i'xISSICN INN, i<IV,'..-^oIDE, CAL.
The Bells and Crosses of the
Digitized by tine Internet Archive
in 2007 with funding from
The Bells and Crosses
of the Mission Inn and
the Ford Paintings of
the California Missions
Before entering upon the pleasant labor of
giving a detailed description of this largest
and most valuable collection of bells, it will
be interesting to jot down a few observations
with regard to the subject of bells in general.
The whole of civilized life is set to bell
music in one shape or another, and runs the
entire gamut from the monster church bell,
weighing many tons, down to the jingling
baubles on a child's rattle.
Bells have for centuries, together with flags
and banners, formed the most coveted spoils
of war. They were not used in the Christian
Church until about the seventh century. As
early as the eighth century bells were dedi-
cated with religious ceremonies very similar
to those used in baptism. They were sprinkled
with holy water; exorcism was spoken over
ihem, to free them from the power of evil
spirits; a name was given them (as early as
the tenth century), a blessing was pronounced
and they were anointed. Later, their ringing
was supposed to drive away evil spirits, pesti-
lence, and thunder-storms. Being thus made
objects of religious faith and affection, they
were ornamented in the highest style of the
sculptor's art with scenes from the Bible and
other religious subjects.
The uses of bells in the Roman Catholic
church are summed up in the following dis-
tich, often inscribed on bells:
"Laudo Deum varum; plebem voco; congrego
Defunctos ploro; pestem fugo; festaque
(I praise the true God; I call the people; I
assemble the clergy; I lament the dead; I
drive away infection; I honor the festivals.)
^ ^ ^ ^
Bells were rung in churches about 900 by
order of Pope John IX as a defense against
The modern word "bell" is derived from
the old Saxon word "ballen," meaning to bawl
England is called the ringing island.
Belgium is called the classic land of bells.
The chimes of Bruges are the finest in the
Each bell in the Mission Inn Collection -j
numbered so as to correspond with the fol-
lowing numbered descriptions:
1. Brass bell, brought from Rome by AUis
Miller. Belonged to the Medici family about
1450. In relief work are seen St. Anthony,
fleur-de-lis coat of arms, and prancing horses.
Called "St. Anthony Bell." Notice partic-
ularly the escutcheon with its six golden
balls. These are the well-known arms of the
Medici family (from whence came their war-
cry "Palle." These balls were popularly, but
without reason, believed to represent pills,
and it was also thought that their name
"Medici" showed that they had been orig-
inally apothecaries. In 1465 Louis XI of
France honored the Medici family by con-
ferring on them the right to wear the French
fleur-de-lis on one of the balls, the upper one.
(The Medici family flourished in Florence
2. Modern bronze cow-bell from Chamonix
with maker's name and figure of chamois.
"Sweet bells jangled, out of time and
^ ^ ^ ^
3. Bronze harness bell from Rome. Leather
handle and clapper of lead.
4. Square nickel harness bell from Rome.
5. Little harness bell with silver chain,
from" Jewish market, Rome.
6. Nickel, harness jingle-bells from Naples.
7. Bronze sanctus bell from old convent
8. Old school bell from Mexico. Received
from Fred Harvey, Grand Canyon.
9. "Mission Bell" of iron.
10. Copper "Mission" bell.
11. Bronze "Mission" bell, with rosary and
12. Bronze "Mission" bell with Latin cross.
13. Bronze sanctus bell from abandoned
church in Mexico, built 350 years ago. Heavy
wooden stock painted in the national colors
of Mexico. Modern brass clapper. Gift of
E. R. Skelley.
14. Brass ship's bell from San Francisco
15. Ship's bell of brass, from San Francisco
fire of 1906. Heavy brazen clapper.
16. Brass Chinese bell, from San Fran-
cisco fire of 1906. From H. Hardenberg.
17. Small Chinese altar bell, with clapper
of tin. (On pass-key of F. A. M.)
18. Sheep bell from the high Sierras about
Lake Tahoe. Gift of Duane Bliss.
19. Miniature of "Liberty Bell."
20. Very ancient Japanese bronze bell.
Gift of W. Stone.
21. Bronze landlord's bell of graceful lines
and with artistic floreated relief work, from
Hamburg. Date 1783. Inscription reads.
Caal Zum Stehenden Lowen. "Caal, at the
Standing Lions." The signboard of the old
tavern was probably decorated with a pair of
22. Brass dinner-bell from Berlin.
23. Brass bell from Nuremberg. Orig
inally an altar bell, but later used as a sheep
bell. Crucifix and flaming heart and crown
with lion as escutcheon.
24. "Iron Maiden of Nuremberg." A min-
iature fac-simile of the famous instrument of
torture in the Bourg.
25. Sterling silver Bride's bell from Nur-
emberg. A figure of a woman in bridal array,
with full skirts. Her arms are upraised and
in her hands she holds a small, acorn-shaped
cup. At the wedding ceremony the two cups
are filled with wine. The groom drinks from
the larger one and at the same time the bride
sips from the smaller one. If no drop of
wine is spilled, much wedded bliss awaits the
<^ '!4 '^ '^
"1 hear the sound of wedding bells."
^ ^ ^ ^
26. Smooth brass bell with brass handle.
Sausage call-bell from the Bratwurst Glocken,
Nuremberg. Mentioned as early as 1519.
"That all-softening, overpowering knell,
The tocsin of the Soul — the dinner bell."
^ (tf (« ^
27. Sanctus bell of brass frorn the church
of Santa Maria degli Angeli at Portiuncula.
This church is built on the site and over the
hut of St. Francis of Assisi, the gentle-hearted
founder of the Franciscans, and the patron
saint of the Mission Inn. Presented to Mr.
Miller personally by the priest of that fa-
28. Old brass bell from Assisi, Italy, bear-
ing the insignia of the famous Medici fam
ily. Sixteenth century.
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"Ring, happy bells, across the snow,
the year is dying, let him go."
29. Italian bronze bell of fifteenth century.
Floreated ornamentation in relief.
30. Sweet-toned brass bell of the sixteenth
century from Milan. Floreated ornamentation
31. Brass bell from Rome. Angels and
Madonnas in relief. On either side are the
initials "F. C." Sixteenth century.
32. Brass bell of Florentine design of the
seventeenth century. Floreated decorations
33. Old bronze bell from Rome of six-
teenth century. Very sweet and sonorous.
34. A brass cow-bell from Rome. Curi-
ously ornamented metal band around the
mouth. On one side is the inscription
"PAULUS III PONT. OPT. MAX," and on
the other is the papal insignia and a shield
charged with fleur-de-lis, and surmounted by
a cherub's head. The inscription, Englished,
means: Paul Third most Holy Supreme Pon-
tiff." So we have here a cow-bell that be-
longed to Pope Paul the Third. He was
born as Alessandro Farnese, February 24,
1468, and died November 10. 1549. Was Pope
1534-1549. He excommunicated Henry VIII
of England in 1535, approved the Order of
the Jesuits in 1540, and convoked the Council
of Trent in 1545.
Martin Luther died February 18, 1546.
Note how the old clapper of solid iron is
deeply worn on either side. At the voice of
this old bell stirring scenes from the Past
rije before us.
"And roofs of tile, beneath whose eaves
Hang porcelain bells that all the time
Ring with a soft, melodious chime."
^ '^ <^ ^
35. Beautifully ornamented bronze bell
from Monserrat. Floreated shoulders and bar-
rel of very artistic design. Panel work on
lower half containing ten exquisite medallions
of the Host, St. Francis, the Saviour, St.
Roque, St. Joseph, St. Anthony, St. Sylvester,
the Crucifixion, nails of the Cross, etc. Date,
1704. Double inscription, the upper one
"Dedicated to the honor of God, and of
thi Virgin Mary and of All Saints."
The lower inscription is as follows:
"Salvador and Francis Anthony of Monser-
rat, donors. Dedicated to S. S. Slyvester and
Monserrat, near Barcelona, has been fa-
mous for many centuries on account of its
image of the Virgin, said to have been
carved by St. Luke and brought to Barcelona
by St. Peter in the year 50 A. D. The fam-
ous monastery was founded there in 880. The
shrine of the miracle working Virgin there
is visited annually by 100,000 pilgrims. The
image was crowned by Leo XIII in 1881. It
was in 1521 that Ignatius Loyola, founder of
the Jesuits, laid his sword upon her altar, and
placed himself under her protection.
"Oh, bring us back once more
The vanished days of yore,
When the world with faith was filled;
Bring back the fervid zeal.
The hearts of fire and steel.
The hands that believe and build."
^ ^ <^ ^
36. Brass bell with the inscriotion in raised
letters: "Tacque Payraud Assalanche," which
is the name of the owner and of the canton
in Switzerland in which he lived. The only
bell of this kind to be found in the Swiss,
French or Italian Alps. Its owner was sure
that for more than a century no such bell^
had been made bearing the names of pri-
vate individuals. It is a goat bell from
Chamonix with most beautiful tone.
New brass Alpine cow-bell.
Old iron cow-bell from Interlaken.
Old cow-bell from Lucerne.
Brass goat-bell from Chamonix at foot
Old type sheep-bell from Zermatt.
Old type of sheep-bell from Zermatt.
43. Brass cow-buckle from Chamonix, with
43. Brass cow-buckle from Chamonix, with
45. Old Swiss copper convent cow-bell for
the "bell-cow." Long iron clapper and
leather strap eight inches wide with the con-
vent's initials in brass letters on the strap. A
very rare and fine old piece,
^ <;« V («
"Oh, Jennie, go and call the cattle home
Across the sands o' Dee."
(« V <« ^
46. Beautiful bronze bell from Lucerne,
Switzerland. The ears are decorated with
lions' heads; they also form a Spanish crown.
Date 1673. Inscription: Hans Jacob Sprungli:
Gus. Mich. (Hans Jacob Sprungli made me.)
V ^ <« V
"Those evening bells, those evening bells,
How many a tale their music tells'*!
47. Call-bell from an old school near Co-
logne Cathedral. Date 1814. Three small fig-
48. Decorated iron "Apostles' Bell" from
Brussels. A reproduction of the St. Salvator
bell in Cathedral tower of St. Michel and
St. Gudule; names of the four evangelists in
Latin with their respective attributes: a man,
an ox, a lion and an eagle.
49. Bright brass tea bell, with scalloped
edges and short, pointed stem handle. From
50. Brass bell from the East Indies with
Hindu filigree work. Hindu god on handle.
51. Brass Hindu god bell. Ornamented
clapper. Reverse bell-shaped top, with Hindu
god holding sacrifice.
52. A fac-simile of the famous "Big Ben"
of London, largest clock tower bell in the
world. The original "Big Ben," of which
this is an exact copy, hangs in the clock tower
of the new Houses of Parliament. Its weight
near 14 tons; slightly cracked. Read the in-
teresting inscription. Made to order specially
for Mr. Miller by the firm that made the
original "Big Ben."
53. Manchurian gong, made of various
kinds of metals, which were donated by many
different worshipers at the temple. Near the
top are four panels with rows of little knobs
to typify the "sacred snails" of Buddha (see
No. 197). The royal dragons are symbols of
power. The ears of the gong are formed of
This gong was donated to the Buddhist
Temple of Shorn Fook Ghee by the worship-
ers there nearly two hundred years ago.
^ ^ ^ ^
"Wanwordy, crazy, dinsome thing,
As e'er was framed to jow or ring!
What gar'd them sic in steeple hing.
They ken themsel;
But weel wot I, they couldna bring
Waur sounds frae hell."
54. Oldest known dated bell in Christen-
dom! and the most interesting bell in the
United States. Procured by Mr. Miller in
London, at the shop of the bell founders
who cast "Big Ben." The inscriptions on
this bell are in Latin as folows:
lacobi: I. H. S. X. P. S. Maria. Qintana:
Et: salautor: Me: Feceru: Ao. Di. 1247.
"James, Jesus Christ, Mary: Quintana and
Salvador made me in the year of our Lord
1247." The James mentioned is St. James,
or Santiago of Compostella, the patron saint
of Spain. It is very probable that this was
the "Santa Maria bell" in the campanile of
the "parroquia" or parish church at San-
tiago. St. James, according to the legends,
often appeared in the sky, mounted on a milk-
white steed, and gained the victory for the
Spaniards in their bloody battles with the
Moors. Today, although Santiago has a pop-
ulation of less than 25,000, it has 45 eccles-
iastical edifices with 288 altars and 114 bells,
and is visited annually by scores of thousands
When this bell was cast in 1247, St. Louis
(Louis IX of France) was making ready for
the sixth crusade, 1248-1250; the Magna
Charta of England had been granted by King
John just thirty-two years before; the Fran-
ciscan Order had been founded by St. Francis
but thirty-seven years; America was un-
dreamed of and Columbus would not be born
until two hundred years later!
Surely this old bell, although cracked and
clapperless, still has power to call up strange
scenes and forgotten deeds from the van-
^ ^ ^ ^
55. Brass Chinese pagoda bell, ornamented
with double god's head. From Warwick,
56. Brass bell from Oxford, England. Dec-
orated with four eagles in relief. This is a
Russian "drosky" bell with an inscription in
Russian about the sound bow: "Drive with
him; don't be stingy; smoke; be merry."
About 250 years old.
57. Sheep-bell purchased at Stratford-on-
Avon. Originally from an old monastery at
Mickleton. One hundred years old.
58. Miniature of Liberty Bell at Philadel-
phia, with inscription, crack, etc.
59. Car bell from St. Gall. Brass, upright
on hand-brake. This form of bell is still used
in some towns of Sweden and Switzerland.
60. Cow-bell from the only official, duly-
accredited, pioneer, Pilgrim cow which came
over in the relic-laden Mayflower. Gift oi
Mr. George Thompson, of the "trenchant
pen," etc., of the St. Paul Pioneer Press. Mr.
Thompson vouches for the authenticity of the
61. Chinese pagoda bell. Brass, rattle
shape. Gift of DeWitt Hutchings.
(When in doubt as to the location or num-
ber of a bell, ask for the Curator, who will
be happy to assist you.)
^ <« V («
"These bells have been anointed,
And baptized with holy water."
<« '^ (« ««
62. Pecos Indian Chapel Sanctus bell of
copper. Wooden handle on iron shaft. Found
in ruins of an old church abandoned in 1680.
Gift of John Farrell.
^ ^ ^ f4
63. A royal Chinese dragon bell of anti-
<!4 <^ '^ ^
"How sweet the tuneful bells responsive
<4 V ^ <«
64. Hindu shrine bell, beautifully done in
bronze. Very graceful lines throughout.
