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I "*«RA^- 

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MS. Con. ViTELLius A. XV. 
Fol. i6o> (reduced). (11. 1353-77.) 


genam ligij 

gm^iue- ^-mc _ .^ 

lu^lf lii TuUl^pjia, tffiilitB' j>&i« 
tui^ Ym litlSmiiitlij))>L:.'liqt»H 

o^tioitn 1)11^1. Illy «iai-pu»^Uui^„ 
Scfc UjioSop, oi^ne-UWiiijim^atifr^ 

j; !;i6 Ij'iuf (V»e- jima; 6B5ttl5im Von2" 
jia, ,piiA-^{ai^ui> |'tm5 ^iSt Wf(tti«i|| 


Fol. i84» (reduced). (U. 3428 50) 

D, :..Jt,G00t^lc 









? p.'/ 



■ K'^-'-' 





.i.i ., 



Copyright, 1922, 
■ D. C. HEATH a Co. 

[. , . ■,, Google 



I. Argument of ihe Poem ...... w 

1. The Pabuloua or Supernatural Elemenis . . . . xii 

3. The Historical Elements ...... KXix 

4. The Christian Coloring xlviit 

5. Structure of the Poem ...... Hi 

6. Tone, Style, Meter lijt 

7. Language. Manuscript ...... Ixxii 

8. Genesis of the Poem . . . . . . .civ 

Table of Abbrevjations ....... clz 

Text of Beowulu ........ i 

Notes . . Ill 


BiBLIOGRAPHT ......... 217 

Text 731 

Notes .......... 736 

L Parallels . . . . . . . .239 

11. Antiquities . . . . . . . ■ ^S^ 

4O8O73 ■'- ^-"VS'^ 


III. Textual Criticism (Grammatical and Metrical Notes) 258 

IV. The Text of Waldere, Deor, and Select Passages of 

WlDSIB ......... 266 

Glossary of Beowulf '....■.. 273 

Proper Names 403 

Glossary of The Ficht at Finnsburc . . . , .411 

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Fig. I. — The Gokstad Boat (cir. 900 a. d. ; reconstructed). 

Found in a grave mound near Gokstad, southern Noiway, and preserved m 

Christ iania. 

From 0. MonCeltus, Die Kuilur Sckwedetu in mrehrisUiihrr Zeil, 

Berlin, G. Reimer. i ed., 1885, P- 174- 

, — Bronze Plate feom Oland (Viking period). 

Preserved in the National Museum, StocUioLn. 
From Montelius, p. 151. 

Fig. 3. — Iron Heluet with Bronze Plates. 

From Vendel, Uppland (ciV. close of 7th century). 

From Sivditr tillagimde Oicar Mottleliiu of Larjiingar, Stockholm, 

P. A. Noistedt & Siiner, tgoj, p. 104- 

— Gold Collar frou Oland (sth to 8th century). 

Preserved in the National Museum, Stockbolm. 
From Montelius, p. 134. 

Fig. 5. ^Entrance to a Stone Grave {jmtustm), Zealand. 

From M. Hoernes, DU Urgeschichlt its Menschtn. 


The Geography of Beowuu. 

Digiiizcdt* Google 


I. ArgumeDt of the Poem 

Part I, Blowotr the Young Hero 

(His exploits in Denmark) 

I. Tbi Fight with Grendel 

Bio-wulfi -wiarS 
gHehriS gyfijil. (gl8f.) 

I-188. Jatreductory. tbe building of Heorot by HroDgar ; the ra-v- 
agts af Grendel. The poem opens with the story of Scyid, the mythi- 
cal founder of the Scylding dynasty, whose glorious reign and magnifi- 
cent sea-bti rial are vividly set forth. — (53-85-) His line of descendants 
is carried down to king HroSgar, who builds the great hall Heorot for 
feasting and the dispensing of gifts. — (86-1 88.) Before long a fiend- 
ish monster, Grendel, angered by the daily sounds of rejoicing, comes 
to destroy the happiness of the Danes. One night he surprises them in 
their hall and kills thirty of the sleeping men. He repeats his murderous 
attack on the following night. For twelve years he continues his rav- 
ages. No one may with safety sleep in the hall. HroSgar, the good king, 
is bowed down by grief, his councilors can devise no help, his warriors 
are unable to check the visits of the demon. 

l8<)-66l. Sio'wulf's i/oyage, riception in Denmark, and entertain- 
ment in the royal hall. When Beowulf, the nephew of Hygeliic, king 
of the Geats, hears of the doings of Grendel, he resolves to come to 
the assistance of HroSgar. An eminently fit man he is for that enter- 
prise, since he has the strength of thirty men in his hand-grip. With 
fourteen chosen warriors he sails to the land of the Danes. On their 
arrival they are challenged by the coast-guard { but when the leader 
makes known their peaceful purpose, they are readily shown the way 
to Heorot. Beowulf announces his name to the king's herald, Wulfgar, 
who in turn tells his lord. Hroi5gar bids that they be welcomed ■, Wulf- 
gar bears the message. The Geats enter the royal hall. Beowulf greets 
Hro'Sgar and offers to cleanse Heorot. The king replies graciously and 
invites the Geats to the feast. — (499—661.) Incidents at the banquet. 
A dispute started by the Danish courtier, UnferS, gives Beowulf an 
opportunity to narrate the true siory of his daring swimming adventure 
with Breca and to predict his victory in the coming contest. In response 
to the courteous greeting of queen WealhWow he avows his determin- 
ation to conquer or to die. 


662-709. Tbt luatch for Crendel. At nightfaU the Danes retire ; 
Beowulf with his men remains in charge of the hall. All the Geats fall 
asleep save Beowulf. He watches for the demon. — 710-836. The fight. 
Grendel acts out from the moor, approaches the hall, swings the door 
open, and quickly seizes and devours one of the Geats, Hondscioh, 
.but on seizing Beowulf finds himself in the power of the hero's mighty 
grip. Long and bitter is the wrestling between the two ; the hall rings 
with the sound of their fighting and seems on the point of tumbling 
down. Grendel gives forth a terrible howl of pain, Beowulf by sheer 
strength tears off Grendel's arm. The demon escapes to his joyless 
abode, mortally wounded, 

837-934. Rejoicing of Ibe retainers. Jn the morning many of the 
wairiors follow the tracks of Grendel and ride to see the blood-stained 
pool into which he had plunged. As they return, a court singer recites 
lays about Sigemund and Heremod. — 925-()l)0. The king's blessing. 
HioSgar, who has proceeded to the hall, views the arm and claw of 
Giendel (hung up as a trophy) and utters a speech in praise of the 
hero's deed, to which Beowulf makes appropriate reply. — 991-1350. 
Royal entertainment. A feast is prepared in the hall. Rich presents 
are bestowed on Beowulf and his band ; the scop relates the Finnsburg 
talc j Wealhlieow, taking part in the entertainment, presents Beowulf 
with costly gifts and bespeaks his kindness for her sons. After the 
banquet HrolSgar as well as the Geats leave the hall, which is once 
more placed in guard of the Danish warriors. 

2. The Fight aiith Grendel's Mother 

0/ilii Sa irlpari j*tc( . . . hUics kyrdas. (1665 f.) 

13^1-1320. Attack by Grendel's mother. J'hat night Grendel's 
mother makes her way into the hall to avenge her son ; she carries off 
j£schere, a tavorite thane of HroSgar, and, taking Grendel's arm with 
her, escapes to the fenland. In the morning Beowulf is sent for by the 

1^21-1398. Conversation betiueen HroBgarand Beoivulf. Hro^gSr 
bewails the loss of .Aschere, describes graphically the weird haunt of 
the demons, and appeals to the Geat for help. Beowulf, like ■ true 
hero, is ready to meet the monster at once. 

1399-1491. 'The expedition to Grendel's mere. With a troop of 
Danes and Geats the king and the hero proceed to the lake. Beowulf 
arms himself and addresses a few parting words, to HroSgar, — 1493- 
iggo. The fight. He plunges into the water, at length reaches the bot- 
tom, and is carried by the troll-wife into her cavern. There they have 
a desperate struggle. The creature has him all but in her power, when 
he finds a curious giant-sword, with which he puts her to death. With 
it he also cuts off the head of the dead Grendel. — 1591-1650. Tbt 
sequel of the fight and Ibe triumphal return to Heorot. In the meanwhile 

D, ..■■.v^.oo^ic 


many of those on the shore having surmiaed Beowulf's death from the 
discoloring of the water, the Danes dqiatt to their hall. Beowulf's 
faithful followers wait for him, until swimming upwards he comes to 
the surface, carrying with him Grcndel's head and the golden hilt of 
the wondrous sword, whose blade has melted in the poisonous blood. 
They march with their trophies back to Heorot. 

1651-1784. speeches by Biaivulf and Hrosgdr. Beowulf recounts 
his thrilling experience and assures the king of the completeness of the 
delivery. HroSgar replies by a lengthy moralizing discourse. — 1785- 
1887. The parting. After the feast Beowulf enjoys a much needed 
rest. In the morning friendly farewell speeches are exchanged, nhere- 
upon the Geats start for the shore. 

J. Biotealf') Home- Coming and Report to Hygelac 

Hi lomp ino on adt, tiofa Blrwulf . . . f (1987.) 
1888-1963. tiemttuard 'voyage. The fourteen warriors embark and 
in due time reach the land of the Geats. The mention of queen Hygd 
leads the poet to intersperse the legend of the haughty and cruel fry^. 
1963-2151. ^eo'iuulf's narratfve. Arrived at Hygelac's court, 
Beowulftelates his adventures and vjeaves in the account of events which 
are bound to happen in connection with the engagement of Freawaru 

2152-2199. Beo'iuttlfand Hygelac. The presents he has brought 
from Denmark he shares with Hygeliic and Hygd and receives liberal 
gifb in return. He makes his home in Geatland, greatly honored and 
beloved by the king his uncle. 

Part II. Beowulf's Death 
(The Fight with the Dragon) 

Sceelde !Sn4aga^ 
aptling iergod tndi gtbtJan, 
«,.IJ, «/„, .../ „ ■,,- ,...J. (.!»i K ) 
2300-2333. 7^* robbing of the hoard and she raiiagei of the dragon. 
Afler the death of Hygeliic and of his son Heardred, Beowulf has ruled 
over the Geats for fifty years. Then it happens that the rich hoard (the 
early history of which is narrated in pari) of a dragon is robbed by a 
fugitive slave, and the enraged monster in revenge lays waste the country 
by his tire. 

2324-3537. Preparation fir the fight. The veteran warrior-king, 
still young in spirit, resolves to meet the enemy single-handed. He 
has a strong iron shield made for this purpose and, accompanied by 
eleven men, setsout for thecaveof the dragon. — (1+17-15J7,) Filled 
with forebodings of his end, he in a long speech reviews the days of 

D, ..■■.v^.oo^ic 


his yoiilh, especially the events at the Gcat court and the feud with 
the Swedes, and bids iarewell to his comrades. 

2538-2711. 7he fighl. J\t calls the dragon out of the bairow and 
attacks him stoutly with his sword, but finds himself overwhelmed by 
deadly flames. His terrified companions tiee to the wood, all save WJg- 
laf, who, mindful of the obligations of loyalty and gratitude, hastens 
to the assistance of his kinsman. Together they contend against the 
dreadfiil foe. Wiglaf deaJs him a decisive blow in the lower parts, and 
Beowulf cuts him in two. But the king himself has received a fatal 
wound. — 2711-3820. Bimvulfj dealt. WTglgf tends his dying 
lord, and at his bidding brings part of the precious hoard out of the 
cave. Beowulf gives thanks for having won the treasure for his people ; 
'■ he orders that a mound be built for him on the headland, and, after 
bequeathing his battle-gear to his fajthful kinsman, he passes away. 

3821-3030. 3'be spread afthe t'ldingi. Wiglaf, full of sorrow and 
anger, rebukes the cowardly companions and sends a messenger to an- 
nounce the king's death. The envoy foretells the disaster that will 
follow this catastrophe, recalling at length past wars with Franks and 
Swedes. — 3030-3136. Preliminaries of the closing scene. The Geat 
warriors repair to the scene of the fight — the ancient curse laid on the 
gold having been grievously fulfilled — and at Wiglaf 's command carry 
out the remaining treasure, push the dragon into the sea, and bear the 
king's body to the headland, 

31^7-3183. The funeral of Bemvulf. A funeral pyre is built. The 
hero ts placed upon it and given over to the flames amid the lamenta- 
tions of his people. Then they erect over the remains a royal mound 
in which they hide the dearly bought dragon's hoard. Twelve noble 
warriors ride round the barrow, lamenting their lord and praising his 
deeds and kingly virtues. 

n. The Fabulous or St^ieniatural Elements ' 

Hxfdl pa gefSliQd si pi ar fiorran ^im, 
incur and sieyB/irig uli HroSgarcs. (St; f.) 

fie a -wi/ipSm ■wyri^t gfwtgan scald,. (1399 f. ) 
The subject-mat let of Bemculf comprises in the first place, as the 
main plot, three fabulous exploits redolent of folk-tale iancy (the first 
two forming a closely connected series)' and secondly, a number of 

> Cf. L 4.41 ff. J in pittlcular P.nier, Bo« (L 4.58 & 140) ; boidcs, Miil- 
ItnhofF, SartiiinSt., Schuck L 4,39, Symons L 4.19, Brandl, Chadwiclt H. A., 

Sigemuinl'j dragon fight (kc note on 875-900), Scyld's myjwrioimrtivil (tee 
note on 4-51), th. notion of ««™,, ,mas, «c. (883, 1717, 1774, 1 12, etc., 
cf. Angl. iiivi i69f.). Special mention should be miAe of the modve of 



apparently historical elements which are introduced as a setting to the 
former and by way of more or less irrelevant digressions. 

Beowulf's Fight with Grendel and his Mother ' 
Beowulf's wonderful advenlures with the Grendel race have called 
to mind folk-tales in various languages.' A systematic study of this 
aspect of the epic material has been undertaken by Panier, who re- 
cogniies in the Befftou^story a version(raisedloheroic proportions) of 
the time-honored, widespread 'Bear's Son Tale. '^ The substance of 
this tale as extracted from over two hundred (European and other) vari- 
ants is as follows. 

(Introduction : *) A demon appears at night in a house which has 
been built by an aged king. The elder sons of the king are unable to 
cope with the intruder, but the youngest one successfully gets hold of 
him. 1'he deinon is wounded but manages to get away. A bloody 
trail shows the way to his abode. — (Central part :) The hero fights 
in a strange place, which in a great many instances is under the earth, 
against one or two demons (often a male and a female one). By this 
successful exploit he frees several maidens, who are then safely restored 
to the upper world. But he is himself betrayed by his faithless com- 
panions and must remain in the realm of monsters, until he finds 
means of escape. [The conclusion tells of the punishment of the 
traitors and the marriage of one of the maidens to her deliverer, ] 

Panzer thought he could show the ultimate derivation of numerous 
elements of the jSwiva//" narrative from the introductory and central parts 
of the Beair's Son Tale.s Thus, the building of the gold-decked royal 

invulneralHlity (in cncdunKiing prdinary weapons, 804, f. , 1 512 ff.). Neither myth- 

499 ff)- 

' Additionil special tefeiences : Gering L 4.48,1, Laistncr L 4.50, Bugge 
55 ff., 360 ff., Samiin L 4.. 31.4 i ;, Lawrence I. 4.60, Lehmann L 4.57. 

' Cf. W.Grimm L 4.41, Mone L 4.13.181 ff., Simrock L 3.11.177 ff., 
Lalitner l.i. | 39. — Parallelj from Iriih ligrndwere cited by Cook (L 4.55 ^ P. 
Kennedy, LtgmiUry Fictions of ike Itisi Ctln [London, 1891], pp. 100 ff. ; cf. 
Panzer 386 If.), Brooke L f., Deutschbein L4.36. A Japinese version 
WM pointed out by Powell L 4. 56. Kittfedge (in addition Co Celtic variant!) re- 
ferred to a Nonh American Indian tale {Harvard SluJiis and Notts in Pfilology 
and LiKreiurt viii in ff.) (119 ; " the defence of a hall qi a hut against the 
demon that haunts ic is a simple theme, to which the theory of ' independent oii- 
gini ' must apph if it ever apptia to anything. ' ' ) 

* The name is derived from the hero who in some versioni is the son of a bear. 
A more appropriate title would be ' Dat Erdmanneken,' ' the faiiy of the mine ' 
( No. 9T of the Grimm coilection of tales), denoting the etrange demon whom (he 
hero overcomes. 

' or the Introduction) to this Qle which have been arranged by Panzer in three 
groups, the B-formuIa atandt nearest to the Biaviulf 

' See hia detailed comparison, pp. 154 ff. It should not fall to be noted that the 


hall, the nightly depredations of the giant demonj the match against the 
monstetj the character of the hero, who in his boyhood is looked dovrn 
upon as sluggish and good for nothing, but gives an early proof of his 
extraordinary strength; the manner of the (first) fight, the enemy's loss 
of a limb, its exhibition and inspection j the mother of the monster, the 
light in the cave undei the water, Che part played by Che magic sword, 
the departure of the companions,' etc. 

While these similarities are after all remote and generally vague, a 
genetic lelation of some kind must clearly be admitted between the 
Btmuulf and certain Scandinavian stories attached to GreCtir and Ormr 

The Grellisiaga (dating from about 1300) is concerned with a his- 
torical personage, a headstrong, adventurous outlaw, who died in the 
year 1031, but it includes obvious febulous elements derived, accord- 
ing to Panier, from folk-tales of the ' Bear's Son" and the 'Doughty 
Hans '2 type. Chapters 64—66 ^ relate two successive exploits of the Ice- 
landic hero — *the strongest man in the land of his age,' ch. 93 — - 
which in several respects form the nearest parallel to the fight with 
Grendel and Grendel's mother. 

^t Vule-tide, so the story runs, the young wife Steinvdr at Sandhills 
(a/ Sandhaugum, i BarSardat) had gone to worship at Eyjardatsa and 
left her husband at home. In the night the men heard a huge crashing 
in the house; and in the morning it was found that the husband had dis- 
appeared, and no one knew what had become of him. The next year 
the same thing happened to a house-carle. Grettir the Strong heard the 
tale, and at Yule-eve he betook himself to the haunted place. Heasked 
permission to stay there and called himself Gestr. The goodwife wished 
to go to church again, but thought it impossible to cross the river. It 
thawed fast abroad, and the river was in flood, and therein was the drift 
of ice great. But Grettir went with Steinv^r and her little daughter and 
carried them both with one arm through the raging river, while with 
the other he pushed back the ice-floe.' He then returned to Sandhills 
and lay down at night, but did not take off his clothes. 

paraJels are gathered fcom widely sci 

ttered and vary 

ing versions (, 

nose 0I 

F them 

modrm), ng single specimen or grogp 


nted by 

the Bmuulf. 

' That ia, the Danei only, 1600 S. 

, They are supposed to reptesi 

snt th. 

; &ith- 

' Thus Grettir (andlikewis* Otmt 

) 39 a boy ahow! 

. himself lazy i 



dieptxition and di^laya uncommon bod. 



It Gree- 

tir gain, feme by killing a mighty bea, 

;Ise could oven 

alao Biirco sUyi 1 big bear, Saxo ii ;6 

, «e Par. 6 7). 

The bear's a 


ce tibed 

as being ' in a cliff by the !ea where there was a cave 

under an over 


i rock. 

with a narrow path leading to the enti 

,nce.' (Highf, 

. Cran.1.) 

* The vetHon given here b in part 

in part follows 



of MignuSGon and Motrig (L 10. 6). 

* It is eiceedingly doubtful whethei 

r this feat — a 



7'onards midnight Grettir heard great din without, and ther«aiter 
into the hall came a huge troll-wife, with a trough ' in one hand and a. 
chopper wondrous great in the othetj she peered about when she came 
in, and saw where ' Gestr' lay, and ran at him ; but he sprang up to 
meet her, and they fell a-«restling terribly, and struggled together for 
long in the hall. She was the stronger, but he gave back with craft, and 
all that mas before them was broken, yea, the cross-paneling withal of 
the chamber. She dragged him out through the door and labored away 
with him down towards the river, and right down to the deep gulfs. 
Ail night they wrestled furiously; never, he deemed, had he fought 
with such a monster i she held him to her so hard that he might turn 
his arms to no account save to keep fast hold on the middle of the 
witch. But now when they had come to the gulf of the river, he gives- 
the hag a swing round, and therewith got his right hand free, and swiftly 
seized the short-sword (rnjr) that he was girt withal, and smote the troll 
therewith on the shoulder, and struck olF her arm ; and therewithal was- 
be free, but she fell into the gulf and was carried down tl\e 'force.' 

After Yule-tide Grettir went with the Eyjardaha priest (who> 
doubted his tale and would not believe that the two men who had van- 
ished had gone into the gulf) to the scene of his victory. When they 
came to the force-side, they saw a cave up under the cliff ; a sheer rock, 
that cliff was, so great that [n no place might man come up thereby, and 
mell-nigh fifty fathoms was it down to the water. Grettir bade the priest 
watch the upper end of a rope, which he let sink down into the watery 
then he leapt off the clifT into the gulf. He dived under the force, and 
hard work it was, because the whirlpool was strong, and he had to dive 
down to the bottom, before he might come up under the force. But 
thereby was a rock jutting out, and thereon he gat ; a great cave was 
under the force, and the river fell over it from the sheer rocks. He went 
up into the cave, and there was a great fire flaming from amidst bnmds; 
and there he saw a giant (ji/lunti) sitting, marvelously great and dread- 
ful to look on. But when Grettir came anigh, the giant leapt up and 
caught up a glaive and smote at the newcomer, for with that glaJve 
might a man both cut and thrust j a wooden shaft it had, and that feshion 
of weapon men called then, heft-sax {btpli-iax). Grettir hewed back 
ag^nst him with bis short-sword {sax), and smote the shaft so that he 
struck it asunder j then was the giant fain to stretch aback for a sword 
that hung up there in the cave ( but therewithal Grettir smole him afore 
into the breasi, and smoteoffwell-nighall the breast bone and the belly, 
so that the bowels tumbled out of him and fell into the river, and were 
driven down along the stream ) and as the priest sat by the rope, he saw 

strength, cf. the Bsir's Son pjrallds, Panier J4 (F. — can be regarded at an an- 
alogue of the Brtca adventure (Brandl 994). Gteltir's superiority u an endurance 
■wunmeT is mentioned in ch. 53. 

' For holding her food — the human victim. Grende] brought a bag {glif) for 
the same purpOGC with him (io8; ff.;. 


certain libers all covered with blood swept down the swirls of the stream; 
then he grew unsteady in his place, and thought for sure that Grettir 
was dead, so he ran from the holding of the rope ' (which had been fas- 
tened lo a peg), and retumed home. ~— In the meantime Grettir went 
up the cave -, he kindled a light and examined the place. The storj does 
not tell how much he got therein, but men deem that it must have been 
something great. He also found the bones of the two men and put them 
in a bag. Then he made off from the cave and swam to the rope and 
shook it, and thought that the priest would be there yet j but when he 
knew that the priest had gone home, then must he dmw himself up by 
strength of hand, and thus he came up out on to the cliff. Then he fared 
back to Eyjardaha, and brougEit into the church porch the bag with the 
bones, and therewith a rune-staff with verses cut on it. (The last verses: 
* For from its mighty shaft of tree The heft-sax [htpii-iax] smote I 
speedily ; And dulled the flashing war-flame l^uuit-Iogi] fair In the 
black breast that met me there.') 

(Chap. 67.) Grettir was thought to have done great deeds for the 
cleansing of the land (mikla tandhTeiniun). 

Like Grettir, Ormr the Strong is known to have been a real person, 
but in the Ormj pallr Slorolfssanar' remarkable deeds of a fabulous char- 
acter are ascribed to him. 

Orm's sworn brother, Asbjflm, we are told, sails to the Norwegian 
island Sandey (Saudey), where a man-eating giant Briisi and his mother 
(in the shape of an enormous cat) dwell in a cave.^ (He is slain by Brusi 
after a severe struggle. ^ Twenty of bis men are torn to pieces and devoured 
by the terrible (ire-breathing cat.) When Ormr at his home in tcelflnd 
gets news of his friend's death, he determines to avenge him and sails 
to Briisi' s island. He enters the cave and tights first with the mother — 
the cat, who attacks him with her piercing claws.^ He reels back, but 
when he calls on God and St. Peter for help,* he gets the better < f the 
monster and breaks her back. Thereupon he struggles with Bru: i and 
overcomes him by sheer strength of arm. After cutting with his sword 
(lax) the ' blood-eagle ' into the dead giant' s back, he leaves the cave 
with two chests of gold and silver. 

The same story has been traced in the modem versions of two Faroe 
and (wo Swedish ballads.^ 

■ Thii motive recun in the stoty of Grellir's encounter with the gholt of Kirr, 
which in the manner of the tighdng retemblei also the Glamr incident (see below, 
p. Kvii) And the lirsr pan of the Sandhaugar episode- — It may be mentioned that 

Biowulf ■> fighr with Grendel's mother (C. N. Gould, MPA. vij X14). 

" See L 10. 7- Ormr and Grettir ire mentioned together ai [wo of the strongest 
men ever known in Iceland, Griiwaga, ch. 5G. See note on ]. 901. 

' The cave is near the sea ; in the Faroe version) it is reached by means of i 
imallboat. See Bugge 361 ff. 

* Bugge thought thii Ast^jrn ultimately identical with JE%civ:K,Bitnii. IjiJ ff. 

• Cp. Biim. 1501 ff. * Cp. Bniii. IJSS ff. 

' An interesting detail of the Faroe ballads, vii. the eiclamation In prai»e 



Of l«3S significance, jret worthy of mention, as a parallel to the Gren- 
del fight, is the Glamr episode of the Grettinaga {ciafi. 31-35), which 
tells of how Glamr, a shepherd, who (had been killed by an evil spirit 
and who aitcrwards) haunted and made uninhabitable the house and 
&nn of borhallr, was slain by Grettir in a mighty contest. 

Grettir when told of the Imuntings rode to the place [pirbalhllasir) 
and in the night awaited Glamr in the hall. When a third part of the 
night had passed, he heard a great noise without, then one went up 
upon the house, and afterwards came down and opened the door. Giettir 
lay quiet ; Glamr went up to him and tried lo pull him out of the house. 
They struggled wondrously hard, and seats and benches were broken 
before them. Glamr wanted to get out. Grettir resisted with all his 
might and finally succeeded in making his fiendish opponent reel back 
and tall open-armed out of the house. By drawing his short-sword 
(jax) and cutting olF Glam's head he disposed of the hateful revcnant. 
(But before he could do it, he beheld with terror in the moonlight 
Glam's horrible ^e and heard his dying curse, which mas to be of 
disastrous consequences to him.) 

The points ofcontaa between the foregoing extracts and the Beotuulf 
are unmistakable and need not be gone over in detail. The Sandbau- 
gar episode in particular gives a strikingly siniilar description > of the 
monster's cave under a waterfell, and moreover seems to show a 
verba] agreement in the use of (the nonce word) heptisax, recalling the ■ 
(equally unique) bafimlct, Beoiu. 1457.' The latter analogy, how- 
ever, is not complete and may be merely accidental, especially as the 
separate elements of both compounds are well known in their respective 
languages. In some points, it should be noted, th'is important and 
highly instructive version presents an obscuration of the original folk- 
tale elements ; ^ vix. in making not the male but the female monster 
(who, by the way, is not stated explicitly to be the giant's mother) 
provoke the first fight by attacking the house, the natural rdles of the 
two demons being thus reversed ; in motivating the hero's visit to the 
cave by mere curiosity j in omitting all mention of the wounded she- 
demon in the second adventure ; and in completely blurring the motive 
of the wonderfiil sword which is founcl hanging in the cave. 

Some noteworthy innovadons in the Btmnut/ account. — -apart from 
the geneial transformation incident to the epic setting and atmosphere — 

le coniidered of 
of the Grendel 

ide, tee Liwrencc L 4..61. Cf. also il 
■ The former U uied by [he ^ant, th 
endel'i mother (lS4!). """»■« 
nnUgi reminds u! a! UadQiima, Biov 
' Cf. Paniet 319. 



are the folloning. The mother of the slain Grendel leaves her cave, 
appears in the t^ll, and avenges hei son in heroic fashion, — an evident 
amplification (including a partial repetition) of the narrative. Again, 
Grendel, though (mortally wounded by Beowulf and) found dead in 
the cave, is as it were slain again (1576 ff.) and definiiely disposed of by 
beheading. In the original form of the story, it appears, the male demon 
had been merely wounded ; when the hero had made his way to the 
dwelling place of the monsters, he put the wounded enemy to death 
(and afterwards killed the mother). A number of minor incongruities 
possibly arising from an imperfect remodeling of old foIk.-ta!e motives 
are pointed out in the Notes, see II. 135, 7031 736 ff-, 8)9 ff., cf. 
n6o. The theory that the Anglo-Saxon poet worked up different 
versions (relating to Grendel and to Grendel's mother respectively) hai 
been repeatedly proposed as a means of accounting for disparities of 
the narrative I see especially Schneider (L 4.135) and Bcrendsohn 

Different and in a certain respect closer is the relation of Btinvulf to 
the late Hrolfstaga (see Par. 5 9, L lo.g). It is true, Bff«var's con- 
test with a peculiar fancifiji beast (chap, ij) has not nearly so much in 
common with the Grendel tight as Grettir'a adventure in the cave has 
with Beowulf's second encounter. Yet only in the Hrilfssaga do we 
find a story at all comparable to the Grendel part placed in a historical 
. setting comparable to that in the Anglo-Saxon epic and attributed to a 
person who is possibly after all identical with Beowulf himself.' Mani- 

' Additional special relerencn ; ten Brink ig; «., Olrik i 134 tF., Lawrence 
L4-6o, Ol!onL4,65. — ThsvalueoftheHrSifiiflgflforpurjwsaofcpmpariKMund 
tbe identity of B^-Svarr and Beowulf (insistid upon above aU by Sarraiin) hive been 
recagnJKd by a number of scholais, Jl hae been ctaimed that i comparisan of Saio 
(ii ;6, Pat. J 7 j cf. above, p. liv n. i ; Grenhuga, ch. 11 ), the Hrilfia^a, 
and the Bjarkarimlir (Par. % 9. 1} with each otber, and with the Btrwutf helps ID 
throw light on ccilain elements of confiiaan in the Saga. The wings of tbe moD- 
ater are thus conBidered Co be a modem embelliihrnent of the story. Be&des, the real 
and the aham fight might seem Co have arisen from a series of two real encounten, 
in che Kcond of wbkh the (pceiioualy wounded) Ctoll wu lulled (in accordance 
wich the lupposedly older form of che ferendel part, see Panzer 371 f.). Further- 
more, it has been supposed that in tbe.ociginal story the fighter's own sword actu- 
ally felled him (cp. Par. § 9 with Bcow. i 513 ff.), but a wondrxfijl, gold-hiltej 
iword brought liim victory (cp. Par. § 9 with Ba-w. 1557 ff.). Sartaiin sug- 
geiccd Chat che two ' war-friends ' ( ftoro. ig lo), the unsoccessfijl Hrunri-g and 
che viccorious Gyldenhtlt {^GuUinkjalli^j were developed by a procesa of peisoniiica- 
tion into the dual figure of Hi,cir-Hjah! (coward-champion), cf. E Si. iiiv 19 ff. 
However, che correspondence of the gyldtn hilt (1677) of che BeowulfUn sword 
and Che name GulUithjalli has been shown to be merely accidental by Olson, who 
detiiei any connection between the slaying of the winged monscer and the Gcendel 
fight. In &ct, Olson his presented strong arguments tentbng to prove that the 

oFBjarki'a fight is che one found in S«o, and that the form' of che moDBCer over- 
Eome in the Hrilfaaga is derived from the Siward nga. 



festly the relation of B^^varr to Hrolfr is not unlike that of Beowulf 

to Hro'Sgar — both deliver the king from the ravages of a terrible 
monster, both are his honored champions and friends, BfSvarr the 
son-in-law, Beowulf the 'adopted son" (946 tf., 1175 f }. Not should 
the following parallels be denied consideration! Bg^varr goes from 
Gautland, whose king is his brother, to the Diuiish court at HIci'Nra i 
Beowulf goes from the land of the Geats, who ate ruled by his uncle 
Hygelic, to the court of the Danish king at Heorot. B^Svarr makes 
his entrance at the coiirt in a brusque, se!f- confident manner and at 
the feast quarrels with the king's men; Beowulf introduces himself 
with a great deal of self-reliance tempered, of course, by courtly deco- 
rum (407 tf^, and at the banquet has a dispute with an official of the 
king (499 a.) ^ also his scomfu) retort of il. 590 ff. is matched by 
BgSvar's slighting remarks, 63. 17 ff. (Par. i 9). 

In addition, certain features in the Norse tradition of Bq^vatx have 
been instanced as confirming the original identity of the two hctocB,' 
The bear nature of B^'Svatr which must be supposed to be his own by 
inheritance ' and which is implied by his strange behavior in the great 
SJartamal battle (Saxo ii S9 ff-» Hrolfisaga, chaps. 31 f) has been 
compared to Beowulf s beatlike wrestling propensities, dwelt upon in 
his contest with Grendel and with the Prankish warrior Dxghrefh 
(2501 S.). Also the &ct that Bv^vatr BJarki (with other champions of 
Hrolfir) aids Atiils in his war {Skald ikaparmal, SkjqUungaiaga, Bjar- 
karimur. Par. 5S 5, 8.6, 9.1 ')is paralleled, in a measure, by Beowulf s 
•befriending' the Swedish prince £adgib (ijgi ff.). 

The perplexing question of the precise relation between BtatvulJ' ar\d 
the various (iate) Scandinavian stories briefly considered here has given 
rite to manifold earnest and ingenious discussions, and conflicting con- 
climons have been arrived at. On the whole, it seems safest to attribute 
the undeniable patallelisms to the use of the same or similar Scatidi- 
navlan sources both in the Old English and the Old Norse accounts. 
There existed, we may assume, on the one hand a tale — made over 
into a local legend* — of the freeing of the Danish court from a strange 

■ S« Chidwiek H. A. 110 f. ; Clarke L 4.76.49 ff. 

■ On the UK of tfala bar modvr (which is nut unknown in iblk-Qlo, cf. 
above, f. liii n. 3) Jn the Gisra Htrwat-Ji, in Saio (i 345), md jn the story of 
Siward, see Lawrence, pp. ij4ff. ; Olrik iiij ff"., & ^fiVF. lii i99ff, ; Deutich- 
bein, Studien itar Segengesckicku Englandi, pp. 249 fF. ; and opccialjy Olion, 
who, with Oliit, tncra Bfl-Bv.r'l beir-ancestiy to the Siward sJgj. — Did Beowulf 
inberit bit wrestling irrengtb from his ^ther (cp. kartdbona 460) ? Incidentally,. iC 
Traj be Doted that he became the &tenmner of wreitting heroes celebnted in Eng- 
lisb literature (ai In Tit Tali af G/anilyit, Lurna Daaii, eft.). 

' The hnu nf Bjarkl ig attested alio by the St'les Rmca and the itnn^a 
SYin,c,(Pir. § 8,4 & s). That became to be known in North England, is ihown 
by the occurrence of the name Beduwar Birti in the Libir Vitat Eiclcaac D<in- 
ilmiitni (in a iiih centurv entry) j cf. Jio A. Bugge, Zfd^. li 3?. 

* For such 1 legend (showing at leMC a slight similarity) attached to the bay of 
Roikilde Ke Sarnuin St. loC 


adventure expmded to a fight with two monsters ' and placed in pic- 
turesque Scandinavian surrounilings. Both kinds of narrative circulated 
orally in the Norths In course of time they were attached to various 
persons (two of whom are unquestionably historical characters), BflUvarr, 
Grettir, Ormc, Beowuif respectively. A comparatively early combina- 
tion of the two sets was perhaps effected in Scandinavia, though it is 
actually traceable in the Anglo-Saxon epic only. The artistic ^emtfji//" 
version represents the final result of this formative process. 

Attention, however, should be called also to the significant sugget- 
tion made from time to time, that the substance of the Grendel part 
goes back ultimately. If not directly, to Irish models.' Even a definite 
Irish analogue has been detected,' vh. Cuchulinn's adventures in the 
saga of Tie Feast of Bricriu, though the parallelism noted is cer- 
tainly not conspicuous. 4 Again, the motives and the general atmosphere 
of the second adventure have been alleged to point in the direction 
of Celtic sources. Indeed, the brilliant picture of the monsters' mysteri- 
ous haunt (1357 ff.) might well remind us of Celtic fency.* The no- 
tion of the female monster, — Grendel's mother, foreshadowing ' the 
devil's dam,' has been cited in the same connection.'^ 

Other analogies have been mentioned, such as the elegiac tone of 
certain passages (1*47-66, 1435—71)1' the mystic element of the 
Scyld legend (see note on 4-51), the position of the court iylefi 
Moreover, in the selection of ihe peculiar kind of plot (supernatural 
adventures) and even in the general style and manner of the narrative 
the influence of Celtic types has beeu supposed to be visible.' Also 
the possibility of Celtic elements in the language of Bietuulf has been 
discussed. '° 

' The figures on a 6th centuiy tablet found in OUniJ have been interpreted by 
S^emi(3lf)as rcpresenong » counteipirt to Beowulf'i conteit with the'ihe- 
wolf,' Grendel'i mother. 

" Cf. e.g., Brooke L 4. 6.1.84 f-, B* "We, p. liii n. a j v, Sydow, .^», 
fdji. xxxy 119 f. (Parallel British veraona : Freymond, " Artui ' Kampf mil 
dem Kinenungetiim,'' FiUgabtfiir Grliir (1899), pp. 3II ff.) 

> Deulschbein L 4. 36, cf. jtnii.fdA. iiivi 2i4f. A ditKt influence of the 
Iriih nga (which has not been claimed) would be entirely out of the question on 
chronological ground!. Zimmer iZfdA. iiiii 331 f.) had Mjumcd, on the other 
hand, an (indirect) influence of die Beowulf legend on that of Cuchulinn. 

* See Olson L 4. 63. 
' ' The pictureique kennings far the tn have been initanccd u suggeiting the 
quality of Celtic 1 " '" "' 

: added.) But this is very qi 

jchbein. I.e. 

in place of fTsnn 


While these observations and hypotheses are exceedingly interesting, 
it is only fut to say that so fkc no tangible pToof has been produced- 

Beowulf's Fioht with the Dragon • 
Dragon fights are events of such ordinary occurrence in medieval 
literature that it may almost seem otiose to hunt for ipecilic sources of 
the Beonullian specimen. But mention has been very properly made 
of numerous modem parallels of folk legends ' — the nearest of which 
is a Danish one, — and more especially of Frotho's dragon fight ^ in 
Saxo's History (ii j8 f.. Par. § 7) as indicating a probable Danish ori- 
gin of the story. It is true, one of the most sagacious students of Scan- 
dinavian legend 4 has pronounced the similarities between Saxo's aocount 
xnd the Biatvulf vcTiion entirely irrelevant, imaginary, or commonplace, 
emphasizing at the same time the fact that the stones taken as a whole 
*re of a totally different order, — Frotho, who wages the fight for the sake 
of the dragon's treasure and who by this victory first establishes his 
feme, representing the SigurSr type,' and, on the other hand, Beowulf, 
who undertakes the venture primarily to save his people and, although 
victorious, loses his life, exemplifying in the main the pair type.'' Yet 
it appears quite credible that some such lay as the one which Saxo delib- 
erately turned into Latin verse was known to the Anglo-Saxon poet and 
perhaps even suggested to him Beowulf s third great adventure. There 
is a notable agreement in a number of features which can hardly be 
accidental, — thus, in the description of the dragon (cp, Bco-uj. 1561, 
2569 ff., i3z7, 1582 {.; 1304., 1514, 2580) ; the report of a country- 
man (cp. 2114 If., 2280 If., i]i4 If., 1404 If.); the use of a specially 
prepared shield (cp, 1337 ff-, 151a ff.) ; the hero's desire to engage in 
the contest without help from others (cp. 1345 ff., 2519 f.) ; the man- 
ner of the light itself (cp. e.g., the details ; 1699, 2705). It is also 
evident that fer-reaching alterations would be deemed requisite by the 
poet who fitted this theme into the story of Beowulf's life. Nothing 
could be more natural than that the high-minded skyer of the Grendel 

pUinH u a CelticisiTi, cf. also £ Si. ilii 
iz6l were thought, wjlhoul sufficient re 
macion. (Bugge 82 j cf. Emerson, Publ. MLAii. .iL 915, 88; n. j.) 

' Additional special references: Sieven L 4. 3], Oltik i 305 fF., Siitaiin L 4. 
ji. i&S, Buggeand01tikL4. ;i, Bugge 45 f.. Berendsohn L 4. 141. 1. i ff. 

■ Panzer 194 S. All of these paralleh belong to the so-called Jlgir type. Most 
of them an localized In German;i, a few in Denmark. 

» Sieven, I.e. (Cf. Miillenhoff, ZfdA. vii 439 j Miiller L 10. 4. ii. 74; 
Sairazin St. 88.) A dmilar, bnefirveisiDn Is the dragon fight of Fridlcvus, Saxo 
vi I So f. 

* Obik, I.e. 

' See R^manil, Fa/nitmal; Saliduxparmal (PriMc Edda), ch. (37,) -tfi; 
Vllmig'w^'', ch. (14,) 18. 

» See yjlaifd $$ (s6) f, } Gylfaginnifig (Piote Edda), eh. Jo. 


kin should appear ag^n, above all else, in the rSle of a deliverer from 
distress, a benefactor of men. And nhen this great deed nat added a* 
the crowning event to the record of his long life, what better motiva- 
tion of his death could have presented itself? The introduction of an 
associate in the person of Wlglaf served to provide not only a welcome 
helper in the fatal struggle, but an eyewitness and assistant at tne 
king's pathetic death, besides an heir and executor nho directs the im- 
pressive closing scene of the poem. Of course, if Sartazin's thesis (see 
below, pp. xxiii, xliv) be adopted, Wtglaf (Viggo, V\^gr) must be 
considered one of the original figures of the Scandinavian legend.' 

It has been conjectured ' that certain instances of an imperfect adapta- 
tion of the Danish original can be delected in our tent of the Bemiiulf, 
*ii. the reference to the ea/nni i j j+ (see note), answering to Saxo's island, 
and the puiiling line (>ffn« a/ irr^rf«/i/ . . .) aftir haltBa bryrt btiiatt 
SciUingas 3005 (see note), which is supposed to show that the dragon 
fight was originally attributed to the Danish king Beowulf (I) ^ of II. 
it tf., 5] ff., the predecessor of Healfdcne, just as it was attached 
(Saxo ii 38) to Haidanus' predecessor Frotho. The latter assumption 
has been endorsed by Berendsohn, who — improving upon the form- 
ula ' combination of ^e )>6rrand the Fafhir {or Siguri5r) type' (Panzer) 
— suggests that two versions have been fused in the epic (itself), the 
hero of the first being originally Beowulf I := Frotho, whilst the sec- 
ond was concerned with an aged king who lights a fiery dragon in 
order to save his people. It is one of a number of possibiliues. 

In some respects the other dragon fight told in the Bcotuulf, that of 
Sigemund (884 tf.), exhibits a closer affinity 10 Saxo's Frotho parallel. 
Both belong in the * SigurSr ' class, being the adventurous exploits of 
conquering heroes, Sigemund, like Frotho, la really alone in the fight 
(888 f.). He loads a boat with the dragon's treasures, just as Frotho is 
bidden to do by his informant (Far. § 7). (The scene of Beowulf's 
fight is near the sea, hut the boat is replaced by a wagon, J134.*) 

Several minor parallels between BeowulTs and Sigemund's dragon 
fight should not be overlooked. Cp. wider harm stan s (. . . ana genindr 
■ • ■) 887, 2553, 1744, uij, 2S+0' —[dracal morSre Sivtalt 893, 
1781. — ivyrtn hat gemtall 897 {see note), cf. 3040 f. : luxi se Itg- 
draca . . , glidain besitiiUd. (Similarly the victorious sword vriiich 

' Wc may add that bath the detailed story of bow the hmnJ cime into the 
poiienion of the dragoo ind the motive of the cuTse laid on the gold put m in 
mind of Scandinavian analogues, — even chough the circumttancei of the former 
are not at all idcDtiial. (See noteion 1131 ff.,30Siff.) Cf. Rfgmma/, Fa/manil, 
SiaUitaparmal, chl. 37 IF. 

' See Sieven, /.t. i Boer L 4. 58. 69 n., L 4. 140. ui. 

' Or BEowa (kc below, pp. iilii ff.), which Sieven (I.e.) ilio rook for 

* Sigurfir hu hii hone carrj the treuDret {Fafnlimi/, Siildtiaparmil, ch. jS, 
V^iunga-aga, ch. 19). 
' In the Nibtluiigiiiliid the hoard is carried As t!mt Htlit Ixrgt, 90. 

■ D, ..■■.V^.OQi^lC 


mill agtuntt [Grendel and] Grcndel's mother, is melted by the mon- 
ttcr'tbot blood, 1605 IT., i666fF.)i — . . . lelfti dome, sibdt gthleid 
89J ; him en btarm bladan . . . sytfii dome 2775 f. — {hordes hyrdt 
S87, cf. beoTgti hyrdt 1304.) 

Thai both 'Beomilf s death" and 'the fell of Bff«varr Bjarki' ^ 
(Saxo ii 59 ff,, Hrilfiiaga, chaps. 31 ff., Par. \\ 7, 9) go back ulti- 
mately to historical legend commemorating the fight between Hjgrvar^r 
(= Heorovrcud) and the Geat [king] Bv^vair (Bjarki) (= Beowulf), 
that is, practicaiUy a waf — the nnal, disastrous one — i>etween Swedes 
and Gcats,^ haa been argued with great keenness by Saiiazin (f St. 
zlii >4 tF.), who is supported by Berendsohn (I.e. 12 f.). Through 
■ubsequcnt intrusion of supernatural folk-tale elements, it is iunher as- 
sumed, the whole character of the legend underwent aiadical metamor- 
phosis, although the persistent allusions to the Swedish-Gcatish afTairs in 
the second part of the Bio'wutf tcnc as remindert of the actual histori- 
cal background. 

The two BiowiaFi. Mythological Interpretation * 

The mention of Beowulf the Dane (who may be designated at 
B£owulf I in contradistinction to the hero Beowulf [IF] the Geat) has 
caused much perplexity to students of the poem. In the opening canto 
Scyld Seeling and his son Beowulf are given the place of honor in the 
genealogy of the Danish kings. Practically the same names, viz. Sceaf 
(Scef), Scyld (Scyldwa, Sceldwca), Beaw (Beo, Beowi(n)ui, etc. i) occur 
sunong the ancestors of Woden in a number of Anglo-Saxon and, simi- 
larly, Old NotM genealogies (Par.JS 1, s, 8. i). That those names 
in the Scandinavian pedigrees are derived from Anglo-Saxon sources, it 
dearly proved by Ibdr forms and by the explanatory translations which 
have been added. Again, a local appellation Beo-Luaa bamm'' is men- 

' The light in tht cave (1769 f.J'recilU tht second adventure ( 1 570 ff.). 

* Thii k, befbre the huer became cannecEed with the M017 of Hrdlfr Knki. 

* Cf. below, pp. xl f. 

< SpecU) references-. Kemble L 4. 4}, Miillenhoff L 4. a;. 1, 3, ; (bcmdes 
L4. 19. r ff.), SuiadnL 4. 31. ], Olrik i ii] ff., ii 150 ff., Bini, Lawrence 
L 4. 60, Heuslet L 4. ]7. 1. 

' For the vuianE fornn see Grimm D. M. iii 3S9 (1711) ; Kemble ii, p. in. 

6 FLnt pointed out bj Kemble (L 9. t. i. 416) andtumedto fiill accoiuitbyMiil- 
lenlioff (Z/"./.rf. xU iSi ff.) i™(».) = ' dwelUng,' 'fold,' pnhapi ' piece of 

land sucrounded with paling, wicker-work, etc., andio defended againit the itream, 
which would otberwise wash it away' (lee B.-T.) ; cf. H. Middendortf, .^i. 
Flumaml'ibiuk (1901), pp. 63 f. — PUre-namei like Jmi bra, Badun and, 
on the other hand, Grisiln btc, Grmdelti pyi and the like (Haack L 4.30.51 
ff.i Bini 153 ff. i Napier and Stevenson, CrBw/orJOBf/n-i (1895) i. t4, j. J, 
ant note on p. 50), accuning without any relation to each other, cannot be used 



tioncd in the neighborhood of a GrendUi mtre in a Wiltshire chann 
issued by King JEXch^n in the year 931.' From these iacts, aided by 
etymological inlej-pretations of the name Biaiv-Bei!'w(a) ^Besrwalf), it 
has been inferred that the hero of the poem was oHginally the same as 
Bean(Beovva, Beowulf I), i.e., a divine being worshiped by the Anglo- 
Saxons and credited with wondrous deeds of the mythological order, aJid 
who by contamination with a historical person of the name of Beowulf, 
the nephew of king Hygclac, was transformed into the mortal hero of 
the poem. Originated by Kemble and veiy generally accepted for gen- 
erations (though varied in minor details), this hypothesis seemed to Air- 
nish the very key to a true understanding of the uniijue epic poem. It 
was enunciated by Miillenhofr, as a kind of dogma, in the following 
precise and supposedly authoritative formulation. 

Beaw (whose name is derived from the root bbu [cp. 0£. bSan'^ 
' grow,' ' dwell,' 'cultivate land '), in conjunction with Sccaf ('sheaf,' 
denoting husbandry) and Scyld ('shield,' i.e. protection against en- 
emies), typilies the introduction of agriculture and civilization, the 
peaceful dwelling on the cultivated ground. He is virtually identical 
with Ing> and thus also with Frea (ON. Freyr), the god of fniitfulneis 
and riches. In a rimilar mythoiogicai light are to be viewed the exploits 
of Beoviulf (that is, primarily, Beaw). Grendel is a personification of 
the (North) Sea, and so is Grendel's mother; and Beowulf's fight 
against these demons symbolizes the successful checking of the inunda- 
tions of the sea in' the spring season. The contest with the dragon is its 
autumnal counterpart. In the death of the aged hero, which means the 
coming on of winter, an old seasons-myth is seen to lie back of the 
prevailing culture-myth conception.^ Owing to the similarity of names, 
the ancient Anglo-Saxon myth of Beowa vias transferred to Beowulf 
the Geat, a great watrior who distinguished himself in Hygelac's ill- 
fated expedition ag^nst the Franks. 

A number of other more or less ingenious mytholt^caJ expositions 
have been put forward.* Beowulf has been made out a supethuman 

' ' Ego AeSelstaaiis rei Anglonun .... quandatn lelluria particiilam iseo fideli 

Pnedicia . . . teUus bii temiinii ciicumcincta danscit : itria to taaemtrian m 
hn-itag9 gtea Sontn ondiong krrpoStim turgAarJei ainigo. ffonmiJorO to 

i dune VI Sa yfrt. pa btovimm himmei hagttn. vt Arrmtfts stragan ttslt^Jtwrdnt 
..... re Sittt uvrran die. tutan anan acrt. Bonnt itfagd-tatrt n Bati vv^i ; and- 
longvitga ueltes/orda; Otntn u ■uiad^tuin j Sumt 10 San nvram itcgan; Sat on 
lingan kangran; Stmtt an grcnlUn •mere; eitan an dyrnangtat; tinnc rft en /!n~ 
hagcgtai: (Gir™/flnui.&<rMic«s. ed. by Gray Birch ii36jff. [Kcmblc, 
C>d.Dipl.a 171 ff.].) 
' Cf. bdow, p. Mivii. 

* Even tbc swimmiag advintuic with Breca hit been eiplained mythalo^cally, 
Ke note on 499 ff. 

• See Wiiltei L 4.4.15S S. ; Panier IJO ff. 


bdng of the order of ]>6rr or Baldr, ora lunar deity^'a petsonilication 
of wind, Etoim, or lightning, a patron of bee-keepers," whilst his op- 
ponent Grendel has figured as the incarnation of the terrors of pesti- 
lential marshes, malaria or fog, or of the long winter nights, a storm 
beiiig, a likeness of the ON. Loki or ^gir, even of the Lemaean hydra 
of old. ^ Also the dragon and Beowulf 's dragon fight have been sub- 
jected to various interpretations of a similar allegorizing character. 

Grimm understood the name £ea-'u>u(/' (of which Bsatjj was supposed 
to be a shortening) as ' bee-wolf (enemy of the bees), meaning ' wood- 
pecker,'* which bird he conjectured to have been held sacred like the 
Picus of the Romans. Others have accepted this eminently plausible 
etymology of ' bee-wolf,' taking the word, however, in the sense of 
'bear' (the ravager of bees, the hive plunderer). (Cosijn, Aanteeieningm, 
p. 42 [cf. ZfdPk. xxiv 17 n.] explained ' bee- wolf ' as sigcwutf [with 
reference to the use of ligeivif for 'bees' in the Ags. Charms 3,8, 
Grcin-Wulcker i 320].) 

Out of the bewildering mass of learned disquisitions along these Unes 
the following facts emerge as fairly probable. There is no need to as- 
same a connection between Beaw (Beowulf I) and Beowulf II. Neither 
the Grendel nor the dragon fight is to be shifted back from the Geat 
hero to the Dane or the Anglo-Saxon progenitor. The evidence of the 
famous Wiltshire charter is far from conclusive as regards the attribu- 
tion of the Grendel fight to Beowa, especially as we are by no means 
certain that the grtndcl of grtndUi men was not meant as a common 
noun (as claimed by Thomas Miller, Academy xW 396).* 

That Beaw : Beow was after all, originally, some kind of a divine 
being, has been shown to be probable by the recent investigations of 
Kaarle Krohn,* who called attention to the corresponding figure of the 
Finiush Pekko, a god of grain, whom the Finns had taken over from 
Germanic tradition. In course of time it came to pass that the grain 
being Beow (A;iWii = ' barley '), like the analogous personifications of 
'sheaf' and ■ shield ' 7, was regarded as an epic personage, an early 
progenitor of royal races. 

But outside of the introductory genealogy this shadowy divinity has 
no place in the Anglo-Saxon epic. Nothing but his name is recorded 
(II. iS, 53), And that seems to have been introduced as a result of 
an accidental confusion. When detailing the ancestry of the Scyl- 
dingas (Skjvldungar), the poet vcas reminded by the name Scyld 

' By rcuon of his dragon fight, cF. E. Siecke, Dtacientaaf/e, Vnuraahuagen 
nur indo^trmanitihtn Sagenkutide- 1907. 

' Hence, more generally, a repreaentadre of civiliiation (MUUenboff, ZfdA. 

' Higen, ML!'}. lii 71 ; cf. Kogel, ZfdA. iiivii 170. 

' Skeic II one dme accepted thi> (Academy li 163 c), but considered Chat the 
voodpecker on acconnt of itl fighting qualities wu meant to typtly a hero. 

' Cf. Lawrence I.e. l%i ff. i Panier 395 tf. 

' See Olrik ii ijo S. ' See note on 4-51. 

D, ..■■.v^.oo^ii: 


(Skjfldr) of the Anglo-Saxon Sc7ld(wa) and the beings associated with 
him,' and thus, mingling Danish and Anglo-Saxon tradition, he cited 
the series Scytd Scifing, Beotvul/ 3.raoi\g the early kings of the Danes,' 
That the form Be/nuulf of 11. 18, sj in place of Beo'ui{a) or Biaiv 
is due to a mistake of the poet's or a scribe's, has been conjectured 
more than once.i 

On the other hand, Beowulf the Geat is entirely of Scandinavian 
origin. His name, if rightly interpreted as ' bear,' * agrees (though of 
course not etymologically) with that of Bjarii, which to bepn with 
was apparently meant as a diminutive form of bjam ' bear.'s Bis 
deeds arc plainly of the folk-tale order adjusted in the epic to the level 
of Germanic hero-life. The chief adversary of Beowulf in the first part 
is naturally to be traced to the same source ; but probably English tra- 
ditions of a water-sprite have entered into Che conceptions of the mon- 
ster Grendel, whose very name seems to have been added on English 
■oil. To inquire into the primidve mythological signification of diose 
preternatural adventures is an utterly hopeless undertaking. Resting as 
they do on pure theory and diversified imagination, such romantic con- 
structions merely obscure the student's vision of the real elements of 
the story.* 

Are we now to believe that Beowulf, the hero — like Grettir of the 
later Icelandic saga — belongs in part to history, or, in other words, 
that a Geat &med for strength and prowess attracted to himself won- 
derful tales of ultiahuman feats?' What the poem tells about his 

^5d (Hermo^O ilso appein. 

Bnndl 9^]. 

his name and dcidi wu offereil by Skeat, vfho conjeccufed ( ?cHr. nf PkihI. xr 
I !□ ff- ) that a strong man once killed a bear 01 two, and was therefore ^ren, aa ■ 
mark of dinincdan, the nam; of *beai ' himself. A limilar luggestlon as to the 
liie of the noiy wai made by Bode (L 7. 9. 71 f.). Sidney Lanier asked curiously 
whether iraditioni of actual antediluvian monsteia might not liaie been the starling 
point of legend! of the Grendel km (L 7, 16). (Cf. Hilgh'i and Harrison'i 
lemaikson dragons, L 4., 27. 9; IF. ; L 9. 9. 158,) Brooke (L 4. 6. t. S6, 4. 
G. 1. 66) reckoned with the cannibalism of primeval cave-dwellen u a poeible 
germinal element of such folk-tales. 

' Hit first name, BfBvarr, n owing to a miiundetstanding of an appellative 
bfeiier (gen. sing, of bfS • fight ' ). Cp. Siio ii 64 : ' [enBe,] a quo belligeii 

p. ixv'iii). No lirponance need be attached to the fact that the grandfather of Bfl^vatr 
Bjarki it called B}6r In the Biarhaiaur. 

' Cf. Boer, AfNF. ill 43 f. ; Lawrence 158 ff. ; Paniet 252 fF. 

' Grnn (L 4. 69. 167, 17!) ventured the guess that the deliverance of Den- 



penon, apart from his marvelous deeds, has not the appearance of his- 
tory or of genuine historical leg'end,' He is out of place in the line 
of Geat kings, who bear nmies alliterating with Hi and, still more 
strangely, his own B does not harmonize vfith the name of his father 
Ecgl>eow and that of his family, the WSgmundingas." He is a solitary 
figure in life, and he dies without leaving any children. Neither as 
Hygelic's retainer nor as king of the Geats docs he play any real part 
in the important events of the time. 3 He accompanies Hygelac, indeed, 
on his historic continental expedition, but what is told of him in that 
connection is of a purely episodic nature, conventional, or fabulously 
exaggerated, in short, to all appearances, anything but authentic. 
There is hardly a trait assigned to him that Is not more or less typical^ 
or in some way associated with his extraordinary qualities or his definite 
rfile as a protecting and defending man of strength, in which the Anglo- 
Saxon poet rejoiced. That there is some suhsitaium of truth in the 
extensive recital of his doings may well be admitted as a possibility) 
but that need not l»ve been more than the merest framework of the 
narrative elements common to Beowulf, and B^f varr Bjarkj. The elab- 
oration of Beowulf s character and actions shows plainly the hand of 
the author who made him the hero of a great epic poem. 

Noll on Ike Elj/tnelogy of Beowulf and Grendel 
The following etymologies of the singular names Biotvulf, Beatu 
(Bifw^ay) have been proposed. 

i) Bcoiuulf{= ON. Bjdlfr), = 'bee-wolf.' So Grimm D. M. jo6 
(jfig); Simrock L 3.11.177) MiillenhotT, ZfdA. xii iSj ) Sweet, 
Ags. RtaJtr, & E St. ii 311-4; Koroer, £ Si. i 483 f. j Skeat, JcaJ- 
f my xi 161 c, ii your, b/ Pbilel. XV 120 W. ; Casijnf Aaat. 41 ; Sievers, 
Btitr. xviii 413; v. Grienberger 759; Panier 391. This etymology is 
strongly supported by the form of the proper name Biaulf{\.t. Biuuulf) 
occurring in the Libtr filac Eccltsiae Dutielmtnsii (Sweet, Otdeil Eng- 
lish Texii, p. i6j, I, 341). Cf, Lang. | 17. Thxii Beo-^ivulf, North- 
iimbr. Biu-ivulf (perhaps from primitive Norse *fiiiu-Tuij//r), = ON. 
Bjoi/r, older *By-elfr. (Symons, P. Grdr.' iii 647.) Parallel OHG. 
form : Biulfus. 

a) Beo'zvulf^ OH. Bjdlfr (as first seen by Grundtvig), i.e. Btcjolfr, 




attacks of pirate 

« bys 

, historic 

al Beovmlf caused tl 

Gr«idel a 

to be attributed ti: 


' Th<^ 


. life are Iniefly reviewed 

on p. 



' It is 

true, the u 


; given CO Eadgils 



, 11. 1391 

tF., hut ev. 

Ibat did n< 

> activf 

: pattidparioi,. 

' Thus 

the motive 

of the 

slugguh ;outb is, 


, added to t 


83 tF.) «a. 


it wu done in the cis 

c of G. 




wiv n. 1). 



Bjfjiilfr, ftom bter, byr •farm (yard).' So Bugge Tid. iB? ff., & Btitr. 

xii 56 ; Geting L 3.16. loof. 

j) Biovjulf t. siibBtitution for Btadu-ivulf. So Thorpe (Gloss.); 
Gnindtvig (Edit.), p. xxxiii; Morley L +. 1^. 3445 SarrsHn St. 47, 
ESl. xvi 71 iF,, xxiiiii7 [ON. BfU'varr = *Badu-(h)aTir;^. St. 151, 
£ St. xlii 10 : from ^Bj^-vargr] ; Ferguson L 4.51.4. 

4) L^stner, L 4, 47. j64f. connected the name with *Wa'u«j», 
Goth. {ui-)baugjan 'sweep.' Kuiub^^ 'sweeping wolf,' i.e. the 
cleansing wind that chases the mists away. Another, very tar-fetched 
suggestion of Lajstner's : L4.50.14. 

5) fl^H'Uf ( =■ ON. Biar), Ko'w belong to OE. Wain 'grain,' 'bar- 
ley ' (Epin. Ghri. 645, l^iden Glaii. 1S4), OS. beefjiu), btatood 'har- 
vest,' related to the toot bhu. So Kemble ii, pp. xiii f. ; MullcnholF, 
ZfdA. vii 410 f, & L 4. 19 j Kogel, ZfdA. ixxvij 168 ff.( cf. Boer, 
4fNF. xix 10 ff. 

ETTMOtOGiEs OP Grtndtt 

1) Grtndtl, related to OE. grmdan 'grind ', hence — ' destroyer" 
(Ettmuller, Transl., p. 10; Sweet, Ag!. Ktadir ; LaistnerL4. 50. a;; 
etc. ( also Brand) [991], who at the same time suggests a possible al- 
lusion to the grinding of giain by slaves), and to OE. *gTandor (Sieven 
i 1S9) iagrandorieai, Jul. 171, ON. grand 'evil,' 'injury' (GreinSpt. } 
Sarraiin, Angl. xix 37411.; v. Grienhetger 758). 

3) Grendel, related to OE. {Gen. B 384) grindel 'bar/ 'bolt,' 
OHG. grindel, krintil.' Grimm D. M. 201 (143). 

3) Grendel, related to ON. grindiU, one of the poetical terms for 
'itorm'i grenja 'to bellow,' See, e.g., Egilsson, Lexicon poet, aniiq. 
ling, leptenl.; SarraiinSt. 65 ( Mogk, P. Grdr.* iii 301 f. (Cp. Beoiu. 

4) Formation by means of -iia (cp. ttrtngtl) from Lat. grandii. See 
Hagen, MLM xix 70." 

5) It should not be considered impossible that Grendel, the name of 
a water-sprite and demon of the fens, is = the common noun grendel 
• drain,' perhaps ' pool,' ' marsh ' (?) (cf. NED. 1 grindle ' [dial. 1 
•narrow ditch or drain']), to which MiUer called altention (see above, 
p. xxv) as being used iti the Wiltshire charter (grendl/s mere) and still 
more plainly in a chatter of a.d. 963 [Carlol, Sax. iii 336) : . . . panan 
en pa ealdan die on grendel up anlang grendel on pone ealdanferd etc. 

1 Cf. Sci-wtixtriichti Wior/*M{ed. by Staub&Tobler) u 75Tff., t.v. grndd, 

mm ; lee alio Arci. cm l;4 f.> cixii 4x7 n. 2{ £ Si. 1 485. — It has been 
pointed out, by the way, tbac a proper name Acdrk Grindtl >.ccun in the Gnat 
Kail 0/ til Pipe (ot /k.D. 1179-80 (Liebcrmiinn, ^rri. cnvi i3o). — An idj. 
grinJtl ' angiy,' ' impetuoiu ' it found in lome ME. teiB, >ee Strwmann-Biadler. 
[Cf, etymol. no. 3 ?] 

* Imitllion of an oriental name was vaguely suggested as a posiibtLity by Boutcr- 
weic, Gtrm. i 40). — Also Hicketiei's epeculaoon (L4. 64) may be noted. 

D, ..■■.v^.oo^ic 


m. The Historical Elements' 

[IcivxiJ midSwUmand mid Gialum <^rd mid Sil>-Da,uin. (WWi/JsS.) 
How much of historical truth there is in the subjects considered 
under this heading cannot be made out with certainty.^ The early 
Germanic poetry of heroic legend, though inspired by stirring events 
of the times, primarily those of the great period of tribal migrations, 
was anything but a record and mirror of historical happenings. What / 
the singers and hearers delighted in was the warlike ideals of the tace,"^ 
the momentous situations that bring out a man's character; and the'-' 
poet's imagination eagerly seiied upon the facts of history to mold them 
in accordance with the current standards of the typical hero-life. The 

pf njonajil y nf- thl! hfmanil thf fgyiitrt'"' ■''" mutu al l oy ai ty of chief 

and retainer — dominated the representation of events. The hostile en* 
"counters of Germanic tribes were depicted as feuds between families. 
(Cp. the Finn legend, the HeaiSo-Bard story.) Moreover, all kinds of 
variation, shifting, and combination naturally attended the oral trans- 
mission of the ancient lays. Facts easily gave way to fiction. The figure 
of Eormeoric, e.g., as known to the Anglo-Saxons (see note on 1 197— 
1101), in all probability retained next to nothing of the actual traiu, 
doings, and sufferings of the great king of the Goths. Yet with all Aat 
allowance for disintegrating influences, those elements of the Bemjjulf 
which we naturally class as 'historical,' i.e. based on history, in con- 
tradistinction to the femkly &buIous matter of a preternatural charac- 
ter, have, in a large measure, an air of reality and historical truth about 
them which is quite remarkable and, in fact, out of the ordinary. 

It is true, there is only one of the events mentioned in the poem, 
vii. the disastrous Prankish raid of Hygelac, which we cait positively 
claim as real history fsee below, p. xxxix). But this very fed that the 
&Mi>«^ narrative is hilly confirmed by the unquestioned accounts of 
early chroniclers, coupled with the comparative nearness of the poem to 
tlie time of the events recounted, raises into probability the belief that 
we are dealing in the main with fairly authentic narrative. It is certainly 
not too much to say that our Anglo-Saxon epos is to be considered the 
oldest literary source of Scandinavian history. This applies, of course, 
in the first place to the relation between the various tribes, and in a less 
degree to the record of individuals- 
Much farther removed from history appear to us the Finn legend,' 
■ S« L4. ijfF., L4. 67 tf. Camprehenave treatise and surveys: Mullen- 
hoff; Grein L 4. 69, Uhltnbeck L 4. 71, Claikc L 4. 7* ; cf. Hegeler L 4. 
T;, Chamben Wid. —It nay be remarked thai the map (• The Geography sf 
Beowulf' ) included in thU edition it designed to show the main geographical and 
cthnalogical features aa the^ seem to have been tuideistood by the poet ; it rs not 

* On tbit general questBo, tee Heusler L 4. J7. 1. 

• See Introd. to Thi Figki at FIniuiurg. 

D,g,i zed b, Google 


the allusion to OfFa,' and the bcief reference to Eormenrlc and 

Of tribes outside of Scandinavia * ire find mention of the Franks, 
Haitware, Frisians,* the Baltic group of the Gif^as, Wylfingas, HcalSo- 
Bards {f) ^ and, perhaps, the Vandals.^ With the possible exception of 
the family of Wc3lhl>eow, England a not represented rave for the an- 
cient Angle legend of Offa, 

The Danes ^ 
{Dene, bipwine, Seyldingas, see Glossary of Proper Names.) 
A genealogjr of the royal line and a summary of the facts of Danish 
history extracted from the poem are presented below. 

(Scyld Biowulf [I] 



(A.D. 440-493) 

HriSgar, m. WealhMow 



(b. +ls) 


(b. +9+) 

(b. 49S) 
Freanaru, m. IngeU. 

(b. 496) 


_ daughter, m. [On]ela 
Note : For the sake of cleamesa the figures (which at best could re- 
present approximate dates only) have been made quite definite. They 

reckoned with, see note on 

' la addition to Danei, ' UalF-Dina,' Grata, snd Swedes, the poem knows 
the Jutei (cf. Inlrod. to Thi Figki ai Fmnbarg, aln below, p. ilri), the 
iH€-LPii-)Riamai and the Finna land (we note on 499 (T. ). 

' See below, pp. mix f. ' See Glon. of Proper N>me« j below, pp. iii* f. 

' See Glosa. of Proper Nama : fftndla. 

' Passages in the Bawulf serving u loutcei : 57 ff. ; 467, ii;S (Hcorogar), 
ai6l (Heoroweaid); 6llir.,Il6l ff. (WeaUi|<eow) ; 1017, llEoif. {1166 If.) 
(HrS4Sutf)i 1119 f., iai6 f., 1R36 ff. (HrFiSnc, Hrofimund) ) 1010 If., gi If. 
(Freawaru, IngeU). — Of especial value fiir Che study of this Danish legendary his- 
tory are IhefaiveltlgitiDniaf Miillenholf, Oltik, Heusler (L 4. j;, L 4, 71), Sar- 
railn(L4. }1. I Ul) ; fbf the Hea«o-Bard feud, see alsoL 4. S3 ff. (chiefly 84: 
Bugge), Olrik (vol u), and Mlillenhoff, Drnxht Atartuntilmndi 1 (1 gj ij, pp. 


are only dewgned to show tht sequence of events in such an order u 
to satisfy the probabilities of the narrative.' 

Healfdene (j7 fF.), following the mythical founder Scyld and the 
equally fictitious Beowulf (I), Is the first one in the line of Danish kings 
belonging to semi-historicaj tradition. He was succeeded by liis eldest 
ion Heoro^r, whose reign was apparently of short duration. After 
Heorogar's early death, the crown fell not to his son Heoroweard 
(who was perhaps considered too young or was held in disrespect "), 
but to his brother Hro^gar, the central ligure of Danish tradition in the 

His is a reign of surpassing splendor. After gaining brilliant succeM 
in war (64 If.),^ he established his far-famed royal seat Heorot (S8 fT.) 
and ruled for a long, long time (1769 tf.) in peace, honored by hu 
people {863), a truly noble king. His queen Wealh>eow, of the race 
of the tiiimingas (610), is a stately and gracious lady, remarkable for 
her tact and diplomacy.* Another person of great importance at the 
court is HroiSulf. By the parallel Scandinavian versions it is definiteiy 
established that he mas the son of Halga, who in the it^irwu//' receives 
no further mention (i.e. after I.ei). Left fatherless at a tender !ige,5 
he was brought up kindly and honorably by Hro^gar and Wealhjieow 
(i 1S4 fT.), and when grown up, rose to a position of more than ordi- 
nary influence. Hro'Sulf and HroiSgar occupy seats of honor side by 
side in the hall Heorot (1163 f.), as befits near relatives of royal tank, 
who are called magai (loi j) and jubtirgiftdtran (i 1^4 j luhtnrfird- 
ran, IFidi. 4(1). In fact, it almost looks as if Hro'Sulf were conceived 
of as a sort of joint-regent in Denmark.^ With just a little imagina- 
tion we may draw a fine picture of the two Scytdingai ruling in high 
state and glory over the Danes, Hro^gar the old and wise, a peace- 
maker (470 ff., 1S59 if., 1016 fF.), a man of sentiment, and Hro'Sulf, 
the young and daring, a great warrior, a man of energy and ambition. 
At a later time, however, as the poet intimates with admirable subtlety 

■ They ire in [he main derived from Heuiler (L 4. 75). Somewhat different 
«re the chronological tables of Gering (L 3. 16) and Kier (1. 4. 78). 

> In 11. II 55 IF. we hear of a valuable corslet which Hcont^r did not caie to 
bestow on his son. 

^ The definite reference to wars, iSiS, possibly poinu to the Hei9a-Bards (lee 
bdow, pp. iiiiv If. ) or la the Geats (see below, p. ilv). 

* See 1169 ff., iii5fr. 

* At the >f,e-Qfai\HiKoiimg to tht Sijqldiingaiaga, cb. II (Par. f S. 6) and 
the rV-'f'-f. ch. 19 (») (P"r- i 6}. 

' The eipteraon m^a geawJa (1+7), ' the consent of the Itinamen ' (without 
which there was properly no admisionto the land of Che Dines), 19 powbly to be 
iindentood with regard to the migui of 1. I015. — In a somewhat limilir mannei 
uncle and nqihew (in this case, the sister's ion), namely Hygelac and Biooulf, are 
fbuDil living together in the land of the Geats ! iim -nrxi hstn lanmi / an Him Hod- 
icip€ land gicyndi, / sard IBelrihl, eSrum iiii'iOer / sidt rice pSm Sir lilra wm 
1196 ff. 



(iciB !., 11^4 f., 1178 if., iziS If.), the hannDtuous union vrat 

broken, and Hra^ulf, unmindful of the obligations of gratitude, be- 
ha.ved ill toward his cousins, HreSric and HroCmund (iiSo IF.), that 
is to say — very likely — usurped the throne. One is tempted to regard 
Beowulf's 'adoption' (946 ff., 1175 f.) as in some way connected 
with the anticipated treacheiy of Hiofulf, In case of jiiture difficulties 
among the Scyldingat, Beowulf might come to the rescue of the 
Danish princes (in particular the elder one, cf, 1116 f., Jiij f), or 
Hreltnc might lind a place of refuge at the court of the Geats (Jii lUfg 
lAr ftla / frianda findan 1S37). 

Regarding the chronology of HroiSgar's life, the poet is clearly in- 
consistent in depicting him as a very old man, who looks back on a 
reign of sixty-two years (1769 ff., 147),' and, on the other hand, re- 
presenting his sons as mere youngsters. Evidently neither the definite 
dates of the passages referred to nor the intimation of the helpless Icing's 
«ate of decrepitude could be taken literally. 

Of these eight male names of the Danish dynasty, which are prop- 
erly united by alliteration conformably to the Norse epic laws of name- 
giving in the period preceding the Viking age -^ the majority of thcra 
moreover containing one element recurring in one or more of the other 
uames,> — a)l except Heoro^r and HrStimund are well known in the 
analogous Scandinavian tradition.^ It is true, the names do not always 
correspond precisely in form,< but this is only natural in different ver- 
sions separated by centuries and based on long continued oral trans- 
mission. We also find a good many variations in the treatment of the 
material due to shifting and confusion, but, thanks to the researches of 
farsighted scholars, the main outlines of the original tradition appear 
with gratifying clearness. On the whole, the Beoiuulf accoaM is to be 

' And who may be eipccted to hive to light the HaiSD-Banb in yan to enow 
(joi6fr.,cf. »^rfi. 45 ff.l. 

' See Olrik i 11 ff. The most freguent of the nimc elemcnD, kroS {hrcB), re- 
flects the giory and iplendor of the roya) line. Also the geacalogics of the GeaB 
and [he Swedei (likewise the Danish Usiiigai (1069, 1071, 1076) and the 
frigmnnJingoi) are marked by alliteration. Simibrlji, in the Wot Suon line of 
kingi — beginning with Ecgbetht — jiocalic alliteration ia traceable for two cen- 
turiei and 1 half. On (historical) eiceptiont to the rule of aUitention in natne- 
giring among early Gemianic Ciibes, see Gering (L J. 16, id ed.), f. ri, n. Cf. 
G. T. Flom, "AUiieratioo and Variadonin Old Germanic tfame-Ginng," MLN. 
">ii(i9i7), 7-'T. 

• See Par. §§ 4-9- 

' Thui, Hroggir aniwen to an ON. HrlSgarr, whereas the names ictually 
Died, flrefl", Rtt would be *HriS-hcri ia OE. Similar variations between differ- 
ent Terdoni are OE. £a^£'/i.- QVi.jieih) OE. £anH»W.- ON.(U[.) Himt^ 
f*«(iee below, p. ihljGiin-HW.- »'*r»i.W (w note oni93i-6i)i O.iS/-" 
Ordlhf (lee Introd, to Thf Flgil at Fia^shurg) ; and within the Banvil/ itself, 
Hiirigir : Hirigar f6i, 1158 ( 467) ; tireBil : UrSdIa. Cf. Heusler, " Hel- 
dennamen in mdirfacher Lautgestilc," ZfiA. lii 97-107. 



nguded as being not only in time but also in histoticiil fidelity neamt 
to the evenU alluded to. 

Heoregdr, the eldest son of Healfdene, it is rcaaonable to believe, 
merely dropped out of the later versions of the Skj^ldung taga, whilst 
Hrismund, shoning distinct English afiiliations,' seems peculiar to the 
Anglo-Saxon account. The strange name of HroJI^r's queen, Wealk- 
yiaiu (i.e. ' British servant '), indicates that she nas considered of fbi> 

Heariywtard is the Norse HjjrvarSr (HiarthHanis, Hyarvrardus), 
whose filial attack on his brother-in-law (not cousin) Hrolft Kraki in- 
tioduces the situation celebrated in the famous BjartamatJ The per- 
son oi HrisrU is curiously hidden in a few scanty retcrences to UrieircKr 
(hniBggvanbaugi) and in a cursory but instructive allusion to King Rolto' * 
slaying of a Raricus ^Bjartamal, Sazo ii 62. 4 fF. : ' [rex] qui natum 
BekiRaricumstravitavari, etc').* That HealfdtHf (OH. Halfdan(r), 
O.Dan. Haldan) figured abo in Norse accounts ai the father of HroiS- 
giir (Hroarr) and Halga (Helgi), is abundantly proved, though hii 
position became in time much confused. Even his designation as biab 
and gamoi (57 f.) is duplicated in Scandinavian sources {SkUdikapar- 
tnai, chap.6j : Halfdati gamli ; Hyndlidjop 14 : Halfdanr fyrri kktir 
S^/^ldanga).S An explanation of his peculiar name miiy be found in 
the fact that, according to the later Sltjildaigaiaga (Par. 5 8. 6 1 
chap. 9), his mother nas the daughter of the Swedish king Jorundus. 
Icelandic sources have it that he lost his life through his brother 

Two sons of Hilfdan(t), Hriarr (Roe) and Htlp (Helgo). are 
regularly known in the North, besides b a few version* a daughter 
SigQy who married a jail named Sievil,' — probably a mistake for 
OtieU, the Swedish king. That her icai name was Visa, has been 

■ Sunun, E St. van 219. ' 

■ The noa-DiBish, i.e. Engliib lineage of Hrou'i wife iatixBri/fu^a (ch. 5, 
Pw. %g)iaim Amgrim JiinaDn'i S*,(/A-gflMf« (ch. 11, Ph. { g. 6) mayor 
Buy not be connected wita that ^t; cf. Olson L 4, 6;. to, 97. — The name 
Of VfaJhfcow't ^inity, HilBiingai, posalhl; pr'nts In Eut Anglia (Buii 177 f.; 
Sicnzin, I.e.). The oime Wsdh))eow (wbote Kcood clement needtiot be inter' 
preted liteialljr) miy hare been conGInicted at a chaTa<;teriring one like Angeltwow 
in the Mercian EEmalogT (Pu. J i), Cp. also Ecg-, Ongin-pi^ta. A note by 
DrutKhbdn : Axa.JiA. iutI 115. 

' Par. S 7 (ii 59 H.), % 9 (chs. 31 ff.); { g.i, 5, 6 (ch. 12). Edidon of 
die 'Bjirkanialenfarnu,' lee L lo. I. 4. 

* Ai fint wen by GnuidCrig (Eiliiion, p. 104). Cf, alw Bugge, Slmiin uitr 
M, EBlatkung da- merJiscAin Gsutr- und HildtMu-gn (1889). pp. 171 f. See 
Par.C S. I. 

» See P«.SS4, 7 ("!•)■«. 9 Cf. ^«j:'. nil 37» KJer(L4.7g. 104?.) 

*«iM iicaafY Healfdene with Alewih of ffldi. 3; (see note on igji-fil). 

^ According bi Danith iccounB Haldanus killeil his brother (cf. Par. $ S. 3). 

' SijildM^gataga, ch. lo (Par. £ 8. 6), HrUfua^a, ch. I (Par. { 9). 

D, ..■■.V^.OQi^lC 


argued by (Chadwick and) Clarke (L 4. 76).' In contrast ntth iha 
BeP^ulf, Heig: left a much stronger impression in Scandinavian legend 
than the quiet, inactive Hroarr ; he even appears, under the guise of 
Helgi Hundingsbani, as the sole representative of the SkJ9ldungar in 
the Eddie poems bearing his name.' 

Still greater is the shifting in the relative importance of Hro/lgdr 
(Hr6aiT)andhi3nephew//r5iiW/(Hr61fr[Ktaki],Rolvo). Alltheglory 
of Hro^gir seems to be transferred to Hrolfr, who became the most 
renowned and popular of the ancient Danish legendary kings, the most 
perfect of rulers, the center of a splendid court rivaling that of the Gothic 
Theodoric and the Celtic Arthur.' This development was perhaps first 
suggested by the significant contrast between the old, peace-loving 
HroSgarand his young, forceful, promising nephew j it was fiirthcr aided 
by a change in the story of Helgi, who was made to survive his brother, 
whereby Hrolfr was dissociated from the traditions concerning his uncle.* 
Anoiher phase of Danish history is opened op in the allusions to the re- 
lation between the Scyldingai and the diiefs of the HiaSo-Bardi (1014- 
1069), which are all (he more welcome as they present one of the most 
truly typical motives of the old Germanic heroic life, vii. the sacred duty 
of revenge. To settle an old bloody feud HrolSgar gave his daughter 
Freawaru in marriage to Ingeld, the son of the HealSo-Bard king Froda, 
who in years gone by had been slain by the victorious Danes. But an 
old, grim warrior {eald nscnviga, 1041), chafing under the trying situ- 
ation, which to his sense of honor is utterly humiliating, spurs a young 
comrade on to a realization of his duty, until hostility actually breaks out 
again. The outcome of the new war between the two tribes is related in 
IVidiis, 4 5 -49 : 

Hrotiwulf ond Hrofi^r heoldon lengeslS 

sibbe astsomne suhtorfedran, 

siliton hy forwrScon Wicinga cynn 

Olid Ingeldes ord forblgdan, 

forheowan xt Heorote Hea'So-Beardna (>rynl. 

> On YtM'i rcblions with Helgi, (All, »nd) ABils, kc Clarke, pp. 64 fF., 

Sx If. Chadwick and Cbrke luggat that an (unknowingly) inceUooui marriage 

between lathei anil diyghler (sec Gmliaifn^r 21, Par. | ; : ch. 40, Hrilfuaga, 

chl. 7, 9) may have been subslituled in Norse tradition for that between brother and 

oldest of Hilfdan'9 children, 
patently vounger than her bi 

• Cf. Bugge L4.S4. 

' See Par. 5 5 ! ch. 41, 5 7 : U 5J, § S. 6 : ch. n, § 9 : ch. 16. 

* Heuiler, Z/d^.xlvm7i f. — That Ht5iSulf *« teQiembereil in England al 
comparadvely late date, we see from the reference in a late Sral version to t 
' gcita rodulphi et hunlapi, Unwini et Widie, borri e( liengiiti, Walcef ec ham 
(Imelmann, D.Lll.x. iix 999). 

' According to Deut«^hhcin'i — 
196) ; ' had kept peace for the lon^ 
Viking! they became eitnnged. 



In other words, the Hcafio-Bards invade the land of the Danes ind 
attack the royal stronghold, but are utterly defeal«d. On thit occasion, 
as is to be inferred from 11. i^ ff. , the famous hall Heorot was de- 
Btroyed by fire.' 

Curiously but not unnaturally (the memory of the once independent 
Bard tribe having been lost in later times), Scandinavian sources regard 
the feud as arising from the enmity beiween two brothers of the Scyld- 
ing family or — as in the caseofSaxo — represent the former Bards as 
Danes, whilst their enemies, the Swerting family, are made over into 
Saxons,' Othemisc, Saxo's account is substantially a faithful counter- 
part of the fi^inuu^' episode ; in particular the line, taunting speech of 
the old warrior, which sums up the ethical significance of the tragic con- 
flict, is plainly echoed in the Latin verses — immoderately lengthened, 
diluted and in part vulgarized as they are — which are put in the mouth 
of the famous hero Staritaffir (' the Old'), the representative of the old, 
simple, honorable warlike life and of stem, unbending Viking* virtue. 

A iaint recollection of the Heifio-Bard feudJingers in the tradition 
of Hothbrodus, king of Sweden (in Saxo and other Danish sources. 
Par. 5 7 !ii sif, S a. 4 & 5)and of HffSbroddr, theenemy of Helgi in 
the Eddie lays mentioned above. The very name Hy^roddr, as first 
pointed out by Sarrazin,* is the individualized form of the tribal name 
HeaSo-Beardan, though the phonetic agreement is not complete.' 

In accordance with the spirit of the Germanic heroic saga, the per- 
sonal element is strongly emphasized in viewing the events in the light 
of a femily feud of chirfa or petty kings, yet we have reason to believe 
that there existed a true bistorical background of considerable politic&l 

But who are the (!ea%]-Bards ? Evidently, a seafaring people {If ids. 
47 : Tujoi^jigwn), who seem to have lived for some limeon the southern 
coast of the Baltic (the home of the Hg^roddr of the Eddie Melgi lays). 

' That the memory of th'a In^ld (urhan] Mullenhoff [p. zi] thought MenA-' 
cil wilh Ingjildr ilJiaiSi, rn^HngaUj-a, chj. J4 (38) ff.) vras kept alive in longi, 
ippeart from a panage in Akuin'i letter (a.d. 797J to bijhop Spentus of Lindia- 
farne i ' Verba D^i Irganiur in oeerdolali coiivivio. Ibi decet iMtnrem judiri, non 
cilhaiistam j itrmoncs patnim, non carmina gentilium. Qoid enim Hinieliius cum 
ChriWO ? Angusta eal iom<ia j utrowjue (eneic nnn poterlt. ' (O. Jinicke, ZJiA. 
IV 314 ; Haack L 4. 50. 49 f.) 

' See note on iQH-bi). In the beer Stji^JiiKgaia[a, chs. 9, 10, this Swerting 
figum ai 1 Swedish 'luiron- (Pii. { 8.6). 

« Cf. mJ.. 47 ■■ frting^ 'J«-. 

* San. St. 41. See abo Bi'^e L 4. 84. 160 { Suraiin, E St. ixiii 133 ffl; 
Boit, Biilr. Ilii 377 f. In like manner, the name of SorkaSr hai been ei- 
pbined (Bugge, l.t. 166 f.) fmm 'Slark-bt^r, i.e., 'the strong HeaSo-Bard.' 
In the second Hiigi lay hi is called Hf'Sbrodd' a brother, and a king. 

• Detter, who (like MuUenhoff) conneited Ingeld (Ingelliu) with Ingjildrill- 
liti, attempted to euahliih a mythological hasii (a Freyr myth) for ibi) episode 
(Aflr. iviu 90 ff.). 

D, ..■■.v^.oo^ic 


They have been identified irith (i) the Langobards (Lombards), nhoie 
tvame is reasonably to be equated with that of the HeaSo-Banls, and 
gome divisions of nhom may have been left behind on the Baltic shore 
when the main body of the tribe migrated south,' and with (i) the 
Eniliaiu (Heruli), who, according to Jordanes,* were driven from their 
dwellings (on the Danish islands, perhaps) by the powerful Danes and 
whose defeat has been supposed (by Mullenhofl) to have ushered in the 
consolidation of the Danish state. Besides, compromise theories have 
been proposed. Ako the problematical Mjrg'mgas ' of Widsis have 
been connected with the Bards.* An authoritative decision is hardly 

Summing up, we may give the following brief, connected account 
of the outstanding events of Danish history as underlying the allusions 
of the poem.s Froda, king of the Bards, slays Healfdene ^ (about a.d. 
491) J {Heorogar,) HroSgar, and Halga make a war of revenge,^ 
Froda fails in battle (a.d. 494). After an interval of nearly twenty 
years, when Froda's s«n, Ingeld (bom A.D. 493) has grown up, 
HroSgar, the renowned and venerable liing, desirous rf forestalling 
a fresh outbreak of the feud, marries his daughter Freawaiu to the 
young Heai5o-Bard king (a.d. 519). Yet before long, the flame of 
revenge is kindled again, the Bards invade the Danish dominions 
and bum Heorot, but are completely routed, a.d. 515. The for- 
eign enemy having been overcome, new trouble awaits the Danes at 
home. Upon Hrofigar's death (A.n. 510), his nephew HroBulf for- 
cibly seiies the kingship, pushing aside and slaying his cousin Hrefiric, 
the heir presumptive. QOf the subsequent attack of Heoroweard, who 
had a still older claim to the throne, and the fellof HroiSuJf (a.d. 540) 
no mention Is made in the Bmivu//] 

Thus the two tragic motives of this epic tradition are the implacable 
enmity between two tribes, dominated by the idea of revenge which no 
human bonds of affection can restrain, and the struggle for the crown 
among members of a royal &mily [which is to lead to the extinction 
of Che dynasty]. 

The existence of a royal line preceding the Styldingas is to be in- 
ferred from the allusions to Heremod, see note on 901—15. 

* The inhabitants of the ' Batdengau,' the diitrict of the modem Liineborg 
(where the plice-nime Bardowicck p«»sts) an called in a latb century chronic]* 
Eetii ielliniiisimi ( - HeiSo-Batds). 

* Dc Origini Aclibus^iu Grlarum, cap. lii. 
> Cf, Chambers Wid. isgff. 

* M6]leri6lf.i Sarririn, E Si. xxni luff., Aagl. xitjiS. [In a recent note, 
" Halfdan 1. Fiode = Hidbardemei Konge, hvia Rige forenei med det daiwke," 
NorJhi TiJsiiri/i/or FiUhgi,\. SeriM,vi(i9[7), 78-80, J. Ncuhaminigra the 
Hea-So-Bards to North Schleiwig ] 

t Cf. Heuiler, ZfiA. ilvlii 71- On the meaning of the iaa ^ven, Ke ibon, 

p. XII. 

t There n no mention of chi) in Biiviulf. 


The scat of the Danish power, the fair hall Heorot, corresponds to 
the ON. HIeiSr ■ (HleitiargarSr, Lat. Lethra) of Scandinavian feme, 
Tfhich, although reduced to insignificance at an eaj'ly date, and now a 
tiny, wretched village, Lejre (southwest of Roskilde on the island of 
i^^ealand), is habitually associated with the renown of the Skjjldung 
kings.* It has been (doubifully) regarded as the site of an ancient 
sanctuary devoted, perhaps, to the cult of Nerthus (Tacitus, Germ., 
ch. 40, Pat, S 10) and Ing (ON. Freyr, Yngvifreyr, Ingunafreyr).' 
Hlei^r was destroyed, we may imagine, on the occasion of Hrolf 'a 
fall,^ but in the memory of (he people it lived on as the ideal center of 
the greatness of Denmark in the olden times. 

