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r«lEAT BRITAaN, with 32 Msps, 56 PIbbs md a Pinorun*, 

XONDON un> m ENVIRONS, with 4 md 24 Plsni! 

F»iirtremu Bdiliuti. ISOJ. 6 amika. 

THE UNITED STATES, -wtTK ak Esodebion ojto Mbxico. 

WIrk 3!) HKft lid 36 Flam. TKIrd Bditioa, IMi- 11 mirlia. 


id EditiDn. 1900. S msikt. 

AUSTRIA -HUNGARV. moLnniso Dslmatia and Bobnu, with 

33 Maps and 44 Plans. T^nih Bd. 1600. B m.rki., 

lEB EASTERN ALPS, with 53 Maps, 10 Flans and T Panoramas. 

Tenth Elllinn. 1903. , 10 in»rH,>. 

'SELGIUM AND HOLLAND, with Ifi M&pa and 30 Plans. 

Fonrteenlh Sdllion. 1905. 6 diarKe. 

■BQTPT. With 23 JMaps, 66 Plana 'aod 59 Vignettes. Fifth 

Edition. liKH. 15 marki. 

JKAYCE. — I. PARIS ami m ENVIRONS, with Rocibb from 

LONDOV TO Pakis. With 13 Uapi and 3-i plioi. FiftcBBih 

BdltloD. 1901. ti ruHFki. 

-II. NORTHERN FRANCE, with 13 Maps and 40 Plant. 

Toudb EdltiDn. 1S03. 7 murks. 

- IIL SOUTHERN FRANCE, with |30 Maps, 37 PUns and i, 
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anl 21 Plan-. SB°gRd Edition 1900. S mirks. 

- IL NORTHERN GERMANY, with 49 Haps and "4 Plans, 
FoarleentbTSliUon. 1IK)1. S mirks. 

— m. SOUTHERN QEHMANY, with 22 Maps and 10 Plans. 
Minlli Edlllun. 1903. e msrki. 

- IV. THE RHINE raon Rottbbdam to OoMSTiwoa with 
ti MiM =nd Ju VUas. FIfioenlh Bdilian. ISOS. 7 murks. 

GREECE, with 11 Maps and li Plans. Tbird Editioa. 1S0». S m.rk^. 

UALT. — 1. NORTHERN ITALY, iNULimiNO Lbohobh, Fi^hesoh, 

RavbnkA, wltli30Hap3aiid39Pl>ni. Twtirth Edlllon. 1303. H mark!.. 

— n. CENTRAL ITALY ahd ROME, with 14 Maps 49 Plana, 
and aTanaumi of Bonin. Fnurtcimlh Edition. 1901. 7 marks SOpr. 

— m. SOUTHERN ITALY. SICILY etc., with "il Maps and 
21 Plam. Pooncenth Edition. 1903. U mi.rk.. 

ITALY ntoH Tas At.fs to Napi.bk, with 26 Maps, and 44 Plans. 

1904. Smiirks. 

NORWAY, SWEDEN awd DENMARK, with 37 Mapa, 22 Plans 


Kdlllon. 180 

Gift of 

Burton N. Kendall 





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All righU reserved 


*^Go, little book, God send thee good passage, 
And specially let this be thy prayere 
Unto them all that thee will read or hear, 
Where thou art wrong, after their help to call, 
Thee to correct in any part or all/* 


The Handbook for Belgium and Holland, which is 
now issued for the fourteenth time and corresponds with the 
twenty -third German edition and the eighteenth French, 
is designed to assist the traveller in planning his tour and 
disposing of his time to the best advantage; to supply him 
with a few remarks on the progress of civilisation and art 
in these interesting countries ; to render him as far as possible 
independent of the services of hotel-keepers, commission- 
naires, guides, and other members of the same fraternity; 
and thus to enable him to derive the greatest possible 
amount of pleasure and instruction from his tour. 

The Handbook has been compiled almost entirely from 
the Editor's personal observation, and i^ost of the country 
described has been repeatedly explored by him with a view 
to procure the latest possible information ; but, as many of 
the data in the Handbook refer to matters that are constantly 
undergoing alteration, he will highly appreciate any cor- 
rections or suggestions with which travellers may favour 
him. Those already received, which in many instances have 
proved most useful, he gratefully acknowledges. 

The introductory article on art was contributed by Pro^ 
fessor Anton Springer (d. 1891), and was adapted for the use 
of English travellers with the kind assistance of Mr, J. A. 
Crowe (d. 1896), author of 'The Early Flemish Painters'. 

The Maps and Plans, on which the utmost care has 
been bestowed, will prove of material service to the tra- 
veller, and enable him at a glance to ascertain his bearings 
and select the best routes. When not otherwise indicated 
(as, e.g.t in the case of Amsterdam), both maps and plans 
are drawn with the N. side uppermost. 

Heights and Distances are given in English mea.«»3«i- 
ment. A kilometre is appTox\malQ\y ^a^'8X\a'^\^^'«^'^-'°^'^''» 
8 kil ^5M, The Popui^Tio^a «t«^ ^\.^\.^^ Vo. v^.^^'^^^*^'^'^ 
with the most recent cent^xt^^ 


Hotels. The Editor has endeavoured to enumerate not 
only the first-class hotels, but also others of more modest 
pretensions, which may be safely selected by the *voyageur 
en gargon^ with little sacrifice of comfort and considerable 
saving of expenditure. The asterisks indicate those hotels 
which the Editor has reason to believe to be provided with 
the comforts and conveniences expected in an up-to-date 
establishment, and also to be well managed and with a reason- 
able scale of charges. Houses of a more modest character, 
when good of their class, are described as 'fair* or *very 
fair*. At the same time he does not doubt that comfortable 
quarters may often be found in hotels which he has not 
recommended or even mentioned. The average charges and 
prices stated in the Handbook, although constantly tending 
to rise, will enable the traveller to form some idea of his 
probable expenditure. 

To hotel-proprietors, tradesmen, and others the Editor 
begs to intimate that a character for fair dealing and cour- 
tesy towards travellers forms the sole passport to his 
commendation, and that advertisements of every kind are 
strictly excluded from his Handbooks. Hotel-keepers are 
also warned against persons representing themselves as 
agents for Baedeker's Handbooks. 

R. = Room, Route. 
B. = Breakfast. 

D. = Dinner. 

D6j. = Dejeuner (luncheon). 
L. = Light. 
A. = Attendance. 
S. = Supper. 
Pens. = pension (i. e. board 

and lodging). 
N. = North, northern, etc. 
S. = South, etc. 

E. = East, etc. 
W. = West, etc. 


M. = English mile. 

ft. = English foot. 

r. = right. 

1. = left. 

hr. = hour. 

min. = minute. 

fl. = florin or gulden. 

fr. = franc. 

c. = centime, cent. 

carr. = carriage. 

omn. = omnibus. 

c, ca. = circa, about. 

comp. = compare. 

The letter d with a date, after the name of a person , indicates the 
year of his death. The number of feet given after the name of a place 
shows its height above the sea-level. The number of miles placed before 
"As priBcipsl places on railway-routes and highroads generally indicates 
w/r distance from the Btarting-point of the route. 

A^perimka are ij^ed as marks of commeTiAaVQTv. 



A. Belgium. Page 
I. Season and Plan of Tour zl 

II. Money and Travellinf; Expenses zi 

III. Passports. Oustom Honse xii 

IV. Hotels xii 

y. Restaurants. Caf<Ss. Confectioners xiii 

VI. Language xiv 

VII. Churches, Picture Galleries, and Theatres xvi 

VIII. Railways. Steam Tramways xvi 

IX. Cycling xviii 

X. Post and Telegraph Offices xx 

XI. History and Statistics xx 

B. Holland. 

I. Plan of Tour xxv 

II. Money and Travelling Expenses xxv 

III. Passports. Custom House xxvi 

IV. Hotels. Caf^s. Milk Shops xxvi 

V. Language xxvii 

VI. Churches, Picture (Galleries, and Collections xxx 

VII. Railways. Steamers xxxi 

Vin. Cycling xxxU 

IX. Post and Tele(;raph Offices . . . . ., . . . . xxxiii 

X. Dutch OharacterLstics xxxiii 

XI. History and Statistics xxxvii 

Historical Sketch of Art in the Netherlands, by Professor Springer xliii 

Route Belgium. Page 

1. From London to Brassels 1 

0. VU Ostend 1 

From Bruges to Blankenberghe and Heyst, 1. — From 
Alost to Antwerp, 2. 

b. Via Calais 3 

From Tournai to Mons; to Renaix, and to St. Amand, 5. — 

From Denderleeuw to Graramont, Ath, and Jurbise, B. -~ 
From Ath to Blaton; to St. Ghislain, 6. —From Enghien 
to Gourtrai, 7. 

c. Via Antwerp 8 

2. Ostend and its Environs 8 

Mariakerke, 15. — Middelkerke, Westende-Bains, Nieuport- 
Bains, 16. — Oost-Duinkcrke, La Panne, 17. 

3. Blankenberghe and Heyst 17 

Enocke Sur*Mer. Sluis. Kad/.and, 20. 

4. Bruges 20 

5. The Railways of S.W. Flanders 40 

1. From Ostend to Ypres ^^ 

2. From Ghent to Nieupott andI)uTiV!^^^\!iVAft'^\.«tN^^^ ^^ 

3. From Bruges to CourtraV * ' t;jV 

ft From BruBsels to Conrtral and T-^iea , . • - * ' 


Route Paige 

7. Ghent 49 

at. Inner Town and Korth-Western Ouarters, 53. — b. Western 
and Southern Quarters of the City, 66. — c. Eastern Quarters 
of the City and the Saburbs, 70. 

8. From Ghent to Courtrai and Tournai 73 

9. Tournai 76 

10. From Ghent to Antwerp 81 

a. State Railway vU Dendermonde and Puers ... 81 
6. Waesland Railway 82 

11. Brnssels 83 

a. Older Part of Upper Town, 94. — b. Royal Museums and 
Library, 102. — c. Upper Boulevards, 117. — d. Eastern Part of 
Lower Town, 119. — e. Inner Boulevards and Western Part of 
Lower Town, 126. — f. Suburbs and Kew Quarters to the East, 
128. — g. Environs : Laeken, Bois de la Cambre, Tervueren, 134. 

12. From Brussels to Charleroi via Luttre 137 

Battle Field of Waterloo, 138. 

13. From Brussels to Antwerp via Malines 16*2 

14. Antwerp 169 

a. Central Part of the Old Town, 166. — b. North-Eastern Part 
of the Old Town, 174. — c. South-Western Part of the Old Town 
and the Maseum, 178. — d. Avenues, Park, and New Quarters, 
194. — e. Bank of the Scheldt and Korthern Docks, 196. 

15. From Antwerp to Rotterdam 200 

a. Railway Journey 200 

6. Steamboat jflimey 200 

16. From Antwerp to Aix-la-Chapelle via Maastricht . . . 202 

Environs of Valkenberg, 206. 

17. From Antwerp to Diisseldorf via Miinchen-Gladbach . 206 

18. From Brussels to Braine-le-Gomte and Mons ... 207 

From Mons to Paris; to Charleroi, 210. 

19. From Ghent to Charleroi and Namur via Braine-le-Comte 211 

From Manage to Mons, 211. — From Manage to Ottignies; 
Quatre Bras, 212. — From Charleroi to Vireux, 213. — 
From Chatelineau to Givet. From Tamines to Gem- 
blonz; to Dinant, 214. 

20. From Namur to Dinant and Givet 218 

From Givet to Sedan. 222. 

21. From Dinant to Jemelle. Han-sur-Lesse 223 

22. From Brussels to Luxemhourg vii Namur 226 

From Libramont to Gouvy, 227. — From Arlon to Longwy 
and to Bertrix, 228. 

23. From Brussels to Li^ge via Louvain 229 

From Louvain to Aerschot and Herenthals, 229. — From 
TirlemoDt to Moll, 229; to Tongres and to l^amur, 230. 
— From Landen to Hasselt, ^\ to Gembloux, 231. 

24. Louvain 231 

Abbaye de Pare, 236. - H^verltf, 237. 

25. From Louvain to Charleroi 237 

26. LiSge and Seraing 239 

^Z From Lidge to Jewelle (Luxembouig) vii Rtvage . . . 261 

^. From Liege to Troia-Vierges (Luxem^ouig) v\^^Vs«.%«k 

^d Troh'PontB '^^ 


Route Pm« 

29. From Lidge to Maastricht 266 

30. From Lldgo to Nanmr 261 

From Huy (Statte) to Ciney, 262; to Landen, 963. 

31. From Liftgeto Aix-la-Cliapelle 264 

From Li^ge to Verviers vift Henre, 265. — From Verviera 
to Aix-la-Chapelle yi& Bleyberg, 266. — The Barrage 
de la Gileppe, 267. 

32. From Pepinster to Trois-Ponts (Luxembourg). Spa . . 268 

Excursions from Spa, 271. — From Stayelot to Coo, 272. 


33. From (Li^ge) Trois-Vierges to Luxembourg via Ettelbruck 273 

From Ettelbriick to Petingen, 275. — From Eruchten to 
Larochette, 276. — Valley of the Bisch, etc., 276. — 
From Luxembourg to Longwy; to Athus; to Bemieh, 
279. — From Luxemburg to Echtemach, 280. 

34. From Luxembourg to Wasserbillig yia Diekirch and 

Echtemach. Valley of the Sure 280 

From Diekirch to Vianden; VaUey of the Our, 281. — 
Excursions from Grundhof, 282. 

35. From Luxembourg to Treves vil Wasserbillig .... 284 


36. From London to Rotterdam and Amsterdam .... 285 

a. Via Harwich and the Hook of Holland .... 285 

b. Vi& Queenboro' and Flushing 286 

Domburg, 289. — Veere, 290. — Zierikzee. From 

Bosendaal to Breda, 291. 

37. Rotterdam 292 

38. From Rotterdam to The Hague, Ley den, Haarlem, and 

Amsterdam 301 

From Ley den to Woerden, 304. 

39. The Hague 305 

a. Plein, Vvver, and Neighbourhood, 308. — b. Best of the 
Old Town, 324. — c. Modem Quarters on the Korth, 325. — 
d. Environs, 328. 

40. Scheveningen 330 

41. Leyden 333 

Eatwyk aan Zee; Noordwyk aan Zee, 341. 

42. Haarlem 342 

Zandvoort, 350. 

43. Amsterdam 350 

a. Harb'iur and Central District, 358. — b. East Quarters of 
the Old Town, 362. — c. South Part of the Old Town, 364. — 
d. Ryks Moseum, 3B7. — e. Mnnicipal Museum and Vondel 
Park, 3ii0. — f. Environs, 393. 

44. From Amsterdam and Haarlem to Helder. North Holland 397 

Wyk aan Zee, 398. — Egmond aan Zee. Bw^civ.^ ^'iJ^. — 

From Alkmaar to Room, 40O. -->.i. 

45. From Amsterdam to Enkhuizen and Sta.^oT^ii ...» ^Sk 
46. From Stavoren CAmsterdam) to Leeuv^ai^en . . • • ^*^ 

From Sneek to HarUngen. Bolsvraxd, Wa. 


Route Page 

47. From Leeuwarden to Groningen 407 

From Oroningen to DeUzyl; Boodeschool, 409. — Schier- 
monuik-Oog, 410. 

48. From Amsterdam or Utrecht to Leeuwarden and Groningen 410 

From Zwolle to Dieren, 411 ; to SLampea, 412. 

49. From Groningen to Bremen 413 

50. From Amsterdam Ti& Deventer and from Amhem via 

Zutphen to Salzbergen and Rheine 414 

From Apeldoorn to Zutphen. From Deventer to Zwolle, 
415. — From Zutphen to Winterawyk, 417. 

51. From Amsterdam to Utrecht 417 

a. Via Breukelen, 417. — b. Via Hilversum, 418. 

52. From Rotterdam to Utrecht and Amsterdam vi^ Gouda . 418 

From Gouda to The Hague and to Boskoop, 419. 

53. From Liftge to Utrecht 420 

From "S Hertogenbosch to Lage-Zwaluwe. Heeswyk, 422. 

54. Utrecht 423 

55. From Utrecht and Amhem to Cologne via Emmerich and 

Oberhausen 430 

56. From Cologne to Amsterdam and Rotterdam (Hook of 

Holland) vi& Cleve and Nymwcgen 435 

57. From Maastricht to Nymwegen 440 

58. From Cologne to Rotterdam (Hook of Holland) via Venlo, 

Boxtel, and Breda (Flushing) 441 

List of Artists • 447 

Index 459 


1. Genksal Hap of Bbloidh: facing the title-page. — 2. Hap of the 
Belgian Coast: p. 14. — 3. Hap of the Environs of Bbdsskls: p. 136. — 
4. Hap of the Battle Field of Waterloo : p. 139. — 5. Hap of the Heuse 
FBOM GivBT TO LiBge : p. 219. — 6. Hap of the Emvibons op Rocheport 
and Han : p. 225. — 7. Map of the Environs op Spa : p. 269. — 8. Hap of 
the Grand-Duoht op Luxembocro : p. 273. — 9. Hap of the Vallbt of the 
Sure: p. 281. — 10. Hap of the Environs op The Hague : p. 328. — 11. Hap 
of the Environs op Haarlem : p. 349. — 12. Hap of the Environs op 
Amsterdam : p. 395. — 13. Hap of the Environs op Arnubm : p. 431. — 
14. Hap of the Environs of Ktmwegen: p. 437. — 15. General Map of 
Holland : after the Index. 

Flans of Towns. 

1. Amsterdam, general plan (p. 351). — 2. Amsterdam, inner town 
(p. 359). — 3. Antwerp, general plan (p. 159). — 4. Antwerp, inner town 
(p. 167). — 5. Bruges (p. 20). - 6. Brussels (p. 83). — 7. Delft (p. 301). — 
8. Flushing (p. 287). — 9. Ghent, general plan (p. 49). — 10. Ghent, inner 
town (p. 63). — 11. Groningen (p. 407). — • 12. Haarlem (p. 313). — 13. The 
Hague (p. 305). — 14. Leeuwarden (p. 404). — 15. Leyden (p. 334). — 
16. Li6ge (p. 239). — 17. Lille (p. 4). -- 18. Louvain (p. 281). — i9. Luxem- 
bourg (p. 277). — 20. Haastricht (p. 267). — 21. Halines (p. 153). — 22. Hiddel- 
burg (p. 287). — 23. Namur (p. 215). — 24. Ostend (p. 9). — 26. Rotterdam 
/^. ^OPA — 2d. Scbeveningen (p. 331). — 27. Tournai (p. 77). — 28. Utrecht 
KP. 4^j. __ 29. Ypre.i (p. II). — SO. Zandvoort (p. 34»). 


I. Season and Plan of Toor. 

The best season for travelling in either Belgium or Holland is 
summer, from the beginning of July to the middle of September. 
In spring the weather is apt to be raw and unsettled, and autumn 
is windy and often rainy. 

The following tour, beginning at Ostend and terminating at 

Antwerp, will serve to convey an idea of the time requisite for a 

glimpse at the chief attractions of Belgium. Travellers entering 

Belgium from France, Holland, or Germany, will find no difficulty 

in planning other tours with the aid of the map. 


Ostend and Brnges 2 

Ghent 1 

Conrtrai, Ypres, Tonmai, Hons 2V2-3 

Namur, Valley of the Hease 2 

Li^ge and Maastricht 2 

Loavaln and Brussels 3Vs 

Waterloo 1 

Malines V' 

Antwerp . lVa-2 

16 - 17 days. 

The Handbook renders the services of commissionnaires and 

guides entirely superfluous (half-a-day 2-4, whole day 4-7*/2 f^O? 

and the traveller is particularly cautioned against employing those 

of an inferior class by whom he is importuned in the streets. 

n. Honey and Travelling Expenses. 

Money. The Monetary System of France was introduced into 
Belgium in 1833 ; and by the Convention of Paris of 1865 Belgium 
belongs to a monetary league with France, Switzerland, Italy, and 
Greece. One franc, 100 centimes, 80 German pfennigs, 96 Austrian 
hellers, 48 Dutch cents, 20 American cents, and 9^/4 pence are all 
nearly equivalent (see the money-table at the beginning of the 
book). The coins in common circulation are 5, 2, 1, and 1/2 fr. pieces in 
silver; 10 and 5 c. pieces in nickel; 2 and 1 c. pieces in copper. The 
nickel coins are now minted with a hole through them, like the ^cash* 
of China. The gold coins of 20 fr. are seldom met with, and their 
place is taken by the bank-notes of the Banque NationaU (p. 99), 
which was founded in 1860. The gold and silver coins of France, 
Switzerland, and Greece, and the gold coins and 5 fr. pieces of 
Italy are also freely accepted. Swiss coins with the sitting figure of 
Helvetia, Belgian coins with the head of LeoijoV^\»^-i.<Si«^x.'^^^^'t» 
pieces), and French coins issued "beloia \SfeV, ^w3X^>i«v 't'^^'^^'^*^'^^ 
Much worn coins are sometlmeB Tetii%e^. ^u^V^wA'^xe^'^^V^. 
Bot€8 And English gold are leceWed at b\\ ^^ ^t^^^V^*^ ^ ^'^ 

xil Expentes. BELGIUM. 

hotels, and railway-stations at their fall Talae (li.= 25 fr.). English 
circular notes are recommended for the transport of large sums, in 
preference to banknotes or gold, as they always realize a favourable 
exchange, and as, if lost, their value is recoverable. American trav- 
ellers may also find the cheques issued by the American Express Oo. 
convenient. Money should not be changed except at the shops of 
the larger and more respectable money-changers; the small dealers, 
railway officials, and hotel-keepers seldom give the due rate of ex- 
change. In the Flemish districts the reckoning in the Datch manner 
(6 cents = 10 centimes) is still prevalent to a considerable extent. 
Expenses. Hotel-expenses need not exceed 10-15 fr. per day; 
the fees payable at picture-galleries, museums, and churches amount 
to 3-4 fr. per day, and travelling expenses to 8-10 fr. ; so that most 
travellers should be prepared for a daily expenditure of at least 
25-30 fr. each. On the other hand the *voyageur en gar^n', the 
artist, the student, and the pedestrian may easily reduce their ex- 
penditure to half that sum without much diminution of comfort. 

m. Passports. Custom House. 

Passports, though not required in Belgium, are frequently 
useful in proving the traveller's identity, and in obtaining delivery 
of registered letters. 

Foreign Office passports may be obtained in London through Buss, 
4 Adelaide Street, Strand (charge is., including agent's fee); 0. Smith A 
Son, 38 Craven St., Charing Cross (inclusive fee 4«.); Thomas Cook & Son, 
I<udgate Circus (fee 3«. 6d.); and Henry Blacklock & Co. CS'<^<9b<^w*8 
Guides'), 59 Fleet St. (fee 5*.). 

Custom Housr formalities are generally very lenient. The trav- 
eller should always, if possible, superintend the examination of 
his luggage in person. In crossing a frontier even the smaller articles 
of luggage usually kept in the railway- carriage have to be submitted 
to inspection. The traveller is usually allowed a small supply of 
tobacco or cigars for personal use duty firee, but he should declare 
it to the custom-house officers. 

IV. Hotels. 

In ppite of the large volume of pleasure-travelling in Belgium, 
it can hardly be said that the hotels of the first class are uniformly 
of that excellence which the modern tourist expects and finds else- 
where. Those at Brussels and the principal Belgian watering-places 
are, moreover, somewhat expensive, though in most other parts 
of the country they will be found cheaper than in England. The 
average charges are as follows : bedroom 4-6 fr. (double-bed usually 
much cheaper for two pers. than two single beds), coffee and 
rolls 1 1/2-2 fr., dinner 4-^ fr. The table d*h6te dinner at Brussels, 
Antwerp, Obenty Oatend, and Spa is uBually served about 6 p.m., at 
aJJ otJier towns about 12.30 or 1 p.m. Pale aVe aii^ sXout ^V^^l^'Xlx. 

BELGIUM. Eotdt. xii 

per bottle, lialf-bottle ^/i-i^/i fr.), or mineral water (1-1 V2 ^r. per 
bottle) are frequently ordered at dinner in lieu of wine. The^waiters 
and 'portiers' are often Germans. 

The charges at hotels of the second class are much lower (bedroom 
1 Y2-^> breakfast I-IV41 dinner 2-372 ^'0) ^Wle the accommodation 
is sometimes quite as good, though less pretentious. Gentlemen 
may sometimes find comfortable quarters at the taverne8(8ee below) ; 
while for ladies trayelling alone the pensions are convenient. 

It is always prudent , even at the best hotels , to enquire the 
prices in advance and to stipulate that the charge for a bedroom 
includes light and attendance. 

The charge for the use of a Hotel Omkibds is usually V^-lVs ^* ^° 
the smaller towns the hotels generally have no omnibuses^ cab l-iVsfr.| 
including luggage. The demands of Commissiormairett or porters, for the 
transport of luggage are apt to be exorbitant, unless a previous agreement 
has been made or the tarifif asked for. 

The following is a reasonably liberal scale of gratuities in the larger 
hotels: head- waiter Vs fr. per day for each person; femme-de-chambre, 
3-6 days 1 fr., a week 2 fr. ; domestlque or boots, 25-30 c. per day. A tip 
may also be given to the portier if he have rendered any special services. 
When attendance is charged in the bill, the gratuities should be propor* 
tionally reduced. 

V. Bestanrants. Caf^s. ConfectionerB. 

The fashionable Rbstau&ants at Brussels, Antwerp, Spa, and 
Ostend resemble those of Paris. As a rule , in dining d, la earte^ 
one ^portion' will be found sufficient for two persons or two portions 
for three persons ; the waiter will advise. A solitary traveller is 
recommended to dine h prix fixe (d^j. from 8, D. from 5 fr.). Not less 
than 50 c. is expected as a gratuity by the waiter. Wine (good claret 
and burgundy) is the customary beverage at these restaurants. 

The less pretentious Taybbnes, somewhat resembling the Italian 
trattorie, are recommended, especially for gentlemen. Between 
11a.m. and 2 p.m., and between 6 and 8 p. mi, the bill-of-fare 
usually contains a selection of plats du jour^ at prices ranging from 
V4 to 1^/4 fr. Soup usually costs 40-50 c. and cheese the same. 
Many tavernes also provide meals d prix fixe. Beer is usually drunk 
at these establishments ; at some wine may be ordered by the glass. 
The arithmetic of the waiters is sometimes faulty. Gratuity 15-30 c. 

In addition to the tavernes, which close at a comparatively early hour 
in the evening, most Belgian towns contain numerous Beer Houses, where 
cold meat, etc., and German beer of various kinds may be obtained. A 
large glass of beer (un demi) costs 85-40 c. ; small glass (tin quart) 20-80 c. — 
The local Belgian beers are sold in the Estaminsts, which are mainly 
patronized by the humbler classes, though in the larger towns there are 
a few of a more fashionable character. The characteristic varieties are,, 
at Brussels, Srvne (12 c), Faro (12 c), a light-coloured beer with a slightly 
bitter flavour, Lambic (20c.), which is somewhat heavier^ wA Qu«MAt 'L«w^^«^ 
a itrong bottled beer (sometimes 10-15 years o\^^\ aX kiiVH«t^^ Ovqj\ ^^^ 
Louvain, Peterman or Wttbeer^ a sweetish^ insipid \>%NW»jft,«i\ *.^^ ^^^'^''''^ 

trofof, which ia strong and somewhat bitter. . tt.Vv«<« wk« 

The BeJgim OafUs closely re8em\>\<^ tVos^ ol "C*^' v^^-^sw* 
moBt frequented about midday and in tho evenVwft* C>ou«» ^ ^^^ 

\iv Language. BELGIUM. 

and beer are the beverages offered here. It is not the custom of 
tbe country to breakfast at a caf^, and hence the price of this meal 
is apt to be as high as at a hotel. Gratuity 5-10 c. — At the Oon- 
FBCTiONBRs' (pdtisseries) ices and liqueurs of numerous kinds, and 
occasionally beer maybe obtained. Breakfast] may in some cases 
be secured at a moderate price. 

Newspapers (Journaux). The cbief caf^s are usually supplied with 
fche Brussels newspapers and the chief Paris journals ; English papers are 
rare. The principal Brussels journals axe Llnd^pendance ^ VEtoUe Belge^ 
Le Petit BUu^ La Gazette^ La Chronique (all liberal), Le Gourrier de Btttxellet, 
Le Ptttriotey Le Petit Beige (clerical), and Le Petiple (socialist). At Antwerp 
the leading papers are Le PHcursevr^ Le Matin^ De Nieutoe Qazet (liberal), 
La Mitropole^ De Oatet van Antwerpen (clerical), and De Werker (socialist). 

Tbe most widely-read journal in Ghent is the neutral Qaz^ van Oent^ 
which appeared first in 1667 and is one of the oldest of existing newspapero. 

VI. Language. 

The population of Belgium is mainly divided between two chief 
races : the Walloons, almost exclusively confined to the basin of the 
Mouse or Maas, and the Flemingt (about five- eighths of the whole), 
in the basin of the Scheldt. 

The boundary between the Walloon and Flemish languages is 
a fairly straight line drawn from Vis6 (p. 266) southwards past 
Brussels and Gourtrai to Calais, Walloon being spoken in a few 
isolated districts to the N., and Flemish here and there to the S. of 
the line.t 

In spite of the efforts of the Flemish population (p. xv), French 
is still the language of the government, the army , of most of the 
newspapers, of public traffic, of scientific literature, and indeed of 
all the upper classes, as it has been since the time of the crusades. 

The Walloon language is an early French (Romanic) patois, 
with Celtic and Teutonic elements, occurring occasionally in an- 
cient documents and poems, and not entirely without its literature, 
but almost as unintelligible to a Frenchman as Flemish is to a 
German. Tlie learned Florentine OuicciarcUni (d. 1589), who as 
Tuscan ambassador resided for several years in the Netherlands, de- 
scribes the Walloon language, in his Descriptio tothu BtlgtL, as ^sermo 
communiter Oallicua; sed quia Galliam inter aique Cfermaniam et 
Belgicam posiii, corruptus valde et perabsurdu8\ The following 
popular rhymes from the ^Almanack par mattre Mathieu Laensbergh* 
will serve as a specimen of the language : 

Jamuabt : 
II gna pu irbroUli ki d'poussir. ! 11 y a plus de boue que de poussi^re. 

i Of the toUl population of ^698,618 in 1900, 2,833,005 spoke Flemish 
f>nh'/ ^^74.800 Frt'noh imly^ 8QLOB7 Flemlsb and ¥ir6Vi«h\ %^814 Qeraum 
j^^v tk>,447aertmia Mad Freooh t 7338 Flemish and Q«rmKa\ ^liKB VWn^'kk^ 
-Preaeh, »nd OermAnf Mad 02,667 other Uiiigii»««« ovIy. 


Langua{ie. x? 

Apbil : 

CTest Vutige^ ditt-on^ d* t^attrapi^ 
Lonk e< VauV,, li prumt d*avri; 
Si e^n^esteu Tto qu'po s^diverti^ 
Qu'on koirah" in" got' tiidupil 
Mais c'n'est pu po rtV qu'on *''surprin, 

Dk mon si on ce reie, ei n'est V de gros 

des din. 
On s''tromp\ons'dispoie at toumaie: 

(Test Vprumi d'avri toC Vannaiel 

C'est Tusage, dit-on, de s^attraper 
L^un et Taatre le premier d^avril ; 
Si ce n^^tait ^ue pour se divertir, 
Qa^on cberchat an pea k se duper ! 
Mais ce n'est plus pour rire qa'*on se 

Du moins si Ton en rit ce n'est qae du 

gros des dents. 
On se trompe, on se d^poaille tour 

k tour: 
Cest le prem. d'avril toute Tann^e 

The Flemish language differs but sliglitly from the Dutch, both 
being branches of the lower German language. In the middle ages 
they formed but one tongue, and even at the present day the 
Flemish spoken language differs no more from the Dutch than 
some German dialects do from each other, while the written 
languages are almost identical, especially since the Flemish writers 
ceased to use certain unimportant orthographical peculiarities that 
had previously distinguished the languages. Flemish, although rich 
and expressive, cannot be called a highly-cultivated tongue, being 
spoken by the uneducated classes only, and possessing but little 
original literature. Centuries of Spanish, Austrian, and French 
domination have left Flemish unaltered for the simple reason that 
it was never employed as a written language, except for catechisms, 
prayer-books, legends, etc. , for the use of the lower classes. Since 
the year 1840, at the instigation of J. F. Willems (d. 1846), Ph, Blom- 
maert (d. 1871), Hendrik Conscience (d. 1883), Em. Hiel (1834-99), 
M€LX Roose8j Pol de Mont^ August Vermeylen, 8tyn StreuveUy and 
others, numerous scholars and societies have zealously striven to 
procure the introduction of Flemish into the higher political and 
social circles, and the 'Flemish Movement' (^Vlaamsche Beweging') 
is powerful to this day. A law was passed in 1873 permitting a 
more general use of Flemish in judicial proceedings than had previ- 
ously been competent, in 1883 the use of the Flemish speech was 
re-introduced into the middle -class schools of the Flemish pro- 
vinces, and in 1888 a knowledge of Flemish was made obligatory 
for military officers; but the fact remains unchanged, that a know- 
ledge of French is still considered indispensable to all but the lowest 
agricultural and labouring classes. 

The following peculiarities of pronunciation are common to 
Flemish and Dutch : y (in Dutch ij) is pronounced like the Eng- 
lish i in time (but in West Flanders like e), u like the French u, eu 
like the French eu, eeu like the English a (in fate'), oe like oo, aa 
or (jie like ah , ou as in the English word houff ui like the FietiaV 
eu-i, oei like we, sch like s and the guttui&l ei\vVB.X^Dka^^'^^.'38L^<^^ 
and sch at the end of a word almost like a. ,. ^ 

After what baa been said, it need \iaid\^ \>e k^^«^^ ^^^'^'^J^^^- 
knowledge of French will enable the tia^eWex Vii^e\^^vm Vi 

XTi Bailvfayi. BELGIUM. 

Terse with everyone with whom he is likely to come in contact, 
and that an acquaintance with the Flemish and Walloon dialects 
will probahly be of little use except to the philologist. Those 
who are ignorant of French will be glad to know that English is 
spoken at most of the principal hotels throughout the country. 

Vn. Churches, Picture Galleries, and Theatres. 

The Ghukohbs (Roman Catholic) are usually open all day, with 
the exception of the midday hours 12 to 2 or 3, but in the afternoon 
the visitor must sometimes apply to the sacristan. If the architecture 
or the pulpit be the chief object of interest it may be inspected in the 
forenoon, but when pictures are to be seen the attendance of the 
sacristan is necessary, as they are often covered with curtains oi 
concealed in side-chapels. The best times in this case are 11-12 
and' the afternoon when there is no service. Fee for one person 
^2-1 fr-» and for a party more in proportion. In most churches 
the fees are fixed by tariff, and then no fee need be given to the 

The great Piotubb Gallbbieb and other public Golleotions 
are generally open gratis at fixed hours (seldom before 10 a.m.), 
but in certain towns a trifling fee for admission (V2-^ ^0 is some- 
times charged. For admission to town-halls and similar sights the 
fee is usually about the same. In visiting a private collection a 
single traveller is expected to give a gratuity of about 2 fr. — The 
subject and the name of the painter are generally attached to the 
frames in the picture-galleries ; but the latter is by no means always 
in accord with the results of modern research. 

The chief Theatbbb resemble those of Paris in their general ar- 
rangements. When ladies are of the party seats should be secured 
in the boxes (loges de face, in the middle ; loges de c6ti, at the side ; 
haignoires, on the level of the stage), fauteuils d^orcheatrey or atallea 
d^orchestre; for gentlemen the staUea dea premihrea loges or italles de 
galerie are also recommended. Places should be secured beforehand 
('en location'). The performance begins at 7, 8, or 8.16 p.m. 
Gentlemen usually wear their hats until the curtain rises. 

Yin. Bailways. Steam Tramways. 

The most trustworthy time-tables are contained in the ^Ouide 
officiel des voyageurs sur tous les ckemins de fer beiges^ or ^Officieele 
Beisgids voor al de belgUehe Spoorwegen' published on Jan. 1st, 
May 1st, July 1st, and Oct. Ist fprice 30 c), or the small Guide 
Sommairej published monthly (10 c). The larger edition includes 
steamers, steam-tramways, and diligences, and also postal and tel- 
egraphic information.— Greenwich (W.Europe) time is used through- 
oot BeJ^um and the Patch province of Limburg (not in Luxem- 
ifourgj, and oompared with the *Mld Europe' tVm^ \iv\xft^^t«^ Vtv 

BELGIUM. Railways. x?ii 

Germany, clocks are 1 hr. later. The reckoning of time from 1 to 24 
o'clock has been officially introduced on the Belgian railways ; thus 
13 o'cl. corresponds to our 1 p.m., 20 to 8 p.m., 0.10 to 12.10 a.m., etc. 

The State railways of Belgium haye no first-class carriages, but 
their place is taken by reserved compartments of the second-class 
(compartiments rSservia). All the main lines, howdver, are traversed 
by international * trains de luxe' (marked *Lx' in the time-tables) 
or by so-called ^saloon trains' or trains with saloon-carriages or par- 
lour-cars (voiturea-salon i marked *VS'), with conveniences corre- 
sponding to those of the best trains in other countries. The fares 
per Engl. M. amount to about 15 c. for the saloon carriages , for the 
first class, and for the reserved second class, to IOV3 c. for second 
class, and to B^g c. for third class. The fares on express trains are 
the same as those on ordinary trains. On Sat., Sun., and holidays 
seats in the saloon-carriages should be taken in advance (en location ; 
fee 50 c). Return-tickets (billets dialler et retour) are issued at a 
reduction of 20 per cent, and are available for 2 days (or for 3 if 
issued on Sat., Sun., holidays, or the eves of holidays), but do not 
permit of breaking the journey. 

The Guide Officiel gives full information as to Circular TourSy 
some of which (l55 M. or upwards ; valid for 30 days) are arranged 
to suit the wishes of the travellers, while others (billets circulaires 
^ itinSraire fixe; available for 2-15 days) are fixed by the railway 
company (to Waterloo, the Ardennes, sea-bathing resorts, etc.). 
Subscription tickets (billets d^dbonnement)j allowing the holder to 
travel at will for 5 or 15 days, are also issued. The rates for 5-day 
tickets good on the State-railways are 30, 20, and IIV2 ^^m for 
16-day tickets 60, 40, or 23 fr.; tickets available for the State rail- 
ways, the Gompagnie du Nord-Belge (pp. 218, 261), and the private 
lines of W. Flanders cost 36, 2i% and I41/2 fr. for 5 days, and 72, 
49, and 29 fr. for 15 days. The tickets must be accompanied by 
an unmounted photograph of the holder. Holders of second-class 
tickets may travel in first-class or saloon carriages on payment of a 
*8VjppUmenV of 3 c. per kilometre. No one is allowed on the plat- 
forms without either a railway-ticket or a platform-ticket (10 c); 
this regulation applies even to outside commissionaires carrying 
the passenger's luggage. The guard is called Oarde, Conducteurj or 
(Flemish) Wachter. 

Luggcige must be booked and paid for separately, but on most of 
the international throngh- routes 66 lbs. are free. On the Belgian State 
Railways the charge is 6 c. per 100 kilogrammes per kilometre, with 
a minimum of 50 c. ; fractions of 10 kilogrammes are treated as 10. The 
traveller is therefore recommended to restrict his requirements if pos- 
sible to the limits of a travelling-bag or moderate valise, which when 
necessary he can wield unaided, and take with him into the railway- 
carriage, so as to avoid the delay and expense incurred Va. \iQ^J«^»% Vw Vart 
the luggage- van. Trunks should be at the oi?^c^ «\\e»aX'^\\"^^.'^^'^^ 
the train starto. Tie iaggage-offlces arc cVosftd ^ mVa. \iftl^^^ ^'^^^«k -y 
of departure There ia no charge for carr^in^ \xira.§^ ^^ x^^„I^-«»3fc.^' ^ 
cab, bat it is cnatomary to give the porter a tee oi ^ift-t*> «:•. ^\k.^^««* 

Babdeker's Belgium and Holland. 14ih EdU. "^ 

XYiii Cycling. BELGIUM. 

be insured at a charge of 10 c. per 100 fr. of the yalae. At most stations 
there is a left-luggage office, where a charge of 10 c. per day is made for 
one or two packages and o c. per day for each additionaJ article. At 
Brasses, Antwerp, Li^ge, Ghent, Ostend, Blankenberghe, and Nieuport the 
railway management nndertakes to forward luggage from the rail, station 
to the trayeller^s address at the rate of 10 c. per 22 lbs., with a minimum 
of fiO c. (at night, 20 c. ft 1 fr.). 

There are Refreshment Booms (Buff^U-Restawaitis) at a few of the 
Belgian stations only. The Buoetiet (Flem. Drat^taaX) at some of the 
smaller stations are very unpretending. 

Stbam Tramways (Chemins de Fer Vicinaux; Flem. Buurtspoor- 
icege), Belgium possesses a wide-spread system of steam and electric 
tramways, which serve not only the environs of the larger towns, 
bat also many of the remote country-districts. 

IX. Cycling. 

Cycling is a popular amusement In Belgium, where cyclists are 
admitted to practically all streets and roads. In many cases cinder- 
paths (not open to motor-cycles) are provided for cyclists. A customs 
duty of 10 per cent on the value is charged on cycles entering Belgium 
accompanied by their owners, but the amount is refunded on the 
production of the official receipt on leaving the country. Members 
of the Cyclists' Touring Club (47 Victoria St., London, S.W.) or of 
other dubs having special agreements with the Belgian government 
obtain duty-free admission for their machines on conditions to be 
learned from the club-secretaries. The members of the C. T. 0. ei^joy 
all the privileges of the Touring Club <fe Belgique (see below) on 
presentation of their membership tickets. Each cycle in Belgium 
must be provided with a break, a bell or horn, and a lamp. The 
maximum speed allowed in towns or villages is 6 M. per hour, on 
country-roads 18 M. p^r hour. English riders should remember that 
the rule of the road in Belgium is the reverse of that in England : 
keep to the right on meeting, to the left on overtaking another vehicle. 
Cyclists travelling by rail must procure a ticket for their ma- 
chines at the luggage-office (between any two stations on the Bel- 
gian State railways 70 c, to a foreign station 1 fr.). They must 
personally assist in the loading and unloading of the cycles. No 
luggage may be attached to the machine. Separate regulations are 
in force for motor-cycles. — Cycles are conveyed on the steamer 
between Dover and Ostend for Is. 6d., tandems 3«.; between Har- 
wich and Antwerp 3?. or 6s. 

The Touring Club de Belgique (headquarters in Brussels, see 
p. 89; subscription for foreign members 3^2 ^r.) offers numerous 
advantages and privileges to cyclists, including reduced rates 
at hotels and for maps. The Itineraires Topographiques (150 sheets, 
price 71/2 fr. ; single sheet 10 c), issued for the club by Eugene 
Onrmauz, gives profiles of the roads and trustworthy information 
^^ /V? tAe/r condition and distances. The Carte roulllTe de la Befcji^ue 
C^ : 320,000 i 75 c), which is re-issued veai\7, wv^ VY^ft Catu d*\a 

BELGIUM. Cycling Town, xlx 

Belgique published by the Military Cartographical Institute (comp. 
p. xxlv) may also be commended to the notice of cyclists. 

The following scheme of a Oyolino Tour thbough Belgium, 
which is also applicable to automobiles, includes the more impor- 
tant art-centres (Li^ge, L^au, Louvain, Brussels, Malines, Antwerp, 
Ghent, Bruges, Damme, Nieuport, Fumes, Ypres, Oourtrai, Toumal, 
Hal) and also most of the sea-bathing resorts and the finest points 
in the Ardennes. The word day as used below refers only to the 
actual time occupied in wheeling; it is assumed that many other 
days will be spent in sight-seeing and resting. 

Ut Dav: Aix-IarCbapelle (616 ft.); lOVt K. Eapen (880 ft.); 20 M. 
Verviers (640 ft.); 24 M. Pepinster (445 ft. ; with detour to Spa, see p. 268): 
39 Va M. Liiffe (m ft.). 

2nd Day: 11 M, Oreye (328 ft.); 21 M. St. Trond (177 ft.); 26 M. Dor- 
mael (164 ft.; with detour to L^aa)) 32 M. Tirlemont (148 ft.)) 44 M. 
Louvain (82 ft.). 

3rd Day: SytV. Tervueren (286 ft.); 13 M. Audeghem (197 ft); 17 M. 
Brwelt (60-260 ft). 

4th Day: IV4 M. Laeken (62 ft.); 6V2 M. Yilvorde (62 ft); ISVt V. 
Malines (26 ft); 21 M. Gontich (76 ft.); 28 M. Antwerp (25 ft). Until the 
completion of the new harbour-works at Brusselfl, it is better to proceed 
to Malines vi& Dieghem, Perck, and Elewjt. 

5th Day: 3 M. Zwyndrecht (30ft); 12Vt M. BtKicolas (62 ft.); 21 M. 
Lokeren (19 ft); 33V8 M. Ghent (25 ft.). 

6th Day: 13 M. Eecloo (33 ft.); ISVs M. Maldeghem (30 ft.); 29 M. 
Bruges (30 ft.). 

7th Day: SVa M. Damme (13 ft.); Ti/a M. Houcke (13 ft.); 10 M. West- 
cappelle (13 ft.) ; 12 M. Knocke (16 ft.) ; 13Va M. Heyst (16 ft.) ; 18»/» M. 
LUseweghe (16ft.); 22V2 M. Blankenberghe (13 ft.); 30 1/2 M. Vlisseghem 
(13 ft.); 40 M. Ostend (16 ft.). 

8th Day: 6 M. Middelkerke (16 ft.); IOV2 M. Nieuport (20 ft.; with 
detour to Nieuport-Bains); I7V2 M. Fumes (20 ft.; with detour to La 
Panne); 28 M. Oostvleteren (25 ft.); 37 M. Ypres (65ft). 

$th Day: 8V2 M. Gheluwe (69 ft.); 11 M. Menln (59 ft); 18 M. Courtrai 
(60 ft); 28V2 M. Pecq (79 ft); 36 M. Toumai (95 ft.). 

loth Day: IOV2 M. Louse (165 ft); 16 M. Ligne (140 ft); 18 M. Ath 
(106 ftO; 3OV2M. Enghlen (190 ft); 4OV2 M. Hal (117 ft.); 49 M. Ander- 
lecht era ft.) i 6OV2 M. BrusseU (50-250 ft.). 

11th Day: 372 M. Auderghem (213 ft.); 16 M. Wavre (148 ft.); 26 M. 
Gembloux (506 ft.); 371/2 M. Namur (270 ft.). 

12th Day: 3 M. W^pion (280ft); 17»/2M. Dinant (310ft; with d^our 
to Anseremme and Walzin) ; 23 M. Gelles (616 ft.) ; 30 M. Carrefour de 
Vign^e (557 ft. ; with detour to Bochefort and Han); 471/2 M. Libin (1326 ft.)i 
61 M. ITeufchdteau (1400 ft). 

13th Day: 131/2 M. Habay-la-Neuve (1326 ft); 22V2 M. Arlon (1365 ft.) t 
28 M. Steinfort (1005 ft.); 33 M. Mamer (995 ft.) ; 39 M. Luxembourg (1066 ft). 

The following Ciroulak Tour through the Ardennes will be 
found enjoyable, but it is advisable to use the railway, between 
Brussels and Namur, Stavelot and Spa, and Li^ge and Brussels. 

1st Day: From Brussels via (371/2 M.) Ifamur to (55 M.) Dinant^ see above. 

2nd Day: I21/2 M. Carrefour de Vign^e (557 ft.); 20 M. Rochefort (625 ft); 
24 M. Ban-sur-Lesse (510 ft.). 

3rd Dap: 5 M. Wellin (830 ft); 17 M. Gedlnne (1040 ft); 20 M. Houdc*:.. 
mont (1290 ft); 30 M. Vresse (610 ft); 33 M. AUe (625 ^\.^. ^^ ^ ^ 

4th Day: 2V2 M. Rocbehaut (1130 ft.) v t^i|a'». liouvWo^v 0^ lv:^^'^\•l^» 
Ohassepierre (1050 ft )i 28 M. FlorenviUe (ii^OU.^. ,.^^ -^^ vy^ 

^/A Day: W/^t M. Neufchateau (1400 ft.^ v fti HI. "Bt^^o^iv^ ^'o^ v<..^\ "w* . 
Momralige (iOeO ft.). 

XX Post Offlee. BELGIUM. 

tith Day: 15 H. Laroche (730 ft.); 90 Vs H. HoUon (586 ft.): 38 H. Bar- 
vauz (465 ft.); 42V2 M. Dwrhuy (490 ft.). 

71h Day: 2]la M. Tohogne (806 ft.); 7 U. Hamoir (395 ft.); 12 M. Ck>m- 
blain-au-Pont (860 ft); I81/2 M. Remouehampa (423 ft.); 85 H. Oaaeade de 
Goo (786 ft.); 36 M. Trois-Ponts (825 ft.); 40 M. StavOoi (960 ft.). 

8th Day: 6V2 H. Francorcbamps (1535 ft); lOVs H. Spa (830-lOSO It.); 
ISVs H. Pepinster (445 ft.); 84 M. Liige (230 ft.). 

Bth Day: From Li^ge via (44 H.) Lonvain to (60 M.) BrttuOs^ see p. xix. 

X. Post and Telegraph OfAces. 

Postal Rates. Ordinary Letters within Belginm 10 c. per 15 
grammes (^2 oz.) ; to Luxembourg or Holland 20 c. ; other foreign 
countiies 26 c. — Post Cards (carte postale^ Flem. postkaart) 6 c, 
for abroad 10 c. — Letter Cards (carte - lettre) 10 c, for abroad 
25 c. — Printed Matter 2 c. per 50 grammes , for abroad 5 c. — 
Commercial Papers (papiers d'affaires)^ 5 c. per 100 gr. (minimnm 
10 c), for abroad 5 c. per 50 gr. (min. 25 c). — Samples (ichanlU- 
Ions) 5 c. per 100 gr., for abroad 5 c. per 50 gr. (min. 10 c). — 
Begistration Fee (recommandationj and Special Delivery Fee (par 
exprls) 25 c. — On Sun. letters are delivered only when the slip 
attached to the stamp, containing the words 'ne pas livrer le di- 
manche', has been removed or cancelled. 

Post Office Orders (mandatS'poste) are issued for most countries 
in the Postal Union, at a charge of 20 c. per 25 fr. 

Telegrams. Within Belgium, 15 words 50 c., every 5 words 
additional up to 50 words, 10 c, every 10 words thereafter 10 c. To 
Great Britain, 17 c. per word, plus 50 c. For rates to the United 
States, see the Ouide Officiel (p. xvii). 

Telephone within Belgium, 5 min. 1 fr., 10 min. 1 fr. 50 c; 
within a town, 5 min. 25 c. (messages forwarded to persons not on 
the Telephonic Exchange for 30 c. extra). — Brussels is in tel- 
ephonic communication with London. 

XI. History and Statistics. 

The country called Belgium at the present day, which was origi- 
nally peopled with a race of Celtic origin , and was subsequently 
overrun by Teutonic invaders , was conquered by Caesar , and re- 
mained under Roman supremacy until the middle of the 5th century. 
The Salic Franks, who, during the 3rd cent., had already established 
themselves in the plain between the Meuse and the Lower Rhine 
and in the hilly districts of Belgium, now founded a short-lived 
kingdom here, the capital of which was Doormk (Tournai). Dur- 
ing the Roman period Christian missionaries from Cologne had 
introduced their religion into the districts near Maastricht and Ton- 

feren, but Christianity did not spread over all Belgium until the 
th century. 
At the divisions of the Merovingian possessions in the 6th cent., 
tAe eountry to tho W. oi the Scheldt fell to ^eu^UU, \\i%x qw xXi^;^ 

BELGIUM. History, xxl 

E. to Austrasla. By the treaty of Verdun (843) the western pro- 
vinces , Flanders and Artois , became part of France , while the 
eastern , including Brabant , fell to the share of Germany. Down 
to the 11th century Brabant, Hainanlt, Namur, and Luxembourg 
formed the duchy of Lower Alsace. With the further develop- 
ment of the feudal system various hereditary principalities were 
established here as elsewhere. Thus arose the states of FlanderSy 
ArtoUy Hainaultj Namufy the duchies of Brabant and Limbourgy 
the principality of Liige, the county of Antwerp^ and the lordship 
of MalineSy which at a later period tried to render themselves 
independent of their powerful neighbours. Flanders, which at- 
tained to great prosperity by means of its manufactures and com- 
mercial enterprise, canied on a long-continued struggle against 
France, the result of which, in spite of the strenuous exertions 
of the cities of Ghent and Bruges, was the establishment of a 
merely temporary independence. On the extinction of the male 
line of the Counts of Flanders in 1384 , Flanders became annexed 
to Burgundy by the marriage of Philip the Bold with a daughter 
of the Flemish princely race , and by the beginning of the 15th 
cent, most of the other states were also united , by means of later 
marriages and other contracts, inheritance, etc., under the suprem- 
acy of the Dukes of Burgundy. This change of dynasty was most 
favourable to the growth of art in the Netherlands. The splendour- 
loving Philip the Bold (d. 1404) employed artists of every kind, 
particularly goldsmiths, while the name of his grandson Philip the 
Good (1419-1467), to whom Jan van Eyck was court-painter, is 
inseparably connected with the first bloom of Flemish painting. 

In 1477 the Netherlands came into the possession of the House of 
Hapsburg by the marriage of Mary of Burgundy (p. 27), the daughter 
of Charles the Bold^ the last Duke of Burgundy, with Maximilian^ 
afterwards Emperor of Germany. The children of this marriage 
were Philip the Handsome (d. 1506), Duke of Burgundy and King 
of Castile (in right of his wife, Johanna the Mad), and Margaret of 
Austria^ regent of the Netherlands from 1507 to hen death in 1530. 
Philip's son, Charles V., who was born at Ghent in 1500, and sub- 
sequently became King of Spain (1516) and Emperor of Germany 
ri519), compelled Francis I. of France, by the Treaty of Madrid in 
15!26 and the Taix des Dames' at Cambrai in 1529, to renounce 
finally his claims upon Flanders, which, along with the rest of the 
Burgundian inheritance, had passed to the German empire in 1512. 
On the abdication of Charles V. in 1555, the Netherlands came 
under the sway of his son Philip II. , and were thenceforward sub- 
ject to Spanish Supremacy. Philip appointed his half-sister, Mar^ 
garet of Parmc^y regent of the Netherlands (1559-67), aivd %e\^^XA^ 
Otanvellay Bishop of Arras (p. 153), asYiei tXixm%ft\Vst wv\ ^%NaX««*" 
BsligiovB agiULtionSy the excesBive inciew^ ol Osi^k \\».TsiNi«^ ^"^^^ 
bUbop§ (idb9) , the burdensome pTe%ei\fi€i widilV^k wjl'w^si,^^^^^^ 

xxll History. BELGIUM. 

Spanish troops, and other grieyances led to numeroas tamults, to 
suppress ^hich the king dispatched the Duke of Alva or Alba to the 
Netherlands with an army of 20,000 men. The extreme cruelty 
with which Alva fulfilled his task resulted in the famous rovolt 
of the United Netherlands in 1568. Success was achieved hy the 
N. provinces only, which now constitute the ELingdom of Holland, 
whilst the S. districts , the present Kingdom of Belgium , after 
protracted and fierce struggles, still continued to groan under the 
oppressive yoke of the Spaniards. At length, under the regime of 
Alexander Famese^Duke of Parma (1578-92), the third governor after 
Alva, Belgium also succeeded in recovering some, at least, of the 
civic liberties in behalf of which the war had originally broken out. 

In 1598 the 'Spanish Netherlands* were ceded by Philip II. as 
a fief to his daughter Clara Isabella Eugenia on the occasion of her 
marriage with Albert^ Archduke of Austria, the Spanish governor. 
Under their regime the wounds which the country had suffered 
during the war began to heal. The princely pair exerted themselves 
in every way to promote the welfare of the provinces under their 
care ; industry and commerce once more flourished, and the ad- 
ministration of justice was reorganized. Their religious zeal , of a 
strong anti-reformation type, was displayed in the foundation of 
new monasteries, colleges, and other Roman Catholic Institutions, 
but at the same time materially contributed to the development of 
art. Numerous churches, in the gorgeous but somewhat degraded 
taste of the period, were built and decorated with brilliant altar- 
pieces. The Archduke and his wife, moreover, rendered the country 
an important service by securing the services of Rubens, who in 
1609 had made up his mind to settle in Italy. They appointed 
him their court-painter, permitting him at the same time to reside 
at Antwerp, the centre of Flemish art. 

After Albert's death without issue (1621) the Netherlands re- 
verted to Spain, which during the wars of the latter half of the 17th 
cent, was obliged to cede many of its provinces (Artois , Thioii- 
ville, etc.) to France. In 1714 these provinces were awarded by 
the Peace of Rastadt to the House of Austria. 

The ^Austrian Netherlands* were wisely and beneficently govern- 
ed by the archdukes of Austria, who held the office of Stadtholder, 
and for a brief period the glorious days of the Burgundian regime 
appeared to have returned. The governors of that period, especially 
under the Empress Maria Theresa, are still gratefully remembered 
by the Belgians. The opposition which the reforms of the Emp. 
Joseph II, encountered at length (in 1789) gave rise to the *Bra- 
bant Revolution', headed by Van der Noot and Voncky but the inde- 
pendence thus attained lasted for a single year only, and under 
Emp. Leopold II. the Austrians again took possession of the country. 

TMs revolution^ howeyeVf paved the way for the interference of 
^^e French. In 1794 the whole of Belgium was occu^Ve^ \i^ ¥T«ve\ 

BELGIUM. StaiUties. zxili 

Bepublieana, who diyided it into nine departments. In 1814 the 
French supremacy was finally shaken off. 

The Treaty of London , of 28th June, 1814, and the provisions 
of the Congress of Vienna, of 7th June, 1815, united Belgium and 
Holland under the name of the Kingdom of ike Netherlands^ and 
elevated William of Orange, son of the former stadtholder of the 
Seven Provinces, to the newly-constituted throne (p. xli). Belgium 
was again severed from her constrained union with Holland hy the 
Revolution of 1830. On* 10th Nov. the Provisional Government 
summoned a national congress, by which the Due de Nemours, son 
of Louis Philippe, was invited to become the sovereign of Belgium. 
The French monarch having declined the dignity on behalf of his 
son, Leopold ofSaxe-Cobourg was next selected by the congress, and 
that prince accordingly ascended the throne on 21st July, 1831. 

The treaty of the intervening powers, signed at London on 15th 
Nov., 1831, by the representatives of the five great powers and of 
Belgium , although not finally recognized by the exasperated King 
of Holland till 1839, constituted the Kingdom of Belgium one of 
the independent European states , and determined the boundaries 
and the relations between the two disunited kingdoms. 

King Leopold II. , bom in 1835, the son of Leopold I. (b. 1790, 
d. 1865) and of Louise, his second consort, daughter of Louis Phi- 
lippe (d. 1850), ascended the throne on 10th Dec, 1865. On 
Aug. 22nd, 1853, he married Marie Henriette (d. 1902), daughter 
of the Archduke Joseph. The royal family consists of the Princesses 
Louise (b. 1858 ; married in 1875 to Prince Philip of Saxe-Cobourg), 
Stephanie (b. 1864 ; married first in 1881 to Rudolph, Crown Prince 
of Austria, who died in 1889, and secondly, in 1900, to Count 
Lonyay), and Clementine (b. 1872). Leopold, the only son (b. 1859), 
died at the age of ten. The Count of Flanders (b. 1837), who is 
married to Princess Mary of HohenzoUem , is the King's brother. 
Charlotte (b. 1840), the widow of Maximilian, Emp. of Mexico 
(d. 1867), is a sister of Leopold II. — Since 1885 Leopold has 
also been sovereign of the Congo Free Slatey the seat of government 

of which is at Brussels. 


The Kingdom of Belgium has an area of 11,878 sq. M. and (1902) a 
population of 6,799,999, of whom only 15,000 are Protestants and 3000 Jews, 
the remainder being Roman Catholics. The country is divided into nine 
provinces, viz. Antwerp (836,259 inhab.), Brabant (1,292,118 inhab.), W. Flan- 
ders ^17,851 inhab.), E. Flandert (1,045.007 iohab.), HainauU (1,157,810 in- 
bab.), lAhge (835,807 inhab.), Limbourg (244,550 inbab.), Luxembourg (221,034 
inhab.), and Namur (349,483 inhab.). 

Abmt. The Belgian army is destined on principle only for the defence 
of the country and of the neutrality assured to it by the Treaty of London 
(see above). It is recruited by conscription, decided by lot; but the pur* 
chase of substitutes is allowed. It consists of 147,700 men^ «.^^ V&. vs^sv^ii. 
of peace, of 46,400 men. The army is composfc^ ol i^ x«?,Vm«iA% ^^ "VaSwuJtfci 
(Line, Riflea, Carabineers, GrenadiersV b Te?\meti\A ol C.v?^\n ^^''^?^- 
CAaaseurt-A-Cbeval, Lancers), 4 regiments o? ¥\ft\<i KxWWwi^ "^^^^r^^ 
of Fortress ArtiJlerj, Engineers, MiliiaTy Train, e\.c. TlVie. v^T«u*a.VK«^ *» 

xxiv Charaetertttiea. BELGIUM. 

G aides form the royal guard. — The Oarde CVWftM, or militU, eomlate 
of 40.400 men. 

The national colonrs are red, yellow, and blaek, placed in three per- 
pendicular stripes, which were the colours of the ancient Duchy of Brahiant. 
The armorial bearings of Belgium consist of the Lion of Brabant, with 
the motto *'Vnnion fait la foru" CEeadraehi maakt mackC). 

In 1903 Belgium possessed 73 merchant-ships, including 68 fteamers, 
of an aggregate burden of 106,182 tons, and 403 flshing-boats of 9031 tons. 
It has no nary. 

Chasactbkistics. Those indicated hy the following monkish 
lines are said to exist to some extent eren at the present day : — 

^Nohilihus Bruxella vtrts, Antwerpia nummiSy 
Oandavum laqueis, formosU Bruga puelliSy 
Lovanium dcctiSy gaudet Mtchlinia 8tultiB\ 

(Brussels rejoices in noble men, Antwerp In money, Ghent In 
halters , Bruges in pretty girls , Louvaln in learned men , and 
Malines in fools.) Halters are mentioned in connection with Ghent 
In allusion to the frequent humiliations to which its turbalent 
citizens were subjected by their sovereigns. The unenviable repu- 
tation of the citizens of Malines originated in the story that they 
once mistook the moon shining through their cathedral-tower for 
a conflagration, and endeavoured to extinguish It by means of the 

The Kermesses (Flem. Kermissen), or village-fairs, which usually 
take place in July or August, afford admirable opportunities of 
studying the national Flemish characteristics. A prominent part 
on these occasions is played by the Archery Clubs, which are very 
numerous in Belgium and display astonishing skill. 

BSguinagea, see p. 71 ; Wind Mills, Dykes j Canals, and Polder$, 
see pp. XXXV, xxxvi. 

Among recent English Books relating to Belgium may be men- 
tioned the 'History of Belgium', by D. C. Boulger ( Part I; London, 
1902); 'The Story of Belgium', by C. Smythe (London, 1900); *The 
Constitution of Belgium', translated, with notes, by J, M, Vincent 
(Philadelphia, 1898); 'The Cities of Belgium', by Grant AUen 
(London, 1897); 'Belgian Life in Town and Country , by D.C.Boulger 
( London, 1904); 'Belgium and the Belgians', by C.Scudamore (Lon- 
don, 1901). 

Maps. The best maps of Belgium are those issued by the Institui 
Cartographique Militairt on the scales of 1 : 20,000 (480 sheets at IV* fr. 
plain, 2 fr. coloured), 1 : 40,000 (72 sheets at 2 to 6 fr. per sheet, according 
to style), and 1 : 160,000 (six sheets at 9 fr. plain. 12-15 fr. coloured; cycliste^ 
editinn 18 fr.). The Institut has also published a 'Carte G^ologique du Sol 
de la Belgiquo', \ij A. Dumomi^ on a scale of 1 : 160,000 (9 sheets, not sold 
separately { 40 fr.). 


I. Plan of Tour. 

The following tour of a week is recommended to the trayeller 
whose time is limited : — 

From London to Rotterdam by steamboat ; or from Antwerp 

to Rotterdam by railway .1 

Rotterdam, and thence by railway to The Hague .... 1 
To Seheveningen ; also visit to ' T Huis ten Boseh .... 1 

To Leyderiy and the same evening to Haarlem 1 

Haarlem , and in the evening to Amsterdam ....•! 

Amsterdam and Environs 1 

To Utrecht and thence by railway to Amhem 1 

A hasty glance at the principal places in Holland may thus 
be obtained in a week or ten days , but the traveller whose time 
permits should devote a longer period to this interesting country. 
The following will be found a pleasant and instructive tour of a 
fortnight: — Days 

From London, or from Antwerp, to Rotterdam .... 1 

Rotterdam and Delft 1 

The Hague and Seheveningen * ... 2 

Leyden and Haarlem . ly^ 

Alkmaar ; Helder, and back to Haarlem ...... 3 

Amsterdam and Environs 3 

Utrecht 1 

Amhem 1 

II. Money and Travelling Expenses. 

Money. The Dutch currency consists of florins fguiden or 
guilder) and cents. The gulden (is. 8V2<2.) contains lOD cents, or 
20 stuiverSj or 10 duhheUjes. The only gold coins now issued are 
pieces of 10 fl., known as Oouden Tientjes, The silver coins are 
pieces of 2^2 (ryksdaalder) and 1 florin, and of 60 (halve gulden), 
25 (kwartje) , 10 (dubbeltje), and 5 (stuiver) centa. A stuiver, or 
5 eents, is worth id. English. In copper there are pieces of 2^2, 
if and ^2 C6Q^' l^utch paper-money stands at par. English, French, 
or German money is taken at the hotels and railway-stations. The 
average exchange for a napoleon is 9 fl. 40 cents, for a sovereign 
ll«/4-12 fl., for a 20-mark piece 11 fl. 80 cents. Foie\^\ass^viNs* 
most advantageously exchanged at AmBteidaisi «Li\^^^VX-%iv^^tsv» j 

• SxPBNSBB. LiviDg in Holland la not c^evp, Wiow^V^iX^^ sswia.^'^^ 
Buying tb&t a florin in Holland goes only aa iai a^^ *. ^o^*-^ ^^ ^"^^^ 

xxvl HoteU. HOLLAND. 

many is an exaggeration. The Dutch seaside-resorts, especially Sche- 
veningen, have the reputation of being expensive. 

Fees at museums, churches, etc., should not exceed 2 fl. per 
day. Hotel expenses amount to 7-8 fl. daily, and travelling and 
other expenses to 4-5 fl. , so that the total cost of a tour in Hol- 
land will be 13-15 fl. a day. The 'voyageur en gar^n* may 
reduce this by one half by breakfasting at the caf^s, dining at 
simple restaurants, and avoiding expensive hotels. 

in. PaBsportSi dutom House. 

Passports may be dispensed with in Holland, as in Belgium, 
but the traveller had better be provided with one if he contemplates 
a prolonged tour. Gomp. p. xii. 

Custom House. At the frontier-stations the smaller articles of 
luggage are examined in the railway-carriages. To ensure the safe 
arrival of registered or booked luggage, it is advisable to state the 
exact route for which the railway-ticket is available. 

IV. Hotels, Cafis, Milk Shops. 

The Hotels of the first class are apt to resemble those of Belgium 
(see p. xii) in being not quite up to the mark, though an exception 
to this rule is afforded by some houses of international reputation 
at The Hague, Scheveningeu, and Amsterdam, In some respects 
they resemble the hotels in England more than those in other parts 
of the continent. The usual charge for a bedroom, including light 
and attendance, is 2Y2~^ ^m pl&in breakfast (ontbyt) 60-80 cents, 
dejeuner or luncheon iy4-2fl., table d'hote dinner 2-372 A* (wine 
extra in each case). Luncheon is generally taken between 11.30 
and 1, dinner between 5 and 7.30 o'clock. In the old Dutch hotels 
in the districts comparatively unaffected by the stream of tourists, 
it is customary to combine the charges for room and breakfast, the 
latter consisting of an ample selection of cold viands, with honey- 
cakes (see p. 415), eggs, or cheese. Luncheon or dejeuner is, in 
this case, better obtained at a cafl. Meals at the less pretentious 
hotels are often nearly as dear as those of the flrst-class houses, but 
the charge for bedrooms is generally considerably less. In spite of 
the Dutch reputation for cleanliness, the traveller will often find 
the sanitary conditions of these hotels far from pleasant. The beds 
also are often inferior to those of Belgium. English, French, and 
German are spoken at all the more frequented hotels and restaurants. 

The following is a reasonably liberal scale of grataities : head-waiter 
25-60 c. per dav for each person ^ chamber-maid {kamermeUJ9)^ S-& days 
60 c, a week 1 fl.^ boots (huUJmeeht)^ 20 c. per day. A tip may also be 
given to tbe portier if he has rendered any special services. 

The names for the chief articles for tbe "wash' (wtuch) are oterfemdy 

abJrt; t$ae?fthemdt night-shirt; hoord^ collar; numvcKtU^^^ caffs; \owmy socks: 

omOfrA^md, under-veat: on^rhroek. drawers; otwlerror, veU\to«^\v tatdoeK 

J»»adkercbief. , , % ^ % 

HOLLAND. LanQuage. xxtII 

Gaf^s, as in Belgium, are generally fieqnented in the afternoon 
and eTening. At midday various ploU du jour (p. xiii) are ready 
at a price of 50-80 c, while in the evening dinner ia often provided 
for 1-2 fl. The front part of the caf6, separated by a curtain from 
the rear half, is generally left unlighted in the evening, so that the 
guests may the better enjoy the view of life in the street. 

The German word ^^Uner" is used everywhere for Vaiter"*; ihoagh 
the Dutch usually summon him with the expression ^Aannemen* (i.e. Make*t 
short for 4ake the order*) or address him as Jan. He expects a fee of 
6-10 c. (15-25 c. from diners). 

Some of the chief French and German newspapers (couranUn) may 
generally be seen at the principal cafds, Bnglish ones more rarely. The 
most widely circulated Liberal papers in Holland are the nUuw9 RotttT' 
damtche Courant (which also enjoys a reputation for its articles on art and 
science), the Algemeen Eandelsblcul and Bet Jiieuws wan den Dag of Amater- 
dam , and the Vaderland and Nieuwe Courant at The Hague. The leading 
Conservative journal is the Standaard of Amsterdam, and the most popular 
Clerical sheets are the Tyd and Csr»(rum, both also published at Amsterdam. 

Beeb Houses, with German beer and cold viands, are found in 
almost every town. The beer sold at caf^s is generally a native 
imitation of German brews. 

The Milk Shops, which are found in the larger towns, are recom- 
-mended ; they supply tea, coffee, lemonade, eggs, etc., as well as milk. 

V. Language. 

A slight acquaintance with the Dutch language will contribute 
greatly to the instruction and enjoyment afforded by a tour in 
Holland. Germtn, however, is very generally understood, and 
English and French are spoken at all the best hotels and other prin- 
cipal resorts of travellers. Those who have a knowledge of German, 
Danish, or Swedish will recognize the identity of the roots of the 
great majority of the words in these languages with those of the 
Dutch. The language, which may be described as a Lower Prank- 
ish dialect, and which existed in a written form as early as the 
12th century, developed its individuality more strongly during the 
wars of independence of the 17th century, expelling the Frisian 
tongue (p. 406) on a great part of the coaist and supplanting the 
various local dialects. It is expressive and highly cultivated, and 
free from the somewhat vague and ungrammatical character which 
stamps Flemish as a mere patois. Like other languages of purely 
Teutonic origin, it has admitted a considerable number of Romanic 
words to the rights of citizenship : thus, kantoor (comptoir), kwar- 
iier (quartier), katoen (coton), kdstrol (casserole), rekwest (requete), 
gida (guide), etc. Words of foreign origin, however, have been 
imported from motives of convenience or fashion, rather than abso- 
lute necessity. The language is remarkably rich and tvvVV ^l-^N^aJs. 
energy, and words of purely native giowt\vaieto\i^lc»\vw^vcw^'a\^^ 
eveiy branch of Bcience and art. Tlie fo\\Q^ff\u?»\\\\fe^ ^^^^ ^ ^q^v^«- 
bslUd will serve as a specimen : — 

xxTiil Languoffe, 


Wij leven rrij, wij leven blij 

Op ITeSrlands dierbren grond, 
Ontworsteld aan de slavemij, 
Zijn wij door eendracbt groot en vrij j 
Hier doldt de grond geen dwinglandij 
Waar vrijheid eeuwen stond. 


(Literal translation: 'We live free, 
we live blithe, on Netherlands'* dear 
ground; delivered from slavery, we 
are through concord great and nree ; 
here the land suffers no tyranny, 
where freedom has subsisied for 

The pronunciation of Dutch somewhat resembles that of Ger- 
man , but is more guttural , and therefore more difficult for the 
English student. The vowels a, e, t, o, u are pronounced as in 
French , and are lengthened , but not altered jLn sound , by being 
doubled (thus oo = o) ; ei and ij, or j/, are like the vowel sound in 
the French pays ; au and ou like ow in now, but broader (aw-oo) ; 
eu like the French eu ; oe like the English oo or the German u; 
ui has a sound fluctuating between oi and ow (as in now). All the 
consonants 'are pronounced as in English, except g and cA, which 
have a guttural sound like the ch in the Scottish word loch; w^ which 
is pronounced like v ; j like the English y or ee ; and v like f. 

The definite article is de for the masculine and feminine, and 
het for the neuter ; genitive des^ der, des, or van den^ van de, van 
hetj dative den, der, hety or aan den^ aan de, aan het; plural for 
all genders de, der^ den^ de. In popular language the genitive and 
dative forms with *van' and *aan' are universally used. 

The declension resembles the German. The plural of substantives 
is formed by the addition of s or of en (dative plural always en). ' 

The pronouns are tA;, I; mij, me, to me ; gij, thou, you; t«, thee, 
to thee, you, to you ; hij, he ; hem, him, to him ; het, it ; zij^ she ; 
haar, her, to her; zij, they; hun, to them; Aen, them. Jlf^n, 
mijne, my ; uw, uioe, thy, your ; zijn, zijne, his ; haar, hare, her ; 
onze, ons, our; hun, hunne, their. Wie, who (interrog.)j v/atj 
what ; hoe, how ; loanneer , when. 

Cardinal numbers : een, twee, drie, vier, vijf, zes, zeven, acht, 
negen, tien, elf, twaalf, dertien, veertien, vijftien, zestien, zeven- 
tien, achttien, uegentien, twintig, een en twintig, etc., dertig, 
veertig, Tijftig, zestig, zeventig, tachtig, negentig, honderd, 
duizend. Ordinal numbers: de eerste, de tweede, de derde, de 
vierde, de achtste (Sth), etc., de twintigste, de tachtigste (80th), etc. 
Partitive numbers : een half, een derde, een vierde, etc. 

Auxiliary verbs. Hebben, to have ; zijn or wezen, to be ; zullen, 
the infinitive of shall or will (future sense) ; worden, to be (in the 
formation of the passive voice). 

ik heb 
gij hebt 
hij, zij heeft 
wij hebben 
gij hebt 

^g^ad, bad. 

He ben 

ik zal 

ik word 

gij m 

gij zult 

gij wordt 

hij, zij is 

hij, zij zal 

h^, zij wordt 

wij zijn 

wij zullen 

wij worden 

gij zijt 

gij zult 

gij wordt 

Kij tijn 

zij suUen. 

%ii ^0orden 

geweest, been. 

geiDOTdcn, \^««^, 


Language, xxix 

The conjugation of Teibs and the construction of Bentences 
closely resemble the German. 

The form of address among the upper classes is always U (prop- 
erly Vwe EdeUy Your lordship, Ital. Yossignoria), with the third 
person singular, and often with the addition of Mijnheer, A mar- 
ried lady is addressed as Mevrouvo (pronounced M^frow), a young 
lady as Mejuffrouw, Juffrouvo is uniformly used in addressing bar- 
maids, female attendants in shops, etc. Freule is used for an un- 
married lady of noble birth. — Among the common people gij or 
jij, abbreviated into jCy is used with the second person plural. Je 
is also made use of in familiar speech by persons of the upper 
ranks, but the stranger is recommended to abide by the more formal 
mode of address. 

Mag ikUvragen^ hoe ga ik naar . . ? 
Wat is de kortste weg naar . . ? 
Oareeht utt, en dan de eerste straat 

linkSy rechts. 
Ik dank U, mijnheer. 
Ik zal met den spoorweg (or 

simply met het spoorjj met de 

stoomboot reizen. 
Kruier, breng de bagage naar het 

Ik geloof dai het te laat is. 
In welke kkisse reist C7, mijn- 
Ik zal een kaartje (or billet') voor 

'de tweede klas nemen. 
Enkele reis. Retourbillet. 
Hoe laat is het? 
Het is kwartier voor tvoeeen^ over 

drieen^ half tien, 
De trein vertrekt om vijf uur en 

komt om tien aan. 
Instappen, uitstappen; stab tn, 

haast V, 
Hoe lang houden wij hier stil ? 
Waar zijn wij nw, mijnheer ? 
Dit is het laatste station. 
Koetfier, breng ons naar . . 
Wachty ik moet nog mijn bagage 

halen. Ik heb iets vergeten. 
Bij het hotel . . . ophouden, 
Hoeveel is de vracht ? 
Ken fooi. 

X'an ik een kamer krijgen ? met 
/^n bed, twee bedden. 


May I ask you how I am to go to .. . 
Which is the shortest way to . . . 
Qo straight on,and then by the first 

street to the right, to the left. 
Thank you, sir. 
I shall travel by railway, by 


Porter, take the luggage to the 

I believe it is too late. 
In which class will you travel ? 

I shall take a ticket for the second 

Single journey. Return-ticket. 
What o'clock is it? 
It is a quarter to two, a quarter 

past three, half-past nine. 
The train starts at 5 o'clock and 

arrives at ten. 
To get to (the train), to get out 

(alight) ; get in, be quick. 
How long do we stop here? 
Where are we now, sir? 
This is the last station. 
Coachman, drive us to . . . 
Wait, I must fetch my luggage. 

I have forgotten something. 

To stop at the . . . hotel. 

What is the fax^l 

A fee. ^ 

Can 1 \v^N^ Mowa^ WCB.Q^'6^^^'^"^^ 

XXX Lan^tioge. 


Zekety mijnheer. 

Kelhier^ wai heb je te eten? het 

ontbijtf het middageteny het 

avondeten; drihken, 
Breng mij gehraden rundvleeschy 

kalfsborstj hanij vischj aatd- 

appeUrij groenie (fern.), broodj 

boter, eieren, vruchten, kaas^ 

wiJHj bier, koffie, thee, jeriever. 

MeSy vorky lepel^ glas^ bord, 

Ik zal morgen om zeven uur vtr- 

trekken ; wek mij om zes. 
Hoeveel bedraagt onze rekening? 
Wat zijn uij schuldig ? 
In weUce atraat is het musevm ? 
Hoe ver is het van hier? 
Wanneer is het geopend ? 
Dagelijks kosteloos , van tien tot 

drie uutj behalve — 
*8 woensdags en 's zaterdags tegen 

Zondagj maandagj dinsdag, don- 

derdagj vrijdag. 
Vandaag (or heden), morgen^ gi- 

Ik wenschte eenige photographien 

te koopen, gezichten van . . . , 

kopieeen nnar de schilderijen 

van . . . 
Laat mij zien wat je hebt. 
Dat is niet moot. 
Wat kost het (dat) ? 
Wat vraag je er voor ? 
Ik heb geen klein geld bij mij ,• 

kunt gij wisselen ? 
Ja^ mijnheer; neen^ mijnheer. 
Als H V belieft. 

Certainly, sir. 

Waiter, what have you to eat? 
breakfast, dinner, supper; to 

Bring me roast heef, breast of 
veal, ham, fish, potatoes, vege- 
tables, bread, butt^, fruit, 
eggs, cheese, wine, bee^coffee, 
tea, gin. Knife, fork, Igpoon, 
glass, plate, bottle. 

I shall start to-morrow at 7 
o'clock ; wake me at 6. 

How much does our bill come to ? 

What do we owe you ? 

In which street is the museum ? 

How far is it from here? 

When is it open ? 

Daily, gratis, from ten to three, 
except — 

Wednesdays and Saturdays on 

Sunday,Monday,Tuesday, Thurs- 
day, Friday. 

To-day, to-morrow, yesterday. 

I want to buy some photographs, 
views of ... , copies of the 
paintings of . . . 

Let me see what you have. 
That is n(»t pretty. 
What does that cost? 
What do you ask for this ? 
I have no change with me ; can 
you change me (some money)? 
Yes, sir; no, sir. 
If you please. 

VI. Churches, Picture Galleries, and Collections. 

Ohurohbs are shown by the sacristans, who demand the sum of 
20-2r) c. from ea^h visitor, frequently according to tariff. Except in 
Limburg and North Brabant, almost all the old churches are Pro- 
testant and closed except during divine service. 

PioTUBB Oallbribb AND CoLLBOTiONs are g;euwai\V^ o^^w fxom. 
iOa.m. till 3, 4, or 5 p.m. T/iey are closed on ^e^ \eiw?ft\>vj m^^ 

HOLLAND. Railways, xxxi 

on some popular holidays. Sticks and umbrellas must be given np 
at tbe door, but, as a rule, no charge is made for taking care of 
them. The usual gratuity at private collections is 1 fl. 

The traveller should be on his guard against spurious antiquities, which 
are freely manufactured in Holland. Purchasers of old furniture and silver- 
ware are specially warned against deception and should always demand 
a written guarantee of genuineness. 

VI. Railways. Steamers. 

Most of the Dutch Railways are owned by private companies, 
of which the largest are the Hollandsche Y*eren Spoorweg Maat- 
schappy and the Nederlandache Ctntraalspoorweg Maatschappy; while 
even the State lines are leased to another company, the Maatsehappy 
tot Exploitatie van StaatsSpoorwegen. Some of the main lines are 
traversed by the so-called German ^D^ trains, with saloon-carriages 
(seat 60 c; for a distance of over 90 M., 1 fl. 20 c); but the car- 
riages on some of the other lines, especially those of the second 
class (10 seats in each), are poorly Qtted up. 

The fares per English mile are about 9^4 c. Istcl., 7 c. 2nd cL, and 
43/8 c. 3rd cl. ; return-tickets are valid from three days to one month, 
except in some cases of local servicef^uurtverftfer^ where they are good 
for a day only. On the lines owned by the State and on those of the 
Dutch Central Railway continuous 'distance-tickets' are issued, valid 
six months (e.y., 500 kil., 15 fl., 11 V4 fl-» or 772 fl-> according to 
class). In summer the railways of N. Holland issue cheap circular 
tickets, with routes arranged to meet the wishes of purchasers, 
while the other railways issue in common, during July, Aug., and 
Sept., so-called holiday tickets (yacantie kaartjes ; first class 4, 
second 3, third 2 fl.), which allow the traveller to make an unbroken 
journey from one end of the kingdom to the other. Foreign circular 
tour tickets are good only for the lines expressly named on them. 

No luggage is allowed free, except on international routes (comp. 
p. xvii). The railway-porter (besitller) receives 20-3Q 0. for carrying 
luggage between the cab and the train. Small articles may be de- 
posited in the left luggage office (10 c. daily for each piece). 

On the Dutch railways Greenwich or West Europe time is in- 
troduced (comp. pp. xvi, xvii); but for other traffic, including 
most of the steamer- lines and steam - tramways (except in Lim- 
burg), the inconvenient habit is to follow Amsterdam time, which 

is 20 min. ahead of railway time. 

The hest railway and steam- tramway (itoomiramwegenj stoomtrams) 
time-tables are contained in the Nederlandtch Spoorboekjg (10 c). Other 
means of travelling (steamboats, diligences, omnibuses, tramways, etc.) 
are contained only in Van Santen's OffieitUe Beisffids voor Nederland (with 
small map. 15 cents, with large map, 25 cents). Vrachtprys means fare-., 
9. (vertrek) means departure, and a. (aankomst) arT\\«A.» TlQ «Xjk»».Vk ^^x- 
riages is overstappen. 

Stbamsbs fStoombooten) may be xised iivsVfc^.^ ^l '^^'^'^^^\'^^- 
trsvelling between almost any two towns ot HoW^^^- ^^ vus^^^sv^ 

xxxU CycUng. HOLLAND. 

idea of the character of the country and of the peculiar charms of 
Dutch scenery (comp. p. xxxiv) is afiforded by the steamers on the 
smaller canals (e. g. between Rotterdam and Delft , Leyden and 
Katwyk, Leyden and Amsterdam, Alkmaar and Utrecht), while the 
steamer - navigation on the Rhine (Rotterdam to Cologne) and 
through Zeeland (Antwerp to Rotterdam, pp. 200, 201). will also be 
found enjoyable. 

Vm. Cycling. 

Holland is a favourite district for cyclists on account of its ex- 
cellent and level roads. Its highroads (grintwegen) are all kept in 
admirable condition, and its secondary roads (straatwegen), paved 
with a kind of brick called ^klihkers\ are practicable even after the 
heaviest showers. The roads (keiwegen) in North Brabant , which 
are paved with cobble-stones, are, however, less pleasant. Most of 
the chief roads are provided with a path open to cyclists. All the 
.more important cross-roads are supplied with sign-posts, and dan- 
gerous points (gevaarlyke helling) are indicated by warning boards. 
Cyclists keep to the left in passing and to the right in meeting 
other vehicles. Every cycle must be provided with a bell or other 
warning signal, and with a bright lantern at night. 

Bicycles brought by travellers for their own use in Holland are 
admitted free of duty. All the railways carry cycles, either crated 
or uncrated. The HoUandsche Yzeren Spoorweg Maatschappy 
(p. xxxi) charges a uniform price of 20 c for each cycle, and on 
production of the receipt for this (Wcqu^J issue one-way tickets for 
cyclists at half the rate of return-tickets. The other railway com- 
panies charge 12 c. for the first 10 kilometres for each bicycle, and 
2 c. for each 10 kil. (6 M.) more (tandems or tricycles more in pro- 

The publications of the Algemeene Jfederlandsche Wielryders-Bond 
(subscription for foreigners 3Y2 fl.> badge 75 c. ; sec, Mr. Sprenger, 
Wilhelmina-Park 12, Haarlem) are also furnished to members of 
foreign cycling clubs on advantageous terms, and may be obtained 
through Mr. D. Fockema, Villa Rosa, Amhem. These include a 
general handbook, an atlas of the Netherlands with roads shown in 
three colours (36 sheets on a scale of 1 : 200,000, price 21/2 A)) 
a tourist's handbook (Reiswyzer voor Nederland; 4 parts, at 50 c. 
each), and a map showing distances. The general liandbook con- 
tains a list of hotels (special tariff for members of the League), re- 
pairing-shops (hondsrywitl hersteller), stations with *fir8t-aid' chests 
(hulpkUtJ for cases of accident, and dark chambers (donkele kamcr) 
for developing photographs. 

The following plan for a Cycling Tour thaouoh Holland 
(MA^M.) includes some of the most beautiful parts of the country, 
^acA as Nymwegen, Arnheniy and the environs otH^wVwsi, wvv\ a.\sQ 
embraces the chief centres of artistic interest (M.&a8tm\il, Km%\fet- 

HOLLAND. Post Office, xxxiii 

dam, Leeuwarden, Haarlem, Leyden, The Hague, Delft, Rotterdam, 
Utieclit, Gonda, etc.). 

Aiz-lft-Cliapelle-i/aa«<WcA<(23 M.). — Meer88en-Siitard-/2oermond(29V2M.). 

— Venlo-Kymwegen-^rnAan (jSd M.). — Steeg-Dieren-Eerbeek-Loenen-Beek- 
bergen-Apeldoorn-ioo (25V2M.). — Vaassen-Heerde-Hattem-JZwoffe (24VsM.). 

— Nieaw-Leusden-Dedemsvaart-CoeYorden-Dalen-Emmen-Borger (tumuli, 
p. 413)- Gieten-Eolde (tiimuli)- ^M«n (70 M.). — Vries-Eel de-Paters wold e- 
Oroningen - Zuidhom-G-rypAkerk-Buitenpost-Twyzel-Hardegaryp-^ettwardtfn 
(69M.)« — Wytgaard-Deersum-Sneek-Woudsend-Harig-Stavoren (with steam- 
boat to Enkhuizen; 39 M.)- — Westwoud-Hoorn-Scharwoude-Edam-Monni- 
kendam (with excursion to Marken)-Broek-Buiksloot-^fn«<erdam (36 M.). — 
Halfweg-Haarlem (with detour to Bloemendaal)-Hillegom-Lisse-Sa8senheim- 
Leyd9n (28 M.). — The Deyl (with detour to Wa88enaar)-7%« Hague (with 
detour to Scheveningen ; 10 M.). — Delft-Overschie-/2o(^dkim (with detour 
to Dordrecht^ 13 M.). — Moordrecht-GoudarOudewater-Montfoort- Wr«cA< 
(33V» M.). — Zeist-Doom-Wageningen-Oosterbeek-Arnhem-Nymwegen-C/etJS 

Members of the CyclUW* Towing Club (p. xviii) receive the privileges 
of the Algemeene N»derl<md$ehe Wielrpders-Bond (comp. p. xxxii) on ap- 
plying for a temporary ticket of membership. — Bicycles accompanied by 
their owners are conveyed by the steamers between Harwich and the 
Hook of Holland or Rotterdam for 3s., tandems 5s., tricycles 7s. Qd. 

IX. Post and Telegraph Offlces. 

Postal Rates. Ordinary Letters witMn Holland 5 c. per 
16 grammes (V2 oz.); to Belgium 10 c. ; elsewhere abroad 12*/2 c. 

— Post Cards 2^2 *5. ; for abroad 60. — PrirUed Matter^ 25 gr. 1 c, 
100-160 gr. 6 c, 150-260 gr. 7V, c, 250-500 gr. 10 c, etc. ; for 
abroad 2V2 c. per 60 gr. (minimum I2Y2 c). — The word for 
'registered' Is aar^geteekend. 

Post Office Orders are issued for most countries in the Postal 
Union, at a charge of 12^/2 «• per 10 gulden. 

Telbobams. Within Holland, 10 words 25 c., each additional 6 
words 5 c. extra. — To Great Britain, 6 words 60 c, each addi- 
tional word 10 c. ; to the United States, each word 82, 92, or 97 c, 
or more, according to the distance. 

X. Dutch Charaoteristios. 

Towns. Most of the Dutch towns, as well as the open country, 
are intersected in every direction by canals (grachten)y which are 
generally enlivened with numerous barges. The different quarters 
of the towns are connected by means of drawbridges (ophaal^ 
hruggen) or swing-bridges (draaibruggen). The roads and streets 
skirting the canals are usually planted with trees, which render 
them shady and picturesque. 

The Dutch houses are generally narrow, and constructed of brick 
with the joints pointed white. In the larger towns they are some- 
times six stories in height. Most are *8elf-coTit».mfe^ \i^i\\Si^%.^ ^Qsv^ 
custom of living in 'flats' or tenement-\vouafe* "b^VcL^ ^'^ 't*-'^^ *^ '^^ 
Belgium. The beams occasionally seen pio^ectiw^ Itoov ^«k ^^C^^^ 
serve for hoisting up goods to the lotta, w^Uli ax^ tx^^^^. ^"^ ^^%^ 
Bamdmkms'b Belgium and HoUand iUh "Edit. «• 

x-xxiv Chardcteristics. HOLLAND. 

zines. The windows of tlie grouudfloor are generally of ample 

The Chimes in the towers of the churches, or other public build- 
ings , proclaim the quarters of every hour by playing a few bars 
of some popular or operatic air. 

The ^^aper' (gaper), a painted Turk's or Moor's head, is a 
customary sign for druggists' shops. A large crown, decorated 
with box-leaves and gilding , suspended beneath the Dutch flag, 
is an indication that fresh herrings have arrived in the shop thus 
adorned. '^Tapperif (tap-room), or ^hier verkoopt men sterke 
dranken^ (strong drinks are sold here), with the addition of ver^ 
gunning (licensed), are the common signs for taverns. ^Dit huis is te 
huur* (this house is to hire, or let) is also frequently observed. 

The Dutch love of cleanliness sometimes amounts almost to a 
monomania. The scrubbing, washing, and polishing (schoonmaken) 
which most houses undergo once every week, externally as well as 
internally, are occasionally somewhat subversive of comfort. 

CoiJNTBY Houses (buitenplaatsen , or buitens). Although na- 
ture has not bestowed her charms lavishly on Holland , the careful 
cultivation of the fields, gardens, and plantations imparts a pictur- 
esque and prosperous appearance to the country. In the vicinity 
of the larger cities, especially between Arnhem, Wageningen, and 
Utrecht, on the Vecht between Utrecht and Amsterdam, between 
Hilversum and Baarn , between Leyden and The Hague, and at 
Haarlem, numerous villas and country-seats are seen near the roads 
and canals , frequently enclosed by carefully kept gardens, parks, 
and pleasure-grounds. These paradises of the Dutch gentry and 
retired merchants usually bear inscriptions characteristic of the 
sentiments of their proprietors, and breathing a spirit of repose and 
comfort. Thus : ^Lust en RusV (pleasure and repose), * Wei Tevreden^ 
(well content), ^Myn Oenoegen' (my satisfaction), ^Myn Lust en 
Leven^ (my pleasure and life), * Vriendschap en Oezelschap* (friend- 
ship and sociability), ^Vreugde bij Vrede^ (joy with peace), ^Oroot 
Qenoeg' (large enough), ^Buiten Zorg^ (without care). 

BBNEvoLByr Institutions. The number of these in Holland, 
dating from earlier centuries, is remarkably great ; in Amsterdam 
alone there are over a hundred. A Qasthuis is a hospital. Hofjes 
are groups of dwellings, arranged round a court or yard, and occupied 
as almshouses by aged persons. Oudemannen and Oudevrouwen 
houses, orphanages maintained by the various religious denomina- 
tions, and similar institutions are very numerous. — The Mcuit- 
schappy tot Nut vant Algemeen^ or *Society for the Public Welfare', 
is a very important body, whose chief seat is at Amsterdam but 
whose sphere of operations extends over the entire kingdom of Hol- 
Ja/jd. It W&8 founded in 1784 by Jan Ni^uwenhuyzen, a Baptist 
preacher, and its object is the promotion of the eduQatvon and moral 
eu/ture of the lo wer clMses, 

HOLLAND. Characieri8tic8. xxxv 

The picturesqae National Gostumbs haTe been letained in 
Holland (except in the larger towns) more generally than in almost 
any othet country. The costumes in Zeeland, North Holland, Fries- 
land, and the islands in the Zuiderzee, are specially noteworthy. 

WiXD Mills (molens) are a characteristic of almost every Dutch 
landscape, and here attain an unprecedented size and strength. 
They are used in grinding corn, sawing timber, cutting tobacco, 
manufacturing paper, etc., but one of their most important functions 
is to pump up the superfluous water from the low ground to the canals 
which conduct it to the sea. Recently, however, steam-engines 
(sioomgemaal) have been largely introduced for this last purpose. • 

Dykes. Holland , as a whole , is probably the lowest country 
in the world, the greater part of it lying many feet below the sea- 
level. The safety of the entire kingdom therefore depends upon the 
dykes , or embankments , by which the encroachment of the sea is 
prevented. In many places these vast and costly structures are 
equally necessary to prevent inundation by the rivers, the beds 
of which are gradually raised by alluvial deposits. 

The first care of the constructor of dykes is to lay a secure and 
massive foundation, as a preliminary to which the ground is 
stamped or compressed in order to increase its solidity. The dykes 
themselves are composed of earth, sand, and mud, which when 
thoroughly consolidated are entirely impervious to water. The 
surface is then covered with twigs of willows, interwoven with 
elaborate care , the interstices being filled with clay so as to bind 
the whole into a solid mass. The willows, which are extensively 
cultivated for the purpose, are renewed every 3 or 4 years. Many 
of the dykes are planted with trees, the roots of which contribute 
materially to the consolidation of the structure. Others are pro- 
vided with bulwarks of masonry, or protected by stakes against the 
violence of the waves, while the surface is covered with turf. 

The most gigantic of these embankments are those of the Hel- 
der (p. 400), of Pettem (N. Holland), and of WestkapelU on the 
W. coast of the island of Walcheren (p. 290). The annual cost 
(de WaUrstaat) of maintaining these works throughout Holland 
is estimated at fourteen million florins. A corps of engineers is 
occupied exclusively in superintending them. The constantly- 
imminent nature of the danger will be thoroughly appreciated by 
the stranger, if he stands at the foot of one of the great dykes at 
high tide, and hears the breakers dashing against the other side of 
the barrier, at a height of 16-18 ft. above his head. The force of 
the old Dutch proverb 'God made the sea. we made the shore', will 
also be apparent. 

Canals intersect the country in every diiection. '^Vc^ ^^^^ ** ^ 
tbreefold purpose : (1) as highroads, for putpoae* ot Xx^l^^N V*^ ^ 
dniBB, by which superfluous water is removed iiom VXve^ qavVX-vj^"^^ 

xixyi Chwacteristies. HOLLAND. 

land ; (3) as enclosures foi houses , fields , and gardens , being as 
commonly used for tMs purpose in Holland as walls and hedges in 
other countries. The Dutch canals differ from those in most other 
countries in being generally broader, though variable in width, while 
locks are rare , as the leyel of the water is nearly always the same. 
Those canals, however, which are connected with the sea are pro- 
tected by massive flood-gates , to prevent the encroachment of the 
sea when its level is higher than the water in the canal. 

The principal canals are about 60 ft. in width and 6 ft. in 
depth. Not only the surface of the water, but the bed of the canal 
, is often considerably above the level of the surrounding country. 
The three most important works of this kind in Holland are the 
great North Holland Canal (p. 394), the Zuid-Willema-Vaart 
(p. 442), in N. Brabant, and the North Sea Canal across ^Holland 
op zyn smalst' (p. 395), connecting Amsterdam and the North Sea. 

Polder is a term applied to a morass or lake, the bed of which 
has been reclaimed by draining. A great part of Holland and 
Flanders has been thus reclaimed , and rendered not only habit- 
able, but extremely valuable for agricultural purposes. 

The first step in the process of drainage consists in enclosing the 
marsh with a dyke , to prevent the admission of water from with- 
out. The water is then removed by means of water-wheels of pecu- 
liar construction, formerly driven by wind-mills, now by steam- 
engines. The marsh or lake to be reclaimed is sometimes too deep to 
admit of the water at once being transferred to the main canals, and 
thus carried off. In these cases a system of dykes , one within the 
other, and each provided with a canal on its exterior, forms an as- 
cending series of levels, from the lower of which the water is grad- 
ually transferred to the higher, and thence finally into the principal 
channels. An excellent example of this is seen in the Schermer 
Polder J where four different levels have been formed. These 
canals, although separate from one another, are all provided with 
means of communication, by which if necessary the water from 
the higher can be discharged into the lower. 

The extraordinary fertility of the land thus reclaimed is chiefly 
accounted for by the fact that superfluous water can be removed 
by means of the water-wheels on the shortest notice, while in dry 
seasons a thorough system of irrigation is constantly available. 

The principal polders are the Beemster (reclaimed in 1608-12; 

p. 401), Purmer (p. 401), Schermer^ that of Haarlem (p. 305), and 

the Polder of the Y (pp. 305, 395). It is now proposed to construct 

an embankment between Ewyksluis in N. Holland and the village 

of Plaam in Friesland and thus to convert the Zuiderzee into a huge 

lagoon, 1400 sq. M. in area, of which two-thirds could be made into 

A polder. The estimated cost is 189 million florins, of which 4OV2 

joi'lllons are assigned toi the embankment, an^ i^OmWWomlwVyi^ 

ffonetr action of the polder. 

HOLLAND. History, xxxvli 

XI. History and Statiaties. 

The earliest inhabitants of the district at the embouchures of 
the Rhine aie said to have accompanied the Gimbri and Teutones 
in their expedition against Italy. Several banished tribes of the 
Catti, who settled in the deseited island of Betuwe (p. 438), were 
conquered by the Romans , whose supremacy over this part of the 
eouutry continued from the failure of the great rebellion of Clau- 
ditu CivUis till the end of the 4th cent. , when the Salic Franks, 
the inhabitants of the banks of the Yssel, took possession of the Be- 
tuwe, and established themselves between the Scheldt; Maas, and 
Lower Rhine. The district to the N. E. of the Salic Franks was 
occupied by the Frisians, to the E. of whom were the Saxons. 

The supremacy of Charlemagne extended over the whole of 
the Netherlands. Under his successors the system of investing 
vassal-princes with the land gradually developed itself. The most 
powerful of these were the Bishops of Utrechty the Dukes of Ouel" 
derSy and the Counts of Holland, In 1247 Count William II. of 
Holland was elected German King through the influence of Pope 
Innocent IT. In 1404 Count Engelbert of Nassau ^ Dillenburg ^ a 
German noble, having married the heiress of the Lords of Polanen 
(p. 442) in Breda, established the Netherlandish line of his house; 
and a century later Count Henry of Nassau (d. 1538) acquired the 
rank of prince through his marriage with Claude de Chalons, heiress 
of the principality of Orange in S. France. In 1428 Philip the Oood 
of Burgundy, after a prolonged struggle with the Countess Jacqueline 
of Bavaria (p. 290), acquired the countship of Holland, which pas- 
sed in 1477, along with the other lands of Burgundy, into the 
hands of Emp, Maximilian I. (p. xxi). 

Under the Emperor Charles K, who united under his sway Fries- 
land (1516), the bishopric of Utrecht (1517), Groningen (1536), 
and the duchy of Guelders (1538; p. 432), the land enjoyed a 
golden era of prosperity, in consequence of the powerful protection 
accorded by that monarch to commerce and navigation. Under his 
bigoted son and successor Philip II. of Spain , after the Duke of 
Alva's arrival at Brussels (1568), began that memorable, and at 
first apparently hopeless struggle which lasted for 80 years, and 
terminated in the recognition of the Northern Netherlands as an 
independent state by the haughty Spaniards, and in the establish- 
ment of the powerful Dutch Republic. 

The great founder of Dutch liberty was William of Nassau^ 
*the Silent', Prince of Orange, a German nobleman, who was born 
atDillenburg in the Duchy of Nassau in 1533. He was a great favour- 
ite of Philip II., who appointed him, when 2ft ^^m^ ^1 «^^'5^ w^^ 
'stadtholder' or goveiDOi of the provinces ot B-oWwv^, T^^^vkA.^ 
FxieBJand, and Utrecht (1569). In 1561 he io\iii^\i\m%fe\l ^"^^^^^^^^ 
witi Cardinal GranYelU, whose recall he etiecte^ \»> Vb^^* ^^\ift^ 

xxxYiii BUtory. HOLLAND. 

the Low Gotintries came into tlie possession of the Dnke of Alva, 
the Spanish Governor (p. xxi), William at first retired to Dillen- 
hurg, but in Sept., 1568, he emharked, with the aid of the French 
Huguenots, on a short and fruitless campaign the object of which 
was to liberate the Southern provinces. In 1571 he sided with the 
* Water Beggars' (see p. 439), and in 1572 he was invited by Holland 
and Zeeland to take the command of their troops against the Span- 
iards. He shortly afterwards captured Middelburg, and succeeded 
in raising the siege of the distressed town of Leyden. On 29th Jan., 
1579, was formed the famous defensive league of the N. Netherlands, 
known as the Utrecht Union (p. 425). William was soon afterwards 
condemned to banishment by Philip II., but the States General 
bravely defied the king's authority, and in 1581 formally threw off 
their allegiance to the Spanish crown. On 10th July, 1584, William 
fell by the hand of an assassin at Delft (p. 302), very shortly before 
the - day on which the States intended to have conferred upon him 
the dignity of an hereditary count of Holland. The year following 
his death his son Maurice was elected stadtholder in his stead. 

Under his presidency (1585-1625) the power and wealth of 
the Republic rapidly increased , active hostilities were frequently 
undertaken against the Spaniards, and the Dutch E. India Com- 
pany was formed (1602). Meanwhile, however, there arose serious 
dissensions between the democratic and the government parties, 
which were greatly aggravated by the pernicious theological contro- 
versies of the Arminian8 and the Qomarists (p. 444). Contrary to 
the sound advice of the stadtholder, the States in their anxiety for 
commercial prosperity concluded a twelve years' peace with Spain 
In 1609. Incensed by the quarrels which now ensued, Maurice 
caused the influential John van Oldenbamevelty the pensionary or 
chancellor of the province of Holland, then in his 72nd year, to be 
arrested and condemned to death by a partial tribunal in 1618 
(p. 319), but by this judicial murder he did not succeed in intimid- 
ating his refractory subjects. Maurice died in 1625, and was suc- 
ceeded by his brother Frederick Henry (1625-47), under whom 
the unity of the Republic became more consolidated, and the 
prosperity of the States reached its climax. Both by land and by 
sea they triumphed over the Spaniards in the hostilities which now 
broke out afresh; and in 1628 the gallant admiral Piet Hein 
(p. 302) captured the Spanish ^silver fleet*. The Dutch commerce 
of that period was the most widely extended in the world. 

The great Dutch navigators Houtmanj Heemskerck (p. 359), 
Schouten (p. 401), Le MairCy Hartog^ Caron^ Tasman^ and Linschoten 
explored the most distant coasts in the world during this period, while 
the E. Indian factories, especially that of Batavia, which had been 
estaWished. in 1619, yielded a rich harvest. The Dutch school of 
Pointing now atUiined ita culminating point (comp. ^. \Vx\ wvd the 
sciences were also highly cultivated during ih\E ^lOS^^iOTi* c^CitV, 

HOLLAND. HUtory. xxxlx 

as the well-known names of Huygens^ Orotius^ Vosaius, Daniel and 
Nioolaea HeinaiuSj Oronoviua, Burman, Tiberius and Franeiaeus 
HerMterhuiBj etc., abundantly testify. 

Frederick Henry died in 1647, shortly before the Peace of 
Westphalia, by which the independence of the United States of the 
Netherlands was formally recognized, and was succeeded by his 
son William, then In his 21st year. 

The renewal of dissensions between the States and the stadt- 
holder determined them, on the early death of this prince in 1650, 
not to elect a new governor, and the reins of goyemment were now 
entrusted to the distinguished Grand Pensionary John de Witt , an 
able and energetic senator. 

During this period the navigation acts were passed by Crom- 
well, placing restrictions on the Dutch trade , and thus giving rise 
to the war which called into activity the talents of Tromp, De 
Wiihf De Ruyter, and other naval heroes , whose memory is still 
justly cherished by the Dutch. Within the brief period of sixteen 
months (1652-54) no fewer than thirteen great naval battles were 
fought, in most of which the arms of the Republic were crowned 
with success. By the peace concluded in 1654, however, the States 
were obliged to recognize the authority of the navigation acts. In 
1665 a war with England again broke out, during which , in 1667, 
De Ruyter even entered the estuary of the Thames with his fleet, 
endangering the safety of London itself , to the great consternation 
of the citizens. Notwithstanding this success , the peace concluded 
shortly afterwards was again productive of little benefit to Holland. 

Meanwhile Louis XTV. of France had disclosed his designs against 
the Netherlands , and had taken possession of the part belonging 
to Spain. His proceedings against Holland, however, were checked 
for a time by the triple alliance between, England, Holland and Swe- 
den, concluded in 1668 by the advice of the Grand Pensionary de 
Witt. In 1672, after the dissolution of the alliance, Louis renewed 
his attacks on the now almost defenceless Union, whose army 
had been entirely neglected since the death of Prince William. 
Gond^ and Turenne took possession of the provinces of Guelders, 
Over-Yssel, and Utrecht almost without a blow , while that of Hol- 
land, with its capital Amsterdam, succeeded in averting the same 
fate only by means of an artificially caused inundation. The people, 
believing that they had been betrayed by their government , now 
broke out into a rebellion to which De Witt fell a victim (p. 319), 
and which resulted in the revival of the office of stadtholder. 

William III. (1672-1702), the last, and after its founder great- 
est, scion of his house, was accordingly elected, and the office of 
stadtholder declared hereditary. Under his aus^^i^fc^, V^^Jss. ^X\ft «^^ 
of the Elector of Brandenburg and the a^ama\vtiQQ^*,^^^^«sv?2«i^ 
ware defeated, and the war was at length tenii\ii»X«k^ Vj ^Xv^'^^***^ 
etNymwegen in 1678, 

xl History. HOLLAND. 

William III., wlio liad thus been instrumental in asserting tlie 
liberties of Europe against the usurping encroachments of the 
'Grand Monarque', married Mary, daughter of the Duke of York, 
afterwards King James n. of England. In 1688 he undertook that 
bold expedition across the Channel which resulted in the deliyerance 
of England from the arbitrary goYemment of the Stuarts and the 
final establishment of constitutional liberty and Protestantism in 
Great Britain. The following year he was elected King by parlia- 
ment, retaining at the same time the office of stadtholder of the 
Netherlands. In his new position he continued strenuously to oppose 
the increasing power of France. The united fleets of England and 
Holland gained a decisive victory near La Hogue in 1692, and by 
the Peace of Ryswyk in 1697 Louis was compelled to restore a con- 
siderable part of his conquests. William was now estranged from 
his native country, but shortly before his death, without issue, in 
1702, he brought about the 'Great Alliance' which disputed the 
right of the French monarch to succeed to the crown of Spain. 

Following the example of the States of Holland, the five 
most important provinces now declared the office of Stadtholder 
abolished. Their foreign policy, however, underwent no alteration 
on this account. Prince John William Friso (d. 1711, see p. 202), 
stadtholder of Friesland and cousin of William III, succeeded to 
the command of the army of the Republic, which took part in the 
war of the Spanish succession. Under his presidency the power of 
the States General manifested itself anew. The flower of the Dutch 
army fell at the bloody victory of Malplaquet (p. 210), and in 1713 
the Peace Congress assembled at Utrecht, on Dutch soil. 

The events of the 18th cent, scarcely require special mention. 
The Republic had lost its prestige , and in the continuing alliance 
with England the preponderating power of the latter became more 
and more marked. When the French entered the territory of the 
Republic during the Austrian war of succession , the people com- 
pelled the States to appoint William IV,, Prince of Orange, the 
son and successor of John William Friso, General Stadtholder over 
all the seven provinces ; and in 1748 this dignity was once more 
declared hereditary. A revolution which broke out towards the close 
of the century ended in the expulsion of the Stadtholder William V, ; 
but he was reinstated in his office by the Prussian army, which 
had advanced almost unopposed to the gates of Amsterdam itself. 

The importance of the Republic had now dwindled to a mere 
shadow. Ill 1795 the French Republicans , led by Dutch exiles, 
took possession of the country , founded the ^Batavian Republic\ 
and at the same time caused heavy taxes to be levied. Rutger Janat 
Schimmelpennineky an able statesman, was created president of the 
new Republic, under the old title of Grand Pensionary, but in 1806 
tras compelled to yield up his authority to Louis Bonaparte, who 
^^^ been created King of Holland by Ma brot^iei ^^^oV^otiI. TBi\ 

HOLLAND. HiiiOfy. xll 

•embUnce of iiidflpondont exittiMico camo to an oiid in 1810, 
when Napoleon annexod Holland to Franco, declaring it to have 
been formed by the alluvial dopotitt of French riyera . 

At length in November, 1813, tho French were expellod from 
HolUnd by the Dutch , aided by the Kuttiant and Pruiitiant ; and 
the Prince of Orangn, ton of William V., the last ttadtholdor, who 
died in exile in 180G, landed at Scheveninf^en, and aaccndod the 
throne of Holland at an independent novoreiKn. 

By the OongroM of Vienna in 1816, the touthern, or llclgian 
province! of the Netherlandi, were united with the northern into a 
•ingle Kingdom, arid the Prince of Orange wai created King of the 
Netherlandi, undor the title of WlUiam J. Thii bond of union 
between two races differing materially in language, religion, and 
character was levered by the Ilclgian Revolution of 1830 (comp. 
p. xxiii). Ten yean later William I. abdicated in favour of 
hif ion WlUiam IJ.y who died in 1849, and wai lucceeded by 
WiUtamlll. (born in 1817, married flrit in 1830 to I>rinceuHophia 
of Wurtemberg, who died in 1877, and aeoondly to the Princeu 
Emma of WaMeck in 1879). At hii death (Nov. 23rd, 1890) the 
male line of tlie houHe of NaMiau-Orango became extinct. He waH 
luccooded by hii daughter WUhelmina (b. 1880), during whoie 
minority the queen-mother ezercliod tho functions of regent. In 
1898 Wilhelmina atiumed the reigna of government and in Feb., 
1901, (ihe married Henry, Duke of Mocklenburg-Bchwerlii (b. 1876), 
who wan created Princo of th(j Netherlands. 

Arba and Population. Tko Kingdom of Ihe Nelhertands , IncludinK 
tho Province of LlmburK, in 12,0R(Jiiq. M. In area, and had (1902) a popu- 
lation of A,S47.181. In 1800 thn prmulatlon wad n,104,i:)7, of whom 1.708,015 
were Roman (Jatholica and 108,UK8 Jowm. Amsterdam in the oai)ltai of thn 
klnudom, and Tho Ha((ue In the reMldcncn of tho king. Thn Kether- 
landd are divided Into elovnn provlnuen: Jf. Brahant (capital, 'H Ilcrlogon- 
bonnh) with 508,843 Inbab., Drtnthn (Annan) with 148,044 Inhab., FrWtland 
(Leeuwarden) with .'110 '262 Inhab., Outldtrtand (Arnhntn) with m\M9 in- 
bab., Oroninfftn ((ironlnKnn) with 200,603 inhab., Jf. I/oltand (Haarlem) 
with 068,1.*)1 inhab., H. Holland (The fiaKue) with 1,144,448 Inhab.. lAm- 
burpr (MoaMtrlnht) with 281,084 lnhab.« Ov§rYitel (Zwolle) with 8 )3,:!88 In- 
hab., Utr^eM (lltrncht) with 251,084 Inhab , and g-land (Mlddo.lburK) 
with 316,305 inhabitantt. 

The national coloiira are rod. white, and blun, placed in horizontal 
linen (the French are placed vnrtlcallv); tho tnotto, *Je inalntlendrar. 

OoLONiKft. The moiit Important butch colonlca In the K. Indies are 
Java (capital, Hatavia), Hiimaira, nornon , Celeben, and the Molucca l<i- 
landu^ In S. Armricfty Hurlnnm or Dutch Oulana; and In thn fT. Indies 
Curasao. The total area of thnfio pONfofodont amountn to 766,(XX) »<{. M., 
the population to 88 inlllion iioula. 

('oMMKROK. The inorchunt flnnt of Holland In 1008 numlxirod 257 
•teanicrft, with a carrylnit cunarity of 080,000 cubic in At rnn, and 486 nailini'.- 
vef)i<!lfl, with a capacity of 3(mXX) cubic uMran. In Um^Wf) l»den ttnami-m 
(34,705,210 cub. ni^t.) and 77H laden talllnff-vraK'lft (715,400 cub. m^t.) 
elearod at Dutch porta. The Importd In 1002 amounted to lU*! xoWW^'^v 
the exportM to 18'iH million (lorlnn. ,» v v*. 

The AaJir luwMlttfi of iO mKlmrnU (a/deelino) ftUtvUtiVtis J ^'^'''X'Sai. 
ofI/ttg0Mr/*, I rffglmtnt of Engineer^ B reirimeTiU ot T\f^^ ^^^^^^^^v^^JiSSSiM, 
mntofHortoArtillt^rj, and 4 regimtntii of FoTitati Xt\W\%n'»«^'*^\^^^^'^^ 

xlii Statistics, HOLLAND. 

ponioniers, ^depdt-battalions*, instruction-battalions, ete., amounting in all 
to ^,000 men. Beside the regular army there are the ^Sehutteryen^ a kind 
of national guard, now being transformed into a ^andwehr' on the Prus- 
sian model, and the 'landsturm% or militia. — The army in the colonies 
has a strength of about 86,600 men, including 13,000 Europeans. 

The Kavt consisted in 1908 of 92 vessels, including 16 iron-dads, 
12 monitors, 34 gun-boats, and 88 torpedo-boats. These are manned by 
upwards of 8000 hands. 

The following are some of the most recent English Books on 
Holland : *The Story of Holland', by J, E. T, Rogers (London, 1886) ; 
'The Heart of Holland', Tlcturesque Holland', and *The Dead Cities 
of the Znyder Zee', all three translated from the French of Henri 
JJavard; 'Holland', trans, from the Italian o{ E. deAmicis (London, 
1883); *Throngh Holland', by C.W.Wood (London, 1877); ^Sketches 
in Holland and Scandinavia', by A, J, 0. Hare (London, 18i85); *Dutch 
Life in Town and Country', by P. M. Hough (London, 1901); *Hol- 
land and the Hollanders', by D. 8. Meldrum (2nd edit., London, 
1899) ; *The American in Holland', by W. E. Qrifftn (Boston, 1899). 
It is hardly necessary to mention J. L. MoUetfs *The Rise of the 
Dutch Republic' and 'History of the United Netherlands'. 

Hapa. The best map of Holland is the TopographUche en Militaire 
Kaart van het Koningrijk der Jiederlanden, uiigegeven door het MinUterie van 
Oorlog (1:50,000; 62 sheets at iVsflO. Mention may also be made of the 
TopographUcfie Atlas van het Koningrijk der Nederlanden (1:200,000; 19 
sheets, not sold separately, 12 fl.). 

Historical Sketch of Axt in the Netherlands. 

By Professor Anton Springer. 

The traveller who would explore the Netherlands without tak- 
ing account of the Art Treasures still preserved there, heedlessly 
disregards a source of the highest gratification. The collections 
in the cities , as well in Belgium as in Holland , can boast that 
they include many of the most remarkable creations of the art 
of a bygone period : works , moreover , which have not found 
their way hither by mere accident , but grow out of the very soil, 
so to speak, of these Low Countries, and have their raison d'itre 
in the land , in those forms and fashions which to this day repeat 
themselves alike in the native landscape and in the habits of the 
people. How much more lively is the impression received from 
works of art when seen amidst their natural surroundings , is a 
matter of common and approved experience. Everything that is 
essentially characteristic in a picture, atmosphere and light, form, 
whether natural or otherwise, fashion and custom , present them- 
selves to the beholder. The sources of the artist's inspiration, 
all that served to feed his fancy, are clearly manifest ; while many 
a characteristic incident, which would otherwise escape observation 
or remain altogether unintelligible, receives its requisite inter- 
pretation. It is true that the sssthetic value of individual pictures 
may be always in all places recognized. A Titian is lustrous even 
in St. Petersburg ; Diirer's incisive pencil asserts itself in Madrid. 
Nevertheless the historical significance of Art , the necessary cause 
of her development, can be understood by those only who will 
explore the scenes which witnessed her life's first dawn , particu- 
larly when lapse of time has failed materially to alter the character 
of such scenes. 

A distinction which the Netherlands enjoy in common with 
Italy consists in the opportunity afforded of obtaining the best 
possible insight into the mysterious quickening of the artistic spirit ; 
a comprehensive survey, too, of art's earliest promise and maturity, 
and her identity with the national life. That continuity and many- 
sidedness of national art, which in Italy is so pronounced, the Nether- 
lands do not, however, possess. Twice only — onci^ Vw^^V^'Ca.^^sv^ 
once in the 17 th centary — do they f uTnia\i Temw^*Xi\^ TSi%.\«^^^^ 
the history of modem art. Earlier centuTiea xft^^%\ «. -^^^^ ^'^^^^^ 
Mnd the interv&ls between the two periods TOteti©^ ^^ l^KVX^^o^ 


any piofound Impiession, hovever useful they may haye been in the 
development of the personality of the artist. Both in the 15th and 
in the 17th century the artistic strength of the country devoted itself 
to painting. The art of the Netherlands owes its fame to the 
brilliant achievements of its painters. 

Chubohes. During the centuries of the Middle Ages, art in the 
Netherlands did not by any means keep pace with the advance made 
in Germany and France : it was slow to move, and followed in the 
wake first of German, and later of French art. The number of Ro- 
MANEsauE buildings in Belgian territory — for Holland must first 
be noticed in connection with the Gotliic era — is not great. Of these 
the Cathedral of Toumai (p. 77) is the most prominent example. 
The influence of lower Rhenish architecture (that of Cologne) is ex- 
hibited in this cathedral, as indeed in all the older churches along 
the banks of the Meuse. At the same time there is an evident approxi- 
mation to the French style, which, after the 13th century, pervaded 
the entire land. — "When in the adjacent territory of Northern 
France the Gothic Style had acquired completeness, the Nether- 
lands adopted this model. The southern portion of the land now 
became, in the realm of architecture, a mere province of Frapce ; 
and indeed French influence extended gradually to politics and 
culture also. Stately Gothic cathedrals rear themselves in the more 
considerable Belgian towns. With the church of St. Gudule in 
Brussels are associated the choir of the church of Notre Dame at 
Bruges^ St. Bavon at Ohent, St. Rombaut at Malines, St. Peter at 
Louvairhj and, lastly, the renowned Cathedral of Antwerp j where a 
lamentable want of structural harmony must be noted, more parti- 
cularly in the spire, whose toppling height rather astonishes by its 
audacity than delights by its beauty. Although there is an evident 
preference for lofty towers (the double tower is seldom seen, 
but rather a single tower in advance of the western extremity), 
yet, as a rule, an endeavour to secure a spacious area visibly 
determines the general proportions , while the soaring height and 
slender support, which give so marked a character to the interiors 
of the cathedrals of France and Germany, are but slightly regard- 
ed. Double aisles are not frequent in the churches ; but the height 
of the nave seldom exceeds 80 or 90 feet, being but twice, not as 
was usual elsewhere, three times, the width. The Dutch churches are 
of similar construction. Gothic architecture was much more preva- 
lent in Holland than is generally supposed ; Utrecht , Amsterdam, 
Haarlem, Leyden, and Rotterdam, for example, possess Gothic 
churches on a grand scale, while the provinces of Friesland and 
Groningen contain many church-buildings of the 13th and 15th 
centuries which show strong traces of a North-German influence. 
Tho hvjldlng material, however, namely brick, which has been used, 
^/ves a ponderouB Appearance to these ediftcea\ w\AY^ t\^^ irood- 
^overiug which repl&cea the vaulted loof, t\ie ibaeiice ol %.i<i\AXfe^\\tt«^ 


ornamentation, and, finally, change in the fonns of worship, have 
done much to destroy their original beanty. But we do not visit 
Holland to study ecclesiastical Gothic. 

Secxtlab Buildings. Of far greater interest are those Gothic 
bnildings erected for secular and civic purposes , in which Flan- 
ders is especially rich. So early as the 12th century, mighty towers 
to serve as Belfries (p. 69) were erected in the midst of fortified 
towns , for the purpose of mustering the citizens by sound of bell 
in the event of an enemy's approach or of alarm from fire. Attached 
to the belfries, or erected separately, are spacious Holies^ im- 
posing edifices , used for the display of those products of Flemish 
industry which were once foremost in the markets of the world. The 
Httel de Ville adorns the principal square of the town. Its facade 
generally exhibits the wealth of decoration (sometimes carried to 
excess) belonging to the later Gothic ; while, in the interior, sculptor 
and painter found occasion for the exercise of their respective arts. 
The belfries at Toumai audi Ohentj the 'halles' ot Bruges and Ypres^ 
and the * hotels de ville' of Bruges j Brussels, Louvain, and Oudc" 
naarde, call for especial notice from the traveller; and, in case he 
should be Interested in antiquated domestic architecture , he will 
find a rich treat provided for him in the cities of W. Flanders, such 
as Bruges i Ypres, and Furnes, which have practically stood still 
since the middle ages. Nothing amid the quiet streets and gabled 
houses of these towns will prevent the traveller from yielding him- 
self wholly to the memories of the past or firom transporting himself 
in imagination to the days when the Yan Eycks and Memling 
flourished and Flemish painting attained its first period of bloom. 

Painting. To connect these early efforts with the power and 
wealth of the great commercial cities , and to find in the sump- 
tuous habits of the Burgundian Princes the chief impulse to the 
rapid development of the painter's art in the Netherlands , is ob- 
viously natural and reasonable. How the eye of the painter must 
have revelled in the varied costumes , in the manifold and sharply 
defined types, whether of native or foreigner, which he encountered 
in the motley assemblage that thronged these cities I We may well 
conceive the artist's imagination to have been fascinated by the 
wealth of colour presented by a picture composed of weather-beaten 

- mariners , sturdy labourers , burly citizens , and sagacious traders. 
The early practice of portrait-painting may also be attributed to the 
spiiit prevailing in the commercial towns. The interest in this 
branch of the painter's art originated probably in the self-complacency 
which naturally possesses a community of substantial burghers, 
proud of their vocations and achievements. Futtlvet, ^^'^^i^-^osv- 
dian Princes, in the gratification of theVi \0Nfe ol s^\cvA«v».^ Vsvix^^ 
M trustworthy acconnta assure us , a\)uxida.iit ftTK^\ciiTs^«»^ ^^\S^^\ 

srtUt as weU as artizan. In their luxurious w>ux\, ^^""^^^^ -^^^ 
retinue, there must have been robes ot state, ^\\U«tt:£i^^^^v 


costly furniture, I)e8ide8 courtly manners, to captivate the eye and 
engage the attention of the painter. Undoubted , however , as the 
effect of such influences was in giving a particular direction to 
painting in the Netherlands, they assuredly were not the source 
from which it sprang. It was not until the painter's art was eman- 
cipated from the trammels of a traditional practice , that it found 
favour at court, and in the trading towns. 

Up to the beginning of the 15th century art was in neither a 
better nor worse condition than in adjacent lands, though the 
painters of Cologne could undoubtedly claim pre-eminence. Such 
specimens of wall-painting in the Low Countries as are still pre- 
served from the 12-14th centuries show an entire want of profes- 
sional training. The works of the miniature-painters, however, rank 
higher. Encouraged by commissions from French Princes, they 
were elaborately finished, and both in colour and drawing give 
evidence of a higher education in the artists. Sculpture, too, could 
boast of sterling work. If any general inference is to be drawn from 
monumental effigies preserved in Toumaiy and dating from the 
beginning of the 15th century, a school of sculpture existed there, 
which successfully aimed at a truthful rendering of nature. The 
practice of painting works of sculpture brought the sister arts into 
more intimate relation. So far, however, was sculpture in advance, 
that painters found themselves reduced to the expedient of adopting 
the plastic mode of treatment in the disposal of groups , as well as 
in drawing and the treatment of drapery. A long interval elapsed 
ere painting acquired a style of its own, and until every trace of the 
plastic relief had disappeared. Such was the condition of the paint- 
er's art in the Netherlands, when the two brothers Van Eyek made 
their appearance, but we are not in a position to indicate their im- 
mediate predecessors , nor to determine with certainty the circum- 
stances of their early training. 

The two brothers Van Eyok were natives of Maeseyck, near 
Maastricht, where Hubert, the elder, was bom probably about 
the year 1370. "Wolfram von Eschenbach, in his 'Parzival', had 
already pronounced the painters of Maastricht and Cologne to be 
the best of his time, but how painting at Maastricht or Limburg 
was employed in Hubert's time we know not. Absolutely nothing 
is known of the course of Hubert's early training, of his school, or 
early works. About the year 1420 , we find him settled at Ghent, 
where a guild of painters had already long existed, along with his 
brother Jan (born between 1381 and 1385). Whether while here 
he was the teacher or the taught, whether the local influences of 
Ghent first modified his conceptions and method, or whether the 
guild in Ghent derived new light from him, cannot be determined. 
^ ^noiv of only one work from Hubert van Eyck's hand, indis- 
^-fe/r I'denMed as bis, and it was painted, in MXvft cQik<iVoAVa% 
-Jv of bis life, Tbia is the gigantic altai-^ieca ^\At\v ^^^Q«\i% 


Vydt commissioned him in 1420 to paint for the St. Bavon church 
in Ghent, and which he left unfinished in 14!26. We are also 
yery imperfectly informed of Jan's early training, though we know 
a good deal about his public career. While Hubert, it would 
appear, found favour with the wealthy burghers of Ghent, Jan 
took service in the courts, first at The Hague (1422-24) with 
John of Bavaria, afterwards (1425) at Lille with Philip the Good, 
in whose interests he visited Portugal in 1428. In 1431 we find 
him in Bruges, at work on the Ghent altarpiece, which he brought 
to completion on May 6th, 1432. 

The Ghent altar-piece forms the most important monument of 
the early-Flemish school of painting. In it the artist still clings to 
the traditional rules of composition in the observance of the se- 
verely symmetrical proportions of an architectural structure. But 
while he fails to dispose the crowd of figures in separate groups, 
he succeeds in giving to the heads a portrait-like individuality ; he 
is careful to render the varied texture of the draperies, and in 
modelling the nude figure he closely imitates nature in every 
minute particular. For example, in the figure of Adam (now 
detached from the original picture and preserved along with Eve in 
the Brussels Museum, p. 109), even the short hairs of the arms and 
legs are carefully elaborated. But the most surprising innovation is 
in the colouring, to which he gave wonderful force and harmony, 
using it to give effect to an appearance of reality almost deceptive. 
The old belief that Hubert invented oil-painting cannot indeed be 
unreservedly accepted. But, although oil had long been in use as a 
vehicle, Hubert's merit is not the less conspicuous. He is still the 
first who adapted the invention to the purposes of art, by employing 
the fluid medium for the more subtle blending of colours. By this 
means he so far facilitated the process of painting, that the endea- 
vour to give a faithful, lifelike rendering of nature was com- 
pletely successful. He possessed himself of the means by which alone 
effect could be given to the new impulse in art. We can have no 
better proof of the importance attached to this new method of 
painting introduced by Hubert , than in the sensation it made in 
Italy , where the invention and its publication were invested with 
the attributes of romance. 

The connection between the two brothers will be best under- 
stood by regarding Hubert as the more capable of the two. This 
view is supported by the inscription placed on the Ghent altar- 
piece by Jan*8 own hand ('Hubertus — major quo nemo repertus'). 
The peculiar art of Jan van Eyck can best be studied in Bruges, 
where ho died in 1440. Two admirable works in the Academy (the 
Madonna of Canon van der Paele and the poiti«.\t ^il\A&'^Si<^^«^'^'^ 
the extraordinary sense of realism posBftftSft^ "Vi'^ ^^ TS!k»&Vst.« _^ 
keeping with a strong determination towa.T^% «. TSi«^^ ^^^^^^'^^i, Vsw 
snd realistic conception of natuie ia tYie eiv^ftvio\a, Q\i^«i:s^\> 


his method, after a greater fulness of outline and an exact render- 
ing of textures. The direction of his aim is indicated by the fact 
of his having painted genre pictures with a definite motlye — the 
*Bath-room' for example. 

There can he no doubt that Jan van Eyck had pupils ; but 
there can be as little doubt that there were painters, both in Ghent 
and Bruges, who adot>ted Van Eyck^s method, and imitated his 
style , though not recognized as members of his school. Owing to 
the scanty information possessed of art in the Netherlands during 
the 15th century, nothing can be conclusiyely affirmed on the sub- 
ject. As pupils of Jan van Eyck may be mentioned Petrus Cristus, 
at Bruges, and Oerard van der Metre and Justus van Ohentj at Ghent, 
while the chief independent master is Hugo yan der Ooes, of 
Ghent, who died, mentally deranged, in 1482 in the convent of Rouge- 
Cloitre, near Soignies. In his native land this painter is worthily 
represented by the Death of the Virgin in the Bruges Academy, 
but his masterpiece, the Adoration of the Shepherds, from the 
church of Santa Maria Nuova, is in the Uffizi at Florence. 

The people were as averse to centralization in the domain of 
art-training as in the conduct of state affairs. While the Van Eycks 
were carrying their art from the Valley of the Mouse to Bruges and 
Ghent , another great artist was founding a school of painting at 
Brussels. Boger yan der Weyden is apparently identical with that 
Rogelet de la Pasture who, in 1426, worked as a pupil of Robert 
Campin atTournai, and in 1432 was admitted as master in the Paint- 
ers' guild. We find Van der Weyden installed as painter to the town 
of Brussels in 1436. In 1450 he appears in Rome, as the first north- 
ern painter of undisputed fame whose name was honoured by the 
Italians, uncompromising though he was in adhering to the native 
practice of his art. On his return he again took up his abode in 
Brussels, still painting, and died in 1464. In the absence of any 
signature, his works are confounded with those of Jan van Eyck, with 
whom he had nothing in common , and with those of Memling, who 
was his pupil. They are, moreover, scattered far and near, and have 
to be sought for at Madrid, Rome, Frankfort, Munich, Berlin, Vienna, 
etc. The Museum of Antwerp, however, in the Seven Sacraments, 
and the Brussels Museum, in the lately acquired Pietli, possess two 
of the most prominent works of this master, who was peculiarly 
successful in depicting scenes of dramatic interest ; too often, how- 
ever, his power of animated expression betrays a want of feeling for 
beauty of form, and it is occasionally suggestive of tinted reliefs. 
Akin to Roger van dor Weyden is the Master of Flemalle (Jacques 
Dartt?)^ a recently re-discovered artist, whose masterpieces have 
also to be sought in foreign parts (Frankfort, London, Liverpool). 
Painting nourished in the first half of the 15th century in 
Holland no less than in the Southern l^eOieiUiv^a, Wqtsl^ ^iXi^ 
earlier masters, such as Albert van Ouioatcr, aift le^iftaekHX.^^'ViM'^^il 


few works. A more tangible personality is that of Bieriok Bouts 

Sea. 1410-1475), who removed from Haarlem to Lonvain about 
450, and with his industrious pencil announced the fundamental 
characteristic of Dutch painting, in his delicate appreciation of land- 
scape beauty. 

The early-Flemish School culminated in Hani Memling (Mem^ 
Uncjy the pupil of Van der Weyden. According to a legend, which 
in earlier times received general credence , Memling, having been 
wounded at the battle of Nancy, . was carried to Bruges, where, in 
gratitude for the tender care bestowed upon him in the Hospital of 
St. John, he painted numerous pictures. This story may be placed 
in the same category as those of Durer's malevolent spouse, and of 
the licentiousness of the later Dutch painters. Memling was bom 
somewhere in the vicinity of Mayence (possibly at MSmlingen, near 
Aschaffenburg) about the year 1430 ; was, in 1471, already actively 
' engaged as painter and permanently established in Bruges, where 
in 1480 he became a well-to-do house proprietor in the Vlamincdam 
(now Rue St. George), and died in 1494. The little we know of him 
personally is in some measure compensated for by the great number of 
his works still extant. Bruges, in particular, can boast of possessing 
literally a Memling museum. In the Academy is the Triptych with 
the St. Christopher, in the Hospital of St. John the so-called St. 
John Altar , the Adoration of the Magi , the Madonna with Martin 
van Nieuwenhove, the portrait of a lady, and, finally, the Ursula 
casket, the most ornate and captivating illustration of legendary 
lore bequeathed by the art of this early period. In Memling, in- 
deed, it may be said the school of Van Eyck exhibits its highest at- 
tainments. Pure and luminous colouring is combined with correct / ' 
drawing ; a keen perception of Nature with a coherent sense of the 
beautiful. Crowe and Cavalcaselle, in their history of old Flemish 
Painters, speak of Memling as a lyric bard, and if his forms lack 
ideality, he knows how to give them the impress of a winsome beauty. 
His Madonnas, whose golden hair falls over the shoulders , or is 
gathered up in luxuriant tresses, combine dignity with loveliness. 

