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BELFAST 
LITERARY SOCIETY 

1801-1901 



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BELFAST 

LITERARY SOCIETY 

1801-1901 



Historical Sketch 

With Memoirs of some Distinguished Members 



Belfast 

M'CAW, STEVENSON & ORR, LTD. 

The Linenhall Press 

1902 



THF NEW YO^K. « 



^^0^^>n 



Printed by 

Af'Caw, Stevenson &' Orr, Limited^ 

The UttenkcUl Press, 

Belfast. 



FOREWORD. 

/fT a meeting of tJu Belfast Literary Society in April igoi, 
it was unaniifwusly resolved " tJiat steps be taken to celebrate 
tJu Centenary of the Society, which completes a hundred years of 
existence upon 2jrd October, igoi, and tJiat the following gentlemen be 
appointed to decide in what manner this object could be most suitably 
attained, and to make tJu necessary arrangements : Professor Lindsay 
(^President), Mr. W. Steen (President-elect), Dr. R. Kyle Knox 
(ex-President), Professor Park, Rev. Dr. H. D. Murphy, Rev. R. IV. 
Seaver (Hon. Secretary j, Mr. R. M. Young, and Mr. George Smith 
(Convener)." 

In pursuance of this resolution, a Centenary Dinner was held upon 
October 2jrd, igoi, and it was also decided to publish the present 
volume, to which a series of memoirs of the distinguished men who 
in the past were members of the Society has been contributed by 
ladies and gentlemen who have special knowledge of their subjects. 
TJu Com-mittee tender tJieir most sincere tJianks to the writers of these 
articles, and to all others wJw have assisted them in the production 
of tJie volume. To Miss Bryce, Mr. Robert foy, Mr. George M'Caw, 
Mr. S. S. Millin, Dr. foseph Nelson, Mr. W. H. Patterson, Mr. fohn 
Stevenso7i, and Mr. R. M. Young, tliey are indebted for the loan of 
portraits from which tJie illustrations in this book are taken. 

It is the sad duty of the Committee to record here the deaths of 
two of the contributors — Sir William MacCortnac and Mrs. St elf ox — 
which ouurred during tlie preparation of the volume. 

William Steen. 
James A. Lindsay. 
R. Kyle Knox. 
John Park. 
H. D. Murphy. 
Robert M. Young. 
Richard W. Seaver. 
George Smith. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



PAGB. 



Historical Sketch, by George Smith i 

Memoirs of Distinguished Members — 

James M'Donnell, by R. M. Young, Esq., r.a., m.r.i.a 25 

William Bruce, d.d., by the Rev. Alexander Gordon, m. a 29 

William Hamilton Drummond, by his grandson, the Rev. 

W. H. Drummond, b.a 37 

Henry Joy, by Isaac W. Ward, Esq 43 

John Templeton, by the Rev. C H. Waddell 45 

John Knox, by Isaac W. Ward, Esq 47 

William Bruce, a.b., by the Rev. Alexander Gordon, m.a 48 

William 1). H. M'Ewen, by S. Shannon Millin, Esq., b.l 51 

William Neilson, d.d., m.r.i.a., by Joseph Nelson, Esq., m.d... 55 

James Thomson, a.m., ll.d., by the Rev. Thomas Hamilton, d.d., 

President of Queen's College, Belfast 60 

William Cairns, ll.d. [an article written by William Bottomley, 

extra6led from the Minutes] 67 

Thomas Dix Hincks, ll.d., by Dr. Cecil E. Shaw, m.a 69 

Henry Montgomery, by the Rev. Alexander Gordon, m.a 71 

George C. Hyndman, by his nephew, Hugh Hyndman, Esq., ll.d. 76 

Henry MacCormac, m.d., by his son, the late Sir Wm. MacCormac 80 

Edmund Getty, by R. M. Young, Esq., b.a., m.r.i.a 82 

Robert Patterson, f.r.s., by his son, Robert Lloyd Patterson, 

Esq. , M. R.I. A 85 

James Macadam, f.g.s., by R. M. Young, Esq., b.a., m.r.i.a 88 

The Rev. John Scott PoR^-ii-K, by his son, the Right Hon. Sir 

Andrew Marshall Portv.r, Bart., Master of the Rolls for Ireland 91 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

PAGE. 

William Thompson, by the Rev. C. K. Pooler, m.a 98 

RoiJERT S. Macadam, by R. M. Young, Esq., b.a., m.r.i.a 100 

John Grattan, by R. M. Young, Esq., b.a., m.r.la 10 1 

Professor Thomas Andrews, by his daughter, Miss Elizabeth 

Andrews 102 

W. Neilson Hancock, ll.d., q.c, by Sergeant Dodd, k.c 105 

Joseph John Murphy, by the Rev. Richard W. Seaver, a.m., b.d. 109 

Charles Parsons Reichel, Bishop of Meath, by his son, 
H. R. Reichel, Esq., ll.d.. Principal, University College of 

North Wales 1 1 1 

The Rev. Edward Hincks, d.d., by the Rev. Charles Scott, m.a. 116 

William Reeves, d.d.. Bishop of Down and Connor and 

Dromore, by the Rev. Richard W. Seaver, a.m., b.d 119 

Professor James Thomson, ll.d., d.sc, by his son, James 

Thomson, Esq 122 

Sir C. Wvville Thomson, ll.d., d.sc, f.r.s., by the Rev. Thomas 

Hamilton, d.d.. President of Queen's College, Belfast 124 

Henry Burden, m.d., by his son, A. M. Burden, Esq., c.e. ... 128 

Charles MacDouall, ll.d., by Professor John Park, d.lit 130 

Reuben John Brvce, ll.d., by his nephew, R. M. Young, Esq., 

B.A., m.r.i.a 135 

John Frederick Hodges, m.d., f.i.c, f.c.s., j.p., by his daughter. 

Miss Hodges 137 

The Rev. James Glasgow, d.d., by Sinclare Ramsey, Esq 139 

The Rev, William MacIlwaine, d.d., by his daughter, the late 

Mrs. Stelfox 142 

James Cuming, m.d., by R. Kyle Knox, Esq., ll.d 144 

Samuel James MacMullan, by Professor John Park, d.lit 147 

Appendix I. List of Officers of the Society, 1801-1901 151 

Appendix II. Alphabetical List of Members, with titles of their 

papers, 1801-1901 155 



LIST OF PORTRAITS. 



PAGE. 

James M'Donnell, u.-D.,from the bust in the Belfast Museum... facing title-page 

William Bruce, d.d., from an engraving by R. Hodgett, after T. C. 

Thompson, in the possession of Robert M. Young, Esq., m.r.i.a... 27 

William H. Drummond, d.d., from an oil painting by Thomas Robinson, 

in the possession of Rev. R. B. Drummond 35 

Henry Joy, from a miniature in the possession of Robert Joy, Esq 41 

William Neilson, d.d., from a miniature in the possession of Dr. 

Joseph Nelson 53 

William Cairns, d.d., from the drawing by Day (see page 17), now 

hanging in the Belfast Museum 65 

Robert Patterson, f.r.s., from a photograph in the possession of 

W. H. Patterson, Esq., m.r.i.a 83 

Rev. John Scott Porter, from an engraving in the possession of 

George C. M'Caw, Esq 89 

Reuben John Brvce, ll.d., from a photograph in the possession of 

Miss Bryce 133 



BELFAST LITERARY SOCIETY 
HISTORICAL SKETCH. 



THE 
BELFAST LITERARY SOCIETY. 

HISTORICAL SKETCH. 

1801-1901. 

IT is always interesting- in reviewing the history of an institution 
to learn something of the aims of those with whom it originated. 
Sometimes, after a lapse of years, uncertainty on this point 
prevails, owing to the want of authentic information. Fortunately 
in the case of the Belfast Literary Society, one of its founders has 
recorded, in an article which appeared in the Belfast News-Letter 
for January 6th, 181 5, the objects which it was designed to fulfil. 
It is gratifying to know that after one hundred years of trial, the 
same principles guide the members to-day as actuated those of a 
century ago, 

" One object in forming the Belfast Literary Society," this 
article tells us, " was to secure an evening in ever}- month for 
literary conversation, for which the regular paper and the extra 
memoirs might furnish a subject. Without an institution of this 
kind, there can be no bond of union, nor any opportunit}- for select 
intercourse among literary and scientifical, or intelligent and inquisi- 
tive men. But in such a Society useful subjects may be discussed ; 
the solitary theories of the study corrected by the collision of 
different opinions ; difficulties solved by the suggestions of those to 
whose peculiar province they may belong ; more liberal ideas formed 
by the members, of each other's pursuits and characters ; and a 
chance afforded of co-operation in some useful design. 

" For this purpose, it is not necessary that the Society be 
numerous ; but it is desirable that such an attendance may be 



4 HISTORICAL SKETCH. 

secured as may add an interest to the composition and delivery of 
the stated discourses. — To encourage such an attendance of members, 
the rules have been framed on the most liberal plan, and the duties 
required are such as no man, who has any wish or pretensions to join 
such an association, can object to. Such persons, whether in pro- 
fessional, mercantile, or more private situations, the Society have 
always, with great pleasure, received into their number. 

"Accordingly, the discussions that have occupied their time are 
suited to every class of intelligent men. Some of their members 
have furnished a variety of papers on the topography, natural 
history, and mineralogy ; others on the antiquities, civil history, and 
manufactures of this province. Some have applied for the solution of 
practical questions connected with science, arts, and manufactures ; 
while the different departments of ancient learning, modern literature, 
and metaphysics have exercised the pens of others. Some memoirs 
have treated of law, commerce, and political economy ; others of sub- 
jects purely scientifical, and a few of medicine Although 

no particular class of subject is expressly excluded, theological 
controversy and the political questions of the day have been, by 
general consent, avoided." 

In these broad principles and aims, we see the true secret of 
the durability of the Society. Small in numbers as its membership 
has ever been, with no permanent place of meeting, depending 
entirely for its continuance on the mental activity and social 
qualities of its handful of members, could one have hoped, as 
larger societies, with more definite and limited objects, arose, that 
it would survive even a generation ? Twice, indeed, in the hundred 
years of its history has it been threatened with extinction, but on 
both occasions, the members, realizing how much they were attached 
to its objects, have rallied together to prevent such a fate. 

This says much for the wisdom of the founders of the Society — 
the twelve men who met together in the Exchange Rooms, Belfast, 
on October 23rd, 1801, for the purpose of its formation. Most of 



HISTORICAL SKETCH. 5 

their names are familiar to us as those which are writ large in the 
history of the city. First on the list is Dr. Bruce, to whom Belfast 
owes so much that is best in her institutions. Next follows the 
Rev. William Hamilton Drummond, then only 23 years of age, 
yet already pastor of the Second Belfast Presbyterian Congregation. 
Further down the list, we come to Henry Joy, chiefly remembered 
for his researches into local antiquities ; John Templeton, the 
naturalist ; and three members of the medical faculty, all of whom 
have left substantial records in the general progress of Belfast, as well 
as in their own particular sphere — S. M. Stephenson, S. S. Thomson, 
and James M'Donnell. 

The last-named was elected President ; Dr. Bruce, Vice-President ; 
and Dr. Thomson, Secretary, at a meeting on November 9th, 1801. 
A third meeting, at which Dr. M'Donnell read an inaugural discourse, 
was held on November i6th, and by this time a series of Regulations 
had been agreed to. By these Regulations, the first Monday before 
each full moon was appointed as the day of meeting, to give way 
later on, perhaps on account of the streets being better lighted, to the 
first Monday in the month. The session was from October to May. 
Papers on subjects relating to literature, science, or the arts, were 
to be read by the members in rotation, and, in the event of " the 
Author for the night failing to produce his paper," he was subject to 
a fine of half-a-guinea, and the rules declared that, " to prevent dis- 
appointment, the person next in order shall be called on under penalty 
of a Crown, and both shall be required to produce their papers at the 
succeeding meeting." This rule, though it usually secured the delivery 
of papers, did not provide for an audience, and in January 1804 a rule 
was passed, imposing a fine of is. id. " on every resident member who is 
not present at the hour of meeting, 7 o'clock, and that no apologies be 
admitted." As to visitors, the rules provide " the President in the chair 
the Author of the Paper for the Night, and the Secretary, to have each 
the Privilege of introducing a Visitor." Afterwards, by a resolution 
on January 6th, 1806, this privilege was extended to all members. 



6 HISTORICAL SKETCH. 

The first meetings of the Society were held in the Exchange 
Rooms, but, before the end of the first session, this arrangement fell 
through, and in April 1802 a meeting was held in the rooms of the 
Secretary. It was then resolved to apply to the Committees of the 
Belfast Society for Promoting Knowledge and of the Linen Hall for 
liberty to meet in their large rooms. The minutes of the following 
meeting, held in Dr. Bruce's house, record the permission of the 
former Committee, but it is not clear whether the Linen Hall 
authorities acceded to the request, and the Society's place of meeting 
for some years is uncertain. 

However, after January 1804, they were prevented from meeting 
at their usual place, wherever that was, and Dr. Bruce proposed the 
holding of meetings in the houses of the members, in rotation, " and 
that no refreshment shall be introduced except tea or coffee." For 
a few meetings this course was followed, but afterwards a room in 
the house of Gaetano Fabrini, a drawing-master, was used, and 
Dr. M'Donnell, on behalf of the Society, presented Fabrini with 
a book costing three guineas, in requital for this convenience. Other- 
wise the minutes only occasionally record the meeting-place, and the 
practice up to 181 2 seems to have varied. In February of that year 
however. Dr. Bruce succeeded in carrying a resolution for holding all 
the meetings of a session at the house of a Belfast member. The 
following order is given : 

In Dr. M'Donnell's, Session that ends May 181 2. 



In Mr. Joy's, 
In Mr. Knox's, 
In Mr, Jebb's, 
In Dr. Bruce's, 
In Mr. Comines's, 
In Dr. Stephenson's, 



1813. 
1 8 14. 
1815. 
1816. 
1817. 
1818. 



Out of this practice arose the present custom of holding all the 
meetings of a session in the house of the President. 



HISTORICAL SKETCH. J 

From their earliest meetings, special attention was paid to 
scientific questions, and the deservedly high reputation acquired in 
consequence is referred to by Malcolm in his History of the Geyieral 
Hospital, Belfast (ed. 185 1), p. 20 : 

" The growth of science, as a special object of cultivation, ma)- be 
said to date from the origin of the Literary Society, already noticed, 
which for many years did good service in the cause. The names of 
Stephenson, Drummond, Bruce, Richardson, and others, who con- 
tributed a number of important philosophical transactions, which were 
published from time to time, will be long remembered." 

We shall have occasion later on to speak of the publications 
alluded to by Malcolm. Of the names specially mentioned, three 
were original members ; Richardson, the fourth, was elected a corres- 
ponding member ; and it is interesting to note, in the election of this 
class of member, the effort made to put the Society in touch with 
the researches being made in other places. In addition to Dr. 
Richardson, who resided at Clonfeacle, in the Count}' Armagh, Dr. 
James Curry of London, Dr. Boisragon of Bath, Dr. Whitley Stokes 
of Dublin, were also, during the first session, elected corresponding 
members. 

The work which was being accomplished at this time b)- the 
Royal Dublin Society, in publishing Statistical Surveys of the various 
counties of Ireland, seems to have attracted the attention of the Belfast 
Literary Society, as we find them projecting an ambitious work on 
the County of Antrim, before the end of 1802 — the year the Statistical 
account of County Down appeared in Dublin. Dr. Bruce proposed 
the appointment of three Committees — Historical, Statistical, and 
Philosophical — for dealing with the work. For a time the design was 
vigorously pushed forward ; endeavours were made to discover a lost 
book of record, commonly called " the Clasped Book," kept from an 
early period by the Corporation of the Town ; communications were 
obtained from various parts of the count}', giving accounts of towns 
and parishes ; and for some time most of the papers read by members 



8 HISTORICAL SKETCH. 

before the Society were evidently prepared for embodiment in this 
description of the count) \ But after the matter had been in hand for 
more than a session, enthusiasm seems to have cooled, for the Minutes 
of March 1804 record that, " after much conversation respecting the 
statistical history of County Antrim, it was moved by Mr. Drummond 
that a meeting of the Society be held on Monday, 9th April, to 
consider the question at large." When called together specially to 
discuss the matter, the members decided to proceed with their original 
plan, and at intervals further contributions toward this object appear 
to have been written, principally by M'Donnell, Stephenson, and 
Drummond. The general interest of the members in the compilation 
gradually failed, and the subject was, in 1806, to a large extent, 
shelved, in favour of a scheme of publishing Select papers read before 
the Society. By this time a wide field of subjects had been treated in 
the monthly papers and memoirs ; and although, by the retirement of 
a number of the original members, especially of John Templeton and 
S. S. Thomson, the Society may have been weakened in certain 
departments, still five of the founders — Bruce, M'Donnell, Drummond, 
Stephenson, and Joy — displayed interest in a variety of subjects, and 
were well supported by two of the elected members. Dr. Cupples and 
John Knox. A corresponding member also, D. B. Warden of New 
York, a native of the north of Ireland, sent several contributions 
through Dr. Stephenson. He also, in February 1804, presented 
a collection of fossils and American curiosities. These were deposited 
in the rooms of the Belfast Society for Promoting Knowledge. 
Further additions to the small Museum thus formed were made from 
time to time, and were placed in the same building. Warden became 
Secretary of the United States Legation in Paris, and held that post 
for many years ; he never forgot his connection with the Society, and 
always presented a copy of his published writings. Dr. Cupples 
favoured local history and antiquities, in which he shared the tastes of 
Joy and Stephenson. Drummond also sometimes worked in the same 
field, but occasionally gave variety to the Society's proceedings by 



HISTORICAL SKETCH. 9 

reading his own poems to the assembled members. Knox's con- 
tributions were astronomical or physical ; iM'D(jnneirs early papers, 
geological ; whilst Dr. Bruce's studies in classical literature did not 
hinder his making meteorological observations. In 1806, James 
Drummond, a brother of the writer of Trafalgar, j(jined the Society, 
and occasionally contributed papers on medicine or zoolog}'. 

The Rev. T. Higginson also became a member of the Society, and 
the minutes record that, on December 5th, 1808, he " read a paper on 
the Parish of Lambeg, which lie ackncjwledged to be imperfect, and 
promised to make good the deficiency at some future opportunity." 

Questions were propounded and solutions offered at the meetings ; 
some of the points raised seem quaint to our present-day ideas. On 
January nth, 1802, "Doctor Stephenson proposes the following ques- 
tion : ' Why do the tops of vegetables shoot towards the light and the 
roots from it ; and consequently the upper and under side of leaves?'" 
On May 2nd, 1803, "A Letter from Dr. Hamilton, Astronomer, of 
Armagh, in Answer to one from Mr. Joy, written with the appro- 
bation of this Society at its last meeting — was read — in which the 
Doctor politely offered his assistance in ascertaining the Longitude 
and Latitude of Belfast." 

The idea of publishing a selection of the papers contributed at the 
meetings was warmly supported, and on the 5th of May, 1806, "as 
Periodical Publications may tend to the Usefulness and Reputation of 
the Society, and incite a common Interest among the members," an 
elaborate plan of publication was resolved upon. To prevent loss, 
each member was to take ten copies of every memoir, and each 
member was to enjoy any profit arising from his own publication ; 
further, if the Society should become possessed of any funds, they 
were to be applied, in the first place, to indemnify any members who 
had lost by their publications. This arrangement, satisfactory as it 
no doubt appeared to the authors who desired to publish their 
writings, was afterwards felt to be impracticable, for in April 1808 
considerable changes were made in this plan of publication. The 



10 HISTORICAL SKETCH. 

" Benefit and Risque of publication " was " to be a Society concern, 
save where the Author may desire to publish at his own Risque, and 
for his own Benefit, his paper having been previously selected by the 
Committee of Revision for publication." The first number (or 
fasciculus as it was called) was then in the printer's hands, and 500 
copies were ordered to be printed, " which," the minutes record, " after 
serving the 8 Members with 10 copies each, will leave 420 for sale in 
Belfast, Dublin, Edinburgh, and London, or elsewhere. The ex- 
perience of the Sale of this Impression to direct the Number in future." 
Smyth & Lyons were the printers, and Archer the bookseller. The 
latter, we learn, proposed to charge 1 5 per cent, on sales out of Belfast, 
and on his own sales in town " to charge a mere trifle." The Com- 
mittee of Revision, consisting of Bruce, M'Donnell, and Joy, selected 
for publication in the first fasciculus, a paper on Fiorin Grass, by 
Dr. Richardson, and The Relation of an Aerostatic Voyage, by Guy 
Lussac, member of the National Institute of France: this was 
transmitted by D. B. Warden, who was a friend of the author. The 
second fasciculus contained a paper by Dr. Stephenson on The 
History of the Linen Manufacticre in the County of Antrim, and 
another by John Christy on The Mode of Cultivating Flax and Saving 
the Seed. For the printing of these two fasciculi, £$0 is. appears to 
have been charged; and four members (Bruce, M'Donnell, Drummond, 
and Joy), on November 13th, 1809, advanced the money to pay this 
bill. Six weeks later, on December 29th, a third fasciculus was 
issued, containing a memoir on The Influence of Political Revolutions on 
the Progress of Religion, by Dr. Bruce, and two memoirs by D. B. 
Warden, one on The Upas Tree, and the other on The Bark of 
Magnolia Tripetalata of Virginia. Long ere this. Dr. M'Donnell had 
promised a paper for publication, but in spite of frequent requests and 
expostulations, recorded on the minutes, it was not forthcoming. The 
preparation of a fourth fasciculus was urgently insisted upon, and 
in April 1811, Dr. Bruce was requested "to put his paper to the press, 
that it may be printed before Dr. M'Donnell's, by which it is to be 



HISTORICAL SKETCH. II 

accompanied, and which Dr. M'Donnell thinks will be ready in a 
month." M'Donnell procrastinated still further it seems, for the fourth 
fasciculus, according to an advertisement in the Belfast News-Letter 
of September i8th, 1811, was not published until that day. Even 
then it did not contain the paper by M'Donnell, though Bruce's 
memoir on The Advantages of Classical Education was included, as 
well as his Meteorological Obserz'ations, and a memoir on The Prismatic 
Coloured Rings of Sir Isaac Newton, by John Knox. 

The financial results of the publishing venture had not been 
encouraging, and it is not surprising that the Societ}-, on December 
2nd, 181 1, resolved that in future the expense of publication should 
be borne by the author or undertaker of a fasciculus, though each 
member, as before, was to take 10 copies. Of these 10, part were to 
remain with the Secretar}', so as to leave a stock of 50 copies for 
future publication of the Society's papers in volumes. The remainder 
of each member's 10 copies were to be delivered to him. It was 
now time to consider the payment of the bills incurred. The cost 
of the third fasciculus absorbed all the Societ}''s cash. Dr. Bruce 
generously paid all the cost of the fourth fasciculus, but there still 
remained the debt of ^50 \s. owing to the four members who had 
advanced it in 1809. Already an annual subscription of half-a-guinea 
had been imposed, but, with a membership of ten only, repayment of 
the loan seemed a long way off, and in March 1812 it was resolved to 
increase this to one guinea per annum, in order the sooner to discharge 
the liabilit}-. In the careful hands of Henry Joy this task was 
accomplished by October 7th, 18 16, and on that date, he, as Secretar)' 
and Treasurer, was able to report that there remained, after this 
repayment, a balance of £(> is. id. Some of the more optimistic 
spirits at once desired to resume publishing, and Stephenson, and 
even M'Donnell, agreed to prepare papers with a view to publication. 
For some reason or other M'Donnell could never be prevailed upon to 
do so, and although, as time wore on, Stephenson's manuscript was 
ready, and a Committee of Revision appointed to deal with it as late 



12 HISTORICAL SKETCH. 

as 1 82 1, yet the matter seems to have been further postponed, and 
gradually fell through. 

This attempt at publication, far from interfering with the general 
work of the Society, rather gave it a stimulus: the meetings were 
regularly held, and papers delivered, in spite of the fact that for some 
years only a few new members were admitted. Of these, the best known 
is the Rev. William Bruce. His early efforts deal with such subjects as 
The Chronology of the New Testament, and An Account of the Different 
MSS. and Editions of the Bible. Later, he, like his father, inclined to 
classical subjects. Dr. Bruce at this time commenced to deliver 
before the Society a series of papers on The Homeric Age : a work 
which he eventually published. He was ever thoughtful for the 
practical improvement of the Society, and it was he who, in October 
1 8 14, drew up a precis of the proceedings of the Society to that date. 
This precis, with some emendations, was ordered to be entered on the 
minutes, and occurs at the commencement of the second minute book. 
It is followed by " A list of Natural Curiosities and Specimens in the 
possession of the Belfast Literary Society, deposited in the Library of 
the Belfast Society for Promoting Knowledge," and a list of "Books 
and Papers belonging to the Society not yet collected or deposited." 

At the commencement of the same session, 18 14- 15, it was felt 
desirable to increase the membership, and it was to attract interest in 
the Society that a series of notes on its work appeared in the Belfast 
newspapers of that time : among these was the article which has been 
quoted at the commencement of this chapter. These do not seem, 
however, to have borne much fruit, whilst the need for new-comers 
became still more felt when W. Hamilton Drummond retired on his 
appointment as colleague to Dr. James Armstrong at Strand Street, 
Dublin. A further loss occurred in the withdrawal of John Knox, but 
shortly after this the effort to secure fresh members resulted success- 
fully. Between 1817 and 1821 eight members joined the Society: 
William Knight, the Rev. W. D. H. M'Ewen, the Rev. W. Neilson, 
James Thomson, William Cairns, the Rev. T. Dix Hincks, Monsieur 



HISTORICAL SKETCH. 1 3 

D'Oisy, and James Stuart. Of these, all except Stuart afterwards 
became Presidents, and two (M'Ewen and Cairns) Secretaries of the 
Society. A variety of new thought was now brought to the discussions, 
and the papers took even a wider range than before. Mathematical and 
astronomical problems occupied the first place in James Thomson's 
contributions; Neilson, before his sudden death on April 26th, 1821, 
read papers before the Society on two subjects dear to him, on Moods, 
and Remarks on Gaelic Authors and Autiquities ; Cairns wrote of 
University History ; and Dix Hincks, amidst his historical researches, 
found time for miscellaneous subjects. D'Oisy, a master at the 
Academical Institution, usually treated of Italian and French literature, 
but some of his later papers were on military topics, subjects of which 
he, as a former officer of the first Napoleon, should have had some- 
thing interesting to tell. 

Occasionally antiquities were exhibited at the meetings, as, on 
April 3rd, 1820, when the minutes record that "A curious antique 
Handbell and Cover were produced at the meeting, in the possession 
of Mr, Adam M'Clean. The Cover is highly ornamented, and contains 
an ancient inscription in the Irish character, implying that the cover is 
of the eleventh century." In April 1823 it is also recorded that "Dr. 
Bruce read an Extra Memoir on an ancient illuminated Manuscript on 
Vellum, which Mr. Boyd of Ballycastle informed him had long been 
preserved in an old family of Roman Catholics in his neighbourhood. 
It was produced at the meeting. Its title is The Golden Book, con- 
taining chiefly an account of the Life and Passion of our Saviour, taken 
mostly from the Scriptures, by Bonaventura." Again, in May 1824, 
Mr. Rose Cleland, a visitor, " exhibited a copy of an ancient manuscript 
of the Gospel of Xicodemus, and read a part of it." In April 1822 
a meeting- somewhat different from usual seems to have been held. 
Henry Joy read a portion of a preface intended for the second volume 
of Edmund Bunting's Collection of Ancient Irish Music. "After the 
close of the business of the night, Valentine Rainy, preceptor in the 
Irish Harp Society, exemplified the capabilities of the Instrument, by 



14 HISTORICAL SKETCH. 

playing several airs on it, Irish and others, chiefly with relation to the 
paper of the night." This was one of the last papers read before the 
Society by Henry Joy ; at the end of 1822-23 session he resigned the 
office of Secretary and Treasurer, which he had held since 181 1, and 
in October 1S24 he withdrew from active connection with the Society. 
Before this, however, he had brought in a motion for holding the 
meetings on the first Friday instead of the first Monday of the month. 
This was passed, and acted upon until November 1825, when the 
Monday meetings were resumed. Another original member, Dr. 
Stephenson, had preceded Henry Joy in retiring from the Society. 
This he did in 1821, and he, like Joy, was elected an honorary 
member. 

In spite of the loss of their old associates. Dr. Bruce and Dr. 
M'Donnell still continued their unabated interest in the meetings, the 
former, at this time, proposing a further departure in the proceedings. 
In consequence, a series of resolutions in favour of the purchase of 
" valuable books on the principal branches of knowledge, contemplated 
in this Institution, as are not likely to be otherwise accessible to the 
members," were adopted on January 7th, 1825, 

Among the new members elected before the end of 1826, were the 
Rev. James Seaton Reid and the Rev. Henry Montgomery, the latter 
of whom became President, and for a long time continued his 
connection with the Society. 

Dr. Henry MacCormac was elected a member in May 1828, and 
during his brief connection with the Society read two papers, one on 
The Formation of Character, and the other on The U^iiversal Method 
of Education offacotot, in the course of which the system was illustrated 
by an examination of fourteen pupils of Mr. Harkins on some portions 
of Johnson's Rasselas. He was appointed President for the session 
1829-30, and his year of office was marked by the removal of 
curiosities and specimens belonging to the Society, from the Linen 
Hall, where they had been deposited with the Belfast Society for 
Promoting Knowledge. Of these the antiquities were given to the 



HISTORICAL SKETCH. I 5 

Belfast Academical Institution, whilst the animals and minerals were 
handed over to the Belfast Natural History Society, then only estab- 
lished a few years. In the same session, the fines levied on those late 
or absent, which, since 1821, had stood at lod. for the former offence 
and IS. Sd. for the latter, were altered, on account of the change of 
currency, to "one shilling and sixpence for absence, and sixpence for 
lateness." Unfortunately, Dr. MacCormac resigned his membership 
in January 1831, and thus early in his career withdrew his vigorous 
influence. 

The close connection with the Natural History Society, as. we have 
already seen, so well begun by the donation of minerals and other 
specimens, had been further strengthened by the election, in February 
1830, of two of the most prominent men in that Society — Edmund Getty 
and Robert Patterson — and may be said to have been finally cemented 
at the Literary Society's meeting in April 1831, when it was resolved 
unanimously — " That this Society shall contribute Fifty Pounds to the 
funds of the Belfast Natural History Society, and that Mr. Bruce, 
Dr. Thomson, and Mr. Cairns be appointed to confer with a Com- 
mittee of the Natural History Society, and to make such arrangements 
as may be most conducive to mutual advantage and accommodation." 
A copy of the letter in acknowledgment of this, received from the 
Secretary of the Natural History Society, is entered on the minutes, 
and reads as follows : 

To THE Secretary of the 

Belfast Literary Society. 
Sir, 

The members of the Belfast Natural History Society have been informed by Messrs. 
Mitchell, Getty, and Patterson of your very handsome donation of Fifty Pounds to their 
Museum. They desire me to express their due acknowledgments of such liberality, and, as 
a proof of their sense of the obligation, to offer to the members of the Literary .Society for 
twenty years, from the ist of May next, the privilege of visiting their Museum whenever it is 
open during the day to their own members, and the use of a room for holding their meetings, 
if required. They will likewise allow the Books and Manuscripts of the Literary Society to 
be placed in their Library in a case, appropriated to that purpose, the members of both 
Societies having free access to the books of either. 



1 6 HISTORICAL SKETCH. 

These privileges are offered in the expectation that the constitution of the Literary 
Society will undergo no material change. But if such an alteration should take place, and 
the Natural History Society feel seriously incommoded by the arrangement now proposed, 
they reserve the power of dissolving the connection and repaying such proportion of the £^0 
as three members appointed by each Society shall deem fair and equitable. 

Confidently expecting that this alternative may never prove necessary, and that the two 
Societies may ever be found anxious and willing to promote the views and forward the 
purposes of the other, 

I have the honour to tje, Sir, 

Your very obedient servant, 

(Signed), GEO. C. HYNDMAN, 
Belfast, 20//1 April, 1831. Secy. 

Mr. Hyndman himself, the writer of the letter, became a member of 
the Literary Society in 1836 : a .step in which several other prominent 
members of the Natural History Society — notably James MacAdam, 
elected in i83i,and William Thfjinpson, admitted in 1834 — had pre- 
ceded him. AncAher important new-comer was the Rev. John Scott 
Porter, who was enrolled in January 1833. Besides these, several others 
were admitted ; but in spite of this, the attendance at meetings was not 
considered satisfactory, for in April 1838 several resolutions were 
passed with reference to the attendance of members, the most im- 
portant of which provided that "Any gentleman who has been, or 
hereafter shall be, ab.sent for one entire session, without assigning a 
sufficient reason for such absence, shall cease to be a member." 
Though not without effect, these resolutions did not altogether succeed 
in securing good attendances or a regular supply of papers ; and it 
would appear to have been dissatisfaction with this state of things 
that led to the holding of a meeting in the Belfast Museum, 21st 
October, 1839, for the purpose of considering whether it would be 
advisable to continue or to dissolve the Society. Five members only — 
Dr. Cairns, Robert Patterson, H. Garrett, J. T. Tennent, and William 
Thompson — are recorded as being present, but the " result of their 
free conversaticMi " on the subject is given as follows in the minutes : 
" As they found that a sufficient number were willing to furnish papers 



HISTORICAL SKETCH. 17 

in succession, they resolved to continue tlie meetinf^s for one session 
more ; and to take into consideration some arran^^ements that were 
suggested for increasing the number of members, and securing 
regularity in conducting the business." 

The danger having been thus happily averted for the time, at a 
later meeting in November it was decided to abolish the annual 
subscription, only requiring new members to pay an entrance fee of 
one guinea. This they were able to do, as they had a balance of £$0 
in hand, notwithstanding that they had for some years expended a 
portion of the subscriptions received in the purchase of books and 
periodicals. Many of these may still be found on the shelves of the 
Belfast Museum. 

In spite of the recommendations for securing new members, four 
only were admitted during the next ten years, of whom William 
Bottomley and John Grattan were the most important. Meanwhile, 
many of the older members had passed away, and the death of the 
first President, who had seen so many changes in the personnel of 
the Society, is chronicled in the minutes of a meeting held on 
14th April, 1845, when "Mr. Bruce called attention to the death of 
Dr. M'Donnell (on Saturday, the 5th inst.), the only one of the original 
members of the Society (instituted in October 1801) who continued 
to be connected with it : when all present expressed their high sense 
of the value of his services to the Societ)-, and the warm interest which 
he took in all its concerns to the very last moment of his life." One 
of the original members — the Rev. W. Hamilton Drummond — was still 
living at that time, and survived twenty years longer until 1865, but 
his connection with the Society was severed, it will be remembered, 
on his removal to Dublin in 181 5. 

The labours of Dr. Cairns in the office of Secretary received 
recognition in April 1844, a portrait of him being then presented 
to the Society, with this inscription, in William Thompson's 
handwriting : 

"This Miniature of the Rev. Dr. Cairns was painted by Mr. C. W. 



l8 HISTORICAL SKETCH. 

Day (a London artist), in March 1843, at the request of 

Wm. Thompson, Rev. \Vm. Bruce, 

VVm. Bottomley, Rev. Wm. Hamilton, 

Geo. C. Hyndman, Henr\- Garrett, 

Robt. Patterson, Edmund Getty, 

and is by them presented to the Belfast Literary Society, of which 
Dr. Cairns has been the zealous and effective Secretarj' for 1 5 )-ears." 
The portrait in question now hangs in the Belfast Museum. 

