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i'xISSICN INN, i<IV,'..-^oIDE, CAL. 

The Bells and Crosses of the 

Mission Inn. 





Digitized by tine Internet Archive 

in 2007 with funding from 

IVIicrosoft Corporation 

The Bells and Crosses 
of the Mission Inn and 
the Ford Paintings of 
the California Missions 

Riverside, California 


Before entering upon the pleasant labor of 
giving a detailed description of this largest 
and most valuable collection of bells, it will 
be interesting to jot down a few observations 
with regard to the subject of bells in general. 

The whole of civilized life is set to bell 
music in one shape or another, and runs the 
entire gamut from the monster church bell, 
weighing many tons, down to the jingling 
baubles on a child's rattle. 

Bells have for centuries, together with flags 
and banners, formed the most coveted spoils 
of war. They were not used in the Christian 
Church until about the seventh century. As 
early as the eighth century bells were dedi- 
cated with religious ceremonies very similar 
to those used in baptism. They were sprinkled 
with holy water; exorcism was spoken over 
ihem, to free them from the power of evil 
spirits; a name was given them (as early as 
the tenth century), a blessing was pronounced 
and they were anointed. Later, their ringing 
was supposed to drive away evil spirits, pesti- 
lence, and thunder-storms. Being thus made 
objects of religious faith and affection, they 
were ornamented in the highest style of the 
sculptor's art with scenes from the Bible and 
other religious subjects. 

The uses of bells in the Roman Catholic 
church are summed up in the following dis- 
tich, often inscribed on bells: 

"Laudo Deum varum; plebem voco; congrego 

clerum ; 
Defunctos ploro; pestem fugo; festaque 


(I praise the true God; I call the people; I 
assemble the clergy; I lament the dead; I 
drive away infection; I honor the festivals.) 

^ ^ ^ ^ 

Bells were rung in churches about 900 by 
order of Pope John IX as a defense against 

The modern word "bell" is derived from 
the old Saxon word "ballen," meaning to bawl 
or bellow. 

England is called the ringing island. 

Belgium is called the classic land of bells. 

The chimes of Bruges are the finest in the 

Each bell in the Mission Inn Collection -j 
numbered so as to correspond with the fol- 
lowing numbered descriptions: 

1. Brass bell, brought from Rome by AUis 
Miller. Belonged to the Medici family about 
1450. In relief work are seen St. Anthony, 
fleur-de-lis coat of arms, and prancing horses. 
Called "St. Anthony Bell." Notice partic- 
ularly the escutcheon with its six golden 
balls. These are the well-known arms of the 
Medici family (from whence came their war- 
cry "Palle." These balls were popularly, but 
without reason, believed to represent pills, 
and it was also thought that their name 
"Medici" showed that they had been orig- 
inally apothecaries. In 1465 Louis XI of 
France honored the Medici family by con- 
ferring on them the right to wear the French 
fleur-de-lis on one of the balls, the upper one. 
(The Medici family flourished in Florence 

2. Modern bronze cow-bell from Chamonix 
with maker's name and figure of chamois. 

"Sweet bells jangled, out of time and 

^ ^ ^ ^ 

3. Bronze harness bell from Rome. Leather 
handle and clapper of lead. 

4. Square nickel harness bell from Rome. 

5. Little harness bell with silver chain, 
from" Jewish market, Rome. 

6. Nickel, harness jingle-bells from Naples. 

7. Bronze sanctus bell from old convent 
in Mexico. 

8. Old school bell from Mexico. Received 
from Fred Harvey, Grand Canyon. 

9. "Mission Bell" of iron. 

10. Copper "Mission" bell. 

11. Bronze "Mission" bell, with rosary and 

12. Bronze "Mission" bell with Latin cross. 

13. Bronze sanctus bell from abandoned 
church in Mexico, built 350 years ago. Heavy 
wooden stock painted in the national colors 
of Mexico. Modern brass clapper. Gift of 
E. R. Skelley. 

14. Brass ship's bell from San Francisco 

15. Ship's bell of brass, from San Francisco 
fire of 1906. Heavy brazen clapper. 

16. Brass Chinese bell, from San Fran- 
cisco fire of 1906. From H. Hardenberg. 

17. Small Chinese altar bell, with clapper 
of tin. (On pass-key of F. A. M.) 

18. Sheep bell from the high Sierras about 
Lake Tahoe. Gift of Duane Bliss. 

19. Miniature of "Liberty Bell." 

20. Very ancient Japanese bronze bell. 
Gift of W. Stone. 

21. Bronze landlord's bell of graceful lines 
and with artistic floreated relief work, from 
Hamburg. Date 1783. Inscription reads. 
Caal Zum Stehenden Lowen. "Caal, at the 
Standing Lions." The signboard of the old 
tavern was probably decorated with a pair of 
lions rampant. 

22. Brass dinner-bell from Berlin. 

23. Brass bell from Nuremberg. Orig 
inally an altar bell, but later used as a sheep 
bell. Crucifix and flaming heart and crown 
with lion as escutcheon. 

24. "Iron Maiden of Nuremberg." A min- 
iature fac-simile of the famous instrument of 
torture in the Bourg. 

25. Sterling silver Bride's bell from Nur- 
emberg. A figure of a woman in bridal array, 
with full skirts. Her arms are upraised and 
in her hands she holds a small, acorn-shaped 

cup. At the wedding ceremony the two cups 
are filled with wine. The groom drinks from 
the larger one and at the same time the bride 
sips from the smaller one. If no drop of 
wine is spilled, much wedded bliss awaits the 

<^ '!4 '^ '^ 

"1 hear the sound of wedding bells." 

^ ^ ^ ^ 

26. Smooth brass bell with brass handle. 
Sausage call-bell from the Bratwurst Glocken, 
Nuremberg. Mentioned as early as 1519. 

"That all-softening, overpowering knell, 
The tocsin of the Soul — the dinner bell." 

^ (tf (« ^ 

27. Sanctus bell of brass frorn the church 
of Santa Maria degli Angeli at Portiuncula. 
This church is built on the site and over the 
hut of St. Francis of Assisi, the gentle-hearted 
founder of the Franciscans, and the patron 
saint of the Mission Inn. Presented to Mr. 
Miller personally by the priest of that fa- 
mous church. 

28. Old brass bell from Assisi, Italy, bear- 
ing the insignia of the famous Medici fam 
ily. Sixteenth century. 

<i« <4 <;« <« 

"Ring, happy bells, across the snow, 
the year is dying, let him go." 

<«<«<« <i« 

29. Italian bronze bell of fifteenth century. 
Floreated ornamentation in relief. 

30. Sweet-toned brass bell of the sixteenth 
century from Milan. Floreated ornamentation 
in relief. 

31. Brass bell from Rome. Angels and 
Madonnas in relief. On either side are the 
initials "F. C." Sixteenth century. 

32. Brass bell of Florentine design of the 
seventeenth century. Floreated decorations 
in relief. 

33. Old bronze bell from Rome of six- 
teenth century. Very sweet and sonorous. 

34. A brass cow-bell from Rome. Curi- 
ously ornamented metal band around the 
mouth. On one side is the inscription 
the other is the papal insignia and a shield 
charged with fleur-de-lis, and surmounted by 
a cherub's head. The inscription, Englished, 
means: Paul Third most Holy Supreme Pon- 
tiff." So we have here a cow-bell that be- 
longed to Pope Paul the Third. He was 
born as Alessandro Farnese, February 24, 

1468, and died November 10. 1549. Was Pope 
1534-1549. He excommunicated Henry VIII 
of England in 1535, approved the Order of 
the Jesuits in 1540, and convoked the Council 
of Trent in 1545. 

Martin Luther died February 18, 1546. 

Note how the old clapper of solid iron is 
deeply worn on either side. At the voice of 
this old bell stirring scenes from the Past 
rije before us. 

"And roofs of tile, beneath whose eaves 
Hang porcelain bells that all the time 
Ring with a soft, melodious chime." 

^ '^ <^ ^ 

35. Beautifully ornamented bronze bell 
from Monserrat. Floreated shoulders and bar- 
rel of very artistic design. Panel work on 
lower half containing ten exquisite medallions 
of the Host, St. Francis, the Saviour, St. 
Roque, St. Joseph, St. Anthony, St. Sylvester, 
the Crucifixion, nails of the Cross, etc. Date, 
1704. Double inscription, the upper one 

"Dedicated to the honor of God, and of 
thi Virgin Mary and of All Saints." 

The lower inscription is as follows: 

"Salvador and Francis Anthony of Monser- 
rat, donors. Dedicated to S. S. Slyvester and 

Monserrat, near Barcelona, has been fa- 
mous for many centuries on account of its 
image of the Virgin, said to have been 
carved by St. Luke and brought to Barcelona 
by St. Peter in the year 50 A. D. The fam- 
ous monastery was founded there in 880. The 
shrine of the miracle working Virgin there 
is visited annually by 100,000 pilgrims. The 
image was crowned by Leo XIII in 1881. It 
was in 1521 that Ignatius Loyola, founder of 
the Jesuits, laid his sword upon her altar, and 
placed himself under her protection. 

"Oh, bring us back once more 
The vanished days of yore, 
When the world with faith was filled; 
Bring back the fervid zeal. 
The hearts of fire and steel. 
The hands that believe and build." 

^ ^ <^ ^ 

36. Brass bell with the inscriotion in raised 
letters: "Tacque Payraud Assalanche," which 
is the name of the owner and of the canton 
in Switzerland in which he lived. The only 
bell of this kind to be found in the Swiss, 
French or Italian Alps. Its owner was sure 
that for more than a century no such bell^ 
had been made bearing the names of pri- 
vate individuals. It is a goat bell from 
Chamonix with most beautiful tone. 



of Mt 


New brass Alpine cow-bell. 

Old iron cow-bell from Interlaken. 

Old cow-bell from Lucerne. 

Brass goat-bell from Chamonix at foot 
, Blanc. 

Old type sheep-bell from Zermatt. 

Old type of sheep-bell from Zermatt. 

43. Brass cow-buckle from Chamonix, with 
annular decorations. 

43. Brass cow-buckle from Chamonix, with 

cpen-work decoration. 

45. Old Swiss copper convent cow-bell for 
the "bell-cow." Long iron clapper and 
leather strap eight inches wide with the con- 
vent's initials in brass letters on the strap. A 
very rare and fine old piece, 

^ <;« V (« 

"Oh, Jennie, go and call the cattle home 
Across the sands o' Dee." 

(« V <« ^ 

46. Beautiful bronze bell from Lucerne, 
Switzerland. The ears are decorated with 
lions' heads; they also form a Spanish crown. 
Date 1673. Inscription: Hans Jacob Sprungli: 
Gus. Mich. (Hans Jacob Sprungli made me.) 

V ^ <« V 

"Those evening bells, those evening bells, 
How many a tale their music tells'*! 

47. Call-bell from an old school near Co- 
logne Cathedral. Date 1814. Three small fig- 

48. Decorated iron "Apostles' Bell" from 
Brussels. A reproduction of the St. Salvator 
bell in Cathedral tower of St. Michel and 
St. Gudule; names of the four evangelists in 
Latin with their respective attributes: a man, 
an ox, a lion and an eagle. 

49. Bright brass tea bell, with scalloped 
edges and short, pointed stem handle. From 

50. Brass bell from the East Indies with 
Hindu filigree work. Hindu god on handle. 

51. Brass Hindu god bell. Ornamented 
clapper. Reverse bell-shaped top, with Hindu 
god holding sacrifice. 

52. A fac-simile of the famous "Big Ben" 
of London, largest clock tower bell in the 
world. The original "Big Ben," of which 
this is an exact copy, hangs in the clock tower 
of the new Houses of Parliament. Its weight 
near 14 tons; slightly cracked. Read the in- 
teresting inscription. Made to order specially 
for Mr. Miller by the firm that made the 
original "Big Ben." 

53. Manchurian gong, made of various 
kinds of metals, which were donated by many 
different worshipers at the temple. Near the 
top are four panels with rows of little knobs 
to typify the "sacred snails" of Buddha (see 
No. 197). The royal dragons are symbols of 
power. The ears of the gong are formed of 
gods' heads. 

This gong was donated to the Buddhist 
Temple of Shorn Fook Ghee by the worship- 
ers there nearly two hundred years ago. 

^ ^ ^ ^ 

"Wanwordy, crazy, dinsome thing, 
As e'er was framed to jow or ring! 
What gar'd them sic in steeple hing. 
They ken themsel; 
But weel wot I, they couldna bring 
Waur sounds frae hell." 


54. Oldest known dated bell in Christen- 
dom! and the most interesting bell in the 
United States. Procured by Mr. Miller in 
London, at the shop of the bell founders 
who cast "Big Ben." The inscriptions on 
this bell are in Latin as folows: 

lacobi: I. H. S. X. P. S. Maria. Qintana: 
Et: salautor: Me: Feceru: Ao. Di. 1247. 

"James, Jesus Christ, Mary: Quintana and 
Salvador made me in the year of our Lord 
1247." The James mentioned is St. James, 
or Santiago of Compostella, the patron saint 
of Spain. It is very probable that this was 
the "Santa Maria bell" in the campanile of 
the "parroquia" or parish church at San- 
tiago. St. James, according to the legends, 
often appeared in the sky, mounted on a milk- 
white steed, and gained the victory for the 
Spaniards in their bloody battles with the 
Moors. Today, although Santiago has a pop- 
ulation of less than 25,000, it has 45 eccles- 
iastical edifices with 288 altars and 114 bells, 
and is visited annually by scores of thousands 
of pilgrims. 

When this bell was cast in 1247, St. Louis 
(Louis IX of France) was making ready for 
the sixth crusade, 1248-1250; the Magna 
Charta of England had been granted by King 
John just thirty-two years before; the Fran- 
ciscan Order had been founded by St. Francis 
but thirty-seven years; America was un- 
dreamed of and Columbus would not be born 
until two hundred years later! 

Surely this old bell, although cracked and 
clapperless, still has power to call up strange 
scenes and forgotten deeds from the van- 
ished past. 

^ ^ ^ ^ 

55. Brass Chinese pagoda bell, ornamented 
with double god's head. From Warwick, 

56. Brass bell from Oxford, England. Dec- 
orated with four eagles in relief. This is a 
Russian "drosky" bell with an inscription in 
Russian about the sound bow: "Drive with 
him; don't be stingy; smoke; be merry." 
About 250 years old. 


57. Sheep-bell purchased at Stratford-on- 
Avon. Originally from an old monastery at 
Mickleton. One hundred years old. 

58. Miniature of Liberty Bell at Philadel- 
phia, with inscription, crack, etc. 

59. Car bell from St. Gall. Brass, upright 
on hand-brake. This form of bell is still used 
in some towns of Sweden and Switzerland. 

60. Cow-bell from the only official, duly- 
accredited, pioneer, Pilgrim cow which came 
over in the relic-laden Mayflower. Gift oi 
Mr. George Thompson, of the "trenchant 
pen," etc., of the St. Paul Pioneer Press. Mr. 
Thompson vouches for the authenticity of the 

61. Chinese pagoda bell. Brass, rattle 
shape. Gift of DeWitt Hutchings. 

(When in doubt as to the location or num- 
ber of a bell, ask for the Curator, who will 
be happy to assist you.) 

^ <« V (« 

"These bells have been anointed, 
And baptized with holy water." 

<« '^ (« «« 

62. Pecos Indian Chapel Sanctus bell of 
copper. Wooden handle on iron shaft. Found 
in ruins of an old church abandoned in 1680. 
Gift of John Farrell. 