Other painters who may be regarded as offshoots of the older 
school are Oerard David (flourished 1484-1524), and Jean Provost 
of Mens (d. 1529), both in Bruges, in the S., and Jaco6 ComelisMcn 
or Jacob van Oostzaan (flourished in Amsterdam 1500-30), and 
CorneUs Engelbreehtsz (14B8-1533) of Leyden, in the N. Gerard David 
is a fine colourist and distinguished for the tender sweetness of his 
female figures, but dramatic conception is as foreign to him as to 

We have, indeed, abundant cause to deplore the fanaticism of 
the iconoclasts and the ravages of the religious wara^ 'w\i«QL ^^^^«' 
ceed to sum up the number of authenticated o\d ^VsmViia. ^\s**jk» 
9^M in exiatenoe. Scarcely, indeed, do -we -^oweiaTsasn^^w^^^^^ 
tbm painters, such as enable va to form a teaWl ^Vt^t^fi^ wv^'^'^^^ 
Babdbkkr'b Belgium and Holland. 14ib ^d\t. ^ 


conception of their character as artists; yet this old Netherlands 
school was busy for eighty years ; nor was its activity confined to 
Bruges and Ghent alone, but was shared by Antwerp, Brussels, and 
in the North by Leyden and Haarlem. One important cause of this 
absence of reliable accounts lay in the new direction taken by the 
Netherlands school of painting in the 16th century, which had the 
effect of depreciating the works of their predecessors in the general 
estimation, and finally of committing them to oblivion. For the 
Netherlands, like the rest of the North, became subject to the spirit 
of the Italian Renaissance. Under the Burgundian rule, literature 
had already been alienated from the popular sympathies, and even 
so it was now with pictorial art. Qninten Matsys of Antwerp (1466- 
1530) is the lant distinguished master who was not carried away by 
this current. Sometimes, however, he displays a vigour of senti- 
ment at variance with the hitherto habitual conception. Quinteu 
Matsys is, indeed, generally regarded as the connecting link between 
the old school of the Van Eycks and Rubens. 

The influence of the Renaisiance reached the Netherlands, as it 
reached Germany, in the 16th century. In the domains of ArihUee- 
ture and Sculpture the ensuing breach with previous native styles 
seems to have been less abrupt than in the domain of painting. The 
narrow Gothic house, with its stepped gable, long held its ground ; 
and although Italian modes of ornamentation attained the asoend- 
ancy in the first half of the 16th century, yet in the second half 
the national genius powerfully ro-asserted itself. Among the most 
important Renaissance buildings in the Netherlands are the Hou$e 
of the Salmon at Malines (p. 157) and the old Maison de VAncien 
Oreffe at Bruges (p. 34). The Town Halls of The Hague, Leyden, 
and Amsterdam, the old Meat Market at Haarlem (p. 343), and the 
Weigh House at Nymwegen (p. 437) belong to the later period. The 
Netherlands are peculiarly rich in decorative works in wood, stone, 
and brass. The monuments of Count Engelbert II. of Nassau and his 
wife, in the Groote Kerk at Breda, and that of Archbishop WUUam 
ofCroy, in the church of the Capuchins atEnghien (p. 7), are among 
the finest productions of Renaissance art in the north of Europe. 
The chimney-pieces (Bruges), carved stalls (Dordrecht), and altars 
(Hal) must also not be forgotten. The Mus^e Plantin at Antwerp 
contains an interesting collection of Renaissance furniture. 

The Flemish Painters of the Renaissance produce a less favour- 
able impression. The Italian forms and even colours found no 
response in the inmost spirit of the Flemish painters, and the letult 
is often mere frigid prettiness or artificial idealization. Just as ire 
prefer the popular ballad to the Latin verse of our school-days, to we 
prize the unadorned Flemish style more highly than unsttoeeBsfal 
imitationa of the Italian, The 16th century was, it is true, of a 
different w&j of thinking j and hailed thia iivioa^ ol ^^^C^ciiaAMBMa 
^pon their natire art as a sign of pxogteBS\oiv\ KTv\^«r5 ««^«^iSc| 


wai for A long time the capital of art in the Netherlandi, whence 
Duke William of Bavaria, as well aa the Emperor Rudolph II., the 
two moit enlightened patrons of art among German princes, supplied 
their requirements; while Flemings, too, provided for England's 
needs. It is evident, then, that the Netherlands had no lack of 
renown nor yet of highly-gifted spirits, whose achievements, had a 
more auspicious fate attended them, would have been considerable. 
The pictures of Jan Oostaert, sumamod Mabuae (ca. 1470-1541), , 
please by force of their masterly modelling and intense colouring. ^ 
LucM van Leyden (1494-1533), a pupil of Cornells Engelbrechtsz, 
has earned a worldwide reputation as an engraver, while we possess 
almost no authenticated specimen of his painting. Bernard van 
OrUy (ca. 1492-1541) turned his residonco in Rome to good account 
in mastering the style of the Raphaelesque school , which both in 
composition and drawing he reproduced with considerable clever- 
ness. If we can praise the industry only of Miohiel Coxie or van 
Coxeyen (1499-1592) , and find the insipidity in conception and 
the exaggeration of form in the work of Frana de Vriendt^ surnamed 
Floris (ca. 1518-1570), simply repulsive ; if, again, Karel van Mander 
is famous principally for his literary acquirements, and Hubert 
OoUzius for his versatility, still one branch of the art remains in 
which the Flemings achieved and sustained a marked success, vi%, 
PoRTBAiTUBB, represented in the 16th century by the Master of the 
Death of the Virgin (Jooa. van Cleve ?), Jan van 8eorel or Sohooreel 
(1495-1562), Ant. Mar or More (ca. 1512-1576), the younger Pieter 
Pourbw (ca. 1510-1584), and Uorttiut Oeldorp (1563- ca. 1616). 

The earliest approaches to genre and landscape painting which 
later attained to such majestic proportions must not be allowed to 
escape observation. Their germs are, in fact, already to be detected 
in the works of Yan Eyck. The principle of a careful study of 
Nature, and delight in every phase of life, early asserted itself, 
giving to every object, however insignificant , however obscure, an 
artistic charm. The painting of still-life, the pourtraying of those 
humorous incidents, never wanting in domestic experience, which 
served to illustrate everyday life among the people, came early into 
vogue, though at first (as in the case of Hieronymiu Bo$chj ca. 1460- 
1516) disagreeably qualified by the intermixture of the grotesque 
(in the shape of devils' dances). Quinten Matsys and Jan van 
Heme88en(d. 1555) had already painted genre pieces, Old Brueghel 
(see below) and Vinckboona rustic subjects, Patinir of Dinant and 
Paul Bril landscapes, with numerous details, and Roeland Savery 
animal pictures. 

Among all these painters, the members of the family of 
Brueghel or, as sometimes wiitieny Breughel^ attract out i.^t«s.^%XX£v^^\. 
effectually. They not only afford the mo%l BttVWVxv^ ciAiaL^^ ^"^ '^"^^ 
highly propitious practice, the hereditan ^io%ftc.uX^^^ ^1 ^^ ^^S^ 
enft, bat mIbo exceUently illuitrate t\\e tTan«\lVon U^^ift. ^«^ ^Ai^>» 


the iiKw style of art. Pieter Brueghel the elder, or ^Fetuant Brueghel' 
(ca. ir/20-ir)G9), the earlieat represeniatlve of this race of paint- 
eni, travelled in Italy for the purpose of studying airt, but re- 
luaiiied faithful to the lubjects and treatment of hii native land. 
His figures arc of a purely Flemish type, while hii delicate colour- 
ing is content to reveal the study of nature in northern climes 
alone. Of his two sons, Puter or 'HeU-fire' Brueghel (1564-1638) 
and Jan or 'VtlvcV BniepAc^ (1568-1625), the latter, who acquir- 
ed his surname from his partiality fox wearing velvet, is the more 
important. He acquired eminence not only in paying homage to 
the widely-i'xtenilcil national taste for flower-pieces, bntalsohy 
hU landscapes, which are distinguished for the tender bluish tone 
of their middle distance and background (not, however, always 
trnn to nature ), and for the marvellous finish of detail in the small 
flguri's nrcupyiiif; the fori'jiround. The sous of the two brothers bore 
thr sniMo Christian names as thi'ir fathers, followed the same pio- 
fossion, and por|)t>tuatcd the manner of the Brueghels down to the 
rioso of iho 17th century. 

All pnu ions attainments, however, sink into insignificance beside 
thodxirAordinnry r.t parity displayed by the Flemish artists of the 17th 
rontury. ThtMMfthty yoars* rovoltof the Dutch against Spanish oppres- 
rtion WAS At All (Mid. Though bleeding from a thousand wounds, the 
youthful Hepublio had triumphantly maintained itself, and oon- 
quorotl for it«elf virtual nM'ognition. Two worlds separate and distinct 
from oui> Another were hero oompressed into their narrow confines. 
In iho ^tlll Sp.iiiiiih NethorlAudji . forniiug the Southern division, 
I hi' oM r^^imo in politi«*s as in faith Tt>iuained intact; in the States 
lionoul of lloUanil. not only viAt a new form of government estab- 
li>lu'.i. but 11,'w poliCiAl And ei'OMomioAl views, and s new form of 
U\\\\ \t,Me \\\ \\\c A>,'.it. I'eth the:ie worlds find in contemporary 
\\\ A .>livirl\ ,ic*{'iiu\'. i-\*o'i(*ssto-.i. Vho art oi Peter Paul Rubens 
»o\\.»a r» i;;,M;ix \\w Au.'.rv.i v^jcime An*: the ancient faith, and was 
Im \\\\> ni. r.i> s-.i . :.s*"iiv.-.".*t<v. to the Ait of ItAly. and begoUed 
••» <v.. ii5n!i.'l,x<:. ,". ;,■.«•»: lh:?.1-. ATJ . .Ml the i^b«r hand, grew out 
oi ill. lu « ■.;'.. .'.;.• <>o ■.*..*« ;«*.{>.. A.*. .i t>.v.ji re' ivt» the provineialisBi 
* n,i . . » > . VMM ... ^ .,».> w /...'! . .^\^ N- a;-,-.o tVu" .■ >. ATa.'ieristic Csatmes of 
ill,- i'.M\ .•,■..1., H.-.v •.:.,' *.V.,v".* ,": Ha AT'.;"'.. The Hague. Leyden, 
I *. . »\ * ... \ ..■> k .-..*'. .• y .'».N>j. ,• ^ V. a", v.- f\ ".t . li ;*: :^n«d pictiiies an 

'■•■!••"• • ' ■*•• »-^' u V. .^> ,". <>..• «:*■,.' ;..:>:t:«'':)Arieeaiid mleis; 

'■•• * ..»^i..\ » w /. .-. AW tv.-v.- I'',- 7y?vT:f5^statioB of sscied 

* •* : *■• »■'•■•, ■.■.■•.^t,T..-^ *^ -1 ariisMUciniied treat- 

. .. . s . ^ « .* i'". V '. r,>:a£t views of the 

,^ w> *^ -..^^i- ,x- ■..•,■ V-.^.f '.'.; a v«if different 

% ^ . • > K . > x». *, r..i*,."y .-rf tke osadition 

• ■ •• * •••• • ■ M,v V. •». Ttf Olt^fv Mttok light 


would be the meanii of ptittliifi; in \U true light the coiitraKt, M 
often overlooked, between Hubunii and the Diitohiuen. Irreipectlve 
of much fuperilnlal reat^mblaiiee (d. g. a liinllar tone of eolour), tht 
two atylea have entirely dilTerunt aourcei and atiiii; and while in 
the fohool of Kiil)enii the old notions, old practloei, diaappeared, 
that art began to reveal Itaelf In Holland which to thli day It re« 
oelved with unqualified approbation. In the Htudy of Uuboni, the 
mind moat frequently be guided by reference to history; the l>utch, 
on the other hand, we hail at boneof ourbone, and flesh of our flesh. 


For eenturlus Oulu^nt) and Antwerp have nuntunded fur the hon- 
our of having given birth to the greatest of Belgian painters. I4it- 
terly, however, their clalMis have been surrendered in favour of the 
little town of Hlegen , formerly in Nassau. Our artist's father , the 
Antwerp Justice JohcmneB Hubent^ being suspected of a leaning to- 
wards the lieformatlon, sought refuge in flight from the Spanish 
Inquisition , and Joined th» party of William of Orange. Arrived 
at th« Uhini), wliere the emigrants assembled, lie formed an inti- 
macy with Anna of Ha&ony, the oraxy, sensuous wife of William, of 
such a nature as furnished the Prince with sufllciont grounds for a 
divorce. The guilty luver was consigned in 1571 to the fortress 
of Dillonburg. His wifu, Marie PypeltnehXf who had followed him 
into exile, was induced by the severity of his punishment to 
forgive the offender the disgrace he had brought upon hor, and 
to Join him at Slegen, the plac^ assigned to him In 1573 as his 
abode. Here accordingly, on 28th June, 1577, the eve of HH. 
Peter and Paul's day, Pittr Panl Babiiif was born. In the follow- 
ing year, John Uubens received permission to remove to OoloKue. 
It is conceivable that his lot should have damped his ardour for ser- 
vice with the Princes of Orange, and encouraged a desire to be 
reconciled to the Spanish government. John Rubens, however, died 
pending the negotiations which ensued, but his wife Anally made 
her peacM with the Spanish ecclesiastical authorities, returned In 
15H9 to Antworp , and as a ple<lge for the genuineness of her con- 
version placed her son in a Jesuit school. In the character of the 
man, huwevor, there was nothing Jesuitical; but In the sensuous 
splendour of his religious pictures, in the accessories of his classical 
representations, which howtwer brillinnt are often superflcial. It is 
easy to discern the effects of his training in the then flourishing 
schools of the all-powerful .lesults. 

He received Instruction in painting from Tohiati Vtfhaegiy from 
Adam wan NnaHy a thorough master of his itl, a,\v\ Itc^m O\.\o>aatv 
Kfen, nomwonJy n&Uod Otho Vaeniun^ an Ml\at wm^ ^\%Ww^\>\^^^ 
for erudition tliMn forne of Imagination, v\\o \\iii^ %v^\i^. ^"^^ ^^^^ 
//I Uowa And MftttrwMrdB boeame eourt-pa\i\laT lo \>vvV«i K\^^^v^^«* 


Fariiese. In the year 1600 Rubens undertook, aecording to the then 
prevailing custom with artists, who looked upon Italy as the high 
school of art, a journey to the South, where he at lint devoted himf elf 
to the study of Titian and Giorgione at Yeniee. The following year 
we And him at Mantua, in the service of Duke Yincenzo Gonzaga, in 
his time the most pleasure-loving, most enthusiastic oonnolBseiii of 
all princes. Rubens was sent in 1603 to Spain, as bearar of costly 
gifts, in the shape more particularly of numerous pictmes, to the 
court of King Philip III. On his return he took up his abode suc- 
cessively in Mantua . Rome, and Genoa, until the year 1606, when 
he returned home. 

Now, what did Rubens bear away as the fruits of his eight years* 
residence in Italy? It is of no great moment that soTeral of his 
pictures savour of Italian prototypes: in his celebrated Descent 
from the Cross, in Antwerp Cathedral, we see a reflection of Daniele 
da Volterra^s picture in SS. TrinitiL de* Monti at Rome ; in the Bap- 
tism of Christ (^lost^. of which the original drawing is preserved, 
he produces single tlsures from Michael Anselo*s battle-cartoon ; the 
Communion of St. Francis recalls a composition of Annibale Gar- 
racci ; while a work of Titian served as model for the battle of the 
Amazons. It is of greater importance that Rubens was fortified by 
his Italian experiences in his resolution to rely mainly on ideas 
engendered by the study of mythological-historical subjects for his 
inspiration, and to devote his art to their illustration. By this means 
he establishes a bond of union between the art of Italy and that of 
the North, without in any wise sacrificing his individuality. Rather 
does a comparison with contemporary Italian painters show how far 
he surpassed them in virtue of his spontaneous sympathies and the 
abounding force of his character. 

Rubens, married in liK^9 to h^Ihflla Brant, and again, after her 
death (^1626^^, to HtUn'i F^urmtnt, in 1030. had settled in Antwerp, 
where he led an uncommonly active life. As he himself assures us, 
while in the service of the Regent Albrecht and his consort Isabella, 
he had one foot always in the stirrup, making repeated trips to 
London. Paris, and Madrid, and dev.ning as much of his time to 
politics as to art. Certainly the varied occupations of his life are not 
to be discovered in the astounding number of his works. Over two 
thousand pictures . many of them of ivlossal dimensions, bear his 
name. This amazing fenility may be explained by the circumstance 
that the numerous pupils who frequented his workshop were em- 
ployed upon his pictures, and that he himself possessed wonderful 
rapi'lity of exev'ution. It is not an easy matter to render justice to 
Rubens in all '^ases. partly because so many works have been attri- 
bute i to hira with which he had very little to do. partly, also, be- 
e^nse h\3 rendering of form frequently took dinvtions repugnant to 
onr modem notions. Perhaps only in his maiOLW^T <>l u«aXVft% Vb% 
ferns le form .'j/j he he charged with ftagtaut wafiX «1 \afttft. TV^ t*. 


paoity of depicting the unsullied purity of maiden beauty is one of 
the attributes in an artist we most prize, while , on the other hand, 
we naturally recoil from the spectacle of naked females disfigured 
by the labours of maternity. Nevertheless, we must not forget that 
in these coarse unwieldy shapes, in, the ponderous limbs and violent 
action of the human forms so constantly recurring in Rubens' pic- 
tures, we behold the direct manifestation of such impassioned 
energies and irrepressible vitality as the master seeks to embody. 

Rubens' earlier pictures have this marked superiority over his 
later works, that with all their depth and warmth of colouring, they 
preserve a certain unity, and exhibit a broad but careful finish. The 
most important of the works executed soon after his return from 
Italy is unhappily no longer in the possession of his native land, 
but rests in the Imperial Art Museum at Vienna. The central portion 
represents St. Ildephonso receiving a rich chasuble from the Virgin ; 
on the wings are portraits of the donors , and on the outside the 
Rest on the Flight into Egypt, or the Virgin under the apple-tree. 
The painter is here seen at the apex of his artistic excellence, and 
never subsequently produced so perfect a work in so lofty a style. 
So long as Italian models were fresh in his mind his Imagination 
and his sense of form were chastened and refined, but at a later 
period they were not unfrequently somewhat too exuberant. Of 
similar beauty is the Doubting Thomas in the Museum at Antwerp, 
with the two accompanying portraits of Burgomaster Rockox and 
his wife. The celebrated Descent from the Cross in the Cathedral 
and the Crucifixion in the Museum ('Le Coup de Lance') are also 
of the highest value as undoubtedly works of the artist's own hand. 

In his later large ecclesiastical paintings Rubens availed him- 
self to a large extent of the assistance of his pupils ; so that a less 
exalted idea of the master than he deserves may be derived from 
the study of these pictures. Another circumstance may help to lead 
the traveller in the Netherlands to a similar conclusion. Owing to 
the wide-spread renown of the artist, his works did not all remain at 
home, but found their way, even in his lifetime, far and vnde. 
England, Madrid, Paris, Munich, Vienna, and St. Petersburg con- 
tain , in their respective galleries, many of Rubens' choicest works. 
The Antwerp Museum, however, preserves a whole series of valuable 
pictures by the master, thus affording an opportunity of studying 
him on the spot where he achieved greatness. 

Though, however, it may not be possible to find unalloyed 
satisfaction in separate works of the master, no one can deny that 
Rubens is a figure of great historical importance. This is owing to 
the fidelity with which he has adhered to the traditions of the 
national art, to the power with which he has hatui<i\WLRA >iJ«iR»fc 
traditions with an altered condition of att au^Wi^, vcAXa ^Os^^-^xew- 
wersality which rendered him oapa\)le ol ^otWm% va. «^«^ ^'^vTX^ 
ment and of making the age subseivieivt to \i\a ^\w^^%^^- '^^ 


master of the whole range of artistic material. To the greatest fer* 
tility in the domains of ecclesiastical art he adds an intelligent and 
enthusiastic appreciation of the ancient gods and heroes. He looks 
upon those latter more with the eye of a Virgil than of a Homer, and 
often depicts them in the spirit. of an orator rather than in that of 
a poet. He shows that he has most affinity for the fleshy figures 
of the Bacchic myths, and paints them with a freshness and energy 
possessed by none of his contemporaries. His brash is as much at 
home in important historical compositions as in the richly-colonred 
allegories, by which his age tried to make up to itself for the want 
of genuine poetic sensibility. He paints alike portraits and land- 
scapes , the battles of men and the fighting of brutes, the gallant 
love-making of the noble and the coarse pleasures of the vulgar. 
This versatility Is peculiarly his own , although he possesses cer- 
tain characteristics in common with his contemporaries, just as he 
shares with them tlie same national atmosphere and the same tra- 
ditionary precepts. 

Rubens (d. 1G40) occupied this field along with several other 
painters. No wonder, then, that similar characteristics are observable 
in his works and those of others, and that they so closely resemble 
one another as occasionally to be confounded. Abraham Janatem 
(1676-16323 comes very near to Rubens in freedom of brush and in 
the Impassioned action of his figures. Indeed there were few of 
Rubens* contemporaries who escaped his influence, pervading as it 
did the whole field of art, inspiring in an especial manner the 
engraver. The most notable of Antwerp artists who were contempo- 
raries of Rubens are Gerard Seghers or Zegers (1591-1651); Theodore 
22om6owt« (1597-1637); ComeUs de Vo$ (1685-1651), one of the 
first portrait-painters of the time; Oaspar de Croi/cr (1582-1669), 
who evinced in his quiet compositions a charming vein of thought; 
L/ucat van Uden (1595- ca. 1672), who painted in many instances 
the landscape in the background of Rubens' pictures ; and, finally, 
Frans Snyders (1579-1657), who placed his extraordinary talent 
for animal painting at the disposal of the great chief. 

OfRubens's most distinguished disciple, Anthony Van Dyek 
(born at Antwerp 1599, died in London 1641), owing to the 
shortness of his sojourn in his native city, few important works are 
retained. After being initiated in painting first by Henry van BaUn^ 
later by Rubens, he visited Italy in his 24th year, where Venice 
and Genoa especially fascinated him , as they had done his master 
before him. From 1626 to 1632 he lived at Antwerp, after that 
in London, in the service of Charles I. It was not only the 
fashion then prevailing in aristocratic circles which engaged Van 
I>^ck in ;)ortraiture. Portraiture made the strongest appeal to his 
proclivities aa an artist. He does not aViVive \u t\ifc VTVN«ii\NsstL «? 
gorgeous or stirring aeenea ; but in the lethieei mv^ wv\m%.\fcft. v«a^ 


tiayal of distingDished personages there are few who are his peers. 
His portraits are not only instinct with life : they fascinate by their 
dignity of conception and grace of delineation, which, without 
sacrifice of truthfulness, impart a certain stateliness as well as beauty 
to the individual represented. In what a rare degree Van Dyok 
possessed this faculty is best seen in his admirable etchings which 
are still preserved, and in which he presents us with an invaluable 
gallery of portraits illustrative of the 17th century. 

Of the remaining pupils of Rubens , few acquired distinction ; 
but, owing to the copiousness of their works , they are by no means 
unimportant. They occupy in the department of religious art the entire 
century. From Diepenbeeck, Erasmus Quellinus, Comelis Schut, and 
Jan van den Hoecke, Jacob Jordaens (1593-1678) may be distin- 
guished by a marked individuality. No study in Italy had estranged 
his thoughts from his native art. His profession of the reformed 
faith made him unwilling to contribute to the exaltation of the 
Church's ideal, so he applied himself to depicting scenes from 
domestic life and the unrestrained mirth of popular festivities, and 
thus prepared the way for the formation of that school of genre 
painting, in which the art of the Netherlands subsequently acquired 
its chief renown. His often-repeated pictures of the crazy house- 
concert ('as the old ones sang, so will the youngsters twitter*), for 
example, are well known. Jordaens's humour is unsophisticated ; 
his figures are as devoid of grace as they well can be ; but so sur- 
passing is the quality of colour in his pictures that one must condone 
the vein of almost coarse vulgarity which runs through very many 
of them. Pictures by him at the Bosch, near The Hague, which cel- 
ebrate the deeds of Prince Frederick Henry of Orange, show what he 
could accomplish as an historical painter, and belong to the very 
best contributions of the entire school. 

Even upon David Teniers the Younger (1610-1690), the greatest 
genre painter to whom the southern Netherlands have given birth, ./ 
Rubens exercised an enduring influence. The fairs and rustic scenes ^ 
which he delighted in depicting fascinate not only by the spirit of 
conviviality which animates them, but bear witness to a searching 
observation of nature ; and the subtlety of colouring serves of itself to 
invest the scenes depicted with a true poetic charm. In gradation 
of tone, in wondrous harmony of colour, in artistic combination, he 
retains an undisputed supremacy. It is not less wonderful how he can 
by the most delicate modifications so manipulate a dominant tone of 
colour as to make it effective, and how he can at his pleasure 
either assert or dispense with the most marked contrasts. The 
pictures painted between 1640 and 1660, where the igec\A\«. ^»\:*«c^ 
tone first appears, are those which afford t\ift\>^%\.Vsi%\^^\si^^C^^ 
painter's method and style. His woi^s Mft wwIotIxjxv^X.^^ -^^«^^ 
scattered, and are rarely to be met wUTi iiv \A% tv%\.V^^ ^wxvXX'i . 


The same may be said of the majority of genie painten of the 
HOiithf^rri Netherlands. The neighbourhood of France lured away, if 
not the painters themselves, certainly many of their works; nor were 
either wealth or love of art at this time suffloiently diifosed in Bel- 
glum t/> allow of the creations of native art being retained in the 
land. In this respect painting was more advantageously eircum- 
nUucful in Holland. There it was unmistakably associated with the 
periple, and to this day indeed is identlfled with theix habits and 
prcrli lections. The greater number as well as the best of its pro- 
flnctlons aro still retained in Holland, coveted though they be by 
the lovf;r8 of art from every quarter, who at last have learned to 
efftfmate them at their true value. 


The. grandeur of the 17th century school of Dutch painters has 
partially obscured the excellencies of their predecessors, and thrown 
\uiit the shade, what was of sterling value in the Dutch school be- 
fore Kenihrandt^H time. It is only in recent times that research 
has succeeded in bringing to light the earlier history of Dutch 
pfitnthig, and has surrounded Rembrandt, who hitherto had dazzled 
as the ti'HHh of a meteor in the horizon, with precursors and associates. 
Art flourished in the Dutch towns as early as the 15th eentury, 
hut ft would be more than difficult to separate it ftom the oon- 
temporaneouR art of Flanders ; indeed, owing to the similarity of the 
two peoples, no very essential difference could have existed. When, 
accordingly, at the b(;ginning of the 16th century, painting in the 
North be,i;ame Italianized, the Dutch painters succumbed to the 
prevailing influence. It must be noted, however, that the parti- 
cular manner which most nearly responded to the national taste 
was generally preferred, and most successfully imitated: that of 
(/aravaKgio, Tor examphi, distinctly coarse as it is in its broad realism. 
After Karri van Mander{^^, 11), Heenukerck, and BtoemoerC, exponents 
of a more imaginative treatment, came Honthorst (Oherardo ddla 
Nolle) and his asHoriates , whose art was entirely based upon this 
realism. These painters fearlessly grapple with nature; they con- 
cern themselves little about grace and beauty; they do not despise 
what Is vulgar and repulsive, if only it supplies life and energy. 
Lamp-light, abounding as it does in glaring contrast, serred ad- 
mirably to enfori'^u startling effects and an impassioned exuberance of 
expression oTten bordering upon distortion, and was freely retorted 
to with evident relish. Along with Caravaggio, another artist bad 
considerable influence upon the Dutchmen, vts. Adam EUheimer 
(1.07tt-lG20j, of Frankfort, who, however, lived and diod in 
Home. He painted as if nature were only to be seen thzongih a 
camera obBcura, ; bat his pictures axe \ia,iuiOTv\iA^ V] ^i^ -^tmAit 
tiiinuttiiwaB aiu\ i/idescribable deUcao^ o^ ^w\a\i, mi^ t«Maw*^Ofc»!« 


eompensating breadth from a masterly management of colour. Last' 
man, Moeyaerty Poelenburgh, etc., learned from him. 

In the desperate struggle during the i6th century with the two- 
fold yoke of Spain , artistic enterprise in the Netherlands was ne- 
cessarily crippled. It is principally owing to this circumstance that 
so many Dutch painters found their way to Italy , and there com- 
pleted the training which their native land , sorely distracted as it 
was, could not afford them. But just as the Netherlands flnaUy came 
forth from their eighty, years* struggle as glorious victors , and in 
corresponding measure secured for themselves wealth and politi- 
cal power, while their antagonist, Spain, once mistress of the world, 
but now hopelessly impoverished , subsided into political insigni- 
ficance, Dutch Art received during and at the conclusion of the war 
its noblest impulse. It was now that the painters of the Netherlands 
were enabled correctly to discern what , amidst all the surrounding 
wealth of material, was best suited to their needs, and what form most 
strongly appealed to them ; they created, in a word, a national art. The 
war had made a nation of heroes. Stern necessity had steeled their 
courage and quickened their sense. Brave men, experienced in war 
as well as state affairs , pious of heart , yet joyous withal , met the 
eye at every turn. To pourtray these, not only as single and im- 
pressive personalities , but assembled in groups , in the council- 
chamber, or sallying forth to the tilting ground , or engaged in 
festive celebrations , was the artist's favourite task. 

Pictures of a peaceful , happy life , the charms of existence 
amidst privacy and comfort , were doubly attractive in a time so 
heavily charged with fateful events. The pleasurable abandonment 
too, which, taking no thought for the morrow, is content to enjoy 
the passing hour, captivated the imagination and furnished material 
for numerous paintings. But the victorious Netherlanders not only 
created for themselves a new field of pictorial matter, in which 
national sentiment should find expression ; the appropriate form of 
expression was also provided. Though nearly all the Dutch painters 
are great colourists , some indispensable attributes of the artistic 
faculty are wholly wanting in them. The single figures lack ideal 
grace, the groups do not conform to the architectonic rules. On 
the other hand, they know how to impart such an artistic charm by 
means of colour alone, as effectually compensates for these defects. 
The use of the word 'compensate^ however, may mislead. It must 
not be inferred that any particular means of expression can singly 
avail in painting. The Italians are guided by established laws in 
the disposal of individual figures , as well as in composition, and 
rightly so ; for these laws were the product of their particular cul- 
ture and habits of mind. With equal right, however, the DutA\\ 
painters framed for themselves rules for t\ie %u\^wi<^fe q1 ^«^ -a.^^* 
In harmony with D&tion&l views and aent\metv\A. W. Ta\i%\. \^QN.\i^ 
supposed that these Dutchmen , after tliey \v8l(V cajtelvAVj ^ftx«^\^'^«*^ 


the drawing of a picture, were content to overlay their pictures with 
colour for the sake of mere beauty of effect. They thought, they 
felt in colour , and composed in colour. The delicate gradation of 
colour, the disposal of light and shade in the mass, and chiaroscuro, 
are their natural means of expression. It is a matter of common 
observation.that colour beautifies many an object which without it 
would be utterly insignificant, and to such objects the Dutch artists 
knew how to impart an ideal charm by the modulation of colour- 
tone. Household furniture, for example,- was highly valued by 
the Dutchmen. In its carefully-ordered splendour and subdued 
brightness were reflected the delights of peaceful domestic life. 
Applied to art-purposes , it transcended meaner objects only in so 
far as it was richer in colours than they: and thus it was with 
scenes from every-day life , which were in like manner idealized 
by this mysterious witchery of colouring. It is impossible to convey 
in mere words any adequate idea of the effect of colour thus wielded. 
The eye alone can comprehend it, and has its opportunity in the 
study of the various galleries of Holland. 

The ^RegenV and 'DoeZen' pictures are among the most conspicuous 
creations of the Dutch school of painters. It was the custom for 
the presidents (Regents) of the various corporations and charitable 
institutions to place in the guild-halls and shooting galleries 
(Doelen) portraits in groups of members of the various guilds, 
especially of the shooting societies. Among the earliest pictures 
of this kind are the Commemoration Banquet of Bowmen , painted 
by Comelis TeurUssen (Anthonissen), in Amsterdam (1533), another 
from the same hand dated 1557, and one by Dirck Jacobszi painted 
in 1529 (the last two in the Ryks Museum); but it was later than 
this that the *Regent Pieces' acquired their complete artistic signi- 
ficance. The Haarlem Museum possesses a 'Corporation Picture' 
by Comelis Comelisz, dating from 1583, and four similar pieces 
by Frans Pietersz de Grebber, the later of which are specially distin- 
guished by the freshness of their colouring. In the hospital of 
Delft is a 'Regent Piece' by that prolific portrait- painter Michael 
van Mierevelt (born in Delft, 1567; died 1641). It is a so-called 
anatomical lecture, in the painting of which Mierevelt's son, Peter, 
took part. Jacob Oerritsz Cuyp, founder of the painters' guild in 
Dordrecht, does not appear to have attempted the execution of the 
'Regent' pictures proper; the greater is the number thereof to be 
ascribed to Thomas de Keyset (ca. 1596-1667; Amsterdam) and Jan 
van Ravesteyn (ca. 1572-1657). Thomas de Keyser was the son of 
an architect of Amsterdam, Hendrik de Keyser, and began to paint 
in 1619. His masterpieces are preserved in the Ryks Museum in 
Amsterdam, and the gallery of The Hague. In the Municipal Museum 

f The termination 'azen' or '8zoon\ abbTeviUed 'ai\ which occurs so 
frequently in Flemish names, signifies ion; ttiwa Gerrittt = *ou o\ Q^w- 
n»rd, //arfrtensz ss son of Harmen or Hermaii. 


of The Hague, too, his contemporary, Jan van Ravesteyn. can best be 
studied, in his fine corporation-pieces of 1616 and 1618. But the 
treatment of the ^Regent' pictures and portrait groups generally 'was 
brought to its highest perfection Urst by Frans Hals, of Haarlem 
(p. Ixyi), and more especially by that greatest of all the painters of 
the north, Rembrandt. 

Among the most important portrait-painters of Amsterdam in 
the pre-Rembrandt period are Direk Barentsz (1634-92), a pupil of 
Titian; Comelis Ketel (i6^-iUQ) \ AcrtPietersen (1550-1612; son 
of Pleter Aertsen)^ of whose works the Ryks Museum possesses 
large examples dating from 1599 and 1603; Comelis van der Voort 
(1576-1624), highly thought of by his contemporaries ; Werner van 
Valekert, a pupil of Goltzius, who painted in 1620-27 at Amster- 
dam ; and Nicolaes Elias (ca. 1590- ca. 1655) , master of Van der 
Heist, whose fine corporation-pieces are now seen to advantage in 
the Ryks Museum. 

Slandered and grossly abused as Rembrandt has been by dilet- 
tanti scribes of the 18th century, the enthusiastic eulogium bestowed 
upon him by the youthful Goethe must be noticed as an ex- 
ceptional tribute. It is only in quite recent times that the researches 
of Wilhelm'Bode and the Dutch savants, particularly of Soheltema, 
Vosmaer, De Roever, and Bredius, undertaken in a spirit of affec- 
tionate doYOtion, have vindicated the truth concerning him. Bem- 
brandt Harmenss van Bjm, the son of a miller of Leyden, was bom 
on July 15th, 1606. That he first saw light in his father's mill is 
a story for which there is as little foundation as that he first studied 
art amongst his father's dour-sacks. Jacob vanSwanenburgh, who had 
studied in Italy, and was married to a Neapolitan, and Pieter Lasiman 
(p. lix) were his first instructors. His earliest recognizfed work bears 
the date 1627; he removed to Amsterdam at the end of 1631. 
Amsterdam had gradually outstripped the other towns of the Re- 
public, and had become virtually its capital, ascendant not only in 
the domain of politics, but prescribing also the direction to be given 
to the study of art. A new and stately architecture, which sub»- 
sequently exercised extraordinary influence in Germany, testifies to 
the splendour of the town at that period. Vondel and Hooft represent 
the muse of Poetry, while numerous engravers and painters, of whom 
several connected themselves later with Rembrandt, such as 8, 
Kdnmck (p. Ixiv) and Jan Lieuens, found employment in Amsterdam. 

Rembrandt very soon made himself famous as an artist ; fortune 
smiled upon him, too, in his love affairs. From the year 1633 the 
face of a good-tempered, handsome woman appears from time to time 
in his pictures. This is Saskia van Utenburg\^ i^A ^^w^oNax «a\ ^. 
Friesland lawyer, whom he brought homft «ta\ii%\>xv^^Vsv\.^^. ^^^ 
numerous portraits of Saskia , painted \)'? tVie ^.x^^^. %.x\asX ^"^^S^^^ 
demt gusto, have familiarized us vnth \iei co\nvt«^^^^'^V ^^^'^^^ 


those in the galleries of Dresden and Gassel. After Saskia's death 
(1642), Rembrandt^s private affairs took a turn for the worse. He 
had furnished his spacious house in the Joden-Bree-Straat with re- 
fined taste in the style of a nobleman's mansion. The walls of his 
apartments were covered not only with works from his own and his 
pupils' hands, but such Italian masters as Palma, Giorgione, etc., 
were likewise represented. He also possessed numerous antique 
busts, vases, weapons, and costumes, as well as a choice collection 
of engravings, drawings, and etchings. The great financial collapse, 
which since 1663 had continued in Amsterdam, bringing wide-spread 
and ruinous disaster upon the community, did not suffer our painter 
to escape. He was declared bankrupt in 1656, and an inventory of 
his effects was taken by the Commissioners of the 'desolate-boedel- 
kamer'. The sale of his antiquities and paintings, which to-day 
would represent a value of thousands of pounds, realized in 1657 
only 5000 florins. The house itself and the collection of engravings 
were brought to the hammer in the following year. Rembrandt 
thenceforward resided in a modest dwelling in the Rozen-Gracht 
along with his son Titus (d. 1668), comforted by the faithful affec- 
tion and ministrations of his servant Hendrikje Jaghers or Stoffels 
(d. oa. 1663). The close of his life found him poor and living in 
complete retirement; still busy notwithstanding, and s'till capable 
of laughter, as a portrait of himself from his own hand (painted 
about 1668) gives evidence. He was buried on 8th October, 1669. 
Of about 550 paintings attributed to him, only about 30 now 

. remain in Holland. 

In Rembrandt's career as a painter we notice an uninterrupted 
and brilliant process of development. It is true that even his early 
works show his fondness for effects produced by strong and full 
light thrown upon the principal figures, but it is not till after sev- 
eral years residence in Amsterdam that his pictures are suffused 
with that rich golden-brown tone which invests his masterpieces 
with their subtle and peculiar charm. About 1654 his pictures re- 
ceive a still darker brown tone, relieved, however, by a definite 
scheme of colouring, in which a deep red is conspicuous, while they 
retain their unfaltering breadth of execution. These several methods 
of Rembrandt are admirably illustrated in his masterpieces exhibited 
in the various galleries of Holland. The *Regent' picture in the 
Hague Collection, known as *The Anatomical Lecture', which con- 
tains portraits of Professor Nicholas Tulp and the members of the 
Surgeons' guild, belongs to the year 1632. This picture is an ex- 
cellent example of the master's art, which has enabled him to 
animate a momentary action of this portrait group with dramatic 
life, by force of a concentrated expression and accentuation of tone. 

The 'Night Wstoh*, preserved in the museum at Amsterdam, ReBW 
' brmndfs greAteat work, was painted ten yeaift \^\ai. \l\)«%.^Nihft4iAia 
1642, and shows wit\i what skill tMs mwtei ol tVv\%.T«ac«ift txniX^ 


by its means, conyert a prosaic occuirence, such as that of this band 
of citizen musketeers sallying forth from their guildhouse, into a 
scene abounding in poetical expression, and exciting the llyeliest 
emotions in the beholder. In the so-called ^Staalmeesters' picture, 
portraits of the syndics of the Olothmakers' guild in Amsterdam 
(belonging to the year 1661), the entire tone seems to be permeated 
by a golden-brown medium. Art has never again produced so rich 
and vigorous a picture of life or poetry of colour so entrancing as 
these three pictures reveal to us. Unconsciously our thoughts recur 
to Shakespeare^s familiar creations , and we recognise in these two 
mighty art-champions of the north kindred natures and a correspond- 
ing bent of fancy. 

It must not, however, be assumed that Rembrandt confined 
himself to the representation of 'Regent' pieces, portrait groups 
(as the 'Jewish Bride' in the Ryks Museum at Amsterdam), and 
single portraits (e.g. Elizabeth Bas in the Ryks Museum, and Jan 
Six and Anna Six , in the collection of J. P. Six at Amsterdam). 
We possess many Scriptural pictures by him, scenes from the New 
as well as Old Testament, for the most part scattered in other 
countries. The Hague, however, possesses admirable examples of 
this class of pictures in 'Simeon in the Temple' (bearing the date 
1631), 'Susanna at the batV (1637), 'David and SauV, a later 
brilliantly coloured work (all three in the Mauritshuis), and 'Bath- 
sheba', in the Steengracht collection. Here, too, Rembrandt preserves 
a mode of treatment peculiarly his own. In representations of our 
Saviour's passion the tragic event is pourtrayed in a harsh matter- 
of-fact spirit, and might serve to illustrate the well-known hymn, 
'0 Head once full of bruises'. A serener, happier expression of 
solemnity prevails in the Parables, which enables us fully to realize 
their significance, often sufficiently obscure. Scenes from the youth- 
ful life of Christ have an idyllic charm of their own, and in all 
Rembrandt's religious compositions the endeavour is apparent to 
bring them within the range of human apprehension — a fact im- 
portant for a right understanding of the Protestantism of the 17th 
century. Rembrandt touched also the regions of Mythology (as is 
proved by the painting No. 2024 in the Ryks Museum, p. 388, the 
true meaning of which has not yet been satisfactorily explained) ; 
but, as will be readily understood, with more doubtful success. On 
the other hand his landscapes, devoid of incident though they be, 
exhibit the master's feeling for colour and poetical expression in the 
most favourable light. 

It need hardly be mentioned that in order to become intimately, 
and as it were personally acquainted with Rembrandt, the collection 
of his etchings, about 250 in number, and his drawings^ ovei l^Qft^ 
must be carefully studied. Among the "beBt-^iiorwik, \Xi^ \«««^ '^^.'^^ 
most beantifnl of his etchings, are 'RembiaA\d^.V%'?ot\\vw\. Vvfia.^«>^ 
jSword', 'Lazarus Rising from the Dead' , the ^B\iTi^T«k^"«\^^^^>^ 


(^Healing of the Sick'; the former name, by which it was popularly 
known in the 18th century, now no longer applies, inasmucli as in 
1867 the sum of 1000^ was paid for a single impression), ^Annnn- 
elation', 'Ecce Homo', 'The Good Samaritan', the great 'Descent 
from the Cross', the portraits of Tolling, Bonus, and Six, the land-* 
scape with the mill, and that with the three trees. Admirable 
examples of his drawings are to be found in the Ryks Museum at 
Amsterdam and the Teyler Museum at Haarlem. 

A goodly array of pupils and imitators are gathered around Rem- 
brandt. His influence was not confined to Amsterdam alone, but ex- 
tended to the neighboi^ring schools , that of Haarlem , for example. 
Amongst his more immediate followers may be mentioned Oet- 
hfcoid van den Eeckhout (1621-74), whose works frequently bear 
Rembrandt's name (the Museum of Amsterdam possesses one of 
the best of his pictures — The Adulteress), and Ferdinand Bol of 
Dordrecht (1616-80), who deserted his native style after the 
death of his master. The 'Regent' picture, formerly in the Lepers' 
Hospital, and now in the City Hall, at Amsterdam, belongs to his 
best time (1649). 

Oovert Flinck, of Cleves (1615-60), may be said almost to have 
ritalled Rembrandt at the outset of his career. Besides his two 
best 'Regent' pieces (dated 1642 and 1643), there is in the Museum 
of Amsterdam a Scriptural picture by him. It represents Isaac in the 
act of blessing Jacob , a favourite subject with the school of Rem- 
brandt. Amongst the number of Rembrandt's satellites are also Jan 
Lievens Tl 607-74) ; Jan Fietoor or Victors (1620- ca. 1672) ; Ph. Ko- 
ninok (1619-88), the landscape-painter; Salomon /iToninc/c (1609-56), 
whose Scriptural pictures and portraits bear so strong a superficial 
resemblance to those of Rembrandt that they are often mistaken for 
his ; Jacob Backer (1608-51), intimately associated in his youth 
with Oovert Flinck, and his companion in Rembrandt's workshop ; 
Nicholas Maes, of Dordrecht (1632-93), whose best works belong to 
the time of his youth (1650-60), as, having in after-life settled in 
Antwerp, he seriously deteriorated under the influences of the 
school of Rubens ; Karel Fahritius, who came to a premature end by 
a powder explosion in Delft (1654) ; and Bernard Fabritius, 

Another of the most eminent contemporaries of Rembrandt was 
Jan Vermeer (1632-75), of Delft, who pursued a course of great 
independence and seems to have been influenced by no other master 
except, to a slight extent, Karel Fabritius. Young women engaged 
in all kinds of household work, or in the more congenial occupation 
of love-making, interiors, and street-scenes, are the favourite sub- 
jects of this rare master, all wondrously pure in colour, abounding 
//7 deJijs^htfn} oifects of perspective, full of life, at once truthful and 
eJtarming, entitling them to rank amongst the gemR ol\>uV\kwV. "ft^W 
Coring his lifetime and afterwards his style was Itec^wftulVj \m\X».\Kv^ 


Scarcely inferior to Verineer of Delft, and frequently confounded 
with him, is Fieter de Hooeh (1630- ca. 1677), celebrated for the 
fasciuating effects of light in his interiors. And last, hut not least, 
of this artist array who, whether as pupils or followers, are associ- 
ated with Rembrandt, comes Gerard Don (born at Leyden in 1613 ; 
d. 1675), the great master of minuteness of finish , whose ^Night 
School' , ^Maidens by candle-light', and ^Hermits' are in so much 
fayour with the public , commanding prices commensurate with the 
admiration bestowed upon them, though it must be said of his 
works that skilful and delicate manipulation takes the place of poet- 
ical expression, and that the range of his fancy is contracted in 
measure corresponding with his painstaking elaboration of finish. 
This latter quality, however, must receive its due meed of praise. 
On the other hand , Dou is connected with a number of painters 
of declining excellence, such as Frans van Mieris the Elder, of 
Leyden (1635-81), Pieter van SUngelandt (iUO-di), Godfrey 
Sehaleken (1643-1706), Abraham de Pape (ca. 1625-1666), and 
many others. 

It will be seen, then, that Rembrandt's infiuence was as weighty 
and comprehensive as the products of his easel were great in 
number and surpassing in quality. Painters of the most widely 
differing motives acknowledge him as their master and example, 
and he has led the way, not only in historical and portrait painting, 
but in landscape too , and in the so-called genre painting. In this 
respect Bartholomew van der Heist, to whom many would assign a 
place amongst the foremost realists next to Rembrandt, cannot compare 
with him. Van der Heist was bom at Haarlem in 1613, and ended 
his days at Amsterdam in 1670, in the enjoyment of great wealth and 
general esteem. Nicolaes Ellas (p. Ixi) is regarded as his teacher. 
Nothing is known of his relations with Rembrandt, whose path he 
appears to be continually crossing without compromising his independ- 
ence. He was the favourite portrait-painter of the wealthy burghers 
of Amsterdam, and confined himself almost entirely to the painting 
of 'Regent' pieces and portraits. His most celebrated work, the 
Arquebusiers' Banquet (1648), is in the Museum of Amsterdam 
(which also possesses the Arquebusiers' Quild of 1642, and the 
'Doelenstuk' of 1657), and when compared with Rembrandt's 'Night 
Watch', admirably illustrates the points of difference between the 
two masters. Van der Heist presents to us Nature as she is, un> 
relieved, a bare reality. If Nature herself could paint she would 
have given us a picture such as Van der Heist's. It is otherwise 
with Rembrandt. Upon all his works he sets the seal of his in- 
dividuality. As the reality presents itself to his eye, so hA tA^r 
,prodaces it with just that degree of tTUtM\i\iift%%^\AftV\aA\s^«S!iJ^'^s^ 
pt98erib08. Van der UelsVa are mete imU^WQwa, W\».^\^^ Vkv ^Owiet 
<^e2f#7, ^u^ iaavi/ig no enduring ImpieA&iou. - ■ \ '''•^ 

BASDMXBB8 Belgium and Holland. i4th KdU. ^ 


Tiatu EaJa, of llasrleiD, s somexliat earlier paiuter, gtandri 
In mach closer analogf nith Rembrandt it founder of a sohool thas j 
Van def Heist does. Thongh of Hairlem parentage, he was Twra 
at Autwerp (about 1580J. When he returned to Haarlein ie not 
knowD. He married tn 1610, nnhappily aa the event proved, for 
iri 1616 ha -was brought hefora the Bucgomaster for lll-tcemting 
his wife, »nd had to promise to abstain focthefutDre [rom 'dronken' 
Bchappe'. or the Joyi o( Min»ivia.lity whith he could aa wall depiet 
he freely partook, and thai got into dlfBcultieB which hii proliflp 
pennit failed to aiort. His goods and chattels were sold by anetion 
in 1652 to pay his debts, and he becsme in his old age a penaioaer 
of the lowD. His death took place in 1666, at the age of 86, hli 
Ubonra having extended over lialf-a -century. The earliest of his 
paintings known to us bears ihs date 1616, the Banquet of Oflloerl 
of the St. Oeofge'e Guild of Musheteere, In the Mneeum of Haarlem, 
where the moat aonslderahle of this mastac's 'Regent Pieces' ata 
collected. Amongst these the Assembly of OfUoers of tbe '01070- 
olera Doele' (1633), and Assembly of Offlcers of the St. George^ 
Onild (1639), are the best. Rembrandt's inlliience is still apparent 
in pictures of the suc«eediug deoade, withuiit however Impairing the 
indifldnallty of the artist. The otuiost vivacity of conception, puiitjr 
of colour, md breadth ol execution, whlcb in his latest works betxays 
a handling of the brush so uncoiaproinisliig that drawing Is alraoit 
lost In a ujazo of colonr-tone, are distinguishing chsiacleristica of 
Fians Hals, who, besides the 'Regent Pieces' referred to, was the 
author uf numerous portisits; and he has immoitalized snob popnlu 
figures as the 'Rommelpott Players', 'The tipsy old wife, Hllle 
Bobbe', and 'The jolly shoemaker, Jan Bateutz', ready either for a 
drinking bout 01 tor service In the fleet with Admiral Tromp. 

His best known pupils aTeAfJrlanBrouuer (b. at Oudenaude, oa, 
1605 ; d. at Antwerp, 1638), and Adrian van O'atado (b. at Hsarlun, 
1610 ; died there, 1685). As we do not possess more correct bio- 
graphical data Donoernlag the former of these, we must accept aa traB 
the stories told of him and his fellows by authors of the 18th oontu^. 
Ue Is his master's most formidatle rival in the ns'ive oonoeptton^f 
national character, as well as in mere technical akil); and had ha lived 
long enough to mature his natural powers, he must have boiue away 
the palm now conceded to Adrian van Ostada. la the earlier efforts 
of Adrian van Ostade, w a are reminded of Brouwer; It was after tha 
year 1610, or thereabouts, when the influence of UembrsDdt was 
in (he ascendant with him, that ha fl ret displayed those techaieal 
qualities and artistic predilections which have made htm » favour- 
ite with the most fas tid ions connoissenrs. Grace and beanty are ittrt^ 
butes which the forms crowded into his cottsg e -interiors or anlmstiiig 
i/f eoartytrd #a«iie4 certainly do tioC possess ; but they always rtotud 

EloioetyUfe, oiarMterfslfi; and appropriate, -«\iat\iet ^\i^ti% in.i4^« 
M/teatapoallieBnJoyaimt of plp« and g\MS,oT aanduft iwrnftv^iM 


by the eyer-present fiddler ; and with such marvellous effect fs colour 
accentuated , so complete is his mastery of chiaioscuro , that nearly 
every picture may be said to provide a new ^feast for the eye'. His 
representations of courtyards (usually enclosed) possess, perhaps, a 
higher pictorial charm than his interiors ; and it was certainly more 
difficult to secure harmony of tone and colour in the former than in 
the latter. With Adrian van Ostade are connected his brother, 
iBoae van Ostade (1621-49), whose high promise was frustrated 
by an early death, Cornells Bega (1620-64), and Cornelia Dusart 

And thus we are brought to the almost innumerable throng of 
ObnbbPaintbbs, who have imparted to Dutch art its peculiarly dis- 
tinctive attributes, and have secured its greatest triumphs. It 
would be difficult to distinguish amongst the genre painters of 
Holland various degrees of excellence, inasmuch as each in his 
respective , and, as a rule, contracted sphere , has asserted an in- 
disputable supremacy. It is unfortunate that the greater number 
of their works have been transferred to foreign galleries , and are 
rarely to be met with in Dutch collections , so that Holland is no 
longer exclusively the place where the genre and landscape paint- 
ers of the Netherlands can be studied. It must suffice , therefore, 
to mention the most conspicuous names. 

The genre painters are usually divided into several groups, ac- 
cording to the subjects which they make peculiarly their own ; pic- 
tures, for example , belong to the higher or lower genre as they set 
before us the more refined or coarser aspects of social life, the world 
of fashion or the vulgar herd. These, however, are merely adventi- 
tious distinctions, and do not by any means sufficiently account for 
this latest development of Dutch art, resolving itself as it did into 
a number of local schools. Dirck Hals (d. 1656), a younger brother 
of Frans Hals (to whom many genie works by Dirck have been 
ascribed), Anton Palamedesz (ca. 1601-1673), J. A, Duck, Pieter 
Codde (ca. 1600-1678), and others abound in pictures of soldiers 
and cavaliers contending with Yenus and Bacchus, or engaged in 
the sterner encounter of pitched battle and skirmish ; in illustra- 
tions, too, of the fierce licence engendered by the wars of the 17th 
century ; figures roaming hither and thither without restraint, lusty 
and light-hearted. In striking contrast to such scenes as these are 
the pictures of a peaceful and refined domestic life, occasionally 
disconcerted by the vicissitudes of love, which formed the favourite 
theme of Gerard Terburg (ter Boreh)^ born at Zwolle in 1617, 
a man who had travelled much and who died at Deventer in 
1681. He, together with his successors, Oabriel Metsu^ of Leyd^^^ 
and Amsterdam (ca. 1630-1667), Caspar NeUchcr V>. ^^^^'v^^- 
l>ergr, iB39; died at The Hague, 1684), etc., a.x«k ^«^\i«ti\Vi Vkiss^^ 
MM 'eftaff* painters, owing to the attention tVvey \>«>%Ww xi:^^ $«.%.v»^ 


stiifTs, especially silks and satins. It must be borne in mind, how- 
ever, that in the absence of these external properties, thas carefully 
sn|iplied, the refinements of life could not be invested with appro- 
priate pictorial splendour. But that these painters were not mere 
Imitators of stuiT and texture, that they were capable of omotloUi 
and could give utterance to the sentiments of romance, will be suf- 
flciuntly evident to those who study the 'Paternal Warning* of Tet' 
burg in the Museum at Amsterdam. As a portrait-painter, too, Ter- 
burg has made a great reputation. (His Teace Congress of Milnster'i 
his most celebrated piece, was sold with theDemidoff collection for 

Jan Steen, the so-called jolly landlord of Leyden (ca. 1626-79), 
who, however, painted also at The Hague and Haarlem, was 
likewise a painter of social subjects, but in a line and in a manner 
quite his own. That he was a low-lived tippler is simply one of 
tliOMc. wholly gratuitous slanders with which it was once the fashion 
to besHiirch the painters of Holland. A jovial life was probably not 
repugnant to his tastes ; and what is more to our purpose is the 
fact til at a Hpontaneous joyousness pervades his works, and a sparkling 
sense of humour too ; while as a colourist he must be looked upon 
as the foremost of the entire school. His pictures might be enti- 
tled coin(;dies of life, in which man's follies are chastised with 
satire, and his weaknesses held up to ridicule, but without the 
glaring exaggeration and obtrusive moralizing which make Hogarth's 
pictures (with whom Jan Steen has much in common) so unpleasant 
to look upon. Family feasts and merr>'-makings , the wedding of 
ill-assorted couples, quacks and their quackeries, lovelorn maidens 
( *hi(^r baat geen medicijn, want het is minne pijn'), tavern brawls 
and similar scenes are his favourite subjects. Jan Steen has, and 
with justice, been likened to Molidre. The greater number of his 
works, including many of the best, are in England, but he is well 
represented in most of the Dutch collections also and especially 
HO in the Kyks M useum at Amsterdam. The Due d'Arenberg possesses 
In his collection one of the very rare Scriptural pieces by this master, 
the 'Marriage, at dana'; another, 'Laban searching for his imagei*, 
is in the Municipal Museum at Leyden. 

Jan Steen is a solitary personage. He stands alone, and has no 
followers. Ho much the more numerous, and at the same time in- 
timately associated , are the painters whose genius found employ- 
ment in the dontain of landscape, which they rendered with true 
artistic appreciation, and enriched as well as animated by the ad* 
ditlon of living forms. Very frequently these landscapes with 
figures' are the result of friendly co-operation. Thus Adtian van dt 
Velde of Amsterdam (ca. 1635-72), one of the most estimable as 
well as gifted of Dutch painters, supplied the figures for the land- 
enapos of his master VTynants, for Moucheion aivA 3«lWn^w d.«iHeyde, 
aitff even for Hobboma and Kuysdael. Philips WoutjeTrtunv^^VMK^ 


has perhaps the greatest reputation for these figure pictures, of which 
some 800 may still be reckoned. Cavalry combats, hunting scenes, 
in which horses always play a conspicuous part, he has repeated 
with endless variations, seldom, however, passing the bounds of 
mediocrity. To enumerate the names of all who occupied this par- 
ticular field is simply impracticable , for it is precisely in this field 
that Dutch art was most prolific. We must, however, mention (as 
akin to the foregoing) Paul Potter (b. 1625 ; d. at Amsterdam, 1654) 
chief of animal-painters, to whose pictures landscape lends idyllic 
charms, and whom we must accept as a classical example of the 
entire fraternity. A consummate draughtsman, he was at least as 
eminent as a colourist, especially in his smaller pictures. Karel du 
Jardin (1622-78), an exuberantly fertile painter, owes his best 
qualities to the foregoing, but the inequality of his works shows 
his inability to resist other less favourable influences. Other 
'idyllic* painters, though standing several degrees lower, are Jan 
Asselyn (1610-52) and Nieolaes Berchem (1620-83), both of Am- 

As landscape-painters must be named Jan van Ooyen of The 
Hague (1596-1656); Albert Cuyp of Dordrecht (1620-91), son 
of Jacob Gerritsz (p. Ix), also eminent as a painter of portraits and 
animals; Jan Wynants (b. ca. 1625 at Haarlem, d. ca. 1682 at Am- 
sterdam), famous for the number of his pupils and his own steady 
development ; Allart van Everdingen (Alkmaar, 1621-75) ; Salomon 
van Ruysdael (ca. 1600-1670; Haarlem); Jacob vftn Buysdael 
(ca. 1628-1682, at Haarlem and Amsterdam), 'excelling all other 
masters in a feeling for the poetry of northern landscape combined 
with the power of graphic embodiment' ; and Meindert Hobbema 
(b. 1688, at Amsterdam; d. 1709), whose merits have only re- 
cently come to be appreciated. His works exhibit a moderate talent 
only for composition; the same motive constantly recurs in his 
pictures (the figures are for the most part by another hand) ; but in 
delicacy and thoroughness of elaboration, more particularly in his 
treatment of atmosphere and light, his pictures must be highly prized 
as works of genius of the highest order. — Jan van dtr Meer of 
Haarlem (1628-91) shows himself near of kin to Jacob van Ruysdael. 
Various other landscape-painters remained true to their national 
scenery, but in many cases they lapsed into a kind of mannerism, 
which is very apparent in the moonlight-scenes, conflagrations, and 
winter-scenes of Aart van der Neer (Amsterdam, 1603-77). The 
better pictures of the last-named artist , such as his forest-land- 
scape in the Van der Hoop collection, are, however, not inferior to 
those of Ruysdael and Hobbema, whom he also resembles in his 
death in poverty and obscurity. Fashion also begs^u. t^ ^^\s^^^^ 
the study of Italian landscapes, and in th.© a^coii^ \iaM ol ^C^^ 
i7tb century compositiona of this kii4d are ^©ci^e^^ ^xek^^xs^^^"^^- 
Among the earliest examples of this tendency a-x^ Ja-**^ Bo\Av Q^ 


Utrecht (oa. 1610-1652), Adam Pynackw (1622-73), and Herman 
Swanevelt (ca. 1600-1655). 

It is well known how marine painting {Simon de VUeger, 1601- 
ca. 1653, at Rotterdam, Delft, and Amsterdam; WiUem van deVMe, 
the Younger, 1633-1707) and arohiteotaral painting (Jan van der 
Heyde, 1637-1712; Hendrik van Vliet, ca. 1611-1675, at Delft; 
Emanuel de Witte, 1617-92, at Amsterdam) prospered in Holland, 
and how the national art, as it were with its last breath, gave 
birth to the so-called 'still-life' (W, van AeUt of Delft, Abr, van 
Beyeren at The Hague, Willem Kalff at Amsterdam) and flower 
painting (Jan Davidss de Heem, 1606- ca. 1684, Utrecht and Ant- 
werp ; Rachel Ruysch, 1664-1750, Amsterdam ; Jan van Huyeum, 

We conclude these slight observations with the wish that they 

may induce to a more searching study of Dutch art In a careful 

examination of the works themselves. 

Those who take an interest in the subject may be referred to Crowe 
and Cavalcatell^i Early Flemish Painters (1857^ 3rd ed., 1879), C<m»mf*s 
Early Flemish Artists (1887), or Btir^er*4 Masses de la Hollande (18e0<61); 
and to works by M<tx Roosei^ Frommtin, Ouiffrey (these in French), Bode, 
Bredius, Burckhardt, Max Friedldndtr, Vosmaer, Karl Nemnann, etc (In 
German). Works on modern art are C. Lemonnier's 'Histoire dea Beanz- 
Arts en Belgique* (Brussels, 1881), R. MutherU *Die Belglsche Halerei im 
xiz. Jahrhundert' (Berlin 1904), O. H. Marius't 'De Hollandsche Sehilder- 
kunst in de negentiende eeuw^ (The Hague, 1904), E. ffetsling^s 'La Sculp- 
ture Beige Contemporaire' (Berlin, 1903), and Destree't ^Renaissance of Sculp- 
ture in Belgium\ 

1. From London to Brussels. 

a. Vi& Ostend. 

1. Vid DoveTy thrice daily in 8V2-9 hrs. (sevpassage 3-3Va hrs. j 3rd class 
by night-service only)^ fares U, 18s. lOd., U. St. id.^ 19s. Sd., return-tickets 
(valid for one month) 3{. 10s. 6d., 21. lis. Scf., 1/. I4s. 9d. To Ostbnd 
5-5V2 hrs.; fares 11.7s. lid., 19s. lOd., 13s. 5d., return-tickets (valid for 
two months) 2/. 12s. 4ef., 1/. 17s. 4(f., l;. 4s. 2d. The morning train starts 
from Charing Cross Station, the afternoon train from Victoria, Holborn, 
and St. Paul's, the night train from Charing Cross and Cannon Street (on 
Frid. also from Victoria); at Brussels they run to and from the Station 
du Nord. — 2. By General Steam Navigation Co.^s Steamers from St. Katha- 
rine's Wharf to Ostend, twice weekly, in 10-12 hrs.; chief cabin 7s. 6(1., 
fore-cabin 6s., return 10s. Qd., 9s. These steamers do not ply in direct 
connection with the trains to Brussels. — Luggage is examined at Ostend. 

Fboh Ostend to Brussels, 78 M., railway in 1V2-4V4 hrs. (fares llfr.80, 
8 fr.y 4 fr. 75 c.) ; to Brugbs, 14 M., in 20-28 min. (fares 2 fr. 20, 1 fr. 50, 
90 c.) ; TO Ghent, 42 M., in 1-1 V4 hr. (fares 4 fr. 40, 2fr. 60 c). The through- 
trains in connection with the Dover steamers usually stop neither at Bruges 
nor at Grhent; some halt at Gand-St-Pierre (p. 49), where passengers for 
Ghent change carriages. 

Ostend, see p. 8. — The express-trains in connection with 
the Dover steamboats start from the quay, the ordinary trains from 
the station in the town. 

The line crosses the canal diverging from the Bruges Canal to 
the S.W., and leading via Nieuport and Furnes to Dunkirk. 41/2 M. 
Oudenburg , with the ruins of a Benedictine abbey and an old 
church, lies to the right, in the midst of productive gardens which 
supply Ostend with fruit and vegetables. — 8 M. Jabheke. 

14 M. Bruges (see p. 20, and Map, p. 14) is the junction of the 
line for Paris vid Roeselare and Lille. 

From Bruges to Blanksnbbrghe (9V2 M.) and Hbtst (15 M.) by rail- 
way in 18-27 min. and «/4-i br. respectively (fares 1 fr. 50, 1 fr., 60 c, and 
2 fr. 40, 1 f^. 60, 95 c). The trains are often late. The train skirts the 
K.W. side of Bruges, passes the Ostend Gate (p. 37; left), and calls 
at (2 M.) Bruges-Nord. — 5 M. Dudteele, — 7 M. lAsseweghe. The village, 
which lies 1 M. to the E. of the station, was a flourishing town in the 
middle ages, but now has only 1800 inhabitants. The Chwch^ a handsome 
structure of the 13th cent., in the transition style, formerly belonged to 
an abbey, and has been under restoration since 1893. At the end of the 
left aisle is a Visitation by J. van Oost the Elder. The truncated tower, 
although two-thirds of it only are completed, is a very conspicuous ob- 
ject in the landscape. A huge bam (now a farm), with immense oaken 
beams, dating from 1280, is the solitary relic of the wealthy abbey of 
T^rDaest. — 9V« M. Blankenberghe (p. 17). The railway follows the narrow 
line of dunes, with glimpses of the sea on the left. — 12Vs M. Zeebrugg^e, 
the new seaport of Bruges (comp. p. 21), is still practicsJly uninhabited. 
Its large Outer Harbour communicates with a smaller inner basin at the 
beginning of the new Canal Maritime. This canal, which is 280 ft. wide 
and 26 ft. deep, allows sea-going vessels to reach (6 M.) Bm%^^ -'viXi.^x^ 
another harbour has been made. The canal ati4 'hve\^ouT N?«t^ W\%ck»A. 
by (3oisean Bud Cousin of Bruges and conatrxLCte^ Va \^^-\SKSV ^"v. ^ ^^^^ - 

of aearJjr 42 million francs. The cresceni-aYxapfteL J«ti« , ^xQ^fec5wv% NJj* .9 
outer harbour, is i^/a M, long and 165 ft. wide. 1\ ia mai»Vj c.w»X.x>^'»*»' 
Babdbkeb's Belgium and Holland. 14ih ISdit. V 

2 Route 1. ALOST. From London 

of blocks of concrete and is provided with elevators, warehouses, and rail- 
way tracks. — 18Vs ^* Heyit-Eclu$es^ at the locks of the drainage canals 
(p. 20). — 15 M. Hetfit^ see p. 19. 

To Thourout (Courtrai and Ypres), see p. 40. 

18 M. Oostcamp ; 22 M. Beemem; 2772 M, A«2trc (steam-tram- 
way to Thielt and Eecloo , see p. 44); 29 M. BelUm; 3IV2 M. 
Hansbeke; 33^2 M. Landeghem; 37^2 M. Tronchiennes. — 40 M. 
Oand-St'Pierre ; passengers for Ghent "by the through-trains nsnally 
change carriages here. 

42 M. Ghent, see p. 49. From Ohent to Antwerp, see R. 10; 
to Courtrai, see R. 8. 

421/2 M. Ledeberg; 431/2 M. MeireVbeke; 461/2 M, MelU; 48 M. 
Quatrecht; 5O1/2 M. Wetteren; 52 M. Schellebelle. All these are 
also stations on the line from Ghent to Antwerp vi^ Dendermonde 
(R. 10a). — 55 M. Lede. 

581/2 M. AlOBt, Flem. Aalst (46 ft. ; H6t, de Flandre^ Hot, des Ar- 
cades, both at the station ; Due de Brabant ; MiUe CoUynnes), a town 
with 29,200 inhab. , on the Dendre, was formerly the capital of the 
county of Aalst, or region between the lower Dendre and the Scheldt, 
which passed in 1056 into the possession of the Counts of Flanders 
under the name of Keizer-Vlaanderen, A considerable trade in hops 
is carried on here. The Church of St. Martin, in the late-GotMc style 
(about 1497), is little more than a fragment, two-thirds of the nave, 
as well as the tower and portal, being entirely wanting. The right 
transept contains a "'Masterpiece by Rubens, painted about 1625 : 
Christ appointing St. Rochus tutelary saint of the plague-stricken. 
In one of the chapels are vault-paintings of angelic musicians (1497). 
A statue by Jos. Qeefs was erected in 1856 in front of the H6tel 
de Ville to Thierry Maertens, the first Belgian printer, who exer- 
cised his craft at Alost. The beautiful belfry of the H6tel de Ville 
was thoroughly restored after a fire in 1879. The old town-hall, 
built early in the 13th cent. , is now the Meat Market, 

Faoh Alost to Antwerp, 31 V2 M., railway in about 2 hrs. (fares 
6 fr., 3 fr. 40 c, 2 fr.). — 3 M. Moorsel; V/2 M. Optvyck, the junction of the 
Brussels, Dendermonde, and Ghent railway (p. 82) ; 11 M. Btewnhuffel, with 
two churches (St. l^icholas and St. Genoveva) containing stained glass of the 
16th century. 14 M. Londerzeel-Oite*t, the junction of the Malines and Ghent 
line (p. 158), is also connected with Grimberghen (Brussels) by a steam- 
tramway. I6V2 M. Thisselt, W/2 M. Wilkbroeek (with paper-mills), also 
stations on the line from Malines to Terneuzen *, 21>/2 M. Boom, see p. 82 ; 
23 M. Jfiel; 25 V2 M. ffemixem, with an old Bernardine abbey, now a prison. 
— 28V2 M. Hoboken, see p. 199. Branch-line to Oude God (p. 159). — 31V«M. 
Antwerp, see p. 159. 

Branch-lines also run from Alost to (T^/z M.) Dendermonde (p. 81) and to 
(30 M.) Renaix (p. 73) via (7 M.) Burst (p. 47) and (I2V2 M.) Sotteghem (p. 47). 

60 M. Erembodeghem. — 6272 M. Denderleeuw, where a line 

diverges to Ninove and Ath (p. 6); to Courtrai, see p. 73. We 

now quit the province of East Flanders. — Several small stations. 

At /'74M.^ Jette the Dendermonde line diverges (p. 82). At (76M.) 

j^aa^^/i (p, i36) the royal chateau is seen on t\ift Y^U, TVi^ ti^iti 

/!aaIJy stops at the Station du Nord of {1% M..^ BruswU Vj. ^^. 

to Brussels. CALAIS. /. Route, 3 

b. Vi& Calais. 

Vid Dover emd Calais Brussels is reached in 7Va-8s/4 hrs. ; sea-passage 
ii/s-2 hrs. (fares 21. 9«., II. 15«., il. 3». 6<l., return-fares 41. 74. 9d., 8/. 4«. 6d., 
21. 3«.). The morning (no 3rd class), and night trains start from Charing 
Gross and Gannon Street: the afternoon train from Gharing Gross only; 
and the 11 a.m. express from Victoria. At Brussels the morning and night 
trains arrive at the Nord Station, the others at the Midi Station ; all trains 
start from both stations, except the afternoon train (from the Midi only). 
Luggage registered at London is examined at Blandain (or Mouscron). 

Fboh Calais to Bbdssbls, 134 M., railway in 4-4V> brs. (fares 26 fir.. 
17 fr. lOc). Beyond Lille some of the trains run vi& Mouscron and Courtrai 
(comp. p. 76). 

Calais. — Hotels. Tebminos Hotel, at the Gare Maritime; Cbntbal 
Hotel, at the Central Station; Gband Hotel, Place Richelieu; Mbdbicb, 
Bne de Guise; Sauvaoe, Rue Royale; HdT. du Gommbecb, Rue Royale; 
HdT. DB LoMDBEs, Rue de la Cloche. 

British and IT. 8. Consuls. — English Church, Rue du Moulin-Briil^. 

Calais^ a fortified town with 60,000 inhab., derives its obief 
impoitance from its barbour and its traffic witb England, to wbicb 
it is tbe nearest port on tbe Frencb coast. The Harbour is acces- 
sible at all states of the tide. Tbe Old Harbour, with tbe former 
railway-station, lies nearest to the Place d'Armes; the imposing 
*New Harbour farther to the E. The Oare Maritime^ or Maritime 
Station^ where travellers from England find the train waiting, is 
on tbe N.E. side of the Avant-Port, and is connected by a short 
branch-line with the Oare Centrale, which lies between Calais 
proper and St. Pierre. About 250,000 travellers pass through 
the town annually. Calais contains about 1500 English residents, 
chiefly engaged in its tulle-manufactories. See Baedeker s Northern 

26 M. St. Omer (Hdtel de la Porte d^Or et d'Angleterre), the first 
important station, is a fortified town with 21,000 inhabitants. The 
Cathedral is a fine structure in the transitional style. The English 
Roman Catholic Seminary here, at which O'Connell was educated, 
has been abandoned. A number of English families reside at St. 
Omer for purposes of retrenchment and education. See Baedeker's 
Northern France. 

38 M. Hazebrouck (Buffet-H6tel; Hot. du Nord) is the junction 
of this line with the railways N. to Dunkirk, N.W. to Ypres (p. 40), 
and S. to Amiens and Paris. 

66 M. Lille. — Hotel-Bdffet, at the station. — Hotels. *H6tel de 
L'EoROPB (PI. a; E, 3), Rue Basse 30, R. 5-71/2 fr.; Hot. de Fbance (PJ. b; 
B,3), Rue Esquermoise77; Hot. de Flandbb bt d'Angletbbbb (PI. c; F,3), 
Place de la Gare 15; Grand Hotel de Lille (PI. e; F,3), Rue Faidherbe 28; 
Continental (Pl.k: F, 4), Parvis St. Maurice; HdT. de la Paix (PI. g; F, 4), 
Rue de Paris 46; Singe d'Ob (PI. i; F, 8), Place du Theatre 36-38; Hot. 
MODJEBNB (PI. 1 ; F, 4), Parvis St. Maurice; HdT. db Bbuxelles et de Touknai., 
Rue des Buisses and Rue du Vieux-Faubourg, neat lYici 9.^.^^.\vi^^. V^\.'^^ ^^.,'^., 
B.from 2 fr. 

MmUurantM. Divoir, Rue du Vieux MaTC,\x«S-%.u^-^o\AeN'^ Vb\ ^^^^ ^»- 
most of the betels and cafds. 

4 Route 1, LILLE. 

Cafei. Cafi Jecm^ Cafi du Grand HdUl^ BulMS, all in the Rue Faid- 
herbe. — Taverne de Strasbourg, in the Grand' Place. 

Cabi: per drive IV4 fr., per hr. 11/4 fr., each succeeding hr. l^/ifr. 

Tramwayi traverse all the principal streets (fare from 10 «. npward). — 
Steam Tramway to Rovbaix (p. 76) in 1 hr. ^ fares 75 or 50 c., return 1 fr. or 80c. 

Post and Telegraph Omce, Place de la B^publique (PL E, 5) and at 
the station. 

United States Oonsular Agent, ChrUtopJier J. King, 

English Church (PI. F, 5), Rue Watteau, Boulevard de la Libert^. 

LilUj originally VIsle, Flem. Ryssely the chief town of the French 
De'partement du Nord, with 210,700 inhab., was- foimeily capital 
of Flanders, but was taken by Louis XIV. in 1667, and was finally 
awarded to France by the Peace of Utrecht in 1713. It is a fortress 
of the first class, and is situated in a well-irrigated and fertile plain 
on the DeHle , a navigable river with which numerous canals are 
coiineeted. Since the extension of the fortifications in 1858 nu- 
merous handsome streets and squares have sprung up, particularly on 
the S. side of the town. Lille is a very important manufacturing 
place. Its staple commodities are linen and woollen goods, cotton, 
cloth, 'Lisle thread', machinery, oil, sugar, and chemicals. The 
picture-gallery (p. 6) in itself repays a visit to Lille. 

From the station the handsome Rue Faidherbe leads straight to 
the site of the Grand ThSdtre (PI. F, 3), destroyed by fire in 1903, 
whence the Rue des Manneliers runs to the left, passing the Bourse 
(PI. F, 3J, the court of which contains a bronze statue of Napoleon I. 
by Lemaire (1854), to the Grand' Place, the nucleus of the old 
town. A Column in the centre commemorates the gallant defence 
of the town against the Austrians in 1792. On the side of the Place 
opposite the Rue des Manneliers rises the H6tel de Ville (PI. F, 4), 
erected in 1847-59 in the Renaissance style. 

Leaving the H6tel de Ville, we cross the large Place in an oblique 
direction to visit the old town. We proceed through the Rue du 
March^-aux-Fromages, the Rue Lepelletier, the Rue Basse (right), 
and the Rue du Cirque (first to the left) to Notre Dame-de-la-TreHle 
(PI. E, F, 3), a church in the style of the 13th cent., designed by 
the London architects H. Glutton and W. Burges, and begun In 
1855. The building was planned on so ambitious a scale that little 
has been completed. — The Rue Basse leads hence to the left to 
the Lycee Faidherbe (PI. F, 3), which contains a Natural History 
Museum (adm. 10-4), and to the right to the Rue Esquermoise 
(PI. E, 3), one of the principal streets of the old town. — The 
Gothic church ot Ste. Catharine (PI. E, 3) contains an •Altar-piece 
by Rubens, representing the saint's martyrdom. 

The handsome Bouicyard de la Liherti (PI. D, E, F, 4, 5) forms 

the boundary between the old town and the new quarters built in 

the modern Parisian style. In the Place do la R^publique are, to 

the N.W., the spacious Prefecture (PI. E, 4, 5), and, opposite, the 

J^s/su's des BeauX'Arts (PL F, 5), a striking e^i^tft, ^eA\%\k&d by 

^/rard and Dalmas, and opened in i89*i, T\ift OkoW^cXWoa ^Vl<^ 

LILLE. 1. Bouie, 5 

it contains are among the most important in France, the *Pictxjbe 
Gallbby being especially rich in examples of the Flemish and 
Dutch schools. The other collections include drawings, sculptures, 
antiquities, and museums of ethnography and industrial and decor- 
ative art. The collections are open to the public daily (except Sat.) 
from 10 to 4 or 5. The titles of the pictures and the names of the 
artists are attached to each work. For details, see Baedekei's North- 
em France. 

In the Boulevard de la Libert^, beyond the Palais dcs Beaux- 
Arts, at the comer of the Rue Watteau, is the English Church (p. 4), 
a tasteful Gothic building with stained-glass windows. The Rue de 
Valmy leads hence to the S. to the Place Philippe-le-Bon (PL E, 
6, 6), with the modern Romanesque church of 8t, Michel and (to 
the left) the Quartier des FaeulUa (PI. F, 5), accommodating the 
faculties of medicine, law, and literature of the University of Lille. 

The Porte de Paris (PI. F, G, 5), belonging to the old fortifica- 
tions, but spared on their removal, was built in 1685-95 in the form 
of a triumphal arch in honour of Louis XIV. — The late-Gothic 
church of *St. Maurice (PI. F, 4 j 13th cent.), near the Grand* Place 
and the railway-station, is almost the only building of importance 
that has survived the wars of the middle ages. 

For further details, see Baedeker's Northern France. 

Beyond Lille the train continues to run towards the E. About 
4 M. to the S.E. of (7OV2M.) Ascq is situated the village of Bouvines^ 
where Emp. OthorV. was defeated by Philip Augustus of France in 
1214. 731/2 M. Baisieux is the last French, and (77 M.) Blandain 
the first Belgian station, at each of which there is a custom-house. 
80 M. Froyennes (p. 76). 

82 M. Toomai, see p. 76. Thence to Courtrai (8/4 hr.), see R. 8. 

FaoM ToDRNAi TO MoNS, via Blaton, 30VsM., railway in 1-2 hrs. (fares 
4 fr. 70, 3 fr. 20, 1 fir. 90 c.). Route viaLeuze (29 M.), see p. 73. — Near 
Vaulx are the interesting ruins of the so-called Chdteau de Cisar. About 
2Vs H. from AnMng lies Fontenoy^ where Marshal Saxe gained a great 
victory over theAustrians and British under the Duke of Cumberland in 
1745. The old Qothic chateau is the seat of the Princess of Ligne. There 
are numerous lime-pits and lime-kilns in the neighbourhood. Branch-line 
to St. Amand, in France. — The other stations are Jiiaubraj/^ Callenelle 
(near the Due de Croy's chateau ^Hermitage), Piruwelt (branch to Va- 
lenciennes), Blaton (p. 6), where the line from Leuze to Mons is rejoined, 
Harehie$^ VilU- Pommeroeuly Hautrage-Etat (local line to St. Ghislain, see 
p. 6), Boussu-Haine. St. OAwIam (p. 73), Quaregnon-Wasmuel^soi^ Jemappes. 
- 30Va M. Mont^ see p. 208. 

Fbom Tournai to Rbnaix, i8V2 M., railway in V4-I hr. (fares 2 fr. 90, 
2 fr., 1 fr. 15 c). This line passes (3V2 M.) ObiqieSy whence Mont St. Aubert 
is ascended in 35 min. (comp. p. 81). — IS'/a M. ReM^., see p. 73. 

From Todrnai to St. Auamd, 16 M., railway in 1 hr. — At (7 M.) 
ncHlaim 10 the *Pierre Brunehault', a huge mouoUtli oi '^ci^%V\A^ \ix\3\^\fc 
SV5f Jf. BMutHe* ia the Belgian, and VW Tl.'i MouVie Uwlaq\^\^ 
h f—'^tier ttatioD. — 16 M. St. Amand, a<ift Baeaftlw*"* lilw\\N«.Txv 


6 Route 1. ATH. From London 

Beyond Tournai the undulating and well-cultivated province of 
Hainault is tiaversed. Mont St. Aubert (p. 81) long remains con- 
spicuous to the left. 87 M. Havinnes ; 91 M. Barry- Maulde ; 92 M. 
Pipaix. — 94 M. Leuze (156 ft.), a small stocking-manufacturing 
town on the Dendre, with a cruciform church restored In 1742, is 
the junction of the Ghent-Oudenaarde-Leuze-Blaton line (p. 73). 
— 96 M. Chapelle-d'Wattines. — 98 M. Ligne (140 ft.), which 
gives a title to the princely family of that name. Ahout I74 M. firom 
the station is the chateau of Moulbaix, built in imitation of Wind- 
sor Oastle and belonging to the Marquis de Cbasteler. 

101 M. Ath (105 ft. ; Cygne; Paon d'Or; H6t. de BruxelUs, Aigle 
d^Or, both near the station ; H6t. de VUniverSj with caf^- restaurant, 
opposite the station), on the Dendre^ formerly a fortress, with 9000 
inhab., contains little to detain the traveller. The H6tel de Ville 
was erected in 1600. The church of 8t, Julian, founded in 1393, 
was almost wholly rebuilt after a fire in 1817. The Tour du Bur- 
bant J the most ancient structure in the town, dates in its lower part 
from 1150. A monument to Eugene Defacqz, a native of Ath who 
played a prominent part in the events of 1830, was erected in 1880. 
Numerous lime-kilns in the environs. 

Ath is the junction for the line from Dbndb&lbbuw (Alost) to Gbasj- 
uoNT, Ath, and Jdbbisb (Mont) : 34 M., railway in 1V4-2V4 hrs. (fares 5 fr.SO, 
3 fr. 60, 2 fr. 10 c.)- — Denderleeuto, see p. 2. The train ascends the left 
bank of the Dender or Dendre. 21/2 M. Okeghem. Then (4VsM.) Ninove, an old 
town with 6400 inhab., the seat, as early as the middle of the i2th cent, 
of a Premonstratensian abbey , of which no trace remains \ the parish- 
church contains two paintings by De Grayer. Steam-tramway to Brussels, 
see p. 89. — The next stations are Santbergen^ Ideghem, and Schendelbeke. — 
18 M. Qramxnont, see p. 211. — 16 M. Acren, the first place in Hainault; 
17 M. Les»ines, with porphyry quarries, is the junction of the Enghien- 
Benaix line (see p. 73); Papignies; Rebaix. — 25 M. Ath, see above. — 
Then Mafflti^ Mevergnies-Attre^ and Brugelette. 31 H. Lambron-Ccuteau^ 
with the interesting ruins of what was formerly one of the richest abbeys 
in Belgium, now belonging to the French Carthusians. 32 M. Lens (P* 7). — 
At (34 H.) Jurbise the Brussels and Paris line is reached (see p. %8). 

Fkom Ath to Blaton, 12 M., railway in '/a hr. (fares 1 fr. 86, 1 fr. 25, 
75 c). — The stations are small and uninteresting, with the exception of 
(7 M.) Beloeil (190 ft.; Cottronne; Due de Brabant) y a village with the cel- 
ebrated chateau and estate of the Prince de Ligne, which has been in pos- 
session of the family upwards of 5(X) years. Prince Charles Joseph de 
Ligne (1735-1814), the eminent general and statesman, gives a long account 
in his letters of this estate with its park and gardens , laid out by Le 
Kdtre. A statue to the prince has been erected in the village. The park 
is always open to the public. The chateau, which lost numerous treasures 
of art and part of its library through a destructive fire in 1900, is shown 
on written application to the Prince. 

Blaton is the junction for the lines to P^ruwelt-TouiTiaiisee p. 5) and<8a^- 
Ohislain-Mons (p. 73), and of branch-lines to Quevaucampt and to Bemittart. 

FbohAth to St. Guislain (pp.73, 210), 14 M., railway in about SOminutes. 

Beyond Ath are several small stations at which the express does not 

stop. From (110 M.)Ba««% a branch-line diverges to Renaix (p. 73). 

■f/^M. Engbien, Flem. Edingen or Einghcn ^i^^ 1\.\ VA\A ink 
-^^rc, at the station), the next important Tp\ace, «l to^Ti '^^ ^^^iRfc 

to Brussels. HAL. 1, Route. 7 

inhab. , many of whom are occupied in lace-making ('point de Paris'), 
is the junction of the line from Ghent to Braine-le-Comte and Char- 
leroi (R. 19). The fine old *Park of the Due d'Arenberg formerly 
contained the ancestral chateau of the Dues d'Enghien, which was 
destroyed during the French Revolution. The old chapel, with its 
carved oaken door, contains a well-preserved triptych, ascribed to 
Jan Coninxloo, Adjacent is a Capuchin Convent^ the church of which 
has contained since 1843 the beautiful alabaster *Tomb of Guil- 
laume de Oroy, Archbishop of Toledo (d. 1521), richly adorned 
with figures and ornaments in the style of the early Italian Renais- 

From Enqhibn to Courtbai, 41V«M., railway in about 274 brs. (fares 
6 fr. 40, 4 fr. 30, 2 fr. 55 c). Principal atationg : 12 M. Lessine* (p. 6); 231/2 M. 
Renaix (p. 73)^ 32 M. Avelghem (p. 75) j 4IV2 M. Courtrai (p. 73). — To 
Braine-le-Comte, see pp. 207, 208. 

Steam Tramways to (121/8 M.) Lens (p. 6) via (6V4 M.) Thoricourt; to 
(12Va M.) Soignies (p. 203)-, and to (20 M.) BrusteU (p. 88). 

The train quits the province of Ilainault and enters Brabant. 
119 M. Bierk; 121 M. Sairdes; 122 M. Beert-Bellinghen. 

125 M. Hal (115 ft.; Hot. du Due de Brabant^ well spoken of), 

situated on the Senne and the canal of Charleroi, with 9000 inhab., 

is celebrated throughout Belgium as a resort of pilgrims, on account 

of the miracle-working image of the Virgin in the church of *Notre 

Dame (formerly St. Martin), a pure Gothic edifice, begun in 1341 

and consecrated in 1409. 

The church possesses numerous costly treasures presented by Emp. 
Maximilian I., Charles V., Pope Julius II., Henry VIII. of England, the 
Burgundian Dukes, and the Spanish and Austrian governors. The *High 
Altar is a fine Renaissance work in alabaster, executed by Jan Mone in 
1533, with reliefs representing the seven Sacraments, statuettes of the 
four Evangelists and the four great Fathers of the Church, and a figure 
of St. Martin sharing his cloak with a beggar. The font, in bronze, was 
cast in 1446. A late-Gothic tabernaculum is also noteworthy. A monument 
in black marble, with the figure of a sleeping child, is dedicated to the 
son of Louis XI., who died in 1460. In a recess under the tower, behind 
a railing, are 33 cannon-balls, caught and rendered harmless by the robes 
of the wonder-working image during a siege of the town. 

The Httel de Ville^ built in 1616, a slender three-storied build- 
ing of brick and stone, with a lofty roof, was successfully restored a 

short time ago. 

From Hal to Braine-le-Comte and Mons (Brussels and Paris railway), 
see R. 18*, to Clabecq-Fauroeulx^ see p. 207. 

1261/2 M. Buysinghen ; 62 M. Loth. The country traversed is hilly. 
The line runs for some distance parallel with the canal of Charleroi. 
130m. Buysbroek was the birthplace of Johannes Ruysbroek (1293- 
1381), the mystic. Near (132 M.) Forest^ Flem. Vorst, the train 
crosses the winding Senne, which waters a rich pastoral district. 
The line intersects the Boulevards of Brussels (view of the Porte de 
Hal, p. 118, to the right) and soon stops at the SUtiftW dx\. WAx. 

134 M. Brussels (p. 83). 

8 Routed. OSTEND. HoteU. 

c. Vi& Antwerp. 

Vid Utirwich and Anttrerp, ilaily (Sun. excepted), in 14-15 hrs. (sea- 
\»a<i«a;;o lO'/thw.); faros U. lis. 3J., 19*. 3d., 15*. Ud., return-ticketa (valid 
for oil." month) 21. ?*«. 6./.. 17. I0«. lid., 1/. 5*. 2d. To Antwsbp, 13 hw.; 
faros 1.'. li*.. Ifw., return -ticket" Ivalid for two nionthi») 3i., il. Ag. The 
trains ( (/r^fif A\i.<^nj Hailtcasi) .^t tart from Liverpool St. Station^ at Brussels 
thoy niu to and from the Station dii >'ord. — Antwerp may be reached 
direct by stoamor from numerous other Briti.^li ports (see p. 182). 

KaoM AsTWBRr to Bris^els, '27»'- M., railway in V^-W* ^^' ('•»«•, etc., 
*ee p. IWV 

Antwerp. <ei» v- ^*'^^* — ^^*^' express-trains in connection with 
the Harwivh steamers st:irt from the 0»ai de la Station i PI. A, 5, 6); 
but if tlie steamers .ire Nery late in arriving, passengers must make 
their a^s) to the Ceiitral Station (^Pl. 1>. 3. -l*. — From Antwerp to 
l^n».<sils. see l\. i'X 

2. Ostend and its Environs. 

Kai'.wav St^iuoca. I. Ihc Si^u.-n .i Oiit^S, ViSU cr J^l-i SscUion tPI. P, 5^ 

• < . :•. .V.i' S. <u:o . ".»<; :.^«n. a: a Cv^nsidvrjl-'.i di*thr..*e from the sea 
an J. •■.;.■ V7.r.»;;s.'. '...:;"< ■.■•■i':j:'.^r * :r.".u tbe ".ote".? *::<: .':!* (TariiT. see 

V I '. ' "!*.'. ; r. '.' : . ' t r.1 = :; < - - ".V S:a-i.' ■: .V r-iri -it or 0*:f^/-k •- a ^^Pl . F. 4 : Hdtel- 
Ue*'.A :-:.•:% . f . r •.r.iv.-.* -.a c v.r.e::'. ■:; v. i;V. iV.e steamers U- ar.c from England. 
lU':e'-,"..v.-^.:s,< v.-Cit jVn <;f!i'.a;r«. — Of. .-e :'■.-< ln.t;r"-A:::aal Sleeping 
v'at . ,■ . .r. »"... SW .f -.i: K-..r5,ia; v'"- -1' IrjkVillcrs p r\:-^:eedin^ 
kl.r:. :. V".-w :r, -V.r. ;^V. ^.: V^ ;.i>*-.: v. v!) <V.ov.".: V.ok :.' Bnxge? only. 
»r. : ■ . .-.■ •>;.;• .1 ■■7\<>. •;;V..-- vii v-'. tfv; ./?; v ■^■' *-■- 'f- *■ '• i* * 
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■ . V. ,:. : 7 ■ .: ■ ;■ •• J, y A '. ■ - : < 

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., • .^ - .. ^ - . , I ■ ■ • . . . «^ ^ .«,..^* »• A. ...... A «« " ' m »■**■-• V*** ml m 

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HoUls. OSTEND. 9, RouU. 9 

hotel. — In the Boulevard vanlseghem: HdT. IhpAbial (PI. 9; I>, 2), with 
lift, B. from 4, B. li/z, d^j. 3. D. 4, pens, from 12, omn. 1 fr. \ Hdt dk la 
DxODB (PI. 8; D,2), R. from4»/8, B. iV«i_D. 3V«, pens, from 10, omn. i fr.; 
H6t. dk la MABfiKj *Rkgina (PI. 31; E, 2). with lift, R. from 4, B. li/a, 
d^. 4, D. 5, pens, from 121/2} omn. 1 fr. •, Hot. du Boulbvaud} Hobsb Shos 
HoTSLj HdT. Royal db Prussb et db la Grandb-Bretagnb (PI. 6; £, 2), 
E. from 3V4, B. IV4, d^j. 2V2, D. 3V2, pens, from 8 fr. — In the Rue Lon- 
gne, near the Eursaal : Hot. de la Paix (PI. 32 ; D, 2). — In the Rampe 
Christine ; Wateeloo Hotel, new. — In the Avenue Ldopold : Avbhub Hotel, 
English. — In the Place du Theatre : Hot. de 8axb (PI. 33 ^ D, 3). — In the 
Rue Royale: Savoy Hotel (PI. 27; D, 2), at the corner of the Avenue L<$o- 
pold, a hotel-garni; Hot. Mabion (PI. 26; G, 2), a family hotel; Rbinsbbeo 
(Jewish), R. 5-6, B. IV4, dej. 3, D. 5, pens. 10-16, omn. 1 fr. — In the Rue 
de Berlin (PI. G, D, 2): Ship Hotel, d^pendance of the hotel mentioned 
below, R. 3, pens. 8-12 fr. — In the Rue St. P^tersbourg (PI. C, 2, 3): Hdx. 
DB Cologne, unpretending. — In the Place Leopold Premier (PI. C, 3): 
Bbistol, Hot. de la Commune, inexpensive. 

In the Old Town. Between the Boul. van Iseghem and the Place d'Armes: 
HdT. NoppENEY; Gband Hotel Fontainb (PI. 10; E, 2). Rue de Flandre 
and Rue Longue, with lift, B. from 5, B. IV2, ddj. 3, D. 4-6, pens, from 12, 
omn. IV2 fr. ; *Gb. HdT. L&opold Deux et de Flandbb (PI. 16; E, 2), Rue 
de Flandre 8, R. 3-5, B. IV4, d^j. 3, D. 4, pens. 7-10, omn. 1 fr.; Ro- 
CHESTEB (PI. 11 ; E, 2), Rue Louise 19 ; Clabbnce, Rue Louise 23 ; Gebolb 
Catholiqde (PI. 13; D, 2), Rue de TOuest 38, R. from 2fr., L. 30 c, B.l, d^j. 
2V2, D. 3, pens. 7^/2 fr.; Hot. Univkbsel, Rue de TOuest 1. 

In or near the Place d'Armes; Hotel de L''EMPEREnB (PI. 15; E, 2), 
corner of the Rue de Brabant, with restaurant (p. 10), R. from G, B. I1/4, 
d^. 3, D. 4, pens, from 14, omn. 1 fr. ; Hot. Cemtbal, corner of the Rue 
Louise and the Rue de Brabant; Hot. de Gand et d' Albion (PI. 17; E, 3), 
in the Marche aux Herbes, R. from 3, B. IV4, d^j. 2»/t, D. 3, pens. 8-10, 
omn. 1/2 fr. — HdT. de Bavi&bb, Rue de la Chapelle 15, R. 2V»-3, B. 1, d^j. 
1V«, D. 2-2V2, pens. 7-8 fr., unpretending. 

Still farther from the sea: *HdTEL d'Allemagne (PI. 20; E. 3), Rue 
du Quai 22, patronized by German travellers, R. from 4V2, B. 172, d^j. 3, 
D. (at 1 and 6 o'cl.) 4, pens. I2V2, omn. »/4 fr., with d^pendance at the 
Station Maritime (p. 8); Hot. de la Marine (PI. 22; D, E, 3), pens. 772 fr.; 
St. Denis (PI. 24; E, 3), R. from 2V2, B. 1, d^j. 2, D. (at 1 and 6 o'cl.) 2V2, 
pens. 6-10 fr., these two in the Rue de la Chapelle, near the railway- 
station; Godbonne (PI. 21; D, 4), R. from 3V2, B. IV4, d^j. 2, D. (at 1 
and 6 o*cl.) 8, pens. 8-10 fr., well spoken of; HdT. de Barcelone (PI. 23; 
D, 4), pens. 6-8 fr.; Hot. du Bassin, R. from 31/2, B. IV4, dej. 2, D. 3, 
pens, from 8 fr. ; HdT. Cosmopolite, these four on the Quai de TEmpereur, 
near the railway-station; Hot. du Nobd et Victoria, Rue de TEglise 6; 
Ship Hotel, Place du Commerce, near the steamboat-pier, R. 8-B, B. 1, 
d^j. 2>/«, D. 3, pens. 7-8 fr., well spoken of, with d^pendance near the Kur- 
saal (see above); Royal Yacht Hotel, next door to the Ship. All these 
are plain. 

Most of the hotels are open during the season only. The H6t. Wel- 
lington and the H6t. Royai du Phare are always open. 

Pensions, Lecomie, Rampt de Yiennc 17; SalambOy Villa CostaheU Villa 
des Utoiles, Arentty all in the Rue Royale (Nos. 66,49,80, & 65); English 
Private Houte^ Rue Wellington 42, R. & B. 31/2 fr. (board optional); Villa 
Regina^ Pent. Internationale^ Ave. de la Reine 34(fe36; VUla JUargiierUe^ in 
Ostende Extension (p. 14). — Maiton MeuhUe^ Rue de TOuest 28. 

Private Lodgings, The favourite localities are the Digue, the ^Rampes** 
connecting the Boul. van Iseghem and Rue Royale with the Digue, and 
the Rue Royale itself. At the height of the season a room cannot be ob- 
tained under 5-6 fr. a day, or 35-42 fr. per week, except in the less deslT&hl<& 
streets of the old town. The rent of a small auVlft ol tqotji^ V«^^^s^».v^ws«a. 

drawing-room, three bedrooms, kitchen) in Juue Va «^iQ\i\. ^S^^^•^''«^3^^o. 

600 &., August 800 fr., and September 600 ix. — Iji \.t»Stva;^ ^.^wXsi^^x^a ^^ 

hirer should see that the rent, the duration ot \\ie \wec^««v«u^.^ ^-t^^ ^^^ 

10 Routed. OSTEND. Bathing. 

charges for light, attendance, and plain breakfast (usually 1 fr.) are all 
clearly expressed in writing. — House Agents : Agence ^'ouvelle du Lit- 
toral ^ Ave. Charles Janssens 13 (gratis) 5 J. F. De 8met, Boulevard Van 
Iseghem 125. 

Reitaarants. On the Digue ^ dear, and attendance often bad (no prices 
given on the bills-of-fare). Kursaal Restaurant (PI. D, 2; p. 11), d^j. 5, 
D. 71/2 fr. ; also in the HdteU Continental^ de VOdan^ de la Plage^ ^plendid^ 
Princess^ Beau-Rivage^ and Wellington (7th floor), all to the S.W. of the 
Kursaal : and in the HdteU Royal Belge^ Ostende, Littoral, ^Kursaal et Beau- 
Site, ana *2)m Phare, to the E. of the Kursaal; see p. 8. — In the Town^ 
near the Digue: Regina Hotel (p. 9), first floor; Taverne des Mille CoUmnes, 
in the Hot. Noppeney (p. 9); Grand H6tel Liopold Deiuc et de Flandre (p. 9), 
these three in the Rue de Flandre; *H6t. de VEmpereur (p. 9), d^j. 3, D. 4 fr. ; 
H6t. Central (p. 9), dej. 3, D. 5fr. ; Sociiii Litt4raire (see below); Restaurant 
Mitropole, D. 2 fr., the last four all in the Place d'Armes; "Taverne St. Jean, 
Rampe de Flandre 60 (also bed rooms); Hdt. de la Couronne (p. 9), Quai 
de rEmpereur. 

Beer at the Hdt. du Olobe (p. 8), near the Kursaal; '^Hdt. de VEmpereur, 
popular; H6t. Central, see p. 9; Taverne des Mille Colonnes, see above; La Ter- 
rasse^ Boul. van Iseghem, at the corner of the Rue Louise, concert in the 
evening. Bavarian and Bohemian beer at all these. English ale (comp. 
p. 86) at the America, Digue de Mer 49, and the Falstaff, Place d'Annes 7. 

Wine at the Continental Bodega, Digue de Mcr 12 <& Rampe de Flan- 
dre 62; Central Tienda, Digue de Mer 45 -, America, see above ; Cintra Wine Co., 
Digue lie Mer 50. — Oysters, lobsters, etc., at the H6t. de la Marie (p. 9), 
Boul. van Iseghem 89, and at the Poissonneries (fish-shops), Rue de TOuest 39, 
41, and 45 (PI. D, 2), Rue du Ccrcle 25, etc. 

Cafes. At the beer-houses (see above). Pdtisserie Noppeney^ Digue de 
Mer 54, in the Gr. Hot. d'Ostende (p. 8), fashionable, not cheap; at the 
Kursaal (p. 11), B. IV2-IV4 fr. *, H6t. du Globe (p. 8), Wellington (p. 8), both 
near the Kursaal; Regina Hotel (p. 9); Caf& du Thidtre, in the Theatre Royal 
(p. 11), Rue de Flandre. The Soci4i4 Littiraire, on the groundfloor of the 
Hotel de Ville (PI. E, 3), contains a cafe (always open) and a reading-room 
to which strangers are not admitted unless introduced by a member (first 
5 days gratis, afterwards 3 fr. per month). Cercle Gaecilia, Place d'Armes. 

Bathing. Bathing-time from 7 a.m. to 7 p.m. Tickets (*coupons\ 
valid on day of issue only) must be obtained at the office on the beach. 
At the principal Bathing Place (often crowded, especially from 11 to 12), to 
the W. of the Kursaal (PI. C,l), and at the Royal Palace Hotel (p. 8), the 
charge for a machine {^voiture ordinaire^; for not longer than 40 min.), in- 
cluding costume and two towels (serviettes), is 1 fr. (two additional towels 
20 c.). A superior machine Cvoiture spiciale^) costs 2fr., while a machine 
de luxe, with two horses, may be had for20fr. On the E. beach (PI. F,l), 
frequented by the natives, a machine costs 70 c. Regular bathers should 
purchase costumes for themselves (price 3-6 fr., fee for taking charge of 
them 20 c). A knock with a whip on the top of the vehicle is the signal 
that the horse is being attached. The number and colour of the machine 
should be noted, as its position is sometimes changed while the bather is 
in the water. Though there is little or no danger on this coast, bathers 
are not allowed to go farther than 80 or 90 yds. from the shore; those who 
venture farther arc recalled by blasts of the watchmen^s horns. Invalids 
and persons unaccustomed to sea-bathing may procure the services of a* 
''haigneur' or ^baigneuse" for 50 c. The bather pulls the string in the inside 
of the machine when he is ready to return. The manager, the driver of 
the machine, and the towel-woman each expect a gratuity of 10 c. — 
Valuables should be left at home or deposited in the office provided for 
the purpose. — The drinking-water at Ostende is not particularly sood. 

Tents and ^Marquises'* for sitting on the beach 1-1 '/a fr. per day, or 6-9 fr. 
per week. Chairs 10 c. — The numerous newspaper-sellers and hawkers 
on the beach are troubletomely importunate \ and on Sun, Ostend is in- 
undated with excursionists. — It ia well to \)e on oueTa ^gaw^ %%<ft^iA\ 

Kursaal, OSTEND. 2. Route, 11 

Warm Salt-Water Baths. EtdhlUumMt ffydrothirapique (PI. D, 2), 
adjoining the Eursaal , baths of all kinds (plunge-bath 21/2 fr.), mas- 
sage, etc. 

Gabs ( Viffilantes ; stands at the railway-station and in the Place d'Armes) 
11/2 fr. per drive in the town (to the Lighthouse or Mariakerke 2 fr.) \ first 
hoar 2V2 fr.; each additional hour 2 fr. The fares for ^panieri' or ^voiture$ 
0U9ertei\ carriages of a superior description, are higher : drive in the town 
IV2 fr., 1 hr. 3, each additional hr. 2 fr. The rate for two -horse cabs 
CvoUures A deux chetaux) is 2 fr. per 1/2 br., 3 fr. per V4 br., 4 fr. for the 
first hour, and 3 fr. for each additional hour. — Double fares at night 
(11-5). Each trunk 25 c. (maximum 1 fr.). 

Eleotrio Tramway from the Eursaal (PI. D, 2) vi& the Boul. van Iseghem, 
Quai des Pecheurs (PI. E, F, 2, 3), Quai de TEmpereur (PI. E, D, 4), Boul. 
du Midi, and Boul. Bogier (PI. G, 3) back to the Kuraaal (all the way 15 c, 
halfway 10 c). — Electeio Tbamwat to Westende^ see p. 15; Stbam Tram- 
WATB to Nieuport-Furnes and to Blankenh&rghe^ see p. 15. 

Sailing Boats with 2 men for 1/2 br. 5, 1-2 hrs. 6 fr. ; with 3 men 6, 
8 fr. ; with 4 men 8, 12 fr. (2 men officially required for 1-4 persons, 
3 men for 5-10 pers., 4 men for 11-12 pers.). Previous agreement necessary; 
out of the season the charges are less. — Steamboats (poor) start from 
the Estacade in good weather almost every hour from 11 a.m. for short 
cruises. Occasional trips to Blankenberghe, etc. (lunch should be taken). 

The Kursaal (PI. D, 2; p. 13) is the principal resort of visitors during 
the bathing-seasoD, but is open to subscribers only. The Day Ticket (2 fr.; 
till 5 p.m. 1 fr.) admits to the restaurant, caf^, reading-room, and billiard- 
room, and to the entertainments on the programme for the day. The of- 
ficial ^Programme des Fdtes de la Journ^e* should be consulted. Subscrip- 
tions, valid also for the Casino (see below): 1 pers. per fortnight 30, per 
month 50, per season (June Ist-Oct. 15th) 75 fr. ; 2 pers. 55, 90, 125 fr. ; 
three pers. 75, 120, 160 fr.: 4 pers. 90, 140, 185 fr.; for children between 
seven and twelve 6, 10, 15 fr. — The gaming-rooms of the Cercle des 
Etrangers are open to members only. 

Concerts daily in the Kursaal (p. 13) at 2.30 and 7.45 p m. (orchestra 
with 120 performers); on the beach or Digue daily at 10-12 a.m. ; on Sun., 
12-1 p.m., and several times weekly, 9-10 p.m., in the Place d^Armes ; also 
at intervals in the Pare Leopold, the Pare Marie- Henrietta the Place Leo- 
pold Premier, or near the old lighthouse (p. 14). — Balls daily at the 
Kursaal {^hal d'^iUte' on Sat.), and often on Sun. and Thurs. in the Casino, 
a handsome ball-room on the first floor of the Town Hall (p. 13; ^toilette 
de ville\ i.e. a black coat). 

The Theatre Eoyal (PI. E, 2), at the corner of the Rue de Flandre and 
the Boul. van Iseghem, was opened in 1905. Subscribers to the Kursaal 
are admitted at reduced charges. — Casino de la Scala, Rampe du Gerf 
(PI. D, 2), a variety theatre. 

Horse Races are held in the Hippodrome Wellington (PI. A, 2; p. 14) 
several times during the season (adm. 1 fr., seats 3-20 fr., cheaper for 
ladies and children). — Regattas during the latter half of July. — Battle 
of Flowers in August. 

Ohurch Festivals. Procession on SS. Peter & Paul's Day (June 29th); 
Blessing of the Sea on the first Sun. in July, at the beginning of the 

Booksellers. Vlielinck^ Rue de la Chapelle 89, at the cor. of the Rue 
Joseph Deux, and in the Kursaal; Librairie Nouvelle^ Rue de la Ghapelle 30. 
— Circulating Library (Cabinet de Lecture): Qodtfumeau^ Rue de Flan- 
dre 7. The ^Saison d'Ostende\ which appears daily (10 c), is the official 
organ of the Eursaal authorities. 

Physicians. Dr. van Ope, Avenue Charles Janssens 9; Dr. Schramme, 
Rue des Capucins 11; Dr. Bouckaert^ Rue Christine 94 ^ Dr. Gar^<w^'^^v.'6. 
Royale 30; Dr. Verscheure, Boul. van laeghem W, aoa^ telws:^ ^iSISi-^x^. — - 
Ohemists: Phatfnaeie Cenirale. Rue des Sobuts "BVmicXi^* \&\ BatvU^"^^ J 
des ScBura BJancbea 67; Kiet, Rue de la CViapeW^ ^*i\ Da PTaUT«l^ ^^''^ i 
Lnaise 5f A. Bouehery, Rue de TOuest 50 CtnineTiX N<r%X«t%^» 

12 BouteS, OSTEND. SUwOhn, 

Money Oliangers: Van Wpnendaele^ Bae de la Ghapelle 19b and Avenae 
Leopold 22; Cridtt Ottendais^ Aye. Charles Janssens 1; Vtm VredWn <fr Cb., 
Aye. Le'opold 12; Smithy Digue de Her 43. 

Post and Telegraph Office, Hue des ScBurs Blanches 16 (PI. E, 8), open 
7 a.m. to 9 p.m. (on San. 9-1) ; in winter 7 a.m. to 7 p.m. (on Sun. 9-12). 
A new building is being constructed at the comer of the Ave. Henri Serrays, 
near the Pare Leopold. — Branch-offices in the Ktanaal (in summer only), 
at the Station (departure side), and in the Royal Palace Hotel (p. 8). 

British Yice-Consul, W. 0. E. Hervey^ Etq.^ Ave. de la Beine 81; pro- 
consul, H. Oolder^ Esq. — Lioyd^s Agent, Ccgi>t. Neuts, Ave. de la Beine 27. 

English Ohurch (PI. F, 2), Rue Longue 101 ; services at 11 a.m. and 
4.30 p.m. ; chaplain, Rev. G. L. Eatokins^ Boulevard Bogier 14. 

Ostend^ Flem. Oostende (40,000 inhab.), is the second seaport 
and the most fashionable sea-bathing resort of Belgium. The town, 
mentioned as early as the 11th cent, and connected by canals with 
the neighbouring towns in 1284 (p. 21), became prominent towards 
the close of the 16th cent, as the last stronghold of the Dutch in 
the S. Netherlands. After repulsing two hostile attacks by the 
Spaniards (in 1583 and 1586), it sustained in 1601-1604 one of 
the most remarkable sieges on record, during which the States 
General were assisted by the English and French and the other foes 
of Spain. Most of the town was in ruins before it surrendered with 
the honours of war to the Spanish general, Ambrogio Spinbla of 
Genoa. The *East and West India Company of the Austrian Nether- 
lands' was founded at Ostend in 1722, but succumbed to the jealous 
hostility of the English and the Dutch in 1731. Ostend owes most 
of its modern importance to the great passenger-traffic between Lon- 
don and the Continent, of which it has long been one of the princi- 
pal avenues. It also possesses about 250 fishing-boats and trawlers, 
manned by 1300 men, being fully one-half the number belonging 
to the whole kingdom. Oyster-fishing has been carried on here since 
J 763. Extensive new harbour- works were constructed in 1898- 
1904, after plans by Pierre de Mey, 

Ostend's career as a watering-place began in 1831 with the 
opening of the E. bathing-place and of the Kurhaus beside the old 
lighthouse (p. 14). Recently, however, the trend of fashion has been 
towards the W. beach, where the new Kursaal and the handsomest 
hotels are situated. Since the extension of the Digue (p. 13) and 
the incorporation of Mariakerke (p. 15), the town has steadily pushed 
westward along the sea. Ostend is now one of the most fashionable 
and cosmopolitan watering-places in Europe. During the season 
(1st June -15th Oct.) it attracts about 45,000 visitors (excluding 
passing travellers) from all parts of Europe, especially from Bel- 
gium, Germany, and France. It is also frequented to some extent 
in winter. 

The main street of the old town is the Rue de la Chapelle 
(PI. E, 3, 4), leading from the station to the market-place (Place 
i/'Armgsjj where it changeB its name to Rue de Flandte ot Vlaan- 
^er^'Straat (PL E, 2). Finally, beyond tbe lie^ \.\ie^tie ^^. V^:^ 

Digue, OSTEND. 2. Route. 13 

and the Bool. Tan Iseghem, it ascends to the Digae, under the 
name of 'Rampe de Flandre'. — In the Place d^Aimes is the large 
Town Hall (PI. E, 3), built in 1711, with a coraer- tower com- 
pleted in 1895 and containing a set of chimes. Besides the 8ooUU 
Littiraire and Casino (p. 11), the Town Hall contains a small 
Picture OaUery. 

The two chief churches of the old town are situated in poor side- 
streets off the Rue de la Ohapelle. The Church of 88. Peter and Paul 
(PI. E, 4), founded in 1072 and burned down in 1896, has been 
rebuilt in the Gothic style from designs by De la Censerie. It contains 
the monument of Queen Louise (p. xxiii), by Fraikin, which stood 
in the old church and was rescued from the fire. — The Church of 
St. Catharine (yi. D, 3), in the Rue Christine, built in 1883 in the 
style of the 13th cent., is a copy of an old church of Ghent. — 
In the Rue de I'Eglise or Eerkstraat is the small Musie d^Antiquiiit 
(PI. E, 3), a somewhat miscellaneous collection of relics. 

In the Boul. (or Laan) van Iseghem , to the right, is a small 
Aquarium (PI, E, 2 ; adm. 20c.). 

In the modern quarters to the W. is the Pare Leopold (PL C, 
D, 3 J concerts, p. 11), tastefully laid out, with a pond in the centre. 
On an eminence is a cafe. — A little to the N.W. is the Place 
Leopold Premier (PI. 0, 2), with an Equettrian Statue of Leo- 
pold /., in bronze, by Count J. de Lalaing. — To the S.W., near 
the Boul. du Midi, is the Church of 8t. Joseph (PI. C, 4), com- 
pleted in 1901. 

On the S. side of the town, and connected with the Digue 
by the Avenue de la Reine, is the Pare Marie-Henriette, with a caftf 
(Laiterie Royale) and large ponds (boat 1 fr. per hour). 

The chief promenade is the '*l)ignei a stone dyke or bulwark 
161/2-36 yds. wide and 26 ft. in height, extending along the coast 
from N.E. to S.W. just above high-water mark. With the exception 
of the carriage-road the whole is laid with terracotta bricks. At all 
hours of the day, particularly about midday and in the evening, 
this promenade is thronged with fashionable loungers. The Digue 
is flanked by large hotels and numerous private villas, in the Flemish 
Renaissance or florid baroque style, most of them designed by 
Brussels architects. 

At the point where the Digue makes a bend, above the W. 
bathing -beach, rises the handsome *Kubsaal (PI. D, 2; p. 11), 
erected in 1876-78, from the designs of Lauwereins and Naert of 
Brussels, and several times enlarged. The huge concert-hall, with 
room for 6000 people , can be entirely enclosed with glass-walls 
when the weather requires it. Behind it are the restaurant, the 
caf^, the ball-room, and the rooms for reading, billiards.^ and ^<&.\&.- 
ing. On the first floor is a large exMbition-TOOTa- 

On the top of the dunes, beyond t\ie \)«A\n.xv%-^\^^^, ^\.w^^^ "^is^^ 
Oflfe/ du Eoi (PL B, 2), or royal villa. T:\i€i T>V«vian ^^N-Oo. Na. ^^-^ 

14 Routes, OSTEND. Harbour. 

upwards of 3 M. in length, is continued hence , past the new W. 
quarter known as Ostende Extension y to Mariakerke (p. 15). On 
the way it passes two Pavilions^ a Naval Hospital^ the Hippodrome 
Wellington (p. 11), a racecourse in an old fort, and the Royal Palace 
Hotel (p. 8), behind which begins the electric railway to West- 
en lie (p. 11). 

At the N.E. end of the Digue, beyond the Old Lighthouse (PI. F, 2 j 
AneienPhare or Simaphore), 98 ft. high, now used as a signal station 
only (no admission), and the quiet E. beach, is the Estaoade (PI. F, 
G, 1, 2), Flem. Staketsel^ consisting of two estaches^ or piers, which 
shelter the entrance to the harbour (Chenal). The W. pier, 680 yds. 
in length, is provided with seats (chair 10 c.) and a small caf^, and 
serves as a public promenade in the afternoon or when the steamers 
are arriving or departing. Fishing-nets may be hired here (1 fr. 
per hr.). — Steamboat-excursions, see p. 11. 

The Harbonr itself includes the Avant-Port, the old Bassins du 
Commerce (PI. E, D, 4), the Naval Harbour, the Fishing Harbour 
(Bassin des Pecheurs or d'Echouage) , and the Bassin Liopold or 
Old Bassin de Chasse (PI. G, 3, 4), constructed In 1863. Farther 
on are the two new Inner Harbours (with nearly 1 M. of quays), 
connected with the Bruges Canal (see pp. 1, 21), and the New Bassin 
de Chasse (210 acres), which is alone more extensive than the old 
town. The object of the two Bassins de Chasse is to sweep away 
the sandbanks at the mouth of the harbour, the water being confined 
within them at high tide, and allowed to escape suddenly at low 
tide several times a week. 

Beyond the entrance to the harbour (steam-ferry every 1/4 hr. j 

5 c.) and the old Bassin de Chasse, which we skirt for lOmin., 

rises the •New Lighthouse (^Nouveau Phare; PI. G, 3), erected in 

1858, 190 ft. in height, which should be inspected by those who 

have never seen the interior of such a structure. The lantern (fee 

50 c.) contains a series of prisms, resembling beehives in shape, 

and reflectors of copper plated with platina, by which arrangement 

the light is said to be intensified a thousandfold, and to be visible 

at a distance of 45 M. The top commands an extensive view in fine 

weather. Nieuport , Furnes , and even Dunkirk are seen towards 

the S.W., Blankenberghe to the N.E., and the towers of Bruges 

to the E. 

The Oyster Parks {Huttribre»; PI. F, 5) are extensive reservoirs on 

the 8.W. side of the Avant Port, where vast quantities of these favourite 

bivalves are stored throughout the greater part of the year. They are 

imported from the English coast, and kept here in prime condition by 

daily supplies of clarified sea-water. Their price varies from 5 to 8 fr. 

per hundred, and upwards. In the height of summer they are out of 

season. Lob»kr»<, brought chiefly from France, England, and Norway, are 

kept in separate receptacles in the huitri^res, and fetch from 2 to 6 fr. each. 

TJmli iB generally pientiful, especially in summer, when transport is 

di^cult. A large tarbot maj oflen be bought for 10 15 fr.\ soles, cod, 

JhiS*^^^'^^' J!n«<Jlrere7, and skate are of course \eB» e>.^ft\ia\Nft. Q.\i\i?^^ 

'^ruaps, and mussels are also abundant. M\ t\it*ft ^iVKex^iuV. \au^* ^1 

MAUIAKKHKK i*. /it* I* lf> 

fish are sold by public auction iil tho M%iti{u<* or Vir^htn^n (1*1. I.C. U. a 
circular building near th<^ lin sin do* I'l'ohi'nr^, lioiwrni i mmi) Uk.ui . im 
the return of the flshini^-biiMt^. A inunirlpnl pfnrini, m^ iiiiln«iiiiin. ll«o« a 
high price in sods for each I<>l, ami tlim i:rA«liinlh «lr«i'oiiilit . imlll * 
bidder calls out 'tnyn and lliiio bocotm'a tin' |ini-i-lia«oi . Tlio ^rvai ml 
vantage of this 'Dutch auction' i^ that ji sini'.i<' Mil «r(tln« {ho Minilm. mnl 
much confusion ia thus prevontt'il. 

Walka. To Oudenhurg^ i>«'C p. 1; In i M /f M.) fHp^mM i i^n IhIhu). hi 
the beach to (6 M.) Lfi i'o<i ( /*c« I/'i'in) himI (U M ) iiVn /«ti»# (•i%n liiiiim i 
In summer a mail-coach runs rrtmi lhi< Kursanl, nlnillM-. nl l\ pin , l<i 
Oudenburg and GhistcllP!" <H fr.). -- OyrU Tonra. Hv liio Amnun dn In 
Heine to the Pare Marif-JIfnri'W'. {p. 13); vi»l uhlnlrlliji ip. if»i imd Wrni 
kerke to Oudenburg, and tiack vui SlykcnM (li M.)^ to flmg^t (l/'/i M ) virt 
Slykensi. Plawchcndaelc, Ond'^nlinrsr, and .Inliln'ko (n. I)-. In (M SI ) M^f 
port (Furnet^ Dttnkirk) via M}iriak«Tki', Middrlk"rkn (p ll'ii. Miid \Vi»i| 
ende. Cycles arc not allowed on thr hhMic nflrr tl n.m. 

Fkox Oj«texd to Blankknukrohk, 13 M., slcani trannvBy 1" I hr. M miii 
(fares 1 fr. 5U. 1 fr. 5 «-.). In summer th" mrn ulnrl rnnn Ihn Knrintl, 
calling at the Town station; in winfrr frnm Ihn Town Mlnllim I hi- 

line runs vid (I'A M.) fHf/krns on th.' Ilni-i jt, (A ai ) thtm.lm,', l-'i II ) 
CUmtkerke^ and (7 M.) Oolf-Chih^ Ih- stJito n lor Ihn (»:tii.d Unli r:iil. 
7"/2 M. Den Haan, Fr. U ro'i-»vr-Mfir {(tnmU UMH , It. from fi, ll 1 1/,. 
d^j. 3, I>. 4, pen". fromlMfr.; /A5/. ,ln VnmHUt, It. Irom «»/», I'-. I. I» '"/^ 

Sens, ^ l"r. -. /Mi. ^m '•''>7, '»' Ihf. .^tition, :iiikII, /Ifitfuirnni frM/iMi, 
. P/s fr.), a .sinall bathing res rt (si-a halli and r.o.'slumn f « fr ), fri- 
([uently vijilted fi-om BlankcniiCTKhf.. Tlw. aniircilhllon oT Ihn diiioi, hrrr 
about V3 ^- vvide and nnpavf.d, wa-< \it'</.uu In iH^ili nnd ri'i-oiiiiinrirfd In 
1888. — The tramway go-s on low dunna tu (loi/a M.) W««ni1uynM- 
sur-Mer { Or and IldM Pawre,U; Hf,t. dM Famitt^t; rnriU*m ih» /iw/fj; ll*-nu 
f^Jour: Il6t. de* \Vi/'fi„<: OntrtU: I ltd. ilv ('nrnmn-m)^ itnullirr 
1 athinK-rttdort r->ea-bath */< fr J- Th". h'ltpitHl fi»r dnlicdlr. childn-n {'JiHt lird^) 
i-i open nil the, year round. -- W'^ nnw skirt Ihft narrow ihn-. of diinn<i, 
papain;; th-: harh(«iir f-Nition). nnd rcarh (1.3 M.) the railway •tiitlon of 
filankenherglM fp 17j. 

Hariakerka, KiddAllcArko, WAKt^ndo, and Vieaport. 

F:i-Ki;T;t:'- TuAsr*A/ from O fi'ml !o i////'f#/4'^r^-< fSif) min.; 35 rj, Mhhl^l 
kerke f40 mJn.; US 't.), *nd IVVrf/«n//.; .'nO min ; <l!ip..), c.very '/« hr. in S'nn 
mer fln-^'zae**, .V)c. p«-r 5 K , ; |ii< ran f.irt at. thn ^'IaMoii Marifim*- in.j 
call ar thi% t^nal dii li'.mp'r.— iir l own Mt.itio-i Plaiv. 'In Th-.itr'', iii:ir \Ur 
Kiirsaai. .\vf>nue dr Ja i.'<MMi-. .\ii ! Ilt:|» 'drom*'. '^'liin :on. Th'- i'-i-inlniM 
is n-ar *.bft W-j^t.-nd" Jf'.^*-!. 

.Htb-im ittAJfVAr fi-'irii O li rid 'I'i.v.i HtiUloii v7lli intprrmdiati- «<;i. 
».ion.<» at til** Bnft ->. :a '/hMp^'.l'c md .\ '♦•nne, d»' la ir<>.iiie.) 7; A UtirUtk^kit 
ib»lhin_'-pla.-.-^ 1^', M.. JIU-..^ a»', M.j. MuUt^lbtrke ff,!/, .Vf.;, (V>'jt/'v»//« <■{ W. ; 
JWj and f^mh'ir'<id^ '/i''^ .H ; Jo M';' ,1 If j M-'upfit' fUi-n.. p. 4r»). 
Thftn:i: 'he .iO'- O'-.a .•■ h, \'V'^, .if., Oi-f.-rtt^mhii.- .'Wh M ) ^rt*/ hvinimrl*!^ 
f !:!"■: .U.I vo-i"'/'/*. *n*l '!8' a ,lf j f^wn** ,, iii <wo ■it^.'iori-) In *'imt»ir^ 
mo.'*t .f thrt *min« nn "r^f :.-.:n ^ii-.iporr. n ' \[ ; \ Htuport- lUiim irnl f.iiAn 
on tij 'jroiin-indv*. 

^TKA.l r.t*-r»'i,' 'ViiHi /■ , -51. ^!Hl•■ill.■ 4I. In: :>iil ■ifat.iiin 4ii'l '..ilij'i-; 

ac 'hft I^'i.i :>'. .!» .^\-nii^ u i» ■ \T j /y/ i*imn^ :i*.'minii4 = ■• >f froni 'in- 
bearhj. - ~.iA.\ • ». V m \-\-'-^\^ >:■•'/'• p iH; ii /,/^« /'//nf)^ ^9fj<-. i.<» ].:• f.inii'. 
3fer .30 ■. . 

A loin; *:l\«^ .••':i8t Nl ".; •■. * V -jf /^i.p.rifl n*.- ^iv/i-.rHl •iii;»llr'.r -■«'-<- 
baching -•e:''ort-. 'lOi^h ii]i'^^i*v I'id .o-'.'* *\ p«^.ri^i 'i^, tii^n '^^it^^.^vtV k'.V^vN- 
kenberzhe p. I?;. ->- fff*:-'^ p I'.'i . 

MmrUk»Tke * '^ r-; w// //. ! V/. // ^ /)m ;t> •« . v ■. \ v^ .-. . 4*..i »\t j*^ xv . \<.. \ ^^ ^ 

16 Route 2. MIDDELKERKE. 

H6t. du Kursaal, D. 2V2, S. IV2) pens. 6-8 fr.; Hdt, de la Piage; 
BelUvue ,* Pens. Villa Beausijour ; Pens, de FamiUesJy incorporated 
in 1899 with Ostend, may be reached in 1/2 ^' ^Y the Digue fp. 13). 
The beach is excellent and the bathing-arrangements are good; 
bath, including coach and costume, 75 c. 

The Digne ends at Mariakerke. Thence it is continaed by a pictur- 
esque but partly unpayed road along the top of the dunes, with the electric 
tramway line and a narrow cycle-track. At the station of *Ma9^e* (fore dO c), 
about 20 min. beyond Mariakerke, is Stracki's Mutie d*Si$toire Ifaiurelk^ 
situated in a garden among the dunes to the left, and containing ethno- 
graphical and natural history collections (adm. free, 9-li and 1.30-6). 

To the left, just short of Hiddelkerke, is the Hotpice Roger de ChHan- 
herghe for invalid children. — Close by is the watchman^s hut at the starting- 
point of the submarine cable to England. 

Hiddelkerke {Hot. des Bains, D. 3-3^/2 fr.; Hdt. de la Plage, 
R. from 2V2, B. 1, D. 21/2, pens, from 6 fr.j H6t. de la Digue, D. 
2V2 fr. ; Pensions Villa du Phare, Villa Jeanne, Villa Victoriaj etc.) 
lies on the top of the dunes, 5V2 M. to the S.W. of Ostend. On 
the Digue, i/2 M. in length, are the Kurhaus, a number of villas, 
and most of the hotels. Sea-bath, with dress, 3/^ fr. 

Westende-Bains (Westend' Hotel, R. 1-7, R. 1-1 V2, D. 3-3i/2, 
S. 2Y2-^V4> board from 6, omn. l/2fr. ; In de Lekkerhek, small, pens, 
from 41/2 fr. ; Cafe La TerrasseJ, 7 M. to the S.W. of Ostend, is 
another sea-bathing resort , opened in 1895 (bathing free ; cabin 
60 c; tent 15-30 fr. per month). View as far as La Panne (p. 17) 
from the top of the dunes here. 

The village of Westende (tramway-station) lies a little inland. About 
Vz M. beyond it is the village of Lombarizyde (tramway-station), at one 
time a seaport, with a celebrated figure of the Madonna, held in high 
veneration by Flemish fishermen from time immemoriiJ. In 1600 the 
^Battle of the Dunes* of Nieuport (p. 45) took place between the villages. 

A pleasant walk may be taken from Westende-Bains along the beach 
1o (2V2 M.) Meuport'Baint, crossing the Yser by boat (5 c.). 

Nieuport- Bains, Flem. Nieuwpoort, 9i/2 M. to the S.W. of 
Ostend and 2 M. to the N.W. of the town of Nieuport (p. 46), the 
terminus of the railway from Dixmuiden (R. 5), is one of the most 
prettily situated and most fashionable of the smaller Belgian sea- 
bathing resorts. The dunes, which are here very wide and rise 
to a height of 100 ft., have recently been afforested, and trees 
have also been planted on the digue. On the latter are situated 
tbe Qrand Hdtel des Bains and Orand Hdtel de la Plage (flrst- 
class, R. from 4, B. IV2, D. 4, S. 31/2, pens. 10-17 fr.), the Kw 
haus (with theatre), and a number of tasteful villas. In a parallel 
street behind are the Hotel PHvost (R. 31/2-61/2, B. 1, dtfj. 2V21 
1). 3, pens. 8-10 fr.), the Hdtel Central (unpretending), and, at 
the S.W. end of the village, the Roman Catholic Church, At the 
station, 2 min. inland, are the Hdtels de la Mer and CoimopoliU 
(unpretending) and the Pens, de Families. — The Estacade (p. 14), 
protecting the mouth of the canalized Yser (good fishing) , a few 
nj/a. to the JV.E,, forms an admirable piomena^^, N«V^\iWi<^'W, «k 
smaJJ caU, and &ne views of Ostend and DunVii^L, On X\ife ^\Xs«i 

BLANKENBERGHE. 8. Rowte. 17 

side of the river and the rescue - house is a Lighthouse, The sea 
recedes a long way at low tide, exposing a vast tract of sand. Sea- 
hath 1 fr.; tent 1 fr. per day, 6 fr. per week, 18 fr. per month. 

A pretty walk along the beach to the S.W. may be taken to (2V2 M.) 
the hatblDg-resort of Oost-Doinkerke (Orand Bdtel des Dunes, B. from SVs, 
B. 1, dej. 13/4. D. 21/2, pens. 4-10, omn. Vafr. ; Grand Hdtel; Saumon^ pens. 
4 fr.). The village (steam-tramway station) lies 1 M. to the S.E., behind 
the dunes. The steam-tramway, which runs hence inland to Furnes (p. 45), 
next passes (2 M. farther on) Ooxyde {H6t. Coxyde, plain), the inhabitants of 
which go fishing on horseback. Near Coxyde once stood the Cistercian 
abbey of Le* Dunes or Van den Duinen, founded in 1109 and destroyed in 
1566. The Iloogen Blikker (105 ft. ; view), the highest point of the Belgian 
dunes, which here also attain their greatest width (IV4 H.), is yisited 
from Goxyde. 

The older bathing-resort, La Panne (Hdteh Maritime, Terlinck, de France, 
de la Diguey all unpretending; Pens. ViUa des Ancres^ o-lO fr ), lies among 
the dunes close to the French border, 41/2 M. to the S.W. of Oost-Duin- 
kerke, SVa M. to the W. of Furnes, and 2 M. lo the N.W. of Adinkerke 
(p. 46). The beach is very flat (bathing free; cabin 60c.. chair 10 c). The 
submarine cable to Dover begins here. — The idyllic little village of La 
Panne, lying behind the Dunes, V2 M. from the sea, also contains some 
modest hotels. 

3. Blankenberghe and Heyst. 

Blankenberghe. — The Railway Station for trains to Bruges (Ghent 
Brussels) and Heyst (p. 1) is situated at the S.E. end of the town, about 
V2 M. from the Digue. — The steam-tramway to Ostend (p. 15) starts at 
the railway-station and has a halting-place at the harbour. 

Hotels (comp. p. xii; dinner generallv at 1 p.m., supper at 7 p.m.). 
On the Digue, often overcrowded in the height of the season. To the N.E. 
of the Steps: *Grand Hotel dbs Bains et des Famillbs, with fashion- 
able restaurant and garden, 5(X) rooms from 5, B. l>/s, D. 3i/s, S. 3, pens, 
from 11, omn. 1 fr. ; Gr. Hot. Continental, also of the first class, with 
175 rooms from 4, B. IV4, dd.j. 3, D. 3V2» pens, from 9, omn. y^ fr. ; 
♦Grand Hotel, with lift, R. from 3, D. 3. pens, from "i, omn. 72 fr. ; 
"Hot. Stein, R.2V2-4, B. 11/4, D. 3-5, pens. 7-15 fr., frequented by Germans; 
SuccDRSALE DO LioN d^Ob (sce bclow), with garden . pens, from 7 fr. ; 
HStel du Rhin, R. 2V2-6, B. IV2, D. 3-4, pens. 7-14 fr., with caf^-restaurant; 
Mater, Jewish; Pens. Laforce. — To the S.W. of the Steps: 'Grand 
H6tel dd Kubsaal, with lift, B. IV2, dej. 2V2, I>. 4, pens, from 10 fr.; 
Grand Hotel de L'OofiAN, with lift, pens, from 8 fr. ; Grand Hotbl God- 
DERis, R. from 3, B. 1, D. 3, S. 2V4, pens, from 8 (Aug. 10) fr. ; Grand 
Hotel Padwels D'Hondt, with restaurant; Pavillon Rotal, annexe of 
the Hot. de la Paix (sce below), pens. 872-15 fr. ; Roohbb de Cancalb 
(see p. 18), pens. 10-12 fr. ; Maison Emile Goddebis, pens, from S'^fr.; 
Gb. HdT. Bead-Rivage, R. from 3, B. 11/4, D. 3, S. 2V2, pens, from 7 fr.; 
HdT. van de Potte, R. from 4, B. 1, D. 2V2, S. IV4, pens. 6-15 fr. ; H6t. 
DE Venise , with annexe (H6t. de rUnivers), pens, from 7 fr. At the 
entrance to the harbour, Hotel du Phase, D. 2V2) pens, from 6 fr. 