65. Japanese bronze altar bell. Inscrip-
tion in Japanese.
66. Japanese temple bell. A brass rattle
with brass handle. Formerly used in one of
the California Missions. Very old. Gift of
Mr. Lee Powers.
67. Tahoe Indian basket willow and fern
bell made by Indians of Lake Tahoe. Gift
of Fred Barlow.
68. Tahoe Indian basket. Willow and fern.
69. First mule car bell used in Riverside
in the year 1886.
70. Gong from the first electric car in
Riverside. April 11, 1889.
71. Bronze bell, dated 1792. Graceful lines
Ornamental relief work about the top. Hand
pointing to the date. Cross in relief with
flowering vine and four pretty cherubs' heads.
Badly cracked. Of historic interest, as this
bell hung for many years in the cathedral at
New Orleans, but later, by some strange fate,
was used on the jail in that city. Personally
secured by Mr. Miller from the collection
of Colonel Hawkins.
72. Ancient gong bell from a Japanese pa-
goda at Kyoto. Has four raised panels, each
containing nine ornamental buttons, "sacred
snails" of Buddha. The ears are formed by
grotesque double gods' heads. Chrysanthe-
mums and artistic bands in relief decorate
the lower part.
IZ. Church bell from San Francisco fire
of 1906. Remarkably sweet tone.
74. This triangle was used in the early
days of the Glenwood Tavern to call the
guests to their meals, and was hung near the
dining-room door. It is made from an old
steel drill which was used by Mr. Miller's
father forty years ago when blasting rocks
for the first irrigating ditch in Riverside.
75. First locomotive bell heard in River-
side. Belonged to the Santa Fe's first engine
ni California. Shipped around the Horn in
1885. Presented to Mr. Miller.
76. Sweet-toned chapel bell from Mexico.
About one hundred years old.
"How sweet the music of those village bells.
Falling at intervals upon the ear
In cadence sweet."
^ ^ ^ ^
77. Hand-forged bell from Old Mexico.
Pierced clapper for cord. Two hundred and
fifty years old. From an old convent. Gift
of F. S. Borton.
79. The lower of the big bells in the Cam-
panile. An old church bell, from San Fran-
cisco, with massive yoke.
80. The large bell in the ton arch of the
81. Copper cow-bell with rudely forged
date 1743 in relief. On the other side the
Latin letters I. H. S. "lesus Hominum Sal-
vator." Jesus the Saviour of Men. Old, cu-
rious iron clapper. Gift of Mr. Aaron Neu-
(« <« <4 V
"I call the Living — I mourn the Dead — 1
break the Lightning." Inscribed on the Great
Bell of the minster of Schaffhauser — also on
that of the Church of Art, near Lucerne.
82. Brass ship's bell with iron yoke. This
bell was taken from one of the transports
which was sent out from Boston in 1755 to
convey seven thousand Acadians from Nova
Scotia to Maryland, Virginia, the Carolinas,
etc. These were "Evangeline's" people. This
bell lay at the bottom of the ocean with the
wrecked vessel for nearly a century. It
plainly shows the action of long submergence
in sea-water. Gift of Mr. Sid Pelton.
Sweet, sad story of "Evangeline" and "Gab-
riel" that comes before us!
^ ^ ^ ^
"With deep affection
I often think of
Those Shandon bells.
Whose sounds so wild would
In the days of childhood
Piling round my cradle
Their magic spells."
(i« <« <4 <«
83. Bronze, Japanese pagoda bell. The
characters in relief mean, "Wisdom is better
than wealth." Brought from Kyoto by Mrs.
"Bob" Burdette, the donor.
84. Hindu temple bell, with filigree work.
An ugly, double monkey-god on the handle.
Gift of Albert Mjller.
85. Brass bell from Haarlem, Holland.
Date 1370. Inscription: "Jacobes Serkeheft
Mychegoten." Figures on horseback and in
medallions and in bold relief. Top of bell is
an old man's head. From Mrs. Richardson.
86. Bronze temple gong from Tientsin,
China, said to be over 1800 years old. Rec-
tangular panels in relief. A pair of dragons
form the ears. Gift of Ernest Moulton.
^ V (« <4
Die Glocken sind die Artillerie des Geist-
lichkeit (Bells are the artillery of the Priest-
87. Triple brass bells enclosed in bronze
shell. For use during the tersanctus period
of the mass at the high altar. The three
bells forming one bell, are emblematic of the
Trinity. From Strassburg. Early seven-
88. Large, round bronze carriage bell with
bullfrog mouth. Ornamental flowers in re-
lief; has size number 10. From the historic
and interesting Abbey town and island of
Mont St. Michel on the French coast of
89. Porcelain bell of St. Pol de Leon from
Brittainy, France. Fish-shaped and decorated
with picture of St. Pol in espiscopal robes
with pastoral staff on one side and on the
other with the escutcheon of St. Pol bearing
the words A ma vie (to my life). The inter-
esting legend tells us that " in the sixth cen-
tury St. Pol came from Great Britain to the
Isle of Batz, off the coast of Brittainy, and
was kindly received by Count Guythurus. He
said King Marc had refused to deliver him a
bell, which he needed to call his follow-
ers. At that moment a fisherman came up
with it. It had been found in the mouth of
a fish just caught, at St. Pol, which had
swam across the channel."
The original bell is at St. Pol's Cathedral,
where its sound (it is said) has cured many
sick people, and even called to life one that
90. Swedish bronze market-place bell,
gracefully ornamented with bands and Ian
ceolate and arabesque designs in relief. In-
scription in Latin: Petit et Fritsen me Fuder-
unt (Petit and Fritsen cast me). The rec-
tangular orifice in the ears is not common.
From middle of eighteenth century.
"The 'bell of Huesca,' Spain, refers to a
massacre there in 1136. King Ramiro 11
showed his turbulent nobles 'a bell that could
be heard throughout the whole country'; in
other words, he beheaded sixteen of the
leaders and arranged their heads in the form
of a bell, with one hung up as the clapper."
<4 <« <4 <4
91. Small bronze hand bell with handle of
oak wood.. Inscription reads, "A relic of
York Minster." On the other side, "Oak
and bell metal. Burnt May 20, 1840." Also \
shield with espiscopal keys and cororret of
Duke of York. Made from metal of the
broken cathedral bells recast.
92. Church bell dated 1770 with orna-
mental bands in relief. Hung for many years
in one of the old castles of Scotland. Cast
93. Bronze chapel bell from the Abbey of
St. Amant di Boixe, in the Tourraine, France.
From a quaint old church there. Ornamented
with two crosses fleury and two abbotts in
relief work. Cracked. Early eighteenth cen-
94. Beautiful bronze sanctus bell from Ca-
thedral of St. Peter, Angouleme, France.
Cross-shaped handle. Richly ornamented
with saints, crosses, papal insignia, etc. Han-
dle springs from crown-shaped ears orna-
mented with crosses and hearts. Inscription
dbout lower margin and date 1651.
95. Circular cow-bell from town of Albi
in Southern France. Maker's name "Gri- '
maud," as also the word "Albi" in raised let-
ters. Cracked. One hundred years old.
96. Bronze goat-bell of graceful design.
Bears the maker's name, "Oriadou Arod'es."
About one hundred years old. From the
fertile and picturesque valley of the Loire
nea- the famous chateaux of Blois.
•^ ^ ^ ^
"The bells and chimes of motherland.
Of England green and old.
That out from gray and ivied tower
A thousand years have tolled."
^ ^ ^ ^
97. Very sweet-toned Turkish chime bells
for a cow or horse. Consists of bronze bell
of graceful design with two smaller bells
within. Old decorations in relief. From Con-
stantinople. Date about 1750.
98. Syrian goat-bell chime of bronze. One
bell within the other. From Damascus. Per-
iod, the middle of the eighteenth century.
99. Cup-shaped Mohammedan pilgrim's
bell from Mecca, Arabia, the sacred city of
Mahomet. Made of iron. Attached to the
chain are some sacred amulets. The ringing
of the bell frightened away the evil spirits.
About one hundred years old.
100. Spanish muleteers' bell-tower of wood
the form of a hollow cone. Pierced for
three rows of bells of five each. The whole
painted in red, green and yellow, the Spanish
colors. Fastened upright on the back of the
"lead mule" of a string of mules in the Pj''-
renees. To prevent the mules from taking
alarm at any noises of animals, birds or
snakes, etc., and "stampeding" down the trail.
101. Bronze, alarm bell for spring coil for
inner gate of courtyard. Bears the name of
"Rolland," the maker, and "Arivel," the town
where it was cast. Ornamented with face
surrounded by scroll work in relief. From
Toulouse, France. Eighteenth centurj^.
102. Altar bell with iron handle, and an
inscription in Latin meaning "Blessed be the
name of the Lord." Ornamentation consist-
ing oi mysteries of the Virgin, cherubs dis-
playing St. Veronica's napkin, etc. From the
Cathedral of Burgos, Spain. Sixteenth cen-
From 1550 to 1750 was the golden age of
church bells. The decorations most often oc-
curring on church bells are the cross and
fleur-de-lis, accompanied by a motto.
^ <« <« <;«
103. Ox bell from ValladoHd, Spain. Cru-
ciform, floreated design in relief. Date about
1780. Ferdinand and Isabella married at Val-
ladoHd in 1469.
104. Spanish mule collar of jingle bells
from Seville. About fifty years old. Style
of present day. Spanish mules have long
been famous, and in the mountain regions
are preferred to horses.
105. Alarm bell with spring coil, for patio
entrance. Inscription in Latin reads "John
of Fin made me in the year 1550." About the
top a blurred inscription. From Cadiz, but
probably made in Holland. Reproduction. In
relief figures of man fiddling for dancing
bear, dogs, etc.
106. Brass ox bell from the village of Es-
corial de Abajo, Spain, near Madrid. Rude
ornament in relief, much worn. From about
1750. The Escorial Monastery of San Lo-
renzo built by Philip II in 1581.
107. Bronze bull-bell with conventional or-
namentation. From Andalusia, Spain, whence
came the best bulls for fighting. One hun-
dred years old.
108. Church bell, inscribed Jesus Maria y
Jose, being the Spanish for "Jesus, Mary and
Joseph." Date: ano de MDCCCXXIII, or
year 1824. Floreated passion cross fleury in
relief. From Convent of Jesus and Mary at
Madrid, Spain, which thirteen years later was
changed into the National Pantheon. The
church is now known as San Francisco el
Grande, or "St. Francis the Great."
109. "St Anthony" bell, from Madrid. In-
scription in Latin signifying "Blessed be the
name of the Lord." Various animals in re-
lief, to signify the blessing of the animals on
St. Anthony's day, January 17, a unique and
interesting Roman Catholic festival in Latin
countries. About one hundred years old.
110. A beautiful bronze San Clemente an-
chor bell from Barcelona, Spain. San Cle-
mente was condemned bv Trajan to be cast
into the sea bound to an anchor. But when
the Christians prayed the waters were driven
back for three miles and they saw a ruined
temple which the sea had covered, and in it
was found the body of the saint with the an-
chor around his neck. For many years, at
the anniversary of his death, the sea re-
treated for seven days, and pilgrimages were
made to this submarine tomb. In the Sta.
Barbara Channel is the Island of San Cle-
111. Bronze sanctus bell from the Cathe-
dral of Toledo, Spain. Graceful lines. From
early eighteenth century.
112. "Angelus" or "Gabriel" church bell
trom the Convent of the Conception belong-
ing to the Santa Clara nuns of the Franciscan
Order at Toledo, Spain. Ornamental cross in
relief on pedestal. An inscription in Spanish
reads, "I am the voice of the angel that calls
from on high:
Hail, Mary, full of grace.'
113. Cencerro or "bull bell." Stamped on
the metal support is the name of the maker,
"Aetno Calle." From Valencia, Spain. At
least one hundred years old.
114. Ox-bell with leather strap collar, from
the little town of Santa Fe, Spain, built by
Queen Isabella, during the siege of Granada,
in eighty days. The capitulation of Granada
was signed here in 1491, and also the contract
with Columbus regarding his voyage to Amer-
ica in 1492.
115. Three donkey bells from Gibraltar,
116. Two silver baby's bells from a little
shop patronized by the royal family at San
Sebastian, Spain, where King Alfonso and his
queen and children spend a part of each sum
117. Ancient brass bell with a quaint,
superimposed ornament riveted on. Odd
wooden clapper fastened with thong. From
the Island of Majorca, the birthplace of Fr.
Junipero Serra, founder of the California
118. A double-tongued shield-shaped Ro-
man bell. Found during excavations near
Granada, and dates from Roman occupation
of Spain 100 B. C. to 100 A. D. Similar
bells have also been found in the Roman
119. Silver call-bell from Granada. Handle
formed by royal eagle of Charles the Fifth.
120. Church bell from Malaga, Spain, dated
1885. The inscription in Spanish reads, "Don
Manuel Rivas made me. Most Holy Virgin
of Mercy, pray for us." Cross in relief.
121. Ancient call-bell from a bishop's pal-
ace. Afterwards used as an alarm bell on
a spring for some shop door. Bears on either
side the episcopal insignia, and has an oblit-
erated inscription in which may still be dis-
tinguished the Latin word "Dominus," or
Lord. From Leon, Spain. Seventeenth cen-
122. Clapperless chapel bell from Cathedra!
of Cordova, Spain. Cherubs' heads in relief
and crosses, each formed of eight flower buds,
signifying the eight beautitudes. Middle of
(« ^ <^ ««
"That old State-house bell is silent.
Hushed is now its clamorous tongue.
But the spirit it awakened
Still is living — ever young."
(• V «C («
123. Beautiful brass ship's bell, from the
barkentine "Pepito," which sailed the Medi-
terranean between Barcelona and Naples.
"Pepito" is the diminutive of the nickname
for Pedro or Peter in Snanish, and means
"Little Peter" or "Peterkin." Middle ot
124. Sanctus bell of bronze. Four sweet
toned gong bells under bronze shell, typifying
the four Gospels. From th? Cathedral of Se-
ville. From end of eighteenth centui>.
125. Spanish church bell with inscription
in Spanish reading, "Jesus, Mary, year 1693."
