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Mrs. Arlthur Jory 


OF THE 60 s 


In the land where we were dreaming. 


. ... And with them Time 
Slept, as he sleeps upon the silent face 
Of a dark dial in a sunless place. 


Illustrated with One Hundred and Sixty-six Portraits 



Copyright 1907 by 

Copyright 1909 by 

Belles Beaux 

and Brains of the 60 s. 









My publishers ask for my preface. What readers I reach 
will thank me for having forgotten it. 

It has been said that u a book without a preface is a salad 
without salt." Possibly: but a salad that carried with each 
plate a recipe for its every ingredient and condiment, 
might fail of digestion. The literary kitchen is not always 
appetizing, however dainty its perfected products may 

The preface is that defunct bore of Greek drama Chorus 
exhumed to interrupt the action. The book that needs 
that is apt to prove a pretty bad one; for the preface 
tells why a book is written and at what it aims. The 
latter is indubitably to instruct or entertain, and to sell. 
Should these motors be reversed? 

The volume that does neither of these, without its own 
advice, will needs gather dust upon the trade shelves. 

Decades ago when I wrote what James R. Randall named 
"the prose epic of the bloody Confederate drama" (Four 
Years in Rebel Capitals), Mr. E. L. Godkin began his 
Nation review of it with the words: "A participant s views 
are always the most interesting." Now I am hoping that he 
wore Cassandra s headgear. 

In that book s preparation, thousands of names, incidents 
and deductions came up, which were not wholly consonant 
to its plan and scope. These, I have always felt, would 
group themselves some day; and most of my time for five 
years past has been given to arranging them into proper 
sequence and in boring thousands of old friends, for facts, 
dates, names and especially for portraits, miniatures, photo 
graphs and tintypes of the blockaded-art epoch. 


To these friends, one and all, a cordial acknowledgment 
is due for the invaluable aid given me. To list one tithe 
of them would be to print another volume. Suffice it to 
say that the faces and the facts are theirs. The comments, 
the statement and deductions, all my own. 

Did I write a volume of preface, it would condense itself 
thus : I have written honestly and without fear, or favor, of 
people and events: and with as little of prejudice as is given 
to humanity. 

Death and his precursor, Hymen, have been busy in very 
recent days, among notable people and dear old friends; 
causing halt for recasting many pages already typed. 

"If this be treason, make the most of it!" If it be 
preface, forgive the solecism. 

T. C. De LEON 
Mobile, May 1st, 1909. 


THE AUTHOR Frontispiece 


Lieut.-Col. R. E. Lee, U. S. A. 1852 10 

Mrs W. H. Caskie (Mary Ambler) 11 

Colonel John S. Mosby 12 

Page McCarty 13 

Hon. James M. Mason 17 

Secretary George W. Randolph 21 

Mrs. Evelyn Cabell Robinson, of Colleton 24 

Captain Philip Haxall 25 

Mrs Alfred L. Rives, of Castle Hill : 29 

Misses Mathilde and Rosine Slidell 54 

T. C. De Leon and Col. J. S. Saunders 37 

Colonel John Forsyth 40 

Colonel W. R. Smedberg, U. S. A 44 

Jefferson Davis 47 

Mrs. Emmet Siebels (Anne Goldthwaite) 51 

Mrs. Jos. Hodgson (Florence Holt) -. 52 

Mrs. E. A. Banks (Eliza Pickett) 53 

Mrs. S. S. Marks (Laura Snodgrass) 54 

Gen. P. G. T. Beauregard 57 

White House at Richmond 58 

Captain I. L. Lyons, 10th La. Reg t 61 

Gen. Fitz Lee 63 

Mrs. Jefferson Davis 66 

Mde. M. De W. Stoess (Margaret Howell) 68 

Chevalier C. De W. Stoess 70 

Jefferson Davis, Jr 71 

"Winnie" (Varina Anne) Davis 72 

Mrs J. A. Hayes 73 

Jefferson Davis (In clothes worn when captured) 75 

Hon. S. R. Mallory (Sec. C. S. Navy) 85 

Mrs. T. S. Kennedy (Ruby Mallory) 87 

Hon. J. P. Benjamin (Sec. of State).... 92 

Gov. T. H. Watts (Attorney-General) 94 

Alexander H. Stephens 100 

Miss Mattie Quid 103 

Judge J. A. Campbell 107 

Mrs. Samuel Cooper 109 

Mrs. Nicholas Dawson (Jennie Cooper) 110 

Mrs. T. J. Semmes (From a portrait by Healy) 113 

Col. Joseph C. Ives 117 

Cora Semmes Ives 118 

Mrs. Clara Semmes Fitz-Gerald (From a portrait by Sully) ... .119 




Mrs. Wilcox Brown (Turner Macfarland) 124 

Mrs. David Gregg Mclntosh (Jennie Pegram) 126 

Mrs. Robert E. Lee, Jr. (Charlotte Haxall) 128 

Mrs. Dabney J. Carr (Anna Mead Deane) 131 

Mrs. Thomas R. Price (Lizzie Triplett) 138 

Mrs. William M. Farrington (Florence Topp) 142 

Mrs. John W. Rutherford (Betty Vance) 143 

Mrs. James Fontaine Heustis (Rachel Lyons) 144 

Mrs. Albert Ritchie (Lizzie Cabell) 146 

Mrs. Phil Haxall (Mary Triplett) 148 

Mrs. Caskie Cabell (Nannie Enders) and Lillie Bailey 150 

Mrs. Howard Crittenden (Lou Fisher) 154 

Mrs. Robert Camp (Anne Fisher) 155 

Col. Robert Alston, Adjt.-Gen. Morgan s Cavalry 157 

General Wade Hampton 161 

Mrs. Charles Thompson Haskell 162 

Captain William Thompson Haskell 163 

Captain Joseph Cheves Haskell i64 

Mrs. Edwin S. Gaillard (Mary Gibson) 167 

Mrs. John Pegram (Hetty Gary) 168 

Captain Henry Robinson 174 

Mrs. Philip Phillips 176 

Mrs. Charles A. Larendon (Laure V. Beauregard) 179 

Mrs. Henry Strachey LeVert and daughter "Diddie" 183 

Admiral Franklin Buchanan (Commander of the Mcrrimac ) ..184 

Mrs. William Becker (Mrs. Laura Forsyth) 185 

Mrs. Mary Ketchum Irwin (From an amateur play) 189 

Gen. John Chesnut 193 

Mrs. James W. Conner (Sallie Enders) 195 

Lt.-Col. John Cheves Haskell 196 

Commodore Barron, C. S. N 199 

Mrs. W. B. Meyers (Mattie Paul) 202 

John R. Thompson 204 

Mrs. John Cabell Early (Mary Washington Cabell) 207 

Mrs. Edward L. Coffey (Lucy Haxall) 209 

Mrs. Otho G. Kean (Sallie Grattan) 211 

Mrs. Robert F. Jennings (Lillie Booker) 214 

Mrs. Charles T. Palmer (Alice Winslow Cabell) 216 

Robert A. Dobbin 220 

Mrs. Leigh R. Page (Page Waller) 222 

John Randolph (Sir Anthony Absolute) 225 

Captain L. M. Tucker (Jack Absolute) 226 

Mrs. Thomas Pember (Phoebe Levy) 229 

Mrs. John Moncure Robinson (Champe Comvay) 231 

Mrs. Samuel Robinson (Lizzie Peyton Giles) 233 

Hon. Beverley Tucker ("The Suspect") 235 

John Randolph Tucker (Jurist Teacher & Wit) 238 

Mrs. John Lee Logan (Gertrude Tucker) 239 

Mrs. Anna Logan 240 

Col. George Wythe Munford (Sec. of Commonwealth) 242 

Col. Frederick G. Skinner (1st Virginia) 247 

Col. Skinner (Miniature owned by Lafayette) 249 

Mrs. Isobel Greene Peckham (London Exhibition Portrait) ..250 
Mrs. T. Tileston Greene (Elise Skinner) 251 



Major Livingston Mims 255 

Captain Innes Randolph 259 

Major Wm. B. Myers 263 

Major William Caskie ..267 

Major J. W. Pegram 270 

Virginia Mourning Her Dead (Sir Moses Ezekiel) 275 

Chevalier Moses Ezekiel 281 

The Burial of Latane 

Misses Page Waller, Virginia Pegram, Mattie Paul. Lizzie 
Giles. Mattie Waller, Annie Gibson and Imogene Warwick. 284 

Page McCarty, William D. Washington, Wm. B. Myers 291 

Mrs. G. T. Beauregard (Laure Villere) 293 

Gen. G. T. Beauregard 296 

Hilary Cenas 298 

Laure Beauregard Larendon 300 

George Mason of Gunston Hall 301 

Mrs. Sydney Smith Lee (Anna Maria Mason) 303 

Henry A. Wise 306 

Mrs. William C. Mayo (Margaretta Wise) 307 

Captain John S. Wise 308 

Mrs. Henry A. Wise. Jr. (Hallie Haxall) 312 

Thomas W. Symington 318 

Charles S. Hill, G. Thomas Cox and E. H. Cummins 321 

Gen. J. C. Breckinridge 324 

Gen. Sterling Price 325 

Col. Heros Von Borcke (Stuart s Chief of Staff) 332 

Col. Jos. Adolph Chalaron (Louisiana Artillery) 336 

Major-General John B. Gordon 340 

Colonel Edward Owen (New York Camp U. C. V.) 343 

Admiral Raphael Semmes (Taken in 1873) 345 

Mrs. Charles R. Palmer (Kathrina Wright) 347 

Jefferson Davis Howell (Youngest brother of Mrs. Davis) ....349 

Lieut. Samuel Barron 350 

Daniel Decatur Emmett 356 

Capt. R. T. ("Trav") Daniel "360 

James R. Randall (Author of "My Maryland") 363 

Lieut. Sydney Smith Lee, Jr., C. S. N 367 

Rt. Rev. Richard Hooker Wilmer (War Bishop of Mobile) ... .374 

J. Henley Smith (of Mosby s Cavalry) 377 

Mrs. Fannie A. Beers 383 

Mrs. Arthur F. Hopkins 385 

Emily Virginia Mason in her 92nd year 388 

Mrs. L. M. Wilson (Augusta Evans in 1867) 392 

Lieut. H. H. Marmaduke, C. S. N 397 

Captain James Frazer 403 

Madam Von Rorque (Carrie Holbrook) 409 

Hon. Edwin De Leon (C. S. Commissioner abroad) 411 

Mrs. George H. Butler (Josephine Chestney) 414 

Gen. Robert E. Lee 418 

Mildred Lee (Youngest daughter of Gen. Lee) 419 

Maj.-Gen. W. H. F. ("Rooney") Lee 421 

Mrs. Robert E. Lee (Mary Randolph Custis) 423 

Agnes Lee (Third daughter of Gen. Lee) 426 

Gens. R. E. and G. W. C. Lee 428 



The Recumbent Lee at Lexington (By Valentine) 429 

Admiral Sydney Smith Lee (Son of "Light Horse Harry") ....431 

Captain R. E. Lee, Jr. (Youngest son of Gen. R. E. Lee) 432 

Anne Carter Lee and Mary Custis Lee (Only granddaughters 

of Gen. Lee) 433 

Robert Carter Lee (Youngest son of Admiral Lee) 434 

Mrs. W. H. F. Lee (Mary Tabb Boiling), R. E. Lee, Jr., Dr. 

Boiling Lee 436 

Captain Henry Carter Lee, C. S. Cavalry (4th son of Admiral 

Lee) 438 

Captain Daniel Murray Lee (5th son of Admiral Lee) 439 

Mrs. Daniel Murray Lee (Nannie Ficklen) 440 

General Scott Shipp, V. M. 1 442 

Captain Collier H. Minge (Commanding Battery) 443 

Gaylord B. Clark (Cadet at New Market) 445 

Rt. Rev. Thomas Frank Gailor (Bishop of Tennessee) 449 

Gen. Edmund Kirby Smith (Commander Trans-Mississippi 

Department 451 

Lieut. Gen. Joseph Wheeler 455 

Lieut. Wilton Randolph 459 

Lieut. S. S. Lee, 3d (U. S. Marine Corps) 462 



The ante bcllum exclusive "Befo th wah." Like 
ness to Carolinians Southern pride and its origin 
Colonial cousins and wives The Code Duello 
Chivalry s lessons Two-bottle men and New 
England tippling Herital gentry: no "middle 
class." Slave owners and their methods Loyal to 
the "pa-aty." Old leaders vs. new Covenanters 
and Cavalier Real origin of Civil War Prejudice 
and principle The amalgamate American. 


Old-time entertaining on great estates Large 
families Matchmaking and a web of consanguin 
ity The early Randolphs Family seats and 
country life Hunting and the first American Fox- 
club Racing stables The Custis family and early 
Arlington Mt. Vernon and its owners Fitzhughs 
of Chatham Sir John Page s line Richmond and 
the Byrds The Blands Then woman ruled the 
time How heredity rode to war Education and 
womanhood Mothers of a line of gentlemen 
What their daughters did later. 


Washington yesterday and today Social changes 
greater than the civic Leaders in Senate and 
Salon Southern dominance The Pnghs, Marcys, 
Casses-^Mrs. John R. Thompscn The ante 
bellum winter-*The belles we left Home and 
visiting sets Mesdames Crittenden and Clay 
Resident society leaders Rumors of wars The 
Lobby and the hotel folk Entertaining in the 
storm The Buchanan nap broken Peace Con 
gress fiasco Gen. Scott and Lincoln The Inau 
guration Off for Dixie Leavetaking and proph 


Off for Montgomery Excited ignorance How 
"the Cradle" rocked Replica of Washington s 
worst Davis interested in Lincoln How he 
stood with the people The rush for place- 
Congress,. Cabinet and Lobby Society and gov- 
ernment-^A bevy of old-time belles Old families 


CHAP. IV. Continued 

and weddings Gambling and drinking Status for 
leaders The fall of Sumter Action replaces sus 
pense Virginia secedes The capital to move 
Pensacola review Beauregard or Bragg? 


From Chimborazo to Hollywood Society s ague 
at the advent Peeping through barred blinds 
Best blood in the ranks Hospitality melt? reti 
cence-brilliant women and brainy men Gay and 
"quiet old" sets Charity s varieties The White 
House and early frost-^-Mrs. Davis melts it Mr. 
Davis at home "The dweller on the threshold." 


Social Frost clears White House sociality 
Levees and their uses The President s "home 
hour." Mrs. Davis tact and methods The 
Kemp-Howell family Miss Maggie Howell The 
Davis children Winnie and her living memory 
The next generation Mr. Davis as Richmond 
saw him His ease of access Rare conversa 
tionalist In the bitter aftermath A silly slander 
Southern feeling then and now The Davis 
descent and branches The family today The 
chief s rise. 


Its fiber Toombs and his successors The S. R. 
Mallory household Mother and Daughter 
Brilliant career of "Little Ruby" Mrs. Bishop and 
Andy Johnson The Bedouin cabinet War De 
partment kaleidoscope Seddon. Randolph, Bragg, 
Campbell Breckinridge comes to stay The 
money men "Cheap money" in 1862 The post- 
office The Randolph household Benjamin, the 
Pooh Bah His chameleon "foreign policy" His 
family Attorney-Generals Thos. H. Watts and 
George Davis. 


Society and officials Alex. Hamilton Stephens 
South Carolina and the presidency The "Hamp 
ton Roads conference" with Lincoln Reticence 
and deaths Judge Robert Quid s family Mattie 
Quid s beauty and wit Judge John A. Campbell 
Descent and education "Union men" Mrs. 
Campbell and her brilliant daughters Adjutant- 
General Cooper The Mason blood Frank 
Wheaton s wedding: his descendants Miss Jennie 
Cooper: her children of the fourth generation. 



The "Tom" Semmes household How he was 
elected Senator Admiral Semmes at that day 
Maggie Mitchell and "the Old Rag" A notable 
Mess Pierre Soule and the Spanish duel Mrs. 
Semmes own family The Dimitris Its famous 
head Notable descent The young folks in Rich 
mond- The Ives household Old Washington 
toasts A peer s gracious tribute Mrs. Clara Fitz 
gerald The family today The A. C. Myers 
family The uniform chosen The beautiful 
mother and daughters The Twiggs sword. 



The old elect Young Richmond The Macfarland 
home and its bevy The Pegram household Its 
descendants today The Haxalls of biblical num 
ber The four brothers and their children 
Memories of a private hospital The James Lyons 
home at "Laburnum." Peter Lyons and the Deane 
sisters The Allen homes The patron of Edgar 
Poe Claremont and its owner Others of the old 


Old-fashioned chaperonage In Richmond: Virgo 
victrix! Washington retrospect Unmated tyrants 
One bride s views Changed social conditions 
-"The prettiest woman in the world!" Two 
Tennessee beauties A South Carolina rival 
Their representatives of the present. 


The "three Graces junior" Misses Triplett, 
Cabell and Conway A famous duel The Triplett- 
Ross alliance The Enders home in Richmond 
The mother of the motherless A pair of camp 
angels Miss Lizzie Peyton Giles and Miss Jose 
phine Chestney come to Dixie The Richmond 
Giles sisters The Freelands and Lewises The 
Wigfall family "The Three Fishers": Lucy, Mary 
and Anne. 



Transitions from joy to woe The Miles-Bierne 
wedding A shortened honeymoon Pearls and 
crape at St. Pauls The Porcher Miles family 
Miss Macfarland s fate and following Some 



CHAP. XIII. Continued 

Carolinians Hampton and his boys A Roman 
Matron The seven spears of the Haskells 
Gaillard and Gibson families Miss Hettie Gary 
The gallant Pegrams Orange blossoms and yew. 


Imitations of French models Washington refuses 
the fad New York in Cooper-Barlow-Sherwood 
days Mrs. Frank Leslie s attempts Quaker 
Citydom The Boker-Schaumberg regime Bos 
ton dodges contagion Busy Chicago s material 
The Palmer-Stone-Chetlain-Smith set Cincinnati 
in society and literature The Saturday Night 
Club The middle West non-salonic Baltimore 
too cosy to imitate Washington in the Blair- 
Sartiges-Dahlgren days The Slidells The girls 
and the Wilkes incident Mrs. Phillips and Ben 
Butler Washington receptions Her ben mots 
The Phillips family, then and now. 


Deshas and Murray Smiths Vanderbilt-Marl- 
borough Madame Le Vert salon Notables and 
freaks Wives of John T. Raymond and Theodore 
Hamilton One Mr. Lillian Russell Kossuth 
Admiral Buchanan John Forsyth and General 
Forrest Novel love lay Queer Harry Maury 
The mondaine s sunset The Huger family The 
Fearns and Walkers The beautiful carnival 
queen The Nortons and Buckners De Vendel 
Chauldrons The noted Ketchums Tennessee s 
Erwin sisters Two fair young matrons The 


Charleston, the sedate A city of history and 
precedent Moultrie to Sumter Beauregard s 
beaux in silk hats and sashes The Sumter hurrah- 
Mrs. Sue King s salon failure Mrs. Daisy Breaux 
Gummere A "little brown Crum, Mr. Roosevelt"! 
Richmond s realities The Semmes, Pegrams, 
Lyons and other homes The Levee a la "Old 
Wreck" Beauties, plain folk and place-hunters 
Mrs. Robert Stanard s receptions Soule. Barren. 
Lamar, Preston and the rest The Le Vert par 
allel deflected. 


The "quiet set" The Mosaic s sponsors The 
Grattans, Gays, Wallers and their "boys" Organi 
zation? A specimen programme Misses Eva 
Cabell and Mattie Paul in music The Myers-Paul 


CHAP. XVII. Continued 

marriage Descendants in Boston and Brooklyn 
Rare Ran Tucker John R. Thompson, Esten 
Cook and Jeb Stuart Miss Cabell s marriage The 
Cabell seats The little Cabell girls" and their 
families John Pegram, Washington and Myers 
as whistlers The "Grasshopper" and the "Good 
old Rebel" Miss Lucy Haxall yesterday and 
today An epigram. 


How women worked Not in the Village of 
Dumdrudge Mesdames Semmes, Randolph and 
other "managers" Notable audiences The great 
charades All society in the cast The Macmurdo 
sisters The "men creatures" Mrs. Semmes en 
artiste "One touch of nature" Jeb Stuart s 
s\vOrd on the Altar Spectacular pilgrimage 
Beantiful Lelia Powers and Sam Shannon at 
"Lammermoor" Burton Harrison woos Rebecca 
at the well This writer in chains Vicarious 


Imitation s flattery New nets for Charity s dollar 
Mrs. Ives great play Hood s automatic 
epigram Randolph as Sir Anthony, Tucker as 
Jack Ward s Bob Acres Mrs. Clay and Miss 
Cary "Bombastes Furioso" Mrs. Ives as Dis- 
taffina Mrs. Randolph s charades Miss Chestney 
and Mrs. Pember in double hit Fitz Lee as 
Uncle Toby A wondrous picture gallery Mrs. 
Fanny Giles Towne s "Artist s Studio" Mrs. 
Tardy shows "Paradise and the Peri" Beautiful 
Addie Deane. 


The old Tucker name Immense connection 
"Bev," of Washington days The Randolph- 
Tucker descent The Tuckers of the 60 s 
Xotable trio of brothers The Lincoln murder 
charge Bev . Tucker spits Andy Johnson The 
Arab family John Randolph Tucker and his 
family The Logan line, old and new The Mun- 
fords in war and peace. 


The Cary-Fairfax families Saxon strain of the 
"Fair Hair" Virginian and Maryland branches 
The Vaucluse Fairfaxes Miss Constance Cary 
and Clarence: sailor, scholar and lawyer The 
Burton Harrisons The Maryland Carys John 


CHAP. XXL Continued 

Bonne and his many The ward of Lafayette 
takes the sword Lineage of the Skinners A de 
voted daughter and her children Last woman 
who saw Wilkes Booth The Spotswood-Eastin- 
Gayle families Livingston Mims, wit and vivucr 
Major Banks and his comrade Mrs. Em. Mims 
Thompson s personality. 


How they starved and sang By Campfire and 
Hospital and from Prison Innes Randolph, facile 
princeps His line and descendants Gen. Felix 
Agnus and the Canteen story The Lathams, 
Gray and Woodie Page McCarthy s lemon- 
flavored wit Will Myers, epigramatist A Beau- 
regard "poem" Governor "Zeb" Vance. 


Tom August s quips Hippo and the chondria- 
Willie Caskie in pun and poem Wm. M. Burwell, 
of "De Bow s" as satirist George Bagby and 
"Confederate Mother Goose" Jimmy Pegram in 
"silence and fun" From camp, hospital and 
prison pen Forts Delaware and Warren send 
shots Tom Roche s "Egypt Dying" Teackle 
Wallis and "The War Christian" Guffaws from 
"Solitary John" Even in Vicksburg "The kernel 
and the shell" The mule menu. 


War as an art-promotor No method in conser 
vation Incident pictures Washington s work 
Vivid Jack Elder and his best art "Scout s 
prize." the "Crater," etc. John R. Key in later 
expositions Chapman at Charleston Gait s work 
and death Ezekiel s rise and recent work 
"Homer" and "Virginia Mourning Her Dead" . 
Willie Caskie s great little men W T ill Myers in 
art Famine of art supplies An artistic substitute 


The Romance of its origin The artist as he was 
Stuart s Pamunkey raid Latane s death The 
Brockenborough and Newton families The 
Negro question Before meddled with The burial 
by women Poetry and painting embalm the 
story How the canvas disappeared Why Wash 
ington began to paint His notable models Pub 
lic reception of the work The artist s secretive- 



A Louisiana epitaph Origin of the Toutant- 
Beauregards Wales and the Crusades Descent 
on both sides The Dukes de Reggio Education 
and graduation The first marriage The Villere- 
Olivier family The Deslondes marriage The 
four famed sisters The first wife and her children 
The Beauregards today The "Doucettes" A 
recognition of Lee The endless Mason line 
George, of Gunston Hall and his kith and kin 
John Thompson Mason and descendants Armi- 
stead and his line Miss Emily and her sisters 
James M. Mason, John Y. Mason and the Roy 
Masons Mrs. Webb and the others General 
Hartley s fears. 


The Wise folk Many a John and more descend 
ants The later branches Henry A. Wise in four 
generations Tully R. Wise branch The individ 
uality of the Wises The Craney Island branch 
Virginia and New England The Dabney clan 
Colonel "Tom" and Augustin s great descent 
Rare "V" Dabney His high life and what it left 
His brothers and sisters The Chamberlayne 
branch The Bagby family of then and now. 


Peculiar "Foreigners" Help from outside the 
Chinese Wall The border states Maryland 
regulars "Old Brad" Johnson, Elzey, Snowden 
Andrews, Winder and the rest The Symingtons, 
Brogdens, Howards and others The first com 
mission Washington s soldiers The National 
Rifles Smedberg, Hill and Cummins Tom Cox 
Kyd Douglas, the link Albert Sidney John 
ston Breckinridge and the Kentucky elite. 
Buckner. Morgan, Duke and their "boys" Ster 
ling Price and Cockrell Captain A. C. Danner 
The Marmadukes and Kennerleys Missouri s 
fighting phalanx Riding with teeth. 


Franco-Latin Americans Le vrai Creole Cop- 
pens brothers and their Zouaves A reckless 
fighting lot Bob Wheat and the Tigers 
Chasseur s-a-pied Henri St. Paul and his ways 
Count Camille de Polignac Baron Herns von 
Borcke His desperate wound British volunteers 


CHAP. XXIX. Continued 

Frank Dawson, stowaway Hon. Francis Law- 
ley Vizitelly "Lord" Cavendish and Colonel 
Gordon The consuls Col. Chalaron and his 


Gordon and the Raccoon Roughs" The man of 
Sharpsburg His later career The Owen broth 
ers, of the W. A. Their Northern descent and 
their work The Viking of the South" His 
kinfolk. fore and after Soldiers, jurists and 
great women Old Zach s grandson Mrs. Davis 
naval brothers A noble death Barrens, father 
and son The Brooke gun and its results Frank 
lin Buchanan: Hampton Roads and Mobile Bay. 


The moot as to national songs "Dixie s" origin 
long uncertain "Bonnie Blue Flag" in no doubt 
Claimants and Myths Mr. Tannenbaurn 
testifies General Alexander s views on "Dixie"- 
Date and author of the song proved by Col. T. A. 
Brown Daniel s wartime doubt "My Maryland" 
as poem and anthem How Randall wrote it A 
glance at the Confederate poet His career and 
death The memorial to him. 


Greed and Creed Sir Walter Raleigh Religious 
zeal in the Colony The moral plane in war 
Richmond Compared with Paris Gambling and 
drinking The "sports" of yesterday Sunny 
Johnny Worsham Temptations and the tempted 
Why no greater excess How piety tempered 
sport Churches and pastors of Richmond War 
Bishop McGill The preachers and their pulpits 
Bishop Wilmer and "Pap" Thomas at Mobile 
First severance of Church and State An inchoate 
bishop Thomas Underwood Dudley His life- 
work and descendants The Jewish rabbis and 
their people in the war. 


The highest religion Canonization per se Hos 
pital inception and growth Grandam and gay 
girl Fanny A. Beers "Soldiers Rest" and its 
nurses Mrs. Caroline Mayo Chimborazo. Rob 
inson s, and state hospitals Mrs. Arthur F. 
Hopkins A soldier and altruist Anne Toulmin 
Hunter and her work Mrs. Martha Flournoy 

XXXIII. -Continued 

Carter and her monument Her descendants 
Kmily Virginia Mason "Aunt Sally" Tompkins 
Mrs. Henri Weber and Andy Johnson Augusta 
Kvans Wilson Few out of many. 

( 1 iiM>. XXXIV. TIN-: ( HUSH OK TIN-: " TONDA" . WM 

What whipped the South? Our leaders seemed 
to know Needs grow dire Starvation parties 
and the toilettes "Dancing on the grave s edge!" 
What the boys wanted The Marmadukes 
Penury at the capital and plenty at the ports - 
Jimmy Clark goes to breakfast Jo. Johnston s 
tribute to Lee The Refugee days La Grange 
and its notables A duel and a ring Where they 
are today. 


^Mrs. Greenhow and her tragedy Frank l)u Harry 
and his burial at sca-^Mrs. May brick as a babe 
The remains of the family The crush tightens 
"Runners" decrease My last order to Wil 
mington Scaling up the rivers Perilous "run in" 
at New Orleans The Conda coils inland 
Women blockade breakers The "Potomac 
Ferry" The noted Cary cousins-*Miss Josephine 
Chestney Her ride with Henley Smith The 
hitter s recent death Destroying the small 
ironclads-^Miss llowell to Mr. Mallory 
Changed times explained to General Lee. 


The great by birth Typical American Trans 
ferred poem Young people and Robert Lee Of 
many sides In Washington as a witness The 
bronze and the centennial Marse Robert and 
his boys Richelieu s secret Lee s talisman As a 
Union man His unique personality After 
Appomattox The fruit of struggle Again a 
private citi/en -Great foreign offers "Men who 
saved the Union." 


Before the Conquest Lees in the Crusades 
Launcclot of Hastings and Lionel with the Lion- 
hearted. Richard Lee of Shropshire Honors to 
the Colonial line Six sons all famed Rill of 
Rights and SignersHenry Lee, of Westmore 
land Light Horse Harry and his sons Robert s 
youth and training In war and peace The 


CHAP. XXXVII. Continued 

General s children Nine sons and nephews in the 
war The elder son of Light Horse Harry Gen 
eral Custis Lee The second Maria Mason 
Fitz Lee and his five brothers The families of 
this day. 


The "Cornseed battle of the war" Cadets of the 
V. M. I. trounce out Sigel A gallant fight and fun 
after it Eight left dead Wounded boys and 
stripling heroes Minge, Wise and Gaylord Clark 
What the senior captain wrote Fun under fire 
Henry Grady s "New South" Embalming 
memories The U. C. V. Its origin and work Is 
the war over?-Daughters of the Confederacy 
What they are and how they do The Sons of 
Veterans A stalwart Tennessee Prelate Spon 
sors and reunions How some old boys see them 
The Kirby Smith family Record and descent. 


Over one s shoulder Memories that will not (and 
should not) die Resurrection of dead issues 
Why we failed Had Lincoln lived Reconstruc 
tion s folly and her legacies What Booth really 
"killed" Carpet Baggers, Ku Klux and their 
spawn The "unsent message" The legacy letter 
True sentiment in both sections today How the 
talkers and writers "mix up" The colored 
brother s philosophy Mr. Champ Clark and the 
time c Few omissions The real coming together 

Belles, Beaux and Brains 
of the Sixties 



"V/^OUR ante-bellum Virginian was a rare old exclusive. 
Jl His home was his altar and his family his fetich. He 
scarcely would have challenged the country postmaster, 
who refused him credit for a postage stamp, the latter not 
being his social equal, but he doubtless would have chastised 

Before he was leavened by war and contact with the greater 
world the old Virginian may have been a trifle narrow. 
Friction against his fellows broadened him rarely, but at a 
cost that lost the world a type. 

In his earliest form he was much like his contemporaneous 
South Carolinian, whom he " cottoned to 7 more cordially 
than to his other neighbors. Each, it was claimed by the en 
vious, thought the sun rose behind his own proper east and 
set behind his western boundary line. 

At this day, thanks to education away from home, travel 
and observation, both are citizens of a common country, - 
properly prideful of the past, though really living in the 

The strong red " Island Mastiff" blood of primogeniture 
still flows in the veins of both, but the planter s or professional 
life has left it perhaps less bubbling than when its ancestors 
came to these shores. 

There was at onetime much popular clamor, rather needless 


perhaps, about the overweening pride of the old Southerners. 

It was based on manner, in the main; the manner had reason 
able origin. 

The pride of the South 
had excuse in her record from 
Time. The Virginian and Caro 
linian especially were of direct 
descent from the " rufflers " of 
Hastings and Templestowe,of 
AgincourtandRochelle. They 
were kindred, too, in more 
than pride and sentiment, 
for the same English strain 
flowed in the veins of both, 
separating them from the 
Puritan English of the 
North, and warmed with 
the Huguenot flush and the 
dash of the Hibernian. 
The Washingtons, Lees, 
Taylors and Prestons. the 

LIEUT. COL. R. E. LEE, U.S.A., 1852. J 

Elands, Lewises, Byrds, 

Fairfaxes, Balls, Carters and Carys ("No mongrels, boy!" said 
Richelieu), had wedded " across the border/ and both States 
had equal pride in their progress. Changed little by travel an I 
new surroundings the Maryes, Maurys, Flournoys and Bondu- 
rants, the Micous, Latanes, Moncures and Maupins, were still 
French. They were as earnest in endeavor for the new land 
as later were the d Iberville, de Bienville and Boisbriant 
planters of the Lilies in La Louisiane. The Egglestons, 
McGuires, Archers and Mayos proved fealty to new adherence 
on young soil, as had the knight of the Shamrock in the 
Crusades in France and in the Papal Guard. One and all, 
with the Cabells, Burwells, Amblers, and others living in 



history and song, later proved their loyalty to Virginia, as to 
the king they served so well across the seas. 

"All Virginians are cousins/ say outsiders. Marriages, 
cross marriages, intermarriages, mesh State pride in a tangle 
of consanguinity that no " Heraldry Harvey" might read. 
But every drop of that blood, English, Irish or French, throbs 
but for one spot of earth Virginia. From the days of 
Smith and Jamestown, through those of Williamsburg as 
colony capital and seat of the oldest university, through 
the war that made the Colony a State and flooded her best 
names with a noonshine of glory, through the war that made 
her Richmond capital the goal of ambitious hate through 
each and all the Old Dominion has been true to duty and to 
country. But blood is thicker than water, and she has been 
true to herself. 

The ante-bellum Virginian 
was a great horseman. He 
rode to hounds as a matter 
of religion and was knight 
and courtier under gleam of 
my ladye s eyes. He was 
even more at home in the 
saddle than in the ballroom, 
and his love of horse aided 
other traits and circumstance 
to evolve later those terri 
fying " Black Horse" squad 
rons which made the names 
of Stuart, two Lees, Turner , ?v 

Ashby, John Mosby and their MRS . w . H . CASKIE (MAKY AMBLER) 
like as famous and feared as 
was that of the Black Douglas on the Scottish border. 

The Virginian was proud, but not arrogant; genial, but 
quick to offense. So he would pop over an antagonist from 


a sense of duty much as he did a turkey, or a "pa-at ridge, " 
from a sense of pleasure. 

Much has been written as to his duelling habit in old times. 

The Virginian was no more 
addicted to that popular pas 
time than were his brethren of 
the South. From the Revo 
lution to and through the Civil 
l War personal honor was the 

religion of the Southern gentle 
man and the " Code " his creed. 
This was herital. The Eng 
lish, French and Spanish who 
sired the incoming populations 
of all the colonies wore swords 
for other purposes than orna 
ment. Often they had carved 
their fortunes with them and, 
COLONEL JOHN s. MOSEY on occasion, had found them 

handy to carve each other. 

The courts were in their infancy in most sections and were 
wholly adult in few. Custom, too, had made a man what 
stern old Cedric the Saxon called "niddering," had he taken 
judical court-plaster for his bruised reputation: accepted 
money valuation for his wounded honor. The hand of a 
man affronted went naturally to his left hip for the hilt that 
hung ready for it. So, the duello of form, legalized by custom 
into more than written law, passed from the " meeting" of 
etiquette for a trodden foot or a chance brusquerie to the 
combat to the death for a grave and real wrong. 

Just how distinct those gradations were would take much 
time to tell, nor would they interest those who persist that 
duels are a relic of barbarism. Yet they are a relic of chivalry 
as well. 


He who would go about the world today with a metal pot 
upon his head, his family tree painted on his plate-covered 
breast and, with a pointed pole in his hand, "To ride abroad 
redressing human wrong/ would be regarded as worse than 
a mild lunatic. Yet men and women still flush over the 
sentiment that made Launcelot and the Lion s Heart, Sydney 
and Alexander Hamilton, immortal. Tempora mutantur! 

A wild outcry echoed through the land when one gallant 
youth fell dead in his tracks and another, maimed for his 
miserable remnant of life in that Richmond duel that ushered 
in a new era and made even a challenge a felony in Virginia. 

Duelling was born in the McCarty blood. One of that 
poor boy s forebears had killed his own first cousin (a Mason) 
"in fair and honorable combat." But the duel personal 
was a child of the first 
trial by jury. We are all 
things of heredity . 

As in duelling so have 
there been gross exaggera 
tions of the old Virginian s 
thirst. Great are the mis 
comprehensions of the 
1 gentlemanly dissipations 
of those days. The "two- 
bottle man" of a century 
syne was probably not 
more thirsty than the famil 
iar bibber of this day. He 
drank differently, how 
ever, and with far differ- 


ent surroundings. He 

made the glass the excuse for and the promoter of hospitality, 
sociality and good-fellowship. He never took a public pledge 
for its infraction in private, and he bade his fellow to stretch 


his legs beneath his private mahogany and sip Burgundy and 
rare Madeira, instead of leading him into the vulgar public 
bar to "hist in" doctored poison at "two for twenty-five. 1 

Though the two-bottler sometimes succumbed, and slid 
gradually from his chair under the table, he may still have been 
"as good a man" as any millionaire clubman of the present 
who lurches from his club to his Brougham in the small hours 
of any metropolis today. 

The South has never cavilled at the taste of her New 
England cousins, who drank and relished " Rumblullion," 
or "Will Devil," donated to the main land from the British 
sailors "Rumbowling." This the traveler Josselyn calls 
in his writings: "That cursed liquor, Rhum, Rumbullion, or 
the Devil!" 

This favorite drink of old time tavern and post house, is 
fully described in local chronicle, and embalmed in Miss Alice 
Earle s "Stage and Tavern Days." She states that this word 
did not signify Rum, but was the Gipsy adjective, "strong, 
or strenuous." Its components were rum or strong liquor; 
ale, or wine, egg and sugar, and this was the great New 
England tipple of Colonial days. 

"Rumfstian" was another brain food made from 1| pints 
of gin, yelks of 12 eggs, orange peel, nutmeg, spices and 
sugar. To these was added a quart of strong beer, and a 
pint of sherry, or other wine!! 

And yet the Southerner was called a "two-bottle man!" 

It has not been plainly demonstrated that polo, pinochle 
and draw poker have generated truer-hearted and more con 
servative men than did the tournaments for Love and Beauty, 
or the games of brag for "a bale ante and a nigger better." 

Doubtless much fustian has been written about "the good 
old times/ and still no proof is shown that the so-called 
progress of today has bettered them in all regards if 
any. Methods and manners change with invention and snr- 


rounding, but the men and women they are used by are 
constant quantities. Only he whom Victor Hugo dared call 
"Vieux Philosophe" can truly differentiate the result of 
custom upon character. 

In common with her sister planting states of the South 
the Old Dominion had no real middle class or even the sub 
stitute for it. Her planter, especially when he boasted direct 
colonial descent, was a closer counterpart of the landed 
gentry of the motherland than any other American. He 
was veritable lord of the soil: its judge, governor and dictator 
as well as its owner. The great "Virginia Plantations" 
of Elizabethan days had been subdivided into many and minor 
ones, all held literally, no less than legally, by these herital 
English gentry." 

The only other actual class was that of the hewers of wood 
and drawers of water, holding scarce closer relation to their 
masters, in any social or moral regard, than did those assis 
tants in Scriptural days. His negro slaves the country 
gentleman held as 

"Something better than his dog, a little dearer than his horse" 

They were regarded more tenderly than his beasts of toil or 
pleasure, but as impossible of even hinted future equality. 

The Southern owner of a blood-horse, or a bench pointer 
would scarcely cut off the feed, or scar and disfigure either 
by cruel or even careless treatment. The black chattel was 
merely a valuable asset. Never noted as a shrewd dealer, 
the Southern plantation owner was not so blind an idiot as 
to depreciate the worth of probably his most valuable pos 
session. It were as logical to suppose that he might upon 
occasion have sown his cotton or tobacco fields with rock 
salt or burned his fences for winter fuel. 

Thus only dementia or inborn ferocity could have caused 
modes of procedure ascribed to them by some too swift 


delineators of what they did not comprehend when seen 
or what more generally they "saw" from hearsay. 

Fact often failed the purpose and fancy was drawn on to 
aid it. A twice told tale in point is that when Mrs. Stowe 
made her revision of her book she generalized her description 
of Southern cruelty and merely detailed it in but one character 
of her " Uncle Tom s Cabin." That detailed brutality was 
all committed by her Yankee overseer. 

As lords of the soil the old Virginians lorded it easily, 
holding high their heads but never hardening their hearts. 
They were the gentry; below them a gap hard to measure 
in these days. Therein drudged the petty traders, the few 
white mechanics and laborers. The shopkeeper class, as I 
have noted, was an unknown quantity in the Virginian 
human equation. 

In politics, then, as later in the war, the Virginian was an 
ultra. Whatever the "pa-aty" did was right, or at least 
right enough to uphold. This trait made him perhaps quite 
as useful a citizen in the main as had he wasted time and effort 
in trying to think for himself. 

"There were giants in those days" nursing by the Mother 
of Presidents for their probable successors. These had 
brought the state to the fore in the teething struggles of the 
hobbledehoy nation; the men who "yaller dogged" at their 
heels were safe from being traded in droves, or from being 
sold at a cut price on the hoof. Men as well as measures 
were different in those days. 

The soil that had given the first "Rebel" president, and 
three more in succession, had ever nurtured men who stood 
forth first for right through all the troublous councils of the 
Burgesses, the Revolution and the Union. The Hunters, 
Marshalls, Masons, Bococks, had stood side by side with 
Calhoun, McDuffie, Hampton, of the neighbor State, and Troup, 
Lamar, Yancy, Soule," Davis and the men who made Secessia. 



The Virginian was the cavalier class as compared with the 
colder Covenanter types of the Puritan and the Knicker 
bocker. There can be no question that the supposititious 
line of Mason and Dixon separated two people as dissimilar 
in thought and feeling, in habit and in need, as were the 
Saxons and the knights of 
the descent of Rollo the 

Sift the innumerable 
theories of the cause of the 
war between the states and 
the whole residuum is the one 
of race. The Dred Scott de 
cision, the crusades of the 
abolitionists, the contention 
of territorial slavery that 
killed Douglas and made Lin 
coln, these, one and all, were 

That much abused pos 
sibility, "the future Macau- 
lay/ will doubtless deduce 

that, had slavery not existed and been transferred by 
rigor of climate alone from New England to the 
South there still would have been division between 
the two wholly differing people that held the Union together 
by a tenuous thread of sentimental obligation, frayed and 
weakening each year. Absolute diversity of character and 
of habits of life, inborn sentiments and sectional prejudices 
growing more bitter each decade, simply from want of mutual 
comprehension, must have resulted in separation. The 
forcible separation of atoms means heat which in the human 
ones means blood-letting. 

The vibration of preponderant power alone might have 



stayed the torrent a while. Nullification on the one hand 
and the secession of Massachusetts on the other were symp 
toms of the body politic that showed fever. 

However variant in tastes, habits and interests, Louisiana 
and South Carolina might have legislated for Maine and 
Michigan, Texas and Virginia for Pennsylvania and Wiscon 
sin, had either understood the other. There was the rub. 

The aristocratic Southerner looked down upon the crude 
young Westerner. He despised the keen, money-getting 
Yankee. He had the same contempt for the personality 
of these men as he had for their vocations. In return the 
Massachusetts man and the middle Western pioneer had 
equal contempt for the trans-Potomac upstart he pictured 
to himself. Prejudice in each did the grossest injustice 
to the other, and the masses on either side, mimetic as 
the monkey, took their tone from molders of opinion. It 
was mutual ignorance, converting into mutual hatred. Thus, 
to borrow from our axiomatic statesman, a condition, not a 
theory, confronted every effort of the thinkers to adjust a 
balance that had no standard for its scale. 

No Southern thinker really believed that the South At 
lantic aristocrat, or the blue blood Creole of the Gulf, was 
practically a better man than the earnest, if eager, denizen 
of the Eastern mart states, or of the prairie lands of the new 
West. No Northern politician, not a fanatic or a trickster, be 
lieved that men descended from the highest grades of almost 
identical stock were the slave-driving tyrants or the weak- 
kneed dawdlers popularly caricatured. 

Yet all history proves that indurated error is quite as 
strong, while far more obdurate, as principle. There was but 
one way out of this centuried error; it was by the arbitrament 
of blood. 

The war had to come. The North and South had to seek 
homogeneity, and they could be taught thorough under- 


standing of each other only in the hideous clash that both 
felt was but deferred. 

It was well that it came when it did, and for double reason. 
Delayed, it had been only a bloodier and costlier tug. Re 
sulting sanity and mutual respect had brought interdepen 
dence at greater delay to that only foundation for the sturdy 
and respected nationalism of today amalgamated Amer 

But this is a social record-, not a tract on politico-economics. 
The facts were there; their results are seen of all men. His 
tory, as ever, has repeated itself, and, as the wars of the Roses 
left the Saxon and the Norman only Englishmen, the Creole 
and the Yankee, the Carolinian and the Hoosier hold today 
one Nation, with one aim, one flag and one pride. Each 
has its memories and its glories; each feels the other s useful 
ness and respects him for it. Common interest is the one 
cement that holds the late dissevered parts in a concreted 
whole. So, disguised with hate and baptized with blood 
as it was, the war has proved itself a blessing. The cost 
was infinite; so are the results it purchased. 



THAT pleasantry of courtesy, "This house and all it con 
tains is yours/ came nearer realization in Old Virginia than 
anywhere on the globe. 

Her lords of the soil lorded it with expansive bonhomie and 
generous hand. Their broad acres and fat larders were shared 
with friends and strangers, and each was made to feel that 
he was a donor rather than a recipient. 

The acme of entertainment is when the host sets forth for 
his guest the very best he has and then honestly enjoys it 
with him. Hospitality is like mercy as described by Portia: 

"It blesses him that gives and him that takes." 

And this the host of the rare Old Dominion knew and prac 

To marriage and the church, in convertible ratio, their 
owners also devoted themselves. In almost every family 
we read of vestrymen who were made quite as useful as orna 
mental. They gave their time, means and enthusiasm to 
the advancement of the church and seemingly were as eager 
to be in the vestry as in the house of burgesses. There 
were members of almost all the notable families in the minis 
try, and, unlike the mother country, the selections were not 
always from the younger sons, but often from the heads of 
houses, who gave a living, instead of trying to make one. 
Bishop Meade s book is practically a roster of the well- 
descended who worked in and for the transplanted church, 
and his list includes almost every name that was, or now is, 
noted in Virginia. 



Connubiality seems to have walked hand in hand with 
piety in the early colony. The sons and daughters of the 
great landed proprietors married early and devoted most of 
their time and all of their care to the direction of their own 
families education, to their making suitable alliances and 
arranging proper settlements. 

And these great family 
connections ramified into a 
meshed and interwoven con 
sanguinity that held the in 
terest of neighborhoods, and 
through them of all the Do 
minion, bound to common 
aspiration and to common 
interest. The unification of 
newer and less directly de 
scended states has been a 
political or material advance; 
that of the Mother Virginia 
has been, time out of mind, 
one of pride and heredita 
ment. Kentucky, Alabama, 

the later states owe their 




Tennessee and 
best blood to the colonial families of the James 
town era. The Taylors, Raouls, Breckinridges, Maurys 
and Tylers, noted and useful in the upbuilding and pub- 
licism of the younger federated sisters, sprang from the 
lords of "the sacred soil." 

It is hard to overestimate the influence of a great and 
strongly seated family connected with a dozen similar ones 
and all holding one common point of view and action. Take, 
as instance, the Randolphs. Their influence in their state 
has been direct and collateral. 

William Randolph came over in 1674 and settled on vast 


estates for which he had obtained patents, those on Turkey 
Island alone, where he made the family seat, reaching some 
75,000 acres. He married Mary, daughter of Henry and 
Catherine Isham, of Bermuda Hundred, just across the 
James. Their seven sons and three daughters married into 
most of the families then founding social dynasties. William, 
of Turkey Island, married Miss Beverly, of Gloucester; 
Thomas, of Tuckahoe, Miss Flemming; Isham, of Dungeness, 
Miss Rojers, an English heiress; Richard, of Curls , Miss 
Boiling, a direct descendant of Pocahontas; and Sir John 
Randolph, the sixth son, Miss Beverly, the sister of William s 
wife; the last brother, Edward, wedding another English 
heiress. Two of the three sisters chose Reverend Yates s 
brothers, the third marrying William Stith. She became 
the mother of Reverend Dr. Stith who was the his 
torian of Virginia and later president of William and Mary 
College. He married Miss Judith Randolph, of Tuckahoe, 
and his sister became the wife of Commissary Dawson. 
Another Stith sister married Rev. Mr. Keith, of Fauquier and 
was the ancestor of the famous John Marshall, Chief Justice. 
Still another sister married Anthony Walke, of Norfolk, 
and was mother of the Rev. Anthony Walke. Thus it will 
be seen that the family connection was as strong in the church 
as in the state. There was a Bishop Randolph in the close 
of the eighteenth century who was archdeacon of Jersey, 
then Bishop of Oxford and later of London. Thomas Ran 
dolph, the poet of England, was own uncle to Randolph of 
Turkey Island, and the colonist head of the great family 
himself had the poetic vein. All of the latter s sons, as noted 
above, made themselves name and position. William, the 
elder, was member of the council and treasurer of the colony ; 
Isham was member of the house of burgesses, in 1740, from 
Goochland, and adjutant-general of the colony. Richard 
was, in the same year as his brother, member of burgesses, 


from Henrico; and succeeded him as treasurer. Sir John 
was speaker of burgesses and attorney-general. 

A grandson, William, was clerk of the burgesses and suc 
ceeded his uncle as attorney-general. Peyton Randolph, 
son of Sir John, was speaker of the burgesses and became 
president of the first congress, held at Philadelphia. 

The holding of high trusts descended steadily. Thomas 
Mann Randolph was a member of the Virginia convention of 
1776 from Goochland; Beverly was a member of the assembly 
from Cumberland during the Revolution, and later governor 
of that state. Robert, son of Peter; Richard, grandson of 
Peter, and David Meade Randolph, grandson of the second 
Richard, of Curls , were all noted cavalry officers of the 
Revolution; David Meade was marshal of Virginia; and the 
famous congressman, John Randolph, of Roanoke, grandson 
of the first Richard, was also minister to Russia. His father 
was John Randolph, of Roanoke, who married the beauty, 
Frances Bland, daughter of Theodoric Bland, and thus a 
granddaughter of the Boilings. Her second husband was 
the first St. George Tucker; and thus she became the mother 
of another famous line. 

Later members of the family were Edmund Randolph, 
secretary of state of the United States and governor of 
Virginia, and Thomas Mann Randolph, Jr., member of con 
gress, of the legislature of Virginia, and governor of the state. 

Nowhere does history show a more noted descent nor one 
that better upheld its traditions or better proved the training 
bestowed upon the early families. This one held seats that 
were household words and of which some names still exist, 
the owners, from their numbers, being distinguished by their 
home affixes. On the James river stood Tuckahoe, Dunge- 
ness, Chattsworth, Wilton, Varina, Curls , Bremo, Turkey 
Island. As the race descended, so did the fame of the succeed 
ing seats, as those of the Blands of Westover, the Harrisons 


of the James, the Cabells of Buckingham and Nelson, and 
others still existent or renewed as family memorials. 

Next to entertaining his guest the old-timer took to sport 
with keenest zest. Fox hunting came first in the love of all, 
and every manor home had its stud and its pack, blood stock 

of the best the old country 
could produce and hounds 
of lineage and high degree. 
The youth and for the mat- 

ter of that, the maid who 

could not ride "anything 
that jumped" was recreant 
to race and custom, as was 
the knight who declined the 
tilt or the lady of the lists 
who w r ore no colors. 

It is odd, therefore, that 
the first fox-hunting clubs 
were not formed at the South. 
The Glouster Hunt Club, of 

MRS. EVEL CABELL ROBINSON, Pennsylvania, was doubtless 

OF COLLETON the parent one of the Union. 

It was founded in 1776, a 

great and social affair, for the chase and entertaining. Others 
may have arisen, but the second notable club was the Baltimore 
Hounds, founded in 1818; the parent of later organizations in 
Maryland and the District of Columbia. Among these, today, 
are the Elkridge Fox Club, with Mr. E. A. Jackson as president, 
and W. Ross Whistler, secretary, and two hundred and forty 
members; the Green Spring Valley, seated in the most pictur 
esque and fashionable of Baltimore outlyings, eighteen years 
ago, to hunt the wild fox exclusively, with its two hundred mem 
bers. The present vigorous heir of former attempt in the dis 
trict is the Chevy Chase Hunt, founded on Thanksgiving day of 


twenty years syne. Its leading spirits are Messrs Clarence 
Moore, M.F.H., and Gist Blair, and its suburban club house 
is perhaps the seat of most diverse hospitality in the land. 
Virginia now has four admirably organized and equipped 
clubs: the Deep Run, of Richmond, the Warrenton, the 
Cheswick (near Charlottesville) and the Piedmont, of Lynch- 
burg. The Deep Run was 
organized just seventeen 
years ago, by Mr. S. H. Han 
cock and his sister-in-law, 
Miss Maude Blacker. They 
are English folk: and the 
lady one of the best riders 
and thorough horsewomen 
in the country. Her father, 
when he had reached eighty- 
six, rode as straight to 
hounds as a youth and never 
missed a meet. Organized 
with only twenty-three mem 
bers, it now has over two 
hundred and fifty. Notable 
men and some of the most 
charming women of the whole 
state follow its hounds: 
among its presidents and offi 
cers having been Philip Hax- 
all, Joseph Bryan, Major 
Otway S. Allen, P. S. A. 

Brine, and Dr. Jos. A. White, its longtime president and 
leading spirit. Among the ladies I recall Mrs. Thos. Nel 
son Carter, Mrs. Allen Potts (who was Gertrude Rives and 
had no cross-country superior), Mrs. Andrew Christian, 
Misses Skelton, Palmer, Sophie White, and the famous and 



beautiful Langhorne sisters, who seem to have been born to 
the saddle. 

Shooting followed close in sport, for game was everywhere 
in those early clearings, big game and little. Crack shots 
laid the foundation of the marksmanship that won the colony 
wars, the Revolution and the War of 1812. Racing, too, 
was legitimate descendant of the hunt. The turf of the old 
days was led by Virginia stables and took its tone from Vir 
ginia gentlemen, the Randolphs, Doswells, Johnstons and 
many more familiar to younger ears. 

Most familiar to them, likewise, are two ancient seats inter 
woven with the history and the courtliness of all our country, 
Arlington and Mount Vernon, literally household words today. 

The first Custis we note is John, in 1640. He had six sons 
and one daughter. She married Colonel Argal Yeardley, son 
of Governor Yeardley. Her brothers in Virginia were John, 
William and Joseph; Thomas, in Baltimore (Ireland); Robert, 
in Rotterdam, and Edmund, in London. John, the eldest, 
took the family lead. He was what this day would have 
called a " hustler," a great salt maker, a trader, a churchman 
and a vestryman. In 1676, during Bacon s rebellion, he 
was appointed major-general. He was a favorite of Lord 
Arlington in Charles the Second s time, and after him was 
named the estate he received with his first wife. His second 
wife was Miss Scarborough, who bore him one son, named 
for him. The descendants of that son and of his uncle, 
William Custis, peopled the Eastern Shore with the Custis 
family and made the historical possibility of Washington s 
marriage. His son John, the fourth so named, returned from 
education in England, received from his grandfather the Ar 
lington estate and married the daughter of Colonel Daniel 
Parke. It was the latter s son whose widow married George 
Washington. Daniel Parke s wife was a Miss Evelyn; their 
daughter married John.Custis, of Arlington, who was the first 


noted Virginia ancestor of George Washington Parke Custis, 
whose grandmother was Mrs. Washington. The wife of Wash 
ington Custis was the daughter of William Fitzhugh, of Chat 
ham ; and his sister married Colonel Overton, of Westmoreland. 
These bits of brief biography antedate the later Arlington 
and the beautiful capital to which it is adjunct. 

The owner of Mount Vernon was Lawrence Washington, 
elder brother to the general. He married the second daughter 
of William Fairfax, of Belvoir near Mount Vernon, whose 
mother was a Gary. This was the first of the five marriages 
between those notable families, which occurred within the 
course of a few years. The Carys, of Maryland, Virginia and 
Florida, all descend from that stock. 

The Fairfax family dates back to the coming of the Con 
queror, it being of Saxon stock and the name meaning "Fair 
Hair." The Herberts of both states also intermarried with 
the Carys and Fairfaxes. 

Thomas was the first Lord Fairfax. His son Ferdinand 
was famed in the Parliamentary army, and his son Thomas 
was the celebrated Lord Fairfax who resigned the command 
of the army to Cromwell. William Fairfax had a fine seat 
at Belvoir, near Mount Vernon, and was father of the Rev. 
Brian Fairfax, as well as of Mrs. Washington. The second 
had two sons, Brian, a noted scholar and poet; his brother 
Henry was the fourth Lord Fairfax. Thomas, the son of 
this Lord Fairfax, succeeded to the title and married the 
daughter of Lord Colepepper. Their son Thomas was the 
first American Lord Fairfax. The Rev. Brian Fairfax, of the 
Episcopal church at Alexandria, was the first native lord 
of the name. The present Lord Fairfax is of Maryland birth 
and is first cousin to the Carys, who will figure later in this 

The Fitzhughs, interesting in themselves and closely 
allied to the Washingtons, Lees and Herberts, were lords of 


fine manors. William Fitzhugh, of Chatham, divided 60,000 
acres between his five sons. His wife was a Miss Tucker and 
his sons owned Eagle Nest and Ford, in King George, and 
Belleaire and Boscobel, in Stafford. They married also into 
the Mason and McCarty families. They were the parent stock 
of the widespread Fitzhughs, of Maryland, New York, Virginia 
and the newer states. 

Another noted name is that of the Pages. The progeni 
tor was Sir John, of Williamsburg. His son Matthew wedded 
Mary Mann, of Timber Neck Bay, and left an immense estate 
to his son Mann, who built beautiful Rosewell. His son Mann 
married Judith Wormley, and later Judith Carter. The sole 
daughter of the first marriage wedded Thomas Mann Ran 
dolph, of Tuckahoe. Three sons came of the Carter alliance: 
Mann Page, of Rosewell, who married Alice Grymes, of Middle 
sex ; John Page, of North End, who married Jane Byrd, of West- 
over, and Robert, of Hanover, who married Miss Sarah Walker. 

The descendants of these brothers were great in number 
some of the families reaching-the u baker s dozen," and they 
in turn intermarried with the Carters, Burwells, Nelsons, 
McCartys and Byrds. 

This last is a family connected with the most interesting 
growth of the state. To the second of the three noted in 
t-he records is due the foundation of the "leaguered capital" 
of our day. He inherited great tracts about Richmond and 
surrounding his princely home of Westover. Colonel Byrd, 
of Westover, was the author of the " Westover Papers" and 
prominent in all public affairs. The third, and the last of 
the name who owned Westover, was prominent in the Revo 
lution and on Washington s staff when he encamped at Win 
chester in the early Indian wars. The descendants of this 
family run in and out through the tangled skein of all early 
Virginian intermarriage. To attempt enumeration would 
produce a biographical dictionary. Even at that risk, there 


is one more of the old liners peremptorily demanding notice 
because of the prominence in its impress upon its time. 

Theodoric Bland settled at Westover in Charles City in 
1654. His death seventeen years later left three sons, The 
odoric, Richard and John. Richard, of Berkeley, married 
Miss Swann, and at her death married Elizabeth, daughter 
of William Randolph, of Turkey Island. He had three 
daughters who married Henry Lee, William Beverly and 
Robert Montford. His sons, Richard and Theodoric, lived 
at Jordon s, Prince George and Causon s, City Point. The 
elder married Miss Poythress and left the popular twelve 
children; the junior married Miss Boiling, of Pocahontas, 
and left one son, Theodoric, and five daughters. They 
married into the Bannister, Ruffin, Eaton, Haynes and 
Randolph of Roanoke families. This Mrs. Randolph is the 
one who later married St. George Tucker. Her brother, 
Theodoric, 2d, was lieutenant of the county and clerk of the 
house of burgesses, and the 
third Theodoric was a doctor 
in England. He returned, 
however, distinguished him 
self in the Revolution and 
became an intimate and fa 
vorite of Washington. Im 
portant in the family was also 
Giles Bland, gallant victor 
of Bacon s rebellion. 

All memory of these stately 
old homes and of the men who MRS. ALFRED L. RIVES OF CASTLE HILL 
made them gleams soft, but 

warm, with the comeliness and courtliness of their dainty 

Much of all that life has been reflected down the later 
years, through the ante-bellum country seats of wealthier 


planters on the James and the Rappahannock, Westover, 
Brandon, Castle Hill and others, known to the borders of 
the Union. 

At these were entertained many distinguished guests from 
abroad as well as from our own side of the water. Their 
house parties at shooting season and Christmas, their rare 
welcome, rarer wines and rarest hospitality, have gone sound 
ing down the aisles of sociality and gastronomy. Today 
many of the old homes have fallen into memories only. 

Their home seats were replicas of those of the burgess 
days, where not the very houses often scarce modernized 
out of that old-time grandeur and elegance that shone un 
impaired up to the days when the sons of Light Horse Harry, 
of the Montfords, Latanes changed pumps for riding- 
boots and threw their swords into the number-tipped scales 
of war, for country and for name. 

It was heredity that spurred the Ashbys and Peytons and 
the Carters and Harrisons to the Potomac, marched the Val 
ley meteor-like and held the Rappahannock, by the side of 
Lee and Johnston and Stonewall Jackson. 

As with the men, so with the women, mothers of a line of 

Who saw the women of the 60 s at court, in camp or toiling 
in unaccustomed kitchen or fetid hospital, who sees them 
today "the favored guests at every bright and brilliant 
throng/ and fails to see across the mists of time the forms 
and faces of those who presided at bounteous board, walked 
the minuet or romped in real Virginia reel, in those old manor 
houses of yore? 

Every mention of Arlington conjures up the fair widow 
who wedded young Washington, walking a courtly measure 
in "baby waist and train"; or pretty Nellie Custis queening 
it merrily over congressional quadrilles at Philadelphia. 

When the dashing Rives sisters, the Langhorne girls, the 


Johnstons and the rest, witch the hunting world with peerless 
cross country riding, and doff habit for toilette to witch 
again the city rout or watering-place german, we recall that 
the Riveses were beautiful women ever since William, the 
grandfather of Minister William C. Rives, built Castle Hill; 
we recall that Mirador is no new seat, but of "the old Vir 
ginia way/ which brings back the women of that Langhorne 
line who "danced with Washington." 

One of the gravest of all the many errors cherished by the 
North as truth about the South, is that regarding the home 
education of its women. Differing as they do, in theory and 
practice of social life, from their more progressive might I 
write aggressive? sisters of the North, they have never 
been at all the pretty puppets described by overswift ig 

It has been accepted that the Southern girl, from pinafore 
to orange blossoms, was educated for a bride, but not for a 
wife. The theory of the uninformed has indurated by repe 
tition that she was l: incased in cedar and shut in a sacred 
gloom "; that she was held by her male kith and kin as "a 
toy too tender for the winds of heaven to visit too roughly," 
and that embroidery, twanging the guitar, plus a possible 
French novel and a bonbonniere, were her portion and Ultima 
Thule of educational variety. 

The thoughtless forget in this picture the primal fact that 
most of these women, especially in Virginia and the Caro- 
linas, were English in blood and bone. Their grandams 
were British born; themselves often colonists. They were 
almost invairably of high degree and of liberal education, 
scholastic and domestic. So, these women of colonial and 
Revolutionary days educated not only their daughters, but 
frequently large families of sons until they were of an age 
for the great university at Williamsburg. No person can 
really believe that the daughters of such mothers could be 


the dolls and playthings described by the myopic or the 

An hour spent in a library over the chronicles of the colony 
or in cursory reading of " Women of the Revolution" would 
preclude a folly which reflects only upon the intelligence of 
its believers. 

The institution of slavery may have influenced the habits 
of the wealthier class of the Southerner in some sort, par 
ticularly in its plantation life, by excess of service. The 
little " nigger maid" was the appendage of every planter s 
daughter from the pinafore and candy stick age, and the 
white need never have tied her own slipper had she so willed. 
But the Southern girl then, as a rule, rode better and shot 
better than her Northern neighbor. And perhaps she danced 
better as well, but the taper hand that restrains the restive 
colt or drops the woodcock is not the one that belongs to the 
helpless woman. 

The "Island Mastiff" strain ran in the veins of both sexes. 
What their early mothers had been in the colony, what their 
daughters were in the Revolution, that and more were the 
tenderest reared and most reticent women of the South, 
matrons and maidens, in that later struggle of the men of 
the same race. 

Later in these pages I shall show that, as the flower of 
Southern youth threw down quill pen and billiard cue to take 
the sword, so their mothers and little sisters wrought in 
kitchen, sewing room and in the hideous hospital as only 
woman at her full stature and in her highest pride has ever 
wrought at trial. 



Washington is today confessedly the show city of this 
continent and is one of the most picturesque in the world. 
All Americans whatever their habitat or their sympathies- 
are proud of the national capital. 

The Washingtonian of a half century ago recalls a wholly 
different place, and the returning parole bearer, who rubbed 
the smoke of a four-year battle from his eyes as he recrossed 
the Potomac, beheld with wonder and amaze the changes 
wrought by the Federal Aladdin. What was brought about 
in the brief space of the war had been solidified, broadened and 
burnished in as many intervening decades. 

Yet, great as is the superficial transformation of a pro 
vincial village into a cosmopolitan center, it dwindles when 
compared with the change in the social confirmation of this 
literally central city. 

Ante-bellum Washington was a mixture of Arlington 
grandeur, Jeffersonian simplicity, Dolly-Madisonism, Fill- 
more primness and the gracious chill of Miss Harriet Lane. 
Its society was a mosaic of elegance and pomp, of recklessness 
and parity, of culture and crudity. Its West End arrogated 
and with some show of right divine the noblesse oblige tone 
of the Faubourg St. Germain, but that outlying East, from 
the Treasury past Duddington, to the Navy Yard, had a 
decided smatter of the Latin Quarter. 

It was a charming society and one much sought, that of 
Washington of the mi-regime. It ate its terrapin, not always 




with a gold spoon, but with true gusto, and lacking red devils 
and electrics, it sought in cab, and even horse-car, balls as 
truly elegant and germans as delightful and as beauty- 
crowned as any of the present. 

Those were the days of great leadership in both political 

parties, and sectional es 
trangement had not spread 
from the corridors of the Cap 
itol into the salons of 
society. This came later, 
with the swirl and heat of a 
consuming fire; but even one 
year previous to Beaure- 
gard s salute to "Old Bob 7 
Anderson at Sumter, the 
mightiest men of the North 
sought eagerly the dark-eyed 
matrons and belles of the 
Southern coterie, while the 
Soules, Slidells, Orrs, Breck- 
inridges and Tuckers of 
coming war fame, danced 
stately measures with the 
ladies of the Hales, Sewards, Pendletons and Pughs. 
Then, too, the gilded youth in pumps, the personal pride of 
german-dancing, were most often of the Southern sort. 

In toning the society of the Ws, the South had the pas. 
This was doubtless due to the natural sociability and pleasure 
love of her daughters, but in part it was because the families 
of congressmen and government officials could not live in 
their plantation homes in summer, and, having once sipped 
Potomac water, would not in winter. 

The leaders of society were largely Southerners. Cultured, 
gracious, or brilliant women there were from North, East and 



West. Beautiful, attractive and quite progressive girls 
there were who rolled their "r s" roundly, and did a few 
other things that their Southern sisters had perhaps shied at. 
But these people all belonged to the caravan. They came 
in December when the congressional worry began; they left 
for distant homes after March 4, or for watering place and 
seaside in the swelter of the long session. They were in the 
society, and of it to a certain extent, but they were not it. 

So this Southern resident put his impress upon the un 
written laws, and ruled with the little iron hand in the No 5 
gant Suede. 

We of that day remember beautiful Mrs. Pugh, wife of the 
Ohio senator. Double-gilded youth from everywhere flut 
tered about her as eagerly as about her handsome and popular 
sister, Miss Ada Chalfant. Miss Hale, daughter of New 
Hampshire s senator, was a favorite with old and young, 
and gay, graceful and audacious Mrs. John R. Thompson, 
"the senior senator from New Jersey," as Mrs. Phillips dubbed 
her, merely shifted her regnant belleship from Princeton 
juniors and Dons in the autumn to Washington solons in the 
winter. Stately Miss Marcy was ever sought and retained 
the friendship of all, and the Ledyard ladies of the Lewis 
Cass family were as geniune and hospitable as any in the set. 

These are samples from great names; there were scores of 
others, but they were all birds of passage, nesting elsewhere 
and flying South only for the season. The home people were 
of another type and, nursing the society in the interregnum, 
they kept it warm with Southern temperaments and methods. 

The winter before Sumter was the most lavish and brilliant 
that Washington had ever known. It was also the giddiest 
and most feverish. That was before the day of multi-million 
aires and men were naught if not dollar stamped; before 
heiresses captured fledgling and penniless young army and 
navy men to build them cages on the Avenue. Women and 


men themselves counted for everything even in the maziest 
whirl of dinner and german. 

I have said there were giants. So were there beautiful 
" princesses" whose fairy godmothers, Birth and Breeding, 
had dowered them in the cradle. 

What shaky old relic of that time, holding up memory s 
looking-glass, but fails to see Juno-like Miss Adele Cutts, 
then not yet the wife of the " Little Giant," Stephen A. Doug 
las, or petite and graceful Henrietta Magruder, Miss Marion 
Ramsay, later Mrs. " Brock" Cutting, of New York, with her 
lovely childish face and baby waist 1 , hiding that infinity of 
tact that made simplicity an art? Ah! Temptation to cata 
logue that time-reflected picture gallery is hard to withstand. 

I have said that there were two distinct societies in the 
Washington of yesterday, nowise parallel, yet not always 
tangent. The general set included strangers in town of all 
shades and degrees, the congressional people and some in 
the departments. The resident set, salted with the diplo 
matic, met these on the neutral ground of card exchanging 
and crush receptions. But each had its own intimate and en 
joyed circle, a closed one, in the main, on the part of the home 
set. Each naturally had its leaders and ambitions. Of one 
"Lady Ashley," as the flippants of the day styled Mrs. John 
J. Crittenden, was one-time queen; again Mrs. Clem Clay, of 
Alabama, mounted to the box and tooled a society coach that 
was full loaded with pretty and ancient-named Southern belles. 

Of the resident homes remembered across the years are the 
Freemans, Clem Hills, William T. Carrolls, Countess Ester- 
hazys, Emorys, Jesups, Aulicks, Gwins, Sliddels, and 

" Each one bears a glass, to show me many more!" 

Not too eclectic, "Us youth" who frequented the functions 
of both sets included young and promising army and navy 
men, many later major-generals and admirals like Captain 


George B. McClellan, Ambrose E. Burnsicb, Lieutenant 
Gouverneur K. Warren, Fitzhugh Lee, John S. Saunders and 
such heel-celebrants as Renwick Smedberg and Alan Ram 
say. Few of these dreamed then that four clicks of Time s 
watch would see them with stars on their straps, less legs 
than the average, or a memory gilded with a great deed. 
Civilians, later famous, were there too: George Eustis, who 
married philanthropist Corcoran s only child ; William Porcher 
Miles, the bachelor of the Lower House who designed the 
first Confederate flag and, better, married the charming Miss 
Bettie Bierne, and many 
another, not unloved even 
when unhonored and unsung. 
Such were the components 
of Capital society in the win 
ter of 1860-61, when dull 
clouds of doubt and suspense 
began to press low on the 
horizon. From East and 
West and North heavy, 
grumbling thunder rolled dis 
tant, but distinct. Through 
cumuli, black and threat 
ening, red flashes threatened 

an early storm. Washington ^^^HB^^^E*f^0 
looked at the skies to the 
North, paused, hesitated; 
then went on waltzing and 

lobbying again. In society, T - c - DE LEON AND COL - J - s - 
it whirled around in the german; at the Capitol in Bun 
combe and jobs; in both, with a speed dizzier than ever 
before. Still the horizon darkened and a few, timid or 
shrewd, began to take in sail and peer ahead for a port. Even 
the more reckless began to look from the horizon 


to each other s faces with unrest and suspicion. 

But two classes seemed ignorant of the signs: the people 
who came to spend money and the sharper ones who came 
to make it. The former had grasped at the outer circle, 
and having secured an insecure grip upon its rim away they 
went with a fizz and a spin, giddy, delighted, devil may care. 
The other class held those thousand who annually came to 
roll logs, pull wires and juggle through bills, in congenial and 
paying traffic, stuffed with terrapin and washed down with 
dry champagne. Who shall dive into and write the secrets 
of that marvelous committee of ways but no means and of 
its impartial preying upon government and client? This 
Caliban of governmental spawning was holding a very witches 
Sabbath in the closing days of 1860. 

On with the rush! Dinners, balls, suppers followed each 
other as unchecked as John Gilpin. Dress, jewels and equi 
page cost sums undreamed of heretofore. "This may be the 
last of it," was the answer unspoken, but acted out to the 
threat of the coming storm. Madame would not fold away 
her Worth gown and parure of diamonds, perchance bought 
with somebody else s money; madamoiselle must make one 
more exhibit of her velvety shoulders and of killing pace in 
the german and time for galoshes and umbrellas were com 
ing fast. It would never do to miss opportunities now, for 
this might be "the end of the Old Wreck," as slang began to 
call the capital. 

So the mad stream rushed on, and the old wheels, some 
what rusted, but unoiled, revolved as creakingly as ever. 
All the while that huge engine, the Lobby, pumped steadily 
on in the political basement. 

Suddenly, a dull silence. A sullen reverberation across 
the Potomac. The long threatened deed had crystallized 
into fact. South Carolina had seceded and the first link 
had been rudely struck from the chain of states. 


There was a little start; that was all. As for the Lobby 
pump, its piston grows white hot and all its valves fly wide 
open with the work it does. 

Presently faces that were never long before lengthened 
visibly and thoughtful men wagged solemn heads as they 
passed one another, or paused to take important personages 
by the buttonhole. More frequent knots and earnest ones 
now discuss the status in hotel lobbies and the corridors of the 
departments. Prudent non-partisans with thick slices to 
butter on either side keep their lips tightly closed, and hot 
talk, pro or con, sometimes overrides the intended whisper. 

At last the sleepy administration opened its eyes. Finding 
that effort too late, and not liking the looks of things, it shut 
them again. A little later came windy declarations and some 
feeble attempts at temporizing; but every sane man knew that 
the crisis had come and that nothing could avert it. 

The earthquake that had so long rumbled in premonitory 
throes yawned in an ugly chasm that swallowed up the petty 
differences on both of its sides. North and South were at 
last openly aligned against each other. 

One throb, and the little lines of party were roughly obliter 
ated, while across the gulf that gaped between them men 
glared at each other with but one meaning in their eyes. 

That solemn mummery, the Peace Congress, might have 
stayed temporarily the tide it was wholly powerless to dam, 
but the arch-seceder, Massachusetts, manipulated even that 
flim-flam of compromise. The weaker elements in that 
body were no match for the peaceful Puritan whom war 
might profit but could not injure. Peace was pelted from 
under her olive with splinters of Plymouth Rock, and New 
England poured upon the troubled waters oil of vitriol. 

When the Peace Commissioners from the Southern con 
gress at Montgomery came to Washington all felt their 
presence only a mockery however respectable a one, with 



such names as John Forsyth, M. J. Crawford and A. B. Roman. 
It was another verdict of that fatal "too late!" They came 
only to demand what the government had then no power 
to concede, even had the will not been lacking. Every line 
they wrote to foes and friends was waste of ink, every word 
they spoke a waste of breath. 

Southern senators, representatives and even minor of 
ficials were leaving their long 
time seats by every train, 
families of years residence 
were pulling down their 
household gods and starting 
on a pilgrimage to set them 
up where they knew not, 
save that it must be in the 
South. Even old friends 
looked doubtfully at each 
other and rumors were rife 
of incursions across the Po 
tomac by wild-haired riders 
from Virginia. Even the 
fungi of departmental desks 
seemed suddenly imbued 
with life, rose and threw 
away their quills and with 
them the very bread for 
their families to "go South!" 
It was the passage out of 
Egypt in modern dress. 
A dull, vague unrest brooded over Washington, as though 
the city lay in the shadow of a great pall or was threatened 
with a plague. Then, again, when it was too late, General 
Scott virtually went into the cabinet. 

"The General," as he was familiarly known, practically 



filled the chair that Jefferson Davis had once held. Saga 
cious men foresaw no result from this, and all felt that the 
time had arrived when they must range themselves on one 
side or the other. The South had spoken and she 
seemed to mean what she said. All Washington was at 
last convinced that there might be war, that there must be 

Into this dull, leaden suspense, that a breath might lash 
into a seething maelstrom of passion, suddenly dropped 
Abraham Lincoln, unexpectedly and alone, in a Scotch cap 
and a long cloak. 

The new president was a man of iron. His coming thus 
was not the escapade it has been dreamed by some. Far 
less was it the result of fear for himself. He had played a 
great game boldly for a great stake, and he was not disposed to 
risk his winnings, and perhaps his life, on some chance throw 
of a fanatic or a madman. Could any vague forecast of the 
doom hovering above him have whispered its half-heard 
warning : Prudence ! 

Certain it is that he was soon in conference with General 
Scott and the nominal secretary, -Holt. Then unheard-of 
precautions were taken to safeguard the inauguration while 
seemingly devised to heighten its pomp and military 

The night before that inauguration was a trying one 
to all Washington. The nervous heard a signal for bloody 
outbreak in every unfamiliar sound; thoughtful ones peered 
beyond the .mists and saw the boiling of the mad breakers, 
where the surge of eight incensed and uncontrolled millions 
hurled against the granite foundations of the established 
government. Selfish heads tossed upon hot pillows, for 
the dawn would usher in a change boding ruin to many 
prospects, monetary or political. Even the butterflies of 
fashion felt an impending something, not defined, but sug- 


gestive of work instead of pleasure. So Washington arose, 
red-eyed, unrefreshed, expectant, on that famous fourth 
of March, 1861. 

The ceremonial was planned to be grand and imposing 
beyond precedent. Visiting militia and civic organizations 
from every corner of North, East and West had been collect 
ing for days, meeting loud receptions rather labored than 
spontaneous. The best bands were present in force and all 
available cavalry and artillery of the regular army had been 
hastily mobilized for the double purposes of spectacle and 
security. Notwithstanding, the public pulse was uncertain 
and fluttering and the military commanders were like unto 

All night orderlies and cavalry platoons had dashed 
through the streets and guard detail had marched to all 
points of possible danger. Day dawn saw a light battery 
drawn up on G street, commanding New York avenue and 
the Treasury; others, with guns unlimbered and ready for 
action, were stationed at various points of " strategic" 
Washington, and infantry was massed at the Long Bridge, 
then the only approach from Virginia. All preparation looked 
to quick concentration should symptoms of a riot show head. 
All preparations seemed more fitting for the capital of Mexico 
than that of these United States. An augury were they for 
the peace and suasion of the administration thus ushered in. 
Happily, they were all needless. 

In quiet that touched dismalness the day wore away. 
Studious precaution had drawn all the sweets from the elabo 
rate feast prepared to catch the national taste. A dull veil 
seemed drawn over all glamour by the certainties of the 
close impending future. Street crowds wore an anxious air, 
all hilarity seeming forced, even from the young and thought 

Many a lowering face looked down upon the procession to 


the Capitol from windows, balconies and housetops, and some 
of the residences along the route had shutters closed. 

It was over at last. The new man had begun the new era 
and I was ready for my start to Dixie. South Carolina s 
secession had decided me to "go with my people." 

Not all who did this were really convinced that leaving 
the Union was surest accomplishment of claims made for 
states rights and Southern rights, under the Constitution. 
Few of them, however, regarded the time-honored federation 
as "the Old Wreck," as named by the hotheads and thought 
less. Yet almost every man of Southern birth even when 
reared and educated away from his state, as I had been 
felt a tug of sympathy and brotherhood at his heart-strings 
that was resistless by reason or experience. If these two 
moved him mentally, morally, it still was: "Right or wrong, 
my country!" 

I had waited to leave for days, despite curiosity to see the 
end of the familiar old regime and the advent of the new man, 
under i equest from the Peace Commission that I should carry 
to Mr. Davis, at Montgomery, their report of the inaugura 
tion and its effect. Their despatch was to be ready for the 
Aquia Creek mail boat that night. So I went to dinner at 
Wormley s, with Wade Hampton, Jr., and a few others, to 
say at least au revoir and to pick up the last news and gossip 
for verbal despatch to the new " capital." 

"Jim," as we then called that later imposing mulatto who 
became the famous war-time caterer, had promised us a 
dinner to remember en route, and a substantial lunch to 
solidify memory. Toward the end of the former, Wormley 
looked in with a face unusually grave and asked: 

"Really going, gents? It s all jes awful, an no mistake! 
The General s dining in the other room now an he looks 
worrit in his mind. He don t talk as usual, but he 
eats, does the General he eats powerful!" Those 



who remember General Scott will see the snap shot. 
Soon we were in one of the night-liner hacks of the period; 
whose dusky Jehus knew Washington youth better than 
the directory. Jim bestowed the precious lunch tenderly 
upon the front seat and held the rickety cab door wide 

with the air of the Lord of 
the Ante-chamber. Several 
of the old set ran out for fare 
wells, among them, of course, 
the three remaining members 
of what gay society knew as 
"the quartet," Renwick 
Smedberg, Frank Du Barry 
and Walter H. S. Taylor. 
The last was killed by a sharp 
shooter while on engineer 
duty on the north side of 
the Potomac. Du Barry was 
buried at sea, in his gray 
uniform, as I may tell later, 

ftn( J Qld Smcd " IS nOW a 

one-legged, bald old jollity of San Francisco, with a new 
generation or two around his board, and his bluecoat com 
rades giving him their highest honors in Legion and G.A.R. 

"So you re really going? Sorry, but guess you had to!" 
"Never mind, old man, you ll be back in three months !" 
"Better not try it; you ll starve down there!" "Hope we 
won t meet, if it comes to a pinch, old boy!" were a few of the 
Parthian arrows flung at us as obbligato to cordial hand grip. 

Then we were off. The wide level of the avenue was al 
most deserted under the dismal drizzle that had set in. The 
dim lamps of that day reflected on the wet pavement, making 
the gloom more dim. The inauguration ball was about to 
begin and a bus passed us, gay with the red uniforms of the 



Marine Band, under Louis Weber. Were we going where a 
sudden turn might bring us face to face with old and dear 
friends, where the hiss of the Minie would sing accompani 
ment instead of the latest galop that Louis had composed? 

Beyond, a U. S. light battery was wending arsenalward 
at slow trot. As our hack passed a better lighted corner 
its officer drew rein to speak. He was Lieutenant John S. 
Saunders, who had led the section at the Treasury corner 
that day. He spoke anything but cheerily: 

"So you fellows are off! Wish I were you. But today 
settled it, and my resignation goes in tonight. I shan t wait 
for Virginia. If I have to shoot at Americans, I ll do it from 
the other side of the Potomac! Tell the boys down there 
ril be along soon. Good luck!" 

He was down soon and did good enough work to embroider 
two stars on his red collar. From him we verified the reports 
that had already oozed through war office secrecy: that 
the cannon in the day s pageant of Peace had been shotted 
with canister; that the foot escort of the president, going 
to take his oath of office, had ball cartridge in every musket; 
that detectives in citizens clothes were in every group on 
the pavements. 

Merely needed precautions? Possibly. But so far, there 
had been not one overt act; the government was treating 
still with the "new concern" at Montgomery; the peace 
commissioners were still wasting breath at Washington. 



THE passage through Virginia was by night. The state 
was apparently in deep sleep and so she remained until that 
memorable seventeenth of April when her convention de 
clared that the oldest, largest and most influential of the 
Southern sisterhood would cast her lot with the rest. 

In the Carolinas and Georgia the hubbub began with the 
dawn and lasted continuously until our journey s end. The 
entire countryside was awake. At every station were aimless 
crowds, chewing tobacco, lounging in the sunshine and whit 
tling sticks; some dull and listless, others wildly excited over 
some cause they did not understand. All wanted the latest 
news, and all were seemingly settled on one point: "Ther ll 
be wah, sholy!" 

Plan, direction or information as to cause and conditions, 
there seemed to be none. That was all left to the leaders 
who carried the states out of the Union, and the limit of 
public knowledge seemed to be that something was about 
to happen. 

The impression left was that the South was ready to fight, 
also that she was unprepared for it. This was ray conclusion 
long before reaching the " Cradle of the Confederacy," as the 
Alabama capital had modestly rebaptized herself, and 
early information there more than confirmed it. 