^ ^ ^ f4 

63. A royal Chinese dragon bell of anti- 

<!4 <^ '^ ^ 

"How sweet the tuneful bells responsive 

<4 V ^ <« 

64. Hindu shrine bell, beautifully done in 
bronze. Very graceful lines throughout. 

65. Japanese bronze altar bell. Inscrip- 
tion in Japanese. 

66. Japanese temple bell. A brass rattle 
with brass handle. Formerly used in one of 
the California Missions. Very old. Gift of 
Mr. Lee Powers. 

67. Tahoe Indian basket willow and fern 
bell made by Indians of Lake Tahoe. Gift 
of Fred Barlow. 

68. Tahoe Indian basket. Willow and fern. 

69. First mule car bell used in Riverside 
in the year 1886. 

70. Gong from the first electric car in 
Riverside. April 11, 1889. 

71. Bronze bell, dated 1792. Graceful lines 
Ornamental relief work about the top. Hand 


pointing to the date. Cross in relief with 
flowering vine and four pretty cherubs' heads. 
Badly cracked. Of historic interest, as this 
bell hung for many years in the cathedral at 
New Orleans, but later, by some strange fate, 
was used on the jail in that city. Personally 
secured by Mr. Miller from the collection 
of Colonel Hawkins. 

72. Ancient gong bell from a Japanese pa- 
goda at Kyoto. Has four raised panels, each 
containing nine ornamental buttons, "sacred 
snails" of Buddha. The ears are formed by 
grotesque double gods' heads. Chrysanthe- 
mums and artistic bands in relief decorate 
the lower part. 

IZ. Church bell from San Francisco fire 
of 1906. Remarkably sweet tone. 

74. This triangle was used in the early 
days of the Glenwood Tavern to call the 
guests to their meals, and was hung near the 
dining-room door. It is made from an old 
steel drill which was used by Mr. Miller's 
father forty years ago when blasting rocks 
for the first irrigating ditch in Riverside. 

75. First locomotive bell heard in River- 
side. Belonged to the Santa Fe's first engine 
ni California. Shipped around the Horn in 
1885. Presented to Mr. Miller. 

76. Sweet-toned chapel bell from Mexico. 
About one hundred years old. 

"How sweet the music of those village bells. 
Falling at intervals upon the ear 
In cadence sweet." 

^ ^ ^ ^ 

77. Hand-forged bell from Old Mexico. 
Pierced clapper for cord. Two hundred and 
fifty years old. From an old convent. Gift 
of F. S. Borton. 

79. The lower of the big bells in the Cam- 
panile. An old church bell, from San Fran- 
cisco, with massive yoke. 

80. The large bell in the ton arch of the 
Glenwood Campanile. 


81. Copper cow-bell with rudely forged 
date 1743 in relief. On the other side the 
Latin letters I. H. S. "lesus Hominum Sal- 
vator." Jesus the Saviour of Men. Old, cu- 
rious iron clapper. Gift of Mr. Aaron Neu- 

(« <« <4 V 

"I call the Living — I mourn the Dead — 1 
break the Lightning." Inscribed on the Great 
Bell of the minster of Schaffhauser — also on 
that of the Church of Art, near Lucerne. 

82. Brass ship's bell with iron yoke. This 
bell was taken from one of the transports 
which was sent out from Boston in 1755 to 
convey seven thousand Acadians from Nova 
Scotia to Maryland, Virginia, the Carolinas, 
etc. These were "Evangeline's" people. This 
bell lay at the bottom of the ocean with the 
wrecked vessel for nearly a century. It 
plainly shows the action of long submergence 
in sea-water. Gift of Mr. Sid Pelton. 

Sweet, sad story of "Evangeline" and "Gab- 
riel" that comes before us! 

^ ^ ^ ^ 

"With deep affection 
And recollection 
I often think of 
Those Shandon bells. 
Whose sounds so wild would 
In the days of childhood 
Piling round my cradle 
Their magic spells." 

(i« <« <4 <« 

83. Bronze, Japanese pagoda bell. The 
characters in relief mean, "Wisdom is better 
than wealth." Brought from Kyoto by Mrs. 
"Bob" Burdette, the donor. 

84. Hindu temple bell, with filigree work. 
An ugly, double monkey-god on the handle. 
Gift of Albert Mjller. 


85. Brass bell from Haarlem, Holland. 
Date 1370. Inscription: "Jacobes Serkeheft 
Mychegoten." Figures on horseback and in 
medallions and in bold relief. Top of bell is 
an old man's head. From Mrs. Richardson. 

86. Bronze temple gong from Tientsin, 
China, said to be over 1800 years old. Rec- 
tangular panels in relief. A pair of dragons 
form the ears. Gift of Ernest Moulton. 

^ V (« <4 

Die Glocken sind die Artillerie des Geist- 
lichkeit (Bells are the artillery of the Priest- 

87. Triple brass bells enclosed in bronze 
shell. For use during the tersanctus period 
of the mass at the high altar. The three 
bells forming one bell, are emblematic of the 
Trinity. From Strassburg. Early seven- 
teenth century. 

88. Large, round bronze carriage bell with 
bullfrog mouth. Ornamental flowers in re- 
lief; has size number 10. From the historic 
and interesting Abbey town and island of 
Mont St. Michel on the French coast of 

89. Porcelain bell of St. Pol de Leon from 
Brittainy, France. Fish-shaped and decorated 
with picture of St. Pol in espiscopal robes 
with pastoral staff on one side and on the 
other with the escutcheon of St. Pol bearing 
the words A ma vie (to my life). The inter- 
esting legend tells us that " in the sixth cen- 
tury St. Pol came from Great Britain to the 
Isle of Batz, off the coast of Brittainy, and 
was kindly received by Count Guythurus. He 
said King Marc had refused to deliver him a 
bell, which he needed to call his follow- 
ers. At that moment a fisherman came up 
with it. It had been found in the mouth of 
a fish just caught, at St. Pol, which had 
swam across the channel." 

The original bell is at St. Pol's Cathedral, 
where its sound (it is said) has cured many 
sick people, and even called to life one that 
was dead. 

90. Swedish bronze market-place bell, 
gracefully ornamented with bands and Ian 
ceolate and arabesque designs in relief. In- 
scription in Latin: Petit et Fritsen me Fuder- 
unt (Petit and Fritsen cast me). The rec- 
tangular orifice in the ears is not common. 
From middle of eighteenth century. 

"The 'bell of Huesca,' Spain, refers to a 
massacre there in 1136. King Ramiro 11 
showed his turbulent nobles 'a bell that could 
be heard throughout the whole country'; in 


other words, he beheaded sixteen of the 
leaders and arranged their heads in the form 
of a bell, with one hung up as the clapper." 

<4 <« <4 <4 

91. Small bronze hand bell with handle of 
oak wood.. Inscription reads, "A relic of 
York Minster." On the other side, "Oak 
and bell metal. Burnt May 20, 1840." Also \ 
shield with espiscopal keys and cororret of 
Duke of York. Made from metal of the 
broken cathedral bells recast. 

92. Church bell dated 1770 with orna- 
mental bands in relief. Hung for many years 
in one of the old castles of Scotland. Cast 
in London. 

93. Bronze chapel bell from the Abbey of 
St. Amant di Boixe, in the Tourraine, France. 
From a quaint old church there. Ornamented 
with two crosses fleury and two abbotts in 
relief work. Cracked. Early eighteenth cen- 

94. Beautiful bronze sanctus bell from Ca- 
thedral of St. Peter, Angouleme, France. 
Cross-shaped handle. Richly ornamented 
with saints, crosses, papal insignia, etc. Han- 
dle springs from crown-shaped ears orna- 
mented with crosses and hearts. Inscription 
dbout lower margin and date 1651. 

95. Circular cow-bell from town of Albi 
in Southern France. Maker's name "Gri- ' 
maud," as also the word "Albi" in raised let- 
ters. Cracked. One hundred years old. 

96. Bronze goat-bell of graceful design. 
Bears the maker's name, "Oriadou Arod'es." 
About one hundred years old. From the 
fertile and picturesque valley of the Loire 
nea- the famous chateaux of Blois. 

•^ ^ ^ ^ 

"The bells and chimes of motherland. 
Of England green and old. 
That out from gray and ivied tower 
A thousand years have tolled." 

^ ^ ^ ^ 

97. Very sweet-toned Turkish chime bells 
for a cow or horse. Consists of bronze bell 
of graceful design with two smaller bells 
within. Old decorations in relief. From Con- 
stantinople. Date about 1750. 

98. Syrian goat-bell chime of bronze. One 
bell within the other. From Damascus. Per- 
iod, the middle of the eighteenth century. 

99. Cup-shaped Mohammedan pilgrim's 
bell from Mecca, Arabia, the sacred city of 
Mahomet. Made of iron. Attached to the 
chain are some sacred amulets. The ringing 
of the bell frightened away the evil spirits. 
About one hundred years old. 

100. Spanish muleteers' bell-tower of wood 
the form of a hollow cone. Pierced for 


three rows of bells of five each. The whole 
painted in red, green and yellow, the Spanish 
colors. Fastened upright on the back of the 
"lead mule" of a string of mules in the Pj''- 
renees. To prevent the mules from taking 
alarm at any noises of animals, birds or 
snakes, etc., and "stampeding" down the trail. 
Present day. 

101. Bronze, alarm bell for spring coil for 
inner gate of courtyard. Bears the name of 
"Rolland," the maker, and "Arivel," the town 
where it was cast. Ornamented with face 
surrounded by scroll work in relief. From 
Toulouse, France. Eighteenth centurj^. 

102. Altar bell with iron handle, and an 
inscription in Latin meaning "Blessed be the 
name of the Lord." Ornamentation consist- 
ing oi mysteries of the Virgin, cherubs dis- 
playing St. Veronica's napkin, etc. From the 
Cathedral of Burgos, Spain. Sixteenth cen- 

From 1550 to 1750 was the golden age of 
church bells. The decorations most often oc- 
curring on church bells are the cross and 
fleur-de-lis, accompanied by a motto. 

^ <« <« <;« 

103. Ox bell from ValladoHd, Spain. Cru- 
ciform, floreated design in relief. Date about 
1780. Ferdinand and Isabella married at Val- 
ladoHd in 1469. 

104. Spanish mule collar of jingle bells 
from Seville. About fifty years old. Style 
of present day. Spanish mules have long 
been famous, and in the mountain regions 
are preferred to horses. 

105. Alarm bell with spring coil, for patio 
entrance. Inscription in Latin reads "John 
of Fin made me in the year 1550." About the 
top a blurred inscription. From Cadiz, but 
probably made in Holland. Reproduction. In 
relief figures of man fiddling for dancing 
bear, dogs, etc. 

106. Brass ox bell from the village of Es- 
corial de Abajo, Spain, near Madrid. Rude 
ornament in relief, much worn. From about 
1750. The Escorial Monastery of San Lo- 
renzo built by Philip II in 1581. 

107. Bronze bull-bell with conventional or- 
namentation. From Andalusia, Spain, whence 
came the best bulls for fighting. One hun- 
dred years old. 

108. Church bell, inscribed Jesus Maria y 
Jose, being the Spanish for "Jesus, Mary and 
Joseph." Date: ano de MDCCCXXIII, or 
year 1824. Floreated passion cross fleury in 
relief. From Convent of Jesus and Mary at 
Madrid, Spain, which thirteen years later was 
changed into the National Pantheon. The 
church is now known as San Francisco el 
Grande, or "St. Francis the Great." 


109. "St Anthony" bell, from Madrid. In- 
scription in Latin signifying "Blessed be the 
name of the Lord." Various animals in re- 
lief, to signify the blessing of the animals on 
St. Anthony's day, January 17, a unique and 
interesting Roman Catholic festival in Latin 
countries. About one hundred years old. 

110. A beautiful bronze San Clemente an- 
chor bell from Barcelona, Spain. San Cle- 
mente was condemned bv Trajan to be cast 
into the sea bound to an anchor. But when 
the Christians prayed the waters were driven 
back for three miles and they saw a ruined 
temple which the sea had covered, and in it 
was found the body of the saint with the an- 
chor around his neck. For many years, at 
the anniversary of his death, the sea re- 
treated for seven days, and pilgrimages were 
made to this submarine tomb. In the Sta. 
Barbara Channel is the Island of San Cle- 

111. Bronze sanctus bell from the Cathe- 
dral of Toledo, Spain. Graceful lines. From 
early eighteenth century. 

112. "Angelus" or "Gabriel" church bell 
trom the Convent of the Conception belong- 
ing to the Santa Clara nuns of the Franciscan 
Order at Toledo, Spain. Ornamental cross in 
relief on pedestal. An inscription in Spanish 
reads, "I am the voice of the angel that calls 

from on high: 
Year 1848. 

Hail, Mary, full of grace.' 

113. Cencerro or "bull bell." Stamped on 
the metal support is the name of the maker, 
"Aetno Calle." From Valencia, Spain. At 
least one hundred years old. 

114. Ox-bell with leather strap collar, from 
the little town of Santa Fe, Spain, built by 
Queen Isabella, during the siege of Granada, 
in eighty days. The capitulation of Granada 
was signed here in 1491, and also the contract 
with Columbus regarding his voyage to Amer- 
ica in 1492. 

115. Three donkey bells from Gibraltar, 

116. Two silver baby's bells from a little 
shop patronized by the royal family at San 


Sebastian, Spain, where King Alfonso and his 
queen and children spend a part of each sum 

117. Ancient brass bell with a quaint, 
superimposed ornament riveted on. Odd 
wooden clapper fastened with thong. From 
the Island of Majorca, the birthplace of Fr. 
Junipero Serra, founder of the California 
Missions, 1769-1784. 

118. A double-tongued shield-shaped Ro- 
man bell. Found during excavations near 
Granada, and dates from Roman occupation 
of Spain 100 B. C. to 100 A. D. Similar 
bells have also been found in the Roman 

119. Silver call-bell from Granada. Handle 
formed by royal eagle of Charles the Fifth. 

120. Church bell from Malaga, Spain, dated 
1885. The inscription in Spanish reads, "Don 
Manuel Rivas made me. Most Holy Virgin 
of Mercy, pray for us." Cross in relief. 

121. Ancient call-bell from a bishop's pal- 
ace. Afterwards used as an alarm bell on 
a spring for some shop door. Bears on either 
side the episcopal insignia, and has an oblit- 
erated inscription in which may still be dis- 
tinguished the Latin word "Dominus," or 
Lord. From Leon, Spain. Seventeenth cen- 

122. Clapperless chapel bell from Cathedra! 
of Cordova, Spain. Cherubs' heads in relief 
and crosses, each formed of eight flower buds, 
signifying the eight beautitudes. Middle of 
seventeenth century. 

(« ^ <^ «« 

"That old State-house bell is silent. 
Hushed is now its clamorous tongue. 
But the spirit it awakened 
Still is living — ever young." 

(• V «C (« 

123. Beautiful brass ship's bell, from the 
barkentine "Pepito," which sailed the Medi- 
terranean between Barcelona and Naples. 
"Pepito" is the diminutive of the nickname 
for Pedro or Peter in Snanish, and means 
"Little Peter" or "Peterkin." Middle ot 
nineteenth century. 

124. Sanctus bell of bronze. Four sweet 
toned gong bells under bronze shell, typifying 
the four Gospels. From th? Cathedral of Se- 
ville. From end of eighteenth centui>. 