Its original continued Secretary until his death, the minutes for the 
9th February, 1848, being the last in his handwriting ; they are followed 
by an obituary notice upon him, written by William Bottomley for 
the Northern W)iig, of Saturday, 22nd April, 1S49. Apparently no 
further meetings were held until the 22nd November in the latter year, 
the Society being then convened under the circumstances recorded as 
follows : 

" At a meeting of the Council of the Natural History and 
Philosophical Society, held at Holywood House, the residence of 

William Thompson, Esq., on the * 1849, where a number of the 

members of the Literar}- Society were present, some conversation 
took place respecting that body and its future proceedings, and it was 
agreed to authorize Mr. Getty to take charge of the minute books, and 
summon a meeting to be held at the Museum at an earl\- day. 

"Under date 19th November, 1S49, he issued a circular addressed 
to all the members, Mr. Thompson, who is from home, excepted ; viz., 
Messrs. R. M'Adam, James M'Adam, Jas. M'Adam, jun.. Rev. William 
Bruce, Rev. J. S. Porter, Rev. T. D. Hincks, H. Garrett, R. Patterson, 
G. C. Hyndman. Wm. Bottomley, Alexander Mitchell, J. T. Tennent, 
John Grattan, to meet on Thursday evening, 22nd November, at 
8 o'clock, at the Museum." 

The members readih' responded to the call ; an enthusiastic meeting 
was held, and it was resolved — " That, in the opinion of this meeting, 
the Belfast Literary Society, a body established so early as the year 

* Date left bl.uik. 



HISTORICAL SKETCH. I9 

1 801, and which has numbered amongst its members many of the 
leading inhabitants of Belfast and its vicinity, should be continued, as 
affording a means for bringing together many persons of general 
literary taste not connected with societies established for the pro- 
motion of particular branches of knowledge." An annual subscription 
of los. 6d. was decided upon, but after a time this was discontinued by 
a resolution, repeated each year. The Rev. John Scott Porter was 
elected President for the session ; Edmund Getty, Secretary ; and 
Robert Patterson, Treasurer. Under these officers, the work of the 
Society was carried on with increased energy. In Januar)' 1850 six 
new members were admitted, among them — Joseph John Murphy, 
Nelson Hancock, and Dr. Thomas Andrews. Shortly afterwards, the 
Rev. Edward Hincks and the Rev. Dr. Reeves were elected corre- 
sponding members, and became interested in the Society. A junction 
between the Literary Society and the Fine Arts Society was proposed, 
but was not carried into effect. Reports of the meetings were, for a 
time, contributed to the newspapers. A suggestion that the members 
should make an excursion for a day during the summer — Castle Blaney 
and Inniskeen Round Tower being preferred — was received with some 
favour. In the following session, Dr. Reichel (afterwards Bishop of 
Meath), Professor Craik, and Isaac J. Murphy were enrolled. The last- 
named gentleman, who is happily still an active member of the 
Society, was elected President for the Session 1854-55, and at the same 
time the Rev. John Scott Porter succeeded Joseph John Murphy (who 
had been Secretary from 1850) in that office; the latter remaining 
Treasurer until his death in 1894. 

The new Secretary- "read a Report which he had prepared 
on the number of papers read by the different members since 
November 1849, and the order in which they are liable to be called 
on to read," in which he outlined the recent history of the Society, 
gave the number of members as 22, but then went on to say " it is 
to be regretted that some of these have scarcely attended any of its 
meetings." 



20 HISTORICAL SKETCH, 

A Stricter regard to the observance of the proper order in the 
deHvery of papers was henceforth insisted upon, and to support this, 
a revision of the Rules was made in February 1855. The Rev. John 
Scott Porter remained Secretary until the end of the Session 1869-70, 
and to his unwearied exertions in that office the present sound posi- 
tion of the Society has been justly attributed. During this period, 
the membership averaged only about 23, but the papers and dis- 
cussion were of a high order of excellence, and among those joining 
at this time were many who gave a stimulus to the interest of the 
meetings. Chief of those elected in 1856 was Professor Wyville 
Thomson ; in 1858, Dr. Henry Burden and Dr. Hugh Hyndman ; in 
1859, the present Master of the Rolls and Professor MacDouall ; in 
1861, the Rev. Dr. Murphy; in 1864, the Rev. R. J. Bryce and Pro- 
fessor Purser; in 1867, Dr. Hodges and Professor Yonge ; in 1869, 
the Rev. Dr. Glasgow and Professor Park; in 1870, Serjeant Dodd 
and Robert Young. Dr. Burden occupied the office left vacant by 
Mr. Porter's resignation, whilst the latter became President for the 
Session 1870-71. In May 1873, shortly after the Society, by the 
death of Robert Patterson, had lost one of its ablest members, Mr. 
Porter, owing to his inability to attend the meetings as frequently 
as he could wish, desired to resign, but this evoked " a unanimous 
expression of opinion to the effect, that the present success and 
stability of the Society being mainly due to the warm and active 
interest he had taken in it for so many years, the Society 
should not, without an earnest protest, permit him to withdraw his 
name from the list of members." In response to this appeal, Mr. 
Porter withdrew his resignation and continued a member to his 
death in July 1880. 

The subsequent history of the Society is well known to many of 
the existing members. In 1884 a proposal was made by Mr. Street 
to change the night of meeting from the first Monday to the second 
Tuesday in the month, but a vote by circular being taken on the 
question, it was negatived, and the former practice adhered to. 



HISTORICAL SKETCH. 21 

A revision of the Rules occurred on March 3rcl, 1890, but no alteration 
was made in the general proceedings of the Society. 

In November 1892, Dr. Burden resigned the secretaryship owing 
to illness, and was succeeded by the Rev. R. \V. Seaver. Dr. Burden 
died a few months after this, and was followed within a year by 
Mr. Joseph John Murphy, who was President at the time of his death, 
and who had been Treasurer since 1853. 

It seemed to the members of the Society that its entrance upon 
a new century of existence was an event deserv^ing of special com- 
memoration. Accordingly, it was resolved that this Memorial Volume 
be published, and also that a Centenar>' Dinner take place on October 
23rd, 1 90 1, the anniversary of the first meeting, in the Old Exchange, 
Belfast, in 1801. The flourishing condition of the Society was amply 
attested by the success attending this function, and by the remarks of 
the various speakers. It was pointed out that the Society served a 
distinct and most beneficial purpose, in a city chiefly devoted to 
commercial pursuits, by offering a common centre to all who had an 
interest in the study of Literature, Science, and the Arts. The eminently 
social and informal character of its meetings brought together many 
whose avocations might tend to keep them apart, while the borders 
of knowledge were widened and the ties of citizenship strengthened 
by such friendl}' intercourse. 

The sketch which this page concludes, and the short biographies 
which follow of a number of the distinguished men, now dead, who 
took an active part in the proceedings of the Society, will, perhaps, give 
some insight into the intellectual progress of our city during the past 
centur>', and the lives of those who participated in it. That progress 
has not kept pace with material prosperity ; but when another 
century has passed, and another generation of members celebrates its 
bi-centenar>^, the Belfast Literary Society will, it is hoped, have 
done something to leaven the mass with its own devotion to the higher 
mental culture, without which material prosperity is comparatively 
valueless. 



MEMOIRS. 



The biographies which follow arc from the pens 
of various contributors, each of whom, from intimate 
personal knowledge or otherwise, is specially qualified 
to write authoritatively on his special subject. The 
Editors take this opportmiity of expressing their 
thanks for the ready way in which their requests for 
contributions were acceded to. 



25 



JAMES MCDONNELL, M.D. 

"p\OCTOR James M'Donnell, long regarded as the Nestor of Science 
in Belfast, was born in 1762 ; second son of Michael M'Donnell 
of Cushendun, Co. Antrim, whose family was one of the oldest in the 
North of Ireland. He received his early education from the famous 
Belfast schoolmaster, David Manson ; graduated in medicine at Edin- 
burgh in 1784, when he chose for his thesis the treatment of the 
drowned, advocating as a last resource transfusion of blood. On his 
settlement in Belfast soon afterwards, his devotion to his profession, 
combined with his varied literary attainments, raised him rapidly to a 
prominent position. He was one of the original founders of the Linen 
Hall Library; and a fine portrait marble bust in the Belfast Museum 
commemorates the esteem in which he was justly held by the literati 
of Belfast. Of a benevolent disposition, he took a great interest in 
medical charities, especiall}- the General Hospital, where he was the 
first doctor to originate clinical instruction. His appearance was well 
known throughout the locality, as in knee-breeches and white stockings 
he drove about in an old-fashioned gig, reading a book through a large 
magnifv'ing glass, with his faithful servant "Mick" beside him. 

In addition to a fine library, he possessed a museum of natural 
history, and was also an antiquary devoted to Irish literature and 
history. The Irish Harpers' Belfast Meeting in 1792 was his work. 

He died at his house in Donegall Place in 1845, and was buried in 
the ancient church}-ard of Layde, where a large Celtic cross forms an 
appropriate memorial. An Irish elegy was composed to his memory. 

His two sons, John and Alexander, settled in Dublin ; the former 
well known as a successful ph\sician, the latter as a Commissioner of 
National Education. 

R. M. Young. 




//y^a^^ ^:^i 



^^CCJL. 



Ti'\ ^EV/ -'OP.K 
PUBihc LIBRARY 



k^^OP i-'B>'< 



111-© ari" 



29 



WILLIAM BRUCE, D.D. 

TXT'ILLIAM Bruce, d.d. (1757-1841), second son of Samuel Bruce, 
Presbyterian minister of Strand Street, Dublin, by his wife. 
Rose Rainey of Magjherafelt, Co. Derr)-, was born in Dublin on 30th July, 
1757. His family, having descent from the royal blood of Scotland, 
gave to the Presbyterian ministry of Ireland seven ministers in six 
generations (see Classon Porter's The Seven Bruces, in Northern 
Whig, 6th April to 25th May, 1885 ; also reprinted separately;. Of 
these, the first, Michael Bruce (1635-93) of Killinchy, married a 
grand-daughter of his grand-uncle, Robert Bruce ( 1554- 163 ij, who 
had anointed Anne of Denmark at Holyrood, 17th May, 1590. 

William Bruce lost his father in his tenth year, and, after passing 
through three Dublin schools, entered Trinity College as a pensioner 
on 8th July, 1771. He supported himself by private tuition ; but in 
June 1775 obtained a small scholarship, which he was allowed to hold 
for four years without complying with the statutory requirements of 
conformity. Graduating A.B. in 1776 (his tutor was Dr. Richardson, 
afterwards rector of Clonfeacle), he went for a session {177^-77) to 
Glasgow, and for two sessions {1777-79) to Warrington, where he 
studied theology under John Aikin, D.D., father of Mrs. Barbauld. 
Among his fellow-students at Warrington was Nathaniel Alexander, 
successively Bishop of Clonfert (1801), Down and Connor (1804), and 
Meath (1823-40). 

On 8th August, 1779, he was called to Lisburn, in succession to 
George Kennedy (1751-79), and ordained there, on 4th November, 
by Bangor Presbytery, the presiding minister being Samuel Martin 
Stephenson, M.D. (1742-1833;. Being in full sympathy with the 
popular movement of that time, he at once joined, as a private, the 
" Lisburn True Blues"; was hailed by Hon. H. S. Conway, M.P., at a 



30 WILLIAM BRUCE, D.D. 

volunteer gathering in Belfast (March, 1780), as "a patriot worthy of 
the church of John Knox " ; took part in the sham fight of 20th July, 
1781 ; and on 22nd July preached at Lisburn in a short blue swallow- 
tail coat, with brass buttons (lettered "Lisburn True Blues"), red cuffs, 
collar, and facings, white breeches, and black leggings. On 24th 
March, 1782, he was called, by his father's old congregation of Strand 
Street, Dublin, as colleague to John Moody, D.D. (1742-18 13), in 
succession to Thomas Plunket (1725-78), great-grandfather of the 
late Archbishop of Dublin. He accepted the call, and ministered in 
Dublin for eight years. On loth November, 1783, he took his seat 
in the National Convention of Volunteers in the Rotunda, Dublin, as 
delegate from the County of the Town of Carrickfergus. In this 
Convention he brought forward a proposal for vote by ballot at 
parliamentary elections, and obtained a seconder, but no other vote. 
In 1786 he was made D.D. of Glasgow. His Dublin congregation 
was increased by the accession (March, 1787) of the Cooke Street 
congregation, with its ex-minister, William Dunne, D.D. (1714-95), 
who had married Bruce's father's cousin. 

In October 1789 he was called to First Belfast, as colleague to 
James Crombie, D.D. (1730-90), founder of the Belfast Academy (1786). 
This call he declined ; but being again called (nth March, 1790), on 
Crombie's death, and at the same time elected Principal of the Belfast 
Academy, he accepted both posts. It does not appear that he was 
admitted to his Belfast charge by the regular process of installation 
(he says this term " should be expunged from the Presbyterian 
vocabulary" — Christian Moderator, 1826, p. 309); instead, he "delivered 
an inaugural address." His work at the Academy began on ist May, 
1790, and lasted till November 1822. For some time, but not till 
1802, he delivered lectures on history, belles lettres, and moral 
philosophy. His policy was to gain for the Academy (originally 
designed as a College) the place of a first-class school, and in this 
he was eminently successful. His house-pupils were happy under 
the care of his admirable wife. The famous barring-out of 12th 



WILIJAM BRUCE, D.D. 3 1 

April, 1792, roused the whole town, tried his mettle, and proved his 
mastery. 

His congregation throve, and it was necessary to enlarge the 
gallery of his meeting-house. In 1794, the year of the publication of 
Paine's Aj^e of Reason, he delivered, in his meeting-house, a series of 
discourses on " Christian Evidences," which were so popular as to be 
repeated. They were attended by the Vicar of Belfast (William 
Bristow), who so arranged the Sunday services at St. Anne's as to 
facilitate the attendance of parishioners on Bruce's defences of the 
Christian foundations. They were attended also by Elizabeth 
Hamilton, authoress of The Cottagers of Glenburnte, who has recorded 
her impressions in some striking lines : 

"Bared by his arm the living rock appeared 
On which the structure of our faith is reared." 

Dr. Bruce, who sometimes described himself as " an alarmed 
Whig," became a power in Ulster on the side of the Constitution. He 
had taken no part in the movement of the United Irishmen, and 
strongly condemned its oath of association. He was for the gradual, 
as distinguished from the immediate, emancipation of Roman 
Catholics. A controversy on the constitutional question led to a 
rupture of friendship with the patriot-poet, William Drennan, M.D. 
The breach was healed on Drennan's death-bed. Both sides of the 
controversy were presented in a pamphlet, Belfast Politics (i794. 
i2mo), edited by Henry Joy (1754- 183 5). In the insurrectionary^ 
panic of 1798, Bruce sent his family to Whitehaven, and his boarders 
to their homes. On 8th June, the day after the Battle of Antrim, he 
enrolled himself as a private in the then formed Belfast Merchants' 
Infantry, known as " The Black Cockades," this being the only sign of 
uniform adopted. He was doing sentry-guard with his musket, on 
1 2th June, when an officer of the Royal Artillery^ declared that "a finer 
soldier than Dr. Bruce he did not see that day." He remained in the 
corps as a private until it was disbanded. His sermon (25th September, 
1803) to his companions-in-arms was printed under the title of 



32 WILLIAM BRUCE, D.D. 

The Christian Soldier (1803, i2mo). He wrote the Presbyterian 
Address to George IV. on his visit to DubHn in 1821, and attracted 
the King's notice by his " majestic form and noble bearing," when, as 
Moderator of the Antrim Presbytery, he appeared on the deputation 
which presented it. 

He was one of the founders of the Belfast Literary Society, which 
met frequently under his roof at the Academy. His Age of Homer 
(1827, 8vo) was read to the Society, in parts, about 1805. His 
Literary Essays (i8ii,4to; 2nd edit., 1818, 4to) were originally con- 
tributed to the Transactions of the Society, in 1809 and 181 1. Other 
essays, read to the Society, were published in the Newry Magazine. 
He was a member also of the Royal Irish Academy, and among his 
contributions to its transactions was his Memoir of James VI. (1828). 

Decay of sight, which ended in blindness, led to his resigning his 
ministry on 21st January, 1831, when his congregation presented him 
with a service of plate. He had paid great attention to congregational 
singing, drawing up a hymn-book in 1801 (enlarged 181 8, and in use 
till 1 886) ; but he successfully discountenanced — not, however, on 
religious grounds — a proposal (made in 1807) for the introduction of an 
organ. He broke the established silence of Presbyterian interments 
by originating the custom of addresses at the grave. His twenty-three 
papers in the Christian Moderator (1826-28), on the Progress of Non- 
subscription to Creeds, are a valuable contribution to the history of 
Presbyterian liberalism, embodying extracts from original documents, 
of which some are not now accessible. The type of Presbyterian 
discipline which commended itself to him may be seen in the supple- 
ment, " by a Member of the Presbytery of Antrim," to the Newry 
edition (18 16, 12 mo) of Towgood's Dissenting Gentleman's Letters. 
He did not favour the presence of lay-elders in Church courts; nor does 
it appear that any persons were elected to this office in his congrega- 
tion during his ministry. The Widows' Fund, founded (1750) through 
the exertions of his grand-uncle, William Bruce (1702-55), publisher in 
Dublin, was greatly improved by his efforts and judgment. At the 



WILLIAM BRUCE, D.D. 33 

death of Robert Black, D.D., in 18 17, the agency for the Regium 
Domnn was open to him, but he forwarded the claims of another. 

His theological views are to be found in his Treatise on the Being 
and Attributes 0/ God {iSlS, 8vo), and in his Sermons on the Study of 
the Bible and on the Doctrines of Christianity ( 1 824, 8vo ; 2nd edit., 1 826, 
8vo). This latter raised a controversy, in which Bruce took no part 
He limited fundamentals to points plainly declared in each of the four 
Gospels ; restricted our Lord's creative work to the formation of this 
planet ; and, while inclining to the doctrine of the pre-existence of 
souls, yet held the annihilation of the wicked. His published opinions 
were firmly held ; and on 27th September, 1839, he signed a declara- 
tion that he had made no change in them. He joined in the formation 
(9th April, 1 831) of the "Unitarian Society for the Diffusion of 
Christian Knowledge," though he would have preferred the colourless 
designation " A Tract Society." By Protestants of all sections his 
presence was welcomed on the Committee of the Hibernian Bible 
Society, an institution which he recommended (i 821) in letters (signed 
Zuinglius) to the Newry Telegraph and Belfast News-Letter. He 
had much to do with the establishment (1800) of the Union School 
(afterwards the Lancasterian School), with which was connected a 
Protestant, but otherwise undenominational, Sunday school. 

In November 1836 he removed to Dublin with his daughter, Maria. 
He died there on 27th Februar)% 1841, and was buried in St. George's 
bur)-ing-ground, Dublin. 

Dr. Bruce married (25th January, 1788; Susanna (/'. 1763; d. 22nd 
February, 18 19), youngest daughter of Robert Hutton of Dublin, and 
had twelve children, four of whom died in infanc}-. His eldest son, 
Samuel Bruce (1789-1845;, was thefather of William Robert Bruce, K.C., 
and Master of the King's Bench in Ireland; of James Bruce, D.L., Co. 
Tyrone; and of Samuel Bruce, J.P., of Norton Hall, Gloucestershire. 

Among portraits of Dr. Bruce may be mentioned the full-length 
figures of Dr. and Mrs. Bruce in the large picture (1804) by Robinson, 
in the Council-room of the Belfast Chamber of Commerce ; the three- 



34 WILLIAM BRUCE, D.D. 

quarter length, by Thompson, in the Linen Hall Library, engraved 
in mezzotint by Hodgetts (1819) ; a fine painting of head and bust in 
the possession of James Bruce, D.L., at Thorndale ; and an engraving 
(1827) by Adcock, from a miniature by Havvksett. 

[Some further details of Dr. Bruce's literary works, and authorities 
for his life, may be found in Diet. Nat. Biog., Vol. VII (1886).] 

Alexander Gordon. 




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37 



WILLIAM HAMILTON DRUMMOND. 

"VX^iLLiA.M Hamilton Dkummond, d.d., m.r.i.a., was the elder son 
of William Drummond, a surgeon in the na\'y, and his wife 
Rose {nee Hare), and was born in August 1778. The family was 
originally of Scotch extraction, but had been settled in Larne for a 
considerable period. The indentures still exist of the apprenticeship of 
William Drummond to Dr. William Hamilton of Larne, to learn the 
art of surgery. The relationship thus formed must have been a happy 
one, for he called his son after his teacher. Surgeon Drummond left the 
na\y in 1783, and started practice at Ball\-clare. He died soon after- 
wards, leaving a widow with three }-oung children. The mother made 
a gallant effort to educate her children, and for this purpose removed 
to Belfast. William Hamilton, the subject of the present notice, spent 
his schooldays at the Belfast Academ\-, under Dr. Crombie and Dr. 
Bruce. After an attempt at commercial life in England, which proved 
very uncongenial to his tastes, he entered Glasgow College in 1794. 
He remained at Glasgow for the next four years, leaving in 1798, but 
without taking his degree, probably on account of the smallness of the 
family purse. The next two years were spent in tuition and study for 
the ministry under the Presbytery of Armagh. On the 9th of April, 
1800, he was licensed to preach the Gospel b)- the I'resbyter)- of 
Antrim, and on the 26th of August of the same year was ordained as 
minister of the Second Congregation, Belfast. He married soon after 
his settlement, and in order to supplement his income started a school 
at Mount Collier. Among his pupils may be mentioned Thomas 
Romney Robinson, the astronomer. His influence as a preacher and 
a man of letters appears to have been considerable. Among his wide 
circle of friends was Bishop Percy of Dromore, who, in 18 10, used his 
influence to obtain for him the degree of D.D. from Marischal College, 



38 WILLIAM HAMILTON DRUMMOND. 

Aberdeen. In 1815 Dr. Drummond received a unanimous invitation 
to Strand Street, Dublin, and he remained as minister of that congre- 
gation for the rest of his long life. He died in Dublin on the i6th of 
October, 1865. It is as one of the original group of members, and as 
a poet of some eminence in his day, that Drummond has a claim upon 
the attention of the Belfast Literary Society. Of the qualities of his 
poetry the Dictionary of National Biography speaks in the following 
terms : " Drummond as a poet is natural, pleasing, and melodious, 
rich in pathos, and full of enthusiasm. He is at his best in his very 
vigorous hymns, the use of which has not been limited to his own 
denomination." In early life he had felt the ardour of revolutionary 
enthusiasm. While still a student he published The Man of Age, 
a poem dealing with the wrongs and misgovernment of Ireland ; and 
a letter written to his sister (afterwards married to Dr. Marshall of 
Belfast) in 1799 shows how deeply the events of '98 had moved him, 
" I mentioned in my last," so the letter runs, " that I had begun a 
tragedy ; since then a new subject for the tragic muse has occurred, 
which will give much greater scope for incident and pathos. The 
Rebels will be the title of this new production. When my imagination 
is much enamoured with a subject, my composition is generally rapid ; 
so about three acts are already written, and all the plan digested in my 
mind." Perhaps in this case discretion proved the better part of valour, 
for The Rebels never saw the light. 

Among Drummond's contributions to the Literary Society mention 
should be made of the following : The Battle of Trafalgar : a Poem 
in two books (1806); The First Book of T. Lucretius Carus on the 
Nature of Things : translated into Ejiglish verse ( 1 808) ; The Giant's 
Causeway (1811). The list of his writings subsequent to his removal 
to Dublin is a long one. It may suffice to mention Clontarf: a 
Poem (1822) ; The Life of Michael Sernetus ; and The Autobiography 
of Archibald Hamilton Rowan, Esq., with Additions and Illustrations. 

Drummond was married twice : first to Barbara, daughter of David 
Tomb, Esq., of Belfast; and, secondly, to Catherine, daughter of Robert 



WILLIAM HAMILTON IJRUMMOND. 39 

Blackley, Esq., of Dublin. Of this second family, there survive 
Isabella, widow of John Campbell, Esq., of Belfast ; the Rev. R<jbcrt 
Blackley Drummond, B.A., Minister of St. Mark's Chapel, Edinbur^ijh; 
and the Rev. James Drummond, M.A., LL.D., LITT. D., the Principal of 
Manchester College, Oxford. 

A beautiful portrait of Dfummond exists, painted soon after his 
settlem.ent in Belfast by the well-known Irish painter, Robinson, him- 
self a pupil of Romney. It is in the possession of the Rev. R. B. 
Drummond of Edinburgh. 

[Authorities : Memoir, by the Rev. J. Scott Porter, prefixed to a 
volume of sermons published in 1867; Article in the Dictionary of 
National Biography^ by the Rev. Ale.xander Gordcjn ; and ()rivatc 
information.] 

VV. H. Drummond. 




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43 



HENRY JOY (.75+-1835). 

"LTenry Joy, jun., was born at Belfast on i6ih October, 1754. Mis 
grandfather was Francis Joy (1697- 1790;, the founder of the 
Belfast Nezus-Lettcr in 1737, whose two sons, Henry and Ivobert, suc- 
ceeded to the management of that newspaper about 1746, when their 
father removed to Randalstown, and commenced the paper-making 
business there, after his second marriage, in the preceding year, to 
widow Young («/i? Ann Morrison). The two sons, Henry and Robert, 
were by his first wife, Margaret Martin, and his son Robert (i 722-1 785) 
was father to the subject of this sketch. 

In 1782, Henry Joy, jun., was taken into partnership by his uncle 
and father, under the style of H. & R. Joy & Co., and on the death of 
his father, Robert Joy, in 1785, the firm was changed to Henry Joy, 
Sen. and Jun. Afterwards, on the death of his uncle Henry, January 
20th, 1789, aged 69 years, he became the sole proprietor of the news- 
paper. He continued the business under the style of Henr>' Joy & Co., 
and took over its entire management, acting also as its editor. In 1 795 
he sold the newspaper to an Edinburgh Company — "Robert Allen, &c., 
with George Gordon as editor" — and retired from newspaper life; but 
he held for some time the Cromac Paper-mills, in Belfast, which had 
been in operation from about 1767. 

He was a patron of the early drama in Belfast, and wrote the 
critiques (anonymously) in the News-Letter, when Mrs. Siddons 
appeared in 1785, 1802, and 1805, ^"<J ^'^o during the visits of 
Kemble, Edmund Kean, ]\Iacready, and other later theatrical stars. 
He also took a deep interest in the music of Ireland. 

In conjunction with Dr. Bruce, he compiled a work called Belfast 
Politics, which was rc[Hiblishcd, with some additions, in 1818, by 
John Lawless, under the title oi Belfast Politics Enlarged. Henry Joy 



44 HENRY JOY. 

also compiled (anonymously) Historical Collectio7is relative to the 
Town of Belfast, which was published by Berwick in 1817. The work 
is a valuable one, and now (1901) scarce. 

Benn, in his History of Belfast (Vol. II, p. 171), says of Henry Joy, 
that " he was the only person whom he had ever known who was 
really acquainted with the history of Old Belfast." From the list of 
papers read before the Literary Society, it will be seen that he gave 
the Society the benefit of his valuable researches. He was Secretary 
1807-8 and 181 1-22, also President 1808-9. 

Mr. Joy had five sons. The eldest, Robert, died at College, in 
181 3, and the remaining four survived him. He died in his native 
town, at his residence, Donegall Square North, April 15th, 1835, in 
his 8 1 St year. 

Isaac W. Ward. 



45 



JOHN TEMPLETON. 

JOHN TEiMTLETcjN was born at ]5ridge Street, Belfast, in 1766, and 
educated under Mr. Manson. His life is void of incident, and was 
spent at Oranc^e Grove or Cranmore, Malone, where he acclimatized a 
unique collection of foreic^n plants, and in frequent journeys thnmgh- 
out Ulster collecting materials for a Natural History of Ireland. A 
naturalist of the old school, when science had not become so specialized, 
he attempted to include in his grasp the whole range of the natural 
sciences, and with wonderful success. 

In zoology he studied birds, fishes, molluscs, insects (tlvjugh 
not to the same extent), and the smaller marine fauna ; in botan)-, 
flowering plants and every branch of cryptogamic botany (mos.ses, 
lichens, fungi, and algaj) ; geology also as far as then known, and 
meteorology. 

Dr. Thomas Taylor wrote in 1836 : " Thirty years ago his acquire- 
ments in the natural history of organized beings rivalled that of any 
individual in Europe": no exaggerated estimate to workers familiar 
with the literature of the fields in which he laboured. Templeton was 
not the originator of any new systems, but as an acute observer and 
interpreter of nature was the Gilbert White of Ireland. 

He intended to write a Natural History of Ireland, illustrated b)- 
his own drawings; but whether from the great expense of such an 
undertaking, or the desire to make it more complete, this work never 
saw the light. How far the design was completed is not known ; but 
the MS. volumes dealing with mosses and hepaticcX of his Hibernian 
Flora, illustrated by life-like coloured drawings, show that if even a 
part had been published it would have gained for the author a great 
reputation. 



46 JOHN TEMPLETON. 

His MS. flora, journals, and other papers proved a rich quarr}' of 
materials for other writers after his death ; and succeeding students of 
the fauna and flora of Ireland have been astonished not only at the 
extent but accuracy of his work. 

During his lifetime he gave much assistance to Sir James Smith, 
Turner, and other writers on Botany ; but a few papers in magazines, 
and contributions to the Belfast Magazine, are his onl}- printed works. 
An active and inspiring leader in all that concerned the intellectual 
progress of Belfast, he was a founder of the Academical Institution 
and of other schemes for the good of his native town. He died in 
1825, and was buried at Clifton Street Cemetery-. 

C. H. Waddell. 



47 



JOHN KNOX. 



JOHN Knox appears to have been engaged in business in High 
Street in 1784 (from an advertisement in the Belfast News-Letter 
for May 28;, at the sign of the Large Watch. In 1787 he removed to 
nearly opposite to Church Lane in the same street. Later he removed 
to the south side of High Street, next door but one to Wilson's Court, 
and retired from business in 18 16. Robert Xeill, watchmaker, after- 
wa'-ds occupied the premises. There was a John Knox, watchmaker, 
sworn a freeman of Belfast borough on September 11, 1729; and 
John Knox, watchmaker, of High Street, advertised in the Belfast 
News-Letter in ]\Iay 1758, perhaps related to the subject of this sketch. 
In the Belfast News-Letter for Tuesday, August 2, 1774, there is an 
advertisement by a John Knox of Lame, who was a clock and watch 
maker, in which he describes a curious astronomical clock made by 
him, but whether he was any relation of the John Knox who was in 
business later in Belfast, or was the same person, it is now impossible 
to indicate. 

The latter apparently had astronomical tastes, from his correspon- 
dence, which aopeared from time to time in the columns of the Belfast 
News-Letter in the early part of the nineteenth century- on celestial 
phenomena and tphemerides of the planets. Probably he was led to 
this by having to use a transit instrument to ascertain the local time 
for the purposes of his business, as there was no telegraphic communi- 
cation at that period. He contributed a paper to the Royal Societj' 
on Some PJienoniena of Colours exhibited by Thin Plates, which appeared 
in the Philosophical Transactions, 181 5, pp. 161-181, His daughter 
was married to James Ferguson, near the Sixmilewater, Ballyclare, 
and their son, Samuel (afterwards Sir Samuel Ferguson, the well-known 
poet and antiquarian), was born in his grandfather's house in High 

Street, Belfast, in 181 2. 

IS.\AC W. \V.\RD. 



48 



WILLIAxM BRUCE, A.B. 

V3I7'ILLIAM Bruce, a.B. (1790-1868), second son of Dr. Bruce see 

psige 29), was bom at Belfast on 16 November, 1790 
education began at the Belfast Academy under his father. E 
Trinity College, Dublin, on 2 July, 1804, he obtained a scY 
(1807), which, as in his father's case, he was allowed to hoi ^t 

conforming. His tutor was Dr. Millar. The session 1808- -nt 

at Edinburgh Universit)-, where he attended the lecture^ ^ald 

Stewart On 20 July, 1809, he graduated A.B. at Tr .ving 

already entered [g May^ on theological studies under tt .on of 

the Antrim Presb)i;er)^ He studied at Edinburgh iP i-nd was 

licensed by Antrim Presb}i;er}' on 25 June, 1811. Rf 19 Jan., 

1812) a call to be his father's colleague in the j: of First 

Belfast, he entered on his life-long charge, being ore 'i 3 March, 

1812. 

In 1 82 1 new arrangements were rendered nece nr the teaching 
staff of the Belfast Academical Institution by the -^c ,6 April, aged 
45) of \\'illiam Xeilson, D.D., from 181 8 headiTiaster of the classical 
school, and professor of Classics, Hebrew, and Irish in the collegiate 
department Among supporters of the Institution were some whose 
political principles were r^arded as unconstitutional, and in conse- 
quence the Government grant had been withdrav.-n. Dr. Bruce had 
never been a supporter of the Institution ; but now his son came 
forward as candidate for the Classical and Hebrew chair. Other 
candidates were Reuben John Brjxe '^afterwards LL.D.), Robert Wylde 
Kyle, a relative of the Provost of Trinity, ; and Mr. Repp, an Icelander, 



^^^LLIAM bruce, a.b. 49 

who had Government interest. The managers took unusual pains to 
assure themselves of the competency of the candidates, hearing each 
examine a class, and finding all well qualified. His theological views 
brought opposition to Bruce, led by Dr. Cooke ; and the hostility 
hitherto shown to the Institution by his family alienated from Bruce 
two-thirds of the Arian vote. But efforts were made in his behalf by 
Sir Robert Bateson, representing the Church of Ireland, and by Rev. 
Edward Reid of Ramelton. Moderator of the General Synod of Ulster 
{cf. Bible Christian, 1 841, p. 212, sq^). On 2- October he was elected by 
a large majorit}-. The appointment conciliated a section which had 
stood aloof from the Institution ; ultimately '27 Februar)-, 1829^ the 
Government grant was renewed. Bruce held the Classical chair \ I lebrew 
was assigned in 1822 to Thomas Dix Hincks, LL.D.) with solid repute, 
until the opening of the Queen's College in 1849. 

Theologically he followed closely in his father's steps, but polemics 
were not to his taste. From 1832 he had, as colleague in his pastorate, 
that brilliant scholar and vigorous champion of unpopular views, John 
Scott Porter. In later life he headed, in the Antrim Presbyter)-, the 
conser\-ative minority who withdrew to form the Northern Presb\-ter}' of 
Antrim, of which he was elected '^4 April, 1862) the first moderator (the 
two presbyteries were reunited 7 November, 1894). The jubilee of his 
ordination (1862) was marked by the placing of stained-glass windows 
in his meeting-house. The quiet steadfastness with which he advocated 
his convictions, and the gentle amiability of his character, made him the 
Nestor of his party. In connection with many of the charities of Belfast 
he proved himself an admirable committee-man ; and as president of 
the Belfast Society for Promoting Knowledge, he did much to improve 
its valuable Library-. He was fond of agriculture, and carefully planted 
his grounds at The Farm. 

Retiring from active duty on 21 April, 1867, he preached for 
the last time on the following Sunday (at Lame;, and died at The 
Farm on 25 October, 1868. He was buried in the old churchward at 
Holy wood. 