Though severed abruptly from her hope of becoming a 
Rome, the " Cradle" has a picturesque perch upon at least 




seven hills. As in most inland towns, "Main street/ the 
artery of trade and activity, runs from river bluff "up town." 
This, in the present instance, is a high hill a full mile from the 
water. Here perched the Capitol, not a particularly imposing 
pile, either in size or architecture, yet it dominates tHe lesser 
structures as it stares down the sandy street with quite a 
Roman rigor. 

The staff upon its dome bore the flag of the New Nation, 
run up there shortly after the congress met, by the hands of 
a noted daughter of Virginia. Miss Letitia Tyler was not 
only a representative of proud Old Dominion blood, but was 
also granddaughter of an ex-president of the United States, 
whose eldest son, Robert Tyler, lived at the new capi 
tal. And that flag had 
been designed by Hon. Wil 
liam Porcher Miles, one of 
the brainiest of the younger 
statesmen of South Caro 

All Montgomery and her 
crowding visitors had flocked 
to Capitol Hill in gala attire, 
bells were rung and cannon 
boomed and the throng, head 
ed by Jefferson Davis and all 
members of the government, 
stood bareheaded as the fair 
Virginian loosed its folds to 
the breeze. Then a poet- 
priest, who later added the sword to the crozier, spoke a sol 
emn benediction to the people, the cause and the flag. The 
shout that answered him from every throat told that they 
meant to honor and to strive for it; if need come, to die for it. 

Equidistant between river and Capitol and from each other 



stood the two hotels of which the capital could boast. 
Montgomery Hall, of bitter memory and like the much-sung 
" Raven of Zurich/ noted for uncleanliness of nest and length 
of bill, had been the resort of country merchants, horse and 
cattle men, but now the Solons of the hour dwelt therein 
with the possible heroes of many a field. The Exchange, 
with rather more pretension and decidedly more comfort, 
was then in the hands of a Northern firm. Political and 
military headquarters were there. The president and the 
cabinet resided there. 

Montgomery seemed Washington over again, but on a 
smaller scale, and with the avidity and agility in pursuit of 
the spoils somewhat enhanced by freshness of scent. 

Mr. Davis and his family would enter the long dining- 
room and take seats with only a stare of respectful curiosity 
from more recent arrivals. Even in the few weeks since I 
had seen him in Washington a great change had come over 
him. He looked worn and thinner, and the set expression 
on his somewhat stern face gave a grim hardness not natural 
to it. 

On the night of my arrival, after an absent but not dis 
courteous recognition of the general s salutation, he sat 
down to an untouched supper and was at once absorbed in 
conversation with General Samuel Cooper. This veteran 
had recently resigned the adjutant-generalship of the United 
States army and accepted a similar post and a brigadier s 
commission from the Confederacy. 

A card to announce my presence brought an after-dinner 
interview with the president, to present the "very important 
documents" from one of the Peace Commission martyrs at 
Washington. They proved, seemingly, only a prolix report 
of the inauguration. Mr. Davis soon threw them aside to 
hear my verbal account; cross-examining me upon each 
minor detail of the effect of the show upon the populace. 


He seemed especially interested in Mr. Lincoln s personal 
portrait and repeatedly asked if he showed any anxiety or 

At this time the Southern chief was fifty-two years old, 
seemingly taller than he really was by reason of his thinness 
now worn to almost emaciation by mental arid physical 
strain. The thin lips had a straight er line and a closer com 
pression, the lower jaw, always firm and prominent in slope, 
set harder to its fellow. He had lost the sight of one eye 
many months previous, though that member scarcely showed 
the imperfection; but in the other burned a deep, steady glow. 
In conversation he had the habit of listening with eyes shaded 
by the lids, then suddenly shooting at the speaker a gleam 
from the stone-gray pupil which might have read his inner 
most thought. 

Little form or ceremony hedged the incubating govern 
ment and perfect simplicity marked every detail of its head. 
To all Mr. Davis s manner was unvarying in its quiet courtesy, 
drawing out all one had to tell and indicating by brief answer 
or criticism that he had extracted the pith from what was 
said. At that moment he was a very idol with the people; 
the grand embodiment of their grand cause. They were 
ready to applaud any move he might make. This was the 
morning; how the evening differed from it we shall see. 

Closer acquaintance with the new capital impressed one 
still more with its likeness to Washington toward the close 
of a short session. Many features of that likeness were salient 
ones that had marred and debased the aspect of the older 
city. Endless posts of profit and honor were to be filled, 
and for each and every one was a rush of almost rabid claim- 
mants. The skeleton of the regular army had just been 
articulated by congress, but its bare bones would soon have 
reached hyper-Falstaffian proportions had one in every score 
of ardent aspirants been applied as muscle and matter. 


The first " Gazette" was watched with straining eyes, but 
naturally left aching hearts ; and disappointment here first 
sowed the dragon s teeth that were to spring into armed op 
ponents of the unappreciative appointing power. 

The entire nation was new. Everything had to be done, 
and who so capable they being the referees as that swarm 
of worn out lobbyists and " subterraneans " who, having 
thoroughly exploited "the Old Wreck," now gathered to 
gorge upon the new " concern." By the hundreds flocked in 
those unclean birds, blinking bleared eyes at any chance 
bit, whetting foul bills to peck at carrion from the depart 
mental sewer. 

Nightly the corridor of the Exchange Hotel was a pande 
monium ; its every flagstone a rostrum. Slowness of organiza 
tion, the weakness of congress, secession of the border states 
personnel of the cabinet, and especially the latest army 
appointments, were canvassed with heat, equalled only by 
ignorance. Most incomprehensible of all was the diametric 
opposition of men from the same neighborhoods, in their 
views of any subject. Often this would be a vital one of 
policy or of doctrine, yet these neighbors would quarrel more 
bitterly than would men from opposite borders of the con 

Two ideas, however, seemed to pervade all classes. One 
was that keystone dogma of secession, " Cotton is king," 
the other that the war did one come could not last 
over three months. The man who ventured dissent from 
either idea, back it by what logic he might, was looked upon 
as an idiot if his disloyalty was not broadly hinted at. 

I could comprehend these beliefs in the local mind of the 
South; but that the citizens of the world now congregated 
at Montgomery should hold them, puzzled those who paused 
to query if they really meant what they said. 

Socially, as removed from this seething influx, Mont- 


gomery was a delightful city. Her leading families were 
those cotton planters and merchants, a few capitalists, and 
many noted professional men and a large class of railroad 
and steamboat managers. There was a trifle too much 
superiority in quarters directly connected with the state 
government; but that was now merged in the larger idea of 
nursing the national one. There had ever been much culture, 
more hospitality and still more ambition, both social and 
civic. Still, there was very much lacking of what the world 
ling expects of a metropolis. So it was natural that the choice 
as a capital should turn the whole social system somewhat 
topsy turvy. At the same 
time and possibly as a sort 
of escape valve for new sen 
sations, the townspeople 
grumbled loudly and long. 
But the society proper 
plumed itself afresh and put 
on its best smile to greet 
the select of the newly ar 

Very notable in Alabama 
history is the Goldthwaite 
family. Miss Anne, daugh 
ter of Judge George Gold 
thwaite, was one of 
Montgomery s most brilliant MRS EMMET SIEBELS 

women. She married Em- (ANNE GOLDTHWAITE) 

met Siebels, of the South Carolina line, and is still a sprightly 
and vivacious woman. Her sister Mary married Judge 
Tom Arlington. Mrs. Charles B. Ball was the beautiful 
Mary Siebels, what the advance of today has called "a 
raging, howling belle." 
The fresh, frank and fun-loving girls of the young set were 


certainly creatures of beauty. They were well educated, too, 
those inland and rather unripe belles of the early 60 s, whether 
home taught or from Hamner Hill. There was a spontaneity 

about them that was re 
freshing to the taste satiated 
with conventionality. 

Reversing Time s opera- 
glass upon that memory 
etching, many an old fellow 
still recalls "the girl I left 
behind me," at the first 
capital, and many another 
recollection survived the so 
ciety campaigns of Rich 
mond, Charleston and the 
West. The "Ida Rice" co- 
lumbiad spoke for one 
Montgomery beauty to the 
ironclads in Charleston har- 


bor; gallant and reckless 

Ciilhoun Smith of Charleston, having so christened the 
gun after the well-remembered beauty who later married 
Henry Bethea. In a snow-thatched shebang at Munson s 
Hill 1 heard reminder that the war gave no more lovely a 
bride than when Miss Knoxie Buford wore orange blossoms 
for Frank Lynch, of the famed old naval stock. When Miss 
Alice Vivian came down from her country home she queened 
it with the triple royalty of Venus, Juno and Minerva. Later 
she married (leneral Quarles, whose social record proved 
him a judge of beauty. Who does not recall the hand 
some and vivacious Holt sisters? Miss Florence, as Mrs. 
Joseph Hodgson, is now one of the most popular of Mobile 
matrons whose equally popular daughter has just become 
Mrs. Julian Walters, of that city. Mrs. L. C. Jurey, of New 


Orleans, was Miss Mary Holt and her daughter is Mrs. Richard 
Weight/man, so sought in the cultured circle of Washington. 
Miss Laura married William R. Pickett, grandson of the 
famed historian, and was as young, almost, at Miss Hodg 
son s wedding as her granddaughter, who was maid of honor, 
"pretty Florence" Davidson. Miss Kliza W. Pickett married 
Major Edwin A. Hanks, and her daughter May married Frank 
H. ("lark, of Mobile. Their children are now rising in the 
affairs and the "cloth" of their state. Mary (lindral Piekett 
married Samuel S. Harris, later bishop of Michigan; her sister 
Martha married Major Mike L. Woods, the veteran writer 
and scholar of Montgomery. Corinne Pickett became Mrs. Kd- 
ward Randolph, and Sallie, known to war bclleship as 
"Tookic," married Carter 

Tradition tells the wide 
difference wrought by war, 
in these two Randolph wed 
dings. At the first, the 
feminine interest was largely 
subordinated by the men. 
The war and its heroes were 
fresh and the uniforms were 
new. At the second cere 
monial, the interior South was 
literally stripped of men at 
all suggestive of that name. 
At the church, attendants, 
ushers uiul . ill worn girls; MUM ,, A ,, ANKM (1 ,,, 1/A ,,,,,,, 
the groom and the aged 

father of the bride being the only males present, save; 
the officiating priest. 

A very popular girl of those days, Miss Rebecca Hails, 
married " Vinee" Ulmore; and Miss Mary Klmore became 


Mrs. Warren Reese. Then there was Miss Laura Snodgrass, 
later Mrs. Spencer C. Marks. The Snodgrass sisters were 
great belles and beauties, as any old vet of today will testify. 
Miss Mary married William D. Tullis, of New Orleans. Miss 
Clara Pollard, daughter of the railroad magnate, became 

Mrs. William R. C. Cocke, 
her sister, Bettie, marrying 
Dr. Paul Lee. 

And the rest? Alas! This 
list is not Leporello s. 

She of the hundred 
tongues has used them all 
too freely in reporting the 
wild dissipations of Mont- 
jjsT" gomery in the nursery 

/ days. Drinking there was 

general and sometimes deep, 
but somehow the constant 
excitement of the new life 
proved antidote for its 
j bane. I recall the rare 


duced any blameworthy con 
duct. The stories of gambling, however, are almost wholly 
groundless. All the South, and especially her westerly section, 
has been credited with love of reckless risks on the turf and at 
the card table. Yet we never gambled to the million limit, un 
til our Northern brethren set the example, though we did play 
rather recklessly. I am quite ready to admit that any man 
who loses a five, by too much confidence in the virtue of three 
queens, is a gambler and should be haled from his club and 
punished by law moral and statute. I know, too, that the 
other fellow, who wins three millions on the rise of cotton 
which was never planted, or pork which was never pigged, is 


a Christian gentleman, and should have his deserved and 
well won villa, wife and automobile. 

These Southern scamps in the Ws gambled as they fought, 
man to man, and with what they had in their hands. I 
fear I must admit that they did it often and recklessly. 
But that they gambled constantly at Montgomery is not 
founded on fact. I speak ex cathedra. I was there and 
chanced to be thrown in with the fastest of the fast set. There 
was, as I say, much drinking and much jockeying for place 
and favor, but the constant activity of the brain, the sus 
pense, the keen contest and watch upon the foe crowding 
down to border and port, left no room for the real gambler. 
It was different at Richmond, with her larger and more 
mixed population, but whatever their other sins, the suckling 
paladins and statesmen at "the Nursery" had higher stakes 
to play for than those they found about the green cloth. 

It was easy to distinguish the politician-by-trade from the 
rosy and uncomfortable novices. Secession was supposed 
to have been the result of aggressions and corruptions, which 
most of these legislators would have been utterly powerless to 
prevent, even had they not been active participants in them. 
Yet wornout politicians, who had years before been promoted 
from servants to " sovereigns, " floated high upon the present 
surge and rank old Washington leaven threatened to per 
meate every pore of the new government. 

Small wonder, then, that the action of such a congress 
was inadequate to the crisis. 

If the time demanded anything, it was the prompt organ 
ization of an army, with an immediate basis of foreign credit 
to arm, equip and clothe it. Next to this was urgent need for a 
simple and readily managed machinery in the different de 
partments of the government. Neither of these desiderata 
could be secured by their few earnest promoters, from those 
with whom the popular will of the new nation, or the want of 


that, had diluted her councils. Few indeed of the congress 
men dared look the realities of the issue in the face and that 
minority was powerless to accomplish anything practical. 

This was the Provisional Government, framed closely on 
the Washington model, with Jefferson Davis as President, 
Alexander H. Stephens, Vice-President, and this Cabinet: 
Secretary of State, Robert Toombs, of Georgia; Leroy Pope 
Walker of War; S. R. Mallory, of Florida, of the Navy; 
Charles G. Memminger, of South Carolina, of the Treasury; 
Judah P. Benjamin, of Louisiana, Attorney-General; John 
H. Reagan, of Texas, Postmaster-General. The public 
seemed content with the selections, in the main. The post- 
office and the department of justice looked to them nearly 
as useful as the state portfolio, at that junction; but to the 
war office every eye was turned and glanced askance at the 
man there. General Leroy Pope Walker was not widely 
known outside of Alabama, but those who did know him 
prophesied that he would soon stagger under the responsi 
bilities that would weigh upon him in the event of war. 
Many declared that he was only a man of straw, set up by 
Mr. Davis simply that he might exercise his own well-known 
love for military matters. 

Want of public trust in this vital branch was not strength 
ened by Mr. Walker s speech after the raising of the new flag. 
From the balcony of the Exchange Hotel I heard him pledge 
the excited crowd that he would raise it over "Faneuil Hall 
in the city of Boston! 

Such, briefly touched upon, were conditions at Mont 
gomery when in early April, 1861, Governor Pickens, of 
South Carolina, wired that the Washington government had 
telegraphed the decision to resupply Fort Sumter " Peaceably 
if we can forcibly, if we must!" 

Deep and intense excitement held Montgomery in its grasp 
during those succeeding" days, when news came that Beau- 



regard had fired on the fort, on April 12. Business was sus 
pended, all stores were closed and the people collected in 
groups in the streets and before the newspaper and govern 
ment offices. Various and 
strange were the specula 
tions as to the issue of the 
fight and its consequences; 
but the conviction came like 
a thunder clap, even to those 
most skeptical, that there 
was to be war! 

Then, with rapid step, 
action distanced suspense. 
The swift following fall of 
Sumter solidified the South 
into a nation. Then came 
the adhesion of Virginia, the 
decision to accept her invi 
tation to make her soil the 
battle ground and her capital the South s. 

There was a grand parade and review of all the troops at 
Pensacola, by the President, aided by Generals Bragg and 
Beauregard. It left the country guessing as to which of the 
two would be commander-in-chief . 

Immediately after it Mr. Davis moved his headquarters 
to Richmond: the government was boxed up and followed 
him, and the nursery of the New Nation was noiselessly de 
serted by its now growing occupant. 




THE new capital of the Confederacy presented a very 
different appearance from Montgomery. The approach to 
the city of new hope was promising in its picturesqueness. 

Threading the narrow span 
of high trestles, perched spin 
dle-legged above the James, 
Richmond spread in pretty 
panorama. Green and tree- 
bordered, the May sun gild 
ing white homes and tall 
spires, it receded to high red 
hills beyond the later famous 
heights of Chimborazo to the 
right and that historic City 
of the Silent, Hollywood, 

far away to left. Central gleamed the venerable seat of 

Where looms the Capitol, antique and pure, 

The great "First Rebel" points the storied past. 
Around him grouped Virginia s great of yore, 

With Ston&waWs statue, greatest and the last 
had not then slipped from my pen. The statue of John 
Marshall, long delayed and missed, had not been placed to 
inspire Randolph s quaintly vigorous lines, beginning: 



" We re glad to see you, John Marshall, my boy, 
Along with the other old codgers" 

Social Richmond was desiccated Virginia selectness, and 
only enforced acceptance of the war incursion could have 
rubbed the down from the peach. But for that, the lovely 
" village on the Jeems" had been of far slower growth into 
the cosmopolitan city of today. 

At that day family first, with the concomitants of polish, 
education and "manner," were the sole "open sesame" to 
which the doors of the good old city would swing wide. 

The learned professions were about the sole exceptions. 
"Law, physic, the church," and, as heretofore seen, the last 
especially, were permitted to condone the "new families." 

Trade, progressive spirit and self-made personality were 
excluded from the plane of the elect, as though germiniferous. 
The "sacred soil" and the sacred social circle were paralleled 
in the minds of their possessors. 

As his first introduction has shown, the Virginian of yester 
day, particularly when he boasted high colonial descent, was 
still the nearest counterpart to the landed gentry of the 
motherland of any American soever. He combined many 
noble traits with the same old pride that so dominated them all. 

In the country districts habit and condescension often 
overrode class barriers, but in the city, where class some 
times jostled privilege, the line of demarcation was so strongly 
drawn that its overstepping was dangerous. 

When the news came that patriotism dictated the aban 
donment of inland Montgomery for border Richmond, a 
surprise that was not all pleasurable thrilled to the finger-tips 
of Richmond society. Its exponents felt much as the Ro 
man patricians might have felt at impending advent of the 
leading families of the Goths. Her sacred fanes might pos- 


sibly be desecrated by profane touch, her Vestal Virgins 
viewed by vulgar eyes. 

At first blush of the new invasion it is assumable that older 
Richmond was ready to bolt the front door and lock the shut 
ters. Younger Richmond perhaps was curious enough to 
peep between them. But the Commonwealth was heart and 
soul in the cause and the newcomers were of it. So, grad 
ually, the first repulsion grew to sufferance, then that gave 
place to cordiality. There was still a lingering reserve in 
some quarters and a sense of an undefined something that 
might happen at any moment. But on the surface were 
urbanity and ease that are innate to the better Virginian. 
This was vindicated in most instances by the real worth and, 
frequently, the high grade of the social leaders of the influx. 

It must be recalled that the very best elements of the old 
South began the war and went first to the front. In the 
army and, in degree, in every branch of the government were 
men of birth and breeding, women of culture, grace and so 
cial prestige. These soon segregated themselves from the 
dross of the incoming tide, and to them the jealous doors 
swung on spontaneous hinges. Later a common cause, 
common ambition and common sorrow drew all classes into 
a sympathy and contact that showed the best in each and all. 

In the coarse butternut of the private soldier moved men 
of lineage as high, of attainment as fine, of social habit as 
elegant, as that under society s behest. Officer and man met 
on terms of perfect equality, off duty. The private of today 
might be the general of tomorrow, and the younger leaders 
in Richmond realized the fact, and early learned to judge 
their new beaux rather for themselves than for their rank marks. 

All Virginia had long been noted throughout the South for 
a hospitality equal to her pride and for its lavish expression: 
and Richmond was concentrated Virginia. 

This went out to all, -only slightly differentiating, perhaps, 



those veritable corps d elites from distant states: as the 

These picked companies of peace comprised the "dearest 
and the best/ 7 the very flower of the highbred, or wealthy 
youth. Company F of Richmond, was one example, the 
Mobile Cadets another, in which many a man had refused 
proffered commission to "stay with the fellows," until merit 
and the demands of the service literally forced him upward. 
For such men as these the brightest eyes in all the land grew 
brighter, but Louisiana held her own. 

In these early days of the war no section of the South had 
yet felt the strain upon its resources, and the entertain 
ments at the new capital of 
the Confederacy were as ele 
gant and as lavish as ever 
before. Later the gradual 
pressure upon pocket, as well 
as upon brain and heart, 
told first on the leaguered 
capital, but that wore away 
only the surface, leaving the 
social gold with all its pris 
tine polish. Even when the 
" starvation parties" had re 
placed the lavish balls of 
gone yesterdays, as courtly 
nothings were spoken, and as 
cordial healths pledged in 
the substituted green tum 
bler of yellow "Jeems" river water, as had ever bub 
bled on the lip with congenial champagne. For these 
indeed were descendants of the Golden Horseshoe 
Knights; of the Huguenots of the Carolinas; of the 
Bienville-led Creoles; often of the oriole-crested followers of 



Lord Baltimore. And they proved in later days - 

" The kindliest of the kindly band 
Who rarely hated ease " 

Later, when the crucial test had come, they proved them 

" Those sons of noble sires, 
Whose foes had found enchanted ground 
But not one knight asleep!" 

And the fair women whom they toasted, fought for and 
loved proved themselves worthy of all three. So, while the 
fortunes and the larders lasted, the entertainments in Rich 
mond were generous; when the direst constriction of the 
blockade crushed, the elegance remained, over the crust and 
the yellow water. 

The thought of no habitue of Richmond society of that 
day can recur to it without being peopled with bright memories 
of men and women, since famous in the history and society 
of the Union. Whatever his tastes, business shadowed or 
pleasure tinted, they doubtless bear borrowed coloring from 
an era of storm and stress that left its impress deep on all 
natures, at a moment when most receptive by absorption in 
a common effort to one great end. The fate of a nation hung 
in the balance, but the hearts of its integers were hopeful, 
buoyant and sometimes giddy. 

Dinners, dances, receptions and constant visiting followed 
the earlier arrival of the new government and its Joseph- 
coated following. There were drives and picnics for the 
young and, for aught I know to the contrary, much flirtation. 
The dizzy whirled in recurrent germans, and the buzz of the 
society bee was heard by the pinkest-tinted ears. 

But besides the regular society routine at the capital, 
much like that in many another city, there was other so 
ciality, quieter, but nowise less attractive to the incoming. 


There were sewing circles, at which the assistants enjoyed 
the talk of brainy and refined women and cultured men; 
there music, improvisation and even dancing filled intervals 
of busy work. 

As Dickens made his Madame Defarge "knit shrouds," 
before the greedy knife of the Terror, the sewing circles of 
Richmond stitched love and hope and sentiment into the 
rough seams and hems of nondescript garments they sent to 
the camps by bales. No lint was scraped for wounds to come 
that was not saturated with pity and tenderness; and the 
amateur cooks kneaded their hearts into the short piecrust 
and not always heavy biscuits for " those dear boys." 

There were many, and 
some really excellent ama 
teur concerts, charades and 
tableaux, by the most mod 
est and sometimes most 
ambitious amateurs, all for 
the same good end. And 
through all of them passed 
the procession of stately 
forms and bright faces. On 
the joggling board of im 
provised stage, voices that 
had rung sonorous in the 
van of battle lisped the sug- r 
ared nothings of society 
comedy to Chloes, who later GENERAL FITZ LEE 

gave the key to society in (IN 1863) 

many a post-bellum city. Comic recitations were made by 
men who have since held listening senates, and verses were 
penned by women who have now impressed their names on 
the literature of a time. 

Most of this was naturally in the entr acte of war s red 


drama, in the days of winter s enforced truce, from roads 
belt-deep in mire or frozen impassable. There were nights 
when hard-riding Fitz Lee was pressed to pose in a tableaux, 
or dashing " Jeb" Stuart took minor part in a small comedy, 
to brighten the eyes nearest but not the dearest, for that 
cause alone. 

Of course the storm center of general society was about the 
presidential household and its actions. 

In that dwelling the most weighty and eventful matters 
of the government had birth and were matured, and there 
the tireless worker, to himself the Confederacy incarnate, 
devoted all the days and most of the midnights, planning, 
considering, changing. The executive officers were else 
where, but at that day Mr. Davis carried the government in 
his own brain, and that never slept. 

His wildest admirer has never claimed that Jefferson 
Davis was a saint; his vilest vituperator has never proved 
him a devil. History shows no man who has faced such 
fierce and sweeping blasts of indictment, calumny and malice 
and so long stood erect: a mark inviting scrutiny, but not 
shrinking beneath it. It is simple truth that his name is 
today mentioned with respect, or praise, in the capital of 
every civilized country on the globe, save one, and there the 
cause of silence or of old-time iteration is more political than 

I am not planting seed for the future Macaulay, but it 
may be noted here that this absolute self-reliance was one 
cause of failure; he failed because he could not make the 
Confederacy Jefferson Davis. The non sequitur is often more 
logical than the epigram. When Sir Boyle Roche said: 
"No man can be in two places at once, barrin he s a bird!" 
he was probably ignorant that he was double-barreled- 
talking nonsense and philosophy. He did not know that he 
was laying down a rule of procedure which, persistently 


deviated from, must result in disaster. That disaster fol 
lowed was not Mr. Davis s fault. In an article of the North 
American Review, a dozen years ago, I showed that he was 
not only the president, but that he shouldered the respon 
sibility for every member of his cabinet. He was the head 
almost of every distinct bureau, in each department of the 

A tremendous national convulsion demanded that the 
executive should plan, distribute and order done the work 
in the various departments. Mr. Davis did this. He did 
not stop there; he attempted to do the work. 

But it was not on governmental grounds that social Rich 
mond felt uneasy as to the Davis family in these early days. 
There was no tinge of personality toward the inmates of 
the White House; only a nervousness as to that nebulous 
dweller on the threshold of legislative necessity. There was 
an undefined dread that the official head would be followed 
by a nameless, yet most distasteful, surrounding of politics 
and place seekers. 



FORTUNATELY, it chanced that Mrs. Varina Howell Davis 
was a woman of too much sound sense, tact and experience 
in great social affairs not to smile to herself at this rather 

provincial iciness. 

She put her native wit and 
all her fund of diplomatic 
resource to work; social cold 
storage rapidly raised its tem 
perature and soon all about 
the Executive Mansion was 
broad sunshine, in which even 
the ultra exclusives early be 
gan to uncoil. 

In her proper person, and 
not as the president s wife, 
Mrs. Davis was at home in 
formally and to everybody 
who chose to call on all even 
ings of the week. On these 
occasions only tea and talk were proffered to her guests ; but the 
latter seemed to evolve a finer aroma than the former, even 
before the blockade proclaimed its "substitute law." 

It was her husband s invariable custom to give one hour 
of each day to unbending from the strain of public duty in 
the midst of his family circle. At these informal evenings 




the early caller was almost sure to meet the man of the hour; 
to shake his courteously proffered hand; to hear the voice 
upon the vibrations of which hung the fate of The Cause. 

State dinners, save in very rare necessities as in case of 
some important foreign visitors, were not given, and the only 
other function was the fortnightly levee, after the Washington 
model. To these flocked "the world and his wife," in what 
holiday attire they possessed, in the earlier days marked by 
the dainty toilettes of really elegant women, the butternut 
of the private soldier, and the stars and yellow sashes of many 
a general, already world-famous. 

The levee was social jambalaya, but it was also novelty. 
It proved appetizing enough to tickle the dieted palate of 
Richmond s exclusiveness. 

Besides their novelty, these levees had their uses as an 
amalgamating medium, a social Change whereon the pro 
vincial bear met the city bull, nor found him deadly of horn. 
Most of all, they proved the ease with which the wife of the 
president of the Confederacy could hold her title of "The 
First Lady in the Land." She was politician and diplo 
matist in one, where necessity demanded, but long personal 
knowledge of her had already convinced the writer that 
Varina Howell Davis preferred the straight road to the tor 
tuous bypath. She was naturally a frank though not a. 
blunt woman, and her bent was to kindliness and charity. 
Sharp tongue she had, when set that way and the need came 
to use it ; and her wide knowledge of people and things some 
times made that use dangerous to offenders. Mrs. Davis 
had a sense of humor painfully acute, and the unfitness of 
things provoked laughter with her rather than rage. That 
the silly tales of her sowing dissension in the cabinet and 
being behind the too frequent changes in the heads of the 
government are false, there seems small reason to doubt. 

Surely, in social matters she moved steadily and not slowly, 



from at least coolness to the warm friendship of the best 
women of conservative Richmond and to the respect and 
admiration of all. 

The Kemp-Howell family was of British stock: Scotch, 
Irish, English, Welch and Quaker in descent. Mrs. Davis s 

father was William Burr 
Howell, a native of Trenton, 
N. J. He was son of Gov 
ernor Richard Howell of 
that state; an ex-naval officer 
who had distinguished him 
self in the War of 1812. 

Mrs. Davis s mother was 
Margaret Louise Kemp, a Vir 
ginian, born on her father s 
broad acres, over which the 
decisive charges of Bull Run 
were later made. The grand 
father Kemp was a Dublin 
Irishman of means, a gradu 
ate of Trinity College and a 
close friend of Robert Emmett. This brought him into polit 
ical trouble and he was banished for alleged treason 
that seems never to have passed the stage of intent. 
The refugee sat down in Virginia, farming near Manassas, 
but later removing to Natchez, Miss., after a duel with 
a Virginian, which was fatal to the latter; although, at 
that day and date, such trivialities were merely post 
and not propter hoc. Margaret Louise Kemp was a 
small child, at the date of this migration. Later, the New 
Jersey Howell, touring in the South, met and won her, and 
himself became a Mississippian. 

This pair became the parents of six children, all rioted in 
the Ws. These were Varina, later Mrs. Davis; Margaret 



Graham Howell, Jane Kemp Howell, and three brothers, 
Beckett, William Francis and Jefferson Davis Howell. 

The third sister married William G. Waller, of Lynchburg, 
during the war, at St. Paul s Church, Richmond. She left 
a son and a daughter; the former dead, but the latter, Miss 
Elizabeth Tyler Waller, still residing in Savannah, Ga. Of 
the brothers, only one married. William Francis wedded 
the daughter of Rev. Dr. Leacock of Christ Church, New 
Orleans. This couple left three daughters, still living in the 
Cresent City, and two now married. These were the " little 
Howell girls/ sometimes confounded in errant chronicle with 
Miss Maggie Howell and her sister, Jane Kemp, who was not 
very much in Richmond. 

With Mrs. Davis, in matters social, moved her sister. Miss 
Margaret Howell was scarcely more than a debutante, but 
her adaptability replaced experience and she knew human 
nature by what surgery calls "the first intention." Her 
sense of humor was quite as keen and even more dominant 
than her elder s. Less restrained, she bubbled into ban mot 
and epigram that went from court to camp. Sometimes these 
were caustic enough to sting momentarily, but their aptitude 
and humor salved the prick of their point. It was stated 
that her comment did more to calm the tumult of " Pawnee 
Sunday" than all else. I am not posing as Miss Maggie 
Howell s Boswell, even in recalling the pleasant hours when 
we were "out together"; but the memory of all Richmond 
would indorse her naming as quite the most original and one 
of the most brilliant women in that bright and unique society. 
I recall that mention of her sallies one evening at Gustavus 
Myers s dinner table caused Mr. Benjamin to remark: 

"Were this yesterday and did we live in Paris, she would be 

The young lady will be met again in these pages, and 
probably with the same spice of pleasure she gave in sudden 



rencontres in those days. That she will do this unwittingly 
is proved by her recent epigrammatic statement to the writer: 
"Had I known that my biscuits would be vended in public, 
- -^ I should have kept my yeast 

in the pantry!" 

Miss HowelFs friends of 
yore will read with pleasure 
that she is still living. After 
the war she went abroad and 
married, in England, the Chev 
alier Charles William de 
Wechmar Stoess, then Bava 
rian consul at Liverpool. 
Her husband died some 
years ago, leaving her with 
a son and daughter nearly 
grown. These are the whole 
of life to the widow and 
the trio made one of the happiest and most united families 
in Victoria, B. C. For a time they lived in Spokane, after 
Mr. Stoess death. The son, Philip, is a mining engineer in 
Seattle, and his sister, Christine, paints well, and plays the 

Apart from distinction of parentage the little children of 
the White House had individuality of their own which made 
them notable to its habitues. They were three only when 
the move from Montgomery was made. One was killed in 
Richmond, and two others, the " Children of the Confederacy," 
were born at the new capital. 

Mr. Davis, as noted, had been married twice. The second 
marriage was childless for years. Then, just as the father 
was called to the secretaryship of war by President Pierce, 
a son was born. Samuel Emory Davis survived but three 
years. He died in 1854! 




A daughter came next, Margaret Howell Davis, named for 
her grandmother, and now the sole survivor of the family of 

Jefferson Davis, Jr., was born in Jaunary, 1858, being 
the only son who reached adult age. He died of yellow fever 
at Memphis, in 1878, when within three months of his ma 

Joseph Evan Davis, the next son, was born in April, 1859, 
His was the tragedy that shadowed the White House beyond 
all else that brought sorrow through its portals. This second 
boy, gentle and lovable, fell from the balusters into the back 
court of the home and was almost instantly killed. The heart 
of a whole people went out to the stricken parents, and the 
sorrowing sympathy of Richmond was as real as universal; 
the little people had become familiar pets. But, as in the 
case of the first-born, the emp- ^ 

ty cradle was filled. 

William Howell Davis was 
born in the White House in 
the first year of its occu 
pancy. But three years old 
when his elder brother was 
killed, he lived to reach 
nearer to manhood than any 
of the boys save Jeff. He 
had perhaps the gentlest 
ways of any of the children; 
and they centered in him, as 
he gained in years, the love 
of mother and sisters that 
was beyond words. But JEFFERSON DAVIS, JR. 

"BillieV death was almost as sudden as Joe s had 
been years before. He was seized with diphtheria at Nat 
chez and died there in October, 1874. He was the 



elder of the " Children of the Confederacy." The cradle of lit 
tle Joe had been filled by the other and more widely known one. 
"Winnie" (Varina Anne) Davis was born on the 27th of 

June, 1864, and her coming 
was accepted by the hopeful 
as a bright augury amid the 
gloom that shadowed her 
father s fortunes. Too famil 
iar to the later generation 
to demand word of descrip 
tion, "The Daughter of the 
Confederacy," formally so 
named and adopted by the 
united camps of the Veterans, 
ended her promising career by 
sudden illness at Narragansett 
Pier, September 18, 1898. 

In their latest trial it was 
not the heart of a section, 
but of a re-united nation, 
that went out to the aged widow and the stricken 
sister. Time had softened war-born asperities, and only 
the weakest and most brutal cherished the misbegotten 
falsities they bred. Men who had howled to "Hang Jeff 
Davis!" through the North had mellowed under second 
thought. It was genuine and heart-born warmth from every 
quarter that met the bereaved. 

Again Time has worked his miracle. Today "Winnie" 
Davis lives again in the universal love of the South and the 
tender respect of the North. 

She, like her brothers, had inherent traits, and strong ones. 
In her they had longer to develop into visible result. But 
the little fellows showed them early, and in "Billie" they 
were of sweet and tender promise. In Jeff they took ex- 



pression and told strong truths at an age when those of most 
children are dumb. 

Early in her Richmond life Mrs. Davis selected as teacher 
for her children the eldest of the daughters of Judge Raleigh 
T. Daniel, Misses Augusta, Lizzie and Charlotte. Highly 
educated and of studious bent, yet genial and popular socially, 
this lady became as devoted to her charge as she was fitted for 
it. After the lapse of years her memory of the Davis house 
hold, great and small, is as reminiscent as it is loyal and tender. 

Margaret Howell Davis was her grandmother s namesake. 
She was more like her father than her mother. 

In 1876 " Little Maggie," married Joel Addison Hayes, now 
of Colorado Springs. There she is refusing to grow old, al 
though surrounded by a grown family and grandchildren. 

The eldest son, named for his grandfather, died in infancy. 
Varina Howell Davis Hayes is 
now the wife of Dr. Gerald 
Bertram Webb. The second 
daughter, Lucy White, is two 
years younger. The eldest 
son of this family is Jefferson 
Hayes Davis, having taken 
his grandfather s surname. 

The youngest child is " Bil 
ly" William Davis Hayes. 

" Little Maggie s" family 
have given two to the fourth 
generation of the living Davis 
descendants. Mrs. Varina 
Hayes Webb has a three- 

! , , , , , , MRS. J. A. HAYES 

year-old daughter, who bears 

the name of Margaret Varina Hayes. Her boy, whom Mrs. 

Davis never saw, was born on December 17, 1906. 

Mrs. Davis s brothers were rarely in Richmond. Beckett 


and Jeff Davis Howell were both in the navy. Both died 
years ago and both will recur in these pages. 

Such, in brief and imperfect retrospect, was the family 
about which most interest centered in the new Richmond. 
The greater portion of it was about Mr. Davis personally. 
Knowing him since my boyhood, intimate in his household 
then and in his office later, Senator and Secretary Davis ever 
seemed to me the grave, self-contained worker, rarely asking 
aid and never advice. His memory was marvelous, 
especially for names and faces. His grasp on a subject was 
as rapid as his decision was tenacious. He was of a 
nature slow to admire, but as loyal to friendship as he was 
inveterate on occasion. Being human, he was liable to error 
in either regard. 

In private life, and notably in his own home, Mr. 
Davis was polished, affable and often cordial. He was easy of 
approach and patient to the woes of constituents and sub 
ordinates. He was a thoughtful, sound, and at times a free 
talker, and, strangely enough, he permitted others to express 
as well as to hold, their opinions. Thus Jefferson Davis 
appeared to the thinker in Richmond, thus he appears to 
this writer today. Such he is likely to appear to the future 

This is no place to discuss the actions of the publicist or 
the motives whence they sprang. Neither does the time 
of which I write warrant introduction of the freshly mooted 
matter of his treatment after capture. 

Philosophy, when she really comes to teach by example, 
will settle these for all time. So will she prick that poor in 
vention of malicious mendacity that makes the simple capture 
of a great fugitive a farce incredible. 

I truly believe that no man who is competent to compre 
hend the character of the Confederate chief, judged solely 
by its visible results, credits that silly figment of imagination. 


No man who knows aught of human nature could believe 
Jefferson Davis capable of attempting denial of a fact, by a 
subsequent masquerade. Yet the portrait of him, in the 
clothes in which he was cap 
tured, is a certified and 
proved reproduction in every 
detail. That, without speech, 
confounds the patient and 
persistent liars. 

The South resented the 
treatment of her most rep 
resentative man just after 
the war, but it is doubtful 
whether much tenderness 
mingled with her wrath. 

Gradually respect for the 
dead chiefs great traits 
passes into mellowed feeling, 
and the sentiment of the vast 
majority of Southerners is 
doubtless voiced by an un 
known poet s Suggestion for JEFFERS ON DAVIS IN SUIT HE WORE AT 
his statue : THE TIME OF CAPTURE 

Write on its base: " We loved him!" All these years, 
Since that torn flag was folded, we ve been true; 

The love that bound us now revealed in tears f 
Like webs, unseen till heavy with the dew. 

It is so singular a fact that almost universal ignorance 
exists as to the lineage of the Confederate president. I have 
never been able to find an accurate published statement of 
either; and have at great pains, been able to present this 
brief summary: 

Jefferson Davis, youngest of the ten children of Samuel 


Davis and Jane Cook, was born in Christian county, Ky., on 
June 3rd, 1808. His ancestors were colonial and revolu 
tionary; of sterling Welsh stock and "good people in the 
colony/ though nowise of the gentry, or notable in its pre- 
revolutionary events. Their famous descendant had a con 
tempt for genealogy; even his wife s biography of him giving 
but most meagre mention. 

In earlier half of the eighteenth century, three Welsh 
brothers started for Pennsylvania, as settlers. One is be 
lieved to have been drowned on the voyage. At all events, 
he never reappears in anything I have been able to trace. 
The other two, Samuel and Evan, the youngest, settled near 
Philadelphia, presumably to farm, as they took up lands. 
Samuel is said to have removed to Virginia, but trace of him 
is lost, save in some old land transfer records. Evan Davis, 
grandfather of the President, drifted to Georgia, and there 
married a widow Williams, whose maiden name had been 
Emory. One son came to this couple, who was named 
Samuel, and was a youth in his teens at the outbreak of the 
Revolution. His half brothers, Williams, were in the rebel 
army, and the mother sent Samuel to their camp with cloth 
ing and home comforts. He caught the war fever, ran away, 
fought well and later raised a company and went to assist in 
lifting the seige of Savannah. Soon after the war, he married 
Miss Jane Cook, of Georgia; presumably his distant kins 
woman, and doubtless connected with the later noted Hardins, 
of Kentucky. When he already had a grown family, he 
moved to Kentucky and established himself on a tobacco 

The eldest child of Samuel Davis and Jane Cook, was 
Joseph Emory Davis, born in Georgia but a lawyer and 
planter, residing at the "Hurricane" Plantation. Warren 
county, Mississippi. He married Miss Eliza van Benthysen. 
He was a great stay and aid to his father and, after his death, 


became its head and parent, rather than guardian, of the 
younger children. Little Jeff was devoted to him, and the 
later statesman never forgot to express his love and admira 
tion of his elder. Joseph Davis rose to great influence and 
regard in his state and section; and acquired wealth. 

Joseph Davis had a family of nine children, of whom six 
were daughters. These all died childless, except Mary, though 
Florida and Caroline also married. Mary married Dr. 
Mitchell and left one son and one daughter. The son, Cap 
tain Joseph Davis Mitchell, never married. His sister, Mary 
Elizabeth, married W. D. Earner and has two children, Wil 
liam D. and Mary Lucy, now Mrs. J. G. Kelly. 

The next brother was a doctor and planter: Dr. Benjamin 
Davis, of St. Francisville, La. He married Miss Aurelia 
Smith of that parish and died at an advanced age, after a 
quiet, respected and useful life. This couple died childless. 

Samuel Davis, Jr. was the next in age. He was a planter 
and resided near Vicksburg, Miss. His wife was Miss Lucy 
Throckmorton and their only living child is Mrs. Helen Keary 
of Rapides Parish, La. There were four sons: Benjamin, 
Joseph, Samuel and Robert; the eldest of whom left six 
children at Boise City, Idaho. Robert, Samuel, Pauline and 
Ellen still live there. 

Isaac Davis, the fourth son, was also a planter and resided 
at Canton, Miss. He married Miss Susan Guertly, and left 
one son, General Joseph E. Davis, of the Confederate army; 
and two granddaughters. 

The fifth brother and youngest child was Jefferson Davis, 
the president. 

Anna Davis, the eldest daughter, married Luther Smith 
of West Feliciana, and had a family of six, two of whom were 
daughters: Joseph, Luther, Gordon, Jedediah, Lucy and 
Amanda. She married Mr. Robert Smith and left one daugh 
ter, Anna Davis Smith. 


Amanda, her next sister, married Mr. Bradford, of Madison 
Parish, La. Her living children are Jeff Davis Bradford, an 
engineer now stationed at Fort Moultrie in Charleston Harbor; 
Elizabeth Bradford White, widowed and residing at New 
Orleans in winter and Kentucky in summer, and Mrs. Lucy 
Bradford Mitchell, widow of Dr. C. R. Mitchell, of Vicksburg, 
Miss. Seven of this family died: David, Benjamin, Mary, 
Sarah, Anna, Laura, and a second David, born after the 
the death of his brother so named. 

Lucinda Davis, the next sister, married Mr. William Stamps, 
of Woodville, Miss. Her three sons and two daughters all 
died and her grandchildren are Mrs. Edgar Farrar and Mrs. 
Mary Bateson, of New York, and Mrs. William Anderson; 
Hugh, Richard and Isaac Alexander, and one great grand 
child, Miss Josie Alexander. 

Matilda, the fourth sister, died in childhood; and the 
youngest and next in age to the later president, was his boy 
hood s companion and delight, "Little Polly. She was 
Mary Ellen Davis, who married without changing her name 
Robert Davis of South Carolina; and left one daughter still 
living: Mrs. Mary Ellen Davis Anderson, of Ocean Springs, 

It is another coincidence in the parallels of the lives of the 
two great leaders in the Civil War, that the Christian county 
birthplace of Jefferson Davis was in the adjoining one to 
Hardin county, in which Abraham Lincoln saw the light: 
a few miles only separating the spots and only eight months 
the arrival of those famous stars in the great dramas of poli 
tics and war. Strange it is, too, that the two young men saw 
their first glimpses of war in the Black Hawk War; Davis as a 
lieutenant in the United States army, and Lincoln as the cap 
tain of a company of volunteers he had raised and proffered, 
but which was never in actual conflict. 

It might be an odd study for the psychologist to query 


whether some innate characteristics of both men, acting upon 
circumstance or acted upon by it may not have led to 
similar aspirations : and whether they were not shadowed out 
in the strange, yet unmistakable, likeness in their faces. 
Looking at their portraits in manhood s prime, it needs no 
Lavater to read that similar early surroundings, education 
and pursuits might have softened the coarser lines of the one 
or hardened the more delicate tone of the other, into absolute 
similarity. And it is not least curious that the same causes 
drove the parents of one to the North and of the other to the 
South from similar points and at no long interval. 

In 1811, when his youngest born was but three years old, 
Samuel Davis decided that Kentucky was not yielding him 
the returns hoped for when he left Georgia. He proposed 
to locate in Louisiana; but, finding the climate unhealthful 
for a young family, he decided upon Mississippi, and bought 
there his final family home. This was named " Poplar Grove " 
from its splendid growth of those stately trees was a pic 
turesque and extensive site about a mile and a half from 
Woodville, in Wilkinson county, Miss. There most of the 
younger family were reared, the daughters were married and 
some of their children reared by their venerable grandmother, 
Mrs. Jane Cook Davis. Of these, was Ellen Mary, who never 
changed her name; and her early orphaned child and name 
sake, Mrs. Anderson, today recalls the delight of her life at 
the " Poplars." 

It was with this sister " Polly," that the five-year-old 
Jefferson first went to school, at a log house a half mile away. 
Two years later, when not seven years old (in 1815) he was 
sent on a ride through virgin forests of nearly 900 miles, to 
attend the St. Thomas Academy at Washington Co., Ky. 
In three jears more he was at Jefferson College, Adams county, 
Miss.; and in 1821, when but thirteen years old, was sent to 
Transylvania College, Lexington, Ky. He was an earnest 


and intelligent pupil ; but gave little promise of the brilliance, 
acumen and erudition that illustrated his later career. 

After their father s death, his brother, Joseph Davis, be 
came the real head of the family; and it was he who gave 
special attention to the rearing of the youngest, and who 
directed his education. And by that time, Joseph Emory 
Davis had become a power in the law and politics of his sec 
tion. So, in 1824, he obtained through Congressman Rankin, 
a West Point cadetship for his 16-year-old brother. 

At the academy, the youth was esteemed as a careful, 
studious and dignified cadet, rather than an ambitious and 
dashing one; yet he missed no branch of useful acquirement 
and came out a fine rider, swordsman and tactician, as well 
as a courteous and dignified officer. He graduated 25 in a class 
of 33; going into the brevet lieutenancy in the Twenty-first 
Infantry, then under Colonel Zachary Taylor: afterwards 
general and president. 

This was in 1828, and before his majority. At the Point, 
his intimates were Joseph E. Johnston, Robert E. Lee, Prof. 
Alex. Dallas Bache, Albert Sydney Johnston and others, 
with whom he held lifelong friendships, or in rare cases 
undying enmities. 

Lieutenant Davis served with credit at Fort Crawford, in 
what is now Illinois; then at the lead mines near Galena, and 
at Fort Winnebago, in Wisconsin. He made his first cam 
paign against the Indians in the closing of the Black Hawk 
War, in 1831-33. 

Then, when service needs created more cavalry, the First 
Dragoons was organized and its adjutant was Jefferson Davis, 
now promoted to first lieutenant, in 1834. But he held the 
post only a few months; resigning in June of the next year. 

For some reason, never explained, "Old Zach" Taylor had 
taken a strong dislike to his subaltern; but the latter was 
deeply and seriously in- love with the fair young daughter 


of his chief, Miss Knox Taylor. To the surprise of every 
one and none more than her sire Miss Taylor married the 
young soldier almost immediately on his resignation. Her 
father never forgave her; and he never saw her again. She 
went as a bride to the home of her sister-in-law, Mrs. Anna 
Davis at West Feliciana, La. Three months later, she was 
buried there, after a brief illness, and the shock broke down 
completely the health of the young husband, already under 
mined by hard frontier service. 

On his recovery, Mr. Davis made a tour of the West Indies ; 
thence paid a long visit to his old friends in Washington and 
made many new and useful ones, who were loyal to him until 
the end. Then he settled in Mississippi; by his brother s 
advice becoming a planter in Warren county, but devoting 
really more attention to reading law and managing local 
politics. The latter proved the more congenial and success 
ful. He was elected to the legislature in 1842; was elector 
for Polk and Dallas, two years later; and gained high repute 
as a debater, in a tilt with the famous Sergeant S. Prentiss. 
In February, 1845, he married Miss Varina Banks Howell. 

In the autumn after his marriage, Mr. Davis was elected 
to congress by a handsome majority; promptly taking a 
prominent stand and gaining quick recognition for vigor and 
eloquence in championing the ultra pro-slavery and states 
rights wing of the Democracy. Hearing his maiden speech 
in the house, John C. Calhoun said: 

" Keep a watch on that young man : he will be heard from ! " 

In 1846, the Mexican War caused his resignation, to accept 
command of the regiment of Mississippi Rifles, soon attached 
to General Taylor s Army of the Rio Grande. There it gave 
such good account of itself and its commander as to warrant 
special mention in orders, for Monterey ; and Davis splendid 
charge at Buena Vista in which he was severely wounded 
brought another flattering report to Washington, whether, 


or not, his first father-in-law s personal feelings had changed. 
In the session of 1847, Mr. Davis first took his seat as 
senator of the United States; having been appointed by Gov. 
Albert Gallatin Brown to succeed Hon. Jesse Speight, who 
died that year. The next session of the legislature elected 
him to fill the unexpired term. In 1851, he resigned to accept 
the nomination for governor of Mississippi, when he was de 
feated by that arch-manipulator, Henry S. Foote, who ran 
on the Union ticket. But he remained a power in politics 
and was especially active in the election of President Pierce, 
who made him secretary of war, in March, 1853. At the close 
of his term in the cabinet, he was again elected to the senate 
and again became the leader of the ultra Southern party. 
It was at this time that he made his famous Faneuil Hall 
speech on the rights of the states and the powers of the central 
government. Then, in January of 1861, Jefferson Davis 
made his farewell speech in the senate, withdrew from that 
body and went to Mississippi to carry his home people into 
the incubating Confederacy. 



THE head of the cabinet was, in constructive sense, Secre 
tary of State Robert Toombs, of Georgia, but popular belief 
said it was really Mr. Benjamin, voicing Mr. Davis s views. 
Burly, rough, emphatic in his own opinions as his chief him 
self, the Georgian was a brainy and experienced politician 
and a born disputant. What he was not in remotest degree 
was a diplomat, and the early wonder grew why Mr. Davis 
had selected an ingrained aggressor, one whose method was 
to force a point rather than go around it, for the most delicate 
and possibly the most vital of all cabinet procedure. Mr. 
Toombs was, moreover, very strong in his prejudices, and 
they doubtless swayed his judgment, so it was asserted that 
he was unstable of tenet. Disputatious as Sydney Smith s 
missionary, who " disagreed with the cannibal that ate him," 
the secretary was not always of the same mind. A govern 
mental wag once said: "Bob Toombs disagrees with himself 
between meals!" 

Vigorous, able and well posted he certainly was, but per 
haps his weakest point as a minister was his hyper-Southern 
under judging of the men opposed to him in the North, men 
with whom he should have been familiar from long and close 
contact in the public service. At the moment of his selection 
the foreign policy of the Confederacy was unborn. The 
busy bureaux were those of war, finance and subsistence. 
Mr. Toombs had nothing to do but talk politics, tell stories 



and say some very clever things. Profane enough to have 
delighted Sterne s "Army in Flanders/ he larded his jokes 
with things not in the church service, but they were usually 
to the point. In Montgomery I recall one retort, not new, 
but too characteristic to omit. A man of influence and 
loaded with recommendations applied to him on the street 
for a clerkship in his department. The secretary demurred; 
the man of influence insisted. Jerking off his well-worn 
Washington hat, the official held it up; pointed into it as he 
roared : 

"Blankety blank, sir! There is the State Department of 
the Confederacy, by blankety blank! Jump in, sir!" 

When the secretary resigned, avowedly to take a brigade 
in the field, there was little surprise among the initiated. 
There were however, varied rumors of ruptures between him 
and the President and other of his associates in council. 
None of these were probable, for General Toombs was rest 
less under thwart of impracticable views, and he was doubt 
less sincere in preference for active service. 

Secretary Toombs was succeeded, in July, 1861, by Robert 
Mercer Taliaferro Hunter. No Virginian of the older activ 
ities had been more prominent than he, and his experience 
bad been earned in service as state legislator, congressman 
and United States senator. His unfinished term in the 
upper house would have ended, had he retained it, about 
the time when General Grant was arranging to accept the 
parole of Robert Lee. Mr. Hunter held the portfolio of 
state but a few months, resigning to take up the more con 
genial duties of Confederate senator from Virginia. In Feb 
ruary, 1862, his place was temporarily filled by Mr. Benjamin, 
who was already becoming the Pooh-Bah of the cabinet. 

The social side of the cabinet was scarcely affected by 
Mr. Toombs s withdrawal. His only daughter, Miss Sallie 
Toombs, had long before married Dudley M. Du Bose, and 



had given up Washington belleship for domesticity. She 
died shortly after the war, in Virginia, leaving a son and 
daughter, Toombs Du Bose, of Athens, Ga., and Camille, 
Mrs. Henry Galley of Washington, Ga. An older daughter, 
Lula, had married Felix Alexander, but had died in 1855, 
leaving no children. 

The Mallory household was an interesting one to all sorts 
of people, and from many aspects. General curiosity pre 
vailed as to the naval future of the Confederacy, and that 
centered in the man who was to control at least its details. 

Mr. Mallory was known to all as a tried publicist, who had 
headed the then infant effort 
of floating the starry flag tri 
umphantly in long service as 
senator. Personally, he was 
little known on his arrival in 
Richmond ; but his quick per 
ception, decided cultivation, 
and especially his wit, ge 
nial nature and frank court 
esy, soon placed him high in 
the estimate of even the sever 
est critics of men in position. 

In two things Mr. Mallory 
took genuine pleasure: good 
cheer and a good joke. He 
was gourmet, while no whit 
gourmand, and one had but 
to note the twinkle in his eye and the placid curve of 
his full lips to know that the Irish blood in him had 
taken no yellow tinge from American rush. The color 
of his humor was not scarlet, but his quaint turning of 
an idea was often more effective than an epigram had been. 
The two salient sides of character noted were concreted in 




a brief love song he dedicated to "Gumbo File," the ambrosia 
of the Creole and the dietetic delight of the earnest Northern 
pilgrim. Brief, with a touch of genuine poetry, and as full 
flavored with humor as its delicate godmother potage with 
the bay leaf, the poem took at once. The press reprinted it; 
young ladies clipped it often with but part conception of 
its quality and it was sung frequently, and notably by Mrs. 
Mallory s brothers, Stephen and James Moreno. We may 
meet Mr. Mallory later, in his aspect as maker and manager of 
a navy on which opinions varied, as they did on all things 
governmental. But as a host there were no two views of 
the jovial secretary. 

The Mallory home was not a very gay one, and there were 
no grown children to add the whirligig to its quiet, hospitable 
round. But the instincts of both husband and wife for 
Mrs. Mallory s descent was pure Spanish combined to make 
the crosser of their threshold at home immediately. There 
were rounds of informal droppings-in, where the intellect, 
wit and cultivation of the nervous and varied population 
could be found. Mr. Mallory brewed a punch as good as his 
stories and mots, and Mrs. Mallory knew tricks of Southern 
salads and of daube a la Creole that made many Northern eyes 
wink and mouths water. And almost always the little daugh 
ter of the house was allowed to sit out the stay of guests and 
often to aid in their entertainment. 

Mrs. Mallory s long Washington experience as a senator s 
wife had quite Americanized her manner, but her pure Spanish 
taste lingered in the lady who had been Senorita Angela Sil- 
veria Moreno. Her family has many and influential rami 
fications in the Creole South, and notable members of it will 
be encountered by the patient one who follows these pages. 
The most familiar descendant was the late Senator S. R. Mal 
lory, who filled his father s old chair in representing Florida 
until his death in 1907. " 


Little Ruby Mallory was about seven years old when the 
move to Richmond was made. She was one of the most in 
telligent and precocious children I ever knew, but there was 
nothing uncanny or irritant in her exceptional outstripping 
of her years. The darling of parents so informed, so careful, 
she absorbed and understood unusual things, and her mag 
netism was wonderful even at that age. Her natural elocution 
was the talk of Richmond and prophecies were freely haz 
arded that she would surely 
be a great actress some day. 
What she really did become, 
while still in her teens, was the 
facile queen of young society, 
in her native Pensacola, and her 
belleship continued until her 
marriage with Dr. T. S. Ken 
nedy, of New Orleans. There 
the young wife had wider field 
for her tact, cleverness and 
inborn power to lead, all tem 
pered and fused into general 
popularity by the warmth of 
a true woman s heart. She 
was long at the head of a gay 
and brilliant circle, but it is 
not of record that she ever wil 
fully misused her power or hurt 
the pride or the feelings of an 
associate, though she was 
absolutely fearless, a consist 
ent hater of shams and prompt to spur to the rescue of a 
friend in distress. 

With examples of this trait New Orleans drawing-rooms 
were rife. One of them I recall. Miss Lee was visiting the 




city about carnival time. There was one especially fine 
function among the many in honor of the great General s 
daughter. When its main motif was satisfied the ladies sat 
over coffee and I had almost written cigarettes for salted 
almonds! Miss Lee drew off a quaint old ring, an heirloom 
from the centuries, and probably worn by Martha Washing 
ton. It was eagerly seized and passed around, amid cho 
rused "How sweet!" and "Lovely!" and "So nice! 7 Then 
family pride flared up, and one mondaine showed a ring left 
by a triply great-ed grandmother, who had flirted with Bien- 
ville. Another trumped that centuried trick with the Court 
of Charles the Bold, another still, straight from the Crusades. 
Miss Lee sat smiling but slightly flushed. Mrs. Kennedy noted 
the awkward situation of discounting the guest s social ad 
vance. Slowly drawing off a magnificent but most palpably 
latest style ring, she said demurely. 

"Here is a trifle of mine, ladies. That ring was presented 
by Solomon to the Queen of Sheba!" 

Then family pride went to roost again. 

Mr. Mallory s eldest daughter, Margaret, had married early 
in life Mr. Bishop, of Bridgeport, Conn., and her quieter life 
left her less in public view than her little sister. This, and the 
early maturity of the latter constantly made an absurd 
" Buttercupping " of the two, and many bright sayirfgs of 
the younger were ascribed to the senior. Some grave actions 
of the latter have been ascribed to Mrs. Kennedy while still a 
child. Mrs. Bishop called on Andrew Johnson to protest 
against her father s unjust imprisonment and demand his 
release. Later I heard the statement, which has apparently 
misguided some, that this visit was made the president "by 
little Ruby Mallory!" At the date of its making she was 
just twelve years old. 

In 1901 a lecture engagement called me to New Orleans. 
Looking to her for much* of the pleasure of the visit, I wrote 


her. The letter arrived just as the fiat incomprehensible had 
gone forth, and I met a sorrow, deep and universal, for her 
untimely death. Very vividly came back memories of that 
delightful, if not gay, Richmond home in which the Reaper 
had meantime been so busy. 

The pleasantest houses of the " official set" were not always 
those of the cabinet. That body is somewhat Arabian. A 
secretary would fold his official tent, and steal away sandal- 
shod and in silence; sometimes, as one wag put it, " Ungloved, 
unborrowed and unhung." But even were these changes 
explicable to the tyro in cabinet-making, this is not the 
proper place to seek their cause or their results. The retiring 
officials were rarely beaux or their families belles . 

The most kaleidoscopic department was the war office. 
The first and provisional secretary was promptly replaced, 
on the regular formation of the government, but not before 
that Montgomery speech, in which he pledged to carry the 
new flag to Boston and plant it on Faneuil Hall. Leroy Pope 
Walker was scarcely permitted to "tote" it to the James. 
He was at that day the most prominent of four well-known 
Alabama brothers of whom the two least noted were the 
most popular. Hon. Percy Walker was perhaps the least 
so. A speech made to him by the learned and eccentric 
Judge Edmund Dargan was long-lived in the Gulf State.. 
Returning with him from the convention in Montgomery, 
the old jurist noted that his junior was gloomy and wroth. 
Asked the cause, Walker cried: 

"Why, judge, they threatened to hang me in effigy!" 

The old man shifted his invariable quid, solemnly peered 
over his glasses and drawled: "Which party did, Percy?" 

John J. Walker and " Billy" were not publicists, but stead 
fast comrades and good soldiers. The latter was a "high 
roller, of the strictest sect." 

Several successive shakes of the kaleidoscope, and the 


peephole showed the " rearrangement" of Hon. James A. 
Seddon, with his thin, grave face and monkish skull-cap; 
General George Wythe Randolph, self-contained, decisive 
and ordained not to stay; General Braxton Bragg and Judge 
John A. Campbell, both as ad interim time-fillers; Mr. Ben 
jamin temporarily acting as a "stop-gap," and General John 
C. Breckinridge finally withdrawn from more congenial field 
service to aid Mr. Davis s real control of that most vital de 
partment of the government. 

Next in importance if not actual twin with the war office 
was the Confederate treasury. This was given into the trust 
of the Mother of Secession, its conduct being reposed in the 
hands of Hon. C. G. Memminger and George A. Trenholm, 
of South Carolina. This is not the place to consider its re 
sults. Later I may show what was claimed as the crucial 
error of Confederate finance, and how the non-acceptance of 
some foreign concessions and proffers left the South the first 
essayist in a "cheap" money experiment, and "demonetized" 
the true and potent "white money" cotton. These may 
come under review later. Here it need only be noted that 
neither of these officials added much to the general social 
aspects of the capital. Courtly and cultured families in 
Richmond needed houses and chefs to make them notable. 

Grim, grave and steadfast General John H. Reagan held 
the post-office portfolio with the same tenacity and quite 
the same satisfaction to his chief as did Mr. Mallory his secre 
taryship. Loyal, blunt and outspoken, he was the tried 
friend of Mr. Davis through good report and ill, and the latter 
trusted in his honesty even as he possibly overrated his 
judgment. To his recent death, which swept away the one 
remaining vestige of the Richmond cabinet, General Reagan 
was the quick and ardent champion of his dead chief, against 
every assault on plan or performance. Neither was the 
department of letters -conducive to added sociality; but the 


head and family of the assistant postmaster-general were 
so in large measure, as will be seen. 

Good men and true, doubtless, were all of these, but they 
scarcely counted in the sociality of the war, save one. Gen 
eral Randolph was a charming host, hospitable, frank and 
cultured. His wife was one of the most charming women of 
her day, graces of person, mind and heart blending in her to 
form a resistless personality. She had been Miss Mary Eliza 
beth Adams, of Mississippi, and had first married Mr. Pope, 
of Mobile. When still a brilliant young widow she married 
the noted Virginian. She was the soul of hospitality and an 
accomplished entertainer, so hers early became the most 
popular of official homes. She had the knack of making 
young and old, simple and high-placed alike, feel ownership. 
Mrs. Randolph was assisted by her niece, Miss Jennie Pollard; 
and the philosophic youth of war-time, knowing a good thing 
when they saw it, flocked to Mrs. Randolph s house as it had 
been a shrine curative of the blue devils. There reception, 
dance and theatricals followed in quick succession. In the 
last named the hostess promoted this writer to a post that 
has enabled him to rebuild from the debris of recollection a 
gilded structure, if it have some resemblance to the sand- 
projected palaces of Soliman the Magnificent. 

One ubiquitous and most acceptable social factor of the 
official circle \vas that polished and smooth brevet bachelor; 
Hon. Judah P. Benjamin, attorney-general with the plus 
sign. There was no circle, official or otherwise, that missed 
his soft, purring presence, or had not regretted so doing. He 
was always expected, almost always found time to respond, 
and was invariably compensating. He moved into and 
through the most elegant or the simplest assemblage on natural 
rubber tires and well-oiled bearings, a smile of recognition 
for the mere acquaintance, a reminiscent word for the inti 
mate, and a general diffusion of placid bonhomie. A Hebrew 


of Hebrews, for the map of the Holy City* was traced all 
over his small, refined face, the attorney-general was of the 
highest type of his race. Small and rotund, he was yet of 
easy grace in manner ; and his soft voice was not only pleasant 
of sound, but always carried something worth hearing. That 

he was a great and success 
ful lawyer all knew, and that 
he was an omnivorous de- 
vourer of books and of 
wonderful assimilative ca 
pacity. Astute and best 
informed, he was greatly 
regarded by Mr. Davis as an 
adviser. With his conduct 
of foreign affairs we may 
differ later, perhaps. He 
may have missed silver-lined 
opportunities in the over 
reach for impossible, golden 
ones. He may have de 
ceived himself and the peo- 

JUDAH P. BENJAMIN ^ ^ ^^ ^ ^ optimistic 

utterances as to intervention by the Powers, and he may 
have played the Confederates pawn abroad in a fool s 
"gambit." But socially the man was delightful and many- 
sided, and as popular with the young as with the older set 
about him. After the war Mr. Benjamin repeated the tri 
umph of Disraeli, and by the same force of personality and 
brain. He achieved, alone and as the best known represent 
ative of a lost and a disaster-strewn Cause, the quickest 
advance to a barrister ever known to the most conservative 
legal system of the planet. 

Hebrew in blood, English in tenacity of grasp and purpose, 
*The Arabs call Jerusalem "El Khuds" (the Holy City). 


Mr. Benjamin was French in taste, jusque au bout des angles. 
So were his family, and they never visited Richmond. In 
deed, in a knowledge of him extending to a decade before the 
war I recall but one visit made by them to this side of the 
water. Mrs. Benjamin had been Mile, de St. Martin and 
she lived with her two grown daughters, permanently in Paris 
where the girls married. But the secretary s brother-in-law, 
Jules cle St. Martin, was awhile in Richmond and later quite 
a toast in Baltimore society. Very small, faultlessly groomed 
and well equipped by travel and association, this gentleman 
was very much of a man. He was suave and decided and an 
expert in the code, as I chanced to learn. 

The second Confederate attorney-general was a noted 
Alabamian, though of Virginia-Georgia descent. His father, 
Thomas Hughes Watts, of Fauquier county, Va., married in 
1818, Miss Prudence Hill, of Clarke county, Ga., and immedi 
ately moved to Butler county, Ala., then the wild and lonely 
home of the Creek Indians. There in the next year, was 
born his son, Thomas Hill Watts. 

In a log-hut school house with a puncheon floor, that re 
ceived light and air through crevices of its sides and roof, the 
youth got its first education. Thence, at fifteen years he 
went to Airy Mount, in Dallas, and equipped for the Uni 
versity of Virginia, where he graduated with distinction in- 
1840. The next year he began practice of law in his home, 
and in 1847 removed from Greenville to Montgomery. 

Prior to the war he was an extensive plantation and slave 
owner, and he was a staunch supporter of Harrison against 
Van Buren, when a mere youth. Then, for three terms he 
was in the legislature. In later years, he was both repre 
sentative and senator from the Montgomery districts. In 
1848, he was a Taylor elector at large; and eight years later 
Know Nothing candidate for congress, but was defeated by 
a narrow margin. 


In the hot triangle of 1860, he labored for the Bell-Everett 
success. Vigorous in opposition, the election of Lincoln 
determined him to "go with his people." 

With William L. Yancey, he represented Montgomery 
county in the Secession convention of January 7th, 1861; 

and, as chairman of its ju 
diciary committee, did much 
toward taking his state out 
of the Union. 

Showing his faith, as did 
many an "original Union 
man" the lawyer changed 
Chitty for Hardee, raised the 
17th Alabama Infantry and 
became its colonel. While 
commanding it at Corinth, 
Mr. Davis chose Colonel 
Watts to succeed Mr. Ben 
jamin as law chief of the 
permanent cabinet. He pre 
ferred the field to the office, 
but he accepted the duty 
offered. In the following year, against his earnest protest, he 
was chosen governor of Alabama and held the office from 
1863 to 1865 the most trying epoch of the war. 

Post-bellum, Governor Watts returned to law practice; but, 
largely through assisting friends, soon found himself in debt 
for over $100,000. Of white integrity and indomitable cour 
age he bent every energy and every mastery of his profession 
to lifting the load; paying the debt in full before he died in 1892. 
Governor Watts was twice married: first, in 1842, to Miss 
Eliza B. Allen, who died in 1873, leaving six children. The 
second marriage was to the widow of J. F. Jackson, after two 
years of widowerhood; and she died in 1887, 



The six children of Thos. Hill Watts and Eliza B. Allen 
were: Florence S., Kate P., John W., Thomas H., Jr., Alice 
and Minnie G. Watts. 

The first married Col. Daniel S. Troy and left this family of 
five: Thos. W. Troy, married at Macon, Ga., and now resident 
in Honduras, C. A.; Florence Troy married Charles E. Hails, 
residing at Montgomery; Mary Troy, unmarried and residing 
at Philadelphia; Daniel W. Troy married Janie B. Watts and 
resides at Montgomery. Robert E. Troy married a Cuban 
lady named Trigi and lives at Honduras, C. A. 

Kate P. Watts, the second daughter of the governor, mar 
ried Robert M. Collins and left a family of six children: 
Robert M. Collins, a bachelor, of Montgomery; Lida B. Col 
lins, living unmarried at Washington City; William H. Collins, 
of Montgomery, unmarried; James Collins, single, of Wash 
ington, D. C.; Florence Collins married Albert J. Pickett, 
and residing at Montgomery; as does her sister, Miss Catherine 

Hon. John W. Watts, is today a leading member of the 
Montgomery bar and has a family of seven living children: 
Miss Gabriella Watts and Marion A. Watts, residing at Mont 
gomery; Marghereta, who married Gaston Scott, also resides 
there, as do Sophia W., Annie Campbell and Flournoy S., all 
single and residing in Montgomery. John W. Watts, Jr., 
lives in Jacksonville, Fla., and is a bachelor. 

Mrs. Johnness B. Watts (widow of Thos. Hill Watts, Jr.) 
has five children: John W. Watts, who married Miss Reid 
and lives in Birmingham; Ed. S. Watts, who married Miss 
Norwood and lives in Montgomery, as does his brother, 
Hugh K., who married Miss Pitcher; Troy Watts, a bachelor, 
and Janie B. Troy, wife of Daniel W. Troy. 

The youngest sister, Alice B. Watts, married Hon. Alex 
ander Troy, . resides in Montgomery with her son, Gaston; 
Alexander Troy having married Miss Thames, of New York. 


Even the most intense Virginian monopolizer will not hold 
that there are not families of Scriptural length in other states. 

The third and last attorney-general of the Confederacy 
the one who was the last of the cabinet to leave the flying 
president, in Georgia; and who survived him and the Cause 
until 1896 was another example of the force of Welsh blood 
in the arteries of the short-lived young government. In 
common with Jefferson Davis, G. T. Beauregard, and the 
President s brother-in-law, Robert Davis, the attorney- 
general was of good Welsh stock in paternal descent. On 
his mother s side he was English. 

George Davis was born at Wilmington, N. C., his father 
being Thomas F. Davis, a well-respected citizen of that old 

The young man was educated carefully and graduated, 
entering on the practice of law in his native town, when only 
twenty-one. He promptly made his way both in his pro 
fession and in politics, as an old-line Whig; gaining the con 
fidence of all classes, and the respect of his political opponents. 
Yet, in a long life, he never sought a political office. He was 
a prominent member of the convention that took his state 
out of the Union, in 1861 and was elected senator from North 
Carolina to the provisional congress. Re-elected in 1862, 
he was serving his term when selected by the President to 
fill the seat in his cabinet, vacated by the election of Gov 
ernor Watts to the head of Alabama s affairs. Conscientious, 
prudent and an excellent lawyer, he held the confidence of his 
chief until the very last gasp of the moribund government; 
accompanying the cabinet party in the evacuation of Rich 
mond, with Breckinridge, Mallory, Benjamin and Clement 
C. Clay. 

It was on his advice that the President acceded to the re 
quest of General Breckinridge, that the silver -bullion should 
be saved capture by pro rata distribution among the soldiers 


of the escort. And, parenthetically, there was no wilder one 
of all the wild "yarns" of that rumoriferous moment, than 
that which placed the "Confederate treasure" high up in 
the millions. Including the security fund deposited in the 
treasury by the Richmond bank and later returned to them 
by the government as private property the gross amount 
of the bullion brought from Richmond by Treasurer Tren- 
holm was not the quarter of a million. After the distribution 
to the soldiers and when the pressure of pursuit forced dis 
persion of the presidential party, Attorney-General Davis 
and the treasurer became custodians of the "treasure wagon," 
moving it toward Augusta. 

Nominally for this participancy, but really in punishment 
for steadfast adherence to his cause, Mr. George Davis was 
later arrested as a "state prisoner" and held in durance at 
Fort Hamilton, New York. 

After his release (on parole not to leave the State of North 
Carolina), the ex-official resumed the practice of his profes 
sion; prospering in it and regaining in part the losses from his 
adherence to public duty. He was general counsel for the 
several lines that consolidated in the Atlantic Coast Line; 
and then for that system. Then, in 1878, he was offered the 
chief-justiceship of his state, but was forced to decline for 
business reasons. His death, in his native city, in 1896 , 
brought regret and sorrow to his whole state and section. 

Judge Davis was twice married: first to Miss Adelaide 
Polk, of Holly Springs, Miss. Of this union came six children, 
of whom only two survive, the eldest Hon. Junius Davis, of 
Wilmington, and Meeta Alexander, who is now Mrs. George 
Rountree, of Wilmington, and has a family of four. 

Junius Davis has himself illustrated the old Welsh name 
and "has done the state some service." He is a prominent 
citizen and lawyer, with a fine practice, in which he has his 
son as partner, and he finds leisure for literature and general 


study, being president of the State Historical and Literary 
Society. He has, like his father, been twice married: first, 
to Miss Mary Orme Walker, who died leaving eight children. 
His present wife is Mary W. Cowan, and they have three 

The children of George Davis who died were Mary Eliza, 
Isabel Eagles, Emily Polk and Louis Poisson. The second 
Isabel, became Mrs. Spencer P. Shotter, now of Savannah, 
and has one child living. Emily Polk, the next sister, married 
John E. Crow, of Petersburg, Va., and left five childern to her 
husband, now of Wilmington. 

The second wife of Hon. George Davis was of historic 
Virginia family, Miss Monimia Fairfax, of Richmond. Her 
two daughters are Mary Fairfax (now Mrs. M. F. H. Gouver- 
neur, of Wilmington, and the mother of three children) ; and 
Cary Monimia (now Mrs. Donald Mac Rae, of Wilmington, 
and also the mother of three children). 

These Davises have never seemed a self-illustrative family, 
but they have plainly borne their parts in the private and 
public life of their Southland. 



THE homely saying that "it takes all sorts of people to 
make a world" finds especial verity at most national capitals. 
Naturally, its greater proof might be sought in the central 
city of a nascent republic, striving for life amidst the scat 
tered members of an old one, and that one hated where not 
despised, by most members of its successor. 

The flotsam and jetsam that had washed from Washington 
to Montgomery followed the hegira to Richmond. Echo 
from the "Cradle of the Confederacy" had penetrated to the 
banks of the James and, as has been stated, sent cold chills 
of apprehension down the sensitive Virginian spine. These 
soon wore away, but they early differentiated the personality 
of the leaders as the "official set." 

The sobriquet included one and all engaged in making, or 
marring the young government. Early and better elements 
of this hodge-podge came to the top, by reason of better 
mind and better manners. The fittest not only survived the 
governmental evolution, but were so appreciated as to be 
much sought by the best home element, indeed to become an 
integral part of it. 

Little may this change or its suddenness be wondered at 
on even casual glance at some components of the "official 

Next to the actual and active head of the Confederacy 




and his household, the vice-president ranked by virtue of 
his office. He had done so by other virtues, inherent and 

Hon. Alexander H. Stephens was a tried and respected 
politician, far and away from both sides of the not then 

clearly-marked line of Messrs. 
Mason and Dixon. He was 
idolized in the Cracker State, 
and the repeated expressions 
of her faith that had sent 
him to congress had begotten 
trust in the South and some 
fear in the North. Had the 
small South Carolina clique 
at Montgomery, headed by 
Lawrence M. Keitt, William 
W. Boyce and others, de 
feated the selection of Jeffer 
son Davis for the presidency, 
their choice had probably 
been Hon. Ho well Cobb, of 
Georgia. Possibly the North 
would have welcomed this 
substitution and been saved a tough fighter by it. Later, 
had Colonel Louis T. Wigf all s reported comment to Gen 
eral Chesnut that "Jeff Davis ought to be hung in Rich 
mond," resulted in a real and premature appletree, the 
North would have relished the vice-presidential succession 
very little. 

Naturally, both suggestions were of "the stuff that dreams 
are made of." There was never more reality in the Mont 
gomery than in the Richmond proposition, but they are noted 
to record the Northern view of the Sage of Liberty Hall. As 
in the South, Mr. Stephens was regarded as a keen, incisive 



thinker, and essentially as a conservative. The North pre 
ferred Mr. Davis, not understanding him remotely. It re 
garded him as a "fire-eater," denied him statesmanship or 
even judgment, and asserted that he would overleap himself 
in his mad and blind rushes. 

At the outset both sides to the war had an indurated belief, 
in popular circles, in its brevity. Each side believed it would 
whip the other in ninety days. 

Having no family, Mr. Stephens did not keep house in 
Richmond, but lived with those congenial friends, Judge and 
Mrs. Semmes. Nowise fond of general society, from which 
ill-health would have debarred him, he was ever a delightful 
addition to any circle. Quick to grasp, thoroughly informed 
and with quaint sub-acid in his dry humor, his talk was 
equally educating and entertaining. Not so quick and bitter 
less " rifled," so to speak he continually reminded me of 
Randolph of Roanoke. After the war he retired to Liberty 
Hall and preserved a reticence truly remarkable for such a 
magazine of important facts There he wrote his able and not 
divulgent book, contenting himself with doctoring and dis 
cussion, rather than directly stating new and important facts. 
One most mooted point, of equal interest, North and South, he 
did not settle, as he alone could have done. This was the 
alleged remark of Mr. Lincoln when the Hampton Roads 
conference broke up. The President, it was stated and 
without official denial at the time pushed a sheet of blank 
foolscap toward the Confederate vice-president arid cried: 

" Stephens, let me write Union at the head of that paper, 
and you may write anything you please under it!" 

Later this statement was denied; but neither by Mr. 
Stephens or Judge Campbell, the only direct witnesses pos 
sible. Both asserted that they had no option; that Mr. 
Davis s ultimatum was, and naturally, independence, be the 
other terms what they might. Lincoln s word "Union" 


could never have headed that. Looking at the characters 
and at the hardened principles of the two presidents, the 
Hampton Roads conference may have been the grandstand 
play to the nations that some writers declare it ; but it is still 
a pity that all who could really settle that point of it went 
to their graves with sealed lips. Mr. Stephens, like Judge 
Campbell, probably believed honestly, at that time, that the 
Confederacy had "died a-borning." He was indubitably 
ready to save further loss, strain and bloodshed, but he was 
powerless under that ultimatum. The speech of Mr. Lincoln 
is probable and I have no doubt that he made, and thought 
he meant it. Carrying it out had been another matter, 
especially in view of the mad Booth s pistol, but I know that 
it was reiterated in Mr. Stephens s presence, without 

Mr. Stephens died at Atlanta, in 1883, and was buried at 
Liberty Hall. His only surviving relatives are grandneph- 
ews and nieces; a notable one being Alex. W. Stephens of 
the Atlanta bar. 

One department not officially nominated in the cabinet 
was of such importance and far-reaching influence on the 
strength of the army as to be classed with the regular port 
folios. This was the commission for exchange of prison 
ers, under General Robert Ould. It demanded a man of 
mixed firmness and bonhomie, with widely extended acquaint 
ance and tried knowledge of human nature. All these centered 
in "Bob" Ould, and he was probably as near "the right man 
in the right place" as it is given appointees to be. 

Apparently the Federal officials did not wholly believe 
those wild "yarns" of the terror of Anderson ville, the Libby 
and other prisons, upon which they fed full the horror-hungry 
maw of their public. Did they so believe they stand con 
victed of negligence and heartlessness in refusing urgent and 
continued appeals for regular and prompt exchanges. 


For years Robert Ould had been one of the best known 
attorneys in Washington, popular in every club, cloak-room 
and cafe and influential by some occult process known only 
to the denizen in shadow of the dome. 

In early life he married Miss Sarah Turpin, of a family 
noted for its handsome women, herself said to be the " beauty 
of the state in her time." The pair were popular in Wash 
ington circles, and regret was general when they "went 
South." They brought to Richmond with them a little 
daughter, who upheld the repute of her mother s side 
in the new generation. 

Miss Mattie Ould did not 
enter her teens until the war 
was a year old. At its close 
and shortly thereafter she had 
made perhaps a wider reach 
ing fame than any belle of 
the 60 s. Forced into society 
when but a child, her strik 
ing and peculiar beauty had 
added to it a resistless manner 
and a wit that literally startled 
by its audacity and point. 
Men raved about her and 
women praised, although she 
was the cause of many a 


knight s recreancy. But 
dazzling as was her beauty, i 
it was probably her mental 
originality and her indescribable magnetism that made this 
mere girl a marked figure among the noted women about 
her. But her early triumphs were not presage of a bright or 
happy future. She did not live to reach their full fruition. 
Soon after the war and while still in her teens, she sur- 


prised her friends and set busybodies wondering by marry 
ing Oliver Schoolcraft. 

Almost without a honeymoon the gifted and beautiful 
young girl died. But young as she was, her beauty stands 
clear today on the memory of all who knew her, and Rich 
mond men and women are still repeating her epigrams. Miss 
Sallie Ould, the second sister, married Mr. George Donaldson 
and resides at Charleston, W. Va., when not traveling abroad. 
The only brother, Jesse Bright Quid, named for the 
burly old senator from Indiana now resides with his family 
at Unicoi, Tenn. The traditional beauty of the family is 
still evidenced at Mobile, in Mrs. J. Howard Wilson who 
was Miss Sallie Turpin, a first cousin. 

Late in life General Ould made a second marriage, the 
lady being the well-known Widow Handy. The beauty and 
society fame of her daughter, Miss May Handy, had carried 
the name to the bounds of the Union ere the lady made a 
tardy choice and became the second wife of James Brown 
Potter, of New York. 

It is a singular coincidence that the two most noted beau 
ties of the Richmond of the recent past should have come 
from the same household. 

In common with all who leave repute for wit, Miss Mattie 
Ould had had many things attributed to her which she not 
only did not say, but could not have said. Perhaps the most 
traveled one of these is that when found once with her head 
upon General Pierce M. B. Young s lapel, she only remarked 

" There s nothing odd about it; it is only an old head upon 
Young shoulders!" The thing is not like Miss Ould in either 
of its aspects. Audacious as she was beautiful, the girl was 
no fool ever, and only such publish little affairs, if they have 
them. Moreover, Young himself, on the last meeting we 
had previous to his death, told me that there was not the 


least foundation for the story. He added in his blunt way, 
" I never knew Miss Quid very well and never had such luck 
as that!" 

Young was reckless and essentially a "flirt," as the slang 
goes, but in a close intimacy covering years I never knew him 
to lie, and I do know of more than one case in which he went 
out of his way to see that justice was done to a woman s repu 

Two examples of Miss Quid s quickness I can personally 
vouch for. Shortly before her marriage she was at a dinner in 
Richmond with several lawyers, one of whom was a noted 
Munchaiisen; he was also a desperate drinker and held long 
sessions. He was boasting of one case in which he had earned 
a $30,000 fee, and then spent it in a single spree. Her table 
neighbor asked Miss Ould if she credited the story. Her 
answer was prompt: 

"I might doubt the storied earn, but he s all right for 
that animated bust!" 

A bumptious young lady-slayer was insisting that the 
brilliant girl had been giving him some confessions. Someone 
cried: "He your father confessor!" 

"Scarcely," she laughed. "He is only a gosling, and I 
am no such goose as to confess, except to the proper gander!" 

