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Ube IRutal UcxUXoo'k Series 

Edited bt L. H. BAILEY 



BEPABTMEST OF EDDOATKW 
lELMD STANFORD JUNIOR UBIVHSSITr 



BEGINNINGS IN AGRICULTURE 



Cfte 3^ural €txt'Mook S>etits 

Mann, Beginnings in Agbicultubb. 
Warren, Elements of Agriculture. 
Lyon and Fippin, Soil Management. 
J. F. Duggar, Southern Field Crops. 
B. M. DuGGAR, Plant Physiology. 
Others in preparation. 



THB BHEEP IN THE MEADOW. 



BEGINNINGS 



m 



AGRICULTURE 



BY 



ALBERT RUSSELL MANN 

SECRETARY TO THE NEW YORK STATE COLLEGE 
OF AGRICULTURE AT CORNELL UNIVERSITY 



Kcln gorfe 

THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 

1912 

All rights reserved 



626288 



C 

Copyright, 1911, 
By the MACMILLAN COMPANY. 



Set up and electrotyped. Published September, 19x1. Reprinted 
July, igi.-* ; November, 1912. 



J. S. Gushing Co. — Berwick & Smith Co. 
Norwood, Mass., U.S.A. 



PREFACE 

This book is designed for the purpose of introducing the study of 
agriculture into the seventh and eighth grades of our elementary 
schools. It may also meet a need in some of the smaller high- 
schools and in ungraded special and private schools. When the 
pupil comes to well-developed high-school work, he will need a more 
detailed and specific text. 

The book is founded on the suggestions in the Report of the 
Committee on Industrial Education in Schools for Rural Communi- 
ties, pf the National Educational Association. That Committee 
recommended for the school years 6 to 8, four sets of subjects as 
follows : first half year, the affairs of agriculture ; second half year, 
the soil ; second year, farming schemes and crops ; third year, ani- 
mals. A condensation of this plan into a two-year scheme has been 
attempted in the present volume. 

It has been the aim of the author to cover the work very largely 
in a nature-study spirit, by which it is meant that the pupil shall 
be brought into as close touch as possible with the actual farms, 
soils, crops, animals, and affairs. The problems are intended to 
set the pupils at work on their own account rather than to enable 
them to answer questions that may be suggested in the text. 

It is, of course, essential to practical school conditions that there 
shall be reading-matter and recitation-matter in the book. Perhaps 
Part I, dealing with the general agricultural situation, may be used 
as a series of introductory reading and discussion exercises, the 
actual work with subject-matter to begin with Part II. The open- 
book method of teaching, now used successfully in many schools 
with history, geography, and other subjects, might be employed 
advantageously with this text, especially in schools in which nature- 
study receives little attention. 



vi PREFACE 

It is assumed that the teacher will see that the pupils work out 
the problems, or as many of them as have useful application to the 
affairs of the particular community. It is to be hoped that there 
will be a school garden on the premises, or that small areas may 
be set aside at the homes of the pupils, on which many of the sug- 
gestions in the book may be worked out personally. It is specially 
to be desired that the parents be brought into the work, in order 
that the agricultural affairs of the community may be related to 
the school. Therefore, a large number of problems have been pre- 
sented with this end in view, the expectation being that the pupil 
will ask the parents for the proper solution of certain of the 
questions. 

Field trips, to study at first hand the subjects discussed in the 
lessons, will add greatly to the interest and value of the work, and 
will give it local and personal application. It is important that the 
pupils shall study the things themselves, so far as it is possible, 
rather than study about them. 

The author realizes that it is very difficult to introduce agriculture 
on a uniform basis in the schools in all parts of the country, owing 
to the marked diversity in agricultural conditions; yet there are 
certain common and underlying problems and situations with which 
all school children should be familiar. The aim of the book has 
been to relate the pupil and the school to these general and essential 
situations. It is assumed that detailed technical discussions of the 
modes of raising certain crops and animals should not be introduced 
into the elementary grades. This part of the work must be reserved 
for the high school and the college. 

The author is indebted to his colleagues in the New York State 
College of Agriculture for much valuable help in the preparation of 
the manuscript. Special obligation is due Miss Alice G. McCloskey, 
editor of the Cornell Rural School Leaflet, and Mrs. Anna B. Com- 
stock, editor of the Home Natare-sUidy Course, for the free use of 
subject matter and illustrations from their publications. A few 
illustrations have also been taken from the publications of President 
J. A. Widtsoe, Utah Agricultural College, Professor J. F. Duggar, Ala- 



PREFACE vii 

bama Polytechnic Institute, and Professor M. W. Harper, New York 
State College of Agriculture, the use of which the author gratefully 
acknowledges. Invaluable assistance was given by the author's 
sister, Adda M. Mann, a teacher of long and successful experience. 

A. R. MANN. 
Ithaca, New York, 

September 1, 1911. 



CONTENTS 

PAET I. THE AFFAIRS OF AGRICULTURE 

PA6B 

Chapter I. The Community in which I Lite 3 

Its natural features, industries, division of labor. 

Chapter II. The Geography op the Locality and the Continent . 6 
Relation to natural conditions, distribution of plants, markets. 

Chapter III. Agriculture . . .11 

Its nature, history, kinds, values. 

Chapter IV. The Farmer 17 

What he contributes, his business, his yearns work. 

Chapter V. The Farm 22 

Its home, buildings, land, arrangement, attractiveness, health. 

Chapter VI. The Farm Plants 28 

Use for food, manufacture, building, pleasure ; relation to soil fer- 
tility, climate, farm work ; plant societies. 

Chapter VII. The Farm Animals 35 

Source ; uses for food, work, clothing ; relation to soil fertility and 
to kind of farming. 

Chapter VIII. The Farmer^s Aids 42 

The school, church, transportation, telephone, mail service, country 
fair, farmers' clubs, creamery, government institutions. 

PAET II. THE SOIL 

Chapter IX. What the Soil Is .53 

Its nature and source ; the work of sun, air, water, ice, plants, 
animals. 

ix 



X CONTENTS 

PAOK 

Chapter X. The Nature and Composition of Soil . . . .62 

Kinds of soil : peat, muck, clay, loam, sand, gravel ; composition ; 
source of plant-food ; relation to farming in locality. 

Chapter XI. The Water and Air in the Soil 68 

Relation to plant growth ; bow water enters the soil, is held, moves ; 
drainage ; irrigation ; air in the soil. 

Chapter XII. Plant Life in the Soil 78 

How bacteria live in the soil, what they do ; soil inoculation ; soil 
diseases. 

Chapter XIII. The Tillage of the Land 82 

History of tillage ; what tillage accomplishes ; relation to plant-food 
and moisture ; dry-farming ; tools. 

Chapter XIV. The Improvement of the Soil 95 

Plant-food ; fertilizers ; phosphoric acid, potash, nitrogen ; barn- • 
yard manure ; green manures ; storing an account. 



PART III. FARM PLANTS 

Chapter XV. The Nature of Plants . . . . . . . 105 

Parts of the plant : root system, stem, leaf system, flower and fruit. 

Chapter XVI. Classification of Plants 114 

Differences and relationships among plants ; classification by length 
of life and by use ; botanist^s classification. 

Chapter XVII. Dissemination and Multiplication of Plants. . 122 

Nature's methods, man's methods; propagation by seeds, roots, 
tubers, cuttings, buds, and grafts. 

Chapter XVIII. Rotation of Crops 128 

What crop rotation is ; an example ; purpose ; planning a system ; 
history. 

Chapter XTX. Indian Corn 136 

History, place in American agriculture, description, kinds, culture, 
the silo, enemies, uses. 



I 



CONTENTS xi 

PAGX 

Chapter XX. Whbat 146 

History, production, description, kinds, culture, uses. 

Chapter XXI. Grasses — Meadows and Pastures .... 166 

Native grasses, cultivated grasses, meadows, pastures ; timothy and 
blue-grass. 

Chapter XXII. Clovers and their Kin 162 

Importance and uses; clover, alfalfa, cowpea, other clover-like 
plants. 

Chapter XXIII. Potato . 171 

History, place in agriculture, description, culture, enemies, uses ; 
sweet-potatoes. 

Chapter XXIV. The Orchard . .178 

Location, planting the trees, tilling, fertilizing, pi-uning, spraying, 
harvesting ; apples, peaches, pears, plums, cherries. 

Chapter XXV. The Farm Garden 187 

Location, soil, planting, watering, care and harvesting ; small fruits. 

Chapter XXVL The Wood Crop 194 

Importance, place on the farm, history ; distinction between field 
crops and wood crops ; nature of the wood crop ; battle of the trees ; 
care of the woodlot ; forestry. 

Chapter XXVII. Farm Weeds . . 203 

Why they -grov, their harm, how they increase, control ; list of 
farm weeds. 

Chapter XXVIII. Insect Enemies op Plants 210 

Kinds ; damage ; nature's aid ; methods of control. 

Chapter XXIX. Diseases of Plants 217 

Nature ; how they spread ; control. 

Chapter XXX. The Improvement op Plants . ... 224 

How improvement has come about; value of differences among 
plantis ; Improving present types ; creating new types ; plant-breeding. 



xii CONTENTS 

PART IV. FARM ANIMALS 

PAOS 

Chapter XXXI. The Needs of Farm Animals 235 

Food requirements ; water, mineral matter, nitrogenouis matter, fat ; 
air, shelter, rest, exercise, cleanliness. 

Chapter XXXII. The Feeding of Farm Animals .... 245 

Choice of food, balanced rations, nutritive ratio; kinds of foods: 
fodders, roots and tubers, concentrated foods. 

Chapter XXXIII. Horses 253 

History ; types : draft, coach, trotting, and saddle horses, and the 
thoroughbred ; horse training ; harness ; feeding and care ; grooming. 

Chapter XXXIV. Cattle . . 264 

History, beef and dairy types, breeds, feeding and care. 

* 

Chapter XXXV. Sheep 273 

History, wool and mutton types, breeds ; wool production ; mutton 
production ; sheep-farming in America. 

Chapter XXXVI. Swine . . . 281 

History, nature, lard and bacon types, breeds, rearing. 

Chapter XXXVII Poultry 287 

Origin of domestic fowls, nature, breeds, eggs, care, hatching. 

Chapter XXXVIII. Bees .295 

History, races, the colony, lif6 and work, swarming, protection. 

Chapter XXXIX. Birds 302 

Use to the farmer, what they do, how to attract and protect them, 
nesting places. 

Chapter XL. Milk and its Products 308 

What milk is, composition, skimmed milk, buttermilk, weight, care 
in handling ; Babcock test ; butter and cheese. 

Chapter XLI. The Improvement of Anim\ls 320 

Breeding ; what to breed for, choice of parents, the offspring ; pedi- 
gree ; improving the farm live-stock. 

Appendix 329 



PART I 

THE AFFAIRS OF AGRICULTURE 



CHAPTER I 

THE COMMUNITY IN WHICH I LIVB 

Happy the man whose wish and care 

A few paternal acres bound. 
Content to breathe his native air 

In his own ground. — Pope. 

It is a beautiful country in which I live. To the south is the 
village, with its churches and school, and with little dwelling-houses 
scattering out into the fields. There is a factory with tall chimneys 
that roll out windrows of smoke. On all other sides is the wide 
open country. There are long meadows, and hills that slope up 
to the sky. There are winding roads, bounding broad, green, fer- 
tile fields. There are brooks that dash do^^n the hillsides and then 
wander over lowlands and sleep in the deep marshes. There are 
dense pieces of woodland and sentinel trees standing in the fields. 
Beyond the nearest highway is a sandy field in which sorrel grows. 
To the west of the road is land of hard clay, now rank with grass 
and clover, and in the spring yellow with the gold of dandelions. 
Beyond the bam is a wild sweep of pigweeds, invading the land 
that has been neglected and teaching lessons of thrift and of ability 
to seize opportunities. There are cattle dozing under maple trees 
at noonday. There are flocks of crows that travel westward in 
the morning and eastward at night. Stretching outward one sees 
miles of corn and meadow and grain and other crops. 

The work that we do. — Every family in this country where I 
live has its own means of gaining a livelihood. One man is a stone 
inason. Others work in the factory. A number buy and sell in the 
village. One is employed by the government to care for the mails. 



THE COMMUNITY IN WHICH I LIVE 5 

• 

extra labor to hire. If those persons who produce milk were to 
retire from the business, the village people would be obliged to keep 
cows, or to pay to have milk brought in from other places. If 
those who deliver the mail were to cease delivering, the farmer 
would be obliged to drive to the village, as formerly, or else go 
without his mail. There is division of labor, — one person per- 
forming one kind of work for the community, another person per- 
forming some other work. Each depends on the other, and the 
welfare of the community is dependent on all. 

Problem 1. How many kinds of occupations are represented in your 
community, — say in your school district ? What do the people do for 
a livelihood ? 

Problem 2. What is the leading occupation, — the one that engages 

the greater number of persons ? Would you say that your community is 

ajknning community, manufacturing community, trading community, 

jpMlp^-earning community, or some other kind ? Give the reason for 

♦ ipK* answer. 

* l'.^rMem 3, What is the leading farming occupation ? Do most 
^^f-liie farmers call themselves fruit-growers, or dairymen, or grain- 
m. ij^imers, or cotton-farmers, or general farmers, or stockmen, or gardeners, 

* at-florists ? 

» ^f^roblem 4, What establishments in the community, or near by, 
g mrice manufactured products from the materials that the farmer raises, 
,. — ra» beet-sugar factories, cotton mills, creameries, canning factories, 
« 0ABt mills, cider mills, pickle factories? 

Problem 6, Are there any establishments that manufacture articles 
eMefly for the farmer's use, — as barrel factories, fertilizer factories, im- 
plement factories ? Perhaps your teacher will want you to visit one or 
more of these establishments, and then to describe them. 

Problem 6, Compute as nearly as you can the number of different 
persons who have contributed to your food-supply. Compute the num- 
ber who have contributed to your clothing. How many countries have 
contributed to your food-supply ? To your clothing ? 

Problem 7. Write a short essay on the division of labor in your com- 
munity, telling what each group of persons does, and in what way one 
part of the community is dependent on another. 



CHAPTER II 

THE GEOGRAPHY OP THE LOCALITY AND THE CONTINENT 

A GREAT many years ago, when otrr country was new, pioneers 
came and settled in this protected valley. Their families grew 
up, other families moved in, the store and the shop came, and there 
was established a community. In like manner, one after another, 
settlements sprang up in other localities farther to the west. 

The local geographical conditions. — In each of the communities 
the leading industries were determined largely by the special 
natural advantages that the locality offered. One, because of 
good water power, became a manufacturing center ; another, sit- 
uated on the banks of a navigable river, became a shipping or 
commercial center ; one, in a cold and densely wooded region, be- 
came a hunting and trapping center ; others, with rich soil and 
favorable climate, became farming centers. Some of the farming 
regions had long seasons, some short ; some had much rain, others 
little ; some were on steep, rocky hillsides, others in rich, deep 
valleys ; some developed one kind of farming, some another kind. 

This region is part of the world. — There are many conditions 
in this local world, of which the school-house and the farm-house are 
the centers. If the locality were to be magnified one hundred or 
one thousand times, we should have such conditions as make up a 
state or perhaps a whole country. We should then have greater 
range of climate, more varieties of soil, more kinds of animals and 
of plants. 

Now that we know something of our local world, we may 
learn of the greater world beyond. 

The continental topography. — Geographers tell us that the 
United States, not including its possessions, covers an area of 

6 



GEOGRAPHY OF LOCALITY AND CONTINENT 



8 AGRICULTURE 

3,026,789 square miles. Canada is even larger, with 3,745,574 
square miles. This vast area, extending from the ever-frozen and 
desolate north to the warm sub-tropical south, is broken by lofty- 
mountain ranges, between which are fertile valleys and wide 
plateaus, winding rivers, and broad, deep lakes. These chang- 
ing physical features unite to form what we call the topography 
of the land. 

Plant geography. — Because of its great extent and varying 
topography, and the conditions under which it was formed, North 
America has many different kinds of cUmate and of soil, and there- 
fore has a great variety of plant life. In the far north, where the 
ground is always frozen, except a thin surface layer for a few weeks 
in summer, vegetation is very scant ; there are a few scrubby wil- 
lows and birches and short-season grasses and flowering plants, 
such as can endure a severe climate. 

As we move gradually southward we find a greater range of plant 
life, and the plants grow more profusely. Along the southern 
border of the great forests of Canada and jutting down into the 
United States, there is a region where wild small-fruits abound, — 
as blackberries, raspberries, and cranberries. Here, in places, the 
potato, timothy-grass, and some of the more hardy grains thrive. 

Moving southward again, we enter the warmer, humid regions, 
those having moderate rainfall, and including southern Canada and 
the United States except large areas in the west and southwest. 
In this region we find such crops as wheat, oats, rye, barley, varie- 
ties of corn, potatoes, sugar-beets, and tree-fruits, in the more 
northern parts, with the addition of peaches, hemp, lima beans, 
sorghum, and tobacco farther south. In the extreme south, cotton, 
sugar-cane, rice, peanuts, pecans, oranges, and lemons are staple 
crops. 

In the arid and semi-arid regions in the west, where the 
rainfall is insufficient and irrigation is required to grow crops to 
advantage, corn, grains, potatoes, sugar-beets, fruits, alfalfa, kafir, 
sorghum, and sweet-potatoes are grown. 



GEOGRAPHY OF LOCALITY AND CONTmENT 



10 AGRICULTURE 

As we move from one geographical region to another, we find a 
constant change in farming conditions and in the kinds . of 
crops. 

Relation to markets. — After the plants and animals are grown, 
the farmer must place them on the best markets ; he needs good 
avenues of transportation to reach the markets. Here, again, the 
geography is important, — the nearness to cities or shipping ports, 
and the accessibility of rail and water routes. The farmers in a 
locality will produce the kinds of crops and animals for which they 
have a ready market, and which they can transport to market 
by the means that are available. 

The geography of a locality, then, has much influence in deter- 
mining the kind of farming, as the plants must be chosen to suit 
the soils, the climate, and the markets. 

Problem 8. What are the leading crops in your state or general geo- 
graphical region? Are some crops grown more largely in certain parts 
of the state than in others? Can you tell why? 

Problem 9. Is the rainfall in your locality sufficient to meet the needs 
of the farm crops? Is the growing season long or short? If there are 
high hills, is the season any shorter on the hilltops than in the valleys ? 
Can you tell why? 

Problem 10. Are there different kinds of soil in your locality? 
What kinds of plants grow on each ? Is there any noticeable difference 
between the soil on the hilltop and that in the lowlands ? If there is a 
difference, see whether you can find the reason. 

Problem 11. Determine what kinds of farm produce are sold by the 
farmers, and whether the products are sold in your village or city, or 
shipped away. If shipped away, where do the products go ? How many 
kinds of shipping facilities are there, and what kinds of products are 
shipped by each? 

Problem 12. With a map, trace out the leading farming regions on the 
continent, and write in each region on the map the names of the plants 
or crops grown in that region. Make a special map of your own state, 
showing the crops that are grown most largely in the various parts of it. 



CHAPTER III 

AGRICtrLTURB 

One of the occupations in which persons engage is agriculture ; 
and more persons are engaged in this occupation than in any other. 
About one-third of the population of North America are farmers. 
Farming is therefore a very important industry in this country. 
It leads also because it produces most of the food-supply for the 
nation, and the raw materials for many other industries. 



Fio. 4. — With the westward growth, cattle ranches were esCabliehed. 

What agriculture is. — When we use the word " farming," we 
usually think of the running of a farm and the raising of products 
on the land. The products are plants or parts of plants, which 
we call crops, and animals or their products. When we speak of 
"agriculture," we more often mean all the enterprises connected 
with the farm in addition to the raising of plants and animals ; 
but there is'no real distinction between farming and agriculture. 



12 AGRICULTURE 

Agriculture includes marketing, the making of farm buildings, 
good roads, farm forests, farm machinery, farm labor, the farm 
home, farm life, and everything else in which the farmer is inter- 
ested in connection with his business. 

Agriculture was the first settled occupation of man. We read 
that the first man whom God created was placed in a garden to 
keep it. From that time to the present, all progress of the human 
race has been closely associated with agriculture. 

Indian agriculture. — Before the white man came to America, 
the Indians cultivated a few plants for food, more especially maize 
(commonly known as Indian corn), and beans, squashes, pumpkins, 
and sunflowers. Cotton and tobacco also were raised. Most 
of the food-plants were harvested in their wild state without 
cultivation. When Jamestown was founded, every family of the 
Algonquin, or Virginian Indians, had its garden, prepared by 
the men and planted by the women. The New England Indian 
families also had their gardens of one half acre to about one and 
one half acres in extent, which they tilled with their clam-shell 
hoes. The families helped one another, and when a field was to 
be broken up, as an old chronicle records, they had a " loving, so- 
ciable, speedy way to dispatch it. All the neighbors men and 
women, fortie, fiftie, etc., joine and came in to helpe freely." 

The southeastern Indian towns had their farms in one piece, in 
which each family had a small lot fenced about by a strip of grass, 
poles, or other means. Each year they elected an overseer who 
directed all the garden work. At daybreak he awakened the 
families by a loud cry, gathered the men with their simple tools in 
the public square, and at sunrise led them into the fields. Later 
the women came with the food. 

The southwestern Indians, in the arid regions, conducted farm- 
ing by means of irrigation. 

While the Indian methods of farming were crude, yet the early 
colonists found a system of agriculture that was of great help to 
them. 



AGRICULTURE 13 

Colonial agriculture. — The colonists contiDued the cultivatioa 
of com, tobacco, cotton, beans, melons, squashes, and potatoes, 
which they found here; and they introduced many crops from 
Europe. Wheat was the first crop brought over by the Virginia 
colony. At this time the chief live-stock was hogs and goats and 
a few cows; but cattle were rapidly introduced from Europe. 
The first cattle ranches in America were in Virginia. From the 



Fia. 6. — Extensive wheat farms were developed. 

first the colonists had a few horses for use as pack animals, but 
most of the farm work was performed by oxen. 

Cattle were brought into New England in 1624, but eattle- 
rfusing did not become important at that time, except for dairy- 
ing. Com was the most important crop. The New England col- 
onists followed the Indian custom of planting beans and pumpkins 
among the com. Wheat, rye, buckwheat, and barley were grown 
to a limited extent. The meadow grasses were cultivated ; among 
them was timothy, which has remained the principal hay crop to 
the present day. 



14 AGRICULTURE 

The westward growth. — With the close of the Revolutionary 
War there came to the colonists a vast territory reaching west- 
ward to the Mississippi Biver, and agriculture was extended to 
the west and the south. Cotton became the most important 
crop in the south. Mules were raised for work on the cotton 
plantations. Live-stock raising took on new importance, and 
cattle, of both milk and beef breeds, and horses were imported, 
especially from England. The improvement of plants and animals 
went hand in hand with the importation of the best animals from 
Europe. Much attention was later given to the improvement of 
farm machinery, and new and better implements were introduced. 
Farming became more specialized as better means of transporta- 
tion were provided. More than 30,000 miles of railroads were 
built before 1860. 

As still other land to the west was added to the area of the United 
States, agriculture gradually pushed to the Pacific coast, and the 
large cattle ranches of the middle west and the great wheat and 
com farms were developed. Railroads were extended, and many 
new labor-saving farm machines were devised. The grain sepa- 
rator or thresher, the twine-binder, the check-rower, the weeder, 
the riding cultivator, the disk harrow,- the cream separator, the 
Babcock test, and many other implements greatly affected the 
methods of farming. As the arid and semi-arid regions, with their 
scant rainfall, were invaded, farming by irrigation was developed. 

In Canada, the westward expansion took place more slowly, al- 
though agriculture became well developed in the older eastern 
provinces. With the recent completion of great continental rail- 
roads, however, the vast western Canadian country was opened 
up ; and the great provinces of Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, 
and British Columbia are already large producers of wheat, cattle, 
and other products. The greatest expansion into new territory 
on the North American continent is now taking place in these 
provinces. 

In the last thirty years, farming in the United States and Canada 



AGRICULTURE 15 

has made noteworthy advancement. Agricultural colleges, ex- 
periment stations, and departments of ^riculture have been estab- 



lished, and much expert attention has been given to the problems 
of the farmer. 

Values. — When we compare agriculture with other industries, 
we find it far in the lead in its investment and output. A single 
farm may not seem to be a large business, but when we add together 



16 AGRICULTURE 

the money invested in all farm property in the United States, the 
sum is more than twice as much as the capital invested in all manu- 
factures. There is one half more horse-power used on American 
farms than in all our factories. When we think of the large num- 
ber of persons who secure their living by farming, and the large 
number of other persons who are employed in factories which 
use the raw materials from the farm, we begin to realize the 
enormous values that are involved in the business. 

Problem 13, What proportion of the people in your locality are 
farmers? What proportion are engaged in manufacturing? What pro- 
portion are merchants ? Which group, as a whole, has the most money 
invested in its business? 

Problem 14- What farm products are shipped from your vicinity ? 
What manufactured products? If we could put all the farm products 
together, would they have greater or less value than the manufactured 
products? The manufacturer makes his living by what he sells. Does 
the farmer make a considerable part of his living aside from what he sells ? 

Problem 15. Can you find out who was the first farmer in your locality 
and what kind of farm he had ? Which are the oldest houses ? Do they 
stand near the main road ? If there are fences, which are the oldest and 
how are they built? Did the farmers in your locality always conduct 
the same kind of farming as now? Are there any evidences left by 
Indians to show that they once lived there ? 

Problem 16, Relate any history or historical incident that illustrates 
the agricultural development of your locality. Write an account of any 
of the leading former farmers of the locality. 

Problem 17. In the old Indian days, when there was special farm work 
to be done, all the neighborly " joine and came in to helpe freely." Do 
the neighbors in your community ever do that now ? Do you suppose 
that the threshing, or the husking bee, or the barn raising, has any re- 
semblance to the way in which the Indians worked together? How 
many advantages can you name from such cooperation among neighbors ? 

Problem 18. Is there much new land that can be taken up for farming 
anywhere in America ? When the land is all occupied, how are we to 
raise the larger crops that will be needed ? Is there any land on your 
father's farm that is now idle but might be used for farming if drained 
or irrigated or otherwise improved ? How can your father make his 
farm produce more without buying additional land ? 



I 



I 






CHAPTER IV 

THE FAItMfB 

Wb have learned that farming is one of the leading industries 
in the United States and Canada. It is worth our while to become 
acquainted with the man who, on his own farm, master of his work, 
makes it so. ■ 

What the farmer contributes. — There are three things we all 
must have in order to live, — food, clothing, and shelter. We may 



Fia. 7. — The farmer is nuiater of hia work. 

let all other possessions go, but these three are indispensable. 
Where can we get them except from the farm ? All food (except 
that from the sea) comes originally from the farm, or at least 
from the land ; silks and woolens, cotton goods and linen goods, 
all are made from animal and plant products raised on the farm ; 
the wood for buildings is taken from the great farm, for trees are 
a farm crop, as we shall learn later. These necessities are what the 
farmer contributes to the nation. 

Nature of the farmer's business. — Every man in the community 
has his business, his means of earning a living and of helping others 
o 17 



18 AGRICULTURE 

to live. The fanner's business is to make an honest Uving from his 
farm, by the raising and selling of crops and live-stock, or their 
products. His business is very difEerent from that of other men. 
He buys relatively little and usually does not sell the things that 
he buys. He produces the things that he sells, and brings to the 
market newly created materials. Even when he buys materials 
to sell, he multiplies them or increases their value. When he buya 
cattle to sell, he usually keeps the cattle until they are mature or 



Fra. 8. — Stock is reared for sale. 

fat ; he makes his money largely on the feeding and the care that 
he gives them. 

In some parts of the country, most of the farmers make their 
livelihood from selling butter and cheese; in others, from selling 
milk ; in others, from selling corn ; in others, from selling cattle 
and pigs to which the corn has been fed ; in others, from cotton ; 
in others, from vegetables or fruit or grain ; in others, from flowers 
. and nursery products. As in the village there are general stores 
in which one can buy almost anything he needs, and special stores 
in which he can buy drugs or shoes or clothing or jewelry, so there 
are general farms and special farms. One farmer may produce 
milk, eggs, fruit, grajn, and potatoes for sale ; another may produce 



THE FARMER 19 

only vegetables or cotton or wheat or fat stock for sale. The char- 
acter of one's business, or farming, is determined by the kind of 
product he sells. 

The farmer must make an honest living, — he must not rob 
his land. His success depends on the fertility of his land. As the 
manufacturer invests money to keep his buildings and machinery 
in repair, so the farmer must keep his factory, or his land, at its 
best so that he can have a permanent paying business: Time 
and money invested in keeping the farm in repair usually pay 
large dividends. The best farmers are the ones who apply business 
methods to their farming. 

The farmer's year's work. — Nearly every day brings to the 
farmer a new task, calling for a different kind of effort and drawing 
on new powers. A progressive farmer must be a growing, broaden- 
ing man, becoming more intelligent and more expert with the 
years. While he works with his hands, his mind will be active in 
solving new problems. 

Every farm boy and girl knows that the farmer has his full 
year's work. In the winter, when the land is quiet, and while he is 
feeding his stock and perhaps getting out his wood, he becomes 
carpenter and mechanic as well as farmer, and repairs his buildings 
and tools and machines, and makes the many things that he has 
needed but has had to wait for. At the same time he is looking 
forward to spring and summer so that he may not be unprepared 
for them. If he is a careful man and takes stock of his business, 
now is the time when he will cast up his accounts and discover the 
real gains and losses and determine changes in his farming. 

When the frost is out of the groimd, and the warm days begin to 
come, the father and his son swing into the furrow behind good, 
steady teams and turn over great stretches of land for the summer's 
crops. Then follow the fitting, the seeding, the care, on to the 
harvest — the hay and the grain harvest, the com harvest, and 
the apple harvest. And each morning and evening, as the sun 
rises, and before it sets, the cattle may be driven to the barn. 



20 AGRICULTURE 

milked, and returned again to pasture. If the man is a gridn 
farmer alone (as in some parts of the west and of California), he 
may take a vacation after the harvest. 

As the autumn advances, and the crops are securely stored for 
the winter or sent to the market, when the slaughtering is past 
and the smoke-house closed, and perhaps a few iicres have been 
plowed so as to be ready for the spring, the farmer has the sense 



Fig. 9. — The former swings into tbe furrow behind a good, steady team. 

of satisfaction in the work of his hands. But he is not through. 
To-morrow will have its tasks. He is ready for them. 

Problem 19. What does your father's farm contribute to the com- 
munity ? What kinds of food products does your father sell ? Does he 
sell any product that is manufactured into clothing? 

Problem 20. Go to the grocery store and look over the stock on the 
shelves. How much of the grocer's stock came oripnally from the farm ? 
How much of it might have been produced in yom' locality? What 
would become of the grocery if the farms should cease to produce ? What 
would the people in the villages do if the grocery store had to close ? Are 
the people dependent on the farmer? 

Problem SI . If any of the farmers in your locality keep sheep, what 
is done with the wool ? What farm crops enter into the making of cotton 
goods and linen goods ? How many things kept in a clothing store do 
you suppose are manufactured from animal or plant products ? 



THE FARMER 21 

Problem 22, How many buildings in the locality can you name that 
were built from lumber taken from the woods in the vicinity ? Is there 
any- kind of factory in the vicinity which uses the wood from the 
farms ? Does your father use wood from his farm, either for his own 
buildings or to sell ? How many of the three necessities of life does he 
produce ? Do some of the farmers in your locality produce all of them ? 

Problem 23, Does your father keep an account of his farm transac- 
tions? How much did he get for his wheat last year? For his hay? 
From his cattle ? Do you know how much it cost him to produce any of 
these? 

Suppose your father has 12 acres of meadow land that yield one ton 
of hay to the acre, and the hay will sell for only $9 a ton. How much 
will he receive for his crop? If by investing $20 in fertilizers he is able 
to increase his crop to 1 J tons per acre, and get a better grade of hay 
that will sell for $ 12 a ton, will it be a good investment ? If so, by how 
much? How much interest will he have made on the $20 investment? 



CHAPTER V 

THE FARM 

The farm is the farmer's place of business. It is the means by 
which he earns his living and contributes his part to the commu- 
nity. There are buying and seUing here. There are production 
and distribution. The farm is a commercial establishment. 

The farm establishment. — In our grandfathers' time, not only 
were food and materials for clothing produced on the farm, but 
here, also, the finished products were manufactured. Those were 
the days of homespun. Now manufacturing is largely a distinct 
business, and the farm provides merely the raw materials. 

Yet we may say that the farm is the greatest of all factories, 
for it yields new materials that can never be created by machines 
made by man. The farmer plants his seed, gives it care, and the 
great soil-and-air factory slowly but surely turns out its wonderful 
products. And it yields its products, not one at a time, but in 
numbers too great to be coimted. 

There are three elements or parts to every farm that must be 
considered in making a plan for the business, — the home, the farm 
buildings, and the land. 

The home. — Farming is practically the only business of which 

the home is a part. In nearly all other occupations, the man 

leaves the home and goes to his work or his business in the morning, 

and returns home at night, leaving behind the affairs of the day. 

The farmer lives with his business. The home, therefore, is an 

essential part of his business, and must be so ordered as to help 

him ; and he must take it into consideration in all his plans for his 

work. 

22 



THE FARM 23 

The farm buildings. — We are likely to judge a farm by its 
buildings, for they generally reveal thrift or carelessness on the part 
of the owner; and they are a fair test, for they indicate the 
fanner's care for his crops and his animals, although the farm may 
not be profitable in proportion as the buildings are attractive. 
Good buildings are a help to the farmer, not only for the comfort 
they bring to bis live-stock and for the protection of his harvested 
crops, but also because they teach order and care and pride. 
While we may judge of the buildings by their exteriors, it is 
even more important that the interior, where the stock live and 
the tools and supplies are kept, be clean and convenient and 
well-arranged. The health of the animals and ease in doing 
the work d^end on the interior arrangements. 



FlQ. 10. — We are likely to judite a fanu by its buildiugs. 

The house and the farm buildings are part of the farm invest- 
ment, and they must yield returns to the farmer in good and long- 
continued service. 

The land. — The land is the most important part of the farmer's 
investment, as it is to give him his living and yield his largest 
returns. It is his most valuable trust, and must be carefully safe- 
guarded, not only for his use, but also for the use of all who will 
come after him. The value of a farm to the community de- 



24 AGRICULTURE 

pends on the land and the use that is made of it. The land 
largely determines the kind of fanning that is to be done, the 
products that are to be sold, and the work the fanner has to 
do. 

The plan of the farm. — Any business, if it is to be successful, 
must be well organized. This is especially true of the farm because 
of the distances that must be traveled in doing the work. The 



Fia. 11. — Neero farmiDe in the soutD. 

farmer should organize or lay out his farm so that he will have the 
least travel in doing his work, as travel takes time and time costs 
money, and traveling consumes energy. He must be able to reach 
all his fields in the most direct way, to avoid long hauls. He places 
the garden neirest the house because it is most often visited. 
The bams and pens also are generally near the house, as the 
farmer must go to them very often to care for bis stock. They 



THE FARM 25 

should be placed where they can be reached most conveniently 
both from the house and from the fields. 

Some parts of the farm are better adapted to the kinds of crops 
the farmer wishes to grow than are others ; the soils, elevations, 
exposures, and other natural features are different and must be 
taken into account in laying out a plan for the farm. The size 
and shape of the fields must be considered in connection with the 
rotation of crops that is to be followed. The size of the fields will 
also aflfect the ease with which the work may be done and the kind 
of machinery that may be used. The farmer may have to contend 
with creeks, woods, hills, or other natural boundaries in laying out 
the fields on his farm. 

It is just such factors that make a farm plan necessary. The 
farmer must include every part of his farm in his plan, so that it 
may all be used, year after year, for the largest return at the least 
expense, and without lessening the fertility of the soil. The way 
in which he subdivides and organizes his farm, therefore, deter- 
mines in large measure the success of a man's farming. 

Attractiveness of the farm. — Our lives are greatly affected by 
the conditions in which we live. No boy or girl cares to live in 
a run-down, unattractive place. One slovenly farm is a blot on 
• the neighborhood. As the farm is the farmer's permanent home, 
where he, his wife and his children are to live, it should pro- 
vide as much beauty and attractiveness and homelikeness as pos- 
sible. And no man has the means to make his home surround- 
ings more delightful than has the farmer. Simple planting, in 
good taste, and a neat and picked-up appearance are the first 
steps. This is work for boys and girls that will quickly show 
results. An attractive farm contributes more than merely its 
products to the community ; its own influence for order and neat- 
ness is worth while. Better men and women should grow up in 
neat, attractive, healthful surroundings. 

Health on the farm. — The farm should provide the most health- 
ful surroundings, since it can supply room, sunlight, fresh air, 



26 AGRICULTURE 

good food, and exercise. But sometimes the farmer takes .all 
this for granted and becomes careless ; and without care, the farm 
can soon become a most imhealthful place. Neglect is .sure to 
bring disaster. There are many ways in which disease may enter ; 
one is through the water-supplies, and the farmer must be on his 
guard against such dangers about his home. Every farm should 
have a complete water-system, with provision to carry off the waste. 
Proper sanitation is as necessary on the farm as in the city, and it 
is not impossible, and frequently not difficult, to secure. It is 
wiser to provide for health than to fight disease. Very many of 
our men and women of the future will, as in the past, come from 
the farms; and they will accomplish their part in the world's 
work better if they bring vigorous, healthy bodies to their 
work. 

We haye learned that many diseases are spread by the com- 
mon house fly, — that this little insect is one of man's worst foes. 
Its chosen breeding place is in manure piles and about horse stables. 
One of the first steps toward making the farm a healthful place 
is to screen the house against flies, and to keep the horse stables 
clean and the manure drawn to the fields. 

Problem ^4- How large, in acres, is the farm on which you live, — 
your father's place of business ? What is the shape of it : oblong, square, 
irregular ? In what direction does the long way of it extend ? How is it 
subdivided? An outline sketch or map, made by simple lines, will help 
you to understand the farm. Perhaps your father has a plan of the farm ; 
if not, you can help him to make one. Has the farm a name ? If you do 
not live on a farm, secure similar information from some person who does 
live on one ; or, better, if possible, visit the farm and find the information 
for yourself. 

Problem 25. Is the farm uniform (practically all alike) throughout ? 
Explain whether it is level, hilly, or swampy in parts. Tell whether there 
are brooks, ponds, rocks, or other natural features. 

Problem 26, Explain what is chiefly produced on the farm. Also, 
whether any of the farm is in woodland ; whether any of it is in waste or 
not in use; about how much is "under the plow"; how much is de- 
voted to each kind of crop that is raised. 



THE FARM 27 

Problem 27, Are most of the houses on the farms as well kept as 
those in the village ? Are most of the farmyards as neatly planted and 
kept as those in the village ? If not, how can we make both house and 
yard more attractive than any in the village ? 

Problem 28, Write a short essay on how the health and the attractive- 
ness of your home can be improved. Number the different items, put- 
ting first those things that can be done now and following with the others 
to be done throughout the year. Keep the paper to discuss with your 
teacher and your father and mother, and to check off the items as you 
have the improvement made at home. See how long a list of improve- 
ments you can make in one year. 

Problem 29, Is there much sickness on your farm ? What is the 
cause? Is the well below the barnyard so that there may be drainage 
into it ? If you have not a water-system in the house, how could you 
get one? 

Problem 30, Give what history you can of the farm: when it was first 
made into a farm; from whom the first farmer procured it ; who has owned 
it from first to last ; whether any unusual events or persons are associated 
with it ; when the house was built, and whether any other house was on 
it before this one ; by whom the house and the bams were built ; who 
dug or drilled the well ; what has become of the persons who occupied 
the farm in the years that are past. * 



CHAPTER VI 

THE FARM PLANTS 

Plants and animals are the products of agriculture. Plants 
are raised for food, clothing, shelter, for the farm animals, to 
supply materials used in the arts, or merely for pleasure. The 
plants make it possible for the animals to live, and both are neces- 
sary for our food-supply. 

Plants are grown for food. — A variety of plants must be grown 
for food, some kinds to be cooked and others to be eaten just as 
they come from the field or garden. The housewife goes to the 
garden to get potatoes and turnips and tender sweet-corn and green 
peas to cook, and onions, radishes, and lettuce to eat fresh and 
crisp. The farmer must supply equal nutritious and appetizing 
foods for his live-stock. If they are to do the work for which 
they are kept, they must have a variety of good, attractive food. 
Cattle like clean timothy, clover, and alfalfa hay, and hearty 
foods, as corn and cottonseed meal and gluten meal, and juicy or 
succulent foods, as corn silage, sugar-beets, and mangels. Gen- 
erally, the larger part of the crops grown on a farm, except in 
parts of some of the southern states, are to be used for human 
or animal food. ♦ 

For manufacture. — Many farm products are of little use in the 

form in which they are harvested, and must be sent to factories 

where they are changed and made into other forms or materials. 

Cotton is made into cloth, and flax into linens or binding twine ; 

hemp is manufactured into burlap, twine, and carpet warp. Frona 

sugar-cane and sugar-beets, sugar and molasses are made. Frona 

potatoes, starch is manufactured. Some plants are grown for 

medicine, some for oils or extracts, some for spices, some for per- 

28 



THE FARM PLANTS 



30 AGRICULTURE 

fumery, some for dyes. In some countries, plants are grown 
specially for paper making. 

For building. — Other plants are grown for building purposes. 
They are harvested in the woodlot or the forest. They are of many 
kinds: some are hard, others soft; some of one color, some of 
another; some grow large, and make long, clean lumber, and 
others are smalL and knotty. Because of these differences, these 
plants serve a great variety of purposes in building. 

For pleasure. — Another group of plants is raised solely for 
pleasure, — because the plants are beautiful or fragrant, and make 
the home or garden attractive. They are usually flowering 
plants, but not always. They are grown close by the house, or 
at the sides or comers of the lawn, or apart in carefully kept beds. 
They may be grown in glass houses or as field crops to be sold. 
The florist is a farmer, because he raises plants. 

Relation of plants to soil fertility. — If the farmer is to secure 
the best results from his land and keep it fertile, he must grow a 
variety of plants. If one crop is grown continuously on the same 
land, the productiveness of the soil will be lessened. Many cotton 
plantations in the south and wheat and com farms in the west 
yield much less now than formerly because one crop has be^i 
grown continuously. When several kinds of crops are grown in 
succession, or rotation, the demands on the soil are varied ; and 
in the rotation some crops may be grown to turn under and en- 
rich the soil. Returning to the soil plants or parts of plants, or 
adding vegetable matter as we say, is of very great benefit, as 
we shall learn later. As plants helped to form the soil in the 
first place, they are valuable in renewing it when turned back 
into it. 

Certain kinds of plants, called legumes, as clovers, vetches, 
cowpeas, soybeans, and alfalfa, are especially useful in enriching 
the soil when plowed under. 

Relation of plants to climate. — There is still another reason 
why different kinds of crops are grown in different localities. The 



Fia. 13. — FlimtH may be raised solely tor pleasure. Iria. 



32 AGRICULTURE 

plants must be suited to the climate. Some crops demand a long 
growing season, while others prefer a short season ; some require 
a hot, dry climate, others a cool, moist climate ; some need much 
rainfall, others little. The plants that we grow must be suited to 
the climate of our region. A few miles to the north or south the 
same plants might not do well at all. The northern farmer does 
not attempt to grow cotton or sugar-cane or peanuts or oranges. 
The southern farmer plants no buckwheat and but little rye 
or oats, or root-crops for live-stock. There are diflFerent varieties 
of wheat and com for the north and for the south. Each region 
has its own varieties of crops. 

Relation to farm work. — The kinds of plants that the farmer 
raises bear a close relation to his work. If he raises garden vege- 
tables or flower plants, which demand constant careful attention, 
we say that his farnung is intensive. If he grows great areas of 
wheat or corn or sugar-cane, and gives little attention to the in- 
dividual plants, we say that his farming is extensive. With such 
large areas he seldom can give much care to the separate plants, 
except in fitting the soil, planting, and har\^esting. 

The hay-farmer has his busiest season in mid-summer; the 
orchardman in late winter and spring with his pruning and spray- 
ing, and in the fall with his harvesting and marketing. The work 
of the stock-farmer is different from that of the crop-farmer, as he 
markets a different kind of product ; that of the rice-farmer and 
the poultry-farmer is different from any of the others. 

The vegetable-gardener, using his land intensively year after 
year, must apply much fertilizer. The extensive farmer usually 
cannot afford to invest so much in fertilizer, and must renew his 
land by crop rotation and the plowing in of vegetable matter or 
cover-crops. 

Plant societies. — Plants have associates and grow in societies. 
They must live together and get along together, just as folks must 
do ; and to do so, some must yield the best places to others. Plants 
become accustomed to one another. Some can live in the shade, 



n 



THE FARM PLANTS 33 

' as ia the orchard or in the forest ; and since they cannot rise into 

- the sunshine and wind and storm, they are content with the cool, 
moist, quiet protection that is ^ven 

them by their superiors. The 
pumpkin vines yield the sunlight 

- to the tall corn, which is a sun- 
• loving plant, and in its shade live 

their lives largely unnoticed until 
■ harvest. 

Different kinds of soils and loca- 
tions are associated with different 
plant societies. In the hard- 
tramped door-yard there is a society 
of knot-weed and broad-leaved 
plantain, with occasional blades 
of grass and dandeUons ; in the 
fence-row there is a society of 
briars and choke-cherries and 
hiding weeds; in the dry, open 
field the wire^ass and mullein 
and scattered docks associate ; in 
the old pasture the blue-grass 
and mullein and daisies and devil's 
paint-brush live together; in the 
meadow there are timothy, the low- 
er-growing clover, young grasses, 
and other plants among the grasses. 
Some plants associate only with 
certain othera. Cockle associates 
with wheat, not with oats or corn. 
Peas and oats will abound in the 
same field ; timothy and clover, 
corn and pumpkins, barley and peas, cowpeas and sorghum or 
millet, are close companions and will share a field together. This 



34 AGRICULTURE 

association may be due wholly to the fact that the plants are 
adapted to each other's manner of life, or that one (as the cockle 
in the wheat) ripens at such a time and has seed of so nearly 
the same size as will allow it to pass unnoticed with the other in 
the planting. 

The farmer takes advantage of plant societies and companions 
in planning his system for planting his crops. 

Problem 31, Why is one kind of farming in your locality different 
from another? What kinds of crops does the dairy-farmer grow? 
What does he market ? What kinds of crops does the fruit-grower raise ? 
Does he market anjrthing except fruit? What crops does the stock- 
farmer or the grain-farmer grow ? 

Problem 32. Are all the crops on your father's farm grown to sell or 
to feed ? Are any grown to turn under to enrich the soil ? What kinds ? 
Why are these kinds better than others for this purpose? 

Problem 33, Do all of the farmers have their busiest seasons at the 
same time of year ? What is the busiest season on your father's farm ? 
Why ? Which kind of farmers have to work the greatest number of hours 
in the day — the dairy-farmers, the fruit-farmers, the stock-farmers, the 
grain-farmers, or the general farmers ? 

Problem 34, What kinds of work are done in the dull season on your 
father's farm so as to lighten the work during the busy season ? On the 
best farms in your locality are the farmer and his help busy during the 
dull season and on the rainy days? 

Problem 35. How many different kinds of plants are growing in your 
meadow? How do they behave together? Which ones seem to be 
leaders? How many kinds of plants are in the pasture? 

Problem 36, Does your father mix two or more kinds of seed for any 
of his crops? What seeds does he put together? Why? How do the 
different kinds of plants share the ground when they are growing ? Some 
of the crops that are sown together, as oats and peas, must be harvested 
together; others may be harvested separately. What makes the dif- 
ference? What companion crops can you name? 

Problem 37, Write the story of the crops raised on your father's farm 
or any other farm you may know about — name the plants that are 
raised for food, or manufacture, or building, or pleasure. If any are 
manufactured, tell how, and into what they are made. 



CHAPTER VII 

THE FARM ANIMALS 

When man was yet in a savage condition, he captured animals 
from the wilds and made them his slaves. He lived largely by 
himting, and the meat of wild beasts formed much of his food. As 
he came to live a more settled life, he gradually hunted less and 
produced more of what he required. This made it necessary for 
him to domesticate wild creatures for work, for food, and, later, 
for clothing. 

The source of farm animals. — When once wild beasts were 
domesticated, it was possible to modify them so that they would 
more nearly meet the needs of man in a settled life. Thus, the 
earliest ancestors of all farm animals lived originally in the wild. 
They were different in appearance and usefulness from our farm 
stock to-day, which have been gradually brought into their present 
condition through years of domestication and care. 

Nearly all our farm animals were brought to this country from 
the Old World. Most of them had been domesticated before the 
new era. The turkey is the only one domesticated from wild 
ancestors in America^ The bison can be domesticated, and some 
persons are now endeavoring to develop a new race of useful farm 
animals from it. There are other wild beasts that some day may 
become part of our regular farm stock. 

While there are many wild beasts that might be useful if domes- 
ticated, the number of kinds that have been domesticated is not 
great. Those common to the farm are horses, cattle (oxen, dairy 
and beef cattle), sheep, hogs, goats, chickens, ducks, geese, tur- 
keys, guinea-fovl, pigeons,, silkworms, and bees. Mules have 

35 



36 AGRICULTURE 

been used as draft animals from very early times, but they were 
not domesticated from a wild condition. They are produced by 
the ass or jack and the horse. In the southwestern part of the 



United States there are a few ostrich farms. Occasionally a 
farmer will raise only pets for sale, but pets are not usually classed 
as farm animals. 

Animals are necessary. — Live-stock is as essential a part of 
the farm as are the crops. Animal food products, such as meat, 



THE FARM ANIMALS 37 

milk, butter, and e^^, are equally in demand on the market with 
plant food products. It would not be possible to farm large areas 
if there were not animals to help bear the burden of the work, even 
with all our machinery. 

The savage used the skins of wild beasts for clothing before he 
learned how to weave ; and to-day many of our finest and warmest 
clothes are made from animal products. Man has always enjoyed 
the companionship of animals, and some are raised for this pur- 
pose alone. 

Animals are reared for food. — If the human race had depended 
on hunting for its meat food, we should long ago have destroyed all 



our wild animab and the demand would not have been satisfied. 
Large areas of land, great stores of crops, and the time of countless 
numbers of men are required merely to raise the live-stock neces- 
sary for food purposes. Nearly every farm keeps some stock. 



38 AGRICULTURE 

To fill the demands for meat, great cattle ranches were estab- 
lished on the western plains. Gradually these great ranches are 
becoming less numerous, and more attention is being given to 
the rearing of Uve-stock on the smaller farms. 

Steers, sheep, hogs, and poultry contribute to the meat supply. 
Equally important, also, are their products, milk, cheese, butter, 
eggs, wool, and lard. 

Many farm crops cannot be eaten in their raw condition by man. 
When fed to the farm stock they are changed into forms in which 
he can use them. About 80 per cent of all the com raised in the 
United States is fed to domestic animals. Hay and much of the 
grain and root-crops are made of use to man only by feeding them 
to animalsi 

For work. — The Indian in America made Uttle progress be- 
cause he had no beasts to do his work. It was not until animals 
were enslaved and trained to bear the heavy part of the work that 
farming was possible on a large scale. The slow-going but steady 
oxen hghtened the labor and made it possible to farm larger areas. 
To-day horse-power is used everywhere on our farms, and horses 
are a necessary part of the farm equipment. One horse, well 
directed, .can do as much work as ten men. 

For clothing. — The fur-bearing animals of North America 
meant as much to its early inhabitants as do all the flocks and herds 
of the present day to us. It was the chase and the barter for 
pelts that drew many of the earliest European adventurers across 
the ocean. We are still dependent on wild animals for some of 
our finer pieces of clothing. The fur of the beaver, buffalo, seal, 
opossum, raccoon, skunk, red fox, silver fox, rabbit, muskrat, 
mink, marten, otter, ermine, bear, and others, secured by hunting 
and trapping, brings high prices in cities for use in clothing. 

Woolen goods are made from the fleece of our common sheep. 
The raising of sheep for their fleeces for manufacture into cloth- 
ing is now one of the great farm industries in America. Mohair is 
made from the hair of the Angora goat. 



40 AGRICULTURE 

There is another very small domesticated animal that helps to 
supply our clothing ; that is the busy little silkworm. Its original 
home was probably in China, and China has long enjoyed a wide 
reputation for its fine silks. The early colonists in Virginia, South 
Carolina, and Georgia engaged in this industry to a limited extent 
and since then a small amount of silk has been produced in this 
country. At the present time the United States Department of 
Agriculture is trying to encourage again the raising of silkworms 
in the southern states. 

For soU fertility. — An old Flemish proverb reads : 

"No grass, no cattle, 
"No cattle, no manure, 
"No manure, no crop." 