125. Spanish church bell with inscription 
in Spanish reading, "Jesus, Mary, year 1693." 
Ornamental floreated band in relief, and three 
rhedallions, each containing two pelican.--. 
standing under a passion cross. Cast during 
the reign of Charles II, the last of the Aus- 
trian Hapsburg rulers. From Xerez de la 


126. Very rare iron "Angelus" bell from 
Zaragoza, Spain, and dated 1317. Raised me- 
dallion with foundry mark. Inscription, "Ave 
Maria Gratia Plena." Hail Mary, full of 
grace. The Gothic letters of the inscription 
were evidently all made separately and then 
stuck on the core of the bell mould, as can 
be seen from their irrgularity. These bells 
were used in ringing the "Angelus" at morn 
ing and evening. 

(i« <« ^ (4 

"Ring soft across the dying day 


Across the amber-tinted bay, 

The meadow flushed with sunset ray. 
Ring out, and float, and melt away. 


^ <4 <i« <« 

The day of toil seems long ago 

While through the deepening vesper glow, 
Far up where holy lilies blow, 
Thy beckoning bell notes rise and flow, 

Through dazzling curtains of the west 


We see a shrine in roses dressed, 

And lifted high in vision blessed 

Our very heart throb is confessed 


Oh, has an angel touched the bell, 


For now upon the parting swell 

All sorrow seems to sing farewell, 

There falls a peace no words can tell, 


^ <« <4 (« 

127. Church bell. Floreated band in relief. 
Four raised medallions showing Calvary, 
Pope, Bishop and Madonna and Child. From 
the style of the figures and general appear- 
ance, not later than the fifteenth century 
From the Church of Saint Mary of the Sea, 
Barcelona, Spain. 

128. Ship's bell with axle and pinions. In- 
scribed "Taormina 1884." From a boat form- 
erly plying between Marseilles and Sicily. 

129. Carriage bell of the eighteenth cen- 
tury with floral decorations. From the an- 
cient city of Carcassonne, in Southern 

130. Clock gong of bowl shape, very large 
and massive. Inscription in French reads as 
follows: This clock bell was cast in August, 
1861, in the reign of Napoleon III, Emperor 
of France. Jean Marie Mathias Debelay,' 
Archbishop; Adolph Durand St. Amant, 
Chief Magistrate; Doctor Paul Pamard, 
Mayor; M. Edouard Perrot, Jean Baptiste 
Clerc, Eugene Bastide, Jean Baptiste Vodon, 


deputies. Pierre Pierron, bell founder at 
Avignon." Avignon, in Southern France, 
founded by the Romans, is famous as bein.g 
the seat of the popes during the so-called 
"Babylonish Captivity," 1309-1377. 

131. Altar bell consisting of three small 
bronze bells within a shell of brass. From 
middle of eighteenth century. From Cologne. 

132. Church bell in redwood frame. From 
Genoa, Italy. Dated 1810, the year of Mexi- 
can independence, and also that in which was 
founded the capilla of San Bernardino. 

133. Cow-bell from the Valley of the Lau- 
terbrunnen. Inscribed "Rastello." Also orna- 
mented with relief figures of deers' heads, a 
cow, Swiss crosses, etc. Sixteenth century. 

134. Sweet-toned chapel bell of bronze or- 
namented with four Calvarys in raised work. 
Graceful lines. From Hospice of the Great- 
St. Bernard in the Swiss Alps, founded in 96.i 
by St. Bernard, now occupied by Augustine 
monks, who, with their dogs, render assist 
ance to lost travelers. 

135. Drum major's standard, from Lucerne. 
Switzerland. Ornamental stars, crescents and 
bells of brass with iron rod center in a slid- 
ing handle of wood. Nineteenth century. 

V <i« w ^ 

"Those bells that tell a thousand tales. 
Sweet tales of olden time! 
And ring a thousand memories 
At vesper and at prime." 

<^ ^ ^ <^ 

136. Very sweet-toned travelers' bell from 
Conipostella, Spain. About the top a row o? 
scallop shells, the symbol of St. James of 
Compostella, patron saint of pilgrims. About 
the center are figures of travelers on Span- 
ish mules, and lions that represent the dan 
gers in the way. Dated 1790. For the necic 
of the leading horse or pack mule that went 
ahead. ("Campus Stellae.") 

137. Church bell from the Riddarholms 
Kyrka, the old Franciscan church at Stock 
holm, Sweden. Relief work consisting of 
floreated bands and a Calvary with Mary an'i 
John at either side; medallions of St. James 
with staflf, water botlle and cockle shells. St 
Bri^itta, patron saint of Sweden, who mad i 
pilgrimages to the shrine of St. James at 
Compostella, Spain, and St. Gottlieb, or Theo- 
philus, the administrator of a bishopric «n 
Asia Minor, said to have made a compact 
with the devil. From middle of eighteenth 

138. Church bell dated 1847. Ornamental 
floreated band. Medallions of St. James tho 
Less, with club, and St. Thaddeus, with hai- 
berd. From Wurtemberg. 


139. Ancient church bell with floreated 
bands and crown-sJiaped ears. The German 
inscription informs us that it was made by 
Wolfgang Wilhelm Schelchshorn in Eychstet 
in 1796. From old Lutheran church at Wit- 

140. Chapel bell with floreated band and 
the following emblems and inscriptions: I. H. 
S. Jesus Savior of men; medallion of cruci- 
fixion with words James Hiliprand and Holy 
Trinity; anagram of the letters of MARI>; 
then within ornamental border Aus Tirol 
"From Tyrol." "Joseph Dengg made me nt 
lenbach." Nineteenth century. 

141. Bell from Aix-la-Chapelle, Franc • 
Floreated band and raised medallions of St. 
Louis of France, Bishop of Toulouse (patr'jn 
saint of Mission of San Luis Obispo); an 1 
Santa Barbara, patroness of the Mission of 
that name. Nineteenth century. 

142. Chapel bell from St. Denis, France 
Ornamental bands; medallions of St. Joseph 
with lilies and Christ child. On either side 
cherubs with flowers. About one hundred 
years old. 

143. Cow-bell from Oberammergau, in Ba 
varia. Ornamented with Calvary and figures 
of John and Mary, I. H. S. and cross, and 
the number 18. About fifty years old. 

144. Cow-bell from Hohenschwargau, in 
the Bavarian Alps, where King Lewis II, 
1869, built the beautiful castle of New 
Schawnstein, famous for its frescoes of the 
stories of Lohengrin, Tannhauser, etc. Orna- 
mented with royal crown, cherubs' heads 
crucified Christ and Mary. About fifty years 

145. Alarm bell on spring coil from old 
shop door in Paris. Ornamented with fleur- 
de-lis. Eighteenth century. 

146. Beautifully attuned mass bells from 
Munich. The three represent the Trinity. 
Early eighteenth century. 

147. Ancient mass bell from Stuttgart. 
The four bells in one denote the unity of the 
four Gospels. About two hundred years old. 

148. Ancient castle bell with inscription in 
German that says, "Johann Ulerich Rosen- 
lecher made me in Constanz in 1676." Orna- 
mented with various heraldic devices. From 
the old castle on the Rhine that was inhab- 
ited in the seventeenth century by Count Ru- 
dolph Wolfgang von Bernstein. 

149. Very artistic altar bell of Gothic de- 
sign, beautifully ornamented. Surmounted by 
miniature cross. From Dresden. Eighteenth 

150. House bell from St. Petersburg, Rus- 
sia, with inscription in Russian that reads, "1 
present it to him (or her) whom I love. This 


bell was wrought at Valdai." The inscription 
is in the old style Russian used before the 
reign of Peter the Great (1689-1725), and Is 
therefore over two hundred years old. 

151. Brass church bell. In relief are fig- 
ures of crucified Christ, Madonna and Child 
and St. Catherine. From the Church of St. 
Catherine, Nuremberg, long used by the meis- 
tersingers as their school. Made in the state 
bell foundry some time before 1806, as the 
foundry ceased to exist in that year. 

152. Castle tocsin bell, inscribed in Ger- 
man as follows: "Christopher Frederick Oel- 
hafen is the founder of the Schsellenbac'a 
family, 1746." From the anciept castle of 
Schsellenbach in Wurtemberg, Germany. 

153. Castle bell of artistic design in- 
scribed with the owner's name, "Gottfried 
Siegomund von Hauck, 1766." Heraldic de- 
sign consisting of the keys of the town of 
Regensburg, at that time a free city of the 
German Empire, now belongs to Bavaria. 
This bell v/as used in the van Hauck castle 
in the great dinijig hall to summon the guests. 
It had no clapper and was struck with a 
wooden mallet, giving out a very piercing 
and musical tone. Technically known as a 
petasius or "broad-brimmed hat" bell. 

154. Beautiful bronze garrison bell from 
old German military citadel of Spandau. Or- 
namented with eagle in bold relief grasping 
fasces in its talons. The ears of the bell are 
formed by a group of lions couchant. Floral 
border. The words "Ton Gis" in German 
guarantee the purity of metal and tone, and 
the bell has a most musical tone. Nineteenth 

(4 <« <i« <« 

"At bridal and at burial 
For cottager and king. 
These bells and glorious Christian chimes, 
How blessedly they ring"! 

<«<«(« <4 

155. Dinner bell from the Austrian Lloyd 
S. S. "Hapsburg." Company's device in re- 
lief. Vorwarts, "Forward," and dolphins, anchor 
and crown. The letters "L. A." Lloyds Aus- 
tria. This steamer plys between Trieste and 
Constantinople. About fifty years old. 

156. Goat-bell containing smaller one, hung 
on wooden collar. Taken from the neck of 
a goat that was browsing on the side of the 
Acropolis, at Athens. Sweet tone. 

157. Bronze bell from Sparta, Greece, such 
as were anciently worn on necks of slaves. 

158. Sacred cow-bell from Jaipur, India. 
Good specimen of the well-known Jaipur 
enamel work. (The cow is a sacred animal 
in India.) 


159. Bronze bell from the Dilwarra Tem- 
ple at Mount Abu, India. 

160. Sacred bullock-bell of odd design 
from Ahmedabad, one of the centers of the 
Jain sect in India. One hundred years old. 

161. Buflfalo-bell from Bombay, India. Mys- 
tical, ring-shaped handle. Eighteenth cen 

162. Sacred cow-bell from Lahore, one of 
the principal cities in the Punjab, India. 
Eighteenth century. 

163. Camel-bell from Peshawar, on north- 
ern boundary of India, commanding the fam 
ous Kaibar Pass, a caravan route to Afghanis- 

164. Bullock-bell from Cawnpore, India 
Eighteenth century. 

165. Sacred elephant-bell from Trichinop 
oly, India. Ganesha, the elephant-headed 
God of Wisdom, is very popular in India, 
and has many temples where are kept trained 
elephants sacred to him. 

166. Ancient bronze cow-bell from Agra, 
one of the most beautiful cities of India, 
where is situated the famous Taj Mahal. 
Eighteenth century. 

167. Bronze temple bell from Ajmer, In 
dia. Surmounted by phoenix bird, the sym- 
bol of eternal health and vigor. Eighteenth 

168. Bullock-bells, from "the Vale of Cash- 
mere." Worn between the horns. 

169. Cluster of camel-bells from Teheran. 

170. Bronze donkey-bell from Cairo, Egypt. 
Eighteenth century. 

171. Hand-bell from Benares, India, with 
image of tiger-god for handle. Ten thousand 
people are annually eaten by tigers in India, 
and the natives have a superstitious fear of 
th"! animal. Benares is one of the most sacred 
cities of India. 

172. Bullock-bell from the royal deserted 
city of Fatehpur-Sikri, India, built by Em- 
peror Akbar in the sixteenth century. 

^ ^ ^ <^ 

"Music arose with its voluptuous swell. 
And all went merry as a marriage bell." 

'^ ^ <^ ^ 

173. Camel-bell from Jerusalem, Syria. 

174. Elephant-bell with chain of Hindu 
deities and sacred peacock and elephant. 
From Lucknow, the seat of the Sepoy rebel-; 
lion and massacre of 1857. Worn at side of 


175. Bronze castanets used by dancing 
fakirs in religious ceremonies. From Assam, 
India. Eighteenth oentury. 

176 Temple copper gong from Calcutta, 

177. Hand-bell with the god Brahma for a 
handle. From Rajput, India. 

178. Old bronze temple bell from Mysore. 
India. Handle formed by Vishnu and Laksh- 
mi sitting under the shadow of Shesh, the 
five-headed sacred cobra. Throughout India 
the deadly cobra is looked upon with greai 

179. Hindu temple bell. Handle formed by 
the god of the wind. Eighteenth century. 
From Delhi, where formerly stood the fam- 
ous "peacock throne." 

180. Bullock-bell from Sawarkand. Curi 
ous wooden clapper. Early nineteenth cen- 

181. Shrine bell from Ghat Temple at 
Benares. Eighteenth century . 

182. Prayer gong for arousing the gods. 
Circular disc of hand-hammered copper. From 
Umballa, India. Eighteenth century. 

183. Massive bronze bell from a lamasary 
or Buddhist monastery at Darjelling, India. 
Eighteenth century. 

184. Bullock-bell from the headwaters of 
the Ganges in the Himalayan Mountains, at 
the base of Mt. Everest, India. 

185. Ancient sweet-toned lamas bell from 
the great Buddhist monastery at Jantzi, Thi- 
bet. The bell is called "Dilbuh"; the top of 
the handle is in the shape of a Dorgee (from 
which Darjeeling gets its name); the eagle 
claw is "to destroy evil"; the head, much 
worn, is of "Dolma," the goddess of mercj'; 
about the shoulders of the bell runs a Sans- 
crit prayer. About the barrel and sound-bow 
are rows of dorgees and lotuses. Inside the 
bell is a symbol of the sacred lotus upon 
which Buddha sat in holy contemplation for 
millions of ages planning the redemption of 
mankind. This bell is from the twelfth cen- 

186. Prayer gong with tip of yak horn. 
From Thibet, "the backbone of the world." 
Very old. 

187. Bell from the great Vishnu Temple oi 
Sri Rangam at Trichinopoly, India. 

188. Bullock-bells to be worn between the 
eyes. From Madras, India. 

189. Five bells from the great Hindu tem- 
ple to Minakshi, the fish-eyed goddess, at 
Madura, India. 

190. A couple of bullock-bells from Tuti- 
corin, India. 


191. Bronze altar bell from the Catholic 
Cathedral at Kotahena, Colombo, Ceylon. 
Handle terminating in Christian cross. 

192. Old cracked iron elephant-bell from 
Kandy, Ceylon. Such bells are used on the 
elephants trained to work in the lumber in- 

193. Ancient wooden buffalo-bell from Per- 
adeniya, Ceylon, where are the famous bo- 
tanical gardens. Over one hundred years 

194. Old iron cow-bell with double wooden 
clapper from Galle, Ceylon. Eighteenth cen 

195. Brass bell shaped like the "Dagoba,'" 
in which is preserved the gigantic tooth of 
Buddha at the Maligawa Temple at Kandy, 

196. Native war dance gong from British 
North Borneo. Ornamented with dragons 
and scroll work in relief. Borneo is the land 
of the "head hunters." 

197. Chinese temple gong from Hong 
Kong. Handle formed by imperial singing 
dragons. On sides singing dragons in raised 
work. In panels are music-loving dragons 
and conical protuberances symbolizing the 
sacred snails that covered Buddha's head from 
the sun when he was lost in thought. In- 

scriptions in old Chinese characters of the 
period of the Ming dynasty. Five hundred 
years old. 