Two homes directly opposite the White House were notable 
ones in the social as well as the official life of Richmond. 
These were occupied by the families of Senator Thomas J. 
Semmes, of Louisiana, and of Judge John Archibald Camp 
bell, of the same state, assistant secretary of war. In the 
old government, no less than the new, this jurist had been a 
noted and potent factor. A native Georgian, he had moved 
to New Orleans in early professional life. There he made 
reputation so rapidly as to become head of a bar noteworthy 
for such advocates and orators as Semmes, Benjamin, 
Soule and their peers. 


Judge Campbell was the son of Duncan Greene Campbell 
and Mary Lawrence Williamson, and was born on the ances 
tral plantation in Wilkes county in 1811. Appointed to 
West Point by War Secretary John C. Calhoun, young Camp 
bell was called home before graduation by the death of his 
father. This possibly lost the world a good soldier, but gave 
it a great jurist. He early moved to Alabama, and while 
scarce more than a youth married Anne Esther Goldthwaite. 
She was of English parentage and her brothers and cousins of 
Goldth\vaite name have made the family notable in the sub 
sequent professional life and in social matters in the Gulf 

By this union there were six children, only one being a son, 
who was named for his grandfather. The five daughters have 
all helped to make social history in two capitals and many 
another city. Henrietta Goldthwaite, Katharine Rebecca, 
Mary Ellen, Anna and Clara. 

Duncan Greene, the son, married Ella, daughter of Charles 
B. Calvert, of Riverdale, Md. He survived this wife, dying 
in 1888 and leaving four children to the care of his father and 

Henrietta, the eldest sister, was a most popular and ad 
mired member of Washington society prior to the war, and 
esteemed as one of the most delightful women in its Richmond 
^replica. She had married Captain George William Lay, 
later aide-de-camp and confidential secretary to General 
Winfield Scott. This high post, with his rank of colonel, 
Lay resigned, taking the same grade in the Confederate ser 
vice, as Beauregard s inspector-general, in Virginia. Inva 
lided after the Seven Days fights, he was placed at the head 
of a special bureau of conscription with General John S. Pres 
ton, of South Carolina. A good soldier and true man, he 
died at New Orleans in 1867. 

The second Campbell sister, Katherine, married General 


V. D. Groner, of Norfolk, and the third, Mary Ellen, gallant 
and well-loved Arthur Pendleton Mason. The fourth is still 
Miss Anna Campbell and resides with her widowed sister, 
Mrs. Lay, in the Baltimore home left by their father. The 
fifth sister, the "baby of the family/ was Clara, now the wife 
of Fred M. Colston, a prosperous and much esteemed banker 
of the Monumental City. But the Mason pair, young, gifted 
and with all to live for, passed away in New Orleans soon 
after peace was declared. 

In war-time the Campbell home was much sought by the 
best of young and old in the new "capital." Mrs. Campbell 
was a gentle and delightful hostess and the attractiveness of 
her grown daughters and of the exceptional men of her 
household was a magnet for the grave as well as the gay. 
There were no strained rela 
tions between that family 
and others of the government 
to which its head had made 

Judge Campbell, like Gen 
eral Lee and scores of great 
Confederates, was an "origi 
nal Union man." He had 
practiced much in the supreme 
court at Washington, had 
been promoted to be one of 
its j ustices by President Pierce 
and was, naturally, saturated 
with national ideas. In the 

disruption of these he foresaw only suicide for Southern 
Rights, and he was outspoken of belief at the time of that 
so-called "Peace Commission," which the tergiversations of 
Mr. Buchanan made not only useless, but ridiculous. 

When New Orleans became impossible as a field for his pro- 


fession and Judge Campbell first moved his family to Rich 
mond, he was offered several positions of importance. Dif 
fering from Mr. Davis as he did, the latter still respected his 
gifts and his loyalty. But the jurist declined, although when 
he had found "blood thicker than water" and had come to 
his people, it was for better or worse. At first he refused all 
proffers, but when his personal friend, George W. Randolph, 
importuned his assistance in the war department, the old 
jurist accepted the post and held it under all changes until 
the evacuation. 

After the war he moved his family back to New Orleans, 
later devoted himself wholly to supreme court practice and 
returned to Washington. Changed conditions made that city 
no congenial home for the family and they went to Baltimore, 
where all the survivors reside, except Mrs. Groner, who lived 
in Virginia. 

In the early war the Southern sentiment toward the so- 
called " Union men," however earnest and useful in the cause 
they had adopted on principle, "my country, right or wrong," 
was much that of the North toward "copperheads." 
Thoughtlessness, that could not differentiate free thought 
from grand action, overlooked the fact that Robert Edward 
Lee, Alexander Hamilton Stephens and their peers, if they 
had any, were, like John Archibald Campbell, "original 
Union men." 

Of vital import at all times of war and most of all in 
a young country just forming its army is the adjutant- 
general. The secretary of war was helpless without a just, 
experienced and reliable guide to the fitness and records of 
new appointees. 

The Confederacy was peculiarly fortunate in this regard. 
General Samuel Cooper was a veteran of two wars, thoroughly 
familiar with the personnel of both armies; clear-headed and 
without prejudice. A West Pointer of the class of 1815, he 


had served with Harney in Florida and on both the Scott and 
Taylor lines in Mexico. When he succeeded General Roger 
Jones as adjutant-general of the United States Army, he 
had already learned the men whom he was to handle later 
and those whom they were to meet, two points invaluable in 
assignments and field of duty. He resigned and was among 
the earliest to tender service at Montgomery, and there and 
in Richmond was a trusted and capable adviser to his chief 
to the bitter ending. General Cooper was a Northern man, 
having been born at Hackensack, N. J., June 12, 1798. He 
was the son of Samuel Cooper and Mary Horton, sterling 
people of the little state. In the early 30 s he married Miss 
Sarah Maria Mason, grand 
daughter of George Mason, 
of Gunston Hall. Naturally, 
when promoted to adjutant- 
general of the old army, the 
family removed to the na 
tional capital. 

Mrs. Cooper was the daugh 
ter of a race noted for the 
strength, helpfulness and 
gentleness of its women. 
Prior to the war her quiet 
home in Washington had 
been a favorite resort of the 
best of official and society 
people, drawn thither by the 
beauties of person and char 
acter of her young lady daughter, Maria. One of the prettiest 
and best remembered weddings of the capital was when this 
universally loved girl married dashing Lieutenant Frank 
Wheaton, and Fitzhugh Lee, then of the slender rank, was 
best man. 



Eheu fugaces! The bride has been dead decades, but lives 
still in the memory of loyal friends and in her charming and 
tried daughter and her children. His native state, Rhode 
Island, has only lately reared a stately monument to Major- 
General Frank Wheaton and later still paeans and sobs 

mingled about the bier of his 
lifelong friend, Fitz Lee. The 
only child of General Wheaton 
and his beautiful and univer 
sally lamented wife was a 
daughter, named for her moth 
er. She married a young 
army officer, who gave his life 
for the old Flag at San 
Juan Hill Captain Ho well. 
His widow survives him, 
with a lovely family: Frank 
Ashley, Charles and Maria. 

In Richmond the young 
lady of the house was Miss 
Jennie Cooper, a sunny-na- 
tured woman, bright, frank and of strong character. 
Never having had the society craze, she did not topple 
her home "into the swim," but free and genial hos 
pitality met all who crossed its threshold and their name was 
legion. Captain Samuel Cooper was the only son, a quiet, 
easy-going fellow, always ready to do his duty, but not find 
ing it, as a general thing, in the social rush of the early Ws. 
He and his sister were the sole survivors of the family. He 
never married and lived with her at "Cameron," where he 
died two years ago. 

Popular with both sexes, Miss Cooper probably had more 
"reports" about her in war days and close thereafter than 
most women; many of them doubtless, with a basis. She 



married Nicholas Dawson, a merchant of Baltimore, but 
citizen of Virginia. The old family seat, " Cameron," near 
Alexandria, has been their home, the three children making 
the fourth generation its venerable walls have sheltered. 
Mrs. Dawson still resides there with her second son, Philip, 
of the Riggs National Bank, Washington. Cooper, the eldest 
child, recently married Miss Edna Horner, daughter of Major 
Horner, of the Confederate army. He has built a new home 
on the Cameron domain, to be near his mother; going into 
Alexandria for his business. The only daughter, Miss Maria 
Mason Dawson, still more recently married Rev. William 
Gibson Pendleton, grandnephew of General Pendleton of 
Confederate artillery fame. His father is Colonel William 
Nelson Pendleton, of the old and noted line. 

So, in the midst of her children, the widow finds solace in 
their happiness. 



NEXT door to the Campbell residence, and differing from 
it in details of attractiveness, was another much sought and 
ever delightful home. Senator Thomas Joseph Semmcs was 
the diametric opposite of his learned brother next door, in his 
secession views. He was an original of the advanced rank; 
had been a member of the convention that took Louisiana 
out of the Union, and his eloquence and ire in that body sent 
him to the Confederate upper house. A lawyer of high 
repute, Mr. Semmes had moved up the path to the head of 
the New Orleans bar steadily with Judge Campbell, but he 
believed that the South was safer out of the Union than in it. 

In a delightful mention from his sister, Mrs. Ives, she tells 
that she was his guest in New Orleans when the fires of seces 
sion were being fast fanned into the lambent ones of war. 
Admiral Raphael Semmes, their cousin, chanced to be a guest 
under the same roof. He was fitting out the little Sumter, 
predecessor of the famous Alabama, and was deeply impressed 
with the spirit of the masses. Mrs. Ives tells graphically 
of the wild ardor of the torch-lit and yelling throng that came 
to tell her brother of his selection and to escort him to the con 
vention hall. She also pictures the scene when the "Lone 
Star Flag," the Texan banner, sung by the minstrel Harry 
Macarthy, was first unfurled in the opera house. 

The flag enthusiasm of that hour was epidemic. Maggie 



Mitchell was at the Montgomery Theatre when I arrived and 
of course playing "Fanchon." The Texas flag reached the 
capital. That night, the canny little actress waved it, sang 
the refrain and danced a flag-dance, trampling the Stars and 
Stripes beneath her nimble feet, while the audience yelled 
itself speechless at her timely antics. The next time I met 
Miss Maggie was in Bulfinch street, Boston, but the war was 
over then, and she had quite "forgotten" her Montgomery 

Mrs. Semmes was a queen among hostesses ante-bellum. 
As Miss Myra Eulalie Knox, 
of Montgomery, she had 
queened the bellehood of her 
own and other cities. When 
she married the rising and 
brilliant lawyer she held her 
conquests in New Orleans, 
the watering-places and in 
the capitals of the old and 
new federations. Gracious, 
quick-witted and diplomatic, 
she had been educated in the 
more solid as well as the 
showier accomplishments. 
She was a born actress and 
an admirable musician, play 
ing the harp with especial 
grace and excellence. These 

gifts quickly and easily Car- (FROM A PORTRAIT BY HEALY) 

ried her to social leadership in Richmond, and there her 
house was a center for the most distinguished of the men of 
the hour, and no less for that young set whom she enter 
tained to their hearts content, and used to that of her own. 
In addition to the traits named, this matron had another 



and a better one. She was a real and unaffected altruist 
long ere that word grew to be a fad. So there was no more 
open house than the one opposite the executive residence 
and it held a singularly notable "mess": Vice-President 
Stephens, her husband s colleagues, Senator Sparrow and 
Senator Garland, of Arkansas. Another habitue of the 
Semmes household and almost a member of it was Hon. 
Pierre Soule, of their state, former senator and minister to 
Spain. This statesman, advocate and orator had a handsome 
face, introspective and rather priestly, that suggested little 
of the hot blood that would have spitted the Marquis de 
Tourgot, French ambassador to Spain, because the young 
Duke of Alva let a too glib tongue suggest an unpleasant 
likeness to Madame Soule. The cause celebre of that challenge 
and of the resulting and harmless duel of young Neville 
Soule with the Duke of Alva was laughed out of becoming an 
international complication. Great lawyer for the French, 
too, was Pierre Soule, the fervor of his speech swaying the 
courts formerly conducted in that tongue at New Orleans. 
He was a widower in Richmond days, the gentle, motherly 
woman I recall so well in Washington having passed away. 
His son, I think, married a Mexican lady, daughter of a 
Revolutionary leader who, the legend runs, was captured and 
boiled in oil! 

Full freighted with friendships and pleasant memories of 
Richmond, Mrs. Semmes returned to New Orleans after the 
war, her husband returning to the bar and rising to its head 
before his death. There, at advanced age, she relives her 
life of good works, busied in church and general charities 
and seeing her youth again in her numerous grandchildren. 

Her children are now Mrs. Sylvester P. Walmsley, Mrs. 
Albert Sidney Ranlett, Thomas J. Semmes, Francis Joseph 
Semmes and Charles Louis Semmes. 

Mrs. Semmes s daughters have many children. On one 


occasion a waggish old friend visited her city and the proud 
grandmother told him that one of them had eleven and the 
other seven. He replied promptly: 

"The youngest of each set should be named Craps/ of 
course." And when asked what he meant, repiled: "They 
come seven/ and come eleven!" 

Professor Alexander Dimitry was one of the most original 
and learned men ever put under the use of either govern 
ment. Greek by descent he was a native Louisianian, being 
the son of Andrea Dimitry and Celeste Dracos, of New Or 
leans. He was born in that city in 1805 and died there in 
1883. A natural student and devourer of languages, he was 
accredited with knowledge of no less than forty-one tongues 
and dialects. He graduated early at Georgetown College, 
returned to New Orleans and became the first English editor 
of L Abeille, of that city. He was also professor or principal 
of several private schools, later at the head of more than one 
college in Mississippi and Louisiana, and under Buchanan 
became chief of the translators of the department of state. 
In 1859 President Buchanan made him minister to Nicaragua 
and Costa Rica, which position he resigned when his state 
seceded from the Union. Incidentally it is interesting to 
note that he succeeded in this post another notable scientist, 
Hon. E. George Squier, who followed Stevens s explorations 
into Central American antiquities and was also the first hus 
band of the present Mrs. Frank Leslie. 

Arriving in Richmond, Professor Dimitry was made as 
sistant to General Reagan and the chief of the finance 
bureau of the post-office. The family was a noted one. 

Mrs. Mary Powell Mills Dimitry was daughter of Robert 
Mills, of Charleston, her mother being daughter of General 
John Smith, of Hackwood, Frederick county, Va., where he 
was colonel in the army and county lieutenant during the 
Revolution, and later for sixteen terms member of the United 


States congress. Robert Mills was grandson of the colonial 
governor of Carolina and cousin of General Monk, Duke of 
Albemarle, who restored Charles II after Cromwell s death. 
Robert Mills was an architect and civil engineer and was in 
the office of Benjamin H. Latrobe in Philadelphia. He was 
the first United States architect, appointed by Andrew Jack 
son and in thirty years service built scores of public struc 
tures in all parts of the country, the Patent Office, Washing 
ton Monument and Treasury colonnade being among them, 
and he was all the while "capitol architect." The Washing 
ton Monument in Baltimore, Memorial church in Richmond, 
parts of the University of Virginia and Charleston Custom 
House are also credited to him. 

The Dimitry family in Richmond included the Misses 
Eliza Virginia Dimitry (later Mrs. E. F. Ruth, deceased), 
Elizabeth Linn Dimitry (Mrs. C. M. Selph), deceased, Ma 
tilda T. Dimitry (Mrs. W. T. Miller), and five sons, John Bull 
Smith, Charles Patton and Alexander, were all in the army 
as privates, John being dangerously wounded in a charge at 
Shiloh. Robert, Andrea and Thomas Dabney were under 
possible fighting age. All these bright girls and gallant 
educated youths, who did so much to aid the higher inter 
course of the younger set, are now across the shadowy border, 
except Charles Patton. Mrs. Miller died only two years since; 
leaving a son, Mr. Mills Miller, in New York. Charles 
Dimitry, after a brilliant and scholarly life in literature and 
journalism, is now the blind historian of Louisiana. 

The capital held no household more thoroughly charming 
than that of Colonel and Mrs. Joseph C. Ives, of the presi 
dent s staff. For a few years preceding the war they had been 
noted as the handsomest pair in Washington society. This 
was at a day when Burnside, McClellan, Crosby and Michler 
were young beaux and regnant beauties vied for the apple 
at every levee. 


Young Ives graduated with distinction from West Point 
during General Lee s superintendence of that institution; 
went into the Engineer Corps and was early sent on the ex 
ploration of the Colorado river. On that expedition his 
work was so commended that he was ordered to Washington 
for duty under the chief engineer of the army. About that 
time he met the beauty of the Semmes family, of George 
town, famed for its pretty women and noted men. Of course 
the handsome young soldier loved her most men did. They 
were married but a short while when wedding chimes changed 
to war s alarums. Ives was of Northern family, but asso 
ciation made him Southern in sentiment, and he took his 
wife and young children to 
Richmond. There he was 
hailed as an acquisition and 
given position as chief en 
gineer on General Lee s staff. 
This he held with credit 
until he was transferred, at 
the President s personal re 
quest, to his own staff as 
engineer aide-de-camp. Mr. 
Davis had known the Ives 
couple in Washington and 
assigned the husband to 
double duty, of which part 
devolved upon his wife. Be 
sides discussing engineering COLONEL JOSEPH c. 
problems and the defenses, 

Mr. Davis found the elegance of this couple such that he turned 
over to thorn the entertainment and care of distinguished 
foreigners whom interest or curiosity brought into the steel- 
walled capital. The soldiers of fortune, those of sympathy 
and the correspondents of the foreign press were met in Mrs. 


Ives s home. That it was not classed as a salon was prob 
ably due to its official character as a detached segment of the 
White House. 

When the Marquis of Hartington, accompanied by Lord 
Edward St. Maur, made that semi-official visit to Richmond 

which so disquieted the North 
for a space, the noblemen 
were placed in entire charge 
of Colonel and Mrs. Ives. 
That they were well content 
with the result is plain. 
W T hen Mrs. Ives visited Lon 
don, post-bellum, Hartington, 
then Duke of Devonshire, 
promptly found her out and 
offered her the courtesies 
of the peers gallery of the 
House of Lords. 

The Ives home was an open 
and much sought one, young 
and old alike admiring the 
handsome pair and their love 
ly sister, Mrs. Clara Semmes Fitzgerald. This charming elder 
sister had married Lieutenant William B. Fitzgerald, of the 
old navy. He promptly resigned, was made colonel in -the 
army and given defense of the furthest advanced post on 
the Potomac. The exposure broke him down and early 
widowed his devoted wife. Both these ladies were convent 
reared, the elder being a splendid musician and one of the 
most delightful harpists I recall. It is a coincidence that the 
wife of her brother, Senator Thomas J. Semmes, was the only 
other very noted performer upon Sappho s instrument in 
Richmond society of that day. 

But besides her gifts as an entertainer Mrs. Ives was one 



of the most industrious and resourceful workers for the sol 
diers and for the poor among that noble band of Richmond 
women. She practiced what the flowery Oriental preaches, 
and her house and all it contained was at the disposal of the 
needy. There had been no let or stay to this in the beautiful 
evening of her life. The two widowed sisters lived together, 
Mrs. Fitzgerald broken in health and Mrs. Ives tending her 
with the faithful gentleness of mother and sister combined. 
The latter days of both passed in that deep content that only 
love and religion can bring. Those of the younger sister have 
been brightened by the fine maturity of three sons, but deeply 
shadowed later by the loss of two. Captain Edward B. Ives, 
chief of the Electrical Bureau, United States Army Signal 
Corps, was laid at rest at 
Arlington in the fulness of 
a brilliant and useful career. 
Major Frank J. Ives, who 
was surgeon on Chaffee s staff 
in China, was later in the 
Philippines. He was men 
tioned in General Bates s ; 
report of the Cuban cam 
paign; and years ago in 
Indian wars won the title of 
the " righting doctor." Only 
in November last, he was 
laid to rest beside his elder 
brother, at Arlington. The 

yOUngeSt SOn, a lawyer, llVeS (FROM A PORTRAIT BY SULLY) 

in Arizona. And so, amid soft lights and gentle shadows, 
sunset was awaited by the tender twain. 

It came first to the elder sister. Mrs. Clara Semmes Fitz 
gerald died at the Ives home, in Saratoga Springs, on Sep 
tember 7, 1906. In the supreme calm of her great faith her 


sister now awaits the new meeting with the loved ones gone 

In all the mad rush of that pre-bellum winter in Washing 
ton, 1860-61, when grave heads shook ominously and light 
heels danced over a powder magazine and recked little when 
the fuse might reach, one handsome woman was constantly 
in evidence. Colonel A. C. Myers, of the quartermaster- 
general s department, had married the brilliant and pictur 
esque daughter of old General David E. Twiggs, of Mexican 
War fame. Grave and reticent as he was polished and ac 
complished, the husband was much older than his wife. 
Moreover, he had as perfect a contempt for what he called 
society as his wife held delight in it. No Othello in character, 
Colonel Myers was willing to let the young beauty dance and 
fritter the hours away at will. For several seasons prior to 
the war she had been the reigning queen of Willard s and a 
favored guest in every fashionable house. Her dancing was 
perfect, her tact equal to it and her beauty even more ex 
ceptional. Two pretty little girls were not too much in 
evidence, and the youthful mother enjoyed her freedom to 
the full. So when the news floated through the snuffy cor 
ridors of the war department a little later that Myers had 
resigned, the junior warriors doubtless felt vicarious regret 
for the absence of his wife. 

The colonel was an able and experienced soldier well 
known to Mr. Davis and General Cooper, and was promptly 
appointed quartermaster-general on reaching Montgomery. 
Very valuable service he rendered, too, and the regular uni 
form adopted by the war department was, in larger part, of his 
design. Toward the end, as was foreshadowed in that Mont 
gomery board, the uniform was what any poor fellow could 
get. At first however, the companies, battalions and some 
times whole regiments, poured in with nondescript clothing 
that suggested ancient Joseph as their military tailor. Some- 


times one company was frogged and laced in parade dress and 
the next in homespun and home-made butternut. The 
heads saw that for service as well as appearance there must 
be uniformity so far as practicable. 

A board was ordered to pass upon the preliminary design 
for a service uniform. It consisted of Colonel Myers as pres 
ident, Colonel George Deas, of the .adjutant-general s de 
partment, my brother, Surgeon D. C. De Leon, acting sur 
geon-general, Colonel Tom Taylor, of Kentucky, another 
volunteer, with Pierce M. B. Young, then fresh from West 
Point and three years later a major-general, as recorder. 
The French model for Chasseur s-a-pied was adopted and, 
slightly changed, was used thereafter. There are as many 
claimants for the Confederate uniform as there are for the 
flag or the authorship of " Along the Potomac/ or " Lines 
on a Confederate Note." The above are the facts, four of 
the board having been my mess-mates, and talked uniform 
ad nauseam. 

Mrs. Meyers was not permanently in Richmond, going 
abroad, I think, to educate her children. When she was 
there, however, her grace and beauty made the same im 
pression as they had done in the older capital. 

The two bright and pretty little girls of the Washington 
days grew to pretty and popular society women, and both, 
have long been matrons. Miss Elizabeth Twiggs Myers 
first married Algernon C. Chalmers, of Halifax county, Va. 
There are three Chalmers children, Algernon C., Marion 
Twiggs, now the wife of William Bryant, son of Captain 
John Carlyle Herbert Bryant, of the Confederate army, of 
Alexandria, and David Twiggs Chalmers. When widowed, 
their mother married William C. Fendall, son of Townshend 
Dade Fendall, of Alexandria, where the family now 

Miss Marion Isabelle Myers first married Frederick Payne, 


of the United States Navy, and later William Twombly, of 
the Paris-American colony, but now living in Florence. 

There are two brothers, also; William Hey ward Myers is 
now general superintendent of the Northern Central Railway, 
and the Philadelphia and Erie of the Pennsylvania system, 
and the younger is Major John Twiggs Myers, United States 
Marine Corps. 

There is a little war reminiscence added to this historic 
family since the advent of peace. Three swords had been 
presented to General Twiggs at different times, for service in 
defence of the old flag. One was by resolution of congress, 
another by his native state of Georgia, and the third by the 
city of Augusta. These trophies were taken from the resi 
dence in New Orleans by General Butler. They were re 
turned to the family after a suit in the supreme court of the 
United States, conducted by Hon. John Randolph Tucker. 

Eighteen years ago General Myers died at Washington, and 
four years later, at Alexandria, his wife followed him. 



IN most cities of the "Old South," especially those that 
boasted colonial origin, as Creole Louisiana, Huguenot Caro 
lina, or the " Virginia Plantations," society trended to a 
"four hundred." In the last, even from earliest days, 
as has here been shown, the landed gentry and learned 
professions held social vantage. The encroachments of the 
moneyed element were slower there than in the busier North. 

Sometimes in Richmond the oldest families held aloof 
from the social swim, thereby abrogating no right to plunge 
into it at will. These formed a social reserve to the advance 
guard of gaiety and hospitality, but at the advent of the 
government the latter were marked enough, both in quality 
and quantity, to make that city a noted leader in Southern 
matters social. 

One of the gayest of the Richmond homes, and one of 
the most elegant and luxurious, was the Macfarlands . Pre- 
bellum it had been both, but with just a suspicion of frost 
in the atmosphere. 

Mr. Macfarland was a gentleman of the old school, prim 
and with fixed ideas. In a land and era of reckless dressing, 
he was notable by his perfect grooming. Regularly as 
clockwork he passed to and from his mansion and the bank 
of which he had long been the head clad in immaculate 
broadcloth, gloves and silk hat, which no rigor of blockade 


seemed potent to avert. This produced something akin 
to awe in the verdant soldier, and did not always escape 
the flippant jokers of that day. 

Mrs. Nancy Macfarland, a gentle and gracious matron 
of the old school, had ever been loved as much as respected 
by all who knew her. So, despite the flippant and perhaps 
the envious unbidden to it, the home was one of the most 
typical and much sought in Richmond at all times. During 

1 the early war days it was 
gladdened by as fair and 
charming a bevy of maidens 
as ever graced an old South 
ern home. 

Miss Turner Macfarland 
was a debutante, bright, 
blooming and budlike enough 
to have almost justified the 
impertinence of Page McCar- 
ty s versed statement that 
/ "A saint his lips would 


On taking in the rosy charm 
of tender Turner Mac!" 


(TURNER MACFARLAND) Genuine, frank and wom- 

anly, this sole daughter of the house and heart of the 
old banker was permitted to fling wide the curtains 
and let the warmest sunshine of society and joyousness 
into the staid parlors. Popular and most attractive 
herself, she had ablest coadjutors in four sparkling and 
petite cousins, the Misses Bettie and Susie Bierne, Bierne 
Turner and Mrs. Breckinridge Parkman. All these were 
charming women. The Bierne sisters were heiresses of the 
famous Old Sweet Springs lands, and their conquest of 
belleship had been easy in Northern cities, at New Orleans 


carnival seasons and at the seaside resorts and the then peer 
less White Sulphur. So the once grave mansion bloomed 
as a social conservatory during some dark hours of the great 
struggle. But the dull shadow came there, too, as will be 

Brilliant and beautiful women graced all branches of two 
old families historic in Virginia. No parlors of the capital 
were sought more eagerly than those of Mrs. James West Pe 
gram, who had been Miss Virginia Johnston, daughter of 
the famous "Turf King." 

Her elder daughter was highly accomplished, a stately 
yet affable woman and the most noted conversationalist 
of her day. She was an experienced and loved teacher of 
girls, many a belle of the 60 s owing much of her attraction 
to "Miss Mary s school." Admirable exponent of a school 
fast dying out, she inherited the courtly graces of the gentlest 
of mothers. The Pegram home was as much sought by 
the more mature society as by the best gilded of the youth, 
and it was especially popular with the foreign officers who 
had offered their swords to Lee. 

One and all, these found double attraction in the bright 
and gracious younger members of the family. Miss Jennie 
Pegram, the younger sister, was a belle whose unsought 
reign had scarcely a compeer in war days. Dignified, gentle 
and quiet, she was never disparaged as a coquette, but there 
were rumors unceasing of serious beaux rising disconsolate 
from her feet. And in those happy parlors were cousins 
with the family traits, petite Miss Fanny and laughing Miss 
Mary Truxton Johnston "Truxie" to half of the state; 
pretty and musical Miss Mattie Paul, and many another 
came and went and conquered? 

After the war Miss Pegram became the wife of General 
Joseph R. Anderson, whose Tredegar Works made the Hamp 
ton Roads tug of Monitor and Merrimac a possibility and 


aided in the long life of the struggling Confederacy. Now 
widowed, after ten years of happy married life, Mrs. Ander 
son resides in the elegant Richmond home, where she dispenses 
old-time hospitality. 

Miss Jennie also surrendered and to another good old Reb 
el. She married Colonel David Gregg Mclntosh, of South 
Carolina, who from Sumter to Appomattox illustrated his 
state s high traits on red fields that brought his well-earned 

promotion. In her long 
time Baltimore home she 
repeats the gentle tri 
umphs of her youth over 
the hearts of both sexes. 
No one would suspect her 
of being a grandmother. 
Her first daughter, named 
for and very like her, 

died unmarried. The sec 
ond, Margaret, is the wife 
of William Waller Morton, 
of Richmond, and has 
hosts of friends there and 
in Baltimore. This mar 
riage gives Mrs. Mclntosh 

MRS. DAVID GREGG M iNTosH her double claim to play 

the venerable: her only 

son and youngest child recently married the popular Miss 
Charlotte Lowe Rieman, also of Baltimore. 

Miss Fannie Johnston married an artist, Mr. Britton, 
and died after a brief married life. Her children reside in 
South Orange, N. J., and her sister, Miss Truxton, is with 
them. She has spent much of her later life abroad and is 
still unmarried. 
One of the most noted families in recent Richmond, and 


one that took on quite biblical proportions, was the Haxalls. 
All four of the pairs that headed it, save one, had many de 
scendants and these married and intermarried into such 
other notable houses as the Wises, Masons, Tuckers and 
Tripletts, the Gordons and the Lees. 

William H. Haxall, the exception in the family, had no 
children, living with his wife in the main street home so 
popular with their old-time friends. 

Boiling Walker Haxall married Miss Anne Triplett, sister 
of William S. of that name, whose daughters, Misses Lizzie 
and Mary, were so noted in the younger war society. The 
eldest of this branch of the Haxalls was Miss Louisa Triplett, 
now Mrs. Charles K. Harrison, of Baltimore, lately widowed; 
whose family of nine sons and three daughters are her pride 
and solace and with good reason. The daughters are all 
married, but none of their brothers has yet followed that 
good example. Mrs. Harrison herself was one of the buds 
of Richmond society just before General Grant meddled 
seriously with it. She was a lovely girl, but always of rather 
an earnest turn, a result of surroundings, largely. In a recent 
letter she reminds me : 

"In our house, as in many in Richmond, one large room 
was devoted to the sick and wounded soldiers. The cots 
were arranged as in a hospital, and filled again as soon .as 
emptied. My father never bought one dollar in gold until 
the last week of the Confederacy; did not think it patriotic, 
and did not allow me to be dressed in anything brought 
through the blockade for the same reason. We sold our 
carriage to buy food when the Yankees took possession, 
having no United States money. 

"My mother, as did many ladies, baked bread regularly 
twice a week for the Robinson Hospital, directly behind 
our house." 

Thus it will be noted that this mother was one of those 


bees who gave honeyed charity and love to the needy, and 
that Boiling Haxall was loyal in the Covenanters fashion. 
The only daughter of his house was young in the trying days, 
but took the color of her life from its sacrifices. Her three 
brothers were still younger. William, the eldest boy, is 
now a farmer and much of a town magnate at Bartonsville, 
Orange county, Va. The next brother, Boiling W., also 
makes the " sacred soil" yield him bread, farming in Loudon 

county. John Triplett Hax 
all, born during the war, 
now resides in Baltimore. 
He married the youngest 
daughter of Douglas Gordon, 
of Fredericksburg. They 
have three daughters and 
one son, Triplett, Jr. The 
second brother, Boiling, mar 
ried Miss Noland and has a 
family of four, three of them 
being girls. 

The Barton Haxalls were 
more in the social whirl, 
there having been several 
young ladies of that family, 
and popular ones: Clara, 
Lucy, Agnes, Hallie ; May and 
Charlotte having been only young girls at the war s close. 
The last, Mrs. Robert E. Lee, Jr., is dead; as is Fannie, 
another sister who grew up after the war and never married. 
Rosalie, the youngest, is now Mrs. C. Powell Noland, the 
mother of three daughters and four sons. Of them, Lloyd, Bar 
ton, Powell, Jr., Philip and Charlotte are all grown and are 
lately described as " splendid young people, self-supporting, 
all of them, including the" daughter. " 



The eldest sister, Clara (Mrs. Grundy), was very popular 
in Richmond. She had two daughters, Mrs. Pue, now living 
in Baltimore county, Md., and Mrs. Leake, residing in Rich 
mond. Barton Grundy married Miss Branch and also lives 

Miss Lucy Haxall is now Mrs. Edward Lees Coffey, of 
New York City. She has a son, Barton, lately married, and 
a daughter, Lucy, who married Charles DeKay. They have 
several children. 

The third of these sisters, Agnes, wedded one of the best 
loved and most courtly gentlemen of his day, Warrington 
Carter. She left one son, Shirley, who lives in Virginia. 

Hallie Haxall, the next, married Henry A. Wise, Jr., a 
minister. They had numerous progeny who died young, 
and one married son; but his line is now extinct, except one 
female grandchild. 

Mrs. Alexander Cameron, of Richmond (Mary Parke), 
is the mother of twelve sons and daughters. All of them 
live in the home city except one daughter who married in 
Harrisburg, Pa., and one son, a rising business man of that 

Dr. Robert Haxall, the other of the senior four, died years 
ago. His widow removed from the old Grace street home 
they had built, to Washington. There she lived until her 
death, eight years since. And today there is but one of 
the old name still in Richmond, the junior Barton Haxall, 
whose brother Phil is now a bright memory only of days 

There are a number of fast vanishing pictures that stand 
out clearly against the misty background of memory. None 
of these better illustrates the good old times than the house 
hold of Colonel James Lyons. Seated about a mile from 
Richmond, Laburnum was a typical home of the gentry, 
having the English exclusiveness in delightful amalgam with 


genuine American hospitality. There young and old of 
the home set delighted to respond to frequent bidding, 
and the number and the warmth of these increased with 
the influx of accredited strangers. 

At the outbreak of the war Mr. Lyons was a widower 
with a grown family. About that time he married a beauti 
ful Louisianian who had been educated in Richmond. Miss 
Imogene Penn was regarded as one of the best posed, as 
well as prettiest belles of the incoming decade, and her 
gentleness, grace and thorough tact made her popular and 
hold her in living remembrance. She had two younger 
sisters, Misses Norma and Bertha Penn, just finishing their 
education in Richmond when the war came; but they fled 
southward and escaped the gods of war and love alike. Mrs. 
Lyons died young and without children. Her husband 
survived her some years, but the cloud over Laburnum that 
her passing left was never lifted until its occupancy by 
another noted Virginian, who died there lately, lamented by 
all Joseph Bryan. 

During Mrs. Lyon s reign the very cream of war society 
was found there, and today no habitue writes or speaks 
of the giddy and long-guarded capital without mention of 
the Lyons home. 

The Misses Penn did not permanently escape by flight 
from Richmond. Miss Bertha became Mrs. Krumbhaar, 
of New Orleans, and is now the mother of six children, some 
of whom are notable in all social functions. Miss Norma 
married Mr. Conrad, and is now a childless widow residing 
with her sister at the Penn Flats in that city. 

Mr. Lyons was not only prominent in social matters, but 
also in the graver one of the law. He was long a leading 
member of the Richmond bar and a trusted and clear-headed 
adviser in all affairs of private and public moment. Ur 
bane as strong, dignified yet suave, he carried into serious 


actions of life the same high methods that made him as much 
respected as liked in the pleasanter, if quite as difficult, 
field of social success. In his passing away another link 
was stricken from the shortening chain that holds the old 
school to the new. 

Peter Lyons, his son by the first marriage, was heir to 
many of the traits that had made his father s popularity. 
He married in early life, and while the war was still in progress, 
the beautiful Miss Addie 
Abbott Deane, one of the 
pair of graceful and bright 
sisters who made the home 
of Dr. Francis H. and Mrs. 
Elizabeth Drew Deane so 
haunted by the best of the 
time s gilded youth. The 
three daughters of this union 
were the pride and solace of 
the lovely widow s heart. 
They had grown to woman 
hood and were all happily 
married: the eldest, Eliza 
beth Deane Lyons having L 
wedded Hon. Claude H. 
Swansori, the noted and 
popular governor of Virginia, in the outset of his successful 
career. Addie Heimingham became Mrs. Henry Bohmer. 
Lucy Lyons married Cunningham Hall. 

It was just three years ago, that in the flush of health 
and happiness, Mrs. Lyons was suddenly taken from her 
sister and her children. On the very night of her son-in- 
law s nomination to the first office in the gift of his state, 
she dropped dead. So sudden was her taking that the blow 
stunned family and friends; and Mrs. Swanson recently 




wrote that she found an unfinished letter to me on her 
mother s desk, after her death. 

The other sister, Anna Mead Deane, married Mr. Dabney 
Jefferson Carr and still resides in Richmond, surrounded 
by a family of five, and the friends and bright memories 
of happy youth. The Carr children are Dabney Jefferson, 
Wilson Gary Nicholas, Wallace Deane, Anna Deane and 
Gary Peyton Carr; all unmarried. In the third generation 
there is but one: Douglas Deane, the three-year-old son of 
Mrs. Cunningham Hall. 

Another name that then sat pleasantly on every lip and 
has since lived in the kindliest memory of all who knew them, 
was that of the Allans: differentiated as the " Scotch" and 
" Irish" Aliens. 

Mrs. John Allen, in her picturesque old home, was 
the soul of gentle and genuine hospitality. Hers was 
the family that had befriended the erratic and immortal 

Captain Willie Allen, the son of this lady, was deservedly 
one of the best loved and most respected of the younger 
set. Frank, generous and brave, he was as true as Mr. 
Hay s Jim Bludso, for seeing his duty, 

"He went for it thar an then!" 

Not essentially a society man in the finesse of the carpet 
knight, his truth and gentleness of personality won to him 
the reckless and the brilliant alike. Recently one of the 
greatest, yet most unspoiled, belles of that pleasant past 
wrote : 

"One thing I do remember is that I danced my 
first german with you in Mrs. Enders great parlor. My 
second I danced with Willie Allen. He did most of 
it on my insteps. Oh, he was a noble gentleman, but a cruel 

But there was not a girl in all Richmond who had not wet 


with hot tears the lint she scraped, had that bad dancer 
stopped a live Minie ball. 

William Allen, of Claremont "Buck" Allen, or Willie 
" Irish" Allen, as known to his intimates, or to distinguish 
him from the " Scotch" Aliens did not actually belong to that 
family at all. He was a dashing young Irishman indis 
putably of good blood and rearing, named William Orgain. 
Of superb physique, generous impulses and broad handed 
generosity and a constitution his entire life proved a marvel 
ous one, he was universally popular with men and 

Old William Allen, owner of the magnificent estates of 
Claremont, on the James, in Surry county, was a bachelor. 
He offered to leave them to young Orgain, if he would change 
his name, a proposition naturally accepted. The new mas 
ter soon became as popular as his namesake; his genial hos 
pitality and princely entertainments making his repute as a 
host a national one. He was a great horseman, hunter 
and sailor; had a craze for rare stock and pits, was 
unhappily overindulgent to his own tastes for the best 
of solids and fluids. He made money flow like water, and 
all bibulants flow like the money; and in the early days 
of the war his presence in Richmond with his yacht, 
"The Breeze," was ever an event for the home and visiting 

Allen married the beautiful Miss Catherine Jessup, of 
Canada; a high bred and gracious woman, whose native 
gentleness and courtesy made her a swift coadjutor in his 
hospitality. She was ever as helpful, with hand as well as 
purse, in the work of her less wealthy sisters in Richmond, as 
though she had been native there. After a time, the shadows 
came to her forehead and her clear eyes; but no other ex 
pression was ever given to any needs in her for sympathy 
or assistance, in her domestic life. The memories of the 


war-time are broidered with bright details of her pretty en 
tertaining of young and old. 

None of the original Allen name are now living, save in 
those pleasant traditions, out of which histories are builded. 
But the Orgain Aliens had one son, Willie Allen, now a lawyer 
and referee in New York. He married the beautiful Miss 
Minnie Anderson, daughter of the noted Confederate general, 
and later mayor, of Savannah. They live in handsome 
style in the big city and have no children; but Mrs. Allen 
gained some vogue in literature, by her "Love Letters of a 
Liar," printed in "Town Topics," and later in book form. 
This couple never occupied Claremont. 

William Allen, after the war, lived at Curls or Claremont, 
in the old way; but his death was a pitiable one: alone, on 
the James, in his little sailboat. 

There were a number of others, among the society cen 
turions, well worthy of ampler note than space permits. 
Temptation is strong to linger among them, passing from 
door to door and rendering its meed to each. 

There were the Warwicks, a popular household, shadowed 
by the early death in battle of its sons Bradfoote and Barks- 
dale Warwick, loved by all who came within their contact. 
The then young lady of the name is now the widow of Captain 
Dick Poor, of Baltimore, but the little one, Imogen, who 
had posed for Washington s "Latane" died years ago. 

Cheery and ubiquitous Judge and Mrs. Crump were always 
agreeable and always helpful. They passed the boundary 
years ago, but left a family of four, the two daughters of 
which are now Mrs. Lightfoot and Mrs. Tucker. Others, as 
the Enders, Cabells, Freelands and more, we shall meet 

Ex uno disce omnes. It is given to no pen, however truth 
fully it try, to write all the truth. Where is the old-timer- 
facing the sunset, and watching his own shadow lengthen 


and loom gigantesque who does not feel, as he glances over 
his shoulder, that 

" The mossy marbles rest 
On lips that he has prest 

In their bloom; 

And the names he loved to hear 
Have been carved for many a year 
On the tomb." 


ONE time-honored custom, theretofore considered all es 
sential, that the war almost wholly abrogated, was the de 
mand for chaperonage. 

In the good old times in the South and in Washington and 
Baltimore, which best voiced the proprieties of the South, 
the teens were dormant, if yet tyrannous. A young girl 
would as soon have thought of wearing a modern bathing 
costume or sporting divided skirts as of going alone to a ball, 
even with her very best young man. This was due, in Wash 
ington, to its early tinge of the cosmopolitan and to its whirl 
of gaiety and great admixture. For the Washington of the 
Fillmores and of Miss Lane was, on a miniature scale, as Jo 
seph-coated and as polyglot as in the millionaire Mecca of 

In the South the custom was lawful progeny of home edu 
cation. There woman was regarded with a tender venera 
tion that was a heritage from the days when the gentlemen 
donned metallic suits and mounted plated steeds to ride around 
the world at windmills, armed with a sharp stick and a dull 
sense of the difference betwixt meum and tuum. Young 
girls of the sunny section were reared so tenderly that the 
winds of heaven might not visit them too roughly, and they 
were ever chary of contact with the other sex, nor prod 
igal enough to do any unveiling to the man in the moon. 



Neither were they made self -helpful in the necessity -born 
methods of today. They were, generally in the towns and 
invariably in the slave-crowded plantations, scarcely per 
mitted to lace their own slippers or stays. That they were 
capable, however, was proved by the first and lasting response 
they all gave to the real demand the war made upon them. 
At its call these cherished darlings of Southern homes de 
scended, as one woman, from the pedestals upon which the 
Quixotic chivalry had elevated them, and wrought to the 
bitter ending, and after it, in wholly unused methods and 
places, as though born to effort and to success. They sewed 
rough fabrics for rough men with their delicate hands, cooked 
wonderful messes for camp and hospital out of slenderly 
stocked pantries; they dressed wounds with never a tremor 
or a flush of false modesty. 

Small wonder then that the true men of the South fought 
as well and as long as they did; it was for their true women. 

But the belles of ante-bellum days were reticent with their 
beaux. Those were the days when the soda-fountain, the 
ice-cream saloon and the post opera restaurant were not the 
prime media of inter-communication between the young of 
the two sexes. 

Then, to take Washington once more as exemplar, the 
chaperone was a constant if not always wakeful factor. And 
those old mothers were Trojan in their fear of the most Gre 
cian of gift-bearing youth. A stiff bouquet, with a prim 
laced paper collar, or a very proper book was admissible; a 
too expansive use of confections was viewed askant, and 
gloves were tabooed. As for a buggy alone, perish the thought ! 
Nor was it considered at all the thing for the escort to furnish 
the conveyance to a ball. If the family coach was non 
existent, the harmless, necessary hack was provided by the 
mother of his belle, while he sought her shrine on foot, or in 
the horse-car of the period. 


Richmond had early yielded her social queenship to the 
tyranny of the teens. Many a stranger worldling wondered 
at the absolute dominance of her unmarried element. There 
was no city that had boasted more charming married women, 
stately heads of handsome homes often, and many both 

^_ __^ young and beautiful. These 

were met at dinners and all 
gustatory functions, but they 
rarely attended the balls 
and still more rarely 
danced. The plain gold ring 
seemed the badge of social 
servitude to home and 
nursery, as inexorable as the 
welded collar of the feudal 

Most of these fair young 
tyrants are now grand 
mothers, where they have 
not crossed the boundary 
into the misty beyond. And 
those then unmated charm 
ers, bright-eyed and daring in dance and flirtation, tender of 
heart while firm of hand in hospital and sick-camp alas! 
some of them are grandmothers, too. Time whets the re 
lentless scythe for Beauty no less than the Beast. 
" Where, where are the Anns and Elizas, 

Loving and lovely, of yore? 
Look in the columns of old advertisers 

Married and dead by the score!" 

Few society men from abroad failed to note this undisputed 
supremacy of the unmated in all the gayer functions of Rich 
mond. To me it constantly seemed that the young people 
had seized society while their elders heads were turned, and 



had run away to play with it for a time, so I always looked to 
see some older ones come in, with reproof upon their brows, 
and take charge of it again. But I looked in vain, and one 
night at a dinner I remarked this to my neighbor, suggesting 
that it was only because of the war. She was one of the most 
charming women society could boast, scarcely out of her 
honeymoon, beautiful, accomplished and very gay. 

" Visitors always remark that," she answered. "But it 
is not the result of the war or of the influx of strangers. Since 
I can remember, only unmarried people have been allowed to 
go to parties by the tyrants of seventeen, of whom I was one. 
We married folks do the requisite amount of visiting and tea- 
ing out. Sometimes we even rise in our wrath and come out 
to dinner. But a dance or a ball? No, as soon as a girl 
marries, she must make up her mind to pay her bridal visits, 
dance a few square dances upon sufferance, and then fold up 
her party dresses. However young, pleasant or pretty she 
may be, the Nemesis pursues her and she must succumb. 
The pleasant Indian idea of taking old people to the river- 
bank and leaving them for the crocodiles to eat is over- 
strictly carried out by our celibate Brahmins. Marriage is 
our Ganges. Don t you wonder how we ever dare the croco 

Who had not wondered? Though the French system of 
excluding mademoiselle from social intercourse and giving 
the patent of society to madame may be productive of more 
harm than good, its reverse seems equally dangerous. 

Richmond may have been an exception to the rule. In 
those four unprecedented years she was to most rules. 

In the South women marry much younger than in the colder 
states. So it haps often that the best and most attractive 
points of character do not mature until after the girl has 
gotten her establishment. The Southerner, more languid 
and emotional than her Northern sister and less self-dependent 


even when equally accomplished, is not apt to shine most at 
an early stage of her social career. Firmer foothold and 
more intimate knowledge of their intricacies are needful to 
her on the busy byways of fashion. Hence, many wondered 
that the better matured of its flowers should be so entirely 
superseded in the Richmond bouquet by the half-opened buds. 
The latter doubtless gave a charming promise of bloom and 
fragrance at their full, but too early they left an uneasy sense 
of crudity and unripeness with the unaccustomed visitor. 

All the same, Richmond had inscribed over the portals of 
its dancing set: "Who enters here, no spouse must leave 
behind!" And that law was of the Medes and Persians so 
far as women were concerned. 

The male element at all functions ranged from the passe 
beau to the boy with the down still on his cheek; ancient 
husbands and young bachelors alike had the open sesame! 
But if a married woman, however young in years of wifehood, 
passed the forbidden limits by intent or chance, vce victis! 
She was promptly and severely made to feel that the sphere 
of the mated was pantry or nursery, not the ballroom. 

To the stranger dames, if young and lively, justice a little 
less stern was meted, but even they, after a few concessions, 
were shown how hard was the way of the transgressor. 

But indubitably it spoke volumes for the pure and simple 
society that had gone on thus for years and that no chaperori- 
age had ever seemed needful. But now the case was different. 
A large promiscuous element was injected into society and 
all felt that the primitive should give place to the conserva 
tive. The "Jeannette and Jeannot" stage was pretty. It 
told convincingly the whole story of truth and purity in men 
and women. But with the sudden influx, when the stray wolf 
might so readily borrow the skin of a lamb, a hedge of form 
need not in any manner have intimated a necessity for its 


Even in the youngest and giddiest assemblies the pilgrim 
to social Richmond found many people worth meeting as 
well as looking at. The most juvenile german was fringed 
often by those who would have danced and queened it in any 
other town, and the potent supposed-to-be grave and rever 
end molders of laws and makers of campaigns came to rest 
their eyes and brush the cobwebs from duty-dusted brains. 
Nor can I recall any assemblages of the last half-century 
where those desiderata could have been more comprehended. 
"The prettiest woman in the world!" is a fashion of speech 
so trite as to have lost all meaning. In Richmond, in the 
mid-war, it had taken on the simplicity of a dictum and the 
clearness of truism. Early in the novel social conditions, as 
I have tried to explain, the older and more dignified repre 
sentatives of both home and visiting society did and accepted 
the entertaining. 

This lasted only a little while. Then Richmond went 
back to the inexorable tyranny of the teens. As duties 
accumulated without their homes, as the problem of bare 
living became a producer of deep thought and, more still, 
as the suspense and strain, personal and patriotic alike, grew 
more dire on the older people, they gradually let the more 
emphasized of the gaiety slip back into the hands of the young 
and thoughtless. But in those starvation parties of the late 
war there were as beautiful young women to be seen as I have 
ever looked upon in any assemblages in any city, under any 
adventitious aid of costuming and lighting. 

When the Grand Duke Alexis made that tour of America 
just after the war the entourage of which was possibly 
more Oriental than Muscovite I heard him say with seeming 
sincerity : 

"The most beautiful woman in the world? Oh, I have 
seen her in your country." From the devotion of the Russian 
to at least two noted and rival belles from the East and West, 


he may have believed what he said. But had he happened 
in on starvation at Richmond a few years earlier, he might 
have been taken au pied de la lettre, with none to dissent. 

-^ -mtf^uitmm ^ e OI ^y Difficulty, prob 

ably, had been to decide 
which one of the goddesses 
on that Virginian Olympus 
was entitled to the apple. 
In a society where Misses 
Hetty Gary, Mattie Paul, 
Leila Powers, Virginia Peg- 
ram, Evelyn Cabell and their 
peers were already assured 
belles, and herein were 
dropping each month new 
and startling beauties, judg 
ment grew dazed and the 
critical were dumb. Nor 
were they all Richmond 
girls or even Virginian. 
Naturally the old city and 
state sent their best and prettiest to the meet of beauty, 
but the South and middle West and the far shore of 
the dividing river all had representation fully satisfying to 

In the early days of the war a sensation was made 
even in Richmond by the exceptional beauty of Miss Florence 
Topp. This Tennessee girl, only in her mid-teens, spelled 
young and old by her face and form and held them by her 
witchery of manner. Hers was a familiar face at the Stan- 
ards , Andersons , Lyons , and among her schoolmates were 
Misses Cornelia Rives, Evelyn Cabell, Ella Wimbish and Annis 
Alexander. She was the daughter of Robertson Topp and 
Elizabeth Little Vance, her grandsire being Roger Topp, who 




aided in founding Memphis and was a pioneer in Tennessee. 

Returning to her home, Miss Topp was soon the undis 
puted belle of her section; leaders of the Southern armies, 
and later a Federal admiral seeking her hand, while the 
famous Albert Pike wrote poems at length in her praise. 

At twenty-two the young lady surrendered to the seige, 
marrying William M. Farrington, a well-poised and wealthy 
bachelor of her city. There the pair still reside in the old 
homestead and with them two children. Miss Valerie Far 
rington adds to society charm a thorough knowledge of music 
and a magnificent voice, and William M. Farrington, Jr., 
has been a member of the Memphis bar for twelve years. 
The family has strong literary bent, Miss Farrington having 
written much for the current journals and having taken 
prizes for fiction. 

Miss Florence Topp s only 
real rival for beauty and 
belleship of the West 
chanced to be her brilliant 
and famous cousin, Miss 
Betty Vance, daughter of 
William Little Vance and 
Letitia Hart Thompson, of 
Harrodsburg, Ky. There, 
in 1847, was born the beauty 
of the West, best known to 
Eastern society and resorts. 
Miss Vance queened it roy 
ally for a time, having been 
specially honored by the MRS. JOHN w. RUTHERFORD 

Grand Duke Alexis, whose 

guest of honor she was when he visited New Orleans by river 
boat. After a phenomenal career Miss Vance followed her 
cousin-rival out of the lists. In 1874 she married John 


W. Rutherford, of Scotland. She is still a young widow, 
residing in California, her daughter Marguerite remaining 
single, while Vance Rutherford married. 

Four of Miss Vance s brothers are living: Messrs. George, 
William, Guy and Otey. One sister, Mrs. Thomas Martin, 
resides in Chicago, another, Mrs. De Pauer, resides at Mount 
Alberry, Md. Susan Shelby Vance married Dr. Vance, of 

South Carolina, dying soon 

Another marked type of 
Southern beauty was that of 
Miss Rachel Lyons, of South 
Carolina, who visited Rich 
mond after the Seven Days 
fights. She and her father 
were in search of a missing 
brother, Captain I. L. 
Lyons, of the Tenth Louisi 
ana, who was reported 
captured and unhurt. Miss 
Lyons had already been a 
marked woman in Columbia 
society and her quick wit and 
sinuous grace at once attract 
ed attention at the capi- 

She made many and enduring friends, but her 
stay was brief and was not repeated. Later she visited 
Mobile as the guest of her lifelong friend, Miss Augusta 
Evans, already noted as a novelist. On this visit Miss 
Lyons met a prominent young surgeon of Bragg s army, 
Dr. James Fontaine Heustis. He surrendered, and the 
pair married and settled in Mobile in the closing days of 
the war. Ever since, the Heustis family has been one of 
the most notable on the Gulfside, equally for the beauty, 




brilliance and the belleship of its women. The mother has 
ever been a remarkable conversationalist and her hospitality 
has been perennial. The eldest daughter, Miss Louise, 
studied art at home and abroad and several of her canvases 
have been in latter year exhibits. The second, Miss Mabel, 
had natural gifts in music and she is well appreciated in her 
own and other cities for her delicious alto voice. These 
two remain unmarried. The next, Rosalie, was one of 
Mobile s most noted belles, until she became Mrs. George 
Huntington Clarke, of Birmingham. 

Mr. Listen Heustis, the only brother, is a prosperous 
banker of Belize, where he resides with a pretty young wife 
and very cherished baby. 

Mesdames William Patterson and Joseph McPhillips, were 
until quite recently belles of the younger set of Mobile. 
Their mother is still a much-sought matron and the friend 
ship between Mrs. E. A. Wilson and her is as fresh and 
strong as when it began in girlhood. 



THE " Three Graces, Junior," as Will Myers promptly 
named them, made entree into real society later in the war. 
If a prettier and more attractive trio ever turned the heads 

of male youth, I surely 
never beheld them. Misses 
Mary Triplett, Champe Con- 
way and Lizzie Cabell were, 
speaking coldly and after 
the lapse of four decades, as 
pretty women as ever I saw. 
Differing in face, figure and 
expression, each foiled the 

In mentality and charac 
ter they differed as much as 
in looks, and the attractive 
ness of the trio may have been 
enhanced by this variety. 

Miss Cabell was of the gen 
tlest and most dainty type of 
womanhood, conquering by simplicity combined with beauty. 
She reigned in the later days of the war, her subjects being 
her own sex as well as the opposite, but she never made the 
same resounding echoes as either of her girlhood s friends. 




She is now a fair and placid reminiscence of that former time, 
as the well-preserved Mrs. Albert Ritchie, of Baltimore. 
Another of that trio, strangely enough, made her home in 
the Monumental City; Miss Champe Conway married Captain 
John Moncure Robinson, a Philadelphian, who served on 
Breckinridge s staff. Her children are familiar figures there 
and her own life has become part of the social history of the 
town. She died several years ago. 

Miss Triplett s career was the most meteoric of the three. 
She was a veritable daughter of the gods, divinely fair and 
most divinely tall; a perfect blonde, classic-featured and 
wtith wondrous, expressive eyes. She was lithe and sinuous 
of motion and infinitely graceful. Mentally, she was recep 
tive and brilliant, her natural wit running to repartee that 
stung sometimes beyond intent, and went abroad with wide 
reaching glare of the searchlight. Hers was a graceful 
audacity that ever stood her in good stead and bore her safely 
over many of society s quicksands, that might have en 
gulfed a heavier natured woman. She was a belle from 
early girlhood, always sought and often feared by most ar 
dent seekers. Less reticent than her rival beauties in "the 
Graces, Junior," she early began a series of conquests that 
gained celebrity, largely from the wondrous beauty of the 
girl, more, perhaps, because she was of clay too fine for com 
mon comprehension. 

Indubitably without her intent and assuredly without her 
knowledge, that duel was fought that made most sensation 
in the last half- century and probably drove the code out of 
use in Virginia. It sent one respected and brilliant young 
man to speedy death, another, more brilliant still, to his end 
through a long and agonizing trail of the descensus Averni. 
Richmond lost no regard for the fair woman wronged by this 
wrangle. Years after, while still a brilliant and young fa 
vorite, she married an old-time friend and one of the best 


loved men in his state, Philip Haxall. Her beauty perhaps 
gained as she grew older and more poised. She mellowed 
and love crept into the beautiful face, but her married life 
had none of the thrill of her earlier days. Previous to her 
marriage, Miss Triplett visited, the staid little city of Mobile. 
Her brother John had won a fair and gentle debutante of the 
previous season, daughter of an old and honored family of 
Alabama. Miss Sallie Ross was so popular as to make the 
jeunesse doree feel the advent of the tasteful Virginian a per 
sonal grievance, but they de 
cided to solace themselves 
with his dazzling sister. Miss 
Triplett, perhaps, was a trifle 
blasee. She hated boys in 
dress coats and was at .no 
pains to conceal her views. 
But despite her carelessness 
to please, her beauty and her 
wit conquered and the fame 
of both echoed for years after 
the present nieces were born. 
Of the last, two are now 
gracious young matrons of Mobile, two charming buds of 
its society; Mrs. Dargan Ledyard and Mrs. Charles Hall, and 
Misses Nannie and Helen Triplett. 

The home of Mrs John Enders was perhaps the pivotal 
point of gay and happy times for the younger set. Spacious, 
liberally kept up, and with doors that swung wide at a touch 
the chief attraction was the lady at its head. Mrs. Enders 
was the friend of every boy who wore the gray and the con 
fessor and adviser of about one-half of the Virginian army. 
No fellow quarreled with his sweetheart or got in trouble 
with his officer but he tramped to Richmond to tell this 
trusted friend. Rarely did he come in vain, for her goodness 




and judgment were equal. The eldest daughter, Miss Sallie, 
was already in society when Beauregard saluted Anderson. 
The next sister, Miss Nannie, was not allowed to do more 
than take a peep. But she was pretty, jolly and bright, as 
natural as a fawn, though not so shy, and she said piquant 
things with a naivete that tickled as it touched. The young 
est, "Pidge" Enders, was quite a child when the war began, 
but one of its wonders was the quick maturity of young 
people. So, with warm welcome, good company and certain 
rations, the youth of war swarmed bee-like into the Enders 
home and found there honey galore. Saunders, Jim Fraser, 
Ridgley Goodwin, scores of gallant Maryland men, and the 
whole of the home youth, of course, felt that house their 
headquarters. There were more impromptu dances, picnics, 
rides and camp-parties at the Enders than any house in 
town and this in a whisper more well-meant vows were 
there pledged and there re-cemented when cracked. But 
the daughters of the home held off siege and sortie alike until 
the war waned. It was only after General James Conner 
had a leg shot off that Miss Enders changed from flirtation 
and charades to a somewhat vivid Charleston matron. Miss 
Nannie was having too good a time to stop and think of 
marrying. If there was ever a popular woman, she broke 
that record. Loyal, original and great-hearted, the girls- 
loved her, too. A rollicking trio were Misses Nannie Enders, 
Lillie Bailey and Truxie Johnston. They led every sport, 
from a fox-chase to a flirtation, and the old boys of that un- 
forgotten yesterday find them ever in the first flush. When 
those girls rode or drove into a nearby camp, followed by a 
score of both sexes, there was more excitement than a raid 
had caused. They never came empty-handed, and unless 
discipline was drawn very tight, they rarely returned with 
out fresh captures. Miss Baily has been dead many years, 
Miss Johnston lives far from her old state, and the jolly 


little " peeper " of the first war days has long admired the 
white beard of that good and persistent fellow who won her 
at last, Major Caskie Cabell, of Richmond. 

Remembered members of the household are Winston, 
black butler, and Dan and Pinkey, who amused visitors 

with recitations and dances. 
When Miss Lizzie Peyton 
Giles appeared suddenly in 
Richmond on July 4, 1863, 
there was a genuine sensa 
tion. It was quite doubled 
by the simultaneous arrival 
of another woman, equally 
beautiful and brilliant, Miss 
Josephine Chestney, of Wash 
ington City. Of both belles 
more will be seen, but it 
may be noted that the ex 
citement was tripled by the 
array of seven trunks which 
Miss Giles had transferred to 
our exchange boat. With 
her mother Miss Giles had 
just returned from a trip 
abroad and, on dit, she had 
selected her rare trousseau. 
Circumstantial evidence was the abnormality of war 
luggage and the nervous impatience of a noted, if 
not particularly handsome, brigade commander from the 
trans-Mississippi. General Quarles did not remain at the 
capital the full extent of his leave, nor was there any 
immediate wedding. After a time Miss Giles tired of society 
and conquests, but for the moment both she and Miss Chest 
ney "just swung Richmond." General Quarles later married 



Miss Alice Vivian, the world-famed beauty of Alabama, 
making another match after her death. Miss Giles is now 
the widow of a gallant and good fellow from Georgetown, 
Captain Sam Robinson, and Mrs. Butler, nee Chestney, also 
lives at the capital. 

The two other Giles girls with whom the beauty lived 
were of quieter tastes, but well known and popular. Miss 
Nannie did not marry and died young; and Miss Fannie 
became Mrs. Townes and was active in all social work for 

Dr. Herndon, C.S.N., had two pretty and gentle daughters 
in society, Misses Lucy and Molly. They were much in the 
Enders set and intimate with Miss Chestney. I remember 
calling with her when one of the sisters wore caps as a typhoid 
convalescent. She described the many things done for her, 
and how one lady bade her dress "her hair." 

" Child! 7 retorted Miss Chestney solemnly, "you should 
read Mrs. Glass, and get your hare before you dress it." 

Three charming girls in the younger circle were the Free- 
land sisters, Rosalie, Carter and Maria. Their home was a 
quietly elegant one and the trio had chic] talked and dressed 
well, and were admirable dancers; a necessity for any girl 
who had half an eye fixed on belleship. So the Freelands 
were a success with the inexorable autocrats of the german 
and at the later starvation parties of hungry memory. Miss 
Rosalie married Dr. Randolph Harrison and both are dead, 
leaving no issue. Miss Maria married Col. John R. C. Lewis; 
and their children were Maria Freeland and Lawrence. The 
latter married Miss Nicholas of Baltimore. Miss Carter Free- 
land married her brother-in-law, Daingerfield Lewis; and 
their family was large. 

The Lewises were direct in descent from Fielding Lewis 
who married General Washington s favorite sister, Betty. 
"Daingy" Lewis was a splendid looking fellow and was on 


General Lee s staff. He was much in evidence in Richmond 
in the later war; and was a great favorite with men and 
women. His brother John resigned from the United States 
Navy to come South. Another brother, Ned Lewis, married 
the widow of Colonel Muscoe Russell Hunter Garnett. She 
had been Mary Stevens, daughter of Mr. Stevens, of Castle 
Point. She was South with her husband, and was a marked 
figure in society. 

John Freeland, very soon after the peace, met and married 
Miss Mary Goldthwaite, of Mobile. The wedding was notable, 
the bride s family being one of the oldest and most loved of 
the South and her personality winning her legions of friends. 
It was a grevious disappointment to these, and to the many 
new ones she won in her new home, that her married life was 
neither long nor happy. Clouds arose to shut out the honey 
moon, but the sympathy and respect her brief Richmond life 
won her, followed to her grave and linger lovingly about 
her memory. 

There was probably no more widely known personality 
in all the Southland and surely not more distinct against 
the background of mental and bodily activities than that 
of Louis Trezevant Wigfall. 

He had been successively state and United States senator 
from Texas; then her Confederate senator, though born 
on his father s plantation, near Edgefield, S. C., in 1816. 
He was also signer of the Confederate Constitution and com 
manded the First Texas brigade, as its general, in the field. 

A man of brains, resource and untiring, restless energy, 
he was headstrong and dominant, and his opinion, once 
formed and firmly held to, was ever vigorously outspoken. 

This possibly prevented his being entrusted with higher 
governmental posts, for his ability was conceded. From his 
early mission, through a porthole, to prevent Major Ander 
son s fire-suicide at Sufnter, down to the hegira of the govern- 


ment into the North Carolina finale, Wigfall was a conspicuous 
figure on the political stage. Naturally, he had some enemies 
and many friends, at the capital, where his representative 
duties held him and his family. But that family, which 
was one of the most pleasant of war-time Richmond, made 
only friends. Mrs. Wigfall had been Miss Charlotte Maria 
Cross, daughter of George Warren Cross, of Charleston, 
and was a congenial helpmate to her husband. Her Rich 
mond home was made attractive to all by the presence in 
it of her two young daughters, Misses Louise Sophie and 
Mary Frances Wigfall; and, when his army duty permitted, 
of her son, Major Francis Halsey Wigfall. High mentality 
was a marked characteristic of the whole family, and so was 
exceptional frankness of its expression, both on public and 
social affairs. So the Wigfall sisters were attractive and 
sought in the Richmond whirl. Miss Mary Frances mar 
ried Benjamin Jones Taylor, of Worcester county, Md., 
and is now a widow, residing in Baltimore. Miss Louise 
remained single until 1871, when she married a brilliant 
young Baltimore lawyer. Daniel Giraud Wright had en 
listed as a private in the Confederate Army, was promoted 
to a lieutenancy in the Irish battalion, and served later with 
Mosby s corps. He is now associate judge of the supreme 
court of Maryland, and a popular and widely esteemed 
citizen of Baltimore. 

In her life in that city Mrs. Wright has won hosts of friends 
in both the elder and younger strata of its sociality. Her 
Wigfall habit of thinking for herself, and the other of fluent 
and graceful diction, have lately combined in one of the 
pleasantest books upon the social South. 

Judge and Mrs. Wright are the proud grandparents of 
De Courcy Eyre Wright, the son of their only child, W. H. 
De Courcy Wright, who married Miss Mary Eyre, daughter 
of that well-known Virginian, Severn Eyre. 


Kingsley s great song has had innumerable settings, but 

there was never a more attractive version of "Three Fishers" 

than that pretty and popular trio: Misses Lucy, Mary and 

^^^^^^^^^^^^ Anne Fisher. The first two 

were sisters; daughters of 

^^^^ Charles Fenton Mercer Fish- 

j& er, of Richmond, and Anne 

IJB Eskridge, of Mississippi. 

BL * Young, graceful and vi 

vacious, both were sought 
and admired by the choice 
fellows of the best set; but 
neither hauled down her 
particular flag of independ 
ence, until the more gen 
eral surrender. 

Then "Lou" Fisher took 
his parole from a capture 
from over the border. She 
married Howard Crittenden, 
a native of Kentucky but 

MRS. HOWARD CRITTENDEN residing in California. Thev 


went to lexas and, scarcely 

a year after her marriage, the Richmond belle was run 
over at Galveston, by some vehicle, and died almost 
immediately. The fact of her death was unknown to most 
of her old friends, and it is doubtful if any of them know the 
details. The pressure of those times scattered the mole 
cules of "the old set/ and almost every one was absorbed 
in individual cares. 

"Molly," as Miss Mary Fisher was ever known, was as 
much admired and widely popular as her sister Lucy. Very 
lately, an old time beau of hers wrote me, out of his multi 
tudinous grandfatherhood: "She had little ways of her own, 



and wa,s the host naturcd girl in all Virginia!" She married 
Mark Valentine, of Louisiana; the pair moved to Little Rock, 
Ark., and there resided long, with their one son, Mark Valen 
tine, Jr. 

The memories of these fair and gentle girls is still green; 
as is that of their beautiful cousin. 

But second to none not oven to her cousins in the race 
for the golden apple, was Miss Anne Fisher. She was the 
daughter of George Daniel Fisher, of Richmond, and Kliza- 
both (Janigues Higginbotham, of Albemarle. Mr. Fisher 
wrote the book on "the Descendants of Jacquelin Ambler." 
This pair had two sons and two daughters: Robert, Edward, 
Anne arid Mary. The; last is the sole survivor and is the 
widow of Col. Peyton Randolph, residing at Arnhcrst, Va. 

Miss Anno Fisher married 
after the war Mr. Robert 
Camp, of Norfolk. Of this 
union came a boy arid :, 
girl, the latter named for 
her mother. She is now 
Mrs. John Cannon Hobson, 
of IVrnborton, Va., having 
married the son of Captain 
Hobson, of Wise s brigade, 
whose wife was Miss Kitty 
Selden, of Westover. He is 
thus a nephew of Captain 
Plummer Hobson, who mar 
ried Miss Annie Wise. 

The Cannon Ifobsons 
have two children: Bland 
Selden and Robert Camp Hobson. 

Mrs. Anne Fisher Camp resided with 
is said to resemble her mother strongly 


Mrs. Hobson who 
(luring her widow- 


hood ; and died only in 1904. I recall her as an exceptionally 
beautiful woman; and a friend wrote of her, at time of her 
death: "I think I can safely say of her, that she \vas one of 
the prettiest old ladies in Virginia." 



SUNSHINE and shadow chased one another across the 
entire panorama of the war, as the cloud-scuds from moun 
tain to crest mottle the bright valley beneath when they 

sail above it. 

Hope ever seemed to tread 
the lighter just before the 
dull footfall of Despair 
numbed the heart upon 
which it fell. 

Mrs. Chesnut tells the 
story of Hon. William Porch- 
er Miles, confiding to her 
his real engagement to Miss 
Bettie Bierne. In those 
days confidences were cullen 
ders, and next day burly 
and jovial Colonel George 
Deas and Bob Alston were 
sending the interesting 
gossip to society s four 
winds. Alston was no end of a talker. When captured 
with John Morgan, whose adjutant-general he was, the 
gallant little Georgian went to Richmond on parole to try 
and arrange the exchange of the raiders. We told him that 




the jailers had released him to have a much needed rest. 
By the way, he brought through the lines the first copy of 
General Lytle s " Antony and Cleopatra." Alston was 
a noble fellow and popular with all. His tragic murder, 
in his treasurer s office, shortly after the war was widely 

The Miles-Bierne wedding at fashionable St. Paul s was 
the social event of the autumn of 1862, albeit one of the 
most limited in numbers, from recent mourning in the fam 
ily. Scarcely over a score were present, the Davis, Preston, 
and A. C. Myers families and that of the bride only being 
admitted with the bridal party. There was an indefinable 
feeling of gloom thrown over a most auspicious event when 
the bride s youngest sister glided through a side door just 
before the processional. 

Clad in deepest weeds, Mrs. Nannie Parkman tottered to 
a chancel pew, and threw herself prone upon the cushions, 
her slight frame racked with sobs. 

Scarcely a year before, the wedding march had been played 
for her and a joyous throng saw her wedded to gallant Breck 
Parkman. Before another twelvemonth rolled around the 
groom was killed at the front. The bride, little recking 
that the guns that boomed diapason to her wedding march 
were ominous of personal woe, was one of the gayest and 
most attractive of society s war brides. She was as grace 
ful as beautiful, and a much sought partner. One night 
I led a german with her, Willie Myers and I escorting the 
sisters home. At the Macfarlands we spoke of the next 
night s dance; as we turned away, Myers said gravely: " May 
be Mr. Yank may keep some of us away from that, old man!" 
Was it telepathy? Before it came around the fatal summons 
had been bullet-sped to the young husband of scarce a year, 
and the joyous bride sat in the cold ashes of her desolation. 

The same elegant wedding dress she had worn was used 


by Mrs. Miles; and Mrs. Myers, with a thrill of superstition 
or was that telepathy likewise? whispered to Mrs. Chesnut: 
"It was an evil omen. Those point d Alencon laces make 
me shudder!" 

The second of the Bierne sisters, Miss Susie, yielded to 
handsome and gentle-natured Captain Henry Robinson, 
a Georgetown man, who had been popular in recent days 
in the national capital s society. But she, too, held out 
against Love s siege until the word "Surrender!" had begun 
to grow familiar to Southern ears. 

All these four have long since passed to the land that 
knows neither marriage nor sorrow, but children of the beau 
tiful and magnetic little belle of war-time Richmond and 
her Carolina husband are still among the well-known and 
honored Louisianians and Carolinians of today. 

None of them live in Virginia, though both parents sleep 
in the little cemetery at Union, Monroe county, where the 
happy early days of their married life were spent. There 
are five of the Miles sisters, of whom two are married, and 
one brother, Dr. William Porcher Miles, who resides at the 
Houmas, the family estates at Burnside, La., which he man 
ages. The eldest sister, Miss Sarah Bierne Miles, resides 
there also most of the year. The second, Bettie Bierne 
Miles, divides her time between there and Carolina. The 
third sister, Miss Nannie, married William Gregg Chisholm; 
was widowed and is now Mrs. E. W. Durant, Jr., and still 
resides at Charleston. Miss Susan Warley Miles, the fourth 
sister, resides in New York with the youngest sister, Mar 
garet Melinda, now Mrs. Fred Pierson, Jr. 

Mrs. Nannie Parkman went abroad after the war, and 
there married a German nobleman, Baron von Ahlefeldt. 
Again widowed, she spends most of her time in this country, 
at the old homeseat, Union, W. Va. 

Miss Turner Macfarland married Colonel Wilcox Brown, 



of Baltimore, a true soldier and cultured gentleman, who 
was in charge of the artillery defenses of Richmond at the 
close of the war. Their eldest daughter is Mrs. John M. 
Glenn, both husband and wife being noted in the Monumental 
City for philanthropic work. The second daughter married 
H. Guy Corbett, an English gentleman who settled in Albe- 
marle county, Va., a fruit-grower on a large scale and a 
perennial raiser of good words from his neighbors and his 
mother-in-law. Mrs. Brown passes much of her time with 
this pair, her only grandchildren being the two little Corbetts. 

There is a third daughter of the Brown household, a charm 
ing girl of nineteen, still at school. But Elsham, at Afton, 
Va., does not monopolize all the time of the Richmond 
toast of yore, for a large circle of warm and admiring friends 
in the city attest that she is still very much alive. 

John S. Saunders the grave but sterling young Virginian 
lieutenant I have noted at Lincoln s inauguration, rose to 
a lieutenant-colonelcy. Then he found better promotion, 
for Miss Bierne Turner the last of the quintet of cousins 
married him in 1863. Their post-bellum home in Baltimore 
was an elegant and favorite resort of "the old set," for 
many a year; the husband last commanding the crack corps 
of National Guards, the Fifth Maryland. Three years ago 
he answered the last roll-call, and his wife is also dead. 

The South Carolinians were notable during all the war, 
in the field, the council and in society. Tall elegant Jim 
Fraser and classic Sam Shannon divided the vote feminine 
for "the handsomest man in the army"; and cultured Frank 
Parker adjutant-general to that unfortunate commander, 
Braxton Bragg was no bad second. At dances and theatri 
cals, as in the red sport of war, all three were in the front 
rank. All have passed across the border, the first two years 
ago, and Shannon is wasting intellect and elegance in a new 
home in the far West. Parker settled in Mobile, married 


Miss Troost, of the old Battle family, and has grown children. 
One year ago all representative classes of his adopted city 
followed the bier of this true old cavalier. 

It was Bernard Bee who christened Stonewall on Man- 
assas field, just before his brave spirit went upward "in the 
arms of the white- winged Angels of Glory." And Wade 
Hampton? Wounded at Bull Run, and again severely 
on the retreat from Gettysburg, he was the same high-natured 
patriot in war and peace. 
One battle sadly proved the 
mettle of that race. Both 
of the general s boys were 
in his legion. Wade, his 
first-born, and handsome, 
sunny-hearted Preston, his 
very Benjamin. The latter 
rushed recklessly into the 
hottest of the charge, far in 
advance of the line. The 
father called to Wade: 
11 Bring the boy back!" 
The elder brother spurred 
to front, saw the other 
reel in saddle and caught GENERAL WADE HAMPTON 

him as he fell, mortally wounded. At the moment a bullet 
tore through his shoulder, and the father rode up to find one 
son dead and his bleeding brother supporting him. 

The general took the body tenderly in his arms, kissed 
the white face, and handed it to Tom Taylor. 

"Care for Wade s wound," he called. "Forward, men!" 
All through that long and bitter day the soldier fought with lead 
whirring by his ears and lead in his heart. It was not until 
the doubtful fight was ended that he knew that the other son 
still lived. Brutus of old was no more true than Hampton. 


The women of the Prestons 
other Carolina family, proved 
One gentle old Carolina lady, 

, the Chesnuts, and many an- 
the truth of good old blood, 
calm and tender of heart, was 
as heroic as Hampton. A 
veritable " mother in Israel/ 
she was as Roman as he. 
What one in Judea or the 
seven-hilled city sent seven 
spears to victory for Joshua 
or David for Scipio or Cse- 
sar? Yet, this Christian 
mother of the South heard 
the thunder of hostile guns 
without one tremor, nursed 
her children, torn by their 
shells, without repining, 
but with perfect trust in 
the hand of the One Dis 

Mrs. Charles Thompson Haskell (Sophia Langdon Cheves, 
daughter of Colonel Langdon Cheves) had seven sons in the 
army around Richmond when I met her at Mrs. Stanard s, 
in one of the several visits she made to tend their wounds. 
All of them had been privates in the army before the firing 
on Sumter. She was ever quiet, but genial; hiding what 
suspense and anguish held her; making unknowing, great 
history for her state and for all time. 

The eldest son was Langdon Cheves Haskell, who served 
first on the staff of General Maxcy Gregg, later on that of 
General A. P. Hill, and surrendered at Appomattox as cap 
tain on the staff of "Fighting Dick" Anderson, of his own 
state. He married Miss Ella Wardlaw, of Abbeville, dying 
in 1886 and leaving three sons and one daughter, all adults. 
Charles Thompson Haskell was the second son, a captain 



in the First Carolina Regulars, and was killed on Morris 
Island when Gilmore landed to attack Charleston, in July, 
1863. He, happily, left no widow. 

The next was William Thompson Haskell. He was cap 
tain of Company H, First South Carolina Volunteers, and 
died at the charge of that corps at Gettysburg, while command 
ing a battalion of sharp-shooters under A. P. Hill. 

Alexander Cheves Haskell lived through the day of Appo- 
mattox. He was colonel of the Seventh South Carolina 
Cavalry, of ruddy record, and still lives at Columbia. His 
first marriage was one of the most touching romances of the 
war. Miss Rebecca Singleton was a dainty and lovely, 
but high-spirited, daughter of that famed old name. In 
the still hopeful June of 1861 
Mrs. Singleton and her daugh 
ter were at the hospital at 
Charlottesville, crowded so 
that Mrs. Chesnut (as her 
diary tells) took the young 
girl for her roommate. She 
was the worst in love girl I 
ever saw," that free chron 
icler records. Miss Singleton 
and Captain Haskell were 
engaged, and he wrote urgent 
ly for her consent to marry 
him at once. All was so 
uncertain in war, and he 
wished to have her all his 
own while he lived. He 
got leave, came up to the 
hospital, and the wedding took place amid bright an 
ticipations and showers of April tears. There was no 
single vacant space in the house, so Mrs. Chesnut gave up 



her room to the bridal pair. Duty called; the groom hurried 
back to it the day after the wedding. That day one year 
later the husband was a widower, with only the news from his 
far-away baby girl to solace the solitude of his tent. After 
the war Colonel Haskell married Miss Alice Alexander, sister 
of General E. P. Alexander. She died after becoming the 
mother of ten children, six of whom are daughters. 
A very marked favorite in society, and a gallant officer, 

was John Cheves Haskell, 
lieutenant-colonel of light 
artillery, when he surren 
dered with Lee. He married 
Miss Sallie Hampton, who 
died two decades ago, leav 
ing one daughter and three 
sons, all now grown up. 
About seven yeai;s ago 
Colonel Haskell married Miss 
Lucy Hampton, daughter 
of Colonel Frank Hampton, 
who was killed at Brandy 
Station. They now live in 

Very much alive is the 
sixth brother, Joseph Cheves 


Haskell, now a resident of 

busy Atlanta and popular in his new home. When he gave 
up his sword at Appomattox he was captain and adjutant- 
general of the First Artillery Corps, on the staff of Gen 
eral E. P. Alexander. He married Miss Mary Elizabeth 
Cheves, and the pair have a grown family of three sons and 
a daughter. 

Last in this remarkable family roster comes Lewis Ward- 
law Haskell. He was but a youth when paroled with the 


remnant of the Army of Northern Virginia, having already 
served one year as a lieutenant of reserves on the South 
Carolina coast. This he gave up to go to the front and serve 
first as a private soldier and later as a courier to Colonel 
John C. Haskell. 

Such were the exceptional septet of brothers, whose noble 
mother sent them to the field and hid her parting tears. 
The good old blood of the noted strains that course through 
the veins of all of her name made them stalwart, loyal and 
leal, and ready when duty called. They had but one sister, 
her mother s namesake. She is now Mrs. Langdon Cheves, 
of Charleston. 

No home in Richmond welcomed its guests with more 
genuine and genial hospitality than that of the Gibsons. 
The noted and tireless chief of the historic Officers Hospital 
was Dr. Charles Bell Gibson. He was a Marylander by 
birth, and son of Dr. William Gibson, who founded the 
Maryland University of Medicine, and was later dean of the 
University of Pennsylvania. The son, on early and high 
graduation, made his home in Richmond, rapidly acquiring 
reputation, popularity and a great practice, especially in 
surgery. When war came he was promptly used by the 
state and Confederate governments, and become head 
of the most important hospital, with Mrs. Lucy Mason 
Webb as his matron. In early life Dr. Gibson had married 
Miss Ellen Eyre, of Philadelphia. She swayed the war-time 
household with 

The new school graces, grafted on those old 
That need no gilding, since they re purest gold. 
Able assistant in all social matters was her elder daughter, 
Miss Mary Elizabeth. This young lady, never seeking 
the rush and swirl of the giddier society became one of the 
most popular and most quoted of Richmond s women. 
Some of the cleverest mots that amused society originated 


with her; the keenest thrusts were so quickly and deftly 
given as rarely to cause pain. 

At one german I chanced to be Miss Gibson s partner. 
A very swell staff officer had come in full uniform, including 
a pair of blind spurs. The lady, a graceful and tireless 
dancer, had evolved a stunning costume of mosquito netting, 
and it entangled with the cavalry insignia on the captain s 
boots. Stopping in mid-whirl, she tapped him on the shoulder 
and said sweetly: "May I trouble you to dismount, sir?" 

After a bloody battle a boastful youth, who had been very 
slightly wounded, called on Miss Gibson. He spoke of the 
fight, when she demurely said, "Of course, you heard of 
General Lee s despatch to the President?" Then, while he 
wondered, she added, "He wrote, It was a glorious, victory, 
but Lieutenant Blank was wounded. And, five minutes 
later, he was at the corner, telling every man he met of the 
honor the great chief had done him. 

Little Annie of those days was the youngest of the family. 
She was a bright, pretty and graceful child, and Washington 
selected her as model for one of the children strewing flowers 
on the bier, in his Latane picture. She never married, 
and today resides in New York as the companion of her 
sister and the pet of her stalwart nephews. 

Between the two sisters came four brothers, three in the 
army, though very young. William Eyre Gibson was in 
the artillery, and served in Texas. Beverly Tucker Gibson 
was on General Young s staff at fifteen years of age. All 
the boys have long since died. 