Ornamental floreated band in relief, and three
rhedallions, each containing two pelican.--.
standing under a passion cross. Cast during
the reign of Charles II, the last of the Aus-
trian Hapsburg rulers. From Xerez de la
126. Very rare iron "Angelus" bell from
Zaragoza, Spain, and dated 1317. Raised me-
dallion with foundry mark. Inscription, "Ave
Maria Gratia Plena." Hail Mary, full of
grace. The Gothic letters of the inscription
were evidently all made separately and then
stuck on the core of the bell mould, as can
be seen from their irrgularity. These bells
were used in ringing the "Angelus" at morn
ing and evening.
(i« <« ^ (4
"Ring soft across the dying day
Across the amber-tinted bay,
The meadow flushed with sunset ray.
Ring out, and float, and melt away.
^ <4 <i« <«
The day of toil seems long ago
While through the deepening vesper glow,
Far up where holy lilies blow,
Thy beckoning bell notes rise and flow,
Through dazzling curtains of the west
We see a shrine in roses dressed,
And lifted high in vision blessed
Our very heart throb is confessed
Oh, has an angel touched the bell,
For now upon the parting swell
All sorrow seems to sing farewell,
There falls a peace no words can tell,
^ <« <4 («
127. Church bell. Floreated band in relief.
Four raised medallions showing Calvary,
Pope, Bishop and Madonna and Child. From
the style of the figures and general appear-
ance, not later than the fifteenth century
From the Church of Saint Mary of the Sea,
128. Ship's bell with axle and pinions. In-
scribed "Taormina 1884." From a boat form-
erly plying between Marseilles and Sicily.
129. Carriage bell of the eighteenth cen-
tury with floral decorations. From the an-
cient city of Carcassonne, in Southern
130. Clock gong of bowl shape, very large
and massive. Inscription in French reads as
follows: This clock bell was cast in August,
1861, in the reign of Napoleon III, Emperor
of France. Jean Marie Mathias Debelay,'
Archbishop; Adolph Durand St. Amant,
Chief Magistrate; Doctor Paul Pamard,
Mayor; M. Edouard Perrot, Jean Baptiste
Clerc, Eugene Bastide, Jean Baptiste Vodon,
deputies. Pierre Pierron, bell founder at
Avignon." Avignon, in Southern France,
founded by the Romans, is famous as bein.g
the seat of the popes during the so-called
"Babylonish Captivity," 1309-1377.
131. Altar bell consisting of three small
bronze bells within a shell of brass. From
middle of eighteenth century. From Cologne.
132. Church bell in redwood frame. From
Genoa, Italy. Dated 1810, the year of Mexi-
can independence, and also that in which was
founded the capilla of San Bernardino.
133. Cow-bell from the Valley of the Lau-
terbrunnen. Inscribed "Rastello." Also orna-
mented with relief figures of deers' heads, a
cow, Swiss crosses, etc. Sixteenth century.
134. Sweet-toned chapel bell of bronze or-
namented with four Calvarys in raised work.
Graceful lines. From Hospice of the Great-
St. Bernard in the Swiss Alps, founded in 96.i
by St. Bernard, now occupied by Augustine
monks, who, with their dogs, render assist
ance to lost travelers.
135. Drum major's standard, from Lucerne.
Switzerland. Ornamental stars, crescents and
bells of brass with iron rod center in a slid-
ing handle of wood. Nineteenth century.
V <i« w ^
"Those bells that tell a thousand tales.
Sweet tales of olden time!
And ring a thousand memories
At vesper and at prime."
<^ ^ ^ <^
136. Very sweet-toned travelers' bell from
Conipostella, Spain. About the top a row o?
scallop shells, the symbol of St. James of
Compostella, patron saint of pilgrims. About
the center are figures of travelers on Span-
ish mules, and lions that represent the dan
gers in the way. Dated 1790. For the necic
of the leading horse or pack mule that went
ahead. ("Campus Stellae.")
137. Church bell from the Riddarholms
Kyrka, the old Franciscan church at Stock
holm, Sweden. Relief work consisting of
floreated bands and a Calvary with Mary an'i
John at either side; medallions of St. James
with staflf, water botlle and cockle shells. St
Bri^itta, patron saint of Sweden, who mad i
pilgrimages to the shrine of St. James at
Compostella, Spain, and St. Gottlieb, or Theo-
philus, the administrator of a bishopric «n
Asia Minor, said to have made a compact
with the devil. From middle of eighteenth
138. Church bell dated 1847. Ornamental
floreated band. Medallions of St. James tho
Less, with club, and St. Thaddeus, with hai-
berd. From Wurtemberg.
139. Ancient church bell with floreated
bands and crown-sJiaped ears. The German
inscription informs us that it was made by
Wolfgang Wilhelm Schelchshorn in Eychstet
in 1796. From old Lutheran church at Wit-
140. Chapel bell with floreated band and
the following emblems and inscriptions: I. H.
S. Jesus Savior of men; medallion of cruci-
fixion with words James Hiliprand and Holy
Trinity; anagram of the letters of MARI>;
then within ornamental border Aus Tirol
"From Tyrol." "Joseph Dengg made me nt
lenbach." Nineteenth century.
141. Bell from Aix-la-Chapelle, Franc •
Floreated band and raised medallions of St.
Louis of France, Bishop of Toulouse (patr'jn
saint of Mission of San Luis Obispo); an 1
Santa Barbara, patroness of the Mission of
that name. Nineteenth century.
142. Chapel bell from St. Denis, France
Ornamental bands; medallions of St. Joseph
with lilies and Christ child. On either side
cherubs with flowers. About one hundred
143. Cow-bell from Oberammergau, in Ba
varia. Ornamented with Calvary and figures
of John and Mary, I. H. S. and cross, and
the number 18. About fifty years old.
144. Cow-bell from Hohenschwargau, in
the Bavarian Alps, where King Lewis II,
1869, built the beautiful castle of New
Schawnstein, famous for its frescoes of the
stories of Lohengrin, Tannhauser, etc. Orna-
mented with royal crown, cherubs' heads
crucified Christ and Mary. About fifty years
145. Alarm bell on spring coil from old
shop door in Paris. Ornamented with fleur-
de-lis. Eighteenth century.
146. Beautifully attuned mass bells from
Munich. The three represent the Trinity.
Early eighteenth century.
147. Ancient mass bell from Stuttgart.
The four bells in one denote the unity of the
four Gospels. About two hundred years old.
148. Ancient castle bell with inscription in
German that says, "Johann Ulerich Rosen-
lecher made me in Constanz in 1676." Orna-
mented with various heraldic devices. From
the old castle on the Rhine that was inhab-
ited in the seventeenth century by Count Ru-
dolph Wolfgang von Bernstein.
149. Very artistic altar bell of Gothic de-
sign, beautifully ornamented. Surmounted by
miniature cross. From Dresden. Eighteenth
150. House bell from St. Petersburg, Rus-
sia, with inscription in Russian that reads, "1
present it to him (or her) whom I love. This
bell was wrought at Valdai." The inscription
is in the old style Russian used before the
reign of Peter the Great (1689-1725), and Is
therefore over two hundred years old.
151. Brass church bell. In relief are fig-
ures of crucified Christ, Madonna and Child
and St. Catherine. From the Church of St.
Catherine, Nuremberg, long used by the meis-
tersingers as their school. Made in the state
bell foundry some time before 1806, as the
foundry ceased to exist in that year.
152. Castle tocsin bell, inscribed in Ger-
man as follows: "Christopher Frederick Oel-
hafen is the founder of the Schsellenbac'a
family, 1746." From the anciept castle of
Schsellenbach in Wurtemberg, Germany.
153. Castle bell of artistic design in-
scribed with the owner's name, "Gottfried
Siegomund von Hauck, 1766." Heraldic de-
sign consisting of the keys of the town of
Regensburg, at that time a free city of the
German Empire, now belongs to Bavaria.
This bell v/as used in the van Hauck castle
in the great dinijig hall to summon the guests.
It had no clapper and was struck with a
wooden mallet, giving out a very piercing
and musical tone. Technically known as a
petasius or "broad-brimmed hat" bell.
154. Beautiful bronze garrison bell from
old German military citadel of Spandau. Or-
namented with eagle in bold relief grasping
fasces in its talons. The ears of the bell are
formed by a group of lions couchant. Floral
border. The words "Ton Gis" in German
guarantee the purity of metal and tone, and
the bell has a most musical tone. Nineteenth
(4 <« <i« <«
"At bridal and at burial
For cottager and king.
These bells and glorious Christian chimes,
How blessedly they ring"!
155. Dinner bell from the Austrian Lloyd
S. S. "Hapsburg." Company's device in re-
lief. Vorwarts, "Forward," and dolphins, anchor
and crown. The letters "L. A." Lloyds Aus-
tria. This steamer plys between Trieste and
Constantinople. About fifty years old.
156. Goat-bell containing smaller one, hung
on wooden collar. Taken from the neck of
a goat that was browsing on the side of the
Acropolis, at Athens. Sweet tone.
157. Bronze bell from Sparta, Greece, such
as were anciently worn on necks of slaves.
158. Sacred cow-bell from Jaipur, India.
Good specimen of the well-known Jaipur
enamel work. (The cow is a sacred animal
159. Bronze bell from the Dilwarra Tem-
ple at Mount Abu, India.
160. Sacred bullock-bell of odd design
from Ahmedabad, one of the centers of the
Jain sect in India. One hundred years old.
161. Buflfalo-bell from Bombay, India. Mys-
tical, ring-shaped handle. Eighteenth cen
162. Sacred cow-bell from Lahore, one of
the principal cities in the Punjab, India.
163. Camel-bell from Peshawar, on north-
ern boundary of India, commanding the fam
ous Kaibar Pass, a caravan route to Afghanis-
164. Bullock-bell from Cawnpore, India
165. Sacred elephant-bell from Trichinop
oly, India. Ganesha, the elephant-headed
God of Wisdom, is very popular in India,
and has many temples where are kept trained
elephants sacred to him.
166. Ancient bronze cow-bell from Agra,
one of the most beautiful cities of India,
where is situated the famous Taj Mahal.
167. Bronze temple bell from Ajmer, In
dia. Surmounted by phoenix bird, the sym-
bol of eternal health and vigor. Eighteenth
168. Bullock-bells, from "the Vale of Cash-
mere." Worn between the horns.
169. Cluster of camel-bells from Teheran.
170. Bronze donkey-bell from Cairo, Egypt.
171. Hand-bell from Benares, India, with
image of tiger-god for handle. Ten thousand
people are annually eaten by tigers in India,
and the natives have a superstitious fear of
th"! animal. Benares is one of the most sacred
cities of India.
172. Bullock-bell from the royal deserted
city of Fatehpur-Sikri, India, built by Em-
peror Akbar in the sixteenth century.
^ ^ ^ <^
"Music arose with its voluptuous swell.
And all went merry as a marriage bell."
'^ ^ <^ ^
173. Camel-bell from Jerusalem, Syria.
174. Elephant-bell with chain of Hindu
deities and sacred peacock and elephant.
From Lucknow, the seat of the Sepoy rebel-;
lion and massacre of 1857. Worn at side of
175. Bronze castanets used by dancing
fakirs in religious ceremonies. From Assam,
India. Eighteenth oentury.
176 Temple copper gong from Calcutta,
177. Hand-bell with the god Brahma for a
handle. From Rajput, India.
178. Old bronze temple bell from Mysore.
India. Handle formed by Vishnu and Laksh-
mi sitting under the shadow of Shesh, the
five-headed sacred cobra. Throughout India
the deadly cobra is looked upon with greai
179. Hindu temple bell. Handle formed by
the god of the wind. Eighteenth century.
From Delhi, where formerly stood the fam-
ous "peacock throne."
180. Bullock-bell from Sawarkand. Curi
ous wooden clapper. Early nineteenth cen-
181. Shrine bell from Ghat Temple at
Benares. Eighteenth century .
182. Prayer gong for arousing the gods.
Circular disc of hand-hammered copper. From
Umballa, India. Eighteenth century.
183. Massive bronze bell from a lamasary
or Buddhist monastery at Darjelling, India.
184. Bullock-bell from the headwaters of
the Ganges in the Himalayan Mountains, at
the base of Mt. Everest, India.
185. Ancient sweet-toned lamas bell from
the great Buddhist monastery at Jantzi, Thi-
bet. The bell is called "Dilbuh"; the top of
the handle is in the shape of a Dorgee (from
which Darjeeling gets its name); the eagle
claw is "to destroy evil"; the head, much
worn, is of "Dolma," the goddess of mercj';
about the shoulders of the bell runs a Sans-
crit prayer. About the barrel and sound-bow
are rows of dorgees and lotuses. Inside the
bell is a symbol of the sacred lotus upon
which Buddha sat in holy contemplation for
millions of ages planning the redemption of
mankind. This bell is from the twelfth cen-
186. Prayer gong with tip of yak horn.
From Thibet, "the backbone of the world."
187. Bell from the great Vishnu Temple oi
Sri Rangam at Trichinopoly, India.
188. Bullock-bells to be worn between the
eyes. From Madras, India.
189. Five bells from the great Hindu tem-
ple to Minakshi, the fish-eyed goddess, at
190. A couple of bullock-bells from Tuti-
191. Bronze altar bell from the Catholic
Cathedral at Kotahena, Colombo, Ceylon.
Handle terminating in Christian cross.
192. Old cracked iron elephant-bell from
Kandy, Ceylon. Such bells are used on the
elephants trained to work in the lumber in-
193. Ancient wooden buffalo-bell from Per-
adeniya, Ceylon, where are the famous bo-
tanical gardens. Over one hundred years
194. Old iron cow-bell with double wooden
clapper from Galle, Ceylon. Eighteenth cen
195. Brass bell shaped like the "Dagoba,'"
in which is preserved the gigantic tooth of
Buddha at the Maligawa Temple at Kandy,
196. Native war dance gong from British
North Borneo. Ornamented with dragons
and scroll work in relief. Borneo is the land
of the "head hunters."
197. Chinese temple gong from Hong
Kong. Handle formed by imperial singing
dragons. On sides singing dragons in raised
work. In panels are music-loving dragons
and conical protuberances symbolizing the
sacred snails that covered Buddha's head from
the sun when he was lost in thought. In-
scriptions in old Chinese characters of the
period of the Ming dynasty. Five hundred
198. Sacred drum carved from peach wood.
From temple at Shanghai. Conventional carv-
ing. Peach tree wood is much used in tem-
ple furnishings in China on acount of the
mythical properties ascribed to the peach
blossoms and wood.