198. Sacred drum carved from peach wood. 
From temple at Shanghai. Conventional carv- 
ing. Peach tree wood is much used in tem- 
ple furnishings in China on acount of the 
mythical properties ascribed to the peach 
blossoms and wood. 

199. Small prayer drum of peach wood 
from Shanghai. 

'^ ^ <^ ^ 

"Jingle bells! jingle bells! 
Jingle all the way! 
Oh, what fun it is to ride 
In a one-horse open sleigh"! 


200. Miniature peach wood prayer drum. 

201. Horse-bell in shape of fish head, from 
Canton, where fish is the principal diet of 
the poor people. 

202. Small horse-bell. Canton, China. 

203. Japanese "Waniguchi," or crocodile- 
mouth gong, 259 years old, as shown by the 
inscription, which reads, "Given to the tem- 
ple by Akashi Province in the second year 
of Mereki, on a good day in July." Other 
inscriptions are: "We pray the Lord" and 
"Given to hang before the Buddha." Decor- 
ated with the lotus flower, the symbol of 
purity, the sacred flower of Buddha. 

204. "Suju," or Japanese religious rattle, 
used by the priestesses in the sacred dance 
"Okagura" at the Shinto shrine at Kasuga- 
wakamiya, Nara. About eighty years old. 
Red lacquer handle. 

205. Buddhist temple bell from Japan. Or- 
namented with lotus flower and eagle's claw 
handle. Eighteenth century. 

206. Temple gong in form of eight petaled 
lotus flower and with lotus ornamentation 
and inscriptions in ancient Chinese characters. 
Part of the inscription reads, "Given to the 
holv God," and "Above the North hot water. ' 
From Mukden (Port Arthur), made memor- 
able in the Russo-Japanese war. Over two 
hundred and fifty years old. Made in the 39 
(KENIYU) era of Chinese history, in the 
Golden Age of her material development. 
Names of honorable donors on the gong. 

207. Old helmet-shaped bell from Buddhist 
temple in Kobe, Japan. Conventional decora- 
tion. Two hundred years old. 

"The curfew tolls the knell of parting day." 
^ ^ ^ ^ 

208. Beautiful old bell of green bronze 
from pagoda at Osaka, Japan. The square 
openings are "the windows of truth"; the lit- 
tle protuberances are "the merciful snails" of 
Lord Buddha. Mouth of graceful foliated 
design Three hundred years old. 

209 Japanese bronze gong used in tea 
ceremony. Ornamented with the "pitying 
snails of Buddha." From Kyoto, Japan. 
Eighteenth century. 

210. Large lacquered, sacred drum, carved 
and gilded. From Buddhist temple at Kyoto, 
Japan. Mat and wand. Hollowed out of a 
piece of tough wood, very similar to the an- 
cient Aztec toponaxtli drums of Mexico. 
These drums are beaten by the priests dur- 
ing the religious ceremonies, as a sort of 
continuous prayer to the gods. One hundred 
years old. 

211. Ancient iron pagoda bell from Budd- 
hist temple near Kyoto, Japan! Mouth formed 
of lotus petals. One hundred and fifty year.s 

212. The most primitive form of bell 
known, or possible, being simply a piece of 
stone or phonolite ("clink stone") suspended 
from a cord, and beaten with small wooden 
mallet. It gives out a clear, metallic ring. 
From ancient phonolite quarry on the Island 
of Saghalin. This kind of bell was used as 
early as 600 B. C. 

213. Buddhist priest's prayer rattle from 
Nara, Japan. Beautiful green bronze wing- 
shaped ornaments on handle, symbolizing the 
flight upward of the priest's prayers. 

214. Beautifully formed bronze temple 
gong with double supporting ears. From 
Lake Biwa. 

V <:« «« ^ 

After Longfellow's death, among his papers 
was found the manuscript of his last written 
poem, "The Bells of San Bias." 

V <« V <;« 

215. Beautifully molded bell of bronze with 
deep, sonorous tone. Ornamented with raised 
work showing music-loving dragons and lot- 
uses, the symbol of purity. Around the up- 
pe." part are seen the sacred snails of Buddha. 
The ears are formed by a curved dragon. 
Used in tea ceremony. From Yeddo. The 
Cha-no-yu, or Tea Ceremonial, developed into 
a cult during the Shogunate of Ashikaga 
Yoshimasa in the fifteenth century. This cult 
was founded on the four cardinal virtues of 
urbanity, courtesy, purity and imperturbabil- 
ity, and has become a mighty force in hold- 
ing the Japanese true to a high standard in 
matters of taste by combining "aesthetic 
eclecticism" of the most fastidious nature 
with the severest canons of simplicity and 
austerity. The tea ceremony is in reality a 
gathering of connoisseurs to view works of 
aft, each of which to win favor must meet 
the requirements of the most exacting taste. 
The ceremonies include a preliminary dinner, 
but tea drinking is the chief thing. The tea 
used is in the form, not of tea leaves, but 
of powder, so that the resulting beverage re- 
sembles pea soup in color and consistency. 
The tea is made and drunk in a preternatur- 
ally slow and solemn manner, each action, 
each gesture being fixed by an elaborate code 
of rules. Every article connected with the 
ceremony, such as the tea canister, the in- 
cense burner, the hanging scroll, and the 
bouquet of flowers in the alcove is either 
handled, or else admired at a distance, in 
ways and with phrases prescribed by unalter- 
able usage. Even the hands are washed, the 
room is swept, a little bell is rung (of which 
there are various specimens in this collec- 
tion), and the guests walk from the house to the 


garden and from the garden into the house, 
at stated times and in a stated manner, which 
never varies. To a European the ceremony 
is lengthy and meaningless, and when wit- 
nessed more than once it becomes intolerably 

The worship of simplicity and of the an- 
tique in objects of art, together with the ob- 
servance of an elaborate code of etiquette — 
such are the doctrine and discipline of the 
tea ceremonies in their modern form, which 
has never varied in four centuries. 

216. Gracefully made bronze house gong 
from Tokio. In raised work, the winged 
steed that forms one of the signs of the 
Zodiac; the sacred lotus, and the blessed 
snails of Buddha. On top of gong a prayer 
to Lord Buddha for a blessing on the home. 

217. Ancient iron priest's rattle or prayer 
bell from Buddhist shrine at Nikko, Japan. 
Handle is surmounted by fish-spear orna- 
ment, symbolizing the broad-bladed spear 
with which Buddha slew the great Demon. 
Over two hundred years old. 

218. Beautiful little Buddhist priest's gong 
made of bronze. Ornamented with Buddhist 
angels, the lotus flower and dragons with 
intertwined tails forming the handle. Very 
sweet tone when struck by a wand. From 
Yeddo, Japan. One hundred and fifty years 

219. Three-footed bronze gong beautifully 
ornamented with lotus buds in relief. From 
Buddhist temple at Kamakura, where there 
is an image of Buddha, made of bronze 
plates, and forty-four feet high. From eight- 
eenth century. 

220. Bright brazen Shinto temple rattle 
fifty years old, with inscription, "Province of 
Shimosa, District of Tuiki, Shore of the Ka- 
bota River. This bell is (Hono) consecrated 
to God by the people who were passengers 
on the boat, and by their representative, Ishi- 
kawa Jinbei of Higashi-Moto Street of Fuka- 
gawa, Tokio, in giving it to the temple." A 
votive oflfering on the part of those pas- 
sengers who escaped shipwreck. 


221. A gong (Dora) of begging pilgrims, 
worn thrust through the belt and sounde-l 
while walking and praying. Decorated with 
mother of pearl, and a pair of brass temple 
dogs. On the wooden mallet is the inscrip 
tion in Japanese, "Property of Hara Genzae- 
mon." In thee 0!Buddha, we put our trust." 
Name Amida Butsu. From Yokohama. As 
Buddha was a beggar and wore the yellow 
robe and carried the brass alms bowl, he is 
much beloved by all beggars of China, Japan 
and India. About fifty years old. 

222. A bronze Kei gong one hundred years 
old from Buddhist temple in Formosa. Or- 
namented with the mystical phoenix, bird of 
paradise and sacred lotus. 

223. Large bronze Japanese temple gons: 
(Dora) from Buddhist temple at Hakodate 
Figures in relief "nio" (two kings) or guard- 
ian demons of the temple. Within is the 
signature of Myochin, the maker. About one 
hundred and fifty years old. 

<« «« V <4 

"I think upon that happy time, 
That time so fondly loved. 
When last we heard the sweet bells chime, 
As through the fields we roved." 

<« <« 14 •« 

224. Jingle bells used by Japanese news- 
boys. They are worn at the hip, attached to 
the sash. As the boys run about they do 
not cry their papers, but by the loud sounding 
of these bells announce their "extrys." From 

225. Bronze gong from horse temple at 
Nagasaki, Japan, where is venerated the 
sacred horse of Buddha. About one hundred 
and fifty years old. 

226. Ancient hand-bell of green bronze in 
form of a fish head. In imitation of a bell 
of the ancient time of Jindai's godly reign. 
The original was dug up in the ancient 
Buddhist city of Kamakura. 

227. Very beautiful specimen of Buddhist 
priest's magic bell. Handle formed of lotus 
petals and eagles' claws. Mouth of bell 
formed of the eight petals of the lotus. Dec- 
orated with raised figures of gods alternat- 
ing with the "Saiko." Used by the priests 
in exorcising evil spirits. 

228. Flat, circular bronze gong from tem- 
ple of Confucius in Pekin, China. Covered 
on either side with extracts from the sacred 
writings of Confucius; taken from the work 
entitled "Change," that teaches the proper 
conduct of life. The worshipers whilst read- 
ing the words on this metal disc make their 
prayers to Confucius, meanwhile striking the 
gong with a wand, to attract the favorable 
attention of the great Teacher. About one 
hundred and fifty years old. 


229. Long-handled pilgrim's bell from 
Kompira, Japan. Used by pilgrims bound for 
the summit of Fujiyama, 12,365 feet high. 
While making the ascent the pilgrims ring 
such bells as these and chant an invocation 
which says, "May our six senses be pure, and 
the weather on the honorab^le mountain be 
fair." About one hundred and fifty years old. 
Signed by the maker, Kokawa IcihnQ Kami, 
at Kokawa-dera Temple, near Nara. 

230. Deep-toned bronze fire gong (Han- 
sho), from Tokio, Japan. Fires were form- 
erly so common in Japan's wood and paper 
cities that the nickname of "Yedo Blossoms" 
was applied to the flames, which almost 
nightly lit up the metropolis. So cpmpletely 
did this destructive agency, establish itself 
as a national institution that a whole vocabu- 
lary grew up to express every shade of mean- 
ing in matters fiery. The Japanese language 
has special terms for an incendiary fire, an 
accidental fire, a fire starting from one's own 
house, a fire caught from next door, a fire 
which one shares with others, a fire which is 
burning to an end, the flame of a fire, any- 
thing — for instance, a brazier — from which a 
fire may arise, the side from which to attack 
a fire in order to extinguish it, a visit of con- 
dolence after a fire, the bell for announcing 
the presence of a fire — and so on. These 
fire gongs are placed on poles tall enough 
to overlook the houses in the crowded quar- 
ters and are easily accessible from the streets. 
Seventy-five years old. 

231. Bronze Waniguchi (gong). Decorated 
with imperial dragon, snail shell and eight - 
petaled lotus. From Nagoya, Japan. 

232. Iron rattle bell for house. With 
sacred inscriptions and snails. From Miyano- 

233. Bronze rattle for calling servants. Or- 
namented with Sanscrit characters and piti- 
ful snails of Buddha. From Yokosuka. 

234. Priest's gong used especially for the 
prayer ceremony at funerals, made of "Sa- 
hary," the sweetest-toned of all bell metal. 
Wooden handle and cushipn. From Mikko, 

235. Buddhist priest's bell, heavily gilt, of 
lotus flower design. Quite a percentage of 
gold in its composition. Upon the handle 
are the heads of the gods Kuten Bosatsu 
(Air); Katea Bosatsu (Fire); Suiter Bosatsu 
(Water); Futen Bosatsu (Wind). (Diflferent 
forms of Buddha.) Handle terminates in 
claws of Buddha's eagle. From Nyoroiyi 
Temple, Kii. About fifty years old. 

236. Fruit-shaped rattle bell for domestic 
service. From Hiroshima, Japan. 

237. Beautiful bronze gong, such as are 
used in the tea ceremonies. Ornamented in 
raised work with dragons, royal chrysanthe- 


mums and other figures. The Japanese char- 
acters signify "Dragon God." The wooden 
mallet bears the name "Single Heart," such 
as were used in the "Daimyo" or feudal days, 
1603-1867. From Kanagawa, Japan. 

238. Annular bronze call-bell for domes 
tic use. From the Daimyo period. From 
Wakayama. One hundred years old. 

239. Miniature metal temple drum. 

240. Japanese Buddhist bishops' gong. Of 
bronze in form of sacred lotus. An exceed- 
ingly rare piece. From temple at Yama- 
guchi. Sixteenth century. 

241. Bronze gong for use in Japanese tei 
ceremony, made in shape of sacred foot of 
Buddha. Ornamented with sacred lotus. Very 
rare and fine specimen of the seventeentli 
century. From palace in Fukuoka. 

242. Beautiful bronze gong from Chinese 
temple in Pekin. Ornamental handle formed 
of double dragons. On sides the phoenix 
bird, symbol of power and vigorous life, and 
the mystical gingseng plant, type of virilitj' 
and potency. Very sweet and sonorous tone. 
Early eighteenth century. 

243. "Potlatch" rattle in shape of two 
clasped hands. Made by Alaskan Indians. 
Used in their dances. 

<« «« V (^ 

In old ecclesiastical paintings and carvings 
a bell symbolizes the exorcism of evil spirits, 
and is generally one of the attributes of Saint 
Anthony, who had many a tussle with the 
foul fiend. 

^ <;« <« V 

244. Chinese temple gong ornamented with 
snails of Buddha. The inscription in Chinese 
states that the gong was made during the 
Kin Lung dynasty, nearly two hundred years 
ago. Very deep and sonorous tone. From 
ancient temple at Kwang-lou-chan. 

245. Mascot bell from the El Zagal Shri- 
ners from Fargo, North Dakota. After a 
special vote, presented to F. A. Miller bv 
Potentate Frank H. Treat, 1912. 

246. Buddhist temple bell-shaped ornameni: 
of gilt wood from Kioto. 

247. Bowl-shaped gong of hammered 
bronze with deep musical tone. From Naga- 
saki, Japan. 

248. Japanese gong such as are used by 
the mendicant priests when asking alms. 

249. Round gong from Douglas. Isle of 
Man. made famous through well-known novels 
of Hall Caine. Gift of D. Cochrane, '12. 


250. Street car bell from New York Citv, 
from the last horse car before the general 
change to the cable system; inscribed "Wm. 
McKenna & Son, New York." Gift of L. 

251. Church bell from the Church of St. 
Francis at the leper settlement of Molokai, 
Hawaiian Islands. An especial interest at- 
taches to this bell from the fact that it hung 
in the church where Father Damien minis- 
tered to those alive in death, the lepers of 
Molokai. This devoted priest literally gave his 
life for these poor unfortunates, as he him- 
self contracted the dreadful, incurable mal 
ady from whose effects he died in 1889. One 
of Robert Louis Stevenson's most brilliant 
articles, a defense of Father Damien and his 
work, was called forth by an injudicious letter 
published by a Protestant missionary, in 
which charges were made against the charac- 
ter and motives of the man whom the world 
has enrolled among its greatest heroes. 