Sarrazin claimed that the scenery of the first part of the Bepwulf 
could be clearly recognized even in the present Lejre and its surround- 
ings,! while others (including the present editor) have feiled to see 
more than a very general topographical resemblance. 

It should be noted that the name Ingiaint twice applied to the Danei 
(■044, 1J19) bears weighty testimony to the ancient worship of Ing.^ 

The designations Sctdt-land 19, Scedtn-ig 16S6 (used of the Danish 
dominion in general) point to the fact that the original home of the 
Danes was in Ekanc (Scania, the southernmost district of the present 
kingdom of Sweden),' whence they migrated to the islands and later 
to Jutland." 

' Note the regular aUitefadon in the names of ihc place »nd of the royal family 
{HnUgSr, etc.); also flrfSf/, etc. : Hrlnnabccri 1+77; Ongtn},aio ac. : Uff- 
ulir f perhapt If^gtif: Winiet. 

' See Par. S 6 ! ch.. 5, 19 (33) i 5 7 : " 5>, § »■ i, S S. 3, 5 8. 6 : ch. ., 
S 91 chs. iS ff. Only in late sources is HiSSgir (Roe), the builder ofHeorot 
(HleitSr) in the Btawulf, credited with the founding of Roskilde : kc Par. 

i 8. 4. 

» Cf. Sarraiin St. 5 f, Angl. xir 368 ff., E St. ilii j ff, j Much, Bdtr. .vii 
I96lf.iMogk,P. Grdr.*\\\ 367. According to Sairaiin, the original meaning of 
HltiSr ii * teat-like building,' ' temple,' and appears even in the 0£. at hsrgtra- 
fan, Biavi. 17s. That human and animal aacrilicrs were offered Co the go* at 
the capital, ■Ledenin,' ii related liy Tbictmar of Meiaeburg (early in the nth 
century) { cf. Grimm D. M. 39 (43). 

* Ir maiy be assumed chat after its burning by the Hea1!o-Bardi it had been 

' See the detailed topographical descriptions, San. St. 4 ff., Bettr. li 167 ff. 

' Cp. Runic Focm 67 ff. Ingiumc his the appearance of being changed, by folk 
etymology, from (the equivalent of ) * Ing-vamtis (the worshipers of Ing), the name 
by which Tacitus derignatea the Germanic North Sea tribes (P^r. § 10 : ch. 1). 
Fiem Jutland and Zealand the cult of Ing spread to the other Danish islinds, to 
Sklnc, and thence to Sweden. (Cf the name Tnglingar, below, p. ilii n. 1, 

' It was not united politically with Sweden uniil 1658. 

» In Wulftfin's account of his voyage (Alfred's Oral. 19. 35 f.) the form 
Siln-ig a used : and on hxihtrd tim iiitet Lungalattd, and Inland, and Fabler, 
and StSntgi and pa land call kjrt^ u Dinemiarean. Cf. Scani, Pat. §1.3. 


The Geats and Swedes ' 

(See Glossary of Proper Names: Giatas, Wtderas, Hrislingaii 

Stvlmi, Scyljingas.) 

The Geatish Royal Liae » 



(467-50 s) 

Hygelac, m. Hygd (sec- 
ond wife)^ (470-516) 

HtWel ' 

(a.d. 440-498) 

daughter (froi 

Heardred (from ad 
inamage) (506-518) 

Tbe Swedish Royal Line 




ODgenl*ow . 



Oneta [m. Healfdene's 
daughter] (475-53°) 


(b. 505, become* 
I. kingjjo) 

HreSel, like his contemporary Healfdene the Dane, had three som 
and one daughter. The eldest son Hetebeald was accidenlally killed by 
HasBcyn, who when shooting an arrow, missed his aim and struck hie 
brother instead (1435 ff.).* The grief caused by this tragic fate ate away 
the king's life. Upon his death and the succession of Hx'Gcyn, war 

' U. 1101-14, 1101-9. i3!4-9*i (»4i5-89 »+''S-43. i46'-89t iSO»-8. 
1611-19, 1910-98 ialaoiSjoff., 1913 ff,,ii69fF.,ii90ff. — FordiscuaLoni, 
KC espedaUy L 4. 18 (Bugge) and L 4. 8B-97, also .ffeifncn below, p. »lyL. 

* As lo [he definite chionolDgicil tigum uced, see abnve, p. iii. 
' So we may assume in the interest of chronological harmony. 

* There U no poHdve prcxjf that either Ohthete or Eanmund was the elder 

)l be insisted u; 

riffdiy. See n< 



broke out between the Geats and Swedes (2471 if., 2911 S.). U a 
itarted by tlie Swedes, who attack their soulhem neighbors md after 
inflicting severe damage return home. An expedition of revenge into 
the land of ihe Swedes undertaken by Hai^cyn and Hygelac, though 
al first successfiil (even Ongeobeow's queen is taken prisoner), seema 
destined to utter failure ^ the ' old, terrible' king of the Swedes falls 
upon Hx^cyn's army, rescues the queen, kills the Geat king and forces 
his troops to seek refuge in the woods (Hrefneihalt 1935), threatening 
them all night long with death in the morning by the sword and the 
gallons. But at dawn the valorous Hygelac appears with his division and 
inspires such a terror that the Swedes flee to their fastness, pursued by 
the Geats. Ongen)>eow in a brave light against two brothers, Eofor and 
Wulf, loses his life. Hygelac, now king of the Geats, after his home- 
eoming richly repaid the brothers and gave his only daughter as wife 
to Eofor. 

This victory at the Ravenswood (a.D. 505) insured the Geats peace 
with the Swedes, who seem to have dreaded the power of the warlike 
Hygelac. [^he Geat king' s aim was strengthened by his loyal nephew, 
the mighty Beowulf, who, after his triumphant return from Denmark, 
where he had overcome the Grendel race (about a.D. 510), was the 
associate of Hygelac.] 

Not content with his success in the North, Hygelac even undertook 
a ravaging expedition into ihe Prankish lands (' Gallias,' Par. | 1 1) 
about A.D. 516.' He arrived with a fleet in the land of the (West) 
Frisians (west of the Zuider Zee) {jySSaa Higetac cwom j faran fiothcrgt 
en Frima land 1914 f , cp. 1^06 f.), and sailed up the river Rhine as 
far as the district of the Prankish tribe Hxtnare {Aitoarii, better known 
ai Cbaltuarii').* [Supplementing the narrative by means of Gregonr's 
version and the Historia Franarum (Par. S ") Having loaded 
their ships with prisoneri and rich booty (ii-Wr/flyi 105), the Geats return. 
Tlie main force is sent out in advance, but the king with a smaller band 
remains on the shore (of either the Rhine or the North Sea). There 
{FrisloBdum on 1JS7) he is overtaken by a strong army under the com- 
mand of Theodebeii, the son of the Prankish king Theoderic (the 
Merovingian 1911). King Hygelac and his followers are slain, his fleet 
is pursued and utterly routed. The poem repea.tedly dwells on the he- 
roic deeds of prowess done by Beovrulf in the unequal encounter between 

' That ii to Dy, iccording to Gregory of Tours this event happened between 
A.B. ;ii and 510. (GiionL]. 36 thought it should be placed as late as a.'d. 527.) 
— The references in the poem occur in U. iioi tf., 1354 fF., 1501 if., 191 j ff. 
(lloi|. The identity of Ihe Bfc-wulf ,\\m\ons and the accmina of the Ftankish 
iblorifs was first recognized by Gnindtvig {«e his Ttansl., p. hi). 

' Between the risers Rhine and Meuse (Maas), on the border of the present 
Rhenish Pruaia and the!, in the neighborhood of the cices of Kleve 
(aetej) and Geldem. Cf. Chamben Wid. lot f. ; Much, «.-i. i 371 f. The tribe 
ii meuiaQed in ffiM 33 1 Han \wiolJ] Htcltaerum, 


t1 introduction 

the allied forces (efermagen 1917) of the continental tribeE and Hj- 
gelac's guard : 1363 ff., 1501 ff. 

The final battle is waged against the Franks (ixio) or Hugas (2914, 
ajoi), Hetware(ij63, 1916), and (no doubt) Frisians (iJS7i ^S^J)- 
Of thefoui names mentioned, Hiigai is only an epic appellation of the 
Franks ; • the Mel--ware seem to have belonged to the Prankish 'sphere 
of influence.' The t«o main tribes involved are thus the Franks and 
the Fnsiani (see 1911). • At the same time the rising power of the 
Franks is teflected in the alluuon to the threatening un£iendliness of 
the Merovingian dynasty (19x1). It is possible, however, that the poet 
did not consistently differentiate between the three or four terms (see 
espeaally 150a f.). His use of the name Ditgbrtfii, by the way, shows 
that he followed a genuine tradition (see note on i;oi). 

The young Heardred now succeeded his father Hygelac. Beowulf 
[who by a marvelous swimming feat had escaped from the enemies] 
generously declined Hygd's offer of the throne, but acted as Heardred's 
guardian during the prince's minority (1367 ff.)- When the latter had 
come into his rights, another series of-warlike disputes with the Swedes 
arose (a.d. 517-530)^ After the fall of Ongenl^ow in the battle of 
Ravenswood his son Ohihere had become king,^ but upon Ohthere's 
death, Onela snied the throne, compelling his nephews Eanmund and 
Eadgils to flee the country. They find refuge at the court of Heardred, 
Soon after Onela enters Geatiand with an army (a.d. 518), Heardred as 
well as Eanmund is slain, whereupon the Swedish king returns, allowing 
Beowulf to take over the government unmolested (1379 ff., i6i i ff., 
aioi ff.), A few years later Eadgils,^ aided by a Gcatish force,5 re- 
opens_the war (2391 ^.), which results in his uncle Onela's death 
and Eadgils' s accession to the throne (a.d. 530). 

However, trouble from their northern foes is likely to come upon the 
Geats again, in spite of their temporary alliance with a branch of the 

' Cf.Mul]cnhoff,Z/a^. vi438iW.Grinim,L4. 67VJ7 ^nnali, ^utd- 

lintmrgmia (cit. A.D. 1000) : ' Hugo Theodoriciii ' ( ffidi. 14 : ItieJrU-ailcld Frm- 
(un, = the Hug-Dleoich of the MHG. epic ^e^dlrtfrifl [ijih centniy}) • iste 
ificiCur, id at Fiancus, quia olim omna Franci Hugancs vocabantur' [with a apu' 
riouimplanation added:] 'a luo quCMlam duce Hugonc' (According to E. Schro- 
der i^Zfdji. 1U16), chat notice 16 derived Irom an OE. Kniru, and the use of Hd- 
gai = Franks really confined [0 the OE. [itnuo^].) — Regarding the <|u«tioD 
of the posuble relation between the names Higai and Ciauci, gee the convenient 
reference) in Chambeis Wid. 68 n. x ; Much, R.-L. 11 82. 

* The prominence given to the Frisians and their seeminglif unhistorical alliance 
with the Frankt is attributed by Samdn (Kid. 90 f,) to the Frisian source of thit 

* Had Eidgili made Wa escape (when Onela attacked the GeaD) and aftowardi 
' Probably BCovriUf did not take part persooally In this vrar ; cf. note on 1395, 


Se3rlliiig dynasty ; indeed it seems as if the downfall of their kingdom 
is virtually foreshadowed in the messenger's speech announcing the 
desthof Beowulf (1999 fF., 5018 fF.). 

On the life of Beowulf the Geat, see below, p. x\v. 

Of the Geatjsh royal line, with the possible exception of Hygelac,' 
the Northern tradition is silent. But early Franldsh chronicles, as noted 
above, have preserved a most valuable record of Hygelac's daring ex- 
pedition against the franks, thereby contimiing conipleleiy the account 
of the BeaivulJ'.' The only discrepancy discoverable, viz. the designa- 
tion of *Chogilaiciis ax ' Danorum rex' is naturally accounted for by 
the assumption that the powerful Danes were taken as the representa- 
tives of the Scandinavian tribes, just as the later Anglo-Saxon annalists 
included under the name of 'Danes' the Vikings of Norway. More- 
over the Liitr Monitrorum (Par. §11. i) remembers the mighty war- 
rior ^ as ' rex Getaium ' (suggesting an actual ' Gautarum ' or ' Go- 

A feint reminiscence of HygtlSc seems to crop out in Saxo' s brief no- 
tice (iv ir?) of the Danish king Hugletus, ' vrho is s^d to have de- 
feated in a naval battle the Swedish chic^ Hsmothus and Hagrimus,' 
the former one (ON. Eymosf) answering * to the Swedish prince 
Eanmund, who fells in the land of the Geats (i6iz fF.).^ No connec- 
tion can be detected between Beowulf's uncle and the light-minded 
Hugleikr, king of Sweden (Saxo : Hugletus, king of Ireland), who is 
•lain in an attack by the Danish king Haki {Tngtingaiaga, chap, zz 
(«5)l Saxo vi lis f.). 

The accidental killing of Hirlbeald by Haiscyn has been repeatedly ^ 

' Some of the other n-mu alwite ibund in Scandinaiiin lourcei, but in entirely 
diffimnt luiToundinga. Thm HrlSel {^HrMII) \t - ON. ♦Hro/Zr, Lit. R^llcru, 
(•RiEneri pugilU fillu! ' ) , Saxo, Baokv^HardrlJ = O.V/ai Sane HarOrdSr ; 
Suitriing i» mentioned u 1 Siionand u a Swede (sec above, p. uiv). Hinheald 
btncable onlyaia common noun hcrbaldr, 'warrior.' The peculiar, ibnncLainie 
of Hjgd ia endrelj unknown cuttute of BtvwalJ. 

' The names given in the MSS. ( C-S/w^/flft*-,, etc. , «e Par. J 1 1 ) A) not dif- 
fer pvatlj from the true form which we ihould expect, viz. 'Chugilaicm. 

• That the giant Hugebold in the MHG. Btkn Litl (83) 19 to be ultimiletr 
identified with him (jee Much, Ans. cviii 403), ie 1 pur* gueu. 

' Though we ihould eipect Eymundr. 

' A. Olrik, KUdimt etc., L t 

• Thus by GisU Biynjilfison, Andtv. Tidih-ifi (1851/54), p. I3I ; Grundt- 
v'g (Ed.), pp. iliii, 175 ( Rydberg, Undtriainingar i germaniik myiitlagi (1886), 
i 665 (who moreover called attention to Saio's account (iii 69 ff.) of Hodiena' 
•kill in arthery [which wai, however, only one of hii numerom accompliahmenta] ) j 
Samiin St. 44 ; Bugge, Slujicn iihir Se Eniuihung dtr ntriUchai GSiler-utid Htl- 
io,l^(B, p. ifii i Dctter, &ilr. ivhi 81 ff., xii495 ff. ; Much, v*-c*. cvlli4'3 f- 
See also Gering's note, L 3. 26*. 104. Detter findl a direct parallel to the Here- 
baW-H««cjn veroon hi the story of Alrekr and arikc ( Yr>glhgaisga, chap, to 
(13) ), who are mcceeded on the Swedish throne — though not unmediately — 
by HugleUtr. 



compared with the unintentionat slapng of Baldr by the blind Hffk, 
who is directed by Loki in shooting the misiietoe (Proac Edda, Gylfa- 
ginning, chap. 48). But it is difficult to believe that the itoiy told in 
Beowulf 'bM any mythological basis. It rather impresses us as a report 
of an ordinary incident that could easily happen in those Scandinavian 
communities and probably happened more than once. Maybe the mo- 
tive was associated at an early date with names suggeating a warlike 
occupation, like Hete-ft/nW, HaS-cyn (Baldr, HjSr). ' 

Turning lo the Swedish affairs, we lind the royal Scylfingai ' well re- 
membered in the North — Osiarr (Ohthere) and his son Asils (Ead- 
gils) ^ standing out prominently — , but their lme_ family relationships 
arc somewhat obscured. Neither is Eymundr (Eanmund) ever men- 
tioned in conjunction with A'Sils nor is Otlarr considered the brother 
of ^/( (Onela), who in tact has been transformed into a Norwegian 
king. Besides, Ongenheow's name has practically disappeared from the 
drama of exciting events in which he had taken a leading patt.^ 

Aha the two series of hostile complication; between the Swedes and 
Geats reappear in Scandinavian allusions, though with considerable 
variations, since the Geats have been forgotten and replaced by the 
Jutes and Danes. 

The conflict between Ongenpio'w and the Geats recounted in Btcwulf 
has undergone a change in the scene and the names of the actors, but 
the substance of the narrative and certain details of the great central 
(cene can be readily identified in the sloty of the fall of King 6ttarr 
Vendiikraki in the Ynglingalal and the Tngiingaiaga, chap. 17 (jl), 
tee Par. i 6. The cruel nickname ' Vendel Crow ' given the dead king, 
who was likened to a dead crow torn by eagles, recalls Ongenhcow's 
fierce threats of execution (1939 ff.), which by the irony of fate was 
visited upon his own person. Also the remarkable fact (^ the slaying 
of the Swedish king by two men is preserved ; indeed, the names V^tti 
and Fasti' are evidently more authentic than the rather typical appel- 
lations Wulf and Eofor of the Anglo-Saxon epic. That theOld^Norse 
account is at ftult in associating the incident with Ohthere (Ottarr) 

' A ilighl aimilarity in the einulion miy be found in the etoiy of Herthegn and 
hit lhr« ioni, Herburt, Herthegn, and Tristram (Sintrim), piJrihwga, thi. aji 
f. (SimrockL]. 11. 191 ( MLill^nhoff 17). 

' In Old (WhI) Norse lourca called r«gli«gar. 

* Kiet {L 4. 78- '3=> f') identifies Ongixplev! with jingclpit-ai of the Mer- 
ton genalogy { Pai. § 1) ind Ongin (Nenniui 5 60 ) . The great fight it the Ravens- 
wood he locata at Hedeby (at or near the prejent nee of Schleswig). He further 
points out that Ratinkoll is a very tommon place-name in Denmark. 

' They are brothen In the HiiiQria Nomtgiai (cf. the following note) aa m Ibe 
Biraialf, whereas the Ynglingaial and the Tng!ingaiiaa are olent on ihia pmnt. — 
It may be noted that among the twelve champions of Hrolft Kraki we find VfCtr 
mendoned, Skilditaparmal, ch. 41 (Par. {5), and HrU/imga, ch. ji (98. 14, 
Par. i 9> 


rather than frith Ongent)«on, is to be inferred from the^tcstimony of 
Arijiythoin hlriitiitigabdi(c\r. a.d. i i js), chap, ii cillsOitar's father 
by the name of EgiU Vendilkraka. The name Egill (in place of An- 
gant^r ^ Ongent«uw) ■ is possibly, Bugge suggests, due to coiruptiun, 
a pet ibnn "Angila being changed to *AgilaR and Egill.' The scene 
of the battle is according to the Bia-wulf in Ongenfreow's own land, 
i.e. Sweden, but in ibtTngiingalal (I'tigl'mgaiaga) is shifted to Ven- 
del in Jutland. Now it has been properly pointed out (byStjcma, 53 f.) 
that the striking surname ' Vendel Crow ' cannot be a late literary in- 
vention, but must have originated immediately after the battle. As the 
king fell in his own land, the Vendel in question cannot be the Urge 
Juttsh district of that name, but must be the place called Vendel in 
Swedish Uppland. Vendel is at present an insignificant church-village, 
some twenty English miles north of Upsala, but beinglavorably located 
for commercial traHic, it enjoyed a considerable importance in the Mid- 
dle Ages. There are exceptionally numerous ancient cemeteries near 
Vendel, the principal one of which tsas evidently the burial place of a 
great ehieftajn'i family. It may safely be concluded (with Sterna) that 
about the year 500 there existed a royal fortress at Vendel, and that a 
noble family resided there. 

On other possible recollections of this part of the Swedish-Geatish 
tradition, see note on 1911 ff. 

The second series of encounters betvreen the Geats and Swedes re- 
lolves itself in Scandinavian tradition into a contest between Aaih — 
a great saga hero — and Ali, who, through confusion of the Swedish 
Uppland with 'uplands' in Norway, was made into a Norwegian king. 
The battle in which Ali fell took place on the ice of Lake Vaner. See 
Sk&ldikaparmal, c\is.^3. 41, 55, Ynglingaiaga, chap. 19 (33), Ynglin- 
gatat, Amgrim J6nsson's Skjifidurigaiaga, chap. 11 (Par. {| 5, 6, S. 6). 
A hint of Afiils's foreign (Geatish) support (1391 ff.) is found in 
the statement that Hr6lfr Krakl sent his twelve champions (B^ISvarr 
Bjarki among them) to assist him. Thus the Danes have stepped into 
the place originally occupied by the Geats. The memory of Eadgils's 
brother, Eanmund, is all but lost. He may be recognized, however, 
in the Eymundr of Hyndluljop ij (Par. \ 4) with whom Halfdanr 
(the representative of the Danes) allies himself,^ and in the above 
(p. xli) mentioned H^mothus of Saxo. 

■ Fallowed by the H,>«riB Nj>r-^,gi^. (B^igg" "S "■)■ 

' Tht namnAnginlyr and Oturr are coupled in Hj-nJ/. 9 (Pat. S 4). Ongtn- 
Jieow ii remembered in W'/i. 3I! STulum [«;io/J] Ongtnilpiew, see Oiimbeis's 

' Belden, L4. 96 (like Grundtvig, see BuEge i;) would equate Ongeopgow with 
Atin (or Ani). «on of Jflrundr and father of Egill ( r-j/;..f flMga, ch. i; {19] ). 

' Ali, mentioned by the side of Halfdanr [HyM. 14), wit considered A,i inn 
frikni (i.e. the Bold), the Dane, but was piobibly at the outKt noone but cfae Swediih 
Oneii. See aba Belden, L 4. 96. 151. 


The dominating element in this second phase of the intcr-tribal 
war, the dynastic struggle wilhin the royal Swedish line, is perhaps to 
be explained (with Belden) by the existence of a foreign or pro-Danish 
^any led by Onela (the son-in-lam of Healfilene (1. 61), who wm of 
Dano-Swedish extraction), and a native party led by Eadgils and Ean- 
mund {who presumably followed their father's policy).' In this con' 
nection it has been suggested by Belden that the ' Wendlas ' men 
tioned in I, ^48 (Wulfgar, Wendla lead) aided with the Danish faction. 
Accepting this view and assuming further (as vias first conjectured by 
Stjema'), that, like Wulfgar, the U^agmundingai, i.e. Weohstan and 
his son WIgllf,* belong to the Wendel ftmily, i.e. a noble family of 
Vendel in Uppland, Sweden, we are able to understand not only thai 
Wulfgar held an honored position at the Danish court, but also (what 
seems singular indeed) that Weohstan, ' the father of BeowuITs most 
loyal kinsman WTglaf, fought in the service of Oneh, against the lat- 
ter's nephews and the Geats who sheltered them.^ Alter Eadgils had 
been established on the throne, Weohstan, who had slain Eanmund 
(z6ii If.), was compelled to leave the country and settled in the land 
of the Geats. That WIglaf* even in Beowulf's last battle isstill called 
lead Scylfiuga (2603),' is thus readily understood in the hght of his 
fiither's antecedents. But what the relation is between the Geatish 
branch of the WSgmundingas (to which Beowulf and his father 
Ecgt^ow belong) and the Swedish branch (the only one which carries 
through the family alliteration), remains doubtful. The rich home- 
stead of the Wiegraundingas (1607) must clearly be sought in the land 
of the Geats.* 

The (essentially hostile) relations between the Danes and Swedes 

> No eiplanatian is found (in the iTaiUble sourto) of the Burpriiing lia that 
Heatdrid and Beowulf side with the native and against die Danish faction. 

* Who called attention to the u>-aUileratioD, 

' Belden conjectorei also Wolf Wonr&ling, vfho fight* against Ongenfeow (2965 
If.), to be of the Wendel timily. 

* He 1) ipparentl; the tame ai ifratinn who is mentioned in conjunction with Ali 
riding to die battle (against ASU), Kalfivha (Par. § 5). 

' Another veraon has been proposed by Deunchbein (L 4. 97). Setting aside a> 
entirelr unhistorical the role assigned to Beowulf and regarding the Wzgmundingas 
as Che direct succenors Co che line of Hrei^l on the Geatlah throne, he bdievetjhac 
Onela after the Bill of Heardced appdnted Wiobitan king of the Geats, whilst Ead- 
gils fled CO the Dinei and aftecwaids, gaining support from Hro«ulf (is told by Snoiri 
and Acngrim Jocusoa), returned to Sweden and defeated Oneb. 

' Wlglif has been doubtfilly identified with Saio's Wiggo (ii ST, 67), the V^ggr 
of the Hri/flMfd (chi. ig, i^;Am^m]oataoa's Sijoldungmaga, chs. Ii f., cp. 
Skaldikafarmal, ch. 41), the devoted retainer of Hrolli and the avenfer of his 
death (BBgge;of.icf.Sarraiin,£Sc, ilii 38 ff. ; Berendsobn, L 4. 141. i.S f.). 

' Which docs not necessarily mean that he IS related to the myal line of Oa- 

* SceondieBe^ueitions,SchereTL5. 5.47jf., Mullenhoff, ^nn./J^. iii I77f. 



have been traced in detail by Clarke, L 4. 76. 81 tT., ij6, and Bel- 
den, i.e. TheGeats, the hereditary enemie»of the Swedes, are natiually 
00 friendly teima with the Danes. It is true, me arc told, in rather 
vague language (i8s7 f-)' '''^' '" former times strife existed between 
the peoples of the Geati and Danes.' But, at any rale, since Beowulf's 
deliverance of Heorot, peace and good will were firmly established 
(1819 ff., 1859 ff.).> (Possibly even before that event, friendly gifts 
were enchangcd [378 f.].) The excellent pcRonal relations between 
Beowulf's femily and HrolSgar date from the time when E^g|)eow, the 
hero's father, was befriended at the Danish court (459 IF.]. They cul- 
micate in Beowulfs adoption (946 IF., 1175 f.). On the strange allu- 
sion of 1. 3005, see note on that passage. 

Regarding Biowulf the hero himself, the son of Ecgteow ' and 
grandson of HreBel (573 ff.), — the fects of his life, if fitted into tb* 
(brmaiogical icbtme here adopted, would show the following sequoice. 
He vras bom about the year 4.90. At the age of seven he was brought 
(Q the court of his grandjather HreiSel and nurtured there with loving 
care (141S ff.). [He was, however, considered slack and of little 
promise (3183 ff)-] [He distinguishes liimself In fighting giants and 
sea-monsters, 4tSff. and in a swimming adventure with Breca, ;ofiff.] 
He takes no part in the engagements with the Swedes vrhich culminate 
In the battle at Ravenswood. [In a.d. 510 he visits the Danes and de- 
livers Hrofigar from the plague of Grendel and his dam,] As a loyal 
thane he accompanies his unde Hygelac in his expedition against the 
Franks (a.d. 516), slays Dzghrefn (thus avenging Hygelac's death, 
it seems), and escapes home by swimming {1356 ff., 1501 ff.). Refus- 
ing Hygd's offer of the throne, he acts as Heardred's guardian during 
the latter's uilnority (1369 ff.). After Heardred's death in the fight 
with the Swedes (a.d. 518), he becomes king and soon supports Ead- 
gililnhis war on Onela, a.d. 530 (1389 ff.). [After a long reign he 
falls in a combat with a fire dragon, The date of his death must be 
left indefinite. At any rate, Beowulf 's fifty years' reign (1109) — which 
would leave him a nonagenarian at the time of the final battle — i« 
meant only as a sort of poetic formula.J^ 

' Cm this be i nleraice to the peiioii wbca tbs center of Danish power was itiQ 

• D^MKhbrin, /.. 
>t Lcjre with thr >n 

jnancc of the Geaa, 

irSr) mjd 

e hii > 

1831 ff., .855 ff.« 
Further discunioD by 


• Thd'a 
■• Cf. U. 


, i.e. Eggt^, 
, and above, | 

p. iiiii. 

D,g,l zed b, Google 


7hi Natinnalitj of ihi Geat» 

This has been the subject of a prolonged controvewy, which hat 
brought out manifold aspects of the question, linguistic, geographical, 
historical, and literary. Grundtvig assigned the Geats to the island of 
Gotland (or, foi a second choice, CoBomholm) ; Kemble to Angeln, 
Schlesivig ; Haigh (as a matter of course) to North England. But the 
only peoples that have been actually admitted as rival claimants to the 
title are the Jules in the northern part of the Jutish peninsula, and the 
ON. Gautar, O.Swed. Ggtar, i.e. the inhabitants of Vaster- and Os- 
tergotland, south of the great Swedish laket. > 

Phonetically OE. Gialas' answers precisely to ON. Gautar. The 
OE. name of the (West Germanic) Jutes is Angl. £o(«, hu (Utan), 
LWS. Ttt, rian,i as used in IfiJi. »6 i Ttum. OE.Bede 30g.11 : 
Eola (Wit. : f Una) loud, Of.CAroB. A. D. 449 ; /wnni, /lirnii (Biedai 
lutarum) cyn, and no significance can be ascribed to the forms Giata, 
Glalum found in one place only, Btdt 51. 4, 9.* The ON, form for 
•Jutes,'S Joiar (Jiilar), app^rs in an imperfect transliteration (in 
King jllfred'a narrative of Ohthere's second voyage, Oror. 19.10, 
33), as Gotland (more properly: Gedtland). In linguistic respect, then, 
the identification of the Geatas cannot be doubtful, and very weighty 
arguments Indeed would be required to overthron this fundamental 
evidence in favor of the Getar. 

Testimony of a geographical and historical character has been 
brought forward to support the Jutish claims, but it is somewhat im- 
paired by the fiict that the early history of Jutland as nell as of Got- 
land is enveloped in obscurity. It is clear from the poem that the 
Geats are a seafaring people." Hygelac's castle is situated near the 
sea (1924, 19G1 tf.), the dragon is pushed over the sea-cliff (3131 C), 
and on the ' whale's headland ' do the Geats erect the grave monu- 
ment of their beloved king (iSoi If., 3136). The intercourse be- 

■ See Leo L 4. 14, Schaldrmou L 1. 3, Fahlbcck L4. 71. i& 1, Bugge t fil, 
Gering L j, j6. p. vii, Weyhe L 4. 94, Schutte L 4. 71. j, Kier L. 4. 78, (in 
favor of thejula]; — {and fortliEopposile viciv,i9pecia]ly :] EnmullerTnnil.,Sar- 
raiin St. ij ff., ten Brink ch. 11 ; Schiick, Bjorkmsn, Stjetna (L 4. 7^) i USIen- 
b«k L4. 71. 187 ff. ; Chimbcn Wid. 107 ; ilio MoUer, E Si. itii 313 n. jTaj- 
ftt,lUPi. iii66. — More recendy Schutte has declmrj the GSitai of tfewuiiW- 10 
be 1 Gautic colony in N. E. Jutland ; Ke PuU. af tki Sctiilyfir the Advanameat 
of SeanJhavlan Study i 1S5 f. (Summary of a paper read at GoCeboTg in AugiiW, 


* The Ktlitaiy exception to the Bumrulf practice in 1. 443 : Giauna is of little 
eonsequence; cf. Lang. § 16. z. 

' See Introd. to T*t Fight at Finnslmrg. ' Cf, jii'gl. Iivii 412. 

' It ii a plausible assumpiian that the (W. Germ.) name 'Jutea * wa> iranifcrrtd 
to the Scandinavian lenlen of Jutland, who became amalgamated with those of the 
original population that had remained in tbnr old home. (Cf. Much, R.-L. a 613.) 

' Si-Giaiai iSto. ia86 : limca lau. irimvlm iita. 



tneen the Swedes and Geats lakes place eftr li i%%a, 1394, ofer 
•wid •wattr Z473, nftr htafa 1477. Contrariwise, in historic times the 
Getar are a typical inland people with their capital Skara ftt away 
from the sea. It is possible, nevertheless, thai farmerly Halland and Bo- 
huslan with an extensive coast line were included in the kingdom of 
Gautland;' and that it was only after their subjugation by the Swedes and 
the forfeiture of tho^e domains that the Gautar — like the Anglo-Sax- 
ons after their settlement in Britain — lost their skill in matters nauti- 
cal. Again, the water route by which the Swedes and Gcats reached 
each cither may very well have been by way of the great likes, Viner 
and Vatter.' Even the passage by the Bailie Sea and Lake Malar 
might have been less inconvenient than the impassable inland roads. 
Moreover, can we be sure that the Anglo-Saxon poet had a clear 
knowledge of Northern geography i Is it not rather likely that he 
would suppose all branches of the Scandinavians to be seafaring pto- 
plea ? Certainly the topographical hints contained in the poem could 
not be used successtully for definite localization. The 'sea-ciifFi' 
(191 1 f.), which would fit in better with the coast of Vastergcitland 
and Halland than with the shore of Jutland, seem to be part of a con- 
ventional description based on notions of English scenery. (They are 
attributed to Zealand also, lai I.) 'Storms' {implied by the terms 
Weder-Giatai, Wtdtrai) could visit the shores of Vastergotland and 
Jutland alike, and nothing but poetic invention seems to be back of the 
place-names Hrontsnai 1805, tamanas 3031, cf Hrefnaiuudu 1915, 
Hrefntihelt 1935 (see 1941, 3014 ff.). 

As regards the hostile relations between the two tribes, we leant 
from the ffoivu^that the wars extended over a considerable period 
and were plainly called forth by natural causes of a serious nature such 
as are easily to be found in the case of neighboring peoples. !t would 
be difficult to understand, on the other hand, why the Jutesand Swedes 
should persist in warring upon each other in such inveterate fashion. 

The military expedition of the Geats in another direction, vii. against 
the Pranks and Frisians, it has been claimed, points to the Jutes rather 
than to the distant G^tar.' Especially the apprehension expressed, after 
Beowulf's death, of future attacks from the Merovingians (1911 tf.) 
has been thought to be natural from the Jutland horizon only.* But 

' See Schiitk'i arguments, pp. 11 ff. Acicwillng to Sijema, p. 91 the Baldc 
Sea It meaat. 

' And, to some ertent, by wiy of neighboring riverB. Cf. SchSck, Pi>:_Hfr.lf 
necessary, boatt could be ucried from one body of water to another. Cp. Ohlhuc'i 
Voyage(0™. 19. b S.) : and iiraS pa Cielniu iyra icypu nfcr land an Sa mirai, and 
panon hirgmS on Bd No'Smiit. 

• Little light a obQined from (he chaiattetiiation of Hygelii as king of the 
'Danes' (not 'Juto,' by the way) l^ Gregory of Toun and as king of die ' Getae' 
in the Liter JUcnilrarum, tee above, p, ili, 

' Sanailn Kid. 90 f. aicribes this lentimcnt lo the Filiiani' point of view dil- 
iag from an inlermedlale Frisian ilage in the history of the poem. Cf. also Schiick 
1-4- 19- 48- . 


just as the poet (thj-ough the mouth of th« messenger) declared the 
Geats' fear of renewed wars with the Swedes (2912 f., 1999 S., 
jot 5 If,), his thoughts would likewise turn to the continental enemies 
of Beowulf a people, who might be expected to seize the oppoituuity 
of seeking revenge. The death of the illustrious king, this is apparently 
the main idea he wishes tu convey, will leave the country without pro- 
tection against any of its foes. 

It has been observed that iti later literary sources the tradilion be- 
came confused, and the place of the Geats was taken by Danes and 
Jutes. Thus, Hugletus (like Gregory's Ch{l)ochilaicus) figures as a 
Danish king (see above, p. xli), the scene of the first great encounter be- 
tween Swedes and Geats is shifted (by an evident blunder) from Sweden 
to Jutland (Vendel),' and ASils gains support from Hrolfr Kraki instead 
of from the Geat king. Yet the interesting feet remains that BgSvatr 
Bjarki, Hrolf's famous warrior, who assists ASils in his fight against 
Ali, has come from Gautlatid to the Danish court. On the whole, the 
Danification of the legends seems to be naturally accounted for by the 
very early absorption of the Geats into the Swedish state. The loss of 
their independent existence caused the deeds of the Geatish kings to 
be attributed to members of other, prominent Scandinavian divisions, 
the resemblance of the names Gautar and ^lifar aiding in this process.' 

The probability is thus certainly on the side of the G^tar, and it re- 
quires no great stretch of the imagination to look upon this contest be- 
tween the two Northern tribes as one of the most significant phases <£ 
early Scandinavian history.' 

Of the territory occupied by the Getar, Vaslergotland is commonly 
believed to correspond to Hygelac's realm, and his royal tovm has been 
conjecturally located at ICungsbacka or at Kungalf (south and north 
of Gotebotg respectively).' 

IV. The Chiistiaii Coloring = 

The presentation of the story-material in Beaiviilf has been influ- 
enced, to a considerable extent, by ideas derived from Christianity. 

The poem abounds, to be sure, in supernatural elements of pre- 
Christian associations.^ Heathen practices are mentioned in several 
places, such as the vowing of sacrifices at idol lanes (175 fF.), the ob- 
serving of omens (204.), the burning of the dead (3137 fF., 11 07 tf., 

a 1922 

C(. Sijirma, th. 4. — The shify 


e traditions 

of the HeaSo-BarJi (» 




By archcologicil data Stjerna {/.f. 


bled to tn 

e definitely the cause, a. 



SricriH, fbr archeoLogical and g 



al reaioiH 

preferred the iihiKl 


See etpecially L 4. 147 ff. 

* Cf. ab. 

VB, p. .U & notes. 



SI14 ff.), which was fronned upon by the Church. The (requent allu- 
lions to the power of fote (vjyrd, cf. Angl. xxxvi 171 f.), the motive 
.of blood revenge {1384 f., cp. 1669 f., 1156, 1178, 1546 f.), the 
praise of worldly gloiy (1387 fT., cp. 1804 f}'., 884 f., 954 f.) bear 
testimony to an ancient bacliground of pagan conceptions and ideals. 
On the other hand, we heat nothing of angels, saints, relics, of Christ 
and the cross, of divine worship, church observances, or any particular 
dogmatic points. Stilt, the gcncnl impression we obtain from the 
reading of the poem is certainly the opposite of pagan barbarism. We 
almost seem to move in normal Christian surroundings. God's gov- 
ernance of the world and of every human being, the evil of sin, rhe 
doings of the devil, the last judgment, heaven and hell are ever and 
amon referred to as familiar topics, (See the detailed discussion, Angl, 
XXXV iij fF., 149 tr., 453 IF.) Though mostly short, these allusions 
show by their remarkable frequency how thoroughly the whole life was 
felt to be dominated by Christian ideas. The author is clearly &niiliar 
with the traditional Christian terminology in question and evinces some 
knowledge ' of the Bible, liturgy, and ecclesiasticai literature. Of spe- 
cific motives derived from the Old Testament (and occurring in Genesis 
A also) we note the story of Cain, the giants, and the deluge (107 fT., 
1261 fT., 16E9 IF,), and the song of Creation (91 if,). 

Furthermore, the transformation of old heathen elements in accord- 
ance with Christian thought may be readily observed. The pagan and 
heroic cremation finds a counterpart in the peaceful burial of the dead, 
which the Church enforced (1007 f , 1457 f , cp. 445 f., 3107 fi".). 
The curae placed on the fateful treasure is clothed in a Christian for- 
mula (5071 fT.) and ia declared to be void before the higher will of 
God (3054 fF.). By the side of the heathen fate is seen the almighty 
God, GiB a tvyrd iitia bio icel, exclaims Beowulf in expectation of 
the Grendel fight, 455, but again, in the same speech, he avows : a*r 
ge0fan steal / Dryhtnis dome it pe hine diaS nimeU ^^o. The ftinctions 
of filte' and Godseem quite parallel ; lujTi/fl/i nirM / H»/*^( eor/ . . . 
571 ; JTufl mitg unfirge last gedigan / •wean and •wricits le Oe IVai- 
dendes j hyldo gehialdep 1191 ; cp, 1574 and 979, 1516 and i5i7(.'); 
571 f, and 669 f. Yet God is said to control fate ; ncfnt bim ixAtig 
God my/rd forsiode / ond fas maitnei mad 105(1.^ Moreover, the fun- 
damental contrast between the good God and the blind and hostile 
fate is shown by the fact that God invariably grants victory (even in , 
the tragic dragon fight, 1874), whereas it is a mysterious, hidden spell 
that brings about BeowulTs death, 3067 ff. 

Predominantly Christian are the general tone of the poem and its l 

WheCb« direct 
Still, TO^ri/ijnol 

indiry, cf 

; alB 


■Id), II 

v48i&n. 1 Sc^. 

ertn is often used in a colorlesi 


uggeited i 


.ceding footnote c«e 

.inly .pplia here. 


ethical viewpoint. We are no longer in a genuine pagan atmoiphere. 
The sentiment hai been softened and purified. The virtues of raodera- 
tion, unselfishiiesB, cunsideration for others are practised and appre- 
ciated. The manifest readiness to express gia.tilude to God on all 
imaginable occasions (6x5 <f., 1397 f., 918 f., 1778 f., i6z6f., 1997 f., 
1794 fF., 117 f.), and the poet's sympathy with weak and unfor- 
tunate beings like Scyld the foundling (7, 46) and even Gtcndet (e.g. 
105, 7x1, 973, 975, 1151) and his mother (1546 f.), are typical of (he 
new note. Particularly striking is the moral refinement of the two prin- 
cipal characters, Beowulf and HriiiSgir. Those readers who, impressed 
by Beowulf's martial appearance at the beginning of the action, expect 
to find an aggressive warrior hero of the Achillea or Sigfrit type, will 
be disposed at times to think him somewhat tame, sentimental, and 
fond of talking. Indeed, the final estimale of the hero's character hf 
hia own foithful thanes lamenting his death is chiefly a praise of 
Beowulf's gentleness and kindness : c-wlcdoit put be •ware layruld- 
cyning [a\ / manna milJujl ond monaiuicrusi, / tiodum lisoit end lofgetr- 

The Christian elements are almost without exception so deeply in- 
grained in the very fabric of the poem that they cannot be explained 
away as the work oi a reviser or later interpolator. ' In addition, it is 
instructive to note that whilst the episodes are all but free from those 
modern influences,* the main story has been thoroughly imbued with 
the spirit of Christianity. It is true, the action itself is not modified 
or visibly influenced by Christianization.^ But the quality of the plot 
is chan^d.. The author has feirly exalted the fights with fabled inon- 
sters into a conflict between the powers of good and of evil. The 
figure of Grendel, at any rate, while originally an ordinary Scandina- 
vian tioll,^ and passing in the poem as a sort of man-monster,' is at 
the same time conceived of as an impersonation of evil and darkness, 
even an incarnation of the Christian devil. Many of his appellations are 
unquestionable epithets of Satan lt.g.,ffOnd mancynnes, Godei andlaca, 
feond on hetli, belle h-rfia ; cf. Angt. xxxv 150 fF.), he belongs to the 
wicked progeny of Cain, the first murderer, his a«ions are represented 
in a manner suggesting the conduct of the evil one (cf. ib. 157), aaid 
he dwells with his demon mother* in a place which calls up vision* 

' See Angt, <«»i 1 79 (f, i CI, Hall, pp. x\ii ff. ; for inteinling arguments to 
the contrary, tee Chadwick H. A. 47 fF. On posablt interpolanons, see btlow. 
Chapter vili : ' Genaia of the Pwm. ' 

' The Christian turn given the Heremod motjw (901 fT., 1709 fF.) and some 
aUuuoni in the Siyld prologue are the chief eiceptioni. {Cf. Angl. uiv 471 f.) 

' See note on 1555 f. j .rf«£/. «« +80, «.vi 178. 

* In the poem called taUn, 761, cp. 668 ; py, 416. 

' See, e.g., loj, 1351, also 1379. 

' Some of hei epithets U leacl aie redolent of devil nature, viz. miiicaSa, ^i/^l- 
giifwSfre, perhaps^), £ru«« (?), cp. {*/«r) dl^fa (Jr,«) ,68o. 
(Aagl. ixxvi 188, tf. it. xwv 153, 156.) 



of hell (see note on iiS7ff.). Even the antagonist of the third adven- 
ture, though less personally conceived than the Grendel pair, is not free 
from the suspicion of similar influences, especially as the dragon wasi 
in ecclesiastical tradition the recognized symbol of the archfiend. I 
(Ajr/. nmi ■«! t) ' 

That the victorious champion, who overcomes (his group of monsters, 
is a decidedly unusual ligure of very uncertain historical associations, 
has been pointed out before. The poet has raised him to the ranjc of a 
singulariy spotless hero, a 'defending, protecting, redeeming being',' a 
truly ideal character. In fact, we need not hesitate to recogniie features 
of the Christian Savio,t in the destroyer of hellish fiends, the warrior ' 
brave "sill d gtlitle, blameless in thought and deed, the king that dies for 
his people. Nor is the possibility of discovering direct allusions to 
the person of the Savior to be ignored. While there are not laclcing 
certain hints of this kind in the first part of (he poem {g^z if., 1707 
If.), it is especially in the last adventure that we are strongjy tempted 
to look for a deeper, spiritual interpretation. The duality of the mo- 
tives which apparently prompt Beowulf to the dragon flght may not 
be as unnaluial as it has sometimes been considered,' Still, it is some- 
what strange that the same gold which Beowulf rejoices in having ob- 
tained for his people before the hour of his death (pai se U maite uiinum 
llodum I Sr itvyltdagi I'wyic griitynaa 1797), is placed by his mourn- 
ing thanes into the burial mound ; they give it back to the earth — 
Jrfr bit ttii got tifaa J eUum i-tva uniiyt, itua bit iror misi % 1 67.* 
Nay, Wiglaf, in the depth of his sorrow which makes him oblivious 
of all elscj expresses the wish that Beowulf had lef^ the dragon alone to 
hold his den until the end of the world {J079 fF.). The indubitably 
lignilicant result of the adventure is the hero's death, and, in the struc- 
tural plan of the poem, the aim and object of the dragon tight is to lead 
up to this event, — a death, that is, which involves the destruction of the 
adversary, but is no less noteworthy in that It partakes of the nature of 
a self-sacrifice I JVii icon masma hard mine bebahit / frade fiorbtegf 
2799. That also some incidents in the encounter with the dragon lend 
themselves to comparison with happenings in the garden of Geth- 
semane, is shown in the notes to It. i^ig and 1596 S. 

Though delicately kept in the background, this Christian interpreta- 
tion of the main story ott the part of the Anglo-Saxon author gives 

' (See Kemble it, p.i.) In hii role u 1 deliverer from the nvagn of moniten 
he might well be hkined to ancient heroa like Hercula and Theseiu. 

' S« above, pp. iiif. From the itindpoint of the poem, the defense of the coun- 
try and the desire of revenge ['oiritci Itsruedi 1^36) is the primary motive. The 
winning nf the hoard (1535 f., 1747 ff., 1794 ff.), which ii the sole object in the 
corrrspanding fight of Frotho, couUl be easily aEiociated with it. (Cf. Angl. uivi 

k corollary of the aabaidiary motivE of the cune 


added Gtreng;tli and tone to the entire poem. It explains one of the 
great puzzles of our epic. It would indeed be hard to understand why 
the poet contented himself with a plot of mere fabulous adrenturea bo 
much inferior to the splendid heroic setting, unless the narrative de- 
rived a lupcrior dignity from su^esting the most exalted hero-Ufe 
known to Christians. 

V. structure of the Poem ■ 

STRt;cTURAL Plan' 

The poem of Betviulf consists of two distinct parts jmned in a very 
loose manner and held together only by the person of the hero. The 
lirst of these does not in the least require or presuppose a continuation. 3 
'Nor is the second dependent for its interpretation on the events of the 
first plot, the two references to the ' Grendel part' being quite cursory 
and irrelevant (1351 if., 1511). The first part, again, contains two 
well-developed main incidents (which are closely enough bound together 
to constitute technically one story), while its third division, ' Beowulf '1 
Home-Coming,' only serves as a supplement to the preceding major 
plot. Aamaybieseenfrom the Argument of the Poem (above, pp. ixW.), 
there is a decided structural parallelism in the unfolding of the three 
great adventures, the fights with the fabulous monsters, namely in set- 
ting forth the ' exciting cause,' the preliminaries of the m^n action, 
the fight itself, and the relaxation or pause fbllomng the climax.* 

At the same time we note a remarkable gradation In the three great 
crises of the poem. The fight against Grendel is rather monotonous 
and seems altogether too short and easy to give much opportunity for 
excitement — in spite of the horrors of the darkness in which the scene 
Is enacted. The second contest is vastly more interesting by reason of 
its elaborate, romantic scenery, the variety and delinileness of incidents, 
the dramatic quality of the battle. The hero is fully armed, uses weap- 
ons in addition to his ■ hand-grip,' and yet is so hard pressed that only 
a kind of miiacle saves him. There is, moreover, an element of justice 
in represenring the combat with Gtendel's mother as more formidable 

' S« in genenl: L *. 1 fT., L 4. 110 ff. i L 7, faaim. 

• Cf. opcdally Ret L 4.. no, Hart L 4. tij, Smirbson L 4. ti8, Kelnsel 
L7- I. I &i, Totmin L7. II, ten Brink L 7. 15, Haenschkxl L 7. 10, Rao- 
lung L 4. 15, Routh L4. 138. 

' Only 1 hint of Beowulf's future kingship ii vouchiifed alter the second Tictmy, 
1850 ff. j i Winter echo of thli note i) heard after the first itigmph, S6J. 

* Ai icgirdi individual modiea, the function of the ipeechei (e.g. those utteral 
before the battles) rniy be compired. PuiUds in minor dttaili between the fint lad 
theiecond incident could be mentioned; cp. 119 IT., 473 S. and 1 311 ff. ; 451 f. 
and 1481 f. ; £1; f. and 1397 f. ; 636 It. and 1490 f. ; likewise between the fint 
and the second nuin pail, cp. 1769 and 1209 ; 86 f. ajid 1302 f. | I994 ff. and 
3079 a,, and lee above, pp. nil f. 



and pregnant with danger. Gtendel, who has ravaged the hall because 
of the innate nicltcdness of his heart, deserves to be overcome without 
difficulty. His mother, on the contrary, is actuated by the laudable 
desire for revenge (iijfi ff., 117K, 1305 f., 1546 f., c£. Antiq. | j) 
and, besides, is sought out in her own home ; hence a certain amount 
of sympathy is manifestly due her. Finally, the dragon (who likewise 
has a iciad of excuse for his depredations) is entirely too much for hia 
assailant. We tremble for the venerable king. He takes a special meas- 
ure for protection (2337 ff.), and is strengthened by the help of a youth- 
ful comrade, but the final victory is won only at the cost of the hero's 
own life. The account of this fight, which, like that against Grendcl's 
mother, falls into three clearly marked divisions, receives a new interest 
by the introduction of the companions, the glorification of one man's 
loyalty, and the added element of speech- making. 

The plot of each part is surprisingly simple. In the use of genuine ^ 
heroic motives the main story of Btotuulf is indeed inferior to the Finns- ; 
burg legend. But the author has contrived to expand the narrative con- 
siderably in the leisurely epic fashion, which differentiates it completely 
from the type of the short lays. Subsidiary as well as important inci- ' 
dents are related in our epic. Extended speeches are freely introduced. 
There is not wanting picturesque description and elaborate setting. In 
the first part of the poem, the splendid life at the Danish court with its 
feastings and ceremonies is graphically portrayed in true epic style. 
The feelings of the persons are described, and general reflections on 
characters, events, and situations are thrown in. Last not least, matter 
more or less detached from the chief narrative is given a place in the 
poem by way of digressions and episodes. > 

Digressions and Episodes 

About 450 verses in the first part and almost ija in the second part 
ore concerned with episodic matter, as the following list will show. 

The origin of the Scylding line and Scyld's burial (i-ji). The 
&te of Heocol (811^85). The song of Creation {^a^-g%). Cain's 
punishment, and his offspring (107''— 1145 ii6iti-ii66'). Youth- 
ful adventures of Beowulf (41 9-4i4»). Settling of Ecg^eow's feud (459- 
471). The UnfetIS intermeiio [Breca episode] {iS^-iH)- Stories 
of Sigemund and Heremod (S74t'-9i5). The Fiimsburg Tale (1069- 
1159'). Allusions to Eormenric and Hama (i 197-1101). The fall of 
Hygelac (iioi-iii4»). The destruction of the ^i5-fln/fl/(i689''-i693). 
Heremod's tragedy (i709''-i7ii'). Sermon against piide and ava- 
rice (i7i4i'-i757). Story a( Ipjffi, the wife of OfFa (i93i''-i9*»)- 
The feud between Danes and Hea«o-Bards (1031-1066). Beowulfa 
inglorious youth (ii83'^iiS9). 

* A npi diidncCion tKlwcen ' iligreisicnu ' and ' episodes ' aa attempted by Smjch- 
■D" (pp. 37' I 179 ^')' ^'"' ">''<i>'<'ri the accounCt of SigemuDd-Heremod and the 
Fuuuburg Tile the onty epiudu, need not be applied. 

D, ..■■.V^.OO^IC 


Elegy of the lone survivor of a roble race (1147— iz6&). Geatish 
hbtory : Hygelac's death in Friesland, Beowuirs re«um by swim- 
ming, and his guardianship of Heardred ; the second series of Swedish 
wan (1 3 54*^1 39 6). Geatish history ; King HreSel, the end of Here- 
beald [the Lament of the Father, 244.4— x46z>J, the earlier war with the 
Swedes, Beowulf's slaying of DECghiefii in Friesland (1418-1 5oS>V 
Weohstan'B slaying of Eanmund in the later Swedish-Geatish war 
(1611-1615'). Geatish history : Hygelac's tall ; the battle at Ravens- 
wood in the earlier Swedish war (i9iqI>-i998), 

It will be seen that several of these digressions contain welcome in- 
fonnatton about the hero's life { others tell of events relating to the 
Scylding dynasty and may be regarded as a legitimate sort of setting. 
The allusions to Cain and the giants are called forth by the references 
to Grendel's pedigree. The story of Creation is a concrete illustration 
of the entertainments in Heorol. Earlier Danish history is represented 
by Heremod, and the relation between Danish and Frisian tribes is 
shown in the Finn story. Germanic are the legends of Sigemund and 
of Eormenric and Hama. To the old continental home of the Angles 
belongs the allusion to Offa and his queen. The digressions of the 
second part are devoted chiefly to Geatish history, the exceptions being 
the 'Elegy of the Last Survivor' and the 'Lament of the Father,' 
which (like the central portion of Hroiigar's harangue in the first part) 
are of a more general character. The frequent mention of Hygelac's 
Prankish raid is accounted for by the &ct that it is closely bound up 
both with Geatish history in general and with Beowulf's life in particu- 
lar. Accordingly, sometimes the aggression and defeat of Hygelac are 
dwelt upon (iioa ff., 1913 ff.), in other passages Beowulf's bravery 
is made the salient point of the allusion (1354 tf., 1501 tf.). 

Most of the episodes are introduced in a skilfiil manner and are 
properly subordinated to the main narrative. For example, the Breca. 
story comes in naturally in a dispute occurring at the evening's enter- 
tainment.' The legends of Sigemund and of Finnsbuig are recited by 
the scop. The glory of Scyld's life and departure forms a fitting prelude 
to the history of the Scyldings, who, next to the hero, claim our chief 
interest in the first part. In several instances the introduction is elfected 
by means of comparison or contrast (in the form of a negative : 1 1 97, 
1709, 1931, 1354, [i9"]< cp. 901). Occasionally the episodic char- 
acter is clearly pointed out 1 1069 ic iceal fore sprecan / gen ymbt 
' Grendel • ijn 3u pi Ixr bt ]nin . . . , iV ]>ii gid bt pi f ai/^riec. The 
fects of Geatish history, it cannot be denied, are a little too much in 
evidence and retard the narrative of the second part rather seriously. 
Quite far-fetched may seem the digression on JlryC, which Is brought 

' In ai much as ihc hero tell! pf hU (ailier lift in the coone of 1 festive encer- 
taintnent, thii epiiode may be compared to ^neai' narradve at Dido's court 
(yEmiJ, Books ii ind HI ] and iti prototype, Odyiteui' recital of his adventures before 
Alkinooa i,Odjiuy, Booki ii-iiij. 


in Tciy abruptly and which, like the Heremod tale, shorn the poet's 
disposition to point a moral. 

In extent the episodic topics range from cursory allusions of a fen 
lines (Si,*^S$, rr97-uoi) to complete and complicated narrative* 

ithe aidventute with Bteca, the Finnsburg legend, the HeaSo-Bard 
eud, the battle at Ravenswood). 

A few passages, like the old spearman's speech (1047-56) and the 
recital of the Ravenswood battle (1924 If.), give the impression of be- 
ing taken nithout much change (In substance) from older lays. The 
Elegy of the Last Survivor reminds us of similar elegiac passages in Old 
Englbh poetry (see tfaaderer, panim, and Ruin). The line picture 
of Scyld's sea-burial, and the elaboration of detail in the Beowulf- 
Breca adventure seem to be very largely, if not exclusively, the poet's 
own work. Most of the episodes, however, are merely summaries of 
events told in general terms and are far removed both from the style 
of independent lays (like the Fianiburg Fragment) and from the 
broad, expansive epic manner. The distinctly allusive character of a 
number of them shows that the poet assumed a familiarity with the 
fiill story on the part of his audience. 

On the whole, we have every reason to be thankful for these episodes, 
which not only add fulness and variety 10 the central plot, but disclose 
a wealth of authentic heroic song and legend, a magnificent historic 
background. Still we may well regret that those subjects of intensely 
absorbing interest play otily a minor part in our epic, having to s^tre 
as a foil to a story which in itself is of decidedly inferior weight. 

Speeches ' 

Upwards of 1300 lines are taken up with speeches.* The major pari 
of these contain digressions, episodes, descriptions, and reflections, and 
thus tend to delay the progress of the narrative. But even those which 
may be said to advance the action, are lacking in dramatic quality; 
they are characterized by eloquence and ceremonial dignity. The 
ihortest speech consists of four lines (the coast-guard's words of God- 
speed, ji6~i9), the longest extends to r6o lines (Beowulf's report to 
Hygellc, 1000-2151, 1155-61); almost as long is the messenger's 
discourse (118 II.! 1900-J017) ; next follow the Finn recital (90 II. : 
1069-1 159*), Hr6i%ar'B harangue (85 II. 1 1700-1784), Beowulf's rem- 
iniscences {S4 II.: 1416-1509), his answettoUnfei^'s version of the 
Breca story (77 II. ■. 530-606). ^ 

The formal character of the speeches is accentuated by the manner 

' Cf. in panicular i Heuslfr L 7. 18. 

' The proportion of (direct) ipeeth to narrative is in the WW 7339-. gfijs. In 
the Odtiuy 8140 : 3879, in the JEniiJ 463iJ^ : Si6j>i. 

' There are in the Btrwa/f somno inslanCM of diifct discoune averapng io 
the ndghborhood of 30 lines (i.e., if the Fianiburg episode ii included). _ 

D, ..■■.v^.oQi^ii: 


of their introduction. Most frequently the verb maSihde ' made a 
speech' ' is employed, either in set expressions occurring with the for- 
mula-like regularity nell known from the Homeric epic, as 
Biotuulf mapelniie, btara Ecgpeotvli 
Hrdsgdr mapehdt, helm Scylditiga 
IFigldf maertodi, Wtsbiiattes 4untt 
(see Glossary of Proper Names), or in combination with descriptive, 
chaiacteriiing, enplanaiory mattei intruded between the announcement 
and the actual beginning of the speech, e.g. Bioiuatf mattlodt ^ on 
bim hyvKi Kan, j searmtt semued traipii arpancum 405 f.' Other terms 
of introduction like »KMii'»''i^"'»y'"'«g'' aj6, flni/nuarcii* . . , luard- 
bord onliac 258 f, ^t I'uiigadi . . . ssgdi ofcr lalii 1S97 if. (cp. 
1115) likewise indicate the formality of the occasions.^ 

The prominent and rather independent position of the speechet ia 
signalized by the fact that, in contrast with the usual practice of en- 
jambement, nearly all the speeches begin and end with the full line. 
(The only exceptions are 187'', 3+i»i, jjo'', ijiit, isiSb, %i\t;<> i 
l89.(?)(i.59').) _ 

About one tenth of the lines devoted to speech is in the form of in- 
direct discourse, which is properly preferred for less important func- 
tions (in 'general narrative') and in the case of utterances by a col- 
lection of people (175. »oi. »»7. ES7> 987. 'S9S. '6i6>3'7a, 3180). 
The use of {ge)cwaS as immediate verb of introduction, following a 
preparatory statement of a more general character, should be mentioned 
here. E.g., snxiabegnornoden Giala liodt / hlaferdes {bry^re . . ., cwjcdnt 
P^ . . . 31S0 (so 91, 1810, 1158, 1939; 857, 874). 

Bv far the most felicitous use of the element of discourse is made in 
the first part, especially in the earlier division of il, from the opening 
of the action proper to the Grendel fight (189-709). The speeches 
occurring in it belong largely to the ' advancing ' type, consist mainly 
of dialogue (including two instances of the type 'question : reply : 
reply,' 137-300, 3JJ-1SS *)iand are an essential &ctor in creating 
the impression of true epic movement. As the poem continues, the 
speeches increase in length and deliberation. The natural form of dia- 
logue ^ is in the last part completely superseded by addresses without 
answer, some of them being virtually speeches in form only.* 

' 'ImpeifecIiTe Tcri)' (never nKd with ID object). See Glossuy. 

" KmiUtly iS6f., 3+8 ff., 499 ff., 915 ff.. 1(87 ff., 1510 f, 1631 f., 1714 ff, 
Cp. ffid,. I ff., ffa/d.h II ff.. Gin. B 347 S. ; Hel. 139 ff., 914 f., 3137 ff., 

* Of the Bimplei eiprtHioni, ftj inn'ia ciuxB (»146, 1661, ip. HiUibr. 9), 
ind pal word icwat (654, cp. 1046) may be noted u roraiulii {ZfdA. ilvi 
^(,f,Arch. c>i»!3i7n. 3). 

* Cp. 1318-1396 (indirect diKouIW! reply! reply). 

» Cp. n<,i : after P7lt> ■ui'^'dum (Vidir.Gtala lt.>i / ifui mid dm, nal<t>^fd- 
asart / bidan ■weldi. 

' The length of leveral of these is somewhat dlsguiiBd by the fact that dbey »re 



The 'Grendel pan' also shows ihc greatest variety, as regards the 
occasions for speech- making and the number of speakers participating 
(Beowulf, the coasi-guard, Wulfgir, HroSgar, Unfcri5, the scop, 
WealhNon). In its continuation (i i] the use pf discourse is practi- 
cally limited to an interchange of addresses between Beowulf and 

In a class by itself stands the pathetic soliloquy, 2147 fF. 

In spite of a certain sameness of Ireaimenl the poet has managed to 
introduce a respectnble degiee of variation in adapting the speeches 
to their particular occasions. Great indeed is the contrast between 
Beowulf's straightforward, determined vow of bravery (6ji-6ja) and 
HroS^r's moralizing oration, which would do credit to any preacher 
(1700-1784.). Admirable illustrations of varying moods and kinds of 
utterance are BeowulTs salutation to HroSgar (+07-455) ^"^ ^^^ t""'- 
liant reply to the envious trouble-maker Unfei^ (530-606). A master- 
piece is the queen's exhibition of diplomatic language by means of 
veiled allusion (111^9 f). A finely appropriate emotional quality 
characteriies Beowulf's dying speeches (1729 ff., 1794 ff., 1813 ff-). 

That some of the speeches lollow conventional lines of heroic tradi- 
tion need not be doubted. This applies to the type of the gylpctvidi 
before the combat (675 If., .1391 If., 1510 ff.), the 'comitatus* 
speech or exhortation of the retainers (1633 ff., cp. Bjarkamal [Par, 
J7 : Saxo ii 59 if.]. Maid. 112 ff., 246 ff., Finnib. 37 ff.), the inquiry 
after a stranger's name and home (237 IF.; cp. Fmnib. 22 f, Hildebr. 
% S., also Hit. 554 ff.). The absence of battle challenge and defiance 
(see Fiansh. 24 ff.) is an obvious, inherent defect of our poem. 

luiCK OF Steadv Advance 
The reader of the poem very soon perceives that the progress of the 
narrative is frequently impeded. Looseness is, in &ct, one of its marked 
peculiarities. Digressions and episodes, general reflections in the form 
of speeches, an abundance of moralizing passages (see below, pp. 
Uif. ) interrupt the stary. The author does not hesitate to wander 
from the subject. When he is reminded of a feature in some way re- 
lated to the matter in hand, he thinks it perfectly proper to speak of 
it. Hence references to the past are intruded in unexpected places. 
The manner of Scyld's wonderful arrival as a child is brought out in- 
cidentally by way of comparison with the splendor of his obsequies 
(43 ff.). Beowulf's renown at the height of his career calls to mind the 
days of his youth when he was held in disrespect (2183 fl\).' No less 


iniething that nil! happen in 
n of the haimany apparently 
reigning at the court of Hro'Sgar gives an opportuniiy to hint al sub- 
sequent treachery (loiS f., ii64f., iiBotf.). The building of the 
hall Heorot caUs up the picture of its destruction by fiie (81 IF.).' It 
ti not a tittle remarlcablc that In the account of the three great %hts of 
the hero, cate has been taken to state the outcome of the struggle in 
advance (696 fT., 706 f., 734 tf., S05 IF. ; 155} IF. i 1141 tF.> 1410 
ff'i *S7iff-. isSfi ff-, cp. 1510 f). Evidently disregard of the ele- 
ment of suspense vras not considered a detect in story telling.' 

Sometimes the result of a certain, action is stated lirsl, and the action 
itself mentioned afterwards (or entirely passed over). E.g., Pa •wij 
JHd tyning ... on trion modi, j sjtpan ht aldorpign unlyfigtndne . . . 
•wiisc 1306 f ' In this way a fine abruptness is attained ; bra tutd* 
Sprung, I type an hi sfttr deaSc drepe pratvadt 158S.* Thus it also 
nappens that a &ct of first importance is strangely suboidiruiEed (as in 

There occur obvious gaps in the narrative. That Wealht>eon lefl 
the hall in the course of the first day's festival, or that Beonu If brought 
the sword Hrunting back with him from the Grendel cave, is nowhere 
mentioned, but both facts are taken for granted at a later point of the 
story (664 f, 1807 IF.).* 

Furthermore, different parts of a story are sometimes told in differ- 
ent places, or substantially the same incident is related several times 
from different points of view. A complete, connected account of the 
history of the dragon's hoard is obtained only by a comparison of the 
passages, 3049 ff., 3069 ff., 1133 fF. The brirf notice of Grendel's 
liist visit in Heorot (iix f.) is supplemenled by a later allusion con- 
taining additional detail (isSoff.).' The repeatedreferences to the vari- 
ous Swedish wars, the frequent allusions to Hygelac's Prankish fbiay, 
the two versions of the Heremod legend, the review of Beowuirs great 
fights by means of hii report to Hygelac (and to HroSgar) and through 
Wiglai*s announcement to his companions (1874 ff. ; cp. also 1,904 ff.) 
are well-known cases in point. 

Typical examples of the tambling, dilatory method — the forward, 
backward, and sideward movements — are afforded by the introduc- 

' Similarly, e.g., no! ff., i34( ff., 30it ff. j loji ff. (predjcdon of war with 
the HaSo-Bards). 

' TbtaxitbatoSJudiiiMaibt ume method (11. 16, 19, 59 f., 63 ff., 71 f.). 
On ptedictioni of a tragic issue in the NiUlunginliid, ice Radke L 7- 37- 47 f- 

' Cf. notM on loS ff., 1697 ff. 

* Olheriasea of abrupt tranHtionateinuineratsil by SchUck'ing, Si. 139 ff. 

' SubcHdLnatediuiMintroiu«dby«aitflriorbyoStd-((j6, 100, Illo, liSo, 
644) ire uKd 1 number of tim« in plice of 1 cD-oidinire, indiependint Uatement. 

' Cp. .he orabflon of Heorogit'. reign (6«, 4*5 «■)■ 

' Cp. 83 ff. and IOZ9 ff. We might compare the accoant of Satan's rebellion 
in (he liisl and the Mh and liith booki of Faradia Lou. 

D, ..■■.V^.OO^IC 


tion of Grendel (see note on £6-114), ^y *^^ Grcndcl fight (see note 
on 710 ff.), Grendel's going to Heorot (701 ff.),' and the odd sequel 
of the fighl with Grendel's mother (1J70-90). The remarkable inser- 
tion of a long speech by Wiglaf, together with comment on his fam- 
ily, right at a critical moment of the dragon fight (1601-60), can 
hardly be called felicitous. But still more trying is the circuitous route 
by «hich the events leading up to that combat are brought before the 
reader (see note on iioo If. : Second Pan). 

VI. Tone, Style, Meter* 

Although a poem of action, Beotvuif'h more than s 
notable events. Not that the author is lacking in the art of telling a 
itory effectively. But a mere objective narration is not his chief aim. 
Tlie poet is not satisiied with reciting facts, heroic and stirring though 
they be. Nor does he trouble to describe in a clear, concrete manner . 
Ae outward appearance of the pereons, even of the principal hero, 
though he sets forth, with eloquence, the striking impression he makes 
on others (14,7 ff., cp. 369 f.). But he lakes the keenest interest in the 
inner significance of the happenings, the underlying motives, the maiu-| 
festation of character. He loses no opportunity of disclosing what is ,' 
going on in the minds of his actors. He is ever ready to ai^yze the ' 
thoughts and feelings of Beowulf and HroSgar, the Danes and the 
Geats, Grendel and his kind, even down to the sea-monsters (54.9, 
5S1, 14J1) and the birds of prey (3014 ff.). Their intentEons, resolu- 
tions, expectations, hopes, fears, longings, rejoicings, and mental suffer- 
ings engage his constant attention.^ In a moment of intensesc action, 
tuch as the combat with Grendel, the state of mind of the characters 
ii carefully taken note of (710 ff. ), An elaborate jiaydiolagicalanalysii 
runs through^ the_ cental port of UroS^r's great moral discourse (1724 
ff.).* Delicacy as well as strength of emotion are finely depicted (see 
861 f., 1601 if.,s 1853 ff., 1S94, 1915 f., 1893 ff., 3031 f.), and 

' The repetition of rfn 701, 710, 710 may be compared with Das, 149 f., ijg. 

• Cf. L 7, L 8 ; alK) L 4, ^nm. 

■ S«,e.g.,6jifr., 709,758, 1171,1441, i536f., 1539, 1565,1419,1571; 
136, IS4 ff-, 599 f-< 7", 7»3. Ti°^-< 739> 7S3 if; 761. 769. ^" i i"9i 
1137 ff., iijo; 17"9- See also Glmsarj 1 mjnMi., Ki*n(fln), ptnian, g'lyfti, 
marnan, (£e)jr«TO;fln, iifia, gefian, pancian.gibilgan, scamian, urb, gcimarjfr. 
viyl(i), gimunan, afa, med,JirkB. {Cf. jingl. iiiv 470.) 

* A curioui result of thJ> mental attitude b a certain inditectnesi of eiprcssion 
which In numeroiu passages takes precedence over the natunl, straightforward man- 
ner of Matement, see, e.g., 715, 764, 1309, 1936, 1969; 814 f. ; 866 [ 531, 
677, 79jf-, '*45i>Msf., 1363, 1995. , . 

' Giitai aiai I mt^i Oeci emJ tn tifi acrtJim — voida as mOYing in their 
UDiple dignity aa any lines from Wordsworth's Miiiacl. 


numeroui little touches Indicate an appreciation of Icind-hearlednen 

(e.g., 4*- los"-, 469I', 5ii«, ii62l», i»75, 1547«, 1434''. J093*)- 

With eapecial fondneit does the author dndlon theiceling¥of gd^ 
and ladneu. Hro'Egar'i toiron fur hii thanes (119 fT, 473 fT., ijii if.), 
his wondcifully sentimentai farewell to his young friend (1S70 fl'.), 
BeowuiTi yielding to a morbid reverie when least enpectcd (+4.1 ff., 
cp. 56a f.), the gloomy forebodings of his men and their yearning love 
of home (691 If-),' the ever recurring aur^ngsof care,' the abundance 
of epithets denoting sadness of heart* give ample evidence of the per- 
vading influence of this characteristic trait. It almost seems as if the 
victories of the hero and the revelries In the hall produce only a tem- 
porary stale of happiness, since 'ever the latter end of joy is woe' 
(119, iiS, 1007 f., 107S tf., 1774 f.).* Even Wiglaf's stem rebuke 
(^rim andiiuaru) of his cowardly comrades is tinged with melancholy 
reflections {1S61 fl".). Full of profound pathos are the elegies of the 
latt survivor (1147 ff-) and the lonely father (1444 ff.). The regret 
for the passing of youth (1 1 1 1 ff.), the Ument for the dead (1117 f., 
1J13 ff., 1446 {., J151 ff., J171 ff.), the tragic conflict of duties 
(HriSel, I46iff. ; Hengest, ii^S ff. ; Ingeld, 1063 ff.),^ the lingering - 
fear of a catastrophe in the royal family of the Scyldings (cf. above, 
pp. xxxii, xxxvi), the anticipation of the downfall of the Geats' power (cfl 
above, p. xli) aptly typify the prevailing Teutonic mood of serious- 
ness, solemnity, and sadness. But nowhere appears the tragic pathoa 
more subtly vtorked into the story than in Beowulf's own death. The 
venerable king succeeds in overcoming the deadly foe, but suffers death 
himself g be wins the coveted hoard, but it is of no use to him or hii 
folk i he enters upon the task with the purest intention, even searching 
his heart for sins he may have unwittingly committed (1J19 ff,), but 
he encounters a fatal curse of which he Icnew nothing (3067 f.)T 

The scenery of the poem — sea and seashore, lake and fen-district, 
the royal hall and its surroundings, the Grendel and the dragon cave — 
is in the main sketched briefly, yet withal impressively. The large put 
which the sea played in the life of the Beowulflan peoples, finds ex- 
pression in an astonishing wealth of terms applied to it ^ and in nunici^ 
ous allusions to its dominating geographical importance,' Clear visuati- 
zatlon and detailed description of scenery should not be expected, as a 
nile.i Elements of nature are introduced as a background for human 

' Cf. jirck. cxivi 343. • Cf. Arik. cixvi 351. 

' Cf, Biiir. «x 391. * Cf. MPb. iii 449, ilio ^ngl. xnT 4;9 ff. 

' A truly Germanic motive, perhaps beet known from the uorio of RiiedegEr, 
Kriemhilt, and Hildebnnd. 

• SeeSchemannL 7. 5, 34 ff., 91 ff., Tolman L 7. II, Mertach L 7. 17, 
Erleminn L 7, 19. 16 ff. 

' Thus, *( iSm FDitaniim 858, 1197, 168;, 1956 ; iivt lidt ml i5 htbanS I 
VlhJgurJ -wialla, III] , ./(-■ *™riJ, .0 i iSi6, 1861, 1475, 

* On the Kmewhit vigue UK of color tenni, lee Mead L 7. ]>. 


action or as symbols of sentiment. Ni^U&U, dawn, the advent of 
■piJDg ■ signalize new stBges in the nanative. The stoim on the njntr^ 
ocean accompanies the stn^^le of the courageous swimmers.' The swirl 
(^the blood-stained lake tells of deadly conflict (S47 fT., 1411, i;93 
f). The funciaJ ship is covered with ice (33), and frost-bound trees 
liang over the forbidding water (1365). The moors of the dreary desert, 
steep Etone-banks, windy headlands, mist and darkness ate &t surround- 
ings for the lonely, wretched stalkers of mystery. 'Joyless' (8ii) is 
their abode. Strikingly picturesque and emotional in quality is the \ 
one elaborate landscape picture representing the Grendel lake (1357 ff.), ' 
which conveys all the horror of the somber scenery and appeals force- 
fully to OUT imagination — a justly celebrated masterpiece of English 
nature poetry. 

In such a gloomy atmosphere there can be no rooni^guL levity, fun, 
or humor. Passages which to modern readers might seem to be humor- 
ous were certainly not so meant by the Anglo-Saxon author (e.g., 138 f., 
560 f., 793 f., 841 f.). On the contrary, he is always in earnest, not.. 
ably intense, and bent on morallung. Acting in a way like a Greek 
chorus, the poet lake* pleasure in adding his philosopluc comment or 
conclusion, or, it may be, his slightly emotional expression of ap- 
proval or censure. Thus, individual occurrences are viewed as illustra- 
tions of a general rule, subject to the decrees of fate or of God.^ The 
course of the world, the inevitableness of death are set forth.* The 
author bestows praise and blame upon persons and their actions, some- 
times in brief quasi-exclamatory clauses like piet tvai gid cyning 1 1, 
23905 lu big sioyU largii lit 1541 ; rwd hyt nd sceoldi I (iren 
^gid) 1585 i' sometimes, however, by turning aside and pointing a 
moral, with manifest relish, for its own sake. Thus, courage, loyalty, 
liberality, wisdom are held up as qualities worthy of emulation. E.g., 
fLua sceal Igteng g)uma ^dt getuyrcKOi etc. lo IF. i sttia iceal m3g 
dan, I ntalla iniuitnct derum bregdon etc. 1166 ff.* The punish- 
ment of hell is commented upon by way of warning and of contrast 
with the joys of heaven 1 ivJ bis Pirn at iceal . . . latult biieufan j in 
Syresf^^ 183 ff. 

A* to form, the gnomic elements are clearly marked by the use of 

' SR649fr., 1789 f.j 1801 fT. ; ii36f. 

• Thia, g«/o« JJ.1* -mid, I ■uiimry, ■u,ylm[um-\ 5 1 5 ; p* >*r ""f pd lidrlf, / 
viaJe viialUniU, ■anJtraclaldsii, / nlpcnJi niir, and Korfauiivinii / btaSogrim snd- 
btiiu'f S4S- , 

' E.(., ip p^l bine yids Atjiflm / mieginii vijnitum, il pi eft mani^um scfd 
l8S6f.i up Sat aptrism / glar in geardai, — rai nH gyl d/6 m. 1133 ff.; 
cp. lojS, 1859 i 1470, »590 i- 

• E.g., Ofl Ktall curl menig iitii iiiilUa / ■airm tdrtogen, not Ai gewerdin I'l 
J077 i.;gie 4 tayrd nut tie ici/ ^Si iifi pat ySibyS/abiJUinni ttc. 1002 ff.; 
04 f. ; 572 f., 1191 ff. i 1019 ff., 276+ ff., 3°62 ff. 

' Cp. 1150, 181X, 1885 (., 1J7I. "691 f-, "94° ff- {amplified). 

• SimilirfyiS34ff.i2B7ff., 3174 ff- 

D,-.-.jL, Google 


certiin words or phrases, such as .kwo ictal {man dm) (lo); ' tvjyle 
iceiidt (jecg lueian) (2708, 1518) ; lilrtbia* (1J84, 1890, 18 38 f.); 
a, ifre («) (45S. 93". i"*"-); =/' (?/>«') C57i, 1019, 5077, i"j)i 
^usi mrfy (119 1, 1764; cp. looi); iliE J«a/ of necessity or certainly 
(14. i^n)- 

The abstracting, generalizing tendency often takes the fonii of re- 
capitulating or explanatory remarks like luai it irenprlat / tdpnttnl 
gi-wurPed jjo f., lume oh lualt crungon 1115, lotrj to fast en pam 
I J 7, swylc luai piatubyra 178;^ of illustrative comparisons, e.g. Ht 
'wai bis drabtoS par, / sityUe hi an eaUerdagum xr gemetle 756 f., 
»' Sufi's" '^ freoBdlUor Jimtier madmai . . . gummeaaa ftla . . . 
ogrum giiiUan 1017 ff. ;' or of reviews of present conditions and com- 
ments on the results achieved, e.g. bafde KyningwuldoT I GrendU 
tbgianei . . . leteviiard asettd. . . 665 ff. ; hirfdt pa gtfiliod . . , lelt 
HroagSrti . . . 815 ff.5 The course of events ia carefiiUy analyzed, 
with cause and effect duly noted : Pa ixias gtsyni, pat 11 sis nt Sab 
etc. 3058 C 

Although the moralliing turn and also some of the maxims may be 
regarded as a common Germanic inheritance,^ the extent to which thit 
feature as well as the fondness for inlrospection has been carried is 
distinctly Beowulfian and shows the didactic and emotional nature of 
the author himself. 

The characters of the poem are in keeping with the nobility of iti 
spirit and the dignity of its manner. Superior to, and different from, 
all the others, strides the mighty figure of Beowulf through the epic 
In his threefold rdle as adventurous man in arms {lurrcca), loyal thane 
of his overlord, and generous, well-beloved king he shows himself* 
perfect hero, without fear and without reproach, — the strongest of hii 
generation, valorous, resolute, great-hearted and noble of soul, wise artd 
steadfest, kind, courteous, and unselfish, a truly ' happy warrior.' ' 
Next to him rank Hro'Sgar, the grand and kindly ruler, full of years, 
wisdom, and eloquence, and the young Wiglaf, who typifies the faith- 
fiil retainer, risking his life to save his dear master. In a second group 

' The simpler fonnof thil type (aa in 1171) 11 well known in the HitienduiA 

■ Naturally the forms of Um irc uatd, k: Glossal. 

' Cp. iij f., 359, 814 f., 1075, H14, 1150 f., 133 f., 191 f., 1146 ff- 

■* Cp. 715 if., loit ff., 1470 f- ' Cp. t304 ff., 1610, 1813 ff. 

' E.g., thoK MpresMngthe power of htc or coupling fate and counge (cf. jirtk. 
CIV 179 & n.). — See on the general nihject of the moralizing element, the moi»- 
graph by B. C. Williami, Gmmic Pottrj in Angts-Saxen (1914)1 P"" ' (Intro- 

' PasMgea of direct characterization 1 196 ff., 858 ff., 913 ff., 1705 ff., iS44fF., 
1177 ff., (1736 ff. ),3l8off. The poet very skilfully prepares the reader for a true 
appreciation of B^owutt's greatness by dwelling on the impres^on which hie Atse ^- 
pearanie makes on strangers, 147 ff. , 369 f. Cf. above, p. lii. — In a general way, 
Biowulf reminds ua of Vergil'! fJHi .^mai (cf, Arck. ciivi 3J9). 


belong those lessee figures like Wealhtieovv, the noble, gracious, far- 
aghted queen, UnfetS, thai singular personality of the ' Thersites ' 
Older, Hygelac, the admirable, if somewhat indelinitely sketched mem- 
ber of Geat royalty, and his still more shadowy queen Hygd. Thirdly ne 
find that company of mostly nameless followers of the chiefe, Scyld- 
ings and (ieais, ?mong whom the cuast-giiard and the herald Wulf- 
gar stand forth prominently. Finally the villains are represented by the 
three enemy monsters, partly humanized and one of them at least 
having a name of his own. Though the majority of the characters ace 
still more or less types, they are, on the whole, clearly drawn and 
leave a distinct picture in our mlTids. CertaJnly the delineation of the 
chief actor surpasses by &- anything we find in other Anglo-Saxon 
poems. Even some of the persons mentioned only episodically, like 
Ongenl>eow, Hengest, and the old 'spear-warrior' of the HeaSo-Bacds, 
seem to assume a lifelike reality. Of special psychological interest are 
UnferS, Heremod, and j'ry^. Characteriiation by eonlrast ' is seen 
In the cases of }>ryS-Hygd (1916 ff.) and Heremod-Beowulf (1709 ff., 
cp. 913 ff.}. 

The Beowuttian society is noble, aristocratic,' and, considering the 
age it represents, pre-eminently remarkable for its refinement and courtly 
demeanor. The old Germanic military ideals ' are still clearly recog- 
nizable, notwithstanding the Christian retouching of the story -^ the 
prime requirement of valor, the striving for fame and the upholding 
of one's honor,* a stem sense of duty,' the obligation of blood revenge,' 
and above all the cardinal virtue of loyally which ennobles the 'com- \ 
itatus ' relation ' and manifests itself in unflinching devotion and self- 
sacrifice on the part of the retainer and in kindness, generosity, and 
protection on the part of the king. To have preserved for us a faithful 
picture of many phases of the ancient Germanic life in Its material as 
well as its moral aspect, is indeed one of the chief glories of Bcetvulf, 
and one which, unlike its literary merit, has never been called in ques- 
tion. The poem is a veritable treasure-house of information on ' Ger- 
manic antiquities,' in which we seem at times to hear echoes of Taci- 

■ The author al» likes to contrast situitions and events, ice 1x8, 716 FT., 
756 f., 1078 ff., 177+ f., 1594. f.; 183 ff. i 8lgff,, 1470 ff. 

' Outiide of court circleg (including recainera and attendants) we find men- 
tion of a fugitive slave only, 1113 fF., iiSo ff., 1406 ff. 

> Cf. the introd. Co Finniburg. An intdesttng instance of Che Germaniu- 
tion of the main atoiy i> the device of reprocnting Grendel'a relation to the Duet 
(and to God) in the light of a tegular feud, lee 1 54 ff. , Sii {978, tool). 

' Cp. 2890 r. : DtaS bis silla / aria gibwylcutK jxiimi titwiillf. See Granbech 

L 9. 14. i. 69 ff. 

' "A profound andierioui conception of what makes mm grat, jf not happy, of 
what hit duty eiacis, totiiics to the devouC spirit of English paganism." (cen Brink, 
L 4. 3. J. ag.) For a cUssical illuslration see 1384-89. 

' LI. i3S4f. may be compared wiCh OiJriKjiiiiT 431 ff. 

' See Antiq. g 1 ; abote, p. Ivii. 



tut' famous Girmania, whilst the authenticity of its descriptions has 
be«n in various ways confirmed by rich archeological finds especially in 
the Scandinavian countries. A detailed consideration of this subject is of 
supreme interest, but cannot be attempted in this place. Its study witt be 
&citita(ed, however, by the 'Index of Antiquities,' Appendix II, in 
addition (o the general Bibliography, L 9. • 

In the matter of diction our poem is true to its elevated chaiacter 
and idealiiing manner. The vocabulary of Biotuulf, ]3ceTj»»t-of lUost 
Old^nglish poems, is very far removed from the language of prose. A 
large proportion of its words is virtually limited to poetic diction,'. 
many of them being no doubt archaisms^ .while the abundance of 
compounds used testifies to the creative possibilities of the alliterative 
style, A good many terms are nowhere recorded outside of Bcotvulf, 
and not a few of these may be conEdently set dawn as of the poet't 
own coiiu^e. Indeed, by reason of Its wealth, variety, and pictuiesque- 
ness of expression the language of the poem is of more than ordinaiy 
interest. A host of synonyms enliven the narrative, notably in the 
vocabulary pertaining to kings and retainers,' nar and weapons,* sea 
and seafering.^ Generously and nithal judiciously the author employs 
those picturesque circumlocutory words and phrases knoim as *ken' 
nings,' * which, emphasising a certain quality of a person or thing, 
are used in place of the plain, abstract designation, e.g. Mmberend, 
iDundtniUfna, yslida, lyflfioga, b'ieilapaj hronrad i biaga brytia, gold- 
luini gumma, bomtra laf, yea gtmiealc, or such as involve metaphori- 
cal language, like redorii candtt, heofenn gim, banhus, biadnlioma. 

Applying the term to verbal expressions also, we may mention, e.g., 
the concrete periphrases for 'going' {h-wanan ferigeae ge fstu scyldai 
etc. 3 j3 ff., or 1539 f. , 1661 f., 1754 £, 1850 f.), 'holding court" 
{hringat d^lan 1970), 'conquering' Imenegum niSgpum mrodaietla 

' At the Bure dme the appearance of certain prose word) which arc not met with 
in any other poem, like bcor(r), ladel, wtb[b), yfpi, Jijicfai, aiin^i-n, bJh, un- 
Jcrnm^I, upprihi, ll^^an)wiard [see Glossary ), betokens a comparatively wide range 

■ Sec Anliq. |§ 1, 1, S. 

^ Sec above, p. \x. Some 30 terms are used for * ball,' ' bouse ' (those confined 
to poetry bring marked here withf) : bit, art, rcud\,jlii, biati}), iald\, iuli, 
tf/f(t), hold, burt, giurd, bof, uilf, besides compounds \ some 30 foreman,* 'men 1 
landbSiKd, grui,dbeinJ\,fildbtiKd(i)\; slvilbtrtndi i^lda, mSlla, gumma iearnf 
7 for 'ion' ;ib™, mflfflf, wdg^ti h'''t biarn,iqfm'a^,yrjtv>urdnki' heaven' 
i«/™, rgrfw, eaitgl^, -wilcnu j 3 for • hand ' : bw,d, «i,nrf(t),/<.A«( t) i 4 f« ' blood ' 1 
bltd, dnerf, biiJfiir}, ™H({t) (cp- 1- ^697. {.) ; 3 for ' wound ' : iuu«d, tin(n} f, 
(ifK-)dM(X) i 6 (9) for ' mind ■ : Mid, ufa, %4, myiu\, ffbs], iripaberd^, 
imed-K/a^, -gebjgd\, -f ifsicft )) 1 9 fi" 'time': Hd, hiiHl, fyra, f<ec, prig, 


' ON. icnmng, 'mirkof tecognition,' ' descriptive name,' 'poetical peript 



*fteab s), 'dying' (e/lor btMorf ssi '^P- 1*4 f'l "SSo f-> *»S+ J^"""- 
driam ofgeaf, Gsdes leaht geceai 1469 ( etc.). 

It is no malter for surprise that the kennings very often take ttiei 
form of comjiouAiis. Obviously, c omposition ii anr i>f-«ha -mBrt strik- 
ing and TnlTcrently significant elements of the diction. Dsscriptive or 
intffiStve in character, — - at times, it is tnie, merely cumbersome and 
'Mtose, the nominal {i.e. subGtantivc ind adiective) compounds make 
thdr weight strongly felt in the rhetoric of the poem. On an average 
there occurs a compound in every other line, and a different compound 
in every third line. Fully one third of the entire vocabulary, or some 
1070 nords, arecompounds,' so that in pointof numben, the &»wu{^ 
stands practically in the front rank of Old English poems. 

In comparison with the paramount importance of compounds ot 
kennings, the use of chsjacteti^iug adjectives is a good deal less prom- 
inent, at any rate less stnking. These denote mostly general or per- 
manent qualities and make a stronger appeal to sentiment and moral 
sense than to imagination. Sy means of the superlative ' the rhetorical 
dFect is occasionally heightened : biia liltil 146, hragla siliil 454, 
btalibeaga miit 119S, etc. Stereotyped ornamental epithets of the 
familiar Homeric variety like ToX^/iirrit 'OSwr«'c><t, 7Xaviihnrit 'A9iiri}, fiui 
JEntat, I.e. those appearing inseparably attached to certain persons and 
objects, ate sought in vain in the Beenuulf.' 

On the whole, we note a scarcity of conscious poetic metaphon,^ by 
the side of the more numerous ones of &ded and only dimly felt meta- 
phorical quality, and similes of the Homeric order arc entirely lacking, i 
only a few brief, formuli-like comparisons being scattered through the 
first part of the poem.^ 

■ utrutctrX, icgbaitaX, giimeiiviiidu\, himvwirlliiiig\, fimigitali^, ifdir/dif J 
Pt>d£,arlo„X, lio^jm-gX, ftrhag,<,iSL,X' l«'^-'X'iyg''h ^'^''^/t i */'"«™t. 
ientntJigX may be cited u typical sampla. One of the two clemenrB may be more 
or ]« dcYtrid of diidnct maniog ; e.g., inJc(^ar/){\), carfia[prSg)X, atlig(htuU)%, 
g.,g^(fi«-h)\, t,«(,g,ai)X; ifirbaYr«X, (<lrfl/.)™«/«t; K«nl fint element, 
like iigt-,Jriii-f fri^i drybt-y •■r/-, tald-^ i>ry9', may Carry some general com- 
mendatory lente, 'nciHff,' 'splendid,' 'eicellent.' Tautological compounds arc not 
kznlingi e,^.,diiiBfVjeiilmXym^trntrtng9\ym^ervrati\tE'y^'^^^\\ oiSdtef^y 
■Bitngutii'\,Jrladribii<i\, diaBjSgcX- There occur in Bawi'l/ii allitcnting com- 
pounds (cf. L g. Ig) like tryditr, aoailmcumaX, gMgyf^^, bierdhicgndil and 
I a) riming compounds : fiUMdX, wwdbord], (Sry9ni>ySX)- The roourcn of 
compound formation ire illustrated by the observation thi[ gig k employol as ths 
fc* element of (different) cgmpoundi 30 timra, ■nu/ 14, biJd(c) 15, beaSe 10, tiifg 
16, btri 14, ieadu iz, iiom 7, i? 19, mido II, ■lagrii 9, bjgi X times. 