199. Small prayer drum of peach wood
'^ ^ <^ ^
"Jingle bells! jingle bells!
Jingle all the way!
Oh, what fun it is to ride
In a one-horse open sleigh"!
200. Miniature peach wood prayer drum.
201. Horse-bell in shape of fish head, from
Canton, where fish is the principal diet of
the poor people.
202. Small horse-bell. Canton, China.
203. Japanese "Waniguchi," or crocodile-
mouth gong, 259 years old, as shown by the
inscription, which reads, "Given to the tem-
ple by Akashi Province in the second year
of Mereki, on a good day in July." Other
inscriptions are: "We pray the Lord" and
"Given to hang before the Buddha." Decor-
ated with the lotus flower, the symbol of
purity, the sacred flower of Buddha.
204. "Suju," or Japanese religious rattle,
used by the priestesses in the sacred dance
"Okagura" at the Shinto shrine at Kasuga-
wakamiya, Nara. About eighty years old.
Red lacquer handle.
205. Buddhist temple bell from Japan. Or-
namented with lotus flower and eagle's claw
handle. Eighteenth century.
206. Temple gong in form of eight petaled
lotus flower and with lotus ornamentation
and inscriptions in ancient Chinese characters.
Part of the inscription reads, "Given to the
holv God," and "Above the North hot water. '
From Mukden (Port Arthur), made memor-
able in the Russo-Japanese war. Over two
hundred and fifty years old. Made in the 39
(KENIYU) era of Chinese history, in the
Golden Age of her material development.
Names of honorable donors on the gong.
207. Old helmet-shaped bell from Buddhist
temple in Kobe, Japan. Conventional decora-
tion. Two hundred years old.
"The curfew tolls the knell of parting day."
^ ^ ^ ^
208. Beautiful old bell of green bronze
from pagoda at Osaka, Japan. The square
openings are "the windows of truth"; the lit-
tle protuberances are "the merciful snails" of
Lord Buddha. Mouth of graceful foliated
design Three hundred years old.
209 Japanese bronze gong used in tea
ceremony. Ornamented with the "pitying
snails of Buddha." From Kyoto, Japan.
210. Large lacquered, sacred drum, carved
and gilded. From Buddhist temple at Kyoto,
Japan. Mat and wand. Hollowed out of a
piece of tough wood, very similar to the an-
cient Aztec toponaxtli drums of Mexico.
These drums are beaten by the priests dur-
ing the religious ceremonies, as a sort of
continuous prayer to the gods. One hundred
211. Ancient iron pagoda bell from Budd-
hist temple near Kyoto, Japan! Mouth formed
of lotus petals. One hundred and fifty year.s
212. The most primitive form of bell
known, or possible, being simply a piece of
stone or phonolite ("clink stone") suspended
from a cord, and beaten with small wooden
mallet. It gives out a clear, metallic ring.
From ancient phonolite quarry on the Island
of Saghalin. This kind of bell was used as
early as 600 B. C.
213. Buddhist priest's prayer rattle from
Nara, Japan. Beautiful green bronze wing-
shaped ornaments on handle, symbolizing the
flight upward of the priest's prayers.
214. Beautifully formed bronze temple
gong with double supporting ears. From
V <:« «« ^
After Longfellow's death, among his papers
was found the manuscript of his last written
poem, "The Bells of San Bias."
V <« V <;«
215. Beautifully molded bell of bronze with
deep, sonorous tone. Ornamented with raised
work showing music-loving dragons and lot-
uses, the symbol of purity. Around the up-
pe." part are seen the sacred snails of Buddha.
The ears are formed by a curved dragon.
Used in tea ceremony. From Yeddo. The
Cha-no-yu, or Tea Ceremonial, developed into
a cult during the Shogunate of Ashikaga
Yoshimasa in the fifteenth century. This cult
was founded on the four cardinal virtues of
urbanity, courtesy, purity and imperturbabil-
ity, and has become a mighty force in hold-
ing the Japanese true to a high standard in
matters of taste by combining "aesthetic
eclecticism" of the most fastidious nature
with the severest canons of simplicity and
austerity. The tea ceremony is in reality a
gathering of connoisseurs to view works of
aft, each of which to win favor must meet
the requirements of the most exacting taste.
The ceremonies include a preliminary dinner,
but tea drinking is the chief thing. The tea
used is in the form, not of tea leaves, but
of powder, so that the resulting beverage re-
sembles pea soup in color and consistency.
The tea is made and drunk in a preternatur-
ally slow and solemn manner, each action,
each gesture being fixed by an elaborate code
of rules. Every article connected with the
ceremony, such as the tea canister, the in-
cense burner, the hanging scroll, and the
bouquet of flowers in the alcove is either
handled, or else admired at a distance, in
ways and with phrases prescribed by unalter-
able usage. Even the hands are washed, the
room is swept, a little bell is rung (of which
there are various specimens in this collec-
tion), and the guests walk from the house to the
garden and from the garden into the house,
at stated times and in a stated manner, which
never varies. To a European the ceremony
is lengthy and meaningless, and when wit-
nessed more than once it becomes intolerably
The worship of simplicity and of the an-
tique in objects of art, together with the ob-
servance of an elaborate code of etiquette —
such are the doctrine and discipline of the
tea ceremonies in their modern form, which
has never varied in four centuries.
216. Gracefully made bronze house gong
from Tokio. In raised work, the winged
steed that forms one of the signs of the
Zodiac; the sacred lotus, and the blessed
snails of Buddha. On top of gong a prayer
to Lord Buddha for a blessing on the home.
217. Ancient iron priest's rattle or prayer
bell from Buddhist shrine at Nikko, Japan.
Handle is surmounted by fish-spear orna-
ment, symbolizing the broad-bladed spear
with which Buddha slew the great Demon.
Over two hundred years old.
218. Beautiful little Buddhist priest's gong
made of bronze. Ornamented with Buddhist
angels, the lotus flower and dragons with
intertwined tails forming the handle. Very
sweet tone when struck by a wand. From
Yeddo, Japan. One hundred and fifty years
219. Three-footed bronze gong beautifully
ornamented with lotus buds in relief. From
Buddhist temple at Kamakura, where there
is an image of Buddha, made of bronze
plates, and forty-four feet high. From eight-
220. Bright brazen Shinto temple rattle
fifty years old, with inscription, "Province of
Shimosa, District of Tuiki, Shore of the Ka-
bota River. This bell is (Hono) consecrated
to God by the people who were passengers
on the boat, and by their representative, Ishi-
kawa Jinbei of Higashi-Moto Street of Fuka-
gawa, Tokio, in giving it to the temple." A
votive oflfering on the part of those pas-
sengers who escaped shipwreck.
221. A gong (Dora) of begging pilgrims,
worn thrust through the belt and sounde-l
while walking and praying. Decorated with
mother of pearl, and a pair of brass temple
dogs. On the wooden mallet is the inscrip
tion in Japanese, "Property of Hara Genzae-
mon." In thee 0!Buddha, we put our trust."
Name Amida Butsu. From Yokohama. As
Buddha was a beggar and wore the yellow
robe and carried the brass alms bowl, he is
much beloved by all beggars of China, Japan
and India. About fifty years old.
222. A bronze Kei gong one hundred years
old from Buddhist temple in Formosa. Or-
namented with the mystical phoenix, bird of
paradise and sacred lotus.
223. Large bronze Japanese temple gons:
(Dora) from Buddhist temple at Hakodate
Figures in relief "nio" (two kings) or guard-
ian demons of the temple. Within is the
signature of Myochin, the maker. About one
hundred and fifty years old.
<« «« V <4
"I think upon that happy time,
That time so fondly loved.
When last we heard the sweet bells chime,
As through the fields we roved."
<« <« 14 •«
224. Jingle bells used by Japanese news-
boys. They are worn at the hip, attached to
the sash. As the boys run about they do
not cry their papers, but by the loud sounding
of these bells announce their "extrys." From
225. Bronze gong from horse temple at
Nagasaki, Japan, where is venerated the
sacred horse of Buddha. About one hundred
and fifty years old.
226. Ancient hand-bell of green bronze in
form of a fish head. In imitation of a bell
of the ancient time of Jindai's godly reign.
The original was dug up in the ancient
Buddhist city of Kamakura.
227. Very beautiful specimen of Buddhist
priest's magic bell. Handle formed of lotus
petals and eagles' claws. Mouth of bell
formed of the eight petals of the lotus. Dec-
orated with raised figures of gods alternat-
ing with the "Saiko." Used by the priests
in exorcising evil spirits.
228. Flat, circular bronze gong from tem-
ple of Confucius in Pekin, China. Covered
on either side with extracts from the sacred
writings of Confucius; taken from the work
entitled "Change," that teaches the proper
conduct of life. The worshipers whilst read-
ing the words on this metal disc make their
prayers to Confucius, meanwhile striking the
gong with a wand, to attract the favorable
attention of the great Teacher. About one
hundred and fifty years old.
229. Long-handled pilgrim's bell from
Kompira, Japan. Used by pilgrims bound for
the summit of Fujiyama, 12,365 feet high.
While making the ascent the pilgrims ring
such bells as these and chant an invocation
which says, "May our six senses be pure, and
the weather on the honorab^le mountain be
fair." About one hundred and fifty years old.
Signed by the maker, Kokawa IcihnQ Kami,
at Kokawa-dera Temple, near Nara.
230. Deep-toned bronze fire gong (Han-
sho), from Tokio, Japan. Fires were form-
erly so common in Japan's wood and paper
cities that the nickname of "Yedo Blossoms"
was applied to the flames, which almost
nightly lit up the metropolis. So cpmpletely
did this destructive agency, establish itself
as a national institution that a whole vocabu-
lary grew up to express every shade of mean-
ing in matters fiery. The Japanese language
has special terms for an incendiary fire, an
accidental fire, a fire starting from one's own
house, a fire caught from next door, a fire
which one shares with others, a fire which is
burning to an end, the flame of a fire, any-
thing — for instance, a brazier — from which a
fire may arise, the side from which to attack
a fire in order to extinguish it, a visit of con-
dolence after a fire, the bell for announcing
the presence of a fire — and so on. These
fire gongs are placed on poles tall enough
to overlook the houses in the crowded quar-
ters and are easily accessible from the streets.
Seventy-five years old.
231. Bronze Waniguchi (gong). Decorated
with imperial dragon, snail shell and eight -
petaled lotus. From Nagoya, Japan.
232. Iron rattle bell for house. With
sacred inscriptions and snails. From Miyano-
233. Bronze rattle for calling servants. Or-
namented with Sanscrit characters and piti-
ful snails of Buddha. From Yokosuka.
234. Priest's gong used especially for the
prayer ceremony at funerals, made of "Sa-
hary," the sweetest-toned of all bell metal.
Wooden handle and cushipn. From Mikko,
235. Buddhist priest's bell, heavily gilt, of
lotus flower design. Quite a percentage of
gold in its composition. Upon the handle
are the heads of the gods Kuten Bosatsu
(Air); Katea Bosatsu (Fire); Suiter Bosatsu
(Water); Futen Bosatsu (Wind). (Diflferent
forms of Buddha.) Handle terminates in
claws of Buddha's eagle. From Nyoroiyi
Temple, Kii. About fifty years old.
236. Fruit-shaped rattle bell for domestic
service. From Hiroshima, Japan.
237. Beautiful bronze gong, such as are
used in the tea ceremonies. Ornamented in
raised work with dragons, royal chrysanthe-
mums and other figures. The Japanese char-
acters signify "Dragon God." The wooden
mallet bears the name "Single Heart," such
as were used in the "Daimyo" or feudal days,
1603-1867. From Kanagawa, Japan.
238. Annular bronze call-bell for domes
tic use. From the Daimyo period. From
Wakayama. One hundred years old.
239. Miniature metal temple drum.
240. Japanese Buddhist bishops' gong. Of
bronze in form of sacred lotus. An exceed-
ingly rare piece. From temple at Yama-
guchi. Sixteenth century.
241. Bronze gong for use in Japanese tei
ceremony, made in shape of sacred foot of
Buddha. Ornamented with sacred lotus. Very
rare and fine specimen of the seventeentli
century. From palace in Fukuoka.
242. Beautiful bronze gong from Chinese
temple in Pekin. Ornamental handle formed
of double dragons. On sides the phoenix
bird, symbol of power and vigorous life, and
the mystical gingseng plant, type of virilitj'
and potency. Very sweet and sonorous tone.
Early eighteenth century.
243. "Potlatch" rattle in shape of two
clasped hands. Made by Alaskan Indians.
Used in their dances.
<« «« V (^
In old ecclesiastical paintings and carvings
a bell symbolizes the exorcism of evil spirits,
and is generally one of the attributes of Saint
Anthony, who had many a tussle with the
^ <;« <« V
244. Chinese temple gong ornamented with
snails of Buddha. The inscription in Chinese
states that the gong was made during the
Kin Lung dynasty, nearly two hundred years
ago. Very deep and sonorous tone. From
ancient temple at Kwang-lou-chan.
245. Mascot bell from the El Zagal Shri-
ners from Fargo, North Dakota. After a
special vote, presented to F. A. Miller bv
Potentate Frank H. Treat, 1912.
246. Buddhist temple bell-shaped ornameni:
of gilt wood from Kioto.
247. Bowl-shaped gong of hammered
bronze with deep musical tone. From Naga-
248. Japanese gong such as are used by
the mendicant priests when asking alms.
249. Round gong from Douglas. Isle of
Man. made famous through well-known novels
of Hall Caine. Gift of D. Cochrane, '12.
250. Street car bell from New York Citv,
from the last horse car before the general
change to the cable system; inscribed "Wm.
McKenna & Son, New York." Gift of L.
251. Church bell from the Church of St.
Francis at the leper settlement of Molokai,
Hawaiian Islands. An especial interest at-
taches to this bell from the fact that it hung
in the church where Father Damien minis-
tered to those alive in death, the lepers of
Molokai. This devoted priest literally gave his
life for these poor unfortunates, as he him-
self contracted the dreadful, incurable mal
ady from whose effects he died in 1889. One
of Robert Louis Stevenson's most brilliant
articles, a defense of Father Damien and his
work, was called forth by an injudicious letter
published by a Protestant missionary, in
which charges were made against the charac-
ter and motives of the man whom the world
has enrolled among its greatest heroes.
(One of the many beautiful stories con-
nected with the life of St. Francis of Assisi
is that relating to his care for an unfortunate
leper whom he found by the wayside.)