This ancient proverb is just as true to-day, — there must be 
grass to feed the cattle, cattle to produce manure, manure to enrich 
the land so that more grass can grow. Without some kind of 
fertilizer, crops cannot long be grown successfully. The farmer has 
learned by experience that if he raises crops year after year without 
enriching his land, the soil will lose its crop-producing power, and 
he will secure small returns. 

One of the best means of keeping the land fertile is by spreading 
on it animal manure. Such manure is in a condition to be 
used quickly by growing plants. The farm boy knows that his 
father is careful to save all the barnyard manure for the land, and 
that he spreads it where he wants to raise large crops. Farm 
animals are reared for the sake of our soils as well as for other 
purposes. 

Relation of animals to kind of farming. — The farmer who keeps 
live-stock organizes or arranges his work very differently from 
one who grows fruit or vegetables. He raises crops to be fed to 
stock, and he sells the stock or its products instead of the bulky 
crops. He must have large storage barns to hold his winter's 



THE FARM ANIMALS 41 

feed. He markets his products at different times and in different 
ways from the crop-farmer. 

The livenstock farmer can use land that otherwise might be 
wasted, that is not suited for growing crops, — land next to streams, 
or that is partially covered with trees, or that is too hilly or too 
stony to cultivate ; and he can utilize much wild or native grass 
land for grazing. Sheep may be pastured where the plow cannot 
go. Farm animals also use parts of plants that otherwise would 
be wasted, as straw, corn-stalks, and grasses. 

A better rotation of crops, and consequently a better use of the 
land, can be had when animals are reared. More land can be kept 
in grass and clover, so that less plowing will need to be done ; and the 
fertility of the soil will be maintained by the return of the manure 
to the land. 

When live-stock is reared, the farm help is busy all* the year. 
This is a mark of good farming. The exclusive wheat-farmer sows 
his grain in April and May (in the spring-wheat regions), harvests 
and threshes it in July and August, and has little work for himself, 
his men, or his teams the remainder of the year from September to 
April. The stock-farmer raises crops in summer, when the cattle 
are at pasture, and in the winter is busy caring for his animals 
when they must be fed indoors. 

Problem 38. Is there any hunting in your locality ? What do the 
himters find ? What kinds of game are used for food ? Are any used 
only for clothing purposes ? 

Problem 39. How many kinds of animals are raised on your farm 
for food ? How many for work ? For clothing ? For companionship ? 
Name all of the different kinds of animals, so far as you can, that are 
useful in different parts of the world. Perhaps your geography will help 
you to name them. Tell which are used for work, which for food, and 
which for clothing. 

Problem Jfi. Do any of the farmers in your locality keep sheep ? 
Where do they pasture them ? What becomes of their products ? 

Problem 4^' When does your father haul out his stable manure? 
Where does he spread it ? TVTiy ? If he does not keep stock, does he buy 
any farm manure ? Does it pay him to buy it ? 



CHAPTER VIII 



THE farmer's aids 



The American Indian lived such a simple, free life, subsisting by 
hunting and a little planting, that he had need for few outside helps 
in his domestic life. The farmers in colonial days had their school 
and their church, but did not feel the want of many other aids. 
The farm was often the home, the store, and the factory, all in 
one. Farming meant little more than to clear the land and to raise 
enough to live on, with some surplus for near-at-hand barter. 
There was little world market to be reached. 

Kinds of aids. — With the growth of towns and cities, with a 
division of labor, and the necessity for providing food-stuffs for 
the new nation, a need arose for special aids in farming and mar- 
keting. The complex Ufe of to-day makes it necessary for the 
farmer to have many kinds of aids. 

As many different aids must be provided for the farmer as there 
are special needs to be met. There must be schools and churches 
to encourage education and religion ; good roads and railroads to 
enable the farmer to place his products on the markets ; telephone 
and mail service ; opportunities for comparing the farmer's prod- 
ucts and skill with others, as in country fairs and exhibitions; 
and means by which the farmer can cooperate with his neighbors 
to do work in which all should have a part, and to bring them to- 
gether for pleasure and visitation, as in farmers' clubs and the 
grange and the creamery. 

The country school. — The school is one of the most valuable 
aids that the farmer has. His children must be well trained and be 

42 



THE FARMER'S AIDS 43 

able to think and to plan clearly and carefully if they are to make 
farming as attractive and useful as it b possible to make it, and 
so that it will equal the best in city life. The schools help to 
develop the mind ; and a trtuned mind that can meet problems 
and solve them is equally necessary if one is to be a good business 



Flo. 18. — A country Bchool. 

man, a lawyer, an inventor, a mechanic, a home-maker, or a 
farmer. 

Country schools are established to give boys and girls who 
live on farms the privileges of an education. They are now 
beginning to teach about the farming industry as well as other 
subjects. We are to study agriculture in our schools as well as 
history and arithmetic and grammar and geography. We need 
to study all of these subjects if the people are to be well edu- 
cated. And we shall study advanced agriculture in the high 



44 AGRICULTURE 

schools as well as advanced arithmetic and history and language. 
When we reach the college of agriculture, we shall receive special 
training in the affairs of agriculture so that we shall be expert in 
our work. Men have studied agriculture, just as they have stud- 
ied medicine and mechanics, and there is a great deal that may 
now be learned about farming by a careful study of the sub- 
ject. The farmer will find the school of increasing value to him 
in the future. Although he once lived without special education 
in farming, he can no longer expect to do so and be successful. 

The country church. — Many of the early settlers came to Amer- 
ica in order that they might "worship God according to the dic- 
tates of their own conscience." The church had an important part 
in the colonization of America, and, in some neighborhoods at least, 
the family that never attended church was the great exception. It 
established itself on the very frontier, a pioneer that amid great 
trials pointed the way to high standards of living and hopefulness. 
It has always been an important agency in farming regions, and 
to-day is found in nearly every community. Good farming is 
only part of good living, and the church stands to inspire men to 
their highest character and usefulness. 

Transportation. — The farmer is especially dependent on means 
of transportation, as the products which he raises must frequently 
be placed on a distant market, and are not usually sold in any large 
quantity near home. In the early days in America, long-distance 
transportation was brought about by means of water-routes and 
stage-lines ; the turnpikes were few, the common roads almost im- 
passable, and stage-coach travel was costly and very difl&cult. With 
the coming of the railroad about 1830, new opportunities opened be- 
fore the farmer, for then he could readily dispose of his surplus 
products. To-day the country is covered by a net-work of railroads 
and electric trolley lines, and there are great transcontinental rail- 
roads that speed the farmer's products from one end of the country 
to the other and place them on the market at just the right time. 
All this has made great changes in farming. Good means of reaching 



THE FARMER'S AIDS 45 

the marketa are nearly as important as the ability to r^se good 
products. 

But railroads, trolley lines, and water-routes cannot reach all 
farmers, so that good wagon-roads must be provided. The 
fanner uses the wagon-road every day, going to and from the 
village, railroad station, or boat landing. If the roads are poor. 



Fro. 19. — Water transportation of truck crops. 

he can haul leas, it will take more time, cost more for teams and 
wagons, and altogether be expensive transportation. With good 
well-kept roads, he can do his hauling quickly and easily. He will 
travel more, see his neighbors ofteaer, and go to the village more 
frequently to get what he needs. 

The telephone. — About twenty-five years ago the telephone was 
a curiosity and a plaything. To-day it is an indispensable means of 
communication. It enables the farmer and his wife to keep in 
touch with their neighbors, so that they are no longer isolated, and 



46 AGRICULTURE 

they can become acquEunted quickly with whatever ie taking place 
in the community. The doctor can be reached without the long 
drive to the village ; farm hands can be called together ; when the 
thresher is to come, the farmer in a few minutes can arrange with his 
neighbors for exchange of help, instead of traveling about all 
day to do so. The telephone can be used in all sorts of weather, 
at all times of the year, and at all hours of the day. 
In some places the daily weather reports are sent to all farm- 
ers on the line at noon, and at 
six o'clock a general report on 
the conditions of the market. 
With such information the 
farmer can more readily plan 
his work for the next day, as 
he knows what kind of weather 
to expect ; and if he has a few 
tons of hay or a load of hogs 
to sell, he will know when to 
reach the market to secure the 
best price. 

Mail service. — Until within 

a few years, the farmer had 

poor mail or postal service. To 

secure his mail, he had to drive 

to the village, often miles away, 

frequently over poor roads, or 

else depend on the slow stage- 

Fio. 20.-Th« tarn h<,m« receiver it« '""te. He had either to neg- 

maU daily. lect his Work on the farm, and 

go to the village whether it was 

convenient or not, in all sorts of weather, or else not have his mail. 

Often he chose the latter, and as a result was out of touch with 

affairs outside of his community. He wrote few letters, because 

it was as hard to send them 63 to go after the replies. 



THE FARMER'S AIDS 47 

4 

In 1896 the United States government instituted rural free 
delivery of mails, and to-day most farming districts have this 
service. In 1911 there were about 41,559 carriers who reached 
18,746,550 persons on farms, and the government spent 
$37,130,000 to render this aid to farmers. Now the farmer has 
his mail daily, may send and receive letters regularly, has his daily 
paper, and is in close touch with the affairs of the nation. He is 
now in need of an extension of mail service by means of a post 
carrying large parcels as well as letters and journals. 

The country fair. — The country fair is intended to be a place 
where the farmer may bring his best stock and crops for compari- 
son with his neighbor's, where he* may learn how to raise better 
products, see the latest farm machinery, and meet his neighbors 
for visitation and sociability. The fair was established as the 
farmer's holiday, when he should meet other farmers and show the 
results of his own work, and listen to addresses by leading men. 
To-day the fair in many country districts is not much help to the 
farmer, because a multitude of amusements and so-called attrac- 
tions have crowded out his own part ; but some day, when there 
are more grown-up boys and girls who know what a good country 
fair should be, it will be restored to its original purpose and 
be a real help to the farmer. 

It is interesting to know that as early as 1796 George Wash- 
ington desired to have agricultural fairs. A fair was held in 
Washington, D. C, on October 17-19, 1804, and was repeated 
in the following April, when premiums were offered. Soon after, 
other fairs and " cattle shows " were held throughout New Eng- 
land and in the middle states, and this kind of farmers' exhibition 
and social gathering became a regular occurrence. 

Farmers' clubs. — The farmers' club, the agricultural society, 
and the grange represent still another kind of aid for the farmer. 
They afford him opportunity to meet with his neighbors and 
and talk over farm and neighborhood questions. Sometimes the 
clubs establish telephone systems and fire insurance companies; 



48 AGRICULTURE 

sometimes they undertake to breed better animals or better crops 
in the locality, and to secure better machines; sometimes they 
help the farmer to buy his seeds and fertilizers, and to sell his sur- 
plus products ; and sometimes they provide large storage houses 
for his products, as in the case of cooperative grain elevators. 

The earliest farmers' clubs were formed about the same time 
that fairs were first held. There are now many thousands of them. 
Nearly every farming community has at least one. When persons 
work together they are hkely to secure better results than when 
they work alone. 

The creamery. — Agricultural fairs and farmers' clubs are means 
by which farmers are able to>work together. The creamery and 
the cheese factory are other important means of cooperation. 
They are useful in many ways. Farmers can send all of their 
milk there, and not have to manufacture its products them- 
selves ; larger quantities are used in fche manufacturing, and con- 
sequently less expense is necessary ; the product is uniform, or just 
alike, from day to day, and will sell better ; it can be shipped in 
large quantities, and thus at less expense for transportation. 
Farmers can have their milk tested here, so that they may know 
which cows are good and which are poor, and so get rid of the 
poor ones. The creamery should teach cleanliness in handling 
milk, promptness, good business methods, and the principles of 
cooperation. 

Public agricultural institutions. — The people maintain a De- 
partment of Agriculture at Washington as a part of the govern- 
ment of the United States (the chief of which is Secretary of 
Agriculture in the President's Cabinet), and a college of agricul- 
ture and an experiment station in each state ; and in most of the 
states there is a department of agriculture. In Canada, there is a 
Minister of Agriculture for the Dominion, and departments of 
agriculture in the provinces. There is a Dominion experiment 
station at Ottawa, with branch stations in the provinces. There 
are also several provincial schools and colleges of agriculture. 



THE FARMER'S AIDS 49 

Problem 4^, Are there any boys and girls in your school whose fathers 
or mothers went to the same school, or to the old one before this was built ? 
Name all the leading and successful men who have studied in your school, 
so far as you can. 

Problem 43. How long has there been a church in your locality ? 
Ask your parents whether they can remember any time when there was 
not. In what ways is the church useful in the locality ? 

Problem 44- How many different kinds of transportation does your 
father use in canning his products from the farm to the market ? Which 
kind costs the most? Ask your father to tell you how his grandfather 
marketed his crops. 

Problem 4^. Why are the roads in your locality laid out where they 
are — that is, what determined the location of the roads ? If you don't 
know, see whether you can find out. 

Problem 4^. Why is a good road a good investment ? Where is the 
best section of road in your locality ? Why is it better than others ? 
Do some kinds of soil make better roads than others ? What kind of 
road dries soonest after a heavy rain ? What kind is heavy or sticky 
after a rain ? 

Problem 47. Suppose William's father lives eight miles from the station 
on a good state road, and John's father lives eight miles from the station 
on a poor road. If both men have to go to the station three times a week 
and it takes John's father, on the average, forty-five minutes longer each 
way to travel through the poor road, how much more will it cost him in 
mx months (26 weeks), if the time of each man is worth 50 cents an hour ? 
If John's father can carry only three-fourths as heavy a load each trip on 
the poor road, how many extra loads must he take to transport the same 
amount of stuff to the station as William's father takes in six months ? 
How much more will it cost him to do the same amount of work as Wil- 
liam's father will do in six months ? 

Problem 48. If in buying his farm on the poor road, John's father 
saved $1000, and put it in the bank at 5 per cent interest, did he make 
a good investment ? How much money in the bank at 5 per cent interest 
would return the amount that William's father saves each year in haul- 
ing ? William's father's farm is worth at least that much more to him 
than the farm on the poor road. 

Problem 49. How many families on your route have their mail de- 
livered at the gate ? If the first ten of them had driven to the village 
once a week simply for the mail, how many miles, all together, would they 
have traveled that week ? How far did the carrier have to drive in mak- 
ing one delivery to the first ten? 



50 AGRICULTURE 

Problem 50, Write a brief essay on the things you saw at the last 
country fair that would help the farmer in some way. 

Problem 51. Explain what farmers' clubs or business organizations 
are in the locality, and what they do for the farmers. If you do not have 
a boys' and girls' agricultural club in your school, write to the Office of 
Experiment Stations at Washington, D. C, and ask what such clubs do 
and how they are formed. Perhaps you will want one in your school. 

Problem 52. Give the name and post office of the college of agri- 
culture and the experiment station in your state or province. Is there a 
department of agriculture ? Write to each of them and ask what kinds 
of bulletins they publish that are helpful to farmers. Perhaps they may 
have some on subjects in which you are specially interested. 



PART II 



THE SOIL 



51 



CHAPTER IX 

WHAT THE SOIL IS 

The very thin, soft .covering of the earth in which plants grow 
is called the soil. The fanner tills the soil in order that plants 
may grow better. It is marvelous that the soil can produce so 
manj'^ different kinds of plants. There is practically no limit to 
the number of varieties of plants that can be raised. 

The nature of soil. — If we take a handful of good garden soil, 
we find that it is mellow, dark-colored, and moist. If we place 
it in a dish and heat it, the moisture will be driven oflF and it will 
become dry. If we heat it long enough, it \^dll smoke a little, and 
we can see and smell that something in it is burning. This must 
be organic, that is, vegetable or animal matter, as mineral matter 
will not bum. We shall not see much change in size by the 
burning, which shows that there is little organic matter and that 
most of the soil is mineral. It is organic matter, or " humus," 
as it is called, that gives soil its dark, " rich " appearance, that 
makes it loose and mellow, and that holds much of the moisture. 

If now we hold some of this mineral matter between our thumb 
and first finger and grind it, we shall discover that it contains small 
particles of sharp grit, which are sometimes hard enough to scratch 
even glass if rubbed against it. In a soil that is coarse and sandy, 
we can readily see these hard mineral particles ; in a fine loam or 
clay soil, the particles can be seen under the microscope. 

What the soil comes from. — It is evident that in some way 

mineral has been powdered to form the soil ; and since minerals 

come from rocks, it is rocks that have been ground up. By 

53 



54 AGRICULTURE 

pounding up a rock we can make the fine, gritty, mineral soil. 
When we grind the ax we add particles to the soil, the par- 
ticles being in part from the ax and in part from the grind- 
stone, and they are drained off in the muddy water. The soil 
specialist, or the geologist, when he has carefully examined the 
soil particles, can tell the kinds of rocks that have been ground 
up to make this soil, as sandstone, granite, limestone, or others. 

Perhaps the underlying or bed-rock of the earth comes out on the 
surface of the ground in a field on the farm or near the school- 
house ; or there may be a deep cut somewhere near, which shows 
the layer of rock under the soil; or maybe a well has been 
drilled on the farm and there was diflSculty in driving through 
the bed-rock. Everywhere, we find that the soil rests on the 
rock. In some places the rock shows on the surface, and in 
others it may be several hundred feet below the surface. 

We read in our geographies that at one time the earth was prob- 
ably a white-hot sphere, like the sun, and that in time the outer 
part XJooled and formed a crust, or case, of solid rock. It is the sur- 
face of this rock that has been changed into soil. If we could sweep 
off all the soil, we should come again to the rock-crust. 

If we examine the soil in a woodlot, we shall find it light and 
loose, and to contain more or less decayed leaves, twigs, roots, and 
trunks of trees. In the field or garden, we may find parts of 
plants decaying in the same way and becoming part of the soil. 
It is evident; therefore, that the organic matter, or humus, comes 
chiefly from the decaying vegetable matter that falls on the soil, 
grows in it, or is plowed into it. Some of it is formed also by the 
death and decay of worms, insects, and animals, which must be 
returned to the soil when they die. 

How the soil is made. — We have seen in the woodlot and in the 
garden how the organic matter gradually decays to form soil. 
But how has the hard rock-crust all over this globe been changed 
into the fine mineral part of the soil? There must have been 
some powerful means, or agents, and much time must have been 



WHAT THE SOIL IS 55 

required. A close study of different binds of soils will show tbat 
they have been formed by several means, chief of which are the 



aun, the air, water, plants, and animals. We shall study the 
work of each of these agents separately. 



56 AGRICULTURE 

The work of the sun. — If we will examine several different 
kinds of rocks we shall discover that most rocks are made up of 
a mass of fragments or particles of many sizes and kinds. As the 
sun beats down on a rock during the day, the rock is heated and it 
expands.! As the fragments of minerals are of different materials, 
they do not all expand equally or in the same directions. Towards 
evening the air cools rapidly, and the rock also cools. Some of 
the fragments cool more rapidly than others so that uneven 
contraction, or shrinkage, is produced. This uneven expansion 
and contraction, day after day, gradually makes cracks in the 
rock, and may even chip off pieces. 

This method of forming soil is most common in dry climates or 
where there are great extremes of heat and cold, as in New Eng- 
land and particularly in the mountain ranges in the West. 

The work of air. — The air sifts into cracks in rocks wherever 
it can find an opening. Here it begins a kind of rock-decay 
which results in the crumbling of the rock. This action of the 
air is well illustrated by the rust on a stove pipe or plowshare 
that is left exposed to the air for some time. The rust is a decay 
of the iron produced by the air. 

In arid or very dry regions, or wherever the ground is not cov- 
ered with grass, the wind lifts particles of soil and hiu-ls them 
against rocks on hillsides, gradually wearing away the rock and 
undermining it so that it falls over. This is called disintegration. 
The rounded and dome-like shapes in the hills and mountains in 
the western desert regions are largely formed from soil carried by 
the wind. 

The work of water. — The water from rains also finds its way into 
the little crevices in the rocks, where it may freeze and force the 

^ Metals and minerals expand, or become larger or longer, when they are heated. 
When a railroad is laid, a short space is left between each two rails to provide for 
expansion or lengthening when the rails are heated by the sun or by the passage of 
cars over them. When minerals in a rock are heated they become slightly larger 
and crowd against one another. Different kinds of minerals expand different 
amounts. 



WHAT THE SOIL IS 57 

cracks to open witter.' When ice fonns in lai^ cracks on rocky 
hillsides, it may break large pieces from the rocks and send them 
tumbling down below. 

Water also dissolves rock, just as it dissolves sugar, but not so 
rapidly. The process is slow but it is sure. Think how the 



Fra. 22.^- The bed of aatream at lavwater. NoUce the pebbles that have been 
worn smooth by being rolled about. Tiny bits that have been ground off have 
been added to the soil. 

waves of the ocean dash against the rocky shores, and remember 
that there ia "no rock so hard, but a little wave may beat ad- 
mission in a thousand years." 

Water nearly always contains a substance called carbonic acid, 

' Water expands when it freeses. If we completely fill a glass bottle with water 
and fasten it with a etrone stopper, and then set it where the water can freeze, the 
bottle will be broken by the expansion of the water in freezing. 



58 AGRICULTURE 

and this greatly increases its power to dissolve rock. Very few 
rocks can resist the effect of such wat«r. 

After a rain the creeks and rivers are always muddy because of 
the soil that the water carries down from the hillsides. In the 
streams we may see small stones that are bejng carried along on the 
bottom, knocking against one another and rubbing off all the sharp 
edges so that they become smooth, round pebbles. The small par- 
ticles that are chipped off are carried by the stream, together with 
the particles of soil from the hillsides, to the mouth, or where the 
stream overflows its banks, and there, where the water is quiet, are 
deposited as fine, soft mud. Perhaps we have seen this soft mud 
in the lowland where the creek has overflowed its banks during 
the spring freshet. Part of it is new soil ground from the rocks. 
In this way the deltas of rivulets, brooks, and rivers are formed. 

The work of ice. — We have said that when ice forms in crevices 

in the rocks it forces them apart and may break off pieces. But 

ice has played a 

much greater part 

than this in the 

making of soils, in 

the work of glaciers. 

A glacier is a 

slowly moving field 

or stream of ice, 

melting or breaking 

away at the outer 

edge or lower end 

where it comes in 

contact with the sea 

or reaches a warmer 

region. Theaccumu- 

lation of snow and ice on top of the glacier or at its sources 

pushes the mass of ice onward. 

At one time the north temperate lands wrae covered by a great 



WHAT THE SOIL IS 59 

glacier that reached across our continent to the Rocky Mountains. 
At certain points it extended as far south as Pennsylvania, and in 
some places was a thousand feet or more in height. As this vast 



Pra. 24. — Boots follow crevieea ii 
them larger. Then water enter 

ice sheet moved gradually southward, it ground the rocks into 
j>owder, wore away the sides of mountains, and rounded off the 
hill-tops. It carried much of the soil and rock with it, and as it 



60 AGRICULTURE 

gradually melted, deposited its load by the way. With the melting 
of so much ice, great streams were formed, which carried away 
much of the finer soil and left the coarser and heavier sand, 
gravel, and pebbles as sand-banks or gravel-banks. Perhaps 
near your home there are such banks, left by the glacier, to 
remind you that it once occupied your region or farm, and that 
it had part in the making of your land. 

There is now a glacier in Greenland covering an area more 
than ten times as great as that of New York State. It is slowly 
moving outward in all directions. From the ends that reach out 
into the sea icebergs break off, which, before they have melted, 
may float as far south as the path of ocean steamers. Similar 
glaciers are moving sea-ward from Alaska ; and smaller ones 
are on many mountains. 

The work of plants. — The roots of growing plants creep into 
the crevices in the rocks and there increase in size, forcing the 
cracks wider open and breaking off fragments of the rock. 
Decaying plants and roots hold the moisture of rains; and in 
their decay an acid is formed which slowly dissolves the rock 
that it touches. 

The work of animals. — All classes of burrowing animals, as 
the gopher, mole, woodchuck, and prairie dog, and of insects, as 
the ant, and the earthworm, help to form soil. They keep it 
porous, or open, so that rains can enter, and they bring the deeper 
soil to the surface. Those that eat soil, as earthworms and 
certain insects, change its form. They are so numerous in some 
soils that the part they take in soil-making is very important. 

What soil is. — It is apparent, then, that soil is crumbled or 
ground up rock, containing particles of many shapes and sizes and 
materials, to which has been added decaying animal and vegetable 
material, which we call organic matter, or humus. It is not 
simply one thing or material, but is a great mixture or com- 
bination of many kinds of materials ; and that is why it is useful 
in the growing of plants. 



WHAT THE SOIL IS 61 

Problem S3. Ask your teacher to take the class for an excursion some 
afternoon, to study soil formation. Go to a creek or river-bank and 
describe the soil-making that is taking place there. Find a low place 
where the stream has overflowed, and note the fine, soft mud which is still 
gritty. Then see whether you can find any crumbling rocks in the field 
or the fence row, or in a cut in a hillside. Chip off a piece of rock that 
has been exposed to the sun, and note the change that has taken place on 
the outside as compared with the inside. Ask your teacher to tell you 
what she knows about the formation of the hills, if there are any in the 
locality. See whether you can find a sand-bank or gravel-bank, and 
notice how it is formed. Write a report on what you learn on this field 
trip. 

Problem 64- Walk over your father's farm, or some other farm in 
your locality, and note carefully how many kinds of soil there are. Write 
an essay on what soil conditions you discover on the farm. 

Problem 55, What difference is there between the soil in the woodlot 
and that in the hay or grain field, in color, weight, texture, or feeling, 
and smell ? Why is there this difference ? Which contains more mois- 
ture? Why? 

Problem 56. Grind up three different kinds of rock as fine as you can 
and bring the fragments and powder to school for comparison. Is there 
any difference in the soil from the different kinds of rock ? Which kinds 
of rock grind most easily? Which are hardest ? Put all of the soil made 
by the pupils into a pot and set |in it a growing plant. Keep it well 
watered and in a bright place, but not in direct sunlight. Will the plant 
grow in the soil you have made ? What is the chief difference between 
this soil and that in the field ? Does it contain any organic matter ? 

Problem 57. Heat some garden soil and note the changes. Heat some 
soil from Hie woodlot and note the changes. Which burns more ? Why ? 
Which changes more in size and color ? Why ? What has the heat done 
to each soil ? 

Problem 58. Why are some stones and pebbles rounded? Do you 
alwa}^ find sand where there are pebbles ? Why ? 



CHAPTER X 

THE NATURE AND COMPOSITION OF SOIL 

Wb have learned that there are marked contrasts in the 
nature of the soil in different sections of our country, as the soil 
of New Ei^land, the alluvial plains of the Mississippi, the broad 
prairies, the great plains, and the arid regions. These are differ- 
ent one from another, partly because different kinds and amounts 



Fig. 2S. — Hills formed o( sand drifted by the wind. 

of rock and vegetable materials have entered into their making, 
and partly because the particles of soil are of various sizes and 
kinds. 

Different kinds of soils have names, just as different kinds 
of plants have names. The names help to describe and classify 



THE NATURE AND COMPOSITION OF SOIL 63 

them. Some of the names are peat, muck, clay, loam, sand, and 
gravel. 

Peat. — Peat is made up very largely of vegetable or plant 
material that is only partially decomposed. . It is not decayed 
enough to be useful for the growing of plants. It is formed 
chiefly in swamps, where the water is quiet and the mud that it 
carries settles to the bottom and furnishes a foothold for water 
plants. When these plants die, they are submerged and others 
take their places. Year after year this process goes on, and there 
is built up a peat bog. Such bogs are found in many places in 
Canada, northern United States, Ireland, Scotland, and Norway. 

Muck. — A soil that contains a large amount of organic matter 
that is more thoroughly decomposed than peat is called muck. 
It is the next step toward a good garden soil from peat. It will 
support plant growth, but is not the best garden soil except for 
a few crops. It is black and loose and holds a great deal of 
moisture. It must be well drained before any crops can be 
grown. I 

Clay. — A clay soil is one that is made* up of such fine parts 
that one particle cannot be distinguished from another without 
the aid of a microscope. It is the most finely pulverized soil. 
In the field it is hard and sticky, and difficult to work either 
when it is very wet or when it is very dry. It makes good mud 
pies which crack to pieces when they are dry. That is the way 
the soil behaves in the field also ; we have all seen the cracked 
surface of a clay soil in the dry midsummer. A clay soil is fre- 
quently said to be cold because it holds much water, that is, does 
not allow the water to pass through it readily. It is also said to 
be heavy, because it is closely compacted and sticky. 

Loam. — A soil composed partly of clay and partly of sand is 
called a loam. If there is much clay in it, it is a clay loam ; if 
much sand, it is a sandy loam. When clay and sand are in about 
equal proportions it is a true loam. This is the most conmion and 
most desirable kind of general farm soil. It is easy to workf 



64 AGRICULTURE 

allows moisture to pass through sufficiently fast, and makes a good 

home for roots. . i 

Sand. — Sand is soil so coarse that it is gritty. Its particles 

are much larger than those of the clay soil. They can readily 

be distinguished one from 

another. The soil is loose, 
open, and porous, allowing 
the water to drain out of it 
easily. Sand is therefore 
frequently spolien of as a 
vmrm and a light soil, the 
opposite of a clay soil. We 
find sand soils along stream 
beds, along the shores of 
lakes, in the coastal plain, 
and in other places whore 
the glacier deposited part 
of its burden. 

Gravel. — Some soils are 
nearly all gravel, or pebbles, 
and are called gravel soils. 
Others contain many large 
pebbles and small stones. 
A clay soil containing much 
stone is called a stony clay. 

The materials that make 

Fta. 20. — Where the current ia checked the ,. „. , 

BtreBindepoaitB its burden. "P soil. — We now know 

that the soil is made up of 
fine particles of rock, vegetable matter, water, plant and animal 
life. It contains also air and another kind of plant life which 
perhaps we do not know about, because we cannot see it, but 
which is very important, — a low form cailed bacteria. The 
bacteria plants are so small that they can be seen only under a 
strong microscope. Yet the soil could not produce crops if they 



THE NATURE AND COMPOSITION OF SOIL 65 

were not there, changing it so as to make it useful for plant-food. 
Bacteria must have ^r in order to live, and bo there must be 
air in the soil. We shall study in later chapters about these 
Tarious materials that make up the soil. 

Importance of the condition of tlie soil. — In order to grow, 
plants must have food, air, water, and a suitable home. These 
are what the soil and the atmosphere supply. A suitable home 
must allow the roots 
to reach out, must 
supply the food which 
they are seeking, help 
to regulate the mois- 
ture and heat condi- 
tions for the plant, 
and give good support 
to that part which 
grows above ground. 
A considerable part 
of the plant grows 
below ground to sup- 
port and nourish the 
part above ground. When we have tried to pull a pigweed out 
of a neglected part of the garden, we have discovered that the soil 
gives strong support and that the root-anchor holds fast. The 
farmer recognizes the importance of the condition of the soil, 
and plows and fits his land carefully. 

Soil as a source of plant-food. — The plant needs a variety of 
foods, just as the hungry boy does. Many different substances 
are required for its growth. Some of these substances are ob- 
tained from the air and others from the soil. Those that are 
taken from the soil are spoken of as mineral foods because they are 
actually some of the mineral matter dissolved in water. As 
we shall study later, the plant cannot take in solid particles 
of soil, but only such materials as are dissolved in water in the 



66 AGRICULTURE 

soil. Through the roots the dissolved materials can pass into 
the plant, where they are prepared by a sort of digestion for its 
special needs. 

A very large part of the mineral matter in soil is material that 
cannot be used as food by plants, and is of no use to them except 
to give tbera support. 

Relation of soil to farming in tlie locality. — The kind of soil in 
a locality determines to a considerable extent the type of farming 



that shall be carried on. Some crops can be raised on a great vari- 
ety of soils, while others are not so easy to please, Timothy hay will 
grow successfully on clay, clay loam, loam, and even fine sandy 
soils ; apples, pears, and grapes prefer heavy loam or clay soils ; 
peaches prefer sandy soils. 

When muck soil is well drained, it is excellent for growing onions, 
celery, cabbage, and peppermint. Lai^e growers of these crops 
usually choose such land, if they can secure it. Where there are 
belts or stretches of muck land, the farmers make a specialty of 
one or two crops ; here, the soil determines the kind of farmit^. 



THE NATURE AND COMPOSITION OF SOIL 67 

Clay soils will produce good crops of hay, wheat, oats, beets, 
cabbage, and turnips. They are too cold and wet for corn 
and too hard to allow potatoes to grow freely. Loam soils pro- 
duce hay, wheat, and oats nearly as well as clay soils ; they produce 
com and clover better than clay soils. Potatoes, tomatoes, beans, 
and peas do very well on loams. Sandy soils produce poor crops 
of grain and grass, but, because they are warm, they are well 
adapted for growing berries and early vegetables, as peas, radishes, 
and lettuce. The intelligent farmer will adapt his crops to his soils, 
and thus secure the best results from his land. 

Problem 59, Ask your teacher to take the class for another soil ex- 
cursion. Some one supply a spade. In the meadow, dig down about 
eighteen inches into the soil. Is there any difference between the surface 
soil and the under soil or subsoil ? If there is, which is looser ? Which 
is darker colored? Which has more organic matter? Why? How can 
you tell ? How deep down is the subsoil ? How many factors have 
helped to make the surface soil different from the subsoil? Take a 
bottle or glass full of both smiace soil and subsoil for study and exhibit 
in the schoolroom. Put a label on the glass to show where and when the 
soil was secured. 

Make a similar study of the soils in the woodlot and down by the creek 
bed, if there are woods and creeks in your neighborhood. Of all the 
soils studied, which contains most organic, or vegetable, matter, and 
which contains least ? How do you explain the differences ? 

FrMem 60. Make for the schoolroom an exhibit or museum contain- 
ing muck, clay, loam, sand, gravel, and stony clay soils so far as you can 
find them in your neighborhood. Mark the bottles to show where each 
was found. Get the same amount of each kind of soil, weigh the samples, 
and mark the weights on the bottles. After a few weeks, note which 
have changed most. Weigh them again. Explain the changes. Do these 
differences make some soils better for crop-growing than others ? Why ? 

Problem 61. What kind of soil is most conmion in your locality? 
Do all of the farmers grow, in general, the same kinds of crops ? Are there 
any special crops ? Are the special crops grown on certain kinds of soil ? 
Does your father try to adapt his crops to the different kinds of soil on his 
farm, if there are differences? 

Problem 62. Write a short essay about the part that the soil plajrs in 
the growing of plants — what it does for the plant, and how. 



CHAPTER XI 

THE WATER AND AIR IN THE SOIL 

If a soil is perfectly dry — or as dry as you have ever seen it 
— plants cannot grow in it. When we add water, we see that 
plants will grow or they will revive if they are wilted. We know 
that in some way the water in the soil is useful to plants. 

Relation of water to plant growth. — A living plant contaiils a 
large proportion of water — generally more than 75 per cent of 
its weight. Practically all this water is taken from the soil by 
the roots. All growing plants need water, first, because they can 
take their food from the soil only in Uquid form, and second, in 
order to keep fresh — that is, to keep their cells expanded so that 
the plant will itot become wilted. The moisture that is in the 
soil is the immediate source of the food-supply of plants ; it is a 
plant-food itself, and it carries other plant-foods. Much water 

* 

must pass up through the plant in order to carry the food to the 
leaves where it is digested.^ From there the surplus water evapo- 
rates, or passes off into the air. 

How the water gets into the soil. — If we go out immediately 
after a heavy shower, we find little muddy streams running by the 
roadside. Out in the cornfield, where the land slopes down 
toward the hollow, some of the soil has been washed away and 
the water has cut deep channels toward the bottom of the slope. 
The little rills rise rapidly and rush away, loaded with fine soil from 

^ It has been found that crops take 300 to 600 tons of water from the soil to 
make one ton of dry plant material, by which is meant all of the plant except the 
water. Timothy hay takes 300 tons of water to make one ton of dry hay. Oats 
require 500 tons, barley 464 tons, clover 576 tons, potatoes 385 tons, to produce 
one ton of dry matter. 

68 



THE WATER AND AIR IN THE SOIL 69 

the plowed fields. The water that runs off in this way instead of 
BJnkii^ into the ground is spoken of as surface water. 



Fio. 29. — Disastroua soil eroBioD, or waabing, k 



70 AGRICULTURE 

But not all of the water robs and furrows the land and retreats 
with haste to the nearest creek or pond. Much of it does not 
atop when it strikes the surface of the ground, but sinks into the 



land through the cracks, crevices, earthworm burrows, channels 
left by the decay of roots, and whatever other openings there 
may be. As it is ui^ed on by other water from above, it will 
sink down to the lower layers of soil. Finally, if the rain is heavy 
enough, it will reach the level of the " free " or ground water, 



THE WATER AND AIR IN THE SOIL 71 

from which wells and springs are supplied. Very heavy and long- 
continued rains may fill all the spaces in the upper layers of soil 
with water. Dashing showers will run off the surface, if it slopes, 
as time is required for water to soak into the soil. When the land 
is dry, the farmer likes a slow, steady rain that continues for 
several hours — a soaking rain. 

How the water is held. — As the water passes downward, each 
particle of soil is surrounded with a thin film or coating of water, 
much as is a marble when dipped into water. 

All through the soil are holes or pof e spaces which vary in 
size with the kind of soil. In a fine-grained soil, as clay, which 
packs closely, the spaces are small, and the water cannot pass 
through quickly. Much water is held back in the little cavities. 
In a loose, coarse-grained soil, as sand, the spaces are large and 
the water passes through very rapidly. We might compare the 
two types of soil with two pieces of cloth — one of fine linen and 
the other of cheese cloth. The former, with its fine spaces, will 
almost hold water, while the latter, with its large openings, 
allows water to drain through rapidly. 

Perhaps we shall now understand why clay is frequently a sticky, 
wet soil, and forms puddles on the surface after a rain, while sand 
is a dry soil and almost never forms puddles. 

How soil water moves. — We can readily understand how 
water will move downward through the soil wherever there are 
openings or pores. It is interesting to know also that the 
water that is about the particles in the form of thin films can 
pass from one particle to another whenever two particles touch 
each other closely. As the particles in the soil are in close 
contact, this movement of water is constantly taking place. It 
is the dry particle that takes the moisture from the wet one, 
so that the movement is toward the drying area. This is of 
great importance to the plant, as there is a constant move- 
ment of water towards its roots as fast as the roots take up the 
water from the particles of soil that they are touching. It is 



THE WATER AND AIR IN THE SOIL 73 

in this way that the plant receives the benefit of most of the 
moisture in a good soil. 

Drainage. — In regions that have considerable rainfall, enough 
water falls to more than fill the pore spaces in the soil. If most 
soils did not provide some means of carrying ofif the surplus that 
has entered the soil, all lands, even the most rolling, would 
be swampy. More water must be removed from the soil than runs 
off the surface. Therefore, all lands that do not of themselves 
drain away the excess, or have natural underdrainage as we say, 
must be artificially underdrained. This is because the surplus 
water occupies the open spaces in the soil and thereby prevents 
the entrance of air. The roots of plants must have air, and 
they will go down only as far as the air can penetrate. By re- 
moving the over-abimdance of water and allowing the air to enter, 
we provide for the roots a wider and deeper feeding ground. 

Drainage has other uses than this, however. Much water 
makes the groimd cold. When the surplus is removed, the 
ground warms up earlier in the spring and crops can be planted 
earlier.^ If the ground heaves in winter, breaking the plant 
roots, it is an indication that there is too much moisture present 
and that drainage is needed. Drainage will largely prevent 
heaving. It will also largely prevent the " baking " or crack- 
ing of soils in midsummer. It really provides more moisture, 
not less, for plants, because it removes only the harmful excess 
and allows the roots to go deeper and so to be in contact with 
a larger surface from which to draw the films of water. 

The best means of artificially draining most lands is by laying 
tile drains in the soil three to five feet deep, and close enough to 
take care of all surplus water. When it is necessary to remove 
only excess surface water, open surface ditches may be used. 

* Growth will not begin in most cultivated crops when the temperature is below 
40° F. Above this temperature, growing conditions improve up to a given temper- 
ature, beyond which they fall again from too great heat. Corn will not begin to 
grow below 48° or 49° F. It grows best at 93° F. 



74 AGRICULTURE 

Irrigation. — Sometimes soils do not receive enough moisture, or 
the rain is not well enough distributed throughout the year to 
meet the needs of growing plants. In such ca^s water must be 
supplied artificially by what is known as irrigation. In many 
large areas in the western part of the United States no farm 
crops can be grown unless the land is irrigated. In other regions, 
the rainfall is not sufficient for the best growth of crops. 
Fifty years ago less than 100,000 acres in the United States were 
artificially watered. To-day more than 10,000,000 acres are 
being so watered. Many more millions will be valuable farm 
lands when they are irrigated. 

In the east, irrigation is also being practiced by farmers who grow 
vegetables or truck-crops for market. Their crops may be ruined 
by drought if they depend wholly on natural rainfall, and some- 
times they establish systems of watering in their vegetable gardens. 
Usually they use an overh(?ad sprinkling device instead of running 
the water through ditches in the gardens. 

In the great western irrigation systems, immense dams are built 
to form reservoirs or artificial lakes to hold back all the water from 
rains and winter snows. From these reservou-s, canals carry the 
water through the region to be watered. Ditches opening from the 
canals distribute it to the fields. In some places canals and 
ditches run out from large creeks and rivers, and reservoirs do not 
have to be built. 

The air in the soil. — All plants require air around their grow- 
ing parts, about the roots as well as about the stems and leaves. 
The roots cannot do their part unless there is air about them. 
Without air seeds will not germinate, that is, will not begin 
growth, but will rot. And the great host of soil bacteria, whose 
work it is to change certain plant-foods so that they can be 
used by the plants, will perish if they cannot have air. In 
other words, all the activities in the soil that have to do with 
the growth of plants will cease if air is not present, and plants 
wiU not grow. 



76 AGRICULTURE 

We have already learned that air occupies thq open spaces in 
the soil; and that it enters the pores, cracks, earthworm bur- 
rows, holes left by decaying roots, and any other openings. 
When Tain water seeps into the soil, it carries air with it. The 
farmer introduces air into his soil by plowing, turning the soil 
over, exposing it to the air, loosening it, and making new pore 
spaces. 

Problem 63, Fill a four-ounce medicine bottle with well water. Cut 
a small slip of geranium and put the lower end into the water. Hang the 
bottle containing the slip in the. window. Empty the water every other 
day and fill the bottle with fresh well water. Does the slip grow ? Does 
it have food ? Where does it get its food ? Is there dissolved mineral 
matter, plant-food, in the well water ? Do you suppose that your well 
is simply a deep hole to catch the excess soil water, which contains plant- 
food? 

Problem 64^ Take three long-necked lamp chimneys or glass tubes, 
and tie a piece of coarse muslin over one end of each. Fill one with coarse 
sand, one with sand and loam mixed, and one with clay, to within one and 
one half inches of the top. Jar carefully to compact the soil while filling. 
Stand the tubes in trays filled about two inches deep with very coarse 
sand or fine gravel. Fill each tube to the top with water. As the water 
sinks, add equal amounts to each tube. In which tube does the water sink 
fastest ? In which one does it drain away from the bottom first ? When 
each has begun to drain, fill each tube level full of water at the top and see 
how long it takes each to lose its one and one half inches of water. Keep 
the tubes for a few days and note which one dries first and which last. 
Which would be the best garden soil so far as the moisture is concerned ? 
Why? 

Problem 65, Are there any surface drains on your father's farm, or on 
any farm in the locality ? Are there any underdrains ? Are there wet 
places on your father's farm ? What kind of soil is there in the wet 
places ? How does it behave when it is dry ? Do plants grow well on 
the wet places ? 

. Problem 66. Write a short essay about what becomes of the rain that 
f«dls on your father's farm. 

Problem 67, Where is the great Roosevelt dam? Why is it there? 
How much land is irrigated from it ? 
" Problem 68, Put clay soil into a pot and plant seeds. Wet the surface 



THE WATER AND AIR IN THE SOIL 77 

t 

of the soil and puddle or pack the clay while wet. Watch for the seeds to 
germinate and grow. Keep the clay soaked. At the same time put seeds 
into another pot Med with loose, mellow, moist soil. In which do the 
plants first appear ? Why do not the plants grow in the first soil ? Are 
there any weft clay soils like the one in the first pot, in your locality ? 
Do they grow good farm crops ? 

Problem 69. If there is a bare place on your father's farm, or on a 
neighboring farm, try to find out why it does not produce plants. Might 
one reason be that it is so hard that air cannot enter ? Does it contain 
much humus ? 

Problem 70. Why does very little grass grow on the playground by the 
school-house, especially near **home plate" of the baseball field, during 
the simmier vacation? 

Problem 71. Why do seeds rot in a water-soaked soil? 

Problem 72. Do you suppose that you could cause seeds to germinate 
even in a water-logged soil if you thrust straws down to them 7 



CHAPTER XII 

THE PLANT LIFE IN THE SOIL 

We have already used the word bdeteria (Chapter X) ; and 
we have learned that bacteria are very small, invisible plants 
that live in the soil and help in the growth of other plants. 
Some kinds live in other places than in the soil, but we shall 
study now only the kinds that are found in the soil. 

These tiny plants live in the soil in coimtless millions. In 
the barnyard and the manure heap, where conditions are espe- 
cially favorable for their growth, they exist in very great num- 
bers, even as great as 100,000,000 in one gram of soil (a gram 
is .002 of a pound). We cannot see them without the aid of a 
powerful microscope, but we know that they exist and that they 
are very important to the farmer. They do not require sun- 
light, as do most of the plants we know about; but they do 
require air, moisture, moderate warmth, and food. When the 
farmer knows how much he depends on these unseen allies, and 
what they require for their life and work, he tries to make the 
condition of the soil favorable for them. 

What the bacteria do. — All plants and animals require food ; 
and much of it is limited in quantity. At any one time, there 
is little food in the soil in the right condition for plants, yet 
plants and animals have used food constantly for unknown cen- 
turies ; and our soils are still producing vegetation. This is pos- 
sible because the same food is used over and over again. One 
kind of living things uses it, and in so doing changes it into a 
form to be used by another kind of living things ; these, in turn, 
change it into other forms for use by still other living things. 

78 



THE PLANT LIFE IN THE SOIL 79 

The food substances pass through a circle, or cycle, passing round 
from one kind of life to another, and finally returning to the 
form in which they started. 

Plants are grown to feed animals. All tillage of the soil is to 
help plants to grow — to make the food in the soil useful for 
plants. When plants consume this food, they change it into 
new forms that cannot inunediately be used as food for other 
plants. But it is then in just the right form for animal food, 
and so animals consume the green plants. In the animal body 
the food substances are again changed. Some of the material^ 
are returned to the soil in the manure. All of the others are re- 
turned when the animal dies and is buried. 

When the food materials, which came originally from the soil, 
have passed through these several changes and are returned once 
more to the soil, they are not then in a form to be used again 
by plants. This is where the bacteria do their part. Such dead 
plant and animal matter is just the kind of food they need, and 
they set to work on it vigorously. When they are done with 
it, it has been changed into simple forms again that are in the 
right condition to be used as food by plants ; and here the ma- 
terials start again on their roimd, or cycle. If it were not for 
the bacteria the soil would soon become clogged with the dead 
bodies of plants and animals, and would be useless for producing 
vegetation. 

This circle or cycle or round of Ufe, in which all living things 
have their part and receive their nourishment, helps us to under- 
stand why the soil can produce crops for countless centuries with- 
out becoming exhausted. It is only when the farmer takes 
much food from the soil in crops and returns nothing to it, that 
the cycle is broken and soils become poor and unproductive. 

Another activity of bacteria. — Every farm boy knows that 
the fields are richest where clover or cowpeas or alfalfa has been 
grown. Certain crops, which we call legumes, or leguminous 
plants, such as clover, alfalfa, beans, peas, cowpeas, and vetches. 



80 AGRICULTURE 

leave the soil in a specially rich or fertile condition. The soil 
bacteria must be given credit for this unusual richness. Nature 
has provided a kind of bacteria 
that penetrate the small rootlets 
and set up factories, which we call 
root nodules, for the preparing and 
storing of one of the most valuable 
of the plant-foods known as ni- 
trogen. In these factories, which 
are established on the leguminous 
plants, nitrogen is stored for the 
use of the plant itself and for other 
plants that will be grown on the 
Boil alter the legume is harvested. 
The crop that is grown after the 
legume is benefited because the 
roots of the legume, bearii^ the 
nodules, are left in the ground. 

Soil inoculatioD. — Sometimes it 
is desirable to place these tiny 
plant organisms in soil in which 
they are lacking. This operation 
we call soil inoculation ; that is, 
we inoculate, or infect, the soil 
with bacteria. Soil inoculation 
may be practiced when a kind of 
legume is to be grown on the land 
that has not been grown there in 
recent years. It is most easily 
done by spreading on the land soil 
from a field where the same kind of 
legume has been grown successfully. The soil carries the bac- 
teria, and thus they get into or inoculate the new soil. It 
clover does not do well on one field, but thrives on another, it 



Fio. 33. — Tbe roots of the c 
pea, showiag the nodules io wl 
Uve the bacteria that gather ni- 



THE PLANT LIFE IN THE SOIL 81 

may be made to grow better on the first by sprinkling on it 
some soil from the second. 

Soil diseases. — There are some kinds of bacteria in the soil 
which are not desirable. They are known as plant disease germs ; 
that is, they cause diseases of plants, and carry diseases from 
one plant to another. They are just as active in the soil as 
are the helpful kinds of germs, and may cause the farmer great 
loss. Clubroot of cabbage is a soil disease. 

Problem 73, Go into a field in which a heavy sod or stubble was 
plowed under last spring or last fall. With a spade dig up some of the 
soil and note what changes are taking place in the vegetable parts that 
were plowed under. If possible, find next a field in which vegetable matter 
was plowed under the year before. What has become of the vegetable 
materials in this field ? Then go over to the woodlot, and where the trees 
are thickest dig down about fifteen inches. Describe the changes in the 
condition of the soil as you go down from the surface. From what is most of 
this soil made ? 

Problem 74, Can you find any mushrooms or toadstools in the woods 
or about the barn ? Why do they grow there ? 

Problem 75, Carefully pull up a clover, sweet clover, alfalfa, or some 
other leguminous plant, and look for the little nodules or swellings on the 
roots. They may be as small as pin heads, or much larger. Try to find 
them on the roots of two or three different kinds of legumes for comparison. 
Wash the roots carefully and keep them for a while in a glass jar in the 
schoolroom for observation. 

Problem 76, Legumes are the true pod-bearing plants. The pea-pod 
is the kind of fruit that botanists call a 'legume," and from this the 
name has been given to all the plants of this family. It is a large family. 
Most of the members have pea-shaped or butterfly-like flowers. How 
many kinds of leguminous plants can you name? 

Problem 77, Write a story about the life cycle of a corn plant — what 
becomes of the plant and how the materials that are in it are carried roimd 
to go into another com plant. Explain what happens to the soil if the 
com is shipped away or is fed to cattle that are to be sold, and little is 
retumed to the soil. 



CHAPTER XIII 

THE TILLAGE OF THE LAND 

Tillage is the stirring or turning over of the land to fit it for the 
growing of plants. Plowing and spading and harrowing and hoeing 
are forms of tillage. Land is tilled in order that crops may be 
planted and harvested, and to improve the condition of the soU 
so that it will yield the largest and best crops. 

When man first tilled the soil, centuries ago, he doubtless did it 
only to get his seed into the soil, or, in the case of root-crops, to get 




Fia. 34. — Bottom view of a modem plow, showing the parts. 1, share ; 2, mold- 
board ; 3, landslide ; 4, frog ; 5, brace ; 6, beam ; 7, clevis ; 8, handle. 

the crops out of the soil. Gradually it was learned that tillage had 
other uses — that it destroyed weeds, and that stirring the soil to 
remove weeds seemed to make the plants grow better. When the 
land did not produce good crops, the workman of former time 
thought that it needed to have a rest instead of having more 
thorough tillage. So he rested his land for a year, or "fallowed" 
it, as we say to-day ; that is, he allowed it to remain idle. 

History of tillage. — In the early part of the eighteenth century, 
Jethro TuU, an English landlord, taught that tillage was the most 

82 



THE TILLAGE OF THE LAND 83 

important farm operation. He declared that by tillage, which 
would pulverize the soil for the use of plants, soils could be kept 
forever in a productive condition. He thought that the plants 
themselves took the jBne particles of soil into the roots and digested 
^ them within the plant. He did not know, as we do to-day, that 
plants cannot take in solid materials, but must get their food from 
the soil in liquid form. He had observed, however, that thorough 
tillage made plants thrive, even though he did not know the real 
reason. TuU's teachings and writings completely changed the 
methods of farming of his day. Thereafter tillage occupied a 
more important place in farm operations. 

We shall learn in this chapter some of the reasons why the farm- 
ers of the present day till their soils. 