' It is akin to an eiaggentjon Uke anrim aria il]8. 

' The set eipresnon man faadin which occuis 15 times is applied to HrSSgar, 
Biowiilf, Heiemad, Onda, and unnamed lord), 

* Such at -wii'dhstd online 159, ■aiinltr ypt htllac / tsgiilndt I131 f, mit- 
aart . , , ilaa 189 f., 1991 f., ■aiorJn ard / hrUnthmi lihrbhrae I79I f, itraiit- 
mtt brtgiait II67, bkrodryncam msialt 1358. 

' See itt: fuglt giUau, jij : i'ggc gilUia, 98;: ityUgcHmf, i6ot: palik 


Highly characieristic and much fancied by ihe Beoivulf-poct i« the 
femiliar trope of litotes, which genetaUy assumes the form of a nega- 
tive expression, as in tie mi stuar fita / asa en uarihl 2738 f., no pirl 
ysi hye (' impossible") looi ; 793 f , B41 f, 1071 f. , 1076 f. , 1167 f., 
1930J see also ^/, sum, dal, dias- {Jyl-, g5e-')'wirig, forbealdan in 
the Glossary. The negation sometimes appeals in conjunction with 
a comparative as in 3S, 1017 fT., 1S41. f., 2431 f-, and even with two 
comparatives: loii f. 

As regards the handling of the sentence, by far the most important 
rhetorical ligure, in fact the very soul of the Old English poetical style, 
is of course the device of ' variation,' which may be studied to perfec- 
tion in the Bto'uiulf. 

The still more directly retarding element of parenthesis or parenthetic 
exclamation, though naturally hi less essential and frequent, is likewise 
part and parcel of the stylistic apparatus. In contrast with variation, it 
is nearly always placed in (or begins with) the second half of the line.' 

It should not tail to ba observed that there is an organic relation be- 
tween the rhetorical characteristics and certain narrower linguistic facts 
as well as the broader stylistic features and peculiarities of the narrative. 
Thus, tautological compounds like JiaBcvjealm, redundant combina- 
tions like bega gthvjxprti 1043' and those of the type ivudu luW- 
sceajia!,^ the ubiquitous element of variation, and the repetitions in the 
telling of the story are only different manifestations of the same genera) 
tendency. The freedom of word-order by which closely related word* 
may become separated from each other (see e.g., i f., 370 f., 450 f., 
- zSs ff., 14SS If., 2098 f., 1448 f.,.iSB6 ff.), and especially 

the retardation by means of variations and parenthetica 
their counterpart in che disconnectedness of narration as shown ii 
gressions, episodes, and irregular, circuitous movements. The follow- 
ing up of a pronoun by a complementary descriptive phrase — in the 
manner of variation — , as in ij . . . itv^ii gtsljim 18 f , Imt. . . , 
GrcttdUs dida i94f. (cp. 1563, 1674 ff"., 77 f., 350 ff,), is matched 
by the peculiar method of introducing the hero and his antagonist, 
who at their Arst mention are referred to as familiar persons and later 
on receive fuller attention by specifying name and family history. 
(See 86 ff. [note the definite article], 194 ff-, also 331 ff. [Wulfgar], 
cp. iiff.) Again, the very restatement of an idea in a set of different 
words (variation^ may remind us of the noteworthy way of reporting a 
speech in studiously varied terms (361 ff.). The preponderance of the 

lal gemeah Ue gthcoa (amplilied by a brief cipbnatary clause or two not unlike thoae 
used, e.g., 101033 f'. '3*7? *S44t 3"7 f-i 1648). The preny lines 1570 ff. ! 
Uxit a ibma . . . sfxc mii of brfni baJrt irima / ndva candil tan hardry be 

' The only eiceplion! are 1778, 30561 ?II5- 

• Or anicr i-uiiga 1531, iBornfila, »ee Gloasuy : worn. 



nominal over the verbal element,' one of the^outitanding features of 
the ancient diction, runt parallel lo the favorite practice of stating 
merely the reiuh of an action and of dwelling on a stale oi situation 
when a straightforwud account of action would seem to be called 
for.' The choice of emo.tiaii3l.epitheu and the insertion of exclamitoiy 
clauses are typical of the noble pathos which inspires the entire man- 
ner of presentation, whilst the semantic indehnileness of many words 
and expressions ' recalls the lack of visualization, not to say of realism, ' 
in regard to pei^ons and places. The indirectness of litotes is similar 
in kind to the author's veiled allusions to the conduct of HroUulf and 
to the remarkable reserve practised in the Christian interpretation of the 

As a matter of course, the Beowulfian stylistic apparatus (taken in its 
widest sense) was to a great extent traditional, deeply rooted in time- 
honored Germanic, more particularly West Germanic, practice. Its 
conventional character can hardly be overestimated. Substantial evi- 
dence in detail is afforded by its large stock of formulas, set combina- 
tioDS of words, phrases of transition, and similar stereotyped elements.* 
One may mention, e.g., the maw/oi/^-fomiulas (see above, p. Ivi) j ex- 
pressions marking transition like n*/ ad long la San, / [ncI 1591, 1845 
(ii!, 134, 739)i copulative alliterative phrases like ord and ecg, ivipm 
ond geivada, mearas ond madmas, luigum end luipnum (1395), ivord 
Bndiveiirc,jynH ond sacu; ne Hof ni Ida (511), ^riui and gridig, mUtl 
end mire, babban end bealdan, besides a few riming combinations: hand 
tnd rend, sal ond m*/, gc luis fcond gi ivie friond (1864), frid 
and god ; prepositional phrases like in (an) burgum, geardunt, ii/Uum ; 
under ivolenitm, btoj'enum, radirum, fwegle ,- mid yldum ,- construction) 
of the type briac panne matte 14B7, 1177, loyrce li jv mile 1387, 
lyde si ee •wjUe 1766, cp. 1003, ij79> '394i first half-lines con- 

' Typical inranco »re o/i« ,-, alia / M gicJ8a>,„i, i-wa-a- iowri cyme ijndn 
(■whence you hive cgme ') 156 f. ; by tlnatt syni ('they ask') 364, 351, 3140 j 
M banan ivarSan ('krjl') 460, 587, 1103 ; rV . . . Vliti InJitalu 140f.{Uicdra . . 
irtginga win 177; f.; Eadgiln -wiarS . . .frltnd 1391 £ 5 tfttr mxnigrift 1938, 
afut htaSuwicngi xjSi, xflv iillu Hit 2060; Wli pa Si lirtna gad 169; piir 
Jkim tglXca angrfpt tiiarlS 116^; pilr viat Handaii kUd tiiSgc iajb.nti f.^ 
pSr tvxi jHulicrc . . . Jarb iBgingt 1 1 11 f. ; Blimulft vicarH / gSBbrU 
gtftpc SiS f. ; etc. Cp. juriphraWic expressions for plain thIb, like^Piuin drugait 
798, lundnjlu drlak 1360, as drugon 1966, lifgacia/ta . . . iriflc 1955. 

" See above, pp. Iviii, liii ; also ten Brinlr L 4, 7. 517 f. Among the simpler 
aimttitions may be mentioned U. jxS f., 994 {,, iiiof., 1143 ff. (picture! rather 
thin action). 

' For the vague and elude character of words, see e. g. , irfff, lyiin, tarn, anda, us, 
icaturiaf, iglSca, fsbae, fab, lis, JSgc, min, rif, frad. Cf. Schiicking Bd., 
fauim. The vagucneB of phraK! like iviralmtiiilu lyfan 1940 (cp. 176 f.), and 
the peculiar preference for passive constructions 11 in 1639 f.: M loamf pam brt- 
raHhtlmnidbyrni/ l^n^riilyud,bii(., 1103, 1399 f., 1787 f-i 1896/., al!*, 
joii f. (cf. Arci. CIIV1 3;;) should be noted. 

' Cf. L7. S, II f., 34 IF. 

D, ..■■.V^.OQi^lC 


msting of a noun or adjective (sometimes adrerb) and preposltirauil 
phrase, iike giong in gtardum 13, marrte bt mssti 36, aldar of earde 
56, sine at symle 81, Uiidnt inbeallt 89, hiard under kifmi (see Glos- 
sary : under), hrapor en belme 543, etc. Of especial interest are the 
^f/ra'j'i -formulas, which unmistakably point (0 the ' preliteiary ' stage 
of poetry, when the poems lived on the lips of singers, and oral trans- 
mission was the only possible source of information. Emphasizing, as 
they do, the importance of a feet — known by common report — or the 
truth of the story, they are naturally employed to introduce poems or 
sections of poems ' (e.g., if., 837, 2694, 1751), to point out some sort 
of progress in the narrative (74, ^480, 1484. 1773. i'7i. 433. 77fi), 
to call attention to the greatness of a person, object, or action (38, 
70, 1196, 1197, 1955, 2685, 1837, 575, 581, 1037). They add an 
element ofvariety to the plain statement of fccts, and are so eminently 
useful and convenient that the poets may draw on this stock for almost 

Owing to the accumulation of a vast store of ready forms and for- 
mulas, which could also be added to and varied at will, repetition of 
phrases (mostly half-lines, but also some full lines) is observable through- 
out the poem.^ For example, 10 cite some recurrent phrases not found 
outside of Bioivuif, — bordiveard bieltpa occtirs 1047, 1851 j /rpeling 
Srgdd, 130, 1341, [iii^~\;ivyrjan'wtgfrecan, iiii, 1496; prystie 
pegaa heap, 400, 1617 ; geongum garivigan, 1674, iSiij eajhe and 
illen, 602, 902, i^if^ ; feorhbealu frecne, 1150, 2537) morliDrhealt 
maga, 1079, 2742 j sorhftillne lis, 512, 1278, 1429 (cp. 2119); 
ealdiiuiord eoteniic, 1 558, 2616, 2979 ; grtmtl on giobse, 1793, 3095 1 
beard hundtocen, 322, 551 ( ginfaitan gift Pi him God italde, 1171, 
21825 after hittepa bryre, btuatt Scyldungas, loji, J005 (MS.); 
ir ipai) hi pone grund-uiBng mgytan mebte, 1496, 2770J 1700, cp. 
»8fi4j »7'> -48', cp. 2767'' -68". 

Apart from the matter of formulas, there are not wanting remindCTS 
of a primitive or, perhaps, ' natural ' method of expression, suggesting 
the manner of conversational talk or of recitation before a crowd <A 
listeners. E.g., the Tree and easy use of personal pronouns and the 
sudden change of subject which leave one in doubt as to the person 
.^eant,^ the preference for parataclic construction,; the failure to express 

' Tianibltd into indirect ditcouree; welhtayU gicwaB, /pal hifram Sigi- 
maidens} uc£an iyrdi / lUindidum 874. 

■ Cr MPi. m 243 f- 

> A lilt of acvenl hundred repeated hilf-linei !a given by Kiitenmachcr, L 7. 16. 
33 ff. i tf. Surmin St. 141 ff. i also Arch, ciivi 357. 

' S«9o2, 913, 915, 1305, 1900, 2490, 3074; 109, 115, 169, 748, 1809, 
2618 f. (change of Bubject). The pronominal object (and, of couiie, lubjectj mij 
be entirely omitted, l« Ung. % 25. 4. 

'rtbtivc' i Kt, e.g., tl, as, par, pa in the Glomaiy^ pir 420, etc. — 



lo gical re lations btlweeafact*,' the simple way of connecting sentences 
by the monotonous >a or of dispensing nlth connectives altogether, 
not to mention the exclamatory element, the fondne^_liir.iepctition by 
the side of occasional omission, the jerky movement aiul lade oT a steady 
flow in the narrative. On the other hand, no proof is needed to show 
that the style of our poem goes far beyomi tlie limits, of primitive art ; 
the epic manner of Beotuulf is vastly different from that of the ballad 
or the short lay. 

The good judgment and taste of the author ate shown in his finely 
discriminating may of handling the inherited devices of rhetoric. He 
increases the force of graphic description or pathetic utterance by 
bringing together groups of compounds, e.g. in 130 f,, 310 if., 475 IF., 
1710 ff., 2900 IT., and achieves a wonderful impressiveness in a 
single line: t^ditiratu nipgrim, niblbealiua aiiit 193. A notably 
artistic elfect is produced by the repetition of a couple of significant 
lines in prominent position, 196 f,, 7B9 i33f, 191 f. Ac- 
cunaulation of variations is indulged in for the sake of emphasis, as 
in characterizing a person, describing an object or a situation, and in 
address; e.g., aSoiff., iiaS ff., 1557 fF., 3071 tf. ; 50 ff., 13+s f-. 
1004. ff. } 416 ff., 1474 ff.) I3S7 ff, 847 ff., S58 fF. i 5i2ff., 910 fF. 
On the other hand, not a single variation interrupts Beowulf's most manly 
and businesslike speech, i384tF., which thus contrasts strongly with the 
pluntive lingering on the depredations wrought by Grendel, 14.7 ff. 
Again, a succession of short, quick, asyndetic clauses is expressive of 
rapidity of action, 740 ff., i;6S ff., and approptiitely applied to inci- 
sive exhortations, 658 ff., 1132 ff., whereas the long, elegant periods 
of Hroflgai's farewell speech, 1841 ff., convey the sentimental elo- 
quence of an aged ruler and fatherly friend. Clearly, the author has 
mastered the art of varying his style In response to the demands of the 

Latin influence, it may be briefly mentioned, is perceptible in the 
figures of antithesis, 183 If., anaphora, 864 fF., 1107 IF., polysynde- 
ton, 1763 ff., 1391 ff- Also Latin models for certain kennings and 
metaphors (e.g., appellations of God and the devil [Grendel], and for 
terms denoting 'dying' and 'living') have been pointed out." 

ivoidable Tcsulr of the puatactic tendency ii the extreme frequcQcy of the uinicaloii 

' For a loose use of the conjunclion p^ (and oS firSSm, firBmi), ttt Gtonary. 

■ Cf. Rankin L 7. ±1, pauim ; Aiigl. «xxni3 if., 149 IF., 45* ff.,467fr.} ' 
Arch. ciTTi34S ff. Son«taimf\tiitnIlffria('vxioiy\ae'),iiiiddniiBtclJitid, 
XBsddartyitingf iyniit^vjutdor ; fiond mancysnei, ealdgneinne, Godes endiataf httU 
knfia {'captivui inlemi'); vierildt briean; jida higrn ('filii hominum '). — 
Of Latin loan-Bnicds the folio«ing occur in Biovialfi atiar, camp, (ctwpe), candcl, 
ciap(f), ccaaaibitnd), diofel, di'tc, draia, gigiil, gim, mil(ge»iterc), nin, sr, ere, 
«-c(„l«), •cHfin (J'^-.g'-"^/'-), «£". ■"■*'. 0'"*</('). 'y"<fh ('*''■£)"■'/('). 


Onr final judgment of the style of Bieviulf cannot be doubtful. 
Though lacking in lucidity, proportion, and finish of fonn as required 
by modern taste or by Homeric and Vergiliau standards, the poem tx- 
hibits admirable technical skill in the adaptation of the available means to 
the desired ends. It contains passages mhich in their way are nearly 
perfect, and strong, noble lii^ nhich thrill the reader and linger in 
the memory. The patient, loving student of the original no longer 
feels called upon to apologize for Bto--wutf as a piece of literature. 


The Impression thus gained is u'gnally strengthened by a consideiation 
of the metrical form, which is of course most vitally connected with the 
style of Old English poetry. It is easy to sec, e. g. , that there is a close 
relation between the principle of cnjambement and the all-Important use 
of variation, and that the tcquitement of alliteration was a powerful In- 
centive to bringing into full play a host of synonyms, compounds,' 
and recurrent formulas. In the handling of the delicate instrument of 
verse the poet shows a strict adherence to regularity and a surprisingly 
keen appreciation of subtle distinctions which make Bto'iuulf ihs stand- 
ard of Anglo-Saxon metrical art. Suffice it to call attention to the 
judicious balancing of syntactical and metrical pause and the appro- 
priate distribution of the chief metrical types (ascending, descending) 
and iheit subdivisions. 

Naturally, our estimate of the intrinsic merit of various rhythmical 
forms does not rest on a basis of scientific exactitude. We can only 
guess the psychological values of the different types' and thdr com- 
binations. One would like, indeed, to associate type A with steady 
progress or quiet strength, to call B the rousing, e:iclamatory type,* 
to consider type C the symbol of eagerness checked or excitement held 
in suspense ; D 1-3, and D 4, though heavier and less nervous, would 
seem to have an effect similar to C and B respectively ; E with its 
ponderous opening and short, emphatic close is likely to suggest so- 
lemnity and force.* However this may be, we can hardly tail to per- 
ceive the skill in the selection of successive types in syntactical units, 
like B -I- A/ A: 8o-Si>, C+ A/Aige-??', 99-100', B/A -|-E : 
logb-iio, C-i- A/ A+C/ A : 1191-93', or in the case of longer 

■ The influence of aUltenlion on the choice of lynonyms may he iljiunateii by 
s compirijon of 11. 431, 633, 661, its influence on the uk of varying lompouniil 
by a companion of 11. 383, 391, +63, 616, 783; 479, 707, 711, 766) 1144, 
1148. (For in Influence oo woid-order comive, e.^., IL 499, 519 ^ 153, 1904 ; 
»663, »74S.) 

■ According to Sieyers's clauificalion. (See Appendji in,) 

• It U admirably adapted both to introducing a new element (lee, e.g., loob, 
litob, iiKob, 1399b) and to accentuating a conclusion, almost with the effect 
Ufa mark of eicUniaiion (!«, e.g., sib, 114b 4sjb), 

* It fittingly markiidose, is in jb, gb^ I7h| ijb, nob, 193b. 


periods, C+A /D44-A/A/ + C/A(/)+C/A^B: 
tjfiS-Ti, and with totally different effect, Aj-f. A / D4M + A/ A3 
+ a/c+A/_Aj+A/A//+B/C+A: 1718-34. A nice 
gradation is attained by the seijuence of types, 49*>— 50" ! Mm ival 
geomar iifa, j munnndt mid. 

Quite expressive appear the rhythmical variations of the elegy, 1147 fF. 
Again, the pleaang thythm of the semi-lyrical passage, 9a ff. is in 
marked contrast with the vigor (aided by asyndeton and riming con- 
gruence) of 74 1 ''-41 ! list uniueanmm, /bat batilocan, btid idrunt 
dram. Repetition (as in the last mstance) and parallelism of rhythmi- 
cal forms are used to good purpose, e.g., in 1456—58* ; i8 3l>-i37 ; 
3181 f. \ 1393-94'. cp. 1763 ff. Nor does it seem altogether fand- 
fiil to recognize symbolic values in the slon, mournful movement (in- 
cident to the use of the smallest possible number of syllables) of 1. 34 : 
Slidott pa liofac jxodea compared with the brisk and vvithal steady 
progress of 11. 217 : gfuiat pa nfir ivaghBlm nxiindt gejyitd and 134 ; 
gfwat him pa Id ivaraSe ivi^gt riden. 

Of the minor or secondary devices of versification a moderate, dis- 
criininating use has been made. Groups of emphatic hypermetrical 
types are introduced three times, 1163-68, 1705—7, 1995—96.' End 
time occurs in the first and second half of the line in 716, 734, 
1014, 1158, 3171, in a Mine and the following a-line : i404''-5*, 
1718^9', a389i>-9oS in two successive a- or 6-lines ; 465' f., 
IIJ2«f., 3070- f., Sgobf, i88at'f.,xS9oU.,i737l'f. (1377'"; 79'), 
— aside from the rather frequent sufHx rimes, which strike us as acci- 
dental. The so-called enjambement of alliteration,' i.e. the carrying 
over of a non-alliteraiing stressed letter of a *-line as the alliterating let- 
ter to the following line, occurs some two hundred times (sometimes 
in groups, as in 168 f,, 169 f . ; 178 f., 179 f. ; 1S7 f., 18S f. ; 
3037 f., J038 f. ; etc.).^ Regarding the much discussed phenome- 
non of transverse alliteration, of which over a hundred instances can 
be traced (mostly of the order o A « i as in Hivxl, ivi Gar-Dena 
ingeardagum I, 19,31, 34, 39, 1131, etc., more rarely a t i a as 
in pit bit a mid gemttt manna xnig 779, 1718, 161 5, etc.), no con- 
■ensus of opinion has been reached, but it seems not unlikely that 
within certain limits it was consciously employed as a special artistic 

The stichic system of West Germanic verse, with its preference tbi 

■ VeiT doubdiil it tlie hypeimetricil character of the ilolated a-lines, 1I730 
(cf. T. C. S t9), »nd 1367' (cf. T. C. i 14). 
« Kilun 93. 

• The use of the ome illitcratinglcCiEr in twosnccessive lines (e.g. 63 f., 70 f.. 
Ill f., 116 f.)was generally avoidrd; only 50 instance ire found (CQgming all vo- 
calic illitenitiona ai idrndcil ores) ; ths repetition tuna through three lines in 897-9. 

* Morgan (L 8, 13. 176) would recognize u many as 86 cases of intentional 



the use of run-on lines and for the introduction of the new elementE at 
the beginning of the i-line, appears in out poem in full bloom. At the 
same time, monotony is avoided by making the end t^ the sentence not 
infrc<iuently coincide with the end of the Une, especially in the case of 
major pauses, e.g. those matkingthebeginningand the end of a speech. 
In a large number of instances groups of 4 lines forming a syntactical 
unit could indeed be likened to stanzas.' But this does not imply that 
the normal sticbic arrangement has replaced an older strophic form of 
the Bea-wulf, though it is possible that the prevailing West Germanic 
order was preceded by a Germanic system of stanzaic grouping.' 

On certain metrical features bearing on textual criticism. Appendix 
ni should be consulted. 

If a practical word of advice may be added for the benefit cf the 
student, it is the obvious one, that in order to appreciate the poem fully, 
we must by all means read it aloud with due regard for scansion and 
expression. Nor should we be afraid of shouting at the proper cime.^ 

Vn. Language. Manuscript* 


The transmitted text of Beowulf ^ shows on the whole West Saxon 
forms of language, the Late W>^st Saxon ones predominating, with an 
admixture of non-West Saxon, notably Anglian, elements.* 

' To cite a ftw eiamples, ig-31, 43-+6, 311-15, 316-19, J91-94, 395-98. 
1035-3S, 1039-41, 1046-49,1110-13, 1184-87, 1188-91,1188-91, 1386- 
89, 1836-39, 1107-10, 11H-14, 1397-1400, 1S09-12, 1813-16, 1817-10. 
Jthaibeen claimed (cf. Kaluu th« an rifetofthe old stinza di- 
TJjion into J -f- 3 half-Una (e.g. 1363-66) 19 tiaceible in the ftvoiite practice of 
pbcing a lyncactkal unit of I ^ long lino at the end of a period, e. g. 14 (. , 78 f. , 
i6if.,is6f., 384 f., 756 f.,i43Sf., 1517 f-.'S98f., 1616 f., 1890 f., 3.08 f., 
etc. — Lrsi frequently I linei ceuld be arranged ai stanzas, e.g. 116 f., 158 f., 
4R9 f., 710 f., ion f., 1785^,1975 {., 1E60 f., 1989 f., 3077 f. Alsoiunzaa 
of 3 11n« (and of ; lines) could be made out. 

■ Cf. G. Neckel, Bcilragc xur EJila/ii'liu'g (i9oK),pp. I ff. , and fflji/jii ; 
but also Super, L 4. iz6. i. 40 fF. — Moller's violent recanstTuction of the origi- 
nil (L 1.19), with its disregard of stylisdc laws, proved a lailure. 

' A notation of the 'speech melody ' of the first 5a lines has been attempted by 
Mo^an(L8. 13. 101). 

* See L6}L I. 

' The same is true of the majority of the OE. poems. Cf. Jane Weightman, 
Tbt Langaagi and Dlalia if the laiir OE. Pociry, University Press of Llveqwol, 
1907 fconsiders, besides others, the poems of the Vercelli and Exeter M55.] ; also, 
e.g., A. Kitnp, Die Sprech Jir a/Uigl. Gcncai, Munster Diss., 1913. 

* The following survey aims Co bring out the characteristic features. A complete 
record of fotms is contained in the Glossary. 

D,g,l zed b, Google 


Vowels op Accented Syllables ■ 
§ I. Distinctly Early West Saxon are 

a) it in hiira 1164, (gryre)gieile ijSo ( sUx-{bennuin) 1904, this 
MS. spelling presupposing the form tex {=seax 1545. 1703. see 
j 8. 3), which was mistaken for the numeral and altered to siix.* 

b) it in aUbitau 15" > t'tunldgripe 976 (MS. mid-). 

Late West Saxon Features 

I. -EWS. i. Cf. Slev. \ ii. Bulb. SS 306 n. 1, 183, 454. 

teypvn 1154 (i6x) ; staymman 1614 ; acitiyS 1046 (( 1041), -civyde 
ig+i, 1979, 1753 ((' 3x)i (/yr)'wyt 131; ivytle, ivylt, 'uijUaa jx (i 
i6x)j (-)iw)i/f 48X (j 148) ;^ sviylc{t) 37)1(1 1151) j' /w)WJ0^f6ii j 
nyn/S 598, 1846 (< 8x) i sym{h)lt 1450, 1497, 1880 j lyfas etc.* sx 
(*" »J»)i £#6" (in A' only, i t^x) ; fyren isx(i 1931) i^rrf 7X ( 
AjrA 1687 (igx)iyfo 3239; y^a- 743, 817, 113s (kb- 6x) ; ^y«w 
1551 (i jx) i i)i/(I) a649i bvyfdir i6j (iou^d/r IJ31), ^i/rr 3x1 
tr^Srr 3044 (i 1360) ; sySSan 57X (t 1 7X ; originally i, cf. Biilb. \ 336)( 
girysni »6;i, andrysno '796 j brysidon iifi ; iyn* 3011 (14X in B') 
(iiw 44X, mostly in A) ; byri jx {bin Sx, in A only); Ayt Sx (in B 
only, bit zax)iyi 1093, Z910, 1999, 3084 (" j6x), lynt i6o, 341, 
164, jyndm 137, 157, 361, 393, 1430 (lint 388) ; byS looi, 2177 

J. -EWS. M from f afler palatal;, k. Cf. Wright S 91, Bulb. 
IS "Ji. 306 & n. J. 

£yd(d) 7X ((■ Sit) I i:;^^'"' etc. 13X (ii9x)i^Wfln7x(no()i^y/i(-) 
9X (i 4X in A)j gyttraa 1334; icyld{') 8x (( 3118), very often 
Scjldingai {Scyld i cf. Siytfingas 3X) (icyldan 1658). 

J. nEWS. i>, f-umlaut A ca= Germanic a by breaking. See { 7 

i)ylde jx,yldo ^x, yldan j^g, yidra jx, yldtsla %x; ylfe ii* 
4fi/fl»io94i(-X!5'/(/)5''. «r^«aBzxi(-|wr/mi6x. 

•>) J^(-) S'^ijrmpu IX ; byrgean 448 j {■)dymt lox ; ^r^/- 9X 

' See L6.4 (DavWwn), Lfi.5 (Thgrnw). 

' Tha leemi more mturil than a direcl tramilion of ta to fe (as Mplainfd by 

CoBjn, fli«'-.vuiS73withreftrcncetoCl<r. PflH. [Hatton MS-l III. 23,/o™>*). 

' EWS. W(, ™.</i^, cf. Sifv. 5 3411- li], Wright SI 311 n. 1, 469 f- 

Thii it to be undererood also with rrgaid ro many of ihe following ciamplcs. 

* A = the bif/t pan of the MS., B = the second part; Ke below, § 14. 

* pytui, pyaum, pysni (71) aie already found in jtllfted'iproie. It must be ad- 
mjlted that alto »me of the other ^ ipcUingi quoted arc not endiely unknown there; 
cf. Coiijn, AlnuiUathiivki Grammalik \, p. 65. 



gjrtiraK ^1 (gegireJoH iif7)i la)b^daM 1460 ; (ia«^)|«tjn-» S09 ; 
mjra(ti) 810 (see note) ^ {-)ip'cr 6x ; (~)ijrivaii ^xj {-)'uyrdam 11 j 
(^gnind)iijpgn 1518 ; [Jer)'u>jnua it ;' Irurpfia 98,' 

e) (£1, mJ-yljbi 51 ; Ijbe 1048 (/j*3, sec T.C. 5 i). 

4. =EWS. u, f'umlaut of fs — GNmanic a after poktsl;. Se« { i : 

{-)gj,ll M (jirf 41 b A). 

J. =EWS. if, i-umlaut of »=. Gmc. i by brcaidiig. Sec } 13: «. 
jrre(-) %i,jrringa i.x ^ (-)bjrdt iyx;byTtaM 1591; n^C* '4051 
gisybs IX ; loyria 511 ;■ •wjrst 51 ; ^fyr 11.' 

6. = EWS. if before bi, from m = Gmc t by breaking. Cf. Siev. 
\ 108. I. 

fB^ii 1119 (inibt. J71, 53s). 

7. = to, ia, = Gmc. f, i by u-umlaut. Cf. Sicr. {| 104. 1, 10;. i. 
glfrn{ei) 1594 ((" 1690, m j6i, 5"5) i ^"'i') »4»8. I"* (« 

S'7. ^■95) 

^. = f in the combination ill-, 

a) fnmi Gmc n by /-umUut. rpUoM ai6o, 3719 (/ 4X in A). Cf. 
Siev. { 407 n. J. 

b) Gmc. t. syltic logfi, 1109, 3038 {* 1416) i ijlf 171 (i6x in 
B, & sosi* i/nin AiMsofi?). Cf Bilb. S! J04, 306. 

Note. On invjrdy snuurd, bjrbl, fyrian, see \ 8. 6. 

fyf{-) 1582 (J6x)i^a 1150 (<4<)i 5y'"ffl749! ^<r^ 19J9 
(/<:ir(-) 5X in A) j (-)j^Jff(-) 8x (i aox) j i^« n,, (i ..86, 

2. =EWS. U, (-umlaut of /a (mostly Gmc. an). Sec $ 10 : «. 

gecypaa 1496; gef^med 846, 1370; (^^gyman 4X j bynam 1319, 
i^wao 5x5 hyrait unifonnly, 19^; g'lyfan uniformly, 5x5 Slyiam 
1630; »y^{-) lox (1976,^1133) i iihAjMR 1105 (k»5Ii)}/^« 
J016 i beilymed 486 ; gepywe 4331 ; ^aan 411 i _>Sf{-) 4X (sec § 10, 
%:<); {-^ivan 1149. »*34 (^o [also used in WS.] 1738, la [prac- 
tically non-WS.] 176, 1194, cf. Siev. S 4080. 10, Cosijn i, p. m). 
— iS^i^yS"" *53'i ^549- (S"^'S'"' 7" — through palatal influence, 
cf. Buih. i 306C i so acigan 3111, lig 83, 717, 781, iin, 1305, 
9341, etc.) 

J. = i-umlaut of io (older ia) and iwu/ (older iwwj, ruMu/). Cf. 
Wright SS 138, 90; Biilb. J t88. See § 16: to, ia. 

dys*^ '357 K'" *75) [possibly i-umlaut of M, cf- Deutschbein, Btitr. 

' Met with already in Alfred's prose, cf. Cwijn, Pp. rii., i, p. 34. 
' Found ilready in jtlfrrd'! prose, cf. Cmijo, i, p.65. hyrvan (II7», »54*, 
1569) u Bkewise Alfredian i cf. Balb. \\->.%l a. 1, 518, Wright j 98 n. 3, &»- 



nvi 114 n, i]!"^ *°S°> *Jo6. J04>. J'3' (lo 7^, '• '») i (k"-) 
iyi-/ il»o (m »», io tx) ; geilryndn 1798; (fl«.)j^« 15J, 918, 
»77». »834 (io 99s) i WCyu" litis. 1x1! {"- ii66)i ^Jft-K 87 
(cf. & 13 ji). 

#. faWa, — ^(plur.) lox (beside AJf, *i, see Giosa. ; cf. Wright 
S +6») i .^ 3» (j" J", rf '!') i {■')S'0"' 7^ (umlaul of ia 01 Iq P 
CI. Siev. i 121. 1) i (?«(«) 5x (cf. Siev. | 113 n. 1.). 

Inteidunge of i and J in Frhan, Frftait. 

§ * " 

— jr, i-umlaut of s. [Alsooccastoiuillym Angl.] Cf. Bulb.JS ]07f., 
i6i n. 3, Siev. S 31 n. 

bicgan 1305 i biiigu igi. 174.3 (j* ^5^° > honever, original vonel 
doubtful, cf. NED.: bmy; Fianck-vanWijk, Elym. tfosrJnbstJl! 
t^ig)i (-yriA((-) i«(inA.j,t>.)i (-)Jribtsn ijx {j jz:,) ; Jlibl 
176s i (-)i>is-i« sxinA(j 3X in B); i,i'/{-) jx in A, jx in B O ix 
in A, 3X in B, -hydig 713, 1749, 2667, 2S10, cf. -bidigy { 10. 6), 
Higelac 15X in A, 8x in B {Hygt- Sx in B, ix in A, Hy- 1530, »ee 
G\oi».)i scildig J071 (j jx) j jci/^ 3176 [fuund also in .Alfred and in 
Northumbr., cf. Balb. } 308, Siev. \ 423] {scylt 1657) ; IVitfiHgum 
♦6> (y +70l """W ■ J79 (?)«»(-) 9t)i tiincean 4X (in A, ji ix in B). 

§/. J 

hJ, i-umUut of i( (un-). Cf. Biilb. JS 163 n., 309. 

'plblig 746 ty 1558) i iirijwn 1604 (n.)._ 

Note t- Fredominantljr LWS. is the spelling 1^ for t (brought about 
after a change of forms like famig to }dmi iig). Cf. Siev. IS 14 n., 
ai4.Si Cosijn, i, pp. 91 f., 178. big loSs, 1596; "g >77«i *«(■) 
aiio, 3047; //gf* 717 ) Tuij;^/ 165^, i770i lujglig 184.1 i -Wigye 
914) Sctdtn-iggt i686{ cp. uBigmtlti 1792. 

Note 2, For some other LWS. features see { 7 n. 1 & 1 ; S S. 3b, 
4, 6&n. 1 iS9- I iS "o- 4, SiS '5- »i! "8. 5. 

Non-West Saxon Elements 

(This is a broad, general term. A number of fomu included can be 
traced in the so-called Saxon patois also.) > 

I. Untroken o before ; 4- i-DSJD»a»/. [This is really a non-LWS. 
feature; besides being Angl., it is found not infrequently in EWS. 
and E. Kent.] Cf. Biilb. \ 134, Cosijn i, pp, 8 ff. 

alivalda 316, 955, 1314, ahutalda 918 (always: '"lij)), an- 

' Incidentallf > few WS. fonm iic to be ineDtii>ne<I. 

D, ..■■.v^.oo^ic 


•walda I17Z ; atdor 191 (ealdar lox { alwa}^ : eald) ; balder 141S 
(bialdor 2567), -tflW/ '634; hatiuQn (dp.) 977 («o in inflected fonns 
6x) i ^flWr* 3051 (gtaldor 1944)1 go'si") *446j 194" i ^"t™''' 
1177 j (-)hali 198, 1566 (j« Bx) i ivald- 14.03 j ivaldtnd Sx (ii/eai- 
dend 3X ; always ivealdan, 9X). 

.?. Original unbroken a before r -{- foojiiaiiM is possibly hidden belund 
the MS. spelling brand in 1010, l.c.'iam. [This would savor of 
Angl., particularly Northumbr., influence, j cf. Biilb. J 131-J 

Note I. As to the interchange of a and e spellings before nasals, 
tee beloK, S 14, seventh footnote. Parallel forms are, e.g., gumen, 
gomeit ; gamol, gomol ; gangan, gongan ; hand, hand ; bangian, bottgian ; 
sang, long. 

Note I. It is doubtful whether an original long a can be claimed in 
the form para of the MS., 1015, i.t.'tvdran ( = •wSron). (Cf. Bulb. 
i zi^ : rwaran.) 

I. •■ WS. & Gmc. e. [Not infrequent in several Angl, texts, but 
iporadlcaliy found also elsewhere.] Cf. Bulb. £ 93 n. t ; Deutschbein, 
Bsitr. xxvi 195 f. j Gabrielson, Be'ibl. xxi loS ff. 

ipr^c II 71 {ipreean etc. 411); gibrrc 1159 ; •vjjs 407 {ivei s*); 
nsfne 150 {MS. nafrt), ijS3 (' SiJ ; the MS. spellings btuasre 
1819 (i.e. brasri), fadir- 3119 (i.e. ^iff^r-) i pas 411 (cf. Siev. 
SsjSn. 4).' 

3. = i-umlaut of Gmc. a (WS. broken m) before / + rtiij, [Angl,] 
Cf. Wright I 6s n., Biilb. § 175. —See S^- i ■>; ! S-i ■ '■ 

baldc ioi3 (cp. Andr, tiS6 : baldeit); {-yairclm io6£, 21351 

^. — WS. broken ea before »y, ri and b -\- ceui. (smoothing). 
[Angl.] Cf. Bulb. IS aoj f. — See S 8- J ' '■ 

barg(lrafum) ij; i gesblcd jSSs (ea 3X, e ix), gsabtU ^€9. 

^. — WS. la after initial palatal ic, g. [Angl., but also met with in 
Sax. pat. and Kent.] Cf Wright § 71 n. 1, Biilb. 5S 15^ n., 155 f. — 
See § S.4 : «. » 

geicjr tsi6{e T.i)Ti)i gescsp- 16 {ta 650, 3084). 

With conditions for i-umlaut : ^irft iSoo, 1S93, I3il> 3670, 1699 
(see also Gloss. : giit and gStt, g^it). Cf. Siev. S 7 S "- • ■ 

J. — WS. lybl, riht. [Angl. smoothing of « to e (*) ; raht- ax ir. 
Undiif. Gosp.l Cf. Siev. i 164 n. 1., Biilb. \\ 107, an. 

{puiBir^TahUs 3039, 

Note I. Interchange of « and e in cases of t-umlaut of a) tf and of 
b) a, before nasals is seen in a) afnan, efiian ; rxsl, rtst ; iscc(s), 
iiccic); wracca, 'wrecca ; -macgat 491, 1379, -mtcgas 33a, 363, 



481, 799. 819 > ''- "500, 1J71,' il; titer, etc. (Cf. Biilb. SS 168 f., 
Siev. { 89.) — b) -blirmm, -hUmm ; l^\>i\g, Ung; m^nigo, menigo. 
[This f is characteristic especially of South East Sax. pat., cf. Biilb. 

Note I. hivitder 1331 ( = fnvtJer), occurs sporadically in DE. ; it 
aeems to suggest a LWS. scribe. Cf. Sieven, Seilr. ix 163 ; Dcutsch- 
bein, Beitr. xxvi zoi. 

Note 3. On the * of AJ/lere, see Siev. ! 80 n. j, Cowjn i, p. ji. 

%8. t 

I. = WS. a. [(Late) Kent., partly Merc] Cf. Siev. ! 151 ; Bulb, 
S91 j Wright § s+n. I. 

drep 1880 ; hrtj/e 991, see 1914 Varr. {* 1437, a isx) j Htt'ware 
1363, i^i6 ; hrefn 1801, 1448, 3014, Hrefms-bnlt 1935, Hrtfla- 
luudu »9as (' owing to analogy of hremn, cf. Biilb. \ 170 n.j not a 
dialect test); inepel(-) a]6, io8i, 1876 {cf. Weyhe, Beitr. xxx 71 f.)j 
ren- 770 ( (-)*m7x, cf below, | 19. 7);sel 167 (sal 3X; possibly com- 
promise between itl and iele)i prer- 1146 {gtprtec 3101). 

^. =EWS. ie, i-umlaut of ta (see S 1. i: J); 

a) before r+ cent. [Angl., Kent., also Sax. pa.] Cf. Bulb, f 179 
n., Wright 5 igi. 

under[iit] 1911 \ mtrcils 1419; -lerct ^%■^^, 1755; iverbSB 589; 
perhaps ivergan (?), I33(n.), 1747. 

b) before / + (ims. [Kent., also Sax. pat., partly Angl.] Cf. 
Bulb. \\ 17s &n., i79n. i, 180, Wright SiSj- — Seel 7. a :*. 

ttdt 1214, X314, 161 1( 31 68, tldo lilt. 
J. -WS. broken ra (see 5 7. 3: a); 

a) before rg, rh. [Angl.] Cf. Bulb. § 106. 
bergum 3071. 

b) before i, A +f!i«j. [Partly An^., Kent., (chiefly Late) WS.] Cf, 
Biilb. §|»io, 313 &n. 

ebligaa, 1112 j gejib 817, 1569, 3198 {ea ix); -fix 1961, 2967 
(ea 1647) j mchte [frequent in Alfred's Oroiias] loSi, 1496, 1515, 
1K77 (often miabte, mihti) j gmehost 794 (gmeabbt 783, J'sa) ; -seb 
joB7(M .Bx);«x-X904(see8i). 

4. » WS. ea (Gmc. a) after initial palatal g, jr. [LWS,, Kent., 
occasionally Merc.] Cf Siev. §§ 109, 157, Bulb. \ 314, Wright 
i 71 n. I. — See I 7. 4 : *. 

{be)gel 1871 (bf-, on-gtal Tx) i tcefl 3118 {ta ix.) ; ,eil 455, 1804, 
3010 (very often iceal) ; giictr 1973. 

With i-umlaut (of ea or *), -EWS. u 
i 181, Siev. 8 7S n. 1, Wright § iBi.— 

{')g'"{-) 994. '976- 

J. « WS. broken to before fy, rb. [Angl. smoothing.] €£ Biilb. 


ibSi>r)btr\/] J04 In t ojo) } yp-i(-) J05, 1706 (fo- vely often)! 
(.)/<rl.(-) 1,).. 

6. The combination •u>m- (from <w;-) appears changed to ifii- 
[LWS.Jin-wHrsaaiSi, So7,j'ward Si9, 890, 1 90 1 , to ao)F- [late WS. 
spelling, cf. Siev., £n(r. tx 101, Biilb. j 168 n. t.] iniivyrj i6id, 
1987, 1048, ivyrutd' 3i3o> to <w9- |in ^neial, L. Northumbr. and 
(partly) LWS.,cf. Wright 594, Biilb. SS 165 ff-, also Wood, yfGffl. 
xiv 505] in bvjorfan 1718 (« 3B88), {/i>r)i'wt>rt:te 1767 (w 1737), 
loari' iBg, iioo [Northumbr.! luerc, tuarc] ; t/jorSmfaJ iiBfi 
(w 4x) i also in •wentiJ{-) 17X, luorBig 197* [both occurring also in 

In case the aforesaid spelling iujt' is considered to represent a real 
phonetic change, it might he likened to the change of beorhl to byrbl, 
1 1 99. Cp. the forms -byrtt {-bryhl) of proper names in Btdi {cf. Biitr. 
xxvi 138), Byrhlt, Bedt 58, 13, -bryht in the OE. Chrea. (cf. Cosijn i 
S 21) ; Byrbl-noS, -helm, itiold in Maid. ; unbyrbtar, Botth. Ss. i ; 
Sai. i]8 ; Fat. Af. 11 j etc. Another seemingly parallel caaeis fyri- 
don 37S {/eredoH etc. 11 x). 

Note t. The form {ae)iiueard 3064 represents perhaps an oiiginil 
-iivyrd, which was ertoneously ' corrected ' to -inueord (because of 
association with I'uieord 'sword,' see Gloss.). — b'wjrfati 9X (see 
I 1.3} admits, at any rate, of being identified with btuterfali (strong 
verb). — iivulctJ (for iitiyicis) 880 is a very late form, cf. Bulh. 
S j8o.' 

Note 3. It IS very doubtfijl whether Irem 1515 coDtaina Kent' 
( -WS. JF (MaU. 147 : tiym). 

/. =WS. ea, Gmc. (and specifically ON.) au in {Heat>«-)Rimai 
S19. [A change sometimes met with in LWS., L.Metc, and, at 
an earlier date, ill Kentish documents.'] Cf. Schlemilch, I.e., pp. 35 f.; 
Ziipitza, ZfdA. xxxiii 55; WolIT, Unleriurhung dir Lauti in den tna. 
Urkunden (Heidelberg Diss., 1893), pp. 54 f. 

5. = WS. la before g. [Angl. smoothing.] Cf Siev. 5 i6j n. i, 
Biilh. 5 100. ig{iucard) 141 (see Gloss.). ■< — See J lo.j : I. 

' Sec,e.g.,jlKjr. 1713; luunJi 
Ir^e xur Sfrachi und Oriingrapiic j 
(St. EPh. x.xi.), pp, II f., .4,47- 

• Butcf. also Wright I 111 n. i (' KencUh ' cbimed to iDclude diilecn of But 
Anglia md Susei). 

' NoiF ilia Bacda'i spelling AiJuini, tht id- forms of the Northumbr. Lihir 
Vilac, and a few Ed- fotnij occuning in the OE. Ciromilt (cf. Cotijn i { 93). 
But cf. Clftdwick,-SmA« in Old Etglhi {1899). p. 4 (*, ' <*« to umlaut). 

' On the Himewhat unccitiin etymology, lee Biilr. uui 88 n. 



J. B i, i-umlaut of 9. Probably to be accounted foi by alteration 
of original a fi-E't archaic OE., and late Noittiumbr. ^ Bulb. 
}{ 165 f]. Cf. Deutschbein, Beilr. joivi 199 f. ; but also Schlemilch, 
p. 11. 

ahl 1957 (n.) i{higt)miBum 1909 ; {Bn)j^ce 1 9+1 ; (^/-)jaf a» 1004 
(MS.) is perhaps miswritten for lacan, i.e. ji(aa. (The MS. spelling 
nole 14S7 ' possibly poinis to original roeU, i.e. rrile.) 

Note. On the sptiiiagbfl, 1116 (=£'/), see note to I. 1981. 

^10. ? 

7. =WS. & Gmc. i. [Angl., Kent.] 

idrum 74,1 ii 1966) j gtfigon 1617 [i 1014); {f^ecc iix'j Eomlr 
(MS. geernBr) 1960; (JbUyeJ ^006, Heardred iioi, 3,%-} s, I'iii, 
tfenredri i^Ti, ffenriding 1965 (perhapii due to loss of chief itiess, 
ff. BQlb. S 379) i «// 1 1 J5 (* 8x) i gtiegaa 3038, 311B (i 1411) j 
j<ia» 1603 {i 564, 116+) j>^ons6j, i6j3 (i 1014) j ■u'^(-) 1907. 
3131 (rf 1440)- 

J. =EWS.«, (-umlaut of M. [Angl., Kent., Sax. pat.] Cf. Bulb. 
S; i83f. — Sees J- i&4-> 

<5<z586, ^/.- 1110,1861 i/^(-)iS49, 3040. J"5.J/-#J C''")f 
{pria)aidla 1113 ; (>« 1661, 3144, 31 55 j {-)gesme 1144. 

^. -{E)WS. ra (from i) after palatal jf. 3 [Angl., Kent., LWS.] 

ipf^S'-f"" 2^4^ (^'' 1609) ; cf. -btgiit 1861 (witli conditions for 

4. -EWS. M (from Gmc. au) after pablaljf. [LWS] BiilU 

S j>s- 

O/JCJ/ 3439 (m »1>9) i ^'■^''''^ 4- 

'S- -WS. ?i7 before c, g, b. [Angl., partly LWS.] Cf. Biilb. 
SJ 316 f. — See 3 9.1 : *. 

been 3160 (m ax) ; beg 3163 (m joh) ; ^{j/rJiimMM) 577 {lagsr' 
S.j)i (^)/^A 80 (Sa 3019) i «/A [221s.] 1411 (^a.2x)i J.W16.J, 
2967 {ea jox).- 

(). =^ (from^^-, withi-umlaut ofa). [Later Kent.]. Cf. Wright 
E 131 n., but also S 3 n. 

{niB)bidige ^165. (See § 4.) 

7. = Bmoothing of primitive Angl. eu (WS. ia) from Gmc. i in 
pi(fl) 1031 (n.). Cfc BOlb. SS 147. '96. '99- 

' On similar le ipcllingB ii 

■ Thia, the inTariable foir 
Anglian poetry. 

' The form riglnrs 3114 (froinMg(ii»« (61), Mffsf sb) octun alnady in All 
tan prase i !l^^o gi/i {Cosijn ], p. 84, ii, f. 138) bas b«n found there. Cf. I 
§315. NolealMflHuugfl, 2871. 

' The funus nti and >«:i occur abudy in Oraaiu, see Bulb, f 31 7 n. 




= WS. broken Is, ec before i, ficm Gmc. i. [Angl.] Cf, Wright 
5 '17- — Sec 5 10.7. 

ivig('weorpung') 176 {WS. luieb), Wlhitas 1752, 1907, 3076, 
3110, ji2o(«s6o». 16.3, 1861). 

%I2. « 

7. by B-, o/fl-umlaut, = WS. a. [Merc., partly E. Kent.] Cf. 
Siev. 5 103, Bulb. I 131. 

bcada- i6x; ceara e.K. 8y {cart [3171]); 'ofora 14x1 tafoS yx 
{ta, see § 13.1); eatol 2074, 1478 (a iix); beafo 1S62, 3477i 
{-)brafota 1661, 1679, 1697 (a iix); ieapu- 35", Htaso- 7x1 
•keasered 3071 (a 414). 

Note. m/j((-) (7x) has passed into WS. also.. Cf. Wright S 78 
n. J. 

^. =WS. m, H-umlaut of i. [Paralleled in Northunibr. (especially 
Dark. Rit.) and E. Kent, (sporadically).] Cf. Bulb. 5| ij6, ajS. 

eq/br 1151 (ra 4x), Eaforei 1964 {w ix, (o ix). 

Note, /laia 1757 may stand for fiola (o/a-umiaui of *, Angl., 
Kent., also Sax. pat., cf. Biilb. § 134) or be = Jeala, a form found 
in several (includitig WS.) texts, cf Siev. S 107 n. 1 [influence of 
fiaiva suggested] ; Biilb. | 136, Tupper, PuU. MLAti. xxvi 146 f., 
Schlemilcb, p. 34.' 

iij- '• 

1. Non-WS. (though portly also Sax. pat.) cases of B-, e/a-um- 
laut (cf. Bulb. SS 133-iS)- 

1) of.. 

esdor 43S, £63, 1037, 1044 ■■, eaton etc. 1 11, 411, 668, 761, SSj, 
1558, 1979 (< 1616) i giofeaa 1173 (£fo/«« 1958), -gto/a 29°° (see 
%i4..x:ii),^i.i:i,ji); mtodu- 5, 638, 1643, 1901, 19S0 (» I3x)i 
mentu 4S9 (n.) ; mtetsJ- 1077 {t 14X) ; iveera 1947 {9 corresponding 
instances of.). 

b) of 1. 

(-)freoSo(-) ,83, 511,851,194=, »9S9" (s" S 14. i 1 " ; ' "17) ; 
hUoaian 1415 ; -hleesu 710, Sio, 135S, 1417 (i corresponding case of 
i; 1409) ; liomum 97 j UeHB- 1505, ■ 890, 1769 ; seanmae 817 i leoBSan 
I77S> 1875, 1937; tuenltna 1098,* {^)'weolodi 1796, 1936, laia 
(j 9x) i ivreo1^ot{hill) 1698 (i 3x). [On the occurrence of this um- 
laut before dentals and nasals in Sax. pal., see B'lb. J 135 n.] 

2. fo for *a, H-umlaut of iJ (see S 12.1). [Found sporadically in 
Merc] Cf. Biilb. § 131 n. 

' The very form/iu/c is recorded in iiW. Coif., tult 11. 48, Duri. Rir. 61.5. 
' For EWS. Frnllt-, -uiiMoi etc., see Coajn i, pp. 49 f., ji. 

D, ..■■.v^.oo^ic 


eofaso XS3+, 

J. . EWS. ie, (-umUut of «, Gmc. i ; see ! a.j . j. [Merc., 
Kent., Sax. pat.] Cf. Bulb. %\ i4i-43> i^^ i>-> ><T- 

armen- 859, iioi, 1957. *sj4 (IVw*- i J14) ; nrrti 144.7 i/'»r- 
r«« 156 ; -btorde 1930 (MS.), apparently presupposing a fonn i/fil> 
(Sax. pat., cf. Bulb. % it6 n., ^in place of original -breddt^. 

4. = breaking- of r in ieelf{a) 5067 {t 1 7X, ^ 17XJ. [Merc., No, 
Northumbt., Euly Kent.] Cf. Biilb. \ i^S.- 

J. gtaKg a74], for gong. [Northumbr.] Cf. Siev. J 396 n. 1, 
Bulb. 5 491 n. I. 

For the combination itiee- see ! 8.6. 

§^^. " 

I. Non-WS. cases of «-umlaut of I, 

fi-ioSa- 1096, 1282 (see J 13. i : ^ a] ; ritdaii 31(9 ; itianBK 30] 
(' 994) > 'iiBor 1699 (also Sax. pat., cf. Bulb. % 135 n.). 

.?, ia for to, it- or v/s-umiaul of *. [Kent, coloring.] Cf, B&lb. 
Si 438, .4.. 

ihro- 1158, 3358, 1539, 1781 (« ij") i fii«r(li)te 1990, 1099 
(/a i8x)i lofere 1993, 1997 (see S n.a) i W<w«'a« 2767 (« ax); 
;i0^s 1971 (might be Sax. pat., or EWS., cf. BQlb. } 153 & 
n. x).« 

J. (0 for ee, breaking of t before r + ctMS. [Kent., rarely WS.] 
Cf. Wright i 105, Bulb. JS i^r, 143, Cosijn i, p. 39. 

tiarg etc, 2271, 2807, 3066 (<• iSx); iiem 2404, 2559 (m 

Us- '" 

■ I. for en ia fia 1^6 (fio IX). [Might be Northumbr., or Merc, 
Kent. ; cf. Siev. §166 n. 1., Bulb. |£ m n. i, 114.]^ 

.?. bria- i2i4for *r«(i«) (a 277, 1588). [LWS.] Siev. ; ii» 

J. On eaivts etc., see J 3. 2. 

Note. Through shifting of stress -gliatu developed to {-gleSiv,) 
■glaiu 2S64 (to glaiuiu, Aadr. 143 j unglauiusu, Btde 402. 29 
(Ca.) j glaamej, BlUH. HvM. 99.31); cf, Biilb. % 333 ; SchlemJlch, 
p. jfi i Wood, JEGPh. xiv S06. 

1 According to W. F. irjia, SmSti in tit Dialcai of lit Ktniiik Oamri tf 
til OE. Pi'ioJ (Chkigo Diss. , 1 9 1 5) , p. 10, tc/JX") i> dkancliiel; Anglian. Three 

■ Posiiblr rmoesl 2 '4S is to be inclurjni. 

* Posahly gimiat 1167, 1793 ihould be placid bete (tbtokMi befbn i) ; in that 
cue geiti 309s wQuld bebng in § S.5, 

■* For simiJat la fbrms in (veiy) lite WS., KC P. Perlit*, Dit Sfiradi dtr hur- 
Un.-P'crBim van Dtjknter't LiUr ScMlUnim (Kiel Dia., 1904), J 17; alu 
Schlemilcb, p. ;>. 

D, ..■■.V^.OO^iC 



I. la, Jo 3 WS. U, y, I'-uinlaut cf U (older iu) and iaiaj (older 
(Kwy, rwwj). [Angl., Kent., Sax. pat., partly WS.] Cf. Wright 
5 ijS, Bulb. ! i89&n. I, ! 191.— SeeS 3. 3- ". 

deore 488, 561, i jog, 15x8, 1879, zi}6, 1154, diore 194.9 ' i 
{-)heoTU 9S7, 1371, tnhiort 1413 ; Kiti{i)an 115, 115, iiij, 1786, 
1791, 1B06, 1074, iiia]{i)an 1366, 1388, 14B6, 1671, 304S> »«*u^» 
1789 (i 9x) ; -lion 995 j trimvtit 1 166 | pioiimm 1331.' 

Note. For the forma ieivta 1738, deagsl 175, see S 3. 1, 3 ; cf. 
Coaijni§S98, 100. 

s, it la nontial ja. 

a)-Ginc. au. [So. Northumbr. coloring.] Cf. Bulb, f ioS.» 
(ia)ir£o/^ 1930 J i/raf 850 J deriS 117S j Giettna 4^1 (•• Giala).^ 

b) = WS. ea{h) from i{b) in nnm 3104. [Angl., Kent.] Cf. 
Bulb. S 146. 

. § 17. « 
z. =(L)WS. re [Presumably Kent., though also EWS. and partly 
Merc.] Cf Wright \ iog, Siev. J 150 n, 1 & 3, BUlb. { 111,* 

a) Gmc. lu. 

bladan 1891 (to 3X) ; bter 36^5 (fff gx) } cUiaa 137G (in zx) ) 
■fis/W ioSg (" 3") 1 '^"'"C-) !"'9''» 1"' ('« '""); (-y"iir(-) 1693, 
1789 (la 9x)i«o//Hi/«3i4ai "'"»''(') »ir6{w 1320); -«!)<■ 1754, 1787 
(« 4X) i ),iBd{-) 1119, IS79 («o »ix), fj(h/<n. 1336, 17S8, 1810 (w 
57")- . , _ _ 

b) Contractions [of i + d, J + ^i '+"> cf- Balb. S{ iiS f ; con- 
tisction to 10 partly Northumbr. alto, thus : fiond, his, sin, 6ria, bio 

bio(a) 1063, *747 (fo 5x)i Biotiiulf 15X (in B ; le 40X [37X in 
A, Bee Gloss. J) ; {im)cnie^ 2SS4i /'""/(a) 1671 (io aSi) ; (gt)iod* 
1100 {^0 18X) i giang 1114, 1409, 1715 (MST)i *" nx (3X in A; 
Wo i8x in A) i biold 1954 [in j3X)i jio i6x («d 1 3X, see Gloss.) ; 
S^iv{rice) ^it-i, 1495 (Jo sx) 1 Otigm-, &y-Sio(w) 1 9 9 9, 1387, 3398, 
1914, 1951, 1961, 1986 (fo 17X; Ifitilh-piovi fix); prie ii74 
{io 1.78). 

■ Cf. Cur. Pair. 41 1. ij, 439. 3* : to. 

» Cf. Ore,. 256. 16, i9:io. 

' Also UK Southern tciCt conlain eiampln of thii It ; cf. SchlemDch, p. 36. 

' Poasihly influenced by rednpl. preteritn like tliii. 
__ ' Strong and «eik detlcnaion of tribal nimei maybe founil tide byude, cf. Em 
Bulan, Intt. ilvi (also note on 4-51, tenth footnote)) Siev. \ 164 n. 

* InrancaoftebythendeofietTOmEWS. (Coujni, pp. 37,44, 66f., 1I3 f.); 
a) ttodaii, Uar-, lUaf., dlsr, ilofaa,itiic, ffloJj b) Han,fiond, ,ho, iiold, no, Suw, 
SrU>. On the UK of u, h in EW5., see Sleven, Zum ^j. FacaJiimiu (1900), 
pp. 39 ff. 


3. Foi %o, A>>r WS. i-umlaut of iff, leeS 16.1. 

3. is, ee (riling diphthongs, unlcsa the 1, e were inaerted merely to 
indicate the palatal nature of j') in {Agienar- 1167, 1408, 1894, 5150, 
(-)gtimar(-) iix (from Gmc. a before nasal}.' Cf. WHght Jj 51 n.. 
Ill n.. Bulb. S 199. 

Note. Compare the spelling io in Hondicio {Htntlscii) 1076, which 
may, however, be merely analogical for to. * 

Unaccented Syllables 
S l8' Weakening (and interchange') of voweb (and infiexi^nal 

I. -um (dat. plur. ending) appears aa -a«, -mi, -an. Cf. Siev. 5 137 

a) -a«) berfwrJinun 677, ■uijfaa 1104. 

b) -ob; hcafdstt 1141, /fx/on 1154. 

c) -iiB j apumfwiaran (MS. nuerian) t^, ble(irber\g\aa 304, uncrau 
laftran iiis,feorbgetiislan 1933, /i/jaa 43, irraa 907, 11 J7, 5035. 

Note. On cases like hiardan clammum (so 96] ; heardum elammum 
■ 335), deoran s^wtordt, sec J ij. j- Note id/icpx {bendum) 977, ,6a/M 
(btatfrt) 849. — The erroneous spelling {», i.e.) -um for -an appears 
in 3S6o>>. 

J. -K appears as -«, -«. Cf. Siev. i 137 n, 5 j H. C. A. Carpenter, 
Dit Dtklin. in d. nordbumbr. E-vang. (1910), i 87. 

a) -e 1 tarftpo 534, -gfuxtdo ii7,gtping(i 1085, -b/iaa 1409, •wadt 
546 i^iao 4489 f -ilrengo 533, (iinc)pego 1884, etc. 

h) -a;-giiwitda 161 J (n.), PSitnda 1819, 1994 (?) (cf.Biilb. { 364)) 
■beala 136, jfara 1914 (cf. Bu. Zs. 194, j^h^-/. xxvii 419). 

Note. Analogical use of-u for -a in the gen, & dat. sg. of lunu ! 
1178, 344. (Cf Siev. i 171 n. i). See also 1143. 

J. -a (gen. plur.) appears as 

a) -e. Cf. Sievers, Biilr. ix ijo i MLN. xvi 17 f.j Sisam, A*tR. xi 
137. V" +7S. 593. «*'''' 'ijl.ylda 70 (n.).3 

b) -< poinbly in jor^^ 1004 j cp. the MS. spelling biviU 1710. 
jf. -an appears as -on 

a) in infinitives (cf. Siev. J 363 n. i), brrgdait 1167, buim 2841, 
beaidon (MS. beoUon) 3084, bladun (MS. blodsn) 177;, angytw 308- 

b) in Mfl»«o« S77, i'/'"" 78S.' 

Note. The change of -on to -an in the ind. plur. pret. (cf Siev. 
8364". 4) i" (een in '^^'" "O'S (MS. Mr*-, see S 6 n. 1), 1475 i 
+3, 650, 194s, 1116, 1479, 1851, etc. 

' Thus, e.g., KiM. Ghiui, ZfdA. «i 10. 9+ : gismrai. 

' It i> ponble that 1 filing diphthong had developed. 

• The MS. form pryBn 193 I (for prjgc) ihoiild itio be remembered. 

' On the ip*lling/r«ii« htj'icnai, 1104, ue T.C. \ 16. 


J- -" (gen. Mng.) appean u 

a) -ai (as found in varioui Uter texH, cf. Siev. { ijy n. i{ Carpm- 
tcr, o/. tit., {{ 6if.)}> HiaSB-Scilfingas 63, Mtrfwiaiagai 2911, 
yrfewtardai 145}, 

b) -^ij (cf. Siev. i 44n. a, Bolb. { 360 n.: late, especially LWS.); 
•winltyi 516- 

A similartransitianof f ininfleidonal lyllablea tojiin 1 {ni-w^tyrtofd 
»95,^n!yW 1156 (cp. 1761). 
d. Various changes of normal -t: 

(a) -mi/r (pres. ptc.) > -indi ; lueallinJe 7^64; > -ti»dt (cf. Siev. 
{ 363 n. ^);-agandi 1013, 

(b) -w {pres. opt. plur.) > -dn (cf. Siev. S 361); firan 154, etc.j 
-«» (pret. opt. plur.) > -oh (cf, Siev. 5 3*5)) ftridim ji 13, etc. 

(c) -< (before n) of middle sylJablM > -m»- j in the pret. ptc. (cf. 
Siev. i j66. i) ; gecomru 106, {t'urh)elaru J049 (cp. Jiu/B 6 : undcrto- 
taiu')\ — gen, plur. : ictaSma 174 (cf. Siev. J 176 n, x & j); — ritmi* 

(d) > f ininfl. Buperl.s jja^*J(e 1817.* 

7. An i of the second element of a compound weakened to * (cf. 
Bulb, 5 JS4)ij5''^»' '98S1 »784 (Jyr^yt 131)5 H.«ai-/« i9«5,J 

8. Prefix -ff- > -/- in unigmetes 1791, which is rcaionabtjr to be 
considered = mdmttes, showing a late transition of gt- to i- (Siev, Jus 
n, I, q>. unilic, ani'wemmed ; Mtl. Bl. 7. 33 & 10. 9 1 unigmtt), and 
analogical spelling ig (which is rather frequent in that portion of the 

p. The isolated te 2913 (tee Gloss, i le) shows an intereiting weak- 
ening, cf. Wright S 656, Bulb, f 454, B.-T,, >,v. /#. 

10. The loss of the middle vowel of Hygelac in l^lacfei) 1530 
(from Hyglde) ha« been designated as largely Northumbrian, with refer- 
ence to the analogous forms of the Libtr Vitae (Siev. R, 463 f.).' The 
dropping of the posttonic vowel in Heart 7E, 991, originally due to the 
example of the inflected forms (sec 1099 ; Bulb. \\ 405, 439), it de- 
manded by the meter in 1, 78 (cf. Siev, R. 148, T,C. { 5 n,), 

' Some enmpla from poetical Miti ! Ced, (A) 485, £r. 14I, i)dn. ]o, 11;, 
B'anJ. 44. See Knpp't nole on Andr. 513. 

> Such weidc a may be found in aome (lite) [eitt, cf. Sweet, ^gi. Riadtr, Gra. 
{ 18 n. , /ingl. iiv307{noteonfl«/(68. 15). — TheMS. •pemngtfii/;ci>*f(fiw 
tnltcmi 13;!} ihows Kiibal Riispprchcnilon. 

■ Theformifl<(ffcyii434, X437, //<eacyM(i4EimiybeiGcountedfDrbyfblk 

* ThaL thii if should stand, by miitilce, for in old or dialectal £1- (cf. Biitti. 
{ 45; n.i) a a ^> los pliuiUilc hypocheiii. 

' SiFVFrt poain the unifotm u>c of the fonn Hygltt (ai well u Iftdra) for the 
original text ; Binllarly Sgnniaid 8^;, 884 might have beoi tubttituled for Sgmund. 
Al» K«/a 879, 889 has been declared a Southern jcribe'i alteration of *Filla 
(Weyhe, Biiir. ax 98). — On the foiiD) iildt- and Juld- in compoundi, KC 
T. C. S 14. 


§ /?■ 

r- S- 

Lossof palatal^, transition of ->> to. -J plater i), Cf. Wright §! 3". 
3i4{ Siev. S 114- 5i Castjn i, pp. 8S, 178. 

mlafiSs^ if^'S- 6x); f^lac{ei) 1530 (see 5 .S. .0), -brad 
71J, 1664, 1S7S. iT>i. frin{an) jji, ijii, -bjJig etc. 434, 713, 
1749, 1760, 1667, agio, cf. 3165, laJ' etc. 1696, 1945, 3151 i by 
analogy (cf. Siev. 5 114 n. 8) also grfrunon x, 70, {-)hr6dttt 551, 
i443i 1548 i—/a«(- 118, -j5ft 105. 

The dirappcarHnce of g in gtndt 1401 (gaigdt 1411) is pechapi 
merely an onhographic [L. Kent. ] feature, cf. Siev. {$ 1 84, 1 1 5 n. i , 
Biilb. ! 533 d. 

The prefixing of j- in the spelling ^mmor 1960 (for Eemir') suggests 
a Kentish scribe, cf. Siev. \ an n. 1. 

Transition of final ng 10 n^ in aupranc mi {-rine 11 iS (n.) ?); 
cf. Siev. i 115, Bulb. § 504. gecranc 1109 is possibly to be referred to 
-trincan, a parallel form o( -cringan ; cf. Btitr. xntvil isj f- 

Note. Interesting spellings, (a) lorbge 1468 (cp. an analogous 
spelling of b in figbee 1465), abcaUb iiSo ; cf. Siev. SS 114 n. 5, 
133. — (b) SpelLngs for eg (rf. Siev. \ iifi n. i, Cosijn i, p. 179) 1 
aeggendi' %oi%,fricgcian i^S y, Ec-kio'iv, -laf^ij, 9S0 (£■- corrected 
to£cg- 263), «f »86i.> 

s. b. 

Loss and addition of initial b. Cf. Siev. $ 117 n. 1 & 1, Balb. I 
480 n. 

The loss of initial b in the MS. spellings o/'jii, -rtadt 1194, inn/ 
1 868 may or may not be of phonetic significance.^ 

On the unwarranted spelling b in initial position in brapi 1390, 
1975, see T.C, S "Si on -bnigdon 3916 (cp. ijiS), broden 1151, see 
T.C. { 18 ; on bun fera see note on 49 9 if., tenth footnote. Obvious 
mistakes are £<Mt/-, jhuit/- 1541, ao94> 3919, 1971, also £ii(fr» 1513. 

3- "■ 

n before _^ b, changed to m (assimilation, cf. Siev. S iSS. i) : gim- 
fast 1171, biimbrd '^on- 

Loss of n in the form cynigt) jut, which arose perhaps as a 
cross between tynig and cyngti (cf. BOlb. \ jSi) and may be found 
in several later texts. 4 

' Cp., tg., El. 160, 387, 560. 

■ So H'ald. i 5. — Wbelbir ^ i» ettoneomly ipelled for^ in ecgilifii<)i iidoubt- 
M, tee Glow. 

' The incorrect inrire [tee hovrcvcr Ser, £ Xil n. i] 15S bu been corrected 
b)' another haml to harkiri. 

* See B.-T, Suppl. : <j'bi[i OB. Cinn. 409 (E), 755 (E) ; ff^wJiri if lit 
Saudt, 19. 



The abtence of final it in r^nva (MS.) 6e {„ riiivan) hu been 
explained ai a Northumbrianismj cf. Siev. {{ iBg, i, 176 n. s, Buib. 
I 557 i Napier, FumiijaU MiictHanj, p. 379 n. The formi Umtdt 
90s, oftriedt 1408, •wtardodt 1164 possibly whibit wealtcning from 
normal -rfan, but they (especially the first two instances) cam be ac- 
counted for by lack of congruence, cf, { 15. 6, note on 904, f, ' 

4. Doubling of comtmanti. 

a) Normal doubling of / before r (cf. Wright £ s6o, Biiib. { 344) 
in aUrei 1513, ntren 1617, hence also atlor 171;, 1839 {^"r 1459). 

b) Merely orthographic {or due to confiision) seems to be the doub- 
ling of intervocalic ( after long vowel or diphthong (in open syll^le) 
rafillUMTii (cf. Glow.: fited), gtgriaan ii6i, gthidde 505 (c£ 
bidan), iciatta 751 (cf. /<■«((/)»). *■ 

Note. The oblique cases of ivrel(i) being nearly always spelt in 
OE. with W, argue for the je-dcclension, 

c) Doubling of final / afiet short vowel: iceall^ **7Sf »498» 25°' 
"SJ5. 3°'+. 3o»'.3077i"V/»7i'iw//i9S'.»"6». 1811. Cf. BulK 
If S47 f- (Doubled / in posttonic position: apeU'tngum 906.) 

J. Simplification of double consonants. 

a) bb between vowels simplified (in spelling) to i in gtntboit 794. 
Cf. Billb. % 554 n. 1: quite frequent in Angl. texts, but found also 
in WS. MSS,* 

b) « spelt ( in htttndtl i8i8j tm spelt n in irena 673 (n.), 1697, 

cj The simplification of ttrttc 637 (for ror/fif) i* normal. Cf. 
Wnght { «j9. 3, 

6. Loii of the second of three successive consonants. Cf. Bulb 
S 5111 also MLN. xviii »43-+S- 

■ TnutmiDD (Tr. 134) di-gnoKd ^:. 158 (MS., howeTer, i«»fl} » . Nof- 
thumbr. form for hanati (ihough it is more ruturallji eiplained u an nror cmied br 
the foLowing/o/Bifi, cp. 1811,1961), likewise -i/wra 9K6, for -iforja (Ti. 177) 
and — vice vera — n^a/ju 1031, u wi eironeomly Watu.oniieil form for ■aiail 
(Boon.B. ».U, p. 163) ; Itmtdi 905 wu suspected by him (Tt. 174) of sUndbr 
for origirul Northumlir. Itmtda (which ii very ijuenionable, cf. Siev. E 364 n. 
4). Codjn (Aant. IJ) judged -nmfa 1544 to Ik m Angl. form fbr -ia,psi, 

' The Kune Ipelling, Ex. 419 : acatlai. Such dauhle ipellingt occur lalher ir- 
rtgulitly in Northumbr. , Me e. g. , E. M. Lea, Til Lang. 0/ ihi Ntriiumir GItii 
U tht Gi^l if Si. Mari, Angl. ivi 1 3 1 ff. ; Liodelof, ZW. Spr^i. d„ Riu,al, 
vta Darham, pp. 70 t On luch ipellingi in late Southern leiti, see Scblemitcb, 
pp. 64 ff. — The double r sfter shortened diphthong In praatMia 3406 is LWS 
cf. Siev. H 3x8, 130 n. ., Biilb. S J49. 

' Frer]uent in LWS. fSiev. S413)- Cf. aim Schlemilch, p. 63. 

* Thus,e.g., &». iS43ifCiTcaJi, JMo/i. 169: ^tni^ti; G$n. 1581,1066 El 
^^^•. klikindt, Blickl. Horn. i^. 13: ilitaf>i Oto Kai. Gin,., Z/dA. in iS it'- 
hUhit fS. Oitp., Ufkt6. 11: UiiaP, Litd., it. i il^iia; to 6. 15. 

' Perhaps influenced by itu, imlu, haul. Thus El. 18, 119: itimdUm) 

The ipelling niSa 111; (not uncommon in OE. MSS.) for aiBaa se^ms to be due 
to analogy with the noun nUt. 



(. (biri)'wicsmun G77, and (in a case involving tno wordi i) tiSm 
Jig/ 1710 MS. (see Varr.). 

H. {beaea)bearna 1037 MS., (keasa)beama 1067 MS.' (Peihaps 
scribal confuaion with the noun beam.) The spelling bcartde laos 
( ^ Heardrede) 'a possibly a mere blunder, 

Jjjss of r before one (or two) consonant(s) : swueodum 567 MS. (see 
Varr.), fyblum +57 MS. (for [gc-]'wyrbum). 

Unfortunately, -tuiesmun is the only fairly probable instance of inten- 
tional phonetic spelling.' 

7. karia. — Absence of metathesis of >■ (cf. tem) isnoted in (archaic) 
ren{^eard) 770, cf. Siev. \ 179.1, Bulb. $ 518.^ — W*/??!, 997, 
1915, 1196, i)x6, 311X with /i/ from >/ (WS. //) is considered pre- 
dominantly Angl. Cf Siev. t 196.1, Bulb. S S^^- ' 

f. The solitary spelling u for intervocalic/, in bliuadt 1799 {btifadt 
1S9S) probably (though not necessarily) bespeaks the hand erf" a late 
tcribe. Cf. Siev. S 194.; Schlemilch, p. 49.* 

Only a fen noteworthy forms in addition to those mentioned in { iS 
«re to be pointed out here. 

S 30. Ntuas 

I. Of nouiis used with more than one gender, is once (X394) ap- 
pears as fern, (later usage), 5 (iiern)icur 3116 as fem. (archaism).' 
The (Angl.?) fem. gender m bend a seen in ivalbende I9l£. On 
{haiid)iporu, see rote on 984 ff. j on luata, nuric. Gloss. ; on/reftr, 
note on 698 ; on bliiu, note on 3,3,97. See also notes on 48, 1338, 
andT.C. 1 15. Theapparentfem. useofjira468(MS.)i» tobecharged 
against the scribe. For the neut. iiufa//" (Gloss.), cp. ON. h'valf. 

I. The fem. nouns of the i-declension regularly form the ace. sing, 
without -*, the only exception being dsde S89.' The fem. •wynn 
fluctuates between the jb- and the /- type, the ace. sing. {•)iwynnt 
occurring %x, the ace. ung. eselivyH in 149}.' — The nom, plui. 

■ L. 1031 ; -biardnai fTidi. n^:-iiania with ./ iddeil above the Ijae. 

■ EieeidLngly doubtful are isl (pcgnas) 11J9, -tu,/ {pa) 1506, and fttt (gt 
«™«) 11.8. 

^ The umc form is recorded in the early fi/un C/DUdf^, 1137: mdign ^ 'k- 
dii mjniiter' ; betida, i> the Kcand demeoc of compoundi, in ierdrta, Zj'dA. 
Miiil 145. 4». goog'", '*- 146- 8o- 

' Thuf, e.g.. El. i-i^: htgraunt, Anir. hi : uuiSntn. 

' Cf. Schrodrr, ZfdA. iliii 366; Hempl, joek. ii 100 f. 

* So Gothic iWraj cf. P.Grdr.' i, p. 770. 

' The foriiii iryfllf xi)^fi,)ramcyai I713, jj/e llj; muR be underitood a> icc. plur. 

Str. { 169 range) W7*ii with the i-iti!mi,in Biilr. i 494 f. heclmei it, ai, piimuttji, 
tjt-tuai. OS. TOuirma ii j**tem, OHG. vmnna ji-ntm, OHG. wiiiiiri i-uem. 



,^__ sociation of lnd(t) with fUed and the passing c 

> ihe D-Sllension, cf. Siev. { 164; J. F. Royater, MLN. xxiii 1 

f. i 

n niodtaa* i jio, though not impossible i 
logical datWiing. (cf. Siev. J ij] n. 2), is probably it 
(b written for «). 

4., Of distiivct interest is the archaic dat. (initr.) dsgor 1395 (cf. 
Varr. ! 1797, 1573).' As to form, -si^r 1554. could also be an archaic 
dat. ling^ , ' though the perfective meaning of geiutaldan harmonizes 
better with the ace 

§ 21. Adjectmts 
.^Ifinarkably late, analogical form of the ace. plur. nent. \%fSgi 
i6i5.> (Cf. Siev. { %<j\ n. 3.} Note also ii^xjifin^ £13, cwkt ^%, 

I 22. Pronaum 
On the apparent use of li ^^ lie, bi ^ iio, see notes to ii6o, 1344, 
1887.5 — A single instance of bit, nom. sg. fem., occurs 1019 (so 
regulartl [twice] in the [Merc.] yeip. Psalter, cf. Siev. § 134 n. i ie 
3). — The transmitted lit, nom. sg. fem., 2219 (see Vair.) is well 
known [onlf once : j/o] in the Feip. Psalttr (cf. Siev. 5 337 n. 4), — 
jiara, dat. sg. fem., 1615 suggests dialeaal or late usage (cf. Siev. 
{ 337 n. 1 & 4, and Etiir. a. 471). — The erroneous i<T^ 11 99 could 
be inteipieted as a blunder for ptrt (Kent., Merc., cf. Siev. | 337 n. 
] & 4), i.e. normal part.* 

* i2J. Ferif 

I. The uniform use of the full endings -eit, ~tt (a. & 3. sing. pres. 
iod.) c^ long-Eiemmed strong verbs and weak verbs of the i. class, and 
of the unsyncopated forms (ending -td^ of the pret. ptc. of weak verbs 
of the I., class terminating in a dental is in accord with the postulate of 
Ihe Anglian origin of the poem.I Conclusive instances (guaranteed hj 
the meter) are (a) ofm^stp 179, 1768 ; g'dig'S {-«/) 300, 66t j 
pencea jjj,' 448, 1535, a6oi ; 'wtorpts 414, 1913 i tvinep 600 i 

■ See Wcyjie, Biiir. »ii 85 ff. 

' Or ii iik Hud here a frm. ? f^i wonU then be ace, Ig. fcm. 

' Such 11 fonn ij ii a dialecnl pmibilit;, cf. E. M. Brawn, Til Lmmg. a/ til 
Ruikamrii Glia i<i Maikea,%ii ; Bblb. S4;4i Bu. Zi. 105. 

* The Merc {Faf. Ft.) tana tr hu been coajecniially proposed far a^ab, 

' See Ser. {| 358. 1, 40I. i, 406, Enir. ii 175 ; SicT. R. 4G4 if., A. M, 
{ 76. 3. Th«c critics who hare can dauba on SicTtn's formulatiQn of thii dialect 
tot have intimatrd ibe nlue of ihoe conjupoonal featurn as a ciitnion of early 
date, 10 £u as Southern tens might be concerned. Cf. ten Brink >i] ; Tiaatmann 
Kyn. 7in.iTuppcc, Pnil. MLOu.xai 1^3., JEGPi.v S^f. 

« ' D, ..■■.v^.oo^ic 


tiineB 606, IS7' i traces io6»i btaldtst "705 i tciaa 1744;^- 
ireoitt i7S4iet<:- (For the absence of WS. umlaut, tee Siev. \ 371,) 
(b) iyTSltd 67X { gt^ptd 700 i afided 69} ; giliited S19 ; forinded 
1)04 { tcyadcd ^\% \ etc.i The dissyllabic valiie of the x. & 3. sing. 
prea- inil. of short -stem me d verbs is likewise proved by the meter, e.g. 
4ymist 1381, njvttS 1S46, 1536, girlts 1460, J<(rf igofi. 

X. An archaic, or Angl., feature is the ending -b mfulliiiu i6fiS ; 
cf. Siev. S 355. (See hafu, below, under 5.) Another archaism ap- 
pears in the ending -tci faSmit 1651 (sec note on 1981) ; cf. Siev. 
\ 161. 

J. The pret. dS {-)findan is both funde (6x, in accordance nith 
the regular EWS. practice, cf. Cosijn ii, p. iji) a.nA fand (nx), 
fmd (ix). — The pret. of [-)cuman is both fTUBw(-) (ifin) and 
taM{-) (141'). — The pret. sing, of [-)aiHiiiii ii nim (ix, the normal 
Angl. form), nam (iBx), pt. ii5man (ix). — The pret. {giipab 1014 
looks like a WS. scribe's ineffectual respcllingof Angl. f*Ay cf, Siev. 
{ 391 n. g, Bcilr. Ix 1B3 ; Dcuischbcin, Beilr. ixvi 135 n. (Was 
there coufusion with l-abf) — Not strictly WS. neOrgoit nitfgejtgaw 
J038, getigm 3118 ) cf. SicT. j 391 n, 7. —Late [Kent, LWS.] 
b speean 1864.' — Quite exceptional (found nowhere else, it seems,) 
it the pret. ptc. drepen 1981. 

4. The unique pret. g»ng 1009, 11115, 1316 makes the impression 
of being a mechanical ttansctiption into WS. of a form geong (which 
was taken for a Northumbr. imp. giong (So. Northumbr. gong), cf. 
I 13.5). The form lg€)gangi8 1846 is perhaps Angl. (WS. gie).^ 

J. bafa, bafo ai5o, 1513, 3000 (sec \ 13.1), hafast (uniformly, 
5X), bafas (uniformly, gx) are rather Angl. (or poetical) \ cf. Siev. 
{ 416 n. I.} (-)lifi{£)mdi 468, etc. (lox) is not the standard WS. 
fbim, cf. Siev. J 416 n, i.* — tilgi 1067 evidences a compromise be- 
tween ttlU and taligt (so 531, 677, 1845).* — The ending -edt^vx 
btifadt 81, tosadi 1096 (so -ad as in gfweorSad, etc.) occurs sporadi- 
cally in both paiti of the MS., cf. Siev. { 413.^ 

6- The archaic, poetical didan {didoti^ [claimed 7a a Northumbrian- 
ism} has been demanded by metrical rigorists, iBzg>> (cp. 44*'), see 
Van. Cf. Siev. \ 419 n. 1, Siev. R. 49S ; Tupper, Publ. MLAu. xxvi 
afi4 n. 3. 

' t/lanaHy Ineoncluiive ok* lie, e.g., 93, i 

■ Cr. Sie*. { iSo. Tbt oDlf other iutince i 
S7- J- 

' Cf. A. K. Hudr, Dii Spracii dtr Bihil'mg HtmUm (Ldptig Di«., 1K99), 
P- 7S- n- 

' K. WiUhagen, St. EPh. liii iSo maka it out 10 be Angl. It ii to be idmitttd, 
bowem, that kafaa, hajat, and opeciiUy U){i)gtnit im not nnknown in WS. 

' Cp. Andr. 1484:W(^«. 

* In R»tkai.*, e.g., the Towels ii nteil in such focmt ilmott without exception, 
cf. Lindelof, Boon. B. i, \\ laS f. 



7. The Angl. pres. ptc. formation in -<iiJf of weak verbs of the a. 
class (cf. Siev. G ♦>» n- ". Siev. R. +gi, A. M. j 76. 7) ii seen in 
fiBrtnmd- 1761 (cf. Lang. \ 18. 5). 

On the uninflected inf. after ti, see Siev. J 363 n. 3 ; T.C. { i». 

On important linguistic features bearing on scansion, see Appendix 
III (T.C). See also below, Chapter viii: 'Genesis of the Poem' 
(Date I Linguistic Tests). 

§ 24. Mixture of forms 

How can this mixture of forms, early ■ and late,* West Saxon, 

Northumbrian, Mercian, Kentish, Saxon patois be accounted for t The 

interesting supposition that an artificial, conventional standard, a sort 
of compromise dialect had come into use as the acknowledged medium 
for the composition of Anglo-Saxon poetry,' can be accepted only in 
regard to the continued employment of ancient forms (archaisms) and 
of certain Anglian elements firmly embedded in the vocabulaiy of 
early Anglian poetry. Witness, e.g., the use of bean, flvrei,' bebt by 
the side of the later bean, fearii, bet, or the forms mice tnever mice), 
beadtt{-'), beasu- uniformly adhered to even in Southern texts. But the 
significant coexistence in the manuscript of diiTerent forms of one and 
the same word,' without any inherent principle of distribution being 
recognizable, points plainly to a checkered history of the written text 
as the chief factor in bringing about the unnatural medley of spelling*. 
The only extant manuscript of Beoiaalf was written some two and a 
half centuries after the probable date of composition^ and tras, of 
course, copied from a previous copy. It is perfectly safe to assert that 
the text was copied a number of times, and that scribes of heterogene- 
ous dialectal habits and ditferent individual peculiarities' had a share in 

' Note, e.g., detail] like rin- \ 19. 7, dagor % lo. 4, hafi, fMllSsla,f,rSmif, 
S13. i&SislsoT.C. G 

" Note, e.g., iltuadi % 19. 7, ipaan f ij. i.foge \ 11, rmyrd £ 8. 6, tvimle 
SBu. i,/J«l,.««-.««§iig. 8, 19. I. 

' Cf. O. Jopersctl, Crewlkand Slruilun o/lAi Englhi Lanpiagt, ided., 191a, 
5 S3 iiee ilso H. Collitz, " The Home of the Heliand," PM. MLAu. ivi 113 ff, 

* Cf. T.C. Ii I, 3. 

* Thu., pfan,gyfm,p<ifaa!nf<ia,lyfeS,liofalStgii!t,iia,gfa,gau,geai 
dart, flWi, dyn; tmerd, rwurd, myrJi Bafera, Btfaru, UfaTC; laldir, aider} 
tailiai, ahaan, thiian j drykiin, drihun ; etc. 

* See below, ' ManuKript,' ind Chapter vin {' Date '). 

' Striking illssttationj of patdng Kribiil mooda ire the occurrence of the apelling 
rf = I with any degree of frequency in a dslinitely limited portion only, Ke J 5 d. I 
(cp. [he spasmodic appcannce of Hygtiii, Gloo. of Proper Nimet) ; the lolitirj in- 
ttancet of ueSSati in II. 177;, 1S7;, 1937 ; the irregular ule of the a and * 
apellingi (eidusive of pone, etc. ) before naials which thow the following ratioa : IL 
1-917,1 SI, 11. 9ig-i340, 8: i,U. 1 341-1944, 71 6,11. 1945-1199, 31 : 31, 
11. isoo-3181, 4: T (Moller, £&. liil ij*) i the varying frequency of the prepo«- 
tion in (aa oier againtt m), which appears in 11. l-lSj : lox, u 11. 1 


that work.' Although the exact history of the various linguistic and 
orthographic strata cannot be recovered, the principal landmarks are 
itill plainly disceniible. 

The origin of the poem on Anglian soil ' to be postulated on gen- 
eral principles is continned by groitps of Anglian forms and certain 
cases of faulty substitution (e.g., tixfre, htutetrt, frdtr f 7. i, -biran 
5 8. 5, peoJ(i.e. dtoe) J 16. ^,S'"'g\ *3- 4) ^> to which some syntactical 
and lexical features are to be added (S5 15. 7, 16). See also below, pp. 
xcii f. A decision in fitvor of either Noithumbiia or Mercia as the 
original home cannot be made on the basis of the language.^ 

Before receiving its broad, general LW5. complexion, the MS. — 
at any tate, part of it — passed through £W5. and Kentish hands. 
See especially %\ 1, S n. i, 10. 6, i+. 1 & 3, 17, 19. i. That these 
dialectal elements were superimposed on a stratum eS a different type 
is suggested by a blunder like siex- 2904 (cf. ${ i, 8. 3) and a me- 
chanical application of an io spelling in HonJido 1076 (rf. (17 n.J. 
Olt the other hand, the scribal mistake mid of 1. 976 (cf. J i) would 
not be unnatural in a copyist unfamiliar with EWS. ipelting tiaditions. 
It is worthy of note that these dialectal contributions have been almost 
completely obliterated in the first part of the MS. 

The linal copy which has been preserved is the work of two scribes, 
the second hand beginning at mwW, 1939. As the first of these scribes 
(A, 1-1939) copied also the three preceding prose pieces, v'a. a 
ihort Cbrislopberui fragment,^ Wonderi of tht Eesl,^ and Lilter of 
Alixandir^ and the second one (B, 1939-31 81) copied the poem of 

' As coolribuling cauiaof the iniiture of formi nuybe DlEnlionHl the ocotionil 
fluctuadon between tmUdonal and phonetic ipelling, the pronounced Anglo-Suon 
del]gbtinTariation(notB,i.g.,i9la;F;-j^ji.«, 1915 :/"Miiia, 3031: muWiir, 3037: 
wundar), and [he mingling of dialecti in moiiiitic communilia (cf. Stubbi, tenaila- 
lieaal Hilary nf EfiglnKd* i 1^-^-9/. f.BryiB, &uMii h lit Dialteii ef lit Ktni- 
iti Ciariirs etc., pp. 34 f.]. 

* Cf. Sie.. A. M. SS 74 ff. 

' It haibeenplauiibiyiuggeitedthi[aforni;c/f£E>'i(ioioI4) indicates a WS. 
remodeling of A ngl, grflg'" (1617), since £i/jj;pn teenu to be unknown in pure 
WS. teitjjteeDeutichbein, £«jr. ixvi 194, The lame may be true of 1*^011 1411, 

* The >noogeit evidence supporting Meitij IS the H-, o/fl-umlaut of fl, 5 11. i. 
— It would be pneible to argue foe the eiiitence of an oiiginal Northumbr. srtetch 
from 986-1310; cf. -ift'ii 986, gtieiait 1004 (orig. «), gang 1009, -agaioi 
1013, AroWloioMS., v/atu 1031, /(/fl 1031, ilSaa 1106 (originally liSan — 
«w«(ff)B» — jyaffanf}, iprx 1171, li 1160 (.'). f""' '^T^ MS., gatg 1195, 
f'X 'J'^ii ^otii 1310 (?). But moEt of the material is problemi'"' 

' ChHaufk^i fiagment (fF. 94a-98l>) ; fd. hv fi. Hmfrld. h 

* Dt Rttui in OHcKii MirMlibui {«. 
Knappe, Grolawild Din., 1906. 