It is especially fitting that this bell should
find its permanent resting place in the col-
lection of the Mission Inn under the shadow
of the Cross on Rubidoux, reared in memory
of another immortal son of St. Francis —
Fray Junipero Serra.
252. Gong of hammered brass made by the
native Morros of the Island of Mindiano,
Philippine Islands. The natives suspend thes<;
gongs with cords of fibre, or place them on
the ground and then strike them with sticks.
They were used in connection with heathen
rites and festivals celebrated by the fierce
savages far in the depths of the tropical jun-
253. Brass bell and fish pendant (carp),
such as are used in connection with the
Boys' Feast of Flags on May 5 in Korea and
Japan. On this day outdoors a gigantic carp
made of paper or cloth is tied to the top of a
high pole, where it flutters when it is filled
with wind. The carp is emblematic oi
strength, as it can swim up a rapid current
Owing to the cross-shaped piece of metal
inside the bell, and from which the fish
hangs, this bell when hung where the breeze
can strike it, produces a soft and constant
tinkling sound. Gift of Mr. Sanborn of Kobe.
254. The "Santa Maria" bell from church
of the Ascension at Seville, Spain. Inscrijjed
in Spanish: "Mary of the Ascension, Seville,
and February of 1753." A splendid bell of
good lines, fine proportions and of about
seven hundred pounds weight. The tone is
most excellent, being very resonant and vi-
brant. Ornamented with a Latin cross in re-
255. Eighteenth Century New England
watchman's rattle. Made of hickory. From
Salem, Mass. From the collection of Albert
256. Temple gong of green bronze orna-
mented with bands and shields of cloisonne
work. Chrysanthemums in various colors
about lower band. Ornamental pierced,
pointed handle with chain. Very beautiful
specimen. From Japan. About 150 years
257. Chinese temple gong of green bronze
hanging in ornamental teak-wood frame.
Shaped very much like an ordinary bell.
Ears are formed of a pair of "music loving
dragons" and similar figures are on the sides
of the bell in high relief. Characteristic
Chinese ornamentation. A choice specimen
of Chinese metal work of a century and a
258. Sanctus bell of bronze. From ancient
Jesuit church in Sinaloa, Mexico. Handle
formed by two cherubs standing back to
back. Doubtless made in Mexico about 1650.
Rudely moulded and hammered. A blurred
medallion on either side and a few letters
that may be part of the famous Jesuit motto:
Ad Majorem dei Gloriam (For the greater
glory of God).
Before entering upon the detailed descrip-
tion of the crosses comprised in the Mission
Inn Collection, it might be well to consider
for a moment a few general facts with regard
to the origin, use and different forms of the
The cross was a common instrument of
capital punishment among the ancients and
death on the cross was deemed so dishonor-
able that only slaves and malefactors of the
lowest class were subjected to it by the Ro-
The cross was in use as an emblem, having
certain religious and mystic meanings at-
tached to it long before the Christian Era.
The Spanish conquerors were astonished to
find it an object of religious veneration
amongst the natives of America.
But the death of Christ by crucifixion led
Christians to regard it with peculiar feelings
of veneration and to adopt it as a svmbol with
express reference to the central fact of their
The sign of the cross has been made in
Christian worship since the second century
ac least, as an act of homage to God, in re-
membrance of the Redemption, and of bless-
ing to the person or object over which the
sign was made.
The forms given to crosses in art are end-
less; but the two leading types are the
Latin cross, supposed to be that on which
Christ suffered, and the Greek cross, both of
which are subject to many fantastic varia-
In the Latin cross the lower limb is longer
than the upper one, while in the Greek the
limbs are all of the same length. The cross
of St. Andrew consists of two shafts of equal
length crossed diagonally at the middle.
In the history of the cross as a Christian
symbol it is evident that it was used at first
as a symbol of triumph, not suffering.
In the sarcophagi and mosaics, from the
fourth to the ninth century, it often stands
alone on the sacred rock from which flow
the Four Rivers of Paradise.
It is sometimes surmounted by the Con-
stantinian monogram of Christ, the Labarum,
and thus became the standard of victorious
Christianity. It was inscribed within the cir-
cle around the head of Christ, thus forming
the crucifixion nimbus.
In the Middle Ages the form of the cross
was given to a majority of the churches.
In the following pages will be found de-
scriptions of all the various kinds of crosses
known, together with interesting historical
notes and references to many places; quaint
legends and customs in different periods and
The Mission Inn Collection of crosses is
the largest and most representative in the
All of the smaller crosses are hanging in
the cabinet in the Cloister Music Room. The
Curator will be pleased to tell you where to
see the larger ones.
The numbers given here correspond to
those on or near the crosses.
^ <^ <i4 ^
"With crosses, relics, crucifixes,
Beads, pictures, rosaries and pixes.
The tools of working out salvation —
A somewhat tiresome operation."
(« w «« ««
"The moon of Mahomet
"Arose and it shall set;
While, blazoned as on heaven's immortal
The Cross leads countless generations on."
<^ <^ '^ ^
1. Crystal benitier, or holy water stoup,
from Versailles, France. Surmounted by
smooth ,brass Latin cross. Contains figure of
Madonna and Child in brass.
2. Brass crucifix from Mexico. Latin form
with title and emblems of Christ's triumph
over death and mortality.
3. Silver miniature Latin cross, showing
Runic character of ancient Irish cross.
4. Silver, floreated, filigree cross made in
Mexico. Mexican silversmiths are expert in
this sort of work.
5. Old iron pectoral cross from Mexico.
Made about 16S0. Property of a nun. On
one side is a medallion in gold of Our Lady
of Guadalupe. Above the medallion are the
Latin letters "L N. R. L," which stand for
"lesus Nazarenus Rex ludaeorum" — Jesus ot
Nazareth, King of the Jews. On the arms
is the following inscription in Spanish: In-
digiia Soror Luisa Delaacsension, or in Eng-
lish* "Unworthy Sister Luisa of the (Convent
of the) Ascension." On lower limb are these
words in Spanish: Esclava Demidulcissimo
Ihs Maria, or, Englished: "Slave of my most
sweet Jesus Mary." The "I. H. S." is the
abbreviation for lesus Hominum Salvator,
"Jesus the Saviour of Men." On the other
side is a medallion representing angels kneel-
ing on either side of the Host, and on the
arms is the following in Spanish: "Alavado
Sea Ssm Sacramento," which means: "Laud-
ed be the most Holy Sacrament." On the
upper limb is a small cross springing from
the L H. S., as already described. On the
lower limb in Spanish are the words:
"Maria Santisimaconce Vida Sin Pecado Orig-
inal," or in English, "Most holy Mary, con-
ceived without original sin."
6. Latin cross of Roman Mosaic, work.
7. Brass, Latin cross from England.
8. Cross of the Order of Guadalupe of
Mexico. This Order was instituted by the
Emperor Maximilian. Surmounting the cross
is a golden eagle crowned, standing on a cac-
tus and with claw and beak rending a ser-
pent. This is the Mexican symbol seen on
the coins of today, except that the eagle no
longer wears a crown. A laurel wreath of
victory runs about the extremities of the
cross, and from the center shoot out rays of
The cross is Maltese, supposed to repre
sent four arrow heads with points meeting.
Th.i red, white and green enamel represents
the national colors of Mexico. On one side
is the Virgin of Guadalupe in miniature sur-
rounded by a border that carries che legend:
"Religion, Jndependencia, Union." On the
reverse side are the words: "Al merito y vir-
tudes," or "To virtue and merits." These
medal-crosses of Maximilian are very scarce
and highly esteemed Date 1865.
9. Silver "Lorraine" cross from Spain,
about 1700. The crosses with two arms are
called "Lorraine" for the reason that when
Godfrey de Bouillon, Duke of Lorraine, was
chosen by the Crusaders, as the first Chris-
tian King of Jerusalem, he adopted this
cross, hence it is sometimes called the Lor-
raine or Jerusalem Cross. Also called a "pa-
triarchal" or "cardinal's" cross. This is what
is known as an "inhabited cross," as it con-
tains human figures. On the observe side is
the figure of Christ hanging on the Cross.
Over his head is the abbreviation I N R I
already described. Under His feet is h
skull, the symbol of death and decay. On
the lower arm and the lower limb are the
words in Latin, "Domine Mementomei,"
which may be Englished, "O! Lord, remem-
ber me." On the reverse side is a crowned
figure of the Virgin with the crescent moon
under her feet, the horns pointing upward.
As on the obverse side, so here are ten orna-
mental stars. On inferior transom and lower
limb is the Spanish inscription, "Sinpecado
Original," or in English, "Conceived without
10. Silver, Latin cross from England. \
so-called "Aureole" cross, from the circle
passing through the angles of the arms and
limbs. It was thought that this circle was
an aureole or nimbus, such as surrounds the
head of Christ. But it seems that this sup-
position was unfounded and that the circle
was ornamental and also utilitarian, as, in the
case of large crosses of stone and wood, th^
segments of the circle served as braces for
the long, heavy arms or transoms of the
cross, retaining and sustaining them above
11. Old olive-wood rosary with small brass
crucifix, on back of which are the words;
"Adveniat Regnum Tuum," "Thy Kingdom
Come." From Italy.
12. Double-armed silver pectoral cross
from the Navajo Indians of New Mexico,
made of coins hammered together. On the
obverse side are represented two reversd
Sawastika crosses and seven arrows. At each
of these crosses are pointed three of the ar-
rows — the seventh one being pointed out-
ward. On the reverse side is nothing but
two reversed Sawastika crosses. This is '->
most curious article, as it is not Christian,
but heathen. It is the "rain cross" to which
the Indians of the Southwest have prayed
for centuries, and which was worshipped in
Guatemala and Mexico long before the Span-
iards came. As to the significance of the ar-
rows, possibly Mr. Walter Fewkes of thi
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, could
tell their meaning.
More than three thousand years ago the
strange cruciform symbol known as the Fyl-
fot cross was reverenced in India. It is a
sacied symbol in the tombs of Egypt and in
the catacom.bs of Rome. It is graven on the
temples of the prehistoric nations of both the
Eastern and Western Hemispheres. The
heraldry of the Middle Ages blazoned it on
their shields. Today it is used as a mystic
symbol among the secret societies. Modern
heralds term it "gammodion," and "crux gam-
mata," considering it as a compound of c
fourfold repetition of the Greek "gamma."
Edmonson describes it as the cross potent
rebated, or cross componie. The Buddhists
call it the Sawastika, or Suti, meaning "It 's
well," or "So be it," and it is the symbol of
13. Old silver, Spanish crossbow or ar-
balast, bearing the figure of Christ. A most
rare and interesting specimen of the silver-
smith's art in the sixteenth century.
14. Silver, Spanish reliquary cross; very
old. Reliquary crosses were made with small
hollow spaces in them, in which to carry
either a fragment of the True Cross, or a
relic of some saint. This cross nas on the
obverse side - seven such receptacles, now-
empty. On the reverse side a rude repre-
sentation of the crucified Lord iurmounted
by the title "I. N. R. I."
<^ <^ ^ ^
"On her white breast a sparkling cross she
Which Jews might kiss and infidels adore."
V (« <i« <«
15. Amethyst bead-rosary with pendant
gold Latin crucifix. From Spain.
16. Spanish, silver crucifix, btaring the
Latin monogram I. N. R. I. and on reverse
side a rude representation of the Chalice and
Host. Sixteenth century.
17. Old English, brass, Latin cross, bear-
ing on the obverse side the words of Mary
to Gabriel, the Angel of the Annunciation:
"Behold the Handmaid of the Lord, be it
unto me according to thy word.'' In her-
aldry called a cross "etoile," from the pointed
18. Silver cross, made by American Indians
in New Mexico. Set with a native turquoise.
19. Old bronze crucifix from Madrid with
20. Danish Legion of Honor Cross of gold
and enamel. A Maltese "Aureole" cross, sur-
mounted by the royal crown of Denmark, and
with a crossed crown -in each of the four
angles. On the obverse side the upper crown
is supported by an ornamental "R, ' the Latin
abbreviation for Rex, or king. On the four
limbs are the Danish words, "Gud Og Kon-
gen," which mean "God and King." In the
center is the letter "C" under a small crossed
On the reverse side, in the center, is the
letter "W," surmounted by a Gothic crown.
On the left, upper and right limbs are the
dates 1219, 1808 and 1671.
The white enamel and the setting of red
gold constitute the Dannebrog, or national
colors of Denmark. Waldemar II, one of the
most remarkable sovereigns of the Middle
Ages, in 1219 made a crusade against the
Pagans in Esthonia and forcibly converted
the inhabitants. When the Danes were hard
pressed in one of the battles, the archbishop,
Andrew Suneson, procured a flag with a
white cross embroidered on a red ground,
that had been sent him by the pope. He told
th*-; Danish soldiers that the flag had fallen
down from heaven, and so inspired them that
they won a great victory. Ever since the
white cross on a red field has been the na
tional standard of Denmark. The "W" re-
ferred to stands for this same Waldemar, and
the 1219 mentioned is the year of his cru-
sade. The date 1671 commemorates the great
naval victory of Denmark over Sweden under
Christian V, whose name is indicated by the
"C" mentioned. The year 1808 was notable
because Denmark, aroused by "the perfidy (<i
Albion," declared and made war upon Great
Britain, and gained some very brilliant naval
advantages over her formidable enemy.
Mr. Jacob Riis informs us that these
crosses were granted by the Danish crown
only to persons who had performed some
notable deed of heroism, that upon the death
of the recipient they must be returned to the
donor and that on no account were they to
remain in the family of the recipient. Mr.
Jacob Riis himself is the possessor of one of
these highly prized crosses, only a very few
of which are conferred during the reign of
21. Byzantine cross of Japanese cloisenne
An artistic and beautiful pectoral.
22. A Maltese "aureole" cross of bog-wood
from Ireland. Shamrocks in relief and in gilt
23. Elks' badge of Grand Reunion, 1909,
with the Glenwood cross and bell house mark.
24. Silver Lorraine cross made of ham
mered coins by the Navajo Indians; very
likely one of their so-called "rain crosses."
25. Byzantine amethyst Latin cross. On
either side is superimposed a cross with
26. Silver miniature fac-simile of ancient
Celtic cross. On the obverse a Lorraine or
Cardinal's cross, and on the reverse side an
ordinary Latin cross.
(« ^ <4 <«
"Each of our crosses has its inscription.
"Every house has its cross.
"Everyone thinks his own the heaviest cross.