Why soils are tilled. — We have already learned that plants will 
not grow imless their roots have a suitable home and feeding 
ground. Tillage is one of the best means of preparing this suit- 
able home. The following are some of the reasons why soils 
are improved by tillage : 

(1) Tillage makes the soil finer and deeper, so that roots can 
reach farther. 

(2) It brings up the moist soil in spring and enables the surface 
to dry enough to make a good, early seed-bed. 

(3) It helps the soil to hold a larger amount of useful moisture 
by fining or pulverizing it so that there are more particles to be 
coated with the films of water. 

(4) It saves moisture in the hot midsummer, for reasons which 
we shall learn. 

(5) It stirs the soil and allows air to enter. 

(6) It prevents the growth of weeds, which take plant-food and 
moisture from the soil. 

(7) By tillage, vegetable matter is plowed into the soil to make 
it more productive. 

Tillage makes plant-food available. — We know that, at any 
one time, there is only a relatively small amount of food in the 



84 AGRICULTURE 

soil in condition for plants to use. But there is a great deal of 
material that will serve as food for plants when it is changed into 



Fio. 35. — Good tillage BBves moisture. 

another form. The food in the soil is available only when it is 
in ft condition in which plants can use it. One purpose of tillage 



THE TILLAGE OF THE LAND S5 

is to help change this material into the form in which it can 
be used. 

As we have learned in the preceding chapters, moisture, heat, and 
air are necessary in the soil if the mineral material is to be dis- 
solved, the organic matter decayed, and the bacteria to do their 
work. All of thes^ activities must take place in order to prepare 
the soil as food for plants. Tillage opens up the soil to receive 
moiBture, heat, and air. It is therefore of first importance in 
creating the right conditions for the growth of plants. 

Tillage saves moisture. — Tillage, if it is well done, breaks the 
soil into very fine particles; and a soil made up of fine particles 
will hold much more moisture than a coarse one — as clay soil 



Fig. 36. -r Tillage improvea the orcbard aoil. 

will hold more moisture than sandy soil, even thoi^h it does not 
take up the moisture so rapidly as does sand. 

But tillage saves moisture for the plant in another way. Our 
fathers cultivate their corn and cabbages and potatoes, not only to 
keep weeds out, but also to keep the aoil loose on top. Have we 



86 AGRICULTURE 

ever asked them why they keep two or three incbes of loose soil 
on the surface, which dries out as soon as it is stirred ? 

Let us go out behind the barn or woodshed, and lift a board or 
large stone that has lain there throughout the spring and early 
summer We find that the soil is moist under it, while the ground 
about IS dry The stone has prevented the moisture from evapo- 



s'<-V&»(S^ ^ 



rating into the air. The loose layer of surface soil, which we call 
a mulch, acts in much the same way as the stone. It serves 
as a blanket, covering ail the field, to protect the soil beneath 
from the strong summer heat and to prevent the evaporation of 
the moisture. By stirring and drying the surface mulch, its 
moisture is evaporated. As the mulch is kept loo.se, the films 



F:q. 38. — Afootpmit, Bhowioghow the soil is oompacted. 

of moisture from below do not pass from the moist particles to 
the dry ones, as we learned in Chapter XI, because the dry par- 
ticles are not in close enough contact with the moist ones. If 
the mulch is allowed to settle of its own weight and pack again, or 
becomes packed by rolling, tramping, or a beating shower, its 
particles will become pressed against the moist ones beneath ; and 



THE TILLAGE OF THE LAND 87 

then the moisture will pass upward i^am and be evaporated. 
It is in order to prevent this packing that the surface must be 
stirred frequently to keep the mulch loose. 

Dry-farming. — Many of us have heard or read about "dry- 
farming." It is a special kind of tillage used in very dry 
regions to save enough moisture so that crops may be grown 
every two years instead of every year. The land is made deep 
aod fine to catch and hold all the rainfall, and then the surface is 
kept loose throughout the year to prevent the moisture from 
escaping. 

The purpose is to store up enough moisture one year, when 
crops are not grown, to supplement the rainfall of the next year 
so that a crop can be grown during that year. The third year 
the land is bare again, to store up moisture for a crop to be 
grown during the fourth year. 

Where the rainfall is normally 20 inches or less in the year, 
dry-farming or irrigation must be practiced. 

History of tillage tools. — The first tools for stirring the soil 
were for hand use. They were built after the fashion of the hoe. 
Later, crooked sticks, 
so shaped as to enter 
and loosen the soil, 
were used to draw 
behind the workman. 
This seems to have led 
to the development of 
the plow. The first 
plows were either 
pushed or drawn by 

man. The ancient Fio. 39.— Sulky plow. 

Egyptians built and 

used a plow that had a beam, a shank, and a handle, and they 
used their animals to draw it. From this the next step was 
to provide ihe parts that received the wear with a shoe of iron. 



AGEICULTDBE 



THE TILLAGE OF THE LAND , 89 

This was done very early, for it is written, 1100 years b.c., that 
the Israelites, who had little skill in the working of iron, " went 
down to the Philistines to sharpen, every man, his share and his 
coulter." 

From the first appearance of the plow to the present day, many 
changes and improvements have been made, and several thousand 



Fig. 41. — Giuigplow, drawn by traction engine. Uaed for fanniuE large areas. 

different models have been designed at various times. At pres- 
ent there are very many kinds in use, from the sii^le walkii^ plow 
to the large steam plows that carry gangs of sixteen to twenty 
plows. These lai^e gangs will plow, harrow, and occasionally 
seed, in one operation, 40 to 60 acres in a day. The develop- 
ment of the plow has a long history, and in one form or another 
it has had a part in the progress of all nations and races. 

Next to the plow, the harrow is perhaps the oldest tillage tool. 
The first harrow was doubtless the limb of a tree with extending 
branches. From this developed the first type of harrow, a forked 
stick with spikes in each arm. Later a cross-arm was added and 
we had the " A " harrow. The Romans used a square or oblong 



AGRICULTURE 



FiQ. 42.^ — Spike-tooth hanow. 

harrow with cross-b{irs carrying many teeth. Our modem har- 
rows all follow these same general principles. 

The first rollers were carefully chosen logs. Spikes or bars were 
driven into the ends and a yoke provided for drawing. This style 



Fio. 43. — Disk baiiow. 



92 AGRICULTURE 

of roller was in use until within recent years. Because of difficulty 
in turning the log, the two-piece or two-section roller-was devised. 



Pia. 45. — Disk plow. 

The use of tillage tools. — The farmer needs many different kinds 
of tillage tools for different purposes. Some, as the plow, are to 
stir the soil deeply and to cover the sod or stubble that is on the 
surface of the ground. Others, as the cultivator, tear up the soil 
to leas depth than the plow, and lift and turn it. Others, as the 
harrow, prepare and pulverize the surface of the soil and make the 
soilmulch. Others, 
as the roller, com- 
pact the soil and 
are specially useful 
on light, sandy, or 
gravelly soils that 
are naturally too 
loose. 
There are many 
FiQ. 46.-Sut«oapiow.^ Styles of each of 

these different 
tillage tools for special purposes. Each has its own use, and the 
careful farmer will choose his tools so as to get the ones that will 
do his various kinds of work best. 




THE TILLAGE OF THE LAND 



Fra. 47, — Sprina-tooth harrow. 

Problem 78. Hace some Bmall marbles or pebbles in one tumbler. 
Put Bn equal weight of loose soil in another tumbler. We shall then have 
in the second tumbler the same amount of material as though the marbles 
or pebbles were ground into fine powder. Pour water into each tumbler 
until it stands on the top of the soil in one tumbler and just covers the 
pebbles in the other. Which takes the larger quantity of water? If 
we measure the amount of water as it is added, we shall find that the soil 
has two to four times as much as the marbles. Tip the tumblers and let 
the water run out. Which loses more water? Which holds more? 
Why? What does this teach in regard to tillage? Is there a film or 
coating of water left on the pebbles after the water has been allowed to 
run out of the tumbler? Is there any evidence that there ia a similar 
film about the particles of soil, or that there is water in the spaces between 
the particles ? Where else could the water be in the soil ? 

Problem 79. Describe the different kinds of plows on your father's 
farm or on a neighboring farm. What is each used for ? Have you any 
old ones that your father does not use now ? How are they different 
from the ones he is using? 

Problem 80. Ask the teacher to write on the blackboard a list of all 
the different kinds of tillage tools, including those used by band, on the 
farms in the neighborhood. You should tell the teacher what to write. 
Then recite (or write) from this list what each is used for. 

Problem 81. Do the farmers in your locality plow in the fall or the 
spring? Why? Do they roll their land? Why? Why do they drag 
it ? Why do they cultivate the crops while they are growing ? 



94 AGRICULTURE 

Problem 82, What crops are grown in your locality for which the soil 
must be tilled in order that they may be planted? For what ones is 
it again stirred or turned in order that they may be harvested ? Is this 
stirring of any benefit to the soil, aside from the planting or the digging' 
of the crop ? 

Problem 83. If you live in a dry-farming region, describe how the 
work is performed. If you live in a humid region, ask your parents or 
teacher to read you something about dry-farming. Where are the dry- 
farming regions ? On the map that you made for Chapter II, outline the 
dry-farming regions. 

Problem 84* What is the amount of the annual rainfall of your region ? 
When does most of the rain come ? From what direction does it usually 
come? 



CHAPTER XIV 

THE IMPROVEMENT OF THE SOIL 

The first thing the fanner must do is to make his land productive; 
then he must strive to keep it productive so that it will serve 
him well year after year. 

Plant-food in the soil. — When studying the character of the 
soil in Chapter X, we learned that plants take from it certain 
substances which we call plant-foods. These substances are 
called sodium, potassium, silicon, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, 
iron, chlorine, and others. From the air the plant gets still other 
materials called carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. The 
nitrogen is not taken in from the air above ground as are the 
carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, but by the roots from the air in 
the soil. We shall learn more about all of these materials when 
we study chemistry in high school; but just now we need to 
know their names so that we can talk about the food of plants 
intelligently. 

A plant must have every one of these different plant-foods. 
Each contributes its part to the growth of the plant, and one can- 
not be substituted for another. If a soil contained all of them 
except potassium, it could not grow plants. If it contained enough 
of everything but phosphorus to produce thirty-five bushels of 
wheat, and contained enough phosphorus for only fifteen bushels of 
wheat, then fifteen bushels is all it could possibly produce. In 
order to be fertile it must contain^ a sufficient amount of each of 
the food materials to meet the needs of the crop to be grown. 

95 



96 AGRICULTURE 

Plant-food must be available. — Not every soil that contains an 
abundance of plant-food substancea will grow large crops, how- 
ever. Gravel-stonea may contain all the necessary mineral 
foods, but gravel-stones will not make a fertile soil. If the stones 



Flo. 4S. — Good tillage U a first atep in soil improvemeub 

should be pulverized into soil and have some humus added, much 
usable plant-food might result. In order to be usable the food 
material must be in such condition that it can be dissolved by 
the soil water; for plants can take their food only when it is dis- 
solved in water, or is in liquid form. 



THE IMPROVEMENT OF THE SOIL 97 

Amount of plant-food in the soU. — The farm soil nearly always 
contains all of the plant-food substances; but some of them may 
be present in very small quantities, or may be in such torm that 
the plant cannot use them. Or the farmer may raise crops year 
after year and not return anything to the soil, and in this way 
greatly reduce the supply of plant-food. Of all the substances 
that make up the food of plants, however, only three, or occa- 
sionally four, are likely to be lacking ; and they may not all be 
lacking in the same soil. They are nitrogen, phosphoric acid 
(from phosphorus), and potash (from potassium), and sometimes 
lime (from calcium). 

When any one of these substances is lacking, it must be provided. 
Usually this is done in one of two ways : either by better tillage, 
which, as we know, helps to change the minerals into a form to 
be used by plants, or by adding the plant-food directly to the 
soil in the form of fertilizer. 

Fertilizers. — Fertilizers are substances added to the soil to 
make it more fertile, or to contain a larger amount of available 
plant-food. They are of two general classes : one, which is 
produced on the farm, we call farm manure ; the other, which is 
generally bought on the market, is called commercial fertilizer. 
Phosphoric acid, potash, and nitrogen may be added to the soil 
by the use of either of these kinds of fertilizers. We shall study 
the second of these classes first, and learn something about phos- 
phoric acid, potash, and nitrogen. 

Phosphoric acid. — We have all seen phosphoric acid. When a 
match is struck, the little curl of white smoke which first appears 
is phosphoric acid. The old sulphur matches show this best. In 
the blue-black or red tip of one of these matches there is a small 
amount of the substance we call phosphorus. When this phos- 
phorus is warmed by rubbing it against something, s£5 in striking 
the match, it unites with oxygen from the air. The white substance 
of the smoke is the result of the union of the phosphorus and the 
oxygen, and is phosphoric acid. 



98 AGRICULTURE 

In a fertilizer purchased for its phosphorus, the phosphoric 
acid is usually united or combined with lime. The fertilizer is 
then called phosphate of lime. 

Fertilizer containing phosphoric acid is made chiefly from bones. 
In certain places in the southern part of the United States there 
are large deposits of bone which are called "phosphate rock." 

Potash. — Potash, which is a form of potassium, exists in the 
soil, locked tight in a substance that will not dissolve readily in 
water; consequently, much of the potash is not in a form to 
be used by plants. It may slowly be unlocked and made usable 
by tillage. 

When vegetable matter decays, acids are formed which attack 
the locked-up potash and set some of it free for the use of plants. 
A soil that contains plenty of humus (decayed vegetable matter) 
is likely to have potash in a usable form. 

Potash can be bought as commercial fertilizer to apply to the soil. 
There are large deposits in Germany, from which our supply 
comes. Wood ashes contain potash and are a good fertilizer. 

Nitrogen. — Nitrogen, in the particular condition for the use 
of plants, is foimd principally near the surface of the soil. It is 
made into the right form in the decay of the humus, in which 
process the nitrogen is taken from the air and united with other 
materials. Four-fifths of the air about the earth is nitrogen, 
and all nitrogen comes originally from the air. There is no nitro- 
gen in common rocks. 

Nitrogen may be added to the soil by plowing in vegetable 
matter, or by applying barnyard manure, both of which decay to 
form humus ; or it may be added in certain combinations of com- 
mercial fertilizer such as sodium nitrate, dried blood, and 
tankage. 

Barnyard manure. — Soils often need to be improved not only by 
the addition of certain plant-food substances, but also in their 
texture or general condition. They may be infertile because they 
cannot be brought into good condition by tillage or because they 



il 



100 AGRICULTURE 

lack sufficient moisture. Bamj'^ard manure is one of the best fer- 
tilizers to meet these conditions not only because it supplies plant- 
food materials but because it also carries useful bacteria and con- 
tains much vegetable matter for the formation of hmnus. 

The manure from all farm animals is useful in improving the soil. 
Horse manure is richer in nitrogen, phosphoric acid, and potash 
than is the manure from cattle or from hogs. Sheep manure is very 
rich in these substances, and poultry manure is the richest of them 
all. 

Green manures. — Sometimes the farmer will^ raise a crop 
merely to plow into the soil to add vegetable matter to make 
humus. Such a crop is called a green manure, because the 
plants are generally plowed under when they are still green. 
The most useful plants for green manures are the legumes, as 
clover, alfalfa, peas, vetches, soybeans, and cowpeas, because they 
add nitrogen as well as vegetable matter. They are some- 
times called nitrogen-gathering crops, because they gather nitro- 
gen in the nodules on their roots. They are sometimes called 
cover-crops also, because they frequently cover or occupy the 
land when it otherwise would be bare. 

Storing an account for the future. — The soil is the farmer's bank 
account on which he must draw for his living for all the years to 
come. If he uses up his account, he will suffer. If he mistreats 
his soil, takes plant-food out in the form of crops and puts nothing 
back in, he will reduce his soil fertihty until he cannot raise crops. 
If he adds to his fertility from year to year, putting back what 
is needed by good tillage, farm manures, green manures, or com- 
mercial fertilizers, he will store an account in the soil that will 
pay him well in abundant crops. 

When a farmer dies, or moves away, that does not end the use- 
fulness of his farm. Some one else must make a living from it. A 
good farmer thinks of those who are to come after him. Some day 
all farmers will be of the kind that make the soil more useful rather 
than less useful by their farming. 



THE IMPROVEMENT OF THE SOIL 101 

Problem 85, Does your father use barnyard manure on his farm for 
fertilizer? Where does he spread it? Why does he spread it there? 
Does he use commercial fertilizers with any of his crops ? What does he 
use ? Why does he use them with these particular crops ? 

Problem 86. Does your father grow any cover-crops to plow in ? 
What kinds does he grow ? Why ? Does he sow them so that they will 
not interfere with other crops ? When are they plowed in ? Does he get 
good crops from the fields on which cover-crops have been grown ? 

Problem 87. Ask your father to explain to you all about his method of 
improving his soil. Write a short essay about soil improvement on your 
farm. 

Problem 88. If one ton of clover hay contains 40 pounds of nitrogen, 
10 pounds of phosphoric acid, and 40 pounds of potash, how many 
pounds of each would be taken from the soil in thirty-five tons of clover ? 
If a farmer raises two tons of clover to the acre, how many poiuids of 
each of these plant-foods will he remove from twenty-five acres ? If 
clover was raised on your farm last smnmer, ask your father how many 
tons he cut, and then find out how much plant-food was removed. 
Find out also what was done to replace this loss in the soil. 

Problem 89. If one bushel of shelled corn contains 14 ounces of nitro- 
gen, 5 ounces of phosphoric acid, and 3 ounces of potash, how much of 
each is removed in a crop of 45 bushels to the acre ? If one ton of 
barnyard manure contains 10 pounds of nitrogen, 6 pounds of phosphoric 
acid, and 9 pounds of potash, how many tons will be required to replace 
the plant-food removed by a com crop from 20 acres at the rate of 45 
bushels to the acre ? 



PAET III 

FARM PLANTS 



CHAPTER XV 



THE NATURE OF PLANTS 



Plants, like animals, must have food, water, and air. They 
must also have warmth and hght. It is easy to see what animals 
eat and drink, but not so with plants. And yet, if we will, we may 
know in a general way how the plant gets its food and its air, how 
it digests and circulates its food, and how it grows and bears 
fruit. To understand these processes, we must know about the 
nature of plants, ■ — what their dif- 
ferent parts are and what they do. 

Parts of tlie plant. ■ — We know 
that a plant has three parts ■ — ■ roots, 
stem, and leaves. These perform 
for the plant three kinds of service ; 
each has its own work to do. These 
parts work together in perfect har^ 
mony, just as do the parte of our 
own body; and together they form 
a living, growing plant. 

The root system. — To study the 
root system in a way to understand 
it, we should have a plant before us 
to examine. Let us bring in from 
our gardens a radish or a beet or a 
turnip. We must <^g it up care- 
fully so as to save all the fine rOOte. Fia. so. — Radish, showing large, 

Youp radiah will look somewhat like JS^au""!;)""""'' '"' 
the one shown by the picture in l<1g. 

50. The upper part of the root is large and round, and is stored 
full of food. Running out from the lower end of this large part 



106 AGRICULTURE 

is a commoii root about the size of a lead-pencil, which tapers to 
a point several inches below. Fine rootlets are attached to the 
sides of it. Similar rootlets are attached also 
to the thickened upper part of the root. 

Root-hairs. — To understand how these root- 
lets obtain food from the soil, we must see the 
fine root-hairs that clothe them near the lower 
end. These hairs can be seen best if we germi- 
nate, or sprout, a few radish seeds, so that no parts 
of the roots will be injured. The root-hairs are 
very delicate, and we have broken most of them 
off in pulling the radish out of the soil. Let us 
sow a few seeds in packii^-moss or between the 
folds of black cloth and keep them moist. In 
a few days the seeds will have germinated, and 
the roots will be an inch or two long. Lift one 
side of the cloth carefully and study the seed- 
lings. Notice that at a distance of about one 
fourth of an inch from the tip the root is cov- 
Fra, 51.— A very ^^^ ^'*^ * delicate fringe of hairs. Dip one of 
youQB radish' the plants into water; when it is removed the 
the'toot-haira,'^ hairs Cannot be seen. The water has matted 
them ag^nst the root so that they are invisible. 
They are so delicate that it is no wonder we break them in pull- 
ing the radish from the earth. 

These root-hairs clothe all the youi^, growii^ rootlets on the 
radish. But they are not young roots. They never grow lai^r. 
They differ from the remainder of the root. E^ch root-hair is a 
single cell, shaped like a tube, and contains the life-giving matter 
of the plant, as do the cells in the other parts. 

The plant-food dissolved in the soil water passes throi^h the 
walls of these root-hairs into the root system. There are no holes, 
or pores, for it to enter, as we might suppose. It must pass 
directly through the walls, or surfaces, of the cells. It is able to do 



THE NATURE OF PLANTS 107 

this because tbe cells contwn sap, which is a stronger liquid than 
the soil water. The s^ therefore draws the soil water through 
the walls. As the haTrs are slender 
and very numerous, they are in con- 
tact with a large area of soil and conse- 
quently take in much soil water. The 
surfaces of rootlets themselves also take 
m some soil water. 

The root-hairs help to secure the 
plant-food in another way. They are 
provided with an acid, which, when it 
comes in contact with the soil particles, 
dissolves a little of the food-elements 
that are needed. These are taken up 
by the soil water and so enter the plant. 
The soil water carries the necessary 
food materials into the plant. 

Once inside, the soil water, contain- 
ing its plant-food, passes into the root- 
lets, then through the roots, and up into 
the stem, the same process by which 
it entered the root-hairs. It finally 
reaches the leaves, where, by the tad 
of sunshine, and in combination with 
materials taken in from the ait, it is 

made a part of the substances to be fio.62.— Theroot-hairadina 
used by the plant, as we shall learn tothesoU, 

later. 

Perhaps we shall now understand why the roots cannot use 
solid soil particles. There is no place for solid particles to 
enter the fine root-hairs. It may be said that roots absorb their 
food rather than eat it. 

The stem. — As the plant has a root system to gather the needed 
water and minerals, so it has a leaf system to take from the air 



AGRICULTURE 

BubstanceB which it 
needs. The stem (or, 
ifi the case of trees, 
the trunk), branches, and 
twigs, connect the work- 
ing centers, the roots and 
the leaves, so that they 
can exchange products 
with e^ch other. In the 
stem are " ducts," or 
conducting channels, in 
which the water, bearing 
the food materials, travels 
upward rapidly to the 
leaves. There are other 
channels, made by chains 
of cells, through which 
the food manufactured 
in the leaves is carried 
to the roots and to the 
other parts of the plant 
to be stored or to be 
UBed in growth. The 
stem supports the leaves, 
and is an important part 
of the conducting system 
of the plant. 

The leaf system. — Air 

is a mixture of gases ;^ and 

the materials that plants 

—The yeara'^K^wths.^^The larae branches take from the BIT are S^d 

to be in gaseous form. 

r that is neither liquid like water nor solid lilce ice. It is like 



THE NATURE OF PLANTS 109 

We need to know what are the substances the plant takes 
from the air, how it gets them, and what it does with them, 
in order to understand how the plant develops. 

Carbon. — A considerable part of every plant is made up of a 
substance called carbon. At least half of the bulk of a tree, aside 
from the water it contains, is carbon. Charcoal is carbon in a 
solid form. The " lead " of a lead-pencil is still another form. 
The diamond is a pure crystaline form of carbon. As a gas, it 
is combined with oxygen, and exists as a small constituent in the 
atmosphere. 

The plant gets its carbon from the air. Strange as it may seem, 
much of the solid part of the plant comes from the air in the form 
of gas. If we bum the corn plant, nine tenths of the solid matter ^ 
will pass back again into the air in the form of a gas that we call 
" carbon dioxid." This is exactly the form in which the carbon 
was taken from the air, as the atmosphere everywhere contains 
some carbon dioxid. 

How the air enters the leaf. — The leaf is delicate and occa- 
sionally the air can enter directly into it through its walls. How- 
ever, nature has provided special openings (called in botany 
stomates or stomata) for the entrance of air into the plant. 
These openings, or pores, are usually more nimierous on the 
under side of the leaf. They are so small that they cannot be 
seen by the unaided eye. The under side of an apple leaf has 
about 100,000 of them to each square inch. The air passes 
into the leaf through thiese pores. 

Leaf-green. — The substance which gives plants their green color 
is called "leaf-green" or ''chlorophyll." It is produced only in 
plants or parts of plants exposed to the light. Plants grown in 
the dark do not produce it and are therefore white instead of green. 
Its special use is to aid in the formation of starch, which it does 

* The solid matter or dry matter is all of the plant except the water. Nearly all 
plants contain much water. A corn plant in the roasting ear stage is nearly 80 per 
cent water and about .20 per cent dry matter. 



110 AGRICULTURE 

by using the carbon dioxid from the air and the water brought 
up from the soil. Front these materials sugar is first formed, and 
then starch. The starch is composed of carbon, hydrogen, and 
oxygen, and is known as a carbohydrate. 

Starch is formed in very small grains, which will not dissolve in 
water. It is therefore not in a form for immediate use by the plant 
in growth, and must first be " digested." In the process of diges- 
tion it is changed again into sugar; and we know that sugar 
readily dissolves in water. In thb form it is transferred to all parts 
of the plant where growth is taking place. In woody plants, &a 
trees, it passes downward through 
the inner bark, just under the 
surface. In spring the maple sap 
is sweet, because it contains this 
dissolved sugar. 

Not all of the starch is needed 
for immediate use by the plant, 
and the surplus is stored for use 
in the early spring. The fieshy 
tuber of a potato contains 
stored-up starch. Fruit-trees 
usually blossom in the spring 
before they are able to make 
any plant-food that season. 
The young leaves and the blos- 
soms are supported by the food 
that has been stored in the 
■'?i."i,7.™thS wirSfSS: '»•""='■». 'wi?-. »■"' l>ud» during 

ture by ttanapiratioii and has wilted, the previous season. 

On the right, the upper tumbler has Protonlaxm We mav now 

prevented much of the traiiBpiratioii, froiopiasm. we may now 

and the slip is atiii fresh. ask, what has become of the 

mineral foods carried into the 

plant and up to the leaves in the soil water? In the leaves 

some of the mineral matter from the soil water unites with some 



THE NATURE OF PLANTS 111 

of the carbon taken in from the air to form what later becomes 
a product called protoplasm. Protoplasm is the real living, or 
life-giving, matter in plants. It exists in the celb in the plants, 
where it stimulates all the activities of the plant. 

Transpiration. — In Chapter XI we learned that crops take 
from the earth 300 to 500 tons of water to make one ton of dry 
plant substance. Some of this water is used in the plants in 
dissolving and circulatii^ the foods, and in keeping the plants 
" fresh" and strong. But much more water is taken into the 
plant than is needed. The surplus is given off from the leaves 
into the atmosphere by evaporation. This process is known sb 
" transpiration" ; that is, the leaves transpire, or give off, mois- 
ture. If the leaves give off more moisture than the roots 
supply, the plant wilts. The 
water is then taken out of the 
cells, and out of the conducting 
system, and the cells collapse. 
This teaches us again the neces- 
sity of an abundance of mois- 
ture in the soil. 

The flower and the fruit. — 

When roots, stem, and leaves 

1 . I n- - . 1 Fia, 55. — Parte of Ih pi m fl w 

have stored a sufl&cient surplus ,^_ ^^^ . p_ j^t^ (thr™ are h wn) 

of food, the plant begins to «W, Btamena; OS, p Ul (n tb 

flower. The flower springs from ^lE^;t^' ""^ '" ""' 
a bud on the stem or on a twig. 

Sometimes the flower is prominent and beautiful to look at, 
as on the apple tree, and sometimes it is not so readily distin- 
guished, as in wheat or oats. 

Very much has been intrusted to the flower. It contains the 
organs, or parts, which create the fruit. The fruit contains 
the seeds, from which new plants are to be grown. The flower 
is therefore the reproductive part of the plant. If it fails 
to do its part, there will be no fruit and no new plant, unless 



112 AGRICULTURE 

a new plant can be started from a slip, or cutting, from the 
old plant. 

Parts of the flower. — If you were to open a flower of the peach, 
you would find a very small peach in the center. This is the 
lower part of what is called the "pistil," and is known as the 
"ovary." In the apple flower, the pistil has five parts or 
branches; in the plum it is not branched or divided. Aroimd 
the pistil in the peach, the plum, and the apple blossom are 
the "stamens" that bear the "pollen." When the pollen falls 
on the pistil, it causes the pistil to set seed, and fruit. Bees 
and the wind carry the pollen. Peach, plimi, and apple flowers 
are inclosed in showy leaves or parts called " petals," which 
help to attract the bees. Below the petals are small leaf-like 
parts called " sepals." 

Problem 90, Dissolve one ounce of saltpeter, purchased at a drug 
store, in one pint of water. Mark it Solution I. Dissolve a small piece 
of saltpetre, not larger than a peach pit (about one seventh ounce), in one 
gallon of water. Mark the latter Solution II. Cut several sHces of 
potato tuber about one eighth of an inch in thickness and let them lie in 
the air for a half hour. Then put a few of the slices into some of Solution 
I and others into some of Solution II. In about one half hour compare 
the slices in the two solutions. The pieces in the weak solution (No. II) 
will be rigid and stiff. Those in the strong solution (No. I) will be limp 
and flexible. This indicates that those in the strong solution have lost 
some water from their cells, while those in the weak solution have taken 
some water into their cells. 

This experiment illustrates the way in which water is taken into the 
roots. As long as the water in the soil is weaker than the living matter 
in the root, water is taken into the root. When the soil water becomes 
stronger than the liquid in the root, the moisture from the root is drawn 
into the soil. The passage is always toward the stronger solution. It is 
possible to make soils so rich that plants cannot grow. The root-hairs 
can absorb only water which contains but a small (Quantity of plant-food 
materials. 

Problem 91, Remove a small plant from the ground carefully, by lift- 
ing it out with a shovel, spade, or trowel. Then slowly wash away the 
earth till all the roots or rootlets are exposed. Note how extensive the 



THE NATURE OF PLANTS 113 

roots are, the size and shape, the mode of branching. See whether you 
can find any difference between the roots of oats and of wheat. 

Problem 92. To show that the root-hairs excrete an acid that dissolves 
minerals, place a half inch of sawdust on a polished marble block. Plant 
seeds in the sawdust and moisten it. After the small plants have pro- 
duced a few leaves, turn the mass of sawdust over and observe the faint 
prints of the roots on the marble. The lines on the marble show where 
the mineral has been dissolved. 

Problem 93, Can a farmer apply too much fertilizer to his land ? Why ? 

Problem 94. What plants grown on your father's farm store up starch 
for future use? Where is it stored? 

Problem 95. When potatoes sprout in a dark cellar, why are the sprouts 
white instead of green ? How can they sprout, without being planted in 
the ground ? Why do the sprouts reach toward a window or other open- 
ing through which a small stream of light comes ? 

Problem 96. Find the pistils and stamens in some flower that you 
know. 

Determine the ovary or part that is to bear the seeds. In some plants, 
the stamens and pistils are in different flowers, and the different flowers 
may even be on different plants. (Examine squash, pmnpkin, melon, 
cucimiber, begonias, willows, poplars, hickories.) 



CHAPTER XVI 



CLASSIFICATION OF PLANTS 



There are many different kinds of plants in any locality. A 
five-minute walk through the fields or the woods will reveal a 
great variety to a wide-awake observing boy or girl. There are 
trees of many kinds, shapes, and sizes ; some are open and wide- 
spreading, others are dense and compact; some are evergreen, 
others are bare in the winter ; some bear soft fruits, some nuts, 
some cones. There are erect, sturdy bushes and low, sprawling 
bushes. There are vines that creep on the ground, others that 
creep over rocks, others that climb trees. There are delicate 
flowering plants, and mushrooms and puff-balls. In the earth 
are countless hosts of invisible plants; in the water, algae and 
other water plants (the ocean kinds of algse are known as sea- 
weeds) ; in the marshes, sedges, lilies, and cat-tails. 

The farm plants. — On the farm there is also great variety 
among cultivated plants. There are tree fruits and bush fruits; 
slender, upright grasses, and low, trailing clovers; thick, heavy 
root crops, and light, waving grains ; loose, leafy lettuce and solid, 
round cabbages. Some plants live for many years, others for 
but one year ; some produce many bushels of fruit, others a single 
fruit ; some lift their fruit into the air, some bear it on the surface 
of the ground, and some (as the peanut) hide it in the earth. 
Some grow in thick, tangled masses, others grow alone. Each 
has a habit of life of its own, and will grow where it can live its 
own life best. 

Why there are differences. — Plants have become adapted to 
all places on the earth where life is possible. The great variety of 

114 



CLASSIFICATION OF PLANTS 115 

conditions in nature has called for many kinds of plants. Some 
locations are wet, others dry; some are sunny, others shaded; 
some are exposed to the wind and the storm, others are secluded, 
quiet, ' and protected ; some are rocky slopes, others are deep, 
fertile valleys ; some are sandy, others stiff clay. In the many 
centuries of the past, certain kinds of plants have been adapted 
or produced to meet these numberless conditions, and the result 
is shown in the variety we have to-day. 



Fra. 56. — A field ot tobacco, with curing aheda in the distance. 

There is yet another reason why plants are not all alike. Most 
plants produce large quantities of seeds. It is not possible for 
nearly all of these seeds to grow into mature plants, because of 
lack of space on the surface of the earth. This results in a struggle 
for place, a struggle that never ceases. When certain plants win 
the chief places, others must adapt themselves to what is left 
or perish. Thus, in the meadow there are tall, stout grasses, 
and weaker grasses of the sanie kind. In the fence row are 
strong bushes and poor bushes of hawthorn or blackberry or 
choke-cherry. Rivalry necessitates variety. 



116 



AGRICULTURE 




Fig. 67. — Part of a peanut plant, showing roots, root nodules, and nuts. 

The nuts are borne underground. 



CLASSIFICATION OF PLANTS 117 

The farmer has taken advantage of the power of plants to 
change and has modified cultivated plants to suit his wishes. 
He has thus added to the variety in plant life. The many 
varieties of tomatoes in our gardens to-day are very different 
from the wild tomato from which they have been developed. 
The wild apple has little use; yet from it men have derived 



Fio. 68. — A cotton plant bearing a large crop. 

an ^most endless number of useful varieties. And the farmer 
knows that the differences between any two stalks of com or heads 
of cabbage may be due, in part at least, to the soil or competi- 
tion or other conditions in which they are placed. 

How plants are classified. — The differences in form, habits, 
length of life, and other qu^ities have been taken advantage of 



118 AGRICULTURE 

in grouping or classifying plants for purposes of study and com- 
parison. 

Classification by length of life. — We may classify plants ac- 
cording to their length of life ; we then have a group of annual 
plants, which live not more than one year from the planting of 
seed to the production of new seed, as wheat, oats, barley, peas, 
beans, and tomatoes ; a group of biennial plants, which live two 
years from seed to seed, as cabbages, parsnips, and common 
mullein ; a group of perennial plants, which live more than two 
years, as asparagus, alfalfa, strawberries, bushes, and trees. 

Classification by use. — Another very common classification of 
plants, based on the use that is made of them, together with their 
habits of growth, is as follows : — 

(1) Forage and fodder crops, as timothy, alfalfa, sorghum, cow- 
pea, com fodder. 

(2) Grain crops, as com, wheat, oats, rye, barley, and rice. 

(3) Root crops, as carrot, parsnip) turnip, mangel, beet, and 
sugar-beet. 

(4) Fiber crops, as flax, hemp, and cotton. 

(5) Fruit crops, as apple, peach, pear, plum, quince, currant, 
blackberry, grape, orange, banana. 

(6) Vegetable crops, as tomato, pea, bean, cuciunber, and celery. 

(7) Omamental plants, as rose, lilac, geranium, sweet pea, and 
nasturtium. 

(8) Timber crops, as oak, chestnut, maple, cypress, and pine. 
There are other special groups that might be added, as sugar 

plants, oil plants, perfumery plants, spice plants, dye-stuff plants, 
and medicinal plants. 

When we speak of forage crops, or root crops, or grain crops, 
the person to whom we are talking knows at once what kind of 
plants we are speaking about, because these groups are well estab- 
lished. As nearly all the plants in each group have certain char- 
acteristics in common, especially in their cultivation, such a group- 
ing is useful in describing them. 



CLASSIFIC5ATI0N OF PLANTS 119 

The botanist's classification. — The farmer is satisfied to classify 
his plants as forage crops, root crops, vegetable crops, and the 
like. These general groups are sufficient for his discussions. 
Some of these classes, 
however, include 
plants of very milike 
characteristics and 
habits, and sometimes 
it is desirable to group 
them according to like- 
ness of characters. 
The botanist, the per- 
son who makes a very 
close study of plants 
to find the important 
resemblances among 
them, groups them into 
families. He places in 
a plant family all 
those plants that seem 
to be related in their 
general nature. He 
gives these families 
Latin names. Thus, 
in the grass family 
(Latin name, Grami- 
nea) he places tim- 
othy, blue-grass, or- 
chard-grass, redtop, T^ rn 

" ' , '^' Fig. 69. — Oalfl. 

wheat, oats, rye, bar- 
ley, com, sugar-cane, and others. In the rose family {Roscuxm) 
he places apples, peaches, plums, raspberries, blackberries, straw- 
berries, and others. In the pulse family (LeguminoscB), peas, 
beans, clovers, vetches, and alfalfa. In the mustard family {Cm- 



120 AGRICULTURE 

cifera), mustard, cabbage, kale, rape, turnip, rutabt^as, and 
radishes. In the 
nightshade family 
(Soianacsce), po- 
tatoes, tomatoes,' 
egg-plants, pep- 
pers, and tobacco. 
In the lily family 
{LiliaceiE) all the 
true lilies, onions, 
hyacinth, and 
tulip. There are 
many other plants 
in all of these 
families, some of 
which are not of 
importance to the 
farmer. There are 
many other plant 
families besides 
these. 

It is of interest 
to know in what 
family group each 
of our farm plants 
isplaced, and what 
other plants are its 
relatives. Perhaps 
we should learn, 
first, whether a 
plant is a fruit, 
vegetable, root, 

Fio. 60. — Pea. " LeBuminouB " plants bear theii aeeds fwrpnl or forase 
io B certain kind of pod called a "legume." Peas, ' t 

beans, clover, alfalfa, cowpeaa, and vetch are examples. plant; then 



CLASSIFICATION OF PLANTS 121 

whether it is an annual, biennial, or perennial; and finally, to 
what natural family it belongs. 

Problem 97. How many different kinds of plants are grown in your 
garden? Which produce underground the part that is to be eaten? 
Which produce their product on the surface of the ground ? Which are 
vines? 

Problem 98, Do you think that the squash, the pumpkin, the cucum- 
ber, and the muskmelon belong to the same family? Why? 

Problem. 99, What resemblance is there between the potato and the 
tomato ? Do the plants look alike in any respect ? Are the leaves similar ? 
The flowers ? The fruits (who has seen the fruit of the potato) ? 

Problem 100, Name some of the annual plants on your father's farm ; 
the biennial ; the perennial. 

Problem 101, Write a list of all the plants on your father's farm that 
belong in each of the following groups : forage and fodder crops, cereal or 
grain crops, fruit crops, vegetable crops, flower crops, and root crops. 



CHAPTER XVn 

DISSEMINATION AND ,MDLTIPLICATION OP PLANTS 

LoNO before man came to live on the earth, plants had estab- 
isbed themselves on its surface. They grew, produced other 
plants, and perished. 
They did not need the in- 
terference of man to plant 
their seeds or their roots, 
or to carry them from one 
place to another. Nature 
provided them with all 
the means of multiplyii^ 
and spreading that were 



Nature's method of dis- 
tributing plants. — Some 
of the plants, as the cocoa- 
nut, are encased in snug, 
water-proof jackets, so 
that they can Boat on 
the surface of streams to 
new regions. Others, as 
the maple seeds, are 
given wings to carry them 
on the wind. The daDde- 

Fia. 61. — One of the ways in which seeds \ioaB are provided with 

areBcattered. , , i- vi .i_ . 

parachutes so ugbt that 

they can sail away in the breeze to distant fields. The bmxlock 



DISSEMINATION AND MULTIPLICATION OF PLANTS 123 

and the stick-tight are given little coiled arms to clutch the fur 
or hair of a passing animal and ride away to a new home. 

The tumble-weed excels many others in cleverness. In the 
autumn, when its seeds are ripe, it breaks ofif at the surface of 
the ground, and by the wind is swept tumbling across the field, 
leaving a trail of seed wherever it passes. The wild carrot, not 
to be outdone, sends its seeds skidding across the country on 
the smooth snow in winter. The touch-me-not provides itself 
with a spring which, when the ripened pod bursts, throws the 
seeds far away from the parent. 

Other plants are given bright, attractive seeds that taste 
good to birds, which eat them and scatter the seeds in their flight. 
The white clover and the strawberry reach out their branches 
as far as they can from the parent plant, send down roots, be- 
gin to make their own living as independent plants, and separate 
from their parents. The blue-grass reaches out in the same way 
underground, and sends up, all about the parent, new plants 
which soon become independent. 

With so many means of multiplying, it is little wonder that the 
earth is covered with a great variety and tangle of plants, all 
struggling for place and opportunity to live. 

Man's method. — When man began to live a settled life, he dis- 
covered that he could not dependon Nature to plant his garden, for 
she had a way of mixing and moving her plants. He desired to 
choose his crops, plant them in rows instead of tangles, and con- 
trol them to suit himself. So he collected seeds and roots, carried 
them to the place where he wanted them to grow, and planted them. 

The means of multiplying plants which man used varied with 
the kinds of plants. Some were multiplied, or propagated, most 
readily by the use of seeds, others by the use of roots or other 
parts. The farmer to-day propagates his plants mainly by the use 
of seeds, roots, tubers, cuttings, buds, and grafts. He has found 
that he must employ many methods to get the best results from 
different kinds of plants. 



124 AGRICULTURE 

Propagation by seeds. — A seed is a body produced by a plant, 
which cont^s a small or tiny undeveloped plant called an 
"embryo." The embryo is Burroimded by food, stored for its use 
when it shall bepn to grow, or else contains food within itself. 
The pur[>ose or use of the seed is to produce a new plant like the 
one from which it came. When placed in the proper conditions 



i'la. 62. — Squash seeds. 

of moisture, temperature, plant-food, and air, the seed will sprout 
and a plant be produced. 

Nearly all farm crops are grown from seeds, especially those that 
are annuals. Wheat, oats, barley, beans, peas, com, lettuce, rad- 
ishes, and beets are always r^ed from seeds. This is the Am- 
plest method of multiplying plants, as seeds are usually produced 
in great numbers, are easily collected and stored, and may be 
planted with little difficulty. They may be sown broadcast over 
the field, cr may be dropped into holes or trenches ; and they may 
be planted by machines or by hand. 

Propagation by other means. — Some plants, as sweet^potatoes 
and sugar-cane, produce few seeds ; others, as grapes and straw- 
berries, grow faster and better by the use of other paits than seeds; 
in still othors, as apples and potatoes, the seed cannot be depended 
upon to produce a new plant similar to the parent, and the fanner 



DISSEMINATION AND MULTIPUCATION OF PLANTS 125 

caimot be sure what he will get if he plants seed. In all of these 
cases he finds it better to use parts, or sections, of the parent 
plant for starting bis new crop. The part that he uses is not the 
Bame for all plants, for some plants reproduce better from one 
part than from another. We 
shall study how these different 
parts are used. 

Soots. — The Bweet-potato is a 
good example of a plant in which 
the root is used for starting the 
new crop. The part of the sweet- 
potato that is eaten is the root. 
When this is planted, it throws up 
many sprouts that have roots of 
their own. When these sprouts 
are pulled and planted, they will 
produce sweet^potato plants. 

Tubers. — A tuber is a greatly 
enlarged part of a plant, particu- 
larly' of an underground stem. 
Usually we think that the stem 
of a plant is all above ground. „ „„ ^^ ^ ^ . ^ , 

■^ - 1 I- Fio. 63. — ThepotatoiB a atorehouse 

In the case of the white, or ot food. When it is set in water, 
Irish, potato, part of the stem is ^^" e~" °"* '"»° '*" ^*- " 
below ground. This part bears 

lai^e tubers that we call potatoes. The potato, then, is not 
really a root, as we may have thought. The potato plant has 
other true roots. 

The potato is the most familiar farm crop that is multiplied by 
the use of tubere. The tubers may be planted whole, but usually it 
is more economical to cut them and plant pieces having about two 
eyes. These eyes are buds from which new plants will spring. 

Cuttings. — A cutting is a part of a plant, cut from the parent, 
which is used to produce a new plant. Some plants grow much 



126 AGRICULTURE 

better from cuttings than from seeds. Most house-plants and 
many woody plants raised on the farm are started from cutting?, 
or *' slips " as they are also called. 

Cuttings may be made from the stem, from a branch or twig, or 
from a leaf. In starting new grape vines, a short section having 
three buds is cut from the growth of the preceding season. Two of 
the buds are placed below ground for the formation of roots, leav- 
ing one above ground for the growth of the new vine. With sugar- 
cane, the short sections of the stalk carrying one or more buds are 
laid horizontally in the soil and lightly covered with earth. Cur- 
rants and willows are readily started from cuttings. All of these 
form roots and become perfect plants. 

Buds and grafts. — There are other plants that do not " come 
true'' to seeds and that do not readily develop roots from the 
stem. In some way they must be established on the roots of 
other plants. This is accomplished by transferring a bud from 
the plant it is desired to increase to the stem of another plant, and 
inserting it there. Here it will attach itself and begin growth as 
part of the new plant. 

Sometimes, instead of using a single bud, the farmer will take 
short sections of a branch bearing more than one bud. Such a 
section is called a graft, or don. It is attached to the plant 
of which it is to be a part by cutting oflf the stem or branch of the 
latter and inserting the cion like a wedge in the cut end. 

Buds and grafts always produce the same kind of tree or plant 
as that from which they were taken. Varieties of apples, 
peaches, plums, pears, and cherries are nearly always perpet- 
uated from buds or grafts. They grow on the roots of other 
similar plants, these other or stock plants having been grown 
from seeds. The budding or grafting is usually done in the 
nursery row, while the stock is very small and only one to three 
years old. 

Thus, peach stones of 1911 may be planted in the fall, or in 
the spring of 1912; in August or September, 1912, the buds of 



DISSEMINATION AND MULTIPLICATION OF PLANTS 127 

chosen varieties may be inserted in them, one near the ground in 
each Uttle tree. These buds remain dormant, or quiet, all winter, 
and begin to grow in the spring of 1913. In the fall of 1913, 
the tree is ready for sale. Apple trees require two to four years 
longer than this. 

Problem 102, If there is a fruit-grower in your neighborhood, ask him 
to show you how to bud and to graft. Watch him cut the bud and the 
cion, and ask him questions. 

Problem 103, In winter or spring, cut a section having three buds from 
last year's growth of the grape vine. Place it in a pot of moist sand with 
two buds below ground. When the young plant has well started, take it 
out of the pot and see where the roots come from. Set it out near the 
fence in your school-yard to grow. 

Problem 10^, If there is a strawberry bed on your father's farm, find 
a plant that has reached out and started another plant. Bring it to 
school to show to the class. 

Problem 105, Write a list of fifteen useful plants on your farm or 
in the neighborhood, and tell how each is multiplied. 

Problem 106, How is the common garden geranium multiplied ? The 
fuchsia? The onion? 

Problem 107. Dig up a potato plant and find the real roots. 

Problem 108. For your schoolroom exhibit, collect seeds that are scat- 
tered by the wind from as many plants as possible — as dandelion, thistle, 
milkweed, maple, ash, poplar, box-elder, and others. Collect also those 
that are scattered by attaching themselves to the coats of animals or the 
clothes of persons — as burdock, Spanish needles, sand burs, beggar ticks, 
and the like. Put the seeds from each plant in a bottle by themselves 
and label the bottle with the name of the plant and a statement telling 
how the seeds are scattered. From year to year add to the collection 
until you have seeds of all the plants grown in the neighborhood. When 
you go out into the fields, carry a few small bottles or envelopes with 
you in which to collect seeds. 

Problem 109. Take a small box of sand, say 10 inches square and four 
inches deep, and a leaf from a Rex begonia plant. Moisten the sand 
and lay the leaf on it, right side up. Fasten it to the sand by running 
toothpicks through the ribs in several places. Set the box for a few 
days where it will be warm, but not in direct sunlight. Do roots grow 
from the places where, the toothpicks go through ? How many new be- 
gonia plants can you start from one leaf ? 



CHAPTER XVIII 



ROTATION OP CHOPS 



On every farm several different kinds of crops are grown. When 
the farmer has a definite plan by which he changes his crops from 
one field to another from year to year, so that one crop always 
follows a certain other crop, we say he is rotating his crops, or 
is practicing crop rotation ; that is, he is growing his crops in a 
circle or rotation, one after another, returning to the same field 
with a certain crop every four or five or six or other number of 
years. 

What crop rotation is. — Suppose a man has a dairy farm and is 
raising his own hay, com, and small grain. Let us say that each 
year he raises the same number of acres of com and small grain, 
and twice as many acres of hay. He desires to rotate his crops, 
so he divides his farm into four fields of equal size. We may call 
his fields A, B, C, and D. He has decided that he will plant com 
on land that produced grass the last two years, follow the com with 
small grain, sow grass seed in the grain, then let the grass grow 
for two years before he plows it for com. How will he rotate his 
crops on his fields? Let us study the following chart and see : — 





Field A 


Field B 


Field C 


Field 2> 


1912 .... 


Corn 


Hay 


Hay 


Grain 


1913 .... 


Grain 


Corn 


Hay 


Hay 


1914 .... 


Hay 


Grain 


Cpm 


Hay 


1915 .... 


Hay 


Hay 


Grain 


Corn 


1916 .... 


Com 


Hay 


Hay 


Grain 


1917 .... 


Grain 


Corn 


Hay 


Hay 



128 



ROTATION OF CROPS 129 

On Field A, in 1912, he will plant com; on Field S, he will 
have hay; Field C, hay; Field D, grain. That gives him equal 
areas of corn and grain and twice as much hay. In 1913, he fol- 
lows corn with grain on Field A, plants his com on Field B which 
last year raised hay. He leaves Field C in hay for the second 
year and follows grain on Field D with hay. In 1914, he moves 
his crops all forward to the next field, following grain with hay on 
Field Ay following corn with grain on Field S, plowing sod for 
com on Field C, and allowing the hay to remain for the second 
year on Field D. In 1915, the crops move forward again. In 
1916, the beginning of the fifth year, his rotation has reached its 
starting point, and each crop has returned to the field on which 
it was grown in 1912. 

It requires four years to complete this rotation. It is a four-year 
or four-course rotation. The fifth year it begins a new round. 
It is a definite plan, or system, which gives the farmer each year 
just what he wants without growing the same crop on the same 
field oftener than once in four years, except in the case of hay, which 
is left purposely for two years. 

Each year half the hay land is plowed. If the grass seed is 
sown with the small grain, it will not grow enough to interfere 
with the grain. It takes possession of the ground after the 
grain has been harvested. It will therefore not be necessary 
to plow the grain land after the harvest to plant the grass; 
and as only one hay field is plowed each year, the farmer will 
plow half of his farm each year instead of all of it. This makes 
less work. 

This is a simple rotation that is in common use. Other rota- 
tions may be planned for more fields, more crops, or for a greater 
or less number of years. The farmer may work out nearly any- 
thing he desires. But he should always have a regular plan, or 
system, of crop growing. 

Why crops are rotated. — Let us see what benefit will come* 
from using the four-year corn, small grain, and hay rotation given 



130 AGRICULTURE 

on page 128. Com is tilled or cultivated between the rows when 
it is growing. This loosens the soil, helps to improve its gen- 
eral condition, and by admitting air aids in making plant-food 
available. It also destroys weeds. When the grain is sown 
it occupies all of the land closely and helps to choke out many 
weeds. When grass is planted, clover may be sown with the 
timothy. Clover is a leguminous plant, and therefore, as we 
have learned, makes the soil richer. Then when the sod is 
plowed under, the grass adds a great deal of vegetable matter to 
the soil to be made into humus. Stirring the soil for the com 
that follows helps to decay this vegetable matter. 

We learned in Chapter XIV the many benefits that come from 
plowing vegetable matter into the soil. If com only, or wheat 
only, were grown, there would be very little vegetable matter 
added, and the soil would suffer from need of it. 

Chess and cockle are weeds that grow with wheat and become 
very destructive when land is constantly in wheat. They are 
destroyed by the grass crop followed by clean or constant tillage 
such as is given for the corn. 

When one crop is grown constantly on the same field, it seems 
to injure the soil in some way. This injiuy is avoided when crops 
are regularly changed. Furthermore, some plants have short 
roots and take all of their plant-food from near the surface of the 
soil, while others have long roots that reach deep into the soil in 
search of food and moisture. Wheat, radishes, and onions are 
short-rooted and take their food from the first six inches of soil. 
Alfalfa may send its roots as far down as thirty feet. This 
distributes the demand for plant-food over a much larger area of 
soil, which we can readily see is an advantage. 