' Epiiula AlmaKdriad Arimiclia (IT. I07a-r3[b) ; an eaiily icccsiible ediiioi 
by W. M. Basketvill, Angl. iv I39-67. The identity of the handwriling u 
BtvaiMlf A and the Efitttla Alixmdri wis reiogniied bj Sedgefield (Edition, 1910 

D, ..■■.V^.OQt^lC 


Judilk alio, some inferences relating to their treatment of the Beevmlf 
MS. and the condition in which they found it may be ventured. The 
most obvious difference between the language of A and of B is the mul- 
titude of io, U spellings in the B pan, a number of which, at least, 
may be assigned to the Kentish layer of the MS.,' in contrast with 
the almost total absence of such forms in the A part. As no to forms 
at all are contained in the MS. of yudilh, it has been argued (by ten 
Brink) that scribe B did not introduce those spellings into the Bimuutf, 
but found them in his original, adhering to his text more faithfully than 
(cribe A." In case this view is accepted, we might point out some other 
features which could be interpreted as signs of conservatism on the part 
of the second copyist. 

Thus we find, Bi {-)'waliB, {-yivylm. A: (.yaylm i B: eUe, eUt 
(only 1117! yldam). A: ylde, ytdt. (Cf. « 7.1, 8.1, i.j.) 

B ! -denu, ^-)djimt, A : lj)dyrne ■ B ; mirctts, A : -gemyrcu ,- B : -ime, 
A:(-)yr«. (Cf. 558.1, a. 3.) 

B : eatol, atol, A : atot {Jud. : alol );'&■. {■)heafBU, A : kaftla. (Cf. 

B: bafu, bafi, A: birbhe (5 13. 5) ; B: g'tigO", A: lagBn, geia- 
•uian (55 10. I, 13. 1). 

li:lig{-),r,g{-).A:ng. (Cf. 510...) 

B : Wedra (only {2/S6,) ijj6 : ffrdera), A : IFedrra. (Cf. % li. 

B : iuundur{-), •wander-. A: luiindBr^-), •wuiidir(-); Bi •wuldur-, 
A 1 luutdor^-') (Jud.: tuuldor) j B : sdiual-, laivol, A : laiuol; saiul- ; 
B : lundur, Ai suadar-. (Cf. Siev. 5 J 139 f l Bulb. 5 364.) ^ 

A preference for the 3pelling_f inB, and for later 1 in A is shown in 
certain groups of words, thus B : dryblen (on]y ziSS i i'), A i driblea, 
dryhtm ; B : dryhl, A : dribt, drybl ; B ; hycgart, A : bicgan ,- B ! bygi, 
higi, A : bige, rarely byge ,- B : Hygtlac, Higeldc, A : Higttac (nearly 
always); B : tyncan, A : pi^^an ; see J 4. It is true that the spelling_> 
is favored by B also in certain words in which i represents the earlier 
sound ; thus B : syBBan, A : tyBSan, liSBan, B : byt, bit. A: hit. Hi 

p. 1, n.). Thit the lame scribe wrote ilio the two other prose teits wil pointed 
out by Sium, MLR. li 335 S. 

' For detaili lee 15 14, 16. j, 17- In ' B ' there occur 115 is, (o(Hf) ipelUngi, 
in'A'only 11,-vi.. K/W^ 303, in 455, 613, 1929, ^fmryi. 697 (i-umbu. of 
J before labial), -ita''99S-/"'"«''- ^°9^< *'""' 1166, g'»^oS {•'g'!') U90, 1674. 
idraan l^%•i. All of theic toidd be cajled WS. in the broader lense (including 
'patoi.')i for uhmn, frioeu- {% 14. 1), ace Biilb. j 135 n. —The frequent!. 
■pellingi fin 'fi') of the name Anon//' ire opeciaUy noteworthy. 

' Cf. L6.1 (ten Btink), L6.3 (Dividion, Mc Clumphi). [Mt, S. I. Rypini, 
in an unpubliihed doctor's thaii (1918) of Harvard University, combat) ten Brink's 
view{ he holds that scribe A was the more careful copyist.] 

' The nme archaic u in poittaaic syllable appeirt in A : udur 663, Huruii 766 j 



bynt (bint), A ; hi«i (fyne), B i ii.jii, A : it, B : iiyile, A i tvi/U 
(j jx) i cf. also B ! jyWan, A -. ,eUaa, B : tylf, A : uif{oaly s°S'j)i 

In A only do ivc find the remarkable gen. pluc. forms in -v ({ i8. 
3), fbnns likey^ni (j 19. j), m^nige (j 7 n. 1), iovjan, iataan 
(cf. { 3. 2), Imjarfan, vtorc (| g, 6), irr/p* (J 8. i), gcfigon (cf. p. 
xci, n. j). 

That a number of these distinctive spellings of A were actually in- 
troduced by that paiticular scribe is made probable by a noteworthy 
agreement in various orthographic details between A and the three 
prose texts which precede the Beowulf. Thus we find yUo, Ep.Al. 
4.19, 716 ) ligit, it. 153, lig, Cbriitopit. i+, 17 ; letf gx" in Ep.Al. 
(j %!, tt tr) i parjli, ib. 169, cf. fifi, 101, i$S, z^6 ; -vilill, De Rei. 
ch, 19, itinme, ii. ch. 14. j gen. plur. -fato, Ep.Al. lai, 195, lerfcSo 
33*1 Mido 400, tndtiiiarB 413, etc.,' io'^y ^' Rib. ch. 3 ; M.mi^g'd, 
Ep.Al. 115, 195, 19G, 104, 491, 516 (624), i}f Xri. chs. I, II, 
Cbriilopb. 10, 19; -ia-wfil, Ep.Al. 51, -ie'wjt, etc. 18, 117, 363, 
367, 45 I ; b-werftB, ib. 164, 743, getvarc, Cbriilopb. 97 ; breenitie, 
Ep.Al. 70, bredtict, Di Reb. ch. 10 j fjgen, Ep.Al. 751.* 

That also the second scribe of our Stmuul/MS., in some respects, 
asserted hie independence, we are lain to believe on account of some 
orthographic parallelisms between B and Juditb, such as the uniform 
spellings hynt,jt, lytf in JuJ. ;yivati, Jud. 1 74 (?o 140 ; see j J. ») i 
i^rt, Jud. 300, J 1 9, and 4X in B (/o ix, ie ix ; A : « 5X ; see 
W 16. I, 3. 3) i the regular use a{ jmbe, prepos., in "Jud. (47, ifiS), 
B J jmbe(-) 7X (jmb 3X, A i jmh ; rf". T.C. \ i j) ; the form fwyrd, 
preferred in Jud. (6x), and occurring 3X In the latter part of B's work 
(never /ivHri/ as 31 in A) j the representation of « by ;, Jud. 150, and 
41 in B (see note on 1981). Even the exclusive use of Sam {pdm) in 
Jud. and the marked preference for pirn (Sim) In Ep.Al. are plainly 
matched by the distribution of those forms in B and A respectively, see 

' By the uic ot/yrtiyi A : 131 ii found A^oW B ! I985, J784, ef. the aiulo- 
fow weakening to « in HaSiii 1915, i« j iS. 7. It nay be noted thK A bsi 
fi^flB, R gtJigan, gi^gan (j 3. a). 

■ Cf. A. Braun, Lnuiltkrt dtr ^i. firut/i iir Epiatla AhKanin ad Arimii- 
Itm. WiinburgDiB., 1911. 

' A strong preference for the Towel e in cndingt appean in thia text. 

* Of minor importance i) the uae in Ep.Al. of giit-aion 15, 119, etc. ; gcmindig 
J ig'i^di ^JI \wlicu and violdno (miilon, Bte-w. 1604) ; kifdsii^ (= klafdu, 
cf. } 9-l)( wbichmiy be 1 Kribil blunder, being preceded and followed by liajdni 
t*i.ii.'S {cf-5'6-»)i "•-■■'. 'i- Si^C-^f. S 13. 3) i J*"". '■*■ 377{th<'UBh 
^tfi 510), Bom. 540, 549 -/foi (LWS., cf. Siev. g X04. 3, Biilb. J Jio). 

Digilizcdt* Google 


§2S. Syntax 

Turning to the field of syntax,! ne may briefly mention some fea- 
tures calling for the attention of students. 

I. The use of the «ingular of concreie nouns In a collective sense 
(see note on 794). 

The singular meaning of the plural of nouns such as burh, geard, 
tard, iiAc ; roder, beofon ; banlHii ; foic ; leart ; liii, lust, ill, iitjtira, 
gtpyld (semi-adverbial Amction of dat. plur., cp. off lilam) j tjm'; 
oferbjigd; the Use of the plural of abstract nouns with concomitant 
concretion of meaning, e. g. hrinar, liii, ivilla, * 

1. The absolute (substantival) use of adjectives in their strong in- 
flexion, e.g. gemeU ymb godne mgtadoT ipricon 1555-^ The employ- 
ment of the (more concrete) adjective in cases where our modern lin- 
guistic feeling inclines toward the (abstract) adverb, as badar 4.97 ; 
'553 1 '1°> 3°3' i ^^'t 1190, 1566; S97 t etc. The appearance of 
the compaifLtive in a context where, according to our ideas, no real 
comparison takes place, e.g. btUra 170], lilran 1839, liofre 1651, 
tyUicran 3058.* 

3. Of great interest, as a presumable archaism, is the frequency of 
the weak adjective when not preceded by the definite article, e.g. 
gemtla Scilding, hiapeiieapa bilm, luidan rUii, oftr laldi ribt,^ some 
7j instances (apart from vocatives) being found, including however 
the doubtful instrumental (dative) forms like diuran {I'UJierde], biar- 
dan {clammum').'' The comparative paucity of definite articles together 
nith the more or less demonstrative force of (the attributive) ti,, sit, 
fat recognizable in many places have likewise been considered a highly 
characteristic feature and have received much attention from investi- 
gators.' However, the value of the relative frequency of the article use 
(and the use of the weak adjective) in Old English poemias a criterion 
of chronology is greatly impaired by the &ct that the scribes could 
easily tamper with their originals by inserting articles in conformity 
with later or prose use, not to mendon the possibility c^ archaizing 

' L 6. 7 ff. ■ MPh. ill 163 ff. ; A>,k. tixvi 1S4. 

' The HibitanriTal tiincCton cannot always be dUtinguiihril from ifae idjectinl 
(appoiitive) one, e.g. wJj-H hiard K!6 is cither 'he, iieing braie in battle' or 'the 

* Cf. MPii. iili;r f. It may happen that the missing membcrofthecompamoa 
ii ejuily lupplied: Si lua'i viuigra itcg 9S0 (' moie reticent,' sc. 'than berorc '). 

' The type of the order ir^B tiata is found in ir77, 1143, 1343, 1435, 1553, 
i8or, 1847, 1919, 14741 'P- 4-"- (The type « magj fion^o : 1675, joi8.) 

' Jicras might be a weakened fbtm of the normal strong dit. aing. ui -unt, ienr- 
dan might stand for tli« wtak or itrong dat. plur. Bcfldes, the desire to avtnd luffii 
rime may have to be taken into account, cf. Sariaiin, ESl. iiiviii 147. 

' See L 6. 7 (eipMially IjchtenheM, Birnouw). 

' Seel, 5. 48. 1 j Topper's edition of the Jiii/aVd, p. Ixiviii. Similarly inconclusite 



4. OmUxion of the personal pronoun bothas subject 'and object* is 
abundantly eiempliRed in our poem ^ also the indefinite pronoun man it 
left unexpressed, 1565 (cp. 1190 f, 1547). That the possessive pro- 
noun is dispensed vrith in many places where a modem English transla- 
tion would use it, and that the personal pranoun in the dative may be 
found instead,^ need hardly be mentioned. 

5. The peculiar use of such adverbs of place aa bider, Piman, nian, 
fiar, ufan, tupan^ and of certain prepositions, like ilfer, under, and 
OS with ace, ti, q/" ftimisheB numerous inetmctive instances of the 
chaiacteristic fiiCt thiit in the old Germanic languages the vivid idea of 
* motion ' (considered literally or figuiatively) was predominant in 
many verbs ) which are now more commonly felt to be verbs of 'teat.'* 
Sometimes, it <hould be added, motion waa conceived in a different di- 
rection from the ordinary modem use,' and sometimes, contrary to our 
expectations, the idea td* rest rather than motion determined the use 
(or regimen) of the preposition (see 'f, an withdal.). The still fairly well 
preserved distinction of the ■ durative ' and ' perfective' (including *in- 
gressive ' and ■ rtsiiltative ') function of verba,^ the concretion of mean- 
ing attending verbs denoting a state, or dispoiition, of mind,^ and the 
unusual, apparently archaic regimen of some verbs •" are further notable 
paints which will come under the obseiVation of students. 

6> Lack of fuincord as shown in the interchange of cases," the coup~ 
B cbronological tan are the UM of the preposition mid (in place of the instrumental 
uk) and the CDOstrucdon of impersonal Verbs with the brrnal subject fir. In both 
ntpeca Bevuialf would K«n to occupy an iaiennediate poaidon bstwcen the •o-cilled 
Cxitinonian and the Cynewulfian poetiy. Cf. Simzin Kad. 5. 

' Cf. A. PotatKher, " UnaiugediuckmSubiekt im Allenglachen," Angl. iiili 
ifii-jol. See d%, 386, ]oo, 470, ;67, 1367, 14S7, 1913, '967, i}44i 1510, 

' Cf. Mfk. iii 1J3. See 14, 31, 4S f., 93, 387, 74S, 14B7, igo8, J940. 

* E.g., in 40, 47,49, 716, 7;;, 816, 1141, 1446. In the same way, of course, 
the dat. of > noun instead of a MnE. gen., as in 1044, iiiif, 

' Thm, in 394, 1408, 518, 1701, 1805, 330, 606. 

* Including, e.g., nich a> (ft)'*", ulaiviofi, {gt)iyrm, g'frlgian, gifriigan, 

* Cf. L 6. 10 (Sinen, Dening) j 'lUPh. a\ 15; B. See thole prrpocitions in 
the Gloisaiy. Note the contrait between at- and is-iomni, -gsd{i)re. 

' Sec some eiampln undef IS. 

' E.g. , aiu«,raiilan ; ilanda>i,gtuandim ifiatUs, gtftathn ; gUn, gegln ; lUan, 
gihidan. Cf. L 6. 17 j MPh. m %(,% f. 

' E.g., kalian ('ahow one's hatred by deedi,' ' peisecnte '), hjian, unnan, 
eaklian. Ct' MPk. jij 160 f. 

» Thui, the dati»e tfter f,rmman,fvgTmdi>K,farnBtnai,forgHpa<i (lo [/pr- 
grtpanl also Gin. Ii75)icf. Onmm, Diuuchi GrammMilL\y', til W.{l>9^fi.), 
8j6 {7tJO f.) ; H. Winkler, Girman. Caiuuyiaax, pp. 363 ff. The instnimen- 
ta] function of the genilJTe in connectian with verb* 1 84;, I439, 110^; i!z5i 
aoiS(')i '79'- 

" Thus, uiia with ace. and dat. ;4i4fr., 1977 f. ; an ippoeidon m the sec. caae 
liiUowinea noun in the dac., 1830/. 


ling of a singular verb nith a plural Eubject,' the rioktion, or free 
handli3)g, of &e evutcutit irm/crum* should cause no surpiiie or luipi- 

7. The construction of mi^ with accus.^ and the use of is (» WS. 
on) * are considered Anglianisms. — Both as a dialectal and a chrono' 
logical test the mode of expressing negation has been caTcfuUy studied 
vriih the gratifying rciult of cstabliihing Bemuidf as an Anglian poem 
of about 715 A.D.i 

8. In the matter of »ord-order the outstanding feature is the pre- 
dominance, according to ancient Germanic rule, of the end-position a£ 
the verb both in dependent and, in a somcnhat less degree, independent 
clauses, as exemplitied in the very fir^t lines erf' the poem. The opposite 
order : verb — subject b not infrequently found to mark a distinct ad- 
vance in the narrative^ (the more restful normal order being more 
properly adapted to description or presentation of situations and minor 
narrative links ') or to intimate in a vague, general way a coimection of 
the sentence with the preceding one, such as might be expressed more 
definitely by 'and,' (negatively) 'nor,' 'so,' 'indeed,' 'for,' 'how- 
ever.' * Besides, any part of the sentence may appear in the emphatic 
head -position, whereby the author is enabled to give elective syntac- 
tical prominence to the most important elements, as shown, e.g., in 
131J: dead ii £scbert, s+8; brie •uiirnn jpa, 769; yrri •airrmt iigen, 
99+ i.: geldfag scinonjiuih trfliriuigum, \^%: Bitnotdf'u Mtn noma, 
158 J f. : hrisiigora ne gialf / goldiuine Grata, 1x37 f. ; recid'wtardodtj 
unrlm earla,i^Sif.: ivide ipruagon / hitdeiiomaM, xij i. : igbtu^prts 
scialjtctarf icyldiviga gticdd ivitan. For a detailed study of this sub- 
ject cf. Ries, L. 6. ii.i. — See also notes on iii f., i!o f., 575 f., 
786. ff. 

9. Traces of Latin influence are probably to be recognized in the 
use of certain appositive participles (thus in 815, 916, 1368, 1)70, 
>9'3i 115°) ""'It possibly, in the predilection for passive construction 

' With [he verb preceding, 1408 j with the verb fidlowing, 904. f. (kc noK), 
and (in 1 dependent cUi«) 1,63 f. 

' Tnniition from preterite to proent in dependent cbuKi : i]i] f., 1911 £, 
I9»S f-. »+84 ff., J493 ff., 1717 ff. 

' Cf. Napier, jiigl. 1 1 38 f. j Miller') edition of Bidt, i, pp. ilv ff. 

' ex. Nipi<a, Angl. I 139; Miller's edidon of &dk, i,pp. iniiiff. ; Glon.: it. 
To Kile the caee accuRUd;, in the South in wai eirly lupfjaoted by tn. (Enooeoui 
■ubnitutiDn of in for en: 1019 (cp. 1051, etc.), I9S^-) 

' Cf. L6. 14. 3. 

* See, e.g., 117 f, 399, 610, 640 f., 67; f, 1115, 1397, 1506, 1 ;tg, 1870, 

' LI. 310 ff,, 1898b, i9o£b, 1^1)1 ff,, 1014 may serve as iUustntioni. Highly 
initniclive i> the interchange of the two ordera, u in 399 ff., 688 ff., 70a ST., 
loao If,, 1600 ff., 1963 S. 

' Thus in 83b, 109, 134,191b, 171b r., 411,48711, 609b f.,gi8br.,969bf., 
1010, 1610, 1791, 2461b, 155J, 1975. 


fm caiet like 642 (■, ■629 f-. 17S7 f-. 1896 f-, joii f., cf. above, 
p. Ixvii, n. 3). The use of the plur. form itf the neuter, etUre 1717, te 
Qd doubt a.LalJi>iun,c£ Jmgl. xxxv 118. See alio notes on 159, 991 f., 
iSjS{.iJreb. cx»vi 355 f. 

§ 26. VoCABtJLART 

The vocabulary of Btotiiatf, apart from the aspect of poetic diction, 
inrites attention as a passible means of determining the dialectai qualitr 
of the text. It must be confeued tliat extreme caution is necessaty 
in speaking of Anglian elements in the vocabulary, since the testimonj 
of prose texts of a lour date is of only limited value. But the folloi*- 
ing words can with nasonable safety be claimed as belonging prima- 
rily to the Anglian area: ' gin, pna {WS. jirt(fl)), lujiu, ntmnt, 
Wfmpf (WS. buloM), Af used as inleirogative particle,' the preposi- 
tion in (see { 15. 7), brtnt, lemninga,* tvem, gniap, rec, ttlytgaa,^ 
ffi»(fu)«,* and possibly murScr (WS. swrS).' Typical examples of 
words which are absent, mote or less, from the later WS., tae gtfioM 
(WS. fifgwiatiy, lid (' time, ' disappearing before lima), jnyttru (cp. , 
imiiiam), beam (cp. did). 


The only existii^ mannscript of Bemiulf is contained in a volume 
of tke Cottonian collection in the Biitish Museum which ii known a* 
Vilelliua A.kv.^ That volume consisti of two originally sepaiate 
codices ' which were arbitrarily joined by the binder (early in the 1 7th 
century], and it holds nine different Old English texts, four of them 
belonging to the first part,'o and live to the second. Beatvulf ((tilioi 
ia9>— i9gl>, or, according to the present foliation, i3a*_aoil>) '■ is the 

* See opedillT Joidin, L 6. 10. 

' Ofcurrinf, it ii tnir, iLao Ep.^. 566. 

' Cf. Nipier, Jlngl. i I]S ; ibo Sanacin KJid. 69 f. 

* Abo, e.g., Ef.yil. 111, 347, 474, 489 ; fyulja. 161.7. 

' At lean in the Kne of *idl,'^proTiiied uabticil, 0ru. iS. 10 is tigh^ 
lendcTpl bj ' unbought.* 

* AIb Ep.Al. 719. 

' According M Wildhagen, St. EPh. liii 184 B., -taia (ta 1. 160), tnnMii, 
;ni>|-fl(>) (?) could be added. 

* A dozen book-^aia in the origiiul libracy happened tn be (umwcintR] by butn 
of Roman emperon; hence the citalog daignarioni of Vitellim, 'Hbeiiui, Nero, etc. 

» Cf. K. a»am'i «luablc obiervationi, MLR. li 33S-37. 

■" The firtt codei contains the Alfralian Tcraion of St. Augmline'* Stllltjmui, 
the Gitptltf tiictJtmiii, the pmse Dtdagvt of Suliiman md &aitrii,*Tii.ine.taaa^ 
brief FngOKnt of a Pau» Si^man. A thott tiitunth century text (of ok lof) 
which had been idtched on to the codei, figure! s no. i in Wanley's dcKription. 

■' A fomiec, temporaiy miiplacing of Mme kavo it brought out by the lact that 
f. 131 (oldttyle numbering] itaiidi between 1461011 147, and f. 1 97 oauda between 
■is and iSj. 


fourth number of the second codex, bntig pieceded by three pioae 
pieces and Iblloned by the poem of Judiib. {See above, p. xa.) 
We do not know where Sir Robert Bruce Cotton (1571— 1631}, to 
whose zealous elforts we are indebted for the precious collection of 
Cottonim manuscripts, obtained that codcK.' But the name 'Law- 
rence Nowell ' (with date 1563) written at the top of its tirst page 
justifies the belirf' that Nowell, dean of Lichfield and one of the very 
earliest students of Anglo-Sanon (d. 1576), had something to do with 
its preservation in those years following the dissolution of monasteries 
which witnessed the wanton destruction of untold literaiy treasures. 
The date of the BeoTvul/ codex is about the end of the tenth century, 
as is judged from the cbaracler of the handwriting exhibited by its 
two scribes. Thus it is not far removed in time from the three other 
great collections containing Old English poems, viz. the Exeter Book, 
the Vercelli Codex, and the so-called C^dmon Manuscript. 

While the Cottonian library was lodged in Ashbumham House, in 
Little Deans Yard, Westminster, the manuscript, like numerous other 
volumes of the collection, was injured by a disastrous fire (in 1711) 
causing the scorching of margins and edges and their subseijuent gradual 
crumbling away in many places. In Zopitza's words (iSSa), "the 
manuscript did not suffer so much from the lire of 1731 itself at 
from its consequences, which would, without doubt, have been avoided 
if the MS. had been at once rebound as carefully as it has been rebound 
in our days. . . . Further losses have been put a atop to by the new 
binding J but, admirably as this wax done, the binder could not help 
covering some letters or portions of letters in every back page with 
the edge of the [transparent] paper which now surrounds every parch- 
ment leaf." ^ The great value of the two Thoikclin transcripts in sup- 
plying readings which in the meantime have been lost will become 
apparent to everyone that turns over the leaves of the excellent, anno- 
tated facsimile edition. 

Of the one hundred and forty pages of the MS., seventy-nine 
(ff. izg^-iSi'', i7i»-i74', i76''-i7Sli) contain aolineseach (includ- 
ing the line for the Roman numeral), forty-four (if. 174''- 17 6% 179'- 
198'') II lines, sixteen (tf. 1G3*— 170'') iz lines, and the first page 
(f. IZ9') has 19 lines, the first of which is written in large capitals. 
In accordance with the regular practice of the period, the Old Eng- 
lish text is written continuously like prose. There are on an average 
slightly less than zj alliterative verses to the page ; towards the end 
where the scribe endeavored to economize space, the percentage is 

Of (he general mode of writing and of the difference between the 
two hands the ^csimile pages included in this edition (f. i6o> = ll. 

' On the early hiOBty of the CottoniaD coUection and OD Wanley'i ' diKOveiy ' 
(rf'the it»n>u/f MS., » Huyihe L }. 8, pp. il IF. 
' Cf. K. Stum, '.(. • jiMtijti' {L I- S). P- "i- 


I J51— 77, f. 184*= U. 24iS~;o) will give a &iily good idea.' At- 
tention is cnlled to some details. Two liunis of j (both punctuated) are 
ased, at seen, e.g., in I. 7of f. i!4', — the second one being much rarer 
than the first, and very seldom found in A. The three forms oil used 

in B appear, e.g., on f. 184% 1. 11, via. the liigh 1 (long above the 
line), the low 'insular' t (long below the line), and the round, un- 
cial 1, In A the second of these varieties is completely lacking, and 
the third is lathcr sparingly used, — mostly in initial position, and 
(almost regularly) as a capital. A few times the high 1 is combined 
with a fbllonlng ( to a ligature, viz. in 1. i 6S : maiu, 1. 646 : niiisU, 
I. 661 : gedigtslQ), 1. 67a : hyrited, 1. £73 1 tyst, 1. 101)6 1 hmgcitt, 
L I z 1 1 : breait. The difference in the shape of; seen in the A and B 
•pecimens respectively applies, vrilh absolute consistency, to the en 
tire MS. 

The letter k appears five times in Jtyiing, II. £19, 66 j, 2144, 1335, 
3171. The runic character . fi ., for e^/; is found threetimes, 11. 510, 
913, 1701." 

Regarding the distribution of ^ and s,^ B is decidedly averse to the 
«se of P in non-initial position, spelling a medial /■ only in rare (about a 
dozen) instances, and a final p only once (1. 2293), whereas initially 
both ;i and ' are found. Scribe A makes a more liberal use of ^ in ini- 
tial and also — obviously — in medial position, avoiding it, however, 
generally at the end of words. (Two instances of final p may be seen 
in the last but one line of folio i6a>.) As a capital the more ornamental 
B is written. Only in 11. 641, 1896 there appears a somewhat larger 
p, which may have been intended as a capital letter. A real large fi 
a used at the bcgimiing of fit xlii. 

That scribe B was, on the whole, following the traditions of a some- 
what older school of penmanship is proved especially by bis frequent 
use of the high e, e.g., before n, m, r, t, a, a, and by the shape of his n. 

Small capital letters are found in a number of instances after periods,* 
and large ones appear regularly at the opening of the cantos. Twenty- 
one tidies the first letter only of the canto is capitalized, sixteen 
times' the first two letters (eight times ; fij[), once each the first sylla- 

' On Ap. [BleoBnphy, tee W, Keller, A«itlioLk,. Ftlatagrafkic (Pahatra 
diiij, 1906, and R.-L. i 98-103. On the prepincian of piichment and bk, etc., 
Me the qDOCalioni in Tupper's RidJIa, pp. 116 ff. 

* Tbu, fTald. i 31 ; Or,,. 168. II. 

* The ditTcrence in thii respect between the two p»iti of the MS. 11 piralleled. 
In a geninl ytj, by the diitcibunon of /> and 9 in Episrtia Alixaidri and Juiiiih 
respectively. (In the MS. of Jadiik the ^ is confined entire!]' to the initiil posi- 
tion. ) — In the Gl<«aary to the pnsent edition the variations in the employnienl of 
pinAH could not be registered. The spelling used in the tiisl fomi cited or the one 
wed in the majority of forms hat been selected for the head-ward. 

< It is ■ quation whether there is — or waa — a period mark before the apai O 
in L i;iS (Oc) and before the capital H\n 1. i;s° {HafJi). 

' I.e., if the Dpenuig of canto imi ii included ; however, the ; of ffigl'f, 
tbough of the ordinuy shape, is coonderably enlatied. 


ble of Hun-ftre (viii) and Beo-tmUf (xxiv),' tmice the full name of 
BeotMulf (xni, xxii), once (xxvii) cwbib, and the entire first line of the 
MS. is vriitten in luge capitals. But illuminated letters are com- 
pletely lacking. 

The commonest abbreviations of the MS. are i) -^ — imd, tinifonnlj 
used nitb the exception of 11. 600, 1 148, Z040 ; also in-^/tvur/ 354, 
1+93, 1840, i86q, -1 fwaradt 158, -^ bnutarf i^%, -t sacan 786, 
1681, -tlangne 1115 (see Gloss. ; attd^. i) "f = <•*/, exceedingly fre- 
quent, the full spellings piet, tat forming a very small minority. 
3) Pba (i.e. a stroke above the line, coming between o and a) ^ imnnc, 

— frequent in both parts of the MS. (son also in A). ' 4) The sign 
for m, consisting of a line diawn over the preceding vovrel. It is ex- 
ceedingly common in the dat. ending -nn, but is frequent also in 
pa, aa, bl, i.e., pam, earn, bim {at least, in B). Other instances -.fra 
581,2366, is6s,/rDiss6, bS 374, 717, 1991, gu {rfstum) i486, 
1723, 1469,25+3, X76s; maspii 1013, 1055, 1193,2405, 1750, 
2757, 1016, gtgnu 1404 j iear 896 (the only example of m abbreviated 
after a consonant) ; fiirther (in B) : si 2279, 1301, 3401, 3113 f., 
lu nt 3061, ru 2461, bi rS 2690, Jullii 2661, JrS gare 2S56, glufe 
2637, ^ri i860, 3011, 3085, bri 2930, /or no 2771, Urea 1545, fwo 
S073, a'52890, lubmi 3073, -lint iiti,yl,(t) 3169, 3171. 

This abbreviation is never used for » in our MS.^ 

In B, which is much more partial to abbreviations than A, the fol- 
lowing additional contractions occur.' g = gi, as prefix 1 2570, 2637, 
1716, 3146, J165, 3166, 3174, 3179, besides in birgt zi.7i,freegt 
3176 J ^ — m -^ men in 31 6z 1 men, 3165 : men and genameii Ig Hum) ; 

— afl softer, 2060, 2176, XS3I, 2753 ;"/'•'/"■, Ji3». Jl+S J— . 
tliyS = drybten, 3175- 

The numerals are nearly always spelt out ; only in II. 147, 1867, 
3401 J X07 ; 379, 2361 the signs of the Roman numerals .XIL, .XV., 
.XXX. respectively are substituted. 

There are comparatively few instances of the mark of vowel length, 
the so-called apex of Latin inscriptions,'^ consisting of a " hea«y dot, 

' The large Cipial of " appean regularly in the f-shaped form ; the imall capi- 
til in 1. 3 lot ( Vait) is somewhat diffcrenc. 

" Strangely, the foim Banni (with initial e) never occun in B. 

^ I[ has been suggeited, as a posailiility, that in an earlier copy the nme abbrevi- 
ation fbi n Dccuired. This bypotbesii would serve to explain the iccidenDl omisaioQ 
of H in several places^thui in 11. 60, 255, 418, 591, 673 (see note), 1176, 
IJio, 1S83, 2307, a!4S, 2996, 31s;,— and also the emineouB ipelling iriiMiB 
1279 (owing raamiiinterpreta[ionofthFCiintnciion).Cf.Schruer, 344 n.j 
Sievers, i*. niy 141 f . [strongly diiiendng] ; Ch.mbeii, p. lii. 

' On the tut, very crowded leaf luch economic devices ite natunll; much in evi- 

' On ihefaciimilc page of ^uiJifi shown In Cook's edidon (BcUes-Lettrei Series) 
no le» thin five eumplei of | = gi may be leen. 

« Cf. W. Keller, "Uber die Akzenu in den sgs. HuidKhiiften,' ' Pr^ir 
DaiMit SludiiK viii (1908), 97-1*0. 


with a stroke sloping from it over the vowel." ' Those who have ex- 
amined the MS. itself arc not Kgrccd on the exact number, once the 
sloping line has fret^uently faded, but the fallowing ii6 cases, which 
■re recognized both by Zupitza and Chambers, may be regarded as 
practically certain.* It will be observed that only etymologically long 
vowels are marked, mostly in monosyllables, monosyllabic elements of 
full compounds, or monosyllabic verb forms compounded with pre- 
fixes. Twice the prefiii a- is provided with this 'accent" (^abeag 77$, 
iris i}9o), once the suffix -lie {sarlic 1109), and twice the stem of an 
inflected adjectival fonn [bdmi 1553, ^vf a^S5}- 

ad jij8, adf^i 30.0 i ^» lOQ, laio (see Varr.), laSo, angmga 
449 i ar 3361 bad 301, 1313, zj6S, i73li, gebad 364, 115 S, }■ 16, 
gt bad 1710, onbad 1301; ban fag ^io, ban csfan 1445, iJir bus 
3147 ; bht III ifab 1038, y3« 1*55 igh 1394, j'^n 386 ; gad 660 j 
gar /'^ 1961, 1641, bmsgar i\$^ ; garsccg 537; bad 1197 j b&l 
joo i bam 1407; bar J307, bami ISSJ, "" ^^r 357; bat 386; 
lie 1E63 ; luig laf 1631, 3076 j man sceasa 1514 i nal 681 j bere 
fad 1358 ; rod ii%i, gtrad 1898 ; lar 975, 1468 j scan 1965,- itan 
1553 ; ge S'wac 1584; ob iiaaf 2559 t ^'^i^' /tua/ 1558 ; ge oufl*' 
aS77i 'i*'^' '53' i gf^ai 1x3, 110, gt luat 11741 ^i'fOg77Si '<'*' 

ir 1187, 138!, isiJi/'fr »i30 (we Varr.)} n^if iioi ; ^i*(-) 
507, S44> 5*4, 579, 690, 895, 1149, 1113, 1881, 1896, 1914. 

luxlric ifi6i, iviuJu ri( 3144. 

J btjjil 1001 i /if 1080, sariie aioj j /(/" 1743, 1751 } scir bamt 
1895 ; sid loSG ; ivif 8ai, ivic sUdt 1607, i/nij> itiif 1x75 g <wU 
;f0£a» 1346 i itiiit 1133 i nuts bycgmdt 1716. 

fom 1103, 1944, bfcom 1991 ; i/ffM 1491, 151!, 1147, 1820, 185!, 
tpii dam 2376 i d6n 1116, gtdon 2090 ; D»/ow 911 j fir 2308 ; gad 
1562, 1870, '>'{-)g6d 2341, 2586 j fRoi^ 1167 ( iidl 44a, 603 i ra/" 
20S4, tlUn rif 3063 ; J(Ori 2679, 1769, astad 759 j brega stol 1196 ; 
tniwdf 2287 i iv6f 12S. 

irHf 1177 i brun ecg 1546 j _/Bj 1966, 3025, J"9 i r&n/tii$ j St 
fas 13- 
jQ''- 1.101, ffrdraca 2689. 

Full compounds are, as a general rule, nritten as two words ; thus 
iitad cyninga 2, mtedo ittla 5, fea ictafl 7, 'uiiorS myadum 8 ; ymb 
sittendra 9 } beatf dent 57, A/aro gar 61, etc. But also other words 

uvui. AaatHni to &*iXt, IBuoij ef Engliik Smrdi (\tU), 
( 377, the iccent ¥™ " generally finished off with a og,''ind "th«ccao be no 
doubt that i[ wai wTittcn upmrdi" [from left lo right], 

• Zupitia marki leveral more wordi with the ictent j Chamber add) one case ai 
certain, and sereial u probable ; Sedgeficld'! lilt, differing in lome poinn, ii ilightly 

' l-c. , gar standi at the end of the line and a thui aeparated ftom the lecond ele- 


arefreely divided ; e.g., ge Jrutttn i, afttab j, gt seirp bviile aS, »h 
luoc 56 i picl It 151, luol de 100, lUHr dott izS, _/irf (uni 716, alum 
pen Til, gefrtmi dc tii, Uob hede 951; hea po laft ^6o, bearu grim 
mt 184.7, elc. On the other hand, separate words are run together, as 
shown, e.g., on the specimen page of B, by leiifi, Ugebidanne, ongal- 
gan, hiiiunu, tobroerc, nemxg; at nxasa 189, paiajn 11 j, xrbe 
264, PanUstan 416, aivyrd 455, mela 553, forfieal t goS—^, aratsa 
1538, ptnuSa 416, ptbiitii 14.90, etc. That these practices are liable 
I0 result in ambiguity and confiision, is iJlustrated by lege liafnej luord 
145, mrgm hrtS manna 445, luist fylU ivennr 'uiirj 734, mtde/stig 
ge m^t 924, snge hyrd 1074, tallaag tividig 1708, luiggt •vitBTpad 
1783,' •wind gtrestt 1456, mire 11110 ingasailts 19x1. 

Punctuation Js rather sparingly used,' A period occurs on an aver- 
age once in four or five lines, but with greatly varying degrees of fre- 
quency in different portions. It is usually placed at the end of the 
second haJf-line, occasionally at the end of the fir^t half-line, and a few 
times — nearly always by sheer mistake — within the haJf-line (61% 
»73'. »79'. 4»3'i SSiS ■o39".-i'59'. 'S^s'', »S*i'i ^(>Ti\ 18310, 
»897'). These marks may be said to correspond to major or minor 
syntactical pauses or, in a good many instances, merely to divisions of 
la'eath-groups. Twice a colon is found in the text, viz., after bafdan 
1371«, and sflei gemande I488fi. After rfccan 91'', at the end of the 
page, two raised periods followed by a comma occur. (Is this meant 
to Ettesa a pause before a significant passage ?) A colon followed by 
a curved dash is placed six times — in B only — at the end of a canto; 
once the same sign is found after the canto number (xl). 

A pretty large number of corrections, mostly by the original 
hands, are scattered through the MS. Those which are of positive 
interest have been recorded among the Variants {or in Lang. { 19). 
On the freshening up of ff'. 179 and i98'>, and on the modem Eng- 
lish gloss to 1. 6- and the Latin gloss to I. jiso^ see likewise the 

Like all ^of the more extensive Old English poems, Beatuutf is 
divided into 'cantos' or 'chapters' which were, in all likelihood, de- 
noted by the term //(f).' They are marked by leaving space for one 
line vacant between sections,* by placing a colon with a short dash or 

' VamiAfwiggtUtahettai. " Itii often ittydifficult, if notimpotsihle, to de- 

' On metrical and lyntaclical pointing, let Luitk, Biiil. Jiili ii6 tF. 

' Thii has been deduced from the Latin ' Pn&tio ' 10 the htlianj wliieh stalei 
diM the author — ' omne opui per vitteai dittinxlt, qui! noa lectionet vel aintentiai 
potjumuiappellare.' — [Cf. B«ii. 68. 6 ! Ofl k mtdSm pa Pn fin aiu^ga 
ttfJi.] See Miillmhoff, ZfJA. lyi I4'-*Ji Heusler, R.-L. i 444. The analo- 
gou> UK of J!i,fyite in later EngUih — e. g.jln the 'Gcit of Robyn Hode' — n 
■nfficienllr known. Cf. NED. 

* Thii ii done almaal almyi b; acritK A, and once by Kribe B. 


carve at the. close of a section,' by the use of capitals and the addition 
of Roman numerals at the head of a nen division. Besides the im- 
numlwred introductory canto,' they are forty-three in number. The 
numerals xxxviiii and xxviiii have been omitted, and there is no indi- 
cation at all of division \xx.' I.eaving out of account canto nxiv, 
which is exceptionally long,* the divisions vary from in lines (xli) to 
43 lines (vii), the usual length being between 6o and 90. 

Though sometimes appearing arbitrary and inappropriate, these di- 
visions are not unnaturally to be attributed to the author himself, who 
may have considered his literary product incomplete vrithout such Ibr- 
mal marking of sections. Of course, it must be borne in mind that his 
conceptions of structure were ditferent from our modem notions. He 
felt at liberty to pause at places where ne would not, and 10 proceed 
irithout stop where we would think a pause indispensable. He cared 
more for a succession of separate pictures than for a steady progress of 
narration by orderly stages. Thus he interrupts, e.g., the three great 
combats by sectional divisions, but he plainly indicates by the charac- 
ter of the closing lines that he did so on purpose (It. 788-90, 1555 f., 
2£oof.). He even halts in the middle of a sentence, but the conjunc- 
tion OS pat which opens the ensuing sections, xxv, xxviiii, was not con- 
tidered an inadequate means of introducing a new item of importance, 
cf. above, p. Iviii. (See Gm. 1148.) On the other hand, the last great 
adventure is not separated by any pause from the events that happened 
iilty years before (see 1. laoo). A closer inspection reveals certain 
general principles that guided the originator of those divisions. He 
likes to conclude a canto with a maxim, a general reflection, a sum- 
marizuig statement, or an allusion to a turn in the events. He is apt 
to begin a canto with a formal speech, a resumptive paragraph, ^ or the 
antwuncement of an action, especially of the 'motion' of Individuals or 
groups of mcn.^ Very clearly marked is the opening of cantos xxxvii 
and xxxviii (Da ic inide gefragn etc) ' and of ixxvi {Wtglaf lutei 

• So lii tima in B. ' Cf. bcbw, p. lii, and note on 1 if. 

' The numeral iii *ru no doubr almdy lacking in a previoui copf ; the canto 
probibly opened it 1. 2093. (Cp. II. 1091 f. with 1554 fF.) The amisiion of 
numeral »viiii Kenu to be due to sctibe B. Piesuniihly he had Intended to iiuen it at 
die end of the lint line of the fiab canto ("is he did in the cue of nunenl iiivlii), 
but n^lected to do K>. The pasting over of these two numben may be connected 
vith die conAuion eiiiting (and which ittsni to hive eiiited in an earlier copy) in 
the ninnben Iram xivi (perhapg Irom niiii) to iiriii which originalty read xxvii 
(iit] to iXTiiii reipectively, though they were lubsequently cotrected. 

< A stop might be eipecced aAxi L 15J7. 

' Thill iii (Svia St mSlican etc.), ix, xui, xUi. In like manner, yid. xi 
(I 111), lii (1. i]6) ; £/. nii, HmI. xniU, xiviHi, axil, ilii. 

* E.g., ii {Gtwu at niedan etc.), i, xi, xTa, xvii, xxtil, ixviii, xixv. On the 
ne of 04 at the opening of ' Art,' Kt Ghmry. Cf. Htl, i [giioiiuii ia lbs), iiu'ii, 
uv, xxvi, li, 1*i. 

' Cf. G<it. iiviii ; Hil. xiii, xxiii, liiiL 



idtm, inaxjt3nes now).' Altogether there is too macli method in 
the urangement (rf ■ fits ' to legard it as merely a inatteT of chance or 

It need hardly be mentioned that no title of the poem is found at 
the head of the MS. But since the days nhen Sharon Turner, J. J. 
Conybearc, and N. F. & Gnindtvig hist detigiated it as 'the Poem 
of Beowulf,' ^ it has been regularly, and most appropriately, named 
after its great hem. 

VnL Geoe^ of ttie Poem 

Likenearlyall of the Old English poems, like the epics of the C&aanti 
dt Roland and the Nibetiaigailied, the fi/mw/^has come donn to us 
anonymously. Nor do nc lind in Anglo-Saxon times any direct refer- 
ence to ilnhichwould thron light on the vital qneationsof nhen, where, 
by whom, and under what circnmstances the most important of the 
Anglo-Saxon liteiaiy monuments was composed. Hence, a bewildering 
number of hypotheses have been put fbmard with regard to its authw- 
^p and origin. A brief survey <rf the principal pointx at iisuc will be 
attempted in the foUoiring pages. 

Uhitv of Authorship* 
It has been the&te of fiwiuu^to be snlqectedtothe theory of mul- 
tiple authoiship, (he number of its conjectural ' makers ' ranging up to 
ux or more. At the outset, in this line of investigation, the wish was 

' A (yiMCal mode of inttoducing i penon it the bc^mung of a aarj v a (ectko 
of it. It it exceedingly common in ON. ; e.g. Craiiii^ii, cb. I ; Qnmtdr bit maSj, 
Hril/aaga, ch. I : MaSr iii HilfJm. OE. nWDpks : PW. 50 (C) I : DiuU 
maibattndun*lldbali8,Gin. toSif. ; ci. Ai%t. av Hi !. (AlBjCg., Odiiili 
16. 1.) 

' H. Bndkrloggntcdthatthediffermtiretionaof the*BB™(f MS. HTuraentrJ 

■ritlm brrme h wai [nnicribcd intu 9 regular codci. (L 4. 21.) Cf hit np[4emcn- 
tuy investigation of odicr MSS. , >■ The Numbered S«Iio» in OE. PoedcalMSS.," 
erxaJingt cf lil Britiih AeaJn<iy,'V6i. lii, 1915. 

' Tumerinhitif'i»r7gft4f.^r'£/«-&:r»i,luled.,lSo7, Vol. ii, p.i94q«aki 
of ' the Agi. poem on Beowulf,' and on p. ^16 of 'tbcae poemi, (^ Bcmmlf, Jn- 
dich, and CmJn™.' [The I»> ed. hat been out of leach.] For ConjrbeaTc'sannouKe- 
ment of 1817, kc Wiilkei'i Gruvdria, p. 44. ' BjowuUi Dnpe,' i.e. 'Hemic, 
hnibuiiy Poem of Beovrulf ' ^ the title <^ Gnndnig'i tnsaliDon — lecnH toknc 
beoi applied hjr him to the poem at early at 1S08 in he Hordms MyrksJtgi, cf. 
Wiilker, pp. 151,45. The (pincipal) title which Giundnig gavE to kit edidoo, 
vb. ' Beowulfn Beorh," it hwd on 1. 1807. 

' See L 4. 130 If. } hoida, EttmijUer L I. it, }. 19, Running L 4. 15, lea 
Brink L 4. iS, Haotd'i mien : L 4. ij, 4. i]4, 4- iS ; cf. Heimd L 7. 1, 
Scbemaon L 7. ;, Banning L 7. 10, SsBnefeM I. 7. 14, Hatwuhkel L 7. ao. 


no doubt father to the thought. ' Viewing the poem in the light of a 
•folk epic ' baaed on long continued oral tradition, scholars laboied hard 
to trace it back to its earliest and purest form or tbrms and to establish 
the various processes such as contamination, agglutination, interpola- 
tion, modernization by which it was giaduaily transformed into an epic 
of supposedly self-contradictory, heterogeneous elements. While Ett- 
muUer, who first sounded this note, contented himself, at least in his 
translation (1840}, with chaiaeterizlng the Beotoulf as a union of a 
number of originally sepaiatc lays and marking off in his text tlie lines 
added by clerical editors, daring dissectors like MutlenhofT, Molter, ten 
Brink, Boer undertook to unravel in detail the ' inner history ' of the 
poem, rigorously distinguishing successive stages, strata, or hands of 
authors and editors. With Mollerthis searching analysis was reinforced 
bythe endeavor to reconstruct the primitive staniaic form. Ten Brink 
emphasized the use of variants, that is, parallel versions of ancient lays 
which vrere eclectically combined for better or worse and became the 
basis of pans of the final epic poem. 'To instance some of the results 
arrived at, there existed, according to Mullenhoff, two short poems by 
different authors recounting the Grendel tight (I) and the Dragon fight 
(IV) respectively. To the first of these certain additions were made by 
tiro other men, namely a continuation (fight with Grendel' s mother, II) 
and the Introduction. Then a fifth contributor (interpolator A) added 
the Homc-Coming part (III) and interpolated parts I and 11 to make them 
harmonize with his continuation. A sixth man, the chief interpolator 
(B) and final editor, joined tha Dragon l^ght (IV) to the Grendel part 
thus augmented (I, II, III) and also introduced numerous episodes from 
other legends and a great deal of moralizing and theological matter.' 
SchiickJng elaborated a special thesis concerning Beowuirs Return. This 
middle portion, he endeavored to show, was composed and inserted as 
a connecting link between the expanded Grendel part (Beowulf in Den- 
mark) and the Dragon light, by a man who likewise wrote the Intro- 
duction and interpolated various episodes of a historical character. Still 
more recently Boer thought he could recognize several authors by their 
peculiarity ai manner,^ e.g., the so-called 'episode poet' who added 
most of the episodic material j a combiner of two vet^ons of the Gren- 
■ Mullenhoff was decitively inRunced by the ciiticiun of the NibelwgnlUd hy 
K. Lichmann, who in bit turn had followed in the foonrepi of F. A. Wolf, the 
hiaoat defender of the ' Liedetiheorie ' (lallul cheoty) in relation to the Htuncric 

* Even the eiact namber of line* credited 10 each one of the sii canlHbutns was 
announced by Mullenhoff; thua A wai held reaponflible fbr iz6 line) of InterpDla- 
t»D (jiini, t94iniJ),Bror 1 169 lines (67 'm the Introduction, ill in i, 165 in 
B, 171 in iii, J4.4 ini»). Ettmiillet in hb edition (1875} pred the poem in its pre- 
Cbralian toim down to 1896 Qna, Moller condenied the leit into 344 fbur-line 

> Similarly Berendnhn would .fiKriminate diiee diffitrent Ittau of poetical tran;- 
miinon on the baiia of bioad, general stylistic criteria. 

P, ..■..V^.OQi^lC 


del put; another combiner who connected the combined Grendel part 
ivith the Dragon part, composed Beowulf's Return and two or three 
episcrdes, remodeled ihe last pan by substituting the Geatsforthe original 
Danes, and placed the introduction of the old Dragon poem at the head 
of the entire epic. Truly, an ingeniously complicated, perplexing pro- 
There is little trustworthy evidence to support positive claims of this 

It is true, the probability that much of his material had come to the 
author in metrical form, is to be conceded. But — quite apart from the 
question of the forms of language or dialect — we can never hope to get 
at the basic lays by mere excision, however ingeniously done. The Beo- 
wulfian epic style is incompatible with that of the short heroic song, not 
to speak of the more primitive ballads which must be presumed to have 
existed in large numbers in early Anglo-Saxon times. 

Contradictions, incongruities, and obscurities that have been detected 
in the story can, as a rule, be removed or plausibly accounted for by 
correct interpretation of the context ' and proper appreciation of some 
prevalent characteristics of the oldstyleand narrative method. lustancei 
of apparent incoherence, omissions, repetitions, digressions, or irrele- 
vant passages can no longer be accepted as proof of the patchwork theory, 
since analogous cases have been traced in many Old English poems of 
undoubted smgle authorship, in addition to examples from other litera- 
tures. > A number of inconsistencies may also be naturally explained by 
the use of conventional elements, that is, current motives and formulu 
of style,' or by imperfect adaptation or elaborate refashioning of old 
saga, material.* Chronological incompatibilities as observed in the case 
of Hrofigar, Beowulf, and (perhaps) Hygd are straightened out without 
difticully.^ Variations in detail between Beowulf's report of his ex- 
periences in Denmark and the actual story of the first two divisions 
furnish no basis for the charge of separate workmanship (see note on 
1 994. If.). Nor would it be at all reasonable to insist throughout on impec- 
cable logic and lucidity of statement, which would Indeed be strangely 
at variance with the general character of Beotvulf and other Old Englidi 

That the Christian elements have not been merely grafted on the text, 

' See, e.g., 107 tf., 655 ff., 1J55 If., and notei. 

• Snabovc, pp. IviilT. ;nacnonS6-ii4, not ff., iSo7(F.,i:tc. Cf. Rooih L 
4. i33,HeinHl,/Aif. For eumples (culled IromTarkiutlitenturH) of diKrepondei 
and incoDntCencia due to the authors' orerught, tee Ronning 16 (. ; Heinzel, jtat. 
fdA. I 13s f. j Brandl 1005 f. ; ef. alio MhN. nvii 161 ff. 

' See above, pp. li, iii f. (twofold puipose of dngon fight), xxvii (roodve of the 
■lugg'uh youth) ; notes on 660, 117;, 1331 F., 2147, 1683 ff. 

* Cf. above, pp. iviii, iiii (?). Note the apparent incongmily-involved m flto- 
wulf '■ refusal to uk a iwoid againit Giendel (note on 43S ff.). 

' See above, pp. iixii, ilv, luviii. 

D, ..■■.V^.OQi^lC 


but are most intiirmCely connected nith the very subitvice of the poem, 
has been remarked before.' A certain want of harmony that has re- 
sulted from ihe Christian presentation of heathen material is not such as 
to warrant the assumption that a professed redactor went over a previ- 
ously existing version, revising it by interpolation or substitution of 
Christian touches. Thcmerctcchnicaldifficukiesof such a process nould 
have been of ihe greatest,' and vestiges of impeifect suture would be 
expected to be visible in more than one passage of our text. 

No serious differences of language, diction, or meter can be adduced 
ia favor of multiple authorship.^ A few seemingly unusual instances of 
the definite article,* some exceptional verse forms,) the occurrence of a 
parenthetical exclamation in some first half-lines,^ several minor syn- 
tactical and rhetorical features^ have been suspected of indicating a 
later date than that attributed to the bulk of the poem. Words, forma- 
tions, or combinations could be mentioned which occur only in definitely 
limited portions." But it would be hazardous, in fact presumptuous to 
tuugn any decisive ncight to such insecure and fragmentary criteria. 
Contrariwise, it ii entirely pertinent to emphasise the general homo- 

■ Seep. 1. 

■ It bu been obKrved, e.g. , thit mint of the Chriuiin illutioiu begin with the 
KOHid hairline (or end with ihe fint half-line) j cf. Aigl. iiivi iSo fF. 

* Some leiicil and phnKological itudiri hate Ird iheir aufhoti lo diiunnncillr 
oppoeice conduKoni. Thin Miillenhoff '• viewi were thought to be both vindicated ■ 
(Schfinbach, and [with some laervadon] Banning) and refuted (Scheminn). On the 
strength of a limilar invotigatian lame conlimiadon of ten Brink'i theoiy wu al- 
leged (Sonnefyd). 

* Thin 91, 115;, 1164, 3014 (Lichlenheld L 6. 7. 1. 341, Bimouw 48). 

> Cf. Sehubert L 8. i. 7 (l.6«eic.), 51 (hypermmical lines) ; Kaluia 30,69- 
» Krapp L 7. 11: II. 1778*, 1056*, 5115". (Cf. above, p. Uvi.) 
' Cf. Scbiidiing L 4. 139. 53 ff., 63 f. 

■ Compound patdclples of the type miggnvdwpaj 1783 arc found only io two 
other ^cet, i^ij/jt/igiiiuencci/, 1937 btaidgcwripinf . (Cp. ruitglieirc J 606, bind- 
Ixirt 311, J51 ; ferSgirimid ^^,fir3gewiiin 1479. Note Rieget' 8 doubt about for- 
nationa of Ihe former type, Z/dPb. m 405.) A number of remarkable nonce word! 
■re met with in ' Btowulf'a Return,' such at a/ingrtm 1074, iltJigUS 1081, miS- 
itna 1079, anfria 1934, ligmrn 1943, frieuiibb folca aoij, — The po«po«ition 
of the detinile article iaconjined to the second main part: 1007 [ablblem ptni), 1334, 
1588, i9;9, 1969, 3081, cp. 1734 (1711). In theaecond partonly, Dtcurwo d* 
mdA phraiei like umrfieort^ onJi/jhl^ morgtnhng, morgtucealdf uftran dSgrum, j^r ra 
vialdind, etc. However, the repealed use, within a short compan, of one and the 
same word or cipre«ion (or rhythmical form or, indeed, ipelling) , especially a itrik- 
ing one, is tather to be coneidMEd 1 natural peychologiciil ha. (cf. Schroder L 8. 
■ 8. 367; Schucking L4. 139. 7). Cf., e.g.,iofo« 331, TOi'««33g, w/aM 34I) 
*i?g HigilSca 7J7, 7 ii ; /'r^na md ftrgjmiS iy^i,/,rulig end ferrweraS 
1767 i /fl/«j byrdt 1831, 1S49 ; aghio^i aniiti 1865, ngbviics nrlcakiri 
1SS6; tySSitn mirgmcim 1103, 1114; ungtmeti (J//1711, ungimai ntab 1718) 
pat u hyrnieiga ^an ua/dt, / JUU ot> Jam 1918 f., >«! U khdtftb ii^am 
Koidi, /fiall tnfildan 1974 f. 



geneity of the poem in matters of fonn at well as substance and at- 

Not that style and tone are monotonously the same, as to kind and 
quality^ in all parts of the poem. In particular, the second part (Dragon 
hght) differs in several respects appreciably from the first (Beowulf in 
Denmark), though for very nattual reasons. Its action is much simpler 
and briefer, not extending beyond one day ; > there is less variety of in- 
cident and setting, a smaller number of persons, no dialogue. The dis- 
connectedness caused by encumbering digressions is more conspicuous, 
episodic matter being thrown in here and there quite loosely, it seems, 
though according to a clearly conceived plan.^ No allusions to non- 
Scandinavian heroes are inserted, but alt the episodes* are drawn from 
Geatish tradition and show a curiously distinct historical air. A deeper 
gloom pervades all of the second part, fitly foreshadowing the hero's 
death and foreboding, we may fancy, the downfall of Geat power. 
The moralizing tendency is allowed full sway and increases inordinately 
towards the end. Regarding the grave structural defects characteristic 
of the * Dragon Fight,' it would not be unreasonable to cha^e it pri- 
marily to the nature of the material used by the poet. Unlike the Dan- 
ish element of the first part, which was no doubt fimiliarly associated 
with the cential contests, the heroic traditions of Geatish-Swedish his- 
tory were entirely separate from the main story, and the author, desirout 
though he was of availing himself of thai interesting subject-matter for 
' the purpose of epic enlargement, failed to establish an organic relation 
between the two sets of sources. Hence what generally appears in 
< Beowulf's Adventures in Denmark ' as an integral part of the story, 
natuial setting, or pertinent allusion, has been left outside the action 
proper in the Dragon part. No description of Geat court life has been 
introduced, no name of the royal seat (like the Danish Hierot) 5 is men- 
tioned, the facts pertaining to Beowuirs ham (in which he does not 
seem to live, 1314 ff.) remaining altogether obscure. Queen Hygd** 
is a mere shadow in comparison with HroSgar's brilliant consort, be- 

1 A number of wordi occurring in both of the main pim of Bnnnu/fbat not ebe- 
vhcte in Anglo-Siion pwtry ire cited by Clark Hall, pp. Ijbf. Some eiunplea 
of intcruting phmal agreement between the tun) |>iRs: U. too f,, laiof., I399 ) 
561, 3 17+; 1327, 154+ ; '7°Oj 1864 ; 61, 1434 i cf. above, pp. iiii f., liviii. 

' Eicepting, ofcourae, the vaguel]' ikctched pictimiflariei and the ten diys needed 
for the comtruclian of rhe rnemoriil mound. The action of the first put can be defi- 
nitely followed up tor a Kiics of fire (or Hi) days, as note on 119. 

' The author'i evident intention ofdetailing the fortunes of the Geat dynaitjr dur- 
ing three generations it completely carried out, though the eventa an not introduced 
one alter inoCher in tbeJr chronological aei^uence. 

• The two elegies, ll+T f-, '444 *f, »«, ofcourae, of a neutral character. 

> The lack of icnial place-names (for which typical appcUationa like Hrc/neit^t, 
Earnengi (BtviBulfci iitrb) are osed), even in the hitCDncal oirradvei, has been 

* Mentioned id 1369 (and in 13 : 1916, 1171). 

D, ..■■,V_.0(">^IC 


ndes being suspicious because of her singulu name. Whether King 
BeovTulf was married or not, we arc unable to make out (see note on 
;.5. ir.). 

In explanation of some discrepancies and blemishes of structure and 
execution it may also be urged that very possibly the author had no 
complete plan of the poem in his head when he embarked upon his 
work, and perhaps did not finish it until a considerably later date. ■ His 
original design — if we may indulge in an unexciting guess — seems to 
have included the main contents of ii, ii, ij,' or, to use a descriptive 
title : Bio'ivttlfei slsJ The Danish court being the geographical and 
historical center of the action, the poet not unnaturally started by de- 
tailing the Scylding pedigree' and singing the praise of Scyld, the myth- 
ical ancestor of the royal line. It is possible, of course, that some pas- 
sages were inserted after the completion of the first draft; e.g., part of 
the thirteenth canto with its subtle allusion to Beowulf's subsequent 
kingship (86i), or the digression on (Hama [?] and) Hygelac the 
Geat (iToi ["97] — '*i4)i which can easily be detached from the 
text- The author may have proceeded slowly and may have considered 
the fiTit adventure (up to iijo) substantial enough to be recited or 
read separately ; hence, some lines of recapitulation were prefixed (o 
the story of the second contest (1151 ff.). Gradually the idea of a 
continuation with Beowulf's death as the central subject took shape in 
the author's mind j thus a hint of Beowulf's expected elevation to 
the throne (1845 tf.) is met with in the farewell conversation. A. 
superior unity of structure, however, was never achieved. The lines in 
praise of the Danish kings placed as motto at the head of the first divi- 
sion and those extolling the virtues of the great and good Beowulf at 
the close of the poem typify, in a measure, the duality of subjects and 
com portions. 

Whether the text after its completion has been altered by interpola- 
tions it is difficult to determine. The number of lines which could be 
eliminated straightway without detriment to the context or style is sur- 
prisingly smalli see 51 (cp. 1)55 f), 73,' 141, ifigf, iSi f,, 14.10, 
1087 f, 1319 ff., 1411-14, 1544. (?), 1857-59, 3°S6i of longer pas- 
sages, 1.97-.114 (Hama, Hygeliic), 1915-61 (]>ry-S, Offa), 1177- 
' Miy not ligns of weirinen be ietetted in a pmsige like 1697 ff. ? 
' Ser above, f. lii. The ficl that wme matlen omittBJ in il were apparently 
raemd ibr use in 13 (lee note on 1994 ff.) >cr/a to indicate that ' Beowulf' i 
Home-Coraing ' does not owe its existence to an afterthought of the poec'). 
» L. 871: dS Bivaiulfa. Cf. Mullenhoff liv loi ; Mailer iig. 
* PedlgicQ were a matter of the uDnoM importance to the Germanic peoplea, at 
ma;! be leen irom the Anglo-Saxon and ScaniUnivian eiamplei in Appendix 1 : Illus- 
trative Parallell ; cp. (i. J 10 ! Tacinia, Germania, c. ii ; Beoie. 1957 ff., l6oi fF., 
R97. (Of couTK, also [he biblical genealogiea became known to the Anglo-Saioni.) 
Even the pedigree of the monster Grendel is duly Btated, 106 ff., 1161 ff. 

> Thig line could be eiplainedaa a corrective addition. Thelegal alluiionof I57f. 
aa alio be ipaied. 


89 (Beowulf's conduct). A decided improvemem would result bom 
the remova] of i68i'^84' (and perhaps of 3005). 

It is passible, of course, that certain changes involving additions 
were made by the author himself or by a copyist who hid some notion! 
of his own. But the necessity of assuming any considerable interpola- 
tions cannot be conceded. Even the bryfi-Offa episode, far-fetched 
and out of place as it seems, can hardly have been inserted after the 
numbering of the sections was fixed by the author,' unless, indeed, it 
was substituted for a corresponding passage of the original. For the 
presumable Cynewulfian insertions, see the discussion of HroSgar's 
aermon, below ('Relation to other Poemi '). 

Date. Relation to Othek Poems 
Obviously the latest potable dale * is indicated by the time when the 
MS. was written, i.e. about 1000 a.d. It is furthermore to be taken 
for granted that a poem so thoroughly Scandinavian in subject-matter 
and evincing the most sympathetic interest in Danish affairs cannot well 
have been composed after the beginning of the Danish invasions toward 
the end of the Sth century. 

Hiilerical Alluiiim 

The only direct historical data contained in the poem ate the re<- 
peated allusions to the raid of Hygelac (Chochilaicus), which took place 
between 511 and 510 a.d. (cf. above, p. xxxix), and the mention, atth« 
close of one of those allusive passages, of the Merovingian line of 
kings {MercwieiHg 1911). As the latter reference is primarily to a 
bygone period, and as, on the other hand, the use of that name could 
conceivably have been continued in tradition even alter the fall of the 
Merovingian dynasty (in 751), no definite chronological information 
can be derived from its mention. The latest of the events classed as 
■ historical,' the death of Onela, has been conjectuially assigned to the 
year 530 (cf. above, p. xl).^ 

It should be added that the pervading Christian atmosphere points 
to a period not earlier than, say, the second half of the 7th century. 

LinguirtU Tcjlt 
Investigations have been carried on with a view to ascertaining the 
relative dates of Old English poems by means of syntactical and pho- 
netic-metrical tests. 

' The 17th McticHi minui thai epiode would be unaccDiuitably ihort. Cf. above, 
p. ciii, 

' Rtguding the qucKion of the dale, lee L 4. I41-46, L 4. 16, L 6. 6, 6. 7. 
I let. 

'e DO light to coD- 



I. A Etudy of the gradual increase in the use of the definite article 
(oiigunally demonstrative pronoun), the decrease of the combination of 
weak adjective and noun (fwisa ftngit), the increase of the combina' 
tion of article and weak adjective and noun {le grimjna gkitj. 

I. Sound changes as delinitely proved by the meter, viz. 

a) earlier dissyllabic vs. later monosyllabic forms in the case of con- 
traction, chiefly through loss of intervocalic b, e.g. biaban, bihn — 
bian (T. C. S i)- 

b) earlier long vs. later (analogical) short diphthongs in the case of 
the loss of antevocalic b after r (or /), e.g. mtarbai, miarai — mea- 
™ (T. C i 3). 

c) forms with vocalic r, /, m, n to be counted as monosyllabic or 
disayilabic, e.g. ii/andr (vjundor) — •wandor (T. C. % 6). 

It must be admitted that these criteria are liable to lead to untrust- 
worthy results when applied in a one-sided and mechanical manner and 
without careful consideration of all the (actors involved,' Allowance 
should be made for individual and dialectal' variations, archaliing 
tendencies, and (in the matter of the aiticle and weak adjective tests) ' 
scribal alterations. Above all, a good many instances of test i are 
to be judged non-conclusive, since it remains a matter of honest doubt 
what degree of rigidity should be demanded in the rules of scansion 
(cf. T. C. i\ 3 IF.). Yet it cannot be gainsaid that these tests, which 
are based on undoubted facts of linguistic development, hold good in a 
general way. They justify the conclusion, e.g., thai the forms of the 
language used by Cynenulf are somewhat more modem than those ob- 
taining in Benvittlf. They tend to show that Exodas is not far removed 
in time from Btmoulf.^ The second set of tests makes ii appear prob- 
able that Getutis [A ) and Darnel are earlier than Biteiualf. 

A means of absolute chronological dating v*as proposed by Mors- 
bach.^ He collected, from early tents which can be definitely dated, 
evidence calculated lo show that the loss of final -u after a long stressed 
syllable did not take place before 700 (slightly earlier than the loss of 

' Surprtnnsljr wide dncrepancio between the computationi made bj' different achol- 
art wlw have applied the MCond KI of lots (Sanaiin L 4. 1 44, Richlei L 6. 6. 1 • 
Scifien L 6. 6. z) have resulted From (1) a &iluie to eliminate from the calcula- 
tions of ciart under ic) those vrordl which alwiyi (or nearly alwa]l) are dlssyUabic 
(e.g. midor, eSel), (x) diBerenca in the practice of scanoon naiaraUy arising trom 
the lacl of nletriI^al laliEuile, and (3) uruToidable ovenighciin collecting the material 
ContiadicEoiy conclusoiu are indicated by the lict that Bimouw, on the ba»t of hia 
■ynCactical criteria, (lateJ Giaiiii (j1) at 740, Dam'i/ between Boo and 830, Bcb- 
tcu/fu 660, Cjrnewulf't poena between 850 and 8B01 whereas the dates arriycdat 
byRichler (with the help of the more reliable phonnic -metrical tats) are 700, 700, 
700-730, 750-800 ropectinly. The corresponding datel set up by Sarraiin are 
700, 700, 740, 760-80. For an earlkr chronological list (189*) by Trautmann, 
ta hh Kyni-w^lf, fp. iii-j. 

■ Cf. S«8ot L 6. 6. 1. ' Cf, LAig, { 15. 3. 

' Simiin and Ricbtei date Exodui about the year 740. * ' 



tDterrocillc and antevoodic b, sec tests i a, b), and dcmonstiated that 
in a aumber of insUncts the use of the form* without -b (and of form* 
\i)c£ feeram) nai positively established by the meter, thus arriving at 
the conclusion that Beiiuulf cov-H not have been composed until suftcr 
the year 700.' Though several examples cited by Morsbach and by 
Richter (pp. it.) are doubtful on account of metrical uncertainty,' there 
occur indeed some lines in which the older forms with final -u would 
disturb the scansion, e.g. lo+i" ; f'tfeUynnti *iar4u, i6o9'> 1 *bimdii 
raxd gefi>ig{}). 

7'bcre is a possibility that in our only extant MS. a few form* arc 
preserved which would seem to indicate a date anterior to about 750 
A.D.,3viz. •wuaJimi 1381 and uxigmeus ■79a. The latter, however, 
admits of » different Interpretation (cf. Lang. { t%, i), and as to the 
former, it is a question whether it is not more natural to assume a mere 
Gcribal blunder (for 'wmtdnii, L e. •luiindnam) than a perpetuation — in 
thoroughly modern mrroundinga — of such an isolated form reflecting 
3 much earlier state of language. 

Relatifn t» otbtr Old Engliib Poemi 

Bearing in mind the conventional use of a remarkably large stock tit 
stereotyped expressions and devices of alliterative poetry, and further- 
inore the fact that many Old English poems must have been lost chie6y 
as a result of the Danish and Norman invasions and of the dissolution 
of monasteries, it briioves us to exercise extreme caution in asserting a 
direct relation between dift'ercnt poems on the basis of s&<alled paral- 
lel passages. '' Otherwise we are in grave danger of setting up an end- 
less chain of interrelations or, it may be, of assigning to one man an 
unduly iaige number, if not the majority, of the more important poems. 
We must certainly reckon with the &ct that Anglo-Saxon England 

> The linguicDc evidence, diJEf of whkh u the farmj^i* on the Franki Casket, 
■I not cnlirely cleir. It hu been rejected it inconduiive by Chadwick, who would 
pUce the kn of the -s u much u Kven decada earEei (H. A. 66 S.) Cf. Biilb. 

9 3^3- 

' E.g., iiifT^ •* giasti *tddM, ri89b end b^Upa 'bearnM. (Cf.T. C S aj.) 
In GiiHBt (A) Samiin recogniied trttnl iiunncEt (e.g., 1117, 1308, 1417) in 
which defective lulf-Jina would be Kt right by the imenian (retioiabon) of the -v, 
cf. £&. ixiviii 178 f., Kid. 15 f. ForlbemeniialuK of the fbrnuof the/ioriw 
type, see T. C. j J- 

^ Cf. Holcfawsen, Bo'*/, iviu 77. The ttiraition of unjtreBed ( to ( ii angned 
to die middleofihe 8th century (cf. Sievcn, .■*»£/. liii 13 ft ; Biilb. |j 360 fF.). 
Thkiis«illljrgdyieQin«iin the eirly Northumbrian text (written about 727 a.d.) 
of Crdmtn-, Hymn (compoged about 670 A.D.), Bcdi'i Dcaib Song, Priori in 
Or.-W. ii 31;, li« Lildci RidJIi. For critical doubn ai to the fiIue of this test, 
•ee Tupper, PnU. MLAii. »vi 139 St., and Riddic, p. lyi, n. 

* Cf. tCail, Aiigl. <ii zi if. i Sanuin, ABgL liv iSi ; BnuxU 1009 ; ESt. 
xlii 3ii f. 

D, ....V^. Otitic 


was nonderfuUy productive of secular as well aa of rellgiout poeUy, 
and that the number of individual authors must have been correspond- 
ingly large. It might well have been said of the pre-Nonnan periodi 
yelui Anglia cantal. 

One of the reasonably certain relations brought to light by a close com- 
paiison of various Old English poems is the inllueiice on Bevwalfai the 
extensive poem of Gcnesii {A), which in its turn presupposes the poeti- 
cal labors of Ca;dmon as described by the Venerable Bede. Not only 
do we discover numerous and noteworthy parallelisms of words and 
-phrases, many of them being traceable nowhere else,' but the occur- 
rence in both poems of the religious motives of the Creation, Cain's 
Matricide, the giants and deluge (not to mention what has been called 
the Old Testament atmosphere), tends to establish a clear connection 
between the two. More than that, certain minor traits and expressions 
are made use of in Beotuulf in such a manner as. to suggest a process 
of imitation, as may be seen, e.g., from the lines at the close of the 
poem referring to the praise of the hero, which vividly recall the open- 
ing of Genesis (i ff., 15 If.)." 

Likewise the priority of Daniel has been feirly demonstrated.' It 
can hardly be doubted that the picture of a king (Nebuchadnerzar) liv- 
ing in splendor and opulence, who suffers punishment for his pride, is 
relleaed in Hto'Sgar's edifying harangue, 1700 IF.* Also the 'devil ' 
worship of the Danes, 175 If., is curiously suggestive of the idolatry 
practised by the Babylonians. ^ In both instances the phraseological 

' Thui, e.g., G. 130, B. 466 j G. izio f., B. 1798 ; C 138;, B. 1706 ; 
C. i6ji f,, B. 196 f., 789 f.j C. IJ42 f., B. 1179 f. i G. 1895 f., B. 138 f. j 
G. 1998, B. 1073 ;& 1003 S.,B. I5S4;G. looS, B. 166;; C. 1155, fi. 63 j 
C. iis6f., B. S9S ff-i G. 1430 f., S. 611 ff. ; G. 1544. B. 114. 

" The Krmewhat strangf eiprcision applied to HrfSel's death, 1469 ff., jeem< 
reminiscent of the phraseology lavished on the diy gsnulogical llin, Gib, 1 178 ff., 
1191 ff.,Iii4ff., etc. —Sre also Sanaiin,.rf«g/. hv 414, £&. itiviii 170 ff. ; 
Mir. xlii 317 ff. (additional material). 

* Cf. Thomas, MLR. viii 537-J9. 

' Note D. 107, 489-94, S89-91, 598 J 604 laearS M anbydig ofir eallt 
men, / swVSmSd is tifanjw Oiri mndorgifc / >i bim God italdr, gutnena rUi, / 
iver/d li gewia/Jc, in lucrajifi (cp. B. 1730 ff.); 614; 668 iwi bim </,r airt si- 
nce. / Ssaan >3r Ui afiran iaii brymihn, I loilwi, ivundin gold, also 563-66 
(cp. B. tTJlf., 1754 ff.); 677, 751; also 113 wears bin sa ilipi UIS gn^Scd, / 

'Til *■)■ 

* Note Dan. IjQ ac bi luyrcan ongan ludb onfcldaf 181 onbnigon li pirn btrigi 
fiSnt ptede, / iBurSedon iikbgyld, ni ■wisan ■wrSilren rSd, / ifndon unribldim ,■ 
1 86 bim peps epjter beczoBtn / yjel endtlttsn. Besides, the puniahrTient meted out to 
thoK who retuic to woishlp the idol : 1 1 1-5 p^l hU . . . Keoidc , . . prawigean 

. . .ftUneJyriiwylm, nymSt bu friScs violdl / loilaidn te ptm isiyrriam f bit ce fine fraSo-wlKidan, ijo iit pibii Kalau scafan pa byuas / in 
Ktlilyie . . . . j 13J in foBm Jyrts. 

D, ..■■.V^.OO^IC 


OMTMpondCBCC ia Miffidentljr close. ■ That HroSgir ihouM autioB 
Beowulf againtt the ib of pride, and that the poet should go out of hit 
way to denounce the supposed heathen nonhip among the Danes, will 
not appear quite so far-fetched, if the author was guided hy remitlis- 
cences of Daniel which he adapted — not entirely successfully — to 
the subject in hand. 

Furthermore, the spirited poem of Eindtu is mtuked bf * Urge num- 
ber of striking pandlcls, some of which, at least, present all the appear- 
ance of having been imitated in Birtutdf.' 

On the other hand, the legend of Andrtat eihiUt* abundant and ' 
unmittak»blc signs of having been written with Biovimlf as a model. 
Wholesale borrowing of phrases, which more than once are forced into 
t strange colitext, and various patallelisms in tituationt and in the gen- 
eral heroic conception of the ilory leave no shadow of a doubt that the 
Buth<H' of the religious poem was fotlowing in the footsteps of the great 
■ecuhtf epic J 

That the famous Cyflewulf was acquainted with Btoviitlf is to be 
biferred from the character of certain parallel passages occurring espe- 
cially in EUnt and in the short Fatti ef tbt ApBitUs.* The case will be 
ftrengthened if we include in the list of his poems — as sectns quite rea- 
sonable — all tif Cbrirt' and Guslac B, pcriiaps alio Gutiac A. (The 
inclusion of Pboenix ia rather doubtful, the exclusion of Andrtoj it prac- 
tically certain.) 

At the same time a peculiar and, in fact, puzsling relation is found 
to enial between Cbriil 681-85 i^i") f-)i 75^-7* "nd Hro^ar's ser- 
mon, Beaw. 1 724 ff. We may note Cbriil 66a : [Gn/] ii gitft statdt, 
6£i end cac mtmigfiaUt ti^ti myttru j siatu <md Mtit gnnd ttfam 
manna ; 6gi . . . . bii giefe bryuaS ; / hjU hi iHgnm dnam lallt gtifl- 
Ua/ giiUs inytiru, iy las him. gielf ictppt / )>urb bit dna ernji iftr 

' Some further ptnUlela: D. 73b, B. lS86a; D. %i.^, B. TI77; D. 545^, 
it. yi'^% S^S*"' l°'^\ D'6'6f.,B. 1119 f. (D. 174 f., B. 1570 £ j O. 4l7f., 
717 f., 7i°, B. 837 ff., 995 f., 1649 f. (cp. Ei: 7.7% f.) i D. 84, 48s, 53S, 
B. ijii ; D. 70], S. (910, aiji ; D. 514 f., B. 1117 (cp. Bx. 136 f., 101, 

■ Cf. JULtf. xtxui aiS-H- Note, e.g., S. ;6 K^ B. 140S ff.; E. aoo f., B. 
118 f. ; £. 114< B. 387, 719 ) £. 161, B. I*j8 ; £. 193, B. 156, J007 ; B- 
4S6 f., B 1365 f. 

' Cf. etpedatly Knpp'i editian, pp. It f.; Arnold, Ktia on Binsutf, pp. iijff. 
Some ounplct; <4. 303, B. 199J j <<. 333, B. 1113 ; A. ibo S., B. 38 IF.; 
jf. 377 f-, B. G91 f. i j1. 419, B.f>ii; A. 4;4, B. 7305.^. 459 I., B. J7» f. j 
.^. 4.97. S. iii;A.^^-i(.,B. ii\if.;A.bii, B. 3006;^. 668, £.81;^ 
985, B. iia;A. 999 f., B. yii f. ^A. 101 1 S., B. 1397, 1626?. lA. I173 If., 
B. 361 ff. j A. ri3s f., B. 1679,1717, 1774, 510; A. 1140 {., B, 3147,849, 
1411 f.j -*. 1491 ff., B. 1541 ff., 1716 f!.\A. 1516, B. 769. 

• See, e.g., £/. 1+3 f., B. iij f. ; El. 150 ff., B. 397 f; El. 7»if., B. »90i f^ 
Fa. Af. 3, g, B. I f., 169; i Fai. Ap. 6, B. it j fiir. Af. 59 f., B. SS7 f- Cp. 
sko, e.g., Or. 616 f. with B. 4S9> 470- 

' Cf. GtiouU, BSl. all 1} ff. { S. Moor, JEOPb. lir S50-67. 

D, ..■..V^.OQi^lC 


el>r*Jbr9; t $6 ferpem •ivi a icuUm idU tuitat, / tymoiadt fariiin, imd 
pat sitlran geJiBH (cp. Beotu. 1759). God, so nc are told, sends hi* 
meuengers to protect ui from the arront of the devil 1 761 pa uj ge- 

icddap •win icepptndra / tgtum earbj'antm pome •wribtbora . . . 

omstnJee / afbii br^gdbegan biiem* ilra:l, / Ftrptn iw fitiU icuten 
•wia pdm Jiricyle f . . . •wtardi btaldan, / py lit le atlrii ord in 
^bugt, / biter bordgelSc undtr bdnlocan .... p^i biS friciu •wund . . . 
Ulan Ul beorgan pa, (Cp. Gaff/. 781 betrgas him beaknip. ) 

That this whole series of parallels relating to i. God'i distribution 
of manifold gifts, 1. the danger of pride, 3. the guarding against the 
shafts of the devil, should be merely the result of chance, is a suppoti- 
tion exceeding the bounds of credibility.' In Cbriil the Rrst two of 
those motives are based on the ascertained source (cf. Cook's edition, 
pp. ij6, 141) ; the third 'is consistently connected with one of Cyne- 
wulfs favorite motives, that of the baneful iround of sin. In Beoiiialf 
the idea of the granting of woddly power and of the punishment of 
pride can be satis&ctorily referred to the example of Daniel, yet there 
is no hint in Daniel of the distribution of various kinds of gifts to dif- 
ferent men. Nor b the theme of the devil's arrows in the least war' 
lanted by the situation. 

Moreover, at the close of the runic passage which follows immedi- 
ately, Cbrist 797 ff., we meet with the expression, Eii (brand big an 
tybte,) iies ealdgetlricn unntumtice (giiia glfrail),^ which reminds us 
oi Beinuutfiji6i. {fibs iper to) le pe unmumlice madmai daltp, j 
torUi irgeitriam. Again, in Cbritt iii 1550 we come across the phrase 
latvle lutard, which by its explanatory variation lifei lutidom (1551) 
helps us to understand the real force of the analogous expression, Beovj. 
174.1 f; le lueard . . . la^ivele hyrde. Also Cbriil iii 1400 f. (_PS it pi 
glda iiva fela forgitfm btefde) md Pian pam eattum iadei ti lyt[el'\ j 
made pUht* recalls Beo-w. 1748 pinceB bim Id lytel p^bi lange Hold. 
That the extended enumeration, Betnv. 176} ff., is entirely in the man- 
ner of Cynewulf (cp., e.g., Cbriil 59' ff.> 664 ff-) should not be over- 
looked in this connection. 

Such being the case, we can hardly refuse acceptance to the most 
natural exptatwtion that offers, viz. that Cynewulf 's own hand is to be 
detected in portions of that homiletic passage in Beo^wutf. This doe* 
not mean, of couise, that we should, v»iih Sanazin, regard Cynewulf 
at the redactor oi Btonjimlf* — there are, with all the similarities in sty- 

■ CT. Swniin, Angl. xir 409 ff., ESi. ixxrili 187, Kid. 15; f. 

' It ii fband likewi»e in J-b/. j8» ff., 401 ff., 651 f. Cf. alao Ang!. aiw 118 ff. 

* gSiia gifrau (10 BtffiD. 11 13) miybe de»cribed ui litenry formuli, cf. jiitgl. 
iixv 46S[Lit. '»piriti«'](Gr. Spr. i£f/r(; Htliand : grldag. (CfcriK (ui) 971, 

* Ot M Miillenhoff't Interpolator B. — Grau'i iweeping aoerdon (L 4. 150) 
of Cynewulf 1 authonhjp on the buii of illeged borrowingi and of the uie of tbie 
mat Murca is not tuffidently fortified by ^iobI, 

D, ..■■.V^.OQi^lC 


liitic respect, Irreconcilable differences of viewpoint which preclude such 
an assumption. But it is entirely possible, and more than that, that 
Cynewulf was sufficiently interested in this speech of Hrofigar's to alter 
and interpolate it in accordance with his own views and literary pre- 
dilections. We might even go one step farther. There are a few brief 
and easily detachable passages having the air of a corrective aftenhought 
and showing a distinct Cynewiilfian flavor, such as 11, i6Sf. , 5SS''— S9*, 
JOJ4'' If.' Supposing Cynewulf had a copy of Btatuulf before him, ■ 
what could have prevented him from inserting those pious marginalia 
to give expression to his own thoughts of stern Christian doctrine ? " 

Whether any Old English poems besides those mentioned have 
come under the influence of Bemvutf, it Is extremely difficult to say. 
It would be unsafe, e.g., to claim it in the case ai Judith or Maiden.' 
Altogether, we should hesitate to attribute to Beaviuifa commanding, 
central position in the development of Anglo-Sanon poetry.* 

The chronological conclusion to be drawn from the ascertained re- 
lation to other poems agrees well enough with the linguistic evidence. 
Placing the poems of CtnfJiJ, Datiiil, fxDi/uj or the so-called Cxdmon 
group in the neighborhood of 700 (to mention a definite date), and 
Cynewulf in the latter half of the eighth century (or, with Cook, in 
the period between 750 and Eij),^ we would naturally assign Beov^ulf 
to the first half of ^e eighth century, perhaps not far from the middle 


Rise of the Poem. AuTHttRSHiP 

In discussing this highly problematic subject ' we confue ourselves in 
the main to outlining what seems the most probable course in the de- 
velopment of the story -material into our epic poem. 

' WixhgifiUl ' throne of God," Bccv}. 168, cp. Cbr. ;ji gSi(a git/iiel ; \r\th 
pl bis mjni miii, Bcn-Bi. 169, cp. S/. i^oi f., Cir. 1536 f. ; with Ai™. jggb^gj* 
cp. El. tio f., 950 f. ; with Btaw. 3056 cp. El. 790 f. 

* It ii to be admitted, of couik, thai Knir Kribc tboroughly familiar with Cjne- 
wolf ^1 warka might have made all those interpohtioiu. 

' It Kenu not uolikely In the caK of the Mcira of Btabiui, apccailj Mtt. i ; 
cf. £&. ilii 3»5 n. I. 

* The ipecilic BeowuUiin [eminiscenca in Lijimoa hunted up by Wuklter 
{Bihr. m SJi f.) may ufdv bt laid on the cable. 

* On the during of GuSlac A, see Gerould, MLN. iiili 84-6. Of A-tdrtai we 
cm uy only that it "belongs to the general icliool of CynewulRan poetiy " Knpp't 
edidon, p. xlii). — [See >]» Cook's edition of E'enc, ttc. (1919}, p. liij.] 

* An earlier date b coniidered certain by Chadwict (H. A. , eh. 4), who agica 
ut that rcipect with rarious older schalaia. 

' Cf, tapeciaUy ten Brink, (hs. 11, i]jR6nnin 
i£, 17, 144) Symons L 4. 19 ^ Biandl 951 tF., 
Chadwick H. A. 51 ff. ; also A. Erdmann, Vkir £e Hiiaiat uni Ai„ Namtnicr 
Asgttn, 1S90, pp. S I If. i buidn the edilioni of Thoipc, Arnold, Sedgelield, and 
the tianaladoni of Earle and Clark HiU. 



I. That the themes of the rniuD stoiy, i.e. the contest with the 

Grendet race and the fight with the dragon, are of direct Scandinavian 
provenietice, may be regarded as practically certain. ■ The same origin 
is to be assigned to thedistinctly historical episodes of the S>vedish-Ge3tish 
wars of which no other traces can be found in England.' 

z. Of the episodic matter introduced into the first pitrt, the allusions 
to the Germanic legends of fomfnrir and HSma^as well as oi Wilaad* 
are drawn from the ancient heroic lore brought over by the Anglo-Saxons 
from their continental home. The Finn legend of Ingvaeonic as 
reached England through the same channels of popular 
Whether old Frisian lays were used as the immediate source of the 
Beowulfian episode is somewhat doubtful on account of the markedly 
Danish point of view which distinguishes the Episode even more than the 
Fragment. ' TTiat tales of Brtca, chief of ihe BrmidiBgai, were included 
in the repertory of the Anglo-Saxon scop, is possibly to be inferred from 
the allusion, IFids. 15 (cp. 1. 63: mid Heapo-Reamttm), but the brilliant 
elaboration of (he story and its connection with the life of the great epic 
hero must be attributed to the author himself.^ Ancient North German 
tradition was brought into relation with Danish matters in the story of 
Scyld ScefingJ Danish legends form the direct basis of the Hiremod 
episodes^ and possibly even of the .Ti^fmuni/ allusion.^ That the tragedy 
of the Hea^^Bard feud and the glory of HroSgar, HroSulf, and the 
feir hall Heorol were celebrated themes of Anglo-^xon song, may be 
concluded from the references in Wldils, but the form in which the dy- 
nastic element is introduced so as 10 serve as historicaJ setting, and the 
close agreement noted in the case of the old spearman's speech make it 
appear probable that ancientpopulartradition was reinforced by versions 
emanating directly from Denmark. 

A specific Frisian source has been urged for the story of Hygelac's 
disastrous Viking expedition of which Scandinavian sources beliay no 
knowledge.'" A genuine Anglo-Saxon, or rather Angle, legend is con- 
tained in the episode of OfFa and his strong-minded (|ueen." 

' Cf. .bove, pp. liif., xiif. 

• Ttie mere mention pf the lume On^ir, (J) lumu in Ifidt. 31 (and of the tribal 

mtna, notably the Littr yiiai'Erelaiat Duntlmam [i.e., a list of benefaclore to 
the Ducbam church] (cf. Binz, paiiim ; Chadwick H. A. 64 if. ), of luch names 
u Eainxiind, En^ili ,' Hygllic, Hersbiald, Hiardrid, baye no probative value id £ir 
at the knowledge of the bisHiHcat legend* is concerned. — The name Biii^lJ, 
Liber I^iiae l6j. 341, which according to Chadwick'i calculation was boine by a 
petton {a monk] of the seventh century, does not necessaiily betoken an acquaint- 
IDce with BSowulf legend (or with the poem) ; it may have been a rarely used 
proper name 

• See note on 1197-1x01. ■* See note on 455. 

• Cf. Introd. to Tbi Fight at Fh«ih-rg. * Cf. note on 499 fF. 

' Cf. noteon4^5i. ' Cf. note on 901-15, » Cf. note on Syj-goo. 
■° See Satiuin Kid. 90 f. ; cf. MiilleohofF 107 f. " Cf. note oo 1931-61. 


3. Thercii no evidence 10 shoir that <■ BEowulf I^tnd * hailgiadii- 
tdlj gTomi up out of popular stories that had been brought over to 
EngUind by the migrating Angles. ■ If such ncre the case, it would be 
taexplicable why the exclusive interest in Scandinavian legends remained 
virtually unimpaired, and nhy in particular Buch a minute attention to 
the foitunes of Northern dynasties continued to be manifested in the 
epic' Regarding its subject- matter at a whole, the Beotvuifcaniiot be 
called a Germanic, or Anglo-Saxon, epicj it is emphatically Scandi- 
navian. Poitna danicum dialecto angUiaxmica — Hai charecleriiation 
of the poem by its first editor, if reasonably qualified by latter-day iit' 
terpietation, remains essentially true- 
To account for this very peculiar state of aftairs with any approach to 
probability is not quite easy. The most Mtisfactoiy explanation otfered 
by way of a hypothesis ' is that there may have existed close relation*, 
peihaps through marriage, between an Anglian court and the kingdom 
of Denmark, whereby a special interest in Scandinavian traditions was 
ibatered among the English nobility.* It is true, of direct intercourse 
between England and Denmark in those centuries preceding the Dan- 
ish invasions we have no positive historical proof. But wc have cer- 
tainly no tight to infer from the statement of the OE. CbranieU 
(a.d. 787) with regard to the earliest Danish attack 1 on tii \Btarblrict4\ 
di^m euimon irm. Hi. icifu . . . p<t •wirtn t>S arcstan tcipit Dtniir- 
ra nunna pi Angilcynitii lonJ gejoblim, that peaceful visits of Dane* 
in England were unknown before, since the reference is clearly to hostile 
inroads which then occurred for the first time. Another conjecture that 
has proved attractive to several scho.ars tried to establish Friesland as a 
meeting-ground of Danes and Englishmen where a knowledge of Noith- 
cro tales was acquired by the latter.' 