Miss Gibson married, near the close of the war, Dr. Edwin 
S. Gaillard, a prominent surgeon. Of the old Carolina 
family, he had honored the name by duty nobly done, losing 
an arm on the firing line. After the war the pair moved 
to New York. Gaillard s Medical Journal was launched, 
and quickly became the leading one of the city. When the 


doctor died, his wife, with a large and young family to rear, 
took prompt and full charge, held its old correspondents, 
gained new ones by the score ; and the only medical magazine 
in America edited by a woman was easily kept in the lead 
for twelve years by this modest and resourceful Richmond 
girl. Then, when her idolized boys were educated and well 
placed, she took to her ease and to bridge. 

There is object-lesson in this for swift decriers of Southern 
women s false education. 

Even in her busiest days 
Mrs. Gaillard found time 
for altruistic work. She was 
the founder and first presi 
dent of the New York 
Chapter of the Daughters of 
the Confederacy. She had 
the companionship of her 
gentle mother, as a member 
of her household, until her 
death at the age of seventy- 

The eldest of the Gaillard 
children is a daughter, Ellen, 
named for her grandmother. 
She married Dr. W. W. Ash- 
hurst, of Philadelphia; but an alluring professional offer 
carried the pair to Chihuahua in Mexico. There the mother 
went and resided with them a year or two. She has now 
three granddaughters in the Ashhurst family. 

There are five Gaillard brothers, of whom Edwin White 
Gaillard is the eldest. He is librarian and treasurer of the 
State Library Association and president of the City Library 
Club, of New York. He married Miss Clara Humphrey 
Sackett, of the same city. The second, Charles Bell Gail- 



lard, is an underwriter in the Washington Assurance Company 
and he married Adele, daughter of Rear- Admiral Erben. 
William Eyre Gibson Gaillard is vice-president of the Em 
pire Trust Company of New York, and of the McVickar- 
Gaillard Realty Company. Only a year ago he married Mary 
Stamps, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Charles Edward Bateson, 
of West Fifty-eighth street. This lady is the great-niece of 
Jefferson Davis, and granddaughter of Governor Humphreys, 
whose daughter Mary married 

Isaac Stamps. 
_^ The only unmarried broth- 

" " >^fck er * s ^ e fourth, Marion 

V^JB Hollingsworth, who is in the 

V N? f^^I Trust Company with his 

^ brother. The youngest, 

Frank Paschal Gaillard, is 
in the Fifth avenue office, 
and recently married Miss 
Sara Stevenson Bradner, of 
New York. 

Closely interlinked in the 
love and interests for the 
Pegrams was one of the 
most beautiful and most 
notable of all war belles, 
Miss Hetty Gary, of Baltimore. 

Lee s Army knew no better soldiers, no truer gentlemen, 
than the three Pegram brothers. John, the eldest, had given 
his old army sword to his state, had risen through merit 
to his brigade and was recommended for promotion. He 
was rarely in Richmond was "too busy with fighting for 
fooling," as reckless General Pierce Young phrased it but 
he had met Miss Gary at his mother s home and later at 
the camps of Stuart and Fitz Lee. Like most other men, 



he loved her; like none other, he met return and they became 

Ever at the front, the Pegrams seemed to bear charmed 
life. Willie, the second, was a cool but dashing artillerist 
with two stars on his collar at an age when most men were 
content with two bars. " Jimmy, " the youngest later 
noted as a wit and clever man of business, from New York 
down "t Orleans" had ridden scathless as the adjutant 
of " fighting old Dick" Ewell Mother and sisters at home 
began almost to trust in the luck of the Pegrams. 

One bright spring afternoon near the end of the war as 
General Pegram felt it to be, he married Miss Gary at St. 
Paul s Church. Another Thursday, only two weeks later, 
the same throng stood in the same church as grief-crushed 
comrades bore up the aisle the flag-palled coffin that held 
the late bridegroom, stricken down at Hatches Run. 

The happy spell was broken. In the next fight Willie 
Pegram also fell at the front. 



MISUSED name! Society s Via Sacra is marginated with 
the graves of thy counterfeits. 

Mimetic America has always coveted the salon on the 
French model. Since the famous home of Mistress Dolly 
Madison, on H street and President Square, many elegant 
drawing-rooms have so misnamed themselves, despite the 
fact that hers was no more one than their own. No one of 
the older cities of this Union, save, perhaps self-satisfied 
and conservative Boston, has failed its essay. Ante-bellum 
New York like Beau BrummeFs valet with his white cra 
vats might say: "We have had our failures!" Her better 
sociality, later, recalls the notable Sunday evenings of Mes- 
dames Edward Cooper, John Sherwood, S. L. M. Barlow and 
others before its coaching by that strictly American imita 
tion, Mr. Ward McAllister. Still a little later Mrs. Frank 
Leslie, that energy-saturated widow of two differently re 
markable men, built a composite social structure on the debris 
of Madame Roland and Mrs. Leo Hunter. Mrs. Leslie, 
originally Minnie Follen, a New Orleans beauty was French 
in her instincts and education. Equally ambitious and lavish, 
she compounded an olla podrida and called it a pate. 

The society of Quaker Citydom had something near a 
salon in the parlors of a gifted and brilliant woman with a 
gifted and noted husband, in the days when Mrs. George 



H. Boker queened it. Then Miss Emily Schomberg was its 
" immortelle " of bellehood; a truly wonderful woman who 
came out with every set of buds and seemed fresher than 

Quite late in her reign Miss Emily Schomberg married 
Colonel Hughes-Hallett, of the English Army. She was 
his second wife, the first having been the daughter of Lord 
Selwyn. The union was less ideal than some inter-con 
tinental ones. The husband was forced out of the British 
parliament by some scandals. The American wife obtained 
separation and, childless and alone, spends the sunset of her 
days between Paris and Dinard. 

If hurtling, whirling Chicago has ever attempted a similar 
imitation, it has died young enough to escape baptism. 
Possibly she has been too busied in " getting her growth"; 
and probably would not have liked it had she tried. Yet 
ample material would not seem lacking to any who recall the 
social swim of Mrs Potter Palmer and the other of the hand 
some and accomplished Honore sisters, Mrs. Frederick Dent 
Grant there and in other cities. There is Mrs. Stone, too, 
who might have led the van in such an attempt, and the 
Chetlains, with others equally known. 

One salon peculiar to itself was held at Smith s Inn, No. 
65 Sibley street, at regular intervals, by that veteran soldier,- 
mason and traveler, General John Corson Smith. Under his 
roof the most noted minds and brightest intelligence of old 
veterans in the three cults named, made new history, while 
his gentle and genial daughter, Miss Ruth Smith, was his 
efficient adjutant and comrade. 

In her pre-bellum days Cincinnati held great pride in the 
birth, culture and elegance of her better class. She had a 
veritable old-school set of gracious women and men as her 
own novelist has written "who could put a dash of color 
even into evening dress!" And there was foundation in 


the pride in that old regime which made its impress at home 
and on any distant society it entered. For who there wanders 
about old residence streets and does not recall Mr. and Mrs. 
Charles Stetson, who held headquarters for all the literary; 
entertaining Emerson and Alcott and their peers. There 
reigned the beautiful and stately Miss Therese Chalfant, later 
so noted in Washington as the wife of Senator Pugh; and her 
handsome sister, Miss Ada. Then, those charming daughters 
of Dr. Rives, of Virginia, Mrs. Joseph Longworth and Mrs. 
Rufus King. The latter, a brilliant musician herself, made 
her home the centre for all of artistic taste. No old-timer 
but recalls Mrs. E. S. Haines, a potent leader in society and 
the aunt of General William H. Lytle, who wrote, "I am 
dying, Egypt dying!" In Mrs. Alice Pendleton daughter 
of Francis Scott Key society had a brilliant and magnificent 
woman to represent it abroad, and her husband a help 
mate and counsellor of value inestimable. Another who 
dazzled official circles, when her father was in congress, was 
Miss Olivia Groesbeck, afterward the wife of General Joseph 
Hooker, " Fighting Joe." An attractive and brilliant head 
of an old and typical Cincinnati house, still regnant in things 
social, was Mrs. Nicholas Anderson. Elegant entertainers 
in an elegant home, were Mrs. Robert W. Burnet and her 
two daughters, Miss Laura Wiggins and her sister, Mrs. 
Skinner, who were always as much sought in social functions 
for their personal charm, as in church and charity work for 
its even better expression. Queenly Mrs. John W. Coleman 
was also the centre of an admiring circle, and distinguished 
visitors from afar ever sought her society. 

The city has nurtured not a few literati and journalists 
and some poets whose names are national. Witness Don 
Piatt and his brilliant wife and poetic brother; Murat Hal- 
stead, "Wash" McLean, and many a younger pen-driver 
who has forced a way in the East. 


It is a grave error to suppose that trade absorbs all the in 
terest of the new city. Her " Saturday Night Club" is a 
weekly congress of as bright and variously minded men as one 
might hope to meet anywhere. I recall vividly nights at 
that clubhouse when jest and educating talk went flashing 
across the little tables, and when unrepentant Johnny Reb 
met his whilom victor, and was permitted to laugh at him 
from the improvised rostrum. Those, indeed, were veri 
tably Nodes Ambrosiance. And yet the prideful city of 
Ohio has no record of attempt at the French free-and-easy. 

Indeed, nowhere in the Middle West has one seed of the 
French exotic wafted that lived long enough to shoot one 
noticeable sprout. St. Louis with her Louisiana French 
contingent of population; Memphis, Louisville and Nashville, 
have all been noted for culture in their societies, famed for 
the beauty and charm of their women ; for the gallantry and 
often the culture of their men. 

Some of the former have been the regnant belles of exigent 
fashion on both sides of the ocean, as the names of the Gatys, 
Francises and Haywoods, the Vances and Johnsons, the 
fame of "Di Bullitt" and Mrs. Sallie Ward Hunt, the Bruces, 
Yandells and Craiks attest. Many of the latter have shone 
in legislation, affairs and war for all these years, but for all that 
none of the cities have followed the fad that has flourished 
but briefly along the Atlantic line. There may be some reason 
for this in climate and in hurry of life, or is it that the heads 
of some sections are harder and more " level" than the rest? 

Baltimore, ever refined, eminently social, and with dazzling 
integers like Miss Lemmon, Mmes. Tiffany, Reed, Thomas 
and the rest, and wits like Teackle Wallis, and Tom Morris, 
never essayed the salon fad. Her nearest approach to it 
was the "view," or the soiree, of the Alston Club not to be 
read, "the Maryland!" Probably Baltimore was too com 
fortable to copy anything. 


Naturally, one might have looked to cosmopolitan Wash 
ington with the brainy and handsome to possess equally 
the elements and the need for such a foundation. But 
the capital after the Madison regime, perhaps was as 
reticent of essay as her Monumental neighbor; contenting 
herself with the East Room levee, as a social zoo; and ab 
sorbed in the struggle for the most elaborate dinners, the 
most crowded balls, and the smartest germans. Perhaps 

the society was too large and 

varied in taste, to an extent 
that forgot menticulture after 
once tasting it. Probably 
Washington of that day 
was too light-heeled and 

The ante-bellum receptions, 
like those of Mrs. Slidell and 
, Madame deSartiges, of Mmes. 
Montgomery-Blair or Dahl- 
gren, were nearer approaches 
i to those of Roland and 
Adam than the country had 
i yet seen. But that was, 
perhaps, because they neither 


attempted nor announced 

imitation. They bade clever, cultured and original people 
come and entertain themselves and each other. These are 
the alpha and omega of the true salon, not a political club 
or a conspiracy in fine linen and silken hosiery. 

This basic fact the promoters of all American failures have 
forgotten. In the pronounced personalism and newness of 
our social superstructure on the lately dead century, in its 
crudity and rivalries and most of all in its dollar domina 
tion conversation became a lost art, replaced by the mono- 


logue; mentality and accomplishment being represented 

That elegance, culture and taste have and ever have had 
place in most American cities, is a self-demonstrated prop 
osition. That they have been .millionaired to the rear is 
another quite as plain. 

Probably the most cogent reason of all for the non-ex 
istence of the salon has been the lack of need for its mask 
and dark- lantern in our national system. The political 
battles of the Union have usually been fought in the open, 
or in the prize ring. The official guillotine being the only 
one to dread, the stealthy tread, the veiled epigram, and the 
sugar-plummed conspiracy of the Quartier St. Germain 
found neither paternity nor cradle in cis-Atlantic society. 
A conglomerate people, the methods of the one race were 
antipathetic to the rest. Hence it happened that what was 
nearest approach to the Paris salon found birth and nurture 
more often in the South. 

Madame de Sartiges, wife of the French minister to Miss 
Lane s court, was herself an American; one of the two Thorn- 
dike sisters from the ancient New England town Oliver 
Wendell Holmes called "Beverly-by-the-Depot." The Cape 
Cod poet once sang it as "Beautiful, baked-bean-loving 

The second Miss Thorndike married Sefior Banuelos, a 
pleasant and popular secretary of legation of long ago. 

The real Parisian etiquette, however, prevailed at the 
Sartiges Saturday evenings, on Georgetown Heights, and 
they were popular with all. There we met the creme de 
legation pleasantly diluted with the best of native sociality. 
There were no introductions. People who chose talked and 
danced together, and the refreshments never gave a head 
ache. But the brightest people, as well as the best, went to 
these easy functions, sure of finding kindred spirits. 


The wife of Senator Slidell (Mile. Deslondes, of Louisiana) 
was Creole au bout des ongles. She had been educated and 
traveled much abroad, and brought the Parisian ideals to 
her Washington life. Her two pretty daughters, Mathilde 
and Rosine, were younger than the permissible age for " taking 
a peep" by the French girl. Still the two ventured an oc 
casional one at these functions, much to the delectation of 

polyglot youth, for they 
were naive and sprightly. 

Later, these girls became 
historic, when their whilom 
neighbor, Admiral Wilkes, 
reft Mason and Slidell from 
the protecting paws of the 
British Lion. 

An all-around casus belli 
was barely escaped. The 
animated objection of the 
pretty young twain to return 
beneath the Old Flag was 
the sensation of the hour 
on both sides of the water. 
Later, Mile. Mathilde mar 
ried Baron Earlanger, the 

French banker, so familiar to still later American finance. 
Miss Rosine, caring less for money, married blood in the 
Quartier St. Germain. 

Mrs. Eugenia Phillips, wife of the Alabama Congressman, 
came very near holding a salon, and quite without intent. 
This handsome and brilliant Southern woman had a national 
reputation long before General Ben Butler, of New Orleans 
and Bermuda Hundreds, gave her an international one. 

Her arrest for alleged treason in laughing and chatting on 
her own porch while a military funeral passed, need not b 



rehearsed here. Time, and decency have passed upon it. 
That was excuse for that inexplicable and unsoldierly " Order 
28," which wrung from the impassive British premier the 
epithet " Infamous!" and sent the hero down the aisles of 
history ticketed with an unsavory sobriquet. 

But in truth it was Mrs. Phillips s contempt of the general 
and her cool sarcasm that caused her imprisonment. Haled 
before him, she laughed equally at the charge and at his 
authority to war on women. When told that she would be 
sent to Ship Island, she blandly replied: 

"It has one advantage over the city, sir; you will not be 

When told that it was a yellow fever station, she laughed : 

"It is fortunate that neither the fever nor General Butler 
is contagious." 

Robert Wood, younger brother of John Taylor, was like 
wise a born fighter about their only common heritage. He 
was a reckless, sharp-tongued member of the young society, 
but his pride of descent from General Taylor was such that 
his actions paraphrased: "Je n y suis ni rot, ni prince: je 
suis Taylor!" 

At one of her receptions I heard him ask Mrs. Phillips: 
"Tell these ladies the best thing you know relating to me." 

In a flash Ben Butler s later vanquisher and his unin 
tentional sponsor in sobriquet responded : 

"Your grandfather, Bob!" 

Both the Wood brothers sons of the elder sister of the 
first Mrs. Jefferson Davis are dead. Robert, distinguished 
as a cavalry colonel in Wirt Adams s brigade, pursued various 
avocations in New Orleans, leaving a widow and family there. 
John Taylor, the elder, we shall see more of later. 

Mrs. Phillips was not only one of the most picturesque per 
sonages in Confederate history, but a most potent and popular 
one in Washington society. With a strange infusion of sub- 


acid, she had great goodness of heart, and was ever loyal in 
her friendships. These included some of the most notable 
women, on both sides of then acrimonious thought, taking 
Mrs. Jefferson Davis and Mrs, William H. Emory as examples. 
She was Eugenia, the eldest of three handsome and brilliant 
daughters of Jacob Clavius Levy and Fanny Yates, of Charles 
ton ; the latter an Englishwoman, who was a marvel of spright- 
liness when I knew her in Washington, close ante-bellum, 
when she was in her late eighties. 

The second sister, Phoebe, now the widow of Thomas 
Pember, of Boston, we shall meet frequently in these pages. 
Miss Martha, a gifted and popular woman, survived the war 
and died unmarried. The fourth of the sisters, Emma, mar 
ried Prioleau Hamilton, of South Carolina. 

The three Phillips girls were heritors of their mother s 
beauty and graces, but not of her satiric turn. As they came 
"out" successively, Misses Fannie, Caroline and Emma be 
came and remained popular belles in the home and foreign 
sets, and were all conceded beauties in a society where plain 
women were exceptional. Miss Fannie had a long and ro 
mantic engagement with dashing Charley Hill, nephew of 
the millionaire banker, W. W. Corcoran. Hill went South, 
and will be seen again, and when he came home and entered 
the state department, after winning his majority for gallantry 
on General Forrest s staff, the pair were married. The widow 
is still a remarkably preserved woman, residing in Pittsburg 
with three grown sons and the wife of the eldest Charles 
Philip Hill who was the popular Miss Catherine Montague, 
of Baltimore. Yet, this " pretty young woman" as some 
one lately wrote me of her, is four times a grandmother. Her 
handsome daughter, Mrs. Benney, who lives only one block 
away, has four children. 

Miss "Lina," the next sister, is now Mrs. Frederick Meyers, 
of Savannah; head of a family, but retaining the delicate 


beauty of feature which made artistic Walter Taylor name 
her "the Cameo." Miss Emma Phillips married Walter 
Carrington, of Virginia, and also boasts a grown son and 
daughter at her Long Island home. 

The boys of the family were notable, too, for manly beauty 
and traits; and two of them Clavius and John Walker 
Phillips were in the army. 
The former married Miss 
Georgina Cohen,of Savannah ; 
the latter Miss Nellie Jonas, 
of New Orleans. The only 
other living son is P. Lee 
Phillips, of the Congressional 
Library, who with an ex 
ceptionally beautiful young 
wife resides in Washington. 
Eugene, an elder brother 
who served in the Confeder 
ate navy, and Willie, the 
youngest, are dead. 

The Phillips family were 
little in Richmond during 
the war, but sometime "ref- 
ugeed" at La Grange. In 
both, the brilliance of the 
mother and the marked beauty of her daughters made 
them even more noticeable than did the Butler episode. 

All of these were not the real salon. Its first planting on 
American soil was almost coeval with that of the Lilies in La 
Louisiane; and it flourished somewhat with the luxuriance 
of a wild growth in the Law-built second capital on the 
Mississippi. Then the exclusiveness of the Creole regime 
the Villeres, Lallandes, Zacharies and the rest cloistered 
itself behind the portes cocheres of old French Town; leav- 




ing New Orleans to barter, building and growth. Today 
the unique and rapidly merging society of the Crescent City 
has known no salon. It finds ample occupation in the 
usual home routine, its Opera and races and its pre-eminent 
carnival functions. 


WHEN old General Desha moved with his second wife 
from North Alabama to Cottage Hill, near Mobile, he brought 
the three daughters of his first marriage Misses Phoebe Ann, 
Caroline and Julia Desha. The eldest married Murray 
Smith, a young Virginian who had drifted to the city by the 
Gulf, little dreaming that Fate had marked him for grand- 
father-in-law of a Duke of Marlborough. The second sister, 
Carrie, married Mr. Barney, and, when widowed, Lloyd 
Abbott, of lower Fifth avenue, then the most fashionable 
residential quarter of New York. She was fond of society, 
but had a veritable craze for private theatricals. This 
culminated in two disasters: it put her protegee, Miss Cora 
Urquhart, of New Orleans, at large upon the real stage 
as Mrs. James Brown Potter and it sent Mrs. Abbott into 
the same profession. New York has not forgotten her 
unfortunate debut at Daly s theatre in "The Duchess," 
and her death followed soon after that ill-advised experiment. 
Miss Julia Desha, handsome, clever and ambitious, married 
in France and did not return. 

Mrs. Murray Smith was socially ambitious beyond the 
family limit, and very lavish of means to attain the desired 
result. She took a handsome city residence, issued invita 
tions for unremitting entertainments, and served the guests 
with all that market and chef could produce. Somehow, 



these could not command success, however they may have 
deserved it. The functions were costly, but not popular; 
the social usufruct did not come, and Mrs. Smith found 
Mobile too rooted in old ways to comprehend a salon after 
the mode of the one she longed to sway. 

This ambitious lady had four daughters: Misses Armide, 
Alva, Virginia, and Mimi. She planned a final and still 
more elaborate function; larger, more costly and all-embrac 
ing. She certainly studied the injunction to Sempronius, 
but success again refused to crown deserving persistence. 
Some people ate Mrs. Smith s suppers; many did not. There 
was needless and ungracious comment, and one swift writer 
pasquinaded her social ambitions in a pamphlet for " private" 
circulation. Then the lady concluded that Mobile was as 
unripe for conquest as for introduction of the salon. She 
carried her daughters and her advanced tastes to New York, 
where the field was broader for deserving effort; including 
Mr. Smith s business ones. Results, in one sense at least, 
justified the move. She lived, despite failing health, in a 
whirl of society, and died in it. 

Her second daughter, Alva, married W. K. Vanderbilt, 
and after divorce O. H. P. Belmont; and her granddaughter 
was the mistress of Blenheim. 

Miss Virginia married Fernando Yznaga, brother of the 
dowager Duchess of Manchester, the first Consuelo; and, 
on legal separation from him, became Mrs. William G. Tif 
fany. Miss Armide never married. She seemed to inherit 
none of the family taste for smart society, and devoted her 
self to charitable works for her sex. She died in New York 
in April of last year. Miss Mimi, I believe, followed her 
aunt Julia s example of marrying and dying abroad. 

Mrs. Octavia Walton Le Vert was the daughter of Colonel 
John B. Walton so well known to the clubs of Washington, 
New York and a dozen other cities and the wife of a well- 


known doctor of Mobile. She was a pretty and plump 
blonde, and fond of society and dress. In her husband s 
easy circumstances, the eager little lady gave full rein to 
her natural tastes; went abroad, came back, and tried to 
entertain in quite foreign and all-embracing fashion. 

"M. D.," as Mrs. Le Vert was wont to call her spouse, 
in place of his baptismal Henry Strachey, was not a devotee 
of society by any means, but a skillful and popular surgeon 
and cultured gentleman. 
His profession gave him 
ample means, and he was 
complaisant enough not to 
balk his wife s desire to en 
tertain all of society, 
including the most pro 
nounced freaks that clung to 
its periphery. To be a nov 
elty in fact or reputed, was 
sufficient to secure entree into 
the salon of this mondaine. 
Her house was large and her 
heart larger; and no end of 
good things that she did 
still stand to her credit on the 
Great Ledger. 

Mrs. Le Vert s evenings 
were eagerly sought by all classes in the amusement 
hungry city. They were wholly unceremonious, the ex- 
clusives herding together and the others intermingling 
as best they could. Everybody was welcome. A sort of 
staff collected around the entertainer, its chief being 
gallant and reckless Major Harry Maury. This stalwart 
and witty cousin of the little but able General Dabney H. 
Maury, some time in command at Mobile, was an original 



in all regards. It was he who asked that famous " Lazarus 
conundrum/ repetition of which by Bishop Wilmer ; in 
New York, set the sensitive North agog. 

Maury was a privileged 
character in Mobile, and espe 
cially at Mrs. Le Vert s. It 
was there, as reported, that he 
vented the now ancient rea 
son for declining egg-nogg. 
Coming in one night, when 
already laved internally, the 
hostess proffered the foaming 
yellow mixture. Maury said: 
" Thank you, none for me. 
I prefer my eggs poached; I 
take my milk and sugar in my 
coffee, and I m man enough to 
take my whiskey straight!" 

With diametrically opposite 
intent, Mrs. Le Vert was 
alert as any spider with in 
vitations into her parlor. No 
stranger with name or record could escape. When Kossuth 
came to this country, she seized and exhibited him, making 
more ado over him than over the sturdy old commodore, 
Duncan N. Ingraham, who had rescued the Hungarian under 
the guns of the Austrian frigate Hussar. At her house were 
met the generals of the armies within reach of Mobile, 
whenever they had duty in the city. There also came Admi 
ral Franklin Buchanan, naval chief of the station, and with 
him his daughter, Mrs. Scriven, of Georgia, one of the love 
ly twin sisters who had been such belles at the Washington 
Navy Yard, and then in her early married life. 

Randall, of " Mary land," was an habitue, and on rare 



occasions the pale, worn face of Henry Timrod was seen 
in their quieter corners. Poor Timrod! Oversensitive, 
unarmored for the melee of life s tourney, he died for sheer 
want of bread, and, all too late, his state gave him a stone. 
Dashing Tom Ochiltree, the arch romancer of the war: 
Nathan Bedford Forrest ready to run away from the 
battery of bright, admiring eyes all sensational fish, big 
and little, came to Mrs. Le Vert s net and made a social 
jambalaya not possible to match in all Dixie. There, too, 
were musical and dramatic people galore, for the fair hostess 
was patron of art, no less than leader of the mode. John 
T, Raymond was then at the Mobile Theatre, a tyro player 
who did not dream " There s millions in it!" Burly, big- 
voiced Theodore Hamilton, 
who sometimes did actor 
stunts at the soirees which 
perhaps helped him to some 
reputation thereafter. There 
was an old auctioneer in 
Mobile who had several pret 
ty daughters. One of these 
Phillips girls married Ham 
ilton and went on the stage 
until invalided. A second 
was a royal beauty. As 
Marie Gordon she became 
Raymond s first wife. She 
won repute for good acting, 
especially as blind Bertha 
to her husband, Jefferson, 
and John Owens, as Caleb 
Plummer. But it was not altogether by her acting that 
she dazzled all of one continent and parts of another. 

" Johnny" Chatterton later Signer Perugini and one 



of the numerous husbands of Lillian Russell was a pupil 
of Madame Kowalewski-Portz, and sang at her Christ church 
choir and at Mrs. Le Vert s. 

The women met at Mrs. Le Vert s are tempting, but dan 
gerous themes to touch. There were the dashing Oliver 
sisters, known to every camp; the beautiful bride, Mrs. 
Laura Forsyth, already famed in the A. N. V. She is now 
Mrs. William Becker, of Milwaukee, and the last direct 
descendant of Jackson s secretary of state and grandson 
of the great editor is her son, Charles Forsyth. He also 
lives there. 

Fascinating Mrs. Dan E. Huger was another of Mrs. Le 
Vert s war brides. As Miss Hattie Withers she had won 
triumphs in a Washington winter. She left two charming 
daughters, Mrs. Cleland Smith, of Memphis, and Mrs. Robert 
Wilkie, of New Orleans. Their daughters, in turn, won 
dered to the day of her recent and lamented death, whether 
that young and sprightly lady was really their mama s 

Mrs. Le Vert has gone, long years. "M. D.," her husband, 
went before. Gone too, are her daughters, Octavia, and 
Henrietta. The former, whom intimate friends knew as 
"Diddie, " was the aide-de-camp of her mother s lavish 
social days, the stay of her less happy ones, when the declin 
ing sun was no longer worshipped by inconstant devotees. 

One drawing-room of ante-bellum Mobile much sought 
and ever compensating was that of Mrs. Fearn, wife of 
Dr. Richard Lee Fearn, a very noted surgeon who died in 
the late 60 s. Mrs. Fearn had been Miss Mary Walker, 
sister of the four brothers of that name elsewhere noted. 

There were met such notables as Governor John Anthony 
Winston, full of acumen and satire; Dr. Claude H. Mastin, 
the noted surgeon ; .with his keen wit and blunt speech, 
but using sub-acid where his brilliant son now applies the 


triple oil of gracious courtesy; brilliant young Theodore 
O Hara, who wrote "The Bivouac of the Dead/ and scores 
of other home people then and later in national repute. 
Distinguished visitors from abroad were ever introduced at 
Mrs. Fearn s, and though the maltreated French word was 
not whispered of her receptions, they held its sponsorial 

Dr. and Mrs. Fearn had one son, Walker Fearn, already 
a courtly, gifted and accomplished man, who gave earnest 
of that later high acquirement which made him a marked 
type of the Southern gentleman and diplomatist. He died 
a decade ago. Walker Fearn married Miss Fannie Hewitt, 
of New Orleans, in the early flush of her belleship after she 
had been the first queen of the carnival. He went to that 
city to practice law, but was sent as secretary of legation 
to Spain in Buchanan s time. When the war came he returned 
to enter the army, but was ordered to Paris as secretary to 
the Mason-Slidell embassy to the sentiment of the unsenti 
mental powers, who heeded not the wooing of Mr. Benjamin, 
as there lisped by his chosen messengers. After the war, 
Mr. Fearn returned to the Crescent City and resumed his 
practice in partnership with Captain Edward M. Hudson, 
a cultivated Virginian who had returned from his Ger 
man university to serve on General Elzey s staff; and who- 
still resides there with his accomplished wife, formerly Miss 
Fannie Ledyard. But Mr. Fearn s diplomatic taste and 
experience again carried him abroad as minister to Greece, 
under Mr. Cleveland. Later he was named as American 
judge of the international court established by the Khedive 
in Cairo. On his return to America, he was chief of foreign 
installation at the Chicago World s Fair. He died soon 
after, leaving a widow and one daughter, now Mrs. Seth 
Barton French, of New York. There was another girl, 
Clarisse, who died abroad, and one son, Hewitt, also dead. 


Percy Leroy Fearn married Eva Onderdonk and the family 
live on Long Island. Mrs. Walker Fearn now resides 
with Mrs. French, devoting her energy and experience to 
lecturing in aid of the blind. She frequently visits her old New 
Orleans home, where her cousins and she made a brilliant 
trio in years gone, and where they still remain. They were 
Minnie and Clara Norton, now Mrs. Newton Buckner and 
Mrs. Arthur Lee Stuart. Mrs. Stuart s elder daughter is 
wife of the Rev. Norman Guthrie, priest and poet, and the 
piquante Miss Minnie is yet with her mother. 

The four handsome and brilliant daughters of Mrs. Newton 
Buckner are Katie, Mrs.Daniel Asery; Minnie (who was Mrs. 
William Barkley, and died only last year) ; Edith, Mrs. Harry 
Howard; and Frances, Mrs. James Bush. As girls this quar 
tette were popular and much quoted and their marrying has 
not changed those conditions. Norton Buckner, their brother, 
is married and lives in New York. 

After the death of Walker Fearn s mother, Dr. Lee Fearn 
married Miss Elizabeth Spear, of Mobile. There are three 
children of the second family: R. Lee Fearn, Jr., chief of 
the Tribune bureau at Washington, and almost as widely 
known as secretary and president of the irrepressible Gridiron 
Club. He married Miss Egerton, of Baltimore, and resides 
at the capital with their young son and daughter, Miss 
Mildred who has just made her entree in Washington society. 
Miss Sallie Fearn was one of the sweetest and most lovable 
girls that Mobile has relinquished to a distant state. She 
is now Mrs. H. M. Manley, of New Jersey, and the mother 
of a family of three. Dr. Thomas S. Fearn, the youngest, 
never married. 

In the Fearn home often was met a representative of the 
old French family of de Vendel de Genance, noted in the 
first French revolution and before. Madame Adelaide de 
Vendel Chaudron, however, carried her own patent of mental 


nobility. She was the wife of Paul Simon Leopold Chaud- 
ron; and during her half-century life in Mobile was leader 
in the twin arts of literature and music. She was a great 
linguist, a close student and an omnivorous reader. It 
was she who translated the Louise Muhlbach stories of royalty, 
and many other works. 
The only extant copy, of 
which I know, is kept un 
der glass by her son, Louis 
de Vendel Chaudron, who 
still resides in Mobile. 

Madame Chaudron died a 
decade since, at the age of 

There were four de Vendel 
sisters besides Madame 
Chaudron. Louise never mar 
ried and died years ago. 
Angele married Henry Hull 
and both are dead, and their 
son, Edgar Hull who lost a 
leg in the Civil War died 
very recently at Pascagoula, 
Miss. The next sister, Jo 
sephine, is the widow of 
Augustus Sellers, and resides 
in New York; and the last, 
Pauline, is the widow of 
George J. White and lives in Mobile. 

Here came Dr. George A. Ketchum and his then young 
bride, Sue Burton, of Quaker Philadelphia, who celebrated 
their golden wedding a decade ere they both passed away, 
leaving but one child, Mrs. Georgia Ketchum Stratton 
of Mobile. The last, not then born, has later proved one of 



the most popular and gracious of hostesses; and her friends 
are found in many a city far away from the noted old home 
stead she still graces. She is also one of the most versatile 
and " fetching" of society amateurs. This gift she has in 
common with her cousin, Mary Ketchum, the then girlish 
daughter of Col. Charles Ketchum. One of the most beauti 
ful and gifted women of her day, she sometimes joined her 
uncle and aunt at Mrs. Fearn s. She married the elder of 
the gallant Irwin brothers; was the acknowledged beauty of 
her set and an accomplished woman in many ways; notably 
in high comedy. Only three years ago she died, universally 
regretted; and her home at picturesque "Oakleigh," is pre 
sided over by her only daughter, Mrs. Daisy Irwin Clisby with 
her three "boys": her stately old father and her own sons. 
There, were seen the Clark brothers, Francis B. and Willis 
Gaylord; the former the first president of directors of the 
Mobile & Ohio Railroad when only twenty-six years old, 
and now a well-preserved resident of Birmingham, at nearly 
ninety years of age. Willis Gaylord Clark died ten years 
ago, leaving no children. 

At Mrs. Fearn s Mr. and Mrs. Henry A. Schroeder, pre 
cise but suave; Jurist Peter Hamilton and his cordial wife, 
and the Ledyard family were frequent guests. 

Mrs. William J. Ledyard was the eldest of those six 
brilliant Erwin sisters, whose culture and force did for Ten 
nessee what the "Wicklyffes" did for Kentucky. She was 
Laura Erwin, a woman of golden heart and mind. Much 
of her nature showed in her children, the eldest of whom 
has just been mentioned, Mrs. E. M. Hudson; William Led 
yard, who fell before Richmond; Erwin, who carried the 
colors at Malvern Hill and bore to his still green grave the 
scars for it; and gentle Miss Leila, now also passed away. 

Jane Erwin, later Mrs. Goff, was the second sister; and 
Amelia, Mrs. Yeatman, and Mrs. Hillman, Marie Louise, 


all of Nashville, were the third and fifth. All are dead, 
as is the beautiful and gentle Caroline, "the baby sister," 
who married Willis Clark. It was her son by her first marriage, 
Ledyard Scott, who was the second husband of the author 
ess, the present Mrs. Fenellosa. 

The only living sister of the Erwin name is Ellen, Mrs. 
George A. Hay ward, of St. Louis. For years hers has been 
a familiar name in society and literature in the river metrop 
olis. She has had in later years the aid of three popular 
daughters. The eldest of these, Miss Florence Hayward, 
has made her own name notable on both sides of the water. 
She was the woman commissioner of the Louisiana Pur 
chase Exposition, whose work in London and Rome did so 
much for the foreign exhibit; and to whom especial credit 
is due for its famous history section. Foreign recognition 
of her work has been exceptional. The French Academy 
made her an honorary associate, she being the only Ameri 
can woman so named and one of the only five or six in 
the world. The exposition authorities gave her the only 
special gold medal for service rendered, presented to any 
officer. Her next sister, Miss Fanita Hayward, married 
George Niedringhaus. She was an ever popular girl at 
home and in the distant cities she constantly visited. The 
youngest sister, Erwin, was a bright and regal type of 
woman, with a fad that she would not marry : so she is now 
Mrs. Higginbotham, of Canada. The Hayward boys, both 
married, but not before St. Louis society had made them 
enfans gates for a number of years. 

The Ledyard-Erwin-Hayward connection is too Virginian 
in extent for detailing here. William Ledyard s brother 
had a large family; one of the daughters, Anne Ledyard, 
being one of the most popular women in the South. She 
married Fulwar Skipwith, of Clarkesville, Va., grandson of 
Sir Grey Skipwith. Her sister Laura was one of the most 


beautiful women of her day, and brilliant too. She became 
Mrs. Marion Vaughan, of Columbus, Miss. William Ledyard 
married Miss Adelaide Dargan, daughter of the great lawyer, 
Edmund Dargan; and it is their son who married the daughter 
of John Triplett, as before noted. 

Mrs. Fanny Ledyard Hudson s three sons have families 
in Louisiana. William Alexander, the eldest, married 
Miss Anna Dontey, of Rapides Parish, and early died a 
hero s death, to save the lives of passengers on his railway 
train. Wallace and Leigh married sisters, Misses Luckett, 
of Rapides. So the old stock will not be forgotten in the 
old South or the young West. 



HIGH-HEADED, refined and historic Charleston ha s not 
been without her sensations. She has been the seat of one 
great seismic convulsion and of several political ones. She 
was the cradle of nullifica 
tion and of Civil War. 
There was held the conven 
tion that sent the triple 
Democratic Horatii to hold 
the bridge against Lincoln, 
and laid them, slaughtered, 
at his feet. There was the 
glory of the palmetto-logged 
Moultrie, the theatrical one 
of Sumter, when gallant men 
with silk hats, and red sash 
es binding swords to their 
frock coats, marched away 
from weeping wives, to dress 
on Beauregard. Not a few 
of these must have smiled, 
in quick-succeeding scenes of 


field and hospital, at the 

dramatic terrors of that undress rehearsal: "Mr. Chesnut 

somewhere on that black harbor in an open boat!" a noble 



old dame wiring her blessing to her grandson for shooting 
away the flagstaff, and Wigfall crawling through a rear 
porthole and praying grim old Robert Anderson, in the name 
of humanity, not to commit fiery felo de se. 

Charleston and the whole state of South Carolina have 
given famous men and noble women to the councils and 
the wars to the matronage and the society of the Union 
ever since the Rattlesnake flag. 

Rarely an imitator, she transplanted the indigenous Bos 
ton fad and fostered it into secession. She has had her 
social sensations, indubitably, while never vaunting them, 
but Charleston never took the salon infection. Her one 
case was mild and sporadic. 

James L. Pettigrew was the most noted lawyer and the 
most quoted wit of his day in the city of the battery. He 
had two daughters, Mrs. King and Mrs. Carson. " Sue King, " 
as her intimates called the elder, was audacious and original. 
At odds with society, she attempted a salon in the hope 
of getting even with the feminine contingent. Scarcely 
any woman could have made one popular, with all its needful 
unconventionality. Mrs. King assuredly did not. Her 
evenings were conspicuous for masculine crowds and feminine 
absences. She dropped them, as soon as the men stopped 
attending. "Busy Moments of an Idle Woman," which 
was largely read in the boudoir and boarding-school, came 
from the pen of Mrs. King, who was as quick-witted and 
as pointed in epigram as Mrs. Andrew Simonds the second 
of that noted name who recently married Barker Gummere, 
Mrs. Simonds was Miss Daisy Breaux. She came to New 
Orleans from Georgetown s Visitation convent, and short 
ly after acted in Atlanta as the bridesmaid of Miss Emma 
Minis. As Mrs. Simonds she founded the " Villa Margher- 
ita " in Charleston. It is to her that a clever retort to President 
Roosevelt is credited. "She had entertained him in Charles- 


ton at the time of the Exposition. Later, at Washington, 
when the appointment of a negro postmaster was agitating 
the city, it is said that Mr. Roosevelt asked Mrs. Simonds: 

"Tell me frankly what your people think of me now." 

"We think we have cast our bread upon the waters, and 
after a few days it has come back in a little brown Crum!" 

One of Mrs. King s best remembered witticisms was the 
introduction of the two 
elegant Rhett brothers, 
Alfred and Edmund, in the 
oft plagiarized words: 

"The Lilies! They toil 
not, neither do they spin; 
yet Solomon in all his 
glory is not so arrayed!" 

Yet, Charleston never had 
her salon, despite her having 
Mmes. King and Simonds and 
James Conner, whom she 
borrowed from her twin 

With its many comings 
and goings, Richmond offered MRS - JAMES w - CONNER 


opportunity for American 

imitation of a salon, but the social leaders were not so 
inclined. The receptions at the White House, at Mrs. 
Robert Stanard s, Mrs. Semmes s, Mrs. Macfarland s, Mrs. 
Ives s and, in their quieter way, at Mrs. Virginia 
Pegram s, were the perfect mixture of easy elegance and 
brains in evening dress. But, at the executive mansion, 
the "every evenings" of Mrs. Davis took on this likeness 
rather than those public and necessarily mixed levees 
which contemporaneous error insisted upon misnaming 
her salon. They are well worthy of a passing retrospect, 


for they were the most remarkable aggregations of distinction 
and commonplace. 

Gradually, as she melted the social frost about her, Mrs. 
Davis collected trie more important of Richmond s society 
leaders, making of them, unawares, a sort of informal staff. 
These were always present, after the first few "Washington 
imitations" as the bi-monthlies were at first called. They 
proved very attractive to the better posed and more distin 
guished visitors, and were 
most useful in letting the 
President and his wife devote 
more attention to the plainer 

A military band was always 
in attendance, generally dis 
pensing popular music, but 
4 i frtp sometimes classic. Cabinet 

ministers, congressmen, 
heads of bureaus and de 
partments, new generals and 
o 1 d admirals, fresh-faced 
young recruits and distinc 
tively foreign types from the 
coast South, all mingled to 
gether. There was more variety than in the East Room 
levee at Washington, and more action and eagerness. We 
were then not making history very rapidly, but many of those 
present later filled whole pages. 

Here was seen the red beard of Ambrose P. Hill; Beaure- 
gard would sometimes glide through the rooms with his 
staff. Dashing Pierce Young attended and gallants from 
Maryland, soft-voiced Carolinians and sturdy estrays from 
Kentucky and Missouri, mingled with the home set and the 
dainty debutantes and belles. 



These assemblages were great amalgamaters, and brought 
together people who had never met elsewhere. No doubt 
many moves in politics not always friendly to the head 
of the house were begun or discussed there; and that cam 
paigns of a tenderer nature were also carried on, goes without 

Mrs. Davis received every comer with pleasant, if not 
wholly genial, welcome. She never differentiated, and all 
were made to feel that they were present by right and not 
on sufferance. Here, as in all social matters, Mrs. Davis 
found able assistance in her young sister, Miss Howell, a 
great favorite with the official set, and she relieved the dul- 
ness of many a group. 

The President himself unbent more at these levees 
though they assuredly bored him than anywhere else. He 
had that marvelous memory which locates instantly a man 
not seen for years, and his familiar inquiries so pleased the 
visitors that they were not aware that the handshake was 
none too warm and that he was gently but speedily passed 
along. Miss Howell said he " helped them as though they 
were sandwiches at a charity picnic. " 

Years ago, writing to me of something I had said of these 
receptions, sturdy, brave General Brad Johnson said: 

"The photograph you give of Mrs. Davis s drawing-room 
is exquisite. I never was the*re but once, just after second 
Manassas, when I marched in booted and dirty and straight 
from the train with a letter from Jackson to the President. 
I never quite knew whether he liked my soldierly uncon- 
ventionality, for he may have thought I should have pre 
sented myself in better guise to the commander-in-chief. 
But I had been trained to believe that promptness was the 
highest military virtue, so I lost no moment in doing what 
I was sent to do. There was no doubt to the battle-stained 
soldier as to what she thought and felt. She was glad to 


see me, and I believe that night I promised to capture a 
Yankee flag for her; and she then and there captured my 
heart. I sent her the flag in 64, as she records in her 

"Your obliged comrade, 


What came nearest to a salon in Richmond and, as 
far as I know in all America was held at Mrs. Robert C. 
Stanard s. Her home early became noted for hospitality 
as lavish as it was elegant. She was a widow of ample means, 
and had been Miss Martha Pierce, of Louisville. She courted 
social success, had traveled extensively, and made many 
and distinguisned friends. 

When stress of war mobilized an army of these in Rich 
mond, Mrs. Stanard s doors swung wide and early for their 
reception and refection. She was one of the very first to 
break that thin layer of ice over the home society which 
formed at first hint of the white frost of social invasion, 
and for a moment threatened to chill the dreaded unknown. 

It has been shown how the natural warmth of Virginian 
hospitality soon dissipated this premature film; and how 
the natural sunniness of Richmond nature returned and 
rose to higher degree than normal. This disideratum was due 
to practical people like Mrs. Stanard, who had known some 
of the incoming and were ready to take the whole crop, 
as the cotton buyer does, "by sample. " Those who met 
the best of the influx at such houses, early "went in and 
bulled the foreign market." 

At her frequent dinners, receptions and evenings, Mrs. 
Stanard collected most that was brilliant and brainiest 
in government, army, congress and the few families who 
followed either, apparently because they could afford to. 

There, one met statesmen like Lamar, Benjamin, Soule 


and their peers; jurists like John A. Campbell and Thomas 
J. Semmes; fighters like Johnson, Hampton and Gordon; 
and the most polished and promising of the youth of war, 
as gallant and classic Kyd Douglas, handsome John B. 
Castleman, Lord King and a host more, not to name all of 
whom seems invidious. And with these came the best 
of her own sex that the tact and experience of the hostess 
could select. 

Bref, at Mrs. Stanard s one 
met people already noted 
for something or were sure 
to be ere long. Her house 
was one unremittent salon, 
in the regard of variety; 
and with the difference that 
the comers were entertained 
as well as entertaining. 

A statement has recently 
found it way into print 
doubtless unintentionally 
that she boasted "that she 
never read a book." If she 
made the boast, in jest, it 
is certain that she read men 
and women, and that very 
thoroughly. Her personality 
outside of her role as entertainer, was delightful and 
magnetic; and she attracted and held to her such strong 
men as Alexander H. Stephens, Pierre Soule and grand 
and gentle Commodore Samuel Barren, Charles L. Scott 

49-er," congressman and diplomatist. She was a " wo 
man s woman," too, her most ardent admirers being of her 
own sex and the regret for her untimely death lingering 
sweetly with them still. Her motherhood was deep, tender 



and unadvertised. Her only son, Hugh L. Stanard, was 
her idol, and his early death left a shadow that never lifted 
from her life. 

Mrs. Stanard has been called " Madame Le Vert of Rich 
mond. " The misnomer must be patent to all who have seen 
the receptions of both. They were diametric opposites in 
almost all regards; hospitality seeming their only common 
trait. The Mobilienne threw wide her doors and bade all 
enter, with the prodigal hospitality of the scriptural wedding. 
The Virginian chose her guests studiously for what was in 
them; and quite as much for their adaptability to each 
other. Hence the two noted houses of war sociality were 
equally wide apart in theory and, in practice. If the two 
go down in history as parallels, it must be because they are 
tangent at no point. 



WHAT was known as the " Quiet Set" to the giddier ones 
was possibly the best and most compensating portion of 
Richmond society. It gravitated sedately around such 
households as the Daniels, Grattans, Munfords, Brookeses, 
Gays, Wallers and a dozen more. These made small pre 
tense of entertaining in the lavish old way, but Hospitality 
sat on their front steps and invited the proper passer within. 
Their quiet homelike little dinners and those unspeakable 
little teas of later and more trying days ah! but these last 
are ever green in the memory of us ancients, veritable oases 
in the desert of privation. 

If some good housekeeper fell heir to a large jug of sor 
ghum, had a present of some real flour or acquired a tiny 
sack of " true-and-true " coffee, then and there went forth 
the summons. And it came to "the boys from camp," 
refreshing as the dew on Hermon. Then, with the gloam 
ing, came that crown of patient but earnest anticipation, 
a home supper; what Page McCarty was wont to call "a 
muffin match," or Eugene Baylor baptized "a waffle worry." 

It was in these unique evenings that was found the origin 
and home of the famous Mosaic Club as it came to be called, 
sans godfather or sponsor. 

This club was like none other before or since; legitimate 
progeny of abnormal social conditions. It had no descend- 



ants. Neither had it any officers, rules or specified objects, 
and especially had it no treasurer. It might have taken 
for motto elevere antiquum Henricum, but it needed none. 
It was simply the clashing of bright minds in hospitable 
and cultured homes under stimulus of rare good cheer and 
rarer good coffee. 

Such pianists as Miss Mattie Paul performed the works of 
the masters or accompanied the not always tuneful wandering 

minstrels from camp. Miss 
Paul was an accomplished 
player and was perhaps the 
moving center of things mu 
sical in Richmond . Literally 
she was the enfan gate of 
the Mosaic, as popular with 
women as with men. Mrs. 
Gustavus Myers might well 
have quoted, when her son 
married : 

"No sweeter woman e er 

drew breath 
Than my son s wife." 

Probably no war-time 

MRS. W. B. MEYERS , ,. 

(MATTIE PAUL) wedding was prettier or more 

picturesque s urely none 

more " showered" with golden wishes than that of Miss Paul 
to the popular Willie Myers, Breckinridge s adjutant-gen 

Myers survived the war but a few years. In her Virginia 
home his widow has seen the youth she seems never to have 
lost, renewed in daughters as fair as she was in war-time. 
Lelia, the elder, is wife of John Hill Morgan, a member of the 
New York bar, residing in Brooklyn. The other, Adela, 


is now the wife of Dr. Richard Frothingham O Neil, of Boston, 
a son of the admiral of that name. She is the mother of one 

At these informal Mosaic Club evenings rare "Ran" Tucker 
forgot dusty tomes and legal lore to tell his inimitable 

The poets and authors were familiar at the Mosaic. John 
R. Thompson already famous as longtime editor of the 
Southern Literary Messenger and accepted as the best poet 
of the war was an earnest member, and more than one of his 
immortal poems was there read first and discussed with a 
frankness that sometimes made the hypersensitive little poet 
stare. The current and coming features of the only Con 
federate magazine were there frankly discussed and antici 
pated, and if memory does not trick me, the beautiful poem, 
"The Battle Rainbow," was first read to the "old Mosaics." 
Poor Thompson! tender and too true victim of his own 
sensitiveness and of a time of stress it might not withstand 
died in the mid-rush of post-bellum New York. His mission 
took him to London to edit that useless organ of Confederate 
thought, the Index, to a people that did not take the trouble 
to think of us at all. This paper and along with it the 
entire system of Confederate diplomacy abroad was one of 
the direst mistakes made in the whole management of the 
great effort. Returning broken in health and fortune, 
Thompson met sympathetic friends in New York. Richard 
Henry Stoddard and his wife, and especially William Cullen 
Bryant, whom his true poetic temperament had long attracted, 
befriended him. On the latter s Evening Post he found work 
that was congenial; work that was rather made for him than 
useful to the paper. We lodged at the same substitute for 
a home, and I saw that disappointment and uncongenial 
surroundings were killing the tender poet. He did not die 
precisely as poor Henry Timrod did, but his ambition none 


the less starved him to death as literally as pride and poverty 
starved his Carolina brother. But now he sleeps in native 
soil. In his own words: 

"Gently fall, ye Summer showers. 
Birds and bees, among the flowers, 
Make the gloom seem gay!" 

John Esten Cooke, poet, romancer and the Walter Scott of 
our Southern " Tales of the Border/ dropped in on the Mo- 

_ saics when the activity of 

Stuart, whose aide he was, 
permitted flying visits to 
Richmond, even in winter. 
Cooke was rarely reticent as 
to his literary ventures, im 
parting portions of them to 
any chance listeners. Some 
times he was accompanied 
by his brilliant and boy- 
hearted chief, and those 
were indeed memorable 
nights when a Richmond 
soiree heard his manly 
voice troll out merrily, if 
none too correctly the 
camp ditty linked with his 
name, as to "Jining the 
cavalry" and the warmest 
of abodes: 


" If you want to catch the Devil, just ( jine the cavalry. 

It was not unfrequently that one met lights of cabinet and 
congress, or those of science and law, at these informal 
gatherings. The burly form of famous Professor A. T, Bled- 


soe rolled in more than once, and his sledge-hammer disputa 
tion contrasted humorously with the quaint, easy argument 
of Judge Raleigh Travers Daniel. Wide indeed was the range 
of subjects that came up spontaneously at the informal meets 
of the Mosaics. Wild, too, sometimes, were the vagaries 
into which its members lapsed under the stimulus of contact 
and unwonted rations. Some of these are tradition, yet 
probably unfamiliar to most of my readers. 

At one time a hat was passed around containing the most 
absurd questions and another with unusual words. The 
members drawing both were to link them in a speech, poem, 
brief tale or song, in some sort of logical sequence. As ex 
ample, that facile wit, Innes Randolph, once drew the ques 
tion: " What sort of shoe was made on the last of the Mo 
hicans?" and with it the word, "Daddy Longlegs." Naturally 
there was jubilation, for the aim of all his friends and one 
never attained was to pose this wag. Almost immediately 
he wrote and recited this glib impromptu: 

"Old Daddy Longlegs was a sinner hoary, 
And was punished for his wickedness, according to the 

Between him and the Indian shoe this difference doth 

come in 
One made a mock o j virtue and one a moccasin." 

The applause had not ceased when the poet interrupted it 

"Corollary One: Because the old sinner stole the Indian 
shoe to keep his foot warm, was no reason he should steal 
his house to keeep his wig warm!" 

In mid laughter and wonder at this addendum, Randolph 
raised his hand and cried: 

"Corollary Second: Because the Indian s shoe wouldn t 
fit ary Mohawk is no reason that it wouldn t fit Nary-gansett ! " 


And so he ran on for a dozen ready quips that brought 

Music, as has been noted, was a strong factor in the cohesion 
of the Mosaic Club. No mention of it must omit Miss Evelyn 
Cabell, now Mrs. Russell Robinson, of Colleton, the ancient 
Cabell seat, in Nelson county. A schoolgirl at Miss Pegram s 
when war began, this beautiful and gifted girl became a popu 
lar belle. She was the daughter of Dr. Clifford Cabell, of 
Fernley, in Buckingham, coming of that good old-country 
stock, that manor house life, that to foreigners suggested 
country gentry and republican simplicity combined. With 
assured position and the numberless cousins, that are ever 
herital appurtenances of the well-born Virginia girl, Miss 
Cabell had a personality that left its impress on all she met. 

After an all too short reign Miss Cabell threw away her 
sceptre, and one of the best remembered of all war receptions 
was that at the residence of Mrs. Wirt Robinson, when her 
son Russell brought the belle as his bride from the Fernley 
seat. In her new realm she has queened it ever since. Today, 
although widowed and several times a grandmother, she is 
young in spirits and as popular as ever in society, in and be 
yond Virginia. She is active in the best of women s asso 
ciations and is honorary life regent of the Colonial Dames. 

Colleton, the first of the six colonial seats of the Cabell 
family, has passed into her hands, and with her there, in her 
new widowhood, resides her second son and her granddaughter 
and namesake. Cabell Robinson is far over six feet tall, an 
engineer by profession and a widower, residing with his 
mother. His elder brother, Major Wirt Robinson, is a noted 
artillery officer of the regular army. He is an accomplished 
linguist and inherits his mother s gift as a vocalist. He 
married Miss Alice Henderson and has two children. 

Two sisters followed pretty Eva Cabell into Richmond 
society, but later in the war when depletion and suspense 


had changed it greatly. Misses Mary and Alice Cabell were 
gifted and attractive girls, and gained a popularity that their 
maturity has broadened and deepened. The elder is now 
Mrs. John Cabell Early of Lynchburg, and is the mother of 
two soldier sons. Clifton Cabell Early was a feature of the 
West Point riding school, one of his feats being to ride two 
horses, with one foot upon the bare back of each. The 
younger son, Jubal A. Early, 
was the Annapolis midship 
man whose appearance in 
the inaugural parade of Pres 
ident Roosevelt, with another 
descended from the Toutant- 
Beauregards, made pleasant 
comment in the Northern 
press. Both brothers are 
now lieutenants in the 
2oth U. S. Infantry. Mrs. 
Early also has two daugh 
ters, Evelyn Russell and 
Henrian. The elder has 
traveled much abroad with 

her godmother and aunt. , MRS. JOHN CABELL EARLY 

Miss Alice Cabell, the last 

sister to exchange Miss Pegram s school for war-time belle- 
ship, has long been a matron and head of the Richmond home 
of Charles Turner Palmer. Only one of her three lovely 
daughters is now left to her. 

These three sisters are linked with memories of the Mosaics, 
as is the family name with all the most pleasant sociality of 
Richmond, as elsewhere shown. They were cousins of 
Colonel Coalter Cabell, of the artillery, who married Miss 
Alston. The belle and heiress was also a famous beauty, 
and her social triumphs are deeply impressed upon that day. 


So are those of another cousin s wife, Miss Crittenden, of 
Kentucky, who married Colonel Carrington Cabell. Still 
other cousins, if not so near, were the beautiful Miss Lizzie 
Cabell and her gallant and popular brother, Caskie Cabell, 
who made his best siege and happiest capture when he sur 
rendered to Miss Nannie Enders, post-bellum. 

The Mosaic boasted instrumental and vocal experts whose 
performance had taken rank in the amateur circles of any 
city. All of these lent their gifts freely to the charities, but 
while the make-believe actors essayed ambitious comedies, 
no attempt at opera is recalled. Among the favorites were 
Madame Ruhl, a noted soprano singer and teacher, who was 
also in the choir of St. Paul s church. 

Miss Nannie Robinson, who married her cousin, Ed. Robin 
son, later, was a finished and obliging pianiste. Her aid is 
recorded in many of the plays and charades that made ama 
teur art notable. Misses Nannie Brooke, Alcinda Morgan 
and Annie Palmer were able aids to musical successes, and 
lent their gifts from time to time to the club symposia. Mrs. 
Thomas J. Semmes and Mrs. Clara Fitzgerald have already 
been noted at length, their favorite instrument being the 
harp. Washington, the artist, had a pretty taste and a 
sweet, light tenor, well used in German ballads and college 
songs. He whistled admirably, too, as did Willie Myers, 
and their duets ranged from " Peanuts " to " Norma." General 
John Pegram, though not an educated musician, or performer 
on any instrument, was a delightful and artistic whistler. 
The rare occasions when devotion to duty let him leave camp 
were pleasant ones to the Mosaics, many of them being his 
lifelong friends. 

The comic singers par excellence were Innes and John 
Randolph the latter with his undying " Grasshopper " and 
his saucy "Good Old Rebel" ditties and "Ran" Tucker, of 
" Noble Skewball" and "Mr. Johnsing" recitative. Wonder- 


ful was that refrain and the action that accompanied it 
when the great jurist sang of the immortal racehorse! Gray 
Latham trolled his " Eveline" with great effect, but his hearers 
could not readily accommodate themselves to the ingrain 
wag s dropping into sentiment, as Mr. Wegg was wont to do 
into poetry. 

The pretty and gracious 
Macmurdo sisters, Saidie and 
Hennie, lent their good so 
prano and alto to music of 
that day, and Hector Eaches 
the gifted young painter 
with the sunshine face 
would sometimes run up 
from camp in his private s 
jacket, a new sketch in his 
pocket, an old song in his 
clear, strong throat and a 
huge appetite a few inches 
below it. 

The gayest of the Haxall 
homes of that day was that of 
the Barton Haxalls. Its 
daughter, Miss Lucy, was 
among the most sought 

of the younger set of society women. Handsome, 
stylish and with mingled geniality and savoir faire, she 
made friends and held them. Not a prominent musi 
cian herself, Miss Haxall loved music and was promoter of 
many concerts and other affairs combining music and charity. 
It was at her house that the "Musical Club" met most fre 
quently. This grew out of the self-collected material of the 
Mosaic. Washington, Myers and Randolph were its origina 
tors, and it grew rapidly. It was an equally original club, 



and if memory serves me, was likewise without organization, 
and had no officers. It collected the best musical material, 
quite in the same fashion that the Mosaic did the mental and 
the humorous. Yet, some of its most useful members were 
not Mosaics. One instance was Professor Thilow, a fine 
performer on the violoncello; another, James Grant, whose 
virile basso was a real feature, until the act of his own hand 
put him beyond the pale. 

This club was the origin of many an improvised orchestra 
for charity functions. Its real object was to furnish mutual 
entertainment and education to its own coterie, but it searched 
out musical merit and removed any secreting bushel from its 
light. Possibly exclusiveness crept in, to the sometime detri 
ment of good result. I recall one occasion when a new soprano 
not even on the boundaries of "the set" was discovered 
by an ardent male seeker. He waxed enthusiastic over her 
voice, and urged her prompt introduction into this sacred 
circle of Calliope. But that shook haughty head and mur 
mured, "Nay! Nay!" 

One stately and gifted girl was the most emphatic dis 
senter. Shortly after, she was led to the piano, she cast one 
glance at the music rack and turned red to the furrows at the 
sight she beheld. Some graceless wag had placed upon the 
music a large card, upon which were plainly written some 
verses. Needless to say, the "Mrs. Grundy" referred to in 
them, was the pseudo-type for society gossip, not the charm 
ing and popular Richmond lady of that name, who had been 
Miss Haxall before changing her title. 

The disturbing lines ran: 

"In the old days of faith, with a beauteous accord, 
The people united with hearts that were one; 

And mingling meekly, accepted the Word 
And sat at the feet of the Carpenter s Son. 


"But it much exercises the monde of today 

To know if defiant of custom they ought to 
Neglect the sharp things Mrs. Grundy would say, 
And admit to their music the carpenter s daughter! 

No record of this unique "club" can approach completeness 
that omits Misses Sally and Lucy Grattan. They were 
the closest friends of the Daniel sisters early named; and 
from those two hospitable 
homes, warmest and most 
frequent welcome went out to 
the " members/ Brainy 
women were all of them; 
and as womanly and genial 
as they were brilliant. 

Miss Sally Grattan mar 
ried Otho G. Kean, a 
prominent young lawyer of 
Richmond, who left her wid 
owed long before the fullest 
ripening of his life. He left 
besides the precious heritage 
of a name never spoken, 
even at this day, without the MRS. OTHO G. 


mingling or regret and praise. 

She still resides in Richmond and has one son, William 
Grattan Kean. 

Miss Lucy Grattan married Major W. F. Alexander, of 
Washington, Ga. He died but two years ago. Their daugh 
ter, Elvira, is now the wife of Edmund Byrd Baxter, of 

The Grattans of war-time were children of Peachy Ridg- 
way Grattan and Jane Elwin; the husband having been re 
porter of the court of appeals for over thirty years. Of 


his eleven children, only Mrs. Kean and her sister Elizabeth 
survive. George Grattan was killed at Gettysburg. 

Rare, dry " Trav " Daniel; clever and comic " Jimmie " 
Pegram who won gentle Lizzie Daniel for wife, only to 
lose her next year; Olivera Andrews and . 

Great the temptation even though all the Mosaics were 
not Solomons to exclaim with her of Sheba: "And behold, 
the one half of the greatness of thy wisdom was not told me." 
But even memory must draw reins, though spurred by thought 
of men and women who represented the Brain of Dixie, while 
yet its beaux and belles. 



"All the world s a stage, 
And all the men and women merely players" 

is a never-trite truism of Shakespeare. 

The whole South was one great stage. From opening 
overture at Sumter to final curtain at Appomattox, the men 
and women played in endless tragedy of battlefield and hos 
pital, or in comedies of statecraft, intrigue and love-making. 
And there were plays within plays. Richmond was to the 
rest of the South what the Comedie Francaise was to the 
world of art. 

Never before not when the maidens gave their hair for 
bowstrings had womanhood been so unanimous to fulfil the 
mandate of the poet: 

"Fold away all your bright tinted dresses, 

Turn the key on your jewels today 
And the wealth of your tendril-like tresses 

Braid back in a serious way. 
No more delicate gowns no more laces , 

No more loit ring in boudoir or bower; 
But come with your souls in your faces 

To meet the stern needs of the hour" 

But it was not alone in a serious way that the women at the 



Southern capital won the necessary dollars to aid their 
rougher work. All the labor of love was not in the Village 
of Dumdrudge, and those who had gifts of beauty and brain 
and silvery tongue turned them to vantage 

11 To do for those dear ones what woman 
Alone in her pity might do." 

Not one old boy who even peeped into Richmond society, 
will fail to recall the piquant face and gentle manner that 

combined in the charm that 
made Lillie Booker two 
household words, "at camp 
and court." With never 
one visible effort at capture, 
she perhaps had more scalps 
to dangle at her girdle than 
any girl of her set; but she 
hid them under the meek 
ness of the real ingenue. 
This may have been inborn 
pity, it may have been the 
tact that told her that tro 
phies are also a warning. 
Her triumphs were lasting 
ones, too; and very lately 



from the farthest West, 

that her photograph was the prized decoration of his 
snowed-in cabin. 

Elizabeth Taylor Booker was the daughter of George 
Tabb Booker and Caroline Richardson; and was one of six 
children, of whom the only survivors are Thomas Booker, 
of Richmond, and Mrs. R. D. Roller, of Charleston, W. Va. 

At the close of the war, Lillie Booker married Robert 


Frank Jennings, son of Robert Garland Jennings and Eliza 
beth Edmunds, of Halifax county. After a long life devoted 
to her children s rearing first in Halifax and later in Dan 
ville, she died in 1891, leaving a son and two daughters. 

George Booker Jennings married Miss Eva Lawson, of 
Danville, and now resides in Richmond with two daughters. 
With him lives the unmarried sister, Lillie Taylor Jennings. 
Ellen also resides in Richmond: being the wife of William 
Freeman Dance, formerly of Powhatan county. They have 
two sons and two daughters; so the old friends of the war 
belle may be assured that her memory is kept green in the 
field of her old triumphs. 

Fresh from the sickening and heartrending scenes at fever 
cot and operating room, the stately dames of a dozen states 
came gravely in nurse s dress or simplest of attire, and presto! j 
an hour later the charity grub had fluttered into the society 
butterfly. But these were nowise Hydaspean; not 

"Born to live one brief and brilliant day, and die," 

as on the Indian stream. These live sempiternal in the hearts 
of gallant men they flirted with, lived for aye, died for. 

Clad anew in the best bravery of the past in the rummage 
of trunk and closet since days when grandma danced with 
Mister Washington they strode behind the tallow dip foot 
lights, and the Polonius of Venus s court mumbled: "My 
lord, the players have come!" Never, perhaps, was drama 
more earnestly done or had actors won more genuine and 
often merited bravas! Nowhere have I seen results more 
conscientious, more satisfying, in view of scanty resources 
and amid such strain on brain and heart and body. 

Behind that Chinese wall of floating fortresses and bayonet- 
bristling border, from first to last, even when the wolf was at 
the door of the rich and the diapason of near cannon was the 
dread bass to improvised orchestra, there were musicales, 


charades, tableaux and even dramas that had been applauded 
in the perfumed capitals of plenty. 

The male actors in most of these shows, and invariably in 
the impromptu ones, were mere "supers" to the woman- 
interest. They were like the husband prayed for by the 
rural spinster "Any, good Lord!" They were conscripted 
by the provost-managers out of the " males of any condition/ 
who happed at hand. Often they were as " physically 

impaired" or as " mentally 
incapable "as the results ot 
another and sterner conscrip 
tion. When a play was to 
the fore, and Mrs. Semmes, 
Miss Gary, or another, needed 
a cast, any man in Richmond 
for a night was impressed. 
Generals, privates at least 
once a chaplain did a turn 
at the word of "She who 
must be obeyed." As will 
be seen, extempore art was 
no respecter of persons, and 
it is possible that in dire 
strait Mr. Davis himself 
might have been asked to do 
a stunt. The audiences, too, 
were as conglomerate as the casts. Highest and lowest 
sat side by side before the extemporized stages, erected in 
the best mansions in the capital. 

Mrs. Davis and the members of her household were almost 
always present, for the Cause and for example. The broad, 
quizzical face of Mr. Mallory and the smiling placidity of 
Mr. Benjamin, or the flutter of Mrs. Stanard, the dignified 
port of Mrs. Preston, or the fresh beauty of some budding 



belle like Alice Cabell varied the view from the stage. 

Often elegant old Colonel George Deas society man by 
instinct and viveur by habit of half a century would escort 
a debutante, or John R. Thompson, the editor-poet, might 
flutter from bud to mature bloom, contemplating a stanza 
in every glance. So, the auditorium was as interesting as 
the performance it came to applaud. 

Almost always there was sympathetic, helpful, intent 
Mrs. James Chesnut. And ever by her side was her true 
knight, her energetic and many-sided lover-husband re 
calling gone days of another rebellious congress, at Phila 
delphia, when his sire made laws and made wild love to pretty 
Nellie Custis at the same time. 

As already noted, there had been desultory movements to 
raise funds for soldiers relief through musicales, tackey par 
ties, sewing bees and minor methods. In the winter of 
1862-63 the twin wolves, War and Want, showed their ugly 
fangs closer to camp and court; and that year some more 
elaborate and attractive entertainments were devised by 
energetic and capable householders for the good work of 
raising money. 

The first of these was the charade reception at the hos 
pitable home of the wife of Senator Semmes, opposite the 
White House. It was one which has lived long in the memo-- 
ries of spectators and participants, for it comprehended all 
that was prettiest, most cultured and distinguished in the 
capital s sociality. 

Four charades were given, each demanding a complete 
scene for each syllable, and another for the whole word. The 
acting was in pantomime, a tactful resource that prevented 
stage fright of untried players and reduced the labors of the 
stage manager. Those labors rested mainly in the practiced 
hands of Mrs. Semmes, even if recently she had made futile 
though generous effort to shift most of the credit to the un- 


deserving shoulders of this narrator. She wrote me, with a 
wonderful store of facts and details: 

" Your lovely sister, Agnes De Leon, had recently returned 
from the East and loaned me her experience and her Oriental 
trinkets and scarfs. Mrs. Davis turned over the entire 
wardrobe of her household, and you were my trusted ad 
jutant and actor." 

The latter was my only claim to notice, and that because 
my scenes were with Mrs. Semmes one of the very best 
amateurs I ever saw. Her resource was exhaustless, and 
her quickness in emergency simply marvelous. Both in 
addition to her easy grace as a hostess she proved that 
evening to an audience as large and as brilliantly repre 
sentative as ever assembled, for any cause, in those four years 
of "fighting and fooling." 

The well-arranged stage, at the end of the great parlors, 
first revealed its attractions in the charade word " Indus 
trial." The first syllable was a simple tavern, at the moment 
of the stage arriving : guests bustling, and horse-boy (Captain 
Page McCarty) and boots (Captain Salle Watkins) stumbling 
over their own elbows. The house bore the sign: " Enter 
tainment for Man and -"; the missing final word replaced 
by a capital likeness of the obliquity who had recently cap 
tured New Orleans and Mrs. Phillips. This, I am reminded, 
was the handiwork of Major Willie Caskie. Si non evero, it 
bore his hall-mark, though unsigned. The guests were the 
beaux and statesmen best known in town; and the hostess 
and assistant housekeeper drowned the applause that greeted 
each new arrival. That popular pair were Mrs. Lucy Mason 
Webb and Miss Saidie Macmurdo. Mrs Webb, as pretty Lucy 
Mason, had captured hosts of friends who clung to her through 
life, warming its desolation when she dedicated her widow 
hood to the care of the suffering, in charge of the Officers 
Hospital. Miss Macmurdo, now Mrs. Alfred L. Rives, of 


Castle Hill, was one of the most deservedly popular of Rich 
mond beauties. She and her sister Helen were noted as singers 
in war-time concerts, and both have carried through their 
married lives the gentle graces that won for them the love of 
old and young. Miss Helen is now the wife of that typical 
Virginian of yesterday, Colonel Walter Harrison. Mrs. 
Rives has reared three daughters who have been as widely 
known as any ever born in the bounds of the Old Dominion, 
Amelie, Princess Troubetzkoy, the authoress; Gertrude, now 
Mrs. Allen Potts, confessedly the best cross-country rider 
in Virginia; and Landon, now Miss Rives, who has defied 
all comers of the frequently softer sex. 

The second syllable of " Industrial" revealed a bevy of 
pretty young girls, each with a feather broom, or mop, and 
apron, the latter to hide, perchance, the scalps each had 
hanging at her girdle. Misses Hetty and Constance Gary, 
Mattie Paul, Sallie and Nannie Enders (now Mesdames James 
W. Conner, of Charleston, and Caskie Cabell, of Richmond) ; 
Lou Fisher and Hennie Hill, daughter of the great Georgian; 
Evelyn Cabell, Bettie Brander (as popular in her widowhood 
as Mrs. Edward Mayo as she then was) these and possibly 
others whom I do not recall mopped, brushed and blew, as 
though dust were more dangerous than the blue foe at the 

Then came the trial scene, with it the first demand for 
acting, and it was answered in well- won applause. The 
stage was transformed into a court, with judge (General 
Robert Ould, Commissioner of Exchange of Prisoners), 
sheriff, jurors and crier. In a recent letter Mrs. Semmes 
writes : 

You were the prisoner, my husband, on trial for some 
great crime and in the dock, loaded down with cable chains 
(not very ethical, yet perhaps realistic). I rushed in, just 
as sentence was pronounced; threw myself at the judge s 


feet, and tried to scream in gesture: Mercy! Mercy! Then 
I swooned in pantomime, exactly how I do not recall. But 
I do recall the kindly applause; and I must have done some 
acting, for my little adopted daughter had to be brought into 
the dressing-room, dissolved in tears, before she could be 
convinced that I was not dead." 

The whole word showed a parlor, the same bevy of pretty 
girls I think reinforced all doing something useful, looking 

in mirrors, sewing, kneading 
dough, scraping lint or in 
dulging in animated flirtation 
with such good-looking fel 
lows as Shirley Carter, 
Stewart Symington, Tom 
Price, Tom Ferguson and 

J their partners in that fine 

k^ art. A veracious chronicler 

J? reminds me that the word 

was riot guessed, but had to 
be announced of course the 
fault of audience, not of 

" Harum-scarum," thesec- 

ROBERT A. DOBBIN Qn ft word, changed to lush 

Orientalism. Its first scene showed Miss Enders as a gor 
geous Sultana. Around her grouped the recent dusters, 
transformed to odalisques, their recent swains still hand 
somer in turbans and bags. Irrepressible Miss " Buck" 
Preston tried to look demure severity as the duenna, and 
maidens and slaves played the zither or danced in Jenness- 
Miller integuments before their mistress. 

The second word touched on horrors, a weird and sheet- 
clad spectre (General_P. M. B. Young) affrighting lasses and 
laddies as he stalks "unrevcnged among us." The whole 


word, guessed by several "in front/ showed romping girls 
and giddy youths, all in the fullest enjoyment of tricks upon 
one another, skipping rope and indulging in similar innocent 

Presto! The stage has changed to a street. Mrs. Ives, as 
a thin woman, and Robert Dobbin, as a fat man, meet a 
quack. His pills, per placard, cure fat and make the lean 
obese. Purchase is made, and the next scene shows the 
reduced Dobbin prancing airily and Mrs. Ives puffing under 
great access of flesh. 

The same street suffices for second syllable. Here a rich 
and acrid Gradgrind is importuned by a wretched woman. 
Her pantomime tells clearly that she is starving; she points 
piteously to the little boy, tugging for release from her firm 
grip, his real tears running down his face. But the rich man 
frowns, glowers and strides away, the woman eloquently 
beseeching the boy not to weep. The beggar (Mrs. Semmes), 
called to the scene, saw little Frank Ives at the entrance. 
Sudden inspiration of effect! She seized and rushed him on, 
all unrehearsed; and his weeping brought down the house. 

For the last syllable John Anderson (Captain Ed. M. Al- 
friend, with cotton wig and his fierce mustache chalked) 
listens to "the auld, auld story/ from the auld, auld wife, to 
low strains of the song. 

Rittenhouse s orchestra, which, hidden behind a covert of 
palms and potted plants, had discoursed entr acte music 
throughout the evening, in this scene played softly the air of 
the undying old ditty. 

Then came the whole word: a magnificent picture. The 
stage became a shrine, draped and flower strewn, the .Cross 
surmounting it. Toward it slowly moved pilgrims from every 
age and clime, entering from opposite sides and walking in 
pairs. Peasant, priest, knight, Imaun, beggar and emperor, 
all approached, kneeling to lay their offerings upon the Cross. 


Then they separated once more, grouping on either side in 
brilliant contrast. A little pause. The band struck up 
"See! the conquering hero comes." Forth strode grand 
"Jeb" Stuart, in full uniform, his stainless sword unsheathed, 
his noble face luminous with inward fire. Ignoring the au 
dience and its welcome, he advanced, his eyes fixed on the 
shrine until he laid the blade, so famous, upon it. Then 
he moved to a group, and never raised his eyes from the 

floor as he stood with folded 

Next came Mrs. Ives and 
Mrs. Leigh Page garbed as 
nuns, passing to the shrine 
to bless the sword laid there 
as votive offering to country : 
no breath now breaking the 
hush upon the audience. 
Last, handsome Tom Syming 
ton, of Baltimore, and myself, 
in green turbans and robes 
of the Mecca pilgrims, en 
tered, salaaming to each 
other, then to the shrine as 

MRS. LEIGH R. PAGE we approached it. There 

we two touched the sword, 
prostrating ourselves before the shrine. 

The music had softened to a sweet pianissimo as the sword 
was laid upon the altar. Now it swelled out into a solemn 
strain, and the Franciscans, the Paulists, the Capuchins and 
the nuns in the pilgrimages stood forth and chanted the 
11 Miserere," as the refrain softly closed. 

A wedding in the halls of Lammermoor to sign the bridal 
contract was the first syllable of the next word. "Lucy 
Ashton," represented by Miss Lelia Powers, holds the pen, 


only to dash it down on the appearance of the " Master of 
Ravenswood" (Captain Sam Shannon, of Carolina). " Henry/ 
her irate brother (Page McCarty), rushes on the intruder with 
drawn sword, only restrained by the " Priest" (W. D. Wash 
ington) and the " Laird of Bucklaw" (James Denegre). The 
scene was effective in pantomime and costume. 

In the second syllable an older and happier courtship 
showed. Mrs. Semmes, magnificently dressed as "Rebecca," 
stood by the well and heard the tender words of "Isaac," 
proxied by Eleazer (Burton Norvell Harrison, secretary to 
Mr. Davis). The pair were admirable in their pantomime, 
and the hostess radiant in the Eastern silks and gems, in 
which she later received her guests. 

In the final scene of that final word this writer once more 
disported his congenial chains in a cell of Bridewell Prison, 
and doubtless all present thought his acting well merited the 
situation. Then came the social part, of which Mrs. Semmes 
writes me: 

"I never saw my supper-table until I went in with my 
guests. Mrs. Campbell, Mrs. Crump, Mrs. Lucy Webb, Mrs. 
Grant and Mrs. Cane prepared it for me. Although the ice 
cream was sweetened with brown sugar, it was good; and 
everything the markets of Richmond then supplied, from the 
farms around, was fine and fresh. I can never forget those 
friends in need." 


THE success of this entertainment urged the willing workers 
to fresh effort and the actors to new laurel-reaping. 

Mrs. Ives offered her handsome home and her abilities to 
another ambitious attempt at fund-raising, with Sheridan s 
famous comedy, "The Rivals." Of this occasion, Mrs. 
Chesnut tells a good story in her diary : 

Big, blond-bearded and gentle-hearted Hood was present 
when the prince of comedians, Frank Ward, played Bob 
Acres. So true to life was the terror of the country gentle 
man, in his "very pretty quarrel" with Sir Lucius, that 
Hood, fidgeting in his chair awhile, at length blurted out: 
"I do believe that fellow Acres is a coward!" 

Catching Mrs. Chesnut s attention, General Breckinridge 
whispered : 

"Hood is better than the play and that is all .good from 
Sir Anthony to Fag!" And, omitting the small grain of 
critical salt, the great Kentuckian was right. 

The cast was made from the best talent of the town; the 
costumes put all society s wardrobe under contribution, and 
the spacious drawing-rooms, crowded with the beauty and 
culture of the capital, made an auditorium that would defy 
competition in metropolitan peace times. 

Sir Anthony Absolute was played by John Randolph, one of 
the three exceptional brothers of that family, a clever actor, 



a humorist and a musician, and he had used his gifts un- 
stintingly for his co-actors at rehearsals. He played the 
trying role with discretion and original conception, in thorough 
sympathy with the author. But nowise second to him was 
Paymaster L. M. Tucker, C.S.N., in the cleverly played role 
of Jack Absolute. This was a clear-cut and manly perfor 
mance, full of quiet humor and overdone in no detail of stage 
business. Mr. Tucker was a popular member of war s gilded 
youth, a reader and a writer 
of neat prose .and verse. 
The eldest of three hand 
some Mississippi brothers, 
also in the army, he was 
the only one who did not 
later go into the church. 
The late Dr. Louis J. Tucker, 
of Baton Rouge, La., and 
Dean Gardiner C. Tucker, of 
St. John s, Mobile, being the 
others. Their sans have, in 
turn, followed parental ex 
ample. Indeed, the time when 
there has not been a Tucker 

writing poetry and reading JOHN RANDOLPH 

divinity at the Seminary of St. < SIR ANTHON Y ABSOLUTE) 

Luke, Sewanee, runneth not to the contrary in man s memory. 
Louis, Jr., Gardiner and Royal, are today proof spirits of the 
fact, from as many Louisiana pulpits. But the sailor-actor 
and eldest brother proved the family rule by exception. 
When the last Confederate ship went up in home-made flame, 
Lee M. Tucker changed his Confederate bonds for a gold 
dollar, and took to assuring lives that were merely mortal. 
He became the leading insurance manager of Mississippi; 
found the field too small arid moved to Atlanta. There he 


throve until ill health and partial blindness forced him to 
change. He is now in California. 

Fag was very unctuously played that night. No one who 
met Clarence Gary at the Bar Association in New York, 
or is permitted to read his study-born translations of the 
great Latin poets, would have suspected the early comic 
instinct that brought roars when he played Jack Absolute s 


David and Coachman, re 
spectively, fell into the 
hands and right capable 
ones they proved of George 
Robinson, of the artillery, 
and Robert A. Dobbin, of 
Baltimore, now "most po 
tent, grave and reverend 
senior " of the Monumental 
bar. He is that also of an 
adult family, whose homes 
are so close about him that 
grandchildren clamber all 
over him at will. The ex 
ception is his daughter, 

TACK ABSOL UT Ellen Swan D bbin > wh 

made an especial paragraph of 

by the leading young journalist, Frederick Hoppin Howland, 
of Providence Journal, and is now a popular young matron of 
that town. When he retired from the stage Mr. Dobbin played 
the lover s part so successfully as to bring him very close to the 
" old flag, " and with no desire to rebel forevermore. He mar 
ried Miss Lizzie Key, the fair and lovable daughter of Philip 
Barton Key, the handsome, popular and lamented district 
attorney of older Washington days, and his father was Fran 
cis Scott Key, who wrote "The Star Spangled Banner. " Mrs. 


Dobbin was doubtless proud of that anthem; but she had 
even better reason to be proud of the praiseful prose she 
heard of her sons the elder, Dr. George W. Dobbin, being at 
the head of his surgical branch in Baltimore; and his brother 
Robert winning golden opinions as secretary of that city s 
United Sureties. But, at the closing of the last year, pride 
was replaced by mourning in all these homes; the tender, 
helpful mother having been called from them; leaving her 
husband lone and desolate. 

I am chatting of "The Rivals" with the glibness of senility, 
but it was one of the greatest social successes of its time, 
and a dramatic one, in real view. Some of the characters 
must needs be touched upon more briefly, in view of recent 
and detailed description by a pen too trained and facile for 
mine to cross. And when its keenness of Saladin s scimitar 
is wielded by one of the players herself the mace of any 
would-be Richard must make dullest thud indeed. 

Mrs. Malaprop in the mouth of Mrs. Clem Clay, now the 
brilliant and still young-hearted widow of Judge David 
Clopton, could have evoked but one comment. I only dare 
to add that it was as congenial and as true to her conception 
of it as was her other congenial one, when I saw her as Mrs. 
Partington, at the Gwin costume ball, at Washington. She 
has herself written minutiae of the great and star-sought 
role, which were impossible to any other not so intimate 
with them. Mrs. Clopton has told us, too, of the rollicking 
and funny part Major R. W. Brown, a gallant North Carolinian 
on General Winder s staff, made of Sir Lucius Trigger, 
the role that stands as unmossed epitaph for Sothern, rare 
John Brougham and "Dolly" Davenport. And "tenderer 
far to tell," she has recorded the real triumph of that then 
conquering belle arid perennial many-sided mondaine, Miss 
Constance Gary. 

Dainty, pretty and piquante were the minor parts of 


saucy Lucy and sentiment sought Julia, intrusted to Mrs. 
Lawson Clay and Miss Lucy Herndon; one as much sought 
in her new wedded life as when pretty Lestia Comer; the 
other, one of the two popular and modest daughters of Dr. 
Herndon, of the navy. 