In the Town. In the Rue de TEglise, near the Steps: Lion d'Or, R. 
from 33/4, B. 1, D. 21/2, pens, from 8 fr., well spoken of; Hot. de la Paix, 
D. 2Va) 8. I8/4, pens. 7-10 fr., well spoken of; Etoilp d*Ob, R. from 2, B. 1, 
D. 21/j, pens. 6-8 fr. ; Grand Hotel D'Hondt, very fair, much resorted to 
by Belgians of the middle class, R. 2V2-3, B. 1, D. 2V2, pens. 7V2-IO fr. ; 
H6t. d''Allemaone, pens. 6-9 fr. ; Hot. Central; Gr. H6t. d*Obanqb; Hdi. 
Stanleyville, with wine-room; H6t. deLondbbs; HdT. na u'Ek\i^<s«"&.^"^. 
2-4 fr., L. 30 c, B. »/4, D- 2V2, pens. 5-9 fr.-, B.5t. i>Tt ^K.Nitoa.x ^v\a-v ^^ 
BoBVF, wapretending but very fair; Hdx. db BB.vix«\'SAi. ^ovi ^^***S(» 
DB Fbb. Farther on. near the railwpy-slation; Qcil. B.01. i>^i^^^^>^^2*^ 
restaurant, B. from 2V2, B. »/4, D. 2, S. \>\i ix.\ B.^1. ^^* ^l.l^\>v\^'a>^ -^^^^ 

BABDBKMB'a Belgium and Holland. Ut\i "RdiV. Tt* 

18 Routes. BLANKENBERGfiE. 

from 6 fr. ; H6t£L8 dss Votagedbs, du Louvbb, du Oomtb de Fland&Ie, 
which may all be described as restaurants with rooms to let. Beyond the 
rail, station : Hdx. Wilhblm Tsll, with garden-restaurant. — In the side- 
streets of the Rue de TEglise: ^Hot. db Bbuges, near the Steps, in the 
Rue des Pgcheur;*, pens. 6-10 fr. ; T£te d'Ob, in the same street, unpretend- 
ing but very fair, pens. 5-7 fr. ^ Bbllbvdb (R. 3-5, B. l-lVi, D. 21/1, pens, 
from 7 fr.; restaurant), Hot. Tsogh, both in the Rue Hante; Hodkbnb, 
Rue des Boulangers, near the Digue*, HdT. Van db MabliAbb, in the 
market-place; Hotel Vedve van de Wabteb-Notebasbt, Rue du Moulin; 
Hot. de l'TInivers, Prinses Elisabeth Straat, H6t. de Nys, Prlns Albrecht 
Straat, both in open situations, near the Rom. Gath. church; Hotel obGand, 
Rue Longue-, H6t. de Rdssie, Pens. Villa Bbausite, Rue de rOnest. — 
All the hotels except the Or. Hdt. D''Hondt and H6t. des Flandru are closed 
in winter. The drinking-water here, as at Ostend (p. 10), is not very good. 

Private Apartments (comp. p. 9) are numerous both on the Digne and 
in the town. Rooms facing the sea cost 4-15 fr. per day. 

Restaurants. At the Hotels; also, ^'Rocher de Cancaky on the Digne 
(No. Ill), French cuisine, D. 3, S. 2 fr. — Wine. Z. LeifHwre^s. Rue de 
TEglise 18 (oysters, lobsters, etc.); at the Hdtel Stanleyville (p. 17); 2^ 
Mosel, Digue No. 93; Continental Bodega^ Digue 104; and at the Hititri^re 
(p. 14), near the Bassin de Retenue. 

Oafes & Confectioners (also wine and beer): Wehrliy Oc^i YinUim^ 
Pautoels-Terisse (HjC Petit Rouge"), Maison Troff'aes, Delarue^ all on the Digue. 

Oasino, with buffet (no eatables), reading and conversation rooms, 
etc. ; concerts twice daily, dancing every evening ; admission, 1 person, 
1 day 3 fr., a week 12, a fortnight 22, 3 weeks 28, a month 32, six weeks 42, 
season 52 fr. ; 2 persons, 6, 24, 39, 46, 52, 62, 72 fr. — On the Pier (p. 19) 
is a Variety Theatre (two performances daily), adm. till 2 p.m. 20 c, for 
the^ffhole day 50 c, reserved seat V2I ^^' extra. 

Theatre, Rue de TEglise 33, for operettas and farces; performances (in 
French) from July 15th to Sept. 15th (2 & 2>/2 fr.). 

Post Office behind the Casino; open 7-8, Sun. and holidays 9-1. — 
Telegraph A Telephone Office at the railway-station. 

Physicians. Dr. Dumon^ Rue de Eglise40; Dr. Butaye, Dr, Cosyn^ Rue 
des Moulins 22 & 27; Dr. van Damme^ Rue Haute 8. 

Booksellers, Dietrich tt Co.^ Rue des P^cheurs 68. — Nbwbpapsbb. La 
Vigie de la Cd<e»(Sun. & Thurs., 20 c), with a visitors* list for all Belgian 
bathing-places, except Ostend ; UEcho des Plages (Wed. & Sat., 20 c.)* 

Batlung Machines 1 fr. ; 30 c. to the attendant (baigneur). — Tents on 
the beach, I1/4 fr. per day. — Warm Baths at the Grand Hdtel des Bains 
and the Succursale du Lion d'Or (p. 17). 

Boats. For a row of 1-2 hrs. the charge is 5 fr. or less ; for a party 
1 fr. each. — Steamboats, comp. p. 11. — Donkeys for rides on the beach : 
per hour 1 fr. ; to Eeyst (p. 19) 2-3 fr. 

English Ohurch Services are held during the season (Aug. & Sept.) at 
the Town Hall; chaplain. Rev. J, A. Hull of Bruges (p. 21). 

Blankenberghe, 10 M. to the N.E. of Ostend and 71/2 M. to the N. 
of Bruges, is a small flshing-town with 5000 Inhab., whose former 
unpretending one-storied houses have largely been superseded by 
handsome new buildings. As a sea-bathing resort, Blankenberghe 
has become a rival of Ostend , being visited by 35,000 persons an- 
nually, half of whom are Germans. The charges at the older hotels 
on the Digue and at the hotels in the town are considerably below 
Ostend rates, and the life generally is freer and less conventional. 
The chief thoroughfare in the town is the Rue de VEgliae (Kerk- 
s^aatj, leading from the railway-station to the Digue, to whioh a 
s^eep Sight of steps ascends. In & Bide-atteel tft t\i^ i\|^x. V% \k« 
new Roman Catholic church of fit. Boch, T^ft MatUet, \oX\3L^\^t\««. 

BLANKENBERGHE. 3. Routt, 19 

the main street, is much frequented by visitors, and sales of lace and 
tobacco are held here on Tues. & Frid. forenoons. 

The DiguCy resembling that at Ostend, runs along the top of the 
dunes, affording an attractive promenade 22 yds. wide and upwards 
of 1 M, in length, and provided with electric light (chair 10 c). 
The beach, which is excellent, is largely occupied by bathing- 
machines. Near the above-mentioned flight of steps is the Ceuino 
(adm., see p. 18), built in 1886. A modest monument in front of 
the H6t. du Eursaal commemorates two Belgians who fell in the 
Congo Free State. At the N.E. end of the Digue is the Fier or Jetee 
(330 yds. long ; see p. 18), at the end of which is a pavilion, includ- 
ing a variety-theatre. At the other end of the Digue rises the Light- 
house, at the entrance of a small Harbour^ protected from silting by 
an'estacade', which extends into the sea foi about 330 yds. The 
nearer side of this ^estacade', whence the pleasure-steamers start, 
is a favourite promenade until a late hour in the evening. Ferry 

across the harbour 10 c. ; net-fishing 1 fr. per hour. 

A pleasant walk may be taken along the beach to (2 M.) Wenduyne 
and (5 M.) Den Haan (p. 15). — Excursion to Liueteeghe^ see p. 1. — Zee- 
hmgge (p. 1) is reached by a walk of 1 hr. along the beach. 

Heyst. — The Railway Station lies in the centre of the village, 
about 100 yds. from the Digue. The station of the steam-tramway to Knocke 
and Bruges (pp. 20, 21) is a little to the N.E. of the railway station. 

Hotels (comp. p. xii; dinner generally at 1 p.m., supper at 7 p.m. ^ 
pens, even for a short stay). On the Digue: '^Gband Hotel du Eursaal, 
near the station, with lift, R. 4-6, B. I'A, D. 3»/a, S. 2, pens. 8-12 fr.j 
*Gband HdTKL DB LA Plagb, with lift, frequented by the Roman Catholic 
clergy, R. 3-10, B. 1, D. 3, pens. 6-16 fr. ; Gband H6tbl du Phabb, R. 8>/2-5, 
B. 1V4, D. 3, pens. 6-12 fr. •, 'Gband HAtbl Royal, with lift, R. from 8, B. 1, 
D. 2»/j, pens. 6-10 fr. ; *Gband H6tbl deb Bains, R. from 4, B. IV4, D- 3, 
pens. 6-9 fr.; H6t. db Bbugbs et dbs Flandbbs, pens, from 5fr. \ Lion d'Ok, 
B. 1, D. 2Vj, pens. 5-10 fr.; Pension Suisse. — Behind the Digue: Splendid 
Hotel, Boul. Leopold, pens. 6-9 fr., HOtels du Rivaob (pens. 5V«-6 fr.), 
GouBONNE, DE LA PAix, DE LA Mabine, DU LiTTOBAL (peus. 4-6 fr.), all near 
the railway-station. In the Village (all unpretending): Hot. de Naples, 
Bbau-S£joub, HdTBL LBoPOLD Deux, pens. 4-6 fr., all in the Boul. Nic. 
Meng^, near the railway ; Tboffaes (pens. 6 fr.), Pauwels (well spoken oQ, 
St. Amtoinb, all near the church. 

CoNVBcnoNEBB at the MaUon det Familks, H6t. de la Plage^ E6t. de 
Bruget, And Pdtitterie Lecomte. — Wine at the Motelhdwchen, on the Digue. 

Bath 80 c. — Wabu Baths in the Hdt. du Kursual. 

Heyst, called Heyst-aur-Mer to distinguish it from Heyst-op- 
den-Berg (p. 203), is a fishing- village with 3700 inhab., and also 
a sea-bathing resort attracting upwards of 12,000 visitors annually. 
The chief hotels and numerous villas flank the Digue, which is 
1 M. long, 22 yds. broad, and lighted with electricity (chair 5 c). 

About Va M. to the 8.W. of Heyst, on the way to Zeebrugge (p. 1), 
are the mouths of two Canalt^ constructed in 1867-68, which drain an ex- 
tensive plain and are closed by huge lock-gates. 

The dune scenery between Heyst and Knocke (p. 20) is the finest in 
N. Belgium. About 1 M. from Heyst, and nearly halCN»«k^ tQ "^^^'!i^^-^^^'«^ 
Bninbergen (E(M Pauvels), a new and Tismg Bea»a\^fc-x^w\.^ ^VCa> ^ \S^vjptfw 
Di^e Bad nameroua villaa. On the dunes, vrbicYi affoT^ «. ^x^^ ^^«^ -» *''?^vi». 
s amAJJ caf(^-reBt»uraat (Laiterie), A paved road \ea.^a \xfetia«* V^ NX^^ %\wvs». 
of the ateaw-tramway to firuges. 

20 Route 3. HEYST. 

Knooke-Bur-Mer. — Hotels. On tJte Dunes: Gaand HdrsL du Kubsaal, 
pens. 6-8 fr., very fair ; Oband Hotel bt Hutel dbs Bains; Hdr. db la Plagb; 
Hot. Bead S6jodb, pens. 4i/2-7 fr. In the Avenue Lippens : Pens, dbs Famil- 
LES; Hot. des Dcnes; Hot. des Familles; Hot. Metsmam; HdT. du Lion 
d'Ob; H6t. Peincb Baudodin; Hot. de Beuxelles. In the Village: Gband 
Hot. de la Coueonne, pens. 5-8 fr., very fair; H6t. db Bbugbs; HdT. du 
CrGNE} H5t. Communal^ Maison Cosyn. — English Church Services are held 
during the season; a small church is to be built. 

Knocke~mr~Merj 2^2 M. to the E. of Heyst (steam-tramway, see . 
p. 21), the northernmost bathing-resort in Flanders, now attracts 
many hundreds of visitors annually, of whom a large proportion are 
English (bath 70 c). From the dunes a view T)f the island of Walch- 
eren and the harbour of Flushing may be obtained in clear weather. 
Good golf-links. — The Avenue Lippens (tramway), which leads to 
the (IV4 M.) village, is lined with villas and pensions (see above). 
To the left is a bronze bust commemorating the animal-painter Alf, 
Verwee (p. 93). — The steam - tramway goes on vil (4*/2 M.) 
Westcappelle (branch-line to Sluis, see below) and (8*/2 M.) Dud- 

zeele (p. 1) to (14 M.) Bruges (see below). 

From Westcappelle (see above) a steam-tramway, crossing the Dutch 
frontier, runs via JSint Anna ter Muiden^ a village of Dutch character, to 
(6 M.) Sluis, French VEcluse (ffdt. de Korenheurs^ B. & B. iy4, pens. 4 fl., 
well spoken of; Ho/van Brussels pens. 4-^72 fl.), a small and ancient sea- 
port, with a Hotel de Ville and a belfry of 1396. Sluis, like Damme, was 
formerly situated on the Zwyn (p. 40), but is now connected with the 
sea by a canal only. To Bruges via Damme, see p. 40. Bteam-trunway 
from Sluis to Maldeghem (p. 73) and Breskens (p. 287). 

Kadzand^ a Dutch village frequented for sea-bathing, Ues near the 
Zwyn, to the H^. of Sluis (li/s hr. by carriage), and may be reached from 
Enocke on foot along the coast in 2 hrs. In the village are two small 
inns; and on the dunes, li/s M. distant, is the Badhuis Eadzand. 

4. Bruges. 

ArrivaL 1. Station Centrale (PI. A, 5), used by all trains, a handsome 
Gothic edifice, built in 1879-86. — 2. Station du Nord (PI. 0, 2 5 p. 1), the 
first stopping-place of the trains to Blankenberghe-Heyst and of steam-tMm- 
way No. 1 (see p. 21). 

Hotels (not altogether up-to-date). In the town: HdxBL db Flandrb 
(PI. a^ B, 6), Hue Nord du Sablon 38, R. 4-5, B. 11/2, d^j. 3i/s, D. (at 1 and 
6.30 p.m.) 4, pens, from 10 fr. ; Gbamd Hotel bt Hotel du Commbbcb 
(PI. b ; B, 4), Rue St. Jacques 39, R. from SVa, B. I72, d^j. 3, D. (at 1 and 
6p.m.) 3V2-4, pens. 9-11, omn. ^J^tr.^ good French wine. — Gband Hotel . 
DU Sablon (PI. n \ B, 5), Rue Nord du Sablon 21, B. 3-4, B. IY4, d^J. 272» 
D. 3, pens. 8-10 fr. •, Panieb d'Ob (PI. h; B, 4), on the N. side of the Grand' 
Place, frequented by English travellers, R. from 2V«, B. 1, D. 3, S. IVj, 
pens. 7>/2 fr., with caf^-restaurant, well spoken of^ St. Amand (PI. g{ B, 0), 
Rue St. Amand, unpretending; Pens. S^baphin, Rue de la Monnaie 23, 
pens. 6 fr. — Near the station: Hotel j^a^I^qi^dbes (PI. d, A 6( En glish 
landlady), R. 3-4, B. IV4, D. 2V2 fr., very fair, with caf^-restaurant ; Wind- 
sou (PI. c; A, 5), R. from 2V2, B, 1, d^j. 2, D. 3, pens. 8 fr.; SinobHTDb 
(PI. e; A, 5), Gomte de Flandrb (PI. i; A, 5), both with caf^-reftaurants ; 
MoNBijou, B. 3/4) !>• 2 fr. : Vigtobia. with restaurant. — Pension Le Marehamdy 
Rue dc la Gour de Gand 25 (pens. 5-6 fr.). — Visitors should be on their guard 
against the drlnking-w&ter and the home-made mineral-waters of Bnif«i. 
CMfSa~JleMtMurMnt». In the hotels •, also, * Co/4 Francaik.t QltmlV ^>ma 
^CJ^. side); CqfdFoy^ Grand' Place, at the cotneT ot ^* "li^v^ ¥\iV&vV 

BRUGES. 4.R0UU. 21 

Stock) Ce^fd'Retiaurtmt du CercU Catholique (PI. B, 5), Rue dea Pierres 38, 
D. 2Vs fr. ) Cc^fi du Spndtcat^ Place da Theatre (Engliah Beading Boom, 
see below); Cqfi VUsHnffhej Bae des Blanchissears ^1. D, 4), a reaort of 
artists, with quaint fittings; TroU JSmUsu, Bae Fhilipp Stock 19. 

Baths. Baku St. Bauveur^ at the back of the cathedral (PI. B, 5). 

Post and Telegraph Office (PI. 7; C, 6), comer of the Grand' Plaee and 
Bae Breidel. Telegraph office also at the Bailway Station (PI. A, 5). 

Gabs. Drive within the town iy4 &• (in winter 1 fr.), outside the town 
ace. to a zonal tariff; per hoar, either within or oatside the town, 2 fr., 
each additional 1/4 hr. oO e. Each article of laggage carried oatside 25 c. 

Omnibasss from the SlaHon CentraU (PI. A, 6) via the Grand' Place (PL 
B, C, 6) to the Bcutin (Porte de Damme; PI. E, 2; fare 10 c). 

Steam Tramwaira* 1* To Heytt^ via Wettcappelle (branch to Slais, p. 20) 
and Knocie (p. 20) , starting from the Place de la Station (PI. A, 5). — 
2. To Swevezeele (p. 44) via Steeabruggt (p. 73). — 3. To Knestelaere vii 
Assdn-ouek. — 4. To Aardenburg (p. 73), starting from the Porte Ste. Croix 
(PI. E, 5). 

Steamboat (starting from Fort Lapin. oatside the former Damme Gate ; 
PI. £, 2) via Damme (p. W) to 8luU (p. 20), 4-7 times daily in li/a hr., fare 
1 fr. or 60 c., there and back 1 fr. 40 c. or 1 fr. 

Band Goncerts in aammer in the Grand' Place (p. 32) on Sat., at 8.30 p.m., 
and in the Park (p. 31) on Son., 12-1 p.m. — Kermetu or Animal Fair in 
the first week of May. 

English Ghnreh (Chapel of the Theresian Convent)^ Bae des Baudets 
(PI. B, 3); San. services at 8.30, 11, and 6; chaplain, Rev. J, A. Hull^ B. A.^ 
Bae de TEglise St. GUles 10. 

English Beading Boom (adm. 10 c), adjoining the Syndtcat da Com- 
merce (at the *Witte Saey Halle\ p. 37). 

Golloctions, etc. : Chapelle du Saint-Sang (p. 34), free on Frid. 6-11.30 
and San. 8-9, at other times Vs f' • 

CfruutJutute Mansion (p. 31), collection of lace, daily 9-6, 1/2 ^^• 

Hospice de la Fotierie (p. 39), week-days 2-5 (2-4 in winter), San. 10-12, 
V2 fr-; parties by arrangement. 

Hospital 0/ St. John (p. 28), daily 9-6 (in winter 9-4), San. and holidays 
3-5 (in winter 3-4), 1 fr. Tickets admitting to the Hospital of St. John, the 
Hospice de la Potterie, and the Hospices Civils may be obtained here for V/2 fr. 

Hdtel de Ville (p. 34), daily, till 6 p.m., »/« fr- 

Library (p. 38), Mon. to Frid., 10-1 and 4-7. 

Mus4e Archiologique (p. 32j, week-days 9-1 and 2-5 (Oct. to April, on 
Tues. and Frid. only, 10-12 and 2-4), 5(5 c, 2 pers. 80 c, 3 pers. 90 c, 
4 pers. 1 fr., each addit. pers. 10 c. ; free on Sun. and holidays 11-1 and 
2-4; at other times apply to the custodian. 

Mus4e Communal (p. 30), free on San. 11-1 and on Thurs. 3-5 (in win- 
ter 2-4); on other days, 9-12 & 1-6 (in winter 1-4), adm. 50 c, 2 pers. 
80 c, 3 pers. 90 c, and so on. 

Musie de Peinture Moderne (Picture Gallery; p. 39), on the same terms 
as the Hus^e Communal. 

Musie des Hospices Civils (p. 33), daily 9-1 and 2-5 (in winter 2-4), Vs fr- 

Principal Attractions (one day). In the morning: Cathedral (p. 23), 

Bruges (30 ft), Flem. Brugge^ the capital of W. Flanders and 
the see of a bishop since 1559 (eomp. p. xxi), lies on the little river 
Reie or Roya, 7^2 M. to the S. of its new harbour of Zeebrugge 
(p. 1) by the Canal Maritime, originally planned liv 1^45i. "^^sss^J^. 
ships can also reach it by the OsienA Canal^ ^\\\<^ ^^'s» ^wssX.xsv^dv.'i^ 
in 1284 and has branches to Blanken\)eig\ie,X^^^%, ^Kew^^^x.^ "'^^^ 
Furnea. Two other canals connect Biugea ^Vt\v Qt^MftA wv^ SXwa. 

22 Route 4. BRUGES. EMofy, 

Of all the cities of Belgiam, Bruges, with Its piotaresque streets 
and low gahled houses, has best preserved its medisval characteristics 
(p. xlv) in spite of many tasteless new buildings of the 19th cent- 
ury. After its enlargement in 1297 the town was abont 4^2 M. in 
circumference, but the wall then constructed was razed about the 
middle of the 19th cent., leaving nothing standing except the four 
gates. The old ramparts were converted into promenades, but those 
on the N. side of the town had to yield in 1899 to the needs of 
traffic. The chief signs of its revived industrial spirit are the large 
market-gardens, a ceramic factory, and the making of lace. The pop- 
ulation, which was at one time 200,000, is now about 54,000, in- 
cluding a large colony of English and other foreigners. 

Bruges (which in Flemish means hridgeSj a name due to the 
numerous bridges crossing the canals) is mentioned as Municipium 
Brugense as early as the 7th century. Margrave Baldwin I. of the 
Iron Arm (d. ca. 879), founder of the powerful line of Counts of 
Flanders, built a castle here in 865, and Robert of Frlesland (d. 1093) 
chose the thriving trading town as his residence. After the assas- 
sination of Charles the Good (1127) the burghers, assembling in 
the March^ du Vendredi, elected Count Theodoric of Alsace to be 
Count of Flanders, and returned the following spirited answer to the 
deputies of the king of France (Louis VI.), who had sent to object to 
their choice : 'Go, tell your master that he is perjured; that his crea- 
ture William of Normandy (usurper of the sovereignty of Flanders) 
has rendered himself unworthy of the crown by his infamous extor- 
tions ; that we have elected a new sovereign, and that it becomes 
not the King of France to oppose us. That it is our privilege alone, 
as burghers and nobles of Flanders, to choose our own master.* 

In the 13th and following cent. Bruges, then closely connected 
with the North Sea by means of the Zwyn (p. 40), ranked with 
Ypres and Venice as one of the great commercial centres of Europe. 
Factories, or privileged trading companies, from seventeen different 
kingdoms, had settled in Bruges ; twenty foreign consuls resided 
within its walls; and inhabitants of remote districts, of which the 
very names were almost unknown, visited the renowned city every 
year. As the head of the 'Flemish Hansa in London' it practically 
monopolized the trade with England, especially the wool-trade which 
was of so great importance for the Belgian cloth-factories, and at 
the same time it was a 'staple place' for the cities of the German 
Hanseatic League. Lombards and Venetians conveyed hither the 
products of India and Italy, and returned home with the manu- 
factures of Germany and the Baltic Sea. In 1302, when Johanna of 
Navarre, with her husband Philippe le Bel of France, visited Bruges 
and beheld the sumptuous costumes of the inhabitants, she is said 
to have exclaimed : ' I imagined myself alone to be queen, but I see 
hundreds of persons here whose attire vies wit\v m^ o^wft..' ^t^k^ea 
itttained the culminating point of its proapeiVtv ^\xiVTi^\>^«>^i«*i'^«2d 

History, BRUGES. 4, RouU, 23 

of the 15th cent. , when theDakes of Burgundy held their court here. 
During this period a hrilliant colony of artists was retained at Bruges 
in husy employment, and their works still shed a lustre on the 
name of the city. The gradual silting up of the harbours on the ad- 
jacent coast and the rise of Antwerp and of the S. German com- 
mercial towns, however, began to undermine the prosperity of the 
town towards the close of the i5th cent., and its fall was accelerated 
by contests with Maximilian (p. 33) and dissensions with the Han- 
seatic League. In 1506 the Fuggers, the merchant-princes of Augs- 
burg, removed their office from Bruges to Antwerp, and they were 
soon followed by the Hanseatic * factories'. Finally, the religious com- 
motions of the latter half of the i6th cent, completed the commercial 
ruin of Bruges. Comp. E. OiUiat Smith's *The Story of Bruges', in 
the Mediaeval Town Series (London, 1901). 

a. South- West Quarter of the City. 

From the Railway Station (PI. A, 6; p. 19), which occupies 
the site of the old March^ du Tendredi , two streets lead into the 
town : to the left, the Rue Nord du Sdblon^ or Noord Zavel-Straat, 
and to the right, the Rue Sud du Sablon^ or Zuid Zavel-Siraat. The 
first of these is continued by the Rue St. Amand (PI. B, 6); the 
second by the Rue des Pierrea or Steenstraat (PI. B, 5). The last- 
named street, which contains many picturesque gabled houses (lately 
restored) of the 16-1 7th cent., skirts the Place Stevin (right), con- 
taining a bronze statue (by Eug. Slmonis ; 1846) of Simon Stevin 
(1548-1620), inventor of the decimal system. 

In the Oimetldre St. Sauveur, at the end of the Rue Sud du 
Sablon, to the right, is the church of — 

Sint Salvator (St. Sauveur; PL B, 5), which has ranked as a 
cathedral since 1834 (comp. p. 36). The church, of very ancient 
foundation, was rebuilt in the early-Gothic style after a fire, between 
1183 and 1223; the nave and transept were largely renewed after 
another fire in 1358 ; while the five chapels of the choir date from 
1482-1527, and the vaulting of the ambulatory from 1527-30. Ex- 
ternally it is a cumbrous building, disfigured by later additions, and 
surmounted by a castle-like W. tower, the Romanesque lower part 
of which was built in 1116-27 and continued in 1358, while the 
upper part was completed in 1846 and provided with a spire in 1871. 

The *Intbriob is remarkable for its fine proportions, the effect 
of which is enhanced by the tasteful polychrome decoration by Jean 
Bethune (1874-75). It measures 330 ft in length, 123 ft. in breadth, 
and across the transept 174 ft., and is 90 ft. high. The position of 
the numerous treasures of art in the church is often changed. The 
locked chapels are opened by the sacristan (50 c.)^ who laxis^MiJc^ 
to be found in the Church wardens' Yestif ^5.%^, ^V. ^^"^ . «^^ ^"^ 
the S, aisle, . 

On the Wbbt TTaxl are seTeial \w^^ ^^vX ti^^» ^««^ \Bi.^^^M>»^ 

__« t. „,— iMce under tha towec : Jacob 

** _rf-l,..'''"';,XH«ly Gh09t(1658)i Bodierwl, 

<»fliM>* '"'i^. ''^T «riJW ** Euelurist to persons sick of the 

•W"' r£«f**'' '"'111 At the entrance ot the Btpttstery, which 

I (jfoni Jl i,rt.» '''^, the tr»n»ept, are two inonnmental ■Bruses 

[ ?'^rtf<»"'r„"^fl on" 0" 'li* 'Uh' ^»tlng from 1439, th»t 

"^ Ml]«n ""(Ma All the pii-.tQres In tha Bsptistery (locked) 

'' rtol-n '"". Ti> the right, a •Ciucifliion, painted in tempen 

fi lap' """^B e»rlieft e:itant picture of the Brages School (be- 

uii P'"'*''".«D wini* ^^ * P'^'ufe by Fr. Pourbus the Toungti, 

^ JiOOJ; 'JTg oiemberB of the shoemakers' guild (1608); hsnd- 

r»P*^'Jri'»bruni of wrought iron (16th cent,). P. Pombui (p. 30), 

joniB ?" Jg, with A bf ah am, Melflhisedech, and Elijah on the wings; 

•tMt ^°^ZiAe the Mass of Gregory theGreat, and 13 good portraiti 

"H^llTiof^i^" HolySa,..rament (IMS). 

" annraAiaLH- Beyond the S. entrance door: Cruclfliion, Bear- 
f the Owis, and PletS, a work ot the Brugt! School (1600; 
j^jL^), erroneously attributed to Gerard van de Mcirc; eome of 
*fTjIn(eB In 'he Crucifixion are borrowed from the allar-piece by 
Se Utitei of Fl^malla in the Liverpool Collection. 

TU)<sBFT. Modern stained glass by Dobbelaere [1861-74). A 
heart inaihle rood-loft, In the baroqne style, conatincted In 1679- 
on (Bpsrates the transept from the choir. The statue of God the 
r»tber upon It U by A. Qutllin (fce Younffer (1682). — Two chapels 
.ajoln (he transept. On the right is the Chapel of 8t. Barbara, 
with an excellent smsll painted retief in carved wood (15th cent.), 
(ho Consecration of St. Eligiue (Saore do 8t. Elol?). On the wall to 
the right is an altar-piece by Lanetloi Blondeel, the Madonna with 
SS- Luhe and Eligius (1645). The Cliapet of Ibt Shoemakers' Guild 
(ChapelU da Cordonniert), on the left, contains Hne wood-catring 
of the end of the ITith cent, and seieral interesting brasses (on 
the left, "Walter Coopuian, 1387, and Martin do Visch, 1452; on 
the right, the learned Scliolewaerts, 148b, aiid Rurgemsater Adr. 
fiave with his wife and son, 1555). 

CaoiB. High-altar-piece (1642), Itesurrection byJoiMien*; Van 
Oott, Peter lod John. At the sides aro two luonnmcnts of bishops, 
both by PuUncx (ISthcent.). The Gothic •Choir Stalls date from tho 
16th century. They are adorned with the srmoiia) bearings of Knights 
ot the Golden Flceco (Toison d'Or), Mrved aftfir the 13th chapter of 
the Order (1478). TbeOrder was founded at Bruges byDukePhiUp 
the Good, ou 10th Jan., 1430, on the ocr^slon of his mantage with 
Isabella, ilaitghtcr of John I. of Portugal. 

A]iujui.ATOBT {beginning at the N, or left transept). YanOoil, 
Tia Sar/oiir predicting hU Passion to liU MfH,\iBt, knft%\&\utla- 
terview trJtb hit jtfoeher before the Passiou, — irt t.V».v>^-.l^tt4. 

Cathedral. BRUGES. 4, RouU. 26 

gome screen of 1513 ; altar of 1517, witli a painted oradflx (the old- 
est Renaissanoe work in Bmges); modern stained glass by J.B«- 
thune (1869). — 2nd Chapel: Screen of 1517 j ♦Altar-piece, The 
Virgin and St. Bernard, by AUctert Claeissens, — By the pillar op- 
posite : Marble tomb of Jan de Schietere (d. 1575) and his wife, 
with a Gmciflxion and figures of the married couple and their 
patron-saints, by Egidius de Witte. 

3rd Chapel : Stained glass ef the 16th century. To the left, 
A, Claeissena the Younger, Descent from the Cross ; on the left wing, 
St. Philip, on the right wing. Bishop Rodoan, the founder, with his 
patron-saint, Charlemagne (1609). — Dierick Bouts (erroneously 
ascribed to Memling), ♦Martyrdom of St. Hippolytus (covered). 

The principal picture represents the saint about to be torn to pieces 
by four horses, mounted, or led by men on foot. The unfounded local 
legend is that these horses were copied by Memling from the famous 
horses of St. Hark at Venice. On the left wing is a scene from the life 
of St. Hippolytus, on the right the donor and his wife in a beautiful land- 
scape. On the outside of the wings are four saints in grisaille. This is 
a masterpiece (restored) of the early Flemish school, with fine aerial per- 
spective in the landscape-backgrounds. The latest critics assign the figures 
of the donors to ffuffo van der Goet^ who, perhaps, completed the altwr- 
piece on the death of Bouts. Comp. pp. 23C, zlyiii. 

This chapel also contains : Jac, van Oott the Elder, The Infant 
Saviour in the workshop of his father Joseph, Flight into Egypt ; 
Minderhoui, Battle of LepKnto ; modem reliquary (1884) of Charles 
the Good, Count of Flanders (p. 22); tomb of John Carondelet, 
Chancellor of Flanders (d. 1544). 

4th Chapel : Group in five sections, with scenes from the Passion 
in carved wood, painted and gilded (ca. 1460); modern stained 
glass (1898). — 5th Chapel, at the back of the high-altar: Stained 
glass by J. Bethune (1861); by the pillar on the right, Pietli, a 
gilded copper relief by P. Wolfganck (ca. 1535). — 6th Chapel. In 
the floor, monumental ♦5ra««, richly enamelled, for Jan vanCoudeu- 
berghe (d. 1525) and Bernhardin van den Hoeve (d. 1527). To the 
left Mater Dolorosa, on a gold ground, by an imitator of Quinten 
Matsys. To the right Portrait of Emp. Charles V. (here called Phi- 
lippe le Bel), perhaps a copy of B,van Orley. — 7th Chapel : Three 
landscapes (17th cent.), illustrating the miraculous transference of 
the Casa Santa from Nazareth to Loretto. — Farther on in the am- 
bulatory : to the left, Jan Er. Quellin, St. Simon Stock receiving 
the scapulary from the Virgin (1686). 

The Ghambbe deb Marouilliees, or Churchwardens' Vestry, at the W. 
end of the S. aisle (p. 28). contains several works of art and a leaden slab 
of 1087 from the tomb or St. Gunhildis, the sister of the last Saxon king 
Hafbld, who died at Bruges. The ivory pastoral staff of St. Maclou (d. 565), 
the enamelled head of a pastoral staff of the 18th cent., and gome ancient 
missals are preserved in a cabioet here. On the walls*. Ct>3L<:A^'»ss^^ ^ 
triptych of the Bruges School (ca. i^SfS) \ poitxaWa Xi-? PowVw*^ ^^^. 

The eight pieces of Brnssels tapiBtry V.epV Vti VXv<i ^kS3Klw«.^ "^j^SSSfv; 
br Van dtrBorght from cartoons by Jan van Orley 0^^^^% ^^^ ^-x^V^^^^ 
the cboir during Holy Week. 


26 Routed. BRUGES. 8.W. Quarter: 

A few paces to the S.E., at tlie end of the Rue de l*EBprlt, lies — 

*Notre Dame (Flem. Onze Ueve Vrouwenkerk; Pl.B, 6), another 
early-Gothic structure, erected on the site of an earlier ohapel in the 
12-1 3th centnries. The chnrch had originally only two aieles; the 
outer aisles with their rows of chapels date from 1344-60 (N. side) 
and 1450-74 (S. side). The tower, 395 ft. high, was completed in 
1297, restored in 1853-58, and provided with turrets at the angles 
in 1873. The heautiful late-Gothic addition on the N. side (ca. 
1470) was originally a portal, named *Het Paradys'. 

The Interior (sacristan, who shows the pictures and the tomb- 
chapel, 1 fr. for one person, two pers. 1^2 fr., three 1 fr. 80 c, 
four 2 fr.; the relics are shown on Frid.) is 240ft. long, 165ft. 
broad, and 70 ft. high. The position of the objects of art is often 

Wbst Waxl : De Crayety Adoration of the Infant Jesus, 1662 ; 
SegherSj *Adoratlon of the Magi, with saints (the painter's master- 
piece ; 1630). Large winged picture, from the old high-altar, re- 
presenting in the middle the Crucifixion, and on the wings the 
Bearing of the Gross, the Grown of Thorns, the Descent from the 
Cross, and Christ in Hades, begun by B. van Orley^ finished by M. 
Oheeraerts (1561), and restored by Pourhus the Younger in 1589 
after the iconoclastic outrages. 

North Aisles. Several unimportant pictures of the 18th eent- 
ury. Also, in a niche covered with a Gothic canopy, a statue of the 
Virgin, dating from 1485 (?). The Baptistery occupies the former 
*Paradys* (see above). The Chapelle de la 8te. Croix^ at the end of 
the outer aisle, fitted up in 1473, contains some worthless paint- 
ings (1632-34), representing the History of the Gross. 

South Aisles. 3rd Chapel: Ant. Claeissens (?), Virgin and 
Child in a landscape, with portraits of the donor Nic. van Thienen 
and his wife, and the Annunciation in grisaille on the wings ; to 
the right, a triptych of the Virgin, Child, and an angel, with por- 
traits of Don Diego de Villegas, his wife and children, by an un- 
known painter, ca. 1540. — 4th Chapel : Transfiguration, probably 
by Oerard David, with good portraits of the donor Ans. de Boodt 
and his wife, along with their patron- saints, added by P. Pourhus 
(1573). — Adjoining the confessional: Herri met de Bi««(?), An- 
nunciation and Adoration of the Magi, on a gold ground. 

The end of the outer S. aisle is railed off as a chapel by a low 
and graceful marble balustrade by Jehotte (1842). In a black 
marble niche, over the altar , stands a *Statue of the Virgin and 
Child, a lifesize marble group of exquisite beauty by Michael Angelo, 
probably identical with the statue ordered by Jan Mouscron, a mer- 
chant of Bruges, and erroneously spoken of by Condivi and Vasari 
as a bronze wot\l. The group wa* executed in 1501, soon after the 
celebrated Pietk in St Peter*s ; the fine louu^ivcftft wi^ %Ql\:fi««& of 
tJie forms are cbarActeilstU of the mastei'ft ew\'S ^cd^A. kX^siw^x 

Notre Dame, BRUGES. 4. Boute, 27 

Dilrer saw and admired the work In this chapel In 1621. The 
lifesize study for the head of the Madonna, by Michael Angelo^s 
own hand, Is in the South Kensington Museum. Horace Walpole is 
said to have offered 30,000 fl. for this statue. — On the wall to the 
right is the tomb of Adrian van Haveskerke ; above, P. Powbus^ 
Last Supper, 1562 ; farther on, the engraved and enamelled brass 
of Josse de Damhoudere (1607-81) and his wife. 

Navb. Pulpit of 1743, with reliefs and figures (Wisdom seated 
on the terrestrial globe). The nave is separated from the choir by a 
wooden rood-loft of 1722, above which is a Crucifix dating from 1694. 

Ghoib. The armorial bearings above the choir-stalls serve as 
a memento of the eleventh Chapter of the Order of the Golden 
Fleece, held here in 1468. EQgh-altar of the 18th century. 

In the Ambxtlatobt, beginning by Jehotte's balustrade : to the 
left, Caravaggio(T)^ Christ at Emmaus (1604) ; J. van Oott the El- 
der , Vision of St. Rosalia, after Van Dyck's painting in the Mu- 
seum at Vienna. 

Then, in a closed chapel to the right, the *Tomb8 of Charles the 
Bold (d. 1477), Duke of Burgundy, and his daughter Mary (d. 1482), 
wife of the Emp. Maximilian, the last scions of the House of Bur- 
gundy and of the native princes of the South Netherlands. 

The lifesize recnmbent figures of the duke and his daughter, in 
copper, richly gilded, repose on marble sarcophagi; at the sides are the 
enamelled armorial bearings of Bargandian duchies, counties, and baronies. 
The tomb of the Princess, in the Gothic style, and by far the more valu- 
able as a work of art, was executed by Pieter de Bsekere of Brussels in 
1495-1502. The Duke^s tomb, an imitation of the other, was erected in 
1559 by Philip U., a descendant of Charles the Bold, who is said to have 

5 aid the sculptor Jonghelinck of Antwerp the then very large sum of 
4,395 fl. The Emp. Charles V. caused the remains of the duke, his great- 
gn^andfather, to be conveyed hither from Kancy (1560). The tomb of 
Charles bears his motto: *Je Pay empris, bien en aviengneP (*I have 
made the venture; may it prosper!"). The sumptuousness of these tombs, 
the historical associations attaching to the illustrious father and daughter, 
and the touching story of the death of the latter in consequence of a fall 
from her horse while hunting with her husband near Bruges, all combine 
to render these monuments deeply interesting. They were first erected 
in the choir, and only since 18i6 have they stood in this chapel, which 
was originally dedicated to P. Lanchals^ unjustly beheaded in 1488, whose 
tombstone is still to be seen to the right of the entrance. The tombs 
were restored in 1812-17. 

This chapel also contains the Mourning Mary, surrounded by 
small representations of her Seven Sorrows (16th cent), by the so- 
called Pseudo^Mostaertj a pupil of Gerard David ; two wings of an 
altar, by P. Pourhus -, and other paintings. 

The former Chapel of the Virgin, behind the high-altar, gaudily 
painted and adorned with stained glass by J. Bethune (1863), now 
contains the Host. — Farther on, P. PourbuSj Triptych, Adoration 
of the Shepherds and donors (1574; closed) •, then.^ ^X^q-h^.^ *. tv<2s^- 
carved Gothic pew in oak, of 1471, ioimwl^ Wift ytfs^etX:^ ^'^ ^^'^ 
AmJIy of Van der Grnuthnuse, with -w^oae Vqw^^ ^5- ^"^J^"^^^ 
oonneoted by apaasAge. Then, G. de Ortt-yet 0"ii^^*^^^ ^l^x.-^^'*" 

28 Routed. BRUGES. S.W.QuaHer: 

mas Aquinas (1644) ; Jac. van Oosi, Triumph of the Church (1652), 
Calling of Matthew (1640). 

The Churchwardens' Vestry contains portraits of all the canons 
of the church. 

A gateway opposite the W. side of Notre Dame leads to the 
Hospital of St. John (PI. B, 6), which has existed since the 12th 
cent., and where the sick are attended by Sisters of Charity. The 
interesting sculptures above the walled-up gateway to the left of 
the entrance date from the 13th century. Admission, see p. 21. 

The hospital contains a number of **Pictures by Memling, which 
alone would amply repay a visit to Bruges (comp. Introd., p. xlix). 
These are preserved in the former chapter-room. 

In the centre, on a rotatory pedestal, isthe**Cfe5w« of St. Ursula, 
a reliquary of Gothic design, the scenes painted on which form 
Memling's finest work. It is said to have been ordered by the Hos- 
pital in 1480, and completed in 1489. 

^The shrine of St. Ursula is a Gothic chapel in miniature, its long 
sides being divided into archings containing six episodes, its cover adorn- 
ed with six medallions; one incident fills each of the gables. In the 
medallions are the coronation of the Virgin, the glory of St. Ursula, and 
four angels \ on the gables, St. Ursula shelters the band of maidens under 
her cloak, and the Virgin in a porch is worshipped by two hospital nuns. 
Of the six designs on the long sides, one represents the fleet arriving at 
Cologne, where Ursula prepares to land with her companions. We re- 
cognize the shape of the old cathedral, the steeples of several chur- 
ches , and one of the city towers , most of them true to nature but not 
in their proper places; in one of the distant houses Ursula sees the 
vision of the Pope bidding her to visit Rome. Another scene is laid on 
the quays of Bale, where St. Ursula has taken to the shore, whilst a part 
of her suite awaits its turn to disembark. A third shows the Pope sur- 
rounded by his court in the porch of a church awaiting St. Ursula, who 
kneels on the steps leading up to the portal. In a gallery close by, the 
British neophytes are baptised and confessed, or partake of ttie Holy 
Communion. The Pope, in the fourth picture, accompanies the maidens 
on their return to Bale; he sits with his cardinals in the vessel which 
carries St. Ursula, whilst the suite of both still winds through the passes 
leading from the Alps. On the fifth panel, the background is a camp on 
the Rhine shore , where boats have landed some of their living freight, 
and others approach with crowded loads; the knights and vi^;ins are 
set upon by vsoldiers and are vainly defended by their steel-clad cham- 
pions. The sixth picture is that in which St. Ursula is seen in a passive 
attitude of prayer, awaiting the arrow of an executioner; the men about 
her, armed in proof, or shrouded in mantles, are spectators or actors in 
the massacre of the sainfs companions; and the distance is filled with 
tents behind which the Kolner Dom rears its solid walls*. 

*The freedom and grace with which these scenes are composed are 

partly due to the facility with which Memling treated groups and figures 

of small proportions, but they tell of progress in the art of distribution 

and arrangement. It would be* difficult to select any picture of the Flemish 

school in which the Mramatis personse" are more naturally put together 

than they are in the shrine of St. Ursula, nor is there a single pan^ in 

the reliquary that has not the charm of rick and well-contrasted colour. 

... A rich fund of life and grace is revealed in shapes of symmetrical 

proportions or slender make and attitudes of becoming elegance. Nothing 

ja more striking than the minuteness of \\ie pavuVftXR \o^<^\k^ <a ^^^ ^«- 

rect mastery of his flnish\ 

Crovt and CatalcaitUt. Tht Early Fleimtli Paii^Uw. im. 

Hospital of 8t. John. BRUGES. 4. RouU. 29 

On the wall opposite the entrance is the *Altar^Piece of the 88, 
John^ a winged picture painted by Memling for the high-altar of 
the church and presented in 1479 by Brother Jan Floreins, sur- 
named Tan der Riist, in honour of the two patron-saints of the 
hospital. This work was long erroneously called the * Marriage of 
St, Catharine*, It was restored, with only moderate success, in 1891. 

'The Virgin sits on a throne fn a rich church-porch^ angels hold a 
crown above her^ the infant on her lap bends to give a ring to the bride 
kneeling in regal raiment at his feet; to the left and right, the Baptistf 
Evangelist, and St. Barbara stand gravely in attendance-, an angel playa 
on an organ; another holds a missal. Close behind St. Barbara, a monk 
of the order of St. Angustin contemplates the scene; and in a landscape 
watered by a river the Baptist prays to God, preaches to a crowd, wends 
his way to the place of execution, and bums — a headless trunk — at 
the stake; elsewhere, St. John Evangelist seethes in boiling oil. On the 
left wing of the triptych the daughter of Herodias receives the Baptist's 
head, and dances before Herod. On the right wing St. John Evangelist 
is seated and looks towards heaven, preparing to note the vision before 
him. He sees the king of kings, the elders, the lamps of the Apocalypse, 
the lamb, the symbols of the Evangelists, and Death on the pale horse, 
bursting with his three companions on the men who flee ; on the placid 
surface of the sea, the vision is reflected and forms a grand and imposing 
picture. On the outer face of the wings, Jacques de Kenninck, treasurer, 
Antoine Seghers, director, Agnes Gazembrood, superior, and Claire van 
Hultem, a nun of the hospital, are depicted under the protection of their 
patron saints.'* — Ibid. 

By the entrance, to the left, is a smaller winged picture by Afem- 

ling, representing the * Adoration of the Magi, also painted in 1479 

and presented by Jan Floreins. On the inside of the shutters, the 

Nativity and Presentation in the Temple; outside, John the Baptist 

and St. Veronica. 

The thin, bearded man looking in at the window, with a cap such as 
is still worn by the convalescents of the hospital, is said to be a portrait 
of the master himself. To the left, on the central panel, the donor, kneeling. 

Between the windows are two other pictures. A diptych , painted 
In 1487, represents the Virgin with a red mantle, offering an apple 
to the Child ; on the other wing the donor, Martin van Newenhoven, 
unquestionably the best of Memling's portraits. The other picture 
is a Fieth, with the portrait of the donor, A. Reins, and SS. Adrian, 
Barbara, Wilgefortis, and Mary of Egypt on the wings (the last two 
on the outside). 

Beside the second window is a Portrait Head, representing the 
daughter of burgomaster W. Moreel (p. 109), by Memling (1480), 
styled by a later inscription * Sibylla Sambetha' (i.e. the Persian Sibyl). 

Above the flre-place is a copy of Van DpcJfs Rest during the Flight 
into Egypt ; in the comers of the room are a valuable chalice of 1619 and a 
small Gothic ciborium, with a statuette of the Madonna (gilded wood- 

The Hospital itself is well worthy of a visit. The large old hall, 

divided by partitions, is used as a store. The dispensary is also 



On quitting the Hospital we turn to t\ie^ A^l V?>-"^> ^^^'^''^ ^^ 
ge, which affords an attractWe nIcn? oi tVfe Vc«^t-\\^w^- ^^ 

30 BauU 4. BRUQ£S. S.W, 0%U»rtet: 

Hospital, and follow the Rue Ste. Catherine, No. 84 in wMch, the 
old Ecole Bogaerde^ formerly an orphanage, is now the seat of the 
Academy of Art (PI. B, 7), founded in 1719, and of the School of 
Industrial Art. The old chapel contains the — 

""HuB^e Communal or Town Museum^ with the Piotusb Gal- 
lery OF THE Academy, a collection of great interest to the student 
\j of early-Flemish art. Admission, see p. 21. No catalogue. Good 

photographs at IY2 & 3 fr. 

The masterpieces of the collection are hung in the middle : Jan van 
Ejfcky *Madonna with the Infant Christ, St. Donatian and St. George, 
and the donor Canon George van der Paele (1434-36; from the fonner 
cathedral). The figures, half lifesize, are strongly realistic. The Madonna 
is the ugliest ever painted by Van Eyck, the Child, with its aged ex- 
pression (meant to indicate the presence of Deity?), is lean and unat- 
tractive, and St. George, in spite of his brilliant armour, has much the 
appearance of a rude common soldier. The portrait of the donor, however, 
is masterly, and St. Donatian is a dignified personage. — Jan van Eyck^ 
'Portrait of his wife, 1439, evidently unfiattered, but admirably finished, 
and faithful in every detail. — After Jan van Eyck^ Head of Christ, with 
the spurious inscription 'Job. de Eyck inventor 1440", a reduced copy of 
the work in the museum at Berlin. — Hugo vcm der Ooes^ ^Death of the 
Virgin, one of the foremost of early-Flemish works in dramatic vitality, 
depth of expression, variety of gesture, and knowledge of anatomy (Fried- 

Memling, 'Triptych (1484), from the chapel of St. Christophar in the 
Church of St. Jacques. In the central picture is St. Christopher, with 
a blue garment and ample red cloak, looking up with astonishment at the 
Infant Christ sitting on his shoulders, as if unable to comprehend the 
continual increase of his burden. In a grotto is the hermit, leaning on 
a stick, with a lantern in his hand. To the left is St. Maurus reading, 
to the right St. Egidius with the doe. On the left wing is Burgoaaaster 
Willem Moreel, the donor, with his five sons and his patron St. Wmiam, 
on the right wing, Barbara Vlaenderbergh, his wife, with eleven daughters 
and St. Barbara. On the outside are St. John the Baptist and St. George, 
in grisaille. This picture occupies a high rank among Memling'^s works. 
The heads of the three saints in the central picture are of great beauty, and 
the reflection of the rocky bank in the water is admirably rendered. The 
picture has unfortunately been much injured by the removal of the original 

On the wall opposite the entrance: Oerard David, The sentence of 
Cambyses against the unjust judge Sisamnes. The first picture represents 
the bribery in the background , and the sentence of the king in the 
foreground; the second the executioners flaying Sisamnes in the fore- 
ground, and the son of Sisamnes, seated as his father's successor on the 
Judgment seat on which hangs the skin of the latter, in the background, 
toth pictures (completed in 1498) are boldly painted, with a brownish tone 
of colouring, and admirably finished. Most of the heads exhibit a marked 
individuality, and the hands are drawn with perfect accuracy. — Oerard 
David, ^Triptych (after 1600). In the central picture the Baptism of Christ*, 
on the left wing the donor Jean des Trompes and his son, with their 
patron St. John the Evangelist; on the right wing Elizabeth van der 
Meersch, the first wife of the donor, with her four daughters, under the 
protection of St. Elizabeth of Hungary. On the outsides of the wings are 
the Madonna and Magdalen Cordier, the donor's second wife, with her in- 
fant daughter and her patron-saint. 

On the entrance-wall are several paintings by Jacob van Ooti the Elder, 
tJie chief painter of Bruges in the ITth cent. : St. Anthony of Padua and 
^he Holy Child, St. Antbony resuscitating a dead mau^ Ttieolo^an dictating 
/^ h/a amAaueneiSj etc. 

On the left side-wall: Pieter Pourbut (of Gouda\ ei. ».V BT^%!t% \tv VtftA^V 

Musie Communal, BRUGES. 4. Boute. 31 

Descent from the Cross, with wings in grisaille (1570)} P^ClaeissMt theYounger, 
Allegorical representation of the Treaty of Toumai in 1584 \ P. Fourbtu^ 
'Portraits of J. Fernaguut and his wife (1551), Last Judgment (1561), from 
the Hotel de Ville; between the last two, In the ttple of Oerard Davids 
'Preaching of John the Baptist and the Baptism of Christ, two charming 
small coloured drawings on parchment; Jean Provost^ 'Last Judgment 
(1535), four altar-panels with portraits of the donors and allegorical figures 
of Avarice and Death. 

On the right side-wall: H. vcm Minderhoui^ Bruges Harbour (1653) ; Jan 
Van Ooyen^ River-scenes. 

From the Rue Ste. Catherine, the Rue de la Vigne and the Rue 
de TArsenal lead to the W. to the Beguinage (PI. A, 6 5 comp. p. 72), 
founded in the 13th cent, and situated at the S.W. end of the town. 
The entrance is in the right angle of the Place de la Vigne ; we cross 
a bridge and pass through a gateway of 1776. The low, whitewashed 
houses surround a court shaded hy lofty trees. The Church, dedicated 
to St. Elizabeth, was founded in 1245 and rebuilt in 1605; the 
altar-piece is by the elder Van Oost, and there is an Assumption by 
T. Boeyermans in the N. aisle (1676). 

From the S. entrance of the B^gninage we reach in a few paces, 
passing the skilfully restored Gothic Lock House (Sashuis or Maison 
Eclusi^re), the Minnewater or Lac d* Amour (PL A, 7), a sheet of 
water formerly used as a harbour. The bridge on the S. side, ad- 
joining which one of the two towers erected In 1398 is still stand- 
ing, commands a picturesque view of the town and the Canal de 
Gand. — A little to the N.W., on the Bempart du Beguinage 
(PI. A, 7"), is a statue (by G. Pickery; 1901) of Hendrik Pickery 
(1828-94), a sculptor of Bruges. 

The Bue Vieille de Gand , diverging on the E. side of the Rue Ste. 
Catherine, leads to the S.E. to the (Vs M.) Porte de Oand (Pi. C, 7), a 
picturesque erection of the 15th century. — Thence we may follow the 
ramparts to the K.E. to the Kruispoort (p. 39), or proceed to the N. to 
the Gothic Church of Bte. Madeleine (PI. G, 6 \ recently restored) , with a 
vaulted timber-roof over the nave, and to the attractive Park (Pi. (3, 6; con- 
certs, see p. 21). In the Bue des Freres Mineurs (^0. 10), on the other 
side of the park, is the Vlacmuche Suis of Mr. Verhaeghe-Lebret, with a 
wooden facade from Brussels (1573). — Farther on is the Quai Vert or du 
Rosaire (p.' 32). 

b. Central Fart of the City. 

No. 18 in the short Gruuthuuse - Straat, which leads to the E. 
from the choir of Notre Dame (p. 26) to the Dyver, is the entrance 
to the court in front of the Gruuthuuse Mansion. 

The oldest wing of the Grnnthanse HanBion (PI. B, 6), next 
the Reie, was built about 1420 or a little later. The N. facade (ca. 
1466-70) was due to Lodewyk van der Gruuthuuse, who here gave 
shelter in 1471 to the exiled Edward IV. of England and founded 
a library (now In Paris) second only to that of the Dukes of BxLt- 
gundy. The mansion, which has belonged \.o \\vftVi^sRT^.«^s^Rfc^KV^^ 
has hecD restored since 1884 and fliUe^ \v^ tw \Xia x^a.^'s^'^wi. ^"^ 
YATious coUectiona, The first floox ol t'\ife "B. 'w^^^ Q.«i\iX.^vft& ^'^ — 

32 RouU 4. BRUGES. Centre of CUy, 

Museum tan Kantwbrkbn or Musee de Dentelles^ a valuable 
collection of Flemish, Brabant, Antwerp, MecUin, Datch, and 
Valenciennes lace (12-17th cent.), given to the town by the Baroness 
Liedta, vrhose bust, by H. Pickery, adorns the hall(adm., see p. 21). 

The other rooms now contain the Collections Belgo-Romaines^ a 
collection of prehistoric antiquities bequeathed by Baron Gilles de 
P^lichy, and the Musee de Oravures, consisting of about 7000 wood- 
cuts, etchings, engravings, and drawings, chiefly presented by Mr. 
J. Steinmetz. Among the etchings is an 18th cent, copy of Jan van 
Eyck's St. Barbara. 

Following the tree- shaded Dyver to the N.E. from the Gruut- 
huuse Mansion, we reach the Rozenhoedkaai or Qual du Rosaire 
(PI. C, 5), which, like the adjacent Quai Vert (PI. 0, D, 6), affords 
a good •View of the quaint buildings of the inner town. — From 
the Fish Market {Marcht au Poisson; PI. 6, C 5) the Rue de I'Ane 
Aveugle (Blinde Ezel Straat) leads to the N.W. to the Place du 
Bourg (p. 34) , affording a good view of the rear of the H6tel de 
Ville (p. 34) and of the picturesque Palais de Justice (p. 35). 

From the Quai du Rosaire we cross the Reie and follow the Rue 
aux Laines or Wolle-Straat (PI. C, 6) towards the N.W. No. 28 in 
this street, known as *In den Grooten Mortier', is adorned with re- 
liefs of 1634, referring to the repulse of the troops of Prince Fred- 
erick Henry (p. xxiviii) by Count John of Nassau-Siegen, the Spanish 
general, in 1631. — The Rue aux Lalnes ends at the quaint-looking — 

Gkand' Place or Groote Markt (PI. B, 0, 5j band-concerts, see 
p. 21), the heart of the city. In the centre stands a colossal Monu- 
ment to Jan Breidel and Pieter de Conine^ guild-masters and leaders 
of the citizens of Bruges at the ^Bruges Matins', or massacre of the 
French garrison on 18th May, 1302, and in the 'Battle of the Spurs* 
at Oourtrai (p. 76) j the monument, erected in 1887, is by Devigne. 

The S.E. side of the square is occupied by the Halles, a large 
building erected in the 13th and 14th centuries, and altered in 1561- 
66 from designs by Peter Diericx, The building forms a rectangle, 
144 ft. broad and 280 ft. deep. The Belfry (Tour des Halles), 
rebuilt after a conflagration in 1280, 352 ft. in height, rises in the 
centre of the facade and leans slightly towards the S.E. The two 
massive square lower stories, flanked with corner -turrets, date 
from the 13-14th cent. ; the octagon above was added after 1482, 
and the parapet in 1822. Over the portal is a statue of the Ma- 
donna. The summit (402 steps) commands a very extensive view. 
The •Chimes, dating from 1743, are played on Wed. & Sat., 11.15, 
Sun. 11.30 a.m. (entrance in the picturesque court to the right, 
upstairs ; ring the bell in the gallery ; adm. 25 c). 

The groundfloor of the E. wing was formerly used as a vege- 
table-store; it now accommodates the Arouabolooioal Musbum 
/^^uyeum van Oudheden)^ a collection of locaV wv\.\(\^V\Jift%^^\si..^%«i^ 
P' 21; entrance from the market-pla-^-e"). 

Cranenhurg. BRUGES. 4, RouU. 33 

Among the chief objects of interest are a staiaed-glass window from 
the Painters^ Ouild House, with St. George and the Dragon (15th cent.); a 
terracotta *Bust of Charles V., with a removable wooden hat; two altar- 
panels (1551) ascribed to P. Pourbus^ with views of the Minnewater and 
other points in Bruges; spinet by O. RUekers (1624); and Bruges pottery by 
Pulincx and others. The collection further includes old plans and views 
Qt Bruges, coins, medals, objects in forged iron, old chests and coffers^ 
architectural aad sculptural fragments, and paintings from tombs of the 
16th century. 

'In the market-place of Bruges 

Stands the belfry old and brown; 
Thrice consumed and thrice rebuilded, 
Still it watches o*er the town\ (Longfellow.) 

On the E. side of the market-place are the still unfinished Qovern- 
ment Buildings QPl. 0, 5), occupying the site of the old Cloth Hall, 
a building of 1369-99, pulled down in 1787. Adjoining is the Post 
and Telegraph Office (PI. 7; 0,6), completed in 1891, to the upper 
story of which the Municipal Archives (fee for consultation 21/2 fr. 
per day) were removed in 1898. Both these buildings are in the 
Gothic style, the foimer in hewn stone, the latter in brick with 
sandstone adornment. 

On the W. side of the market-place, at the corner of the Rue 
St. Amand, is a house formerly belonging to the Bouchoute family, 
a handsome old building of the 15th cent., adorned with a gilded 
lion and poorly restored about 1850. According to a popular but 
probably erroneous tradition, it was occupied for a time by Charles II, 
of England, while living here in exile about 1660. The citizens 
of Bruges conferred upon him a title of royalty by creating him 'King 
of the Guild of Archers'. 

In the opposite house, called the Cranenhurg (PI. 3 ; B, 5), now 
completely modernized, the citizens of Bruges, instigated by Ghent, 
kept the German King Maximilian (p. 23), the 4ast of the knights', 
prisoner during four months in the year 1488. The Pope threatened 
them with excommunication, and the Imperial army was directed to 
march against the city, notwithstanding which Maximilian was not 
liberated until he had solemnly sworn to recognize the Council of 
the Regency of the Netherlands Estates and to remove all foreign 
troops from the country. A few weeks later, however, he was released 
from his oath by a congress of princes convened at Malines by his 
father, the Emp. Frederick III., and the Imperial army was ordered 
to continue its march against Ghent (comp. p. 63). 

A few yards to the S. of the Halles, in the narrow Rue des 

Chartreuses (No. 4), is the small Mus^e des Hospices Civils 

(PI. B, 5; Museum der Burgerlyke Oodshuizeny, admission, see 

p. 21 (no catalogue). 

The collection (in two rooms) includes early-Flemish paintings, antique 
furniture, stained glass, painted statuettes, engraved metal caskets^ ?P^5*1^^ 

brother of the Hospice of St. John-, *M.a^otxtx«. \ti ^^XivNftJ^ ^'^^IJ''-i'SSw- 
ihe end of the 13th cent. 5 altar-cross (I5tti cent-^sft^ti^ c«.t^^^«.»»^'s^-»^ 
ed and gUded, of the 16th cent. \ bugla-liOTii 0^\J^ c«iAri. 

Saedjbxes'b Belgium and Holland. UVh "E^^. *^ 

34 Routed. BRUGES. Centre of CUy: 

From the S.E. oorner of the market-place the short Rue Breidel 
leads to the Place du Boubg (PI. 0, 5), the name of which com- 
memorates the castle (Burg) built about 865 by Baldwin Bras-de- 
Fer, which was the earliest seat of the Dukes of Burgundy (p. 36) 
und was taken down in 1434. To the right, in the middle of the 
S.W. side, rises the — 

*H6tel de Ville or Stadhuis (PI. 4 ; 0, 5), an elegant Gothic struc- 
ture, with three turrets in front and three at the back, and lofty 
church-like windows, begun about 1376. The rear portion, towards 
the Reie, was added in 1401-21, and the whole building was restored 
in 1854-71. The 48 niches in the principal facade, between the 
windows, are filled with statues of Counts of Flanders, which replace 
those destroyed by the French sansculottes in 1792. The Counts 
of Flanders, on their accession to the throne, used to show themselves 
to the people from one of the windows or balconies , and swear to 
maintain the privileges and laws of the city (p. 22). 

The Intebior (admission, see p. 21*, concierge to the left, in the office 
of the mayor's secretary) was restored in 18^ in the original style. — Ground 
Floor. In the vestibule is a large picture by Dobbelaere, representing the 
Works of Charity. The council -chambers contain some modem pictures 
and a few objects dating from the ITth cent, (inkstands, the silver chain of 
the burgomaster's hand-bell). — First Floor. The Great Hall (Grande Salle 
des Echevins or Vierschaar; comp. p. 437), which occupies almost the 
entire length of the building, is interesting' on account of its fine Gothic 
roof of pendent wood-work, dating from 14D2-4. It is decorated with fine 
frescoes by A. de VHendt iA. 19C0; p. 166), completed by JuUtu deVriendt, 
These include figures of the Apostles of Flanders and eminent Brugeois 
and the following scenes from the history of Bruges. Entrance-wall : (Con- 
secration of the new Zwyn GanaJ, 1402; Return of the Brugeois from the 
battle of Eortryk, 1302. End-wall to the left : Foundation of the Order of 
the Golden Fleece, 1430 (p. 24); Theodoric of Alsace bringing the Holy 
Blood to the church of St. Basil, 1350 (p. 35). Window-waU: Feeding 
the poor in the Hospital of St. John; Of^cials of Bruges renewing the 
rights of the Hanseatic League, 1307 ; Count Philip of Alsace (d. 1191) grant- 
ing a charter ('Keure') to Bruges; Magistrates visiting Ihe studio of Jan 
van Eyck, 1431; Jan Brito, the printer, a native of Bruges; Count Louis 
van Male laying the foundation stone of the Hotel de Ville, 1376; Jacob 
van Maerlant (p. 40), the father of Flemish poetry. End-wall to the right : 
The Mass of Bruges ('La Foire Franche') ; First procession (*Landjuweer) 
in Bruges. 

Adjoining the Hotel de Ville on the left is the *Mai8on db l'An- 
ciEN Geeffe Flamand (PI. 15 ; C, 5), or old municipal record office, 
a Renaissance edifice built in 1535-37, restored by L, de la Censerie 
in 1881-84, and profusely adorned with gilding and statues (by 
H. Pickery) ; it is now a court of law (Justice de Paix). The carved 
doors of the court-room, executed by Ant. Lamhrouck in 1544, 
were formerly in the cathedral. — The vaulted passage below the 
Ancion Greffe leads to the Blinde Ezel Straat (p. 32). 

In the corner, adjoining the H6tel de Ville on the right, is the 

*Chapelle du Saint-Sang (PI. 2, G 5 ; adm., see p. 21 ; ring at the 

concierge's dwelling in the corner), a small and elegant church of two 

stories, founded by Theodoric of Alsace, Cowiit oi^\wi^«i%, wv^\A% 

ff^e Sibylla of Anjou. It derives Us appeWation Itom ^m«k ^tft^% 

Chap, du 8t. Sang. BRUGES. 4. Boute, 35 

of the blood of the Saviour, brought from the Holy Land In 1149 
by Theodoric (p. 22), and presented to the city. The lower story 
dates from 1150, the upper was rebuilt in the 15th cent. ; the portal 
and staircase, constructed in 1533, in the richest Flamboyant style, 
and seriously damaged by the sansculottes during the Revolution, 

were restored in 1819-39. 

The LowEB Chapel (entrance next the concierge*s door), dedicated to 
8t, Basils consists of nave and aisles, with choir of the same breadth as 
the nave, and rests on low round pillars. It was restored in 1896-97 by 
L. de la Ceruerie. 

The Uppeb Guafel, reached from the Place by the staircase mentioned 
above, has no aisles. The decorations of the chapel are modem. The 
windows, comprising portraits of Burgnndian and Hapsburg princes, were 
executed by /. F. Pluys in 1845-47, mostly from old designs. The large 
W. window, with the history of the Passion and the conveyance of the 
Holy Blood to Bruges, is by Capronnier (1866). The polychrome decoration 
of the cboir was executed in lo56^ the modern altar, in the Gothic style, 
is by Michael Abheloos. The pulpit, consisting of a globe resting on clouds, 
is by H. Pulincx the Elder (1728). 

In the S. wall are three arches opening on a Chapel, with a gallery 
where the Holy Blood is exhibited every Friday from 6 to 11.80 a.m. (grand 
procession on the first Monday after May 2nd). Above the arches, outside, 
De Grayer {^)^ Pieta; inside, Jac. van Oo$t the Elder y Descent from the Cross 
(1649). The marble altar of the chapel, bearing a massive silver crucifix, 
dates from the 18th century. The window with SS. Longinus and Veronica 
is by Jean Bethune. 

A room to the right of the vestibule contains the small Museum of the 
church. On the entrance-wall : a piece of tapestry of 1637, the Transpor- 
tation of the body of St. Augustine to Sardinia ;. two handsome vestments 
of the 16th cent., etc. — On the wall to the left: piece of lace of 1684 
(under glass); the Chasse du St. Sang, silver-gilt reliquarv (4ft. Bin. high, 
2 ft. broad), studded with gems, which was made in 1614-17 by Jan Crabbe 
of Bruges. Adjoining are two pictures by P. Pourbus , with portraits of 
members of the Brotherhood of the Holy Blood (1556), and a winged picture 
in the style of Herri met deBles^ pourtraying the Crucifixion, etc. — Between 
the windows is an old Flemish painting of the 15th cent., representing Count 
Theodoric receiving the *Holy Blood* from Baldwin III. of Flanders, King 
of Jerusalem (?). 

On the wall to the right is the ^Descent from the Cross, a winged 
picture by the ^Matter of the Chappie du Saint-Sang\ wrongly attributed to 
Gerard David. On the wings are Mary Magdalen, witli Cleophas, and Joseph 
of Arimatheea, with an unknown man. In the background is Mt. Calvary. 

In the windows and on the desk-case are fragments of the old stained glass 
of the upper church of 1542, with the designs from which it was executed. 

At the E. angle of the market-place is the unassuming Palais 
de Justice (PI. 0, 5), built in 1722-27, partly on the site of the 
town-hall of the Franc de Bruges (^Het Brugsche Vrye*), or district 
of the ^Buitenpoorter8\ i.e. inhabitants 'outside the gate*, who were 
not subject to the jurisdiction of the city. This building, elected 
about 1434 on the site of the castle (p. 34), was destroyed by Are, ^ 
with the exception of the court-room (see below). ^T 

The CouBT Room iChan^e Echevinale or Viertchaar; custodian in the \) 
quadrangle, V2 f^^O contains a unique and magnificent Renaissance * Chimney- 
Piece^ occupying almost the entire W. side of the room.^ ex<i«.^^teftk^Tk.^S$)fe■^^ 
by Ouyot de Beaugrant^ to commemorate ihe\>tt\.t\ft oiYviV^.^ viASXvSk'^««>'^ 
of CambrAi (p. xxi), by which France waa ob\\«,^&. V> ^^^^^B^A^^JJ^^^^S^ 
dependence of Flanders. The lower part cotia\a\a ot W«*Ot 'o^^'^^O.^^^'^ 
four reliefs in white marble, on tlie frieze, TepTftaexiXVii^ ^^^ ^^a^a^-l 

36 Rrmted. BRUGES. N,W, Quarter: 

Susanna. The upper part, which is of carved oak, was executed from 
designs by the painter Lancelot Blondeel^ and restored in 1850 by the sculptor 
Oeertt. The statues, finely carved and nearly lifesize, represent Charles V. 
(in the centre), as Count of Flanders, wearing the insignia of the Order 
of the Golden Fleece, his paternal ancestors Mary of Burgundy and 
llaximilian of Austria on the left, and his maternal ancestors Ferdinand 
of Aragon and Isabella of Castile on the right of the spectator. The throne 
is embellished with busts of Philip le Bel and Johanna of Castile, the 
parents of Charles^ and on two small medallions are portraits of Lannoy, 
the victor at Pavia, and Margaret of Austria. The medallions held aloft 
by children contidn portraits of Francis I. and his wife, Eleonora, sister of 
Charles V. The whole is decorated with genii, foliage, and the armorial 
bearings of Burgundy and Spain. — Below is an iron brasierof the 16th century. 
The tapestry on the walls was manufactured at Ingelmunster (p. 47) 
in 1859, in imitation of the original, of which portions were found in 
the cellar. Above is a series of full-length portraits of nUers of the 
country. An interesting representation of the room is shewn in a picture 
by 0. van Tilborgh, dating from 1659. The two brass inkstands in this 
room date from 1566 and 1634. 

On the groundfloor of the Palais de Justice are the Provincial 
Archives (open daily, 9-3). 

At the corner of the Rue Breidel, on the W. side of the square, 
is the Pr^vdte (PL C, 5), or Landhuis van den Ptoosache^ built in 
the Renaissance style in 1662 aftei plans by Fr. van HiUewerve, 
This was originally the seat of the Provost of the cathedral, who 
exercised jurisdiction over the adjoining streets and was hereditary 
Chancellor of Flanders from 1089 onwards. — Adjacent to the Place 
du Bourg, on the N., is another Place, planted with horse-chest- 
nuts, which was formerly the site of the church of St, Donation j 
the old cathedral of Bruges, destroyed in 1799, 

c. North -West Quarter of the City. 

In the Rue Fosst^ aux Loups (PL A, 4, 5) or Wulfhaag-Straat, the 
first side-street running to the N. from the Rue Nord du Sahlon (p. 23), 
is the JIuii de Vliitatie (No. 24; to the right), an attractive private 
house in the Renaissance style (16th cent. ; restored in 1897), with 
a relief of the Visitation. 

The Gour du Prince, another side-street farther on, is named from 
the Cour du Prince, once the palace of the Dukes of Burgundy 
(comp. p. 34), the site of which is now occupied by a modem Gothic 
nunnery, the Couvent des Dames du Sacre-Coeur (PL B, 4). In this 
palace the nuptials of Charles the Bold with Margaret of York were 
celebrated in 1408, and here Philippe le Bel, father of Charles V., 
was born (1478) and Mary of Burgundy died (1482). 

From the N.W corner of the Grand' Place (p. 32) the Bue 

St. Jacque.i (PL B, 4) leads to the N.W. to the Parvis St Jacques or 

St. Jacob's Voorplcin. In the Rue des Aiguilles or Naalden-Straat, 

which diverges to the right about halfway to the Parvis, is the H6tel 

Madelin (So. 19), a Gothic building of the 15th cent.^ remodelled 

in 1892. It was the residence of Peter "BUdeWu^'li^^'svwciQl^SfcMAak 

tJie Boldj and is now a lace-making scbLOol ^^E»<io\ei ^^"fi^i^wTy — "^ 

Church of 8t. Jacqtus, BRUGES. 4, Boute. 37 

the next side-street, named the Halle au Beune oi Boterhais, stands 
the circular towei of the Cour de Qhistele (16th cent.), restored in 1884. 

The Church of St. Jacques (PI. B, 4), founded ahout 1240, en- 
larged in the late-Gothic style in 1457-1518, and extensively altered 
in 1692 in the style of that period, was restored by Ch. de Wulf in 
1897 et seq. Sacristan, Rue Val des Roses 5. 

Of the numerous pictures of the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries, ar- 
ranged to some extent in rows as in a picture-gallery, and provided with 
the names of the artists and the dates, we can specify only a few. Most 
of them are by second-rate painters of Bruges. Left Aisle. On the wall : 
School of Bruges (1480), Scenes from the life of St. Lucia (Bruges Belfry in 
the background); Master of the Chctpdle du Saint -Sang (p. 35), Madonna 
and Child in a golden rose, surrounded by Solomon, Prophets, Sibyls, 
St. Joachim, and St. Anna, with the Tiburtine Sibyl ana St. John in 
Patmos on the wings. 1st Chapel : Fine chased copper monumental tablets 
of Spanish families, one of which, with the date 1461, is to the memory 
of Catalina d^Ault^ represented between her brother and her guardian angel ; 
another, dating from 1577, is to the memory of Don Francisco de Lapuehla 
and his wife \ a third, of date 1615, is in memory of Don Pedro de Valencia 
and his wife. The E. end of the left aisle, where formerly hung a 
Presentation in the Temple, by Jac. van Oost the Elder (1655), is at present 
under restoration. — On the High Altar : /. van Bockhorst^ Adoration of 
the Magi. — Bight Aisle : Albert Comelis^ Coronation of the Virgin, the 
only extant work of this master (1520). Farther on, to the right, is a small 
Chapel (restored in 1876), containing the tomb (repainted) oi Ferry de Ores, 
Treasurer of the Order of the Golden Fleece (d. 1544) and his two wives 
(the recumbent figure of the second wife is particularly beautiful); on 
the small altar in this chapel is a fine glazed terracotta of the school of 
Delia Robbia^ representing Mary and the Child encircled with a cbaplet 
of fruits. — Bight Tbamsbpt: Madonna, with the donors, by P. Pourbus^ 
1566. — The pulpit, rood-loft, and choir-stalls were put up in the latter 
part of the 17th century. 

From theParvis StJacques, the Rue desBandets(Ezel-Straat) leads 

to the N.W. to the well-preserved Forte des Baudets or d'Ostende 

(PI. B, 2), near which a new quarter is springing up. 

From the Porte d'Ostende we may follow the Boulevard de la Toison 
d'Or (PI, A, B, 3) to the S.W., cross the railway, and traverse the pretty 
promenades of the Boul. Guido Gazelle (PI. A, 4), to the Porte MarMiale^ 
the W. gate of the town, rebuilt by Jan Slabbaert in 1368 and since then 
repeatedly restored. From the gate the busy Rue des Marechaux (PI. A, 5) 
or Smeden-Straat leads to the E. to (V4 M.) the Main Bail way Station (p. 23). 

d. North-East and East Quarters of the City. 

At the N.E. comer of the Grand' Place (p. 32) begins the Rub 
Flamandb (PI. 0, 4) or Vlaming-Straat , one of the chief thorough- 
fares of Bruges. Near its middle, to the left, at the comer of the 
Rue des Pelletiers (Grauwwerker-Straat), is the ancient Merchant House 
of the Genoese^ a well-preserved Gothic building of 1399, afterwards 
the property of the linen-manufacturers ('Witte Saey Halle'). Over 
the door are St. George and five coats-of-arms. The facade was partly 
modernized in 1720. — Farther on, to the right, is the JesuiW GMtxcK 
(PI. 0, 3), a baroque structure of 161^-41. 

The Rue Fl&mande ends at the Pont ¥\ ox N\^mvD.>gQ.v«^., '^xJ^is. 
rfgit of which is the so called Loge du Bcmrrcan ox Beu\%V><jft^ *'\,r;^^5cti» 
Ootbie oriel of 16i4, restored in ISTT. — The a.^i«.tWDX ^>J^«^ ^^^ kx^^^^- 

38 Bouted. BRUGES. North-East and 

(PI. G, 4) and Bue des Potiers (PI. B, 4) afiford many glimpses of quaint 

The Rue de TAcad^mie, beginning opposite the Genoese Merchant 
House, leads to the small Place Jean van Eyck (PI. 0, 4), Tvhich is 
surrounded by interesting mediaeval buildings, and bounded on 
the E. by a canal. The bronze statue of Jan van Eyckj by Pickery, 
was erected in 1878. On the W. side of the Place is the Poorters 
Loge and on the N. the Municipal Library. 

The Hunicipal Library (PI. 1 ; 0, 4), which is now established 
in the ancient Tonlieu^ or custom-house of 1477 ("restored by 
L. de la Censerie in 1877-81), contains 60,000 toIs., 662 oldMSS. 
(comprising missals of the 13-14th cent.), the first books printed 
by Colard Mansion, the printer of Bruges (1475-84), and a col- 
lection of engravings (adm., see p. 21). 

The Poorters Loge (i.e. Citizens' Lodge; PL G, 4), built about 
the middle of the 14th cent., altered in 1756 and 1818, and restored 
by L. de la Censerie in 1898-1901, was formerly an assembly-hall 
for the townspeople (^poofters' , those who live \yithin the ^poorV 
or gate; comp. p. 35). This building has been prepared for the 
reception of the municipal archives (p. 33). 

A little to the N.E. is the MarchS du Mercredi^ now called 
Placb db Memling (PI. 0, 4), where a Statue of Mending in marble, 
by H. Pickery, was erected in 1871. On the N. side of the place 
is the Couvent des Soeura Noires, founded in 1661 and restored in 
1871, the chapel of which contains a representation of the St. Ursula 
legend (ca. 1480) and other paintings of the Bruges School. — The 
adjoining Place des Orientaux contains a few fragments (by the canal) 
of the house of the Hanseatic League (1478-81). — Crossing the 
canal, we follow the Rue de la Main d'Or to the right and the Rue 
de I'Eglise St. Gilles to the left. This route brings us to the church of — 

St. Gilles (PI. C, D, 3), an early-Gothic edifice with three gables, 
begun in 1240 and enlarged in the 16th century. The interior, 
skilfully restored by A. van Assche in 1872-79, has timber-vaulting 
and modern stained glass ; in the aisles are paintings by Fr. Pourhus 
the EldeVy Ant. Claeissena, J. van Oost the Elder^ the Master of the 
Chapelle du Saint Sang (p. 35), and others. 

We now follow a side-street to the E. to the Quai Long (Lange 

Rei; PI. D, 3), cross the bridge, and follow the Quai de la Potterie 

(PI. D, 3), to the N.E. to the large S^minaire Episcopal (PI. D, E, 3), 

which is housed in the old Abbey of Les Lunes (p. 17), transferred 

to Bruges in 1623. 

The Seminary contains a scries of ^isaille portraits of the Counts of 

Flanders, the Dukes of Burgundy, and the Abbots of Les Dunes (1480), in 

the style of the Master of the St. Ursula Legend (see above) ^ a portrait of 

Abbot B. Norman, by Pieter Claeissens the Elder (1571); and portraits of 

f/y the Bishops of Bruges and Ypres. The relief of the Visitation, in 

J/tho^raphJc stoaCf was executed by Q. ScTitceiyer ol "SuxemYiftt^ (s». 1646) 

A^k '^' -^"^^''» woodcut. The other treasures ol «kT\. \Tx«i\a^^ ^^<i 'tt^^. 

IJMH cent. A jster) and cosily bindings (t&tti cent-V 

East Quarters. BRUGES. 4. RouU, 39 

From the Seminary we go on, past the Plague Hospital (Pesthui- 
zekens), restored by Ch. de Wulf in 1897, to the Hospiee de la Potterie 
(PI. E, 2 ; No. 77), an asylum for old women, established about 1276 
(adm., see p. 21). 

The hospice containa old paintings, particularly a good picture by 
Pieter Claeissens (he Younger^ representing Mary and the Child beside a tree 
('Van't Boomtje'), with God the Father, and the Holy Ghost in the form 
of a dove at the top (1608). Also drawings and miniatures of the Bruges 
School; old Flemish tapestry (15-17th cent.); fine antique furniture, in- 
cluding two chests (Uth and 15th cent.) and a bed of the 17th century. 

The Rue du Persil (PI. E, 3), on the E. side of the hospice, leads 
to the S. to the poor East Quarter of the City, which is largely 
inhabited by lace- makers. At the end of the street we turn to the 
right into the Rue des Garmes, in which. Immediately to the left, 
is the late-Gothic house (1573) of the Arquehusiers of St. Sebastian 
(PI. E, 4; No. 164), a guild founded in the 14th cent., with a slender 
octagonal tower, containing a collection of portraits and a bust of 
Charles II. of England (p. 33), who became a member of the guild 
in 1656 (adm. 25 c). — Close by are the ramparts, on which rises 
a wind-mill, and'fhe Porte Ste, Oroix, or Kruispoort (PI. E, 5), rebuilt 
in 1366. Fine view of the towers of the city from the ramparts. 

Farther on in the Rue des Carmes is the Couvent des Dames 
Anglaises (PI. E, 4 ; No. 85), an English nunnery founded in 1629, with 
which an excellent school is connected. The convent possesses some 
good pictures. The church of the convent, a Renaissance structure 
with a dome, was built by Pulincx in 1738-39, and contains an 
altar, executed at Rome, and composed of rare Persian and Egyptian 
marbles. — To the S.W. of this point, at the end of the Rue de la 
Balle (on the left), is the Eglise de J^rnsalem or Church of the 
Holy Sepulchre (PI. D, 4), a small late-Gothic brick edifice with a 
short nave and a lofty choir, built in 1428 by two brothers named 
Adornes. The tower is surmounted by a curious wooden dome. The 
nave contains a bronze monument to Anselm Adornes (d. 1483) and 
his wife (d. 1463). The stained glass (restored in 1890) dates from 
the 15-1 6th centuries. The key of the church (fee 30-50 c.) is kept 
at the adjoining Couvent des Soeurs Apostolines , who have a lace- 
making school. 

The Church of St. Anne (PI. D, 4), close by, was built about 
1500 and reconstructed in the baroque style in 1607-12. The church, 
which is destitute of aisles, has carved wooden panelling and con- 
fessionals of 1699; pulpit of 1675; rood-loft of 1642; and pictures 
by the elder Van Oost and others. 

On our way back to the centre of the town, we may visit, if time 
allows, the Mus^e de Peinturb Modbrne in the Athenie Royal 
(PI. D, 4; adm., see p. 21), containing works by J. B. Suvie, Th. 
FourmoiSj Jos, Coosemans^ P. J. Clays^ wv^ o\\!ict^% 

40 BouU 6. THOUROUT. 

Damme, a village 3 M. to the N.E. of Bruges, on the cftaal leading to 
Slais (comp. pp. 21, 20; cab and steamboat, see p. 21), was once the port of 
Bruges and fortified, but has been in a state of decadence since the begin- 
ning of the 15th cent, owing to the silting up of the Skopn, an arm of the 
sea which finally dried up in 1872. The picturesque Town Hall^ with its 
interesting portal, was built in 1464-68 and restored in 18%; in front of 
the building is a statue of the Flemish poet Jawh de Coster van Maerlant 
(ca. 1235-91), by H. Pickery (1860). The church of Ifotre Damty founded in 
1180, but never completed, and much altered at later periods (now under 
restoration), and the Hospital of St. John (containing a few paintings) also 
merit inspection. There is a good Estaminet in the town -hall. — From 
Damme, we may proceed on foot or by steamboat to Sluis and return to 
Bruges via Heyst and Blankenberghe ; comp. p. 20. 

Dante (^Inferno xv , 4-6) compares the barrier which sep- 
arates the river of tears from the desert with the embankments 
erected by the Flemings under Count John of Namur (1300 et seq.), 
between Bruges and Wissant (beyond the French frontier), to protect 
the coast against the encroachments of the sea : — 

^ Quale i Fiamminghi tra Quittante e Bruggia^ 
Temendo il fiotio che inver lor <'av«enta, 
Fanno lo schermo, perchk ""l mar si fuggia \ 

5. The Eailways of S.W. Flanders. 

These lines serve so many small stations that the speed of the trains 
is extremely slow. The flat, agricultural district traversed by them presents 
the usual Flemish characteristics. The towns of this part of Flanders are 
now dull and lifeless, but more than one of them hag had a stirring past. 
Every lover of art will find much to interest him in Tpres^ and the rood- 
loft of JHxmude (p. 44), the cloth-hall of Nieuport (p. 45), and various 
edifices of Fumes (p. 45) also deserve a visit. 

1. From Ostbnd to Yprbs, 35 M., railway in I8/4-274 hrs. 
(fares 6 fr. 50, 3 fr. 70, 2 fr. 20 c). — Stations : Snaeskerke, GhistelUs 
(H6tel de I'Europe; frequently visited from Ostend), Moere^ Eerneg' 
hem, Ichteghem, and Wynendaele (see below). 

15 M.Thonront, Flem. Tftorftowi (72 ft.; H6L deFlandre; Vnion)^ 
a town with 8500inhab., derives its name from a grove once con- 
secrated here to the worship of the Germanic god Thor (Thorhout 
= grove of Thor). It contains a seminary for teachers, and a 
handsome church with double aisles. — Thourout is the junction of 
the line fiom Bruges to Courtrai (p. 47). 

About iVs M. to the W. is the castle of Wynendaele , a good example 
of a medieeval fortification, once the property of the Counts of Flanders, 
now belonging to M. Mathieu of Brussels, and recently well restored. 

191/2 M. Coriemarck, the junction for the Ghent and Dunkirk 

line (p. 44). — Then St. Joseph, Staden, Wesiroosebeke, Poelcapetle, 

Langemarck, Boesinghe. Fertile district. 

35 M. Tpres. — Hotels. *H6tkl dk la Chatellenie (PI. a; C, 3), 
R. 2-21/2, B. 1, D. 2, S. IV2 fr. 5 H3t. de L'ErfeE Botale (PI. b; C, 3), R. 2, 

aJJ three in the Rue de Ja Station (PI. A, B, 4), and un^T«texi^m%, — Caji 
OBf A^uZ/a/g, Aia: Trois Suittet^ both in the Grand' "Place VB»^\M\wi. "\>etT^. 

YPEREN \\^ aK f ^--f 

•'v3'?4]if Ji- v^ "^t.. <■ 

YPKES. 6. RouU, 41 

YpfeSy Flem. Yperen or leperen (66 ft.), an old town with remains 
of ancient foitiflcations, on the YperUe, situated in a fertile district, 
contains 16,900 inhab., who are chiefly occupied in the manufacture 
of linen and lace, and possesses broad and clean streets. It was 
formerly the capital of West Flanders. Its cloth-making dates back 
to 1073, and about 1247 Ypres is said to have been the wealthiest 
and most powerful commercial town in Flanders, with a population 
of 200,000 and upwards of 4000 looms in constant activity. A 
succession of popular risings, the great plague (p. 340), and the siege 
of the town and burning of the suburbs by the burghers of Ghent 
In 1383, which caused many of the weavers to migrate, annihilated 
its flourishing woollen Industry. The devastations of the iconoclasts 
(1666) and the soldiers of Alva, and the capture of the city by the 
Gueux (1578) and Alexander Farnese (1584) reduced the population 
to 5000. During the 17th cent. Ypres was four times taken by the 
French (1648, 1649, 1658, 1678) and it belonged to France until 
1715. The bishopric founded in 1559 was suppressed in 1801. Ypres 
thus possesses now but a shadow of its former greatness, but it still 
contains many memorials of its golden period, which make it one 
of the most interesting towns in Belgium. Ypres is the seat of the 
Belgian Ecole (fEquitation (PI. B, 4, 5), or army riding-school. — 
Diaper (i. e. d'Ypres) linen takes its name from this town. 

From the railway-station (PI. A, 4) we first follow the Rue do la 
Station (Statie-Straat) to the N.E. and then turn to the left into the Rue 
du Temple, near which, beyond the Church of St. Nicholas (PI. B, 3), 
is an old brick tower, the only relic of the Ahhey of Therouanne, 
which was transferred to Ypres in 1659. — The Rue au Beurre 
(Boter-Straat),with its picturesque gabled houses (Nos.58, 54, 22, & 20), 
leads to the N.E. to the Marche'-bas (Neermarkt; p. 43) and the Grand' 
Place or Gboote Markt (PI. G, 3). Here, to the left, stand the so- 
called — 

*Halles (PL B, 0, 3), the most considerable edifice of its kind 
in Belgium , begun by Count Baldwin IX. of Flanders (p. 210) in 
1200, completed in 1304, and restored in 1843-62. The three early- 
Goihic facades of the Halle des Drapiers or Cloth Hall proper have 
three stories each and are flanked by corner-turrets. The statues in 
the niches of the top-story (Counts of Flanders on the S. and W., 
celebrated natives of Ypres on the N.) were destroyed by the French 
in 1793 but replaced by new ones in 1854-75. 

On the S. side, in the centre of the main facade (435ft. in length), 
rises the massive, square Belfry (230 ft.), with turrets at the angles. 

The E. side of the Halles is bounded by the so-called Nieuwerk, 
a charming Renaissance stracture erected in 1620-24, probably from 
designs by Jan Sporeman (1575); its groundflooi ^Q>Ti^\sX.^ ^"^ «s^ 
elegant open hall (20 ft. wide), boldly STiip^oitfe^'Vi^ wi\\\xQxv^* 

Tie nnpretentiovs structure between i\ie"5^\^^v^«^ ^^^'^.^^ 
end of the Clotb H&ll is the Stedehuis or Tovn Hall (Ht>leX de NxW 

42 Route 5. YPRES. -fife. Martin's. 

dating originally from tlie 14tli cent, but altered more than once 
after the fire of 1498. Of the two old Gothic gables of wood in the 
court, that^to'the left belongs to the Salle Echevinale. 

The entrance to the Halles is in the town-hall, opposite St. Martin's 
Church (open 9-12 & 2-4*, porter on first floor 5 Va"")' The former Salk 
Echevinale, in the middle of the Nieuwerk, has been restored in the modem 
Gothic style. It is adorned with frescoes by Ouffens and Steerts^ painted in 
1869 (Festal Entry of Philip the Bold of Burgundy and his wife, the last 
Countess of Flanders, in 1384, and other scenes fiom the town's history), 
and contains a fine modern chimney-piece by Malfait, and some old wall- 
paintings (restored) of the Counts of Flanders (1322-1468) and SS. Mark 
and John. All these are best seen by afternoon-light. The wooden ceiling 
should be noticed. — The upper floor of the Cloth Hall consists of three 
huge galleries with timber ceilings. The E. half of the S. wing, which 
is divided into two parts by the belfry, is embellished with twelve mural 
paintings by Ferd. Fauwels (1872-81), representing the chief events in the 
history of Ypres. The series begins with the foundation of the Hospital 
of the Virgin in 1187 and ends with the siege of 1383 (p. 41). One of the 
most powerful scenes depicts the ravages of the plague in 1347. The 
embellishment of the W. half, with allegorical paintings representing the 
manufacture of cloth, by Delbeke (d. 1891), has not been finished. The W. 
wing contains the wooden facade of a (lothic house (15th cent.). 

The extensive Municipal Archives are accessible on Hon. & Tues., 9-12 & 3-4. 

Between the Cloth Hall and St. Martin's church, which lies 
behind it, Is a statue of the Belgian statesman Vandenpeerehoom, 
erected in 1892. 

The *CHURcn op St. Martin (PI. B, C, 3), formerly the cathedral 
of the diocese (p. 41), was built in the 13th cent, on the site of an 
earlier edifice founded in 1073; the choir, in the Transition style, 
dates from 1221, the early-Gothic nave and aisles from 1254. The 
unfinished tower, 190ft. high, was added after 1433 by Martin 
Vutenhove of Malines. The plain chapel on the S. side was an ad- 
dition of 1622. The S. transept, the lower part of which was unskil- 
fully restored about 1860, lias a magnificent rose- window, a hand- 
some gable, and an elaborately carved late- Gothic portal. Between 
the pillars of the W. porch is a triumphal arch, constructed In 1600 
by Vrbain Taillebert of Ypres. 

The Interior, a basilica with slender round pillars and a triforium, is 
318 ft. long and 168 ft. wide. — At the beginning of the N. aisle is a brazen 
font in the Renaissance style (16th cent.). — The S. aisle is separated from 
the old parish chapel and the chapel of St. Anna by a tasteful brazen screen 
(1622), with alabaster statuettes of saints. The first-named chapel contains 
a picture by Jan Thomas (''van Yperen''), a pupil of Rubens, representing an 
ecclesiastic kneeling before the Virgin (16i5), and another, by F. P. Hals 
of Ghent, representing the raisinjij of the sie;je of 1649 through the inters 
position of the patron -saint of Ypres. Opposite the St. Anna Chapel is 
the pulpit, carved in an exuberant baro;iue style. 

The beautiful *Choir, which has neither ambulatory nor chapels, con- 
tains some fine late -Renaissance choir-stalls, carved by Urbam Taillebert 
in 1593. Over the baro(iue high -altar is an Assumption ascribed to Luca 
Giordano. To the left is the late-Gothic monument of Louise de Laye, 
widow of Hugonet, Chancellor of Burgundy (p. 64). The tomb of Bishop 
^z?/. do Bennin h by Taillebert (1622). A small flat atone in front of the 
aJtar of St. Martin marks the grave of Jansenim (,d. i^'S&\ ^evdio^ qI^^t^^ 
founder (f the sect named after him (see p. 4*25^ — '^^ ^^^ ^«^w\*V! ^^^ 
^ome fine old eccJesiaatical vessels. 

Meat Market. YPRES. 5. noult. 43 

The Tower (343 steps), which is always open, commands an ex- 
tensive view. Part of the late-Gotfiic Cloisters (not accessible) is 
seen fiom above. 

To the E. of St. Martin's Cloisters, opposite the Nieuwerk (p. 41), 
is the Conciergerie (PI. C, 3), a late-Renaissance edifice of 1633. To 
the left of it are two Qdbled Houses^ in the Renaissance style. 

The adjacent North Quarter of the town contains a number of 
interesting old houses. Among these may be mentioned Nos. 2, 13, 
& 31 in the Rue d'Elverdinghe (PI. B, A, 3); No. 2, Rue de Boe- 
singhe; three Quild Houses (Nos. 15, 19, 21) in the Marche au B^tail 
(PL B, 4), including that of the Seamen (No. 15; 1629); and Nos. 
15 & 49 in the Nouveau March^ au Bois (PI. B, C, 2). — The *Maison 
Biebuyck (PI. 0, 2), Rue de Dixmude 54, dating from 1544, is one 
of the most beautiful Gothic houses in Belgium. Nos. 66 & 81 in 
the same street have baroque facades of the 17th century. 

In the Nouveau Chemin St. Martin lies the old Beyuinage (PI. B, 
0, 2 ; comp. p. 71), now occupied by gendarmes. 

In the March^-bas or Neermarkt, nearly opposite the Cloth Hall 
on the S. W., is the *Mbat Market {Bouchene; PI. B, C, 3), a double- 
gabled Gothic house, the lower stories of which, in hewn stone, date 
from the 13th century. On the first floor is the Municipal Museum 
(open free on Sun., 11-1 & 2-4; at other times 50 c. ,• no catologue). 

Entrance at the back (concierge at No. 24). 

Oa or near the walls of the Staibcase are a waggon from Goes in 
Zeeland (iSth cent.), the original woodcut of an old plan of Ypres (i6th cent.)t 
and other objects of interest. — Room I. Natural history and ethnological 
collections; porcelain, fayence, chests, cabinets, beam-ends, and other articles 
in carved wood. Among the pictures is the Prodigal Son, oy Jan Thomas. — 
Boom II. Fine chimney-piece with a view of the Grand' Place of Ypres, old 
views of the city, the archive-chest of the Clothmakers (from the Belfry), 
c ins and medals. In the centre, drawings of the facades of old Ypres houses, 
by Aug. Bifhm (1848). Paintings : 63. Jan Thomas^ Penitents ; Bubens^ 42. 
Miracles of St. Benedict (sketch*, original in possession of the King of the 
Belgians), 43. Landscape; 9. Fietet' Brueghel the Younger {?)■, Flemish fair; 
opposite, 58. Pieter Steenwyk^ The painter in his studio ; 40. Is. van Ostadei^^ 
Pig-killing. — An adjacent room contains old leathern hangings and wood- 

Opposite the Cloth Hall is the wide Rue de Lille, or Ryssel- 

Straat, leading to the S.W. At No. 38 in this street (on the right) 

is the Belle-Gasthuis or Hospice Belle (PI. 0, 4 ; small fee), an 

asylum for old women, founded about 1279 by Christine de Guines, 

widow of Salomon Belle, and rebuilt in 1616. The chapel contains 

a noteworthy votive painting (Madonna and Child with the donors, 

on a gold ground) and a polychrome votive relief, both dating from 

1420. In the ante-chapel are old gravestones (15-16th cent.). 

The H6tel Meeghelynck (PI. C, 4), at the corner of the Rue 

de Lille and the March^ aux Vieux Habits, W\\V. Vo. V"l'\V-T\ ,\^^^ 

been fitted up since 1892 as a museum oi tVft V^\Xsl Qfew\...,^V^^^- 

tiqae furniture, china, drawings, and engia^m^^ ^^^.^m* '^^^*^.^"i^>^ 

andSto 6, d, or 4 p.m., according to the Beaao\\\tee VU.\ ^^'^^ *' x*^ **' 

44 Routes. THIELT. FromOhent 

The Steenen, Rue de Lille 66-68 , a Gothic edifice of the 14th 
cent., was turned into the Post Office (PI. 0,4) in 1902 and enlarged 
by an addition in the same style. — Farther on, to the left, is the 
church of St. Peter (PI. D, 5), begun in 1073 ; the W. portal is Ro- 
manesque; the rest has been modernized. — The Hospice 8t, Jean 
(PI. 0, D, 6), founded in 1277, contains a charming room (*Ouvroir 
des SoBurs') in the Renaissance style (1655). — The timber facade 
of No. 198 Rue de Lille, close to the Porte de Lille (PI. D, 6), is also 
worth seeing. 

From this gate, which dates, with its three towers, from 1395, 
we may wander through the pretty promenades laid out on the site 
of the Anciens Remparts (old ramparts). The name of the Zaalhof 

(PI. C, 5) commemorates an old castle of the Counts of Flanders. 

From Ypres to Routers, see p. 47. — Steam Tramway to (20 M.) Fumu^ 
see p. 46. — Another steam-tramway runs to (5V2 M.) Kemmel (Hot. Le- 
grand), whence one branch of it goes on to (13 M.) Warneton (Waasten), 
the other to (9 M.) Neuve Egliie (Nieuwkerke). The belvedere on the Men' 
tagne de Kemmel (512 ft.) commands an extensive panorama (adm. 10 c.)* 

From Yprks to Poperinghe and Hazebbougk, 19 M., railway in 1 hr. 
The chief intermediate station is (6 M.) Poperinghe, a town with 11,200 
inhab., which possesses a church (St. Bertin^'s) of about 13(X), with an 
interesting W. portal and a carved oaken pulpit. Hops are extensively 
grown in the vicinity. — Beyond (10 M.) AheeU the line crosses the French 
frontier, passes Oodewaersvelde and Caestre^ and joins the Lille and Calais 
railway at (19 M.) Hazebrouck (p. 3). 

Beyond Ypres the line is continued to Comines (p. 49), Armen^ 
tilreSj and Lille (p. 3). 

2. From Ghent to Nibupobt (bA^/2 M., In 2-3^4 hrs. ; fares 
8 fr. 80, 5 fr. 60, 3 fr. 30 c.) and to Dunkibk (67 M., in 31/2- 
43/4 hrs. ; fares 10 fr. 60, 7 fr. 90, 5 fr. 25 c). 

Ghent, see p. 49. — Thence to (11 M.) Deynze. junction for 
Courtrai and Lille, see p. 73. — I31/2M. Orammene; 16M. Aeraeele, 

2OV2M. Thielt(145ft.; Hdi.dc^aPiwmc), an old town with 10,300 
inhab., once a busy cloth-making place, as its Cloth Hall andBelfry 
indicate. Branch-line hence to (7 M.) Ingelmunster, see p. 47; 
steam-tramways to Eecloo (p. 73) via Aeltre (p. 2), and to Hooglede 
(p. 47) via Swevezeele (p. 21), Ardoye (see below), and Routers 
(p. 47). 

2372 M. Pitthem ; 26 M. Ardoye- Coolscamp. 

31 M. Lichtervelde (see p. 47). — 35 M. Cortemarck, the junc- 
tion of the Ostend and Ypres line (see p. 40). 

42 M. Dixmude, Flem. : Diksmuide (25 ft. ; H6t. de Dixmude'), is a 

small town on the Yser, The parish-church of St. Nicholas contains 

a fine *Rood Loft, in the richest Flamboyant style, ascribed to Ur- 

2?sn TaWehert (p, 42), an Adoration of the Magi by Jordaens (1644), 

s marble font with a bronze cover of i6*i&, atn^ oWi^i ^oiks of art. 

^^Iry-farming 18 practised with great succeaa \tv t^i\% tv«v^\w$\«V^q^^ 

^^Jd a brisk trade in batter is carried on yritli ^iift\^Tv^- 

to Dunkirk. NIEUPORT. 5. Route. 45 

The Nieuport line here diverges to the N. W. from the main line to 
Dankirk (see below). — 44 M. Caeskerkcf 47 M. Pervyse; 50 M. 

62V2M. Nieuport'VilU, station for the town of Nieuport (20 ft. ; 
H6t. dt VEspSrancCj Rue Longue ; H6t. du Pilican, In the market- 
place ; H6t. du Boulevardj at the station, all unpretending), a small 
and quiet place on the Yaer^ with 3600 inhabitants. In the 9th cent, 
a castle stood here , erected by the Flemish counts for protection 
against the Normans. In 1160 the people of Lombartzyde (p. 16) 
removed to this spot, which then changed its name from Santhoven 
to Neoportus. Nieuport is noted for its obstinate resistance to the 
French in 1489 and for the *Battle of the Dunes' in July, 1600, in 
which the Dutch under Maurice of Orange defeated the Spaniards 
under the Archduke Albert. The strong fortifications were razed in 
1860. Besides several quaint private houses the most interesting 
buildings are the Cloth Hall of 1480, with a lately restored Belfry^ 
the massive baroque Btll Tower ^ near the market-place, and the 
Gothic Church (restored in 1903), containing a rood-loft, tasteful 
choir-stalls, a tabernacle of the 16th cent., a sculptured altar in the 
baroque style of 1630, and several old tombstones. The Town Hall 
contains a small collection of paintings. The Donjon is the only relic 
of the Templars* castle since the destruction of the town by the in- 
habitants of Ghent and the English in 1383. — Outside the town, 
on the side next the sea, is a Lighthouse built in 1284. The locks 
on the canals to Ostend and Fumes, which enter the Yser here, are 
not uninteresting. 

Steam-tramway to Niettport-Bains, Ostend, and Fumes, see p. 15. 

64 V2 M. Nieuport^Bains, see p. 16. Most of the hotels are within 
a few hundred yards of the station. 

The Railway to Dunkirk continues to run to the W. beyond 
Dixmude. 48 M. Oostkerke ; 49 M. Avecapelle, 

52M.7nr]ie8) Flemish Veume(20tt ; H6tel Royal, in the market- 
place, R. 2-2V2, B. 8/4, D. IV2-2V2. pens. 5-6 fr. ; H6t, de la Noble 
Rose, near the market-place, R.2, B.l, D.2Y.2,pen8. 6 fr.; France, 
at the station ; Cafi du Sport, in the market-place) , now a dull 
town with 6000 iuhab., was formerly of much greater importance. 
Many strangers are attracted to Furnes by the great procession which 
has taken place here annually since the 12th cent, on the last Sun- 
day in July. The Story of the Passion is dramatically represented 
in Flemish on this occasion by groups in costume from among the 
members of the Confririe dt la Sodaliti (begins at 3.30 T^.m..^ %^"^ 
in the Hotel de Ville 1 fr.). 

The Hdtel de Ville, in the quaint oU •QtTWv^' ^\^^^., ^ ^^x^sCve^- 
sanee structure o/i596-1612 by Lieveii Tuxi^a-i^, ^oTv\.va\» ^^^^vl^^^, 
eating walUhAngings of Spanish leatkex, a. c\Aimi«1-Y^^^^ ^^^^ 

46 Routed, DUNKIRK. 

presentations of still-life by Snyders(?), old Flemish tapestry, and 
two carved doors (1623). — Adjacent Is the old ChdteUeniey now 
the Palais de Justice, built by Sylvanns Boulin in 1612-1628. The 
antechamber on the first floor was the former meeting-place of the 
Inquisition ; the main hall contains a painting by Alb. de Yriendt 
(p. 166], representing Philippe le Bel swearing to observe the rights 
of Fumes (1500) ; the adjoining chapel has a timber roof and good 
wood-carvings in the choir (key in the tavern to the left ; fee ^2 ^'O* 
— On the E. side of the Grand' Place are the old Meat Market, a 
Benaissance structure of 1616 (now a theatre], and the Gothic so- 
called Pavilion des Officiers Espagnols (13-14th cent.), the earliest 
town-hall, restored in 1890-95 for the reception of the municipal 
archives and library. The so-called Corps de Oarde (now the police- 
office), on the S. side of the market-place, is a Renaissance building 
of 1636. 

Behind the Ohatellenie rises the massive Belfry, with a spire 
of 1624. The adjoining Church of 8t, Walburga is said to have 
been originally founded by Baldwin of the Iron Arm (p. 22) ; the 
present building was designed at the beginning of the 14th cent, 
on so extensive a scale that only the choir, with its radiating 
chapels, has been completed. It contains finely carved choir-stalls 
(beginning of 17th cent.) and a reliquary of the 15th cent, (in the 

The Hdtel de la Noble Rose (p. 45) is a Renaissance edifice of 
1572. — The interior of the Church of 8L Nicholas, near the S.E. 
comer of the market-place, a Gothic structure of the 14th cent., with 
a huge unfinished tower, was thoroughly modernized in 1890-97. 

Steam-tramway to Ostend, see p. 15. — Another steam-tramway runs 
■". 1 '. '")i passing (31/ "; 

of Beauvoorde^ built in 1596-1617f and restored since 1875 by M. Merghelynck, 

to (i9V2 M.) Ypre* fp. 40), passing (31/2 M.) Wulveringhem, with the ch&teau 

and (iO'/2 M.) Oostvleteren, with an old screen in the parish -church, brought 
from St. Martin's at Ypres. Near Oostvleteren is the castle of yevde (i6th cent.). 

The next station, Adinkerke- La- Panne, is the last in Belgium. 
La Panne (p. 17) lies I72 M. to the N.W. (tramway, see p. 16). — 
Ohyvelde is the first French statioQ. Then, Zuydcote, Rosendael. 

67 M. Dunkirk, French Dunkerque (Chapeau Rouge, Rue St. 
S^astien, R. from 4, B. 11/4, dtfj. 3, D. 31/21 omn. 1 fr.; Hdtel 
de Flandre), a strongly- fortified town with 38,900 inhab., in the 
D^partement du Nord, is now a busy commercial place and fishing- 
station. A small English colony resides here (English church). 
Among the objects of interest are the Gothic Church of St. Eloi 
(fine stained glass), the Belfry (295 ft.), with chimes, the Town 
Hall (1896-1901), and the statue, by David d'Angers, of Jean Bart 
(1651-1702), the famous sailor and privateer of Dunkirk. A tramway 
^/5 cj runs to the N.E. to Malo-les- Bains , a sea-bathing resort. 
dfiap, BaedeAer's Northern France. 

OUDENAARDE. 6. Boutr. 47 

3. Fbom Bhugbs to Ooubtbai, 33 M., railway in IVi-l^* ^'* 
(fares 4 fr. 5, 3 fr. 6, 2 fr. 5 c). Carriages are changed at Roulers. 

BrugeSj see p. 20. — 11 M. Thonroat, see p. 40. — 14 M. Lichter' 
veldCy see p. 44. Then Oita and Beveren. 

19 M. BonlerSy Flem. Roeselaere (90 ft. ; Due de Brabant), a town 
with 23,100 inhab., high above which rises the handsome Gothic 
tower of the church of St. Michael. Roulers carries on a busy trade 
in linen goods. Here, on 13th June, 1794, a fierce conflict took place 
between the Austrians under Clerfait, and the French under Piohe- 
gru and Macdonald, in which the latter were victorious. This defeat 
was the prelude to that of Fleurus (p. 238), thirteen days later. 

Bbanch Link to Ypkes^ 14 M., in V*-*/* hr. (fares 1 fr.75, 1 fr. 35, 90 c.). 
Stations Moorslede-Passchendaele^ Zonnebekej Ypres (p. 40). — Fsom Rodlebs 
TO Mknin, 11 M., branch -railway in 22-27 min. (fares 1 fr. 76 c., 1 fr. 15, 
70 c). Stations Beythem^ Ledtghrnn-Dadizeele^ Mtnin (p. 49). — To HoogUde 
and to Thielt^ see p. 44. 

21 M. Rumhtke possesses a fine Gothic church and a chflteau 
of Count Limburg-Stirum. — 23 V2 M. Jseghem, with 9000 inhab., 
contains numerous linen-factories. Tobacco is extensively cultivated 
in the environs. Between Iseghem and (26 M.) Ingelmunstery a 
small town with noted carpet - manufactories , is the handsome 
chateau of Baron Gilles. From Ingelmunster branch-lines diverge 
to Thielt (p. 44) and to Waereghem (see p. 73). — 28 M. Ltndt- 
Itde ; 30 M. HeuUy with a clumsy Gothic church. Near Courtrai the 
train crosses the Lys or Leie. 

33 M. Courtrai, see p. 73. 

6. From Brussels to Conrtrai and Tpres. 

Railway from Brussels to Courtrai, 56 M., in IVa-S hrs. (fares 8 fr. 30, 
5 fr. 60, 3 fr. 30 c.)? from Courtrai to Tpres, 21 M., in 1 hr. (fares 2 fr. 60, 
1 fr. 95, 1 fr. 90 c). — Departure in Brussels from the Station du Nord 
(p." 83). 

From Brussels to (15 M.) Denderleeuw , see p. 2. The line 
to Ghent and Ostend (R. la) here diverges to the N.W., and that 
to Grammont and Ath (p. 6) to the S.W. Our line enters E. Flan- 
ders, and passes Haeltert, Burst (branch to Alost), &nd. Herzele. 

— 27 M. Sotteghem, a small town of 2900 inhab., with several boot 
and shoe manufactories , is the junction of the Ghent and Gram- 
mont line (R. 19) and of a line to Renaix (p. 73). The church 
contains the tombs of Count Egmont (p. 100), his wife, and his sons. 

— Three small stations. 

38 M. Oudenaarde, Fr. Audenardt (45 ft ; H6i. du Saumon, H6t. 
de la Pomme d^Or, both in the market-place and well spoken, of x 
ViUe de Oand, H6t, de Bruxelles, with caf^-Xft&l»MTWi\.,^iOC^^^«-'^^ 
station), a very ancient town with 6500 m\i50o., oiv^^ t^^x^x.'^k^ ^^ 
its tapestries, possesses manufactoiies ot Muft^ wv^ toXXora^^^^ ^^ 
It was the birthplace of Margaret of PaTma QaA^aT^, x^%«^^* ^^ 


Netherlands under Philip IT., a natural daughter of Emp. Charles V. 
and Johanna van der Gheenst. Under the walls of the town, on 
11th July, 1708, the Allies commanded by Marlborough and Prince 
Eugene of Savoy gained a decisiye victory over the French. — An 
hour is sufficient for a visit to the beautiful H6tel de Ville , or 

The street to the right, nearly opposite the station, leads in 
10 min. to the centre of the town. At the entrance to the town 
stands a Monument to volunteers from Oudenaarde who perished in 
Mexico while serving under Emp. Maximilian, by Oeefs (1867). 

We next reach the Grand' Place, in which is situated the •♦Town 
Hall, a small, but very elegant building, efected in the late-Gothic 
style by H. van Peede and W. de Ronde in 1525-29 and showing 
traces of the influence of the Hdtel de Ville at Brussels (p. 120). It 
has recently been restored without and within. The groundfloor 
consists of a pointed hall borne by columns, and above it are two 
stories with pointed windows. The tower which rises from the 
pointed hall in the centre of the facade is particularly rich. It con- 
sists of five stories, and is covered with a crown-shaped roof. The 
numerous statuettes with which the building was once embellished 
have all disappeared. We ascend the flight of steps, leading to the 
Salle des Pas Perdus^ which contains a late-Gothic chimney-piece 
by Peter van Schelden. An attendant (50 c.) opens the council- 
chamber. The portal of this room, a masterpiece of wood-carving, 
was executed by Paul van Schelden in the Renaissance style in 
1531; the handsome late -Gothic chimney-piece is by the same 
master (1529). — The Van der Straeten Library and Collection of 
Coins have belonged to the town since 1896. 

Behind the Town Hall is the old Cloth Hall. 

In the S.E. corner of the Place, to the right as we quit the 
Town Hall, is the Church of St. Walburga (recently restored), partly 
in the Romanesque style of the 12th cent., and partly in the Gothic 
style of the 14th and 15th, with a very prominent transept. The 
massive and well-proportioned square tower has unfortunately been 
left unfinished. The interior contains paintings by De Crayer and 
others, the tomb of Claude Talon, and a rich polychrome reredos of 
the late Renaissance (first chapel on the N. side). 

The church of Notre Dame de Pamele^ 6-8 min. farther to the S., 
on the other bank of the Scheldt, an interesting example of the 
transition style of the 13th cent., with later additions and an oct- 
agonal tower above the cross, has been successfully restored. It 
contains two sarcophagus-monuments of 1504 and 1616. 

From Oudknaarde to Detnze, 11 M., steam-tramway in about IV4 hr. 

fi fr. 80 or 90 c). Stations : Bevere^ Oyek, Wanneghem-Lede^ Cruyshtxutem^ 

jPe/efAem (p. 49). — From Oddbnaardb to Uogsceok^ 23'/t M., railway in 

iys-l3/4 hr. (3fr. 70, 2 fr. 50, 1 fr. 45 c). SUtioua: iilS.. Atirtgliem V^.U\s 

*^ ^. ^erseaux (p. 76)-, 23Va M. Mouseron (p. UV 

/'rom Oudenaarde to Ohent or ifona, see p. 1^. 

Hotds. GHENT. 7. Route. 49 

The next stations are Peteghem^let-Audenarde and Anaeghenij the 
first place in West Flanders (a branch-line to Waereghem and Ingel- 
munster, p. 47). Then VichUy Deerlyck^ and Staceghem. 

56 M. Conrtrai, see p. 73. 

58Y2M. Wevelghem, — QV/2M, Menin (Flem. Meenen) a town 
on the Lei or Lys, with 11,700 inhab., once fortified, where the 
Prnssian General Scharnhorst (d. 1813) first distingnished himself 
against the French, in 1794. Branch -line hence to Roulers, see 
p. 47; another rnns to the S. to Roubaix in France. — From this point 
the right bank of the Lys belongs to France. — 65 M. Wervicq 
(55 ft.; Lion Blanc), with 8000 inhab., possesses a nnmber of 
tobacco-mannfactories. The Church ofSt. Medardua, founded in 1214, 
rebuilt in 1383-1430, and recently thoroughly restored, is a tasteful 
specimen of late-Gothic. Fine carved confessionals in the interior. — 
67 M. Cominea (Flem. Komen) formerly a fortified town, was the 
birthplace of the historian Philip of Oomines (1445-1509). Branch- 
lines hence to Lille and to Armentihres in France, see p. 3. 

76 M. YpreSy see p. 40. 

7. Ghent, French Gand, 

Bailway Stations: 1. Oare du Sud (PI. D, 5, 6 ; restaurant), the principal 
station, for the trains of the government-lines to Brussels, Antwerp (vi& 
Termonde), Ostend, Temeuzen, Oudenaarde, Malines, Louvain, Liege, 
Bruges, Gourtrai (for Paris vi& Lille), Dixmude (Nieuport, Dunkirk), and 
Braine-le-Comte. The mail-trains between Ostend and Brussels do not 
enter this station ; passengers for Ghent change at No. 2. — 2. Oare d€ 
Si. Pterre (PI. B, 7), a secondary station for the govemment-linest serving 
the 8. part of the town (comp. pp. 1, 2). — 3. Station du Pay» de Waes 
(PI. E, 3, 4), for the trains through the Waesland to Antwerp (R. 10 b). — 
i. Station d'Eecloo (PI. E, 3 ; restaurant), for the trains to Temeuzen (p. 72) 
and Bruges vi& Eecloo (pp. 72, 73). The last two, opposite each other, are on 
the E. side of the town, 1 M. from the Gare du Sud. — 5. Station du Robot 
(PI. 6, 2, 3), a station on the Ghemin de Fer de Geinture, a loop-line 
beginning at the Gare du Sud. — Stations of the steam-tramways, see p. 73. 

Hotels (none quite first -class; comp. p. zii). In the Town: Hotkl 
DB LA Posts (PI. c; C, 5), Place d'Armes, R. from 4Vi, B. IV^i dej. 3, 
D. 4, pens. 10-12 fr., good French wines; Royal (PI. b; C, 5), Place 
d'Armes, also a hdtel garni, R. from 4, B. H/s, d^j. 2V2, I>. SVa ^S Hotel 
DE l'Etoilb (PI. d; G, 4), Rue de TEtoile 28, near the Marche auz Grains, 
R. from 3, B. 1, d^j. 2, D. 3 fr., frequented by Fnglish tourists; Gomtb 
d'Eomont (PI. e; G, 4), Rue de la Catalogue 17, very fair. — Near the 
Oare du Sud: Gambbinus, Rue de Flandre 73, R. 2V»-3, B. 1 fr. ; Tivoli, Rue 
deFlandre69. R. 2-3, B. 1, D. 17a-2 fr., plain; H6tel db la Paix (PI. h; 
D, 5), Place de la Station 38, at the comer of the Rue de Flandre, with 
restaurant \ Hot. db Loxdbbs (PI. i ; D, 5), Place de la Station 6. — Near 
the E, Stations : HdTRL-RBSTAnRANT L^.opold Deux, unpretending. — Pension : 
Mile. Magnier, Rue Guinard 15 (PI. C, 6), pens. 5-6 fr. 

Restaurants. *Mottez, Avenue Place d''Armes 3 (PI. C, 5); Bouard^ Rue 
<3onrte de la Croix 3, near the Rue de la Oroix fPl. G, D, 4), with rooms; 
^QamhrimUf Fee above, D. 2-3 fr. ; Rocher de Caneale (also rooms ; D. 2-3 ft A^ 
Tetverne St. Jean, these two in the Karch^ aux 0\.%ekwa.'K.\ 'A-Mac Arm^ a* 
Z(^/afKf« (also rooms), March^ aux Grains 86(P\.C.^V^^ Au Pa.'8»af(w^^-^>fe"* 
Vanniers (PL C, 4), D. from IV* fr., unpTfetetiAVTi%. — "a^^tst; ^Q^'^^'^C^ 
00e above; Tivoli (see p. 49), BUrgerbr&u^ Cc^fi Tenier* V^xi^^^'o^ ^^^^^ *-^ 

Babdbkkr'9 Belgium and Holland. 14t\\ "RdW.. ^ 

50 BouU 7. GHENT. EUcMe Tramways. 

the Rue de Flandre (Nos. 69, 79, !)•, Troit SuUtes^ March^ aux Qrains (bed- 
rooms). — Wine. Central TUnda, Bne de Flandre 41} OontUteiUai Bodega^ 
Bue GoTirte du Jonr 1. 

Oafifl. Cafi-Re*taurant des Arcades, on the E. side of the Place d^Armes 
(PI. 0, 5); Vanaise (confectioner) Harch^ aux Oiseaux 11 (PI. C, D, 6). 

Gabfl, one-horse, the Hrst 1/2 ur. 1 fr., each following 1/4 hr. oO e.: two- 
horse, IVa fr. and 75 c. \ at night (11.30-6 o'cl.) 1 fr. more. Trunk 20 c. — 
In cases of complaint, the driver is bound to take his fare to the nearest 
police-station without charge. 

The Electric Tramways have a uniform fare (1st cl. 15 e., 2nd cl. 10 c.) 
for any distance within the city, including ^correspondanee*. — 1. Oare 
du Sud (PI. D, 5, 6) viH Place St. Bavon (PL C, D, 4), March^ aux Grains 
(PI. C, 4), Place Ste. Pharailde (PI. C, 3, 4), and Bue du Babot (PI. &, 3) 
to Boulevard du QazomHre (PL A, 2). Signs blue. — 2. Ledeberg (Ghauss^e 
de Bruxelles ; PL E, 6, 7) via Gare du Sad, Place d'Armes (PI. C, W, Ifarch^ 
aux Grains, and Place Ste. Pharailde to Porte du 8a* (PL D, 1). Signs 
white. — 3. Porte de Bruges (PL A, B, 3) via March^ aux Grains and March^ 
du Vendredi (PL C, D, 3, 4) to Chaussie d'Anvers (PL E, 3). Signs yellow. — 
4. Marchi aux Grains (PL C, 4) vi& Place d'Armes (PL C, 5), Bue de Gourtrai 
(PI. C, 5, 6), Boul. du Pare (PL B, C, 7-, near the Gare de St. Pierre), 
Pare de la Citadelle (PL C, 7), Plaine St. Pierre (PL G, D, 6), Gare du Sud, 
and Bue Charles Quint to Place St. Jacques (PL D, 4). Signs red. — 6. Oare 
du Sud (PL D, 5, 6) via Place d'Artevelde (PL D, E, 5), Boulevard du Chateau 
(PL E, 5, 4), and Ghauss^e d'Anvers (PL E, 3) to Mont St. Amand. Signs 
green. — 6. Oare du Sud (PL D, 5, 6) via Boulevard Frfere-Orban (PL D, E, 
6, 7) to Ledeberg (PL E, 7). Signs white. 

Theatres (in winter only). Grand Thidtre Royals or French Theatre 
(PL C, 5} p. 66j, Bae du Theatre, near the Place d''Armes; operas and 
dramas. Flemish Theatre or Vlaamsche Schoutoburg (PL D, 4^ P. 08), Place 
St. Bavon, for dramas^ Thidtre Minard (PL D, 5), Bue da Pont Madou, 
for comedies and operettas. — Gibcus (PL D, 5), Bue Neuve St. Pierre. 

Concerts. In summer, band in the Place d^Armes (p. 66), San. 12-1 and 
8-10 p.m., and Wed. 8-10 p.m.; in the Pare de la Citadelle (p. 67), Thurs. 

5 p.m.; also thrice weekly at the Casino (p. 66; adm. 1 fr.). — Faik or 
Kermesse on the 2nd Sun. in July and two following days. 

Post and Telegraph Office CPi- C, 5), Place du Gommerce 6; branch- 
offices at the Gare du Sud, the Marchi aux Legumes, etc. 

Booksellers. J. Vuylsteke^ Bue des Vaches 15; E. van Ooeihem, Bue 
des Foulons 1; Ad. Hosts, Bue des Ghamps 47; Vj/t (second-hand books), 
Bue Basse des Champs. — Photographs. Edm. Sacr^y Bue de la Galandre ; 
D^Hoy, Bue Courte du Jour; Au Timbre-Poste, Place Laurent 17. 

English Church (St. John's), Place St. Jacques (PL D, 3, 4); services 
at 8.30, 10.30, and 6.30; chaplain Rev. Jas. Louis Holbeck, Bue des Vanniers 6 
(PL C, 4). — Sailors' Institute, Place du Dock xi (PL D, 1, 2)j sec, Jfr. 
A. Milnes. 

United States Consul, Mr. Frank R. Motcrer, Harch€ aux Oiseaux 3. — 
British Vice-Consul, Mr. J. P. Bagge, at the Sailors' Institute (see above). 
— Lloyd's Agent, Aug. Bulcke <fc Co., Place du Dock. 

Physicians (English-speaking). N. Nuudts, Bue Gharles-Quint 10; Dr. 
Gevaert, Quai aux Moines (specialist in throat-afleotions) 

Collections and Principal Sights. 

Abbey of St. Baton (p. 70), week-days 9-6 (50 c.; 5-10 pers. 2 f r.), Sun. 

6 holidays 10-1 & 2-4 (free). 

Cathedral (p. 54), open all day except 12-2; Choir Chapels open free on 
Sun. & holidays 10.30-11 & 12-1, adm. on Thurs. 11.30-12.30, 25 c, at other 
times 1 fr, (3 pers. 50 c. each, 6 pers. 21/2 fr.). 

Chdteau des Comtes (p. 62), daily 9-12 & 2-6 (in winter 2-4); adm. 60 c. 
(5-10 pers. 2 fr.). 

Library (p. 65), reading room on week-days 9-1 & 3-7 (in vacation 9-12.80). 
J/M^g d'ArcMologie (p. 62), week-days 9-12 & 1.30-6 (in winter 10-12 tt 
i.30-4)i adm. 60 c, free on Sun. 10-1 A 2-4 and on TYwvta.l-?* (\uyj\nter 2-4). 
y^ ^ ^'^'^^ ^^ BeavxArts (p. 67), open free on TWra.^ S\v\i., «b Vq\\^vi%^ 
iO-i ^ 3-7; on other dajB, 10-5, 10 c 

SUuaUon GHENT. 7. RouU. 51 

Principal Attractioiu (one day). Morning: 'Cathedral (p. 61), view 
from the tower of St. Bavon (p. oiB) or from the Belfry (p. 59); *Hdtel 
de Ville (p. 69) \ March^ aux Grains (p. 60), March^ auz Legumes (p. 61), 
Ghfttean des Gomtes (p. 62), March^ daVendredi (p. 64). Afternoon: Picture 
Gallenr (p. 67), Ahbey of St. Bavon (p. 70), larger or smaller Beguinage 
(pp. 71, 70), the latter being more easily reached. 

Ohent (25 ft.; Fr. Oand, Flem. Oent), ihe capital of E. Flanders, 
with ca. 163,300 inhab. (excluding the large subarbs of Ledeberg, 
OenthruggCy and St. iimand), lies on the Scheldt (Fi. Escaut) and 
the Leie or Lys, which flow through the city in numerous arms, 
dividing it into 13 islands, with 65 bridges. The city is of con- 
siderable extent, being upwards of 16 M. in circumference, and 
covering an area of 6650 acres. The former quaint aspect of the 
town has recently been largely altered by the constrnction of new 
streets and the laying out of new squares. A canal , excavated 
by the Dutch government in 1826-27, now sufficiently deep for 
sea-going vessels of moderate size, falls into the Scheldt at Ter- 
neuzen (p. 72), and thus connects the city with the sea. Another 
canal (Cowptir*, p. 66), completed in 1758, connects the Lys with 
the canal from Bruges to Ostend, which is in its turn connected by 
the *New Canal' (Canal de Raccordement) with the Canal from Ter- 
neuzen. The harbour includes the Bassin du Commerce (PI. D, E, 
1-8), 1870 yds. in length, opened in 1829, the Avant Port (PL D, 1), 
1210 yds. long, added in 1870, the Bassin au Bois (1881), and the 
New Dock (1904), 2420 yds. in length. In 1903 Ghent was entered 
by 1123 sea-going vessels of 780,700 tons, including 1033 steamers, 
besides 13,052 river-craft of 2,083,168 tons. Timber, coal, phos- 
phates, petroleum, potatoes, cement, and flax are important articles 
of commerce. Ghent, which is not unfitly surnamed ^La Ville de Flore\ 
has a specialty for horticulture, and annually exports whole cargoes 
of camellias, azaleas, orange-trees, palms, and other hot-house plants 
to Holland, Germany, France, Russia, and America. There are up- 
wards of a hundred nursery-gardens in the environs of the city. — 
Among the industrial products for which the city has long been famous 
are cotton and linen goods, dyed-leather wares, and lace. The large 
linen-factory *La Lys' (PI. A, 3, 4) employs about 3000 operatives. 
Of late the engine-factories of Ghent have become considerable. 

Ghent is mentioned in history as early as the 7th century. At 
a very early period a spirit of independence developed itself among 
the inhabitants, more especially the weavers ; and they succeeded in 
obtaining from their sovereigns those concessions which form the 
foundation of constitutional liberty. At one period the citizens had 
become so powerful and warlike that they succeeded in repulsing an 
English army of 24,000 men, under Edward I. (1297), and a few 
years later they were the principal combatants in the 'Battle of S^u.^-^' 
(p. 76), to the issue of which their \>ia.Nftt^ mv^x^^ <j.Qw\.T^xiJw^^« 
Their subjection to the Counts of Ylan^wa wv^ V^M^^^5^8^<i'8» ^\^>a^- 
gundy Appears to have been little moi© t\MiTV ivomVsi^N ^^^ ^V^saa^^^ 


52 Route 7. GHENT. BUtory. 

these princes attempted to levy a tax that was unpopular with the 
citizens, the latter sounded their alarm-bell, flew to arms, and ex- 
pelled the obnoxious ofUcials appointed to exact payment. During 
the 13-1 5th centuries revolutions seem almost to hav&been the or- 
der of the day at Ghent. 

One of the most remarkable characters of his age was Jacques 
Van Artevelde, the celebrated 'Brewer of Ghent' (bom 1287J, a 
clever and ambitious demagogue, who, though of noble family, caused 
himself to be recognized as 'master' of the Guild of Brewers and to 
be enrolled as a member of the 52 other trade -guilds. Owing 
to his wealth, ability, and remarkable eloquence, he acquired im- 
mense influence, and in 1337 was appointed 'Captain of Ghent*. 
He was an ally of Edward III. in the war between England and 
France (1335-45), in which the democratic party of Ghent sup- 
ported the former, and the Counts of Flanders the latter; and it is 
recorded that Edward condescended to flatter him by the title of 
'dear gossip'. For seven years Artevelde reigned supreme at Ghent, 
putting to death all who had the misfortune to displease him, 
banishing the nobles and those who betrayed symptoms of attach- 
ment to their sovereign, and appointing magistrates who were the 
mere slaves of his will. Artevelde at length proposed that the son 
of Edward HL^'should be elected Count of Flanders, a scheme so dis- 
tasteful to the Ghenters that an insurrection broke out, and Jacques 
was slain in his own house on July 17th, 1345, by Gerard Denys, 
the leader of his opponents. During this period, in consequence 
of the alliance with Ghent, the manufacture of wool became more ex- 
tensively known and practised in England. Ghent also realized vast 
profits from its English trade, a circumstance which induced the 
citizens to submit so long to the despotic rule of Jacques, to whom 
they owed their advantageous connection with England. 

Philip Van Artevelde (b. 1340), son of Jacques, and godson of 
Queen Philippa of England, possessed all the ambition but little of 
the talent of his father. He was appointed Guardian of the Public 
Peace ('Ruward van Vlaanderen') by the democratic party in 1381, 
during the civil war against Count Louis of Flanders, surnamed 
'van Maele', and his administration was at first salutary and judi- 
cious, but he soon began to act with all the caprice of a despot. In 
1381, when Ghent was reduced to extremities by famine, and the 
citizens had resolved to surrender, Philip counselled them to make 
a final venture, rather than submit to the humiliating conditions 
offered by the Count. lie accordingly marched at the head of 5000 
men to Bruges, and signally defeated Louis, who sallied forth to 
meet them. Elated by this success, Philip now assumed the title 
of Regent of Flanders, and established himself at Ghent in a style 
of great /ija^nificence. His career, however, was brief. At the end 
of 1382 war again broke out, chieflv owm^ to ^Xife VcDL'^Q\i^<\ a^nd 
^rro^aiH conduct of Philip himself, and CVatleaNV. olYia.ti'i^ vsv*x^^ 

HUtory. GHENT. 7. Boute, 53 

against Flanders. Philip was defeated and slain at the disastrous 
Battle of Roosebeke (Nov. 27th, 1382> where 20,000 Flemings are 
said to have perished. The city was obliged to submit to the Gount, 
and after his death in 1384 came into the possession of Buignndy. 

The turbulent spirit of the Ghenters ultimately proved thelt 
ruin. In 1448, when Philippe le Bon of Burgundy imposed a heavy 
tax on salt and grain, they openly declared war against him; and 
the best proof of the vastness of their resources is that they suc- 
ceeded in carrying on the war for a period of five years (1448-53). 
On 23rd July, 1453, the burghers were defeated at Gavre (p. 73) 
on the Scheldt, and lost no fewer than 16,000 men. Philip now 
levied enormous contributions on the city ; the corporation and prin- 
cipal citizens were compelled to march out at the gate with halters 
round their necks , and to kiss the dust at the feet of their con- 
queror ; and the most valuable privileges of the city were suspended 
or cancelled. 

In 1477 the nuptials of the Archduke Maximilian were celebrated 
at Ghent with Mary of Burgundy, heiress of Charles the Bold, who 
by her marriage brought the wealthy Netherlands into the power of 
Austria (see p. 33). On the same occasion the first general consti- 
tution of the Netherlands (Htt Oroot Privilegie), granted by Mary, 
was promulgated here. Here, too, on 24th Feb., 1500, the £mperor 
Charles V. was bom in the Cour du Prince y a palace of the Counts 
of Flanders long since destroyed, but the name of which survives 
in a street (see p. 63). During his reign Ghent was one of the 
largest and wealthiest cities in Europe, and consisted of 35,000 
houses with a corresponding population. Charles Y . is said to have 
boasted jestingly to Francis I. of France : *Afon Oant (glove), Paris 
danserait dedans\ The turbulent spirit of the citizens having again 
manifested itself in various ebullitions, the emperor caused a Citadel 
(Het Spanjaards Kasteel) to be erected near the Antwerp Gate in 
1540, for the purpose of keeping them in check. In 1676 the re- 
presentatives of the united provinces of the Netherlands assembled 
in the town-hall of Ghent to sign the ^Pacification of Ghent', which 
aimed at securing religious liberty and expelling the Spaniards. 
Ghent eagerly espoused the cause of independence in the Nether- 
lands, but was compelled to open its gates to Duke Alexander Far- 
nese in 1584, a blow from which its prosperity suffered for many long 
years. Thousands of the citizens had already emigrated under 
Alva*s rule in 1567, and one-half of the houses now stood empty. 
In 1678, 1708, and 1745 Ghent was captured by the French. 
Louis XVIII. resided at Ghent during the ^Hundred Days' (1815). 

a. The Inner Town and North- WeAtexn. <X^^«iX^.«t^. 

The Inner town, known as the Ouuc dc Gand, V^ ^tv<5Va%^^>s^ ^Q«^^ 
LyB and the W. arm of the Scheldt (Haut-Escaul), V?s^^ \^Vv«^ ^^ 

54 Route 7. GHENT. Inner Town: 

which in the early middle ages here marked the bound&ry 'between 
Flander^and the German empire (comp. p. 2). It is approached 
ftom the Gare du Sad by the busy Rub db Flandbb (^Vleumderen' 
Strant ,- PL D, 5 ; electric tramway No. 1, p. 50), which ends in the 
Plaob Laurent (^Laurent-Plaats ; Pi. D, 4, 5), a sqnare built over 
a covered arm of the Scheldt and embellished with the monument 
of L. Bauwens (d. 1822), the industrialist, by P. de Vigne-Qnyo 
(1885). Another main approach is the broad Rub Dioub db Brabant, 
which is prolonged beyond the Place Laurent to the March^ aux 
Oiseaux and the Place d'Armes (p. 66). 