"Crosses are ladders by which we may climu
— Old German sayings.
'^ ^ ^ ^
27. Badge and cross of the Military Order
of the Loyal Legion of the United States, an
association of officers and honorably dis-
charged officers of the army, navy, marine
corps, and volunteers, organized to perpet-
uate the memories and afford relief to those
who served in the suppression of the rebel
lion of 1861-1865. Organized in Philadelphia
on April 15, 1865, after hearing of Lincoln'.-:
assassination, the day before. The eldest
male lineal descendants, or male heirs in col
lateral branches are also eligible to member-
ship The insignia of the order is a badge
pendent by a link and a ring of gold from a
tri-colored ribbon. The badge is a Maltese
cross of eight points, gold and enamel, with
rays forming a star. In the center on the
obverse side is a circle with the national
eagle displayed, and around it the motto, "Lex
regit, arma tuentur" (law rules, arms guard).
On the reverse side are crossed satires
surmounted by a fasces, on which is
the Phrygian cap; around it an arch of thir-
teen stars and a wreath of laurel; in the cir
cle about it the legend, "M. O. Loyal Legion
U. S., MDCCCLXV." The gold link on this
badge bears the number 11820. The eight
points of a Maltese cross signify the eight
beautitudes. This cross descended to Frank
A. Miller from his father, Captain C .C.
Miller of Company I, Forty-ninth Wisconsin
28. Gypsum stone cross from the "Garden
of the Gods."
29. Bronze cross from the church of S
Maria-degli-Angeli (Saint Mary of the An
gels), at the Porzioncula, Perugia, built over
the cell of St. Francis.
Mrs. Jameson, in her "Legends of the
Monastic Orders," has the following inter-
"The term Portiuncula, which occurs so
perpetually in reference to the pictures of St.
Francis, is, I believe, sometimes misunder-
stood. It means literally, 'a small portion,
share, or allotment.' The name was given to
a slip of land, of a few acres in extent, at tho
foot of the hill of Assisi, and on which stood
a little chapel. Both belonged to a commun-
ity of Benedictines, who afterward bestowed
the land and the chapel on the brotherhood
of St. Francis. This chapel was then famil-
iarly known as the 'Capella della Porzion-
cula.' Whether the title by which it has
since become famous as the S. Maria-deg'.i-
Angeli, belonged to it originally, or because
the angels were heard singing around and
above it at the time of the birth of St. Fran-
cis, does not seem clear. At all events, this
chapel became early sanctified as the scene of
the ecstasies and visions of the saint; here
also St. Clara made her profession; particu-
lar indulgencies were granted to those who
visited it for confession and repentance oii
the fifth of August, and it became a cele-
brated place of pilgrimage in the fourteentli
century. Mr. Ford tells us that in Spain the
term 'Porzioncula' is applied generally to dis-
tinguish the chapel or sanctuary dedicated to
St. Francis within the Franciscan churches.
"The original chapel of the Porzioncula
now stands in the center of the magnificent
church which has been erected over it. The
church and chapel were both much injured
by an earthquake in 1832, but the chapel was
restored from the old materials, and the ex-
terior is adorned with frescoes by Overbeck.
It is a small building — might contain perhaps
— thirty people; but I did no*^ take the meas-
urement; it looks small under the lofty dom^;
of the edifice which now encloses it, and
also the 'narrow cell' near it, called the
'Stanza di S. Francesco.' "
This is a Latin "aureole" cross. On the
left upper and right limbs, on the obver.se
side, are rosebuds that symbolize the follow-
ing legend: "St. Francis, shivering in his cell
in the depths of winter, a demon whispers to
him suggestions of ease and luxury; he repels
the temptation by going out and rolling him
self in the snow on a heap of thorns; from
the thorns sprinkled with his blood spring
roses of Paradise, which he offers up to
Christ and the Madonna." On the lower
limb is St. Francis. Within the circle is the
legend in Latin: "Porzioncula Head and
Mother of the Minorites."
On the reverse side, under the title "I. H.
S.," is seen the insignia of the Franciscans, a
small standing cross and the crossed arms,
showing the "stigmata" in the hands. On the
upper arc of the circle are the words in
Latin: "The blessing of Holy Father Francis. '
On the arms and lower limb the inscription:
"The Lord bless thee and keep thee: the
Lord make his face shine upon thee and be
gracious unto thee: the Lord lift up his
countenance upon thee, and give thee peace.
Shedding tears of gladness, O! he dedicates
thee (to God)." In the center of the ob-
verse side is a representation of the famous
chapel. Given to Mr. Miller by the pries*
<i4 ^ ^ ^
"When Jesus hung upon the cross
"The birds, 'tis said, bewailed the loss
Of Him who first to mortals taught,
Guiding with love the life of all.
And heeding e'en the sparrow's fall.
But, as old Swedish legends say.
Of all the birds upon that day,
The swallow felt the deepest grief.
And longed to give her Lord relief,
And chirped, when any near would come
'Hugswala swala swal honom!'
Meaning, as they who tell it deem.
Oh, cool, oh, cool and comfort Him."
V ^ <« ««
30. Bronze medal of St. Francis from same
place as 29. On the obverse side St. Francis
standing at the door of his chapel, a rose-
bush on either hand. Around the border is
the inscription, "S. Francis Assisiensis" (St.
Francis of Assisi). On the reverse side are
the figures of St. Clara and St. Agnes. Over
them is the inscription in Italian "Sorelle
Vergini" (Virgin Sisters). St. Clara holds
the symbolical Host, and St. Agnes the Child.
Underneath is the word "Assisi." Brought
by Mr. Miller from Assisi.
31. A Jerusalem cross. On the obvers-:
side are the w^ords "God w^ills it," the Eng-
lish of the "Deus vult" of the people when
Peter the Hermit was preaching the first
Crusade. Above is the usual title, "I H S."
On the reverse side is the word "Jerusalem,"
under a shining star. The small red crosse-5
typify the red crosses worn on the robes and
shields of the crusading knights and pilgrim.?.
The five crosses typify the five wounds of
32. Latin pectoral cross of nuggets of
33. Old steel, japanned cross, pectoral.
Latin, bearing dove, symbolical of Holy
Spirit. From England.
34. Tortoise shell cross, potent, with gold
stars, inlaid, forming a brooch. From Lon
35. Same as 29. q. v.
36. Old pectoral Latin cross made of coin
silver by American Indians in Arizona.
37. Maltese Knights Templar cross, made
of free-gold quartz. On the reverse side is
the monogriim, "F. A. M."
38. English pectoral Maltese tortoise-shell
cross, inlaid with gold netting.
39. Latin Italian, reliquary, pectoral cross.
.A cherub cm either siae of the lower lim.b.
On the reverse side a rude representation of
the crucifixion. From about the middle of
the eighteenth century.
40. Old hog-wood aureole cross from Ire-
land. On the observe side, on the four limbi.
shamrocks carved in relief; in the center che
harp of Brian Boru. On the reverse side,
conventional cross-shaped ornamentation.
4L Old Irish metal cross with trefoil
terminations. On obverse side, inside a
circle, a trefoil cross with shamrock leaves
about which is the legend: "Crux in Corde
Cor in Cruce" (The Cross in the Heart; the
Heart en the Cross).
42. Irish iron cross, Maltese, with trefoil
terminals, springing from a square ciborium
terminating in crude representation of a
death's head on either side. On obverse side
of shaft is a rudely inscribed date that seems
to be "MDXL" (1540), and on the reverse
side some rude, indistinct letters seem to
form the word "Flyn." This interesting cross
was given to Mr. J. R. Blaine (the grand-
father of Miss Lena Nelson), by a relative
who went as a newspaper correspondent with
the punitive English military expedition to
Abyssinia vnder Sir Robert Napier, 1867-8.
The corres])ondent secured it from a Jesuit
priest whom he met in Abyssinia.
43. Latin ivory pectoral cross from Scot-
«« <« V <«
"In those holy fields,
Over whose acres walked those blessed feet
Which, fourteen hundred years ago, were
For our advantage on the bitter cross."
^ (^ ^ ^
44. Very old Latin, ivory, pectoral cross
45. Metal Irish cross. Same as 41 q. v.
46. Srnall, silver, Latin pectoral cross, made
by American Indians. Native tourquoise set
47. Pectoral cross potent of tortoise shell
inlaid with gold tracery work ending in fol-
iated terminals. From England.
48. Bronze medal of St. Francis. Same as
No. 30 q. V.
49. Irish metal cross. Same as 41 q. v.
50. Spanish pectoral reliquary cross of sil
ver. Same as 14 q. v.
51. Miniature Byzantine cross in fac-simile.
On observe side small cardinal's cross with
spear on one side and reed and hyssop on
52. Silver Latin cross made by American
53. Bronze Maltese, worn as a pendanr.
From England. Eighteenth century.
^ ^ '^ ^
"There are no crown-wearers in heaven
Who were not cross-bearers here below."
^ ^ ^ ^
54. Iron Latin cross frotn England. The
triangle represents the Trinity.
55. Black, composition, Latin, aureole cross
with conventional star-shaped leaf ornament
o;i either side. More than sixty years old.
Gift of Mrs. Theodore Nelson.
56. Large antique, gold-plated processional
cross botone from Lucerne. Covered with
ornamental floreated designs. In center of
obverse side the crowned Virgin with sceptre
holding the Child, in whose hand is the
world-orb, surmounted by a cross. The spike
in the bottom was to be thrust into a socket
in the head of the processional staff. Over
one hundred years old.
57. Wooden cross botone made in Ober
ammergau by the man who took the part of
Joseph of Arimathea there in 1910. Hand-
sawed work. Gift of Miss Rose Hardenburg.
58. An ancient Latin mahogany cross from
Mexico, with decorative scroll work, made by
descendants of the Aztecs.
59. Old wooden Latin crucifix from Spain.
Christ, rays of light and Memento mori in
60. Antique brass and wood Spanish cruci-
fix with title.
61. Brass crucifix on pedestal, surmounted
by title. From Spain. Latin cross with flor-
eated terminals. Under feet of Christ the
symbols of mortality. Antique.
62. Bronze benitier, surmounted by Latin
cross bearing cherub.
63. Large olive-wood, Latin crucifix from
Jerusalem. Inlaid with mother-of-pearl. On
obverse side in mother-of-pearl are indicated
the fourteen stations of the cross, the insignia
of the Franciscans, the chalice, and an "M S"
(Jesus Saviour of the World). On the revers^i
side is the word "Jerusalem." A present tj
Mr. Miller from the Bishop of Jerusalem.
64. Two iron, Latin, English crosses with
the symbol of the Holy Spirit.
"Not she with traitorous kiss her Saviour
Not she denied Him with unholy tongue;
She, while apostles shrank, could danger
Last at his cross, and earliest at his grave."
^ ^ ^ ^
65. Antique bronze Spanish crucifix. Typi-
cal, emaciated Christ of Spanish countries.
Conventional ornamentation on either side.
66. Old ebony Latin cross from England.
On either side is outlined a small Latin
cross in ivory. Ivory support at top.
67. A Russian pear-wood "Ikon Cross" of
Greek form with triptych on either side of
paneled, Byzantine chip carving. On either
side an ornamental border of small Greek
crosses. A very interesting and exquisitely
artistic piece of work. Evidently the lower
part only of a processional, miracle working
Icon, the upper part having been sawed off by
some vandal. The five panels on either side
contain Biblical scenes, and inscriptions in
Russian characters. Originally there were
three of these inscriptions on each side, but
the upper ones have been removed by the
mutilation mentioned. Such crosses were
used in the ancient custom of the "Blessing
of the Neva." Many of the figures depicted
in the panels bear a strange resemblance to
North American Indians. Belongs to about
the year 1660 and is from the famous collec-
tion of the Rev. J. Sparrow Simpson of Eng
land. The letters on the outer edges of the
cross were evidently cut by some bungler, at
a later date.
68. Two green marble, Latin, Calvary
crosses from Ireland. The Cross of Passion,
when erected upon three steps, is known as
the Cross of Calvary. The steps allude to
the three Christian virtues, Faith, Hope and
69. Four black, bog-wood, carved, aureole
crosses from Ireland. One of them with the
word "Erin." All on pedestals. These are
copies in miniature of ancient Irish crosses.
<« (« ^ ««
"In the Cross of Christ I glory.
Towering o'er the wrecks of time;
All the light of sacred story
Gathers round its head sublime."
^ <i4 ^ ^
70. Large, bronze, processional, Latin
cross. Processional crosses were carried to
meet bishops, emperors, kings and other
distinguished persons; also in litanies from .1
very early period.
This is a Spanish, sword-hilt cross of the
Order of S. lago, or St. James of Compos -
tella, as is indicated by the cockle-shells
which ornament both sides of the cross. St.
James has been the military patron saint of
Spain since the ninth century. The terminals
of the arms and limbs make this what is
known in heraldry as a "Cross Fleury" — the
flower in full bloom, implying that the bearer
was a matured soldier of the Cross. On ob-
verse side are the Virgin and Child in bronze
relief work. There are evidences still re-
maining to show that the whole cross was
once elaborately gilded. From the middle of
the seventeenth century. (Garden of Bells.)
71. Spanish, brass, Latin, processional
cross, with conventional ornamentation. The
eight-petaled flower in the center on either
side represents the eight beatitudes. Early
part of eighteenth century. (Garden of Bells.)
72. Mortuary memorial cross from Lucern>j
with inscription in German, and date 1832
(Garden of the Bells.)
«« <;« w« ^
"Bearing His cross, while Christ passed forth
Ais God-like forehead by the mock crown
A little bird took from that crown one thorn,
To soothe the dear Redeemer's throbbing
The bird did what she could; His blood, 'tis
Down dropping, dyed her tender bosom red."'
— A Breton Legend.
73. Modern wooden Latin cross with fig
ure representing St. Kummniss, a holy, bearded
woman (heiliger berdiger), much honored in
the Austrian Tyrol, and also in Bamberg,
Germany, where she is called "Gottlicker
Hilfe." One hundred years old.
74. Ornamental iron Latin crucifix with
small gilt crucified Christ. From Rouen
(France), famous for its wonderful Gothic
75. Bronze cruciform Christ. Gothic
style. A rather unusual feature is the kingly
crown instead of the crown of thorns. In-
tended for a crucifix. From Chartres
(France), whose cathedral is said to be the
most beautiful structure produced in the
Middle Ages. Seventeenth century.