' This it ia Hibmnce the opinion held ij KVenl eminent Khdui, such m Hfit 
kohofF, ten BHnk, Srinoni, Braod], Chad wick. 

> Cf. Simiin lUil. S9 f. — If the GiaMi were Jucei, i.e. a tribe with wbom tb* 
Angles had formerly ihired thejolish pcniniuli (cf. Kier L 4. 78. i» f.),the(fifl 
ficulcjr would be mitenallf IsHcned. ^hii mint be conceded [o the advocatei of Cht 
Jutland thcoiT. 

' See Monbich L 4. 143. 177. 

* Moorman (L 4, ]i. 5) endearoied lo ihow chit there was a Geat caloof In 
the Noilh Riding of_Yorkshire, and that [he courtly epa of &(iwii//' wu compwd 
during the reign of Eadwine. (Cf. abate, p. ilvj, n. i.) 

' Thui, Arnold lurmised that tbe auiboi might hive been a cunpanlon of St. 
WiHibroid, the Anglo-Saion miiiionaiy, who, with the perminion of thdr kiaf 
OngenduD, cook thicty young Danes with him lo Friesland lo be brought up a Chri*- 
tiani. (Amold'i edition, pp, in ff. ; cf. bit Nori, n Baviu/f, f^. 114 f.) [As early 
ai 1S16, Ounen eiprcaeda umilar view, secWiilkec'i Grandria, p. i;;.] Schiick 
(L 4. If. 40, 41 If.) CDDceived of an Anglo-Saxon miwoniry who met Danish mer- 
cbanu in Friwland and eagerly listened lo thdr Boriei. According Co Sarniin (Kid. 
90 a.) an intennedUte Frioan version of a Daniih origlnil Krved ai bads for the final 
lilenry rediccioa by the EngUih poet [Cynewnlf ] ; cf. ibore, p. xlvil, n. 4. That the 
Geniunic heroic legends wen iguke generally bcovght to EngliDd by way of FriesUod 
wasslso die opiniaii of MuUenhoff (^. 104 ff.), 

D, ..■■.v^.oo^ic 


4, Evidently, we cumot entertain the notion that there wm in ex- 
istence even an approximately complete Scandinavian original leady to 
be put into Anglo-Saxon vene. If nothing else, the style and tone of 
Beetvulf waald disprove it, since thejrare utterly unlilce anything to 
be expected in early Scandinavian poetry. But a numbci of lays (possibly 
also some poems interspersed with plosc narrative like many of the Eddie 
lays) dealing with a variety of subjects became known in England, and, 
with the compaiatively slight diffrarences between the two languages in 
those times,' could be easily mastered and turned to account by an 
Anglo-Saxon poet. We may well imagine, e.g., that the Englishman 
knew such a lay or two on the slaying of Grendel and his mother, 
another one on the dragon adventure, besides, at any rate, two Danith 
(originally Geatish) poems on the warlike encounters between Geats 
and Swedes leading up to thofall of Ongenfieaw and Onela respectively. 

Whether the picture of the life of the times discloses any tmces of 
Scandinavian originals is a &scinating query that can be answered only- 
in very general and tentative terms. An enthusiastic archeologisl' let 
up. the claim that a good deal of the original cultural background had 
been retained In the Old English poem, as shown, e.g., by the helmets 
■nd (words described in Bmwulf-mhicii appear to match ecurtly thou 
utcd in the Northern countries in the period between a. D. 550 and 
650. Again, It would not be surprising if None accounts aS heathen 
obsequies had inspired the brilliant funeral scene at the close of the 
poem, II. 31J7 ff. (see note, and iioS. fT., 1114^, also note on 
4—51: Scyld's sea-burial). But, on the whole, it is well to bear in 
ntind that Anglo-Saxon and Scandinavian conditions of life were too 
much alike to admit of drawing a dear line of division In our study of 
Beowulfian antiquities. Certain features, however, can be mentioned 
that are plainly indicative of English civilization, such as the institution 
of the •witan,^ the use of the harp, the vaulted stone chamber (see note 
on >7t7 S.), the paved street (jio, cp. 715), and, above all, of 
course, the high degree of gentleness, courtesy, and spiritual reline- 

Some None parallels relating to minor motives of the narrative are 
pointed out in the notes on ao ff., 144 ff., 499?., S04, 1459^, 2157, 
i68j ff., 3014 ff., J167 f.S 

It remains to ask whether it is poswble to detect Norse influence in 
the language of Bto-ixulf. Generally speaking, it must be confessed 

* The remark iruerted in the GnnnUi 
EnglaniS si Narigi, afiT FUhjalmr ioBi 
contains sn imponant clement of Cmth. 

' Stjetni, L 9. J9. * Cf. Aotiq. | I. * Cf. Mijller L 9. 18. 

' Cf. <^ ^ifgl. mil 379 1. + (II- M9 ff-) i -^"f '■ »»" 174 n. 1 (U. U! f-) i 
Anb. CIV 179 n. (U. 1001 f); JEGPb. ai S+9 (U. iiai f.). Thuiki to 
the ibundsnce of ocifinal Kculu litcnture in uiclenE Scsodinnii, tUuKiaciTe parsUels 
9 very reulUy. 


that so far the investigations along this tine > have brought out interest- 
ing similarities rather than proofs of imitation. Assuredly, no such in- 
disputable evidence has been gained as in the case of the Later Gmeiit, 
(vhich is, indeed, on a different footing, being a teal and even close 
translation of a foreign (Old Saxon) original. It is worth nhile, how- 
ever, to advert to the agreement ill the use of certain words and phrases, 
such as atol, brant ; eedar. Hod (in their transferred, poetical meanings, 
cp. ON. jasarr, Ijini) ;» btadalioma (see Glossary), bona Onginpiets 
(see note on 1963), and other kennings \ gebigan sing 415 f., cp. ON. 
ityja ping; tiixl is me li feran ji6, cp. ON. mat tr mtr at ripa 
{Htlgakv. Hand, ii 4S, cf. Sarraiin St. 69), i^ pe . . . biddan ivilte 
. . . dure bene 416 ff. (see note). On brflmici, see above, p. xviij on 
the epithets heah and gamd applied to Healfdene, p. xnxiii. The com- 
bination beoTnas on hlancum 856 might be taken for a duplicate of a 
phrase like Bjjrn riis BlaiH (Par. § 5 ; Kalfi'uisa). The employment 
of the 'hislorical present ' 3 has been accounted for as a Norse syn- 
tactical feature (Sarrazin Kad, 87 ; see Lang. § X5-6, and especially 
1. 14S6), but there is reason to suspect that it merely indicates the same 
sort of approximation to the brisk language of every-day life. That the 
much discussed hig, ^3 is a misunderstood form of a Scandinavian 
word has also been suggested.* Several others of the un^cplurwd 
drof X(7W>^might be conjectutally placed in the same category. 

' 5. The author's part in the production of the poem was vastly more 
than that of an adapter or editor. It was he who combined the Grendel 
stories with the dragon narrative and added, as a connecting link, ihe 
account of Beowulf's return, in short, conceived the plan of an exten- 
■ive epic poem with a great and noble hero as the central figure. Vari- 
ous modi^cations of the original legends were thus naturally introduced. 
(Cf., e.g., above, pp. xviif., xinf., iixif.)s Leisurely elaboration and 
expansion by means of miscellaneous episodic matter became important 
&ctors in the retelling of the original stories. Hand in hand mith such 
fashioning of the legends into a poem of epic proportions went a spir- 
itualizing and Christianizing process. A strong element of moraljiation 
was mingled with the narrative. The characters became more refined, 
the sentiment softened, the ethics ennobled. Beowulf rose to the rank 

' Sanaiin'i nuggerated cliimi were vigDrouly combated bjr Sierers, see L 4. 16, 
17. Cf. iU» ZfdPb. xax 114 ff. 

• The general, non-lechnical mtaning — normally eiprosed by^i/i — which *|i- 
pcanin ^/tobj^i/l (it, 1025, 10B9), ii probably archaic rachrr than due totbeinSu- 
eau of ON. gipi. 

' Though not ' historical present ' in the mict sense (nerer occorring in princi- 
pilchuset). Cf. also J. M. Steadman, Jr., "The Origin oftheHistoHcal Prwnt 
is EngBih," Snuiia in PbMagy (Univ. of North Carolina), Vol. liv. No. ■ 

■* L;. »6. IS, 5. 54;wenolron 33. 

' The names of WeaUi)>cow, Hygd, UnlerS were pahaps coined by the poet him- 
•elf, cf. above, p. xxxui, note on 499 B. 

_ D, . ■■.V^.OO^IC 


of a truly ideat hero, and his cxintests were viewed in the light of a 
struggle between the ])owers uf good and of evil, thus assuming a new 
weight and dignity which made them appeal a fit subject for the main 

That the idea of creating an epic poem on a comparatively large 
scale was suggested to the author, directly or indirectly, by classic 
models is more than an idle guess, though incontrovertible proof is dif- 
ficult to obtain.' In any event, it is clear that s bibliiral poem like the 
Old English Cmtsii pacaphiase, consisting of a loose series of separate 
stories, could tiot possibly have served as a pattern. Whether there was 
any real epic among the lost poems of the Anglo-Saxon period we 
have no means of ascertaining. 

6. That the poem was composed ui the Anglian parts of England 
is one of the few &cts bearing on its genesis which can be. regarded as 
feirly established. But whether it originated in Nonhumbria orMcrcia 
is left to speculaticn.' The evidence of language, as seen above, is in- 
decisive on that point, though leaning slightly in the direction of North- 
umbria. The strongest argument in favor of Mercia is, after all, the 
keen interest in the traditions of the Mercian dynasty, made apparent 
by the introduction of the Offa episode. 

Needless to say, the list of Anglian kings has been dih'gently 
scanned by scholars with a view to finding the most suitable person to 
be credited with the role of a patron. Several of those presented for 
consideration, it is important to note, relinquished their royai station to 
take up life in the quiet of a monastery. In the Interest inT chronolo^- 
cal consistency we should give the preference to ^iSelbald of Mercia, 
Eadberhtof Northumbria, or the latter's predecessor Ccolvrulf (7l9- 
7]7)l of whotn Bedc says in his dedicatory address (Pre&ce to his £r- 
cUiiastical Hiitmy): 'non solum audiendis scriptm^e sanctae verbis 
aurem sedulus accommodas, venim etiam noscendis piiorum gestis sive 
dictis, et maxime nostrae gentis viroruni inlustrium, curam vigilanter 
impendis.' That some allusions to contemporary history are hidden in 
the lines of our poem is at least a possibility not to be ignored. Might 
not the spectacle of internal strife and treachery rampant in the North- 
cm regions of England have prompted the apparently uncalled-for note 
of rebuke and warning, xi66 ff. (cp. 2741 f., 587 f., 1167 f.) ?' 

■ Cr. esprcnilj Brandl looEj Arch, cxxri 40-48, 339-;9' F<" ^c^i^i objec- 
tiont, Ke Cludviick H. A. 73-76. Dcuucbbcin wouJd aitribute this importini ad- 
vance in technique to Celtic influence, GRM. i 115 If. — That tbr author was not 
ignannt of the luiEuage of Vcr^ll may be seen frotn the Iraca of Latin syntax and 
(tyle, cf. above, p. 1>ii, Lang. § 15. 9, 

plicated tiumry of the giaduaL buMng up of the poem iitan a number of tiriginal, aa 
wen at modifieii, lays. 

' Earie, by bold and BomewhiC playfiil conjecture, (iSKntA the authorship on 
Hygcbaht whom the great Off* had chosen to be arehtuhop of Lichfield. He fur- 


We may, then, picture to ounclres the author of Bevwuff' at a man 
connected in some way with an Anglian court, a royal chaptiin or ab- 
hot of noble birth ' or, it may be, a monk fiiend of hii, who pouessed 
an actual knonledge of court life and addressed himself to an ariato- 
ctatic, in fact a royal audience.* A man well versed in Germanic and 
Scandinavian heroic loie, fiimiliar with secular Anglo-Saxon poems rf 
the type exemplified by IfiiJiiB, Fiimiiurg, Dior, and Waldcrt, and a 
student of biblical poems of the Csdmonian cycle, a man of notable 
taste and culture and informed with a spirit of broad-minded Chrieti- 

The work left behind by the anonymous author does not rank with 
the few great masterpieces of epic poetry. BtlnuiUf is not an English 
Iliad, not a standard Germanic or national Anglo-Saxon epos. In re- 
spect to plot it is immeasurably inferior to the giand, heroic NiMun- 
gtnlied. Yet it deservedly holds the fnt pUce in our study of Old 
English litcratiite. As an eloquent exponent of old Germanic life it 
■lands wholly in a class by itself. As an exemplar of Anglo-Saxon 
poetic endeavor it reveals an ambitious purpose and a degree of lucccs* 
in its accomplishment which are worthy of unstinted piaisc. In noble 
and powerful language, and with a technical skill unequaled in the his- 
tory of om- ancient poetry, it portrayi stirring heroic exploits and, 
through these, brings before us the manly ideals which appraled to the 
enlightened nobles of the age. It combines the best elements of the 
old culture with the aspiration* of the new. 

The poem has been edited many times. The main object which 
this edition aims to serve is to assist the student in the thorough inter- 
pretation of the text by placing within his reach the requisite material 
for a serious study. It is hoped that he will feel encoaisged to form 
his own judgment as occasion arises — nvUius addidus iarari in •verta 

themiore inugined [hit the poem wu ■ HHt of sllegoiy written ibr the benefil of 
Olfi'l ion E£gfer>, being in &ct' the inaiiiution of 1 prince.' (Cf. note on 19J1-61.) 
As to ia gcncuB, he thought thst the nimeand also put of thcstuty af Hygelic hid 
been taken from the Hiuaria Francarum, inA that "the saga," though of Scandini- 
viin origin, ■< amc out of Fnnklind to the hand of tht poet, and probably . . . wu 
written in Latin." See the ingenioui, if bnciliit, argumenti ia Dadi if Btaviitif, 
pp. luv a. -J they were lv«t act forth in the London Tim£i, September 30 and Octo- 
ber 19, 1885. 

' Cf. PluRimer'i Baida, i, p. hit. 

' He makes it plain that the king's sutburity most be iciupukimly ndegusrded | 
see especially S61 f., «l<|3 f. 

D,g,l zed b, Google 


This Bibliography will be referred to by the letter L, «s explained 
under 'Table of Abbreviatkiiu.' 

Noticet of reviewi are preceded by 'R.:' or 'r.;'.' 

L Manuscript 

1. The only extant MS.: Cotton MSS. (BHtiih Muaeum, London), 
Vitellius A. XV, ff, ia9*-i98'' {i3i»-aoi'' in the present numbering). 

2. First mention of it by II. Wanley in: Antiqua iiltratarx tetUit- 
trionalij iiher alter, sen Hvmphredi Wanleii librorum ntlt. jepUntrionaiium, 

a%i in Anglia bihliolhecii exunl catalog-uj hiilorico-crilicui ( — Book 

li, or Vol. iii, of Georee Hickes's Theiaurui), Oxonix, 1705, pp. llS f. 
[Brief notice of the MS. and transcription of II. 1-19, S3-73] 

3. The Thorbelin traotcripts: A — Poema angloiaxonkum dt ribus gestii 
Danorum rx metnbrana bibliotlucai cotbmiartae .... /ml exsctibi Londini 
A.D. 1787 GHmut Johannit Thorkelin, LL.D.; B = Poema anglosaxoai- 

enm exicripiU Grimus Johannis Thorkelin, LX.D. Londini anno 


These copin were made use of by Grundtvig in big translation (iBio, 
cf. L J. J?), see his AnmariningeT, pp. 267-311. They are preserved in 
the Great Royal Library at Copenhagen. 

4. Collationi of the MS.: a) J. J. Conybeare, lUnjtratirms of Anglo~ 
S^ion Poetry (L a. »j^ pp.'l37-SS- b) Eariy collations embodied in the 
editions of Kemble, Tliorpe (collation of 1830), Grundtvig. c) E. K61- 
bing, "Zur Beowulfhandachrift," Arck. Ivi (1876), 91-118; id., ESt. v 
(18S1), 341, & vil (1884), 483-86 (in reviews of Wulker's texts), d) Re- 
cent collations embodied in the editions of Sedgeficld and Chambers. 

{. Facsimile: Beottndf. Avtotypei of the unigue Cotton MS. Piulliui 
A xr in ti^ British Mvieum, wtth a Tranilileration and Notes, by Julius 
Zupilza. (E.E.T.S., No. 77.) London, 1881. [Almost of equal value 
with the MS. Zupitxa'i painstaking Notes Include also a collation with 
the Thorkelin tr«nicripts. Photographs by Mr. Praetorius.] 

6. Diploroatic editions: a) Richard Paul W.ulcker in the revisbn of 
Grein's Bibliolhet drr angeUacksisclttn Poetic, i, 18-148. Kassel, 18S1. 
R.: E. Kolbing (L 1. 4). b) Alfred Holder, BeoanilJ. I: Abdruci der Hand- 
tchrift. Freiburg i. B., 1st ed., n. d. [iSSi]; id ed., iSBa; 3d ed., 1S9;. 

7. Kenneth Siaam, "The 'Beowulf Manuscript." MLR. li (1916). 
33S~37- [A useful note on the different parw of the MS. volume.] 

See also L 5. 33, 51 f. 

n. Editions 

a. Complete Editions 

1815. [Of interest chicay as the 'editio princeps.'f 
> li iatrra ta ka aoKd thai, li ijille at iu JcDtUi.llii BlbUojnphr U anlecud m 

D, . ■■.V^.OO^IC 


2. John M, Kemble, The /fngloSaxon Poems of Btamulf, The Tranl- 
ler's Song, and the Bault oj Ftnmsiurk. London (isl ed. [loo copies), 
1833);' id ed.. Vol. i, 1835, Vol. ii (Translation, Introduction, Notes, 
Glossary), 1837. [Scholarly; the first real edition.) 

3. Frederik Schaldemose, Beo-Wulf og Scopes ffidsie. Kjebenhavn, 
1847; id ed.. 1851. [Dependent on Kemble.) 

4. Benjamin Thorpe, The Anglo-Saxon Poems of BeoKulf, the Scop or 
Cleeman's Tide, and the Fight at Finnesburg. Oiford, iSi;;; reprinted, 
1875. [Meritorious, though not sufficiently careful in details.] 

5. C. W. M. Grein in his Bibliothek der angetsacksisckeit PotSit, Vol. 1, 
pp. 155-341. Gottingen, 1857. [Marked by sterling scholarship; text 
printed in long lines, not collated with the MS.) 

6. Nik. Fred. Sev. Grundtvig, Beoauifes Beork eller Bjowlfs-Drapen. 
Kiobenhavn, 1S61. (The two Thorkelin copies utilized; numerous con- 
jectures indulged in.) 

7. (i) Moritz Heyne, Beoaulf. Mit ausfihtlichevi Gojiar krig, 
Paderbom, 1863; 1868; 1873; 1879- — W Revised by Adolf Socio: 
jth ed., 1888 (r.: Sievers, L J. 16. 1; Heinzel, L j. 10); 1898 (r.: Sarrazin, 
L 5. 36); 1903 (r.: V. GricnDergzr, L 5. 4;. 1; E. Kruisinga, ESt. zxxv 
(1905), 401 f,; F. Holthausen, BeiU. iviii (1907). 193 f-; Fr. Klaebcr, *. 
iviii, 189-91). — (3) Revised by Levin L. Schucking: 8th ed., 1908 
[thoroughly improved, still conservative] (r.: Fr. Klaeber, ESt. iisix 
(1908), 415-33; R. Imelmann. D. Lit. t. iix (1909), 995-1000; v. Grien- 
berger, Z/oG. Ii (1909), 1089 f.; W. W. Lawrence, MLN. uv (1910), 
155-57); 9th ed., 1910 (r.: W. J. Sedgefield, ESt. xliii (1911), 167-69); 
10th ed., 1911 (r.: Fr. Klaeber, Beibl. xxlv (1913), 189-91), 

8. C. W. M. Grein, Beooulf nebst dfn Fragmenlen Fintisbitrg und 
Valdere. Casscl & Gottingen, 1867. [Rather conservative.) 

9. Thomas Arnold, Beminilf. A Heroic Poem of the eighth Century, 
teilh a Translation, Notes, and Appendix. London, 1876. (Unsafe.) 
See reviews by H. Sweet, Academy i (1876), s88c-89a; R. Wulcker, 
Angl. i (1878), 177-86. 

10. James A. Harrison and Robert Sharp, Beowulf: An Anglo-Saxon 
Poem; The Fight at FinnsHrh: A Fragment. Boston, 1883. [Based on 
Heyne.) 4th ed., 1894 [with explanatory notes], 

11. Richard Paul Wulcker in the revisbn of Grein's BiUiolhek der 
angeisachsischen Potsie, Vol. i, pp. 149-277. Kassel, l88j. {Extensive 
critical apparatus.) (Cf. L i. 6.) 

II. Alfred Holder, Beowulf. IP: Beriehtigler Text mil knappem Ap- 
paral und Worterhuch. Freiburg i. B., 1884; id ed., 1S99. [Benefited 
by the advanced scholarship of Kluge and Cosijn.) //*: Wortschati. mit 
samtlichen Stellennachweisen. 1896. (Cf. L I. 6.) 

13. (i) A. J. Wyatl, Biourulf edited toiih Textual Foot-Noiei, Index of 
Proper Names, and Alphabetical Glossary. Cambridge, 1894; id ed,, 
1898, reprinted. 1901, 1908. [Judicious; conservative.) ^ (1) New edi- 
tion, thoroughly revised bv R. W. Chambers, 1914. (Eicellent notes.) 
R.; W. W. Lawrence, IEGPL liv (1915). 611-13; J, W. Bright, MLN. 
mi (1916), 188 f.; J, D, Jones, MLR. x\ (1916), 130 f. 

14. Moritz Trautmann, Das BeooiulJUed . Als Anhang das Finn- 
Brmhstiick and die Waldhere-Bruchslicie (Bonn. B. ivi). Bonn, 1904. 
(Many tentative emendations introduced.) R,; Fr, Klaeber, MLN. xx 

_ 1 Thcdllionofiail huin>lb«n.i:«»lbH. 

D, . ■■.V^.OQi^lC 

11. EDITIONS ciiv 

V (190s), 417-JI. (Cf. F. Tupper, 

15. F. Holthausen, Btoarulf tubit dim Finiuburg-Bruckiluik. Part i.: 
Texle und Namenonzeickmi, Heidelberg, 1905; — ad ed., 1908, and jd 
ed., 191a (including also ffdiert, Dior, Widtis, and the OHG. Hilde- 
brandslud). Part 11.: Eirdeilung, Glossar und Antmrkungen. 1906; ad 
ed., 1909; 3d ed., 191^. [Ui^to-dste, rigorously conforming to Sievers's 
metrical types; a mine of information.] R.: L. L. Schilclcing, ESt. 
rail (1908), _94-Iii; W. W. Lawrence, JEGPk. vii (1908), 1*5-19; 
M. Dcutschbein, Arch, cui (1908), 161-^,- v. Grienberger, TSoG. lii 
(1908), 333-46 (chiefly etymological notes on the Glossary); Fr. Klaeber, 
MLN. uiv (1909), 94 f.; A. Eichler, BeibL ui (1910), 119-33, ^t" (1911), 
i6i-6si L. L. Schiicking, ESt. jJii (1910), 108-11; G. Binn, Lii. hi xxii. 
(1911), 53-5. 

16. w. J, Sedgeficld, Beowulf edited tdtk Introduction, Biiliography, 
Notes, [admirable, complete] Glossary, and Appendices. (Pub!, of the 
University of Manchester, Enffl. Series, No. ii.) Manchester, 1910, 
[Includes also the text of The Fight at Finnsburg and other OE. epic re- 
mains.) R.: P. G. Thomas, MLR. vi (1911), a66-68; W. W. Lawrence, 
lEGPh. X (1911), 633-40; Nation icii (New York, 191T), ;o; b-c (anon.); 
Fr. Klaeber, ESt. iliv (1911/11), 119-16; F, Wild, Beibl. niii (igii), 
aS3-6o. — ad ed., 1913. R.: Fr. Klaeber. Beibi. xiv (1914), 166-68; 
W- W. Lawrence, JECH. xW (1915), 609-11. 

17. Hubert Pierquin, Le Poime Angto-Saxan de BeoiBulf. Paris, Igia. 
846 pp. [Kemble's teit. With French prose translation, Ags. grammar, 
treatise on versification, chapters on Ags. institutions, etc. A hetero- 
Rcneous compilation.] R.: Fr. Klaeber, Beibl. uiv {1913), 138 f; W. J. 
Sedgeficld, MLR. viii (1913), SSO-sa. 

h. Curtailed Editions 

iS. Ludwig Ettmuller, Carmen de Beomlfi Gautarum rigis rebus prae- 
elare gestis atqui inlerita, qiiale fueril ante q-aam m manus intrrpolatoris, 
monacki Vestsaxonici, ineideral. Ziirich, 1875. [1896 lines.] Cf, L 
4- Ija- 

19. Hermann Moller, Das allenglitche Folksepoj, Part ii. Kiel, 1883. 
[Reconstruction of the preaumpdve original text in 344 four-line Btanius.l 
See L 4. 134. 

c. Selected Portions 

ao. Ludwig Ettmuller, Engta and Seaxna Scopai and Bocerai. Qued- 
linburg and Leipzig, 185a [11. aio-4g8, 607-661, 710-836, 991-1650, 
»Si6-a8ao, 3110-3181.) 

ai. MaiRieger, Alt- und angebacksisches Leiebuch. Gieasen, 1861. 
III. 867-915, 10S-1250, a4i7-a54i, a7a4-a8io, a845-i89i.] 

ji. Henry Sweet, An Anglo-Saxon Reader. O.iford, 1876; 8th ed., 
1908. [II. iasi-i6sa) 

13. Further, e.g., Rasmus Kristian Rask, Angelsaksiik Sproglare, 
Stockholm, 1817 (English version by B. Thorpe, Copenhagen, i8}0; 
revised, London, 1865); John Josias Conybeare, Illustrations of Anglo- 
Saxon Poetry, ed. by William Daniel Conybeare, London, 1826; Louis F. 
Klipstein, Analecut Anglo-Saxonica, Vol. ii, New York, 1849; Francis A. 
March, An Anglo-Saxon Reader, New York, 1B70; C. Alphonso Smith, 


Jn Old Engliik Grtmmar and Exmiii Book, 3d cd., Boitoii, iSoS (6th 
reprint, 1913) (II. 611-661, 739-836, I7ll-a75i. ijga-iSxi; W. M. 
Baakervill, Jamei A. Harrison, snd J. Leislie Hall, Anglo-Saxon Riodrr, 
3d ed., New York, 1901 (II- 499-S94. 79'-836|. 

(14. A para^hraae of the firet part in C^d £ngliah proM composed bv 
Henry Sweet it coataincd in hii Firit Steps- in Jnila-Stuon. Oxford, 

m. ThmslatioDS 

«. Complete TrandMont 
I. English. 

A. ProM venioDi, by! 

I. John M. Kemble (in Vol. ii of the ad ed. of hit text, tee L a.2). 
London, 1837. U'iteral.) 

I. Benjamin Thorpe. (Oppoiite hit text, see L 3. 4.) Oxford, 1855, 
1875- ILitcnl.] 

3. Thomas Arnold. (At the foot of his text, see L 3. 9.) London, 
1876. ILiteral.l 

if. John Earie, TA/ Detdt of BeomdJ. Oxford, 1S93. c + 303 pp. 
(Literary, pictureiquc, with inconiiitent uac of archabms. Introduction 
and note* arc added.) See review (especially of the Introduction) by 
E. Koeppel, ESt. xviii (1893), 9J-;. — Reprinted (translation only), 
Oxford, 1910. 

5. John R. Clark Hall. London, 19011 id ed. (carefully reviied), 
1911. Iivi + 387 pp. [Faithful rendering, with valuable illuatntive 
matter and notes. I 

6. Chauncey Brewster Tinker. New York, 1902; 3d ed., 191a 

7. aarence Griffin Child. (The Rivcnide Literature Series, No. 159.) 
Boston 1904. [Helpful.] R.; Fr. Klaeber, Btibl. xvi (1905), 33J-37, 

8. Wentworth Huyshe. London, 1907. [With notes and pictorial 
illustrations. Of no independent value.) 

9. Ernest J. B. Kirtlan. London, 191J. (Not up-to-date.) 

B. Metrical versions, by: 

10. A. Diedrich Wackerblrth. London, 1849, [Ballad measure; pop- 

II. H. W. Lumsden. London, iSBi; 3d ed., 1B83. [Ballad measure.) 
13. James M. Gamett. Boston, i83i; 4th ed., 1900; reprinted, 1903. 

(Ijne-for-Iine rendering; imiutive measure, with two ftccents to each 
half-line (cf. J. Schipper, L 8. Ii. 1. $ 6j, L 8. Ji. 3. \ 73).] 

13. John Lesslie Hall. Boston, I891; reprinted, 1900. [Imitative 
alliterative measure; archaic language; spirited.) 

14. William Morris (and A. T. Wyatt). Hammersmith (Kelnucod 
Press) [308 copies), 1895; id ed. (cheaper), London and New York, 1S98. 
[Fine imitative measure; extremely archaic, strange diction.) 

15. Francis B. Gummere, in his The Oldest EngUsk Epic. Beoteulf, 
Finmburg, Waldere, DeoT, fFidsUk, and ike German llildebrand. New 
York, 1909,' [Very successful version in 'the oripna! meter'; with good 
notes and introducuon.) Cf. L 3. 44 (on verse form). 

1 annonic'i iruiliiloa of Bnmil/hu baa JDcgrpantEj In Thi rivi-r-i tMS'I M-uU 
(' tkc Kuouil Cteolu ") a. bj cWl» W. BUM, Vnl. till (iqio), pp. {-9«. 

D, ..■■.V^.OQi^lC 


(191s). 170-73. 
//. Gmnan. 

A. Prose venioni. byi 

17. H. Stdnect, In tug Altengliickt OicHtngtH, pp. 1-103. Leipzig, 
1898. [Literal; poorj 

18. MoritzTrautmann. (Oppoaite hSs tot) Bonn, igOf. [Lite^al.^ 

B. Metrical vcnSona (with the eiceptjon of No*, aa waA 14, in tneaiure* 
modeled more or less cIokI;^ after the OE. meter), by: 

19. Ludwig Ettmullcr. Zurich, 1840. [Literal; obtolete, itrange 
wor^ ('Unworter'). With iniroductioO and ootes.) 

la. C. W. M. Grein, in his Dichtunten dtr jfngttjachjtn xlahrcipiend 
tibtrittzt. Vol. i, pp. i3i--]08. Gottingen, 1857; reprinted, 1863; ad ed. 
(BeMevlf ttpirattiy), Kassel, 1883, [Accurate; helpful.] 

11. Karl SimroCk. Stuttgart and Augsburg, 18J9. [Faithful.) 

M. Moritz Heyne. Padcrbom, t86}t id ed., 1S9S; )d ed., 191;. 
Ilantbic pentameter; readable.] 

33. Hani von Wolzwen. {Reclam'a Universal-Bibliothek, No. 43a) 
Leipzig, n. d. [1B71I. [Brisk; cursory.) 

34- P. Hoffmann. Ziillichau, [1893]) ad ed., Hannover, 190O. [Nibe* 
lungen strophes; inaccurate.) 

15. Paul Vogt, Haile a. S., igoj. (For the use of high school pupils; 
text partially rearranged and abridged.] R.: Fr. Klaebefj jtftk. civii 
(1906) 408-10; G. Binz, Btibl. xxi (1910), 389-91. 

36. Hugo Cfering. Heidelberg, 19D6, [Admirable in rhythm and 
diction; inth valuable note.,] R.; W. W. Uwrence, JEGPh. vii (1908), 
"9-J3! V, Grienbei^r, ZfoC. lii {lt)o8), 4i}-i8; J, Ries, Jnx. jdA. 
xzxiii (1909/10), 143-47; G. Binz, Lit, hi. iiii {1910), 397 f. — 3d ed., 

in. Danisk. 

37. Nik. F« _ . _ 
id ed., 1865. [BalUd n 

taina critical notes and an extensive introduction.) R.: J. orimm, 
GotHngiscke [rUkru Aningen, Jan. 3, 1813, pp. i-lJ (— }, Grimm'* 
KUinerr Srhriften iv (Berlin, 1860), 178-86J. 

38. Fiederik Schaldcmoae. (Opposite his text, see L a. 3.) Kjabea- 
havn, 1847; id ed., 1851. [Literal, with alliterative decoration.) 

19. Adolf Hansen. Kabenhavn and Kristiania, 191O. (Completed, 
after H.'s death, and edited by Viggo J. von Hdttein Rathlou.) [Imi- 
tative meaaure.] 

IF. Swediik. 

Sa Rudolf Wickberg. Westervik (Progr.), 1889. (Rbythmical with- 
out alliteration.) A new, handy ed., Uppsala, 1914. 

r. Duuk. 

31. L. Simons. Gent, 1S96. (Publ. by the R. Vlaamacbe Academie 
voorTaal'&Letterkunde.) (Iambic pentameter, with alliteration; care- 
ful. CoDtains an introduction.] 



VI. Latin. 

31. Grim. Johnson Thorkelin. {Opposite his tect, see L a. i.) 
Hivobe, 1815. iPractically useless.) 

FII. French. 

n- L. Botkine. Havre, 1877. IProse; free.] R.: K. Korner, ESt. 
ii (1B79), i^Ji, cf. a. i (1877), 495-96. 

34. H. Pierquio. (Opposite his text, see L ». 17.) Paris, 1911. 

[Prose; unsafe.] 

35. W. Thomas, in Rnnu de CEnsiiin 

(1913), SS6 ff., 645 ff.,x;<ii (1914), 14* ff-, ,-„.--.,,,„..,„-., 

446 ff., imv (1917), iiiS., 3499., j04ff., 343 ff., 441 ff. [Literal; line- 

VIIl. Italian. 

j6. C. Giusto Grion, in Alti della Real/ Accadnnut Lucchese, Vol. i^. 
Lucca, 1883. [Loosely imitative measure; faithful; with introduction.) 
R.L Th. Kriiger, ESt. ix (1886), 64-77. 

b. Partial Translations 

37. Sharon Tomer, Hinory of the Angla-Saxtms, Vol. iv, London, 
180;; 6th ed., 1836; 7th ed., i8;2. (Reprinted, Philadelphia, 1841.) 
(Select passages; faulty.] 

38. John Josias Conybeare, lilustrations of Anglo-Saxon Poetry. Lon- 
don, 1S16. (See L 1. 23.) [Paraphrastic extracts in blank verse (in- 
serted in a prose analysis), and literal Latin rendering.l 

39. The Grendel part (11. 1-836) in German by G. Zinsser, Forbach 
Progr. Saarbriicken, 1881, [Iambic pentameter; free, readable.) 

40. Selections from Channcey B. Tinker's translation in Translations 
from Old English Poitry ed. by Albert S. Cook and Chauncey B. Tinker. 
Boston, 1901. 

41. The Dragon part (U. M07-3181) in Swedish by Erik B^orkman In 
Vdriislilttraiuren. i umai ock ofversdttning redigerad af Henrik Schiick. 
Andra Serien: Medeitiden._ Stockholm, 1902. [Rhythmical prose.] 

42. Selections included in anthologies of English literature, i) Kate 
M.Warren, .^ Treasury of English Literaturt. London, 1906. (Contains 
also part of The Figkt at Fiansbarg.) 2) .Walter C. Bronson, English 
Poems; Old English and Middle English Periods. Chicago, 1910. (E. S. 
Bronsan's translation.) 3) A. G. Newcomer and A. E. Andrews, Tmelve 
Centuries of English Poetry and Prose. Chicago, 1910. (An improved 
version of Thorpe's rendering.) 4) Henry S. Pancoast and John Duncan 
Spaeth, Early English Potms. New York, 191I. (Spaeth's translation, 
pji. s-iq; notes, pp. 389-403,) 5) J. W. Cunliffc, J. F. A. Pyre, Karl 
1 oung, CfntHry Headings for a Course in English Literaturt. New York, 
1915. (Contains the greater part of Earle's translation.) ' 



f . Criticism of Tranjlaiianr 

43. A useful review of the translations published up to 1901 i« found 
in Chauacey B. Tinker's Thi Translalions of Beorsulf: a critical Bibluf 
graphy. (Yale Studies in English ivi,) New York, 1903. The eariier 
translations are surveyed by R. P. Wulcker in Jngi. iv, An. (l83i), 69- 
78; more recent ones by James M. Ganiett, PuU. MLAss. iviii (1903), 

44. For a dbcussion of the verse-form most suitable for a translation 
see J. Schipper, Angl. vi, An%. (1883), 110-14; Francis B. Gummere, 
Am. Jour. Phil, vii {1886), 46-78; James M. Garnett, ii. ii (1881), 356 f., 
Piibl. MLAss. vi {1891), 95-105, S>. iviii (1903), 446 f^ 455-58; Prosser 
Hall Frye, MLN. lii (1897), 79-81; Edward Fulton, PabL MLAss. xiii 
(1898), 286-96; M. Trautmaho, Bonn. B. v (tgoo), 189-91; John Ries, 
L 3. »6. Of. also F. B. Gummere, MLN. nv (1910), 61-3 {in a reply to 
C. G. Oiild's criticism trf the use of verae, ib. niv (1909), IJJ f.J, and 
C. G. Chad's rejoinder, ih. siv (1910), 157 f.; further W. J. Sedgefield, 
ESi. ili (1910), 401 f., and M, Trautmann, fiHW. iii (1910), J53-60 (in 
reviews of Gummere's translation); J. D. Spaeth in Early English Pormj 
(L 3. 41. 4), pp. 376-So; A. BIyth Webster, Essays and Studies by Mem- 
bers oj the English Association v (,li)n), 153-71; William EUcry Leonard, 
"Beowulf and the Niebelungen Couplet," Unin. of Wisconsin Studies in 
Language and LiUraturi, No. 2 {1918), pp. 99-151 (a spirited ciposition 
of the merits of the 'Nibelungen couplet' as verse-medium; the added 
(pedmeni convincingly support the arguments]. 

[45. A drama on the subject of Beowulf (written in 1899-1900), en- 
titled Batunilf: An Epical Drama by Percy MacKaye is in preparation 
for the pres«.] 

IV. lit^iaiyCiitidstiL Faboloos and Historical Elmnents 

A. Genekal References 

a. Bondboots of literaiure 

I. Thomas Warton, History of English Poetry. Ed. by W. Careir 
Hallitt. V(J. ii, pp. 3-19: Henry Sweet, Sketch of the History of Anffo- 
SaxoH Poetry. London, 1871. 

a. Heniy Morley, English Writers. Vol. i, ch. vi (ist ed,, 1864), ad 
ed. (completely revised), London, 1887: 3d ed., \9ai. 

3. Bernhard ten Brink, (i) Geschichu der engtischen Litteratur. Vol. i, 
Beriin, 1877; (») ad ed. revised bjr Alois Brandl, 1899. lAdmirable.) 
(3) English translation of the first edition by Horace M. Kennedy- 
London and New York, 1884. 

4. Richard Wijiker, Grundrisi air Gesehichte der angelidchsischen Lit- 
teratur. Leipzig, 1885. [Of great value on account of its bibliographies 
and critical summaries of books and papers.] 

5. Adolf Ebert, AUgemeine Gesehichte der Lileratttr des MiUelalters im 
Ahendlande. Vol. ili, pp. 17 fl. Leipzig, 1887- 

6. Stopford A. Brooke, (i) The History of Early English Literature. 
London and New York, 1891. lloteresting.] (a) English Literature from 
the Beginning to the Norman Conquest. London and New York, 1898. 
[a shorter version.] 

D, ..■■.v^.oo^ic 


7. Bemhard ten BniA.JlUnglijeke Literatur b P. Gfdr.\ !!■. StrM»- 
burg, 1S93. tUoflnished.] Reprinted in L 4. ^. a, pp. 4.31-78. 

8. Rudolf Rom], Getckuktt der deittJtkrn LtOeratuT bii l«at jftugatigf 
iij Mituldteri. Vol. i», pasrim. StrMsburg, 1894. 

9. W. J. Courthope, A Hiitory of Engluh Poetry. Vol. !, ch. iu. 
LondoD and New York, 1895, 

10. Tlu Cambriilgi History of Enrliih Literatim. Ed. bv A, W. Ward 
and A. R. WaUer. Vol. i, ch. i[i: H. Munro Chadwick, Early National 
Poetry. LoDdon and New York, 1907, [Admirable, succinct account.) 

11. Alois Brand!, Engliiche Literatur: A. AngeUachiisclu Piriodc in 
P. Grdr.\ ii", pp. 9S0-1014. Straubuig, igo8, [The most lucceasful 
scholarly treatment.] 

la. lUuitrated works of a Bomewhat popular character; (i) Richard 
Wiilker, Gesckichtt dtr cntliichtn Lituraiar. Leipzig, 1896; ad ed., 1907. 
(a) Richard Gamett and Edmund Gosse, En^uk Litfrature .' An lilus- 
iraied Srcord. Vol. i, by Richard Gamett. London and New York, 190J. 

13. Shorter Handbooks: (l) John Earle, Anglo-Saxon LiteraivTe. 
London, 1884. i6mo, ifia pp. (a) F. J. Snell, Tlu Agt 0} Alfred. 
London, 191a. lamo, as7 pp. 

4. Comprehensive treatises (touching on various lines of inquiry) ' 

14. K. W. Bouterwek, "Das Beowulflied. Eine VoHesung." Gem. 
i (1856), 385-418. [Analysis of the poem, with a general introductioD.l* 

ic, F. Ronning, Bromlfs-Quadet : en litenrr-hijlorisi underiffelie. 
Ksbenhavn Diss. 1883. 175 pp. [Arguments against Mijllenhoff*! 
Liedertkeorie; authorship, date, genesis, literary character of the Beoimlf.] 
R.: R. Heiozel, An^ fdA. x (1884), a33-Jp. 

16. Gregor Sarrazin, (i) Beoaulf-Studten: ein Beilrag sur Getekiehtt 
idlgmnanvtker Sage ynd Dicktung. Berlin, 16S8. aao pp. (A sum* 
maiy io English by Phoebe M. Luehn iu Tke Western Reserve Unttersitf 
Bulletin, Vol. vii, No. 5 {Nov., 1904), pp. 146-65-) [Scandinavian origiD 
of the legends and the poem; Cynewulf's authorship.] R.: R. H«DEel, 
Ant. fdA. XV {1889), i8a-89; E. Koeppel. ESt. liii (1889), 47a-8cn cf. 
Sairaiin, iJ. liv (1890), 43i-a7; Koeppel, ib. liv, 4a7-3a. — Further; 
G. Sarrazin, (a) "Die Abfassungszeit dcs Bcowulfliedcs," Angt, xiv (1893}, 

J99-4IS' (Cf.L4. 14a.) (3) Von Kadman bis Kyneteulf. Eine litterar- 
istoriiche Studie. Berlin, 1913. 17} pp. [Genesis of Beimuif, its rela- 
tion to other OE. poems, date, authonhip (Cynewuif).] R.: L. Dudley. 
yfCPA. XV (1916), 313-17. 

17. Studies preparatory to his Beoamlf-Stndien are found in the fol- 
lowing papere by G, Sarrazin; (i) "Der Schauplatz de« er»ten Beowulf- 
liedes und die Heimat des Dichtera," Beilr. li (1886), 159-83; (a) "Alt- 
nordischca im Beowulf! icdc," ib. i\, sa8-Ai; (3)' "Die Bcowulfsage in 
Danemark," Angl. a (1886), 195-99; (4) Beowa und Bothvar," tt. ix, 
aoo-4; (s) "Beowulf und Kynewulf," ib. ii, 515-50. — Cf. E. Sieveis, 
"Die Heimat de» Beowulf dichten," Beilr. li (1886), 354-6*; "Altnor- 

Cmiamen, EnltsfiEld. 

■ A irery brtcf nnrcr vf Ibe poev Ani iu ulltnt fetfnna U contjilqed in pRdtrico Gat- 
ludl'l B-amlf, (rlfful, UUItrtfi, narlm, c.nliuli.i^fli dt viriltrnt luiirWf, I^a^^ 
lau inrbi, aiii, ixWifiii. Robh, igc^ 'I pp. 



duche« im Beowulf?", ift. li 

bano," ib. lii, 561-63; J. , _ ._ _ . ^._ 

lichaischca Poesie," ^ngl. lii (1S89), 21-40; G. Sarrazin, "Parallelstellen 
in aitenglischer Dichtung," Angi. liv (1892), 186-92, Other papers of 
importBuce by Sarrazin are mentioned under L 4. 32, 144. 

t8. Berahard ten Brink, Beowulf: Unlersuekungm (Quellen und For- 
schungen etc. Iili.). Strassburg. 1888, 24,8 pp. {Component elements 
('variations'); nationality (English) and origin of the BeotmUf; laoguaee, 
MS.] R.rR.Heinzei, ^M./J^.iv (1889), IS3-81; H. Moller, £Si. liii 
(1889), 247-315. 

19. Karl MilllenhofF, Beomiif: Untersnc kungeit nber dm antiliachsische 
Epos und die ditisit Gesckicklr' drr germaniicken Sifrolkrr. Berlin, 1889. 
165 pp. {a. Myths; historical elements (most valuable); b. "The ioaer 
tmtory o! Browidf." SeeL4. 130.] R.:R, Heinzel, /Yni,/rf^. ivi (1890), 
364-75; G. Sarrazin, ESi. ivi (1891), 71-85. — Cf. K. MSlicnhoff in 
NordMingisckr Sludien i (Kiel, 1B44), 1615-73, [A first, brief study of 
tome of the histarkil elementE.] 

20. Thomas Arnold, ^oUi on Beoaulf. London and New York, 1898. 
izmo, 140 pp. [Helpful as an introducdon.] R.: G. Sarrazin, ESu 
ixviii (1900), 410-ig. 

II. Henrv Bradley, "Beowulf." Encychpadia Brilannica, nth ed.. 
Vol. iii (igto), 758-61. IBrief. conservative Burvey.] 

21. H. Munro Chadwick, rAf /T/rnif ^;/, Cambridge, 1911. 474 pp. 
[An important work of wide scope. It includes an illuminating com* 
pariton of the Germanic with the Gieek heroic poetry.] R.: A. Mawer 
MLA.viii(i9i3), 207-9; R. W. Chambers, £S(. ilviii (1914/15), i6j-66. 

B. Tbe Lecbiiiis. (Component EUmetUs of the Story) 
a. Fabuloui (or superTiatural) and kiitorictd elements * 

aj. Franz Joseph Mooe, Uniersuckungen lur Gtsckicltte der tnuichen 
HehUnsage. Quedlinburg and Leipzig, 1S36. 292 pp. 

34. H. Leo, Ueber Beotculf: Beoanaf, das dlteslt devtsche, in angehack- 
liscker Mundart rrhallene Heldengidicht nack seinem Inhjilte, vnd nach 
jeinert kiiloriscken und mythalogischen Beiiehungen belriKktet, Halle, 
18391 lao pp. 

a;. Kari Multenhoff, (i) "Die austrasische Dietrichssage," ZfdA. vi 
(1848), 43S ff. [Hygelac's eipedition against the Franks, etc.]; (2) "Sceaf 
und seine Nachkommen," i*. vii (1849), 410-19; (3) "Der Mythui voa 
Beowulf," a. vii, 419-41; (4) "Zur Kritik dea angelsiichsischen Volkse- 

Bi»," ib. zi (1859), i7i-94; (s) "Zeuenisse und Eicurse zur deutschea 
eldcnsage," ib- lii (1865, paper dated: i860), 253 ff, [Important tes(i- 

Sigefcrd." Germ. 11 (1857), 3+4-63- (- L. Uh! 

Gesckichte der Dichtung ami Sage viii (Stuttgart, l8;_. . , . . 

27. Daaie! H. Haigh, The Anglo-Saxon Sagas. London, 1S61. 178 
pp. [English history discovered in the poem; fanciful, superficial.] 

iS. SophusBu^e, "StudicnilberdaBBcowuifcpos." Beitr.iu{lSSj), 
1-79; 360-65. [Sterling contribution.] 

sruUrplnl ii Id fut uuunlditilc li [hit Bltili>snpbr. 

D, ..■■.V^.OQi^lC 


19. B. Symoni, Heldeniagt in P. Crdr., ii" (1S93), Jj 17-18; 3d ed. 

(igoo), iii, J§ 23-35: "Beowulftage." [Careful, conservative summary.) 

30. Otto Haack, Ztvgnim sur altenglbclun Hitdiniage. Kiel Diss^ 

1892. s^PP- 
31. (0 d 

J.. J., , "ZeugniBBe zur germanischen Sage in Endand." 

Beiir. n C'89S), I4i--aa3. [Valuable collection of miterial based on an 
examination of proper names recorded in England.] <i) A few supple- 
mentary references by F. Kluge, ESt. iii (1895), +46-48. — (3) Further: 
F. Kluge, "Der Beowulf und die Hrolfs Saga Krlta.'* £Si. nii (1896). 
144 f. — (4) Erik Bjorkman, Nordiiche Pnjoiunitatmn in England in alt- 
und frUkmilulniglischeT Zeil. (St.EPh. ixivii.) Halle a. S., 1910. 
Passim, (s) F. W. Moorman, "English Place-Names and Teutonic 
Sagas." Essays and Studies by Members of the Etiglisk Association v 
(Oxford, 1914), 75-103. (6) A. Brand!, "Siegmund, Siegfried und Briin- 
hilde in Ortsnamen des nordwestlichen Englandg." Arch, ciiiiii (1915), 
408 f. 

31. Gregor Sarraiin, (l) "Neue Beowulf-Studien. I. Kooig Hrodh- 

Girr und seine Familie. II. Das Skjolduogen-Epos. III. Das Dracben- 
d. IV. Das BeowuISied und Kynewuifs Andreas." ESt. ixiii (1897), 
Mi-67; (2) "Hrolf Krake und aein Vetter im Beowulfliede." ""■ "" '" 

s Kampfi 

lie"- VI. „ , - - . . - 

see. IX. Personennamen; Herkunft der Sage. X. Beowulfs Ende und 
Bodhvar Bjarkis Fall." ESt. alii (1910), 1-37. (A series of highly 
ingenious but somewhat inconclusive studies.] See also L 4. 10. 

33. E. Sievers, "Beowulf und Saio." Bericitu der Konigl. Sack- 
siscken Geiellsckajl der WissinschajUn, July 6, 1895, pp. 175-93. |r. 
Heremod. 2. Beowulf 's Dragon Fight. 3. Scyld.]^ 

34. Max Forster, Btotoidf-Materimien mm Gebraitck bet rorlettmgtn. 
Braunschweig, 1900, 1908, 1912. 28 pp. IConvenient collection of 
illustrarive parallels.] 

35. Aie! Olrik, Danmarh Heludigtniitg. Part i. Rolf Krake og den 
aldre Skioldunirakke. Kabenhavn, 1903. 352 pp. R.: A. Heusler, 
Anz. JdA. ixx (1906), 16-36. Part li, Starkad dm gamle og den Jnj« 
SkjoldnngTatke. igio. 322 pp. R.; A. Heusler, Anx.fdA. luv (1912), 
169-83. [A brilliant scholarly work.] 

36. Mai Deutschbein, "Die tagenhistorischen und literarischen 
Grundlagen des Beowulfepos." GJiM. i (1909), 103-19. [Notices Celtic 

37. Andreas Heusler, (i) "Geschichtliches und Mythisches in der ger- 
maniachen Heldensage." Silaingjbirichle der Konigl. Prtujsiscken Aka- 
dunie der Wissenschafun, 1909, No. iiivii, pp. 910-45. [Of fundamental 
Imporwnce.] (1) "Beowulf," R.-L. \, 245-48. (1912.) 

38. H. Munro Chadwick, Tki Origin of the English Nation. Cam- 
bridge, 1907. 351 pp. Passim. [Distinguished by learning «nd acu- 

, 39- Henrik Schiick, Studier i Beoaulfsagan. (Upaala Univenitett 
Arssbritt. 19O9. Program i.) Upsala, 19C9. ;o pp. [Analyze* the 
component saga elements; presents a clear-cut theory of the genetii of 
Beoteulf.] R.: V. O. Freeburg, JEGPh. li (191a), 488-97. 


Cf. Berandaohn, "Altgein 
jne." fleai lahrbiUht 

vfigis). 633-4 

b. Studies devoted mainly to the lupernatural {a/id mythical) tUmenti 
41. Wiihelni Grimm in Itische FAjenmdrchen. Ubtrscta von den 
BruJern Grimm, pp. ciis fF. Leipzig, i8»6. {— W. Grimm's KUiiure 
Schrifteit i {Berlin, 1881), 467 ff.)- [Refere to folk-talE mctives.J 

4a. Jacob Grimm, Deutsche Mylkotogie. 1B3S; 4th ed., Berlin, 1875- 
rt. 3 vol>. Vol. lilt PP- 377 ff- (Aaglo-SaiDD genealogies); and fajjim.' 
English translation; TeulonK Mythology, by J. S. StaUybrasi. London, 
1S80-88. 4. vols. 

43, John M. Kemble, Uber die Stammtafel der ffeitsachsen. MGnchen, 
~" "' *" " " " " rt of hie 'Postscript to the Preface' in his edi- 

, , , R.; J. Grimm, Gottingiielu geUhtie AiuAgen, 

36, pp. 649-57 (= J- Grimm's Kleintre Schriften v (Berlin, 
187O, a40-^4-S)- 

44. John M. Kemble, The Saxons in England. London, 1849; id ed. 
by Walter de Gray Birch, 1876. Vol. i, pp. 413 ff. 

4j. K. W. Bouterwek, Cadmon't des Angelsachsen biblische Diehtvngen 
hng. GiJterBbh, 1854. Vol. i, pp. c-ciiv. 

46. Nathanae) Miiller, Die Mythen im Beoaulf in ihrcm Ferhaltnis tur 
termanisclun Myihoiogie bitrachul. Heidelberg Diss. Leipzig, 1878. 
[Unprofitable compilation.] 

47. Ludwig Laiatner, Nibelsagin, pp. 88 ff., 36i ff. Stuttgart, 1879. 

48. (1) Hugo Gering, "Der Beowulf und die islandische Grettisaaga." 
Angl. iii (1880), 74-87. [Translation and discussion of chs. 64-67 of the 
Gtettissaga^ (2) This parallel was imt pointed out by Gudbrand 
VigfusGOn in his edition of the Sfurlunga Saga, Vol. i, p. zlii. Oxford, 

49. WaltcrW.Slteat,(i)"Onthesi5nificationofthemonBterGrende) 
in the poem of Beowulf; with a discussion of lines 1076-2100," Journal 
if PhUology IV (1886), iao-31, (j) Cf. id., "The name 'Beowulf,'" 
Academy xi (Febt. 14, 1877), 163c. 

50. Ludw^ Laistner, Do^ /iit/c^i^n' SpAifur. Grundaige titter Myihfn- 
pschichu. Beriin, 1889. Vol. ii, pp. 15-34- [Traces folk-ule motives 
m the Giendel story.) 

5t. Sophus Buggeand AxelOlrik,"R0verciivedGrSistenog Beowulf." 
Dania (Tidsskrifl for Filkemii 01 Folkeminder) i (1891), 233-45. (On IL 
M3I-7I.1 — Cf. Knut Stjema (L 9. 39), pp. 37 ff., 136 ff. 

i HftDdlHHiu «f aiylboloiri bcddct J. Crlmm^t nonnincoui ba connltf 4 wltli 
•dnilUie mrc i (I) Elird Hupi Meyer, (m) Gir-miHlick. AfrlAiWIi, Btrlla, 1891 ; (ti) Mr- 
Ihbf I. d,r G.rmA.,n, SlnHbnrt, 190] ) cK (c) M^^m,nli,l„Tlt,ll,.» Ii, 6)4 f. (on Bra. 
wmrf, Beilin, 1B87. jl) e, M<..fc,(.)»<,,*./.,J. i. F. G'dr., (1S9.), i. PF' **->'t*< 
U ti. <iqii>),Jli,|ip. l)o-4ii&; (b) Gt-mtilstli' Milh.l^l, (Stmmliuii C6kIi<i>. No. 1;), 
..,__,_ ._J ■>=.,_... , _„____ ^_...._ ,. w„^,™,„^„,„^„^, 

•We.] (j) Ftiedrieh ion del Ley.n; Dl- Ciri-r.nJ a,i,r,af,^i^ C,'rm.™.». (P,n lof 
J>..I.<».. «ar»l*cJk,>HL4. 67. >.) MBDcllu.lfoq. [Senii.popilal.l (6) Rlihird M. 
■ Utia,'ltlfrmt<iUc1uli'lltl"'f"''l'''". LelpilE.iglQ. R.i W. Gnfther, £I|.1J. 11(11 

'j> KlltirmtNlulu Hillfin. Lolp*l|, ]< 

DuJttlsg ueu 


ivi! {1B93), 368-76. 
.«.,^....j«-.. *viii (1891), s6; (j) E. 
, .,.., . .J R. Ferguaon, "The Anglo-Saioa 

: Beowulf." Atktnavm, No. j}7l 0une II, 1S91), p. 76] a-b. 
[= Beadowuif.l 

S3. Felii Niedner, "Die Dioskurcn im Beowulf." 2fdA. ilii (1898), 
319-58. (Mythological speculations.] 

54- R. C. Boer, "Zur Grettissaga." 2fdPk. xxx {1898), SJ-7t. 

55. Albert S. Coofc, "An InBh Parallel to the Beowulf Story." Arch. 

ciii {1899), 154-56. 

56. F. York Powell, "Bedwulf and Waunabe-No-Tauna" in An Eng- 
lish Miscellany preietUed to Dr. Fuming, pp. 395 f. Oxford, 1901. 

57. Edv. Lehmann, "Fandens Oldemor," Dania viii {1901), 179-94; 
in a German version: "Teufels Groism utter." Archivfiir Rtlitiotuteis- 
sifischaft viii (1905)1 4ii~30> [On folk-brc affinities of Grendel «nd hit 

58. R. C, Boer, "Die Beowulfsage." A/NF. lii (1901), 19-88. 
[Highly interesting.) Cf. L 4. 140. 

(9. Sivert N. Hagen, "Qassical Names and Stories in the Beowulf." 
MLN. xix (1904)1 65-74! 156-65. IProblematic suggestions.] 

60. William W. Lawrence, "Some Disputed Questions in Beowulf- 
Criticiim." Pitbl. MLAss. uiv (1905), 110-73. IOn the HrUfssaga 
•natoguej Beowa and Beowulf; criticism of mythological interpretation,! 
Cf. A. Brandl, Ank. cxiiii (1910), 473. 

61. Friedrich Panzer, Sivdien lur rrrmanijclun S/igengeschichU. I. 
Beoandj. Munchen, 1910. 409 pp. (Noteworthy investigation of the 
original folk-tale elements of the Grendel and Dragon stories, together 
with a study of the relations between the Bioievlf vmioo and theNorae 
parallels.] R.: A. Heusler, ESl. ilii (1910), 189-98; B. Kahle ZfdPh. 
liiii (1911), 383-94; A. Brandl, Arck. cxivi (19M), 131-35; C. W. v. 
SydoWjAnz.fdA.xmv (igii), 113-31 loppoaes Panzer]; W.W. Lawrence, 
MLN. iivii (iQii), S7-6o; 0. Bmz, BtibC. ixiv (19.3), 3i"-37- 

61. William W. Lawrence, "The Haunted Mere in Beoandf." Puhl. 
MLAsi. ilvii (1911), 108-45. (Includes a comparison with the Greltii' 
toga parallel.) — 61a. sd,, "The Dragon and his Lair in Beowulf, " ii, 
zziiii (1918), 547-83.' [Interpretation of the story.] 

63. Oscar L. Olson, "'Beowulf and 'The Feast of Bricriu.'" MPh. 
xi (1914), 407-17. [Opposes Deutschbein (L 4. 36).] 

64. Friti Hicketier, Crendel. Berlin, 1914. 39 pp. (Far-fetched 
Iranian (mythological) parallel.] 

65. Oscar L. Olson, Tke Relation of the Hrolfi Saga Kraka and the 
Bjfrkarimur to Biotnalf. (Publ. of the Society for the Advancement of 
Scandinavian Study, Vol, iii,No. i; also Univ. of Chicago Diss.) Urbana, 
III., 1916. 104 pp. R.: L. M. Hollander, JEGPh. ivi (1917), 147-49. 

66. Cf. A. Heusler, "Beowulf" (L. 4.37.1); R. C, ^<XT,Beoaulf 
{L 4, 140). 

c. Studies devoted mainly to the historical legends 

67. Wilhelm Grimm Die deutsche Heldensage (No. 6, and passim)- 
Gottingen, 1819; 3d ed., Giitersloh, i88g. 536 pp.' 

1 Thll paper mrrlvcd during the period of prDot-millag. 

• Da GEfBule kcTok Jtieidi In (vnenl, icc fnnket (l) L. Ublud, Sriirlftiii w 


68. M. Rieger, "Ingavonen, lativoaen, Hermiiionen." TfiA. id. 
(1859). I77-W5- 

6g. C. W. yl. Grein, "Die histoiuchen Verhaltniue des Beowulfiiedcs" 
(Habilitatioosvoriesung). Eherts Jakrlnuh /iZr romanischt und e«glijcht 
LiuratuT iv (1863), 360-85. [Helpful, clear survey.] 

70. Hermsna E>cderich, HiiP^rischf Mtid iiograpkisckt Studien um 
angelsdchjischen Beoaulfiiede. Koln, 1877. 333_pp- See reviews bf 
K. MuUeuhoff, Ata.fdA. iii {1877), 171-81; K. IBmer, ESt. i <i877), 

71. Pontus Fahlbeck, (i) " Beovulfskvidet sasom kills {5r nordisk 
fornhistoria." AiiHkvoTiik Tidskrijt Jar Svirige viii. No. 1 (1884), 1-88; 
(3) "BeowulfEkvadet som kalla far nordisk forahlstoHa." N.F.K. 
Fitlrrheii Hiitoru och Antikeiuts Akadrmiens Handlinrariui, No. 3 (1913). 
17pp. [Identification of Geaiai and 'Jutes,' etc.] (3) Gudmuud Schutte, 
"TIk Geats of Beowulf." JEGPk. li (1911), 574-603. [Supports the 
Jutland theory.] 

7». C. C. Uhlenbeck, "Hel Beowulf-«poa als geichiedbron." Tijd- 
ichrifl vooT NedtrlanAscke Tool- tn LetUrkunde ix (1901), 169-96. [Use- 
ful survey.] 

73. Andreas Heuiler, "Zur Skiotdungendichtung." ZJdA. ilvUi 
(1906), 57-87. 

74. (0 Hennk Schuck, Folinamnrt Gtatat i den fomengelsia diilm 
Seomilf (Upiala Universitets Arsskrift 1907, Program 3]. Upsala, 1907. 
[Identification of ffiotoj and ON. Caiiiar] R.: V. O. Freeburg, JEGPk. 
li (19 1 3), 379-83. (3)Cf. ErikBjorkman, "UbcrdenNamenderJuten." 
ESt. rail C1908), 356-61. (3) Cf. Knut Stiema, L 9. 39. 4. 

75. Andrea* Heusler, " Zeitrechnung im Beowulfepat." Arch, czxiv 
(1910), 9-14. 

76. M. G. Clarke, Sideligkts on Teulonk History during iki Migralton 
Period. Cambridge^ 191 1. 383 pp. [A bandy survey; not tuSciently 
critical. Supports Chadwick'a views.] 

77. R. W. Chambera, ffidsith. A Siudy in Old Englisk Hcnk Legend. 
Cambridge, 1911. l&i pp. [Elitremely valuable discutsions, text of 
Widsitk, and notes.] R.: W. W. Uwrenee, MLN. Dviii (igij), 53-5. 

78. Chr. Kier, BeonndJ: el Btdrag til Nordens Oldhistorie. Kflbeniiavn, 
1915. 195 pp. [Argues strongly for identity of 'lutes' and Ciatai\ 

79. For the study of Germanic tribes see (i) Kaspar Zeuss. Die 
Detttscken MTid die Natkimstimme. Munchen, 18^7. 7B0 pp. (i) Otto 
Bremer, Etknograpkie der germaniseken Stamme \a P. Crdr.' iii (1900), 

{]5~9SO- (3) Rudolf Much, Deulicke Stammetkunde (SammlungGoachcn, 
lo. i»6). Leipzig, 1900; ad ed., 1905. (4) M. Schonfeld, Worterbuck 
der altgemumiscken Personen- und yolkenitmen etc. Heidelberg, 1911. 
309 PP- (5) Also R. W. Chamber! (L 4. 77). 

C«<«J(»i' iir BiihHut iiiirf tAf, Vsli. L III. traitnn. i)6;i rM*. [silmlstlB* ] 
(I) B. iymoim, HM^it,. <L 4. »9>. (() An eicriliEi prlinet, OiIo L. 7lrlc«k, Dl. 

•^k^U J)"«.UMi^iiillii-G.n«.n. Berlin. D.d.J'lV4t- Pol..™)'?- I p'di (»)>-' 
B'li^^M'^ |pin ilsr I>>>iK»» $>(H^c».«c I. 4. 41. >.) MUn'ben. I9»."isl 
in. (ScnUopulv.1 (6) Cf. K. KU|cl (U 4-S)( t~ f- ADtenoi (L. 9. lt\ M. U. 

D, ..■■.v^.oo^ic 


d. Indwidual Ugendt. 

{Addkional refcrttices.) 
M. Scea},Scyld,{Btow): 

So. E. Sievers, "Sceaf ia den nordischeD Genealogien." Beilr. xvi 
(1893), 36i-63._ 

8i. R. Helming, "Sceaf ucd die westsachsisclie Summtafel." XfdA. 
Xli (1897), 156-69. 

81. Kaut Stjenu, "Skolda hadanfard" in Studirr liUagnade Hmrik 
Sehikk,pp_. 110-3+. Stockholm, 1905. {See L 9. 39. sO 

82a. Erik Biorkinan, "Skoldungaitteos mjrtiska itamfader." Notditk 
Tidskriflfor Peutiskap, Konit ock Indusiri, 191B, 163-81.^ 
U. Tit Heasa-Bard Fnid : 

83. Ferd, Delter, {1) "Uber die Hea«obarden im Beowulf." Fer- 
kattdlungen der Wielur PhUohgenveriammlung (.Jay, 1893), pp. 404 ff. 
Leipzig, 1894. (Cf. the brief summaiy, ESt. lix (1894), 167 f.) (z) "Zur 
Ynglingaaaga. 4. Ingeld und die Svertinge." Biitr. iviii {1894}, 90-6. 

^. Sophui Bngge, The Home of the Eddie Poims milk isptcialrfftmce .' 
U the Reigi-Layt translated from the Norwegian by W. H. Schofield. 
London, 1B99. (TTie original was published in Copeobagen, 1896.) 
Chap, xiii; "The account of Helgi Hundingsbani in ita relation to Anglo- 
Saxon Epics." 

8«. Giutav NeckeL ia "Studien ubcr FroSi," ZfdA. zlviti (1906), tSi- 
«. Hfoeulf: 

86. Wilbur C. Abbott, "Hrothulf." MLN. lis (1904,), isa-aj. 

87. Fr. KUeber, "Hrothulf." MLN. 11 (1905), 9-11. 
id. HeribeaU, Haacyn; Hygelae; {Beoteulf;) Breca :. 

88. Ferd. Detter, (l) "Zur Vnglingasaga. a. Der BaldrmTthusj 
Konig Hygelae." Seiu. iviii (1S94), 8i-8. (i) "Der Baldraiythua." 
BeilT.xa (1894), 49!-"Si6. 

89. M. Haupl, "Zum Beowulf." ZfdA. v (1845), 10. (See Par. 
{ II. 1-) 

90. Kari Miill^nhofF, ZfdA. vi (1848), 417 f. (See L 4. K- I-) 

91. William W. Lawrence, "The Breca Episode in 'Beowulf.'" An-ni' 
virsary Paptri by Cotieaguei and Pupils of George L. Kittredge, pp. 359-66- 
Boston, 1913 ■ 

91. See abo M. Deutschbcin, L 4. 97. 
te. The Sacdish Kings: 

93. Knut Stjeraa, " Veodel och Vendelfcraka." AfNF. iii (1904), 71- 
Bo. (See L 9. 3j). 3.) IVendel in Uppland, Sweden is shown to be the 
place of Ongenpeow's last battle.) 

94, Hans Weyhe, "Konig Ongentheows Fall." ESt. mix (1908), 
I4-39. (Study a! a parallel Danish version.) 

9;. Lars Levander, "Sagotraditioner om Sveakonungen Adils." 

Antiktarisk Tidsirift for Sn-ri^t iviii, No. 3. (1908.) 55 pp. [Traces 

the tradition about ASlIs (£adgili) as found in the Bioaiilf, and it* 

development In Denmark, Sweden, and Norway.) 

> Tliii iBpoRmiii pipct nac m biuil wbili iLt picKifaf ibc prcicnt edition wu btlot md. 


96. H. M. Belden, "Onela the Scylfing and Ali the Bold." MLN, 
nviii (191J). 149-53. 

97. Mai DeulBchbein, "Beowulf der Gautenkonig. FesUchrijt Jiir 
i. Monbaeh {" Si.EPh. l), pp. 191-97. Halle a. S., igij' 

0. 00a (Eomar, Himming); PryS-' 

98. Joseph Bachlechner, "Eomxr und Hcming (Hamlac)." Girm. i 
(1856), 397-303 (I. Eonuer); 455^1 (II. HeminR). 

99. Hermana Suchier, "Uebcr die Sage von 0£fa und fiylSo." Biitr. 
iv (1877). 500-21- 

100. Aiel Olrik, (l) " Er Uffeaagnet indvacdret fra England ?" A/NF. 
viii (lSg»), 368-75. (a) KUderne lU Saksrs Oldhislorit. II. Norrone 
sagaer og danike lagn, pp. 177 f., l32 ff. Kebenhavn, 1S94. 

loi. A. B. Gough, Tht Cojuiaiut Saga. (Palaestra xxiii.)' Berlin, 
190*. 84 pp. 

loa. Gordon H. Gerould, "Offa and Labhraidh Macn." MLN. ivii 
{190s), iOi-3. _ _ , 

lOt. R. C. Boer, "Eene episode ujt den Beowulf." Handeiingen tan 
hel i* Nidnlandscki Pkilalagin-Congr'! (1503), pp. 84-94. 

104. Edith Rickert, "The Old English Offa Saga." MPL ii (1904/5), 
39-76; 3*1-76- 

los- Fr. Klaeber, "Zur Cry*o-Episode." Angl. uyiii (1905), 44S-53. 

106. Svet. Stefanovic, "Ein Beitrag zur angelsachaischen Offa-Sage." 
Angl. inv (1911), 483-SaS- 

gg. Sigtmund, Filela : 

107. Jacob Grimm, " Sintarfizilo." ZfdA. i (1841), a-6. 

108- karl Miillenhoff, "Die alte DIchtung von den NIbelungen. I. 
Von Sigfrida Ahnen." Z^rf^. niii (1879), 131 f., 147 f., 161-63. — Of. 
alao L 4. 36 (Uhiand). 

109. Juliu) Goetiel, (i) "On the Original Form of the legend of Sig- 
frid." Pail. MLAss. lii (1897), 461-74. (j) "The Evolution of the 
Nibelungenaaga," JEGPk. rvii (1918), I-io. 

tio. Eugen Mogk, "Die germanische Heldendichtung mit besonderer 
Rucksicht auf die Sag; von Siegfried und Brunhild." Niue Jakrbucker 
fur das klasnsch Allirivm ru. i (1898), 68-80. 

m. William Henry Schofield, "Signy's Lament." Puhl. MLAss. 
ivii (1902), 262-95. 

112. Sophui Bugge, "Mundo und Sigmund." BnlT. mv {1909), 
361-67. [SugRests a possible historical basis.] lb., 490-93. 

113. R. C. Boer, Unterruch'un^en uber dett Uriprung und du Entaick- 
lung der Nibelungsmage. Vol. iii, ch. jv. Halle a. S., 1909. 

114. Hermann Schneider, "Zur Sigmundsage." ZfdA. liv (1913), 

115. See F. W.Moorman (L 4. 31.5), pp. 89-103. 
kk. EonBcnric (llama; Brisinga nune): 

116. Otto L. JiricieL, Druliclu Heldensagen. I. Strassbu^g, 1898. 
331 pp. [Weland; Ermanaric; ThcodoricJ 

117. Friedrich Panzer, DiuUcke Heldtnsagt im Breiigaa, Heidelberg, 
1904. 90 pp. 

iiB. A, Brandl, "Zur Gotensage bei den Angelsachsen." Arck. cm 
(1908), 1-8. 


C. LiTERAKT Curricisu 
a. Gintral and hiiloricai ' 
I iio. W. P. Ker, (i) £pk ami Romance. Ejsays on Medieval Lilrra- 
■ tun. London and New York, 1897, 451 pp.; id ed. ('Evereley Series,' 
cheaper), 1908. [A most stimulating study throwine into relief the 
.. "nature of the narrative art of Beoandf.] R.: A. Brand!, Arck. c (1898), 
198-100; (1) TJu Dark Agis, eapec. pp. 149-54. 'Edinburgh and Lon- 
don, 1904. 

lit. Francis B. Gummere, (i) Tht Btginnings of Poetry, espec. pp. 
101 f., Ill ff., 331, 434 ff. New York and London, 1901; (2) lA/ 
Papular Ballad, espec. ch. i, { 3, Boston and New York, 1907. 

111. Irene T. Myers, A Study in Epic Dnelopmeta (Yale Studies in 
English xi). New York, 1901. 159 pp. 

113. TTitd,t.7).taer,Das dtdiiUtcke Volksepoi. Halle a. S., 1903. 34 pp. 

114. Andreas Heusler, (1) Lied and Epos in germanischrr Sogeiutichiung. 
Dortmund, 190;. 51 pp. [Supplements Ker's study (L 4. Iia l)-] 
(1) "Dichtung," R.-L. i, 439 ff. (1912/13.) 

115. Walter Morris Hart, Ballad and Epit. A Study in the Develop- 
ment of ike Narrative Art. (Harvard Studies and Notes in Philology and 
Literature li.) Boston, 190?. 315, pp. fTfces the development of 
narrative method, through the different classes of the Ballad (simiJc 
ballads, border and outlaw ballads, Gest of Robin Hood, heroic bal- 
lads), to the Epic (Beowulf, Roland).] 

126. (i) Levin Ludwig Sehiicking, "Das angel sachsische Totenktage- 
lied." £S(.mii(i9o8), 1-13.— {2) Y.m%t?;-^-per, Die edtenglisehe EU^. 
Strassburg, 191;. 194 pp. Introduction, paiiim. 

117. Aiel Olrik, "Epische Gesetze dcr Volksdichtung." ZfdA. U 
(1909/10), i-u. A (somewhat different) Danish version: "EpisLe love 
i folkedigtningen." Danske Studier, 1908, 69-89. 

138. George Arnold Smithson, The Old English Cirijriun Epie. A 
Study in ihe Plot Techniijtte of the Juliana, the Elene, the Andreas, and the 
Christ, in comparison ailh the Biowulf and ruilh the Latin Literature of the 
Middle Ages. (Univeraity of California Publications in Modem Phi- 
lology, Vol. i. No. 4.) Berkeley, 1910. [A useful study; the Latin sources 
are not comidered.j 

119. Ft. Klaeber, "Aeneis und Beowulf." Arch, cuv! (1911), 40-S, 
339-59. [On the possible influence of the Mneid^ 

b. Composition; Dale 
130. K. Miillenhoff, "Die innere Gcschichte des Beovulfs." ZfdA. 
xiv (1869), 193-144. (Reprinted in Miillenhoff's Beoculf (L 4. 19), pp, 
110-60.) IFamouB application of the Liedertheorie.] 

I EDIirtlr populir irc (1) J. Wl(ht DniTi »•••«■ •><' B-v^-lf, ■ Llur^r, P.rilM. 
(SHEft-BtwkffTllie Viking CLub, Vol. Iv^ Pan ]], pp. )8t-406.> London, 1906 j (1) Sanb J. 

■7 (Tlic CbMocli of EngUib Uurunn SuU 


131. Artur Kohler, (i) "Die Einleitiin; dea BeavnlflieiJet. Ein 
Beitrag_ sur Ff«ge uber die Liedertheorie." ZfdPk. ii (1870), 3OS-J4; 
(2) "Die beiden Episode n von Heremod im Beovulfliede," ib. ii, 314-10. 
[Fivon multiple authorahip.] 

IJ3. Anton Schonbach, in a review of Ettmiiller'* edition (L 3. t8), 
Aia~}dA. iii (1877), 36-46. [Endocscs Mullenhoff.] 

I3J. Dr. Hornburg, Die Composition des Bcoaulf. Metz Progr,, 1877 

{= Jrch. Ixxii (iSSjJ, J33-404). {Opposes MuUeniiofF.J 

IJ4. Hermann Moller, Dai alunglischr Foihepos in der uripnni 
ttrcpkiiclun Form. l.Teil: Abhandlu-ngea. Kiel, 1883. (Cf, L i 

Multiple authorship; the oiigioal parts composed in four-line 
R.: R. Heinzel, Ani.fdA. i (18B4), 115-33. 

135. Fricdrich Schneider, Der Kampf mil Grmdels Afuotr. Eitt Beitrag 
Mr Kfiintnis der, Komposition del Beoimdj. Berlin Progr., 1887. [Sup- 
ports without much skill the patch-work theory.] 

]3£, Mai Hermann Jellinek & Carl Kraui, "Die Widerspriiche im 
Beowulf." ^dA.ixa\i^i\3&i~%\, [Apparent contradiction* cleared 
up by proper interpretation.] 

137. Henrik Schuck in the Introduction to E. Bjorlcman'e trantlatioa 
(L J. 41), Fdridsliaeratitren ii, 463-74. Stockholm, 1901. [The poem 
based on Geatith and Danish on^nals.] 

138. lames Edward Routh, Jr., Two Studies an the Ballad Theory of the 
Bewmlf. Johns Hopkins Diss, Battimore, igo;. [i- The lef^end of 
Grendel. 3. Irrelevant episodes and parentheses.] R.: L. L. Schucking, 
D.Lil.1. uvi (190s), 1908-10; A. Heualer, Am.fdA. mi (1908), 115 f. 

139. Lcw.n Ludwlg Schuckine, Beoteidp RiUkkekt. (St.EPK. ix\.) 
Halle a. S., 1905. 74 pp- R.: A. Brand!, Arch, cxv (1905), 421-13, 

140. R. C. Boer, Die altenglische Htldendiektung. 1. Beowulf. Haile 
a. S., 1911. 300 pp. [Composite formation r^ the poem (cf. L 4. 130, 
18); comparison with Scandinavian analogues, cf. L 4. 58.] R. ; R. Imel- 
mann, D. Lit. i. raiv (1913), 1064-66; W. E. Berendsohn, Lit. hi. xiiv 
(1914). I5»-S4- 

141. Walter A. Berendsohn, (i) "Drei SchichtendichterischerGeatal- 
tung im Beowulf-Epos." MUnekener Museum fur Pkilologle des Milttt- 
aluri laid der Renaissance ii (1913), 1-31. [Definitely marked strata of 
tradition and formation confidently distinguished.] — (l) "Die Gelage 
im Dancnhof zu Ehren Beowulfs," ib. iii, 31-55. [Similar analysis.] 
On dating: 

141. G. Sarraan, "Die Abfassungszeit des Beowulflledes." Angl. xiv 
'"")a)j^399-4l5. (L 4. 16. a.) (Cynewulf 's redaction dated after Ckriii 
"), and before Etene and Andreas.] 
,, Uoreni Morsbach, "Zur Datierung des Bcowulfepos." Naeh- 
richUn der K. GeseUschafi der Ifisstnschaflen lu Gollinprt, Pkilplopsch- 
hijtorische Klasse, 1906, pp. 151-77. [Linguistic criteria.] Cf. F. Holt- 
hausen, Beibl. rviii (1907), 77; H. M. Chadwick, L 4. la. 66-71; C. 
Richter, L 6. 6. i. 

144. G. Sarraan, "Zur Chronologic und Verfasserfrage angelsach- 
siicher Dichtungen." ESt. xiiviii (1907), 145-95 (e>P«c- 170 ff-)- 

14s. Fr. Klaeber, (l) "Die Altere Genesis und der Beowulf." ESl. 
llii (1910), Jll-38. [On the influence of Genesis on Beowulf] (l) id., 
"Concerning the Relation between 'Exodus' and 'Beowulf. MLN. 
isriii (191B), 318-14. 

D, ..■■.V^.OQi^lC 

(1891), 399-^ 
(A + Bj. an 
_ 14J. torei 


c. Christian coloring 

147. George Lyman Klitredge, "Zu Beowulf 107 ff." Bfilr. xi'il (1888), 

148. F. A. Blackburn, "The Christisn Coloring in the Beowulf." 
Fubl. MLAss. lii (1897), aos-ij, [The varioui Christian pasiagei 

140. Oliver F. Emeison, "Legends of Cain, especially in Old and 
Middle Engli>h."_ PjM. MLAss. xii (1906), Sji-gag {passim), [im- 
portant investigation.] 

150. Gustav Grau, QiulUn und Vencandlsckafun dtr Ulerm ger- 

*p. 145-56. [Concludes that Cynewulf is the autlior oi 
H. Hecht, Arck. ciix (1913), 414-3''- 
:. G. Ehrismann, "Rellgionsgeschicntlichc Beitrage zum geima- 

manischen DarsuUungen dcs Jiingsleti GcrichUs. (St.EPh. mi.) Halle 

f.\ R.;H. Hecht, / 

151. G. Ehrismann, "E .„. „ 

iichen Fruhchristentum." Briir. ixxv {19O9), 1O9-39. 

151. Fr. Klaeber, "Die christlichen Elemente im Beowulf." Antl 
luv (igii), 111-36, 149-70, 4S3-8i; luvi (191a), 169-99- (Further 
references: Angl. luv, iii f., etc, Cf. also L 4.45 (Bouterwek, pp. 
cvii-ciiv). L 4. 14 (Bouterwet, pp. 396, 401); L 7. 25 (Ranfcin).) 

153, Enrico Pizzo, "Zur Frage der asthetischcn Einheit des Beowulf." 
Angl.xxxix (1515), 1-13. [Recognizes a consistent represenution of the 
early Ags .-Christian ideal.] 

For special studiet of the 'Style' see Bibliography VIL ' 

V. Textual Critidsm and Interpretatioa 

1. Joseph Bachlechoer, "Die Merovingeim Beowulf," Z/i/j^. vii (1S49), 
534-215 [I. 1921].' 

2. K. W. Bouterwek, "Zur Kritik des Beowulflicdes," ZfiA. x\ (18(9). 
59-113- [Some useful comments by the side of unprofitable guessei.) 

3. Franz Dietrich, "Rettungen," ZfdA. li (1859), 409-48 (passim). 

4. Adolf Holtzmann, Gtrm. viii (1S63), 489-97. 

5. Wllhelm Scherer, In a review of L a. 7. l. 2d ed., ZfoG. xz (1669), 
89-iii (= W. Scherer's KUine SekHfun i (1893), 471-96). 

6.- Sophut Bugge, (i) Tidtkriftfor Phaologi oj Padagogik viii (1868/69), 

J 0-78; 287-305; (2) ZfdPh. iv (1873), 191-224; (3) in his "Studien iiber 
aa Beowulfepos" (cf. L 4. »8), Briir. lii (1887), 79-112; 366-75. (Mas- 

7. Mai Rieger. Z/dPh. iii (1871), 381-416. [Penetrating.] 

8. Kari Komer, (l) in a review of L 4. 70, ESt. i (1B77), 481-95; (j) ia 
1 review of H. Sweet, An Anglo-Saxon Riadtr, ih. i, 500; (3) in a review 
of L J. 33, it. ii (1879), 248-51 [II. 168 ff.. J87, 489 f.). 

9. H. Kern, Taaltundige Bijdragin i (1877), 193 ft. i^assim). [I. 4766; 

10. P. J. Cosijn, (i) Taatkundige Bijdragin i (1877), a86 [1. 1604]; 
(.i) Btitr. via (i38i), 568-74; (3) AanUiktningen op den Bioieid}. Leiden, 
1892. [Concise, acute, illuminating.] 

1 Onlr UllUcue aFcelUla Itioner ptpcn Hn [be Una ducUndlM uldcil. 

D, ..■■.v^.oo^ic 


ir. Richard Wulcker, in a review of L 3. q. ^ngl. { (1878), 177-86. 

ij. Eugen Kolbing, (i) ESt. iii (1880), gi t. [II. 168 f.|; (i) ib. uii (1896), 
345 ("■ '0^7 ff-l; <3) 'n a review of L 4- l^- I, ii- "iii (1897), 306 [L 748]. 

13- Hugo Gering, in a review of L a, 7. 1, 4th ed., ZfdPk. lii {1881), 
r»2-»S [II. 315, 108 f., 643I. 

14. Oscar Brenner, in a review of L i. 7. 1, 4th ed., ESt. iv {1881), 
I3S-39 W«. I- a»4- '^P- "^f- ^'"^M- 

1$. F. Kluge, (i) Biitr. viii (i88a), 531-34 p. 63, ios6, 1334 & ia66]; 
(3) <■*. ii (1884), 187-91; (3) ESt. nti (189^, 144 i- (=f- L 4- 3 1- 3) HI- 6a, 
7SZ, Qoj, 1677 (Gyldenhiil)]. 

16. E. Sleven, (i) 5rfifr. ix (1884), 13S-44; 370 (acute observations); 
(a) in a review of L 3.7. 3, ah ed., ZfdPh. ui (1889), 354-65 (helpful 
correctional; (3) Angl. liv (1892), 133-46 [in opposition to Schroer, 
L 5. 14I; (4) BiilT. iviii C1894). 406 {. [on earfosprag]-, M Seitr. uvii 
{1903), 571 li- 33I; (6) it. uviii (19OJ), 371 f- [II- 48.f-l; (7) ^- «ix (1904), 
3pS~3 1 [against Trautmann, L 5. 34. l); (8) ib. xxii, 560-76 (concenung 
Kock's note on I. 6, L 5. 44. if; (9) ib. ixzvi (1910J, 397-434 [against 
TonGrienbr - ' - --''--' '^-- '■-- ' ' . _ ,, . 

17. Th, I „ . 
r8. H. Corson, MLN. iii (18 

. 10. Thomas Miller, "The position of Grendel'g arm in Heorot." Jitgl. 
m (1889). 396-400. (II. 834 ff-, 935 ff-. 981 ff.l 

30. R. Heinzel, in a review of L 3. 7. 3, 5th ed., AnufiA. xv (18S9), 

»l. J. Zupirza, .^kS. Imiv (1890), 114 f. (1. 850]. 

%^. Eugen Joseph, "Zwei Versversetzungcn im Beowulf." ZfdPk. 
xxii {1890), 385-97. 

33, Mai Hermann Jellinct and Carl Kraus, "Die Widerspruche im 
Beowulf," ZfdA. rav (tSgi), 365-81. {Cf. L 4. 136.) 

34. A. Schroer. Angl. liii (1891), 333-48- 

as- (0 J- W. Pearce, "Ags. jcirkiard." MLN. vii (1893), 193 f., 
353 f. Cf. (1) Albert S. Cook, jh. vii, 353; (3) Arthur H. Palmer, ib. viii 
(1893). 61; (4) James M. Hart, it. viii, 61; (;) George Philip Krapp, ib. 
jii (i9a»). »34- 

36. Ferd. Holthausen, (l) Beitr. ivi (1892), 549 f. [1. 1117: iairu}; 
(3) in a review of L 3. 13. BeiN. iv (i8(m), 33^6; (i) IF. iv (1894), ,84 f- 
P. 3706]; (4) in a review of L 5. 10. 3, Lil. bl. ivi (1895). 81 (1. 600]; (5) 
Aagl. iii (1899), 366 [11. 4398 {., 1488]; (6) in a review of L 3. 23, 2d ed., 
Jrck. ciii (1899). 373-76; (7) Arch, cv (1900). 366 f. (II. 497 U 568); 
(8) in a review of L i. 7. 3, 6th_ed., Beibl. x (1900), 265-74 (extensive list 
of scholarly corrections); (9} in a review of L 3. 11, 2d ed., Lil. bl. iii 
(1900), 60-63; (10} in a review of Trautmann (L j. 34. l), tb. iii, 64; 
(n) Anglxxiv (1901}, 367 f. (1. 7>9l; (") 5"«- iii ("9oi), 146 [I. 3isrt: 

. f 13) ib. liii (1901), 78 f. (!. 3577]. *at f. [I- «sl, 363 f. (II. 11071, 1745 ff-li 
(14) in,a review of L 3. J, 16. liii, 317; (15) ib. liv. 49 [waghora, I. 1440I, 
8j f. |£"'g,l-33l:(i6)^f"iv(i903),339Unn<Ar,l,i363];(i7)"Beitrage 
lur Erklarung des altenglischeo Epos," ZfdPk. ixuvii (1905), I13-IS 
(notes on numerous passages); (18) Beibl. iviii (1907), 77 (I. 719!; (19) 
firlor-FestJchrifr (Die Nrutren Spracken (191O)), 137 [II. 234, 1351); 
(ao) BeM. iii ([9'o), 300 f- II- 1440]- 

37. H. LiJbke, in a review of L 5. 10. 3, Am. fdA. zii (1893), 341 f. 
[I. 30s, «c.). 


*8. OsrenceG. Child, (i) "atapol - patronus," MU/.imi {189J), aga f. 

tl,9i6|; (i)"Sct«Dui/30, sj, 1313, 1957," li.iii (1906), 17S-77; 198-^00^ 
49. Albert S. Cook, (1) ML^. viii (189J), 59 [U- S7» fl; (») "Beowuif 

1009," ii. in (1894), 1J7 f.; {3) "Beowulf 1408 ff.," i. ivi[ {1901), 109 f.; 

ti. uii (1907), 140 f- [Classical and English parallel!.! And see L 5. 35.1. 
30. A. Pogatschcr, Btilr. lii (1894), 544 f- [H- 168 f.] 
ji. James W. Bright, (1) MLN. x (189s), 43 '• [H- 3°, 30*. 386 f., 6aj. 

736]; (1) "Ao Idiom of the Comparative in Anglo-Saion," MLN. uvii 

(i9Ii), 181-83 [i. 69]; U) "Anglo-Saxon unbor and seld-gama," MLN. 

mi (1916), 83-4; (4) "Beowulf, 489-490," ib. lui, ii7-»3. 

it. E. Martin, in a review of L 8. 9. i & i,£S(.ii (i$95),a9s{ll. 1514, 


33. W. Konrath, Ank. xdi (1897), 417 f. HI. 445 {.]. 

34. Moritl Trautmann, (1) Berichligungen, Vtrmutungfn vitd Er- 
ilamngtii lum Bcaandf. ErsU Halfu (Bonn. B. ii, pp. 111-93},- Bonn, 
1899 [numerous conjectures!. R-: Holthausea (L j. a6. idj, Binz 
(L 5.39), Sicvers (L S- '6-7); (*) in a review of Heyne-Socin's ed.', 
Wyatt'g ed.*. Holder's ed.', Biibl. j. (1900), 157-61; (3) Finn und HUdt- 
brand, see Bibiiography of The fighl at Finmbarg; (4) Auck aim Beoaidf 
(Bonn. B. ivij, pp. 143-74), Bonn, 1905 [reply to Sievers'i criticisms). 