50 WILLIAM BRUCE, A.B. 

Bruce married (20 May, 1823) Jane Elizabeth {d. 27 November, 
1878, aged 79) only child of William Smith of Barbadoes, and had a 
family of four sons and six daughters, of whom five daughters remain 
to honour their father's memory. 

A mural monument, which includes his bust, was placed in his 
meeting-house in 1883. 

[For a notice of Bruce's few publications, with authorities for his 
life, see Diet. Nat. Biog., Vol. VII (1886).] 

Alexander Gordon. 



5' 



WILLIAM D. H. M'EWEN. 

"p Ev. William Dalzell Huev M'Ewen, m.a., son of Rev. 
George M'Ewen of Killinchy and Miss Dalzell of Bally reagh, 
County Down; born at Killinchy, 1787; graduated in Glasgow 
University, 1806; licensed to preach, 1807; Usher's Quay, Dublin, 
1808-1813; Killileagh, 181 3- 18 17; Second Congregation, Belfast, 
1817-1828; married Jane, daughter of Thomas Maxwell of Bally- 
graffin, near Comber ; Professor of Elocution in Belfast Academical 
Institution, 1818-1828; member of Committee of Belfast Librar\-, 
1817-1828; died 15th July, 1828; buried in Meeting-house Green, 
Killinchy. 

During his eleven years' residence in Belfast, he identified himself 
with the charitable and educational projects of the town. His warm 
expansive sympathy with all that was great and good stimulated him 
in promoting the cause of charity with a spirit truly worthy of a 
Christian minister. Strongly attached to the principles of civil and 
religious liberty, he counted among his friends the ostracized Dr. 
Wm. Steel Dickson of Portaferry, at whose grave he officiated in the 
presence of a few of his faithful friends : Archibald Hamilton Rowan, 
whose character he has portrayed in a poem entitled Changes ; and 
the liberal-minded Roman Catholic Primate, Dr. Crolly. The mention 
of the latter's name recalls an incident which shows the spirit of 
liberality which prevailed in Belfast at the time. On the 2nd May, 
1825, Dr. Crolly gave a dinner to celebrate his elevation to the 
Episcopal Chair of Down and Connor, and among the toasts of the 
evening was " The Rev. Mr. M'Ewen and the Presbyterians of Down 
and Antrim," in response to which Mr. M'Ewen bore testimony to the 
high character of his esteemed friend. 



52 WILLIAM D. n. M'EWEN. 

His refined and literary tastes led him into the realms of the 
poetic muse, and many graceful pieces from his pen appeared in the 
Belfast Commercial Chronicle, over the nom de plume of " Walsingham." 
Lough Cuan (i.e., Strangford) had a strong fascination for him, and 
he devoted much learned research to the antiquities with which the 
district abounds. An attractive speaker, an ornament to society, and 
an ardent lover of his native land, his early death was deeply 
lamented. He had a large circle of friends, to whom he had endeared 
himself by his high regard for the conscientious convictions of those 
who differed from him in matters of theology. Almost his last 
appearance in public was at a meeting of " The Friends of Civil and 
Religious Liberty," held in Kearn's Hotel, for the removal of the 
disabilities of the Roman Catholics. An oil painting of him (artist 
unknown) hangs in the vestry of All Souls Church, Elmwood Avenue. 

S. Shannon Millin. 




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55 



WILLIAM NEILSON, D.D., M.R.LA. 

V'l/'ILLIAM Neilson, D.D., M.R.LA., was bom OH 12 September, 1774. 
His father, Rev. Moses Nelson, D.D., was Presb)-terian minister 
at Rademon, Co. Down, and enjoyed the reputation of being the best 
instructor of }'outh in the North of Ireland. William showed an early 
aptitude for the study of language, especially Greek ; and, while a mere 
youth, he became assistant in his father's school, and wrote an English 
Grammar, which was extensively used throughout the Province of 
Ulster. It held its ground, although deemed too philosophical, until 
superseded by the Grammar of Lindley Murray. 

He proceeded to Glasgow to study for the ministry, and while there 
had the advantage of further classical instruction under John Young, 
Professor of Greek at the University. A fast friendship sprung up 
between professor and pupil, and the latter dedicated one of his works 
(Elementa) to Young, who occasionally gave one of Neilson's books as 
a prize in his class at Glasgow (James Tate's copy in British Museum). 

Neilson was ordained pastor of the Presbyterian Congregation of 
Dundalk in April 1799. Whilst residing there, he conducted a school, 
which was attended by pupils of every religious denomination, and he 
was proud to record every }'ear his young students taking honours in 
the Protestant University of Dublin, the Roman Catholic College of 
St. Patrick, Maynooth, and the Presbyterian Universities of Scotland. 

In 1804 he published at Dundalk Greek Exercises in Syntax, 
Ellipsis, Dialects, Prosody, and Metaphrasis. The book was dedicated 
to Doctor John Kearney, Provost of Trinity College, Dublin. It shows 
considerable scholarship, and became popular as a school-book. 
It passed through no less than eight editions, the last having been 
published in 1846, twenty-five years after Neilson's death. Two 
editions were published in Edinburgh and two in London. 



56 WILLIAM \EILSON, D.D., ^LR.I.A. 

His next work was An Introduction to the Irish Language, published 
in Dublin in 1808, and dedicated to His Excellency Philip, Earl of 
Hardwicke, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. Irish was the vernacular of 
a large part of the country people of Down and Louth, and Neilson 
had good opportunities of becoming acquainted with it. The book is 
printed, except two extracts from literature, in Roman type, and is 
valuable as a faithful representation of Irish as then spoken. The 
power of arrangement and good taste in selection of examples exhi- 
bited in the author's Greek books are noticeable in his Irish Grammar. 
The dialogues and familiar phrases which form the second part are a 
complete guide to the ideas as well as the phrases of the peasantry. 
Part of the fourth is taken from the dialogues in a rare Irish book, 
called Bolg an tsolair, published in Belfast in 1795 ; but the others are 
original. The third part was to have contained extracts from litera- 
ture, of which only a chapter of Proverbs from the Irish Bible, and part 
of the series of stories known as The Sorrows of Story -telling, were 
printed. A second edition, altogether in Irish type, was printed at 
Achill, Co. Mayo, in 1843. The value and use of Irish is thus stated 
by Neilson in the preface to his book : " That the Irish is the best 
preserved dialect of the ancient and extensive Celtic language, is 
allowed by the most liberal and enlightened antiquarians. To the 
general scholar, therefore, a knowledge of it is of great importance ; as 
it will enable him to read the origin of names and customs, which he 
would seek in vain in any other tongue. To the inhabitant of Ireland 
it is doubly interesting. In this language are preserved the venerable 
annals of our country, with as much fidelity as is usually found in the 
primitive records of any nation ; while the poetic and romantic com- 
positions with which the Irish manuscripts abound, afford the finest 
specimens of elegant taste and luxuriant imagination. 

" But it is particularly, from the absolute necessity of under- 
standing this language, in order to converse with the natives of a great 
part of Ireland, that the study of it is indispensable. If Irish be no 
longer the language of the court, or the senate, yet the pulpit and the 



WILLIAM NEILSON, D.D., M.R.I.A. 57 

bar require the use of it ; and he that would communicate moral 
instruction, or investigate the claims of justice, must be versed in the 
native tongue, if he expects to be generally understood, or to succeed 
in his researches. In travelling, and the common occurrences of 
agriculture and rural traffic, a knowledge of Irish is also absolutely 
necessarj-." 

Dr. \eilson frequently preached in Irish, and in connection with 
this it may be worth mentioning an amusing incident. In 1798 he had 
occasion to visit his father at Rademon, and embraced the opportunity 
of delivering one of his Irish discourses. A large assemblage of all 
denominations attended, and shortly after the commencement of the 
service, a lieutenant of yeomanry entered with a number of soldiers, 
who, finding all pews filled, occupied the stairs and neighbourhood of 
pulpit. At the conclusion of the service, the lieutenant arrested 
Neilson, and seized his manuscript, on the charge that he had been 
preaching treason and sedition, although neither the officer nor his men 
understood a word of the discourse, and although it was universally 
known that Dr. Xeilson and all his family, whilst they entertained 
liberal and progressive \-iews in religion and politics, were staunch 
loyalists. Having been marched to Downpatrick jail, he was permitted 
by the governor to dine and sleep at the house of his brother, the Rev. 
James Xelson, D.D., who became responsible for his appearance next 
morning. At the sessions court he was called on to translate into 
English his sermon, as no interpreter could be procured. It was, like 
all his addresses, a plain, practical, moral discourse, inculcating piety, 
goodwill, and peace. On the charge being dismissed, he addressed the 
Bench with a quiet, humorous smile : " Gentlemen, you depended on 
myself for the correctness of the translation ; you might as well have 
taken my own word as an assurance of my loyalty." 

He was an excellent musician, and attached to the exquisite 
melodies of his country'. He established and fostered the " Irish Harp 
Society for the Blind " in Belfast. 

In 1 8 10, he published, in Dublin, Greek Idioms Exhibited in Select 



58 WILLIAM NEILSON, D.D., M.R.LA. 

Passages from the Best Authors. The curious frontispiece, entitled 
" Ki^vTos Uba^," was drawn by his brother, J. A. Neilson, a Doctor of 
Physic in Dundalk. 

Neilson became Professor of Hebrew in Belfast College, and Head- 
master in the Classical School in the Belfast Academical Institution 
in 1818 : an office which he held till his death. In 1820 he published 
Elenienta Linguae Graecae, of which a second edition appeared in Edin- 
burgh in 1 82 1. He also published a Key to the Greek Exercises. His 
speculations on the more intricate and philosophical parts of grammar 
and language, some of which appeared in Valpfs Classical Journal, 
were refined and philosophical. 

Neilson was elected to the Greek Chair in the University of 
Glasgow, but died before entering on the duties of his office. 

He died on 26 April, 1821, before he completed his forty-seventh 
year, and was buried at Rademon, in Co. Down ; about 15,000 persons, 
it is estimated, attending the funeral. 

His mother was Catherine Welsh, who was fifth in descent from 
Elizabeth, youngest daughter of John Knox, the great Reformer. 

Neilson was elected on 4 May, 1818, a member of the Belfast 
Literary Society, and was President in 1819-20. Contributed papers, 
December 7, 181 8, On Moods; October 4, 18 19, Presidential Address; 
May I, 1^20, Remarks on Gaelic Authoj's and Antiquities, particularly 
upon Ossian. 

In the foregoing it will be observed the name is spelled differently 
by father and son, and an explanation may be desirable. 

There is cut on a stone slab over the door of Rademon Meeting- 
house: "This house was built in the year of our Lord, 1787, which 
was the 21st year of the Rev. Moses Nelson's ministry in this place." 

On the clock, inside same building, there is: "Ann. 23, Ministerii 
Mos. Neilson, A.D. 1789." This clearly shows that, between 1787 and 
1789, Rev. Moses Nelson changed the spelling. William, the subject 
of this memoir, was the only one out of seven sons who adopted the 
same. 



\MLLIAM XEILSON, D.D., M.R.I..\. $9 

It is known that, eventually, the Rev. Moses Nelson, ha\nng traced 
his ancestf}- to Niall of the Nine Hostages, through the O'Neills, 
stated that the correct spelling should have been Nielson; and this 
statement is confirmed in a letter written by him on the 7th October, 
1 82 1, to the Secretan,- of the Belfast Academical Institution, signed 
M. Nielson, and copy of which is in the minutes of the Joint Board of 
that Institution, page 45. 

[References. — Dictwnary of National Biography, Vol XL, page 
I ^j, by Norman Moore ; The History of Dundalk, by D' Alton and 
O'Flangan, 1864 ; Reminiscefucs of a Long Life, by \V. D. Killen, LL.D., 
1902 ; Notes and Queries, Sth series, IX, January- 25, '96, pages 75 and 
76 ; Funeral Address, by Rev. W. D. H. MEwen.] 

Joseph Nelson, m.d. 



6o 



JAMES THOMSON, A.M., LL.D. 
(1786-1849). 

A MONG the little group of remarkable men who, in the early part of 
last century, helped to acquire for Belfast the reputation for 
literary and scientific culture which it then enjoyed, one of the 
most notable was James Thomson, Headmaster of the school of 
" Arithmetic, Bookkeeping, and Geography " in the xA.cademical 
Institution, and Professor of Mathematics in its collegiate department. 
The son of a humble County Down farmer, he, by dint of high 
intellectual power and indomitable perseverance, pushed his way to 
the position we have mentioned, and in later years achieved a fame 
which has proved lasting. 

He was born on November 13th, 1786, in the farmhouse of 
Annaghmore, now called Spamount, near Ballynahinch. His father 
was also a James Thomson ; his mother's maiden name was Agnes 
Nesbit. I have seen an extract from the register of births and deaths, 
carefully kept in the old family Bible, which records, in due order, the 
nativities of all the six children of this worthy couple — Robert, Kitty^ 
Mary, John, James, and Elizabeth. Young James very early exhibited 
a scientific bent. But he had to work for long without the aid of any 
teaching except what his father was able to give him and the other 
children, and, indeed, without even suitable books, and he was obliged, 
besides, to take his share in the uncongenial but very necessary 
labours of the farm. In spite of these disadvantages, however, he 
steadily added to his knowledge in a manner quite remarkable for a 
lad so circumstanced. It is said that at the age of 11 or 12 he had 
found out for himself the art of constructing sundials for any latitude, 
and had made several. His first, and indeed his only, school was 



JAMES THOMSON, A.M., LL.I). 6l 

one of the old-fasliioned countr)^ academies, usually tauf,dit by clerg-y- 
men, of which there were in those days quite a number in the North 
of Ireland, and which, in the pro-Intermediate period, undoubtedly did 
excellent ser\'ice to the cause of education. It was situated at 
Ballykine, near Balhnahinch, and was taught by the Rev. Samuel 
Edgar, D.D., father of the better-known Rev. John Edgar, D.D., of 
Belfast. In its day this humble seminary produced crop after crop of 
well-taught boys, not a few of whom subsequently rose to prominence, 
and several, like Thomson, to fame. 

The Thomsons were Presbyterians, and it was the ambition of the 
father, as well as his own desire, that James should become a Presby- 
terian clergyman. But he was 24 years of age before he could manage 
to enter college with a view to preparation for this office, a fact 
which tells its own tale as to the circumstances of the family. In 
1 8 10, however, he at last made his way to Glasgow, then the usual 
resort of Ulster students. The entry of his matriculation in the 
University Album is interesting. It runs thus : — 1810. Jacobus 
Thomson filius natu 2 dus Jacob i agrico lae hi parochia de Ballynahinch 
171 comitatu de Doivne. At Glasgow he led the usual life of a student 
with whom money was not too plentiful, attending his classes during 
the winter, and in summer replenishing his empt)- purse by teaching. 
In 1812 he graduated A.M. Two years later the Academical Insti- 
tution was opened in Belfast, and he was elected Headmaster, and 
next year Professor, as already mentioned. 

All the accounts of Thomson which I have heard agree that he 
was not only a mathematician of a high order, but an almost ideal 
teacher, painstaking, inspiring, and resourceful. One at least of his 
old pupils at the Institution still survives, and by him I have been told 
many an anecdote of him, and man)' an appreciative reminiscence of 
his work. 

It was in Belfast that he prepared and published most of the 
school-books in which his name still lives. Some of them long 
enjo\-ed great popularity, and undoubtedly did good educational 



62 JAMES THOMSON, A.M., LL.D. 

work in their day, taking the place of books which were far inferior. 
Thomson's Arithmetic used to be a familiar word in the schoolboy's 
mouth. It was published in 1 8 19 by the well-known old Belfast 
bookseller, Joseph Smyth, 34, High Street, and a seventy-second 
edition of it appeared not many years ago. The Geography was 
nearly, if not quite, as well known. It was issued in 1827 by Simms 
and M'Intyre, Donegall Street. Trigonometry, Plane and Spherical 
appeared in 1820. Thomson's other works were — The Phenomena of 
the Heavens (Belfast, 1827); The Differential and Integral Calctdus 
(1831) ; an edition of Euclid {i2>^4) ; an Atlas of Modern Geography, 
and an Algebra (1844). He also contributed to various periodical 
publications, among the rest to the old Belfast Magazine. One of the 
most interesting of his articles in it was his "Recollections of the Battle 
of Ballynahinch, by an Eyewitness," which appeared in February 
1825. He was a lad of 12 at the date of that deplorable affair, and 
he describes in graphic language how, in company with a servant 
maid, who went to carry to the rebels, posted on Ednavady hill, the 
supplies of oatcake, bacon, potatoes, etc., for which his father had been 
requisitioned, he visited their camp and saw the peasant-soldiers, 
attired in their Sunday clothes, with green ribbons in their hats, and 
in their hands the old flint-lock muskets and pikes eight or nine feet 
long, which were to annihilate British power in Ireland. He recounts 
also some of the horrors of the battle which ensued on the following 
day, and which time never erased from his vaQvaoxy — the roar of the 
cannon, the cries of victors and vanquished, the sight of Ball\-nahinch 
in flames, and of the weary and wounded fugitives who, at niglitfall, 
sought refuge at his father's door. 

In Belfast Thomson built, in what was then a field opposite the 
Institution, two houses, now known as 15 and 16 College Square East. 
One of these he let, and in the other he lived. This latter house will 
always be venerable to Belfast men as the birthplace of our illustrious 
townsman. Lord Kelvin. Thomson was one of the founders of 
Fisherwick Place Church, which was opened in 1827, and is now 



JAMES THOMSON, A.M., LL.D. 63 

a thing of the past. It is said that its plan was practically his work. 
A little incident in his Belfast life is worth the telling here for the 
kindly light which it throws on his character. Mrs. Thomson {rue 
Margaret Gardiner, daughter of William Gardiner of Glasgow) died 
in 1830, leaving him with se\en children, the youngest an infant. He 
was asked where he was going to have the children's nurser>', now 
that they were motherless. " In m\' own bedroom," was his reply ; 
and there, accordingly, the little cots were placed, and the children 
brought up under his own eye. He educated them with the tenderest 
and most sedulous care. There are people still living who remember 
him sitting with them in the family pew in Fisherwick Place, listening 
to Dr. Morgan's preaching. 

In 1832 the eighteen years of his Belfast life were terminated by 
his appointment to the Chair of Mathematics in his ahua juater at 
Glasgow. Here he and his children lived in the Professors' Court 
of the old College (now demolished) in High Street, and here he dis- 
pla)-ed the same characteristics and achieved the same success which 
had marked his teaching in Belfast. After holding this Chair for 
seventeen years, he died on the 12th Januar}% 1849. Two of his sons 
became distinguished professors — James, a man of profound abilit>^ 
(born in Belfast 1822, died in Glasgow 1892), who was Professor of 
Engineering in Queen's College, Belfast, from 1857 to 1873, and from 
1873 till 1889 Professor of the same subject in Glasgow ; and William, 
now Lord Kelvin, of whose eminence and fame it is unnecessary' to 
speak. He was born in Belfast in 1824, and we hope he may long 
live to serve the cause of science and mankind. 

Thomson received the degree of LL.D., honoris causa, from Glasgow 
University in 1829. A good portrait of him, by Grahame Gilbert, hangs 
in Lord Kelvin's house. 

Thomas Hamilton. 




v^^^**.*^ (^su^ 



£U^*^>^ 



T>* KEY/ YORK 
PUBLIC LIBRARY 

ASTTOR, LSK»«. 
TILDSN FOUNDATIOb^fe 



67 



WILLIAM CAIRNS, LL.D. 

\The following articU by ll'uuam BottomUy is extracUd from the seccmd 
volutm of Minute Books of tfie Society. It zvas written for the 
''Northern Whig."] 

/^N Friday, the 2ist inst [April, 1849], died in the 64th year of his 
^■"^ age, at his residence, College Square, Belfast, the Rev. William 
Cairns, LL.D., Professor of Logic and Belles Lettres in the Royal 
Belfast Institution. He was appointed to his professorship in the 
year 18 14, being the year of the establishment of the Collegiate 
Department in the Institution, and he had, consequently, at his death, 
just completed his thirt}--third session. He received his education in 
Glasgow College, and was afterwards a minister of the United Secession 
Church for six years at Johnshaven, near Montrose, whence he was 
elected to the chair which he held in the Belfast Institution. The 
duties of that chair were discharged by him with a zeal and assiduit>- 
rarely equalled ; and the metaphysical turn of his mind, and his 
extensive acquaintance with the speculations of the various schools of 
mental philosophy, imparted a value to his instructions which those 
only who attended his lectures can appreciate. His heart was in his 
work ; and to all his students he was ever ready to extend the aid of 
his counsels and his encouragement. 

It was for literarj- criticism, however, that the elegance of his 
taste, the soundness of his judgment, and the extent of his reading, 
eminently fitted him. The analysis of language, the nice discrimina- 
tion of the beauties of style, the unfolding of the riches of our great 
authors, whether of prose or of poetr>-, were the subjects which called 
forth all his powers and gave eloquence to his tongue. His moral 
character was not less admirable than were his intellectual powers. 
To a fervent piety, and a sincere attachment to his own religious 



68 WILLIAM CAIRNS, LL.D. 

opinions, he united perfect toleration and charity towards those who 
differed from him. Without rehnquishing any of his own views, for 
the purpose of conciHation, he }'et had the happy art of Hving- at peace 
with all parties, of appreciating the truth which might lie in conflicting 
opinions, and of detecting real agreement amidst apparent differences. 
An absence of every tinge of bigotry or sectarianism, and the courtesy 
and kindness of his manners, gained him the respect of all without 
provoking the hostility of any. These were his public virtues : of 
the warmth of his affection, the strength of his friendship, and the 
gentleness of his disposition, his friends will long cherish the remem- 
brance. It remains to be added that he was a warm friend of all the 
philosophical and scientific institutions of the town, and especially of 
the Literary Society, of which he was Secretary for twenty years, 
watching over its interests and promoting its efficiency by every means 
in his power. 

He drew up and printed for the use of his class a comprehensive 
outline of the subjects treated in his lectures ; and in 1844 he published 
an elaborate work on Aloral Freedom, characterized by a subtlety of 
investigation which, whilst it shows the intellectual bias and powers 
of the writer, is not likely to become familiar to any save the acute 
student of metaphysical science. 



69 



THOMAS DIX HINCKS, LL.D. 

'npHOMAS DiX HiNCKS was born in Dublin on June 24th, 1767, and 
baptized in Strand Street Fresb\-terian Church in that cit\'. His 
parents, who were English, sent him to Chester and Xantwich for his 
early education, then to Dr. Mercer's Academy at Crumlin, near 
Dublin. Thence he entered Trinity College, Dublin, and after his 
undergraduate course there studied Theology at Hackney Noncon- 
formist College. His first and only ministerial charge was Prince's 
Street Presbyterian Church in Cork. He was the founder and first 
Secretary of the Cork Literary and Philosophical Institution, for which 
he obtained a liberal act of incorporation from the Irish Parliament, 
through his friendship with some of the leading men of the day. 
He published a series of letters to his fellow-townsmen in defence of 
the Christian religion, which were afterwards republished, with his 
permission, by the Church of England Society for Discountenancing 
Vice — a rare compliment to a Nonconformist minister. 

Resigning his charge in Cork in 181 5, he became tutor of the 
Fermoy Academy, and there his energy found vent in preparing and 
publishing various text-books, of which his Afide?it Geography and 
History and Greek Lexicon for Schools were speciall}' successful. 

In 1 82 1 he was appointed head of the Classical Department in the 
Royal Academical Institution in Belfast, and in 1822 also Professor of 
Hebrew in the College Department. The former post he held till 
1836, and the latter till the opening of the Queen's College in 1849. 

He was a profound Hebrew and Greek scholar, was familiar with 
the principal modern European tongues, and was also distinguished 
in natural and experimental science. He was a member of the Royal 
Irish Academy and many other learned societies, and in 1834 received 
the honorary degree of LL.D. from Glasgow University. 



70 THOMAS DIX HINCKS, LL.D. 

He joined the Belfast Literary Society in October 1821, was twice 
President, and read many papers on such varied subjects as the 
Hebrew vowels, the origin and use of Saltpetre, England in the reign 
of Edward VI., Lexicography, and the Bogs of Ireland. 

Dr. Hincks died at his house in Murray's Terrace, Belfast, on 
February 24, 1857, in the 90th year of his age, and was buried in the 
churchyard of Killyleagh, Co. Down, his eldest son's parish. He left 
five sons and two daughters. Four sons became clergymen — two in 
the Episcopal and two in the Presbyterian Church ; one of the former, 
Dr. Edward Hincks of Killyleagh, becoming a celebrated Oriental 
scholar, whose life is noticed elsewhere in this volume. The youngest 
son, Francis, went early to Canada, where he became Finance Minister 
and Premier, then Governor of the Barbadoes, and later of British 
Guiana. 

One who remembers Dr. Hincks writes: "I am afraid there cannot 
be many now in Belfast who would remember the dear old man, with 
his high intellectual forehead, crowned with snowy hair, and his keen 
bright eyes : he was always so interested in all that went on around 
him. His old-fashioned courtesy and wide sympathy made him very 
attractive." 

Cecil E. Shaw. 



71 



HENRY MONTGOMERY. 

Uenry Montgomery, ll.d. (1788- 1865), fifth son and youngest 
child of Archibald Montgomery, was born at Boltnaconnel 
House, Killead, on i6th January, 1788. I lis mother was Sarah, 
daughter of William Campbell of Killealy. His father, who had held 
a volunteer commission in 1778, was commonly called Lieutenant 
Montgomery. Two of Dr. Montgomery's brothers, William and John, 
were engaged as United Irishmen in the Battle of Antrim, 7th June, 
1798 ; a couple of days later, Boltnaconnel House was plundered and 
burned by yeomanry in search of fugitives. After passing through 
the schools of Alexander Greer at Lyle Hill (1799- 1802), and of 
Rev, Nathaniel Alexander at Crumlin (1802-4), Montgomery entered 
Glasgow University in November 1804. Taking his M.A. in 1807, he 
acted as tutor for some months in the family of Thomas Stewart of 
Seapark, Carrickfergus, and returned to Glasgow for a session in the 
divinity classes. 

He preached his first sermon at Killead on 8th January, 1809, 
though not licensed till 5th February by Templepatrick Bresbytery. 
In May he was a candidate for the vacant charge of Uonegore, but his 
refusal to subscribe the Westminster Confession made way for the 
successful candidature of his life-long antagonist. Dr. Cooke. They 
were born in the same year, according to the usual account, though 
Rev. W. T. Latimer holds that Dr. Cooke was about five years the 
senior of Montgomery (^History of the Irish Presbyterians^ 2nd edition, 
1902, p. 427). By Samuel Martin Stephenson, M.D., Montgomery 
was introduced to the congregation of Dunmurry {Irish Unitarian 
Magazine, 1847, p. 290), vacant by the removal of Andrew George 
Malcolm, D.D. : he preached there on nth June, 1809; was called on 
9th July, and ordained on 14th September by Bangor Presbytery. 



72 HENRY MONTGOMERY. 

The stipend was £86 Irish (£79 7s. 8}d. sterling) with regiiim donum, 
£^0 Irish {£4.6 IS. id. sterling), and a glebe of eight acres. This was 
Montgomery's life-long pastoral settlement. As time went on, the 
emoluments increased. 

At Dunmurry he kept school from the first, having boarders at the 
manse from 181 5. As a teacher he soon acquired repute, and on 
the retirement of James Knowles became candidate for the head- 
mastership of the English School in the Belfast Academical Institu- 
tion. Coincident with this candidature was an invitation to preach, on 
trial, at Killeleagh, the charge to which Dr. Cooke was subsequently 
elected. Montgomery declined the overture, made to him through 
Archibald Hamilton Rowan. He was elected headmaster on 3rd 
October, 18 17 ; his congregation agreeing that he should reside at the 
Institution. Till June 1839 he held the mastership, and thereby 
exercised a remarkable influence on the literary education of Ulster. 
Beginning with six boarders, he brought the number to fifty-two, and 
trebled the attendance of day-pupils. He was not sparing of the rod, 
but his scholars idolized him. All " children of the manse " he 
invariably taught without fee. When, in after life, his pupils dis- 
tinguished themselves, it was with pardonable pride that he would 
make known the fact, " I taught the boy !" His connection with the 
Institution gave him a personal interest in its defence, in view of the 
theological alarm raised by Dr. Cooke from 1821 and onward. 

As early as June 181 3, Montgomery had made his mark as a 
debater in the General Synod of Ulster ; taking up the cause of 
William Steel Dickson, D.D., against the dominant influence of 
Robert Black, D.D. (in theology a liberal, but in synodical politics a 
strict constitutional conservative). He was encouraged to be a candi- 
date fur the Synod clerkship, but withdrew in favour of Rev. William 
Porter of Newtownlimavady. At the age of thirty, he was elected 
(30th June, 1818) Moderator of Synod. 

It would be out of place to enter here on the details of those 
synodical conflicts, beginning at Newry in 1822, and closing at 



HENRY MONTGOMERY. 73 

Lurgan in 1829, throughout which Montgomery and Cooke encoun- 
tered each other in a war of giants. To define Montgomery's position, 
it may suffice to say that, since 1783, owing to the action of William 
Campbell, D.D., subscription had so far been in abeyance, that ten out 
of the fourteen presbyteries composing the Synod had come to treat it 
as optional. The code of discipline adopted in 1824 embodied a com- 
promise, suggested by Samuel Hanna, D.D., allowing presbyteries either 
to proceed by way of subscription, or to adopt the alternative of an 
examination, of whose sufficiency they were to be the judges. This 
compromise it was Montgomery's object to maintain ; and in this 
object, pursued with all his matchless eloquence, he failed. No speech 
of his made a more extraordinary impression than that at Strabane 
(1827) in favour of religious liberty. It was widely circulated ; and 
the admiration it excited was testified by a presentation of plate to its 
author, from members of various denominations, including Roman 
Catholics. But the appointment (1828) of a synodical committee, on 
the motion of Rev. James Morell of Ballybay, for the uniform 
theological examination of all candidates, was fatal to Montgomery's 
hopes. The " Remonstrance" of i6th October, 1828, was followed by 
the secession of 1829, and the formation of the Remonstrant Synod 
of Ulster on 25th May, 1830. 

From 181 3 Montgomery had advocated Roman Catholic emanci- 
pation; on 27th January, 1829, he spoke on this subject from the altar 
of St. Patrick's, Belfast, at a meeting presided over by William Crolly, 
D.D., Bishop of the Roman Catholic Diocese. To the repeal of the 
Union he was strongly opposed ; his powerful letter to O'Connell 
(ist February, 1831) was very effective in detaching Irish liberals from 
O'Connell's agitation. The National System of Education, introduced 
in 1 83 1, found in him a warm advocate. He advocated also the dis- 
establishment of the Irish Church, giving evidence in this sense before 
parliamentary committees in 1832. The degree of LL.D. was conferred 
upon him by Glasgow University in 1833. His final encounter with 
Dr. Cooke had reference to the affairs of the Belfast Academical 



74 HENRV MONTGOMERY. 

Institution. On the 13th April, 1841, he defeated Cooke's proposal to 
exclude Arian professors of theolog}- from seats in the facult)-. He 
had lectured to nonsubscribing di\-init)' students from 1832, and was 
appointed Professor of Ecclesiastical Histor\- and Pastoral Theology 
on lOth July, 1838: the office was without salar}- imtil ''1847; the 
Government endowed the chair with ;^I50 per annum. 

In denominational matters, Montgomery naturally took a promi- 
nent part. His Creed of an Arian (1830) expressed his life-long 
con\-ictions ; hence, in his latter days, the changes of opinion in his 
denomination called forth his unqualified resistance. His political 
views became more conservative. It is pleasing to add that, towards 
the end of his life, he was on terms of good friendship with his old 
opponent. Dr. Cooke. Indeed there were few, in whatever rank, and 
with whatever initial prejudice, who could come into contact with 
Heniy Montgomerj-, in the way of personal intercourse, and fail to be 
captivated by his noble presence, his suasive manners, and his fasci- 
nating address. He has been described as " a bom diplomatist" The 
secret of his influence with successive Governments lay greatly in his 
personal charm. When he fell ill in London, after his exertions on 
behalf of the Dissenters' Chapels Act (1844}, Sir Robert Peel, whose 
support of the measure ^Montgomerj' had obtained, sent daih- to 
inquire after his health. His permanent fame is that of an orator. 
While the printed page presen-es the beaut}- of his language, the skill 
of his argument, the flow of his pathos, and the edge of his satire, it 
cannot convey the thrilling tones of his voice of peculiar sweetness, or 
the exquisite grace of his perfect deliver)-. 

There is no collection of Montgomer>-'s speeches, though several of 
them have been frequently reprinted. Relying on a copious memory-, 
he rarely prepared more than a few notes, either for the pulpit or for 
other public efforts ; and, beyond occasional sermons, he published little. 
The value of his unfinished Outlines of the History of Presbyterianism 
in Ireland consists chiefly in its graphic sketches of personages and 
incidents made familiar to him in the course of his long career. 



HENRY MONTGOMERY. 75 

Having endured, with great fortitude, the agony of a painful dis- 
order (calcukis), Montgomery died at The Glebe, Dunmurry, on i8th 
December, 1865, and was buried in the ground behind his meeting- 
house. At his funeral, attended by "a thousand gentlemen of Ulster," 
Bishop Knox (afterwards Primate) and Dr. Cooke were present ; 
Dean Bagot and Rev. John Scott Porter walked side by side, 

Montgomery married (6th April, 181 2) Elizabeth (died i6th 
January, 1872, aged 78), fourth daughter of Hugh Swan of Summerhill, 
County Antrim. He had ten children, five of whom died under age. 
His surviving daughter is the widow of his biographer, the late Rev. 
John Armstrong Crozier, A.B. 

Of portraits of him, the best is that painted (1845) by John 
Prescott Knight; engraved by Thomas Lupton (1847) ^"cl by T. G. 
Flowers (1874). 

[Fuller references to Dr. Montgomery's controversies, with autho- 
rities for his life, may be found in Diet. Nat. Biog., Vol. XXXVHI. 
(1894)-] 

Alexander Gordon. 



7^ 



GEORGE CRAWFORD HYNDMAN. 

^ EORGE Crawford Hyndman, born in or near Belfast on 24th 
^■"^ October, 1796, was a son of James Hyndman and Cherry 
Crawford and largely of Scottish descent, his paternal ancestors having 
migrated from Renfrewshire to County Antrim in the reign of Charles 
the Second and his maternal ancestors, though Irish, having inter- 
married on at least two occasions with natives of North Britain. His 
education began in his sixth year under E. Ramsey and was continued 
at the Belfast Academy, during the principalship of Dr. Bruce, where 
he distinguished himself by proficiency in writing, mathematics, 
English, Latin and Greek before completing his thirteenth year, as 
evidenced by the testimonials borne away by him. 

His early ambition was to study medicine, but family exigencies 
compelled him to adopt a business career and he became an auctioneer, 
valuator and house furnisher, in which vocations he displayed 
unassuming ability and unswerving integrity and acquired an acumen 
in natural and industrial commodities and art treasures which was 
unrivalled in Ulster and probably unsurpassed in Ireland. 