Planning a rotation system. — The farmer, will choose a rotation 
that meets the particular needs on his farm. His next door neigh- 
bor may have a very different rotation. If he is raising stock, 
his rotation will be planned to include the crops needed for feed- 
ing. If he is a grain-farmer, and desires to grow as much grain 



ROTATION OF CROPS 



132 AGRICULTURE 

as possible, he will have a diflferent rotation. If the soil is poor, 
the rotation will include the frequent use of leguminous crops 
and the plowing under of green manures to improve it. If the 
farm has sandy soil, a different system must be planned from 
that used for clay soil. One rotation is useful in a cool, moist 
climate, another in a hot, dry cHmate. 

In all of these cases, the farmer will plan his rotation so that 
each crop will leave the land in the best condition for the one 
that is to follow. Wheat and rye leave the land in good, smooth 
condition for hay, and consequently hay often follows wheat or rye 
in the rotation. 

The farmer will also plan his rotation so that his farm help 'will 
be used to the best advantage throughout the year. He will 
plan to distribute his planting and his harvesting so that all this 
work will not come at one time and be more than his men 
can do. 

When all of these conditions have been carefully considered, 
the farmer will try to plan a rotation that will include a " money 
crop," that is, one that will go directly to market ; a clean-tilled 
crop, or one that is tilled between the rows during the growing 
season; a hay or straw crop; a leguminous or soil-improving 
crop. Such a rotation will keep the land from becoming poor 
and will not allow many weeds to grow. In the rotation on page 
128, the small grain may be the *' money crop," the com is the 
clean-tilled crop, and clover, in the hay, is the leguminous crop. 
ThQ hay and corn, and perhaps some of the small grain, may be 
fed to stock on the farm. 

If the farmer is raising a special crop, as a gardener near a large 
city is likely to do, and keeps his land in constant use so that 
the humus is used up, he must buy commercial fertiUzer and 
stable manure to keep his land in good condition. 

History of crop rotation. — When settlers come into a new 
country and find the land rich, they are not likely to rotate their 
crops with any special care. As long as the land is fertile, they 



ROTATION OF CROPS 133 

are not concerned as to how they shall keep it so. As soon as 
one piece becomes poor from unwise farming it is deserted 
and another piece is taken up to be ruined in the same 
way. It is only when nearly all the land becomes poor that 
they begin to think of the importance of a careful system of 
farming. 

This is just what took place in America. George Washington, 
who was a thoughtful farmer as well as a great statesman, became 
alarmed at the carelessness of the farmers about him. He saw 
that they were robbing their land of fertility by their lack of 
careful system. In 1787, he wrote the following letter to his 
friend Arthur Young in England : — 

" Before I undertake to give the information you request, 
respecting the arrangements of farms in this neighbourhood, &c., 
I must observe that there is, perhaps, scarcely any part of America, 
where farming has been less attended to than in this State (Vir- 
ginia). The cultivation of tobacco has been almost the sole object 
with men of landed property, and consequently a regular course 
of crops has never been in view. The general custom has been, 
first to raise a crop of Indian com (maize), which, according to 
the mode of cultivation, is a good preparation for wheat ; then a 
crop of wheat ; after which the ground is respited (except from 
weeds, and every trash that can contribute to its foulness) for 
about eighteen months ; and so on, alternately, without any 
dressing, till the land is exhausted ; when it is turned out, with- 
out being sown with grass-seeds, or reeds, or any method taken 
to restore it; and another piece is ruined in the same manner. 
No more cattle is raised than can be supported by lowland meadows, 
swamps, &c., and the tops and blades of Indian corn ; as very few 
persons have attended to sowing grasses, and connecting cattle 
with their crops. The Indian corn is the chief support of the 
labourers and horses. Our lands, as I mentioned in my first letter 
to you, were originally very good ; but use, and abuse, have made 
them quite otherwise. 



134 AGRICULTURE 

" The above is the mode of cultivation which has been generally 
pursued here, but the system of husbandry which has been found 
so beneficial in England, and which must be greatly promoted by 
your valuable Annals, is now gaining ground. There are several 
(among which I may class myself), who are endeavouring to get 
into your regiUar and systematic course of cropping, as fast as 
the nature of the business will admit ; so that I hope in the course 
of a few years, we shall make a more respectable figure as fanners 
than we have hitherto done." 

In Washington's time the land was " respited," or rested, or 
allowed to remain idle after it had been injured by careless farm- 
ing. To-day the best farmers do not " rest " land to improve 
it; they practice crop rotation, good tillage, and the use of fer- 
tilizers and manures, and keep the land in good condition. 

Crop rotation has become a regular practice on farms aU over 
this country, and hundreds of different rotations are in use. 
Americans are becoming better farmers. 

Problem 1 10. Do all the farmers in your neighborhood raiselarge crops ? 
If one raises specially large crops, ask him to tell how he does it, what 
fertilizers he uses, and what is his rotation of crops. 

Problem 111. Explain what kind of rotation is used on your father's 
farm, or a neighbor's farm, and why it is used. Which is the money crop ? 
Which is the clean-tilled crop ? Which is the leguminous crop ? Are all of 
the fields included in the rotation? If not, are the crops as good on those 
not in the rotation ? 

Problem 112. How often are the meadows plowed on your father's 
farm? What is planted after the meadow? Why? Do the farmers 
that keep their land in hay for two or three years get larger crops than 
those who keep it in hay for five or six years ? At haying time, compare 
a field that is in hay for the second year with one that has been 
in hay for several years. Decide whether it pays to rotate the hay 
crop. 

Problem 113. If your father does not rotate his crops, see whether you 
can plan a rotation for him. Write out a rotation, explaining why you 
place the crops in certain order. Ask your teacher to tell you whether 
or not it is a good rotation, and why. 

Problem 114, Suppose a farmer raises potatoes, rye, and hay to sell, 



ROTATION OF CROPS 136 

and needs twice as much hay as rye or potatoes. What should be his 
rotation? Why? 

Problem 115. If a six-acre field 3rields a ton and a half of hay to the 
acre the first year and each subsequent year jrielda 400 pounds less to the 
acre, how much will it yield at the end of five years ? If hay is worth 
$ 16 a ton, how much less will the hay crop be worth at the end of three 
years and of five years ? Would it pay to rotate the hay crop so as to 
get a new crop every two years ? 



CHAPTER XIX 

INDIAN CORN 

As far back as we can go in the history of man, we find that he 
depended on grain for much of his food supply. In many places 
in the Bible we read about the cornfields. In the book of Genesis 
it is said that " Joseph gathered corn as the sand of the sea, very 
much, until he left numbering; for it was without number." 
Many centuries later it is written that Jesus and His disciples 
passed " through the cornfields." 

Maize. — But this was not the same kind of com that is called 
by that name in America to-day, and which was not known to 
white men until after the discovery of America. The name 
" corn " has been given to several different grains by different 
peoples in various parts of the world. In the book of Ruth we 
read that Ruth asked " to go to the field and glean ears of com 
... so she gleaned in the field until even, and beat out what she 
had gleaned; and it was about an ephah (a little more than a 
bushel) of barley." In the northern part of Europe, com is the 
name given to rye ; in England, com means wheat ; in Scotland 
and Ireland, a field of corn is understood to be a field of oats. 
Thus we see that the name corn is applied to all of the grains. 
The original meaning of corn was a grain or hard seed, and all 
of these plants have been called com just as we now call them 
all grains. 

We speak of these grains also as cereal grains, or cereals. The 
word cereal comes from Ceres, the name of the goddess of agricul- 
ture, worshipped by the Romans over two thousand years ago. 
They thought that Ceres watched especially over the grains. 

136 



INDIAN CORN 137 

The corn of America probably originated in southern Mexico 
and was extensively grown there centuries before the discovery. 
As the Romans brought to Ceres the first-fruits of their grain har- 
vest, so the native Nahuas of old Mexico sacrificed the first-fruits 
of their cornfields to Centoatl, their goddess of maize, ©r corn. 
Long before Columbus landed in America, the plant had been 
carried by the Indians into the temperate regions of both North 
and South America. When Columbus reached the West Indies, 
he was given by the natives a bread made from a grain called 
mahiz. He used this name in his letters to Spain, and from it has 
come our word maize, commonly applied to corn. In a letter to 
Ferdinand and Isabella, dated May 30, 1498, speaking of his 
brother, Colimibus says, " During a journey in the interior he 
found a dense population entirely agricultural, and at one place 
passed through eighteen miles of cornfields." The Indians were 
farmers. 

Place of maize in American agriculture. — The cultivation of 
com, Indian com as it was called, was the chief reliance of the 
early colonists as it had been of the Indians before them. It was 
already well established and grew luxuriantly. The settlers learned 
from the Indians how to prepare the corn for food. Roger Wil- 
liams, in speaking of the forms in which corn was used for food 
in New England, says, " Samp (from the Indian name for the dish, 
nasaum/p) is the Indian corne, beaten and boiled, and eaten hot or 
cold with milke or butter, which are mercies beyond the native's 
plaine water, and is a dish exceeding wholesome for English bodies.'' 

From colonial days to the present, corn has held an important 
place in American agriculture. To-day it is the most important 
American crop. It can be grown in nearly every part of the conti- 
nent. It has become adapted to all the various climates from 
Canada to the tropics. For the short seasons of the north there 
are varieties that ripen in 70 or 80 days and grow but three or four 
feet tall. In the southern part of the United States, Mexico, 
Central America, and South America, there are varieties that 



138 AGRICULTURE 

grow to a height of twenty feet or more and require six months 
in which to complete their growth. Corn fits well into crop rota- 
tion systems, and this has led to its being grown in regions where 
a few years ago it was not an important crop. 

The corn or maize plant. — Let us go out into a field of standiag 
corn, or bring a corn plant into the schoolroom and study it. We 
should know that the worst foe of the corn plant is wind, and it has 
been obliged to develop certain forms of stalk, leaf, and root to 
enable it to withstand this foe. If we cut a corn-stalk across, we 
find that it is a strong cylinder with a pithy center. It is strength- 
ened at short intervals by hard nodes, or joints. If all of the stalk 
were as compact and rigid as the nodes, it would break in the wind 
instead of bending. As it is, the stalk is elastic, and will bend far 
over without breaking. The nodes are near together at the bot- 
tom, thus giving strength to the base ; they are farther apart at 
the top, where the wind strikes and where the stalk must bow 
rather than break. 

The corn leaf comes from the stalk at a node. Its base clasps the 
stalk completely for some distance, thus making the latter stronger. 
Just where the leaf bends away from the stem is a small growth, 
which fits tightly around the stalk and is called the rain-guard 
because it prevents rain from seeping down between the stalk and 
the clasping leaf, where dampness would allow disease to set in. 

The true roots of the corn plant, which begin their development 
from the planted seed, penetrate the soil rather deeply, but they are 
hardly able to hold firm a stalk so slender and tall as that of the 
corn plant when the wind blows fiercely against it. Hence, all 
about the base of the stalk are certain roots, which we call brace- 
roots, the ofiice of which is to hold the stalk erect. 

Blossoms. — Each corn-stalk has two kinds of blossoms. Those 
that bear the pollen appear at the tip of the stalk ; they are borne 
in the " tassels." The other flowers are those that develop the 
seed and are the pistillate (bearing the pistils) flowers, borne in 
the ears of corn. These pistillate flowers are set on a central 



INDIAN CORN 139 

stalk or cob. From each one a long thread, which we caJI the 
com silk, runs out. This silk reaches out to receive the pollen 
that falls upon it from the tassels of its own 
stalk or is blown upon it from the tassels of 
the same or other com plants. 

If one of these pistib fails to receive pollen 
at the tip of its long ailk, it does not de- 
velop into a kernel of com, and the ear will 
then be imperfect. Such undeveloped kernels 
we say are " blasted." These kernels are set 
on the stem or " cob " in twin rows ; that is, 
each row is double, being made up of pairs 
of kernels. If (Afferent varieties of corn are 
planted one near another, the pollen from one 
kind may be carried by the wind over to the 
ears of the other kinds, and the result will be 
a mixture of two or more varieties on the same 
cob. 

Ears. — The ears are borne at the joints or 
nodes; and on the side next the ear, the stalk 
is grooved. The husks show plainly that 
they are modified leaves, in the following 
ways : The husk has the same structure as 
the leaf; the outside husks are green and, 
therefore, do the work of leaves. The husk Fra. 65. — A wdl- 
often changes to leaf-shape at the tip of the den?forT "' ^'"°" 
ear, thus showing that the husk itself is that 
part of the leaf which normally clasps the stalk. As a matter of 
fact, the ear of corn is on a branch stalk which has been much 
shortened so that the nodes are very close together, and the 
leaves, therefore, come oft close together. 

Kinds of corn. — There are eight distinct kinds, or " species," 
of corn. They differ one from another in certain important re- 
spects. They are: 



140 AGRICULTURE 

(1) A wild form, sometimes found in Mexico, 

(2) Pod com, in which each kernel is inclosed in a separate pod 
or husk. 

(3) Popcorn. 



Fra. 66. — The husks often produce leaf-ahapeH, iDdicBting tbat they are modified 
leaves. 

(4) Flint corn, a hard smooth corn, generally yell6w in color, 
grown in New England and other northern states. 

{5} Dent com, which has a dent or depression in the large end, 
is yellow or white in color, and ia grown in both the north and 
the south. 

(6) Soft corn, not often grown in North America. 

(7) Sweet com, having a homy and more or less crinkled ap- 
pearance, used for table purposes. 

(8) Starchy sweet corn. 

There are many varieties of most of these kinds, so that 



INDIAN CORN 141 

there are great differences in the types of com grown in different 
places. 

The culture of com. — The seed for plantii^ should be chosen 
the fall before from the standing com, for it is important that the 



FiQ. 67. — Com. FromDuggir 

seed come from thrifty stalks that yield the largest amount of 
corn. The ears should be of good length, strong, and well filled 
at tip and butt. A few kernels from each ear of the seed corn 
should be tested to be sure it will sprout vigorously. We shall 
learn how to test seed in Chapter XXX. 



142 AGRICULTURE 

The soil should be the most fertile on the farm. Sod land which 
grew clover the preceding year, and which received a dressing of 
barnyard manure during the winter or early sprir^, is ideal. It 
should be plowed early and harrowed repeatedly until the seed- 
bed is fine and Bmooth. 

Planting should be delayed until the weather is warm all day 
long. If it is to be done by hand, furrows should be made across 
the field, generally in its longest direction, about three and one half 
feet apart. The corn may be planted in hills, three kernels in a 
hill. In the East, where corn is thinned after the plants are up, 
as many as five seeds to the hill may be planted. For large 
varieties the hills should be three and one half feet apart in the 
row, and for small varieties a shorter distance. The seed is 
covered with fine soil one or one and a half inches deep. If a 
horse-drawn com planter is used, it will not be necessary to 
make the furrows. 

A few days after planting, the weeder should be run over the 
field to stir the 
surface and 
destroy the 
sprouting weeds. 
About a week 
after the com 
shoots can be 
plainly seen in 
the rows, the 
first cultivation 
should be ^ven. 
This should be 
fairly deep. The 
later ones may 
be less deep. 
Frequent cultivation benefits com, and four or more cultivations 
should be given during the growing season. The surface should 



INDIAN CORN ' 143 

be left fine and nearly level. The hoe must be used to keep the 
weeds out of the rows. 

Harvesting. — Harvest time is at hand when the- lower leaves 
on the stalks begin to die and many of the husks are becomir^ 
dry. The stalks may be cut by hand or with a com harvester. 
About sixty hills may be gathered into one shock and the tops 
bound together to make the shock stand. If the com is 
heavy, smaller 
shocks should 
be made. If 
they are too 
large, the corn 
on the inside 
will not cure 
well. If the 
weather is 
good, the com 
will be cured 
in six weeks. 

After the 
ears have 

, i II ' Fio. 69. — A machine for husbiog and shredding com. Why 

tne StalKS are the atalkfl shredded? 

should again 

be bound t<^ether and stored under cover for winter use. It 
the fodder is to be fed to stock, it should not be left in the field 
durii^ the late fall and winter. If the fodder is not to be fed, 
husking may be done in the field and the stalks left standing. 
The ears, after husking, should be stored where air can circulate 
about them, and where they will be free from rats and mice. 

The silo. — The silo is a building in which certain kinds of 
green plants are stored in quantity in such a way that they 
will remain green and juicy and' wholesome. It is much 
used on stock farms to preserve green corn, clover, alfalfa, and 



144 AGRICULTURE 

other forage plants, so that in winter the cattle may have fresh 
food. Corn is the principal crop preserved in this way. 

The first silo in Europe was a stack of wet grass covered with 
earth. In America, the first ones were pits in the earth. Most 
of those in use to-day are wood or cement structures built above 
ground, adjoining or part of the cattle bams. They are usually 
built in the shape of a cylinder, but may be square. 

When the com is grown for the silo, it need not be planted in 
hills, but the seed may be sown so as to have a staJk about every 
seven inches in each row, the rows being three and one half feet 
apart. It is harvested for the silo when the lower leaves are 
turning yellow and when the kernels begin to be hard and no milk 
comes out of them when they are mashed. 

Enemies. — Crows and blackbirds are the enemies of the young 
com plant. They must be frightened away from the field until 
the corn is too large for them to pull it up. Cutworms lurk about 
the hills and cut oflf the stalks. Coating, the kernels of seed 
com with coal tar before planting will drive away some of the 
enemies after it has been placed in the ground. 

Uses. — Although corn is produced in America much more ex- 
tensively than other grains, very little is exported. It is nearly all 
used on the farms where it is produced to fatten cattle and hogs for 
market. 

Aside from the use of the fodder, grain, and meal for feeding, 
there are many other corn products of conmiercial value. The 
silks are used in the making of filters ; the husks for the making of 
mattresses; the pith for the packing of coflfer-dams of battle- 
ships ; the outer parts of the stalk for the making of varnish and 
for paper ; the cobs for corn-cob pipes. An oil used in the arts is 
extracted from the seed germs. Starch and alcohol are made 
from corn. There are many other products that might be 
mentioned, for corn is one of the most useful of oiur farm 
crops. There is one factory that makes forty-two diflferent com 
products. 



INDIAN CORN 145 

Problem 116. Do the roots of the com pfant penetrate deep into the 
soil? Why? Describe the brace-roots. How do they help the plant 
to stand firm against the force of the wind ? How far up the stem do the 
brace-roots come off? 

Problem 117. Where on the stalk are the ears borne? How many 
ears on a stalk ? After removing the husks carefully, note whether there 
is a thread of com silk for every kernel. How many rows of kernels are 
there on the ear? 

Problem 118. What varieties of corn are grown in your locality? 
What is each kind grown for ? Are all of the varieties planted in the same 
way ? Describe the differences. CoUect good ears of the different va- 
rieties for your school exhibit. Attach the name of the varieties to each 
one, and place them where you can study them until you easily recognize 
the different varieties without looking at the names. 

Problem 119. For what is the com raised on your father's farm used ? 
Is any of it shipped away ? If so, where does it go ? What becomes of 
it? 

Problem 120. Who grows the best com in the locality ? How does 
he prepare his land ? What crop precedes com in his rotation ? How does 
he secure his seed ? How often does he cultivate the growing crop ? 

Problem 121. Make a list of as many things as you can find are made 
from some part of the com plant. It will be very interesting to collect 
as many of these as possible and arrange or mount them on a chart. 
This may be done with other grains also. 

Problem 122. How many hills are there in a one-acre cornfield if the 
hills are three and one half feet apart each way ? If each hill bears 
three ears, how many ears are there on the acre ? If it takes 105 ears to 
make a bushel, how. many bushels are there ? At $ .40 a bushel, what is 
the crop worth ? 

Problem 123. Suppose that the field described in Problem 122 repre- 
sents your father's cornfield. Will he get more corn if he has five stalks 
in a hiU, each bearing an ear of which 200 are required to make a bushel, 
or three stalks in a hill bearing ears that require 105 to make a bushel ? 



CHAPTER XX 

WHEAT 

Wheat has held a leading place in the food-supply of all the great- 
est nations of the world since the beginning of history. It has been 
grown so long and in so many different countries that there is diffi- 
culty in determining where it originated. Monuments much more 
ancient than the Hebrew Scriptures show that it was an important 
plant at the time they were built. The earliest Lake Dwellers 
in western Switzerland cultivated a small-grained variety of wheat. 
The ancient Egyptians and Greeks believed that it had been origi- 
nated by some of their deities, among them Demeter (Latin, 
Ceres), the goddess of agriculture. It was grown by the Chinese at 
least 2700 years B.C., and was considered by them a direct gift 
from Heaven. 

Western Asia, especially the valley of the Euphrates, is supposed 
to have been the original home of this plant. A wild grass native 
to the Mediterranean region at the present time bears a resem- 
blance to the wheat plant. 

Wheat in America. — It is believed that wheat was not known in 
America before the discovery by Columbus. Within two weeks 
after the arrival of the first colonists at Jamestown, in 1607, this 
crop was sown on land that had been cleared by felling timber for 
the fort. In the year following, additional land was cleared and 
planted. The first attempts were not especially successful, but 
the colonists persisted and from year to year planted wheat in in- 
creasing quantities. The crop was harvested with the reap hook 
and the sickle and was trodden out by horses and oxen instead of 
being threshed with a flail. 

146 



WHEAT 147 

As early as 1626 wheat was cultivated by the Dutch in New York. 
It held a leading place in the middle colonies and was among the 
very few crops exported. The Pennsylvania millers gained a wide 
reputation for the excellence of their flour. 

Wheat was sown at Plymouth in 1621. It did not become an 
important crop in New England during colonial times. 

Production. — Wheat is now grown in nearly all civilized coun- 
tries. Vast areas are planted in Russia, India, France, Austria- 
Hungary, Argentina, Canada, and the 
United States. Europe produces more 
wheat than any other continent, raising 
nearly twice as much as North and South 
America tt^ether. 

The wheat plant. — Let us bring a few 
wheat plants to school or, better still, go out 
to a field of ripening wheat, and study the 
habits of this plant. We shall find that, 

unlike the corn-stalk, the wheat-stalk is Fra. 70.— Thewheatflower, 
hollow, although oi 

tain more or less pith. We may wonder 
how the hollow stem is able to support the heavy head as it is 
swayed in the wind. It can do so because a hollow tube is 
very much stronger than a solid cylinder made from the same 
amount of material. The nodes, which are solid joints, support 
the ffldes of the tube and keep it from collapsing. 

We see that the nodes are nearer together at the base. This 
is because there is greater strain here. The walls of the stem 
become thicker toward the base for the same reason. Wheat 
grows rapidly because each section of the stem, between the 
nodes, lengthens at the same time; and the stem elongates at 
the tip, also, so that there is growth throughout its entire length 
at one time. 

When the seed germinates, it throws out three temporary roots 
which gather moisture for the young plant. As the stalk grows, 



148 AGRICULTURK 

nodes are formed close together on it. Additional roots ^ring 
from each node. The permanent roots are formed near the sur- 
face of the groimd. They branch 
outward and downward and may 
aometimes reach a depth of four 
feet or more. 

If wheat is planted in the fall, 
the stalks do not rise above the 
crown of leaves produced at the 
Burface of the ground until after 
winter is past. The leaves, or 
blades, that cover the winter 
wheat-field like a mat, are snugly 
protecting the roots from the cold. 
The head or " spike " gradually 
develops as the plant grows tall. 
It is the flowering part, and the 
place where the fruit or grain is 
to be produced. When it ripens, 
the leaves at the surface of the 
ground, together with those at 
each node, wither and fall, and 
the whole plant turns a golden 
yellow color. It is then ready 
to harvest. 

A habit of importance to the 
fanner is the tendency of the 
wheat plant to "tiller" or "stool"; 
that is, to throw up additional 
stalks from the same seed plant. 
From twenty to as many as one 
hundred stalks may spring from one seed. Each stalk develops 
its own roots, so that it is soon independent of those with which 
it is associated. Seed that tillers heavily, therefore, will make 



WHEAT 



149 



the growth in the field much more dense ; it will give a heavy 
" stand " of wheat. 

Elinds of wheat. — The different kinds of wheat in America 
may be divided into classes according to where they are grown 
and whether they produce hard or soft grains. Thus we have : — 

(1) The soft winter wheat, grown chiefly in New England and 
the middle states. 

(2) The semi-hard winter wheat, grown in the north central 
states. 

(3) Hard winter wheat, grown in parts of the middle plains 
states. 

(4) Soft spring wheat, grown on the Pacific coast. 

(5) Hard spring wheat, grown in the upper Mississippi River 
basin. 

(6) The dunmi, or macaroni wheat, grown in the Great Plains 
states. 

Often we call them all either winter wheat or spring wheat, 
meaning by winter wheat that which is sown in the fall and is 
in the ground over winter, 
and by spring wheat that 
w^hich is sown in the spring 
and harvested in the fall. 

Culture. — Wheat will 
grow on a great variety of 
soils, but seems to do best 
on a light clay. The land 
that is to be used for winter 
wheat should be plowed as 
early in the season as pos- 
sible so that it may be made 

fine and be able to absorb moisture. The land that is to be used 
for spring wheat should be plowed the fall preceding or early in 
the spring. In either case the surface must be made fine and 
loose to receive the small seeds. 




Fig. 72. — The grain crsuUe. 



150 AGRICULTURE 

If wheat is to follow com in the rotation, the laud should re- 
ceive barnyard manure before it is plowed for the com. A fer- 
tilizer containing nitrogen, phosphoric acid, and potash is valu- 
able on some land, particularly in the east, and may be applied 
after the land has been prepared for sowing the seed. 



B, atill occaaionAlly in 



Wheat should never be grown on the same land year after year, 
or the soil will become too poor to grow good crops. It should 
always be grown in a rotation if possible. It commonly follows 
com, oats, potatoes, or beans. 

Winter wheat should be planted early enough in the fall for 



152 AGRICULTURE 

the youi^ plants to make sufficient growth to be able to with- 
stand the cold of winter. Spring wheat may be planted early, 
as wheat seed will germinate and grow in cool temperatures. 

The grower should be very careful to choose good seed. Six 
to eight pecks should be sown to the acre, and the seed should be 
planted one to three inches deep, dependit^ on the condition of 
the soil. The lighter and looser the soil the greater the depth. 
Wheat is not ordinarily cultivated after the seed has been planted. 
Harvestiitg. — The 
wheat harvest in the 
United States extends 
over five months. It 
begins in May in 
Texas, moves grad- 
ually northward 
through the summer 
months, and may 
continue as late as 
September or October 
in North Dakota and 
Washington. If we 
' consider every coun- 
try in the world we 
may say that the wheat harvest lasts for twelve months, or every 
month in the year. 

For centuries wheat was harvested with the sickle and the 
cradle, and these tools are still used in some countries. , To harvest 
the great American wheat crop, machines have been devised to 
do all of the work on a large scale. It is scarcely necessary for the 
hand to touch the grain in the entire harvestii^ process. The 
self-binder is used extensively. It cuts and binds the wheat into 
bundles. On some of the large grain farms in the western part of 
the United States there are as many as fifty self-binding harvesters, 
and as many as six hundred acres of grain are cut in a single day. 



WHEAT 153 

The greatest labor-saving machine is the combined harvester 
and thresher used in the Pacific coast states. It is drawn by 20 
to 30 horses, or by a steam traction engine, and will cut 60 to 100 
acres of wheat in a single day. This machine cuts the wheat, 
threshes, cleans, and bags the grain, and carries the sacks imtil 
it has enough to make a pile before they are dumped. 

Uses. — Most of the wheat grown in America is made into 
flour for bread-making or is used in the manufacture of breakfast 
foods. The grain, either whole or ground, is a stock food. Wheat 
bran and wheat middlings, which are conmion cattle foods, are 
obtained from the manufacture of flour. Macaroni is made from 
durimi wheat. Starch made from the wheat kernel is much used 
as a material for paste or sizing. 

The straw is used for feeding or for bedding cattle. When 
traction engines are employed to harvest the crop, the straw is 
sometimes burned to make the steam. Wheat straw is also used 
to make fine straw hats and bonnets. 

Problem 124, Is the culture of wheat important in your locality? 
Why? 

Problem 125. How many acres of wheat are grown on your father's 
farm ? What is the largest acreage on a farm in your locality ? What is 
the average yield per acre ? What is the average yield per acre for the 
United States ? Do the farmers in your locality help to raise or lower 
the average? 

Problem 126. What does wheat follow in the rotation on the farms in 
your locality ? What follows wheat? Is the rotation a good one ? Why? 

Problem 127. What is done with the wheat raised in your locality? 
If it is shipped away, what becomes of it ? 

Problem 128. Make a list of the kinds of foods used on our tables that 
are made from wheat or its products. 

Problem 129. Compare a wheat plant and a com plant, and ex- 
plain in what ways they are similar. Is there any similarity in the roots ? 
In the stems ? In the way the leaves clasp the stems ? In the arrange- 
ments of the nodes on the stem ? In the shape of the leaves ? In the 
flower parts? 

Problem ISO. Write a short essay, telling how wheat is grown in your 



154 AGRICULTURE 

locality : when it is planted, how the soil is prepared, how it is fertilized, 
how the seed is sown, how the crop is harvested, and what becomes of it. 

Problem 131, How many kinds of wheat do you know? How do 
you tell them apart ? 

Problem 182, Can you tell the difference in May between a field of 
oats, of wheat, and of rye ? How ? 

Problem 133, In what ways is wheat used on the farm? What is 
done with the straw ? 

Problem 134. I^ oii6 bushel of wheat contains 20 ounces of nitrogen, 
8 ounces of phosphoric acid, and 5 ounces of potash, how many pounds 
of each are removed in a crop of 24 bushels to the acre ? Does the wheat 
crop take more or less than a 50 bushel oat crop containing 10 ounces of 
nitrogen, 3 ou»^ces of phosphoric acid, and 2 ounces of potash to the 
bushel ? 

Problem 135. What is the value per bushel for wheat in your locality ? 
Suppose that by growing wheat in a rotation the farmers in your locality 
should obtain an average yield of 25 bushels to the acre. If one of them 
ceases to rotate his wheat and grows it on the same land for five years, 
and the second year gets 20 bushels, the third year 17 bushels, the fourth 
year 15 bushels, and the fifth year 12 bushels to the acre, how much 
money will he have lost by the end of the fifth year on a ten-acre field ? 



CHAPTER XXI 

GBA88E8 — MEADOWS AND PASTURES 

In the story of the Creation we read that God commanded the 
earth to " brii^ forth grass." Grasses have helped to cover the 
face of the earth since a very remote time. 

There is an almost endless variety of grasses, and they are 
grown from the hottest tropical regions to the frozen north and 
south. They vary in size from delicate moss-like plants less than 
an inch high to the gigantic bamboos 100 feet or more in height. 
They are adapted to many sorts of conditions — to dry, infertile 
soila, rich, moist soils, marshes, stagnant pools, slow-running 
streamSj rocky hillsides, or sandy sea-shores. 



Fta. 76. — A atretch of natdve, or wDd, pasture land in Nevada. 

ITative grasses. — Nearly every country has great areas of na- 
tive or unsown grasses, which occupy unbroken or wild land, 
and which serve as forage to animals. Perhaps you can find 



156 AGRICULTURE 

small areas of " volunteer " or unsown grass-land in your own 
locality. The native grasses are of great importance, for they 
not only supply pasture and forage in many cases, but also keep 
the land from washing and blowing. While a large part of the 
native grasses are not useful to the farmer, yet many of them are 
exceedingly important, as we shall see. 

In the Great Plains region there still remain inunense tracts of 
open prairie from which are cut large quantities of native hay. In 
the Rocky Mountain states millions of cattle, sheep, and horses 
live on the native grasses. It is said that 300,000 to 500,000 
sheep pass the winter on the Red Desert of Wyoming. 

In the Great Basin, extending from Oregon and Idaho to north- 
em Arizona and westward to the Sierra Nevada Mountains, the 
stock roam in the hills during the summer, and in the autumn axe 
turned into the meadows after the native hay has been stacked. 
On the Pacific slope are other extensive native feeding grounds 
bearing a large number of varieties of wild grasses. 

Cultivated grasses. — Throughout most of America farmers 
cannot depend largely on native grasses. They must grow greater 
quantities to the acre, and must include the grass-land in their ro- 
tation systems. Also, they desire to choose varieties that will be 
most valuable to them. We have therefore a long list of cultivated 
grasses that are adapted to various climates and soils. Some of 
them are most useful in meadows for cutting as hay, and others in 
pastures for grazing. 

Many of the hay plants are not true grasses, that is, do not 
belong to the grass family. Clover, alfalfa, and cowpeas, as we 
have already learned, are legumes. They are used for hay and 
forage, just as are the real grasses, but they belong to a different 
family of plants (see pages 119, 120). 

In northeastern United States, extending as far south as Vir- 
ginia and westward to Kansas and North Dakota, timothy and red 
clover furnish most of the hay, and Kentucky blue-grass (also 
called June-grass) a large part of the'^asture. 



GRASSES — MEADOWS AND PASTURES 157 

Farther south, in the cotton-belt, a most important hay plant is 
the cowpea. Bermuda^ass is the best pasture plant. Johnson- 
grass and Bermuda-grass are grown for hay and pasture t^ough- 
out this section. Both spread rapidly and are hard to get rid of 
after they have once been grown, so that they are often looked 
upon as weeds. 

On the Gulf coast, crab-graas, be^arweed, Mexican clover, and 
carpet-grass supply most of the hay and pasture. In the Plains 



Fia. 77. — Draning hay on sotid-wlieel wtmun. 

re^on, alfalfa is the most important hay plant, and millet, sor- 
ghum and kafir-com are valuable for rough forage. In the Rocky 
Mountain states, alfalfa has first place, with timothy, orchard- 
grass, and clover of less importance. On the Pacific coast, alfalfa 
outranks all other real hay plants ; but great quantities of hay 
are made from oats cut when immature. 

In each section of the country, therefore, some hay plants are of 
much more value than others. An almost endless number of other 
grasses are grown, however. Taking the country as a whole, timothy 
is the leadii^ hay plant and blue-grass the leading pasture plant. 

Meadows. — By the word meadow we mean land on which 
grass is grown to be cut for hay. The land may be kept permar 



168 AGRICULTURE 

nently in grass, or it may be plowed every two, three, or four years 
and a new meadow seeded on another piece of land. 

Since the grass in the meadow is to be cut for hay, all of the plants 
should be at their best at the same time. The plants should also 
grow to maturity quickly. The farmer has to con^der these 
points in choosing seed for his meadows. If the meadows are to 
be plowed frequently, the seed must not be very costly. One 
reason why timothy is so widely grown as a hay plant is that its seed 
is cheap, and it germinates quickly. 

Pastures. — By the word pasture we mean land on which grass 
is grown for grazing by live-stock. Pasture may be either perma- 



Fia. 78. — A hillside pasture that has been grazed very little. 

nent or temporary. When it is temporary, it is usually a meadow 
from which two or more crops of bay have been cut. 

Since pasture is used for many months in the year, the grasses in 
it should not all mature at the same time. For this reason, usually 
a mixture of several kinds of grass seed is planted. Different 
plants occupy the ground in different ways, and when more than 



GRASSES — MEADOWS AND PASTURES 



160 



AGRICULTURE 



one kind is planted the land is used to better advantage. Then, 
too, if the season is unfavorable for one kind, it may be more 
favorable for some other kind. The fanner will choose the grasses 
thatyield the largest crops in his locality and which his animablike. 
Timothy. — Timothy is the best known grass in the United 
States. It gets its name from Timothy Hansen, who took the 
grass from New York to the Carolinas about 1720. It was cul- 
tivated by him in Virginia, also. In 1760, Peter Wynch, President 
of the Agricultural Society of England, secured some of the seed 
from Virginia. It soon came 
into general use in England. 
It is a native of Europe, and 
is now grown extensively in 
western Asia and Africa, as 
well as in Europe and America. 
Timothyis a perennial plant. 
It has short, flat leaves. On 
good land it grows two to four 
feet high. Each stem bears a 
stiff, erect, rough spike or bead 
as thick and generally as long 
as a lead pencil. The grass 
stands up well and the hay is 
easily cured. It has a good 
appearance, and sells readily. 
Timothy may be sown alone 
or in mixtures for meadows, 
le months {jut ig of little Use as a pasture 
plant. It may be sown in the 
fall with wheat or rye, or may 
be planted early in the sprii^. About eleven poimds of seed 
are used to the acre. It will grow on a great variety of soils, but 
does best on clay loam. 
Blue-grass. — This is one of the most conuaon and most useful 



GRASSES — MEADOWS AND PASTURES 161 

grasses in the north temperate zone. It is found in Great 
Britain, Asia, Australia, and America. In North America it is 
especially valuable for lawns and for permanent pastures in the 
northern states, but it does not do well in the South. It makes 
good pasture from early spring to early summer, and again in the 
fall after the heat of sunmier is past. 

Blue-grass varies in height from a few inches to a foot or more. 
Its head is light and spreading, and the seed is borne on little 
branches bearing three to five flowers. It spreads rapidly by 
underground branches or " rootstocks," so that it gradually takes 
possession of the ground wherever it is planted. 

Blue-grass is usually sown in the spring, and it may be planted 
early. Three to ten pounds of good seed to the acre is sufficient 
in pasture mixtures. As much of the seed on the market is poor, 
it may take more than this to secure a good seeding. 

Problem 136. Bring to school as many different kinds of grasses as 
you can find in your locality. Ask the teacher to help you dry them and 
mount them on card-board for your museum or collection. Find some 
one who can name those that you do not know. Place the name of each 
one on its card. Study the different kinds until you know them all. 

Problem 137. Name the different kinds of grasses sown by farmers 
in your locality. What is each used for ? Do they all ripen at the same 
time? Which do the animals like best? Which kinds sell best? 

Problem 138. Count the number of plants on a piece of pasture sod 
six inches square. If there are 43,560 square feet in an acre, how many 
plants are there to the acre? How many different kinds of plants are^ 
present on the piece of sod ? 

Problem 139. If a meadow yields two tons of hay which, by weight, 
is one fourth clover, one fifth weeds, and the remainder timothy, how many 
pounds of each are harvested? 

Problem l/fi. What land on your farm is used for pasture ? Why ? Is 
it ever plowed and planted with some other crop ? How often are the mead- 
ows plowed ? What do they precede and follow in the rotation ? Why ? 

Problem I4I. Examine a load or mow or forkful of hay to see whether 
you can tell what kinds of grass and other plants it contains. 

Problem H2. Can you tell what kinds of grass make up the pasture 
nearest the school-house? On your father's farm? 

M 



CHAPTER XXII 



CLOVERS AND THEIR KIN 



Many leguminous plants are of great importance to the fanner, 
not only for their stock-feeding value, but also because they enrich 
the soil in which they grow. For centuries the most careful 
farmers have grown, clover or a clover-like plant because it 
seemed to make the soil more fruitful. Long before it was dis- 
covered how such plants enriched the soil, it was known that 
they did so. Now that we know that clovers and their kin 
restore to the soil nitrogen which other crops have exhausted, 
farmers include a leguminous crop in their regular rotation systems. 
In the northern states, several species of clover are grown ; in 
the western states and California, alfalfa is grown ; in the central 
and southern states, soybeans, cowpeas, and crimson clover are 
grown ; in the South, velvet beans, beggarweed, and sweet clover, 
or melilotus, are common; in both the North and the South, 
vetch is grown. 

Uses. — Clover-like plants are sometimes used to occupy the 
land for the short periods between the growing of other crops, 
to protect the soil, to make it richer by adding nitrogen, and to 
furnish vegetable matter when plowed imder. For example, 
crimson clover may be sown in corn at the last cultivation. After 
the corn is harvested, the clover occupies the land, protects it 
during the winter, and in the spring is plowed in when the ground 
is prepared for the grain that is to follow. 

162 



CLOVERS AND THEIR KIN 163 

Most of the clover-like plaute are valuable for feeding to stock, 
because they are rich 
in protein, a substance 
containing nitrogen. 

Clover. — The Amer- 
ican colonists culti- 
vated the native 
grasses long before 
they began to grow 
clover. Red clover 
was not carried to 
England from the 
continent of Europe 
until 1633, and white 
or Dutch clover till 
1700. These plants 
did not reach Amer- 
ica until a much later 
period. Now they are 
widely grown, and are 
numbered among our 
most important forage 
plants. 

Red clover came to 
us from Europe. It 
is native also to Asia. 
It is used more largely 
in hay mixtures in 
this country than any 
other of the clovers. 
It is really a perennial 
plant, although it may 
die after the second 
or third year. It is Fio.SI. — Thecommonredolovar. 



164 AGRICULTURE 

a spreading, hairy plant, bearing purplish heads or flowers on 
the ends of branching, leafy stems. The leaves have a promi- 
nent whitish spot. 

This clover is easy to grow. It may be planted with oats or 
barley, but is commonly sown in the spring on winter-wheat 
fields. About ten pounds of seed to the acre are sown broadcast 
or with the same drill that plants the oats or barley. 

For hay, red clover is cut when the heads are in full bloonai and 
before many of them have turned brown. Clover pasture is 
much relished by hogs, and cattle thrive on it if not allowed too 
much at a time. 

Mammoth red clover is a perennial plant. It is less likely to die 
after the second or third year than is red clover. It grows taller 
and stouter than the common red, ripens later, and bears larger 
and darker heads. It yields more heavily than the common red 
clover, but stock do not like it so well. 

Alsike clover was brought to America from Europe, and is now 
grown in low meadows and less fertile places from Nova Scotia 
to Idaho. It is a perennial with trailing, slender stems, and 
small whitish or rose-colored heads. The leaves are borne on long, 
forked stalks that rise from the low-growing main stem. It 
grows well on cool, moist soils and is valuable in wet meadows 
where red clover would be drowned. It is useful both for hay 
and for pasture. It makes a fine, soft hay. It is a valuable 
honey or bee plant also. 

White clover was introduced from Europe, but it is probably 
native to northern America also. It is now grown in almost all 
regions in the temperate zones. Some persons think that it 
was the original shamrock. It is a low, creeping, perennial 
plant, that bears its small fragrant white blossoms on long, 
slender stalks. The leaves, which usually are made up of three 
leaflets, are also supported on long, slender stalks. The leaves 
and the flowers rise from the stem that creeps along the surface 
of the ground. White clover will grow in cool climates and 



CLOVEBS AND THEIR KIN 



165 



on moist soils. It grows so low that it is not useful for hay, 
but is a good pasture plant. It is much used for lawns, also. 

Crimson clover had its 
ori^al home in the Medi- 
terranean region in Europe. 
It is an annual plant, erect, 
two to three feet tall, and 
is covered with soft hairs. 
The heads are oblong and 
dense, and are composed 
of brilliant crimson flowers. 
The leaves are borne on 
long stalks. It grows best 
in warm climates, on loose, 
sandy soils. It is used 
both for hay and for pas- 
ture, as well as for green 
manure purposes. 

Alfalfa. — Alfalfa is native 
to the valleys of south- 
western Asia. It was in 
use centuries before the 
Christian era. It spread 
from Persia to Greece about 
480 B.C., then to Italy, 
Spain, Mexico, and South 
America. It reached Mex- 
ico and South America dur- 
ing the Spanish invasion 
in the sixteenth century. 
It was brought to New 
York from Europe as early 
as 1791. It was carried to California from Chile in 1854, and 
crossed from Mexico into Texas in the early part of the nine- 



Fio. 82. — A branch of the alfalfa plaat. 



166 AGRICULTURE 

teenth century. Alfalfa has spread rapidly in the West and 
Southwest, and is gradually becoming a valuable hay plant in the 
East and other sections. It has long been grown as a farm crop 
in New York. 

Alfalfa is a loi^-lived perennial plant. It roots very deeply, 
usually from 6 to 12 feet. Its sterna grow 1 to 4 feet high, and 



Fio. 83. — StackiDK alfaUa in the nestern country, where large areas arc grown. 

in bunches or clumps. The stems are covered with small leaves 
made up of three leaflets. The flowers are purple, or occasion- 
ally white, and are clover-shaped. 

To grow alfalfa, a deep, well-drained soil containing lime 
is necessary. If lime is laclting, so that the soil is " sour," 
applying suiEcient lime to it will remedy the sour (acid) 
condition. Well-rotted barnyard manure makes an excellent 
fertilizer. 



CLOVERS AND THEIR KIN 167 

The seed-bed must be made fine. The alfalfa seedling is not 
a strong plant, and it cannot compete with weeds imtil after it 
has become well estabUshed. It demands plenty of moisture, 
but will not thrive in wet soils; it should therefore be planted 
on a well-drained soil. There must be the right kind of bacteria 
in the soil to store nitrogen in the nodules on the alfalfa roots. 
Frequently it is necessary to secure some soil from a field where 
alfalfa has grown luxuriantly in order to estabhsh the bacteria 
in the new land. 

In the West, 12 to 20 poimds, and in the East, 20 to 30 pounds, 
of seed are sown to the acre. Alfalfa grows rapidly and may be 
cut two or three times each season in the North, and four to seven 
times in the South. It will yield four to five tons to the acre. 
Alfalfa may be grown on the same land without injuring it 
greatly longer than most other crops. However, in a good rota- 
tion it should not be allowed to occupy the same field for longer 
than four to seven years at a time. 

Alfalfa is a valuable hay plant, because it is rich in 
protein. It should be cut when it opens into flower. It makes 
good pasture if the stock are allowed to graze only a little at a 
time. 

Cowpea. — The cowpe^ is originally from India and the region 
to the north. It has been cultivated for two thousand years or 
more. Varieties have been distributed throughout the world, 
but only in China, India, and the southern part of the United 
States has it become an important farm crop. It reached the 
West Indies in the latter half of the seventeenth century, and 
was brought to the United States some time later. 

The cowpea is a summer-growing annual plant, closely related 
to the bean. Some varieties are erect and bush-like, others are 
traiUng. It is a climbing plant, and its slender runners twine 
around near-by objects. The leaves have each three leaflets, and 
in appearance are much Jike those of the garden bean. The 
flowers are whitish or whitish pmple, and may have a yellow tint. 



AGEIOULTnEE 



Fia. 84. — Cowpeag erowioB betweeu tc 



CLOVERS AND THEIR KIN 169 

The pods are usually straw-colored, and are five to ten inches 
long. 

Cowpea will grow on almost any kind of soil except that which 
remains wet during the summer. It likes a warm climate and is 
easily killed by frost. The soil should be well prepared by plow- 
ing and harrowing. The seed may be sown broadcast or in rows. 
When sown broadcast, four to six pecks of seed per acre are used, 
and when planted in rows two to three pecks. 

The leaves of cowpea fall oflf easily when being cured, so that 
sometimes a grass crop, as German millet, is grown with it.' 
The millet makes the curing quicker and entangles the leaves so 
that they are saved. Cowpea hay is allowed to lie where it is cut 
for 24 to 36 hours, after which it is raked and piled into cocks. If 
the weather is fair, the curing will be completed in the cocks in 
two or three days. Then the cocks may be opened for a few 
hours before being hauled to the barn. 

Cowpea is grown for hay, green forage, and to enrich the land. 

Other clover-like plants. — The soybean is closely related to the 
cowpea. It is grown more or less throughout the eastern and south- 
ern parts of the United States. It is used for human food, for 
stock food, and to improve soils. 

Vetchjes are grown both in the North and in the South as pasture 
plants for horses, cattle, sheep, and swine. They are frequently 
grown also merely to enrich the soil. 

Melilotus, the common "sweet clover" that grows by the road- 
side, is sometimes planted in the South to be used as a green manure, 
forage, and honey plant. Generally it is looked upon as a weed. 
There are two common kinds, — the white and the yellow. 

Problem 143. Name all the legumes that you know. 

Problem 144- Bring to school a plant of each of the clovers and other 
legumes that you can find. Mount them on cards for your museum. 
Compare them carefully and explain how they resemble one other, and 
how they differ. Compare the flowers especially. How do the stems of 
white clover differ from the stems of other clovers? 



170 



AGRICULTURE 



Are any of these plants grown on your farm merely to 
What is a cover-crop and what are its uses ? 
Which is the best stock feed : timothy hay, clover, or 



Problem 145. 
enrich the soil ? 

Problem U6. 
alfalfa ? 

Problem H7, What kinds of leguminous plants run wild in your neigh- 
borhood? What kinds are cultivated? 

Problem H8, Write a short essay about the use that is made of clover 
on the farm, and where it should come in the rotation system. 



CHAPTER XXIII 

POTATO 

It is thought that the potato was cultivated in Peru at least 
2000 years ago. When the Spaniards came as conquerors to South 
America, they found the Indians cultivating the plant in all the 
valleys of the Andes from Chile to New Granada (now Colombia). 
They carried it back to Spain with them, and passed it on into Italy 
and the Netherlands before it was known in England. Both Sir 



Fio.86. — PotaMws. 

Francis Drake and Sir Walter Raleigh are credited with its intro- 
duction into England. It waa probably taken to Ireland in 1586 
by Thomas Herriot, who was a member of the expedition sent to 
America by Sir Walter Raleigh. Raleigh cultivated it on his farm 
near Cork in Ireland. He called it Battata. 

The potato has greatly affected the fortunes of English-speak- 
ing peoples. Its destruction by blight in 1846 was the cause of the 
171 



172 AGRICULTURE 

*' Great Famine," which drove over the seas so many thousands of 
Ireland's best and sturdiest workers to help in building up America. 

It is a common opinion that the aborigines of Virginia cultivated 
the potato at the time of the discovery of America, but this is in 
doubt. The crop was early grown by the Virginia colony. It was 
not grown in New England until the arrival of the Presbyterian 
immigrants from Ireland in 1718. The potato has been developed 
to a greater extent in Europe than in America, and it is now 
a staple crop throughout both continents. 

Place of the potato in agriculture. — Next to rice, the potato is 
probably the most extensively grown and most valuable crop in 
the world. The annual yield of the world is nearly 5,000,000,000 
bushels. 

As potatoes are a cultivated crop they fit well into rotation sys- 
tems, to follow the grass and to precede the small grain. 

The potato plant. — The potato plant has a weak stem. Its 
branches may grow long and trail on the ground. The stem is 
round and smooth, and all parts of the green plant are juicy. 
The leaves grow alternately and are compound, a pair of very 
small leaflets growing between pairs of much larger size. 

In some varieties the slightly fragrant flowers are light purple or 
lilac ; in others they are white. The fruit, or seed-ball, is round and 
about the size of a small plum, and of a yellowish color when ripe. 
It is packed full of seeds, which are shaped very much like tomato 
seeds but are smaller. 

The part of the potato that we eat is an enlarged imder- 
ground stem called a tuber. We might think from its appear- 
ance and from the fact that it is produced beneath the siu*face 
of the ground, that it is a root ; but when we study it, we shall 
find it is not. In the first place, although the tubers differ 
greatly in size, shape, and color, they are all alike in having "eyes" 
on their surfaces. These are fewest near th» stem end, where the 
tubers are attached to the plant, and are more numerous at the 
opposite or "bud" end. When the potato is allowed to sprout, 



POTATO 173 

we diBcover that each eye is a bud or group of buds from which 
a branch springs. We know that leaves grow from stems only, 
and not from roots; therefore, the potato tuber cannot be a 
root. It ia part of the stem underground, enlarged for the 



I loose, mellow soil, 

storage of surplus starch. In the second place, rootlets are 
never attached to the tubers of the potato, but to the main 
root-stem of the plant itself. 

Culture. — In its wild state the potato reproduces itself through 
the seeds, which are borne in the seed-ball at the end of the stalk, 
and by its tubers. The seeds from any one plant, however, may 
produce several varieties of potatoes, so that the farmer cannot de- 
pend on the seed for his new crop. The tubers will produce plants 
bearing other tubers just Uke themselves, so the farmer plants 
tubers or parts of tubers for his new crop. 

From each eye of the potato a new plant will develop. If a 



174 AGRICULTURE 

piece large eaough to nourish the young plant until it becomes 
established is used, a stroi^r plant will result. Potatoes which 
have sprouted in the cellar or pit, sending out loi^, colorless 
shoots, should not be used for plantii^, as the tubers have lost 
some of their plant-food in the growth of the sprouts. 

Ideal conditions for the growth of the seed-pieces are a mod- 
erately moist and deep fertile soil, and a relatively cool climate. 
The seed-pieces are planted two to five inches deep. The most 
successful potato-growers do not hill up their plants, at least not 
until late in the season, but keep the field level. Level culture 
wastes less moisture by evaporation than does hilling. 

A few days after planting, the spike-toothed harrow or the 
weeder should be run over the field to destroy all weeds before 
they are well started. Then the weeder may be used once a 
week until the plants are seven to ten inches tall. Thereafter, 
about five cultivations should be ^ven at intervals of seven to 
ten days. The early cultivations should be deeper than the 
later ones. 

Early potatoes are dug as soon as they are large enough to 
sell. Late varieties are left until the vines are dead. The pota- 
toes should be harvested when the land is dry, and the tubers 
picked up at once and kept in a cool dark place. 

