstand, lavabo, in.' 

water, eau, f. 

wax candle, bougie, f. 

way, chemin, m.; on the — , en 

we, nous. 
weather, temps, m.; how is the 

— ? quel temps fait il? 
week, semaine, /. 
weep, pleurer. 
well, bien. 

what, interr. adj., quel, -le? 
what, interr. pron., qu'est ce qui? 

qu'est ce que? que? quoi? le- 

quel? laquelle? etc. 
what, relat. pron., ce qui, ce que. 
when, quand, lorsque. 
whenever, quand, lorsque. 
where, ou. 

which, interr. adj., quel, -le. 
which, interr. pron., qui? que? 

lequel? laquelle? etc.; of — ? 

duquel? etc. 
which, relat. pron., qui, que; of 

— , duquel, etc.; dont. 
while, en (pres. partic.). 
white, blanc, -he. 
who, qui, qui est ce qui? 
whoever, quiconque. 
whole, tout; the — garden, tout 

le jardin. 
whom, interr. pron., qui? qui est 

ce que? 
whom, relat. pron., que. 
whose, de qui, duquel, dont; — 

toy is this, a qui est ce jou- 

why, pourquoL 

wide, large. 

wild, sauvage. 

wind, vent, m. 

window, fenetre, f.; (shop) vi- 

trine, f.; sec show and car. 
windy; to be — (impersonal), 

faire (irr.) du vent 
wine, vin, m. 
winter, hiver, m. 
wish, desir, m. 
wish, desirer, vouloir, irr, 
with. avec. 
within, en. 
without, sans. 

work, travail, m. « 

work, travailler. 
worth ; to be — , valoir, irr.; to be 

— tiie trouble or the while, en 
valoir (irr.) la peine; that is 

— looking at, cela vaut la peine 
d'etre regarde. 

write, ecrire, irr. 

year, annee, f. 

yellow, jaune. 

yes, oui; (after negat question) 

yet, encore. 

yield, ceder. 

you, tu, toi, te, vous. 

young, jeune; — lady, demoi- 
selle, /. 

younger eon or brother, cadet, m. 

your, ton, ta, tes; votre, vos. 

yours, le tien, la tienne, les tiens, 
les tiennes; le votre, la votre, 
les votres. 

yourselves, vous. 

zeal, zele, m. 


Numbere refer to paragraphs unless preceded by p. = page. 

k: contraction with the definite 
article, 97; before infinitives 
after certain verbs, 384; — 
moins que, 444. s, 452- 

accent, p. 13; tonic accent, p. 18. 

acquerir, 470. 

active voice replacing English 
passive voice, 267, 346. 

adjectives: agreement, 28, 163. i 
and 2; feminine: general rule, 
29; exceptions, 29. i and 2, 38 
note, 148, 161, 171. 2, 172; 
plural: general rule, 30; ex- 
ceptions, 147, 170. 2, 171. i; 
comparison, 38; position, 149, 
160; demonstrative, 41, 116; 
♦ indefinite, 264; interrogative, 
230. i; numeral: cardinal, 75; 
ordinal, 76; possessive, 40, 367; 
replaced by the definite article, 
432; replaced by en and the 
definite article, 367. 2; super- 
lative, 39. 

adverbs: formation, 118. i, 130; 
position, 118. 2, 433; compari- 
son, 118. I. 

afin que, 444. 5. 

after, see apres. 

agreement, see adjectives and 

aller, 306, 324, p. 256. 

anterior, see past. 

any, see partitive under article, 
and en. 

apostrophe, p. 13. 

aprSs, 392. 

article: definite, i. 2, 2. i, 9; 
contraction with i, 97; with de, 
48; generic, p. 80 footnote; 
indefinite, 62; partitive, 63, 
137, 150, 162, 308. i; replacing 
possessive adjective, 367, 432, 

aspirate h, p. 16. 

asseoir, 366. 

atteindre, 408. 

auxiliary verbs, see dtre, avoir, do, 
and verbs. 

avant que, 444. 5. 

avoir: conjugation, p. 251; past 
participle conjugated with avoir, 
243, 288. 


bel for beau, 147. 2. 
bien que, 444. 5. 
boire, 393, p. 256. 
by, 392. 


cardinal numbers, 75. 
ce: demonstrative adjective, 41; 
demonstrative pronoun, 221, 

251, 252, 253; C*est, 221. 

ceci, 251. 

cedilla, p. 14. 

cela, 251. 

celui, celle, ceux, celles, 220. 