But, although denied the profession of his desire, his passion for 
scientific pursuits and allegiance to the great mother. Nature, which 
underlay that predilection, were indomitable. Every available hour 
was devoted by him to extending the range of practical knowledge of 
animal and vegetable life. At one time he nursed a crayfish while 
casting the shell which hindered its growth ; at another he held an 
earwig in captivity that he might note the process of incubation by 
which the species was preserved. Conchology, however, was his chiefest 
and most absorbing study. In many summers his holidays were spent 
on board the Fairy and Gannet, dredging the shores of Ulster, the 
opposite coast and the intermediate channel, notes and reports of some 
of which operations were presented to the British Association and 



GEORGE CRAWIORD 1 1 VN DM AN. "jy 

appear in its transactions for the years 1842, 1857, 1858, and 1859. 
Amongst thecrustaceans thus dredged up in Belfast Bay a n^w Beri/iardus 
Streblonyx was found and attributed, in common with others similarly 
brought t(j light b\' him, the cognomen Hynd))ianni in courtesy to the 
discoverer. The thoroughness of his investigations in that direction 
may be estimated by a reference to Mr. Lloyd I'raeger's Marine Shells 
of t lie NortJi of Ireland. 

His generic collection of British Shells, admittedly unique in its 
extent and completeness, was transferred, along with his copy of the 
Annals and Magazine of Natural History^ to the Belfast Museum, 
of which institution he had been one of the original founders and 
proprietors, as well as having been the first Secretary, once President, 
for some time Vice-President and ever an active member of Council 
of the Natural History and Philosophical Society, by which the 
Museum had been projected and its usefulness was fostered and 
supplemented. With a view to aid in the removal of a debt 
which was hanging over the Society, and which others had materially 
reduced, he, in the December of 1856, delivered a course of lectures on 
Conchology in sequence to an introductory address by his friend, the 
late Mr. Richard Davison, M.P. But in addition to British Shells he 
had made a general collection of Foreign Shells and Insects now 
preserved in the Mechanics' Institute of Lurgan, 

He was likewise one of a coterie of gentlemen who, in the year 1820, 
formed a Botanical and tlorticultural Association and subsequently 
established that favourite resort till lately known as the Belfast 
Botanic Gardens. He acted on its Board of Management, was a 
constant visitor to its grounds and a frequent contributor to its 
collections, as he also was to that of the Museum where may be seen 
a young crocodile and a chameleon, once domesticated pets of his. 
When the Belfast Naturalists' Field Club was formed early in 1863, he 
became a member of that Society and was elected its President in 
the following year, taking part in its excursions and always evincing 
deep interest in its proceedings. 



78 GEORGE CRAWFORD HYNDMAN. 

He never prepared any treatise for the press, but he occasionally 
furnished communications to the scientific periodicals. Nevertheless, 
his labours in the prosecution of his favourite branch of science 
were widely known and highly appreciated, while his important con- 
tributions to a knowledge of the distribution of the fauna of Ireland 
and his unfailing accuracy and unselfish generosity in placing his wide 
attainments in Natural History unreservedly at the service of his 
brother naturalists have been testified in the monographs and other 
publications of most of them and his reputation gained gracious 
acknowledgment from the late Prince Consort who presented him 
with a copy of MacGillivray's Natural History of Deeside and Braemar, 
published after the author's death by command of Queen Victoria for 
private circulation. 

In the arena of general education George Crawford Hyndman also 
displayed zealous concern and for many \-ears bore an active share in 
the management of the Belfast Academical Institution. 

But, while it may be said that outside his business life his energies 
were merely devoted to scientific and educational subjects, his wide 
human s}-mpathies were engaged in many other directions. Although 
he displayed no proficiency in the musical art, he was a lover of 
harmony and sweet sounds and encouraged the cultivation and 
enjoyment of them among his fellow townsmen. His name was to 
that intent inscribed upon the roll of members of the old Anacreontic 
Society and was also upon the register of Proprietors of the Ulster 
Hall Company. Indeed, there was no local effort for the moral or 
intellectual elevation and mechanical or artistic culture of the com- 
munity from which he withheld his ardent support, while no public 
charity or worthy fellow being in adversity ever appealed to him 
in vain for solicitude and material aid. He was a man and nothing 
human was an object of indifference to him. 

In the year 1836 he became a member of the Belfast Literary 
Society and once occupied the chair as its President. His last 
contribution to its proceedings was a dissertation on Darwin's Theory 



• GEORGE CRAWFORD IIYNDMAN. 79 

Respecting the Origiu of Species, which subject, then novel, was spiritedly 
discussed and by several of those present on the occasion somewhat 
fervently combated. 

George Crawford Hyndman never married and for some years 
lived in solitude although by no means unresponsive to the attractions 
of family life. Me was a genial and interesting companion and a 
sincere, constant and sympathetic friend. 

While the ministry of nature and the revelations of the universe 
may have absorbed his deepest regard, their ascendency enriched and 
ennobled his personality in its relation to practical every-day life, in 
which he was single-minded and quick-tempered, frank, direct, just 
and impatient of wrong, doing as he would be (although not always 
was) done by, reverent, compassionate, beneficent, cheerful, animated 
and fond of innocent fun, devoted to plain faring and high thinking, 
" not living to eat," as he on occasions would warmly declare, " but 
eating only to live." He took a lively and intelligent interest in all 
public questions and evinced much pleasure in the discussion of them. 
In religion a Unitarian, he was a Liberal in politics and bore a part 
in the local activities of the party to which he was attached. He was 
under average stature, active in body and, although not robust in 
appearance, enjoyed remarkable immunity from disease or ill health 
of any kind until the autumn of 1863, when a slight attack of 
paralysis interrupted his work ; yet he so far recovered from it in a 
few months as to be able to resume and carry on business for a couple 
of years longer. But the disease ultimately compelled his cessation 
from active labour. 

To the end, however, the absorbing love of Nature and her works 
possessed him ; their pursuit was his pastime ; they had been a 
perennial joy to him through the passing years and their contem- 
plation cheered and solaced his declining hours. He died in Belfast, 
where he had spent his life, on the i8th of December, 1867. 

Hugh Hyndman. 



8o 



HENRY MacCORMAC, M.D. 

' I ^PiE most prominent feature of my father's character was, I think, 
his indomitable energy of mind as well as of body. He lived a 
long and almost ascetic life of eighty-six years, and till the very end 
of it he utilized every waking hour in useful occupation and work. 
His opinions were founded on convictions arrived at after serious 
consideration, and not easily to be departed from. 

I suppose the greatest work of his life was based upon the belief 
he had arrived at, after years of patient investigation, that consumption 
was curable, dependent upon a preventable cause, and was not an 
inheritance. He was convinced that the cause of consumption lay in 
the continued breathing of air contaminated and exhausted by previous 
respiration, and that the habitual breathing of pure air would not only 
prevent the development of phthisis, but go far to cure it after it had 
been already commenced. He did not, I think, place much faith in 
Koch's bacillus, but he advised, in season and out of season, that the right 
and only treatment or cure for consumption was by means of fresh 
open air by night as well as by day. 

My father was before his time, and his contemporaries scoffed ; but 
a generation has scarce elapsed, and the open-air treatment of 
consumption is recognised as the one effective method of dealing with 
this destructive malady. 

He was deeply conversant with the philosophies of ancient and 
modern times, of the Greeks and the Romans, and those of the German 
and French schools. His most earnest conviction was that the human 
race could and would develop in goodness and greatness. He dwelt 
on the possibilities for improvement rather than on the retrograde 
tendencies that might exist, and to him all mankind was one brother- 
hood, alike capable of ultimate perfectibility, and of reaching by effort 
and endurance the desired goal. 



HENRY MacCORMAC, M.D. 8 1 

He was a profoundly religious man, with an absolute belief in the 
goodness, greatness, and divine perfection of the unseen God. He was 
convinced that the striving after what was good must continue in the 
next state of our existence, if we are to achieve anything worth the 
achievement, as it does in this one. 

I never knew any one of more gentle lo\nng disposition. This was 
shown in his own family circle, and in his love for children who 
reciprocated the feeling — the instinct they possess alwa}'s drawing 
them towards those who s}-mpathise with them. The same feeling 
was shown in the kindly interest he took in the animal world ; all 
unnecessar}' suffering in any form pained him. He anticipated in the 
near future that horses, for example, would be relieved from the 
penalties they often had to endure, and that much of their work would 
be, as indeed it has alread)- been, largely replaced by steam and 
electric power. 

He was master of many languages, both European and Oriental, 
and much of his leisure time, especially in later years, was devoted to 
the study of comparative philolog)-, and the compilation of a dict\ona.Ty 
illustrating the subject. 

In the notice of his life contained in the Dictionary of National 
Biography, a record of m\- father's career will be found, and the list there 
given of his published writings is something amazing, both for its length 
and the variety of subject which they cover. Xo fewer than twent)- 
works are mentioned — treatises on medicine, on philosophy, religious 
works, and even works of romance. 

He was a man of great mind and of great heart, great in human 
sympathy and affection, and great in his profound belief in the 
progressive amelioration, both moral and material, of the human race. 
I, as well as ever\'one who came within the charm of his influence, 
hold him in affectionate and reverent recollection, and regard him as 
a bright exemplar of a pure and well spent life. 

William MacCormac. 



82 



EDMUND GETTY. 



ITdmund Getty, only son of a Belfast merchant, was born in 
North Street in 1799. Little is known of his early years, but he 
entered into the service of the old Ballast Board (now the Harbour 
Commissioners), and became in due time their Secretary. 

In 1 83 1, as Vice-President of the Belfast Natural History Society, 
he gave an account of its origin and connection with the Belfast 
Museum. Devoted to literary and historical researches, he published 
in 1 84 1 a remarkable historical novel, entitled The Last King of Ulster. 
His Notices of Chinese Seals found in Ireland, read before the Literary 
Society, was published in book form in 1850, and attracted much 
attention. His valuable History of Belfast Harbour, compiled 
for the Admiralty, and published by their authority in 1852, was 
intended as an introduction to a much more extensive work, which 
was never completed. A warm friend of Robert S. Macadam, he 
contributed to the Ulster fournal of Archceology several papers, 
including one mainly on the situation of the old Ford of Belfast, which 
excited much controversy. He died suddenly of heart disease in 
December 1857. 

R. M. Young. 




,^C2,c^r-^^^S:^2^55wZ> 



PUBLIC LIBRARY I 



85 



ROBERT PATTERSON, F.R.S. 

"D OBERT Patterson, f.r.S., the subject of this notice, was, fnjin 
1830 up to the time of his death in 1872 — a period of forty-two 
years — one of the most eminent, active and useful members of the 
Society. 

Born in Belfast in 1802, he was the eldest son of Robert I'atterson 
(who, settled in Belfast previously, had commenced business here in 
1786) by his wife Catherine, daughter of David Jonathan Clarke of 
Dublin and Queen's County, Esquire, K.C., a lady of great ability and 
high culture. 

Robert Patterson finished his school course at the then newl\-- 
opened Royal Belfast Academical Institution, which now famous old 
school has since sent many other distinguished men into the world, 
but few, if any, more so than himself. He subsequently, while at 
business, attended some classes at the Belfast College, which ceased 
to exist on the opening of Queen's College. 

At the age of sixteen — later than was then customary — young 
Patterson entered his father's business, and served the usual seven 
years' apprenticeship. On his father's death in 1831 he became the 
head of the family, all of whom predeceased him ; two of his brothers, 
however, William and David, having married and left issue. 

Mr. Patterson early evinced that taste for Natural History, his 
devotion to which had so marked an influence on his subsequent life 
and friendships. 

On 5th June, 1821, there met by invitation, at the house of Dr. 
James L. Drummond, seven young men, who then and there decided 
to form themselves into the Belfast Natural History Society, with 
Dr. Drummond as their first President. Robert Patterson, then 
nineteen )'ears of age, was one of the seven. 



86 ROBERT PATTERSON, F.R.S. 

The Society so founded above eighty years ago continues in our 
midst, it having, in the years 1830-31, erected the Musuem in College 
Square North, which is still its home. Mr. Patterson, who had at one 
time or other filled every office in it, was, in 1871, the recipient of an 
address (he having declined any more costly or substantial presenta- 
tion) commemorating his fifty years unbroken membership of the 
council of the Society, his interest in which only terminated with his 
death. 

Besides numerous contributions to the proceedings and journals 
of various learned societies in the three kingdoms, Mr. Patterson's 
principal published works were on The Insects mentioned in Shakspeare 
(1838); Zoology for Schools, Part I. (Invertebrata), 1846 ; and Part II. 
( Vertebrata), 1848. This work was undertaken for the purpose of 
endeavouring to spread and popularize the study of Natural History, 
in fact to endeavour to make it a regular part of the education that 
every person should receive, as the author had strong views as 
to the humanizing and refining effect that such studies have on the 
young. Mr. Patterson's hopes in this respect were fully realized, for 
the books were taken up by the educational authorities in both England 
and Ireland, where they became regular class-books. They were well 
and attractively illustrated, and for a lengthened period had a large 
sale and an immense circulation. Thousands of middle-aged and 
elderly men and women of the present day still acknowledge their 
indebtedness to him for at least some acquaintance with Natural 
History. 

Mr. Patterson's next work was First Steps to Zoology, a more 
elementary work than the other, the production of which was under- 
taken at the request of the educational authorities ; as was also the 
case with regard to an important set of ten large Zoological diagrams, 
planned by him, drawn by the best draughtsmen of the period, 
and published in the highest style of chromo-lithographic art by 
Day & Son of London. During all this time Mr. Patterson continued 
devoted to his business ; and all the scientific and literary work above 



ROBERT PATTERSON, F.R.S. 8/ 

referred to was done after business hours. As a recognition of his 
useful work he was, in 1859, elected a Fellow of the Royal Society, an 
unsought honour, but one which he highly appreciated. 

Long prior to this, Mr. Patterson had, in 1833, married Marj' 
Elizabeth, younger daughter of the late William Hugh Ferrar, Esq., 
Police Magistrate of Belfast, by whom he had a numerous family. 
Mrs. Patterson was an admirable and sympathetic helpmeet to her 
husband ; and, while not deeply interested in his scientific pursuits, 
she shared to the full his love of literature ; and both were poets of no 
mean order. Mr. Patterson's literar)- st}-le and diction were fluent and 
good, without being florid ; and he wrote and spoke pure English 
without an}- straining at effect. He never sought any public office, 
and declined an offer of the magistracy made to him. He was 
however, for a short time a member of the Corporation, and for a 
much longer period a member of the Harbour Board and of the 
committee of the Northern Bank. 

Among his friends he numbered all the eminent British Zoologists 
of the three or four mid-centurj- decades. Yarrell, Thompson, Forbes, 
Hyndman, Owen, Danvin, Carpenter, Ball, Jukes, Prince C. L. 
Bonaparte, Johnston, the two ]\IacAdams, Spence, and Allman were 
some of them ; and to the second named of the above brilliant group 
he acted as literar}- executor. He was a ver}- early member of the 
British Association, for some time Secretary of the Zoological section, 
and acted as local Honorar}- Treasurer on the occasion of the first 
visit of the body to Belfast in 1852. 

Courteous and gentle to all, a favourite in societ}- on account of 
his conversational powers and a certain charm of manner difificult to 
describe, universally respected in public and revered and beloved in 
private life, ]\Ir. Patterson passed away at his residence, College Square 
North, Belfast, on the 14th of Februar}-, 1872, in the seventieth \-ear 
of his age. 

Robert Llovd Patterson. 



88 



JAMES MACADAM, F.G.S. 

JAMES Macadam, f.G.S., was the elder brother of the more widely- 
known Robert S. Macadam. He was born in 1801, at High 
Street, Belfast. 

Educated for business pursuits, his whole tastes lay in the direction 
of Natural History, especially Geology. One of the founders of the 
Belfast Natural History Society in 1 821, he contributed many valuable 
papers on his favourite subject, both to it and the Geological Magazine. 
He was a member of the Geological Societies of London and Dublin, 
and with his friends, Dr. James Bryce, F.G.S., and General Portlock, he 
did much to elucidate the complex Geology of the North of Ireland. 

At several of the British Association meetings he acted as corres- 
pondent for the AthencBum. 

Of a reserved and studious temperament, he took little part in 
public matters, but, was well known for the high sense of honour and 
integrity which marked his business dealings. Never a robust man, 
he died at his residence. College Square East, in 1861. He was 
President of the Belfast Natural History and Philosophical Society at 
the time of his decease, like his friend William Thompson, the Irish 
Naturalist. 

R. M. Young. 




>^j/2^r>^t/W^ 






ASTOR. LE^^^ 

ATlOf 



TliDEN FCL'ND 



91 



THE REV. JOHN SCOTT PORTER. 

HPhe Rev. John Scott Porter, who for many years took a 
leading part in the business of the Belfast Literary Society, 
was bom at Ne\vtownlimavady on the 31st December, 1801. He 
was the eldest son of the Rev. William Porter, minister of the old 
congregation of that place, and for many years Clerk of the S>'nod 
of Ulster, a post which he resigned in 1830, at the disruption of that 
body and the formation of the Remonstrant Synod, of which he was 
a leading member until his death in 1843. William Porter was twice 
married : his first wife, Mary Scott, died on 9th October, 1809, 
leaving four children — John Scott, the subject of this notice ; William, 
afterwards the Hon. William Porter, for many years Attorne}'-General 
at the Cape of Good Hope ; Marianne, afterwards wife of Francis D. 
Finlay, founder and proprietor of the Northern Whig newspaper ; and 
another daughter, who married and went to America. By his second 
wife, ]\Iiss Classon of Dublin, the Rev. William Porter left three sons — 
the Rev. Classon Porter, for man}^ years minister of the old Presby- 
terian (Unitarian) Congregation in Larne, well known as a scholar 
and antiquarian, as well as a divine ; the Rev. James Xixon Porter of 
Carrickfergus ; and Francis, who settled as a merchant in Cape Town, 
where he died in 1881. 

From childhood, John Scott Porter was possessed with an intense 
love of knowledge and zeal for its acquirement. This never left him. 
He grew old learning something every day ; and what he learned he 
never forgot. His earliest teacher was one Doherty, who kept a sort 
of hedge-school at a place called Dirtagh, near Artikelly, where the 
Porters resided. From him young Porter acquired the rudiments of a 
sound education, both in English and Latin. He often spoke in after 



92 THE REV. JOHN SCOTT PORTER. 

days with regret of the disappearance of schools like Doherty's, where 
boys could acquire an elementary acquaintance with the classics — a 
privilege denied in the National Schools which superseded them. 

After his mother's death in 1809, he was sent to the school of a 
Mr. Stephenson, in Limavady, where he studied — but only English — 
till August 1 81 2, when he was sent to Londonderry, where the 
Rev. George Hay and the Rev. William Moore conducted a classical 
school in Artillery Lane. Here he remained as a day-pupil for one 
year, during which he lodged in the house of a Mrs. Boggs, having 
charge of his brother William — four years his junior — and of the 
accounts and expenditure for both, though himself not yet eleven 
years old. After the first year, a vacancy in the school allowed of his 
admission as a boarder, and he so remained until 1817. During this 
period of almost five 3'ears his mind and character developed apace. 
In classical studies he read (that is, in his case, he learned thoroughly 
and completely) Ruddiman's Grammar, Corderey's Colloquies, Selectse 
Sententiae, Cornelius Nepos, Ovid, Sallust, Horace, Virgil, Terence, and 
Juvenal; Bell's Grammar, the Greek Testament, Lucian, and Homer. 

But these were not his only studies. For instance, at the exami- 
nations, when the pupils got up a play, he took a part, and was 
favourably received as Alonzo in " The Revenge," and as Count 
Sans-Chateau in " The Horse and the Widow." He also learned to 
manage a boat on the Foyle; and, it is said, never shirked an invitation 
to a pugilistic encounter. Indeed, he acquired both skill and repu- 
tation in affairs of that sort, of which he sometimes bore inconvenient 
traces. An old lady to whom he was paying a visit one day — a great 
friend of his family — opened her purse and produced a guinea, which 
she showed to him, and then returning it to its receptacle said: "John, 
I had intended to give you this, but that disgraceful black eye prevents 
my doing so." The disappointment to an impecunious boy may be 
imagined. 

Speaking of impecuniosity, it will be readily conceived that to 
keep John Scott at school, away from home, was a heavy drain upon 



THE REV. JOHN SCOTT PORTER. 93 

the resources of the httle parsonage. His step-mother deserves the 
chief credit for this. She knew his great talent, and felt that at any 
sacrifice it ought to be fostered ; and in justice to him, it must be said 
that to her and his fatiier he did a son's duty in repa)'ing their loving 
care in after life. 

It must have been during this period that an event happened which 
might have altered the whole tenor of his life. Bolivar's struggle for 
freedom in South America was then firing the souls of lovers of liberty 
in the old world ; and John Scott Porter felt the thrill of sympathetic 
enthusiasm so keenly, that he sent in an application to join one of the 
bands of volunteers who were enrolled in the old country ; but, to his 
great disappointment, he was refused as being too young. 

In June 1817 he was sent to Belfast Academical Institution — 
half a college, half a school — where, partly as student and partly as 
usher to Dr. Montgomery, one of the headmasters, he spent some 
years of preparation for the profession he had chosen — his father's. 
His college course was broken by an absence of two years, during 
which he was tutor to the family of a Mr. Handy, in County Kilkenny, 
where he was most kindly treated, and where he learned many country 
pursuits. Mr. Handy had so high an opinion of his talents that he 
offered to defray all the expenses of his preparation for and call to the 
Bar, believing that his vocation lay in that direction ; but the youth, 
with gratitude, declined the generous proposal. 

In Belfast he carried off every college prize that was available, 
and his family have numbers of his medals and book premiums. 
She who was afterwards his wife first saw him on the occasion of a 
public distribution of prizes in the common hall of the institution — 
a pale sallow youth, very slight in figure, with coal-black hair and 
large prominent eyes — called down time after time, amid applause, 
to receive more and more prizes, till he was almost overburdened by 
them. For a year he was usher in the old Belfast Academ}% of which 
the venerable Dr. Bruce was headmaster. 

In 1825 Mr. Porter received an invitation from the old Dissenting 



94 THE REV. JOHN SCOTT PORTER. 

Congregation of Carter Lane, London, to become their pastor, and 
accepted it. For some six years he laboured there, forming the closest 
ties of friendship with many of his parishioners, ties which lasted all 
his life. Amongst these were the grandfather and father of the Right 
Hon. Joseph Chamberlain, and many others of old Nonconformist 
stock. 

In 1 83 1 Mr. Porter was invited to become the junior minister of 
the First Presbyterian Congregation, Belfast. This call he accepted 
(he had previously been licensed to preach by the Presbytery of 
Bangor); and two years later (8th October, 1833) he married 
Margaret, eldest daughter of Dr., Andrew Marshall, R.N., of Belfast. 
There never was a happier marriage. The greater part of his energy 
for the remainder of his long life was devoted to the service of the 
Church to which he belonged and the congregation he loved. This is 
not the place to dwell upon these matters. Suffice it to say that he 
was, as a preacher, earnest, and deemed eloquent and effective ; and, 
as a pastor, he was devoted to his work, especially among the poorer 
and humbler members of his flock, who found in him a ready and 
prudent adviser, and frequently a generous benefactor. It was one of 
his chief joys to find his congregation growing and prospering ; the 
galleries of the old church, which were almost empty when he joined 
it, being filled at the close of his ministry. With his colleagues, the 
Rev. William Bruce, and afterwards the Rev. Alexander Gordon, he 
was always on terms of close sympathy, and their co-operation was 
ever cordial. 

In 1834 a public discussion was held in the Rosemary Street 
Meeting-house, on the subject of the Doctrine of the Trinity, between 
Mr. Porter and the Rev. Daniel Bagot, afterwards Dean of Dromore, 
and the proceedings attracted much public attention and crowded 
audiences. Whether such conflicts ever produce that kind of good 
which is aimed at may be doubted. They certainly make few 
converts. This particular controversy, however, was carried on in 
a manner satisfactory to the friends of each of the disputants; and the 



THE REV. JOHN SCOTT PORTER. 95 

report of the proceeding's was afterwards published in an authenticated 
edition. It is pleasant to record that the relations between Dean 
Bagot and Mr. Porter were of the most courteous and kindly nature, 
and so remained till the death of the latter. He had, indeed, many 
controversies, but few enemies. 

After the Bagot discussion, Mr. Porter's friends presented him 
with a substantial pecuniary testimonial, the proceeds of which were 
invested in the purchase of the lease of Nos. 15 and 16 College Square 
East, Belfast, in the latter of which he passed the best years of his life. 
He also built an addition to it, in which, for many years, he kept a 
day-school, always well attended. As a teacher he was efficient and 
successful. One trait in his character is still remembered by his old 
pupils with pleasure. Though a strict disciplinarian, he never punished 
boys for quarrels when these had been settled by a fair fight. In 
educational matters he was exacting ; and his chief fault was a failure 
to make adequate allowance for stupidity or slowness of intellect. 

Mr. Porter was, in 1838, appointed Professor of Biblical Criticism, 
and afterwards of Hebrew and the cognate languages (including 
Syriac, Chaldee, and Arabic), to the Nonsubscribing Presbyterian 
Association, with a Government endowment of ;^I50 per annum. 
He was also, for a time, unpaid Dean of Residences for the same 
Association in Queen's College, Belfast. 

His published writings were numerous, and comprised, besides 
sermons and religious and theological essays, treatises on the Metrical 
System of Weights and Measures, on National Education in Ireland, 
and other topics of general interest. His chief work is The Principles 
of Textual Criticism (1848), an octavo volume, the result of much 
labour and original research, and abreast of the scholarship of the time. 
For a published sermon on the authenticity of the fourth Gospel he 
received the warm thanks of the Bishop of Down and Connor and 
Dromore — afterwards Primate of Ireland. Mr. Porter's learning was 
extensive and profound. Indeed, there are few branches of knowledge 
with which he was not adequately acquainted ; and in languages his 



96 THE REV. JOHN SCOTT PORTER. 

proficiency was very great. Besides the Semitic languages already 
mentioned, in which he was a proficient, his knowledge of Greek and 
Latin was exceptionally wide. Latin he wrote with ease, accuracy, 
and elegance ; French and Italian he knew thoroughly ; and German 
and Spanish he read with fluency, though it is not known that he 
wrote them, save for mereh' educational purposes. Of Irish he was a 
student, though never a proficient. 

In the public life of Belfast he was in matters non-political a well- 
known figure. The old Poorhouse (Belfast Charitable Society), the 
Linen Hall Library, the Belfast General Hospital, and other insti- 
tutions of a charitable and educational nature enlisted his sympathy 
and ser\-ice ; but his chief delight was in the affairs of his own church, 
its schools, its musical service, and in the Domestic Mission to the 
Poor, founded and carried on under its auspices and those of the 
Second Congregation, then meeting also in Rosemary Street. 

The Belfast Literarj' Society was, it may be trul)- said, kept alive 
for some )'ears b}- his personal exertions. Several times its President, 
and for a long period its Secretary, he took a keen delight in its 
meetings ; and the present writer has known him, after "a really good 
meeting" (that is, one at which an interesting paper had been followed 
by an adequate conversational discussion), as much pleased as if some 
piece of choice good-fortune had happened to himself Edmund 
Gett}', Robert Patterson, George Crawford Hyndman, Robert Shipboy 
MacAdam, James Mac Adam, were among the most regular attendants 
in his time ; and there were special occasions when persons of even 
greater eminence were present. The late Dr. Reeves, M.R.I.A., 
afterwards Dean of Armagh, and subsequenth' Bishop of Down, told 
the writer of these lines, many years after, that amongst the plea- 
santest memories of his life, was the recollection of some evenings at 
John Scott Porter's house; in particular, one or two meetings at which 
the Most Rev. Dr. Denvir, Roman Catholic Bishop of Down and 
Connor, read and discussed papers on scientific subjects. Dr. Reeves 
contributed to the work of the Society some of the results of his ripe 



THE REV. JOHN SCOTT PORTER. 97 

antiquarian scholarship ; and none appreciated the treasures of his 
store more highl\- than Mr. Porter, who shared his tastes to the full. 
The pages of the Ulster Journal of Archcsology contain valuable 
contributions from Mr. Porter ; notably, a series of articles on the 
O'Cahans of Cinachta, which excited some interest amongst local 
archaeologists. 

John Scott Porter died on the 5th July, 1880 (at Lenoxvale, where 
he had resided with his brother William for some years), after a 
lingering illness, during which he endured much suffering with perfect 
patience. His wife had died little more than a year before. Of 
eleven children, five survived him, and four still survive. 

His striking features are preserved in a fine portrait, by the late 
Mr. Crawford, presented to him by the members of his congregation in 
1873, and now a highl)--prized possession of his family. This portrait 
has been excellently engraved. The distinguishing characteristic of 
Mr. Porter's mind was its clearness, directness, and decision. It is 
believed that these qualities are expressed in the picture, in which, too, 
can be traced somewhat of that frankness of address and quick sense 
of humour which made him an interesting personality and a delightful 
companion. 

A. M. P. 



98 



WILLIAM THOMPSON. 

VXT'iLLlAM Thompson, Naturalist (1805-52), was the eldest son of 
William Thompson of Wolfhill, whose family, originally 
belonging to Essex, had for many generations been settled in the 
neighbourhood of Belfast. His mother was Elizabeth, youngest 
daughter of Robert Callwell* and Catherine, second child of Nathaniel 
M'Gee of Newbridge, afterwards Lismoyne. Thompson owed his first 
introduction to Natural History to a copy of Bewick's British Birds 
belonging to his schoolfellow, William Sinclair, in whose father's office 
he spent five years for the purpose of learning the linen business. 
But it was not till he retired from business, in which he had been 
engaged on his own account for six years (1826-32), that he was able 
to devote himself wholly to science. 

Except during a tour on the continent (1826) with his cousin, 
George Langtry of Fortwilliam, his earlier studies had been almost 
confined to observations made while hunting or shooting. His first 
paper. The Birds of the Copeland Islands, was read in 1827 before 
the Natural History Society of Belfast, which he had joined in the 
previous year. In 1833 he was elected a Vice-President of this Society, 
and in 1843 succeeded Dr. Drummond as its President, and for the 
remaining nine years of his life was annually re-elected. 

In 1841 he accompanied Captain Graves, of H.M.S. " Beacon," on a 
surve}' tour to the /Egean, and returned from Athens by land, keeping 
as usual a journal of all he saw. 

Little can be told of a life so uneventful. Outside Natural History 
his interests were mainly literary. His chief work. The Natural 
History of Irelatid — Birds (three vols. ; Henry Bohn, London), was 

* This Robert Callwell was father of Robert Callwell of Lismoyne, who was member of 
Committee of the Linen Hall Library from 1792. 



WILLIAM THOMPSON. 99 

published 1849-51. He did not live to complete it, or even to 
arrange the materials he had collected. A fourth volume, Mavnnalia, 
Reptiles, &c., appeared after his death, edited (with a memoir by 
Robert Patterson) from MS. journals and notes. These notes (since 
collected in a volume by his brother, the late James Thompson of 
Macedon), though beautifully written, were merely slips of paper of 
strangely different sizes and almost without arrangement. In addition 
he contributed about a hundred papers to various scientific journals, 
adding a very considerable number of species to the fauna of Ireland. 
His portrait is to be found in Ransome's Sciefitific Portraits. At least 
ten new species were named in his honour by other naturalists. In 
addition to the memoir mentioned above, there is an account of his life 
by Dr. Xorman Moore in the Natioyial Dictionary of Biography. 

Charles Knox Pooler. 



*^* The present representative of William Thompson's family is Lieut. -Col. H. S. Thompson 
(late Royal Marine Light Infantry), Kirby Lodge, Cambridge. 



lOO 



ROBERT S. MACADAM. 

"D OBERT Shipboy Macadam was born in 1808 at his father's house 
in High Street, Belfast. Educated at the Royal Academical 
Institution, he served his time with his father to the hardware business, 
and learned Irish in travelling through the country for the firm. 
His knowledge of languages was exceptional, and he added Spanish 
to the thirteen already acquired when upwards of seventy years old. 

As a philologist he was on intimate terms with John O'Donovan, 
Sir W. Wilde, Dr. Hincks, and Bishop Reeves. His library was note- 
worthy for Irish MSS. and rare antiquarian works. As the result of 
bringing together a unique collection of Irish antiquities at the Belfast 
Museum, on the occasion of the visit of the British Association in 1852, 
he commenced the issue of the Ulster Journal of Archcsology, xwYnch. 
appeared for nine years. Under his learned editorship, and assisted 
by many able contributors, the journal was much appreciated by a 
large circle of readers, and gave an impetus to the proper study of 
archaeology, which is still recognised. He was an active member of 
the Belfast Natural History and Philosophical Society, and to the last 
took a lively interest in all antiquarian matters. In partnership with 
his brother James, a large business was carried on by him at the Soho 
foundry, where turbines and pumps, some invented by Professor James 
Thomson, were largely made, and erected in Egypt, the West Indies, 
and elsewhere. His latter years were clouded by business troubles, 
and he died in 1895, and was buried at Newtownbreda. 

R. M. Young. 



lOI 



JOHN GRATTAN. 



JOHN Grattan was a native of Dublin, where he was born in 1800. 
After receiving a sound education there, he came to Belfast in 
1825, where he commenced to practise as a druggist. At this time his 
knowledge of practical chemistry led him to introduce the now world- 
wide known aerated waters, which for many years were exclusively 
manufactured by the firm of Grattan & Co. His son-in-law (Mr. 
R. W. Pring) assisted him to perfect his invention. He married Miss 
Harriet Shaw, and had a family of three daughters. His tastes were 
scientific, and he contributed various papers to the Belfast Natural 
History and Philosophical Society, of which he was an office-bearer 
for many years. His researches on human crania, found in the vicinity 
of ancient Irish round towers, were of special interest, and a craniometer, 
invented by himself, and figured in the Ulster Journal of Archcuology, 
attracted much attention from anthropologists. He also devoted 
attention to phrenology, and formed a large collection of casts. His 
death took place at his residence, Coolgreany, Fortwilliam Park, in 

1871. 

R. M. Young. 



I02 



THOMAS ANDREWS, M.D., LL.D., F.R.S., 

Vice-President of Queen's College, Belfast. 

A/fv father, Dr. Andrews, was born in Belfast, at 3, Donegall 
Square South, on 19th December, 181 3, and was educated at 
the Belfast Academy and the Royal Academical Institution. His 
early taste for science received much encouragement from Dr. James 
M'Donnell, the distinguished physician of this town ; and during the 
winter of 1828-9 he studied chemistry at the University of Glasgow 
under Professor Thomas Thomson. In 1830 he went to France, and 
made an extensive walking tour through Auvergne. On coming to 
Paris he was admitted to the laboratory of i\I. Dumas, whose 
acquaintance he had the pleasure of renewing on subsequent visits. 
In the following spring my father entered Trinity College, Dublin, 
where he studied for four years. He completed his medical course 
in Edinburgh University, and was admitted to the degree of M.D. in 
August 1835. 

He had already published several papers in the Philosophical 
Magazine — the first in 1829, before he was sixteen. On the Action of a 
Flame urged by the Blow-pipe on other Flames. On his return from 
Edinburgh he commenced practice. His advice was always freely given 
to the poor; and during the famine in 1847 he laboured assiduously 
among those stricken down b}- typhus. He was appointed in 1835 
Professor of Chemistry in the Royal Academical Institution, was 
elected a member of the Royal Irish Academy in 1839, and joined the 
Chemical Society as an original member in 1841. 