The average yield of potatoes in the United States is about 
85 bushels per acre, but under ideal conditions 300 to 500 bushels 
per acre are not uncommon. 

Enemies. — The first enemies of the potato 
plant to appear are flea-beetles. They arrive as 
soon as the plants are above ground. They 
gnaw small holes ' in the leaves. Repeated 
spraying of the vines with Bordeaux mixture 
combined with Paris green will check this de- 
stroyer. The same remedy should be applied 
also for the black-and-yellow-coated Colorado 



i 
-A field of sweet-poUtoes. ground stem or tuber. 



176 AGRICULTURE 

It has no eyes, no leaf-buds. Small rootlets run out from it. It 
belongs to the same family of plants as the morning-glory, and 
the flowers resemble those of the morning-glory. 

The sweet-potato probably came originally from tropical 
America. It is now in cultivation in many of the islands of the 
Pacific. For the new crop all or part of the sweet-potato itself 
may be planted. Usually, however, the sweet-potatoes are started 
in a hotbed and the yoimg plants are removed and set in the field 
when they are of the right size. Some persons make a business 
of growing the small plants to sell to farmers for planting their 
crops. 

The sweet-potato does best in a warm, sandy soil that is well 
drained and that contains humus. The land is plowed four to 
six inches deep. The seed-bed is made fine so as to be a good 
home for the transplanted plants. The plants may be trans- 
planted by hand or with a machine. They are usually set 
eighteen inches apart in the row. Three or four cultivations, 
supplemented by hand hoeing, are necessary to keep the growing 
crop in good condition. 



Problem 149. Dig up an entire potato plant without breaking off the 
tubers, and examine it in the field or bring it into the schoolroom. Where 
are the true roots ? What is the difference between them and the stems 
on which the potatoes are borne? How many potatoes grow on each 
stem? Do the true roots go much deeper than the tubers? Are any 
rootlets attached to the potato as there are to beets, turnips, or sweet- 
potatoes? What does this indicate? 

Problem 150, In a box in the schoolroom, plant one whole potato, one 
piece having two eyes, and one piece having no eyes. Mark the place 
where each is planted. Do they all grow ? If not, why? Which develops 
the best plant? 

Problem 151, In another box, plant a large piece of potato having 
only one eye. As soon as the rootlets begin to appear divide the eye and 
piece into two parts and re-plant. In a few days after the rootlets have 
again started, divide the two pieces into four and re-plant. See how many 
times this can be repeated, and how many potato plants may be grown 



POTATO 177 

from one eye. When large enough, set these little plants in the school- 
garden, if the weather is suitable. 

Problem 152, Purchase at the drug store five cents' worth of iodine 
(o poison). Dilute it one half with water. Cut a few slices of potato and 
apply a few drops of iodine to the freshly cut surfaces. The color will 
change to a blue-black. This shows that the potato is composed of stored- 
up starch. When iodine touches grains of starch, they turn to a blue- 
black. 

Problem 153. Describe the difference between the common or white 
potato and the sweet-potato. 

Problem 154. How many varieties of potatoes do you know ? How 
do you distinguish them ? 

Problem 155. How does your father keep or store his potatoes ? 

Problem 156, How much are potatoes worth in the market at 
present? 



CHAPTER XXIV 

THE ORCHARD 

Nature has generously provided many kinds of fruit, and 
many varieties of each, so that some variety will grow in nearly 
every section of America. Nearly all farms have some fruit. 
There may be only a few trees for family use, or there may be 
orchards that cover many acres. In the latter case, fruit-growing 
is an important part of the farm business. It may be the largest 
part of the business. 

Location of the orchard. — Fruit may be grown for a few 
years on almost any kind of soil. But if we would grow long- 
lived trees and fruit of superior quality, then the climate, site, 
and soil must be favorable. 

There may be more than one site on the farm for the orchard, 
the main difference between them being the slope of the land. 
South and west slopes are hottest in summer and are subject to 
more sudden weather changes than north or east slopes. On 
south slopes, peach trees may be brought into blossom earlier 
than on north and east slopes ; consequently they are more liable 
to injury by early frost when planted on south slopes. On the 
western plains, the best growth of native timber is usually on 
north slopes. In general, we may say that for apple, pear, and 
plum trees, a location that slopes to the southwest, west, or 
northwest is best; for peach and cherry trees, a northwest or 
west slope seems to be best. But the slope or exposure may be 
otherwise and the fruit plantation still be successful, if other 
conditions are good. 

178 



THE ORCHARD 179 

The choice of the soil is as important as the choice of slope. 
A rich, deep, moist clay loam is ideal for apples, pears, and plums, 
and a light, sandy loam is preferable for peiaches and cherries. 
If the prospective grower has no choice of soil, ajid must take a 
less desirable kind, he may still grow fruit for home use. 

The soil should be prepared as carefully for the fruit crop as 
for the corn crop, so that the roots may grow far and wide for food 
and water. Frequently it will be necessary to drain the land, as 
fruit land must not be wet. For the best results the soil must 
be pulverized, drained, and plowed deeply. 

Planting the trees. — On a well-fitted soil, the first essentials, 
for success are the trees. They should be purchased from a 
reliable nursery as near home as possible so that they will be 
accustomed to the climate of the region in which they are to be 
grown. 

The trees may be planted either in the fall or in the spring. 
The rows should be straight, not only for the sake of appearance 
but also because tillage will be easier. The trees must be set far 
enough apart so as to favor the best growth. The distance will 
vary in different regions. It is a common practice to plant apple 
trees 40 feet apart each way, pears 20 to 25 feet each way, quinces 
16 feet, plums 20 feet, sour cherries 20 feet, sweet cherries 30 feet, 
peaches 20 feet. 

When the trees are dug from the nursery, many of the roots 
are destroyed. If all of the top is left, there will be a greater 
demand for plant-food than the roots can supply. Usually the 
top is cut back severely, so that only a *' leader " ?>nd three or 
four short side branches are left. 

A hole is dug sufficiently large to accommodate the roots com- 
fortably in their natural positions. Fine, rich soil must be worked 
firmly about the roots so that they can begin their activities at 
once. A shallow layer of loose soil is left on the surface as a mulch. 
Coarse, fresh stable manure should not be placed in contact with 
the roots. 



180 AGRICULTURE 

Tilling and fertUizing. — Orchard trees grow large and are 
expected to bear heavy crops of fruit year after year. To do 
this, they must receive good care and abundant food. 

We know that tillage improves the soil, saves moisture, and 
sets free plant-food. It is therefore a very important operation in 
the orchard. More than 90 per cent of most fruits is water. To 
obtain a large crop there must be a great abimdance of moisture 
in the soil. In dry seasons, the moisture must be prevented from 
escaping from the soil. The apples on sod land are likely to be 
much smaller and poorer in a dry summer than those grown on 
tilled land. 

The orchard may be plowed early in the spring to break up the 
soil. During the summer the harrow and the cultivator should 
be used to preserve the surface 
mulch. 

Trees make heavy demands 
on the plant-food in the soil, 
BO that it is seldom wise to 
grow any other crop, even 
grass, in the orchard. The 
Boil will need to have humus 
added to it from time to time. 
This may be done by applying 
barnyard roauure or by grow- 
ing a cover-crop. It may he 
r,G.90.-Th«Baldwmappl.. necessaiy to add commercial 

fertilizers contaimng nitrogen, 
phosphoric acid, and potash. Stunted growth indicates the need 
of nitrogen or water, or both. Fruit lacking in flavor and color 
may lack phosphoric acid and potash. 

Pruning and spraying. — Tilling and fertilizing are only part of 
the necessary care of the growing and bearing orchard. They 
make the tree grow. Pruning and spraying direct the growth 
and protect the tree from injury by insects and diseases. 



THE ORCHARD 181 

A wild, imcared for tree seldom produces good fruit, although 
it may prodace a large quantity of small fruits. The fruit- 
grower desires large, well-shaped and well-colored fruit that will 
be attractive in the market. To obtain it, he keeps his trees 
vigorous, and removes unproductive and interfering branches. 

Pruning helps to make a tree vigorous ; it also changes the shape 
of the tree to suit the wishes of the grower. Winter pruning en- 



Pio.. 91. — Picking apples. 

courages the growth of wood, while summer pruning encourages 
the production of fruit. 

Young trees that were properly pnmed when set out will re- 
quire little pruning until they be^n to bear. Shoots that would 
make a poorly shaped head, or that cross and interfere with other 
branches, should be removed. In pruning old fruit trees, the aim 
should be to prevent crossing and crowding of branches and to thin 
out old wood, 80 that young, vigorous wood may take its place. 



THE ORCHARD 183 

When the ends and high- 
est branches are cut back, 
growth is formed in the 

lower branches. ' i 

All fruit trees have & 

enemies, both insects and I, 

diseases. These enemies I 

must be controlled if good S 

fruit is to be grown. This ^ 

is done partly by spray- | 

ing. Some kinds of sprays o 

are used for -insects, and ^ 

other kinds for diseases. 8 

We shall learn more -t 

about spraying in Chap- ^ 

ters XXVIII and XXIX. | 

Harvesting. — If the 3 

grower ia to secure part or -a 

all of his income from his £ 

fruit, the harvesting and £ 
marketing become very 

important. The fruit a 

should be picked, not 1 

pulled, and handled care- S 

fully to prevent bruising. "2 

It should be graded accord- 1 

ing to size and quality be- g 

fore it is packed, so that "I 

each barrel or box will be ■? 

uniform throughout. When ^ 

this is done, it is attractive j 

to the buyer. N^at pack- » 
ages and careful packing 
add to the selling price. 



184 AGRICULTURE 

Kinds of fruit. — The more important orchard fruits in Amer- 
ica are apples, peaches, pears, plums, cherries, oranges, and 
lemons. The apple is the king of all fruits in this country. 

Apples. — From time immemorial the apple tree has been cul- 
tivated. Its original home was in southwestern Asia and south- 
eastern Europe. It is now grown in every temperate climate and 
is the most important tree fruit. 

Apple orchards were common in the American colonies, and 
shiploads of apples were exported to the West Indies. The first 
trees in New England were planted on Governor's Island, Boston 
Harbor, from which " ten fair pippins " were picked on October 
10, 1639. An apple nursery was planted on the farm of Governor 
Endicott, at Salem, in 1640. In 1641, apple trees were planted 
on Governor Berkeley's farm in Virginia. 

A great natural apple region is a stretch of coxmtry beginning 
with Nova Scotia and extending west and southwest to Lake 
Michigan. Many other sections are well adapted for this fruit, 
as the highland regions farther south, and many parts of the 
western and Pacific States. 

North America is the leading apple-growing country in the world. 
A full crop of all kinds and grades for the United States and Can- 
ada is probably not less than 100,000,000 barrels. 

Apple stocks are grown from seeds. At the end of a year, or 
a little longer, the desired variety is budded on to the stock in 
the nursery row or is root grafted. The trees are set in the 
orchard when two or three years old. 

Peaches. — The peach probably had its original home in China. 
It has been in cultivation from the earliest times. It came into 
Europe by way of Persia, and from there reached America. As 
early as 1629 peaches were grown in Virginia, and before the Revo- 
lutionary War New Jersey and Delaware were famous for their 
peaches. 

The peach is easily injured by frost, and it is not so easy to 
grow as the apple. It grows best in mild climates, near bodies of 



THE ORCHARD 185 

water. There are " belts " where peach growing is specially 
successful, along the Great Lakes, in Connecticut, in the South 
Atlantic States ; also in Illinois westward to Missouri, in south- 
eastern Texas, and in western Colorado and California. 

The peach is propagated by means of seeds. The first year the 
seedlings are budded in the nursery with the desired variety. A 
year later they are ready to plant in the orchard. 

Pears. — The pear is a native of Europe and was introduced into 
America by the colonists. It is now grown in many parts of the 
temperate zone, but the largest production is in France and the 
United States. In America, the best pear regions are in the north- 
eastern states, from New England west to Ontario and the Great 
Lakes, and in California and parts of Oregon and Washington. 

Pear seedlings are grown in the same manner as those of the 
apple. The young trees are ready for the orchard two or three% 
years after they have been budded in the nursery row. 

Plums. — Many kinds of plmns are grown in America, which 
came from different original ancestors. Some of them had their 
first home in southeastern Asia, some in western Asia, some in 
southeastern Europe, some in America, and others elsewhere. 

The seedlings, grown from the seeds, are budded at the end of 
one or two years' growth. Plmns may also be grown from " suck- 
ers," or shoots, which spring from the roots. 

Cherries. — Most of the cherries grown in America have come 
from plants that are native to Europe. Sweet cherries are not grown 
as an important farm crop east of the Rocky Mountains ; but the 
sour varieties are grown for canning in maay parts of the East. 

Cherries are raised from seeds, and the seedlings are budded or 
grafted to the desired variety, much the same as with apples. 

Problem 157. Can you tell the difference between apple, peach, pear, 
plum, and cherry trees in summer ? How ? In winter ? 

Problem 158, How many different kinds of fruit that are sold in your 
locality are brought from other sections of the state or country ? Where 
do they come from ? 



186 AGRICULTURE 

Problem 159. If yours is a fruit-growing region, what is done with the 
fruit that is grown ? Is any of it dried ? Is any preserved in any way ? 
Is any made into cider ? Where is the cider sold, and for what purpose ? 

Problem 160, Name three fall apples, and three winter apples. De- 
scribe them. 

Problem 161. Describe in detail how apples are picked, packed, and 
stored. 

Problem 162. Are there orchards in your locality that are cultivated ? 
Do they seem to yield better crops than those in sod ? Is there any dif- 
ference in the health of the trees ? 

Problefn 163. What difference is there between tie orchards that are 
sprayed and those that are not sprayed? What is the purpose of 
the spraying ? 

Problem 164. When is pruning done ? What parts of the tree are 
removed ? Why ? 

Problem 166. What is the best cooking apple raised in your locality ? 
The best apple for eating ? The best selling apple ? The best winter 
apple? 

Problem 166. If apple trees are planted 40 feet apart each way, how 
many trees can be planted on an acre of ground ? How many pear 
trees at 25 feet each way ? How many quince trees at 16 feet each 
way? 



CHAPTER XXV 

THE FARU QABDEN 

Evert farm should have its garden-spot. Many of our schools 
have gardens, and it would be well if all country schools had 



Fia. 94. — Staking out the school Korden. 

areas in which boys and girls could study bow vegetables and flow- 
ers grow. But every boy and girl should have a garden at home 
where he can leam how to prepare the soil, how to plant and care 
for the seeds and plants, what the needs of plants are, and how to 
187 



188 AGRICULTURE 

supply them. The garden is simply a miniature farm, in which 
plants receive individual attention. It should be the most pro- 
ductive area on the farm. Usually it is the least productive. 

Location of the garden. — The farm garden should be placed near 
the house, because it is truly the " kitchen " garden and should be 
easily reached from the kitchen. It should be large enough for 
the crops to have an abundance of room, and so that horse-culti- 
vation may be given instead of hand-cultivation. With long 
rows, or an oblong garden instead of a square one, horse-cultiva- 
tion will be easier. The vegetable garden may be a part of a field 
crop, as com or potatoes, the vegetables being planted at the 
ends of the field rows so that both crops can be cultivated at once. 

The soil. — If we are starting the garden on new ground, we 
must first put the land in good condition by plowing under a liberal 
quantity of stable manure, or by planting a cover-crop to be plowed 
under the season before the garden is to be made. A dressing of 
five to ten loads per acre of fine, rich stable manure should be 
worked into the soil with a disk or spring-tooth harrow. If stable 
manure cannot be had, a good commercial fertilizer may be used. 
Vegetables must grow rapidly, and so the soil must be rich. A 
small, rich garden is likely to be much more satisfactory and less 
expensive than a large, poor one. 

If the location of the garden can be secured in the fall, much of 
the preliminary work, as leveling, the removal of rough material, 
and the plowing or spading, may be done before freezing weather. 
Fall plowing is to be recommended, as winter freezing has a bene- 
ficial effect on the soil, causing it to crumble and separate into fine 
particles. It is possible also to work fall-plowed land earlier in 
the spring than unplowed land. If spring plowing must be done, 
it is best to begin as early as the ground will permit. It is well to 
plow to a depth of four to six inches and to make the soil fine with 
a spring-tooth harrow, after which the small stones and rubbish may 
be raked off with a hand rake and the ground leveled for sowing 
seeds. 



THE FAKM GARDEN 189 

Heavy clay is not the best soil for gardens. If such a soil 
must be used, it should be drained, and muck, grass, sand, or 
coal ashes added to lighten it. Clay should never be plowed 
when it is wet. Gravelly, sandy, and clay loams are easy to 
work and are good garden soils. 

Sowing the seeds. — The entire garden need not be planted at 
one time. If radishes, lettuce, and peas are planted early, they 



may be harvested in time to plant sweet com, cucumbers, squash, 
late beets, cabbage, and other crops in their places. After early 
beans, sweet com, and potatoes, we may plant celery, turnips, 
spinach, and the like. Usually it is desirable to have a succession 
of sweet corn and peas. To do so, early, medium, and late varie- 



190 AGRICULTURE 

ties are planted at one time, and some good variety is planted 
every week or ten days for a few weeks thereafter. 

In planting the seed, it is much better to sow in rows than broad- 
cast. The seedlings may then be more easily distinguished from 
one another, thinning and weeding may be quickly done, and the 
soil between the rows may be hoed without injury to the seedling 
plants. 

It is best, if possible, to have the rows extend north and south ; 
this will give each row its share of sunlight. If the rows run east 
and west, and one or more rows contain tall plants, there is danger 
of shading the rows in the rear. 

Starting the plants. — The seeds of all but the coarser growing 
plants may be started in the house in March or April, by using 
shallow boxes or trays filled with light soil. Care should be 
taken not to sow the seeds too early, for if the plants grow spin- 
dling they will be difficult *to transplant. Six weeks before the 
time to plant out of doors is early enough to sow the seeds in 
boxes, and even then it may be necessary to transplant to other 
boxes before the ground is fit to receive the seedlings. 

Planting out-doors. — With a fine, mellow seed-bed, the seeds 
should be covered according to their size and the weather condi- 
tions. Small seeds should be covered three or four times their 
thickness in dry weather, and less deeply in wet weather. The 
soil should be pressed firmly about the seed with the hands, 
foot, or hoe. 

Watering the garden. — If it is necessary to water the growing 
plants, it should be done late in the afternoon, if possible, or 
else by daylight in the morning when the soil is cool. If 
watered in the morning, the sun causes very rapid evaporation, 
leaving the soil dry and causing heavy soils to bake. 

As we have learned, thorough cultivation of the soil will hold 
the moisture and lessen the need of watering. Much of the 
watering in gardens may be done with the cultivator or the 
rake. With either tool we can prepare a fine, loose, dry mulch 



THE FARM GARDEN 191 

which will keep the water from escapii^ by evaporation. A 
mulch may be made, also, by spreading on the ground grass, 
hay, straw, coarse manure, leaves, or 
boards. 

Care ot the garden. — The garden 
demands careful attention throughout 
the summer. Weeds must be kept 
out, the surface soil must be loose, and 
the plants must be protected from de- 
structive insects and diseases. Many 
enemies will come upon the garden to 
destroy it. For insects that bite or 
chew the leaves, hellebore, Paris green, 
arsenate of lead, and other poisons may 
be used. For insects that puncture 
the leaves and suck its juices, whale-oil 
soap, kerosene emulsion, and lime-and- 
sulphur wash, are valuable. For blights, 
rusts, and rots, Bordeaux mixture is a 
good protection. 

Harvesting. — Early vegetables 
should be harvested as soon as they 
are large enough for table use. Rad- 
ishes, beets, turnips, and kohlrabi be- 
come woody if left in the ground too 
long. Lettuce, spinach, cabbage, and 
cauliflower will run to seed if left after 
they are fully mature. F,g. ge.— Pigweed, or lamb's 

Winter vegetables should be fresh ^"^^^ ^ <:o°"°°n "^ed in 
and tender when gathered, and should ' ^'^' 
be stored in a cool, moist place at a temperature of about 32 
or 33 degrees. Beets, parsnips, and similar crops may be packed 
in cool, slightly moist leaves. Such leaves may be gathered in the 
morning after a frost or when there is a hght snow on them. 



192 AGRICULTURE 

Small fruits. — The garden will not be complete without its 
strawberries, blackberries, raspberries, currants, and gooseberries. 
These, also, should be planted in long rows, wide apart, so that they 
may have horse-cultivation and not be crowded in their growth. 
It is just as important to cultivate the berry-bushes as any 
other of the farm crops. 

Strawberries will yield as large a crop to the acre as apples. 
They do well on new land that has grown a crop of potatoes or 
some other cultivated or hoed crop. The soil must be carefully 
prepared and all weeds kept out. Usually only one or two crops 
are gathered from the strawberry bed, and then a new one is 
made. In the North the plants must be protected from freezing 
during the winter. A light covering of straw, old hay, strawy 
manure, pine needles, or other light material will serve for this 
purpose. 

Raspberries, blackberries, currants, and gooseberries do best on 
loose, deep, rich loam soil, but may be grown on others that con- 
tain plenty of vegetable matter. New plantations may be made 
every §ix to ten years. The best time to plant is in the fall. Rasp- 
berries and blackberries are pruned each year by removing the 
canes that have borne fruit as soon as the fruit is gathered. In 
pruning currants and gooseberries, wood more than three or 
four years old is removed, so as to encourage the growth of new 
canes. 

Problem 167. How many farmers in your neighborhood have gardens ? 
What are the six crops mostly grown in them? 

Problem 168. Is the same land on your farm used year after year for 
the garden? If so, how is it fertilized — with barnyard manure, com- 
mercial fertilizers, or green manures? 

Problem 169. Is commercial fertilizer applied to some crops and not 
to others? What kind of fertilizer is used for each of the particular 
crops? Why is it used? 

Problem 170. What kinds of root crops are grown in your farm gar- 
den ? What kinds of vine crops ? What kinds of crops are grown for 
their leaves? Which crops are planted earliest? Which latest? Do 



THE FABM GARDEN 193 

you grow any crops that bear their fruit on the surface of the ground ? 
If so, what are they ? 

Problem 171, Describe the different ways in which a garden may be 
watered, or the water made available to the plants. 

Problem 172, In the spring, lay out a garden on the school grounds, at 
one side where it will not interfere with the playground. It may need 
a good dressing of barnyard manure. Let each member of the class have 
a share in it for which he is especially responsible. Plant such crops as 
lettuce, radishes, peas, strawberries, sweet peas, and China asters. Take 
special care and pride in each step in the work — preparation of the soil, 
straight, even planting, grouping each crop by itself, a fine, clean mulch, 
freedom from weeds. Compare the school garden with the home garden. 
See how many ideas you can carry from the school garden to the home 
garden. 

Problem 173, For your home garden keep a complete record of every- 
thing — how much you paid for each kind of seed, the date when each was 
planted, how many bunches, heads, quarts, or pecks of each crop were 
harvested, what they sold for, and other important items. Try to make 
your home garden the best in the neighborhood. Save a few of the best 
products of each kind for a fair at the school in the early fall. Beside 
your exhibit on a card write the leading facts about your garden as 
shown by your records. Perhaps ribbons or other prizes can be given 
for the best exhibits. A permanent record should be kept at the school, 
showing who received prizes for the best exhibits each year. The prize 
list may be neatly framed and hung on the wall. 



CHAPTER XXVI 

THE WOOD CROP 

Trees grown in the farm woodlot are as truly a farm crop as 
corn or cotton. They are planted, harvested, and used to supply 
human needs. If the woodlot is mismanaged, it will return a poor 
crop, just as will the wheat-field. Most farm woodlots are poorly 
managed, and farmers are thereby wasting or neglecting an impor- 
tant source of income. 

Importance to the farmer. — It is estimated that the farmers' 
woodlots of the country alone are capable of growing more timber 
than our present total consumption. 

The farmer himself uses considerable wood. It is his usual 
fuel, and supplies material for fences, buildings, and for many other 
purposes. If the farmer cannot get what wood he needs from his 
own farm, he must either go without or be put to much expense. 
It is important, therefore, that in the East the farmer know how 
to grow the largest and best wood crop, and in the West, where 
timber frequently is scarce, how to choose and plant trees that 
will supply his needs. 

In some places, woodlots are useful to protect buildings and live- 
stock from driving winds. On the treeless plains and prairies, 
trees are sometimes planted for this purpose alone. 

The loose, deep vegetable mulch in a well cared for woodlot or 
forest will hold a large part of the water of rains and snow. As 
this water drains away slowly, floods are prevented and a con- 
tinuous supply of water is made available in streams. 

194 



THE WOOD CROP 195 

* 

The farmer should look upon his wood supply as one of his regular 
farm crops. He should give it a share of his attention. As he 
does not harvest the entire crop at one time, he must know when 
and where to cut so as to leave the remainder in the best condition 
to encourage the growth of young trees. He must know what 
kinds of trees will grow best in his locality, what each is useful for, 
how it behaves toward other trees in the forest, how long it requires 
for growth, and other similar facts. 

Place on the farm. — Trees will grow on land that is useless for 
general farm purposes. On most farms there are some soils that 
are fit only for timber crops. By leaving this land in timber, or 
planting it in trees, the farmer has made his best investment in 
that land. Farms are sometimes deserted or abandoned because 
they will not produce good farm crops. Very often such farms are 
naturally well adapted for the growing of trees. 

Lumbering is generally done in winter. The farmer who has 
a large, well-kept woodlot will be able to use his help in the woods 
in winter when general farm work is light. The care of the wood- 
lot fits in well with other work, as it can be done at odd times. A 
few months' difference in time in cutting the wood crop will not 
result in injury to it. 

History. — The farm woodlot is almost everywhere the remnant 
of a large forest that once covered the region. When the early 
settlers from the Old World landed on the Atlantic coast of North 
America, they found a coimtry almost covered with dense forests. 
There was little open land for the growing of crops. While the 
forest gave the settler fuel and shelter, and provided him with 
game, yet it was too often filled with hostile Indians, who, from 
its cover, dealt death to the settler and his family, and destruction 
to his home. Instead of being an aid and protection to him, it 
became an object of fear. How to make a clearing most rapidly 
was the important question. 

When the settlers in the northeastern states hewed their farms 
out of the forest, turning into pasture and field a large part of their 



196 AGRICULTURE 

holdings, they left parts uncut for their own wood supply. This 
was to furnish fence-posts and rails, repair wood for buildings and 
implements, and, above all, firewood. In 1681, an ordinance of 
William Penn, intended to protect the forests, required that one 
acre of land be left in trees for every five acres cleared. This was 
not faithfully obeyed. 

The better land was usually cleared first, and the woodlot left 
on the poorer lands and hillsides. The fact that the land was un- 
suited for farming or inconveniently located was doubtless impor- 
tant in determining what land should be left in trees. 

From the first, land-owners mismanaged their woodlots, or. did 
not manage them at all. Instead of taking out the dead and 
dying, the crooked and inferior trees and limbs for firewood, they 
thought the best trees none too good for the fireplace. The best 
trees of the best kinds were cut for posts, fence-rails, fuel, and 
other less important purposes. Consequently, the woodlots were 
left with^he undesirable and useless trees. There was no thought 
as to the new crop to take the place of the old one. Cattle roamed 
in the wood\pts, trampling the soil and destroying the young 
seedlings. In this unfortunate condition we find a large part of 
the woodlots on American farms to-day. The time has now 
come when the wood crop must receive attention and be made 
productive. 

Distinction between field crops and wood crops. — While the 
products of both field and woodlot are farm crops, they have not 
much in conmion. Wood crops require years to develop. They 
do not have a definite age at which they should be harvested. The 
wood crop is not necessarily reproduced by cutting and re-planting, 
as is usual with farm crops, although this may be done. The wood 
crop is not fertilized and cultivated as are field crops. 

Field crops are dependent on the weather, while wood crops are 
not so much affected by the weather and are seldom a total failure. 
The work on the wood crop maybe done at almost any time of year, 
whereas general field crops demand attention at particular times. 



198 AGRICULTURE 

The nature of the wood crop. — There is great variety in wood 
crops, as in field crops. There Eire many kinds of wood and 
many forms of growth. Conifers, moat of which are evergreens, 



as pines, spruce, hemlock, fir, cedar, and the like, furnish building 
materials. They grow from seed only and require a long time to 
reach suitable size. Broad-leaved trees, as maple, oak, hickory, 



THE WOOD CROP 199 

catalpa, and chestnut, used for a variety of purposes, may be 
ready much sooner than conifers if grown from sprouts. They 
will reproduce by sprouting from the stump as well as from seed. 

The battle of the trees. — The forest is a society of trees. 
If we go into a good woodlot in winter, and look up, we shall 
see ttiat the crowns of the trees fill all the space overhead. The 
large trees have struggled to get ahead of each other and to spread 
their tops in the light. The lower branches have been shaded oflf, 
and the long, clean trunk, or upward-stretching branches, with 
narrow crown lifted high in the air, has been developed. 

In an opening in the woods, where large trees have been taken 
out, we may find a heavy growth of bushes, seedlings, and sap- 
lings, struggling to get ahead of one another and to occupy the 
best places. Those that have broken through the tangle below 
are racing with each other to fill the open space above with 
branches. When their branches meet and the crown is again 
formed, the shade deepens, and the weaker of the seedlings and 
saplings below will give up the battle and die. Some of the bush- 
like plants, however, continue to grow in dense shade ; but they 
are not the kinds that become large trees. 

The trees that forge ahead are said by the forester to be domi- 
nant ; that is, they dominate or overshadow others. Those strug- 
gling just below are said to be intermediate. Still others, hope- 
lessly beaten and overtopped, are said to be suppressed. 

Some kinds of trees are tolerant or shade-enduring. They are 
able to withstand the dense shade. They hold their places and 
wait patiently for the time when their immediate superiors shall 
be removed. Still other kinds never enter the severe struggle for 
the highest places. They will always be found among the lower- 
growing trees and bushes in the woods. A few kinds, as locust 
and catalpa, require a great deal of light and will die if they are 
over-topped. A forest, therefore, may have several stories of 
bushes and trees. 

The care of the woodlot. — If the farmer cuts the most valuable 



200 AGRICULTURE 

trees year after year, his woodlot will constantly become poorer. 
The trees that he does not want will tend to take the places of 
those he cuts. 

In order to keep the woodlot at its best, the dead, or dying, 
and undesirable trees should be removed for firewood, posts, poles, 
and similar uses, and only the mature trees cut for building pur- 



FiQ. 99. — The traDaportatioii of Ioes by both steam cara and water. 

poses. The spaces thus left open should be filled by natural 
growth or by planted seedlings. The felled trees must be care- 
fully removed so as not to destroy seedlings. 

If the young growth is too dense, it may be necessary to remove 
some of the young trees. Sometimes it is desirable, also, to re- 
move limbs or parts of trees that interfere with the best growth 
of the tree itself or of others near it. When a person thins his 
woodlot, he must have in mind the best development of the trees 
that are to be left. 

The woodlot should be protected from fire and from grazing and 
browsing animals. As fires are difficult to control after they have 
started, precautions must be taken to prevent them. If the wood- 
lot borders the railroad, a cleared strip aloi^ the roadside is a 
safeguard. Such strips, or " fire lines," should be kept clean. 



THE WOOD CROP 201 

Persons should be warned against starting camp fires in the woods. 
In removing trees in winter, the brush should be piled and 
burned ; it should never be allowed to remain through the 
summer. 

Cattle, sheep, and goats should not be allowed to run in the 
woodlot where a new growth is desired. By eating the leaves 
and tramping the ground they destroy the young trees. Fre- 
quently woodlots are ruined by allowing stock to run in them. 

Forestry. — The raising of timber-crops, and the management 
of forests, is known as " forestry." It is a great branch of agri- 
culture, or the producing of things from the land. It is recog- 
nized as such by the government in making the subject a part 
of the United States Department of Agriculture. In the heavily 
wooded regions, as in the East, forestry is of importance in 
properly managing the forests; in the treeless regions, as in 
parts of the West, it is important in the planting of forests. 
The farmer who has a woodlot should practice forestry. 

Problem 174, If there are woodlots on the farms in your locality, tell 
whether they are on land that would be useful for farming purposes if the 
trees were removed. Why have they been left, or planted, on the land 
they occupy ? 

Problem 175, Ask the teacher to take the class on an excursion into 
the woods. Plan to visit two woodlots, if possible, one that has a heavy 
young growth and many large trees, and one in which cattle have browsed. 
Note the differences in the large and the small trees, and in the soil cover. 
In which is the soil cool and moist? 

Problem 176. Name all of the ways in which wood from the woodlots 
is used on the farms in your locality. Does it pay the farmer to keep his 
woodlot in good condition ? 

Problem 177, Write a list of as many trees in the woodlot as you can 
name, and tell for what the wood of each is used. 

Problem 178, During a heavy rain, when the bare hillsides wash, what 
becomes of the water that falls in the woodlot ? How long after the last 
snowfall have you found small patches of snow in the woods ? Is the fact 
that forests hold the snow and allow it to melt gradually of any importance 
to the farmer ? 



202 AGRICULTURE 

Problem 179, Of what timber is the school-house made ? Where did 
it come from? Of what is your residence made? Your barn? The 
fences ? 

Problem 180, What is the best timber for fence-posts? Why? 
Where do the fence-posts in your neighborhood come from ? 

Problem 181, Ask the teacher to take the class to a place where a 
large tree has just been cut down, to notice the rings on the stump — one 
ring after toother from the center to the bark. Each ring represents one 
year in the life of the tree and shows how much the tree grew that year. 
Some rings may be wider than others, showing that those years were 
favorable for the growth of the tree — the wider the ring the greater the 
growth. Count the rings and find out how old the tree is, and whether 
it had any years of specially rapid growth. 



CHAPTER XXVII 

FARM WEEDS 

Weeds are plants that are not wanted. They are out of place. 
They may be either plants for which no use has ever been found, 
or plants that are regularly cultivated on the farm. If they are 
a nuisance and are occupying space where they are not wanted, 
or that is needed by crops, they are weeds. 

The farmer has never found any use for thistles or ragweed. 
They creep into his fields and interfere with his growing crops. 
He thinks of them always as weeds. Daisies and buttercups have 
attractive flowers, but when they, establish themselves in the 
farmer's hayfield among the timothy, they are undesirable weeds. 
When timothy, in return, appears in the flower-garden, it is just as 
truly a weed ; it is not wanted there and is out of place. Potatoes 
may be weeds in a cornfield, or com may be a weed in a potato 
field. In fact, when corn or potatoes are planted too thick, some 
of them are weed's to the others. 

Why weeds grow. — If we go out on the farm to a plowed field 
that has lain idle for a year, we shall find that it is more or less 
covered with weeds. When the farmer ceased to give the field 
attention. Nature clothed it with herbage. Nature will not long 
allow the land to remain bare, if it is possible to cover it. She is 
always ready with a seed to grow at the first opportunity. It is 
one of her practices to keep the earth covered, during the growing 
season, with some kind of plant. The,plants that she establishes 
in our fields, however, we are likely to call weeds, because they 
usually come where we do not want them ; and they are not the 
kinds that we can use. 

203 



AGRICULTURE 

Why we«ds are 
obj ectionabl e. — As 
we learned in Chap- 
ter XVI, more seeds 
are produced by- 
plants than can 
find room to grow 
on the surface of 
the earth. There 
is a struggle among 
them for room and 
for place. 

Weeds enter into 
this struggle. Al- 
ways having had 
to look out for 
themselves, with- 
out the aid of man, 
many of them have 
become vigorous 
and persistent, and 
will struggle hard 
to keep their places. 
Because they are 
useless to the farmer 
and tend to crowd 
out plants that he 
desires to grow, 
they are objection- 
able to him. 

Again, weeds re- 
quire the same kinds 
of food for growth 
that other plants need. When they grow in a field of com, for 



206 



AGRICULTURE 



that they take moisture and plant-food that the farmer's crops 

should have. They compete with the crops. 

How weeds increase. — Weeds appear in all localities and in 

great numbers. There is never a time when a farmer does not have 

them to contend with. He may spend much time in destroying 

them, but they soon appear again. 

All of our common weeds produce seeds, 
some of them in very great numbers. 
Others are too impatient to wait for the 
seeds, and during the growing season 
send out runners, as does the straw- 
berry, to start new plants. Orange hawk- 
weed, sometimes called paint-brush, is 
a weed of this kind. Its runners cxe 
sent out on the surface of the soil, and 
they send up new plants every two or 
three inches. 

Certain other weeds will grow from 
parts or pieces of root, so that if any of 
the root is left in the groimd a new plant 
will spring up. Horse radish, for ex- 
ample, which may sometimes be a weed, 
will produce new plants from the very 
smallest pieces of root. 
When we add to the fact that weeds 
tablishes itself in pastures will grow from many parts of the plant, 

and neglected fields. .1 jj«x* i ^ x / • • r>i_ a. 

the additional facts (given in Chapter 
XVII) that they employ almost every conceivable means of 
spreading their seeds, it is little wonder that they are so plentiful. 

The control of weeds. — War can be waged against weeds most 
successfully when we know something of their habits, especially 
how long they live and how they spread. 

Annual weeds, that is, those that live but one year, come up in 
the spring or summer, produce seed, and die in the autunm. . They 




Fia. 102. — Wild carrot es- 



FARM WEEDS 207 

reproduce themselves only by seed. The seed lives in the ground 
over winter and grows in the spring. If annual plants are not 
allowed to froduce seeds they will be utterly destroyed. Such 
weeds are destroyed by cutting them before the seed has formed. 

Biennial weeds, or those that live for two years, produce roots, 
steins, and leaves the first year. The second year they produce 
blossoms and seeds. If they are mown before they have formed 
seed, they also will be destroyed. Cultivation 
in the fall will kill them. 

Perennial weeds, or those that hve for more 
than two years, are not so easily controlled. 
If they are prevented from forming seeds, they 
still will grow from the roots. Ekch fall they 
die down to the ground, but in the spring send 
up new plants from the roots. The only way 
to get rid of them is to dig them up or to crowd 
them out by keeping the land tilled or occupied 
by other plants. 

Ridding the farm of weeds. — The best 
method of getting rid of weeds < 
is by good farming. The man who has a well- 
planned crop rotation system, tills his crops '"""■ 
at the right times, cuts the weeds in the fence-rows and other 
waste places, and keeps his land so much occupied with growii^ 
crops that there is neither time nor room for weeds to grow, will 
have little trouble. 

Weeds are most easily destroyed when they are young. If they 
are not disturbed until after they have become well rooted, they 
cannot be removed by cultivation. They must then either be 
dug out with a hoe or pulled out by hand. The farmer who runs 
a weeder or harrow lightly over his com or potato field, just before 
or soon after the plants are up, will kill most of the weeds. 

To keep the land free from weeds the farmer must not sow them 
himself. Unfortunately, much of the seed of farm crops, especi- 



208 



AGRICULTURE 



ally of grasses, which is sold on the market is not clean and pure; 
that is, it contains large numbers of weed seeds. Frequently there 
are thousands of weed seeds of many kinds mixed with every 
quart of timothy or clover seed that is sold. The use of such un- 
clean seed is one of the most common means of establishing weeds 
on the farm. If the farmer does not know that his seed is free 
from weeds, he should either examine it himself or send it to the 
agricultural experiment station in the state. Prevention is better 
than cure. 

Lists of weeds. — > It is impossible here to name all the kinds 
of weeds ; but a small list, classified by length of life, may serve 
as a framework to which the pupil may add others that he knows : 



Anniial weeds 



Purslane, or " pussly " 

Pigweeds, of several kinds 

Smartweeds 

Mustard 

Ragweed 

Cocklebur, or Clotbur 

Jimson weed 

False flax 

Buffalo bur 

Foxtail 

Kinghead 

Russian thistle 

Pepper-grass 



Barnyard-grass 
Crab-grass 
Squirrel-tail grass 
Chess 
Chickweed 
Dodder 
Cockle 
Mayweed 

Prickly lettuce (sometimes bien- 
nial) 
Shepherd's purse 
Tarweed 
Tumbleweed 



Biennial weeds 



Wild carrot 

Mullein 

Burdock 

Bull or pasture thistle 



Wild parsnip 
Sweet clover 
Brown-eyed Susan 
Evening primrose 



FARM WEEDS 209 

Perennial weeds 

Quack-grass Golden rod 

Johnson-grass Sorrel 

Hawkweed Buttercup 

Dandelion Yarrow 

Poison ivy Bindweed 

Sow-thistle Live-forever 

Docks Man-root, or Man-vine 

Canada thistle Coco-grass, or Nut-grass 

White daisy May-pop 

Plantains Sneezeweed 

Problem 182. Count the number of seeds oa a ripe dandelion head. 
Also count the number of seed stalks which one plant will produce. If 
the plant produces five seed heads, or balls, in one year, and each head 
contains two hundred seeds, how many plants could be produced in five 
years from one plant? How many do you suppose could be produced 
in one year from all the dandelions in your neighborhood if they could 
find a place to grow? 

Problem 183. Name as many as you can of the common weeds in 
your locality, and tell where they grow and how they spread. Can you 
name one annual, one biennial, and one perennial weed that is common in 
your locality? 

Problem 184- How may weeds be kept out of the meadow ? 

Problem 185, What weeds are most common in the cornfield ? In the 
wheat-field ? The meadow ? The pasture ? 

Problem 186, Do the best farmers in your neighborhood have many or 
few weeds in their fields ? Do those that have few weeds practice crop 
rotation ? To what extent can we judge of a farmer's success by the 
number of weeds on his farm ? 

Problem 187, It will be of interest to have in your school museum 
small bottles filled with weed seeds of various kinds. The labels on the 
bottles should give the name of the weed, place where found, whether 
annual, biennial, or perennial, and means of dissemination. (See page 
127.) 



CHAPTER XXVIII 

INSECT ENEMIES OF PLANTS 

Plants are not free to live their lives undisturbed. Not only 
must they struggle for room, light, moisture, and food, but 
they are constantly besieged by an innumerable array of enemies. 
Weeds try to crowd out and take away their food-supply. Insects 
come upon them to eat them or sap their life blood. Diseases 
come to weaken and destroy whatever they lay hold on. 

Of these enemies, none brings greater devastation to the 
farmer's plants than insects. In a single year, they may destroy 
$700,000,000 worth of crops in the United States alone. This 
is more than all the money spent by our national government. 
It is an enormous sum to pay for the support of this destructive 
army. How to protect his crops and reduce this expense, is one 
of the greatest problems the farmer has to face. 

There are many kinds of insects. — Nearly every kind of farm 
plant has at least one insect enemy. There are enemies of vege- 
table crops, others of grain crops, fruit crops, forest or wood crops, 
and so on through all the list of farm plants. 

Some crops have very many insect enemies, each of which causes 
injuries in its own way. The apple is one of these. The small 
brown bud-moth caterpillar devours the tender leaves and flowers 
of the opening buds in early spring. It is assisted by the case- 
bearers and the tent-caterpillars. The leaves may be attacked by 
canker-worms and leaf blister-mites. The fruit may be visited 
by the codling-moth, which bores its tunnels through it and 
makes the apples " wormy." The San Jos6 scale, oyster-shell 
scale, and scurfy scale, live on the trunk and branches, sap- 

210 



INSECT ENEMIES OF PLANTS 211 

ping out the juices. The San Jos£ scale also fastens itself on 
the fruit, cau^ng bright red spots. Into the trunk the 
borer eata his way 
and adds to the 
■ destruction. 

Fortunately for 
the apple-grower, 
not alt of these 
enemies are likely 
to fall upon his 
trees in the aame 
year, at least not 
in dangerous num- 
bers. But some of 
them will always be 
present to weaken 
his trees and reduce 
his crop unless he 
is able to prevent 
them. 

The fruit-grower 
is troubled most by 
the insects just 
named for the 
apple, also with the 
aphis, curculio, leaf- 
hopper, flea-beetle, 
and pear paylla. 

The more common insect enemies which the grain-farmer has to 
fight are the cutworm, wire-worm, chinch-bug, grasshopper, hes- 
sian fly, and army-worm. 

The vegetable-grower has to contend with the potato beetle, 
cabbage-worm, cabbage aphis, striped cucumber beetle, plant- 
louse, flea-beetle, cutworm, and white grub. 



212 AGRICULTURE 

Nnture helps the farmer. — The farmer is not alone in his fight 

f^aiost insect pests. Nature lends him aid that accomplishes 

more than anything he can do. Strong winds, sudden changes 

of temperature in winter, rains, and forest and prairie fires destroy 

vast numbers of insects. Many birds feed largely 

on insects, and numbers too great to be counted 

are destroyed by them every year. Birds are 

really among the farmer's best friends. 

But, strangely enough, the insect enemies of the 
farmer find their greatest foes among their own 
kind. Some insects prey u[>on others. A little 
lady-bird beetle saved the citrous orchards in 
California by destroying a scale insect that was 
ruining them. It would not be possible to grow 
wheat in many parts of the United States if it 
were not for little insect friends of the farmer 
that prey upon the hessian fly. 

The farmer's methods. — ■ Man cannot depend 
on Nature to defend his crops, but must enter the 
conflict himself. For centuries he has been fight- 
ing insects. The ancient Greeks mixed hellebore 
wifli milk to kill flies. The Romans required the 
inhabitants in regions that were overrun with 
grasshoppers to kill certain quantities of them. 
In the Middle Ages, priests marched around 
fields that were infested, praying and pronounc- 
ing curses on the pests ; or the insects were sum- 
moned to appear in court and told to leave the 

ampleof aauck- The farmer of to-day is beset by so many pests 

l?^"^"- f^ that he has to use more active means than these. 

Urged) at- His present methods of defense are of three general 

tachedtoBtwig kinds: (1) hand, or mechanical methods; (2) farm 



INSECT ENEMIES OP PLANTS 213 

(1) Hand, or mechanical, methods. — Insects are gathered and 
destroyed by very many different kinds of hand methods. Some- 
times they are merely picked by hand, as potato beetles in the 
garden patch. Sticky pans may be drawn across fields to collect 



Fio. 106. — Caterpillara checked in their journey up a tree by a Btloky band. 

grasshoppers. Sticky bands placed about trees prevent the as- 
cent of the wingless canker-worm moths. Sheets may be placed 
under small plum trees and the trees jarred so that the curculio 
insects will fall into them. Strips of tar poured along small 



214 AGRICULTURE 

ridges plowed up all about a field will prevent chinch-bugs from 
passing. 

Many other hand^ or mechanical, methods are employed. They 
are most useful in small areas or gardens. 

(2) Farm practices. — We have learned that crop rotation helps 
to destroy weeds. It also helps to destroy insects that attack 
such crops as com, clover, wheat, and potatoes. When the 
insects find their favorite crop gone and replaced by one they do 
not like, they are without food and starve to death. 

Good tillage destroys many insects and grubs that live in the 
soil, such as wire-worms and white grubs. Canker-worms, which 
attack fruit trees, live in the soil a part of the time during their 
development, and are easily killed by tillage. 

Sometimes crops can be planted early enough so that they will 
be able to resist the attacks of insects when they come. Or strips 
of the crop may be sown around or near the field to attract the 
attention of the on-coming pests. Such strips are called " trap 
crops " because they are planted to entrap, or catch, the insects. 
While the insects are working on the strips, the farmer destroys 
them. 

One of the best methods of protecting crops from their enemies 
is to keep the farm clean ; that is, to bum up all weeds, rubbish, 
old vines, tree primings, and the like, so that the insects will have 
fewer places in which to live over winter. 

(3) Spraying with poisons. — Farmers have foimd that one of 
the best methods of protectii^ their crops is to spray them with 
poisons that will kill the pests. In order to spray successfully, 
they must know something about the insect they desire to kill. 

Insects secure their food in one of two ways. Some of them, 
as caterpillars and potato beetles, are provided with strong jaws 
which enable them to bite off and swallow solid pieces or par- 
ticles of their food-plant. They are called biting insects. Others, 
as plant-lice, scale insects, and mosquitoes, do not have jaws for 
biting and chewing, but are provided instead with long, tube-like 



INSECT ENEMIES OF PLANTS 215 

mouth parts. These they force into the tissues of their food- 
plants, and suck their food. They are called sucking insects. 

Biting insects can be killed by covering the leaves of the 
plants they attack with poison. When they chew the leaves, 
they get the poison 
and die. Sucking in- 
sects, which secure all 
their food from inside 
the plant tissues, are 
not disturbed by any 
poison that is on the 
surface. To destroy 
them, it is necessary 
to spray at such a 
time that the poison 
will be placed directly _ 
on the bodies of the 
insects themselves. 
When they are " hit " by the poison spray, they are killed. 

The kinds of poisons to use. — Most of the biting insects are 
killed by poisons that contain arsenic. Such poisons are sold 
under the names arsenate of lead and Paris green. Some other 
kinds that do not contain arsenic, as pyrethrum and hellebore, 
will also destroy some of the biting insects. 

Sucking insects are killed by poisonous powders, oils, soaps, and 
other special mixtures. The beat known powder is the ordinary 
insect powder. Substances known as whale-oil soap, fish-oil soap, 
kerosene emulsion, and lime-sulphur wash are commonly used 
against the sucking insects. 

Spraying. — Poisons used for spraying, except some that are 
powders, are applied in a liquid form. Usually the poison is dis- 
solved in water. The spray mixture, as it is then called, is placed 
in a tank, from which it is forced by a pump through a hose having 
a nozzle at the far end. This nozzle breaks the mixture into a fine 



216 AGRICULTURE 

spray or mist. By having the spray fine, the foliage of the plant 
or tree is covered more thoroughly and with less quantity of the 
mixture. In large farm and fruit operations, power pumps are 
now extensively used, rim mostly by gasolene engines. 

The farmer needs to know when to spray his crops and which 
kind of spray to use in order to protect his plants from particular 
insects. 

Problem 188, Name three insects that the farmer must fight against, 
and tell what each attacks. Describe the different methods of destrojring 
insects that are used by the farmers in your locality. 

Problem 189. Can you tell what insects breed in low, wet places ? 

Problem 190. If any of the farmers in your locality spray, for what 
insects do they spray? What poisons do they use? What crops do 
they spray? 

Problem 191. Have any crops on your father's farm or on a neighbor's 
farm ever been entirely ruined by insects? When? By what insects? 
How much did the loss of the crop cost the farmer ? 

Problem 192. If Paris green is worth a dollar a pound and it requires 
two pounds to spray an acre of potatoes, and one day^s time at $1.50, 
what will be the expense for spraying six acres, making two applications ? 
If potatoes sell for $ .40 a bushel, and the farmer who sprays averages 
160 bushels per acre on six acres and the one who does not spray 
averages 120 bushels per acre, which one will gain most by his method, 
and how much ? 

Problem 193. Name and describe one insect that attacks apples, one 
that attacks potatoes, one that attacks some other garden crop. 

Problem 194- Watch the birds as you go to and from school, and dis- 
cover how and where they get most of their food. After you have 
studied them for a few days, write a short essay about their habits. 

Problem 196. What is the most common insect on the farm — the one 
that swarms in the house, and especially in the kitchen ? What kinds 
of diseases does it carry ? How may it be kept out of the house, and 
how may it be destroyed ? (See page 26.) 



CHAPTER XXIX 

DISEASES OF PLANTS 

Plants, like animals, have diseases that disable or kill them. 
Almost every plant that is cultivated, be it vegetable, grass, gr^n, 
fruit or forest tree, has one or more diseases to which it is subject. 
There are diseases of the 
roote, others of the stem, 
others of the leaves and 
the fruits. Sometimes the 
eutire plant is weakened 
or destroyed, and at other 
times only the part that 



The nature of plant dis- 
eases. — Most of the dis- 
eases of plants are caused 
by fun^ (singular, fun- 
gus} and bacteria. Fimgi 
are plants of a low order. 
Maay of them live either 
wholly within other plants 
or on their surfaces. In 
the latter case, they send 
their thread-like roots in 
search of food into the 
tissues of the plant. Be< 
cause they hve wholly at 
the expense of others, they Fiq. 108. — Com attacked by the amut di 



218 AGRICULTURE 

are called parasites. The plants on which they live are spoken 
of as their kosts. 

The fm^ are very different from other plants. They bear no 
flowers, and consequently never produce seeds like those of flower- 
ing plants. They produce httle bodies called spores, which 
answer the same purpose as seeds. The Cloud of dust or smoky 
powder that rises from the pufFball that we kick as we walk through 
the cow pasture is com- 
posed of spores. The 
puffball is a fungus, and 
its smoke consists of 
millions of spores from 
which other puffballs 
may grow. 
The fun^ that cause 
Fig. 109. — Sueai-beets attacked by the potato disease in plants are par- 
Bcab disease. The fungus of this disease lives aajtes. They live on or 
in the ground from year to year and may injure ... ,i .. , 

other vegetables besides potatoes. Within the ■ tlSSUeS Of 

other plants, and in ex- 
change for their food-supply, or rather in securing it, produce 
disease in their hosts. 