-cer, verbs ending in, 139. 

cet, cette, 41. 

ci, 116, 220. I note. 

comparison, 38. 

compound: nouns, 375; tenses, 



p. 138 footnote, 235, 305; 
vowels, p. 15. 
conditional, 201, p. 137 footnote, p. 

conjugation: regular verbs, p. 255; 

irregular verbs, pp. 251-254, pp. 

conjunctions: quand, 262, 347; 

lorsque, 347; si, 261; requiring 

the subjunctive, 444. 5. 
connaitre, 470, p. 257. 
consonants, p. 16, 75 note i; final, 

p. 17. 
construction: interrogative, 19, 

20, 21, 31, 52, 119. i; negative, 

18, 21,64,119,265,452. 
contraction, 48, 97. 
convenir, 461. 
couvrir, 307, p. 257. 
craindre, 385, p. 257; followed by 

the subjunctive, 452. 
CTainte: de — que, 444. 5, 452. 
croire, 470, p. 257. 
cueillir, 287, p. 257. 

de: contraction, 48; partitive, 
63, T-n, 150. 162, 308. i; trans- 
lating with, 308. 2 ; translating in 
after a supyerlative, 222; after 
adverbs of quantity, 181; after 
nouns of quantity and measure, 
191; after rien, quelque chose, 

decouvrir, 461. 

definite, see article and preterit. 

demi, 207. 

demonstrative, see adjectives and 

derived tenses, p. 137 footnote, 
p. 138 footnote. 

diaeresis, p. 14. 

diphthongs, p. 15. 

dire, 377, p. 257. 

division into syllables, p. 18. 

do, 86. 1. 

beginner's FRENCH 

dont, 232, 252. 
dormir, 416, p. 257. 


e: mute or silent, p. 14; final e 

replaced by e, 86. 2; change of 

e before last syllable of infinitive' 

193, 204. I. 
e, change of e before last syllable 

of infinitive, 192, 203. 
each other, 424. 
ecrire, 445, p. 257. 
-eler, verbs ending in, 194, 204. 2, 

205. 2. 
elision, 9, 18, 48. 3, 64, 65, 221, 

en: pronominal adverb, 182, 288, 

367; position, 286; preposition, 

endings of regular verbs, p. 255. 
envoyer, 297, p. 257. 
est ce que, 52. 

gteindre, 416, p. 257 footnote i. 
-eter, verbs ending in, 194, 204. 3, 

205. I. 
etre, p. 253; used for avoir, 306; 

with reflexive verbs, 364. 
-evoir, verbs ending in, see rece- 
voir, p. 258. 

faire, 307, p. 257. 

falloir, 316, p. 257. 

fear: verbs of fear requiring the 
subjunctive, 444. 3, 452. 

feeling: verbs of feeling requiring 
the subjimctive, 444. 3. 

feminine, see gender and adjec- 

final consonants, p. 17. 

formation of tenses, p. 137 foot- 
note, p. 138 footnote. 

future, 201, p. 137 footnote, p. 138 
footnote, p. 255. 

beginner's FRENCH 



gender, i. 

generic article, p. 80 footnote, 
-ger, verbs ending in, 138. 
graphic signs, p. 13. 

h: aspirate, p. 16; mute, p. 16. 
hair, 316. 
he is, 221. 
hope, see feeling, 
hyphen, p. 13, 66. 


if, 261. 

imperative: p. 138 footnote, p. 255; 
position of personal pronouns 
with, 296. 

imperfect: indicative, p. 137 foot- 
note, p. 255; subjunctive, p. 138 
footnote, p. 255. 

impersonal verbs, 444. i. 

in, 392; after superlatives, 222, 

indefinite, see adjectives, article, 
and pronouns. 

indicative, p. 137 footnote, p. 138 
footnote, p. 255. 

infinitive, p. 137 footnote, p. 255; 
without preposition, 384; with 
kj de, 384; replacing present 
participle, 376, 392. 

instruire, 461. 

interrogative, see adjectives, con- 
struction, pronouns, and verbs. 

introduire, 408. 

irregular verbs, pp. 251-254, pp. 

it: as subject, 10; it is, 221, 323; 
as object, 277, 286, 296. 

its, 367. 


U, 116, 220. I note, 
liaison, p. 17. 
linking of words, p. 17. 
lire, 400, p. 257. 

Ton, 267. 
lorsque, 347. 


madame, p. 95 footnote, 
mademoiselle, p. 95 footnote, 
masculine, i. 
mettre, 324, p. 258. 
moins: a — que, 444. 5, 452. 
monsieur, p. 95 footnote. 
mourir, 453, p. 258. 
mute or silent e, p. 14; mute h, 
p. 16. 


nasal sounds, p. 15. 

ne, 18, 21, 64, 119, 265, 452. 

negation or negative construction, 
18, 21, 64, 119, 265, 452. 

negative verbs requiring the sub- 
junctive, 444. 2. 

no, not, not a, not any, 18, 64, 264. 

nouns: gender, i; number: gen- 
eral rule, 2. 2; exceptions, 49- 
51, 88, 96, 170. I, 183; com- 
pound, 375. 

number: of adjectives: general 
rule, 30; exceptions, 147, 170. 2, 
171. i; of nouns: general rule, 
2. 2; exceptions, 49-51, 88, 
96, 170. I, 183; of compound 
nouns, 375. 

numeral adjectives, 75, 76. 