(One of the many beautiful stories con- 
nected with the life of St. Francis of Assisi 
is that relating to his care for an unfortunate 
leper whom he found by the wayside.) 

It is especially fitting that this bell should 
find its permanent resting place in the col- 
lection of the Mission Inn under the shadow 
of the Cross on Rubidoux, reared in memory 
of another immortal son of St. Francis — 
Fray Junipero Serra. 

252. Gong of hammered brass made by the 
native Morros of the Island of Mindiano, 
Philippine Islands. The natives suspend thes<; 
gongs with cords of fibre, or place them on 
the ground and then strike them with sticks. 
They were used in connection with heathen 
rites and festivals celebrated by the fierce 
savages far in the depths of the tropical jun- 

253. Brass bell and fish pendant (carp), 
such as are used in connection with the 
Boys' Feast of Flags on May 5 in Korea and 
Japan. On this day outdoors a gigantic carp 
made of paper or cloth is tied to the top of a 
high pole, where it flutters when it is filled 
with wind. The carp is emblematic oi 
strength, as it can swim up a rapid current 

Owing to the cross-shaped piece of metal 
inside the bell, and from which the fish 
hangs, this bell when hung where the breeze 
can strike it, produces a soft and constant 
tinkling sound. Gift of Mr. Sanborn of Kobe. 

254. The "Santa Maria" bell from church 
of the Ascension at Seville, Spain. Inscrijjed 
in Spanish: "Mary of the Ascension, Seville, 
and February of 1753." A splendid bell of 
good lines, fine proportions and of about 
seven hundred pounds weight. The tone is 
most excellent, being very resonant and vi- 
brant. Ornamented with a Latin cross in re- 


255. Eighteenth Century New England 
watchman's rattle. Made of hickory. From 
Salem, Mass. From the collection of Albert 
S. White. 

256. Temple gong of green bronze orna- 
mented with bands and shields of cloisonne 
work. Chrysanthemums in various colors 
about lower band. Ornamental pierced, 
pointed handle with chain. Very beautiful 
specimen. From Japan. About 150 years 

257. Chinese temple gong of green bronze 
hanging in ornamental teak-wood frame. 
Shaped very much like an ordinary bell. 
Ears are formed of a pair of "music loving 
dragons" and similar figures are on the sides 
of the bell in high relief. Characteristic 
Chinese ornamentation. A choice specimen 
of Chinese metal work of a century and a 
half ago. 

258. Sanctus bell of bronze. From ancient 
Jesuit church in Sinaloa, Mexico. Handle 
formed by two cherubs standing back to 
back. Doubtless made in Mexico about 1650. 
Rudely moulded and hammered. A blurred 
medallion on either side and a few letters 
that may be part of the famous Jesuit motto: 
Ad Majorem dei Gloriam (For the greater 
glory of God). 


qjimop^Jm ^Qp^scs 

Before entering upon the detailed descrip- 
tion of the crosses comprised in the Mission 
Inn Collection, it might be well to consider 
for a moment a few general facts with regard 
to the origin, use and different forms of the 

The cross was a common instrument of 
capital punishment among the ancients and 
death on the cross was deemed so dishonor- 
able that only slaves and malefactors of the 
lowest class were subjected to it by the Ro- 

The cross was in use as an emblem, having 
certain religious and mystic meanings at- 
tached to it long before the Christian Era. 

The Spanish conquerors were astonished to 
find it an object of religious veneration 
amongst the natives of America. 

But the death of Christ by crucifixion led 
Christians to regard it with peculiar feelings 
of veneration and to adopt it as a svmbol with 
express reference to the central fact of their 

The sign of the cross has been made in 
Christian worship since the second century 
ac least, as an act of homage to God, in re- 
membrance of the Redemption, and of bless- 
ing to the person or object over which the 
sign was made. 

The forms given to crosses in art are end- 
less; but the two leading types are the 
Latin cross, supposed to be that on which 
Christ suffered, and the Greek cross, both of 
which are subject to many fantastic varia- 

In the Latin cross the lower limb is longer 
than the upper one, while in the Greek the 
limbs are all of the same length. The cross 
of St. Andrew consists of two shafts of equal 
length crossed diagonally at the middle. 

In the history of the cross as a Christian 
symbol it is evident that it was used at first 
as a symbol of triumph, not suffering. 

In the sarcophagi and mosaics, from the 
fourth to the ninth century, it often stands 
alone on the sacred rock from which flow 
the Four Rivers of Paradise. 

It is sometimes surmounted by the Con- 
stantinian monogram of Christ, the Labarum, 
and thus became the standard of victorious 
Christianity. It was inscribed within the cir- 
cle around the head of Christ, thus forming 
the crucifixion nimbus. 

In the Middle Ages the form of the cross 
was given to a majority of the churches. 

In the following pages will be found de- 
scriptions of all the various kinds of crosses 


known, together with interesting historical 
notes and references to many places; quaint 
legends and customs in different periods and 

The Mission Inn Collection of crosses is 
the largest and most representative in the 

All of the smaller crosses are hanging in 
the cabinet in the Cloister Music Room. The 
Curator will be pleased to tell you where to 
see the larger ones. 

The numbers given here correspond to 
those on or near the crosses. 

^ <^ <i4 ^ 

"With crosses, relics, crucifixes, 
Beads, pictures, rosaries and pixes. 
The tools of working out salvation — 
A somewhat tiresome operation." 

(« w «« «« 

"The moon of Mahomet 
"Arose and it shall set; 

While, blazoned as on heaven's immortal 

The Cross leads countless generations on." 

<^ <^ '^ ^ 

1. Crystal benitier, or holy water stoup, 
from Versailles, France. Surmounted by 
smooth ,brass Latin cross. Contains figure of 
Madonna and Child in brass. 

2. Brass crucifix from Mexico. Latin form 
with title and emblems of Christ's triumph 
over death and mortality. 

3. Silver miniature Latin cross, showing 
Runic character of ancient Irish cross. 

4. Silver, floreated, filigree cross made in 
Mexico. Mexican silversmiths are expert in 
this sort of work. 

5. Old iron pectoral cross from Mexico. 
Made about 16S0. Property of a nun. On 
one side is a medallion in gold of Our Lady 
of Guadalupe. Above the medallion are the 
Latin letters "L N. R. L," which stand for 
"lesus Nazarenus Rex ludaeorum" — Jesus ot 
Nazareth, King of the Jews. On the arms 
is the following inscription in Spanish: In- 


digiia Soror Luisa Delaacsension, or in Eng- 
lish* "Unworthy Sister Luisa of the (Convent 
of the) Ascension." On lower limb are these 
words in Spanish: Esclava Demidulcissimo 
Ihs Maria, or, Englished: "Slave of my most 
sweet Jesus Mary." The "I. H. S." is the 
abbreviation for lesus Hominum Salvator, 
"Jesus the Saviour of Men." On the other 
side is a medallion representing angels kneel- 
ing on either side of the Host, and on the 
arms is the following in Spanish: "Alavado 
Sea Ssm Sacramento," which means: "Laud- 
ed be the most Holy Sacrament." On the 
upper limb is a small cross springing from 
the L H. S., as already described. On the 
lower limb in Spanish are the words: 
"Maria Santisimaconce Vida Sin Pecado Orig- 
inal," or in English, "Most holy Mary, con- 
ceived without original sin." 

6. Latin cross of Roman Mosaic, work. 

7. Brass, Latin cross from England. 

8. Cross of the Order of Guadalupe of 
Mexico. This Order was instituted by the 
Emperor Maximilian. Surmounting the cross 
is a golden eagle crowned, standing on a cac- 
tus and with claw and beak rending a ser- 
pent. This is the Mexican symbol seen on 
the coins of today, except that the eagle no 
longer wears a crown. A laurel wreath of 
victory runs about the extremities of the 
cross, and from the center shoot out rays of 

The cross is Maltese, supposed to repre 
sent four arrow heads with points meeting. 
Th.i red, white and green enamel represents 
the national colors of Mexico. On one side 
is the Virgin of Guadalupe in miniature sur- 
rounded by a border that carries che legend: 
"Religion, Jndependencia, Union." On the 
reverse side are the words: "Al merito y vir- 
tudes," or "To virtue and merits." These 
medal-crosses of Maximilian are very scarce 
and highly esteemed Date 1865. 

9. Silver "Lorraine" cross from Spain, 
about 1700. The crosses with two arms are 
called "Lorraine" for the reason that when 
Godfrey de Bouillon, Duke of Lorraine, was 
chosen by the Crusaders, as the first Chris- 
tian King of Jerusalem, he adopted this 
cross, hence it is sometimes called the Lor- 










raine or Jerusalem Cross. Also called a "pa- 
triarchal" or "cardinal's" cross. This is what 
is known as an "inhabited cross," as it con- 
tains human figures. On the observe side is 
the figure of Christ hanging on the Cross. 
Over his head is the abbreviation I N R I 
already described. Under His feet is h 
skull, the symbol of death and decay. On 
the lower arm and the lower limb are the 
words in Latin, "Domine Mementomei," 
which may be Englished, "O! Lord, remem- 
ber me." On the reverse side is a crowned 
figure of the Virgin with the crescent moon 
under her feet, the horns pointing upward. 
As on the obverse side, so here are ten orna- 
mental stars. On inferior transom and lower 
limb is the Spanish inscription, "Sinpecado 
Original," or in English, "Conceived without 
original sin." 

10. Silver, Latin cross from England. \ 
so-called "Aureole" cross, from the circle 
passing through the angles of the arms and 
limbs. It was thought that this circle was 
an aureole or nimbus, such as surrounds the 
head of Christ. But it seems that this sup- 
position was unfounded and that the circle 
was ornamental and also utilitarian, as, in the 
case of large crosses of stone and wood, th^ 
segments of the circle served as braces for 
the long, heavy arms or transoms of the 
cross, retaining and sustaining them above 
and below. 

11. Old olive-wood rosary with small brass 
crucifix, on back of which are the words; 
"Adveniat Regnum Tuum," "Thy Kingdom 
Come." From Italy. 

12. Double-armed silver pectoral cross 
from the Navajo Indians of New Mexico, 
made of coins hammered together. On the 
obverse side are represented two reversd 
Sawastika crosses and seven arrows. At each 
of these crosses are pointed three of the ar- 
rows — the seventh one being pointed out- 
ward. On the reverse side is nothing but 
two reversed Sawastika crosses. This is '-> 
most curious article, as it is not Christian, 
but heathen. It is the "rain cross" to which 
the Indians of the Southwest have prayed 
for centuries, and which was worshipped in 
Guatemala and Mexico long before the Span- 
iards came. As to the significance of the ar- 


rows, possibly Mr. Walter Fewkes of thi 
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, could 
tell their meaning. 

More than three thousand years ago the 
strange cruciform symbol known as the Fyl- 
fot cross was reverenced in India. It is a 
sacied symbol in the tombs of Egypt and in 
the of Rome. It is graven on the 
temples of the prehistoric nations of both the 
Eastern and Western Hemispheres. The 
heraldry of the Middle Ages blazoned it on 
their shields. Today it is used as a mystic 
symbol among the secret societies. Modern 
heralds term it "gammodion," and "crux gam- 
mata," considering it as a compound of c 
fourfold repetition of the Greek "gamma." 
Edmonson describes it as the cross potent 
rebated, or cross componie. The Buddhists 
call it the Sawastika, or Suti, meaning "It 's 
well," or "So be it," and it is the symbol of 

13. Old silver, Spanish crossbow or ar- 
balast, bearing the figure of Christ. A most 
rare and interesting specimen of the silver- 
smith's art in the sixteenth century. 

14. Silver, Spanish reliquary cross; very 
old. Reliquary crosses were made with small 
hollow spaces in them, in which to carry 
either a fragment of the True Cross, or a 
relic of some saint. This cross nas on the 
obverse side - seven such receptacles, now- 
empty. On the reverse side a rude repre- 
sentation of the crucified Lord iurmounted 
by the title "I. N. R. I." 

<^ <^ ^ ^ 

"On her white breast a sparkling cross she 
Which Jews might kiss and infidels adore." 

V (« <i« <« 

15. Amethyst bead-rosary with pendant 
gold Latin crucifix. From Spain. 

16. Spanish, silver crucifix, btaring the 
Latin monogram I. N. R. I. and on reverse 
side a rude representation of the Chalice and 
Host. Sixteenth century. 


17. Old English, brass, Latin cross, bear- 
ing on the obverse side the words of Mary 
to Gabriel, the Angel of the Annunciation: 
"Behold the Handmaid of the Lord, be it 
unto me according to thy word.'' In her- 
aldry called a cross "etoile," from the pointed 

18. Silver cross, made by American Indians 
in New Mexico. Set with a native turquoise. 

19. Old bronze crucifix from Madrid with 
Latin title. 

20. Danish Legion of Honor Cross of gold 
and enamel. A Maltese "Aureole" cross, sur- 
mounted by the royal crown of Denmark, and 
with a crossed crown -in each of the four 
angles. On the obverse side the upper crown 
is supported by an ornamental "R, ' the Latin 
abbreviation for Rex, or king. On the four 
limbs are the Danish words, "Gud Og Kon- 
gen," which mean "God and King." In the 
center is the letter "C" under a small crossed 

On the reverse side, in the center, is the 
letter "W," surmounted by a Gothic crown. 
On the left, upper and right limbs are the 
dates 1219, 1808 and 1671. 

The white enamel and the setting of red 
gold constitute the Dannebrog, or national 
colors of Denmark. Waldemar II, one of the 
most remarkable sovereigns of the Middle 
Ages, in 1219 made a crusade against the 
Pagans in Esthonia and forcibly converted 
the inhabitants. When the Danes were hard 
pressed in one of the battles, the archbishop, 
Andrew Suneson, procured a flag with a 
white cross embroidered on a red ground, 
that had been sent him by the pope. He told 
th*-; Danish soldiers that the flag had fallen 
down from heaven, and so inspired them that 
they won a great victory. Ever since the 
white cross on a red field has been the na 
tional standard of Denmark. The "W" re- 
ferred to stands for this same Waldemar, and 
the 1219 mentioned is the year of his cru- 
sade. The date 1671 commemorates the great 
naval victory of Denmark over Sweden under 
Christian V, whose name is indicated by the 
"C" mentioned. The year 1808 was notable 
because Denmark, aroused by "the perfidy (<i 



Albion," declared and made war upon Great 
Britain, and gained some very brilliant naval 
advantages over her formidable enemy. 

Mr. Jacob Riis informs us that these 
crosses were granted by the Danish crown 
only to persons who had performed some 
notable deed of heroism, that upon the death 
of the recipient they must be returned to the 
donor and that on no account were they to 
remain in the family of the recipient. Mr. 
Jacob Riis himself is the possessor of one of 
these highly prized crosses, only a very few 
of which are conferred during the reign of 
each sovereign. 

21. Byzantine cross of Japanese cloisenne 
An artistic and beautiful pectoral. 

22. A Maltese "aureole" cross of bog-wood 
from Ireland. Shamrocks in relief and in gilt 

23. Elks' badge of Grand Reunion, 1909, 
with the Glenwood cross and bell house mark. 

24. Silver Lorraine cross made of ham 
mered coins by the Navajo Indians; very 
likely one of their so-called "rain crosses." 

25. Byzantine amethyst Latin cross. On 
either side is superimposed a cross with 
amethyst terminals. 

26. Silver miniature fac-simile of ancient 
Celtic cross. On the obverse a Lorraine or 
Cardinal's cross, and on the reverse side an 
ordinary Latin cross. 