We have all seen rotten apples or peaches or oranges. These 
fruits are diseased. Fruit rot is a disease. So also are scab on 
potatoes, smut in wheat, oats, or com, blight of pears and 
apples, clubroot of cabbage, curl of peach leaves, and wilt of 
cotton. 

How plant diseases spread. — The light spores of fui^ are car- 
ried by wind, water, and insects from one place to another. They 
ahght on the surfaces of plants, or in wounds, cracks, and crevices. 
If they find suitable conditions of food and moisture, they will 
begin to grow, working their way into the plant tissues from the 
outside. 

Some diseases live in the soil and attack the roots. Plants that 
are grown on such soils become diseased if they are subject to the 



DISEASES OF PLANTS 219 

kind of parasite that is present. When taken to other places such 
plants carry the parasite with them, and the soil in the new field 
becomes infected. Tools that are used in these soils carry the 
fiu^^us. 

The truit-grower mayspread some disease germs by means of his 
tools also. When he cuts away a diseased branch with a knife or 
saw, the spores may be left on the blade. Then, when he cuts 
away a healthy branch, the disease may be deposited on the 
fresh surface left by the saw. 

Plant diseases are frequently spread by spores on the seeds of 
crops. We have seen the black or smutty heads of oats as they 
stand in the field. These black heads are diseased, and are filled 
with spores. When the grain is threshed, the cloud of black dust 
that rises as it passes through the thresher coMains many of 
these spores. The dust settles on the grain as it comes from 
the machine. When any of 
this grain is planted, the 
disease is present to develop 
in the growing plant. 

The fact that many plant 
diseases are contagious is well 
shown in the apple and potato 
bins. One rotten apple or 
potato may in time spread 
decay to all the others in the 
bin. 

Diseases must be pre- Pboto br uomn 

Tented. — Since the fungi that 
cause plant diseases draw 
their food from within the tissues of their hosts, they are not 
greatly disturbed by any poison placed on the surface of the 
plant after they have become established. . They must be pre- 
vented, for they can seldom be cured. Several means of preven- 
tion are in use, about some of which we shall now leam. 



220 AGRICULTURE 

Rubbish should be burned. — Every diseased leaf, branch, fruit, 
or vine bears millions of spores, & single one of whieb can carry 
the disease to a new plant. These parts should be gathered and 
burned. The diseased limbs that are cut from fruit trees should 
not be allowed to lie in the orchard, but should be burned at once. 



The stumps of cabbages that have been attacked by clubroot 
should be raked together and destroyed by burning. Keeping the 
farm clean of all such rubbish is the farmer's first step in protecting 
his crops. 

Clean, vigorous seed should be used. — The second step is to 
plant seed that is both clean and vigorous. Strong plants that 



DISEASES OF PLANTS 221 

are grown from vigorous seeds are as likely to rraist disease as 
are strong boys and ^rls. 

Seed that has already been infected with spores may sometimes 
be made clean by certain kinds of treatment or disinfection. Be- 
fore it is planted, it may be dipped into a chemical solution that 



Fwj. 112. — Potatoes eprsyed aa a protection against blight. Does it pay to apray? 

will kill the spores. The solution most commonly used is 
known as formalin, or formaldehyde. Some diseases will be 
destroyed by suspending the seed, inclosed in a sack, for a few 
minutes in a tub of hot water. 

This method of prevention is used for crops that are grown from 
seeds, and that are difficult to spray in the field. The seeds of 
grains, millet, fiax, onions, and potatoes are often so treated. 



222 AGRICULTURE 

Sprajring is the most common method. — If all of the surfaces 
of a plant are covered with a thin film of poison before the spores 
arrive, they will ofifer a very unsafe home for the spores. Destruc- 
tion will be in store for them wherever they alight. The poison 
may be in the form of powder and be dusted on. More commonly, 
however, it is a liquid, and is sprayed on in much the same way 
as is done for insects. Spores germinate only in moisture, there- 
fore we should spray before rains and not after. 

A long list would be necessary if we were to name all the diseases 
for which spraying or dusting is the common remedy. We may 
name a few of them : apple scab, leaf-spot, asparagus rust, onion 
mildew, celery blight, black rot of grapes, lemon scab, orange 
scab, peach scab, peach leaf-curl, pear scab, potato blight, and 
potato rot. 

A spray mixture that is used to destroy the spores of plant 
diseases is called a fungicide. The word means a substance that 
will kill fimgi. The fungicides used more than all others are Bor- 
deaux mixture and lime-sulphur. Bordeaux mixture consists of 
lime and another chemical called copper sulphate, or blue vitriol, 
dissolved in water. Lime-sulphur is a combination of lime and 
sulphur mixed in certain proportions and boiled in water. 

Other methods of prevention. — Fruit trees are attacked by 
many kinds of diseases. When large limbs have been pruned off, 
spores may settle on the fresh wounds and cause decay to appear. 
If the cut surface is coated with paint, tar, wax, or some other sub- 
stance, the spores may be prevented from entering. Farmers 
that do not take this precaution often lose valuable trees. 

Rotation of crops will lessen injury from those diseases that live 
in the soil. Usually such diseases will affect the roots of only 
one or two kinds of plants. If these plants are not grown on the 
land for a few years, the spores in the ground will die. 

A farmer will sometimes find that one variety of wheat or potatoes 
or cotton will not be greatly injured by disease, while another 
variety on his farm, or on a neighbor's, will suffer very much* He 



DISEASES OF PLANTS 223 

discovers that some varieties of plants are able to resist disease 
much more successfully than others. By planting each year the 
seed from the variety that is injured the least he may greatly 
reduce his losses. Some persons are now spending much time 
•trying to develop varieties of crops that can wholly resist the 
attacks of disease. 

Problem 196, Collect and bring to school as many different diseased 
plants or parts as you can find — potatoes, grains, fruits, parts of trees, etc. 
Note what part of the plant is attacked in each case. Find the spores. Do 
you know what the disease is in each case, and how it may be prevented ? 

Problem 197. Dip a match in the mold on a rotting apple, or other fruit, 
and draw it across a slice of moistened bread. Set the bread in a damp place 
for a few days and watch it. How did the mold which appears come to 
be there ? Did you plant the spores ? Where does the mold get its nour- 
ishment ? 

Problem 198. Name the diseases which injure crops in your locality. 
If you do not know, ask your father. 

Problem 199. Find out, and explain to the class, what methods are used 
in your locality to prevent diseases from spreading. 

Problem 200. Give as many reasons as you can why a farmer should not 
allow weeds, limbs, roots, and other kinds of rubbish to lie scattered over 
his farm. 

Problem 201 . If potatoes are attacked by bugs and by blight, with what 
should they be sprayed? If you don't know, ask a farmer who sprays 
his potatoes. Ask how much it costs him to spray his potatoes, and 
what his yield is. Find out what the jdeld is on some other farm where 
they are not sprayed; then, after finding out the selling price, compute 
the gain or loss to the farmer who sprayed as compared with the one 
who did not spray. 



CHAPTER XXX 

THE IMPROVEMENT OF PLANTS 

Man is able to modify or to change plants. The ancestors of all 
our cultivated plants lived originally in a wild state, but in many 
cases were quite unlike our present forms. The changes made by 
man have been in the nature of improvements, so that the culti- 
vated plants might better serve his needs. The large, juicy garden 
strawberry is greatly improved over its wild ancestor. So also is the 
large garden blackberry over its small wild form found in neglected 
fields. 

How the improvement has come about. — In wild conditions, all 
plants struggle for a place to live, and for food and moisture. Fre- 
quently they appear in places where they cannot do their best and 
must adapt themselves to the unfavorable conditions about them. 

Cultivated plants are spared much of this struggle. Instead of 
being planted in a tangle, each crop is by itself and each plant among 
its own kind ; and the individual plants are placed where they can 
grow best and with least interference from others. Competing 
plants (weeds) are kept away. The soil is specially prepared for 
them, and if it is lacking in fertility, plant-food is added. Moisture 
may be added directly, or saved for the plants by a surface mulch. 
The farmer reduces the struggle for existence among his crops as 
far as possible, and tries to make the conditions for growth perfect. 
All of these advantages, which constantly stimulate plants to do 
their best, have gradually produced cultivated forms that in some 
instances differ widely from their ancestors. In some cases the 
changes have been great, in others small. 

There is another reason why plants have improved by cultivation. 

224 



THE IMPROVEMENT OF PLANTS 225 

No two plants, or parts of plants, are exactly alike. If we com- 
pare any two plants of the same kind ever so closely, we shall find 
that they differ from each other. The difference may be in size, 
form, color, mode of branching, number of leaves, number of 
flowers or fruits, vigor, season of ripening, or in other factor?. 



from the beginning man has taken advantage of these differ- 
ences. The plants which showed some quality or character- 
istic which made them more useful to him were chosen for the new 
crop. This long-continued choice of the best has been the means of 
much improvement in plants. 

The differences have great value. — The differences among 
plants of the same kind are spoken of as " variations " ; that is, 



226 AGRICULTURE 

the plants vary, or differ from one another. The fact that plants 
vary is of great importance in all efforts to improve them. If they 



la. 114. — No two plants »re dike. These corn plants aie all of the a&me varidy, 
but sbow great diSerEDcea in Ibe position of Ui« ears. There is opportunity Itt 



THE IMPROVEMENT OF PLANTS 



did not vary, but held 

steadfastly to a particular 

form ortype, they could not 

I be changed or improved. It 

I is because plants do vary 

I that the farmer is able to 

select some from the others, 

and BO improve his crops. 

Means of Improrement. 
— Two methods of improv- 
ing plants are in use. One 
is gradually to modify the 
' forms that now exist, so as 
I to make them more useful 
and establish, or " fix," 
them. The other is to 
create new kinds that will 
be better than the types 
pow rused. 

Improving present types. 
— Let us suppose that the 
fanner wishes to improve 
his com crop. He must 
first have in mind what he 
wants to accomplish — to 
develop loi^r ears or 
heavier ears, more ears to 
the plant, earUer maturity, 
or some other quality. 
With bis ideal in mind, he 
will go over his cornfield 
while the com is growii^ 
and select the plants that 
most nearly resemble the 



III! 
ilil 



I! 

S' a 
IsS 

PF 
iMsa . 

Pi'U 

nil 



228 AGRICULTURE 

ideal. He will mark them so that he may harvest them sepa- 
rately and save the Beed. 

The next year, the seed of his chosen plants will be sown by itself, 
away from any other cornfield so that the new crop may not be 
mixed with any other variety. This field will be gone over before 
harvest, as in the first year, in order to select the plants in it that 
are nearest the ideal. Some of them will be nearer than in the 
first year. 

From the second year'scrop,grownfrom the seed selected during 
the first year, only that seed will be saved which comes from the 




best plants, those that are nearest to the type that is wanted. 
Year after year this selection and planting of the best will go on 
until the farmer has developed or isolated the type that he de- 
sired; that is, imtil he has produced his crop up to his ideal. 

This method of improving crops is called " selection," It 
should be used by every farmer. The one who always chooses 



THE IMPROVEMENT OF PLANTS 



229 




his best for his next year's seeding should grow better crops 
each year. 

Creating new types. — Let us suppose that in our locality two 
varieties of corn are grown. One produces larger ears than the 
other, but the second one matures earlier than the first. The 
farmer may wish to have a variety that 
will have large ears and will also mature 
early. He desires to combine in one 
plant the best qualities of the two. How 
shall he do it? 

We know that if the kernels of corn 
are to be developed, pollen from the 
tassels must fall on the silks, which are 
part of the pistils of the corn plant (page 
139). When the pollen from one plant 
falls on the pistils of the same plant, the 
same sort or variety of corn will be pro- 
duced. If the pollen from a different 
plant falls on the silks, the kernels of 
corn will probably produce the qualities 
of both plants, or parents, in some measure, and the offspring will 
show some of these qualities in combination. 

If the farmer places the pollen from the variety of com that ma- 
tures early on the silks of the variety that has large ears, the charac- 
ters of both plants will probably be represented in the seed that is 
formed. When this seed is planted the next year, it may show 
some of the qualities of both parents. Most likely it will resemble 
one parent much more closely than the other. 

This seed is planted for the second year's crop. When the time 
comes for the silks to receive pollen, the tassels will be cut off or 
covered, so that none of the pollen of the same plant can fall on 
the silks. Pollen from the other parent, the one that appears 
least in the new plant, must be placed on the silks. The plants 
from the seed that results from this second crossing should ap- 



FiG. 117. — A simple home- 
made seed-tester. Two 
plates and two pieces of can- 
ton flannel. Blotting paper 
will serve as well as flannel. 



230 AGRICULTURE 

proach the ideal type somewhat more closely than that from the 
first year. This operation will be continued year after year, until 
the desired type is secured. 

When two varieties are mixed in this way, they are said to 
be " crossed." Crossing is the most important means of plant 
improvement. 

Plant-breeding. — The changing of plants by man for the pur- 
pose of producing certain desired results is " plant-breeding." 
Every farmer should be a plant-breeder to the extent of improving 
his varieties by means of selection ; but it is from professional 
plant-breeders that we are to expect most of the new varieties and 
new types. 

Problem 202, If there are wild strawberries, raspberries, black- 
berries, or apples in your locality, compare them with the kinds that are 
cultivated. Explain what the differences are. 

Problem 203, Compare two plants of any kind of crop grown on your 
farm. Tell in what respects they differ from each other. Can you find 
any two that are exactly alike ? 

Problem 204, Find out whether any farmers in your locality are trying 
to improve their crops either by selection or by crossing;. Ask them to ex- 
plain just what they are doing. 

Problem 205. Ask your father for a small piece of land, on which to begin 
an experiment to improve the crop that is raised most largely on your farm. 
If yours is a fruit farm, plant potatoes or corn or small grain. Each year 
select your best seed for the next year's crop, and ask your father to plant 
all of the other seed from your plot by itself in his field crop. Notice from 
year to year whether better crops are secured from your seed than from 
your father's. 

Problem 206, Seed testing. One of the means of improving plants 
is to plant only seed that is strong and vigorous and that will make a 
healthy growth. Much of the seed on the market is poor, and some of it 
either will not grow when planted or will make only a weak growth. In 
order to know whether your seed is strong and healthy, it should be tested. 

For this purpose, the seed should be germinated or sprouted. The sim- 
plest device in which to germinate the seed consists of a pie pan covered with 
a square pane of glass or by another pan. This devibe is suitable only for 
small seeds, as the clovers, grasses, and flower seeds. One hundred seeds 



THE IMPROVEMENT OF PLANTS 231 

are placed on a piece of clean blotting paper which has been moistened with 
water. Another moist blotter is placed over this. The cover should fit 
tightly over the pan in order that none of the water may escape. If the 
blotters should become dry in a few days, a very small amount of water 
should be applied. When the sprouts on most of the seeds are one-fourth 
to one inch long, the ones which have germinated should be counted. 
This will give the percentage of germination. If the test shows a low per- 
centage of live seeds, the seeds should be discarded or a larger amount sown 
on a given area. From 90 per cent to 95 per cent germination is con- 
sidered good for most seeds. 

For testing com, beans, melons, and other seeds of equal size, take a box 
of any convenient size, about four inches deep. Fill it one half full of 
sawdust which has been moistened thoroughly. Over this tack a piece of 
cheesecloth marked off in squares. For testing ears of corn, these squares 
should be numbered. The numbers should correspond with niunbers at- 
tached to the ears of corn. The numbered ears of com should be arranged 
in order of their numbers,, and placed where they will not be disturbed 
until the test is finished. Take up ear No. 1. Remove two kernels of 
corn from near the tip ; turn the ear one-third around and remove two 
more kernels from the center. Now turn it around another third of the 
distance and remove two kernels from near the butt. Place these kernels 
on the square numbered 1 on the cloth. Continue this operation until all 
the ears are represented in the germinator, one in each square. Place 
another piece of thin muslin ov.er the grains of com, allowing it to 
extend up the sides of the box for some distance. Fill a sack, made to 
fit snugly in the box, with damp sawdust. Press this down tightly over 
the corn and set the box where there will be no danger of freezing or 
disturbance. In mild weather the corn will germinate within a week. 
Some will probably germinate 100 per cent, while others will be less than 
this. The sprouts on some will be weak, while those on others will be 
strong. It is safe Uo take these typical kernels as an index of what the 
whole ear would do if planted. Therefore, if the test is unsatisfactory in 
respect to any ear, this ear should be discarded at planting time. 

If shelled corn or other loose seeds are tested in this germinator, one 
hundred seeds should be used, as in the case of the pie tin. At least 85 per 
cent should germinate strongly or the seed should not be used. 

Problem 207, Plant in one box or pot 6 kernels of com that are large 
and heavy and plimap. In another pot plant six that are light in weight. 
Set them where they can germinate, and then watch the growth for a 
few days. From which seeds do the largest and strongest plants come ? 
What does this show as to the selection of seed for planting ? 



232 AGRICULTURE 

Problem 208, If by selecting his best seed for planting each year a 
farmer can increase his yield of com three bushels to the acre, what will 
be his gain in one year on a forty-acre field ? How much will he have 
gained at the end of six years ? At the price for corn in your locality, 
how much will he have been paid at the end of six years for the time he 
spent in selecting his seed 7 



PAET IV 
FARM ANIMALS 



CHAPTER XXXI 

THE NEEDS OF FABM ANIMALS 

Animals are kept on the farm for what they can add to the 
farmer's comfort, pleasure, and income. We may call them pro- 
ductive agents because they must return certain products to their 
owner. The products which they return will vary with different 
classes of animals. Horses return labor ; cattle return milk, meat, 
hides, and sometimes labor ; sheep yield wool and meat ; swine 
return pork and lard ; poultry return eggs, meat, and feathers. 

In order that animals may be productive, they must receive 
such care and attention as will keep them in the best condition 
for work. If this care is not given, they still may live, but they 
are not likely to return a profit to their owner. Attention must be 
given to their food, air, shelter, rest, and exercise, which are their 
more important requirements for existence and service. 

Food requirements. — We may liken an animal to a machine, 
which, in the performance of its work, receives wear and tear in 
its various parts. As coal is shoveled in at the furnace door to 
make the energy to turn the great wheels of the machine, so must 
food be taken into the body to supply energy and replace waste 
that results from using the body. The food requirements of farm 
stock demand more attention from the owner than any of the 
other needs. 

We readily imderstand that a horse at hard work must have 
an abundance of the right kind of food to keep his body in good 
condition. Perhaps we have not realized that in a similar way it 
is a tax on a cow to give a large flow of milk. It is likewise a tax 
on sheep to produce wool, and on hens to lay eggs. To produce 

235 



AGEICmjnRE 



THE NEEDS OF FARM ANIMALS 237 

wool and eggs is a form of effort or work, and it uses up energy. 
Abundant food is as necessary in one case as in another. 

Foods are given for two purposes : to support the animal, that 
is, to keep its body in good condition, and to lay up a reserve 
supply for the work the animal has to do. If only enough food is 
given to maintain the animal's body, keep it alive, the animal either 
cannot work, or, if it does .work, the body suffers from lack of 
sufficient nourishment and becomes weakened. To realize a profit 
on animals, there must be food for growth as well as for service, 
in addition to mere sustenance. The profit comes from the reserve 
supply, that which the animal may use wholly for work without 
robbing the body of what it needs for its development. When 
beef cattle, swine, and some kinds of poultry are reared for meat, 
the reserve supply enables them to fatten rapidly so as to be 
ready for market in the shortest possible time. In the draft ani- 
mal, the reserve supply keeps the muscles in repair and provides 
the energy for work. In the cow, the reserve supply is used in 
the production of milk; in the sheep, it goes to produce both 
wool and mutton. 

To satisfy the animal's needs, the maintenance ration ^ must 
provide the materials out of which the body is created and by which 
it may be sustained. If we study the composition of the animal 
body, we shall find that these materials are water, mineral matter, 
nitrogenous matter (containing nitrogen), and fat. 

Water. — There is much water in all parts of the body. Often 
one half of the body is water. It becomes part of all bone and 
flesh. It is used to carry, or transport, the building material, just 
as it is in plants. The blood is largely water. Water also helps 
to remove the waste or worn-out parts from the body. Animals 

^ The quantity, or portion, of food that is given to an animal in 24 hours is 
spoken of as a ration, A ration includes all of the food, of every kind, that is 
given in one day. When we speak of the maintenance ration, we mean that part 
of the ration that is necessary to maintain, or keep up, the animal's body. It 
includes all of the ration except the part that is used for work or production. 



238 AGRICULTURE 

require at all times an abundant Buppty of good drinking 
water. 

Th« miceral matter in the body is found in the bones, in the 
blood, and in the protoplasm, which exists in the cells in all parts 
of the body. From 2 to 5 per cent of the body is mineral mat- 
ter. This mineral is supplied to animals in their food. It comes 



Fra. 119. — A stable that provideB room, eunlight, and voDtilation. 

from the mineral parts of plants, and is taken by plants from 
the soil. 

Nitrogenous matter is the name given to substances containing 
nitrogen. It is usually spoken of either as protein or as nitroge- 
nous matter. Flesh, skin, muscle, hidr, wool, horn, hoof, featheis, 



THE NEEDS OF FARM ANIMALS 239 

blood, lean meat, white of egg, and curd of milk are rich in 
protein. 

We know that all green plante require nitrogen in their growth. 
Some of this nitrogen is found in every part of the plant, in the 
roots, leaves, stalks, and fruits or grains. When the plants or 
grains are fed to stock they provide the required nitrogenous matter. 

Fat is reserve food, or that lidd by for special or later use. The 
amount of it in the body will vary with the ^e of the animal, the 
work it does, and the kinds and amounts of food given. The 



Fio. 120. — Aoimals need eierciae. 

lean animal seldom contains less than 5 per cent, and the fattest 
seldom exceeds 30 per cent of fat. 

Fat-producing materials are usually given to anhnals in the form 
in which they are found in plants ; that is, in the form of starches 
and sugars. The chemist calls these materials carbohydrates, 
because they are made from carbon and water. Carbohydrates 
make up the larger part of dried plants, including all kinds of 
hay and fodder, and are abundant in roots and grains. Within 
the animal body, some of the carbohydrates are changed into fat. 



240 AGMCULTURE 

Uses of iiitroc«aoiu matter and fat. — The mtrogenous parts of 
plants build up the workmg parts of the body. They may be 
called muscle-makeis, although they have other uses as well. 
They enter into many of the products of animals. When cows 
are kept for milk, sheep for wool, horses for work, and geese for 



Fio. 121. — Clean millc cannot be produced hera. 

feathers, they should be given foods, or rations, cont^ning con- 
siderable nitrogen, as it is required for the production of all of 
these products. It can perform the same use as fat, however, 
when necessary. 

Fat keeps the body warm, and, in part, supplies the energy 
which enables the muscles to do work. All the higher farm ani- 
mals are warm-blooded. Thev receive their body heat from their 



THE NEEDS OF FARM ANIMAIS 241 

food. That is why most animals consume more food in cold 
weather than in hot weather. Eskimos and other people who hve 
in very cold climates subsist almost wholly on fatty meats and 
oils. They need heat-giving foods to keep them warm. 

The nitrogenous matter, the carbohydrates, and the fats are 



Fra. 122. — Clean milk is likdy to be produced here. 

the food elements that the farmer must provide for his stock. 
He seldom needs to supply mineral matter, as only s small quan- 
tity of it is needed and all plants contain it. 

Ait. — Air is as necessary to the animal as to the plant. All of 
the activities in the body would cease, and the animal would die, if 
Mr were not provided. Energy is supplied by a burning of the 
tissues in the animal body, just as it is created in the steam engine 



242 AGRICULTURE 

by the burning of fuel. Neither the fire in the en^ne nor the 
burning in the animal body can take place without air. Stables 
are not built to allow space large enough to contain all the air 
needed by each animal in twenty-four hours, so that fresh sir 
must be provided continually by ventilation. 

Shelter. — Animals, like people, are most useful when they are 
happy and comfortable. They can then do their best. Good 
quarters must be provided for all farm stock. The building must 
afford shelter from storm, protection from excessive heat and 
cold, proper ventilation, and must admit sufficient sunshine so 
that they will be bright and fresh and dry. Too often the ven- 
tilation and the sunshine are not provided for. Under such con- 
ditions the animals cannot remwi vigorous and healthy, as they 
should be in order to return the largest profit to their owners. 

Rest. — Animals need rest periods, and comfortable quarters for 
resting should be furnished. Rest is as necessary for them as for 
vigorous boys and girls. There must be time to relax the muscles, 
to allow all of the vital activities in the body to subside from 
the increased demands of work, and to repair the broken down 
tissues. 

It has been found that a steer produces 30 to 50 per cent more 
heat when standing than when lying down. As this heat must 
come from the burning up of food, there is so much less energy for 
useful work or fattening. This shows that it pays to provide 
comfortable quarters and good beds for the farm stock. 

Exercise. — Exercise is essential to the healthy development and 
maintenance of all creatures. It stimulates and strengthens the 
organs, and this tends to keep the animals vigorous and to prevent 
disease. Stables should have yards adjoining, which are protected 
from the cold winds of winter and the hot sun of smnmer, where the 
live-stock can be exercised. Ordinarily the larger the field in 
which stock may take exercise the better. 

Animals that are being fattened for market should have only 
sufficient exercise to keep the body in good condition. Exercise 



THE NEEDS OF FARM ANIMALS. 243 

requires energy, and in fattening animals all the energy possible 
must be saved for storing as reserve fat. 

Cleanliness. — Animals require clean food, clean water, and 
clean quarters, and must themselves be kept clean. Filthy con- 



ditions breed disease, and diseased animals are a loss to the farmer. 
We commonly think of pigs as very uncleanly animals ; but if 
they have an opportunity, to choose their own beds, they will keep 
cleaner than we usually 6nd them in their pens. Kgs thrive in 
spite of the filthy surroundings, not because of such surround- 
ings. Nearly all animals are naturally cleanly. 

Problem 209. When a horse works hard on a warm day, and "steams" 
and sweats, what is he wasting from the body ? How can this waste be 
replaced ? 

Problem 210. When the cow stable is closed in winter, it becomes wann 
and damp. Why? 

Pr<Mem 211. Can you make a fire bum in an air-tight can? Why 
not? 

PrMem 212. Why does a stout person feel the heat more than a slender 
person? 



244 AGRICULTURE 

Problem 213. If there are animals on your father's farm that are being 
fattened for market, do they receive different food and care from the 
others? In what respects? 

Problem 214. Name all the different kinds of farm animals in your 
neighborhood. Tell the purpose for which each is kept. 

Problem 215, What care should a working horse receive? 

Problem 216, Should animals be given ice-cold water? Why? 

Problem 217, Write a list of the things used in the house, either for 
food or for clothing, that are animal products. 

Problem 218. Is it well to give cows exercise by making them run in 
from pasture ? Why not ? 



CHAPTER XXXII 

THE FEEDING OF FARM ANIMALS 

In the preceding chapter we learned that animals require 
food both to keep their bodies in good condition and to repair 
the tissues that are broken down by work. There must also be 
food for growth and for the production of young. These needs 
of animals are satisfied through the process of nutrition. 

We have learned, also, that the food requirements are met by 
giving animals water and foods containing mineral matter (some- 
times called ash) J nitrogenous matter (or protein), fats, and car- 
bohydrates. But this is not all. If an animal is to be properly 
nourished, the foods must be given in certain definite quantities 
or proportions. This is where skill in feeding and knowledge of 
the value of various foods is required. 

In former days the farmer planned to produce all the feed for 
his few animals. Now he expects greater return for each animal, 
and he buys much expensive feed. Therefore the old haphazard 
or traditional method of feeding is no longer profitable. 

Foods are not all alike. — Foods of many different kinds are 
given to farm animals. Hays, grains, fodders, and roots are very 
unlike one another. The farmer who desires to feed his live-stock 
intelligently must know what these differences are and what effect 
they have on the animal. 

The chemist who has carefully studied the various foods in his 
laboratory, and has analyzed them (has taken them apart), tells us 
that all the ordinary foods contain water, protein, carbohydrates, 
fats, and mineral matter, but that most of them contain more 

245 



246 AGRICULTURE 

of one of these groups than of the others. This is what we should 
expect, since we know that plants require all of these substances 
for their growth. But we do not find the protein ajid the cwbo- 
hydrates in separate packages, so to speak, ready to be mixed 



as needed. They are combined in all feeding-stuffs and in very dif- 
ferent proportions. The chemist discovers what these proportions 
are. Without knowii^ the proportions, we should not be able to 
prepare satisfactory combinations of food for animals, althot^ 
by repeated trials we might be able to make fairly good rations. 
With this knowledge, we can readily leam how to put together the 



THE FEEDING OF FARM ANIMAIB 247 

various foods so as to give the amount of each food-elemsDt that 
is desired. 

Nearly all foods contain some material that is of no direct use 
to the animal and that will not be digested. Each food then has 
a digestible part and a waste or indigestible part. It is the com- 
position of the digestible part that is of value in the ration. 

Choice of foods. — The choice of foods will vary for different 
classes of animals and with the work they have to do. A horse at 



Fia. 125. — SaliJnE the young stock. 

work requires different Muds and quantities of food from one at pas- 
ture. A cow does not require the same kind of food to produce milk 
that a hog does to produce pork. Neither does a cow ^vii^ milk 



248 AGRICULTURE 

require the same combination of food as a steer that is being 
fattened for market. 

Balanced rations. — Most school pupils have now heaitl of 
"balanced rations" for live-stock. This is an expression that 
every farm boy and girl should understand. We shall learn what 
a balanced ration is. 

When an animal is working hard, there is a heavy tax on the 
muscles and tendons of the body. When it is at rest in the stall, 



Fio. 126. — SoltiDg the sheep. 

there is no severe strain on the muscles. If the heavy ration that 
is given to the working animal is given to the idle animal, the 
latter will not be able to digest and utihze it, and will become sick. 
The idle animal should be fed a lighter ration. Both rations should 
contain protein and carbohydrates, but in different proportions.- 



THE FEEDING OF FARM ANIMALS 249 

When the protein and the carbohydrates are combined in such 
proportions as experience has shown will produce the best results, 
we have what we call a balanced ration ; that is, the food elements 
are proportioned, sometimes with a larger ratio of one, some- 
times of the other, to satisfy the needs of a particular animal. 
There is a proper balance for the ration for each animal, which is 
determined largely by what the animal does. A ration that is 
balanced for a horse may not be balanced for a sheep. A ration 
that is balanced for a cow giving milk would not be suitable if she 
were being fattened for market. 

Experts who have studied the matter carefully have deter- 
mined approximately how rations should be balanced for all ordi- 
nary farm purposes ; and they have prepared tables showing what 
these proportions are for various purposes so that the farmer 
has something to guide him in making up his rations. 

Nutritive ratio. — The competent stock-feeder speaks of the 
" nutritive ratio " of the feed he is giving his stock. We should 
learn the meaning of this expression, for it has to do with the 
most important factor in the feeding of animals. We do not 
know that we are feeding a balanced ration unless we know its 
nutritive ratio. 

Let us recall again that the substances in stock-foods that espe- 
cially concern the farmer are the protein, the carbohydrates, and 
the fat ; and that the protein and the carbohydrates are used 
for quite different purposes in the animal body. As they exist 
in all feeding-stuffs in greater or less proportions, the first step 
in preparing a ration for stock is to determine the proper balance 
between them for the desired purpose. 

These food-elements are "nutrients''; that is, they contain 
nutriment, or nourishment. The nutritive ratio, then, is simply 
the ratio in which these nutrients (protein, carbohydrates, 
and lat) are combined in the food. For example, if corn- 
meal is 8 per cent protein and 76 percent carbohydrates and 
fats, these two groups of elements are combined in the ratio 



250 AGRICULTURE 

of 8 to 76, or, when reduced to its lowest terms, 1 to 9.5. 
Tbe nutritive ratio, or ratio of the nutrients, of commeal is then 
1 to 9.5 ; that is, commeal contains 1 part of protein to every 9.5 
parte of carbohydrates and fats. 

Each food has a nutritive ratio of ite own, because it contains 
alt of the food-elements. When two or more foods are combined 
in a ration, which is usually the case, the complete ration will 
have a nutritive ratio of its own. This ratio will be different 
from that of any one of its ingredients. In order to obtain the 
exact ratio, the composition of all the foods concerned must be 
considered. 

Tile kinds or claBB«s of foods. — Every boy who has helped 
his father feed the stock knows that there are many different kinds 



Fid. 127. — DuToo-Jeraey bogs at pasture. 

of foods. Some of them closely resemble others in certfun cha^ 
acteristics, so that it is possible to consider them together in 
groups or classes. Practically all feeding-stuffs may be placed in 



THE FEEDING OF FARM ANIMALS 251 

one of three general classes. These are (1) coarse fodders, or 
roughage, (2) root crops, (3) grains and meals. Those of the last 
group are commonly called " concentrated foods " because they 
contain a large amoimt of nutriment in a small weight and bulk. 
A ration for horses ordinarily will contain a rough fodder, as 
timothy hay, and some grain. A ration for dairy cattle ordi- 
narily will contain a rough fodder, a root crop or corn silage, 
and some grain or meal. 

Coarse fodders. — The coarse fodders are bulky, and are gen- 
erally fed to stock in larger quantities than other kinds of feed 
because they carry considerable material that is of little or no 
value to the animal. The common coarse fodders are timothy, 
clover, alfalfa, cowpea hay, and all other kinds of hay, straw, 
and corn-stalks. 

Com silage is a much used coarse feed. The corn is cut and 
stored in the silo while it is still green, so that it is juicy and ap- 
petizing when fed to the cattle. 

Roots and tubers. — Roots and tubers contain a very large 
percentage of water, sometimes as much as 80 to 95 per cent. 
Because of this watery or juicy condition, they are said to be suc- 
culent ; they are frequently called succulent foods. 

The more common root crops given to stock are beets, mangels, 
and carrots. Cabbages, kale, and pumpkins serve much the 
same purposes as root crops when fed to stock, as they also are 
watery. Silage and. root crops serve similar purposes in the 
ration. 

Concentrated foods. — Concentrated foods contain very' little 
water or useless material. They are of two general kinds : 

(1) The grains, as com, oats, rye, barley, wheat, peas, and 
beans. These contain some protein and a rather large percent- 
age of carbohydrates. Com contains a very high percentage of 
carbohydrates; that is why it is such a good food in cold 
weather, and for fattening animals. 

(2) The by-product feeding-stufifs, or those that are left in 



252 AGRICULTURE ' 

the manufacture of starch, breakfast foods, flour, sugar, alcoholic 
liquors, and oils. The common names of some of these by- 
products are bran, middlings, shorts, rice bran, hominy, gluten, 
cottonseed meal, oil meal, brewer's or distiller's grains, malt 
sprouts, and beet pulp. For the most part they are very nutri- 
tious and easily digested foods. 

Problem 219. Name the foods that are commonly fed to horses in your 
locality ; to cattle ; to sheep ; to hogs ; to poultry. Tell which are coarse 
fodders, which are roots or succulent foods, and which are concentrated 
foods. 

Problem 220. How many of these different foods are raised on the 
farms in your locality ? How many are shipped in from distant places ? 
Find out how much the different foods cost in your neighborhood. 

Problem 221. How are these different foods stored ? 

Problem 222. If a balanced ration is fed to any of the animals on your 
father's farm, tell what foods it includes and why it is balanced. Ask 
your father which of the foods he uses are most fattening. 

Problem 223. Why should not the same ration be given to a horse 
at rest in the stall, as to one that works hard every day ? 

Problem 224. Find out what hay is worth by the ton and oats by 
the bushel in your locality. If a horse eats 2 tons of hay, $8 worth 
of pasture, and 43 bushels of oats a year, how much will it cost to raise 
him till he is 6 years old ? Will it cost much more for food to raise a 
good horse that will sell for $250 than to raise one from common stock 
that is worth not more than $100 when six years old? 

Problem 225. If one sheep consumes 700 pounds of hay, $1 worth of 
pasture, and 4 bushels of oats in a year, what will be the cost of raising 
a flock of 150 for 1 year? If a farmer clips 7 pounds of wool from each 
one, worth $.22 a pound, and each one raises a lamb worth $3.50, how 
much will the farmer gain or lose in raising the flock? 



CHAPTER XXXIII 

HORSES 

Our ancestors made little progress in the tillage of the 
soil until beasts of burden were domesticated to do the heavy 
work. The use of the slow-moving ox was a great advance over 
hand work. But when the horse, which long had enjoyed special 
distinction as the animal of emperors and persons of noble 
birth, and of war, was pressed into the common work of the world, 
rapid progress became possible. The horse had power, speed, and 
endurance. He worked faster and to better advantage than the 
ox. The latter gradually had to give place to him for work. 

History. — The history of the horse, extending over thousands 
of years, is one of absorbing interest. Although the modern 
form of the horse did not exist on the American continent in pre- 
historic times, yet fossil remains of his very ancient ancestors 
have been discovered in those parts of the continent which are 
now included in the states of New Jersey, Nebraska, South 
Dakota, and Wyoming. 

It was many thousands of years ago that Eohippus, the name 
by which the earliest prehistoric horse was known, lived in the 
Rocky Mountain range and southward into Mexico. He inhabited 
also parts of Europe and Great Britain, and could pass between the 
continents on dry land. This early horse was no larger than a 
small dog. He possessed four toes on each front foot, with the 
splint of a fifth, and three on each hind foot, with the splint of a 
fourth. In his day, the earth was warm and damp, and the toes 
added greatly to his ability to move about in the mud. 

253 



254 AGRICULTURE 

la time, Eohippus was succeeded by a higher form called Oro- 
hippus. This vbs also a small animal, about fourteen inches high. 
The splints of the extra toes had disappeared from the feet. This 
form in turn gave place later to Mesohippus, which somewhat re- 
sembled the modem horse. He was about eighteen inches high. 
In this type the toes had been reduced to three on each foot. The 
center toe was more prominent than the others and bore most of 
the weight. 

Down through the ages the horse continued, gradually becomiDg 
larger and losing the use of his toes as he needed them less. The 
last stage is the modem 
horse, with its graceful 
limbs that terminate in a 
dense hoof covering the 
single middle toe. The re- 
mfuning toes have dbap- 
peared, but traces of the 
two toes are to be found 
in the splints on both fore 
and hind legs. The pres- 
ent horse is much larger 
than any of his prehistoric 

ancestors. 
Fio. 128. — Thequagga. _, j i j i 

The gradual develop- 
ment of the giant draft horse of to-day from the small dog-like 
animal no larger than the fox terrier is a most interesting demon- 
stration of the changes wrought by nature to adapt animals to 
the conditions under which they live. 

There are three types of horse-like animals in the present day, 
which mark stages in the development : first, the horse proper, 
as we know him on the farm ; second, the wild ass ; third, the 
zebra and the quagga, which somewhat resemble the ass, but are 
beautifully striped. There are still wild horses in herds on the 
plains of Tartary, and occasional herds of untamed mustangs on the 



HORSES 255 

great plains of our own country. The present wild horses of this 
country, however, are descendants of horses introduced here by 
Europeans. 

Tjrpes of domestic horses. — After man had domesticated the 
horse, he proceeded to develop from him a great numberof races, 
or breeds, that would be useful to him imder particular conditions. 
By comparing the horses we see on the road, we shall observe that 
they are of different forms or types. Some possess a form that 
enables them to draw very heavy loads, but at a slow pace. Some 
are so formed as to draw light loads and at a very rapid pace. Be- 
tween these two extremes we may observe a form that is suited 
to draw a moderate load, but with high action and much style. 
These are three distinct types, and they are called draft horses, 
driving horses, and coach horses. 

The draft horse is the largest and heaviest representative of the 
horse tribe. He is massive, powerful, low-down, blocky, and 
compact. He has been developed for weight so as to be able to 
move great loads. In average condition he may weigh from 1500 to 
2000 pounds. 

There are several breeds^ of draft horses, a few of which are 
popular in America.. The Percheron breed came from France. It 
is either gray, chestnut, or black in color. The Belgian, usually of 

1 The word breed is a tenn applied to a group of animals that rather closely re- 
semble one another, and which often take their name from the region in which they 
originated. Among the larger animals, as horses and cattle, a breed may be sub- 
divided into families and tribes. Among fowls, a breed is subdivided into varieties, 
which are smaller groups within the breed, and which include the animals that still 
more closely resemble one another. The word type is a larger or more general term 
than breed, and is applied to larger groups composed of breeds and races that have 
a number of general characteristics in common. Thus, we have the draft type of 
horses, which includes such breeds as the Percheron, Clydesdale, Belgian, etc. We 
have the meat type of chickens, including the Plymouth Rock, Wyandotte, and 
other breeds. There are single-comb and rose-comb varieties in the Wyandotte 
breed, and Barred and White varieties in the Plymouth Rock breed. If we were 
to represent the divisions by a tree, we should have, first, the trunk, or type, which 
breaks into smaller branches or breeds ; the branches divide into smaller branches 
and twigs, which may represent the families, tribes, or varieties. 



256 AGRICULTURK 

a bay color, came from Belgium. The Ei^lish Skire, which may 
vary through bay, brown, and chestnut in color, waa imported 
from England, as its name indicates. The Clydesdale, from Scot- 



Pra, 129. — ThePercherou, Draft bone. 



HORSES 257 

land, resembles the Shire, but may be smaller and more active. 
The SuSolk Punch, from Suffolk County in the eastern part of 
England, is uniformly of a chestnut color. 

The coach horse is the next largest type. He was originally 
developed for pulling heavy coaches at a good speed. He is mod- 



Fla. 130. — The roadster. 

erately heavy, smooth and symmetrical in form, and of graceful 
carriage. The Hackney, French coach, and German coach are 
the principal breeds. 

The Hackney came from England, where for centuries he has 
been a favorite saddler and roadster. He is usually of a chest- 



258 AGRICULTURE 

nut color. The French coach, as its name implies, was developed 
in France and imported to America. Bay and brown are the 
most common colors in this breed. The German coach, bred for 



Fia, 131. — The Hackney. 

many hundreds of years in Germany, is usually bay, black, or 
brown in color. 

The American trotter, pacer, or roadster, a distinctly American 
breed, is the common type of driving horse. It has a, rather ioi^. 



graceful neck, long body, narrow chest, and loi^ legs. The 
conformation, or general shape, is angular, muscles prominent. 



and ribs more or less noticeable. Speed and endurance are im- 
portant qualities. The colors vary greatly, bay, black, brown, 
and roan being common. 

The American saddle horse, also called the Kentucky saddle 
horse, la the most beautiful modem breed. He has been de- 
veloped in America, as his name suggests. He has graceful form, 
erect carriage, smooth action, and is possessed of much courage 
and spirit. He may be trained to go several gaits, as the rack, 
or sit^e-foot, running walk, straight walk, trot, and canter. 



260 AGRICULTURE 

The Tborooghbred, or English running horse, is a small, nervous, 
muscular animal. He is possessed of much endurance at the 
running gait. He has been bred for sport and racing. His color 
may be bay, brown, or chestnut. 

Horse training. — The pleasure and profit to be derived from 
the use of a horse will depend on how well he is trained to obey the 
wishes and orders of his master. The horse has a rather remark- 
able memory. If he succeeds in breaking his halter once, be will 
try to do it many times thereafter. If the first time he is tied 
he tries to break his halter and faib, he is not likely to try agun. 

The tr^ner should be firm and quiet in his handling of a horse, 
and should always accompfish what he undertakes. The horse 
must leam from the 
first that the master's 
will is to be obeyed. 
At the outset the 
horse should be tr^ned 
to stand still while 
being harnessed and 
hitched. The harness 
should be put on from 
the left side and gently 
but firmly placed in 
position. 

In driving, only a 

few signals should be 

used. These should 

mean exactly the same 

thing at all times. 

Signals or conmiands 

should always be 

obeyed. Whoa should mean to stop, and nothing else. It should 

not mean to go slowly or steadily, or .even to get ready to step- 

Steady should be used when it is desired to have the horse go 



slowly or steadily. Back should mean to move backwards, and 
it should not mean to stop. Get up should mean to move for- 
ward after the annual has been hitched. These commands 



^■•Sv 




lo. 134. — Partaof ahsxneM: 1, bridle, having the following pieces: a, bit; 6, ooae 
baod ; c, chin band ; d, face band ; e, blinda ; /, winker braces ; g, brow band ; 
h, erown band ; i, gag swivel ; ;, side check ; k, throat latch ; 2, linea ; 3. collar ; 
4, hames ; 5, home tugs ; 6, traces ; 7, martingale ; 8, saddle ; 9, girtb ; 10, shaft 
tug; 11, back strap; 12, crupper; 13, hip strap; 14. breeching; 15, holdback 



should always be spoken clearly so as to be understood by the 
horse. 

Harness. — The work of the horse is accomplished by means of 
harness. Properly fitted harness adds to the usefulness of the 
horse as well as to his comfort. A well-kept harness adds to the 
appearance when the horse is hitched. 

Harness is used to enable the driver to control the horse, and to 
enable the horse to control the load — to move it forward and 



262 AGRICULTURE 

backward. To control the horse, the driver must gain conunand 
of the head. This is accomplished through the bridle, and by 
placing in the mouth a bit to which the lines, or reins, are 
attached. 

The horse can best control the load from his shoulders. For 
this purpose the harness is provided with collar, hames, and traces. 
The breeching and hold-back enable him to back the load. 

There are four places in which the harness rubs the body con- 
stantly. Unless it is carefully adjusted, these places may become 
sore. A poorly fitting bridle or a severe bit may cause sore mouth ; 
a poorly fitting collar may cause sore shoulders ; a poorly fitting 
saddle or back-pad may result in a sore back; a poorly fitting 
crupper may develop a sore tail. Sores give horses much pain. A 
sore mouth may provoke a horse to run away. Sore shoulders 
and sore back may provoke balking. Sore tail frequently provokes 
kicking. 

Feeding. — Horses relish good timothy hay, or hay mixed with 
clover. Corn and oats are the best liked concentrated foods. 
Oats are better for driving horses, and corn should be included in 
the ration for work horses. As we learned in the preceding 
chapter, the kinds of rations must be adapted to the work the 
animal has to do; one kind for a draft horse, another for a 
coach horse, others for driving and race horses. 

The food should be provided regularly. Water should be given 
before feeding, but not while the animal is overheated. In 
winter it should have the chill taken off. 

Grooming. — Nothing adds more to the appearance of a horse 
than careful grooming. Since the coat shows so readily the effects 
of grooming, the body generally receives more attention than 
the legs. Usually the legs are most in need of grooming. Time 
spent in cleaning and rubbing the horse in the evening, after 
the day's work is done, is worth much more than the same length 
of time spent in the morning, because the horse will rest so much 
better. 



HORSES 263 

Animals properly groomed, fed, and blanketed in the evening 
come from the stable in the morning with spirit and vigor. They 
also are much less likely to develop any of the diseases and diffi- 
culties to which the feet and legs of horses are subject. 

Problem 226, Make a list of all the different kinds of labor performed 
on your father's farm by the horse. 

Problem 227. Could many of these tasks have been done without the 
aid of horses ? Would it have been more expensive to perform them by 
other means ? 

Problem 228. A horse well directed can do as much work as ten men. 
Does he earn good board, kind treatment, a comfortable place in which to 
rest, and careful grooming ? 

Problem 229, Can you name the parts of a harness and tell what each 
does ? 

Problem 230. How many breeds of horses are represented in your 
locality? How do you tell them apart? Are most of the horses 
common, mixed stock ? 

Problem 231. Name the parts of a horse. (Perhaps your father will 
drive a horse to the school-house and explain the parts to all the pupils.) 

Problem 232. How would you care for a harness ? 

Problem 233. Why are horses shod ? 

Problem 234- What is the best way to hold the lines in driving ? 
Which hand should do most of the guiding ? When two vehicles meet, 
to which side should they turn in passing ? When one vehicle desires to 
pass another from behind, to which side of the vehicle ahead should it 
drive? 



CHAPTER XXXIV 

CATTLE 

Cattle are the most important domestic animals of the English- 
speaking peoples. They are much more necessary than horses. 
They may be used as beasts of labor, and they supply meat, hides, 
and milk. From the milk are made butter and cheese and other 
products of less importance. 

History. — Our domestic cattle probably have descended from at 
least three prehistoric races. These races were entirely distinct 
from one another. One, called the Urus, was domesticated by the 
Swiss lake-dwellers. It existed in large numbers in the forests of 
Europe, down to the time when history began to be recorded. It is 
described as being a little smaller than an elephant, but resembling 
a bull in form. 

A second prehistoric ancestor was an ox that once ran wild in 
Sweden. It also was bred by the ancient lake-dwellers. It was 
smaller than our present-day cattle. 

The third of the original ancestors was an animal larger than 
the ox just mentioned, which lived with the ox in the forests of 
Scandinavia. The mountain cattle that are now found in Nor- 
way are supposed to have descended from it. 

Two races to-day. — Cattle, as they exist among civilized peoples 
to-day, are of two races. Orie is the common beef and dairy cattle, 
which nearly every farm boy and girl in America knows. The 
other, called zebus, is a race of peculiar looking cattle that are 
common in India. They have an immense hump of fat over the 

264 



CATTLE ^ 265 

shoulders, large, drooping ears, and a heavy, loose dewlap hanging 
from the underside of the iieck and extending from the lower lip 
back to the chest. 

The humped zebus were domesticated in Egypt 2000 years be- 
fore the Christian era. In India they are now used as beasts of 
burden and also as saddle animals. They have an easy trot, or 
gallop, and great endurance, being able to cover sixty or seventy 
miles in a day. Occasionally a pure white animal is found. It 
then becomes the sacred bull of India and plays an important 
part in religious festivals. Zebus are sometimes called sacred 
cattle. They enjoy a hot, dry climate. A few have been intro- 
duced into the southwestern part of the United States. 

Beef and dairy cattle. — Cattle are reared in America chiefly 
for two purposes : for the production of milk, and for the pro- 
duction of beef. A few are still kept as draft animals. As the 
production of milk and beef make different demands on the 
energies of the animal, they cannot both be developed to their 
highest condition in one animal. For this reason, there have 
gradually grown up two distinct types of animals, one which ex- 
cels in milk production, and another which excels in meat pro- 
duction. We call the one dairy animals and the other beef 
animals. 

But these two types are not wholly distinct or separate from 
each other. The cows of the beef type give some milk, and the 
animals of the dairy type will furnish beef of fairly good quality 
when fattened. There are a great many animals of inter- 
mediate form that produce beef of fair quality and at the 
same time are used for milk production. They are spoken of as 
dual-purpose (two-purpose) or general-purpose animals. 

Beef type. — Animals of the beef type are reared for meat. 
The more meat they can furnish from a given quantity of 
food, the more profitable they will be. They have been de- 
veloped with broad, deep, compact, rectangular bodies which 
are covered thickly and smoothly with flesh (muscle), so that 



266 AGRICULTURE 

the angl^ of the bones are nowhere prominent. The neck is 
short and heavy, and blends smoothly into the shoulders. The 
legs are short and set wide apart so as to support a large, heavy 
body. 

Not all beef animals are alilce, however. They have been de- 
veloped from different ancestors and under different geographical 



FlO. 135. — The Shorthorn. The leading beef breed in America. 

conditions. There are now several types, called breeds, amongbeef 
animals. The moat common breeds in America are Sborthoni, 
Aberdeen-Angus, Hereford, and Galloway. All of these breeds 
originated in Great Britain and have been imported into America. 
The Shorthorn is perhaps the most popular beef breed. It 
originated in the valley of the Tees River, in the northeastern 
part of England. It has short, heavy horns, that curve gracefully 
forward. In color it varies more than any other breed. It may 
be white or red, a mixture of red and white, or roan. The 



CATTLE 267 

Shorthorn was first imported into the United States in 1783, and 
into Canada in 1833. It is now the most widely distributed 
beef breed in America. 

The Hereford originated in the southwestern part of England, 
in the county of Hereford. The breed is distingubhed by its color 
markings. The bead, including jai^ and throat, is white, with 



Fig. 136. — Polled Durham bull. Beef type. 

white under the neck, down the breast, under the body, and more 
or lees on the legs. The bush of the tail also is white. There is 
a white strip on the top of the neck from about the middle to 
the top of the shoulders. The remainder of the body is red. 
The coat of hair is long, soft, and curly. 

The Hereford first reached America in 1817. It is now one of 
the leading beef breeds in Canada, the United States, and Mexico. 

The Aberdeen-Angtis had its origin in the northeastern part of 



268 AGRICULTURE 

Scotland. Its color is black, and it has no horns. It was brought 
to America in 1872. It is now reared in large numbers both in 
the United States and in Canada. 

The Galloway is a very ancient breed, which originated from 
the wild cattle that the Romans found in the forests of Britain 
when they first 
visited that country. 
It takes its name 
from the province of 
Galloway in the 
eoutheastem part of 
Scotland. It has a 
long, soft, shaggy 
coat of black h^r, 
and is hornless. The 
shaggy coat easily 
distinguishes it from 
the Aberd een-Angus . 
The breed first 
reached Ontario, 
Canada, in 1853, and 
later came to the 
United States. 