object, see personal under pro- 

-oir, verbs ending in, 152, p. 251, 
pp. 256-259. 

on, 267. 

on, 206, 392. 

one another, 424. 

only, 65. 

ordinal' numbers, 76. 

orthographic peculiarities of verbs 
of the first conjugation, 138, 


beginner's FRENCH 

139, 192, 193, 194, 203, 204, 

205, 263. 
oui, 119. 2. 
ouvrir, 40x5, p. 258. 

paraitre, 461, p. 258. 

participle: present, p. 137 foot- 
note, p. 138 footnote; replaced 
by the infinitive in French, 376, 
392; past, 234; agreement, 243, 
288, 306, 364, 415. 

partir, 316, p. 258. 

partitive, see article. 

passive, see voice. 

past: anterior, footnote p. 179, p. 
251, p. 253; definite, see preterit; 
and see participle. 

jersonal, see pronouns. 

peur: de — que, 444. 5, 452. 

plaire, 348, p. 258. 

pleuvoir, 307, p. 258. 

pluperfect, see compound under 

plural, see number. 

position, see adjectives, adverbs, 

possessive, see adjectives and pro- 

pour que, 444. 5. 

pourvoir, 416, p. 258. 

pouvoir, 393, p. 258. 

prendre, 339, p. 258. 

prepositions, see H, apr^s, de, en, 
by, in, with. 

present: indicative, p. 255, p. 137 
footnote, p. 138 footnote; par- 
ticiple, p. 137 footnote, p. 138 
footnote, 376, 392; subjunctive, 
p. 255, p. 137 footnote, p. 138 

preterit or past definite, p. 255, 
p. 137 footnote, p. 138 footnote. 

primitive tenses or principal parts, 
p. 137 footnote, p. 138 footnote. 

pronouns: demonstrative, 220, 
221, 251; indefinite, 264, 265; 
interrogative, 223, 230. 2, 3, 
and 4, 233; personal, 277, 315; 
position, 277, 286, 296, 315; 
possessive, 242; relative, 220. 2, 
231, 232, 252. 

pronunciation, pp. 13-18. 

quand, 262, 347. 

que: conjunction that, 444. 5; 
as or than, 38; relative or 
interrogative pronoun, see pro- 

questions, see construction. 

quoique, 444. 5. 


recevoir, 152, 153, p. 258. 

reciprocal verbs, 424. 

reflexive verbs, 355, 356, 364, 365, 

regular verbs, 84, p. 255. 
relative, see pronouns. 
resoudre, 377, p. 259. 
rirCf 453, P- 259. 


que, 444. 5. 
savoir, 470, p. 259. 
sentir, 366, p. 259. 
sequence of tenses, 469. 
servir, 434, p. 259. 
she is, 221. 
si: if, 261; yes, 53. 
simple tenses, p. 255. 
simple vowels, p. 14. 
some, see partitive under article, 

indefinite under adjectives, and 

sortir, 357, p. 259. 
souffrir, 445, p. 259. 
sounds, nasal, p. 15. 



subjunctive: tenses, p. 137 foot- 
note, p. 138 footnote, 442, 443, 
468, p. 25s; uses, 444, 452. 

superlative: adjectives, 39; ad- 
verbs, 118. i; followed by sub- 
junctive, 444. 4. 

syllabication, p. 18. 

-t-, when inserted, 66. 

taire, 461, p. 259. 

tenir, 393, p. 259. 

tenses: simple, p. 255; compound, 
p. 138 footnote, 235, 305; forma- 
tion, p. 137 footnote, p. 138 
footnote; conjugation, pp. 251- 
255; sequence, 469. 

they are, 221. 

time of day, 323. 

tonic accent, p. 18. 

tu, p. 23 footnote. 

valoir, 377, p. 259. 

venir, 366, p. 259. 

verbs: regular, p. 255; irregular, 
pp. 251-254, pp. 256-259; 
auxiliary, pp. 251-254; do, 
86. i; impersonal, 444. i; 

interrogative or negative fol- 
lowed by subjunctive, 444. 2; 
reflexive, 355, 356, 364, 365, 
432; reciprocal, 424; -cer, 139; 
change of 6 before last syllable of 
infinitive, 192, 203; change of e 
before last syllable of infinitive, 
193, 204. i; -eler, 194, 204. 2, 
205. 2; -eter, 194, 204. 3, 205. i; 
-evoir, see recevoir, p. 258; 
-ger, 138; -oir, 152, p. 251, 
pp. 256-259; -yer, 263. 

vfitir, 434, p. 259. 

vivre, 453, p. 259. 

voice: active replacing passive, 
267, 346; passive, 305, 306. 

voir, 331, P- 259- 

vouloir, 445, p. 259. 

vowels: simple, p. 14; compound, 
p. 15. 


while, 392. 

wiU: verbs of will followed by 
subjunctive, 444. 3. 

with, 308. 2. 


y, 278, 286, 298. 

-yer, verbs ending in, 263. 

yes, 53, 119. 2. 




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