In 1844 he was awarded the Royal Medal for his paper On the 
Thermal Changes accompanyi)ig Basic Stcbstitutions^ which was com- 
municated to the Royal Society by Faraday. He was elected a 
Fellow of the Royal Society in 1849. 



THOMAS ANDREWS, M.D., LL.D., F.R.S. IO3 

In 1842 he married Jane tlardie, daughter of Major Walker, 42nd 
Highlanders. Three years later he was appointed Vice-President of 
Queen's College, Belfast, and in 1849, when the College was opened, 
Professor of Chemistry. At the meeting of the British Association in 
this town in 1852, he was President of the Chemical section, an office 
which he again held at the Edinburgh meeting in 1871. 

His first paper on Ozone appeared in the Philosophical Transactions 
in 1856. He showed "that ozone, from whatever source derived, is 
one and the same body . . . and is not a compound body, but 
oxygen in an altered or allotropic condition." He pursued the subject 
farther in collaboration with his colleague, -Professor P. G. Tait, whose 
recent death his friends and the scientific world have to deplore, and 
in i860 their paper On the Volumetric Relations of Ozorie \\?is published 
in the same Transactions. 

Soon after this my father commenced his experiments on gases 
Cinder high pressures, and his paper Oft the Continuity of the Gaseous 
and Liquid States of Matter was selected by the Royal Society as the 
Bakerian Lecture for 1 869. After describing minutely his experiments 
and defining the critical temperature of a gas, he draws the conclusion 
that ''' the ordinary gaseous and ordinary liquid states are only widely 
separated forms of the same condition of matter, and may be made to 
pass into one another by a series of gradations so gentle that the 
passage shall nowhere present any interruption or breach of continuity." 
His next paper, Oti the Gaseous State of Matter, was again selected as 
the Bakerian Lecture in 1 876, and his latest experiments were published 
in a posthumous paper Oyi the Properties of Matter in the Gaseous and 
Liquid States under various conditions of Temperature and Pressure. 
For a fuller account of my father's scientific work, I ma}- refer the 
reader to the Memoir by Professor Tait and Professor Crum Brown, 
prefixed to the collected edition of his Scientific Papers. 

In 1850 my father was elected a member of the Belfast Literary 
Society, over which he presided in 1866-7. Among the papers read 
before it, I may mention his historical sketch of Heidelberg Castle, his 



I04 THOMAS ANDREWS, M.D., LL.D., F.R.S. 

review of the writings and discoveries of Faraday, and his summary of 
ancient and modern views of the constitution of matter. 

His views on University education and training are embodied in 
the Stiidunn Generate, pubHshed in 1867. 

My father visited France in 1 875. He received a gratif)'ing reception 
at the French Academy, before which he read an account of his pressure 
experiments, pubHshed in the Coniptes Rendiis, 9th August, 1875. He 
also attended the French Association for the advancement of Science 
at Nantes, and was made a Vice-President of the Chemical section. 

In the following year (1876) he presided over the meeting of the 
British Association at Glasgow. 

He received the honorary degree of LL.D. from the Universities 
of Edinburgh, Dublin, and Glasgow ; he was also an honorary fellow of 
the Royal Society of Edinburgh and corresponding member of several 
foreign societies. 

My father resigned in 1879 the offices of Vice-President and 
Professor of Chemistry in the Queen's College. The remaining }'ears 
of his life were spent at Fortwilliam Park, Belfast, where he died on 
26th November, 1885. A granite obelisk marks his grave in Belfast 
Cemetery. 

Elizabeth Andrews. 



105 



W. NEILSON HANCOCK, LL.D., QjC. 

"VT'OU can know at what time of life a man has made acquaintance 
with those who meet him by the manner of their address. My 
family and school and college companions call me Neilson (pronounced 
Nelson) ; those who made my acquaintance after I left college call 
me Professor Hancock ; my colleagues in the service of Her Majesty 
call me Dr. Hancock." 

The remark made to me in casual conversation was, in fact, a 
summary of the three parts into which his life was divided : student 
and scholar ; professor and barrister ; eminent statistician and social 
reformer. It was also indicative of his mode of thought. With a 
Sherlock Holmes kind of induction, he was wont to build up a rapid 
generalization from small facts which were to him significant of much. 

He was born on the 22nd of April, 1820. He was sent when a lad 
of ten years of age as a boarder to the Rev. Dr. Montgomery, at the 
Royal Belfast Academical Institution. In 1834 he was transferred 
to the Dungannon Royal School. He was dux of his school at 
Dungannon. In 1838 he entered Trinity College, Dublin. He had a 
distinguished college course, culminating in a Senior Moderatorship 
(gold medal) at his degree. 

Though in college he principally devoted himself to mathematics, 
he was attracted to the then expanding science of Political Economy, 
which Archbishop Whately had made his own, and obtained, by 
examination, the professorship in Trinity College, founded and 
endowed by the Archbishop. Being called to the bar, he studied juris- 
prudence with eager zest, and was appointed, on the creation of the 
Queen's University, Professor of Political Economy and Jurisprudence 
in Belfast College. The course of his life was shaped for him by this 
appointment. 



I06 W. NEILSON HANCOCK, LL.D., Q.C. 

He practically ceased to practice at the bar, and devoted himself 
to social questions, and was an ardent advocate for reforms in the then 
existing system of jurisprudence in these countries. Associated with 
him, both in his economic studies and in his zeal for law reform, were 
Dr. Ingram and Dr. (afterwards Mr. Justice) Lawson, and it would be 
interesting, if there were time and space, to trace the history of the 
economic and legal reforms in which these eminent men took a part. 
It would come, I think, as a surprise to many what rapid, or com- 
paratively rapid, strides were made during their time, and in great part 
owing to their exertions. 

He was Secretary to the Endowed Schools Commission, and he had 
a band of assistants, then young men, most of whom attained distinction 
in later days. His Honor the late Judge Ross was one of them. 

Hancock was, at a later period, the Irish Secretary to the English 
and Irish Law and Chancery Commission, the object of which was to 
inquire into the law in both countries, with a view to assimilating the 
laws in each, and with a view to suggesting reforms. He devoted 
himself to it with great ardour, and many valuable contributions on 
various parts of jurisprudence are to be found in the report. The 
writers of these special reports nearly all became distinguished 
subsequently in their profession. 

He was frequently applied to by the Government for special reports 
on particular questions, sometimes by the Prime Minister, sometimes 
by the Lord Lieutenant, and sometimes b}' the Chief Secretary. It 
was largely on his report that the Land Act of 1870 was framed, and 
I have often, when acting as his assistant, posted, on my way home 
from his study, between three and four o'clock in the morning, a 
memorandum which I had written out, for his handwriting was 
undecipherable save to a few, of whom I was one, and I have read his 
admirable analysis of facts reported in The Times of the day but one 
following in the report of a speech in the Commons or in the Lords. 

In all his works and reports he was a sincere patriot. The orthodox 
doctrines of political econom)', if applied rigidh' in Ireland, would, he 



W. NEILSON IIAN'COCK, LL.D., Q.C. 107 

early saw, lead to startling results. He set himself to reconcile the 
tenets of the economist with the needs of the countr)-. This he called 
Applied Political Economy. 

If laissez-faire is sound economic teaching, then all interference by 
the State, either as regards landlord and tenant, or employer and 
workman, is wrong. His method of getting rid of the difificulty was 
characteristic, and in the main sound, though modern statesmen have 
gone much farther. The real obstacle to prosperity and freedom of 
contract in Ireland is legislative interference. Interfere with the 
interferers, remove legislative hindrances, and then let freedom of 
contract prevail. A tenant is not free so long as the law enables a 
landlord to confiscate his improvements. Remo^•e the legal wrong. 
Recognise tenant-right. He was therefore the ardent champion of 
tenant-right. He, with his brother John, agent for Lord Lurgan, 
worked for it by arguments, instances, evidence at commissions, in 
season and out of season, always advocating it on economic grounds. 

And so throughout the social questions that agitate Ireland. His 
doctrine was the doctrine of Political Economy. His remedy was the 
remedy of the reformer. 

It was as a statistician, however, that he attained greatest eminence. 
He read the lessons of statistics in a way few can attain to. Like a 
bank clerk who will not let a penny on any side of the account 
remain unexamined, he was not content till the final adjustment 
showed that the conclusion was right. He was assailed of course, but 
I had opportunities of following his methods, which but few enjoyed, 
and I knew him, careful, intrepid, and scrupulously honest. He edited 
for many }-ears Xh^ Judicial a9id Criniiiml Statistics of Irelayid, prefacing 
the returns of each }-ear b}- a special report. 

He did good service to his country. He was sensitive to a degree, 
and did not fully disclose himself to the general public. He was 
accordingly not appreciated up to his worth, save by those who knew 
him intimately. By them he was beloved. 

His wife was a daughter of the philanthropist James Haughton, and 



I08 W. NEILSON HANCOCK, LL.D., Q.C. 

their married life was a continued idyl. She survived him a few years. 
He died on the loth of July, 1888, at the residence of his brother-in- 
law. Professor James Thomson of Glasgow. 

I would not say that in a literary society he was quite at home. 
He cared little for the form. His only contribution to this Society was 
on a Reform of the Law of Partnership. He was too keen for the 
truth and the fact, for reform, for moral worth, for sound policy, to 
trouble much about the artistic grouping of his facts, or the phrasing 
of his theories. But he had, all the same, that nervous force of language, 
which comes by nature, not by art, to any man who thinks clearly and 
earnestly on great questions. 

Those who care to know more of him will find an appreciative 
memoir of him, contributed to the Statistical and Social Inquiry Society 
on the 22nd of January, 1889, by his friend J. K. Ingram, LL.D., S.F.T.C.D., 
and a complete list of his writings will be found in the memoir. 

W. H. DODD. 



I09 



JOSEPH JOHN MURPHY. 

TV/Tr. Joseph John Murphy's literary work was, for the most part, 
in a region which lay outside popular notice. Amongst the 
philosophical thinkers of the latter portion of last centur}- he held no 
mean place. In particular, he devoted his great mental powers to the 
solution of those religious problems which have ever encompassed 
humanity, and undoubtedly he contributed largely towards a more 
reasonable apprehension of the essentials of the Christian faith. 

In addition to numerous papers or memoirs written for sundry 
literary and scientific societies, he published one volume of poetry and 
also three dealing with scientific subjects. Of the latter, Habit and 
Intelligence^ composed in 1869, is in large part an argument, adopting 
generally the evolution doctrine of Darwin, at that period rather new 
and not so widely accepted as it is now. Much of the book, however, 
consists of discussions on portions of Darwin's system, objecting very 
decidedly to the idea that animal and vegetable life can be the mere 
outcome of " spontaneous variety"; then coming to the conclusion 
that evolution of life from non-living matter is impossible, or at least a 
chimera. Mr. Murphy depreciates, in the course of his discussion, the 
magnitude of the importance of the " selection of the fittest " factor in 
the evolution process. 

A second edition, issued in 1879, was so only in name, being rather 
an expansion of the first, eliminating some portions of it, and full of 
references to those points of mental science treated at length in his 
second book, The Scientific Bases of Faith, published in 1872, and 
never re-issued. This work Mr. Murphy himself regarded as his 
principal and most valuable contribution to knowledge. In any short 
notice such as this, it would be impossible to give an adequate idea of 
its scope. However, it is right to intimate that it is more of the nature 
of exposition than of argument, though argument is by no means 



no JOSEPH JOHN MURPHY. 

wanting, exhibiting large and acute powers of perception on matters 
not generally supposed to be ver}- clear of discernment. In vigorous 
definition of terms it must indeed be admitted that this work is some- 
what lacking, though the writer has been b}- no means unsuccessful 
when systematically devoting himself to such. Whatever opinion may 
be held upon this and minor points, TJie Scientific Bases of Faith 
deservedly claims respect as a sincere attempt to show how the leading 
Christian doctrines may be regarded in harmonj' with the doctrine of 
evolution. 

The last book which Mr. Murphy published is entitled Natural 
Selection and Spiritual Freedom. In part it is an impeachment of a 
very conspicuous work by the late Professor Drummond — Natural Law 
in the Spiritual World. This volume, however, as a whole, consists of 
eleven distinct essays, most of them previously printed in periodical 
magazines, and reproduced here in a collected form. All of them are 
interesting, and more than one can claim a large measure of originality. 
Issued from the press in 1893, it proved the writer's last literary under- 
taking. Within six months he died, early in the year 1894. 

Sonnets, and other Poems — a small volume of 150 pages — was 
published in 1890. It contains the reflections often expressed in 
graceful form of a delicate and thoughtful mind. 

To his friends, Mr. Murphy was the perfect type of a Christian 
philosopher. The service of his mind he offered to his Maker, with the 
assured conviction that such is acceptable to Him who made man in 
His own image. Even to the last, his thoughts were busy with those 
perplexing problems which beset men here. In middle life he bore 
the loss of fortune with uncomplaining fortitude. To him it chiefly 
mattered that so he had the less to offer for works of faith and charity. 
A simple-hearted courteous gentleman, one of the oldest members of 
the Literary Societ}', in which to the last he took the keenest interest, 
his life, unobtrusive, diligent, self-sacrificing, had a real value for the 
great city in which his lot was cast. 

Richard W. Shaver. 



1 1 1 



CHARLES PARSONS REICHEL, 

Bishop of Meath. 

Oharles Parsons Reichel was bom on November 20, 18 16, at 
the Moravian settlement of Fulnec in Yorkshire, being the only 
child of Karl Friedrich Reichel, a German immigrant and pastor of 
the settlement, and his wife, Hannah Parsons, a Yorkshire lady. His 
ancestors in the male line had been ordained ministers either of the 
Lutheran or of the Moravian Church, in unbroken succession as far 
back as the Thirty Years' War. 

When he was twelve years old, the family went to America, his 
father having accepted the pastorate of the German settlement at 
Lancaster in Pennsylvania. This change gave an immense stimulus 
to the physical and mental powers of the delicate and overstudious 
boy, and perhaps saved his life. In 1832 they returned to Europe, 
in consequence of his mother's death. In 1835 he proceeded to the 
University of Berlin and studied theology for three years in preparation 
for the ministr}^ under Hengstenberg, Neander and Petermann, His 
health, however, broke down, and he had to leave without a degree, but 
not before he had made himself an accomplished Hebrew and Syriac 
scholar. His father having now settled at Bally mena in Ireland, he 
entered Trinity College, Dublin, in 1839, through the generosity of a 
wealthy friend who paid his college fees, and read classics, winning 
a classical scholarship in 1841 and graduating as senior classic the 
following year — the first that ever did so without verse composition ; 
he was also awarded the Berkeley Greek Medal. He then turned to 
mathematics with a view to a fellowship, which he would probably 
have gained but for a serious accident which prostrated him for six 
months. A college friend (Dean ]\IacDonnell of Peterborough} describes 
him as '' the best educated man I ever knew leave the universitw" 



112 CHARLES PARSONS REICHEL. 

Not only had university study made him a first-rate classical and 
Semitic scholar and a good mathematician, but as a boy he had learned 
music thoroughly in the German fashion, and while in America had 
gained an insight into scientific method by mastering the subject of 
chemistry theoretically and practically, as far as it was then carried. 

In 1846 he was ordained deacon and later priest. In 1847 he 
became curate of St. Mary's, a poor and populous Dublin parish, 
where he remained for nearly four years — years of hard and dangerous 
work, embracing as they did the Irish famine and the cholera epidemic. 
In 1850 he accepted the Chair of Latin in the new Queen's College at 
Belfast, and during fourteen years exercised much influence both in 
the college and also in the town, where his power as a preacher gave 
him a commanding position. The college staff at that time was of 
unusual brilliance, containing men like Thomas Andrews, G. L. Craik, 
P. G. Tait, and Wyville Thomson. In 1854 he married Mary Brown 
McCracken, of an old Belfast family. Six children were the result of 
this union, of whom four died early in life and two survive. In 1854 
he delivered the Donnellan lectures at Trinity College, his subject 
being The Nature and Offices of the Churchy and in 1858 was made 
Doctor of Divinity by his old university. 

In 1864 Lord Carlisle, the then Viceroy, gave him the living of 
Mullingar, avowedly as the first step to higher preferment, but died 
before this intention could be realized. The eleven years of this 
incumbency covered the troubled period of Disestablishment (1870) 
and Revision (1872), and were disturbed by agrarian and religious 
terrorism. In consequence of the part he took in exposing the system 
of " altar denunciations," then prevalent in Westmeath, which had led 
to more than one murder, his life was threatened, and he was for some 
time under police protection and in considerable danger. 

Apart from parochial duties, which in Mullingar were specially 
heavy, he was mainly occupied partly with the work of the Revision 
Committee, in connection with which he made an exhaustive and 
laborious investigation into the history of the Ordinal and the system 



CHARLES PARSONS REICHEL. I I 3 

of Sacramental Confession, and partly with the controversy on scientific 
determinism, which arose out of Professor Tyndal's address to the British 
Association at Belfast, and in which he took a leading part. It was 
the latter which first brought him into prominence as a preacher in 
England, where he delivered, in Norwich Cathedral, part of a series of 
sermons on Christian evidences, organized by the late Dean Goulburn. 

In 1875 he was appointed Rector of Trim, the old cathedral town 
of the diocese, and Archdeacon of Meath. This change brought much 
needed relief, both physical and financial, and enabled him to provide 
better for the health of his wife, who ever since 1864 had been 
a chronic sufferer from hysteria. In 1876 Trinity College gave him 
the Chair of Ecclesiastical History, which he held for five years, when 
the strain became too great for him. During these years came recog- 
nition from the English universities. In 1876, and again in 1883, he 
was select preacher at Cambridge, and from 1880 to 1882 at Oxford. 
In 1882 his friend. Lord Plunket, then Bishop of Meath, conferred 
on him the titular deanery of Clonmacnois ; and on Lord Plunket's 
translation in 1885 to the Primacy, he was chosen to succeed him in 
the bishopric a few weeks after Mrs. Reichel's sudden death. This 
he held till his death in 1894, residing first near Dunboyne and 
subsequently at Dundrum Castle on the outskirts of Dublin. This 
was a time of increasing ill health, and for the last two or three years 
he was unable to preach. He died at Bangor in North Wales, on 
March 29, 1894, and was buried at Whitechurch, Rathfarnham, beside 
his wife. 

Dr. Reichel's chief intellectual characteristics were logical directness 
and force and surprising versatility. He was an omnivorous reader, 
and retained the pith of all he read. His parentage and education 
gave him a detachment of mind that preserved him from dependence 
on ecclesiastical or political party. His best thought went into his 
sermons, which were always written out at full length and generally 
at a single sitting, a method of composition eminently effective but no 
less exhausting. The following list contains most of those which have 



114 CHARLES PARSONS REICHEL. 

been published in book form : The Trinity and the Athanasian Creed, 
1854 ; The Nature and Offices of the Church; The Lord's Prayer and 
Other Sermons, 1855 ; Six Lectures on the Book of Common Prayer; 
Sermons on Christian Evidences, preached in Norwich Cathedral, 1875; 
The Origins of Christianity and Other Sermons, preached before the 
University of Oxford, 1 882 ; The History and Claims of the Confessional, 
1883; Cathedral and University Sermons, 1891. Many others also 
appeared from time to time in pamphlet form. In 1899 a further 
volume, containing other unpublished sermons, together with a memoir 
based on personal recollections, was brought out by his son. 

His theological attitude was historical rather than metaphysical — the 
maintenance of the faith once for all delivered to the saints. He 
had, however, no sympathy with the Tractarian movement, which he 
regarded as tending to mediaeval rather than to primitive practice, 
and as tolerant of methods of interpretation hardly consistent with 
intellectual honesty. Private judgment he regarded less as a right than 
as a duty. He felt bitterly the hostility shown by the English High 
Church party to the Irish Church in its hour of trial, and contrasted 
with it the very different measure meted out to the American Church, 
though the changes in the American Prayer Book were far more 
revolutionary than those in the Irish, His theological views coincided 
with those of no recognised party. On the one hand he held a high 
view of the sacraments and the visible Church ; on the other he 
rejected the High Anglican doctrine of the divine right of episcopacy 
and the sacerdotal view of the priesthood. He disliked legalism in 
theology, whether appearing in the forensic justification of the 
Evangelical or the apostolical succession of the Tractarian. 

His special contribution to theological research was the demonstra- 
tion of the unprimitive character of Sacramental Confession and the 
use in the formula of ordination of the words from St. John, " Receive 
the Holy Ghost : whose sins ye remit," etc. This appeared first in a 
paper entitled Shall we Alter the Ordinal? and afterwards in a sermon 
preached in all three university pulpits on The History and Claims of 



CHARLES PARSONS REICHEL. II5 

the Confessional. Of the character of this piece of work it is sufficient 
to say that the main conclusions have recently been endorsed by the 
conference on Auricular Confession of representative High Churchmen 
and Low Churchmen. He was also one of the first to recall to the 
minds of his contemporaries the fact — never lost sight of by the Eastern 
Churches — that it was the resurrection and not the crucifixion that 
constituted the central historical fact for Christians. His life may be 
fitly summed up as an expression of his family motto — Vitaui impendere 
vero. 

H. R. Reichel. 



ii6 



REV. EDWARD HINCKS, D.D. 

Tn this gallery of Ulidian worthies Edward HiNCKS occupies a 
place by himself as a pioneer in the study of Assyriology and 
Egyptolog)^ He was born in Cork on the 19th August, 1792. His 
father was the Rev. Thomas Dix Hincks, LL.D., who afterwards was 
well known in Belfast as the Headmaster of the classical school of the 
Royal Academical Institution. He was educated at home, and entered 
Trinity College, Dublin, becoming Scholar in 18 10 and Fellow in 1813. 
He vacated his fellowship in 18 19 on his succession to the college 
living at Ardtrea, and he was instituted to the rectory of Killyleagh, 
Co. Down, on the 22nd October, 1825. When in Ardtrea, in 1821, 
he had preached at Armagh and published a visitation sermon. In 
Kilh'leagh he settled down to the routine work of a country clergyman, 
improved his rectory house at a cost of £642, and entered with vigour 
into local controversies. With two other clergymen he entered into 
public discussion with the same number of Roman Catholic clergymen, 
and the proceedings were published in 1829. He also published a 
pamphlet on the Church Education question, and preached a sermon 
on the Ulster Revival. 

It is a very interesting question how Dr. Hincks became interested 
in the then very obscure subjects of Assyriology and Egyptology. 
It appears from a statement made by a relative that he first devoted 
himself entirely to mathematics. Now, one of his earliest published 
works is 0?i the Years and Cycles used by the Ancient Egyptians, which 
appeared in 1838. General chronology to any mathematician is a 
fascinating subject, and from it to all the most obscure problems of 
Assyriology and Egyptology is only one step. His daughter, in a 
letter, kindly placed at my disposal by Dr. Cecil Shaw, says : " He was 
one of the pioneers of Egyptian decipherment, and his contributions to 
that great work are now recognised as being of the highest value. 



REV. EDWARD HINCKS, D.D. 11/ 

In later years his studies were entirely devoted to the Assyrian 
inscriptions. At one time he took part in a very interesting test 
suggested by Fox Talbot, who himself transcribed from a calendar 
of Tiglath Pileser, and sent copies at the same time to Sir Henry 
Rawlinson, Dr. Hincks, and Dr. Oppert, who were each to return the 
translations sealed to London, where a committee was appointed to 
open them. The four separate translations were found so much alike 
that it rejoiced the hearts of those who had been doubtful before of the 
trouble of the decipherments," Indeed the last word on the decipher- 
ment of any inscription was not said until, in addition to the replies 
from Paris and St. Petersburg, one had been received from Killyleagh, 
Co. Down, Ireland. It is simply marvellous what a lonely student in 
a country rectory was able to accomplish in these most obscure studies. 
Stanley Lane-Poole says that " he established a reputation of the first 
order amongst the pioneers of cuniform decipherment," and that he 
was first to employ the true method. Simultaneously with Rawlinson 
at Bagdad, at Killyleagh he discovered the Persian cuniform. Many 
other discoveries are to be noted in his articles. Layard says that 
"it is to Dr. Hincks we owe the determination of the numerals, and 
the determination of the name of Sennacherib and the name of 
Nebuchadnezzar — ' three very important and valuable discoveries.' 
Though his views did not always meet with acceptance, there was no 
difference of opinion about the value of his researches and the 
soundness of his judgment." 

His daughter says: "Before publishing his second book. Sir Henry 
Layard paid a visit to Killyleagh, and many hours were spent together 
in ' the study ' over the inscriptions, but the younger man often gave 
up, and expressed his amazement at the unflagging energy with which 
Dr. Hincks pursued his studies. 

"In society he was generally very silent and reserved, and his thoughts 
evidently far away, but when a congenial subject was started, his whole 
face was lit up, and his conversation became at once instructive 
and interesting." 



Il8 REV. EDWARD HINCKS, D.D. 

He was invited to be present at the unrolling of a mummy, and 
when it was uncovered he rubbed his hands with delight, saying, 
" I think I know something about this gentleman, and I think I have 
met this gentleman's father before ! " 

A long series of his articles and papers is to be found in the British 
Museum Catalogue and the Catalogue of the Belfast Linen Hall 
Library. He died on Monday, December 3, 1866. Killyleagh was 
the birthplace of Sir Hans Sloan, the founder of the British Museum, 
and it is not a little remarkable that in the same place there lived in 
after years one of the principal interpreters of the ancient monuments 
preserved in that great institution. 

C. Scott, m.a. 



119 



WILLIAM REEVES, D.D., 

Bishop of Down and Connor and Dromore. 

"IXT'ILLIAM Reeves, D.D., was born of an old Irish stock at Charle- 
ville, Co. Cork, in i8i5,and educated at Trinity College, Dublin, 
being elected a Scholar of the House and graduating A.B. in 1833. 
Two years later he won the Berkeley Gold Medal and took his medical 
degree of M.B. 

He was ordained in 1838 to the ministry of the Church of Ireland, 
and up to the age of 42 served as curate in country parishes. Together 
with the perpetual curacy of Ballymena, he held the post of principal 
of the Diocesan School in that town till 1857, when he was appointed 
to the vicarage of Lusk. In i860 the Primate (Lord George Beresford) 
conferred upon him, " as a slight recognition of his literary merits," the 
office of librarian of Armagh Library. No position could have been 
more congenial to Dr. Reeves, and with Armagh — he was elected Dean 
in 1875 — his affections and interests were inseparably entwined till his 
elevation to the episcopate in 1886. 

Dr. Reeves was first and pre-eminently an Irish scholar; one of the 
most industrious and most capable of that group of antiquarians and 
historians who have worked with conspicuous success the rich veins of 
Irish lore. The mere enumeration of the various works with which his 
name is connected affords but a very limited idea of the extent of his 
labours. Their most characteristic quality was acairacy. No document 
bearing upon any point under discussion escaped his notice ; no 
authority was ignored ; no quotation or reference was left unverified. 

Adamnan's Vita S. Cobimbce, published by him in 1856, was pro- 
nounced by the unanimous verdict of those best qualified to judge the 
most valuable contribution ever made to the history of the earl}' Celtic 



120 WILLIAM REEVES, D.D. 

Church. Three years previously, having discovered the celebrated 
Book of AvDiagJi, lying, an almost unappreciated treasure, amongst the 
possessions of the Brownlow family, he became himself its purchaser 
at a cost of ;^300 from his slender resources, determined that this most 
unique of Irish MSS. should be preserved for Ireland. 

Although denied the Chair of Ecclesiastical History in his own 
university, Dr. Reeves had acquired a European reputation, his literary 
distinction being recognised by the Royal Irish Academy (vice-pre- 
sident and president); Zurich Society of Antiquaries; the Society of 
Antiquarians, Scotland ; the Royal Archaeological Institute of Great 
Britain (honorar}' member); College of Physicians (honorary fellow); 
Literary Society, Belfast; Literary Club, Dublin (honorary member); 
University of Edinburgh (LL.D.) A second time (1869) his Alma 
Mater — Motc Hibernico — rejected his services when he was candidate 
for the post of librarian. Trinity College. From the Provost, however 
— Dr. Lloyd — he received a most sympathetic letter, regretting his 
non-success "for the sake of the university." In 1871 Dublin Univer- 
sity, somewhat tardily, honoured itself by conferring on him the 
honorary degree of LL.D. 

Dr. Reeves allowed himself in 1886 to be put in nomination for the 
vacant bishopric of Down and Connor and Dromore, with the hope — 
as his biography attests — that he might be elected to the Primacy, and 
thus be permitted to remain in his beloved Armagh. The episcopal 
bench decided otherwise, and Dr. Knox, then Bishop of Down, was 
chosen to be " Coarb of S. Patrick," Dr. Reeves succeeding as occupant 
of Jeremy Taylor's see. During an episcopate of six years, entered 
upon at the age of 71, amid duties at times uncongenial and unfamiliar, 
with an environment utterly dissimilar to that of his earlier life, the 
Bishop, by sheer weight of character, won the affection of many and the 
respect of all. Simple, courteous, dignified, of resolute will and striking 
presence, he ever sought to magnify not himself but his high office, 
bringing to it the same scrupulous exactitude which had characterized 
his literarj' work. 



\VILLIA.M REEVES, D.D. 121 

Bishop Reeves died in Dublin, 12th Januar\', 1S92, after a brief 
illness, and was buried under the familiar shadow of Armagh Cathedral. 
By his death Ireland lost a patriot son who knew, as perhaps none 
other, the whole story of her chequered history, and was well content 
to spend himself in rendering her past once more instinct with life : 
the Irish Church mourned a bishop whose episcopate was the gainer 
by having reflected upon it the honour that shone from a character 
whose goodness overshadowed its greatness. 

Richard W. Seaver. 



122 



JAMES THOMSON, LL.D., F.R.S. 

JAMES Thomson, ll.d., f.r.s., was bom in College Square, Belfast, 
on the 1 6th of February, 1822. He was the eldest son of James 
Thomson, LL.D., the mathematical Headmaster in the Royal Belfast 
Academical Institution. Along with his brother William — now Lord 
Kelvin — his junior by two years, he received his early education entirely 
from his father. At the ages of 1 3 and 1 1 respectively the two boys, 
who were inseparable companions, entered the University of Glasgow, 
where their father had been appointed Professor of Mathematics. 
James's career in college was a distinguished one, and he took his degree 
of ^Master of Arts with honours at the age of 17. At this time (1840) 
the Chair of Civil Engineering and Mechanics — the first of its kind in 
the kingdom — was founded by Queen Victoria in Glasgow University; 
and James Thomson attended as a pupil the lectures of Professor 
Lewis Gordon, with a view of adopting engineering as a profession. 

He was at this time in delicate health, and not strong enough for 
the hard work of an engineering apprenticeship, but he was busy with 
inventions of various sorts. In 1843 his health had so far recovered 
that he was able to commence his apprenticeship in the works of 
Messrs. Fairbairn, of Millwall, London, and Manchester. Ill health 
again intervened and brought this apprenticeship to a close, and for 
some years James Thomson was at home occupied with inventions and 
scientific discoveries. Among the first may be mentioned his vortex 
waterwheel, which is used to drive many mills throughout the north of 
Ireland ; and among the latter, his explanation of the slow motion 
of semi-fluid masses, such as glaciers. 

In 185 1 Thomson settled in practice as a civil engineer in Belfast, 
where his sister, Mrs. William Bottomley — whose husband was also 
a president of this Society — was already living. In 1853 he married 



JAMES THOMSON, LL.D., F.R.S. I 23 

Elizabeth, daughter of WilHam John Hancock, J.P., of Lurgan, and 
sister of Dr. WilHam Neilson Hancock. He was appointed Professor 
of Civil Engineering in Queen's College, Belfast, in 1857, and held the 
office until 1873, ^vhen he was appointed to a similar Chair in Glasgow. 

During these years he took a great interest in the various societies 
of Belfast. He was a member of the Literary Society from 1853 until 
he left the town in 1873, when he was elected an honorary member; 
he was president in the session 1864-5 ! ^"^ he communicated many 
papers to the Society, a list of which will be found in the appendix. 
He also took an active part in the Philosophical Society, the Natural- 
ists' Field Club, and in the Belfast Social Enquiry Society. A paper 
read by him before the last-named society on Public Parks was the 
means of procuring the Ormeau Park for the city of Belfast. 

He held the Chair of Civil Engineering and INIechanics in Glasgow 
until 1889, when he was obliged to retire on account of the failure of 
his eyesight ; but he was able to continue his scientific work until his 
death, after a very short illness, in 1892, 

James Thomson. 



124 



SIR CHARLES WYVILLE THOMSON, 

LL.D., D.Sc, F.R.S. 

(1830-1882). 

"^To habitue of Queen's College, Belfast, in the fifties and sixties of 
last century, could fail to be attracted by the bright, handsome 
face, clear-cut features, lithe, well-made, active figure, and breezy, 
inspiring presence of a youthful-looking professor, who was frequently 
to be seen either traversing cloister and hall with rapid, springy step, 
or busily working in the Natural History Museum. Dr. Wyville 
Thomson was, indeed, one of the youngest men who ever wore the 
professor's gown. He was a lecturer on botany at 19, and his life-w rk 
was ended while he was still in his prime. 

He was one of the brilliant band of Scottish professors who did so 
much for Queen's College in its earlier days. The names of Mac- 
Douall, and Craik, and Tait, and McCosh will occur to the reader as 
other outstanding members of the group. His father was a surgeon 
in the East India Company's service, and the future professor was 
born at Linlithgow on 5th March, 1830. Educated at Merchiston 
Castle School and at the University of Edinburgh, his conspicuous 
aptitude for natural science led to his appointment in 1850 as 
Lecturer on Botany in King's College, Aberdeen, and in 1851 to his 
election as Professor of the same subject in Marischal College. In 1853 
he became resident in Ireland, having been appointed to the Chair 
of Natural History in Queen's College, Cork. Next year he came to 
Belfast, to succeed Mr. (afterwards Sir) Fredk. McCoy as Professor of 
Geology and Mineralogy in Queen's College; and in i860 he had 
added to his duties those of the professorship of Natural History, on 
the resignation of Professor George Dickie. After sixteen years' 



SIR CHARLES WVMLLE THOMSON, LL.D., D.SC, F.R.S. 1 25 

service in Belfast, he was appointed in 1870 to the Chair of Natural 
History in the University of Edinburgh, and this he held until his 
death in 1882, Such is the brief, bare outline of the career of one of 
the most cultured and accomplished men of our time, whose name is 
writ large in the annals of the scientific discoveries of the nineteenth 
century. 

It was the good-fortune of the present writer to be brought into 
intimate contact with Thomson, first as a student under him at Belfast, 
and later on as Senior Scholar in Natural History, and graduate of the 
old Queen's University in that group of subjects. His familiar figure 
stands out vividly before the mind's eye to this day. He was one of 
the most delightful and interesting of lecturers; there was nothing of the 
Dr. Dryasdust about him. The table of his classroom was invariably 
covered with a profusion of specimens carefully selected from the 
Museum, or fresh plants collected by himself or his porter, and of these 
he made incessant use, handling them with great dexterity and care- 
fully pointing out their characteristics. Chalk and blackboard were 
also turned to admirable account in his hands. Then, when spring 
came on, who that joined in the Saturday botanical excursions can 
ever forget them ? Sometimes their scene was the bosky shades of 
Collin Glen, sometimes the Cave Hill, sometimes the banks of the 
Lagan. Thomson, with his vasculum slung on his shoulder, and 
the ribbons of his Glengarry cap streaming in the wind behind him, 
strode rapidly along at the head of his band of students, halting ever 
and anon to speak of the plants of note that were discovered. Then, 
as the afternoon wore on, professor and students would gather under 
the shade of some umbrageous tree, or on a mossy bank, while the 
treasures that had been collected were discussed along with the 
sandwiches for which the morning's ramble had prepared excellent 
appetites. Monday's lecture was always occupied with the results of 
these expeditions, and was by no means the least interesting or 
attractive of the week's prelections. Not a few men trace back 
their interest in the flora and fauna of this country, and in its 



126 SIR CHARLES WVVILLE THOMSON, LL.D., D.SC, F.R.S. 

palaeontological wealth, to the charm with which these subjects were 
invested in those days by the lectures and conversation of this dehght- 
ful professor. 