35. Fr. Klaeber, (l) "Aus Anlass von Beowuif J734 f.," Arch., dv 
(1900), 387-91; (2) MLN ivi (1901), is-8 [H- *S9, 43J and 1106, 847 f, ' 

, is-8 |U. JS9. . . , ,. , 

ns); (3) Arch, cviii (1901), 368-70 

, 178-81; (s) *■■ 

1," ib. xxiTu 

-- ^ ,_ - ,, ofLi. iL,ib. ., ,, 

n the Textual Interpretation of 'Beowulf,'" MPk. iii (HjiovS), 135-65; 

, 9<w), 368-7 

V (190;), 178-81; (s) "Hrothulf," MlN.x 
90s}, 9-1 1 (L 4- 87)i (6) "Beouiuif. 6»," ib. ui (1906), 355 f., uii (1907), 
ofcf. Ls. 4»&43); {7) in a review of L 1. ii,v4. m, 83-7; (8} "Studies 

445_-6< (I. Rhetorical notes. II. Syntactical notes. III. Semauo- 
bgicai notes. IV. Notet on various, paaagcsl; (9) Angl. ixviii (i9«|), 
439-47 (<rf- •*■ "". 37»); («o) <■*■ "viii (1905), 448-56 [l. "Zur fryfc- 
Epiiodc" (L 4. 105}. 1. "Teitkritische Rettungen"]: (ti) ib. uii 
{1006}. 378-8i! (i») JEGPh. vi (1907). 190-96! (13) ESt. mii (1908), 
4*^-67; (14) in « revfew of L 3. 7. j, i*. ixiii, 415-33: UslJEGPh. viii 
(1909), 154-59; ('6) in a review of L 1. 16, ESt. iliv (1911/11), 119-16; 
(17) &ib!. xxii (ign), 371-74 [II. 769 (caiuscimen), 1119 f.lj (i8) MLN. 
xxniv (1919), 139-34- 

36. G. Sarrazin, in ■ review of L 1. 7. 1, 6th ed., ESL wtviii (1900), 
403-10. Ql- 1561, 3084I. 

37. A. J, Barnouw, Textkriiisclu Unteriuckungen etc. (L 6. 7, 3), p. 131 
('SteHingen'}. Leiden, 1901. {U. 987 ff., 1151 f., 3514 ff.) 

38. Elizabeth M. Wright, ESt. zxx (1901}. 341-43 [krindf, 1. 1363I. 

39. GuBtflv Bini, in a review of L j. 34, 1, Beibl. liv (1903}, 3s8-6a 

40. Otto Kracltow, Arch, cii (1903}, 171 f. [11. 1114. 3i2o!- 

41. Jamei M. Hart, (i) MLN. xviii (1903), 117 f, [J>ryS; Beanstanl; 
(3) ib. «vii (igts), 198 [11. 168 i.]. 

43. Wilbur C. Abbott. "Hrothulf," MLN. m (1904}, 111-15 (rf- ^ 

4J. Frank E. Bryant, " Beoauilf 6i," MLN. iii (igai), 111 f.; it. xn 
(1906), 143-45, ib. iiii {1907), 9(5; cf. replies by Fr. Klaeber (L 5.35. 
5 and 6). 

44. Ernst A. Kock, (l) "Interpretations and Emendationi of Early 
English Teits. Ill," Angt. uvii (1904). 118-37; (i) ib. xxvm (1905), 

D, ..■■.v^.oo^ic 


^O-fS Irepljr to Sieven'i criticum, cf. L ;. 16. 8]; (3) "InterpreUtians 
ud Emcudadoni etc. IV," ii. ilii (1918), 99-124 (cf. L ;. 3;. iB); (4) 
"Jubilccjaunti and Jottings: 1^0 CoDtributioQs to the InteiprctatJOD and 
Proeodj" of Old West Teutonic Alliterative Poetry," Lands Universi- 
teuAriskrift, N. F. Avd. i, Bd. 14, No, a6 (1918), pp. 7-9, and passim. 
[Applies a comptehemive knowledge of style and syntax.] 

45. von Grienberger, (1) A*^. zzvii (190).), 3]l f, [1. 1107: ondicie]; 
(3) in a review of L a. 7. 1, 7th cd., Z/3C, Ivi (1905), 74A-61 [suggestive]; 
(3] BtilT. xtm (1910), 77~iOi [notei on certain wonts and paggageaj. 
(Cf. L S- 16- 9) 

^ Geoim'PhS\pYLi>ip'p,(,i)''Siiir}uard,BiomdfiOji,Andrtasiiii," 
MLN. x\x (1904.); aj4 (d, L J. 35); (a) afPh. a (1905). 40S-7 ["«»»9, 

47. Grace F, Swearingcn, "Old Norae baurti," MLN. n (1905), 64. 

48. L.L. Schucking, {i}inareviewof La. i4,-#«A.eTv (1905), 417*11; 
(1) in a review of Bamouw L 6. 7. 4, Gotttngische pltkrU Anieiien, 167. 
iahrgang (1905), Vol. ii, pp. 730-40 [iostnictirc]; {3) in reviews of L ». ij, 
SSl. mil (1908). 94-III. ilii (1910), 108-I1 (scholarly commeatslj 
(4)£S(»liv(i9ii/i»), ISS-S7P. "», 1174I. And see L 6. 15; L 4. 139; 
L 4. ia6. I. 

49. ChauDcey B. Tinker, MLN. urn (1908). ^39 f. [U. 166 ff., 311, 760, 

SO. Tohn R. Oark HslI, MUf. xiv (1910), 113 f. [U. 1143-si. 
__*,,, n . ,,, WiK. V (1910), Z86-8B. 

"Note on Bromd} 1591-1617," MPi. ii (1911), 
' ' -sfine- '■ ■■■■ *"" 

x John R. Oark HslI, ML 
[, W, J. Sedgefield, MLR. • 
1. F. A. Blackburn, "Note 

5SS-66, [Aasumet a misplacement of lonae fines in the MS.] 

53. R. W. Chambers, "The 'Shified Leaf in 'Beowulf,'" MLR. 
(1915), 37-41. [Refutes Blackburn,] 

54- L. M. Hollander, "Beowulf 33," MLS. nai {1917), 246 f, 

a Alexander Green, "An Epitode in Ongenpeow's Fall, U. 2957-60^" 
. lii (1917), ^\o^^■ 
56, Frank G. Hubbard, "Beowulf 1598, 1996,1016; uses of the imper- 

ii (1917)1 340^^3- 

nk G. Hubbard, ' 

\i gewtarPan," JEGPk. ivii (191S), 119-14. 

S7- Cyril Brett, MLR. liv (1919), i-i7- P'- 2385, 1771 ff-, »792ff., 
1999?., 3066 fi., etc] 

VI. Langtuge 

a. Studies of Phonology and Inflexion 

I. James A. Harrison, "List of irregular (strong) verba in Beowulf." 
Am. Jour. PkU. iv (i88j), 46^-77. 

». Bemhard ten Brink, 5m 
kandsckrift und ikre Yorjiuftn. 
158-62, 3 14 f.; and passim. 

%. Charles Davidson, "Differences between the scribes of 'BcowuH.'" 
MLN. V (1890), 43-5. Cf. Charles F. McQumpha, ib. v, laj; Chas. 
Davidson, ii. v, 189 f, 

4, Charles Davidson, "The Phonology of the stressed vowels of Beo- 
wulf." PbW. Mi^//, vi (1891), 106 33. R.:G. E. Karaten,fiS(. avii 
(189a), 4'7-W- 

J. P. G. Tbwnas, "Notea on the Language of Beowulf." MLS. 1 
(1906), 302-7. [Coavenient siunmary of dialectkl foniu.[ 

D, ..■■.v^.oo^ic 


6. (i) Carl Richtcr, Clumotopiche Studin iiir anteliachsuckm Litr- 
TOtuT avf Grund tprachUclitiutrischtr Krilerun. {St.EPh. xzxiii.) Halle 
a. S., igio. (a) Friedrich Seiffert, Dii Bilumdlit*% drr WotUr nit aas- 
lauUndin ■ursprsnglick lilbisclun Liqvxdcn odcr NasaUn und mit Kontrat- 
tionsmkaltn in drr Gmrjis A vnd im Beoanilf. Halle Diss., 191J. — See 
abo Morsbach, L 4. 14]; Sarrazia, L 4. 144. 

5. SynSaclical and Lexirat Staditi 

7. (i) A. Lichttnheld, "Das schwache Adjictiv im Angelsaebiiichen." 
7.fdA. ivi (1873), 315-93. ICareful investigation.) (») Hermann 
OathofF, Zar Gtsckickti da sthtBochiTi deaiichtn Aductimms. Jena, 1876. 
183 pp. (Pflj-Jim.) (3) A. J. Barnouw, Ttxliritiiclu UnUrtiukuKgeH nock 
dim Gfbrauch dei bistimmUn Arliitis tind drt sckaacktrt Adjeclht in der 
alUKgliiehen Foriic. Leiden, 1901. 136 pp. [Serviceable, but not al- 
ways reliable.) R.: E. A. Kock, ESl. mii (1903}, aiBf.; L.L. Schucking, 
sec L S- 48. a. (4) B. Delbriict, If. xxvi (1909), 187-99. (S) Georp; 
O. Curme, JEGPh. ii (rgio), 439-82. 

8. E. Nader, (i) Zur Syntax dn Beowvif {Accusativ). 1. 11. Bnjnn 
Progr., 1879, 1880; (1) Drr Criutk im Beamulf, Bman Prop"., i88»j 
($)Dalii)vnd Instrumfnialim BioteiilfyWienPrngr., 188]. R.:E. Kline- 
hardt, ESt. vii (1884), 368-70- (4) George Shipley, The GeniMe Cast in 
Anglo-Saxon Pattry. Johns Hopkins Diss., Baltimore, 1903. (5) Aleiander 
Green, The Datiw of Agrticy. A Chapter of Indo-European Case-Syntax. 
(Columbia Univ. Germanic Studies.) Pp. 95-101. New York, 19IJ. 

9. Kari Kohler, Der syntaktiscke Grbraiuh des Infinities und Particips 
im " Beosoulf." Miinster Diss., i836. 

10. (i) E. Sievera, Beitr. xii (1887), 188-100 (rf. L 4. [7). [On verbs 
of motion and of rest.) (a) Wilhelm Dening, Zur Lehre von dm Ruke- und 
Rirhlungskonslrviliaiien. Leipzig Diss., rgia. 

. (i) E. Nader, "Tempus und Modus im Beowulf." Angl. z (1S88), 
' ^i{i889), 444-99. {j)Cf.BertholdDelbruct,''Dergcrraaiiische 

_, im Satzgefuee." &wr.i3:ix(i904), 101-304. (3) V. E. Mourek, 

"Zur Svncai des Konjunktivs im Beowulf." Prager Deutsche Studitn 

viii (190S), t*l-37. 

Ii. (l) Augu»tTodt,"Die Wortatellung im Beowulf." Angl. ivi (1S94), 

316-60. (2) JiJin Ries, Die Worlstellung int Beoaulf. _ Halle a. S., 1907. 

S[6 pp. (Elaborate investigation with a view to finding the laws of the 
id Germanic word order.) R.: B. Delbriick, Am. fdA. ari {1907/8), 
65-76; G. Binz, Beibl. irii (igri), 65-78. Cf. G. Hubener, Angl. mix 
(l9rS)> *77 ff- I Psychological interpretation.] 

13. (i) Ernst A. Kock, The English Relattot Pronouns. Lund, 1897, 
ito. 94 pp. (1) Berthold Delbriick, Abkandl. der philol.-hist. Klasse der 
Konigl. Sdchsischen GeseUichaft der Wisunschaften, Vol.nvii, No. 19. 
Leipzig, 1909; (3) George O. Curme, JEGPh. x (l9'l). 33S-S9. ^ (i9"). 
lo-ag, 180-104, 355-80. 

14. (i) V. E. Mourek, Zur Negation im Allgermanischen [i.c., Otfrid, 
Heltand, Beoviulf]. Prag, I9PJ- 6? PP- (1) Richard Schuchardt, Dk 
Negation tm Beotaulf, Berlin, igio. 149 pp. (3) Eugen Einenkel, 
"Die engiische Verbalncgation." Angl. xxiv (1911), 187-248; 401-24. 

15. Levin Ludwig Schiicking, Die Grundzugt der Sataerknipfting tm 
BetxeulJ. I. Teil. (St.EPh. xv.) Halle a. S., 1904. 149 pp. flliorougb 
itudy.) R.: H. Groeimann, Arch, civiii (1907), 176-79. 


VII. STYLE cxlv 

i6. Fr. Klaeber, "Syntactical Notes," "Semaaiological Notw." MPk. 
iii (.905/6), 349-65. (Cf. L 5. js- 8.) 

17. Anton Lorz, Aktiomarten its ferbumj im Seowulf. Wunburg 
Diss., 1908. 

18. Reinhard Wagner, DU Syntax its Superlaiivi im Golischin, Altnit- 
derdfulscken, Altkixkdtvtjchen, Frukmiaelkockdtuijckcii, im Btoteulj und 
in diT aluren Edia. (Palaestra id.) Berlin, 1910. 

19. Paul Grimm, BtiSragt turn Piuralgfbrauch in der alUnglischtrt 
Potjie. Halle Diss., 1911. 

30. Richard Jordan, Eigenlumlichkeilin dis angtiiclun IFortsckatzei. 
(Ang. F. ivii.) Heidelberg, 1906. 

31. Albert S. Cook, A Contordancr to Broteulf. Halle a. S., 1911. 416 
pp. R.: Fr. Klaeber, JEGPk. li (1912), 377-79. Cf. Holder's ^orl- 
sckatt, L 1. II. 

11. Levin L. SchGcking, Unternichungeti iur Bedtutangilthre der angel- 
sackjiichen DichltrspTocht. Heidelberg, 1915. 109 pp. (SeArchiag 
analysis of a number of words.) 

See also under "Style": Krapp (L 7. ai); Merbach (L 7. 17); Mead 
(L 7. j»); Schemann (L 7. 5}; Banning (L 7. 10); Sonnefeld (L 7. li); 
Scheinert (L 7. iz); under "Old Germanic Ufe": Keller (L 9. <a); Stroebe 
(L 9. 4S' *); Padelfofd (L 9. 15). 

Vn. style . 

I. Jacob Grimm, in hb edition of Andreas und Elene, pp. iilv-iliv. 
Cassel, 1840. 

». Richard H^inzel, (l) Uber den Stil der allgeryaanischen Poesie 
(Quelten und Forschungen x). Strassburg, 1875, 54 pp. [Verysugges- 
tive essay]; (3) in a review of Moller (L 4. 134) and of Ronning (L 4. 15), 
Ant.fdA.i (1884), 2IS-J9; (j) in a review of len Brink (L 4. 18), Ani-fdA. . 
XV (1889), 153-81. 

J, Francis B. Gummere, The Anilo-Saton Melaphor. Freiburg Diss. 
Halle a. $., iS^l. {Scholarly, interesting.] 

4. Francis A. March, "The World of Beowulf." Transactioni of the 
Am. PAUol. Assoc, ilii (1881). Proceedinxs, pp. i»i-uiii. 

;. Karl Schemann, Die Synonyms im Beowulf tliede mil Ricksiclu auf 
Compotition und Poelik des GedichUs. Mijnstcr Diss. Hagen, 1881. 

6. A. Hoffmann, "Der bildliche Ausdruck im Beowulf und in der 
Edda." ESl. vi (1883). 163-116. (Part I also published as Bresliu 
Diss., 1881.) [Useful obwtvations.] 

7. Reinhold Merbot, Asthetxsche Studien z«r angelsaekjisekin [alleng- 
lisehen) Poesie. Breslau Diss., 1883. [Meagre-] 

8. Otto Hoffmann, Reimformetn im fFeilgermanischen. Freiburg Diss. 
Darmstadt, 1885. [Copulative formulas lilce ord and ecg.] 

9. Wilhelm Bode, Die Kenningar in der aagehachsiscken Dicktung. 
Strassburg Diss. Darmstadt and Leipzig, 1S86. 

10. Adolf Banning, Die epischen Formtln im Beotindf. I. Teil: Die 
verbalen Synonyma. Marburg Diss., 1886. 

II. Albert H. Tolman, "The Style of Anglo-Sa^n Poetry." MI.Ass. 
Transaclioas and Proceedings iii (1887), 17-47. (Reprinted in Tcdman'l 



Tkt Vifwi about Hamlet and other Eisayt, pp. 357-81. Bo«ton and New 
York, 1904.) 

12. Richard M. Meyer, DU ahgermanisckc Poesie nock ikrm fomul- 
kafltri EUmenUn beickriebin. Berlin, 1389. 549 pp. (Abundance of 
material and ideal.] 

13. J. Kail, "tJber die ParallelGtellen in dcr angeUacbsbcheo PoeEic." 
.rfn^;. xii {i88g), 21-40. (See L^. 17.) 

14. Gottfried Sonnefeld, StUiilischej und Wortickali im Betxindf. 
Strassburg Diss. Wurzburg, 1891. 

15. Bernhard ten Brink, Altengliscke Liuratur in P. Grdr,^, ii*, pp. 
jsj-js. 1893, (L 4. 7-) lEicellenl sketch.] 

16. Richard Kistenmacher, Die v/orUkhtn Wiederkolungett im Beotcidf. 
Greifswald Diss. 1S98. [Curtory.) 

17. Ernst Otto, Typiscke MoMe in detk aielllichen Epos ier Angel- 
sachjin. Beriin, 1901, 99 pp. 

iS, Andreas Heusler, "Dcr Dialog in der altgermanischen erzahlenden 
Dichtung." ZjdA. ilvi (190s), 189-184. |A luminous paper.) {CI. also 
Werner Schwa rtzkopfF, Rfdt utid Ridiszene in der diulscktn ErtdUung bis 
Wolfram ton Eschenbach. (Palaestra luiv.) Berlin, 1909. uSpp.) 

19. Otto Krackow, Die Nominakomposita all KuTulmillei im ait- 
englischen Epos. Berlin, 190J. 86 pp. 

10. Bruno Haeuschkel, Die Techntk der Enahlung im Beoandfiiede. 
Breslau Diss., 1904. . (Serviceable survey.] 

21. George Philip Krapp, "The parenthetic exclamation in Old Eng- 
lish Poetry." MZJV. II (icjos) 33-^. 

21. Moritz Scheinert, " Die Adjectiva im Beowulfepos als DarstellungH 
mittel." Beitr. in (190;), 345-43* 

13. Fr. Klaeber, "Rhetorical Notes." MPh. lii (1905/6), 237-49. 

24. Walther Paetzel, Die farialionen in der altgermantselun Allilera- 
tianspoesie. (Palaestra xlviii.) Berlin, 1913. 216 pp. (The first part 
issued as Berlin Diss., 1905.) [Attempts a more precise definition and 
grouping of variations.] R.: J. Franck, Anz.fdA. uivii (1914.), 6-14. 
(Cf. Krauel, L 8. 25.) 

25. James Walter Rankin, "A Study of the Kennings in Anglo-Saxon 
Poetry." JEGPk. viii (1909), 357-431, 'i (1910). 49-84. [Traces the 
kennings back to their (Christian) Latin sources.) 

26. Sidney Lanier, Shahpere and his Forerunners. Vol. I, ch. Hi: "Na- 
ture in early English and in Shakspere: 'Beowulf and 'Midsummer 
Night's Dream.'" New York, [printed:] 1901. (S. Lanier died In iSBi.) 

27. Hans Merbach, Das Meet in der Dichtung der Angeliaehstn. 
Breslau Diss., 1884. 

18. Otto Lining, Die Natur m der dlgtrmantseken and miuelhoch- 
deuiicken Epik. Zurich, 1S89. 314 pp. 

29. Edmund Erlemann, Das landschaflliehe Auge drr amtlsSehnichen 
Dickler. Berlin Dbs., 1902. (Incomplete.] 

30. Frederic W. Moorman, The Interpteialion of Nature in English 
Poetry from Beoamlf to Shakespeare, ch, i. (Quellen und Fonchungen icv.) 
Strassburg, 1905. 

31. Eliiabcth Deering Hanscom, "The Feeling for Nature in (Xd 
English Poetry." JEGPh. v (1905), 4J9-63-: 

:.,-■■■. ^.OOglC 


ji. WilUamE.Mead/'ColorinOldEnglishPoetrj'," Publ.MLAsy. 
liv (1899); 169-*^- 

33. J- E. Willms, UnUrjuckuitf iber den Gebraiuk der FarbrnbezeKk- 
nungen in dir Poeiie AlUnglandj. Munater Diss., 1901. [CovecB the 
OE. and ME. periods-I 

34. Eduard Sieve 

d Sievera, Edition of the Heliand, pp. 389-495: Fomuher- 
irurnnij. Halle, 1878. [Valuable collection including numerous OE. 

3S. F. Schuiz, Dit Sprairkformen del HUdebraiids-Litdej im Bioaulf. 
Konigsbere Progr., 1881. [Lexical and phraseological paraliela.] 

]6. R. Heinzel, "Beschrcibung der iiland. Saga." Silzungsbericku 
dtr philos.-liijior. Classe der Kaiserl. AkademU der WijjeiucJu^un, icvii, 
107-J08. Wicn, i88i. 

57. Georg Radke, DU tpische Formtl im Nibilungetdiedt. Kiel Diu., 

And see R. Kocgel (L 4. 8), Vd. i», pp. 3J3-40 [excellent sketch]. 
Vol. !»•, pp. a? ff., 88 ff., 3JS ff- 

Vm. Ver^cation 

I. Hermann Schubert, De Anglo-Saxonum arti mttrica. Berlin Digs., 

a. Mai Riegcr, "Die alt- und angelaachsjache Verskunst." ZfdPh. vii 
(1876), 1-64. (Also printed separately.) [Still of considerable value.) 

3. Eduard Sievers, "Zur Rbythmik des germanischen Alliterationv 
versea." Beilr. i (1885). 109-3 14 (aio-3 14: "'Die Metrik dea Beowulf"); 
451-545. Anastatic reprint, New York, 1909. [Masterlj' presentation 
of Sievers's system of types; of fundamental importance.] Also Biiir. 
lii (1887), 454-81: "Der angehachsische Schwellver^." 

4. Eduard Sievers, Ailgermanische Melrik. Halle, 1893. 153 pp. 
[Has been largely regarded as standard.] (An abridged version in 
ACriir., ii" (1893), pp. 861-07; id ed.,ii'' (1905), pp. 1-38 (under thesupet- 
viaion of F. Kauffmann and H. Gering).) 

S- James W. Bright, An Anglo-Saxon Riadtr. Appendix II (pp. 1*9- 


Admirable, condensed account of Sieveis's system,] 

6. Kari Fuhr, Die Metrik dei taestgermanijchen ASitleralioruveriei. 
&i'r Ferkalinis tu Otftied, dm Nibelvngen, dtr Gudrutt ete. Marburg, 
189*. 147 pp. 

7. Bernhard ten Brink, Altengtiiche Lileratur (L 4. 7) in P.Crdr.' !!■ 
(1893). pp. 51S-W. 

8. H. Frank Heath, "The Old English Alliterative IJne." Transac- 
rioo/ of the Philologieai Society, 1891-1894, pp. 375-^5. London, 1894. 
[PreientatioD of ten Brink's views; on the construction of the expanded 

9. Mai Kaluza, Der allengtische Feri: eine nuttische Vviersvckung. 
(0 /. Teil: Krilik der biikerigtn Tkeorien. (Attempts to reconcile the 
four-accent theory with Sievers's types,] (1) //, teil: Die Melrik des 
Btoaulfiifdei. [Including a scansion of the first 1000 lines,] Berlin, 
1894. 96-1-101 pp. Cf, R, Fischer (in a review of F. Graz. Die Metrik 
der log. Cadmanieken Diehtitnitn), Ani.fdA. zxiii (1897), 40-54. [Ciiti- 



cism of Kaluza's system, and sugEestione as to the psychological function 
of the OE. rhythm.) (3) Max Kaluza, Englischt Mclrii in hislorisckir 
Enttoiiilung dargeitelh. Berlin, 1909, 3S4 pp. (A practical handbook; 
contains a clear, concise survey of eiisting theories.] English translation 
by A. C. Dunstan: A Short History of Engliik FerAfication. New Yort, 
191 r. 

c Languages, No. v.) Baltim 
system, for students.] 

II. J. Schipper, (l) Grundris! dtr engtxicktti Metrik. Wienand Leipag, 
189;. (a) English translation; A Ilinory of Engliih Frrsificalion. Ox- 
ford, 1910. 390 pp. (An older handbook by J. Schipper; AUenglisclu 
Metrik. Bonn, 1881. [OE. and ME. versification,] 

la. Moriti Trautmann, (i) "Zur Kenntnis des altgermanischcn Verses, 
vomehmlich des altenglischen." Btihl. v (1894/5), 87^; (a) Die 
neaite Semeulfattigaht und die allengiiielu Ferslekre (Bonn. B. ivii, pp. 
•75-9')' Bonn, 1905; (3) Ferkandlungen dsr $0. Fersammlxng deiUscher 
PhUologen und Schulmanner (Graz, 1909), pp. 15-19. Leipag, 191^ 

1-76, i7»-ai8. [Study of the expanded lines on the basis of Traut- 
mann's theory.] 

13. For other treatises setting forth views dissenting from Sievera 
(such as those of Moller, Hirt, Heusler, Franck), see references in Sieven 

Technic," Am. Jour. Pkil. xi (1899), 435-38 [opposing the fundamen- 
tals of Sievers's syatero]. — See further P. Fijn van Draat, "The Cursus 
in Old English Poetry," Angl. luviii (191+), 377-404; iA., ESl. xlviii 

Cf. also Franz Sarin's summary in Ergirbnine und ForlschrilU ier ger' 
manistisclun Wissenschaft im lelzun Fierletjakrhundert cd. by R. Betfige 
(1901), pp. 158-70. ^ Ernst Martin, Der Firsiau des Hehand und der 
aksacksiicken Cemsit. (Quellen und Forschungen c.) Strassburg, 1907. 

Studies of special features: 

14. F. Kluge, "Zur Geschichte des Reimes im Altgermanischen." 
Beitr. ii (188^, 431-50. 

15. John Lawrence, Chapter] ok Altiterathe Ferse. London Diss., 
1893. [E-g., crossed alliteration, vowel alliteration.] 

16. O. Brenner, "Zur Verteilung der Reimstabe in der alliterierenden 
Langzeile." Beitr. lix (1894), 461-66. 

17. James W. Bright, "Proper Names in Old Englbh Verse." PuU. 
MLAss. liv (1899), 347-68. 

18. Edward Schroder, "Steigerung und HaufungderAllitteration in der 
westgermanischen Dichtung. I. Die Anwendung aUitterie render Nominal- 
composita." ZfdA. iliii (1899), 361-85. 

19. Oliver F. Emerson, "Transverse Alliteratioii in Teutonic Poetry." 
/CW.iii(i90o), ia7-3;- 



lO. Julian HuRDenin, Secondary Sirm in Anglo-Saxon {determined by 
metrical criteria). Johns Hopkins Diss., Baltimore, 1901. 

il. Eduard Sotoll. "Zur Teciinik des altgermanischen Alliterations- 
vetses," ia Beiirage lur neueren PkHologie, Jakob Sckipper dargebracht, 
pp. 351-6;. Wien and Leipzig, 1901. (Inquiry as to laws governing the 
union of rhythmical types in the full line.] 

IX. M. Efeutschbein, Zur Entancklung des englijchen Allileraliomverses. 
Leipzig Habilicationsschrift. Halle a. S., 190a. 69 pp. lEnjambement; 
statistics of the frequency of the different types. Follows the Sievers 

aj. B. Q. Morgan, "Zur Lehre von der Alliteration in der westger- 
manischen Dichtung." Beilr. iiiiii (190S), 9J-181 (also Leipzig Diss., 
•997)- [Application of the theory of speech-melody; ' to the probleniB of 
alliteration; discussion of crossed alliteration; criteria for punctuation.] 

14. Adolf Bohlen, ZutammengekSriie WorUruppen, getrennt dutch 
CaiuT oder FersscUusi, in dct angeliachsischen EpH. Berlin Diss,, looE. 

!>;. Hans Krauel, Der Haken- und Langleilenstil tm Beoteidf. Got- 
tingen Diss., 1908. ]' Mid-stopped' and 'end-stopped' lines; variation. 
Opposes Sievers and Deutschbein.] 

a6. E. Classen, On Fotcet Alliitration in the Old Ccrmanic Langitages. 
(University of Manchester Publ., Germanic Series, No. i.) Mancliester, 
1913. 91 pp. R.; E. Noreen, IF. Am. iixiii (1914), 61-5; E. Brate, 
AfNF. xmi (191s), iiS-18. Cf. F. N. Scott, "Vowel Alliteration in 
MnE.," MLN. »H (191S), 233-37- 

S7. See abo H. Moller, Dai allengliscke Folkicpoi in der uriprvnglicken 
itrophiichen Form (L 4. 134, J. 19). 

IX. Old Gemuuiic life 

I. John M. Kemble, The Saxons in England, 1S49; ad ed., 1876. 2 
vols. (Cf. L 4- 44.) .. 

a". Jacob Grimm, "IJber da« Verbrennen der Leichen" (paper read in 
the Berlin Academy of Sciences, Nov. 19, 1849). Kltinete Schriften ii 
(Berlin, 1865), 111-313. [Famous essay.] 

3. Thomas Wright, The Celt, the Roman and the Saxon. I-ondon, 1851; 
4tn ed., 1885. (Qi. iv: 'Anglo-Saion Antiquities.') 

4. (l) Moriti Heyne, Ueber die Lagi und Construction der Halli Hearot. 
Padcrbom, 1864. 60 pp. — (a) K. G. Stephani, Der alteste dcutscke 
fFohnbau und seine Einrichtunt. i, 388 ff. Leipzig, 1901-3. 

5. Artur Kohler, "Germanische Alterthiimer im Beowulf." Germ. 
iii[ (1868}, ia9-s8. 

6. W. Scherer, ZjoG. n (1869), 89 ff. (L S- s), pasAm. [Legal antiq- 

"Uber den Stand berufsmassieer Sanger im natio- 
scbet Volker." Germ, iv (1870), 17-50. 

8. Martin Schultze, Allkeidnisch/rs in der agi. Poesie, rpeciell im Beo- 
arulfsliede. Beriin, 187;?. 3 1 pp. — On Germanic heathendom, see also 
Kemble (L 9. 1), Vol. i, ch. lii; Bouterwelc (L 4. 45), Introd., ch. iv; 
handbooks of mythology (L 4. 42, note). 

9. James A. Harrison, "Old Teutonic Life in Beowulf." The Overland 



Monthly iv (Second Series] (San Francisco, 1S84), 14-24, 15^-61. See 
also F. A. March, L 7, 4. 

10. (1) Karl von Amira, kickl, in P. Grdr. iib (1889), pp. JS-3«>; ad 
ed., ill (1900), pp. Jl-ill; ]d cd. (separate, 1913), JM pp. — (l) Cf. F. 
Liebermann, Die Gmiu dir Aniiiiachjen. ii. i (pp. asS-7S8): Rtchu- und 
Siukglosiar. Halle a.S., 191a. 

11, Francis, B. Gummere, Germanic Origins. A Study in Primilise 
Culture, New York, 1891, 490 pp. jEicellent.] 

11. J, R. Green, A Short Hijiory 0/ the Englijk People. Ultutraud 
Edition. Ed. by Mr«. J. R. Green and Miss Kate Norgate. London 
and New York, 1893. 

13. Socio/ England. Ed, hy H. D. Traill. Vol. i, ch. ii; id ed., Lon- 
don and New York, 1894. Illustrated ed. by H, D. TraiU and J. S. 
Mann, 1909. 

14. (1) Karl Miillenhoff, Deutrche Alierlumskundf, Vol, iv. Berlin, 
1900. 7SI pp. (Elaborate commentary on Tadtus' Germania.] — 
(3) Theodor Schauffler, Zeugniise mr Germania dej Tacitai aits der ahnord. 
vnd agi. Dichtunt. UlmProgr. I, II. Ulm, 1808. 1900. 

15. Frederick Morgan Padelford, Old Englisk Mttsical Terms. (Bonn. 
B. iv.) Bonn, 1899. 

16. Morii Heyne, Fiinf Sucker deutscker Hauialtertumer. 3 vols. 
Leipzig, i899-:90]. 406 + .^ + 373 pp. 

17. Frederic Seebohm, Tnbel Custom in Anglo-Saxon Late. Ch. iii. 
London and New York, 1901. 

18. L, F. Anderson, The Anglo-Saxon Scop. (University of Toronto 
Studies, Philological Series, No. i.) 1903. 45 pp. Cf. R. Merbot 

19. Laurence Marcellua Larson, The Kinfs Household in England 
before the Norman Conquest. University of Wbconsin Diss., 19Q4. 
(Bulletin of the University of Wisconsin, No. 100.) 

10. Wllhelm Pfandlcr, "Die Vergniigungen der Angels achscn." Angl. 
nil (1906), 417-5*6- 

21. Erich Bvdde, Die Bedeutung der Trinksiilen in der KultuT der 
Angelsachsen. Jena Diss., 1906, 

11. H. Munro Chadwick, The Origin of the English Nation, 1907 
(L 4. 38), and The Heroic Age, 1911 (L 4. 11). 

ij. Edmund Dale, National Life and Character in the Mirror of Early 
Englisk Literature. Cambridge, 1907. [Collection of illustrative ma- 

34. Vilhelm Grenbech, for Folkeart 1 Oldtidin: I. Lykkemand or Niding. 
IC0l>cnhavn, 1909. 110 pp. [A psychological study of Old Germanic 
ideals; clanship, honor, duty of revenge. Decidedly original.) R.; L. M. 
Hollander, JEGPh. ii (1910). i(f)^9,. — II. Midgard o/; Mennesielioet. 
III. Hellighed og Helligdom. IF. Menneskelioet og Gudeme. 1912. 
169-1-108+13] pp. R.: G. Neckel, ESt. xlvii (1913/14), ioS-16; 
L. M. Hollander, JEGPh. xiv (1915), 114-35. 

15. Klara Stroebe, "Altgemianische Grussformen," Beitr. xxxvii 
(1911/11), 173-111. 

26. Friednch Kauffmann, Deuticke Alterlumikunde. 1. Miinchen, 



39. Fritz Roeder, Du Famxtie bei dtrt Angtliacksen. I: Mann and Frau. 
(St,EPh, iv.) Halle a. S., 1899. 

30. Francis B. Gummere, Tht Sister's Son, in An Engliih Miscellany 
■preienUd to Dr. Furnhall, pp. IJ3-49. Oxford, 1901. 

31. Ada Broch, Du Stellungder Frau inder ags. Poerie. Zurich Disi., 

31. Earl Weinhotd, Allnordiscket Leben. Berlin, 1856. Jll pp. 
IComprehensive account,] 

33. Oscar Montelius, (l) The CieUiiation of Sioeden in Healken Times. 
Translated, froni the 2d Swedish edition, by F. H. Woods. London and 
New Yort, 1888. 114 pp. Gennan translation. Die Kulinr Schwedms 
in voTckriillicluT Zeil, by C. Appd. Berlin, 1885. [With numerous 
illustrations; famous sketch.] (2) Kvlturgeschichie Sckuredens von den 
dtieiUn Zeiun bis zum elften Jahrkiinderl nack Christus. Leipzig, 1906. 
(With ^40 illustrations.] 

34. Kristian Kalund, Sioe: Skandinauisrhe Verhdiiniae, in P. Grdr. ii'» 
{1S89), pp. io8-;s; and ed., iii (1900), pp. +07-79 (''J' Valtyr GuKmunda- 
«on & Kristian Kalund). 

35- Paul B. du Chaiilu, The Viking Age. London, 1889. a vob. 
591 +_S63 pp. [With numerous illustrations; popular.) 

36. Oliver Elton, The first nine Books of the Danish History of Saxo 
Grammaticits translated. Introduction, § 7: 'Folk-lore Indei' (by F, 

York Powell). London. 1894. Cf. Corpus Poetieum Sareale (L 10. i>. 
Vol. ii, pp. 685-708, Index III: 'Subjects.' Oxford. l88j. 

37. Bophus MuUer, Nordische Alierl-u/mskunde na^h Funden itnd 

Denkmdlern aus Ddnemark und Schlesmig gemeinfasslick dargestelll. 
Translated (from the Danish) by 0. L. Jirirack. 2 vols. Strassbuiv, 
. 1897, 1S98. 47i + 324 pp. The Danish version; For Oldlid, Danmarks 
Forhijtorisie Archaologi, Kjehenhavn, 1897. [With numerous illustra- 

ns; admirable.] 
1. Axel Oirik, 

T Zeit. Translated (from the Danish) by Wilhelm Ranisch. Heidcl- 
b«rgt 1908- 1^0 PP- The Danish version in the Encyclopedia Ferdeni- 
tulturen. Vol. iii, pp. 353-353, Kabcnhavn and Kristiania. [A lucid, 
popular account.] 

39. Knut Stjerna, Estayi on Que.tioni connected mth the Old English 
Poem ofBeotBiilf. Translated and edited by John R. Clark Hall. Viking 
Club Publications, Extra Series, Vol. iii. Coventry, igii. 410, mv -|- 
3S4 pp. [Archeological papers issued between I90J and 1908 in various 
Swedish journals and special publications. I. Helmets and Swords in 
Beowulf. 3. Archasological Notes on Beowulf. 3. Vendel and the 
Vendel Crow (L 4.93). 4. Swedes and Geats during the Migration 
Period. 5. Sc>-ld's Funeral Obsequies (L 4.81). 6. The Dragon's 
Hoard in Beowulf. 7. The Double Burial in Beowulf. 8. Beowulf's 
Funeral Obsequies.l — R.: Nation scv (New York, 1911), 386^-87" 
(anon.); A. Mawer, MLR. viii (1913), 343 f.; Fr. Klaeber, JEGPh. liii 
(1914), 167-73. 

D, ..■■.V^.OO^IC 


40. Hans I.ehmann, (i) Brvnnt.vTid Helm itit ags. Brotnulfiiiir. G6t- 
tingen Diss., Leipzig, 1885; (2) " Uber die WatFen im ags. Beowulfliede." 
C/rm. xxxi (1886), 486-97. 

41. Richard Wegner, Dit Angriffswaffm der Angelsacksfn. Konigs- 
berg Diss., 1899. (Spear only.) 

^2. May Lansfield Keller, The Anglo-Saxon JFeapon Names treaud 
archaologUally and eiymologically. (Ang. F. xv.) Heidelberg, 1906. 
37s PP- 

43. Karl Pfannkuche, Der Schild bei den Angettachsnt, Halle Diss., 

44! Hjalmar Falb, "Altnordiache WafFenkunde." Videmkaptsel- 
ikapeu Skrifter. II. Hiil.-FUoj. Klasse, 1914, No. 6, Kristiania. 4to. 
311 pp. ICompre he nsive study.] 

45. Cf._ (!) S. A. Brooke (1,4. 6. i). ch. viii: 'Armor and War in Poetry.' 
— (a) Lilly L. Stroebe, Die aiUngUsclun Kleidemamen. Heidelberg 
Diss., Leipzig, 19a].. — (]) Knut Stjerna (L 9, 39), ch. i. 

46. George II. Boehmer, "Prehistoric Naval Architectureof the North 
of Europe." Rtport of the U. S. National Museum, under ihe direction of 
the Smithsonian Inslilulion, pp. 527-647. 1891. [With numerous illus- 

47. Heinrich Schnepper, Dit Namen der Scktffe und SckiffsleiU im 
Attenglischen. Kiel Diss., 1908. Cf. Merbach, L 7, 17. 

48. Hjalmar Falk, "Altnord Laches Seeweseo." Warter und Sathen iv 
(1911), i-iaa. 4to. 

49. (i) Reallexiion der gemaniscken Aitertumskunde. Unter Milurir- 
tung lahlriicher Fachgelehrten hrsg. von Johannes Hoops. Strassburg, 
19(1 ff, [Standard,] (Presumably 4 vols, have appeared so far.) 
(2) O. Schiader's cicellent RealUxiion der indogermanischen Allertums- 
tunde, Strassburg, 1901 may serve as a supplement. 

CO. Valuable material is found also in the translations of Beomul} by 
L. Simons (L 3. 31), Clark Hall (L 3. S)_[u3eful Index], and W. Huyshe 
(L 3.8). — Besides, studies of 'Teutonic Antiquities' in other poems 
deserve notice: A. F. C. Vilmar {Heliand) [full of enthusiasm], C. W. Kent 
{Andreas and EUne), M. Rau (Exodus), C. Ferrell (Genesis), M. B. Prica 
('Cynrrpuin, F. Brincker (Judith); F. Tupper (Edition of Riddles, pas- 
sim); E. Lagenpusch, Das germanischf Reckt im Htliaad, Breslau, 1894; 
O. Harlung, Die deuiscken Allenumer des Niheiungerdiedes UTid der 
Kudrun, Cothen, 1894; H. Althof, Wdtharii Poesis, Das fFallharilied 
Ekkekards I. hrsg. UJtd erlautert. Part H: Commentary, Leipag, 1905 
($assim, and pp. 371-416; 'Kriegsaltertiimer'). 

X. Old Norse Parallels 

I. The EUer Edda {Eddie Poems]. {9th to 13th century.) (1) Ed. by 
Sophus Bugge (Christiania, 1867); K. Hildebrand (Paderbom, 1904; re- 
edited by H. Gering, 1904, igii); B. Sijmons (Halle, 1888-1906); F. 
Detter and R, Hcinzel (I^ipzig, 1903; with copious annotations); G. 
Vigfussoo and F. York Powell, Corpus Poetieum Boreaie, Vol. i (Oiford, 


lS8}; with introduction, notes, and English translation; Vol. u: Court 
Poetry); G. Neckel (Heidelberg, 1914). — (2) English translations by 
Vigfuason and Powell, see (i); 0. Bray, London, 1908: I. The mythologi- 
cal poems (includes ON. teit). — German translations by H. Gering (Leip- 
zig, 189s; with notes); F. Gcnzmer, (Thule, No. 1, Jena, 1912, 1. Heldeo- 
dichtung, with notes by A. Heusier). — (j) Glossaries by H. Gering: 
dollar tU. (Paderborn, 4th ed., 1915), and yollitandigti IVotUrbuck 
(Halle a. S., 190]; 1404 cols.). — (4) Eddica Minora ed. by A. Heusier and 
W. Ranlsch. Dortmund, 1903. [Pp. ui-xxvi, Si^a: BiarkamM, i.e., 
the fragments of the Icelandic poem and Saio's Latin version,] 

a. Snorri Starluson (a.d, 1178-1241), {Proii\ Edda. Ed. by J>orleifr 
Jonsson (Kaupmannahdfn, 1875), E. Wilken (Paderborn, 1877, incom- 
plete; id ed., 1911-1]), Fionur Jonsson (Kabenhavn, 1900 [used for 
quotations In this edition]). — Important selections translated into Eng- 
lish by I. A. Blackwell (London, 1847; reprinted, with B. Thorpe's transl. 
of the Elder Edda (1866), iu the Norrwna Series, 1906); by A. G. Brodeur 
(American- Scandinavian Foundation, New York, 1916; more complete); 
into German, by H. Geiing (la the Appendix to his translation of the 
Elder Edda). 

3. Snorri Sturluson, Hcimikringla: Norigt Konunga Sqgur. Ed. by 
Finnur Jonsson. 4 vols. Kabenhavn, 1893-1901. Vol, i, pp. 9^-85: 
Yaglingasaga. — English translation by William Morris and Ein'kr 
Magnusson in The Saga Library, Vols, iii-vi. London, 1893-1905. Vol, 
iii. PP- "-73; YngUngasaga. 

4. Saio Grammaticus (bom cir. a.d. 1150), Cesta DanoTtim. Ed. by 
P.E.MiillerandJ.M. Vdschow(Vol.i. Havni*, 1839. Vo\.li\ProUgo- 
mtna el notae ubiriores], Havnise, 1858); by Alfred Holder (Strassburg, 
1886; used for quotations). — Translation of the hrst nine books into 
Enghsh by Oliver Elton (London, 1894) (L 9. 36), into German by Her- 
mann Jantzen (Berlin, 1900; with notes and index of subjects), and Paul 
Herrmann (Leipzig, 1901). (Cf. L 4. 35, too,) 

For minor Latin chronicles see Appendix I ; Par. \ 8. 

;. ftjlsM-Kglnala {cii 
E. Wilken (Paderborn, 1877, 51 
English translation by E. Magnusson and W. Morris (London, 187O; 
reprinted and supplemented with Legends of the Wagner Trilogy, in the 
Norrcena Series, 1906). German translation by A. Edlardi (Stuttgart, 
iSSo, and iSSi). 

6. Greltis Saga Asmundarionar (cir. a.d. 1300). Ed. by R. C. Boer 
{Altnordische Saga-Bibliothek. No. viii). Halle a. R., 1900. Chs. 64-66 
also in F. Holthausen's Altisldtidixhes Leiebuch, pp. 79 fF. Weimar, lBg6; 
ch. 3S also in Vigfusson and Powell's Icelandic Prose Reader, pp. 209 ff. 
Oxfonl, 1879. — English translations by Eirikr Magnusson and William 
Morris (London and New York, 1900), and by George A. Hight (Every- 
man's Library, 1914). (Cf. L 4. 48, 54.) 

7. Ofms pdUr Slorolfsjanar (early 14th century). Ed. by G. Vigfusson 
and C. R. Unger in FlaUyjarhok i, 521-33. Christiania, i860. 

8. Hrolfs Saga Kraka (14th century). Ed. by Finnur Jonsson. 
Kabenhavn, 19^^- (On pp. 109-63 the Bjarkarimur (isth century).) — 
German translation (with useful notes) by Paul Herrmann. Torgau 
Progr., 1905. (Cf.L4.6s.) 


9- Finnur Jonsaon, Dm Oldnoriki og Oldislandske LitUraturs Hitlorie. 
K0benhavn, 1894-1901.^ Eugi:a Mogk, Norwegiich-Iildndijclu Literalio' 
ia P.Odr.', ii», pp. SSS-giJ. 1901. — Primer: W. Golthcr, Nordiiclu 
Literaiurgesihichie. I. (Sammlung Goschen, No. 2J4.) 1905. 

Note t. — A lut of the best boolu ia Eoglish auitable for an introilac- 
tion to the subject and its wider relations should, by all means, include 

Chadwick's H^oic Age (L 4. 31) 

Ker's Epic and Romance (L 4. iso) 

Chambers's Widsilk (h 4. ??) 

Gummere's Germanic Origxas (L 9. tl). 

To these we may add the two moat helpful translations, viz, those of 
Gummere and Oarit Hall (Hall's prose translation), 

" "... i^^fi^^ii^j^ 

. - . ».3S)— "<* " -, 

invite particular attention on the part of students. Bugge's Sludien uher 
da] Beoaulfepos (L 4. »8, L 5. 6. 3) may serve aa a model of philological 

Note 3. — Reporta of the progress of Beowulf studies have appeared 
■t various times. See Walker's Grutidrisj XL 4. 4); J- Earle, L 3. ^ pp. 
il-liii; F. Dieter in Ergehnisie iirid Fortiekritle der germaniiliicken ffusen- 
sckaSl im Uoita Vierteljahiku-ndert ed. by R. Bethge (1901), pp. 348-56; 
cf. A. Brandl, "tiber den gegcnwartigen Stand der Beowulf-Fortchung," 
Arch, cviii (1901), 151-55; R' C. Boer, L 4. i+o, pp. 1-3^. (Th. Kriiger, 
2um Beotindfliedt, Brombcrg Progr. (1884), and Arch. Uxi (1884), 129-53; 
C. B. Tinker, L 3. 43, pastint.) 

Note j. — For biographical accounts of some prominent Beowulf 
scholars, see Salmonsen's KoncersationsUkiiton: G. J. Thorlcclin (1753— 
1819), N. F. S. Gnindtvig (1783-1873); — /EGPk. vii, No. 3, pp. loc-i 14 
(E. Mogk): S. Bugge (1833-1907); — Tif Dictionary of National Bio- 
eraphy: J. M. Kemble (1807-1857), B. Thorpe (1781-1870); — ^«j^ 
m^M Deutsche Biographie: C. W. M. Grein (1815-1877) (a fuller state- 
ment in Grein-Wiilier'a BiUiolkek der agi. Poetic iiL a, pp. vii--iii), K, 
MuIlenhofF (1818-1884), J. Zupitza (1844-1895), B. ten Brink (1841- 
1893); — Heyne's Das altdcMiclu Handweri, pp. vK-iiv (E. Schroder): 
M. Heyne (1837-1906); — G/IM. ii, s:r7-93 (W. Streitberg): E. Siever* 
(b. 1850). — No biography of G. Sarrazin (d. 1915) has as yet been acces- 
sible here. 

Digiiizcdt* Google 


(L I. 8.) Mai Forater, "Die Beowulf-Handschrift." Brruku Her 
die yerhandlun^en der Sachsischtn Akademie der fVisseiuckaflen, Vol. 
liii. No. 4. Leipzig, 1919. 89 pp. [Highly important, comprehcntive 

(Li. 9.) SunleyLRypioa, "The Beowulf Codei." WPA, xvii {19M), 

(L I. c . 
Beottmlf Codex _^. , 

(L z. 7. $.) BeoKulfed. by Schiiclciag, nth and luh ed., 191S. 

(L a. 7, J.) Review of Schiicking's (loth to lath) edition by F. Holt- 
hatwen, ZfdPk. ilviii (1919/20), 117-ji. 

{L a. 13. a.) Review! of Chambers's edition by L. I,. Schucking, ESt. 
W (1921), 88-Iooj 0. L. Jiriczek, Die Nmeren Spracketi xtHl (1911), 

(La. K-) Beoieulf ed by Holthausen, 4th ed^ Part 1, 1914; Part U, 
1919. 5th ed.. Part I, igai. 

(L 3. 35.) The translation of Beoamlf (and of Dear, Finmburg, and 
WaldeTt) by W. Thomas has been published in book form, Paris, 1919. 
(An introduclioa (pp. i-xxxii) has been added.] 

(L 3. 41a.) Numerous passages (some iioo lines) translated into 
Italian by Federico Olivero m his Traduiioni datla Poesia /tngto-Sassane. 
Bar!, 191S- [With some notei and a brief general introduction. Cmi- 
tab» al«o Tlu Fight at Finmburg and many other specimens of OE. 

(L3. 44. Add;) Review of W. E. Leonard's monograph by Fr. Klaeber, 
Biibl. uiii (1911), 14S-4S. Cf. Leonard's supplementary study, "The 
Scansion of Middle English Alliterative Verse," Umu. of Wiieonsin 
Slitdiej in Language and Lilfralure, No. II (i^ao), 57-;lo%. 

(L 4. 16. 1.) Review of Sarrazin's Fan Kadmon bis Kyneandf by O 
Funke, Beibl. xixi (1910), lai-ji. 

(L 4, aaa.) R. W. Chambers, BeoBmlf: An Introduction to ihe Study of 
ike Poem mUk a Diicusnon of ihe Stories of Ofia aitd Finn. Cambridge, 
1931. 417 pp. (Historical elements, non-historical elements, origin of the 
poem; illustrative documents, special appendices, full bibliography, etc. 
A very important, scholarly work, indispensable to advanced students. 
Thorough discussion of problems.! 

(L 4, jr. 7.) Hans Naumann, Alinorditcke Namensludien, pp. 179-82. 
Berlin, 191 a. 

(L4- 31. 8.) Erik Bjorkman, Studien uber die Eigennamen im Btoamlf. 
(St. EPh. Iviii.) Halle a. S., 1920. laa pp. [A complete survey, of great 
value for the criticism of the legends.] 

(L 4, IS- An English version of Vol. i of Olrib's Danmarkt Helti- 
diglning-) Axel drik. The Heroic Legends of Denmark. Translated from 
tlM Danish and revised in collaboration with the author by Lee M. Hoi- 
I Tbc nsniucripl d^ (hii cdilbia wu pnaiaUy fiuiifacdukJ tent ta thepubUairfB In 



lander. New York, The American-Scandinavian Foundation, 1919. 
[Considerably revised, rearranged, and thus made still more helpfuLI 
R.: G. T. Flom, JEGPh. lii (1920), 284-90. 

(L 4. 6ib.) Frank Gaylord Hubbard, "The Plundering of the Hoard 

)wulf." Una. 0/ IFiiconiin Studies 

1 he rlu ndenns 01 the nc 
Language and Lileralure, 

^. _irik Bjorkman "Beow, Beaw und Beowiilf. . 

(19(8), 145-93- IOl the etymology of the names Beow and Beowulf and 
the provenience of the respective legends. Cf. L 4. 82a. | 

(L 4, 66a(i).) Erik Bjorkman, " BeowuifFors lining och nijaologi." 
finsk Tidskriftfor Vilttrhn, feieaskap, Konst och Potink briiiv (Helsing- 
for», 191B), 250-71. 

(I. 4. 66b(i).) C. W. V. Sydow, "Grendel i angbaaxiaka ortnamn." 
Namn ock Bygd, Tidtkrifl for Nordisi OrtnamKsfonining u (1914), 160- 
&(. [Grendel, an Ags. water-aprlte, was identified by the poet with a 
aimilar figure in Irish tradition. 'Beowulf's fight with Grendel and his 
mother' based on an Irish prose tde.] Cf. id., "Irischcs im Beowulf." 
Ftrhandtungen der 52. yeriammlang dtulsclur Pkilologm und Schul- 
mdnner (Marburg, IQ13), pp. 177-80. Lei ' -^ . . . » 

(I, 4. 6«)(2).^ Erik G. T. Rooth. "I 
wulfsage." Beibl. xxviii (1917), Jl!-40. 

(1, 4. 66b(3).) Reginald Fog, "Trolden Grendel i Bjovulf. En Hytw- 
theae." Danike SludUr liv {1917), IJ4-40. [Considers Grendel a di»- 
ease-apreading demon; Beowulf disinfects Heorot.| 

" (. 66b(4).) Eugen Mogk, "Altgermanische Spukgeschichten. Zu- 

eleich ein Beilrag zur Erklarung der Grendelepiaode im Beowulf." 
Neue Jakrhucker fur dai klassischt Allerttim rlc. xliii (1919), 103-17. 
[Recognizes in the Grendel tale the type of a ghost-story (cf. Grruijsaga); 

rejects Panzer's theory.] 

(L 4. 74. 2. Add:) Erik Bjorkman, "Z\i ae. Sou, Yu, usw., dan. Jydir 
'JutenV' Beibt. iiviii (1917). S7s-Ra 

(L 4. 74. 4.) Erik Bjorkman, "Beowulf och SverJgea historia," Nor- 
disk Tidskriflfor Fclenskap, Konsl ock Indujtri, 1917, 161-79. iGialai ^ 
Gautar: Beowulf a historical person.] 

(L4.7Sa.) H. V.Clausen." Kong Hugleik." Danski SludUriv {igiSl, 
117-49. (Identifies Geals and Jutes; recognizes Hygeliic'a name in the 
place-name HoUingsted.] 

(L4.78b.) Vilh. la Cour, "Lejrestudier." Dansie Sludur jlvW (igio), 
49-67. [Lejre the ancient seat of Danish royalty. Objections anawered.l 

(L 4, 78c.) Erik Bjorkman, "Zu einigen Namen im Beowulf. 3. 
WealhJ'eow." B^i*/. i:!» (1919), 177-Bo. 

(L 4. 82a(z).) Erik Bjorkman. "Bedwig in den westsachsiachen 
Geneaiogien." Beibl. xxx (1919), 13-5. 

(L 4. 92b(l).) Kaarle Krohn, "Sampaa Pellervoinen < Njordr, 
Freyr?" Finniich-Ugriscki Fonchungen iv (1904), 231-48. [The Fin- 
nish Sampsa compared with the Norse NjffrJIr-Freyr.f — (L 4. 82b(l).) 
M. J. Eisen. "Ober den Pekoku'.tus bei den Setukeaen," ih. vi (1906), 
104-11, [On the Finnish Pekko.l (It was Olrik (ii 250 ff.) that proposed 
the conclusion: Scyld-^ceaf - Sampsa, Beow = Pekko. Cf. Intr. iiv.) 
— (L 4. 8jb{3).) Wolf von Unwerth, "Fiolnir." ^/A'f. raiii (1917), 
320-35. [Connects Fiolnir with Pellon-Peclto, Byggvir, Beow.l 



(L 4. 8lc.) A- Branttl, "Die Urstanvmtafel der Westsachsen und das 
Beowulf-Epoi." Arch, cixxvu (1918), 6-24, [Assumes influence of 
Beoaiul/ on Ethclwerd; rejecia the mythological (ritual) origin of Sceaf 
and Scyld in the aense proposed by Chadwick; eiplains Sce(a)iing irom 
Lat. icapha 'boat.'] 

(L 4, 88a.) ErUt Bjorkman, "Haecyn und Hdkon." ESl Hv (1920), 

(L 4. 92a.) Erik Bjorkman, "Zu einigen Namen im Beowulf, i. 
Breca. j. Brondingas," BeiM. iii (1919). i7'>-77> 

(L4.9ib.) AliredAnscombe, "Beowulf in High-Dutch Saga." KoUJ 
and Querie!, August ii, 191;, pp. 133 f. [Ventures to identity Boppe nz 
Tenelant in the MHG. Bilerdf with Beowulf.) 

(L 4. 91c.) Wolf von Unwerth, "Eine schwedische Heldensage ali 
deutachea Volksepoi." A/NF. xxiv {1 gig), 11 i-37. [Finds traces of the 
stories of HxScya (Herebeald) and Hygelic in the MHG. Biurotf, the 
ON. Pidreksjaga, etc] Cf. Intr. xlii and n. 1; (Addenda) L 4. 92b. 

(L 4. 94a.) Gudmund Schiitte, "Vidsid og Slxgtssagnene om Hengeit 
og Angantyr." AjNF. xixvi (1919/20), i-j2. 

(L 4, 97a.) Oscar Montelius, "Ynglingaatten." Nordisk Tidskrifi fir 
Feltttskap, Kottit ock Induilri, 1918, 113-3S. 

[L 4. io6a.) Rudolf Imelmann, Forsihuntm xur dlrngliscken Poesu, 
pp. 456-63. Berlin, 1920. [1. 1931 (perh.): NJod pifSo wseg.I 

(L 4. 124. 3.) Andreas Heusler. "Heliand, Liedstil und Epenstil." 
7JdA. Ivii (t9i9j/20), 1-48. [CoQiaina a lucid comment on style and 
meter of Germanic po:ms.] 

(L 4. 126. 2.) Review of Sieper'a monograph by L. L. Schucking, ESt, 
11(1917). 97-1 IS- 

(L 4. 129.) Cf. Rudolf Imelmann, op, ell., passim. 

(L 4. 146a.) Levin L. Schucking, "Wann entaland der Beowultf 
Glosaen, Zweifel und Fragen." Btilr. ilii (1917), 347-410. [An impor- 
tant study including a criticism of the current chronological criteria and 
an examination of the literary and cultural background of the poem. It 
!■ suggested that Beowulf may have been composed about the end of the 
ninth century, at the request of a Scandinavian prince reigning in the 
Danelaw territoi?.] 

(L 4. 146b.) F. Licbermann. "Ort und Zeit der BeowulfdichtunK." 
Nachnchun bob der K. Geseltschafl dtr Wlssenschafttn la GeUinsin, pkiloi.- 
hist. Klaste, 1920, pp. 255-76. [The epic may have been composed at the 
court of Cu^burg, lister of King Ine of Wessex, who became queen of 
Northumbria and later preaided over the monastery at Wimbome.) 

(L 4. 154.) Oliver F. Emerson, "Grendel'a Motive in Attacking 
Heorot." MLR. ivi (1921), 113-19. (The motive of envy according to 
Christian conceptions.] 

(L J. 26. 21.) Ferd. Holthausen, £Si. li (1917;), 180. (1.1141.) 

(L s- 44. S »'"' 6) Ernst A. Kock, Aagl. iliii (1919). 303-S I"- ^3°. 
14i3l; -^ngl. iliv (1910), 98-104 [II. 24. 154 fF., 189 f., 489 f.. 583, 1747, 
1820 f., 1931 f.. 2164]; ib., 246-48 [11. 12) i, iio+, i;ss f.]. 

(L 5. 44. 7.) Ernst A. Kock, AngL x\v (1921), 105-22, [Notea on 
nomerous paaaagcs.j 

(L 5- 48. 5.) L L. Schucking, "WiSergyld (Beowulf 2051)." ESu ha 
(1919/20), 468-70. 


'jos-ie. [11. 489 f., 599, 1061 S., J005 f., J074 {., JIM f., etc) 

{L S- S9-) W. F. Bryan, "Beowulf Notei," JEGFh. lii (1930), S4 f. 

[11. 306, 514, 868.] 

(L 5. 60.) Johannes Hoops, "Daa Vcrhullcn dea Hanpti bei Toten, 

ein aageliachsiich-nordischer Brauch," ESl. liv (1910), IQ-IJ* ll> M&l 
(L s. 61.) J. D. Buih, MLN. xjlivi (1921), 1$!. [1. 1604.] 
(L 7. zja.) Alberta J. Portengen, Di Oudgentutanicke dicktirtaal in 

hilar clkndogiich vtrband. Leiden Din., 1915, za6 pp. (Speculation* 

oa the origin of kenninga.) 

(LS.iJ. Add;) WiVtie\mHevna, Der gtfmanuclu AUitteralhnsten *tid 

sritu forgesckicku. Mit linem Exkuri iber ien Saturnur. Mntuter 

Disa., 1914, 

(L 8. n. Add:) Eduard Sievera, "Metrische Studien IV. Die alt- 

Khneditchea Upplandslagh nebit Proben formverwandter Kermamacher 

Sagdichtuno." Abkandlungen der K. SOiksiichea Geselbckafi der fFiuen- 

ic£iflini,phiiol.-hiit. Klassf, VoL luv. Leipaj, 1918. 1919. 410. 6m ppi 

IS 163 n., and pastim. [Sieven'a present viewi on certain aapccts of 
, speech-melody, etc.] For a. practical application of hia syatem to 
.-■-i.ici.m "-e E. Sieven, "Zum Widsith. TfiOf und Fortckvttgen 

lur enf^ischen KuilurgttthuhU, Ftttgaie fur Filix Liebermann, pp. I 
Hsllea.S., 1921. 

(1,8.11. Add:) Cf.alao J. W. Rankin, "Rhythm and rime before the 
Norman Conquest." Pvbl. MLAss. «ivi (1921), 401-18. [On trace* t& 
papular, non-Bterary longs.] 

(L 8. iS.) Erich Ncuner, Uhet nur und drfihibige HatbMrtt in itr 
aUingiiichm tdliurinendeti Paeiu. Berlin Dba., 1910. 

(L 8. iS.) Review of Neuner'a treatiac by J. W. Bright, MIN. ixiri 
{1921), 5^3. 

(L 8. 39.) Alfred Bognitz, Doppell-jleigtitde ARiteratwiUTeTU (Simr^ 
Typui B) im Angelsathshch'ri. Berlin Disa., 1910. 

0.8. 30.) A. Heusler, "Stabreim." «.-£. ic (1919), 131-40. [On the 
origin and nature of alliteration.) 

(L 9. 28a.) G. Baldwin Brown, Saxon Art and Indtutry in the Pagan 
Period (— Vol). 3 and 4 of The Arts in Early England). London, I9IS> 
815 pp. 

(L 9. 28b.) Gustav Neckel, "Adel nnd Gefolgwhaft. Ein Bdtnig 
' " ' ' - " •■' 9t6), 385-436- . „ 

. of Matnanrhy in Ger- 

n Languagi and Liura- 

turf, No. 9 (1920). 77 pp. 

(L 9, 39.) A detailed^ review of Km 

Msiii (i9'7 , -„-, ,„ 

Geatt may have been a Gaucie colony in N.E. Jutland.] 

(L 9. 49. I.) The fourth volume of the R/alUxikon der g'mianiscktK 
Alteriumskunde was completed in 1919. 



(LF. 2. tj.) L. L. Schucbing, Kleitui anfilidckiuckes Duklerhueh. 
CothcD, 1919. IContaini sixteen selections, including 'The Fight at 
Finnabutg,' 'Finn Episode,' and 'Beowulf's Return.'] 

(LF. 4. 19a.) Rudolf Imelmann, Forjckungen lut altingliicketi Porsit, 
Berlin, 1920, pp. 341-81- [Hcngest " the historic Tut ish chief; traces of 
the influence of the lEtuid; interpret a tianal notes,] 

(LF. 4. 19b.) Nellie Slayton Aurner, "Hengeat: A Study in EarlvEog- 
li«h Hero Legend." Unh. of lotea Humanistic Studies, Vol. ii. No. I. 
1921. 76 pp. (and chart). 

(LF.4.a9c) Emit A. Koclc, ^ng/.xlv (1921), 125-27. (TKttual notes.! 

(LF. 4. a9d-) W. J,. Sedgefietd, MLR. ivi (igji), 59. [Teitual notefc] 

Digiiizcdt* Google 


Note. L (Bibliographical List) signifies tlie Bibliography of this edi- 
tion* pp. cixiii tf. In peferriog to it, the ten main divisions are denoted 
by Arabic numerals sysarated by a period from the given number of the 
respective title; thua L i. i6 means W. J. Sedgefield, Brmeulf. Figures 
referring to subdivisions of the numbered items and to pages of books 
and articles are preceded by additional periods; thua L 6. ix. i. 379 
means John Ries, Die Worutellung im Beowulf, p. 379. 

Aani. Cosijn's Aanteekeningen op den Beowulf. (L 5. 10. 3.) 

MNF. Arkiv for Nordbk Filologi. 

Ang. F. Anglisilache Forschungen hrsg. von J. Hoopa. 

Aagl. Anglia. 

Aax.jdA. Anzeiger fur deutsches Altertum. 

Atch. Archiv fiir daa Studium der neucren Sprachen und Literatiiren. 

Arniold). Arnold's edition. (L 3. 9.) 

Bartiouw. Bamouw'a Teitkritische Unterauchungen etc. (L 6. 7. 3.) 

Beibl. Beibtatt zur Anglia. 

Behr. Beitrage zur Geschichte der deutachen Sprache uad Literatur. 

Biia. Binz'sZeugnisaezurgermaniachenSagein England. (L4. 31. i.) 

Boer. Boer, Die altenglische Heldendichtung. (L 4. 140.) 

Bonn. B. Bonner Beitrage zur Anglistik hrsg. von M. Trautmann. 

Boui. Bouterwek'a paper in ZfdA. xi. (L S- a.) 

Brandt. Brandl's Angels^ehsische Literatur. (L 4. II.) 

B,-T. Bosworth and Toiler, Anglo-Saion Dictionary; B.-T. Suppl, 
Supplements thereto {190S, 1916). 

Budge). Bugge's Studien iibcr das Bcowulfepos, Beitr. lil (L 4. 28, 
5.6.3); Bu.T\d. Bugge's paper in Tidskrift for Philologi etc. viii 
(L 5- 6. ; Bu. Zi. Bugge's paper in ZfdPh. iv (L 5. 6. 1). 

Bilb. Biilbring'a Altenglisches Elemcntarbuch. I. igcM. 

Ckaimberi). Chambers's edition of Beowulf (L j. 13. l); Cha-Wid. 
Chambers'a edition of WidsiS (Li. 77). 

Ckadwick H. A. Chadwick's Heroic Age (L 4. sa); Chadaick Or. - 
Chadwick'i Ori^n of the English Nation (L 4. 38). 

a. HaU. Clark Hall'a prose translation. (L 3. $■) 

Cos. Fill. Coaijn's paper in Beitr. viii, (L j. 10. a.) 

Dial.D. English Dialect Dictionary. 

D.Lit.i. Deutsche Literaturzeitung. 

£. Ettmuller's edition (L I. iS); E.Sc. his Engia and Seaxna Scopas 
etc. (L a. ao); his translation (L 3. 19). 

EarU. Earie'a translation: Deeds of Beowulf. (L 3. 4.) 

ESl. Englische Studien. 

Germ. Germania, Vierteljahrsschrift fiir deutsche Alterthumskunde, 

Gr. (Cr.', Gr.'). Grein's editions (L 3. S, L a. 8); Gr.Spr. Grein's Sprach- 
schatz der angelsachsischen Dichter, 1861-64. (Re-issued by Kohler & 
Holthaueen, 1911.) 



Grinb. von Grienberger'i paper in ZfoG. Ivi. (L ;. 4S. »■) 

Grimm D.M. Jacob Grimm's Deutsche Mythologie. (L4.41.) Refer- 
encee are to the 4th editipn, with the page numberE in Stallybrass' trans- 
lation added in parentheses. Grimm R. A. Jacob Grimm's Deutsche 
Rechualterthiimer. References are in accorcfance with the pagination 
of the 1st ed. (18*8), which is indicated also in the margin of the 4th ed, 

GRM. Germ anisch-Rom anise he Monatsschrift. 

Gru. Grundtvig's edition (L a. 6); his translation, 1st ed. 
(L 3- J7)- 

Gummere. Gummere's translation (L J, Ij); Gnmmere G. O. his Ger- 
manic Origins (L 9. ti). 

Heiyne) (also: Ht.Soc., He.-Scku.). Heyne's editions, (L i. 7.) 

Hold. Holder's editions. (L a. li.) 

Hob. Holthausen's editions. (L 2. 15.) (References are primarily to 
thejded.) ffoi(.Z/. his paper in ZfdPh. luvii (L S- a6. 17). 

Helton. Holtzraann's paper in Germ. viii. (L 5. 4.) 

IF. Indogermanieche Forschungen. 

J(E)GPk. The Journal of (English and) Germanic Philology. 

Kaliuza). Kaluza's Metrib des Beowulfliedes. (L S. 9. 3.) 

Kf(mMt). Kemble's edition (of 1835): Kt. II the second volume (of 
I»!7). (L2..J 

Keller. Keller's Anglo-Saion Weapon Names. (L 9. 41.) 

Ker. Ker's Epic and Romance, 1897. (L 4. 110.) 

Klu. IX. Kluge's paper in Beitr. ii (5. 15. i.) 

Kock. Kock's paper in Angl. Etvii (L 5. 44.1); Kock* his paper m 
Angl. ilii (L s- 44- 3)- 

LitJ>l. Literaturblatt fiir germanische and romanische Philologie. 

LoTi. Lorz's Aktionsarten des Verbums im Beowulf. (L 6. 17.) 

MLN. Modern Language Notes. 

MLR. Modem Languase Review. 

MailUr). MoUer, Das altenglische Volksepos. (L ^. IJ4, z. I9.) 

Monielivs. Montelius, The Civilisation of Sweden m Heathen Timet. 

MPh. Modem Philology. 

AfmHeahoff). Mullenhors Beovulf (L 4. 19); MOU. XI F his paper in' 
ZfdA. liv (see L 4. 130). 

KED. New English Dictionary. 

Olrik. Olrik's Danmarks Heltedigtning. (L 4. js.) 

Paiaer. Panzer's Studien etc. I.Beowulf. (L4. 61.) 

P. Grdr. Gnindriss der gerrnanischen Philologie hrsg. von H. Paul. 

PM.MLAts. Publications of the Modem Language Association of 

Rie.L. Rieger's Lesebuch (L a. ai); Rie.F.ha Alt-& angelsachsische 
Ver^kunat (L 8. j); Rii.Zi. his (japer in ZfdPh. iii {L S- ?)■ 

R.-L. Realieiikon der geimanischen Altertumskunde. (L 9. 49.) 

Sarriatin) St. Sarrazii^s Beowulf-Studien (L 4. 16. i); Sarr. Kad. 
Sarrazin, Von Kidmon bis Kynewolf (L 4. 16. 3). 

Sckii. Schiicking's editions (L a. 7. 3). (References are primarily to 
the lOth ed.) Sckv. Bd. his Untersuchungen zur Bedeutungslehre 
(L 6. la); Schu. Sa. his Grundziige der Satzverkniipfung (L 6. 15); Scku. 
XXXIX hb paper in ESt. laii (L 5. 48. j). 

D, ..■■.v^.oo^ic 


Std. Sedgefietd's editions (L 2. 16). (Referencei are primarily to the 
2d ed.) 

Siev. (I). Sievers's Angelsichsische Gmmmatik, 3d ed., 189S; ilso 
Cook's traoalatioQ of it, 1903; SUd. A.M. Sievera's Altgermanische 
Metrik (L B. 4); Sin. R. his paper, Zur Rhythmik des germaniecheo 
Alliterationsverees {L 8. 3); Sin. IX, XXIX, XXXFI his paper* in 
Bcitr. (L S- 16. 1, 7, 9). 

S. MOlltr. Sopbus Miiller's Nordische Altertumskunde. (L q. 37.) 

Sl.EPh. Studien zur englischen Philologie hrsg. voa L. Morsbach. 

Stjer. Stjema's EsBays etc. (L 9. 39.) 

t.3r. or Wn Brink, ten Brink's Beowulf. (L 4. 18.) 

Tki. Thorkelin's edition. (L a. 1.) 

Tho. Thorpe's edition. (L i. 4.) 

Tr(aulmaitii). Trautmann's edition (L i. 14); Tr,' his paper in Bonn. 
B. ii (L 5, 34. i); Tr.F. his Finn & Hildebrand (LF. j. 10); Tr. Kyn. hii 
Kynewuff, Bonn. B. i, 1898. 

^"ikt {§). Wright (J. & E. M.), Old English Grammar, ad ed., 


'. Wyatt'a edition. (L a. 13. i.) 

d.. or Zupina. Zupitza's facsimile edition. (L i. J.) 

2JdA. Zeitschrift fur deutsches Altertum. 

ZfdPk. Zeitschrift fur deutsche Philologie. 

Z/oC. Zeitschrift fur die osterreichiechen Gymnasien. 

Zfvgl. Spr. Zeitschrift fur vergleichende Sprachforschung. 

The poems of Brun{anbufk), Daniitt), Ex{odut), Jiid{ilk\ MaId(oii) 
have been quoted from the editions in the Bellea-Lettres Series; Atidrifas), 
Ckriist), Fat{a) Ap{oslolorum). Sid{dUi), from the editions in the Albion 
Series; other OE. poems, from the Grein-Wijlkcr BiblielM der angel- 
sachsiicken Poesit. (For Tupper's Riddlis, see also L 0. jo.) — Hil{iandj 
has been quoted from Heyne's (ith) edition; Hiliebr{andilied\, from 
Braune's Althochd. Ltsebuch; Nibiliungenlied), from Lachraann's edition. 

The following abbreviations of references to this edition need to be 
mentioned. Intt. •= Introduction; Lang. {\) = Introduction, VII: Lan- 
guage; — LF. = Bibliography of the Fight at Finnsbur^; — Par. = Ap- 
pendix I: Parallels; Anliq. — Appendii II; Index of Antiquities; T.C. " 
Appendix III: Note on Textual Criticism; — ■ (n.) reten to the Notes 00 
the Text; thus (n.), placed after 3195, mcaiu: see note on 1. ai9S; — 
Fan. — Variant Readings. 

Digilizcdt, Google 

Digilizcdt, Google 


Italics indicate alteration of words by emendation. Letters or word* 

added hy emendation ate placed within square brackets. Parentheses 
are used when the conjecturaily inserted lettcis correspond to letters of 
the MS. which on account of its damaged condition are missing or il- 
legible and were so when the Thorkelin transcripts were made. Expan- 
sion of the usual scribal contractions for fft, -"", etc. , is not marked. 

The apparatus of variant readings, it is believed, has been made suf- 
ficiently full, although a system of careful selection had, necessarily, (o 
be applied. Indeed, the inclusion of many useless guesses would have 
served no legitimate purpose; The emendations adopted are regularly 
credited to their authors. Of other conjectures, a number of the mote 
suggestive and historically interesting ones have been added. Scholars 
who have given their support to certain readings have been frequently 
mentioned ; also the expedient of the impersonal el ai. has been freely 
— no doubt somewhat arbitrarily — employed. (?) after a name or a 
citation indicates tliat an emendation has been regarded as mote oi less 
doubtful by its author. In many cases it has seemed helpful to record 
the news of the four most recent editors. ^ Edd. ^ Holt. 1, Schu. "■, 
Sed.', Cha.( 3 Edd. = the same editions ejicepi the one specified. — 
Edd. = (all, or most) editions, or the subsequent editions, with the ex- 
ception of those specified. In quoting the readings of various scholars 
normalization has been practised to the extent of providing ihe proper 
marks of quantity, etc., in every instance. 

A and B denote the two Thorkelm transcripts, see L i. ; ; whenever 
they are referred to, it is understood that the MS. in its present condi- 
tion is defective. MS. A:c., etc., means Kemble's (etc.) readingof the 
MS. The number of colons used inciting MS. readings (see, e.g., IS9") 
marks the presumable number of lost letters ; in case their approximate 
number cannot be made out, dots are used In quoting the readings of 
A and B — from Zupitia's notes — the plain dots have been kept. The 
beginning of a new line In the MS. is sometimes indicated by a bar j 
thus, 47'> MS. g ■ . / denne. Fol, (ijo", etc.) followed by a word (or 
part of itj signifies that a page of the MS. begins with that word, which, 
however, is very often no longer fully visible in ihe MS. itself. 

For other abbreviations see the Table of Abbreviations. 

Regarding the somewhat uncertain matter of punctuating, il has been 
held desirable that the punctuation, while facilitating the student's 
understanding of the text, should also, in a measure, do justice to 
the old style and sentence structure. 

The student is advised to go carefully through the Note on Textual 
Criticism (T.C.) in Appendix III, and to study the explanatory Notea 
constantly in connection with the variant readings. 


HW^T, WE GAR-DEna in geardagum, 

}>eodcyninga ]»rym gefrunon,^ 

hu ^ xjfelingas ellen fremedon ! 

Oft Scyld Sceting scea);ena J^reatum, 
5 monegum m^g^um meodosetla ofteah, 

^sode eorl[asj, sySSan^Srest weaHS 

feasceaft funden; he (>ses frofre gebad, 

weox under wotcnum weorVmyndum )>3h, 

o9 Jjaet him £ghwylc ymbsutcndra 
■oofer hronrade h^ran scolde, 

gomban ^dan ; pxt wxs god cyning ! 

BSm eafera w£es xfter cenned 
igeong in. geardum, jvone God sende 

folce to frofre ; fyrenSearfe ongeat, 
*syi hie £r drugon aldor(Ie)ase 

lange hwile; him pxs LltFrea, 

wuldres Wealdend woroldare forgeaf ; 

Beowulf wses breme — bl^d wide sprang — 

Scyldes eafera Scedelandum in. 
loSwa sceal (geong g)uma gode gewyrcean, 

fromum feohgiftum on fxder (bea)rme, 

ll Fol. lipi' hipm. — ** MS. (ww), AB Keatwn, ffanlty L i.» iceipena. — 
6« MS. fortd (TOWegsodc 'in a i6ricinary hand' \z.).—ScAubtTt L 8.1.7 ''""■" 
pifc). — JC«., Sn,. L 4-33tSS /., xxix 560 ff.,4 EdJ. «cl[«l. — gb MS. 
pu*T.| Sm. R. 256, L4.33-'0OiaiKilt^irn$f4 Edd. Cf. T.C.%24. — "4" 
SckB.*-'-" (Kraael) fym-. — 15* JMX ^ j Htlt. , Clia. (.« ; Btaiirviek L 4.4s, Tr., 
&JHi.,StJ.,(tf.Z.,)iii TU.,Ki.fc.~ls''MS.aliior{:):tae;RaillinGru. 
tr. 367), 3 Bdd. -leuii Hill.',' -Kutt. — l8*B*0*u1f, lee sj" f^ai-r. — ig* 
AT*, tafmlnli » Hull. , &M. Sii mtt. — ic,^ MS.: :■.■.: : {0"nii ; Ke. gii«f™mj ; 
Gr.i glawgumji Gi-." geong guma, 10 4 Edd.—ii^ Fol. uqD MS. Z. (:} 1: 


{>xt hine on ylde eft gewunigen 

wilgesi)ns, )>onne wig cume, 

Icode gclXstcn ; lofdxdum sceal 
15 in mSg))a gehwSre man ge])ebn. 

Him ISi Scyld gewat to gescxphwile 

felahrSr fSran on Frcan wsere; 

hi hyne ]>a stbSron to brimcs farotSe, 

sw£se gcsi}>as, swa he selfa hzd, 
3o)>enden wordum weold wine Scyldinga — 

leof landfruma lange ihte. 

par set hySc stod hringcdstcfna 

Isig ond utfus, x)?clingcs fxr ; 

^edon )>a Icofnc }>codcn, 
JSbeaga bryttan on bearm scipes, 

mSrnc be maeste. 'pS£i v/xs madma feU 

of fconvcgum frxtwa gelsded ; 

ne h^rde Ic cj'mlicor cSol gegyrwan 

hildewSpnum ond hea^owZdum, 
4obi11um ond byrnumf him on hearme la^ 

madma mxnigo, ^i him mid scoldon 

on flodes *ht fcor gcwltan. 

Nalaes hi hinc ISssan lacum teodan, 

)>codgestrconum, fran ]>a dydon, 
45]>e hine set frumsceafte for^S onscndon 

Znne ofcr fie umborwescnde. 

J5» Snr. R. 483, Hill., &hs., Sa. gehw3in. Cf. T.C ^tt. — it^ Krepp 
MPh. a 407 waioSe (ib Thk). Sa Anil. ""''• «j/ — JO' Bright MLN. 
X 43 wordum geweild ; n Ckild ih. ad 17Sf. — 3i» Rit. Zi. 381 f. Bf {ftr 
|«rf). — jt>' Gr.i {r),{SiK>. ix J36 T), jUki. 1 f. I^ige O- ihte) 1 Klu. ix 18S 
leiid»gii(/ci-lange)jHa/f,|>[] Ihte.— Cf. Bu. So j ««* jai/; — 31« Idgj Tr.' 
izr tcig gricig {if. icge iio7t)'ittfieaUm' [}); Htli. Btiil. xaStf.mi, tp. 
ON.ian'nBhon' i Tr. flsim. 5. cti» /51/ wg' ready" (c^. Hurt 2a4" 'Vr.j; 
Hel/anJer MLN. xxxii 246/. Itig ' iplcndid ' Icf. ON. icr) ; ef. Griinh. Batr. 
*xmi OS- —44'' I^S.. '*'-'■'. ^i-' pon ; ^'"•i £<^ |>od1ik]. — Tr^ Hali.^ dHui. 
Cf.Lani.i 13.6.— 46b Fil. ijo' tcBdc 


pa gft hie him asetton segen g(yl)denne 

hSah ofer heafod, lecon holm beran, 

geafon on garsecg; him wxs geomor sefa, 
Somumende mod. Men ne cunnon 

sec^n to soSc, seler2dcni/e, 

hzlelS under heofenum, hwa )fxm hisste onfcng. 
I Si wxs on burgum Beowulf Scyldinga, 

[£of leodcyning longe (>rage 
SSfolcum gefrSge — fieder ellor hwearf, 

aldor of earde — , o]j Jjaet him eft onwoc 

heah Healfdene ; heold Jienden lifde 

gamol ond gu^reouw glxde Scyldingas. 

{>£m feower beam fortSgerimed 
6oin worold vyocun, weoroda rieswa[n], 

Heorogar ond HroSgar ond Halga til, 

h^rde ic ]?xt [ waes Onjelan cwen, 

HeaiSo-ScSIfingas hcaUgcbedda. 

pa WKS HrolSgarc hcresped gyfen, 
65w!ges weortSmynd, piet him his winemlgas 

georne hyrdon, oS^ pxt seo geogo? gewSox, 

magodriht micel. Him on mod beam, 

|rst bealrcced hztan woldc, 

medoxm miccI men gewyrccan 

47'' MS. f. ./ iaine ( Kt. gyUeone ;i'> MS, rxdenne j XV. ii -rSdcnie (cfi. 

1316). — 5J* Mr. xxri ". 3; Beow or Beiw j cp. iga. — Fuir L S.6.4O, Kal. 
36, Tr.'/rf, Tr. B«owiilfScyMing;infK<&W. xxixsooff-i T.C. 820. — 58" 
Gr.i,elal.-t(im{a Ceafieari L 1.4 miirud MS.)i Su.Zi. io3'tSf i E., Crimt. 
?4tf-hrtow'wmy'[?lirr.-rauw' weary.' Sa T.C. | 2. — eo" MS. navit^Md 
friad afitr heoro gu) ; Lt., a ai.. Bill., Cia. tSts^a]. Cf. Ijini- § ig.3. — 
6i MS. Bn gapi Hi.^ {<f., Gr.'EUncwftifOngentwownww]! 
Brail tg Idun it (1S4/) JtwIOnWincwen,;/: G™.,-Sfl. Tid.4if., Htli.,Cta. 

I wm<iOi^eiuic<iieaiKil.£St.txiil44/,'"^-,St»i.,Scd. [Sigen&jw 

iraa S»»]elan twSi, ut Intr. xxxiii. (y. E. , Tr. Bdbl. x t6l, Tr. , Ho/i. H los ; 
Bildin MLN. xxtiii 140, xxziii '33 f. (V™, '/• I""- xxxiv n. 7.) &< niat. 
— 6g> Kdtl i. 3.3J, « a/. p«t lUl. SctLaiir.\is.4, — 6a Fal. ijo^ medo. 
SeASntac* Afi^.fdA. Hi 43 a&afir mkcl (cf. £.); Harrian-^^arp* L 2.10 micle 
ma, Tr. micel, ma, Brigii L 3.31.2 micle marc {Htli. ii 106 merre) gewyrccan. 



7o)K)n[n]e yldo beam Sfre geffunon, 

ond ]>XT on innan eall gediElan 

geongum ond ealdum, swylc him God sealde, 

buCon folcscare ond fcorum gumena. 

©a ic wide gefrsegn weorc gebannan 
7SmanigrG m£g)je geond pisnc middangeard, 

folcstcde fraetwan. Him on fyrste gelomp 

Xdre mid yidum, piet hit weaiiS ealgearo, 

healxrna m£st j scop him Heort naman 

se Jtc his wordes geweald wide hxfdc. 
go He beot ne aleh, be^as dslde, 

sine Kt symle. Sele hllfade 

heah ond horngeap ; healSowylina bad, 

la^an iTges ; ne W3» hit lenge )>a gen> 

pxt se fcghete a^umswfsran 
SjKfter wselniSe wxcnan scolde. 
Da se ellengiest earro^lice 

])rage ge]>olode, se j>c in fystrum bSd, 

'^zt he dogora gehwam dream geh^rde 

hludne in healle; p£r wa:s hearpan sw^, 
gaswutol sang scopes. S<egde se )>e cvipe 

fmmsceaft fira feorran reccan, 

cwaslS J'jet se jElmihtjga eorSan worh(tc), 

wlitebeorhtnc wang, swa water bebugeS, 

gesette sigehrepig sunnan ond monan 
VSleoman to leohce landbuendum, 

ond gefrxtwade foldan sceatas 

leomum and leafum, l!f eac gesceop 

7o'M5.tFonei&.l,4£JJ. pDn[n]t; Tr.fonicp.44). — 77b K,., ,1a!., Cia. 
eilgaio. Seii^o" (22^1").— 84" MS. secg ; Gr.' teg-.— i^^ MS. apuQi sweraui j 
Bu.nd. «/.i)ium>wBrian; Tr.' 130 -sweonun, Eina Btibl. xin 3Sg -mionn. — 
86« Gr.' {?), Ric.Zs. 383 eliorgwt, TrA 130, Tr. ellorgSil. Sa 1617' Varr,-— 
91* ¥tt. 133" cw«1S. — 9i'> Kt. worh(tt). 


cynna gehwylcum )»ara 5e cwicc hwyrfaji. — 

Swa %a drihtguman drSamum lifdon, 
•ooeadigllcc, o'S Sa;t an ongan 

fyrcnc fre(in)man teond on helle ; 

vrxs se grimma gXst Grendel hiten, 

mXre mearcstapa, sc )>e moras heold, 

fen ond fxsten ; fifelcynnes eard 
JOS wonsSlI wer weardode hwllc, 

si))1San him Scyppcnd forscrifen hsefde 

in Caines cynne — Jione cwealm gewrac 

Ece Drihten, \>xs ]>e he Abel sldg ; 

ne gefeah he )>£re f^Se, ac he hine feor forwraK, 
tioMetod for \>f mane mancynne fram. 

panon unt^dras ealle onwocon, 

eotenas ond ylfc ond orcncas, 

swylce gigantas, ]>& wiS Gode wunnon 

lange J>rage ; he him iSses lean forgeald. 
n 115 Gewat ^ neosian, sy)>%an niht becom, 

h^n huses, hu hit Hring-Dene 

aefCer b£or)>ege gebiin hxfdon. 

Fand )>a SZr inne 3e]>elinga gedriht 

swefan sfter symble; soi^e ne cQSon, 
iiowonsceaft wera. Wiht unhslo, 

grim ond gr£dig, gearo sona w^es, 

rcoc ond re)>e, ond on rxste genam 

]frTtig )>egna ; ]>anon eft gewat 

huSe hrcmig to him faran, 
115 mid pXie wxlfylle wica neosan. 

tm' Kt. fn(m)m»n. — ioi*' Ba. 8obea\]tfirhc\]c. — i07^ MS. ainttaiiirtJ 
fnmama. (Canfii lians/ Cain and Ckam. Cf. hrr.} Srv.Zianagl. Vxa- 

liimiu(iooo) f. 7 Cainet (firk. diphtboog id ?J. — I ti'Ftl. 133^ s'Btai ii;* 

Siev. R. agS tSaaii. Cf. T.C. j g. — izo* Stv. ix t3T> H'l'- weiu. — tzoO 
Rii.Zi. 383 unfielo. 


Da wxs on uhtan mid Xrdaege 

Grendies guiScraeft gumum undyrne ; 

pi vrxs eefter wiste wop up ahafen, 

micel morgensw^. M£re j^eoden, 
i30Be|>eling iEi^od, unbilBe satt, 

^lode i5iy?iswy8 ]>egnsorge drfiah, 

syS]>an hTe ^xs laSan last sceawcdon, 

wergan gastes ; v/xs pxt gewin to Strang, 

laS ond longsum ! Nss hit lengra fyrst, 
ijsac ymb ane niht eft gefremede 

morSbeala marc, ond no mearn fore, 

f^ie ond fyrene; wxs to fsest on ]>am. 

]TS waes ea^fyndc )>e him ellcs hwSr 

gerumlicor rxstc [solTte], 
t4obed defter burum, %a him gebeacnod wx% 

gesxgd soStice . sweotolan tacne . 

healVegnes hete; heoM hyne sySjiaii 

fyr ond fxstor se |>Xm feonde xtwand. 