Dairy type. — Ani- 
mals of the d^ry 
type are reared for 
Fia. 137. — YoungGalloway cow. Beef type, milk. The less fiesh 

they carry the better, 
as it is desired that all the surplus food-energy shall go for the 
production of milk and not for the production of meat. The 
body of a good dairy animal is narrower before than behind ; that 
is, it appears wedge-shaped as we view the animal from the side, 
with the smaller end of the wedge toward the front. Thia is 
caused by a large development of the tear quarters, and by rather 



CATTLE 269 

low, thin shoulders. The animal has a spare, angular appearance be- 
cause of the lack of muscular development. The angles and joints 
of the bones are prominent. This does not mean that the animal 
is poor, for there may still be abundant fat stored in the body. 

There are several distinct breeds of dairy cattle for the same 
reason that there are separate beef breeds. The more common 
breeds in America are Jersey, Guernsey, Holstein-Friesian, and 
Ayrshire. Dutch Belted and French Canadian cattle are found in 
smaller numbers. 

Jersey cattle originated on the island of Jersey in the English 
Channel. They are rather small, quiet animals, but not lacking 
in spirit. The horns are small and in-curving. The body is 
well-rounded, large, and deep. The color is soft gray brown, 
or fawn. The breed was first imported into America in 1850. 
It has increased so rapidly in this country that there are now 
more in America than on the island of Jersey. 

Guernsey cattle originated on the island of Guernsey, near the 
island of Jersey, in the English Channel. They are slightly larger 
than Jerseys. Their color is a shade of fawn with white markings. 
It is supposed that they were first brought to America in 1818. 
They are most numerous in this country in the northern part of 
the United States and in Canada. 

Holstein-Friesian cattle had their origin among the ancient 
Friesland people, a tribe which, at the timfe of our earliest historical 
knowledge of it, occupied the shores of the North Sea. The 
Friesians were the oldest inhabitants of Holland. Holstein- 
Friesian cattle are the largest of the dairy breeds, and are black 
and white in color. It is probable that a few animals were brought 
to America by the early Dutch settlers. There were few of them 
in this country earlier than fifty years ago. The breed is now 
scattered throughout the United States and Canada. 

Ayrshire cattle were developed in the county of Ayr, in Scotland. 
They are of medium size, and somewhat less angular than Jersey 
or Holstein cattle. The common color in America is red with 



270 AGRICULTURE 

white patches, and rather more white than red. They first 
reached America between 1820 and 1830. Ayrshires have been 
popular especially in Canada. 

Feeding and care of cattle. — We have learned that it is a 
severe tax on a dairy cow to produce mi lit. The more milk she 
yields to the pound of food the more valuable she is to her owner, 
and the heavier the tax on her system. She is expected to be 



Fia. 138. — HolBtein-Friesian cow. Dairy type. 

ready twice a day with a good flow of milk. In order to do this, 
she must have kind treatment, regular milking, watering, and feed- 
ing, and plenty of nourishing food. 

In the summer, when dairy cattle are at pasture, they need little 
else except when the pasture becomes short and dry. Then com, 
alfalfa, peas, oats, rye, rape, and a few other crops may be cut 
while green and fed to them. In the winter, they relish well-made 
clover, alfalfa, or other kinds of hay, com fodder, silage, root 
crops, and concentrated or grain feeds. If possible the ration 
should contain some hay or other dry forage, a succulent food, as 
silage or roota, and some grain. The careful farmer will feed a 
properly balanced ration. 



CATTLE 271 

Beef cattle are given such foods as will make them fat most 
quickly and at least expense. Sometimes they are fed fattening 
foods as soon after birth as they are able to digest them, and are 
kept on fattening foods until they are ready for market. They 
may then be made ready for market when ten to sixteen months 
old. Other cattle are allowed the freedom of the range or pasture 



Fio. 139, — YouDg Aytshire bull. Dairy type. 

for a few months or a year or two, and are given fattening foods 
for a period just before they are to be marketed. Com is the 
chief fattening food, with the addition sometimes of oats, oil meal, 
gluten meal, or other concentrated foods. Com fodder, sil^e, 
clover, alfalfa, cowpeas, and other kinds of forage are also fed. 

In the central and middle western states, the feeding of cattle 
for market has been developed on a very extensive scale. Formerly 
they were allowed to feed in great droves over the broad unfenced 
country, being attended by cowboys; but now that the Great 



272 AGRICULTURE 

West is becoming settled and fenced, the cattle are more confined 
to regular farms, and the days of '' ranging" are passing away. 

Problem 235, Do the farmers in your locality raise dairy or beef 
cattle ? If most of them raise dairy cattle, are there any small herds of 
beef or dual-purpose cattle ? 

Problem 236, What kinds of products are received from the cattle 
raised in your locality ? Are the products used in the locality or shipped 
away ? If shipped, how are they prepared for shipping ? 

Problem 237, If there is a creamery, find out how much milk and 
.butter is handled each day, and what becomes of the butter. Find out 
how the farmers are paid — on what basis. If there is a skimming sta- 
tion, secure similar information from it. 

Problem 238, Of ^hat value are cattle to the farmer and to his farm, 
aside from the dairy or beef products he gets from them ? 

Problem 239, Ask the teacher to take the class to the best stock-farm 
in the neighborhood, and have the owner show the class the points of a 
good cow. Ask the owner about the ration he feeds. 

Problem 240. Name the different breeds of cattle represented on the 
farms in the locality. Describe how one breed differs from another. 

Problem 241, Make an estimate of the number of cattle in your 
school district ; and estimate how many are giving milk, how many are 
fattening for beef, and how many are young stock. 

Problem 242. For your school museum, bring samples of the different 
kinds of grain foods given to the cattle on the farms in the locality. They 
may be put up in glass bottles. The names of the foods should be written 
on the label. Examine all of the different foods until you can quickly 
recognize them without looking at the names. 



CHAPTER XXXV 



OuB earliest records tell of shepherds keeping watch over 
their flocks of sheep. The first animals mentioned in the Bible 
are sheep. Abraham's wealth was measured by his " sheep and 
oxen and camels." This 
useful little animal has 
known a long period of 
domestication. It has 
furnished food and 

clothing for many races ^ 

of men. Special dis- \ 

tinction has attached to \ 

it, because of its ancient V^ , 

use for sacrificial pur- ^ 

poses in religious wor- ^ 

ship. 

History. — On the 
elevated plains of Asia, 
from the Caucasus •' 
northward and east- 
ward to Kamchatka 
and the ocean, roam 
many small flocks of ^"'- ""— 
wild sheep, or argali as 
they are known. They are larger than our common sheep, with 
enormous horns sometimes a foot in circumference at the base 
and three to four feet long. The wool is brown, with a buff- 



274 AGRICULTURE 

J 

colored streak along the back and a large spot of buff color on the 
haunch. These animals are agile and strong, but wary and sus- 
picious. They are hunted for their flesh and their skins, which are 
made into clothing. 

In the mountains of Greece, and on the islands of Crete, Cyprus, 
Corsica, and Sardinia, are found other large herds of animals much 
smaller than the argali, and also less powerful and less active. 
They also are wild sheep, and are called by the name musnion or 
mouflon. 

It is thought that domestic sheep are descended from these two 
wild forms. liike the argali and the musmon, domestic sheep are 
mountain and highland animals, or they do best in cool climates. 
They are able to thrive on steep rocky hillsides, mountain-sides, 
and other rough lands inaccessible to the plow. 

The wild sheep of America have not had part in the formation 
of our domestic breeds. 

There are many types of sheep. — As is to be expected of an 
animal that has been long under domestication in many countries, 
the sheep presents many types or forms. Some have two horns, 
others three, others four or more, and still others have none. 
Some have short tails, others have long tails, and one breed in 
Asia has a very thick, fat tail. There are large races and dwarf 
races. Some kinds have a heavy double coat, and in tropical 
regions there are wooUess sheep. The great variety in domestic 
sheep illustrates how animals in nature adapt themselves to the 
conditions in which they live. The adaptability of the sheep has 
found for it a place in nearly every part of the world. 

Sheep may be classified according to use. — Sheep are raised 
for wool and for meat. Some types that yielded finer fleece 
than others have been developed for their wool, so that we now 
have special wool breeds. Others, which furnished a fine quality 
of mutton, were bred principally for this purpose, and so we have 
also mutton breeds. 

Practically all of our domestic sheep belong in one or the other 



SHEEP 275 

of these two groups. But these two classes are aot wholly distinct. 
Wool. is sheared from the mutton breeds, ^id mutton is the final 
disposition of most of the wool breeds. 

Since all domestic sheep in America yield some wool, it is more 
common to classify them accordir^ to length or quality of fleece. 
Three classes are given : fine wool, medium wool, and long wool. 
The fine-wool sheep are the best wool breeds, and the other two 
classes are the mutton breeds. 

The breeds of sheep. — In America we have the f oUowii^ breeds 
of sheep ; 



Fio. 141. — American Merino. 



276 AGRICULTURE 

(1) Fine-wool breeds : American Merino, Delaine Merino, and 
Rambouillet, or French Merino. 

(2) Medium-wool breeds: Dorset Horn, Hampshire Down, 
Oxford Down, Shropshire Down, Southdown, Suffolk Down, and 
Tunis. 

(3) Long-wool breeds: Cheviot, Cotswold, Leicester, and 
Lincoln. 

Wool production. — Next to cotton, wool is the product most ex- 
tensively used in the manufacture of cloth, felt, and other fabrics. 
It is estimated that in 1900 the world's wool clip was 2,685,000,000 



FiQ. 142. — Shtopeluceram. 

pounds. Argentina, Australia, America, Russia, Great Britain, 
and British India are the leading wool-producing countries. 

For many years sheep-breeders in America paid much attention 
to the production of fine wool. In 1893, the price of wool became 



SHEEP 277 

very low, and many breeders, especially in the middle and eastern 
states, abandoned wool production and undertook to produce 
mutton. On the ranches of the west and the southwest, wool- 
growing is now receiving much attention agEun. The wild pastures 
that are too scant for cattle are yet valuable for sheep-raising. 
The ranchman can place wool on the market at much less expense 
than mutton. Many breeders ship lambs east to be fattened for 
market. 

Mutton producttoo. — The rearing and feeding of sheep for the 
production of mutton is to-day an important industry in America. 
In 1907, there were 3,069,391 sheep slaughtered at the Union Stock 



Fio. 143.— .Lincoln ram. 

Yards in Chicago. Lat^e numbers were slaughtered at many other 
points. 

Sometimes lambs are " forced," or fattened from their birth 
until they are six to ten weeks old. They are commonly called 
" hot-house " lambs. They furnish the finest quality of mutton 



278 AGRICULTURE 



SHEEP 279 

and bring high prices. They require special buildii^ and much 
care in their rearing. 

Usually sheep are allowed to run on pasture during the summer, 
and are given a small amount of gram. ■ The Iambs are slaugh- 
tered in the fall before it is time to house them for the winter. 

A method of producing mutton that is becoming important 
is to allow the lambs to run on the free range until they are 
either eight or twenty months old, depending on the age when it 
is desired to market them. They are then shipped to eastern 
farms to be fattened for market. Here they are fed com, clover, 
or mixed hay ; sometimes oats, peas, and barley are given. The 



Fia. 14S. — Shropshire lamb ewes. . 

western man makes his money on the raising of the sheep and 
on the use of his pasture; the eastern man makes his profit on 
the feed that he raises or buys. 

Sheep-farming in America. — In the East sheep are kept in 
small flocks within fenced fields, and in winter are housed in 
regular bams. In the West great sheep ranches hav3 been de- 
veloped. Sheep-farming as an industry is now largely & busi- 
ness of the West. Formerly sheep were pastured on the open 
unfenced range (or public domain) ; but now they are mostly 
confined to lai^e privately-owned ranches, at least during some 
part of the year. 

In the mountain states of the West the sheep are pastured on 



280 AGRICULTURE 

the highlands in summer, often above the timber-land and near the 
snow-line, and on the plains or in the valleys in winter. Im- 
mense flocks or " bands " are kept, which are moved from place 
to place to secure pasturage. Men with camp equipments and 
sheep dogs move with the flocks. The sheep are sheared just 
before they go to the summer range. 

Problem 243, If any sheep are raised in your locality, write or ex- 
plain how they are handled : on what lands they are pastured, when 
they are housed, what they are fed, what becomes of the wool and the 
mutton. 

Problem 244- Name and describe any breeds of sheep with which you 
are familiar. 

Problem 245, Do sheep require much attention? In what ways are 
they useful on the farm ? 

Problem 246, If sheep have been shipped into your locality for fatten- 
ing, find where they came from, how they had lived before, what they 
are now being fed, where and when they will be marketed. 

Problem 247, If the mother dies, or will not own the lamb, how 
would you save the lamb ? 

Problem 248. What sort of foot has a sheep ? 

Problem 249, How much may a full-grown sheep weigh ? 

Problem 250. Do sheep flock together in bands, or do they separate 
and scatter ? Do they follow a leader ? Describe the movements of a 
flock of sheep. 



CHAPTER XXXVI 

SWINE 

Swine, or hogs as they are more often called in America, have 
long endured an unenviable reputation. In ancient time, Moses 
was instructed to have his people abstain from eating pork be- 
cause it was unclean. Wherever hogs are kept in small numbers 
they are likely to be given poor houses and small yards ; and the 
fact that they are able to make such good use of waste material 
from the kitchen and the farm has added further to their lowly 
reputation. But, as we shall see, hogs are naturally clean in their 
habits, and will keep their houses clean and in order when it is 
made possible for them to do so. 

History. — The exact origin of swine is not certainly known. 
They belong to a family of animals that inhabit tropical countries 
mostly. It is thought that the farm hog has descended from the 
wild boar of Europe, Northern Africa, and Asia. Perhaps, also, a 
native race in India has had part in its development. 

It is probable that hogs were first domesticated in Asia. They 
are now very widely scattered. They have a tendency to return 
to a wild state when kept in mild climates. This is well shown by 
the wild razorback hogs found in a few places in the southern 
part of the United States. These hogs doubtless have developed 
from hogs brought to America by early settlers and which 
escaped from domestication or were allowed to roam freely in the 
woods. 

The wild boar is still found in central and southern Europe and 
Asia. From the earliest times it has been a much sought game 
animal, the boar hunt being one of the leading pastimes of royal 

281 



282 AGRICULTURE 

and noble families. The boar is a swift and fierce animfj, larger 
than our common hog. Its great tusks are dangerous weapons. 
When pursued it becomes ferocious and will attack both men 
and dogs. 

Under domestication the hog has been much changed. It is 
now quiet and docile, although old boars will still become vicious 
when aroused. The wild hog was not a fleshy animal, but the 
domestic bog has developed 
remarkable ability to fatten. 
Frequently it will fatten 
so much that its legs can 
scarcely support it and it is 
able to move about only with 
difficulty. 

The male of swine is known 
as a boar; the female as a 
sow, A young pig, particu- 
larly after weaning, is called 
a shoat, or shote. 
The nature of hogs. — Unlike ether domestic animals, the hog 
has almost no covering for his body. The few bristles and hairs do 
not protect him from the attacks of ffies and other insects. Further- 
more, the hog does not perspire as a horse does. Thus it is that 
he has learned to wallow in water and mud to rid his body of pests 
and to keep it cool. Hogs that are kept in woods or groves have 
less need for the wallow. 

When hogs are given large yards or free range, and have a clean 
place in their houses for sleeping, they will keep their bedrooms 
neat and clean. It is only when the small pen is made to serve as 
dining-room, bedroom, and wallow, all in one, that the hog is 
filthy. That is not his fault. It is the way in which he is kept. 

Hogs have always had to dig for much of their food. As some 
of this food was the roots of plants, the name " rooting " has 
been applied to the method by which they secured this part of 



SWINE 283 

their food. l 

The strong, I 

fleshy disk on ■ 

the nose has 
been devel- 
oped for this 
purpose. Not 
only is it able 
to stand the 
wear of root- 
ing, but it is 
very sensitive 
to smell and 

can readily Fio, W7. — Chester White, 

detect what 

the animal is looking for. A pig will follow a track or tr^t 
almost as well as will a dog. 

Classification of hogs. — Hogs are raised tor lard and for 
bacon, and it is usual to divide them into two classes: lard 

or fat hogs, 

and bacon 

hogs. These 

, two classed 

: overlap, as 

i some hogs are 

useful for both 
I purposes. 

Sometimes 
swine are class- 
ified accord- 
ing to size into 
large breeds, 
medium breeds, 
FiQ. 148. — Poland China. and small 



284 AGRICULTURE 

breeds. Sometimes they are classified as white, black, and red 
hogs. 

Breeds of hogs. — The more common breeds in America, grouped 
as lard and bacon breeds, are as follows : 

(1) Lard hogs: Berkshire, a black animal with white mark- 
ings and ears extending erect ; Chester White, a white hog with 

drooping ears ; Cheshire, white 
with erect ears ; Duroc-Jersey, red 
or chestnut with drooping ears; 
Essex, black with small, fine, erect 
ears ; Poland Chi?ia, black and 
white with drooping ears; Victoria, 
white, with occasional dark spots 
on the skin, and erect ears. The 
Cheshire, Chester White, Duroc- 
Fio. 149. — Cheshire. Jersey, Poland China, and Victoria 

breeds were originated in America. 

(2) Baeon hogs : Hampshire, usually black with a white belt, 
four to twelve inches wide, encircling the body and including the 
fore legs ; ears inclined forward ; 

Large Yorkshire, white with erect ' ' 

ears; Tamworth, red or chestnut 
with large, pointed, erect ears. 

If we classify, or group, the 
breeds of hogs according to size, : 

they will be arranged as follows : 

(1) Large breeds: Chester | 
White, Large Yorkshire, and Fiq, iso. — Berkshire, 
Tamworth. 

(2) Medium breeds: Berkshire, Cheshire, Duroc-Jersey, 
Hampshire, Poland China, and Victoria. 

(3) Small breed : Essex. 

The rearing of hogs. — When hogs are allowed to roam in the 
woods, they will live on roots and nuts, especially acorns and beech- 



SWINE 285 

nuts. The beechnut bacon of the semi-wild hogs of the southern 
states is of very high quality. Hogs will eat almost anything 
that comes -in their way, be it animal or vegetable. On the 
frontier they once did good service as destroyers of rattlesnakes. 

There are two rather distinct or unlike methods of raising hogs 
in America. One is to keep a few animals in small pens and yards 
to use the wastes from kitchen and farm. This is the common 
practice in the East. Such hogs are raised largely for home use. 

The other method is the raising of hogs in large numbers to 
supply the market demands. It is practiced in the central west, 



Fia. 161. — Hampshire. 

where there are extensive hog farms. Usually, but not always, 
hogs are raised on farms on which beef cattle are being fattened 
for market. The hogs, as well as the cattle, are fattened on corn. 
For this reason the extensive hog farms are nearly all found in that 
part of the country where corn is the leading crop, that is, in the 
corn-belt. The hogs run with the cattle and are able to use the 
corn which the cattle waste and which otherwise would be lost. 

It is now coming to be the practice to provide " colony 
houses " for hogs. These are small houses or pens ' scattered 
about the fields, each accommodating three to six animals. 
The small, separate houses are for the purpose of guarding 
i^ainst the dreaded hog-cholera disease. When the animals live 
all together, the disease is likely to spread rapidly. If it invades 



286 AGRICULTURE 

one of the separate houses, the house can be burned and the 
disease prevented from spreading. 

Hogs enjoy free range, and when given good clover or alfalfa 
or rape pasture, will make rapid growth. Wherever they are raised 
in large numbers pasture must be provided. 

Problem 251, Name and describe the breeds of hogs that are kept in 
your locality. 

Problem 252. What is done with the products from the hogs on farms 
in your locality? If used at home, how are they prepared and stored? 
If shipped away, how are they prepared for market ? 

Problem 253, Tell how the hogs are cared for in yoiu* neighborhood — 
how they are housed, what pastiu'e they have, what they are fed, how ex- 
pensive it is to raise them. 

Problem 254. Watch the hogs for a few days and then tell what you 
have observed as to their habits, especially with reference to the care of 
the body. See whether you can find any indications that hogs like to have 
clean living-quarters, especially for sleeping. 

Problem 255. What kind of fence is needed to confine hogs ? 

Problem 256. What is meant by " pork on the hoof " ? How much 
is it worth in your neighborhood now ? 

Problem 257. What is a pig's foot like ? 

Problem 258. Can you tell the difference between a pig's track and 
a sheep's track ? How ? 

Problem 259. How heavy (what weight) was the largest hog you 
ever saw ? 



CHAPTER XXXVII 

POULTRY 

Not many years ago poultry was a part of the farm stock of 
which no separate account was taken. The fowls Uved on refuse 
and such food as they could find on free range. Whatever they 
produced in the way of meat, eggs, and feathers was looked upon 



Fio. 152. — Theredjungla Fig. 153. — The Aseel fowl, 

fowl, ODe of the aDcestora other of the origiaal aace> 

of domMtic fowls. of domestic fowls. 

as clear gain. Because they thrived everywhere, cost very little 
to keep, multiplied rapidly, and returned a marketable product, 
they found a place on nearly every farm. Fowls are kept to-day 
on more farms or homesteads than any other domestic animals 
except cats; and they are receiving as careful and studious 
attention as other animals. 

287 



288 AGRICULTURE 

Farm poultry is of several kinds. Domestic fowls, or chickens, 
are the most common. Turkeys, ducks, geese, and guinea-fowls 
are reared in small Socks on 
many farms, and ducks and geese 
in large numbers on special farms. 
The origin of the domestic 
fowls. — The domestic, or barn- 
yard fowl, as it has been called, 
belongs to a race of scratching 
birds that includes also the turkey, 
guinea-fowl, pheasant, partridge, 
and grouse. Its origin seems to 
trace largely to a wild bird called 
the jungle fowl, still common in 
F.o.i54.-mii.Lerto„h.». j^^ j„^,^ ^j ,^j,^_ southern 

China, and the East Indies. This wild bird has a slender body 
and a single comb, and is able to fly considerable distances. 

Another wild form also seems 
to have contributed to the early 
development of domestic fowls. 
It was the very ancient ancestor 
of the Aseel, or Malay fowl, 
which has been bred in India for 
more than 3000 years. It has 
a larger body than the jungle 
fowl, a triple or pea comb, and 
yellow-skinned legs. It does not 
fly great distances. 

The history of the domesticated 
r , 1 f i_ 1 ■ i iu Fio, 166. — white Leghorn rooster, 

fowl reaches far back mto the ^ 

past. About 1400 B.C. the fowl moved northward and eastward 
from southeastern India into China. ■ Later it passed into Japan. 
Records that date 1000 B.C. mention cock-fighting as a pastime. 
It is not mentioned in the Old Testament, as are horses, cattle, 



POULTRY 289 

sheep, and swine. But this is becauee it did not reach Syria until 
300 or 400 years before the beginning of the present era. 

About 330 B.C., domestic fowls were taken to Europe from 
Persia. There they spread rapidly. From Europe they were 
brought to America in the early days of the colonization. Game 
fowls, Leghorns, Dorkings, and Scotch Grays were brought over 



Fra. 156. — Barred Plymouth Rock Fiq. 157. — Barred Plymouth Rock 

by the colonists. From the Scotch Gray the Barred Plymouth 
Rock was developed. Later, Brahmas were imported from the 
Brahmapootra River, and Cochins from Shanghai. 

The nature of fowls. — -It is the nature of fowls to "scratch 
for a living." For that purpose the legs are long and muscular, 
protected by horny scales, and the strong, flexible toes are armed 
with homy claws. Even when well fed they prefer to spend 



290 AGRICULTURE 

much of the day in scratching for food, especially for insects, 
grubs, and earthworms. 

Chickens are not provided with teeth and must swallow their 
food whole. It passes into the crop, where it is softened by juices. 
Then it passes into the gizzard — a veritable mill filled with 
gravel which the fowl has swallowed and which grinds the food 
into fine particles in preparation for digestion. 

A chicken has no muscles in its throat to enable it to swallow 



F:o. 15S. — Hea and ducklings. 

water. It must first fill its beak and then hold its head up so that 
the water may run down its throat. 

In the early spring, the hen be^ns to lay regularly, depositing 
not more than one e^ each day. If allowed to follow her natural 
tendencies, she would cease laying and begin to sit as soon as she 
had' accumulated a nest full — twelve to fifteen eggs. By re- 
moving the eggs each day, the laying season may be lengthened 
several weeks or months. Domestic fowls have been developed 
by man so that they now lay many eggs instead of only enough 
at a time for one brood. 

The dusf bath, of which fowls are so fond, is very necessary for 
their health. It helps to relieve them from insects, and cleanses 



POULTRY 291 

the skin. It is nature that has taught hogs to wallow and fowls 
to use the dust bath for health and protection. 

Breeds of poultry. — As there are beef and dairy typesof cattle, 
and wool and mutton types of sheep, so there are meat and egg 
types of chickens ; that is, some types have been developed to 
fatten for meat purposes, and others to lay many eggs. All fowls 



Fio, 159, — A turkey likes to wander through the fields. 

lay eggs, but the meat types usually do not lay large numbers of 
them. There are also dual-purpose (two-purpose) fowls just as 
there are dual-purpose cattle ; that is, some fowls are raised both 
for eggs and for meat, and are valuable for both. 

More families, breeds, and varieties of poultry have been devel- ' 
oped than of any other kind of live-stock. Most of them are 
raised for profit. Some have been bred merely for fancy or pleas- 
ure. Others have useful qualities, but have not become popular. 



292 AGRICULTURE 

The majority, but not all, of the breeds that are raieed in America 
belong to one of two families, the American and the Mediter- 
ranean families. 

The American family includes the Plymouth Rock, Wyandotte, 
and Rhode Island Red, and the Dominique and Java of less 
importance. These fowls are large, and fatten readily for market. 
They are rather good layers, and are dual-purpose breeds. 

The Mediterranean family includes the Leghorn and the Minorca, 
and the less important White-faced Black Spanish, Blue Anda- 
lusian, and Ancona. These are neat, active fowls that lay large 
numbers of eggs. They are 
the true e^ breeds. Their 
bodies are small even after 
they are fattened. 

The Brahma and Cochin, 
which are true meat breeds, 
belong to the Asiatic family. 
The Orpington, which is now 
rfused in considerable numbers 
in America, belongs to the 
Fro. 160.— EmbdenaeeBo. English family. It is a dual- 

purpose breed. 
Color of eggs. — Most of the e^s from farm poultry are either 
brown or white. Brown eggs are laid by Plymouth Rock, 
Rhode Island Red, Brahma, and Cochin fowls. White eggs are 
laid by Leghorn and Minorca fowls. Medium colored or tinted 
eggs are laid by Dorking, Wyandotte, and Orpington fowls. 

The color of eggs is sometimes an important factor in their 
sale. Some markets will buy only white-shelled e^s, others 
only those having brown shells. There is considerable difference 
in color and shape of eggs, even in the same breed. 

The care of poultry. — By nature fowls are able to care for 
themselves. But by nature they lay few eggs, and are not likely 
to be fat enough for market when needed except in the fall. 



POULTRY 293 

Fowls that are kept for profit must be fed proper foods, at regu- 
lar intervals, must have eleaa, well-ventilated houses, and plenty 
of room for outdoor exercise. There must be opportunity for 
scratching and for the dust bath. The natural desire of the hen 
is to hide her nest, and she should be provided with a secluded 
place in which to lay her eg^. 

All classes of poultry, including domestic fowls, turkeys, ducks, 
geese, and guineas, eat freely of grain and meat foods and green 
forage. Domestic fowls eat most 
freely of grains ; turkeys and 
guineas are insect-hunters; ducks 
and geese are grazers and fishers. 

Every ration for domestic fowls 
should contain whole grain, as 
wheat, corn, oats, or peas ; ground 
feed, Bs wheat bran, wheat mid- 
dlings, corn meal, or ground oats ; 
meat in some form, as beef scraps, 
green cut bone, or skimmed milk ; 
green food, as clover pasture, 
mangel beets, or cabbage ; and 
grit and cracked oyster shells. 

Fresh, clean drinking water should 

always be available. P.^ lei _ ^^ chine.^ geese. 

Poultry should be fed properly 
balanced rations for particular purposes : for e^s, or for meat, 
or to encourage the production of both. They like variety, 
and do better when several kinds of food are given. They 
should have food that they like. 

Hatching. — When a small number of chickens are to be raised 
each year, broody bens may well be used for the hatching. Fowls 
in the American and Asiatic families are good sitters. Those 
in the Mediterranean family are usually very poor sitters. 

Chickens may be hatched in an incubator. This is a machine 



294 AGRICULTURE 

in which eggs can be kept at the same temperature as when covered 
by a hen. Chickens hatched in an incubator are frequently 
reared in another machine, called a brooder, until they are able 
to care for themselves. A brooder takes the place of the mother 
by supplying, for the chicks, protection and the right degree of 
heat. Incubators and brooders are used mostly when chickens 
are reared in large numbers. 

About twenty-one days are required for hatching the eggs of 
domestic fowls. 

Problem 260. How does the covering, or coat, of fowls differ from the 
covering of other domestic animals? What advantage over other ani- 
mals does this give to fowls ? 

Problem 26 U On how many farms in your locality are chickens kept ? 
Are they in large flocks or small flocks ? How are they cared for ? 

Problem 262, If there are any farms in your neighborhood on which 
poultry are raised in large numbers, find out how they are taken care of. 
Explain the differences between handling very large flocks and small flocks. 

Problem 263. Name and describe all the types and breeds of poultry- 
reared in your locality so far as you are able. Tell which are meat breeds, 
which egg breeds, which dual-purpose breeds. 

Problem 264- If eggs are shipped from your neighborhood, find whether 
the market to which they go has any preference as to color. 

Problem 265. What price do eggs bring by the dozen in your local- 
ity? How many dozen would have to be sold on your farm to pay for 
the food given to the fowls in a month? Do your chickens pay for 
themselves ? 



CHAPTER XXXVIII 



BEES 



The raising of honey bees has always been one of the occupations 
of man. Until the seventeenth century honey was the only means 
people had for sweetening their food, as manufactured sugar was 
unknown. 

The development of bee-keeping. — Ancient Egypt, Babylon, 
Assyria, Palestine, Grfeece, Rome, and Carthage, all had their 
bee-keepers. The keeping of bees in Egypt to-day is probably 
not very different from what it was four thousand years ago. 
At that time floating apiaries were common in Egypt, and they are 
still foimd on the Nile. 

The raising of bees has received a great deal of attention down 
through the centuries, and more books have been written about 
bees than about any other domestic animal. It was not until 1852, 
however, that the production of honey as a great commercial indus- 
try began. In that year Mr. Langstroth, of Philadelphia, invented 
a new kind of hive that greatly changed the methods of keeping 
bees, and made it possible for one person to manage a large number 
of hives. It is said that the Langstroth hive has meant as much to 
bee-keeping as the invention of the locomotive has to transporta- 
tion. Most of the hives in use to-day are fashioned after the one 
made by Mr^ Langstroth. 

The keeping of bees for honey is now a large industry in America. 
In almost every community there is at least one apiary, or place 
where bees are kept. The honey and wax produced each year in 

295 



296 AGRICULTURE 

the United States is valued at about $25,000,000. In one year, 
California exported five hundred carloads of honey. Single bee- 
keepers have produced as much as eighty tons in a year. 

There are different races of bees. — Bees, like other insects and 
animals that have existed for many centuries and in various parts of 
the world, have developed many varieties or races. They are of 
different sizes, shapes, colors, and habits. Some are wild forms 



Fia, iS2. — The keeping of bees ia one of the fann ioduBtries. 

that have never been domesticated by man. Moat of them have 
stings, but there are races of stingless bees in South America, 
some of which have been imported to this country. 

The most popular honey bees in America are the Italians, whose 
original home was in Italy. They were brought to this country in 
1860. A race known as Carniolan has found favor in cool, elevated 



BEES 297 

places in the northern part of America. Several other races are 
kept in a small way. 

The bee colony. — Bees live together in very great numbers, in 
well-ordered households, or colonies. If the affairs of their colonies 
were not well ordered, they could not live together. Their govern- 
ment is peculiar, however, in that in each colony there are many 
kings and only one queen. The kings do little or no work, while 
the queen works as hard and longer than any of her subjects. 
The common citizens are all females, and they are busy all the 
day long. 

The number of bees in a colony will vary. There should be at 
least 40,000 in a colony that is in good condition. Most of them 
are workers, a few hundred are drones or kings, and there is only 
the one queen. 

The queen. — The mistress of the hive is a very graceful insect, 
with a long pointed body that extends far beyond the tips of her 
closed wings. She is the largest member of the household. She 
starts her life in the same sort of egg as do the worker bees. 
This egg is selected by the workers for special attention through- 
out its development. After the queen is three days old from the 
egg, she is fed on a special food called " royal jelly." After feasting 
on this for five days, her cell is closed and she undergoes further 
development. When she finally emerges, she is full-grown. 

The first task of the new queen is to hunt for other queen cells, 
and, if any are found, to sting the occupants to death. If she 
finds another fully developed queen in the hive, war is waged be- 
tween them until one is killed. If the workers interfere in the 
fight, she takes her followers from the hive to a new home. 

The queen is responsible for maintaining the colony. She will 
lay as many as 3000, and occasionally 5000, eggs in a day. 
During her lifetime she may deposit 1,500,000 to 2,500,000 eggs. 

The workers. — The workers are the citizens of the colony, and 
are the smallest members of the household. All are females, 
but unlike the queen, which received special attention, they are 



298 AGRICULTURE 

not perfectly developed and cannot lay eggs. Only the queen has 
this power. The workers are provided with long tongues, by 
means of which they can reach deep into flowers to gather the 
nectar. This they deposit in pollen or nectar baskets on their 
hind legs for transportation to the hive for storing. 

The drone. — The drone is the king, whose only responsibility 
is to mate with the queen. Even though he is an idler, he is a 
very necessary part of the household. He is perfectly developed 
for his purpose, is larger than the worker, and broader and more 
blunt in form than either the queen or the worker. • He has no 
pollen baskets and no sting. His tongue is not long enough to 
gather honey from flowers. He has no responsibility for the food- 
supply of the colony. 

How bees live and work. — Wild bees live in hollow logs and in 
caves. Those that have been domesticated are provided with 
houses, called hives. A hive usually is a box, on top of which one 
or two stories, called " supers,'' are placed. In the lower story, 
or box part of the hive, are placed frames which the bees fill with 
comb, in which the queen may deposit eggs for the new brood. On 
these frames a considerable supply of honey is stored also. The 
supers are filled with box-like frames, called sections, each of which 
will hold a pound of honey. By nature, bees place their brood in 
the lower part of their nests and most of their reserve honey above. 
Bee-keepers take advantage of this fact, and remove the sections 
from the supers as soon as they are filled and replace them with 
empty ones. It is not safe to take all the honey from the brood 
chamber below, as twenty-five or thirty poimds will be needed by 
the colony for winter use. 

Honey is made from the nectar of flowers, gathered by bees. 
The nectar is carried in small receptacles with which bees are pro- 
vided. Here it is mixed with a secretion made by the bee that 
produces changes in the nectar which result in the formation of 
honey. After the honey has been deposited in the comb, it is 
exposed to the air for a while before it is capped. This ripens it. 



BEES 299 

Comb foundation. — The honey comb, in which the honey is 
stored, is made up of long, tube-like cells that are six-sided. When 
the sections are removed from the supers and replaced by new ones, 
or when new brood frames are placed in the lower part of the hive, 
to accommodate the young, the bee-keeper furnishes the sections and 
frames with what is called comb foundation, or foundation for the 
building of new comb. This is a thin sheet of beeswax which has 
been pressed by a machine that has covered its entire surface with 
a net-work of impressions of the six-sided cells. From these im- 
pressions the new cells are built. 

The skilful bee-keeper usually fills the brood frames completely 
with the comb foundation. In the pound sections, ordinarily only 
a small piece, called a " starter," is used. Bees naturally dislike 
small frames such as those in the pound sections, but when they 
find foundation in them, they proceed to fill them out. 

Swarming. — Bees will swarm when there are two queens, and one 
is unable to destroy the other. In such an event, part of the colony 
will leave the hive with one of them and go in search of a new home. 

But this is not the only cause of swarming. Bees will swarm 
when they have become over-prosperous. When there is an abun- 
dance of food on hand and numerous young bees in process of growth, 
the queen, accompanied by the larger part of her colony, will rush 
from the hive to give vent to pent-up energy. They go forth with 
their sacs filled with honey. They maneuver in the air for a while, 
then settle on a branch or bush near by, at the same time sending 
out scouts to find a suitable home in a hollow tree or elsewhere. 
Then it is that the bee-keeper gives them a hive merely by shaking 
them into it or down in front of an enlarged entrance. They are 
glad to find a home so soon, particularly if it is clean, and usually 
will take possession at once. 

By removing part of the accumulated honey, so that the bees are 
kept at work, they may sometimes be prevented from swarming. 

Protecting the colony. — Bees must be protected from the cold in 
winter, or they may perish. The best method is to use the "box" 



300 AGEICULTURE 

hive in which the inner part, or real hive, is surrounded by an outer 
case that is large enough to leave a space between the two to be 
filled with chaff or other good packing material. A small opemng 
is left so that the bees can go out in good weather. 



Fio. 163. — Swarm ot beea on limb of a chen-y-tree ready for housing. 

The packing is left in the case during the summer as well as the 
winter, as it helps to protect the hives from the hot sun. The hives 
should be placed during the summer where they will be shaded part 
of the day. The grass should be cut around them so that the 



BEES 301 

honey-laden bees will not become entangled when they return to the 
hive. 

Problem 266. If you have ever found a wild bees' nest, tell where you 
f pund it and how it was protected ; what the comb looked like ; whether the 
honey tasted the same as that from domesticated bees. 

Problem 267. If bees are kept by any one in the neighborhood, ask him 
to show you a hive where the bees are at work. Look for the cells in which 
young bees are developing. Find out what a brood frame is, a section, a 
super, and comb foundation. 

Problem 268. Does all honey that is offered for sale look and taste alike ? 
Is some lighter colored than other ? What is the cause of the difference ? 

Problem 269. Name five plants from which honey bees secure nectar. 

Problem 270. What is beeswax ? For what is it used ? 

Problem 271 . Are bees an aid to the fruit-grower in any way ? How ? 



CHAPTER XXXIX 

BIRDS 

Birds are necessary helpers on the farm, and the farmer should 
recognize them and encourage their presence. Nature maintains 
a proper balance between, all her animals and plants. The birds 
are set over against the insects ; when the one decreases the other 
increases. If the farmer wants more insects, the first thing for 
him to do is to destroy the birds. 

It is not enough that the farmer merely allow the birds to come. 
If he is a thorough farmer he will first protect them, and then he 
will attract them by the planting of bushes and trees, by feeding 
them in hard times, by supplying water in dry times, by building 
bird-houses. 

The song and form and plumage of birds give much satisfaction 
to every sensitive mind. Let any country girl or boy try to picture 
a perfectly birdless world: would it be the same kind of world as 
that in which we live? 

Why birds are useful to the farmer. — We think of cities as 
having policemen to guard and protect the people ; but the open 
country also has its policemen, a great army of them, in the birds 
that guard its crops against thieving and destroying insects. These 
thieves come unexpectedly in great bands, and if there were not 
vigilant scouts on every part of the farm to help the farmer protect 
his crops against them, his plight would be a hopeless one. Let 
us see what these enemies are and what they do, and how the bird 
allies help the farmer against them. 

In Chapter XXVIII we learned that in a single year insects 
may destroy as much as $700,000,000 worth of crops in the United 
States alone. An expert in the United States government recently 

302 



BIRDS 303 

made the following estimates of the losses to certain crops from 
insect pests: to the corn crop, $80,000,000 a year; to wheat, 
$100,000,000 ; to hay, $535,000 ; to fruits from the codlin-moth 
alone, $20,000,000 ; and these are only a few out of a long list of 
losses. A few years ago a list of the insects that injure apple trees 
in the United 
States was pub- 
lished, containing 
the names of one 
hundred and 
seventy-six differ- 
ent kinds ; and the 
cod] i n- moth 
alone destroyed 
$20,000,000 worth 
of fruit ! 

What the birds 
do. — Birds have 
to hunt for their 
living, and much 
of their food is 
composed of in> 
sects and weed 
seeds. They pa- 
trol the air and 
the earth and cap- 
ture vast numbers 

of insects. The robins search the fields for grasshoppers, earth- 
worms, and cutworms. The bluebirds supplement the robins, and 
in addition search the fruit and shade trees for insects. Chipping 
sparrows are on the watch for grasshoppers and caterpillars. Out 
in the fields and the pastures the blackbirds, bobolinks, sparrows, 
and meadow-larks exercise control. On the edge of the woods, the 
brown thrashers and chewinks search the ground for insect life. 



304 AGRICULTURE 

Up in the trees, the vireos, kinglets, warblers, and chickadees 
hunt for leaf-destroying insects, while the nuthatches, creepers, and 
woodpeckers search for the insects that live on or beneath the bark. 
There is no safe place, on ground or tree, for the insect to alight 
without fear of annihilation. 

But the insects that take refuge in flight are no better off, for the 
birds patrol the air as well as the trees and the ground. The swal- 
lows, chimney-swifts, fly-catchers, pewees, kingbirds, warblers, 
vireos, bluebirds, and redstarts capture from the air, by day, all 
of the insects that come within their range. When they cease their 
labors to rest for the night, the whippoorwills and nighthawks go 
on duty and capture insects of many sizes and kinds. The hawks 
and the owls also sweep down on the moles, meadow-mice, rats, and 
mice that lurk about the farm and do damage to the farmer's crops 
and products. 

Nor is this all. Another of the farmer's foes is weeds, most of 
which produce seeds in great numbers. Such seeds are good food 
for birds, and they are eaten in great quantities. One authority 
has estimated that in Iowa the tree sparrows alone eat eight hun- 
dred and seventy-five tons of weed seed in one season. The weeds 
that birds prefer seem to be ragweed, pigweed, smartweed, pigeon- 
grass, bind-weed, crab-grass, and lamb's quarters; but birds eat 
the seeds of a large number of other weeds also. 

How much the birds help. — Birds are such active, energetic 
creatures that they require an amount of food out of all proporcion 
to their size. The adult birds of many kinds will eat a quantity of 
food each day greater than their own weight ; and their little ones 
in the nest eat relatively more than their parents. Indeed, birds eat 
all the time when not occupied by sleeping, nest-making, or feed- 
ing their young. A yellow-billed cuckoo had in its stomach at one 
time 217 fall webworms ; a flicker had eaten 5000 ants ; a night- 
hawk consumed 60 grasshoppers; a mourning dove had eaten 
7500 seeds of the yellow woodsorrel at one meal; a bob-white 
consumed 1700 seeds of weeds on one occasion. 



BIRDS 305 

The help that birds give the farmer in controlling insect enemies 
and weeds is much greater than we usually give them credit for. 
They are on guard day and night, winter and summer, an army 
that can fly with great speed to the place where the insects are 
thickest and the conflict heaviest. Their scouts are always on the 
lookout, and they can assemble in a very short time a flying army 
to attack swarming hosts of destructive insects. 

How to attract the birds. — Wherever the farmer or his neigh- 
bors has attempted to kill the birds, he has suffered by an increase 
in his insect and weed enemies. Of course birds destroy some 
fruits and take some grain and garden crops ; but these are only 
small pay in exchange for their great services. The farmer can 
well afford to pay something to keep a flock of bird allies on his 
farm. Not all birds are useful, and when the farmer knows the 
ones that do more harm than good he does well to lessen them ; 
but he should be careful to protect the helpful ones. 

Food will always attract birds, especially if given at those times 
of year when food is hard to find. Such fruits as the berries of 
barberry, jimiper, and sumac, which remain on the plant over 
winter, are greatly relished by birds. If thickets of such plants are 
occasionally left on the farm they will encourage the birds. Chaff 
and hayseed from the barn floor cast on the snow or frozen ground 
will be appreciated. Bits of suet, and bones with shreds of meat 
attached, fastened to trees will be found by the birds. 

Nesting places. — Houses may be built for some of the birds 
that like to build their nests in houses — as the bluebirds, wrens, 
tree swallows, martins, doves, pigeons, and sometimes the chick- 
adees. The houses may have several rooms, as some birds, such as 
the martins, pigeons, and tree swallows, like to live in families or 
colonies. The floor space of each room should be from 5" X 6" 
to 8'' X 8''. The size of the doorway should be just sufficient to 
admit the bird. A larger opening not only looks unattractive, 
but it exposes the inhabitants to danger from cats and other 
enemies. Only one opening should be provided for each house or 



306 AGRICULTURE 

compartment. A perch or doorstep should be provided just below 
each door. 

The houses should be placed on poles or on buildings in somewhat 
secluded places. Martins and tree swallows like to build their 
nests twenty-five feet or more above the ground, but the other 
birds usually prefer an elevation less than twelve feet. Newly 
made houses do not often attract 
the birds, so we must not be dis- 
appointed at first. 

If food and attractive nesting 
places are provided during the 
severe months of late fall and 
winter, the birds wijl remain and 
become true neighbors, and will 
spend their time searching for 
weed seeds that still cling to the 
plants, and insects that linger in 
the trees. 

Protection of birds. — If in ad- 
dition to providing for their wants, 
shooting of useful birds is not 

F.Q. 165.- Mead„w-krk'« nest. ^„^^^_ ^j ^^j^_ bird-hawks, 

snakes, crows, and jays, English sparrows and squirrels that 
destroy birds' nests are dealt with severely, the farmer will, 
gain a great host of bird friends that will repay him well for his 
care of their needs ; and while he will still suffer great losses from 
the ravages of insects, he will suffer much leas than if he were 
thoughtless of the birds. 

It is especially important that we control the cats. One has no 
more right to allow his cats to wander at will than he has to allow 
his pigs or chickens or dogs to trespass and destroy. Even at 
home the eats should be watched closely and prevented from 
killing birds. A bell on the cat will prevent it from catchii^ old 
birds, but it will not keep it away from the nests and the Sedge- 



BIRDS 307 

lings. All bird-catching cats should either be killed or kept within 
regular inclosures. 

Problem ^2, Write a list of all the birds that visit your locality, so 
far as you know them. Tell when they come, where they build their 
nests, and when they go ; also describe those that you know best. 

Problem 273, What birds remain in your neighborhood over winter ? 
Do they stay near the houses and barm: in the hope of receiving food? 
What do they eat? 

Problem 274- Watch the birds that hop about on the ground and find 
out what they are eating. Find out also what the birds that hop about 
in the trees and fly about in the air are eating. 

Problem 275, Have you ever fed the birds in fall and winter ? If so, 
what ones came to receive your food ? Did they seem to appreciate it ? 
Where did they go after feeding? 

Problem 276, Build two or three bird houses, and place them where 
they will be secluded somewhat. Make the opening into one a one-inch 
auger hole. Make the door into another one and a half inches in di- 
ameter. Discover what birds nest in each ; how they build their nests ; 
whether they stand on the perch or doorstep and chatter merrily together. 

Problem 277, Do we find the same birds about the buildings as out 
in the orchard, the meadow, the woodlot, the marsh ; or are there some 
birds that spend most of their time in some of these places and less in 
others ? 

Problem 278, What birds build their nests on the ground ? What 
ones in barns ? What ones under the eaves of buildings ? 

Problem 279, What means are taken in your conmiunity to attract 
the birds ? What is done to protect them from harm ? What more can 
you do on your farm to attract these creatures that will make you good 
friends and companions as well as guards over your crops ? 

Problem 280, How many bird songs or notes can you recognize ? 
Can you tell six wild birds by their songs or notes ? 



CHAPTER XL 

MILK AND ITS PRODUCT^ 

Every household uses milk. Nearly^ every farm produces milk. 
Dairying is one of the most extensive industries in America. 

What milk is. — We all know that milk is nature's food for the 
newly born of most of the larger animals. Frequently the young 
are fed little except milk for many months, and during these 
months make rapid guowth. 

The value of any product for food depends on the kinds and 
amount of nutriment, or nourishing food substances, it contains, 
and the form in which the nutriment exists — that is, whether it 
is easily digested and made use of in the body. Milk contains 
all of the food materials that are needed for the development of 
the body, and they are in a very easily digested form. There is 
water, which is necessary for all growth ; ash or mineral matter, 
for the making of bones and for other uses ; protein, for the pro- 
duction of flesh and muscle ; fat and sugar, to supply heat and 
energy. 

When we speak of the composition of milk, we mean the pro- 
portions, or relative amounts, of these several materials that 
are present. The composition is usually stated in percentages, 
as that is the best method of comparing proportions. The per- 
centages are not exactly the same for the different breeds of cows 
or for individual cows in the same breed. That is one reason 
why some are better milk-producers than others. But if we 
average the composition for all of them, we shall find that 

308 



MILK AND ITS PRODUCTS 309 

milk contains, in round numbers, the following proportions of 
matenals: — 

4 per cent fat 
2.6 per cent casein 

.7 per cent albumen 

5 per cent sugar 
.7 per cent asb 

87 per cent water 

100 

Tbe names of some of tbese substances may be new to us, but 
we shall leam what they are. 

Fat. — If we were to examine milk under a very strong micro- 
scope, we should find that there are floating in it, that is, in the 




Fia. 166. — An enlarged vien of cream, whole milk, and skimmed milk under the 

microscope, showing the relative number of particles of fat Id each, a, repre- 
sents cream ; b, whole milk ; c, skimmed milk. 

fluid, or watery part of it, many small round bodies of different 
sizes. These floating bodies are minute particles, called globules, 
of fat. They are so small that there may be as many as 100,000,000 
of them in a single drop of milk. 

Although fat usually makes up only about 4 per cent of average 
milk, it is still the most valuable part. It is the substance from 
which butter is made. It is part of cheese also, and the value of 
cheese may depend on the amount of fat that it contains. Great 



310 AGRICULTURE 

quantities of milk are bought and sold for prices that are deter- 
mined by the amount of fat present. In most states there are 
laws which specify that milk offered for sale must contain at least 
a certain amount of fat. Usually, 3 or 3.25 per cent is the lowest 
amount that is allowed. Milk from some cows may contain as 
much as 6 per cent, or even more. 

Cream is largely composed of fat. When we skim or separate 
milk, we remove the fat in the cream. The cream contains also 
small amounts of all the other substances in milk, which are re- 
moved with fat. " Thin" cream contains a relatively large per- 
centage of these other substances. *' Heavy" or " thick " cream 
is rich in fat and contains much less of the other materials. 

Casein. — This is the part which curdles when milk sours. It 
is suspended in the fluid part in very fine particles. It helps to 
make milk " heavier " than water. After fat has been taken from 
milk, the most valuable part remaining is casein. It is this sub- 
stance which makes skimmed milk and buttermilk valuable for 
human or animal food. It contains nitrogen, and is therefore a 
protein food. 

Albumen. — This part of milk is much the same material as 
the white of egg. Like the casein, it also contains nitrogen, ^d 
is therefore a valuable food-element. It is easily digested. 

Sugar. — Milk contains more sugar than fat. This is not just 
like granulated sugar, but has many of the same characteristics. 

The sugar can be separated from milk. It is used by druggists 
for covering " sugar-coated " pills. Because it is so easily digested, 
it is used also in the manufacture of infants' foods. 

Ash. — Ash is the mineral part of milk, and is especially useful 
in the formation of bones. It is grayish white in color. 

Skimmed milk is milk from which part or nearly all the fat has 
been removed, or skimmed. It is seldom possible to remove 
every bit of the fat» Skimmed milk therefore contains the same 
substances as whole milk, except that there is less fat. For this 
reason it still has much food value. 



MILK AND ITS PHODUCTS ^ 311 

Buttermilk is the liquid part that remfuns after the churning of 
cream into butter. Its uompositioii is nearly the same bs that 
of skimmed milk except that it contains more fat. It is unlike 
skitmned milk, however, because cream is usually sour before it 
is churned. Souring changes the form of some of the casein and 
the sugar. 

The weight of milk. — Milk is slightly heavier than water because 
of the substances it contains. Since it is largely water, the in- 



Fio. 167. — DifFerent kiads of milking pails. The o 
dirt and duat to eoteT while milking, and the o 
small topped covered pail ia the best to use. 

crease in weight is not very great. If we take enough milk so that 
the weight of the water in it alone is one pound, the weight of 
the whole milk will be about 1.032 pounds. That is, milk is about 
1.032 times as heavy as water. 

The care of milk. — There is no other food product that is 
so easily made unfit for use as milk. Farmers may lose much of 
the profit they should receive from their cows, because the milk is 
not produced under the best conditions and handled in the best 
way. 

Milk is most likely' to be spoiled by bacteria. We have 
learned that countless millions of very minute plants, called 
bacteria, inhabit the soil. Other kinds of bacteria live in milk. 
Some of those in milk are useful, some hsinnless', and others 
harmful. 