It was while living in Belfast that Thomson commenced the 
researches into the physical and biological conditions prevailing in the 
depths of the sea, with which his name will always be specially associ- 
ated. In the summer of 1868 he and Dr. W. B. Carpenter made a 
series of valuable and fruitful investigations in the waters to the north 
of Scotland on board the gunboat "Lightning"; and in 1869, in 
company with John Gwynn Jeffreys, there was a similar expedition 
in the "Porcupine" off the west coast of Ireland and in the Bay of 
Biscay. The results of these voyages were given to the world in 1873 
in Thomson's charming volume, The Depths of the Sea. These 
researches prepared the way for the great expedition of his life, the 
memorable voyage in the " Challenger," commenced in December 
1872, and completed in May 1876, in the course of which not only 
was the globe carefully circumnavigated, but four of the great oceans — 
the Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, and Antarctic — had the mysteries of their 
depths explored, and the strange forms of life by which they are 
peopled, examined, named, and classified, as they had never been 
before. Nearly 70,000 nautical miles were traversed in the course of 
this voyage, and an enormous mass of valuable material was collected, 
with the arrangement of which Thomson was occupied during the 
remainder of his life. The results were published in the magnificent 
series of fifty volumes of the " Narrative and Report," which are his 
noble and appropriate monument. Probably, however, the labours and 
anxieties of this remarkable voyage cost him his life. He was never 
the same after it. In 1879 he was seized by an illness, which his con- 
stitution, enfeebled by long toil, was unable to shake off. He returned 
to his native place to die, and on loth March, 1882, his earthly career 
reached its end. 

Thomson was undoubtedly one of the most notable men whom 
the Belfast Literary Society ever numbered among its members. 



SIR CHARLES WVVILLE THOMSON, LL.D., D.SC, F.R.S. 12; 

Xo one who knew him intimately, as it was the writer's good-fortune 
to do, can ever forget him. 

He was married in 1853 to Miss Jane Ramage Dawson, eldest 
daughter of Adam Dawson, Esq., of Bonnington, Linlithgowshire. 
She survived him, as did also his only child, who entered the Indian 
Medical Service. 

The numerous and high honours which were conferred upon 
Thomson would take too great space to recount here. He was 
knighted on the return of the " Challenger " expedition, and received 
honorary degrees from the Queen's University, Aberdeen, Dublin, and 
Jena. He was elected F.R.S. in 1869, and was a fellow of many other 
learned bodies. There is a marble bust of him in the University of 
Edinburgh, and a memorial window was erected in his memory in 
Linlithgow cathedral. 

T. HA>nLTON. 



128 



HENRY BURDEN. 

'"P'llE subject of this memoir was born in Belfast in 1835, being the 
second son of Dr. WilHam Burden, who was the first Professor 
of Midwifery in Queen's College, Belfast. His mother was the daugh- 
ter of Alexander Mitchell, the blind engineer and inventor of the 
screw-pile. Dr. Burden began his working life in a mercantile house 
in Liverpool, but, giving this up after a few years, returned to Belfast 
and entered Queen's College with a view to graduating in medicine. 
His course there and in the university was very successful, as the 
many prizes and scholarships gained by him testify ; closing his 
university career by becoming senior scholar in Anatomy and Physi- 
ology, and the year following holding the same position in Natural 
Science. In addition to his medical degrees of M.D., etc., he gradu- 
ated M.A. with first-class honours and gold medal. He was admitted 
member of the Royal College of Surgeons, England, and held the 
Royal College of Physicians' (Ireland) diploma in State Medicine. 
After qualifying to practise medicine in i860, Dr. Burden was for 
some years the Demonstrator in Anatomy in Queen's College and 
Assistant Physician to the Belfast Lying-in Hospital ; he was also 
Pathologist to the Belfast Royal Hospital, which appointment he held 
until the time of his death. He was for some time Secretary to the 
Belfast Branch of the Royal Medical Benevolent Fund Society of 
Ireland, and ex-President of the Ulster Medical Society, before whose 
meetings he read from time to time papers forming valuable contribu- 
tions to medical science. Dr. Burden was at the time of his death, 
and had been for many years, the Secretary of the Belfast Literary 
Society, in whose welfare he took a great interest, and was a very 
regular attendant at its meetings ; he was also a member of the Royal 
Irish Academy. Dr. Burden's interest in literature and science was 



HENRY BURDEN. I 29 

not limited to these societies, and he took an active part in promoting 
the cause of education in ever}' direction. Several of his lectures and 
scientific contributions attracted considerable attention : among these 
were a monograph on Fossil Teeth and one on The Imperfections of 
the Human Eye. 

Dr. Burden married, in 1862, a daughter of Dr. Henry MacCormac 
of Belfast, and so was brother-in-law to Sir William MacCormac. He 
left a family of four sons and five daughters. 



I30 



CHARLES MacDOUALL, LL.D. 

/^HARLES MacDouall, LL.D., was bom near Edinburgh in 1813; 
was educated at the High School; entered Edinburgh University 
in 1826, and studied there under Dunbar, Pillans, John Wilson 
("Christopher North"), Brunton, Chalmers, and others, with great 
diligence and success, Professor Dunbar stating that " he exemplified 
in the Greek classes such unwearied industry and varied scholarship as 
very few young men ever show." In 1843 he became a licentiate of 
the Church of Scotland, but was never ordained, and at the Disruption 
he joined the Free Church. His distinctions as a scholar and as a 
teacher (both privately and at the Edinburgh Academy) led to his 
election in 1847 by the Town Council to the Chair of Hebrew in his 
university; but the Edinburgh Presbytery of the Established Church 
applied for a Note of Suspension and Interdict, which the Lord 
Ordinary (Robertson) finally granted, and Professor MacDouall 
resigned, publishing the lecture he had prepared as his inaugural 
address, with a preface in which he referred with unaffected dignity to 
his exclusion by a strict enforcement of the Act of 1707. 

In 1849 he was appointed by the Crown Professor of Latin in 
Queen's College, Belfast ; and in the following year he was, at his 
request, transferred to the Chair of Greek ; and, though he had offers 
of preferment at home and abroad, he retained his connection with 
Queen's College, Belfast, and with Queen's University in Ireland, till 
1878, when advancing blindness compelled him to retire from the scene 
of his faithful and loving labours. 

His merit as a classical and an oriental scholar was widely 
recognised. In 1858 Edinburgh University gave him the degree of 
LL.D. ; he was made a member of the Royal Asiatic Society, England, 
and of Oriental societies in Greece, France, and Germany; and in the 



CHARLES MacDOUALL, LL.D. 131 

transactions of these learned bodies he wrote valuable papers relatincj 
to his special studies, and also to a subject in which he took much 
interest — the legends and the literature of the Middle Ages. 

He was attached to the principles of united education, and an early 
friend of the higher education of women ; he would describe himself 
as "a good Presbyterian and a good Whig"; but he was especially and 
emphatically a professor — a man of the library and of the classroom ; 
he impressed a note of distinction on the daily life and the common 
work of the college ; and his students looked up to him with pride, 
affection, and complete trust, and with a certain humorous appreciation 
of the happy audacity of his reconstructions, and of the naive simplicity 
with which he presupposed their ability to accompany him in his lofty 
and sustained flights. 

In private life he was most trusty, friendly, and unassuming. One 
of the ablest of many able men whom he taught aptly described him 
as " the profoundest of scholars and the gentlest of men." 

In 1870 he married Miss Orr of Belfast; and on 26th February, 
1883, he died without issue, and he is buried in a quiet corner of 
Balmoral Cemetery. 

John Park. 



T-^% iitv/ yor.K 
PUBLIC LIBRARY 



astor, lenwk 
'tilden foundations 



135 



REV. REUBEN JOHN BRYCE, LL.D. 

jD Ev. Reuben John Bryce, ll.d., was the eldest son of Rev. 
James Bnxe, and was born at the Manse, Wick, X.B., in 1798. 
His father accepted the congregation of Killaig, near Coleraine, in 
1803, and his son Reuben was educated by himself and his wife (a fair 
Greek scholar), and was entered at Glasgow College at an early age. 
On obtaining his degree of M. A. he returned to Coleraine, where, after 
his ordination, he opened a private school. Appointed Mathematical 
Master in the Belfast Academy in 1824, he shortly afterwards became 
Principal on the retirement of Rev. W. Bruce, D.D. He occupied this 
important position for fifty-four years. Amongst his more distinguished 
pupils were Lord Chancellor Cairns and (in his earliest years) his 
nephew, the Right Hon. James Br)'ce, M.P. The honorar}- degree of 
LL.D. was conferred upon him by the University of Glasgow ; and it 
was generally understood that he would have been chosen to be 
Professor of Greek there but for the existence at that time of a form 
of theological test which he refused to take. 

As a friend of Miss Edgeworth he visited Edgeworthstown, and 
was in full agreement with her ideas of female education, which he 
afterwards carried out in the Belfast Academy with successful results. 
He co-operated with Sir Thomas Wyse and other pioneers of higher 
education in Ireland, and exerted considerable influence in promoting 
the scheme of the Queen's Colleges, afterwards carried through in a 
form which he did not wholly approve of by Sir Robert Peel. 

Amongst his literar)- works may be noted a Latin Prosody, 
Ruddiman's Latin Grammar, an edition of Sallust, a Rational Intro- 
duction to Music, and another on Greek Accents. He delivered in 
London, early in the thirties, a series of remarkable lectures on the 
Art and Science of Education, and was, indeed, the first person of 



136 REV. REUBEN JOHN BRYCE, LL.D. 

mark in this country who conceived the idea of handling the 
subject of education as a practical science on philosophical principles. 
Much of his time was devoted in later years to a scheme for the 
government of the Belfast Royal Academy, which he lived to see 
successfully carried out, in the new buildings erected at Cliftonville. 
He was for many years the minister of the York Street United 
Presbyterian Congregation. He died in the year 1888, and was buried 
beside his father at Killaig. 

R. M. Young. 



Note.— I am indebted to the Right Hon. James Bryce, M.p., for a number of revisions in 
this article.— R. M. Y. 



137 



JOHN FREDERICK HODGES, 
M.D., F.I.C., F.C.S., J.P. 

"TAr. Hodges was born in Downpatrick in the }ear 1815, and died 
at Belfast in the year 1899. 

For fifty years he was Professor of Agricultural Chemistry and 
Lecturer on Medical Jurisprudence at Queen's College, Belfast, and 
during the same period he acted as Chemical Director of the Chemico- 
Agricultural Society of Ulster and Editor of ihejourtialoi that society, 
in the pages of which he advocated incessantly those very principles 
relating to the welfare of Ireland which have now borne fruit in the 
establishment of the Agriculture and Technical Instruction Depart- 
ment. He was for many years Government Anal)'st, and analyst for 
several Ulster counties and for the city of Belfast. 

In recognition of his splendid scientific services almost every 
European country conferred degrees upon him. He received an 
honorary diploma, in the name of Alexander the Second, from the 
Imperial College of Gorygoretzk, Russia. He was an honorary 
member of the Royal College of Stockholm, the Royal Academy of 
Agriculture of Turin, the Apotheker Verein of North Germany, the 
Imperial and Central Society of France, and the Vereeniging voor 
Volkslight, Amsterdam. 

He was M.D. of the Giessen University, and at Giessen he formed 
a life-long friendship with the world-renowned chemist, Liebig. He 
was also M.D. (Honoris Causa) of the Queen's University in Ireland. 
He was one of the founders of the Royal College of Chemistr}', 
London ; Professor of Chemistry in the old Royal Belfast College ; 
President of the Natural History and Philosophical Society of Belfast 



138 JOHN FREDERICK HODGES, M.D., F.I.C., F.C.S., J.P. 

and of the Royal Academical Institution, Belfast ; twice a Vice-President 
of the British Association ; and fellow of many other scientific societies 
at home and abroad. 

He was the author of well-known works on Agricultural Chemistry, 
and a voluminous writer on many subjects. 

He was Examiner in the Queen's University, Ireland, and he was 
a Justice of the Peace for County Antrim. 

A friend of enlightenment in every form, he identified himself with 
the many valuable institutions which distinguish Belfast, amongst 
which the Literary Society has played an important part, and it 
received no small share of his interest and sympathy. Of noble 
simplicity of character, self-effacing modesty was said to be his 
distinguishing characteristic — "guileless" was the word by which many 
described him. Kind, courteous, and affable, he had for all a pleasant 
smile and a cheery word. He was married to Elizabeth, daughter of 
John Benn, Esq., of Glenravel House, Glenravel, County Antrim, and 
sister of the two distinguished brothers, Edward and George. To her 
wisdom and inspiring influence, he used to say he owed all his 
honours and happiness. 

M. Selina Hodges. 



139 



JAMES GLASGOW, D.D. 

JAMES Glasgow was born in the district of the Braid, near Ballymena, 
County Antrim, in the year 1805. His parents were farmers, and 
probably of Scottish extraction. 

Educated at the Grammar School of Ballymena, and subsequently 
under the care of Dr. Paul of Carrickfergus, he afterwards entered the 
old Belfast College, now the Royal Academical Institution, where the 
remarkable bent of his mind towards mathematics, and consequent 
progress in that and kindred sciences, elicited the warm commendation 
of his teachers, and led him to contemplate being a candidate for the 
chair of mathematics in the college, but from this nothing definite 
seems to have resulted. 

He, however, contributed several articles on mathematical and 
scientific subjects to various publications of the time, and his interest 
in this branch of study continued unabated throughout his life. 

Determining finally on entering the ministry of the Presbyterian 
Church, he was licensed by the Presbytery of Belfast, and in 1835 
ordained to the pastoral charge of the congregation of Castledawson, 
County Derry, in connection with the General Synod of Ulster. 

On the awakening of missionary activity which followed the union 
of the Ulster and Secession Synods, resulting in the formation of the 
General Assembly of the Irish Presbyterian Church, Mr. Glasgow 
offered himself as a missionar>', and, with IMr. Alexander Kerr, was 
unanimously appointed to India, for which country, accompanied by his 
wife, he sailed in 1840, and, in the provinces of Katiawar and Gujerat, 
which had been chosen by the Assembly as their field of operations, 
he resided for the next eleven years, labouring in circumstances of 
great difficulty, though not without encouragement. 

In 185 1 he revisited his native land on a three years' furlough. 



140 JAMES GLASGOW, D.D. 

returning to India in 1854, where he spent another ten years, and finally- 
left his sphere of work there for a well-earned retirement in 1864. 

On his return he was at once appointed by the Assembly to the 
newly-established professorship of Oriental Languages in the Colleges 
of Belfast and Derry, which position he held till his death, and he was 
also selected by Government as examiner in Gujurati for the Indian 
Civil Service. 

In 1856 he received the degree of D.D. from Princeton College, the 
offer coming almost simultaneously with a similar one from Glasgow 
University, and among his other literary honours were those of Fellow 
of the University of Bombay, Member of the Bombay branch of the 
Royal Asiatic Society and of the Edinburgh Christian Missionary 
Institute, and Secretary of the Gujurati Committee of the Bombay 
Bible Society. 

During the remainder of his life he resided chiefly in Belfast and 
Portadown, in which latter place he died shortly before the meeting of 
the Jubilee Assembly of the Presbyterian Church, 1890, of which he 
would have been one of the most honoured members. 

With his wife (Miss Mary Wightman of Lisburn)and one daughter, 
who predeceased him, he is interred in Balmoral Cemetery. 

Dr. Glasgow was a man of great erudition, and deeply versed in 
Eastern languages and in all philological and linguistic studies. 

Although prevented by the active duties of a missionary life from 
devoting much time to purely literary work, he issued several important 
publications, amongst which may be noted The Apocalypse Translated 
and Expounded ; Heart and Voice, a contribution to the instrumental 
music controversy ; A Commentary on Zachariah, which appeared in 
the pages of the Oriental Christian Spectator; The Metrical Psalms in 
Gujurati, and many tracts, hymns, and religious pamphlets in the same 
language. 

He also took a large share in the translation of the Bible into 
Gujurati, and edited several educational works for the Indian 
Government. 



JAMES GLASGOW, D.D. I4I 

Many of his works, however, including a new metrical version of 
the Psalms in English, remain in MSS. 

Dr. Glasgow was a man of middle stature, of singularly keen and 
penetrating expression, cheerful and kindly disposition, and endowed 
by nature with a vigorous constitution, which enabled him to withstand 
for over twenty years the exhausting climate of India in constant 
work, amid obstacles and conditions which the European resident of 
the present day can scarcely realize. 

SiNCLARE Ramsey. 



142 



WILLIAM MacILWAINE, D.D. 

VX/'iLLIAM MacIlwaine was born in Dublin, 5th July, 1807. His 
father came of a family of Scotch settlers from Ross-shire, one 
of whom fought in the siege of Derry, and whose name is on the 
roll of the defenders. Through his mother's mother he claimed des- 
cent from Bishop Bedell of Kilmore, she having been only child of 
a Stanford of Belturbet, who was direct descendant of the Bishop's 
youngest daughter, and who inherited his property there from her. 

In 1826 he entered Trinity College, Dublin, obtaining a scholar- 
ship on entrance, and another in his junior sophister year (1829). In 
each of his three sophister years he took the Vice-Chancellor's prize 
for English verse, besides other distinctions, and entirely supported 
himself by coaching fellow-students. On obtaining his degree and 
leaving Trinity, in 1832, he took holy orders, and became curate of 
Balteagh, in diocese of Derry, 1833. ^^ 1834 he went to Clough- 
jordan, and in 1835 came to Belfast as curate to Rev. R. \V. Bland 
at St. George's. On his marriage (February 1837) to Jane, eldest 
daughter of Wm. Wilson, then of Wellington Place, Belfast, and after- 
wards of Larkhill, Rathmines, Dublin, Mr. Bland resigned in his 
favour, and he remained incumbent of St. George's until 1880, when 
he resigned, on account of failing health, in favour of the present 
minister, then his curate, Rev. Hugh Davis Murphy. 

Early in his ministry Canon MacIlwaine spent much time and 
study in Catholic controversy, his " Lent Lectures " on that subject 
being crowded by Orange adherents for a good many years. He had 
a large collection of literature on controversy, as well as an extensive 
general library. Of later years he entirely gave up debatable subjects, 
and was considered much broader, as well as " higher," in his opinions. 



WILLIAM MacILWAINE, D.D. I43 

He was an excellent classical and English scholar. Besides some 
sermons, he published Death Conquered, and Other Poems, and several 
other small volumes. He also published Lyra Hibernica Sacra, a 
collection of the poems of Irish authors, which contained some original 
writings, hymns, etc. He was Canon of St. Patrick's Cathedral, 
Dublin, and D.D. of Trinity College. 

Jane Stelfox. 



144 



JAMES CUMING, M.D. 

A ?*I0NCST the many distinguished names which adorn the members' 
roll of the Literary Society, there are few which recall an intellect 
more profound, clear, and broad than the name James Cuming. 

He was born in the County Armagh in the year 1833. As a boy 
he was of a studious and quiet disposition, as unassuming and averse 
to all personal display as he remained throughout life, and so silent 
and retiring that even those who knew him best scarcely estimated 
fully the depth and force of his abilities. 

The school which he attended was taught by Mr. Macklin (who 
subsequently became a professor in one of the Scotch colleges), and he 
studied afterwards in St. Patrick's College, Armagh. Even in early 
youth he showed a devoted love of country, and when time and 
experience and the lessons of practical life had tempered his enthu- 
siasm, there was still nothing more characteristic of him than the 
interest he took in all that tended to the advancement and honour of 
Ireland. He took no active part in the exciting politics of his day, nor 
ever interfered in the municipal affairs of the city. Those who were 
his intimates, however, knew how closely he followed the march of 
events, and how clear and keen was his forecast of the future. 

When his schooldays terminated he entered his name as a medical 
student in the Queen's College, Belfast, and after gaining a senior 
scholarship in chemistry, took out the degree of M.D. in 1855 and the 
degree of M.A. in 1858. He subsequently studied in Paris and Vienna, 
under Charcot and Oppalzer, and acquired whilst abroad that practical 
knowledge of the French and German languages which in after years 
he continued to cultivate and maintain. In his library were the 
choicest classics of both literatures, and the medical periodicals of the 



JAMES CUMING, M.D. I45 

continent were constantly on his table. He was appointed Professor 
of Medicine at the Queen's College, and Physician to the Belfast Royal 
Hospital in 1865, and held both those positions until his death. 

From the time that he commenced his practice in Belfast his repu- 
tation steadily increased, and he ultimately reached an assured and 
high position, due not merely to his professional attainments, but to his 
rare personal gifts. His devotion to his patients of whatever rank, his 
kindness, his genial manner, his undemonstrative and yet genuine 
sympathy with the pain and distress which he laboured to relieve, 
created for him innumerable friendships which no religious or political 
differences ever weakened or destroyed. The offices he held were 
evidences of the high esteem in which he was regarded, as well by the 
general public as by the members of his own profession — the best 
qualified to judge of his merit. He was twice President of the Ulster 
Medical Society, President of the North of Ireland Branch of the 
British Medical Association, Chairman of the Belfast District Asylum 
Board, and, amongst other dignified positions, was elected President of 
the British Medical Association in 1884, when that body held their 
annual meeting in Belfast. Outside the range of his profession he was 
a good scholar. His favourite classical author was Horace, with whose 
good-natured cynicism he seemed to sympathize fully ; and one of 
the best papers read before the Literary Society was his interesting 
disquisition on the character and merits of that poet. He was an 
excellent judge and critic of both English poetry and prose. When 
he spoke in public, which was but rarely, the originality of his thoughts 
and the delicate vein of humour with which he lightened subjects, 
which, with less skilful treatment, might have been dull and mono- 
tonous, always left deep and agreeable impressions on his audience. 

His conversational powers were remarkable. He never talked for 
effect ; he never dealt in monologue ; he conversed and did not lecture. 
From the universal character of his reading, it was difficult to find any 
subject which his answers and queries did not elucidate and develop, 
and with him discussion never degenerated into dispute. 

L 



146 JAMES CUMING, M.D. 

One great public work with which his name is inseparably con- 
nected is the new General Hospital. For the interests of this institution 
he laboured to the last, in spite of increasing and distressing physical 
weakness, and with pathetic earnestness and devotion. He did not 
live to see its completion, and died on 27 August, 1899. 

It is a commonplace to say there is no man whose place cannot be 
filled, but it is also true that there^are men whose characteristics are so 
blended, so attractive, and so varied, that those who have enjoyed their 
companionship and friendship feel that the place which was theirs must 
remain for ever vacant, and that the loss which death has created is 
irreparable. Dr. Cuming was surely such a man to his personal friends. 
On his students the impress of his manly, wise, and cautious teaching 
will leave lasting traces. 

R. Kyle Knox. 



147 



SAMUEL JAMES MacMULLAN. 

Camuel James MacMullan, the son of an officer of R. I. 
Constabulaty, was born on 3rd June, 1842, at Hillsborough ; 
was educated at Cookstown Academy and at Belfast Academy ; 
entered Queen's College, Belfast, in 1858, and in 1864 graduated 
M.A. in Queen's University. 

He won many honours in classics and modern literature ; but in a 
much fuller measure he drew to himself trust, esteem, and love. His 
Latin professor, Dr. Reichel, afterwards Lord Bishop of Meath, "always 
regarded him as peculiarly resembling the literary men of Germany, 
in loving learning for itself rather than for its rewards." His was the 
charm of knowledge that was sound and not pedantic — of a man}-- 
sided and sympathetic nature, of a simple and unaffected personality, 
and of a bright and beautiful innocence that never left him and gave 
him a rare capacity of kindly enjoyment — 

" Low desires, 

Low thoughts had there no place ; yet was his heart 

Lowly." 

Life and movement, children, and indeed all young things, his books, 
his pencil, his music, his friends — with these he was content. 

He spent many years in varied occupations — principal of Cookstown 
Academy; assistant registrar and librarian at Queen's College, Belfast ; 
head of a private school at Blackheath ; University extension lecturer 
in London and in Belfast ; examiner in Royal University, Ireland ; 
writing in 1886 a spirited pamphlet on the Irish question ; translating 
in 1889 Dr. Geffcken's British Empire, and in 1890 Senilia, or Poems 
in Prose, by his favourite, Turgenieff ; studying at home and on the 
continent philology and literature ; and preparing with great care and 
hterary finish lectures on his " immortals" — Shakespeare, INIilton, and 
Wordsworth. 



148 SAMUEL JAMES MacMULLAN. 

He married in 1880 Miss Anne Weir of Cookstown, and two 
children crowned his wedded happiness. In the spring of 1892 his 
unobtrusive merit received suitable, if tardy, recognition — his appoint- 
ment by the Crown to the Chair of History and English Literature in 
Queen's College, Belfast, quickly followed by his election as a fellow 
of the Royal University of Ireland. 

He was an ideal professor : his lectures were fresh, full, and clear, 
and in simple, nervous English ; he delighted in his students, who 
thoroughly understood and loved him, in his work, in sketching the 
scenery of France or Norway or his own country, and in his home and 
his friends. 

After a brief illness, he died on 19th December, 1900, and is buried 
at his native town. 

On social and political questions he would declare himself for 
justice and sympathy, and (with his own interpretation) Imperium et 
Libertas. He was warmly attached to the Church of Ireland, and 
would speak with deep feeling of the strength and beauty of her 
worship. Always and everywhere himself, a true, large-hearted, and 
most lovable man — vncltis ilk bonis flebilis occidit — and the thought 
of many was happily caught and fixed by his old friend. Sergeant 
Dodd, K.C., in this touching sonnet : 

" This church he loved, the village clustering near, 
This quiet graveyard where his forebears rest — 
With such observance as would please him best, 
We bring him home. The organ o'er his bier 
Sends forth his funeral march, uplifting, clear. 
Meet coronach for him whose life-long quest 
Was for the true, and for the true expressed 
In form of perfect fitness. Strict, severe 
Towards himself, and in his views of art. 
Of life and letters. To his friends all heart, 
A man of men ! His gentle, gracious ways, 
His strenuous speech, his sketches and his fun, 
Made life more sweet, made love and duty one. 
So leave we him. He was too big for praise." 

John Park. 



APPENDICES. 



151 



APPENDIX I. 



Officers of the Society. 



I80I-2 


PRESIDRNT. 

Dr. James M'Donnell 

Rev. Dr. Bruce 

Dr. S. M. Stephenson 

Rev. Dr. Bruce 


VICE- 

Rev. Dr. 
Dr. S. M 
John Tem 

The OjD 


PRBSIDBNT. 
Bruce 


SEC. AND TRBAS. 
Doctor Thomson. 


1802-3 
1803-4 

1804-5 

1805-6 
1806-7 
1807-8 
1808-9 

1809-10 
i8io-i I 


Stephenson .. 
pleton 


Rev. W. H. Drummond 


Ice abolished 


r Rev. W. H. Drummond 
\ (Resigned Feb. nth). 
\ Dr. S. M. Stephenson. 


Dr. James M'Donnell 

Rev. Dr. Cupples 

Rev. W. H. Drummond .. 






James Drummond. 
Henry Joy. 
John Knox. 










Rev. Dr. Bruce 

Dr. James M'Donnell 

Dr. S. M. Stephenson 

Rev. A. O'Beirne. 










181 1-12 




Henry Joy. 


1812-13 
1813-14 
1814-15 
1815-16 
1816-17 
1817-18 
1818-19 
1819-20 




Rev. Rossjebb 

Rev. Dr. Bruce 

Dr. James Drummond 

Dr. James M'Donnell 

Rev. William Bruce 

Dr. Knight 

Dr. Neilson 

Rev. W. D. H. M'Ewen... 
Professor James Thomson . . 










































1822-23 
1823-24 
1824-25 
1825-26 
1826-27 
1827-28 
1828-29 






Professor Young 

Rev. Professor Bruce 

Monsieur D'Oisy 

Rev. T. Dix Hincks 

Rev. Henry Montgomery. . . 
Rev. Dr. Bruce 






Rev. \V. D. H. M'Ewen 




















Professor Cairns. 



OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY, 



PRESIDENT. SEC. AND TREAS. 

1829-30 Dr. Henry MacCormac Professor Cairns. 

1830-31 Edmund Getty 

I S3 1-32 Robert Patterson 

1832-33 Dr. James M'Donnell 

[ Rev. T. Dix Hincks ^ 

-o,, , I (The Rev. John Scott | 

1*33 j4- Porter elected, but did j 

1. not act) J 

1834-35 Robert J. Tennent 

1835-36 Rev. John Scott Porter 

1836-37 James Macadam 

1837-38 James Thomson Tennent 

1838-39 William Thompson 

1 839-40 James Thomson Tennent 

1840-41 G. C. Hyndman 

1S41-42 William Bottomley 

1842-43 Rev. W. Hamilton 

1843-44 John Grattan 

1 844-45 Edmund Getty 

1 845-46 Henry Garrett 

1846-47 Robert S. MacAdam 

1847-48 William Bottomley 

1848-49 The Minutes of February 9th, 1848, are followed by an obituary notice of Dr. Cairns, 
from the Whig of Saturday, 22nd April, 1849, and the Society does not 
appear to have met during this session. 



PRESIDENT. SECRETARY. TREASURER. 

1849-50 Rev. John Scott Porter Edmund Getty Robert Patterson. 

1S50-51 Professor Wilson Joseph John Murphy ,, ,, 

1851-52 Professor Craik ,, ,, ,, ,, 

1852-53 Alexander Mitchell ,, ,, ,, ,, 

1853-54 Rev. John Scott Porter ,, ,, ,, ,, 

1854-55 Isaac J. Murphy Rev. John Scott Porter ... ,, ,, 

1855-56 Joseph J. Murphy ,, ,, 

1856-57 Robert S. MacAdam ,, ,, 

1857-58 Robert Patterson ,, ,, 

1858-59 Alex. O'D. Taylor ,, ,, 

1859-60 William Bottomley ,, ,, 

1860-61 Alex. Mitchell ,, ,, 

1861-62 Alex. Mitchell ,, ,, 

1862-63 Alex. Mitchell ,, ,, 



Joseph John Murphy. 



OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY. 



153 



PRESIDENT. SECRETARY. 

1863-64 Rev. John Scott Porter Rev. John Scott Porter 

1864-65 Professor James Thomson ... 

1865-66 Professor Craik 

1 866- 67 Professor Thomas Andrews 

1S67-68 Professor MacDouall 

186S-69 Rev. Dr. Murphy 

1869-70 Dr. Henry Burden 

1870-71 Rev. John Scott Porter Dr. Henry Burden. 

1871-72 Robert Patterson 

1872-73 Rev. Professor Glasgow 

1873-74 Professor MacDouall 

1874-75 Rev. John Scott Porter 

1875-76 Dr. McCrea 

1876-77 Professor Cuming, M.D 

1877-78 Alex. O'D. Taylor 

1S78-79 Rev. R. J. Bryce, LL.D 

1879-80 Hugh Ilyndman, LL.D 

1880-81 Professor Park, d.lit 

1881-82 Professor Purser, m.a 

1882-83 Professor Cuming, m.d 

1883-84 Robert Young, c.E 

1884-85 Rev. Professor Murphy 

1 885 -86 Professor Byers, m.d 

1886-87 C. E. Sheldon, D.LIT 

1887-88 Hugh Hyndman, LL.D 

1888-89 Professor Purser, m.a 

1889-90 Rev. Dr. A. C. Murphy 

1890-91 Professor Park, d.lit 

1891-92 Dr. J. A. Lindsay, M. A., M.D. 

1892-93 Joseph John Murphy Rev. R.W.Seaver 

1893-94 Rev. Professor Murphy, D.D. 

1894-95 Professor MacMullan, M.A. 

1895-96 Professor Park, D.LIT Rev 

1896-97 Rev. H. D, Murphy, d.d.... 

1897-98 H. S. Mcintosh, m.a 

1898-99 Robert Young, c.E 

1 899- 1 900 R. Kyle Knox, ll.d 

1900-1901 Professor J. A. Lindsay, 

M.A., m.d. 



treasurer. 
Joseph John Murphy. 



m.a.,b.d. 



Professor Pa 
Richard W. Seaver. 



k. 



155 

APPENDIX II. 



Members of the Society, 1801-1901 

with List of Papers read by them. 

(Members at October 2j, igoi, marked thus * J 

*AGNEW, ARCHIE W Elected Mar. 14, 1898. 

April 10, 1899. " A defence of villains." 

ANDERSON, JOHN M. Elected April 10, 1893. 

ANDREWS, REV. SAMUEL Elected Dec. 6, 1880. 

Feb. 7, 1881. "Chaucer." 
Dec. 4,1883. "Shakespeare." 

ANDREWS, PROFESSOR THOMAS, M.D., D.sc. Elected Jan. 21,1850. 

President 1S66-7. Memoir at page 102. 

Feb. S, 1855. " Notices of the Castle of Heidelberg." 

Mar. 8, 185S. " On the influence of the discovery of the gold and silver mines of 

America on the value of money." 
Nov. 3, 1862. " Sketch of the writings and discoveries of Faraday." 
May I, 1865. " The history and recent progress of spectrum analysis." 
May 20, 1867. " Presidential address," in which he reviewed the life and labours of 

Professor Craik. 
Dec. 7, 1868. " The ancient and modern views of the constitution of matter." 
Feb. 2, 1874. " The difficulties of France : their cause and remedy." 

ARD, REV. J. ALBERT Elected Dec 6, 1875. 

April 10, 1876. " Legends of many nations in relation to Scripture history." 
Nov. 5,1877. " Literature of epitaphs." 

ARMSTRONG, REV. JAMES, d.d Elected Nov. 8, 1805. 

(Born 1780, died 1839.) 

For Memoir see Did. of Nat. Biog., vol. 2, pp. 92-3. 



156 MEMBERS OF THE SOCIETY. 

♦ARMSTRONG, WILLIAM Elected Dec. 5, 1898. 

Jan. 9, 1899. " Artificiality of the present day." 

*BEATTY, H. M., ll.d Elected Feb. 4, 1895. 

Oct. 29, 1895. " Matthew Arnold." 
Feb. 5, 1900. " Florence." 

BLACKWOOD, PINXTAN Elected Nov. 16, 180 1. 

Mar. 7, 1803. '* Suspended animation." 

BOAS, F. S., M.A Elected Feb. 4,1889. 

BOISRAGON, DR., of Bath, Elected Corresponding Member, Feb. 15, 1802. 

BOLE, WILLIAM, M. A Elected Dec. 3, 1888. 

Nov. 4, 18S9. " The recent strike of dock labourers in London." 

BOTTOMLEY, WILLIAM Elected Dec. 2, 1839. 

President 1841-2, 1847-8, 1859-60. 

Mar. 9,1840. " On the art of painting in Greece." 