On the N. side of the Place Laurent rises the Chatbau db Q]g- 
RARD LB Diablb or Geeraard-Duivelstecn (PI. D, 4j 13th cent.), the 
stronghold of an aristocratic family, recently restored and now 
used for the provincial archives. To inspect the interesting crypt, 
apply to the Concierge, Rue Chateau de Gerard le Diable. — Ad- 
jacent is a branch of the Banque Nationale (p. xi), built in 1904. 

The *Cathedral of St. Bavon, or Sint Baa fa (PI. D, 4), a massive 
edilicc of plain exterior, dedicated to Sint Jans until 1540, but from 
1659 the cathedral of Ghent, was founded in the 10th century. The 
crypt dates from the 11th or 12th cent.j the choir was begun in the 
13th cent., and completed in 1353; and the nave and transept were 
completed in 1533-69. In 1566 the church suffered severely from 
Puritanical outrages. The W. tower (260 ft. high), dating from 
1462-1534, lost its spire in 1602 through fire. — Admission, see 
p. 50; in the afternoon visitors should knock with the iron ring 
attached to the middle door in the W. portal. 

The Intbrior is of noble proportions , and rests on massive 
square pillars with projecting half-columns. The differently col- 
oured stones and bricks produce a highly picturesque effect. 

In the Navb, to the right, is the Pulpit (1745), by Lor, Del- 
vaux of Ghent, half in oak, half in marble, representing the Tree of 
Life, with an allegory of Time and Truth; it is the best example 
of Belgian sculpture in the 18th century. 

S. AisLB. 1st Chapel: Tomb of Bishop Lambrecht (d. 1889), 
by R. Rooms. — 2nd : 0. de Grayer, Beheading of John the Baptist 
(1657). — 4th : Modern stained glass by J. Bethune. 

North Aislb. Ist Chapel: A. Janssens, Piet^; RomboutSy De- 
scent from the Cross. — 4th : De Grayer, Assumption. A marble 
slab opposite records the names of the priests who refused to recog- 
nise Bishop Lebrun, appointed by Napoleon in 1813. 

Tbansbpt. To the right and left of the entrance to the choii are 
statues of SS. Peter and Paul by C. van Poucke, 1782. — Ten steps 
lead up to the choir. 

Choir. The choir was enclosed in the early 18th cent, by lofty 
balustrades of black and coloured marble, a%».\iia\. ^rVsAr.^ the ehoii 
ata/Js, carved in mahogany hy Bom. Crtiyt, we ^\aiCft^. KXivi^^C^^ 

Cathedral. GHENT. 7. BauU. 55 

stalls are scenes in grisaille from the Old and New Testament, by 
Van Reysschoot (1774). The high-altar is adorned with a Statue of 
St, Bavon in his ducal robes, hovering among the clouds, by 7er- 
bruggen (17th cent.). The four massive copper Candlesticks bearing 
the English arms, long (but groundlessly) believed to have once 
decorated St. Paul's in London, were executed by Benedetto da 
Bove%zano of Florence as part of the decorations for the unfinished 
tomb of Henry Yin. at Windsor and were sold during the Protectorate 
of Cromwell. In the choir, adjoining the altar, are two monuments 
to bishops of the 17th and 18th cent., the finer of them being that 
of Bishop A. Triest by Duquesnoy (1664), to the left. 

Rbtbo-Choie, beginning by the S. transept. 1st Chapel : Pour^ 
bus the Elder, *Christ among the doctors; most of the heads are por- 
traits : left, second from the frame, Alva, then, Charles Y., Philip II., 
and the master himself; on the inner wings the Baptism and Pre- 
sentation in the Temple, on the outer the Saviour and the donor 
Yiglius Aytta (1571 ; covered). — 3rd. Opposite the altar, Oerdrd 
van der Meire (?), Christ between the malefactors, with Moses strik- 
ing water from the rock and the Raising of the Brazen Serpent on 
the wings (ca. 1460 ; covered). — By the choir-screen, monument 
of Bishop De Smet (d. 1741), by J. Bergi (1745). — 4th: Lucas de 
Heere^ Queen of Sheba before Solomon (1659). Tomb of two bishops 
(1599). — 5th : Af. van Coxie,\ Dives and Lazarus. — We now 
ascend the steps. 

6th : Jan and Hubert van Eyck, **Adoratlon of the Immaculate 

Lamb, the most imposing work of the early- Flemish School (comp. 

p. xliii). It was begun by Hubert van Eyck for Jodocus Yydt, 

an important patrician of Ghent, and his wife Isabella Borluut, 

about the year 1420, and finished by John in 1432. The share 

which each of the brothers took in this work cannot be precisely 

ascertained. The central piece, and the figures of God the Father, 

Mary, John, Adam, and Eve, are usually attributed to Hubert, and 

the rest of the work to his brother. Only the central panels as we 

here see them are the originals, the missing wings (seep. 109) being 

replaced by copies with variations of the 16th and 19th centuries. 

Best light in the forenoon. 

'In the centre of the altar-piece, and on a panel which overtops all 
the others, the noble and dignified ngure of Christ sits enthroned in the 
prime of manhood with a short black beard, a broad forehead, and black 
eyes. On his head is the white tiara , ornamented with a profusion of 
diamonds, pearls, and amethysts. Two dark lappets fall on either side 
of the grave and youthful face. The throne of black damask is em- 
broidered with gold; the tiara relieved on a golden ground covered with 
inscriptions in semicircular lines. Christ holds in his left hand a sceptre 
of splendid workmanship, and with two fingers of his right he gives his 
bleating to the world. The gorgeous red mantle which completely 
enshrouds his form is fastened at the breast by a lar^e ^erwOiVi^\i^^^Osi.. 
The mantle itself is bordered with a double tov» ot ^few\^ «.^^ ^\s\.^^%n»'. 
The feet rest on a golden pedestal, carpeted wU\x \>\a.cV, wA ^^,'J^^^^^\. 
ground, which ia cut into perspective squ&tea ^i"s \viv«k% o\ 'S.^^**^ ^ ^\«c^ 
ricJay-fewelled open-worked crown, eiab\ema.\^<i oi tsk».TVs^<^^^' 

of Scrlplufe, falls from lie sbouiaers and over lie kose to the fsal In 
ample nai limple folds. The colour of the flesh is powerfnl, brown, 
and ilowlng, and full of vigour, that of the veaimenti itrong and rleli. 
The l&Dda me well diawii, PBcliapi a Utile cootcacled in tbe maHlea, 
but Bllll of it^rtlioe realigm. — On the rigbl of Cbriat the Virgin lita 
In ber traditional robe of blue; bar long fair hair, bound to Ibe forebBad 
b; a diadem , ilowiag ia vravu down ber sboalden, WItb moit gracefnl 

eye Inlo ipace. Od the left of the Eternal, St. John tbe Baptjit ruti, 
loag-li&ired and befrrded, anstere la expreBsion, epUndid in form, aod 
noTersd vrltb a broad, flowlDe, green drapery. On tbe apectator'g right 

the left of tbe Virgin a ilmilat but less beautiful gronp a! ilneing 
choristers standing in front of an osken deiik, the foremoel of Ihsm droBed 
in rich nnd beair rod brocade, [y^n Hander deelarei thai the angola 
who slog are lo artfully done that we mark the diJerence oC ksji 
'oices are pilcbedO — On tbe ipectalor'l right Df St. 

all hlj 

..- Jedgo of perspective »e applied to the humi 

i( the picture, Adam is' equally raniar'--'-'- '- ' — 

t, hy hia poBltloo,"i 

.gala the master's sclBnce In optlnal pflrflHcUT« 
iight of Ibe Qgiite above tbe eye is BlTy dob- 
a of Adam and Eve are mlnlatnre froDpa of 

erglDg Into ■ deeper 

ry centre of the pielnro a iiinare altir Ifl bone with ted 
oiered with while cloth. Here ilands a lamb, from whoia 
m ot blood issues into a crystal glass. Angels kneel Mnod 
parti-coloured wingg and rariegated dresses, mHD* of thetB 
joined bands, olhera holding aloft tbe emblems of the pad- 
roni waving eenaers. From a alight depression of the 
right, a little behind the altar, a numerous band of femala 
ng, all In rich and varied coatumes, fair hair QDhting oisr 
-a , and palma In tbair hands ; forcmDst may be ootioed 81. 

irdlnaJs, bishops, monks, and minor clergy adltnce, aoma 

adoration. In 'tbe centre near tbe' base Df th^ pictnn ■ 
lal fountain of alone, with tin iron jet and tinj giwtltl, 
lam into B rill, whose pebbly bottom is seen throiufa Ihg 
r. The fountain and the altar, with vanishlnE ;oinI« oB 

a Van Bycki to live Iteen THwuvaunJind. wllXi^^ 
ieUve^_ Two diatlnot »yo»V^^»_>»^J«»*^^H 

CathedraL GHENT. 7. RouU. 57 

aposUea, in light greyish-yiolet cloaks kneeling bare-footed on the sward, 
with long hair and beards, expressing in their noble faces the intensity 
of their faith. On their right stands a gorgeous array of three popes, 
two cardinal monks, seven bishops, and a miscellaneous crowd of church 
and laymen. The group on the leit of the fountain is composed of kings 
and princes in various costumes, the foremost of them kneeling, the rest 
standing, none finer than that of a dark bearded man in a red cloth cap 
stepping forward in full front towards the spectator, dressed in a dark 
blue mantle, and holding a sprig of myrtle. The whole of the standing 
figures command prolonged attention from the variety of the attitudes 
and expressions, the stern resolution of some, the eager glances of others, 
the pious resignation and contemplative serenity of the remainder. The 
faithful who have thus reached the scene of the sacrifice are surrounded 
by a perfect wilderness of flowering shrubs , lilies , and other beautiful 
plants, and remain in quiet contemplation of the Lamb.^ 

^liumerous worshippers besides are represented on the wings of the 
triptych , moving towards the place of worship. On the left is a band 
of crusaders, the foremost of whom, on a dapple grey charger, is clad in 
armour with an undercoat of green slashed stuff, a crown ot laurel on 
his brow, and a lance in his hand. On his left two knights are riding, 
also in complete armour, one on a white, the other on a brown charger, 
carrying lances with streamers. Next to the third figure, a nobleman in 
a fur cap bestrides an ass, whose ears appear above the press ^ on his 
left a crowned monarch on a black horse*, behind them a crowd of kings 
and princes. In rear of them, and in the last panel to the left, Hubert 
Van Eyck with long brown hair , in a dark cap , the fur peak of which 
is turned up, ambles forward on a spirited white pony. He is dressed 
in blue velvet lined with grey fur; his saddle has long green housings. 
In the same line with him two riders are mounted on sorrel nags, and 
next them again a man in a black turban and dark brown dress trimmed 
with fur, whom historians agree in calling John Van Eyck. The face is 
turned towards Hubert, and therefore away from the direction taken by 
the cavalcade*, further in rear are several horsemen. The two groups 
proceed along a sandy path, which yields under the horses' hoofs, and 
seems to have been formed by the detritus of a block of stony ground 
rising perpendicularly behind, on each side of which the view extends 
to a rich landscape, with towns and churches in the distance on one 
hand, and a beautiful vista of blue and snow mountains on the other. 
White fleecy clouds float in the sky. There is not to be found in the whole 
Flemish school a picture in which human figures are grouped, designed, 
or painted with so much perfection as in this of the mystic Lamb. Nor 
is it possible to find a more complete or better distributed composition, 
more natural attitudes, or more dignified expression. Nowhere in the 
pictures of the early part of the 15th century can such airy landscape 
be met. Nor is the talent of the master confined to the appropriate 
representation of the human form, his skill extends alike to the brute 
creation. The horses, whose caparisons are of the most precious kind, 
are admirably drawn and in excellent movement. One charger stretches 
his neck to lessen the pressure of the bit; another champs the curb 
with Flemish phlegma; a third throws his head down between his fore 
legs; the pony ridden by Hubert Van Eyck betrays a natural fire, and 
frets under the restraint put upon it.^ 

^On the right side of the altarpiece we see a noble band of ascetics 
with tangled hair and beards and deep complexions, dressed in frock 
and cowl, with staves and rosaries, moving round the base of a roc'cy 
bank , the summit of which is wooded and interspersed with palms and 
orange trees. Two female saints, one of them the Magdalen, bring up 
the rear of the hermit band, which moves out of a grove of orange tT<!.«.% 
with glossy leaves and yellow fruit. In the next. ^Mife\ \.q K^tv^ ^\^\.^^xv^ 
in a similar landscape, St. Christopher, po\e \n \vMi^, Vu\..\w^'t^^^'==^^!b^ 
ot inelegant folds , overtopa the rest of liie compwiVQxv^ — ^'^V'^?^^^?^ 
grim and aolemn faces. Here a palm and a cyijteaa vt^ ^^va^»^ 
surprising Adelitj,* 

58 BouU 7. GHENT. Inner Totm.- 

^The altarpiecei when closed, haa not the all-absorbing interest of 
its principal scenes when open. It is subdivided first into two parts, in 
the upper portion of which is the Annunciation, in the lower the portraits 
of Jodocus Vydts and his wife, and imitated statues of St. John the 
Baptist and St. John the Evangelist. In the semicircular projection of 
the upper central panel are the Sibyls, whilst half figures of Zachariah 
and Hicah are placed in the semicircles above the annunciate angel and 
Virgin. With the exception of Jodocus and his wife and the Annon- 
ciation, the whole of this outer part of the panels may have been executed 
under supervision by the pupils of the Van Eycks.^ — Crowe A GavaXeta%\U. 
The Early Flemish Painters. 

This work has undergone various vicissitudes. Philip n. endea- 
voured to obtain possession of it, but at length was obliged to be satis- 
fled with a copy executed for him by Coxie in 1658. It was with 
difficulty rescued from Puritanical outrage in 1566, and from danger 
of burning in 1641. An expression of disapproval by the Kmp. 
Joseph II., in 1784, regarding the nude figures of Adam and Eve, 
induced the churchwardens to keep the picture under lock and key. 
In 1794 it was taken to Paris, and when it was restored in 1815 
the central pictures only were replaced in their original positions, 
while the wings (except the Adam and Eve) were ignorantly, or 
from avaricious motives , sold to a dealer, from whom they were 
purchased by the museum of Berlin for 410,000 fr. The two wings 
with Adam and Eve were removed to the museum at Brussels in 
1861 (see p. 109), and are here replaced by modern copies by Victor 

7th Chapel : Honthorst^ Pi eta ; at the side, De Crayer, Christ 
on the Cross. — 8th : Monument of Bishop Van der Noot, by P. Fer- 
achaffelt (1778). — 10th : Rubens ^ ♦St. Bavon (p. 70) renonnces 
his military career in order to assume the cowl. The saint, kneeling 
in full armour, is received on the steps of the church by St. Amandus 
fp. 69), after hiving distributed all his property among the poor 
(shown below). This altar-piece, unfortunately in poor preservation, 
dates from 1624. At the altar : O. VaeniuSj Raising of Lazarus, ad- 
joining which is the monument of Bishop Damaut (d. 1609). — We 
now descend the steps. To the left is the monument of Bishop Ger. 
van Eersel (d. 1778). 

The Sacbisty contains the Treasury ^ with the silver reliquary of 
St. Macarius (Chasse de St. Macaire), a Renaissance work of 1616, 
and the so-called cope of St. Livinus (1525). 

The Crypt contains the tombstones of many bishops and pa- 
tricians of Ghent. 

The Tower (446 steps) afTords a finer ♦View than the Belfry 
(fee 2 fr. for 1-4 persons; apply to the verger in the sacristy). 

The Place St. Bavon (^Sint Baafs-Plaats ; P1.C,D,4) contains 
a monument by Is. de Rudder (1899) to the historian and poet 
•^/r. Wtmrns (1793'i846)j the champion ot tYv^YV^mU^ move- 
meat(p. xvj. On the N. side of the square Va l\ie FUmUK THtau* 

Bilfry. GHENT. 7. Route, 69 

(1897-99), designed by Edm. de Vigne, and decorated with moBaics 
by Montald and De Smet ; and on the W. side is the Halle auxDraps 
or Ooth Hall, a Gothic edifice of 1426-41, rebuilt in 1900-1903. 
The latter contains a crypt, a large hall, and the collections of the 
Fraternity of St. Michael (Confr^rie des Escrimeurs dite de St. Mi- 
chel), founded in 1613. 

The Belfiry {Btffroi; PI. C, 4), a lofty square tower (390 ft.) 
which has attained two-thirds only of the projected height, rises op- 
posite the W. front of the cathedral. It was built in 1300-1339 and 
in 1839-53 was provided with an iron spire. Etymologists differ 
as to the origin of the word belfry, but it seems to be connected 
• with the German Berg fried (watch-tower; low Lat. berfredus), so 
that the resemblance between the first syllable and the English 
word 'beir is purely fortuitous. One of the first privileges usually 
obtained by the burghers from their feudal lords was permission 
to erect one of these watch or bell towers, from which peals were 
rung on all important occasions to summon the people to council or 
to arms. — The concierge, who accompanies visitors to the top of the 
tower (1 fr. each pers.), lives in the house opposite (No. 4). In the 
interior of the tower are two square rooms, one above the other, with 
Gothic windows. The third gallery, at a height of 270 ft., is reached 
by 386 steps ; the total height to the point of the spire is 385 ft. 
The staircase is dark and rather steep. The spire is surmounted by 
a vane, consisting of a gilded dragon, 10 ft. in length, made at Ghent 
in 1378. 

The ViBW embraces a great portion of Flanders, as well as an ad- 
mirable snryey of the city. When the Duke of Alva proposed to Charles 
V. that he should destroy the city which had occasioned him so much 
annoyance, the monarch is said to have taken him to the top of the 
belfry, and there to have replied: ^Combien /audrait-il de peattx cf Etpaffne 
pour /aire un Oant de cette grandeur V — thus rejecting the cruel sug- 
gestion of his minister. 

The tower contains 44 bells. A hole in one of them was made by a 
cannon-ball fired at the belfry by the Austrians from the old citadel in 
1789, in order to prevent the citizens from ringing the alarm. The ball 
did not miss its aim, but failed to effect its purpose, for the tone of the 
bell continued unimpaired. One of the heaviest bells, originally dating 
from 1314 but recast in 1661, bore the inscription: ''Myn naem is Roelani; 
al8 ick kleppe dan isH brand ; aU ick luyde, i»H vietorie in Vlaenderland" (My 
name is Roland; when I toll, then there is a fire; when I peal, there 
is a victory in Flanders). 

On the side next the Marchi au Bturre{BoUrmarki ; PI. 0, 4) an 
out-building was added to the Belfry in the i8th cent, for the pur- 
poses of the prison (Prison Communale), Over the portal is a relief 
of the so-called ^Oaritas Romana\ called by the people the *Mamme- 
lokker'. — Opposite is situated the — 

*H6teI de Villa (PI. C, 4), which belongs to three distinct periods^ 
The kernel of the building dates from 1482-84. T\^^ ^\^\.\vt'b'^^5j^fe 
but unfinished N. facade towards the Kue Ha-ut-^^iT^, ^wv^x.xxvrX.^^'^ 
1616-38, in the florid-Gothic (Flam\)o^atit^ aX.^^^, ^^^^ ^^'^^^^NKTx 
Ikminicus de Waghemaker (p. 167) and Rombout Keldefma-uaVX -^^ v 

60 Route 7. GHENT. Inner Town: 

was restored in 1870, together with the interior, under the super- 
intendence of VioUet-U'Duc and Pauli] it is, perhaps, the most 
beautiful piece of Gothic architecture in Belgium. The clumsy E. 
facade, towards the market-place, with its three tiers of columns, was 
constructed in 1595-1620, in the Renaissance style. 

The Intbriob containa a series of fine Qothic rooms and an interesting 
Gothic ataircase (entrance from the Botermarkt; concierge generally on the 
groundfloor ', fee V2-I fr.). In a room on the groundfloor is a tablet com- 
memorating the 'Pacification of Ghent' (p. 53). — The lofty Chctpd now 
serves as the Salle det Mariages, or office for civil marriages. Above the 
door, a large painting by E. Wauters: Mary of Burgundy intervening in 
favour of her ministers (p. 64). — On the first floor of the oldest wing is 
the Salle de PArsenal^ with timber ceiling, lofty Gothic window, and two 
artistic chimney-pieces. Adjacent is the Council Hall or BaUe de* Etatt. — . 
The Archives are very important, containing documents dating back to 
the i2th century. The artistically executed coats-of-arms of magistrates 
on the bindings of the account books of the town (from 1468 downwards) 
are of considerable heraldic importance. 

In the Marchi^ aux Poulets ('poultry market*), behind the H6tel 
de Ville, is the old office (No. 7) of the Bureau de Bienfaisance con- 
taining an interesting room with wood-carvings and paintings of the 
17th cent. (Charles V., Albert and Isabella, etc.). At the chimney- 
piece, which is of carved wood, are two statuettes of orphans in the 
costume of the period (1689). Small fee (30-50 c.) to the keeper 
(ring the bell). 

A little to the W . of the Belfry lies the busy Mabch^ axjx Grains 
(Koommarkt ; PI. C, 4), the centre of the electric tramway-system 
(p. 50). Here rises the Church of St. Nicholas (PI. 0, 4), one of the 
oldest buildings in Ghent. It was founded in the 11th cent., but 
seems to have been rebuilt in the early-Gothic style about the be- 
ginning of the 13th century. Above the Romanesque W. portal is 
a huge window flanked by turrets. The main tower (15th cent.) 

contains a fine hall in the Transition style. 

The Interior has been modernized. Most of its venerable treasures 
of art disappeared in the 16th cent, during the religious wars and the 
wild excesses of the iconoclasts. 2nd Chapel, to the right: Maes-Canini^ 
Madonna and Child with St. John. An inscription under a small picture 
on the 4th pillar of the N. aisle in the nave records that Oliver Minaau 
and his wife are buried here, ^ende hadden tesamen een en dertich Under en* 
(<.«., they had together one-and-thirty children). When Emp. Charles 
V. entered Ghent, the father with twenty-one sons who had joined the 
procession attracted his attention (1526). Shortly afterwards, however, 
the whole family was carried off by the plague. — The stained glass in 
the windows of the choir is by Capvonnier and La Roche^ 1851. 

On the W. side of the March^ aux Grains are some picturesque 

Oahled Houses (17-18th cent.). A new Post Office^ designed by 

Cloquet and Mortier, was erected in 1899 et seq., between the 

March^ aux Grains and the Lys. — On the Oraslei, or Quai aux 

Jlerbes (Vl. C, 4), there are several interesting old buildings. The 

handsome ^Skippers' House {^0. 15), or Maison des Francs Bateliers^ 

tho tinest Gothic guild-house in Belgium, w«ia ftift<i\.ft^ Va \5Si %xvd 

has recently been restored. The Jtfoiaon des Meawewa d* QroXtw 

8t. MiehaePs Church. GHENT. 7. Route. 61 

(House of the Grain Measurers ; No. 13) is a Renaissance structure 
of 1698. The Romanesque Staple House (Maison de TEtape; 
No. 11), a granary of the 12th cent., was restored after a Are in 

St. Michael's Church (PL C, 4), a handsome Gothic edifice, wag 
begun in its present shape in 1445 hut not completed till 1673 
(tower unfinished). The S. side is masked by a former Dominican 

The ^Intkbiob, where' the red brick walls stand in effectiye contrast 
with the white wiadow-framea and pillars, has undergone a complete re- 
storation since 1890. The modern stained-glaaa windows are by Capronnier, 
— N. Aisle. 2nd Chapel: Van Balen, Assumption. 3rd Chapel: Vaenitts, 
Raising of Lazarus. — The Pulpit by J. Fmnck (1846) rests on the trunk 
of a fig-tree in marble; Christ healing a blind man forms the principal 
group below; the staircase railings are of mahogany. 

B". Tkansept: Van DycVt celebrated but much damaged ^Crucifixion 
(^Christ k TEponge^, painted in 1630 for the Fraternity of the Holy Cross 
in Ghent. A man extends the sponge to the Saviour with a reed; John 
and the Maries below, weeping angels above. — S. Tkambbpt. Frangoit^ 

CuoiB. To the right, 2nd Chapel: Van der Plaetsen^ St. Francis of 
Paola exhorting Louis XI. to submit to the wiU of God, painted in 1838; 
Spaffnoletto(7\ St. Francis of Paola. 3rd: De Grayer^ ^Assumption of St. Ca- 
tharine, one of the master'*s best works. 4th: Ph. de Champaigne^ Pope 
Gregory teaching choristers to sing; Van BoekhorsL Allegory, Moses and 
Aaron typical of the Old Testament, St. John and the Pope typical of the 
New. 6th (behind the high-altar): Scenes from the Old Testament, frescoes 
by Stepaert (1824). 9th : Seghere, Scourging of Christ. 10th : Th. van Thulden, 
Martyrdom of St. Adrian. Uth: De Grayer^ Dedcent of the Holy Ghost. 

From St. Michael's we proceed to the N., along the quaint QuM 
aux Bl^s or Kooinlei, to the Pont aux Herhes or Orashrug (PI. C, 4), 
one of the most picturesque points in the city. Beyond this bridge 
and adjoining the March^ aux Grains on' the N. lies the Mabcu:6 
AUX LEGUMES (^Oroenaelmarkt ;'Pl. C, 4), on the left of which rises the 
former Gbandb Bouohsbib (OrootVteeachhuis), erected in 1408-17, 
but of no architectural merit. The old chapel of the building con- 
tains traces of mural paintings of 1448 (freely restored). The iron 
rings and collars on the exterior wall to the right are mementoes of 
the public executions and tortures which formerly took place here. 
The same association is commemorated in the name of a small ad- 
jacent caf^, Cafi de la Potenee or ^TOalgenhuis, 

The members of the Ghent Guild of Butchers were known as ^Prinse 
Kinderen* (Prince''s children), being the descendants of Charles V. and the 
pretty daughter of a butcher, who secured for her son and his descend- 
ants the sole right of slaughtering and selling meat in the city. The pri- 
vilege was maintained down to 1704. 

Crossing the bridge over the Lys, we reach the Place Stb. 
Phabaildb (PI. C, 3, 4), which is surrounded with quaint mediaeval 
buildings. The Gateway in the corner to the left, ereGtftdv\i.\saNJw&5^'5ivv 
of one on the same site by Artus QueVWn ^^ XaM\i!$i^T.^^^!^R^"«"«>-^ 
burned down in 1872, and adonveA m\^i ^^^^J^^^^^^M^^^^f^fL 
(Neptune, the iScheldt, and t^e I^^s"^, 1^8.^?^ ^ ^^ TsiatcX^*. ^ 

62 BouU 7. GHENT. N.W. Ov«rferf.* 

Poiaaons (Pl-O, 4). — On the N. side of the Place, at the oomer of 

the Rue de la Monnaie, oi Geldmnnt, rises the — 

*ClL&teaii des Comtes (^Gravenkasteel^ 'SQravenaiun; PI. G, 3 ; 
adm., see p. 50 ; printed description 60 c.) , a stronghold said to 
haye been founded in the 9th cent., rebuilt in 1180 by Gount Philip 
of Alsace on his return from the Holy Land *ad reprimendam sn- 
perbiam Gaudensium' and thereafter a residence of the Gounts of 
Flanders (comp. p. 84). Here Edward III. and his Queen PhiUppa 
were sumptuously entertained by Jacques 'van Artevelde in 1339 
(comp. p. 52). In 1407 the palace became the seat of the Gonneil of 
Flanders, appointed by Philippe le Bon of Burgundy. In 1800 the 
castle was converted into a factory, but it was pnichased by the 
city in 1887, laid open by the removal of adjoining buildings, and 
restored to its former appearance. The sadly disflgured Interior has 
been renewed by J. deWaeUj and the whole now affords an admir- 
able picture of a mediaeval fortress. 

Above the Romanesque portal of the projecting Oot€ JSTottM, with its 
octagonal towers, is an inscription of 1180. We ascend through two lOoms 
to tbe platform over the gate, which affords an admirable view of the 
adjacent part of the city. We then perambulate the Outer Watt, which, 
with its 27 semicircular towers, also dates from 1180. 

Among the Interior Apartments still preserved in their original condition 
are an underground room with Romanesque vaulting near tiie gate-house \ 
a two-storied addition to the main building, with round-headed arcades on 
the upper story ; the so-called chapel (?), known in the i5th cent, as the con- 
sistorium, a two-storied erection at the hack of the central building, on the 
side next the Lys, with Romanesque columns in the upper story; and an 
adji-cf^nt dungeon ('De Put"). 

The Donjon^ or central building, restored in 1903, has four stories. Above 
the cellar (dating from the earliest period) is the large banqueting hall, 
above this another hall, and under the roof a storeroom for the stones used 
in defence. The flat roof commands a good view. 

The Rue de la Monnaie (see above; electric tramway No. 2] ends 
on the N. at the Rue Longue des Pierres (Lange Steenstraat), in 
which, immediately to the right, is the old Oarmelite chuidh now 
occupied by the municipal Mns^e d'Arch^ologie or Museum van 
Oudheden (PI. C, 3), opened in 188 i, with interesting collections of 
antiquities. Adm., see p. 60. Catalogue in French (1886) or 
Flemish (1891), 50 c. Curator, A. van Werveke. 

In the N. aisle, near the entrance, are chests, carved panelling ete. 
Farther on are Hispano-Moorish porcelain; Delft and Brussels fayence (17- 
18th cent.); model of a Flemish ship (18th cent.); Japanese and Chinese 
porcelain, {i^lass, lace; costumes (18th cent.). On the outer wall are Brussels 
tapestry (17-18th cent.), a picture by /. B. van Kbto<(W» (Charles VI. recaiving 
homage in the Marche du Vendredl in 1717; painted in 1728), and twelve 
paintings (Nos 1868-72; attributed to G. de Cramer) from a triumphal arch 
erected in the March^ du Vendredl at the entry of the Cardinal-Infanta 
Ferdinand in 1G85. — In the choir- apse is the throne of Emp. Joseph II. 

Immediately to the left in the 8. aisle is the copper-gut sepolcbral 
tablet of Leonard Betten (d. 1607), Abbot of St. Truiden, by Libert MM Mghtm, 
beside which are the large sepulchral ^BraBses of GwV\\«.\ima deWenemar 
^d. J326) and his wife, with incised poTtraits. \n \.^fe cAxiVTiX caata vt« 
-^/r Bilver-gilt " Shields, part of tlic insignia oi Vhe GlYiftiA \«^u-iA^%.t% <5»«- 

Le Robot. GHENT. 7. Route. 63 

eluding four by Com. de B<mt\ along with their leathern eaaea. Farther 
on is the Ceramic Collection, including Walloon stoneware from Bouffioulz, 
etc., German stoneware from Frechen, Baeren, Sieghurg, Kreussen, and the 
Westerwaldf and a fragment of a terracotta figure of a warrior (12th cent.). 
— The 'Wrought Iron Collection is mainly exhibited in the chapels: 

wall of the church are Gothic carvings in stone and wood. 

In tlie Rue 8ie, Marguerite (Sint Margareta Straat), which forms 
a continuation of the Rue de la Monnaie, is situated the Royal 
Academy of Art (PI. 0, 3), founded in 1751 and now established in the 
old Augustine Monastery, adjoining the Attgustine Church (PI. G, 3). 
Its collection of pictures has been removed to the new Mus^e des 
Beaux -Arts (p. 67). 

At the Carthusian Convent (PI. C, 2), in the Rue des Chartrenz, . 
' to the N.E. of the Museum, the *Treaty of Ghent', which terminated 
/ the second and last war between England and the United States of 
America (1812-14), was signed on 24th Dec, 1814 (adm. on appli- 
cation at the main entrance). 

The Rue Longue des Pierres (p. 62) is prolonged to the S.W. by 
the Rue d' Abraham (PI. 0, 3), which contains the Mont-de-PUli^ or 
municipal pawn-shop, built by W. Ooeberger in 1621. To the right 
diverges the Cour du Prince (PI. B, 0, 3), a street which derives its 
name from the old palace inhabited by the Counts of Flanders after 
the middle of the 14th cent. (p. 53), of which the only relic is a 
gateway in the direction of the Rabot. Charles V. was born here 
in 1500. 

The Avenue du Rabot leads to the N.W. to the small fort, with 
two towers, called Le Babot (PI. B, 3). In 1488 the army of Emperor 
Frederick III., advancing to support the claims of his son Maxi- 
milian (p. 33), here made an assault which was successfully resisted, 
and the fort was erected in the following year in commemoration of 
the event. The old Flemish inscription on the outside of the gate 
records the bravery of the guilds which fought under Duke Philip 
of Cleve. 

The Boulevard du B^guinage (Begynhof Boul. ; PI. B, 3), which 
begins here, is named after the Grand B^guinage removed from this 
vicinity to St. Amandsberg in 1874 (p. 72). Near the former Bruges 
Gate, at its S. end (electric tramway No. 3j p. 50), is a bronze 
monument, by Hambresin (1887), of J. Quislain (1797-1860), a 
celebrated physician for the insane. 

We now return to the Place Ste. Pharailde (p. 61) and pass thence 
to the N.E. via the Quai de la Orue {^Kraankaai; PI. C, 3, 4), in which 
are two private houses of the 17th cent, (one named the *Vliegenden 
Hert*), to the narrow Pont du Laitage or Zuivelbrug (PL 0.^ ^\. 

At the N.E. end of the Rue Loi\gue ^^ \^ U.^^w^'^i V^.^«5^. 

between the Lys bridge and theMarc\i6 duNftw^i<&^\ A^^^^^^^-^^J^^u 
Iron cannon, called the *Dulle QricW (!AadNLe?»\ V^^ «.c«^..^i^ 

64 SouU7, GHENT. Inner Toum: 

long and 11 ft. in circumference (resembling 'Mens Meg*, another 
large cannon in Edinbnrgli Castle). Above the touch-hole is the 
Burgundian Gross of St. Andrew , with the arms of Philippe le Bon 

The adjoining March6 dn Vendredi (^Vrydagmarkt ; PI. 0, D, 
3, 4), an extensive sqnare, now planted with trees, has been the 
scene of the most important events in the history of Ghent. Homage 
was here done to the Counts of Flanders on their accession, in a 
style of magniflcence unknown at the present day, after they had 
sworn, ^alle de bestaende wetteUj vorregten, vryheden en gewoonten 
vanH graafschap en van de stad Gent teonderhouden en tedoenonder' 
houden' (to maintain and cause to be maintained all the existing laws, 
privileges, freedoms, and customs of the county and city of Ghent; 

. comp. p. 22). Hither the members of the mediaeval guilds, 'cm 
tUes dures de Flandre\ as Charles V. termed his countrymen, flocked 
at the sound of the bell to avenge some real or imaginary infringe- 
ment of their rights, and here the standard of revolt was invariably 
erected. Here Jacques van Artevelde (p. 52) burned the papal 
Interdict against Flanders in 1345 ; and in this square, on May 2nd, 
1345, Gerard Denys at the head of his party, which consisted chiefly 
of weavers, attacked his opponents the fullers with such fury that 
even the elevation of the host failed to separate the combatants, of 
whom upwards of 500 were slain. This fatal day was subsequently 
entered in the civic calendar as * Kwade Maandag ' (Wicked Mon- 
day). In 1381 the citizens here took the oath of fidelity to their 
leader Philip van Artevelde; and here, in 1477, Hugonet and 
D'lmbercourt, the ministers of Maria of Burgundy, were executed 
by the rebellious townsmen, in spite of the entreaties of the young 
princess. Under the rule of the Duke of Alva his auto-da-f^s were 
enacted in the March^ du Vendredi. 

In the centre of the square, on the site occupied by the statue 
of Charles v., destroyed in 1792, rises a YiTonzQ Statue of Jacques 
van Artevelde^ over lifesize, executed by De Vigne-Quyo (1863). 
The powerful demagogue is represented fully accoutred, in the act of 
delivering the celebrated speech in which he succeeded in persuad- 
ing the citizens of Ghent to enter into an alliance with England 
against the will of the Count of Artois. The reliefs on the pedestal 
have reference to the three most important treaties concluded by 
Artevelde in behalf of Flanders. — The ancient buildings which 
formerly lent an interest to tliis square are now represented by a 
single house at the corner of the Rue des Peignes, on the S. side, 
known as the 2'orefccn, formerly the guild-house of the tanners, dating 
from the 15th century. On the N, side of the market is the Socialist 
Warehouse (1899), bearing the inscription: * Werklieden allerLanden, 
vereenipt «' f 'workmen of all countries, unite'), and the Qiu}) House 
COns IJuis'; 1900) of the Maatscha'p'p^ VootuU, t^o \iu\V\\Ti^ iu an 

interesting modern Btyle by Ferd. Diwkeiift. 

University. GHENT. 7.BouU, 66 

On the S.E. the March6 du Vendicdl is adjoined by the Place 
St. Jacques (PI. D, 3, 4), in the middle of which rises the Chnrch of 
St. Jacqnes (PI. D, 4), originally founded ahout the year 1100. The 
present edifice, restored in 1870-73 in the original style, dates from 
the 15th cent., hut the W. towers and the lower part of the central 
tower are Romanesque. 

The Intebior contains several pictares by Jan van Cleef. In the left 
aisle are two paintings by O. de Crayer: Members of the Order of the 
Trinity ransoming Christian captives, and the Virgin. The polpit, with 
a statne of the Apostle James, is by Van Pouehe^ and the tomb of Jean 
Palfyn (p. 74) is by the same artist (1784). The tomb of W. van Bronchorst 
and his wife is by Jan McUtheys (1669). 

A good view of the principal towers of the city is obtained from 
the N. side of the sqnare. 

The suppressed Baudeloo Convent contains the Athenaeum 
(Grammar School) and the Town and University Library (PI. D, 3), 
the largest in Belgium next to that at Brussels, with upwards of 
200,000 vols., 2500 MSS., a collection of about 7000 drawings, 
14,000 engravings, plans, and views of Ghent, from the 16th cent, 
till the present time, and about 25,000 pamphlets of the 16-18th 
centuries. Adm., see p. 50. — The adjoining Pare Public (Pl.D, 3; 
entr. , Rue St. Georges 21) , generally known as Baudeloohofy was 
laid out in 1797 for a botanical garden. 

We may now visit the Grand B^guinage (p. 71 ; tramway No. 3, 
p. 60) and the Abbey of St. Bavon (p. 70), or we may return from 
the Place St. Jacques to the Place St. Bavon (p. 58) via the Rue 
Royale, which contains the FUmish Academy (PI. D , 4 ; left). 

The Rue Royale intersects the Rob Hadt-Port or Hoogpoort (PI. C, D, 4). 
which contains the Gothic Guild House of t7i€ Ooldsmitht (1481) and several 
quaint gabled houses of the 16th century. Among these are the Cour de 
Si. OeoTffe^ at the corner of the March^ an Beurre (p. 59), with a fine court ; 
the QrooU Moor (No. 62); the Zwarte Moor; and the Sikkel or La FaucUle 
(No. 66: now a conservatorium of music). Behind the Sikkel, in the Rue du 
S^minaire (PI. D, 4), is the picturesque court of the Achtereikkel or Arriire- 
FemeUle^ with a Gothic tower (upper stage Renaissance) and an oriel window. 

In the Rue des Foulons (Volders-Straat), a little to the S. of the 
March^ au Beurre (p. 59) and March^ aux (Jrains (p. 60), rises the 
UniveiBity (PI. C, 4, 6), built by Roelandt in 1819-26. The main 
facade, with a (jorinthian portico, bears an inscription recording the 
completion of the building under William I. The Aula , reached 
through a covered court and a vestibule, which is adorned with 
frescoes by Vict. Lagye (p. 166), L. de Taeye^ and Alfr. Cluysenaar^ 
is a rotunda supported by marble columns in the style of the Pan- 
theon, and capable of containing 1700 persons. The Natural History 
Museum is a collection of some merit. The number of students 

is about 1100. 

The university was founded in 1817, al \,\ie aaja^i \.\m^ ^ SXv^^^ ^*Aasj^ 
(p. 246) and Loaraia (p. 236), and in 1836 U w«ca Tft-OT^«k\ %a ^V^^^^ 
State Univeraity for the Flemish-speaking pwrt oi t\ift coxwsJoi . Mft»^^ 

Baedskbb'b Belgium and Holland. iUbi ia«L\t. ^ 

66 ItmOel. GHE!CT. ir.#& 

Uaeberi wbo kare shed tascre ob tke muTcnitT are Jm. nttmm (4. 18B3), 
iktphjtieitt', Fr, Lawremi OL IffiT) aad Amm (4. 1890), tka juiilB; Arff JMi 
fp, ^|. tfc« pbjriciAB; /. GamtrHU (d. 1363). tlie pkOolafUt; aa4 Fr, BmH 
(A- IM), tbe pkilMopber. 

To the S. of tbe UnlTersity if tbe FUce d'AzBM or Kratar (Fl. 
C, 5), tbe most fashionable square in the town, planted with lime- 
treea (band, see p. 50). On Sunday mornings an abundantly sup- 
plied flower-market is held here. In the Place d^Armes are the 
hotels mentioned at p. 49, and also the foor largest club* of Ghent. 
— A few yards to the W., in the Rne do Th^itre, is the Gnmd 
Theatre Royal or Thedtre FrancaU (PI. G, 5), erected by Roelcmdi 
in 1837-40. 

In the Place du Commerce, on the S.W. side of the inner town, 
rises the Palais de Justice (GertchUhof; PL C, 5), another edifice 
by Rotlandi (1836-43), bounded on one side by the Lys, on the 
other by an arm of the Scheldt. The chief facade to the N. has a 
Corinthian portico, and is approached by a lofty flight of steps. In 
front is a bronze statue, by J. Dillens (1886), of H, Metdepermmgen 
(d. 1881), adrocate and leader of the Liberals of Ghent. 

b. The Western and Southern Quarters of the City. 

On the right banhL of the Coupure (p. 51), to the W. of the Palais 
de Justice, is the Clasino (PI. B, 4, 5), built by L. RoeUmdt in 1836 
(concerts in the large garden, see p. 50). The Casino belongs to a 
horticultural society (Maatschappy van Kruidkunde) and is chiefly 
used for the famous flower-shows of Ghent, which were established 
in 1808 and take place twice a year. — In the small square in front 
of the Casino is a monument to the Flemish composer, K, Miry. 

Opposite the Casino, to theN.W., rises the Maison de Force (£aap- 
huis ; PI. A, B, 4), a prison formerly of European celebrity. The 
building was erected under Maria Theresa in 1773, and enlarged in 
1825. — Near this is another prison, the Maison de SHretij dating 
from 1862. 

A pleasant walk ascends hence along the Coupure to the Byloke 
(sec p. 67). 

From the Palais do Justice (see above) three streets — the Kue 
Basse dc^s Champs (PI. 0, 6), the Rue de Courtral (PL C, 5, 6), and 
the Chau88(Jo do Courtral (PI. C, B, 6, 7) — lead through the South 
QuAiiTKit of the city to the station of Oand SL Pierre (PL B, 7; 
tramway No. 4, p. bO). In the Rue Plateau, near the S. end of the 
Hue Basso dcs Champs, rises the — 

Institut des Sciences (PL C, 5, 6), completed in 1890 after 

plans by Ad. Pauli and covering nearly 3i/2 acres of ground. It 

contains tho lecture-rooms and laboratories of the university faculty 

of phynloal science and of the technioal soViooU t^ixxu^c^^ -with the 

univor8ityC/i:cole du Qinie Civil and Ecole dcs Art* et M«wataftVut«a)% 

FajTC de la dtadeUe. GHENT. 7. Boute. 67 

Near the S. end of the Rue de Goartrai is the Pont du Pain Perdu 
(PI. 0, 6), a bridge crossing the Lys. The Qaai de la Blloque leads 
hence to the left to a group of buildings generally named Byloke or 
Biloqne, after an abbey founded here in the 13th century. These 
include the Civil Hospital (^Hdpital Civil; PI. B, C, 6) and a Hospice 
for Old Men (Oudemannekenshuis ; PL B, C, 6). Behind the new 
buildings of the hospital (entr., Rue Kluyskens 265 ; adm. only by 
permission of the Director) is the old Abbey QiurcH (13th cent.), 
with an elegant double gable. The Interior is divided into sick« 
wards, from the long corridor connecting which we may inspect the 
huge timber roof, like an inverted ship's hull. Adjacent is the 
Home of the Sisters of Charity, 

The former Refectory (14th cent.), the very interesting brick 
*Gable of which is visible from the street, belongs to the Old Men's 
Hospice (entr., Boul. des Hospices 2; small gift expected). In the 
Interior of the refectory, which is divided by a structure of 1715, 
the ribs of the almost unaltered timber roof still retain the original 
colouring (red, yellow, blue, and white). On the end-walls are 
damaged frescoes of the 14th cent. : on the W., John the Baptist 
vnth the Lamb and St. Christopher ; on the E., Christ blessing the 
Madonna (best light in the morning). 

From the bridge at the S.E. end of the Boul. des Hospices (PI. 0, 6) 
the Boulevard de la Oitadelle leads past the handsome fountain- 
monument to Count K. de Kerchove de Dentergem (1819-81), Burgo- 
master of Ghent, to the ♦Pare de la Oitadelle (PI. C, 7), laid out 
in 1870 et seq. on the site of the works of the citadel, built after 
1815. A monument by A. Heins^ consisting of a negro seated upon 
a rock, commemorates the brothers Van de Velde, natives of Ghent, 
who died in Africa as officers in the service of the Congo Free State 
(1882 and 1888). The park also contains Prometheus and the eagle, 
In marble, by L. van Blesbroeck^ and *Les Planteurs de Mat', a group 
of labourers in bronze, by J, van Biesbroeck, 

In the Boulevard d'Horticulture, on the S.E. side of the park, are 
the State School of Horticulture, founded in 1849 ; the Botanic Garden, 
in which the tropical flora of the Congo Free State is especially well 
represented; and the — 

Mus^e des Beaux- Arts (PI. C, 7), opened in 1904 and containing , 
modem sculptures and about 300 old and modern paintings. Ad- 
mission, see p. 50. Curator, M. L. Maeterlinck. 

The Vestibule contains Modern Belgian Sculptures (comp. 
p. 94): Busts by Th, Vin^otte, *Paul de Vigne, and J. Lagae; the Sun- 
flower, a figure by P. de Vigne, Also two pieces of Brussels tapestry 
by Van den Heche (17th cent.). 

The Central Hall contains busts by ♦P. de Vigne^ Th. Frnqotte^wjA. 
E. L, Corbet (Gen. Bonaparte, 179S), atv^ ^wt^^ \il O. ^«Mswv.«t 
(•Prodigal Son) and J. Lagae (Penitence^ On tV^-^^^XIva^ ^^^Nfcww^^"^ 
tApestijhj VandenHeekt and ♦Urbain Le^nle^Vy^Vls'^^^^^'^ 

68 Router, GHENT. W.^ S. OuaHers: 

Yeniis, tlie Muses, Neptune, Minerva, and Mars) and also a painting, by 
Fr.Duchastd, representing the Procession in tiieMarcM duYendredl 
at the reception of Charles II. of Spain as Count of Flanders (1666). 

Rooms I-XII (to the right) contain the Oldbb Paintings. — 
Room II. Pictures of the 15th century. 

Room III. Brueghel the Elder ^ Flemish kermesse. J. de Backer , 
*Isaiah predicting to Hezekiah his recovery, with the miracle of the 
sun going ten degrees backward; on the wings a Crucifixion and the 
donor, the Abbot del Rio; on the outside. Raising of Lazarus, in 
grisaille. Adr. Key^ Portrait. Fr, Pourhus the Elder ^ Large winged 
altar-piece, with 22 scenes from the life of Christ; on the back, the 
Last Supper. 

Room IV. Jac. van, Helmont^ Crucifixion; P. Cod(i<(?), Back- 
gammon players. — Room V. 0, de Grayer ^ Madonna with the rosary; 
Th, Boeyermansy Vision of St. Mary Magdalen de' Pazzi, San Carlo 
Borromeo dispensing the Sacrament to persons stricken with the 
plague ; Peter Thys , St. Sebastian receiving the martyr's palm from 
angels ; Ant. van den Heuvel, Adoration of the Shepherds. — To the 
left is — 

Room I. 0, de Grayer^ Virgin handing the scapulary to St. Simon 
Stock, Resurrection, *Coronation of St. Rosalie; Ft. Duchaatel^Vor- 
trait; 0, de Grayer ^ Tobias and the Angel; Verhagen^ Presentation in 
the Temple. 0, de Grayer, *Juclgment of Solomon (a masterpiece); 
Martyrdom of St. Blasius (his last work, unfinished, painted in 1668 
at the age of 85) ; Vision of St. Augustine. Romhouts, Justice (alle- 
gory; 1628). — To the right is — 

Room VIII, chiefly containing works of the Dutch, British, and 
French schools. Hondecoeter, Poultry; Adrian van Utrecht^ Fish- 
monger; Th, de Keyser, Portrait; Frans Hals, Portrait (1640); Heda^ 
Stm-life(1634); P. deRing, A, van Beyeren, Chardin, Still-life; 
Raeburn, Portrait. 

Room VII. Jac. Jordaens, Studies of heads ; Rubens, St. Francis 
receiving the stigmata, painted in 1632 for the Franciscan Church at 
Ghent (resembling the painting at Cologne; freely retouched); Jor^ 
daens, Christ and the Woman taken in adultery; P. de Vos, Fox-hunt; 
Ph. de Champaigne, P. Camus, Bishop of BeUey and Arras. 

Room VI. J. van Es, Still-life; Rombouts, •The five senses 
(1632). — Room IX (to the right of R. VII). P. van Avont ^ Fr. 
Wouters, Holy Family, with angels; J. d^Arthois, Landscape; Tenters 
the Younger , Sketch ; K, du Jardin, Portrait. — We pass through 
Rooms X & XI into Room XII, which contains mythological scenes 
by Suvie, Paelinck, and Navez. 

The adjacent Semicibculab Room contains St. Livin, by L. Del" 
vaux, Wounded, by J. Lambeaux, and other sculptures. 

Rooms A-L contain the Collection op Modern Piotu&bs (comp. 
jpp. 93, 166). 

Room L. L. Gallait, Christ and the PVailBftft ^\fia?>.\ Vo^xaft^Y 

Mwie des Beaux^Arts. GHENT. 7. Route, 69 

Boom E. H. Source , Glierries ripe (1874); L. OdUaitj Scene 
daring the Inquisition (coloured sketc£) ; Lamorinihrej Landscape. — 
We pass tlirougli Room J into Room I. L, de Winne^ Eight portraits ; 
F, de VignCj Ghent Fair in the 15th cent.; Em, Breton^ Landscape; 
Jul, Breton, Return from the harvest. — To the left is — 

Room H. Fr. Lenbach, Portrait; Em, Claus, Ice-birds; L'Het' 
miite, In church. — Room G. Q, Evenepoel, The Spaniard in Paris ; 
8, Krbytr, ♦Portrait (1894); Zuloaga, Market in Spain; Em, Breton, 
Winter-scene. — To the right is — 

Room F. C, de Cock, Landscape; Qussovo, Return of the soldier 
(1875). — Room E. G. Vanaiae, J. van Artevelde and Jan Breidel 
speaking against the Count of Flanders before the representatives 
of the Flemish cities (comp. p. 52). —7 Room A (left) ; A, Roll, Bacchic 
dance (1872); Rosseels, Landscape; J. de LcUaing, The colonel of 
cavalry (portrait); Coosemans, 'La mare aux corbeaux\ — To the 
right is — 

Room B. C, Meunier, Martyrdom of St. Stephen; Alex, Struys^ 
•Extreme unction; W, Maris, Cow drinking. — Room 0. Is, Ver- 
?ieyden. Landscape; Buysse, Snow-scene; A, Verwie, Bulls fighting 
(1883); Alb, Baertson, ♦Winter- scene ; L, Frid6ric, Funeral-feast; 
A, Zom, ♦Mother bathing her child in the sea (1895) ; James Outhrie, 
Village children. 

Picturesquely situated on a height named Mont Blandin, a little 
to the N.E. of the Pare de la Citadelle (p. 67), is the Church of 
St. Pierre (PI. 11 ; D, 6), a relic of the famous Benedictine abbey 
said to have been founded about 630 by St. Amandus, the Apostle 
of Flanders. The abbey-buildings at one time extended to the arm 
of the Scheldt on the N. The church, originally Romanesque, was 
destroyed by the iconoclasts in 1578, but was rebuilt in the Renaissance 
style, after 1629, by Pierre Huyssens and enlarged by an addition 
on the W, side. The restoration was finally concluded in 1729 by 
Matheys. The interior contains a few pictures. 

South Aisle : Er. Quellin the Younger^ Triamph of the Catholic religion. 
— North Aisle: Van Thulden^ Pictures representing the triamph of 
Boman Catholicism (these all copies of works painted by Rubens in 1628 
et seq. for the Convent of Loeches, near Madrid). — Rstbo-Choir, to the 
right: A. Janssens, Liberation of Peter; Van Avont, Holy Family, with 
dancing angels ; Janssens, Miraculous Draught of Fishes, as an accessory 
to a large landscape. Also five small pictures by Van Doorselaer, of the 
period of the Spanish supremacy, illustrative of the virtues of the mira- 
culous image of the Virgin on the altar. On the other side: Seghers^ 
Raising of Lazarus; De Grayer ^ St. Benedict recognising the equerry of 
the Qothic King Totilas; Janssens^ Landscape with two hermits. 

The open space in front of the church has been formed by the 

demolition of part of the old abbey-buildings. Another part serves 

as a barrack. The landlord of the barrack-caivtft«V!L ^'js^^ ^ ^^s^^^ 

16th cent, cloister (fee). 

From the Place 8t, Pierre we ma^j letxaii Vi VX^^Qt«.x«^ ^^s.'^^k^ 

by electric tramway (No. 4 ; p. 50> 

70 BouU7. GHENT. BaHan QwiHeri: 

c. The Eastem Quarters of the City and the Snbnzbi, 

In the Place d'Artevelde (PI. D, E, 5), to the N.E. of the Gare 
da Sad (p. 49), is the Church of 8t. Anne^ erected from Roelandt's 
designs in 1853, and gaadily decorated by Canneel. — The Rue des 
Yiolettes, diyerging to the S. from the square, leads to the — 

* Petit B^g^uinage Notre Dame or Klein Begynhof van On%e 
Uewe Vrouw (PI. E, 6, 6 ; comp. p. 71) , the foundation of which 
dates from 1234. It contains about 300 sisters, and has remained 
unaltered since the 18th century. The scrupulously clean little 
houses are arranged round a rectangular grassy space bordered with 
trees ; while another square block of similar houses with narrow 
lanes between adjoins. A dazzlingly white wall separates the houses 
from the open space. Each house has its own patron-saint, whose 
name is inscribed above the door. The church (17th cent.) occupies 
almost the entire N.E. side of the grassy space. Its N. aisle contains 
a notable winged-picture by Lucas Horenhault, The Assembly of 
the saints (1596). Lace (Eanten) is offered for sale in the Convent 
8t, Joseph, opposite the W. portal of the church. 

Following the Quai Porte aux Vaches (PI. E, 5, 4) to the N. from 
the Place d'Artevelde, then crossing the bridges, to the right, over 
the BaS'Escaut^ or E. arm of the Scheldt, and the Lys, we reach the 
ruined Abbey of St. Bavon (PI. E, 4; adm., see p. 50; description 
& plan Q5 c), in the Rue de I'Abbaie, or Abdy-Straat (No. 5). The 
abbey, traditionally said to have been founded about 630 by St. 
Amandus (p. 69) and restored in 661 by St. Bavon (d. 654), was one 
of those bestowed upon Eginhard, the biographer of Charlemagne, 
and after its destruction by the Northmen (861) was restored with 
great splendour (10th cent.). John of Gaunt (i.c. Gand or Ghent), 
son of Edward I. and Queen Philippa, was bom here in 1340; and 
PhUip the Bold of Burgundy was married in the church in 1369. 
Charles V. caused the buildings to be razed in 1540, in order to 
build a citadel (p. 53), which served as a prison for Counts Egmont 
and Hoorn in lo67, was surrendered by the Spaniards to William 
of Orange in 1576 after a brave resistance, and was then destroyed, 
though its last remnants lingered until 1831. 

The chief remnant of the old abbey is the Cloistbr, dating 

originally from 1177, but rebuilt in the Gothic style in 1495. Its 

S. walk is adjoined by the N. wall of the Ahhey Churchy consecrated 

in 10G7 and destroyed by the Calvinists in 1581. — On the E. side 

of the cloister is the octagonal Lavatorium (1177), the upper story 

of which formerly contained the relics of St. Macarius (d. 1012). This 

Is adjoined by the sadly dilapidated Chapter House (ca. 1220), with 

portal and window-openings in the Transition style. In the pave- 

ment are iO ancient tombs (12th cent. ?), hewn In the sandstone 

And formerly corered with reddish moitaT,iiot xnAVkftrnxflttsK^ ^\^sl% 

/o aAape. Farther on is the so-called Cellar ^<i«u V>f>SS^^ «^^v»^^^ 

Abbey of St, Bavon, GHENT 7. RouU. 71 

by three thick round columns. — Under the old refectory, on the N. 
side of the cloister, are three vaulted rooms, one of which, known as 
the Oothic Room, is supported by a single central column. 

A few steps ascend to the old Rbfbotoby, a Romanesque struc- 
ture of the close of the 12th cent., with Qothlc timber vaulting 
(16th cent.). It now contains a Musit Lapidaire or Lapidarium, with 
various sculptured fragments found in the abbey and in other parts 

of the town. 

Over the entrance is a large wooden crucifix by Jean de la PorU (1613). 
— By the left side-wall are the tomb of a monk (d. 1272), with one of the 
earliest Franciscan representations, and a charming relief of the Nativity 
from Tonrnai (1453), with traces of painting and gilding. — By the rear- 
wall: Mutilated tombstone of Hubert van Eyck, re-discovered in 1892^ an 
interesting grave-slab of the 13th cent., with remains of colouring ^ stone 
figure of a warrior from the Belfry (1338). — In the middle of the room 
is a Romanesque relief from the portal of the abbey (12th cent.?), with 
representations of the wonder-working relics of St. Bavon; Romanesque 
capitals; Gothic keystones, capitals, and painted statuettes (14-ldthcent.); 
remains of a Romanesque font (12th cent.)*, tomb of John of Cleves and his 
wife (d. 1500). 

On the N. side of the abbey is the Church of St, Macarius (PI. 
E, 4), a modem Gothic edifice by A. Verhaegen (1882), containing 
an antique carved wooden pulpit. 

We may now take the electric tramway (No. 5; p. 60) from the 
neighbouring Boulevard du Chateau (PI. E, 4) to the Chauss^e 
d'Anvers (Antwerpsche Steenweg) in the suburb otSt. Amandshergy 
or Mont St. Amandj alighting at the Oostacker Straat, about 3 min. 
beyond the Eecloo and Waesland Stations (p. 47). The narrow street 
leads to the right to the (4 min.) — 

Grand B^guinage de Ste. Elisabeth (Begynhof van Sint EUsa- 
heth; PI. E, 3,4; comp. p. 70), transferred in 1874 from its former 
position near the Porte de Bruges (p. 63) to the present site, which 
was secured for it by the influence of the Due d' Arenberg. 

The name is most probably derived from Lambert Le Bigue-, a priest 
of Li^ge, who is said to have founded the first Bigtdnage (1180). The objects 
promoted by the Beguinages are a religious life, works of charity (tending 
the sick), and the honourable self-maintenance of women of all ranks. 
These institutions have passed almost scatheless through the storms of 
centuries. Joseph II. spared them, when he dissolved the other religious 
houses, and they also remained unmolested during the French Revolu- 
tion, their aim having steadfastly been the ^support of the needy and 
the care of the sick.** There are at present about twenty Beguinages in 
Belgium, with fully 1500 members, about 1000 of whom are in Ghent. 
With the exception of those at Amsterdam and Breda, these establishments 
are now confined to Belgium, though at one time they were common 
throughout the districts of the lower Rhine. 

The members of the Beguinages are unmarried women of unblemish- 
ed character, and pay a yearly board of at least 110 fr. , besides an en- 
trance-fee of about 500 fr. for the dwelling and the maintenance of the 
church. Two years of novitiate must be undergone before they can be 
elected as sisters. They are subject to certain conveTvix)A\ T«k^c\'^v:ir&.^^ 
and are bound to obey their superior, the Groot JuJBTvouwd qt Qva-ad.^ liawA. 
(whom the bishop appoints), but axe unteltweei Vj wii ^^^^^^^'^^^.^^^ 
// Is, however, a boast of the order that vexy Iftvr ol \.W« ^^^^l^T^n^ 
tbemaelvea of their liberty to return to tlie woxU. t\i«? ^eso^'Sk ^^'^^ 

72 Route 7. GHENT. E, QuarUrs : BSguinage. 

to sewing and similar employments, sick-nursing, and the free education 
of poor children. The younger Sisters live together in convents under 
control of a Dame Supirieure, where they spend such time as ttiey are 
not in church, in working in common (lace-making, etc.)* After having 
been members for six years, however, they have the option of retiring 
to one of the separate dwellings, which contain rooms for two to four 
occupants. The doors of these houses are inscribed with numbers and the 
names of tutelary saints. In many cases the B^guines have the society of 
other women who are not members of the order, whose board forms a 
small addition to their funds. 

The Sisters must attend divine worship twice or thrice a day, the 
first service being at 5 a.m.*, and the last at Vespers, the hour of which 
varies according as it becomes too dark for the fine work of the nuns. 
The latter service, known as 4of or ^salut des B^uines\ presents a very 

gietnresque and impressive scene, when the blue robes and white linen 
eadgear of the Sisters are dimly illuminated by the evening light and a 
few lamps. Novices have a different dress, while those who have been 
recently admitted to the order wear a wreath round their heads. The 
black Flemish robes (failles) are worn out-of-doors only. 

The B^gninage forms a little town of itself, enclosed by walls 
and moats, with streets, squares, gates, 18 convents, and a church, 
the last forming the central point of the whole. The houses, though 
nearly all two-storied Gothic hrick buildings, present great variety 
of appearance and form a very picturesque ensemble. The B^guinage 
was planned by the architect Verhaegen, It contains about 700 mem- 
bers, beautiful specimens of whose lace (Kanten) may be bought 
firom the Oroot JufprouWj opposite the entrance of the church. 

The suburb of St. Amandsberg also contains the modern Gothic 
Giurch of Notre Dame de Lourdes en Flandre, designed by M. van 
Hoecke and embellished with stained - glass windows by A. Ver- 
haegen and a pulpit by De Bock and Van Wint of Antwerp. Its 
grotto is annually yisited by crowds of pilgrims. 

In the suburb of Oenthrugge, near the Ghauss^e de Bruxelles 
(electric tramways, Nos. 2 & 6, p. 60), are the extensive nurseries of 
L. van Houtte (visitors admitted except on Sun.). 

A pleasant drive (4-5 hrs., carriage 7-8 fr.) may be taken to the S.W. 
from Ghent to the interesting castle of Hooidonk, near the village of Baehte- 
MarichLeeme (Sterre Inn). The castle , also reached on foot in *U hr. 
from the station of Dewle (p. 73), was built in 1600 by Philip of Mont- 
morency, partly destroyed in 1579, and frequently restored, finally in 1864. 
Admission only on previous application to the proprietor, Baron t^Kint 
de Roodenbeke. 

From Ohbmt to Tbrnbdzen, 26V2 M., railway in about IVt hr. (fares 

3 fr., 2 fr. 30, 1 fr. 50 c). The train starts from the Gare du Sud, stopping 

at the Station d''£ecloo (see p. 49), and then follows the direction of the 

canal mentioned at p. 51. Stations : Wondelghem (see below), Langerhruggt^ 

Terdonck-Clupsen , Ertvelde^ Selzaete (junction of the line from Eecloo to 

Lokeren, p. 82, and the last Belgian station). — iV/2 M. Sas (i. e., lock) 

▼an Ghent (the first Dutch station, where the locks of the above-mentioned 

canal are situated). Then Philippinty Sluyskil^ and Temeusen (Hdt. des Pay*' 

Bas, B. l>/«, B. «/4, D. 2 fl. ; H6t. Rotterdam, R. & B. 1V«-1V4, D. 1V4-1V« A-, 

well spoken of; Brit, consular & Lloyd's agents), a small fortified town at 

ilte mouth of the important canal which connects Ghent with the Scheldt. 

Mffamfiaa/ thence 4or6timen daily in IV2 hr. to Flushing (p. 286); omni- 

ifaa from the aUition at FJushing to the (»/* H') Ble«Lm^>o«.\.-'5i\ftt. 

* ** 4 fr. io, 8fr, io I fy, gg ^^ Btarting froml^e S\«.\,Voii ^i^Wi\^», wv 

OOlJRTRAI. 8, BouU. 73 

the N.E. side of the town. Stations: Wondelghem^ Evergh«n^ SUydingty Waer- 
schootf (12Vt M.) Eeeloo (a busy town with 10,400 inhab., where the Bruges, 
Selzaete, and Lokeren line diverges to the right: see p. 82), BalgerJioehe^ 
AdegTiem^ Maldeghem (branch-line to Bre$k€n» via Aardenhwrg^ with a fine 
Gothic church of the 13th & 16th cent., and Sluit^ see p. 20), Donck^ BpsseeU^ 
Steenbnigge (p. 21), and Bruges (p. 21). 

Steam Tbamwats fbom Ohsnt : to the E. (starting from the Boulevard 
du Chateau; PI. £, 4), via Mont St. Amand, Laeme (p. 81), and Wetleren 
(p. 81), to Zele (p. 82) and Bamme (p. 82; 22Vs M.); to the N.E. (starting 
from the Boul. du Chateau), via Mont St. Amand (p. 72), to (IOV2 M.) 
Saffelaere; to the N.W. (starting from the Pont du B^guinage; PI. B, 8), 
via Everghem (p. 72) and Zomerghem^ to (18 M.) Ursel; to the S. (starting 
from the Gare du Sud) to (41/2 H.) Meirelbeke Op- 81). 

A Steamboat plies 1-3 times daily from Ghent (Porte d''Anver8 ; PI. E, 
3, 4) to (IV2 lir.) Selzaete (p. 72); fare Ifr., there and back 1 fr. 60 c. 

8. From Ghent to Courtrai and Tournai. 

48 M. Railway in i^i-Q^/i hrs. (fares 7 fr. 40, 5 fr., 2 fr. 95 c. ; express- 
fares somewhat higher) ; to Courtrai (27V2 M.) in 'A-l'A hr. (fares 4 fr. 30, 
2 fr. 90, 1 fr. 70 c). From Tournai to Brussels, see R. lb. 

Ohentj see p. 49. — 5 M. 8t, DenU- Westrem, — At (6 M.) La PinU 

the line to Oudeaaaide, Lenze, and Mens diverges to the left. 

Fbom Ghent to Oddenaabde, 17 M., railway in B/4 hr. (fares 2 fr. 70, 

1 fr. 80, 1 fr. 5 c); to Ledze , 36V2 M., in l»/4-2 hrs. (6 fr. 50, 3 fr. 70, 

2 fr. 20 c.) ; via St. Ghislain to Mons, 68 M., in 3-3V4 hrs. (8 fr. 90, 6 fr., 3 fr. 
60 c). — Stations : Eecke-Natareth , Qavere (p. G^), Synghem^ Eyne, and 
Oudenaarde (p. 47), the junction of the line from Brussels to Courtrai 
(R. 6), and of a branch-line via Avelghem (p. 75) to Mouscron (p. 76). Then 
Leupeghem and EHehove. 26 M. Benaiz (H6t. ViUe de Mom; H6u de PUtUvert), 
a town with 17,000 inhab. (branches to Enghien-Courtrai and to Sotteghem- 
Toumai, p. 5), Anvaing^ Frasnes-lez-Buistenal^ Orandmett^ Leuxe (junction 
of the Brussels-Lille line, p. 6), Basicles, Blaton (p. 5, 6), Ville-Pommeroeul^ 
St. Ghislain (p. 5). — 68 M. Mons^ see p. 208. 

8 M. Deurle (to the castle of Hooidonk 3/^ hr., see p. 72) ; 10 M. 
Astene. — 11 M. Deynze (30 ft.), a small town on the Lei or Lys, 
with an old church, is the junction of the line to Dunkirk (see p. 44) ; 
steam-tramway to Oudenaarde (p. 48). — 13 Y2 M. Machden; ISi/g M. 
Olaene; I8V2 M. Waereghem^ junction for the connecting line be- 
tween Anseghem (p. 48) and Ingelmunstei (p. 47); 22 M. DtsseU 
ghem. 24^/2 M. Harltheke, with a Romanesque church and belfry 
and a monument to the composer P. Benoit (1834-1901), a native 
of the place. Tobacco is extensively grown here. 

27Y2 M. Coortrai. — Hotels (all unpretending). H6t. du Damikb, 
in the Grand^ Place; H6t. Royal (R. 2fr.), Hot. de la Ville de Gand 
(D. 2V2-3fr.), with cafds, both at the station; Hot. do Noed, opposite. — 
Cafi Beige, Cafi Royal. Brasserie de Mtmich, Bodega, all in the Grand' Place. 
— Post Offices in the Grand^ Place and at the rail, station. — Two or three 
hours suffice for seeing the town. 

Courtrai, Flem. Kortryk (60 ft.), a town with 33,500 inhab., sit- 
uated on the Lyty is famous for its table-linen and its lace.^ in tha 
manufacture of which 5000-6000 women %ie esa^Vii^^. ^Y^^^v:^ 
of CouTtraJ enjoys a high reputation, and \a mMi\ii»>.<i'^^^^ ^^«^'^^'^% 
AS well S3 in the town itself. There we «\*o «L.l«n&V^* >ci\feVsXs.Vft.^- 
grounds in the vicinity. 

74 Route 8. OOURTRAI. Fnm Ghent 

From the station the Rue des Grandes Halles leads to the right 
to the March^ aux Avoines, which contains a hronze st&tne, by 
T. Vin^otte, of Jan Palfyn (d. 1730), a native of Oourtrai and in- 
ventor of the forceps. — From the end of the street the Rue de 
Tournai leads to the left to the large — 

Market Place (Groote Markt or Grand' Place), in the centre 
of which rises the Belfry ('Tour des Petites Halles'), a Gothic brick 
building of the 14th century. To the right is a marble statue, by 
Paul De Vigne (1895), of De Haeme, a member of the congress of 
1830 (p. xxiil). 

The Gothic *Town Uall (fee to concierge 50 c), on the N.W. 
side of the Grand' Place, erected in 1526-28, has been completely 
restored since 1846, and the facade embellished with statues in 
the original style. The Salle Echevinale, on the groundfloor, is em- 
bellished with well-painted frescoes from the history of Flanders 
by Ouffens and SwertSf completed in 1875. The principal of these 
represent the Departure of Baldwin IX. , Count of Flanders, at the 
commencement of the Fourth Crusade (1202), and the Consultation 
of the Flemish leaders in the Court Room the day before the Battle 
of the Spurs, 1302 (see p. 75). Its Renaissance chimney-piece is 
adorned with the coats-of-arms of the allied towns of Ghent and 
Bruges, the standard-bearers of the knights of Courtrai, a figure of 
the Virgin, and statues of Archduke Albert and his wife (p. xxii). 
— In the Council Chamber upstairs is another and more interesting 
chimney-piece in the richest Flamboyant style (1527). Three rows 
of well-executed statuettes represent the different ViWwca and Vices; 
in the upper section we see faith, humility, liberality, chastity, 
brotherly love, temperance, patience, and watchfulness; in the 
middle section, idolatry, pride, avarice, voluptuousness, envy, 
gluttony, anger, and sloth. The reliefs below seem to indicate the 
punishments which follow in the train of these vices. On corbels 
are placed statuettes of Charles V., the Infanta Isabella (on the 
right), and Justice (on the left). The walls are covered with large 
plans of the town and its jurisdiction (^castelany')^ painted in oil 

A few yards behind the De Haeme Monument is the Biffuinage 
(p. 71). Immediately to the right is St. Martin's Chubch, the 
Gothic tower of which is visible from the Grand' Place ; the nave was 
erected in 1390-1439, the transept about 1415, the beautiful W. por- 
tal in 1592-95. The interior has been restored since a fire in 1862. 
The handsome pulpit of carved wood and the beautiful ciborium in 
gilded stone (22 ft. high ; in the choir, to the left), executed in the 
16th cent., were saved from the fire. In the N. transept is a winged 
picture by B. de Byckere [(ii Courtrai •, 1587), representing the De- 
8cent of the Holy Qhost , the Creation, au^ Tia.^\.\sm. 'tXtfe si'^\ji^\ 
glass in the choir and the large side-chapeJV to i\ift\ftlt\.%m^^«ni. 

io ToufnaL GOtJRTttAt. 8. Bowte. 76 

In the Rae dn B^gainage, wMch leads to the N. from the B^- 
guinage, is a Museum (No. 1) containing several modern pictures, 
among which may he mentioned : Nic, deKeyter^ Battle of the Spurs 
(see helow); L, Bohbe^ Cattle ; Carpeniier, ^Alerte*; Meunier, Burial 
of a monk ; Artan,^ Oourtens^ Landscapes. The museum is open free 
on Sun., Mon., and Thurs., 10-12 & 2-5; other days, adm. 25 c. 

The Rue du B^guinage ends at the small Parvis Notre-Dame, 
which is emhelllshed with a marble hust of Quido Oezelle (1830-99). 
To the right stands the church of — 

NoTBB Damb, founded by Count Baldwin IX. of Flanders (p. 74), 
and completed in 1211. The choir, which is decorated with marble, 
and the portal were rebuilt in the 18th century. 

Intssiob. The 8. transept contains the ^Raising of the Cross, one of 
Van Dyek^i best pictures (1631). — The altars to the right and left of the 
choir-rece'^s, in the ambulatory, are adorned with good reliefs in marble 
of the iSth cent., by Lecreux (p. 79), representing St. Bochus among the 
plague-stricken, and Mary Magdalen with angels. — The Chapel of the CounU^ 
on the right of the choir, added to the church in 1373, is adorned with 
wall-paintings of the 14th cent., representing the Counts and Countesses of 
Flanders, and restored by Van der PlaeUen (d. 1857), who continued the 
series down to Emp. Francis II. The Last Judgment, on the W. wall of 
the chapel, is also by Van der PlMtsen. 

A little farther on, at the end of the Rue Guido Gezelle, are two 
massive old bridge- towers (Broeltorens). That to the right contains 
the Oudheidskamer or Mus£e d'Antiqyite$, with lace and other ob- 
jects of Interest (key kept by the concierge at the town-hall). — 
Adjacent are the gardens of the Cercle Musical, 

From Notre Dame the Rue de Notre Dame leads to the S.W. back 
to the Grand' Place. Thence we may proceed to the E. by the Rue de 
Groeninghe, cross the Esplanade, and follow the Ave. Ant. Goethals 
to the Boulevard de Groeninghe, which is to be adorned with a 
large monument, by G. de Yreese, commemorating the Battle of 
the Spurs (see below). 

In the Rue de Lille, to theW. of the Grand' Place^is ihe Church 

of 8t, Michael, in the late-Gothic style (1610), with a modernized 

interior. — At the end of the street is a monument to L. Bohbe 

(p. 93), the animal-painter. 

Below the walls of Courtrai, on 11th July, 1302, was fought the famous 
Battle of the Spuvs, in which the Flemish army, led by Count John of 
Namur and Duke William of Juliers, and consisting chiefly of weavers 
from Bruges and Tpres, under the guild-presidents Breidel and De Conine 
of Bruges (p. 33), defeated the French under the Count of Artois. About 
1200 knights and several thousand soldiers fell. The victors afterwards 
collected 700 golden spurs, an appendage worn by the French knights 
alone, and hung them up as trophies in a monastery- church which hus 
since been destroyed. 

From Courtrai to Brtusels and to Tpres^ see R. 6. — CouttcaiU ^\&^ ^«^- 
nected by branch-lines with Enghien Cp. '^^ , ^^^ k^€^^«as. ^^ ^S?^^ 
(p. 73) to the R, and with RouUrs (p. ^) y\%, lT^«\mvcaaX«t V^•^^"^~^vrril. 
Steam-tramwajrs run to (14 M.) Ohanwe. {^ 'tt-O Wack«rw^ «A.\?»^.^ «^«^ 
cfW9 (p. 76), 

7ri Hnnin 0. TOURNAI. 

'i'lin Ton runt Mtio qiiiu the flat land and enters an andnltl 
nihI plriiinniqiiP (llNtrlct. Thu Flemiah language gives way to 
rri^iirh. Ml M. I.auwf. — 30 M. Mouacron (the t mute^i tiie I 
el in iloiiitnp for trnvoItcrH arriving from France (Rail. Bestauxa 

pRtm Miiii^pRnN TO Iiii.LK, 19 M., railway in 37 xnin. (fares 3 fr. 3(L : 
h\ I rr. n r). 0> V M. Tourcoint (H6Ui dm Cygn^; GrandSSUi)^ a I 
iiiniiuriirturlnii lnwii nf Sl).(lOO inliiiU.f with the French enstom-^ooAe 
iitiiniiniiMil tMiiiniiotiioriitoit tho il<>foat of the Kngllsh and Avstriaiui by Ji 
lUtt ■ml MxroAu til \l\i\. .1 M. Roubaiz (SdUl FerraUU), aa impor 
llitpit HtiiMunirhirliic (own. th« lutpulatton of which has risea from al 
)Miii|) III IHiii I.* IVl.(^H) (aMiip. B€ud0ifr*§ y^rlAtm I^rmme^y — Vear (V 
ttiifVtt^'^'*' 11*^ ^nk\\\ \*n>ii«cii (ho Koubaix Canal, which eonneets th«I> 

Tito uox( «(.iii\Mi. IUr$fituj:, is connected by a bianeb-l 
\Ttih I^MLiix {\\ I'lU, >iA \To1^h«m ^p. 4S\ Between Niehin ; 
rr-'ifiVtM-i* \\w \\\>\fi\M\ lino quvt$ tho province of West Flanden 
\\\ «t M fftiM.Mfif v^ior. f?mnry.;u>. To the left rises Momt St. Ad 
\^jv SI V fV»^vM'i*-^ i« aUo a »t4(tix^n on the line to Lille (p. 6)i 
Ihi* u>U\ onw«o« tUo S»»hoUlt. «nd iuA'.ly stop* at — 

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V-'-&C -?^ "^'*™*s;l "^'^ 

T '^ • ^~ 

Cathedral. TOURNAI. 9. Boute. 77 

presents a macli cleaner and pleasanter appearance than the other 
large industrial towns of Belgium. The quays , planted with trees, 
contribute to this effect. The river is generally crowded with barges, 
most of which are laden with coal from Le Borlnage (p. 210). The 
old walls have been converted into promenades. — The pretender, 
Perkin Warbeek, was born here. 

In the middle ages the staple manufactures of Tournai, as of 
Dinant, were copper and brass wares. A little later it manufactured 
tapestry, fayence (1670-1815), and porcelain (factory established by 
F. J. Peterinck in 1751). The making of so-called ^Brussels carpets', 
weaving, and embroidering are the chief modem industries. There 
are few large factories, as the weavers work mainly at home. 

The Rue Royalb, crossing the arm of the Scheldt known as the 
Petite Rivihre^ leads straight from the Place Crombez (PI. 0, 1), at 
the station, to the Scheldt. 

The ♦♦Cathedral (^Notre Dame; PI. B, 3), one of the noblest 
specimens of media val architecture, rises conspicuously above tbe 
houses on the left bank, the older and more important part of the 
town. It is a cruciform basilica borne by pillars, with a retro-choir 
and radiating chapels, and has four massive towers (270 ft.), ad- 
joining the dome above the cross, and two comer-turrets on the fa- 
cade. The nave, consecrated in 1070, and the transepts of the ll-12th 
cent., with their ambulatories and semicircular terminations, both 
bear the stamp of the Romanesque style, while two of the towers be- 
long to the Transition era and one is pure Gothic. In 1242-1325 the 
Romanesque choir was replaced by an early-Gothic building, which 
surpassed the nave both in length and height. About the same time 
(13th cent.) the Romanesque facade was altered and provided with 
a porch in the pointed style, restored in the 16th century. The 
parish church attached to the N. aisle of the cathedral (Chapelle 
Paroiasiale de Notre Dame) is a Gothic structure of 1516-18. In 
1633 and later the building was much modernized, but in 1840 a 
thoroughgoing restoration was begun, in the course of which a huge 
rose-window was inserted in the facade (1851) and the interior wag 
purged of the unsuitable additions with which it had been disfigured. 
It is now intended to remove the old buildings which partly mask 
the exterior. 

The ♦Sculptures of the Porte Mantile (12th cent.), the N. portal 
in the Place des Acacias, and of the fa9ade behind the groined porch 
towards the Place de I'Evech^, are attractive works of the School of 
Tournai. The flue stone figures of the lower row of the latter 
(prophets, fathers of the church, Adam and Eve) date from the 
13th cent. ; the equally fine but sadly mutilated sculptures in the 
upper row (16th cent.) represent scenes from the early hi^^^v^ ^\ 
the bishopric and a procession. At the to^ ax^ Ycd^w\ssrt ^\».\»&^ ^"^ 
tbe 17th cent, including the Virgin, St. T?ia.\., ^«^ iXV^^^^i. ^^^^'^'^ ^"^ 
Tonrnai, and St, EJeutherius (;d. 531^ t\i^ tLt^t.\i\a^^^- 

78 Route 9. TOURNAI. dOiediral. 

The Intbbior consists of nave (originally flat-roofed, but yanlted 
over in the 18th cent.) and aisles 408 ft. in length ; nave 78 ft. 
wide and 78 ft. high ; breadth of transept 220 ft. ; height of choir 
107 ft., of the dome 156 ft. The capitals of the low and elaborately 
articulated pillars in the nave are particularly rich and varied. 
Above the aisles are galleries, over which the walls are relieved by 
a triforium. The proportions of the transept are more graceful, and 

the galleries lower. 

In the Chapelle St. Louis (locked), the first of the S. (right) Aislk, 
on the posterior wall, a Crucifixion by Jordaetu. — In the Transept, rieht, 
Altar-piece with scenes from the life of the Virgin by Jf. de Nhgre (iW). 
The subjects of the stained - glass windows refer to the history of the 
bishopric of Tournai, which received important privileges in the 6th cent. 
from King Chilperic (d. 684) for services rendered in his war against his 
brother, the Austrasian monarch Sigebert (S. transept), and in the 12th 
cent, from Pope Eugenius III. (N. transept). The N. transept also con- 
tains interesting frescoes of scenes from the legend of St. Margaret (12th 
cent.; generally covered). — The richly sculptured Rood Lo/t^ which sepa- 
rates the choir from the nave, executed by Coifi. de Vriendt in the Renais- 
sance style, with alabaster statues of the Virgin, St. Piat, and St. Eleu- 
therius and marble reliefs from the Old and New Testament, was erected 
in 1572; it is surmounted by a large group in bronze by Lecreux (p. 79), 
representing St. Michael overcoming Satan. 

The stained glass of the Choik by Capronnier is modern. The Gothic 
reaiing-desk and brazen candelabrum are of the 15tb century. To the 
right of the 18th cent, high-altar, is the *Shrine of the Virgin (Chftsse de 
Notre Dame), a fine late-Bomanesque work by Nieholcu of Verdun (1205), 
with scenes from the life of Christ; to the left is the ^Reliquary of St. 
Eleutherius, also late-Romanesque (12-47), with figures of Christ, Apostles, 
and Saints. Both these shrines are unfortunately too high up. 

Ambulatory, beginning on the right side of the rood-loft: in the 1st 
Chapel (locked), which is adorned with stained glass by Capromnier^ com- 
memorating the Council of 1870, is a large picture by Ruhen*^ ^Rescue 
of souls from Purgatory, a bold composition but freely retouched. — 
Srd Chap., behind the high-altar. Large monument of ca. 1800, with the 
names of all the bishops and canons of Tournai; in the middle is an old 
figure of Bishop Maximilian of Ghent, below are angels by Jirome J)u- 
qttesnoy if). — 4th Chap. Gothic tomb of the Cottrel family (1380). — 
5th Chap. L. Oallait, Christ healing the blind (1833; a youthful work). — 
6th Chap. LancelotlBlondeel, Scenes from the life of the Virgin. 

The Tbbasdbt, in the rooms opening off the ambulatory, includes a 
crucifix in ivory by /. Du que snot/ (f), an ivory diptych of the 11th cent., a 
fine psalter (14th cent.), and sadly damaged tapestry by Pierot Feri of Arras 
(1402), with a representation of the Plague at Tournai (1092) and scenes 
from the history of its patron-saints. — In the passage leading to the Musi- 
cians' Vestry are some interesting *Tombs by local sculptors. 

The Fausse Porte, the passage between the Cathedral and the 
Episcopal Palace (Evechi; Pl.B, 3), contains the chapel of the bish- 
ops (12th cent.). — In the Place^^de rEvoche are also the Archives 
(PI. 4 ; B, 3) and the Public Libbaey, containing some valuable 
early printed works and MSS. 

The triangular Grand' Place (PI. B, 3) in the centre of the 

town is embellished with a Statue of the Princess d^Epinoyy In bronze, 

designed \>y Dutrieux. The heroic lady is represented in complete 

armour, with a battle-axe in her hand, \e8i^\iv^'VveTM\Q'^-<Atta.«^% 

»SAinst the enemy (see p. 76). 

8t. Qumtin. TOURNAI. 9, Route. 79 

Bnilt in among the honses on the N.W. side of the Place is 
situated the church of St. Qnentin (PL B, 3), sometimes called *La 
FetiU Cathidrale\ a remarkably elegant structure, originally a Ro- 
manesque creation of the 12th cent., but sereral times rebuilt (en- 
trance at the back, to the left). There are no aisles, but the nave 
expands into two apse-like chapels at the transept. The ambulatory 
dates from the 16th century. The large paintings (of little ralue) 
in the nave represent the Foundation of the Order of the Trini- 
tarians for the purpose of ransoming Christian captives (1198), and 
the Battle of LepKnto (1571). The stained glass is by BetAunc (1858). 

On the S.W. side of the Place Is the former Clotli Hall [HalU 
auxDraps; P1.B, 3), a Renaissance building of 1610, restored since 
1881. On the first floor is the Municipal Museum and Picture 
Gallbby (^Musie d''AntiquUi$ et de Tableaux; adm. on Sun., 10-4, 
free, other days 50 c.; catalogue 26 c). Keeper, E. J. Soil. 

On the Ground Floor is the Soulptdbb Room, with an extensive conection 
of worlds by Tonrnai masters and a plaster model of the cathedral by 
Ch. Vatseur (I860). 

First Floor. The Vestibule contains the recent acquisitions. — The 
Saloon, lighted from the top and giving on the Grand* Place, contains 
about 380 paintings, including various modern works, chiefly by natives 
of Toumai. To the right of the entrance: a. Flemish School (15th cent.)i 
Scenes from the life of St. Bernard; b. L. Gallaity Portrait of Galileo; 
e. Flemish School (copy of a lost work of Hugo van der Goes), Descent 
from the Cross; no number, Oavdenzio Ferrari('i)y Adoration of the Child; 
m. Leander van Dalen, Family portraits (1649) ; m 1. /. D. de Seem, Still-life ; 
z. Th. van Thulden, Family portraits; bb. Mabuse (J. Qossaert)^ Portrait of 
J. Carondelet (p. 26). with the attributes of St. Donatus; ee. Qallait, Mother 
and sister of the artist; jj. Gallait, *The Guilds of Brussels paying the last 
honours to the bodies of Counts Egmont and Hoorn (1861); 11. Joris van 
Son, Still-life; rr. Jan Stobbaerts, Dogs and cats; sz. Von Severdonck^ Defence 
of Toumai by the Princesse d^Epinoy (I860) ; a 3. Master of the St. Bar- 
tholomew Altar (Cologne; not H. van der Goes), John the Baptist; b 8. Ch, 
Le JBrun, Equestrian portrait of Louis XIV.; c8. Watteau, Flemish fair; e3. 
B. Riffoud, St. Albin, Archbishop of Cambrai. 

The Galleries are devoted to the antiquities. W. Gallery (to the right) : 
Wall Cases 1 & 2. Roman vessels and bronzes found at Toumai. Case 3. 
B( man antiquities, found in 1900 in the bed of the Scheldt between Toumai 
and Antoing; Frankish antiquities, including reproductions of the articles 
found in the tomb of Ghilderic (p. 81) ; medieeval vessels ; bronzes. At the 
end of the gallery is an altar, by Ific. Lecreux (1733-98), a native of Toumai. 
— 8. Gallery. Desk Case 22. Seals. Case 23. MSS. with miniatures, in- 
cluding a psalter that belonged to Henry VIII. of England, a *Livre d'Heurcs* 
of 1277, and the 'Roman de la Ro8e\ of the 14th century. Case 24. Ivory 
carvings: Coronation of the Virgin (14th cent.! Binding of a copy of the 
Gospels (11th cent. ; authenticity questioned). Case 25. Plaques and bronze 
medals. Case 26. Carved gems. — B. Gallery. Wall Case 5. Palissy ware ; 
porcelain made at Toumai. Case 6. Valuable textiles ; Chinese and Egyp- 
tian antiquities. Adjoining, 'Cope of Bishop Guill. Filastre of Toumai 
(1461-73), with representations of the Seven Works of Mercy. Case 8. 
•Porcelain made in Tonrnai (p. 77). — In the desk-cases by the windows 
is a rich collection of coins and medals. 

The isolated Belfry [Beffroi; PI. B, 3), 236 ft. high, at the S.E. 
end of the Place, dates from 1187, but ^aa i^w\.\v ife\i\v\i\.\».V^^V vw^jA. 
restored in 1874, The spire is modern. A. Bet oi <i\Am^%,^Vk&^^'^^^^'^ 
tower in 1878, playa every half-houi. *£\ie aaceTL\.\s x^<5.q\khi<kvA&^> 

80 BouU9, TOURNAI. SkJaequea. 

paiticalarly for the sake of the view of the cathedral (260 steps ; 
door-keepei at the entrance and cnstodian at the top, ^6 o. each). 

At No. 26 Rue de Paris, just to the N.E. of the Belfry, is a OotMc 
House, — In the adjoining Rue de la Tete d'Or is the School of 
8t, Luke (PI. 8 ; B, 3), with a collection of works hy Touinal sculptors, 
including a Descent from the Gross in relief (15th cent.) and a 
wooden figure allegorical of life and death (1556). 

The Rue du Pare and Place du Pare, to the S.E. of the Belfry, 
hring us to the sxn^-pTessed Monastery of 8L Martin, the priory build- 
Ings of which (18th cent.), now serve as the H6t£L db Villb (Pi. 
B, 3, 4). The sumptuous 'Salon de la Reine' deserves a visit. — In 
the adjoining buildings is a Natural History Museum (PI. 17). — 
The garden is embellished with a statue of Louis Oallait (1810-87 ; 
p. 93), the painter, a native of Tournai, and a bust of Ad, DelmSey 
the song-writer. — A little to the S.E. is the Court House {TLOy 4). 

The Rue desMeaux and the Rue Dor^e lead from the N.W. corner 
of the market to the Place de Lille (PI. A, 3), in which is the large 
Monument Fran^ais^ commemorating the French soldiers who fell 
before Antwerp in 1832. No. 10 in the Rue des Meaux is the Orange 
de VAbbaye St. Martin^ a handsome Renaissance edifice of 1633 (now 
a cafe'). In the Rue Perdue, which diverges on the right, halfway, 
is the so-called Fort Rouge (PI. 12; B, 2, 3), a tower belonging to 
the 12th cent, town-walls. 

A little to the N. of this point lie the church of St. Jaoqnes 
(PI. A, B, 2), a picturesque specimen of the Transition style, recently 
restored by Bryenne, The interior contains some interesting tombs, 
among them that of Nic. d'Avesnes, in the Gothic style, with old 
painting (Chapel of the Sacrament, to the right of the choir). — 
The early-Gothic church of Sainte Marie Madeleine (PI. A, 1,2) con- 
tains a group of the Annunciation in the style of Roger van derWey- 
den and other noteworthy sculptures. — A little to the N.W. is 
the Beguinage (PI. 7, A 1 ; comp. p. 71). 

The (inaccessible) old bridge called Pont des Trom (PI. A, 1), 
which crosses the Scheldt at the lower end of the town In three 
pointed arches, was built about 1290. Both ends are defended by 
strong towers. — Above the bridge is the Square Du Mortier (PI. 
B, 2), which is embellished with a marble statue of B. Du Mortier 
(b. at Tournai in 1797 ; d. 1878), the naturalist and Belgian states- 
man, by Fraikin, erected in 1883. 

On the way back to the station, we may visit the 12th cent, 
church of St, Nicholas (PI. B, 1), somewhat resembling St. Qaentin, 
and the Tour de Henri VIIL (PI. 22; 0, 1), a castle of 1513, with 
two vaulted apartments, one above the other. 

To the S.E. of the Rue Royale (p 77) rises the church of St, 
f^rice (PI. G, 2) , dating from the 12th cent, but frequently altered. 
The tower affords a good view of the cathedral. The treasury con- 
^a/ns many objects of interest. 

DENDERMONDE. W. Route. 81 

The Tonib of Chaderie (d. 481 ; father of Glovis), King of the Franks, 
was discovered in 1663 on the destruction of a house adjoining the church 
on the "S. side. Ghilderic's sword and most of the other curiosities found 
in the tomb were carried off to Paris in 1664, but many of them were 
stolen from the l^ational Library in 1831. Among them were upwards of 
3O0 small figures in gold, resembling bees, with which the royal robes 
are said to have been decorated. Napoleon, on the occasion of his coro- 
nation , preferred them to the Jleurs-dt-lys as insignia of the imperial 

On the W. side of the church of St. Brlce are two medlseval 
houses (12th cent.), known as the Maisoni Romaines (PI. 13, 2 j 
Rue de la Barre St. Brlce 8 & 10). — The chapel of the old Jesuit 
College, now the Athenie Royal (PI. 6 j 0, 2), in the Rue du Ques- 
noy, has a fine Renaissance portal. 

At the S.E. end of the quarter on the right bank of the Scheldt 

are some picturesque fragments of the City Walt of the 13th century 

(PI. 18; D, 4). 

Mont St. Aubert (p. 76), sometimes called Ste. Trinitd from the small 
church of that name on the top, commands a very extensive panorama, 
although only 486 ft. in height, being the only eminence in the district, 
and is well worthy of a visit. It riaes at Obigiet (p. 5), 3 M. to the N. 
of Tournai. Carriage in »/♦ h'- (3-4 fr.). 

10. From Ghent to Antwerp. 

a. State Railway viA Dendermonde and Puers. 

43 M. Railway in l»/2-2V» hrs. (fares 6 fr. 60, 4 fr. 50, 2 fr. 65 c). 

Ghent, see p. 49. — The line crosses the Scheldt. 11/4 M. Lede^ 
berg; 2V2 M. Meirelbeke. On the other side of the Scheldt Is the 
quaint chateau of Laeme, with towers dating from the 12th century 
(steam-tramway to Ghent, see p. 73). 4 M. Melle, the junction of 
the line to Charleroi and Braine-le-Comte (R. 19). 6 M. Quatrecht, 
The train follows the winding course of the Scheldt. 8 M. Wetteren, 
the junction of the line to Hamme (p. 73) and of steam-tramways 
to (10 M.) Lokeren (p. 82) and (13 M.) Sotteghem (p. 47). At 
(10 M.) Schellebelle our line diverges from that to Brussels via Alost 
(R. la). 1272 M. Wichelen; lAM. Schoonaerde f 16 M. AudepAem, 
beyond which the train crosses the Dendre. 

18 M. Dendermonde, Fr. Termonde (20ft.; H6tel-Caf6 Royal, Tete 
d' Or, Renaissancet all in the Grand* Place ; Oeerinckx, Rue de Bruxelles, 
R. 2 fr., unpretending), a small fortified town (10,000 inhah.) on the 
right bank of the Scheldt (here crossed by a bridge) and on both hanks 
of the Dendre, a navlgahle trihutary of the Scheldt. Louis XIV. 
besieged this place in 1667, hut was compelled to retreat, as the 
besieged, by opening the sluices, laid the'Whole district under water. 
Marlborough took it in 1706 after a bombardment of ten days. The 
old church of Notbe Dame possesses two pictures by Van Dyck^ a 
♦Gruciflxion (ca. 1630) and an Adoratioti ot t\vft ^V«^\vKt^^ V!!S^^^\ 
also a work hyDe Crayer, and a Romanescviie ioTi\. ol xX^ft V>.^ <;»^T:*.vcci* 
The ffSUL de ViUe, with five gahlea and. *<iu\^Wte^ ;\.^<t.^T^NXft^ ^ ^'^ 
BASDSKBB'a Belgium and Holland. Uibi TidU. ^ 

82 BouU 10. LOEEREN. 

cr'.glnallf the doth-hall. and dates, with iu belfry, from tke lith 
ceiituT}'. Adjacent is the Grande Garde, or guaxd-honie, with an 
octagonal tower and a portico of the ISth century. Moniiiiients haTe 
beea ere^rtcd here to the Flemish poet Prudent van ZHiyie (1804-59) 
and to the Jesuit missionary P. de Smedt. 

F20X Ds2n>££acoxDE to Sr. Nicolas, vii Hammi, 13 IL, by i^lwaj 
in >.« hr. i'>ce p. 73 r: to Loksssx rii Zele^ 9 X.. in > « hr. (ice p. T9)s 
X'-, Alost. T: .• U.. in > 4-1 • Lr. ip. 2): and to Bbusseu. 2D M., rii C^ftj 
(p. 2) anl /cKf • p. 3^ in l-l* « hr. 

A: I '2 1 M. I B'leiTcde the Hue to Malines diverges (sec p. 168). 
24 M. St. Am-2nd-Uz-Puers : "27 M. Putrt, where our line eioases 
that from Terneuzen to Malines (p. 15S). The train now tzaveTses 
a m&Tshy district ani crosses the Rupel. which is formed about 
2- 2 M. to the E. by the nniiyn of the I'yie and the Nethe. 

81 M. B^.cn tHot. de lUaivers , a town wiih 15,300 inhab. 
and nuiLerocs bn?k-kilri?. -^teie our line crosses that ftom Alost 
to Antwerp |>ee p. 2'): 33- 2 M. Reith. — 36 M. Coniiek, and 
then-'e t-i- i43 M.) Aniirfrj.. see pp. loS. 159. 

b. Waesland Hallway. 

51 H. 2a:iwat in li «-'2 brc.. isclading the cro«5ing of the Scheldt at 
A-iiwerp fM^s 1 fr. 70, 3 fr. a."-. 1 fr. 90c.«. TLi« is the «hoTte5t route, but is 
not traTcrsri ty expreis traiiii. Traveller: from Os'end or Brages intend- 
iDfc- to take tLi$ ronte Ihx-L :o Ghent ---nly. where they uke a fre«h ticket 
at'iLe Waes St::::iun. 1 M. fr^m the Gare du Sud tp.'iS). 

The train st&ns from the Waes Stati.n (p. 49: PI.E, 3). Imme- 
di4:.^ly on tLe right is the new Be'guinage 1 pp. 71. 72). Thia line 
traverses the P'Syt de Wce^, or Wce*land^ one of the most populous 
raboTit7'>J prrs. to the &q. M.1. highly-cultivated, and productive 
districts in Europe. During the civil wars in Flanders, the Waesland 
wa* & sterile m.'.-r. but *t the present day every square yard is utilized. 
The train traverses arable Und. pastures, gardens, woods, and plan- 
tations in rapii succession, while comfonable farm-houses and 
thrivlrig villages are seen at intervals. It is ssid that the attention 
usually deviled to a garden or a flower- bed is here given to every 
fleli: f:r the natural soil, being little better than sand, requires to 
be irtificislly oo'ered with garden-soil. The agriculture of this tract 
i*. theref ?re. w:rthy of the notice of farmers. 

4 M. L'ch'hti. with an ol^i chateau; 7 M. Biirrelde, with the 

fin-r nrdern Tu-lor chateau of M. Lippens de Kerchove. — 12 M. 

Lokeren IV::. : Hoi. du Minir, in the Grand* Place: B6t, des 

Stzttini is a manufa-'turiiig town with 21.000 inhabitants. The 

C\urf\ ^f St. L'ZicnnK'e contains soii;e ancient and modern works of 

art. a 1.1 a famo-.s pu'.pit by Verhaeghon » l7olVi ,^i" Malines. Lokeren 

Is tie ;'-ri?;::n of the lines to IVndormondo and Alost (^see p. 2), 

jA^r.-.V-v.-l'-cic-^elzaete-EecIoo v,p.72 •. — lo* -M. MUU-Piomunei. 


/>. 1^. <. i- 2iT,j, apleasAm-look\ug\o^uNs\vVi*iNVA<y^\s^>i»».,Nkieaia 

w^ ?^, 

*jiV* .i^\0f 

^ BRUSSELS. 11. BouU. 63 

busiest manufacturing plaoe in the Waesland. In the market-place, 
^2^* ^TR the station, are situated the modem Gothic BdUl de VilUy 
the Museum (antiquities from the Waesland), the Court of Justice 
(the old Hotel de Yille) , the old Landhuis^ and several mediaeval 
dwelling-houses. The Church of SU Nicholas was restored in 1900. 
The church of Notre Dame, built by Overstraeten in 1844, contains 
well-executed mural paintings by Guffens and Swerts, among the 
first attempts at frescoes in Belgium. — A branch-line runs from 
St. Nicolas to Hamme and Dendermonde (p. 82). Near St. Nicolas 
the train crosses the Malines and Terneuzen railway. 

22 M. Nieuwkerken. — 25 M. Beveren, a wealthy village with 
9200 inhab. and an old chateau of the Counts of Brouchoven-Bergeyck, 
is noted for its lace. The church contains a tomb dating from 1540. — 
281/2 M. Zwyndreehtj where the train passes the outlying fort of that 
name on the right and a rampart extending to Fort Ste. Marie on 
the left At VUmmsch-Hoofd or Ttte de Flandre, the tete-de-pont of 
Antwerp, on the left bank of the Scheldt, a steam ferry-boat awaits 
the arrival of the train (p. 159). 

31 M. AniwerTp (Quai St. Michel; PI. A, 5), see p. 159. 

11. Brussels. French, Brtixelles, 

Arrival. There are three principal railway - stations at Brussels. 
1. GrARB uu NoBD (PI. E, 1; *Reitaurant)^ for Ostend, Ghent, Bruges, 
Antwerp (and Holland), (3ourtrai (Tpres, Lille), Dendermonde (Lokeren), 
Louvain, Li^ge, and Germany; entrance to the departure- platform, in the 
Bue du Progr^s, to the arrival-platform. Rue de Brabant and Place Charles 
Rogier. — 2. Gabb du Midi (PI. B, 5; Bestavrant), for Gharleroi, Waterloo, 
Braine-le-Comte, Mons, Toumai, and France (entrance to the ticket-office 
in the Rue Fonsny). — 3. Station dd Quabtier Leopold or Oare du Luxem- 
bourg (PI. F, G, 5), for Tervueren, Ottignies, Namur, Givet (France), 
Luxembourg, and B&le (Germany); cabs in the Rue de Treves, to the S. 
of the station. Most of the Namur trains on this line also run to and 
from the Gare du Nord and Schaerbeek; but in some cases passengers 
change at Schaerbeek. — The Chemin de Fer de Ceinture connects the several 
railway-lines, and also carries on a local traffic (comp. Map, p. 135). — 
Cab with one horse from the station into the town 1 fr. ; trunk 16-25 c, 
small articles free ; the driver expects a gratuity. Comp. p. 87. 

Hotels. The first-class hotels are all fitted up with litis and electric 
lighting; pension in winter only. Upper Fart 0/ the Tovm^ quietly situated 
near the Park and convenient for most of the sights: *'Bellevub (PI. b; 
E, 4), Place Royale 9, frequented by royalty and the noblesse, expensive, 
R. from 6V21 B. 2, d^j. 5, D. 6, omn. 11/4 fr. (may soon be taken down) ; 
*H6tel de Flandbb (PI. fl; E,4), Place Royale 7, R. from 5, B. iVa, d^j. 4, 

D. 5, omn. iV4fr. ; *H6tel db l'Europb (PL e; D, E, 4), Place Royale 1, 
R. from 5, B. ii/z, d^j. 4, D. 5, omn. i^U fr.; Grand HdxBL Menoellb 
(PL m; E, 2), Rue Royale 103, to the N. of the Colonne du Congrcs, 
R. from 5, B. 1V«, d^j. 4, D. 5, omn. 1 fr.; Hotel db France (PI. fr; 

E, 8, 4), Rue Royale 43, R. 6-9, B. IVa, d^j. 4, D. 5 fr.; Grand Hotel 
Britannique (PI. br; E, 5), Place du Trdne 3, belilTid \\vft ^^^^vC^'^^i^r.'s^n 
R. 5-7, B. li/«, d^j. 3, D. 5, omn. ii^fr. — l-e8» ^tftWioXVo^iix ^^^^^ '^^ 

84 RouU 11. BRUSSELS. PraeUedl 

D, 4), Rue du MustSe 10, in a quiet situation, B. SV^i B. 1 fr., unpretendli^g. 
— Cook & Sons (Mrs. Ecuton Cook), Rue de la P^pini^re 11 (PL B. 6). 

Lower Part of the Town (sometimes noisy): *Hotrl MftraopOLK (PI. m^; 
D, 2), Place De Bronck^re 21, with lai^e eaf^, winter-garden, and Amoriean 
bar, R. from 5, B. IV2, d^j. 4, D. 6, omn. 1 fr.j Grand HdTRL (PI. eh; 
U, D, 3), Boulevard Anspach 29, a large establishment with eaf^ (p. 9St\ 
restaurant, American bar, and about 200 rooms, of which those opening 
on the glass-roofed court should be avoided, R. from 4, ddj. 5, D. with 
wine 7, omn. 1 fr., these two first-class houses. — HdT£L i>k l^Umivsbs 
ET DE 6dKi>b (PI. u ; 1), 2), Rue Neuve 48 and Boulevard duNordO, R. from 4, 
B. 11/2, d^j. 31/2, D. 5, pens. IO-I2V2, omn. 1 fr. \ ^Gsand Hotbl db L^EMPBasuK 
(PI. e^ I), 2), Rue Neuve 93, R. 4-7, B. !»/«, d^J. 8, D. 4, pens. 11-15 fr.; 
^Grand Hotel Csntbal (PI. c; C, 3), Rue Aug. Orts 1, opposite the Ex- 
change, R. from 31/2, B. IV4, ddj. 3, D. 4, pens, from 10, omn. V«fr' (lift); 
*H6tel de la Postb (PI. p ; D, 3), Rue Foss^-aux-Loups 90, in a quiet situation, 
R. from 4, B. IV2, d^j. 3, D. 4, omn. 1 fr. ; *Grand MoNARttUB (PL mo \ D, 3), 
Rue des Fripiers 17, R. from 4, B. I72, d^. 3, D. 4, pens. 10-12 fr.; Empirb 
Hotel (PL em^ C, D, 3), with lift, R. 3-10, B. IV4, D. SVs fr.; Jobbph 
(PL j ; C, 3), R. 3 fr. (lift) s H6t. Anspach (PL a; C, D, 8), these three in the 
lively Boul. Anspach (Nos. 52, 50, £ 44), with restaurants ; B^chbr db Cancalb, 
Rue Foss^-aux-Loups 11, with restaurant, R. from 21/2, B. 1, d^j. 2, D. 3, 
pens, from 7 fr. The following three are well-known Belgian houses, with 
good cuisine : Grand Hiroir (PL mi; D, 3), Rue de laMontagne 28, B. from 
372, B. IV2, d^j. 2V2, 1>. 4, pens, from 10>/«, omn. 1 fr. ; Hotel db Bordbadx, 
Bue du Midi 135 (PL C, 4), R. from 3V2, B. IV4, d^j. 2Vt, D. 3, pens. 9, 
omn. »/« fr* 1 Hotel de Cologne {^Centre""), Rue de la Fourche 17-20 (PL D, 8), 
B. 2V2-3, B. IV4, I). 2V2 fr., commercial; Hot. Rotal (PL r; C, 4), Boul. du 
Hainaut 119, R. from 2V2, B. 1, d^j. 2, D. 2'/2, pens. 7V2fr. — HdTBL du 
PboorEs, Rue de TAmigo 1, behind the Hotel de Ville, R. 11/4, B. 7*, 
D. IV4 fr , plain. 

Near the Oare du Nord. The following Ave are all in the noisy Place 
Charles Rogier: *HdTEL-CAPft des Boulevards (PL h; D« 1), R. from 872, 
B. 1 fr. ; Grand HdTEL Cosmopolite (PL co; D, 1), Hotbl Rotal-Nobd 
(PL r-, D, 1), R. from 3, B. 1 fr., these two very fair; Hot. dd Pharb 
(PL ph; E, 1); Terminus (PL t; E, 1). — Hotel de la Habinb (PL ma; 
D, 1, 2), Boul. du Jardin Botanique 9; HdTBL St. Jban (PL «, O 1; with 
restaurant, p. 86), Hot. de Cologne (PL eo; D, £, 1), both in the Rue da 
Progr^s and unpretending. 

Near the Gare du Midi: Hot. de l'EspArance (PL es: B, 5), Place de la 
Constitution 14, with restaurant; Hot. des Acacias (PL a; B, 5), Rue 
Fousny; Grand Hotel de la Providence (PL pr; B, 5), -Place de la Con- 
stitution 16, with lift and furnace-heating, R. from 2»/», B. 1, D. with wine 
272, pens, from 772 fr.; HdT. de la Terrasse (PL t; B, 6), Boul. du Midi 54, 
at the corner of Boul. du Hainaut, practically a hotel garni with restaurant! 
R. from 3, B. «/< fr. 

Family Hotels ft Fenaiona. The following family hotels and pensions 

are largely patronized by British and American travellers. In the Quartier 

Leopold (1^1. F, 4, 5) : -ST. Bernard, Rue Belliard 48, fashionable ; ifr«. BuntUf, 

Bue Guimard 10, pens. 7 fr.; T' Kindt- Turlot, Rue Caroly 10, 5fr. — Near 

the Place Louise (PL D, 6): Wiltcher's Family Hotel, Boul. de Waterloo 23-25, 

with garden. 7V2-12fr.; De Boek's Family Hotel (67t-10fr.), Nees (5-9 fir.), 

Drapier (6-8 fr. ; with garden). Avenue de laToison d'Or, Nos. 5i, 3, and 87. — 

In Ixelles, to the E. of the Avenue Louise (comp. PL E, P, 5, 6) : Mm», Bm»i, 

Rue de I'Esplanade 9 & Rue de Naples 31, with garden, pens, from 6 fr. 

(R. & B. from 3 fr.); Touesaint, Rue de TEsplanade 13, with garden, 472 fr. ; 

Mme. Mortier, Rue d'Edimbourg 17, with garden, 6-15 fr.; Mm». Deltmre^ 

Rue des Drapiers 24, 5-8 fr. \ Mme. Faymonville, Mr*. Jonee, Rue du Prince 

Royal Nos. 49 and 90; Mme. Wright, Rue de la Concorde 61, 6-7 fr.^ Ang§0' 

American Retidenee, same street. No. 66; Mme. Schilrmann. Bue d*OrHans 64, 

j5nS/r. ; Miles. Tarrideifrom 5fr.), Mme. van Bievoet, Mme. Thivenet (from 6 fr.), 

/f^' ^^'^^ (S-iO fr.), Hue gouveraine, Noa. 81,^^1, aTxdL\BV\ M«M.W«cdber« 

(fromBfr. ; with garden), Mowbray Howe (FrauVoUraJiVi, B.xv«i ^fe\«.\*wi^^ 

-a^ie. Nob. 43 and 68; Mme. E, ITiiM, Rne du Beau SUe W, ^Ntti l^T^«l^ 

Notet, BRUSSELS. 11, RouU. 85 

6-9 fr. — In St. Gillea, on the W. side of the Ave. Lonise (comp. PI. D, 6) : 
2£me. JanuetUy Rae de Joncker 23, 6-7 fr. ; Mme. Bourreeoud (6^2-9 fr.), 
Rue Jourdan 11 ; Mme. Colinft^ Bue Bosquet 62, 7-14 fr. t Mllei. Bignon^ 
Cbauss^e de Charleroi 36^ Mlle». Neef, Rue Veydt 61, 6-9 fr. — In the 
N. Quarter: BchHtty Rue van Orley 12 (PI. F, 2), near the Boul. Bischoffs- 
heim (also lodgings). — In the Lower Town : Miles. Heymann. Rue du 
Cirque 8 (PI. D, 2), near the Boul. de la Senne, 7V2-10 fr. 

Oafei are very numerous and generally good (coffee 30 c, beer 30-85 c, 
ices 70 c.). In the Lower Town: "Cafi du Grcmd Hdtel (p. 84), Boul. Ans- 
pach 29, with large billiard-room; *Cafi de$ Boulevards (p. 84), Place Charles 
Rogier 1^ *Sesino^ Boul. Anspach 3 (billiards); Milropole (p. 84), Place de 
Brouck^re; *Central (p. 84), Rue Aug. Orts 1; Taveme Royale^ Galeries St. 
Hubert (Galerie du Roi); Universel (p. 84),* Montague aux Herbes-Pota- 
geres 2 (PI. D, 3). — In the Upper Town: Taveme de la B^gence, Place 
Royale 15; Ca/i de VHorloge, Avenue Marnix 1, beside the Porte de Namur ^ 
Mamix^ Ave. Marnix 3 (Munich beer). — Old England Tea Booms (p. 86), 
Montague de la Coar 94. 

Confectioners. ^Wehrliy Boul. Anspach 42. fashionable; *Locus, Rue 
Treurenberg 25 and Rue du Progr^s 5, opposite the Gare du Nord (also 
for luncheon); A« Odieau Royal, Rue de la GoUine 7, near the market- 
place; Marchaly Rue de TEcuyer 44 (PI. D, 3); Van Hilled Montague de la 
Cour 91, near the Place Royale. 

Restaurants. At the chief hotels. Also: *Ca/i Biehe, Rue Leopold 2, 
at the corner of the Rue de TBcuyer (PI. D, 3); *Bestaurant des FHres 
Provengaux, Rue Royale 54, by the Park, D. from 5 to 7.30 p.m. 5 fr. ; *Be- 
staurant des Elweurs, Avenue de la Toison d'Or 17 (PL D, E, 5) ; Bestaurant 
du Helder, Rue de TEcuyer 29; Cameau Parisien, Marche aux Herbes 59; 
^Au Filet de Sole, Rue Gr^try 1, near the Palais d'Et^ (p. 89). These are 
elegantly fitted up, and resemble the leading restaurants of Paris. Of equal 
excellence, but less sumptuously fitted up and therefore rather less expen- 
sive, are a number of d la carte restaurants in the narrow streets be- 
tween the March6 aux Herbes and the Grand^Place, many frequented 
almost exclusively by Belgians : *L*Etoile., "Epaule or Oigot de Mouton^ both 
in the Rue des Harengs; FaiUe Biehirie, Rue Chair et Pain 10. — The 
viands and wine (especially the claret and burgundy) are excellent, but 
expensive. The portions are generally ample, so that a solitary diner 
pays for more than enough. A single portion of soup or beefsteak or filet 
de boBuf is enough for two persons, and a single portion of any of the other 
dishes is enough for three. 

ISext in order to the above houses come the smaller Restaurants and 
^Tavernes**, at which the cuisine is somewhat less elaborate and the charges 
correspondingly lower. Between 11 a.m. and 2 p.m. (dejeuner) and 
between 6 and 8 p.m. (dinner) a choice of dishes (plats du Jour) may 
always be obtained; the charges are d^j. V4-IV2 fr. » 1). 1-lV* ^'-i soup 
or cheese (English, Dutch, or *Gruyere') 40-50 c. extra. Dinners h 
prix fixe, 2-5 fr., may also be obtained in many of these houses. The 
waiters^ arithmetic should be checked, as 'errors' occasionally occur. 
Waiter 15-30 c. The usual beverage is English ale or stout or Belgian or 
German beer. The first is best obtained in the Tavernes of the upper 
town and in other houses with English names (30 c. per half-pint), while 
the last (30-40 c. per glass) is found chiefly in the caf^s of the lower town. 
The following are the most conveniently situated of these establishments. 
In the Upper Town: * Taverns du Olobe^ *Taverne de la Bigence (see above), 
both in the Place Royale ; '*Caf4 de fSorloge (see above), Avenue Marnix 1 ; 
Old Tom Tavern, Chaus^e d'lxelles 16; *Bestaurant de V Avenue Z^(mt<e(Strobbe; 
with bedrooms to let), Ave. Louise 98 i Princess Bestaurant, Ave. Louise 
108; Taveme Owllaume, Rue du Mus^e 20; Bestaurant des Musics (p. 84), Rue 
du Mus^e 10. — In the Lowbr Town: *Taveii'ne Royale., Qi^««\<6.^~^'V.Vs^^^'^« 
and Bue d'Arenberg; *Taveme de Londret, aw<Jk die V^«vw^«t V^-^\ v^jf^Scv 
rant de la Monnaie, Rue Leopold 7-, •Sttelcn, "R.u<i ^«^ '^'^^^^'^^^ tt: ^ ^Sk «** 
near the Place de la. Monnaie (PI. T>, ^^ aix^i oi ^^^^^.^> ^^^"^ ^>x4 ^'^N^ 
J^QufevarOs (p. 84), Place Charles Uogief, Tew. au Pew \«m*> 

ich « ft Rue in Progria (p. M), Tavmu, Joieph (p. 81), Boul. . 
DO, boib moderals and utten crowded; RalaitranI Msvrv, Bus sr 
FCT W. — Jin QUmiiBoyal (p. B5). Rub 3= la CDlllne 7 (tor Isdlei), 
HI HoOHI. Eneliib Ale and Stont: Tavtmt dt LonAit, Boe d« 
r«r 19; Brauaricdu Prima, Bue dea Prlncea U; '^"f ^ '^ ^'^^^ 

'Mm. Kue dD Mn«i.% IS {notarl for SeottlBH ale); anl olbar 'Utftdbi' 
e uppiir Idwti (see p. ttfi), — Oermm Besr: TCcif AiiKu, But dsi 
ea 10, wltb inotlier onlriDCE \b the Bue FoBi^-ani-Lonps; •MOli 
HI, Bae de Is RqIhe, on tbe S. side of Ibe Flsce ds 1> MODDoic, 

two on«D crowded; T-SMnu dt! fi K«fn>, Bne dc In RBlce S , A-owrh 
■fncu, lue iboTB; ■Paeerni roget, Kiie de In UnnUgnB 4 (PI. II, 9)) 
CIormftacA, in the Fauags iea Postes, whlcb lesds rmin tbe bisk 

puil-orflce to lbs Boul. Aoepmcli | Bafpll, BobI. ADspscli 63, al the 
rof theKarchianiPonloUi JfAMAaiKr, Boe Foas^-nai-lonpi 19 ; Tair. 

Chen-), Bonlevard du Kord 126 1 '2um BirimJaa, Bue de 1* Belne 16, n 
the S. sldE of the Plate de Ij. Monnsiei Xoiilgnlu, fine Henri Vaoi 38, 
neil door to thoHiehangoi Ziim Treppcliat, Hnedes Princes 16.— Spanlah 

('lalerle dn Hoi 3S), Hue Coudenhsrg 15. Bue' da Louvato 3, ana de Kir 
murS, gndBaedeiQualre-BriglUi Central Tiatda, Boule.ard AnepsohOt 
c.irow of the Marehi aux Ponleisi Ejjiafia, Boa de MalinCi 111. — Itallu 
_,___ „..._ n_.,., .. :o .. jo^t^aHajKa^^ jiuj Leopold a.— 

' be obiainod 


. 'BavnRoya 


B«e de YV. 






rr(Pl. D.3),>lQntip.ei 

lux HeXs 

. Polali 

.rea IS. with awinuiilSj 

r.)i Bai^i dH 

1 Cmtre, Bi 

eh 73. 


is" ind'eip 


are in the Bne BortJ 

de la Our, 

and Bus d 


U' liBreb7 au "hb.^ 

oJ. Anspacb, 
les at. HDherl 

Eoe Beu. 

re, Rue de 



:, nuniscne de la OonitBi 

1 de la Made 


iff.;., Mar. 

:Herheee3i WtOmuKm, 

»ci 3, n'u, 

s du ChfD. 

ifPl. C 

!, 1). — Cbonzib: Caat- 

1 dD SoA IGI 

1 aS; tsppflu. Bo 

uleiard Acapaeb IS and 

-165. - Tf 


iiEs: OW £n»to«i, Hon- 

» Cour 91. 

g are impo 

rtact hi 

luaeti tor this spaclalllY: 

Uce de Brou 

cktra 3i 
Hert (aalc: 

Ba-,nm. Bue de la Madeleine 43i S. JlJuf- 
rle dn Bol 3) i £.«=n-, Bue ITeuTeU 



dardd., RoeNenTeSO, 

inl of eom 



. D. ibey > 


Slwd^ -" A^f uSSdO 

■8 employed 

iu Ihie m 


in BBleinm, and tba vkliu of 

tba YBlue of 3 01 

ill CLeb&gae & Co.), fine de liiMadBlelBa 40) 
brary, HonlagDe de la Cour 61; Bplmilx^ 
* TliriM, Rue BoTsIa 6^: Bdimtta * Of., 
vinob: £<ro», Bne du Mnede fii Biilmr- 
)i DfttrlOii Co., Hontagne de la Ooiu 69, 

Monty Oliuigari : Salic 

e Rayale 81 and EoaVvard finspac 
; ife Broackl-Te: MouUi, Bno Qrflii! 
K VelaektHi, Bue das Fiipieia &1\ Coo 

), 8)1 ottau 

. BiHMlaak^B 

Notes. BRUSSELS. 11. Route. 87 

Pott and Telegmph Oiflee. The central office (p. 123) is in the Place 
de la Honnaie (PI. D, 2, 8); open from 7 a.m. to 10 p.m. (Sun. 9-12). For 
telegraph business it is open day and night. There are also numerous 
branch- offices, open from 7 a.m. to 8 p.m., all with telegraph-offices: at 
the chief railway-stations (for telegrams day and night), Bue de la Ghan- 
cellerie 1, Bue de Louvain (Palais de la 17ation), Palais de Justice (p. 101). 
Ghauss^e d'lxelles 270, Boulevard de Waterloo 9, Ghauss^e de Gharleroi 
31, Place de la Chapelle 8, etc. 

International Intelligence Office, Bue Boyale 1 (Hdtel Bellevue), for se- 
curing railway-tickets, forwarding luggage, etc. — Oook*s Tourist Offlee^ Bue 
de la Madeleine 41^ 0//iee des Touristes^ Place de Brouck^re 26; HollandteM 
Izeren Spoonoeg Maatsehappy (p. xxxi), Bue Henri Maus 27; Agency of the 
StcuOs-Spoorweg (p. xxxi), Boul. du Nord 64.- 

Gabs {Voitures de Place^ some with two horses). For the purposes of 
the cab-tarifT, Brussels and its neighbourhood are divided into two zones. 
The first of these (Premier Pirimlire) includes Laeken (except the royal 
park) to the N. and the Pare du Cinquantenaire (p. 129) to the E. ; on 
the S.E. it extends to the Bois de la Gambre ; and on the W. to the Girdle 
Bailway (and at certain points beyond it). The second zone (Deuxiime 
P4rimHre) includes the entire municipal district of Brussels. The tariff 
in both zones is the same, but when the cab is dismissed in the second 
zone, 1 fr. extra is due as return-money. The following is the tariff for 
cabs holding 1-3 persons. 

For Va ^^"t 1 fr') «*c1ji V« '^^- additional 60 c. •, at night (12-6 ; in winter 
12-7) double fare. Each piece of luggage carried outside 16-25 c. Gratuity 
of 20-30 c. to the driver usual. 

For longer drives and for the ^Voitures de Orande Remiee*^ superior 
vehicles, with coachmen in livery, the fare should be agreed upon in 

Omnibuses. 1. From the Plau de la Bourse (PI. G, 8) vi& the March^ 
aux Herbes, Montague de la Gour, Place Boyale (Pi. E, i\ p. 94), and 
Porte de Namur (PI. E, 5) to IxeUet (Place Gommunale ; PI. E, F, 6) ; start- 
ing every 6 min., fare 20 c. (last omnibus at midnight). — 2. From the Plcue 
de la Bourse vi& the Grand' Place, Place St. Jean (PI. D, 4), and Bue Haute 
to the Porte de Sal (PI. G, 6); fare 10 c. 

Electric Tramways ('Les Tramways Bruxellois* •, comp. the Plan of the 
Gity and the Map at p. 136). 

1. From the Oare du Nord (PI. E, 1; starting at the cor. of the Boul. 
du Jardin Botanique) vii the Porte de Schaerbeek (PI. E, 2) and Porte de 
Namur (PI. E, 5) to the Oare du Midi (PI. B, 5). — 2. Oare du ift<«-Porte 
de Flandre (PI. B, 2)-0are du Nord. — 8. Oare de Schaerbeek (pp. 213, 83)- 
Place Eug. Verboeckhoven-Bue de Brabant (PI. E, 1)-Gare du Nord-Place 
de la Bourse (PI. G, 3)-Gare du Midi-Ave.- Fonsny (PI. B, A, 5, &)-Forest 
(p. 7). — 4. Schaerbeek (Place Eug. Verboeckhoven)-Bue de Brabant- 
Gare du Nord-Place de la Bourse-Gare du Midi-Place du Gonseil (PI. A, 5)- 
Anderlecht (Ghauss^e de Mons). — 5. Laeken (Eglise)-Bue du Progrfes (PI. E, 1)- 
Gare du Nord-Place de la Bourse-Gare du Midi-Ave. Fonsny (PI. B, A, 5, 6)- 
St. OHles (Place de Bethl^em). — 6. Laeken (Eglise)-Bue du Progr6s-Gare 
du Nord-Place de la Bourse Gare du Midi-Bue d'Allemagne (PI. A, 5, 4> 
Cureghem (Abattoirs). — 7. Laeken (Eglise) - Chauss^e d'Anvers (?!• D, 1)- 
Bue de Laeken (PI. D, G, 2>Porte d'Anderlecht (PI. B, i)-Anderlecht (Chaus- 
s^e de Mons). — 8. Oare du Midi (PI. B, 5)-Bue Blaes (PI. G, 6, 5) -Place 
du Grand Sablon (PI. D, 4, 5)-Place Boyale (PI. D, E, i)-Oare du Luxem- 
bourg (PI. F, G, 5). — 9. Place Royale (PI. D, E, 4)-Gare du Luxembourg- 
Bue Belliard (PI. G, 4, 5) -Avenue des Nervieus - Pare du Cinquantenaire 
(Avenue de Tervueren). — 10. Rue Treurenberg (PL E, 3; cor. of Bue da 
Louvain)-Bue Joseph H (PI. F, G. 3, 4)-8quare Amb\wvR.-^«^ ^^ ^^^^'*"^'^ 
tenaire (Avenue de Tervueren)-Place JoutdAn ^^\.Q<.,tiVCi\^^>v.5;^«^^^^^^^'g^. 

CPh G-E, 5, 6)-Porte de Namur (PI. E, 5). — H. ^^\'^^S''*'^^t\S^ Sl^^^^ 
SquAre AmbiorixParc du Cinquantenairft-Kveivvv^^^i '^^JT^'^^^^^ ^\»^'5^* 
Tervuiren (every 1/2 hr., in winter Yiourly \ f axe^ I0 &T>'C>c n^-^ 

88 IlouteU. BRUSSELS. Praetieal 

1 fr. 25 £ 90 c. ; some of the cars go no farther than Woluwe). Branch-line 
from the Porte de Namur to Termieren (return-fares 1 fr. 10 4t 80 c). — 18. Im- 
passe du Pare (PI. E, Sj-Eue de la Loi-(Pl. E, G, 3, i)>Bond Point (Pare du 
Ginqaantenaire>AYe. d'Auderghem-Casemes d^Etterbeek-JtMfer^rA^ (25 ft 
30 c. ^ some cars Atop at the Rond Point). — 18. Impasse du Pare (PI. E, 8)- 
Bae de la Loi-Eond Point (see above) - Avenue d'Auderghem > Casernes 
d'Etterbeek-Boulevard MiIitaire-^oi« de la Cambre. — 14. Porte de Namur 
(PI. E, 5)-Eue du Trdne-Place de la Couronne (PI. F, G, 6)-Place 8te. Croix- 
Avenue de I Hippodrome-^oi< de la Cambre (branch-line, Place de la Cou- 
ronne-A venue de la Couronne-Boulevard Militaire). — 15. Oare de Schaerheek 
(pp.2l3,83)-PlaceEug.Verboeckhoven-Chau8s^e de Haecht-Place de la Beine 
(PI. F, l)-Porte de Schaerbeek (PI. E, 2)-Porte de Namur (PI. E, 6)- Avenue Louise 
(PI. D, E, ())-Sois de la Cambre (branch-line from the Porte de Schaerbeek 
via the Place Eoyale & Eue de la R^gencc). — 16. Porte de Namur (PI. E,5> 
Chauss^e d'lxelles-Place Communale (PI. E, F, 6)-PJace Ste. Croiz-Avenue 
de 1 Hippodrome- Avenue de Solbosch-irippodrom« de Boitsfort (80 £ 85 c). — 
17. Place Rovppe (PI. C, 4)-Boulevard du Midi-Porte de Hal (PI. C, 6j-Bue 
de la Victoire (PI. C, 6)-Chaus3ee de Waterloo -Vert Chasseur (at the 
8.W. cor. of the Bois de la Cambre, about IV4 M. from the racecourse 
at Boitsfort)-Vivier A^Oye-Petite Espinette (W. side of the Forest of Soignes). 
Most of the cars stop at Vivier d'Oye. The line is to be prolonged to 
Waterloo. — 18. Place Royale (PI. D, E, 4)-Chauss^e de Charleroi (PI. D, 6)- 
Avenue Brugmann-Uccle (p. 188)-Chau8s€e d'*Alsemberg-Chauss^e de Water- 
loo (PI. C, 6J-Porte de Hal (PI. C, ^)-Gare du Midi (PI. B, 5). — 19. Place 
8t, Jesse (PI. G, 3) Rue des Eburons (PI. G, 3)-Square Marguerite. 

The cars on all the lines (except Nos. 11, 12, & 16) run at intervals 
of 5-10 mia. from Gam. till midnight (or later). Ordinary ^are l()-16c. ; 
a charge of 5 c. extra is made in the back part (Ist class) of the cars in 
the Upper Town. Transfer tickets ('billets de correspondance^) 5-10 c. extra. 
In addition to the regular haltiog-placcs, there are points, marked 'arrdt 
facultatif, where the cars stop when hailed. Some of the cars have a 
letter-box (in front) for paid telegrams and special delivery letters (p. xx). 

Horse Tramways ('Socidtd G^ndrale des Chemins de Fer Economiques''; 
now being converted into electric lines; fares as above). — 1. Place de 
la Bourse (PI. C, 3) Place Ste. Gudule (PI. E, 3)-Porte de Louvain (PI. F, 3)- 
Place St. Jesse (PI- G, 3). — 2. Place de la Bourse-Vl&ce de Brouckere (PL D, 2> 
Porte de Schaerbeek (PI. E, 2)-Station Regier (PI. G, 1). — 3. Place de la 
Bourse -Tloi&l de Ville (PI. D, 3)-Place Poelaert (PI. D, byplae$ Stiphanie 
(PI. D, E, 6). — 4. Place Royale (PI. D, E, 4)-Eue Belllard (Pl.F, G, 4, 5).Parc 
Liopeld (PI. G, 5). 

Steam Tramways {lAgnes VictncUes; comp. the time-tables mentioned 
at p. xvi). 1. From the Place Charles Regier (Gare du Nord, PI. E, 1) by 
the All^e Verte (PI. C, D, 1) to Laeken (p. 135; with stations at the Eue 
Marie Christine, for the church, and at Gros-Tilleul or Laekenlinde, for 
the Leopold Monument) and (GV4 M.) Orimberghen: thence in one direc- 
tion to (15 M.) Londerzeel (p. 2), in the oiher to (11 M.) Bumbeek. Gars to 
Gros-Tilleul every i/a l^'- (30 or 25 c.). — 2. Schaerheek (Eue Eenens) via 
the Eue des-Coteaux (PI. (J, 1), Place St. Josse (PI. G, 8), Square Marie- 
Louise (PI. G, 3) , & Place Jourdan (PI. G, 5) to the Place Ste. Croix in 
Ixelles (every 20 min.; 25 & 20 c.). — 8. From the church of Ste. Marie at 
Schaerbeek (PI. F, 1; p. 128) via Evere, Haren, & Dieghem (p. 229) to 
(14 M.) Haecht (p. 158). — 4. From the Place St. Josse (PI. G, 3) vii the 
Place Dailly, tlie Cimeti6re de St. Jo.sse, the Central Cemetery (Cimetik'e 
de Bruxelles, at Evere), * Woluwe to (10 M.) Vossem (to the Central Cemetery 
every V2-I hr.). — 6. From the Place Rouppe (PI. C, 4) via the Boulevard 
Jamar (PI. B, 6), the Place du Conseil (PI A, 5; at Anderlecht), (9VtM.) 
Lcnnick-St-Martin, and (10 M) Lennick-St-Quentin to (20 M .) fna^tm (p. 6). 
— 6. Prom the Place de Ninove (PI. B, 3), via the Chauss^e de ^inove 4nd 
^dJ/f M.) Schcpd&el to (14 M.) Ninove (p. 6). 

Notet. BRUSSELS. 11. Boute. 89 

Theatres. 'TKidtre Royal de la M<mnaie (PI. D, 8; p. 1^), Place de la 
Monaaie, for operas only; open almost every day in autumn, winter, and 
spring. Performances begin at 7 or 8 p.m. Fauteuils d''orehe8tre and balcon 
7 fr. \ middle boxes (loges de face) in the second balcony 6 fr. : parquet 
(between the stalls and pit) 6 fr. \ side-boxes (loges de c6t6) in the second 
balcony 4 fr. \ parterre (pit) 21/2 fr. \ seats previously secured (*en location**) 
cost Va-l ff' eftch additional; bureau de location open daily i&4 o'clock. — 
Thidtre Royal du Pare (PI. £. 3, 4), Bue de la Loi, built in 1783, come- 
dies, dramas; performances oegin at 8.15 (closed in summer). Stalles 
d'orchestre 4, parquet and stalles de galerie 2V2 fr. ; box-office open 10-5. — 
*Th4dtre des Oaleries (PI. D, 3; operettas, vaudevilles), in the Passage 
(p. 123; closed in summer); fauteuils d^orchestre 4, parquet and stalles des 
premieres loges 3 fr. — ^Thidtre du Vaudeville, in the Passage (Galerie de 
la Beine 15), comedies and broad farces. — Thidtre MolUre (PI. E, 5), 
Bue du Bastion, for dramas (in winter) and operettas (in summer). — 
Thidtre Flamand or Vlaamsche Schouioburff (PI. D, 1), Bue de Laeken (closed 
in Slimmer). — Thidtre de VAlhambra (PI. D, 2), Boulevard de la Senne 18, 
for dramas. — Thidtre de V Alcazar (PI. D, 3), Bue d'Arenberg, for farces, — 
CiBCus. Cirque Royal (PI. E, 3), Bue de TEnseigncment (closed in summer). — 
Mu;jio Halls. Palais d'Eti or P6le Nord (PI. C, 2, 3), in the Halles Centrales 
(p. 1!?7), Bue Qr^try, beginning at 8.15 p.m. (1-4 fr.). Skating-rink in 
winter (Dec.-Feb.), adm. 1-2 fr. ; Scala. Place de Brouckfere and Bue des 
Augustins (8.30 p.m.); Olympia, Bue Aug. Orts. — CafA-Concekt: Cafi 
Univereel (p. 85), Montague aux Herbes Potag^res. 