Major Frank X. Ward scarcely played the great part of 
this great play: he realized it. In a make-believe manage 
rial experience from college days and later vented on half 
a dozen helpless cities, I recall no better acting by a non- 

The war over, Ward returned, was admitted to the Balti 
more bar, and practiced there awhile. Later he married 
Miss Topham Evans. Subsequently he removed to Ger- 
mantown, Pa., where two of his sons, Frank and Topham, 
were engaged in electrical work. His only daughter, Miss 
Nora, was also married there. 

The eldest son, Johnson, went to the Cuban war, and was 
the only Democrat from Maryland who received one of the 
regular army commissions. He is now in the Philippines, 
but with all the rest of his family about him, the veteran 
"star" now, like Cawdor, "lives a prosperous gentleman." 

A delightful addition to the plays was the entr acte music. 
Mrs. Fitzgerald played rare selections on the harp rarely 
well, and Miss Nannie Robinson, always reliable and facile 
excelled herself in the accompaniment. 

"Bombastes Furioso" Rhodes classic burlesque of "Or 
lando" was the afterpiece of the evening. John Randolph 
was Bombastes, singing and acting the part in his family 
style. Mr. Robinson, who had so cleverly done David in 
"The Rivals," was intrusted the harder role of King Artax- 
aminous of Utopia, and scored a great hit. So did Mr. Dob 
bin, promoted from Coachman to play Fusbus, the statesman, 
As captain of the army, Captain Frank Ward was inimitably 
droll. "He was ineffably funny," says Mrs. Ives, "in mar- 


shaling his troops, consisting of a half-dozen lame, blind 
and wretched ragamuffins, I can recall nothing more droll, 
and he brought roars of laughter, as did Mr. Randolph, in 
his scenes with me, and his admirable comedy in singing." 

And of that lady herself too much cannot be said. She 
lent the fairest of forms and faces to the part of Distaffina, 
"bought from Bombastes s love, for half a crown," and she 
added the seriousness of Lady Macbeth, a point too frequently 
missed in make-believe playing. Non-comparable as are the 
two, the burlesque was probably quite as well played as was 
the ambitious comedy, and assuredly it brought more laugh 
ter and applause than any bit of amateur work done in Rich 
mond, "eenjurin ov de wah. " 

"The sincerest flattery" followed these two successes. 
Practical welldoers had found what society wanted, and gave 
it to her freely. Until the fangs of the wolf and the cry of 
Rachel took away the men and the means, sock and buskin 
were the only wear for Charity. To list even one tithe 
of the shows would demand a volume, but a few brilliant 
ones show clear against their background of gloom. 

During that winter Mrs. George W. Randolph gave a 
charade reception with added picture gallery. One of the 
words acted was Penitent. In its first syllable Miss Jo 
sephine Chestney, of Washington, was a far too pretty, but 
extremely clever Fanny Squeers, perched on a high stool, 
and sharpening quills viciously for the master of Dotheboys 
Hall Captain W. Gordon McCabe. 

Laurence Sterne s daintiest and most cunning conception 
furnished the second syllable. In a cozy room cute Widow 
Wadman and my Uncle Toby enacted the searching scene 
from "Tristram Shandy" with great effect. The act itself 
was cleverly done, but the importance of the players out 
weighed all else with the beholders. The widow was Mrs. 
Phoebe Pember, sister of Mrs. Phillips, and quite as brilliant 


a woman in a different way. A belle and early a widow, 
she made herself loved in the army camps by that good 
work of her Chimborazo Hospital, at which a later glance 
will be taken. And past the recent cypress we see the then 
young major-general, dashing, reckless and jovial, the 
____. _,._.. man f reliance in an inter 
national crisis, later the 
choice of an opposing party, 
to command his own old foes 
in the re-cemented Union 
Fitzhugh Lee. 

The last of the word was 
an al fresco scene in the Ori 
ent realizing one in Byron s 
" Corsair." 

Miss Evelyn Cabell en 
hanced the perfect fitness 
of her beauty by a rich and 
correct costume, again ter 
minating in divided skirts of 

MRS. THOMAS PEMBER shrimpest pink satin. About 

(PHOEBE LEVY) . . . 

her grouped a most enticing 

array of harem beauties, the strict adherence to Eastern 
ethics inhibiting the presence of man, even when clad like 
wise in bags. 

Over the whirr of great peacock fans, the coiled pipe-tubes 
and the graceful dancing-girls and coffee-bearers, spread 
the folds of a great tent; a pretty picture and easily guessed. 
Then, for the whole word, Miss Lizzie Giles veiled some 
of her beauties under the severe dress of the novice; most 
of her other and perhaps more dangerous attraction, be 
neath a demure and devotional cast of face that was irresist 

There were other charades, but there is a trifle of sameness 


even in too much of the beautiful. One, however, was acted 
by Mrs. Pember alone and in one scene that meant the four 
separated syllables and the whole word. Clad entirely in 
the beloved gray of "her boys/ with gloves, bonnet and 
shoes of same, she put her graceful head through the port 
ieres of an empty room, then opened them, stepped nimbly 
in and closed them behind her as she advanced; looked 
triumphantly around and gave a sigh of content. Then she 
produced from one pocket an army hardtack, from the other 
a piece of camp bacon and began eating them ravenously. 
Rushing out she reappeared, eating more hungrily than 
before. This she repeated three times; the announce 
ments showing: "First sylla 
ble" "Second" "Third"- 
"Fourth" and "Whole 
word!" The charade was not 
guessed and had to be an 
nounced: "Ingratiate!" 

Then, when all the cha 
rades were done, really beau 
tiful pictures were shown, 
the special effort to se 
cure beauitful women being 
voted the success of the 
evening. Miss Hettie Gary 
was a perfect "Simplicity," 
decked with that seductive 
grain in realization of " Comin 
thro the Rye. That there was 
no "laddie" in the scene made sundry gallant fellows wretch 
ed. Miss Mattie Paul was a Guido-like "Venetian Lady," 
in rich costume to which she lent charm. Genial Salle Wat- 
kins and that jolly tar, Lieutenant Walter Butt, with pow 
dered arms and paper wings realized Raphael s "Cherubs." 



Then Miss Champe Conway posed as the "Mignon" of Goe 
the, later linked to pretty music by Thomas; and Miss Jo 
sephine Chestney, as a " Syrian Girl/ gazed with unwonted 
pensiveness from her high lattice upon her lover below, 
who twanged a zither. That enviable serenader was Cap 
tain " Jimmy" Denegre. 

Next comedy came: "The Flower of the Family," shown 
as an empty flour barrel. The laughter that greeted this 
was dry with reminiscence, until it quickly changed to af 
firming applause as the pretty, plump shoulders and laughing 
lips and eyes of popular Miss Bettie Brander emerged from it. 

A long-remembered picture was Miss Constance Gary as 
the Hermione of "The Winter s Tale," in profile statue. 
Perhaps, however, the most entertaining feature of this 
show was the descriptive program, written in dainty and 
humorous verse by John R. Thompson and recited by Miss 
Mary Preston in the graceful drapery of the Muse of Poetry. 
Mrs. Randolph bade me act as her prompter, call-boy 
and utility man on this occasion, and the onerous duties 
were shared by her charming niece, Miss Jennie Pollard, 
youngest sister of that family. She married Dr. Wm. 
Nichols. Her sisters, Mdes. Smith (Ellen) and Edward Swain 
(Mary) live in San Francisco and New York. 

There were many and notable offerings for charity and 
amusement in that last of the gay winters in Richmond. 
Even were there general features not too similar to detail,, 
their dramatis personce were too nearly the same to make 
report a special novelty. Among them may be noted the 
palpable hit of tasteful Mrs. Fanny Townes, nee Giles, in 
"An Artist s Studio Party." There were three lovely 
pictures in frames: Murillo s "Madonna," by Miss Lizzie 
Giles, "Mary Stuart," Miss Mattie Paul, and "Beatrice 
Cenci," Miss Champe Conway. As offset to the color, stat 
uary showed "Hermione," by Miss Constance Gary; bust, 


"Spring," Fannie Giles; the "Magdelen Lectans," Miss 
Nannie Giles, and "The Maid of Saragossa, " Miss Lizzie 

In the same season, Mrs. Tardy had a novelty in the shape 
of a tableau reception, where "Paradise and the Peri" was 
illustrated by the prettiest of the younger set of girls. As 
piring male youth naturally was excluded from this Eden. 
Miss Addie Deane, later Mrs. Peter Lyons, was the Peri 
and among the angels were Misses Nannie Enders, Mary 
Cab ell, Champe Con way, 
Lizzie Cabell, Lelia and 
Rosalie Bell and many 
another. As the scene 
succeeded, brave, eloquent 
and inveterate John Mitchell, 
the Irish patriot, read the 

Such, in insufficient glance, 
was the dramatic side of 
Richmond s society charities: 
a side that lights the leaden 
gloom that slowly began to 
weigh upon the spirits of 
even the most hopeful : that 
lightened the labors of hos 
pital and diet-kitchen drudg 
ery, that made the furlough 
red-lettered with memories 

of bright faces, sweet voices and airy forms that had made 
its holder long for the next bullet, had he been a believer 
in the Koran. 




TEARING down an old established government and up- 
rearing a new one upon its ruins necessarily brought into 
the South all sorts and conditions of men and women. 

In all Virginian history the Tucker family has borne 
its part, and borne it well. Coming from colonial stock 
in days when men hewed their fortunes with their swords 
or molded them with their brains, when women ruled by 
graces of heart and head, which they bequeathed to their 
daughters, this family stands picturesque in the annals 
of its state. 

Colonel Beverley Tucker was early a conspicuous figure 
at Richmond, as he had long been in the social and political 
life of Washington. 

With massive frame, keen eye and a prodigality of tawny 
beard, he had a stomach as strong as his brain. Mr. Davis 
and all other members of the government knew him well, 
and often called upon his varied experience of men and events. 

In 1771, young St. George Tucker came from the island 
of Bermuda to Williamsburg to finish his education at Wil 
liam and Mary He went home, but was so impressed with 
the colony that he returned and settled in Williamsburg 
to practice law. There he married the beautiful Widow 
Randolph, who had been Miss Frances Bland; prospered, 
and became noted in the land of his adoption. The fair 



widow, as heretofore noted, had two children, Richard and 
John, the later famous Randolph of Roanoke. Her mar 
riage with St. George Tucker brought two other sons, Henry 
St. George and Beverley. It is with the former that this 
narration has most to do. 

Henry St. George Tucker married Evelyna Hunter, and 
their family numbered thirteen children; eight reached adult 
age. Eldest of these, Dr. David Tucker, was long a popular 
and respected physician in 
Richmond, but was too old 
and feeble at the outbreak 
of the war to take any active 
part in it. He married Miss 
Lizzie Dallas, niece of the 
vice-president and minister to 

Beverley was next adult 
brother. He was educated 
as civil engineer, and was a 
while a merchant. He es 
tablished the Sentinel news 
paper at the capital in 1853, 
where he had already laid the 
basis for that phenomenal 

acquaintance he had with HON - BEVERLEY TUCKER 

n xu u TT ( "THE SUSPECT" ) 

men all over the world. He 

certainly aided greatly in the election of President Pierce, 
and was made printer to the senate and in the same year, 
consul to Manchester. 

At that time Roger A. Pry or, member of congress from 
Virginia, later Confederate brigadier and now retired judge 
of the New York supreme court, was rival editor to my bro 
ther and guardian, Hon. Edwin De Leon, who had been called 
from his Columbia paper, The Telegraph, to establish the 


Washington organ of the Southern Senators, The Southern 
Press, in conjunction with El wood Fisher. Activity in the 
Pierce campaign sent him to Egypt as consul-general and 
diplomatic agent. 

When the Democracy committed harikari at Charleston 
in I860, and Abraham Lincoln took charge of the tripartite 
corpse, both men tendered him their resignations. By 
strange coincidence, both were kept abroad by Mr. Davis 
as commissioners to the press and public opinion of Europe; 
a mission wholly different from the " diplomatic" one of 
Messrs. Mason and Slidell. It was equally well, to put 
it politely, unsuccessful. 

In 1864 he was sent to Canada on a secret business mission 
entirely different from the nature ascribed to it by the terror, 
or worse, of the Great President s successor. 

Mr. Tucker was in Canada when Wilkes Booth fired the 
fatal bullet that made a great martyr of a great statesman 
and echoed as Hope s death knell in the heart of every South 
ern thinker. But Andrew Johnson proclaimed jovial, 
chivalrous Bev Tucker as an accomplice of the crazed as 
sassin, after Boston Corbett s too ready bullet had closed 
the only lips that could have spoken the truth, and set a 
price upon his head. 

With Tucker the charge coupled George N. Sanders, an 
old Washington lobbyist and also a Canadian supply agent 
of the Confederacy. Both men promptly offered themselves 
up for trial by jury, but the offer was refused and the crazed 
press of the moment continued to hold them up to a world s 
obloquy. Then Mr. Tucker tried his presidential accuser 
before the world s bar. That promptly acquitted him, 
whether or not it convicted his culprit. 

His denunciation of Johnson, broadsheeted to the world 
and still extant, is terribly lively reading, even after this 
lapse of time. Rem acu tetigit. He broached the president 


upon his once congenial weapon, but he made it a darning 
needle and its point was Damascene. 

Acquitted without the world s jury leaving the box, Mr. 
Tucker went to England in search of work. He was accom 
panied by that lovely and devoted wife, ever at his side 
in the trials of a varied life and by his gentle and charming 
daughter, Margaret. Some of the soldier sons were delving 
at breadwinning in Virginia and two of the younger at school 
in Canada. 

In England an offer came to go to Mexico for lucrative 
control of an immense ranch property, the details of which 
in Mrs. Tucker s letters read like a fairy-tale. The Max 
imilian failure there forced the errant seeker to a new home 
in Canada once more, and he took a hotel at St. Catherine s 
Wells, which his great hospitality kept so full of old friends 
and comrades as to leave no room for paying guests. The 
home was a delight, but the business side was a failure, and 
in his age and in failing health the great-hearted Virginia 
gentleman laid him down to die, his face still to the foe pov 
erty. All that remains is a stainless and picturesque 
record and a love undying in the hearts of his descendants 
and of a host of friends. 

In the January of 1841 Beverley Tucker had married Miss 
Jane Shelton Ellis, of that notable Virginia family, and their 
children were Miss Margaret, who never married and resides 
still in Richmond; James Ellis, the next adult, was color- 
bearer of the Second Virginia Cavalry, married, has two 
sons and lives in California; Beverley D. was a private in 
the Otey battery, enlisted in the church post-bellum and is 
now coadjutor bishop of Southern Virginia. He married 
Mis,s Maria Washington, of Mt. Vernon, and their family 
numbers thirteen. Henry St. George, their first-born, is 
president of St. John s College, Tokio, Japan. Eleanor S. 
came next, and Jane B. married Rev. Luke White. Lila, 


Maria W. and Augustine W. are medical missionaries at 
Shanghai. The others are John Randolph, Richard B., 
Herbert M., Laurence F., Ellis M., and Francis Bland. 

The next son of Beverley 
Tucker, John Randolph, mar 
ried Miss Crump and died in 
1880, leaving two sons, 
Beverley Randolph and Wil 
liam Crump Tucker. 

Charles Ellis Tucker married 
Mabelle Morrison, of Mem 
phis, the eldest of their three 
children, Margaret T., being 
the wife of William Carroll, 
of that city, and the other 
two being William Morrison 
and Elizabeth M. Tucker. 

The children of Dr. David 
Tucker and Elizabeth Dallas 
were six: Henry St. George 
died in the army; Virginia B. never married; Dallas is an 
Episcopal minister who has one daughter; John Randolph, 
a lawyer and unmarried; Cassie B. married Thompson 
Brown and has six children four sons and two daughters; 
and Emma Beverley married Forrest Brown and has one son. 
John Randolph Tucker, fifth son of St. George Tucker 
and Evelyna Hunter, has been met elsewhere in this causerie. 
Scholar, poet, wit and attorney-general of Virginia, he was 
also congressman for twelve years and law professor at her 
university schools. He married Miss Laura Powell and 
laid down his useful life, at Winchester in 1873. Of their 
children, Evelyna H. married William Shields, of Natchez, 
Miss.; died and left two sons: John Randolph and Benoit 



Nannie Tucker, her sister, married Dr. William McGuire, 
of Winchester, and they have six children. The third sister, 
Virginia Tucker, married William Carmichael and is the 
mother of four children. 

The youngest sister is Mrs. Morgan Pendleton, of Lexing 
ton, and has several children. 

Their brother is Hon. Harry St. George Tucker, for 
merly member of congress and later president of the James 
town tercentenary. He married Hennie, daughter of Colonel 
William Preston Johnston, who died leaving six children. 
His present wife was Miss Martha Sharpe, of Pennsylvania. 

The great jurist s fourth daughter, Gertrude, was the 
gentle light of his age in his Lexington home, and was ex 
ceptionally popular with townspeople and students, as well 
as family connections. She 
married John Lee Logan; 
thus intermeshing another 
notable family with the great 
connection. Since her wid 
owhood, in 1900, she has 
remained a marked figure 
before the eye of society. 

John Lee Logan was the 
second son and fifth of the 
thirteen children of James W. 
Logan, of "Dungeness," 
Goochland county, Va., and 
Sarah Strother, of Culpepper 
county. Mr. Logan was son 
of Rev. Joseph D. Logan and 
Jean Butler Dandridge. Her 
father, William Dandridge, married Anne Boiling and he was 
grandson of Governor Alexander Spottswood and fifth in 
descent from Pocahontas. This makes the Logans of the 



present generation sixth in line from Governor Spottswood 
and eighth from the Indian bride of John Rolfe. 

James W. Logan, of "Dungeness," was born in Goochland, 
but adopted by his great aunt, Mrs. George Woodson Payne; 
and from her he inherited the estate, formerly owned by 
Thomas Isham Randolph. There the planter reared his 
family of thirteen; but after the war they moved to Salem, 
Va.,for the cultivation of the younger branches of the spread 
ing family tree. There the parents died, leaving as the actual 
head of the family Mrs. Anna Clayton Logan. She was now 
the eldest, Mary Louise having 
died in 1862. In 1871 Anna 
Clayton married her cousin, 
Colonel Robert H. Logan, 
who had left West Point when 
Virginia seceded and made a 
fine war record. After peace, 
he studied and practiced law; 
leaving his widow with five 
children. Of them the three 
daughters are living; the bril 
liant son, John Lee (2nd), 
died in Norfolk, in 1906, just 
at the threshold of a promis 
ing career. His sisters are Mary 
Louise, who married Prof. W. 
Paul C. Nugent, of New Orleans, now in the civil engineering 
chair of Syracuse University, New York. They have two 
children. Elsie Addison married her cousin, Joseph Clayton 
Logan, a Columbia A.M. and LL.B., now secretary of Asso 
ciated charities, of Atlanta. The third, Sarah Strother, 
married Dr. Stephen Russell Mallory Kennedy, of Pensacola, 
son of the brilliant and beautiful Mrs. Ruby Mallory Kennedy, 
already met in these pages. They have one son. 



Mrs. Anna Logan divides her time with her daughters in 
their northern and southern homes. 

Of the thirteen children of James W. Logan and Sarah 
Strother, seven are still living. George Woodson, the eldest 
brother, and fourth child, is a planter, at Salem, Va. 
He has married twice: first to Miss Grant, of Atlanta, and 
later Miss Kate Burks, of Bedford county, Va., a daughter 
of Colonel Jesse Burks of C. S. A. They* -had ten children. 

Joseph D. Logan married Miss Georgine Willis, a niece of 
Catherine Murat. They have seven children; and Mr. Logan 
is a practising lawyer. 

The next brother is Dr. Mercer Patton Logan, rector of 
St. Ann s Episcopal Church, at Nashville. He married Miss 
Elizabeth Kent Caldwell, of Wytheville, Va., and they 
have a family of six, all grown. Elizabeth Kent, who mar 
ried John Reeves Jackson, of Nashville, Tenn; Ellen Claire, 
Josephine Dandridge, Sydney Strother, Anne Gordon and 
Dorothea Spottswood. 

A sister, Edith Erskine, married Thomas L. Hart, of 
Nottoway county, and their family is of three children. 

Of the brothers of this immediate family who died, all 
gave great promise or had done good work. John Lee Logan, 
taught school with Virginius Dabney and, at the same time 
studied law with John Randolph Tucker. He went to New 
York, w r here he entered the law office of Pryor, Lord, Day 
and Lord, at request of Judge Roger A. Pryor. He was 
getting a good practice, a little later, when his health broke 
down and he was ordered to Idaho. Cleveland made him 
associate justice; but he died there in 1900. He and his 
elder brother were both in the army with Fitz Lee s cavalry. 
George Woodson was at Point Lookout as a prisoner, but was 
exchanged and went in for the rest of the war. John Lee was 
with Colonel R. V. Boston, but was so young he saw but 
eight months service. Both boys went in at seventeen. 


The youngest brother, Sydney Strother, was a brilliant 
member of the Journal of Commerce staff, and an all- 
round journalist. He died in New York when only thirty- 

Next of kin in blood to the Tuckers of the Ellis stock and 

even nearer in the mutual love of a generation are the noted 

Munford family, straight descended from the Huguenot 

^ colonist Montforts of my 

second chapter. Colonel 

.*%%,*,. George Wythe Munford, of 

jp? Richmond, secretary of the 

Commonwealth, married 
Miss Elizabeth Thorough- 
good Ellis, whose sister was 
wife of Beverley Tucker. 
All the men of the name were 
noted in the war, one son, 
Charles Ellis Munford, giving 
his life for his state at 
Malvern Hill. General 
Thomas T. Munford com 
manded a cavalry brig 
ade with distinguished 
dash and credit all through 
the war. He is still living 
in Lynchburg. He married Etta, daughter of George P. 
Tayloe, of Roanoke. They had four children and a Vir 
ginian wealth of third generation. These were George 
T., with several children; Emma, who married William 
Boyd and has three children; William, unmarried excep 
tion and living in Alabama, and Wythe, married and the 
father of several children. By his second marriage with 
Miss Emma Tayloe, of Richmond, there are three sons, 
all unmarried. 



Colonel William Munford commanded the First Virginia, as 
stated heretofore. After the war he married and went into 
the Episcopal ministry in Mississippi and the West. He 
was a magnificently handsome man and a gifted one, and 
died only five years ago. A much younger brother, Robert, 
married and lives in Macon, Ga. There were nine Munford 
sisters of the secretary s household, but the younger mem 
bers were not all very active society belles in the war-time. 

One of its brightest and most charming women was Miss 
Sallie R. Munford, now Mrs. Charles H. Talbot, and the 
mother of four children. The other sisters are Margaret N,. 
Lizzie E., Jane Beverley, Lucy T., Fannie E., Caroline F., 
Etta and Annie B., who married William S. Robertson, 
and lives in Richmond as do all the others. 



ONE name recurs often in these pages, a name broidered 
deep through the joy and sorrow, the sweet and the bitter 
that make up the Lost Cause. The Gary name is not only 
one of the oldest, but the worth of its men and the character 
and beauty of its women have made it integral with American 

I have shown that the Fairfaxes date beyond the Norman 
conquest of their Saxon forbears of "Fair Hair," and trend 
westward would seem to have left no laggards of their blood. 
Of that blood are the Carys by intermarriage in early colonial 

Two Maryland branches of the Gary family were active in 
the war. What they did has been touched upon briefly; 
who they are can be told. 

Archibald Gary, of Carysbrook, Fluvanna county, married 
Monimia Fairfax, daughter of Thomas, ninth Lord Fairfax, 
Baron of Cameron, in the Scotch peerage, and of Vaucluse, in 
Fairfax county. There were three children of this union, 
Constance, Clarence and Falkland. The last died in 1857, 
while in his teens, but the other son and the daughter passed 
the hurly-burly of war and became notable residents of 
New York. 

Miss Constance Gary, already familiar to my readers as a 
beautiful and gifted war belle, and to readers of two conti- 



nents as prominent in later literature, married Colonel Burton 
Norvell Harrison, a young Mississipian who was Mr. Davis s 
secretary from the Richmond advent to the collapse of the 
Confederacy. He was professor of a university of his state, 
when Colonel L. Q. C. Lamar urged Mr. Davis to appoint him 
to the responsible post of confidential assistant. Harrison 
yielded his desire to enter the army, accepted and served 
with infinite credit to himself and advantage to his chief. 
After the war he moved to New York, practicing law in con 
nection with his brother-in-law, Clarence Gary, while his 
wife rapidly won fame with her pen. Five years ago, while 
in Washington on legal business, he died suddenly, in full 
fruition of his early promise. He was a grave, dignified, 
man, but of high nature. 

There were four children of this marriage : Fairfax, Francis 
Burton, Archibald Gary and Ethel. The daughter died in 
infancy. The eldest son married his cousin Hetty, daughter 
of John Bonne Gary, of Baltimore. He is assistant to the 
president, and solicitor of the Southern Railway. 

The second son, Hon. Francis Burton Harrison, M. C., has 
made too recent a mark in politics and social life to need 
recital. He married Mary, daughter of the noted Mr. Crocker, 
of San Francisco. The later romance of his life has no con 
nection with belles so remote as mine. By some strange 
mistake of the Denver Democratic Convention, Mr. Harrison 
was saved the enactment of Aaron to the Moses of Colonel 
W. J. Bryan. 

Archibald Gary Harrison married Helena Walley, and 
all the brothers make the metropolis their home when not 
abroad with their mother. 

Since the sudden and stunning shock of her widowhood 
Mrs. Harrison has been much abroad and her facile pen has 
been at rest, but she has returned, and her work, it is to be 
hoped, will be resumed regularly. 


Clarence, former midshipman, C. S. N., married Eliza 
beth, daughter of the late Howard Potter, of Brown Brothers 
& Co., and niece of Bishop Potter. Their sons were Guy 
Fairfax Gary, who became a member of the New York bar 
four years ago, and Howard, then a senior at Harvard. 

Clarence Gary himself did some very clever acting during 
the war on the amateur stage and on the naval war boards. 
In his sailor role he served on the blockade runner, Nashville, 
on the Palmetto State ironclad, off the Carolina coast and 
on the James river fleet, proving himself a good officer. 
After the war he studied law and practiced in New York, 
where he has since resided and found leisure for extended 
Oriental and other travel, and to make some admirable 
translations of the classic poets, especially Horace. His 
cousins are the Baltimore Carys. 

Wilson Miles Gary, head of that branch, was brother to 
Archibald Gary and closely related to the Fairfax family 
by intermarriages in early years. He married Jane Mar 
garet Carr, daughter of Dabney Carr and Hetty Smith, 
moving to Baltimore where he reared a family of six 
Hetty, already noted here, Jenny, Mrs. J. Howard McHenry, 
John Bonne, Wilson Mildes and Sidney C. Gary. 

Mrs. Hetty Pegvam married Henry Newell Martin, dying 
in 1892, when her husband returned to England and sur 
vived her several years. 

Wilson Gary never married. He has long been a member 
of the Baltimore bar, but an expert and enthusiast in gen 
ealogy. He is now in London with Miss Gary and is pur 
suing his loved work there. - 

John Bonne Gary, the popular young soldier at Richmond 
and equally popular Baltimore business man of today, 
married Miss Frances E. Daniel. They have a family 
of six, all adults, with eleven grandchildren. Four of the 
five sisters married and the only son, Wilson M. Gary, Jr., 


married Miss Helen Snowden Lanahan and has two children. 
One of the daughters married Fairfax Harrison, son of Bur 
ton N. Harrison and Constance Gary. This was Miss Hetty 
Gary, godchild of her beautiful aunt. 

John Gary s twelfth grandchild is a "Philipino, " born 
at Manila to his daughter who married 0. K. Oilman, a 
Johns Hopkins man, now professor in the U. S. Medical 
School, at that Province. 

The Carys are not quite 
so numerous a family as 
some in Virginia history, 
yet they have enough to 
give their genealogical mem 
ber something to think about. 

A figure that attracted 
swift attention whenever 
duty brought him to Rich 
mond, was Frederick Gusta- 
vus Skinner, colonel of that 
fine regiment, the First 
Virginia, which August, Mun- 
ford and Williams had before 
commanded. Immensely 
tall, great-boned and of 
tremendous strength, his grave, intellectual face swept by a 
drooping gray mustache, this soldier was a marked man in 
any throng. Cadet of an old Virginia family, he was still 
a thorough Frenchman in many regards. His father, John 
S. Skinner, was a prominent man and a noted writer on 
agricultural and sporting subjects. He started the first farm 
paper ever printed in the Union, The Plow, Loom and 
Anvil. Later he owned and edited the Country Gentle 
man magazine. He was once acting postmaster-general 
of the United States and held the Baltimore post-office 




at the time of his death. He was with Francis Scott Key 
on the schooner when he wrote "The Star Spangled 
Banner." He married Elizabeth Glenn Davies of the old 
Baltimore family. 

John Skinner was a warm and lifelong friend of the Mar 
quis de Lafayette, and that hero took his son to Paris, educat 
ing him in his own family and at the famous military school 
of St. Cyr. He remained there ten years, and when the 
revolution came and Lafayette went to the palace to save 
the king from the mob, he found that young Skinner who 
had escaped from school by a window was at his side in 
the thick of the fray. After Paris, the youth passed through 
West Point and very soon was sent as attache to the court 
of Louis Philippe. 

In command of his regiment Colonel Skinner was distin 
guished for gallantry, and bore to his grave its guerdon in 
the shape of a hideous and unhealed shell wound. Of this 
his daughter wrote me: 

"The hand-to-hand fight you describe in Crag Nest, as 
Ravanel s, was very like father s charge at Manassas, where 
he killed three men with his sword, after receiving the bullet 
of each. He was so magnanimous that one night when I 
thought him dying, and I was feeling such bitter resentment, 
as though in response to my thoughts he opened his eyes 
and said: I hated to kill those brave men. How splendidly 
they stood by their guns. 

Strange combination of reckless courage, of bluntness 
and urbanity, Skinner was. French in his tastes, universal 
in his acquaintance and a gourmet by instinct and educa 
tion, he was true Virginian, too. He chewed tobacco like 
a sailor in his camp; in the salon approached a lady like a 
prince, and never did man describe with such unction and 
such rolled, fat R s, filet de truite a la sauce Tartare. 

Later, when I tried to make the old Valley homestead 


the real hero of my romance of Sheridan s ride, the strong 
personality of this veteran and that huge sword no other 
arm could sweep from scabbard dominated "Crag Nest," 
and made him the centre of interest. Charles King, that 
fairest weigher of Blue and Gray equally, wrote me: "You 
have pictured the grandest old lion of all Rebeldom, in your 
Virginian Colonel Newcome." 

Colonel Skinner s wife was of notable descent, direct from 
Mildred, daughter of Col 
onel Francis Thorton, who 
married Colonel Charles 
Washington, younger broth 
er of George Washington 
She was Miss Martha 
Stuart Thorton, of Mont- 
pelier, Rappahannock 

Of this marriage there 
came to the young couple 
a son, Thorton, and a 
daughter, Elise. Constant 

to the old soldier as his COLONEL SKINNER AT 16 

Shadow Was this girl, Who (MINIATURE OWNED BY LAFAYETTE) 

made even strangers friends by the frank and sunny nature that 
combined daughter, nurse and comrade in one. When he was 
stricken down this grand girl took him from the field, 
watched every fluttering phase of the long struggle twixt 
life and death, and literally brought him back from the 
border. Hear her own*words: 

"I cannot understand how you got such a likeness. Had 
you ever heard of our terrible ride, when we were taking 
him from the battlefield and were more afraid of a hem 
orrhage from the artery than of the Yankees, who were 
going from house to house, near Manassas, making prisoners 


of wounded officers? From that we were fleeing. 

When partial peace came and with it partial recovery 
for the father, the daughter married a young Alabama soldier, 

Thomas Tileston Greene. 
She had two children and 
removed to New York, 
where she educated them 
and a number of young 
ladies now notable in the 
great city s society. At this 
period Colonel Skinner lived 
with his daughter, having 
gone into journalism in his 
father s way. He was writ 
ing agricultural and sporting 
notes for the press when he 
died. Popular and beloved 
by old and young, the 
press published a memoir of 
him, and N. P. Willis wrote 
in the Home Journal the 
story of his Paris life at 
the court of Louis Philippe. 

Mrs. Greene had good cause to be proud of her two chil 
dren. The son, Frederick Stuart Greene, is a graduate of 
the V. M. I., and is now a civil engineer in New York. 
The daughter, Isobel, was a noted beauty, even in the 
metropolis, her popularity being gained not by her face 
alone. Before her mother s death she married Frederick 
Peckham. They now reside in London, and the fame 
of the American girl s beauty has crossed the ocean 
with her. The Peckhams have friends in the most fash 
ionable circles of the world s metropolis. Mrs. Peckham 
has been presented at Court and made the staid dowagers 



stare, and her miniature is exhibited at the Academy views. 

Only within a few years Mrs. Greene laid down her useful 
and eventful life, leaving genuine sorrow in a large circle 
of friends and a memory that will live. She went through 
many trying and strange adventures, the least of them 
being that she was the last person who spoke to Wilkes 
Booth, before Boston Corbett s silly bullet sealed his mystery 
forever. Miss Skinner was visiting her cousin, Dr. Richard 
Stuart, on the lower Potomac. None on the place knew 
that Lincoln had been assassinated, but about eight in the 
evening the doctor was summoned to attend a man who 
had sprained his ankle. Later the man hobbled into the 
dining-room, using a boat oar for a crutch. Dr. Stuart 
dressed the limb hastily while Miss Skinner got food for the 
half-famished patient, the servants having deen dismissed 
for the night. Within a few 
hours the man met his death 
and only then they learned 
that he was the assassin of 
Abraham Lincoln. 

A very notable personality 
of the Richmond war-time, 
and later for many years on 
the streets of Mobile, was that 
of William Washington Augus- 
tin Spottswood, once sur 
geon-general, C. S. Navy. 
Towering high above average 
men, with muscular and vig 
orous frame, he walked with MRS. T. TILESTON GREENE 
the roll of the veteran sailor; (ELISE SKINNER ) 
his long white beard bannered to the breeze. He was 
archetype of the days ere "the men behind the guns" 
changed to the scientists in the conning tower. He was 


in the eldest line of the fifth descent from that famed 
Governor Spottswood, whose self and descendants are inter 
woven in all the wars and policies of colonial, Revolutionary 
and "Rebel" Virginia. The family was Saxon in origin 
and the name was Spottiswode; and its blood is allied to 
that flowing from the veins of Rolfe and his Indian princess 
wife. Today, its branches have rooted in every state that 
Virginia has foster-mothered. 

In the early 40 s Young Surgeon Spotswood wedded the 
beautiful and much sought Miss Mary Eastin, daughter of 
Mr. Thomas Eastin of Mount Vernon, Ala. This was one 
of the four weddings within as many years, that added to 
the fame of the great and hospitable mansion on the Mobile 
river; and it connected two families equally notable in 
Virginia and the Carolinas. The other weddings were 
those of three of Mrs. Spotswood s sisters: Matilda to Cap 
tain Alex. Montgomery, Lucinda Gayle to Dr. W. T. Rossell, 
and Fannie to Lieut. W. H. Tyler, all of the U. S. Army. 
The fifth daughter preferred civil to military life: marrying 
Col. R. P. Pulliam, of Fort Smith, Ark., an eminent lawyer. 

The Eastins were likewise distinguished and well-descend 
ed. Lucinda Gayle, mother of Mrs. Dr. Spotswood, was a 
daughter of Matthew Gayle of Charleston, South Carolina, 
and was born there in 1798; developing into one of the most 
brilliant and great-brained women of the South. The head 
of the family was English and came over to the Virginia 
Plantations in the early days of the 17th century, with John 
Smith s expedition. His son, Matthew Gayle, migrated to 
South Carolina prior to the Revolution, where he married 
Mary Reese, a planter s daughter, on the "High Hills of 
Santee. " His family went to Alabama, where Miss Lu 
cinda was an ornament of the executive mansion of her 
brother, Governor John Gayle. The Gayle family fled to 
Mobile during the Indian wars and there Thomas Eastin 


met and won his noted wife. In 1823 they were married, 
and until her death at Mobile in 1872, she was one of the 
most virile thinkers, and most outspoken women of her 
day. Like many another strong-brained Southerner, she was 
opposed to secession from the first. She pointed out the 
hopelessness of a decision by the sword and warned of the 
future with the foresight of Cassandra. Later, however, 
when her prophecies had been verified, she was the bitter foe 
of reconstruction and lashed its creators and abettors merci 
lessly, with tongue and pen. 

Of their nine children, only two are living, Mrs. Pulliam, 
of Eureka, Ark., and Mrs. Fannie Wait, of Little Rock. 

Thomas Eastin, father of Mrs. Spottswood, was born at 
Lexington, Ky., in 1788, and youngest of a very large family, 
he was self educated. He moved to Tennessee and became 
known to Andrew Jackson: a close friendship springing up. 
He was colonel and quartermaster on General Jackson s 
staff, in the Seminole and Creek wars of 1812-17. 

Then, camping with, the general on the fine U. S. reser 
vation, at Mount Vernon, Eastin was so delighted with its 
site that he later built there the famous home, burned in 
1859. Singular coincidence it was that his grandson, 
Dr. Dillon J. Spotswood, of Mobile, saw his first service under 
the U. S. at the same spot, where his ancestor camped, with. 
Jackson in the Indian wars. 

Thos. Eastin was the pioneer printer and publisher of 
Alabama. He issued the " Halcyon" at St Stephens. Un 
fortunately, all its files and early records were lost in the 
burning of his Mount Vernon home. He died at the resi 
dence of his daughter, Mrs. Mary Eastin Spotswood, Monroe 
county, in 1865. 

The living children of Doctor and Mrs. Spotswood are 
Thomas Eastin, Montgomery B., William Chase and Dillon 
J. Spotswood. George and Eastin were in the Confederate 


Army, entering at eighteen and fifteen years respectively. 
Both won praise as gooa soldiers; and the younger was in 
prison at Camp Chase. He was married to Miss Caroline 
Mann, who left three children: Leo Dandridge, Curran Lamar 
and Manning W. Spottswood. The second wife, Miss Ella 
Hermann, has four children: T. Eastin, Jr., Ella Marion and 
Robert Lee. 

George Washington, the eldest of these brothers, died at 
Mobile at the age of sixty-six, only while this page was going 
to press. The brother next him in age, Gayle Spotswood, 
died years ago, both he and George being bachelors. 

Montgomery Barclay married Miss Josephine Otteson, 
of New Orleans, and is a timber merchant of Biloxi. This 
family is Malcolm Barclay, Winona L., Anita, Julian and 

Chase Spotswood married thrice. His first wife, Anna 
Thornton, left these: Anna Mary, Wm. Chase, Jr., and Harry 
Ingraham (recently dead). The first of these is now Mrs. 
Benjamin Toomer. The second wife, Adelaide Demouy, 
left two children: Marie Adelaide and Demouy. Of the 
present marriage to Miss Claudia Shields, there is one son, 
James Ellis. 

Dr. Dillon J. Spotswood, following the example of his 
eldest brother, is a bachelor and practices in Mobile. 

A very notable and equally picturesque factor of those 
days was Major Livingston Minis, of Georgia. Young, 
handsome and of elegant address, he was unique in an era 
of bustle and strenuous rush. He affected, even then, 
somewhat of the euphemism of the gallants of good Queen 
Bess court. 

I recall him as a young and well groomed captain on 
Gen. Joseph E. Johnston s staff. Not a generally popular 
man, at first touch, he was one that grew on better knowing. 
His comrade on the same staff, Major A. D. Banks, held 


that attribute in common with him; and both were notable 
men, in and out of military life. Minis was on quarter 
master duty and Banks in the commissary. Banks was a 
popular fellow with his comrades and in later life was promi 
nent in politics and made many warm and lasting friends. 
It is coincidental that Banks wife who was great grand 
daughter of Patrick Henry 
was the school friend and 
roommate of Emma Mims 
own mother. 

Mims got deserved pro 
motion on Gen. J. E. John 
ston s staff, and the typical 
figure of latter-day Atlanta 
was "the Major," who was 
at one time its mayor, at 
most times president of its 
elegant Capital City Club 
and for many years doyen 
of its life insurance guild. 

Rotund, always urbane, 
courtly and careful of the 
comforts and feelings of all, 
Mims was more regretted at 
his death than many a 
more famous publicist had 
been. He passed away 

three years ago, well in his 80 s, but never confessing 
any age. Had he lived in their day, the Major would have 
ranged with Mr. Brummell and Mr. Nash, their equal in chic 
and lacking their pettiness. He had brains and knowledge 
of men, was a reader of books as well, and what he himself 
called a " compensating" companion. Withal, he was ele 
gantly profane enough to have served with "our army in 



Flanders/ but it was with a grace and deep feeling that lent 
the unction of knighthood to an oath. 

He married a beautiful woman, who was gracious and pleas 
ant in general society, of which the couple seemed equally 
fond. As wealth grew, they moved to the later well-known 
residence near Ponce de Leon circle. Then, and especially 
after the debut of their daughter, Mrs. Mims entertained 
home people and strangers, but she suddenly dropped society 
as though it had been red-hot, and took to science Christian 
of that ilk. She has gone to the length of the ism, has preached 
at home and abroad and been one of the most active and ad 
vanced agents of the much-berated sect. Her daughter 
the magnificent, stately and universally known "Em" Mims, 
had never taken to the fad and, certes, my cheery and chival 
rous old friend, her father, was seemingly no more scientific 
than religious. Yet his death left a great gap in Atlanta 
society and clubdom. 

After leaving Georgetown Visitation convent, Miss Emma 
Mims entered society with verve ; winning friends easily by her 
fund of grace and quickness, losing them sometimes by too 
much sauce Tartare upon her tongue. 

Her wedding to Colonel Joseph Thompson collected society 
girls of her convent classmates from several cities, among 
them Misses Margaret Demoville, of Nashville, now Mrs. 
Herman Justi of Chicago; Daisy Irwin, of Mobile, now Mrs. 
Clisby, and Daisy Breaux, of New Orleans, elsewhere noted 
as the brilliant Mrs. Andrew Simonds, of Charleston, and now 
the wife of Barker Gummere, of Trenton, N. J. Her life since 
has been known to all society; and her leaving it suddenly, 
if not wholly unexpectedly has renewed memory of her 
better traits. She has left one child only, the pride of her 
life, Livingston Mims Thompson, of New York. 



"AND there is a time to laugh/ 7 was the dictum of the 
wisest king in sacred history. Yet he also said there is a 
time to weep. 

There was no home-leaving of Southern youth for the front, 
no whitewashed wall in the roughest hospital, no blackened 
smolder of barn and mill and home but wrote its epic of hero 
ism and self-forgetfulness. 

When the half-starved and march-worn shivered around 
smoky brush fires the moisture in their eyes too often had 
other cause. When Famine kept them grim companionship 
by the camp fireside and Fever stalked noisome and gaunt 
through their best defended lines; when news came from out 
raged homes far away, the men of the South dipped their pens 
in their hearts and wrote. 

When the battle-flag forged to the front in fight or flaunted 
gaily in pursuit, their rifles rang in songs of hope and triumph 
as they laughed in the "Rebel yell." And ever and anon, 
through darkest midnight of their cause, from hospital and 
prison camp and high over the charging victory, rang out 
the broad guffaw or the cheery laughter of natural ring and 
wonderful digestion. 

Yet the facile prince of war wits was Innes Randolph, 
engineer captain on the staff of that brilliant trooper, who 
himself laughed as he charged fiercest and sang as he rode 



back victorious, not a psean of joy, but a rollicking soldier 
ditty "Jeb" Stuart. 

There were three of the Randolph brothers, of this branch 
of the name, in the Army of Northern Virginia Innes, the 
oldest; John, captain of infantry, and Wilton, the youngest, 
and post-bellum secretary of the Southern Society of New 
York. All three had a peculiar strain of humor and a natural 
gift for music and poetry. 

When the black days of 63 were upon us, and Mr. Davis 
issued a Thanksgiving Day proclamation, he set forth the 
best side of the dark theme. Promptly Innes Randolph put 
the state paper into burlesque rhyme, detailing point by 
point. I recall but one complete verse, that on Bragg s 
defeat : 

" And Bragg did well, for who can tell 

What merely human mind could augur 
That they would run from Lookout Mount, 
Who fought so well at Chickamauga?" 

Randolph s serious poetry, while less known, was superior 
to his comic work. It had strength and delicacy welded, arid 
his "Torchwork: A Tale of the Shenandoah," written at my 
request when I essayed the Cosmopolite magazine, of fleet 
memory, at Baltimore in 1866, is the best tale in verse of all 
the war-time. 

One story of this wag cannot be omitted. On a "wild 
night" in both senses a rollicking party was led by him in 
a " round" that defied patrol and provost guard. Doorplates 
and signs were interchanged; and jumping at one of the latter, 
the joker s hand caught in the iron brace, hanging him sus 
pended and in great pain. He called lustily, but cheerily for 
help: "Take me down! Quick! A wicked and a stiff-necked 
generation, searching after a sign!" 

What this multi-sided genius did in art is elsewhere told. 


What he did not do, and do well, is not recorded on memory s 

He was eldest son of John Innes Randolph, of Virginia, who 
moved to Washington and was long a well-known resident of 
that city and Georgetown. Innes married Miss Anna King 
of the latter city, who survives and resides in Baltimore. 
They had four children, all inheriting much of the paternal 
gifts. But the eldest son died childless. Harold, the second, 
lives in Baltimore, being a 
skilled and popular mu 
sician and composer and 
long the musical director 
of the Peabody . The eldest 
daughter, Clare, married 
Thomas, son of Major 
Stuart Symington, and 
they have two children, 
Thomas and Catharine. 
These are the only direct 
descendants of the poet- wit. 
The other daughter, Miss 
Maude Randolph, is un 
married and lives with her 
mother in Baltimore. CAPTAIN INNES RANDOLPH 

Very lately a story has gone the rounds of the press, which 
a la Buttercup, "has mixed them children up." It stated 
that General Felix Agnus, of the Baltimore American, when 
a dashing captain of volunteers, was desperately wounded in 
the Seven Days battles before Richmond. Waking from his 
faint, he felt something heavy lying on him, which proved to 
be a badly wounded Confederate, moaning for water. Agnus 
recalled a canteen of cold coffee, reached for it and handed 
it to the man on him. The latter drank thirstily, sighed and 
returned it with the words : "Thank you, Yank damn you !" 


Years later, the story goes, General Agnus was telling the 
facts at a press convention in Philadelphia, when a fine look 
ing delegate stepped forward and said he was the Confederate 
and his name was Major Innes Randolph. The story is a 
good one; would be great, indeed, were it correct. In truth, 
Innes Randolph was never a major, never was on Jackson s 
staff and never was wounded before Richmond. He was a 
captain on engineer duty under Stuart. John Randolph 
was in the battles of the Seven Days, and was badly wounded 
in the thigh at Cold Harbor, though no one recalls his having 
related the story, which such a joker would have done in 
convalescence or later. 

In a late letter to me^ General Agnus vouches for the facts 
of the story, but Innes Randolph s family confirm my view 
that it must have been John Randolph, his next brother, as 
the latter only was shot before Richmond. Further con 
firmation of this odd mix-up comes from Mrs. Clem Clay 
Clopton. Her book quotes letters from her brother, Colonel 
H. L. Clay, and his wife (Celestia Comer), written just after 
the fights. Colonel Clay writes: 

"Mr. Randolph, the Sir Anthony Absolute of your play, 
was wounded yesterday in the shoulder and thigh, and will 
lose the limb today." 

He did not, however; but he was wounded only in the 
thigh another proof of the way history was making 

John Randolph the second of the brothers, left two sons 
and a daughter. Wilton, who was the baby-soldier brother 
in Richmond days, left two sons and two daughters. The 
eldest boy died in Cuba, fighting to uphold the flag his father 
had fought against. 

After the war Innes Randolph went into journalism, 
winning high praise for critical and editorial work on the 
Richmond Examiner. This secured him a position on the 


Baltimore American, which he held with credit until his last 

Fighting, fun and fancy, in equal potencies, chemically 
compounded jolly and gallant Gray Latham, of the famed 
" Latham s Battery" in the A. N. V. He was wit, wag and 
poet, no danger of joke being too serious for him to laugh at 
and half the stories that went the round of court and camp 
began: "As Gray says." He sang sweetly, as " Eveline" 
proved; and his own " Castles in the Air" had dainty thought 
and neat verse, rounded with a chuckle, in none too restrained 
form. The non sequitur was his force, a dry ness of absurdity 
unequalled save perhaps by Tom August and Ham Chamber- 
layne, but he lacked the acidity of both. One of his oddest 
pranks was when a party of officers, without leave of ab 
sence, "took the town" one night. The provost guard halted 
them. There were quick, steady-witted men in the crowd, 
but none had retort when the green provost asked for papers. 
But, with lordly sweep of his big arm, the artillerist answered 
suavely : 

"Papers, sir! Why, we are all left-handed men!" and we 
passed the open-mouth guardian of discipline without let. 
And it was he who defined the duties of a quartermaster, to 
a lady seeking information: 

"The quartermaster, madame, has three duties, all per 
formed regularly. The first is to make himself comfortable; 
the second, to make everybody else uncomfortable; the 
third, to make himself blamed comfortable!" 

To him, justly or not, were ascribed two stories on Mr. 
Macfarland s crisp dignity and perfect elegance of dress and 
manner. Non e vero, doubtless both, but who shall deny the 
ben trovato? 

When Magruder s army fell back from the Peninsula on 
Lee s new base at Richmond it passed a line of gaunt, be 
grimed and wretched-looking men, hobbling and half-starved 


up Main street from Rockett s. The men eyed the smart 
banker curiously, as he stood on the bank s low porch, genuine 
pity in his face, but with no word that could aid them, en 
masse. Suddenly one "hero without a name" side-stepped 
to the pavement, halted and came to a "carry" as he whined: 

" Sa-a-ay, mistur, kin we uns sleep in Reechmon ternight? " 

The other application was equally apocryphal. 

In mid-war, a blockade dinner was tendered some impor 
tant strangers. The host s trusted butler fell ill suddenly, 
but the best restaurateur in town supplied his place. All went 
well with the much-recommended substitute, save a rather 
unusual flourish, until the meats came on. One of these was 
a ham of princely size, wine dressed and flanked by a rare 
salad. These were to be helped from a side table. 

Conversation in polite murmur was punctuating mastica 
tion. Suddenly clashed into it the wild click of steel on 
knife, that mocked a hand-to-hand fight with sabres. Then 
came the stentorian and repeated yell: 

u Ha-a-ammm! an sallud on th side table! Gents, pass up 
yer plates fer ha-a-ammm an sallud!" 

Captain Woodie Latham, handsome, brave and true, had 
a wit of his own, but it withered in the light of his elder broth 
er s. Both men are gone. After life s fitful fever they sleep 
well ; while it lasted they did most things well. 

Brilliant, misdirected Page McCarty was a veritable wit, 
in those sunny days of the early war, before the piquant sub- 
acid in him fermented into gall. Later, his X-ray showed 
clear through tissue; but it blistered. 

McCarty, Will Myers, Innes Randolph and I had a habit of 
occasional letters in jingle, when at separate points, which 
gave the town topics of that day. They passed from one re 
cipient to the next nearest, a sort of endless chain of mild 
gossip. One of Page s headings, yellow and smoke-stained, 
I found only a few years ago. It was written from near 



Mason s Hill, when he and Hampden Chamberlayne were 
"blanketing together" in outdoor winter, and its caption 
read: "Off Chamberlayne s Cape (also his overcoat)." 

It is sad to recall the promise of McCarty s young career, 
for he was brave, joyous and loyal to friends, and compare it 
with his after years, as he hobbled along to a neglected grave, 
with Remorse and Defiance on either side. And the change 
was wholly wrought by his 
own hand. 

Will Myers was witty 
and full of quaint satire, 
but rarely bitter. On one 
occasion he described to 
General Breckinridge the 
details of a fight, in which 
the brigade of a rather slow 
commander had crumbled 
before the enemy. He 
ended his report: "And 
there tottered old . . . 
like a mud wall." 

Thereafter, in that army, 
he was ever known as 

Myers saw a judge- 
advocate, who was a fa 
mous romancer, lead the 
other members of his court to a bar-room and tell them wild 
yarns. He told me: "He lied like a warrior taking his rest 
with his court-martial around him!" 

Some crude rhymester whose swift zeal gave him corns on 
his prosodical feet, indited an ode to the great French general 
of the A. N. V. This Myers sent me, with his amended ver 
sion, four decades having obliterated all save this; 



"Oh! the North was evil-starred, when she met thee, Beau- 
regard ! 

For you fought her very hard with cannon and petard, Beau- 
regard ! 

Beau canon, Beauregard! Beau soldat, Beauregard! 

Beau sabreur! beau frappeur! Beauregard! Beauregard!" 

That was the "poet". Myers wrote it thus: 

"Yes ! the North was scarred and barred, and she took it very 


When we trumped her winning card, Beauregard ! 
Beau blagueur, Beauregard! Beau blesseur, Beauregard! 
Beau Brummell, Beau Nash, Beau Hickman! Beauregard !" 

A good and reliable soldier, as proved by his advancement 
under the immediate ken of a leader like Breckinridge, Will 
Myers was a man of delicate and refined culture and of innate 
critical tact. His sense of humor spurred but never dominated 
his judgment of men and affairs; and his broad, sunshiny 
nature made men love him as well as many women thought 
they did, and one noble one proved. He was the idol of a 
cultured father and mother and in his visits to Richmond 
added much to the bright society of their elegant and hos 
pitable home. 

A noted joker of that and of later time was General Zeb- 
ulon B. Vance, of North Carolina. By turns congressman, 
Confederate brigadier, senator and governor of his state 
"Zeb" Vance s jests and epigrams were so quoted as to have 
almost a "chest nutty" flavor, yet like that abused favorite, 
they held their own peculiar aroma. The most repeated of them 
allowing possibly to its place of birth, but more to its touch 
of nature, was his address to the buck rabbit. His brigade 
lay in the woods at Malvern Hill, the well-timed shells show 
ering branches and twigs upon them from treetops overhead. 
Dead stillness awaited the expected order to go in. ( Suddenly 


a great white rabbit broke down the woods trail, at top speed 
toward the rear. From the tree that screened him General 
Vance yelled cheerily after him: 

"Go it, stumptail! If I followed my impulse, I d be with 


But wit was only the condiment that seasoned the strong 
meat of the North Carolinian s character and men 



ALL the colonels of the great First Virginia were noteworthy 
men, but none was more widely known than Thomas P. 
August. He was a wag and a punster by nature and he 
talked in quips as naturally as though all men expected them. 
They went far and wide in repetition until he was really, 
as McCarty expressed it, "the most traveled by-tongue fel 
low in the army!" He was the real father of the over famil 
iar retort, chestnutted by frequent misapplication. When 
the convention that carried Virginia out of the Union was 
debating that vital point someone said to August: "Well, 
colonel, I suppose your voice is still for war?" 

"Yes, damn still!" was the quick reply that ended this 

Just before the final evacuation of Richmond, rumors 
of that move were rife and every act of the departments 
was watched and reported. Colonel August was hobbling 
downtown on his crutches, when a friend called across: 
"Tom, the surgeon-general is removing all the medical 
stores! 77 

"Glad of it," he called back. "We ll get rid of all this 
blue mass!" 

One very early morning, while on sick furlough, the officer 
limped into Ed Robinson s popular drug-store for needed 
seltzer water. Taking him for the proprietor, a mild old 
lady asked: "Can I buy a little hippo?" 



"No, madame," the joker replied; "we give it away to 
cure the general chondria." 

Major Willie Caskie, the quaint artist and joker of Mosaic 
memory, had a close kinsman who was so badly crippled 
by rheumatism that he could walk only with assistance 
from his negro body servant. Answering a comment on the 
fact, Willie Caskie said: 
"Yes, he reverses Noah of 
old" ; adding in explanation: 
"Noah was an upright man 
and walked with God: Jim 
is downright crooked and 
walks with Ham!" 

The inveterate major mar 
ried pretty and gentle Miss 
Mary Ambler, of the old 
Huguenot colonials, who sur 
vives him. 

He was equally apt as wit 
and draughtsman as he was 
as fighter. In capping verse 
and parody, he was as quick 
as Randolph. It was he who 
twisted the stirring lines "You can never win them back, Nev 
er, never!" from their patriotic to their Pharoaic sense, thus: 

You can never win them back, 

Never, never! 
And you d better quit the track, 

Now, forever! 

Though you cut and deal the pack 
And copper every Jack, 

You ll lose stack after stack, 

Till you sever! 



A strong mentality and vast store of information was 
the asset of Colonel William M. Burwell, editor of De Bow s 
Review. As social interest, he extended lavishly the small 
coin of humor, minted at will. An able disputant and 
vigorous essayist, he dropped puns and epigrams like the 
fabled maid who scattered pearls with speech. Someone 
spoke of Mr. Davis s habitual gravity, when the editor retorted : 

"Yet he is devoted to Benjamin, who is surely a Jew 
d esprit!" 

It was he who commented on the secretary of state s 
disputatious habit: 

"All the cabinet expects Toombs to disagree with himself 
between meals!" Nor was it a surprise when his name was 
pinned to the cleverest, perhaps, of all the "Confederate 
Mother Goose." 

That rollicking but most indicative string of satires had 
accidental birth. George Bagby s simple sanctum, with 
its "cartridge-paper tablecloth," was the "Wills coffee 
house" of the war wits, lacking the coffee, but replacing it 
with frequent pipes and unhappily infrequent "nips," 
when appreciation sent a bottle their way. One night, 
during what Bagby called the "mire truce" of winter, 
Randolph, Myers, McCarty, Colonel Burwell, Will Wash 
ington, myself and a few others dropped into the den edito 
rial. Soon the room was cloudy with smoke, but sunny with 
speech. Someone picked up the short but inspiring stub 
of George Bagby s editorial pencilholder and scribbled a 
verse on the paper tablecloth. Another read it, laughed, 
took the stub and scribbled in turn. The first one read was 
on that bold invader who dated despatches from "Head 
quarters in the saddle." It ran: 

Little Be-Pope, he lost his hope, 
Jackson, the Rebel, to find him; 


But he found him at last, and he ran very fast, 
With his bully invaders behind him! 

The second took theme from that general most respected 
by his Southern opponents as a tactician and a man : 

Little McClellan sat eating a mellon, 

The Chickahominy by. 

He stuck in a spade; and a long time delayed, 

Then cried: " What a great general am I!" 

Next, the arch-enemy of all woman-respecting men had 
his turn: 

Hey! diddle Sutler, the dastard Ben Butler, 

Fought women, morn, evening and noon; 

And old Satan laughed, as hot brimstone he quaffed, 

When the Beast ran away with the Spoon! 

The next was reminiscence of Barton Key s murder at 
Washington some years before: 

Yankee Sickles came to fight, and Dan was just a Dandy; 
Quite quick to shoot when tother man had nary pistol 

The "Cspsar of the Peninsula/ as Lord King named 
McClellan, got this: 

Henceforth, when a fellow is kicked out of doors, 

He need never resent the disgrace, 
But exclaim: "My dear sir, I m eternally yours, 

For assisting in changing my base!" 

"Fighting Joe" Hooker had taught us to respect him, 
but he was hit too : 

Joe Hooker had a nice tin sword; 

Jack bent it up one day. 
When Halleck heard, at Washington, 
He wrote: "Come home and stay!" 


Others on Pope and Butler ran thus: 

Trickery, dickery, slickery Ben- 
Eluding and dodging the fighting men- 
Was never afraid of a matron or maid, 
But cent for no cotton, or silver, he paid! 

And, finally: 

John Pope came down to 
Dixie town, and thought 
it very wise 

To sit down in a skeeter 
swamp and start at telling 

But when he found his lies 

were out, with all his might 

and main, 
He changed his base to another 

place, and began to lie 


Probably the most sur- 

MAJOR j. w. PEGRAM prised men of all who heard, 

were the writers of these 

skits when they were read from print, at a subsequent 
meeting of the Mosaic Club. The authors had forgotten 
them in intervening rush of. graver matters and someone, 
most probably Bagby, had joked the jokers by tacking the 
name to each of the squibs. 

One irrepressible wag, who never wrote a line or even 
knew he was a wit, won a later width of fame as great as 
any of his elders. " Jimmie" was the youngest of the three 
gallant Pegram brothers and the only one who survived the 
war, though he followed through it as grim and foremost 
a fighter as Gen. R. S. Ewell. Pegram rose to major s rank, 


despite his youth, as Ewell s adjutant-general. In camp, 
in society at the sick-bedside, the retreat, or the hot pur 
suit he was full of original humor that had infection in it. 
A born mimic, he was a raconteur equal to Ran Tucker; 
a gift that gained him representation of a New York 
house, post-bellum; and aided his genial, manly nature to 
make him one of the most popular men in society, 
trade and the clubs that ever was sent "on the road" 
by the war. He lost his lovely wife, as noted before, 
after brief married life and never married again. But girls, 
as well as matrons and men, loved "Major Jimmie"; re 
told his jokes and spoiled his stories in a dozen states; 
while they later mourned his untimely death. He was a 
loyal friend, with all the courage of his race and the cour 
tesy of the Old Virginia gentleman. 

But it was not only in stirring if trying scenes, or in the 
cheery ones of the "mire truce, " not only in the free or freez 
ing air, that Rebel humor asserted supremacy. Even the 
half-spectres of hospital recuperation laughed over what 
they called their "lush." In one sick mess of the trying 
days, toward the end, a long, skinny Georgian was charging 
on a piece of stubbornly resisting neckbeef. His yellow 
face wrinkled in a grin as he drawled: "Say, fellers, didn t 
them fellers ez died las spring jest git ther commissary, 

And even in the fetid starvation pens of prison camps, 
the unexchanged martyrs drowned the sigh of hope deferred 
in the jest at their own misery. One familiar example was 
the clever versed letter, sent from the grim walls on "Fort 
Delaware, Del.," as the prisoners song called it. That 
was written by Thomas F. Roche, of Baltimore, to his mother, 
in close imitation of General Lytle s "I am Dying, Egypt, 
Dying"; and was a mock heroic plaint for a check to be sent 
the prison sutler. Too long to quote, its opening and 


final pica will show its humor under trying conditions: 

"7 am busted, Mother busted: 
Gone tti last unhappy check; 
And iti infernal sutler s prices 
Leave my pocketbook a wreck!" 

And it ended with this human paraphrase: 

"Ah, once more, among the lucky, 

Let thy hopeful buy and swell: 
Bankers and rich brokers aid thee 

Shell, gentle mother mine oh, shell!" 

Another satire, though grimmer, while of higher grade than 
Roche s, slipped through the portholes of Fort Warren. 
There Severn Teackle Wallis, the polished acidity of the 
Baltimore bar of yesterday, was long a political prisoner. On 
one Thanksgiving Day, when the " loyal" pulpits of Baltimore 
were expected to flame with patriotic fire over several Feder 
al victories, a printed note sheet was mysteriously found 
in the prayer-seats of fashion. It had come, " underground, " 
from Wallis s cell, at Warren. Only its opening and a few 
sample lines can find room here: 

"0 God of Battles, once again, with banner, trump and drum, 
And garments in Thy wine press dyed, to give Thee thanks 

we come! 

No goats nor bullocks garlanded to Thine red altars go: 
With brothers blood, by brothers shed, our glad libations flow! 

We give Thee praise that Thou hast lit the torch and fanned 

the flame 
That Lust and Rapine hunt their prey, kind Father, in Thy 



Where er we tread may deserts spread, till none are left to 

And, when the last red drop is shed, we ll kneel again and 


An irrepressible war wag was that correspondent from 
the Atlantic lines who hid his light under the pen-name of 
" Solitary John." The real one I have never been able to 
find, but his quaint letters helped to make the starving 
fighters "laugh and grow fat. " One of them began: 

"Old Sherman, like Old John Brown s soul, is a marching 
on/ and double-quicking. When Tecumseh was born, 
his dad said to the nurse: This is a nipping and an eager 
heir/ and proved himself prophet, to our loss. Billy is 
making Johnny as mad as a March hare by marching here 
and there. Yesterday we were ordered to cook, and eat, 
ten days rations immediately; and for the next ten, nothing 
could be heard but 

The rhyming and the chiming of the rammer and 

the hammer, 
Keeping time, time, time, in a hungry sort of rhyme." 

This "Johnny" laughed off suspense and starvation in 
the free air and with broad sunshine about him. But even 
in the smoke-thickened atmosphere of Vicksburg, with 
ceaseless burst of shells, dwindling ranks and absolute star 
vation wasting the men who burrowed like rats to catch rare 
sleep: there in that worse than Valley Forge of later war 
for opinion s sake, joke and jest leavened the heavy strain. 
Endless stories of the "pounded city" are sworn to. 

One stifling noon a Mexican veteran colonel crept out of 
the guard casemate to hunt a scarce possible bottle. A 
whoo and a whiz, then a small earthquake, as a ten-inch 
shell dropped just before him. A wild yell and a clatter 
of swift-running boots brought the query: "What s that?" 



Peering from the earth-thatched casemate, Major Tom 
Reed answered: "Nothing but the kernel breaking from the 
shell !" 

When the bombardment grew hot and more accurate, 
a wooden house on a hill was deserted. Some wag charcoaled 
on it: "For Rent: Inquire of Davis & Pemberton." That 
night a mortar shell tore a great hole through the building 
and soon the crayon had marked out the spared sign and im 
proved it: "Rented, by Grant and McPherson!" 

When the torn and splintered city was surrendered after 
sufferings and horrors unparalleled, a scrawled card was 
found pinned to the posts supporting a subterranean mess 
room. It was a menu showing the varied modes of mule 
cooking, dated from the "Hotel de Vicksburg, Jeff Davis 
Co., proprietors." Broadly humorous, it listed: "Soup: 
Mule tail. Boiled: Mule bacon, with Polk greens. Roast: 
Saddle of Mule a la teamster. Entrees: Mule head stuffed, 
Reb fashion; Mule beef, jerke a la Yankee; Mule liver, hash 
ed a r explosion. Dessert: Cotton-berry pie, en Ironclad, 
China-berry tart. Liquors: Mississippi water, vintage 1492, 
very inferior, S3. Limestone water, late importation, very 
fine. Extra (black seal) Vicksburg bottled-up $4. Meals 
at Few Hours, Gentlemen to wait upon themselves. Any 
inattention in service to be promptly reported at the office. 
Jeff & Comp., Props." 

This was only one more proof that strong arms and strong 
stomachs went to aid the barefoot boys to make their strong 
arms uphold so long the tottered fabric, built upon their 
hopes and painted with their blood, still standing in its ruins 
as their monument. 



WHILE the art of war was the consuming study in the 
capital, with old and young, man and woman, the gentler 
arts were not allowed to fall 
wholly into disuse. The senti 
ments and the scenes of the 
day were suggestive ones, 
and souls that had once 
been touched by the sacred 
fire were wont to glow afresh 
and sometimes spring ablaze. 

Men had busier and more 
needed avocations, it is true; 
materials were hard to get at 
first and later were impos 
sible to obtain. But the 
painted record of the war 
was so valuable a one and 
was made under such trial and 
discouragements that it is the 
more remarkable that its con 
servation was not more looked 
to and that examples extant VIRGINIA MOURNING HER DEAD. 


are so rare and hard to find. 
Most pictures that won note, and probably all that remain 



today, were what may be classed as incident pictures. They 
were conceived in the very throes of action of some great 
event, perfected in discouragement and often danger. 

There were a number of pictures produced in Richmond 
during the war, and probably in other sections of the South, 
that were good artistically, and some that had real intrinsic 
art-value wholly dissevered from historic use. 

Nearly equal to Washington in the number of his paint 
ings, and quite his equal in popularity, was John A. Elder. 
This gifted and manly painter was the son of a Fredericks- 
burg bootmaker, and with common school education. He 
had, however, real genius and great ambition and with them 
he coupled industry and genial nature. While a soldier in 
the ranks he proved a rapid and faithful reproducer of the 
men and movements around him. Old John Miner of his 
native town, took deep interest in the youth and proposed 
to send him to Europe, and this was done by several gentle 
men advancing fifty dollars each. This, Elder only took 
on agreement to pay it back a pledge he later fulfilled to 
the last dollar. 

His first success was "The Scout s Prize." A medium 
canvas shows two horses at top speed through a wintry 
Virginia forest. One, ridden by the ill-clad "Reb, " with 
slouch hat drawn down upon his speed-lowered head, was 
bony, sorry and jaded; his rough coat flecked with the foam 
of plucky effort and his red-veined eyes walled backward 
to the unceasing thud of close-pursuing feet. These were 
from hoofs of a splendid troop-horse, accoutred for a gener 
al s mount, his sleek coat and high head telling the tale of 
provender-bred mettle. 

Admirable in drawing, artistic in contrast and with Meis- 
sonier-like fidelity to detail, the brutes told the story of 
plenty and privation that opposed each other through four 
long years. And the constancy that drew out their weary 


length, that made each capture an era rather than an episode, 
was seen in the gleam that lit the half-shadowed face bent 
above the neck of the ridden horse, as the trooper tugged 
at the resisted bit of the led one. 

"The Crater" told the details of that hand-to-hand slaugh 
ter before Petersburg when the Federal mine under the 
near-lying Confederate centre was countermined and explo 
ded. Its scene was in mid-fight. Under dense, low-hung 
masses of smoke, lurid jets of flame shot high, and on them 
rose the torn limbs and trunkless heads of the victims of 
War s devilish delight. Writhing, or stark upon what 
ground was visible, stretched the forms in blue and gray, 
mixed in " dizziest dance of death." This picture was sold 
for a good price just after the war to a British member of 
parliament. Elder reproduced it, somewhat enlarged, and 
the copy was purchased by General Mahone. His widow 
sold it to the Westmoreland Club of Richmond, where it 
now hangs. " Appomattox, " the most suggestive and 
reminiscent of Elder s works, was the valued possession 
of Joseph Bryan, at his beautiful and historic home, Labur 
num. The conception and figure-drawing, are admirable. 
Of his pictures, Mr. Bryan wrote me in a personal letter, 
which I make bold to quote, that he saw the canvas in the 
window at Tyler s, shortly after the war: 

"I was struck by the picture, and went in to ask 
the price, which was only $50; but that was a large 
sum to me then and I took time to consider. I did, how 
ever, after a day, buy the picture at the price. I was 
gratified to learn that its removal from the window caused 
many inquiries. It had attracted much attention, but the 
population were not able to gratify their appreciation by 
even inquiring the price. ... As to The Scout s 
Prize/ to which you refer, I have a copy of that which I 
particularly prize, because I had almost that identical ex- 


perience myself, while with Colonel Mosby, in the winter of 65. " 

What became of Elder later I am not sure, but I think 
he died before his early promise, amid discouraging sur 
roundings, fruited fully into the success it seemed to war 

Another artist, one who seemed to find a specialty in 
sea views, was Lieutenant John R. Key, of the engineer 
corps. Tall, boyish-looking, bright- witted and a trifle 
eccentric, he was "the grandson of The Star Spangled Ban 
ner," as Myers put it. Sumter seemed to grow chronic 
with him, for, with really excellent taste for landscape and 
a perseverance and pluck . that overcame difficulties, he 
spent all his spare time and more than all his spare change, 
on the crude but costly materials for his bombardment 
stretches of sea view, punctuated by puffy cannon smoke. 

But the pictures won attention* and commendation, for 
they were faithful to their not exciting theme. Persever 
ance, however, found material reward in several post-bellum 
sales of the Sumter canvases, but he did better work then. 

We went together, the summer succeeding the surrender, 
to spend months along the slopes of Cheat Mountain and 
fish in the river of that name, he sketching and I scribbling 
on the pioneer volume of Southern song. Some very clever 
bits he did then of mountain scenery, and later of that in 
California and its coast, found ready sale. Some of them 
were the pioneer of picturesque railroad advertising and 
specimens were in the old Corcoran Gallery and other col 
lections. But Key was practical beyond the wont of artists. 
He exhibited four of his Sumter canvases in Washington 
and New York, selling two of them later to Admiral Dahl- 
gren, and the others to a London M. P. 

In 1869 Key made studies through California, and in 
the next year went to Paris and there painted "The Golden 
Gate." This he sent to the Centennial at Philadelphia, 


and it received the first-class medal. His most important 
later work was illustration of the World s Fair at Chicago. 
Of that he painted four large pictures (10x20 feet). These 
were taken by the state of Illinois and were made impor 
tant parts of its exhibit at the first Omaha Exposition; a 
separate gallery being built for them. At the second Omaha, 
Key was made art director. Since, he has produced many 
pictures of the Buffalo and St. Louis Expositions; fourteen 
of the former now being the property of the Buffalo Histor 
ical Society. 

Recently he returned to the home of his youth and took 
a studio in the Corcoran Gallery. There he is busy making 
studies for an elaborate suite of Washington views, wnich 
are to form, on completion, the scenic history of the capital. 
A gifted young Virginian also painted in Charleston har 
bor. Conrad Wise Chapman (named for David H. Conrad 
and Governor Wise) was son of John G. Chapman who paint 
ed "The Marriage of Pocahontas, " for the rotunda at Wash 
ington. He had been a V. M. I. cadet but was in Rome 
with his father; ran the blockade and joined a Kentucky 
regiment and was badly wounded at Shiloh. General Wise 
had the youth transferred to his brigade as ordnance officer 
to Tabb s 59th Virginia, where he won fame in the attack 
on Williamsburg. Later, at Charleston, Beauregard -de 
tailed him for engineer work. In 1864 he was secretary to 
Bishop Lynch, on his noted mission to Rome; and was en 
route home when he read of Appomattox. He fled to Mexico, 
thence back to Italy, and lost his mind temporarily. He 
had painted many and varied sketches of battle scenes, 
mainly of Kentucky troops in action; and his father etched 
them at Rome and gained them much favor. The artist 
recovered his mind, married in Mexico; and now resides 
in New York in hermit like fashion. 
William Ludwell Sheppard was another Richmond boy 


whose work even then gave decided promise. He essayed 
nothing very pretentious and his later results have been made 
popular in Harper s and other New York magazines and 
journals. In 1861 he was at the Academy of Design, New 
York, but promptly came South and volunteered in the 
Richmond Howitzers, serving all the war and winning his 
lieutenancy. Post-bellum he painted one work which became 
notable " Virginia in 1864," an artillery duel. This was 
much copied and is still very popular with the "boys." 
He also did some clever and effective sculpture, especially 
" Johnny Reb," a statuette of the Rogers school. Equally 
effective were his typical Confederates, representing in 
fantryman, artillerist and trooper. He also did the Soldiers 
and Sailors monument, that for the Howitzers , and for 
General A. P. Hill. He has drawn considerably for New 
York publications and still resides in Richmond. 

Innes Randolph, that Briareus in accomplishments, sketch 
ed almost as cleverly as he wrote, improvised and sang. He 
was a lightning illustrator and ever in demand for the un 
ceasing " shows" of those dear women who never wearied 
in well-doing. Sometimes Randolph s programs in poetry 
and picture were better worth the entrance fee than the 
entertainment they explained. Unhappily, not one of them 
is now in existence or at least traceable by diligent search. 
He was a natural but untaught sculptor; several death 
masks and a bust of himself being especially fine. 

In some important instances the chisel replaced the 
brush in Richmond. Alexander M. Gait was a notable 
example. This Norfolk man showed early promise that 
had already given result in fine and classic marbles of 
Thomas Jefferson, President Davis and General Jackson. 
Then, while arranging for new works in every hour to 
be spared in those trying days, his career was cut short 
abruptly. Gait was seized with smallpox in Richmond, 


and despite skill and care of loving friends, died there in 1863. 

Sir Moses Ezekiel was another Richmond boy who turned 
to art in early life. He was a student of the V. M. I. ; at New 
market. Later, he went abroad, perfected himself in sculpture 
and has been a facile and industrious worker. He designed 
a handsome allegorical fountain for Cincinnati, and the fine 
figure of " Virginia Mourning Her Dead" in the campus at 
Lexington, at the entrance of Jackson Memorial Hall, was 
donated by him, in 1903, to 
his alma mater. Years ago he 
was made a Chevalier by the 
Italian government, and he 
now resides at Acme, in the 
land of flowers, art and spa 

In the June of 1907, there 
were pleasant observances at 
the University of Virginia, to 
receive another great work of 
Chevalier Ezekiel. This is a 
fine Homeric group, in heroic 
bronze, donated by Mr. J. W. 
Simpson, of New York, and 

the sculptor. Hon. Robt. L. CHEVALIER MOSES EZEKIEL 

Harrison, of New York, and 

Dr. Edward N. Calisch, of Richmond, presented it for 
the donors. It was received by President Alderman; 
and Dr. Thomas Nelson Page spoke of the sculptor and his 
growth in art, as well as of his patriotism. 

The Homeric group presents the blind Homer, resting 
on a stone by the wayside; the graceful young Egyptian 
guide recumbent at his knee. 

Coincident with his work upon the Homer, Ezekiel, made 
the heroic Jefferson, for the city of Louisville, in commem- 


oration of the great founder of the University of Virginia. 
He is now perfecting, at his studio in the Baths of Dioclesian, 
a new heroic statue of Stonewall Jackson. 

Some unique contributions to art emanated from Major 
William H. Caskie, of the artillery. A born joker, he was as 
reckless in his fun as he was in his fighting and other trifles of 
life and death. His bump of veneration was never visible 
to the amateur phrenologist. Like Randolph, his sketches 
were often the extreme of caricature and took original ex 
pression. He would catch an admirable likeness of some 
civil, military or religious notability, but always with a 
twist of face and form. These heads topped figures cut from 
the proper cloth and decorated with rank insignia or other 
hall-mark. These pasquinades were always recognized and 
appreciated. The completed result was always a joy to the 
sinner, but anything rather than contentment to the subject. 
Caskie s little men were great prizes in society and in the 
distant camps to which they traveled, until illegible from 
dingy thumb marks. 

Last, but nowise least, Willie Myers comes up dainty 
and correct in his drawing and painting, as he was in 
every regard of life. He had seen much good painting 
and was a fair enough critic to be merciless to the bad, even 
when that of a near friend. A neat executant himself, he 
had no patience with sloppiness in any department of art. 
So his judgment was much sought, though known to be 
flattering in rare instances. 

Myers left a number of clever sketches and a few things 
more important. These, if they have withstood the touch 
of time, have a better value than that of mere reminiscence. 

It is pleasant to recall that my first essay in the novel, 
" Cross Purposes," was illustrated by him in 1865. 

The art photographic, if not precisely in its infancy in 
war-times, was scarcely out of skirts. Alas the day! Ko- 


dak and pocket camera, now so fiendish and universal, had 
then been the boon of boons. 

The horrors of Daguerre, the ambrotype and more often 
the tin-type seized on the beauties and the brave, to hand 
them down to posterity in something a la Caskie. 

Canvas had early been replaced by burlaps, domestic, 
or even tent cloth. Key painted Sumter on the first two 
and Washington used the last for "Latane." Tubes, 
brushes and all tools, as well as decent vehicles, were pro 
curable only through the blockade. In the later days of 
the war I saw white drugs and castor oil used to prime a large 

All this combined to make most pictures destructible 
and the lacking camera let them slide, 

"Like the tenants that leave without warning 
Down the back entry of time." 

Photos there were, but the secret of lifelikeness, and 
especially that of indestructibility, had not been whispered 
to expectancy. Had it been, what different idea had these 
pages been able to give of some who are missed altogether; 
of more who are done scant justice, even in the most skilful 
of modern reproduction. 


M P 

MSI ^ * 

: i 

o H 2 



So important in history and in sentiment is the "Burial 
of Latane," so personal its interest and so singular its dis 
appearance, that it demands a special history. 

Washington was a Virginian by birth, claiming descent 
from the eldest stock of his name. He was a reticent fellow, 
of intensely nervous temperament, as is frequent with the 
art-instinct. In his case this was heightened by a lameness, 
apparently congenital, that slightly disfigured but in no 
sort disabled him. Those who knew him best in ante-bellum 
days at Washington never heard him allude to his lameness 
or its cause, nor did he seem to have closer relatives, al 
though we understood that his mother was of the Dandridge 

He had taste and facility, but was an erratic worker. 
Dusseldorf had been his alma mater and Leutze claimed him 
as an old pupil. He went to Richmond early in the war, 
after leaving several pictures at the capital, in the galleries 
of W. W. Corcoran, Mr. James McGuire and others. Well 
educated, polished and traveled, with refined tastes, fair 
tenor voice and fine address, despite his recurrent moodiness, 
Washington soon made foothold in the best Richmond 
society. Affable ordinarily, he made no close intimates, 
painting in West Virginia, about the Gauley section, and 
sometimes near the Potomac. 



Then came the retreat from the Peninsula, the meteor 
campaign of the Valley, Seven Pines and the Seven Days 
Fights. Between the last two came the inspiration for 
Washington s great picture. 

The armies of Lee and McClellan lay before Richmond, 
like bloodhounds in leash, ready to spring at each other s 
throat. Only the tension of discipline kept apart the grap 
ple, in which the tug-winning meant so much to the Blue 
and all to the Gray. 

McClellan waited, with his usual over-prudence, "for 
a more propitious moment to strike"; Lee, as his wont, 
waiting for McClellan. 

Inaction, pregnant with wounds and horror and bloody 
death, lay supine between the armies. The sickly sun of 
early summer basked on the feverish hosts, eager to move 
but shackled by strategy. And in this siesta "Jeb" Stuart, 
chafing himself and feeling need of movement for his men 
and mounts, proposed to General Lee a circuit around the 
rear of the enemy. 

The reconnaissance was to be in some force; was to gather 
information of outlying rear positions of the Federal and to 
round up such stock and supplies as went on hoof. The 
command was intrusted to Fitz Lee, with his own and Rooney 
(W. H. F.) Lee s brigades and with Captain William 
Latane, of the former, commanding the advance guard. 
The affair was successful in all regards. Quantities of stock 
were driven from the Federal herders, and only the mere 
show of opposition was made until the second morning. 
Then a hot skirmish in force took place; the Federals were 
driven back and the Confederates lost one man, Captain 
Latane. His younger brother, James, a preacher, and 
later bishop, took charge of the body and waited at the 
roadside while the ruck of pursuit of the bluecoats swept 
by. Then a corn cart loaded with sacks passed on its way 


to mill the long inaction making the Hanover county folks 
almost forget that they were in flagrant war. 

The cart belonged to West wood, the family seat of Mrs. 
Catherine Brockenborough, that lay a few miles away on 
the main road of the Peninsula. It was speedily emptied 
and the sacks hidden in the brush. The body of the gallant 
young trooper was tenderly laid in the improvised hearse 
and the mourning brother and the faithful negro walked by 
it to the plantation. There the lady of the mansion was 
absolutely alone, save for the presence of a few trusted 

The Peninsula, a narrow slip of land embraced by the Pa- 
munkey and Chickahominy rivers, was the theatre of much stir 
ring action during the war. It had just been made memorable 
by the retreat on Lee s army before Richmond, of John 
Bankhead Magruder s small corps, with which he had so 
brilliantly held off McClellan s overwhelming force at York- 
town, and in the slow and rear-guarded retreat. It was to 
live anew in picture and poetry and go in classics down the 
ages in the light of this "Pamunkey Raid" to the White 
House on that stream. 

A fertile and beautiful tract, it was the seat of several 
important families; notable among its homesteads being 
those of Mrs. Brockenborough and her sister, Mrs. Willough- 
by Newton, mother of the former Bishop Newton, of Vir 
ginia. The latter, Summer Hill, lay on the main road, di 
rectly opposite Westwood. At the former place Mrs. Newton 
was entertaining her refugee nieces, the Misses Dabney, 
and her daughter-in-law, Mrs. William Newton. Two 
little children of the latter, Catherine and Lucy Newton, 
were there also, but there was no other white person on the 
place and the only men were old Uncle Aaron and a few faith 
ful slaves. 

Mrs. Brockenborough was the only white at Westwood. 


Busied about her kitchen when the cart drove up, she sped 
to find the cause of its premature return. Young Latane 
told her the sad story and that he, perforce, must rejoin 
his command. He had given his horse to a wounded comrade 
and there was none to replace it. Roman as many Con 
federate matrons had proved themselves, the lady of West- 
wood recalled a steed hidden at a distant farm. She spared 
one of her men as a guide, comforted the stricken soldier 
with promise of proper burial for his dead, and sent him on 
to fight again for the Cause she loved. 

This duty to the living done, she addressed herself to the 
sadder one before her. The slain man was prepared for 
burial, a simple coffin fashioned at the plantation carpenter- 
shop and the return of the messenger waited for. The 
negro came at last, but had been unable to reach the minister 
he had been bidden to summon beyond the Federal lines. 

All day Mrs. Brockenborough waited; going at sunset 
to her sister and nieces across at Summer Hill. Next day 
still no parson came, only the rumor that he had been refused 
passage by the pickets. 