Swa rixode ond wiS riht? wan, 
i45ana vr'rS eallum, o9 pist idel stod 

husa s£lest. Wa^s seo hwTl micel ; 

twelf wintra tid tom'ge)iolode 

wine Scyldin^, weana gehwelcne, 

sidra sorga ; fortSim [secgum] wearC, 
tjoylda bearnum undyrne cuS 

gyddum gcomore, Jixtte Grendel wan 

hwllc wilS Hr6]>gar, hetenHias w«g, 

fyrene ond fShlSc fela misscra, 

I'H*' Fai. ijffync — 139" Cr.> gerumlicor. — 139'' Gr.i[tStitx\, — 141* £. 
lr.(f), Bu. 8a, ScJ. lietScgna. _ 143* MS. KyMendaj sdoScjUSnp.^' Ut. {iaKn){t^in\ii,Sid.,Cha.i Gr.' [lorgcan.] ; £. [aOcen] ; fin. jdr 
f«rcwidum] j Tr.' 132/. sirleofium, Tr. linpellum Qhrfotl^xn) ; Sitv. txtx 313 
for1Saai[iocaam]; i9i,Scki. xxxixioif.,Scki. [Kcgum] { fi«/[.M 



sing3le sxce ; sibbe ne wolde 
155 wis manna hwone ma^nes Dcntga, 

feorhbealo feorran, fea jvingian, 

ne ])Sr nSEnig witena wenan jjorfte 

beorhtre bote to banan fobnum ; 

(ac se) !^!Sca ehtende wxs, 
ifiodeorc dea)7scua, dugu)>e ond gcogo^ 

scomadc ond syrede ; sinnihte hcoM 

mistige moras ; men nc cunnon, 

hwyder helrunan hwyrftum scri])aS. 
Swa fek fyrcna feond mancynnes, 
165210! angengea oft gefremede, 

heardra h^n%a } Heorot eardode, 

sinc^ge scl sweanum nihtum ; — 

no he }x>ne gifstol gretan moste, 

ml]>%um for Metode, ne his myne wisse.7^ 
170^x1 waes wrSc mice) wine Scyldinga, 

modes brec%a. Monig oft gesxt 

rice to rune ; rXd eahtedon, 

hwzt swiSferhtSum selest wXre 

wis f^rgryrum to gefremmanne. 
17s Hwllum hie geheton xt i&ifi^rafum 

wigweor])unga, wordum bsdon, 

jiiel him gastbona geoce gefremede 

wi^ )>eod|>reaum. Swylc waes l^eaw hyra, 

hS)>ciira hyht } belle gemundon 
itoin modsefan, Metod hie ne cu]H>n, 

dxda Demcnd, ne wiston hie Drihten God, 

Ijel" Ki. do, III Hill., Scii., Sed. Sa Lang. \ tj.i. — i^j^ Hn/t.',', Sid. 
witcni oSnig (f/'. Siiv. S. iS6). Cf. T.C. f r?. — isSt> MS. buDi Ke. banaa. 
Cf. iSil^, ictfl*, — IS9»fii/. IJ3* !: ! :; TAi. f'« Ki.) tto\, n Scd., C»a.; 
Kii.Z$. jS4Kie,aB<,It.,SclU. — i7sbMS.hiwiH ATi. harg-; Gru., Edd. 


n€ hie huru hcofena Helm herian ne cuj^on, 

wuldres Waldend, Wa biS pSHn Se sccal 

Jjurh siTSne niS sawle bcscufaa 
iSsin fjres fx|rm, frofre ne wenan, 

wihte gewendan I Wei biS JiSm \>e mot 

Ecfter deaSdKge Drihten secean 

ond to F<edcr fa£|iniuin freoSo wilnian ! 
Ill Swa %a mfElcearc maga Healfdcnes 
i^osingala seaiS; ne mihte snotor ha^leS 

wean onwendan ; waes ^xt gewin to swyS, 

Hy ond longsum, |>e on Sa leode becom, 

nydwracu nlj^grim, nihtbealwa m£sC. 
p»et fram ham gefraegn Higelaces )>cgii 
195 god mid Geatum, Grendlcs dsda; 

se waes moncynnes msegenes strengest 

on Jjam daege Jfysses lifes, 

3e)>ele ond eacen. Hct him y^lidan 

godne gegyrwan ; cwaeS, he guScyning 
looofer swanrade secean wolde, 

niSrne [leoden, ]>a him wxs manna Jiearf. 

Done BiSfxt him snoterc ceorlas 

lythwon logon, Jjeah he him Icof wJEre ; 

hwetton hige(r)5fne, hXl sceawedon. 
105 Haefde sc goda Geata leoda 

cempan gecoronc ]jara }>e he ccnoste 

iindan mihte ; Hftyna sum 

sundwudu sohte, secg wisade, 

lagucraeftig mon landgemyrcu. 
•loFyrst foriS gewat j ftota wass on fSum, 

bat under beoi^e. Beornas gearwe 

iSi" Fil. 134" BC-— 186" Rii.Zi. 383 >»Iti. {Cf. Biui. 74; Gr.' t 
Fil. IJ4»lMah. — 104»^tN)fiie, SfonKi«flji({ii( tjo)-' 
MS. .B— lIO» G™. (f) Ijrd. 



on stefn stigon,- — strSamas wundon, 

sund wi^ sande ; secgas baeron 
' on bearm nacan beorhte fraetwe, 
iijguBsearo geatollc; guman ut scufon, 

weras on wilsTiS wudu bundenne. 

Gewat ^ ofer wSgholm wJnde gef^sed 

flota ^miheals fugle gelTcost, 

oiS \)xt ymb antld 6]jres d6g9rcs 
uowundcnstefna gewaden haefde, 

|»iet iSa liSendc land gesawon, 

brimclifu biTcan, beorgas steape, 

side s£n3essas ; jvi wies sund liden, 

eolctcs xt ende. panon up hra^e 
ii; Wedera leode on wang stigon, 

s£wudu siEldon, — syrcan hryscdon, 

gutgcwXdo ; Gode j^ancedon 

)>jcs ^ him ^l^lade eaSe wurdon. 
" pa of wealle geseah weard Scildin^, 
ijose {>e holmclifu healdan scolde, 

beran ofer bolcan beorhte randas, 

fyrdsearu fuslicu ; hine fyrwyt bnec 

modgehygdum, hwaet pA men w£ron. 

Gcwat him \>i to waro^e wicge ndan 
"isjwgn HroSgares, )>rymmum cwehte 

mxgenwudu mundum, mejrelwordum frxgn: 

<Hwxt syndon ge searohsbbendra, 

byrnum werede, {le ]>us brontne ceol 

ofer lagustFKte Ixdan cwomon, 

iijli Tlio. laniUida, » Hr>li., &J. — 1H' Tie. &&ic (ffiUde >) ; Gn. 
bIoiidH(?) J (tn Brink L 4.7.S2711. eodora; Tr. eotetOi Halt. L 3.16. ig bra; 
Hill.' toleia. Sa L 5.14- — ii6i> Scihtitr ESi. xxxviH jOt «. 2(?) hijKeilon 
(cf. it. xxxix 344/)— 1»9' F"'- rjj" P"- — »3»" Stv. R. aSo (t), Htlt. fOiUc j 
cf.Srv.xxix366,s68i I.Cit9. 


ifohider ofer holmas ? [Hwaet, ic hwtjic wics 

cndcsSta, Xgwearde heold, 

yi on land Dena laSra nSnig 

mid scipherge sce^lfan ne meahte. 

No her cu$lTcor cuman ongunnon 
145 lindh^ebbende, ne ge Icafnesword 

guSfremmendra gearwe ne wisson, 

mlga gcmedu. NiEfre ic maran geseah 

eorla ofer eor^an, ^nnc is cower sum, 

secg on searwum ; nis ]>xt scldguma, 
i;ow£pnum geweorSad, nxhe him his wlite leoge^ 

senile ansyn, Nu ie cower sceal 

frumcyn wiun, £r ge fyr heonan 

leassceawcras on land Dena 

fur)iur feran. Nu ge feorbucnd, 
iSsmcrcliBende, mln[n]e gehyraS 

anfealdne gc)>oht : ofosc is selest 

to gecy^anne, hwanan eowrc cyme syndon.' 
Iin Him se yldesta andswarode, 

werodes wisa, wordhord onleac : 
a6o« We synt gumcynnes Geata Icodc 

ond Higelaccs heoi^geneatas. 

Was min fader folcum geey])cd» 

*])ele ordfruma, Ecg|»eow haten; 

gebid wintra worn, £r he on weg hwurfe. 

a4o'> Ba. S3 [hnfle ic on wol^c ; Siec. jlitgl. xiv 146 [hwzt, ic hwf^, H 
J7(/r.,&i.,ad.,' Kal.4r,SckS.^ch'i^; Jr.' MoHc onhjljle.rf: Sin. B^ 
3t7f. — ni* MS. pti TM., Til. pm j Gru. [pjrt] fe. Sti Gha.! pi.— 
HJf- Cu. mi S7' loaSimi (— ISSra). — i4S» Ki., E.St., Tkt., Gn,., E., 
Z. ne geUiAietword. — i+9'' Q. HalHJ), BrigAi MLN. mi 84 i« /«- nk. 
— TUi.,Kt., E.Sc., Tkt., Hi.', £. Bdd (ip, '(ddom ■)gTiiiw j Cr.'wWtumt.— 
»5obJMS. Mtfre; AT*, nafoe. — 151" fo/. /jj6 heonui. — 153* £.Jic., £., 
Tii.,€ial. leuejH^f.Zi. ./J[wi]l. (^. Earl, 117. —z^^ MS. aUne; Kt. 
mlnTnle.— a6i TV." mi/. fi(der[moneguni] ; Tr. f. [foManJi flo/r.Zi. iIif.[oB 
fcltUnJi //»/(. >, S,4.[boi]S.; Utll-.'l. ii>lcuin[fcor]. Su T.C.%17. 


afisgamol ofgcardum; hine gearwe getnan 

witena welhwylc wide geond eor)>an. 

W£ ]mrh holdne hige hUford )>Inne, 

sunu Healfdenes secean cwomon, 

leodgebyrgean j wes ]iu us larena god ! 
i7oHabba5 we to f>Sm mXran micel £rende 

Deniga fre'an } ne sceal \ixt dyrnc sum 

wesan, ]>xs ic wenc. pu wist, gif hit is 

gwa we s5)>]Tce sec^n hyrdon, 

yxt mid Scyidingum scea^ona ic nat hwylc, 
iTjdeogol dzdhata dcorcum nihtum 

caweS ]>urh cgsan uncuSne nV6, 

h^n^u ond hrafyl. Ic )>acs HroSgar mieg 

)>urh rutnne sefan r3ed gel£ran, 

hu he frod ond god feond ofcrswyBeJ> — 
iiogyf him cdwcnd^n Zfre scolde 

beaiuwa bisigu bot eft cuman — , 
I- ond )ia cearwylmas colran wuriSa}> ; 

oSSe a syl^San earro%)>ragc, 

preanyd ]jola^, ]>enden )>Sr wunaS 
*ljon heahstede husa selest.' 

Weard mal^elode, 'SSr on wicge saet, 

ombcht unforht: ' jEghwaeJjrcs scca! 

scearp scyldwiga gescad witan, 

worda ond worca, se J>e wcl fcnceSS. 
190IC ]>xi gehyre, Jiset )>Is is hold weorod 

frcan Scyldinga. Gewita}) foiiS bcran 

wXpen ond gewSdu, ic eow wTsige; 

swylce ic magu]?cgnas mine hate ^ 

w'tS feonda gehwone floun eoweme, 

ifi^ Ftl. 136^ Kcean. — »75» AT/ii. ix rfSdfclhwiQ iSo* -^fedwradan j 

£■. VJ. 101 (if. Gru. p. iif) cdwendan = edwcnden ; HiiliiA, HUt., Sid. cdwcn- 

tel. — tAl> Gr.i ^r), I. Br. 49 wurGu ) E. wcofSin. 


S95 niwtyrwydne nacan on sande 

arum hcaldan, o)) ^xt eft byreS 

ofer lagustreamas leofne mannan 

wudu wundcnhals to Wedermearce, 

godfremmendra swylcum gire|>e bi'S, 
goopxt |?one hilderxs hal gcdlgeS.'y / / 

Gewiton him ^ feran, — flota stilje/bad, 

seomode on sale sidfxfimed scip, / 

on ancre f^t. Eoforlic scionon 

ofcr hleorber[g]an gehroden golde, ^ 
305 l^h ona fyrhe^, — ferhwearde ^eold 

gupmodfum m^n. Guman onetton, 

sigon jctsomne, oJ> J»Kt hf [s]al timbred 
^atolTc ond goldfah ongyton tnihton ; 

|>£et wxs forem^rost foldbuendum 
jioreceda under roderum, on ysm se rica bid; 

Ilxta se leoma ofer landa fela. 

Him \a hildedeor [h]of modigra 

torht get£hte, )'£t hie him to mihton 

gegnum gangan ; giiSbeorna sum 
3i5wicg gewcnde, word seftcr cwicB : 

' Miel is me to feran ; F«der alwalda 

mid arstafum Sowic gehealde 

siSa gesunde! Ic to sx wille, 

wis wraB wcrod wcarde healdan.' 

»97»ro/. /jd^mu. — 199* Gi-a., r( a/. gu'5fremmen(!ra. — 30i» M5, tole; 
£.&. bIc. — 30]'> E^. tdane (nr icTonum) j Bu.Zi. 176 Uudanoa ) Sii. 
Klonon (w4. a^R.)- — 1°4* ^S. benn g E.Sc. ofer hl«or b2nin; &^.«ferUi»ra 
Mrani £., Girlng ZfdFi. xH !23 h»ortier[g]ii). — Jos'" &-,, ti al. ferh ( = 
feirS) w. h. ; Aam. 7 (f ) , £i**< Ana.fdji. xix 341, Tr. (cf. Tr.' /«) fierwanic h. 
— 306* JM 5. gupmod gnimmon j Ke., ital. guBm6d[e] grummon (Jreoi grirrnian 
' "gt ') i — conitruid -u'. J05* .- Bn, Ssf. gupmSdgum men ; Liikkt U. gu|iiiw- 
degra mm ( Bnght MLN. x 43 gufmod grimmon (adv.), » SeJ. (grimmon, 
Jp.) J TV.' I4S, Tr. g. grimmon j Hall.'.' g. gummon. — joyb MS. zldmbnili 
AT., ii l!]«l timbred— 3 lib JM& of; AT.. [h]of.— 319. f^. ij/" wmJI. 


' 3M StrSt wxs stinfah, st^ wisodc 
guinum setgxderc. GuSbyrne scan 
beard hondlocen, hringlren scir 
song in searwum, ^ hie to selc fuittum 
in hyra gryregeatwum gangan cwomon. 

]*;Setton sZmejw side scyldas, 

rondas regnhearde wJS ^xs recedes weal; 
bugon J>a to bcncc, — byrnan hringdon, 
guSsearo gumena ; garas stodon, 
s^manna searo samod xtga^dere, 

]]oiescho][ ufan grxg; wa^s se ifen]>reat 
wSpnum gewurjiad. 

J7a SZr wlonc hseleS 
firetmccgas aefter .z/c/uni fraegn : 
' Hwanon ferigcaiS ge fstte scyldas, 
grXge syrcan, ond grTinhelmas, 

jjsheresceafta heap ? Ic eom HroSgares 
ar ond ombihi. Ne seah ic el)>eod|ge 
))us manige men mddiglTcran. 
Wen' ic J«M ge for wlenco, nallcs for wrzcsitui 
ac for hige)>rynimum HroSgar sohton.' 

j4oHiin [la ellenrof andswarode, 

wlanc Wedera leod, word seftcr spnec 
heard under helme : * We synt Higelaces 
beodgcnSatas ; Beowulf is mln nama. 
Wille ic asecgan sunu Heaifdencs, 

345m£niin JKodne mln Srcndc, 

aldre ^Tnum, gif he us geunnan wile, 
^xt wS hine swa godne grecan moton.' 
Wullgar ma|>c1ode — Jjfet wjes Wendla leod, 

JJjh Tr. I 

IJ7» ptymm 



wxs his modsefa manegum gecfScd, 
jjowig ond wisdom —pi ' ' Ic ^xs wioc Deniga, 

frean Scildinga fiinaii wille, 

beaga bryttan, swa )>u bena cart, 

(>eoden mSrne ymb )>inne siS, 

ond [>e )>a andsware xdre gecy^an, 
]55%e me se goda agifan )>encc$.' 

Hwearf |ia hr^edllce yxr HroSgar Siet 

eald ond anhar mid his eorla gedriht ; 

code ellenrof, \>xt he for eaxlum gestod 

Deniga frean ; cu^ie he dugulSe ]reaw. 
sfioWulfgar ma^elode to his winedrihtne : 

* Her syndon geferede, feorran cumene 
ofer geofenes be^ng Geata Leode ; 
)>one yidestan oretmecgas 

Beowulf nemnalS. H^ benan synt, 
36s|)3et hie, J^eoden min, wHS [>e moton 

yroidum wrixlan ; no %u him wearne geteob 

Stnra gegncwida, glxdman HroSgar! 

Hy on wT^etawum wyrSSe ^incealS 

eorla gesebtlan ; hum se aldor deah, 
37ose |i£m heaVorincum hider wTsade.' 
VI Hro'Sgar ma^elode, helm Scyldinga: 

* Ic hine cu5e cnihtwesende ; 
wses his ealdf^eder Ecgfeo haten, 
iS£m to ham forgeaf HreJ>el Geata 

j7Sangan debtor; is his eafora nu 

heard her cumen, sohte holdiie wine. 

3;7-MS.unhari Tr.' 147 {f), Tr., H«!i., Cha. anhir. — 560'' Fr./. /jffa to, 
— 361" Kl<i. fi iSS, Hill, fcorrancameac.— ■jSj^ E.Sc., Cr.', E. gkd mm; 
G™.,&rf. gliedmod. — 36S'/f<.»-'. Sr*. S. 3?3f- {f), Kal. ?s, H'^l., &ki., 
&d. .TgeotH-um. Sit T.C. Saj. — 373' Cr.i, e™^ Tr., Cfc.. oU fieder. — 
37$^ MS. oforan; jji, Et. tifon. 

J b, Google 


Donne sxgdon jixt sxlipendc, 

pi Sc gifsceattas Geata fyrcdon 

}>yder to )>ancef |?xt he )>rittges 
380 manna mzgencrcft on his mundgripe 

healiordf hxbbe. Hine halig God 

for arstafum us onsende, 

to West-Dcnum, \txs ic wen haebbe, 

wis Grcndles gryre. Ic )>Xin godan sceal 
315 for his modjTKce madmas beodan. 

Beo iSu on ofeste, hat in gan 

seon sibbcgcdriht samod setgaedere; 

gesaga him eac wordum, \net hie sint wJlcuman 

Deniga leodum.' [Pa wiS duru healle 
]9oWulfgar code,] word inne ahead : 

* £ow bet secgan sigedrihten mln, 

aldor East-Dena, |?3et he eower x)>elu can, 

end gc him syndon ofcr s£wyimas 

heardhicgende hider wilcuman. 
j9sNu ge moton gangan in cownim giHSjearwum, 

under heregriman HrolSgar geseon ; 

lietaS hildcbord her onbldan, 
jj wiidu waelsceaftas worda gepinges.' 

Aras ]>a se rica, ymb hine rinc manig, 
4oa]"791i<^ pcgna heap ; sume ]>£r bidon, 

heaSoreaf heoldon, swa him se hearda bebcad. 

Snyredon attsomne — sccg wisode — 

37gh 7■*<^, Bu. 8s/., Tr. Ofatuin. — ]79- ji^ni. y hTder.— 37911 MS. 
.uitiga. Fit. 13S> tiges. — 386'' Rii.y. 47 g"n(g»n|, Sin. R. 268/., 47f 
p{3]a.Sa T.C.\ I. — Bright MLN 144 bar [fztj in gM. — jgjif.fir. jjn. on 
iSl/sriioni Bright I.e. tto.— I.Br. I.e., Holt. [cf. B«*/. j «1?) !ib(h)geilriht, w» 
Gha. — 389M0' B.ppliti iy Gr.' {4 Mf-lintt tnurled by E.Sc.) — 395!' MS. 
geata/wum ; B.Sc., a al. •geliwum ; Siev. R. 246 -gatyrvm ^ Hell. '-* -varwuDi. 
q. T.C.^28,ah>\23.~--i^l'> MS. Z. on\AAm^n-w. innmfltte i.a„irt ,/mi 
T*i. on bidian, Gra., -i al., H«li., ScAB. onbidian. —401b Fal. ijqo harta. — 
401!' ^5 >«{**/■«" aecgj.MirB/iJ*; &■«;.«. jjfi, flWr., Sirf. Cf. T.C.\l4. 


under Hcorotcs hrofi [hezjrortnc eode,] 
heard under helme, yxt he on heo[r]Se gestdd. 

40s Beowulf maSelode — on him byrne scan, 
searonet seowed smij^es or)iancum — : 
' Wass Jfu, HroBgar, hal I Ic com HigeUces 
mxg ond magoSegn ; hxibbe ic mXiiSa fela 
ongunnen on geogojie. Me weaiiS Grendles Jiing 

4ioon mlnre e)>cltyrf undyrne cuS ; 
secgatS sielificnd, )>zt pxs sele stande, 
reced selesta rinca gehwylcum 
idel ond unnyt, siSSan Xienleoht 
under heofenes haSor beholen weor]>cV. 

4'Spi me ^xt gel^rdon Icodc mine, 
yi selestan, snotere ceorlas, 
l^coden HroSgar, yxt ic )>e sohte, 
forj^an hTe maegenes cneft mln [n]e cu{>on | 
selfe ofersawon, ?a ic of searwum cwom, 

410 fah from feondum, }>aer ic f^fe geband, 
ySde eotena cyn, ond on pSum slog 
niceras nihtes, nearo)>earfe dreab, 
wnec Wedera nTS — wean ahsodon — , 
foi^rand gramum ; ond nu wi% Grendel sceal, 

415 wis pita aglScan ana gchegan 
Sing wilS |>yrse. Ic J>c nu Sa, 

403^ Gr.i, EJJ. (hjrgnof £DdF] ; £.&.,£. [(]ii) mid (hk) luele4(um eI(o)ng], 
— 404.'' TiQ.{hKc.),HiJa».40O,rte/l., &/ KeD|r]Se ^ fii>,8(t hlcoScC hoiing 
dntance'?). — 407' MS., Hild.', Tr.,4 Eid. va; Ke.,iial. Hea. Cf. Laig. 
ij.t. — ^ll*' MS. fwa, a Ou-i Til,., Kt., 3 Bdd. pa. Qf. Law. i ^J. — 
4I4>JI15. IndOTi Gr.i,Htli., &i£, hi^tor. C/.alie Sid. AILR.V286& Ed.,Ktu. 
— 4iBi'Af5. minei Cr.' n)In[n]e, Cp. 23}*.— ^ig*- Gr.i {?), Bu. j68 on Uu 
of). — 4iot>Gr.i ftMic fifle (?) ; Sb. jtf? [onj flfclgjlan (— geofon), uBr. 
jonfclgcb»n(fl'iJ4"»l>iin/orcyn); L.HaU L 3.13 flfelgeland, Tr.' 150, Tr. 
Hfl» gebinn ('levy' i). — 413* Fel. ijgl> wedn ji, .ederi [aliaid ic vicitnvi, 
amtlur i„i) B. Cf. Lang. % iS.IOn.; Inlr. xcii. — 4H'' H'- U, E.Sc., £., 
KrUgir Blilr. ix S71 Grendh. Sa Lung. £ tj.6. 



brego Beorht-Dena, biddan wille, 

eodor Scyldinga, anre bene, 

})xt Sume ne forwyrne, wigendra hleo, 
43afreowine folca, nu ic I'us feorran com, 

yxt ic mote sina [ond] minra eoria gedrj^t, 

]ws hearda hgap, Heorot fielslan. 

Hxbbe ic eac geahsod, yxt se EglSca 

for his wonhydum w£pna ne recceS ; 
' +3sic JjW Iwnne forhicge, swa m6 Higclac sle, 

min mondrihten modes bliSe, 

Jwet ic sweord here o)>€e sidne scyld, 

gcolorand to gii)w, ac ic mid grape sccal 

fon wis feonde ond ymb feorh sacan, 
44alaS wis laj^um ; ^str gcl^fan sceal 

Dryhtnes dome sc ])e hine deaS nimefi. 

Wen' ic yxt he wille, gif he wealdan mflt, 

in pSm guSsele G^otena Icode 

etan unforhte, swa he oft dyde, 
[445mxgenhre$ manna. Ni ]>u minnc ^earft 

hafalan h^dan, ac he me habban wile 

d[r3£ore f^ne, gif mec deaS nimct! ; 

byreB blodig wsel, byrgean )ienceS, 

eteS angenga unmumlTce, 
4jomearcatS morhopu } no Su ymb mines ne |>earrc 

liccs feorme leng sorgian.^ 

Onsend Higelace, gif mec hild nime, 

beaduscruda bctst, yxt mine brSost wereB, 

431:^ E.&., Tit., E., Arf. fi*i«ine. — +3 1''--}!' Ki. ii, Gr.i, 4 EJJ. |ondl 
(iran^iiing \t frm beftrt pel) ; MS. T fts; Th„. [mid] m. e. g. — 435'' Si™. 
ii. rj7 <i. Cf. T.C. S /. — 4+]'' MS. geo/tena; Hill. G&nwi Oka. Gio- 
taa; Gr.', SeJ. OcaCeiu ; Rh.Zi. 400/., Scku. Gist*. (^. Lang. JKi.a.— 
444>> Fsl. 140" oft- — 445^ EilJ. matgen HiWmannaj Tr. mxtcnprfiS mann»( 
SiiS. xxxix loi, SciS., Hill. mzgeahrEJS maniu. — 447* MS. ieanj Gru. ir. ijj. 


hrtegla selest ; J>Kt is HrSdlan laf, 
4SS Welandes geweorc. GsB 3 wyrd swa hio see! !' 
VII HroSgir ma|>eIode, helm Scyldinga : 

* For [g]ewy[r]htum ]>u, wine min Beowulf, 

ond for arstafum Qsic sohtest. 

Gesloh yin fseder f&h'Se mStste ; 
460 wear)? he Hea)>olare to handbonan 

mid Wilfingum; tS3 hine IVederz cyn 

for herebrogan habbait ne mihte, 

panon he gesohte SuS-Oena folc 

ofer yi5a gewealc, Ar-Scyldinga ; 
465^1 ic fur)>um weold folcc Den/^ 

ond on geogo?e heold giwne rice, 

hordburh h^elejia ; Sa wxs Heregar dead^ 

min yldra m£eg unliiigende, 

beam Healfdenes ; se wies betera Sonne ic ! 
47i>SiSSan )fa fshSe feo ]Tingodc; 

sende ic Wylfingum ofer wseteres hrycg 

eatde madmas ; he me a)ras swor. 

Sorh is me to secgan on sefan minum 

gumena Sngum, hwaet me Grcndel hafaS 
475h^n^o on Heorote mid his hctejiancum, 

fSrnT^a gefremed; is min fletwerod, 

wigheap gewanod j hie wyrd forsweop 

on Grendles gryre. God ea|>e maeg 

4;4<> E.Sc. (f), Msll. Zfijt. xii 260, HkU., Scd. HrfSbn. Su Gleu. ,f Frtptr 
JVawei.— 457» A/S. ferefyhtum, K*.Fore^lttum (pE, fVeond)i E.Sc., The., 
SikS. Fore ^htum (pu, framd) ; Gt. ' Fore wybtum ; Cm. For wercfyhtum ; Tt., 
Clin. For (ewyrhtum ; Sid. fore wyrhtumj Halt. For wfgum, — 4S9* Hth., 
SchU., Sed. jan fadtr goloh. Sa T.C. 5 rT- Cf. alie Tr.' ijj /". — 461'' MS. 
gin; Gra.,4 E-id. Wedera.— 464'' Fel. 140^ Kyldlnga ^(B)._46s'> MS. 
de/ninpi (uaiidmz undir icjlrjinp), SchS. Denitiga j Tki,., 3 Edd. Deniga. Cf. 
1686' farr. — t6tf' MS. pm mericej&W. gimme rke; Cia. gimmeriie; Sid. 
gumei«il«i E.Si.,lTAa.), Ha/i. giant nti!(«iGc«. 230).— tJi*MS.tetgmnti 
Sitv. R. 312, Hell., Scii., Sid. Kcpn. C^. T.C. \ 12. 


])one dolsccaVan "^ dXda getw^fan! 
4toFul oft gebeotedon beore dmncne 

ofer ealowSge oretmecgafi, 

)>aet hie in beonele faidan woldon 

Grendles gu)>e mid gryrum ecga. 

f>onne wx* )>£o« medofaea) on mot^entid, 
4t5drihtsele dr£orf3h, |>anne Axg lute, 

eal benc})elu blode bestpmed, 

heall heorudr£orc ; Shte ic holdra ]^ (£9, 

deorre duguSc, ))£ ^ icxS rornatn. 

Site nu td symle oaA onsCl meoco, 
49asigehreS (ecgunif fwi \(tn sefa hwette.* 
pa wxt GcatmzcguTn geador letsomne 

on beorsele bene gerf mcd j 

J>£r swTSferh|7e sittan eodon, 

^TfHum dcalle. pegn nytte behcotd, 
49;se }>c on handa basr hroden ealowSge, 

scencte scir wered. Scop hwilutn fiang 

hidor on Heorote. pXr wst hzI«Sa diiani, 

duguV unlytel Dena ond Wcdera. 
Viil r/Bfer? ina)>el(Kle, Ecglafes beam, 
joo|>e :et fotum ssrt frean Scyldinga, 

onband beadurunc — waes him B£owutfe< aVS^ 

modges mefefaran, mictV xfpunc», 

forjjon (jc he ne upc, \)xt Snig oSer man 

Sfre mSrilia ))on ma middangeardes 

4gi> Fa/. 141* tene. — 4.t^*'-y:f MS. on «xl moto ; Kt. ii on iflain cte ; 
7^0. on>« mwli) (ieehre^ ; Djcl'icii Zfdji. 11411 oiuSI maara, gigehrcS sec- 
lum; Gr?, (f/ .Aw. ic) , npffhrfSsrceuin j AT/u. luOT BgehreSegum ; Hali.Zi. 
114 on izluni weoa ligebtelSgum leeguin ; &Ai. ixiif lOJ, jciu. on iS weota 
■echriS (ag«m ; JEGPk. it igz. H«/r. on ifl himu (;»;>. d^ oiFtun) (Ho/c. .- 
■igh[*S«cpim), i/. ATMi'roj, MtW. miiFIj2;&J.«on^luiineo ('aurard') 
fcl-i tff7/i( M£.M i«i tt7 ff. onta milto », I. —499* MS. HVN fetH; 
HiLZi. 414 UnferS (a///(.i Wuiion *«, HUB-, m h«« o» ^ppjf.). — joi'' Tr.' 
UJOBUi/iOti {an BIowM tfS ff] ) . — jo4' f«/. 141* auErib .^. ^ 

$0$ g&hede under heofenum )>onne he sylfa — : 

' £art |>u se Beowulf, se )>e wit Brecsui wunne, 

on sidne $£ ymb sund flite, 

%£r git for wlence wada cunnedon 

ond for dolgilpe on deop wxter 
S'oaldrum ne|>don ? Ne inc ienig moil, 

ne leof nc laB, belean milite 

sorhfullne sIS, Jfa git on sund rebn ; 

JfiEr git eagorstreani earmum jiehtoii, 

ni£ton merestr£ta, mtindum brugdon, 
5i5glidon ofer garsecg; geofon y)>um weol, 

wintrys wylm[um]. Git on wieteres JEht 

seofon niht swuncon ; he )ic set sunde oferflat* 

ha^fde marc mxgen. pa hine on morgentid 

on Hca)>o-RSmi7S holm Gp xtbier; 
jaoiSonon he gcsohte sw£sne e|>el, 

leof his leodum, lond Brondinga, 

freotSoburh fsegere, fjSr he folc ahtc, 

burh ond beagas. Beot eal wiS )>c 

sunu Beanstanes solSe gelSste. 
SijDonne wene ic to );e wyrsan geliingea, 

Seah J7u heaBorSesa gehwJEr dohte, 

grimre gu?e, gif )»Q Grcndles dearst 

nihtlongnc fyrst ncan bidan.' 

Beowulf ma])clode, beam £cg)>eowes: 

S3o» Hwaet, )>a worn fela, wine min t/nfertS, 

SOS* MS. Bt/htHc i Hi/t.' fthcdc. C/.Sin. ZfdPi. ixi 3S7 i T.C.%i6.— 
<T6-JtiS.wYlni! r*o., (Ri1.Z1.3S7, 404,) Sin. S. 271, SciH., Cia. wylmTel 1 
Aft. ij/,\J«/(., Std. [puth] w. w.) jC/h. (/b ffs/J.i) iryliTi[umI; cf, ^b^.- 
4Sl/. — simMS. hoponemo ; Mind SamliJi jt/AenJIiiigir ii (1840-31) 371, 
(rf., Mi/I. ZfdA. xi »S7, Hill., SckS., &rf.-Rs.n,M; Gr.\ Cka. -Rfmii. 
Sa Lang. \ g.,k T.C. J '6. — Jlob MS. . ^ . {=it«l). & (./j", 1702'. — 
JIS" W 742-' beot. — 514- Bu.Z,. IgS [f), KrBgir Btilr. {1373 BinjtiSno; 
Bu.Zi. IgS Bealminet (?). — sisb A**, iipingcl (?) j Rit. Gtrm.ix 303, Rii.Zi. 
3S0, Sid. gefin%a. — 53o'> jlf£ bun ferii. Sa 4gg'. 

beore druncen ymb Brecan sprXce, 

sxgdest froi^ his sTSe ! ' SoS ic taltge, 

yxt ic merestrengo mSran ahte, 

earfe)»o on 7]>um, Sonne snig 6J>er man. 
SJsWit pxt gecwSdon cnihtwcsende 

ond gebeotedon — wSron begen )>a git, 

on geogo%feore — Jraet wit on garsecg iit 

aldrum neSdon, ond pxt gexfndon swa. 

Hxfdon swurd nacod, )>a wit on sund rcbn, 
54ohcard on handa; wit unc wi$ hronfixas 

wcrian {'ohton. No he wiht {ram mS 

fldd5)>um fcor fleotan meahte, 

hra[>or on holme, no ic fram him woldc. 
. &i wit xtsomnc on sX w£ron 
545 fif niht^ fy^^'i '^t' V^ ""*- ^°^ todraf, 

wado weallendc, wedera cealdost, 

nipende niht, ond nor)>anwind . 

hea^ogrim ondhwearf ; hreo w£ron yjia. 

Wks merefixa mod onhrercd; 
{{o^£r mc wi5 latSum licsyrce min 

heard hondlocen helpe gefremcde, 

beadohraegl broden, on breostum laeg 

golde g^rwed. Me to grunde teah 

fah feondscaSa, fseste haefde 
SSSgrim on grape; hwxpre me gyfejtc weaHS, 

J^xt ic aglScan orde geraehte, 

hildebille; heajrorXs fornam 

mihtig meredeor Jfurh mine hand. 

534' «'■' C'""- O. Bi.Z,. iqS, Jr.i isD HftlTO. Sa $77. — S4o'> Scki. 
Bd.ssf-^io^'^^'^t-'^^- 370- Bui EpiU. jlIex.sioittOB^cn. — i^' Fii. 
t4it umne J£. — 541* MS. T bwearf; Cr. ind hwiaif (aJj., if. Finndt. 
34); Tr} Jj6, Tr., Htlt. onhvcait. — ssi.i' Siiv. it ijSjHWi. [(net me] od. 

vim Swa mec gelome laSget£onan 
560 JTSatedon );earle. Ic him \ienodc 

deoran sweorde, swa hit gcdefe wxs. 

Nxs hie $!Ere fylle gefean hxfdon, 

manfordsdlan, pact hie me |>egon, 

symbel ymbsZton sSgrunde neah; 
;«;ac on mergenne mecum wunde 

be ^Slafe uppe l£gon, 

swet^rjdum Sswefede, ])xt sy$))an ni 

ymb brontne ford brimli^ende 

lade ne letton, Lfioht eastan c5m, 
57cibeorht bcacen Godes, brimu swapredon, 

pa^t ic sSnxssas geseon mihte, 

windige weallas. Wyrd oft nereS 

unfiegne eorl, {unne his ellen dcah ! 

Hv/x]>cre me gesxlde, )>xt ic mid sweorde ofsloh 
57sniceras nigcnc. No ic on niht gefrxgn 

under heofones hwealf heardran feohtan, 

ne on egstreamum earmran mannon ; 

hw<rj>ere ic fSra feng fcore gcdigdc 

El)>es werig. Da mec sS ojibxr, ' ■ 

sSoflod aefter faroVc on Finna land, 

wudu weallendu. No ic wiht fram )>e 

swylcra searonlSa secgan h^rdc, 

billa brogan. Breca nSfre gtt 

set heaSolacc, ne gehwa:|;cr inccr, 
sSsswa deorllcc dsd gefremede 

fagum sweordum — no ic J'.es [fcia] gylpe — , 

S65T0/. Mj'wunde.— S67'^'we<«l'"n;ff...w™|r}lum.— S74''W'-''- 
mice (/ir iv™rde) ; IM.Zt. 114 »brt« (/or oftlflh}. Cf. T.C. JaS. — 
57ll'MS. hwapere; Gru. (cf. Tkt., Gr.i) hwirlicre. — 5gi' v(f5: wmJu j GmJr. 
373. Ki- a l"du. — SS**- Or.i, Std. [feb] J Kh. ix 188, Htll., Stii., da. 


)>£ah %u J'lnuin brotSrum to banan wurdc, 

heafodmSgum; pxs yn in helle scealt 

werhSo dreogan, l>cah [iin wit duge. 
59aSecge ic pe to soSe, sunu Ecglafes, 

yxt niEfre Gre[n3de) swi fela gryra gefremede, 

atol ieglxca ealdre {>inum, 

hyntSo on Heorote, gif }'in higc w£re, 

sefa swa searogrim, swa ]>u self talast; 
S9Sac he hafa^ onfunden, jtxi he {>i f^ehtSe ne JrearT, 

atole ecg})rxce Eower leode 

swiiSe onslttan, Sige-Scyldinga ; 

nytneS nydbade, n^negum 3ra^ 

leode Deniga, ac he lust wigeS, 
5aoswefe$ ond sende|?, secce ne wene]f 

to Gar-Dcnum. Ac tc him Geata sceal 

eafoS ond ellen ungeara tiQ, 

gu)>e gebeodan. GkJ> eft se ye mot 

to medo modig, sijjj'an morgenleoht 
tosofer ylda beam 6]>res dogores, 

sunne swcglwercd su^n seined !' 
pa wa^s on salum sinccs brytta 

gamolfeax ond giilSrof; geoce gefyfdc 

brego Beorht-Dena j geh^rde on Beowulfe 
6iofolces hyrde ffestriEdnc gej>6ht, 

Dsr waes h3e]c|)a hleahtor, hlyn swynsode, 

word wSron wynsumc. £ode Wcalhjfcow foriS, 

jggb Fa/. 143" helle AB. — S9l'MS.grtdc] ; TAJ,. Gn^njdel. — 596'* E. to- 
wan leodij JC/«. (i» HolJ.') eovm leoda; Tr.' is?/., Tr., S/J. eowre leode, 
Stf 500", J/irf". — 599" Kl. a [on] luM mge« (?) ; Bi.Tid. 48 f. fon] lun 
pigeS. — 600- T*.., ,*.., B.-7'. s. o. KcndcS ; C™. {if. Gru,,r., Ki.) !«cftn 
onundc^ [ut Gr. Bibl. H p. 414, Aanl. 13); E., Hell. L 5.26.4 swendep (Jsr 
-™l»|'), tfo-i. L j.ii5j5 ^S swencsp, Ir.' /5S, Jr. iwelgefi, &rf. sowsp {ip. 161) ; 
Hi.-Xtc.* Jwifr« o. «. — foib ria., Cr. fiW. ij f . 4/4 {f), Halmm. 401 cfcii 
ic — iog" Fil. 144a bngf, AB. — bii^ K,il. s6 vrfBmm (?)j Tr. caniil, ii&'ob. 


cwen HroSglres cynna gemyndtg, 

grette goldhroden guman on healle, 
fiijond J>a freolic wif ful gesealde 

xrest East-Dena Sffclwearde, 

bxd hine bliStie xt ]>xre beor{>ege, 

leodum leofne ; he on lust gejieah 

symbel ond seleful, sigerof kyning. 
CioYmbeode Tpi ides Helminga 

dugu)?e ond geogo)>e dxi Sghwytcne, 

sincfaco sealde, o|i ^xt sx\ alamp, 

J>jct hio Beowulfe, beaghroden cwen 

mode ge]Tungen medoful xtb:er ; 
eajgrette Geata l€od, Gode )>ancode 

wisfxst wordum pxs ^ hire se vvilla gelamp, 

pxt heo on iEnigne eorl gelyfde 

fyrena frofre. He ]>a;t ful gejwah, 

wjelreow wiga aet Wealhpeon, 
e^oond })a gyddode giij>e gei^sed; 

BSowulf ma)>elode, beam £cg|7goweg : 

* Ic ^xt hogode, )fa ic on holm gestah, 

S^bat gesxt mid minra secga gedriht, 

^xt ic anunga eowra leoda 
6]5willan geworhte, o)>%e on wxl crunge 

feondgrapum fxst, Ic gefremman sceal 

eorllc ellen, o|?iSe endedxg 

on ])isse meoduhealle mTnne gebidan ! ' 

Bam wife (>a word wel iTcodon, 
64ogilpcwide Geates j code goldhroden 

freolicu folccwen to hire frean sittan. 
pa vfxs eft swa Sr inne on healle 

]>ry5word sprecen, Seod on sXlum, 

Si?" ft/. i«ft at^rfJ. — 64J Std.iw,p>mirJ,r if haif4inu, BmitmMFi. 


sigcfolca swcg, op yxt semninga 
ffssunu Healfdencs secean wolde 

Xfenrxste ; wistc pxm ahlEcan 

to )>iem beahsele hilde ge})inged, 

siSSan hie sunnan leoht geseon meahton^ 

o]>%entpcn<le niht ofer ealle, 
(Soscaduhelma gesceapu scrifan cwotnan 

wan under wolcnum. Wcrod eall aras, 

[Gejgrette J)a guma o[>crne, 

HroSgar Beowulf^ ond him hxl ahead, 

winxrncs geweald, ond ]>set word acwa^ : 
t5;'N^fre ic Xnegum fnen £r 3lyfde, 

si]i%an ic hond ond rond hebban mifate, 

%rf]>£crn Oena bCton )>e nu 'Sa. 

Hafa nu ond geheald husa selest, 

gcmync mSr)jo, mzgenellen cyS, 
tCowaca wis wra)Tuni ! Ne biS yi witna g3d, 

gif pa yxt ellenweorc aldre gedTgest.' 
X {)a him Hro|>gar gewat mid his hielej^a gedryht, 

eodur Scyldinga ui of healle ; 

wolde wigfnima Wealh}>co secan, 
t6;cwen to gebeddan. Ha^fde Kyningwuldor 

Grendte togeanes, swa guman gefrungon, 

leleweard aseted ; sund9mytte beheold 

ymb aldor Dena, eotonweard' abcad. 

Hum Gcata leod geornc truw^de 

64I'' £.&., Tit., 4 Eid. in«Tt [nc] M. Kt. ii 37, £."■■)■ —«49*' Jft. 
« a/., 4 EdJ. offit i 276, Cfi: 0% piH. — fijl* MS. (tette j Gru-lr. 
276 [Ge]greti«; tp. ijiO", iSro", 34", "(. — bn^ Gr.' hwl (?) j Ou, (in 
HM') heaUe. Bm ut MPi. Hi 340 (kisian uuJ 10. tvie -aiiUlj Sgirtnt itjtfii). 
— 654» Fil. I4S' giwald. —66i>> Kt. ii (7), Tit., SeJ. kynin^'l w. S» a/» 
MPi. Hi 4S4.~~ iSii- Ki. « eotn« weird ibid ; Tit. »ottn wcard iliod ; Tr.i 
161, TV. c. w. iind; SeJ. eotonweard ibid; Aug Biiil. xiv 360 (Vi.kl. xxxii 
S5) BOCenwtaidr bead. — 669'' foi/. R., Hah., &is. trftiwde. See T.C. i 10. St 
/oOj" (-trtowdon), isjj*, 1993'', 2322^, 2J7o^, 3340^, apw'- 


firomodgan mf^nes, Metodes hyldo. — 

f)a he him of dyde isernbyrnan, 

helm of hafelan, scalde his hyrsted sweord, 

Irena cyst ombiht|)egne, 

ond gehealdan het hildegeatwe. 
675GesprKC pa se gdda gylpworda siiiDt 

Beowulf Geata, Sr he on bed stige : 

^ No ic me an herewaesmun hnagran talige 

guffgeweorca, |)onne Grendel hine; 

for^an ic hine sweorde swebban nelle, 
(Joaldre beneotan, j)eah ic eal mxge; 

nat he ]?ara goda, )Ket he me ongean slea, 

rand geheawe, }>cah Se he rof sic 

ni)>geweorca ^ ac wit on niht sculon 

secge ofersittan, gif he gesecean dear 
6KswIg ofer wapen, ond si)>San witig God 

on swa hwajjcre bond halig Dryhten 

mieiiSo deme, swa him gemet Jiince.' 

Hylde htne )ja heajjodcor, hleorbolster onfeng 

eorles andwlttan, ond hine ymb monig 
69osneI]ic sZrinc selereste gebeah. 

NSnig heora pohte, jfxt he |?anon scolde 

eft eardlufan Sfre gesecean, 

folc o])Se freoburh, ])£r he aleded W£es ; 

ac hie hxfdon gefrQnen, ^xt hie sti to feta micles 
I 695 in ysia winsele wxldeaS fornam, 

Denigea leode. Ac him Dryhten forgeaf 

wigspeda gewiofu, Wedera leodum, 

673" Sitt,. R.308, Tr.,H<i/l.,Sc*B., St J. liafny Set nen. St jSsT' (j^l)*)- 
— 676" Fol. 143!' gota. — 677"Crujr. ??? -wm[t]mum j ^mt. 7j-«niin(!)l 
Ti-.i i6i, Ti-. -wEpnuin. — 6gi> TAo. f^e gSSt. — iS^^ MS. hrt; «■(.«.— 
6$i>'K<.,Tii:,aal. h»ar bolMeri Hi.<,4 Eid. hleorbolster. — 694i> Tlu. Iq« 
(far Me) (?) ; Gr.i, G'u. pattM »r, Bu. 5o Jset »r ; Klu. ix 180, Sid. Ho* 
^'r Ue »t). Cf. MPA. Hi 4ii- — ^7'' F''- '46' wnkn. 




frofor ond fultum, )>iet hie feond heora 

?urh anes crseft eallc ofercomon, 
Toosclfes mihtum., S61S is gecy]>ed, 

j>!et mihtig God manna cynnes 

weold wideferhS. 

Com on wanre niht 

scri^an sceadugenga. Sceotend swXfon, 

)>a JKCt hornreced healdan gcoldon, 
TosealJe buton anum. p^t waes yidum cu|>, 

yxt hie ne moste, )ia Metod nolde, 

sc s[c]ynsca)ia under sceadu bregdan ; — 

ac he wxccende wrapum on'andan 

bad bolgenmod beadwa ge]>inges. 
XI 710 Da com of more under misthleo))um. 

Grendel gongan, Godes yrre bser ; 

mynte se manscaSa manna cynnes 

sumne besyrwan in sele |)am hean. 

Wod under wolcnum to |)xs )>c he winreced, _ 

Tijgoldsele gumena gearwost wisse 

f^tum fahne. Ne wxs piet forma stS, 

pxt he Hro^ares ham gesohte; 

n£fre he on aldordagum Xr ne sijifian 

heardnan hiele, heal^egnas fand ! 
7ioCom ];a to recede rinc simian 

dreamum bed£led. Duru sona onam 

fyrbendum fsest, sy)>San h€ hire folmum (zthr)an ; 

jof ^B ride; 3JJ nide-.— 707* MS. tyn ; Cr.' i[c]il»- {?), Gr.* 
■[cItd-: » Htll., Scii^ Cka. Sn nat -><• 44s', T.C. S 3« -.z.— 7<^>' Ki. ii, 
hill, bculwe. — 718" f./. I46'> ne A.—jt^^ S™. «. g7S (f), Hm. Anfl. 
xxis 167, T'. , &</. , Cka. hzLc ; Hs//. f <iU. aiii 77 hiMe , &Ji<. Iixle[«u)i 
Ht/t.*ii t?0, Ho//.' Iwle[icipa] ; Tr-.' 71)5 hrnlew niffle. — 719<>£.&. (f), Gr. 
Siil. ii p. 414 O, E- healpegini flu. j(S5 heHScgn onfend. — 7 "•* MS. ! : 
{bt)an (i« Z.,-Cij.)i, 277 (f), Rdi* («< t*., Cri..), Cia. Kltiin j <y, 
327DO; 2., Hi/r. (chiin i &iH., W. hnn. (Pcr«. onliciii?) 


onbrSd )» bealoh^dig, ^ (he ge)boIgen waes, 

recedes inu)ian. Rajre aefter ))on 
715 on fagne flor fcond treddode, 

code yrremod ; him of eagum stod 

liggc gelicost Icoht unfiEger. 

Geseah he in recede rinca manige, 

swefan sibbegedriht samod astgxdere, 
72oiTiagorinca heap. ]7a his mod ahlog; 

mynte \>xt he gedielde, ser |*on ixg cwome, 

atol IglSca anra gehwylces 

llf wis lice, J)a him alumpen wks 

wistfylle wen. Ne was jjset wyrd |« gen, 
735]tiet he ma moste manna cynnes 

^icgean ofer ))a niht. prySswy? beheold 

m^g Higelaces, hu se mansca'Sa 

under fSrgripum gcfaran wolde, 

Ne Jtset se IglSca yidan J>6hte, 
!74oac h€ gefeng hraSe forman siiSc 

slSpendne rinc, slat unwearnum, ' 

bat banlocan, blod edrum dranc, 

synsnSdum swealh ; sona haefdc 

untyfigendes eal gefeormod, 
745 (et ond folma. ForS near aststop, 

nam I^I mid handa hige|»ihtigne 

rinc on riestc, rghte (jgean[cs] 

feond mid folme ; he onfeng hra))C 

inwit]>ancum ond wiS earm gesxt. 
750 Sona Jisct onfunde fyrena hyrdc, 

Tijf' MS. X •.■■■■: bolgen ; a??, Z., 4 E^J. hi gebol«cn j Ki., t il. 
hi jbolgen. — 7i9'/.Br., tf»''->it*-- Sa 387°- — Ti')' Cru. tiS fStn Hilt.Zi- 
IIS No PM- *"-■ «' £*- ""*! «o— 740' Fe!. 131" fcng AB. — 7+7* 
AfAongeinj Sf™. R. 165,4 Edd. loiiirxa; Tr.^ 167, Tr. [himl r. o. Cf.T.C 
%3I. — J^^^jlanl. r^ inwhpinculum. (Gr,' unit: inwitpanc wd/ oi a^'.) 



]KEt he ne meltc middangeardes, 

eorjian sceafa on ciran men 

mundgrtpe maran ; he an mode wearS 

forht on ferhSe ; no \)y £r fram meahte. 
fSS Hygc WKS him hinfiis, woldc on hcolstcr flcon, 

secan deofla gedrxg; ne wxs his drohtoiS )>iEr 

swylce he on ealderdagum £r gemette. 

Gemunde )>a se goda, m£g Higelaces, 

SfensprSce, iiplang astod 
Tfioond him ficste wiSfeng; fingras burston; 

eoten wa» iitwcard, , eorl fur)>ur stop. 

Mynte se m£ni, ()>)Xr he meahte swa, 

widre gewindan ond on weg Jranon 

flcon OH fenhopu ; wiste his tingra gewcald 
76jon gramcs grapum. )73» w<es gcocor sfS^ 

]>3et se hearmsca)ia to Heorute ateah f 

Dryhtsele dynede ; Denum eallum wearC, 

ceasterbuendum, cenra gehwylcum, 

corlum calusccrwen. Yrre wSron b^n, 
77ore)% renwcardas. Reced hlynsode. 

pa wses wundor micel, ))xt se winsele 

wiShaefde hea)>odeorum, jifet he on hrusan ne feol, 

fSger foldbold ; ac he [>a£s fxste wxs 

innan ond utan irenbendum 
77S searo)>oncuin besmijTod. pSr fram sylle abeag 

75i«MS. Keit/Qi E.&.,tlal. Moiti. Cf. Lang, iig.4- —7ii' MS. goit; 
Rif. y. 24, 43, 4 Edd. modgi. Sii T.C. g 16. — jB^b Fsl. iji^ . . . act jt, 
hvsa (hw vr. antiitr ink (f crtiseil tui h ftKiil) B j SciS.hvXi; E.Sc., 3 Eid. 
|i2r. Set 7P7*> Gltii.: fiir ii. — jSi" Tr.l i6g, Tr. widor ; Tr.i (f), &d. 
wide, SttMPA.iii363-—76i'' MS. hcwstii Cr.i ww. — 766- J«w. ix 13S 
)»ne If) (f»'J)i C«- ('" H''d.% Tr. H- — 769' «'-. « ''■ «'<■ xa^cni 
■■ ■ • 1 {Biiieutd ty a mliriading -f Andr. J5J<5) j Bu.T.d 202 ff. 

iiah. Bthr. xxxni Sj, Sid. eiluKerpen. — 770* Earlkr EdL, 
ntn;tf.S36*l t.Br. jo n. 2 rinheaide (?). Su ffyit Balr. 
» <^m., JEGFi. ti I03i I-^C- i 'O-?- 


medubenc monig mmc gefrSge 

gislde geregnad, ];£r ]>a graman wunnon. 

pse^ ne wendon ^r witan Scyldinga, 

]>xt hit a mid gemete manna Snig 
78o4ctlIc ond banfag tobrecan meahte, 

]istum tolucan, nym|)e liges fx)>m 

swulge on swa)fiile. Sweg up astag 

nlwe geneahhe : NoriS-Denum st5d 

atelic egesa, anra gehwylcum 
7S5)>ira )je of wealle wop gehyrdon, 

gryreleoS galan Godes andsacan, 

sigeleasne sang, sir wanigean 

helle hsefcon. Heold hine faeste 

se Jie manna wtes tnxgene strengest 
7?«on ]>Km daege jrysses lifes. 
XII Nolde corla hleo ienige fiinga 

Jione cwealmcuman cwicne forlietan, 

ne his llfd^^ leoda Snigum 

nytte tealde. piBr genehost br^gd 
79seorI Beowulfes ealde lafe, 

wolde freadrihtnes feorh calgian, 

mXres )>eodnes, S£r hte meahton swi. 

Hie ]>an ne wiston, "pi hie gewin drugon, 

heard hicgende hildemecgas, 
tooond on healfa gehwone heawan jmhton, 

sawle secan : ))one synscaSan 

jBnig ofcr eor)7an Trenna cyst, 

gCSbtlla nan grecan nolde ; 

779b Holt, jenig nunna. ^. T.C § iS.— 7lo» MS. hetlki GraJr. 278 
bttDc — 782.' E.&. iwobSe (?); The. iwak^e ; Gt%. niSule. — 78al> Fit. 
147' up. — 788" Tko., a al. ha\c-iacfran{-oa) ; Htli.Zi. 124, H*ll. hdk 
bxttling (10 Andr. 1342, Jul. z*i). -.-ySgb 0>njbairt L 1.4, « "1. ^\ bam. 
— 793'' MS. iu^tim. — Soi'<£.&.,(rii/., SU. [twt]|i. Cf. ifiO*- 

ac he sigewSpnum forsworen hxfde, 

io5 e::ga gehwylcre. Scolde his aldorgedal 
on %£m dfegc ]>ysses lilacs 
earmlic wurSan, ond se elloi^jist 
on feonda geweald feor slSian. — 
Da \ixt onfunde se ]>e fela Xror 

iiomodes myr^e manna cynne, 

fyrene gefremede — he fag wilS God^, 
fxt him se iTchoma l£stan nolde, 
ac hine se modega ma^ Hygelaccs 
hxfde be honda j wxs gehwsej'er otirum 

Sislifigende laS. Licsar gebad 

atol £gl£cz ; him on eaxle weariS 
syndolh swcotol, seonowe onspningon, 
burston banlocan. Beowulfe wearS 
guShreS gyre)?e ; scolde Grendel Jionan 

Siofeorhseoc fleon under fenhlcoSu, 
secean wynleas wic; wiste )>e geornor, 
JitTt his aldres wars ende gegongen, 
ddgera dsegrim. Dcnum eallum weailS 
xftcr ]'am wxlrSse willa gelumpen. 

tisHxMe ])a getelsod se )>c Sr feorran com 
snotor ond swylSferhlS sele HroSgares, 
genered wiS nISc. Nihtweorce gefeh, 
ellenmSrl>um. Hzfde East-Denum 
Geatmecga leod gilp gelSsted, 

(joswylcc oncyj'Se ealle gcbettc, 
inwidsorge, )>c hie Srdrugon 
ond for )irean5'dum Jiolian scoldon, 
torn unlytel. fset wtes tacen sweotol. 

syJfSan hildedcor bond ilegde, 
t3jeami ond eaxle — ))Sr v/xs eal geador 

Gren dies gripe — under geapne hr(of). 
XIII ©a Wics on morgen mine gcfrSge 

ymb )'a gifheallc gu^Srinc monig ; 

ferdon folctogan feorran ond nean 
l4ogeond wldwegas wundor sceawian, 

la]>es Izstas. No his Ilfgcdal 

sarlic f»uhte secga gnegum 

)>ara pe tlrlcascs trodc sceawode, 

hu he werigmod on weg Jianon, 
S45nT%a ofercumen, on nicera mere 

Hegc ond gefl^med feorhlastas bier. 

Bftr wxs on bJode brim weallende, 

atol ySa geswing eal gemenged, 

hiton heolfre, heorodrSore weol ; ' 

g5odeaSf^ge 6eof; silSSan dreama leas 

in fenfreoSo fcorh alegde, 

hsjiene sawle ; ]>Sr him hel onfeng. 
panon eft gcwiton ealdgeslSas 

swylce geong manig of gomenwajje, 
S5;fram mere modge mearum ridan, 

beornag on blancum. Oxr wzs Beowulfes 

mSrSo m£ned ; monig oft gecwxS, 

)i£tte siH! ne nor^S be ssEm twconum 

ofer eormengrund o^er nffinlg 

g J jt,_j£i Punctual, iit lixl ■a. Gra., Bu. TIJ. 4Q, Cn. Blilr. xxi 30, Hdt., Ou^ 
aal. Sneral EdJ. ialt%i^^eia amplm clauit. — »%(,^ MS. S br . . ; Adii ((■, 270, 'f- Gi-u. at. km), E4d. hrof j MilUr Angl. xUjoS hora— S^s' JCet. 
81 n.ofcrvannta(i) I HiJi. n. genSged, Cf. T C. fi?. — g^fii* <?i-,i, Tr.' 171, 
Tr. (eorliata. — 349'> Ft/. 148K hcoro AB, — 850" JUS. deog i Kr. d*jg (' the 
dj-e"), nt. dug ('dyed'), Lia (in Hi.) dSog ('conteiled himielf ") ; Sitv. im 
138 i- dCop (iTo fana. afiir viol), cf. Ki. ii, { B*. Sgf. ib/Si^a itof \ 
jSani. IJ db^ntgE liiDp j Z. jirti.txtiiv Ii4/-<ii^i •»&*•'; Sid.i Tr.i ijt, 
Htli. dbf-dor. 


Ifiounder swegles begong selra n£re 
■ rondhfebbendra, rices wyrJ5ra, — 

Ne hie hiiru winedrihten wiht ne logon, 

glxdne Hro^gar, ac ]>xt wjcs god cyning.— 

Hwilum hea))ordfe hleapan leton, 
165011 getlit faran fealwe mearas, 

$£r him foldwegas fxgerc JiQhton, 

cystum cuSe. Hwilum cyninges "pegn^ 

guma gilphlxden, gidda gemyndig, 

se %e ealfela ealdgesegena 
Ijoworn gemunde — word oj'cr fan d 

s65e gcbunden — secg eft ongan 
' sis Beowulfes snyttrum styrian, 

end on sped wrecan spcl gerade, 

wordum wrixlan ; welhwylc gecwaeS, 
tjifxt he fram Sigemunde[s] sccgan h^rde 

ellendxdum, uncuj^es fela, 

Wzlsinges gewin, wide sTSas, 

^ara )>e gumena beam gearwe ne wtston, 

BchiSe ond fyrena, biiton Fitela mid hinc, 
igojronne he swulces hwxc secgan wolde, 

elim his nefan, swa hie a w£ron 

set niSa gehwam nj?dgesteallan ; 

hxfdon ealfela eotena cynnes 

Eweordum gesXged, Slgemunde gesprong 
ti5zfter dea^daege dom unlytel, 

Ey|;%an wiges heard wyrm acwealde, 

hordes hyrde; he under harne siin, 

3e)>elinges beam ana geneSde 

frecne d£de, ne wacs him Fitela mid j 

S71I' Rit.Zi. 300 Kxglan]. — 87X'* Fol. 140' ttyriiti. — g7S» MS. uge 
■nnnde ; <7i-.', Scia., Scd. Sigemunde|i] ; Hell. (cf. Siro. K. 463/.) Si(muiide[i|, 
V1884'" Slgmiuide. Cf. Lang.\iS.ioii. — 879* MS, IjienS. 


g9ohwx)>re him gesSlde, 'Sxt Jraet swurd Jiurliwod 

wrStlkne wyrm, )>xt hit on weatle setstod, 

dryhtlic iren i draca moHSre swealt. 

Haefde IglSca cine gegongen, 

pxt he beahhordes brucan moste 
S95sclfcs dome; sSbat gehleod, 

bacr on bearm scipes beorhte fnetwa, 

Wtelses cafera ; wyrm hat getnealt. 
Sc waes wrcccena wide mierost 

ofer werpcode, wigendra hleo 
900 ellen died um -^ he pxs £r on^ah — , 

sI'SSan Heremodes hild sweSrode, 

eafoS end ellen. He mid Eotenum wear^ 

on feonda geweald forS foilacen, 

snude forsended. Hine sorhwylmas 
voslemede to lange; he his leodum weartS, 

eallum x)rellingum to aldorceare; 

swylce oft bemearn ferran mielutn 

swi1Sferh)KS si^ snotor ceorl monlg, 

sc ])e him bealwa to bote gelyfde, 
9)o)i3et pxt iSeodnes beam ge|>con scolde, 

fxderae^telum onfon, folc gehealdan, 

hord ond hleoburh, h£le]>a lice, 

ejjel Scyldinga. He Jjser callum weafS 

mSg Higelaces manna cynne, 
Sisfreondum gefegra; hine fyren onwod. 
HwTlum flitcnde fealwe strZte 

Sgsb Fol. 140* ii. — T»c., men Edd. gehlod. — a97l> Scktrir L S.S-404, 
Tr.' J74hite, Cf. MPh. iiiaj/. — 900* Coi. -v Hi 368, Hell, iron «ih ; Boer 
16 ir onpah (' received honor'). — 901- MS. Mrfo« } Grimm Ai-dr. Bf Elcne f. 
101 {t), Gr.', milt Edd. eifbS.— 90il> Jtc, ir a/., Hell., Cia. ewenuin ) Kl. 
U, II el. Eotenum. — 904I" B11.41 lorhwjhna hrine. — 905* iSo, Ki., 
Beit, lemedon. — 9il» Tko., aal. f^ttxptlxm. —913* MS: . S . — gis' i^i- 
ii gef[r]iigra { Gr*. gcfagenii (?). — ^ib^ jianl. It} fcalwum. 



mcanim tnietoi). 9i wxs morgenleoht 

scofen ond scynded. Kode scealc monig 

swiShicgende to scle pirn hean 
j2osearowundor seon ; swylce self cyning 

of br^dhure, beahhorda weard, 

tryddode tirfaest getrume micle, 

cystum gcc^Jied, ond his cwen mid him 

medostigge mxt tna^J^a hose. 
xiTii 915 Hro-Sgar tna]felode — he to healle geong, 

stod on stapole, geseah steapne hrof 

golde fahne ond Grendles hond — : 

* Disse ans^ne Alwealdan }>anc '' 

lungre gelimpe! Fela ic laj>es gebad, 
9]ogrynna set Grendle ; ' a rnxg God wyrcan 

wunder xfter wundre, wuldres Hyrde. 

Gxt v/xs ungcara, )>xt ic £nigra me 
.weana ne wende to widan feore 

bote gebidan, jwnne blode fah 
gjjhusa selest hcorodreorig stod, — 

wea widscofen witena gehwylca/n 

^Sara |>e ne wcndon, ])xt hie wldeferh^S 

leoda landgewcorc la|>um bewercdon 

scuccum ond scinnum. Nil scealc hafaS 
94<i}>urh Drihtnes miht d£d gefremede, 

^ w& ealle £r ne meahton 

snyttrum bcsyrwan. Hwset, )>!et secgan ma^ 

cfne swa hwylc m<^|?a, swa ^ne magan cende 

sefter gumcynnum, gyf heo gyt lyfaB, 
94S}>zt hyre Ealdmetod esce v/xre 

9lg<>F<i/. r5o"«>de. — 9i6-Sa,*{m Gm.), Gr.' f. 360(f), Bm. go, Tr. 
■ajwle. — 936* 2S1 wean widscufon ; Gru. wein witSKufon (?) } Tr. 
[tueSe] (c/. Bu. 00) v;a wi-Sicofcn {,/. Gr.') ; Holl.* U (f), &d. won wii 
•cnfcn, — 936''M5. gehwykne; Kt, H, Hi/i., &ii., Cia. ethwyloim; {/. ESr. 
xlii 316. — 9i9^ Fel. ISO* «:»>xam ^B. — ^f Tit., Gr., Gr«., a ai. edi 


bcarngebyrdo. Nu ic, Beowulf, [jcc, 

sec^a] betsta, me for sunu wyllc 

freogan on ferhjjc ; heald foiiS tela 

nlwc sibbe. Ne biiS )>e [n]Snigra gad 
9Soworoide wilna, ]fc ic geweald hxbbe. 

Ful oft ic for l^ssan lean teohhode, 

liordweor]}unge hnihran rince, 

si^mran xt sxcce. pu })e self hafast 

dsdum gefremed, jiiec |>in [dom] lyfaS 
955 awa to aldre. Alwalda )iec 

gode forgylde, swa he nu gyt dyde ! ' 

Beowulf majielode, beam Ec[g])'eowes : 

'We Jiaet ellenweorc estum miclum, 

feohtan fremedon, frecnc geneSdo'h 
96oeafoS uiicu]fes. U)>e ic swijior, 

past BQ hine selfne geseon moste, 

feond on fr<etewum fylwerignc ! 

Ic hint hraedlicc hcardan clammum 

on waslbcdde wri)>an Jrohte, 
965)>ast he for tnundgripe minum scolde 

licgean iTfbysig, butan his lie swice ; 

ic hine ne mihte, f2 MeCod noldc, 

ganges getw£man, no ic him jizes georne xtfealb, 

feorhgeniBlan ; waes to foremihtig 
97ofcond on fejie. Hwie)>ere he his folme forlct 

to lifwrajt list weardian, 

earm ond caxle; no ]?Xr Xnigc swi jTeab 

fcasceaft guma frofre gebohte ; 

947- S™. R. 312. Tr., 4 EdJ. «cg|a] j Tr.' /?j Kcg [«:]{!). — ^^lf^ MS. 
»mpc; Gr.' {uc Bu.Z,. 103/.), Hdl., SchS., CAu. [n)Smgn ; Tr.^ 173 (f). 
&J. [nl^nga- V- T.C. S ifi. — 954' ffa//. Lii.ii. sxi64,Hc!i.', Oa. troidld.; 
Hcll.'d. gefremed[ne]. Cf. T.C. § 17. — 954'' ATi., EJd. [doml. — 957I' JmS. « ; 
Til., maij Edd. Ec[g]-. Sufrfo*.— 96i» Crn.iT. iSi fielcrum. — 96J' MS. him) 
7^9. hint. — 96}'' Fd/. /j/<> bordia. — 965* MS. hand; JfTi. mund-. 


no \>f leng leofa^ laSgeteona 
975synnum geswenced, ac hyne sar hafaiS 

in nidgripe nearwe befongen, 

balwon bcndum; %ier abldan sceal 

maga mane fah miclan domes, 

hii him sclr Metod scrifan willc' 
9S0 Sa wses swigra secg, sunu £c[gjlafe3, 

on gylpspriece guSgeweorca, 

si|>1^n Kpelingas eortes crsefte 

ofer heanne hrof hand sceawedon, 

feondcs fingras; foran Kghwylc wtes, 
9<SstiS[r]a nsegla gchwylc style gelicost, 

hX]>enes handsporu hiMrrtnccs 

egl[u1 unheoru ; Kghwylc gccwarf?, 

|><et htmheardra nan hrinan wolde 

iren Srgod, ]>an %xs ihlXcan 
99oblodge beadufolme onberan woJde. 
XV Ba wzs haten hre)>e Hcort innanwcard 

folmum gefrxtwod } fcla ]>Sra waes, 

wera ond wifa, (jE (>a;t wlnreced, 

gestsetc gyrcdon. Goldiag scinon 
99Sweb aefter wagum, wundorsiona fcla 

secga gehwylcum y%m ^e on swylc staraS. 

Wscs (jset beorhte bold tobrocen swi-Sc 

976* MS. mii; Tin., &</. nlHi-; Gru. p. 2og, Bu.Tid. 4Q, Cia. nyd-j &«& 
(ucESl. xxiixiOSf-),Hi,ll.m\iti^i~.~q%d'. Sh qs?"-— 9W Mill" ^"gl. 
iiJ307S(;hwylciw.— 985» MS. atit; Cru. taiis; E., Sirv. ix ,jS, Hill. 
<tfB[r]i ( StJ. (cf. MLR. V 387) Ifffinigla j la ijjjo. — MS. ncgli ge twyk ; 
Tii.,E., Siev.l.t., Holi.tancil gebviyk^gSb* RU.Zi. jgo-tfoa, Ha/r, -tpeom. 
~')t(i''iiiliclialwsrdt/Fiil. isi'irrenuuiljripeaaJtKFiU. isi^.— gi-T MS. 
egli K,. a egl[c] (-,<•-); Ri^. Z,. JOI, H0I1., SciS. cgV {flij.)i Tr. .gl[uj (adj.). Cf. 
T.C. %2S.— <)i<)*; 990" Gra. p. 131, Si< 13O, H<ill.,St4.ti/or fxt {rtf. 
a him g88,i.e. Biiiviulf). — Sicv. U., Hell, iberan inihte. — 991' G™.ir. 
28i,Gru. hia(li)tiinbndc (?) (/ir hlien hre|<e),. Bu.Tid. jo hiatimbred ; Tr. 
hindam/iH- biten. g:iUa Kh. ix 1S9; Bu. e' i Tr.' 178 i Sed. ((g MLS. v 


•J eal inncwearil Irenbendum faest, 

heorras tohlidene ; hrof ana getiaes 
loooealles ansund, )ie se aglxca 

fyrendXdum fag on fleann gewand 

aldrcs onvcna. No j>at J^ byS 

to befleonnc — fremme se J»e willc — , 

ac ges«can sceal sawlberendra 
1005 njde genydde, ni(>JSa beama, 

gnindbuendra gear we stowe, 

JifEr his iTchoma legerbedde fcst 

swcfej) after symle. 

P3 wses sSl ond msl, 

])xt to healle gang Hcalfdenes Sunu ; 
totowolde self cyning symbel [licgan. 

Ne gefifcgcn ic )>a m£g^ maran weorode 

ymb hyra sincgyfan sel gebXran. 

Bugon t^l to bence blxdigandc, 

fylle geHegon, fagere ge)>!^on 
loismedoful manig; magas ui^ra[n] 

swKShicgcnde on sele Jiani bean, 

HroSgar ond Hro^ulf. Heorot innan was 

freondum afylled; nallcs facenstafas 

Peod-Scyldingas ]fenden frcmedon. — 
louFot^eaf J)! Beowulfe b«arn Healfdenet 

scgen gyldenne sigores to leane, 

hroden hilrcumbor, helm ond byrnani 

mXre maS^umsweord manjge gesiwon 

998 mil. ol inneward bit/ Irenbendum. — IODO<> £.&., Tit., Hell., Sid. 
\a, (far pj). Sti Glia. 1 pt.— 1004- jMS. ge nctn ) Ki. ii, 3 EJd. ga£cir)ui, 
cf. Sim. R. zQi, Lang, [o.ji Scii. gcaan. — 1009" Fol. ij2' giag. — 
tots^ MS. pmi I.Br. 73, ji«il. xaiii 442, Holt. wercm(.M) ; &iii., Sii. 
wlcon, CMa. wiran {cf. Lang. %\6 n. 2, 18.4) i Hurniarg L 4-'33'3t Tr.' iSo, 
Tr. fvSxt. g: Ba. 01. — loio" MS. brand; 1S2 hata. — IM1» 
MS. hilie CDmbor; E.&., Cr.i, Kie.Zi. 302, Hill., Scii. Ukk-i Cti. la 
HtlJ.') hUt-{ Jr.! 180 mui. {Ki., Til. hnxtcnUlR.) 



beCoran beorn beran. Beowulf ge]>ah 
1015 ful on flettc ; no he JiSre feohgyfte 

for sc[e]oten[d]um scamtgan Sorfte, — 

ne gefrxgn ic fr€oncIIicor feower madmas 

golde gegyrede gummanna Tela 

in ealobence oSmm gesellan. 
■ojoYmb ^xs helmes hrof heafodbeorge 

wtrum bewunden wala utan heold, 

pset him tela jaf- frecne ne meahu 

scurheard sce|jSan, )>onne scyldfreca 

ongean gramum gangan scolde. 
io]5 Hcht {Sa eoria hleo cahta mearas 

fietedhleorc on flet tdiin, 

in under eoderas; Jiara 3num stod 

sadol searwum tah, since gewur]Kid ; , 

^xt wxs hildesetl heahcyninges, 
iiHo^onne swcorda gelac sunu Healfdenes 

efnan wolde, — niefre on ore Iteg 

widcu}>es wig, Sonne walu feollon. 

Ond ^a Beowulfe bega gehwx[fre5 

eodor Ingwina onweald geteah, 
io45wicga ond w£pna; het hine wcl briican. 

Swa manlice m£re I'eoden, 

hordweard hiele)>a hea)>or£$as geald 

mearum ond madmum, swa by n£fre man lyhS, 

se pe secgan wile s35 aefter rihte. 
XVI 1050 Da gyt Sghwylcum eorla drihten > 

bara l>e mid Beowulfe brimlade teah, 

1014'' HtJi. gepeah. Sre Lang. { 2J.J. — ioi6' MS. KOttnum ; Ki. 11, 4 
EJJ. s<^2)ot«i[i!|um. — I03l» MS. wilan ; £.&., Ha/l., &»a., Cia. wala ; Sim. 
It. 257, Bi4. 360, Scd. wall). — 1051' 7:111. fialQi Rii.L., &J. iiob. — Ful. 
tSxO hi ^S i Gr.\ It bI. ^t\. — l0ll^ MS. mahtoa; £c. a, Schu.,Std. 
meahte. — 1037'' Aani. 18, Holt, [on] anum. — 104.8'' Siv. R. 369 [ne] IjhS, 
iiflSS. 9: r.C. j/. — I05it>MS. leaiiei 


on pSn medubencc ma)»?uni gesealdc, 

yrfelife, ond {rone £nne heht 

golde forgyldan, )>one %c Grendel Xr 
i-5sniane acwealde, — swa he hyra ma wolde, 

nefne him witig God wyrd forstode 

ond %3es mannes mod. Metod eallum wSold 

gumena cynnes, swi he nu git dc%, 

Forjian bi'S andgit seghwser selest, 
loSoferhSes fore^fanc, Fela sceal gebldan 

leofes ond la|>es sS pe longe hCr 

on iSyssum windagum woroldc bruccIS ! 
pier wies sang ond sweg samod ztgxdcre 

fore Healfdenes hildewisan, 
io65gomenwudu grated, gid oft wreccn, 

^nne healganjen Hrojjgircs scop 

a^fter medobence msnan scolde, 

[he] Finnes cafenim, iSa hie se fair begeat, 
HieleS Healf-Dcna, Hnsef Scyldinga, 
1070 in Freswiele feallan scolde. 

Ne huru Hildeburh herian ])orfte 

Eotena trSowc ; unsynnum wearS 

beloren leofum xt ]>am ^indplcgan 

bearnum ond broSrum ; hie on gebyrd hruron 
io75garc wunde ; ]>xt wses geomuru ides ! 

Nalles holinga Hoces dohtor 

mcotodsceaft bcmcarn, syfHSan morgen com, 

'%a heo under swegle geseon meahte 

ioS3« Ftl. ISJ" friifc. — io64.» Mo. ESr. xiii 3S0 ofcr {'eonceming,'_^ 
fore)! Hell. (bt. —LiUi An^-fdA. xix 341 H. Iiuni] ; Tr.' 183 HriSSgi™, Tr. 
F. 11, Tr. HsUUeai. — Io6jO Uiti I.e., Tr. eft. — io68» Wo. (m AT,.) (be) : 
Tr. I 183, H'l'. , Site, afaia ; Tr. F. 11 J. , Tr. gefmn ; Rit. L. , Htlt. ', Imtl- 
mmn LF. 4^4, Sid. auimt luama iifirt io6i.~ loSf^ aSj, Kt., tl ^ 
HaifitBtt. — iayi^ Grn. unijnnig er uniynnigum ; Hell. (cf. Bail, i 173), 
Tr. F. 13, Tr. iiniyn(n)gum. Sa loSg". Cf. Krafp MPk. ii 404 & »*U — 
AmJr. 100. — I07j'> MS. hild j ^.-lind-. — >07S" Fil, 1J3^ wande AB. 

inor];orbealo mSga, )>Sr he[o] Zr mXstc hSold 
loSoworolde wynne. Wig eallc fornam 

Finnes ])egiias nemne feaum anum, 

]wet he ne mehte on ]>Sm meSelstede 

wig Hengeste wiht gefeohtan, 

ne )>a wcalafe wlgc for)>ringan 
■ol5|)codnes %egne; ac big him ge)>ingo budon^ 

)>xt hie him SSci ftet eal gerymdon, 

healle ond heahsetl, ^xt hie healfre geweald 

v/r& Eotena beam Sgan mSston, 

ond a:t feohgyftum Folcwaldan sunu 
togodogra gehwylce Dene weor|jodc, 

Hcngestes hSap hringum wen,ede 

efnc swa swlSe sint^estrgonum 

f^ttan goldes, swa h€ FrSsena cyn 

on beorscle byldan woldc. 
■09s&i hie getriiwedon on twa healfa 

fsste friofiuware. Fin Hengeste 

cine unflitme aSum benemde, 

]Ket h£ )(a wealafe weoiena dome 

arum hSoIde, \>xt %Xr £nig mon 
tioowordum ne worcum w^re ne brXce, 

ne ]>urh inwitsearo xfrc gemiEnden, 

iScah hie hira beaggyfan banan folgcdon 

Seodenlease, ^i him swa gefiearfod wxs ; 

gyf f>onnc Frysna hwylc frecnan spriece 

loji^ MS. ht; E.Sc, T/ls.,[o];{iiglK,it„itiue vi.pXr he). 
— toSl*' MS. fai— toij Gr.i -Wig-Heniau{t) [cp. i.g. 63, IIoSi B^-oarr 
Bjarki, Inlr. xxvi «. s\; Ric.L. & Zi. JM wiht H. WJS g.; Holt, wip/er wiht. 
a.alttTr. F. isf; Tr.;j1n£l.xxviii444;BhaZ/iJPi.xxxviiS30.~toSi' 
Brc^n «egn. (i« nui). — loaTt- E.Sc. (f), Tio., Tr. F. t?, Tr., H>lr., StJ. 
hcalfiie. — '095» Sa 66q^ Varr. — I097' Gra. oohltttne (?), lU IllSti Tr.' 
iSj uinUwc {cf. G<a: gij); Tr. F. 34, Tr. unbBniiej Hull. Lit. il. xxi 64 
unditnc. — 1097'' Fil, /j^" he. — wo^f' MS. Irecnen ; Tht. litCDUi, Ijt. > &«- 

DU. Cf. T.C.%16. 


itos^^es morjiorhetes myndgiend wiirc, 

Jwjnne hit swcordcs ecg s;5an scolde. — 

A(/ wJEs gesefiicd, ond icgc gold 

ah^fen of horde, Here-Scyldinga 

betst beadorinca wxs on biel gearu. 
ino£t [)iein adc was ejjgesfne 

swatlah syrce,. sw^n ealgylden, 

cofer irenheard, EJ'eling manig 

wundum awyrded; sume on wjcle crungon! 

Hct ^a Hildeburh st Hnaefes adc 
iii;hire selfre sunu sweoloSc bcfaestan, 

banfatu basrnan, ond on biel don 

eame on eaxle. Ides gnornode, 

gcomrode giddum. Gii^Srinc astah. 

Wand to wolcnum w^Hyra mSst, 
tiiohlynode for hiawe ; hafelan multon, 

bengeato burston, ISonne blod xtspranc, 

laSbite Ikes. LTg ealle forswealg, 

gSsta gifrost, ^in 9e |fier guS fornam 

bega folces; waes hira blicd scacen. 
XVII iiis Gewiton him ?a wigend wica neosian 

110$!' Tr. F.32, Tr., Holl.myaSeiTtS. — naff' MS. Pl^^n; Tr. F. i(i{r), 
Tr., Sid. Khnn ; JECPk. fii! 2SS >S5in («■ siimn (?), .. Tr. F. IQ (?)) } Hill. 
tvi7SiUl(rwinyS5an)) Imilman D. Lil.a. xxxggStcytan ; Sirv. ix 13O: if 
afuT leoide; SchS. tiinh myndpin uaicruoti. — iiq7» MS. »S, Eid. ASj 
C™.(r. ^3, Gru. Ad. — 1 .07" JM5. T icge j K<. -Vicge (' vegWo. ' f) ; E.S^. {/), 
Ric.L. {?), Shger Biilr. xU 213 incg* (c/-- 3J77) i *«- 30 ondlege (' openly,' 
rp. 1035" Viirr.); Hc/l. Kni/. i>« jd4=Uet (W'g 'roplendenf), Hell.* itge 
(cp. OW. iit.iM Jj''*'flrr.)i //a/i.' lege {'eagerly,' =iigt, P*^- 407)- (^.ait 
IV.' 1*5, Tr. F. 20, Tr.; Griint. Angl. miisjif., Biiir. xxiti 03, Sin. it. 
421 — IIIJ" Til., Gr.' tuni,cf. Cos. iiiii J1»0. — 1117* MS. amx; Ntll. 
Siilr.xtiiS4ef;Std.atne; Tie. a»e ('Mhet'j/ri' eJjle; Bair Z/Jji. xipit 13S 
ntm ond eaifc {?).— 11 l!'>Gr«ji-. 284, Gra., Ri1.Zs.303 gOKrec (tp. 3144); 
C'-'C) gu^litiog ( = 'cUniot'?), 10 SiJ. ( = '<pitals of rnioke'); Siiirtr L 
3.j.^V4, Biurl.f. gilSiincutah.— 1II9» Fe/. IS4O taAB.— lll<f Gru., Tr. 
F. 21, Tr. from Jer for.— Ho//. Zt. 116 hrawe. g". alio ESl. xxxii 463-^ 
n%i<> Ma«y Edi. icnnici mafnnc 10. ^Mk, amiuing imnu. BUiuScki. ESt. 
xlii 1 10. ~ it^S*' Hell., ScAU. aiaaa. Sa T.C. iff. 


freondum befeallen, Fr^sland geseon, 

bamas ond heaburh. Hengest %a g^ 

wxlfagnc winter wunode mid Finne 

[eap unhlitme ; card gemundc, 
ti3o)>eah ]>e he mcahte on mere drifan 

hnngcdstefnan, — holm storme w8oI, 

won wis winde, winter ^Jie beleac 

isgebinde, op ?jct 6)>er com 

gear in gcardas, — swi nil gyt deS, 
iilS^ ^ syngilcs sele bewitia^, 

wuldortorhtan wcder. Da-wxs winter scacen^ 

ficger foldan bearm ; fundode wrecca, 

gist of geardum ; he to gyrnwnece 

swTSor )>dhte ^onne to sStade, 
ii4ogif he torngemot ]>urhtcon mihte, 

pxt he Eotena beam inne gemunde. 

Swa he ne forwyrnde woroldrSdenne, 

)>onne him Hunlafing hildcleoman, 

billa selest on bearm dyde; 
■ HSi'fes wXron mid Eotenum ecge cuSe. 

Swylce fcrhSfrecan Fin eft begcat 

sweordbealo sllSen xt his selfes ham, 

Ei)rSan grimne gripe GiiSlaf ond Oslaf 

cfter sXgiSe soi^e m£ndon, 

iiiSi'-i9' JUS. finnel anhlitmc ; Ki. Finne/dnc (ef. lonf'') mliSliiW) M 
Hull., Stii., aa.i Hi.'-* rmM/tOia unhlkme; Tit. FlnnF/unfliune (cfi. 
7007") i Iti'M fif Zi. 3!ff, Std. F./elne unflitme; ft.' F./SSla unhlitme j 
JCdti' no F./unbGle (' miifortune,' 'eijle') in. (^ Tr.* 18? f., Tr.— 
Hitf 3S4, m^nj Edd., Std., Cia. [ne] meahee.i- 1 134'*- 35" Tko. dW 1 
Am. M, Ht/i.,SeiS. doal!. — ft.', Std. (rf. MLR. v 3S7) ieS/fim ISc Cf. 
tia SItv. tx 1301 Bu. 30 f. — M35« Fol. /jJ"|iohle AB. — 1140- Cra. 
tomgwuM, — II4''"'' Tke.ywtfirfm; ftu. pit hyt ftryrthi^ Sirtr. Botr. 
xiiig3,Hsli. ^ ))« ; Csi. Beilr. 1x126, Sed. per he [H-i^q. — RiV. L. beamu* 

*ijgmyn«e. — Tr, F. 25, Tr. Tme/rwinne Cf. Rii.Zi. 3071 Bu. 31; ESt. 

ixziz 430 — I I4l'> Mb. 68, flu. 31, Std. urorodrinlcnnc. Siiu. matti 1 141 lu^- 
irdiHalt c/auu, den cf firhd. — > 145- Bu. 3', Tr. F. 26, Tr. HuD Lifiog. — 
Ii4]b Htil. HikklionMn. 


ii;oxtwiton weanadSl; nc mcahte wXfre mod 

forhabban in hrel>rc. Da wzs heal roden 

feonda feorum, swilce Fin slxgen, 

cyning on cor{>re, ond seocwen numen. 

Sceotend Scyldinga to scypon feredon 
ti55eal ingesteald eorlScyninges, 

swylce hie xt Finncs ham Jindan nieahton 

sigia searogimma. Hie on sielade 

drihtlTce wif to Denum feredon, 

Isddon to leodum. 

Leo% wss asungen, 
ii6cigleomanncs gyd, Gamen eft astab, 

beorhtode bencsweg, byrelas sealdon 

win of wunderfatum. pa cwom Wealhjieo foriS 
gan under gyldnum beage ^xr Jja godan twegen 
s£ton suhtergefxderan ; ]ii gpt wses hiera sib asigxdere, 
JEghwylc oSrum tr^we. Swylce ^Sr t7nfer[) [jyie 
xt fotum sxt frean Scyldinga ; gehwylc hiora his ferh)>c 

yxX h2 hsefde mod mice], )>eah ]>c he his magum n£re 
arfxst set ecga gelacum. Spraec '%a ides Scyldinga : 

' Onfoh l^issum fulle, freodrihten min, 
ii70sinces brytta ! pu on s£lum wes, 

goldwine gumena, ond to Geatum sprsec 

mildum wordum, swa sceal man don ! 

Beo wis Geatas gl^d, geofena gemyndig, 

nean ond feorran pu nu hafast. 

ilSlt- MS. hroden) flu, Hi. 64, ISIS ™den. Sa T.C. J3«. — Iljfi* Tr., 
Hell. iwyJc. — 1 159- Fa/. rj5» to ^B. — 1161" SiJ. {irf. MLR. i 287) hemhl- 
irodeftf. barhtin). — Ii65l> jMS, bun frrp- Rii.Zi. 414 Unferfi. 811400'. 
— 1174* E.Sc., «a/. p. n. JftiSu] h. [mar. fijiiihxaHi : Ric.r. ig, T.C 
is •••]■, ■"'■'■ '■'■ h "y'' l"- (I'd pufci. afur feorran, lih Ke., Tin., Gm.) ; Bu. ei 
inurn after 1 174'' [^S» «w™m in ide pirn hean] ; Tr.i- ,gi [pij „ [)k) |.., 
sa. Mf. i Sin. E&i.^iv 30? |H] P- ■ '"""«™'' **/""■<" 74- CJ\ JEGFi. 
viii JS6J. i Siii. ESi. xlit 15J. 


ii7jMc man sxgdc, ]>xt )>u iSe for sunu woldc 

hcrcri[n]c habban. Heorot is geOelsod, 

bcahsele bcorhta ; bruc )>en(len {>u mote 

manigra medo, ond )>inuin magum l£f 

folc ond rice, ])onne ISu foriS scyle, 
iiiometodsceaft sebn. Ic ininne can 

glxdne Hrajiulf, pxt he [>a geogo^ wile 

irum healdan, gyf )(U ier }>onne he, 

wine Scildinga, worold oA£test ; 

wenc ic |>*t he mid godc gyldan wille 
iil5uncran caferan, gif he pxt eal gemon, 

hwxt wit to willaii ond to woHSmyndum 

umborwesendum XT arna gefrcmedon.' 

Hwearf )>a bl bence, )>Kr byre byre wSron, 

HrefJric ond Hro^mund, ond ba^lejia beam, 
tijagiogo^ aetgaedere ; ]>£r sc goda sa?t, 

Beowulf Geata be ^xm gebro^rum twxm. 
xvui Him wses ful boren, ond freondlaj^u 

wordum bewiegned, ; ond wunden gold 

Sstum geeawed, earin[h]reade twa, 
iijjhrEcgl ond hringas, healsbeaga miest 

|>ara pt ic on foldan gefreegen hxbbe. 

NSnigne ic under swegle selran hyrdc 

hordma^um hxle]>a, syj'San H3ma xtwxg 
I to pave byrhtan byrig Brdsinga mene, 
iioosigle ond sincfxt, — searomSas fleah 

Eormennces, geceas ecne r£d. — 

ii7S"Crir. [wi] m«— 1175" Fol. ii6» pu AB.~ ixjV' MS. hat ric ; 
Ke. hereri[n|c. Cp. 3466' JUS. hei«o H;c. ~ i i 78* MH. AB tarAa ; Ke., a al. 
mC<U i Gr.i niafinu (>) ; Tr.' igi mifSa (?) ; Tr. mSSt. Cf. Lang. \ 18.3. — 
1194* MS. reade) Or.' -[hjrtade. — II9S» Ftl. 136" gu AB. — iifi' MS. 
nud mum ; E.Sc. -mi^um (?) ; Gr. -nS&S-ata ; Gru. -miSm j Cha. -midm. 
Sa Sin. A. M. \ 85 "■ z- Cp. sioj'- — " 199" MS. here ; E.Sc. pSte. — 
1 199<» Grimm D. M. tsS {joT), Bt. 73 Briungi. — iwo" MS. fialh j La 
L4.34.44, Gru, tSab. 



pone hring hsfde Higelac Geata, 

nefa Swertinges nyhstan siSe, 

si%)>an he under segne sine calgodc, 
iMswaelreaf werede ; hyne wyrd fornam, 

sy|HSan he for wlenco wean ahsode, 

fiehSe to Frysum. He J)a fraetwc wseg, 

eorclanstlnas ofcr ySa ful, 

ncc Jieoden; he under rande gecranc. 
iiio Gehwearf \>3 in Francna fx[>m feorh cyninges, 

breostgewxdit, end se beah somod ; 

wyrsan wigfrecan Wiel reafcdsn 

fefter guSsceare, Geata leode 

hreawic heoldon.^ Heal swege onfeng. 
iiisWealhSeo majielode, heo fore ]>Sm werede spncc: 

' Bruc ISisses beages, Beowulf leofa, 

hyse, mid hfeic, ond ]risses hriegles neot, 

J»eo[d^strcona, ond ge)>eoh tela, 

cen ]>ec mid craefte, ond )>yssum cnyhtum wes 
iVioIara IT^! . Ic ])e ])xs lean geman. 