Oct. II, 1841. "Notices of the genius and works of Leonardo da Vinci, Michael 

Angelo, and Raphael." 

Dec. 9, 1844. " Constellations of genius." 

Jan. 16, 1S48. " Esthetical culture." 

May 5, 1851. " On dramatists of the XVL and XVK. centuries." 

Jan. 8, 1S55. " The policy of restrictions on commerce in time of war." 

Jan. II, 1S58. " The principle of the Currency and the Bank Acts of 1844 and 1845." 

Nov. 4, 1861. " Representative government." 

April 12, 1864. " The life and times of Queen Elizabeth." 

April I, 1867. " The Bank of England and its relations with the state, and with the 

commercial interests of Great Britain." 

Dec. 4,1871, " Recent excavations in Rome — the Palatine." 

BOWDEN, — ., Surgeon, Portaferry (5^* Downpatrick, Elected April 19, 1802. 

Resigned Dec. i, 1806. 

Dec. 26, 1803. " The external use of cold water." 
Mar. II, 1805. " The utility of hospitals." 



MEMBERS OF THE SOCIETY. 1 57 

BRETT, CHARLES H Elected Jan. 10, 1870. 

Re-elected Nov. i, 1880. 

Dec. 5, 1870. " Notes on ihe topography of old Belfast." 

Nov. I, 1875. " Notes on a parochial session book of the seventeenth century." 

*BRO\VN, JOHN, F.R.s Elected Feb. 7,1887. 

Feb. 3, 1891. " The development of molecular processes in the arts." 

BRUCE, S Elected Jan. 21, I S50. 

Feb. 6, 1S54. "On evidence before parliamentary committee on the National Gallery." 

BRUCE, REV. WILLLVAI, d.d Original Member. 

Vice-President 180 1-2. 

President 1802-3, 1804-5, 1809-10, 1814-15, 182S-9. 
Resigned March 7, 1831, and elected Honorary Member. 
Memoir at page 29. Portrait at page 27. 

" Classical learning." 

" History of Homer and of his writings." 

" The state of astronomy in the days of Homer." 

" The state of geography in the days of Homer." 

" Maynooth College." 

" On the original of Lucretius." 

" The state of navigation, etc., in the time of Homer." 

" The state of society in the time of Homer." 

" On the nature of light." 

' ' Metaphysical argument for the existence and attributes of the Deity. " 

" On the structure of English verse." 

" A poetical imitation." 

i" On the antiquities of Homer, Hesiod, and the Scriptures." 

" Original letters of King James VI." 

" Ideas as connected with language." 

" On poetical numbers." 

" Extra memoironan illuminated MS. of Bonaventura's Golden Book." 

" Remarks on the history of Rome." 

" Poetical imitations." 

" On moral certainty." 

" On party names." 



Dec. 


14. 


180I. 


Feb. 


3. 


1S06. 


April 


7. 


1806. 


Feb. 


2, 


1807. 


Jan. 


II. 


180S. 


Mar. 


7. 


1808. 


Mar. 


5. 


1 8 10. 


April 


7, 


1812. 


May 


4. 


1812. 


Mar. 


7. 


1814. 


Dec. 


4. 


1815. 


Nov. 


4. 


1816. 


Oct. 


5, 


1818. 


Nov. 


2, 


1818. 


April 


3. 


1S20. 


Nov. 


5. 


1821. 


Mar, 


7, 


1823. 


April 


4. 


1823. 


Nov. 


5. 


1824. 


Nov. 


6, 


1826. 


Feb. 


4. 


182S. 


Nov. 


2, 


1829. 



158 MEMBERS OF THE SOCIETY. 

BRUCE, REV. PROFESSOR WILLIAM ... Elected Oct. 5, 1812. 

President 1817-18, 1824-25. 
Resigned January 8, 1855. Memoir at page 48. 

Mar. I, 1813. " On the antiquity of the Hebrew language." 

Mar. 4, 1816. " Account of the different MSS. and editions of the Bible." 

Oct. 4,1819. " On the chronology of the New Testament." 

Mar. 5,1821. " Corroborations of the early history of the world." 

Feb. 7, 1823. " On the affinity between the language and customs of the Greeks 

and Romans." 
Oct. I, 1824. " Essay on the systems of education pursued in our universities." 
April 3, 1826. " A chronological account of some of the dramatic poets of Greece 

whose works are lost." 
Mar. 3, 1828. " Analysis of Eichhorn's attempt to reduce the Apocalypse to a 

dramatic poem." 
Dec. 7,1829. " The Greek syntax of Matthire." 

Dec. 5, 1831. " Biographical notices of the revival of Greek literature in Italy." 
Mar. 5, 1838. " University education." 

Jan. 16,1843. " Remarks on ffidipus Tyrannus of Sophocles." 
April 4, 1845. "Account of Miiller's introduction to a scientific system of 

mythology." 

BRYCE, REV. R. J., ll.d., of the Belfast Academy. Elected May 2, 1864. 
President 1878-9. Memoir at page 135. Portrait at page 133. 

Mar. 6, 1865. " Specimens of unpublished poetry in the Scoto- Hibernian dialect of 
the North of Ireland, with notices of their author, the Rev. 
R. Magill, and of the character and habits of the people." 
Nov. 9, 1868. " The classification and terminology of grammar." 
April 7, 1873. " Phonology ; or the relations of the sounds of spoken language." 
April I, 1878. " Prevailing errors on the function of governments with regard to 

public education." 
Feb. 6, 1882. " Efforts for the extension of university education in Ireland." 

BURDEN, DR. HENRY Elected Nov. i, 1858. 

President 1869-70. Secretary 1870-1892. 
Memoir at page 128. 
Feb. 7,1859. " The language of science." 



May 5, 1862 
April 3, 1865 
May II, 1868 
Feb. 10, 1873 
Jan. II, 1875 
Nov. 3, 1879 



" On the physiology of the organ of the voice." 

" Spontaneous generation." 

" Geographical distribution of plants and animals. 

" Living or dead ? " 

" The ear, and musical sounds." 

" Priestley." 



MEMBERS OF THE SOCIETY. 



159 



BYERS, PROFESSOR JOHN, m.a., m.d. ... Elected April 2, 1883. 
President 1SS5-6. 
Dec. I, 18S4. " Recent advances in our knowledge of the causes of disease." 

CAIRNS, PROFESSOR WILLIAM Elected April 3, 1820. 

President 1822-3. Secretary 1828-49. 

Died April 21, 1849. 

Memoir at page 67. Portrait at page 65. 

" The origin of universities." 

" The origin of academical degrees." 

" The origin of universities." 

" The origin of universities." 

" The classification of the sciences." 

" The history of colleges." 

" The origin of the modem drama." 

" The school of Pythagoras." 

" The origin of castes in society." 

" The commencement of the Saracen schools." 

" Remarks on Milton's Comus and Fletcher's /a/V/i/w/ Shepherdess." 

" Notices of Roger Ascham's Schoobnaster." 

" Remarks on the Agamemnon of ^schylus." 

" Notices of Manderville's Travels." 

" On the works of Joseph Glanvill." 

" Notices of early romances concerning Prince Arthur." 

"Notices of the account of Dante in Carlyle's Hero-worship." 

" Notices of fairy mythology." 

" Notices of early colleges in Ireland." 

" Notice of part of Sir John Herschel's address to British Association." 

" Remarks on the similes of Homer." 

" Remarks on Milton's prose style." 

" Notice of Fenn's original letters." 



Dec. 


4. 


S20. 


Jan. 


7. 


1822. 


Dec. 


5. 


1S23. 


April 


I, 


825. 


Mar. 


5, 


827. 


Jan. 


5, 


1829. 


Feb. 


I, 


[830. 


April 


2, 


1832. 


April 


7. 


[834. 


Oct. 


10, 


1836. 


May 


3. 


837. 


Jan. 


8, 


1838. 


May 


7. 


1838. 


Nov. 


II. 


1S39. 


April 


27, 


1840. 


May 


10, 


S41. 


Dec. 


6, 


[841. 


Mar. 


7. 


[842. 


Mar. 


3. 


1845. 


Nov. 


10, 


1845. 


May 


4, 


1846. 


Nov. 


2, 


1846. 


Feb. 


7. 


[848. 



*CALWELL, DR. WILLIAM, m.a 

May 2,1892. " A modern chapter in anthropology." 

CAMPBELL, DR. JOHN 

CARTER, WILLIAM 

CHALLICE, LIEUT.-COLONEL 

Mar. 5,1894. " Macaulay and Carlyle." 



Elected Mar. 2, 1891. 

Elected Dec. 4, 1893. 
Elected Jan. 11, 1892. 
Elected Dec. 4, 1893. 



l6o MEMBERS OF THE SOCIETY. 

CHARLEVILLE, LORD Elected Honorary Member Dec. 7, 181 2. 

CHARTERS, T. S Elected Mar. i, 1886. 

Feb. 7, 18S7. " Guslave Flaubert." 

*COLBECK, JAMES Elected Dec. 10, 1894. 

Feb. 3, 1896. " A forgotten poet " (Spenser). 

COLLIER, DR. W. F Elected Mar. i, 1886. 

COLLINS, REV. EDWIN Elected Jan. 14,1884. 

April 7, 1884. " The Book of Job." 

May 5,1884. " The Book of Job." Additional remarks. 

COUmES, Si^rgeon Elected Oct. 3,1808. 

Feb. 6, 1809. " Contagion of ophthalmia." 

Feb, 5, 1810. " Arrangement and economy of military hospitals." 

Mar. 4, 181 1. "Inland navigation, commercial intercourse, and agricultural 

improvements in Ulster." 
Oct. 3,1814. " On best construction of hospitals." 
Feb. 5, 1816. " An account of Lough Erne." 

CONNELL, REV. J Elected Mar. 6,1893. 

*COONEY, REV. S. E Elected April 2,1894. 

Feb. 4,1895. " A new theory of service." 
Jan. 8,1900. " The moral basis of war." 

COWAN, P. CHALMERS, B.Sc Elected Jan. 11,1892. 

Feb. 5, 1894. " On some causes and effects of superficial thinking." 

COWAN, MAJOR S. K. Elected Jan. 13,1896. 

Dec. 2, 1895. (-^s a visitor) "The art of poetry." 

CRAIG, JAMES, of Carrickfergus Elected Nov. 16, 1801. 



MEMBERS OF THE SOCIETY. l6l 

CRAIK, PROFESSOR GEORGE LILLIE, ll.d. Elected Feb. 3, 185 1. 
President 185 1-2, 1865-6. 
For Memoir see Diet, of Nat. Biog., vol. 13, p. i. 

Dec. I, 1851. "True principle of a national system of education." (Note in 

minutes : " Printed at length in Northern Whis^" of Dec. 27, 

1851.) 
May 2, 1853. " Labour, pauperism, and crime." 
April 6,1857. " Vocabulary of the English language." 
May 14, i860. " On the studies which are necessary to maintain a high standard of 

civilization." 
April 8,1861. " New application of the examination test." 
May 2, 1864. " On the political system established in England by the Norman 

Conquest." 

CROMBIE, COUNSELLOR Original Member. 

Jan. 10,1803. " Principles of feudality." 
Nov. 4, 1805. " Feudal principles." 

CUMING, PROFESSOR JAMES, m.a., m.d. ... Elected Jan. 20, 1873. 
President 1876-7, 1882-3. Memoir at page 144. 

May 19, 1873. "The demon of Socrates." 

Jan. 13,1879. " Heinrich Heine." 

Jan. 15,1883. " Pliny the younger." 

Dec. 3, 1888. " Language and the brain." 

April 20, 1896. "Horace." 

CUPPLES, REV. DR., of Lisbiirn Elected Dec. 14, 1801. 

President, 1806-7. Resigned October 4, 18 19. 

"The first peopling of Ireland, and ancient state of Carrickfergus." 

" Continuation of the history of Carrickfergus. 

" Discourse on the history of Carrickfergus." 

" The principles of commerce." 

" The principles of commerce." 

" Account of Glenavy." 

"The respective claims of Scotland and Ireland to priority in point 

of antiquity. 
" History of Lisburn." 

Whether there be any real standard of taste, and how that standard 
is to be obtained." 

On the beautiful." 



Nov. 


19. 


1804. 


Oct. 


6, 


1806. 


May 


2, 


1808. 


Nov. 


6, 


1809. 


Dec. 


3. 


I8I0. 


Dec. 


2, 


I8II. 


May 


3. 


I8I3. 


April 
April 
May 


3. 
I, 

6, 


I8I5. 
I8I6. 
I8I6. 


April 


6, 


I8I8. 


M 







l62 MEMBERS OF THE SOCIETY. 

CURRY, DOCTOR JAMES, of London, 

Elected Corresponding Member, Feb. 15, 1802. 

*D'ARCY, THE VERY REV. C. I ., Dean of St. Anne's. 

Elected Dec. 3, 1900. 

Feb. 11,1901. " Life and art." 

DICK, J. C Elected Nov. 3,1884. 

Feb. 2, 1S85. " Some peculiarities of Ruskin's teaching in art." 

*DILL, PROFESSOR SAMUEL, m.a Elected Nov. 10, 1890. 

Nov. 3,1891. " Reflections on the state of society and literature." 
Mar. 14, 1898. " The Athens of Phidias and Pericles." 

DODD, W. H., K.c, Sergeani-at-Law ... ... Elected Feb. 7, 1870. 

Jan. 9, 1871. " The claims of political economy to be considered as a science." 

DODS, ROBERT, M.A Elected May 21, 1883. 

Feb. 4, 18S4. " Some notes on higher education." 

D'OISY, MONSIEUR Elected Nov. 5, 182 1. 

President 1825-6. Resigned February 5, 1S38. 
Returned to Belfast, and by resolution regarded as still a 
member, November 18, 1844. 



Feb. 4, 1822 

Jan. 2, 1824 

May 6, 1825 

April 2, 1827 

Nov. 3, 1828 

Jan. 3, 183 1 

April I, 1833 

April 6, 1835 

May 4, 1835 

Feb. 3, 1845 



" On the origin and progress of the Italian language and literature." 

" Essay on French poetry." 

" Essay on the 1st, 4th, 7th, and 9th cantos of Tasso's ferusalem 

Delivered. " 
" Essay on different methods of teaching languages." 
" On the tendency of periodical works." 
"Comparative view of the organization of the French and British 

armies." 
" Italian improvisatori," 
" On the commerce and wealth of France." 
"The applicability of the principles of free trade to the present 

situation of France." 
" On the respective composition of the British and French armies." 



May 


5, 


i8o6. 


Nov. 


I. 


1813. 


Oct. 


2, 


1815. 


Jan. 


6, 


1817. 


Mar. 


3. 


1817. 


Oct. 


6, 


1817. 


Nov. 


I, 


1819. 


Nov. 


6, 


1820. 



MEMBERS OF THE SOCIETY. 1 63 

DRENNAN, DR Elected Jan. 21,1850. 

Resigned October 6, 1S51. 

DRUMMOND, JAMES LAWSON, m.d. ... Elected Mar. 3, 1806. 

President 1815-16. Secretary 1806-7. 

Born 1783, died 1853. 

For Memoir see Did. of Nat. Biog., vol. 16, pp. 33, 34. 

" Spontaneous generation." 
" The anatomy of the eye." 
" On the food of the class mainmaha." 
" On the construction of the nests of different birds." 
" Sketches of the natural history of the bat tribe of animals." 
" The tenacity of life in animals." 
" Sketches respecting the motions of animals." 

" On the changes produced on the atmospheric air and on the blood 
by respiration." 

DRUMMOND, REV. W. H., d.d Original Member. 

President 1807-8. Secretary 1803-5. 
Memoir at page 37. Portrait at page 35. 

May 17, 1802. " On the sublime and beautiful of Scripture." 

Jan. 14,1805. " On the fisheries of Antrim." ^ 

Mar. 2,1806. " Trafalgar " [a poem]. 

Mar. 2, 1807. " Poem on the Giant's Causeway." 

April 10, 1809. " Topographical observations on the coast of the county of Antrim." 

April 2, iSio. " History of painting." 

May 5, 1811. " History of Ireland." 

Jan. 4, 1813. " Poem on Contemplation." 

Dec. 5, 1814. " Life and writings of the Greek poet Lycophron." 

*DRUMMOND, REV. W. H., b.a Elected Dec. 3, 1900. 

Mar. 4,1901. " The place of literature in education." 

DUFFIN, ADAM, LL.D Elected April 10, 1876. 

May 7, 1877. " The development of legal systems." 

April 4, 1881. " Short time as a remedy for depression in trade." 



l64 MEMBERS OF THE SOCIETY. 

*DUNKERLEY, REV. THOMAS, m.a Elected Nov. 6, 1883. 

Mar. 3, 1884. " The conversations of S. T. Coleridge." 
Dec. I, 1S90. " Aithnr Hwgh dough's DipsycAtis." 

*ELLIOTT, G. H Elected Feb. 4, 1889. 

Jan. 12, 1 89 1. " Prose fiction as an educative and a recreative medium in public 
libraries." 

^ELLIOTT, J. B Elected April i, 1901. 

EMERSON, JAMES Elected Oct. 4, 1830. 

(afterwards Sir James Emerson Tennent). Resigned Oct. 15, 1838. 

For Memoir see D/ci. of Nat. Biog., vol. 56, p. 65. 

Nov. I, 1830. "The state of the fine arts amongst the Greeks during the Middle 
Ages." 

EVANS, REV. THOMAS W Proposed May 3, 1852. 

Dec. 13,1852. " Oriental elements in European languages." 

FINLAY, REV. WILLIAM, Dundonald ... Elected Oct. 2, 1826. 

Feb. 5, 1827. " Essay on the early history' of the Reformation in Ireland." 

May 5, 1828. " Sketch of the history of the Reformation in Ireland during the reign 

of James I." 
Jan. 4, 1830. " On the history of the Reformation in Ireland during the reign of 

Charles I." 
Jan. 2, 1S32. "Sketches of the history of the Reformation in Ireland during the 

reign of Charles I." 
Feb. 3,1834. " Literary composition of the Bible." 

FORDYCE, REV. JOHN Elected Dec. i, 1884. 

Elected Honorary Member December 2, 1889. 
April 6, 1S85. " Modern pessimism." 

FORRESTER, J. W Elected May i, 1871. 

Jan. 8, 1872. " Pauperism." 

FOSTER, T. W., M.A Elected Dec. 4, 1893. 

April 2, 1894. " Is knowledge worth having? " 

FRING3, PROFESSOR, ph.d Elected Mar. i, 1852. 

Resigned November 4, 1861. 

May 3,1852. "German, English, and French versification." 
April 3,1854. " History and genius of the French language." 
Dec. 7,1857. " Causes of the universality of the French language." 



MEMBERS OF THE SOCIETY. 165 

FRIPP, REV. EUGAR I., h.a Elected April 4, 1892. 

April 10, 1893. " Browning's Paracelsus." 

FRIZELL, REV. C. W., ma Elected Jan. 15, 1894. 

Jan. 30, 1S99. " A journey to London one hundred years ago." 

FUHR, ERNEST A Elected Jan. 20, 1873. 

Nov. 3, 1S73. " Lcssing : his life and works." 

Nov. 4,1878. " Capital and labour." 

Nov. 14, iSSi. " Recollections of Andalusia." 

Jan. 14, 1889. " Impressions of Spain." 

FULLER, GEORGE, c.e Elected Jan. 9, 1854. 

GARRETT, HENRY Elected Oct. 7, 1833. 

President 1845-6. Appointed Hon. Member Nov. 2, 1857. 

Jan. 6, 1834. " History of the Poor Laws in England." 

Mar. 2,1835. " On capital punishment. " 

Mar. 7,1836. " On taxation." 

April 8,1839. " Analysis of Whately's i?/%^/onV. " 

Nov. 9, 1840. " Notices of Benlham's Z)i?/ir«f« ^ i/^wry." 

Feb. 8, 1847. " The tenure of land in Ireland." 

Mar. 4,1850. " 'Notices o( Frient/s in CounaV." 

GETTY, EDMUND Elected Feb. i, 1830. 

President 1830-31, 1844-45. Secretary 1849-50. 

Memoir at page 82. 

April 5,1830. "The silkworm." 

May 7, 1832. "Of attempts at cultivating silk in different parts of Europe." 

Dec. 3, 1832. " Memoir of Mr. David Manson." 

Mar. 4, 1833. " On the navigation of the Scheldt, as connected with the commerce 

and politics of Europe at different periods. " 

Oct. 6, 1S34. " The primitive lavas of Etna." 

Oct. 17, 1842. " On the true history of Lucian." 

Mar. 6,1843. " On the characters of Medea and Lady Macbeth." 

Jan. 6,1845. " Notices of Irish romances, entitled The Battle of Moiray 

Feb. 2,1846. " Notices of some Latin stories of the Middle Ages." 

May 6,1850. " Translations of porcelain seals found in Ireland." 

Mar. 3, 1856. " On the ancient divisions of land in Ireland." 



l66 MEMBERS OF THE SOCIETY. 

GLASGOW, REV. DR. JAMP:S Elected May 3, 1869. 

President 1872-3. Elected Hon. Member Nov. 3, 1884. 

Memoir at page 139. 

Mar. 7, 1870. " Googerat : its geology, its tribes, and its literature." 

April 6, 1874. " The eligibility of women as members of literary societies." 

April 5, 1S75. " Cognates and derivatives." 

Jan. 10, 1881. " The last quarter of the nineteenth century." 

GODWIN, JOHN Elected Dec. 5, 1836. 

GORDON, REV. ALEXANDER, m.a Elected Jan. 12, 1880. 

Mar. I, 1880. " Servetus as an astrologer." 

GRATTAN, JOHN Elected Feb. 7, 1842. 

President 1843-44. Resigned November 7, 1853. 

Memoir at page loi. 

May 2, 1842. " Phrenological ethics." 

Feb. 12, 1844. " Phrenological observations on the treatment of criminals." 

GRAY, REV. JAMES Elected Jan. 6,1823. 

Died 1830 (see Diet, of Nat. Btog., vol. 23, p. 8). 

April 4, 1823. " On the moral character of Burns the poet." 

Dec. 3, 1824. " Remarks on the edition of Honur published by the Rev. James 
Kennedy." 

GRIMSHAW, W Elected Dec. 6, 1897. 

HALL, FREDERICK, Professor of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy 
in the College of Middleburg, in America. 

Elected Corresponding Member April 10, 1809. 

HAMILTON, REV. WILLIAM Elected Dec. 14, 1840. 

President 1842-3. 

Went to Canada November 1844 [Note in Minutes]. 
Mar. 8, 1841. " The combined influence of taste and religion in society." 



MEMBERS OF THE SOCIETY, 



HANCOCK, DR. NEILSON 

Memoir at page 105. 
Mar. 3,1851. " Mill's opinions on the law of partnership." 



167 

Elected Jan. 21, 1850. 



HARLIN, THOMAS Elected May 3, 1858. 

Appointed Honorary Member Jan. 8, 1866, being about to 
emigrate to Queensland. 

Dec. 6, 1858. " Observations on the systems of the Irish Qu- en's Colleges." 
Jan. 5, 1863. " On railway accidents." 

Jan. 8, 1866. " Robert Stephenson and Isatnbard Brunei : a comparison of their 
lives and labours." 



HENDERSON, W. D 

Re-elected Dec. i, 1879. 



Elected May 3, 1869. 



Jan. 19,1870. " Our colonial empire." 

Feb. 8, 1875. " Some phases of modern scientific thought." 

May 3, 1880. " Resemblance between some early Jewish and Irish land customs." 



*HENRY, R. M., m.a 

Dec. 3, 1900. " Greek life in Alexandria. 



Elected Jan. 8, 1900. 



HERDMAN, JOHN O. 



Elected Jan. 11, 1892. 



HERON, REV. PROFESSOR JAMES, d.d. 

Nov. 7, 1887. " Modern civilization." 



Elected Feb. 7, 1887. 



HIGGINSON, REV. THOMAS, of Lisburn ... Elected Jan. 5, 1807. 

Oct. 5, 1807. " On the atmosphere. " 
Dec. 5, 1808. " On the parish of Lambeg." 



l68 MEMBERS OF THE SOCIETY. 
HILL, FRANK H. Elected Dec. 2, 1861. 

Mar. 10, 1862. "On the sources of the English language." 

Dec. 5, 1864. " The contribution to knowledge and the influence on character of 

the sense of sight, illustrated by the mental and moral qualities 

of the blind." 

HINCKS, REV. T. DIX Elected Nov. 5, 1821. 

President 1826-7, 1833-4- 
Memoir at page 69. 

Mar. 4, 1822. " An embassy from Henry VHI. to the Emperor Charles V. in 1538." 

Feb. 6, 1824. " On saltpetre." 

Oct. 7, 1S25. " Essay on the bogs of Ireland." 

Dec. 4, 1826. " On the fungi." 

May 7, 1827. " Remarks on the early period of the history of Britain antecedent 

to the Saxon era." 
Feb. 2, 1829. " On lexicography. " 

May 2, 1 83 1. " Remarks on the state of England in the reign of Edward VI." 
Jan. 7, 1833. " Extracts from the second volume of MSS. letters of Sir PhiHp 

Hoby while residing at Augsburg, 154S." 
Nov. 2,1835. " On etymology." 
April 2,1838. " Account of Jussieu's class of Amentaceous plants." 

HINCKS, REV. EDWARD. Elected Corresponding Member May 5, 185 1. 
Memoir at page 116. 
May 5, 1856. " On the early steps in the interpretation of cuneatic inscriptions." 

HODGES, PROFESSOR JOHN F., m.d. ... Elected Nov. 4, 1867. 

Memoir at page 137. 

Feb. 3, 1868. " On diffusion and some of its applications in chemical analysis." 
Dec. 2, 1872. *' Spectrum analysis." 

*HURST, W. J Elected Nov. 2, 1885. 

Mar. 1,1886. " Classical education." 

*HUTTON, ARTHUR W. Elected Dec. 4, 1899. 

Mar. 5, 19CXJ. " Critics and anonymity." 



MEMBERS OF THE SOCIETY. 169 

HYNDMAN, CxEORGE C Elected Dec. 5, 1836. 

President 1840-41. 

Resolution of condolence on his death, Jan. 13, 1868. 
Memoir at page 76. 
April 3, 1837. " On Lamarck's Order of Cirrhopodes." 
Feb. 8, 1 84 1. " On the climate of Ireland at different periods." 
Mar. I, 1S47. " On Professor Forbes's views of The conntxion of the distribution of 
the fauna and /lora in the British Islands, with geological 
formations.'^ 
Dec. 10, 1855. " Recently introduced trees and shrubs." 
Feb. 4, 1861. "On Mr. Darwin's theory respecting the origin of species." 

*HYNDMAN, HUGH, ll.d Elected May 3, 1858. 

President 1879-80, 1887-8. 

Jan. 10, 1859. " A glance at the literature of Britain during the early years of the 
present cycle." 

Mar. 2, 1863. " The origin of civil society." 

April 9, 1866. " Suggestions on the land question." 

Feb. 8, 1869. " On the office of Gustos Rotulorum." 

jNIar. 2, 1874. " Sketch of the judicial systems of England, with special reference 
to the constitution and powers of the Supreme Court of 
Judicature, erected by the Act of 1873." 

Mar. 3, 1879. " The protection of intellectual products." 

May 21, 1883. " The tenor of bankruptcy legislation." 

Feb. 4, 1889. " Voluntary continuation (evening) schools." 

JEBB, REV. ROSS Elected Nov. 4, 181 1. 

President 1813-14. Resigned April 1815. 
Mar. 2,1812. " The first peoples of America." 
Feb. 7,1814. " On population." 

JENKINS, EDWARD, m.p Elected Dec. i, 1884. 

May 4, 1885. "The decay of parliaments." 

*JOHNSTON, WILLIAM SMYTH, m.a. ... Elected Jan. 11, 1892. 

Jan. 2, 1893. " Rhythm in poetry." 

Jan. 13, 1896. " Contemporary movements in France." 

Feb. I, 1S97. "A talk about Rudyard Kipling." 

*JONES, R. M., M.A Elected Jan. 2, 1893. 

Dec. 4, 1S93. " Some portraits from The Ring and the Book " 



170 MEMBERS OF THE SOCIETY. 

JOY, HENRY Original Member. 

President 1808-9. Secretary 1807-8 and 181 1-23. 
Retired and elected an Honorary Member October i, 1S24. 
Memoir at page 43. Portrait at page 41. 

" Establishment of Presbyterian settlers in province of Ulster." 
" Historical account of the rise and progress of the volunteers in 
Ireland." 

" On the linen manufacture." 

" The use of organs in Christian worship." 

" Dissertation on the harp." 

" The ancient music of Ireland." 

" On the history of the bagpipe." 

" The early history of Belfast. Part I. From earliest times to the 

Revolution of 1688." 
" The early history of Belfast. Part 2." 
" The early histor}- of Belfast. Part 3." 
" A tour through Cumberland." 
" Remarks on public charity, with an account of the rise, progress, 

and present state of the present charitable foundations in Belfast." 
"On the uncertaint}- of history, and the misrepresentations of 

historians." 
" The misrepresentations of some modern historians, exemplified in 

Horace Walpole, Lord Orford's writings." 
" Portion of a preface intended for the second volume of Edward 

Bunting's Collection of Ancioit Irish Music. [Illustrated by 

Valentine Rainy on the Irish harp.] " 
May 2, 1823. " Short memoir relating an inter\-iew he had with Robert Burns the 

poet in 1794." 

KERR, REV. W. S., B.D. Elected Dec. 4, 1899. 

April 2, 1900. •' Characteristics of the Irish ballad." 

KIRWAN, RICHARD, of Dublin. Elected Hon. Member May 17, 1802. 
Born 1733, died 181 2. 
For Memoir see Diet, of Nat. Biog., vol. 31, pp. 22S-30. 

KNIGHT, WILLIAM, ll.d., Lecturer on Natural Philosophy in the Belfast 
Academical Institution ... ... ... Elected Mar. 3, 18 17. 

President 18 18-19. Died 1844. 

For Memoir see Diet, of Nat. Biog., vol. 31, pp. 266-7. 

Jan. 5, 1818. " On the primary rocks." 

Dec. 6, 1S19. " A description of the Giant's Causeway." 

May 7, 1S21. " On the order of teaching the sciences." 



Feb. 




1803. 


May 


21, 


1804. 


Aug. 


4. 


1806. 


Nov. 


2, 


1807. 


Oct. 


3. 


1808. 


Oct. 


2, 


1S09. 


Oct. 


I, 


1810. 


Nov. 


4. 


1811. 


April 


5. 


1S13. 


Mar. 


6, 


1815. 


April 


I, 


1816. 


Feb. 


2, 


1818. 


Jan. 


3. 


1820. 


April 


3. 


1821. 


April 


I, 


1S22. 



MEMBERS OF THE SOCIETY. 17I 

KNOX, JOHN Elected Dec. 14, 1801. 

Secretary 1S08-10. Memoir at page 47. 

May 2, 1803. " The mode of ascertaining the longitude and latitude of places." 

Nov. 28, 1803. " The principles of watch and clock making." 

Oct. 22, 1S04. " Essay on gravity. " 

Dec. I, 1806. " New escapement of a clock." 

Feb. I, 180S. " Account of Herschel's system of astronomy." 

Nov. 7, 1S08. " On the latitude and longitude of Belfast." 

•L , ■ ' „ ■ >" Causes that produce concentric rings, etc." 

Jan. 8, 18 1 2. " Optical discoveries." 

Oct. 4, 1813. " Observations on a paper read by Dr. Bruce in May 1812 on The 
nature of light. '^ 

Jan. 3, 1814. " Sketch of his late journey from Belfast to London." 
May I, 1S15. "Credulity." 

*KNOX, R. KYLE, LL.D Elected Mar. 2, 1896. 

President 1S99-1900. 

April 5, 1S97. " Bimetallism." 

Nov. 6,1899. " Letters from a regimental officer during the Peninsular war." 

LAMB, WILLL\M WATSON Elected Dec. 4, 1876. 

Feb. 5,1877. " The life and poetrj- of Wordsworth." 
April 12, 18S0. " The poetry of Byron." 
May 3, 1886. "Pope." 

LEITCH, REV. PROFESSOR, d.d., d.lit. ... Elected Jan. 10, 1881. 
May 2, 1S81. " Scientific criticism appUed to ancient books." 

LESLIE, PROFESSOR, T. E. CLIFFE, ll.d., d.lit. 

Elected Jan. 8, 1855. 
Resigned February 4, 1861. 

For Memoir see Encydopcedia Britannka, 9th edition, vol. 14, 
pp. 477-8. 
Nov. 5, 1855. " On international law." 

LESTRANGE, THOMAS Elected May 5, 1851. 

Resigned January 5, 1852. 



172 MEMBERS OF THE SOCIETY. 

♦LINDSAY, PROFESSOR JAMES A., m.a , m.d. Elected Jan. 14, 1889. 

President 1891-2, 1900-1. 

Mar. 3, 1890. " The Pasteurian method." 

Mar. 2, 1896. " The Divina Commedia." 

April 4, 1898. " Three weeks in Sicily." 

Nov. 5, 1900. " An appreciation of Browning." 

LITHGOW, DR. DAVID, of Coleraine ... Elected Nov. 6, 1815. 

MACADAM, JAMES Elected Nov. 6, 1831. 

President 1836-7. Memoir at page 88. 

Feb. 6, 1832. " Considerations on the physical sciences in general, and geology- in 
particular. " 
" On the cosmogonic opinions of the ancients." 
' ' Physical geography. " 
" On the natural history of ice." 
" The histor)- of fuel." 
" Notice of Carlyle's Cromwell." 

" The opinions of different writers concerning cause and effect." 
" On the plurality of worlds." 

MACADAM, ROBERT S Elected May 3, 1837. 

President 1846-7, 1856-7. Memoir at page 100. 

Feb. 13,1837. " Account of a tour in Belgium." 

Nov. 6, 1837. "Translationof Count A. de Bylandt's Cfij/^j^Va/ 7a«r ?'« .5cA«v/?a." 

April 12, 1841. " Statistics of Belgium." 

Feb. 6, 1843. "Notes of a tour, by himself, in 1S34, thro' parts of Switzerland, 

Savoy, and the South of France." 

Mar. 4, 1844. " Tour in Switzerland." 

April 12, 1847. " State of society in Sweden, from Laing's Travels." 

AprU 5, 1852. " The traces of the Scandinavians in Ireland." 

Feb. 2, 1857. " On the changes now in progress in the English language." 

MACADAM, JAMES, Jun Elected Feb. 7, 1848. 

Left Belfast (see Minutes, 7th March, 1859). 

Jan. 3, 1853. " On the Hansa towns." 
Mar. 2, 1857. " French literature." 



Mar. 


3, 


1834. 


Dec. 


4. 


1837. 


Jan. 


6, 


1840. 


Jan. 


3> 


1842. 


Jan. 


12, 


1846. 


Mar. 


9. 


1846. 


April 


7. 


1856. 



MEMBERS OF THE SOCIETY. 1 73 

M'CLURE, REV. EDMUND Elected Jan. 8, 1872. 

April 15, 1S72. " Historical and scientific notes on the Aurora Borealis." 

M'COMB, REV. PROFESSOR SAMUEL, b.d. Elected Mar. 6, 1893. 
Nov. 13, 1893. " The moral teaching of Nath. Hawthorne." 

M'CAMBRIDGE, DR Original ^^ember. 

Mar. 15, 1802. " Advantages of educating the blind." 

MacCORMAC, DR. HENRY Elected May 5, 1828. 