Concerts in winter. * Concerts Tsaye and * Concerts Populaires, each 4-6 times 
in winter in the Theatre de la Monnaie (see above; classical music; low 
prices). The general rehearsal (repetition g^ndrale) on the previous day 
is also worth attending. The famous concerts of the ^^ Conservatoire Royal 
de Musique (PI. D, 5; p. 101) are rarely accessible to strangers, as nearly 
all the seats (1-3 fr.) are held by regular subscribers. Tickets, however, 
may occasionally be obtained in the music shops opposite the Conser- 
vatorium. — Open-air concerts (weather permitting) in the Park daily in 
summer (1st May to 3lst August) 8-5 p.m. (military music on Sun. & Thurs) ; 
at the ^Vauxhall (PI. E, 4; p. 95>, at the N.E. corner of the Park, 8.30- 
10 p.m. (1 fr. ; orchestra of the Theatre de la Monnaie, often with distin- 
guished soloists); in the Bois de la Cambre (p. 136), on Snn. and Thurs., 
3-5 p.m. In winter a band plavs every Sun. at 3 p.m. in the Marchi de la 
Madeleine (PI. D, 4; p. 124; yA fr.). 

Art Exhibitions. Cerde Artistique et Littiraire, at the Vauxhall (see 
above); La Libre Esthitique^ at t)ie Mus^e Moderne de Peinture (p. 112; in 
March only) ; Ruibens Club, Bue Boyale 198. — The chief art exhibition of 
Belgium ('Salon de Belgique') is held alternately in Brussels, Antwerp, 
and Ghent. 

Sporting Olubs. Touring Club de Belgique (p. xviii), Bue Boynle (Passage 
de la Bibliothdque 4, near the statue of Count Belliard; PI. E, 4); Ligue 
Vilocipidique Belge^ Bue du Grand Gerf 4; Automobile Club de Belgique, Place 
Boyale 5: Brussels Cricket A Lawn Tennis Club, Avenue de Longchamp 

Horse Races (comp. notices in the street-car^): 'Goncours Uippiques' 
in the Pare du Ginquantenaire (p. 129); also the Hippodromes of Boits- 
fort (see p. 136) and Groenendael (p. 136). 

Popular Festivals. 'Kermesse'' on the Boulevard, opposite the Gare du 
Midi, from the middle of July to the middle of August (proces^aions on 
Aug. 9th); 'FSte Rationale' in memory of the Bevolution of 1830 on July 
21sr. Masked balls during the Carnival at the Th^sltre de la Monnaie (see 
above) and elsewhere. Mid-Lent Festival (Mi-Car(^me). 

Church Festivals. Great procession, with military features, from the 
Cathedral to the market-place on the Sunday after Corpus Christi (a*-*^ 
Sun. after Whitsunday). Smaller processsiona m 'WYuXsvmv-^n^^*. vas^ «^ 
AB&nmptlon Day (Aug. i6th). Messe de Si. HMX^e-xX. oxi ^w. ^x^^ss.^^'«»r 

Dame des VictoireM (p. 99). 


90 Route 11. BRUSSELS. CoUeeOom, 

Smbassies. U.S.- Minister, Hon. Henry L. TV^ton, Bue du Pdle 2; 
Consul, Qol. Q. W. Roosevelt^ Boul. de Waterloo 82. — British Minister, 
Sir Edmund C. H. Phipps, C. B.-, Rue de Spa 2; Yice-Gonsnl, Thot. E, J^€*^ 
Esq.^ Rue d''Ediinbourg 16. 

Lloyd's Agent, AugutU Fevriar^ Rae Jules van Praet 9. 

English Phvsicians. Dr. Collignon^ Rue des Chevaliers 24; Dr. NieoUe^ 
Rue de Pacqz 69; Dr. Thornton^ Rue d'£gmontl4. — Dentists Dr. Browne, 
Rue de Homes 3 ; Dr. George Fay, Rue Berckmans 3. — Ohemists. Deiacre, 
Coudenberg 60-62 ; DelcJtevaierie, Rue de Namur 74. 

English Bankers, Credit QinircA JAigeoit (Anglo-American Department), 
Bue Boyale 64. — Solicitor, Thoe. E. Jeffee, Esq., see above. — The European 
Express and Belgian Times is an English paper appearing VT^eekly at Brassels 
(head-office, Rue d'Edimbourg 16). 

British Institute and Home for Governesses and Servants, Bue de 
Vienne 26 (Honorary Treasurer, Thos. E. Jeffet, Esq., see above). — Brttitk 
Charitable Fund, established 1816; Hon. Sec, Mr. J. Morgan, Bue Ernest 
AUard 11. 

TTnion Olub (English and American), at Wiltcher^s Family Hotel (p. 84). 

English Church Service at Christ Church (Pl.D, 6), Rue Crespel; serviees 
at 8, 11, and 5 ; chaplain, Rev. W. R. Stephens, M. A. (^Pr^sident du Comity 
Central du Culte Anglican*), Chauss^e de Vleui^at 185; at the Church of 
the Resurrection (PI. E, 6), Rue Stassart 18; services at 8, 11, 12.15, and 
6.30 ; chaplain, Rev. W. W. Clarke, M. A., Rue Armand Campenhout 51. — 
Scottish Presbyterian Church, Rue Bodenbroeck 22 1 serviees at 11 and 5; 
Rev. 0. R. S. Reid, M. A. — Synagogue, Rue de la Regence, see p. 101. 

Collections, Museums, etc. (free admission to the museums, see p. xvi). 

Bibliothique Royale (p. 111). Exhibition Room daily 10-8 (tickets from 
the officials of the Reading Room). Collection of Coins 12-3. Reading Boom 
daily 9-6 and (with special permission) 7.30-10.30 p.m. Periodical Boom 
(special permission necessary), 9-4 and 7.30-10.30. Closed in Passion Week. 

Botanic Garden (p. 117), daily till dusk ; admission to the hot-houses 
(Serres) and Museum of Forestry (Musie ForesUer) 9-12 and 1-4. 

Congo Museum (p. 137), at Tervueren, week-days 1-6, Sun. it holidays 
10-12 & 1-6. 

Exchange (p. 126), daily 9-11.30; business-hours (except. Sun. and Sat.) 
12-3 p.m. (Wed. busiest day). 

Bdtel de Ville (p. 120); interior Sun. & holidays 10-12, week-days 
10-3, Va fr- » ascent of the tower, 1/2 fr. 

Mus4e d'Armes et d^Armures (p. 119), daily 10 to 4 or 6. 

Musies des Arts Dicorati/s et Industriels (p. 129), daily 10-6, in winter 
(Sept. 1st to March 31st) 10-4. 

Music Commercial (p. 126), week-days 9.30-4. 

Musie Communal (p. 122), daily 10-4 (on Tnes. 10 2). 

Music du Conservatoire Royal de Musique (p. 101), Mon. A Thurs. 2-4 (at 
other times on application to Director Mahillon, Villa du Matvic, Boitsfort). 

Music Forestier, see Botanic Garden. 

Musie Wiertz (p. 133), daily 10-5 (in winter 10-3 or 10-4). 

Natural History Collection (p. 132), daUy 10-4 (Oct. to March 10-3). 

Palais des Aeadimies (frescoes in the hall; p. 96), daily; 60c. 

Palais Arenherg (p. 100), shown on week-days, 10-4, 1 fr. 

Palais du Cinquantenaire, see Musdes des Arts Ddcoratifs. 

Palais de Laeken (p. 135), shown only in the absence of the king, and by 
special permission of the ^grand mardchal de la cour% granted on a recom- 
mendation from the applicant's embassy (see above). The hot-houses are 
open for about a fortnight at the end of April and beginning of May on 
Sun., Tues., & Thurs. afternoons. 

Palais de la Nation (p. 96), daily V2 fi"- (Sun. 25 c.); when the house 
is in session (Kov. -May) the public galleries arc alone open (entr., Bue 
de Louvain, adjoining the Post Office). 

/'aiai's du Roi (p. 95), shown on same terma «ka V\ie "t«XKwa^%\i»^ia«^% 
IVceure Gallerp (old pictures, p. 104), daily iO V> ^, ^ o^ o. 

History. BRUSSELS. ILRouU, 91 

Picture Qalltry (modern pictares, p. 113), daily 10 to 3, 4, or 5. 
Seulptitre Oatlery (p. 103), daily 10 to 8, 4, or 5. These three collections 
close at 1 p.m. daring the Carnival. 

Royal Archive* (p. 112), week-days 9-6. 

Principal Attractions (2 days). 1st Day : Place and Rue Royale (pp. 91-97); 
•Palais de Justice (p.lOl)^ •Picture Gallery (old pictures; p. 104). In the 
afternoon: Botanic Garden (p. 117), Palais du Cinquantenaire (p. 129), or 
Mus^e Wiertz (p. 133). In the evening: Walk in the Upper Boulevards 
(p. 117). — 2nd Day: Boulevard Anspach (p. 126); ••Market-place and •Hotel 
de YUle (p. 120); Hannikin Fountain (p. 123); Bue de la Madeleine and 
Montague dela Cour (p. 119); •Picture Gallery (modem paintings; p. 112). 
In the afternoon: Cathedral (p. 97). In the evening: Drive or cycle-ride 
in the Bois de la Camhre (p. 136). — Excursion to Waterloo, see p. 138; 
to Villers-la-Ville, see p. 237. 

BruBsels (50-250 ft.), the capital of Belgium, the residence of the 
royal family, and the seat of government, is situated nearly in the 
centre of the kingdom, on the SennCj a tributary of the Dyle. The 
city consists of the lower part on the N.W. side, traversed by two 
csLiifih ( Canal de Willebroeck and Canal de Charleroi) and by several 
ramifications of the Senne, most of which are now vaulted over, and 
the upper part on the S.E. side, covering the slope which gradually 
rises from the river. The municipal district includes the old town, 
enclosed by the Outer Boulevards (pp. 117, 127), the new quarters 
to the E. and S.E. (^Quartier Leopold ^ Quatiier Nord-Est, Avenue 
Louise) t and the new harbour- works. Outside this area are the ten 
self-governing suburbs (named from the N. towards the E., S., and 
W. : Schaerheeky St, Josse-ten-Noodej Etterbeek, Ixelles, St. QiUes^ 
Cureghenij Anderlechty Molenheek-St-Jean^ Koekelherg, Laeken), In 
1902 the city proper contained 207,000 inhab., tbe larger area 
574,000. There are nearly 2000 English residents. Most of the 
latter reside in or near the Avenue Louise (p. 134) and the Quartier 
Leopold (p. 128), the highest and pleasantest part of the town. The 
commerce of Brussels is comparatively small in extent, but its 
manufactures of lace (p. 86), furniture, bronzes, carriages, and 
leather articles are important. Brewing is also extensively carried on. 

The foundation of Brussels is ascribed by tradition to St. G^ry, 
Bishop of Gambrai in the 6th cent, and the alleged Apostle of Bel- 
gium, who is said to have established a village named after himself 
on an island in the Senne. The chronicles of the 10th cent, men- 
tion this village under the name of *Brucsella* (6roefc, marsh ; hroek- 
sele , dwelling on the marsh) , and a document of Otho the Great 
proves that there was a church here in 966. In 977 Duke Charles 
of Lorraine selected Brussels as his residence and built a palace 
in the island of St. G^ry. After the 11th cent, the Counts of Lou- 
vain, then sovereign lords of the country, who afterwards assumed 
the title of Dukes of Brabant (p. 232), erected a castle on the height 
(Ooudenberg) commanding the valley of the Seun^, kcA ^wvcwfe^N.'!^^ 
it by a wall (11th cent.?) with the ivudeTi^ ol >iXi^ ^T«?«^^.^s^'«- 
town. When, howeYer, Brussels Ijecame an. \iii^ot\.w:A. ^^^ ^^'^^^^'^^S^ 
station on the great trade-route between 'BT\i^e>a w\^ ^^^^^'s^ % 

92 Route 11. BRUSSELS. BiHory, 

wall was replaced by anotlieT (1367-79) wltli seven gates, which 
was strengthened ahont 1530 and marked the limits of the juris- 
diction of the town down to the 19th century. 

The Burgundian princes, who subsequently resided here (15th 
cent.) , were generally surrounded by a large retinue of French 
knights, in consequence of which, even at that period, French became 
the most fashionable language among the nobility of the Netherlands. 
After the Netherlands passed into the possession of the Haps- 
burgs in 1477, Brussels became the seat of a brilliant court, which 
attained the height of its magnificence under Charles Y. Maria of 
Hungary (p. 153) transferred her abode fromMalines to theKoudon- 
berg in 1546, Philip II. made it the official residence of the Stadt- 
holder of the Netherlands, and Margaret of Parma (pp. 101, 153) here 
performed the duties of that office. Brussels was the scene of the first 
rising of the Netherlands against the Spanish dominion (1566; see 
p. 101), but at the end of the protracted conflict the city remained 
in the hands of the Spaniards. During the wars of Louis XIV. and 
Louis XV. Brussels had much to suffer. In 1695 the ancient lower 
town was reduced to ashes by Marshal Villeroi. Its refractoriness 
under the galling yoke of the Austrian governors was another source 
of disaster (see p. 125), but a better state of affairs was introduced 
by the mild rule of Maria Theresa and her stadtholder, Duke Charles 
of Lorraine (1744-80). After the wars of the French Revolution and 
the First Empire, Belgium was united in 1815 in one monarchy 
with Holland, and Brussels alternated with The Hague as the seat of 
the States General and the residence of the King. The revolution 
which ended in the separation of Belgium and Holland broke out at 
Brussels in 1830 ; and on July 21st of the following year, the new 
King of Belgium, Leopold of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, entered the city 
in state. A new period of prosperity now began. 

The diverse character of the upper and lower city, spoken of 
on p. 91, is still distinct at the present day. The upper part 
of the city contains the Royal Palace, the ministerial offices, the 
embassies, and the mansions of the nobility and gentry. The 
lower town, on the other hand, is devoted almost entirely to indus- 
try and commerce. The spacious market-place, with the magnificent 
H6tel de Ville and the mediaeval guild houses, presents a very strik- 
ing picture, and affords an idea of the ancient glory of the city ; but 
the advance of modern improvement has left few other relics of 
antiquity. The most conspicuous step in this direction has been 
the construction of the Inner Boulevards (p. 126). 

Sketch of Art in Bsussels. Daring the two golden ages of Flemish 

art in the 15th and again in the 17th cent., Brussels held a subordinate 

position, when compared with other Belgian towns, such as Ghent, Bruges. 

and Antwerp ; but the appointment of Roger van der Weyden to the office or 

civic painter in i4d6 (p. xlviii) is sufficient proof that art was not neglected 

Itere. Tie prosecution of the fine arts, as indije^ l\iiA ol \S\ict«\ \^uT8ttits 

fa general, fell entirely into abeyance In the ifttti ceniut^. t;\i% ikMn^ <A 

BruagelB, however^ a^ain became known in conxiecUou V\\a^ ^»ia»a% »S\«s 

HUioryofAH. BRUSSELS. 11. Route. 93 

the year 1815, when Jacques Louis David ^ the famous head of the modern 
French school, banished from Paris as a regicide, took up his abode here. 
David was too old to found a new school, but it was owing to his influence 
that the classical style remained longer dominant in Brussels than in 
other Belgian art-centres. Naves (1787-1869) and L. Mathieu (1805-61), who 
flourished here during the third and fourth decades of the 19th century, 
are good representatives of the correct and careful, though at the same 
time cold and lifeless style which then prevailed at Brussels, particularly 
in the domain of sacred art. 

In the remarkable revolution in taste and practice which took place 
in Belgium after 1830, Brussels at first took little part, the movement 
being headed by Antwerp. The political importance and wealth of the 
city, however, assembled here an important colony of artists. The most 
distinguished names about 1840-50 are those of Louis Gallait (1810-87 1 
p. 80) and Edouard de Bie/ve (1808-82), whose 'Abdication of Charles V.^ 
(p. 114) and 'Compromise of the Belgian Nobles' (p. 114) won them ardent 
admirers far beyond the confines of Belgium, especially in Germany, 
where their powerful colouring and careful naturalism worked almost as 
a revelation. The fact of their having given expression to national ideas, 
and celebrated the praises of Egmont in particular, has contributed not a 
little to the popularity of both these masters. A unique position was 
occupied by Antoins Wiertz (1806-65), who was idolized by his contem- 
poraries and whose studio (now a museum, p. 133) was erected at the cost 
of the nation in 1850. Endowed with ample natural talents and inspired 
by Ihe study of Eubens and the great creations of Michael Angelo in Rome, 
this master became the protagonist of modern ideas, somewhat after the 
manner of Goya. Soon, however, he lost his mental balance and dissipated 
his gifts in the production of works of a childish and tasteless eccentricity, 
though marked by much technical dexterity. Among the other leading 
representatives of this generation were P^r^o^is (1818-95), a pupil of Navez; 
the historical painters Alex. Markelbach (b. 1824) and Jos. Stallaert (1825-1903) s 
J. B. Madou (1796-1877), a genre-painter allied to the Diisseldorf school; 
Florent Willems (b. 1824), a somewhat insipid imitator of Terburg; and 
Alfred Stevens (b. 1823), who was educated at Paris and prefers to paint 
fashionable ladies. £. Verhoeckhoven (1799-1831), the successor of Omme- 
ganck, Louis RoVbe (1807-99), and Jos. Stevens (1819-92) may be mentioned 
as animal-painters i among landscape-painters, Th. Fourmois (1814-71) and 
£dtn. de Schampheleer (1824-99) first devoted their attention with success to 
Flemish subjects; P. J. Clays (1819-99) is prominent as a marine-painter. 

In 1868 the 'Soci^t^ Libre des Beaux-Arts^ united the champions of 
more modern views on art. Hippolyte Boulenger (1837-74), an enthusiastic 
disciple of the great Barbison school, studied in the Bois de la Cambre and 
the woods of Tervueren, and had already before his early death trans- 
planted to Belgian soil the cult of the *paysage fotime% with its careful 
observation of light and atmospheric effects. He wai) succeeded by Theod. 
Baron (1840-9^, Jac. Rosseels (b. 1828), Jos. Coosemans (1828-1904), ^ft. Assel- 
bergs (b. 1839), and others, whose fame is even excelled by that of the more 
modern 'impressionists' Em, Glaus (b. 1849), Frans Cowtens (b. 1853), 
Victor OiUoul (b. 1867), and Is. Yerheyden (b. 1846). As a specialist may be 
mentioned the animal-painter Alfr. Vertoie (1P38-95), the 'Belgian Troyon*. 
Among marine -painters Alex. Bouvier (b. 1837) and Louis Artan (18arr-90) 
should be named. 

The French realists (Courbet, etc.) found a zealous ally in the melan- 
choly Charles de Oroux (1826-70), who painted gloomy scenes from the 
comfortless lives of the urban labouring classes. In his genre-scenes and 
landscapes Louis Dubois (1830-80) also followed in Courbet's footsteps. Con- 
siantin Meunier (b. 1831) selects as his subjects sometimes gloomy scenes 
of martyrdom, sometimes incidents in the lives of miners and iron-found- 
ers, sometimes landscapes from the smoky 'Black CqxmA^Y <A ^^^s^^^o*.. 
The woes of the disinherited form the favo\XT\\.e \\v%xaR% ^il "Lt^ww YT^a*«%"ft 
(h. 1856), the orcmaturely cut off Evrard, Larock (,\aR&-V^KA:^> ^^^ ^'t^>^^ 
Zaermans (b. im), in which last the oU Pielet ^^^^^^^^'^^^.^t'^^^^Wv^^'*' 
again. The ahady Aides of human life alao a^ffox^e^ VX«* ^^^'^^^ xB».vbx 

94 Bouiell. BRUSSELS. History of Art. 

FiUeimlBopt (1833-98), the gifted draoghtsman and etcher, who spent most 
of his life in Paris. A more popular note than that of these realista is 
struck by Em. WmUer* (b. ISmG), a pupil of Portaels, who shews his 
versatility|in historical subjects, Oriental scenes, and portraits. 

The art of Sgulptdbb was pursued at Brussels with great success 
about the middle of the 19th cent., as is proved by such names as L y«- 
hoUe (b. 1803), Eug. SimonU (1810-83), Ch, A. Fraikin (1817-93), and IF. and 
/. Oeefs (1806-83 and 1806-85). Still happier results have been attained by 
sculptors of ecclesiastical subjects, and particularly in wood-carving, in 
which Belgium has regained some of its 17th cent, reputetion. Its most 
eminent masters in the 19th cent, were K. OeerU (180^-55) and W. Oopert 
(d. 1847), who, however, had no great following. 

The modern Belgian school of sculpture owes its international re- 
putation mainly to CorutanHn Meumier (comp. p. 93), who in his strong and 
Millet-like figures of the life of toil has triumphantly established the sculpt'»r^8 
independence of traditional forms. Other well-kno>n names are Ch. van der 
Stappen (b. 184S), Jef Lambeaux (b. 1852), the admirable portraitist PenU 
Dubois (b. 1859), and Victor Rousseau (b. 1861). Jules Lagae (b. 1832) and the 
sombre Georges Minne (b. 1867) were pupils of Van der Stappen. 

In Akghiteoturb the Gallic proclivities of the people are shown by 
the overwhelming number of houses in the so-called French Renaissance 
style (from Louis XIII. to Louis XVI.) which have sprung up within the 
last few years and completely altered the appearance of the old Brabant 
capital. It must be mentioned on the other hand that the FUmish Re' 
naissance style of the 16th cent, has also become extremely popular, and 
has been followed not only in private houses, in which the most striking 
feature is the small proportion borne by the breadth to the height, but 
also in various public edifices. The first attempts at the Modem Style may 
be studied in the pleasant Quartier Nord-Est (p. 1!^) and in the lines of streets 
between the Avenue L()uise and the Chauss^e de Charleroi. 

The mtjdem movement in Industbial Art is best represented by 
Henri van de Velde (b. 1863 ^ now in Weimar) and the versatile FhUip Wd/ers. 

a. The Older Fart of the Upper Town. 

Tlie verge of the height on which the upper town lies is traced 
by the Rue Royale, Place Royale, and Rue de la Rigenee, The centre 
of traffic on the Koudenherg (^Froidmonty *cold mountain') is the 
Place Royals (PI. E, 4; Flem. Koningaplaauy where stand the 
most fashionable hotels and several ^taveines'. The Place and the 
Rue Royale (p. 96), and also the other streets adjoining the Park, 
received their present architectural character from Ouimard, who 
designed them in the last quarter of the 18th century. The principal 
building, on the S.E. side, facing the busy Moniagne de la Cour, 
the street descending to the lower town (p. 119), is the court-churoh 
of — 

St. Jacques sor Caudenberg (PI. E, 4; Flem. St. Jakob op Kou- 
denherg), formerly the church of an old Augustine abbey and the 
state-church of the Spanish governors, rebuilt in 1776-85 by Gui- 
mard and Montoyer and enlarged in 1843-45. It has a portico of the 
Corinthian order and a low copper-roofed belfry. 

In the centre of the square rises the equestrian Statue of Godfrey 
deJ9ouillon(Fl.'E,^\ the hero of the First Crusade, grasping the banner 
of the Cross in his right hand, hy Simonw. IV. 's^ba fcifc^\.«dLNs\ \&4ft^ 
oa the spot where, in 1097, Godliey i» ^a\«i\^'Vi«iNft «i\v^iXft^^^ 

Vfper Toum, BRUSSELS. 11, SouU. 96 

Flemings to participate in the Crusade, and to have concluded Ms 
appeal with the words ^Dieu It voW (God wills it). 

The arched gateway in the W, comer of the Place Royale, to the 
left of the H6tel de TEurope, gives access to the Rue and Place du 
Mos^e, with the Royal Library (p. 1 1 1) and Museum of Moderrh Paint- ^ 
inga (p. 112). — At the corner to the left (S.W.), adjoining the Rue 
de Namur (p. 117), which leads to the site of the old Porte de Namur 
(p. 118), stands the Palais du Comte de Flandre (Pl.E, 4j no admis- 
sion). On the right is the Palais des Beaux- Arts (p. 102). — From 
the comer of the H6tel de Bellevue (PI. h ; E, 4), next the Place des 
Palais (see below), a fine view is obtained of the Palais de Justice, 
to the S.W., at the end of the Rue de la R^gence, and of the Rue 
Royale to the N., with the church of Ste. Marie de Schaerbeek in 
the distance (p. 128). 

The •Park (PI. E, 4), immediately to the N.E. of the Place 
Royale, originally an outlying portion of the Forest of Soignes 
(p. 136), used as a ducal hunting-ground in the 14th cent., was 
partly converted into a tournament-ground under Charles V., and was 
laid out in its present form after 1774 by the landscape-gardener 
Zinner, It is 33 acres in extent. During the eventful 23rd-26th of 
September, 1830, the park was one of the chief scenes of the » 
conflict, when Prince Frederick of the Netherlands with an army of 
10,000 men attempted in vain to force an entrance into the city 
from this point. The park is open on summer-evenings till 11 p.m. 
and is lighted by electricity. Concerts , see p. 89. In winter the 
park is closed about dusk. The groups at the entrance opposite the 
Palace, by Poelaert and Melot, represent Summer and Spring. Among 
the other sculptures are a Magdalen by Duquesnoy ; a bust of Peter 
the Great; a statue of Truth by Vin^otte; two figures of Meleager 
by Lejeune; and a Venus by Olivier. — In the N.E. comer is the 
Va'Uxhall(V\. E, 4; music, p. 89), adjoining which is the Thidtre du 
Pare (PL E, 3, 4; p. 89). 

The Palais du Boi (PI. E, 4), in the Place des Palais on the S. 
side of the park, occupies the site of the castle of the dukes of Bra- 
bant (p. 91) and the Spanish governors, which was burned down in 
1731. It originally consisted of two buildings, which were connected 
in 1827-29 by a central structure by L. /fifuy*, with a Corinthian colon- 
nade. In 1906 it will be enlarged by an additional building in front. 
The sumptuous interior, remodelled by Balaty is seldom accessible. 

Near the Royal Palace, at the corner of the Rue Ducale, is 
situated the Palais des Academies (PI. E, 4), formerly the Palais 
Ducal. It was erected in the Italian style at the national expense, 
and presented to the Prince, afterwards King William II. of Holland 
(d. 1849), in 1829. Since 1842 it has been the property of the. 
Belgian government. The building has heeu ocG\3i^\fe\ «vw^^ NSiVWi 
the Acadimie Boy ale des Sciences^ dti Letltcs, el dea ■Bea^Kfc-^'«^•*^ 
and theAcade'mieBoyale de Midecvne^ bot\i olvf\A^V^Q%^«k^«»^'>^^^^^^ 

96 RouUll. BRUSSELS. Vppef Towti, 

libraries. The Grande Salle on the first floor has been decorated 

by Slingeneyer with twelve mural paintings from the history of 

Belgium, and an adjoining room contains numerous busts of deceased 

members of the Academy. Adm., see p. 90. 

The garden which surrounds the palace is adorned with sculptures. 
In front of the palace is a marble statue of Qtietelet (PI. E, 4), the astro- 
nomer and statisHcian (1796-1»74), by C. A. Fraikin (1880)^ on the N. side 
is a buflt of the chemist J, 8. 8tcu (1813-91); and behind the building (next 
the Boulevard du Regent, p. 118) are bronze statues by W. Oee/t (The 
Victor), Jehotte (Cain), and Kettelt (Discus-Throwerj Cupid and Psyche). 

In the Rtie de la Loi (Wetstraat), which skirts the N. side of 
the Park, rises the Palais de la Nation (PI. E, 3), erected in 
1779-83 from a design by Ouimard for the assemblies of the old 
Council of Brabant, and used since 1831 for the sittings of the Bel- 
gian Senate and the Chamber of Deputies. The reliefs in the pedi- 
ment are by QodecharU. The building was restored in 1884-87 
by H. Beynert after a fire. The halls in which the deputies and 
the senate hold their meetings are worthy of inspection ; they contain 
paintings by L. Oallait and J. deLalaing, and some of the other rooms 
also are decorated with modern paintings. Adm., see p. 90. 

The buildings to the E. and W. of the Palais de la Nation are 
occupied by government-offices. Behind the E. wing is the Ministry 
of Railways, PostSf ^ Telegraphs (PI. E, 3), designed by H, Beyaert. 

The Rub Royalb (PI. E, 4-2), or Konir^gs-Straat, IV4 M. in 
length, bounds the park on the W. (electric tramway No. 15, see 
p. b8). On the W. the row of houses is often broken by small 
terraces, intended by Guimard to afford views of the lower town, 
but many of them have unfortunately been built up. On the first 
of these terraces rises the marble Statue of Count Belliard (1769- 
1832; PI. E, 4"), a French general, who was ambassador at the 
newly - constituted c^urt of Belgium in 1831-32, by W, Oeefs. 
This spot commands a fine view of the tower of the H6tel de Ville 
(p. 120), best by morning-light. 

The flight of steps behind the Belliard Monument leads to the Bue 
d^Isabelle (PI. E, 4), at Vo. 34 in which (formerly No. 33) Charlotte BrontH 
spent some years, first as a pupil and afterwards as a teacher, in the 
^peusionnaf of M. & Mme. H(iger. 

Farther on, beyond the small Impaste du Pare (PI. E, 3) and 
the Rue Treurenberg, which descends to the cathedral (p. 97), 
is situated the Place du Congrhs, adorned with the Colonne da 
CongrfeB (PI. E, 3), erected in 1850-59 by J. Poelaert (p. 101) to 
commemorate the Congress of 4th June, 1831, by which the present 
constitution of Belgium was established, and Prince Leopold of 
Saxe-Coburg elected king. 

The column, of the Doric order, 147 ft. in height, is surmounted by a 

satue of the king in bronze, 13 ft. in height, by W. Oee/t. The nine figures 

Jb relief below, representing the provinces of Belgium, are by SimonU. 

The female Agjaurea in broose at the four corners are emblematical of the 

I'>eedom of the Press, Freedom of Education, bolYvY^'j Jo». Ge^«^ Freedom 

^AMoc/Mi/on, bj Fraikin, and Freedom of PubWc ^OT%b\^, \il B\ino«U. 

•I- 00 names of the 287 members of the CongTeaa Kn^ <>^ ui* Vt«^\%\w«\ 

Cathedral. BRUSSELS. 11. Route. 97 

Government of 1830 are recorded on marble tablets. The two bronze lions 
at the door are by StmorUs. Visitors are no longer allowed to ascend the 

The Rue Royale farther on crosses the Upper Bonlevards at the 
site of the former Porte de Schaerbeek (p. 118) and ends at the 
ohnrch of Ste. Marie at Schaerbeek (p. 128). 

From the Golonne da Gongr^3 the Rue do Ligne leads to the church 
of *St6. Ondnle (PI. £, 3 ; 8t. Michel et Ste, Uudule\ an imposing 
Gothic building consisting of nave and aisles, situated on a somewhat 
abrupt slope overlooking^ the lower part of the town. The church was 
begun about the year 1220, on the site of a church of St. Michael, 
which was dedicated in 1047 also to St. Gudule (d. 712), the tutelary 

. saint of Brussels. A few traces of the transitional style of this period 
are still observable in the ambulatory. The rest of the choir (best seen 
from the Rue Treurenberg, p. 96), the transept, the arcades of the 
nave, and the S. aisle are early-Gothic, and were completed in 
1273. The N. aisle and the vaulting and windows of the nave 
were constructed between 1350 and 1450. The windows of the 
transept and the W. towers, 226 ft. in height, date from the end of 
the 15th cent., the large (N.) chapel of the Sacrament from 1534-39, 
the (S.) chapel of Notre Dame de D^ivrance (always open) from 
1649-53. The whole was restored by Suys in 1848-56. The facade, 
approached by a modern flight of steps by L. Roelandt and L. van 
Overstraelen (1861), resembles in its principal features rather the 
German than the French Gothic style. — The works of art in the 
interior are shown by the sacristan from 12 to 4.30 (till 4 in winter), 
when the church is closed for other purposes (adm. 1 fr., a party 
50 c. each ; entr. by the S. transept). 

The Interior is of simple bat noble proportions, and measures 354 ft. 
in length by 165 ft. in breadth. The nave rests on twelve round pillars 
and six piers strengthened by buttresses, the choir on ten round columns. 
The beautiful *8tained Olass dates from different periods, from the 16tb 
down to the 19th century. The finest is that in the *Ghapsl of the 
Sacrament (N. ; adjoining the choir on the left), consisting of windows 
presented in 1540-47 by four of the most powerful Roman Catholic poten- 
tates of Europe, in honour of certain wonder-working Hosts (see below). 
Each window bears the portraits of the donors with their patron- 
saints: 1st window (beginning from the left), John III. of Portugal and 
his queen Catherine, a sister of Charles V. \ 2nd, Louis of Hungary and 
his queen Maria, another sister of Charles V. *, 3rd, Francis I. of France 
and his queen Eleonora , a third sister of Charles V. *, 4th, Ferdinand I. 
of Austria, brother of Charles V., and his queen. The first two windows 
were executed by Jan ffaeek from designs by Michael van Coxie^ the third is 
by Bernard van Orley^ and the fourth by Jan Haeck after the design of an 
unknown master. The representations in the upper half of the windows 
depict the legendary story of the Hosts, which were stolen by Jews from 
St. Catherine's (p. 127) and sacrilegiously transfixed in their synagogue. 
The scoffers wete so terrified by their miraculous bleeding that they deter- 
mined to restore them \ but their crime was denounced and expiated \^^ 
death. The 5th window, above the altar, reptfeafciiXA CiVv^x\^^N . vc^^^sN.^ 
consort Isabella of Portugal, with the Adoration ol V'kift l^MnXi kiA \X^ ^jk.- 
cred Hosts at the top. This and the next were ene^iuX.^^ Vn. ^S:*»» ^"S vior 

pronnier in the style of the flrat four windows, to Te.^\^c.^ VX^^ cJV^«t «^^^ 

Baedekbb'b Belgium and Holland. i4th l£d\l. 1 

98 Route 11. BRUSSELS. Upper Town: 

which had been destroyed. A marble slab with the inaeriptlm 'Mobu- 
mentum Belgii gubematorum' indicates the resting-place of Archduke 
Albert and his (consort Isabella (d. 1621 and 1633; p. xzi, zxii). The 
Gothic altar in carved wood (by Ooyers^ 1849) is beantifnlly executed. 

The first four windows of the Chapel of Notbb Damb ds DftuvKAircx 
(S. side: if closed, entrance from the Place), executed in 1656 by J". d« La- 
harve of Antwerp, from designs by Theod. van Thulden^ are inferior both in 
drawing and colouring to those just described, but are notwithstaiidiiig 
excellent examples of 17th cent, art (school of Rubens). They represent 
episodes from the life of the Virgin, with portraits of Archduke lipoid 
(a. 1662), Archdnke Albert (d. 1621). and the Archduchess Isabella Clara 
Eugenia (d. 1633); then Emp. Ferdinand II. (d. 1668) and Leopold I. (d. 
ilGo). The two other windows are by Caprormier. The same chapel con- 
tains a ^Monument in marble, by W. OeefSy to Count Frederick de M^rode, 
who fell in a skirmish with the Dutch at Borchem in 1830. The armo- 
rial bearings of the 3Idrode family have the commendable motto: *Pliu 
d'honneur que d^honneur*\ Over the monument, the Assumption, a large 
modern picture by Navet. This chapel also contains a marble monument 
to Count F^lix de Mdrode (d. 1857) , an elder brother of the last-named, a 
well-known Belgian statesman, by C. A. Fraikin^ and one of the Spanish 
general Count Isenburg-Grenzau (d. 1664). 

The five stained-glass windows of the Choir, dating from the middle 
of the 16th cent, (about 1546), contain portraits of Maximilian of Austria 
and his queen Mary of Burgundy \ their son Philippe le Bel and his queen 
Johanna of Castile; Emp. Charles V. and Ferdinand, sons of the latter; 
Philip II., son of Charles V., with his first wife, Maria of Portugal; Phlli- 
bert, Duke of Savoy, and Margaret of Austria. — Below is the monument 
of Duke John II. of Brabant (d. 1312) and his duchess Margaret of York,- in 
black marble, with a recumbent lion in gilded copper; opposite to it, the 
monument, with recumbent figure, of Archduke Ernest (d. 1695), brother of 
Emp. Rudolph U. and stadtholder of the Netherlands. Both monuments 
were erected by Archduke Albert (brother of Ernest) in 1610. — The mod- 
ern high-altar, in embossed and enamelled copper, is decorated with 8ym> 
bolical representations. At high festivals and during one week in July 
(beginning with the Sun. after July 13th) tbe choir is hung with six valu- 
able tapestries by Van der Borght of Brussels (1785), representing the Legend 
of the Hosts (p. 97). 

The Ambulatort contains stained-glass windows in the style of the 
13th cent., executed by Capronnier in 1879; the subjects are taken from 
Biblical history. — In the rococo Chapel of the Magdalen behind the high- 
altar is an altar from the Abbaye de la Cambrc (p. 133). The stained glass, 
bearing the arms of the Mdrode family and figures of saints, is also by- do- 
pronnier (1843). 

Transept. ^Stained glass: Charles V. and his queen, with their 
patron-saints (N.j 1537); Louis III. of Hungary and his queen, hj Bernard 
van Orley (S. ; 1538). 

The modern stained glass in the Kavk is all by Capronnier^ having 
been presented by tbe royal family and noble Belgian families; the sub- 
jects also refer to the story of the stolen Hosts (see p. 97), beginning In 
the S. aisle, by the transept. The window of the W. PortaJ, a Last 
Judgment by F. Floris^ remarkable for the crowd of figures it contains, 
was presented in 1528 by Eberhard von der Marck, Bishop of Li^e, but 
has been repeatedly restored. — The baroque confessionals are by Vtm Delen 
(18th cent.); in the S. aisle is the monument of Canctn Triest (d. 1846), 
noted at Brussels for his benevolence, by Ettg. Simonit; in the N. aisle is 
a marble monument to Count Cornet de Ways-Ruart, by Oee/s^ 18^72 (Faith 
supporting old age and elevating youth). The modem reliefs of the stations 
on the way to Calvary are by P. Puyenhroeck. — Four of the massive sta- 
tues of the Apostles on the pillars of the nave (Paul, Bartholomew, Thomas, 
Matthew) are by Jer. Duquesnoy; three others CJohn.^ Andrew, Thaddteus) 
are by Z. Faid^fierbe. "Vh^ *Fulpit^ originaW^ ^^ ^-^^ c\v\wti^ t^l \\i% 'l^t.^Ste 
atLonvain, was executed in 1690 by the celebtalea-Yerbiniggen. \\\«% 

N. D. du Sablon, BRUSSELS. 11. Route, 99 

presentation in carved wood of tlie Expulsion from Paradise; abore is 
tlie Virgin with the Child, who crashes the head of the serpent with the 
cross. The railing, with all kinds of animals, symbolizing the vices of 
mankind, is by V€inderhaegen (1780). — The Scuritty contains valuable gifts 
from Archduke Albert and the Infanta Isabella and one of the largest 
relics existing of the True Cross. 

The South Toweb commands a beautiful view; ascent, 1 pers. 2 fr., 
2 or more pers. 3 fr. — In the K. tower is the large bell of St. Salvator 
(about ^/4 tons in weight). 

The large building opposite the cathedral, to the N., in the 
Rue du Bois Sauvage, is the Banque Nationale (PI. E, 3), one of 
the best modern buildings in Brussels, designed by H. Beyaert and 
Jan«5«n« (1859-64), and exhibiting a free treatment of the Louis XVJ. 
style. It was enlarged In 1903-4. The allegorical figures of Industry 
and Commerce over the pediments are by Wiener^ the rest of the 
sculptural ornamentation by HouUtout. 

The Jardin de la Cure, Biie du Bois Sauvage 13, contains a Totoer and 
the terre-pleln of a Rampart , forming, with the Tour Noire (p. 127), the 
only relics of the first city-wall (p. 91). 

The Rub de la R^gencb (PL D, 4, 6), or RegentieStraat (electric 
tramway No. 15, p. 88), which begins at the Place Royale, leads 
past the Gomte de Flaiidre's Palace and the Palais des Beaux-Arts 
(comp. p. 96), and farther on intersects the Square du Petit Sa- 
BLON, or Kleine Zaavel (PI. D, 5), which is connected with the Place 
du Grand Sablon (p. 125) by the Rue Bodenbroeck and the Rue des 
Sablons. To the right rises the Gothic church of — 

Notre Dame du Sablon (Pi. D, 5), also called Notre Dame des 

Victoires, founded in 1304 by the Guild of Crossbowmen, but almost 

entirely rebuilt in the 15th and 16th centuries. It was restored 

in 1900 et seq. after designs by J. J. van Ysendyck, 

The Intbbiob (sacristan, Rue de Buysbroeck 43) measures 213 ft. in 
length by 84 ft. in breadth (120 ft. across the transepts) and is in the form 
of a Latin cross. The stained-glass windows are modern. The handsome 
carved-wood pulpit, in the baroque style (17th cent.), is borne by the sym- 
bolical animals of the Evangelists. — The first Chapel in the N. Aiblk 
contains the monument of Count Flaminius Gamier, secretary of the 
Duke of Parma, consisting of six reliefs in alabaster from the life of 
the Virgin (about 1570; restored). Opposite, at the end of the S. Aislx, 
is a monument by /. Jaquet, erected in 1856 to Aug. dal Pozzo, Marquis 
de Voghera (d. 1781), commander of the Austrian forces in the Nether- 
lands. — The Ghoib contains mural paintings of processions by Van dor 
PltMtsen^ being -an exact reproduction of the originals of the 15th cent, 
discovered here in 1860 in a state beyond restoration. To the left of the 
choir are the two burial-chapels (17th cent.) of the Princes of Thurn and 
Taxis, sumptuously adorned with black and white marble; on the right is 
an angel holding a torch, by Orupello; in the dome are numerous family 
armorial bearings. — To the right of the choir are two other gorgeous 
baroque chapels. — In the 8. Transept, opposite the sacristy-door, is a 
memorial tablet to J. B. Rotuseau (1670-1741), the French poet, who died 
in exile at Genette. near Brussels, and was interred in this spot in 1842« 
The sacristy contains an ivory statuette of Chri&V X)'^ Duqv*»'<^^- 

On the part of the Place du Petit S&bloiv lo XXi^ ^1S». ^^^^ '^'^ 
Monument of ConntB Egmont and Hooxn (V\.\) ^t^i^V3 O. K- ietaV\fc\fw 

100 BouUll. BRUSSELS. Upper Town: 

(1864), originally erected in the Grand' Place. The lower part is a 
fountain, above which rises a square pedestal in the later Gothic 
style. On the right and left are bronze figures of Flemish soldiers. 
The colossal figures in bronze above represent Egmont and Hoom on 
their way to execution. Ten marble statues of celebrated contem- 
poraries of the counts were erected in 1890 in a half-circle round 
the monument. These represent (from left to right): Marnix of 
Ste. Aldegonde (p. 289) by P. Devigne, Abr. Ortelius (p. 179) by J, 
Lambeaux, B. van Orley by Dillens^ J. de Locquenghien by O. van 
den Kerckhovej Ger. Mercator by L. P. van Biesbroeck, Dodonsus 
(p. 164) by A. de Tombay, Corn. Florls de Vriendt by J. Pecker^ H. van 
Brederode by J. A. van Rasbourgh^ L. van Bodeghem by J. Cuyper$y 
and William of Orange by C. van der Stappen. The pleasure-grounds 
amid which the monument stands are surrounded by a handsome 
iron railing, designed by A. Beyaert and X, Mellery (1882), with 
48 small bronze figures representing the Artistic and Industrial 
Guilds of the 16th century. — Behind the monument is the — 

Palace of the Duo d'ATenberg(Pl. D, 5), once the residence of 
Count Egmont, erected in 1548, restored in 1753, with a modern 
right wing. It is now the property of the town. The older portion 
of the palace was seriously damaged by fire in 1892, but the private 
room of Lamoral, Count Egmont, is still in good preservation. On 
the first floor is a valuable ^Collection of Pictures (about 160 in 
number), mainly of the Flemish and Dutch schools of the 17th 
cent, and almost all in admirable preservation. Adm., see p. 90. 
Catalogue by W. Burger (out of print). 

Oallsbt (afternoon-light beat). To the right of the entrance: Ph. Wouver- 
fium, Peasants; D. Tmiert ths Younger ^ Bagpipe- player; A. Cuypy Horses; 
Rembrandt^ Tobias healing the eyes of his father (1636); P. de Hooch ^ 'In- 
terior; D. Teniert the Younger ^ Ninepin-players ; above, B. van der Hdtt^ 
Married couple; /. van Craeebeeck^ The artist's studio; Adr. van OUade^ 
Interior of a tavern (1655); 0. Dou^ Old woman counting her money; 
A. Cuyp^ Gray horse; D. Teniere the Younger^ Dead calf; above, Jac. Jordaens^ 
*Zoo de ouden zongen, zoo piepen de jongen' OAs the old have sung, so pipe 
the young'); 0. TerburQy Musical entertainment; K. du Jardin^ Best at ike 
tavern; Potrf Potter ^ Cattle resting; RiibenSy Five portraits. Three heads of 
angels, Sketch; Oabrid Metsu^ * Love-letter; J, van der Heyde^ View of a 
town; A. van der Neery 8ea-scene by moonlight (1644); Jan Steeny Wedding 
at Cana of Oalilee , a large canvas with numerous ligures ; Ph. Koninei^ 
Landscape; Adr. BrouweTy Interior of a tavern; Quir. van Brekelenkcun^ 
Tailors workshop (1664); Adr. van Ostadey Boor smoking; A. van Everdingen^ 
Waterfall ; Jac. van Ruvsdaely Waterfall ; M. Hobbemoy *Forest-scene ; Brek&' 
lenkanty The teacher (1660); Watteauy *Bathing in the open air, ^Fgte-galante, 
*Lady at her toilet; Oont. Coques^ Jan BntegJiel, and J. van Keesdy Christ 
at the house of Lazarus; ytc. Maesy ^Scholar. — To the left of the entrance; 
Com. Dtuarty Peasants in front of a tavern; D. Tenters the Younger y The 
smokers; D. Teniert the Elder y Farm-yard; Jan Vermeer^ * Young girli J. v<m 
de Captiley *Calm sea; W. van de Veide the Younger y Sea-piece (1d63); O, 
Berek-Beffde ^ View on a canal; Sol. van Ruysdaely River-scene; J(U. wan 
^upsdael. Winter landscape; Ph. Wouvermany In camp; Frant HalSy *Merry 
toper (paJated according to Bode ca. 1686); Adr. vande Veldey Pasture with 
cMtt/e; JV. JSerchmiy Flocka resting. — On ibe vjindoYr-Yrall : J. van Rave- 

f*^^ ^ortrsJt of H woman ; Kohar^^ PortraU oi HLktV^ ATi\o\Ti%,\.\ft,^ ^^Vd!v«4 
fa the Temple sbortlj before her ren 

removai \o Ihe Oonci^T^^^xV^. 

Palais de Juttiee, BKtlSSELS. 11, Route. 101 

Room I. A. van Dydt^ Count Albert of Arenberg, Portrait of Anna 
Mftria of Gamudio (c. 16S0), Portrait of a lady, St. Martin (sketch for ihe 
picture at Saventhem; p. 3S9); Jac. Jordaen*^ *Rape of Amphitrite; J<m 
Fyt^ Fiab. This room also ccntaina f ome old printed wcrks, some of them 
decorated with miniatures. 

Boom II. B. van der HeUi^ Portrait of a man; Adr. van Utrecht and 
D. Teniert the Younger^ Trophies of the chase \ Jan Both^ Southern landscape. 

In the Rue des Petits-Garmes, diverging to the left, an inscrip- 
tion on the Grenadier Barracks (Pi. D, E, 6 ; left) announces that 
the building occupies the site of Count Kuilemburg's palace, pulled 
down in 1568. In this palace between three and four hundred of 
the Netherlands nobles met and drank success to the 'Gueux' on 
April 6th, 1566, the day after the presentation of their 'Request' 
to the yiee-regent Margaret of Parma, praying for the abolition of 
the inquisitorial courts. The Duke of Alva afterwards lived in the 
palace, and here he arrested Counts Egmont and Hoorn on Sept. 

9th, 1567. 

The palace occupied by the Duchess Margaret of Parma was In the 
Place Boyale(p. 95). At the moment when the petition was presented, Count 
Berlaimont, one of the courtiers, whispered to the princess, whose apprehen- 
sions had been awakened by the sudden appearance of the cortege, ^Madame, 
ce n'eetqu'une troupe de gueux" {i.e. ^ beggars), in allusion to their sxipposea 
want of money. The epithet was overheard, and rapidly communicated 
to the whole party, who afterwards chose it for the name of their faction . 

Farther on in the Rue de la R^gence, to the left, stands the 

Conservatoire Boyal de Musique (PI. D, 5), built in 1876-77 by 

Cluysenaar. In the cbncert-hall (concerts, see p. 89) is an organ by 

Cavaill^-Col. The Conservatoire possesses the most important *Col' 

lection of Musical Instruments, from the 16th cent, onwards, in 

Europe, now exhibited in the wing at the back of the building. Rue 

aux Laines 11 (adm., see p. 90; large scientific catalogue by 

V. Mahillon, the founder of the collection). — Adjacent is the 

Synagogue (PI. D, 5), a building in the Romanesque style by 

De Keyser (1878). 

The Rue de la Regence, and the Place Poblabbt in which it 
ends, are terminated on the S.W. by the — 

**Palai8 de Jiutice(Pl. C, D, 5,6), an edifice designed on a most 
ambitious scale by Poelaerty begun in 1866 under the superintend- 
ence of Wellens, and inaugurated in 1883. Tho cost of the build- 
ing amounted to about 45 million francs (1,800,000/.). It is the 
largest architectural work of the 19th century, and is certainly 
one of the most remarkable, if not one of the most beautiful of 
modem bnildings. The inequalities of the site added greatly to the 
magnitude of the task. The area of the building is 270,000 sq. ft., 
considerably exceeding that of St. Peter's at Rome (see p. 168). The 
huge and massive pile stands upon an almost square basis, 590 ft. 
long by 560 ft. wide, and forcibly suggests the mighty structures 
of ancient Egypt or Assyria. Indeed the architect v»v«^^ V>s\3iX.^'N^^ 
guiding principle was an adaptation oi Aas^iV^-u l^rcaa \ft 'a.NiNX.'^^ 
requirements of the present day. In detaW* l\ift Qii»c,«i-^QTS^»^ 'jN^C^^ 

102 BouUll. BEUSSELS. Royal Museums: 

has been for the most part adhered to, with an admixture of rococo 
treatment. Above the main body of the building rises another rectan- 
gular structure surrounded with columns ; this supports a drum or 
rotunda, also encircled with columns, while the summit of the whole 
is formed by a comparatively small dome, the gilded crown on the top 
of which is 400 ft. above the pavement of the Rue des Minlmes, to 
the N.E., and 340 ft. above the Place Poelaert. The rotunda is embel- 
lished with colossal figures of Justice, Law,Strength, and Clemency, by 
DutrieuXj Desenfans^ VinQottCj and De Tombay. The principal facade, 
with projecting wings and a large portal, is turned towards the Rue 
de la R^gence. The flights of steps ascending to the vestibule are 
adorned with colossal statues of Demosthenes and Lycurgus by 
A, P. Cattier (1882 ; to the right) and of Cicero and Domitlus Ulpian 
by A. F. Bouri (1883; to the left). The interior includes 27 large 
court-rooms, 245 other apartments, and 8 open courts. The large 
Salle des Pas PerduSj or waiting-room, with its galleries and flights 
of steps, lies in the centre, under the dome, which has an interior 
height of 320 ft. The main staircase on the N.W. side (towards the 
Rue des Minimes) has 171 steps. Guides in uniform are in wait- 
ing to conduct visitors through the interior (week-days, 9-4.30; 
Sun., 10-4; tickets at the entrance, 1 fr.), and the dome may also 
be ascended (525 steps ; fee). The terrace on the W. side of the 
Place Poelaert, commands a fine 'View of the lower part of Brussels 
(best by evening-light). ' 

The broad Rue des Quatre Bras, running to the S.E. from the 
Place Poelaert, joins the Boulevard de Waterloo opposite the Avenue 
Louise (p. 134). 

b. The Boyal Museums and Library. 

Opposite the Palais du Comte de Flandre, at the beginning of 
the Rue de la R^gence (pp. 95, 99), rises the — 

Palais dbs Beaux-Aets (PI. D,4), built in 1875-81, in the class- 
ical style, by Alph. Balat. The building was originally intended 
for various artistic purposes, but since 1882 has been exclusively 
devoted to the MusSe Boyal de Peintnre Anoienne et de Sculpture, 
for which, however, a large new building is to be begun in 1905. 
The central portion, with three portals, is embellished by fonr 
massive granite columns with bronze bases and capitals. On the 
tops of the columns are four colossal figures, representing Musio, 
Architecture, Sculpture, and Painting, by De Oroot. In the medal- 
lions above theportais are three bronze busts : Rubens (in the centre; 
by Van RasbourgK)^ Jean de Boulogne (by Cuypers') , and Jan van 
Ruysbroeck (see p. 120; by BourS)j and over the windows are two 
marble reliefs, Industrial Art and Music, by Brunin and Vin^otte^ 
— In front of each of the wings stands an allegorical group in 
bronze: on the Jeft, Instruction in Ail, ^i'S C. -oan det Sla-pi^wv; on 
tbe right, Coron&tion of Art, by P.dc Vlync— K^xxv., %fe^^^.^^^^• 

Seulpiiire OaUery. 


11. Route, 103 

The Yestibvlb (cloak-room to the right, gratis) contains marble 
sculptures by L, Qodecharle and busts of eminent persons. Straight 
in front is the — 

Main Hall, an oblong room occupying the entire height of the 
building, and containing the *Ma8^e de Sculpture (no catalogue). 
By the entrance: to the right, P. de Vigne, Immortality. — Along 
the left side-wall : Ch, van derStappen^ Man with a sword; W. Oeefa, 
The amorous lion ; A, P. Cattier^ Shepherd-boy with goat ('Daphnis' ; 
1878). Opposite, right, P. J. BourS, Boy playing with marbles 

(bronze); Ch, van derStappen^ Sphinx (1898); Eug. Simonia^ Inno- 
cence (1839); Jos. OeefSy Triumph of Oopid; left, Ch. A. FraUcin, 
Triumph of Bacchus; C. Meunier^ •The Puddler (bronze), ♦Fire- 
damp ('le Grisou'), * Woman finding the corpse of her son, killed 
by an explosion in a mine (large group in bronze). — In the centre 
of the room, to the right : W. Oeefs^ Statue of Leopold L; Th. Vin- 
foite. Busts of Leopold II. and Queen Maria Henrietta. — Farther 
on, to the left: C/i. Briim'n, Venetian flsher-lad with pigeon (bronze); 
V. van Hove, Chastised slave (bronze) ; P. Btaeckey Reconciliation 
(mother and repentant son). Behind, by the wall^ Jo%, Q«,«.t^^ 
*L'Ange du Mai'. — Farther on, to tlie ns\i\, P. de Wgue, ^v^'^^ 
(bronze bust). In the centre, J. Lambcaux, litaXiO ^^ . VV>.\^stw«^^ 

104 Route 11, BRUSSELS. Royal Mv9ewn$ : 

0. de Orootf Work (large bronze). In front of the rear wall, 
M, Rysbraek, John Howard, the philanthropist (1762). 

We return along the right side-wall. Left, Victor RousseaUy 
Demeter (1898) ; 0. Charlier^ Prayer ; right, J. DUUns^ Figure for 
a tomb; left, P. Dubois, ♦Seated figure of a lady ; C. MeurUer, Work- 
er in a rolling-mill (bronze statuette); V, van Hove, Reyengeful 
slave (bronze); K Rousseau, ♦The way to life (*Vera la Vie*; small 
bronze group) ; C. Meunier. ♦Antwerp (bronze bust) ; Paul J. Bouri, 
The snake-bite (bronze, 1848); Th, Vin^otie^ Catiline (bronze bust); 
J. Cuypers, Halali (1878) ; P. J. DourS, Prometheus bound (bronze ; 
1846); Th. ViriQOtte, Giotto as a boy ; right, JBodin, rThe Thinker 
(bronze). — Round the walls are bronze and marble busts of artists, 
savants, etc., including original works of *Paul de Vtgne, E. 8(^ 
monis, P. Puyenhroeck, Desprez, Janssens, M, KesseU, L, Jehotte, 
Canova, and dodecharte (Voltaire). On the walls are eight large 
pieces of tapestry, manufactured at Brussels, with scenes from the 
history of the foundation of Rome, probably after cartoons by 
P. CoecJce (c. 1640). In the cabinets are terracottas by Faidherbe^ 
Francois and Jerome Duquesnoy, A. Quellin, and others. 

The room to the left of the main hall (corresponding to R. Ill 
on the first floor; comp. Plan) contains busts and some old paint- 
ings, chiefly historical views and portraits of princes of the houses of 
Burgundy, Nassau-Orange, and Hapsbnrg. In the centre are pho- 
tographs of masterpieces of Flemish painters (16-17th cent.) in 
other collections. 

The First Floob, on which is the picture-gallery, is reached 
by the ^ Escalier de la Pallas', or grand staircase, at the N.W. end of 
the hall of sculpture, at the foot of which is an allegorical fountain- 
group by Orupello, and at the head, a statue of Pallas by Oodecharle, 
Ascending the Escalier de la Pallas, we enter the first room of the — 

♦Gallery of Old Pictures (Tableaux Anciens), — The Brussels 
gallery, which was founded in 1803 and purchased from the city by 
the state in 1841, has grown continuously in importance, and now 
contains about 700 pictures. Formerly inferior to the gallery at Ant- 
werp, it must now, in spite of numerous mediocre works, be con- 
sidered almost equal to it. Large catalogue by A. J, Waiuier$ 
(1900), 2^2 ^^' ; small catalogue (catalogue ahrigi), 25 c. 

The Early Flemish School of the 16th cent, is represented by a 
large number of pictures specially important to the critical art- 
student of that period; but among these are several works of great 
interest to all lovers of art, such as Adam and Eve by Jan van 
Eyck (R. X, No. 170), the Piet^ by Roger van der Weyden (H. X, 
No. 516), the Legend of the lying empress and the innocent nable- 
wan by Dierick Bouts (R. X, Nos. 65, 66), the portraits by Aofis 
Afemlinff (R. X, Nob. 292, 293, 294^, and ^l. ^w^w«. \i^ QxiViAww 
^^^s^^s (R. X, No, 299> Flemish and DutcYi ait qI IV^ Vl^ weX* 

Picture Oallery. BRUSSELS. 11. RouU. 105 

has also, throagh judicious purchases, gradually come to be most 
favourably represented. The pictures by Rubens at Brussels cannot 
indeed be compared, either in number or beauty, with those at Ant- 
werp; but his Adoration of the Magi (B. Ill, No. 377) ranks among 
the finest treatments of this subject, and his portraits (R. VII, 
Nos. 386, 387) and the small Madonna with the forget-me-not 
(R.YII, No. 390) also deserve attention. The versatile industry of Jae. 
Jordaena is well represented in this gallery (R. VII). The Miracu- 
lous Draught of Fishes by 0. de Crayer (R. Ill, No. 126), and the 
large Village Feast by Tenters the Younger {R. VI, No. 457) may be 
specified among the Flemish works. Good specimens of the Dutch 
School are the small portrait of Willem van Ueythuysen (R. IX, 
No. 203), the half-length portrait of Prof. Hoornebeek (R. IX, 
No. 202) by Frans Hals, and the portraits by Rembrandt (R. IX, 
No. 367), Van der Heist (R. IX, Nos. 214-216), Th, de Keyset 
(R IX, Nos. 250, 251), and Nic. Maes (.R. VIII, No. 279). Atten- 
tion should also be given to the genre- scenes by Jan Steen [R. IX, 
Nos. 444, 445) and 0. Metsu (R. IX, No. 296), the landscapes of 
M. Hobbema (R. IX, No. 220) and Jan Both (R. IX, No. 52), and the 
still-life pieces of Abr, van Beyeren (R. IX., No. 36) and the De Heems 
(RR. VIII and IX). More historical than artistic interest attaches 
to the municipal pieces and pictures of festivals and processions by 
D. van Alsloot (R. VI, No. 509 ; R. XI, No. 6) and J. Wildens (R. VII, 
No. 518), and of battles and sieges by P. Snayers (R. Vil, No. 430, 
etc.), which illustrate the public life of the 16th and 17th centuries. 
Room I (Flemish School of the 17th cent). — On the end-wall, 
to the left: 476a. A. van Utrecht, Garland of fruits; O, de Crayer, 
124. Madonna of the rosary, 125. Assumption of St. Catharine. — 
121 . J. van Craesbeek, The Rhetoricians (comp. No. 445, p. 108) j 245. 
/. Jordaens, Apostle's head (coloured sketch) ; 405. Z>. Ryckaert III, 
Alchemist in his laboratory; 259. J. M, Molenaer (not N. Lofabrique), 
Youth counting money. — This room commands a good survey of 
the hall of sculptures. 

Room II (Italian and Spanish Schools of the 15-18th cent.). To 
the right: 140. Carlo Crivelli, Madonna and Child, with St. Francis 
of Assisi; 496. Paolo Veronese, Juno strewing her treasures on 
Venice (ceiling-painting from the Doges' Palace) ; 415. Andrea del 
8urto(;i), Jupiter and Leda; 473, 474. Tintoretto, Portraits; 85. 
M, Preti (il Calabrese), Hecuba and Polymnestor. — *363. Ant, Pereda, 
Fruit; 197. Quardi, Interior of St. Mark's; 198. Quereino (0. F, 
Barbieri), Youth commended to the Virgin by his patron-saints, 
SS. Nicholas, Francis, and Joseph. — In the corners: Alonso Sanchez 
Coello, 413. Joanna of Austria, 412. Maria of Austria, 411. Mar- 
garet of Parma, all daughters of Charles V. — We now turn to the 
left into the long and narrow — 

Room III, with masterpieces of the Tf\em\«JtL ^<i\iw\ o.^ <X^^ *^5q. 
century. By fAe en trance- wall: 439. Sn^ders, ^\a.%^ \i^^^.%\VV.^ 

106 Route 11. BEUSSELS. Boydl MwmmM: 

Jan Fyt. Fruit. — 129. G. de Crayefy Martyrdom of St. Blasias; 
P. de Vc8, 607. Horse attacked by wolves, 506. Stag-hunt; 380. 
Rubens, Pietk (studio- piece ; freely restored)} 244. Jordaens^ Por- 
trait of a lady (1641); 382. Ruhem, Venus in Vulcan's smithy; 154. 
O, de Grayer, Abbot. Rubens, *377. Adoration of the Magi (painted 
about 1634 for the Oapuohins at Toumai); 374. Way to Golgotha 
(c. 1635); 376. Christ hurling thunderbolts against the guilty 
world, while the Virgin and St. Francis intercede (painted in 
1633 for the Franciscans at Ghent); 383, 384. Portraits, over life- 
size, of Archduke Albert and his consort, the Infant^ Isabella, 
painted for the triumphal arch erected on their entry into Antwerp 
in 1635 (comp. p. 185). Between the last two, 241. Jordaentt 
Susannah and the Elders; *126. 0, de Craycr, The miraoulons 
draught of fishes; 376. Rubens, Martyrdom of St. Li vinus," whose 
tongue the executioner has torn out and offers to a hungry dog, 
one of the great master's most repulsive pictures, painted for the 
Jesuits at Ghent; 437. Snyders, Stag -hunt; 95. Phil, de Qiam- 
paigne, Presentation in the Temple. — 178. Jan Fyt, Dead game on 
a cart drawn by dogs ; 436. Adr, van Utrecht, Still-life. 

Room IV (Flemish School of the 17th cent.). To the right: 
*393. Rubens, Martyrdom of St. Ursula (sketch); 458. David Teniera 
the Younger, Picture-gallery of Archduke Leopold William, with the 
names of the masters on the frames; 432a. P. Snayers, Pilgrimage 
of the Infanta Isabella to the Chapel of St. Anne in Laeken in 1623, 
with view of Brussels in the background ; 423. Jan Sibcrechts, Flem- 
ish farm-yard (1660); 164. A. van Dyck, Martyrdom of St. Peter; 
605. Master of Ribaucourt, Family group (the Van Vlisteren fa- 
mily?); 161. A. van Dyck, Full-length portrait of the Genoese 
admiral, Giov. Vine. Imperiale, from the Palazzo Balbi in Genoa 
(1626); Rubens, 381. Christ and the Woman taken in adultery, 
391. Meleager and Atalauta; 460. D. Tenters the Younger, Large 
Flemish landscape, with village ; 163. Van Dyck, Drunken Silenus 
supported by a satyr and a Bacchante; 243. Jordaens, St. Ives, 
patron-saint of lawyers (1645). 

Room V (Flemish School of the 17th cent.). On the entrance- 
wall: 22S. Com. Huysman^, Landscape; 229. J.B,Huysmans, Laud- 
scape with cattle. — 127. G. de Crayer, SS. Paul and Anthony; 
Ph. de Champaigne, 96. St. Ambrose, 97. St. Stephen; •SOS. C. de 
Vos, The painter and his family ; *378. Rubens, Assumption, the 
artist's first work of the kind, painted c. 1616 for the Carmelite 
church at Antwerp; 288. P. Meert, Presidents of the guild of fish- 
mongers at Brussels ; 133. G". de Crayer^ Christ appearing to St. Julian 
and his wife Basilissa, who had received him the day before as a 
weary traveller. — 156. Fr. du Chatel(fj, Parade of the Knights oi 
the Golden Fleece before the palace of the Duke of Brabant at BruB- 
se/g/ 38. Karel E. Bisety Tell and the ap^le, -^Jith the members of 
tip guild of St. Sehasti&n as spectators •, \hl . FT.duChttlelt^,^\a.^% 

Picture Gallery, BRUSSELS. 11. Route, 107 

portrait. — This room afifords a fine view of the hall of sculp- 

Room VI (Flemish School of the 17th cent.). To the right : •388. 
HubenSy Theophrastus Paracelsus ; 100. Phil, de Champaigne, Por- 
trait of himself (1668); D. TenUra the Younger, ♦462. Portrait of a 
young man, 466. Village- doctor; 77. Adr, Brouwet, Boors carous- 
ing; *467. Tenien the Younger , F lemish y il la ge - feast (1652); 
liubens, 396. Fall of the Titans, 395. Rape of Hippodameia, 394. 
Mercury and Argus (sketches for the pictures in thePrado Gallery); 
509. D. van Alsloot (not Seh, Franca;), Carnival on the ice at Ant- 
werp ; 162. Van Dycfc, Portrait of Dellafaille, a Magistrate of Ant- 
werp (c. 1630); 83. jD. Teniers the Younger and J, Brueghel, Temp- 
tation of St. Anthony, in a wreath of flowers ; 113. Qonzales Coques, 
Portrait of the sculptor Faid^herbe ; Teniers the Younger, Abb. The 
five senses, 461. Landscape; 78. Adr. Brouwer, Flute-player j *459. 
Teniers the Younger, Temptation of St. Anthony; no number, Com, 
de Vo8, Jan Roose, Burgomaster of Antwerp ; 471. O, van Tilhurg, 
The five senses. 

Room VII (Flemish School of the 17th cent). On the entrance- 
wall: 434. Snyders, Still-life; no number, Jordaens, Twelfth Night 
('le rot boit'); 476. A, van Utrecht and J. Jordaens, Fishmonger's 
and poulterer's shop ; 234. Jordaens, St. Martin casting out a deyil 
(1630); 302. Ad. Fr.vander Meulen, Camp of Louis XIV. atTournai. 
Jordaens, 237. Allegory of the vanity of earthly things; 236. Triumph 
of Prince Frederick Henry of Nassau (comp. p. 329; sketch); *238. 
Pan and the peasant who blew hot and cold (from ^Esop's Fables). 
biS.^y^WUdens, Festival on the Scheldt at Antwerp (1636); 433. 
Snyders, Still-life; 240. Jordaens, Pan and Syrinx; *436. Snyders, 
Garland of fruit (vase in the centre by VoUony^ 236. Jordaens, 
Abundance; 389. Van Dyck (not Ruhens), Four heads of ne- 
groes (study); Ruhens, ^386, ^387. Portraits of Charles de Cordes 
and his wife (1618), 390. Madonna with the forget-me-not, 392. 
Wisdom conquering War and Discord, sketch for a ceiling-painting 
at Whitehall Palace; 478. A. van Utrecht, Still-life (1648J; *242. 
Jordaens, Twelfth Night; 379. Rubens, Coronation of the Virgin 
(studio-piece); 138. De Crayer, Dignitaries of the archers of the 
Grand Serment at Brussels; 179a. Jan Fyt, Still-life; 239. Jordaens, 
Rebecca and Eleazar (landscape by J. Wildens), — Exit-wall: 430. 
P. Snayers, Siege of Courtrai by the Spaniards in 1648 (painted in 
1660). — From the centre of this gallery, where we enjoy a splendid 
retrospect of the five large pictures of Rubens in R. Ill, we enter — 

Room VIII (Dutrh School of the 17th cent.). — To the right: 
403. Salomon van Ruysdael, River-scene (1634); 281. and (oppo- 
site) 282. Nie. Maes, De Rasi^re8"an3 his wife; right, 256. J. van 
der Meer of Haarlem (not Ph. Koninck), Dunes-, 447. Ja-u. &Vt.«?^^ 
Operation; 163. Gerard Dou, Por^jAit. ot Aiim^fe\i >&^ ^^^^^-'^^^'^N 
S40. A. van Oftade, The Flemish tTioV44^. Ja'^Sleefa,^N?^\VCsv^\s^\ 

108 Route IL BRUSSELS. Royal Mtiteums: 

514. Jan Weenix, Trophies of the chase ; 70. Q, van Brdeelenkam, 
Seamstresses; 141. A. Cuyp^ Interior of a stable; Adr, van OatadCf 
145. Weaver resting, 339. Peasant with dog, 341. Tavern (1663); 
ahove, 172. Gov, Flinch (?), The goldsmith's family j 207. J. D. de 
Heem, Flowers; above, 26. Abr. Begeyn, On the Mediterranean; 613. 
Jan WeeniXj Trophies of the chase (1703) ; 399. Jae, van Ruysdael, 
Stormy_sea; no number, JanBolh^ Southern landscape; 398. J, van 
Ruysdael (?), Wooded landscape. — 44, 46. F, Bol, Man and wife; 
407. Safllfven^ Barn (1664); 617. Unknown Mcuter, Old woman on 
her deathbed. — 630. Wynants, River-landscape; 225. HouchgeeH, 
Interior of the Nieuwe Kerk of Delft (1653); above, 147. Dhrck van 
Delen, Couit of a palace (1642); 343. Isaac van Ostade, Winding 
}arn; *196. Van Ocyen^ View ofPordrecht (1644); no number, 
P. MoreeLse, Portrait; *279. Nic. Maes, Old WQman sleeping; 448. 
H. van Steenivyck the Elder ^ Interior of a church; 142. A, Cuyp^ 
Selling fish. — On stands: J. Victors, Animal studies; 8. Koninek 
(not O. Dou), The old philosopher; Abr, Bloemcert^ Christ at Em- 
maus. — Proceeding straight on, we reach — 

Room IX (Masterpieces of the Dutch School of the 17th cent.). — 
To the left: 2io0. f^ic. Maei, Old woman reading; 61 1. Com. Janson 
van Ceulen (not Abr, de Vries), Portrait; 490. Willemvande Velde the 
Younger, View of the Zuyderzee; 346. A. PaJamedess, Mo8ic4il 
party; 188. Aertde Oelder, Lot and his daughters; 251, 250. Thvm, 
de Keyser, Portraits ; 46. F, Bol, Portrait; 463. Q, Ttrbwg{i), Por- 
trait; 328. Aert van derNeer, Burning of Dordrecht; 362. Ad. Py- 
wacfc«',Italian landscape; 205. D.deHeem, Fruit. — 37. A,vanBeyeren^ 
Fish; *203. FransHats, Portrait of Willem van Heythuysen ; ♦296. 
0, Metsu, The breakfast; 52?. Em. de WUte, Interior of the Dude 
Kerk at Amsterdam ; ♦36. A. van Beyeren, Still-life; above, 222. 
M.d'Hondecoeter^ Park-entrance (1672); 214, 215. B. van der HtUt, 
Man and wife (1664); ^444. Jan -S/cm, The gallant pffer. — 1. W.van 
Atlst, Trophies of the chase (1667); no number, P. Claetr, Break- 
fast-table (1643); 221. Hobbema^ Landscape; 249. Thorn, de Keyier^ 
Portrait (1636) ; ♦62. J.Both^ Italian landscape; no number, De Reem^ 
Still-life; 202. F. Hals, Professor J. Hoornebeek of Leyden (1645); 
♦220. Hobbema, The water-mill; 368. Rembrandt {^), Portrait of an 
old woman; 404. Rachel Jtaysch, Flowers and fruit (1704); 397. 
J. van Ruydael, Landscape, with figures by A, van de Velde; 216. 
B, van derHdst, Portrait (1658); ♦445. Jan 8teen, The *Rederyker* 
(i.e, rhetoricians or members of 'Rederykamern'; these were literary 
clubs well known in the 16th and 17th cent, which celebrated 
public festivals by holding recitations and debates); 367. PaulPotteff 
Swine(1647) ; 344. Palamede^t, Portrait (1660) ; 500. H. C. van Vliel, 
Interior of the Oude Kerk of Delft; ^223. Hondecoeter^ Cock crow- 
ing. — 267. Phil, (not Jacob) Koninek, Landscape; ♦367. Bern' 
drandi, Portrait (IC4 1); 402. Sol, van Rui^sdael, Yerrj-, 2.0^.7. D. de 
^yeifm, Vanity,— im, r.Z>M^rTW, V\Uage-ta\T(V^%^\'ltft..U.Kota!y\ 

Picture GalUfy. BRUSSELS. ^ 11. RouU. 109 

(a rare master), Interior; *8S.'J. fnn de CappelUf Calm sea; 87. 
O, Camphuyseriy Peasant interior. — Returning to R. VIII. and 
turning to the right, we reach — 

Room X (Netherlandish and German Schools of the 15th and 
16th cent.) — ^To the right: 159. Cologne Mailer of the Sacred Kimhip 
(not JI. and V, Dunwegge)^ Crucifixion; 105a. Master of the Death 
of the Virgin, Madonna and Child; 552, 554. Roger' van der Wey- 
den (?), Scenes from the life of the Virgin and the Passion ; 560. 
Matter of the Magdalena Legend, Altar-piece with scenes from the 
life of Mary Magdalen. 

•170. Jan van Eyck, Adam and Eve, two of the wings of the 

celebrated Adoration of the Lamb in the church of St. Bavon at Ghent 

(see p. 55), ceded by the authorities to government in 1860, as 

being unsuitable for a church, in leturn for copies of the six wings 

at Berlin. 

'It would be too much to say that Hubert rises to the conception of 
an ideal of beauty. The head (of Eve) is over large, the body protrudes, 
and the legs are spare, but the mechanism of the limbs and the shape 
of the extremities are rendered with truth and delicacy, and there is 
much power in the colouring of the flesh. Counterpart to Eve, and once 
on the left side of the picture, Adam is equally remarkable for correctness 
of proportion and natural realism. Here again the master^s science in 
optical perspective is conspicuous, and the height of the picture above 
the eye is fitly considered\ — Crowe and Cavalcaselle^ Early Flemish 
Painters, 1872. — (Comp. pp. 66-63.) 

The backs, shown on request, represent the ErythraBan Sibyl, 
with a street- view in Ghent, and the Cumaean Sybil, with an interior. 

335. B, van Orley, Trials of Job; 553. Roger van der Weyden(?), 
Scenes from the life of the Virgin; 122. L. Cranach the Elder, 
Dr. John Scheuriug (1529); 10. Chr. Amberger (J^ , Portrait. — 
631, 532. Master of FUmalU, Portraits (1425); 600. iMcas van 
Leyden, Dance of Mary Magdalen (after an etching of the master); 
544. Hugo van der Ooes, Madonna and Child with St. Anne (studio 
or school piece); 334. B. van Orley, Portrait of Dr. Zelle (1519); 
no number, Oerard David, Madonna and Child (replica of the picture 
in the Palazzo Bianco at Genoa); 349. J. dePat€nier(l), Madonna artd 
Child ; 619. Cologne Master of the Altar of St, Bartholomew (c.l500), 
Wedding at Cana of Galilee (an early work) ; 545. School of Bruges 
(15th cent.! Madonna enthroned, surrounded by eleven female saints. 

♦65, *66. Dierick Bouts, Justice of Otho III. 

The subject is the medieeval tradition that the Emp. Otho beheaded 
a nobleman who bad been unjustly accused by the empress, but his inno- 
cence having been proved by his widow submitting to the ordeal of fire, 
Otho punished the empress with death. This picture was originally hung 
up in the judgment-hall of the Hotel de Ville at Louvaln, according 
to an ancient custom of exhibiting such scenes as a warning to evil-doers. 
Pictures of similar subjects formerly hung in the courts of justice at 
Siena, Brussels, Cologne, BUle, and Nuremberg. 

Between these last two pictures: ^292, *2.^^. Ha-u* "MewVIvwa^ 
Voitralts of the Burgomaster W. Moreel aivd\i\.s>N\Xfe.^TcvQ^'!\^^^^^^ 
burgess simplicity (ca. 1480). *515. Roger -oau der V/e-^^m^ ^Sw^J^ 

110 Soiiu II. BRUSSELS. Rofmi Shuemm: 

o.i th« ^rjjs. with >firy «ii St. John: Dake Fnncis Sforzi of Milan. 

hU wif*. *nl ion are kne'ilin' in thi foresToa'id; on the left win* 
is m Adorui<!>n of the Child, lad on th^ rL^t. J^hn the Baptist and 
female «aiat3. 190. Higo rjn der (?orf.f(*). Portrait of a nobleman 
with an arrow; **294. Mimlin'i. Porcrut: 54*2. Ma^r »>f iKt A^mmp^ 
tion f Albert Bout f?}, L**t Sapper; 139. PrtrufCVirfii?, Descent from 
the Cross: '27. 2-^. /ar. Sei^ohe^fixr rno: B. fieAam). Portzaits of 
Maximilian II. and Anne of Austria in their yondi (_replicas of the 
plctnre« in the Hiine Gallery). — 540. Sch'iol of Bragei (I5th cent.), 
^farlon la and Calld enthroned; 66a and b. D. Boiitf(?), Madonna 
and Child: 567. I'nkno^rn Master, Portrait of W. Normin (1519); 
550. R. ran Orfey (here calhd Muter of St. GadultX Pieta, with 
p')rtr^ir.s of the doaDrs on the wings Jthe 'Haaeton Triptych'; ca. 
loIOj; 540. Quinten Matsys. Madonni enthroned (ea,1500): 107. 
P. Coeckt, List Supper (1531 1; no number, Marter of MouUn*(Jean 
Ptrrtaiy)^ *Mado!ina and Child with adoring angels. 

In the middle of the room: 537. M^sttr of OuUremont (Jan 
Mo'taert/'). Passion, a triptych. 

•290. Quintcn Matsys or Metsyi, History of St. Anne, a large and 
freely restored winged picture, purchased in 1379 for 270,000 fr. from 
the church of St. Peter at Lonvain, for which it was painted in 1509. 

The principal picture represents the family of St. Anne, inclading 
the Virgin and Child, to the latter of whom St. Anne holds out a grape; 
in front, to the right, is Salome with her two sons. James the Elder and 
John ^ to the left, Mary Cleophas, with her s^ns, James the Younger, 
Simon Thaddtfrus , and Joseph the Just; behind the balustrade, in the 
archway, through which a rich landscape is visible, are Joachim, Joseph, 
Zebedee, and Alpheeus, the husbands of the four women. — On the inside 
of the left wing is an Angel announcing to Joachim the birth of the 
Virgin, on the outside, Offerings of Joachim and Anne on their marriage 
(with the signature ^Quinte Metsys 1509'); on the right wing are the 
I>cath of St. Anne, and the Expulsion of Joachim from the Temple on 
account of his lack of children. 

♦2(H. Memling, Martyrdom of St. Sebastian (after 1470); 191. 
(Jerard iJa'^ldC*)^ Adoration of the Magi; *516. Roger van der Wey- 
den^ Pieta. 

ItooM Xf (Netherlandish and German Si:hool3 of the 16th cent.). 

— 'i'o the right: no number, J. van Hetnessen, Bagpipe-player; 193. 

Jan f/oi/iaert, rturnaine<l Mahuie, Adam and Eve (^copy); 504, 505. 

M. de Vof, Mail and wife; 6. J), van AUlooty Popular festival in the 

park atTervuemi; 1. Peter Aertiz, Cook. — 217. J. van Hemeaen^ 

Prodigal Son {\')\\{)'>)\ lO."). Master of the Death of the Virgiriy Holy 

Family; 'MM. P. Pourbui the Younger, J. van dor Gheenste, Sheriff 

of llrtiges (1583); 350. Fr, Pourbui the Elder, Portrait (1573); 

no ri umber, P. Ifrueghel the Etder^ Massacre of the Innocents, naVvely 

rtipiMi-iontel aa ociirriiig in the midst of a snow -clad landseapo 

(1566); 318. A. Moro (Sir Anthony More), Duke of Alva; 79. P. 

ffrt/g^^Ael the Elder, Fall of tho wicked augels-, 80. P. Brueghel the 

youni/er, Massacre of the Innooouts, a copv ^^ ^^^ ^>aQNfe-TSiOTi\.\«iw^\ 

p/riun.' by his /atijcr (IGIO) j 565. Unknoun Madet, ^\>««i^^\. 

Ptcture OaUery. BRUSSELS. IK Route, 111 

of England (?); 566. FlemUh School^ Willem de Croy, Lord of 
Chlftvres (d. 1621); 316. A. Moro (Sir Anthony More), Portrait of 
H. Goltzius (1576; p. 441). — 123, 124. (in the corner) L. Cranach 
the Elder, Adam and Eve; between these, 247, 248. A. Key, Man 
and wife. — 50. H, Bosch, Temptation of St. Anthony, a mad freak 
of bold fancy (the original is in the Prado at Madrid); 661. B. van 
Orley (not the Master of Qustrow)y Wings of an altar-piece (1628), 
with scene from the life of St. Anne; 584. Jan van Coninxloo(y), 
Two wings of an altar-piece with scenes from the life of St. Benedict 
(the attractive kitchen-interior is noteworthy). 

Room XII (Various Schools, chiefly of the 17-18th cent.). — To 
the right: 30. Bernardo Belotto, Landscape on the Brenta (architec- 
tural picture); 644. French School (17th cent.), Young nobleman; 
346. Giov, Paolo Pannini, Ruins in Rome; 372. Ribera (Spagnoletto), 
Apollo and Marsyas (damaged); 295. Raphael Mengs^ Portrait of 
Michelangelo Cambiaso. -- ^276. Claude Lorrain, Landscape, with 
iEneas and Dido hunting; no number, Carreno de Miranda^ Eques- 
trian portrait of Charles II. of Spain. — 497. Paolo Veronese , Holy 
Family with SS. Theresa and Catharine (damaged); 508. Sim, Vouet, 
St. Carlo Borromeo at prayer. — 305. P. Mignard, Ninon de Lenclos. 

The S.E. Staircase, near the entrance to the Museum, is decorated 
with marble figures of Diana and Narcissus, by Orupello, from a 
fountain in the Park (p. 95). 

The archway in the W. angle of the Place Royale (p. 94) leads 
to the Rub du Mus]6b (PI. D, 4), the right side of which is flanked 
by the hotels and restaurants mentioned at pp. 83, 84, while to the 
left rises the former Palais de V Industrie (PI. D, 4), which has been 
occupied since 1838 by the Boyal Library. In the court, which is 
separated from the street by a stone balustrade, is a statue in bronze 
(by Jehotte, 1846) of Duke Charles of Lorraine (p. 92). Behind the 
statue is the entrance to the Library, which consists of five depart- 
ments: (1) Printed Books ; (2) MSS. ; (3) Engravings and Maps; 

(4) Coins and Medals; (5) Periodicals. Adm., see p. 90. 

The Depastmbmt of the Pbintbd Books (600,000 vols.) is in the left 
wing of the building. The nucleus of the collection was the library of 
a M. van Hulthem, purchased in 1837 for 315,000 fr., and incorporated 
with the old municipal library. In 1860 the library of Johannes Miiller, 
the physiologist, and in 1872 the musical library of M. F. F^tis were 
added, while the heraldic and genealogical library of M. F. V. Ooethals was 
presented in the latter year. The Reading Room is hung with portraits of 
the rulers of the country, down to Joseph II. 

The Department op the MSS. consists chiefly of the celebrated Biblio- 
Ihkque de Bourgogne^ founded by Philippe le Bon, Duke of Burgundy 
(1419-67), and contains about 30,000 MSS. The most valuable MSS., 
some of which are beautifully illuminated with miniatures of the old 
Flemish school, and the most interesting early printed works, are ex- 
hibited in the SaUe d'Exhihition (adm., see p. Q0\ Uc^^X.^ \tv \\i.^ t^&^v&s^- 
room). Cabinet i-10: MSS. of the 9-14tli ceul. ^\n G%X>. 'i \a ^ ^a»B.^^x>^.. 
accouDt-book from Oadenaarde, with intcresUug, Tept^*e.x\\aXVQf^^ ^^ ^'^^V 
temporary mannBTSj of confliderable historical v aixx^V —^^AV. \XJc!v.^xt««.'<x 

112 Boute 11. BRUSSELS. Royal Miueunu : 

Bible ('bible historide') of Gayart Deamoulins (14th cent.) ; Latin Horarinm 
(Mivre d^heures*) of John, Dae de Berri (d. 1416), with miniatnrefl by 
Jaequtmart de Betdin , a Datch artist. — 12. Composition de la Sainte 
Ecritare, written in 1462 by David Aubert. — 13. La Forteresae de la Foi, 
by Alph. de Spina (15th cent.); HJstoire de Cyrus, by Vasque de Lueena 
(15th cent.). — 16. L'Estrif de Fortune et de Verta, by Martin le Franc 
(i5th cent.); La Fleur des Histoires, by Jean Mansel (16th cent.). — 17. 
Chronicles of Hainault, by Jacques de Guise (1446), with an illuatrated 
title*page (the author presenting his work to Philip the Good) ascribed 
on insufficient grounds to Roger van der Weyden; Le Gouvemement des 
Princes, by Gilles de Borne (1450). — 19. Chronique et Conquestes de 
Charlemaigne (1458). — 20. ^Missal of Matthew Corvinus, King of Hungary, 
by Attavanie of Florence (1485-87). — 22. Pontifical from the church at 
Sens (15th cent.). ^ 24. St. Augustine's De Civitate Dei (MS. of 1445). — 
25. La L^gende Dor^e (MS. of the I5th cent.). — 26. B^cits Anecdotiques, 
by Antoine de la Salle (1461). —28. L'Arbre des Batailles, by Honord Bonet 
(1456). — 30. Book of the Golden Fleece, by Guill. Filastre. » 31. Bre- 
viary of Philip the Good. — 32. Mass-book from the church of St. Ser- 
vatius at Maastricht (1539). — 33-38. Bindings. — 39-42. Chinese Drawings s 
Indian and Arabic MSS. — 44. Antiphonary from Gembloux (ca. 1530). — 
47. View of Seville, by G. Hoefnagel (1573). — 48. Gesta Abbatum Gembla- 
censium, with pen-and-ink drawings of the first half of the 16th century. 
— 49. Tables of slate from the Abbey of Villers (13th cent.). — 50, 63. 
Early playing-cards. — 58. Mass-book of John IIL, King of Portugal 
(1521-57), by Pierre de la Rue. — 61-66. MSS. of the 8-14th centuries (in 66, 
Documents of Emperor Arnulf, 893, and Emperor Otho I., 949). — 68-78. 
Early printed works, including a list of the members of the ^Bederykamer* 
of Brussels in 1512 (comp. p. 1(^). Also, autographs of Francis I., Henri IV. , 
Philip II., Alva, Voltaire, Rubens, etc. 

The admirably-arranged Collection of Engravingt (upwards of 100,000 
in number) is worthy of notice ; it is entered from the Mus^e de Peinture 
Moderne. The Flemish masters are admirably represented. One of the 
most interesting plates is an engraving of 1418, the Virgin with saints 
and angels, from Malines. — The Collection of Coint is open 12-3; entrance. 
Rue du Musde 5. 

L'Ancibnnb Coub, a building adjoining the Library on the E., 
was the residence of the Austrian stadtholders of the Netherlands 
after 1731 (comp. p. 96). It now contains the Royal Archives, the 
so-called Ejliae du Musie (a chapel erected in 1760 and devoted to 
Protestant worship since 1803), and the *Ma8ie Moderne de Peintnrey 
or Collection of Modern Painting$, founded as a municipal musenm 
in 1835, and transferred to the State in 1845. 

The Entrance is in the crescent at the N.W. end of the Rue du 
Mus^e. To the right in the circular entrance-hall is the door leading 
to the Archiuea O^nirales du Royaume (Royal Archives; adm., see 
p. 91), on the groundfloor. To the left we proceed through the glass- 
door to the staircase, at the foot of which Is a statue of Hercules by 
Delvaux. Sticks and umbrellas are left here with the custodian, to 
the left (no charge). The staircase is of marble, and the lower part 
of the walls is covered with the same material. The upper part is 
occupied by plastic decorations in the style of Louis XVI, ; the ceiling- 
frescoes, representing the seasons, are by J. Stallaert, The bronze 
panels of the railing, representing the Labours of Hercules, are by 
tAe sculptor Z, Afignon. — At the top ol 0\e ftt«\TCk«i.'afeN«^T«ASiV»3Rftilier 
rotunda, where a door to the left leads lo itie -jVcXwi^-^^Victi . 

MiUte Modtnt, 


//. , 

. 113 

TkuColUclianofModemPictartiiTabUaitxldodtmMittm., lee 
p. 90), whlrh consiitB at aboat 400 paintings sud 60 water-coloui 
■nd other dnnings, diipUyed in 17 n)om>, lllustTatci the develop- 
ment of Belgian art aince 1830. — GaUlogue (1903), 60 e. Ccomp. 
also pp. 83, 166). 

Booh I. 138. L. dt Wirme, Leopnld T.; 163, 163. L. OaUail, 
Full-length portraits of King Leopold II. and hig queen Maria 
Henrietta (1876); M3, 224. H. Leyi, Joyful entry of Charles V. 
into Antneip In 1614, Margaret of Parma giving the ksyi of the 
city to the Burgomaster of Antwerp (ilesignB for the frescoes in the 
H5tel de VlUe at Antwerp, eee p. 173). — To the right ia — 

Boou II. Un the entrance -wall are irorka by the classicists : ' 
L. Mathleu, Depoiltion in the Tomh (1848); 68. J. L. David, Mare 
disarmed by Venus (1821 -, late work) ; 364. Fr. J. ffowi, Dream 
of Athaliah. — The other walls are devoted to the historical paint- 
era; 89. H.deCaisne, Belgium cjDwning her famous sons (1839) i 
JV. diKtyier. 108. Justus Lipsius, 107. Battle of Worringeii in 1388 
(Siegfried of Westerburg, Archbishop of Cologne, standing before 
bis captors, DnkeJohnl. of Brabant and Count Adolf of Berg; painted 
In 1839); 321. E. Stingcneyer, Battle of LepBnto in 1571 (1848). 

Boon III. To the left : F. dt BratktlttT, 77. Distribntioii of fruit 
at a school f'le comte de mi-cari'me'), 76. The Golden Wedding 
(1839). — 389. E. Vtrbotckhovm , Flock of sheep in a thunderstorm 
(1839); 266. Navt%, Portrait of David; 320. Fr. Sftnonou, Organ- 
player (1828). — '368.IVao«, Portraitaoti.lwj'aeiiiTftvKtt'a^wiK.I 
(1816); 300. /.A*Jni(rmon«, Scene In t,^e \TiA\\^|f>ia.6-i V**^- 
RoomIV. To (he left; 203. A. dt Knuff , Tlewftod, ^ik^'-VY''^- ■" 
BAMpaajm'a fleJglum aaif Holland. 14tb E^t. *&> 

114, Route 11. BRUSSELS. Royal Mwewni: 

280. F. PauwelSj The widow of Jacqnea .yan A rtevelde giving np her 
jewels for the state (1860) ; •416. 0. Wapper$ , Begi nnlDg of the 
Reyolatlon of 1880 at the H6tel de Ville in Brussels (the people 
tearing up the proclamation of Prince Frederick of the Netherlands); 
140. Th, Fourmois, Scene in the Campine near Antwerp (1860) ; '231. 
H, LeySi Restoration of the Roman Catholic service in Antwerp Ca- 
thedral in 1566 (1845) ; 72. E. de Biefve, The Compromise, or Petition 
of the Netherlandish nobles in 1566 (1841; compT). 93). —207. 
Vict. Lagye^ The sorceress (1872); 284. J. F. Portaels, Box in the 
theatre at Pesth (1869). — *96. Ch. de Oroux, Pilgrimage of St. Guidon 
at Anderlerht; 154. L. Gallait, Portrait of Count Dumortier; 404. 
Ch. Verlat. Shepherd's dog struggling with an eagle; 148. L, Oallait, 
Abdication of Kmperor Charles 1555 (1841) ; •SSS. Jos, Stevens, 
Morning in the streets of Brussels (1848); above, 95. Ch, deGroux, 
Junius prra<''hing the Reformation in a house at Antwerp, with the 
light from the stake shining through the window (1860); 390. 
E. J. Verboeckhoven, Cattle in the Koman Campagna (1843). — In 
the centre: 230. H. Leys^ Plundering^of Antwerp by the Spaniards 
in 1576 ('la furle espagnole'); 161. L. Gallait, Samson and Delilah 
(sketch; 1876); *97. Ch. de Groux, Funeral; H, Leys, 222. Fo- 
neral-mass for Berthal de Haze, armourer of Antwerp (1845), 227. 
Portrait of himself ; 341. Jo*. Stevens^ Smithy ; 46. P. J. Clays, Coast 
near Ostend (1863). 

Room 7. To the right: 226. H. Leys, Sermon in the Refor- 
mation period (sketch ; 1841) ; 210. F. Lamorwiire, Landscaj e near 
Kdeghem (1863); *163. L. Gallait, Reminiscence of Blankenberghe 
(sketch); *339. Jos. Stevens, Dog-market in Paris; 236. J. B. Ma- 
dou, The mischief-maker (Flemish scene, late 18th cent.); 382. 
J. B.van Moer, View of Brussels (1868); 228. H. Leys, Proclamation 
of the Decrees of Charles V. (study). 

Room VI. 150. L. Gallait, Conquest of Antioch in 1098 (1843) ; 
239. J. B. Madou, The village-politicians (1874); Ml.F.Stroobant, 
The old guild-houses in the market-place at Brussels (1863). — The 
windows of this room command a view of the lower town. 

Room VII. 397. Isaac Verheyden, Trees (1878); no number, 
Em. Wauters, Baron Lambermont; *Ai2. Alfred Verwie, Cattle by a 
river. — 333. Alf. Stevens, Studio of A. de Knyff , the painter; 
•6. L. Artan, North Sea; "98. Ch. de Groux, Saying grace; *131. 
L. Dubois, Storks (1858). — *26. //. BovUnger^ Avenue desChaimes 
atTervueren (1871); h. de Braekeleer, 80. Hu(kster'8 stall, ^.'Blble 
lesson (1872); between these, 132. L. Dubois, Fish (1874); above, 209. 
Ed. Lambrichs, Members of the Societe Libre des Beaux-Arts (p. 93); 
•311. F. Hops, Shore; 29. H. Boulenger, Forest-scene. — A. Ed, 
Agneessens, Mother and child (18751; 345. J. StobbaertSy Stable; 
above, *134. L. Dubois, Dead roe (1863); Alf. Stevens, ^^Q. Nosegay, 
cfJZ *Tous lea /^onbcurs', 335. AutuuvAx tVovj^xa'/'iT, H. fioulenoer, 
Autumn moniing {^i87S)\ 133. L. Dubois, T\\feaitv%\:%^^\\vwVN^feS^\ 

MusSe Afodeme. BRUSSELS. 11. Route. 115 

above, 5. L, Artan^ Breakers. — We now traverse an antechamber 
and enter — 

Room VIII. 49. P. J. Clays, Sea-piece; 201. J. B, Kindermans, 
Landscape; 213. E. Larock, Cinder-picker ('rescarbillenr') ; •101. 
Ch. de Oroux, Departure of the recruit. — Farther on, beyond the 
coupled columns, is the large — 

Room IX. To the left: 267. C. Meunier, Peasants of Brabant de- 
fending themselves in 1797 ; 419. E, WauUrs, Ajrival of the Polish 
king, John Sobieski, for the relief of Vienna besieged by the Turks 
(1883); 281. L. Philippet, Stabbed (Italian street-scene). — 149. 
If. Oallait, The Plague in Tournai (1092), one of the celebrated 
artist's last pictures (finished in 1882). Bishop Radbold II. walks In 
front of the intercessory procession in penitential robes, followed by 
the chief citizens bearing a figure of the Virgin Mary. — 51. A. Cluy^ 
senaar, Emp. Henry IV. at Canossa in 1077; 211. F. Lamorinihre, 
Landscape (1879). — Passing through R. XI, we turn to the right 
into — 

Room X. Water-colours by J. B. Madou, *Ch, de Qroux (11. The 
toper), Charlet^ Casstiers^ and others. The fine panelling and chim- 
ney-piece should be noticed. — The windows command a good view 
of the S. part of the lower town. 

Room XL To the left: 181. A. Hennehicq, Labourers in the Ro- 
man Campagna (1870); 7. A, Asselhergs, Landscape (*la mare aux 
fe'es'; 1876). — Opposite: A. de Vriendt, 126. Excommunication of 
Bouchard d'Avesnes on account of his interdicted marriage with Mar- 
garet of Flanders in 1215 (1877), 126. The citizens of Ghent doing 
homage at the cradle of Charles V. (1886) ; 56. J. TK Cooseman^, The 
*Chemin des Artistes' at Barbison ; ^268. C. Meunier, Tobacro-factory 
at Seville (1883). — 187. A, J, Heymam, Heath ; 79. H, de Braekeleer, 
Spinner; 48. P. J. Ctoys, Calm on the Scheldt (i866); above, 411. 

A, Verwie, Cattle at pasture (1888). 

Room XII. To the left : 141. T/». Fourmois, Mill (1861); H. de 
Braekeleer^ 78. The geographer, 81. The Waterhuis at Antwerp 
(p. 198); 413. A. Verwie, Mouth of the Scheldt; 340. J. Stevens, 
i)og before a mirror; 30. H. Boulenger, Silvan landscape (1865); 
♦47. P. J Clays, Roads of Antwerp (1869); Alf. Stevens, 329. Por- 
trait of a lady ('the lady-bird'; 1880), 334. In the studio; •28. 

B. Boulenger, View of Dinant (1870); 328. Alf. Stevens, Lady in 
a light-pink dress. 

Room XIII. To the left: 103. J. H. L. deHcuis, Cattle at pasture 
in Picardy. — 261. J. L. Montigny, Horses in winter (1890); 418. 
E, Wauters, The Prior of the Augustine monastery to which Hugo 
van der Goes (p. xlviii) had retired in 1482 tries to cure the painter's 
madness by means of music (1872); 410. A, Verwee, Zeeland team 
(1873); 41. E, Carpentier, Strangers. — 34. A. Bou\3iw^^fe^-^\««.\ 
312. J. Bosseels, He&ih; 331. A. Stevens, Sa\oTafe. — V^.'^>^.^^'«Q«^^ 
Danes; *409, A. VerwSe, Pasture in Flai^detB VA^'^^^'A^^^ ^^•^^•^' 

1 16 Route 1 1 . BRUSSELS. Boyal Mutewm: 

mans, Daybreak in the capital (1875); 55. J. Th, Cooaemans^ Pine- 
woods in the Campine of Antwerp (1880); 11. Th, Baron, Scene 
in the Scheldt (1873). — 102. J. H. L. dc Haas, Cattie. 

Room XIV. To the left: 406. Th. Verstraete , Return from the 
funeral. — E, Claus, 44. Avenue with cows, •45. Oattle crossing the 
Lys (1899); •348. A. Struys, Visiting the sick (1893); 32. H. Bouree, 
Bad news (1869) ; Vict. Gilsovl, 'ITlV Cajm, 170. November evening; 
399. Isaac Verheyden, Portrait (1900). ^^^8. J. de LaUUng, Prlma- 
val hunters (1885); *20B. E. Laermans, Going home (He ohemin 
du repos'; 1898); Fr. Courtens, 62. Returni ng fro m church, •63. 
Milkmaid (1896), *64. Avenue in sunlight (1898)7'55d. Is, Verheydenj 
Woman gathering wood; 188. A. Heymnns, Spring landscape ; 378. 
F, van Leenipulten^ Palm Sunday in the Oampine (1889). 

Room XV. To the right: 395. J. Verhas, Review of the Schools, 
on the occasion of the silver wedding of the King and Queen of the 
Belgians in 1878. The procession, headed by girls in white dresses 
led by their teachers, is passing the Palace, in front of which are 
the King and Queen, the Archduke Albert of Austria, and the Count 
of Flanders, with their suites. The burgomaster and sheriffs of 
Brussels are also in the procession. All the heads are portraits. — 
•144. L. Frideric^ *Les marchands de craie' (starting for work, midday 
meal, return in the evening}, painted in 1883. — 332. Alf, Stevens, 
Mentone (road to Cap Martin; 1894); 260. Ch, Afeunier, St. Peter^s 
Hospital at Louvain. — 396. Is. Verheyden, Womajj gathering wood. 

Room XVI (Foreign Schools). To the right: 67. Corot, Sea-piece; 
69. J. L. David, Portrait of a boy; 167. Th, Oiricault, Wreckage; 
427. Ign. Zuloaya^BuUs at pasture before thebuU-flght; 54. Constable, 
Sea-piece (study). — 172. Ooya, Portrait of a girl; 165. QSrard, 
Redout^, the flower-painter; 174. A. J, Gros, Study; 59. O, Courbet, 
Alf. Stevens, the painter; 111. E. Delacroix^ Apollo and the Python 
(sketch for the ceiling-painting in the Louvre); 195. Ingres^ Augus- 
tus listening to the iEneid (1812). J. L. David, *70. Portrait of De 
Vienne, the composer, •71. *L'An Deux' (Marat's death; 1793). 

219. Lenhach^ Bishop Strossmayer of Diakovar; •317. Oiovanni Si* 
gantini, Flock of sheep (1887). — 61. 0. Courhet, Portrait; •147. 
E. Fromentin, 'The Thirsty Land' (caravan in the Sahara; I860); 

220, Lenhach, Dr. Dollinger; above, 60. 0. Courhet, Sefiora Gaerrero, 
a Spanish dancer (1851). — 139. Fantin-Latour, Drawing-lesson 
(1879); 191. PaulIIuet, OiiiTs at Houlgate (Brittany); *2S2,8irHenry 
12ac6um, Portrait ; 291. Sir Joshua Reynolds jW,Ch&m\>eii,ihe archi- 
tect; 173. F, Ooya^ Scene froin the Inquisition (sketch); 351. Thau- 
low, Old bridge; above, 256. H, W, Mesdag, Sea-piece (1896). — 
On an easel: 90. A. Decamps, Butcher's shop in Turkey; no uomber, 
Th. Rousseau, Edge of a wood. 

Room X VII, Studies and sketches by Em, Wauters and others. 
Also, Fil, Bopa, 44. Parisina (w&tet-colout •, \^^l^,*'L^.<i%.\i%lit In 
the trapl; *22. Khnopff, Returning liom UnxvXii ^^^%\.t'^\'>!^. i.^. 

MwieModetM, BRUSSELS. 11, Route. Wl 

BaffaeUij Notre Dame at Paris (water-colour); 27. L. LhermHte^ 
Country-girls bathing (pastel; 1894); 10. A, Decamps j Scene from 
the war with the Cimbri (drawing) ; 42. J. Fr, Raffaelli^ Birdseed- 
seller (pastel); no number, Millet^ *Water-mill (pastel). 
To the left are three rooms for temporary exhibitions. 

c. The Upper BouleTards. 

The Boulevards of the upper town form the E. half of the great 
thoroughfare encircling the city, which is planted with elms and 
more than 250 ft. wide throughout most of its length. Like the 
Avenue Louise, to the S.E., connecting them with the Bois de 
la Cambre (p. 136), they are thronged with carriages, riders, and 
walkers on fine afternoons, except during the heat of summer. The 
portion between the Place Quetelet (PI. F, 2) and the Place du Tr6ne 
(PI. E, 5), adjoining the palace-garden, is the most fashionable re- 
sort from 2.30 to 4.30 p.m. (chairs 10 c"). The 'corso* is then con- 
tinued vi& the Rue de Namur (PI. E, 5, 4), the Place Royale (p. 94), 
and the Montague de la Cour (PI. D, 4 ; p. 119). — A walk round 
the Upper Boulevards occupies ^/^ hr. , which, however, may be 
shortened by means of the electric tramway (No. i ; p. 88). 

To the right of the Boulevard du Jardin Botanique (PI. D, E, 
1, 2), which ascends towards the S.E. from the Oare du Nord to 
the upper town, is the Rue des Cendres, where (at No. 7, now a 
convent) the Duchess of Richmond gave her well-known ball on 
the eve of the Battle of Waterloo. The actual dancing took place 
in the adjoining building, Rue de la Blanchisserie 42*(comp. 
Sir Wm, Fraser's 'Words on Wellington'). Farther on, to the right, 
rises the Hospital op St. John [H6piial St. Jean; PI. E, 2), an 
imposing structure erected by Partoes in 1888-43 and admirably 
fitted up. 

On the opposite slopes are the grounds of the *Botanie Garden 
(PI. E, 2; adm., see p. 90), with large hot-houses (built in 1826), 
and numerous excellent bronzes (1894-98), representative of the 
best work of modern Belgian sculptors (p. 94). On the lawns at 
the lower end of the park are seven statues of girls (among which may 
be mentioned the Thistle, by Fr. JorU, and the Rose, by J. Pitpon), 
and also a Goose-girl, by A. de Tomhay. In the middle of the 
grounds are Spring (shepherdess), by Hippolyte Le Roy; *Summer 
and •Autumn (reaper and sower), by Const. Meunier; and Winter 
(wood-gatherer), by P. Braecke. Beyond these is the •Way of life 
('le temps montrant la voie ?l la jeunesse'), by Ch. van der Stappen. 
On the side-terraces, below the hot-houses, are figures of •Fame 
(laurel), by J. DiUens, and Martyrdom (palm) , by F^ d« Haen (these 
two to the left) and of Strength (oak), by O. CharlUr, and Peace 
(olive), by L. Mignon (to the right). On t\ift \QNiei \^\t%.^'^ «t^ ^ 
V»ntber, by Oaspar^ and other figutes of ammi\%, wv^\niq*^«sS^ 
hhTi with decontionsj by Victor Bouwcau (Yoxtt K^ea,^^^^"^"^^^"^- 

118 Route 11. BRUSSELS. Upper Boulevards : 

Oil the upper terrace are two •Flag-staffr* with decorations by (left) 

J. Lagae (Four Ages), and (right) Paul Dubois (Four Elements). 

The entrance to the Hot Houses (Serres) and to the Kaseum of 

Forestry {Mu^Se Forestier or Woudmiuseum ; opened in 1902; adm., 

see p. 90) Is in the Rue Royale (p. 96). 

From the small Palm Room, at the entrance of the Forestry Maseum, 
we turn to the right into the Main Room, the floor of which contains the 
Collection of Specimens of Trees and the Section of Tree-Pathnlogy (diseases 
of trees), while in the galleries are the Section of Forestry and the Techno- 
loncal Department. Amongst the specimens in the centre are a piece c)f 
a 300-year-old lime-tree from the tnrf-moors of the Belgian coast, a section 
of a 1360-year-old Big Tree of Calif imia, and a block of mahogany weigh- 
ing 6 tons. — In a side-room is a Collection of Exotic Woods used in 

Beyond the site of the former Porte de Schaerbeek (PI. E, 2), 
to which the name still clings, the Boulevard da Jardin Botanique is 
continued by the Boulbyabd Bisohoffsueim (PI. F, 2, 3), ad- 
joined on the left by the Place Quetelet (see p. 117). On the right, 
farther on , lies the circular Placb dbs Bajelricaoes (PI. F, 2), adorned 
with a bronze statue of the anatomist Vesalius, by Jos. Geefs (1847). 

Vesalius, the court- physician of Charles V. and the founder of modern 
anatomy, was horn at Brussels in 1514. His parents were natives of 
Wesel, of which the name Vesalius is a Latinized form. He was con- 
demned to the stake as a sorcerer by the Inquisition, but this penalty 
was commuted into a pilgrimage to Jerusalem. On his way back he was 
wrecked on the coast of Zante, where he died in 1564. 

In the Place de la Liberte (PI. E, F, 3) is a bronze statue, by G. 
de Groot (1897), of Charles Rogier (1800-86), the statesman, who 
was a member of the Provisional Government in 1830. 

Farther on, beyond the Place Madou and the former Porte de 
Louvain, begins the bustling Boulevard du Regent (PI. E, F, 3-6), 
which is soon intersected by the Rue de la Loi (p. 96) and leads on 
between the fashionable quarters near the Park on the right and the 
Quartier Leopold (p. 128) on the left. It ends, beyond the attractive 
Place du Trone (246 ft. ; PL E, 6), at the former Porte de Namur. In 
the Place de la Porte de Namur (PI. E, 5), one of the chief inter- 
secting points of the tramway system, with several large caf^s , rises 
the monumental Fontaine De Brouckhrey by H. Beyaert, with a bust 
of M. De Brouck^re, an able burgomaster of Brussels (d. 1866), by 
Fiers, and a group of children by D' Union. — In the handsome 
Boulevard de Waterloo (PI. E-0, 6, 6), to the left, rises the 
Eglise des Carmes (PI. D, 6), beyond which the Avenue Louise 
(p. 134) diverges to the left. Then, to the right, the imposing Palais 
de Justice (p. 101) rises in its full grandeur. 

The Forte de Hal (PI. C, 6), in the middle of the boulevards 

«/ /Ae S, extremity of the in ner town, Is t\ift eoVg lemuBiut of the town- 

^sJI of the idth cent. (p. 92). It was erected Viv V'i'iiV, %.Tvd X^q we^vv- 

^tfr/e^ Uter became the Bastille of Alva duiVu^ X\ie "fceX^V^i ^t«Jv%\v ^1 

A^^^f * ^^ ^' * ^n^o square structure ▼UYi t\«ee Na-xAte^d t\vwsi\iw%> 

^"^ ^ifove the other, ai|d a projecting towei. TVe VuXexVoi^ ^Vn^jS^: 

PorU de UaL BRUSSELS. 11. BofUe. 119 

adapted for this purpose by H. Reyaert in 1869-70, contains the 
MusiB RoTAL d'Armes bt d'Abmitebs. Admission, see p. 90. 
lUnstratei catalogue (1897), 5 fr.; short catalogue (1903 ; for the 
collection of weapons on the first floor only), i/2 fr. Director, 
E. de Prelle de la Nieppe. 

On the Grodnd Floor are old cannon, from the i5th cent, onward, 
swords of justice, instruments of torture, etc. 

On the First Floor is the principal saloon of the collection of arms, 
several of whose must valuable contents were brought from the royal 
arsenal dispersed in 1794 (founded 1406). In the left aisle, in the 2Qd 
centre-case, are prehistoric, Greek, Etruscan, and Frankish weapons. — 
Amongst the numerous suits of armour (mainly of German workmanship) 
may be mentioned* to the left, by the 2nd pillar (Series II, No. 2), Gothic 
suit-of-mail of the 15ih cent.^ by the 1st pillar (II, 40), Heavy tilting-armour 
(c. t50J), Wviighing lOOlbs.; by the last pillar (II, 3), one of the fluted 
saitd of Milanese workmanship introduced by Emp. Maximilian*, to the 
right, in front of the first pillar (II, 41), suit-of-mHil of the end of the 
16th cent., perhaps belonging to Philip II., and (II, 30), horseman*s ar- 
mour with large flowers on a black ground, also dating from the latter half 
of the 16th cent.; in an adjacent ca^e, remains of full suit-of-mail, with 
accompanying horse-armour of the same date; opposite, by the wall (II, 21), 
Italian shirt-of-mail (c. 1600) : near the last pillar on the right, culrassier^s 
suit from the Thirty Tears^ War. — At the sides of the entrance are the 
stuffed skins of the horses ridden by the Archduke Albert and the Infanta 
Isabella on their entry into Brussels in 1699; also portions of the harness. — 
In the left aisle, 1st centre-ca^e (11, 49), German breast-plate from the first 
half of the 16th cent. ; in the same case and in the 3rd centre-case, cer- 
emonial and other swo 'ds of the 14- 17th centuries. — In the wall-case by the 
1st wind()w to the left, artistic hunting-weapons of the same date. — By 
the 3rd window, in the case to the left, maces of the 15-I6th cent. \ in the 
case to the right, bits and spurs. — By the 4th window to the left, gaunt- 
lets, and richly-ornamented helmets and morions from the 14th cent, on- 
wards (also by the Ist window to the right). — By the second window to 
the right, pistols of the 16-17th centuries. — In a glass-case at the end of 
the right aisle, as well a^) by the 3rd window to the right, hunting-horns 
and powder-flasks. — On the centre of the wall long-bows and cross-bows- 
— In the 1st centre-case to the right, arquebuses and muskets of the 
16th century. 

Sboond Floor. Modem weapons : French weapons of the First Republic 
and the First Empire; sabres and swords of all kinds; Bel^rian fire-arms 
(among them those of King Leopold I.). — Relics of the ^Brabant Revo- 
lution' (p. zxii) and of the Battle of Berchem (p. 98). Also Japanese, 
Javanese, and African weapons. 

Third Floor. Ethnographical Collections from Africa, chiefly from 
the Congo Free State; also from Oceania, Peru, Borneo, Japan (armour), 
and Mexicj. 

At the Porte de Hal begin the *Lower Boulevards' (Boulevard 
du Midi, p. 128). — The Rue Haute leads to the church of Notre 
Dame de la Chapelle (p. 125). 

d. The Eastern Part of the Lower Town. 

From the Place Royale (p. 94) the Montaonb db la Coub 
(PI. D, 4) and the new Rue Coudenberg descend to the lower town 
(^omnib US-line No. 1, p. 87). The former street fto\i\.*.vaakTcw\si^xw». 
hsLJiABome Bhopa, and, in spite of its steepiveaa, V^ ^tift ^1 ^^^ 0«^|S^. 
thoroughfares ofBrasselBy with a couataut. aUea^m ol N^taOi.^^^^^«^sww 

120 Route U. BRUSSELS. Lower Town: 

through it. It is continued to the N.W. by the Rxtb db la Mai>:i^ 
jiBisB^MagdcUena-Straati PI. D, 3, 4), with a few Renaissanee fa^des 
of the 17th cent., and by the Rub du Ma&oh^ auz Hbrbss (^Qrcu^ 
markt; Pi. D, 3), which is connected with the market (on the S.W.) 
by the Rue de la Colline and two smaller streets, assnmes the name 
of Rue du March^ aux Poulets beside the church of St. Nicholas, and 
crosses the Boulevard Anspach (p. 126) near the Exchange. 

In the centre of the old town lies the quaint **Grand' PlAe6« 
or market-place (PI. D, 3). It is one of the finest mediteyal squares 
in existence, presenting a marked contrast to the otherwise modem 
character of the city, and occupies an important place in the annals 
of Belgium. In the spring of 1568 twenty-flve nobles were beheaded 
here by order of the Duke of Alva, and in the following Jane 
Lamoral, Count Egmont, and Philip de Montmorency, Count Hoorn, 
also perished here (comp. pp. 99 and 70). 

The *Hdtel de VUle (^Stadhuis ; PI. D, 3) is by far the most in- 
teresting edifice in Brussels, and one of the noblest and most beautiful 
buildings of the kind in the Netherlands. It is of irregular quadran- 
gular form, 66 yds. in length and 55 yds. in depth, and encloses a 
court. The principal facade towards the market-place is in the 
Gothic style, the E. half having been begun in 1402, the W. in 1444. 
The graceful *Tower, 370 ft. in height, which was originally intended 
to form the N.W. angle of the building, was completed in 1454. 
The original architects were Jacoi van Thienen (1405) and Jan van 
Jiuyshroeck (1448) ; a statue of the latter adorns the first niche in the 
tower. Probably some of the niches in the facade were intended 
to be purely decorative; at all events, the original sculptures haying 
been ruined by the French Sansculottes of 1793 and their Belgian 
allies, the facade now seems somewhat overladen by the multitude 
of modem statues of Dukes of Brabant and other celebrities with 
which it has been adorned, though smoke and the weather have 
contributed to soften this elTect. The open spire terminates in a 
gilded metal figure of the Archangel Michael, 16 ft. in height, which 
serves as a vane. This was executed in the first instance by Martin 
van Rode in 1454, but has since been several times renewed, the 
last time in 1897. The back of the H6tel de Ville and the wing on 
the Rue dc la Tete d'Or date from the beginning of the 18th cent., 
the original edifices having been destroyed by the bombardment oif 
the French in 1696. In the court are two fountains of the 18th 
cent., each adorned with a river-god (Scheldt and Maas], that on 
the left by De Kinder^ that on the right by P. D, Plumier. 

Tickets (p. 90) admitting visitors to view the Imtbbior of the HAtel 

de Ville are issued in tlio corridor of the X. wing, which may bs reaehad 

bj ascending the steps in the passage at the back of the court, ^msltors 

sJao receive a printed description of the buU&liv^. Th^ ct^rHdoT eoataiaa 

sereral large picturea (Jos. Stdllaeri^ Death ot 'E.\iW\v«.TeL v:^«tt^\Ma^ V^Sft^ 

a magistrate o/ Brussels; p. 123). 

H6UldeVaU. BRUSSELS. 11, Route. \21 

FntsT Floor. In the Vestibule are several full-length portraits of former 
sovereigns, among whom are Maria Theresa, Francis II., Joseph II., 
Charles VI., Charles II. of Spain, etc. (all painted in the 18th cent.). 

The present decorations of the spacious Sallb dc Comsbil ComiDHAL 
with its rich gilding, recalling the palace of the Doges at Venice, dates 
from the end of the 17th century. The ceiling-painting, representing the 
gods in Olympus, with effects of perspective, is by Victor Jansstnt (d. 1739). 
The same artist designed the tapestry on the walls, executed by Urbain 
Leyniert and Senri ReydauM^ of which the subjects are the Abdication of 
Charles V., the Coronation of Emp. Charles VI. at Aiz-la-Chapelle, and 
the ^joyeuse entrde** of Philippe le Bon of Burgundy, <.«., the conclusion 
of the contract of government between the sovereign, the clergy, the 
nobiUty, and the people. 

In the adjoining Sallb db Maximilibn is a modem ^pergne by Van der 
Stappen (1891), in front of the chimney-piece, and a round picture, with por- 
traits of Maximilian and his wife Maria of Burgundy, by Ouyunaar (1889), 
over the chimney-piece. The room also contains a wingedaltar-piece, recently 
acquired in Italy, by a Belgian artist of the 15th cent., with gilded carving 
and paintings from the life of the Virgin (the outer 8i<ie, now separate, 
is to the left of the chimney-piece). This room, the adjoining Anteroom, 
and the Bbcsptiom Boom are hung with tapestry from designs by Le Brun, 
executed by Van der Borght^ representing the history of Clovis and Clo- 
tilde. The ceiling-decoration in the last-named room is by Victor Janssent 
(1718). — In the Sallb du Coll^gb (finished in 1895) the Provisional 
Oovernment of 1830 held its sittings, an event commemorated by a tablet. 
Two pieces of tapestry here were executed in 1680 by Van der Borght^ after 
paintings by Teniers tbe Younger. — The following Gallest is hung with 
lifesize portraits by Qrangi (c. 1718) of the Emperor Charles V., Philip III. 
of Spain, Philip IV., Archduke Albert and his consort Isabella, Charles II. 
of Spain, and Philip II. in the robe of the Golden Fleece. — The Sallb 
d'Attbnte contains views of old Brussels, before the vaulting over of the 
Senne (see p. 126), by J. B. van Moer^ 1875. 

The large Sallb Gotbiqdb, about 80 ft. long and 50 ft. wide, recently 
decorated with beautiful oak-carvings in a Gothic style, is reached by 
crossing the landing of the grand staircase (see below). The tapestry, 
representing the guilds in characteristic figures, was executed at Malines 
in 1876-81 by BrcKquenU, from designs by W. Qeeis. On wooden pillars 
between the tapestries are bronze statues of prominent burgomasters and 
magistrates of Brussels in the Idth and 15th centuries. — The Sallb des 
SIariagbs is lined with oaken panelling and adorned with allegorical frescoes 
by Cordon (1881) and eight wooden statues of famous citizens of Brussels, 
painted in 1877-78 by the brothers Oopers. — The Lion Staircase (Esealier 
des Lions), adjoining the Salle des Mariages, is adorned with six Alabaster 
statues of celebrated citizens of Brussels in the 13th and l<4th cent., by 
O. de Oroot (1884), and with two pictures by Em. WatUers: John III., Duke 
of Brabant , resigning to the guilds of Brussels the right of electing the 
burgomaster (1421), and Mary of Burgundy swearing to respect the privileges 
of the city of Brussels (1477). — We return through the Gothic Hall to the 
landing of the Gband Staibcasb (Escaliir d''Eonneur), recently executed by 
V. Jamaer^ on which are busts of the burgomasters since 1830. The ceiling 
and wall paintings by Count J. de Lalaing (1898) illustrate the civic com- 
munity: 'Pro aris et focis** (successful opposition to the feudal barons) and 
*Urbi et orbi' (proclamation of the laws). On the ceiling are an allegorical 
representation founded upon an inscription from the old Broodhuis : *A 
peste, fame et hello libera nos Maria pacis' (from plague, famine, and 
war, deliver us, Mary of peace), and portraits of prominent burgomasters 
of the city as representatives of civie virtue. — At the foot of tbe stair- 
case is a bronze figure of St. Michael, by Van der Stappen (1890).— Tickets 
are given up on leaving the building (no fee). 

The TowxB (60 e. each peri.) commands an adiinVt«\>\« %^r<«v) ^\ "^^^ 
city and environs. To the 8. the Lion Monumeul ou V'ti^'SV^^ fA'^^X*^^^ 
ia diaUnctly visible in clear weather. The 'be&l 'Iiotxt to^ V\ift^«.^^^^» 
Bbontip.m. (id? steps). 

! Boute II. 

K.E. eide of the market- plioe, on llic 
^ Hjoppieii in 1131 by Pope lonocent IL lod St, Bernard, 6 j 
iB Maiian dit Soi or Braodhuii (^Hallt au Pain; PI. D, 3), foTineclr 
It of the gcernment sufhorilleB. The building was erected 
L5l4-Ja, in tha transition style tronitha Gothic to the HeruisBSQce, 
rTjWataTed and slmpllSed in 1T33, and rebnilt by V. Jamatr according 
to the Dtiglnoi plan and fitted up for the municipal aathoriliei in 
1873'96. Counte Egmont and Hoorn passed the night preiioaa lo 
their Biecntinn here, and ate Btid to htve been conveyed diieccly 
from tho haloony to the Fatal block by atoaas of a scaFFalding, in order 
to prevent the possihility ot a rescne by the populace. 

The aaits Dommaul lOimimtillit UnKunl wnn esUhllnbwl in laST 
nn thq lecnnd floor nf tba Mlisjn <iu Boi (idm.. iet V. 90; no caMogaa). 
The SiiiK KooH (ti (be l?Ft| mnialns arcbilecturul frn^manti and amilB- 
lurc] of iDcienl BrusBcIt - lbs ahon-cucs ia lb« M<in K'ioh c-ontain 
plan? Bad views ofBrasSFls, memorUlsof IheKevoIoUon of 1830. tba clolbei 
of (be Haonlkln fp. 133), BruieeU china and faience, aillMlo objecti la 

Rto in piridige), tare printed w.irlc!, a faolmlle of the celebrated Reconl of 
Cortsnbere 0312; orl^nal in the arcbi>e>l, coins and medali. Tban Bra 
■ 113 muilelJ" nt buildines in BrajBels. On Ibe slde-H- ■- 

and T». ii KtH't 

, by ai 

not p. Bolii •! 

A. IfBMPI, B. (tolWM (?). MitrmU. 

life plecei 1iy Jan Fyl, 'Fr. Sfifdtrt us num. >d>i ji. co* ntiircHi ana 

lanilgeapei l>y if. Sircl'em, J. Bil>H-«eJtu, and oTbers. 

Tha'enUdEoiueB in the Grand' PUce date milnly from the period 
after the bombardment by the French under Vllleroi in 1695, and they 
were carefully restored In 1888-1903. Some of ihem are riehly 
adorned with gilding. On the N.W. side, to the left at the be- 
ginning of the Rue de la Tele d'Or, is tbe Hall of tht Mcreen 
(.No. 7; 'ds Foi' or 'ft Benard'J iiting from]699. Farther on, to tha 
right, ia the Hall of Ifti: Skippers (1697), known as the 'I'TlgaU', m 
'Caraet', the gable of whluh resembles the itern of a Itrge vessel. 
NaM comes tlie Sialsan de la Louee, or Ball of the Arehera (1691 ?), 
whiehderiveaitsnime from I gtoupi .... .^ 

with theahe-woif; on the gable is a glldsd phcenii. To tha right ff 
thaLiuveii tlie*£faIio^tft«C-i»-/>«n[«r»fl697i 'leSae'); fatlhet " 
tha right ia \,b& Hali of tht Mntttn (Ha BroutlU'}: and attheooi 
of the Rue an B^nrre is th- new and stalely Hall of tlie BatM^' 
ganerally known h L< Hoid'Etpagiu, renonslrnoteJ in 190 Jitter"'" 
original plane by Jan CJSyns, 

On tha N.E, side are the Taupe, or BaU of the Tniinrs (1607), 
aod the Plsion, or HM of the i'.iinlr m, erectud in 1537 and left 
unharmed by the bombardment of 1696. — On the^. itlde kd- 
Joining the Rue de la Oalline, is s Guild Hoait buUt in 1&9S. The 
Isrga building neit to this was formerly the public Weighinj Bourt 
('Lx Bala-\i:e'). On the 8.W. sida, to the left of tbeHotuLdoVIUe, 
aratbaold hill of the Guild o{ Qulc hen (1720), indicated by 
—'the 'HSttl da Braaaeurt, ot HM of \\t BTticn. (J-iyXVis 
'gadla an ejiiastriaa staCiia of OAkeC^^u\M ul\i<tui^^ 

Uff J 

rtbe ■ 





OuHdHouBea. BRUSSELS. 11. RouU. 123 

executed in 1854 by Jaquet. — The AdjaicentHotue of the Bailiff , or 
Maison de VEloile^ reconstructed in 1897, bears, on the side next the 
Rue Charles Buls, a tablet by V. Rousseau (1899) commemoiatiye of 
the architects of the Guild Houses, and of Burgomaster Charles BuU 
(1882-99), who was the chief agent in securing their restoration. 
Adjacent, to the right, is the monument by Dillens (1902) to the 
sheriff Eberhard fSerclaes (d. 1388), who defended Brussels in 1366 
against the Flemish Count Louis de Male. 

At the back of the Udtel de Ville, about 2C0 yds. to the 8.W., at the 
corner of the Rae du Ch^ne and the Rue de TEtuve, stands a diminutive 
figure, one of the curiosities of Brussels, known as the Kannikin Fountain 
(PI. M.P. ^ C, 4), cast in bronze after Duquesnoy^s model in 1619. He is a 
great favourite with the lower classes, and is invariably attired in gala- 
costume on all great occasions. When Louis XV. took the city in 1747, 
the mannikin wore the white cockade, in 1789 he was decked in the colours 
of the Brabant Revolution, under the French regime he adopted the tri- 
colour, next the Orange colours, and in 1830 the blouse of the Revolu- 
tionists. Louis XV., indeed, is said to have invested him with the cross 
of St. Louis. The figure is not without considerable artistic excellence. 

In the Rue du March^ aux Herbes, near the N.E. corner of the 
Grand' Place, is the entrance to the Passage or Galeries St. Hubert 
(PI. D, 3), constructed from a plan by Cluysenaar in 1847, a 
spacious and attractive arcade with tempting shops (234 yds. in 
length, 26 ft. in width , and 59 ft. in height). It connects the 
March^ aux Herbes with the Rue d'Arenberg and the Rue de 
I'Ecuyer. The S. half, ending at the Rue des Bouchers, is named 
Oalerie de la Reine; the N. half, with the Theatre des Galeries 
(p. 89), is called Oalerie du Roi^ from which the Passage des Princes 
diverges. The sculptural decorations are by Jaquet. 

The busy Rue de I'Ecuyer descends to the left from the Passage 
St. Hubert to the Place db la Monnaib (PI. D, 3) or Muntplaats^ 
in which rises the royal Thi&tre de la Konnaie, with a colonnade 
of eight Ionic columns, erected by the Parisian architect Damesme 
in 1817. The bas-relief in the tympanum, executed by Simonis 
in 1854, represents the Harmony of Human Passions. The interior, 
which was remodelled after a fire in 1855, is decorated in the 
Louis XIV. style and can contain 1600 spectators. The ceiling- 
paintings were executed from designs by the Belgian artists 
HendrickXf Verheydeny Hamman^ and Wauters. — Opposite the 
theatre is the Post and Telegraph Office (PI. D, 2, 3), erected 
in 1885-92 from designs by De Curte, The various rooms for the 
public postal business are in the centre of the groundfloor; to the 
right are the telegraph and telephone offices. The central vestibule 
is frescoed by Em. van den Bussche (1896). 

From the Place de la Monnaie the Rue des Fripiers leads to the 
S. to the March! aux Poulets (p. 120) and the Exchange (p. 126), 
while the Rue de I'Eveque and the Rue Fosstf-aux-Loups tuxi ta 
the W. to the Boulevard Anspach and t\ieT?\«jJife ^fe'!&iwsL0*!^\siV:5^,*sriSV 
The busy Rub Neuyb (PL D, 2), one ol fVift cWfti w\«rift% ^A^vaar- 
geU, leads towards the N. in a atralgU ^Vie>c.\\Qi^ ^.o ^Xv«& '$i^»^^5sst ^»- 

124 Route 11, BRUSSELS. Lower Tdvm: 

Nord. In this street, to the right, is the quiet Galerie du Commerce 
(PI. D, 2), M, glass arcade, similar to the Galeries St. Hubert (p« 123) ; 
to the left is the Patstige du Nord, leading to the Boul. du Nord 
(p. 126) and containing a hall for tiieatrical performances. 

Turning to the left at the end of the Galerie du Commerce , or 
following the Rue Neuve and then the Rue St. Michel to the right, 
we reach the Place dea Martyrs ^ laid out in 1775 by Useo and 
formerly called Place St. Michel. In the centre of this rises the 
Martyrs* Konnment (PI. D, 2), by W. Qteft, erected in 1838 to the 
memory of the Belgians who fell in 1830, while fighting against the 
Dutch (see p. 95). It includes a statue of liberated Belgium, sey- 
eral reliefs in marble, and tablets recording the names of the 'mar- 
tyrs \ 445 in number. At the sides are two smaller monuments : 
to the N. a bust of Jennevalj author of the 'Braban^nne\ the Belgian 
national anthem, by Anciaux and Crick (1897); to the S. an obe- 
lisk with a medallion of Count Frid, de Mirode (p. 98), by P. Du- 
bois and H. van de Velde (1898). 

About 150 yds. above the Galeries St. Hubert (p. 123), in the 
triangle enclosed by the Rues de la Madeleine, Duquesnoy, and 
St. Jean, is the Marchi de la Madeleine (PI. D, 4; band, see p. 89), 
erected by Cluysenaar in 1848. The Provision Exchange meets in 
the central part of this structure every Wed. (entr. in the Rue Du- 
quesnoy). — The adjacent Oalerie Bortier contains numerous shops 
of dealers in second-hand books. 

Between the Rue de la Madeleine and the Montague de la Cour, 
the Rue de VEmpereur (p. 125) diverges to the S.W., the Rue 
Cantersteen to the N.£. The latter (called farther on the Rue de 
rimp^ratrice) leads to the University (PI. D, 4), established in the 
old palace of Cardinal Granvella (p. xxi). It was founded by the 
leaders of the liberal party in 1834, as a rival of the Roman Catholic 
University of Louvain (p. 235), and comprises faculties of philo- 
sophy, the exact sciences, jurisprudence, and medicine, the last of 
which has its chief quarters in the Pare Leopold (p. 132). The Eeole 
Poly technique y founded in 1873, embraces six departments : mining, 
metallurgy, practical chemistry, civil and mechanical engineering, 
and architecture. The number of students is about 1600. The court 
is adorned with a Statue of Verhaegen (d. 1862), one of the found- 
ers, by W. Geefs. 

The S. wing of the university abuts on the Rue des Sols, the 8. side 

(>f which, as far as the Rue Goudenberg (p. 119), is now being rebuilt. In 

the Rue Terarken (PI. E, 4), which continues the Bue des Sols to the B., are 

(loft) an old Sjfnagoffue (i6th cent.) and (right; No. 11) the Gothic RaveB- 

•tein Hantion, erected about the middle of the i5th cent, for Count Adolph 

of CJeve, enlarged in 1613, and since 1900 the property of the town of Bras- 

seJjf it should be noticed as one of the few TQm«.lt\lu^ antlaae priTate 

bMUMinga in BmsBels (p. 94). The intetVot iTfta\«tfe«i Mk VaSK\ \» \Ar« 

peapied by the SoeiM Gin4rdle dTArchioloqit miA oWxw ?koc\ft'&»a. t^ 

Notre Dame de la ChapelU. BRUSSELS. 1 1 . Route. 125 

entrance is near the top of the Bue Bayenstein (PI. D,4), a street with stepg, 
ascending to the Bae Coudenberg and the Montagne de la Coar (p. 119). 

The just-mentioned Rue de PEmpereur (Keyzer-Straat) leads 
to the Place de la Justice (PI. D, 4), with C. van der Stappen's 
marble statue of Alex, Gendebien (1789-1869). 

Thence the Rue d'Or and Rue Steenpoort lead to the S.W. to the 
Place db la Chapblle (PI. 0, D, 4), in which, on the right, rises 
the Gothic church of — 

Kotre Bame de la Chapelle, begun in 1216 on the site of an 
earlier chapel. The handsome choir and transept date from the 
middle of the 13th cent., the nave was completed in 1483, and the 
W. tower at the end of the 17th century. 

Iktebiob (concierge, Bue des Ursulines 23). To the left of the main 
entrance is a marble monument to A. C. Ltn$ (1739-1822), the painter, on 
which he is styled 'r^g^n^rateur de la peinture «n Belgique et parfait 
chr^tien\ — In the Aisles are oil-paintings (14 Stations of the Cross) by 
J, B, van Eycien (184446) and several altar-pieces of tbe 17th century. In 
the 2nd Gbapel of the 8. aisle: Q. de Grayer^ Christ appearing to Mary Mag- 
dalen. — 4th Chap. : Tomb of the painter P, Bruegha (he Elder (d. 1569). 
The stained glass in the 5th and oth chapels, with scenes from the life 
of the Virgin, is by J. van der Poorien (ISoT). The three adjoining pillars 
bear the remains of frescoes of the 15th cent, (saints). — The Choib has 
been decorated with fine polychrome paintings by Charle-Alberi. The some- 
what incongruous high-altar supersedes one executed from designs by 
Bubent. — In the Chapelle de la Sainte Croix, to the S. of the choir, are 
modern frescoes by Van Eyeken. In the N. chapel of the choir : Landscapes 
by /. d'AHhois and AcMschellinck. Near the altar: Be Grayer^ San Carlo 
Borromeo administering the Holy Communion to the plague -stricken; 
Van Thuldeny Intercession for souls in Purgatory. Monument of the SpinSla 
family by P. D. Plttmier. On a pillar is a monument to Buke Ch, Alex, de 
Cvoyl^.. 1624). A tablet of black marble at the back of the pillar, put up 
in 1834, bears a long Latin inscription to the memory of Frane Anneestent^ 
a citizen of Brussels and a magistrate of the Quarter of St. Nicholas, 
who was executed in the Grand March^ in 1719 for presuming to defend 
the privileges of the city and guilds against the encroachments of the 
Austrian governor. — The carving on the baroque pulpit, by P/wmwr, re- 
presents Elijah in the wilderness, and is simpler and in better taste than 
that of the pulpit in the cathedral. — The Sacristy contains the rich treasure 
of the church. 