Then, at sunset, the weeping women collected about the 
grave Old Aaron had dug, and Mrs. Newton, standing at 
its head, sent him to his eternal rest with the solemn ritual 
of the Episcopal Church. Never, perhaps, had its words 
seemed more solemn or more meaningful. The poet and 
the painter made equally vivid use of this scene. Thomp 
son s verse has as much color as Washington s pigment: 

"For woman s voice, in accents soft and low, 

Trembling with pity, touched with pathos, read 
Over his hallowed dust the ritual for the dead: 

" Tis sown in weakness, it is raised in power - 
Softly the promise floated on the air, 
While the low breathings of the sunset hour 


Came back responsive to the mourner s prayer. 
Gently they laid him underneath the sod 
And left him with his fame, his country, and his God!" 

As a gentle woman s voice spoke the Promise, Mrs. Brock- 
enborough and the two others acted as mourners, the pretty 
little children strewing flowers over the cavalry overcoat that 
palled the rough bier. 

An old tree, a sapling then, marks the spot in the family 
burial ground at Summer Hill, where Latane, the sole 
victim of the raid around McClellan, was laid to rest. When 
the bloody tide of battle rolled the Northern Army back 
to its base, for seven consecutive and horrid days Summer 
Hill was seized for a Federal hospital. The ladies were re 
legated to the upper floor, and the field operating tables 
were set up on the lawn beneath the windows. Pitiful as 
grewsome it must have been to them to hear the groans of 
the wounded; the quick, stern order for removal of those 
who died beneath the knife. 

Grim old Sherman had not then stamped it as an epi 
gram, but those tried women felt in their hearts the ugly 
truth that "War is Hell!" 

Among those present Mrs. Brockenborough lived until 
two years ago; an inmate of the Presbyterian Home for old 
ladies, at Richmond. She was far advanced in years, and 
had lost her sight entirely forty-one years ago. The two 
little girls, Catherine and Lucy Newton, are now Mrs. Wal 
ter Christian, of Richmond, and Mrs. St. Clair Brookes, 
of Washington. 

John R. Thompson and William D. Washington almost 
simultaneously took up the theme, to its immortalizing and 
their own. "The Burial of Latane" was to live in poetry 
and in color. The poet wrote what Tennyson pronounced 
"the most classic poem of the Civil War." The painter 



limned a picture which, under less clouded skies and in more 
happy conditions of commercial art, had won him fame 
and fortune. 

Singularly enough, this picture disappeared and no trace 
of it remains. At the peace, Washington took the canvas 
to England, hoping for a better price from some wealthy 
sympathizer there. Falling into financial straits before 
this was possible, he sold it to L. P. Bayne, a Southern 
banker and broker, of Washington and New York. Re 
liable Confederates saw the Latane in 1874. 

Mr. Bayne died, and the picture disappeared. No trust 
worthy trace of it has since been made. Report was com 
monly accepted that it was later bought by a rich New 
Yorker, resold in Chicago and was destroyed in the great 
fire. The cow of Mrs. O Leary kicked the bucket on Oc 
tober 8, 1871. 

No one thing in my researches for these pages has caused 
the bootless correspondence and query of its disappearance, 
and I have been unable to find one fact later than 1874. 
Ten or twelve prints were made from the best negative 
procurable. The portraits were changed, and the photo 
graphs were destined to prove mementos of the artist s 
gratitude to his models. With his usual procrastination, 
he held them for some reason. One I secured, the others 
disappeared, but no one of the ladies ever received her copy. 
Mine was lost in some way, and no efforts of art dealers 
or of curio stores have later been able to recover a copy, 
even with the bait of considerable cash. The Nemesis of 
mystery seems to have followed all things in the later history 
of this fine and historic work. A steel engraving was made 
in 1868, and other copies later, I believe. 

It was in the Pegram home that his final decision to paint 
it was reached and Miss Virginia Pegram volunteered to 
find the needed models. Their first meeting; was beneath 


her roof. Ardent as earnest, these society girls entered heart 
and soul into the theme, lending their fair faces and forms 
to long and tedious posing during the heat of Southern sum 
mer, and trudging back and forth to his not too elegant 
studio through sun and storm. 

The men, from time to time, " played many parts" and 
smoked many pipes. Myers, Randolph, McCarty and the 
writer were variously the negro, the corpse on the bier and 
occasionally the critics. The 
second role was less comfort 
able than the last. To lie 
prone for forty minutes un 
der a heavy cavalry over 
coat, on a rough cot and 
beneath a sun-heated tin roof 
was not inspiring, save with 
changed first syllable. 

But at last the painting 
was done; was exhibited on 
Main street and created 
quite a furor. 

Indeed, had Confederate 
pockets been fitted to the 
appreciation of the moment, 
the artist had grown sud 
denly rich at the hands of 
some early purchaser. Some 
of this was perhaps due to 
the beauty and popularity of 

the models. Mrs. Newton was represented by Mrs. Leigh 
Page, eldest of the Waller sisters, and now the widow of a 
well-known lawyer and soldier. Miss Jennie Pegram, now Mrs. 
David Mclntosh, of Baltimore (the figure in mourning), posed 
for Mrs. Brockenborough, the one nearest to the rapt reader 



of the ritual. One of the models corroborates my memory 
thus: "At the foot of the grave is Mattie Waller (Mrs. Ralph 
Cross Johnson, of Washington), Lizzie Giles (now Mrs. Sam 
Robinson, of Washington) leans on her shoulder, weeping. 
Between Jennie Pegram and Page is the demure figure of 
Mattie Paul, the only likeness in the group, I think." The 
little Newton girls of the original scene were substituted 
by little Imogen Warwick and Miss Annie Gibson, now living 
in New York. 

For the reason that Southern men of means were using them 
for grim facts, rather than for sentiment, at that moment, 
the much praised picture found no purchaser. Gradually 
the incident became absorbed in newer and as striking ones 
and the painting became an old story. Washington painted 
many others possibly as good artistically. Of them the 
most important is " Jackson at Winchester/ now owned 
by John Murphy, of Richmond. There is action and fine 
color in this, the likeness of the general being claimed as 
the best extant. There are many minor works of similar 
class and a number of portraits of noted men connected 
with the army and at Lexington and other points of his 

After the war Washington disappeared from Richmond 
into a nowhere of his own, carrying the Latane with him. 
That he was in Europe is sure and there, as stated, it was 
sold. When he reappeared later and took the chair of fine 
arts at Lexington founded there presumably for him by 
the banker, W. W. Corcoran, of Washington the painter 
was reticent on all matters, and especially about this work. 
The mystery may never be solved, for Washington died at 
the school, and I have failed of all information thence as 



ICI REPOSE M. A. LAURE VILLERE, epouse du major 
G T. Beauregard, NEE LE 22 MAI, 1823, DECEDEE LE 21 MARS, 

Esprit descendu du del, tu y es remonte: 
dors en paix, fille, epouse et mere cherie. 

IN the old country graveyard at Florissant, the plantation 
home of the Beauregard family in St. Bernard Parish, Louis 
iana, one may read this ten 
der inscription on the stone 
that covers the grave of the 
beautiful daughter of a great 
colonial family, who was in 
this life the wife of a great 
Confederate general. Trans 
lated it reads: Spirit from 
Heaven, thou hast returned; 
there sleep in peace, beloved 
daughter, wife and moth 

This sequestered grave re 
calls the union of two great 
Creole families, the Villeres, 
Of the Old Magjiolia 
plantations, and the Toutant 



de Beauregard, of 


which the maternal strain was the famous de Reggio. 

How far back the Welsh Toutant family dates there is 
no record, though iis position and leadership in Wales in 
dicate a long line of its chiefs; the first of whom I find accurate 
historic detail is Tider the Young, who headed the last 
rebellion of Wales, before Edward First brought that prov 
ince under the English crown 1281 A. D. Defeated and 
captured, Tider escaped and fled to France with a price 
upon his head. Still a youth in his teens, his prowess and 
fine person gained him service under Philip IV (the Fair). 
They gained him moreover, as wife, Mile, de Lafayette, 
who was in the suite of the princess, the king s sister. 
Friction was hot between the two nations and Henry sum 
moned Edward to France to acknowledge his suzerainty 
of the fortresses in Guienne. War was imminent, but was 
averted by Edward s proposal to marry Marguerite, which 
delayed alliance was consummated only in 1299. Tider 
went to England with his wife in the new queen s suite, 
but the king objected to his presence, as a tainted rebel; 
and the queen induced his sending to a charge in the con 
tinental possessions of England. There he prospered, as 
did his son, Marc. After the latter recovered his father s 
property at Saint Ange, influence got him a position under 
the English crown. The name of Tider was still odious 
to British ears, and Marc changed it to Toutant from 
the old Gaelic and that surname held for the Beauregard 
ancestors for three centuries. At the end of the sixteenth 
century the last male of the Toutant name died. His only 
daughter married Sieur de Beauregard, whence the family 
name of the American branch. When the "de" was dropped 
and replaced by a hyphen is not recorded; but the general 
used neither. 

Jacques Toutant-Beauregard was the first to reach La 
Louisiane bringing a flotilla with supplies in de Bienville s 


governorship, and carrying back American timber. His 
success won him the cross of St. Louis from the grand mon- 
arque. He returned to Louisiana and married Magdalen 
Cartier. Of his three sons, Louis Toutant Beauregard 
married Victorine Ducros, daughter of a wealthy planter, 
of St. Bernard Parish. Of their three sons, the youngest, 
Jacques Toutant-Beauregard, married Helene Judith de 
Reggio in 1798. Of their seven children, the third was 
Pierre Gustave Toutant-Beauregard, of Confederate fame. 

Old as is his paternal ancestry, that of his mother is even 
more illustrious. He is of direct descent from the Dukes 
de Reggio. His great-grandfather, Chevalier Francois 
Marie de Reggio, cousin to the reigning Duke, had distin 
guished himself under his friend, Due de Richelieu, at the 
siege of Bergen-apzoom ; was given a commission and sent 
to Louisiana with his command by Louis XV. When the 
province went under Spanish rule this chevalier was made 
royal standard bearer, with other offices. He was close 
kinsman also to Marquis de Vaudureil, another colonial 
governor of Louisiana. Of his marriage to Mile. Fleurian 
two sons were born, of whom the younger, Chevalier Louis 
Emanuel de Reggio, married Mile. Judith Olivier de Vezin. 
Her daughter, Helene Judith, was the mother of our gen 

When eleven years old young P. G. T. Beauregard was 
taken to New York and placed under the charge of two 
veteran officers of Napoleon s army, Messieurs Peugnet. 
At sixteen years he entered West Point, graduating second 
in the class of 38, among forty-five members, and becom 
ing lieutenant of engineers before he was of age. 

At the academy he was quiet and studious, but watchful 
of his rights, courteous but determined in their maintaining 
and was quick-witted and a leader in sports and the riding 
school. He is credited with having kicked a football beyond 




cadet limits for the only time on record ; and a much assigned 
witticism is pretty well conceded to him. The professor 
of engineering, quizzing the class, shot out at him the query : 
"Cadet Beauregard, should the trench cavalier escape, 
what would you do?" 

"Well, sir/ was the instant reply, "I should vault on the 

cheval defrise and put off af 
ter him!" 

In 1847, Lieutenant 
Beauregard was in charge of 
engineer works at Tampico, 
having been with General 
Scott throughout the war 
and been twice wounded. 
Later he had other responsi 
ble posts; as from 1853 to 
I860, when he was in 
charge of lake defenses of 
Louisiana and at the same 
time superintended the 
building of the custom 
house at New Orleans. On 
November twentieth of that 
year he was appointed 
superintendent of the West Point Academy and resigned 
his commission in the February of the next year. By 
the first of March he was in command of the Confederate 
army then organizing and was more spoken of for perman 
ent commander-in-chief than anyone save General Braxton 
Bragg. He was later made one of the six full generals, 
and fought in the first and last battles of the war. 

What this high-natured gentleman and true soldier did 
in war is familiar history. He and his young sons went 
earliest to the front, and from Sumter to surrender there 



was no important movement in which their name does not 
appear. The old name took on a new splendor that shone 
across seas. Two years after our war, another was imminent 
between the Danubian principalities and Roumania, and 
chief command of the latter s armies was offered Beaure- 
gard. That and a similar one made two years later by 
the khedive of Egypt he declined, to remain with his own 
people. He built two of her railroads; designed the great 
street railway system of New Orleans; and later, with Gen 
eral Early, supervised the Louisiana lottery. 

The general was twice married; his first wife having been 
the woman acknowledged the most beautiful and the most 
charming of the belles of her day. 

In widowerhood, years later, he wedded Mile. Caroline 
Deslondes, one of the four beautiful and brilliant sisters 
of that great old Creole family. They were Henriette, Mrs. 
Adams; Mathilda, Mrs. Slidell; and Juliette, Mrs. Seixas. 
The second union was childless, Madame Caroline Beauregard 
having died while her husband was winning laurels on 
fresh fields after Bull Run. The name is all of descent from 
the Villere line the first alliance. 

Marie Laure Villere was a most typical Creole, of the 
early regime. She was daughter of Jules Villere of the 
Magnolia plantations, and Perle Olivier, daughter of Col 7 
onel Charles Olivier. This Villere family sent a represent 
ative to America with Iberville and de Bienville, in 1699: 
Etienne Roy de Villere. His direct descendant was Gov 
ernor J. Philip Villere, who succeeded Governor Claiborne, 
in 1817. 

This first marriage of General Beauregard left three chil 
dren, two sons, and a daughter. The eldest, Rene Toutant 
Beauregard, was a mere boy when the war began, but went 
to the front as lieutenant of artillery, commanded his 
battery in the relief of Vicksburg, and surrendered as major 


in Johnston s army after serving from Nashville to At 
lanta in every previous battle. Now a judge in his native 
state, he is the father of one son, named for his grandsire, 
and in his father s profession. Major Beauregard married 
Miss Alice Cenas: fourth daughter of M. Hilary Briton Cenas 
and Miss Margaret Octavia Pierce, of Baltimore. Besides 
the son, five daughters blessed the Beauregard-Cenas union: 
Misses Marguerite, Laure, Alba (who is now Mrs. Henry 

Leverich Richardson), Alice 
and Hilda, the last two not 
having entered society. 

Madame Beauregard s f am- 
ily is one that has been high 
placed and popular in the 
social history of New 
Orleans and Baltimore. The 
children of Mr. Hilary Cenas 
were seven sons, of whom 
only one survives, and six 
daughters: Heloise, Clarisse, 
Anna Maria (now widow 
of Mr. John Poitevent), 
Alice (Mrs. Beauregard) and 
Frances. The only living 
brother is Mr. Louis Eugene 

Cenas, who married Miss Lionide May, daughter of Cap 
tain Eugene May, of war fame. 

Hilary Cenas, one of the elder brothers, was my boyhood 
friend. He was sent to Georgetown College by his father, 
in charge of Hon. Charles M. Conrad, Pierce s secretary of 
the navy. He, the two young Conrads, Louis and Charlie, 
were my neighbors and great chums. The tragic fate of 
one of the last still sends a shiver through society, when 
mentioned. Cenas, too, met a sad death, but one born out 



of man s duty, well performed. He went into the Confeder 
ate Navy; and, as I have said elsewhere, was a favorite with 
men and women alike in Richmond. After the war, he 
returned to New Orleans, being then the head of his family. 
Ardent, fearless, and chivalrous, he was a foremost leader 
of his race against attempted carpet-bag domination. In 
the Jackson Square emeute he was shot in the foot; a wound 
that never healed and resulted in his widely lamented death 
in the spring of 1877. No truer type of Southern manhood 
was a sacrifice to the misnamed "peace." 

The second brother, Henri Toutant Beauregard, was a 
young cadet at the South Carolina military academy and 
was detailed with his corps to guard the old fort. Growing 
to manhood after the war, he married Miss Antoinette Har- 
ney, of St. Louis, granddaughter of the famous old general, 
William S. Harney, of Florida fame. They have no chil 

The general s only daughter, Laure Villere Beauregard, 
reached womanhood while he was still in the zenith of his 
fame and in the vigor of green old age. Around her clus 
tered the time-softened memories of the mother who had 
given her life for the girl s, and the deep love for the gentle 
and lovable nature that was wrapped up in him. So "Dou- 
cette, " as he pet-named her, became his constant companion 
and idol, and the love he gave her was returned with in 
terest. When, after refusing other offers, she married Col 
onel Charles A. Larendon, of South Carolina, in the early 
80 s father and daughter would not be separated. In 
the former s absence in active duty the infant had been 
taken by Madame Villere, her grandmother, and partly 
reared at the old Magnolia plantation home. 

The Nemesis of coincidence followed the last marriage, 
Mrs. Larendon gave her own life to bring her second daughter 
into the world, the first girl having died while very young. 


The second was now to replace the lost ones of the past, and 
the whole hearts of her grandfather and father wrapped 
themselves in her. Happily the third Laure Beauregard 

who inevitably became " Dou- 
cette" also was spared to 
their great love. Later Miss 
Larendon went to Paris, 
completing higher studies, 
and is now again at her 
father s home in New Orleans. 
How the memory of 
Beauregard is conserved in 
the hearts of his compa 
triots may be indicated by 
a not new story. A group 
of Creoles were viewing the 
then new Lee statue, in 
New Orleans. One of them 
blew out a cloud of cigarette 
smoke, with the query: 
"Lee? Who then ees this Lee?" 
Another turned on him thoughtfully: 
"Lee? Ah! yes, I know; I hear Beau gar speek well o 

No name has worked deeper into the broidery of history 
than Mason. Threads from it ramify through woof and 
warp varying a bit in family color and twist but in no 
tittle of rich and indurant family pride. There are at least 
three tall and sturdy trunks to the Mason family tree that reach 
far branches. These so intertwine as to puzzle all inexperts, 
and, to a degree, the families themselves. One of the oldest 
and most prideful of the living Masons wrote me a 
year ago: "In vain will the genealogist attempt to dispose 
traditions in any clear and comprehensible manner!" 



Each branch claims to be "The Masons"; and so they are, 
for good blood and good wine lose nought by the dust of 
centuries and a few cobwebs ; and gourmets have long wrangled 
as to whether the " crust" bettered, or weakened, the wine. 

This gossip not being a biographical essay, nor yet a "Brett" 
only a few members of each noted family can find place in 
it, they, naturally, being the ones the writer recalls "for 

Colonel George Mason was an English officer and states 
man of importance in the reign of the two kings Charles. 
After defeat in 1651 he embarked for America and set 
tled in Virginia on a grant of land in Stafford, now Fairfax, 
county . 

George Mason, of Gunston 
Hall, Stafford, was his direct 
descendant. He it was who 
wrote the Bill of Rights and 
the Constitution of Virginia, 
in 1776, and was in the 
assembly. In the next year 
he was elected to the conti 

nental congress, and had al 
ready gained the fame of one 
of the ablest debaters ever 
known in that state of 
orators. He was a member 
of the national convention 
that framed the United States 
Constitution, but he refused 
to sign that document and 
opposed it strongly and 
bitterly in the Virginia assembly. He declared and main 
tained that it "tended towards monarchy!" This orig 
inal Mason was warmly admired and eulogized by 



Jefferson, and the feeling between the two was real and 
mutual. George Mason, of Gunston, died in 1792. He 
left only one brother, Thomson Mason, of Raspberry Plan 
tation, Loudon county. He had three notable sons, Stev 
ens, John and Armistead, all having the Thomson name 
additional. Armistead was born in 1787, was Democratic 
senator from Virginia in 1815 and, four years later, was 
killed in a duel by his cousin, J. N. McCarty. 

John Thomson Mason married Elizabeth Moir, and about 
1812 moved to Lexington, Ky. He was the father of a great 
progeny that claim to be "the" Masons. 

Of thirteen who reached adult age two lately survived. 
Miss Emily Virginia Mason, was living, past her fourscore 
and ten, at Washington; and Mrs. Laura Anne Chilton, 
widow of General Robert Chilton, still resides with her 
widowed daughter, Mrs. Peyton Wise, at Richmond. Only 
when this page had been put in type, Miss Emily passed 
away peacefully, in her ninety-fourth year. At the capital 
and through Virginia, the sorrow for her loss was genuine 
and universal; and it was echoed back from many a re 
mote section where her strong, calm face had never been 
seen, but where her name was a household word. Others 
of this noted branch are seen elsewhere in passage through 
these pages. 

James Murray Mason, a cousin of the Gunston Masons, 
was born in Fairfax county, in 1798. He was Delected to 
congress in 1837 and was senator from 1847 and served 
fourteen years, during which he invented the " Fugitive 
Slave Law." He was an ultra for states rights, a thorough 
Virginian in sentiment and habit, but blunt and outspoken 
in his public and private utterance, while nowise diplomatic. 
His selection, with John Slidell, to represent the Confederate 
cause at the most essential courts of Europe caused no small 
wonderment as to Mr. Davis s real belief in the possibility 


of recognition not to speak of offensive and defensive al 
liance. Financial mismanagement was nowise condoned 
by diplomatic result; and the commander of the army was 
left to play "a lone hand," without drawing from the 
cards of his alleged " assisting" partners. Mr. Mason was 
essentially an old-timer, without experience in the modern 
chicane of diplomacy, and wholly wanting in that wily some 
thing that substituted for it in his more superficial colleague. 

The Masons are allied to 
almost every notable family 
in Virginia, but most closely 
to the Lees. The elder of 
the two sons of Light Horse 
Harry, Admiral Sydney Smith 
Lee, married Anna Maria 
Mason, sister of Mrs. Samuel 
Cooper. Their six gallant 
sons, headed by " Fitz," will 
be met soon. 

The head of the third house 
of Mason was a noted and 
very active American, albeit 
not directly descended from 
either of the others progen 

John Y. Mason was born in Sussex county, in 1795, be 
came secretary of the navy under President Tyler in 1844; 
attorney-general in 1845, and secretary of the navy in 1846, 
under the Polk administration. Later Mr. Mason was ap 
pointed minister to France by President Pierce; and died 
in Paris in 1859. Mr. Mason combined directness that seems 
to have inhered with the name he bore, with an astuteness 
that made him a more successful diplomat than his name 
sake and successor of that suave capital of intrigue. 



There were four daughters of this family; three of whom 
are now living Mrs. A. Archer Anderson, of Richmond; 
and Misses Susan and Saidie Mason, of Georgetown. The 
other daughter, Miss Emma Mason, was a brilliant and ex 
ceptionally handsome girl in war-day Richmond. She had 
much chic, and quite as much tact, being a prize to the beaux 
with brains, but a terror to the gandins. She married Mr. 
Barksdale; both are dead. 

Still another branch, the Roy Masons, of Clieveland 
on the Rappahannock, were not direct descendants of 
George Mason, of Gunston; but were related by maternal 
line. One of the daughters of George Mason, 2d, married 
twice, her second husband being John Dinwiddie. Their 
daughter, Elizabeth, married General Fouke; and their 
daughter, or granddaughter, was the mother of Roy Mason, 
of Clieveland. Ten years ago this old home passed into 
possession of a collateral branch; the Masons of La Grange. 
It was burned while Miss Blount Mason was alone in the 
house, but she promptly rebuilt it. 

James Murray Mason, of Clover Hill, near Fredericks- 
burg, was direct descendant of James Roy Mason; and his 
son, Dr. Alex, Mason, was father of three daughters, of whom 
Mrs. Laura R. Webb, of Washington, is the only one left. 
Elizabeth, who married General E. P. Alexander, is dead; 
as is her sister, wife of that true gentleman and good soldier, 
my boyhood s mate and adult chum, Wade Hampton Gibbs, 
of Columbia, S. C. Three double first cousins followed the 
military bent. Monimia, Augusta, and Sue Mason married 
respectively, Generals Charles W. Field, Charles Collins and 
Dabney H. Maury; all West Pointers. 

Blunt old General Harney remarked: "If there are any 
more Mason girls left the army will have to be enlarged!" 

There are many more Masons left, but this chapter can 
not be enlarged. 



No feet have left deeper imprint upon the historic soil 
of Virginia than those of the Wise family. In all public 
matters in their state, aggressive men of its two branches 
have cast strong lights and shadows upon the foreground 
of the national picture, and in war they acted out the motto 
of the Douglas. 

The Wise name harks back in colonial history to 1635. 
In that year the first John Wise came over and took up lands. 
He married Hannah Scarbrough, sister to Sir Charles 
Scarbrough, court physician to Charles second; and to Col. 
Edmund Scarbrough, surveyor-general of the colonies. 

The second John Wise, their son, married Matilda, daughter 
of Lieut-Col. John W r est, a cousin of Lord Delaware. Their 
son was the third John of the name; and he married Scar 
brough Robinson, daughter of Col. Tully Robinson, a burgess 
and leading churchman; and of a very distinguished Vir 
ginia family. 

Their son was the fourth John Wise; county lieutenant 
of Accomac and of Norfolk boroughs. He first married 
Elizabeth Cable; and his second wife was Margaret Douglas, 
daughter of Col. George Douglas, who was king s counsel 
and thirty-two years a burgess. Their son (of the second 
marriage) was the fifth John Wise. He also married twice; 
first Mary Henry, daughter of Judge James Henry ; and sec- 



ond, Sarah Corbin Cropper. Her father was a Revolutionary 
major-general, having risen through every rank, under Mor 
gan s command. He commanded at the battle of Mon- 

mouth, while Morgan was 
in the South. John Mar 
shall, the famed chief justice, 
was a lieutenant in the same 

Their son, the sixth in 
direct descent broke the 
continuity of baptism and 
was named Henry Alexander 

A bold and clear-cut, if 
somewhat rugged figure 
stands out in the old con 
gressman, minister to Brazil, 
governor and Confederate 
general. I shall never forget 
my first sight of him, in 

the smoky glare of wide-awakes, as he stood upon 
the gallery of an Avenue hotel and spoke to the 
surging, cheering Washington crowd. That was in 1855, 
when he was elected governor of Virginia, over the Know 
Nothing surge; and I can almost hear the yell that greeted 
his shouted: "Yes, I ve got my foot upon the neck of Sam!" 
And he kept it there; as he did usually upon those of his 
opponents in a long, strenuous and generally successful 
career. Vigor, alacrity and tenacity were his attributes; 
and they were called upon by those who did not always "train 
with him." He was a member of the commission to ad 
just the boundary between Maryland and Virginia; and 
when Abraham Lincoln made that memorable visit to Rich 
mond, close succeeding it s surrender, Governor Wise was 



the one man he sent to advise with him; and the veteran 
politician insisted on taking Hon. James Lyons with him. 

The future governor was born in his father s house on the 
third of December, 1806. He was educated at Washington 
College, Pa., and afterward studied law. He married Ann 
Jennings, by whom he had four children; the second wife 
was Miss Sarah Sergeant, daughter of Hon. John Sergeant, 
of Philadelphia, by whom he had three children. He had no 
children by his third wife, who was Mary Lyons, of Richmond, 
Va. Three daughters and four sons reached maturity. 
The eldest daughter, Mary Wise, married Dr. A. Y. P. Gar- 
nett, of Washington; only one childless daughter remaining 
of a numerous family, save four children of a son, long dead, 
Henry Wise Garnett. The 
parents passed away years 

One of the daintiest mem 
ories of my Washington 
youth is the picture of the 
second sister, Miss Annie 
Wise. She married Freder 
ick Plumer Hobson, of . 
Goochland ; and lived during 
the war s continuance on the 
farm twenty miles above 
Richmond. The next sister, 
Margaretta Ellen, whom 
everyone called " Nene, " was 
a marked belle of Richmond 
war-time; her wit and point- 
ed talk making the tall, 
handsome blonde a centre of attraction to men who were 
not afraid of her with cause. She married William C. 
Mayo, and survived him, residing in Richmond. 


The eldest son, 0. Jenning Wise was a remarkable man 
in every regard: a true cavalier, scholar, fighter, orator, and 
a duelist of note, from principle more than inclination.. As 
a youth, he was noted in public affairs; became a politician 
and journalist from circumstance, and a soldier from choice. 
Killed at the head of his company in the desperate fight 

at Roanoke Island, in Feb 
ruary, 1862, his death was 
perhaps more lamented than 
that of any youth of that 
bloody year. The next 
brother, named for his fath 
er, was a minister, and a man 
of lovely character. He mar 
ried Miss Hallie Haxall, and 
died in 1868, leaving no 
children to uphold the name, 
only one female grandchild 
remaining. Dr. Richard A. 
Wise, the third brother, was 
captain and brigade inspector 
on his father s staff. He 
married Miss Maria Dainger- 
field Peachy; and died while 
in congress, also leaving only 
one female descendant. Thus 


the perpetuation of the old 
name has fallen to the youngest son ; a precocious and handsome 
boy when I met him at Richmond. This John Sergeant 
Wise, named for his maternal grandfather, was in the famous 
"fighting classes" of the Virginia Military Institute, that 
ran away to the battle of Newmarket and wrote the primer 
history of Southern truants in letters of blood. 
John S. Wise was wounded at Newmarket, and his father 


sent him to the country to recuperate and keep out of dan 
ger. How the sixteen-year-old did this, his own words 
to me in a private letter may best describe: 

"I was sent, in October, 7 64, to southwest Virginia, to 
drill reserves; and got into a devil of a racket at Saltville 
two days after reaching there. Burbridge attacked the 
saltworks and we licked him. Then I was adjutant of the 
artillery defenses, from Richmond to Danville, under old 
Major Boggs. We had about one hundred heavy guns, 
at points along the line, and about one hundred men to fight 
them. We were a movable feast/ When the retreat began 
I was sent in from Clover Depot with despatches for General 
Lee, and got in and came out; delivering the last despatch 
he sent Mr. Davis." 

After the war, John S. Wise graduated in law from the 
University of Virginia and practiced with his father, at 
Richmond. Being a Wise, he went into politics; and, ag 
gressive and independent, he took his own head in the very 
thick of readjustment fights. He was elected congress- 
man-at-large, on the Republican ticket in 1882, coincidently 
while his first cousin, George Douglas, was member from 
Democratic Richmond. He is now a successful practitioner in 
New York, having two chips of the old block in his office. 
He is also a vigorous writer of essay and fiction, and several 
of his books have won success. He is a strong and pictur 
esque talker, as well, and very popular in after-dinner efforts. 
About thirty-eight years ago he married Miss Evelyn 
Beverly, daughter of Colonel Hugh and Mrs. Nancy Ham 
ilton Douglas, of Nashville. 

This marriage perpetuates the old name, there being five 
sons and two daughters. The eldest is Hugh Douglas Wise, 
captain in the 9th Infantry. He married Miss Ida Hun- 
gerford, of Watertowri, N. Y. The next brother, Henry 
Alexander Wise, is his father s partner in the law. He mar- 


ried Miss Henrietta Edwina Booth, of Virginia, and they 
have two children, a boy and a girl. John Sergeant Wise, 
Jr., is the third son, and also in the law firm. 

Eva Douglas Wise, the next in age, married Lieutenant 
James T. Perrine Barney, of the 8th United States Cavalry, 
and their young son is named for his father. Jennings 
Cropper Wise married Miss Elizabeth Anderson, of Water- 
town, and their son renews the grandfather s name. The 
sixth of the family, Miss Margaretta Watmough Wise, is 
still unmarried, as is the youngest son, Byrd Douglas Wise. 

The other branch of the Wise family were double cousins 
to these. 

Tully R. Wise married his cousin, the sister of Henry A. 
Wise, and their children were seven notable sons, who made 
their mark upon the century past. John Henry, the 2d, still 
lives in California, where he was a merchant and collector 
of port under Cleveland. He is now past eighty. George 
Douglas, the third son, who was the Democratic congress 
man noted, was captain and inspector of Stevenson s di 
vision of Johnston s army. He is now living in Virginia 
though still a bachelor. The next, James M. Wise, was 
captain and ordnance officer of Wise s brigade. He married 
Miss Ann Dunlop, and left one son. Peyton, the next, 
married Miss Laura Chilton, daughter of General Robert 
Chilton, and died without issue. He was a good scholar, 
a good soldier and citizen, and well appreciated in his state. 
Frank, the next brother, married Miss Ellen Tompkins, 
daughter of Colonel C. Q. Tompkins. His widow survives 
with only one daughter. The youngest, Lewis Warrington, 
married Miss Mattie Allen. They are still alive and have 
no children. 

John Wise, eldest son of Major John Wise and Mary Henry, 
and half brother to the governor married Miss Harriet 
Wilkins. Their sons were Dr. John James Henry Wise 


and Capt. George Douglas Wise. The former died unmarried. 
George married Marietta Atkinson, daughter of Dr. Archibald 
Atkinson, of Smithfield, Isle of Wight. Killed at Peters 
burg, on his uncle s staff, he left but one child, Marietta, 
who never married. 

Another direct branch of this notable family was that 
of John Cropper Wise, son of the fifth John by his second 
marriage and full brother of Governor Wise. He married Miss 
Anne Finney, of Accomac county, and became father of 
six sons and three daughters; the latter leaving no children. 
One son John, who would have been the seventh of that 
name in direct line died in his early youth. 

Henry A., the next son, was at Roanoke Island, wounded 
and became professor captain of cadets at the V. M. I. 
as will be seen later. Louis, the third brother, was also 
at Newmarket, and wounded there. William Bowman, 
the next brother was wounded at Malvern Hill, and later 
lost a foot at Port Walthall. He died unmarried, last 

Dr. John Cropper, the fifth brother, was in the United 
States Navy and medical director of the Baltimore, Cap 
tain Dyer s leader, in the battle of Manila bay. He 
married Miss Agnes Brooke, of Fauquier county. Heber, 
the youngest brother, is unmarried. 

By the marriage of the governor s father, Major John Wise, 
to Miss Cropper, the family became identified with the 
Custis-Lees; by that of Nene Wise, with the Mayos; and 
by that of Henry A. Wise, Jr., with the Haxalls andTripletts 
and by that of John Sergeant Wise to Miss Douglas, it was 
allied to the Carter, Byrd, Beverley, Bland, Hale, Kinkead 
and Hamilton families. In the last and present generations 
it is representative of almost every old family in the state. 

Still another branch more remote, but still very promi 
nent one is known as the "Craney Island Branch." Its 


head was Colonel John Wise, who married Miss Margaret 
Douglas, and his brother, Tully Robinson Wise, married 
her sister, Mathilda. 

A son of the second couple became known as^Craney Island 

George." His name was 
George Douglas; and he in 
herited the Island estate from 
his great-grandfather, Colo 
nel William Robinson. He 
married Miss Catherine Stew 
art, of Bowling Green; and 
4 their numerous children be- 

jflSjl came known as the "Craney 

Island Wises." Their son, 
Captain George Stewart Wise, 
was a paymaster in the United 
States Navy. He married 
Eliza Stansberry, of Dela 
ware ; and had two sons : one 
George Douglas Stewart 
Wise, who married first Miss 
Laura May of Baltimore. 

He was general in the United States Army, and his son was 
Admiral Fred May Wise of the navy. This family have a 
very large and scattered descent. The admiral s son is 
Major Fred May Wise, United States Marines. 

Henry Augustus Wise, brother to Gen. Geo. Douglas Stewart 
Wise, was a commodore in the navy; and married the bril 
liant and popular daughter of Massachusetts " favorite son," 
Edward Everett. The pair were wholly in the swim during 
Miss Harriet Lane s reign; and the husband died in Genoa, 
leaving children who have married and scattered widely 
in North and South. One of the best known of the daughters 
is Mrs. Jacob .D. Miller. * Many "Craney Island" Wises still 



reside in the vicinity of Norfolk, notable among them, in this 
generation, being George Nelms Wise, of Newport News. 

Intellect, culture, humor and conviction rarely centre in 
one man. They did in "V", as Captain Virginius Dabney 
was known to his intimates. He added in his make-up a 
tenderness almost feminine, and a loyalty that was quite 

His life in New York was antithesis to Thompson s. Dab 
ney fought fiercely with equals and against odds, and that 
he could not coerce surroundings never hinted to him the 
thought of changing these methods. So he lived and died 
a not unhappy if not triumphant man. His literary work 
in New York was hidden at its best, for that was in essays 
and critiques in unsigned papers and as reader for the great 
publishing houses. 

Dabney s novels were genre pictures, but and probably 
intentionally far over the head of the general reader. " Don 
Miff" and "Gold That Did Not Glitter" had marked succes 
d e stime; they were written less for the more material sort. 
His deeper impress on the New York of that day was his 
journalistic and critical work. 

Born at Elmington, Gloucester county, in February, 
1835, Virginius was named in honor of his state by that 
stern old Roman, his father. This Colonel Thomas Smith 
Gregory Dabney was about to leave the loved soil of his 
own birth and remove to Mississippi, where his new home 
at Dry Grove was made famous by his gifted daughter Su 
san (Mrs. Smedes). "A Southern Planter," her simple but 
elegant recital of old Southern home life, drew from Mr. 
Gladstone a letter of four autograph pages. 

Colonel Dabney had one full uncle, Augustine Lee Dabney, 
and two half-uncles, George and Benjamin Dabney. These 
had descendants who, with his own sixteen children, made 
a house of at least Virginian if not biblical reach. The im- 


mediate descendants of whom Virginius was the head were 
Charles, Thomas, James, Charles, 2d, -Edward, Sarah (now 
Mrs. J. R. Eggleston, of Raymond, wife of a gallant sailor 
" Reb" and head of her state s U. D. C.), Susan (Mrs. Smedes, 
of Gladstone Hall, Sewanee); Sophia (Mrs. Thurmond, also 
at Sewanee), Benjamin, Emmeline, Benjamin, 2d, Ida, Thom 
as S., so popular still in New Orleans; Lelia (living with Mrs 
Smedes) and Rosalie. 

Eight of these have passed away and several of them have 
become noted in their chosen walks of work. They and their 
descendants have carried the Dabney name, and have made 
it respected, into every section of their country. They had 
blood-coadjutors in this in the children of the great-uncle, 
Augustine Lee Dabney, whose nine were Frederick Yea- 
mans, Thomas Gregory, Marye, John Davis, Ann Robinson, 
Elizabeth, Martha Chamberlayne, Mary Smith and Letitia. 

Respected and admired for great qualities by his friends 
and neighbors, Colonel Dabney was a man of iron mold and 
emphatically the head of his family, in the Roman sense. 
As indication that his word was law, one day he was crossing 
the hall with a large dose of castor oil for a sick child. Meet 
ing a well one, he said briefly: 

"Take that dose of medicine, sir Well, Sambo?" He 
interrupted himself to hear the negro s message, then finished 
to the child: " to your sick brother." 

The abashed child gasped, "Why, papa, I took it myself!" 

Virginius Dabney first married Miss Ellen Maria Heath, 
who died leaving one child, Richard Heath Dabney. His 
second wife was Anna Wilson Noland, and her children were 
Thomas Lloyd, Burr Noland, Susan Wilson, Virginius and 
Joseph Drexel, all of whom are still living except the last. 

Richard Heath Dabney is the well-known professor of 
English and history of the University of Virginia, where his 
industry keeps full pace with his high attainments. He 


also had been twice married, in 1888, to Miss Mary Amanda 
Bentley and eleven years later to Miss Lily Heth Davis, by 
whom he had two children. 

Colonel Dabney s sister, Martha, married Dr. Lewis Cham- 
berlayne and became the mother of several children, two 
of them being noted figures in the Richmond war-time. Cap 
tain Hampden Chamberlayne and his sister Parke were a 
great resource at the Mosaic Club. Miss Chamberlayne had, 
too, that loyalty inherent in good blood, and hers strained 
from the Hampdens and John Pym. After a courtship "en- 
durin ov de wah" she married rare George William Bagby, 
the humorist, poet and editor of the Southern Literary Mes 
senger elsewhere met. Widowed early, she reared a family 
of sons and daughters who have been popular in their Rich 
mond home and wherever else encountered. Miss Virginia 
Bagby married Henry B. Taylor, Jr., of Louisa county; and 
their family is of four children. Miss Parke married Charles 
E. Boiling, of Richmond; the next sister, Martha, is Mrs. 
George Gordon Battle, of North Carolina. She resides now 
in New York City; and in Richmond lives Miss Ellen, the 
unmarried sister. There are also four brothers: Prof. John 
Hampden Chamberlain Bagby, of physical science, at Hamp- 
den-Sidney college. Robert Coleman, the next brother is 
in business, at Greenville, South Carolina; and Philip Haxall 
Bagby is a lieutenant in the 6th United States Infantry. 
George W. Bagby, Jr., is in the car service department of the 
C. &. 0. railway, at Richmond. 

Direct antipodes to his predecessor, Thompson, in the Mes 
senger chair, Bagby was a fluent and easy writer, with a unique 
vein of humor. His "Mozis Addums" sketches were to a cer 
tain class of his state s life what Judge Longstreet s " Georgia 
Scenes" were to his. He was a poet too, and his "Empty 
Sleeve" became a camp classic. 

"Ham" Chamberlayne had his sister s wit and humor and 


was a great scholar, but eccentric and saturnine. He was 
a brave soldier and a true friend, a forceful, fluent writer, 
with a great future before him which the scythe of the grim 
Reaper cut off in its mid-promise. 

The longevity of the men and women of the war has made 
possible many " reunions" of the Vets, and "campfires" of 
the G. A. R. But as the autumn of Time advances, the 
leaves fall faster and more silently in his forests. 

In the five years of making this book, scores of its people 
have passed away; several after its pages were ready for 
press , as Miss Mason, Gen. S. D. Lee, Mrs. HennieHall Thomp 
son, rare Joseph Bryan and well-loved Acldie Deane Lyons. 

This chapter was already printed, when another noted 
woman passed away. On the 23rd of March, Mrs. William 
Carrington Mayo "Nene" Wise of happy memory went 
to final sleep. She was true daughter of a great father and 
widow of a true and genial gentleman. Five children mourn 
their loss irreparable: Henry Wise Mayo, of New York; 
Mesdames William T. and St. Julien Oppenheimer, of Rich 
mond; Mrs. Richard Parker Crenshaw ; of Havana; and Mrs. 
James Brandt Latimer, of Chicago. She left but one brother, 
John S. Wise, of New York; youngest and last of the seven 
children of the great old governor. But there are hosts of 
close kin and old friends who send out heartborn sympathy 
to those who feel the All-wise hand so heavily. 



EVERY empire must perforce have its "relations" with for 
eign ones to preserve that misty, but much discussed some 
thing balance of power. The Southern Confederacy, claim 
ing to be an empire within herself, was strictly kept in that 
position by the cordon of ships that sealed up her ports and 
the cordon of blue coats that defined her land borders all 
too distinctly. 

She was literally an imperium in imperio. Yet she main 
tained one sort of " foreign relations" that in turn helped her 
to maintain her exceptional status for four unparalleled years 
of existence. 

No history of the war would be complete without mention 
of the two regiments of the First Maryland, or the " Mary 
land Line, " so linked with the memories of the A. N. V. They 
fought their way well and cheerily from Bull Run to Appo- 
mattox, forgetting home terrapin and jovial sociability in ice 
bound camps and with scantiest rations. They gave the 
army noted generals and useful officers in staff and line. 

Every Confederate reunion of today brings up new stories 
of sturdy, blunt and soldierly General Bradley T. Johnson, 
and of his brainy and helpful wife, Jane Claudia Saunders, 
daughter of Governor Saunders, of North Carolina always 
a pair that made friends and held them by strength of nature 
that needed no adventitious aid from art. Their son, Bradley 



Saunders Johnson, married Miss Ann Rutherford, of Gooch- 
land county, and they reside at Rock Castle. 

Burly General Arnold Elzey and his faithful helpmate, 
too, won hosts of friends; as evidenced by all Richmond s 
sympathy in the old fighter s ugly wound that forbade 
speech, even to the little remedial oath when his milk punch was 
delayed. Brilliant and dashing Snowden Andrews carried 
for years the ghastly proof of his loyalty to conviction in the 

__ ^ wound that tore his side 

away and gave him pain 
unspeakable. But it carried 
some balm in the warm 
-sympathy of all who knew 
him and of thousands he had 
never seen. 

But the shell that took its 
literal Shylock pound, cut off 
besides the certain wreath 
that was ready to encircle 
his stars. Three of those 
came to Generals George H. 
Steuart and John H. Winder, 
i< and were worn usefully to 
THOMAS w. SYMINGTON the ending; and lesser rank 

sought the frank and manly " fellows from across" in meed 
as full as it was well earned. 

No parlor, mimic play-house, nor " starvation" in Dixie 
was complete without the Mary landers. They mixed the ut- 
ile cum duke, in rare good taste, many of them being "the 
curled darlings of society. " 

Merest mention of that rare lot of gentlemen fighters de 
ploys across the field of memory a wealth of names and forms 
and faces that only the stenograph might list. Who of us 
does not recall those splendid specimens of young man- 


hood, the Symingtons, Stewart and Tom, fresh, vigorous and 
favorites with all women? The former is now a respected old 
citizen of Baltimore; but the other, ever recalled as the most 
vitally handsome fellow of his day, has long since left us. 
There, too, were the Brogdens, Harry and Arthur, if not the 
Gemini, then a well-groomed, courtly Hercules and a red 
blooded and high-toned Apollo. To this day Richmond and 
Baltimore repeat the quaint quips and quick sarcasms of the 
aptly named Lemmon boys; Captain George a perfect mental 
cocktail, for appetizing flavor with the dash of bitter, and 
Bill Lemmon, mixed in the same style with slightly va 
riant proportions. Then "all the blood of all the Howards" 
offered to free flowing for principle, as had that of the sires 
of their race. The strain of the " Star Spangled Banner " came 
to the new flag when they and the Keys flocked to it. The 
Browns and Spences and Latrobes touched the left elbow 
with old-time comradeship of their houses; and the Carys 
and Skipwiths came home again to the seats of their sires. 
And when they came, one and all bore themselves as men 
who had a purpose and meant to do for it, cost what the do 
ing might. 

In the procession pass the forms of Curzon Hoffman, 
quaint Frank Ward and the beautiful, cameo face of Joseph 
B. Polk, General Winder s nephew and aide. Graceful, and 
gifted, he chose the stage as his " bread-bakery," soon after 
the peace; and his successes, first at Wallack s and Daly s in 
New York and later as a star in " Mixed Pickles" are widely 
known. The first commission signed by Jefferson Davis for 
the Maryland Line was that of one of these " foreigners. " 

This was at Montgomery, to First Lieutenant Theodore 
Oscar Chestney, of Washington City, who fought his way to his 
majority, survived the war and now commands columns of 
credits as cashier of the Central Georgia Bank of Macon, 


He is, moreover, the father of a large and interesting fam 
ily, having married the daughter of that famous old naval 
hero, Captain Peter Ulmstead Murphy, familiarly known 
as "Pat Murphy," who commanded the Norfolk Navy Yard 
when the Virginians " borrowed it." His Chestney grand 
children are Kate, named for her mother who married the 
son of Major John F. Hanson, the journalist and Republican 
leader of Georgia; a second daughter, Miss Courtney, who 
married the grandson of Hon. William A. Graham, of North 
Carolina, secretary of the navy under Fillmore, and vice- 
presidential candidate on the Scott ticket ; and a third daugh 
ter, who married Devries Davis, of the Southern Railway. 
The eldest son, Piercy Ulmstead, a civil engineer, is in the 
Macon post-office, and the second, Clement Clay Chestney, 
represents a great Macon firm in New York. The youngest, 
Brown Ruffin, has just finished his course at the Georgia 
Tech., at Atlanta. 

But I must pause. I have omitted many? Verily, and 
of need; else had the list grown to Leporello s length, and 
names of all worth the record had been replica of the Mary 
land morning report. 

Really but a part of Maryland, its name changed for cause, 
the District of Columbia could not keep its youth from ford 
ing the Potomac. There the north wind and the south wind 
blew the pollen of " rebellion" in to men s nostrils, and inter 
est and old habit were alike impotent to keep the Washing 
ton and Georgetown boys at home. Many of these, like their 
brethren nearest North, are noted elsewhere in these pages: 
but one segment of them went South in a body, organized, 
drilled; and each became a picked man. The name of the 
National Rifles had long been famed as that of a veritable 
society corps. In its ranks were the flower of representative 
youth of the capital. Under Captain W. M. Shaffer, at the 
firing of the Sumter gun, it was a great peace company. The 


echo of that gun split it into two war companies. Obeying 
the command, "Fall in!" sundered by principle or prejudice, 
the men aligned in two platoons, facing each other with war 
in their eyes. 

The Northern section held the armory, of course, the arms 
and the archives; the 
Southerners slung their 
knapsacks and marched 
South under Captain 
Shaffer, with Edmund H. 
Cummins and Charles H. 
Hill as his lieutenants. At 
first the company, holding 
to its old name, was at 
tached to the Maryland 
Line ("Old Brad" John 
son) participating in the 
Bull Run overture and 
then put on advanced out 
post duty at Munson s Hill. 
There Cummins succeeded 
to command, Hill rising to 
first lieutenant. But be 
fore the company had time 
to make another distinct CHARLES s HILL AND E D H CUMMINS 
record the very quality of its membership almost broke it 
up. Shaffer was made a major on the staff. Cummins 
went to General Dabney Maury s staff on promotion to a 
captaincy and came out of the war with a record of ad 
mirable soldiership and stars on his collar. He was a 
splendid tactician and disciplinarian; of immense strength 
and agility and a trained athlete. He was my assistant in 
the National Drill and Encampment at Washington in 1886, 
and died in that city seven years ago. Charles Hill went 



into the engineer department on promotion so distinguishing 
himself as to draw the attention of Forrest to him, and he 
served on that great cavalryman s staff, taking his parole 
as a major. 

George Thomas Cox was another National Rifleman who 
found promotion in the engineer department at Charleston, 
was sent to Mobile as a captain and settled there, married 
Miss Mollie Wilson, stepdaughter of Mrs. Augusta Evans 
Wilson, the celebrated authoress. His death followed hers 
after a few years. Their two sons, Ernest and George, are 
now heads of families. But again space restricts mention 
of many a clever fellow who did well what he left home and 
friends to do, and gained credit and often promotion for it. 
In the ranks of the Northern segment of the National Ri 
fles were many true men who won name and fame in their 
line of duty. Notable among them was Renwick Smedberg, 
of whom I have spoken. That best of fellows and of dancers 
has won golden opinions in his new home near the Golden 
Gate. There he pets his grandchildren and fights earth 
quakes instead of "secesh"; making all too rare trips East 
to get a new leg from an appreciative government. In the 
ranks, too, were the Pyne brothers, Henry and Charles 
M., who lost his leg at first Bull Run and later went into 
the Church like his brilliant and wholly original father, Rev. 
Dr. Smith Pyne, so long rector of old St. John s. 

I do not think that the lamented soldier and clubman, 
J. Henley Smith, was ever in the Rifles; or the Ratcliffe boys, 
with whom he rode long and hard and far with Mosby and 
another, as will be told. Charley Forsythe was an old Rifle 
who, though a Michigan man, and protege of Secretary Lewis 
Cass, went South and did good duty. His brother, L. Cass For 
sythe, remained and later was in the Northern Regular Army. 

The Northern segraent of the Rifles was in command of 
Captain John R. Smead, who was killed at the second Bull 


Run. The company was in active service in 61. Of its mem 
bers was Alex. Shepherd, the later "Boss, " and Captain "Billy" 
Moore, who was secretary to Andrew Johnson and later chief of 
police at the capital: a banker, and organizer of the present 
Washington Light Infantry. 

A unique link between the states was Jackson s dashing 
aide, Henry Kyd Douglas, of Hagerstown. Native Virgin 
ian, he was a Marylander from early manhood and his person 
al and professional gifts made him a marked man in the 
society and the law courts of Washington as well. Reckless 
yet reliable, he was trusted by his general, as shown in the 
latter s abrupt order: "Find Early and give him this!" The 
other general was "somewhere across the mountain," the 
night dark and the rain making roads fetlock deep ; but Doug 
las rode seventy-six miles, killed or broke down three horses, 
found the general and brought his answer ere he slept. Af 
ter the war the tall, stately soldier was prominent in his 
profession and in Maryland politics. He was Governor 
Brown s adjutant-general for the state, long commanded one 
of its best regiments, and socially received special consider 
ation in his own section and at the chief resorts of Northern 
fashion and elegance. He long fought his unconquerable foe, 
consumption, which carried him off four years ago. Of him, 
Charles King, soldier on the Federal side and romancer "for 
both sides, wrote me: "Never did I know a man who more 
deserved the too-often used words, a soldier and a gentleman !" 

Superb John C. Breckinridge, statesman, soldier, and the 
choice of a great portion of his people for the first office in 
their gift, was the central figure around which grouped a gal 
axy of war-stars uneclipsed by the lights from any other 
state. The sons of the soil of Daniel Boone have ever been 
as brave and brainy as their best brethren, in the wars and 
in the councils that made and held together the federated 
states. Bright proof of this was that hero of three wars, 


Albert Sidney Johnson, a West Pointer of the class of 26, 
Indian fighter and commander-in-chief of the Texan army 
and later the meteor of war in the Southern battle van. When 

the states parted, splitting 
asunder several of their units, 
m much of the strongest brain 

I ii ilUfc and brawn of Kentucky ranged 

if promptly under the Stars and 

Bars. General Breckinridge 
brought with him a following 
of ardent and youthful fighters, 
and by his side stood Buckner 
and bold Morgan, Basil Duke 
and Preston, ready to lead 
them and their chosen com 
rades wherever danger lay. 
From first to last the peerless 
Kentucky chief proved his 

GENERAL j. c. BRECKINRIDGE mettle and theirs, ringing true 

at every touch of duty, vigilant 

and resourceful in cabinet as he was cool and brilliant in 
battle. So the history and the romance of the war have 
been enriched and rubricated by the deeds of the boys from 
Bluegrass, and the legend-seeming ride of John Morgan had 
softer refrain in the new Tales of the Border than the blast of 
bugle and the clatter of answering hoof. 

Genial and courtly General John B. Castleman, of Louis 
ville, today has a wide and warm circle of friends all around 
the Union. After the war he married a lady as notable a- 
mong the young women of their state as he was among its 
younger "vets, " Miss Barbee. Their daughters have carried 
inherited graces of person and manner to social triumphs on 
both sides of the ocean. 

Memory, unbidden, brings up another picture, ruddy, vivid 


and bold. Frank, outspoken Colonel Tom Taylor was as 
good a soldier as ever buckled sabre. He was my messmate 
in the " nursery days" at Montgomery: restless for the front; 
and he commanded his Kentucky regiment with marked 
distinction. As a comrade from another state said of him: 
"Tom Taylor would have fought hell with one bucket of 

Harassed by spies and coerced by Federal garrisons already 
within her borders, the men of Missouri could not have made 
head against the protected Union sentiment, even as now 
stated, if it was really in the majority. But that did not 
deter the sons of "the River 
Empire" from carrying their 
principles to gunpowder ex 
pression. Even the shrewd 
ness and vigilance which 
gave Captain Lyon his 
brigade, could not prevent 
the flower of its youth slip 
ping through the net he 
spread about St. Louis. In 
the more open country there 
was scarce a let to Confeder 
ate manifestation, and the 
sympathizers with the South 
passed into her territory and 
joined her growing armies by 
scores and hundreds. 

This gossipy recital must 
avoid historic semblance and 
need only remind one of the 

work done by steadfast General Sterling Price, so successful 
in battle and clever in raids. He was a Virginian who 
went early to Missouri and represented her in congress, 


before he was governor. He outlived the war but a few 
years. There were the Marmadukes; five brothers, all 
noted for work on land and sea and General John hand 
ling his brigade with fine record. 

Missouri was remote; methods of the trans-Mississippi 
less picturesque than those of Virginian and middle Western 
armies; but the results upon both of them were helpful and 
effective to an extent hard to overestimate and in those re 
sults the Missourians had full share. In the social lights 
and shadows of the great war picture, however, they show 
less in the foreground grouping at first; and later the jeal 
ously guarded river prevented an immigration to the new 
capital of many an interesting and gentle non-combatant 
whose heart was as much with the Cause as though personal 
presence had accentuated it. 

So, despite the distance of their red theatre, men walked 
its boards whose acting in the war drama thrills today, at 
mention of their names. General F. M. Cockrell, the bold 
senator from Missouri, now resident at Washington as mem 
ber of the railroad commission, commanded the famed bri 
gade named for him. Frequently too, in the last year of the 
war, he commanded the Missouri division, winning undy 
ing credit in both. Colonel Elijah Gates, now resident at 
St. Joseph, was the most undaunted and determined of sol 
diers. He was the Forrest of the trans-river fighters, lacking 
in education but brimming with the acumen of war. He 
came out of the press at Franklin with both arms shattered, 
holding the bridle with his teeth. With one arm left, he re 
turned and fought to the surrender. This he did against 
hope, for he told a comrade after Shiloh that he had seen 
enough to satisfy him that the Cause was hopeless. The 
man to whom he spoke thus was Captain Albert C. Banner, 
who went in as a boy and served to the end as gallantly and 
steadily as any of the 6,000 in the Missouri brigade; that 


one of which General Maury writes, in his history, as "the 
finest body of soldiers that I had ever seen up to that time, 
or have ever seen since." And Captain Banner s record as 
a progressive citizen of Mobile squares with his war 

No men were better known with the Missouri Division 
than the Kennedy half dozen: brothers and cousins. 
Lewis Hancock, James and Sam were sons of Captain 
George Hancock Kennedy, of the old army. Herital trait 
and life in garrison fitted all three to win their father s 
grade, in the new one. All three are dead, though two 
outlived the war. 

Capt. "Lew" Kennedy married Miss Mary, eldest daughter 
of Mr. and Mrs. C. K. Foote, of Mobile. Her next sister, 
Nellie, is widow of the late Richard H. Clarke; and their 
handsome and popular daughters, Helen, and Mary Morris, 
have recently become Mrs. Harry Smith, of New York, 
and Carl Seale, of Birmingham. Miss Sallie Foote married 
Mr. Charles J. Waller and is now a widow in Washington. 
All these sisters are brainy and clever women. Mrs. Ken 
nedy s children are Sally (Mrs. Edward T. Herbert, of 
Cincinnati) ; Miss Alzire, and Messrs. Charles F. and Lewis 
Hancock Kennedy. The last is an artist, living with his 
mother and sisters, in Cincinnati; Charles, who married popu 
lar Miss Mary Fowler, is on engineer duty on Mobile harbor. 

Captain Clark Kennedy, a first cousin, is still alive, in St. 
Louis. At eighty-five, he retains the elasticity of a man of 
fifty, in mind and body, being a vigorous walker and a fluent 
raconteur of valuable reminiscence. He married Florence, 
daughter of Mr. Augustus Brooks, long so popular in Mobile. 
Her next sister is today one of the best loved women, gentle, 
accomplished and selfless, in the city by the gulf. She is 
wife of the younger of the Irwin brothers, both of whom 
carry marks of service well performed. Col. Lee Fearn 


Irwin made his best capture in Miss Mollie Brooks and he is 
prouder of their three married daughters and an unmarried 
son and daughter, than he would be of five presidential 
chairs. The youngest Brooks sister , Aline, is now Mrs. Ferd. 
Risque, of St. Louis, and mother of an adult family. 

Captain Joseph Boyce, chairman of St. Louis reform coun 
cil, stands high in that community. He was a gallant, chivalrous 
soldier "all through it." So was Captain Samuel Kennard, 
of the artillery, now one of the wealthiest merchants of St. 
Louis and a large owner in the Planters Hotel. Captain 
"Hack" Wilkinson, another fighter whose valor belied his 
nickname, still lives and is doing well in Chillicothe. Charles 
B. Cleveland, of Marengo county, Ala., was a sterling and 
gallant fighter "through it all," and another, a present Mo- 
bilian, is Judge Robert L. Maupin. He had but one hand 
when the ball opened, but he raised a company of cavalry 
and did great work with it. Once captured, he was carried 
across the Ohio line, tried as a spy and condemned to hang. 
He passed the sentry by claiming to be the surgeon, "got" 
a blood horse and rode through the state of Kentucky a 
hundred and ten miles in one night and joined Morgan. 
This fact I celebrated in my romance, "John Holden, Union 
ist." Captain W. P. Barlow, "Old Bill" Duncan and others 
are gone: but their memories 

Smell sweet and blossom in the dust. " 



WHOLLY different from that of their Western kith and kin 
and, indeed, from that of any other state was the case of 
the lithe and ever active Louisianians. 

Those sinuous and picturesque fighters of the Franco-Latin 
races were ubiquitous in the army and in the merriment and, 
alas! be it said, in the deviltry of all the war-time. 

Into the " Cradle of the Confederacy" glided soldiers and 
statesmen of the Pelican State, and the move to Richmond 
early made that city populous with those whose forms and 
faces might have seemed more congenial to Paris. With them 
to both cities, came languid belles, of olive complexion and 
piquant speech, that had made Tom Hood repeat of them: 

"They are the foreigners!" 

Yet their hearts were American and their swords were 
Southern, let the glib tongues speak what accent they might. 

Even in the glare of deeds from the famous Washington 
artillery, the Crescent Rifles and other corps d elite, of Eng 
lish-speaking Louisiana, those of the Zouaves, the alert Chas 
seur s-a-pieds and the wild, looting Tigers of Major Bob W T heat 
who fell all too soon at first Manassas, show with steady and 
effective light. The last named made not a pious crew, but 
they fought. 

The Zouaves battalion was commanded by two brothers, 

successively. The first was Lieutenant-Colonel Georges Au- 



guste Gaston Coppens, who carried the corps to Pensacola and 
thence to the Peninsula. He was killed at the front on the 
great day of Sharpsburg, leaving a young wife, who had been 
Mademoiselle Bellocq, of New Orleans. He was succeeded 
by his brother, Marie Alfred Coppens, major of the battalion 
and its former adjutant. He was a gallant and capable 
soldier, survived the war and married Miss Pizzini, of Rich 
mond. She survived him when he was drowned in Galves- 
ton bay, in 1868, while bathing. Both the Coppens were 
French to their finger-tips, as their own tongue had phrased 
it. In face, form, military method and corps aspect they 
and their men might have been translated straight from an 
Algerian camp. 

Agile, bronzed and muscular little fellows, with blue "bags" 
and gaiters, braided vests and scarlet jackets, surmounted by 
the dingy red fez, they like their polyglot comrades of the 
Tigers kept discipline on a dog-trot and subsisted on loot 
or nothing, with equal comfort. As fatalistic as Arabs, and 
perhaps as unreasoning, they fought as a matter of course 
and died with seeming carelessness. Their officers, as a rule, 
were courteous gentlemen, though language and tastes for 
bade the close comradeship their state s other soldiers held 
with those of the other " sisters in rebellion." 

The men were a picturesque, reckless and ribald lot; some 
of them, apparently, needed killing which they got, all of 
them needing soap, which they apparently did not get. 

Wheat s early death in battle was the regret of the many 
friends he had before the war and those he made during his 
brief career in it. 

The Chasseurs-h-pieds were a somewhat identical battalion, 
in language, usage, and outer appearance, though of probably 
better personnel and discipline. They were more thoroughly 
French, lacking the Diego element largely and with some 
American membership. 


Major Henri St. Paul, their commander, was a veritable 
chevalier and " gentleman of France," whom I was proud to 
call my friend. He was scholar and linguist, lawyer and 
journalist, ultra as to personal honor and a good shot and 
perfect swordsman to defend his ideas on that score. 

Adjutant John L. Rapier was then a tall, slender youth, 
but already a good soldier. Later he served in the Mobile 
forts and it was his pride that he had never surrendered, but 
escaped in an open boat. He went into newspaper work 
after the war, with St. Baul, who was then his father-in-law; 
finally becoming proprietor of the Mobile Register, and dying 
four years ago much honored and regretted. His next broth 
er, Thomas G. Rapier, by strange coincidence never gave his 
surrender in. He was a boy midshipman with Mr. Davis s 
escort, at the capture; " borrowed" a mule and rode home 
to New Orleans with the parole he had written for himself. 
He has long been the head of the Picayune newspaper of that 

Major St. Paul died twenty years ago, after giving up edit 
ing for law. Genuine sorrow followed his demise; deepest 
from those who knew him best. His ability and profession 
descended to his son, Judge John St. Paul, former state sen 
ator, of Louisiana. 

Among the actual foreigners, who had served in European 
wars with distinction and added to it while they wore the 
gray, were several exceptional men. It was a privilege to 
meet the men who held the lives of thousands the fate of 
the nation in their hands; but even then the sympathies 
of all and surely of the women went out strongly to those 
foreign fighters who had concreted a sentiment into a sacri 

General Count Camille de Polignac was veteran of the 
staff in the French service and was chief of staff to General 
Bcauregard. He was a typical modern Gaul; tall, thin and 


with grave face decorated with Napoleon beard, there was 
just a suspicion of La Mancha s knight in his mount. The 
rough humor of the soldiers often pelted him as he rode past : 
"Come out er them boots! We see yer mustache!" 

Yet he was a great soldier, a knightly gentleman and a 
courtier, in field, camp and lady s bower. On one occasion, 
I heard Miss Pegram congratulate him on promotion to a 
brigadier, correcting herself to call him " Count." Simply 

as a child, he answered: 

"No, Madame: God made 

^^^_^ me that; the other I made 

jg^|5^ myself!" 

J| B| De Polignac was often con 

founded with his cousin, 
jj|. Prince Emil de Polignac, who 

married the daughter of the 
plebeian banker, Meires. 
Asked why, he answered, 
"Ilfaut bien dorer la pilule!" 
(The pill must be gilded.) 
The fighting cousin got safe 
ly through our war in having 
serious wound of neither 

A G < voiu " tcc - as 

marked a man in the A. N. V. 
as was his French comrade. Colonel the Baron Heros von 
Borcke was formerly on the staff of the Prince of Prussia; 
but he asked leave, crossed to Dixie and became chief of staff 
to dashing "Jeb" Stuart. His given name was apposite; 
hero he was, if ever soldier won that title. He was wounded 
in the throat and they dared not operate. They told him 
that the heavy Minie ball must rest there, and should the 
cyst about it move, it would drop into the -windpipe and 


strangle him. The gallant foreign fighter lived his living death, 
rode gaily to the forefront of the charge and went as gaily into 
society. When he died, years later, it was not the wound 
that took him off. He was a man of grand physique; as tall 
as de Polignac but more muscular and with the stretch and chest 
of a prize-fighter. He was not only a splendid tactician and 
organizer, but perfectly educated and thoroughly up in the 
literature and art of Europe, and he had the simplicity and 
gentleness of most cultivated Germans. The two men wore 
swords that rivaled Colonel Skinner s famed blade, and both 
used them in personal combat almost as effectively as he had 
done. But the German was more staid and introspective 
than the Gaul, of whose jests some odd ones survive. 

Once he captured the officers of a cavalry regiment and 
their orderlies, single-handed and without a shot. He was 
scouting alone; a favorite sport with him. 

Clever, jolly and sympathetic Englishmen were frequent 
in the Confederacy, and sometimes very useful, but the fight 
ing exceptions were rare. A notable one was Captain Frank 
W. Dawson, of the Pegram artillery corps. When the famous 
Nashville blockade runner was well out of British waters 
on her trial trip over, Captain Robert Pegram found a stow 
away upon his ship. A fresh-faced, intelligent youth, he 
said that he only wanted to fight for the South and was willing 
to work his passage to get the chance. The captain demurred 
at enlisting a mere boy of another nation; but there was 
no help, the new ship was sailing precarious seas, and the 
stowaway landed at Wilmington, an utter stranger but a 
full-fledged Rebel. He promptly enlisted in Willie Pegram s 
battalion of artillery as a private, rose rapidly and soon wore 
one gold bar on the red collar of his gray jacket. Next he 
became corps ordnance officer, when Pegram was promoted 
and he surrendered as a captain, while awaiting promotion 
for gallantry on the field. Cool, brave and reliable, Dawson 


was still a boyish looking, fresh-faced stripling when he gave, 
in his gurgling English voice and simple manner, the recital 
of his swimming aboard the Nashville and starving three days, 
to " dodge the British, you see. " 

How few of his listeners at the Mosaic Club dreamed of 
the tragic fate in store for him. He had adopted journalism 
and the noted Ben Wood, of New York, then reaching out 
for control of Southern newspapers, had bought the Charles 
ton Courier. Dawson became its editor, in the business 
management of James Riordan, of Washington. Good sol 
dier in war, he was proving himself good citizen of the reunited 
country of his adoption, when he was slain in private quar 
rel protecting the good name of a woman. His martyrdom 
was mourned by a devoted wife and young family: singular 
reversal of the horrors of war and the blessings of peace. 

Another Englishman and journalist though much older 
and already notable at home was long and popularly met 
in Richmond: Hon. Francis Lawley, son of Lord Wenlock. 
Mrs. Mattie Paul Myers writes me of him: 

" You recall him as one of the handsomest and most agree 
able men I ever knew, " and her verdict is just. He was then 
correspondent of the London Telegraph, afterward its editor, 
and later on the Times, and also member of parliament. His 
letters from Richmond were bold and true, with strong South 
ern bias, but some prophecy in them. 

Still another correspondent, and one equally widely known, 
in far different field, was Frank Vizitelly, of the London Il 
lustrated News. He was equally clever with pen and brush, 
but a reckless, aimless sort of fellow, a boon companion, but 
forgetful of Polonius 1 sage advice as to a borrower and lender. 
A reminiscent friend recently asked me: 

"Were you not at that memorable dinner, given by Gor 
don, Lord Cavendish and Vizitelly, which lasted from two 
o clock until midnight, and was never paid for by them?" 


That was not one of tny experiences with the artist, nor was 
it an exceptional event of the time. He was a daring fellow 
at other places than at dinner, as one of Mrs. Myers s letters 
proves : 

" When I was in London last I saw in the crypt of St. Paul s 
Cathedral the name of Frank Vizitelly on a tablet of honor, 
as one of those who had died in the service of his country. 
I think he was killed in Egypt." The man had his faults, 
but good traits did much to balance them, and in the main 
he was, as his compatriots say, "not a half-bad fellow." 

"Lord Cavendish," who swaggered largely in Richmond 
and imposed on some experienced society people, was a very 
different class of adventurer. He told very tough stories 
when he reappeared "from the front," and fought "the ti 
ger" in reality. It turned out that he was an Irishman named 
Short, before he disappeared with loans from sundry 
dupes to whom he remained hopelessly absent-minded. 

Colonel George Gordon, of the British army, was a real 
soldier who got into some trouble in England and came to 
cast his lot with the South. He was a big, soldierly looking 
man, with red whiskers, but with a sweet voice and beauti 
ful manners. He was a constant visitor at the Pegrams , 
Mrs. Stanard s and other refined homes. He was a real 
fighter, however, despite his constant support to the noted 
corps that held the notorious gambling " club" near the Spots- 
wood Hotel. But General "Jeb" Stuart knew a man when 
he saw one, and he put Gordon on staff duty and never ex 
pressed any regret for having done so. 

Another Englishman with strong sympathy that did some 
practical work for the South was C. J. Cridland, consul at 
Norfolk when the war began, and later at Richmond, where 
he was a favored guest at the delightful home of Gustavus 
Myers. At that home Mr. Lawley resided during his stay 
in Richmond, host and guest being congenial friends and a 


most compensating coterie always collecting there. Grid- 
land was a big man in a small body, and, during his Recon 
struction days in Mobile to which city he had been trans 
ferred made many and lasting friends by his steady opposi 
tion to the rife aggressions and injustices practiced under 
the cloak of law. 

Another consul, even more outspoken in his defense of 
human and not merely women s rights, was Albany de Gren- 

ier de Fonblanque, the Brit 
ish representative at New 
Orleans. This foreigner s love 
of fair play and his disgust of 
injustice by military power 
were expressed in no measured 
terms in his novels laid in the 
time of General Ben Butler s 
satrapy. He used such vig 
orous, as \vell as good, Eng 
lish as to give timely accept 
ance and lasting repute to his 

One connecting link 
between the Anglo-Saxon and 
the Gaul comes up unbidden 
when thinking of New Or 
leans. Colonel Jos. A. Chal- 
aron, type of the best Franco- 
America youth, stands today the proof of the survival of the 
fittest and is regarded by old comrades and all citizens as 
the reincarnation of the old Confederate spirit. 

The Chalarons come of warlike strains; several of their 
males having fought with renown under the first Napoleon; 
and a female ancestor, present at his birth, having been made 
first nourrice to him who 




"Born no king, made monarchs draw his car!" 

Five Chalaron brothers entered the army; the last a mere 
stripling being forced to return to save the plantation from 
absolute devastation. Strangely enough not one was killed, 
though they were in the thick of every fight and bear 
scars of many a wound. Two died after the war; Antonio 
Jacques, the second born, who entered the famous Washing 
ton Artillery as a private and served through the war: and 
James, the fifth, the stripling above noted, who only con 
sented to leave his battery on pledge that he might return 
and replace the first brother killed. The eldest, Joseph 
Adolph, who commanded the fifth company of the famed 
W. A., still lives as do the third, and fourth brothers : Stephen, 
who served in the second battery, and later in the ord 
nance department ; and Henry, who fought under his brother 
in the fifth battery. 

Randall, the poet, told me that Col. Jos. Chalaron said to him : 

" I really seemed to bear a charmed life! Horses were killed 
under me; comrades fell all around me and many a one died 
in my arms ; yet I am here, and spared, I hope, for usefulness 
in peace." 

Mrs. Fanny Beers, in her " Memories" describes this use 
ful young warrior, when he invaded Georgia to force supplies 
and medicines being sent to Bragg s army in its hideous 
retreat from Tennessee. Today, he is secretary of the Louis 
iana Historical Society, and superintendent of the Hall of 
Records, which embalms many precious memories of what 
the Confederacy gained from "Over Seas." 

He is a courtly and interesting link between yesterday and 
today; and a mine of reminiscence. 

Such were a few of the "foreigners" as they were not, 


in most cases who helped to highlight the more sombre 
shadows of the war picture. 

These come up automatically, but indubitably many 
more like the Roman patricians at the funeral are con 
spicuous by their absence. 



METEOR flashes of character, of action and of result show 
through the darkest days of Dixie in vivid gleams; not con 
fined to one sphere of her life, but by land and sea, and in 

Within the past two years, Georgians have reared in tne 
grounds of their state capitol an equestrian bronze in which 
the soldier-statesman, John Brown Gordon, rides forth to 
the future, as the Cid. Need for the monument was scarcely 
great today, but the spontaneous act of a whole population 
is of sweet savor and its perfume will penetrate all history. 
Gordon was literally a "born soldier," although there was 
no inherited imposition upon him to urge arms as a calling. 
The son of Rev. Zachariah H. Gordon, he was born in Upson 
county, Georgia, June 6, 1832. From early youth he was an 
impulsive but clear-headed fellow, quick to decide and quite 
as quick to act, ready to take first place and, as he proved, 
wholly fitted to hold it. He graduated at the head of his 
class at the University of Georgia in 1852, read law in the 
office of his brother-in-law, Judge L. E. Bleckley and was 
admitted, but promptly gave up the idea of practice, to assist 
his father in coal mine interests that were growing valuable. 

Gordon called his first company the Mountain Rifles, 
but one of the men declared: "Mountain hell! We re the 
Raccoon Roughs," and the baptism held for aye. 



Originally meant for cavalry, the Roughs were dismounted 
before mounting by the dictum: "No more cavalry needed. 7 
Then, variously armed with sporting rifles, shotguns and 
rough pikes, but aflame with war spirit, Gordon tried on 
Milledgeville, then capital of Georgia, for enlistment. "Old 
Joe" Brown declined the proffer and the young captain made 
the wires hot, as he himself writes, with proffers to other 
governors. One of those, Moore of Alabama, accepted the 

strangely named company 
and "we became one- 
twelfth of the Sixth Ala 
bama, one of the largest 
regiments in the service." 
Gordon was early elected its 
major, then lieutenant-col 
onel and at the bloody Seven 
Pines commanded the regi 
ment in Rhodes brigade, 
with signal gallantry and 
ability that soon brought his 

To Gordon s thinned com 
mand Lee left it to hold the 
centre against the assured 

MAJOR-GENERAL JOHN B. GORDON lm P aCt f Overwhelming 

numbers at Sharpsburg. 

How he held it, his simple narrative of the bare and 
bloody facts has told with a selfless simplicity that carries 
and clinches conviction. Through that trying day 
struck four times with painful and exhausting wounds, the 
true soldier acted out his great chief s motto and made duty 
the sublimest word and the panacea. Late in the day when 
Lee s aide dashed through the leaden hail to ask if he needed 
reinforcements, the blood streaming and powder-blackened 


hero pointed to his reeling, torn and still cheering line and 
answered: "Tell General Lee we are holding the centre!" 

Next instant, he received the hideous wound in the face 
that stunned him, falling prone with his face in the cap that 
had drowned him in his own blood, save for the bullet holes 
through which its noble stream escaped. 

Such was John Brown Gordon, captain of the Raccoon 
Roughs, self-made major-general and named, if not really 
commissioned, lieutenant-general of the Confederacy. Meet 
was it that his state and people reared his Bronze. 

Two years after winning university honors, young Gor 
don married Miss Fanny Haralson. Loving, gentle and un 
flinching at trial, she was a fit helpmate for such a man and 
through every soul-harrowing test of the long war she was 
near him as counsellor, comrade and nurse. When she brav 
ed peril to fly to his side on Sharpsburg s night, she came to 
cheer, not moan and her kindred spirit welcomed her with 
the jest that must have agonized afresh his blood stiffened 
and shattered jaw. 

"Mrs. Gordon, you have not a very handsome husband!" 

She survives him at the old family home, "Sutherland," 
where their children were reared and where their father liv 
ed while twice governor and three times senator from his 
state. Of this union there were three children reaching 
adult age. Major Frank Gordon died only within two years 
of pneumonia, at Washington. His sisters are Frances, now 
Mrs. Burton Smith, and Caroline, Mrs. Orton Bishop Brown. 
There are two Smith children, the boy bearing his grand 
father s name. Mrs. Brown s children are two boys and a 

Dignified and reserved in appearance, the general had 
strong magnetism, as proved by his frequent choice for high 
place, and by the devotion of the veterans. When fire de 
stroyed Sutherland a decade gone, telegrams poured in from 


camps everywhere with offers to rebuild the home. Gor 
don promptly refused, saying the "Old boys are poorer than 
I am." 

It has been noted that men of Northern birth or descent who 
gave allegiance to the Cause, wrought in it as steadfast and 
as effectually as did the longest lined of colonial, Huguenot 
or Creole fighters. General Cooper was from the further 
side of the Potomac, Colonel Ives was a New Yorker and 
many another illustrated this truth. Notable examples 
were two brothers, coming from Northern stock, though long 
resident in New Orleans: the Owen brothers, William Miller 
and Edward, of the famous Washington Artillery. The elder 
answered the last roll years ago, honored by his state and 
regretted by his comrades. The other still lives, typifying 
in his Northern home the loyalty of the Confederate soldier 
to the flag he fought for. 

John Owen, their great grandfather, settled in Portland, 
Maine, about 1716. His son, John Owen, 2d, in 1745 
served at Louisberg; and his grandson, Allison, was the father 
of Miller and Edward Owen. Philip Owen, a granduncle, 
was born at Brunswick, Maine, in 1756. He was a soldier 
in the Revolution, member of the general court of Massachu 
setts (Maine being still part of Massachusetts in 1812-13). 
He served at Ticonderoga and at the surrender of Burgoyne ! 
and witnessed Andre s execution, his regiment being station 
ed at West Point on October 2d, 1780. Philip Owen, 3d, 
served in the War of 1812. 

Judge William Miller, maternal grandfather to the Owen 
brothers, settled in Rapides Parish, in 1798. Four years la 
ter, he was made commissioner of the United States for the 
Spanish transfers of posts in Rapides. Dr. Meuillon was 
commissioner on Spain s part ; and his daughter later became 
Judge Miller s wife. He was also appointed by Governor 
Claiborne, first United States judge in Rapides. In 1814, he 


raised a company and fought it under Jackson at the battle 
of New Orleans. 

Both brothers were born in Cincinnati, being the only 
children of Allison Owen and Caroline Miller, old stock Ohio- 
ans. Business carried them to the South, where they became 
active and respected citizens 
and both entered the war at 
first call, in the famous Wash- 
ington Artillery of their 
adopted city. 

William Miller Owen, the 
elder, was its adjutant, dis 
tinguished himself by gal 
lantry and was promoted to 
major. Then he became lieu 
tenant-colonel of a Virginia 
battalion of artillery and had 
that rank when he surren 
dered with Lee. Immediately 
after that he returned to New 
Orleans and married, the year 
succeeding, Miss Carrie Zach- 
arie, of the noted old Creole COLONEL EDWARD OWEN 

family. Gentle and loved by (NEW YORK CAMP u " c - v } 

all, she was pet-named " Happy Zacharie" by her girlhood 
friends. She survives him, as do their two sons, Allison and 
Pendleton Owen, all of New Orleans. Colonel Owen died 
fifteen years ago, after a useful public life, in which he did 
much to perfect the citizen soldiership of his state, and 
served capably as its adjutant-general. 

Edward Owen went into the war as first sergeant of Bat 
tery A of this same battalion, was an efficient and marked 
soldier, was twice dangerously wounded and was promoted 
through intervening grades to captain of his original company 


ere Appomattox. He also returned to business pursuits 
in New Orleans and married there, in the year after 
the peace, Miss Hattie Bryan. After her death he removed 
to New York, where he has ever since been a conspicuous 
figure, not only in the "Southern colony," but in the business 
and political organizations of the city. He was first secre 
tary of the Southern Society and chairman of executive 
committee of New York Camp, U. C. V., until his election 
as commander, which post he has held continuously for 
twelve years. This is one of the most notable in all the vet 
eran ranks, both for numbers and distinguished personnel; 
and its annual dinners on Lee s birthday at the Waldorf- 
Astoria, have become very notable functions of the year. 

This camp was organized in 1890, with these officers: 
Commander A. G. Dickinson; W. S. Keiley, adjutant; Jo 
seph H. Parker, lieut. -commander; Edward Owen, paymaster 
and Stephen W. Jones, quartermaster. Succeeding com 
manders have been A. R. Chisolm, George C. Harrison, C. E. 
Thorburn and Edward Owen, reelected annually since 1898. 
The adjutants have been: Thomas L. Moore, Edwin Selvage 
and Clarence R. Hatton. The membership at organization 
was twenty-one; now it is three hundred and fifty. 

A consistent Democrat, Colonel Owen was also a thorough 
business expert and his party early made him chief clerk 
of the commissioner s department of its city government, 
promoted him to its head for successive terms and when 
faction ousted him promptly selected him again for chief 
clerkship and actual management. 

In 1874 the handsome and popular widower married 
Mrs. Adelaide B. Dick, of New York. There is one "fair 
daughter of my house and heart," Miss Mary Miller Owen. 

The show occasions for the navy were few, but where 
they were given, the light on the waters shone bright, if not 
lurid. Foremost arises "the familiar story of the " Viking 


of the South." Admiral Raphael Semmes has written his 
meteor-like record upon the history of his time in the pages 
of many a nationality. Dubbed the "pirate" by the same 
thoughtless catering to inflamed popular sentiment that 
imprisoned Jefferson Davis, Semmes went to his grave be 
wailed by his own section and thoroughly respected by the 
civilized world. And today the name of one of the oldest 
and most ramified of American families takes added lustre 
from having owned him as 
one of its sons. 

The several branches of _^ 

that family have helped to 
people many a state and 
have ever been noted for 
brainy and loyal men, for 
gracious, beautiful and ac 
complished women. Their 
descendants are leaders in 
the publicism and the schol 
arship of most of the large 
cities today and at the time 
of the war had already won 
their way to prominence. 
The sons and daughters of 
Raphael Semmes, of George 
town, have already been met in these pages. The " pirate" was 
their cousin ; a?nd as another reminder of the steadfast North 
ern strain his wile was colonial and of the old stock that pio 
neered the West . Today their children prove their good blood, 
in widely separated sections, shining in the forefront of pro 
fessional and social life of the land with no uncertain gleam. 

Admiral Semmes was the son of Richard Thompson Semmes 
and Catherine Middleton and was born in Charles county, 
Md., on September 27, 1809. He graduated at Annapolis 

(TAKEN IN 1873) 


and entered the navy, which he left only to enter the Con 
federate service in 1861. He was one of three children, 
his brother having been Samuel Middleton Semmes. The 
young sailor married Miss Anne Elizabeth Spencer, of Cin 
cinnati, her father being of English colonial stock and him 
self an early pioneer of the Ohio Reserve. He was captured 
by Indian hostiles and held captive nearly a year and ran 
somed only through the efforts of General Washington. This 
union bore six children, three sons and three daughters, 
most of whom are still illustrating the old name in the busy 
life of today. Spencer S. Semmes married the daughter of 
General Paul Semmes, of Gettysburg fame, and now resides 
in Arkansas. His family includes Spencer S., Jr., Paul J., 
Raphael, Oliver Middleton, Mary Anne, Frank, Kate, Electra, 
Myra, Lyman, Pruitt and Charles Middleton a "baker s 
dozen," but all with the old leaven. 