76. Cross made of brilliants, forming a
French Masonic emblem. A pectoral Latin
cross fleury surmounted by royal crown set
with green stones. On reverse side unde:
glass a pelican feeding her young with her
own blood (symbolizing the love of Christ for
His church); on observe side the Rose of
Sharon springing up about the cross. Eight-
eenth century. From France.
■ 77. Silver Lorraine crucifix with figure of
Christ. The upper arm of the Lorraine cross
symbolizes the inscription on the cross of
Calvary, over head of Christ. The two arms
also typify the part taken by the Jews and
Christians in the redemption of the world.
On obverse side figure of Mary and inscrip-
tion in Italian, "To Immaculate Queen
Mary." From Florence, Italy.
78. Silver Latin crucifix fleury, with Christ
on obverse and Mary and Child on reverse
side. (Fleury crosses are those with ter-
minations like full-blown flowers.) Over head
of Christ, scroll and inscription. From Am-
boise, France. The edict of Amboise in 1563
granted toleration to the Hugenots.
79. Ancient wooden Latin cross with a
cardinal's cross carved in relief. On one
side is the spear and on the other the leed
and hyssop. Various abbreviated words in
ancient uncial Greek referring to the titles
of Christ. At foot of cross in depression is
carved a skull, the symbol of Christ's victory
over death and the grave. About three hun
dred and fifty years old. From Joppa, in
80. Jerusalem cross of red enamel and
gold. A Jerusalem cross really consists ot
one larger and four smaller crosses, repre
sented the five wounds of Christ. The red
indicates the love of man to God; the blue
symbolizes divine truth and eternity; and
tne golden fleur-de-lis indicates the Trinity.
Inscription: "Provencan e Catouli mosto fe
na pas fali." From Leghorn.
81. Pilgrim's cross of cloth of cardinal
red with background of white. Bears a metal
medallion with figure of Madonna and Child
and inscription in French, "Our Lady of
Health, pray for us." Worn by pilgrims who
come to be cured of ailments by our Lady of
Lourdes in Southern France.
82. Pilgrim's badge of yellow, red and
black (the Virgin's colors), with cross fleury
pendant. On one side the cross the Madonna
and on the other in French, "Our Lady of
83. Pilgrim's badge of shield shape in the
Virgin's colors with the letters N. D. L.
"Our Lady of Lourdes."
84. A metal pendant with bell-shaped or-
naments and in relief the figure of John the
Baptist. From Pau, France.
85. Wooden cardinal's cross fleury reliq-
uary. The small receptacles were for frag-
ments of bones of the blessed saints, some of
which may still be seen. About two hun-
dred years old. From Nimes, France.
86. Ancient Latin crucifix fleury inlaid
with mother-of-pearl. Carved in relief is the
crucified Christ, the four Evangelists with
their different attributes and the Mater Do-
lorosa and memento mori. Eighteenth cen-
tury. From Avignon, France.
87. A Latin reliquary cross of beautifully
carved ebony. This once contained many
fragments of the bones of the blessed saints,
and many of the precious relics still remain
in their respective cavities. These crosses
were of great repute among the sick and
through them were wrought many miraculous
cures. About three hundred years old. From
Carcassonne, France, a part of which, the
lower town, was founded by King Louis the
Ninth (St. Louis) in 1247.
88. Ancient copper Latin cross fleury.
Quite artistically engraved. In center panel
Christ holding in one hand the bread of life
and with the other giving the episcopal bless-
ing. At the extremities the eagle, ox, angel
and lion, symbols of S. S. John, Luke, Matthew
and Mark. On obverse side artistic floreated
patterns, and in center Maltese cross, the
eight points of which represent the eight
beatitudes. Three hundred years old. From
the great Convent of La Merced, Mexico
89. Ancient brass Latin cross botone, with
fleur-de-lis (or lily flower) ornamentation on
the limbs. Eighteenth century. From old
altar. The fleur-de-lis has been connected
with the heraldry of France since 1147. In
1546 Pope Paul III established the Order of
the Lily, whose members were pledged to de-
fend the patrimony of St. Peter against the
heretics. The fleur-de-lis symbolizes the
Trinity. From Church of the Holy Trinity
90. Silver cardinal's cross fleury with spike
base. Ornamented with flowers in raised
work. Flying cherubs supporting cross.
Latin inscription at top. Middle of eight-
eenth century. From Oviedo, Spain.
91. Masonic emblem of silver and bril-
liants. Crown, compass and cross. Pelican
feeding her young. About seventy-five years
old. Barcelona, Spain.
92. Silver pendant in form of escutcheon
of Austria-Hungary. Double-headed eagle
wearing crown of Austria and grasping sword
in its talons. Worn by the nobility only.
Nineteenth century. From Budapesth.
93. Small silver crucifix with figure of
Madonna on obverse side. Eighteenth cen
94. Very ornamental wooden cross in sil-
ver frame, with rays of light and fleury ter-
minals. Insets of mother-of-pearl. Eight-
eenth century. From Malaga, Spain.
95. Triangular-shaped crystal pendant in
silver frame for episcopal use. Into the glass
have been cut and gilded a small triangle, a
cross, "I. H. S." and the nails of Calvary.
Eighteenth century. From Seville.
96. Ancient triangular ecclesiastical pend
ant of metal and enamel containing cross
supported by monogram I. H. S. Eight-
eenth century. From Madrid.
97. Ancient brass and enamel pendant con-
taining monstrance, the base of which forms
part of the monogram I. H. S. Eighteenth
century. From Madrid.
98. Old brass altar ornament surmounted
by cross and containing Virgin as Queen of
Heaven. Seventeenth century From Burgos.
99. Ancient wooden reliouarv Calvary cross
inlaid with ivory. Many fragments of bones
of the saints can still be seen in the glass
covered openings. Seventeenth century. From
100. Latin reliquary cross of ebony with
ornamental setting of colored crystal. Con-
tains saintly relics. Eighteenth century. From
101. Brass cardinal's cross fleury with fly-
ing cherubs at base. Stands on pedestal. A
very interesting reliquary crucifix. On ob-
verse side in raised work are seen mon-
strance, celebrant priest, angels, king, candles,
etc. From Caravaca, Spain, in whose coat-
of-arms this cross appears and concerning
which there is the following legend: A Moor-
ish king in the fifteenth century captured a
priest near Caravaca and ordered him to say
mass. All was ready except the cross, for
lack of which the priest refused to proceed
with the ceremony. The enraged Moor wouH
have slain the recalcitrant priest on the spot
had not a miracle been performed. Suddenly
two angels appeared bearing between them \i
glittering cross, which they placed upon the
altar. Seventeenth century.
102. Ancient brass Latin cross with abbre-
viated inscription in Latin: "Holy and most
mighty God, have mercy upon us." Eigh-
teenth century. From Santander, Spain.
103. Pendant bronze cardinal's cross cur-
iously inscribed with various letters. These
crosses were worn by the higher members of
the Spanish gypsies, and the letters have ref-
erence to certain words used in the strange
gypsy ceremonies. About one hundred years
old. From Galicia, Spain.
104. Olive-wood Calvary cross fleury on
pedestal of three steps typifying the three
Christian graces — Faith, Hope, Charity. On
front of pedestal the insignia of the Fran-
ciscan Order. On back is written in Span-
ish, "El Bautista (the Baptist). Date 1700.
From the Convent of the Immaculate Con-
ception of Santa Clara nuns of the Fran
ciscan Order, Toledo, Spain.
105. Very interesting wooden Latin cross
covered with carved symbols of the Passion
and Crucifixion, such as nails, pincers, ham-
mer, scourge, lantern, ladder, cock, spear,
hyssop, coat and sun and moon. The vari-
ous Maltese crosses are symbols of the Orde'
of Mercy. Date about 1650. From the great
Convent of La Merced, Mexico City.
106. Cardinal's cross of steel damascened
with gold and silver. From Toledo, for cen-
turies famous for her swords, damascened
wares, and other metal work.
107. Olive-wood cross with carvings in
relief showing symbols of the Passion and
Crucifixion. Metal image of Virgin and Child.
About one hundred and fifty years old. From
convent at Avila, Spain, where is treasured a
portrait of Christ done in a vision by St.
John of the Cross.
108. Silver Lorraine or cardinal's cross
fleury, with rays streaming from center.
Worn on the breast. Eighteenth century.
From Cordova. The extra bar typifies the
higher office of the cardinal, patriarch or
archbishop entitled to wear such crosses.
Also used in the coat-of-arms of Hungary, as
the king there has the title of Apostolic, and
also in the coat-of-arms of St. Benedict, who
was the founder, patriarch and first abbot or
the great Order of the Benedictines.
109. Iron Latin cross fieury with rays
About two hundred years old. From the
great cathedral at Granada, where are buried
Ferdinand and Isabella.
110. Old iron Latin cross with floreated
terminals, and ornamental Rose of Sharon in
center. From a chapel in the cathedral of
Seville, where, since their removal from Ha-
vana in 1899, have reposed the bones of
Christopher Columbus (Cristobal Colon).
About two hundred years old.
111. Bronze processional cross from Es-
corial, Spain. Famous for royal monastery of
Saint Lawrence, built by Philip II in 1559.
112. Bronze oendant cardinal's cross from
Caravaca, Spain. There such crosses are
worn by the women as a protection against
thunder-storms. Their thought is that the
rumbling thunder moves and opens the sides
of the cross, thus allowing the evil influences
to enter the cross instead of harming the
wearer. About two hundred years old.
113. Ancient iron altar cross fleury from
cathedral of the "Virgin of the Pillar" at
Zaragoza, Spain. According to the legend the
Virgin, standing on a pillar, appeared to St.
James when he was making a missionary
pilgrimage through Spain. Eighteenth cen-
114. Ornamental silver pectoral cardinal's
cross. Eighteenth century. From Algericas,
opposite the Rock of Gibraltar.
115. Silver cross star-rayed, from San Se-
bastian, Spain. Fifty years old.
116. Silver crucifix set with ten cut crystal
stones, symbolizino^ the ten commandments.
At foot of cross a memento mori and at top
monogram. Initials of maker stamped in the
silver at the foot. A pectoral cross, such as
are worn by archbishops at the great func
tions of the church in Spain. Four hundred
years old. From the ancient Convent of
San Leandro at Toledo.
117. Crystal crucifix with terminals and
figures of hammered gold. The two Marys
stand on either side of the cross. Very ar-
tistic pedestal of crystal with borders of
fretted gold. Sixteenth century. From the
Convent of Los Comendadores de Santiago, a
retreat for the women of the Spanish nobility
at Seville, Spain.
118. Metal mould for the manufacture of
crucifixes. Seventeenth century. Granada.
119. Latin cross of dark wood covered
with brass figures. Pedestal with niches for
receiving relics of the blessed saints and
martyrs. A graveyard Calvary cross. About
three hundred and fifty years old, from Gran-
ada, famous for its Alhambra.
120. Brass, enameled cross on base.
Fleury terminals. In center monogram L H.
S. From Cordoba.
121. Very interesting reliquary cross of
chiseled brass. The fleury terminals formed
by trios of cherubs' heads. Symbolic objects
of the Passion and Crucifixion, including the
three dice used by the soldiers when they
"cast lots." Contains a relic of St. Cyriacus,
Pope of Rome, who accompanied St. Ursula
and her 11,000 virgins from Rome to Cologne,
where they were all slain. About 1750. From
122. Brass altar cross supported by two
kneeling, adoring angels. From Convent of
EI Carmen, Seville. Eighteenth century.
123. Very ancient wooden processional
cross covered with a facing of richly chased
beaten bronze in floreated designs. At the
four extremities are the heads of SS. Peter
and Paul, Quintin and Quirinus. St. Quintin
was the son of Zeno, the Roman philosopher,
and is patron of San Quentin, California. St.
Quirinus was Bishop of Sissek in Croatia and
is one of the eight guardian saints of Aus-
tria. In the center a very artisti- monogram
of the I. H. S. About two hundred years
old. From the church of Santa Marina, Cor-
124. Ancient crucifix of nammcred silver
with the figure of Christ arrayed in skirt
(Spanish style). On reverse side the Ma-
donna and Child, both crowned. About four
hundred years old. From church of Santa
Clara del Carmena, near Seville.
125. Pectoral cross of cut crystal tipped
with gold. Seventeenth century. From Blois,
126. Brass cardinal's cross with Mary as
Queen of Heaven, with the moon under her
feet, and underneath a double duck-headed
serpent with barbed tail. Eighteenth century.
From church of Santa Maria del Mar, Bar-
127. Pectoral cross fleury of gold with blue
enamel. In center is represented the famous
image of the "black Madonna" of Montser-
rat (serrated mountain, where the Holy Grail
rested for a time). The Convent of Mont-
serrat is one of the oldest and most cele-
brated in Spain and was founded in 880. The
miraculous image of the Virgin here en
shrined was carved by St. Luke, the apostolic
limner of the Virgin, and brought to Spain
by St. Peter. The monks of the present tim^
manage a school of ecclesiastical music. From
128. Small silver cross-shaped pendant
from Montserrat, Spain. On one side, image
or Madonna and on obverse side "N. S. de
129. Brass terminal of St. Andrew, with
halo and bearing an Andrew's cross. Fifty
years old. Patron saint of San Andres, Cali-
fo nia. From church of San Andres, Vallo
130. Ancient silver crucifix pendant. A
cross fleury. Seventeenth century. From
131. Maltese cross pendant of mother-of-
pearl surmounted by royal crown. Badge of
an old German military order, as indicated bj'
the crossed sabres, cannon balls, and the let-
ters G. K. S., which stand for the words,
"Serve God and the King." The number 30
within the circle is that of the old regiment.
Eighteenth century. From Munich.
132. Small silver pendant of Our Guard-
ian Lddy from church of Notre Dame de l.i
Garde, a notable center for pilgrims. On one
side a figure of the Madonna and on the re-
verse the monogram of her name. Cable and
133. Wooden reliquary cross on pedestal.
In the cavity there is a hollow crystal cross
containing two very small splinters of the
True Cross. The precious relic is closed and
seaied with wax and silken thread, and still
bears the original and unbroken episcopal
sigillum. It is said that Louis the Ninth of
France (St. Louis) received a large portion
of the True Cross from Constantinople in the
thirteenth century and put it, with the orig-
inal crown of thorns, in the beautiful Saintc;
Chapelle, in Paris, which he caused to be
built for its reception. Eighteenth century.