(« ^ <4 <« 

"Each of our crosses has its inscription. 
"Every house has its cross. 
"Everyone thinks his own the heaviest cross. 
"Crosses are ladders by which we may climu 
to heaven." 

— Old German sayings. 

'^ ^ ^ ^ 

27. Badge and cross of the Military Order 
of the Loyal Legion of the United States, an 
association of officers and honorably dis- 
charged officers of the army, navy, marine 
corps, and volunteers, organized to perpet- 
uate the memories and afford relief to those 
who served in the suppression of the rebel 
lion of 1861-1865. Organized in Philadelphia 
on April 15, 1865, after hearing of Lincoln'.-: 
assassination, the day before. The eldest 
male lineal descendants, or male heirs in col 
lateral branches are also eligible to member- 
ship The insignia of the order is a badge 
pendent by a link and a ring of gold from a 
tri-colored ribbon. The badge is a Maltese 
cross of eight points, gold and enamel, with 
rays forming a star. In the center on the 
obverse side is a circle with the national 
eagle displayed, and around it the motto, "Lex 
regit, arma tuentur" (law rules, arms guard). 
On the reverse side are crossed satires 



surmounted by a fasces, on which is 
the Phrygian cap; around it an arch of thir- 
teen stars and a wreath of laurel; in the cir 
cle about it the legend, "M. O. Loyal Legion 
U. S., MDCCCLXV." The gold link on this 
badge bears the number 11820. The eight 
points of a Maltese cross signify the eight 
beautitudes. This cross descended to Frank 
A. Miller from his father, Captain C .C. 
Miller of Company I, Forty-ninth Wisconsin 

28. Gypsum stone cross from the "Garden 
of the Gods." 

29. Bronze cross from the church of S 
Maria-degli-Angeli (Saint Mary of the An 
gels), at the Porzioncula, Perugia, built over 
the cell of St. Francis. 

Mrs. Jameson, in her "Legends of the 
Monastic Orders," has the following inter- 
esting note: 

"The term Portiuncula, which occurs so 
perpetually in reference to the pictures of St. 
Francis, is, I believe, sometimes misunder- 
stood. It means literally, 'a small portion, 
share, or allotment.' The name was given to 
a slip of land, of a few acres in extent, at tho 
foot of the hill of Assisi, and on which stood 
a little chapel. Both belonged to a commun- 
ity of Benedictines, who afterward bestowed 
the land and the chapel on the brotherhood 
of St. Francis. This chapel was then famil- 
iarly known as the 'Capella della Porzion- 
cula.' Whether the title by which it has 
since become famous as the S. Maria-deg'.i- 
Angeli, belonged to it originally, or because 
the angels were heard singing around and 
above it at the time of the birth of St. Fran- 
cis, does not seem clear. At all events, this 
chapel became early sanctified as the scene of 
the ecstasies and visions of the saint; here 
also St. Clara made her profession; particu- 
lar indulgencies were granted to those who 
visited it for confession and repentance oii 
the fifth of August, and it became a cele- 
brated place of pilgrimage in the fourteentli 
century. Mr. Ford tells us that in Spain the 
term 'Porzioncula' is applied generally to dis- 
tinguish the chapel or sanctuary dedicated to 
St. Francis within the Franciscan churches. 

"The original chapel of the Porzioncula 

now stands in the center of the magnificent 
church which has been erected over it. The 
church and chapel were both much injured 
by an earthquake in 1832, but the chapel was 
restored from the old materials, and the ex- 
terior is adorned with frescoes by Overbeck. 
It is a small building — might contain perhaps 
— thirty people; but I did no*^ take the meas- 
urement; it looks small under the lofty dom^; 
of the edifice which now encloses it, and 
also the 'narrow cell' near it, called the 
'Stanza di S. Francesco.' " 

This is a Latin "aureole" cross. On the 
left upper and right limbs, on the 


side, are rosebuds that symbolize the follow- 
ing legend: "St. Francis, shivering in his cell 
in the depths of winter, a demon whispers to 
him suggestions of ease and luxury; he repels 
the temptation by going out and rolling him 
self in the snow on a heap of thorns; from 
the thorns sprinkled with his blood spring 
roses of Paradise, which he offers up to 
Christ and the Madonna." On the lower 
limb is St. Francis. Within the circle is the 
legend in Latin: "Porzioncula Head and 
Mother of the Minorites." 

On the reverse side, under the title "I. H. 
S.," is seen the insignia of the Franciscans, a 
small standing cross and the crossed arms, 
showing the "stigmata" in the hands. On the 
upper arc of the circle are the words in 
Latin: "The blessing of Holy Father Francis. ' 
On the arms and lower limb the inscription: 
"The Lord bless thee and keep thee: the 
Lord make his face shine upon thee and be 
gracious unto thee: the Lord lift up his 
countenance upon thee, and give thee peace. 
Shedding tears of gladness, O! he dedicates 
thee (to God)." In the center of the ob- 
verse side is a representation of the famous 
chapel. Given to Mr. Miller by the pries* 

<i4 ^ ^ ^ 


"When Jesus hung upon the cross 
"The birds, 'tis said, bewailed the loss 
Of Him who first to mortals taught, 
Guiding with love the life of all. 
And heeding e'en the sparrow's fall. 
But, as old Swedish legends say. 
Of all the birds upon that day, 
The swallow felt the deepest grief. 
And longed to give her Lord relief, 
And chirped, when any near would come 
'Hugswala swala swal honom!' 
Meaning, as they who tell it deem. 
Oh, cool, oh, cool and comfort Him." 

V ^ <« «« 

30. Bronze medal of St. Francis from same 
place as 29. On the obverse side St. Francis 
standing at the door of his chapel, a rose- 
bush on either hand. Around the border is 
the inscription, "S. Francis Assisiensis" (St. 


Francis of Assisi). On the reverse side are 
the figures of St. Clara and St. Agnes. Over 
them is the inscription in Italian "Sorelle 
Vergini" (Virgin Sisters). St. Clara holds 
the symbolical Host, and St. Agnes the Child. 
Underneath is the word "Assisi." Brought 
by Mr. Miller from Assisi. 

31. A Jerusalem cross. On the obvers-: 
side are the w^ords "God w^ills it," the Eng- 
lish of the "Deus vult" of the people when 
Peter the Hermit was preaching the first 
Crusade. Above is the usual title, "I H S." 
On the reverse side is the word "Jerusalem," 
under a shining star. The small red crosse-5 
typify the red crosses worn on the robes and 
shields of the crusading knights and pilgrim.?. 
The five crosses typify the five wounds of 

32. Latin pectoral cross of nuggets of 
Alaskan gold. 

33. Old steel, japanned cross, pectoral. 
Latin, bearing dove, symbolical of Holy 
Spirit. From England. 

34. Tortoise shell cross, potent, with gold 
stars, inlaid, forming a brooch. From Lon 

35. Same as 29. q. v. 

36. Old pectoral Latin cross made of coin 
silver by American Indians in Arizona. 

37. Maltese Knights Templar cross, made 
of free-gold quartz. On the reverse side is 
the monogriim, "F. A. M." 

38. English pectoral Maltese tortoise-shell 
cross, inlaid with gold netting. 

39. Latin Italian, reliquary, pectoral cross. 
.A cherub cm either siae of the lower lim.b. 
On the reverse side a rude representation of 
the crucifixion. From about the middle of 
the eighteenth century. 

40. Old hog-wood aureole cross from Ire- 
land. On the observe side, on the four limbi. 
shamrocks carved in relief; in the center che 
harp of Brian Boru. On the reverse side, 
conventional cross-shaped ornamentation. 

4L Old Irish metal cross with trefoil 
terminations. On obverse side, inside a 
circle, a trefoil cross with shamrock leaves 
about which is the legend: "Crux in Corde 
Cor in Cruce" (The Cross in the Heart; the 
Heart en the Cross). 

42. Irish iron cross, Maltese, with trefoil 
terminals, springing from a square ciborium 
terminating in crude representation of a 
death's head on either side. On obverse side 
of shaft is a rudely inscribed date that seems 
to be "MDXL" (1540), and on the reverse 
side some rude, indistinct letters seem to 
form the word "Flyn." This interesting cross 
was given to Mr. J. R. Blaine (the grand- 
father of Miss Lena Nelson), by a relative 
who went as a newspaper correspondent with 
the punitive English military expedition to 


Abyssinia vnder Sir Robert Napier, 1867-8. 
The corres])ondent secured it from a Jesuit 
priest whom he met in Abyssinia. 

43. Latin ivory pectoral cross from Scot- 

«« <« V <« 

"In those holy fields, 
Over whose acres walked those blessed feet 
Which, fourteen hundred years ago, were 

For our advantage on the bitter cross." 

^ (^ ^ ^ 

44. Very old Latin, ivory, pectoral cross 
from England. 

45. Metal Irish cross. Same as 41 q. v. 

46. Srnall, silver, Latin pectoral cross, made 
by American Indians. Native tourquoise set 

47. Pectoral cross potent of tortoise shell 
inlaid with gold tracery work ending in fol- 
iated terminals. From England. 

48. Bronze medal of St. Francis. Same as 
No. 30 q. V. 

49. Irish metal cross. Same as 41 q. v. 

50. Spanish pectoral reliquary cross of sil 
ver. Same as 14 q. v. 

51. Miniature Byzantine cross in fac-simile. 
On observe side small cardinal's cross with 
spear on one side and reed and hyssop on 
the other. 

52. Silver Latin cross made by American 

53. Bronze Maltese, worn as a pendanr. 
From England. Eighteenth century. 

^ ^ '^ ^ 

"There are no crown-wearers in heaven 
Who were not cross-bearers here below." 

^ ^ ^ ^ 

54. Iron Latin cross frotn England. The 
triangle represents the Trinity. 


55. Black, composition, Latin, aureole cross 
with conventional star-shaped leaf ornament 
o;i either side. More than sixty years old. 
Gift of Mrs. Theodore Nelson. 

56. Large antique, gold-plated processional 
cross botone from Lucerne. Covered with 
ornamental floreated designs. In center of 
obverse side the crowned Virgin with sceptre 
holding the Child, in whose hand is the 
world-orb, surmounted by a cross. The spike 
in the bottom was to be thrust into a socket 
in the head of the processional staff. Over 
one hundred years old. 

57. Wooden cross botone made in Ober 
ammergau by the man who took the part of 
Joseph of Arimathea there in 1910. Hand- 
sawed work. Gift of Miss Rose Hardenburg. 

58. An ancient Latin mahogany cross from 
Mexico, with decorative scroll work, made by 
descendants of the Aztecs. 

59. Old wooden Latin crucifix from Spain. 
Christ, rays of light and Memento mori in 

60. Antique brass and wood Spanish cruci- 
fix with title. 

61. Brass crucifix on pedestal, surmounted 
by title. From Spain. Latin cross with flor- 
eated terminals. Under feet of Christ the 
symbols of mortality. Antique. 

62. Bronze benitier, surmounted by Latin 
cross bearing cherub. 

63. Large olive-wood, Latin crucifix from 
Jerusalem. Inlaid with mother-of-pearl. On 
obverse side in mother-of-pearl are indicated 
the fourteen stations of the cross, the insignia 
of the Franciscans, the chalice, and an "M S" 

(Jesus Saviour of the World). On the revers^i 
side is the word "Jerusalem." A present tj 
Mr. Miller from the Bishop of Jerusalem. 

64. Two iron, Latin, English crosses with 
the symbol of the Holy Spirit. 

"Not she with traitorous kiss her Saviour 
Not she denied Him with unholy tongue; 
She, while apostles shrank, could danger 

Last at his cross, and earliest at his grave." 

— Woman. 
^ ^ ^ ^ 

65. Antique bronze Spanish crucifix. Typi- 
cal, emaciated Christ of Spanish countries. 
Conventional ornamentation on either side. 

66. Old ebony Latin cross from England. 
On either side is outlined a small Latin 
cross in ivory. Ivory support at top. 

67. A Russian pear-wood "Ikon Cross" of 
Greek form with triptych on either side of 
paneled, Byzantine chip carving. On either 


side an ornamental border of small Greek 
crosses. A very interesting and exquisitely 
artistic piece of work. Evidently the lower 
part only of a processional, miracle working 
Icon, the upper part having been sawed off by 
some vandal. The five panels on either side 
contain Biblical scenes, and inscriptions in 
Russian characters. Originally there were 
three of these inscriptions on each side, but 
the upper ones have been removed by the 
mutilation mentioned. Such crosses were 
used in the ancient custom of the "Blessing 
of the Neva." Many of the figures depicted 
in the panels bear a strange resemblance to 
North American Indians. Belongs to about 
the year 1660 and is from the famous collec- 
tion of the Rev. J. Sparrow Simpson of Eng 
land. The letters on the outer edges of the 
cross were evidently cut by some bungler, at 
a later date. 

68. Two green marble, Latin, Calvary 
crosses from Ireland. The Cross of Passion, 
when erected upon three steps, is known as 
the Cross of Calvary. The steps allude to 
the three Christian virtues, Faith, Hope and 

69. Four black, bog-wood, carved, aureole 
crosses from Ireland. One of them with the 
word "Erin." All on pedestals. These are 
copies in miniature of ancient Irish crosses. 

<« (« ^ «« 

"In the Cross of Christ I glory. 
Towering o'er the wrecks of time; 
All the light of sacred story 
Gathers round its head sublime." 

^ <i4 ^ ^ 

70. Large, bronze, processional, Latin 
cross. Processional crosses were carried to 
meet bishops, emperors, kings and other 
distinguished persons; also in litanies from .1 
very early period. 

This is a Spanish, sword-hilt cross of the 
Order of S. lago, or St. James of Compos - 
tella, as is indicated by the cockle-shells 
which ornament both sides of the cross. St. 
James has been the military patron saint of 
Spain since the ninth century. The terminals 


of the arms and limbs make this what is 
known in heraldry as a "Cross Fleury" — the 
flower in full bloom, implying that the bearer 
was a matured soldier of the Cross. On ob- 
verse side are the Virgin and Child in bronze 
relief work. There are evidences still re- 
maining to show that the whole cross was 
once elaborately gilded. From the middle of 
the seventeenth century. (Garden of Bells.) 

71. Spanish, brass, Latin, processional 
cross, with conventional ornamentation. The 
eight-petaled flower in the center on either 
side represents the eight beatitudes. Early 
part of eighteenth century. (Garden of Bells.) 

72. Mortuary memorial cross from Lucern>j 
with inscription in German, and date 1832 
(Garden of the Bells.) 

«« <;« w« ^ 

"Bearing His cross, while Christ passed forth 
Ais God-like forehead by the mock crown 

A little bird took from that crown one thorn, 
To soothe the dear Redeemer's throbbing 

The bird did what she could; His blood, 'tis 

Down dropping, dyed her tender bosom red."' 
— A Breton Legend. 

73. Modern wooden Latin cross with fig 
ure representing St. Kummniss, a holy, bearded 
woman (heiliger berdiger), much honored in 
the Austrian Tyrol, and also in Bamberg, 
Germany, where she is called "Gottlicker 
Hilfe." One hundred years old. 

74. Ornamental iron Latin crucifix with 
small gilt crucified Christ. From Rouen 
(France), famous for its wonderful Gothic 
churches. Modern. 

75. Bronze cruciform Christ. Gothic 
style. A rather unusual feature is the kingly 
crown instead of the crown of thorns. In- 
tended for a crucifix. From Chartres 
(France), whose cathedral is said to be the 
most beautiful structure produced in the 
Middle Ages. Seventeenth century. 