President 1829-30. Memoir at page 80. 

Dec. I, 182S. " The formation of character." 

Dec. 6, 1830. " The universal method of instruction, by Jacotot "; in the course 
of which the system was illustrated by an examination of 
fourteen pupils of Mr. Harkins on some portions of Johnson's 
Rasselas. 

M'CORMICK, WILLIAM Elected Mar. 3, 1873. 

Dec. I, 1873. " On prison discipline, its history and reform." 

M'CREA, DR. JOHN Elected Dec. 3, 1866. 

President 1875-6. 

Mar. 4,1867. "Vital force." 

Nov. 6, 1871. "Speech." 

Nov. 6, 1876. " Legislation for habitual drunkenness." 

M'DONNELL, REV. C Elected Jan 8, 1900. 

*M'DONNELL, DANIEL, M.D Elected Dec. 5, 1892. 

Mar. 6, 1893. " Verse considered from a physiological point of view." 
Jan. II, 1897. "Antigone: an ethical study." 



Nov. 


8, 


1802. 


Mar. 


26, 


1804. 


April 23, 


1804. 


April 


7, 


1806. 


April 


6, 


1807. 


April 


4. 


1808. 


May 


I, 


1809. 


June 


4> 


1810. 


Oct. 


7. 


1811. 


Jan. 


•2, 


1815. 


Jan. 


8, 


1816. 


April 


7, 


1817. 


May 


3, 


1819. 


Feb. 


5. 


1821. 


Jan. 


6, 


1823. 


May 


7, 


1824. 


Mar. 


6. 


1826. 


Jan. 




1828. 


May, 


4. 


1829. 


Nov. 


6, 


1831. 


Nov. 


4, 


1833- 



174 MEMBERS OF THE SOCIETY. 

M'DONNELL, JAMES, M.D Original Member. 

First President 1801-3. 

Also President in 1805-6, 1810-11, 1816-17, 1832-33. 

Memoir at page 25. Portrait facing title-page. 

"The topography and mineralogy of the county of Antrim." 

"The resemblance between the fossils of the North of Ireland and 

those of Italy." 
"Account of a mineralogical itinerary in the counties of Down, 

Antrim, and Derry." 
" Mineralogy of the county of Antrim." 

" Mineralogy of the province of Ulster." 

" On the pulse and breathing of animals." 

" On the causes of the universality of the French tongue." 

" On the structure of language." 

" On typhus fever." 

" On fever." 

" Remarks and experiments on the breathing, heat, and pulse." 

" On the practicability and use of connecting a school of physic and 

surgery with the hospital at Belfast." 
" On the pulsation and breathing of animals." 
" Account of a descent in a diving bell." 
" On the effects of climate upon animal Hfe." 
" On climate." 

" On the origin and history of the public charities in Belfast and its 
vicinity." 

Jan. 4, 1836. " Notes on public and private libraries, museums, etc., in the North 
of Ireland, taken from observation, and recommending the 
formation of one large public library in Belfast." 
Feb. 5, 1838. " Medical charities, especially in Ireland." 

MacDOUALL, professor CHARLES, a.m. Elected Nov. 2, 1859. 

President 1867-8, 1873-4. 

Elected Hon. Member April i, 1878. Memoir at page 130. 
Mar. 5, i860. " On the Homeric topography of the Troad." 
Dec. 14, 1863. " Essay on the legend of the San-Greal.'" 
Dec. 3, 1866. " On the treatises de tribus impostoribus." 
Dec. 13, 1869. " Etymological notices of some important terms." 
May 10, 1875. " Kings of the East and their Greek coins." 



* 



MEMBERS OP^ THE SOCIETY. 1 75 

MacILWAINE. rev. dr. W Elected Dec. 14, 1874. 

Memoir at page 142. 

Mar. 1,1875. " The aesthetics of architecture." 
Dec. 1,1879. "Tennyson." 

M'EWEN, REV. W. D. H Elected May 4, 1818. 

President 1 820-1. Secretary 1823-8. 

Death mentioned October 6, 1828. Memoir at page 51. 

Jan. 4, 1819. " On the formation of a history of the Presbyterian body in Ireland." 

Oct. 2, 1820. " Observations on the present state of British dramatic hterature." 

Dec. 3, 1821. " Apparent plagiarisms of modern poetical writers." 

Nov. 7, 1823. " First part of an essay on the topography and curiosities of Loch 

Cuan, or Strangford Lake." 

Mar. 4, 1825. " On ancient and modern views of prison discipline." 

Nov. 4, 1825. " On ancient and modern eloquence." 

Jan. 8, 1827. " On poetical coincidences." 

Oct. I, 1827. " Some extracts from an account of the islands in Loch Cuan." 

M'INTOSH, H. S., M.A Elected Dec. 4, 1893. 

President 1897-8. 

Dec. 10, 1894. " Spiritualistic (so-called) phenomena." 
Nov. 8,1897. " The modern novel." 

M'KISACK, DR. H. L Elected April 10, 1893. 

Jan. 15, 1894. " Hypnotism from a psychological point of view." 

MACMUL.LAN. PROFESSOR, S. J., m.a. ... 

President 1894-5. Memoir at page 147. 

Dec. 5, 1892. "\ ,, T rr -a-') 

Nov. 5, 1894. I ^^'^^ Turgenieff. 

MARSHALL, DR. JAMES Elected Oct. 6, 1834. 

Jan. 5, 1835. " Life and character of Linnseus." 

MAGEE, DOCTOR Elected Hon. Member Dec. 7, 181 2. 



176 



MEMBERS OF THE SOCIETY. 



Elected Mar. 3, 1890. 
Elected Mar. 5, 1866. 



Elected Mar. 2, 1896. 
Elected Jan. 5. 1829. 



♦MARTIN, ROBERT T., m.a 

Mar. 2,1891. " Carlylean politics." 

MEISSXER, PROFESSOR A. L., ph.d. 

Nov. 5, 1866. " The Divina Commedia of Dante.'' 
Nov. 1,1869. "The myth of Charlemagne." 

MEYER, J. G 

Dec. 7, 1896. " The ethics of the drama." 

MITCHELL, ALEXANDER 

President 1852-3, 1860-1, 1861-2, 1S62-3. 

Resolution making him an Honorar)' Member, in respect of 

giving papers in rotation, November 3, 1862. 
Died 1868. 
For Memoir see Diet, of Nat. Biog., vol. 38. pp. 62-3. 

April 6, 1829. " On some new applications of water to mechanical purposes." 

Feb. 7,1831. " The Hanseatic league." 

May 6,1833. " Meteoric storms." 

Dec. 7, 1835. " Prelatic persecutions of the Presbyterians in Ulster from 1688 till 

the passing of the Toleration Act in 1719." 

Feb. 1,1836. "The runic characters of Scandina\-ia." 

Jan. 18,1841. " On screw-pile lighthouses." 

Jan. 21, 1850. " Forests and forest trees." 

Jan. 7,1856. " Speculations of a projector." 

April 12, 1858. " Architectural foundations." 



MITCHELL, THOMAS 

MOLLOY, SURGEON COL. 

Feb. 6,1893. " Reflections on art." 



Original Member. 
Elected Jan. 2, 1893. 

Elected Jan. 2, 1826. 



MONTGOMERY, REV. HENRY 

President 1827-8. Memoir at page 71. 
Oct. 2,1826. " On systems of education." 
Oct. 6, 1828. •' On the propriety of educatii^g females in the higher branches of 

learning." 
Mar. I, 1830. "On the intellectual system of elementary education in Scotland, 

and its probable influence on society." 
Mar. 5, 1832. " Fhe rise, progress, and tendencies of periodical literature." 
Dec. 2,1833. "The tendency of periodical literature." 
Feb. 4, 1839. "Notices of the second report of the Railway Commissioners in 

Ireland." 



MEMBERS OF THE SOCIETY, 



177 



Elected Mar. i, 1886. 



*MOORHEAD, LT.-COLONEL SURGEON ... Elected April 4, 1898. 
Dec. 5, 189S. " Literature and language of India." 

MURPHY, REV. A. C, D.LiT Elected Dec. 3,1888. 

President 1889-90. Death mentioned Dec. 7, 1891. 

Mar. 4, 1S89. " Argument for immortality founded on the universality of the idea 

of it." 
April 14, 1890. " Modern physical theories." 

*MURPHY, REV. HUGH DAVIS, d.d. 
President 1896-7. 
Dec. 5,1887. "Virgilius of Salzburg." 
Nov. 14, 1892. " A visit to Davos Platz." 

*MURPHY, ISAAC J Elected May 5, 1851. 

President 1854-5. 

" Mediaeval English revolutions." 

" The education of women." 

" The rise and fall of feudalism." 

" Military history of the Civil War in England, 1641-3." 

" Principles of local political organization." 

" Character of Queen Elizabeth." 

" European questions considered ethnographically." 

" The institution of the Cabinet Council." 

" Napoleon and Von Moltke." 

" Spenser." 

" A forgotten economist." 

" The Privy Council and the colonies." 

MURPHY, REV. PROFESSOR JAMES, d.d.. General Assembly's College. 

Elected Nov. 4, 1861. 
President 1868-9, 1884-5, 1893-4. 
Resolution on his death April 20, 1896. 

" Perception, with particular reference to Mansell On the Infinite." 

" Relation between the philosophy of Hamilton and that of Reid." 

" Bain's Mental Philosophy. ^^ 

" On the infinite." 

" The scientific principle." 

" M'Cosh on the emotions." 

" A real unit." 



jail. 

May 


3i 
30, 


1853- 


Dec. 


5. 


1853- 


Nov. 


2, 


1857. 


Jan. 


6, 


1862. 


April 


12, 


1864. 


Feb. 


5. 


1872. 


Jan. 


IS. 


1877. 


Jan. 


12, 


I8S0. 


Feb. 


I, 


1886. 


May 


7. 


1888. 


May 


6, 


1889. 



Feb. 


2, 


1862. 


Nov. 


7. 


1864. 


Dec. 


9, 


1867. 


May 


6, 


1872. 


Jan. 


14, 


1878. 


Jan. 


16, 


1882. 


Feb. 


6, 


1888. 



MEMBERS OF THE SOCIETY. 



MURPHY, JOSEPH JOHN 

President 1855-6, 1892-3. 

Secretary 1850-54. Treasurer 1856-94 

For Memoir see page 109. 



Elected Jan. 21, 1850. 



Feb. 


4, 


1850. 


Nov. 


3. 


1851. 


April 


4, 


1853- 


Mar. 


6, 


1854. 


Nov. 


6, 


1854. 


Feb. 


4. 


1856. 


Mar. 


7, 


1859. 


Feb. 


6, 


i860. 


Mar. 


II. 


i86i. 


April 


6, 


1863. 


Nov. 


6, 


1865. 


Nov. 


4. 


1867. 


Jan. 


18, 


1S69. 


Jan. 


20, 


1873- 


Feb. 


4. 


1878. 


Feb. 


3. 


1879- 


Feb. 


3. 


1890. 


Nov. 


10, 


1890. 



" Colonial nations." 

" Asiatic and European races." 

" Modern architecture " [in which the Crystal Palace was mentioned 

as the probable type of a future style of architecture]. 
" Literary men and business men." 

" Eastern Europe in its historical relations with the West." 
" The patronage question." 
" Representation of minorities." 

" On the religious and political opinions of Thomas Carlyle." 
" On the positive philosophy of Auguste Comte." 
" Nationality." 
" The theory of perception." 
" Sound and unsound banking." 
" A defence of metaphysics." 
" Notes on formal logic." 
" Automatism." 

" The problem of government." 
" The case for bi-metallism." 
" The dramatic element in historj'." 



MURRAY, ROBERT 



Elected May 21, 1883. 



Elected May 4, 1818. 



Jan. 14, 18S4. '* The life and character of Robert E. Lee. 

NEILSON, REV. W 

President 1819-20. 

Memoir at page 55. Portrait at page 53. 
Dec. 7, 1818. " On moods." 
Oct. 4,1819. " Presidential address." 

May I, 1820. " Remarks on Gaelic authors and antiquities, particularly upon 
Ossian." 



NELSON, REV. ISAAC, m.p 

Feb. 2, 1852. " The European groups of languages. " 
Nov. 3, 1856. " Public opinion." 

NIXON, RANDALL C. J., m.a. 

Feb. 7, 1870. " On Shelley." 



Elected Mar. 3, 185 1. 



Elected May 3, 1869. 



MEMBERS OF THE SOCIETY. 1 79 

O'BEIRNE, REV. ANDREW, of Carrickfergus. Elected Nov. 4, 181 1. 

President 1 812-13. Resigned April 181 5. 

Feb. 3,1812. " A comparison of the Septuagint with the Hebrew." 
Dec. 6, 1813. " Attempt to adjust the comparative merits of ancient and modern 
classic writers." 

O'NEILL, JAMES, M.A Elected Dec 3, 1888. 

Jan. 13, 1890. " English grammars, with special reference to the use of 'shall' and 
'will.'" 

ORR, COUNSELLOR Original Member. 

^OSBORNE, REV. HENRY, m.a Elected Dec. 4. 1882. 

Elected Honorary Member December 2, 1889. 

April 2,1883. " Thomas Carlyle." 

May 2, 1887. " Philosophic equivalents of Bible truths." 

May 6, 1895. " Double vocables in animals and man: an unexplained phenomenon." 

OSBORNE, DR. W. A Proposed April 20, 1896. 

*PARK, PROFESSOR JOHN, m.a., d.lit. ... Elected Nov. i, 1869. 

President 1880-1, 1890-1, 1895-6. Treasurer 1894-5. 

May 2, 1870. " On the province of logical inquiry." 

Dec. 6, 1875. " The laws of suggestion and some deductions from them." 

April 28, 1879. " How we may ascertain the meaning of our own beliefs." 

Nov. 6, 1883. ** Notes and queries on facts of suggestion." 

April 5, 1889. " Is contiguity the sole primary law of mental association ? " 

PARK, REV. WILLIAM, m.a Elected Jan. 1 2, 1874. 

Nov. 2, 1874. " Bernard Palissy." 

PATTERSON, EDWARD FORBES Elected Dec. 4, 1876. 

Re-elected March 3, 1884. 
Mar. 5,1877. " Life of Johann GottHeb Fichte." 



i8o 



MEMBERS OF THE SOCIETY. 



PATTERSON, ROBERT, F.R.s Elected Feb. i, 1830. 

President 1831-2, 1857-8, 1871-2. Treasurer 1849-1856. 
Memoir at page 85. Portrait at page 83. 



' On insects." 

' On the colour of animals as a means of defence." 

■ Remarks on the first act of the tragedy of Macbeth." 
' On the caterpillars mentioned by Shakespeare." 

■ Remarks on Pollok's Course of Time.'''' 

' Notices of some of the birds mentioned in Shakespeare, especially 

the vulture and eagle." 
' Some of the reptiles mentioned in Shakespeare's plays." 
' Account of Hugh Miller's work on the old red sandstone." 
' On the first act of Shakespeare's tragedy of Macbeth." 
' Account of the pearl fisheries of Ceylon." 
• Is the progress of physical science inimical to poetry ? " 
' Papers illustrating the life of the late William Thompson." 
' On an original copy of the Spectator, as it appeared in separate 

numbers." 
' On the life and character of the late Professor Edward Forbes." 
' The life and labours of the late Reverend Professor Henslow." 
' Glimpses of life in ancient Europe." 
' Urns of ancient Europe; and The Lithuanian Aurochs." 
' On the life and labours of the late Professor Harvey of Trinity 

College, Dublin." 



May 


3. 


1S30. 


Oct. 


3- 


1831. 


Nov. 


5. 


1832. 


Nov. 


3. 


1834. 


Nov. 


7> 


1836. 


Oct. 


15. 


1838. 


Dec. 


2, 


1839. 


Nov. 


8, 


1841. 


Dec. 


12, 


1842. 


May 


12, 


1845. 


April 


8, 


1S50. 


Nov. 


7. 


1853- 


May 


4, 


1857. 


Dec. 


2, 


1861. 


Mar. 


7, 


1864. 


Feb. 


4. 


1867 


Mar. 


4, 


1867. 


April 


5. 


1869. 



PATTERSON, WILLIAM H., m.r.i.a. 



Elected Dec. 6, 1875. 



Jan. 10, 1876. " Some notes on the popular tales of the Isle of Man." 
Feb. 2, 1880. " A notice of the bardic tales of ancient Ireland." 
April 5, 1886. " The history and legends of some Irish lakes." 



PORTER, SIR ANDREW M., Bart. (Master of the Rolls 

for Ireland) ... ... ... ... ... Elected Nov. 2, 



1859. 



Jan. 9, i860. 
May 3, 1863. 
May 8, 1866. 



" Our mode of administering justice in criminal cases." 

" Co-operative societies," 

" Projects for the employment of educated women." 



MEMBERS OF THE SOCIETY. 



i8i 



PORTER, REV. JOHN SCOTT Elected Jan. 7, 1833. 

President 1835-6, 1849-50, 1853-4, 1863-4, 1870-1, 1874-5. 

Secretary 1854-70. 

Memoir at page 91. Portrait at page 89. 

' Ecclesiastical architecture." 

' The history of the silk trade in England." 
The early history of Presbyterianism in Belfast." 
On the manufacture and publication of books among the ancient 

Romans." 
On the alphabetical writing of the Greeks." 
On Bentham's System of Morals." 
On men, manners, and occurrences in South Africa." 
Early notices of the city of Londonderry brought down to about 

the year 1600." 
Topography of Troy." 

• The Brehon laws." 

' Historical sketch of the life and labours of St. Patrick." 

' Account of the life of Columba." 

Historical sketch of the life of Gutenberg, with remarks on the 
origin of the art of printing." 

' The massacre of the Huguenots, 1572." 

' Observations on the poetical works of the late Rev. \Vm. Hamilton 
Drummond, D.D. , one of the original members of this Society." 

' The Poloniad : an unpublished poem." 

' Sketches of Irish life in the eighteenth century." 

' Dr. Schliemann's Troy audits remains." 

*PURSER, PROFESSOR JOHN, m..\., ll.d., d.sc. ... Elected May 2, 1864. 
President 188 1-2, 1888-9. 

Jan. 16, 1865. " On the different forms of wave motion and the rate of its trans- 
mission." 

Jan. 13, 1868. " Some recent additions to our knowledge of the solar system." 

Nov. II, 1S72. " Notes on light." 

Dec. 2, 1878. "The tides." 

May 8,1882. " Notes on electricity." 

Nov. 7, 1888. " Volcanic phenomena, and more especially those connected with 
the late eruption of Krakatoa." 

*PURVES, REV. DAVID, m.a Elected Nov. 15, 1898. 

Mar. 6, 1899. "On Professor Dill's work: Roman Society under the IVestern 
Empire. ' ' 



Feb. 


4. 


1833- 


Oct. 


12, 


1835 


April 


4, 


1836 


Mar. 


4, 


1839- 


Feb. 


3. 


1840. 


Feb. 


7. 


1842. 


April 


6, 


1843. 


April 


6, 


1846. 


Jan. 


6, 


1851. 


Dec. 


I, 


1S56 


Dec. 


5. 


1859 


May 


5. 


1861. 


April 


7, 


1862. 


Feb. 


6, 


1865 


Mar. 


8, 


1866 


April 


6, 


1 868. 


Jan. 


12, 


1874 


Mar. 


4. 


1878 



l82 MEMBERS OF THE SOCIETY. 

REEVES, REV. DR. WILLIAM (afterwards Bishop of Down and Connor 
and Dromore) ... Elected Corresponding Member May 5, 185 1. 
Memoir at page 119. 
May 1,1854. " The Book of Armagh." 

REFORD, LOUIS Elected Jan. 6, 1845. 

REICHEL, REV. PROFESSOR C. P., d.d. (afterwards Bishop of 

Meath) .. Elected April 7, 185 1. 

Resigned November 7, 1853. Re-elected April 12, 1858. 
Elected Honorary Member December 5, 1864. 
Memoir at page 1 11. 

Nov. 2, 1859. " On the life and times of Cicero." 

Jan. II, 1864. " The life and times of Bishop Jeremy Taylor." 

REID, DAVID, M.A Elected Mar. 6, 1893. 

REID, REV. JAMES SEATON, D.D Elected Nov. 4, 1825. 

Resigned Dec. 7, 1829. 

For Memoir see Did. of Nat. Biog., vol. 47, p. 429. 

May I, 1826. " Historical notices, relative to the Ecclesiastical history of Carrick- 
fergus from the Reformation to the present time." 

April 7, 1828. "Narrative of a public discussion held in the Church of Belfast, in 
August 1636, taken from an unpublished manuscript." 

RICHARDSON, REV. DR. 

Elected Corresponding Member May 17, 1802. 

April 3, 1815. " Some curious observations on Cuvier's Theory of the Earth.''' 
June 5, 1815. " Essay on agriculture as a science." 

" On Fiorin grass" (published in Select Papers). 

RIDER, JOB, <?/ ^e^fl^/ Elected Dec. 14, 1801. 

RINGVVOOD, PROFESSOR F. H., a.m. ... Elected Feb. 4, 1850. 



MEMBERS OF THE SOCIETY. 



*RINGWOOD, R. M 

Jan. 4,1901. " The Waverley Novels." 

ROBINSON, W. A. 

April II, 1870. "On banks and banking." 
Mar. 6, 1876. " Gold and its substitutes." 
Nov. 6, 1882. " Sketches of mining enterprise." 



RODGERS, PROFESSOR 

*SCOTT, REV. CHARLES, m.a. 

April 9, 1888. " The Brown Earl of Ulster." 

*SCOTT, CONWAY 

April 1,1895. " Evolution of talent." 

*SEAVER, REV. RICHARD W., a.m., b.d. 

Secretary 1892-1901. Treasurer 1895- 

April 4, 1892. " The question of human progress." 
Mar. 4, 1S95. " The Kingsleys." 
Feb. 14,1898. " The service of art." 

*SEFTON, WALTER W 

April I, 1 90 1. " Samuel Pepys." 

*SHAW, DR. CECIL, m.a. 

April 6, 1 89 1. " The education of the special senses." 
Nov. 2, 1896. " The new photography." 

*SHAW, JAMES, M.A 

April 30, 1894. " Some heroines of Greek tragedy." 

^SHELDON, CHARLES, d.lit 

President 1886-7. 

Jan. II, 1886. " Caedmon and Milton." 

Feb. I, 1892. 1 ,, T-i \ 1 ]> • J •■ » 

M 1 1807 I Arnold s views on education. 



1900. 
1869. 

1876. 



Elected Jan. 8, 
Elected May 3, 

Elected April 10, 
Elected Feb. 6, 1888. 

Elected Feb. 4, 1895. 

Elected May 2, 1891. 
1 90 1. 

Elected Dec. 3, 1900. 
Elected May 5, 1890. 



Elected Dec. 4, 
Elected Jan. 12, 



1893. 
1885. 



1 84 MEMBERS OF THE SOCIETY. 
SHEPHERD, WILLIAM Elected Dec. 5, 1870. 

April 3, 1871. " Influence of journalism during the first French Revolution." 
May 8, 1876. " Walter Savage Landor." 

SniMS, ]OHN, Jlofywood Elected Feb. 6, 187 1. 

May I, 1 87 1. " Swedenborg as a man of science." 

SINCLAIR, PROFESSOR THOMA.S, m.d., m.ch. Elected Mar. 7, 1887. 

SLOANE, REV. S. H., of Holywood Elected Mar. 3, 1817. 

Dec. I, 1817. " On the natural history of a few of the domestic shell fish." 
Feb. 7, 1S20. " Strictures on the lives and character of some of the New Testament 
writers." 

SMITH, DR., of Downpatrick ... ... ... Elected Jan. 23, 1804. 

*SMITH, PROFESSOR LORRAINE, m.a., m.d. Elected April 20, 1896. 

May 8, 1899. " Oxygen in some of its relations." 

*SMITH, GEORGE Elected Jan. 11, 1897. 

Jan. 17,1898. " Gabriel Naude." 

April 29, 1900. " The Frankfort Book-mart." 

*STEEN, WILLIAM, B.A. Elected Jan. 14, 1884. 

President 1901-2. 

Nov. 3, 1884. " Henry George on progress and poverty." 
May 4,1891. " Individual liberty." - 
Dec. 4, 1899. "Socialism." 



MEMBERS OF THE SOCIETY, 185 

STEPHENSON, DR. SAMUEL MARTIN ... Original Member. 

Vice-President 1802-3. President 1803-4, 1811-12. 

Secretary 1805-6. 

Resigned December 3, 182 1, and elected Honorary Member. 

For Memoir see Did. of Nat. Biog., vol. 54, p. 189. 
Feb. 16,1802. " On lightning and rain." 
Oct. 18, 1802. " Irish tumuH." 
April 4,1803. " Antiquities of county of Antrim." 
Feb. 27, 1804. "Cromlechs, stone pillars, and round towers." 
April 8,1805. " Upon the parish of Dunaghey (alias Clough)." 

Jan. 6, 1806. 1 ,, tijc men who were eminent for learning or religion in this country." 
Mar. 6, 1809. J 

Dec. 4,1809. " History of the Culdees." 

April 19, 181 1. " The speech of Lamech to his wives, and the history of poetry." 

Oct. 5. 1812. |..Q 1^^ „ 

Dec. 7, 1812. / J f J 

April 4, 1 8 14. " The northern coast of the county of Antrim, particularly on its 

white limestone." 
May 2, 1814. " Lough Neagh." 
Oct. 3, 1814. " Extra paper containing a description of the effects of lightning upon 

a stable of Mr. Stevenson of Springfield, near Belfast." 
Nov. 6, 1815. " On the effect of oxygen on animal bodies." 
May 4, 181 8. "On ancient tumuli, particularly those of the counties of Down and 

Antrim." 
Feb. I, 1819. " On the tides of the northern coast of Ireland." 
Mar. 6, 1820. " On the ecclesiastical divisions of County Antrim, etc." 
Oct. I, 1 82 1. " A history of the parish and congregation of Templepatrick." 
Also wrote for the Society " The history of the Linen manufacture in the county of 
Antrim " (published in Select Papers). 

♦STEVENSON, JOHN Elected Jan. 14, 1901. 

STOKES, DR. WHITLEY, 0/ Dublin. 

Elected Corresponding Member May 17, 1802. 

STREET, REV. J. C Elected Dec. 4, 187 1. 

Resigned November 4, 1889. 

Elected Honorary Member December 2, 1889. 
Feb. 5,1872. "Walt Whitman." 
Dec. 10, 1S77. " Abraham Lincoln." 
Feb. 6,1883. " Reminiscences of a visit to Malta." 



1 86 MEMBERS OF THE SOCIETY. 

STUART, JAMES, ^/7Vi;wr>/ Elected Nov. 5, 182 1. 

For Memoir see Diet, of Nat. Biog., vol. 55, p. 89. 

May 6, 1822. " On the precious metals and bank notes." 

May 2, 1823. " Essay to prove that the King of England is not one of the Three 

Estates in the British Parliament." 
Feb. 4, 1825. " On the literature of Ireland during the Middle Ages." 

♦SYMINGTON, PROFESSOR, m.d Elected Mar. 4, 1895. 

Dec. 6, 1897. " The evolution of the brain." 

TANEY, JAMES B., U. S. Consul Elected Dec. 4, 1893. 

TAYLOR, ALEXANDER O'DRISCOLL ... Elected Dec. 5, 1853. 

President 1858-9, 1877-8. 

April 2, 1855. " Personal impressions of American authors." 

Nov. I, 1858. " Rise and progress of insurance." 

Dec. I, 1862, " Some of the statistics of human life." 

Dec. II, 1865. " Stray jottings on sleep." 

Mar. 8, 1869. " Recreation." 

Feb. 7, 1876. " A glance at the ballad poetry of Ireland." 

Nov. I, 1880. " A glance at the literary life of Belfast seventy years ago." 

TAYLOR, ROBERT Elected Mar. i, 1852. 

Feb. 7,1853. " History of wine in England." 

Jan. 9, 1854. " Pleasures for the people." 

Dec. II, 1854. " On the inner and the outer life." 

TEMPLETON, JOHN Original Member. 

Vice-President 1803. Memoir at page 45. 

Jan. II, 1802. " On natural history." 

Dec. 6, 1802. " On the Lough Neagh whiting." 

*TENNANT, DR Elected Jan. 14, 1901. 

TENNENT, JAMES THOMSON Elected Jan. 6,1834. 

President 1837-8, 1839-40. 

May 5, 1834. " The corn laws." 

Dec. 5, 1836. " The present state of banking in these countries." 



MEMBERS OF THE SOCIETY. 1 8/ 

TENNENT, ROBERT J. Elected Jan. 3,1831. 

President 1834-5. 
April 4, 1831. " On the partitions and present state of Poland." 

THOMPSON, PROFESSOR W. H., m.d. ... Elected Dec. 4, 1893. 

THOMPSON, WILLIAM Elected April 7, 1834. 

President 1838-9. Memoir at page 98. 

Dec. I, 1834. " History of the swallows in Ireland." 

Dec. 22, 1834. " Observations on the habits of the house-martin, the sand-martin, 

and the swift." 
Jan. 2, 1837. " The native birds of the order raptores." 
Mar. 4, 1839. " Notes on the effects of the great storm in January last on birds and 

fishes in different parts of Ireland." 
Dec. 14, 1840. "Chars, and other native Irish fishes." 
Nov. 18, 1844. " Remarks on a meeting at the Athenreum, Manchester, ... of 

the party called ' Young England. ' " 
Jan. 4, 1S47. " Selections from Travels in Lycia, by Spratt and Forbes." 
Feb. 3, 1 85 1. " Rough notes of a week in the Adriatic." 

THOMSON, PROFESSOR JAMES (of Royal Acadeviical Institution, 

Belfast) Elected Oct. 5, 1 8 18. 

President 1821-2. Memoir at page 60. 

April 6,1819. " On the tides." 

Jan. I, 1 82 1. "A view of the progress of mathematics among the Saracens." 

Nov. 4, 1822. "A sketch of the progress of mathematical science among the 

Greeks." 
April 2, 1824. " Essay on the opinions that have been formed respecting the nature 

and phenomena of the fixed stars." 
Jan. 2, 1826. "On rivers." 
Nov. 5, 1827. " On the celestial phenomena, as seen from other bodies, in the solar 

system." 
Mar. 2, 1829. " Currents at sea. " 

Oct. 4, 1830. " Two unpublished letters of Doctor Thomas Reid." 
Mar. 7, 1 83 1. " Remarkable instances of hereditary talent among men of science." 



1 88 MEMBERS OF THE SOCIETY. 

THOMSON, PROFESSOR JAMES, ll.d., d.sc. (of Queen's College, 

Belfast) Elected May 2, 1853. 

President 1864-5. 

Elected Honorary Member May 19, 1873. 

Memoir at page 122. 

Mar. 5, 1855. " On the parallel roads of Glen Roy, and other similar phenomena, 

attributable to glacial action." 
May 14, 1855. " On various plans for warming rooms and buildings." 
Feb. 8, 1858. " On work and power : their measures and measurement." 
Jan. 10, 1859. " Ventilation of apartments." 
April 2, i860. " The theory of perspective." 
Feb. I, 1864. " On bridges and tunnels." 
Jan. 7, 1867. "On the strength, safety, and danger of structures, with a view 

to the amendment of existing practices." 
Mar. 6,1871. " Explanations and illustrations of hydraulics." 

THOMSON, DOCTOR Original Member. 

Secretary 1801-3. Resigned December 26, 1803 
April 19, 1802. " Some peculiar properties of organized bodies." 

THOMSON, PROFESSOR SIR C. WYVILLE. Elected April 7, 1856. 

Memoir at page 124. 

Jan. 12, 1857. " Moral influence of the Poor Law in Scotland." 
Feb. 5, 1866. " Organization in relation to life." 
May 3, 1869. " On the depths of the sea." 

*TROBRIDGE, GEORGE Elected Dec. 5, 188 1. 

Mar. 6,1882. "The raison d'etre of art." 

Mar. 5, 1 888. " The influence of machinery on the handicrafts and in social life." 

WALKER, PROFESSOR Elected Dec. 3, 1888. 

Dec. 2, 1889. " Historical sketch of the Jewish philosophers." 

WALLACE, REV. J. BRUCE Elected Dec. i, 1884. 

Dec 6 1886 f" The solidarity of mankind." 

May 5, 1890. " The income of the nation and how it is divided." 



MEMBERS OF THE SOCIETY. 1 89 

WALTER, HERMANN, M. A., PH.D Elected Jan. 11,1897. 

May 10, 1897. *' Goethe's (7/ar7>o." 

WARD, W. H Elected April 10, 1876. 

WARDEN, DAVID B. ... Elected Corresponding Member Feb. 1803. 

Jan. 10, 1803. (Communicated through Dr. Stephenson.) "A synoptical view of 
the weather of the time and progress of vegetation, agricultural 
employment, and diseases at Ivinderhoek, in the State of New 
York." 
"On the Upas tree" and "The Bark of Magnolia Tripetalata of 
Virginia " (published in Select Papers). 

WHEELER, GEORGE H Elected Mar. 6, 1893. 

WILD, J. J Elected Nov. 1,1869. 

Nov. 7, 1S70. " Universallanguage. " 

WILLIAMSON, R Original Member. 

WILSON, REV. W. A., b.a Elected May 2, 1892. 

May 8,1893. "Pessimism." 

WILSON, PROFESSOR Elected Jan. 21,1850. 

President 1 850-1. 
April 7,1851. " Arithmetical notation of various nations. " 

WRIGHT, REV. DR Elected Nov. 3,1884. 

Mar. 2, 1885. " Early Jewish Rabbis— Hillel to Akiba." 

WYLIE, REV. J. B Elected April 20, 1896. 

Mar. 1,1897. " Carlyle and Burns." 

YONGE, PROFESSOR CHARLES DUKE, m.a. Elected Dec. 9, 1867. 
Memoir in Diet, of Nat. Biog., vol. 63, p. 324. 
Mar. 2,1868. " The Revolution of 1789." 



190 



MEMBERS OF THE SOCIETY. 



YOUNG, PROFESSOR JOHN, ll.d. ... 
President 1823-4. 
Died March 9th, 1829 (see Minutes, April 6th) 

2, 1822. " On the principles of banking." 
c iSae I " ^" '■^^ principles of banking " (a continuation), 

3, 1827. " Essay on the theory of dreaming." 



Elected Mar. 4, 1822. 



Dec. 
Mar. 
Dec. 
Dec. 



*YOUNG, ROBERT, c.e. ... 

President 1883-4, i< 



Elected May 2, 1870. 



Feb. 6, 1 87 1 
May 4, 1874 
Dec. 14, 1874 
April 7, 1879 
Dec. 6, 1880, 
Dec. S, iS 

Mar. 7, 18 
Nov. 15, 18 

*YOUNG, R. M 

Jan. 12, 18" 
Jan. 9, li 



" Some remarks on early printing." 

" Primitive church arrangements." 

" St. Brendan's voyages." 

" The basis of sesthetics." 

" Notes of a visit to some interesting places in the Pyrenees in 1879." 

" Notes on the archaeology of Ballycastle and its vicinity, illustrated 

by recent sketches." 
" Irish place-.'james." 
" Connaught in '48 and '98." 



B.A., M.R.I. A. 



Elected Mar. i, 1886, 



(As a visitor.) " Some notes on old Japanese art." 

"Notes on the Belfast press and its productions, 1700- 1800." 



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