Oliver J., the second son, married Amante Gaines, daughter 
of Dr. Edmund Pendleton Gaines, and has three children: 
0. J., Jr., resident of Pensacola, Raphael and Amante, now 
Mrs. Percy Finley, of Memphis, and confessedly one of the 
most brilliant and original of that city s young matrons. 

Raphael, the third son, married Miss Marion Adams and 
has five children, Raphael, Eunice, Aubrey, Richard and 
Marion. The father is well known to Memphis, Mobile and 
other cities as constructor and manager of electric rail sys 
tems, and is personally more like his father than either of 
the brothers. 

In peace as in war the children of the " pirate" have borne 
themselves as worthy sons. Oliver was his father s part 
ner in law and later was unanimous choice for judge of Mo 
bile s criminal court, a post to which he has been re-elected 
for some thirty years. 

The three daughters of the admiral are Mrs. Electra 
Semmes Colston, head of the female department of the Mo- 


bile public school system for a quarter century, and one of 
the most brilliant and cultured as well as the best beloved 
and most altruistic of women of her day. She is gentle 
and epigrammatic, a brilliant talker, and writer and the 
most loyal of friends; finds time for club work in women s 
best lines and is a social prize in public and private funct ions. 
Her husband, Pendleton 
Colston, of Baltimore, died 
when their two sons were 
almost infants, the mother 
rearing them with care. 
Pendleton, who married 
Miss Esther Turner, of 
Bladen, died childless some 
years ago; his brother, 
Raphael Semmes Colston, 
married Miss Olive M. Tar- 
rant, of Georgia, is a noted 
newspaper man and pres 
ent city editor of the Times- 

Kate Middleton Semmes 
the second daughter of the 
viking/ married General 
Luke E. Wright, when he 
was not dreaming of gov 
ernorships, diplomacy Or MRS . CHARLES R. PALMER 
the war portfolio. She has (KATHRINA WRIGHT) 

long been a noted leader in the social world of Mem 
phis and has illustrated American womanhood abroad, 
as able aide to her husband in three trying posts. The 
Wright family numbers five. The eldest sister, Anna, 
married John Watkins, after a brilliant belleship and is a 
factor in the Memphian society of today. Kathrina Mid- 


dleton, the younger sister, married, at the American em 
bassy at Tokio, Charles B. Palmer, now a banker in the 
Philippines. Eldrige, the eldest son, married Miss Minnie 
Pettus; Luke E., Jr., is a society bachelor, and Raphael 
Semmes recently wedded in the Philippines. 

Anna Elizabeth Semmes, the third sister, was as popular 
as the others with the uniformed youths who thronged the 
Mobile home of the family in war-time. Soon thereafter 
she married Charles B. Bryan, another Memphian of note 
and has since been one of that city s most active and appre 
ciated workers in all feminine progress. Her sisters of the 
Confederate Daughters have honored her with high office 
in their national council and Governor Patterson selected 
her as commissioner for the state to the Jamestown Expo 
sition. There are two Bryan boys, Raphael Semmes, who 
married Miss Georgia Scott, and Charles Middlcton, whose 
wife was Miss Bessie Smith. Thus it will be seen that Ten 
nessee claims most of the admiral s direct descent, as she 
did much of his family, when B. J. Semmes and his brothers 
established in Memphis business. The latter is dead. He 
invested $80,000 in gold in Confederate cotton bonds and 
refused to sell them to the end. Another brother of Mrs. 
Ives, Dr. A. J. Semmes, of Savannah, was on Jackson s 
medical staff until he broke down in the Valley campaigns, 
when he took charge of Richmond hospitals. He married 
the daughter of Hon. C. M. Berrian, who was in Andrew 
Jackson s cabinet and later senator from Georgia. The 
surviving brother, "the baby of the family," is Captain 
Warfield Semmes, now a merchant of Memphis. He en 
tered a Louisiana regiment while in his teens, was twice 
severely wounded and was promoted for gallantry and bears 
its honorable scars today. 

A personality too marked in Richmond to miss mention 
was Commander John Taylor Wood, aide to the President 


and his nephew-in-law. He was elder son of Dr. Wood, 
United States Navy, who married a daughter of Zachary 
Taylor, older than the first Mrs. Davis. He promptly 
resigned, was given the same rank in the new navy and 
developed such traits of courage and mentality that Mr. 
Davis placed him on his personal staff. 

But, as I have said, the naval service claimed others of 
the Davis family: the gallant young brothers of Mrs. Davis, 
Bennett and Jeff Davis How- 
ell. Neither of them married, 
but both did good service 
on the Alabama. In the 
cemetery at Seattle stands 
a monument to the memory 
of the youngest, erected by 
the Masons to commemorate 
his death, which carried out 
the great Second Lesson. 
After the peace, Jeff Howell 
stuck to his seafaring, taking 
service on a Pacific coast 
liner and soon rising to its 
command. In a storm his 
ship and nearly all on board JEFFERSON DAVIS HOWELL 

were lost. Captain Howell (YOUNGEST BROTHER OF MRS. DAVIS) 

was last to leave the wreck on an improvised raft, taking 
with him a woman and a child. She alone was saved, 
after days of hideous trial and privation, and she wrote his 
deathless eulogy in telling how he had given her the slendei 
stock of food and water starving and famishing ere he was 
swept away in his efforts to steer her frail refuge to safety. 

Other staunch and true "seadogs" illustrated the salty 
side of Confederate endeavor, as the Barrens, father and son. 
The commodore we have already met. Loyal, sturdy, 


blunt Sam Barren, loved by man and woman equally for 
his heart of gold, was my friend in youth. He chafed under 
the cramp of circumstance, but sought any duty possible 
and did it well. After the war he married Miss Agnes Muse 
Smith, went into business and reared a family who now 
reside in Virginia with their mother. The eldest son died 
recently. Armistead W. and James S. Barren are still liv 
ing. The latter captured a prize last year in the person 

of Miss Kate Massie Ryan 
of Norfolk. The daughters 
are Miss Sallie H. Barren, 
Mrs. Imogen W. Denny and 
Mrs. Agnes N. Segar. 

Barren s gentle and popu 
lar sister, so sought by the 
best of both sexes when in 
Richmond, became the wife 
of Captain Edward R. Baird, 
of General George Pickett s 
staff; she died twelve years 
ago, leaving ten children, 
who are still living. 

Lieutenant-C ommander 

LIEUT. SAMUEL BARRON J()hn M Brooke J eft the M 

navy to win fame in the new and to create an era in ord 
nance. Scientific, reticent and untiring, he perfected that 
famous gun which made toys of Federal frigates and jammed 
the turret of the " invulnerable " Monitor. I had the priv 
ilege of being at the test of this product of the Tredegar 
works: a banded, welded and laminated rifle, the first in 
the world to project a seven-inch shell. Indubitably this 
gun was a new era in warfare: the progenitor of the cost 
lier and far greater bores of the recent past, Brooke 
was vindicated by experience. 


Two of the naval "show prizes," rare as they were in the 
war lottery, fell to Admiral Franklin Buchanan. The first 
was in Hampton Roads, on a balmy morning, March 8th, 
with one so-called " ironclad" the first and only effective 
one of the war, and with the Brooke gun when he won 
the only naval victory of the war. 

The ram Virginia was the razed U. S. frigate, Mer- 
rimac, gun-decked at water line; and turtled low with shell 
of railroad iron melted into 4-inch steel plates. Thus she 
had defence that a modern rifle-bolt had pierced as a hot 
needle would soft butter. 

Her commander was Admiral Buchanan, with Catesby 
R. Jones second in command and Robert D. Minor, next. 
The " James river fleet" had been ordered down; consist 
ing of four small wooden vessels: the flagship James 
town of Commodore John R. Tucker; the Yorktown, 
Commander Ariel N. Barney: and the midgets of smallest 
class, Raleigh and Beaufort saved by Captain Lynch 
from the debris of Roanoke Island. The entire flotilla car 
ried only 27 guns, but Buchanan went out to attack an 
enemy out numbering him five fold and carrying 220 of the 
heaviest guns in the United States Navy! 

On glided the strange low, brown monster convoyed 
by the wooden toys past the Susquehanna, the heaviest 
armed ship of the navy; on, straight for the Cumberland 
frigate: on, until her bow gun was in shortest pointblank 
range. Then the untried Brooke gun sent one shell at the 
frigate s stern. It ripped her open through gun decks, 
and tore away her bow. With colors flying and the men 
at quarters, the gallant ship shivered, lurched and went 
down by the bows: her dauntless captain, George Upshur 
Morris, ringing out the order, "Fire!" as her upper battery 
touched the water! 

Never halting, the Virginia bore straight for the fri- 


gate Congress, nearer inshore; took her battery broad 
side like green pea pelting; and sent in one terrible, close 
range volley that literally riddled the huge ship. She hauled 
down her colors and Capt. Wm. R. Smith and Lieutenant 
Pendergrast, came off and surrendered the ship and them 

The entire fleet and shipping in the Roads, hauled away 
from the novel and invulnerable destroyer, taking shelter 
in speed and under the guns of Fortress Monroe. The 
Monitor warily held away; but daring combat next day, 
was cleverly stopped by one shot from the Virginia, 
that laid her helpless with a jammed turret. This ended 
the fight; a resultless one upon the end of the struggle, but 
a wondrous show of American pluck and manhood, on both 

As brilliant, and almost as solitary, a search for the San- 
grael of victory, was Buchanan s fight with Farragut s 
great fleet, in Mobile bay, on the morning of August 6th. 
1864. The Federal admiral on his Hartford flagship, 
steamed round the obstructions and past Fort Morgan, 
wholly untouched. He had four improved monitors, seven 
outclassing war steamers; carrying in all 199 guns and 2,700 
men. Buchanan steamed down to defend the harbor, with 
the ill-constructed ram Tennessee: plated with railroad 
iron and still unfinished. The other " ships " were the wooden 
gunboats: Morgan, 6 guns, under Captain G. W. Har 
rison; the Gaines, 6 guns, Lieut.-Com r. J. W. Bennett, 
and the Selma 4 guns, Lieut.-Com r. Pat U. Murphy: in 
all 26 guns and 250 men. On the flagship, Tennessee 
the admiral had executive officer Commander J. D. John 
ston, Lieut. Thos. L. Harrison and a picked staff. The 
fight was fierce and short: the vast preponderance of metal, 
men and speed making it hopeless from the first gun. But 
the wooden shells fought until splintered and sinking: and 


the flagship was surrendered by Johnston only after the 
admiral had been wounded and the stearing gear and gun 
carriages shot away. 

In his blunt, short way, Farragut warmly congratulated 
Buchanan on the great fight he had put up; and he, as well 
as his officers, told their prisoners that they were amazed 
at the damage that had been inflicted upon their superior 
fleet. Yet, while magnificent," this combat "was not 

Strong indeed is the temptation to follow the white- 
winged flyers of the seas, loosened from the wrist of the strug 
gling young nation hemmed in from contact by connivance 
of the selfish world-powers: to note the "derring do" of 
Sumter and Shenandoah and to roster the names of the men 
who followed Semmes if in a lesser orbit. But that would 
need a volume and the Fate s shears must needs clip the 


CONFEDERATE song would demand a separate volume, 
were attempt made to exemplify it. Temptation has aris 
en often, as these pages spun themselves, to do one or the 
other, and resistance to it has been difficult . But there 
are some singular errors about the more familiar specimens 
of the songs sung, which stalk among us with the restless 
ness and the nebulousness of Pompey s shade. "All 
Quiet Along the Potomac" has been as unsettled a moot 
for four decades as was " Beautiful Snow," or the letters 
of "Junius." Colonel Lamar Fontaine insists that he 
wrote it, at a Virginia outpost, while the North states day 
and date to prove that it was printed, prior to his contention, 
over the name of Mrs. Ethel Beers, in Harper s Weekly. 
Only when the deliverer of the aforetime blow to William 
Patterson comes up and confesses, will this momentous 
question ever down. 

The origin of the first flag, and of the Confederate uniform, 
have been and still are claimed by as many discoverers 
as any modern patent. These I think I have stated correct 
ly in early chapters, but there is widespread ignorance of 
the exact origin of two most popular Rebel ditties, one of 
which no less a critic than Mr. Lincoln declared "too good 
to be kept by the Rebels," and proceeded to Ben-butler 
it out of hand. 



The esthetic musical critic will say that we should shame 
to adopt " Dixie" and "The Bonny Blue Flag" as la Mar 
seillaise and the Partant Pour le Syrie of the Lost Cause. 
Of a truth, they were as ready inspirers, and perhaps as 
costly in the inspiration, to " t other fellow." 

I have been at pains to get the truth as to these two im 
portant songs: I have succeeded, beyond doubt. Mr. J. 
Tannenbaum is a veteran leader and minstrel manager 
and well known to the theatrical profession for a half-cent 
ury. Of them he wrote me: 

" There was only one Macarthy, and he wrote The Bon 
nie Blue Flag/ at Jackson, on the day Mississippi passed 
the ordinance of secession. He sang it first that night. 
Harry Macarthy was capable of inventing melodies, and he 
wrote other songs, among them, The Stars and Bars/ The 
Volunteer/ or It s my Country s Call/ Josephine Gay/ etc. 
I was his leader and manager and I harmonized and orches 
trated all his songs at that time. Others claim to have 
written The Bonnie Blue Flag/ but they do not tell the 
truth. It was first published by Blackmar Brothers, of 
New Orleans, and some copies are still in existence to prove 
what I say. It ought to be known for all time that Harry 
Macarthy is the author. 

"The Dan you refer to is Dan Emmett, whom I knew 
well. He is the composer of Dixie/ which was sung by 
Bryant s minstrels, first as a walk-around/ which in those 
days finished a minstrel performance. He was noted for 
writing several walk-arounds/ among them High Daddy 
in the Morning/ We are all Surrounded! etc. He died 
only a few years ago, his last appearance being with Field s 
minstrels, as an old man an advertising card for Field. 
He wrote Dixie/ and this is established and no other has 
a right. This should not be misunderstood. He was a 
fine man, Dan Emmett." 


A claim was recently made that " Dixie" was first written 
upon the walls of the old Mobile Theatre, on the sudden 
inspiration of Emmett. The leader then was "E. J. Ar 
nold/ now in his seventies, but still directing the orchestra 
of the Lyceum Theatre at Memphis. 

In 1895 Mrs. Annie Chambers Ketchum, of Mississippi, 
claimed the authorship of "The Bonnie Blue Flag." The 

Southern press finally pushed 
that claim, and Mr. A. E. 
Blackmar wrote emphatically 
that his father had bought 
the original from the author 
and published words and 
music unchanged. 

Emmett was the star of 
Birch and Backus, as endman. 
A similar and equally futile 
claim was made for Mobile 
as the cradle of "Dixie" but 
Jj that was made vicariously. 
JH A traveling vaudeville man 

ager wrote a long and circum 
stantial letter to the Reg 
ister, giving the "facts" of 
the song having been writ 
ten on the white wall of the old Mobile Theatre, by 
"Mr. E. J. Arnold." This was in 1860. The writer 
described the wild excitement and fervor of Dan Emmett, 
"great with Song"; and he stated that the curtain was about 
to rise and that Mr. Arnold had no paper. "Write it any 
where!" Emmett cried "Write it on the wall!" And the 
aged orchestra leader, then and there, wrote his modern 

Like Sir Lucius O Trigger s quarrel, the story above is 



"very pretty as it stands." The troubles with it are that 
there is no "E. J. Arnold" a leader anywhere: that the Mo 
bile Theatre was burned in January, 1859, and no other 
was built until 1865. Moreover, Mr. Herman C. Arnold 
now seventy-three years old and leader of the Memphis 
"Lyceum," writes me that he never told the story above 
quoted to anyone; that he never was at the Mobile The 
atre, but at the New Montgomery Theatre, which opened 
with Wilkes Booth as star, in 1860. Mr. Arnold was lead 
er of that theatre s orchestra; and he writes: 

" Hearing Dan Emmett sing Dixie, I admired it very much 
and wrote the score for band and orchestra arid I played 
it for the raising of the first three Confederate flags which 
were raised at the capitol at Montgomery and also at the 
inauguration of Jefferson Davis. It made such a sensation 
that it became the war tune of the South." And this set 
tles the Mobile origin. 

General E. P. Alexander the gallant Confederate and 
cultured gentleman elsewhere noted as one of the lucky 
men who married the Misses Mason now resides at South 
Island, South Carolina. On reading the Arnold romance, 
he wrote to me, deriding the claim. He says: 

"I was married in April, 1860, and in June, or 

July, of that year returned to my post at West Point. Soon 
after, my wife and myself went down to New York, to see 
a play then running at Laura Keene s, called The Japanese 
Ambassador/ Those dignitaries were then in the city and 
the papers were full of all their doings. The play was evi 
dently gotten up in a hurry; and one of Joe Jefferson s sons 
told me that his father was its author. In this extravaganza, 
some bogus ambassadors introduced by Brown, of Grace 
Church/ (when the real ambassadors were not able to 
attend), were called upon to sing a Japanese song. A 
brother-in-law of mine was then in New York, George G. 


Hall, son of Asbury Hall of Athens. He was the greatest 
amateur violinist I ever heard. He knew more songs 
than any man I ever knew. Hall told me about the play, 
before taking me to hear it ; and said that when the Japanese 
song was called for, they played that old thing, Dixie! 
with an accent on the old ! So I went and heard Dixie, 
for the first time that night; but I believe it was already 
in print, in an old sort of circus song-book, that I had had 
as a boy, before I left Washington in 1853, to go to West 

"However that may be, this one thing is certain: Dix 
ie was born from that play of The Japanese Ambassador. 
This was in the June, or July of 1860, before the election 
of Lincoln in that November; and all the newsboys of 
New York were whistling it within a week. On August 9th, 
1860, I sailed for Colon; and, when we arrived ten days 
later, Dixie was there ahead of us and we found it had 
preceded us to San Francisco, Portland and even to Wash 
ington Territory." Then, after scouting the Mobile story, 
Gen. Alexander adds: 

" I believe the song was a still older walk-around, and can 
easily be found by anyone who will search old theatrical 
song books and records of the time. The name Dixie came 
from a man named Dix, who owned many slaves on Man 
hattan Island and sold them to be taken South, just before 
slavery was abolished. As the darkies are natural patron- 
izers of every circus, their traditions and the name attached 
to their place of habitation, has survived in the last line of 
the chorus: In Dixie s Ian I take my stan, To live an die 
in Dixie! -" 

Every word General Alexander writes is literally true; but 
that more strongly corroborates Daniel Emmett s claim. I 
myself base my belief upon his authorship of the song, on 
a rainy Sunday of April, 1859, on personal knowledge of 


himself; upon Mr. Tannenbaum s reliable letter; and upon 
a circumstantial statement written for me by Col. T. Allston 
Brown, author, manager and late dramatic editor of the 
New York Clipper. The Brown statement details the entire 
story; but I need only quote here what he tells of a restaurant 
party in the war-time : 

"This is the origin of Dixie and you can swear 
to it! 

"I give it as received from Dan Emmett himself and from 
my own recollection. While I was dramatic editor of the 
New York Clipper, in 1861, Tom Kingsland, of Dodsworth s 
Band, Was proprietor of a famous bar and lunch room in 
Broome street, much frequented by actors, newspaper men, 
minstrels, etc. D. T. Morgan, having come back from the 
army, in the winter, dropped in at Kingsland s. 

"Sitting at the several tables and all, apparently, having 
a good time, were about twenty jovial fellows and among 
them, Dan Bryant. I was soon at a table with him, Nelse 
Seymour, Dan Emmett and others. 

"Morgan told Emmett that, at night, he could hear the 
Confederate bands playing Dixie; and that they seemed to 
have adopted it down South, as their national air. Em 
mett replied warmly: 

" Yes: and if I had known to what use they were going to 
put my song, I will be damned if I d have written it ! 

"I asked him how he came by the idea. He tipped back 
in his chair, moved closer to my side and, speaking very 
low, said he supposed me too young to have heard a song 
which his mother (or grandmother) sang to him in his merry 
young days. He said it was called Come, Philander! 
He was more than taken aback, when I told him that my 
mother had put me to sleep many times, with that same 
song. Then I repeated the first two lines to him : all I could 


Come, Philander, let s be marchin, 
Every one for his true love sarchin! 

" Yes: that s it! cried Emmett. I based the first part 
of Dixieland upon that song of my childhood days. He 
did not call it Dixie but Dixieland. 

"While Emmett was with Bryant s Minstrels, one Saturday 

night in 1859, Bryant said 
to him: Dan, can t you get 
us up a walk-around? I 
need something new for 
Monday night. 

"At that time, all minstrel 
shows used to end up with 
a wa lk-around. Dan Em 
mett remained in the house 
all day Sunday; but by the 
afternoon, he had the words 
commencing: I wish I was 
in Dixie! " 

When Colonel Brown wrote 
the words above quoted, he 

CAPT. R. T. ("TRAV") DANIEL had S P r6ad OUt before Will tllC 

New York Herald, of Sunday, 

April 3rd, 1859, with this advertisement: "Bryant s Min 
strels ! ! Dixie s Land : another New Plantation Festival !!!!!" 

It is strange indeed that, even in the South, during and 
after the war, there was so little real effort to fix definitely 
the origin of this and other popular songs and poems. They 
were accepted greedily by ear, when they hit the popular 
fancy : but it was rare that any man, or woman, who whistled, 
sang, or recited them, paused one instant to sift either their 
origin, or what of meaning they had. 

I recall a lively talk, among members of the Mosaic Club, 


when "Trav" Daniel and others were discussing this very 
" national air." Daniel was a star member of the unofficered 
club; a herital thinker, with much of his father s acumen, 
information and dry humor; and these he shared in common 
with his sisters, Augusta, Charlotte and Lizzie. He was 
very antithesis, in method, to his bubbling arid impulsive 
brother-in-law, "Jimmie" Pegram. 

At this distance, I cannot recall who were speaking of 
" Dixie/ 7 but I think Judge Ran Tucker, J. R. Thompson 
and Judge Daniel were among them. Trav made the point 
that a nation s song was its trademark and should be veri 
fied; but we were all too much in a hurry to stop and 
think in those days; and I have no recollection that "Dixie" 
ever came up as a contention thereafter, even in the Mosaic. 
It fitted into the time, was accepted as a Southern song, 
necessarily by a Southern man; and that was the end of 
it. Was it both, or either ? 

Daniel Decatur Emmett was born in Mt. Vernon, Ohio, 
in 1815, arid was resident there in his eighty-seventh year. 
He died only four years ago. 

One song ; popular in both armies, and claimed by each 
long after the war, was "Tenting on the Old Camp Ground." 
It was undoubtedly of Northern birth. 

The battle of Cedar Creek Hill bore many serious results, 
and some laughable ones, among them the loss of the Val 
ley granary and meat-house, the over-done art, poetry and 
gush of Sheridan s ride, and Randolph s living line: 

"Where sadly pipes that Early bird that never caught 
the worm!" 

The night following this defeat, two members of a Ver 
mont regiment composed and sang that song, which was 
later polished and published. Private Kittridge a New 
Hampshire boy, improvised the original words; Russell, 


a Green Mountaineer, composing the air as his comrade 
went on. Many still living can vouch for the truth of this 
statement, which has challenged dispute; among them 
being Captain W. A. Russell, now a resident of Berlin, Can 
ada, the composer s brother. 

Local rather than generic and with its frayed antiquity 
of musical setting, "My Maryland" is the nearest approach 
to a real anthem produced by the war. It was born out 
of occasion, and it grew to a national expression. In its 
springing from the smoking blood that dabbled the cobbles 
of Baltimore, at the first forcible tramp upon them of hos 
tile feet, memory brings back that night of 1792 at Stras- 
burg, when, with burning cheeks and blazing eyes, Rouget 
de Lisle wrote and chanted the words of La Marseillaise. 

At Point e Coupee, La., the young Maryland poet heard 
the echo of his stricken brothers cries of anguish and 
defiance. He dipped his pen into his heart and " Mary 
land" sprang forth, full statured and full armed as did the 
mythologic brain-birth. The words caught the fevered 
spirit of the hour. In a month they were burning in the 
hearts of gathering clans. 

Randall was my boy chum and college mate. He once 
wrote: "In our callow days Cooper De Leon and I made 
mud-pies and capped verses. . . . Today he is at home 
wherever pen and paper are to be found; and if they are in 
the vocative, a rusty nail and a white wall will do as 
well. ... It will not do to wish that his shadow may 
never grow less , for it is not in the memory of man that he 
ever cast a shadow." 

Neither of us had forgotten the dewy freshness of life s 
morning. Meeting at intervals only, we were the same old 
chums, as the shadows lengthened toward our sunset. 

Randall was another of Northern descent who was Rebel 
to the core. His great-grandsire was a Pilgrim-bred, 


witch-hating Yankee, an elder in the church of Hate to 
dissent. What he was his poems tell. Born with the rare 
fire in him that only needed friction of a Cause to glow and 
incandesce, he met the need in the immortal one. He had 
written more graceful poems ere that, as "The Cameo Brace 
let." That was when his somewhat errant fancy had made 
its throne at the feet of Miss Esther Jonas, of New Orleans. 
Within his last year he re 
cited those early strophes to 
their inspiration, now wife of 
Captain I. L. Lyons, with 
the third generation at her 

In years between, the 
poet s heart, beelike, had 
gathered honey where it 
listed. Rumor tells us that 
its one-time flower of flowers 
was the younger sister of 
Miss Augusta Evans, long 
since married and dead. 

When the nominal peace 
came, Randall found his real 
one in marrying a lovely 
South Carolinian, Miss Ham 
mond; and they had reared 
to usefulness five of their 
eight children. Two years 

ago the youngest of these, scarce more than a bride, was 
taken from them. Another year, and the poet was taken 
from those she left. 

Randall had written in the years since the war some strong 
poetry and much admirable correspondence and editorial. 
He had been editor of the Augusta Constitutionalist with 



Colonel James Gardiner, and of the Chronicle with Senator 
Patrick Walsh. He had worked with the Sage of Liberty 
Hall upon his memoirs, and had held Washington positions 
of trust. But, as the hart panteth after the water brooks, 
the old journalist longed after the tripod. He went again 
to the Crescent City of his early love, and edited the Morn 
ing Star and did telling correspondence for the Colum 

In 1907, Randall was signally complimented by his native 
state. She brought him from New Orleans to be her guest 
of honor on " Mary land Day," at Jamestown Exposition; 
then bore him back in triumph to his native Baltimore. 
There he was feasted and hailed as the poet of the Cause, 
honored though lost. Fair and noble Daughters of that 
Cause demanded a complete edition of his poems; he was 
whelmed in flowers, feasts and pretty speeches. Then he 
went back to the old Augusta home, warmed with ambition 
and cheered by the strong old love. He wrote me glowing 
and hopeful note of it all. Before I could write congratu 
lations, the wires bore the news of his sudden death. Then 
the tribute lately paid him in his old home swelled to a na 
tional pa?an and the world heaped immortelles above the 
grave of a people s poet. 

Knowing my friend s lack of money-making habit, I 
read with regret that Maryland promised a $25,000 statue; 
Augusta a shaft and New Orleans another stone. Imme 
diately, I sent appeals to the press and to those cities. I 
felt that if we took care of the bread, the stone would take 
care of itself. The appeal was universally endorsed: and 
practically, in some quarters. Maryland, as a state, voted 
his wife and daughter an annuity of $600 per year; and her 
Daughters printed the poet s works in a handsome volume, 
the entire proceeds from which go to his widow. A noble 
matron of Nashville an old friend of mine and of the Ran- 


dalls headed the Tennessee tribute with a hundred dollar 
check; and the U. D. C. division of Alabama sent its share. 
From distant and unexpected quarters, practical reminders 
came: and it was plain that the poet s song still echoed in 
the people s heart. 



I HAVE written elsewhere that the early settlement of 
America had two impelling forces: greed and creed. 

The Spaniards, in their thirst for acquisition of the South 
ern Gulf littoral, had only the first. It was the zeal of the 
Pilgrims that influenced their changing homes of generations 
for the frozen wastes of the far North, with their Indian hos- 
tiles. The French in La Louisiane and the English and 
Huguenot colonists of "the Virginia Plantation," perhaps 
doubled the motives, letting either predominate as occasion 

As early as 1587, Peter Martyr dedicated his "History 
of the New World" to Walter Raleigh, and in another book 
on Florida, urged him "to prosecute the work for the only 
true motive, that induced the glory of God and the saving 
of the souls of the poor, misguided Infidels. " 

Whether because of this exhortation, or other cause, 
Sir Walter gave five hundred pounds the next year "for the 
propagation of Christianity in Virginia." This is of the 
piece with the claim of Bishop Meade, in his valuable book, 
that Smith and Sydney "were also for the glory of God 
and missionary spirit." 

Richmond was a godly city when the first invasion by 
any government captured that capital. * Yet, I think it is 
admitted that the surrender saw many a theory shattered 



and many a revered idol sprawled from its pedestal by un 
usual, if not impious practices. Still, as in the described 
rush to the new national " Nursery, " at Montgomery, that 
devil, dissipation, was of hue far less sable than that in which 
he has been swiftly, and quite as untenably, limned. 

There were gross exaggerations of the gambling, the 
drinking and the debauchery of the leagured capital during 
those most bitter four years of blood and loss, trial and 

With a promiscuous and 
unbridled population, largely 
untrained, crude and amen 
able to the military law 
alone while its civil sister 
slept small indeed were 
the wonder had the slanders 
upon that point really been 
truths. And this is no 
afterthought. It was so 
agreed with Smith Lee, 
Fitz s next brother, after a 
round we made to inspect 
Richmond and compare the 

two cities, shortly after his LIEUT - SYDNEY 8MITH LEE > JR -> c - s - N - 
voluntary withdrawal from the "Paris navy." 

Practically every man in the South was in the army, and 
the pay of a soldier in the mid days of the war would not 
have bought a breakfast at the average Richmond restau 
rant. Liquor, save as a medical ration, was almost wholly 
above reach, and tobacco, an absolute necessity with missed 
meals and physical and mental strain, was equally scarce 
and vile. Here was the temptation, when "the boys" 
came to Richmond, and luxuries as resistless as the green- 
sleeved Houris of Mohamet s heaven were thrust upon them, 


with added appeal to the greed latent in every soul. 
The wonder is not that so many yielded to the seductions 
of drink and cards, but that there were so many who did 

When rations were reduced to the last limit in every 
camp, the faro banks of the capital spread great tables 
with peace-time meals sumptuously prepared, with liquors 
and even rare wines. These unaccustomed luxuries, under 
scored by really good cigars, were forced upon all comers, 
with no apparent care whether they gave promise of return 
in future losses. The sporting spider, in his seductive par 
lor, practiced whether he had read it or not: "And he that 
hath not from him shall be taken even that which he hath." 
On the other hand, he did not hesitate to give before taking. 
These " hells" were not really open to all, unless introduced 
by an habitue ; but the latter were numerous enough to give 
them a huge clientele and to make them an evident feature 
on the face of the time. Men of all ranks and ages frequented 
them: some for greed alone, and more for that added to 
greediness. Their officials and dealers were usually recruit 
ed from Washington, and Baltimore, or from the popular 
" sports" of the Virginia watering-places, care being taken 
to select men "with a pull" from past acquaintance. 

Strangely enough, with all this and much more of it in a 
minor key, there was little general drunkenness, and gamb 
ling, while wholly unpunished and even unchecked, was more 
the exception than the rule. The reasons for this were 
probably the same suggested at Montgomery: the absorp 
tion of men in great and continuous excitement and the 
outdoor life, on plain diet, that changed the physical man 
so quickly; and through him, the moral and mental one. 

Private gambling, outside of the "corn-grain limit" of 
the camps, was confined to the hotels and private homes 
of the few that condoned. Club life, as such, was practi- 


cally done away with in every Southern city. Poker, of 
course, was the popular game: it had always been, and is 
so, in that section as at the North. And that game divided 
the love of the more "game sports/ with the " games of 
the house," faro and roulette. The house, however, treated 
its poker patrons with great consideration and liberality 
of food and drink, but they were no losers thereby, for the 
winner in the private game would often "drop his pile" at 
the bank, as though it burned holes in his pocket. The 
most notable of the Richmond hells was that of the Mon- 
teiro brothers, and the names of "Alf" and "Jim" grew 
familiar to even feminine ears. Great sums were won and 
lost at that house and, as the money slide went rapidly 
downward, fabulous-sounding sums were often quoted. 
Even when the Confederate bills were crisp and not much 
depreciated, I have known losses in an evening to run into 
five figures; but the cases were rare and the average one 
very small whatever the will of the loser might have made 

No habitue of the Richmond "hells" and many a stiff- 
necked churchman of later days might "train with them"- 
but will recall Bill Burns and John Worsham. These men 
were chums from contact and professional pride; the former 
blunt, jovial and honest, the other refined, quiet and gen 
erous to a fault. Burns outlived the war and was later a 
marked figure on Pennsylvania avenue, on most days and 
almost all nights. But the "Storm and Stress" of the strug 
gle finished his comrade, sometime ere its close. 

I once wrote a novelette "A Bayard of the Green Cloth "- 
and got much soft buffeting from the unco godly for mak 
ing its hero a gambler. I had Johnnie Worsham in mind, 
no less than a well born Southern sport, while I wrote. Yet 
no real man who knew him will deny that the young faro 
dealer was the preux chevalier of gamesters: with a great 


heart, an open hand and graces of soul ; not always inhered 
under a ruffled shirt. One blunt fighter as true a man 
as ever drew breath, sword or cork lately wrote me of him : 

"Do I recall John Worsham? Well, I rather think I 
should. He fed us when all others failed us. He certainly 
was a high type of man." 

This is homely praise? Perhaps: but it has all the verity 
of the mining camp obituary: "He done his durndest: an- 
gils kin do no more!" 

Johnnie, as they all called him, was the soldier boy s 
best friend, even among the easy-going gambling fraternity. 
He served them the very best to be had, and he shared with 
them all he could get, when the pinch of starvation began. 
His death was regretted by the fighting lot as that of a comrade. 

His reckless mode of life was underlaid by a romance; 
and many a man-about-town, of that day, will vividly re 
call its handsome and magnetic heroine. They may also 
recall a narrow chested, tall placed house, near a popular 
hotel, which was the field of this romance. Ay di me! was 
that yesterday, or the day before? Worsham s death 
let the feminine surroundings drift Westward: but those 
who recall the past of that episode, and then stare at the 
present, must confess that this world is a very small one 
indeed; and that, like Time, it has its "whirligig and brings 
in strange revenges!" 

The hotels and restaurants of Richmond were fairly good 
at first and both battled bravely against fast increasing priva 
tion. They were one field of war dissipation, and tended to that 
reckless disregard of values which is typical of fighting 
soldiers; and which fell into utter contempt of the paper 
money as it grew less and less in value. 

Morally, the tone of all ranks of society was wonderfully 
high. Civil laws, where not soundly asleep, were weak of 
execution from the army drain of men; and the provost 


substitute was more interested in guarding the body of 
the backslider than in mounting guard over his soul. The 
bars between the sexes were nominal; intercourse under 
common sympathy in pride or sorrow for events in pas 
sage was free and friendly, and, as before noted, the duen 
na was represented by X. Yet there was so little of open 
and brazen debauchery as to make it scarcely a consider 
ation. Society guarded itself by habit and pride; its lower 
ranks, by absorption in an elevating and universal altruism. 
The Christianity of theory crystallized in the Christianity 
of practice. 

From first to last the sporty did not predominate over 
the godly in the economics of the Confederacy The latter 
were in the ascendency at all times, and in Richmond there 
were churches in great numbers, presided over by able and 
earnest men, who made their mark upon the time. That 
the martial and religious spirit went hand in hand lacks 
no shining exemplars. Lee and Stonewall Jackson; the 
latter s brother-in-law, General D. H. Hill, Father Ryan, 
the brilliant and untiring poet-priest; Father Patterson, 
of Tennessee; Louisiana s Leonidas Polk, general and 
bishop; Pemberton, and Jefferson Davis himself, come up 
at the touch of suggestion. And what was true of the army 
was more discernible in those civil ranks of Dixie life, less 
diverted from active religion by over-activity of brain and 

So, central and variously enough attended as to make 
them universally known then, the churches and pastors 
of Richmond will make a pleasantly reminiscent note. They 
were of all denominations, the actual list being this : 

The Episcopal churches: St. Paul s, Rev. Charles Minne- 
gerode, D. D., was General Lee s church and the scene of 
many historic weddings and funerals. Dr. Minnegerode 
was an intimate of President Davis, and visited him while 


in prison. St. James s was the church of Rev. Joshua Pe- 
terkin, D. D., another loved and popular preacher, and 
Dr. George Woodbridge held the pulpit of the Monumental. 
Grace church was Rev. Dr. Baker s, with a large congre 
gation, and Christ church and St. Mark s were noted churches, 
though I cannot now place their rectors. 

The Presbyterian churches were: First, Dr. T. V. Moore, 
and the Second was in charge of Rev. Moses D. Hoge, 
D. D., a most eminent preacher and very popular, espe 
cially with the soldiers. Dr. C. H. Read, was in charge of 
Grace street church, and Dr. R. R. Howison presided at 
the Third Presbyterian. All these had large transient 
congregations, when the war held great armies near the 
capital. The same was the case with the Methodist churches. 
The Centenary was Dr. Doggett s, and the Broad street 
was in charge of Dr. J. A. Duncan, later bishop of Virginia. 
The Clay street and Union Station churches were active 
and well attended, but I cannot trace their pastors. It 
is a trifle singular that it has proved easier to find a sergeant 
in one army than a captain in the other. Immersion in 
chronicle has let me fare better with the Baptist churches: 
The First, presided over by Dr. J. L. Burrows, the Second 
by Dr. D. Shaver. The Grace street Baptist was a centre 
of curiosity as well as of interest. Its pastor, Rev. J. B. 
Jeter, D. D., was one of the most marked figures of war 
time Richmond. The pulpit of the Leigh street Baptist 
was filled by Dr. J. B. Soloman. 

The solemnity of sacred things did not fully spike the 
batteries of the wicked wits. There were jokes and some 
times jibes at almost every black coat, however popular, 
and deservedly so. McCarty used to swear that he heard 
one pious sister confide to another, at the porch: 

"I jes do love to hear Brother Jeter!" and the other 
assented : 


"Me, too, sister; he do preach so moanful!" 

On one occasion a lovely and noble fellow in the fulmin 
ate works, was blown almost into shreds while fusing shells. 
Next Sunday his family s pastor explained in his notices: 
" Immediately after worship, beloved, we will hold service 
over the remains of our departed brother ahem! I should 
have said, what remains of the remains. " 

St. Paul s was the church of fashion and the scene, as 
I noted, of many swell weddings. At these, in open church, 
the crush of the curious was always great. On one occasion 
its conduct was more picnicky than pious, flirtation raging 
with giggle and sigh, and jest passing from mouth to mouth. 
After one very large and fashionable wedding a wag pinned 
a penciled cartoon on the door of St. Paul s. It represent 
ed the pompous sexton, a noted character in town, standing 
at the portal and waving back some meek-faced worship 
ers who ask: 

"But is this not the house of God?" and the janitor 
responds : 

" Yes; but He isn t at home!" 

Only to locate it justly, the familiar slip of the tongue 
made by Dr. Hoge may be pardoned repetition. When 
the war was nearly crushed to a close he prayed for General 
Breckinridge, then war secretary: 

"And may his hand be so strengthened that his enemies 
may not trump over him!" 

The Roman*Church was ever sympathetic with the Cause, 
and its clergy and especially its Sisters of Charity and of 
Mercy did early, constant and indescribable labor for the 
bodies of the sick as well as for their souls. They wrought 
unceasingly, in the de Sales hospital on Brook avenue; 
in any other, where their white, unshaking hands found 
work to do in Norfolk, Lynchburg and Charlottesville, 
as well as in all the wide stretch of havoc and misery that 


measured the Confederacy. One of these noble women 
has just passed the golden jubilee of her novitiate. Through 
the whole land the hearts of veterans went out in loving 
greeting to the meek and fearless war nurse, Sister Made 
line O Brien, in her Baltimore rest. 

Rt. Rev. John McGill, war bishop of Richmond, was 

a stanch Rebel and a scorn- 
er of half-utterance. He 
did all that in him lay to 
promote the Cause and to 
heal those stricken by sick 
ness, or sword, or famine. 
His cathedral pulpit was 
held by Revs. Robert H. 
Andrews, A. L. McMullen 
and John Hagan. 

Rev. Leonard Mayer, 0. 
S. B., preached at St. Mary s, 
and at St. Patrick s Rev. 
J. Teeling, D. D. These all 
did good work, they and the 
Jesuits notably Fathers P. 
P. Kroes and P. Toale 
carried piety and tending 
to Fortress Monroe, Fairfax 
and all the army lines. 
Another bishop with warrior soul and unswerving loy 
alty to the Cause and who was later Prelate of the Diocese 
of Humor in the American Church was Rt. Rev. Rich 
ard Hooker Wilmer, war bishop of Mobile. Consecrated 
to that see in 1862, he forbade further use of the perfunc 
tory prayer for the president of the United States. When 
the end came and General Thomas was in command, he 
sent for Bishop Wilmer and insisted that the prayer should 



be returned to its use in all the churches. The bishop 
refused flatly, pointing out that it would be as illogical as 
insincere. Then "Old Pap" declared he would close the 
Episcopal churches. Bishop Wilmer confessed that might 
gave the general power to do that, but no right to coerce 
his conscience; so the public worship ceased, and all ser 
vices were held in private homes until the Washington 
government rescinded the Thomas order, and the daunt 
less churchman triumphed over the inter arma proverb. 

Bishop Perry in his work on the "Bishops of the Amer 
ican Church, " clearly shows that the action of the Alabama 
bishop was based on logic and law; and that its indorsement 
forced from the government was the step that marked 
forever the division of church and state in this Repub 

Some years later, when the guest of his daughter-in- 
law, Mrs. W. H. Wilmer, at Washington, he was walking 
at the then completing Thomas Circle. He asked the lady 
whose was the new equestrian statue. When she told him 
it was General Thomas, the clerical wit halted facing the 
figure, waved his hand and cried: 

"I am glad to meet you again, sir; and I have all the 
advantage. Now, you cannot answer back!" 

Only nine years ago, when in his eighty-fifth year, the 
stanch bishop died in Mobile. His daughter, Mrs. Minnie 
Wilmer Jones, wife of Colonel Harvey E. Jones, who left 
his leg in Virginia and is adjutant-general of Alabama 
Veterans, resides in Mobile, happy in her children and grand 
children. She is prominent in leadership in the Daughters 
of the Confederacy; and it was she who forced the passage 
of the resolution of Mrs. N. V. Randolph, of Virginia, pray 
ing the abolishment of the sponsor fad, and had it sent 
to General S. D. Lee, veteran commander-in-chief. Her 
brother, Dr. William Holland Wilmer, is the famous ocu- 


list of Washington, where he resides with his accomplished 
wife and three children, his eldest boy renewing the grand- 
paternal name. 

Another Virginian a man of war and a man of sport, 
and later a most famous man of God was Thomas Under 
wood Dudley, Son of Thomas Underwood Dudley, the be 
loved city sergeant of ante-bellum Richmond, and his wife, 
Martha Maria Friend. Born in Richmond in 1837, young 
Dudley was classmate at the University of Virginia with 
Virginius Dabney and Dr. Wm. Porcher Du Bose. More 
notable men in different lines I do not recall, out of that 
character-breeding epoch. Dabney has already been seen 
at close range. Dean Du Bose was a born student and a 
preordained churchman; but he went into the war and got 
his first baptism of fire, ere going into the church to rise to the 
head of its writers and dean of one of its noted sem 

Dudley "Tom," as every one called him was a round 
about fellow, brimming with thought, wit, quick acquis 
itiveness of all worth knowing. He was a feature in college 
life; leading in all the fun and reckless jollity and as Dr. 
Du Bose said in his memorial service "not altogether 
out of its dissipations." As the same best authority added: 
"He was more of a boy, and more kinds of a boy, than any 
one of his time. " 

All these three classmates went into the war: two of 
them Virginians and the other as his name doubly proves 
a Huguenot Carolinian. Dudley went in as private, but 
was promoted to quartermaster captain. Thus he lost that 
rapid promotion which his strong attributes would have 
forced from line service. Early after war, he entered the 
priesthood, under rather strange circumstances. For at 
college he had balanced between opinion and intent. He 
was of legal mental habit, not devotional, V. Dabney in- 


sisted. Young Du Bose combated this with, the dictum 
that "Tom was born for the church!" 

When the surrender was still green, and men were cast 
ing about what to do, a number of us youngsters decided 
to start, at least, with a rollicking visit to Baltimore. John 
Saunders had just moved there; Henley Smith was with us 
and his parents had a lovely home there; the clubs were 
sure to swing wide doors. So we went: Myers, Hampden 
Chamberlayne, Page McCar- 
ty. John R. Key, Innes 
Randolph, myself and Tom 
Dudley. Needless to recall 
what was done, eaten and 
imbibed in that round of 
gastronomy fit for Lucullus! 
The ancient town had indeed 
much caloric added to its 
time! We all roomed at 
"Guy s" the old tavern: 
Dudley and Page McCarty 
being my roommates. One 
morning I was awakened at 
dawn by someone moving. 
Half-asleep, I asked : "Want 
iced water?" 

"More than gold or pre 
cious stones," whispered Dud 
ley. He added not to wake 
Page; he was dressed to 
catch the Washington train, and take that day s Acquia 
Creek boat for Richmond. And he added: "Can t stand 
this pace: it means jim-jams, sure! I m going home to law 
and corn pone!" 

He went, and the next time I met him at a family dinner 




in Baltimore, years after, he wore clerical dress. The change 
possibly induced by Du Bose s insistence, was hastened by 
what I heard later. The story ran thus : 

In those days the route from Washington to Richmond 
was mainly by boat, and stage coach. Recognizing an old 
comrade in the tooler of the four-in-hand, the bishop-to-be 
clambered to the box seat and soon had the reins and was 
bowling merrily adown the pike. Then whether from 
Baltimore on the nerves, or from sitting away from the 
brake he picked up a big boulder, upset the coach and 
threw the insiders into a massed heap. They found their 
volunteer Phaeton with a fractured collar bone and ribs 
and left him at a wayside farm, with a country doctor who tied 
him immovable in starch bandages. Then, after days, the mail 
that had followed him to Baltimore and several delayed tel 
egrams overtook the helpless man. These told him that his 
wife was desperately ill ; and that he must hasten to Richmond, 
if he would see her alive. Sore in body and in conscience, 
the remorseful man took first conveyance and reached home. 
The old intent mastered him; and soon after his wife s death, 
he was admitted to the Episcopal ministry. 

Ordained as deacon in June, 1867, he was placed at Har- 
risonburg. Next year he was ordained priest and made 
assistant to Dr. H. A. Wise, at Christ church, Baltimore; 
becoming rector of that important parish soon after. Then, 
April, 1875 less than a decade from his deaconite 
and in his 38th year he was consecrated bishop of the 
great diocese of Kentucky. His career in the church is 
too recent history to need note here. So is that as chan 
cellor of the University of the South, to which he succeeded 
Bishop Gregg, of Texas, in June 1893. 

Bishop Dudley was thrice married, his first wife having 
been Miss Fanny Cochran, of Loudon county, Va. She left 
four daughters: Catherine Noland, now Mrs. G. S. Richards, 


of New York; Martha Maria, now Mrs. James Kirkpatrick, 
of Collington, Md., Alice Harrison, now Mrs. William Mc 
Dowell, of Lexington, Ky., and Fanny Cochran, the late 
Mrs. H. R. Woodward, of Middleburg, Va. 

The second wife of the bishop was Miss Virginia Fisher 
Rowland, of Norfolk, Va. She had two sons, Thos. Under 
wood, Jr., of Middlesburg, and John Rowland Dudley, of 
Terminal, Cal., and Harriet Gardner Dudley, now Mrs. 
Tevis Goodloe, of Louisville, Ky. 

The third Mrs. Dudley, who survives the bishop, was Miss 
Mary Elizabeth Aldrich, of New York. Her two children 
are Gertrude Wyman Dudley, now Mrs. H. S. Musson, 
of Louisville, and Aldrich Dudley of the same city. 

Bishop Dudley s life was not only a great and busy one: 
it was result ful and efficacious. In it and the international 
respect and praise it won him, is ample room for pleasant 
contemplation to his numerous descendants of the second 
and third generations. 

A still older church worked for the souls and bodies of 
its children. 

Two Jewish synagogues were open all the war, in Rich 
mond; the Portuguese, Beth Shalome, Rabbi George 
Jacobs, and the German, Bethahabah, Rabbi M. J. Mich- 
elbacher. And, outside of church charity proper, Jewish 
women wrought unceasingly in hospital and camp, nurs 
ing and feeding the needy; among them, well remembered 
Mrs. Abram Hutzler, Mrs. Abram Smith, Mrs. M. J. Mich- 
elbacher, the Misses Rachel Levey, Leonora Levy, now 
Mrs. Mayer Hart, of Norfolk; Bertha Myers, Clara Myers 
and Rosa Smith. To one and all, Jew and Gentile, hail! 

Yet, after all and with no irreverence and no disrespect to 
the cloth the truest manifestation of real piety during the 
war gleamed out from the fetid and loathsome hospitals of 
camp and town. 



IF religion be really charity wearing the mantle of hero 
ism, then the noble women and the tireless men who tended 
the wounded and the suffering wrought their own canon 
ization in the Unerring Sight. Nowhere on the globe have 
war nurses worked more ceaselessly and more gently to 
beneficent result; nowhere have they worked against such 
tremendous odds of wearing strain, lacking appliances and 
want of education and experience, in both the tender and 
the tended. 

The distant reaches of the trans-Mississippi, the long 
suspense of Vicksburg, the ghastliness and horror of Bragg s 
retreat; Richmond, Atlanta every blood-hallowed section 
of the fair South, wrote its undying epic of constancy, cour 
age and self-sacrifice, on the white-washed walls of its 
nearest hospital. 

That matrons and mothers did such great deeds was he 
roic; that young and tender girls, nurtured as the darlings 
of luxurious homes, stood with them, shoulder to shoul 
der, through all the war s length, was godlike! 

There is no iota of exaggeration in the recitals of women s 
work for those long, bitter yet resultful four years. Un 
happily, it has been left too much to tradition when it 
deserves graving upon bronze. Even its roughest recital is 
a poem and its memory a sacrament; and, as in most other 


things I attempt to describe, Richmond was the convex 
reflex of that highest manifestation of the Cause "In the 
land where we were dreaming." 

Space permits but casual glimpse of the Richmond hos 
pital trials; but by one all are seen. Nor will mention from 
memory seem invidious, for the grandchildren and one 
time lovers of those dear old girls realize the literal truth 
that theirs was the beautiful charity that elects not in its 
giving of succor and of love, yet strives to hide from its left 
hand the benefactions of its right. 

In a time when no sexagenarian was too feeble, no strip 
ling too young, to answer to unceasing call for more men, 
every girl in Dixie stood ready to line up with the elder 
women and face the sickening or heartbreaking scenes that 
trod, swift and dizzying, in the red footprints of every bat 
tle. And not one record is extant that any single sister 
failed the mute call for aid from the lips of her gray-clad 
brother s wounds; that one turned inattentive ear to the 
message in the fleeting breath to those dear ones far away 
for whom as well as for her he died. 

Through these pages, current note has been made of how 
the women, young and old, gentle and rough, began their 
sacrifices early for "the boys"; how the daintiest fingers 
fell to "scraping lint for the brave to bleed upon." But 
in those hope-sunnied days lint was an incident, as "French 
knots" were later, and wounds were the veriest shadow of 
a glib-spoken name. But as ideas fast indurated into hid 
eous facts, the women of all degrees faced them with some 
thing deeper than bravery: higher and holier than calmness. 
Mrs. Mattie Myers wrote me photographic words of the 
young Fitz Lee, "When life was a jest, and war a pastime." 
But when the glamour dimmed and the jest was finding 
its echo from the Valley of Death, the lint-scraping girls 
had statured to veritable heroines and never dreamed it, 


Eyes that had brimmed over in early partings for the front, 
were tearless under duty s mandate in sight of hideous 
suffering and unaccustomed deaths; little hands that had 
known no rougher touch than that of a true love s lips, 
never trembled when holding the jetting artery, or soaking 
the blood-stiffened bandages from ghastly and loathsome 
wounds. And through all the strain arid suspense and 
noisomeness, there were no mock heroics no slightest 
tinge of self-illustration. 

Elsewhere I have told how the young and brilliant belles 
of war-time would leave the hospital kitchen, or the more 
exacting ward, doff apron and cap to don what ball-dress 
the blockade had left them, or the tinsel and gewgaws of 
the mimic stage, again to work for the one Cause that was 
to them the Trinity of Love and Hope and Duty. To un 
dying honor of the butterflies of that day s fashion, they 
never recalled their gaudy wings, nor longed for missing 
honey, when each and every one went back into the grub 
next morning. 

Not for any ordinary pen is it to write the work of one 
tithe of the noble woman-helpers to fix the shifting scenes 
of their wondrous drama of love and duty done. Yet I 
may record a few that crowd to memory, unbidden re 
sistless. One of their white-clad band has given her " Mem 
ories"; touching the Western and the Eastern war, as 
at Ringgold, Newnan, Buckner s and the heart-freezing 
wake of Bragg s retreat. 

Mrs. Fanny A. Beers, of Louisiana, tells simply of her 
first duty at the sweet, fresh little " Soldier s Rest," on 
convenient Clay street, Richmond. Later, she was a ref 
uge and ministering angel at Gainsville and Resaca, Ring- 
gold and Atlanta: in the wake of Bragg s blood-stained 
retreat. There in charge were Mrs. Gwathmey, Mrs. Book 
er, Mrs. James Grant, with Misses Catherine Poitreaux 


and Susan Watkins, and not forgetting Mrs. Edmund Ruffin. 
Near this was a similar private refuge would that they 
had half sufficed! organized and managed by Mrs. Caro 
line Mayo. Great woman that she was, the flower of Vir 
ginia womanhood was quick to respond to her call. A little 
later, as the war began its first red steps toward quick-com 
ing ghastliness, almost every great home in the city had 
its hospital-room, as de 
scribed in Mrs. Louisa Hax- 
all Harrison s letter, 
heretofore quoted. They 
were the nurseries of the 
famous and selfless nurses 
who made possible the tre 
mendous work done in the 
vast and quick-overflowed 
museums of mangled man 
hood : as Chimborazo, 
Robinson s, Officer s hospi 
tal, the Georgia, Louisiana, 
Winder s, the Alabama and 
the Tompkins. 

The story of the Alabama 
hospital at Richmond is lumi 
nous with the record of a woman who no less authority than 
General Joseph E. Johnston declared, "Was more use 
ful to my army than a new brigade." Mrs. Hopkins had 
married before she wedded Judge Arthur F. Hopkins, of 
Mobile. At the first fighting, she offered her services to 
the state in its crude organizing; developed special fitness 
and was sent to Richmond, before Bull Run. There she 
organized and controlled that great house of mercy, all dur 
ing the war, writing her biography indelibly on the heart 
of many a modest hero yet living of many more that have 



been still for decades. Her memory lives, green and fra 
grant, in Virginia and in her home state. 

Juliet Ann Opie was eldest daughter of Hon. Hierome 
Lindsay Opie, of Virginia, and was born in Jefferson county, 
Va., in 1816. She was in direct sixth descent from Helen 
Lindsay, daughter of Rev. David Lindsay, who died in North 
umberland in 1667 and was only son of Sir Hierome Lind 
say, of the Mount, Lord Lion King-at-Arms, of Scotland. 
In early youth Miss Opie married Capt. Alex. G. Gordon, 
U. S. N., and was early widowed. Later she married chief 
justice of Alabama, Arthur Francis Hopkins. She sold prop 
erty in Alabama, Virginia and New York and gave nearly 
$200,000 to the Confederate cause. She was honored by 
vote of thanks of her state and her face was printed upon 
two of its bank bills. Not only untiring and self-sacrificing, 
she was twice wounded upon the field at Seven Pines, while 
lifting wounded men. She limped slightly from the last 
hurt, until her death at Washington in 1890, when she was 
followed to her grave at Arlington by Gray and Blue. Gen 
erals Joe Johnston, Joe Wheeler and Lieutenant-General 
Schofield, head of the United States Army, were among 
her mourners. 

General Lee wrote to her, "You have done more for the 
South than all the women." Johnston has been quoted 
and, in a glowing letter Wheeler called her even 

It is pleasantly coincidental that the daughter of the 
general who called Mrs. Hopkins "the Florence Nightin 
gale of the South" was known to the soldiers of the Spanish 
war as "the Army Angel." Miss Annie Wheeler won un 
knowing, and worthily wore, that title by her beautiful 
work of love in the yellow fever hospitals in Cuba. Years 
before, General Joseph E. Johnston had written of Mrs. 
Hopkins as "The Angef of the South." 


Her beautiful daughter, Juliet Opie, married old General 
Romeyn B. Ayres, while a young girl, and now resides 
at Laurel, Md. It was to her that the exceptional 
phrase of General Johnston was written. Her two young 
children sleep by her mother and General Ayres at Arlington. 

The heights of Chimborazo had a great and busy hospital. 
Its brisk and brilliant matron was the Mrs. Phoebe Pember 
already spoken of. Hers 
was a will of steel, under a 
suave refinement, and her 
pretty, almost Creole ac 
cent covered the power to 
ring in deft on occasion. The 
friction of these attributes 
against bumptiousness, or 
young authority, made the 
hospital the field of many 
"fusses" and more fun. 

Pretty and charming Mrs. 
Lucy Mason Webb has al 
ready been met on the mim 
ic boards of charity work. 
She performed a heavier 
role, and that most success 
fully, in her long engagement as matron in the Officer s hos 
pital, under Doctors Charles Bell Gibson, A. Y. P. Garnett, La 
fayette Guild and others. Her husband was killed in the collapse 
of the floor of the capitol at Richmond, and the universally 
loved widow devoted her best years to caring for suffering 
strangers, who yet were brothers. 

One noble Alabama woman sleeps in the midst of the boys 
she loved and lived for in the " Soldiers Rest" of Magnolia 
Cemetery at Mobile. Ann Toulmin Hunter was the mother 
of the soldiers, from the day the gray was donned. Un- 



ceasingly she worked for them in kitchen, camp and hospital, 
and when the first nameless dead of her state were collected 
and brought home long preceding this era of pretty parks 
and pretty oratory she never rested until name and roster 
had been recovered, in every case possible. 

When she laid down for endless sleep her wish was carried 
out, and her rest is in the soldiers last home. 

A Georgia matron, whose war-time life and energies were 
devoted to the soldier, sick or well, left her high epitaph 
written in letters of love, upon the monument she reared 
to their honor. The widow of Dr. John Carter of Augusta, 
had been a belle and beauty as Miss Martha Milledge Flournoy. 
Her married life had passed in society: and her widowhood, 
prior to the war had changed her mode of life but little. But 
when the call came, Mrs. Carter threw all her exceptional 
strength of character into work for the boys. She helped 
the men at the front with forwarded food, clothing and 
delicacies; aided the Georgia hospitals in Virginia with 
contributions and personally tended the sick and wounded 
and buried the dead, when the grasp of active war held 
her own state. Mrs. Carter s memory is still green with 
the veterans ; and she has made theirs immortal by her post- 
bellum energy and influence. She it was who organized 
and for many years was president of the Ladies Memorial 
Association; and her zeal and judgment made possible that 
stately monument to the Confederate dead ; of which August- 
ans of today are justly proud. 

Mrs. Carter s death brought universal regret, social and 
civic, in the home city she had served so well. Of her chil 
dren but two survive, but the third and fourth generations 
cherish her memory. Major Mason Carter, 5th U. S. In 
fantry (retired) is now at San Diego, Cal. He went through 
the Civil War; and I latest recall him and his gifted and 
gracious wife, when he was detailed as tactical head of the 


Sewanee cadets and the pair were marked factors in the 
cultured circles of the mountain. His sister, Sophia Flour- 
noy Carter Johnson, resides at the university; and she is 
credited with being the brightest and most helpful of the 
many handsome widows there, who tea and talk and help 
the needy. Her mother s tact and energy have descend 
ed on her and her experience and dramatic tact make her 
the younger "set s" leader. In her picturesque home is her 
daughter, Miss Florine Johnson; but the three sons are 
scattered. Flournoy Carter Johnson resides in New Or 
leans; a skilled chemist. He married Miss Julienne Sneed, 
a Memphis belle and popular in all three of her homes; be 
ing frank as intellectual and a delightful musician. Two 
sturdy and pretty boys complete that family. 

Sebastian King Johnson is still a bachelor, residing in 
Columbus, Ohio; but his youngest brother sets him good 
example. Bertram Page Johnson is first lieutenant in the 
20th U. S. Infantry, stationed at the Presidio, Monterey, 
Cal. He married Miss Augusta Ford Hill, of Helena, Mont. 

The children of Dr. and Mrs. John Carter who died were: 
Captain Milburn Carter, killed on the Confederate side 
at Missionary Ridge; Dr. Flournoy Carter, who served as 
surgeon of Rhett s battery; and Barren Carter, U. S. en 
sign, who served as aide to Commodore Tatnall. 

Miss Emily Virginia Mason has already appeared in this 
narration en doyenne of her family. Past her ninety-fourth 
birthday, she had still a wonderful greenery of heart and 
strength of character and vivacity of mind. She lately wrote 
me with her own hand and retained her quaint and pretty 
humor. I recall her at eighty-four years of age arranging 
to chaperone a party of young girls on an extensive tour 
of Europe. 

The combination of attributes noted made her a leader 
in the great work of the hospitals, all during the war. No 


roster of its immortal matrons would be complete without 
her name. She was almost ubiquitous at the Greenbrier 
White, Norfolk, Charlottesville and Lynchburg, and was 
chief matron of the Winder hospital at Richmond, to 
the very close. With her worked the only other daughters 
of John Thomson Mason who reached womanhood, Mrs. 

Catherine Armistead Rowland 
(whose daughter, Kate Mason 
Rowland, late lived with Miss 
Mason at Washington) and 
Mrs. Laura Ann Thomson 
Chilton, now of Richmond. 

The work of Miss Mason 
has been recorded often in 
print, notably in the Atlantic 
Monthly and in Mrs. Davis s 
book, and she was herself a 
forceful and piquant writer, 
whose pen has been much in 

Only in the February of 
this year, the brave, loyal 
and gentle nature of this ven 
erable lady of another day 
yielded to a sudden stroke of paralysis. She never rallied and, 
on the 17th of that month when this page was ready for the 
press she passed into her better life, painlessly and almost 
imperceptibly. About her bedside were the few still left of 
those nearest and dearest to her; but the thousands who 
knew her name, yet had never seen her face, sent to them 
a true and deep sympathy that was heartborn and a balm. 
Baltimore, Washington, and all Virginia will mourn for 
"Miss Emily"; but the general regret has no limits of sec 
tion. All who knew " of her even, feel that a vital 



link between the past and the present has been broken. 

No memory of woman s work in trying days is without an 
echo of another Virginian, who labored beside her, almost as 
early and in the same rich field of Charity and Love. The 
name of Miss Sallie Tompkins, sister of Col. Christopher Q. 
Tompkins and "Aunt Sallie" as she was known to those 
near her glows freshly today in the heart of many a brave 
fellow who is still here, only through her ministrations at 
the Tompkins Hospital at Richmond, of which she was the 
head and soul. Original, old fashioned and tireless in 
well doing, she was as simple as a child and as resolute as 
a veteran. She is living as these lines are written, I think, 
near the capital in which her work was done; but she is very 
old. She bears the unique distinction of being the only 
woman commissioned as captain in the Confederate Army. 

From the group of noble women who wrought and sacri 
ficed most in the war, Mrs. Henri Weber stands out clearly. 

Margaret Isabella Walker was the eldest daughter of 
Hon. Carleton Walker, collector of the port of Wilmington 
in 1812, and of Caroline Mallet; and was born in 1824, at 
Fayettcville, in that state. Her twin brother was Dr. John 
Mosely Walker, long since dead. The girl was most care 
fully educated by an accomplished father, in her home state 
and at the Barhamville Institute, Columbia, S. C. While 
she was still a girl, he failed by heavy endorsements for 
a friend, then governor of his state; and the daughter began 
that career as a teacher, in which she attained such fame. 
When her family moved to Tennessee she taught at Col 
umbia, and later in Nashville. There she met Professor 
Henrich David Christian Frederich Weber, a notable teacher 
of that day. A warm attachment was followed by a marriage 
in 1852; and the pair settled in Nashville and taught to 
gether until the war began. But the husband was a Union 
ist by principle and education ; and moreover, he had interests 


in the Northwest. He went to Cincinnati, as a base; and his 
wife remained for the moment with her kinsfolk in Ten 
nessee, all her sympathies, education and instincts being 
warmly pro Southern. Then the expected " short war" 
waxed longer and more bitter; Donelson fell and Nashville; 
and communication was wholly cut off between the pair. 
Mrs. Weber, with her two little sons, fled to the home of 
her sister, Mrs. Adams, at Lafayette, Ala. There she strug 
gled on alone, until the neighbors lost all means of paying for 
tuition; hearing only at rare intervals, any word from her 
husband. Meantime she never wearied of caring for the 
well men at the front, or nursing the sick and wounded, 
or sister-like, soothing the last hour of suffering here and 
speeding the fleeting soul. Her record as a nurse and com 
forter is no less white because never blared abroad. It was 
graved deep on the hearts of her proteges. 

Then came what was misnamed Peace. The madman s 
pistol had murdered the infant conciliation and the leaders 
of the Cause were corralled by blind rage and driven into 
prison pens. The eyes of all the world the patience of 
civilization were strained to one reeking and unwholesome 
casemate at Fortress Monroe. And, just then, Professor 
Weber s influential friends secured conduct through the 
lines for his wife. He sent her passports and funds to reach 
him at Cincinnati, by way of Roanoke Island and Norfolk. 
At the former, she was robbed by the guard and she landed 
at Fort Monroe penniless and unable to communicate with 
her husband. But she learned, for the first time, of the 
treatment of "the prisoner of state" and of his shackling 
by Stanton s order, at the servile hands of that general, 
whose service had taught him that obedience to hint of 
superior was the best soldiership. 

Burning with indignant shame, Mrs. Weber forgot self, 
husband, her recent destitution. For the time, she trans- 


figured insulted Southern womanhood. She had ticket 
for herself and the boys to Washington and Baltimore. 
Thence she hastened to Washington and the White House. 
She had known the statesman sartor at home; and he re 
ceived her courteously. But that trimmer to the wind 
of expediency and the moment was just then adamant. 
Her plea for justice even for release of the man she knew 
to be innocent moved Mr. Johnson no tittle. He scoffed 
at the idea of any interference with "Stanton s justice;" 
and, convinced that there was no more power to move him, 
Mrs. Weber gave rein to her disgust and there, in the White 
House, lashed his accidency with verbal knouts. When 
she finally reached her husband and related the episode, 
he cried: 

"What have you done, wife? We have been separated 
for four years and tomorrow we shall be sent together to 
the penitentiary!" 

But no such finale came. Andy Johnson was either too 
busy and baited, or too jealous of his surroundings, ever 
to vent personal malignity upon the helpless ones in his 
clutch. Years after, he met Mrs. Weber, without recalling 
the incident in any way. 

A few years after the war, Prof esser Weber died ; and his 
widow after completing the careful education of her chil 
dren continued to teach at Nashville and added up, in all, 
forty years of service to the youth of that city. No marvel 
then, that when she died in Nashville, two years ago, the 
day of her funeral was made a memorial one by the mayor: 
all schools being closed and the teachers and pupils following 
the flower hidden casket to Mount Olivet. 

Mrs. Weber had two sons: John Walker Weber and Henri 
Carleton Weber; both cultured and experienced instruct 
ors for years. The elder died after long and useful manage 
ment of the Sewanee grammar school under Bishop 


Quintard and Dr. Hodgson. Professor Carleton Weber 
is now superintendent of the schools of Nashville, his native 
city. She had also two step-children, Mary E. Weber, 
now Mrs. F. E. Farrar, and Frederich E. Weber. She also 
adopted a daughter, Eva Theodora, now Mrs. Lyman Syms, 
of Jefferson ville, Ind. 

John Weber, Mrs. Weber s elder son, left four children: 

Caro Carleton Weber now 
Mrs. Marvin Sneed, of Cal- 
vert, Tex., and the mother 
of two children, Marvin and 
John W. Sneed : Margaret 
Isabella Weber, John Walk 
er Weber and Lee Ellis Web 
er, all residing in Nashville. 

The children of Carleton 
Weber are six : Beulah Beau 
mont Weber, Louise Weber, 
Margaret Isabella Weber, 
Sarah Carleton Weber, Doro 
thy Weber and Henri Carle- 
ton Weber; all of Nashville. 

It is notable that this 
remarkable woman began 
teaching at the age of eight 
een, and lived to be eighty-six. 
She married in 1852, and when 
eighty-two years old wrote her reminiscences : after having 
always been a fluent and popular writer of poems and sketch 
es. She- was a stately, elegant personality: a delightful 
raconteuse; and the summer society of Sewanee looked to 
her as its head. 

Another Alabama girl, who later reached more general 
fame, was a wise and willing worker in the hospitals and 



camps near her home. Augusta Evans Wilson, one of the 
most successful women authors of America, was then a tall, 
young brunette, with much promise and even more altru 
ism. Her father s home was close to the Summerville camp 
and the writer-to-be spent all of her time in its kitchen 
and at the bedsides of the sick. Even that early they re 
quired little forcing to take her " compositions. " In her 
age and fame perhaps more valued than the many tokens 
and souvenirs, sent her from the noted far and near, are the 
rough rings, bracelets and baskets, cut from buttons and 
fruit seeds by her convalescents, as only possible expression 
of the love and reverence they bore her. 

These are but few of the many, whose names escape me, 
as they worked for love, and not renown. All honor to the 
few still left ! Equal meed to those who wait the final bugle 
that will rename their " unknown dead." 



THERE is ever a reason given when one side to a contest 
is defeated. If I were asked the most active cause in the 
Confederate collapse I should say: The blockade whipped 
us. It crushed the early hope and strangled the laboring 
breath of the moribund desperation of a hemmed-in few, 
resisting many, peering into black hopelessness, across 
the line of bristling bayonets in front and a cordon of ar 
mored and armed ships behind their only egress and ingress. 

Aptly did camp slang name the blockade the " Conda. " 
It was the crush of the " Conda" that squeezed us to death. 

At first flush of war the masses of the South really be 
lieved that one Southerner " could whip a half-dozen Yankees 
and not half try." 

This feeling was shared, at first, by many an earnest 
fighter, who won the best results after he had learned that 
one to two was easier odds and one to one more sure. It 
is plain that deathless John Brown Gordon felt this when he 
took the" Racoon Roughs to Atlanta armed only with pikes. 
Gallant Barney Bee believed it at cost of a priceless life 
when he cried to Jackson: "They are driving us, sir!" 
Many another, in yellow sash as in unmarked butternut- 
urged by dearest and best loved little heroes in homespun 
at home believed it, until too late. 



Calm Lee, astute Stephens, inspired Jackson, swinging 
old Longstreet tough Jubal Early Jefferson Davis him 
self never trusted in the fallacy, preproved by their know 
ledge of a common people, rent asunder by beliefs and in 
terests that seemed to mean life to each segment. But 
facing the fact discouraged none of the thinkers. 

No one of the leaders of the South ever feared the foe 
in front ; all of them cast nervous glances over their shoulders 
at the blockade behind them. Decades ago I smoked my 
post-prandial cigar, at Atlanta, with a division commander, 
who had won first spurs in Florida and had worn the.m 
worthily in all subsequent wars General William .S. 

"General," I casually Sir Oracled "the blockade whip 
ped us." 

He shifted the brief stump of his leg across his crutch; 
blew one blue ring through another, ere he answered slowly: 
"Well, that . . . and the fact that the mothers of the 
South did not bear all male children!" 

As the war wore on the blockade became a serious prob 
lem, and ere its close a hideous one, in the straining clutch 
for the very means of life. The gradual drain of resources 
had habituated even the wealthier classes to plain fare 
and little of that; but when the whole carrying power of 
the one poor railroad ill equipped and constantly threatened 
by cavalry raids was overtaxed by dire demand of the 
army at Petersburg, privation grinned out of most costly 
cupboards. And even had there been the transport for it there 
was no product in the land capable of supporting the army and 
the people, in any sort of needful comfort. Only in portions 
of the trans-Mississippi were supplies of meat and corn 
quite adequate to the demand; but the entire cis-river Con 
federacy starved and fought. 

As the struggle drew to its close, thoughtful men saw that 


we were dying in gasps under the crushing folds of the 
" Conda. " We were not permitted to fight it out to the bitter 
end and die, but to waste and shrink in an exhausted receiver, 
that had no pinhole of hope nor refreshment piercing to 
its vacuum. 

Yet, there was neither despondency nor pessimism among 
the thinkers of the older set. If felt, it was hidden, or whispered 
only in cabinet, or council of leaders. The young and 
the gay held cheer in their hearts, whatever they may have 
had upon the board. The gloom brought to Richmond s 
kitchens by the blockade never was allowed ascent to her 

It has been shown how the women and girls sustained 
the ardor of the men; sharing with them to the very last 
every dainty now growing rarer daily even denying them 
selves necessaries of life to "give to the boys." It has 
been shown, too, that out of this very sharing of what each 
had, grew the most unique assemblies, or balls, ever known 
in the land. This mutuality of moral support was the ori 
gin of those exceptional " starvation parties" which lasted 
to the very eve of the Dies Irce. They were the wraiths 
and manes of aforetime splendors in every point, save two: 
the old time hospitality and the genuine enjoyment. In 
a pretty long society experience, I recall no dances where 
higher courtliness and real refinement shone than in these 
impromptus of the butternut beaux and calico-clad belles 
of the middle Ws. 

The toilettes? Well, there were some few who held to 
the remnants of glories, when the larders were not even 
restaurants for ants. The recent letter of a brilliant woman 
recalls this, in quotation of "a great get-up" at a very swell 
wedding reception: 

"Let me whisper: this dress, that I now wear for thee, 
Was a curtain of old, in Philadelphee! " 


The over-pious and the pessimistic shook sad heads at 
the recurrent starvations: "It was dancing on the grave s 
edge!" But the girls and the gay ones laughed reply: 

" These poor boys have little enough of fun and frolic; 
and it is little enough to give them all they ask." 

In the " mire-truce" of winter, or when they slipped in 
on duty, that was always a dance. 

The beaux came from every state and every arm of 
service. The navy men were 
always popular, for "Anna 
polis dancing" as well as 
better things. What girl of 
that day forgets Walter 
Butt, Hilary Cenas, the Lee 
boys, or Henry Marmaduke? 

There was quite a flutter 
when the last named was 
transferred from Mobile sta 
tion to Richmond. He was 
an original with nomadic 
turn that has clung to him, 
even in the old bachelorhood 
he is now passing at Wash 
ington, in congenial and al 
truistic work for friends of 
old . Henry Hungerf ord 

Marmaduke was the fifth of the six Marmaduke brothers : all 
in service save one too young. These were Colonel Vin 
cent Marmaduke who fought his Missouri regiment from start 
to finish. He first married Miss Spence, of Tennessee, 
who left two daughters: Mrs. Dr. Harrison and Mrs. Robert 
Gary, of Kansas City. His later marriage to Mrs. Ames, of 
Missouri, brought no children. He and she are both dead. 

General John S. Marmaduke won high repute in the 



Western army and was governor of Missouri after peace. 
He died a bachelor. 

The third Marmaduke, Meredith Miles, married Miss 
Harvey, of Missouri, and had several children. They moved 
to Florida, where their many descendants are well known, 
as well as in other states to which they have scattered. 

Darwin W. Marmaduke first married Miss Sappingtori, 
of Missouri, who died without children: but the second 
wife has three. She was Miss Mary Crawford, daughter 
of Colonel James Crawford, of Mobile. The children are 
James Crawford Marmaduke, of Seattle; Zemula, Mrs. George 
C. Pope, of Iowa; and Mrs. Henry Ames, of St. Louis. 

The fifth brother we have seen; and the youngest, Leslie 
Marmaduke, now lives in St. Louis. He also married one 
of the Crawford sisters (Zemula), the third being now Mrs. 
Wm. M. Mastin, of Mobile. Leslie Marmaduke has two 
unmarried daughters. 

But while there was penury at the capital there was 
often luxury at the port. The blockaded towns, especially 
Wilmington, had opportunities for things they had never 
dreamed of before. When families in Richmond, who were 
on easy terms with truite a la Tartare, recognized Stras 
bourg pie as a friend and sipped burgundy familiarly, were 
living entirely on cornmeal, rice and slim-side bacon, I was 
sent to Wilmington for a blockader s cargo of ammunition. 
Capua and Corinth rolled into one had not seemed more 
like fairy-land. 

The ordnance cargo had not managed to elude the lazy, 
hulking double-enders guarding the Cape Fair; but a trader 
steamer had slipped in from Nassau with perishable cargo, 
in part. At the blockade headquarters I dined on South 
down mutton, brought over on ice, fresh fish, tropical fruits 
and even oysters. The men themselves took them all as 
a matter of course, but I fear that my own appetite and won- 


derment must have startled my really hospitable hosts. 
I had been to the ports before on similar missions, but then 
the privation inland and at the border had not made the 
contrast so glaring. All the ports had more or less comfort, 
but Wilmington was the veritable city of Lucullus on the 
Confederate map. 

Around that city, too, centred most of the stirring inci 
dent and romance of "runnin th Bloc." That little river 
was the feeder, in great part, of the cannon that spoke to 
Pope, McClellan and Joe Hooker even to Grant for a time 
and bade them " Stand back!" It was the hope of the sur 
geons and eager hospital matrons, for medicines and ap 
pliances that the smaller "Potomac Ferry" could not furnish. 
It was, too, the grave of more than one adventurous fellow 
and of one beautiful woman, whose fate was stranger than 
that of Absalom. It was down that river, too, that hand 
some and ill-fated Frank Du Barry floated to his death, 
and was buried in the sea, with a sail winding-sheet and a 
32-pound shot at his feet. 

The last time I saw " Jimmy" Clark was forty-four years 
ago ; the day that Lee evacuated Petersburg. He had been my 
boyhood friend in Washington and my partner in more than 
one round of the cosy parlors, or tke glittering gambling dens 
of Richmond, when he came back from Camp Chase, in 
February, 1865. On the morning of Lee s retreat, Clark 
was watching the shell-ignited tobacco warehouses, with 
the pretty Lucas sisters, as his parole kept him from better 
duty. Capt. Frank Markoe galloped up and told him he 
was to take Miss Mary Lee back home on a train that would 
bring in Field s division. In his late letter to me, Clark says: 

"I landed Miss Mary safely, at Mrs. Lee s, Grace street, 
about two A. M. next day; and left Richmond before day 
light, up the canal for the Valley. I did not see any of the 
boys, if indeed any of them were left in Richmond." 


James Louis Clark was the son of Major Michael M. Clark, 
U. S. A.; and though born in barracks, was my chum at the 
Rugby Academy, at Washington; now Hotel Hamilton, 
on K and 14th streets. His lovely mother was Miss Anne 
Matthews Johnson, of Frederick county, Md., and the other 
children were: Duncan Clinch Clark, who married Miss 
Chrissie Haywood; Jula Lee Clark, John Mackay Clark, 
Thomas Johnson Clark, who married Miss Elizabeth Ma- 
gruder; Annie Johnson Clark, who married Joseph Rieman; 
and Charles Michael Clark. The married ones all reside 
in Baltimore. " Jimmy" came South as quartermaster 
of the First Maryland, resigned to go on Stuart s staff and 
then commanded Troop F, of (Harry Gilmore s) Maryland 
cavalry battalion. He was a popular fellow in Washington 
and later in Richmond with both sexes. After the war 
he disappeared in the then Wild West. He was district 
attorney for the Leadville district and is now at his mine 
in Colorado, 135 miles from a railroad. Last June I wrote 
a syndicate sketch of Jefferson Davis. In faraway Col 
umbine, Clark picked up a copy of the Savannah News, 
saw my name on the article and sent a tracer letter 
to that city. Since we have corresponded and recently 
he wrote me of a Richmond breakfast that defied the block 
ade and was remarkable in its collection of notables of that 
day. It is worthy of reproduction also, as showing Gen. 
Jos. E. Johnston s estimate of Gen. R. E. Lee. It was at 
the time when General Johnson was ordered to command the 
Western army, on recovery from his wound at Seven Pines; 
and when the relative merits of Lee and Johnson were much 
discussed. Clark writes that he was in Richmond, having 
resigned from the First Maryland and not having yet joined 
Gen. J. E. B. Stuart as volunteer aide. He adds: 

"Gen. Johnston s first act had been to appoint Major 
Alfred Barbour, who had been his chief quartermaster at 


Manassas, to the same position in the Western army; and 
Major Blue Moore, who had been first assistant, to his old 
post. A week or so before the general went West, a break 
fast was given by Majors Barbour and Moore, at Old Tom 
Griffin s, on Main street. Rumor said the breakfast was 
to honor the reconciliation between Senator Henry S. Foote 
and Hon. Wm. M. Yancey, who had been estranged after 
long intimacy ; and both these great men were enthusiastic 
partisans of Gen. Johnston. 

"Major Barbour presided at head of the table; Senator 
Foote at his right and Gov. Milledge T. Bonham of South 
Carolina, next. Then came Gen. Gustavus W. Smith and 
next, Major John Daniel, of the Richmond Examiner, with 
his arm in a slirig from the wound received while acting 
as Johnson s aide, at the time both were shot down. 
Next sat Gen. Johnston, on the left of Major Blue Moore, 
who held the foot of the table. On Major Moore s right, 
I sat: next me, John Bonne Gary and next, his brother, 
Wilson M. Gary, who was going West, with Major Moore. On 
his right was Gen. John B. Floyd, late Buchanan s secretary 
of war; and finally, Mr. Yancey, on Major Barbour s left. 
And "The breakfast was one such as old Tom Griffin alone 
could prepare, though I recall nothing of a menu, rare in 
those days. Being a youngster, I was all attention to the 

"Gen. Johnston, as usual, was taciturn; still suffering 
much from his unhealed wound. But Mr. Yancey and Mr. 
Foote were the life of the party, while others, of course, 
contributed their mite to its success. Mr. Daniel the 
most brilliant editor the South had was a close second 
to Gen. Joe Johnston for taciturnity. Gen. Bonham sang 
several sweet little love songs; but the head of the table 
virtually had the whole innings: Yancey and Foote vicing 
in brilliancy. Suddenly, Mr. Foote said: 


" Gentlemen, what do you think? Some time ago, 
Mr. Yancey characterized me as an old duffer! Then, 
turning to Mr. Yancey, Now, Yancey, you know I was 
married a little over a year ago. You are to come and take 
breakfast with us tomorrow; and we will show you as fine 
and bouncing a boy of three months, to disprove your epi 

"And, amid great laughter, Mr Yancey agreed to adopt 
the breakfast and the boy! 

"The breakfast lasted from ten to twelve o clock; and 
then Mr. Yancey said to Old Tom Griffin: Bring fresh 
glasses and fill bumpers of champagne. 

"When this was done, Mr. Yancey arose and said: This 
toast is to be drunk standing, and he looked straight 
at Gen. Johnston, who kept his seat, when all the rest arose; 
Gentlemen, let us drink to the health of the only man who 
can save the Confederacy General Joseph E. Johnston! 

"The glasses were emptied with enthusiasm amid great 
applause. The general had not yet touched his glass. 
Now he took it up and said gravely: Mr. Yancey, the man 
you describe is now in the field, in the person of General 
Robert E. Lee. I will drink to his health! 

"Mr. Yancey s reply came like a flash: I can only reply 
to you, sir, as the speaker of the house of burgesses did 
to Gen. Washington: "Your modesty is only equalled 
by your valor! " Then the breakfast was over." 