The Rub Haute, or Hoogstbaat, which runs hence to the S. to 
the Porte de Hal (p. 118), and the Rue Blaes (electric tramway 
No. 8, p. 87), which intersects the Place du Jeu de Balle (PI. 0, 5 j 
pedlars' market), pass through the so-called Quartier des Marolles, 
inhabited by a mixed population of Flemings and Walloons, and 
exhibit many drastic scenes of popular life. 

The Rue Joseph Stevens, a new street to the E. of the church, 
ends at the Place du Grand Sablon (^Groote Zaavel-Plaats ; PI. D, 
4, 5), in the centre of which is an insignificant fountain-monument 
erected by the Marquis of Aylesbury in 1751, in recognition of the 
hospitality accorded to him at Brussels. The Kaison du Feuple 
(PI. D, 4), in the Rue Joseph Stevens, erected in a modern style 
by Victor Horta in 1896-99, is a Socialists m%Ut«aXSsstv., ^vs^\.y2«.- 
in^ shops, a library, and a hall that hoAds ^0QQ^feO^\^. — ^«^^<b\» 
the Square du Petit Sablon, see p. ^9. 

126rouU11. BRUSSELS* LowtToifin: 

e. The Inner Boulevards and WeBtem Fart of the Lower Town. 

An entirely modern feature in the lower part of the city is 
formed by the Inner BonlevardB (PL B, 0, D, 2-5 ; tramways 3-6, 
see p. 87), which lie to the W. of the Rue Neuve and the Place de 
la Monnaie, and extend from the Boulevard du Midi (near the Sta- 
tion du Midi) to the Boulevard d'Anvers and Boulevard du Jardin 
Botanique (near the Station du Nord), partly built over the Senne, 
and intersecting the whole town. The construction of the street, 
and the covering in of the bed of the Senne for a distance of IY3M., 
were carried out by an English company In 1867-74, at a cost of 
!27,000,000 francs. The names of the boulevards are Boulevard du 
Nordy Boulevard de la SennCy Boulevard Anspach^ and Boulevard du 

The busy Boulevard pu Nord (PI. D, 2) and the Boulevard de la 
Senne (PI. D, 2) meet at the large Place de BBOUCE:feBE (PI. D, 2), 
where the Monument Anspach, a large fountain designed by F.Janlet^ 
with sculptures by Paul de Vigne, J. IHllens^ and others, was erected 
in 1897 in memory of Burgomaster Anspach (d. 1879), one of the 
chief promoters of the boulevards. 

No. 17 in the Rue des AiigusUns (Fl. D, 2\ to ihe W., is the Masee 
Commercitl de TEtat (PI. D, 2), or Byks-Handdi-Mweum, instituted in 1880 
fur tbe encouragement of Belgian commerce, containing a library with 
reading-room, collections of foreign manufactures, and an office for in- 
formation (adm., see p. 90). 

The S. continuation of the two boulevards just mentioned is 
formed by the Boulevard Anspach (PI. C, D, 3), with tempting 
shops and several large caftfs and Havernes', one of the centres of 
public life in Brussels and generally crowded in the evening. ' 

In the Place db la Bourse (70 ft. ; PI. C, 3), in the middle of 
the Boulevard Anspach, rises the ^Exchange (^Bourse de Commerce; 
PI. C, 3), an imposing edifice in the Louis XIV. style, built in 1874 
from designs by the younger Svys, Its exterior shows an almost 
excessive richness of ornamentation, but has been sadly disfigured by 
the application of a coat of paint, necessitated by the friable nature 
of the stone. The principal facade is embellished with a Corinthian 
colonnade, to which a broad flight of steps ascends. On each side is 
an allegorical group by J. Jaquet. The reliefs in the tympanum, also 
by Jaquet, represent Belgium with Commerce and Industry. The 
principal hall, unlike that of most buildings of the kind, is cruci- 
form (140 ft. by 120 ft.), and covered with a low dome (about 
150 ft. high) in the centre. It is best viewed from the gallery (adm., 
see p. 90; entr. for strangers in the rear). 

A little to the W. of the Exchange, in the Place St. G^ry(Pl. C, 3; 
p. 91), is a Market^ in the Flemish style. It contains a Benaissance 
fountain from the Abbey of Grimberghen (p. 136). 

In the Boulevard du Hainaut, to the right, is the Place An- 
rwessens (PI. C, 4^, with the monumeiit oi \.\ift tVsV^V^rwi FtoMkM 
Anneessens (p. 125% by Vin^otte, erected \tv V^^. ^^V«i^ Na % 

Egl du Biffuinage, BRUSSELS. 7/. Route. 127 

School in the Flemish style, by F. Janlet. — The Bue de Tournai, 
diverging here to the S.E., leads to the Place Rovppe (PI. G, 4), in 
vhich a monumental fonntain, by Fraikin, commemorates Burgo- 
master Rouppe (d. 1838). A little to the N.E., in the Rue du Midi, 
is the Acad^mie Boyale des Xeauz-Arts (PI. G, 4), founded in 1711, 
reorganized in 1800, and transferred to its present site in 1877. It 
is attended by ca. 1400 pupils (director, £. Yerlant). 

Between the Boul. du Hainaut and the broad Avenue du Midi 
(Zuider-Dreef), a parallel street alFo ending at the Boul. du Midi, is 
the long and narrow Palais du Midi (PI. B, G, 4, 6), containing 
shops, the Municipal Laboratory, and an industrial school. 

In the W. Pabt op the Low'bb Town, at the end of the Rue 
Gr^try and near the Boulevard Anspach, are the Holies Centrales 
(PI. G, 3), a covered provision-market erected in 1874. The N. wing, 
after a fire in 1894, was converted into the Palais d'Eii (p. 89). 

Beyond the Halles rises the Church of St, Catharine {VI. G, 2), 
designed by Poelaert (p. 101), in a mixture of the Romanesque and 
Renaissance styles. It contains paintings by De Grayer and Ysnius, 
an Assumption ascribed to Rubens, and other works from the old 
church which stood on the same spot and of which the tower to the 
S. ofthepresentfa^adeisarelio. — The Tour iVoire (PI. T.N. ; G,2), 
to the E. of the choir, and near the Rue de Laeken, is a fragment 
of the old town fortifications; it was almost wholly rebuilt in 1895 
(adm. 10-4; 26 c.). 

To the N.W. of St. Catharine's is the Fish Market (PI. C, 2). The 
baskets of fish arrlying fresh from the sea are sold here by auction to 
retail-dealers (comp. p. 15). The auctioneer uses a curious mixture of 
French and Flemish, the tens being named in French and all inter- 
mediate numbers in Flemish. 

In the new Orain Market (PI. C, 2, 3) is a marble statue of the naturalist 
J. B. van Hdmont (1577 1644), by G. van der Linden (1889). — A few paces 
to the K.W., on the Bempart des Moines, is a monument to the Liberal 
statesman P. van Bumbeek (PI. B, C, 2), erected in 1903. 

To the W. of the above-mentioned Rue de Laeken lies the se- 
cularized *EgliBe du B^goinage (PI. G, 2), erected in 1667-76 in 
the baroque style by L. Fflid'^er 6e (?) , on the site of a previous 
Romanesque church. It has an imposing facade and a pentagonal 
tower behind the choir-apse. In the spacious interior are a colossal 
statue of John the Baptist by P. Puyenbroeck and paintings by Otho 
Vaenius^ De Crayer, and others. — To the left, at the N. end of the 
Rue de Laeken, near the Boulevard d'Anvers (see below), rises 
the Flbmish Thbatbb (PI. D, 1), built by J. Baes in 18^5, with 
iron fire-escape galleries all round it, and a handsome foyer in the 
Flemish style. 

The Lower BoulevardB (PI. G, B, 1-6 ; tramway No. 2, see p. 87), 
on the W. side of the old town, cannot vie with the fa8hiQwa.b\^ 
upper boulevards (p. 1 17). The Boulbva.^!) t>' Kts'^^^jr VJ\.^.^\i.^^^S^ 
the N.W. contiauation of the Boulevard A\i 3w^m'^QVwv\Q;:s^^«> «^^% 

128 Route 11, BRUSSELS. Eastern Oiiarf era; 

at the Bdssin du Commerce, which is connected with the Rupel 
(p. 82) and the Scheldt by the WilUXtroeck Canal (p. 134), excavated 
in 1550-61, and with the Sambre at Charlerol by the CharUroi 
Canaly 47 M. long, constructed in 1832. — Beyond the Pont Leo- 
pold, at the beginning of the Boulevard de TEntrepdt, lies the 
Entrepdt Royal (PI. G, 1), with bonded warehouses and eastoms of- 
fices. Farther on is the tasteful Caserne du Pettt-CMlteau , in the 
Tudor style. — To the S. , in the Boulevard de I'Abattoir, are the 
Abattoirs (slaughter-houses; PI. B, 3), built in 1840, and the City 
Swimming Bath (Bassin de Natation ; PI. B, 3). 

The adjacent Boulbvabd du Midi (PI. B, 4-6), or Zuidlaofif 
leads hence to the Porte de Hal (p. 118), passing (r.) the Place de la 
Constitution (PI. B, 5 ; with the Gare du Midi, p. 83), where the Boule- 
vard du Hainaut (p. 127) and the Avenue du Midi (p. 127) diverge 
to the left. At the S. end of this boulevard, near the Porte de Hal, 
is the cm Fontainas (PI. B, 6), an asylum for aged teachers of both 
sexes. Opposite, on the left, near the Rue Blaes (p. 125), stands 
the Blind Asylum ^ Orphanage (PI. 0, 6), a brick building with a 
clock-tower, designed by Cluysenaar (1858). 

f. The Suburbs and the Kew Qnarters to the East. 

Beyond the site of the old Porte de Schaerbeek (p. 118) the 
Rub Royale (p. 94 ; PI. E, F, 4-1 ; electric tramway No. 15, p. 88) 
traverses the N.E. suburbs of St. Josse ten Noode and Schaerbeek, At 
first it passes between the Botanic Garden (p. 117) on the left and 
the modern Gothic Jesuit Church (PI. F, 2) on the right. To the W. 
it affords a fine view of the heights of the Sonne Valley, beyond the 
Northern Boulevards. 

In Schaerbeek, at the N. end of the street, rises the church of 
Ste. Marie de Schaerbeek (PI. F, 1), an octagonal edifice with a 
dome, built in 1844 from plans by Van Overstraeten and Hansotte, 

The Rue Royale Ste. Marie, prolonging the Rue Royale towards 
the N. and ending at the railway station of Schaerbeek (pp. 229, 
83), intersects the Place Collignon, the centre of which is occupied 
by the Maison Communalb of Schaerbeek, in the Flemish Renais- 
sance style, from designs by Fan r«mdt/cfe (1887). Inside are a hand- 
some staircase and a council chamber with stained-glass windows 
by J. B. Capronnier and some tapestry from the factory of Brao- 
queni^ (p. 156; attendant 50 c). — Opposite the Maison Oom- 
munalc is a statue, by Ch. van der Stappen (1903), of Alfred Vervcie 
(183d-95), the animal-painter. 

On the S. St. Josse ton Noode and Schaerbeek are adjoined by 
two new quarters: the fashionable and handsome, but somewhat 
monotonous Quartier Leopold (Pi. F, 4, 5) and the brand-new QuarUef 
JVhrd-F^i (PL O, 3, 4). 

A few hundred yards to the E, of t\\^TNo\3\. ^\Ji'^4%«tyXV3iANSS^ 

Pal. du Cinqwmtenaire. BRUSSELS. //. RouU, 129 

lies the Plage Fb^rb-Orban (PI. F, 4), the handsomest square iTi 
the Quartier Leopold, containing a statue of Frhre-Orban (1812-95), 
the Liberal statesman, by Samuel (1900). — On the S. side of the 
Place rises the church of St. Joseph (PI. F, 4), a Renaissance 
building of 1849, by the elder Suya, The facade and conspicuous 
towers are constructed of blue limestone. The altar-piece is a Flight 
into Egypt by Wiertz (p. 133). 

Besides the Rond-Point mentioned below, the Quartier Nord- 
Est possesses three other attractive Places adorned with pleasure- 
grounds: the Square Marie Louise (PI. G, 3), the Square Ambiorix 
(to the E. of PI. G, 3 ; tramways Nos. 10, 11, & 19, see pp. 87, 88), 
and the Square Marguerite. All three are connected by a series 
of cascades, which begin at a handsome fountain in the Square 
Marguerite and descend in steps via the Square Ambiorix and Avenue 
Palmerston to a pond in the Square Marie Louise. In the Ave. 
Palmerston is a bronze group of Pan and a Nymph (*La Folic Chan- 
sou') by Jef Lambeaux; at the lower basin of the Square Ambiorix 
is *'TL.e Cheval a I'Abreuvoir' (horse drinking), a group by C. Meunier; 
and at the very top, beyond the fountain, is yet another group, by 
Count Jac. de Lalaing, The rows of houses in this quarter, partly in 
the Flemish Renaissance and partly in the modern style, gain a special 
attraction from the variety of material used in their construction. 

From the Square Ambiorix the Rue d'Archim^de leads to the S. 
to the Rond-Point, while the Avenue Michelange and Rue le Oorrege 
(tramways Nos. 10 & 11, pp. 87, 88) lead to the S.E. direct to the 
Pare Cinquantenaire (see below), which may also be reached by 
tramway (No. 9, p. 87) from the Place Royale (p. 94). 

The wide Rue de la Lot (PI. F, G, 4; tramways 12 & 13, p. 88), 
mentioned at p. 96, forms the most direct approach from the Park 
(p. 95) to (iM.)theRoND-PoiNT, a circular space with gardens, which 
is also connected with the Pare Leopold (p. 132), to the S.W., by the 
Rue de Comines and the Rue Juste Lipse (PI. G, 4, 5). Just beyond 
the Rond-Point the Rue de la Loi reaches the — 

Parc du Cinquantenaire, 74 acres in extent (see Map, p. 135), 
which was the scene of the exhibitions of 1880 and 1897. The two 
large porphyry columns from Quenast (p. 208) were erected for the 
flrst exhibition. At the far end of the park rises the huge but un- 
finished — 

Palais da Cinquantenaire, built in 1879 by Bordiau, and con- 
sisting of two rectangular edifloes, which are united by means of 
a crescent-shaped colonnade with a lofty triumphal arch in the 
middle. The N. block, to the left as we approach from the Rond- 
Point, accommodates the — 

^Musies Boyauz des Arts B^coratifs etIndii8tTiel8(adm., see 
p. 90). This museum contains a somewhat m\8CftW.a.TkftQ\5La. %xivi ^\ v^- 
tiquities and works o/industrial art, wMcVx aie sootv V^Xi^^T^'CiSi^^^x^^ 
totbe S, wing, Cuiatoij M. E. van Overloop. 'Jlo %ew«tvi\ cA\»\ft«^'2k- 
BASDBKSB'a Belgium and Holland. lUli ^^U. ^ 

130 Route 11, BRUSSELS. Eastern QyarUra: 

Wc first enter the Main Fbont Hall, containing oaits of ancient md 
modern works of art. Specially noteworthy are the reproductions of 
inediseyal and Renaissance sculpturea from Bruges, Oadenaarde, Ldau, HiP, 
Louvain, and other Flemish towns. 

Boom I. ^Belgique Primitive"), at the N.W. corner of this hall, a^d 
the adjoining gallery contain prehistoric, Roman, and Prankish antiquities 
found in Belgium. — Room II. (S.E. corner) contains Egyptiui antiquities 
of the Grseco-Roman period, including the mummy of an embroiderer (*]a 
Brodeuse"), so called from the objects found with it (in an adjoining case), 
painted mummy masks, Egyptian and Coptic textiles , and an *ostrakon* 
(clay-tablet) with a G.)ptic inscription. — The stuircase leads to the Libsabt 
(open on week-days, 10-12 and 1.30-4.30). 

The Central Building, adjoining the Front Hall, includes an outer 
and an inner gallery, with five rooms, on a somewhat higher level, to the 
right. The Vestibclb contains the Egyptian antiquities of the earliest 
period, including (left) the mummy of a king from Antinoe in Upper Egypt 
(12th dynasty). 

The Outer Gallert (left) contains state carriages, sleighs, and litters 
of the 18th cent, (rococo and Empire styles), ecclesiastical vestments of 
the 14-17thcent., copies of famous paintings, photographs of works of art, 
Th. van Thulden'g original cartoons for the stained-glass windows in 8te. 
Gudule's (p. 97), and a number of modern cartoons by /. SwertSj O. 
Quffens (p. 83), Puvis de Chavarmes, and others. 

The Inker Gallery (right), the walls of which are covered with 
*Tapestry of the 15-18th cent., chiefly from Brussels and Oudenaarde, eon- 
tnins the main part of the Collection of Antiquities, First come Ronuun 
Inscriptions. Farther on, replica of the Satyr of Praxitdes; large urn from 
the prehistoric necropolis of Jortan-Eelembo in Asia Minor } clay coffin 
from Clazomenee (6-7th cent. B. 0.)^ limestone sculptures from Cyprus; 
BcBotian urns (Case 3). The next contain Vases. Case 2. Vases from 
Hycensc \ Case 4. Vases in the geometrical style from Attica, BcBotia, and 
Magna Grsecia; Case 6. Corinthian vases: Case 7. Black ^buoehero* vases 
from Etruscan tombs ; Gases 8 & i). Black-fifgured Greek vases \ Cases 10 ft 12. 
Red-figured Attic vases; Case 11. Attic lekythoi and a small vase ascribed 
to Sotades, with a charming picture of a mother and child in the centre; 
Cases 15-17. Late vases from Magna Greecia, including a drinking-vessel 
with reliefs from the 'Iphigeneia' of Euripides (in No. 15). No. III. Terra- 
cotta bust of a girl, from Smyrna. No. II. Terracottas from Boeotia (10,053. 
"^Sileuus and nymph) and Asia Minor. Phoenician glass from Dali (Idalium), 
in Cyprus; three leaden coftlns from Syria (3rd -4th cent.); Etruscan and 
Roman bronze vessels and sculptures. — In the wall-cases to ttie left are 
terracottas from Asia Minor, antiquities from Carthago, and Greek weapons. 
— On the ri^ht side, beside the approach to the Ravenstein Museam (see 
below), arc Etruscan cists and a Roman sarcophagus-relief (Triumph of Pelops). 

IsT Side Room, containing the smaller antiquities, presented to the 
Museum by E. de Mee^ter de Ravenstein., for fourteen years Belgian minister 
at the Vatican. 

The Collection of Antique Vases, the chief feature of the bequest, 
begins in the case to the right of the entrance (early black Etruscan vases 
and Corinthian vases of the 7th cent. li.C). and is continued in the cases 
in the middle of the room, which contain specimens illustrating the 
developed Greek ceramic art of the 5th and 4th cent. B.C. First come 
earlier vases with black figures on a red ground; then vases with red 
figures on a black ground. The last case by the (K.) end-wall next the 
exit contains vasesfrom Lower Italy, dating from the period of decadence 
(4tl)-2nd cent. B.C.), extravagant in form and decoration. — The table- 
cases between the cabinets of vases contain Roman glass and glass-pastes of 
great beauty, coins, terracotta lamps, bronze ixnplemonts, small flat leaden 
votive figures, an Etruscan head- ornament of ffne gold plates (No. 1478), 
bronze mirrors and mirror* ca<!es. — In the other cases are bronae statnettea 
snd vesseJa, gemSj specimens of marble, eVc. — "W^ won? t^Xutu \!5i ^ba — 
TssKR Gallery, the second half of wbicb cvm\.«L\TL» \\i% 1L«A&aml wiA. 
Modern BeotioB, The first cnses here cou\a\u Ecc\ea\*»vVt»\ ktk\V«v>a&»Mu 

Pal, du Cinquantenaire. BRUSSELS. //. Route. 131 

In the middle case: *Hoad of Pope St. Alexander (d. 117), in ailrer, from 
StaTelot (ca. 1145)i *Small portable altar, also from Starelot, with scenes 
from the Passion (c. 1200); similar altar, in silver-gilt, from the Bhine 
Cafter 1200). Case to the right: Reliquaries, chalices, and monstrances. 
Ga«e to the left: Processional crosses, enamelled and set with jewels (12- 
16th cent.). 

The following cases contain examples of the goldsmith's art (partly 
helonging to the German Renaissance), valuable watches and appendages, 
insignia of the presidents of a guild, aquamanilia and other bronzes, and 
caskets (including a wooden casket of the 14th cent., with scenes from 
the Passion). — Farther on are Ivory Carvings. In the middle case, ele- 
phant's tusk with Romanesque gold mounting (German, 12th cent.). In 
the case to the left, large diptych (8th cent.), reliquary in the form of a 
Romanesque church (from the Rhine; 12th cent.)* two figures of the Ma- 
donna (French, ca. 1300), and several combs. In the case to the right, 
goblets with very fine Renaissance reliefs, goblet with relief of the birth 
of Venus (Dutch, 17th cent.), high-relief of the Graces, in the style of 
Gerard van Opstal (17th cent.). 

Next come Hispano-Moorish and Italian Majolica, including (2nd case 
to the right) fine specimens from Gubbio, Casteldurante, and Urbino 
(No. 9178. Death of the Seer Amphiaraus , by Franc. Xanto , 1531). In a 
case to ttie left is French fayence (Palissy ware). 

The wall-cabinets to the left contain works in hammered iron, tin, 
and brass, small wooden carvings, etc. — Among the "Tapestries (to the 
right) are two celebrated Brussels specimens (16th cent.), one representing 
the Descent from the Cross, Entombment, and Christ in Purgatory, the 
other the Holy Family and St. Anna. 

In the middle of the room: Gothic choir-desks, in metal (15th cent.); 
Romanesque font, cast in bronze (1149), with noteworthy figures in high 
relief, from the church of St. Germain, at Tirlemont; four stone fonts in 
the Romanesque style (12th cent.) and one in the Gothic style (15th cent.); 
two Easter candelabra (12th and 13th cent.). — By the left wall : Gothic 
•Altar in carved wood, with the martyrdom of St. George, by Jan Borman 
of Brussels (1493); adjacent two large brasses, with engraved figures (14th 
and 16th cent.). — In the centre of the room: Dutch & Flemish fayence 
(17th cent.) and porcelain (18th cent.) from Delft, Brussels, Tournai, An- 
denne, Li^ge, etc.; German porcelain, chiefly from Meissen and Hochst 
(No. 409, in case to left. Shepherd and shepherdess); Chinese porcelain. — 
Farther on, cabinets with Rhenish stoneware, and German, Bohemian, and 
Venetian glass. 

The following cabinets contain Brussels and other Lace and Em- 
broidery, ecclesiastical vestments, and rococo costumes (18th cent.). — On 
the left wall: antependium with stamped gilt ornamentation (Brabant; 
16th cent.); German antependium from an altar of the Virgin, embroidered 
in gold and silver on a red ground (13th cent.); late-Gothic altar from the 
Abbey of Liessies in France, with carving of the martyrdoms of S8. Leo- 
degar and Barbara (1530) ; brass of W. de Goux (1555). — By the right wall, 
marble bust of Justus Lipsius, chests and caskets, etc. 

At the end. of the room is a painted beam from the Abbey of Hercken- 
rode, near Hasselt (16th cent.); also stove tiles, stamps, seals, Dutch and 
Belgian cupboards of the 17-18th cent., and several altars in carved wood 
(15- 17th cent.). — The steps to the right lead to the fifth side-room (p. 132). 
— We return to the first section of the Large Room and ascend the steps 
to the left to the — 

2nd Sidb Room. Ecclesiastical Antiquities (Mediaeval and Renaissance 
periods): Gothic oak pulpit, with the four Evangelists (15th cent.); to tbe 
right (window-wall), Gothic oak confessional (16th cent.); to the right of 
the last, domestic altar with ivory figures (17th cent.) ; to the left, small 
Spanish altar-piece of the early 16th cent.; by the exit, above, carved 
Gothic oak singing -gallery, with figures of the kpQ«.W«».^ Ix^Tsy "si\a.T^^-^ 
(15th cent.). Then, carved cabinets, sculptures \ik ytooOl. vtv\ ^V^tva V^Si-^S!^J^ 
cent.)y Bne stained gltiss (14-16th cent.), and IWc Va\V\e-w.^^% ^VCsv "^^^^^^ 
Mers, kttockerB, weights, measures, etc. ^ 

132 Route 11, BRUSSELS. Eastern Quarters: 

Sbd Side Boom. To tho left, carved and painted Gothic eradle, made 
for Maximilian I. and said to be the eradle of Oharlea Y. To the right, 
carved altar-piece (15th cent.) ; cabinets of the 16th century. In the middle 
of the room, a table with artistic French loelumith^s work (1&-I6th cent.). 

4th Side Boom. Large Flemish marble chimney-piece, with carved, 
inlaid, and painted wooden over-mantel (17th cent.); fnrniture and bed or 
the 17th century. In the middle of the room, three table-casee with Limoges 
enamel (16th cent.), etc. To the left of the exit, carved-wood ornament') 
for a picture- frame (17th cent). 

5th Side Boom. Fnrniture and domestic utensils of the 18th cent.; 
Swiss stove (1650). 

The large group of buildings in the Ave. de la Renaissance, to 
the N.E. of the Pare du Cinqaantenaire, is the EcoU MUitaire, 

At the back of the park, near the main station of Tramvayg 
Nos. 9-11 (p. 87), begins the new Avenue de Tervueien (p. 137). 

On the border between the Quartier Leopold (p. 128) and the 
S.E. suburb of Ixelles (Flem. Elsene), which latter is largely in- 
habited by foreigners, runs the Rue du Luxembourg, leading from 
the Boulevard du Regent (p. 118) to the Place du Luxembourg 
(PI. F, 5; tramways Nos. 8 & 9, p. 87), the open space in front of 
the Station du Quartier Liopold or Oare du I/uxembourg (PI. F, G,5; 
p. 83). A Statue of John Coekerill (d. 1840), the founder of the 
iron-works of Seraing (p. 260), by A. P. Gattlez, was erected here 
in 1872. The lofty limestone pedestal is surrounded by figures of 
four iron-workers. 

On the E. side of the station lies the Fare Liopold (PI. O, 5; en- 
trance Rue Belliard; electric tramway No. 9, see p. 87; horse-tram- 
way No. 4, see p. 88), formerly laid out as a zoological garden, 
with picturesque clumps of trees and a pond. It now contains most 
of the medical buildings of the university, Including a Phyaiologieal 
Institution (1895), an Institute of Hygiene, Bacteriology, and 
Therapy, iheAnatomie (1896-7), and a Commercial Institute (1904). 
— On the elevated S. side rises the — 

Musee d'Histoire Naturelle (PI. G, 5 ; entr. from the park and 
from the Rue Vautier, near the station of tramway No. 10, p. 87), 
opened in 1891. Adm., see p. 90. Director, Ed. Dapont. 

On the Ground Floob is the collection of Mammalia and Birdi, con- 
taining stufl'ed specimens and skeletuns, including a collection of wnales. 
Here are also several skeletons, 25 ft. high, of the *Jguanodon (I.Bernis- 
sarlensts and /. ManteUi)^ the largest representative of the fossil Saurian 
family of reptiles. These were found (1878), along with eighteen similar 
Kkeletons, in the coal-measures of Bernissart (p. 6) in llainault. and are the 
Ar^t perfect skeletons discovered of this gigantic lizard. Adjacent are 
fossil crocodiles. — In the *8alle des Cavernes% in the N.E. corner of the 
groundtloor, arc the rich collections of bone-relics and objects of the stone 
age discovered in the caves on the Lease (p. 225). 

On the FiBST Floob are the collections of Fishu and BspHUt and of 

^otsi/ Verlsbrata (chalk-formation, tertiary and quaternary epodif). The 

J&tterf which is especially rich and of great &c^eTi\.\^«Vm^OT\»i^<^.im.«liidtf 

(beside.'i the Ign&nodon, see above) faVr\y per^ecV. »^e\ft\oxv& ol VsA^nkMMr 

sauru-f, "Bainos&uruB , Proijnaihoaauraa, P\\op\«b't<i<iwv^a ^ ^%Asf^ \MrtX 

MusSe WierU, BRUSSELS. 11. Route. 133 

crocodilea, tortoises, sharks, whales, seals (halitheriom and miosiren), 
primeeTal elephant (Elephas antiqnns), Mammoth (found in 1860 at Lierre), 
Irish elk (Geryns megaceros). Rhinoceros tiehorhinns, eto. The trank of 
a species of yew, from the chalk-formation, is also exhihited here, covered 
'With various kinds of shells; also an Ichthyosaurus, found near Arlon 
{jp. 22S). — On the Second Flogs are the collections of Artieulata^ Mol- 
lutea, and Radiata^ Fossil PlanU^ and Minerals. 

On the W. side of the park (Rue Wiertz 79, at the hack of the 
station) is the large Etdblissement d* Horticulture Coloniale (PI. G, 6 ; 
Director, M. Linden), opened in 1889. — No. 62 in the Rue Vau- 
tler(near the tramway-station mentioned at p. 132), diverging from 
the Rue Wiertz to the E., is the — 

Mus^e Wierti (PI. G, 5; entrance hy an iron gate opposite 
the Natural History Museum), formerly the country-residence and 
studio of the highly-gifted hut eccentric painter Anton Joseph Wiertt 
(p. 93), after whose death it was purchased hy government (adm., 
see p. 90). Catalogue, with a sketch of the artist's life, 72 fr* 

Main Boom. Large pictures : 1. Contest for the body of Patroclus, 
1886; 8. Homeric battle; 4. One of the great of the earth (Polyphemus 
devouring the companions of Ulysses), painted in i860; 8. Contest of good 
with evil, 1842; 14. The beacon of Golgotha-, 16. The triumph of Christ, 
1848. The following are smaller works : 5. Forge of Vulcan; 11. Education 
of the Virgin ; 15. Entombment, with the Angel of Evil and the Fall on 
the wings ; 21. Hunger, Madness, and Crime (pidnted to press the claims 
of orphanages); 22. The suicide; 23. Vision of a beheaded man (a protest 
against capital punishment); 24. Orphans, with the inscription 'Appel a 
la bienfaisance'' ; 26. The Lion of Waterloo; 26. Courage of a Belgian lady, 
28. Napoleon in the infernal regions (to illustrate the horrors of war); 
86. The young witch; 37. The rosebud; 52. The last cannon (1855); 73. Por- 
trait of his mother; 95. Concierge. In the corners of the room arc 
wooden screens, through peep-holes in which paintings hung behind them 
are seen. The effect is curiously realistic. The three marble groups in 
the middle of the room, representing the development of the human race, 
are also by Wiertz. 

The two Antkboohs contain studies, sketches, three portraits of the 
painter, and his death-mask. 

A monument to Wiertz was erected in 1881 in the Place db la 
CouRONNE (PI. F, G, 6 ; electric tramway No. 14, p. 88), with a 
bronze group by J. Jaquet. — In the Rue van Volxem, a little to 
the S.W., is the small Musee Communal (PI. F, 6) of Ixelles (open 
free 10-5, in winter 10-3). — In the Rue de la Vanne, in the S. 
part of this suburb, between the Place Communale (PL E, F, 6 ; 
omnibus No. 1, p. 87) and the Avenue Louise (p. 134), lies the 
Reservoir of the Brussels Water Works. — In Bas-Ixelles, near the 
Place Ste. Croix (electric tramways Nos. 14 & 16), are the church 
of Ste, Croix and two pretty ponds. Farther on, near the Bois de la 
Oambro (p. 136), is the former Abbey de la Cambre^ afterwards a 
military school and cartographical institute (open 1-3). 

From the Place de la Gouronne (see above) the Avenue de la 
Gouronne (electric tramway No. 14, see p. 88), crossing a Viaduct 
nearly 100 ft. high and passing the Military Hos/giUii {^^Qt^^\^^^ 
to the S.E. to the Boulevard Militaire atv^ to t\ife CSKaws^ d*%XLa- 
noeuvres, or drill-ground of the Brussels ganvsou ^ei.ettSsi«9» ^"k^ ^ 

134 Route 11. BRUSSELS. Avenue Louise, 

except Sat. , before 11a.m., In the height of sammer before 9 a.m.). 
— On the S. side of the Champ des ManoBuvreB, in the Cemetery 
of Ixelles, is the modest grave of the French General Bonlanger 

The S.W. part of Ixelies is intersected by the *Avenue Louiia 
or Louisa'Laan (comp. PI. D, E, 6; electric tramway No. 15, see 
p. 88), an avenue V/2 M. long and 170 ft. wide, which connects 
the Boulevard de Waterloo (p. 118) with the Bois de la Cambre 
(p. 136). It is flanked with handsome modern buildings. In the 
Rond-Point, some 660 yds. short of the wood, is '♦La Mort d'Omp- 
draille', a group of wrestlers by Ch. van der 8tappen (1892), where 
we obtain an attractive glimpse of the ponds of Ixelies mentioned 
at p. 133. Farther on arc two other bronze groups, the Horse- 
Tamer, by VinQOtte, and Tiger attacking a Fettered Negro, by 

In the S. suburb of St. Oilles, in the Rue de rH6tel des Mon- 
naies (Pi. C, 6), which diverges to the S.W. from the Boulevard 
de Waterloo (p. 118), is the Mmt, erected in 1879. 

To the S.W. of Brussels, near the Southern Station, lies the 
suburb of Anderlecht-Cureghein (PI. A, 4-6). The Boulevard Jamar 
and the Rue de Fiennes (tramway No. 4, see p. 87) lead from the 
Boulevard du Midi to the Place du Conseil (PI. A, 6), where stands 
the Town Hall of AnderUcht^ a building erected by J. J. van Isen- 
dyck in 1887 in the severest Flemish Renaissance style. — In the 
Rue Wayez, the prolongation of the Chaussee de Mens (PI. B, A, 4 ; 
tramways Nos. 4 and 7, see p. 87), lies 8t, Pierre (15th cent.), the 
handsome Gothic parish church of Anderlecht, with a modern spire 
by Van Iseudyrk, old mural paintings (restored), and an interesting 
crypt of the 11th century. 

In the Rue des Y^t^rinaires is the new building of the Eeole 
Veterinaire or Veterinary College. 

g. Environs of BruBsels : Laeken, Bole de la Cambre, Teryneren. 

At the W. end of the Boulevard d' An vers (p. 127), beside the 
Oare de VAlUe Verte (PI. C, J), 1), a goods station, begins the Allied 
Vkrtk (PI. C, 1; Fleni. Groene Dreef), a double avenue of limes 
planted in 1707. It was formerly the most fashionable promenade 
at Brussels, but is now deserted. For about IY2 M* this ayenue 
skirts the new Harbour Workt of Brussels, begun in 1900 and to 
be completed at an estimated outlay of 60,000,000 francs. Besides 
a second goods station and numerous warehouses, these include a 
huge BassJn Maritime , which will be connected with the Bapel 
{p. 82) and the Scheldt by the Willcbroeclc Cunol , qtv^Viv^W^ ^<ju- 
stfiictetl in 1660-61 and recently deepened «.T\d 'w\d«&w^^. 

LAEKEN. ll.BouU. 135 

For a rapid visit to Laeken the best p]an is to take the Grim- 
berghen steam-tramway (No.l, p. 88), whieh follows the All^eVerte. 
The Oro8-TiUeul station of this line lies a few min. to the N. of 
the Leopold Monument, whence visitors walk to (1 M.) the church. 
The trip may also be made by electric tramway (Nos. 5-7, p. 87). 

LvLBken (^Hdtel ' Restaurant de V Acacia y Dreve Ste. Anne 70; 
Hotel-Reataurant Duperay , Ave. de la Reine, both with gardens), 
the N.W. suburb of Brussels, with 30,400 inhab., is the usual resi- 
dence of the royal family. The Avenue de la Reine (or Konin- 
ginne-Laan), the continuation of the All^e Verte, ends opposite the 
GHX7B0H OF St. Mary (Notre Dame), rebuilt by Poelaert in 1854-70. 
The exterior is still unfinished , especially as regards its destined 
Gothic ornamentation, but the interior is finely proportioned. The 
place of the choir is occupied by an octagon, forming the royal 
burial-vault (no admission), and containing the remains of Leopold I. 
(d. 1865) and Queen Louise (d. 1850), the Crown Prince of Belgium 
(d. 1869), Prince Baldwin of Flanders (d. 1891), and Queen Maria 
Henrietta (d. 1902). 

The Cbmbtbry of Laeken, to the left behind the church, contains 
a number of handsome monuments. The curious Oaleries Funiraires 
in the S. part of the cemetery, resembling catacombs, have been con- 
structed since 1877. In the middle of the cemetery, behind the 
choir of the old church (13th rent, j now used as a burial chapel), is 
the tomb of the singer Malibran (d. 1836), with a statue in marble 
by Geefs and an inscription by Lamartine. 

The Avenue du Pare Royal and the Dreve Ste. Anne, running 
N. from the church and skirting the royal garden and park (gener- 
ally closed; see p. 136), ascend to the (25 min.) Montagne du Ton- 
nerre (197 ft.), an eminence crowned with the Monument op Leo- 
pold I., erected in 1880. The statue of the king, by W. Qeefs^ is 
surmounted by a lofty Gothic canopy resting on massive round 
pillars, somewhat in the style of the Albert Memorial in London. 
A winding stair (key in the keeper's house, to the N. of the mon- 
ument) ascends to the base of the spire, whence a fine view (even- 
ing-light best) is obtained of Laeken and of Brussels, with the con- 
spicuous dome of the Palais do Justice and the church of Ste. Marie 
at Schaerbeek. 

A bronze reproduction of Giovanni da Bologna's Neptune Fountain at . 
Boh'gna was erected in 1903 on the N. side of the park,* not far from the 
monament and quite near the Oros-Tilleul station (see above). 

To the S.E. of the monument, on the right of and visible from 
the road to it, rises the Royal Chateau, erected by Duke Albert 
of Saxe-Teschen when Austrian stadtholder of the Netherlands in 
1782-84. In 1802-14 it was in the possession of Napoleon I., who 
dated here his declaration of war against R\i%s\a.Vft.\&V>.. \\s.NSiNS^ 
ibe chateau became the property of t\ie Oto^h. \^Wi^<A^\« ^^^\v«^^ 
on i6tb Dee,, 1866. On New Year's Day, \^W, ^ ^^*^ ^^^ ^VS>ft.^ 

136 Route 11. LAEKEN. Enolrom 

ch&tean was destroyed by flie, and among the many objects of ait 
which perished in the flames were Napoleon's library, yalaable tap- 
estries, and paintings by Van Dyck. The chateau, which has been 
rebuilt and enlarged, contains valuable paintings by Bubena, Van 
Dyck, Hohhema, F^ans Hals, and others (adm., see p. 90). In the 
N. part of the park are the new Palace Chapel (of glass and iron), 

a Japanese Tower, and extensive *not Houses (adm., see p. 90). 

The steam-tramway proceeds from Laeken to (7 M.) Qrimberghen, a sap- 
pressed abbey, with a late-Gothic church altered in the 17th cent, in the baroque 
style. — The first station on the'tramway from Grimberghen to Londerzeel 
(p. 2) is the village of Meysse^ near which (and A M. to the K. of Laeken) 
is the beautiful chateau of Bouchout, fitted up in 1879 as a residence for 
the unfortunate Princess Charlotte, widow of the £mp. Maximilian of 
Mexico, who was shot in 1867. 

Near the village of Lennick-St-Martin, not far from the steam-tramway 
to Enghien (No.-5, p. 88; station, ^Ghemin de Gaesbeek"), is the old *Ckude 
of Oaesbeek^ rebuilt after its deetruction by the citizens of Brussels in 1388 
and recently judiciously restored. It is now the property of the city of 

In the Central Cemetery at Evere^ which is reached by the steam- 
tramway No. 4 (p. 88), are monuments to the German soldiers who died in 
Belgium during the Franco-German war, and to the French and British 
soldiers who died in the Brussels hospitals after the battle of Waterloo. 

The pleasantest promenade in the environs of Brussels is the 
*Bois de la Cambrey on the S.E. side, being a part of the ForH de 
Soignes, converted into a beautiful park resembling the Bois de 
Boulogne of Paris , under the auspices of M, Keilig, a landscape 
gardener. It covers an area of 306 acres, and is connected with the 
city by the Avenue Louise (p. 134) and four lines of electric tram- 
way (Nos. 13, 14, 15, ife 17; p. 88). 

In the park, near the main entrance, is the *Chalet des Rossig- 
nols (concerts, see p. 89) ; farther on are the fashionable •La Laiterie 
Restaurant (dej. 3, D. 5 fr.), the Restaurant Trianon (often crowded 
ou Sat. evenings), and the 'Chalet Kobinson' restaurant, on an island 
in a small lake. — On Sun. and holiday afternoons (except in the 
height of summer) the broad alleys of the park are thronged with 
fashionable equipages. 

The *Fore8t of Soignes, another favourite resort of Brussels cyclists, 
10,400 acres in extent, is also intersected by numerous drives. From the 8. 
end of the Bois rte la Cambre the Drive de Lorraine (4^/2 M. long) leads to 
the S.E. to the Hippodrome de Groenendael, the chief racecourse of Brussels 
(pp. 225, 89). The straight Route de Mont St. Jean leads hence to the 
N.E. to (6 M.) Tervueren (see below), and to the S.W. to the CMUau of Argen- 
tet/ii (a little to the left of the road), built by J. P. Cluysenaar for the 
Count of 3Ieeus, and on to f5V2 M.) Waterloo (p. 138). Another road, the 
Chaussee de la lluljje, runs from Groenendael to the N.W. to the (2»/« M.) 
T/ippodrome de Boitsfort (rail, station, p. 225; electric car-line No. 16, p. 88), 
which may be also reached direct from (IVz M.) Uie main entrance of the 
Bois de la Cambre. 

Tervueren also has recently become & tvioxL^dx.^ <!»\»^^^ <\t «x- 
mrsioiis. Hail way (ii trains daily) fiom t^ft ^UXVqw ^\s. ^^5iKt««si 

ofBnuseU. TERVUEREN. 11. BtmU, 137 

Leopold (p. 83) in 23-33 min. (return-fares, 1 fr. 26, 86, or 60 c). 
Electric tramways (Nos. 10 & 11) from the Bae Trenrenberg and the 
Porte de Namnr, see p. 88. 

The new Atbnue of Tbbyubben (6 M. long and abont 85 yds. 
wide), the trees in which are still yonng, haying been planted in 
1896-97, is the route followed by the electric tramway.^ Beginning 
behind the Palais dn Giuquantenaire (p. 129), it runs to the S.E. 
to the Val 8t. Pierre (Woluwe Valley )j where it crosses the railway 
to Tervneren. Farther on it intersects the E. skirts of the Forest of 
Soignea (p. 136) and ends on the N. side of the palace-garden, 
where the termini of the railway and the tramway and of the steam- 
tramway to LouYain (p. 237) all stand close together. 

The beautiful Pabk of Tbrtubren, 510 acres in extent, with 
ten small lakes, groups of old trees , and plcturesqne vistas, was a 
favourite resort in the 17th cent, for court festivals and hunting 
parties. The chateau, rebuilt in 1815 and selected as the residence of 
Princess Charlotte (p. 136) in 1867, fell a prey to the flames in 
1879. Its place is occupied by the Congo Museurriy opened in 1897 
and now installed in a large new building of 1904 (adm., see p. 90 ; 

no catalogue). 

The Lbft Wing contains pottery, ivory carvings, and wood carvings 
by natives of the Congo Free State, and also a few ivory sculptures by 
Ch, van der Stappen, JtU. DUletu, P. Braecke^ and other artists. — Main Room. 
On each side are weapons, tools, implements, pottery, musical instru- 
ments, costumes, and fetishes of the negro tribes of the Congo ; also 
models of their hnts and of Arab dwellings. In the centre are a relief- 
map of the basin of the Congo, two mummy-cases, and a gong (tomtom). 
The employments of the natives are Ulnstrated by large plastic groups 
and by pictures. -- Back Room. Large mural painting of a Congo land- 
scape \ specimens of the minerals and antiquities (stone age) of the Congo. 

Right Wing. The anteroom is used for periodic exhibitions of fruit, 
articles of trade, and varieties of wood. — The main room contains specimens 
of the mammals and birds of the Congo. In the rear-rooms are fish and 

In the Cbntbal Building is the RestauraiU Malon (very fair). 

The village of Tervueren (Q6t. Royal, Hot. Aux Armes d'Augle- 
terre, both clean and with small gardens), a little to the S.W. of 
the park, is noted for its colony of artists. 

12. From Brussels to Charleroi vi& Luttre. 

Battle Field of Waterloo. 

35 M. Railway in 1-2V4 hrs. (fares 5 fr. 30, 3 fr. 60, 2 fr. 15 c). — Pend- 
ing the completion of the electric tramway No. 17 (p. 88), this line affords 
a convenient route to the Field of Waterloo, especially for a single trav- 
eller. Those who merely desire a general view of the battlefield should 
take the train to Braine rAlleud (12 H., in 26-46 min.; fares 1 fr. 85, 
1 fr. 25, 76 c, return-fares 2 fr. 95, 1 fr. 95, 1 fr. 15 c.), whence t,\^^^vi\asL^ 
of the Lion is IV2 M. distant. Omnibus (50 c. •, \tv^ mVn.^ ot a,\.«MSSLA.x*.TiiH4Vi 
(p. 138) from Braine J^AJJeud to the (1V« M^l lAovfli«L o^ \Xv^ V^w^ **^^^S**^v 
(preferable to walking, as the traveller t^ua escavfes \?c^^ ^^^"^^^"^ V«»X 
beggars and guides). The walk described \)e\ow, Itotq. Watervoo "w -^ 

138 RouUlS. WATERLOO. SkeUhof 

Bt. Jean. La Haye Scnnte^ La Belle AlUanee^ PlaneenoiU and back by Hongo- 
mont and the Lion Mound to Braine VAlUud, in all 7-8 M., ia, however, ftr 
more interesting. If the walk be prolonged from Plancenoit to the 8. to 
Genappe, the whole distance will be ubont 12 H. The steam-tramway 
from Braine TAlleud to Wavre, which has stations at Merbraine, the Lioa 
Mound, Gordon Monument, Belle- Alliance, and the Prussian Monnment, 
aftords opportunities of shortening the walk. There is also a steam-tram- 
way from Waterloo to Mont St. Jean and the Gordon Monument. — A 
coach leaves Brussels daily (except Sundays) between 9 and 10 a.m. for 
Waterloo, allowing 2-3 bra. to visit the battlefield, and arrives again in 
Brussels about 5 p.m. (drive of 2hrs.^ relnrn-fare T fr., gratuity 1 fr.). It 
starts from the Place Boy ale and calls at the principal hotels in the upper 
town. One-horse carriage from Brussels to Waterloo, 20 fr. ; two-hoiee, oO fr. 

The train starts from the Gare du Midi at Brussels (p. 83), 
and traverses a pleasant country, passing numerous villas. The 
stations of Forest (Ed), Uccle-Staiu, UccU-Calevoet^ Linkebeek, and 
(7V'2 -^I) Rhode- Saint'Genlse are unimportant. About IV4M. to 
the W. of the last is the village otAUemlerg, with a beautiful Gothic 
church (14th & 16th cent.), restored in 1889. 

10 M. Waterloo, celebrated for the great battle of 18th June, 
1815, and the headquarters of the Duke of Wellington from 17th 
to 19th June. The village lies on the Brussels and Ch^ileroi road, 
3/4 M. from the station. The church (restored in 1855) contains 
Wellington's bust, by Geefs^ and numerous marble slabs to the 
memory of Jlnglish officers. One tablet is dedicated to the offtcera 
of the Highland regiments, and a few others to Dutch offlcers. 

The garden of a peasant (a fe\v paces to the N. of the chareh) contains 
an absurd monument to the b'g of tiie Marquis of Anglcsoa (d. 1864), then 
Lord Uxbridgc, the commander of the British cavalry, who underwent the 
amputation immediately after the baUle. The monument bears an appro- 
priate epitaph, and is shaded by a weepinj; willow. 

Battle Field. A visit to Mont St. Jean, the two monuments on 
the battlefield, the Lion, and the farms of La Uaye Sainte and 1 
Hougomont, occupies 2 hrs.; to La Belle Alliance and Plancenoit 
2 hrs. more. The traveller will, however, obtain a general survey of 
the field during the first 2 hours. 

Guides. The annexed plan and the following sketch of the battle 
will enable the vi<)itor to form a distinct conception of the positions occu- 
jfied by the respective armies without the services of a guide. The nsnal 
fee for the principal points of interest is 2fr. ; if the excursion be extended 
to Plancenoit or Planchenois and the chateau of Frichemont, 3^ fr. ; hut 
an agreement should invariatdy be made beforehand. Bergeetnt - Mt^for 
D. W. Yates, at the Hotel dn Musee (appninted by the Corps of Oommis- 
sionnaires in London as lecturer and guide), may he recommended. 

Kelics. Old bullets, weapons, buttons, and other relics are still occa- 
sionally turned up by the plough, but most of those which the traveller is 
importuned to purchase are spurious. 

Inns at Mont St. Jean (p. 147) : Edtel Mont St. Jean and (to the right 
where the road to Nivelles diverges from the Namur road) Hdtel de* 
Colonues. At the Slound of the Lion: Hdtel du Mutie (see above and p. 118), 
d^j. 2, D. 3 fr. ; Udtel Wellington^ dearer, with carriages for hire. 

Sketch of the Battle. A detailed history of the momentoai eventa 
of 18tb JuDCf 1815, would be beyond the &co'^e ot k ^\!^^maRl\ bat an 
impartial outline, baaed upon the most truatwotWi^ fto\«t%»^mvi\i%\iMW^^ 
»bJe to those who visit this memoTahle b\>o\. kmon^ l«\\ *sa^ t«»\ 

Ihe Battle, WATERLOO. 12. BouU. 139 

accounts of the battle may be mentioned those of Sgnrp Houmoffe^ B. L. 8, 
H&rsburffh^ John 0. Ropes, and Lieutenant- Oolomi de Bat, 

The ground on which Wellington took up his position after the Battle 
of Quatrebras was admirably adapted for a defensive battle. The high- 
roads from Nivelles and Genappe unite at the village of Mont Saint Jean, 
whence the main route leads to Brussels. In front of the village extends a 
long chain of hills with gentle slopes, which presented all the advantages 
sought for by the Allies. The undulating ground behind this range afforded 
every facility for posting the cavalry and reserves so as to conceal them 
from the enemy. In this favourable position Wellington was fully justified 
in hoping at least to hold his own, even against a stronger enemy, until the 
assistance promised by Bliicher should arrive. 

The first line of the Allied army, beginning with the right wing (on the 
W.) was arranged as follows. On the extreme right were placed two bri- 
gades of the British household troops, consisting of two battalions of Foot 
Guards under Gen. Maitland, and two battalions of the Coldstream Guards 
under Gen. Byng. Kext came a British brigade of four battalions under 
Gen. Sir Colin Halkett, adjoining whom were Kielmannsegge with five 
brigades of Hanoverians and a corps of riflemen, Col. Ompteda with a bri- 
gade of the German Legion, and finally Alten'*s division. The whole of this 
portion of the line occupied the hills between the Nivelles and Genappe 
roads. Beyond the latter (i.«., farther to the E.) Kemp was stationed with 
the 28th and 32nd regiments, a battalion of the 79th, and one of the 95th 
Rifles. Kext came Bylandt with one Belgian and five Dutch battalions, sup- 
ported by Pack'*s brigade, posted a short distance in their rear, and consist- 
ing of the 44th, Ist, 42nd, and 92nd regiments. These battalions had 
suffered severely at Quatre Bras (p. 212) and were greatly reduced in 
number, but their conduct throughout the battle abundantly proved that 
their discipline and courage were unimpaired. Beyond the Ketherlanders 
were drawn up Best's Hanoverians and Picton'^s infantry division, the 
latter partly composed of Hanoverians under Col. von Vincke. Next to 
these were stationed Vandeleur's brigade, the lith, 12th, and 16th Light 
Dragoons, and finally on the extreme left (to the E.) three regiments of 
light cavalry, consisting of the 10th and 18th British, and the 1st Hussars 
of the German Legion. 

The first line of the Allies was strengthened at various distances by 
Grant's and Dcernberg's cavalry-brigades, consi«ting of three English regi- 
ments and three of the German Legion respectively, and posted near the 
Guards and Sir Colin Halkett. Kext to them came a regiment of Hussars 
of the German Legion under Col. Arentschild; then, to the E. of the 
Genappe road, two heavy brigades, the Household and the Union, to sup- 
port Alten's and Picton's divisions. The former of these brigades was com- 
posed of the 1st and 2nd Life Guards and the 1st Dragoon Guards under 
Lord Ed. Somerset; the latter of the 1st Royal Dragoons, the Scots Greys, 
and the Irish Innlskillings, commanded by Gen. Sir W. Ponsonby. Besides 
the first line and the troops destined to cover it, various other forces were 
distributed as the circumstances and the formation of the ground required. 
Thus a brigade under Col. Mitchell, Sir Henry Clinton's division, Du Plat's 
German brigade, Adam's light brigade, and Halkett's Hanoverians were 
drawn up on the W. side of the Kivelles Chauss^e and near the village 
of Merbraine. Finally the reserve of Brunswickers and Ketherlanders, 
comprising infantry and cavalry, formed a line between Merbraine and 
Mont St. Jean, supported by Lambert's British brigade of three regiments, 
which had just arrived by forced marches from Ostend. — The artillery, 
consisting chiefly of British troops, were distributed as occasion required. 
Every battery present was brought into action during the day, and nobly 
fulfilled its duty. 

In front of the right of the Allied army lay the Chdteau of Hougo- 
mont, which, with its massive buildings, its gardens aud\jV»sv\»X\tt'aa.»\ar^s^*.^ 
an admirable point d'appui for the defence ot t\ie \ie\.^\A ^^ios^. y. ^^ 
garrisoaed by two light companies under liOtd 8ai\lo\in., wi^ ^^^^ • vti^o- 
MMdonnelf strengthened by a battalion of "Sikaao^iMia^^ *^^?^'^*'^\S<r^\»St 
venAB rinemen, and about 100 men of ilie Oetmwa lA^wi.. vx^^^ v^» 

140 RouU 22. WATERLOO. 8keUh of 

holds a prominent place in the history of the battle, on aeeount both of the 
fury of the attack, and the heroic and successful defence. Farther to the 
left, and nearer the front of the Allies , lay La Haye SatnU , a fortified 
farm-bouse which was held by 400 men of the German Legion under lliuor 
von Baring, and after a noble defence was taken by the French, ^[he 
defence of the farms of Fapelotie and La Haye on the extreme left was 
entrusted to the ITassovian Brigade under Duke Bernard of Weimar. 

Napoleon's army was drawn up in a semicircle on the heights to the E. 
and W. of the farm of La Belle AlUaneey about one mile distant from 
the Allies. It was arranged in two lines, with a reserve in the rear. The 
first line consisted of two coi*ps d'armie commanded by Beille and by 
D'*ErIon, and flanked by cavalry on either side. One corps extended 
from La Belle Alliance westwards to the Nivelles road and beyond it, the 
other eastwards in the direction of the chateau of Frichemont. The 
second line was composed almost entirely of cavalry. Milhaud''8 cuiras- 
siers and the light cavalry of the guards were drawn up behind the right 
wing , Eellermann's heavy cavalry behind the left. A body of cavalry 
and a portion of Lobau''s corps were also stationed in the rear of the 
centre, whilst still farther back the imperial guard, consisting of infantry 
and artillery, were drawn up in reserve on each side of the chauss^e. 

The Duke of Wellington's army consisted of 67,600 men, 24,000 of 
whom were British, 30,000 troops of the German Legion, Hanoverians, 
Brunswickers, and ITassovians, and 13-14,000 Dutch-Belgians. Of these 
12,400 (including 6800 British) were cavalry, 6600 artillery with 150 guns. 
The army brought into the field by Napoleon numbered 71,900 men, of 
whom 16,700 were cavalry, 7200 artillery with 246 guns. Numerically, 
therefore, the difTerence between the hostile armies was not great, but it 
must be borne in mind that the Duke's army consisted of four or five 
different elements, and a large proportion of them were raw recruits, 
whilst the soldiers of Napoleon constituted a grand and admirably-disciplin- 
ed unity, full of enthusiasm for their general, and confident of victory. 
Tlie superiority of the French artillery alone was overwhelming. 

After a wet and stormy night, the morning of the 18th of June gave 
some promise of clearing, but the sky was still overcast, and rain con- 
tinued to fall till an advanced hour. The ground, moreover, was so 
thoroughly saturated that the movements of the cavalry and artillery 
were seriously obstructed. This was probably the cause of Napoleon^s 
tardiness in attacking the Allies, and of the deliberation with which he 
8[»ent several of the best hours of the morning in arranging his army with 
unusual display. He had been on his horse at 1 a.m., and for about two 
hours had gone along the pickets and surveyed the enemy*s position. Some 
authorities mention eight o'clock, others half-past eleven or twelve, while 
the Duke himself, in his published despatch, names ten as the hour of the 
commencement of the battle. It is, however, probable that the actual 
tis{hting did not begin till between eleven and twelve. Napoleon dictated 
hifl plans before eleven. The possession of Mont St. Jean was to be the 
main object, so that the enemy's retreat to Brussels might be cut ofi". 

The first movement on the i)art of the French was the advance of a 
division of Reillc's corps d^armie under Jerome Bonaparte, a detach- 
ment of which incautiously precipitated itself against the ch&teau of Hougo- 
mont, and endeavoured to take it by storm, but was repulsed. They aoon 
renewed the attack with redoubled fury, and the tirailleurs speedily forced 
their way into the enclosure, notwithstanding the gallant resistance made 
by the Hanoverian and Nassovian riflemen. But the British howitsers now 
began to pour such a deadly shower of shells on the assailants that they 
were again compelled to retreat. This was but the prelude to a series of 
reiterated assaults , in which the French skirmishers in overwhelming 
numbers were more than once nearly successful. Feats of valour on the 
part of the defenders, vigorously seconded by the artillery on the height*. 
a/one enabled the garrison to hold out until the victory was won. Haa 
fJie French once gained possession of IMs mVn\a.\MT^ Iot\.t%««.^ ^ \Atet of 
v/ial importance to the Allies, the issue of the A%i7 -wo^AA V^tStn:^ '^^ti 
beeu very different i but the sacrifices made Vy tYie Yx^xitVvyjfeT^VwiVwi'l 

theBaitU. WATERLOO. 12, Route. 141 

for the relative importance of the attack in Kapoleon^s own scheme, ac- 
cording to which it was to serve chiefly as a diyersion from the essential 
movement already determined upon. 

Whilst Hongomont and its environs continued to be the scene of a 
desperate and unremitting conflict, the main operation on the part of 
the French was directed against the cenfoe and the left wing of the 
Allies. Supported by a cannonade of 72 pieces, the whole of Erlon's corps 
and a division of Kellermann^s cavalry, comprising upwards of 18.000 men, 
bristled in columns of attack on the heights above La Haye Sainte, pre- 
senting a magnificent but terrible spectacle. Their object was to storm 
La Haye Sainte, the key of the British position, break through the centre 
of the Allied army, and attack the left wing in the rear. At the moment 
when l^ey was about to begin the attack, Kapoleon observed distant in- 
dications of the advance of new columns on his extreme right, and an 
intercepted despatch proved that they formed a part of the advanced guard 
of Bulow^s Prussians, who were approaching from Wavre. The attack 
was therefore delayed for a short time, and Soult despatched a messenger 
to Marshal Grouchy, directing him to manoeuvre his troops so as to inter- 
cept the Prussians. Owing, however, to a series of misunderstandings, 
Grouchy was too far distant from the scene of action to be of any service, 
and did not receive the order till between six and seven in the evening. 

It was about two o'*clock when Ney commenced his attack. The four 
divisions of Erlon'*8 corps moved rapidly in four columns towards the Allied 
line between La Haye Sainte and Smohain. Papelotte and Smohain were 
stormed by Durette'*s division, but the former was not long maintained by 
the French. Donzelofs division took possession of the gardens of La 
Haye Sainte, notwithstanding the brave resistance of a Hanoverian bat- 
talion. The two other French divisions (those of Alix and Marcognet), 
numbering upwards of 13,000 infantry, besides cavalry, attacked Bylandfs 
Netherlanders (p. 139), who about noonlhad been ordered to take up their 
position in a line with the brigades of Kemp and Pack (see below), beyond 
a hollow way. The Ketherlanders, having suffered severely from the French 
artillery, were unable to hold their ground and fell back on their second 
rank, where they rallied instantly. Picton's divisiOB, consisting of the two 
greatly-reduced brigades of Pack and Kemp, and mnitering barely d(X)0 men, 
received the French attack with undaunted resolullab. The struggle was 
brief, but of intense fierceness. The charge of the Britidi was irresistible, 
and in a few moments the French were driven back totally discomfited. 
The success was brilliant, but dearly purchased, for the gallant Picton 
himself was one of the numerous slain. During the temporary confusion 
which ensued among Kemp's troops, who, however, soon recovered their 
order, the Duke communicated with Lord Uxbridge, who put himself at the 
head of Lord Edward Somerset's Household Brigade, consisting of two 
regiments of Life Guards, the Horse Guards, and Dragoon Guards. Mean- 
while, too, a body of Milhaud's cuirassiers nad advanced somewhat pre- 
maturely to La Haye Sainte and endeavoured to force their way up the 
heights towards the left centre of the Allied line. These two movements 
gave rise to a conflict of great fury between the ^lite of the cavalry of 
the hostile armies. For a time the French bravely persevered, but nothing 
could withstand the impetus of the Guards as they descended the slope, 
and the cuirassiers were compelled to fly in wild confusion. Somerset's 
brigade, unsupported, pursued with eager impetuosity. At this juncture 
two columns of the French infantry had advanced on Pack's brigade. The 
bagpipes gave forth their war-cry, and the gallant Highlanders dashed into 
the thickest of the fight, notwithstanding the numbers of their enemy. 
This was one of the most daring exploits of the day ; but the mere handful 
of I^orthmen must inevitably have been cut to pieces to a man, had not 
Col. Ponsonby with the Inniskillings, the Scots Greys, and the Royal Dra- 
goons opportunely rushed to the rescue. The cavalry charge v«%;^ ^\3rrCt^^MQ^ 
success, and the French infantry were uUetl^ touV,^^, "t*.OB:% N.^<i«^^ ww 
recovered tbeir order^ and were restrained from t\ifc ^xLtsvAV.^'XysvN.'^ w^a^wi ^ 
cavaJrr, intoxieated with success, swept onvraT^a, T\i^^Ol*^* S^^^?S^C^ fcw 
purt of Alix'8 diviaion^ which waa ad^ancini^ Uiyj»iX^ii l^synX w.. *«~»'« 







Sketch of 


1 .OCB. of 


■eniued, BDd IbeF. 

■ench ag 

ain endeavoured to 


■tb lb 

,al of Lq 

rd UlbridKB OB Iba 

Hi en, u Bi 


oe time tba Onji asd laal- 

igi, wba 1r«1 


ud rails. 


Bumerset-a and 

,nb,>. c. 

valry bid ttrna da*- 







luuZe. H 

u Dbeeked. A Crsih 

bortr of Frencb i 

'1 and a brigad 

■«>tiul Itaem, u> 

are ooinpelled i 

b conaiderable cob- 




Ibe HmOict -wm 



d( but tbe Freoab, 

whoH uvli^'h 




AUies, E 

b IQ Ibudo 

equal itruggle. 

»nd tbe loai iram. 

tbe Fnncli ijaii 

1 advaalage. Vande- 

Linuelf fell, 


.onb, wa. left ^ 

in tbi 


rtiile lb a a 

1 lefl of Ibe Allied 

■e thm utlyely en- 


, Ihe riEbl 

wu DOl 1 

ical jnnelure, wb«B 




E being 1 

lard preaMd in tha 

tt of tbe 

ad bad been 

reduced to a mere 


■ul of men. 

's ba 


.on of »UBrdi 


epburn wa* nnl la 

relief end d 

Ihe French lira 

■»■ waa eaannoBB. 


ihUeeu h*<l 


e effects 

torlunalely for Iba 

most dilast 

.al most 


era Ihe prof 

Ibe dooiwar, where 

eifi, hong. 



, but Bol destrorad ; 

t po 

wers Ihe Belgians ai 



Ihe mm 

ikelrj Bie, but tbe 

mida on 'bo 


asing fu. 

,, ca'asingfrlgklful 


ee. Brlon'i 


ilie'. eorpaan stained 

of aeaily bait Ihelr 

» were laken prlioBara. Hearly 40 

■laiB. napoieon now aeierminea m mBkE amends for these diiastert bj 
■B OTervhelmlBg uialn allacli, -while al the same lime Ibe Intantry 
di'isioni of J<r6me aad Fot were directed lu advance. Hllhaud'i euirag- 
Biera and a body of lU Frencb Ouacdji, W sqaadrDoq in all, a magDifl- 
ccbI and formidable kmy, advanced in three lines from iha French heigbia, 

de wa. eoni 

tinned ove 

adl^ eflec, 

Tbe Allied iBhotor. 

Iry, who bad i 

gol creeled to »d 

pad arraji bi 
.s tbe whole 01 



e foremoal batteries fi 

■uDarei, but witbonl maliin 
witb the rragmenta of bis h 

iBrantry, and dreie Ibe FreiL_, ._ 

loOTedBced la admit of bi< following up thia success, and befora loaiU* 
French, ligorooilj supportei bj llielr cannonade., relumed. Again V- — 
(wepi pagl tbe impenetrable squares, and again all their eObrls lo br 
Iham ware baffled, while Ibeir own ranks were thinned by the Ora of li 
undaBBled AIIt«. Tbiu foiled, they once mote abandoned tha attr^ 
Donielot'i infantTy bad meanwhile been adTueing lo lujiport then, 1 
tealBg Ihli total dlaeomlllure and retreal, the; lou relired froni tka M 

ofaeOaa. Tba Allied iiaei were tLerefore again tr— — ' ■■■ 

»laae wat now eoallnaed on both aides. 

A/ler IbUfAilure, Napoleon ooianoandBd Xeller 
W(/ milraatiera, lo support th. 

; lUUlViB, an& (^W)B«I 

the Battle, WATERLOO. /2. Route. 143 

cavalry of tbe Guards adyanced with the same object. These troops, con- 
sisting of 37 fresh squadrons, formed behind the shattered fragments of 
the 40 squadrons above mentioned, and rallied them for a renewed attack, 
and again tbe French line assumed a most threatening and imposing 
aspect. Perceiving these new preparations, the Duke of Wellington con- 
tracted his line so as to strengthen tbe Allied centre, immediately after 
which manoeuvre the French cannonade burst forth with redoubled fury. 
Again a scene precisely similar to that already described was enacted. 
The French cavalry ascended the heights, where they were received with 
a deadly cannonade ; the gunners retired from their pieces at the latest 
possible moment^ the French rode in vast numbers between the squares, 
and again tbe British and German infantry stood immovable. The cavalry 
then swept past them towards tbe Allied rear, where they met with partiid 
success. As in the earlier part of the day. Lord Uxbridge flew to the res- 
cue with the remnants of his cavalry, vigorously seconded by Somerset 
and Grant, and again the French horsemen were discomfited. The battle- 
field at this period presented a most remarkable scene. Friends and foes, 
French, German, and British troops, were mingled in apparently inextricable 
confusion. Still, however, tbe AlUed squares were unbroken, and the French 
attack, not being followed up by infantry, was again a failure. The as- 
sailants accordingly, as before, galloped down to the valley in great con- 
fusion, after having sustained some diiastrous losses. 

During the whole of this time the defence of Hougomont had been 
gallantly and successfully carried on, and Du Plat with his Brunswickers 
had behaved with undaunted courage when attacked by French cavalry 
and tirailleurs in succession. The brave general himself fell, but his 
troops continued to maintain their ground, whilst Adam's Brigade ad- 
vanced to their aid. Overwhelming numbers of French infantry, how- 
ever, bad forced their way between them, and reached the summit ot 
tbe hill, threatening the right wing of the Allies with disaster. At this 
juncture the Duke at once placed himself at the bead of Adam's brigade 
and commanded them to charge. The assault was made with the utmost 
enthusiasm, and the French were driven from the heights. The entire 
Allied line had hitherto held its ground, and Hougomont proved impreg- 
nable. Kapoleon therefore directed his efforts against LaHaye Sainte, as 
a point of the utmost importance, which Was bravely defended by Major 
von Baring and his staunch band of Germans. Key accordingly ordered 
Donzelot's division to attack the miniature fortress. A furious cannonade 
opened upon it was the prelude to an attack by overwhelming numbers of 
tirailleurs. The ammunition of the defenders was speedily exhausted; 
the buildings took fire^ and Baring with the utmost reluctance directed 
the wreck of his detachment to retreat through tbe garden. With heroic 
bravery the major and his gallant officers remained at their posts until 
the French had actually entered the house, and only when farther resist- 
ance would have been certain death did they finally yield (see p. 148) 
and retreat to the lines of the Allies. After this success, the French pro- 
ceeded to direct a similar concentrated attack against Hougomont, but in 
vain, for arms and ammunition were supplied in abundance to the little 
garrison, whilst the cannonade of the Allies was in a position to render 
them efficient service. La Haye Sainte, which was captured between 6 
and 6 o'clock p.m., now became a most advantageous paint d^appui for the 
French tirailleurs, in support of whom Key, during upwards of an hour, 
directed a succession of attacks against the Allied centre, but still with- 
out succeeding in dislodging or dismaying the indomitable squares. Their 
numbers, indeed, were fearifully reduced, but their spirit was unbroken. 
There was, moreover, still a considerable reserve which bad not yet been 
in action. It was now nearly 7 p.m., and the victory on which the French 
had reckoned was still entirely unachieved. 

Meanwhile Bliicher, with his gallant and indefatigable Prv)A%vbXka>^ 
whose timely arrival, fortunately for tbe Allies, ipTfe^e.nJM^'S^v^^^w^- ^'«^"«\^ 
employing bia reserves against tbemi, had been \.oVl\tv% ^cto%% Vafc'w^^*^^ 
gpoagy r&Ueys of St, Lambert and the L^ane toNvw^a >iiie ^'^^^^J?^ *S!^'^<;k 
TJbe patienpe of the weary troops was well-ms^ ^iCI[i«vjl«.\^^. ^^^'^ ^''^ ^ 

144 Urate 12. WATERLOO. Skdek of 

no farther*. They fr«c;urn*lT exclaimed. * We auut\ wm Bliieker'i replf. 
*I hftTe pTen Wellington mT word, and voa won^ mi&e torn break it!* 
I: was aboat 43} p.m. when the nrsc Pnutian batterr opcoMd its fire 
from the heights of Frichemont, about 2>/« mile« to the 3.E. of the Allied 
centre, whilst at the same time two earalrr regiments adranced to tiie 
attack. They were fir<t oppo«cd by Domont's caralry dirisiOB, bejrond 
which Lobaa*5 c:-rp« approAcked iheir new enemy. One by oae the dif- 
ferent brigadei of Bulow'« c-.'rps arrived on the field between Frichemont 
and Placcecoii. Lobm $:outly re«i5ted their attack, bnt his opponents 
soon became tc^ p'.werful for him. By 6 o'clock the PnusiAns hnd 48 
CTicf in actijn. 'in tails from which occasionally reached ns Car as the 
Gena^pe road. Lobaa was cow compelled to retreat towards the Til- 
lage ■:: Placcenrit. a li::le to the rear oi the French centre at BeUe 
Alliance. Thi< was the juncture, berween 6 and 7 o'clock, when ^ey was 
launching his reiterated* but iraitle^s attacks against the Allied centre, 
.'•/• — ile« -iijtant i-r:xa thi? piint. yapoleon. with his attentioB and re- 
<:urc-i< :'-u5 divided te:we-:n the action a^ain*: the British aad the Pras- 
s'.]i= idnnce. aImD?t e;TLalIy cri'ical. now despauhed eight battalions of 
:'--s r-iard and C4 rins to aii Marshal Lobaa in the defence of Plance- 
r. .::.' where a *ac£^inary conlic: en<ued. Killer's brigade eadearoured 
:•.- take thf rillaire tr 'term, and succeeded in gaining possession of the 
c--:r:h7J.ri. t -t a :v.ri:u« and deadly fu«illade from the houses compelled 
V.-irz •-: :ieli. Be in: j re e meats were now added to the combatants of 
':-.*- xT-^izi. yar-.le:n «ent four m^.>re battalions of guards to the scene 
■;: J. J ::.::, while fre*h c:l-^=in? o: Pru»iani united with Hiller's troiqrs 
aci rret xr-f-i f:r a rr=.;n'ed ac^ault. Again the riUage was taken, aad 
aii:~ 1:?:. '.he r--»nch ever. ven:^;rini so rush their way to the ricinity 
^: :l:e P7-^i*iia ILiie. The '.a;ter. hrweTer.' was again reinforced by Tip- 
i-fl-kir-ih * briiiii-;, a f-:r:i:n o: which as ■rnce participated in the straggle. 
Ab'-it 7 .'clock Zie:en arrived -:ti the deld. and united his brigade to the 
•:xtr-=ie left :f the Al'.iii line, which he aided in the contest near La 
H-ije ani Papel.tte. Pr-,^4;:a=.« cntin-^ed to arrive later in the eTcning, 
b-t .:' :. .i-je' c:-ili n:: -w i=t;-je:::e -he i*«ue of the battle. Itbecame 
?:;..' re-: :: >"ir'-le:n at :h:i cri*:* -ha: L: the Prussians succeeded ia 
■;it.;-r:ri Plin:enoit. whLe Well-.tii-jc'* iinas continued steadfast in 
their TO?:':. -n. a di*a«:r:i« Ie:"ea: :: hi* a>:ady :erribly-ieduced army was 
:=eT::^:le. He ther^ rr:«:lvei t: direct a' dual aad desperate attack 
liji-it thi Allied cen're. and i< «ti2;-ila:e :he dazziag energies of his 
•r.'.:* ca-jed a rirort •; ": e jirej-d a=::;n;-: them that Grouchy was ap- 
rrrachini *: :heLr ait. il'h:-:,ih ^ve'l kn-.'winj this to te impossible. 

yit'.'.T .n i:;.r'::ni:l7 cr^tLj^lf i fi-iht rastali.-ns o: his reserre Guards 
:: i:--i2-:e :z :w: .-jli::.:!-; .:j ji;?- :* con~en:en: es?ressioa. for it was 
rj.1.7 :-e :.l-=i= :r =::i«<. ::: *■*; vat:*, advaac:ni:'«ia rfcftefot), one to- 
•*-j7i? -he cr-:re :t the Al'.-.el r*.gh\ 'he .tiir a^^arer to Hoagomoat, 
-r-'ili 1 1 : 7 'w i r^ * ■: 7 p-: r^cd : 7 a re ? e rv ^ .- : :w j m-; re battalions, consisting 
:^ All ■: I' yXx'"i'i-is. ?:l::er«, wh; had not as yet been engaged ia 
'.zi 1^'L.-. B-itTTJ-is. the-«! .::1mt.3j wjre 'he remnin-* ^^i Erlon's aad 
?. !ille'! :.r7*, ri-r>:r'ei ":v .-.ivilrv; ani *0'^ewha: :n front of them 
I-.zz.:l.-/» L--L?i:2'wi* :: livi^.-e! MiAaw!i=:e the D'ike hastened to 
ir^ia.-- the Trf-ck ::"h:* xt-j::.j :.: r^eet the A;:a.'i.. l>i Plat's BTuaswickers 

- -jk :- :h-:r ;■:»::::= :rr-:*:'e La Haye SAin'j. besween Halketl'v 
an: Altci » :.~<:ii 5ii:.\A-i'« ati. Aii::::* ':riiade* '-vjre supported by 
y. ■::"■.-:: n ;:'>':■ h ^ r". iz : e t * - ti : e r .- : r:. Ch » * *^' . wb :1 ; V \ naa with hiS cavalry 
: „:V: i. thi ex r-::.e le:: and ir.-w i-p in 5he rear Ci" Krise's yasooriaas, 
w- 111.; i:-iaJ7 *i5er-d jever.'ly, and n."-*bej:aa 'O exhibit synq^oou of 
•x-}~-"3.z I'iT'^ ATi^i:;e ^-a was v-'*'--- i^^ :>-'a: :i the line, aad the 

-:m7: 13 i Tlistiv.:^* :' H.^u^-jn:-.*-; w ;re *Te3^'heaed by reiafbrte- 

- :-:•. lie ir-'.iti ■ -'le attack .'t the yren-.-h was a renewed and 
fir. M» :a23-a.iu. w!:i:h :a-?;d triihtiu' hav;< 4:11034 The Allies. Dun- 

J: ■■!.-«:'.' a ti ;2 i;fi=::tfd in Lii*e irr-iv ■;?..• m La Uaye 

vr'r.- .-.■- 7-i.*h.i.i^ zzi WIT tj the '••■jry v."!i".i' ■:' Ci*. ^'-viw «^ wVSah 
•h-i .i,V. •* j'.'i-," .I.- 12.1 *.i:xie time *«iV'»rV. Y'^inc^ ^".u* *n.^^oi^aj^ >ii 

the Battle, WATERLOO. 12. BouU. 145 

they opened a most destructive cannonade. Kielmamuegge^ Hanoverians 
suffered severe loss, the remains of Ompteda's German brigade virere almost 
annihilated, and Kruse^s Nassovians were only restrained from taking to 
flight by the efforts of Vivian's cavalry. The Prince of Orange then ral- 
lied the Kassovians and led them to the charge, but they were again driven 
back, and the Prince himself severely wounded. Du Plat's Brunswickers 
next came to the rescue and fought gallantly, but with no better result. 
The Duke, however, rallied them in person, and the success of the French 
was brief. At the same time the chief fury of the storm was about to 
burst forth farther to the right of the Allies. The Imperial Guard, com- 
manded by the heroic Ney, Friant, and Michel, and stimulated to the ut- 
most enthusiasm by an address from Napoleon himself, formed in threaten- 
ing and imposing masses on the heights of Belle Alliance, and there was a 
temporary lull in the French cannonade. The two magnificent columns, the 
flower of the French army, were now put in motion, one towards Hougomont 
and Adam's brigade, the other and main part in the direction of Maitland 
and his Guards. As soon as the Guards had descended from the heights, 
the French batteries recommenced their work of destruction with terrible 
fury and precision, but were soon compelled to desist when they could no 
longer fire over the heads of their infantry. The latter had nearly attained 
the summit of the heights of the Allies, when the British gunners again 
resumed their work with redoubled energy, making innumerable gaps in 
the ranks of their assailants. Ney's horse was shot under him, but the 
gallant marshal continued to advance on foot ; Michel was slain, and Friant 
dangerously wounded. Notwithstanding these casualties, the Guards gained 
the summit of the hill and advanced towards that part of the line where 
Maitland's brigade had been ordered to lie down behind the ridge in 
the rear of the battery which crowned it. The Duke commanded here 
in person at this critical juncture. The French tirailleurs were speedily 
swept away by showers of grape and canister, but the column of French 
veterans continued to advance towards the apparently-unsupported battery. 
At this moment the Duke gave the signal to Maitland, whose Guards in- 
stantaneously sprang from the earth and saluted their enemy with a 
fierce and murderous discharge. The effect was irresistible: the French 
column was rent asunder and vainly endeavoured to deploy *, Maitland 
and Lord Saltoun gave orders to charge ; and the British Guards fairly 
drove their assailants down the hill. 

Meanwhile the other column of the Imperial Guard was advancing 
farther to the right, although vigorously opposed by the well-sustained fire 
of the British artillery, and Maitland's Guards returned rapidly and without 
confusion to their position to prepare for a new emergency. By means of a 
skilful manoeuvre, due to himself. Col. Colborne, with the 52nd, Tlst, and 
85th, now brought his forces to bear on the flank of the advancing col- 
umn, on which the three regiments simultaneously poured their fire. At 
the same time Maitland and his Guards again charged with fierce im- 
petuosity from their ' mountain throne \ while General Chass^ ordered his 
batteries to advance and assumed the command of Dittmer^s brigade. The 
Imperial Guard was forced to retire. In this direction, therefore, the 
fate of the French was sealed, and the Allies were triumphant. Farther 
to the left of the Allied line, moreover, the troops of Donzelot, Erlon, 
and Beille were in the utmost confusion, and totally unable to sustain the 
conflict. On the extreme left, however, the right wing of the French was 
still unbroken, and the Toung Guard valiantly defended Plancenoit against 
the Prussians, who fought with the utmost bravery and perseverance 
notwithstanding the fearful losses they were sustaining. Lobau also 
stoutly opposed Biilow and his gradually -increasing corps. Napoleon's 
well-known final order to his troops — ' Tout est perdu ! Sauve qui 
pent ! ^ — was wrung from him in his despair on seeing his Guard utterly 
routed, his cavalry dispersed, and his reserves consumed. This was 
about 8 o'clock in the evening, and the whole of tVi^ k\Y\^^ Xvas.^ niNSa. 
the Duke himself among the foremost, now deaten^St^^ Ivita. ^X^€tt \x&\^^Vi^ 
aad, aotwithstakuding a final attempt at reaiataxnife ou Wv^ '^^^^^ ^'^ ^^J 
wreck of the Imperial Guard, swept all betote \.\iem^ xao>axvV^^ ^>2^<i. ^'«*'" 

BAUDMKBH'a Belgiium and Holland. lU\i T^dU. V^ 




LslEhls, i,nd even j 

red, Lobaa and th 
».B »1 length com 


Uolt, %ut aiVtly'^i 
■.n cbownel with au. 
ause Qu»rd defeated 

fly won. Kol unlU t 

8 till 
e eeni 


. battle ntti 

, and the tie- 
WM pcrfeetljr 

( thit the Fmsgi 

d dlfflcull;, which Qen. One 

A, thus In 1 greit meisnr 


■d repiditj of 

ied miKh 10 Paris. 


ended Qne < 

nuul luiguinary ud Impi 

jrtant battle* wbicH 


s of which (he whole of 


led. All the 


ought with great bnTery, 
nmenls, ud acts of dsrli 

IB heroism by indi- 


irable day was eom- 


= long < 

lurBlioa and fearftl ohsli 
perished, or were Aori dt 

Inaoy of the batUe. 
«miar. The loii of 

lioa (killed, . 


, and laiBsine) Hnonnted 1 

.0 aboDi U,O0O men. 

Of the) 

"tke PrusJl"" WW 




otfleera. The total loae o 

ders eillmated their 


e 161h I. 

o^iSlh^Inne. The loss o'ftt 

le French has never 

!d to 80,000 at leut. 



by the ilUea. About 227 French pina were 

r.v i 

out 227 Fri 

KiAUj at least, 


ing (he Pri 


a reckless m 

anoer, Iha 

t he negleeted 

nfaolryi ai 

Id thai he >G<il 

«,00l)tro"pl, fi 

om 1 a.m. l 


'en then »a thereafter left him without 

al iJlttcher pro. 
Lietinies blame' 

needing to j 
1 for giiini 


preclude the poi 

isibllily of 1 


I objeel 

with the locality, for not only is the ForSt de Soienes travened by cood 
roads in every direction, but it conelsts of lofly trees growine •( conlMer. 
able intenuls and nnencumbered by nnderwood. Uorc open to orlliGlnB 
is the keeping of about 16,000 men at Hal and TuMie instead ofordeilDf 
them tn 'Wili'rinn nn tli? mnminn n( the IBIh to lake part in the light. 
e historians, whether the TlDto- 


e Britiih or the 

Pruailan troous. The true answer probably Is, that Ihi 

have been Injeoisive but tor Ibe timely arrival of the P . 

alreadr been shown bow (he Allied line successfully baflled (he a 

-■■*■- ■ ■■ ~ usly n»U( 

1 abcml 8 o'. 

nmitted fear^l bAVAC among (he veteran Quards, on whOia 
ilaced his almost relianae. At Ibe same time it mmt bil 
ll the UmI Prnssian thole were llred about half-pMrt iaat, 
ist sii upwards of IS.OOO of the Trench (Lobau'a e««- 
r» fnfuilr}' and 1000 artlUeiy , -flilb 91 (miu i 13 bOI-' 

theSatOe. MONT ST. JEAN. 12. BouU. 147 

at Plancenoit, and that the loss of the Prussians was enonnons for a con- 
flict comparatively so brief, proving how nobly and devotedly they per- 
formed their part. The Duke of Wellington himself, in his despatch 
descriptive of the battle, says *that the British army never conducted 
itself better, that he attributed the successful issue of the battle to the 
cordial and timely assistance of the Prussians, that Billow's operation on 
the enemy'*s flank was most decisive, and would of itself have forced the 
enemy to retire, even if he (the Duke) had not been in a situation to 
make the attack which produced the final result \ The French colonel 
CharraSy in his ^ Campagne de 1815 * (pub. at Brussels, 1858), a work which 
was long prohibited in France, thus sums up his opinion regarding the 
battle : * Wellington par sa t^nacit^ in^branlable , Bliicher par son activity 
audacieuse, tous les deux par Thabilet^ et Taccord de leurs manoeuvres ont 
produit ce r^sultat \ — The battle is usually named by the (Germans after 
the principal position of the French at Belle Alliance, but it is far more 
widely known as the Battle of Waterloo, the name given to it by Welling- 
ton himself. 

About halfway to Mont St. Jean , which is about 2 M. from 
Waterloo, is the monument of Col. Stables, situated behind a farm- 
house on the right, and not visible from the road. The road to the 
left leads to the royal ch&teau of Tervueren (p. 137), that to the 
right to Braine-le-Chateau. 

The road from Waterloo to Mont St. Jean (p. 138) is bordered 
by an almost uninterrupted succession of houses. At the village, 
as already remarked, the road to Nivelles diverges to the right from 
that to Namur. To the right and left, immediately beyond the last 
houses, are depressions in the ground where the British reserves 
were stationed. 

About 2^3 M. beyond the village we next reach a bye-road, 
which intersects the highroad at a right angle , leading to the left 
to Papelotte and Wavre, and to the right to Braine TAlleud. Here, 
at the corner to the right, once stood an elm, under which the Duke 
of Wellington is said to have remained during the greater part of 
the battle. The story, however, is unfounded, as it is well known 
that the Duke was almost ubiquitous on that memorable occasion. 
The tree has long since disappeared under the knives of credulous 

On the left, beyond the'*cross-road8, stands an Obelisk to the 
memory of the Hanoverian officers of the German Legion, among 
whose names that of the gallant Ompteda stands first. Opposite to 
it rises a Pillar to the memory of Colonel Gordon, bearing a touch- 
ing inscription. Both these monuments stand on the original level 
of the ground, which has here been considerably lowered to furnish 
materials for the Mound of the Lion. In this neighbourhood Lord 
Fitzroy Somerset, afterwards Lord Raglan, the Duke's military 
secretary, lost his arm. 

About ^4 M. to the right rises the Mound of the Belgian Liony 
200 ft. in height, thrown up on the spot where the Prince of 
Orange was wounded in the battle. The lion was cast b\ GQ<^kftx\\k 
of Lifege fp. 260}, with the metal of captuift^ Yt^wcXv <5.vKRftw^ ^^^ 
/5 sAid to weigh 28 tons. The Frenc\\ aoU\et%, ou VXi^^Vt^^'^'^'^^ 

148 Route 12, LA HAYE SAINTE. Battte FiM 

Antwerp in 1832, hacked off part of the tail, but Marshal Qtfrard 
protected the monument from farther injury. The mound commands 
the best surrey of the battlefield, and the traveller who is ftirnished 
with the plan and the sketch of the battle, and has consulted the 
maps at the H6tel du Mus^e, will here be enabled to form an idea of 
the progress of the fight. The range of heights which extends past 
the mound, to Smohain on the E. and to Merhraine on the W., was 
occupied by the first line of the Allies. As the crest of these 
heights is but narrow, the second line was enabled to occupy a shel- 
tered and advantageous position on the northern slopes, concealed 
from the eye of their enemy. The whole line was about 1^2 M. 
in length, forming a semicircle corresponding to the form of the 
hills. The centre lay between the mound and the Hanoverian mon- 

The chain of heights occupied by the French is 1 M. distant, 
and separated from the Allied position by a shallow intervening 
valley, across which the French columns advanced without manosn- 
vring, being however invariably driven back. The Allied centre 
was protected by the farm of La Haye Saintei situated on the right 
of the road, about 100 paces from the two monuments. It was 
defended with heroic courage by a light battalion of the German 
Legion, commanded by Major von Baring, whose narrative is ex- 
tremely interesting. 

After giving a minute description of the locality and the dlBposition of 
his troops, he graphically depicts the furious and repeated assaults suc- 
cessfully warded off by his little garrison, and his own intense excitement 
and distress on finding that their stock of ammunition was nearly 
expended. Then came the terrible catastrophe of the buildings taking 
fire, which the gallant band succeeded in extinguishing by pouring water 
on it from their camp-kettles, although not without the sacrifice of sereral 
more precious lives. " Many of my men ''\ he continues, " although 
covered with wounds, could not be induced to keep back. *As long as 
our officers fight, and we can stand % was their invariable answer, *we 
won't move from the spot ! ** I should be unjust to the memory of a rifle- 
man named Frederick Lindau, if I omitted to mention his brave conduct. 
He had received two severe wounds on the head, and moreover had in his 
pocket a purseful of gold which he had taken from a French officer. 
Alike regardless of his wounds and his prize, he stood at a small side- 
door of the barn, whence he could command with his rifle the great en- 
trance in front of him. Seeing that his bandages were insufficient to 
stop the profuse bleeding from his wounds, I desired him to retire, but 
he positively refused, saying : * A craven is he who would desert you as 
long as his head is on his shoulders ! ** He was, however, afterwards taken 
prisoner, and of course deprived of his treasure. '' He then relates to 
what extremities they were reduced by the havoc made in the building by 
the French cannonade, and how at length, when their ammunition was 
almost exhausted, they perceived two fresh columns marching against 
them. Again the enemy succeeded in setting the barn on fire, and again 
it was successfully extinguished in the same manner as before. 

*' Every shot we fired increased my anxiety and distress. I again de- 
spatched a messenger for aid , saying that I must abandon the defence 
if not provided with ammunition, — but in vain! As our ftuillade 
dlminisbed , our embarrassment increaaed. Several voices now ex- 
cJ&imed: *We will sfand by you most wV\\\ns\v, ^^mX. v»^ m\i«X "^w^ V^« 
meana of defending ourselves ! ' Even the om^wa, n«\xq \i*A «iSbS^V>A4 

of Waterloo. HOUGOMONT. 12. Route. 149 

the utmost bravery througbout the day, declared tbe place now untenable. 
The enemy soon perceived our defenceless condition, and boldly broke open 
one of the doors. As but few could enter at a time, all who crossed the 
threshold were bayonetted, and those behind hesitated to encounter the 
same fate. They therefore clambered over the walls and roofs, whence 
they could shoot down my poor fellows with impunity. At the same time 
they thronged in through the open bam, which could no longer be de* 
fended. Indescribably hard as it was for me to yield, yet feelings of 
humanity now prevailed over those of honour. I therefore ordered my 
men to retire to the garden at the back. The effort with which these 
words were wrung from me can only be understood by those who have 
been in a similar position.'* 

" As the passage of the house was very narrow, several of my men 
were overtaken before they could escape. One of these was the Ensign 
Frank, who had already been wounded. He ran through with his sabre 
the first man who attacked him, but the next moment his arm was broken 
by a bullet. He then contrived to escape into one of the rooms and con- 
ceal himself behind a bed. Two other men fled into the same room, 
closely pursued by the French, who exclaimed: * Pas de pardon A ces 
brigands verts T and shot them down before his eyes. Most fortunately, 
however, he remained undiscovered until the house again fell into our 
hands at a later hour. As I was now convinced that the garden could 
not possibly be maintained when the enemy was in possession of the house, 
I ordered the men to retreat singly to the main position of the army. The 
enemy, probably satisfied with their success, molested us no farther.'*'' 

The door of the house still bears traces of the French bullets. 
Several of the unfortunate defenders fled into the kitchen, adjoining 
the garden at the back on the left. The window was and Is still 
secured with iron bars, so that all escape was cut off. Several 
were shot here, and others thrown into the kitchen- well, where 
their bodies were found after the battle. An iron tablet bears an 
inscription to the memory of the officers and privates who fell in 
the defence of the house. 

Farther to the £. are Papelotte, La Haye, and Smohairhy which 
served as advanced works of the Allies on their extreme left. 
They were defended by Nassovians and Netherlanders under Duke 
Bernhard of Saxe- Weimar, but fell into the hands of the French 
about half-past 5 o'clock. 

The defenders of GK>Timont, or Hongomont, another advanced 
work of the Allies, situated about 72^- *o the S.W. of the Lion, 
were more fortunate. This interesting spot formed the key to the 
British position, and had Napoleon once gained possession of it, his 
advantage would have been incalculable. The buildings still bear 
many traces of the fearful scenes which were enacted here. It is 
computed that throughout the day the attacks of nearly 12,000 men 
in all were laujiched against this miniature fortress, notwithstand- 
ing which the garrison held out to the last (see p. 160). The 
French stormed the orchard and garden several times, but they 
did not succeed in penetrating into the precincts of the build- 
ings. The latter, moreover, caught fire, adding greatly to the em- 
barrassment of the defenders, but happily l\i^ ^TQ%\^'e,'^ '^\ "^^ 
flAmes was arrested. Hoagomont v?as at \AiaA. \.\ni«k ^w ^^^^ -^vceOsJi^ 
dilapidated chateau , to which sevetaV outyjuW^Nxi^^ ^«t^ ^XXs^jQ^isSi.. 

150 RouU 12. BELLE ALLTANCE. Boltle FUtd 

The whole was surrounded by a strong wall, in which nnmexous 
loop-holes had been made by express orders of the Duke in penon, 
thus forming an admirable though diminntive stronghold. Notwith- 
standing these advantages, however, its successful defence against 
the persistent attacks of overwhelming numbers was solely due to 
the daring intrepidity of the little garrison. The wood by which 
it was once partly surrounded was almost entirely destroyed by the 
cannonade. The loop-holes, as well as the marks of the bnllets, 
are still seen, and the place presents a shattered and rainoas aspect 
to this day. The orchard contains the graves of Gapt. Blackman, 
who fell here, and of Sergt. Cotton, a veteran of Waterloo wlio died 
at Mont St. Jean in 1349 (1/2 ^^ • is exacted from each visitor to 
the farm). Ilougomont is about 1 M. from Braine TAllend (p. 151). 
The neighbourhood of Hougomont is said to hftre been the seeae of 
the following well -authenticated anecdote. General Halketfs brisade, 
conflicting of raw levies of troops, most of whom now faced an enemy for 
the lirst time, were exposed to a galling fire from Cambronne''8 brigade, 
which formed the extreme left of the enemy''8 line. HiJkett sent his 
skirmishers to meet the vanguard of the French, somewhat in advance 
of whom Gen. Cambronne himself rode. Cambronne's horse having been 
shot under him, Halkett immediately perceived that this was an admir- 
able opportunity for a * coup de main ^ calculated to inspire his troops 
with confidence. He therefore galloped up alone to the French general, 
threatening him with instantaneous death if he did not surrender. Cam- 
bronne, taken by surprise, presented his sword and surrendered to the 
gallant general, who at once led him back to the British line. Before 
reaching it, however, Ualkett's horse was struck by a bullet and fell. 
Whilst struggling to disengage himself, he perceived to his extreme morti- 
tication that Cambronne was hastening back to his own troops ! By dint of 
great eAbrts. however. Halkett got his horse on his legs again, galloped after 
the general, overtook him, and led him back in triumph to his own line. 

The lleld-road to Belle Alliance from the gate of the farm skirts 
the wall to the left. It soon becomes narrower, and after leading 
about oO paces to the right passes through a hedge, traverses a field, 
and passes an embankment. After a walk of 5 min. a good path is 
reached, leading to the highroad in 1^ min. more. Coster*s house 
lies to the right. In a straight direction the road leads to Plancenoit 
( p. 1511. Belle Alliance is situated on the left. This name is 
applied to a low white house of one story on the roadside , now a 
pO'-^r taveru. 1 M. to the E. of Hougomont. 

A marble slab over the door bears the inscription: '■Btnamtre det ffi- 
1 iruiiJT Wellington *t Blucher lors de In m^morabU bataille cfv IS.Jmin 18ISy 
*f taluani muiutlUmeut raingucur* . The statement, however, is erroneous. 
It is well a«cerTained that Bliicber did not overtake the Duke until the 
la;:er had le>i his troops as fur a> Ln Miu*on iiu Aoi, or Mtiuon Bougt^ on 
tiie road to i^enappe. about 2 31. beyond Belle Alliance,* where he gave 
tbe order to halt. This was the scene of the well-known anecdote so 
(M*ten related of the Duke, who when urged not to expose himself vane- 
.•e**&rily to .lander from the fire of the straggling fugitives, replied: *Let 
them lire away. The victory is gained, and my life is of no value now I' 

The house of Belle Alliance was occupied by the French, and 

their lines woTe formed adjacent to it. ^a^\eQiJ% ^^vt daring the 

fi-reater part of the battle was a \itt\e to \V x\%\iX ^t^'b'^^ait. "^nfc 

far to the S. of Belle Alliance is t\ieTx*uchLTl.«i«aa«aXV>VwB» 

of Waterloo. NIVELLES. 12, RouU. 161 

eagle, by G'^ro.m«; 1904), commemorating the heroic attack of the 
French Imperial Guard under Marshal Ney (comp. p. 146). 

On the N. side of Belle Alliance a fleld-road diverges from the 
highroad , and leads to Flancenoiti or PlanchenoiSj a village situ- 
ated 1 M. to the S.E., which the traveller who desires to appreciate 
the important part acted by the Prussians in the battle should not 
fail to visit. To the left, on a slight eminence near the viUage, rises 
the Pmssian Moimment, an iron obelisk with an appropriate in- 
scription in German. It was injured by the French when on their 

way to the siege of Antwerp in 1832, but has since been restored. 

The battle between the French and the Prussians raged with the 
atmost fury at and around Plancenoit from half-past six till nearly nine 
o'*clock. The churchyard was the scene of the most sanguinary struggles, 
in which vast numbers of brave soldiers fell on both sides. The village 
was captured several times by the Prussians, and again lost; but they 
finally gained possession of it between 8 and 9 o^cIock. The combatants 
of both armies in this conflict were all comparatively fresh, and the fury 
with which they fought was intensified by the bitter hostility of the two 
nations, and a thirst for vengeance on the part of the Prussians for pre- 
vious reverses. The victory on this part of the field was therefore achiev- 
ed towards 8 o'^clock , and the defeat of the French was rendered doubly 
disastrous by the spirited and well-organized pursuit of Gneisenau. 

The French retreat, which soon became a disorderlv sauve qui peuL 
followed the road to Oenappe (p. 212), a village about 4 M. to the S. of 
Plancenoit. ITear Genappe, where the road was blocked with cannon 
and waggons, the Prussians captured ITapoleon^s travelling carriage, 
which the emperor had probably just quitted in precipitate haste, as it 
still contained his hat and sword. 

Continuation of Railway Journbt. The next station beyond 
Waterloo is (12 M. from Brussels) Braine PAlIend, Flem. Eigen- 
Brakel (355 ft. ; Hdtel du Midi; H6tel de VEtoile; Buffet de la Sta- 
tion^ opposite the station), a manufacturing town with 6600 inhab., 
whence the Mound of the Lion (p. 147) on the field of Waterloo, 
which is visible to the left, is 1^2 M- distant. The road to it leads 
directly N. from the station. 

Stbau Trakwat (5 trains daily, in lV4-lfMr.) vift Rixensari (p. 226) to 
(14 M.) Wavre (p. 237). — Branch-line to Tuotfe^ see p. 208. 

151/2 M. Lfllois. — 18 M. BaulerSy a suburb of Nivelles, is the 
junction of the Manage and Ottignies line (p. 212). 

I8V2M. Nivelles (325 ft.; H6t,du Mouton Blanc) ^Ylem. Nyvel, 
on the ThineSj a manufacturing town with 10,600 inhab., owes its 
origin to a convent founded here about the middle of the 7th cent, 
by Ita, wife of Pepin of Landen. The Romanesque church of the 
convent, built in the 11th cent., has two choirs; the interior suffered 
defacement in the 18th cent., though the crypt and the badly restored 
cloisters still remain purely Romanesque. The tower, one of the 
loftiest in Belgium, was restored in 1859, after a fire, with little 
success. On the high>altar is the beautiful 13th cent, reliquary of 
St. Gertrude (d. 659; daughter of Pepin^, to^lioia. >iJ5vfc ^\s\.^\^ 
dedicated; and among the many inteieatViig o\i^^<i\A Vsv ^^ 'ct^'^csox^ 
l8 tbeaalnt'B cTyaUl goblet. A monumerLt VtL ^^ ^«^'s^^'^"^ ^^^s*. 

152 Route 18. VILYORDB. 

Lalaing (1899), commemorates J. de Burlet, the BtateunAn, and 
there is another to Baron dc Seutin, The station is called NiveUes-Eat, 
and lies at some distance from the town (NiveUes-Nord, see p. 212). 
The Baulert'Fleurus-Chdtelmeau line diverges at Nivelles-Bst : 22 M.^ 
in iV4 hr. Fleams, see p. 237, 288; Gbfttelineau, p. 214. 

231/2 M. Obaix-Buzet. — 251/2 M. Luttre (465 ft.), the junction 
of lines to Jumet-BrHlotte (25,900 inhah. ; Charleroi, Gh&telinean) 
and to PiSton (p. 210), via Trazegnies. Our line here unites with 
the Ghent and Braine-le-Comte railway, which proceeds, vift (29 M.) 
Courcelles' Matte, (30 M.) Roux, (33 M.^ MarchiennC'aU'Pont^ and 
(331/2 M.) Marchienne'Est to — 

35 M, Charleroi (see p. 213). 

13. From Brussels to Antwerp yi& Malines. 

271/2 M. Railway to Malines in 22-45 min. (fares 2 fr. 10, 1 fr. 40, 80 c.); 
to Antwerp (Central Station) in «/4-iV2 hr. (fares 4 fr. 30, 2 fr. 90, 1 fr. 70 c). 
The trains, some of which are ^saloon-trains' (see p. xvii), start from the 
Oare da Kord, but passengers from the station of the Qnartier Leopold 
(p. 83) may sometimes make connection at Schaerbeek (p. 229). Several 
trains, including some expresses, run to the South Station at Antwerp 
(comp. p. 159). — The line from Brussels to Malines, opened in 1^6, is 
the oldest railway in Belgium. 

Brussels J see p. 83. — 2 M. Schaerbeek; A^/2^* Haren-Nord 
(comp. p. 229). A fertile and grassy plain, through which the 
Senne winds, is traversed. 

674 M. Vilvorde (52 ft.), Fiem. Vilvoordenj a small and Yery an- 
cient town on the Senne, has 13,000 inhab. and a school of horti- 
culture. A monument near the station commemorates the painter 
Portaels (p. 93), a native of the place. The parish-church (14th 

cent.) contains some choir-stalls from Grimherghen (p. 136). 

A melancholy interest attaches to Vilvorde as the scene of the martyr- 
dom of William Ttndalb, the zealous English Reformer and trans- 
lator of the Bible. He was compelled to leave England on account of his 
heretical doctrines in 1523, ^m| the same year he completed his translation 
of the New Testament froi^^e Greek. He then began to publish it at 
Cologne, but was soon interrupted by his Romish antagonists, to escape 
from whom he fled to Worms, where the publication was completed in 
1525. Copies soon found their way to England, where prohibitions were 
issued against them, in consequence of which most of them were burnt. 
*They have done no other thing than I looked for\ observed the pious 
translator, on hearing of this*, ^ no more shall they do, if they burn 
mu also!'' Kotwithstanding the vehement opposition of Archbp. Warham, 
Card. Wolsey, and Sir Thomas More (who vainly strove to refute the new 
doctrine in a work of 7 vols.), four new editions rapidly found their way 
to England. In 1529 Tyndale began to publish the nrst four books of the 
Old Testament at Antwerp , where he now acted as chaplain to the 
British merchants settled in that city. He was at length arrested through 
the treachery of a spy, and sent to Vilvorde, where he was imprisoned 
for two years. He was then tried, and condemned as a heretic. On 6th 
Oct., 1536, he was chained to the stake, strangled, and finally burnt to 
ashes. His last words were: 'Lord, open the King of Sngland^s eyes 1* 
Ife WAS a man of simple and winning matinera^ Vii4«t«Ai^^l« indoBtry, 
and fervent piety. His New Testamenl, wYiVcAv w«a \twia\%X.«& V»A»^nk- 
deafJj^ of bis illustrious predecessor WycUffe , mi^ \v\a *V0\ lam^ «^ 

MALINES. 13, RouU, 153 

ebrated contemporary Lather, forms the basis of the Authorised Version. It 
is a remarkable fact, that the year after his martyrdom the Bible was 
published throughout England by royal command, and appointed to be 
placed in every church for the use of the people. 

We catch a distant view here, on the right, of the village of Perek 
(3 M. from the railway), near which is the farm-house of Dry Toren, 
once the country-seat of David Tenlers the Younger (d. 1690 ; buried 
in the church of Perck). 

Near the village of EUwyt, I3/4M. to the E. of (8V2 M.) Eppeghem, 
stands the old chateau of Steen, purchased for 93,000 florins by 
Rubens in 1635 as a summer-resort (restored). — 10 M. Weerde. 
The huge tower of the cathedral of Malines now becomes conspicuous 
in the distance. The train crosses the Lou vain Canal. 

13 M. Kalines. — Hotels. Near the Railway Station (Place de la 
Station): Hotel dk l'Europk (PI. a; C, 6), with caf^-restaurant, B. 2-3. B. 1, 
D. 2 fr. 5 Hot. de la Codkonke (PI. b; C, 6); Hotel db la Station (PI. c*, 
C, 6), with restaurant, R. from 2i^, B. «/4 f'- — ^^ t^e Town. V4 M. from 
the station : Hotel de la Coupe (PI. d; B, C, 3), Hotel Bdda (PI. e; B, 3), 
both in the Grand"* Place, near the cathedral, R. 3, B. 1, D. 2V« fr. ; Hotel 
DE LA CouB DE Beffer (PI. f ^ C, 3), Buc dc Beffcr 22, near the Grand* 
Place, with caf^-restaurant, R. from 2, B. 3/4, D. 2V2 fr. ; Chbval d'0k(P1. g ; 
B, 3), Rue des B^guines 2, near the cathedral, all these unpretending. — 
Ca/i de* Arts^ Bruul 46 ; Augustinerbrdu^ Grand* Place \ Railway Restaurant, 
— Fost de Telegraph Office (PI. 11 •, C, 3), Rue. de Beffer , at the corner of 
the Grand* Place. 

A visit to the Cathedral, the paintings by Rubens in the churches of 
St. Jean and Notre Dame, the Palais de Justice, and the old houses in the 
Quai au Sel and the Quai aux Avoines may be accomplished in half-a-day. 

The ancient town of Malines (25 ft.), Flem. Mechelen (57,300 

inhab.), situated on the tidal river Dyle, which flows through the 

town in numerous arms, contains many interesting old huildings. 

The quietness of the town forms a strong contrast to the husy scene 

at the station, which possesses extensive rail way- workshops and is 

the focus of several of the most important railways in Belgium 

(Ll^ge-Louvain-Ostend, Antwerp -Brussels, Malines- Saint-Nicolas). 
Malines^ the mediseval Machlina (lat. Mechlinia\ became in 915 a pos- 
session of the Bishops of Li&ge, though in ecclesiastical matters it had 
long been subject to the diocese of Cambrai. Under the family of Berth old 
or Berthovd^ the episcopal stewards, it gained an almost independent po- 
sition in 1213, but in 1332 Bishop Adolf de la Harck sold the consistently 
rebellious town to Count Louis of Flanders. In 1369 it was incorporated 
with Burgundy, and in 1473 it became the seat of the Provincial Court 
or Great Council, the supreme tribunal in the Netherlands. After the 
death of Charles the Bold, his widow, Margaret of York, took up her 
abode in Malines, and here were brought up the children of Maximilian 
of Austria, Philip the Handsome (p. xxi) and Margaret of Austria (d. 1^0), 
celebrated as regent of the Netherlands and instructress of Charles V. When 
Maria of Hungary (p. 97), SlargareVs successor, Iransferred her residence 
to Brussels in 1546, Malines was compenf'ated by being made the seat of 
an archbishopric, the holder of which was primate of the Netherlands and 
of Cambrai (and even, from 1801 to 1817, of Mayence). The first archbishop 
was Antoine Perrenot de Oranvella (d. 1586), minister of Margaret of Parma. 
To this day Malines is the ecclesiastical capital of Bel^vacm. 

From the Railway Station (PI. 0, ^\ >we IoWq^ >iXi«k €^^t\.^^^ 
Conscience, bearing to the right, to t\ve"PoT\.e ^'^\gE£ift\!LX. ^^^« ^^^^ 

154 BquUIB. MALINES. FnmBmniM 

traverse the Place dCEgmont^ and cross the Dyle (jplctaxetque riffw). 
Near the bridge, to the light, are the AUiinSe SoyaM Qn, G, i\ 
the old Lodge of the Teutonic Order ('Gommanderie de PltsemlMniigj, 
dating from the 17th cent, and the fine Botankal Qardem (open 
daily, adifi. 1/2 ''• ; ^'^ ^^ ^<^^* &Frid. in fine weather only}, adorned 
with a statne of Dodonsns (1517-86), a native of Malines. 

On the left side of the Bruiil, which leads hence to the Oiand* 
PUrc, is the Jemit Church (Pi. B, 0, 4), built by L. Faid*herbe in the 
baroque style as the 'Chapelle de Lelieendael\ with a handsome 
high-altar and three good reliefs on the galleries. 

1*he Gkand' Plaob (PI. B, G, 3), or market-place, is still sur- 
rounded by picturesque gabled houses of the 16-18th cent., among 
which may be singled out Nos. 12 & 24. — Immediately to the 
ri^rht Is the old Glotu Hall {Holies; PI. G, 3), rebuilt in 1320 et seq. 
on tlio model of the Halles of Bruges (p. 32). The nneompleted 
belfry bc^ars a superstructure of the i6th cent., with two octagonal 


ItiHidn, to the. rif^ht, is the insignificant MubAb GomnTNAL (18i4). csof 
taiiiiriK a collitction of civic antiquities, reminiscences of ICargsret of Aas- 
tria, and a few pictures, including a small Crucifixion by Bubens. — GoBf 
rii-ri;c,, in the court, to the left, 50 c, open free on Son., 9^. 

The Pont and Telegraph Office (PI. 11 ; G, 3), to the left, at the 
fornnr of the Run do Boffer (p. 167), was begun in 1529 by RornboiU 
Keldermans of Mali lies in the late-Grothic style for the Great Gouneil, 
but was Inft unfinished and was reconstructed in 1902"1904. 

In tlie oo.ntro of the Grand' Place is a statne of Margairei of 
Auitria (IM. 9 ), by ,1. Tuerlinckx (1849). — Behind this is the fl8«rf 
tif VUle ( IM. B, H), built in the beginning of the 14th cent., but 
I'lillrnly nunodoUtMl in 1715. Opposite this building, and standing 
H Ittili) way back from the Place, is the Gothic 7ietia;Patoi« (1374), the 
uU 'SeMepmhuis' (VliS; B, 3), or house of the bailiffs, from 1474 to 
i(UH rirnt of th(; On^at Council, but now containing the CUylAbrarjf 
and tho valuable Municipal Archives (closed on Thurs. & Sun.). 
Auioug the conttMits of the last are the city's account-books since 
i'M\ and a *};raduale' from the chapel of Margaret of Austria. 

Thn T'ATiiKDHAL of St. Kombold or Romuald (8t, Rombaut, PL 
n,3; closed from VI to 2.30, and after 5.30 p.m.), begun at the end 
of iho 13ih cont., completed In 1312, but to a great extent rebuilt, 
after a tire in 13)2, in the I4th and 15th cent., has been thearchi- 
cpiscopnl nietropolitiui church since 1560. It is a cruciform Goihie 
rliurch with a richly-decorated choir and a huge unfinished late- 
(}othlc. W. tower (324 ft. in height), which was begun in 1452 and 
intended to be the highest tower in Christendom (projected height 
551^ ft., 22 ft. higher than the spire of Ulm Cathedral). The face 
of th(% clock on the tower, dating from 1708, is 43 ft. In diameter. 
T/iti rhiirch WAS almost ontiroiv eiecle^ V\l\i \&!(^^«^ \[aid by the 
pilgrlina who flocked hither in tYve i4\.V wv^ Vti^wsuNwAmNfe ^w- 
tain tho iiiJiiI^oncos issued "by "Po^e '^V^^^^'Vx"* "^ • 

to Antwerp, MALIN£S. 13. RouU, 155 

storation of the whole building, hegun in 1896, is now approaching 

The Interior has an area of 4650 sq. yds. ^ its length is 306 ft. ; the nave 
is 89 ft. high and 40 ft. wide. — Nave. The Pulpit, carved in wood, by 
Boeckttuyn* of Malines (1723), represents the Conversion of St. Norbert. 
Above, St. John and the women at the foot of the Gross, at the side, 
Adam and Eve and the serpent. By the pillars are statues of the Apostles 
(1774). Elaborately carved Gothic organ-choir. — In the N. aisle, Ist 
chapel : Monument in marble to Archbishop M^an (d. 1831), by L. JehoUe. — 
In the S. aisle: twenty-five indi£ferently-painted scenes from the history 
of St. Bombold (d. 775 •, Flemish school of the 15th cent., restored in 1843). 

Tbamsspts. In the S. (r.) arm : *Altar-piece by Van Dyck, representing the 
Crucifixion, painted in 1627 (covered). This is one of the finest of the 
master^s works, and is worthy of the most careful inspection. The com- 
position is extensive and skilfully arranged, and the gradations of grief, 
from the profound resignation of the Virgin to the passionate sorrow of 
Mary Magdalen, are particularly well expressed. Behind are some frescoes 
(saints) of the 14th cent. , discovered in 1899. — In the "S. (1.) transept : 
Ercumti* QuelUn, Adoration of the Shepherds. — The large modern stained- 
glass windows by /. F, and L. Pluyt of Malines, commemorate the promul- 
gation of the dogma of the Immaculate conception of the Virgin (1854). 

The Chois contains handsome modern stained glass, by /. F. Phuyt 
(1860), carved stalls in the Gothic style, by W. Ooyert (p. 94), and a baroque 
altar, by L, Faid'T^erhe (1665). To the right in the retro-choir are a 
modern monument to the Berthold Family (1801; p. 153), incorporating 
a group by Faid''7ier})e, and a number of large pictures, chiefly by Herreynty 
Verhaghen^ Lens, and other painters of the early part of the 19th century, 
representing scenes from the life of St. Bombold. In the 1st and 7th 
cbapels are the arms of the knights of the Golden Fleece, who held a 
chapter here in 1491. The 5th chapel contains the altar of St. Engelbert 
(d. 1225), Archbishop of Cologne, with a chased brazen antependium or 
frontal, by L, van Rysvoyck of Antwerp (1875). The choir also contains four 
monuments of archbishops of the 17th and 18th centuries. 

The Chime* in the tower of St. Bombold rival those of the Belfry of 
Bruges (p. 32) as the finest and most complete in Belgium ; they play on 
Mon. in summer, 7-8.30 p.m. 

In the Cimeti^re St. Rombaat, on the N. side of the tower, is 
the Monument Oommimoratif , a large bronze cmciflx commem- 
orating the rising of the Flemish peasants against the French 
Republic in 1798. 

From the Gimetiere St. Rombant the Rue Ste. Catherine leads 
to the N.W. to the Cimeti^re Ste. Catherine and the Gothic Church 
of St. Catherine (PI. B, 2), built in 1336-42, with a timber ceiling 
renewed in 1896. The altar-piece, an Adoration of the Magi, is by 
Maur Moreels (d. 1631). 

A little to the W., at the end of the Rue de Moreels, lies the 
EoLisE Du Grand Bi^ouinaob (PI. 1 ; A, 2), an imposing baroque 
structure by Jacques Francquart (1629-47). 

The Intbbiob contains numerous paintings by 0. de Grayer, Jan Cottier*, 
L. Franchoit, Th. Boeyermant, and others. — In the aisles, above the 
elaborate confessionals, are figures of Christ and the Hater Dolorosa by 
L. Faid^herbe^ the latter of which is said to have excited the profound 
admiration of his master, Rubens. — In the sacristy is an ivory cruciOx, 
2Va ft. high, by Jirdme Duquesnoy. 

The Arehiepiseqpal Palace (Arche\ech6-, ^\.^ , 'X^, \ft 'C^^ ^- 

of the cathedral, near the March^ aux liaViie^ ^ \a «.xv -aTv^x^X.^^^^^^^^ 

bnlldiDg ofi8i8-S2, in the 'classicisV st^le. T\vfc N^\x»XiVA i6.t'3s&:*«^ 

156 Boute 13. MALINES. From Brfuad$ 

are rarely shown. — A few paces to tlie N.E. of the Maichtf anx 
Lai lies, at the beginning of the Rue Stassart, we obtain a glimpse 
(to the leftj of the Refuge de 8t, Trond (PI. 12; B, 2), a pictmesqne 
hnilding of the end of the 16th cent., formerly belonging to the abbey 
mentioned at p. 230. — To the right, at No. 20, Rue Stassart, are 
the famous Tapestry Works of BracqueniS. — Somewhat short of 
this point, at No. 4 (the house of the sacristan), is St. Jans Gang, 
a small passage leading to the right to St. Jean. 

St. Jean or St. Jans (PI. C, 2), built in 1451-83, is an insignifi- 
cant church, but contains an interesting picture by Ruhens, a •High- 
altar-piece with wings, a large and fine composition, one of the best 
of the painter's ceremonial works (1617). On the inside of the wings: 
Beheading of John the Baptist , and Martyrdom of St. John in a 
cauldron of boiling oil. Outside : Baptism of Christ, and St. John 
in the island of Patmos, writing the Apocalypse. The two latter are 
in the best style of the master, who received 1800 florins for them. 
Below is a small Crucifixion, also ascribed to Rubens,, To the left 
in the choir is Christ on the Cross, by Ch. Wouters, 1860. In the 
chapel on the left, Christ and the disciples at Emmaus, by W. J. 
Herreyns, The pulpit in carved wood, by Verhaeghen, represents the 
Good Shepherd. The high-altar and confessionals are by the same 
sculptor. The churchwardens' stalls, by the pillars in the transept, 
are by Nic. van der Veeken (1780). Foe to sacristan Y2-I ft- 

The Academy of Munc, formerly the Mont de PUti (PI. C, 2), at 
the comer of the Rue des Yaches (Koestraat) and Rue St. Jean, a 
little to the E. of St. Jean's, was originally the house of Canon 
Busleyden; it is an interesting Gothic building of 1507, with gables, 
fine arcades, and a tower of brick and limestone, judiciously restored 
in 1864. 

The Biest, the continuation of the Rue St. Jean, leads to the S. 
to the March^ au Retail, or Yeemerkt, on the E. side of which is 
the College St, Romhaut (PI. C, 3), with a weather-beaten Renais- 
sance facade. At the S. end of the Veemerkt, to the left, is the 
church of St. Peter and St. Paul (PI. 3 ; C, 3), built in the baroque 
style by Faid'herbe in 1670-77, and formerly belonging to the Jesuits. 
The unpleasing upper part of the facade was added in 1709. The 
church contains paintings of scenes from the life of St. Francis Xavier, 
by Kr, Quellin the Younger^ Boeyermans^ and others, and sculptures 
by H, Verhruggen (pulpit) and Nic, van der Veeken (confessionals). — 
Adjacent, Rue de I'Empereur 3, is the former Keizershof, bnilt in 
the late-Gothic style by Margaret of York in 1480, afterwards the 
residence of Philip the Handsome and Charles V. (till 1516), and 
occupied by a Jesuit college from 1611 to 1773. It is now a Theatn 
(PI. C, D, 3) and comprises practically nothing of the original strao- 
ture, except the restored facade. — Opposite rises the — 

*I'alai8 de Justice (PI. 0, D, %\ or Qwec>i\»\iol^ x "^V^XscnviiMsiA 
assemblage of fcuiJdlngs, by Romhoui Keldcrmana^ ^iis\Q%V(i%w^«tiiL 

to Antwerp. MALINES. 13, RouU, 157 

courts. It was formerly the palace of Margaret of Austria ; from 1561 
to 1609 it belonged to the Granvellas ; and from 1618 to 1794 it was 
the seat of the Great Gonncil. The older portions in the late-Gothic 
style date from about 1507; the facade, erected in 1517-26, is the 
earliest example of the Renaissance in Belgium. The building has 
been skilfully restored by Blomme of Antwerp (1878-86), and con- 
tains some fine chimney-pieces and other interesting works of art. 

We now return through the Rue de Beffer (W.) to the Grand' 
Place and turn from the Schepenhuis (p. 154) into the Bailies de 
Fer (Pi. B, 3, 4 ; Yzeren Leen), which contains a fine iron railing 
(1631-34), bordering the canal (vaulted over in 1674). To the right 
is the Maiaon dea Archers, dating from 1728. The street ends at the 
picturesque Qrand Ponty the central bridge over the Dyle, built in 
tlie 13th cent, and restored in 1594-95. 

On the Quai au 8el or Zoutwerf (PI. B, 4), on the left bank, are 
several noteworthy houses of the 16th century. Among the most 
interesting of these are the House of the Salmon (No. 5), the guild- 
house of the fishmongers, with a Renaissance facade (1530-34; see 
p. 1) restored in 1850; Nos. 7 & 8, two dilapidated Timber 
Houses; and the so-called Lepelaer (No. 17), with exquisite details 
in the Franco-Flemish style. 

On the Quai aux Avoines or Haver-Kaai (PI. B, 3), at the corner 
of the Rue de la Grue, is the so-called Paradise, with two painted 
reliefs of the Fall and Expulsion from Eden ; adjacent (left) are 
the Maison des Diables, a fine timber house of the 16th cent., and 
the St. Joseph House (No. 21), a stone structure of 1669, with 

From the Grand Pont we proceed straight on through the Marchtf 
aux Grains, in which, to the right, Is the Maison de la Orande Arhalhte 
(No. 8; PI. 8, B4), or guild-house of the Orossbowmen, a building 
of the 16th cent, with a facade of 1604. The Rue Haute or Hoog- 
straat leads on in the same direction to the twin towers of the Porte 
de Bruxelles (PI. A, 5), or *Overste Poort', a solitary relic, rebuilt, 
in the 17th cent., of the twelve ancient city-gates. — A little to 
the S.E., in the Avenue van Beneden, is a bronze statue of Pierre 
van Beneden (1809-94; PI. 10, B 5), the naturalist, by Jules Lagae 
(1898). — From this point we proceed to the N.E., via the Rue aux 
Herbes and the Rue Milsen, to the church of — 

NoTBE Damb au dela DE LA DvLB (PI. B, 4), an ancient foun- 
dation (1255), rebuilt in the late-Gothic style in the 15-17th cent, 
and recently well restored. A chapel behind the high-altar contains 
Rubens's *Miraculous Draught of Fishes, a richly-coloured picture, 
with wings, painted in 1618 for the Guild of Fishers, from whom 
the master received 1600 florins for the work (about 90i.). On one <it 
the wings are Tobias and the Angel, on the oil^ei ^\„"5fe\.«L^Tift\xL%^^ 
money in the fish's movith; outside are SS, l?e»teT, K3iL^Ter«>"i^7s^'^'^% 
and John. Opposite, on the back of the \v\|i\i-^\t^^>V^*^'*^'^'^'*''^*' 

158 BouU IB, MALINES. N, n.d^Hagmofk 

Emmaus, a fine landscape by Com. Huyamans. In the next cliapel 
to the left are the Temptation of St. Anthony hy M, Coxie ihe Yowngtr 
(1607) and a relief of the Craciflxion hy L, Faid^herbt^ who also 
caived the beautiful figure of the Virgin in the N. transept. Otoi 
the baroque high-altar (1690) is a Last Supper by E, Quellin, Pnlplt 
by Q, Kerricx (1718); stained glass by Pluys (1891). — The sacristan 
will be found at No. 38 Kue Milsen. 

In the Rue d'Hanswyk , which continues the Rue Notre Dame 
to the S.E., is the attractive church of Notbe Dams d^Hanswtk 
(PI. 2; C, 5), built in 1663-78 by L, Fai<therbe in the baroque style 
on the site of an earlier Romanesque edifice. The ground-pUn is 
curiously similar to that of St. Gereon at Cologne. In the dome axe 
two large reliefs by L. Faid'herbe. The pulpit is by Th. Verhaeghen 
(1745); the confessionals by J. F, Boeckatuyns, 

Steam Tbamwats. 1. From Malines via (llVs V.) Heyit-op'denSetf 
(p. 203) to (14 M.) Jtegem^ and to (18 M.) Westmeerbeek^ (23 M.) Westerioo 
(p. 203), and (33 M.) Gheel (p. 206). — 2. Via (7 M.) Rumpst to (16 M.) Antwerp 
(eomp. p. 161) in the one direction and to (15 M.) JAerre (p. 203) and (10 K.) 
liooin (p. 82) in the other. 

Fkom Malines to Louvain, ISVzH., railway in 20-46 min. (fares 2 fr. 40, 
1 fr. 60, 95 c). — The church of (5i/sM.) Boortmeerbeek contains aTempta* 
tion of St. Anthony by Teniers the Younger. From O^h M.) Haecht steam- 
tramways run via Aerschot (p. 203) to Tirlemont (p. 229) and yi& Dieghem 
(p. 229) to Schaerbeek (UrusselB^ eomp. p. 88). At (8Vs M.) Wespelaer are 
a country-seat and park mentioned by Delille (b. 1738). 12Vf M. Wpgmaelj 
with a starch-factor}' (right). The line crosses the Dyle, skirts the Antwerp- 
Louvain Canal (made in 1750J, and reaches (15Vt M.) Louvain (p. 231). 

FsoM Malines to Ghent, 35 M., railway in V4-2 hrs. (fares 6 fr. GO, 
3 fr. 70, 2 fr. 20 c.). The line crosses the' Louvain Canal^ then the Senne, 
and farther on the Willebroeck Canal (p. 134). 2 M. Hombeek; 6 M. CappelU- 
au-Bois; SM. Londerteel-Ouesty the junction of the Antwerp and Alost line 
(p. 2). Beyond (11 M.) Malderen we quit Brabant and enter East Flanders. 
121/2 M. Buggenhout; 15 M. Baesrode. 18 M. Dendeitnondey and thence to 
(35 M.) Ghent, see R. 10. 

From Malines to St. Nicolas and Ternbdzkn, 42 M., railway in 
21/4-3 hrs. (fares 5 fr. 15, 3 fr. 70, 2 fr. 55 c). 2 M. Hombeek; 6 M. ThititU; 
8 M. Willebroeck^ on the cannl mentioned at p. 134, the junction of the 
Antwerp and Alost line (p. 2)^ 11 M. Puers (branches to Dendennonde 
and to Boom, p. 82); 14 M. Bornhem. The train crosses the broad Scheldt, 
commanding a view of its picturesque wooded banks. — To the left, on the left 
bank, is (16 M.) 7'cfm<.»«(Flera. Temeche; Hotel des Flandrcs), a manufacturing 
town with 12,0(X) inhabitants. The church contains the tomb of Roeland 
Lefebvre and his wife (16th cent.) and a Holy Family by Kic. de Lie- 
maeckere. Local boat to Antwerp, see p. 199. — 21 M. 8t. NicoUUy the 
junction of the Waesland line for Ghent and Antwerp (p. 82) and of a 
branch-line to Dendermonde (p. 82); 25 M. 8t. Oilles-Waet (branch-line to 
Moerbeke, p. 82) ; 27 M. Xa Clinge^ with the Belgian custom-house. — 29>/i X. 
HuUt (Het Bortte Hert; De Wapens van Zeeland)^ the Dutch frontier-station. 
possesses an interesting Gothic church of the 13-15th cent, (upper part of 
tower reconstructed in 1562); the Landhuis contains a painting by Jordaent, 
and the Hotel de Ville one by Corn, de Vos. Steam-tramway to Walaooiden 
(p. 201). — 35 M. Axel (picturesque costumes); 39 M. SluyeHl, ~ 42 X. 
Teriieuxen (see p. 72). 

Beyond (17 M.) Wavre-Ste- Catherine the train crosses the Nethe 
(p, 82), a Bmall tidal river, and TeacA\e-a {\& M..^ Du(f<e2. To the 
r/jf/it rises the old Gothic cbateaw ot Tet-EUt. 't\iw^ ^^1\>^>S 


ANTVEHP. ld.Smttt. 159 

Contiah (E. Stuiou), on the bi>neh-iailw>y from Autweip to Tarn- 
liout Cp- 199)- 

23 M. Hove. — 24M. Vimx-Ditti (Ouden God) is theJuQcHonfor 
tlie iDcul tisins U the S. Station st Antwerp, of th.e Antwerp, Dender* 
monde.&Glient line(_R.10a), sndof abriQcli-iiue toffo6o*«i(p.2). 

We now pisa thiongh the new outworlie around Antwerp. 'iG'/gH. 
BtTChtm (see below}, foi the aubutb of th»t n»me. — Finally we 
traveiee a lofty embankment (1897-1900) between the new qnanera 
of Antwerp aiid (r.) Borgerhotil (p. 163) and enter tlie Central 
SutLonot— ' 

27'/a M. ^nJiEtrp (see below). 

Df the iDDBr TowR, p. 1C6. 

Urn or iiidden-aiatd (PI. n, 3, 4 

flrat slappicg-placs for most of tlis piaseng 

w bnllding by J, J. iiui 
Alost Hoe (p. 2) »na by 

het Land van Wau (PI. A, 1) for tbe direct 
line la Qhent (B. 10b) Is on Ibe left blRk of the Scbeldt, bat there is a ticket 
and luigage office on tbe Quii St. lO/Att (PI. A, 6), on tbe riglit banli, 
ticlcete tikeo bere tnclDde the ferrj acrou the river. — Cabt, aea p. 160, 
HcteU Id the tfd Mm.' -Br. Ahtoihi (PI. a ; B, i), PUca Verte 40, 
with lift and realasrasL B. from S, B. li/i, d<j. S, b. S, peu. from 13, 
omn. 1 fr. ; -Gukd Hotbl (PI. f; G, 1) , Rue G^rud 1. with Itft, ^miaee- 
healiDg, and small garden, E. rrom i, B. fi/,, dt<j, S>/i, D. S, pen.. 
fromlSi/,, omn. Itr.i -HariL pe l'£uroi'i {PL b. B, 4), tlacfl Verte 88, 
with lin and fu mace-beating, U. 1-10, B. 1'/,, dCj. 3, D. b. omn. 1 fr., 
palroniied by Enallah and Auerican trarelleni , ■&HANbLxao(IaKl]B(P!. d; 
C, 11, Place de Meir 26, B. from 1, B. li/i, d<fj. V/t, D. 1, pens. 

B, i), ttae dB^ MeiiDlsien 9, U. ft^m 8'/.,' B. li/i,' duj. Vjt, D. i'h, pens! 
from 10, omn. Ifr.; H6tbl des Flabdris (PL e; ]^, 1), Place Verle 9, 

1 tr. i •Ckhtbal m^b\ B,'4), BneVaiionaiBS^ w'lth'liCt and fumacs-heating! 
U. from S, B. !</,, d«j. Vh, D. 4, pens, fmm 8, omn. >/< fr.; HliaoroLH 

_. tiu'^i.Ur.; 

at the riTtr, B. 21/,-D, B. 1, 
oei. a*/i, a*, o ir, i hot. d aholbtkiibk \rx. m i B, 3), tbeae tbrfta ^^ V*i^ 
, Qnai Van Dyok, and under KnEllsh manageioeol. — W «vo t\t\TiVri ■- ^-S". 
; Di HoiLiSiw (PI. J; B, 1), Kue de i^Etuve 'i. . , 

r StMi tbe Ctntral station: -Obimd-Hotu, Wb»k», t.v(mafl».^'M»«'>- 

'" if^lft ;«va baei-taUartai, a,, from 1, B. li(i, 44i. fl^v D. ^% «™»- ™ 

160 Route 1 4. ANTWERP. Ptaetieal 

12 fr., German, first-class \ *6b. Hdx. de Lomdkss, Avenue De Keyser 60, 
practically a hdtel gurni, with good restaurant attached, R. from 4, B. 11/4 fr.( 
Gr. IldT. Tbrmikub, Kuc du Pelican, opp. the station-entranoe. With aato- 
matic bar, new, K. from SVs, H. I1/4, ddj.^V^f ^« &t pens, from 10 fr., these 
three with lift and furnace^ heating. — Pschorb, iloTBL-RssTAUiuHT St. Jkax, 
Stein, Dikstebhcis, lldi. de G(u.ogne (German), Ensikk, HdT. nu PsoOBfts, 
all in the Avenue De Keyzer (S(S. 17, 27, 74, 49, 63, 68, A 01) % H6t. de 
l'Usiox, Place de la Gare 32, also unpretending. 

Pensions. Mile. Kern-Loos^ Longae Bue d'Herenthals 35; FrduUin 
Kuhhnatm, Rue van I>} ck 17, pens. 4-7 fr. ; DeitUche$ Heim, Rue dn Palais 39, 
for ladies. 

Cafes (comp. p. xiv). Canterbury, Place de Meir 14 (PI. G, 4); Cc^i 
de VEmperevr^ Place do Meir 19; Aeckerlin^ Place de Meir 18; FremfoUy 
Suisse (Taverne Artois), both Place Verte; Grand Comptair de la Bourse, 
corner of the Lungue Rue Keuve and the Rue de la Bourse; Mille Colomus, 
Avenue De Keyzer 11 ; Qrand Cafi Liopold Premier, Avenue des Arts, corner 
of the Ghausstfe de Blalines; Cc^4 de la Terreuse, Pavilion du sUen, (»d 
the Promentirs (PI. B, 3, 4; p. 197), with fine view of the Scheldt, 
pleasant on warm evenin^is. — Gonfeotioners : * Pdiiiserie Meurisse, HarcbJ 
:iux (£ufs50; Lens, Bue des Tanneurs 16; Bliimer^ March^ anz Souliers 16, 
elegantly fitted up; Losus-Broekaerl, Punt de Meir 3; Pdtitserie du Jardm 
Zoologique (p. 196). 

Restaurants (comp. p. xiii). " Cafi-Restaurant Bertrand, Place de Meir 11 
(Fl. C, 4) ; ^Restaurant du Jardin Zoologique (p. 196), di\j. 3, D. 5 fr. ; *Au Pao% 
Roi/al, PI act' de la Gare; Grand Cafi Liopold Premier (see above), d^j. 2Vt2 1>. 
5 fr.. these four lirst-class. — ** Hdtel de Londres (see above): *Rocher de Can- 
cale. Rue des D<»uze 3Iois LO, adjoining the P^xchange and the Place de Meir. 
— * Taverne Rheingau, Place <le Meir 1 ; Taverne Royale (Bavarian beer). Place 
Verte 39 ; Tarerne MHropole (see p. 159), Rue Leys 2b, — Taverne OretSj corner 
of Place Verte and Rue Rationale; "^Taverne St. Jean iseo&bo\e)\OrUerium Bar, 
Avenue De Keyzer 25; C/ieval de Bronze (p. 169), Rose SOr (p. 159); *Ca/i 
Suisse (see above), D. 2-3 fr. — Beer (comp. p. xiii). *Reetaurani Weher (p. 169; 
Bohemian beer ; concert in the evening) ; Psehorr (see above), Universel (No. 13; 
concert in the evening), Huhis (Xo. 15), all in the Avenue De Keyzer; Flora, 
Trois Suisses, both in the Rue Annees.^iens (PI. D, 3) ; Salvator- Keller, Vieux 
3Iarchd au Ble 26; Cn/i Shakespenre, Rue L<5opold 16. — Near the Central 
Station are several hou.^cs, such as The Fdlstaff, the Royal and Worikksffton 
Taverns^ and the Albion Tavrm (Bass &, Go. ; Rue Anneessens, Nos. 25, 21, 16, 
and 7), where pale ale and stout may be obtained on draught, with bread 
and cheese, etc. — Wine. * Moselh&uschen . Place do Meir 60, cold vianda only ; 
*Taveme Rheingau (see above), Place de Meir 1, good hock and moselle; 
Zur Mosel, Rue des Douze Mois 16, near the £xut.ange; Cafi AMckerlin {fi^t 
above) ; Continental Bodega, Place de Meir 17; British Vaults (Caves AnglaiitM)^ 
Marche aux Souliera 14. 