When milk is kept in a warm place, and sours, it is not heat that 



312 AGRICULTURE 

has soured it, but bacteria, which produce acid and which are 
most active where it is warm. - Cold milk does not sour quickly 
because the bacteria camiot work rapidly where it is cold. 

Every bit of dust and dirt that falls into the milk is loaded with 



bacteria. Hairs and dirt may be brushed into the pai\ by the 
milker, either from his clothes or from the animal's body. Dust, 
chaff, and many other particles that float ia the air in stables may 
fall into the pails while they are exposed. If the milk pails and 



MILK AND ITS PRODUCTS 313 

cans and Btrainer cloths are not perfectly clean, they may cany 
bacteria to the milk. A few bacteria enter milk while it is still 
in the udder and before 
it has been drawn. 

In order to produce 
clean milk, in which 
there will be few bac- 
teria, the cows must be 
cleaned before milking, 
the suits and hands of 
the milkers must be 
clean, and all pails and 
other utensils which the 
milk will touch must 
be perfectly clean. 
Bacteria may remain in 
cracks and seams and 
rusty places in cans, and 
cannot be killed by 
washing unless scalding 
water is used. It is bet- 
ter if the utensils can be 
exposed to steam after 
they have been washed. 
Handling hay or bedding 
or anything else that 
will stir up dust in 
the stable should not 
be allowed during or just 
before milking time. 

As soon as possible after milk is drawn it should be taken from 
the stable. It should be strained at once so as to remove the dirt. 
It should then be cooled, by placing the can in a tank of cold water, 
or by other means. No matter how careful the milker has been, 



314 AGRICULTURE 

some bacteria will have found their way into the milk. By cooling 
the milk as Boon as drawn to a teinperature of 50° F. or lower, 
the bacteria will be prevented from multiplying rapidly. They 
cannot grow rapidly when the milk is cold. If the milk is allowed 
to remain wann, they will develop quickly and soon sour it or 
cause it to spoil otherwise. 

Healthy cows, kept in clean, sunny, well-ventilated stables, 
will do their part in producing clean milk. Most bacteria and 



Fio. 170. — Milk in bottles. This ia the cleanest way to market milk and cream, 
dirt fall into the milk while it is being handled, and the farmer 
himself is responsible for this. 

The Babcock test. — Since the market value of milk depends very 
largely on the percentage of fat it contains, it is a great aid to 
farmers who produce milk to know how much fat there is in the 
milk from each of their cows. The milk from some cows contains 
much fat. That from others contains so little that their milk 
will not sell for as much as it costs the fanner to keep them. He 
loses money on every such cow in his herd. 

Fortunately, there has been discovered a simple method of finding 
the percentage of fat in milk. It is called the Babcock test. We 



MILK AND ITS PRODUCTS 315 

shall learn how it is made ia Problem 285. It is now used by a 
great many farmers, and has been the means of saving them many 
millions of dollars. Dairy farmers who test their milk usually 
dispose of the cows that do not 
" pay for their board," and keep 
only the profitable ones. 

Butter and cheese. — The two 
most important products made 



have Fig. 172.- 



from milk are butter and cheese. They, like milk, are also uaed 
in nearly every household in the land. They are both nutritious 
foods. Formerly they were made altogether on the farms, but 
now are manufactured to a large extent in special factories called 
creameries and cheese factories. 

In the making of butter, only cream is used, as butter is made 
from the fat of milk. Cheese may be made from cream, or the 
whole milk, or skimmed milk. Most of the cheese we buy at the 
stores is made from the whole milk. 

ProbUm 281. How many farms in your locality produce milk for sale ? 
Do they eell whole milk or cream ? What becomes of the milk they sell ? 
If cream is sold, what use is made of the skimmed milk ? 

Protd^n S8S, If there is a creamery, cheese factory, or skimming sta- ■ 
tion in your neighborhood, find out how much milk it handles every day, 
how many cows are required to produce the milk, how it ia paid for ; also, 
what is done with the product. 




AGRICULTHEE 



MILK AND ITS PRODUCTS 317 

Problem 283. Write a short essay on how milk should be handled on 
the farm. 

Problem 28^, In the evening, secure a quantity of milk and keep it 
over night in a medium, but not cold, temperature. Early in the morn- 
ing mix it thoroughly, and pour equal quantities into each of four pint 
bottles or glass fruit jars. (These jars should be thoroughly washed and 
scalded before the milk is poured into them.) Cover the jars or bottles 
with pai)er to prevent the entrance of dust. Then place one bottle in 
a dish or pail of ice-water, one in water at 55*^ or 60°, one at 70*^ to 75®, 
and the other at 90° to 100° Fahrenheit. It will be well to shake the 
bottles frequently when first put into the water, until the milk becomes 
the same temperature as the water. Keep the water in the dishes at the 
above temperatures throughout the day, and notice when the milk in each 
jar first tastes sour, and also when it curdles. In tasting the milk to see 
whether it is sour, use a teaspoon, and be sure that the spoon is held 
for a minute in boiling water before it is dipped into the milk. In 
which does the milk sour first? In which last? Why? What does 
this teach about the handling of milk ? 

Problem 285. The Babcock test to determine the richness of milk, 
or the percentage of fat that it contains: — 

Utenbils. — A hand-power centrifugal Babcock tester, at least two milk 
test bottles, one pipette to measure the milk, one acid measure, about one 
pint of sulphuric acid with specific gravity between 1.82 and 1.83, a few 
ounces of milk, and some hot water. All the necessary apparatus and acid 
can be purchased for about five dollars from any dairy supply company. 
They can be ordered through a hardware dealer. Sulphuric acid is sold 
also at drug stores. Perhaps the equipment can be borrowed from a dairy 
farmer in the locality. If there is a creamery or skimming station near by, 
the class may go there to perform the test. 

Sampling the milk. — The milk to be tested should be thoroughly 
mixed just before the sample is taken, to make sure that the fat or cream 
is evenly distributed. This can best be done by gently pouring back and 
forth between two vessels several times. The milk should be between 60° 
and 70° F. 

Place the small end of the pipette at the center of the milk and suck 
the milk up above the 17.6 cc. mark on the tube. Quickly place the index 
finger (be sure to have finger dry) over the upper end of the pipette, and 
by releasing the pressure allow the milk to run out until its upper surface 
is even with the 17.6 cc. mark when the pipette is held straight up and 
down. 

Place the point of the pipette a short distance into the neck of the test 



318 AGRICULTURE 

bottle, holding it against the glass and with both pipette and bottle at an 
angle. Remove the finger to allow the milk to flow into the bottle. Be 
sure to get every drop of the milk, taking care to drain the pipette and 
to blow the last drop into the bottle. A little practice should make any 
one skillful with the pipette. 

It is best always to make this test in duplicate ; hence, two bottles are 
needed for each lot of milk. 

Using the add. — The acid is very strong and must be handled with 
great care. If any gets on the hands, face, or clothing, it should be washed 
off quickly with plenty of water. If any acid falls on the clothing, it 
should be washed off immediately with a little dilute ammonia. Do not 
leave the acid where young children can get it. 

After all the samples of milk to be tested have been measured, the acid 
should be added. Fill the acid measure to the 17.5 cc. mark with acid 
that is between 60° and 70° F. Pour this into the bottle with the milk, 
holding the bottle in a slanting position. Revolve the bottle slowly as 
the acid is poured in so as to wash down any milk that may have re- 
mained on the neck of the bottle. The acid will follow the glass surface 
to the bottom of the bottle and form a layer under the milk. 

Hold the bottle by the neck and give it a circular motion for a few 
minutes, mixing the milk and acid until no milk or clear acid is' visible. 
By this time the contents will be dark colored and hot. This change is due 
to the acid dissolving all the solid materials of the milk except the fat, 
which it does not affect. 

Whirling the bottles. — The bottles are whirled to separate the fat so that 
it can be measured. It is lighter than the remainder of the milk and will 
be forced to the surface. The bottles should be hot when whirled. If 
necessary they may be heated by standing in hot water before being put 
into the machine. A steam machine is easily kept hot when in use. Other 
kinds should have a small amount of boiling hot water placed in them. 

Place the bottles in the machine so that each one will have another 
directly opposite, to keep the machine in balance. Whirl the bottles five 
minutes at the proper speed for the machine in use, directions for which 
come with the machine. Then stop it and, with the pipette or other con- 
venient means, add hot water to each bottle until the contents come up 
to the bottom of the neck. Then whirl two minutes. Add hot water 
enough to bring the column of fat within the graduations on the neck of 
the bottles. Whirl one minute. The fat should then form a clear 
column in the neck of the bottle. 

Reading the percenta>ge. — Keep the fat warm so that it will be in a fluid 
condition. Hold the bottle by the upper end of the neck, allowing it to 



MILK AND ITS PRODUCTS 319 

hang in a perpendicular, or upright position, on the level with the eye. 
Read the mark or graduations at the extreme top and bottom of the fat 
column. The difference between these is the percentage of fat in the milk. 
Most test bottles are made to read as high as 10 per cent. Each percent- 
age has its number marked on the glass and there are five small spaces, 
each representing .2 per cent, between these principal marks. Thus, if the 
top of the fat column is even with the third short mark above the 7 mark, 
the top reading would be 7.6 ; and if the bottom is halfway between the 
first and second short marks above the 3 mark, the bottom reading would 
be 3.3 ; the difference is 4.3, which is the percentage of fat, or the number 
of p>ounds of fat in 100 pounds of the milk tested. 

Notes. — Specific gravity means the weight of the acid compared with 
the weight of an equal volume, or amount, of water. The sulphuric acid 
should be about 1.82 times as heavy as water. 
1 cc. means 1 cubic centimeter, or about 20 drops. 
If the fat column is clouded with white specks, probably the acid was 
not strong enough, or not enough was used, or the temperature was not 
high enough. 

If the fat column is clouded with dark specks, probably the acid was 
too strong, or too much was used, or the heat wds too great. 

Always keep the acid bottle closed when not* in use, or the acid will 
lose strength. Remember that it is a poison and that it will burn wood or 
clothes that it touches. 

Problem 286. If cows are kept on your farm, keep a record of how 
much milk each cow gives at each milking. Once a month test the 
milk of each cow, and put the percentage of fat beside the cow's name 
on the monthly record sheet. Then calculate how much fat each cow 
gave during the month. At the end of the year, calculate how much 
each cow gave during the year. Find how much more the best cow 
gave than the poorest. Did it cost much more to feed the best cow 
than to feed the poorest ? Which one is earning the most money for 
your father ? See if your father can help you to find out whether the 
poor cow paid for her board. Are there any cows in the herd that your 
father should get rid of ? 



•:p! 



CHAPTER XLI 

THE IMPROVEMENT OF ANIMALS 

From our study of farm animals we have learned that they have 
undergone great changes since the time when man first captured 
them from the wild. Some have been transformed so much that 
they now bear little resemblance to their ancient ancestors. The 
changes, or improvements, have been of such a nature as to make 
them more useful to man. 

The breeding of animals. — All animals grow old and die, or are 
slaughtered for food. Other animals are born and take their places. 
Not only is a new animal born to take the place of one that dies, 
but every pair of animals is able to produce more than two others. 
As a result, the total number of animals in the world increases. 

But it is not enough that new animals and more of them shall , 
appear. These new animals must be desirable and useful. They 
must possess qualities or characteristics or habits that will make 
them valuable or serviceable. In order to be sure that his new ani- 
mals will have the qualities or characteristics that he wants them to 
have, the stockman chooses the parents. This choice of parents 
to secure oflFspring with particular characteristics is the first step 
in " breeding." 

Objects of breeding. — The farmer who breeds cattle may have 

one of three objects in mind. He may wish to maintain, or keep, 

the type of his animals just as they are, without any special 

change ; or he may desire to produce a new type or breed that will 

be wholly different from the parents ; or he may desire to increase 

the " perfortnance " of his animals. A stockman who has small 

red cows may desire to produce others like them ; or he may wish 

320 



THE IMPROVEMENT OF ANIMALS 321 

to produce from the animals lai^e red cows. In the former case, 
he desires to maintain, or continue, his type; in the latter, he 
desires to produce a new type. Some stockmen are endeavoring 
just now to produce a new type or race of animals, called cattaloes, 
by choosing one parent from common farm beef animals and the 



Fia. 174. — Southdown ewe. Developed aa a medium wool-muttoa type. 

other from the buffalo tribe. By better "performance " is meant 
a greater result, as more milk, richer milk, more bacon, more eggs, 
whiter eggs, finer wool, greater speed. It is very important that 
the dairyman breed animals to produce more milk. 

What to breed for. — A carpenter does not begin to build a house 
until he or the architect has drawn plans and knows just what the 



322 AGRICULTURE 

completed house should look like in all of its parts. In the same 
way, the stockman should have in mind just what form or type of 
animal he wants to secure, before he begins to breed. The carpen- 
ter has in mind an ideal house that he wishes to build; the 
stockman must have in mind an ideal animal that he wishes to 
develop. This is the first step in the improvement of animals, and 
it is the most important because everything else in breeding will 
be shaped by the object, or ideal, it is desired to secure. 

The choice of parents. — After the carpenter has planned his 
house and has his ideal in mind, he chooses such materials as 
will give him the appearance in the house that he wants. He 
does not use anything and everything that comes to hand. 

Such a choice of materials, or rather of parents, is equally im- 
portant for the stock-breeder. If he is to secure new animals that 
will be like the ideal he has in mind, he must choose parents that are 
most likely to produce that ideal. In other words, he should look 
over his herd and choose for parents the animals that already are 
nearest to his ideal. 

If a f armer^s herd is comprised of small red cattle with long horns, 
and he desires to develop a new herd of large red cattle with short 
horns, he will choose for parents the animals that combine largest 
size with the shortest horns. He may not be able to take the 
largest of his cows, because she may have exceptionally long horns. 
And he may not be able to take the one with the shortest horns, for 
she may be a very small animal. He will have to choose the ones 
that, on the average, seem to have the best combination of size 
with shorter horns. He will breed from such animals unless they 
have other characteristics that are undesirable. 

The offspring. — The stockman cannot expect that the first 
offspring will measure up to his ideal. But it will be a step toward 
it. Perhaps the first offspring will be larger than the parents, but 
have the same length of horns; or perhaps it will be of the same size 
as the parents, but have shorter horns ; or perhaps it will com- 
bine the two and be slightly larger, with horns that are a trifle 



THE IMPROVEME^^^ OF ANIMALS 323 

shorter. Well and good ; some progress has been made toward the 
ideal. 

The second step is to use this offspring for one of the parents of a 
new generation, and to choose tomato with it an animal of the other 
sex that most nearly represents the ideal. The offspring of this 
pair is likely to show still further progress toward the ideal. This 



li'lQ. 175. — Guemaey c 

mating of the offspring, if it is a desirable animal in other re- 
spects, with an animal of the opposite sex that most nearly rep- 
resents the desired type, will be continued until the breeder 
secures what he wanted so far as it is possible to do so. 

The stockman who sets out to improve his animals or to create 
a new type or breed must have patience. His results will come 
slowly, a little at a time. But so long as he holds to his ideal, and 
always chooses the parents that most closely resemble that ideal, 



324 AGRICULTURE 

he frill make progress, unless be is trying to accomplish something 
that is impossible. Patience and perseverance are essential quali- 
ties in the successful stock-breeder. 



Fio. 176. — AmcricaQ aaddlo horse, a, breed developed in this country. 

Pedigree. — Farmers who breed live-stock speak frequentlyabout 
the pedigrees of their animals. They do not care to use an animal 
for breeding unless it has a good pedigree. Let us see what they 
mean. 



THE IMPROVEMENT OF ANIMAIfl 325 

. Animals, like human beings, have parents, and grandparents, and 
great-grandparents, and others in succession reaching away back 
to the beginning. Most of the characteristics of an animal now 
hving are what it has inherited from its ancestors. If the ances- 
tors of a dairy cow have all been of medium size, black and white, 
and have been heavy producers of milk, we can expect with much 
certainty that the present cow will show the same characteristics 



and that her offspring will show them. If the ancestors have 
not been chosen with any care, and some have been large, others 
small ; if there has been no attention paid to the color ; and if 
there have been both good and poor milk-producers in the list, we 
cannot tell what to expect from the present animal. We do not 
know what to expect of her offsprii^. In the former case, we 
say the cow has a good pedigree, in the latter, a poor or doubt- 
ful pedigree. 



326 AGRICULTURE 

We may define a pedigree, then, as the connected record or list of 
all the ancestors of an animal. If the achievements or qualities 
of the ancestors have been almost uniformly good, the animal is 
said to have a good pedigree ; if they have been mixed or poor, the 
pedigree is poor. 

The longer any line, or family, of animals is bred to a certain 
standard or ideal, the more uniform will the offspring represent that 



Fra. 178. — Mules e 

ideal. For this reason, the farmer who wishes to improve his stock 
desires to use animals for parents that have had good pedigrees, 
80 that their good qualities are " fixed," or established. He then 
has confidence that he will secure certain results. And he can do 
his work intelligently, as he knows what to expect from his animals. 
Improving the farm live-stock. — How is the farmer to improve 
his live-stock if he has only poor or medium animals whose ances- 
try is largely unknown or whose pedigree is poor? It is not 



THE IMPROVEMENT OF ANIMALS 327 

necessary for him to sell all that he has and buy good animals. 
He can begin with what is on hand. 

Improvement in the farm herd or fiocks will be brought about 
by breeding from the best animals only and gradually disposing 
of all the others. The sire of the herd is such an important part 
that the farmer will improve his animals much faster if he buys a 
male that has a good pedigree. The second generation should 
then be better than the first, the third better than the second, 
and so on. Many excellent herds have been built up in this way. 

Problem 287. Are most of the farm animals in your neighborhood com- 
mon stock or "grades," or are they pure-bred? What do we mean by 
pure-bred stock ? 

Problem 288, What kinds of cows, grades or pure-breds, have the farm- 
ers who are producing the most milk ? If any of them have pure-bred 
stock, do they sell the calves ? Do they receive more for the calves than the 
man who sells grade stock? 

Problem 289. Are pure-bred stock more or less expensive to keep than 
common grade stock ? 

Problem 290. If there are cattle on your father's farm or a neighboring 
farm, find out whether the poorest cows in the herd are as expensive to 
keep as the best cows. Would it pay to dispose of the poor cows and im- 
prove the herd so that all will be nearly as good as the best cows ? 

Problem 291. Borrow a written pedigree of one of the best animals in 
the neighborhood. Ask the owner to explain it to you. Find out particu- 
larly why it is a good pedigree. Then bring it to school and explain it to the 
class. 



APPENDIX 

A SCHOOL library containing, among others, books, bulletins, and reports 
on agriculture and country-life subjects for the use of teacher and pupils, 
is indispensable to the highest success in this work. The references given 
below will be of special assistance in the teaching of the present text. 
The list is not intended to be exhaustive. 

Rather than to print an extensive list of bulletins, it has seemed wise 
to suggest that the teacher ask to be entered on the mailing-list for the 
Monthly List of Pvblicaiions, from the Division of Publications, U. S. 
Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C. From this list the teacher 
can choose the recent bulletins that will most aid in the work, and secure 
them on application. The Yearbooks of the U. S. Department of Agri- 
culture, secured through members of Congress, should be in the school 
library ; so, also, should the bulletins and reports from the agricultural 
experiment station of the state in which the school is located. 

Books: 

Elementary Agriculture, with Practical Arithmetic, Hatch and Hasel- 

wood, Row, Peterson & Co., Chicago. 
First Principles of Agriculture, Gofif & Mayne, American Book Co., 

New York. 
An Introduction to Agriculture, A. A. Upham, D. Appleton & Co., 

New York. 
The First Book of Farming, C. L. Goodrich, Doubleday, Page & Co., 

New York. 
Agriculture for Beginners, Burkett, Stevens & Hill, Ginn & Co., Boston. 
One Hundred Lessons in Agriculture, A. W. Nolan, The Author, 

Morgantown, W. Va. 
One Hundred Lessons About Plants, D. W. Dennis, Ben Franklin 

Printing Co., Marion, Ind. 
Among Country Schools, 0. J. Kern, Ginn & Co., Boston. 
Elements of Agriculture, G. F. Warren, The Macmillan Co., New 

York. 

329 



330 APPENDIX 

Pamphlets : 

Elements of Agriculture for Public Schools, W. T. Carrington, Colum- 
bia, Mo. 

One Hundred Experiments in Elementary Agriculture, Riley O. 
Johnson, The Author, Chico, Cal. 

Twelve Studies in Agriculture, Eugene Davenport; Twelve Studies 
in Farm Animals, Eugene Davenport ; Twelve Studies in Animal 
Husbandry, H. W. Mumford; Twelve Studies in Farm Crops, 
A. D. Shamel ; Eleven Studies in Horticulture, J. C. Blair ; five 
separate pamphlets, C. M. Parker, publisher, Taylorville, 111. 

Government Publications : 

Exercises in Elementary Agriculture, Bult. 186, OflSce of Experiment 

Stations, Washington, D.C. 
Does it Pay the Farmer to Protect Birds? Reprint, 1907 Yearbook, 

U.S. Department of Agriculture. 
Rural School Agriculture, Bult. No. 1, Minnesota Experiment Station, 

St. Anthony Park, Minn. 
Practical Studies in Agriculture, Purdue University, Lafayette, Ind. 
Laboratory Studies in Soils, Bult. 27, State Department of Public 

Instruction, Lansing, Mich. 
Farmers' BulletinSy free on application to the Division of Publications, 

U. S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C. Listed in 

the order in which they will be useful in supplementing the text : — 

Part I: 

385 Boys' and Girls' Agricultural Clubs. 
185 Beautifying the Home Grounds. 
Part II : 

138 Irrigation in Field and Garden. 
187 Drainage of Ffirm Lands. 
192 Barnyard Manure. 
278 Leguminous Crops for Green-Manuring. 
245 Renovation of Worn-out Lands. 
44 Commercial Fertilizers : Composition and Use. 

Part III : 

408 School Exercises in Plant Production. 
157 The Propagation of Plants. 

Ill The Farmer's Interest in Good Seed. 
199 Corn Growing. 

409 School Lessons on Corn. 



APPENDIX 331 

229 The Production of Good Seed Com. 
253 The Germination of Seed Corn. 
313 Harvesting and Storing Com. 
339 Alfalfa. 

89 Cowpeas. 

35 Potato Culture. 

154 The Home Fruit Garden. 

87 Orchards, Cover-Crops, and Cultivation. 
113 The Apple and How to grow it. 
181 Pruning. 
218 The School Garden. 
255 The Home Vegetable Garden. 
228 Forest Planting and Farm Management. 
173 Primer of Forestry. Part I. 
358 Primer of Forestry. Part II. 
134 Tree Planting on Rural School Grounds. 

28 Weeds : and How to Kill Them. 
127 Important Insecticides : Directions for their Preparation and Use. 

155 How Insects Affect Health in Rural Communities. 

243 Fungicides and Their Use in Preventing Diseases of Fruits. 
283. Spraying for Apple Diseases. 

Pakt IV: 

22 Feeding Farm Animals. 
170 The Principles of Horse Feeding. 

55 The Dairy Herd. 
106 Breeds of Dairy Cattle. 
205 Pig Management. 

51 Standard Varieties of Chickens. 
141 Poultry Raising on the Farm. 

41 Fowls, Care and Feeding. 
287 Poultry Management. 

236 Incubation and Incubators. 

64 Ducks and Geese. 
200 Turkeys, Varieties and Management. 
397 Bees. 

54 Some Conmion Birds in their Relation to Agriculture. 

42 Facts About Milk. 

63 Care of Milk on the Farm. 
348 Bacteria in Milk. 
363 The Use of Milk as Food. 



INDEX 



Aberdeen-Angus breed of cattle, 267-268. 

Agricultural colleges, 15, 44, 48. 

Agricultural fair, benefit of, to farmers, 
47. 

Agricultural societies, 47-48. 

Agriculture, defined, 11; Indian, 12; 
colonial, 13 ; westward growth, after 
the Revolution, and change in char- 
acter, 14 ; effect on, of railroads and 
improved tools, 14 ; departments of, 
15, 48 : comparison of values of, and 
of other industries, 15-16. 

Aids in farming and marketing, 42 ff. ; 
the country school, 42-44 ; the church, 
44; means of transportation, 14 -15 ; 
the telephone, 45-46 ; the mail service, 
46-47; the country fair, 47; clubs, 
agricultural societies, granges, 47-18; 
creameries and cheese factories, 48. 

Air, the work of, in soil-making, 56; 
necessity for, in soil, relation of, to 
plant growth, nature, location, and 
method of introduction, 74r-76; 
method of entrance of, into the leaf 
of a plant,' 109; amount required by 
animals, 241-242. 

Alaska, glaciers of, 58. 

Alberta, 14. 

Albumen of milk, 310. 

Alfalfa, length of roots of, 130; most 
important grass in Rocky Mountain 
states, 157 ; history, description, grow- 
ing of, and value, 165-167. 

Alsike clover, 164. 

American Merino sheep, 276. 

American saddle horse, the, 259. 

American trotter, the, 258-259. 

Animal manures, 98-100. 

Animals, use of, to the farmer, 36-40 ; 
work of, in helping to form soil, 60 ; 
the horse, 253-263 ; cattle, 264-272 ; 



sheep, 273-280; swine, 281-286; 
poultry, 287-294 ; bees, 295-301 ; im- 
provement of, 320 ff. ; breeding of, 
320-327 ; pedigrees of, 324-326. See 
Farm animals. 

Appendix, 329-331. 

Apple, soil for, 66, 179; site for orchard, 
178; planting distance, 179; thekiugof 
fruit, 184 ; history, where grown, and 
planting, 184. 

Apple trees, location for planting, 178; 
best soil for, 66, 179 ; origin and im- 
portance of, 184; insect enemies of, 
210-211. 

Area of United States and of Canada, 6, 8. 

Argali, or wild sheep, 273-274. 

Arsenate of lead, 215. 

Aseel fowl, the, 288. 

Ash, in food, 245; the mineral part of 
milk, 310. 

Associates, choice of, exercised by plants, 
32-34. 

Attractiveness of the farm, influence of, 
25. 

Ayrshire cattle, 269-270. 

Babcock test for milk, 315-316, 317-319. 
Bacteria in soil, 64-65, 78-81; soil air 

essential to life of, 74; in milk, 311- 

316, 317. 
"Baking" of soUs, 73. 
Balanced rations for farm animals, 248- 

249. 
Barnyard manure, 98-100. 
Battata, 171. 
Beans, 189. 

Beef type of cattle, 264-268. 
Bees, keeping of, 295-301. 
Beet pulp, 252. 
Beets, planting, 189. 
Beggarweed, 157. 



333 



334 



INDEX 



Belgian horses, 255. 

Bermuda-grass, 157. 

Berries in the farm garden, 192. 

Birds, in relation to agriculture, 212, 302- 

307; how they aid the farmer, 302- 

303; how to attract and protect them, 

305-306; nesting places, 305-306. 
Blackbsrriee, 192. 
•' Blasted" kernels of corn, 139. 
Blossoms of corn plant, 138-139. 
Blue-grass, 156, 160-161. 
Bordeaux mixture, 221. 
Botanist's classification of plants, 119- 

121. 
Bran, 252. 
Breed, family, tribe, variety, and type, 

distinction between, 255 n. 
Breeding, of plants by the farmer, 229- 

230 ; of animals, 320 ; objects in view, 

321-322. 
Breeds, of horses, 255-260; of cattle, 

265-270 ; of sheep, 275-276 ; of hogs, 

284 ; of poultry, 291-292. 
Brewer's grains, 252. 
British Columbia, 14. 
Brooder, 294. 
Budding, propagation of plants by, 126- 

127. 
Building purposes, plants grown for, 30. 
Butter, 315. 
Buttermilk, 311. 

Cabbage, planting, 189. 

Canada, area and topography of, 8 ; 
westward expansion of agriculture in, 
with help of railroads, 14; Minister 
Ci Agriculture and provincial depart- 
ments of agriculture in, 48 ; growth 
of wheat in, 147. 

Canals, irrigation, 74. 

Canker-worms, 210, 213. 

Carbon, proportion of, in plants, 109. 

Carbonic acid in soil water, 57--58. 

Carniolan bees, 296. 

Carpet-grass, 157. 

Casein of milk, 310. 

Cats, and birds, 306. 

Cattle, introduction of, into the Ameri- 
can colonies, 13 ; history, two races 
of, feeding and care, 264-272. 

"Cattle shows," 47. 



Celery, 189. 

Cereal, derivation of word, 136. 

Cheese factories, farmer's advantage 
from, 48, 315. 

Cherries, site for, 178; soil for, 179; plant- 
ing distance, 179; origin and growth 
of, 185. 

Chickens, 287-294. 

Chlorophyll of plants, 109-110. 

Church, an important agency in farming 
regions, 44. 

Cion defined, 126. 

Classification of plants, 114-120. 

Clay, soil which is called, and classifica- 
tion as "cold" or "heavy," 63. 

Cleanliness of animals, 243. 

Climate, relation of plants to, 30, 32. 

Clothing, rearing of animals for, 38-40. 
See Wool. 

Clover, varieties of, importance, uses, 
etc., 162 ff. 

Clubroot of cabbage a soil disease, 81. 

Clubs, farmers', 47-48. 

Clydesdale horses, 256-257. 

Coach horse, the, 257-258. 

Codling-moth, 210. 

Colonial agriculture, 13. 

Composition of soil, and importance of, 
64-65. 

Concentrated foods, 251-252. 

Cooperation of farmers, in clubs, agri- 
cultural fairs, and creameries, 47—48. 

Corn, differing significations of word, 
136; origi of American, in Mex- 
ico, 137 ; study of the corn plant, 
138-139; blossoms, 138; ears, 139; 
kinds of, 139-141; culture of, 141- 
143 ; harvesting, 143 ; preservation 
in silos, 143-144 ; enemies of, 144 ; 
uses of, 144 ; improvement of, by the 
farmer, 227-229; as stock food, 251. 

Corn products; 144. 

Cotton, the most important crop in the 
South, 14. 

Cottonseed meal, 252. 

Country fair, the, 47. 

Cover-crops, 100. 

Cowpeas, 157 ; history, habits, uses, etc., 
167-169. 

Cows, 35. See Cattle. 

Crab-grass, 157. 



ESTDEX 



335 



Cream, thin and heavy, 310. 

Creameries, usefulness of, to the farmer, 
48. 315. 

Creation of new types/ of plants, 229- 
230. 

Crimson clover, 165. 

Crop rotation, 128-135. See Rotation 
oi crops. 

Crops, rslation of, to soil on which they 
ars raised, 65-66 ; forage and fodder, 
cereal, root, fiber, fruit, vegetable, 
and timber, 118; distinction between 
field crops and wood crops, 196. 

Crossing two varieties of plants, 230. 

Cucumbers, planting, 189. 

Cultivators, 92. 

Currants, 192. 

Cuttings, propagation of plants by, 125. 

Dairy cattle, 264, 265, 268-270. 

Dams, irrigation, 74. 

Dent com, 140. 

Department of Agriculture at Washing- 
ton, 15, 48. 

Diseases, soil, 81 ; of potatoes, 175 ; of 
plants, 217 ff. 

DisintegratJon of rock by the air, 56. 

Dissemination of plants, 122-126. 

Distiller's grains, 252. 

Division of labor, 4-5. 

Domestication of wild animals, 35-36. 

Draft horse, the, 255 257. 

Drainage, 73 ; admission of soil air by, 
73. 

Drinking water require ' by animals, 
237-238. 

Driving the horse, 260-261. 

Drone bees, 298. 

Dry-farming, 87. 

Ducks, 293. 

Durum wheat, 149, 153. 

Dutch Belted cattle, 269. 

Ears of corn, 139; 

Earthworms, instrumentality of, in forma- 
tion of soil, 60; in ventilation of soil, 74. 
Eggs, color of, from farm poultry, 292. 
English running horse, 260. 
Exercise of farm animals, 242-243. 
Experiment stations, 15, 48. 
" Extensive" farming, 32. 



Fairs, agricultural, 47. 

'•Fallowing" land, 82. 

Farm, the, 22 ff. ; viewed as an estab- 
lishment, 22 ; the home as a part of, 
22 ; buildings, 23 ; land, 23-24 ; plan of 
the, 24-25; attention to attractive- 
ness of the, 25 ; health of the, 25- 
26. 

Farm animals, 35 ff. ; source of, 35-36 ; 
necessity of, 36-37 ; rearing of ani- 
mals for food, 37-38; for work, 38; 
for clothing, 38-40; for soil fertility, 
40; relation of, to various kinds of 
farming, 40-41 ; needs of, in the way of 
food, water, rest, exercise, and clean- 
liness, 235-243; feeding of, 245 ff . ; 
improvement of, 320-327. 

Farm buildings, appearance of, a stand- 
ard to judge by, 23. 

Farmer, consideration of the, as to his 
contribution jio the country's wealth, 
the nature of his business, etc., 17-21 ; 
aids to the, in the way of the school, 
church, transportation, telephone, 
mail service, etc., 42-50. 

Farmers' clubs, 47-48. 

Farm garden, the, 187-192. 

Farming, agriculture and, defined, 11-12 ; 
effect of first railroads on, 14 ; the 
home an essential part of the business, 
22 ; important part played by land 
in, 23 ; extensive and intensive, 32. 

Farm plants, 28 ff., 114. 

Fat in milk, 309-310. 

Fat-producing materials in animals' 
food, 239-240. 

Feeding, of farm animals, 245 ff. ; of 
horses, 262 ; of cattle, 270-272. 

Fertilization, of land with plants, 30; 
with manure, 40 ; of fruit trees, 180. 

Fertilizers, two classes of, farm manure 
and commercial fertilizer, 97 ; animal 
manures as, 98-100 ; green manures, 
100. 

Fiber crops, 118. 

Fish-oil soap, 215. 

Flea-beetles, enemies of the potato, 174. 

Flint corn, 140. 

Flower, function of the, in plants, 111 
parts of the, 112. 

Fodders, coarse, or roughage, 250-251. 



336 



INDEX 



Food, plants srown for, 28; rearing of 
animals for, 37-38 ; variety in, needed 
by plants, 65-66 ; soil as a source of, 
for plants, 65; prsparation of, for 
plants, by bacteria, 78-79; tillage 
makes plant-food available, 83-85; 
plant-food in the soil, 95-^; 
must be available for use by plants, 
96 ; amount of, in the soil, 97 ; ab- 
sorption and digestion of, by plants, 
105-107; requirements of farm ani- 
mals as to, 235-237. 

Food of poultry, 292-293. 

Forage and fodder crops, 118, 251. 

Forestry, science of, 201. 

••Free" water, 70. 

French-Canadian cattle, 269. 

French coach type of horse, 258. 

Fruit crops, 118. 

Fruit, of plants. 111; harvesting, 183; 
various kinds of , 184-185; small fruits 
in the farm garden, 192 ; insect enemies 
of, 210 flf. 

Fruit rot, 218. 

Fruit trees, location for planting, 178- 
179. 

Fungi in soil, most plant diseases caused 
by, 217-223. 

Fungicide, spray mixture called, 221. 

Gaits, 259. 

Galloway breed of cattle, 268. 

Gang plows, 89. 

Garden, an essential on farms, 187; 
location and soil, 188; sowing the 
seeds, watering, starting the plants, 
etc., 189-191. 

Geese, 293. 

Geography of the locality and the con- 
tinent, 6-10; importance of, to the 
farmer, 10. 

German coach type of horse, 258. 

Glaciers, 58-59. 

Gluten, 252. 

Gooseberries, 192. 

Grafting, propagation of plants by, 126- 
127. 

Grain crops, 118. 

Grain-farmer, insect enemies of, 211. 

Grange, the farmer's, 47. 

Grapes, soil for, 66. 



Grass family, 119. 

Grasses, 155 ff. ; native or wild, 155-156 ; 

cultivated, 156-157. 
Gravel, defined, 64. 
Greenland glacier, the, 58. 
Green manures, 100. 
Grooming of horses, 262. 
Guernsey cattle, 269. 

Hackney horse, the, 257. 

Hansen, Timothy, timothy grass named 
for, 16a 

Harness of horses, 261-262. 

Harrow, the, 89, 92. 

Harvesting, corn, 143; wheat, 152-153; 
fruit, 183. 

Hatching of chickens, 293-294. 

Hay-farming, 32. 

Health, precautions concerning, sCn im- 
portant point in farm life, 25-26. 

Hellebore, 215. 

Hens, 287 flf. 

Hereford cattle, 267. 

Hogs, history, nature, classification, 
breeds, and rearing of, 281-286. 

Holstein-Friesian cattle, 269. 

Home, an essential part of the farming 
business, 22. 

Hominy, 252. 

Honey, manufacture of, 298. 

Honey bees, 295-301. 

Horse manure, 100. 

Horses, 35, 38 ; history, types, training, 
harness, feeding, and grooming, 253- i 
263. ; 

Hot-house lambs, 277. / 

Housefly, spread of disease by, 26. 

Humus, 53 ; nitrogen supplied to soil and j 
plants by, 98-100. j '■ 

Husking corn, 143. 



Ice, work of, in making of soils, 58-60. 
Improvement, of the soil, 95-101; of 

plants, 224-232; of farm animals, 

320-327. 
Incubators, 293-294. 
Indian agriculture, 12. 
Indian corn, 136-145. 
Inoculation of soil, 80. 
Insect enemies of plants, 210-216; birds 

as destroyers of, 212, 302-305. 






INDEX 



337 



Insect powder, 215. 
Intensive farming, 32. 
Irrigation, 74. 
Italian bees, 296. 

Jersey cattle, 269. 
Johnson-grass, 157. 
June-grass, 156. 
Jungle fowl, 288. 

Kafir-corn, 157. 

Kentucky blue-grass, 156, 160-161. 
Kentucky saddle horse, the, 259. 
Kerosene emulsion, 215. 
Kitchen garden, location of, 187. 

Labor, division of, 4-5; the farmer's, 
19-20. 

Labor-saving farm machines, 14, 87-92, 
152-153. 

Land, importance of, in the farmer's in- 
vestment, 23-24. 

Langstroth, Mr., 295. 

Leaf -green of plants, 109-110. 

Leaf system of plants, 108-111. 

Legumes, crops called, 79-80; root 
nodules, 80 ; nitrogen produced in soil 
by planting, 100; grasses which are, 
157. 

Lettuce, planting, 189. 

Life cycle, the, 78-79. 

Lily famUy, 120. 

Lime as plant-food, 97. 

Lime-sulphur spray, 215, 221. 

Literature, references to, 329-331. 

Loam, definition of, and kinds, 63. 

Macaroni wheat, 149, 153. 

Machines, improvement of farm, 14. 

Mail service, as an aid to the farmer, 
46-47. 

Maintenance ration, 237 n. 

Maize ("Indian corn"), 136-145; origin 
of, in Mexico, 137 ; place of, in Ameri- 
can agriculture, 137-138 ; study of the 
maize plant, 138-139; blossoms of, 
138-139; ears, 139; kinds of, 139- 
140 ; culture of, 141-143 ; harvesting, 
143 ; enemies of, 144 ; uses, 144. 

Malt sprouts, 252. 

Mammoth red clover, 164. 

74 



Manitoba, 14. 

Manufacture, farm products grown for, 
28. 

Manufactures, values of farming and, 
compared, 15-16. 

Manure, 40; animal, 98-100; green, 
100 ; for fruit trees, 180. 

Markets, relation of location to, 10. 

Meadows, 157-158. 

Melilotus, 169. 

Merino sheep, 276. 

Mexican clover, 157. 

Middlings, 252. 

Milk, composition, weight, care of, test- 
ing, 308-319. 

Millet, 157; sometimes grown with cow- 
peas, 169. 

Mineral matter, in soil, 53-^54, 65-66; 
in animals, 238. 

Moisture, saving of, by tillage, 85- 
87. 

Muck soil 63, 66. 

Mulch, soil, 86. 

Mules, used on cotton plantations, 14 ; 
as draft animals, 35, 36. 

Multiplication of plants, 122-126. 

Musmon (mouflon), 274. 

Mustard family, 119, 120. 

Mutton production, 277-279. 

New England, agriculture in colonial, 

13; wheat raised in early, 147; the 

potato introduced into in 1718, 172. 
Nightshade family, 120. 
Nitrogen, stored up by soil bacteria, 

80; adding to soil for plant-food, 98; 

organic nitrogen, 100. 
Nitrogen-gathering crops, 79-80, 100. 
Nitrogenous matter in animals, 238-239, 

240. 
North America, plant geography of, 8- 

10. 
Nutrition of animals, 245. See Feeding 

and Food. 
Nutritive ratio of the feed for stock, 

249-250. 

Oats, hay from, 157. 
OU meal, 252. 
Orange hawkweed, 206. 
Orchard-grass, 157. 



338 



INDEX 



Orchard, location, treei, tilling and fer- 

tiliiing, 178 S. 
Organic matter in soil, 53-54, 64. 
Ornamental plants, 118. 
Ostrich farms, 36. 
Ottawa, Dominion experiment station 

at, 48. 

Paser, 258-259. 

Paint-brush, 206. 

Parasites of plants, 217-218. 

Paris green, 215. 

Pastures, permanent and temporary, 
158-160. 

Peach, soa for, 66, 179; site for, 178; 
planting distance, 179; derivation, 
characteristics, and propagation of 
the, 184-185. 

Pear, soil for, 66, 179; planting distance, 
179; site for, 178; history and method 
of propagation of the, 185. 

Peas, planting, 189. 

Peat soil, 63. 

Pedigrees of animals, 324-326. 

Percheron horses, 265. 

Petals of a flower, 1 12. 

Pets, 36. 

Phosphate as fertilizer, 97-98. 

Phosphoric acid, in fertilizers, 97-98. 

Pistil of a flower, 112. 

Plan of a farm, 24-25. 

Plant-breeding, 229-230. 

Plant-food. See Soil. 

Plant geography of North America, 8-10. 

Planting, of fruit trees, 179 ; of seeds in 
the farm garden, 189-190. 

Plants, those grown for food, 28; for 
manufacture, 28 ; for building, 30 ; 
for pleasure, 30; relation of, to soil 
fertility, 30; relation of, to climate, 
30; relation between farm work 
and, 32 ; societies of, 32-33 ; work of, 
in soil-making, 60 ; relation of water 
to growth of, 68; relation of soil air 
to growth of, 74 ; plant life in the 
soil, 78-81 ; food of, made available 
by tillage, 83-85 ; moisture saved for, 
by tillage, 85-87 ; nature of : parts, 
root system, leaf system, and habits, 
105-113; classification of, 114 ff . ; 
farm plants, 114; reasons for differ- 



ences in, 114-117; classification is 
based on these differences, 117—118 
classification by length of life, 118 
classification according to use, 118 
the botanist's classification, 119—120 
dissemination and multiplication of, 
122-126; Indian com or maize, 136- 
145; wheat, 146-154; grasses, 155- 
161; clovers, 162-165; alfalfa, 165- 
167; cowpeas, 167-169; the potato, 
171-176; apples, 184; peaches, 184- 
185; pears, plums, cherries, 185; in 
the farm garden, 187-192 ; trees in 
the woodlot, 194-201; weeds the 
enemies of useful, 203-209; insect 
enemies of, 210-216 ; diseases of, 217- 
223; the improvement of, by domes- 
tication, modification of present forms, 
and creation of new types, 224-232. 

Plowing, one method of introducing air 
into soil, 75-76. 

Plows, history of, 87-89 ; kinds of. 92. 

Plums, site for, 178; soil for, 179; plant- 
ing distance, 179; varieties and growth 
of, 185. 

Pod corn, 140. 

Poisons for use in sprasdng, 215. 

Pollen of a flower, 112. 

Popcorn, 140. 

Postal service, farmers and the, 46-47. 

Potash, a necessity for plant-food, 98. 

Potato, propagation, 125; history, place 
of in agriculture, the potato plant, 
etc., 171 ff. ; culture of the, 173-174 ; 
enemies of the, 174-175; uses, 175; 
beetles, 213. 

Poultry, origin, nature, breeds, care of, 
etc., 287-294. 

Poultry manure, 100. 

Propagation of plants, by seeds, 124; 
by roots, 125 ; by use of tubers, 
125 ; by cuttings, 125-126 ; by buds 
and grafts, 126-127. 

Protein, 245. 

Protoplasm of plants, 110-111. 

Pruning of fruit trees, 180-183. 

Pulse family, 119. 

Pyrethrum, 215. 

Quagga, the, a type of horse-like animal, 
254-255. 



ISTDEX 



339 



Queen bee, the, 207. 
Quince-trees, planting of, 179. 

Radish, study of a, 10&-107; planting, 189. 

Kailroads, the first, and their effect on 
farming, 14; importance of, to the 
farmer, 44. 

Kaspberries, 192. 

Ration, combination of food for ani- 
mals called a, 237 n. ; "balanced" 
rations, 248-249. 

Razorback hogs, 281. 

Rearing of hogs, 284-286. 

Red clover, 156, 163-164. 

Reservoirs, irrigation, 74. 

Rest required by farm animals, 242. 

Rice bran, 252. 

Roads, as an aid to the farmer, 45. 

Roadster horse, 258-259. 

Roller, the, 90-92. 

Root crops, 118, 250-251. 

Root-hairs of plants, 10^107. 

Root nodules, 80. 

Root system of plsmts, 105-107. 

Roots, propagation of plants by plant- 
ing, 125; varying length of, 130; in 
animals' food, 250-251. 

Rose family, 119. 

Rotation of crops, 25 ; securing a better, 
when animals are reared, 41; ex- 
planation of what constitutes, 128- 
129; reason for, 129-130; planning a 
system of, 130-132; history of, 132- 
134 ; importance of clover in, 162 ; 
destruction of weeds by, 207; de- 
struction of insects by, 214; lessens 
injury to plants from diseases that 
live in the soil, 222. 

Rural free delivery, 46-47. 

San Jos6, scale, 210-211. 

Sand, soil which is called, 64. 

Saskatchewan, 14. 

School, the, as an aid to the farmer, 42- 

44. 
School garden, the, 187, 192-193. 
Sediment deposited by water, 58. 
Seeds, propagation of plants by, 124; 

importance of planting clean, vigorous, 

220. 
Seed testing, 230-231. 



Selection, method of improving crops 
called, 227-229. 

Sheep, 38; numbers of, in Red Desert 
of Wyoming, 157; history, types, 
classification according to use, breeds, 
etc., 273-280. 

Sheep-farming in America, 279-280. 

Sheep manure, 100. 

Shelter required by farm animals, 242. 

Shire horses, 256. 

Shorthorn cattle, 266-267. • 

Shorts, 252. 

SUage, 251. 

Silkworms, 40. 

Silo, preservation of corn in the, 143- 
144. 

Skimmed milk, 310. 

Small fruits, 192. 

Societies, plant, 32-34. 

Soft corn, 140. , 

Soil, relation of plants to fertility of, 
30 ; the nature and derivation of, 53- 
55; work of the sun, air, water, ice, 
plants, and animals in making, 56- 
60; summary of what soil is, 60; 
names of soils: peat, muck, clay, 
loam, sand, and gravel, 63-64; com- 
position of, and its importance, 64-65 ; 
as a source of plant-food, 65-66 ; rela- 
tion of kind of, to type of farming 
carried on, 66-67 ; method of entrance 
of water into, 68-71 ; drainage of, 73 ; 
irrigation of, 74 ; relation of water to 
soil temperature, 73 ; necessity of air 
in, for plant growth, 74-76 ; plant life 
in, 78-79 ; inoculation of, 80 ; diseases 
of, 81; tillage of the, 82-94; effect 
of tillage on, 83-87 ; plant-food in the, 
95-97; improvement of, by supply- 
ing plant-food, or fertilization, 97— 
100; advice on preservation of, 100; 
best soil for fruit trees, 179 ; prepara- 
tion of, for the farm garden, 188-189. 

Soil air. 74-75. 

Soil fertility, relation of plants to, 30; 
animal manure an aid in, 40. 

Sorghum, 157. 

Soybean, the, 169. 

Specific gravity, defined, 319. 

Spinach, 189. 

Sprajdng, of fruit trees, 180-183; de- 



340 



INDEX 



Btniction of insects by, 214-216; con- 
trol of diseases by, 220-221. 

Spring wheat, 149. 

Squash, planting, 189. 

Stamens of a flower, 112. 

Stock (part of plant) defined, 126. 

Stock-farming, 32. 

Stomata of plants, 109. 

Strawberries, 192. 

Succulent foods, 251. 

Suffolk Punch horses, 257. 

Sugar in milk, 310. 

Sun, work of, in soil-making, 56. 

Swarming of bees, 299. 

Sweet clover, 169. 

Sweet com, 140 ; planting, 189. 

Sweet potatoes, 125, 175-176. 

Swine, history, nature, classification, 
breeds, and rearing of, 281-286. 

Telephone, use of, by the farmer, 45-46. 

Temperature, relation of water to soil 
temperature, 73. 

Tent-caterpillar, 210. 

Testing, milk, 314-315, 317-319 ; seed, 
230-231. 

Thoroughbred horse, the, 260. 

Tillage, history of, 82-83; effect of, on 
soils, 83-87; relation to plant-food, 
83-85 ; moisture saved by, 85-87 ; dry- 
farming a special kind of, 87 ; of fruit 
trees, 180 ; to destroy insects, 214. 

Tillage tools, history of, 87-92. 

Timber crops, 118. 

Timothy grass, soil for, 66, 156; derivation 
of name, origin, characteristics, etc., 160. 

Tools, history of tillage tools, 87-92; 
the use of, 92. 

Topography, the continental, 6-8; defi- 
nition of, 8. 

Training of horses, 260-261. 

Transpiration of water from leaves of 
plants, 68, fll. 

Transportation, dependence of the farmer 
on good means of, 44—45. 

Trap crops, 214. 

Trees, fruit, 178-185 ; in the woodlot, 
194 ff. ; variety of, in wood crops, 198- 
199; "dominant," "intermediate," 
"suppressed," "tolerant," or shade- 
enduring, 199. 



Trolley lines an aid to fai'mers, 45. 
Tubers, propagation of plants by use of, 

125, 173-174. 
Tull, Jethro, discovery of use of tillage 

by, 82-83. 
Tumble-weed, the, 123, 208. 
Turkey, 293. 
Turnips, 189. 

United States, area and topography of, 

6,8. 
Urus, 264. 

Values, comparison of agricultural, manu- 
facturing, and other industrial, 15- 
16. 

Variation in plants, 225-227. 

Vegetable crops, 118. 

Vegetable-gardening, 32. 

Vegetable matter in soil, 53, 54, 62. 

Vegetables, gathering of, 191 ; insect 
enemies of, 211. 

Vegetation, varieties of, in different 
climates, 8-10. 

Ventilation of soil, 74r-76. 

Vetches, 169. 

Virginia, first wheat and first cattle in 
colonies brought into, iS; introduc- 
tion of wheat into, 146; early culti- 
vation of timothy grass in, 160; 
potatoes grown in, 172; apples and 
peaches in, 184. 

Wagon-roads, necessity of good, to the 
farmer, 45. 

Washington, George, on agricultural 
fairs, 47; quoted on rotation of crops, 
133-134. 

Water, a factor in making of soil, 56-58 ; 
relation of, to plant growth, 68; 
statistics of amount of, required to 
make timothy hay, oats, barley, 
clover, etc., 68 n. ; methods of en- 
trance of, into soil, 68-70; how held 
in the soil, 71 ; method of movement 
of soil water, 71-72; drainage of, 
from soil, 73 ; relation of, to soil 
temperature, 73 ; abundance of, re- 
quired by farm animals, 237-238. 

Watering the farm garden, 190-191. 

Weeds, consideration of, 203 ff . ; annual. 



INDEX 



341 



biennial, and perennial, 206-209; lists 
of, 208-209; birds as destroyers of, 304. 

Weight of milk, 311. 

West, growth of agriculture in the, 14. 

Whale-oil soap, 215. 

Wheat, first brought from Europe by 
the Virginia colony, 13 ; history of, 
146; in colonial America, 146-147; 
extent of modem production of, 147; 
study of the plant of, 147-149; six 
different kinds of, 149; culture of, 
149-152; harvesting, 162-153; uses 
of, 163. 

White clover, 164-165. 

Wild beasts, domestication of, 35-36. 

Wild corn, found in Mexico, 140. 

Wild sheep, 273-274. 

Williams, Roger, on "Indian corne," 137. 

Winter wheat, 149. 



Wood ashes a good fertilizer, 98. 

Wood, considered as a crop, 194 ; im- 
portance of, to the farmer, 194-195; 
place of, on the farm, 196 ; distinction 
between wood crops and field crops, 
196 ; nature of the wood crop, 198- 
199 ; care of woodlot, 199-200. 

Wool production, importance and 
amount of, 276-277. 

Worker bees, 297-298. 

Wynch, Peter, 160. 

Young, Arthiu", letter from George 
Washington to, 133-134. 

Zebra, a type of horse-like animal, 254. 
Zebu, the, one of the two races of cattle, 
264-265. 



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