The Wolf had early begun his permanent siesta upon 
the doormat. The dire straits for food and shelter, suc 
ceeding the battles around Richmond caused the government 
to endorse and encourage the hegira started by the fears 
of the floating feminine population. Georgia and North 
Carolina were the favorite refuges in their inland towns, 
like Charlotte, Salisbury, Milledgeville and La Grange. At 
the last, my mother and sisters were measurably comfortable, 


later in the war. While not wholly immune from raids, 
the little places gave families easier access to Richmond 
and to earlier news, thus living in less anxiety and at cheap 
er rate. So, refugee life became a distinct war system and 
some of the coteries in the disused factories and school 
buildings were of cultivated women and exceptionally bright 
young girls. They were as free from men as the latter day 
watering-places ; but convalescent young heroes and droppers- 
in returning from brief fur 
loughs prevented utter stag 
nation of sentiment. Espe 
cial prizes were men notable 
in society for marked traits, 
as "Jim Frazer, the hand 
somest man in the army :" so 
written down in a delicate 
but faded handwriting. 
Sometimes flirtation ran its 
length; and more than one 
engagement " for three years 
or the war," became a real 
ity before it matured. One 
special case attracted much 
comment then and is still 

Mr. I. I. Jones, a prosperous merchant of Mobile, discount 
ed Jepthah of old and, in the language of the green cloth, 
"went him five better." A man of sense, as well as of taste, 
he educated his sextette of daughters under his own eye 
and kept it jealously upon them. They had singular una 
nimity of beauty; all being gifted with the peculiar charms 
of form and face and voice that mark the highbred Hebrew 
maiden. Sarah, the eldest, is now Mrs. Louis L. Morrison, 
of New York, and has a notable family: Mr. L. L. Mor- 



rison, Jr., being a prominent lawyer of that city. The second, 
Julia, married Mr. J. K. Cobin, of the same city. Their 
daughter, Miss Rosalind, a brilliant and most sought mu 
sician, is now Mrs. Ransom Wright, of Augusta, Ga., and the 
only son, Mr. I. Jones Cobin, coincidently wedded the most 
noted and popular of Mobile musicians, Miss Julia McPhillips. 
They now reside in Brooklyn. 

The third of the Jones sisters, Adelaide, married and died 
long since, as did her children; and the fourth, Emily, became 
wife of a famous rabbi of New Orleans, Rev. James K. Gut- 
heim. She was prime mover in the great Touro Infirmary, 
of that city. Her funeral, a few years after that, was par 
ticipated in by clergy of all denominations ; over ten thousand 
people of all classes and van-loads of floral devices, making 
it a sort of mortuary carnival. The fifth sister, Bertha 
Jones, married Major Thomas P. Brown, one of the most 
popular and prominent of Mobile s merchants. There, 
still reside two of their fourteen children: Mr. T. P. Brown, 
Jr., who married Miss Winnie Forbes; and Bertha, wife of 
Mr. A. E. Reynolds; while Mr. Golden Brown is a merchant 
of Hong Kong. 

When a girl in her teens, the youngest of the Jones sisters 
was heroine of a romance at La Grange. Miss Esther was 
perfect type of petite brunette in face and figure; her mid 
night hair still in long plaits. She soon became the toast 
with youthful heroes, straying into that almost Adamless 
Eden. There were other notable women there, too; Mrs. 
Phillips, of Ship Island; the families of Senators Sparrow, 
of Louisiana, and Ben Hill, of Georgia; Mrs. Clay, Misses 
Emily and Esmeralda Boyle, the poetess, and many another. 

The pretty stranger, though young, was already affianced 
to dashing Garland Webb, a troop captain from Kentucky. 
He was at the front, but his younger brother, John Webb, 
chanced in La Grange a nd set up protectorate over his sister- 


to-be. At a soiree in honor of her, one of those trifles that 
made the sum of life, with the hot bloods of that day, fell 
out between Webb and Captain J. S. Barrett. 

Next morning saw the whole town wending its way to a 
suburban field. All women were on tiptoe of excitement, 
except the innocent cause of the affair of honor. But when 
she "Saw his body, borne by her on a shutter," Miss Jones 
shrieked, flew to the telegraph office, and wired her sire 
to come. He arrived promptly; meeting at the station 
arriving Captain Webb, who came to nurse his brother, 
or bury him! Happily, no need for that last ceremony, 
so Yew and tears were replaced by orange blossoms and 
smiles. The beautiful casus belli became Mrs. Esther Webb. 
All the " colony" assisted at the pretty, if sudden, function: 
Misses Hennie Hill and Fannie Sparrow were bridesmaids. 
But the sequel was an early funeral at New Orleans; and the 
girl-widow went to her father. She was much sought 
by army beaux; but it was several years before she mar 
ried Mr. Clifton Moses, of South Carolina. Again widowed, 
she devoted her life to rearing her two lovely daughters. 
Only one of them, named for her father, now survives, to 
be the stay and comfort of her mother s advancing years. 

Mrs. Phillips, the Boyle sisters and many another of 
the La Grange refugees have passed the shadowy border. 
Miss Hennie Hill married, many years ago, Mr. Edgar Thomp 
son, of Atlanta. Only in mid-February of this year she 
died in that city. She was the only daughter of the great 
senator; but his two sons still illustrate the famous name in 
the state for which he did so much: Ben H. as chief jus 
tice of her court of appeals; and Charles S. Hill, solicitor 
of the superior court of Fulton county. So, the orator- 
statesman s name will be kept in its present green life by 
his descendants of the third generation. 

Miss Fannie Sparrow, the bridesmaid named here, was 


the youngest of the three daughters of Senator Edward 
Sparrow. The eldest was Anna, who married Mr. Decker, 
of New Jersey and had several children; one of them now 
being wife of Hon. C. S. Wyly, of Lake Providence, La. The 
next sister, Kate, when widow of George Sanderson of Nat 
chez, married George Foster. Her two daughters are Mrs. 
Joseph H. Kent, of Roanoke, Va., and Mrs. J. M. Tomp- 
kins, of Lake Providence. 

Miss Fannie, the bridesmaid, married Captain A. M. 
Ashbridge, and went to reside in Pau, France, during the 
war, but returned to the Lake Providence neighborhood. 
One of her daughters is now Mrs. C. A. Voelker, wife of the 
prominent planter of the same parish. 

How many names recur in these pages to recall the line 
of the old song : 

" Some at the bridal and some at the tomb!" 



FEW habitues of Washington, in winters preceding 
the war, have forgotten "the beautiful Greenhows." Mrs. 
Rosalie Greenhow was still handsome and young-looking, 
although one of her daughters, Miss Florence, was a con 
fessed belle and the easy peer in good looks of her famous 
cousin and rival, Miss Adele Cutts. The second sister, 
Miss Gertrude, was also a charming girl; and the then baby 
of the family was little Rosa, her mother s idol. 

The beautiful eldest sister married Lieutenant Treadwell 
W. Moore, of the regular army. Of course she remained 
North, love being more masterful than section, and her son, 
Captain Treadwell W. Moore, is now with his infantry com 
mand in the West. 

The father became a general and died in 1876; the mother 
died at Narragansett Pier in 1892, and four years later Cap 
tain Moore married Flora Green, daughter of General C. L. 
Cooper, U. S. A. They have no children. 

Mrs. Greenhow was the sister of Mrs. J. Madison Cutts. 
Their daughters divided capital belleship until Miss Adele 
Cutts became the wife of Senator Stephen A. Douglas. La 
ter she married a noted army man, Captain Williams; and 
their daughters have since been popular factors of Washing 
ton sociality. 

Mrs. Greenhow was a famous beauty, and as Rose 



O Neill gained the sobriquet of "the Wild Rose." She mar 
ried Mr. Greenhow of the state department, and at his death 
was still a young and elegant woman. Southern enthusiast 
she was, and when the war came offered her aid to Mr. Davis 
and did useful and delicate secret service. Once she col 
lected a large sum of money abroad, changed it into gold 
and went to Nassau, to take a blockade-runner into Wil 
mington. Safely passing the fleet in Cape Fear river, 
she was landing in a small boat when her footing missed, 
and she went to the bottom. The gold, belted about her 
waist, drowned her before the sailors could reach her. In 
her arms, all the voyage, she had carried her beautiful little 
girl, Rose, scarce more than an infant. The child was saved, 
educated partly abroad, and returned to America in the 
early ; 70 s. She went upon the stage in New York, 
was induced to leave it by friends; and later married an 
army officer. During Mrs. Cleveland s time at the White 
House, she was a noted beauty at the capital and a prot 
egee of that tasteful and charming " first lady." Miss 
Gertrude Greenhow died unmarried in the South, late in 
the war or shortly after it. 

The story of poor Du Barry was an equally pathetic one. 
Of fine old Maryland stock, splendid physique, and much 
personal magnetism, he had left a marine commission be 
hind to come South from conviction. The second year 
of the war saw him a captain of ordnance at Mobile. It 
was gossiped in Washington society that he had left the 
love of his life behind him, in the keeping of a pretty woman 
with a " signer s" name; but he was suddenly married in 
the Gulf City, in her very fresh widowhood, to Mrs. Willie 
Chandler. This lady, whom I first knew as Miss Carrie 
Holbrook, of New York, had a peculiar sway over men 
from her early girlhood. Scarcely accounted beautiful, 
she could have given " handicap" to any prize beauty after 


the first half hour. Chandler s early death left her with two 
children, Holbrook, who died before reaching full manhood, 
and Florence the unhappy Mrs. Maybrick, whose case 
has so moved the sympathetic on both sides of the ocean. 
The Du Barry nuptials followed the burial of his prede 
cessor swiftly enough to cause an equal amount of gossip. 
Within the year I had urgent letters to try and have him 
sent abroad, as the doctors said a sea voyage was the sole 
hope for some mysterious 
malady that was rapidly 
ending him. Influence and 
his old memory with the 
Davis and Mallory families 
soon got him orders to pur 
chase ammunition abroad. 
I met him on arrival at 
Richmond, shocked to see 
but a wreck of the brilliant 
fellow. I was en route, as 
it chanced, to Wilmington, 
convoyed the party to that 
port and held the later Mrs. 
Maybrick on my lap much of 
the tedious and trying trip. 
They boarded the slim speedy 
blockader; she ran swiftly through the lubberly watchers 
at the river s mouth and the next day was safe at sea. That 
afternoon the gallant tar in command of the runner was 
startled by the news that Du Barry had died very suddenly. 
The again widowed wife insisted upon his immediate burial, 
at sea; declaring that his emphatic wish. The last of the 
society favorite was slid from a plank into the Atlantic, 
to stand upright in its depths until it gives up all its secrets 
at the Judgment day. Mrs. Du Barry went abroad and was 



married more than once again. She was last the Baroness 
von Rorque and resided jn Germany, where her last hus 
band has wealth and rank. Madame was unhappily in ev 
idence at the lamentable trial of her unfortunate daughter, 
the two appearing wholly bound up in each other. Since 
Mrs. Maybrick s reappearance in America, I believe her 
mother has returned also, for permanent residence. 

Of the once wonderful little magnetizer of our sex, a vete 
ran warrior and society man wrote me very lately, from 
the Pacific coast : 

"And speaking of old Washington days, I was again 
reminded of Frank Du Barry in reading the other day of 
Mrs. Maybrick. That took me back to Frank and further 
back to the Holbrook house, in 14th street, New York; 
and I again almost see the face of Carrie Holbrook in front 
of me! She was a wonderful dancer, as you recall; and 
I knew her very well. After Frank s death she married 
some Englishman, I think." 

I think the lady made several marriages, after that with 
Willie Chandler, when she had recently shone in Baltimore 
and Washington circles She met her first husband while in 
Mobile, to visit her uncle, Rev. Jos. H. Ingraham, the poly 
gon divine who wrote the "Prince of the House of David," 
the "Pillar of Fire," and some far different romances. That 
marriage connected Miss Holbrook with some of the oldest 
families in the South. 

Gradually then more rapidly, fatally the stricture of 
the "Conda" tightened about its predestined prey. Better 
naval workshops, unlimited cash or equivalent credit a- 
broad and the navies of the world to draw from at will, 
strengthened the coil and closed every port hermetically, 
save Wilmington. But that port was literally the key to 
the Confederate situation; its lungs and heart combined. 
So the brain of the nation fostered it with every food and 


stimulant that poverty and depletion could command. Re- 
ponse quick and earnest came; but the vitality that feeds 
upon itself must at last succumb. Captures and shipwreck re 
duced the blockade vessels that could not be replaced, and 
the reckless, daring officers of the risky service, finding them 
selves without ships, began to drift into other fields. My 
last visit to the port, to carry a cargo of shells to Richmond, 
was sad contrast to the first 
one I described here. The 
town was listless and dull, 
the river front deserted, and 
the blockade managers 
moody from suspenseful 
watch for the now rare in 
comers. These brought no 
more luxuries, the dire need 
for shot and shell and arms 
relegating them to simply 
army transports. They were 
received gravely and their 
cargoes rushed to the front 
as fast as one badly 
equipped road constantly 
raided and frequently cut 
could compass that result. 

Meantime, the fall of New 
Orleans had closed the small 
incoming at the Passes and 
had sealed the river. 

My brother and his wife ran into New 
of the last of the low, swift steamers that eluded 
assembling for ascent to the city. 

Tiring of diplomatic mission in Europe, which he felt 
could avail nothing, he took conge and sailed for Bermuda, 


Orleans in one 
the fleet 


to run the blockade and join the army. He had married 
while in Egypt, but his wife had never been on this side. 
Now she insisted on sharing the peril of his venture, even 
urging him to take the very first vessel. This chanced to 
be an old one for New Orleans. The trip was safely made 
but at the Passes the runner was sighted and closely chased 
by several gunboats. My sister was, of course, the only 
woman aboard, and while shells were passing over the craft 
she learned for the first time that its entire cargo was com 
posed of shells and powder. The runner was struck twice, 
but landed her two passengers safely at the Crescent City, 
whence they proceeded direct to Richmond. 

After the fall of New Orleans, and later of Vicksburg, 
the re-inspired North redoubled the numbers and the vigi 
lance of its land-bordered blockade. Especially was this 
the case along the Potomac, infraction of that coil of the 
"Conda" having theretofore been a pastime with advent 
urous men and earnest, helpful women. 

Of these, some were the tenderest darlings of home and 
society, but they braved the roughness of camp and the 
long, icy rides to the river often through hostile lines that 
caused hiding by day and progress only at night to what 
was known as the " Potomac Ferry." Strangely enough, 
the ferryman was often an old Maryland " plantation hand/ 
more loyal to "ole mar s" than to the Bluecoats fighting 
for his freedom as they thought. 

Both Misses Hetty and Constance Cary crossed the river 
more than once, bringing back rare drugs for the sick and 
information as valued for the generals. Sometimes a des 
patch or a plan of a marching raid was curled in the soft 
tresses of a Baltimore woman, sent through as " rebellious, " 
on the flag of truce boat. 

"Jeb" Stuart, Fitz Lee, Pierce Young and others for 
aught I know intfusted some women with permanent 


passes through their lines, to come and go at will. But 
there was another class, seeking notoriety, gain or some 
thing else more than the good of the Cause, and the flare 
from their overadvertised flambeaux has obscured the quieter 
light of some better and far more useful women volunteers. 

We have met Miss Chestney before, in soubrette 
parts" and as a tyrannous teener. She was the friend 
and trusted adjutant of Mrs. Randolph, in all entertainments 
for charitable ends. She was a native Washingtonian and 
sister of Major Oscar Chestney, named lately. 

In the late 50 s Carusi s dancing school was the Mecca 
of the gilded squads of the national capital. There, was 
met a petite and blonde beauty, who danced like a sylph 
and had a tact and a wit all unknown to the average of the 
"best society" of mythologic date. 

Every function, social or dramatic, in Richmond, knew 
Miss Chestney; every fellow with good taste admired her, 
but her pose was that of a reticent " Victory" and her tri 
umphs save the blockade and stage ones were never 
discussed. Today, as the widow of Hon. George H. But 
ler, this lady is familiar to the cultured and diplomatic 
circles of the capital. She is the replica of Ninon de L En- 
clos, physically, for none meeting her as strangers could 
believe that this belle of the 60 s had ever known the war 
save by report. 

Elsewhere I have mentioned Ratcliffe and Henley Smith 
of Mosby s corps. The latter has late gone to answer "Ad- 
sum!" when his name was called from the great roll. A 
gallant, generous, cultivated gentleman he was, descended 
from a line of such, his father having been Hon. J. Bayard 
H. Smith, of Washington and Baltimore. Both were law 
yers and both, as the grandfather had been, treasurers of 
the Washington monument association; the first of the three 
having been one of the founders of the old National Intel- 


ligencer. Henley Smith, in his late teens, was at Princeton, 
when the echo of the Sumter gun came to him. He ran 
away, joined Mosby and served through the war with 
wounds and credit, but never sought the promotion that 
wealth and influence would have added to commendation. 
After the war he settled in Washington, marrying and spend 
ing the leisure of wealth in study and travel abroad, and 
elegant, but unostentatious hospitality in his Dupont Cir 
cle home. He died suddenly 
at Florence while on a Con 
tinental tour, leaving his 
widow to bemoan his passing 
away in a strange land and 
without warning. In 1867 
Henley Smith married Miss 
Rebecca Young, daughter of 
McClintock Young, of Fred 
erick county, Md., who had 
passed most of her girlhood 
in Baltimore; and much of 
their married life was spent 
in that city. The union was 

In his last letter to me 
Smith described a ride he and 
Ratcliffe took with Miss Chestney when she crossed the 
Potomac in 1865 to get medicine and clothing. She made 
the trip alone, after her escorts were forced to leave her, 
returning successful and remaining South for the rest of 
the war. 

The river blockade was broken often, to advantage of the 
hospitals and the larders of Richmond, often to the bring 
ing of important cipher despatches that gave warning of 
coming raids or advance in force. It was the " underground 



mail" too that told the " foreign" fighters of the loved ones 
at home. Nor was it without its humors and its comic 
episodes. Randolph, the ever-ready, has embalmed one 
of its meaner advantagings in a clever parody beginning: 

We rowed across the Potomac, 

We put up cash and then rowed back, 


We re loaded deep with hats and shoes, 
Or medicines the rich can use 
At prices that just beat the Jews! 

Maryland, my Maryland! 

There is neither need nor space to touch upon the dry 
and familiar details of the naval composition of the Con 
federacy. The glamour and romance, in great part, and 
pretty nearly all of the usefulness of the sea side of the pic 
ture, hang about the dashing and reckless work of the \vooden 
flyers. But obdurate circumstances forced the rest from 
resultful sequence into mere episodes brilliant, immortal, 
but null. 

So it was with the outside attempts of the gallant, expe 
rienced and eager naval men, chafing at inaction or uncon 
genial duty and crushed in by the bulky folds of the" Conda. " 

The hoped-for building of iron-clad gunboats the dear 
ambition of hopeful and able Secretary Mallory was cut 
off in infancy by closer-drawn land blockade giving quicker 
ingress to cavalry raiders. Building in sequestered rivers, 
many of them had to be destroyed to save capture. A 
saucy speech there anent was made to the secretary by Miss 
Maggie Howell. Invited to inspection and lunch aboard 
a new ironclad, in the James, near "Rocketts," full praise 
was given by all. As we left the side the genial host said: 

"Well, ladies, I have shown you everything about them." 


"Everything but one," Miss Howell replied demurely, 
and to the secretary s surprised stare, she added: "The 
place where you blow them up?" 

The story of the greased money-slide facilis descensus, 
indeed had been told too often to re-detail. Hanging at 
slight discount from gold for nearly the whole first year, 
Confederate bonds and currency alike began a drop as 
sudden and as shocking as a broken elevator in a sky-scraper. 
Ten, twenty, a hundred for one, was the quick-coming ratio. 
In the last year of the confessedly hopeless struggle, twelve 
and fifteen hundred dollars in notes was often given for one 
gold dollar. The last pair of riding boots I bought cost 
eighteen hundred dollars, but they would have been a 
rare bargain, at the exchange rate, in any Northern city. 

It is related that General Lee was first recipient of the 
ever-quoted differentiation of past and present, by an old 
woman neighbor of his. In Richmond one day he met the 
good dame, with a large basket and a small purse to which 
she clung with eager grip. Ever pleasant, even when op 
pressed with cares, the great leader said: 

"You must think it is Christmas, from the size of your 

"No, indeed," she retorted sadly. "Time was when I 
carried my cash to market in this purse and brought the 
provender home in the basket. Now I have to tote the notes 
in the basket and I can just bring the marketing back in the 

There was deep truth under this exaggeration and its 
parent was the blockade. Had the ports been open, or 
forceable, had the steel line along the border been pene 
trable, had the state and treasury departments listened 
to reason and urgence, in putting the cotton of the South 
abroad, in time, as a basis of credit, there might not have 
been a chance for the Cause in which all fought and suffered 


and starved alike, but the fighting had then been done with 
out the backward glance that showed starvation in the 
home of the loved ones far away; misery and suffering in 
the unsupplied homes of the torn, and fevered effigies of 
man, left by the dire crush of the " Conda. " 



SOME rare names shine out of History s page, as though 

created for its illumination. 
These stand examplars for 
all time. Fame takes their 
wearers by the hand, with 
Justice and Truth on either 
side, to pedestal them in her 
own "Hall." 

Before one niche in 
Fame s own hall, every 
comer seems to hear, as in 
whispers from remoter past, 
his own father s words of 
another, who stood first in 
war and peace, first still 
morc in the hearts of his 

The war between the states 
from its origin in deep-rooted 
prejudices and its growth to 
red maturity, in an era of 

strong men, on both sides of the historic river, threw to the 
surface of bubbling events more than one who was to hold 
thenceforward the eye of the world. 




Of them, one rises today whenever that war is named: 
a man calm ; noble and potent beyond his peers. In mid- 
rush of interest, ambition and self-seeking, this grand form 
elicits admiration, respect and affection in the hearts of all 
" conditions of men" and women. No life I can recall 
is more truly epitomized in the lines penned by his state s 
truest poetess, on the death of one of his bravest lieutenants, 
Turner Ashby: 

"Bold as the Lion-Heart, dauntless and brave; 
Knightly as knightliest Bayard could crave: 
Sweet, with all Sydney s grace 
Tender as Hampden s face 
Who, who shall fill the space, 
Void by his grave?" 

Young people, without 
exception, loved Lee. He 
was their friend in word and 
in deed, even when the stress 
of action, or the shadow of 
desolation bore upon him. 

His gentleness to the young 
and his knightly thought for 
women are pointed by one 
simplest act, best told in the 
simple words written me by 
Mrs. Harrison, of Baltimore 
u little " Louisa T. Haxall at 
the time of Appomattox: 

"I was away from Rich- MILDRED LEE 

mond When the girls Were (YOUNGEST DAUGHTER OF GEN. LEE) 

asking for buttons and stars from General Lee s coat, after 
the surrender and he was at home on Franklin street. On my 
return, I was visiting his daughter Mildred, and the gen- 


eral asked if I would go with him into his little office. Out 
of one of the little old trunks he had carried through the 
war, he took a button and a star which he said he had saved 
for me, thinking I would care to have them. 

"You may be sure I did. The button I have, set in gold 
in Geneva, Switzerland. The star I keep, unset. 

"A while later, my father heard that the mess at General 
Lee s home had had no meat for some days and no money 
to buy it so he sent some hams in my name, knowing that 
then they would not be refused; and other things from our 
farm helped in their menu for many months." 

Robert Edward Lee was facile, if modest, the centre of 
every group into which he came, whether cabinet, council, 
conference of military leaders, highest social functions, or 
giddy throngs of youth. 

Descended from historic stock, "their names, familiar 
in your ,. mouths as household words," the brilliant acumen 
and oratory of Richard Henry Lee and of his cousin, Henry 
Lee, were almost forgotten in the calm, impelling presence 
of the man to whom his fellows, no less than his inferiors, 
looked up with a confidence and hope that touched upon 

When the war was over and the "solitude" made in the 
South was called "Peace," the wrath of an incensed and 
policy-goaded North halted hatred and suspicion at the 
threshold of one Southern leader. The breath of most 
venomous rumor never once sullied the mirror-surface record 
of this Virginian. Mrs. Clay, incidentally and with no thought 
of praise, or word of wonderment, notes that when the John 
son junta summoned Lee, as witness, in 1866, all men of all 
parties paid him deference that was silent homage. 

When the gratitude, love and admiration of his own people 
reared an equestrian bronze to their great soldier, at their 
once capital, even his old foes forgot for a time that "the 


war is not yet over. " They, too, paid the tribute to the man 
that they had denied to the leader. 

Decades later, when his centennial came, a world bared 
its head in deference and respect for worth that knew no 
narrow bounds, but permeated the greatness of a time. 
Then some who had weighed that side of his career states 
men from every quarter of this and other countries, scholars 
and poets with the world s ear, even the universal press 
all paused in mid-rush of 
ambition, greed and self- 
seeking, to lay their tributes 
of bay and oak and laurel 
on that one man s grave. 

Then, voices long discord 
ant joined in strange, new 
unison; chanting one psean 
to greatness too white to be 
denied its purity. Then, 
even that most strenuous 
denouncer of the past and 
dead " rebellion, " he who 
had once at least over 
stepped the further bound of 
unforgiving zeal, in his vig- ^AJ.-GEN. w. H. F. ("ROONEY") LEE 

orous mode of speech these, one and all, spoke the name of 
Lee in deference that neared to love. And in love is found all 
highest and purest tribute to this rare nature. His tallest and 
fairest monument rises from the hearts of his people self- 
erected, sempiternal. 

The twice-told tale of "Lee to the rear" was one proof 
irrefutable of this love. Even in death and disaster his 
simple words were held as priceless guerdon and fadeless 

When dainty but knightly Lord Page King rode through 


the hail of Frederic ksburg and died with Lee s message to 
his own general upon his lips, the former spoke three words 
that stand with the family record cere perennius: "Poor, 
brave boy!" 

When the boy cannoneer laid his meteor career at the feet 
of Glory and fell, 

11 Hushed in the alabaster arms of Death," 

his name was linked to immortality in three words of Lee: 
"The gallant Pelham!" 

Only short months ago I dared essay "The Living Lee/ 
for his centennial. Then the reckless, contumacious boy- 
fighter who had carried General Lee s last despatch safely to 
Mr. Davis wrote me of the verses and added: "God! what a 
privilege to have lived in his time and known him." 

Lord Bulwer, following "Cinq Mars," made the greatest, 
if the craftiest, cardinal of France, himself a soldier, boast 
that his secret to control of men, of a kingdom and almost 
of a world, was "Justice!" 

What was the talisman of Lee, the magnet that drew to 
him all hearts of men? It was something higher than Justice : 
Truth, in its highest meaning of loyalty, constancy and faith ; 
truth unswerving, to country, to race and to his Maker! 

This ingrained truth permeated every fibre of the man, 
dominated every act of his life. It shone through his early 
boyhood at Alexandria, where his father had carried him, at 
four years of age, for schooling; in his still earlier days, when 
orphaned at eleven years and he bore it, clear and radiating, 
through his West Point life. He was a "model cadet" and 
pointed to as example for his classmates. That Mentor- 
trait made him the "gentleman subaltern" in the day of 
frontier-duty recklessness ; the trusted and favorite staff- 
captain of Scott in Mexico; the efficient and praised superin- 


tendent of his alma mater , and through them all, the patriot 

Even criticism now concedes that he loved his country 
even as he loved his state. His own words tell that when he 
longingly erased the "U. S." from the sword, still stainless. 
Who may doubt his real patriotism after reading the heart 
break in that letter to his wife that hid, for her sake, some of 
the struggle, suspense and anguish of his decision, made 
wholly for truth s sake. 

I have classed General Lee 
as a "Union man"; that 
class of fighters who struck 
for conviction, but ever 
without hate. He, loving the 
mother-state more, loved her 
mother none the less. 

Who held the olive high above 

the sword, 
But "Duty" read as God s 

sublimest word! 

He could have been noth 
ing else. His name, lineage K 

and dearest ties and interests , MRS - ROBERT E - L EE 

were all too inextricably 

mixed with the Union not to bring a sigh with every blow 
against it that Duty struck. 

Defeated, though not disarmed,* through the just sense of 
the victor, he was at heart and in post-bellum precept, a Union 
man in the real and better sense. He had no confession of 
error to make, no forgiveness to crave. .Loving one part as 
nobly as he had proved, he could never have hated the whole, 

*General Lee s sword was never offered to General Grant as currently 
stated. It was, therefore, never returned. 


even when falsely dominated and misdirected ; even when his 
fair state was relegated to "District One!" 

Another Mexican veteran who carried his captaincy to a 
major-generalcy, in the Ws, was also a " Union man." 
William S. Walker was a stripling lieutenant at Chapulte- 
pec. He was the first Bluecoat over the castle wall, and with 
hand upon the halyards to run down the captured flag, heard 
the voice of his captain behind him. The young Bayard 
turned, saluted and asked his senior to do him that honor. 
When he was a major-general with one leg, at Atlanta, a 
decade ago, it was my privilege to meet him often and to 
hear some novel facts about two wars. One of his stories 
proves that General Lee s quiet vein of humor was not ob 
scured by the smoke of battle and that he perhaps knew the 
never spoken prejudice of the ultra secession element. 

At one closely contested battle Walker bore a message 
from his corps commander to General Lee. At the moment 
of its delivery one of that corps brigades, commanded by a 
gallant fellow who had carried his convention for secession, 
but could not hold his men against overwhelming odds, fell 
back in disorder. 

Not taking down the field-glass, through which he watched 
this check, the general said quietly to Walker: 

"Order General to put in s division. Major, it 

seems to be left to us Union men to win this battle!" 

Personal beauty is the least of all attributes to be con 
sidered when speaking of the truly great, yet General Lee 
won admiration at a casual glance. 

Mrs. Chesnut records at length her impressions on first 
seeing him. She was driving with Mrs. Preston and two other 
ladies, when President Davis rode by, mounted on a superb 
Arab stallion, sent him through the blockade by my brother. 
Mr. Davis was an exceptionally fine horseman. The white 
stallion was of straight descent from the mares of the Prophet 


and my brother had to smuggle him out of Egypt. Yet the 
dear old Carolina chronicler frankly states that the magnifi 
cent man on another white horse, afterward so famous as his 
pet, Traveler, attracted all the curiosity of the feminine 
quartet. Mrs. Chesnut distinctly records him as "the 
handsomest man I had ever met." 

By odd coincidence another Carolinian, of the other sex 
and far wider experience of men, used these identical words 
of their subject, about the same time. In his "Secret His 
tory of Confederate Diplomacy," Edwin De Leon describes 
an interview that has not gone into history. When he ran 
the blockade, he was closeted with Mr. Davis discussing the 
foreign situation. General Lee entered hurriedly, with a 

"Addressing Mr. Davis he said: I have some news from 
Savannah, Mr. President. 

"Mr. Davis looked up quickly, a shade of anxiety on his 
face, as he replied: I hope it is good news? General Lee 
calmly replied, I regret to say that it is not. Fort Pulaski 
is taken. A flush of vexation passed over the worn face of 
the President. Should this have been, General? You 
know that fort. You examined its defenses a short time since. 

11 In my judgment it was impregnable/ answered General 
Lee, and then went on to state what those defenses were.; 
adding with his unvarying fairness : Our information, as yet, 
is too scanty to permit us to judge of the merits of the case. 
This only is certain: the fort has surrendered. 

"What struck me most in this interview," Mr. De Leon 
says, "was the manner in which these two leaders took the 
reverse; the unshaken fortitude the almost Indian stoicism 
displayed by General Lee and the absence of all petulant 
complaint on the part of the President. It was a lesson in 
self-command and dignity, for both doubtless felt more than 
they cared to show to one another. 


"At that time General Lee unworn by the anxieties and 
privations which afterwards aged him in appearance was, 
I think, one of the handsomest men I have ever seen. His 
face was closely shaven, and a small, dark moustache shaded 
the upper lip. Both in face and form he looked a young man, 
while his stately figure, carried with military erectness, in 
duced all who passed him by 
to turn and look again." 

In my first book upon the 
war-time, "Four Years in 
Rebel Capitals" (printed in 
1867), I told of the return 
of stanch Major Tom Brand- 
er to his desolated home city. 
Then came the most touch 
ing scene of the war s end 
ing: the love and veneration 
of his neighbors for Robert 

"Next morning a small 
group of horsemen appeared 
on the further side of the 
pontoon. By some strange 
intuition it was known that 
General Lee was among them 
and a crowd gathered all 
along the route he must 
take, silent and bareheaded. 

There was no excitement appearing no cheering, but as 
the great chief passed, a. deep, loving murmur far deeper 
than either rose from the very hearts of the crowd. Taking 
off his hat and merely bowing his head, the man great in ad 
versity passed silently to his own door. It closed upon him and 
his people had seen him for the last time in his war harness." 



When next they saw him leave that quiet home, it was as 
the calm, simple citizen of Virginia the plain man of duty. 

Uncouth indeed were the hand that would draw the curtain 
from what had been the strain and struggle and heartbreak of 
that brief interval the travail and the trial preceding self- 
conquest. The minor physical trials have been naively told 
in Louisa HaxalPs words: the strain on brain and soul had 
made them as nothing. 

But the stainless sword that the magnanimous victor never 
asked for was sheathed forever. The Arthur of modern war 
had hung Excalibur upon the walls of History. 

It is now accepted truth that this man might have led 
the armies of the Union; might have fought at the forefront 
for the flag that lineage, habit and logic all had made so clear 
to him. General Scott, ever his warm and outspoken ad 
mirer, had recommended him for the leadership of the forces 
that were massing to "save the Union." 

Quite recently the G. A. R. posts of Washington grew 
restive at the "treason" that permits plain statement of an 
historical fact, by a Virginia woman, to be conned in the 
public schools of the capital. Our "comrades across" need 
have borrowed no trouble. Robert Lee had refused the 
substance forced into his hand by the most potent power 
at the war s opening. The fact remains; its tenuous shadow, 
through time need never have disquieted. 

Close after the peace, overtures were made to General Lee 
to take command of the armies of Roumania, against the 
Danubian principalities. He declined the proffer, on prin 
ciple, as he had the urgence from Scott. Then the offer, as 
seen, was made to Beauregard. 

Potent French influences behind Maximilian urged appoint 
ment to marshalship in the army of Mexico upon the defeated 
Confederate chief. He never paused to consider the sugges 
tion, nor a similar one from the khedive of Egypt, ready for 


the formal making, had my brother been able to give the 
least hope for its acceptance. 

When Lee sheathed the sword honored at Appomattox, 

it was forever. Thence 
forward the sublimest word, 
"Duty," was to be read- 
Peace. When he gave his 
parole, it was not lisped in 
the letter to be violated in 
the spirit. He was "not 
made of such slight ele 

The man of war had be 
come the Virginia citizen of 
peace, pledged to labor to 
her rehabilitation through 
the right and the reason in 
him even as he had preferred 
to do before the trial by fire. 
In his conduct of the uni 
versity that now bears his 
name, twinned with the other 
" First in Peace," he wrought 
for the upbuilding of his state, and through her, of a re- 
perfected Union. In both his eldest son succeeded him. 

The pungent paragraphist and caustic satirist, Donn 
Piatt, has partly listed for us, in his "Men Who Saved the 
Union," such bright exemplars as Lincoln, of Kentucky; 
Stanton, of North Carolina, and Thomas, a Virginian. 

James R. Randall suggests another Virginian, Farragut, 
who perhaps did as much in his watery way as any of the 
trio, toward the brilliant "wreckage." The list may not be 
expanded from the trans-Potomac, but there were unnamed 
and unnoted workers "in the South, saving and recementing 



the recent shattered segment by their work to save the rele 
gated " Districts." 

"Keen was the smart, but keener far to feel 
He plumed the pinion that impelled the steel." 

Foremost among such rebuilders was Robert Lee. 

No need have such men of statue or of eulogy ; of paean or of 
poem. They grave their own stories deep upon time. Tardy 
Truth at last erects their forms in Fame s own Hall! 




THE proverbial veracity of good blood has found fresh 
proof in that of the Lees, since far beyond "the Conquest." 
There were Lees, or Lias, or Leighs, in Normandy, harking 
back to the followers of Hollo and, possibly, in the van of 
that rough Viking. Launcelot Lee came over with the con 
quering William, and fought valiantly at Hastings. Sir 
Lionel Lee was in the Crusades as a favorite knight of doughty 
Richard the Lion Heart, displaying such prowess at the 
storming of Acre as to win later the earldom of Litchfield, 
with broad acres which he named "Ditchley." 

The progenitor of the Virginia Lees was Richard Lee, 
of Shropshire, England, who came over in 1641, under the 
protection of his friend, Sir William Berkeley, governor 
and favorite under the first Charles. 

Richard Lee sat down on the broad acres in York county, 
ceded him by the crown, building his manor near Green 
Spring, the Berkeley home. He became a noted man in 
the colony, having many grants of new lands and many 
offices of honor and profit under Berkeley and succeeding 
governors; was burgess, justice, secretary of state and 
member of the king s council, at different times. In phy 
sique he was imposing and handsome; in character, dig 
nified, generous and loyal to friends, traits he has sent shin 
ing down time through his descendants. He and his sons 



owned many plantations in the Northern Neck of what is 
now the state, as "Stratford," "Ditchley," "Lee Hall/ 
" Langley, " and "Coton, " all named from the old English 
seats of the family. 

At his death, in 1663, he was succeeded by his son Richard, 
2d, and in his issue, the family branched into three distinct 
divisions. These were the Stratford line of Richard, 3d; 
the Ditchley one headed by Hancock Lee, and the Cobb s 
Hall branch by the young 
est son of the second Rich 
ard, Charles Lee. Details of 
this earlier family, interesting 
as they are, must give place 

to later connections. Richard zfr ^ 

Lee, 2d, married in 1674, 
Letitia Corbin, whom he sur 
vived with their six sons and 
one daughter, Anne, who 
married Colonel William Fitz- 
hugh. In her will she left 
to my son Henry, my grand 
father Corbin s wedding ring, " 
the grandson being the 

grandsire of the Confederate ADMIRAL SYDNEY SMITH LEE 



Of the six sons of this Richard Lee, those directly con 
nected with this reminder are Thomas and Henry, the fifth 
and sixth. The former was prominent in all matters of the 
commonwealth and noted in its Indian difficulties. He 
was princely in his entertaining at Stratford, and was known 
to chronicle as President Lee. He married Hannah, daugh 
ter of Colonel Philip Ludwell, as his second wife, after the 
death of the first spouse, the celebrated Lady* Berkeley. 
Thomas Lee was acting governor of the colony for con- 


siderable time and the king sent him royal commission as 
governor, the first ever written in the name of a native 
Virginian. His death, in 1750, occurred before the tardy ship 

mail delivered the parch 
ment. He left six sons un- 
__ surpassed in the history of 

^{H^L Virginia the great "band 

mr" ^^ of brothers, intrepid and 

-^ f^p unchangeable/ of whom 

President John Adams wrote. 
These were Thomas Ludwell 
Lee, Richard Henry Lee, 
I Francis Lightfoot Lee, Wil 

liam Lee, Philip Ludwell 
Lee, and Arthur Lee. The 
brilliant granduncles of Rob 
ert Edward Lee, were all 
men of high parts, admirable 
CAPTAIN R. E. LEE, JR. culture and of preeminence 


in the stirring antecedents of 

Revolution. When the Westmoreland Declaration against 
the Stamp Act was signed in 1765, four of their names were 
found upon it. Two of the brothers signed the Declaration 
of Independence, Richard Henry and Francis Lightfoot Lee. 
Both of the Virginia signers were born in the same room at 
Stratford wherein the Confederate general first saw the 
light, seventy-five years later. 

Allurement to dwell upon the splendid achievements of 
this branch of the family must needs be curtailed; space 
hastens me to that of the second son of the second Richard 
Lee, who was the great-grandfather of our general. He 
was appointed by Governor Spottswood to succeed his father 
as naval officer of the Potomac; but he took no other office 
and little active part in public affairs. He married Mary 


Bland, daughter of Theodoric Bland, of Westover, thus 
allying the Lees to the Randolph and Tucker families. 

They had three sons, all of whom were in the colonial 
house of burgesses. The eldest of these, Henry Lee, was 
also county lieutenant of Westmoreland, up to and during 
the Revolution. What brings him closest to our interest 
today is that he was grandfather to "The Living Lee," 
his son, Henry, third successive to the name, having been 
" Light Horse Harry," of Washington s army. His elder 
brother, Charles Lee, was Washington s attorney-general. 

Young Henry was a brilliant and distinguished student 
at Princeton. Graduating early, he changed the usual 
foreign tour of well-bred 
youth of that day for a 
company of militia at the 
battle of Lexington, com 
manding it with such dash 
as to win instant note as a 
soldier. He was quickly 
promoted to major and lieu 
tenant-colonel, in command 
of -"Lee s Legion" of light 
cavalry, from which he took 
his sobriquet. He won the 
respect and love of Wash 
ington and a place in mili 
tary history scarcely second 
to that of his son. Congress 
voted him its thanks, and 
presented him a special med 
al for detailed achievements. 

General Harry Lee married his cousin Mathilda, daughter 
of Philip Ludwell Lee, thereby becoming the owner of the 
Stratford estate, shortly after the surrender of Cornwallis. 

> " 




He was three years governor of Virginia and her represent 
ative in congress. On the death of Washington he spoke 
that eulogy of him which has become immortal, little dream 
ing that his own youngest born would have it fitted to him 
so closely thereafter. 

By his marriage with his cousin, Henry Lee had four chil 
dren, and by his second, with 
Anne Hill Carter, six chil 
dren. Seven of these were 
sons, of whom four reached 
adult age; these were Hen 
ry, Charles, Sydney Smith 
and Robert Edward Lee. 
This youngest son was elev 
en years old when his 
father died in Georgia, in 
1818, at the home of his old 
commander, General Greene. 
It were more than twice- 
told tale to any reader to 
trace the record of Robert 
Lee. Going to West Point 
in 1825, he graduated in 
29, second in a class of 
forty-three, entered the 
Engineers and two years later married Mary Randolph, 
daughter of George Washington Parke Custis, of Arlington. 
This union was a model one, bringing tender sympathy 
and high incentive to the soldier s early life, that never 
flagged in the zenith of his fame, or when trial, suspense 
and loss unspeakable whelmed his country and his home 
in desolation. 

The pair had seven children, George Washington Cus 
tis, Mary Custis, William Henry Fitzhugh, Anne, Agnes, 



Robert Edward, Jr., and Mildred. Only the eldest sister, 
Miss Lee, is living, and spends most of her leisure time 

Miss Anne Carter Lee died in 1862 and was buried at 
White Sulphur Springs, in North Carolina. There her grave 
is lovingly tended by a woman s association formed for 
that work of love. Her sister, Agnes Lee, followed her 
eight years after the surrender. She sleeps beside her mother, 
at Lexington. Miss Mildred Lee was the youngest of the 
family. She was the "Baby girl," growing up during the 
war, and was her father s pet, if he had one, in his great 
and even love for his children. She was the idol of the 
household as well as of the veteran organizations, on the rare 
occasions when she came into their contact. She died only 
in March, 1905, followed by the universal sorrow of the 
South and a wide sympathy from the North. 

All the Lee men and boys, the general s three sons and 
six nephews, went early into the Confederate service and 
stayed in it to its ending. All of them did active and good 
service, and three won the rank of major-general, not be 
cause of their name, but from the merit and manhood in them. 
Of them all, only four are now living. General Custis Lee 
and Captain R. E. Lee, Jr., the general s sons, and two 
of his nephews, John Mason Lee and Daniel Murray Lee. 
The first is the present head of the Virginia Lees, a cultured 
and courteous gentleman, who resides at Ravensworth, 
Burke Station. He never married and is a great sufferer 
from rheumatic gout, which prevented his retaining the 
presidency of Washington-Lee University, to which he was 
unanimously chosen as successor to his father; and which 
unfits him for active use of many of his high attributes and 
exceptional accomplishments. He graduated with distinc 
tion from West Point, in 1854, about the time that " Little 
Joe" Wheeler entered the academy. 


General Custis Lee went early into the Confederate ser 
vice, rising to command of his division through service in 
the field and especially good work in the planning of the 
defenses of Richmond, as well as in command around that 

William Henry Fitzhugh Lee, the next brother, was 

called "Rooney" by their father 
and the army, and even history 
has adopted the name, to distin 
guish between him and his first 
cousin, of the same name, abbre 
viated to Fitz. He was educated 
at Harvard, but appointed to a 
lieutenancy in the army, at the 
express request of General Win- 
field S. Scott, who ever held the 
father in high esteem. Later, 
young Lee left the army and 
became a planter at the White 
House on the old Custis estate, 
where George Washington 
changed the pretty widow s name 
to his own. 

At the outbreak of the Civil 
War, "Rooney" Lee entered the 
army as a captain, rose grade by grade, and surrendered 
as a major-general. That grade he won at the age of twenty- 
seven, through distinguished and resultful command of 
cavalry when opposed by some of the best Federals. 

He was later elected to congress three times, and was 
twice married. His first wife was Miss Charlotte Wick- 
ham, cousin of General Wickham. She died in 1863, after 
losing her two young children. Three years later, the wid 
ower married that belle and beauty of later war-time, Miss 


MRS. W. H. F. LEE 




Mary Tabb Boiling, who survives him, with two sons, Colonel 
R. E. Lee, 3d, and Dr. Boiling Lee. These are the only 
grandsons of General Lee: already proving "ensample of fair 
name" through which their gentle mother will live in history 
as a modern Cornelia. 

Robert E. Lee, Jr., was but a youth in 1861. He prompt 
ly put on a private s jacket in the Rockbridge battery of the 
Stonewall Brigade, and won his captaincy on the cavalry 
staff, under " Rooney" Lee, "Jeb" Stuart and others. 
He was twice married, first to Miss Charlotte Haxall, who 
died childless, and later to Miss Anne Carter, daughter 
of Colonel Carter, of the University of Virginia. Today, 
with two daughters, Mary Custis and Anne Carter Lee they 
reside at Romancoke, near West Point. 

The third son of " Light Horse Harry" and Ann Hill 
Carter next older than Robert was Captain Sydney 
Smith Lee, of the old navy. He could have been an ad 
miral had not the impulse of race carried him across the 
Potomac. There he was promptly accorded his former 
rank, did good work and became the trusted adviser of 
Secretary Mallory from his thorough familiarity with the 
men of his old service. He became admiral when the law 
created that grade. He married Anna Maria Mason, of the 
Gunston branch, and strangely enough in Virginian dupli 
cation of names, the sister of Mrs. Samuel Cooper, Sarah 
Maria Mason. 

Fitz Lee was the eldest of their six children, all sons. 
A graduate of West Point, he was a dashing dragoon in the 
old service; familiar beyond need of reminder in the new 
one; consul-general to Havana, and so retained by the ad 
verse party for his war knowledge; governor of his state, 
its desired candidate for senator and later brigadier-general 
in the regular army. Fitz Lee s later record and his death, 
with the universal grief it brought, are too recent to rehearse. 


He married Miss Ellen Bernard Fowle, daughter of William 
Fowle, of Alexandria, and she survives him with a family 
of five, three daughters and two sons. Miss Ellen Lee mar 
ried Captain Rhea, of the Seventh United States Cavalry; 
her next sister, Anne, married Lieutenant Lewis Brown, 
and the youngest, Virginia, lately married Lieutenant John 

Carter Montgomery, all of 
the same regiment. The 
eldest son, Captain Fitzhugh 
Lee, is in the Seventh Cav 
alry, and was attached to 
the presidential staff at 
Washington, and George 
Mason Lee is a lieutenant 
in the same regiment. 

Sydney Smith Lee, the 
brother next to Fitz, was 
a lieutenant in the Confed 
erate Navy. He was first in 
the Drewry s Bluff batteries, 
and thence was sent abroad 
to await the building of the 
foreign cruisers. Tiring of 
inaction in what he and Sam 
Barron called "The Paris 
CAPTAIN HENRY CARTER LEE Navy, " he was recalled and 


(4 TH SON OF ADMIRAL LEE) served oil coast defense duty 

and in the small inland-built 

ironclads, of brief life. He never married, though he survived 
the surrender and was as popular with the gentler sex as 
with his own. He died in 1887. 

Major John Mason Lee, elder of the two surviving sons 
of the admiral, now resides in Stratford county. He made 
good record in the cavalry of the A. N. V., winning his rank; 


and after the war married Miss Nora Bankhead, daughter 
of Dr. Bankhead, of that neighborhood. There are five 
children of this union: Miss Nannie Mason Lee, Mrs. Lin- 
wood Antrim (Dorothea Lee) of Richmond; Mrs. C. P. 
Cardwell (Bessie Lee), of Hanover; John M. Lee, Jr., and 
Bankhead Lee. 

Henry Carter Lee, next brother to John Mason, also served 
in the cavalry and gained his captaincy. He married 
Miss Sallie B. Johnston, and resided in Richmond, dying 
there two decades ago. They had three : sons and one 
daughter: Johnston and Smith, now of Richmond; Willie, 
now living in New York, and Miss Nannie Mason Lee, of 

No youngster was better 
nor more pleasantly known 
in war-time Richmond than 
Dan Murray Lee, the next 
youngest son of the admiral. 
He entered the C. S. N. at its 
formation, as a midshipman, 
and came out of it web- 

footed as it were; passed- 
middie and staff captain. He 
was on the Merrimac of 
famous memory: later at 
Drewry s Bluff, on the 
Chickamaugdj and in the 
Chicora and other vessels 
in the long defense of Charles 
ton; at the capture of Ply 
mouth and Fort Fisher and 
later in the batteries around Richmond. He was captured 
at Sailor s Creek, escaped and joined his brother Fitz and 
acted on his staff, with rank of captain. Was at 



Appomattox, but escaped and only surrendered a week 
later, at Farmville. Thirty-two years ago he married Miss 
Nannie Ficklen, whose mother was Miss Fitzhugh, of 

Chatham, who married Mr. 
Ficklen, of Falmouth. 

Dan Lee now resides at 
Highland Home, near Fred- 
ericksburg, on a model stock 
farm. The pair have six 
children; two girls, Misses 
Edmo Corbin and Mary 
Custis Lee: D. M. Lee, Jr., 
J. B. F. Lee, Sydney Smith 
Lee and H. F. Lee. The 
eldest lives in California; 
the second on his Mexican 
ranch ; the third is lieutenant 
in the United States Marine 
Corps in Cuba and the 
last is at the V. M. I., 

The youngest of the six 
brothers was a mere boy all 
during the war, but went in and saw service during its last 
year. This was Robert Carter Lee, now dead many 
years. He never married. 

Such is the roster of the Lee family in war and peace, 
and there is no need to emphasize its place "in the hearts 
of its countrymen." 





JACKSON was gone: the Valley was unguarded, and its 
wastes were the open back door to the capital. There was 
dire need of men to check the secure invader. Then young 
boys sprang to the rescue. 

General Scott Shipp, the lieutenant-colonel, comman 
dant of the Virginia Military Institute, at Lexington, was 
called upon by Breckinridge. Not one boy flinched. Shipp 
led every one big enough to "tote" a musket, fought them 
against Sigel s artillery until he was shot down, and even 
then the youngsters stayed in under Captain Henry A. Wise 
until the fight was won; capturing the Union battery and 
many prisoners. They went in a battalion of 470, in four 
companies commanded by Collier Harrison Minge, of Ala 
bama, Company A; C. W. Shafer, of Virginia, Company 
B; S. S. Shriver, of Virginia, Company C, and B. A. Colonna, 
of Virginia, Company D. They left eight dead upon the 
field, and forty-four wounded. The former roll of honor 
reads: W. H. McDowell, of North Carolina; S. F. Atwell, 
W. H. Cabell, J. B. Stanard, F. G. Jefferson, H. T. Jones, 
C. G. Crockett, and J. C. Wheelright, all of Virginia. 

Captain Minge was given the post of honor in command 
of the artillery section and as a comrade writes me "bore 
himself very gallantly." Colonna, "Old Duck," was at 
hand-to-hand; hammering a gunner over the head with his 
cadet dress sword. Shriver also was conspicuous for dash and 



coolness. The color-bearer was complimented for vim and 
pluck, and the sergeant-major, Woodbridge, coolly took 

his place forty paces beyond 
the line, to form on, as 
though on dress parade. 
"Little General" C. C. 
Randolph, who had been 
Stonewall s courier, and was 
sent to the V. M. I. " because 
he was no larger than a 
broiling chicken," was fear 
fully wounded, and it is a 
wonder he ever recovered. 
He is now the Rev. Charles 
Randolph, of Evington, Va. 
First Sergeant Erskine Ross, 
of "A," was distinguished 
for gallantry. He is now 
United States circuit judge 
in California, and Color- 
Bearer Oliver Perry Evans 


also became a San Francisco 

judge. First Sergeant A. Pizzini, Jr., was specially noted 
for "grit," as was peach-cheeked "Coonie" Ricketts, the 
envied pet of the petticoats. Winder Garrett, of Williams- 
burg, ran his bayonet through a gunner in the charge that 
took the battery, and he and Charlie Faulkner captured 
twenty-two big Germans, barricaded in an icehouse. 
Cadet Levi Welsh, of "B," made a great mark for daring, 
and Patrick Henry, of Tennessee, won- his spurs through 
all the fight. Grim and gallant Professor-Captain Henry 
A. Wise always commended the bearing of Edmund 
Berkeley, Bob Brockenborough, Preston Cocke and Pern 
Thomson. All were "Valley boys, except Cocke, who was 


from the James River Valley, but of the old Preston blood. 

That a number of Alabama boys were in, I chanced to 
know. H. Walker Garrow, a fine fellow, later loved in 
Mobile, was one. Another letter, equally unsuspecting of 
publication, from Minge, says: 

u The cadet corps little stunt at Newmarket seems to 
have crept into history as a marginal note. This seed- 
corn battalion/ as President Davis styled it, when he heard 
of the slaughter of the innocents, has been tenderly handled 
by all the recorders. It was without question a most beau 
tiful and touching illustration of Lee s grand maxim, Duty 
is the noblest word in the 
language. And then the 
book closes. 

" There are no specific rec 
ords left and no specific 
deeds. Hunter, in his cam 
paign of desolation up the 
Valley, destroyed the institute 
and its records, June llth, 
1864. The rosters were ob 
tainable only from the mem 
ories of those officers whose 
duty it was to call the com 
pany rolls. These were 
collected and revised with 
care, until I think all who 
participated in the battle were 
enrolled in the four companies. 
I had been honored with the 
first captaincy and helped to 

return that roster. Other cadet officers did the same for 
their several companies and the result is in the possession of 
the institute. It is inscribed on four tablets on sides of the 



base of a memorial standing at the entrance to Jackson s 
memorial hall. I would not trust myself to* call over that 
company roll again at the age of sixty-two. 

"Sir Moses Ezekiel Zeek/ of tender memory was one 
of the boys." 

After the war Minge went into the cotton business in 
Mobile, thence removing it to Shreveport. Now he is the 
prosperous, if portly, head of houses in Shreveport, New 
Orleans and Texas towns, with a summer home at Mississippi 
City. He married Miss Eva, daughter of the noted and popu 
lar Colonel A. J. Ingersoll, of Mobile s halcyon days. Their 
family of adult boys and girls is the pride of the most youth 
ful grandmother in her section. Collier H., Jr., married 
Miss Theo Vance; uniting Revolutionary blood of South 
Carolina and Virginia. Ethel Ingersoll married Mr. Richard 
Montague Walford, an English gentleman in the cotton 
business. Miss Ingersoll Minge, the second daughter, was 
recently queen of New Orleans carnival; the third Miss 
Jeannie Dixey, like her, refuses to leave the paternal 

I have noted already that Gay lord B. Clark was at the 
V. M. I., Newmarket. He was sent early from his native 
Mobile to Lexington as a pupil to General Pendleton; en 
tered the institute and was a sergeant in the "cornseeds." 
How he bore himself is told in a late letter from a com 
rade: "He was the man who made everybody laugh, under 
hottest fire. He grabbed the tall sugar-loaf hat of some 
Yankee officer, placed it on his head, put one foot on a dead 
artillery horse, folded his arms and struck an attitude. Then 
he coolly asked whether he did not look like Napoleon Bona 

He became a noted lawyer in Alabama and a power in her 
publicism. He married a brilliant belle of post-bellum Mobile 
Miss Lettice Smith, whose father was Colonel Robert 


White Smith, a prominent merchant and a cavalry commander 
in the war. On her mother s side she is of the Virginia 
Hunters. Mrs. Clark is a still youthful and popular society 
woman, with two children: Gaylord, who took his degree in 
his father s profession at the University of Virginia, and Let- 
tice Lee Clark, one of the most popular young women of far 
Southern and Virginian society. 
Another son of Francis B. 
Clark, his namesake and next 
to Gaylord, graduated at the 
V. M. L, before entering the 
law and becoming his brother s 
partner. He left two sons, 
Francis B. Clark, Jr., of Texas, 
and Rev. Willis G. Clark, of 
Montgomery. The military 
strain of the family blood 
inheres in General Louis V. 
Clark, of the Alabama National 
Guard. His cadet company 
won the first prize at the 
interstate drill mentioned, and 
he was later on headquarters 
staff at Washington and 
Chicago encampments. The other living brothers are 
J. Shepherd Clark and Burnet L. Clark, editors and owners 
of El Comercio, the Spanish trade journal of New York. 
Mrs. Burnet L. Clark, as Miss Armantine Oliver, was one of 
the most beautiful and charming belles of the after-war 
Mobile. She retains both traits in her New York home, and 
has loaned them to her fair young daughter, Miss Pauline. 
The youngest of the six sons of Francis B. Clark except 
Louis, is Le Vert Clark, now of Detroit. He was in the Mobile 
law firm, but married Miss Parke, of the Michigan metropolis, 



and removed there. Gaylord Clark had but one sister, Miss 
Nellie, who married Norman Brooks and resided in New 
York until widowed. Now she lives with her father and 
brother, in Birmingham, while her only son, Russell Sage 
Brooks, completes his university career. 

When my brilliant, yet astute, friend, Henry W. Grady, told 
the North of the "New South/ he knew the efficacy of a 
rallying cry as well as did the inventors of " Old Hickory" 
and "Tippecanoe and Tyler, too!" as well as did Colonel 
Bryan when he inverted the " Crown of Thorns" and amal- 
gamized the " Cross of Gold." 

Grady knew that there was and could be no "New 
South." He knew that it was the same old South, bracing 
her every sinew and girding up her loins for a fresh struggle 
with the conditions of day-after-tomorrow, out of the methods 
of day-before-yesterday. He knew, thinker that he was, 
that the habits and traditions of three centuries could no 
more be whistled down the wind by a word than they could 
be uprooted by the sword, and what he knew then exists today. 

The North and the South alike cherish their memories, the 
bitter through proper loyalty, the sweet through love. 

The United Confederate Veterans were organized for two 
objects: to preserve the sweet and bitter memories with equal 
care: higher still, to aid the disabled, the suffering and the 
needy of those who had thrilled them with the Rebel yell 
indescribable, and had won worthily the right to wear "the 
true cross of honor." 

The U. C. V. organized first on June 10, 1889, at New Or 
leans, unanimously choosing John B. Gordon commander- 
in-chief, with Clement A. Evans as his first adjutant-gen 
eral. Never during Gordon s life would "the boys" hear 
another name offered for their leader. Only his death brought 
his successor in Lieutenant-General Stephen D. Lee. 

Just before the reunion of 1898, this true knight and gentle 


souled paladin was suddenly stricken with fatal illness. Not the 
death of Gordon even, was so truly and universally lamented. 
Honest and chivalrous, he was indeed loyal and true, equally 
to his country and his friends. A mighty sob went up from 
the hearts of Dixie, echoing back from many a Northern 
voice for his requiem. He was succeeded by General Clement 
A. Evans : a good soldier and churchman and a disciplinarian. 

At organization the camps of the Vets numbered only 
a few score. Today they number over 1,500, covering 
every state and territory in the Union. Yet this was not 
the first commemorative body, by many years. Already 
separate bodies of old soldiers had existed in Mobile, Rich 
mond, New Orleans, Charleston and Chattanooga. Each 
of these claims seniority, but certain it is that the "R. E. 
Lee Association" celebrated the nineteenth of January, 
1867, at Mobile, and remained a growing society when it 
merged into Raphael Semmes Camp, No. 11, U. C. V., in 

What the Veterans have done for perpetuation of facts 
and records has been seen of all men, and honored by their 
old fighting opponents. With them fraternization has 
been frequent, notably at Atlanta, Boston and New Orleans. 
Both have verified General Damas, of Bulwer s play: "It 
is astonishing how much I like a man after I have fought 
with him!" 

There may be exceptional cases of sectional rabies, but 
there is no generation stegomyia maligniati to sting it to 
epidemic on the people who wore the blue or doffed the gray. 
The exceptional Dammerses prove the rule of mutual 
respect and recognition of the men who had bought their know 
ledge of each other with their blood. 

I chanced to be managing secretary of perhaps the first 
important encampment at which the Blue and the Gray 
went under tents together, at Mobile, in 1885. Then Gen- 


eral C. S. Bentley brought down the " Northwestern Bri 
gade/ 7 of Iowa, Illinois, Michigan, Minnesota, Wisconsin 
and Ohio, under General H. H. Wright, of the First Iowa. 

Two years later I held the same position at the National 
Drill and Encampment around the Washington Monument. 
There General C. C. Augur, U. S. A., was in command, with 
H. Kyd Douglas, of Stonewall Jackson s staff, adjutant- 
general; Fitz Lee, then governor of Virginia, with a brigade, 
and officers of all grades from the old soldiers of North and 

At both these encampments the picked flower of citizen 
soldiery at the latter to the number of 12,500 on the morn 
ing report embraced men who had been through the war 
and bore its scars. At both absolute harmony and good- 
fellowship reigned, and no single case of ill-feeling, taunt 
or bitterness developed. Similar instances were the Atlanta 
Exposition and the G. A. R. reunion at Boston in 1904. 

The organization of the Daughters began at Nashville 
in 1894, when only three chapters convened and elected 
their founder, Mrs. M. C. Goodlett, of that city, president- 
general. There are now eleven hundred and fifteen chapters, 
embracing almost all the states, with many of their most 
representative women, to an aggregate membership computed 
at nearly 60,000. The present heads are Mrs. Cornelia 
Branch Stone, of Texas, president-general; Mrs. A. H. Voor- 
hies, of San Francisco and Mrs. D. A. S. Vaught, of New Or 
leans, vice-presidents-general; Mrs. A. L. Dowdell, of Alabama, 
and Mrs. A. W. Rapley, of St. Louis, recording and corre 
sponding secretaries. Mrs. L. E. Williams, Kentucky, is treas 
urer-general. In the interim the presidents-general have been 
Mesdames John C. Brown (Nashville), Fitzhugh Lee (Alexan 
dria), Kate Cabell Currie (Dallas), Edwin G. Weed (Jackson 
ville), James A. Rounsaville (Rome, Georgia) and A. T. 
Srnythe (Charleston). * 


As with the Veterans, each state is organized under its 
own head and the object of all is the care of the sick and 
aged, preservation of cemeteries and aid to the soldiers 
homes, in most of the states. 

Of similar sentimental birth came the United Sons of 
Veterans a decade later. What real need there is for their 
existence was found in a nucleus for a memorial order, when 
all the Vets have passed away. 

Still, the idea took with 
the young men of the South 
ern states, and the three or 
four camps of their beginning 
now number hundreds in an 
aggregate of many thou 
sands. This picturesque, 
well-uniformed and some 
times eloquent body has 
added largely to the glitter 
and the giddiness of the 
annual reunions of the " old 

The first commander, 
chosen at the Richmond 
organizing, was, J. E . B . 
Stuart, of Newport News. 
The present officers in chief are : John W. Apperson, general 
commanding, and N. B. Forrest, Jr., adjutant-general, both 
of Memphis, Tenn., re-elected at the last convention. 

Bishop Thomas Frank Gailor, the brilliant and stalwart 
prelate of Tennessee, whose father died on the Field of Perry- 
ville, was urged in consecutive years to accept the command- 
in-chief. This carries with it the rank major-general. He 
declined, saying that a bishop should not hold military rank 
except for war-need. Urged next year he said he could 



accept only on two conditions, that there should be unan 
imous choice and that the military features of the or 
ganization should be entirely abrogated. Only thus, he 
felt, could the real usefulness of the Sons be best 

Gradually the need that had bred the organizations seem 
ed fulfilled, the novelty of the reunions began to wane and 
the parades had to seek, in their function as crowd-drawers 
to entertaining cities, the addition of beauty and youth in 
what many declared to be too many sponsors and too much 
display. What had been a grave event, with something in it 
of sacredness, fell into a society function that hid the origi 
nal intent almost wholly from view. Naturally, some "old 
fogies" of the parent order grew restive under a change that 
obscured their light. What they had introduced as a pretty 
and appropriate innovation threatened to grow equally 
overbalancing and costly. 

There is no blame to the Old Boys. They are not what 
someone called Tom Ochiltree, "a war cocktail," but the 
straight war distillation, and the longer they are kept out of 
wood the purer the spirit. 

So it made the judicious grieve when they thought they 
saw these venerable patres non conscripti relegated to the 
rear, behind the young alignment of brilliant and fresh Sons 
and even of dainty and daintily sashed Daughters. 

At the Atlanta reunion, where " Little Joe" Wheeler, fresh 
from Cuba, rode at Gordon s right hand the cynosure of all 
eyes, a grim old Vet left a note at his hotel for any old com 
rades who called on him: 

"Gone home; found too little Vet and a d sight too 

much Sponsor and Son!" 

The memory-born novelty may wane, the reunion may die 
of old age, but the memory that bore both will live when the 
last old Reb is headstoned, when the sponsors sashes have 


mildewed with time, and the " Generals" epaulettes are black 
with the tarnish of forget fulness and cheap gilt. 

The recent death of a very noted and widely mourned 
Daughter of the Confederacy calls up vivid memories of her 
famous husband. General Edmund Kirby Smith, son of 
Joseph Lee Smith and Frances Kirby, was born at St. Augus 
tine in 1824. Their old home is now the library of the old 
city, by his donation. He graduated at West Point in 1845, 
seeing first service in the 
Mexican War. Later he was 
assigned as professor at the 
academy. He was a major 
when he joined the South 
and was made brigadier- 
general. Wounded at Bull 
Run, he was nursed at Rich 
mond by Cassie Selden, the 
brave and gifted daughter 
of Armistead Selden and 
Caroline Hare, of Lynch- 
burg. The result was the 
marriage that made her " the 
Bride of the Confederacy. 7 
Made lieutenant-general in 
1862, General Smith was 
assigned to the trans-Mis 
sissippi Department the next year and in 1864 was 
made one of the six full generals. His command was the 
last to lay down arms, many of its officers crossing to Mexico 
to avoid surrender. 

General Smith went to Cuba and his wife to Washington, 
where his old comrade, Grant, arranged for his return. He 
was president of the Altantic & Pacific Telegraph Company 
until 1868, when he became chancellor of the University of 





Nashville. In 1875 he accepted the chair of mathematics at 
Sewanee, University of the South, which he held until his 
death in 1893. 

The young wife had followed her husband through the war, 
sharing his dangers and privations in "the cross river king 
dom." Their home at Sewanee became a centre of hospitality 
and Mrs Kirby-Smith never forgot the old soldiers of that 
mountain region. Each year she gave a garden party to the 
Vets of the three counties, and they mourn her death as a 
sister s. She was a woman of dominant character arid prac 
tical sense and her voice was listened to in the councils of the 
Daughters. Her eleven children were reared and several 
of them, and the twelve grandchildren, born at Sewanee. 
They all survive her and are: Caroline Selden (Mrs. W. S. 
Crolly, of New York); Fannie (Mrs. Wade, of Los Angeles), 
with two children; Edmund Kirby-Smith, now of Mexico, 
who married Virginia Dellez, and has four children; Lydia 
(Mrs. Roland Hale) with two children; Nina (Mrs. Randolph 
Buck, of Indianapolis), with two children; Elizabeth and 
Josephine Kirby-Smith; Dr. Reynold Marvin Kirby-Smith, 
who married Miss Thomson, of Atlanta, and has two children ; 
William Selden and Ephraim, both mining in Mexico; and Dr. 
J. Lee Kirby-Smith, a bachelor, in New York. 

Very recently Ephraim, youngest of the eleven children, 
married Mary Carroll Brooks, daughter of Preston S. Brooks, 
of Sewanee, and granddaughter of the famous Congressman 
Preston S. Brooks, of South Carolina. Distinguished in 
Pierce Butler s Palmetto regiment, in Mexico, he was repre 
senting his state in the lower house, when Charles Sumner 
spoke words in the senate insulting to the aged and infirm 
Senator Pickens Butler, a kinsman of Brooks. Next day, the 
latter made a cause celebre by caning the Massachusetts man 
in his seat in the senate, just ere that august body was called 
to order. 


Again the to-be-expected has happened. Just closing 
this page, the printer heard echo of wedding chimes from 
far Sewanee mountain. In mid-March, Miss Josephine 
Kirby-Smith, the youngest of the six sisters, became Mrs. 
Roades Fayerweather, at new St. Luke s chapel, donated to 
the university by the late Mrs. Telfair Hodgson, as memorial 
to her husband and daughter. 

The newly wedded pair will reside in Baltimore, leaving 
Miss Elizabeth Kirby-Smith at the old home: the only 
unmarried sister for the present. 



" The past is past; what s done is done for aye!" 

HAUPTMANN, the great German, was as much philos 
opher as poet when he wrote that line of "The Sunken Bell. " 

Every brew, when pure, leaves aftermath. When Fate 
is the brewer the aftermath is often bitter. That of the 
Lost Cause, sweet and bitter commingled, is ours; nor would 
we change it for any less of either, not permeated with the 
sacred savor of memory. 

Seismic convulsion had torn and tumbled a great national 
structure. Upon its supposed ruins Hope, Valor and Am 
bition essayed the rearing of a new one that in turn toppled 
and crumbled into dust. 

The new design was too nearly like the old. It fell, even 
as Babel, because it essayed a too great height, builded too 
fast, and the conglomerate foundation could not concrete. 

Across the debris of a people s hopes and struggles, through 
the still luminous dust from their downfall, bright and no 
ble forms pass in long procession, fadeless and ever new; 
and each Confederate Banquo 

"Bears a glass that shows me many more." 

Some have essayed their work of "resurrection" and 
have found vending for their cadavers of reputation, ex 
posed to the dull scalpel of controversy. Not always was 
this for the sake of history or of truth. 



What was really done can never be undone to the 
satisfaction of any. Attempts to undo it are ever 
futile; worse, they are fecund of Dead Sea fruit, dry 
and acrid to the taste, even when happily seedless. 

The war is over, despite the natural soreness of old wounds 
under friction, or an occasional bitter afterthought. The 
pact between the generals 
had made this truth an 
earlier one by four decades, 
had Lincoln lived. Still, it 
is now ten years since belief 
in our having one common 
country sent " Little Joe" 
Wheeler from his legislative 
seat to one in the discarded 
saddle : sent one of the oldest 
of the Lees back to the flag un 
der which he had first fought. 

The reasons for failure 
are always as numerous as 
the reasons for war. They 
are equally as unprovable. 
A great Confederate, when 
asked why we lost the battle of 
Gettysburg, replied: " Stone 
wall Jackson died too soon. " 

That was epigram, not proof. So Reconstruction may 
be summed up: Abraham Lincoln died too early. 

But for the madman Booth s pistol, that jarred apart 
the closing wound of war-born hatred, there had been no 
bitter aftermath. That one reverberation in the Wash 
ington opera box swelled into the vaporous vastity of the 
Geni s cloud in Arabian Nights tale. Out of it strode that 
Afrite of hate, horror and long-lived rancor; the evil spirit 



that blighted the seeds sowed by Lee and Grant John 
ston and Sherman. 

At that vibration the promised fruits of humanity, homo 
geneity, nationality, were scattered to the wind for a time. 

Upon the horrors, injustice and grotesque illegality of 
Reconstruction this is no place to dwell. These demand 
an ampler page and have been treated in history, essay 
and symposium by abler pens than mine. Yet their more 
potent material rests behind. Yet, applying the wisdom of Tal 
leyrand to Reconstruction, it stands forth more glaring 
than a crime: as the most egregious error ever perpetrated 
upon policy by politics. Were it not pitiable it would be 

That fallacious makeshift abruptly cut off the fine nose 
of national wealth, to spite the Southern face; procured 
a few lewd votes, that its political lechery could not use, 
and essayed the elevation to equality of an unliftable race 
by amendment petards that now uncomfortably hoist their 
inventors higher than their would-be victims. 

The Macaulay of politico-economics, when he comes 
to stand upon the ruins of this rotten bridge across momen 
tary expediency, will record it as the silliest error in all the 
annals of government by enactment. 

The government of a victorious and firmly placed party 
studiously proclaimed what its own second-thought found 
it vital to very existence to disprove after offering rewards 
for the heads of palpably innocent men. Hatred was smear 
ed over political venality in slimy distortion; while a pur 
posely inflamed political sense, with dilated nostrils, sniffed 
up its savor. 

Had the madman s pistol missed fire that fateful night 
in the theatre the martyred president had lived greater 
still in history. He would have confirmed the cartels be 
tween his generals and ours at Appomattox and Atlanta. 


There would have been no Reconstruction; and the nascent 
respect of the one section for the other had never been stran 
gled in its cradle by the puny Hercules of hate. 

Natural instinct and paying interdependence would have 
written Mr. Lincoln s word, "Union," at the head of the 
page. He could then have well afforded to let the trick 
sters of politics " write whatever you please under it!" 

Direct issue, too, of Reconstruction was that lynching 
equally bugabooed, too, by purpose or imagination which 
was a fine art, with hideous cause as motif in the South, and 
has been transplanted, without the cause, into a tough trade 
in the North. 

Honesty, policy, and common sense have long since cre 
mated the very bones of Reconstruction ; and the process has 
killed even their loathsome odor. 

But all the aftermath of unrest and rancor was not con 
fined to one side of the Potomac. 

No trial where the witnesses have all been "discharged by 
death," could bring any verdict that would stand the test of 
posterity. Criticism is one thing; narration of new facts 
legitimate progeny of history another. 

The better afterthought of the South had settled down into 
calm acceptance of the inevitable. It was trying honestly 
the " let- well-enough-alone " philosophy. It indubitably 
was regretful, where not shocked, by the exhumation and 
exhibition in the gossip morgue of the "unsent message" to 
congress of Mr. Davis, giving his reasons for refusal to obey 
the popular wish to replace Johnston in command before 
Atlanta. Cui bonof was the universal query when the print 
appeared. That paper could have proved nothing, even 
had Mr. Davis sent it in to the Richmond congress. It could 
only have added, then, to the bitterness of the Davis and 
Johnston partisans in that body, and to the widespread dis 
satisfaction upon the quarrel, in the army. Even at that 


time, it could have settled no one fact to the satisfaction of 
any doubter on either side, for the reason that like General 
Johnston s later retort it was merely the one man s differen 
tiation of himself and another man. 

No one who comprehends the character and motives of 
Mr. Davis doubts for an instant that he must have had cogent 
reasons for withholding an important state paper that had 
cost labor, thought and midnight oil. That reason must 
have been one of two; the inefficacy of the paper to convince, 
or his own belief that its utterance would indurate a pair of 
prejudices that were fast growing into opposed hatreds. For 
the u unsent message" added no tittle to the truth of history. 
It gave no scintilla of proof for the correctness of its writer s 
estimate of the man whom General Hood himself, William J. 
Hardee and Alexander P. Stuart joined in a telegram to have 
retained in command whom General Lee immediately 
called back to the post denied him, when he became com- 

More unhappy still was the publication of the legacy letter, 
written by Mrs. Davis to her old friend, Judge Allen Kiin- 
brough, of Mississippi, to exculpate herself from aspersion 
of disloyalty to section and principle, because she had found 
it practical, or needful, to live at the North. But if that 
letter was needless, tactless and ill-timed was the forcing of 
that letter by Mrs. Kimbrough upon the unwilling assemblage 
of the Daughters, at Gulfport, in 1906. 

No honest thinker could ever have condoned the dis 
crediting of the wife of the dead president for selecting her 
own residence. Brave and brawny men have done the same, 
in hundreds of cases, leaving home, friends and traditional 
surroundings for the openly avowed purpose of gain. Criticism 
never has assailed them, and there was less cause for the 
singling out of a bereaved and somewhat neglected woman 
for venomed, if misdirected, shafts. But what the few said, 


the many never heard, nor, hearing, had believed, until the 
needless post-mortem defence raised futile whispers to a roar 
and set up a skeleton in the united feminine closet. 

Sectional pride is the proper thing: sectional prejudice 
is the silly one. Looking back across a clear calm retrospect, 
may we not see in the latter one active motor of the Civil 
War? Then glance at the social and business positions of 
the " Southern colony" in New York today: note her now 
old Southern Society, of 
which an early secretary 
was a Virginian Randolph. 

Prejudice is of long life, 
albeit confined to no partic 
ular habitat. Only yester 
day, veterans and cadets 
from Georgia flocked to the 
escort for the Taft inaug 
uration; aides from other 
Southern states rode down 
the line and Alabamians 
received the all-states guests 
at the night s ball. But, 
only day before yesterday, 
General Rufus Rhodes was 
assailed by ultra Southern 

scribes, for invoking God s blessing upon Mr. Taft, when he 
went to invite him to his home-city (quite a proper "grace 
before meat"); and for editorial intimation that the people s 
choice of the big president was preferable to raising a flag 
of tattered and torn platitudes, on a nickel plate staff, above 
the White House. 

The day before that, Dr. Hannis Taylor, of Washington, 
was soundly basted in some Southern presses, for writing 
in the North American Review that "the Solid South was 



a national calamity" but Mr. Taylor was only borrowing of 
Scripture, in stating that the house however strongly based 
must fall, if divided against itself. 

It is nearly two decades since I was even more widely 
berated for my article in that same Review "The Weakness 
of Mr. Davis s Strength" which showed that he failed 
of attempt to do, in his own proper person, what those he 
had gathered about him could not accomplish. All of which 
recalls the wisdom of the negro preacher, who answered 
brother Jasper, of Richmond: 

"Ya-as,m breddren, de science folk hab proobe de sun 
do stan still an de wuiT hit do moobe. Doan yer be like 
de sun. Git er Moobe onter yer! Ef de wurl do moobe, 
den dem az doan moobe too, ez dead sho ter fall offen hit!" 

I have noted Don Piatt s clever differentiation of "Men 
Who Saved the Union." It may be pertinent in this after 
math of great events to glance aUsome of the men who made 
the Union, before it grew to need of the saving process. He 
who is accepted as "Father of his Country," was a Virginian. 
A neighbor of his was author of the Declaration of Indepen 
dence; Richard Henry Lee offered the resolutions that pro 
duced it, and two of those six brothers of that name were 
signers. Madison was main framer of the Constitution, and 
its accepted expounder was another Virginian, John Marshall. 

In one of his meaty and reminiscent addresses, Honorable 
Champ Clark, of Missouri, took for his theme cognate facts, 
seemingly forgotten by many bookmakers and most book- 
readers. He reminded his hearers that it was Governor 
Patrick Henry who sent George Rogers Clark, "the Hannibal 
of the West/ to acquire the great Northwest Territory; that 
Jefferson and Polk gave the Union its splendid trans-Missis 
sippi purchase and that Monroe brought the Floridas under 
the flag. Mr. Clark also took up eminent Southerners who 
had illustrated American genius and discovery, showing that 


they were neglected and often ignored by Northern book 
makers and cyclopedists. He instanced the famous William 
Rufus King, of Alabama, congressman, senator, diplomat, 
who died as viee-president ; Dr. Crawford W. Long, of Athens, 
Ga., who invented chloroform, while the credit is given Dr. 
Samuel Guthrie, of New York. The former s state has- 
chosen his figure for Statuary Hall, as one of its two repre 
sentatives. - 

Mr. Clark notes that Robert Toombs and Charles Sumner 
were contemporary senators, and that Northern cyclopedists 
give the latter three or four columns and the Georgian about 
a quarter column. Lincoln gets five or six columns; Jeffer 
son Davis, one. 

The reminiscent congressman ever has his facts well in 
hand. He ought to have added that Matthew F. Maury 
made the Atlantic cable a possibility by his deep sea sound 
ings and that Professor Robert Ellett, of South Carolina 
University, gave the basis of dynamite, the great destructive, 
and of collodion, the best reconstructive, by perfecting gun- 
cotton. Gorrie, of Florida, first made artificial ice; and hi& 
state will make his statue one of her two in the capital at 

It was Duncan N. Ingraham, a South Carolina captain, 
of the "St. Louis," in the harbor of Smyrna, who first car 
ried the Monroe Doctrine to the deck of an Austrian warship, 
and brought Martin Costza away, safely wrapped up in it. 

These are some few things the men of the South did to 
make the Union. And her women have "done things" too. 
Which more aided the women of the country arid its moral 
tone, Harriet Beecher Stowe, or Augusta Evans Wilson? 

Verily, my one-legged philosopher, General Walker, might 
have added to the losses of the South in her mothers not 
bearing all male children, the patent one that her authors, 
did not write all the histories. 


One theme most pregnant, and cognate with the after 
math of the great struggle, I perforce leave untouched. Its 
mere mention brings up so many innate and collateral facts 
so many persons of historic interest that it would overstep 
all possible boundaries of space in this narration. Attempt 
to condense the origin and effects of the diplomacy of the 
Confederacy its promises and errors and their results; 
and its twin failure, finance were hopeless; and I have 

been forced to leave it to a 
wider, and a separate field. 
From Georgia s pioneer com 
missioner, Thomas Butler King, 
through the Yost-Mann- 
Yancey experiment, to the 
Mason-Slidell fiasco, the story 
intertwists European and 
American history of that day 
so closely that no singled 
threads of either could be 
made distinct. 

So, for the moment, I have 
left diplomacy and finance 
where they placed themselves 
in nubibus! Yet this is a 
legitimate theme for History; 
not being the story of the 
calamities of individuals, but of a great nation conceived, 
nascent, possible of self-existence. Nor is this the place 
to discuss whether the last had been a universal blessing, 
or a local curse. 

Verily, the war is over, save in a few hearts that beat 
only for prejudice or profit; or in the still tender ones of 
some "dear old girls," who feel when they would reason: 
who cannot be whom none would have " reconstructed. " 

LIEUT. S. S. LEE, 3D. 


Joe Wheeler sleeps at Arlington, with the derring do of 
both armies twinned upon his monument. His comrade 
both in the blue and the gray was laid to rest under the 
national flag, amid paeans from the North: 

He sleeps; but over ev ry re-fought field, 
Mem ry shall wake Fitz Lee to ride again! 

And his sons and the husbands of all his daughters wear 
sabres with U. S. on their blades; while his youngest nephew 
wears the blue today in Cuba. 

Only recently, in sturdy Tennessee, the veteran fighters 
of the Confederacy marched to the music "of the Union," 
as escort to the president of their country, and that stal 
wart statesman little condoning of what he deems " rebel 
lion" told them he felt their action the highest honor done 
him during his tour. 

When the thirteen tattered ensigns of the Maryland reg 
iments were lately placed, as trophies of her glory, at An 
napolis, United States officers in the escort bared their heads; 
their pupils the flowers of descent from fighters on both 
sides shouted in unison to the strains of " Dixie" by the 
government band. 

Recently, the son of the hero who ignored Lee s sword, 
with his noted comrades, revisited the National park at the 
precedent Occidental Port Arthur and struck hands with 
the old generals and the young "unreconstructed" governors 
of the South. And Frederick Dent Grant had already told 
us that the greatest Fourth of July of his boyhood was when, 
as a lad of thirteen, he went with his father for conference 
with General Pemberton at Vicksburg. And he added: 
"Our men were no sooner inside the lines than the armies 
began to fraternize .... I saw our men taking bread 
from their haversacks and giving it to the enemy they had 
so recently been starving out." 


Later still, the ranking officer of the Union, General Bell, 
chief-of-staff, presented to the Virginia Military Institute, a 
silken replica of their Newmarket battle flag, burned in 
the Hunter raid of 1864. It was received, in words as 
soldierly and as glowing as his own, by Hon. John S. Wise, 
of the New York bar: himself a cadet veteran, wounded 
at "the corn-seed battle." 

And, as last seal of peace, President Roosevelt who once 
branded Jefferson Davis and his men in gray as " traitors" 
yielded to the plea of Mrs. Cornelia Branch Stone and her 
Daughters of the South, and replaced the name of the Con 
federate chief upon Cabin John bridge. And the order was 
issued by his secretary of war, the veteran Luke E. Wright 
of Tennessee! 

And so the aftermath of war is fruity with memories, 
wafting northward or southward across the Potomac. So 
should it be: so will it be as long as true men honor the 
brave and true. 

The old rhyme tells us that the knights of eld are dust 
and their good swords corroded in the dews of time. But 
the knights of the Southland live ; their forms sealed in bronze 
and marble, their memories vivid and ever-present in the 
hearts of all. 

Sighs in each breeze the dirge s tender tone, 
Shrilling anon to clarion pcean loud; 

Telling of loss and travail, once thine own. 

That make old foes of common kinship proud. 

Arch o er their sleep the Laurel and the Yew 

The Oak that triumph crowned, old Rome to glee. 

Wreathed by Love s hand above the Gray or Blue, 
Their leaflets touch to Immortality! 



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AN 18 1978 

FIC, CJR.FEB 17 78 

DEC 2 5 19955 

General Library 
( S2700L) University of California 




TO ^ 202 Main Library 








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