Baths. Jiains Anvarsois , Loiigue Rue de Tllopital <8 (swimming and 
medicinal baths); Bains St. Pierre, Rue Van Noort 12, near the Park; Bain 
de Spa, Place de la (;omniune 't (1 fr.). Warm and cold buths may also be 
obtained in the best hotels. — Sirimming Bath (PI. B, 7). at the corner of the 
Buede Rruxelles and the Rue lirederode, open from April 16th to October 16th 
(for ladies on Mon. and Frid. before 12, and on Wed. from 2 o''clock). 

Post Office, Place Verte, S. side (PI. B, 4 ; p. 167), o^en 7 a.m. till 8 p.m. 
(on Sun. uml holidays, 9-12 only); several branch-offices in the Central 
Station, the Palais do Ju.<>tice (p. 195), and elsewhere.— Telegni^ OfAeeti 
Rue des Douze Mois (iM. 0, 3, 4), on the S. side of 'the Exchange, and at 
the railway-station (open at night). 

Cabs (Voitures) for 1-3 per.<». (night-, One- horse \ Two-horao 
fares from 11p.m. to 6 a.m.). iKyday 

By Time^ 1 3 pers. per Va^r 1.— 

A'arh additional V* ^ir - -^ \ — .«i 1— .75 

2.- ; 1.60 

At night 

I^'or 4 pern. FA) c. more; aud t* lA\c nv>T\.W.TW\\\v\»\. Vk^xV^^i^tAiV^^^ V It . 
extra. Thv tarilT doai not apply to drives \>evw^A ^^* loT^^^ta*^o^. \iiiLUM.« 

Notes. ANTWERP. 14. Route. 161 

carried outside (p]ac^ k rext<^riear), 20 c. each piece. The driver expects a 
gratuity of 10-25 c. In case of disputes, apply to the nearest policeman. 

Bleetrio Tramways (*Compagnie O^n^rale des Tramways d'Anvers*). 
Universal fare, 10-15 c. (to Hoboken, 25 c. -, double fare after midnight). 
These fares include transfers CbiUets de correspondance*). At some of 
the stopping-places the stop is made only on signal ('Arr§t sur demande**). — 

1. From the Entrepdt Hoyal (P1.G,2) through the Avenues du Commerce 
(PI. C, 2, 3), des Arts (Pl.C, 4), and du Sud (Pl.B, 6,6) to the South Station 
(PI. A, B, 6). 

2. From the Port (PI. B, 3; starting from the Quai Van Dyck, at the 
W. end of the Canal au Sucre) by the Place Verte (PI. B, 4), Place de 
Meir (PI. C, 4), and Avenue De Keyzer (PI. D, 3) to the Central Station 
(PI. D, 3, 4), and then by the Rue du Pelican (PI. D, 4) and Boulevard 
Leopold (PI. D, 5, 6) to the Dryhoek {Troii Coins; PI. D, 7), near the S. 
cornar of the Pdpinifere. 

3. From the South Station (PI. A, B, 6) by the Place Leopold de Wael 
(PI. B, 5*, passing tbe Boyal Mu.<<eum), Rue Nationale (PI. B, 5, 4), Place 
Verte, and Place Teniers (PI. 0.3) to the Central Station (PI. D, 3, 4), and 
thence by the Rue Carnot (PL D, E, 3), the Rue de TEglise (PI. E, 3), and 
Pothoek (PI. E, 2) to the Porte du Schyn (PI. E, 1). 

4. From the Place Verte (PI. B, 4) through the Rue Xationale, the Rue 
des Gueux (PI. B, 5), and the Rue Br^derode (PI. B, 6, 7) to Kiel (PI. A, 
B, 8) and Hoboken (p. 199). 

5. From the Place Verte (PI. B, 4) through the Rue des Peignes (PI. B, 4), 
Bue de TEsplanade (PI. B, 0, 5), Rue Lozane (PI. C, 6), the Trois Coins 
(see above), and Wilryck to Dikke Mee. 

6. From the Souih Station (PI. A, B, 6) by the Quais Flamand (PI. A, B, 6, 5), 
St. Michel (PI. A, B, 5, 4; Waesland Station), and Van Dyck (PI. B, 4, 3), 
the C^nal des Brasseurs (PI. B, 2), and the Place St. Jean (PI. C, 2) to the 
Bue des Images at Pothoek (PI. E, 2). 

7. From the Quai van Metteren (PI. B, 2, 3; starting near the Custom- 
house) by the G.mal des Recollets (PI. B, 3), Bempart Ste. Catherine (PI. 
B, C, 3, 4), Place de Meir,- Bue des Tanneurs (PI. C, 4), Longue Rue de 
rHdpital (PI. 0, 4), and Ghauss^e de Malioes (PI. D, 6) to the Chauesie de 
Berchem (PI. D, E, 6, 7). 

8. From the Place de Meir (PI. G, 4) through the Rue des Tanneurs 
(PI. G, 4) and the Bue Leopold (PL G, 4) to the Rue van Luppen (Longue 
Rue d'Argile; PLE, 5). 

9. From the Plaine van Schoonbeke (PL B, 2) by the Rue du Fagot 
(PL B, 3), Canal des R^coUets (PL B, 3), Rem part Ste. Catherine (PL B, G, 3, 4), 
Place de Meir, Bue Leopold (PL C, 4), Avenue van Eyck (PL 0. D, 5), 
Avenue Plantin (PL D, 4), Rue Mercator (PL D, E, 5), and Place de 1 Aurore 
(PL E, 5) to the Berchem Station (PL E, F, 6). 

10. From the Marchi au Lait (PL B, 3) through the Longue Rue Xeuve 
(PL G, 3), the Place de la Commune (PL C. D, 3), and the Ghauss^e de 
Turnhout (PI. E, F, 3) to the Porte de Turnhout (PL F, 3). 

11. From the iiarehi au Lait (PL B, 3) throu^ih the Longue Rue Neuve, 
Place de la Commune, Rue Omme°;anck (PL D, 3), and Rue de la Province 
Nord (PL E, 4) to the Place de TAurore at Zurenhorg (PL E, 5). 

12. From the Palais de Justice^ starting at the Rue du P^age (PL B, C, 5) 
through the Rue de TEscaut (PL B, 5) to the Waesland Station (PL A, 5). 

Steam Tramways. 1. From the Rue Br^derode (PL B, 7) via (2 M.) 
Wilryek to (9Vs M.) Rwnpst^ and thence in the one direction to (121/2 M.) 
Boom (p. 82) and in the other to (171/2 M.) Uerre (p. 203) and to (16 M.) 
Maline* (comp. p. 158). — 2. From Zurenborg Station (PL F, 5) to (16 M.) 
Oostmalle; and thence in one direction to 025 M.) Turnhout (p. 199) and 
in another to (20Vs M.) Hoogstraeten (p. 200). — 3. From Zurenborg Station 
(PL F, 5) via (8V« M.) Broeehem to (20i/a M.) Oostmalle and to (13 M.) Lierre 
(p. 2(«). — 4. From Klapdorp Station (PL B, 3) via Merxem^ L<«o^ ^tA 
Santvliet to (M M.) Bergen-op-Zoom (p. 290) and ^V l&r^ TlvoVsa V^.*^*^. — . 
6. From Klapdorp Station (PL B, 3) v\% Merxem \o IJilUr^ Schoo\*tw ^^<^ '^^ 
Braisehast (p. 199) and Rythergen (p. 200) to (^ U.") Bveda Vs-^^^* 

BAXDEKER*a Belgium and Holland. iU^i T-aW.. VN- 

162 Route 14, ANTWERP. IVaeflral 

Btoamboate. To and from iMndon rii Harwich, see p. 8.'— To*A(ll ov 
Wed. and Sat., in 22 hn. (fare Ifit., retorn-fiare 3m.)- ~ To GmU every 
Tues., Thurs., and Sat. in 2i hrs. (fare 15s.). — To Orimuihg ererj'TvM., 
Thnrfl., and Sat. in 22 hrs. (fare 15*., return 26f.)- — To JfrntcmaUti ererj 
Wed. in 30 hrs. (fare 20«., return dO«.). — To Lelth twice weekly in 
45 hrs. (fare 90«., return GOc. — To Z)«5Im and Ae^Mf oiioe^» fortni|^t 
(fare iftf .). — To Liverpool on Wed. (fares 22*. &!., 15i.). — To BotUrdam, 
see p. 2G0. — To 3'«w Fori: once a week, to Bottom and AOoditpMa once a 
fortnight (Red Star Line, Rue des Peignes 22). — To ffnufhnmftom thrice 
weekly (Korth German Lloyd : Bary £ C^., Place de Heir 28). Steamers alio 
ply to' Gibraltar^ GenoOy Naplu, Port Baid (Atia^ J^ulraitia)^ La itota, JRroHl, 
Cuba^ Mexico^ the West Indies^ South America^ Lisbon {East end Somih 4/Wee), 
and many other ports. 

Local Steamer to Tcunite, see p. 199. — Excnrsion-steamen sometimes 
ply on the Scheldt on summer-afternoons, starting from the 'Smbezeadtoe* 
(PI. B, 3). 

Theatres (com p. p. xvi ; performances generally in winter only). Tkidtrt 
Royal (PI. C, 4: p. 194), for operas, performances in French, four times a 
week. — Thidtre de* Variitit (PI. C, 4^ p. 166), Place deMeir, for comedies, 
in French. — Flemuh Opera House (PL D, 3), see p. 194. — Fltmith TAMtrc, 
or Xederlandsehs Schoutcburg (PI. G. 3; p. 191), for plays and operas in 
Flemish. — Scala^ Rue Anneessens 28 (PI. D, 3), varieties. — PtHals de 
I' Hippodrome (PI. B, 5; circus), Place Leopold de Wael. 

Music. Concerts in the Zoological Oardem (p- 196) daily (except Toes. A 
Frid.) from 3-30 to 5 p.m., also on Sun., Tues., £ Thurs. at 8 p.m. (in winter 
on Sun. at 3.30 p.m. and Wed. at 8 p.m.). In summer, if the weather is 
favourable, bands perfnrm in the Park (p. 196) on Sun., 4-6 p.m.} in the 
P^piniire (p. 196) on 3Ion., S-IO p.m. ; in the Place Verte (p. 167) on Wed. 
and Sat.. 8-10 p.m.; in the Avenue du Sud (near the Palais de Jastiee) on 
Men. and Thurs., 8-10 p m.; and in the Place St. Jea» (PI. C, 7^ on Mon., 
8-10 p.m. Other bands frequently play in the public squares on 8an., il-i ana 
2-5 p.m. — Concerts Populaires, sis times during the winter in theTh^fttre 
Royal (see above). For admission to the concerts of the SocUti Bopale d'BoT' 
monie (p. 194) an<i the Ctrcle Artistique (p. 19^ en introduction is necessary. 

Popular Festivals. FItes Natiunales (to commemorate the BeTOlntlon 
of 1830) on July 2l8t; F^tes Communales on the second Sun. in Aug. and 
the eleven following days. — Church Festiral. Great procession from the 
cathedral through the adjoining quarter of the city on the Sun. after Aug. 15th. 

British Consul - General, E. C. Hertslet, Esq.^ Rue de rBsplanade 80 
(PI. B, C, 5)-, vice-consuls, W. Lydcotte^ Esq. and R. H, CSocc, Bsq, — United 
States Consul - General, Church Howe, Esq,; deputy-consul, 8, S. JSTaAw, 
Esq. — Lloyd's Agent, Walter Blaets, Longue Rue Keuva 44 (PI. C, S). 

English Church (PI. C, 4), Kue des Tanneurs; services at 11 and 7. 
Chaplain, Rev. M. N. Eearney, M. A., Longue Rue de Rnyshroeck 81 
(PI. E, 4, 5). — Missies TO Seamen- Plaine Falcon 25 (PL B, 2, 3)^ Bs». B. L. 
Collins, M. A., Rue de Rotterdam 49 (PI. D, 2, 3). 

Shops. Booksellers. 0. Forst, Place de Meir 69; Adtsi ihmw, Place 
Verte 29. — Photographs. 0. Forst, Ackermann, see above ^ BeusarMA Co., 
Marchd nux Souliers 37. — Lack (p. 86). Mile. Baetet^ Place Verte 6{ 
if. Rey/iders, Rue Leys 12. — Honey Cuanoees (comp. p. xii). Baelde Frtretf 
Canal des K^collets G3 (PI. B, 3)^ BoucquiUon A Waterkeifn^ Courte Hue 
Xeuvo 16; Credit Anrersois (also intel.i^enco-bureau), Courte Rae de THA- 
pital 42; J. A. Servais, Rue Leys 10. 

Enquiry Office for strangers: Antwerpen Vooruit C-Ligme Anwenem OMaiTJ, 
Rue Vondel 9 and March^ St. Jacques 50 (Pi. C, 3). — Oeoda ft Bzpvees 
Agents, Wells, Fargo. A Co., Courte Rue de la (Hiapelle des Bateliexs 4. 

Kuseums, Collections, etc. 

Commercial Museum (p. 193), daily 10-3, free. 

Exchange (p. 167), always open; during business-hours (1.80 to 2.80p.m., 
en Sat. 11.30 to 12.30) admission to the galleries only. 

A/i^U/ de Ville (p. 172), open all day ; inspecWomaoai conveaieat between 
9A10&.m. And after A p.m. Fee ^/t fr. (free ^\xT\n« ^^'B^XMaQonraMi^^^ 
eee above). 

Notes. ANTWERP. 14. RouU. 163 

Library (p. 176), week-days 9-4 (winter 8-10 also); Sat. 9-12 only. 

Museum, Royal (p. 181), daily 9-5 (Oct. April 9-4), Sun. and holidaya 
10-5 (10-4) { adm. 1 fr.t free on Thurs., Sun., holidayt, and daring tbe 
Fdtefl Commnnales (p. 162). 

Muiie Plantin (p. 178), on the same terms a^ the Royal Maseum. 

Muiie Plantin (p. i^oj, on tne same tern 
Panorama (p. 196), daily till dusk, »/« fr. 
Steen (p. 197), as the Boyal Museum. 

Zoological Garden (p. 196), all day long; larger animals not visible after 
7 p.m. ; adm. 1 fr. 

The Ohurohes (comp. p. zvi) are generally open 6-12 and 4-5. The 
following particulars should be noticed. 

Cathedral (p. 167), open for the inspection of the works of art on Sun. 
and Thurs. 8-12, free; on other days 12 to 4 or 5, 1 fr. for each person 
(tickets from the ^Concierge' in the house No. 19 in the Place Verte, oppo- 
site the S. portal). The pictures are usually covered up again about 
10 min. before the nominal time. The importunate 'guides* should be 
repulsed. For the Totoer, comp. p. 172. 

St. Andrew (p. 180), at noon and in the evening entrance from the 
Bue St. Andr^; knock at the door. Fee 1 fr. 

8t. Aufftutine (p. 180), daily 6-12; at other hours, entrance Rue Everdy 12; 
fee V2 fr. 

8t. Oeorge (p. 194), at noon and in the evening on application to the 
sacristan; fee ^ftfr. 

at. Jacques (p. 175); the pictures are shown on week-days only, 12- 
4.30 p.m.; fee 1 fr. Principal entrance on the S. side, Longue Rue Neuve; 
the sacristan, Longue Rue Ste. Anne 27, is generally in the church; knock 
at the door. 

Bt. Paul (p. 174), at noon and in the evening entrance in the Rue des 
Soears Noires ; knock at the door. Adm. 1 fr., proportionately less for 
a party. 

Principal Attractions (1^/2-2 days). Ist Day. In the morning : '^'Mus^e 
Plantin (p. 178); Exchange (p. 167) ; ^Cathedral (p. 167). Afternoon: *St. Jac- 
ques (p. 175); Docks (pp. Iw, 199). — 2nd Day. In the morning: *Royal 
Museum (p. lol). Afternoon: Park (p. 195) and *Zoological Garden (p. 196). 

Antwerp (26 ft), Frencb Anvtrs^ Spanish Amhires^ with about 
366,000 Inbabitants (including the suburbs of Borgerhout, Berchem, 
and Kiel), situated on tbe broad and deep Scheldt (Escaut)^ 60 M. 
from the sea, is one of the greatest seaports of Europe, serring^as 
an outlet for the commerce of Germany as well as of Belgium. 
With the exception of a foreign colony of about 35,000 persons 
(16,300 Dutch and 8700 Germans), the population is almost exclusively 
Flemish. The name is possibly derived from 'aan't werp' (t. e. *at 
the wharf) J comp. p. 172. 

Our knowledge of Antwerp extends as far back as the 7th cen- 
tury. In 836 It was destroyed by the Northmen. After about the 
beginning of the 11th cent. Antwerp appears as the capital of a 
margravlate, established to protect the German frontier against the 
powerful Counts of Flanders. The most celebrated margrave of Ant- 
werp was Godfrey de Bouillon. Its advantageous situation favoured 
the development of the town j and its wealth greatly increased about 
the close of the 15th cent., when the trade of Bruges was trans- 
ferred hither (comp. p. 23), and when the discov^t^ ^1 \X\fe ^nsssr 
sea-routes enabled the Netherlands to mono^oWi^ *. ^^^^• ^''^^^ 
of tie trAnait'tr&de between Cadiz, 1As\)0t\, a.Tv^ CeivU^X^i^s-^^^^: 

U'A n-jmU 14. ANTWERP. OUtar^ 

L'fi-l^r ii.r p;»<;rfa! prvte«:t:-.n of Emp. Cliaita V. Antwerp was 
p<:rhip% il:': m'Mt pr-.-p^r.^is inl Trealiliy cisy on the contiBeiit, sur- 
p>.:-.:tiz even Veni*«e ir* ; G-in'.-i themselTes. Wheii &t t^ height of 
iu \,r,\yKTifj it nnmbrre-i i'2/!'.'»J inh*b. i in 15^J. At that period 
Tea ? ell frorr; every p*r. cf tt« world lay in the S-beldt. wbfle a 
hrjndred ',x iry<re ^rrLred :ind deponed daily. The great bin held 
here attr^nel ni':r"i.%nts fr.m all parts of the civilised wvrid. The 
Florentine Gi.i.^iriar-i'ni. %n eirrrllent actbority in these matters 
rp. xW;. revrJi ihu in 156«5 tbe spices and sagar imported Crom 
Portnzil 'A'ere v^iliied at 1 V 2 i^^^^-'^n da<?ats (^750,000^., an enormous 
•>>jm a^'^'/rding tr^ the ^alue of money %t that period), ffilk and gold 
embr;lderie3 from It*ily 3 rolilirn.erain from tbe Baltic 1*'^ million, 
Fr'-nch and German wines ^2^0 n^iHion. and imports from England 
Vi fTiiiJion dijci^ts. Upwards of a thousand foreign commercial Anns 
had e-Tt^blirhed theuiielves at Antwerp, and one of the Foggers, the 
rner'h ant- princes of Augsburg, died here leaving a fortune of over 
2 fjiillion dijcat«. The Flemish manufactures (carpets, clothing-atnffs, 
gold and j-ilvpr wares) also enjoyed a high reputation after the begin- 
ning of the 16th cent., and were exported from Antwerp to Arabia, 
Persia, and India. 

Antwerp's decline began during tbe reign of Philip II. After 
the Iconoclastic devastation of churches and conTents in 1566, the 
J>uk<: of Albas <-ourts of heresy banished thousands of the industrious 
citi/f:ns, many of whom sought refuge in England, where they 
estahliahed •{ ilk -factories, and contributed greatly to stimulate 
Knglish commerce. P'earful havoc was committed by the cruel 
Spaiiinii soldiery in loTB (Pyuria Espagnole*), when the city was 
unsr.rupulously pillaged, its central part burned down, and 7000 
of its inhabitants slain by fire and sword ; it afterwards suffered 
severely during a siege of fourteen months, followed by its capture 
by Duke Alexander of Parma in 1585, when the population was 
reduced to 85,000 ; and in 1589 the population had farther dwindled 
to 55,000. In addition to these disasters, the city lost the greater 
part of its cx>mnierce, which fell into the hands of the Dutch after the 
union of the Seven Provinces, while the Peace of Westphalia finally 
closed the Scheldt against sea-going vessels in 1648. In 1790 the 
population had sunk to 40,000 souls. The collapse of the Austrian 
supremacy saw the dawn of a happier period. In 1795 tbe French 
extortJ'.d from Holland tbe abolition of the Scheldt dues by the Treaty 
of The Hague. Napoleon I., who recognised the strategical impor- 
tance of tho situation of Antwerp, caused a harbour and new quays 
to bf, const,rii(t(!d In 1800-1803 (comp. p. 198); and In 1806 about 
'2400 vesKidrt of 1M5,000 tons* burden entered the port, while its 
indirttry had also undergone an astonishing revival. In 1814 the 
cliy was di^fnnded against the Allies by Camo% but was surrendered 
io ihfi It r Utah under Gen. Graham, and attei^aida VTvcAx^iated with 
t/uf nowly-ronntitutQd kingdom of tbe "NetliwUiv^^. tV^ft -^twu^vASb^ 

History, ANTWERP. 14. BouU. 165 

of Antwerp received a new impetus from tlie trade which it now 
carried on with the Dutch colonies (in 1830 population 73,500), 
hut it was again utterly ruined hy the revolution of 1830, in which 
the citizens participated sorely against their will, and which diverted 
its trade to Rotterdam and Amsterdam. In 1830 the town was 
occupied by the Belgian insurgents and was bombarded from the 
S. Citadel by the Dutch general Ghass^, who in his turn was 
besieged here by the French for two months in 1832. It was 
many years before Antwerp began to recover from these calam- 
ities. Indeed the tide of prosperity did not again set in fully till 
1863 , when the right of levying navigation dues on the Scheldt, 
granted to Holland by the peace of 1839, was commuted for a sum 
of 36,000,000 fr., one-third paid by Belgium and the rest by the 
other powers interested. Since that date, however, its commerce has 
rapidly increased, and many German and other foreign merchants 
have settled here. In 1840-49 the port was entered annually by 
some 1544 ships of 242,468 tons' burden; in 1870-78, by 4510 ships 
of 2,083,516 tons; in 1903, by 5761 ships of 9,131,831 tons (5250 
steamers, 511 sailing-ships). In 1860 the value of the imports was 
335 million francs , in 1902 it was about 1779 million francs; within 
the same period the value of the exports rose from 288 million to 
1642 million francs. The principal imports are wheat, coffee, hops, 
tobacco, wool, hides, petroleum, and timber. The most Important 
industries of the city are diamond-cutting, cigar-making, lace-mak- 
ing, sugar- refining, brewing, and distilling. Antwerp is also an 
emigration-port of some importance (64254 emigrants in 1903). 

Antwerp is the principal arsenal of the kingdom of Belgium, 
and since 1859 it has been made, by Oen. BricUmont and others, 
one of the strongest fortresses in Europe. The city and river are 
defended by a number of advanced forts as well as by broad and 
massive ramparts, 11 M. in length. Part of the environs can be 
placed under water. Antwerp is intended to serve as the rendezvous 
of the Belgian army, should it be compelled, in case of the violation 
of the neutrality of the country, to retire before an enemy of su- 
perior force. It is calculated that it would require an army of 
260,000 men to besiege it effectually, and at least a year to re- 
duce it by starvation. 

Antwerp is one of the most interesting towns in Belgium. The 
numerous masterpieces of painting which it possesses afford one of 
the best proofs of its mediaBval prosperity. Quinten Matsys^ Teniers 
(father and son), Rubens , Van Dyck , Jordaens , Com. de Vos , and 
Seghers lived and worked in this city. 

MoDEBN Aht. In the third decade of the 19th cent. Antwerp made 
a vigorous effort to regain the artistic pre-eminence which it so gloriously 
asserted during the i7th century. M. /. Van Brtt CLTT^^Saa^^ ¥.dABraOR.€VA« 
(1792-1883), and others, who trod in the wonVe^ ^«A^i?i o^ ^*"^^^lf' -SSv-^ 
were succeeded by revolutionaries, wbosfe NTOtVLa cX^^wcVj "^^TJ^^^ ^^^v-ta. 
connection with the political agitation fox lYie a<iv«^T«.Vvo^ ^l^^^^^js"- 

166 Route U. ANTWERP. Art HUtory. 

Holland. But this predominance of patriotic themes was transitory; and 
a more important and more lasting e£fort was next made to resiueitate 
the ancient national style of art, and to revive a m»% appreciation of 
Babens and his contemporaries. Ouatav Wappert (ls06-74) was the first 
to break ground with his ^Burgomaster Van der Werf daring the siege of 
Leyden* (1830) and his 'Scene from the Belgian Revolution of 1830' (J^), 
both of which were received with great am)laute, however theatrical they 
may now seem. Nieaise de Keyter (1813-87) and Emeti Slinffetuifer (1820-94) 
adopted a similar style in their battle-pieces. Hendrik Leys (1815-68), how- 
ever, the founder of the so-called ^archaic schoor, made a much more 
decided return to the old style. After a preliminary period of enthusiasm 
for the great masters of the 17th cent., Leys finally adopted the concep- 
tions of the early -German and early- Flemish schools. The 15th and 
16th cent, figures in the pictures by this master seem as if they had stepped 
out of canvasses by Diirer or Matsys. Jos. Lies (1SM.-65), V. Za^rye (1825-96), 
Fr. H. Yinck (b. 1827), P. van der Ouderaa (b. 1841), and Atbrecht de Vrimdt 
(1843-1900), all followers of Leys, are still highly esteemed in Antwerp. 
Henri de Braekeleer (18^10 88), a pupil of Leys, carried this ^retrospective" 
art into a new sphere, and depicted the quiet and simple life of artizans 
with the eye of a Pieter de Hooch or a Vermeer van l)elft. The Dutch 
painter Alma Tadema (b. 1836), who pursues the archaic style with such 
distinguished success, was also a pupil of Leys. 

J. B. Kindermans (1822-76) and /. P. F. Lamoriniire (b. 1828) both belong 
to the elder generation of landscape-painters-, while newer methods are 
represented by Adr. Heymant (b. 1839) and Th. Verstraeie (b. 1851), who 
settled in the country village of Brasschaet (p. 199), imitating the masters 
of the Barbison school. 

Jan Siobbaertsib. 1838) paints labourers, landscapes, and still-life, some- 
times with an almost repulsive naturalism, in the style of Courbet. Charles 
Verlat (1825-90), whose 'Cart and Horses' (p. 193), painted in 1857, is a large 
street-scene in the spirit of Courbet, made a name for himself as an animal- 
painter also •, but after a visit to the East he devoted himself to religious 
subjects treated in the modern realistic spirit. Alex. Stntifs (b. 1852; now 
in Malines) has recently excited attention by the uncompromising realism 
of his scenes of social wretchedness. 

a. The Central Fart of the Old Town. 

The main approach from the Central Station (p. 159) to the Old 
Town is the broad Avenue De Keyzer (PI. D, 3 ; tramways No8.2 & 3, 
p. 161), or De Keyzer Lei, the most frequented thoroughfare in the 
city, especially on summer-evenings (numerous caf^s). 

Beyond the line of avenues (p. 194) is the Place Teniera (PI. C, 3). 
The short Rue Leys, much widened in 1899, and containing the large 
Tietz Emporium (1.) and other handsome buildings, leads hence to 
the W. to the — 

Place de Mbir (PI. 0, 3, 41, the finest open space in the old 
town, which has been formed by the arching over of a canal. This 
Place, with the streets leading to the W. (towards the Place Verte) and 
to the S. (Rue des Tanneurs, p. 193), is the chief centre of business in 
Antwerp, with the principal restaurants, caf6s, and 'taYerneB'(p.l60). 
To the left, on the S. side, is the ThSQtre desVariitis (Pi. 0,4; p. 166), 
by Van Oonen (1902-4) ; and farther on, on the same side (No. 50), is 
the JioYAi/PAi/A OB, erected in 1745 from plans by Van Bauraeheit^ for 
Van SuBteren, a wealthy citizen of A^rvWet^. Iw \>\fe'^xyfc'Bj?i\i«o>v 
here diverging to the S., behind tlift ^ou»a* ^o*. "^ &.^ ^'i^^'^ *» 

nJJrfnJ^ ^ 1^ 






8 ; 

^'^I ,tii-ii'^' 



Old Town, ANTWERP. 14, Route, 167 

a liaudsome garden-portico and a summer-honse, forming the only 
remains of the Rubena Housey bnilt by the illnstrious painter him- 
self in 1611, and the scene of his death on May 30th, 1640. 

The Rue des Donze Mois (Twaalf-Maanden-Straat) leads from the 
N. side of the Place de Meir to the ^Bourse, Handelsbeurs ^ or Ex- 
chanje (PI. 0, 3), erected in 1868-72 on the site of a fine late-Gothic 
structure of 1531 (by Dom. de Waghemakerj see p. 168), which was 
the oldest exchange in Europe but was burned down in 1581 and 
in 1858. The new edifice, designed by Jos, Sehaddey is in the same 
style as its predecessor, but on a much larger scale, and has an 
entrance on each of the four sides. The hall,. which is covered with 
glass, is 56 yds. long and 44 yds. wide , and is surrounded by a 
double arcade, borne by 68 columns (all of different designs) and 
opening towards the centre in Moorish-Gothic trefoil arches. Above 
these is a gallery borne by 38 columns, adjoining which is the Tri- 
bunal de Commerce, The ceiling is borne by an elegant wrought- 
iron framework, and the walls are adorned with the arms of Ant- 
werp, the Belgian lion, and the arms of the different provinces of 
Belgium. In the angles between the arches are the arms of the chief 
seafaring nations. Except during business-hours (see p. 162), the 
building is used as a public thoroughfare; ascents to the galleries 
adjoining the N., W., and S. portals. 

From the Pont de Meir (or Meirbrug), the short street at the 
W. end of the Place de Meir, we may proceed either vl& the MarcM 
aux Souliers (Schoenmarkt), with its numerous shops, or via the 
Marchi aux (Euf$ (Eieren-Markt), to the Place Vbktb (^Oroenplaats ; 
PI. B, 4; band, see p. 162), formerly the churchyard of Notre Dame, 
adorned with a Statue of Bubeiui, in bronze, by W. Oeefa (1843). 
The scrolls and books, together with the brush, palette, and hat which 
lie at the feet of the statue, are allusions to the pursuits of the master 
as a diplomatist and statesman, as well as as a painter. The site of the 
General Post Office^ on the S. side of the Place, was, in the 16th cent., 
occupied by the *f actory' of the great commercial house of the Welsers 
of Augsburg. On the N. side, almost in the centre of the crowded 
oldest part of the city, which extends from the Scheldt to the 
Rempart Ste. Catherine (Katelyne-Vest ; PI. B, C, 3, 4) on the E., 
and to the Rempart du Lombard (PI. B, 4), on the S., rises the — 

"^Cathedral {Notre Dame; PI. B, 3), the largest and most beau- 
tiful Gothic church in the Netherlands. It is of cruciform shape, 
with triple aisles and ambulatory. It was begun in 1352 under the 
superintendence of Jean Amel or Appelmans of Boulogne. After his 
death in 1398 the work was continued by his son Peter, who was suc- 
ceeded by Jean Tac in 1434. and Master Everaert in 1449. To this 
period (1352-1449) belong the choir with its ambulatory and chapels^ 
the sacristies, and the tower up to the fttat ^■aWerj. "IV^ "».^««» 
were hunt in 1426-1500, At the beghmiiift ol V\i^ V^^ ^^"^ '^'^ 
balldlng' operations were directed \)7 Herman d* ^o.«j>v««>.o>r«« 

168 BouUU, ANTWERP. Old Taun: 

(d. 1503) and Ms son Dominic, the chief eyidences of whose skill 
are the dome above the crossing and the late-Gothic apper part of 
the N. tower, the final pinnacle dating probahly from 1592. The 
S. tower was left unfinished in 1474, when only a thiid of the 
contemplated height had been reached. The nave and aisles were 
not vaulted till 1611-16. In 1533 the church was serioasly damaged 
by fire, in 1566 by puritanical zealots, and again in 1794 by French 
Republicans. A restoration has been begun under Fr, Durl€t(d, 
1867) and E. Eife^ and the main facade and part of the N. side have 
been laid bare, but the rest of the exterior is still disflgared by 
the mean houses clustered around it. The present cathedral-arohi- 
tect, Frans Baeekelmans, has restored the W. facade (1901-3), the 
elaborate portal of which is adorned with a modern Gothic relief 
by J. B, van Wint. 

The ^Interior (adm., see p. 163) is grand and impressive, and 
the rich perspective of its six aisles is very effective. Its length is 
384 ft. ; width of nave 171 ft., of transept, 212 ft. ; height 130ft. 
Its area amounts to 70,000 sq. ft. (that of Cologne Cathedral is 
66,600, St. Paul's in London 84,000, St. Peter's at Rome 162,000 
sq. ft.). The vaulting is supported by 125 pillars. The level of the 
pavement has been several times raised. 

The S. Transept, entered from the Place Verte, contains Rubenti's 
far-famed masterpiece, the **Descent from the Cross (pp. liv, Iv), a 
winged picture, painted in 1611-12 (in Paris from 1794 to 1816; 
restored in 1852). On the inside of the wings are the Salutation, 
and the Presentation in the Temple, on the outside St. Christopher 
carrying the Infant Saviour, and a hermit. The Mary in a blue 
robe and the figure with a basket in the wings are portraits of the 
master's first wife and his daughter respectively. For this picture 
the painter received 2400 fl. and a small piece of ground to round 
off his estate. In the N. transept is Rubena^s ^Elevation of the 
Cross, painted in 1610, soon after his return from a residence of 
eight years in Italy and while the master was still under the in- 
fluence of Michael Angelo (also in Paris from 1794 to 1816). On 
the right wing is a group of Roman soldiers, with their centurion, on 
the left are the Virgin, St. John, and a group of mourning women. 

The Descent from the Cross is the most magnificent of these cel- 
ebrated pictures. The white lineu on which the body of the Saviour lies ia 
a peculiar and very effective feature in the composition, osoally said to be- 
borrowed from a similar work by Daniele da Volterra at Rome. The principal 
figure itself is admirably conceived and carefully drawn, and the attitude 
extremely expressive of the utter inertness of a dead body. Two of the 
three Maries are more attractive than is usual with Bubens''s female figures, 
but the flabby countenance of Joseph of Arimathsea exhibits neither sen- 
timent nor emotion. The arrangement of the whole is most masterly and 
judicious, the figures not too ponderous ,- and the colouring rich and har- 
monious, while a degree of sentiment is not wanting, so that this work ia 
well calculated to exhibit Bubens^s wonderful genius in the most fiayourable 
JJghf. According to a well-known anecdo\e, IVvia v^cVwte^ when iji an un- 
JSnJsjbed state, fell from the easel in Rubens' a abaeiic^i. VanDvctt^vk^^^iMii^ 
skilful of bis pupils, was chosen to repair i\iedwnA%fc^N»\Ac\iV*«i^w» 

Caikedral. ANTWERP. 14. Route, 169 

ceflsfollv. that Bubens on his return declared that hia pnpll''s work sur- 
passed his own. The parts thus said to have been retouched are the face 
of the Virgin and the arm of the Magdalen. 

The popular story with regard to the origin of this famous picture is 
another of those picturesque fictions which modern investigation has so 
rudely dispelled. Bubens is said to have been employed by the Guild of 
Arquebusiers to paint an altar-piece representing their patron saint ^St.Chris- 
tophorus^ (<.e. Hhe bearer of Ghrisf*), as the price of which he was to re- 
ceive a piece of ground from them as a site for his house. Instead of ful- 
filling the contract literally by painting a single picture of St. Christopher, 
Bubens generously determined to produce a far mure noble work by repre- 
senting the ^bearing of Chrisf allegorically, viz. in the principal picture 
Christ borne by his friends, in one wing by his Virgin mother before the 
Kativity, and in the other by the aged Simeon in the Temple. The picture 
was finished and shown to the Arquebusiers, who could not fail to be grati- 
fied by its magnificence; but the allegorical mode of its execution was 
entirely lost upon them, and they complained that there was no St. Chris- 
topher. In order to satisfy them, Bubens then proceeded to paint St. Chris- 
topher in person on the outside of one shutter, while on the other he 
represented a hermit with a lantern, and an owl, emblematical, it was 
said , of the obtuseness of the worthy Arquebusiers. The facts of the 
case, however, were simply these. A dispute having arisen about the cost of 
a wall which separated Bubens''s property from that of the Arquebusiers, the 
burgomaster Bockox. the captain of the guild and a friend of Bubens, 
persuaded him to paint this picture in order to equalize the price to be 
paid by each party. The hermit and the owl are well-known features in 
every picture relating to the legend of St. Christopher. 

The Elbvatioit of the Cross, although inferior, is also a magni- 
ficent work. The figures are remarkable for their easy and natural atti- 
tudes, although inclined to be too heavy. The great life which pervades 
the whole, and the variety of the composition, compensate to some extent 
for deficiency of sentiment. In the figures of Christ and his executioners, 
the master displays his thorough acquaintance with the anatomy of the 
human frame. The horses are noble and lifelike, and a dog has even been 
introduced to give greater diversity to the scene. The latter was added 
by Bubens in 1627 (see below). The wings form part of the same subject. 
On the right is a group of women and children, with horror depicted in 
their countenances, behind them are the Virgin and St. John *, on the left, 
mounted officers, behind them the thieves, who are being nailed to their 
crosses by the executioners. — This painting, for which Bnbens received 
2600 florins, was originally the high-altar piece of the church of St. Wal- 
purgis, and was retouched by the artist in 1627. Three easel-paintings 
and a representation of God the Father which hung above the main picture 
were sold by the church-authorities in 1737 and have since disappeared. 
The present painting was placed in the cathedral in 1816. 

Choir. The high-altar-piece (covered) is an *A88umptlon by 
Bubens, painted in 1626. This picture ranks with the Assumption 
in the Imperial Museum at Vienna as one of the best of the ten 
canvasses Rubens devoted to this subject. The high-altai dates from 
1824. — The rich Gothic Stalls, designed by Fr. Durlet, are adorned 
with reliefs from the life of the Virgin and with figures of the 
Fathers of the Ohurch and of the Founder^ of the great Monastic 
Orders, by K. Oeerts (1840), J. de Boecb^ and J. B. van Wint (1883). 

The other works of art in the cathedral are mainly modern and 
all very inferior in Interest to the three pictures by Rubens. We 
1>egin to the S., in the — 

Ambulatory, ist Chapel (on t\ie S.y. mo^eiw ^XaVsv^^^ ^^'^'^> 
by Didron of Paris (1872), represeating t\ie ^outiv\si% q^'^. ^^^^^^ 

MOWrtiUU. ANTWERP. Old Town: 

iif ('lirlrii. ■ '2ii(l (!hap»I: Rubens, the Resurrection, painted in 
\{\\'Z for llio tomb of hiH friend, tbe printer Moretns (see p. 178); 
(»ti tlin iiiHidn of the shutters John the Baptist and St. Martina, 
(til iho oiilnidn anf;(*.Is. Opposite is a portrait of St. Norbert, by 
M. Veinjn, TIia rarvod confessionals in this and the following 
oIi.i|)«»1h nrn by P, Verhruygen. The best view of the Assnmption 
ti obtnintMl from tbiH chapel. — 3rd Chapel: Artua Quellin the 
VoiHiiyrr, M.-irblo monumont of Bishop Ambrosias Gapello (d. 1676), 
tUi> only monumiMit of a bisbop in the church which escaped destruc- 
lion ill rrUl. I ntorostinp altar-piece of the 5cfcoof 0^ Cologne (14th 
riM\t . ), roprosontinjt St. Mirbacl and the dragon with Christ enthion- 
0(1. ani^oN, .ind saints. — ith Chapel: J. de Backer, Last Judgment, 
on tUo winjss. iHUir-ilts of tbo Plantin family by B. Sammeling 
^ l.»\M . souoTrtllv iwerodV, above, portrait of Chris. Plantin, the 
pi'.utoT {\\ [*^), by >V. ,7. //rPf^yns; beneath it the tombstone of 
ri.intm. >>iib ins«*ription by Justus l.ipsiu*. — 0th Chapel : Modem 
•tAV\.\l j-.Iass by .-1. Stiilin.* and .4. Jimsfens. after /. Bethune\ 
\\\.\w\\\ A;<vo ^^t^;^^tyoh1 by J. AntV"«j,'(iS901. — 6th Chapel: 
M,s^'v:\ st','.;u' i j:'.a<* by t^o #Ame arti$t5. The painted group of the 
Ml-;,". VV'".,'-.,^>i -.s V> .A. Owr;,:*! r.e Flifr. — At the bick of the 
V.'.,-.\ :/,,'.. ?V.«^ lS\:vc M^7>. X '.ATie picture by .4hr. .Vjftivj> ^i6>4). 
li»-.."» \'.. *,\c V.ATT'.sii^ 0^ tV.e v^Ttin, the Ar:T\unri*t:^n, and the 
\ .>-.;ti..':-. VA.-.^;\'. '.r. iT-.s *'.".> w::>. £r*it fttlll ^y M. I. z^jm Bret 
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Cathedral. ANTWERP. U.RouU. 171 

1866), that above the portal pourtTaylng Archduke Albert and his 
consort Isabella, another representing Godfrey de Bouillon founding 
the Order of the Canons of St. Michael. On the left, Fr. Franeken 
the Elder y Christ and the Doctors, among whom are portraits of 
Luther, Calvin, and Erasmus; on the wings, St. Ambrose and the 
prophet Elias (1586); opposite, Abr, Janssens^ four church-fathers. 
— S. Transept: Large stained -glass window after J. Bethune, 
the Patron Saints of the Arts (1870); on the left, O. Seghers (?), 
St. Francis ; on the right, M. de Fo«, Marriage at Cana ; Van Veen, 
Last Supper. — The dome above the crossing is adorned with an 
Assumption by Corn, Schut (1647). 

The Nave and aisles contain some ancient and modern stained 
glass windows. In the former (left) are two windows of 1537 (Ado- 
ration of the Magi, Conversion of St. Paul), restored by Statins and 
Janssens. — The Pulpit, with its trees and birds carved in wood, 
is by Af. van der Voort (1713). 

The Lady Chapel, in the N. aisle, contains a marble altar, con- 
structed in 1825 in exact imitation of an altar by Art. Quellin the 
Younger and P. Verbruggen the Elder, which had been destroyed in 
1794. The four reliefs, representing the Annunciation, Visitation, 
Presentation in the Temple, and Assumption, are the original ones 
by Quellin. The modern s^i^d glass by Statins and Janssens 
(1878-81) refers to the worSmp of the Virgin in Antwerp. The 
much -belauded head of Christ on white marble, on the pillar to 
the right of the altar, once ascribed to Leonardo da Vinci, is by 
Otho van Veen. 

In the S. aisle, the Passion in 14 scenes, painted in the medi- 
aeval style by Vincb and Hendriz, pupils of Leys, in 1865-67. 
The Chapel op the Sacrament, at the E. end of the aisle, contains 
an altar-piece, Christ at Emmaus, by W. J. Herreyns (1808), and a 
tabernacle in gilded copper by Hendr. Verbruggen. The finest of 
the stained-glass windows is one erected by Count Engelbert II. of 
Nassau (p. 442), executed by Nic. Rombouts in 1503 (Last Supper, 
]}i the middle of the 17th cent.) and restored by J. B. Capronnier 
jn 1870. Other subjects represented [are St. Amandus preaching 
Christianity at Antwerp, St. Norbert preaching against the heretic 
Tanchelinus at Antwerp, both by Didron (1872); SS. Peter and 
Paul, by J. B. Capronnier (1867) ; SS. John the Baptist and John 
the Evangelist, of the 16th century. — The Chapellb desMarliqes 
(closed), at the W. end of the S. aisle, contains stained glass by 
Abr. van Diepenbeeck (1635). The altar-pieee is a Holy Family by 
H, van Balen, in a landscapejby J. Brueghel. The statue of the 
Virgin is by A. Quetlin'the Elder, 

The Organ, with 90 registers, was built in 1891, and la t\^<^ 
largest in Belgium. The old organ-case, ml\i ^ %\.^\.Mfe Qll'$i\..^'6r 
clUa, is hy P. Verbruggen, Organ lecltaVa oil ^xm^vj^ ?^tv^ \««JCv*t^.% 
At ii A.m. (chair 5c.), 

172 RouUU. ANTWERP. OldTdwn: 

The crucijQlx inside tbe Main Portal in the W. facade was east 
hy J. CouthaU in 1635 with the metal of a statae formally erected 
in the citadel by the Duke of Alva to himself , ^ex acre eaptivO*. 

The N. TowBR (402 ft.), the beautiful and elaborate open 
work of which was compared by Charles V. to Mechlin lace, com- 
mands an extensive view. The entrance is on the W. facade, near 
the side-door (open all day j adm. 50 c). 

The ascent is fatiguing; 514 steps lead to the first gallery, and 108 
more to the second and highest. With the aid of a good telescope, tbe 
spectator may in clear weather trace the coarse of the Scheldt as far as 
Flashing, and distinguish the towers of Bergen-op-Zoom, Breda, Lierre, 
Brussels , and Malines. The Chimes consist of 40 bells ; the largest, east 
in 15Cr7, weighs 8 tons. At its consecration Charles V. stood *godfaiher\ 

In the March^ aux Gants, opposite the door of the tower, is the 
so-called Matsys Well, of the end of the 15th cent., protected by 
a Gothic canopy of iron, and surmounted by a statue of SalTius 
Brabo (see below). It is said to have been executed by Quinten Matays 
• (d. 1529), 'm synen tyt grofsmidt, en daemaer famuea sehilder* (^*at 
one time a blacksmith, afterwards a famous painter^), according to 
the inscription on his tombstone, which was formerly immured 
opposite the well and is now replaced by a copy (original in the 
Academy). This remarkable and talented man was originally a 
blacksmith from Lou vain, who, according to the legend, became 
enamoured of the daughter of a pail^!%Bf^nd to propitiate the father, 
exchanged the anvil for the palette. 

From the Matsys Well the short Rue des Emaux (Maaldery- 
Straat) leads to the N.W. to the Grand' Place (Oroote Markt; 
PL B, 3), which is adorned with the Brabo Foantaiiii erected in 
1887 from the designs of Jef Lambeauv. This is surmounted by a 
statue of Salvius Brabo, a mythical hero who defeated and cut off 
the hand of the giant Antigonus. The giant used to exact a heaTy 
toll from vessels entering the Scheldt, and ruthlessly cut off and 
threw into the river a hand of every shipmaster who refused to pay. 
nence the old explanation of the name of the town (^Antwerp', 
from 'hand werpen' ; werpen = to throw; comp., however, p. 163). 
— On the W. side of the Grand' Place rises the — 

♦Hdtel de ViUe or Stadhuis (PL B, 3) erected in 1561-65 in 
the Renaissance style by Comelis de Vriendt^ and restored in its 
present form in 1581, after its partial destruction by the Spaniards. 
The facade, 256 ft. in length and 101 ft. in height, rises over a 
rusticated groundfloor in red marble, with arcades in two principal 
stories (Doric and lontc), resting on massive pillars. At the top is 
a colonnade which supports the roof. The central part, with its 
circular arched windows, rises in three additional stories, diminish- 
ing in size as they ascend, to a height of 183 ft. In a niche aboye 
stands the Virgin as the tutelary saint of the city^ a figure pltoed 
Aere in 1585; below this, on the tigVvt atv^ \eX\., w^ «}\«i2an\<8il 
figures of Wisdoni and Justice. 

mteldeVUU. ANTWERP. 14. Route, 173 

The Interior (adm., see p. 162; entr. for sigbUeers by "No. 9, the 
third door from the S.E. corner) was thoroughly restored in 1882-99 from 
designs by If. J, Dens, The Staiboasb (E$ealier d'honneur^ TrapxacU) is 
lavishly decorated with coloured Belgian marble, and the glass roof is 
supported by carved wooden' Caryatides, representing different branches 
of industry. The mural paintings on the first floor , executed in 1898-99 
after designs by A. d$ VHendt^ commemorate the period of Antwerp^s 
zenith, in the 16th century. On the left, P. VerTuwt^ Shipping (the 
burgomaster welcoming the captains of the first sugar-ships to arrive from 
the Canary Islands, 1506) \ Ch. Boom^ Commerce (opening of the Exchange, 
1682). On the right, H. Houben, Music (Benedictus de Hertogen performing 
before the magistrates, 1514); JS. de Jaru^ Fine Arts (the burgomaster 
greeting Quinten Matsys as president of the Guild of St. Luke, 1520); 
E. Faratptij Literature (the magistrates receiving *De Violieren', the victo- 
rious club in the contest of ^Bederykamers' at Ghent in 1539; comp. p. 108). 
The bronze candelabra are by Al/. van Beurden. 

The rooms are all embellished with carved wooden panelling. The 
BuRGOMASTEB^s RooM coutains a Chimney Piece ^ finely sculptured in the 
BenaissHnce style, from the old Abbey of Tongerloo (p. 2C3), representing 
the Last Supper, above which are the Raising of the Serpent, the Cruci- 
Hxinn, and Abraham''s Sacrifice. — Passing through an anteroom, with 
numerous portraits of the royal family by Van Bree^ Wappere, and Ific, 
de KeyseTy we enter the handsome great ball, or Balls Lbts, decorated 
in 1864-69 with a series of admirably exeonted paintings by H, Leye 
(p. 166): 1. (end-wall), Independence, or Solemn Entry of Charles V., who 
swears to respect the privileges of the city, 1014; 2. (on the principal 
wall), Self Defence, or the Burgomaster van Ursele entrusting the 
magistrate Van Spanghen with the command of the municipal guard for 
the defence of the city, 1541; 3. Municipal Bights, or the rights of 
citizenship conferred on Batt. Pallavicini of Genoa, 1541; 4. (end-wall). 
Self Government, or Margaret of Parma committing the keys of the city 
to the burgomaster during the troubles of 1566. Also portraits of twelve 
princes celebrated in the annals of the country, from Henry I. of Lorraine 
(1220) and Jan I. of Brabant (1290) to Philippe le Bel (1491), most of whom 
granted privileges to the town. — The following anteroom contains 
mural paintings by H, Leyt (1855), removed from his house in the Rue 
Leys, pulled down in 1898. <— In the Sallb deb Mariagbs (Trouwzaai)^ 
completed in 1886, are a Renaissance chimney-piece of the 16th cent., 
in black and white marble, and five frescoes by Lagye (1887-91), a pupil 
of Leys: 1. Marriage among the Belgse; 2. Roman marriuge ; 3. First Christian 
marriage in Antwerp (650); 4. Marriage of Philippe le Bel and Joanna of 
Castile (1497); 6. First civil marriage in Antwerp (1796). — The Sallb 
i>B MiLiOB contains a modern chimney-piece with statues of princes, 
by Alph. Peters, and several portraits of princely personages by If. de 
Keyeer and O, Wappers. — The Sallb du Comseil (Raadetacd) contains ceil- 
ing-paintings by /. de Roore (1717) and lifesize portraits of the royal family 
by De Keyser and JVappere. — The antechamber has a chimney-piece by 
Com. de Vriendt, with a relief of the Judgment of Solomon ; also a painting 
by Oodding, representing Burgomaster Van Straelen led to execution after 
being tortured by command of the Duke of Alva, in 1568. 

The space in front of the H6tel de Yille commands an excellent 
view of the Oathedral. 

Most of the houses in the Grand' Place are Guild Houses, 
formerly belonging to the different corporations, and dating from 
the 16th and 17th centuries. Of the Renaissance structures on the 
N. side, two (Nos. 13 & 19) were rebuUt in 1900 and 1903. Between 
these are the HcUl of the Coopers (Maison des TomiftUftx^\ "^^.SS^^ 
built in 1679, renewed in 1628, and sVace ttftft\i t^^\.wl^^^ w^S^-Cea 
£ye'Btoned Guild HaU of the Archers (M-aiaon ^ft \«.^\«NS\ft K-^i^*^ 

174 BouUU, ANTWERP. Old Town: 

01 Oude Voetboog; No. 17), of 1516 (rebuilt in 1680), with a gable 
ill two stones surmounted by a gilded equcstria n figure of St. George. 
OntheS.E. are tbe House of the Clothiers (Maison des Drapiers; 
No. 36) and the Hall of the Carpenters (Maison des OharpentleiB ; 
No. 40), both originally of the 15th cent., but rebuilt in 1542 and 
1644. In the house No. 4 the painter A, van Dyck was born in 1599. 
From the Grand' Place the busy Canal au Sucre or Suiker-Bui 
(PI. B, 3) leads to the W. tc the Van Dyck Quay. At the corner of 
the latter, to the right, is the so-called Harua- House, built by Jos.. 
Hertogs for a German firm in 1902-1904 and adorned with six alle- 
y gorical figures by Jef Lambeaux (Commerce, Navigation, the Scheldt, 
Rhine, Elbe, and Weser). 

The adjacent Rue des Orf^vres (Zilversmids-Straat) , Rue aux 
From ages (Kaasstraat), and Rue des Tonneliers (KuiperB«Straat) are 
quaint surviYals of old Antwerp. A few yards to the N. of the last, 
in the midst of the poorest and dirtiest part of the old town, lies the 
VieilleBoucherie(Ffee5c/i/iMM;Pl. B,3), or old meat-market, a lofty, 
late-Gothic edifice, constructed in 1501-3 "by Herman de Waghemdker 
(p. 167) in regular courses of red bricks and white stone, with four 
hexagonal turrets. It was purchased by the town in 1899. 

A little to the N.; in the Marche au Retail (Veemarkt), rises 
the Church of St. Paul (PI. B, 3), in the late-Gothic style, which 
formerly belonged to the adjoining Dominican monastery. It was 
erected in 1533-71 , but the choir was not completed until after 

1621. Adm., see p. 163. 

The wall of the X. Aisle of the church is adorned with fifteen 
pictures (some repainted) : Van Balen^ Annunciation ; M. de Vos^ Adoration 
of the Shepherds and Presentation in the Temple; Van Dyek^ Bearing of 
the Cross (youthful work*, 1617); Jordaens. Crucifixion; Vinekboons, Resur- 
rection. — N. Transept: Rubens ^ Scourging of Christ (1617 1 covered); 
at the altar, after Caravaggio^ Virgin of the rosary (the original was sent 
to Vienna as a gift to the Emp. Joseph, who sent this copy as a sab- 
stitute). — Choib. High-Altar by P. Verbruggen^ with altar-piece by Com, 
Celt, Descent from the Cross (1807; covered); at the side, tombs of Henry 
van Varick, Margrave of Antwerp (d. 1641), his wife Anna Damant, and 
Bishop Mich. Ophovius (d. 1637). — 8. Aisle: altar to the left, Babem, 
Assemblage of church-teachers; altar to the right, De Grayer ^ Piet^; 
opposite, Tenters the Elder ^ The Seven Works of Mercy, a curious assemblage 
of cripples of every description. — The fine Renaissance panelling in the 
aisles and transepts and the baroque choir-stalls are by unknown artiflts. 
The church contains an excellent organ. 

The front court contains a ^Mt. Calvary\ an artificial mound covered 
with pieces of rock and slag, garnished with statues of saints, angels, 
prophets, and patriarchs, and surmounted by a crucifix. The grotto below 
is intended to represent the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem (adm. gratis). 

The Rue des Sceurs Noires (Zwart Zusters-Straat) leads hence to 
the E. to the Klapdorp (p.',178). 

b. The North-Eagtem Fart of the Old Town. 
// In tbe Place Conscience, a little to t\vft ^.IS.. ol \\vft c^\.%LQdial, 
Jies the former JeBuitB* Church {8i. Charles BoTTomU-,^\. 'fe^^'Si 

St. Jacques. ANTWERP. 14. RouU. 175 

built In 1614-21 by tbe Jesuit Fr. Aiguillonj probably on the site 
of a Romanesque structure, and sumptuously adorned with marble 
and works of art from plans by Rubens. Rubens himself furnisbed for 
it no fewer than 36 ceiling-paintings (oomp. p. 180). The church was 
struck by lightning in 1718 and burned to the ground, with the ex- 
ception of the choir with its two side-chapels containing three large 
altar-pieces by Rubens (Assumption, Miracles of St. Ignatius Loyola 
and St. Francis Xavier), now preserved in the Imperial Museum at 
Vienna. The church was rebuilt in the style of the original edifice, 
though with less magnificence. Handsome facade. The pleasing bell- 
tower, behind the choir, dates from the 17th century. 

Tbe Interior is in the form of a basilica with galleries and choir- 
apse. Bound the walls runs a handsome carved wooden wainscoting with 
medallions representing scenes from the liyes of SS. Ignatius and Francis 
Xavier, by Van Baurscheit (d. 1746) and Van der Voort (d. 1737). The 
high -altar was designed by Rttbens. Oyer the altar the three following 
paintings are exhibited alternately : C. SchtUy Madonna enthroned; Seghers, 
Christ on the Cross ; Wappers, The Virgin interceding. The statues of SS. 
Francis Borgia and Francis Xayier are by A. Quellin the Elder ^ those of 
SS. Ignatius and Aloysius by A. Colyns de Note (17th cent.). — The Xa<2y 
Chapely next the right aisle, still contains some specimens of the marble 
decoration of the original building. — In the Sacristy is a handsome ivory 
crucifix of the 17th century. 

The building on the W. side of the Place contains the Municipal 
Library (Stadsboekery or Biblioth^que CommunaW), with 60,000 vols. 
(adm., see p. 163) ; in the yestibule is a seated bronze figure of 
Hendrik Conscience^ the Flemish novelist (1812-83), by Fr. Joris. 

The Gourte Rue Neuve and Longue Rue Neuve lead hence to 
the £., passing the Exchange (p. 167; to the right), to St. Jacques. 

The Church of St. Jacques or Sint Jacobs Kerk (PI. 0, 3), in 
the late-Gothic style, was begun in 1491 by Herman de Waghemaker 
(p. 167) and carried on after his death in 1503 by Dom. de Waghe- 
maker and Rombout Keldermans^ but was still unfinished in 1526 
when the work was discontinued. In 1602, after the subsidence of 
the religious troubles of the latter half of ^the 16th century, the 
works were resumed, and the church was completed in 1656 (the 
chief portal being added in 1694). It is a cruciform structure, 
flanked with chapels on each side and in the choir also, and is the 
most important church in Antwerp after the cathedral, which it far 
surpasses in the sumptuousness of its monuments and decorations. 
The wealthiest and most distinguished families at Antwerp here 
possessed their burial-vault&, private chapels, and altars, the most 
interesting of which is that of the family of Rubens, in the am- 

The Intebiob (adm., see p. 163), which is of harmonious pro- 
portions, is lighted by fine stained-glass windows, both ancient and 
modern, the former having been chiefly executed b'^ A. "oa-al^xc^^tv- 
beeck and J. B, van der Veeken, the latter ^i^ J. B, CapTO-umw «sv^ 
^ jF: Plays. 


Tbansbpt. Marble stataes of the Apostles by Yam dtr Voori, 
Kerriex, Dt Cuyper. and others. In the S. arm : EleTati»B of the 
Cross, a high -relief by Van der Voort. 1719. Above the porUl: 
(r. ran Honthor$t, Christ expelling the money-changen from the 
Temple, the wings by De Crayer. — The S. transept is adjoined 
by the — 

Chapbl of thb Host , containing a baroque marble altar, line 
marble screen, and statues of SS. Peter and Paol, by P. Terbruffgenj 
L. WUUmsenfj and W. Kfrriex. To the right of the altar: B. van 
OrUy. Holy Family (a reduced copy of Raphael's large Holy Family, 
in the Loiirre j: Jan Mattyf, Madonna and Child. The stained glass 
of 16*26 represents Rudolph of Hapsburg gUing his horse to the 
priest carr^-ing the monstrance, with the donors below. 

Chole. To the right and left of the entrance: Assamption by 
Th. Boeiermant (1671), Resurrection by E. Ih^ardin (1862). The 
baroque high-altar is by Tkens and others. The statue of St. James 
and the choir-sulls were carved by the older and younger QueUin, 
The stalls still bear the arms of the patricians to whom they once 
belonged. The l^th to the left from the entrance was that of P. P. 

Ambulatory. S. side : By the wall of the choir, Confessionals 
by A. Quellin^ WilUmsens, and others. Above the first of these : 
Ooubau^ Dead body of Christ 1 1655); on either side of the second : 
M. de VoSj Ecce Homo (ib&l\ and Verlinde, Madonna (1870). — 
1st Chapel: H. van BaUn the Elder ^ Trinity; opposite, A. van 
yccrt (p. liii), •The Tribute Money (St. Peter glTing Christ the fish 
with the piece of money"). — On the pier opposite : Com. Sehut, 
Pietk. — 2nd Chapel : Seghers, St. Ives. — 3rd Chapel : Segkers^ 
Appearing of Christ. 

4th. Rubens Chaptl. The tomb of the iUustrions painter (d. 
30th May, 1640. at the age of 64) is covered by a tombstone of 
1755, bearing a long inscription in Latin. The ••Altar-piece of this 
chapel is a late work by Rubens (covered ; best light 12-2 p.m.). 

The Holy Child is represented !>itting in the lap of the Virgia in 
an arboar, and worshipped by St. Bonaventara. Before the MadoBu is 
St. Jer-vme. while on the other side is St. George with three holy women. 
According to tradition these saints are all family portraits. St. Jerome 
is said to be the father nf Babens. St. George the painter himself, and the 
three women hi.4 two wires and Mademoiselle Lnnden, whose portimit 
in the Nati-inal Galler}' at L'indon is famous under the name of the 
*Chapeau de paiUe'. The tradition is, however, doubtful, for the exe- 
cution of the work differs from that usual with Rubens in his later years, 
in which alone the portraits could have been painted. 

The marble carvings on the altar are probably the work of Lue. 
Faid'herbe (d. 1694\ with whom Rubens was intimate. On the right 
and left are the nmnnments of the Baronesses Stier de Aertoalaer 
and Van Havre, two descendants of Rnbens, executed by W. G«e/k 

(i839 and i860). To the right . monMrnetix oi x^ki^ wvl ^t lUbona, 

/>7 A. QuelUn the Eider, 

St. Jacques. ANTWERP. ' 14. BouU. 177 

AboYe the next door : Th. BombouU , Betrothal of St. Catharine 
(1634). — 5th Chapel : JordaenSf San Carlo Borromeo among persons 
sick of the plague. — 6th Chapel : Van Linty St. Peter taking leave of 
St. Paul; opposite, P. Thya, Abraham^s Sacrifice; £>c/ioo{ of Rubens^ 
^Ecclesiastic and two patricians at prayer. — 7th Chapel : Victor 
Wolfvoct^ Visitation (1639). After VanDyck, Crucifixion (orig- 
inal in the Museum). — On the wall of the choir : P. Thya, The 

The Chafbl of thb Yiboin, in the N. transept , contains 
stained glass by J. de Ldbarrc (1641) and stalls by A, Quellin the 
Elder; also, to the left of the altar. A, Quellin the Elder ^ Pietli, a 
small painted sculpture in wood, 1650. 

N. Tbansbft. Above the portal, Q, van Honthorst, Christ among 
the Doctors in the Temple, on the wings, Seghera^ Annunciation, 
and Adoration of the Magi. By the next wall : P. Thya , Assump- 
tion of the Virgin. 

N. AisLB. 2nd Chapel, on theE. : Abraham Janaaena^ Coro- 
nation of the Virgin (triptych); Peter van Avont, Madonna and 
Child in a garden, surrounded by angels; stained glass re- 
presenting the Last Supper, with portraits of the donors, 1538. — 
3rd Chapel : B, van Orley, *Last Judgment ; on the wings St. Adrian 
and the Burgomaster Rockox , the donor of the picture , with his 
three sons ; and St. Catharine and the wife of the burgomaster, with 
their ten daughters. The modern reliefs representing Scenes from 
the Passion, in this ohapel and several of those following, are by 
J, Oeefa, J. and L. de Cuyper, — 4th Chapel : Van Balen the Elder, 
Adoration of the Magi, on the wings Annunciation and Visitation ; 
opposite. Monument of J. Doncker and his wife, with portraits, by 
Kyckaert, — 5th Chapel: to the left, M. de Voaj Mary entering the 
Temple (triptych). Tomb of Com. Landsehot (d. 1656), noted for 
his benevolence, with the inscription : 'men wint den hemel met 
gewelt, of is te koop met kracht van geld\ — 6th Chapel : Tomb 
of the Spanish general Del Pico (d. 1693). — In the nave, *Pulpit 
by WiUemBena, with the symbols of the Evangelists and allegorical 
figures of Truth, Faith, Religion, etc. (1675). 

S. AisLB. We begin to the W. 1st Chapel: A, van Dyck, St. 
George and the dragon ; opposite, wooden statuette of St. Sebastian, 
by A. Quellin the Elder (1661). — 2nd Chapel : M, de Fo», Temp- 
tation of St. Anthony. Opposite, Mater Dolorosa by Ouido Beni, — 
3rd Chapel : E, Quellin the Younger, St. Rochus cured of the plague, 
1660. This and the two following chapels contain twelve small 
scenes from the life of St. Rochus, executed in 1517. — 5th Chapel : 
Fr, Floria, The Holy Women occupied with the Infant Christ and 
St. John ; opposite, monument of Churchwarden Nicolas Mertens 
(d. 1586) and his wife, with portraits, by Arribr. Franekfx^. 

At the B. end of the Longue ^^mn^ -tSa^^ ^^ ^EXwov^^ 
TA^afre (p, 194), while immediately iii UowX. ^1 xJ5i'&^. ^o.xNsiX^ 
Baedekmb'b Belgium and Holland. 14\^'ftAV\.. V>» 

178 BouUld. ANTWEBP. OH 

St. Jacques the Roe da Chene leads from this street to tte Place 
de Meir (p. 166). — We, bowever, proceed to the N., vii die Roe ie 
St Jacques and the Hue de P£mpereuT. No. 25, in the latter street^ 
is the old house of Burgomaster Rockox (p. 186). the facade of 
which was designed by Ruberu. — The Military Hospital f PI. C. 3) 
in the Rue du Prince, a little farther on, occupies the site of the 
bouse of Burgomaster Van Liere, who here entertaiiied Ghailet T. 
during his visit to Antwerp in 1520. Durer praises the huildin^ in 
his diary. 

The old Franciscan monastery (PI. G, 3), Rue dn Fagot 31 (a little 
to the W.), has been occupied from 1663 onwards by the ceiehrated 
Academie Roy ale den Beaux Arts^ which was established at the sug- 
gestion of David Teniers the Younger on the model of the aeademies 
at Rome and Paris, and was richly endowed by Philip IV. of Spain. 
It incorporated the mediaeval guild of St Luke, fbnnded for the 
promotion of art by Philip the Good (p. xxi) about the middle of 
the loth cent., which (until 1773) all artists in Antwerp were 
compelled to join. 

The Rue du Fagot ends to the N.W. in the Klapdorp, in the N.W. 
extension of which fMarche aux Chevaux) is the small Oapvehin 
Church (£r^ Antoine de Padoue; PI. G, 2j, erected in 1589, and con- 
taining two valuable pictures. On the W. wall of the left aisle, ^iett, 
by Van Dyck. In the choir, the first picture on the left, St. Anthony 
receiving the Infant Jesus from the arms of the Virgin, by Rubent. 

c. The South- Western Quarters of the Old Town 

and the Museums. 

From the S.W. conior of the Place Verte (p. 167) the Rne dee 
Peignes and the Rue Nationals (PI. B, 4,5; tramways Nos. 8 
& 4, p. 161), which intersect a little farther on, lead to the S.W. 
part of the old town. — The Rue du Faucon, the second taming 
on the right (W.) in the Rue des Peignes, leads to the small 
March^ du Vendredi, in the S.W. angle of which is the — 

*MuBie Plantin - Moretus (PI. 6, 4), established in the house 
of the celebrated printer Christopher Ptontin (1514-89), who set 
up his printing-office at Antwerp in 1549. From 1576 down to 
the present day the business was carried on in this building, at 
first by Plantin himself, and afterwards by the family of his son- 
in-law Moretus or Moerentorf (d. 1610). After the middle of the 
17th cent, the operations of the firm were confined to the printing 
of missals and prayer-books, for which Plantin had receiyed a mono- 
poly from Philip II. for the dominions of the Spanish crown. When 
this privilege was withdrawn, in IbOO, the printing-office was tem- 
porarily closed^ and afterwards it was \L«ed. onl^ %,t luteiYals down 
to 1676, when the building, with its ai\t\i^\i.^ ImiuVVw^ > 

MuUt Ptantin. ANTWERP. 14. Route. 179 

paintings (90 portraits ; 16 by Rubens, mostly school-pieces), and 
other collections, was purchased by the city of Antwerp. The house 
therefore now presents a unique picture of the dwelling and con- 
tiguous business-premises of a Flemish patrician of the end of the 
16th century. Adm., seep. 163. Catalogue by Max i2oo«« (1902), 1 fr. 
Ground Floor. Above the entrance of the front building, which was 
altered in 1761-63, are the arms of Plantin, carved by A. Quettin the Elder, 
with his motto Lahore et constantiaV Within we turn to the right at 
the foot of the staircase, and enter Room I, which contains some fine old 
Flemish tapestry and a tortoise-shell table. — Rooh II. contains severiJ 
admirable family-portraits. To the right, above the modem mantelpiece 
in the Renaissance style, hangs (No. 5) a portrait of Plantin (1584), which 
served as a model for (12) the other portrait, by Rubens, to the right of 
the door of exit. Rubens also painted the portraits of: 15. Martina Plantin, 
wife of John Moretus (by the window of the entrance-wall); 15 1. John 
Moretus^ 1. Jacob Moretus (d. 155d); 2. Adriana Gras, wife of the last; 
3. Arias Montanus (1527-96), the Orientalist; 4. Abraham Ortelius (1527-93), 
the geographer; 6. Peter Pantinus (15561611); 7. Justus Lipsius (p. 235); 
11. Jeanne Kivi^re, Plantings wife. On the exit-wall : 10, 13. Two sketches by 
Rubens. By the entrance: 152. Rubens, So- called Seneca, a copy in grisaille 
of an ancient bust of a philosopher. In the centre, under glass: Drawings, 
Title Pages, Vignettes, partly by Rubens, who, as appears from receipts 
which are still preserved (in the middle of the window-wall), frequently 
drew designs for the firm; others by E. Quellin the Younger^ A. van Noort, 
Jan van Orley, Marten de Vos, etc. Two fine cabinets of the 17th century. — 
Room III. also contains numerous portraits. On the entrance - wall : 4. 
Balthasar Moretus I. on his death-bed, by Th. Willeboiris (1641) ; 32, 83. 
Magdalena Plantin and her husband, Gillis Beys, by an unknown painter 
(1571). Among the other portraits are six (6-8, 10-12) of celebrated men 
of the 16th and 16th cent, by Rubens, including (7) Pope Leo X. In the 
centre: Manuscripts (9- 16th cent.); specimens of Plantin'^s printing (in- 
cluding No. 65, the celebrated Biblia Polyglotta of 1568-73); letters and 

Quitting this room, we pass a staircase added in 1621 and enter the 
medieeval-looking Court, which is embellished with busts of Plantin and 
the Moretus family. X)ne side is entirely covered by the branches of aged 
vines, said to have been planted by Plantin himself. Below the arcades, 
to the right, is the Salx Room (IV), built in 1638, with a separate entrance 
from the street; adjoining are a smaller sale- room (V) and a spacious 
apartment (VI) containing old Flemish tapestry and a painted spinet of 
1735 (St. Cecilia, after Rubens). The oaken panelling is partly restored. — 
On the other side of the court is the Printing Office, where everything 
is left arranged as if work were to be resumed to-morrow. We first enter 
the Proof Readers'* Room (VII), where old proof-sheets are still lying 
on the desks and benches. Next to this are the Proprietor's Offiox (VIII), 
with gilt-leather hangings, and the so-called Room of Justus Lipsius (IX), 
with Spanish leather hangings, where the distinguished critic and philo- 
logist is said to have been lodged when visiting his publisher Moretus. A 
passage (X) leads hence to the Ttpk Room (XI), with old matrices, etc., 
and three 18th cent, statues in carved wood brought here from another 
part of the house. Finally the Composing and Printing Room (XII), built 
in 1576, by the exit-wall of which stand two presses of the 16th century. 

We now return to the vestibule and ascend the stairs to the First 
Floor. Rooms XIII. & XIV., to the left, contain specimens of the work of 
several famous printing-offices (e.g. the so called Gutenberg^s 36-line Bible; 
in R. XIV.), a plan of Antwerp in the 17th cent., a view of Antwerp b^ 
/. B. Vrients (1610), and an engraving of the ca^ttie^T^Wyw^t \ii ^-wwtd. 
BoUar of Prague (1649 j all these in R. Xllli. Uoo>l^\N. i\%^ <5.^\.^vs.^ 
Bail commode and some Chinese and Japauee^ poTc«A»:vii. —^^•"^'^Jkrvf* 
is B 0mall library, with various interestuis a.\i.\.0€ta.^\xa viv tgii^a^-w.^ 

180 BouU 14, ANTWERP. OU Town: ' 

the window-wall. — Rooms XVI. A XVIII. contain a eoUeotion of wood- 
cuts, a map of Flanders in 1640 (No. 3 in B. XVI.). by Mtrcator, and a 
coloured view of Antwerp in 1566 (No. 4 in S. XVI.), and water-colour 
copies by Jae. de Wit (1711-12) from the paintings of Bnbens for the 
Jesuits* Churcli (p. 174^ B. XVIII). — Boom XIX. contalas old copper- 
plates, with numerous early impressions. — Boom XX., with six family- 
portraits (17-18th cent.), is a sitting-room. — Boom XXI. eontalna the 
documents conferring the various privileges eigoyed by Plantin, indnding 
two (Nos. 2, 1) from Philip U. (1568) and Maximilian U, (1676). — In 
Boom XXII. are copper-plates and engravings after RvJbmt^ Jordaent^ and 
Van Dyek. — Room XXIII. contains worics by celebrated engravers of Ant- 
werp. — Boom XXIV. contains book-bindings and a portrait by Jo». DHim 
of £d. Moretus- Plantin, the last owner of the printing-office (1879). — 
Farther on are two Bedboomb (XXV, XXVI), fitted up with old furniture. 
On the Second Floor is the Ttpb Fodmdbt (XXVII, XX VIII). ~ Passing 
through the two Libbabies (XXIX, XXX) and the Mukimbnt Boom (XXXI), 
we return to the staircase. 

From the Maicb^ du Vendiedl we proceed to the S.W. through 
the short Ruelle du Vendredi and the Rue des Chevaliers, and then 
to the left, through the Rue des Augustins, to the — 

Church of St. Andrew (PL B, 4), a late -Gothic edifice of 
1514-23 , contaiuing unimportant works of art (adm., see p. 163). 

Navb. The pulpit, in carved wood, is by Van Oeel and Van Moot 
(18th cent.). St. Peter and St. Andrew are represented in a boat on the 
sea, from which they are summoned by the Saviour. Side-altar on the 8. : 
Pepyn^ Cruciiixion; on the N., Francken^ St. Anna teaching children. — ]^ 
the N. Chapel of tub Choib: Oovaerts^ Flight into Egypt; JSeghers^ St. 
Anna instructing the Virgin. — Choib. By the entrance are two statues, 
(left) St. Peter by A. Quellin (he Younger, and (right) St. Paul by ^etetu. 
Paintings: 0. Vaenius, Crucifixion of St. Andrew; Bratmut QisiUn the 
Younger^ Guardian angel of youth. The figures on the high-altar (Assump- 
tion) are by P. Verbruggen. — S. Chapel of the Choib: Franchm^ Last 
Supper (altar-piece); Seghers, Baising of Lazarus; E. Quellin^ Christ at 
Emmaus; E. Quellin, Holy Family. — Tbansbpts. The modem altar-pieces 
are by J. B. van Eyeken^ Ch. Verlat, and others. On a pillar in the 8. 
transept is a small medallion-portrait of Mary, Queen of Scots (by Pourtu$)y 
with an inscription in memory of that unfortunate sovereign and of two 
of her ladies-in-waiting who are interred in this church. 

We now cross the Rue Natlonale, in which, to the left, stands a 
monument to the Flemish poet Theodore van Byswych (PL B, 4), 
by L. de Cuyper (1864), and follow the Rue de la Clef, to the Bue 
des Peignes (p. 178). We reach this street at the — 

Chnrch of St. Augustine (PI. B, 4; adm., see p. 163), erected 
in 1615, which possesses some old pictures. In the right aisle : Jae, 
JordaenSj Martyrdom of St. ApoUonia. Left aisle: Jlf. I. van Bree, 
Baptism of St. Augustine ; A. van Dyck, Vision of St. Augastine 
(1628). The high-altar is by P. Verbruggen. The ♦Altar-piece, by 
RubenSj a composition with numerous figures, represents the Nup- 
tials of St. Catharine with the Infant Jesus. This excellent work is 
unfortunately in bad preservation. 

The Rue Nationale ends at the Rue Kroonenburg (PL B, 5*), at 
the_W. end of which, near the Scheldt and the S. Harbour (p. 198), 
stood the Castle of Kroonenburg^ oi\ce matVLVw^ >iXv^"\^."Hl . VVaalt of 
the German empire. 

Royal Mfjueum, ANTWERP. 14. RouU. 181 

In the Plaob Mabnix (PI. B, 5), on which eight streets conyerge, 
is a lofty and oonspicuons Monument^ by J. J. Winders, erected in 
1883 to commemorate the abolition of the river-dues of the Scheldt 
in 1863, an event to which Antwerp owes her present prosperity (see 
p. 165). At the top are Neptnne and Mercury ; on the pedestal are "^ 
stalactites, with the faces of river-gods, and broken chains. 

The large Placb L^pold db Wabl (PI. B, 5 ; tramway No. 3, 
p. 161) occupies part of the site of the Southern Citadel j built by 
the Duke of Alba in 1667-71. On its W. side (r.) stands the new 
Palais de V Hippodrome (p. 162), with its lofty dome; on the E. (1.) 
is the Royal Museum (also reached by tramway No. 1, p. 161). 

The *Boyal Museum [Masie Royal des Beaux- Art$ or Koninglyk 
Museum van Schoone Kunsten; PI. B, 5), erected in 1879-90 from 
plans by J. J. Winders and Fr. van Dyck^ is an imposing edifice in 
the Greek Renaissance style, with suggestions of the baroque. The 
building is in the form of a massive rectangle, enclosing six inner 
courts. The main entrance, in the W. facade, is by a portico sup- 
ported by four colossal Corinthian columns, and flanked on the 
upper story by loggie. The Attic story is embellished with alle- 
gorical figures and medallions by Dupuis, De Pleyn^ Ducaju^ and 
Fabri, The horizontal line of the upper cornice is interrupted at the 
comers by pylon -shaped pedestals, which are to support huge 
four-horse chariots with figures by Vin^otte, The side- walls of the 
museum also still await their decoration. — On the rear of the 
building is a colossal group, by L. Mignon^ intended to honour the 
painter Sir A. Van Dyck. In the grounds in front of the W. facade 
of the museum are three bronze sculptures: ^Stevedore ('Le D^- 
bardeur'), by C. Meunier; Boy at a well, by Alf, van Beurden; Vulture 
fighting with a jaguar, by Jos. Dupon. 

On the groundfloor, in the left wing, are the sculptures, in the 
right wing, the Rubens and Van Dyck Collections ; on the upper 
floor is the picture gallery. Adm., see p. 163 ; no charge for um- 
brellas, etc. Director, M. Pol de Mont (p. xv). The small catalogue 
(Y2 ^r.), published in French and Flemish, pays no attention to the 
results of art-criticism and research. Catalogue of the Rubens Col- 
lection by Max Rooses^ 1 fr. 

In the Enthancb Hall, opposite the door, are four busts of 
former governors of the Spanish Netherlands and of Philip V., by 
A, QuelUn the Elder , O. KerricXj and others. 

We turn first to the left and enter the Sculpture Gallbey. 

Room I. In the middle : 1248. E, Chatrovsse, Fellow-feeling (a 
French and a German soldier); 1371. L. MascrS, The kiss (bronze 
group). On the walls are cartoons by Kaulbach^ Jan SwertSy^ and Q, 
Ouffens Qp. 83). 

RooMiL — . Section I. nO^. A. QuclUntHe Eldet^^^^^'^^^^^ 
of St. Sebastian; i064. C. A. IVaikln , miv^Vii^ ol^^%^'^\ ^^ ' 

182 RouUU. ANTWERP. SayaHhueum: 

O, Oeefs, Leander drowned; 1054. /«. de Sudder, The nest; 703. 
A. QueUin the Elder, Garitas Romans; 1190. Fr. JoriB, The little 
mother; ♦1639. Bauch, Victory distributing wreaths; ♦1086. Jef 
Lamheaux, The kiss (highly realistic bronze group); 1301. T. Vin-' 
QOtUy The kid (group). — Section II. 1066. P. de Vigne, Sunday 
(girl praying); 1521. W. Geefs, Genovefa of Brabant; 1623. J. Qeefs, 
The Fisher (from Goethe) ; 1529. KisSj Amazon attacked by a tiger, 
reduced marble replica of the group at the museum in Berlin; 1039. 
J. F, Deckers J The blind man (bronze group); 1617. Fr, Drake, 
Medallion-portrait of himself; 1518. A. Dumontj Cupid (bronze); 
1204. J, J. de Braekeleer, Mother rescuing her child (bronze). Around 
are busts of Belgian and other artists. 

On the right wall of this room are hung a number of views of Ant- 
werp and other Paintings. Section I. 684. 0. and B. Feeters^ Battle of Cal- 
loo, 1638; 796. J. B. Bonnecroy, View of Antwerp from the lefi bank of 
the Scheldt (1658). — Section II. 635. Unknown Artist, Burning of the 
Antwerp Hdtel de Ville in 1576; 735. If. van Eyck. City mUitia parading in 
the Place de Meir, 1673; 634. Unknown Artist, The ehurchyard of Notre 
Dame at the beginning of the 16th cent, (now the Place Verte); 1290-1235. 
H. Leys, Studies of old Antwerp. F. de Brciekeletr^ 1022. Dealii of Count 
Fred, de Merode (p. 98); 1025. Pulling down the fortifications near the 
Porte de Kipdorp ; 1027. The citadel after the bombardment of 1832; 1024. 
Destruction of the Porte St. Georges. 

I. Anteroom, with modem drawings and water-colours. — 
II. Anteroom. 1115. J. B. Pecker, Marble bust of Rubens (1877), 

The next room and the whole of the groundfloor of the right 
wing are devoted to the Kubbns Collection (VCEuvre gravi de 
Rubens), founded In 1877 (p. 181) by the city of Antwerp and the 
Belgian state. It contains about 2000 reproductions (engiayings, 
etchings, woodcuts, photographs, etc.) of most of the extant works 
of Rubens and affords a most instructive insight into the wonderful 
versatility and inexhaustible powers of the great master. Each plate 
bears an explanatory extract from Rooses's catalogue (p. 181). 

The two halls in the rear of the museum, adjoining the Rubens 
Collection, contain the Van Dtck Collection, chiefly consisting 
of photographs. In the middle (No. 1340) is a bust of the artist by 
Jos, Dupon, 

From the entrance-hall (p. 181) a portal leads to the Stairoasb 
{ Vestibule De Keyset), the walls of which are clad with Belgian 
coloured marble. In the centre is a large bronze vase, by Drake, 
with reliefs from the monument of Frederick William III. in the 
Tiergarten at Berlin. To the right, 1291. Ch, van der Stappen,J)a.yid, 
a marble statue ; to the left, J. B. Clesinger, Marble bust of Mme. 
de Rute; on the landing, JE. Jespera, Daybreak (high relief; 1897). 
— The chief decorations, however, are the paintings by Nieaiae 
de Keyser, executed in lo66 and transferred hither from the old 
MuBeum in the Academy (p. 178). These represent, in the fashion 
of DeJdToche's Hemicycle, the glories ot t^e Mit^er^^^^i^^^ kA 
St viewed from the top of the Btaiicaae"^. 

Old Moiteri, ANTWERP. 14. BouU. 183 

The flrstrfloor contains the **Piotubb Gallb&t. The CoUeetion of 
Old Maatert includes more than 800 pictuies, many of them collected 
from the suppressed monasteries and churches of Antwerp, while 
others have been brought hither from the H6t6l deVille and the Steen. 
In 1840 the Burgomaster Van Eribom (Boom C j comp. p. 186) and in 
1859 the Barorie98 Var^ den Heeke-Baut (Dutch masters) bequeathed 
their collections to the museum. — The Colleetion of Modern 
Paintings (Mus€e des Modemes and Musie des Acadimiciens) j with 
about 500 works, is inferior to that of the Brussels Gallery (p. 112). 

The collection of works of the early-Flemish school is ample 
and excellent. Both the early painters, who are usually classed as 
belonging to the school of Van Eyck, and the later, headed by 
Rubens, are admirably represented. Specially noteworthy are the 
following : the small Madonna (No. 411 ; p. 187) and the St. Barbara, 
by Jan van Eyck (No. 410; p. l87); the Seven Sacraments, ascribed 
to Roger van der Weyden (Nos. 393-395; p. 187); the large work 
by Memling (Nos. 778-780; p. 190); and the Heads of Christ and 
the Madonna (Nos.!241 , 242 ; p. 186) and the Entombment (No. 245 ; 
p. 190) by Quinten Matsya. Among the numerous specimens of 
Rubens we may oftpeeially mention the Portraits of Burgomaster 
Rockox and his wife (Nos. 308, 310, p. 185 ; wings of the St. Thomas 
altar-piece), Christ and the two Malefactors (No. 297 ; p. 185), the 
Pieti(No8. 300-303 ; p. 186), the Communion of St. Francis (No. 305 ; 
p. 188), the Prodigal Son (No. 781 ; p. 186), and St. Theresa (No. 299 ; 
p. 184). The finely coloured Pieta by Van Dyck (No. 404 ; p. 188), 
and the St. Norbert by Cornelia de Voa (No. 107 ; p. 185) should not 
be overlooked. The gem of the Dutch Room is the Fisher Boy by 
Frana Hals (No. 188 ; p. 189). The number of other than Nether- 
landish pictures is very limited; conspicuous among them are a 
Crucifixion by Anionello da Meaaina (No. 4 ; p. 186) and Fr, Clouet'a 
Portrait of Francis n. (No. 33 ; p. 187). 

The historical arrangement of the older pictures has been at- 
tempted only on the broadest lines. Rooms A-K, N, and contain 
the older masters, and Rooms L andP-W the modem paintings (comp. 
the ground-plan). — "We first enter — 

Room J : Flemish Schools of the 17th century. To the right : 
185. Ant, Ooubau, Art-studies in Rome (1662). — 472, 473. Van 
Thulden, Copy of Bubens's 'Triumphal Arch of Philip I.*, painted 
for the illustrated description of the Entry of the Archduke Fer- 
dinand (p. 185), published by Van Thulden and Gevaerts in 1641 ; 
265. MuriUo, St. Francis (copy). — 105, 106. Cornelia de Fos, Winged 
altar-piece, with portraits of the donors. — 686-689. M, Pepyn, 
St. Elizabeth (triptych). — 748. Van Thulden^ Continence of Sclpio. 

Room I (large central room). Flemish ^<i\iQ^\^ t«\s^^Kvv&^., Ns^- 
Gluding the chief works by Rubeiis. To Wift t\^\.*. "^VV« ^-vib^ws^.^ 
^argomaeter Boekon (p. 169); 21^. A. Jan8setv8,^««»«^^S^^'^^^''^^ 

the Scheldt^ 712. Ittibtnt, St, Dominli. — 172. J. Fyt, Sleepinjl 
, hounds with dead e»ine ; "290. Bubcni, St. Thcceaa interceding WM 

Old Masters 



; : "W ~H 

[aslcrsi- ^ Modcni Masters |— jPortrails| ^ 


BOuls In purgatory, one of tlie most plesaliig pictuies of tlie U 
Jater period ; iQb. Can i)y<!ft, Portiait a( Grasai Aleiander Se>| 

k Spanish iiubssaodor at the Ctrnpraa otttii\»W!i\*^*ft-'W 
Tirgia /nstructed by St. Anna, » 'erj aUiMttit pro's,'* 

OldMasUrs. ANTWERP. 14, Route, 185 

mellow and harmonious colouring (about 1630}; 53. 0, de Crayer^ 
Elijah fed by ravens. 

*298. Ruhensj Adoration of the Magi, painted in 1624. 

This gorgeous and imposing composition, on a similar scale with the 
Elevation of the Cross, but far less impressive, contains about twenty 
figures over lifesize, besides camels and horses in the suite of the Three 
Kings , crowded into the picture , while the somptuousness of the cos- 
tumes and vessels gives the whole an overloaded effect. The king holding 
the goblet is a somewhat awkward figure. It must, however, be ad- 
mitted that the work exhibits marvellous freedom and boldness of out- 
line, great skill in arrangement, and a wonderful variety of attitude — 
all genuine attributes of Rubens. The picture is said to have been painted 
in a fortnight. 

481, 482. 0. van Veen (Otho Vaenius)^ Beneficence of St. Nicho- 
las, St. Nicholas saving his flock from perishing by famine. The com- 
position, colouring, and drawing of these pictures bear testimony to 
the painter's five years' residence in Italy. — *312. Rubens, Holy 
Family, 'La Vierge au perroquet', so called from the parrot at the 
side, one of his earlier works, presented by him to the Guild of 
St. Luke, on his election as president, in 1631, and hardly inferior 
in composition and colouring to his more celebrated works. — 
RubenSy *313. Christ on the Cross ffrequently copied and imitated), 
709. Jupiter and AntTope (1614),» 318. The triumphal car. — 316, 
317. i2u6en«, Two sketches of triumphal arehes , executed in 1635 
for the city of Antwerp on the occasion of the triumphal entry 
of Ferdinand, Archduke of Austria, the victor of Nordlingen and 
Calloo. (Six other sketches are in the Hermitage at St. Petersburg, 
and two at Brussels, see p. 106.) — 319. Rubens and Jan Brueghelj 
Pieta; 815. Com, de Vos, Family group j 802. Rubens, Athena slaying 
the Gorgon (sketch) ; 327. Corn. Schut, Martyrdom of St. George. — 
♦107. Com, de Vos, St. Norbert receiving the Host and Sacred Vessels 
that had been hidden during a time of war and heresy (1630). — 
*307-310. RubenSj Incredulity of St. Thomas, on the wings half- 
length portraits of the Burgomaster Ni^.^Rockox (p. 178) and his 
wife Adrienne Perez. The portraits are tar finer than the figures in 
the central picture fcomp, p. Iv). — *781. Rubens, Prodigal Son 
feeding upon husks (purchased in England). 

**297. Rubens, Christ crucified between the two thieves ('Le 
Coup de Lance'), a very celebrated picture, painted for the church of 
the Franciscans in 1620. 

This picture is remarkable for its dramatic effect, and is by no means 
deficient in sentiment. Longinus. the Roman officer, mounted on a grey 
horse , is piercing the side of the Saviour with a lance. The penitent 
thief, a grey-haired man, is invoking the Saviour for the last time. To 
the left in the foreground stands the Virgin Mother, whom Mary the wife 
of Cleophas in vain endeavours to console. Farther back, St. John leans 
against the cross of the impenitent thief, weeping. Mary Magdalen, on 
her knees at the foot of the Cross, implores Longinus to spare tliA «««;«^'^ 
body of her master. This is considered by mMi^ \«> \w^ "ft.\!^i«^^ ^**1 
(Toettvre, and deterves the minutest iuspecUoix. TYi«t^ S» xtfi '»^'^**''*'***^^ 
dnwing here, aa in aJmost all the maater'a olYiftT ^otY*.^ »aA *''jL!?^'^,Jf^, 
time the compoBition and colouring are iuimiliXA^. T^^ V«^^^^ 

186 Route 14, ANTWERP. Royal Museum: 

Magdalen ia remarkably beautiful, expressive of horror and supplication, 
without being distorted. The whole composition is a striking example 
of that marvellous boldness of imagination in which Rubens is unrivalled. 

♦300-303. Ruhena, 'Christ )l la Paille*, the body of Christ resting 
on a stone be%Qh covered with straw, partly supported by Joseph of 
Arimathsea, and mourned over by the Virgin, with St. John and 
Mary Magdalen. On the wings (301, 303) the Virgin and Child, 
and St. John the Evangelist. 

This most interesting altar-piece (painted about 1617) shows by its 
carefully-executed details that it is one of the master''s earlier works, pro- 
duced before he had adopted his bold and dashing touch. Here, too, we 
have a full and flowing outline and admirable ease of attitude, but there 
is no symptom of the master's subsequent abuse of his power, in pro- 
ducing overwhelming masses of flesh and crowds of figures m forced 
postures. A happy mean is here observed, and there is greater beauty and 
sentiment than in his later works. The colouring is delicate and harmo- 
nious. The weeping Mary Magdalen is a particularly expressive figure. 

706. Rubens, Portrait of Gaspar Gevaerts (ca. 1629); 171. J. Fyt, 
Eagles feeding; *316. RiibenSj Descent from the Cross, a small replica 
(1612) of the painting in the cathedral ; above, 508. O, SegherSj 
Betrothal of the Virgin ; 708. Rubens j Portrait ; 368. Valentin (more 
probably Th. Rombouts?), Card-players. — 331. D. Seghers, Christ 
and St. Theresa in a garland"^ of^owers; 719. F. Snyders^ Fish- 
monger's shop J 804. Jan Siberechts, Ford. — A door to the right 
leads into — 

RoomC: Collection of Burgomaster F, van Ertbom (d. 1840), 
comprising chiefly pictures of the 15th and 16th centuries. The bust 
of the donor, by J. OeefSj is at the farther side of the room. To the 
right : 224. Justus van Ghent(^), Sacrament of the Eucharist ; 383-385. 
Flemish School (not Gerard van der Meire), Bearing of the Cross 
(winged picture; ca. 1510). — ^241, *242. Quinten Mqtsys, Christ 
as judge, Mary in prayer, two heads remarkable for their beauty and 
dignity (replicas in the London National Gallery). — *4. Antonello da 
Messina (one of the first Italian masters to adopt Van Eyck's method 
of painting in oil), Mt. Calvary, Christ on the Cross with the male- 
factor at each side ; in the foreground SS. Mary and John. The picture 
(which bears the date 1475) presents a curious combination of the 
Flemish minuteness of detail with Italian forms. — 254. School of 
Roger van der Weyden (catalogued as Memling^, Portrait of a member 
of the De Croy family ; 412. Good copy after Jan van Eyck, Virgin 
with the Canon Van der Paele (original in the museum at Bruges, 
p. 30); 397. Roger van der Weyden (1), Portrait of Philip the Good of 
Burgundy; 264, 263 (farther on) J. Mostaert{f)y Portraits; Mabuse 
(more probably youthful works of Gerard David?), 179. Mary and 
John going to the Sepulchre, 180. The just judges ; 198. Nether- 
landish School (not Holbein), Portrait of Erasmus; 262. Follower of 
Gerard David (not Jan Mostaert), Miraculous apparition of the Virgin 
CDeipara Virgo'); 123, H, and V, m.nv:>fj^ge^ Ho\^ YwsiW^j, li^m W^ 
<ibwrch of St. NicbolM at Calcar. 

Old Matters, ANTWERP. 14, Routt, 187 

199. Bam Holbein the Younger, Miniature portrait ; 243. Quin- 
ten Matsys, Mary Magdalen with the box of spikenard ; 132. J. Fou- 
quel, Virgin and Child, painted for the parish-church of Melun by 
order of Etienne Chevalier (d. 1474), Treasurer of France (other 
-wing of the diptych in the Berlin Museum); *396. fioger van der 
Weydenj Annjuicijttion, a small picture of most delicate execution, 
formerly in the Convent of Lichtenthal near Baden-Baden ; 253. 
Memling (School of Roger van der Weyden?)^ A canon of St. Nor- 
bert; 28. Dierick Bouts (?), Madonna. — *411. Jan van Eyck, Ma- 
donna in a blue robe, and the Child in her arms playing with a 
rosary; to the right a fountain; her feet rest on rich drapery held by 
two angels behind her. The picture, which bears the painter^s name 
and motto, and the date 1439, resembles Stephan Lochner's Madonna 
of the Violet in the Archiepiscopal Museum at Cologne. — *33. Fr, 
Clouet, Portrait of Francis II. of France when Dauphin ; *5. Memling^ 
Niccol5 Spinelli, the Italian medallist (after 1470). 

*393-895. Roger van der Weyden (?), Sacrament of the Eucharist, 
flanked by two wings representing the six other Romish sacraments 
(to the right, Ordination, Marriage, Extreme Unction ; to the left. 
Baptism, Confirmation, Penance). 

The scene is in a spacions Gothic church, the architecture of which 
seems to unite the groups. The crucifixion in the foreground introduces 
an effective dramatic element into the picture; and the spectator can 
hardly fail to sympathise with the distress of the women mourning there, 
as well as with the holy joy which lights up the features of the dying 
persons receiving the extreme unction. The angels above the various 
groups, robed in symbolical colours, are particularly well drawn. Jean 
Ghevrot (1437-00), Bishop of Tournai (where Roger was born), is indicated 
as the first purchaser of this painting by his coat-of-arms on the central 
piece. — Gomp. Sir Martin Conway" $ *Early Flemish Artists'. 

204, 206, 206. Lucas van Leyden (?), SS. Luke, Mark, and Mat- 
thew; 250. Quinten Mat8ys(p), Head of Christ; *410. Jan van Eyck, 
St. Barbara, seated in front of a Gothic church-tower, an unfinished 
sketch of great beauty (1435); 3. Fra Angelica da FtMote(?), St. 
Romuald, Abbot of Camaldoli, reproaching the Emp. Otho III. for 
the murder of the Roman senator Crescentius. — *267-260. Simone 
Martini of Siena (d. ca. 1344), Annunciation, Crucifixion, and De- 
scent from the Cross, formerly at Dijon. 

On a revolving stand: 255, 256, 530, 531. Flemish School (not 
Memling) , Two diptychs, with the Virgin in a Gothic church (copy 
of Jan van Eyck's picture in the Berlin Museum), the Saviour in 
a white robe, and two Abbots, painted in 1499 for the Abbey van 
den Duinen (p. 17; Abbot Robert Le Clercq an addition of the 
16th cent.). — On the other stand: 208-210. Lucas van Leyden(^i), 
Adoration of the Magi; on the wings: within, St George and the 
donor ; without. The Annunciation. — We now traverse Room I to — 

Room K, whioh ohiefly contains paintings ol t\\^ Va.\.ct^\«^s!h5Sfiw 
School, from the end at the 17th to the \)egvtvTi\Tv% q1 ^iJsi^ V^'<^ '^^- ^ 
tury. To the right: 36A, P. Thys, PteaeTkUUoiv ^1 ^e.^N:^%^^-— 1 

188 BouU 14, ANTWERP. Royal Muaewn: 

794. J. Vemetf Sea-piece; 1113, 1111. Ommeganek, Landscapes 
with animals; 491. Vethaghen^ Hagar and Ishmael (1781). — 490. 
Q, P, Verhruggen, Flowers. — 1081. W, J. HerreynSf Gruoiflxion. — 
We now retrace our steps through Room I to — 

Room H. Flemish Schools of the 17th cent., including the chief 
specimens of Jordaens and Van Dyck. On the entrance-wall, high 
np : 707. Rubens^ Baptism of Christ (Mantua, 1604), with figures oyer 
lifesize ; it has unfortunately heen freely retouched. The group of fire 
men dressing themselves, to the right, seems to have heen suggested 
by the celebrated Bathing Soldiers of Michael Angelo. — 216. Jae. 
Jordaens J Sisters of Charity. — 381 . Van den Hoeeke^ St. Francis ; 401. 
Van Dyckj Christ on the Cross, at the foot of which are St. Catharine 
of Siena and St. Dominic, painted for the Dominican Nunnery in 
1629, at the wish of his dying father; 336. F. Snyders, Still-life; 
215. Jordaens, Last Supper; 335. SnyderSj Swans and dogs. — 
*403. Van Dyck, Entombment: the finely-balanced composition of 
this expressive picture and its careful execution, in which the effect 
of brilliant colouring is intentionally renounced, assure it a place 
among the masterpieces of the first rank (ca. 1629). — ♦104. Com, 
de Vos, Abr. Grapheus, servant (^knaap*) of the Guild of St. Luke 
(p. 178); he is hung with medals and stands beside a table on 
which Is plate belonging to the Academy (painted in 1620). 

*305. Rubens, Communion of St. Francis; recalling A gosti no 
Carraccl^s Communion of St. Jerome. 

The figure of the saint, who is receiving his last sacrament, produces 

kost painful impression. The picture was painted in 1619, and Bubens''s 

receipt for the price is sUl) preserved Cuven hondert en twinUg gulden, tot 

volcomen betalinghe van $en stuck schilderpe door mj^ne fiandi gemaeekC, i. e. 
*seven hundred and twenty florins, in full payment for a piece of painting 
done by my hand*). Gomp. p. liv. 

662. Simon de Vos, Portrait of the artist. — 407. Van Dyek^ 

Portrait of a girl, the dogs by Jan Fyt. 

*404. Van Dyck, Entombment (^Pietk'), painted soon after his 

* return from Italy (1628). 

The Virgin is represented supporting the head of the dead Christ on 
her knees s St. John shows the wound made by the nail in the left hand 
to two angels, one of whom veils his face. The features of Christ bear 
traces of intense physical suffering. St. John and the angel whose beau- 
tiful face is visible wear an expression of profound grief, which however 
they can still express in words, whereas the anguish of the Virgin is 
unutterable ; her head is thrown back , her arms wildly extended. The 
picture is chaste, the colouring subdued (now unfortunately faded); yet 
the tendency of the master^s school to a fill and somewhat sensual out- 
line is apparent, although the work does not altogether lack sentiment. 

402. r<7;j 2>y(?Jlr, Portrait ofBishopMalderus of Antwerp (d. 1633); 
j2/, 2%, Boei/ermans, Pool of Bethesda (i^lbV, T^^^. Van D^ek^ 
J^^^^t of a priest; Jordaens, 221. Adotal\oiv ol tV^ ^Vc^V«i^%, 
^^7". -Family concert ('As the old ha^e %uiv|^ , %o OtAxrcL^ \Xa 
irK;,r 7^^ ^- ^. Pieter ymc^ C«?^-, ^- ^J^^ 

*o-</o» LoyoU in • garland of Ao^ew, «»• V<«»^ »V* 


Old Masters, ANTWERP. U. Route. 189 

on the Gross, a reduced imitation of Bubens*s well-known picture 
(No. 313; p. 186), painted about 1627. 

Boom F. Flemish Schools of the 17th century. On the entrance- 
wall: 801. Th, BomboutSj Christ driving the money-changers from 
the Temple ; 803. Z>. Seghers, Bust in a garland of flowers; 382. B. van 
der Heist J Portrait of a young girl. — To the left is — 

Room G. Dutch School of the 17th century. To the right: ♦SSB. 
Jan Steen^ Samson and the Philistines ; 767. J. van de CajppeUe^ Sea- 
piece; ♦752. J, TTeenia^ Poultry and game. — 125. Com. Dusart^ 
Interior; 398. Adr. van de Velde, Landscape with cattle; 656. J, />. 
de Heem, Fruit; 10. Nic. Berchem^ 1^^^!^" landscape, with figures; 
293. Rembrandt y Portrait of Saskia van Ulenburgh, his first wife 
(a repetition with alteratfons of the famous picture at Gassel ; 1633). 
— ^349. O, Terhurgy Mandolin-player ; 501. Ph. Wouverman^ Riders 
resting ; 637. N. Berchem, Italianlandscape with cattle ; •705. Rem- 
brandtf £leazar Swalmius, the preacher (1637); 196. G. Houckgeestj 
Inter ior of th^ yieiTwe Kerk at Delft ; ^71 5. Sal. van Ruysdael, Dutch 
river, with ferry; *628. Jac. Backer ^ Portrait ; 733. A. van de Velde, 
Pleasures of winter (1662); 754. PCWouvirmanj Hunting; 399. 
W. van de Velde the Younger j Oalm sea ; 668. Karel Dujardin, Cattle; 
321. S. van Ruysdael, Biver-scene; 785. Dirck van Delen, Church- 
interior; 69. Sim. de VlUger, Calm sea; *188. Fr. Hals, Half- 
length portrait of a flsher-boy (the 'Strandlooper van Haarlem'; 
painted, according to M. Bode, about 1640). — 755. Ph. Wouver- 
man. Cavalry skirmish; 390. A. van der Neer, Landscape by 
moonlight; *339. Jan £[teen, Bustle wedding ; *Si2. F. Boly Jan 
▼an der Yoort and his sister Catharine; no number, Fr. Hals^ 
♦Portrait; 26. Jan Both, Italian landscape; 54. J. />. de Heem, 
Still-We; 181. Oov.FUnck, Portrait-group. — 500. Ph. Wouverman, 
Bideis resting; 503. J. Wynants and A. van de Velde, Landscape 
with figures ; 9. N. Berehem, Consequences of war; 657. Ph. Koninck, 
Portrait of a boy; 467. Is. van Ostade, Winter- scene; 790. 
N. ko'eSyck, Interior; 675. M. Hobbema, Water-mill; 789. Em. 
de WiUe, Church-interior; Rembrandt, 294. The young fisher (1659), 
295. Portrait of an aged Jew (school-pieces); 810. Ant. Palamedesz, 
Family portraits (1632); 466. Adr. van Ostade, Splok^r (1655); 
ii. O. Berck-Heyde, Amsterdam with view of the town-l^all (1668); 
682. />. Mytens the Elder, Portrait; no number, Ad, Pynacker and 
Nic. Berehem, Surprise- attack ; 46. Alb, Cuyp, Two riders. — 679. 
J. M. Molenaer, Village - festival ; 713. J. van Ruysdael, Water- 
fall in Norway. — We return through Room F to — 

Boom £. Flemish Schools (17th cent.). To the ri^hti 499. A<L 
Willaerts, Court-f^te given by k\\i^^ ^\\.^\^^^^ \xv VX^^ ^«:e«.^ 
TeTraeren,—Jac.Jordam9, 799.Victoi7 o^^AxLt^^««ri ^'^'^^^'^'^^ 
in 1626 (Bketch^i, SOS. St. Ives-, 77^.P.BTU.e9^0^^EAA«t,^^:^^_ 
of the Innocents forigiiial la t^e Bmaa«\«. ^*^^^^ v"^ V^cv^H'V^ 
Opposite: J". Brueghel the Younger, ^i . B^t^-tVii^ ol XV^ '^^^^^ 

190 Rotiti! It. AnTWKRP. Royal M>Memni M 

Scman ou the Mount, 645. Visit Id the faim l^giieaiUeJ; 81lH 
Jordaens, StadiBi; 643. Jan Srvcphet, Floweia; M^. H. van BatoM 
Jan Bruts^d. andothors, Coat-oE-aimsoftbe Antwerp Itbederykaman 
'DBVioliereTi'toonip, p. 173); 813. Jan Bmtghd and H. ran Bulei^ 
Holy Family in a garland of frnit. — 807. P. Brueghel the ToungeM 
The walk. — To the right ia — ™ 

Book D. Varionu Schools. To the right: 83-85. Mart, de Vot, 
Parable of the Xrlbaie Money, St. Peter Caking the money Irom the 
mDutli of the flah, and the WW ow'a Mite (tit_plyiih, IBOl). "357. 

, Pope Alexander VI, presenting Jacopo del Peeari, BUbop 
of Paphos, to St, Peter, on the appointmeat of the bishop as admi ' 
agatUBt the Turks (an early work, painted aboni 150S ; tile hea( 
freely restored). — Opposite: -m, r229. A. Key, Wings o( 
triptyeh, with portraits from tha ftmlly of the donor, De Smidt 

112. Frani de Vritndl, or Frant Florii, Fall of the Angels,' 
painted in Ibbi, and highly esteemed by his contemporaries. 

This BjiteoiivB work ia crowded wLih flgurM fnJlia^ beadlDBg in 

Itany uf thB Hgures ara bointiful evou Id tbeir distorled positloM. A fl* 

palnleA on Itie icg of one of tlie fblliDB angeli liiu giveo riae la Ihe abanfd 

(Igrj lliBl il was paiolod by Qoiolen Motsjs. snd Ihat FJorii. whcue 

dsnghler Salsyg was wooEng, havtnE been dee 

vitli (his proof of his ekiU, and gave hii coisi 

name of the painter wtaoae daugliler Malsya perDapt oiarrieil (lee p 

li UDknown, wblle Florls waa only 10 yeari old when Malsyi died. 

88. Marl, de Voa, St. Luke painting the Virgin, 

Itoou B. To the right : ■778-780. Memting, Christ as King of 
Heaven, sarrnunded by six singing angele, on eaiih of the wingt- 
Ave angels with musical inatrumouts. This large triptych, about 
23 ft. long and 6l/ift, high, formerly in the Benedictine conteat of 
Na|era in Spain, was purchased by the city of Antwerp in Paris in 
1896 for 2i0.000 francs. 

To the left : "■aiS, 246, 21S. Qvinten Mattya. Entombment Of 
' Ohrist, a winded picture (triptych), ordered in 1508 for tbe Chapel 
of the Joiners in the aathedral, l>nt probably not Onlshed uutn 1511. 
TMs is universally regarded as the masCer'a chef d'oeuvrt. 

CtNtaAi, PicTDKi. Tlis runera) corttie li repieaenled u kalttag al 
Iha foot of Ml, cr ' *■ " - ■- ■'- -- 


right Joaeph of Arlnu 

partly lupported b; Kici 
-lisBS the hear- - " " 

ovei Ihe remalaing ibndB nf tbe crown of tbOiat. 

Tb« motber In an agony of grief Icnecla near the body of ber Son, asd !• 
lapparled hy Bt. Joba. Oa llie left Haty Uaidalen, lo her right SalOBI*. 
ThB corptaiUelfbeai ■• ■ - -■■-■ 

IracBi of the msiter'a aniiety (0 allalm nii- 
11 rigid, the conntenancE diatoiled Itr Oil 

pangs of the death-alruggle. The face a( the Virgin la almost ai pal( 
thel DC the dead body ilsalf. Tlie man with Ihe turban, bearing 
„» ., appears rather indignant than niDomlVil. The ei — 



Old Matten. ANTWERP. 14. Route. 191 

The WiNos, which are less satisfactory than the central picture, 
represent the martyrdom of St. John the Baptist and St. John the Evangelist. 
In the former Herod is represented banqueting in an open hall, whilst 
the daughter of Herodias brings in the head of the Baptist. The task of 
depicting frivolity and vanity in the countenances of the king and the 
hardened mother, contrasted with an expression of greater feeling in the 
daughter, has evidently been attempted by the master, though not very suc< 
cessfully. The motion of the girl, intended to be light and elastic, is hard 
and forced. Some of the heads, however, are admirably finished. — The 
other wing represents St. John in the cauldron of boiling oil. The execution- 
ers, in the costume of Flemish peasants , with their sun-burnt, muscular 
arms, are attending actively to the fire. In the background the Emp. Domi- 
tian appears, mounted on a white horse, and attended by eight horsemen. 

On a stand : 529. Flemish School (15th cent.), Archers' Festival. 

Room A. Flemish School (16th cent.). To the right: 699. 
P. Pourhua the Younger, Elisabeth Heynderlckx, wife of Gillis van 
Srhoonbeke (p. 198); 374, 372. M. Coxie, Martyrdom of St. George 
(on the reverse , 375, 373. St. Margaret and St. George) ; 72-74. 
M. de Vos^ Triumph of Christ (triptych) ; 698. P. Pourbus the Younger^ 
Gillis van Schoonbeke (p. 198). — Opposite: 741-745. B, van Orley, 
Last Judgment, on the wings the Seven Works of Mercy ; 576, 577, 
579. Unknown Master, Large triptych, in the middle St Eligius, 
the apostle of Antwerp, preaching. 

Room O. Flemish School (17th cent.). To the right : 20. Th. Boeyer- 
mans, The ambassador; 832. Jan Siberechts, St. Francis of Assisi 
preaching to the beasts (1666). — 217. Joe. Jordaen*, Entombment ; 
356. P. Thys, Descent from the Gross. — To the right we enter — 

Room N. Flemish School (17th cent.), including works by Teniers 
the Younger. To the right : •775. VrUenown Master, Portrait of a 
lady (1630); 669. P.deRing, Luncheon-table (1651). — 759-763. 
Gonzales (hques, The five senses; 186. A. Ooubau, Piazza Navona 
at Rome (1680); 820. D. Ryckaert III., Plundering soldiers. — 
Teniers J 348. Old woman, 346. Morning, 347. Aiternoon, 728. 
Singer, 727. Landscape, 346. Flemish tavern, ♦726. The duet. — 
23. Th. Boeyermans, Antwerp as patroness of the, arts (allegory) ; 
344. Teniers, View of Valenciennes, with a bust of Philip IV. in 
the foreground; 822. J. van Craesbeech, Inn; 34. O. Coques, Por- 
trait; 219. J.Jordaens, Commerce and Industry protecting the Fine 
Arts (allegory). 

Through Room J (p. 183) we reach the Gallery op Modern 
Paintings (MutSe des Modemes and Musie des Academiciens). Comp. 
pp. 166, 92. 

Room Q. To the right: 1631. J,B,Madou, Young man offering 
a girl a necklace (1862); 1178. B. VieilUvoye, Portrait. — 1063. 
Th, Fourmois^ Scene in the Ardennes, near Dinant (1854) ; 1182. 
E. Wauters, On the Kasr-en-Nil in Cairo; 1582. L. QaUait, The 
guilds of Brussels paying the last honours to the bodies of Counts 
Egmont andHoom, reduced replica of the picture a.tTwsrMW:^rv^\ 
1012. P. J. Clays, River-scene near Doit V.V^'^^^S '^'^'^'^* 3,\a^\. 
Contrasts, — ii20. J. PortaeU, Heu^iV^ C^ow^c^^^^^ VSi- ^"* Y% 

192 Route 14. ANTWERP. Uoyal Muuum: 

1359. H. de Braekeleer^ The restorer; 1373. Alf, SUvenSj A Parisian 
Sphinx. — 1100. Lies^ Albrecht Diirer travelling on the Rhine 
(1855); H, d<i BraekeUer, 1029. Tavern at Antwerp, 1360. The en- 
graver, 1203. The gardener; 1183. A, Wierts^ Contest for the body 
of Patroclus [reduced replica of the painting at Brussels, p. 188). ^ 

Room S. To the right: 1072. W, Oeeta^ Exorciflm tf Joanna 
the Mad. — 1280. (?. PortUlje, ^LosU' (1894); 1158! Fr. vanKuyek, 
Woodcutter's family on the Antwerp Gampine. — 1308. Th, de Boek^ 
Evening'(1898); 1058. J. de Vriendt, Raising of the daughter of 
Jairus; 1121. L. Robbe^ Cattle at pasture. — 1006. H, Bowrce^ Return 
from fishing (1878). — 1349. P, van der Ouderaa, David Col, the painter 
(1897); 1009. E. Carpcnficr,Episodeduringthe VendeanWarof 1795 
(1879); 129G. Verlat, L. Derickx, the paitater. — To the right is — 

Room R, with the masterpieces of the collection. To the right: 
1385. Flor. CrabeelSj Sheep; no number, L, vanAken^ TheBafifil^t; 
1308. Adr, Heymansy Scene near Bertogne ; *1274. Larodc^^e Idiot 
(1892); 1295. /. Verheyderiy Pilgrims in the Antwerp Campine. — 
•13G9. E. Laermansj Emigrants (triptych; 1896); 1375. Jan van 
Beers J Jacob van Maerlant (p. 40), the poet, on his death-bed (trip- 
tych; 1S79). — 1367. 0. Heichert, Approach of death (1898); ♦1303. 
A. BaerUon, Flemish village by evening-light (1897); 1172. CA. Fer- 
2at, Buffalo fighting with a lion, a very large picture (1878); 1122. 
J. Rosseels, Landscape near Waesmunster; ♦1132. A. Struyt, Bread- 
winning (1887). — Verlat, 1197. Vox Dei (triptych), painted in 
1877; 1198. Oriental study; 1297. Cattle. Between the last two : 
1264. L, Frederic, Group of children (*Les Boechelles' ; 1888). 

Room L. To the right: 1364. V, Gilsoxd^ Stormy sea at Nieu- 
port; 1363. Th. Fantin-Latour, Study for a portrait. — 1356. E.Claut, 
Winter-scene; 1177. Th, Verstraete^ House of death. — Opposite: 

1299. Verstraete, Dunes (1891); i2b0. Fr, Courtens^ Avenue of trees 
in sunshine (1894). — We return through Rooms R and S to — 

Room T. To the right : 1 127. Schaefels, Battle of Trafalgar (painted 
in 1879). — ll33. Stobbaerts, Leaving the stable; 1559. Verlat, Pietk ; 

1300. Verwee, Horses ; 1087. Lamoriniirey Landscape at Walcheren 
(1876); ^1131. Alf. Stevem, Despair; above, 1167. J. Verhas, The 
beach at Heyst (1884); ♦1206. Ch, de OrouXy The coffee-roaster. 
— 1148. P. van der Ouderaa, Judicial reconciliation in St. JosepVs 
chapel in the cathedral (1879); 1589. LamorlnilrCf Pine-wood. — 
H. Leys, 1094. Flemish wedding in the 17th cent (early work ; 
1839); 1219. Pifferari (1856); 1370. Bird-seller (1866); 1220-27. 
Studies of portraits and costumes for the frescoes in the H6tel de 
Ville (p. 173V, 1574. Portrait of himself (1866); 1228. His wife 
(1866^ ; 1095-97. Entry and Expulsion of the Duke of Anjon (eomp. 
p. 194; sketches for the triumphal arch made in 1840). — In the 
middle of the room, 1263. Jos. Dupon, Diana, an ivory statnetto. 

Roo^r U, To the right : 1509. F. de Bra-eketcer the Elder^ Ylllaftt 
BehooI(i862)'j 1600. A. Achenhaeh^ Htoim^ ^feii\\v«VEiQ%\«isA\«e^wBt 

Modem Paintings. '^ ANTWERP. 14. Route. 193 

(1878). — ♦1363. a Meunier, Martyrdom of St Stephen (1867). — 
1021. — F, de Braekeleer the Elder ^ Plundering of Antwerp by the 
Spaniards in 1576; 1313. Alex. Falguihre, Salome. 

Room V. To the right: 1062. E. Farasyn, Old flsh-market in 
Antwerp (1882); above, 1173. Verlat, Cart and horses' (a huge 
canyas, painted at Paris in 1857); 1605. A. Cdbanel, Cleopatra.^ 
testing poisons on criminals (1887). — 1242. H. Schaefcls, The British 
fleet before Flushing, 1809 (painted in 1889) ; 1541. N. Robert- FUury, 
Titian lying in state in the Palazzo Barbarigo at Venice, 1576 (1862) ; 
1057. A. de Vriendt, Pope PwiQll- before the portrait of Luther 
(1883) ; above, 1174. V^rZaCRismgin Antwerp on 24th Aug., 1577, 
with the shattered statue of the Duke of Alva being dragged through 
the streets. — On a stand: no number, Th. Baron, Landscape in 
the Ardennes (1872). 

RoomW contains portraits of Antwerp artists and a few of German 
and French artists. To the right, 1681. J. Breton; 1642. N. Robert- 
Fleury; *1626. Ingres; 1616. Delaroche (by Portaels). — 1534. 
Navez; ibb4i.Schadow (by Bendemann; 1860). — 1656. O, Wappers; 
1562. P. von Cornelius (by 0. Begas) ; 1588. Lamoriniere (by Verlat ; 
1886); 1606. Alex. Cabanel (1885); 1536. Fr. OverbecJc (by C. Hoff- 
mann). —Also : 1535. Overbeck, Christ escaping from his persecutors ; 
1501. E. Bendemann, Penelope (1877); 1380. Carolus Duran, Por- 
trait of Mme. de Rute. " . r . 

Room P. To the right : 1201. L. Bruntn, A l^rpwafi-tudy (1891). — 
1017. J. L. David, Study for a head ; Jan van Beers, 1288. Portrait 
of Henri Rochefort, 1287. Lady in white, 1140. Peter Benoit, the 
composer (1883); iSAS. Jos. Stevens, Dog and tortoise; 1357. Couture, 
Washerwomen; above, 1108. Rob. Mols, Roads of Antwerp before 
the construction of the new quays, 1870. — 1249. Marie Collart, 
Far myardi n Brabant (1890). — 1333. L. Brunin, The trusty blade; 
1253. Keyser, Easter procession in Seville. 

At No. 61, Rue des Peintres, a few yards to the E. of the Museum, 
is the Institnt de Commerce {Handelsgesticht ; PI. B, 5), with an 
elaborate Renaissance facade (1898). Behind, at No. 16 Rue Co- 
quilhat, is the Commercial Museum (adm., see p. 162). — Nearly 
opposite, at the corner of the Rue des Graveurs, is the Synagogue 
(PI. B,5), in the Moorish style, by Jos. Hertogs (1893). — The Rue 
des Peintres ends at the Ave. du Sud (p. 195). 

The Rue des Tannburs (Huidevetttrs-Siraat ; PI. C, 4 ; p. 166 ; 
tramways Nos. 7 & 8, p. 161) is one of the chief business-streets 
in Antwerp. On the S. the Rue des Tanneurs is adjoined by the 
Longue Rue de VHdpital, No. 29 in which is the former Maison des 
Orphelines, or girls' orphanage, built iw \.hffl wv^ tvq^ ^^^^si^AS^^ 
hr the adminiBtntion of the public c\\aT\\.\ea. k\iQ^^ <J«v^ ^^^^ "^^ ^ 
relief representing a school of the i^Oa. ce\\t\3Li^ , 

BASDEKXR^a Belgium and Hollaud. iUb. "E^U. V^ 

194 BamUld. ANTWERP. Awmmta^F^^ 

The Gotbie Cknreh of St. Bmrgt (PL C, 4, 5 ; ada., see p. 163), 
ereeted in 1848-^ from desi^s by L. Su^i tke Ffnnfep, cmtaiBS 
fine moial paintings of scenes 6om the life of Chnrt by Gmfem» 
and Swetit, execnted in 1859-68. 

To the left, at the beginning of the Rue Liopoldj is the T&cofre 
Bcyal or Koninklyke Sehouwhurg (PI. G, 4 ; p. 162). — Farther on, 
to the left, is the house of the CercU AHisU^ue^ UUermn^ H 8eim- 
tifique, behind which (iii the Kne d'Arenberg) are the winter-qnarfeers 
of the 'Harmonic' Oub (p. 162). To the ri^t, in the Rue Leopold, 
is the Botaaie Gmrden {Kruidtuin or Jardin BoUmique; PL G, 4), 
which contains a Botanical Museum (adm. for scientific TiaitoTB b-7 
and 9-10 p.m.), a palm-house, and a statne of P. Coudtmberg, an 
Antwerp botanist of the 16th cent., by De Cuypcr. — In the vicinity 
U the St. Elizabeth Hospital. 

Behind the National Bank is the small Place Liopold(Fh G, 4, 5), 
embellished with an Equestrian Statue of Leopold I^ in bronze, 
designed by J. Geefs (1868). 

d. The Avenaef , Park, and Hew Qaarten. 

The ring of spacious streets constructed on the site of the ram->- 
parts (built 1540-43), which formerly described a semicircle round 
the E. side of the old town and were removed in 1859, is known 
coUectirely as the Avenues. 

From the N. docks (p. 198) the Avbnub du Gommbbcb (J7an- 
delslei; PI. 0, 2, 3; tramway No. 1, p. 161), with a Scandinavian 
Lutheran Church , leads to the Place de la Gommunb (Oemeentc- 
Plaats; Pl. C, D, 3), which is embellished with gardens and with 
marble statues of Van Dyck (1. ; by L. de Ouyper, 1856) and Jor- 
daens (r. ; by Jul. Pecher, 1886). At the N.E. angle of the square 
is the Athlnie Royal ^ built in 1880-84 by Dens, in front of which 
is a large bronze monument, by Fr. Joris (1897), to X. de Wacl, 
burgomaster in 1872-92. Opposite the last is the so-called Afonumcnt 
of the ^Furie Franfaise\ erected to commemorate the expulsion of 
the French under the Duke of Anjou in 1583 and consisting of 
a triumphant figure of Antwerpia, on a pedestal with reliefs, by 
W. Geefs and Fr. van Dyck (1883). 

On the W. side of the Place rises the Flemish Theatre, or 
Sehouwburg (PI. 0, 3), a handsome Renaissance building, erected 
by Dens in 1869-72. Inscription : *Vrede baart kunst, kunst veredelt 
bet volk' (peace begets art, art ennobles the people). 

Near the beginning of the Avenue des Arts (or KunsUei; 

PI. C, 3, 4), to the left, is the new Flemish Opera House (Neder^ 

landsch Lyrisch Tooneel or ThSdtre Lyrique Flamand; PI, D, 3), 

b»iJt by Al, van Mechelen. Just beyond this the Avenue De Keyzer 

Jc'sds to the left to the Gare Oentiale , vj\v\\^ \k^ "SWifc Tenters 

CP' iOO) opem to the right. — Fatibei on, ow \\i^ ^.^. %\ftA^\^^ 

and New Quarters. ANTWERP. Id. BouU. 195 

Avenue des Arts, is the Avenue Marie-TMrhae, leading to the Park 
(see below). 

At the end of the Avenue des Arts, to the right, stands the 
Hational Bank (PI. G, 5), with its round corner- turrets, built in 
1875-80 in the Flemish Renaissance style by Beyaert. The archi- 
tectural details are admirably executed. In front of the bank are 
a Fountain and a group of Samton and the Lion by Jos. Dupon. 

At the end of the Avbnub db l'Industbib (^Nyverhetds-Lei ; 
PI. 0, 5), on the left side, is the Palais de Justice, erected in 
1871-75 by Baeckelmans in the French style, and resembling the 
chateaux of the period of Louis XIII. 

The Atbnub du Sud (JZuider^Lei; PI. B, 5, 6) passes near the 
Synagogue and the Museum (pp. 193, 181). — Farther on, on the 
left, is the new church of S8, Michel et Pierre (PI. B, 6), built in 
the early Christian basilica style by Fr. van Dyck, with open roof 
and rich mosaics. — At the end of the avenue is the Station du Sud 
(p. 169). 

Near the centre of the present town, to the E. of the Ave. des 
Arts, lies the Park (PI. 0, D, 4, 5), laid out in 1867-69 by M. Keilig 
(p. 186). It occupies the site of an old lunette, the moats of which have 
been converted into an ornamental sheet of water, spanned by a chain- 
bridge. In the N. angle of the Park is a marble statue of the painter 
Quinten Malays (ca. 1460-1530), by H. de Braekeleer, erected in 
1883 ; and on the N.W. bank of the pond is a bronze monument to the 
author Jan van Beers (1821-88), by A. Crick. — From the Matsys mon- 
ument the Avenue Rubens leads to the statue of the painter Hendrik 
Leys (1815-69), by J.Ducaju, in the Avenue Louise Marie, in which 
(to the N.E.) there is also a large Jesuit college (College Notra 
Dame). — The Avenue Rubens proceeds thence to a bronze statue 
of the painter David Teniers the Younger , by J. Ducaju (1867). To 
the S., in the Rue Bex, is a Protestant Church (PI. D, 5) containing four 
paintings by Alb. De Vriendt (d. 1900). — The Avenue Van Eyck 
leads to the Place Loos (PI. D, 5). The space in front of the church 
of St. Joseph (see below) is embellished with the Loos Monument^ 
by Jul, Pecher, erected in commemoration of the destruction of the 
old fortifications (1859). It consists of a statue of Antwerpia on a 
lofty base , surrounded with figures representing commerce and 
navigation. In front is a marble bust of Burgomaster J. F. Loos 
(1848-62). — Opposite, at the corner of the Avenue Quinten Matsys 
and the Avenue Plantin (PI. D, 4), is the Moretus House, a hand- 
some building in the Flemish Renaissance style, erected for M. Rentf 
Moretus de Theux from the designs of J. Stordiau. The medallions 
on the facade represent distinguished men connected with the 
history of the Plantin printing-house (com^.15. IT^'^. 

Between the Avenue Moretus and. tViei Kt^t^xsl^ ^Y»."t\si\X» "^^^ 
the OmmoBOF St. Joseph fPl. D, b\ a mo^etiQ.B.OTSiWves»Q;vv<5k^^«^ ^ 

196 BouU 14, ANTWERP. ZoohgUal Qwrdm, 

ing by Qife, The interior is adorned witli frescoes of the Passion, 
by Hendtix (see p. 171). — In the Boul. Leopold, opposite the end of 
the Avenue Charlotte , is a colossal statue (by Ducaju, 1861) of 
BoduognatuSy the chief of the Neryii, who headed the Belgic opposition 
to the invasion of Julius Caesar in 57 B.C. 

The Boulevard Leopold ends on the S.W. at the Chauss^e de 
Malines, opposite the entrance to the Fipini^re (Warande; PI. D, 6), 
or arboretum, which has been converted into a pleasant park in the 
English style and now forms the central point of the fashionable 
quarter of the city. A bronze monument in the N.E. part of this 
park, by Count J. de Lalaing (1893). commemorates C Coquilhatj 
who died in 1891 as vice-governor of the Congo Free State. On the 
S.E. side of the park rises the Monument of OiUis van Schoonbeke 
(1519-1556; see p. 198). 

On the N.W. side of the P^piniere are the summer - quarters 
and fine garden of the ''Harmonic^ Club (p. 162). 

Visitors who wish to inspect the new and formidable circtunvallation 
of Antwerp may take the tramway-line No. 7 (p. 161) from the P^pini^re 
to the Porte de Malines (in the former suburb of Berchem, PI. E, 7), which 
is itself interesting from an architectural point of view. 

The new Place de la Gare (PI. D, 3), on the N. side of the Cen- 
tral Station (pp. 159, 166), is adjoined on the E. by the ^Zoological 
Garden {Diereniuin ; PI. D, 3, 4), which was founded in 1843 by 
the SociSti Royale de Zoologie. It is one of the best in Europe 
(admission, see p. 163). Over the entrance is a fine bronze group 
by Jos. Dupon, representing a Hindoo on a camel, while scattered 
throughout the grounds are various other sculptures (Prometheus, 
Bust of Darwin, by Jef Lambeaux; Native fighting with tigers, 
Return from the chase, by Jos, Qeefs; Samson, by Jac, de BraekeUer), 
Near the entrance, on the N. side, is the Palais dea FiteSy buUt in 
1897 by Em. Thielen for concerts, etc., with terrace and large Ball 
(2600 seats) ; to the left of the vestibule is a restaurant (p. 160), 
to the right a winter-garden, with fine palms and ferns. The 
garden is a favourite resort of the fashionable world, especially on 
the occasion of the concerts mentioned at p. 162. The camivora are 
fed daily at 5 p.m. (Sat. excepted), the seals at 11 a.m. and 4 p.m. — 
On the S. side (with an entrance in the Rue de la Charrue) is a 
Panorama of the Battle of Worth (PI. D, 4; adm., see p. 163). 

The town of Borgerhout, to the E. of the Zoological Oarden, ia adorned 
-with a Btatue of Latare Camot, defender of the city in 1811, situated in 
the 'Place' of the same name (PL E, 3). To the N.W. is the Church of 
St. Willibrord (PI. E, 3), erected in the Gothic style by Blomme. To the S. 
is the MaUon Communaie (PI. E, 4) , a building in the Flemish Renaissaneo 
style, also by Blomme. 

e. The Bank of the Scheldt and the Northern Bocka. 
The iD^nence of the tide is perceptible on the Scheldt a long 
way above Antwcrpj and at the city Oie ^\^eifc\\te\ifeV«fec?iVi%^«»ud 
low water amoanta to 12-25 ft. (^*Biac\ue ^\^ tc^uQ m^ ^\r(&»>x^m^^ 

Bank of the Scheldt. ANTWERP. 14, Route. 197 

honorat'). Even at low water, the river, which Is here 350-600 yds. 
in width, admits of the passage of vessels drawing 26 ft. of water. 

Along the river extend the handsome and busy Wharfs* or QuaiSy 
which were constructed in 1879-85 and enlarged in 1900-1901, 
and are now about 372 M. in length (tramway No. 6, see p. 161). 
The largest vessels can lie alongside the quays. The steamers and 
merchantmen receive and discharge their cargoes with the aid of 
gigantic and noiseless hydraulic eranes, which transfer the goods 
directly to or from the railway-trucks. The cranes are worked by a 
subterranean aqueduct, which is also used in opening and shutting 
the sluice-gates, in shunting the trains, etc. There are two engine- 
houses In connection with the aqueduct, one at the N. and one at 
the S. harbour. These alterations have, along with the new Docks, 
made Antwerp one of the first harbours in the world. 

Above the dock-sheds on the Quai Van Dyck (PI. B, 4, 3) and 
Quai Jordaens (PI. B, 3) run the *FromenoirB, or elevated terraces, 
which afford an extensive view of the busy shipping in the Scheldt, 
as well as of the Steen(see below), the Cathedral (p. 167), and the 
Boucheries (p. 174). At the Quai Van Dyck lie the fine steamers 
of the North German Lloyd (comp. p. 162; admission-tickets, 50c., 
at the agent's). Other large liners lie alongside the other quays. 

Opposite the S. end of the S. Promenoir stands the Forte de 
PEscaut (PI. B, 4) or Waterpoorty a gateway built in 1624 from 
designs by Rubens and adorned with a seated figure of the river-god 
by A. Quellin the Elder, which formerly stood a little farther to the 
N. It bears an inscription in honour of Philip IV. 

Another relic of the past is the Steen (PI. B, 3), originally part 

of the Castle of Antwerp, through which the ascent to the N. 

Promenoir from the Quai Van Dyck now leads. The castle dates from 

the 10th cent, and remained in the hands of the lords of the soil till 

1549, when Charles V. made it over to the burghers of Antwerp. 

It was afterwards the seat of the Spanish Inquisition. The dungeons, 

'oubliettes', etc., still bear sombre witness to its former history. 

The old chapel is also extant. An addition was built in 1889 on 

the N., in the style of the original. 

The interior (adm., see p. 163; stick or nmbrella 10 e., eandle for dun- 
geon 10 e.; catalogue 1 fr., to the Egyptian section Vs f^O is occupied by 
the MnSEUH van Oudhbden, a collection of antiquities and curiosities from 
Roman times till the 18tn cent., instruments of torture used by the In- 
quisition, furniture of the 15-17th cent., weapons, ivory and wood carvings, 
ornaments, glass (manufaetured in Antwerp after Venetian patterns), 
porcelain, coins, tapestry, costumes, ancient prints, engravings, and old 
views of Antwerp. The head of the giant Antigonus (p. 172), by P. Coecke, 
has figured in all civic processions since the 16th cent. ; the head of the 
giantess, by Herreynt^ dates from the 18th century. 

Near the Steen is a small monument erected in 1890 to W. Ogier^ 
a Flemish poet of the 17th century. . 

On the Quai Ortelius, to the iigVvt, \\es V^c.^ C\i«rt«vL ^«^» A 
(Douane or ToUkantoor ,• PI. B, 3), a YianaLSomft ?,\aTi^\s>oXV?^Vev%^^^^ 

198 BouUld, ANTWERP. Norikam DoOu. 

Flemish Renaissance style, by Jos, Schadde (1896). The group of 
the Scheldt and Meuse, on the gable, is by Fr. Deckers, 

At the N. end of the Qual Van Metteren (tramway No. 7, p. 161), 
near the first sluice of the docks, is the Pilot Office (^Pilotage or 
Loodswezen; PL B, 2), a Gothic brick building, erected by Kermis 
and Truyman in 1894-96, and also occupied by the Ecole de 
Navigation, the Emigrants' Office, and a Harbour Office. 