76. Cross made of brilliants, forming a 
French Masonic emblem. A pectoral Latin 
cross fleury surmounted by royal crown set 
with green stones. On reverse side unde: 
glass a pelican feeding her young with her 
own blood (symbolizing the love of Christ for 
His church); on observe side the Rose of 
Sharon springing up about the cross. Eight- 
eenth century. From France. 

■ 77. Silver Lorraine crucifix with figure of 
Christ. The upper arm of the Lorraine cross 
symbolizes the inscription on the cross of 
Calvary, over head of Christ. The two arms 
also typify the part taken by the Jews and 
Christians in the redemption of the world. 


On obverse side figure of Mary and inscrip- 
tion in Italian, "To Immaculate Queen 
Mary." From Florence, Italy. 

78. Silver Latin crucifix fleury, with Christ 
on obverse and Mary and Child on reverse 
side. (Fleury crosses are those with ter- 
minations like full-blown flowers.) Over head 
of Christ, scroll and inscription. From Am- 
boise, France. The edict of Amboise in 1563 
granted toleration to the Hugenots. 

79. Ancient wooden Latin cross with a 
cardinal's cross carved in relief. On one 
side is the spear and on the other the leed 
and hyssop. Various abbreviated words in 
ancient uncial Greek referring to the titles 
of Christ. At foot of cross in depression is 
carved a skull, the symbol of Christ's victory 
over death and the grave. About three hun 
dred and fifty years old. From Joppa, in 

80. Jerusalem cross of red enamel and 
gold. A Jerusalem cross really consists ot 
one larger and four smaller crosses, repre 
sented the five wounds of Christ. The red 
indicates the love of man to God; the blue 
symbolizes divine truth and eternity; and 
tne golden fleur-de-lis indicates the Trinity. 
Inscription: "Provencan e Catouli mosto fe 
na pas fali." From Leghorn. 

81. Pilgrim's cross of cloth of cardinal 
red with background of white. Bears a metal 
medallion with figure of Madonna and Child 
and inscription in French, "Our Lady of 
Health, pray for us." Worn by pilgrims who 
come to be cured of ailments by our Lady of 
Lourdes in Southern France. 

82. Pilgrim's badge of yellow, red and 
black (the Virgin's colors), with cross fleury 
pendant. On one side the cross the Madonna 
and on the other in French, "Our Lady of 

83. Pilgrim's badge of shield shape in the 
Virgin's colors with the letters N. D. L. 
"Our Lady of Lourdes." 

84. A metal pendant with bell-shaped or- 
naments and in relief the figure of John the 
Baptist. From Pau, France. 


85. Wooden cardinal's cross fleury reliq- 
uary. The small receptacles were for frag- 
ments of bones of the blessed saints, some of 
which may still be seen. About two hun- 
dred years old. From Nimes, France. 

86. Ancient Latin crucifix fleury inlaid 
with mother-of-pearl. Carved in relief is the 
crucified Christ, the four Evangelists with 
their different attributes and the Mater Do- 
lorosa and memento mori. Eighteenth cen- 
tury. From Avignon, France. 

87. A Latin reliquary cross of beautifully 
carved ebony. This once contained many 
fragments of the bones of the blessed saints, 
and many of the precious relics still remain 
in their respective cavities. These crosses 
were of great repute among the sick and 
through them were wrought many miraculous 
cures. About three hundred years old. From 
Carcassonne, France, a part of which, the 
lower town, was founded by King Louis the 
Ninth (St. Louis) in 1247. 

88. Ancient copper Latin cross fleury. 
Quite artistically engraved. In center panel 
Christ holding in one hand the bread of life 
and with the other giving the episcopal bless- 
ing. At the extremities the eagle, ox, angel 
and lion, symbols of S. S. John, Luke, Matthew 
and Mark. On obverse side artistic floreated 
patterns, and in center Maltese cross, the 
eight points of which represent the eight 
beatitudes. Three hundred years old. From 
the great Convent of La Merced, Mexico 

89. Ancient brass Latin cross botone, with 
fleur-de-lis (or lily flower) ornamentation on 
the limbs. Eighteenth century. From old 
altar. The fleur-de-lis has been connected 
with the heraldry of France since 1147. In 
1546 Pope Paul III established the Order of 
the Lily, whose members were pledged to de- 
fend the patrimony of St. Peter against the 
heretics. The fleur-de-lis symbolizes the 
Trinity. From Church of the Holy Trinity 
in Paris. 

90. Silver cardinal's cross fleury with spike 
base. Ornamented with flowers in raised 
work. Flying cherubs supporting cross. 


Latin inscription at top. Middle of eight- 
eenth century. From Oviedo, Spain. 

91. Masonic emblem of silver and bril- 
liants. Crown, compass and cross. Pelican 
feeding her young. About seventy-five years 
old. Barcelona, Spain. 

92. Silver pendant in form of escutcheon 
of Austria-Hungary. Double-headed eagle 
wearing crown of Austria and grasping sword 
in its talons. Worn by the nobility only. 
Nineteenth century. From Budapesth. 

93. Small silver crucifix with figure of 
Madonna on obverse side. Eighteenth cen 
tury. Madrid. 

94. Very ornamental wooden cross in sil- 
ver frame, with rays of light and fleury ter- 
minals. Insets of mother-of-pearl. Eight- 
eenth century. From Malaga, Spain. 

95. Triangular-shaped crystal pendant in 
silver frame for episcopal use. Into the glass 
have been cut and gilded a small triangle, a 
cross, "I. H. S." and the nails of Calvary. 
Eighteenth century. From Seville. 

96. Ancient triangular ecclesiastical pend 
ant of metal and enamel containing cross 
supported by monogram I. H. S. Eight- 
eenth century. From Madrid. 

97. Ancient brass and enamel pendant con- 
taining monstrance, the base of which forms 
part of the monogram I. H. S. Eighteenth 
century. From Madrid. 

98. Old brass altar ornament surmounted 
by cross and containing Virgin as Queen of 
Heaven. Seventeenth century From Burgos. 

99. Ancient wooden reliouarv Calvary cross 
inlaid with ivory. Many fragments of bones 
of the saints can still be seen in the glass 
covered openings. Seventeenth century. From 

100. Latin reliquary cross of ebony with 
ornamental setting of colored crystal. Con- 
tains saintly relics. Eighteenth century. From 

101. Brass cardinal's cross fleury with fly- 
ing cherubs at base. Stands on pedestal. A 


very interesting reliquary crucifix. On ob- 
verse side in raised work are seen mon- 
strance, celebrant priest, angels, king, candles, 
etc. From Caravaca, Spain, in whose coat- 
of-arms this cross appears and concerning 
which there is the following legend: A Moor- 
ish king in the fifteenth century captured a 
priest near Caravaca and ordered him to say 
mass. All was ready except the cross, for 
lack of which the priest refused to proceed 
with the ceremony. The enraged Moor wouH 
have slain the recalcitrant priest on the spot 
had not a miracle been performed. Suddenly 
two angels appeared bearing between them \i 
glittering cross, which they placed upon the 
altar. Seventeenth century. 

102. Ancient brass Latin cross with abbre- 
viated inscription in Latin: "Holy and most 
mighty God, have mercy upon us." Eigh- 
teenth century. From Santander, Spain. 

103. Pendant bronze cardinal's cross cur- 
iously inscribed with various letters. These 
crosses were worn by the higher members of 
the Spanish gypsies, and the letters have ref- 
erence to certain words used in the strange 
gypsy ceremonies. About one hundred years 
old. From Galicia, Spain. 

104. Olive-wood Calvary cross fleury on 
pedestal of three steps typifying the three 
Christian graces — Faith, Hope, Charity. On 
front of pedestal the insignia of the Fran- 
ciscan Order. On back is written in Span- 
ish, "El Bautista (the Baptist). Date 1700. 
From the Convent of the Immaculate Con- 
ception of Santa Clara nuns of the Fran 
ciscan Order, Toledo, Spain. 

105. Very interesting wooden Latin cross 
covered with carved symbols of the Passion 
and Crucifixion, such as nails, pincers, ham- 
mer, scourge, lantern, ladder, cock, spear, 
hyssop, coat and sun and moon. The vari- 
ous Maltese crosses are symbols of the Orde' 
of Mercy. Date about 1650. From the great 
Convent of La Merced, Mexico City. 

106. Cardinal's cross of steel damascened 
with gold and silver. From Toledo, for cen- 
turies famous for her swords, damascened 
wares, and other metal work. 

107. Olive-wood cross with carvings in 
relief showing symbols of the Passion and 
Crucifixion. Metal image of Virgin and Child. 
About one hundred and fifty years old. From 
convent at Avila, Spain, where is treasured a 
portrait of Christ done in a vision by St. 
John of the Cross. 

108. Silver Lorraine or cardinal's cross 
fleury, with rays streaming from center. 
Worn on the breast. Eighteenth century. 
From Cordova. The extra bar typifies the 
higher office of the cardinal, patriarch or 
archbishop entitled to wear such crosses. 
Also used in the coat-of-arms of Hungary, as 
the king there has the title of Apostolic, and 


also in the coat-of-arms of St. Benedict, who 
was the founder, patriarch and first abbot or 
the great Order of the Benedictines. 

109. Iron Latin cross fieury with rays 
About two hundred years old. From the 
great cathedral at Granada, where are buried 
Ferdinand and Isabella. 

110. Old iron Latin cross with floreated 
terminals, and ornamental Rose of Sharon in 
center. From a chapel in the cathedral of 
Seville, where, since their removal from Ha- 
vana in 1899, have reposed the bones of 
Christopher Columbus (Cristobal Colon). 
About two hundred years old. 

111. Bronze processional cross from Es- 
corial, Spain. Famous for royal monastery of 
Saint Lawrence, built by Philip II in 1559. 

112. Bronze oendant cardinal's cross from 
Caravaca, Spain. There such crosses are 
worn by the women as a protection against 
thunder-storms. Their thought is that the 
rumbling thunder moves and opens the sides 
of the cross, thus allowing the evil influences 
to enter the cross instead of harming the 
wearer. About two hundred years old. 

113. Ancient iron altar cross fleury from 
cathedral of the "Virgin of the Pillar" at 
Zaragoza, Spain. According to the legend the 
Virgin, standing on a pillar, appeared to St. 
James when he was making a missionary 
pilgrimage through Spain. Eighteenth cen- 

114. Ornamental silver pectoral cardinal's 
cross. Eighteenth century. From Algericas, 
opposite the Rock of Gibraltar. 

115. Silver cross star-rayed, from San Se- 
bastian, Spain. Fifty years old. 

116. Silver crucifix set with ten cut crystal 
stones, symbolizino^ the ten commandments. 
At foot of cross a memento mori and at top 
monogram. Initials of maker stamped in the 
silver at the foot. A pectoral cross, such as 
are worn by archbishops at the great func 
tions of the church in Spain. Four hundred 
years old. From the ancient Convent of 
San Leandro at Toledo. 


117. Crystal crucifix with terminals and 
figures of hammered gold. The two Marys 
stand on either side of the cross. Very ar- 
tistic pedestal of crystal with borders of 
fretted gold. Sixteenth century. From the 
Convent of Los Comendadores de Santiago, a 
retreat for the women of the Spanish nobility 
at Seville, Spain. 

118. Metal mould for the manufacture of 
crucifixes. Seventeenth century. Granada. 

119. Latin cross of dark wood covered 
with brass figures. Pedestal with niches for 
receiving relics of the blessed saints and 

martyrs. A graveyard Calvary cross. About 
three hundred and fifty years old, from Gran- 
ada, famous for its Alhambra. 

120. Brass, enameled cross on base. 
Fleury terminals. In center monogram L H. 
S. From Cordoba. 

121. Very interesting reliquary cross of 
chiseled brass. The fleury terminals formed 
by trios of cherubs' heads. Symbolic objects 
of the Passion and Crucifixion, including the 
three dice used by the soldiers when they 
"cast lots." Contains a relic of St. Cyriacus, 
Pope of Rome, who accompanied St. Ursula 
and her 11,000 virgins from Rome to Cologne, 
where they were all slain. About 1750. From 
Cologne, France. 

122. Brass altar cross supported by two 
kneeling, adoring angels. From Convent of 
EI Carmen, Seville. Eighteenth century. 

123. Very ancient wooden processional 
cross covered with a facing of richly chased 
beaten bronze in floreated designs. At the 
four extremities are the heads of SS. Peter 
and Paul, Quintin and Quirinus. St. Quintin 
was the son of Zeno, the Roman philosopher, 
and is patron of San Quentin, California. St. 
Quirinus was Bishop of Sissek in Croatia and 
is one of the eight guardian saints of Aus- 
tria. In the center a very artisti- monogram 
of the I. H. S. About two hundred years 
old. From the church of Santa Marina, Cor- 

124. Ancient crucifix of nammcred silver 
with the figure of Christ arrayed in skirt 


(Spanish style). On reverse side the Ma- 
donna and Child, both crowned. About four 
hundred years old. From church of Santa 
Clara del Carmena, near Seville. 

125. Pectoral cross of cut crystal tipped 
with gold. Seventeenth century. From Blois, 

126. Brass cardinal's cross with Mary as 
Queen of Heaven, with the moon under her 
feet, and underneath a double duck-headed 
serpent with barbed tail. Eighteenth century. 
From church of Santa Maria del Mar, Bar- 
celona, Spain. 

127. Pectoral cross fleury of gold with blue 
enamel. In center is represented the famous 
image of the "black Madonna" of Montser- 
rat (serrated mountain, where the Holy Grail 
rested for a time). The Convent of Mont- 
serrat is one of the oldest and most cele- 
brated in Spain and was founded in 880. The 
miraculous image of the Virgin here en 
shrined was carved by St. Luke, the apostolic 
limner of the Virgin, and brought to Spain 
by St. Peter. The monks of the present tim^ 
manage a school of ecclesiastical music. From 

128. Small silver cross-shaped pendant 
from Montserrat, Spain. On one side, image 
or Madonna and on obverse side "N. S. de 

129. Brass terminal of St. Andrew, with 
halo and bearing an Andrew's cross. Fifty 
years old. Patron saint of San Andres, Cali- 
fo nia. From church of San Andres, Vallo 

130. Ancient silver crucifix pendant. A 
cross fleury. Seventeenth century. From 

131. Maltese cross pendant of mother-of- 
pearl surmounted by royal crown. Badge of 
an old German military order, as indicated bj' 
the crossed sabres, cannon balls, and the let- 
ters G. K. S., which stand for the words, 
"Serve God and the King." The number 30 
within the circle is that of the old regiment. 
Eighteenth century. From Munich. 


132. Small silver pendant of Our Guard- 
ian Lddy from church of Notre Dame de l.i 
Garde, a notable center for pilgrims. On one 
side a figure of the Madonna and on the re- 
verse the monogram of her name. Cable and 
anchor decoration. 