From the Church of the Redeemer, Mar
134. Reliquary crucifix of apple-wood beau-
tifully carved. On front are figures of Father
and dove over the Son, the Father giving the
eoiscopal blessing. Beneath is the Mater
Dolorosa, with sworil piercing her heart. The
reverse side has sliding panels covered with
carved emblems of the Passion and Crucifix
ion. In the reliquary cavity a small fragment
of one of the thorns from Calvary. Nine
teenth century. From the Engedine, Switzer-
135. Hollow silver gilt cross with mono-
gram and other decorative designs. Used ns
a receptacle in which to carry the sacred oil
and consecrated wafer to those who were to
receive extreme unction in articulo mortis.
On inside of cover the words "Josef Antoni
Baumgartner, Arbou, 1815." Donated by him
to the church at Arbou, Switzerland.
136. A St. Hubert's cross of metal to be
worn as a pendant. Small crucifix upright
between stag's horns. The legends say that
St. Hubert (who is a very popular German
saint) was renowned as a hunter, and was
converted to Christianity by one day meeting
in the forest a milk-white stag with a cruci-
fix between his horns. Bread blessed at a
shrine of St. Hubert is a cure for hydro-
phobia. From Munich.
137. Small pendant silver-gilt crucifix with
cross potent or crutch cross. The termin-
als bear the symbols of the four evangelists,
viz.: the eagle of St. John, the evangelist; the
lion of St. Mark; the ox of St. Luke, and the
angel of St. Matthew. From Lucerne, Switz-
138. Latin pendant of enamel with figure
ol Christ, and tri-foliate ornaments at ends
of cross piece. From Limoges, France.
139. Nickel-bound crucifix of wood, used
as pendant. The figure of Christ has the sup
pedaneum or support beneath the feet. On
the obverse side the monogram of Notre
Dame de Lourdes. From Lourdes, in South
ern France, a noted place of pilgrimages for
sick people. The shrine is in a rock grotttj
by the river and contains a statue of the Vir-
gin dressed as she appeared to BernadettJ
Soubirous in 1858.
140. Pendant Maltese cross of wine-col-
ored crystal, from Nuremberg. The five sec
tions typify the five bloody wounds of the
Saviour. One hundred years old.
141. Brass pendant Greek cross with laurel
wreath and inscription in modern Greek. A
military medal of merit. About fifty years
old. From Athens.
142. Bronze Russian ikon cross with five
panels of figures on either side. Although of
undoubted Russian origin, this cross came
from Athens. Was formerly a i)rocessional
cross and borne on a standard, but the pin
for the socket has been broken off from the
bottom. Early eighteenth century.
143. Red beads from Athens. These were
formerly used as rosaries, but are now carried
in the hand by modern Grecian beaux as play-
144. Popular style of ikon of Virgin and
Babe as used by the Greek church in Russia
and Greece. Monograms and inscriptions in
Russian. To be hung on the wall of the
145. Very ancient brass Russian crucifix of
the Greek church. The upper half has been
broken off. Evidently a processional ikon.
Four figures in raised work representinjf
saints. On both sides are inscriptions in Rus-
sian, as follows: "The crucifix of our Lord
Jesus Christ. We worship thy cross O Lord,
and we hail and glorify thy holy resurrection.
The strength of the faithful. The cross is a
glory of the angels. The cross is that which
gives the deepest wounds to the demons."
Early eighteenth century. From St. Peter.s-
146. Mohammedan rosary of sandal wood
beads, 99 in number. Cairo, Egypt.
147. Hindu rosary of "rudrach" beads.
Commonly worn about the neck by the de-
vout Brahmins. From Jaipur, India.
148. Buddhist rosary of coral, amber, tur-
quoise and other beads. Formerly belonged
to the lama of Thibet.
149. "Dorgee" of bronze. Such objects are
held in the hands of the Buddhist priests
when they are exorcising the devil, as it is
believed that by these means the evil spirit is
hypnotized. From Darjeeling, India.
150. Small Latin cross pendant. On one
side, figure of St. Thomas of Aquinas and
inscription in Portuguese: "St. Thomas Aqui-
nas of the Order of Preachers." On obverse
is the inscription: "May the cross be my
salvation; the cross is that which I ever
adore; may the cross be my refuge." Found
in "Chinatown," Hong Kong. Used in Japan
or the Philippines by early Roman Catholic
151. Small brass Latin cross, just the same
as No. 150, with the exception that the in-
scription is in Spanish.
152. Silver bangle representing the "Virgin
of the Pillar," from Zaragoza, Spain. Virgin
may be seen through the peep-hole at the
bottom of the figure.
153. Cross of gold and enamel with char-
acteristic ornamentation and inscriptions in
Russian. From Moscow.
154. Japanese rosary of fruit pits carved
in the shape of temple gongs. From Kyoto.
155. Japanese rosary of nuts carved in the
shape of skulls. From Nara.
156. Buddhist rosary of scented bead'*.
From Kobe, Japan.
157. Gilt wood Sawastika cross reversed,
158. Gilt wood "Sanko," from the San-
jusangen-do Temple (Kyoto) of Kwannon,
Goddess of Mercy. "Sanko" is the Japanese
equivalent of the Indian "dorgee," and ?s
used by the priests in exorcising evil spirits.
In this temple there are one thousand life-
sized gilt statues of Kwannon, who holds in
her hand many different symbols of Buddh-
ism. The temple was first built in 1132, but
being destroyed by fire, was rebuilt in 1249.
The significance of the Sawastika cross has
already been described in another place. (See
159. Bronze "Tokko," used by Japanese
Buddhist priest to avert evil.
160. Metal staff top with the six mystical
rongs, called "Shakujo" in Japanese. Used
in the collection of food and money by trav-
eling Buddhist beggar priests. From Miyano-
161. Sacred Buddhistic symbol of lotus
flower and eagle claws, typifying purity and
strength through Buddha. Bronze, cross-
shaped, and used by the priests in driving out
the devil. From Kyoto.
162. A "prayer wheel" (Mani), from Thi-
bet. In the hollow copper receptacle is a
paper inscribed with prayers to Buddha, the
chief one being "Urn Mani Padmi Hun" (I
take my refuge in Buddha). This whirligig
is made to revolve on the handle by means of
the small attached ball of lead, and with
every revolution a prayer is made, without
any mental effort. In Thibet some of the
prayer wheels are very large and are turned
b" wind or water power, and pray day and
night for the worshiper, no matter where he
may be or in what business engaged.
163. Rosary of mother-of-pearl with silver
gilt crucifix in filigree work. From Madrid,
164. Altar cross of ancient silvered bronze
with reliquary containing relic of "S. Jean de
la Croix" (St. John of the Cross). Relic is
protected by wax that bears the original and
unbroken episcopal sigillum. St. John of the
Cross was a holy man of the sixteenth cen-
tury in Spain who was frequently favored
with interviews with our Saviour, and who,
oil one of these occasions, made an uncouth
sketch of the divine apparition, which was
long preserved as a relic in the Convent of
Avila. He was the first bare-footed Car-
melite, and is famous for his terrible austeri-
ties and penances. He was the ally of St.
Teresa in all her reforms, and is frequently
represented with her. From Auvergne,
France. (See watercolor on first page of
Mexican Mass Book in Music Room.)
165. Latin cross of celluloid ornamented
with painted flowers and picture of St. Anne
and the Virgin Mary. Inscription ifi Eng-
lish: "I have invoked the good St. Anne of
Beaupre for you." From the famous Shrine
of St. Anne de Beaupre, near Quebec, Can-
ada. The three steps that form the pedestal
typify the three Christian graces of Faith,
Hope and Charity.
166. Chinese Buddhist priest's prayer ros-
ary. Made of beads of pink, yellow and
green. The priest when invoking Buddha
kneels and rubs the beads of the rosary in
his hand in order to attract favorable atten-
tion on the part of the Blessed One. The
green stones are jade, and are greatly es-
teemed. From Pekin.
167. A Christian cross made out of carved
beads that formed part of a Buddhist priest's
rosary. From Pekin.
168. Greek silver pendant cross with flor-
eated terminals. Center of cross surrounded
by monogram of Latin words "Rex, Lex, Pax,
Lux"; King, Law, Peace, Light. At center
is head of Christ, with cruciform nimbus, and
on reverse the Latin words Omnia in Christo,
"All things in Christ."
169. Weather-vane cross of hand-forged
work. From Brittainy. One hundred years
old. (Garden of the Bells.)
170. Delegate's badge to 46th National En-
campment of G. A. R., Los Angeles, Califor-
nia. September 9-14, 1912. Bronze brooch
with raised likeness in cartouche of Harvey
M. Trimble, Commander-in-chief. Old gold
colored ribbon of silk with silver letters W.
R. C. Pendant of silver with California scen-
ery and grizzly bear in relief work.
171. Bronze commemorative badge and
medal, of 46th National Encampment of G. .A..
R., Los Angeles, Sept. 9-14, 1912. On brooch
military insignia. On gold colored ribbon in
silver letters "Los Angeles, Cal. Staff." On
obverse side of pendant bronze medal the
likeness of Harvey M. Trimble in relief. On
reverse side inscription: "Commander-in-
Chief's staff Comrades 46th National Encamp-
ment G. A. R. 1912." Underneath American
symbolical eagle and laurel and olive branches.
172. Badge and model for representative
of 45th National Encampment of the G. A.
R. at Rochester, N. Y., 1911. Presented to
Frank A. Miller by John R. Gilman, Past
Commander-in-Chief, and Ephraim B. Still-
ings. Past Adjutant-General of the G. A. R.
173. Silver cross set with the famous Cin-
galese moonstones. From Colombo, Ceylon.
The Jesuit missionaries had here a great edu-
cational center in the Sixteenth and Seven-
174. Gold enameled Egyptian "key of life"
often seen in the hands of the ancient Nile
gods. One of the oldest and most universal
forms of the cross. Conected with the prim-
itive worship of the dual, reciprocal principles
in nature, twenty centuries before the word
Christian had been coined. From Cairo,
^ ^ ^ ^
Lying on the bottom of the Cross cabinet
is a very beautiful, large and interesting
key of the Eighteenth century. It is made
of pure silver and is richly jeweled. Sur-
mounted by the papal insignia.
This was the official key of the camerlingo,
or apostolic chamberlain, the official in the
papal household at Rome who was the
custodian of the personal jewels, treasure and
vestments of the supreme pontiff.
The key was the apostolic chamberlain's
badge of office, and was carried before him
on a velvet cushion on state occasions. In
the British museum there is a very fine and
valuable collection of such heraldic keys of
the royal chamberlains of the Seventeenth
and Eighteenth centuries.
V <« <« 1^
Near the key is a crown of solid silver
of Sixteenth century work. Formerly on the
head of an image of the Virgin Mary, in the
Cathedral of the Assumption at Jaen, Spain.
An interesting alms basin of hammered sil-
ver is seen to the left of the key just men-
From old Spanish church. Bears the fol-
lowing inscription: "This belongs to our
Lady of Pity; it was made in the year 1802;
it was fashioned anew in the year 1840 for
her chapel." Springing from the center is an
artistic figure of the Madonna.
Of the thousands who have looked with
admiring wonder at the old Franciscan mis-
sions of California, there was one who not
only felt all the charm of romance that at-
taches to those fast disappearing monuments
of Christian zeal and heroism, but who alsJ
had the artist's ability to stamp his impres-
sions upon canvas, and thus preserve for fu-
ture generations the features of the old mis-
sions as they were over a third of a cen-
That artist friend of the missions, who saw
them with the appreciative eyes of love, was
HENRY CHAPMAN FORD, and it is his
collection of original studies in oil of the
California missions that forms one of the
choicest art treasures of the Glenwood Mis-
sion Inn. THenry Chapman Ford, born 182S.
died 1894, the celebrated landscape painter,
who resided for about twenty years in Santa
This series of exquisite pictures numbers
thirty-eight, and comprises all of the original
missions except San Rafael. These are, as
Ford himself called them, "studies in oil,"
giving accurate representations of the mis-
sions as they appeared at the time they were
Included in this number are several asisten"
cias or chapels, among them being the so
called Pala Mission, belonging to San Luis
Rey; San Bernardino, belonging to San Gab-
riel; San Marcos, a chapel of Santn Barbara;
Santa Margarita, a dependency of San Luis
Obispo; and the Presidio Church at Mon-
terey. Some of the original missions are
represented more than once; San Gabriel,
twice, one being the copy of the painting
done by a Mexican artist in 1828; Santa Bar-
bara, six times; Purisima, three times, one of
them being the ruins of the old Purisima
Mission; San Antonio de Padua, twice; San
Carlos, four times; and San Jose, twice, one
being a representation of that mission as it
was before the earthquake of October 21,
All of these, with three exceptions, bear the
date of the year in which they were painted,
two of them, San Gabriel and Santa Cruz
being copies of old paintings — the San Gab-
riel of the painting by the Mexican artist al-
ready mentioned, and the Santa Cruz of a
picture painted by a French artist in 1853.
The entire series, with a few exceptions,
was painted during the years 1880 and 1881.
The Dolores Mission, at San Francisco, is
represented as it existed in 1850, and that of
Santa Clara as it was in 1851. As Mr. Ford
lived for a number of years at Santa Bar-
bara, we are not surprised to find him por-
traying various features of that mission at dif-
ferent times, one in 1875, one in 1878, one in
1880, one in 1885, and one undated. Of the
three views of La Purisima, two of the New
Purisima were painted in 1878 and one of the
Old Purisima in 1881.
This set of paintings, of which most of the
canvases measure about 16x30 inches, depicts
the missions, with a few exceptions, as they
appeared in 1880 and 1881, the years in which
they were _painted, and are, without doubt,
the only extensive set representing them as
they all actually appeared within such a lim-
ited period of time.
Their historical importance therefore is
g^eat, and with the passing of time will con-
stantly increase. Of this collection twenty-
nine were for twelve years on exhibition at
the Memorial Museum in Golden Gate Park,
San Francisco. In speaking of these paint-
ings, Mr. George Barron, curator of the
Golden Gate Park Museum, stys: "The mis-
sions are cleverly drawn and denote a great
deal of skill on the part of the artist, and
while on exhibition here elicited a great deal
Until the new SPANISH COURT is com-
pleted, these wonderful interpretations of a
fast vanishing period in California's history
are temporarily on exhibition in the "Old
"The saints! ah, have they grown
Forgetful of their own?
Are they asleep or dead,
That open to the sky
Their ruined missions lie
No longer tenanted"?
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