In the quarter to the E. of the Van Metteren Quay are two other old 
buildings, the Waterhuis and the Hessenhuis. The Waterhais or Mcriton 
des Brcuseurs (adm. 60 c), l^ue des Brasseurg 24 (PI. B, 2), contains lai^e 
and intereating pumps, invented by Gillis van Schoonbeke in 1563 to provide 
all the breweries of the town with water. It also possesses a well-preserved 
festival hall. Farther to the E., in the Plaine de Hesse (PI. C^ 2), is the 
old Hessian House (now a warehouse), built in 1562 for the Hessian carriers 
who in those days conveyed goods between Antwerp and Germany. 

The Northern Docks (PI. B, C, 1 , 2) lie at the N. end of the town 
and cover an area of upwards of 250 acres. They are connected with 
each other as well as with the smaller docks for river-craft at the 
South Harbour (PL A, B, 5, 6) and with the railway-stations by an 
extensive net- work of railways, by which about 1500 trucks leave 
Antwerp harbour daily from these docks. 

We begin our inspection (which must take place at least one 
hour before flood -tide, when the sluice-gates are thrown open) 
with the two older basins , the Pbtit and Gband Bassik , con- 
structed by Napoleon (1804-13) at a cost of 13 million francs as a 
war-harbour, but ceded after 1814 by the Dutch government to 
the town of Antwerp as a commercial harbour. The small dock is 
capable of containing 100, and the large one 250 vessels of moderate 
tonnage. The Maison de la Hanse or warehouse of the Hanseatic 
League, erected in 1564-68 by Cornells de Vriendt (p. 172) between 
these docks, on a canal which could contain another 100 ships, was 
burned down in 1893, and its place is occupied by some iron sheds. 
At the £. end of the Grand Bassin is the Entrepdt Royal or Koninkly^ 
StapelhuisCPl. C, 2), built in 1829-32 and purchased by the city In 

To the N. of the Grand Bassin , and connected with it by the 
Bassin de Jonction, is the Bassin du Kattbndyk (PI. B, 1), the largest 
of all, 1050 yds. long and 165 yds. wide, with an area of 230 acres, 
constructed by the town in 1853-60. It is connected with the river 
by the N. sluice. On the E. side stands the Oroote Boh or Chrande 
Biguej the largest hydraulic crane in Antwerp, with a *lift* of 120 tons. 
— The transatlantic steamers of the Red Star Line lie at the Quai 
du Rhin (PL B, 1, 2); tickets (50 c.) admitting visitors to inspect 
these vessels are issued on the quay, except from 12 to 2 p.m. 

To the N. of the sluice are six. Cales Shches, or dry docks, con- 
nected with the Bassin du Kattendyk by sluice-gates; the largest 
can accommodate a vessel 500 ft. in l^n^th. In the angle between 
tie N, end of the Kattendyk and the di'^ ^^itY* ^^ %NX75i»Na^ \:m^ 
factory of Corvilain^ the explosion in ^\Ac\v \v\ \S»>^ -wviXi^wwSi^ 

THedeFlandre. ANTWERP. Id. Route. 199 

terrible havoc. — To the N.W. of the Bassin du Kattendyk is the 
Bassin Lefebvre, completed in 1887 (715 yds. long and 430 yds, 
wide), on the W. side of which is a huge Orain Elevator^ on the silo 
system, with ingenious aiiangements for loading and unloading. 
Adjacent are the Batsiru Intercalaires and the Bassin America. — 
The *View from the adjoining Ecluse Militaire (comp. PI. A, 1) con- 
veys an excellent idea of the enormous extent of the port and its 

To the E. of the Bassin du Kattendyk lie the Bassin aitx Boi$ 
(PI. B, C, 1 ; 670 yds. long), the Bassin de la Campine^ and the 
Bassin Asia (PI. C, Ij 810 yds. long), at which the Canal de la 
Campine ends. 

The Coal Tip on the S. side of the Bassia de la Campine raises 
waggons with a load of 25 tons to a height of 40 ft. and empties them 
into the colliers. It can unload ten tracks per hour, but is seldom at work. 

A good survey of Antwerp is obtained from VlaamBcli Hoofd, 
French Ste. Anne or THe de Flandre (PI. A, 4; * Restaurant Kur- 
saal ; Belvedere , farther down, unpretending, both frequented on 
fine afternoons), on the left bank of the Scheldt, to which a steam- 
ferry plies from the Quai Van Dyck (PI. B, 3) every ^2 ^'- Q^ sum- 
mer on Sun., Mon., and Thurs. afternoon every */4 hr. ; fare there 
and back 30 or 6 c, tickets obtained under the Proroenoirs). — 
Pleasant walk downstream on the dyke between the Scheldt and 
the polder. — Railway through the Waesland to Ohent, see p. 82. 

The Stbambb Trip to Tamisb (five times daily in 2-8 hrs., starting 
from the Embarcad^re, PI. B, 8; fare 1 fr. or 75 c., there A back 2 or 1 fr.) 
affords a good survey of the harbour and quays, with the new petroleum 
tanks to the S. of the town, and also of the industrial development of 
the vicinity of Antwerp. The chief intermediate station is (1.) Aoboken 
(tramway Ko. 4, p. 161), with the villas of Antwerp merchants, a lai^e 
sbip building yard belonging to the Oockerill Go. (p. 250), and one of the 
highest chimneys (410 ft.) in the world, belonging to the Soci^t^ des 
D^sargentations. It may also be reached by tramway No. 4 (p. 161). — 
Tamite (Temsche)^ see p. 158. 

Fboh Antwbbp to Tobnhout, 33V2 M., railway in IV4 hr. (fares 5 fr. 20, 
3 fr. 60, 2 fr. 5 c). The trains start from the Central Station, with con- 
nection from the South Station vi4 Iloboken and Wilryok. — 872 M. Ottden 
God (Vieux IHeu); 7 M. Coniich (see p. 159)-, Linth; 10V« M. Lierre (p. 208), 

i' unction for Antwerp, Diest, and Hasselt (p. 204); Nylen; Boutcel; 28 M. 
IerenthaU(p. 206), the iunction for Roermond (p. 207) and Louvain (p. 231); 
Lichiaert; Thielen. — aJS'/z M. Tumhout (mt. de la Ports d'Or), the chief 
town of the district, with 20,900 inhab., a prosperous place, with cloth 
and other factories, and a leech-breeding establishment. The old Chdteau 
of the Dukes of Brabant now serves as a court of justice and a prison. 
In the church of Oud-Tumhout is a Madonna and saints by De Grayer. 
Steam- tram ways run" from Tumhout to the W. to Anttcerp (comp. p. 161) 
via Oottmalle, to the E. to (81/2 M.) Arendonck^ and to the 8. to Moll 
(p. 207). — Beyond Turnhout the line crosses the Dutch frontier to TiUmrg 
(see p. 442). 

From Antwerp to Alott^ see p. 2. 

The village of Brassehaet (Hdtel St. Antoine \ steam-tramway, p. 1611s 
10 M. to the N.B. of Antwerp, was for many 'jfti.T* \tv^ %«»J«. ^^ ^ ^jb^^sw^ 
colony of artiste. The park of Count Reuaona, lo Yj\i.\<i\v %^m\&^w. \% ^^^^ 
teonsly granted, deaervea a visit. — The Folygone de ^tcw»Owx«.\ ^^ >^^ 
artillerr-nngej may be visited only with penxABaVoxv oi V\v^ 'O*^'^^^^ ^ 

200 Route 15, ROSENPAAL. From Aninferp 

About 21 M. to the N.E. of Antwerp and ftbont 10 H. from Tumbont 
(p. 199; steam-tramAyay, p. 161) lies Hoogatraeten (75ft.), a village with 2600 
inhal)., the centre of the Catnpine Anversoisej or moorland district round 
Antwerp (see below). The late-Gothic *Church of St. Cathariney an interesting 
brick building of the 16th cent., contains beautiful stained glass of 1620-60} 
fine stalls ; the alabaster tomb of Count Lalaing-Hoogstraeten (d. 1540). the 
founder of the church, and his wife ; a l^etherlandish painting of ca. 14i0, 
with scenes from the legend of St. Joseph; and a modem enamelled 
reliquary by Wilmotte of Liege. Old embroideries and tapestries in the 
sacristy. The Hdtel de Ville^ dating from the end of the 16th cent., is a 
plain brick structure in the Renaissance style. The old Chdteau^ now 
a poor-house, lies on the brook Marek^ a little to the N. of the yillange. — 
To the S.E. of Hoogstraeten (diligence in IV4 hr.) is the workmen^s colony 
of Merxplas^ shown only by order of the manager of the above-mentioned 
poor-house. — Steam-tramway to (12 M.) Bysberffen (p. 161). 

15. From Antwerp to Eotterdam (Amsterdam), 

a. Railway Journey. 

G2 M. Railwat in 2-3V4 hrs. ; fares 9 fr. 90, 7 fr. 50, 4 fr. 40 c. (in the 
opposite direction 4 fl. 70, 3 11. 55, 2 fl. 10 c). The ^Swiss Express*, a 
'train de luxe' between B4le and Amsterdam, runs in summer only. The 
trains start from the Central Station. Railway Station* at Rotterdam^ see 
p. 592. — To Amsterdam (comp. R. 38) express in d^/t^/i hrs., ordinary 
train in 6'/4 hrs.j fares 16 fr. 30, 12 fr. 10, 7 fr. 60 c. (in the opposite 
direction 7 fl. 75, 5 fl. 75, 8 fl. 60 c). Another through-train runs from Rosen- 
daal via Breda, ^S Hertogenbosch, and Utrecht to Amsterdam (comp. R. 58); 
same time and fares as above. — The only points of interest on the line 
to Rotterdam are the handsome bridges over the Hollandsch Diep, the 
Haas at Dordrecht, and the Lek at Rotterdam. 

Antwerp^ see p. 159. The train traverses the suburb of Borger- 
hout, passes the station Anvers~Dam^ near the docks, and intersects 
the fortifications. At (7Y2 M.) Eeckeren and (10 M.) Cappellen are 
numerous villas of well-to-do Antwerp merchants. About 3^2 M. 
to the N.W., just beyond the Dutch frontier, lies the village of 
Puiten, in the churchyard of which lies Jacob Jordaens (d. 1678), the 
painter, who was denied a grave within the territory of Antwerp owing 
to his having been a Protestant ; the old tombstone is still preserved, 
and a bronze bust by Lambeaux was sot up in 1877. — 15 Y^^* Calmpt" 
hout. — We traverse the monotonous moorlands of the Campine An-- 
versoise. — 20^2 M. Esschen (buffet), with the Belgian custom-house. 

'26 M. Bosendaal, the seat of the Dutch custom-house, and 
junction for the Breda and Flushing line (R. 36b), see p. 291. — 
Thence to (62 M.) Rotterdam^ see p. 292. 

b. Steamboat Journey, 

Steamboat daily, except Mon., in 9-15 hrs. (fare 2V2 or IV4 fl., return- 

ticket 4 or 2 fl.), starting at 7 a.m. from the Quai de la Station (PI. A, 5, 6) 

at Antwerp, and from the E. extremity of the Noordereiland (PI. O, 4) at 

Rotterdam. The steamers are provided with tolerable restaurants (D. iy^H.), 

Tickets are purchased on board. Agents at Antwerp, Ruyi 4f Co., Qua! 

Van Dyck 8; at Rotterdam, H. Braakman A Co.j Boompjes (PI. P, 8). — 

. Tlie Dutch custom-house is at Han»wceTt, the Bcl^veiiL at LlUo. A dela^ 

v/ several hours often takes place at Vho "iocVift. V\i B\,oitmi ^*»>^k« ^Oa^ 

royage Is rough at piaces. 

lo Rotterdam, ZEELAND. 16, Route, 201 

The Steamboat threads its way between the seven islands form- 
ing (along with the narrow coast-strip of Zeeuwseh Vlaanderen or 
Flemish Zeeland) the Dutch province of Zbeland, the character of 
which is indicated by its heraldic emblem of a swimming lion, with 
the motto : Luctor et Emergo, The greater part of the province lies 
considerably below the sea-level and is protected against the encroach- 
ment of the sea by vast embankments (p. xxxv, xxxvi), except at the 
few points where there are dunes, or sand-hills. Some portions of it, 
submerged by the great inundations of the 12th cent, and the year 
1421 (see p. 439), have not yet been reclaimed again from the sea. 

Immediately after the departure of the steamboat, the passenger ob- 
tains a final view of Antwerp, extending in a wide curve along the bank 
of the Scheldt. To the W. of the docks lies the village of Austruweel 
or Oosterweel. Farther on, Fort St. Philippe rises on the right, and 
Fort Ste, Marie and Fort La Perle on the left. In this vicinity, Duke 
Alexander Farnese (p. xxi) constructed his celebrated bridge across 
the Scheldt, in 1585, to cut off communication between the besieged 
citizens of Antwerp and their confederates in Zeeland. After many 
fruitless attempts, the fireship of the Italian engineer Giambelli at 
length set the bridge on fire , and blew up a portion of it. Neither 
the besieged, however, nor their auxiliary fleet anchored below Fort 
LlUo, were in a position to derive any advantage from this signal 
success. — On the left, lower down, lies Fort Liefkenshoekj on the 
right Fort Lillo, the latter retained by the Dutch till 1839 (p. xxiii). 
Then, on the left bank, Doel^ just short of the Dutch frontier. 

The first Dutch place at the entrance to the Kreekerak, a narrow 
branch of the Scheldt closed by the railway embankment (p. 290), is 
Fort Bathj where the English fleet landed in 1809. The steamer con- 
tinues to follow the Wester Scheldey between Flemish Zeeland and 
the island of Zuid-Bevelandj the E. coast of which, the ' Verdronken 
Land* (literally ^drowned land*), once a fertile tract, was inundated 
iu 1532 by the bursting of a dyke, when 3000 persons are said to 
have perished. From Walsoorderiy the landing-place for Ossenisse 
and connected by steam-tramway with Hulst (p. 158), the boat steers 
to the N. through the ZuidersluiSy and at Hansweert (station) it 
enters the Zuid-Beveland Canalj which intersects the island, having 
been constructed in 1863-66 to compensate for the filling up of the 
Kreekerak. At the N. end of the canal, which is about 5 M. in 
length, and is crossed by the railway to Goes (p. 290), lies Wemel' 
dingerij the landing-place for Goes. At Yersektj 3 M. to the E., 
oyster-breeding is carried on with success. 

The steamer now traverses the broad expanse of the Ooster- 
Schelde in a N. direction, and enters the narrow Canal de Keeten^ 
between the islands of Tholen and Duiveland. The old church of 
Stavenissej at the entrance of the canal, couta\ii%t\v^isiW^^'atfs\>».\sv'K«*. 
of Jerome van TuyU (1669 •, by VeiViM\%t^. TJ»fe\.^'i«^ '^'ft^'^^^^^ 
of Duiveland and St. Philipsland (r.^ \^ ^-"^ ^"^^ ^\».VNs^ ^"^ '*'N^* 

202 Route 16, WILLEMSTAD. 

which is also a station on the steam-tramway from Rosendaal yH 
Zierikzee to Brouwershaven (see p. 291). 

We now enter the ramifications of the Maas, the first of which ii 
the Krammer^ and the next the Volkerak, These separate N. Brabant 
from the island of OverflakkeCy which belongs to the province of 
S, Holland. The towers of Nieuwe-Tonge and OudcTonge are 
Yisible on this Island to the N.E. The entrance to the Hollandaek 
Diep (p. 443) is defended by Fort De Ruyter on the right, and Fort 
OoUgensplaat on the left. Witlemstady a fortress erected by William 
the Silent in 1583, next becomes visible to the right, on the island 
of Beyerland (S. Holland). 

The water here is sometimes pretty rough. Nearing Moerdy^ 
(p. 443) , we see the handsome railway-bridge mentioned at p. 44^. 

The steamer now turns to the left into the Dordtsche Kil, a very 
narrow branch of the Maas. In 1711 John William Friso (p. xl), 
Prince of Orange, was drowned in crossing this channel, when on 
his way to The Hague to meet Frederick William I. of Prnssia, with 
a view to adjust the difficulties of the Orange succession. The land- 
ing-place of '<S Qravendeel is also the steamboat-station for Bordirecht 
(p. 443), the lofty church-tower of which appears on the right, along 
with numerous picturesque wind-mills and tall chimneys belonging 
to saw- mills and factories. 

The steamer (to Rotterdam 1 hr.) now leaves the Kil, traverses 
the Oude Maas, with the railway-bridge mentioned at p. 446, and 
for a short distance the broad Merwede (p. 444), then enters a side- 
channel of the Maas called De Noord. On the right are Popendreeht 
and Alblaaserdam, both with large ship-building yards, and Kinder^ 
dyk, with ship-building yards and iron-foundries. The Noord unites 
here with the Lek, which now assumes the name of Maaa, To the 
right, Krimpen^ with a pointed spire ; left, beyond more ship-building 
yards, H Huis ten Donk, a handsome country-house surrounded with 
trees; left, Ysselmonde (p. 446); right, Kralingen, with 16,700 
inhab., extensively engaged in salmon -fishing; left, the large 
machine-factory of Feyenoord (p. 300). — Then, on the right bank, 
in a huge semicircle, appears — 

Rotterdam, see p. 292. 

16. From Antwerp to Aix-la-Chapelle vi& Maastricht, 

92 M. Railway in 31/4 3»/4 hrs. (fares 15 fr., 11 fr. 40, 7 fr. 80 c.$ in 
the opposite direction 12 U^ 30, 9 U^ 30, 6 U)f 30 pf.). The only part of 
the ]ine on which express-trains run is that between Lou vain and Maas- 
tricht. The Dutch custom-house examination takes place at Maastriehtj 
the German ht Aix-la-Chapelle ; in the reverse direction the Dutch examina- 
tion iH made at Simpelveld, the Belgian at Lanaeken, Through-passengert 
are generally subjected to only one custom-house examination. — Numerous 
local trains, with frequent halts, ply between Maastricht and Wjlrtf 

Antwerp, see p. 159. — ^Vi W- MorUel; b N^. Bo\wW>ul. 

AERSOHOT. X6. Route. 203 

8V2M. Lierre, Flem. Z.i«r (25 ft.; Hdt. du Commerce^ Grand' 
Place, R. 21/4, B. 8/4, D. 2, S. 1 V2 fr. ; H6U d'Anvera, Rue d'Anvers 9), 
a town of 22,700 inhab., with seveial breweries and silk-factoiies. 
The Church of St. Gommabius, one of the finest late -Gothic 
churches in Belgium, was begun in 1425, completed in 1557, 
and recently judiciously restored. Three of its fine stained- 
glass windows were presented by £mp. Maximilian. The interior 
contains an altar-piece by the Master of the St, Catharine Altar at 
Antwerp (c. 1510); two paintings by Buhens, viz. St Francis (in the 
left transept) in a good landscape, and St. Clara (in the 2nd chapel 
to the right in the ambulatory); the *ch&Bse' of St Gommarius; and 
a rood-loft in the florid Flamboyant style, by Fr. Mynsheeren and 
J. Wischavens of Malines (1535). Near the church is a bronze statue 
of Canon David^ one of the champions of the Flemish moyement 
(p. xv). — The facades of the Brouwerhuis and other houses in 
the market-place, and the Belfry with its corner-turrets (1369) are 
interesting, — The municipal Museum (daily 10-4; 50 c.), in the 
Rue de Malines, near the market-place, contains a library, a cabinet 
of engravings, collections of antiquities, and about 100 paintings, 
chiefly old masters, some of which are attributed by the catalogue 
to the most distinguished hands. — On the Boulevards is a bust of 
Tony Bergmann (d. 1874), the historian of literature. — Lierre is 
the junction of the Antwerp and Gladbach line (R. 17) and of a 
branch to Contich (p. 159). Steam-tramways to Broechenij Oostmalle 
(p. 161), Rumpst^ and Malines (comp. p. 158). 

131/2 M. Berlaer, — From (18 M.) Heyst-op-den-Berg (150 ft.) 
steam-tramways run W. to Malines, N. to Iteghem (p. 158), and E. 
via Boisschot, Westmeerbeek (p. 158), and Westerloo to Gheel 
(p. 206). At Weiterloo is a chateau of Count M^rode, who has 
established a well-known tapestry-factory here. A visit may be 
made from Westerloo to the suppressed Praemonstratensian abbey of 
TongerloOy with the largest lime-trees in Belgium. — 22 M. Boisschot. 

27 M. AerBchot (^Cygne^ in the market-place, R. & B. 372) I^* 
2 fr.), the junction of the Louvain and Herenthals line (p. 229) and 
of the steam-tramway from Tirlemont to Haecht (p. 168), has a 
Gothic church containing a rich rood-loft and choir-stalls of the 
15th cent, and an altar-piece by G. de Crayer. 

The line now follows the valley of the Demtr. 33 M. Testelt, 
with the fine Prssmonstratensian abbey of Averbode, founded in 1130 
(^large library). — 35 M. Sichem has an attractive church and still 
retains one of its ancient towers. A branch-railway (2*/2 M., in 
10 min.) runs hence to Montaigu, with the baroque pilgrimage- 
church of Notre Dame de Montaigu^ built in 1609 from W. Coe- 
berger's designs by the regents Albert and Isabella (pp. xxi, xxii; 
rich treasury). A steam-tramway runs from ^\<i\iaTa.\ft lA.o\V V^.'^iS:?^* 

38 M, meat (76 ft; Hdtel dt la CouTonue^, ^V>b.'^^Ns^5^->^ 
and many breweries and distilleries. Iw We^ Q^o^XsNa ett>i.x^jX^ <:> 

204 Route 16. HASSELT. From Antwerp 

St. Sulpice is the tomb of Philip of Nassan-Orange (d. 1618) ; in the 
churchyard is a ruined church. The Hotel de VilU contains an in* 
teresting painting of the Early Cologne School (Last Judgment). 
The Town Ramparts are well preserved. Diest is the junction of a 
branch-line from Tirlemont (p. 229) to Moll (p. 207). Steam-tram- 
way to LouvaiUy see p. 237. 

The train crosses the Demer. 41 M. Zeelhem; 43 M. SchueUn; 
48V2 M. Kermpt. 

51 M. Hasselt (126 ft. ; Hdtel du Verre a Vin ; H6t. du Limhourg\ 
the capital of the Belgian province of Limburg, with 15,000 inhab., 
was the scene of a victory gained by the Dutch over the Belgians on 
6th Aug., 1831. The late-Gothic chief church has been well restored. 

Fbom Hasselt to Maeseygk, 25V2 M., railway in WU-Wjt hr. Inter- 
mediate stations : Qenck (226 ft. 1 *H6tel de la Cloche, E. i'/a, B. »/<» D. 2, 
S. iVi, pens. 4-5 fr.), in the Limburg Gampine (p. 4fii), mnch frequented by 
painters as a summer-residence: Asch; Eelen. — The small town of 
Maeseyck (105 ft.; JI6t. van Eyck)^ on the left bank of the Maas, was 
probably the birthplace of the brothers Fan Eyek (p. zlvi), to whom a 
handsome marble monument was erected here in 1864. Steam-tramways 
on the S. to (20 M.) Maastricht (p. 261), on the W. to (18V« M.) Wychmael 
(p. 421) and (25 M.) Bourg-L4opold^ and on the N. to (5 M.) Kessenich; diligence 
twice daily to (1 hr.) Stuteren (p. 440). 

Steam Tkamwats run to the S. from Hasselt to (iOV2 M.) Looe (p. 230) 
and (I8V2 M.) Oreye (p. 231); to the W. to (8V2 M.) Eerci-la-VUle; and to 
the N. to (I8V2 M.) Bourg-Liopold (d. 230). 

From Hasselt to Liige^ see B. 5o; to Eindhoven and UtrecMy see B. 53; 
to Landen^ see p. 230. 

56 M. Diepenbeek^ 5'^V2 M* ^^'^^Tst^ both also stations on the line 
to Tongres and Li&ge (p. 421); 5972 M. Munsterbilaen ; 62 M. 
Eygenbilsen ; 65 M. Lanaektn^ the Belgian frontier-station (steam- 
tramway to Tongres, p. 421). 

70 M. Maastricht, see p. 256. Route to Lilge^ see R. 29; to 
Venlo ' Nymwegen J see p. 440. — Beyond Maastricht we pass 
numerous country-houses, and cross three arms of the Qohl. 

73 M. Meerssen (Hotel de la Reine Emma), a favourite residence 
of the Frankish kings in the 9th cent, and afterwards the property 
of the Abbey of St. Remy at Rheims, is noted for the treaty between 
Lewis the German and Charles the Bald (870). The fine Gothic 
Convent Church (13-14th cent.), restored by P. J. H. Cnypers, con- 
tains a beautiful Gothic ciborium (the only one in Holland). The 
farm of De Proostdy (*Provostry') is believed to occupy the site of 
the Oarlovingian palace. 

The train now gradually quits the river, and passes the village 
of Houthem-St-Qerlach (p. 205) on tlie right. 

76 M. Valkenberir. — Hotels. Hot. db l'£mp£bbus; Gbamd HdTSL 

Vbaghs-Vossen, Byksweg 6, B. from 1, B. 1/21 I>. 1V«» S. 1, pens. 8 fl., 

Gkand Hotel Arnold Vossen, B. 1V2-2»/4, B. 1/2, D. 1V«, pens. 3-4 fl., both 

near the station. — In the town : Cboix db Bodbooonb, Groote-Straat TO, 

B. from 1, B. 1/2, I>. IV^i Pens. 2'/2fl.; Van dbb Smissbn; Oraitjb-Kassau) 

Pmins Hendrik; Qbbmania, — Outside the lovjn*. ^KSkto^:^^^^ B.t^\« tbr 

Oeuz, peas. ^'/a-SVa 0. — Cab with one hotae, ^-b «^. ^«t taM-^v^v^^VCtoL 

ffvo horses y 5-7 fl. 

to Aix-la-ChapelU. VALKENBERG. 16, Route, 205 

VaUcenherg or Valkenburg (220 ft.), French Fauquemont, an an- 
cient town with 1000 inhab., pictnresqnely situated on both aims of 
the Oeul or OoM, is a favourite centre for excursions as well as a 
frequented summer-resort and sanatorium. It contains an interesting 
Romanesque Church, the Berkel-Poort and GHrendel'Poort, two well- 
preserved gates, a modern Toton HaU, and a ruined Castle of the 
i3th cent, (destroyed in 1637) on the Bwingdrots^ or hill above the 
town (key of the castle kept by J. Caelen, in the corner-house No. 141 
beside the Berkel-Poort ; adm. 10 c). A monument erected in 1889 
from P. J. H. Cuyper*s designs, in front of the Grendel-Poort, com- 
memorates the jubilee of the union of the duchy of Limburg with 


Environs of Valksmbbbo. In the^Berg", near the above-mentioned mon- 
ument and opposite the TJrsuline convent, is the entrance to the Valkenberg 
Grotto (tickets at Hoen's in the market, etc., 1-2 pers. 1 fl., 8-5 pers. 1/2 fl> 
more each, 6-10 pers. V^ ^' more each; the visit occupies IVzhr.y, a series 
of subterranean marl-quarries, resembling those in tlie Petersberg (p. 260) 
and, like these, worked in the Roman period. The walls are covered with 
drawings and paintings, portraits of famous men, etc. The visitor is shown 
the 'concert-hall^ in the Roman part, with a small spring known as the 
'Zweitropff and in another part a lake that appears and disappears at 
intervals of 10 or 12 years. Two priests were concealed here in 1798-18C0, 
during the French Revolution, and celebrated secret mass in the *chapcr. 
Illuminations and concerts frequently take place in the grotto in summer. 

— The OianVt Siairceue (Reuzentrap *, 96 steps) leads firom the grotto to the 
Roei Pari (Rotspark \ restaurant) ^ in the lower part is the Witch"* Kitchen 
(Heksenkeuken); the tower at the top (adm. 10 c.) commands a good view. 

— Pleasant footpaths lead hence down the stream to (>/4 hr.) Oeulen^ where 
there are some interesting rock-dwellings. Tickets (30 c.) may be obtained 
in the Caf^ Akkermans for a visit to the subterranean Oiiapel in the 
OeuUn Grotto^ which between 1795 and 1801 repeatedly served the inhab- 
itants as a place of refuge from the French. On the walls are various 
inscriptions and paintings of this period. This excursion may be con- 
veniently extended to Meertsen (p. 20A). — About halfway along the high- 
road from Valkenburg to Heerssen lies the straggling village of Houihem- 
Saini-Oerlach (H5t. Euypers; Hot. Bleypen; Hdt. Stevens; Hdt. Klepper), 
with a tasteful modern ch§,teau and numerous country-houses. The 
church contains some frescoes (repainted) by the Tyrolese Jos. Schopf. 
Many Roman remains have been found in the vicinity of the village. — 
Walks lead upstream, past the chslteau of Oott or the chateau of Schaloen 
(fine park), then through wood and over the railway to the (3/4 hr.) her- 
mitage (Eluis) on the Schaesherg (view from the top). — Other pleasant 
excursions mav be made via Schin op Oeul and Strucht to the top of the 
Keutenherff (558 ft. ; fine views), and thence down to WplN (see below), or 
along the W. slope of the Keutenberg to Oulpen (Hdt. de la Poste), which 
is also connected by a direct road with (IVa M.) the station of Wylr^. 
The village is picturesquely situated on the Gulp, a tributary of the Geul, 
at the foot of a hill 460 ft. in height. In the neighbourhood are the 
ch&teau of Neuhorg and the village of Wittem, with the ch&teau of the 
Counts of Plettenberg and a Redemptorist monastery built in 1782 (valuable 
library). Witt em lies VkV. to the S.W. of Wylr^. — A road runs to the 
N.E. from Valkenberg vi& Oenheei, Klimmm, and Kunrade to (6 M.) the little 
town of Heerlen (p. 44()). 

The railway ascends the valley of the Geul, skirting the (ScKsvt^^t.t^ 
Tsee above) J to the right attractive view oi ^Ai^* Qitv\\.^vOT. <i\ ^««^«scva. 
hdth cent), Schaloen, and Oost, and oi t\ift lo^w \v5.^\. ^^v^^-. 
80 M. %/r/CHdt Heiligers). Hence to Gulpcn^\veLNV^^^^«^»«*^ 

806 Beut<17, QHEBL. 

berg to Valkertberg, see p. 305. — 84 M. Simpetveld, with the DntekT 
Rusuin-houie, is tbu sUctiiig-poiiit for d. visit to the (^/^ hr. (o tha 
N.W.) Vrottutnhtlde (790 ft.), the highest point in Holland, with • 
meteoiolaglcal observatory and eltenslve view. — The Uaiu ni 
nrosaea the Qeiman frontier, and beyond the small statlona >t I 
Templeibend and the Marschierthor, enters the Rhenish Station at 
'J'Z M. Aiz-lB-Chapelle (see Btiedditr't RAlne). 

17. From Antwerp to Snsseldorf vi& Hancheii- 

llfl M, Railw*! in I'/t-i brs. ((sres 19 fr. 60, IB ..., , _ 

tbc opposite direction IG Jf &3. 12 Jl, S Jl 10 pr.). The IrainB Itart rrom 
Ibe Ocntml auunn. The cuatom-liouae eiaminBIIuoa like place at Budel 
sad Salhelm (in (he Teverse dlrectiOD at Vlodrop and HamoBl). 

From Antwerp to (S'/i M.) Licrre, saa R. 16. IV/3 M. Nytens 
18 M. Bouiref. 

21 'I2 M. HsrenthaU (Mtti OpdtbUk), on fbe Canal dt la Cam- 
pine, a loirn with 7000 iiihab., Is the junction of a Uiio to Lonvaln 
(24m., til Ihr.) and Brussels (42M., In 11/2-2 brfl.). The Hfilal de 
Vlllo, with s lofty towei, contains the small fVailEin Mttteum, with 
eevBial original Bculpluras and caatg of other works by the Boulptor 
Ch. A. Frajkln (1817-93), a native of Herenthals. One of the old 
towD-gktes le also interesting. Ilie church of 51. WatlrudiB (15th 
oent) contains paintings by F. J. Verhaghen and Fi. Francken the 
Elder. — 20 M. Oolen. 

38"/j M. Ghael (78 tt.; B6tel de I'Agneau; Rati. Beilounml) Is a 
town of 13,000 iiihab., which dorlves its principal interest from ibe 
colony of lunatics (shout 2000 in number) oatabliahed here kud In 
the neighbouring villages. The district thcoughouC which they aie 
dlstribnted is about 30 M. in circumfeience, and divided Into sis 
sections, each with a physician and keeper. The patients are flist 
leoeived Into the Jnfirmeric, wlieie theii sympiomn are carefully 
observed for a time, after which they ate entrusted to the oire sf ■ 
nourrjcifr, Or hHie, who generally provides occupation for them. They 
»7o permitted 10 walk about withont restraint within the limita of 
their district, nnlesa they have shown symptoms of vlolenee 01 1 
desire to escape. This excellent and hnmsne aystem, although 
apprehensions were at one time entertained as to its safety, hai 
always been attended with favourable resuUe. — The handiomti 
late-Gothic Churrh of St. Dympna (who Is Said to have been an IrUh 
pilnoeu, converted 10 Christianity, and beheaded here by bei 
heathen father) contains a tlno late-Qothlc altar, with the histoi; 
of the saint In good atone- carvings; and in the ambulatory la th* 
reliquary of St. Dyinpna, painted with acanca from her life, piobably 
by a contemporary of Meuiling. The choir contains the toarbla a 
phagas ofJaiiUL of Merode t.nd h\B''i\!B,ii%ne%At>v^Mva«« .. 
(iSSiJ. In the ohoIi-Bhapela ate V«o lAta-smMwi*, tAncMb 


ROERMOND. 17, Route. 207 

finely-executed caiving and painting (lestored). A painted group 
in stone, protected by a railing, in the vicinity of the church, bears 
a Flemish inscription, recording that St. Dympna wag beheaded on 
this spot, 30th May, 600. The church of 8U Amand, in the market- 
place, contains finely carved choir-stalls and confessionals and an 

elaborate marble balustrade in front of the choir. 

A ateam- tramway connects Gheel with (20 M.) Heyit-op-den-Berg and 
(38 M.) McHines (comp. p. 203). 

34V2M. Moll (Rail. Restaurant) is the junction of a line to Diest 
and Tirlemont (see p. 204). Steam-traraways run hence to Biehem 
(p. 203) and io Tumkout (p. 199). — 37 M. Batten- Wezel; 43 M. 

49 Y2 M. Neerpelt, the junction of the Hasselt-Eindhoven line 
(p. 421). — 51 1/2 M. LUU' St -Hubert. — 541/2 M. Hamont 
(Rail, Restaurant) f the last Belgian station (custom-house). — 
55 V2 M. Budel is the first station in Holland (custom-house). — 
61 V2 M. Weert (Engel), on the Zuid-Willems-Vaart (p. 442), has a late- 
Gothic church of the 15th cent., with a lofty modern tower, and the 
scanty remains of a chateau of the Counts of Hoorn (p. 120). In the 
vicinity are some important zinc-mines. — 69 M. Baexem-Heythuysen; 
72Y2 M. Haelen. — 771/2 M. Boermond, the junction for the Maas- 
tricht- Venlo line, see p. 440. — 81 1/2 M. Melick-Herkenbosch. — 
84^2 M. Vlodrop, the last station in Holland, with the Dutch 
custom-house. — 851/2 M. Dalheim, the Prussian frontier-station 
(luggage examined). — 91 M. Wegberg ; 94 M. Rheindahlen; 96 M. 
Rheydt, where the line to Aix-la-Chapelle diverges to the right. 

99 V2 ^* Monchen - Gladbaoh, and thence to (116 M.) Dnssel- 
dorf, see Baedeker's Rhine. 

18. From Bnusels to Braine-le-Comte and Mons. 

38 M. Railway in i-2 hrs. (fares 5 fr. 80, 3 fr. 90, 2 fr. 35 c). Trains 
start from the Oare du Midi at Brussels (p. 83). The express-trains be- 
tween Brussels and Paris run by this line: 193 M., in 4V4-5V3 hrs., fares 
34 fr. 85 (drawing-room car 6 fr. extra), 23 fr. 75, 15 fr. 66 e. ) comp. p. 210. 

From Brussels to (9 M.) Hal, see p. 7. The Mons train di- 
verges here to the S. from the Toumai line (R. 1 b). — 10^/2 M. Lem- 

FbomLbxbbcq to Esqublimnbs andChihat, viai''a«ro«f<{x, 37or68M., 
railway in 2-21/4 hrs. or 3V« hrs. (fares 5 fr. 70, 3 fr. 90, 2 fr. 30, or 10 fr. 35, 
7 fr. 5, 4 fr. 20 c). — Chief stations: 2 M. Clabeeq, junction of the line to 
Tubize and Braine-rAlIeud •, 13 Vs M. EcausHnes (p. 211) . where the line 
from Ghent to Manage and Gharleroi is crossed. — From (IBVs M.) Hoitdmg- 
Ooegnies a branch-line runs to Soignies (p. 208), and steam-tramways to 
Bracquegnies (p. 212), via La Louvi&re (p. 212) and Jolimont toHanage 
(p. 211), and to Mariemont-Morlanwelz-Carni^res (p. 211). — 22 M. Hain«' 
St-Pierre (p. 210); 27V«M. Binehe; 30 M. Bonne-Espiranee (p. 210). — 31 M. 
Fauroeulx, the junction of branch-lines to Pidton (p. 211) and to Estinnes 
(p. 210). To the right diverges the line to (37 M.) £rquftliwae« ^jft.'iNXjv. ^t». 
the left branch we next reach Merhei-SXt-Mavit (^wu^VVqidl q1 ^Ciaa'^^^T^'^'*^. 
Piifton line, see above), Thuin-Ovtit Cp. ^V4^, ThuilUe* V\iTWv^ \ft .^*TJ^, 
see p. 213} ateam-trAmwav to Charleroi, p. ^\3). — ^1&^. CKi-n^fMI vs. *o«t. 

208 Route 18. MONS. From Bnutek 

12 M. Tuhize (145 ft.}, Flem. Tweehtek, is the junction of 
branch-lines to Rognon (p. 211) and Braine-i'ALleud (p. 151); the 
former passes Quentist^ with large quarries of paying-stones. — 
15 M. Hennuyhres. — Tnnnel. 

19 M. Braine-le-Comte, Flem. '8 Oraven-Brakel (275 ft. ; H6id 
du Comte de Ilainaut)^ a town with 7300 inhabitants. The parish- 
church contains a large altar-decoration, with numerous flgnres, re- 
sembling that of Hal (p. 7), but inferior and of later date (1670). 
Braine-le-Comte is the junction of the Ghent-Enghien-Gharleroi 
line (R. 19). 

221/2 M. Soignies, Flem. ZinVc (282 ft. ; H6tel Dtlmie), a town 
with 7900 inhab., possessing a venerable abbey-church (8U VincenX) 
in the Romanesque style, perhaps the most ancient building in the 
kingdom, founded about 650, and rebuilt in 965 and in the 12th 
century. Many of the tombstones in the churchyard date from the 
13th and 14th centuries. Extensive quarries of mountain-limestone 
in the neighbourhood. — Branch-line to Houdeng (p. 207); steam- 
tramway to Thoricourt (Enghien-Lens), see p. 7. 

26 M. Neufvilles; 28 M. Masnuy- Saint -Pierre. — 30 V2 M. 
Jorbise (251 ft.), Flem. Jurbeke, where branch-lines to Ath-Tournai 
(p. 6) and St. Ghislain (p. 210) diverge. 

38 M. Mons. — Hotels. Gband Hotel Schxitz, with restaurant, B. 
2V2-IO, pens, from 71/2 fr. \ Hot. dk L'EspftRANCB, E. from 2V«, B. »/4 fr-, 
these two in the Rue de la Station, near the station and well spoken of; 
Jadot, Mokasqdb, also near the station, unpretending. — Ca/4 Boyal\ 
Ca/i Rubens; Cave de Munich^ all in the market place. 

Mons (170 ft.), Flem. Berghen^ the trim capital of Hainault, with 
27,000 inhab., is situated on a hill above the TrouUle and owes its 
origin to a fortress erected here by Caesar during his campaigns 
against the Gauls. The town was fortified by Jean d'Avesnes in the 
14th century. Prince Louis of Orange took Mons by surprise on 
24th May, 1572, and maintained it against the Duke of Alva till 
19th September, thus giving the northern provinces an opportunity 
of shaking off the Spanish yoke. The town was captured by Louis XIV. 
in 1691, restored to the Spaniards in 1697, and again occupied by 
the French in 1701. Prince Eugene captured Mons in 1709 after 
the battle of Malplaquet ; by the Treaty of Baden in 1714 it wag 
assigned to Austria ; and it was twice afterwards taken by the French, 
in 1746 and 1792. The site of the fortifications, which encircled 
the town (about 3 M.), has been converted into a pleasant prome- 
nade, on which, near the station, rises a Statue of Leopold /., by 
Simonis, erected in 1877. 

The most interesting edifice at Mons is the late-Gothic Oath- 

BDRAL or St. Waltrudis (Ste. Waudru), situated on the left ag the 

town is entered from the station. It was begun about 1450 from a 

design by Matthew de Layens^ the architect of the H6tel de Yille 

at Louvain, and Mb assistant Gillcs Pole. T\ie ^iWiVt ^*."^ wwk\^\«A. 

Jn I0O2, the transept iul519, aud ihe iia.Nfeiix\.^^V?rtSsi>^^i^toi% 

to Mom, MONS. 18, Route. 209 

touches added in 1621). The projected tower was never built, and 
the church possesses only a small spire above the crossing and 
Gothic turrets on the transept. It was restored in 1896 and freed 
from encroaching buildings. 

The *Intksior, which is 355 ft. long, 116 ft. wide, and 80 ft. high, is 
a model of boldness and elegance. The slender clustered columns, 60 in 
number, are without capitals, rising immediately to the vaulting and 
keystones. There are 90 windows ; under those of the nave and transepts 
is a tasteful triforium. — The choir has stained-glass windows of the 
16th cent., the restoration of which is not wholly successful (Crucifixion, 
with Maximilian and his son Philip the Handsome; Flight into Egypt, with 
Maximilian's wife, Mary of Burgundy, his daughter Margaret, and their 
patron-saints). Behind the high-altar, above, is the modern reliquary of 
8t. Waltrudis (d. 685), which appears in processions on the state-carriage 
preserved in the vestibule of the church. The reliefs on the high-altar and 
various other sculptures distributed in the side- chapels originaUy belong- 
ed to a rood-loft by Jacqwt Dubrowcq^ which was destroyed by the French 
in 1792. Dubrceucq also sculptured the statues in the choir and at the 
piers below the crossing as well as the handsome Renaissance altar in 
the chapel of St. Mary Magdalen (4th chapel on the left. In the ambulatory). 
The 6th chapel contains a i5th cent, statue of St. Waltrudis, beneath a 
late- Gothic canopy. The altar-pieces are by Van Thulden and other artists. 

In the Place St. Germain, opposite the choir, is a monument to 
Burgomaster FranQois Dolez, Ascending thence to the left and pass- 
ing through an archway, we reach the highest ground in the town, 
formerly crowned with fortifications on the alleged site of Casar's 
Castrum, and now laid out as a promenade. Fine views of the busy 
environs of Mons. To the right rises the Beffroi; 275 ft. high, in 
the Renaissance style , erected in 1662 from a design by Louis 
Ltdoux, and restored in 1864 by 8ury (fee). It contains a *carillon', 
or set of chimes. Adjacent is the reservoir of the city water- works. 

The centre of the town is formed by the Grand' Plaob, or Mar- 
ket, still, as in medissval times, the chief focus of municipal life 
(band in the evening and on Sun. 12.30-1 p.m.). A grand fete, 
called 'La Parade du Lume^on', with a contest with a dragon, is 
celebrated here on Trinity Sunday. 

The Hotel dbVillb, a late -Gothic edifice, was erected in 
1458-67, but never quite completed. The facade, with 10 windows 
in the upper story , is embellished with statuettes. The baroque 
tower, with a curious clock, was built by Louis Ledoux in 1662. 
The small wrought-iron ape on the staircase to the left of the main 
entrance probably once formed part of a tavern-sign, and is now 
regarded as one of the emblems of the town. The courtyard is 

Intebior. One room contains a collection of portraits of eminent 
natives of Mons. The Gk)thic Boom, recently restored, is embellished with 
three large paintings of scenes from the history of the town, by Pater' 
nostre, Modesta earlier^ and Hennebicq. Another room is adorned with 
tapestry after Teniers. 

On the right and left of the H6tel de Ville a.t^ V«^ VoSSANs^-^ 
with BenaisMiice facades , the Maison de la Tolion ^ Ot «sA. HiaA 
Chap<lofSt, Oeorge, 

BAKDSKBR'a Belgium and Holland. UW^-Bd^iX.. VK 

210 Route 18. MONS. 

The Library, In tlie Hue des Gades, posseBses 40,000 printed 
vorks and seTeial MSS. with miniatures. The grounds contain i 
handsome monument by Frison, erected in 1853 to the memory of 
the celebrated composer Orlando di LassOy or Roland de Latire, who 
was born at Mens in 1520 and died at Munich In 1694. — Op- 
posite, at the corner of the Kne du Rossignol, is a bnilding contain- 
ing the Archaeological Museum and the Picture Oallery, the latter 
including paintings by Navez, Portaels, A, Hennebicq, Edm. 
de Schampheleer, and other modern masters (adm., on week-days, 
except Sat., 9-11 and 2-6, on Sun. and holidays 2-4). — The chureh 
of St, Elizabeth presents a singular mixture of the Gothic and 
Benaissaiice styles. 

On the E. boulevard stands an equestrian statue, by Jaquet, of 
Baldwin IX, of Hainault and Flanders^ who took part in the Fourth 
Crusade and became Emperor of Constantinople in 1204. Near this 
statue is a public garden called Vauxhall (adm. Y2 ^'0« 

Moiis is the centre of Le Borinage, the chief coal-mining district 
in Belgium. The inhabitants are known as ^Borains* (coal-borers). 
Of the 125,000 coal-miners in Belgium more than three-fourths be- 
long to Ilainault. A general survey of the country around Mens may 
be obtained by taking the train to (12^2 M. ; in 40 min.) Quiivrain 
(see below) viH Jemappes, Quaregnon^ 8t, Ohislain (once the seat of a 
wealthy Bernardino abbey, now a centre of the coal-trade), Botusu 
(with the castle of that name to the right), and Thulin, From 
Quitfvrain we return to Mons via Elouges, Dour, Warquignies, 
Wasmes, Pctturages, Flinu (with one of the richest coal-flelds), and 
Cuesmts (in 1 hr.). 

At Jemappes (see above), Dumouricz, with an army of 50,000 men, 
defeated 22,(XX) Austrians under the Duke of Saxe-Teschen, who waa com- 

gelled to retreat beyond the Meuse, 6th Nov., 1792. — Near Malplaqutt^ 
M. to the S.E., Pichegru defeated the Duke of York on 18th Hay, 1794, 
capturing 60 guns and 1500 men. — At Qivry, b^j^VL, to the 8.W. of Hona, 
the foundations of a Roman building were found in 1896 on the Brun- 
hilda Road (p. 231). 

Fkom Mons to Pabib there are two railways. The more direct is by 
Qitivy (Belgian customs-ezamination), Feignie* (French customs-examina- 
tion), Mauheuge, St. QuenUn, Noyon, Compi^gne, and Creil (156 M.). The 
other line leads via St. Ohislain, Quiivrain (see above; Belgian customs- 
examination), Blanc- Mitteron (French customs-examination), Valeneiennts^ 
Dovai, Arras, Longueau (Amiens), and Creil (176 M.)- 

From Mons to C/iarleroi vift Manage, see pp. Sdll, 212. 

Fbom Mons to Charlkboi vi& Binehe and Fiiton , 84 M. , railway in 

2 hrs. (fares 6 fr. 20, 3 fr. 50, 2 fr. 60 c.). Stations Cuesmes, Hyon-Oiplw, 

Jlarmiffnies. — OVa M. Estinnes, noted for the synods of 742 and 766 

(branch-line to Fauroeulx, p. 207); 11 M. Bonne-Espiranct (p. 207). — 18 M. 

Binehe, a pretty town with 7500 inhab., where the female part of the 

community is chiefly engaged in the manufacture of ^ileurs k plat^ for the 

Brussels lace-makers; celebrated carnival. — ISVz M. Hc^t-BakU-PUrr^^ 

connected by a branch-line with La Louviire (pp. 211, 212).— Near (SOi/ill.) 

Mariemont are the picturesque ruins of a chateau erected by the regent 

Mary of Hungary In 1548, but burned down six years later by Henry II. of 

France, and a modem ch&teau, witli an aUxtLClVv^ ^kt\&. vbl \^% «.\kiml 

of the chateau is the Chasse de St. Maur, a "RomMvwk^v^^ Tt\\«vj^»l «A ^^% 

J2tb cent., the oldest art-work of tlie kiu^ Vu ^^\t\x»m. — '^^ wa.V 

GRAMMONT. 19, BouU, 211 

gtation is MorUmwde (Hdt. de la Couronnel. where the ruins of the Abbaye 
de rOU»e, founded in 1218, destroyed in 1794, were laid bare in 1886. From 
Camiirtt a steam-tramway runs to Houdeng-Goegnies (p. 207) vii Horlan* 
wels and La Louvi^re (p. 210). — Stations : Piiton (branch-lines to Manage, 
see b^ow; toLuttre, see p. 212; and to Fauroeulx, see p. 207). Fontaint^ 
VEvique (view of Charleroi, to the right), and Marchienne. — 3i M. Chat' 
leroi^ see p. 218. 

Stbak Tbamwats run from Mons vi& Ifimif and MaUiires to OatUau; 
to St. Symphorien; to QMin; and to Bouuu (p. 210), via Jemappet (p. 210), 
Quaregnon (p. 210), and Homu. 

19. From Ohent to Charleroi and Namnr vi& 


90 M. Bailwat to Charleroi (67 H.) in 2*/4-4 hrs. (fares 10 fr. 25, 
6 fr. 96, 4 fr. 15c.). From Charleroi to Namur (23 H.) in 'AiVs ^r. 
(3 fr. 60, 2 fr. 40, 1 fr. 40 c.). 

Qhtnt^ see p. 49. The train crosses the Scheldt, and beyond 
Led^erg, Meirelbeke, and Melle diverges to the S. from the Brussels 
line (p. 2). The first stations are unimportant. 

14 M. Sottcgkem^ where the railway crosses the Brussels and 
Courtral line (p. 47). Branch to Renaix, see p. 73. 

16 M. Erwetegem; 18y2 M. Lierde-SainU^Marie. 

23 M. Ortfmmont (105 ft.), Flem. Oeeraardsbergen^ an indus- 
trial place with 9200 inhab., on the slope of a hill, is the junction 
of the Denderleeuw~Ath line (p. 6). The Hdtel de Ville contains an 
early-Flemish painting of Christ as the Judge of the earth, and the 
church of 8t, BarthSlemy possesses two pictures by De Crayer, Out- 
side the former is a Mannikin fountain, resembling that at Brussels. 

Stations Vianet Moerbekey OammerageSt Thollembeeky Hirinnes- 
le%-Enghien, The train enters the province of Hainault. At (33 M.) 
Enghien (p. 6) our line is crossed by the Brussels and Toumai 
railway (R. lb); to Renaix, see p. 73. From (371/2 M.) Rognon 
a branch-line diverges to Tubize (p. 208). 

41 M. Braine-le-Comte (p. 208). The line to Charleroi and 
Namur now diverges from that to Mons (R. 18). Carriages are 
sometimes changed here. 

45 M. Ecaussines (Carrilres) possesses extensive quarries of blue 
limestone. Of the two castles here, the more picturesque is the 
Chdteau de Lalaing (10th cent), situated on a precipitous cliff. 
Railways hence to Faurcsulx and Erquelinnes and to Lembecq 
(p. 207). — Beyond Marche-UM- Ecaussines and FamUleureux the 
train crosses the Charleroi Canal, and near Manage it enters a rich 

50 M. Manage (450 ft) is the junction of our line with those to 
Mons, Haine-St-Pierre, Pitfton (see above), and Ottignies. 

From Manaob to Momb, 15i/t M., railway in 1 ht . Cl%.Tft%*>. Vc .^ Alt 'V^^-;. 
1 fr.). This branch-line interaects a valuaA)\e co«\-^e\^, ^^'^^"''^^t'^SU'k 
the yield of which is brought into the mat^eX \>i m«iwv% «ii va ^^^2'^SJ-i 
network ofrailwaya. In connection wit\i t\ie coaA-mVsvt^ VXvct^ \% vv^?3rt?S5^'«^ 
inereaelBg iron-induatry. At La Louvifere Cp.*ii*l> ^* iw \^t^«^ ^^"^ 

212 BotUe 19. GENAPP£. From Ghent 

lock, constructed by the Coekerill Co. (p. 280) in 1886-88, at an outlay of 
li/s million francs^ to counteract the difference of level (49 ft.) between 
the two arms of the Canal du Centre. Stations La LouvUre (brandii to 
Haifm-Saint-Fierre and steam-tramways to Houdeng-Ooeffniety Man<xg$^ Mor- 
kmwelty and Camiires^ see p. 211), Bois-du-Lue, Bracquegniei^ all with ex- 
tensive mines; then Thieu^ Havri'VillBy where the old chateau of Havr^ 
rises to the left, Ohourg, and Nimy. The Haine^ a rivulet from which 
the province derives its name (HainauH)^ is occasionally visible. Jfons, 
see p. 206. 

FaoM Manage to Ottigmiks, 22V2 H., railway in l'/« hr. (fares 3 fr. 40, 
2 fr. 30, 1 fr. 40 c). The railway is the prolongation of the preceding 
line to the N. — At (2>/2 M.) Seneffe a battle was fought in 1674 between 
Prince Cond6 and William III. of Orange ; and the Austrians were defeated 
here by the French under Marceau on 2nd July, 1794. — 6 M. Feluy- 

BVsM. NivMes-Nordy to the K. of Nivelles (p. 151); 10 H. Batatn^ the 
junction of this line with that from Brussels to Luttre and Charleroi (p. 162). 

14 M. Oenappe (360 ft.; Hdtel det Voyageurs)^ a village with 1700 in- 
hab., is often mentioned in connection with the Battle of Waterloo (p. 138). 
About 21/2 M. to the 8. lies Qnatre Braa (620 ft.), which derives its name 
from the ^four arms^ of the roads diverging to Charleroi, Nivelles, Brus- 
sels, and Namur. Here on 16th June, 1815, a battle was fought between 
Ney'^s division and a part of the British army with its German and 
Belgian contingents. The French numbered about 17,000 men, the Allies 
18,000; of the latter 8000 were British and German and 10,000 were 
Netherlanders (Dutch and Belgians). After a series of indecisive preli- 
minary operations , Ney , at the head of 9(X)0 men , att|icked the Saxe- 
Weimar brigade of the Ketherlanders , which had been placed here by 
order of the Prince of Orange. The latter, who were largely outnumbered, 
succeeded in repulsing several charges of the French cavalry, and finally 
the advance of the French was completely arrested by the British and 
German troops. The battle raged with the utmost fury till dusk. Prodigies 
of valour were, as usual, performed by the 92nd Highlanders ; and most 
of the German troops (Hanoverians and Brunswickers) behaved with 
great bravery, althoagh young and inexperienced. At one juncture the 
Duke of Wellington himself became involved, and only escaped by put- 
ting his horse to full gallop. About 4 o^clock the gallant Duke of Bruns- 
wick fell, while endeavouring to rally his troops; the spot, to the right 
of the road, a few hundred paces from Quatre Bras, is marked by a 
copper lion on a pedestal, 26 ft. in height. The house in which he died, 
in the village of Qaatre Bras, is marked by a tablet. Towards the close 
of the battle the tide of success turned decidedly in favour of the Allies. 
Ney, to his great indignation, now learned that Erlon^s corps, which had 
at first been ordered to support him, and would doubtless have ensured 
the victory to the French, bad received fresh orders from Napoleon to 
move towards St. Amand to oppose the Prussians there. The brave mar- 
shal's discomfiture was complete, his troops were totally defeated, and 
under cover of the increasing darkness they retreated to their original 
position at Frasne. 

The village of Frasne^ the headquarters of Ney on 16th June, lies 
2 M. beyond Quatre Bras, in the direction of Charleroi. The spirited 
pursuit of the French by the Prussians on the night after the Battle of 
Waterloo extended thus far, more than 8 M. from the battlefield. 

The ruined abbey of Villers (p. 237) lies 4V3 M. to the E. of Genappe. 
12i/tM. Botuval; IS"/? M. Noirhat; 2OV2 M. Court- Saint- Etienne (p. ^7), 
fvliere the train reaches the Charleroi audL-ouvain Uue. — 22V«M. Ottig- 
ntes. Tbeace to Louvain^ see p. 237-, to Bruaaela, atfe ^, 'n, 

Beyond Manage is a tunnel, followed Yj'S %\a\.Vovv«. QodaroWU^ 
^-"^^-I^ion, Pont-h'CtlUi, and (.57 V^^.^ LuUrtV^Atia^ Jc.^ 
^r^reraes a more hilly district, cxosaitvfe tVe CW\^t^\ ^^^^ 
.<toea. Beyond a deep cutting, a \>eaxxtV^>A wti^>A^^'^^% *» 

to Namw, CHARLEROI. 19, Route. 213 

wooded district is entered. 61 Y2 M. Courcelles- Matte is the Janctlon 
^ of the line to Piston (p. 211) vi& Trazegniety the church of which 
.. contains the *Tomb of Gillon de Trazegnies and Jacqueline de 

- Lalaing, by Duquesnoy (branch-line to Jumet-Brtilotte, p. 162). 
• 62V2 M. Roux; 64 M. Marchienne- au- Pont (3Q0 ft. )j near which, to 
. the W., lies the chateau of Monceau^ the property of Baron Houtait, 

with rich collections of pictures and other works of art; 66 M. 
■ Marchienne-Est. 

The lofty chimneys of coal-mines, furnaces, iron-foundries, and 
glass-works are seen in every direction. There are no fewer than 75 

- different seams of coal in the vicinity of Charleroi, some of which 
' extend to a depth of 3000 to 4000 ft. 

Strangers are usually admitted witbout difficulty to view tbe works. 
The largest establisbments at Afarchienne (see above) are the ^Alliance* 
rolling-mills, the ^Monceau'' and ^Providence* foundries, F. Thi^baut & Ck>.''g 
-wire-di'awing mills, and the ^Etoile* glass-works. M. E. de Cartier possesses 
collections of art that are well worth a visit. 

The Brussels Canal is crowded with shipping. "We now reach 

the Sambre^ which we cross repeatedly before arriving at Namur. 

67 M. Charleroi. — Hotels. *HdTBL Beukblbers, Bue du College 2?, 
with the Taveme du Gercle; *'Sibbbbtz, Qua! de Brabant 18, near the 
station, with caf^-restaurant, B. ^^h-^, B. IV4, D. 3, pens. 10 fr.; *Grand 
HdxEL Grubbb, Quai de Brabant 19; Hotbl-Bbstaubant db l*£sp£bamgk, 
B. iV2-2V2, B. V4, B. 2-3 fr. — Railway Restaurant, 

Charleroi (340 ft.), a town with 24,500 inhab., the centre of the 
S. Belgian iron industry, was founded by Charles II. of Spain in 
1666, in honour of whom the name (Chamoy) of the village which 
then occupied the site was changed to Charleroi, Under Louis XIV. 
it was fortified by Vauban. In 1794 it was besieged four times by 
the French, to whom it was ultimately surrendered on the eve of the 
Battle of Fleurus (p. 238), after the garrison had been reduced to 
the utmost extremities. On 23rd May, 1794, the French were totally 
defeated here by the Austrian Gen. Kaunitz. The fortifications were 
reconstructed in 1816, but are now converted into promenades. — 
The Musee Arehiologique^ Boul. Jacques Bertrand 12, contains pre- 
historic, Roman, and Frankish antiquities found in this district, 
and also a mineral ogical cabinet (adm. Sun. 10-5, Tues. & Thurs. 
1-5 ; to strangers at other times also for a fee). — The picture- 
gallery of 3f. 77. de Nimaly Russian consul, is accessible to strangers, 
for a fee. — The church of 8t, Antoine, in the lower town, contains 
good examples of the native painters F. J. Navez and J. F. Portaels 
(p. 93). In the upper part of the town (Ville Haute) are the Palais 
de Justice and the church of 8t, Christophe. 

Steam-tramways ply from Charleroi to (J^/t M.) Thuxlliez (see p. 207 
and below) ^ to (2V2 M.) Mont-tur'Jfarehienne ; and yH (2 M.) Lodelintart 
(p. 238) and Chdtelineau to (71/2 M.) ChdteUt (p. 214). 

From Ghablbboi to Vibbux, 401/2 M., railway in about 2 hrs. (fares 
6 fr. 20, 4 fr. 20, 2 fr. 60 c). From (12 M.) Bertie branch-lines diverge to 
Thuilliet (see p. 207 and above) and to Lanefft. — ¥tom VNVHL.^ "WaXtwivX 
(Bail. Restaurant), which contains an aucUiit GottA^ ^\\%T\m^%'fc-Oo:!^:^^ 
tiro others diverge — one via St. Lcmbert to PhUippet)iUe ^^^^.^^^^'w^n "^ 

214 Route 19. CHIMAY. 

fonner fortress, and FlorenneM (Station da 8ad), the other to MorialnU via 
Fraire. — From (29 M.) Marienibourg (Hdtel du Gommeree, B. l>/«, B. »/4i 
D. 2, pens. 4 fr.) a branch -railway leads to the ancient and picturesqae 
little town of Oouvin (J7d(. du ChemindeFer^ B. is/i, B. V4, D. 2, 8. iV4 rr., 
well spoken of)} built at ihe foot of a perpendicular cliff in the valley of 
the Eau Noire. Hariembourg is the Juncuon of a line from Hastiire to 
Paris vi& Anor and Laon, on which, beyond the Lake of Virelles, is (10 M.) 
Oldmay (H6i. de PUnivert; Bellewet H6t. du Commerce) ^ a town with 
dOOO inhab., where the beautiful park and ch&teau of the prince of that 
name are situated (no admission). Old church. A statue of Froissart, the 
chronicler, who died at Chimay ca. 1400, has been erected in front of the 
Hdtel de TUnivers. — Among the hills of Seormontj 6 M. to the S., is a 
model-farm belonging to the monastery of La Trappe (no ladies admitted). — 
32M. Nwrnee (HOt. du Gheval Volant ; Hot. du Commerce). Near the station 
is the striking Roehe d Lomme. [A pleasant walk may be taken hence in 
the valley of the Viroin to (2 hrs.) Olloy (see below). On a steep rock 
near Dourhei (506 ft. ; Au Lion Beige) is the ruin of *Uaute Roehe, destroyed 
by Henry II. in 1654; fine rock-scenery.] — Then. Ollop (see above) and 
VierveSj with a castellated ch&teau. — 40V2 M. Vireux^ the French fron- 
tier-station, with a Gothic church, lies on the Heuse. Thenee vi& Oivet 
(p. 221) and Bheims to Paris, see Baedeier*s Northern France. 

Charleroi-Erquelinnes- ParU^ 168M., express in S^/t-i^/z hrs., see Baedeker^s 
Paris. Near (5Vs H.) Landelie* are the ruins of the celebrated abbey of 
Aulne. Farther on is the prettily situated little town of Thuin-Nord (Hdtel 
de France et de Beau-Sdjour, pens, from 6 fr.). 

From Charleroi to OUigniee, Wctvre, and Louvainy see R. 25. 

Beyond Charleroi the Namnr train crosses the Philippeville road, 
and passes the numerous foundries and factories of Mareinelle, 
(69 M.) Couillet (branch-line to Jamioulx\ and — 

71 M. Ch&telineaa, the junction of the lines to Fleurus (p. 237), 

Jumet'BriUotte (p. 162), Lodelinsa/rt (p. 238), Gilly, and Givet. In 

the church of St. Barth^lemy is a handsome tomb of the Merode 

family. Chatelineau is also the station for the busy little town of 

ChdUUt (H6t. Bertrand), with 10,000 inhah., on the opposite (right) 

hank of the Sambre. 

Fbom ChJItklimeau to Givkt, 31 M., railway in l«/4-2 hrs. (fares 4 fr. 70, 
8 fr. 20, 1 fr. 90 c). — This line traverses a busy manufacturing and 
mining district, vi& Bouffioulx (once famous for its pottery), Acot (branch- 
line to Mettetj see below), Oerpinnet (with a Roman villa ; in the church of 
St. Nicholas the fine Renaissance reliquary of Ste. Rolande), Ore/, Pavilions 
(Stave)y etc. Doisehe is the last Belgian, Oivet (p. 221) the first French 
station (customs-examination). 

The Sambre winds through heautiful grassy valleys, sometimes 
skirting wooded hills. 73 M. Le Campinair€;73^l2M. Farciennetf 
with a dilapidated old castle ; 75 M. Aiseau, — 76V2 M- Taminei 
(312 ft.), a small town with 2600 inhabitants. 

Fbom Ta mimes to Gkmbloux viX Flsubus, 15 M., railway in */* hr. 
(fares 2 fr. 40, 1 fr. 60, 95 c.). 5«/i M. FUurue, see p. 287. — Fbom Tamines 
TO Gkmbloux vil Jembppk-sdb-Sambbk, 12Vs H., railway in *U hr. (fares 
1 fr. 90, 1 fr. 80, 80 c). 3 M. Jemeppe-tur-Sambre (p. 216) ; 5V2 M. Onot-8py 
(p. 218). — Oemblouz, see p. 226. 

Fbom Tamines to Dimamt, 29 H., railway in l>/4-2 hrs. (fares 4 fr. 00, 

3 fr., 1 fr. 80c.). The chief stations are Foue (570 ft.), well-known for 

its *Marche de St. Feuillen\ celebrated every seven years (last in 1900) ^ 

{id*/t M.) Mtttei (Croix de BourgOEue), junction for the branch-line to Aeoi 

C^ee above)} Zfen/s-J/aredsout (Hot. Belleme), wVl\i wi \TvV^Tt%lVtvst Benedic- 

iine convent built in 1876 (rich Ubrar^f) •, «^ii^ CS^M*'*^-^ ^*^«k^^' K\iw\ 

r " I fill. 

NAMUE. ' 19.Rout€. 215 

1 M. from the last-named station, in the valley of the Molignit^ are the 
imposing and picturesquely situated ruins of the castle of *Montaigle^ the 
finest relic of the kind in Belgium. This stronghold, founded in the 13th 
cent, and partly rebuilt after numerous sieges, played a prominent part 
in the history of the district, and was blown up by the French in 1558, 
four years after the destruction of Bouvignes (p. 219). In the yicinity are 
the Orotte du Bureau and other prehistoric caverns. — 25Vs H. AhM* 
(p. 219), on the Bleuse. — 29 M. IHnant (p. 220). 

To the right is situated the suppressed abbey of 8te. Marie 
d'OignieSy now an extensive mirror-manufactory. Stations: AuveloiSf 
Jemeppe-8ur-8ambre (p. 214), Moustier^ and Franihre, — To 
the right of (84 M.) Eloreffe (H6Ul de la Station), with glass-works, 
picturesquely situated on an eminence, rises a seminary for priests, 
formerly a Praemonstratensian abbey. About 8/4 M. from the station 
are stalactite caves, called Urottes de Floreffe (adm. 1-3 pers. 3 fr,), 
at the entrance to which are exhibited some prehistoric relics and 
Roman coins. Le Preat, the hill above the grotto, is surmounted 
by a castle built in the antique style (restaurant). The recently 
discovered Orottes BiernauXy with curious stalactite formations, are 
perhaps more interesting (guide in the estaminet to the right of 
the road, 1-1 ^2 ^r- each pers.). 

To the left, farther on , are the abbey-buildings of Malonne, 
now a conventual school, with an ancient church. On the hill is a 
new fort (steam-tramway, see p. 218). — 86Y2 M. Flawinne. The 
valley of the Sambre here is thickly studded with ancient chateaux, 
modern villas, and manufactories. 

90 M. Vamar. — Hotels. In the town: HdTEL D'HAB8CA]ip(Pl.a-, 
D, 2), Bue de TAnge, an old-established house, with an elegant restaurant 
and a small garden, R. 3-8, B. iVei d6j. 3, D. (at 12.30 and 6 p.m.) 4, pens. 
10-16, omn. 1 fr. j St. Adbin (PI. b; C, 2), Place St. Aubin, near the 
Cathedral) St. Loup (PI. c; D, 2), Rue du College 13, these two with restau- 
rants and gardens, and patronized by Roman Catholic clergy, R. from 2, 
B. 1, D. 2, S. 11/4 fr. •, HdT. de la Honnaib, Place de laMonnaie, R. 2, B. 
1 fr., plain. — Near the station: Hot. dk Flandkk (PI. e^ C, 1), very fair, 
R. 3, B. 1, D. 2V2 fr.; Coubonnk (PI. f; D. 1), R. from 2V2, B. 1 fr., well 
spoken of; HdT. de Hollands (PI. g; D, 1), similar charges, these three 
with caf^s-restaurants ; HdT. du Nord, Rue Mathieu 11 (PI. D, 1), R. 2-3, 
B. »/<-!' D. 2, S. IV2 fr-, plain. — Grand H6tel Narnvr-dtadelle^ see p. 218. 

Oafes. At the hotels near the station (p. 216); also, Cafi Rubens^ 
Taverne St. Jean^ both in the Grand^ Place. — Railway Restaurant^ good. 

Cabs. Per drive within the inner town (i.e. practically the town on 
the left banks of the Mense and Sambre*, comp. the Plan), one-horse carr. 
1 fr., two-horse V/2 fr. ; in the suburbs IV* or 2 fr. ; per hour, 2 fr. and 
3 fr., every 1/4 hr. more 60 c. ; at night 10-12 p.m. 60 c. more, 12-6 a.m. 
double fares. Trunk 10 c. — The 'Caracole*, a pretty circular drive over the 
hill behind the citadel and up or down the valleys of the Sambre and 
Meuse, takes I'/z hr. (fare 5-7 fr.). — Open carriages to Marche-les-l>ames 
(p. 264), and back, 2Ys-3 hrs. , with one horse 6-8, with two horses 10- 
12 fr. ; to Dinant (p. 220), with one horse 15, with two horses 26 fr. 

Post & Telegraph Office (PI. 10; D, 2), Place de la Monnaie 42. 

Baths, Rue des Brasseurs. River Bath* (PI. D, 4) in the Heuse, above 
the bridge. — Swimming Bath (PI. D, 4), below the bridge. 

Oercle Priv6 des Etrangers, in the IheaXx^ ^^\.T>^*i\ ^\\fiA%.^«^v ^^ 
wriUen application; sabscription for a year, QOir."^,^Vi>D. ^«.«X^5kTj».V^^^ 
iag and coareraBtion rooms; in summeT couc^tla ou'ii-Q^**^^^*^ "* 

,, l/i U. la the B.W. of llie ttHdee "ver the Ueuie (PI. D, 3, 1), i 

uva the amnll park of I,a Plaali, -whore Ihero is » Bt&llon an UiB , . ._ 

imnur {p. SISl Id Wilplon. The upper itatinn [706 (1.) adjoins Iba QntDd 

iVamur (270 ft.), Flera. Nacmen, since the lOth tent, the o»pttJ ' 
of s Goantalilp that fell to Bargundy in 1420, an episcopal gee slnM 
1559 fronip. p. i^Oi an*! ""w tba capital of the pravince of Nimur, 
-with 31,200 inhah., is picture&^uely situAteil at the conSnence of 
tVeSambrc inAtbeUeast, The former river, wliioh is heieMnilized, 
li crossed by leversl atone brtdgei, ivhile the Meuse la ipanned by 
a bridge of nine arches leading to the subnrb of Jamici. yrom the 
natural advantages of its position Naniur has always been a point UE 
strategic importance, and it was fortified at an earlf period. li h^ 
again become an important link In the chain of fortifications along- 
the Mease, and U sarrounded b; a circle oF nine detached forts 
2i/g-i'/s M. distant, oonatrnoted by Gen. Brialmcnt. The nuniBroiii 
aleges It has undergone (Louie XlV. in 1092, William III. in 1696, 
and again in 1746, 1792 and 1794) have left few of the older huUd- 
Inge. Namur waa formerly famous for the manufaotnre of knivi 

In front of the BtUltBay Slalion [PI. 0,B, 1), on the lite of the 
fortifloatloiK romoTed in 1862, ia the Square Liopold (PL D, 
to the E. of which, tn the Place Leopold, rises aSfotueo/'LfopDliJ 
by Geefa(1869). — To the W. of the station extend* the Boulevt 
Leopold, which la embellished with > Afonuinent lo D'Omaltut 
d'Halioy (PI. 12; C, 1), the geologist (d. 1876), and leads along the 
Sambre to the attractive Pare Loulie MaTU(Fl. B, 0, 1, 2), whenoe 
views of the citadel and the suburb ot SaUinnes are enjoyed. 

The Oathbdbal (St. Aubln or Si. Aibanj PI. 0. 2), ahandMme 
Iterialsaanee adiflae, with a docne and a fine interior, was hnilt in 
1761-67 from the doaigns of Plsioni, of Milan, on the site ot an 
earlier edl&ee, which was pulled down with the eiception of its belfry. 

At the sides of Ihf lliuh-nltur am «Iotiii.« nf SI Putpr A-nt Ht. I^nl In 

marble, bj Diieatix (d. 



ml), i 



1 or Iha 

broae, Greei 

>. and 

. AueuUd 

e. Tha 


a BiBbop 

Fisani [d 

. IBM}. 

of ihe WEh- 

isloBs sn< 



' Dm 

< /"AfliV'lwMi, th^ 

;e, '/• H. 

la Ihe 


bl. bod? wa. ra> 

Iha Eaeorlal bat 


palpll, ear* 


K. Btrlt 



! Ibe rfty. 

Ilia I; 

onlaJBS a 


showi Ihe Hadonna i __ _ _ _ 

crown of the i3-l3th cent., gold und siJvar crosiet, a illvar lUtnetM of 
5;. BHIie fond of ik(b cent.), and many other objeoll o( vslna. 

Tbt ebnieb of St. Loup (Tl.D,!"), mfti \ta \.iii-vi™* 
Mttaatedln the Uue daOollSge, iiaB 6tBcVei\nfti6>iwwip* 

Museum. NAMUR. 19, Boute, 217 

1621-63. The interior Is borne \>y twelve Doric pillars of red 
marble. The choir is entirely covered with coloured marble, and 
the vaulted ceilings with heavy stucco ornamentation. A large hole 
in the latter, made by a shell, is a reminiscence of the siege by 
Louis XIV. in 1692. The confessionals are elaborately carved. 
The adjoining Aihinit Royal (PI. 2; C, 2), formerly a Jesuit semi- 
nary, is now a 'gymnasium' or grammar-school. 

In the Grand' Place (PI. D, 2) stand the Casino (PI. 5) and the 
H6iel de Ville, with a few modern paintings by J. Stobbaerts, 
J. Verhas, A. Verwtfe, Is. Verheyden, and others. To the N. is 
the Belfry (PI. 4; D, 2), begun in 1388 and rebuilt in the 16th 
century. To the E. of the Grand' Place are the large Hospice 
d'Harscamp (PI. E, 2), once a Franciscan monastery, and the church 
of Notre Dame (PI. 6 ; built 1756), the latter containing the modern 
monuments of two Counts of Namur (d. 1891 and 1418). In the 
garden of the hospice is a statue of its foundress, Isabella Bruneel, 
Comtesse d'Harscamp (PI. 11), by Geefs. — The convent of the Soeurs 
de Notre Dame, in the Rue Emile Cuvelier, to the N. of the Grand' 
Place, contains a rich 'Treasury (vessels of the 13-14th cent., etc.) 
shown on application to the Superior. 

To the left of the lowest bridge over the Sambre, to which the 
Rue du Pont leads direct from the H6tel de Yille, is the Ancienne 
Boucherie (built 1588), now containing the *Mu8^e Arch^ologique 
(PI. 8; D, 3), an extensive collection of antiquities, found in the 
province of Namur. The museum is open to the public on Sun., 
11-1 ; to strangers daily on payment of a fee (1-3 pers. 1 fr.). Custo- 
dian, Rne des Bouchers 1. No catalogue. Director, A. Bequet. 

Ibt Flogs. Main Boom: Prehistoric AtUiquities. Beside the entrance 
are articles of the stone age from Hastedon, Linciaux, and Sclaigneaux; 
by the left wall, articles of the bronze age, the first iron (or Hallstatt) 
age (Sinsin), and the Celtic or second iron age (Louette-Saint-Pierre). — 
Fartjfier on and in the first row of glass-cases are *Belgie-Romem Antiquities 
from Namur (vases)^ Flavion, Anth^e, Ciney, Wancennes, etc., including 
enamelled fibulae, *8igillata* vessels, and glass. By the end-wall is a Belgic 
tomb, with articles found in it (1st or 2nd cent. A.D.). — The Prankish 
Antiquities are arranged along the right long wall and in the second row 
of cases. These include objects found in tombs at Eprave, Spontin (tomb 
of the 6th cent., with numerous relics), Rochefort, St. Gerard (Christian 
tomb of the 7th cent.), Pry, Samson, and Furfooz. 

2nd Floo&. Mediaeval and Modem Art Collections. Room I. Old views 
and plans of Kamur; among the paintings, /. B. de Saive, Pietit, with the 
sheriiTs of Namur on the wings (1597). Room 11. Ecclesiastical vessels 
and sculptures^ vestments: ivory carvings } stoneware of Namur; fayence 
from St. Servais; spinet of 1670. 

The Citadel (PI. C, D, 3), on the Montagne de Champeau, a 
hill between the Sambre and Meuse, believed by many authorities 
to have been occupied by the camp of the Aduatuci described by 
Caesar (De Bell. Gall. ii. 29), stands on the site of the Roman fort 
and of the castle of the Counts of Namur, of wYviaVi \^\XKt w^ n:^^ 
towers remtdn. The fortifications ww* t^sXot^^ ^^x.«^ ^^ 'sv^^^^'** ^ 
i692 and i7di and again In iSi^-ab, ^>u\. Vo. V^^V ^^^"^ ^^"^"^ 

218 RouU19. NAMUR. Cliadd. 

works weie handed over to the municipal authorities, who have 
laid out a Park of 160 acres, with a racecouise, cycle-track, and 
Museum of Forestry (Palais Forestier), on the plateau. The park 
may be reached from the bridge over the Sambre (PI. C, 3) by the 
pleasant ^Rampe des Panoramas' and various footpaths; from the 
suburb of Salzinnes (PL A, B, 2) by a steam-tramway (see below); 
and from the valley of the Meuse by a cable- tramway (p. 216) or 
by a footpath commanding picturesque views and well shaded in 
the afternoon. On the highest point (705 ft.}, beside the termini 
of the cable and steam tramways, is the Orand Hdtel Namur-Cita- 
detlCy with a view-terrace, a restaurant, and a hydropathic estab- 
lishment (R. 3-5, B. 1 V4, d^j. 21/2, D. -4, hoard 6V2, omn. 1 fr.). 

Steam Tramways (starting at <he Place de la Station). 1. Vi& Salzinnes 
to the (2V2 M.) atada (8-10 trains daily; fares 30,a0c.). — 2. Vii (5 M.) 
W^pion (see below) to (8 M.) Profondeville (p. 219), in the upper valley of Uie 
Heuse, and in the other direction vik (5 BI.) Malonne (p. 216) to (ItVs M.) 
8t. Qirard. — 3. To (11 M.) Forville (p. 263). - 4. Vil (10 M.) Onoz-Spy 
(p. 214) and (11 M.) Jemeppe - sur . Sambre (p. 214) to (17Vs M.) Fleurui 
(p. 237). The last line has a station at the CemeWry of 'Szmur^ in which a 
monumcntf erected in 1857, commemorates the hotly-contested engagements 
between the rear-guard of the French corps under Grouchy and the ad- 
vancing Prussians on 20th June, 1815. 

Railway to Luxembourg, see R. 22; to Li^ge, see R. 30; to 
Tirlemont, see p. 230; to Dinant and Givet, see R.20. 

20. From Namur to Dinant and Givet. 

Railway to (ITi/z M.) Dinant in 8/4-I hr. (fares 2 fr. 50, 1 fr. 70 c., 
1 fr.)i to (31 M.) Givet in about IV2 hr. (fares 4 fr. 85, 3 fr. 35, 1 fr. 96 c.). 
Local trains ('trains lagers'), with view-carriages, also I'un between Kamur 
and Dinant. The railway affords but little view of the beautiful valley 
of the Bleuse, and the steamboat- journey or walk downwards is -much 
preferable. — Stuamboat in summer from Namur to Dinant (eomp. the 
Guide OfOciel) once daily in 31/4-81/2 hrs. (fares 2 fr.. 1 fr. 20 c); six locks 
are passed with 10 min. halt at each. — The left bank of the river is 
recommended to pedestrians and cyclists. The village-inns on the banks 
of the river are generally good, but are often full in summer. 

Namur y see p. 216. The valley of the Meuse above Namur is 
narrow, and enclosed by wooded hills and frowning cliflTs. The 
banks are enlivened with picturesque villages and country-houses. 
Immediately after quitting the station, the train crosses the Meuse, 
remaining on the right bank until Dinant is nearly reached. 2 M. 
Jambes-Nord (p. 226). 

f) M. Dave-Nord (Ffdtel du Nord), with an ancient ch&teau and 
park belonging to the Duke of Fernan-Nufiez (adm. on application 
to the head -gardener), near which rises the huge and precipitous 
Rocher de Neviau. On the opposite (loft) bank is Wepion (* Wester ; 
Delvigne; P61c-Nord, R. & B. 2J/4, D. 21/2, pens. 5 fr.> 

The train passes below the civfEa of Tailfet wi4l\vft tooki of 
/>•/«<?, the caverns in which arc tiadVlVowa-W^ \iv\i«b\A.\.ft^\»i v^^iel^. 



YVOIR. W, Route. 219 

Beyond a tunnel we reach (8Y2 ^0 -^^tiafm (U6tel du Midi), which 
is connected by an iron bridge with ProfondevUU (steam-tramway 
to Namur, see p. 218) and the marble quarries on the left bank. 
The village of Lustin (836 ft.) lies IV2 M. to the E. Farther on, 
on the left bank, appear Burnot and Bivilre, with a chitean. On 
the right bank, by the railway, is the rock Frappe-Culy with the 
cavern of Chauveau. — IOY2 M. Oodinne (H6t. Central ; H6t. des 
Etrangers). On the other side of the river is Rouillony with the 
chateau of Hestroy. The numerous towers of the well-preserved 
castle of Bioul (16th cent.) rise 3 M. to the W. (a pleasant walk). 
The scenery between Rouillon and Dinant is remarkably pictur- 
esque. Above the village rises a precipitous tuffstone-rock, named 
La Roche aux ComeiUes (*Roche aux Chauwes' in the patois of the 
district), from the flocks of jackdaws which generally hover round 
it. Then, also on the left bank, the chateau of Hun^ with a park. 
On the ridge stands a new chateau. A tunnel carries the lino 
through the Rocher dt Faulx, 

12 V2 M. Yvoir (290 ft. ; Hotel des Touristes; VilU de BmxeUes; 

H6t, du Bocq), at the influx of the Bocq, is connected by means of 

a handsome bridge with the left bank (H6t. de la Roche). In the 

vicinity are extensive marble quarries. — In the W. lateral valley 

of the Molign^e are several chateaux and a foundry occupying the 

site of the Cistercian abbey of Moulins (founded 1231). — About 

3 M. to the S.W. are the ruins of Montaigle (p. 215). 

From Yvoir a branch-railway ascends along the S. side of the somewhat 
inaccessible valley of the Bocq to (12 M.) Ciney (see p. 226). The chief 
intermediate station is (6 M.) SpotUin (630 ft. ; Cheval Blanc), with a mineral 
spring, an interesting church, and a chateau of the 13-lTth cent., formerly 
in the possession of the Beaufort-Spontin family. From the Bocq valley 
water is carried to the suburbs of Brussels by an aqueduct 55 M. in length. 

The railway crosses the Mouse, quitting the right bank. On the 

left bank is Arihee (Hot, de la Meuse; H6t. Pierard), where the line 

to Tamines (p. 214) diverges. A little farther up is the chateau of 

Senenne, with a h6tel-pension. On the right bank are the ruins of the 

fortress of PoUvache, on a lofty rock, destroyed by the French in 1554 

(adm. 50 c). Somewhat higher up are the ruins of the Tour de 

Montorgueil. Picturesquely situated at the foot of Poilvache is the 

village of Houx^ with a chateau of Count de Ltfvignan. — Farther on 

we pass Bouvignes (H6t. des Bains, well spoken of), one of the 

most venerable towns in the district, which was formerly engaged 

in constant feuds with Dinant, but has now dwindled down to a 

mere village. The old ruined tower of Crhve-Coeur is a conspicuous 

object here. A romantic story attaches to it in connection with the 

siege of the town by the French in 1554. Three beautiful women, 

left as the sole survivors after the death of their husbands with the 

rest of the garrison, are said to have thrown themselves from th^ 

summit of the tower in sight of the bes\fe%ftT«> , vsA Xa Vv*^ \i<is«^ 

dssbed to pieces on the rocks belo'w. 

a. i'h. P« 

jm -i'/i, B. IVtt D- 3. pane, rram I Ir.i Ui^iel d 
B, at the bridEB, K. from 3, B. 1. D. Qi/i, 8. S, pen 
< AsDKRSU, Bus Leopold, K. tiom 3, B. •/., D. 
vary talri Lion b'Ok, Placa 81. Bieolwi Deliho 

(DBD, it tlie alBlion, B. from V/i, B. 'Ii, D. S'/i, pen 
etendlng. — Or. Couief't ffdr«palA<i> fjlaUiiAmml. 
B Hdtel del FoBlna, eta. {bargi^niag adiiaable): 


- To Ilaitttri (p. aal) twice daily 
.f Sept. (pleasint trip). 

"le bridge. — PoBt Olflee, 

Hue Grande. — Oeogeita In Ilie Grand' Place and la lbe( 

Dinant [310 ft.), a town with 7700 inhat,, is pietureaquely 
sltQHted on llje right bulk of the Menae, at the hase of barran 
llmeBtone cliffs, which are crowned by a fortress. An iron bridge, 
commanding a flnevien', crossee the river to the subnrhof 5f. Mfdard 
on the left bank, with the lailway^ station. 

Ill 1466 the inhabitantB of Dinant, bafing touaed the anger of 
Philippe le Bnn, Dulie of Burgundy , by acts of inaubordiuatlun, 
paid dearly (or their temerit;. The Duke, accompanied by his son 
Charles the Bold , maruhed against the town, besieged and took it, 
and is B&id to have cauaedSOO of the population (estimatedat SO.OOOJ 
to be drowned in the Meiiae. )d 1554 the town waa taken by storm 
by the French nnder tike Doc de Nevera, and plundered. In 1675 
it waa again taken by tbe French. The ' dinar deries', or chased copper 
and braas narea of Dinant, were In high lepnte during the IStb, 
14th, and 15th oenlnries. The 'couquoa de Dinsnt' a"" -■--- - 
unlike gingerbread. 

The ohnreh of Notre Dame [recently restored), a handsome edifice J 
oftbe 13th cent, in the Oothie style, but with a tew rf 
of the trunaition period, is situated in the Grand' FIac< 
bridge. The portala are worthy of notice. The (over is npwudt ^ 
200 ft. In height. — To the rigTit , at the beginning of the Gnnill 
Kne , which ieids hence to the S., ia the old mui dc VitU, ■ 
talning aome paintings by Witrl% (pp. 93, 133) , who wm h 
Dinant. Parthei on, on the elope to the left, at a little diltanea ft 
the street, ia the PniaiJ de Juaiiee (built in 1879). — Good *) 
of the town and river ate Dbt&ined from the garden oftbe O 
(atrangera admitted for a week gratia), Rat Grande 27, whldi ti 
in terracea , and from the Jardin de Monlfat («dto. 76 n,). In t 
Rue E[i-Kb«e. The latter contains a cavern called the QrotUlL 
Monlfat, the legendary abode of a propbetii: nymph, from whldlS 
spiral atalrcaae leads up a nirtow shaft to the highest point of tl 
garden . 

At the back of the chntch ol Notia D»m* ata ate?a 1 

/n number, Jeadingtothe Clladel,viW'ib-wi*i6lCT*toa.\-o.1i 

to Oivet. GIVET. 20, BouU. 221 

and sold in 1879 to a private purchaser; it may also be reached by 

a footpath from the Rae St. Jacques. It affords a picturesque *yi6w 

of the yalley of theMeuse from^ouvignes to Anseremme (adm. 50 c. ; 

to the armoury, with reminiscences of the war of 1870-71 and other 

relics, 10 c. extra). From the hill behind the citadel a path descends 

to the Ciney road (p. 226). 

A little to the N. of Dinant is the Fonda de Leffe , a narrow 

rocky ravine with numerous water-mills, so-called after Leffe, the 

N. suburb of Dinant. 

From Dinant to Jemelle {Trou de Han^ etc.), see B. 21 ; to Tamines, p. 216. 

The railway to Givet continues to follow the left bank of the 
Meuse. On the right bank appear the houses of the suburb of Les 
Rivages, and (1 M. above Dinant) the bold pinnacle of rock called 
the Roche d Bayard (the name of the horse of the 'Quatre Fils 
d'Aymon', which left a hoof-mark here as it sprang over the valley, 
when pursued by Charlemagne). In the vicinity are quarries of 
black marble. Farther on we seethe long viaduct oftheLesse valley 
railway and the villago of Anseremme (p* 223), on the right bank. 

A short tunnel carries the railway through the cliffs of Moniat, 
beyond which we pass one of the finest points in the valley of the 
Meuse. Here, at the foot of wooded hills on the left bank of the 
river, is situated the Chdteau of Freyr (said to be named after the 
goddess Freya), the ancestral seat of the Beaufort-Spontin family, 
with well-kept gardens. Easily accessible stalactite cavern in the 
vicinity. Opposite, precipitous rocks of grotesque shapes rise im- x 
mediately from the river. 

22V2 M. Wau«»or« (330 ft. ; H6tel de la Meuse, R. 1 V2 fr., B. 60 c, 
D. 13/4, S. 1V2» pens, 4 fr. ; ♦H6tel-Pen8ion Martinet), with a large 
chateau (formerly a Benedictine abbey) and fine garden. Opposite is 
the Rocher du Chkn and farther up are the scanty ruins of the castle 
of Thierry. — 26 M. Hasiilre'Lavaux (H6tel d'Hasti^re , R. 21/4, 
B. 3/4, D. 21/2, S. l'V4, pens. 6-6 fr. ; BeUevue, plain ; H6t. du Midi), 
terminus for the steamers from Dinant, and junction of the railway via 
Doische to Mariembourg (p. 214). On the right bank of the Meuse, 
here spanned by a handsome new bridge , Is the abbey-church of 
Hastihrej founded in the lOth cent. ; the present building is a basil- 
ica of 1033, with a choir of 1260 (recently restored). 

28y2 M. Heer ' Agimont (E.6i. Franco-Beige, with caf^-restau- 
rant, pens. 5-6 fr.), with the Belgian custom-house, and near the 
ruined Chdteau Ayimont, On the light bank red marble is quarried. 
— "We then cross the French border. 

31 M. Givet (♦G'rand H6tel d^Angleterre^ Place Mtfhul, near the 
rail, station, R.;from 3, B. II/4, d^j. orD. incl. wine 3V2) omn. 1 fr.; 
Mof^t d'Or, Rue Thiers 14, R. 2-4, B. 1, d^j. or D. incl. wine 3«K^ 
^omn. 72^-* ▼ery fair; Rail. Reitaura'dC)^ m\V\Wi\s^^*>^'^*«Js^- 
esquely situated on the Meuse, w\i\cVi \% wo9»%fe^V} ^\siN5i%<5iV«t'8^\^'<»^^ 
view), conaiata of Givet-St^HHairt on l\ie> \^iX. \iw:^% ^"^ ^^^^^ 

222 BouUSO. SEDAN. 

of the steep Mil on wMcli the fort of Charlemont lies, and OioeU 
Notre-Dame on the right bank. Giyet-St-Hilaiie contains a mon- 
ument to the composer Mihul (1763-1817), who was bom here. 
The fortifleations of the town were razed in 1892. — At FTwne- 
UnneSj 272 ^- ^ ^^^ ^- o^ Givet, is an interesting cave named the 
Trou de Nichet (adm. 2 fr.). 

GLvet is connected with Charleroi by two railways, the Vireux- 
Mariembourg-Charleroi (p. 214), and the Givet-Aooz-Chitelinean 
line (p. 214); journey by the former 2 V2-23/4, by the latter 21/4- 
28/4 hrs. 

Fbom Givst to Skdan, 48 M., railway in 3-3 hrs., via Mis Ores- Charle- 
vilU (Hotel du Nord, very fair, Hot. da Midi, both at the rail, station; 
carriages cbanged), two towns adjoining each other with 7900 and 18,800 in- 
hah. respectively. 

Sedan (525 ft.; E6t. de V Europe^ B. 3-4, B. l-li/i, d^J. incl. wine3, D. 
3Va fr., omn. 30 c.; Croix d Or, B. from 21/2, B. 1, d6j. 3, D. 3Vs fr. ; HAi, 
de MetZy well spoken of; Lion d''Or)^ a prettily situated town with 19,300 in- 
hab., formerly fortified. Here a memorable battle took place between 
the Germans and French on Ist Sept., 1870, terminating in the total 
defeat of the latter and the capture of the emperor and 83,0(X) men (includ- 
ing 1 marshal, 39 generals, 230 staff-officers, and 3(XX) other officers). The 
French army numbered 124,0(X) men, the German 240,(XX), but part <^ the 
latter only was actually engaged. — Carriages and guides to the battle- 
field, may be obtained at the hotels. Tramways run from the Place Tu- 
renne to the railway station, Torcy, Bazeilles, and other points. 

Those who desire only a rapid visit to the battlefield before return- 
ing, via Luxembourg or Hetz, should alight at Douchery, the station before 
Sedan. From the station we proceed straight on through the village, 
cross the Heuse, and follow the Sedan road to the left on the left bank. 

At the (IV4 AI.) cross-roads (about 590 ft. above the se«-level) below 
Frinois we first follow the right (S.W.) arm, ascending past FnSnois towards 
Cheoeuget. At the (IV2 M.) warning-board for cyclists we ascend a steep foot- 
path to tbe left, whicb leads to (10 min.) the height (980 ft.) where King Wil- 
liam had his headquarters during the battle, and where on the evening of 
Sept. Ist he received Napoleon's letter. — The left arm at the above-mentioned 
cross-roads, leading to Qlaire^ brings us in a few minutes to the chateau 
of Bellevue, where on the morning of Sept. 2nd the capitulation was signed 
by General von Moltke and General de WimpfTen, and where a little later 
the meeting between King William of Prussia and Napoleon HI. took place. 

As we continue to follow the road to Sedan we have a survey of the 
hilly district beyond the Meuse to the N.E., which was the scene of 
the operations 01 the N. wing of the French army, and of the desperate 
charges of the French cavalry at Floing, All the K. heights were- occupied 
by the Prussians on the evening of Sept. 1st, while the Prussian guards, 
forming part of the army of the Meuse, advanced from the N.E. 

Sedan lies about l^/z M. from the cross-roads near Bellevue. We enter 

the town through the suburb of Torqf (tramway, see above), where the 

station (now removed farther to the S.E.) stood before ISiO, cross the 

Heuse, and reach Sedan. The Place d' Alsace-Lorraine here contains a War 

Monument, while in the Place Turenne stands a monument to Marshal 

Turenne, bom at Sedan in 1611 (d. 1675). Thence, turning to the right 

(S.E.: tramway in y4 hr.), we traverse the suburb of Balan to ('/« ^O 

Bazeilles^ the possession of which was obstinately contested for six boors 

on the day of the battle. At the N. end of the village is the small 

tavern *A la Derni6re Cartouche", which was the only house in the yillage 

tJiat escaped the ilames, and now contains & ^Mus^e' of relics connects 

fvHb tbe battle (gratuity). A pyramid In Ihe a^\o\uV:ii% ^mfc\«ti t&m!>l% V^% 

common grave of more than 2000 French wci3l QieTKitt;^ %oWV«t%. '^'tv^ '«»!' 

tTMjr-ataUon of B&zeilleB is at the 8. end o« the ^V\U%e^ ^K'*^. lw>iXi« «• 


21. From Dinant to Jemelle. Han-sur-Lesfe. 

23 K. Railway in IV4 hr. (fares 3 fr. 60, 3 tr. 40, 1 fr. 40 c). In •ummer 
saloon-trains (p. xvii) run from Gendron and Ardenne via Jemelle to Brussels 
(Ostend) and Paris. The pertinacious touts who press their ^advice* upon 
travellers in the txain should be repulsed. — The most picturesque part 
of the line is between Dinant and Houyet. 

Dinantj see p. 220. The railway ascends the left bank of the 
Meuse and crosses it by means of a long viaduct. 

i^/^ M. Anseremme (315 ft.; H6t. Bean-S^jour, pens, from 6 fr. ; 
H6t. des Etrangers, pens. 5-6 fr., very fair; H6t. de la Lesse, 
pens, from 5 fr. ; Repos des Artistes ; Bonrgeoiie, pens. 6 fr.), a 
pretty village snrmonnted by overhanging cliffs, near the month 
of the Lesse^ up the finely wooded valley of which the railway runs. 
Striking cliff-formations. 

Good walkers may quit the train here and ascend the valley of the 
Lesse on foot. The paths are sometimes fatiguing, and local guides are 
useful. The road quits Anseremme near the Hdtel Repos des Artistes 
and leads over the hill on the right bank of the Lesse to the modem cha- 
teau of Leste and to a (2Vs M.) mill (inn), whence we ferry over to the 
left bank, in order to obtain a view of the castle of WcUtin (see below) 
and of the grotesque rock -formations on the right bank. Hence to 
ChdlettXf Fur/oog, and Caiet, see below. 

To the left, beyond the first tunnel, is the chtteau of Les9e 
(sec above). — 4^2 M. WcUzin^ near which, romantically situated on 
a precipitous cliff, is the castle of Walzin (13th cent.) , once the 
property of the De la Marck family, now of M. Brugmann. 

From the mill near the station we may ferry to the right bank ^ c. ^ 
understanding advisable) and thence, passing the chiteau of Lesse, return 
to Anseremme by a rough foot]»ath over the hills. — A picturesque road 
leads to the S.W. from the station to the (3 M.) village of Falmignoul 
(655 ft.), whence the highroad (fine views), running high above the rocky 
valley of the Meuse, with the chateau of Freyr (p. 221) on the left, descends 
to Anseremme in 1 hr. — Upstream from Walzin we may follow a rough 
footpath to (2'/3 M.) Chdlettx^ near which are the curious Aiguilles de 
Chdleux and the Trou de Chdleux^ in which prehistoric relics have been 
discovered. From (3haleux we may ferry to the right bank in order to 
ascend to Fur/ooz (see below). 

To the left, a little farther up, on a lofty crag, rises the 4ower 

of Cavrenne. — 6 M. Oendron - Celles (caf^ at the station) is the 

station for Furfooz and Gelles. 

Fur/ooz (670 ft.) lies on a liill commanding a fine retrospect of the 
valley. Near it are the prehistoric grottoes Trou det Nutons, Trou du 
Frontal, and Trou RoHtte (guide, 1 fr. ; adm. on application to the maire 
of Furfooz). From Furfooz we may proceed to the E. to the (2V4 M.) an- 
cient ch§.teau of Wb}e or Ctlles, picturesquely situated in a lateral vijley *, 
farther up is the modem ch&teau ot Miranda, in the English Gothic styles 
both belong to Count Liedekercke-Beaufort. Farther on we reach CelUi, 
about 2V2 M. to thp. N.E. of Ctendron (see above), with a well-preserved 
Romanesque church. 

8 1/2 M. Ardenne^ situated in the narrowest part of the winding 
valley, is the station for the H6ttl Cfidteau B-o-^aX. 5! M^«««vt 
(785 ft.; B, 2, d4j, 5, board 10 fr., B.. e^iia:^, loxmeiVi ^Vxsk^^s.^ 
lodge of Leopold I., standing upon & \i\\\^>ft\.^ecii.>^«^^^'*''*''^ "^^ 

224 BauUSl. ROGHEFOBT. Frmn Dhuna 

its tributary the Ywoigne. The hotel is surrounded by an extensive 
park, well stocked with game (fine view from the Tour LiapoUi). 

Numerous bridges and tunnels are passed as the train ascends 
to (OV2 M.) Houyet (426 ft. ; H6U de la Utte, K. from 1 V2, B- V21 
D. 2, pens. 472^^)1 another station for the Ghlteau d'Ardenue 
(p. 223). 

Fbom Hodtbt to Bebtux, 36 M., railway in 2 hrs. (fares 5 fr. £0, 3 fr. 70, 
2 fr. 20c.). Stations: 3>/2 M. Wiesme; 6 M. Beauraing (575 ft.; Hdtels du 
Nord, da Midi, da Centre), with a beantiful park (open to yJaitors) con- 
taining the remains of the ch&teaa of the Duke of Osuna, burned down 
in 1889. — 10 M. Portdrdme (785 ft.) is the starting-point for a visit to 
the stalactite cave of Revogne (adm. 21/2 fr.). — 14 M. Voniehe; 19 M. 
Oedinne (1040 ft.; Lion d'Or; Hot. de laPoste); 24 V. Graide; 27 M. Carts- 
bourg. — 231/3 M. Paliteul (1320 ft. ; H6(el da Ardennes)^ whence a steam- 
tramway (fares 1 fr. 16, 80 e.) plies to (10 M. ; »U hi.) Bouillon (725 ft ; 
E6tel de la Potte., very fair; Hdtel da Ardenntt\ a little town dominated by 
the stately ancestral castle of Godfrey de Bpuillon. Here Kapoleon UI. spent 
the night of 3rd-4th Sept., 1870, in the Hotel de la Poste. About 10 M. to 
the S.E. of Bouillon lie Lei Ameroia^ a chateau and park of the Count of 
Flanders. From Bouillon to Sedan (p. 222), about 12 M. byroad (diligence 
daily in 2Vi hrs.). — 31 M. Offagne. — 36 M. Bertrix (p. 229); branch-line 
to Libramont, see p. 228. 

Tunnel. — 11 M. Hour-Havenne; W/2 M. Wanlin; 131/2 M. 
VignSe^ near which is the royal chateau of Ciergnon (shown in the 
absence of the king), on a steep rock ; I672 M. VilUrssur-Lesse- 

18 M. Eprave (Hdtel Malarm, R. 2, B. 8/4, D. 2V2, pens. 5 fr.; 
H6iel Mameffe^ R. from U/^ fr., B. 60 c, D. 272> pens. 4 fr.), at the 
confluence of the Lomme and the Lesse, is 2^2 M. to the N.W. of the 
station for the Grottoes of Han-sur-Lesse (see p. 226; omnibus). 

In the *Trott du Kond Tienne, to the E. of Eprave, the branch of the 
Lomme which disappears in the grottoes ofRochefort (see below), bursta forth 
again to the light of day. — In the vicinity is an interesting Roman camp, 
where numerous coins have been found ; also Celtic and Frankiah graves. 

2OV2 M. Bochefort (625 ft. ; *mt6l Bironj with garden, R. from 
2, B. 3/4, D. at 1 & 4p.m. 2V2j S. iy2» pens. 6-6 fr., omn. free; 
*mt6l dt VEioile, also with garden, R. 2-4, B. 8/4, D. 2V2, pens. 5- 
6fr.; H6t€l du Centre, R. from IV2, D. 2, pens. 41/2 fr.) » ^*Ji 
2900 inhab., formerly the capital of the County of Ardennes, oc- 
cupies an elevated site on the Lomme, commanded by the ruins of 
an old castle (adm. 60 c. ; view). The Romanesque Qiweh^ erected 
after plans by Cluysenaer In 1871, is noteworthy. Fine view from 
the Loretto Chapel, Opposite is the modem ch&teau of Beauregard, 

— Steam-tramway via Han (see p. 226) to (9V2 M.) WeUin (p. 22'^. 

— The environs are remarkable for a number of curious cayems in 
the limestone rock. 

The *Qtott9 de Bochefort is one of the finest (admission, ineluding 
electric lighting, 6 fr., reduction for parties). A rapid visit to it takes 
IV4-2 hours. The ^Salle da Merveille»\ ^Salle du SabbaP (said to be up- 
fvards of 4(X) ft. high), * Val d^En/er* and ^La Arcades' are the finest points. 

23 M, JemeUe (p. 227). 

ioJemdle. HAN-SUR-L£SSE. 21. Route. 225 

TheimpoBing Gayebns of Han are most conveniently reached from 
(8V2 M.) Rochefort by the new steam-tramway to Wellin (7 trains 
daily; to Han and back 60, 45 c). This ascends the pictnresqae 
yalley of the Lomme. 

The village of Han-iiir-Lesse (510 ft. ; Orand Hdtel, R. from 2, 
B. %, D. 21/2, pens. 6 fr.; H6t des Vayageura, R. from 13/^, B. 8/^, 
D. 2V2, pens. 6 fr.; H6t. de Bellevue et de la Qrottt^ R. from 1 V2 fr«> 
B. 60 c, D. 21/2, S. I8/4, pens. 41/2 fr.) lies on the N. side of a range 
of hiUs, through which the LtsBt forces its way by the "'Orottes de 
Han, which have been known since 1771. Admission tickets to the 
caves, which are usually accessible in winter also and are annually 
visited by 60-80,000 persons, are obtained beside the station of the 

Admission 5 fr. each : illamination of the caves by electric light (from 
Easter to Nov. 1st only) d fir. extra; visit to the Parte de la Lesse 50 c. ; 
cannon-shot at the exit to awaken the echoes 60 c. The guides also expect 
a small pourboire. Parties are conducted round the caves hourly in summer 
from 6 a.m. to 7 p.m. \ the visit takes about 2 hrs. Wraps, waterproofs, 
and stout boots desirable. — A description of the entire cavern, in four 
languages, with plan and views, is sold for 60 c. 

Omnibuses (60 c.) drive direct, passing the mouth of the cavern, to 
(20 min.) the so-called Perte di la Leue or Oouffre de Behaux (520 ft.), the 
spot where the foaming stream disappears in the abyss. Thence a narrow 
footpath leads back in 10 min. to the entrance of the cave. 

The cavern is nearly 2 M. in length and consists of a series of chambers, 
opening into each other, and varying in height. The average temperature 
in the W. chambers, to which the Lesse extends only in floods, is 50<* Fahr. 
The most imposing parts of the eavem are the Oalerie de la Orenouille, the 
Salle dee Mamelone^ the Place d^Armee. the Boudoir de Proeerpine. the *Salle 
du D6me, which is 500 ft. long, 450 ft. wide, and 390 ft. higli, and the 
Myetirieueee^ four chambers with the most beautiful stalactites. The Lesse 
becomes visible near the Place d^Armes. Visitors emerge at the other end 
through the Trou de Han in a boat, to the sound of a cannon-shot echoing 
among the rocks. At the exit are restaurants, milk-shops, and booths of 
all kinds (the stalactites offered for sale do not come from the grottoes). 
The station of the steam-tramway is reached in a few minutes more. 

22. From Brnssels to Lazemboorg vi& Namnr. 

136 M. Railway in 4V4-7»/4 hrs. (fares 22 fr., 16 fr. 50 c, 11 fr.). From 
Brussels to Namur, 35 M., in 1-2 hrs. (fares 5 fr. 80, 8 fr. 60, 2 fr. 15 c). The 
express-trains between Brussels (Amsterdam, Ostend) and B&le run over 
this line; and other *saloon- trains* (p. xvii) run to Arlon (p. 228) and Ar- 
denne (p. 238). — The trains start from the Btation du Quartier Liopold 
(p. 83), and most of them (except the Hrains de luxe') also from the 
Station du Nord. — The Belgian custom-house is at Sterpenich, that of 
Luxembourg at Ellein-Bettingen. *Mid Europe' time is used throughout 
Luxembourg (comp. p. xvi). 

Brussels^ see p. 83. — 2 M. EtUrbeek (see p. 91) , where the 
line to Tervueren diverges. 2^/2 M. Watermael. — 0^2 M. Boits- 
fort fwith a pretty lake surronnded by villas) and (6 M.) Qroentn- 
dad (with a ruined convent), both in the Forest of Soignes (^. 136), are 
favourite resorts of the citizens of Brussels (hor8e-ra<ies^%,^^^»^*o\ — 
To the left, near the village of Hoc^locrt, wft \i>xiv^Tfe^^ q\\l^\P^ks\»rr»., 
where immense quantities of dosaeit-gra.^^* ^x^ ^Ci^xv Vsx ^v^'cre^ 
Bamdxkem*8 Belgium and Holland. UVb. 'afliVX.. NSi 

226 RouU 22. OTTIGNIES. From Bnuads 

Just shoit of (9V2 ^0 ^ Hulpe a glimpse ts obtained to tlie 
right of tlie cbateaa of Argenteuil (p. 136) and of tbe Mound of the 
Lion (p. 147) on the distant field of Waterloo. IOV2 M. OenvaL — 
On the left, near (12 M.) Rixensart, is a chateau of Count de M^rode. 
At Rixensart the steam-tramway from Braine TAlleud to Wayie (gee 
p. 151) intersects the railway. 

15 M. Ottigrnies (215 ft.) is the point of intersection of the Lou- 
vain-Charleroi (R. 25) and Louvain-Manage-Mons (pp. 21 1, 212) lines. 
— 18 M. Mont St. Ouibertj with pretty environs. On the right is the 
chateau of Birbaix. At (20 1/2 M.) Chastre^ where we intersect the 
steam- tramway from Tilly to Jodoigne (p. 230), the Province of 
Brabant is quitted, and that of Namur entered. 

24 M. Oemblonx (505 ft.), junction for the lines to Fleuras and 
Ramlllies-Landen(p.231)and for a branch-line to Tamines (p. 214). 
An old abbey here, founded in 922 by St. Wicbert or Guibeit, contains 
the royal institution of agriculture and forestry. 

26 M. Lomie; 27^/2 M. Beuzet; 281/2 M. St. Denis - Bovesse 
(steam-tramway to Eghez^e, p. 230). — 31 M. Rhisnes, About 1^2 M. 
hence is the interesting cMteau of Falise, on the left side of the 
picturesque Houyol valley. The train passes through several cuttings 
in the blue limestone rocks, and affords a striking view of — 

35 M. Namur (see p. 215). 

The line now intersects the Forest of Ardennes, a wild, moun- 
tainous district , affording many picturesque views. Immediately 
after quitting Namur the train crosses the Meuse aiid commands 
another remarkably fine panorama of the town and its citadel. — 
37 M. Jambes-Etat (comp. p. 218); 40 M. Naninne; 441/2 M. Cotir- 
riere; 46 M. Assesse. — 49 M. Natoye. On the road to Spontin 
(p. 219), 1 1/4 M. to the S.W., is the 16th cent, chateau of Mouffrm 
(restored) ; visitors are admitted to the park. The line runs hence 
to Ciney through the vaUey of the upper Bocq (comp. p. 219). 

53 M. Ciney (880 ft.; Hotel du Commerce; Grand H6tel; Belle- 
vue; H6t, du Condroz), the capital of the upper Condroz (Gondiusi 
of the Romans), as the district between the Meuse and Ourthe was 
once called, now noted for its horse-breeding, boasts of a handsome 
new town-hall. 

From Ciney to I/up and LandeUy see p. 231 *, to Fvot'r, see p. 219. 

55 M. Leignon (935 ft.); 591/2 M. Haversin, V/2 M. to the S.E. 
of which is the sumptuous ch&teau of Serinchamps, formerly in the 
possession of the De la Marcks, now the property of the Marquis of 
Senzeilles ; 651/2 M. Aye, 

661/2 M. Harloie (Hdiel Lambert), where the direct line to Li^ge 

(Ligne de V Ourthe) diverges (p. 263). Local lines to (21/2 M.) Marehe 

(p. 263) and (32 MJ) Bastogne (p. 227). — The line now descends 

considerably, and affords a beaut\f\x\ vVe-v ol ^^ n^«^ ^\ >36a 

Wamme to the left. 

to Luxembourg, ST. HUBERT. 22. BouU, 227 

70 M. Jemelle (605 ft. ; H6t Ledoux ; H6t. du Luxembourg), the 
station for the Grottoes of Han-sur-Lesse (p. 226), with numerous 
marble and limestone quarries and lime-kilns, lies on the Wamme 
and the Lomme, a tributary of the Lesse (p. 224). Hence to DinarU, 
see R. 21. About IS/4 M. from Jemelle are the remains of a Roman 
villa (perhaps Masonacum). 

The train ascends the valley of the Lomme to (721/2 M.) For- 
rilres, — 76 M. Orupont (816 ft. ; H6t. Masset). 

A steam - tramway plies hence to (81/2 M.) Wellin (820 ft. } Hot. de 
rUnivers), at the junction of the road to Han-sur-Lesse (steam-tramway, 
see p. 225) and Pondrdme (p. 224), via (la/4 M.) TelKn (B90 ft.) and (5V« M.) 
JtesieiffM (700 ft.). Near the last are entrenchments said to date from the 
contests between Ambiorix and Csesar. 

To the left, on a rocky buttress beyond Grupont, rises the strik- 
ingly picturesque Chdteau Mirwart, with its five towers. 

From (82 M.) PoiX'Saini-Huhert (1070 ft.; Hot. Guillaume) a 
branch-railway runs in 20 min. to (41/2 M.) St. Hubert (1420 ft. ; 
Hotel du Luxembourg, R. 2, B. 8/^, D. 2, pens. 5 fr. ; H6t, du Chemin 
de Ferj pens. 6fr.), a town with 2600 inhab., celebrated for the 
chapel containing the relics of St. Hubert (p. 242), the Apostle of 
the Ardennes. The old Benedictine abbey, founded in 687, has 
been converted into a reformator>'. The Church, in the late-Gothic 
style, with double aisles and interesting crypt, dates from the 
16th cent, (facade and towers erected in 1700). A chapel to the lett 
of the choir contains the modern cenotaph of St. Hubert, adorned 
with bas-reliefs by W. Oeefs, and the choir Itself has some fine wood- 
carving. The forest of St. Hubert is one of the largest in Belgium. 

St. Hubert, the tutelary saint of sportsmen, was once a profligate and 
impious prince, who did not scruple to indulge in the pleasures of the 
chase even on the solemn fast -days appointed by the Church. While 
thus irreverently engaged on the holy fast of Good Friday , he suddenly 
beheld the miraculous apparition of a stag with a cross growing out of 
its forehead between its antlers. Thus warned by Heaven of the danger 
of adhering to his sinful courses, he at once desisted from the hunt, vol- 
untarily relinquished all the honours and advantages of his noble rank, 
and determined thenceforth to devote himself to a life of piety and self- 
abnegation. He accordingly presented the whole of his fortune to the 
Church, became a monk, and founded the abbey and church which are 
still called by his name. The holy man is said to have enjoyed miracu- 
lous powers during his life-time, and long after his death numerous mir- 
acles were wrought by means of his relics. 

841/2 M. Hatrival. — 90 V2 M. Libramont (1598 ft.; H6tel Duroy, 

fair)) on the watershed between the Lesse and the Semois, is the 

station for Recogne, a village near the source of the Lomme, 11/4 M* 

to the S.W., on the road to Bouillon (p. 224) and Sedan, the route 

by which Napoleon III., accompanied by French and Prussian officers 

•and a Belgian escort, proceeded to Libramont on 4th Sept. , 1870, 

to take the train for Germany. 

Fbou Libkamont to Gouvt, 861/3 M., branch-railway in l«/4 - 2*/<'*hr&* 
(fares 5 fr. 60, 3 fir. 80, 2 fr. 25 c). Stationa-. Bertiimoul^ 'Wi^leumw^^lAw\v«^.^ 
S^ef. — 18 M. BaMtogne, Ger. Baslnach (\»^ ft.-, Le Bvutw-, OoWV-tCs^ ^^^J^S^ 
town of 2000 iahab,, surnamed Parta-en-Ardennc; V^^^ OKS«^\i.^ ^^\Va% v^^'^'^ 

228 Route 22. ABLON. 

the 15th cent., contains some carions yaulting, ancient manil paintiBPi 
and a figure of St. Christopher ezecated in iSa), Bastogne is eomieeted 
by fteam-tramway with Harloie (p. 226), and a branchnndlway runs, Tift 
(Jb H.) BenonchampSj Schimpachj Schleif^ and WbuOer to Wilts (p. 274), and 
through the idyUie valley of the Wilts via Merekholz (p. 274) to JTovlm- 
haeh (12V2 M. ; p. 274) in the grand-duchy of Luxembourg. — From (24 M.) 
Bourey a steam-tramway plies to (7i/s M.) Houifialise (1060 ft.| *ff6t. de 
Poitei et du Luxembourg^ R. 2-4, B. IV4, D. 2V2, pens. Cvr'n/i, onm. */§ fr. 
H6t. de V(harthe\ the capital of the upper valley of the Ourthe, a faroiirite 
and linely situated summer- resort, with 1300 inhab., a ruined casfle, and 
pictares(iue walks. — 28 M. Tavigny, — 36Vs M. Qouvy^ see p. 266. 

Another branch -line runs from Libramont to M.) Bertrix (p. 229). 

96 M. Longlier, station for Neufchdteau (1400 ft ; H6t. des Postes ; 
Hot. des Etraugers), a little town, which lies 3/^ M. to the right. — 
101 M. Lavaux ; 103^/2 M. Mellier. — From (106 M.) Marbehan 
(Hot. Cornet, very fairj H6t. Glllet-Rogier) a hranch-line diverges 
to Ste. Marie, Croix-Rouge, Buzenol, Etht (steam-tramway to Arlon, 
see below), and (16 M.) Virton-Satnt-Mard (see below). 

1031/2 M. Houdemont; IIOV2 M. Hdbay ; 114 M. Fouches. 

1191/2 M. Arlon, Flem. -4orJcn (1365 ft.; *H6t. du Nord, Rue 
des Faubourgs 2, R. 2-3 V2, B. 1, I>. 2V2, S. 2, pens. 6, omn. i/j fc. j 
Hdtel- Restaurant Bamic\ Place L(^opold, R. 21/2-5. B. II/2, D. SVa, 
S. 2^/2 , both with wine, pens, from 6 fr. ; Maison Rouge ; H6t. Cen' 
tralj in the market-place; Cafe de la Bourse; Rail, Restaurant), a 
prosperous town with 7200 inhab., situated on a plateau, is the 
capital of the Belgian province of Luxembourg. It was the Orolaunum 
of the Antonlnian itinerary, and was fortified down to 1671. Fine 
view from the terrace adjoining the church and from the military 
hospital. The Provincial Museum contains a collection of Roman 
antiquities found in the neighbourhood, including some interesting 
stone-carvings. A band plays in the Park in the evening. Steam- 
tramway to Ethe (see above). — About 3 M. to the E., on the Luxem- 
bourg frontier, lies the ruined Cistercian abbey of Clairfontaine, 

From Ablon to Longwt, 15Vt M. , railway in */i hr. (fares 2 fr. 40, 
1 fr. 60, 95 c.). Intermediate stations: Autel-Bcu, Metsancy , Athus (see 
below), and Mont- St- Afar tin, (At Autel-Haut are an interesting old church, 

Sartly of the 10th century, and a ch&teau of the 13th cent.) — Longtoy (Hdtel 
e la Croix d'Or et d' Europe) is the French frontier-station and seat of 
the custom-house (comp. p. 279). 

From Arlon to Bbrtbix, 63Va M., railway in 2*/4-4 hrs. (fares 8 f!r. 10, 
5 fr. 50, 3 fr. 30 c). — As far as (10 M.) Athus (branch to Luxembourg, aee 
p. 279), the line is the same as that to Longwy. It then turns to the W. 
13 M. Halanzy; 19 M. Signeulxf 2IV2 M. Ruette. — 25>/s H. VirtOB (RdUl 
Continental; Ckeval Blanc), also the station for St. Mard and the junction 
of the line from Marbehan (see above) to Montmidy in France, is a prettily- 
situated little town with 2500 inhab., whose chief occupation is farming 
and cattle-breeding. Various Boman coins and antiquities have been 
found in the neighbourhood. — 29 M. Meix-devant-Virton ; 33Vt M. BeUt- 
Foniaine, — 371/2 V.. Izel. About 8Vs M. to the S. lie the extensive ruins 
of the abbey of Orval , founded in 1124. Adjacent is a tolerable inn. — 
40Vs M. Florenville (1180 ft. \ Hdtel du Commerce, fair ; PoHe), a small town 
on the Semois, from which many pleasant excursions may be made into 
i/ie forest of Ardennes. Boman and YrankYsYi «iiaV\^xAVk^ Vsk >^^ "vV^Aaltf « 
/T/J0 winding and somewhat inaccesalble *'VAi*i;Kt o^ iiEa^«iw»\%^ Insm. 
^^eJ (p. 228) to its junction with the Ueuae ».t Moniherwv* V*^ BMdO^r^a 

TIRLEMONT. 23. BouU. 229 

Jforthei'n France), is the wildeat and most romantic yallej of the Belgian 
Ardennes. Oood quarters may be found at Florenville and also at Eerbeu- 
mont (lOLOft.; Hot. des Ardennes, very fair, pens. 5 fr.), Bouillon (p. 224), 
Alle (625 ft. \ Hdt. Hofiinann, fair; Hdt. da Commerce), and Vrette (610 ft. •, 
Hat. Orandjean).] — 471/2 H. Straimont ; 49Vs M. BU Midard. — &3Vs M. Bertrix 
iH6t. des Posies; branch-lines to Honyet and Libramont, see pp. 224, 228). 

122 M. Autel'Bas (p. 228); 125 M. SUrpenich. — 126 M. 
Klein-Bettingen (liVL'Lembonig custom 'house', laggage examined), 
the junction for the line from Ettelbriick (p. 276) to Petingen 
(p. 276).— 128 M. Capellen; 130M. Mamer; 132V2 M. Berirange 
(Ger. Bertringen). 

136 M. Luxembourg^ see p. 277. 

23. From Brussels to Li^ge vi& Lonvain. 

61 M. Railway in 1V«-8V4 hrs. (fares 9 fr. 40, 6 fr. 40, 3 fr. 75 c). 
Saloon-trains (p. xvii) ply on this route. 

The train starts from the Station du Nord, and traverses an 
agricultural district. At (2 M.) Schaerheek the Antwerp line diverges 
(p. 152). 3Y2 M. HarenSud (comp. p. 162). — 5M. Dieghem^ noted 
as a pilgrimage -resort and for its fair (Easter Monday); steam- 
tramway to Uaecht (p. 168) and to Schaerbeek (Brussels), see p. 88. 
— 6 M. Saventheniy the parish-church of which contains a picture 
by Van Dyck, representing St. Martin dividing his cloak (restored 
in 1902); 9 M. Cortenherg; 13 M. Velthem. To the left, near (15 M.) 
Herentj is the large church of the former abbey of Vlierbeek. 

18 M. Lonvain, see p. 231. 

Bbanch Railway (traversed by express-trains) hence to the 17. to 
(5Vs M.) Rotselaer (with the old tower of Terheiden rising from the centre 
of a pond in the neighbourhood) and (10 M.) Aerschot, a station on the 
Antwerp and Aix-la-Ghapelle line (p. 203), and thence via Westmeerheek 
(p. 158) and Jfordencyk'Morcihoven to (24Vs If •) Herenthals, on the Turnhout 
and Tilburg line (p. 159). — Steam-tramway from Lonvain, see p. 237. 

From Louvain to Charleroi^ see R. 26. 

From Louvain to Malinesj see p. 158. 

Beyond Louvain the abbey of Pare (p. 236) is seen on the right. 
22V2 M. Corheek'Loo ; 25 M. VtrtrycK 

291/2 M. Tirlemont, Flem. Thienen (148 ft. ; H6t, du Nouveau 
Monde^ near the station ; H6t, PonaaertSy in the market-place, R. li/2- 
2, B. 72, D. 2fr.), a clean and well-buUt town with 17,800 Inhab., 
was once (like Louvain) occupied by a much larger population. The 
limits of the town, which are nearly 6 M. in circumference, now 
enclose a large extent of arable land. In the spacious market-place 
is situated the church of Notre Dame du Lac, finished only in the 
choir (1297) and transepts (16th cent.) ; it contains elaborate panel- 
ling, pulpit, and ohoir-stalls in the baroque style (1671). The Church 
of St. Oermairif partly Romanesque, has early-Qothic trlforium and 
windows. The axis of the choir forms an angle of 7® with that of tta 
nave. Both churches have recently "been iftBloi^^ 

FjtoM TiMLXMONT TO MoLL , 43 M., btaiicli-TivW'wvs \xv ^XswA^W^-**; 
(fnres 6 fr. 60, 4 fr. 60, 2 fr. 65 c). Ohiei inlftrme^v^^N.^ ^\%.\:vw^%*.^na^ 

230 Routers, LANDEN. 

Neerlinter (see below); 12 H. Geet-Betu; iSVs M. HMlen-kz-JHut ; 2C^ft M. 
Siest, on the Antwerp A Aix-la-Ghapelle line (p. 206); 241/2 M. l>«iim#><<f 
JHett; 26 H. Tessenderloo ; 30 M. Oostham, Near (35 M.) Botirg-Liopold, the 

1 unction of steam- tramways to Hasselt (p. 204) and Haeseyck (p. 204^, is a 
large permanent camp and manoeuvre -ground, covering an area of more 
than 16 sq. 31. and accommodating 20,000 men. 40 M . Bati9tk-9ur'I!fiih$. — 
43 M. Molh see p. 207. 

Fbom Tirlbmont to St. Tbond and Tongbes, 28 M., railway in 
IVa-l'A hr. (fares 4 fr. 30, 2 fr. 90, 1 fr. 75 c). — 7V« M. Neerlinter (see 
above). — 10 H. L^an, Flem. Zout-Leeuw (Ca/i-Bataurant BruxelloU* near 
the station), a town of 2100 inhab., formerly a fortress, with a handsome 
late-Gothic Toicn Ball (16th cent.) and the Gothic church of *'8t. Leonhard 
(13th and 14th cent.). The latter, one of the few churches that were not 
spoiled in the 16th cent., contains carved altars in the Gothic style (with 
early-Flemish paintings) and in the Renaissance style (1565; in the right 
aisle), an nnusiially large collection of admirable Gothic brass works of 
the iDth cent, (holy- water vessel, fonts, lectern in the form of an eagle, 
six-light candelabrum, 23 ft. in height, tabernacle-railing), and a magni- 
ficent *Tabernacle sculptured in stone, 52 ft. high, one of the finest works 
of the Belgian Renaissance, executed in 1550-52 by Comelis de Vriendt^ 
architect of the Antwerp Hotel de Ville, by order of Martin de Wilr^, 
Seigneur of Oplinter, who is buried beside it (cast in South Kensington 
Museum). The sacristy contains some valuable ecclesiastical vessels. — 
I2V2 M. St. Trond (see below), the junction for the Landen-Hasselt line. — 
16 M. Ordange; 2072 M. Looz^ on the Oreye-Hasselt steam-tramway (p. 204); 
24 M. Pirange. — 28 M. Tongres^ see p. 420. 

Fbom Tirlkmont to Namur, 27V2 M., railway in 1V«-2V4 hrs. (fares 
4 fr. 80, 2 fr. 90, 1 fr. 70 c). Stations unimportant. From Jodoigne steam- 
tramways run to Wavre (p. 237), to Louvain (see p. 237), and to Tilly (see 
p. 237). — 13 M. Ramillies is the junction of the Landen and Gembloux line 
(see p. 231). — From (16 M.) Noville-Tavievs a branch-line runs to EmbreHn; 
and from Eghezit steam - tramways ply to St-Denis-Bovesse 0[>. 226) and 
to Andenne (p. 263). — 27'/2 M. Namur^ see p. 215. 

Steam Tramwats ply from Tirlemont to (9V2 M.) Beauvechctin (p. ISiST) 
and jvia (18 M.) Aerschot (p. 203) to (29 M.) Haecht (Brussels, comp. p. 168). 

Beyond (331/2 M.) Esemael the line intersects the plain of Neer- 
winden (tbe village lies to the left), the scene of two great battles. 
In the first of these, on 29th July, 1693, the French under Marshal 
Luxerabour : defeated the Allies under William III. of England. 
In the second the French under Dumouriez and Louis Philippe 
(then ^General Egaliti\ afterwards King of France) were defeated 
by the Austrians under the Prince of Cohourg (great - uncle of the 
late king Leopold), and driven out of Belgium (18th Mar., 1793). 

38 M. Landen (205 ft. ; Hdtel de la Ht8baye\ the junction of several 
linos, is historically interesting as the birthplace of Pepin the Elder, 
the majordomo of the royal domains of the Austrasian monarch 
Dagobert I. (628-38). He died here about the year 640, and was 
buried at the foot of a hill which still bears his name ; his remains 
were afterwards removed to Nivelles (p. 151). 

From Landen to Hassblt , iS^/s M., branch-line in Vvl hr. (fares 

2 fr. 80, 1 fr. SO, 1 fr. 10 c). This route presents few attractions. — 4 M. 
Velm. — 7 M. St. Trond, Flem. St. Truiden {^Hdiel du Commereey^R, 2, B. 1, 
D. 2 fr.), with 13.600 inhab., is the most important station. In the spaeions 
Grand' Place is the Hdtel de Ville^ added in the 18th cent, to the BtM^f of 
Je06. Tbe Qotbic church of Notre Dame (13-i6th cent. \ tower and W. facade 

modern) containa a fresco of the Lasi 3\idg;ni«ii\. ^o^ex \Xi« OcictVt^ v^d.^«rtOQ8 

other paintings of different dates. The low ex oi \\i«k BumtewxT^ Q>Mirai\a x 

relic of the old abbey of St. Tmdo. T\ie to-ww ot Bl. MorW.* % \w*a* %» 

LOUVAIN. 2i. RouU. 231 

equestrian statue of the saint. The church of Bt. FranoU (i7-18th cent.) 
has a spacious interior. St. Trond is the junction for the Tirlemont-Tongres 
line (see p. 230). Steam-tramway via Oreye to Waremme and to Ans, see 
below. — lOVs M. CofiBnhoseh\ UVz M. Aiken. — 171/2 M. Hassell, see P- 904. 

Fbom Landsm to Gkmbloux ( Fleurus - Tamines and CharUroi), 2S M., 
railwayin 1 hr. (fares 3 fr. 60, 2 fr. 40, 1 fr. 40 c). Chief stations : Jauche, Autre- 
Egliee, Ramillies (12 M. ; p. 230), Gembloux (23 M. ; p. 226). From Gembloux 
to Fleurus and Tamines^ see p. 214; from Fleurus to Charleroi, see p. 213. 
About 1 M. to the £. of Jauche or Autre -Eglise is Folx-lea-Oaves, with 
curious subterranean quarries, like those of Valkenberg, worked at a very 
early period (guide in the adjacent brewery). 

Landen is also the junction for a line coming from Ctncy, which 
intersects the Namur-Li^ge line at ffuy (see p. 226). 

40 M. Oingelom; 43 M. Rosoux-Ooyer. — Beyond (461/2 M.) 
Waremme the line crosses the ancient and weU-preserved Roman 
road, called by the conntry-people Route de Brunhildey which ex- 
tended from Bavay (Bagacum Nerviorum), near Mens, to Tongres. 
Waremme was the capital of the ancient province of Hesbaye^ the 
natives of which were famed for their strength and bravery, as the 
old proverb, ^ Qui passe dans le Hesbain est combattu Vendemain\ 
suggests. — Steam -tramways N.E. to Oreye (see above) and S. to 
Huy^ see p. 263. 

5OV2M. Remicourt; 53 M. Fex^e-fe-Hout-CiocAer (steam-tram- 
way to Tongres, see p. 421) ; 66 M. Bierset-Awans, Numerous coal- 
mines, foundries, and manufactories are passed In the vicinity of 
(571/2 M.) Ans, which lies 348 ft. higher than Liftge. Branch-line 
to Liers (p. 420); steam-tramway yik Oreye to Waremme (see above) 
and to St. Trend (p. 230). — 6OV2 M. Haut-Pri (electric tramway 
to LUge, see No. 7, p. 240). 

The line now descends rapidly (1 : 30) , affording a fine view of 
the populous city of Lidge and the beautiful valley of the Meuse. 

61 M. Lihge, see p. 239. 

24. Lonvain. 

Hotels. In the town : Hotel de SuftoB (PI. a; G,2), Rue de Marengo 24, 
near the Place du Peuple, with restaurant, R. 2-6, A. *Iaj B. ii/4, D. 2-3 fr.) 
Hotel Bbitanniqdb (PI. b: G, 2), Rue de Marengo 22, adjoining the above, 
R. 2-3, B. »/4, D. 1V2» S. iVifr., well spoken of. — At the station: HStbl 
DE LA Gare (PI. c; D, 2), HdTBL DE l'Industeie (PI. d; D, 2), R. (fe B. 
from 2^/4, D. 2V2 fr., both unpretending. 

Restaurants. Taveme Mathieuy Rae de la Station 40 : Taveme 8t, Jean^ 
Rue de Diest 21. — Cafes. Ca/i de* Braeseurt^ Rue de la Station 8, near 
the Grand' Place; Cafi Rubens, Place Marguerite, opposite the church of 
St. Pierre; TaMe Ronde, Grand' Place. — Beer. QemibrinM, Grand* Place 
(Munich beer; also good cold viands). The beer of Lonvain is a sickly 

Gabs, or Vigilantes , 1 fr. per drive; to or from the station IVa-S fr. 
(bargain desirable). — Tramway from the station to the Grand* Place, 10 c. 
. — Steam Tramvoays, see p. 237. 

Baths of different kinds, Rae de la Laie 14. 

Post and Telegraph Office (PI. C, 2), Impasse des Choraux, to the If. of 
the Place Marguerite, open firom 7 a.m. to 7 p.m. (Sun. and WV\&vi%^V^ak^* 

Chief Attraetimis (2-2V2 hrs. suffice). Ttamwvs ttom \!tift %N».NX«^ ^a'^ 
Orand' Place i Bt. Pierre (p. 233)-, H6te\ daNiWe, ^xVat^^t V>^^V'»sbv\ 
Unireraity, exterior (p. 286). 

232 BowU 2i. LOUYAIN. flSfel de nOe. 

LouYftin (82 ft.), Flem. Leuven or Loven, on the 2>yUj wliieh 
flows throagh the town and is connected hy a canal with the Acpd 
(p. 82), is a dull place with 42,100 inhabitants. The greater part 
of the space enclosed by the walls boilt in the 14th cent, is now 
nsed as arable land. The ramparts sarronnding the walls have been 
partially converted into promenades. 

The name of the town is derived from LoOj signifying a wooded 
height, and Veeny a marsh, words which are also combined in Vado, 
The Emperor Arnulf defeated the Normans in this 'vidnity in 891. 
From the lith cent. Louvaln was the residence of a line of counts, 
who later attained possession of the Dachy of Lower Lorraine 
(p. xx), and in 1190 assumed the title of Dukes of Brabant. The 
growth of the city was rapid, and in the 14th cent, it is said to hate 
numbered 100-160,000 inhab., most of whom were engaged in the 
f'loth-trade, and to have contained no fewer than 2400 (?) manu- 
factories. Here, as in other Flemish towns, the weavers were a very 
turbulent class. During an insurrection in 1378, thirteen magistrates 
of noble family were thrown from the windows of the H6tel de Ville, 
aiul received by the populace below on the points of their spears; 
but Duke Wenceslaus took the city in 1382 and severely punished 
the citizens, thousands of whom emigrated to Holland and England, 
whither they transplanted their handicraft. From that period may 
be dated the decay of Louvain, which Duke John IV. of Brabant 
vainly attempted to arrest by founding the university fp. 236) 
in 1426. 

In front of the railway-station (PI. D, 2) is a statue of Sylvaan 
van de Weyer (d. 1874), a native of Louvain, who was one of the 
most ardent promoters of the Revolution of 1830, and became the 
ambassador of the Provisional Government at the London CJon- 
fcrenc>e. The statue is by Charles Oeefa. 

The wide Rue de la Station (8tat