133. Wooden reliquary cross on pedestal. 
In the cavity there is a hollow crystal cross 
containing two very small splinters of the 
True Cross. The precious relic is closed and 
seaied with wax and silken thread, and still 
bears the original and unbroken episcopal 
sigillum. It is said that Louis the Ninth of 
France (St. Louis) received a large portion 
of the True Cross from Constantinople in the 
thirteenth century and put it, with the orig- 
inal crown of thorns, in the beautiful Saintc; 
Chapelle, in Paris, which he caused to be 
built for its reception. Eighteenth century. 
From the Church of the Redeemer, Mar 

134. Reliquary crucifix of apple-wood beau- 
tifully carved. On front are figures of Father 
and dove over the Son, the Father giving the 
eoiscopal blessing. Beneath is the Mater 
Dolorosa, with sworil piercing her heart. The 
reverse side has sliding panels covered with 
carved emblems of the Passion and Crucifix 
ion. In the reliquary cavity a small fragment 
of one of the thorns from Calvary. Nine 
teenth century. From the Engedine, Switzer- 

135. Hollow silver gilt cross with mono- 
gram and other decorative designs. Used ns 
a receptacle in which to carry the sacred oil 
and consecrated wafer to those who were to 
receive extreme unction in articulo mortis. 
On inside of cover the words "Josef Antoni 
Baumgartner, Arbou, 1815." Donated by him 
to the church at Arbou, Switzerland. 

136. A St. Hubert's cross of metal to be 
worn as a pendant. Small crucifix upright 
between stag's horns. The legends say that 
St. Hubert (who is a very popular German 
saint) was renowned as a hunter, and was 
converted to Christianity by one day meeting 
in the forest a milk-white stag with a cruci- 
fix between his horns. Bread blessed at a 
shrine of St. Hubert is a cure for hydro- 
phobia. From Munich. 


137. Small pendant silver-gilt crucifix with 
cross potent or crutch cross. The termin- 
als bear the symbols of the four evangelists, 
viz.: the eagle of St. John, the evangelist; the 
lion of St. Mark; the ox of St. Luke, and the 
angel of St. Matthew. From Lucerne, Switz- 

138. Latin pendant of enamel with figure 
ol Christ, and tri-foliate ornaments at ends 
of cross piece. From Limoges, France. 

139. Nickel-bound crucifix of wood, used 
as pendant. The figure of Christ has the sup 
pedaneum or support beneath the feet. On 
the obverse side the monogram of Notre 
Dame de Lourdes. From Lourdes, in South 
ern France, a noted place of pilgrimages for 
sick people. The shrine is in a rock grotttj 
by the river and contains a statue of the Vir- 
gin dressed as she appeared to BernadettJ 
Soubirous in 1858. 

140. Pendant Maltese cross of wine-col- 
ored crystal, from Nuremberg. The five sec 
tions typify the five bloody wounds of the 
Saviour. One hundred years old. 

141. Brass pendant Greek cross with laurel 
wreath and inscription in modern Greek. A 
military medal of merit. About fifty years 
old. From Athens. 

142. Bronze Russian ikon cross with five 
panels of figures on either side. Although of 
undoubted Russian origin, this cross came 
from Athens. Was formerly a i)rocessional 
cross and borne on a standard, but the pin 
for the socket has been broken off from the 
bottom. Early eighteenth century. 

143. Red beads from Athens. These were 
formerly used as rosaries, but are now carried 
in the hand by modern Grecian beaux as play- 

144. Popular style of ikon of Virgin and 
Babe as used by the Greek church in Russia 
and Greece. Monograms and inscriptions in 
Russian. To be hung on the wall of the 

145. Very ancient brass Russian crucifix of 
the Greek church. The upper half has been 
broken off. Evidently a processional ikon. 
Four figures in raised work representinjf 
saints. On both sides are inscriptions in Rus- 
sian, as follows: "The crucifix of our Lord 
Jesus Christ. We worship thy cross O Lord, 
and we hail and glorify thy holy resurrection. 
The strength of the faithful. The cross is a 
glory of the angels. The cross is that which 
gives the deepest wounds to the demons." 
Early eighteenth century. From St. Peter.s- 

146. Mohammedan rosary of sandal wood 
beads, 99 in number. Cairo, Egypt. 

147. Hindu rosary of "rudrach" beads. 
Commonly worn about the neck by the de- 
vout Brahmins. From Jaipur, India. 


148. Buddhist rosary of coral, amber, tur- 
quoise and other beads. Formerly belonged 
to the lama of Thibet. 

149. "Dorgee" of bronze. Such objects are 
held in the hands of the Buddhist priests 
when they are exorcising the devil, as it is 
believed that by these means the evil spirit is 
hypnotized. From Darjeeling, India. 

150. Small Latin cross pendant. On one 
side, figure of St. Thomas of Aquinas and 
inscription in Portuguese: "St. Thomas Aqui- 
nas of the Order of Preachers." On obverse 
is the inscription: "May the cross be my 
salvation; the cross is that which I ever 
adore; may the cross be my refuge." Found 
in "Chinatown," Hong Kong. Used in Japan 
or the Philippines by early Roman Catholic 

151. Small brass Latin cross, just the same 
as No. 150, with the exception that the in- 
scription is in Spanish. 

152. Silver bangle representing the "Virgin 
of the Pillar," from Zaragoza, Spain. Virgin 
may be seen through the peep-hole at the 
bottom of the figure. 

153. Cross of gold and enamel with char- 
acteristic ornamentation and inscriptions in 
Russian. From Moscow. 

154. Japanese rosary of fruit pits carved 
in the shape of temple gongs. From Kyoto. 

155. Japanese rosary of nuts carved in the 
shape of skulls. From Nara. 

156. Buddhist rosary of scented bead'*. 
From Kobe, Japan. 

157. Gilt wood Sawastika cross reversed, 

158. Gilt wood "Sanko," from the San- 
jusangen-do Temple (Kyoto) of Kwannon, 
Goddess of Mercy. "Sanko" is the Japanese 
equivalent of the Indian "dorgee," and ?s 
used by the priests in exorcising evil spirits. 
In this temple there are one thousand life- 
sized gilt statues of Kwannon, who holds in 
her hand many different symbols of Buddh- 
ism. The temple was first built in 1132, but 
being destroyed by fire, was rebuilt in 1249. 
The significance of the Sawastika cross has 
already been described in another place. (See 
No. 12.) 

159. Bronze "Tokko," used by Japanese 
Buddhist priest to avert evil. 

160. Metal staff top with the six mystical 
rongs, called "Shakujo" in Japanese. Used 
in the collection of food and money by trav- 
eling Buddhist beggar priests. From Miyano- 

161. Sacred Buddhistic symbol of lotus 
flower and eagle claws, typifying purity and 
strength through Buddha. Bronze, cross- 
shaped, and used by the priests in driving out 
the devil. From Kyoto. 


162. A "prayer wheel" (Mani), from Thi- 
bet. In the hollow copper receptacle is a 
paper inscribed with prayers to Buddha, the 
chief one being "Urn Mani Padmi Hun" (I 
take my refuge in Buddha). This whirligig 
is made to revolve on the handle by means of 
the small attached ball of lead, and with 
every revolution a prayer is made, without 
any mental effort. In Thibet some of the 
prayer wheels are very large and are turned 
b" wind or water power, and pray day and 
night for the worshiper, no matter where he 
may be or in what business engaged. 

163. Rosary of mother-of-pearl with silver 
gilt crucifix in filigree work. From Madrid, 

164. Altar cross of ancient silvered bronze 
with reliquary containing relic of "S. Jean de 
la Croix" (St. John of the Cross). Relic is 
protected by wax that bears the original and 
unbroken episcopal sigillum. St. John of the 
Cross was a holy man of the sixteenth cen- 
tury in Spain who was frequently favored 
with interviews with our Saviour, and who, 
oil one of these occasions, made an uncouth 
sketch of the divine apparition, which was 
long preserved as a relic in the Convent of 
Avila. He was the first bare-footed Car- 
melite, and is famous for his terrible austeri- 
ties and penances. He was the ally of St. 
Teresa in all her reforms, and is frequently 
represented with her. From Auvergne, 
France. (See watercolor on first page of 
Mexican Mass Book in Music Room.) 

165. Latin cross of celluloid ornamented 
with painted flowers and picture of St. Anne 
and the Virgin Mary. Inscription ifi Eng- 
lish: "I have invoked the good St. Anne of 
Beaupre for you." From the famous Shrine 
of St. Anne de Beaupre, near Quebec, Can- 
ada. The three steps that form the pedestal 
typify the three Christian graces of Faith, 
Hope and Charity. 

166. Chinese Buddhist priest's prayer ros- 
ary. Made of beads of pink, yellow and 
green. The priest when invoking Buddha 
kneels and rubs the beads of the rosary in 
his hand in order to attract favorable atten- 
tion on the part of the Blessed One. The 
green stones are jade, and are greatly es- 
teemed. From Pekin. 


167. A Christian cross made out of carved 
beads that formed part of a Buddhist priest's 
rosary. From Pekin. 

168. Greek silver pendant cross with flor- 
eated terminals. Center of cross surrounded 
by monogram of Latin words "Rex, Lex, Pax, 
Lux"; King, Law, Peace, Light. At center 
is head of Christ, with cruciform nimbus, and 
on reverse the Latin words Omnia in Christo, 
"All things in Christ." 

169. Weather-vane cross of hand-forged 
work. From Brittainy. One hundred years 
old. (Garden of the Bells.) 

170. Delegate's badge to 46th National En- 
campment of G. A. R., Los Angeles, Califor- 
nia. September 9-14, 1912. Bronze brooch 
with raised likeness in cartouche of Harvey 
M. Trimble, Commander-in-chief. Old gold 
colored ribbon of silk with silver letters W. 
R. C. Pendant of silver with California scen- 
ery and grizzly bear in relief work. 

171. Bronze commemorative badge and 
medal, of 46th National Encampment of G. .A.. 
R., Los Angeles, Sept. 9-14, 1912. On brooch 
military insignia. On gold colored ribbon in 
silver letters "Los Angeles, Cal. Staff." On 
obverse side of pendant bronze medal the 
likeness of Harvey M. Trimble in relief. On 
reverse side inscription: "Commander-in- 
Chief's staff Comrades 46th National Encamp- 
ment G. A. R. 1912." Underneath American 
symbolical eagle and laurel and olive branches. 

172. Badge and model for representative 
of 45th National Encampment of the G. A. 
R. at Rochester, N. Y., 1911. Presented to 
Frank A. Miller by John R. Gilman, Past 
Commander-in-Chief, and Ephraim B. Still- 
ings. Past Adjutant-General of the G. A. R. 

173. Silver cross set with the famous Cin- 
galese moonstones. From Colombo, Ceylon. 
The Jesuit missionaries had here a great edu- 
cational center in the Sixteenth and Seven- 
teenth centuries. 

174. Gold enameled Egyptian "key of life" 
often seen in the hands of the ancient Nile 
gods. One of the oldest and most universal 
forms of the cross. Conected with the prim- 
itive worship of the dual, reciprocal principles 


in nature, twenty centuries before the word 
Christian had been coined. From Cairo, 

^ ^ ^ ^ 

Lying on the bottom of the Cross cabinet 
is a very beautiful, large and interesting 
key of the Eighteenth century. It is made 
of pure silver and is richly jeweled. Sur- 
mounted by the papal insignia. 

This was the official key of the camerlingo, 
or apostolic chamberlain, the official in the 
papal household at Rome who was the 
custodian of the personal jewels, treasure and 
vestments of the supreme pontiff. 

The key was the apostolic chamberlain's 
badge of office, and was carried before him 
on a velvet cushion on state occasions. In 
the British museum there is a very fine and 
valuable collection of such heraldic keys of 
the royal chamberlains of the Seventeenth 
and Eighteenth centuries. 

V <« <« 1^ 

Near the key is a crown of solid silver 
of Sixteenth century work. Formerly on the 
head of an image of the Virgin Mary, in the 
Cathedral of the Assumption at Jaen, Spain. 

An interesting alms basin of hammered sil- 
ver is seen to the left of the key just men- 
tioned. <«| 

From old Spanish church. Bears the fol- 
lowing inscription: "This belongs to our 
Lady of Pity; it was made in the year 1802; 
it was fashioned anew in the year 1840 for 
her chapel." Springing from the center is an 
artistic figure of the Madonna. 


Of the thousands who have looked with 
admiring wonder at the old Franciscan mis- 
sions of California, there was one who not 
only felt all the charm of romance that at- 
taches to those fast disappearing monuments 
of Christian zeal and heroism, but who alsJ 
had the artist's ability to stamp his impres- 
sions upon canvas, and thus preserve for fu- 
ture generations the features of the old mis- 
sions as they were over a third of a cen- 
tury ago. 

That artist friend of the missions, who saw 
them with the appreciative eyes of love, was 
HENRY CHAPMAN FORD, and it is his 
collection of original studies in oil of the 
California missions that forms one of the 
choicest art treasures of the Glenwood Mis- 
sion Inn. THenry Chapman Ford, born 182S. 
died 1894, the celebrated landscape painter, 
who resided for about twenty years in Santa 

This series of exquisite pictures numbers 
thirty-eight, and comprises all of the original 
missions except San Rafael. These are, as 
Ford himself called them, "studies in oil," 
giving accurate representations of the mis- 
sions as they appeared at the time they were 

Included in this number are several asisten" 
cias or chapels, among them being the so 
called Pala Mission, belonging to San Luis 
Rey; San Bernardino, belonging to San Gab- 
riel; San Marcos, a chapel of Santn Barbara; 
Santa Margarita, a dependency of San Luis 
Obispo; and the Presidio Church at Mon- 
terey. Some of the original missions are 
represented more than once; San Gabriel, 
twice, one being the copy of the painting 
done by a Mexican artist in 1828; Santa Bar- 
bara, six times; Purisima, three times, one of 
them being the ruins of the old Purisima 
Mission; San Antonio de Padua, twice; San 
Carlos, four times; and San Jose, twice, one 
being a representation of that mission as it 
was before the earthquake of October 21, 

All of these, with three exceptions, bear the 
date of the year in which they were painted, 
two of them, San Gabriel and Santa Cruz 
being copies of old paintings — the San Gab- 
riel of the painting by the Mexican artist al- 
ready mentioned, and the Santa Cruz of a 
picture painted by a French artist in 1853. 

The entire series, with a few exceptions, 
was painted during the years 1880 and 1881. 
The Dolores Mission, at San Francisco, is 
represented as it existed in 1850, and that of 
Santa Clara as it was in 1851. As Mr. Ford 
lived for a number of years at Santa Bar- 


bara, we are not surprised to find him por- 
traying various features of that mission at dif- 
ferent times, one in 1875, one in 1878, one in 
1880, one in 1885, and one undated. Of the 
three views of La Purisima, two of the New 
Purisima were painted in 1878 and one of the 
Old Purisima in 1881. 

This set of paintings, of which most of the 
canvases measure about 16x30 inches, depicts 
the missions, with a few exceptions, as they 
appeared in 1880 and 1881, the years in which 
they were _painted, and are, without doubt, 
the only extensive set representing them as 
they all actually appeared within such a lim- 
ited period of time. 

Their historical importance therefore is 
g^eat, and with the passing of time will con- 
stantly increase. Of this collection twenty- 
nine were for twelve years on exhibition at 
the Memorial Museum in Golden Gate Park, 
San Francisco. In speaking of these paint- 
ings, Mr. George Barron, curator of the 
Golden Gate Park Museum, stys: "The mis- 
sions are cleverly drawn and denote a great 
deal of skill on the part of the artist, and 
while on exhibition here elicited a great deal 
of admiration." 

Until the new SPANISH COURT is com- 
pleted, these wonderful interpretations of a 
fast vanishing period in California's history 
are temporarily on exhibition in the "Old 

"The saints! ah, have they grown 
Forgetful of their own? 
Are they asleep or dead, 
That open to the sky 
Their ruined missions lie 
No longer tenanted"? 


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