Hafast )>u gefered, ]>set Se feor ond neah 

ealne widcferh)? weras ehtigaS, 

efne swa side swa seb bebuge^S 

windgeard weallas. Wes [renden ^u lifige, 
iii5!e)ieling, eadig ! Ic (>£ an tela 

sincgestreona. Beo ^u suna minum 

dsdum gedefe, dream heal den de ! 

llog> Gru./r. 38s, I1 1- 

raifedeni E.Sc. riifedon. g: T.C. i i6. ~ luj' Hslixi 

Iiij'' B.&., Gru., E., mil., Sckii , Sid. pbii comma afitr , 

via S70, Aani. 21 hiilsbege ( = -b£age). — 1117'' Fil. iST'l ^. — iii8» MS. 
(.eo; Gru.rr. 283, Kt. p«o[<l].. — 1 114." MS. wind geard weallas; Ki., tl al. 
wunige eirdwMllaii E.Sc. windige weallas j Kracisw Arch. cxii7i,cf. Lj.iQ.44 
windgeard weallii. Sa T.C. J 2S n. 2. — 131S> Sniral Edd. amii cmma afltr 
Kpeling. Sa Mti. Hi 4ST- 



Her is Sghwylc eorl olrum getrjlwe, 

modes mJIdc, mandribtne hot[dJ, 
i23o]>cgnas syndon ge^wXrc, |ieod ealgearo^ 

druncne dryhtguman ; do swa ic bidde ! * 
Eode J)a to setle. pSr was symbla cyst, 

druncon win weras. Wyrd ne cu])on, 

geosceaft grimmc, swa hit agangcn weariS 
lajS coria manegum, syl^Ban iefen cwom, 

ond him Hr6]^r gewat to hofc sinum, 
. nee to neste. Reced wcardodc 

unrlm eoria, swa hie oft £r dydon. 

Benc)>elu bercdon ; hit geondbrieded wearS 
iz4obeddum ond bolstrum. Beorscealca sum 

fus ond f<ege fletrxstc gebcag. 

Setton him to heafdon hllderandas, 

bordwudu beorhtan ; psi on bence waes 

ofer fcjtclinge yf>gcsene 
1145 hca]>ostSapa helm, hringed byme, 

]>recwudu JirymlTc. WaM )>eaw hyra, 

]TiEt hie oft WiSron an wig gearwc, 

ge xt him gc on bcrgc, ge gehw!e)>er Jilra 

efnc swylce mSla, swylce hira mandryhtiM 
iisojjearf gesSldc; was seo ]>eod tilu. 
xviill Sigon ]>a to sl^pe. Sum sare angeald 

£fenrzste, swa him ful oft gelamp, 

si]>San goldsele Grcndel warode, 

iii<^MS.h6\(c»i,«iiJ/r<mhcol); TM., JCe. hol(d]. — 1130''. &*r7».— 
ii^i'' MS. inS; Siev. ix 140, Hall., &rf. do. — iij+n Klu. Biitr.viUjjjf., 
Hull, geacoft {luppeud ancuat form if gescoft iv. araud prefix). & sa66''. 

— MS. giimne; E.St.pitamc. — ixiiStveralEdd.(iiuiSelii.,!!iea.,cf. ScUL 
Sa. fp. xxiv, ii(i) l^iit a fi-4ii lenience oivi^^StD and mahiimdv). mte 1137» J 
Cha. incladis in liai aminei I2jsi>-j8''. But ui 2i03*-4, '7^4", *M^*, ijoj*- 

— i-Hi>' To!, uj" btii AB. — Z'H-ji' B.Si., CAa. Snwiggarwe; Cm. viii 570 
an(d)w!g-, Halt.ySed. anwlE-. Sa Bit. Zi.4oSi MPt. iiiASSt Clm. 1 wi.— Ii4g» 
E.Sc., et al. caned (& 


unriht xfnde, o]i \>xx ende becwom, 
iissswylt xftei synnum. ]7iet gcsj^e wear)>, ' 

widcup werum, yxtxe wrecend )>a g^t 

lifde xfter lajfum, lange Jirige, 

xher guSceare } Grendles modor, 

ides agl£cwif yrm|je gemunde, 
ti6ose pc WECteregesati wunian scolde, 

cealde streamas, Bi|>8aii Cain weariS 

t6 ccgbanan angan brej>cr, 

fxdcrenmSge ; he Ipl fag gcwat, 

morpre gemearcod mandrcam flean, 
ii65westen warode. panon woe fcla 

geosceafigasta ; wxs )jXra Grendel sum, 

heorowearh hetelic, se xt Heorote fand 

waeccendne wer wiges bidan ; 

}>Xr him agl£ca KtgriCpe wearlT; 
it7ohwx)>re he gemunde mxgenes strenge, 

gimfxste gife, {Se him God sealde, 

ond him to Anwaldan are gel^fde, 

frofre ond fultum } if he {lone feond ofercwSm, 

gehnEgde helle gist. pi hi hSan gewSt, 
ti75dreame bedsEled dea[>wTc s^n, 

mancynnes feond. Ond his modor ])8 gyt 

gifre ond galgmod gcgin wolde 

gorhfulne sT%, sunu JeoS wrecan. 

Com fii to Heorote, 'SSr Hring-Dene 
tigogeond (jBBt sasld swSfun. pa ^ir sona weariS 

cdhwyrft eorlum, sifi^an inne fealh 

li;t^ Tt. gfi&ceire. — Ii6c^ E.Sc.,aal. ■I[a).— t i6tl> MS. caiop) ft*^. aW, 
Xe. Qiia.Sa 107' farr.— 1164'' Fo/. /jfi" mui ^B. — 1 166" Sa i334'.^ 
lijS'' aiS.ianutcoij E.&. (/), Cr.i (f), Schcrer L S-5-495, RtiZi. 401 toM 
(srtaau) ibV. {dns ■ Sitd - pad. qf. La»i.\ 16.3.) — i3,ia^Htli.{cf.Zi. 117) 


Grendles modor. Wass se gryre Isssa 

efne swa miclc, swa biS vascgy^ crxtt, 

wiggryre wifes be wSpnedmen, 
iils|»onne heoni bunden, hamere gejirCen, 

sweord swate tab swln ofer hclmc 

ecgum dybttg andweard scire^. 

Di waes on heallc heardccg togen 

sweord ofer setlum, stdraiid manig 
ii9ohafen handa fzst; helm ne gemutide, 

byman side, ^ bine se broga angeat. 

Heo wxs on ofste, wolde fit )>anon, 

feore beorgan, )ia hco onfunden wiesf 

hraSe heo ie|ielinga anne haefdc 
iijsfxste befangen, )>a heo to fenne gang. 

Se wxs Hro)»g3re bxlejfa ISofoA 

on gesTSes bsd be s£m twSonum, 

rice randwiga, ))one %e hco on neste abrSat^ 

blsdfxsme bcorn. Nfcs Bfiowulf iSSr, 
ijooac wzs oj^er in Zr gcteobhod 

xftct maj^uingife mSmm Geate. 

Hream weariS in Heorote ; h£o under heolfre genam 

cu)>e folme ; ccaru wss genlwod, 

gcworden in wicun. Ne waes pxt gewrixle til, 
■losjia^t hie on ba healfa bicgan scoldon 

frconda feorum! 

pa WEES frod cyning, 

bar hildcrinc on brSon mode, 

sy1S)>an he aldor]iegn unlyAgendne, 

]>onc deorestan deadne wisge. 

I iSS" MS. gtpana ; Gi-.' (f ), Sliv. Biiir. ix aSl, a04, '/■ Sin. R. 265, 458 
gtprven. — nB?" FW. /jS* dyhctig^, djfttig Jj &.i dyhdg. — iisi^Gr.' (f), 
Ba-Tid, 3q6, Bu-Zi. 401 pt fir pi. — ijQi* MS. <^n.— 'Ijot^i /W. ijo" 


I 10 Hral'c wzs to burc Beowulf fetod, 

sigoreadig sccg. Samod Srdzge 

code coria sum, • x]k\c cempa 

self mid gesiSum )>ier se snotera bad, 

hwxjitr him A/walda She wille 
ijissefter weaspelle wyrpe gefrcmman. 

Gang Ba after flore fyrdwyrSe man 

mid his handscale — healwudu dyncde — , 

Jrset he )>one wTsan wordum nSgde 

frean Ingwina, fraegn gif him wSre 
ijiozfter ncodla^u[m] niht gctXse. 
XX HroSgar ma]>eIode, helm Scyldinga : 

' Ne fdn )>u sefter sielum ! Sorb is geniwod 

Denigea leodum. Dead is j^scbere, 

Yrmenlafes yldra broj^or, 
ijismin runwita ond min rSEdbora, 

eaxlgestcalla, Sonne w6 on orlege 

hafelan weredon, ))onne faniton fS])an, 

eofcras cnyscdan. Swy(lc) scolde corl wesan, 

[x)>eling] Srgod, swylc ^schere wks ! 
i3]oWearili him on Heorote to handbanan 

waslgSst w^frci ic ne wat hwxi^er 

atol £se wlanc eftsTSas teah, 

fylle ge/*rgnod. H6o Jia fShBc wrzc, 

J?c pa gystran niht Grendel cwealdest 

131+' MS. hwBEpre i Sin,. ZfdFk. xxi 3!7, H'l'-, Sid. hwiper. Sii 2844'. 
— MS. ail tnldij Tii. ilvalda, Tit. Alwalda.— 1317* Tie., SiBta L2.22, 
Wj. -icol*. 5k G/oh— niSti MS. {AB) hfuegdei £.&. nSgde, Gr.' nCfiie. 
_i3io> MJ. neod liSu; £.&. -lide ; E., Htli., Sti.-'ti^\m\\ SvieaL a.2a 
-UiSe i Cu. via 570 nSidUSum. Sii Ling. % 20.3.— 1318" Fel. ijo" "T . - Kolite 
B(y*);T«.nvylc. — i3i9»&-ii.[atdeling],Gr.»[K«elingt. &*/jo».— 1331<>M^. 
hmpert &■' ('). ^''- ''■ 45, Swat > L S.Ii, Bu. (,3 hwider j Gr.*, StkS., SO., 
Cie. hwsdtr. (A(.', £>/(. bwirper=hwidei.) — IJJJ* MS. gcfrxpiad; XV. m, 
« «/., He/r., 5(^. leftcinod i cp. 562, ioi4i ueGlsu.f Tit., Tr-gefrfftoii Grs. 


i]3sF>'-irh hXstne had hcardum clammum, 

for)>an he to lange Icode mine 

wanodc ond wyrde. He set wigc gecrang 

ealdres scyldig, ond nu o]>er cwom 

mihtig mansca^a, wolde hyre mSg wrecan, 
ij4oge feor hafaS fiShSe gcstSled, 

yxs pe [>incean ma^ KS"* monegum, 

se ^ xfter sincgyfan on sefan greote)),^ 

hre^rbealo hearde ; nu sco hand lige^ 

se )>e eow welhwylcra wilna dohte. 
1345 Ic JTxt londbtiend, Igode mine, 

selerEdende secgan h^rde, 

)>£t hie gesawon swylce twSgcti 

micle mearcstapan moras healdan, 

ellorg^stas, DSEn o^er w<es, 
ilSoJiKS ]>e hie gcwislicost gewitan meahton, 
v^idcse onlicnra ; oSer ear'msceapen 

on weres waestmum wraeclSstas tned, 

naefne he waes mara )>onne £nig man oiScr; 

)>one on geardagum Grendel nemdon 
1355 foldbuende ; no hie faeder cunnon, 

hwxpQt him Snig wjbs Sr acenned 

dyrnra gasta. Hie dygel lond 

warigea'iS wuirhleo]>u, windige nxssas, 

frecne fengelld, 'SSr fyrgenstrcam 
i3(iounder nxssa genipu ni}>er gewTteS, 

flod under foldan. Nis Jixt feor heonon 

milgemearces, pxt se mere stani/e^S ; 

ofer {T£m hongiaV hrinde bcarwas, 

1344' ES'; «-/.«[ol.— i3si« MS. onncD»i Ki., ti al., SM., SiJ., 
Cia. anBcna ; 287, Sviia L t.3t, Htli. odDc. (S^al edit wan btf^t 

^5"I3S''*-) — i35i'>fW. rfo"trwl J3S4*'JKS'. (^^nemdod; AT:, nemdon. 

— ilblf' MS. KanSeei 7JI. Handejh — ijfijO H/brrii in Frtjaii (f. mf.)u 

wudu wyrtutn faest wxter oferhelmaS. 
'3^5 P^r mxg nihta gehw^'n ni^wundor scon, 

ffr on flode. No ^xs frod leofaS 

gumena bearna, )>xt ]>one gnuid witc. 

Oeah pc bSSstapa hundum geswenced, 

heorot hornum trum holtwudu secc, 
i37ofeorran geflfmed, Kr he feorh seldS, 

a!dor on ofre, Xr he in wille, 

hafclan [beorgan] } nis pxt heoru stow! 

ponon ^geblond up astigeS 

won to wolcnum, ^onne wind styrejt 
i]75la% gewidru, oiS yxt lyft drysmzp, 

roderas reotaS. Nu is se r£d gelang 

eft ict ]>e anum. Eard gTi ne const, 

frecne stowe, Sser ]>u £ndan miht 

sinnigne sccg j sec gif J>u dyrre ! 
ijSoIc pe {fa fshSe fee leanige, 

ealdgestreonum, swa ic £r dyde, 

wund»am golde, gyf ))u on weg cymest.' 
XXI Beowulf majjelode, beam £cg]>eowe5: 

* Ne sorga, snotor guma! Selre h(S xghwXm, 
i]gs)>aet he his freond wrece, |fonne he fela mume. 

Urc gghwylc sceal cnde gebldan 

worolde iTfes ; wyrce se j'e mote 

domes Sr dea)>e ; )>!et bi$ drihtguman 

unlifgendum xfter sclest. 

Blifil. Horn,, SioM L i.»2, Wmcitr, Hi.Sk.' tulmge (ut nU n isjfj 
Viiisn hrimdt( = hrimgt)i B.-T. i.v. hrind, Sarraan Btiir. xi i6-- 
bringie {ef. hring 'circle'); iTnj-if £5t. aaa; 3^3/. hrinde, i« G/ou. 
1 37i> MS. hafclan : j Ki. it, Edi. [h^dan] ; fin/r. nim [bcorgu] (>). 5r 
— 1377" Fat. 160^ pe jIB. — IJ79* MS. fcla sinnigae; Hi.', atu Et 
lib ; Hsil. (cf. Zj. lli): !•>""" It/'" fela> ™*'c^ -*' "■"•" '*' ''"' «" 
fratding /j'w,— ijSi' 3*S. Z. wim/dio! or /dmi ; G-HJr. jS? » 
ESc.,a id^ Ba. 03,Sihi.,Std.wiaaataD-, Tii.,HslJ.', Htll., Cka-ona 



ij9oAris, rices wcard, uton hrajie feran, 

Grendlcs inagan gang sceawigan. 

Ic hit J>c gchatc ; no he on helm Iosa)>, 

ne on foldan fiejjin, nc on fyrgenholt, 

ne on gyfcnes grund, ga JijEr he willc! 
139s Dys dogor ]>u gef'yld hafa 

weana gehwylces, swa ic )>e wenc to.' 

Ahleop i5a se gomcla, Gode {lancode, 

mihtigan Drihtne, })ses se man gespncc. 
pa WKS HroSgarc hors gebstcd, 
i4oowicg wundenTeax. Wisa fengel 

geatollc gendc ; gumfe)>a stop 

lindhicbhendra. Lastas wSron 

xfter waldswajrum wide ges^ne, 

gang ofer grundas, [^^^j gegnum for 
i40sofer myrcan mor, magopegna bxr 

|>onc sclestan sawolleasne 

)>ara )>e mid Hrotgare hSm eahtode. 

Ofercodc fa xjwlinga beam 

steap stanhlitio, stigc nearwe, 
i4tocnge anpaSas, unciiS g^^d, 

neowle nxssas, nicorhusa fela; 

he fcara sum beforan gengdc 

wlsra m'onna wong sceawian, 

op )>xt hS f^ringa fyrgenbeamas 
i4iSofer harne stan hleonian funde, 

wynleasne wudu ; waeter under stod 

drcorig ond gedrefed. Denum eallum wxs, 

lj9il> Tin., It a/. bi[oli» IJ94>>. — r-io. (iBKc.),''^'., Jianl. 33 holm.— 
I J9j'> Z. irgRilii. no (miiprim). — 139S'' Fol. 161" spiar A, iprjc B. — i+oi* 
£.Sc.. II el., mil., Scki., Sed. gfn[g]dE ; i« 1413. Cf. Lang. \ ip.i. — 1404'> MS. 
gcgaa for ; Sim. ix 140, Hull., Sid., Cka. |)>xr heo] g. f. j Bu. 04 |hwSr heo] g. f. ; 
jlani. 24 gi^ungi {?)( JEGeh. vi t05 i»vi\ (w fitdt /or tor, « Sihii.).^ 
I407t> rio. (J), Tr. eiigode. 



winum Scyldinga wcorce on mode 

to ge|?olianne, B^nc monegum, 
i4iooncyS eoria gehwSm, sySJian ^schercs 

on pam holmclife hafelan menon. 

Flod blode weol — folc to sSgon — 

hatan heolfre, Horn stundum song 

fusllc f(yrd)Ieo-5. Fefa eal gesaet. 
>4*5Gesawon i!a asfier wjetere wyrmcynncs fela, 

sellicc sxdracan sund cunnian, 

swylcc on nxshleo^um nicras licgean, 

a on undemmZl oft bewttigatS 

sorhfulne sI5 on seglrade, 
i4]owyrmas ond wtldcor. Hie on weg hruron 

bitere ond gebolgne ; bearhtm ongeaton, 

guShorn galan. Sumne Gcata Icod 

of flanbogan feores getwSfde, 

ySgewinnes, yxt him on aldrc stod 
i435herestrzl hearda ; he on holme wxs 
,„■ sundes |;e sXnra, Se hyne swylt fornam. 

Hne}>e wearS on fiSum mid eoferspreotum 

heorohocyhtum hearde genearwod, 

ni'Sa genXged, ond on nses togen, 
i44owundor]Tc w£gbora ; ' weras sceawedon 

gryrelicne gist. 

Gyrede hine Beowulf 

corlgewXdum, naltes for ealdre mearn ; 

scolde herebjme hondum gebroden, 

sid ond searafah sund cunnian, 
I44S 9S0 %e bancofan beorgan cu]>e, 

1418' Tr. wigom. — l4l3»F'o/. 7fii* hann jIB. — I4i4« J(W) f...; SMf. 
flzfyrd-. — i43o«Ho/r.{c/. Biikl. xiii 205) "ntioi- — 1440» Tr, iri^ia; BSi. 
xxxix 463 -Hot (>), tf, Chr. gSr i Hull. BtiU, xxi 300 -|iori, cf. ptetraw. Su 



{T%t him hildegrap hre)>re ne mihte, 

eorres mwitfeng aldre gesce{'San ; 

ac se hwita helm hafelan werede, 

yse ]>c mcregrundas mengan scoMe, 
i4s8secan sundgebland since gcweortSad, '' 

befongen freawrasnum, swa hine fyrndagum 

worhtc w£pna smiS, wundrum teode, 

besette swTnllcum, ]>?et htne syiSl^an no 

brond ne beadomecas bltan ne mcahton. 
i4SsNjes pxt jn^nne mStost mxgcnfultuma, 

J»»t him on ■JSearfc lih iSyle Hro^Sgares ; 

wss yxm hsftmecc Hmnttng nama ; 

|»Kt wfes an foran caldgestreona j 

ecg wxs Tren, atertlnum fah, 
i46oahyrde(I hea)>oswite ; nXfrc hit xt hilde nc sw3c 

manna Sngum )rara ]^c hit mid mundum bcwand, 

se 5c giyresiSas gcgan dorste, 

folcstedc (ara ; nxs ^xt forma siS, 

{rset hit eltenweorc -^ sefnan scotde. 
14G5 Huru ne gemunde mago Ecglafes 

eafo)*es crxftig, pxt he ser gesprxc 

wine druncen, ])3 h€ ^xs wiepnes onlah 

selran sweordfrecan; selfa ne dorste 

under jSa gewin aldre gene^an, 
i47odrihtscype dreogan ; )>£r he dome forleas, 

ellenm£r%um. Ne vrxs ]>£m oSrum swa, 

sy5f>an he hine to gu5e gegyred hxfde. 
XXII Beowulf majielode, beam Ecg]>eowe5 : 

* Gejienc nu, se mXra maga Healfdenes, 
t4.75snottra fengel, nu ic eom siSes fus, 

1448" Ft/, ids" hafelan AB. — I4S4' '*'""■ 34 (f), Tr., Hull., SiJ. brogdne. 
— 1459'' Cai. via ST', Aatil. 24 itertinini ( = -tfarum, ' poiion dropi'); Tr. 
^Samal.~\\^^* F-l. 161" mxciira AB, ■.-.r^amZ. (T). 


goidwine gumena, hwxt wit gco sprXcon, 

gif ic Ect ]>carfe |>inrc scoldc 

aldre linnan, }>aet Su mc a wSrc 

forSgewitenum on faeder st£le. 
1480 Wes )>u mundbora mmum magoj^gnum, 

hondgesellum, gif mec hild nime ; 

swylcc )fu %a madmas, )>e );u mc sealdest, 

HroSgar leofa, Higclacc oasend. 

Mxg )>onne on JrSm golde ongitan Gcata dryhtcn, 
i4g5geseon sunu HrZdles, f^onne he on )>fEt sine staratS, 

yxt ic gumcyslum godnc funde 

beaga bryttan, brtac Jronnc mostc. 

Ond ];u t/nfcrS Ixt ealde lafe, 

wr^ctlic w^gswcord widcii'Sne man 
i4^heardecg habban ; ic m& mid Hruntinge 

dom gewyrcc, oJfSe mec deaS nimcS ! ' 
^fter )»am wordum Weder-Geaca leod 

efste mid cine, — nalas andsware 

bidan wolde; brimwyltn onfeng 
149J hild eri nee. Da wxs hwU da^s, 

£r he \ione grundwong ongytan mehte. 

Sona [>set onfunde se iSe floda begong 

heoroglfre beheold bund missera, 

grim and gr£dig, ^xt )i£r gumena sum 
■Sooselwihta eard ufan cunnodc. 

Grap )»a togeanes, gu?rinc gefeng 

atolan clommum ; no l^f xr in gescod 

halan lice ; hring utan ymbhearh, 

j>aet hco jrone fyrdhom Burhfon ne mihte, 
1505 loccne leo^osyrcan lajian fingrum. 

1481* Gru.,Hiili. kondgauanum. (Hell, ti -goeUam?) — I4S5> 7"^., it al. 
Ht«S]et. Su4S4^.— Hif MStianScrii Ru.Zl. 4'4 VnftfS. Stf 400°-^ 
,489* T*». vrtg- Or wBg-) } JC/h. ((■ ifii/J.i) w^ I49l>>fi/. /tfjo opfie. 


BxT pi SCO brimwyl[r| , \>i heo to bottne com, 

hringa Jvengel to hofe sinum, 

awi he ne mihtc no — he yxm m&dig wxa — 

w£pna gcwealdan, ac hine wundra fraes fela 
i5to9we[ii]cte on sunde, sXdSor monig 

htldetuxum heresy rcan brxc, 

£hton 3glScan. Da se eorl ongcat, 

yxt he [in] niJSsele nithwylcum waes, 

)>Xr him nSnig waster wihte ne sce)>ede, 
1515 nS him for hrdfsclc hrinan ne tnehtc 

f^i^ripe flodes i f^rlcoht geseah, 

bI3cne leoman beorhte scinan. 

Ongeat \)& »t goda grundwyi^enne, 
• merewif mihtig j mxgenrSs forgeaf 
iSiohildebille, hond swen^ ne oftcah, 

yxt hire on hafelan hringmSl agpl 

grSdig guiSleo^. DS se gist onfand, 

yset se beadoleoma bitan nolde, 

aldre sce)>San, ac seo ecg geswic 
ifaj'Seodne set ]rearfe; Ikilode iEr fela | 

hondgemota, helm oft gescaer, 

fi^s fyrdhnegl ; ■83 wses forma sHS 

deorum madme, pxt his ddm alxg. 

Eft WXB anrSd, nalas elnes 1st, 

. i5]om£rSa gemyndig mKg Hylaces : 

wearp %a wundenm£l wrXttum gebunden 

1 5o6« MS. vijl i Ke. -wyl[f]. — ijog'-fc T»i., K:, Gru., Siiv. ix 140, HolJ., 
Ami. 14, Hilr., ScH. flaii no in b^ini.^MS. pzm ; Cm., Hell, (in; Gr.t, 
Ctd.fAUit ^ni.i4[,f),Scliu.,Sed.ymt.— 1^10^ MS. mKtti Ke.iiMc\n\tu. 
— 1513» Tit,, [m],— 1514' A&irn-ii ESi. ** apj «ieter[a] j Ho/i . {cf. Ul.hl. xxi 
61), Msrgmi Btiir. ijriiji 726 wsetn n»nig. Sci T.C % 17 f.— t^ib'" F,l. 163" 
V AB. — isio^ MS. hord iwenge j Bum. gt hondjwengi Gr.'; Edd. hond 
•wcngej Tr.,Se*a., Sid. iweng. — I5J0I' MS. tiylaca; moa Edd. HjgdJcei} 
MFk. Hi 45S, Stka., Cka. Hflacd ; Usii. Hy|lica. Su Lang. \\ iS.iO, I0.i. 
— i53l» jli5. waadel; £<■ wuadeu-. 

- D,-....,V^.OOi^lC 


yrre oretta, ^xt hit on eorBan laeg, 

stiS ond stylecg ; strenge getruwode, 

mundgripe m:egenes. Swa sceal man don, 
iSjs))onne he xi gu5c g^;an pcnccB 

longsumne lof ; na ymb his lif cearaU. 

Gefengpa be eaxic — nalas for fiehSSe mearn — 

GuS-Geata leod Grendles modori 

brxgd }fa beadwe heard, ]>I he gebolgen wxs, 
1540 feorhgenl'SIan, }>£t heo on jlet gebcah. 

Heo him eft hra)ie andlean forgeald 

grimman grapum ond him togeanes feng; 

ofcrwearp ]>l werigmod wigcna strengest, 

fc]>ecempa, yxt he on fyllc wearS. 
I5450fs3et f>a )>one sclegyst, ond hyre sca^ir gcteah 

brid [ond] brunecg ; wolde hire beam wrecan, 

2ngan eaferan. Him on caxlc la^ 

breostnet broden ; yxt gebearh (eore, 

wi^ ord ond wi^ ecge ingang forstod. 
• i55oH3efde iSI forsi^od sunu Ecgpeowes 

under gyiine grund, Geata cempa, 

nemne him heaSobyrne helpe gefremede, 

herenet hearde, — ' ond halig God 

gcwtold wigsigor } witig Drihten, 
>55srodera RSdcnd hit on ryht gesced 

yJSelice, syJrSan he eft astod. 
XXlli Geseah ^a on searwum sigecadig bil, 

ealdsweord eotenisc ecgum ^yhtig, 

wigena weorSmynd ; ^xt [wks] wSpna cyst, — 

ISJJ" Sit 660* rarr. — lS'iT Ric.y. 24, Sivul L 2.22, 4 EH., Mtrgm 
Beiir. xxxiii in &»«■ Cf. T.C. 525.-1541'' MS- hindlun ; StVZi. 414, 
Hall., Scii., Cha. anriliiii. Sa 20Q4 (202Q, iCTi). — 1S4^' ^'l- '64" man. — 
1543' E.Sc. (f), Sid. oftrwarp [hiiic;].— is4.jl>-44- E.Sc Itrcngotin, ^«t. 
X4 wrengcl; ESc, Aen<. 25 -cempin. — i54ji> MS. leue; E.Sc, ibiU Eii. 
»B«. — 1546' Gru. p. ISO, Hi.\ 4 Edd. |aoiil. Cp. Maid, /ffj.— iss!» Ki., 
Tkt., Cr., M al. eald iweocd. St 1663", 26160, jp/p". — l<i<f' Grujr. ago 
(f), K.. [w«I. 


isfiobuton hit vnes mire iSonne £nig mon oia 

to beadulice letberan meahte, 

god ond geatolTc, giganta geweorc. 

He gefeng J>a feteUiilt, freca Scyldinga 

hreoh ond heorogrim, hringtn£l gebraegd 
tjesaldres orwena, yrringa sloh, 

pxt hire wi^5 halse heard grapode, 

banhringas briec} bil eal iSurhwod 

fSgne flieschoman ; heo on flet gecrong, 

sweord wses swatig, secg weorce gefeh. 
1570 Lixtc se leoma, leoht inne stod, 

efne swa of hefene hadre scIne^S 

rodores candcl. HS after recede wUt; 

hwearf ]»a be wealle, wBpcn hafenadc 

heard be hiltum Higel2ces ^Segn 
■575yn'e ond anrSd, — na^ seo ecg fracod 

hildetince, ac he hratie wolde 

Grcndle forgyldan gu$rEsa fela 

■Sara pe he geworhte to Wcst-Denum 

oftor micle Sonne on £nne srS, 
i5So]x>nne he HroSgares heoHSgeneatas 

Sloh on swcofote, slSpende frSt 

folces Dcntgea fyftyne men, 

ond oiSer swylc ut offerede, 

la^licu lac. He him pxs lean forgeald, 
tstfKJjK ceoipa, to %xs )>e he on raeste geseah 

guiSwerigne Grendel licgan, 

aldorleasne, swa him £r gcscod 

hiid a^t Heorote. Hra wide sprong, 

sy{>San he xfter dSaSe drepe Jrowade, 
i59oheorosweng heardne, ond hine J>a heafde becearf, 
1565'' Ftl. 164" Hoh AB. 



Sona pact gcslwon snottre ceorlas, 

]>a %c mid Hro^gare on holm wltton, 

)>xt wscs y^gcblond eal gcmengcd, 

brim blodc fah. Blondenfeaxe, 
isjigomele ymh godne ongeador sprScon, 

j^xt hig ]>xs seSelinges eft nc wendon, 

yxt he sigehreiSig seccan come 

m^rne |«oden 5 Jii 5xs monige grwcartS, 

]>Kt hiiie SCO brimwylf abr«en hxfdc. 
iGooDa com non daeges. Na^s ofgeafon 

hwate Scyldingas ; gewat him hSm )ionon 

goldwinc gumena. Gistas se/an 

modes seoce ond on mere staredon i 
• wlston ond ne wendon, pxt hie heora winedrihten 
■Gojselfne gesawon. — pa ^xz sweord ongan 

Eefter hea]>oswite hildegicelum, 

wigbil wanian j ^xt wxs wundra sum, 

pxt hit eal gemealt Tse gellcost, 

'Sonne forstes bend Faeder onlStdS, 
ifiioonwindeS wSlrapas, se geweald hafa^S 

sSia ond mSia i ^xt is soiS Metod. 

Ne nom he in J>iem wTcum, Weder-Gcata leod, 

ma^mXbta m5, )>eh he pZr monige gescah, 

buion [>one hafelan ond \ii hik somod 
1615 since fage; sweord Zr gemealt, 

forbarn brodenmZl-, waes ))« blod to pxs hat, 

xttren ellorgSst, se JjSr inne sweah. 

Sona wfes on sunde se {« Sr jet Sfecce gebad 

wtghiyre wraSro, wjeter up )>urhdeaf ; 

i^^i^ Ftl. tSj' ixorUi. — iSjjfcMS. abreoteni Ki. ii Sbroten, — t6oT> MS. 
tccani ago •"ton, O-.' riuo. — 1604' Ki. it w5s[c]ton, Tis., G™. 
wli[c]tc.n.— ifilO" 301 (f). Kl., 11 al.'«Spi'p».— i6l6^ Fit. 165" to 
JS.— 161 f MS. tOoT alartJ/ram ellen,— ifilj* Cr.Spr.{r), -*««. S5 wlgFyre. 


ifiiowxron T^geblana eal gef^lsod, 

Sacne eardas, pi se ellorgast 

oflet lifdagas ond pas IXnan gcsceaft. 
Com )>a to landc lidmanna helm 

swi^mod swymman ; sielace gefeah, 
iGtS m^enbyr{>cnne Jrara ]>t he him mid hsfde. 

Eodon him pi t^canes, Gode {lancodon, 

{Sry^SlIc ]>egna heap, . Jfeodnes gefegon, 

pms pe hi hyne gesundne geseon moston. 

Da v/xs of jfSm hroran helm ond byme 
i6]ofungre Ilysed. Lagu dmsade, 

wxter under wolcnum, wxldreore fig. 

Ferdon forS )>pnon fe)>clistum 

ferh)>um faegne, foldweg mSton, 
• cupe str£te ; cyningbatde men 
1635 from )>Sm holmclife hafelan bSron 

earfo^lice heora £ghwx])rum 

felamodigra ; feower scoldon 

on )»Km wxistenge weorcum geferian 

to J>Sm goldseic Grendles heafod, — 
i£4oo)> ^aet semninga to sele comon 

fromc fyrdhwate fcowenyne 

Gcata gongan ; gumdryhten mid 

modig on gemonge meodowongas tncd. 

6a com in gan ealdor iSegna, 
164; diedccne mon dome gewur{>ad, 

hsie hildedeor, HroVgar gretan. 

pa wies be feaxe on flet boren 

Grendles heafod, pSv guman druncon, 

1614" Tr.lf), H»ll. (tf. Zs, 117), Dc/Sriik L e.lJ.xMt -lic»— iSljb B. 
tmilifin; Hi^ae.'-' fSre. — l634'> Or., E., /tml. 25, SlJ. cyndaldtj Bu. 
jtfti cynuigbdlde. Cf. MPk. iU 4S0- — t^^ Fal. idljo Kmninga.— 1644* gin. 
Su 3*<J». 


egeslic for eorlum ond ^Src idese mid, 
i65owliteseon wr£tlic; weras on sawon. 
xxiiii Beowulf mafTclode, beam £cg]>eoves : 

' Hwxt, we ^ )>as sXlIc, sunu Healfdencs, 

leod Scyldinga, lustum brohton 

tires to tacne, ]>e J>u her to locast. 
■655 Ic yxt unsdfte ealdre gedlgde, 

wigge under wjctere, weorc genSpde 

earfo^lTce ; aetrihte wa^s 

guiS getwSefed, nymSc mec God scylde. 

Ne meahtc ic,aet hilde mid Hruntinge 
i66owiht gewyrcan, J>cah Jjiet wXpen duge; 

ac me geuiSe ylda Waldcnd, 

psa ic on wage geseah wlitig hangian 

caldsweord eacen — oftost wTsode 

winigea leaBum — , pxt ic ^y w£pne gebrXd. 
* t6650fsloh ?a Eel pSTc sa=ccc, ]a me sSl ageald, 

buses hyrdas. pa ]>xt hildebil 

forbarn brogdenmSl, swa )>xt blod gesprang, 

hatost heajjoswata. Ic )>xt hilt Jfaiian 

feondum Eetferede ; fyrendxda wrxc, 
i67odca&wealm Denigea, swa bit gedefe waeg. 

Ic hit )k {tonne gehate, )>a:t }>u on Heorote mdst 

sorhleas swefan mid })inra secga gedryht, 

ond [>egna gehwylc |iTnra leoda, 

dugulSe ond iogo^, J^fet }iu him ondrSdan ne f>earft, 
ifiTsJicoden Scyldinga, on pz healfe, 

aldorbcalu eorlum, swa ]>u Sr dydcst.' 

1650 Fund, in uxi-w.Sirii.ZfdPh. 1x1360; cp. 1422*. E^Xo- EJJ., StU. 
{cf. Bd. 81) onsiwon, aisr of ritm uihg wliioeon ai iu Bijea— 1654 Tit. 
wmrtf ) ^a«l. 15 wtg and weorcc. (Cf. ESl. xxxix 463 /■) «""/ EJJ. mak 
1636-57* au c/flUK. — 1658* Gru., Bu.TiJ. J2, Tr., Std. gu«e (1657 una i 
«.)■ Cf.Aani. 2j. — i6«ib Fg/./gOMun^an^. — 1663' &* Jji^.— l66j> 
Sitv. R. as6 (/), Hill., Sid. oft. Set T.C. { M. 


Da WKS gylden hilt gatnelum rince, 

harum hildfruman on hand gyfen, 

enta Srgcweorc ; hit on Sht gehwcarf 
ifiioiefter deofla hryre Denigea frean, 

wundorsnii)>a geweorc ; ond )>a pas worold ofgeaf 

gromheort guma, Godes andsaca, 

moHSres scyldig, ond his modor cac ; 

on geweald gehwearf woroldcyninga 
lits^xm selestan be sSm tweonum 

'Sara ]>e on Scedeniggc sceattas dslde, 
Hro^^jar maSelode — hylt sceawode, 
^ calde lafc, on %£m wies or writen 

fyrngewinnes ; sy^pan Add ofsloh, 
iG9ogifen gcotende giganta cyn, 

frecne geferdon ; )>fet wxs fremde )feod 

ecean Dryhtne ; him pies endelean 

purh wxteres wylm Waldcnd sealdc. 

Swa was on ■Skbi scennum sciran goldes 
i695purh riinstafas rihte gemearcod, 

geseted ond gesZd, hwam pjct sweord geworht, 

Irena cyst Jerest wJere, 

wreopttnhilt ond wyrmfah. Da se wisa sprxc 

sunu Healfdenes — swlgedon ealle — : 
1700' pxt, la, msg secgan se pc so^ ond ribt 

freme^ on folcc, feor eal gcmon, 

cald c)>elweard, paet Ses eorl wXrc 

geboren betera ! BlXd is IrSrcd 
t704geond widwegas, wine min Beowulf, 

1677* Kluge ESl. xxii I4S, fin/i. Gylduihilt. Sa Inlr. xviii n.— tdti'- Mall. 
(liv 213), Hell., Sid. drop and.— 16E5'' Ft!. 167' Km.— l6Sfi> JUS. laiaagge 
{till fira s aluriJ/nm n). — 1697* See 673" *'Brr. — t7oi« MS. .5.-1701'' 
Bn.Tid. $3f., 2V. ))9ct ISi eorl nSre. Stt lMig.ilj.2, Glm.: iiUra; »(■ « 


f ^in ofer Jwoda gchwylce. £al Jm hit ge)fyldum healdest, 
tnfegen mid modes snyttrum. Ic |^ sceal mine geliestan 
freode, svvl wit furiSum spr£con. Du scealt to frofre 

eal langtwidig leodum jfinum, 

hxIeSum to hclpe. 

Ne wearC Heremod swS 
)7iocaforum Ecgwelan, Ar-Scyldingum ; 

ne gcwcox he him to willan, ac to wxlfealle 

ond to dea^cwalum Detiiga leodum ; 

breat bolgenmod bfiodgeneatas, 

eaxlgesteallan, op piet he ana hwearf, 
i7i5inSre }>eoden mondreamum from, 

Deah ]>e hine mihtig God mxgenes wynnum, 

eafe)>um stcpte, ofer ealle men 

forS gefremcde, hwa;])ere him on ferhjw greow 

breosthord blodreow ; nallas beagas geaf 
i7ioDenum xfter dome; drSamlSas gebad, 

^ax he ba^E gewinnes weorc Jirowade, 

leodbcalo longsum. Su )>e Isr be ])on, 

gumcyste ongit ! Ic I>is gid be J>e 

iwTxc wintrum frod. 

Wundor is to secgnH, 
t7a5hu mihtig God manna cynne 

}>urh sidne sefan snyttni bryttaS, 

card ond eorlscipe; he ah ealra geweald. 
4 HwUum he on lufan IXteiS hworfan 

monnes modgejionc m£ran cynnes, 
i73oscIe5 him on ejjle cor)>an wynnc 

1707* MS. (r**., TiB., C-ifl.) fteodc (c/. CruJr. ggg), JUS. (Ki., Gru., Z.) 
IreoBe. — 1709' Fet. 167^ hil^um B{A). — 1711* Scialdimiai L 2.3, Holnsm. 
403, Mill. 30 ealbn.-^i7i4l> MS. KcganiKi ut T.C $ J2. — i7lS> Cm. on 
liute ()) } Hull.* on luKoa j 5(i'.* on hliun. 


to healdanne hleoburh wera, 

gedeS him swa gewealdene worolde dZlas, 

side nce, ))a-t he his selfa ne mxg 

his unsnynrum ende ge^ncean. 
i7j5Wuna^S he on wtste; no hine wiht dweleS 

adi ne yido, ne him inwitsorb 

on sefa(n) sweorce^S, ne gesacu ohwSr 

ecghetc Sowers, ac him eal worold 

wendeS on willan } he fiset wyrse ne con — , 
XXV 1740 oJS ^xt him on innan oferhygda dsl 

weaxc^ ond wrida? ; Jionnc se weard swefeS, 

sSwcle hyrde; biiS se sl£p to f^est, 

bisgum gcbunden, bona swISe neah, 

se )w of flinbogan fyrenum sceotcS. 
i74sponne bi^ on hrc|>re under helm drepcn 

biteran strXle — him bebeoi^n ne con — , 

worn wundorbebodum wergan g3stes ; 

])incei$ him to lytel, )>fEt he lange heold, 

g^sal! gromh^dig, nallas on gylp sele^ 
ij^ofXtK beagas, ond he ])a foriSgesceafc 

forgyteS ond forg^nicS, )):es ]k him £r God scaldc^ 

wuldres Waldend, weorSmynda dSl. 

Hit on cndcstxf eft gelimpcS, 

fixt se lichoma l£ne gedreose^, 
• 7SS fige gefealle? ; fehS ojier to, 

sS ^e unmumltce madmas d£le)T, 

eorles iBrgestrcon, egesan ne gjimeS. 

Bcbeorh yi ^ne bealonl^, Beowulf leofa, 

tTjfFil. t6S' g« deS.— i733t> Tr. iSlpi.— 1734« MS. (AB, K:, Z), 
Wj., SiJ; Ci«. hilt TU., TU., Edi. [foij hit. — 1717- MS- Z. teh:, AB 
KAd ; Gra. tr. 302, Ki. K^. — t737b Grf, Htlu, Sii. gcaci.— I74g>> MS. R 

u. to 'imftf telly iraud' (Z.J. — tTJO* jtfS. faeddcf Tkt.BUut,— iJix' 
rJ. j68l> waMcnd AB. 



secg[a] bctsta, ond )>e ]txt scire geceos, 
ty^oece riEdas; oferh^da ne gfm, 

m£re cempa ! Nu is Jiines mxgnes blSd 

ane hwile ; eft sona bi-S, 

pxt Jiec adl oSSc ecg cafojjcs getwafeS, 

oS-JSe f^res feng, o^Se flodes wylm, 
«7fisoSSe gripe nieces, o?^S« gires fliht, 

oSSe atol yido ; o?Se eagena bearhtm 

forsitcS ond forsworceS; semninga biS, 

yxt ISec, dryhtguma, dcaiS ofcrsw^^cS. 

Swa ic Hring-Dena hund misscra 

i7Toweold under wolcnum ond hig wigge beleac 

manigum miigjia geond Jiysne middangeard, 

Kscutn ond ecgum, yxt ic me £nigne 

under swegles begong gesacan ne tealde. 

Hwaet, me ^xs on e\>le edwend^n cwom, 
i775gym after gontene, seo)>San Grendcl wearS, 

caldgewinna, ingenga mm ; 

ic ];Erc socnc singSles WKg 

modceare micle. pa;s sig Metode ];anc, 

ecean Dryhtne, fȣes iSe ic on aldre gebad, 
lygojjst ic on Jjone hafelan heorodreorignc 

ofer eald gewin eagum starige! 

G3 nu to setle, symbelwynne drcoh 

wT^eweorpad ; unc sccal worn fela 

ma)>ma gemSnra, si)>^3n morgen bilS.' 
1715 Geat wses glxdmod, geong sona to, 

I7S9» r*o. (m K,.), 312, 4 E:Jd.^^ii];Gru.p.iS3, Bt.»-* uxt[it]. 
Sit 047'^. — 1774'' MS- d wemUn ; Gr.' {t), Sfr., Gr.*, mut EJJ. cdwemkn. 
Su 280'. — 1776* Tin., Gr.^, Gru,, ti at. eald gewinna. — I777» FW- (fip* 
Ic— 1781' Rsll. eaWgewinnin. — I78z»' Sim. R. 366, Hilt. lyDibelwjmn. Sa 
Lmig. ^ao.2. — 1783* MS. wiggr weorpad, le Cr.', Wy., Sehi., CAa.; Ch. 
tiiiSTij Hill., Stivigge {Hill, wlge) gewciHind; ICt., a el. wtggevreortnd. Sm 
Inir. aii : 8. — 17S4* Kk^ It) lemicac. Cf. MLN. xxxii I3tf. 


setles nSosan, swa se snottra heht. 

pi wses eft swi ^r ellenrofum, 

fletsittendum faegere gereorded 

niowan stefne. — Nihthelm gcswearc 
i/godeorc ofer dryhtgumum. DuguS eal aras; 

wolde blondenfeax beddcs neosan, 

gamela Scylding. Geat unlgmetes wel, 

rofne randwi^n restati lyste; 

sona him sele)^^ siSes wSrgum, 
■ 795teorraiicundum forS wisade, 

sS for andrysnum ealle bewcoteife 

JMgnes Jwarfe, Bwylce ]»y dogore 

hea^oIiSende habban scoldon. 

Reste hine pa rumheort ; reced hlluade 
iSoogSap ond goldfah; gxst inneswief, 

dp pxt hrefn blaca heofones wynne 

bli'Sheort bodode. Ba com beorht scacan 

[scima ofer sceadwaj ; seaman onetton, 

w£ron x)>eling3s eft to leodum 
iSosfuse t5 farenne ; wolde feor )>anon 

cuma collenferh'S ceoles nSosan. 
^ Heht }>a se hearda Hrunting bcian 

sunu Ec^lafes, heht his sweord niman, 

leofllc iren ; — s^egde him ]>xs leanes )tanc, 
igiocwx^, he )>one guWine godnc tealde, 

t79l'> jIfS. imig/mMaj (Gn,. tr. igj). Tit., a al. ungemeta; £. nngimeCo. 
SaIJng.ilSJ.— J796<' MS. be wcMtene; Gri,. tr. 303, Kl. ii bnttotede.— 
1797" MS. « a/ iogoit ' aJJcJ iK UKuktr kmd' (Z.) [J<Bittfiil\i Sitv. R. 233, 
34S, Ht'i; Ifijie Beiir. xxxi Sj dogor. St aj?j*. Set ijOSi ""f- { ^o^- — 
tSoz^ Fel. xdo" & com B. — iSoi'^jb JUS. ISt com bcotbl Kacan luinn 
oaettoa ; Cr.' coman beorhu peomui/oftr Kadul ■.jS. a ; dr.' ^. c. b. flSomal/ 
(. [oTerndD]. S. d. i He.> t>. c. h. [«mne]/taaa [ofer gniiubi) j i. o. ; Siru. 
jI'^I. xi-B 137/-, 3 m- D. c. b. tcican/[Kln« Kfter Kcadwc] etc. : Std. D. 
c. b. tacan/itcima Kyndcd] etc. — tioj* MS. Uitm oej Kt. &naiw. — 
iSog' Cni.iutu. — 1809'' jMS//. (iw »j)lEiia. 


wigcrxftignc, nales wordum log 

meces ccge ; f>iet wies modig secg. — 

Ond jfl si^frome, searwum gearwe 

wigcnd wSron ; eode wcor$ Denum 
i8i5£)>eling to yppan, ))£r se 5]wt v/xs, 

h<rlc hiidedeor HroSgar grctte. 
XXVI Beowulf mapelode, bearn £cg]>&>wes: 

'Nu we sSliSend secgan wylla? 

feorran cumene, ]ixt we fundia}? 
iSioHigelac secan. Wieron her tela, 

willum bewenede ; ^u us wel dohtest. 

Gif ic |;onne on eor{>an owthte mseg 

])inre modlufan maran tilian, 

gumena dryhten, 'Sonne ic gj?t dyde, 
liijguSgeweorca, ic beo gearo sdna. 

Gif ic "pstt gefricge ofer floda begang, 

|>3et |>cc ymbsittcnd cgcsan j^ywa?, 

8wa Jjcc hctcnde hwllum dydon, 

ic %e ];usenda )>egna bringe, 
■ tjohzle)>a to helpe. Ic on Higcllce wat, 

G€ata dryhten, )>cah 9e he geong sy, 

ibices hyrde, |>xt he mec frcmman wile 

wardum ond wMrctim, Jiaet ic \>c wel herige 

ond |>e to gcocc garholt here, 
ig3;nixgencs fultum, {iSr ^S biS manna Jiearf. 

lSt}*.^c^. Man and. — 1814^1111 Eii. plaa ctmma aflir wino (aier&ialt 
tiaaa); » SiiS. &i. no, Rici L 6-1 2.2.370--' MS-: fi'i efitr wmroa , SfS. 
(A) Eode {capiul E). See i6Si^.~ igisb-ie. Or lit puncmaiien ut Ria L$ f.— MS. bell** «■'■ iibiele.— l8l6- Ftl- 170' (Htge iSlI" &-.', 

Sitv. R. 206, Holt., Scia., SeJ. baaaie. Sei Lang, i ig.}— iSiS^ Sin. R. 
498, Tr., Scha. dZdon, Holt, didon ; Std. K^don. f^. T. C. { i?t Lang. \ 2}A. — 
tSic^jl* Tr., Aa/f. -lie. 5ti;. Ic »» un Higetace. — ids'. Z. wat a/»r(J/m> 
WKW^. ««*<r M. — KIU. (« mid.), SeJ. dryhtM. See »«(.— igjj' MS. 
wcorium n worcuni ; Tio., Sc/rt., Cia. wordum ond weonumj itr.i-*, Hib., Std. 

D, ..■■.v^.oo^ic 


Gif him ))onne Hre)irlf to hofutn Geata 

gc)»ingc5 }>eodnes beam, he maeg ^Sr fela 

freonda tindan; feorc7)>Se bcoS 

selran gesohte )>mm )>e him selfa deah.* 
■840 HroSgar ma^lode him on andsware: 

'pe JjI wordcwydas wigtig Drihten 

on sefan sende ; ne h^rde ic snotorlTcor 

on swa gcongum feorc guman |>ingian. 

pa can mxgenes Strang, ond on in5de frod, 
ig45wls wordcwida! Wen ic talige, 

gif J>aet gegange^, ' paet ^Se gar nymc?, 

hild hconigrimme Hre)iles eafcran, 

adi o|HSc iren ealdor ISTnne, 

folces hyrde, ond (>u Jiin feorh habst, 
iS5«{>st pe Ss-Gcaus selran nzbben 

to geceoscnne cyning £nignc, 

hordweard hslc)>a, gyf )»u healdan wylt 

maga rice. Me ]>in modsefa 

lica? leng swa wel, leofa BSowuIf. 
i!ss Hafast ya gefered, pset JiSm folcum sceal, 

Geata leodum ond Gar-Denum 

sib gem£nf, ond sacu restan, 

inwitn!)>as, (>e hie JBr drugon, 

wesan, )iendcn ic wcalde widan rices, 
ittemapmas gcm£ne, manig o^ierne 

godum gegreitan ofer ganotes hxS ; 

sccal hringnaca ofer hca/ti bringan 

lac ond luftaccn. Ic [la leode w5t 

puipS, Gr. Spr., Gr.' gOing=«- - 18+0 H.I,. (tf. Z,. 133) i„«m ^fi.r mabdoSe. 
[htlm Scylims>,/coT[ ulStWm god].— iSso" FJ. iroO ti -*(«). — 1 8 tV' Gr 
5;.r. ,7 408, Hill., ScM., S,J, tel/w wfl , £. btt ; S„. (jtf bet o^kI. — ,gj/. Ms' 
r niMum i 5i«. « /<D gcitiSnc. — 1 861- 1 a/wr tccal <™«J. — 1 861b JUS. ha> 
tuj JtT/ii. «» /po, J«*. «. ^55, J EJd. hafa. 



* ge wis fcond ge wtS freond fieste geworhte, 
iSejXghwxs untSle ealde wisan.' 

&a gli him eorla hleo inne gesealde, 

mago Healfdcnes ma|>mas twelfc ; 

bet [h]in« mid yxm lacum leode swZse 

scccan on gesyntutn, snude eft cuman. 
tiToGecyste )>S cyning xjieluip god, 

jieoden Scyldinga 'iSegn[a] bctstan 

ond be healse genam ; hruron him tearas 

blondenfeaxum. Him wzs b^a wSn 

ealdum infrodum, d^res swi^Sor, 
il75)>Kt hp]e seoSSa(n) [n5] geseon moston, 

modige on mefvle. Waes him se man to )>on leof, 

^xt he ))one breostwylm forbcran ne mehte ; 

ac him on hrc)>re hygebendum fiest 

a:fter deorum men dyrne langaS 
iggoborn wis blodc. Him Beowulf pa nan, 

guSrinc goldwlanc grxsmoldan vxd 

since hremig ; sSgenga bad 

3ge[n]dfrean, se jie on ancre rad. 

fa w<es on gange gifu HroSgares 
iSSjoft gcxhtcd; . jret wses an cyning 

£ghw!es orleahtrc, ojf ^xt bine yldo benam 

mxgenes wynnum, sc pe oft mancgum scod. 

XXVII Cwom ]>a to flodc fclamodigra, 
hsegstealdra [heap] ; hringnet bSron, 

iSG7» MS. .ai. — iUS^ MS. innet TAa. hiBe. — iSjtl' MS. Hegn; Ki., 
SchuUtt L8.I.41, SIcv. R. 132, 4 Edd. «cgn|ii]. Sti 04?", 'TSO'- — 1874' Ftl. 
1710 trodum.— i87j»MS. htj Gra. ir. 204 b\i\t. ~ Bu. g6, Sitv. jtmgl. liv 
14] (cf. £., Siev. ix 141), Heir., Sed., Cka. \tS\. — i ggo- MS. beoni ; Tii.,Sin. 
ZfdPi. xxi 363, 3 Edd. bom; &-., »>., da. bam. — 1883' MS. tpi- 
boat Kt. igejn]d-. — iB»7^ Cr.\f), a al. tlo. — ii8g* Gr.i [he.p]. (/. 

T.C. SI 23, ir 1889I' SiW. Jl. 334 (f), Tr. benm, Hnii. borm (i»>. w. 

cwom}. {MS. bpTOD, c/. Sim.) 


itgolocenc leoSosyrcan. Landweard onfand 

eftsTS coria, iwa he Xr dyde ; 

no he mid hearme of hlj^es nosan 

g3^(tas) gritte, ac him t^eanes rad, 

cwsciS J>!et wiicuman Wcdcra leodum 
tg95sca]>an scTrhame to scipe (oron. 

pz wxs on sande sSgeap naca 

hladen herewiEdum hringcdstcfna, 

mSarum ond maSmum ; m:est hlifadc 

ofer HraSgarcs hordgestreonum. 
1900 He )>iEm batwearde bunden golde 

swurd gesealde, yxt he sy'S)>an W3» 

on meodubence ma)>m/ ^f wcor)ira, 
% yrfelafc. Gewat him on naca 

drcfan deop Wider, Dena land ofgcaf. 
1905 pa wxs be mxste merehrsegla sum, 

segl sale fxst; sundwudu }>unedc; 

no )>Xr wegflotan wind ofer ^um 

si^es getwZfde; sKgenga for, 

fleat famigheals foHS ofer f^e, 
i9i<ibundenstcfna ofer brimscreamas, 

)>a:t hie Geata clifu ongttan meahton, 

cii^e nxssas ; ceol up ge)>rang 

lyftgeswcnced, on lande stod. 

Hra)>e wses set holme h^^weard geara, 
igtjse pt £r lange tid leofra manna 

fus set faro^e feor wlatode ; 

Iggi* Tr. bi&nie. [Cf. Agu Levx, Eedio.-CuST. — ig93> fo/. /?/» 
(«...-*( Grit. IT. 204 gMtu— 189+" Gr. ]eoAt. — tSgs* MS. «>/:::, J 
tavraa, B icafian ; Gr. Ka[nn. ~ 1 901'' MS. mipma, weorpre ; Tit, -me, -n. 
— iSojt" MS. mean J Gr. [y«|nacan j Sii. Zi. 402, MFh. Hi 461, 3 Bdd. 
naca ; Sed. [eft] 00 naean. [Su. 07 aspimid /oil ./ a iglf-lha ie/tn gewit.J— 
I9IJ- Tr. {cf. Rii. Z,. 40s) lyftc Q). S,i 1783'— '9'i'' Sin. ix 141, Hoi,., 
Sid. \gat be) a. 1. 1, — I9t4' MS.iireft lomticd U baft. Ftl. 173'hgLaie. — 
19i6» KraffMPk. a 407 ''iv'iSe. SuiS* farr. 


sXlde to sande sidfasjnne scip 

oncfrbendum fiest, |>5' ISs hym f^ 'Srym 

wudu wynsuman forwrecan meahte. 
1910 Het )>a up bcran Ee)relinga gestreon, 

frsetwe ond f^gold ; nzs him feor Jvatioi) 

to gesecanne sinces bryttan, 

Higelac Hre])ling, ^xt set ham wuna^ 

selfa mid geslSum sXwealle neah. 
1915 Bold wxs betlic, bregorof cyning, 

hea healle, Hygd swi^ gc*»^gi 

wis wel);ungen, {>eah %e wintra lyt 

under burhlocan gebiden hsbbe, 

Hzre]>e$ dohtor; iiks hio hnah swa ^ah, 
tgjotie to gnea^ gifa Geata leodum, 

mSJimgestreona. Mod fr^^ [ne] wseg, 

fremu folces cwen, fircn' ondrysne; 

nSnig ]>xt dorste deor gcne])an 

sw£sra gesTSa, nefne sinfr^, 
tm^xt hire an dseges eagum starede; 

ac him wEcIbende weotode tealde 

handgewri]7ene ; hra)>e seojr^an wies 

zfter mundgripe mice gc{>inged, 

t9tS*MS. anceirj Gtb, fr.aoj oncer-.— igij"" Mj.^a a/, wunode. Salmtr. 
cxxt La^. iaj-tf. [(y. S«. M «/.] — 1915'' a:.., Gth,, ffo//. hntor&ltf. 

1634^); Wo., Cr.,Scia.,SiJ., (Mfl.brego rtifj Tr.,St/uitnri Btitr. xxx 386lt) 
bodorof.— I9i6> Klu. {Ir Hold.), Hilt, on fabn lietlle; &i. on h^ihealle ((/: 
fti(iii. MO, Sri«,)i *^«** JJfihah on heille. — 1918'' TAi,, Tr.{r) baMe. 
5«rpaj». — 1931'* A£S. mod pry«o wig; *:*,, Tio. modpiyfio; ff«/(. Z.. j/J7 
&J. moifrf&e {if. Gta. 223S, ac.)i Gr. MEdprfVo (fripcr nou) ) E. MIMfrfK 
onwig i G™., ti al. nai fiJISo ; 5tifl. (c/. ESt. xxxix lo8f.), 3 ^dd. mod 
t>T^ [oc) wzg. — 1931* Ika. Inimc(?]j Jiir. Zi. 403 (rnnu 3> frem^, Tr. 
fmnpu; £». Zi. aof, £11/. 6e(o)mu ; Dii. >»> 57' Menu.— I9}it> &.> eicn* 
ondryine j £. fircna a., Rii. Zi. 40i fireaum o., Cii. nit J72 lirenon o. ; Cia. 
iiggtui B mail, uu ef 6iai {cf>. 6o8'). Sa r.C. §«. (Typi Dj.)—!^^!' Gn., 
It a!., Hoh., C-ia. tin f. S« Rii. V. 31.— 1935- ft//.' hie fir hire j ^. Hplt. 
Zi. 110. — E(., Tie. iaiiega (■dail}')^ (Munci, in) £11. Tid. 306 ud-^a 
('openly', cp. Ct. andaugja}. — ■93^'' Fsl. ija^ vitamit AB. 


])9ct hit sccSdenmSl sc^ran moste, 
1940 c weal mbealu c^an. Ne biS swylc cw£nl!c ]>caw 

idese to efnanne, jwah iSe hio jetilicu sf, 

{>fette frcoSuwebbe feores onsZce 

xfter ligetome leofne mannan. 

Huru yset onhohsnod[e] Henuningcs mSg: 
1945 ealodrincende o'Ser sXdan, 

}>£t hlo leodbealewa ISs gefremede, 

inwitntSa, sy^San arest weariS 

gyfen goldhroden geongum cempan, 

xSelum diore, sy^^an h!o Of&ti flet 
i95oofer fealone flod be fieder lire 

siiSe gesohtc ; %Sr hio syS^ati well 

in gumstolc, godc mXrc, 

llfgesccafta liiigcnde brcac, 

hlold heahlufan wiS haelcj^a brego, 
i95sealles moncynnes mme gefr£ge 

pane selestan b! sStn tweonum, 

eormencynnes i foHSatn Of& waetf 

geofum ond gii'Sutn, garcene man, 

wide geweorSod, wisdome heold 
t96oe&l sinne ; — jxinon Eomei woe 

hseleSum to helpe, Hein[m]inge$ m^, 

nefa Garmundes, ni?2 cncftig. 
XXVIII Gewit him 'Sa se hearda mid his hondscolc 

sylf xfter sande s£wong tredan, 
ij&SwTde waroSas. Woruldcandel scan, 

19 JS^ »7/i moere lit vjork of tU lecgiijimi* i^/m.^ I94i» Sf™. R.jii, 
H>li.,Siie.,<ao. Su r.C. 112.-1941" AiS.cmBHii a:.. «,Xi(.Z,. 
403, Halt., SelM., Sid. oHKce. 5h i>i;. $ 0. J. — 1944* JtfS.on bohnwd { Tit. 
otihohaQod|t.l — >94»''AiS- h™ ning" j Kc, Mtill. (xiv 243), Sieu. R. joi 
Hemminga. {&.>, 5i>D. R. 264 Himinga.) — I956^MS. [laa j Tin. [wne. — 
1957'' Fai, If3' w«. — i960'' MS. geomor J Tic. Ecmier, Btuilecinir Ctr^. 
■ 20^EamXt.— i96i>'A£S. hcmioga. Saie44^- {Kc. Uf.Soimm). 


sigel suSan fus. Hi sVS drugon, 
elne geeodon, to Sies ^c eorla hleo, 

• bonan Ongen)>eocs burgum in innan^ 
gCongne guiScyning godne gefrunon 

i97ohnngas d£lan. Higelace wxs 

si% Beowulfes snude gec^Sed, 

{••et S£r on woHSig wlgendra bleo, 

lindgestealla lifigende cwom, 

heaSolaces hal to hofe gongan. 
1975 Hra^G wses ger^med, swi se rlca bebead, 

feSegestum Act innanweard. 

Gesxt pi wis sylfne se ^3 sxcce genxs, 

• mXg v/iS m^ge, sj'SSan mandryhten 
burh hleo'Sorcwydc boldne gegrette, 

iggo meaglum wordum. Meoduscencum hwearf 

geond yxt heah^ed H^re^cs dohtor, 

lufode Sa leodc, liSwXge b»r 

hse/ejfum to handa. Higelac ongan 

sTnne gcseldan in sele {>am bean 
igg5f3^re fricgcean, byne fyrwet brsec, 

bwylcc Ss-Geata siSas wSron ; 

' Hu lomp eow on lade, leo& Biowulf, 

pa SQ f%ringa feorr gehogodest 

Ga:ccc secean ofer sealt wxter, 
ij^ohilde to Hiorote? Ac Su HroSgare 

wWcuSne wean wibte gebettest, 

msrum Seodne? Ic ^xs modceare 

sorhwylmum seaS, siSe ne tmwode 

I^ji'" Fcl. 173" sfS^SiD B.— i^il' MS.tiie Tfcci (iAeadiid tvirthl lint)t 
Ke. [T), Ti,., 3 Edd. heilreced ; Gr.* hej reccd ; H^i. {cf. Z,. iig)i 3 iaif. 
Ii„„ drspptd eu, after t. r. — lit-i' MS. h> nQ (« n-«(i/ fl/wri) ; Gr.', Std. 
hzlum ; itu. p /., 5c4«., Cta. K»nuni - H2«num j TV., Ho/f. (^. Zi. jzj) 
hilrtium. — i98o»JMS. imux— IWf^ MS. wi« 1 r«., Tie. wU-,— logib 
S« Mo» *''". 



teofcs mannes; ic ^e lange bxd, 
*99S|«et iSii {>one wzlgiest wihte ne grStte, 

lete SuS-Dcne sylfc gcweoHSan 

gu'Se wis Grendcl. Gode ic )>anc sccge, 

]>3es 'Se ic Se gcsundne geseon mostc' 
Biowulf maSelode, beam EcgSioes : 
woo* pxt is undyrne, dryhten Higelac, 

(micel) gemciing, moncgum fira, 

hwylc (orleg)hwiI unccr Grendles 

wearS on Sam wange, ^xr he worna fela 

Sige-Scyldingum soi^ gefremede, 
aoosyrmSe to aldre; ic ixt eall gewrxc, 

Gwa begylpan [ne] )>earf Grcndeles maga 

(xnig) ofer eorSan Qhthlem {tone, 

se 8e lengest leofaS laSan cynnes^ 

f(acne) bifongen. — Ic Sier furiSum cwom 
seiotd 'iSim hringsele HroSgar gretan ; 

sona me se mSra mago Healfdenes, 

syS^an he modsefan mlnne cuSe, 

wis his sylfes sunu setl getiehte. 

Weorod wxs on wynnc ; ne seah ic widan feorb 
Mi5under heofones hwealf healsittendra 

medudream maran. Hwilum mSru cwen, 

friSusibb foica flet eall geondhwcarf, 

bse/de byre geongej oft hlo beahwriSan 

lOQO* Ffl. if4' f. — aooi» MS. Ji/arivi, at 2002*, 2003^ (Z.), 2006", 
ff- 2354''-SS'. — 1001" r^o. (orleg-].~ioo4'MS. dingu a/itriJ/r™ dungu. 
Sti 203211, aioi», ?/5C" — ioo6"J»fS. ^iwabe, fliwil. . ; Gru. ir, 206, Kt., 
tlal., Sed. >wa negylpan; Cr.', 3 EJd. tvii begylpan fne]; cf. ESl. ixxix 431. 
— «>07»flen.,i /Tr: «nig. — 1009" MS. Adc.., flfir,.; Kc, 11 al.&i-i 
Kt. a ftn- (f), Gru., « al. fenne | Bu. 07, SchA., Std., Cha. flcne (la Jul. 3jfi) 
{tf.Stkoiir ZfdA.xtiii 365; Angl. XXXV J35)i Tr., Htl,. fOtct (,f. 2424).— 
MlS>3£S. bcdde | AtPi. Hi 461, Hi-ll., SiM. bxUc 


secge (scaldc), Sr hie to setle geong. 
toioHwQum for (d)ugu& dohtor HroS^res 

eorlum on cndc ealuwage baer, 

^ ic Freaware flecsitt^nde 

nemnan hjTde, ))Sr h!o(nEe)gled sine 

hsclc^um sealde. Sio geh3ten (is), 
loijgeong goldhroden, gladum suna Frodant 

(li)afa^ \ixs geworden wine Scyldinga, 

rices hyrde, ond |>3» rXd talaS, 

]>iet he mid 5y wife waelfSh^a dsl, 

saecca gesette. Oft seldan hw£r 
!io3oa;fter leodhryre l^tle hwile 

bongar bugeS, Jwah seo bryd duge ! 

Maeg Jises J»onne ofjiyncan ^Scodx* HcaSo-Beardna 

ond }>egna gehwam f>ara leoda, 

))onne he mid f£mnan on flett gs^, — 
io3sdryhtbearn Oena duguSa biwenede; 

on him gladiaS gomeira lafe, 

heard ond hrlngmSl HeaSa'Bear[d]na gcstrSon, 

J7enden hie Sam w^pnum wealdan moston, — 
[xxviiii-xxx] oiS ISaet hie forlieddan to Sam lindplegan 
ia4oswZse geslSas ond hyra sylfra feorh. 

ponne cwiS set beore se ^Se beah gesyhS, 

eald jescwiga, sc Be eall gem(an), 

1019' Fol. 174I1 mt B; Tit,. («aldc). — loigb MS., K,., Tkt., BJl., 

Siit., Cie. bit ; Gr., EJJ. Mo. Set Lang. ^ 2:1. — 1010* 2g6 (i)ufa1Sc 

— 101 1" .^ani. 2p on handii(?). — ■ioi3''Gf.'(nr)gWdiic, Gr.* lucglej Hut. — 
joi+b JC,,, wW. (v™.). Klu. {in Held.), 4 Edd. (\,).~iOl6^ K,.(k)thX.— 
1019'' Kc. if, E. Seldan ohufir j He. '"', « a/. Oft [nS] Rldan i K/u. (in Hold.) oft 
■eldin ( = ieildon) wSn ; Halt, oft [biS] k1 and wZr; Sid. (i/. MLR. t 387) oft 
lelfionhwtarf. [Cf. Hie. Zi. 404s B<i. j6g.] — laii^ MS. S-siicni Kt., a al.. 
Holt., Sfd.-Staini^. — io}i' Kli..ix loi {f). Hold.', Ht!i.'iryh\ixom.~iaii» 
Tit. duguSe b«(wncdei Cr., eial.,Holi., Wa. dugu& (Wo/i, : duguSc) Wwerede, 
_»o37*' MS. hea«i bunu; Tke. KaXaAy^iira. Sii Lang. ( /,— loj)* 
Ti4 Clin drviiien it mdicaud by a largi ccpiial O. Cf. hir. ciii. -- 1041'' Gr.^ 
Wl(>){f«r\xiy>);B<i.g8ba.; Hull. Zi. jjp.&J. bam. — Fa/. //j^goybS.— 
S04l'> Gru. cr. tg6 gem(on), Tia. guii(u). 

g^rcwealtn gutncna — him bi€ grim sefa— , 

onginne^ geomormod geong(um) cempan 
304; t^urh hreSra gehygd higcs cunnian, 

wigbealu weccean, ond |>iet word acwylS : 

** Meaht 3u, min wine, mece gecnawan, ^ 

)K>ne pin fsder (6 gefeohte bxr 

under heregriman hindeman siSe, 
sojodyre iren, Jjier hyne Dene slogon, 

weoldon walsiowc, syJSSan WiBergyld Iseg, 

aefter haslepa hryre, hwate Scyldungas ? 

Nu her para banena byre nithwylces 

fnetwum hremig on flei g«S, 
lojjmorlSres gylpeS, ond pone ma^pum byrcB, 

pone pe Su mid rihte riedan sceoldest." 

Mana^ swa ond myndga^ m^la gehwylcc 

sanim wordum, oS iSiet s£l cyme^, 

pEt sc temnan pegn fore fedcr dsdum 
io6aaefter billes bite blodfag swefelS, 

ealdreg scyldig ; him se oScr ponan 

losaS (li)iigende, con him land gearc. 

Jtonne bioJS (ab)rocene on ba healfe 

aSswcor^ eorla ; (syS)8an Ingelde 
m6s wealla^ wselni^as, ond him wlAufan 

aefier cearwximum colran weoHSa^. 

pf ic HcaSo-Bear[d]na hyldo ne telge, 

dryhtsibbc d£l Denum unf^cne, 

freondscipe fasstne. 

Ic sceal for8 sprecan 

1044'' Gru. tr. 3g6, Scha. g«ing<ne) ; Ki. (/H iJ., 1S33, '" Cid.), Gr., j Bdi. 
g«ing<um). — 1048' Htli*,Sid,[fmi]fria; Hill.' fxia [^gt\. Cf. T.C. %!?. 
— »o?ib Gru. ir. 206, Gr.i, « el. wiSagjld. — lojs' MS. B gylped i Ke. 
Ijlprf. — IOS9' Barnouw 2j Smnan-lKgn. Sa <tae !m gio f.-~ toS3^ H'-'--', 
Holt, for. — lo6a' Fr,l. 175" figendc ^, . eigrnde fl; Hi.' (lijfigendr. — 1063" 
MS. jt arocaa, £ .oraxae ; Ki., Z., j £aW. abiocMs j Zio., 5[M. bioceoe.— 
lt>64' MS. iweorS(?); Thi. nweord. — aoe+t Ki. (!yti)-Bin. — loft?* MS. 
beariuii Tk: -bcaidna. 


ao7ogen ym\x Grendel, ]>xt %u gcarc cunne, 

sinces brytta, to hwan sy^San wcariS 

bondrSs hielc&. Sy^San heofones gim 

glad ofer grundas, g£st yrre cwom, 

eatol icfengrontf user neosan, 
•o7sSSr we gcsunde sxl vrcardodon. 

p£r wzs Hondscio hiW onsxge, 

feorhbealu fiSgum ; hE fynmest Iseg, 

gyrded cempa; him Grendel wear?, 

mjEmm magu^'cgne to muSbonan, 
oeSoleores mannes lie call forswcalg. 

No iy JET ut Si gen Idelhendc 

bona blodigt^, bealewa gemyndig, 

of ^am goldsele gongan wolde; 

ac he m^nes rof mtn costode, 
aeSsgrapode gcarsfolm. Glof hangodc 

aid ond syllic, searobendum fsestj 

sio wscs oriSoncum eall gegyrwed 

dSofles cncftum ond dracan fellum. 

He mec ))Zr on innan unsynnigne, 
M9odior dsdfruma ' gedon woldc 

manigra sumne ; byt ne mihte swS, 

sySSan ic on yrre uppriht astod. 

To lang ys to reccenne, hu i(c S)am leodscea^n 

yfla gchwylces sndlean forgeald ; 
io9j]?Xr ic, |>eoden min, Jiine leode 

weorSode w^orcum. He on weg losade, 

K)70» Gr., Hull. ymb. Sii T. C. | r J. — 1076'' MS. hilde ; Heltam. 40S, Rii. 
Zi. 40s hild. Sh 34S3. — 1079* ^' °>*E3 i ^'- Dugii-- — toSj* Ftl. 176' 
pafoie .dS. — MS. A tanoi TU. ioto, Ki.gian-, Ki. iigaro-. — logS^ Tr. 
afiJcT onifl. g: MPh. in 240.— 1093* Siev. R. 313, Hilt., &*S., Sid. man. 
Sf T.C. {72.-1093^ MS. A hueda; Grit. tr. 307, l^'- '■B K 19m.^ 
1094^ MS. hand ; Cr.i (f), itit. Zt. 41S, Htii., ScUl^ da. and-. S- iS4iK 

l^e hwtle lifwynna br(ea)c ; 

hvrxpre him sio swiSrc swa^ wcardade 

band on Hiorcc, ond he hean ^onan, 
iioomddes gedmor meregnind gcfeoll. 

Me )>onc wxlrXs wine Scildun^ 

f£ttan golde fela leanodc, 

inanegum maSmum, s)r%3an mergen com, 

ond we to symble gesetcn bxfdon. 
iiosPSr wxs gidd ond gl6o; gomela Scilding, 

fclafricgende feorran rchte } 

hwilum hilded^r bcarpan wynne, 

gomenwudu grSttc, bwilum gyd awraec 

so^ ond sarlic, bwilum gylllc spell 
Miorchte xfter ribtc nimheort cynlng ; 

hwilum eft ongan eldo gebunden, 

gomel guSwiga giogu^c cwIiSan, 

hildestrengo ; hrcSer inne weoU, 

^nne be wintrum frod worn gemunde. 
.iiisSwa we j>2r inne andlangne dxg 

mode naman, o^ ^Sxt nibt bccwom 

oJSer to yldum. pa waM eft braSe 

gcaro gyrnwrocc Grendcles modor, 

■i^Sode sorbfull ; sunu dea^ fornam, 
iiMwighete Wedra. Wif unh^Te 

hyre beam gewraK;, beorn acwealde 

cllenllce ; ysr waes jEscherc, 

frodan fymwitan feorh uiSgenge. 

No^cr h^ bine ne moston, sySiSan mei^en cwom, 

»»sdea'Sw&rigne Denia leode 

«»97l' jMS. -ihrrc, B biau aluridtt brecf Kt. brfte. — iioj* Fel. 176* 
K,V&a% AB. — iiof,' Mil Edd.Mifmgaic. Sa MFk. Hi 362.— iia%* MS. 
(o/mel {-*5); Cm. Ir. igj goroen-.— 110/ &.> (t), Stiuiurt Bitlr. tx» 
3S6 (r), Hull. KuoBc. 


bronde forbfernan, nS on bcl hiadan, 

leofne mannan ; hio ^xi Ik a^bxr 

feondes fieS(aium un)dcr iii^nstream. 

]7xt W£es Hro^gare hreowa tornost 
ii3o|}ara |>e leodfruman lange begeate. 

pa se «eoden mec Sine life 

hcalsode hreohmod, (>fet ic on holma gefiring 

eorUcipe efnde, ealdre gene^de, 

mierSo fremede ; he me mede gehet. 
>t}5lc iSa i5xs wxlmes, )>e is wide cuiy 

grimne gryrelicne grundhyrdc fond. 

par unc hwile waes hand gemSne ; 

holm heolfre weoll, ond ic heafde becearf 

in Sam [guSJsele Grendeles modor. 
3t4oeacnum ecgum; unsofte jwnan 

fcorh olSfercde ; naes ic fSge J)a gjt j 

ac me eoria hleo eft gesealde 

maSma menigeo, maga Healfdenes. 
XXXI Swa se ■JSeodkyning jieawum lyfdc; 
ii4;nealles ic iSam leanum . forloren ha^fde, 

maegnes medc, ac he me (maSma)s geaf, 

sunu Healfdenes on (min)ne sylfes dom; 

Sa ic 'Se, beorncyning, bringan wylle, 

estum gc^vran. Gen is eall set Se 
ii5o[m!nra] lissa gclong; ic lyt hafo 

heafodmaga nefne, Hygelac, Sec' 

lll6t> jMS.btl; Kt nDCcnn loSli EdJ. IXC. mil. & OU. xanaalia a bSl. 

— 1117'* F"'- 177" t" -^5— 1128'-^ ^l*S.fe« i«r(-fc-Sninga, under; 

Gr.' feiSmum under. — 1136* MS. grimmei Tin. grimne. — ti-ij^CrH. ir, igj, 
K€.,<tal., CAb. hanJ-gemSne. — ii39-T*o., //a//., 5ei/., Panxir 281, LtrwrtiKi 
PuH. MLAa. xxtii 2J7 "• * W^\, 'P- 'S13 1 <«'■ "■ 207, E. tr., elal.. Seta., 
CAfl. [grund-]. — 1146'' Fol. 177'.... U B(A) ; Gru. tr. igy, Kt. roJ-Binu.— 
1147'' Ki., «<-^ EdJ. (mm)ne ; Gr^. (sln)ne. — 11 50- H6l,. Biihl. x s6g ((/. Sii^. 
R. 3'3), Tr., Sid. gelenge ; Htlr. Lit. hi. xxi 61 gelong liss j JEGPk. tiii as?, 
H,/i., Cifl. IminraJ ; Siiv. (if StiH.i') gelongln], (cf . ^7540). 


Het $a in beran eafor heafodscgn, 

hca^osteapne helm, hare byrnan, 

guiSsweord geatollc, gyd sefter wfkc : 
115s 'Me 15is hildesceorp HroSgar sealde, 

snoira fengel ; sume worde het, 

]>iet ic his arcst ^ - est gesiegde ; 

cwEcS Jiaet hyt haefde Hiorogar cyning, 

leod Scyldunga lange hwile ; 
ii6on5 ^y xr suna slnum syllan wolde, 

hwatutn Heorowcarde, )>cah he him hold w£re, 

breostgewxdu. Brfic calles well ! ' 

Hyrde ic \ixt ]fam fra^wum feower mearas 

tungre, gellce last weardode, 
aieja^ppelfealuwe} he him est geteah 

meara ond maSma. — Swa sceal tnXg don, 

nealles inwitnet oSrum bregdon 

dyrnum craEftc, deaS ren(ian) 

hondgesteallan. Hygelace wses 
iijoni'Sa heardum nefa swpJSe hold, 

ond gehwa^Scr oSrum hro^Ta gemyndig, — 

Hyrde ic Jjtet he gone heaUbeah Hygdc gesealde, 

wrietlicne wundurmaSSum, -Sone (>c him WealhSeo geaf, 

■Scod(nes) dohtor, (rlo wicg somod 
>i75Swancor ond sadolbeorht; hyre syS^an wfes 

aefter beahlSege br[e]ost gcweorJSod. 
Swa bealdode beam EcgJSeowes, 

guma guSum ciiS, godum dsdum, 

dreah cefter dome; nealles druncne sl^ 
iiioheoiiSgcneatas; nxs him hreoh sefa, 

iiSxb MjK Edd., Huh., Sid. eafothSafocUcgn. Cf. MPi. Hi #52.-1114" 
Z. ITMilit. tfixc (mhprittr).^ 11 $7 ^ Conybiari L 1.4(f), Tio. Srmd ; Gr.' (?), 
Rii. Zi. 405/ Siist ('origo' ?) — ll64.'> Kc, elal.. Hell, weardodon. Sctnaitan 
004/. — 1.166^ Fd. itS"^ ms^. — ii6i^ Ki. a na(uo). — iij^' Kt.lSioHaai 
•— 1I76>> A£S.broiEi Tie. br(eIoat. 


ac he mancynnes mZste crsefte 

ginfxstan gife, ]?e him God sealde, 

heotd hildedeor. Hean wjcs lange, 

swa hyne Geata beam godne nc tealdon, 
iiSsne hyne on mcdobcncc mides wyrSnc 

drihten Weden gedon wolde; 

swy^Sc (wen)don, ]ixt he sleac wKre, 

ieSeling unfrom. Edwenden cwom 

tireadigum mcnn toma gehwylces. — 
S190 Hci ^ eoria hleo in gefetian, 

hea'Sorof cyning HrcSles lafe 

golde g^yrede -, nses mid Geatum Sa 

sincm3^)>Vm selra on sweordes had; 

]>set he on fitowulfes bearm alegde, 
iigsond him gesealde seofan piisendo, 

hold ond bregostol. Him wxs l^m samod 

on iSam leodscipe lond gecynde, 

eard e&lriht, o^rum swIiSor 

side rice ]>am iSSr scira wxs. 

3too Eft )>Kt geiode ufaran dogrum 

hildehlxmmum, syS^Ai Hygelic Ixg, 

ond Hear[dr]cdc hildemeccas 

under hordhreoSan to honan wurdon, 

m hyne gesohtan on sigepeodc 
«>05hcarde hili/frecan, HcaiSo-Scilfingas, 

ni'Sa genSgdan nefan Hererices — : 

sy&^n Beowulfe brade rice 

ai >£■ Fsl. 178I dribten B.—MS. wercda ; Aa«l. 31, M^li., Stu., Cia. Wedcn. 
— 11871 Cr.(w&i)doo. — iioi«A£S.h(aredeiGrir.(r.Z()fiHeiildrUde. — »i05» 
JUS. hilde; Gra., Siiv. R. 30J (f), H»/f., SilM. hild-. Su T-C. JM— »i07» 
Fel. 170"^ beowulfe. fo/io r^g, viiib thi Ian page {Fol. roS*), it lit maraparl^ 
ikt tnli'i MS. Iikaibii!if'-iikaiiditfhjalaurkani,bantlaho^ittrTtctlj. It- 
firmalhi an Jtntlfil m£ngi ii in tki aiKti if Znpilaa aad Ctamttri. 


on hand gehwearf ; hS gcheold tela 

fiftig wintra — wa:s iSa frod cyning, 
iiioeald e]>elwcard — , o'S Bset 5ii ongan 

deorcum nihtum draca ncs[i]an, 

Be ^ on h£a(^ni) h(S)T)c bord beweotode, 

stanbcorb steapne ; stlg under laeg 

eldum uncuS. ]7jEr on innan giong 
iii5ni'S[$ja nathwylc, i^^^f "^)^ gcfc(al)g 

bSSnum horde, bond (wSgc nam), 

(aid,) since fah; ne he Jiset syS&n (bcma^), 

J»(cah) i5(e he) sliepende besyre(d wur)dc 

|)cofes crsefte; pxt sie iSiod (onfand), 
■aMb(ig)folc beorna, ^xt he gebolge(n) wxs. 
XXZii Nealles mid gewealdum wyrmhord a^nef, 

gylfes willum, sS "Se him sare gescedd, 

ac for IrrSanedlan ^eow) nathwylces 

hxl^a bearna heteswengcas fleabf 
iMj(xrnc5) }>earfa, ond {SXr tnne fealifr, 

tiog* A^. latr iiBiJ vnoOn. — tvig'' TV, Km. Zi. 406, Sid. fwxftr 1SL 
— lllobAfJi'. lalir iaxd on. — 11II<>^£ rknnj Ki. rlcili>in. — 1211> Af^'. 
UlUr, Unsan ba and hoid viry hdiuiKCI; Z. Iranibt. bet'So hlatwe [a Hair., 
Siiti.), tut Vo HflH f» litrl and blzwe Ik hiig fir tki ipat't in iki MS. ; Cha. 
uimi a r«ofBi« nm md afiir h liiAir hife {« Siev. xxxfi 418) ir hope ; Sid. 
haxaa hSfw, did. hfiuni bopc. — 211 ;• AT/n. {in Hili.')B:r6l^3i. — i.iis'' MS. 
■ 1 ! I ! ! h grfc :(i)g i 5.rf, M (pe) n{i)h (« Tr.) gep{«)'>K- ««««■-«-»/■»" 5*- 17" 
^ £0. poy^ ■ ncod? (^ gefcDg/bv^num borde ; bond jetgeium/ulenil fince fib \ 
nehepwiyS&nigeaf. Q^-.fl/w Ho/f.— lllSt-iy. Tr.hond (w!EgeiIiinl,/(jigle) 
BDCcfJcb. 11I7* JM^. orij^/iifl//); &c, ini hiumten «ir c. ^ls^^AngI. zxtiii446 
(bemiS). 5«/. una fibnej hE f«t .y««.i. (wrac)— lll8» MS. Z. (.(ah) 1S(e he). 
—ii\%^ Khi. [in Hold.*) bajTt{Avnu)ie. — zii')^ AB at, KU. (in Held.') ao 
(milli may tntj will havt ban lAi original rinding hifirc tki friihining up of lAi 
f^i iaa.]). — Gr.' {onfimd).— IIIO' MS.afpannllyhi (?) orhf{>) j Bu. 100 
(by)folc ; IV., Sid., da. {bu)fok ; Klu. (in Hold.'), Boll, (biirh)folc [/« long]. 
f™., ««/..... felcbic™. Bsr Hc T.C. M ". 2.] — iiiol' ft-.i gd»lee(n). 
iail> MS. ge weiUQ u>. a cAan^tif ro a ^ /drir ^«i<. — >»ii>> JUS. bordi/cmfc ; 
Tc .hordirtrfad j ATfliM (« Holi.\,4 Edd. -boni ihm:. — 1113" Kt., Z., He/i., 
&ii., Laiu}rlnclL4-63'.S54f- PW) i '"■"■■ ■''''■ ^- 2^0, ^''■i C-U, p(«iwl ! 
Lawrinci Ij.- prece w prym(f).— 1114'' ^^- "="*! "■ » ^/""t'd 10 by hier 
iand-^WS' MS- 2- C=nin) f" """/ " -" '''"" ""''"' Z). — i"S'' 
jUS. well i, AB weall, to. w apfarinllj Umdinf on la iri[. f (Z.) ; Cr.' taih. 


secg synbysig. Sona f mwatide 

J)aet : : : : : i5ain gyst(e gryre)br6ga stod ; 

hwK^Sre (earm)sceapen 


M30 (Jja hyne) se fser bcgeat. 

Sincfan / 

pier WES swylcra fela 

in Sam eorS(hu)se iergestreona, 

swa hf on geardagum gumena nathwylc^ 

eormenlafe E^elan cynnes, 
9»j5]?anchycgende JiSr gehydde, 

deore maiSmas. Ealle hie dea^ fornam 

ierran mSlum, ond se an 1Sa gen 

Jeoda dugu'iSe, se ■Sser lengest hwearf, 

weard win^eomor wende [laes ylcan, 
ai4a]>aet he lytel faec longgestreona 

brucan moste. Beorh eallgearo 

wunode on wonge wieterySum neah, 

niwe be nxsse, nearocrasftum fest; 

pxT on innan bar eorlgestreona 
ai4shringa hyrde hordwyrSne d£l, 

fxttan goldes, fea worda cwx^ : 

3ii6>> 3f5. mwatide [lit ilgn t in r.t'i ed. inJicaia thai lit reading h AapitOtlj 
urmpi]; na.,(cf.Bu. roi,)5r*fl., C*a. inwlitode j Ho/i. he wagode ; 5t</.' (.« 
gMoile. — 1117 MS. Z. ! appartnlly gyst(e grjrejbtaga ; Gr,' kad covjalurtd g^yre. 
Cp. Dm. S24f—3.n.i^ MS. i. (T), MS. Kt. (earm). — ZJ19- Fel. 170".^ 
tlSoKMS. Z. (f), MS. da. (la hyne).— MS. Z., MS. Cia. trig, fl^rio. ta/urid 
»(, — IIJI'G-.' (9ahn)(?)i Hi.*, Jr., C*a. (gwah); J/o/r.(genom). — laji- 
JCi. (scrxfb) ; Z. (hu)K ; Klu. {in Hold.*) (5e])e. — 1134''^ z|)elan, fi a^lin.^ 
2137»' MS. !i i Kc. a K.— 1X39- MS. B wtard (-tf fonl), MS. 2. .- .rif . wearti 
CS dimiud iy da.) ; Gru., Tr., SchS., Cha. wcard ; Tht., Hall., SiJ. wearit. — 
tij^t- MS. Z.i 'ribde llu lain- hand, *kI wende ikcjirii.'—MS.fliin,bui Sid. 
tnahliihtS ike fan that i had been cluxaly alined fmBic. — X141'' The.,n al.,Cha. 
tal\£eaio. SeiTT"-— iM4^ MS. Z.iimoB ■w.oalliridjr.i (aluraliin dnUediy 
Cia.).— ii45*''MS.Z.hitd wyrSne(.rfiJ>i«fli/^«5t ^- hardlyrdiK ; Bjm. 
pfibordbyrhtneifu. josbordwynne; 5cAig. bord, nyriluic ) £5t. XXXtl 4JJ, Scd. 
bordwyi^.— ii46''MS. fea w. a d/f(r«f m c (Z.). 


'Hcald ^u nu, hruse, nu hieleS ne mastan^ 

eorla iehte ! Hwiet, hyt £r on ^Se 

gode begeaton ; guSdeaS fornam, 
1350 feorhbealo frecne fyra gehwylcne 

leoda minra J'ara Se fis [lif] ofgeaf, 

aec^a seledream. Nah, hwa sweord wege 

o^'&t fe(o)r(mic) fxted wage, 

dryncfaet deore; dug(uiS) ellor s[c]e5c. 
»a55 Sceal sc hcarda helm (hyr)stedgolde, 

fStum befeallen; feormynd swefaS, 

]>a Se beadogriman bywan sceoldon ; 

ge swylce seo herepad, sTo xX. hilde gebad 

ofer borda gebriec bite Irena, 
aiGobrosnaS leftcr beorne. Ne msg byrnan bring 

^fter wigfruman wide feran, 

hxleiSum be healfe. Nies hearpan wyn, 

gomen glcobeames, nc god hafoc 

geond sasl swingeJS, ne se swifta mearh 
aa65 burhsccde beateS. Bealocwealm hafa^ 

fela feorhcynna foriS onsended ! ' 

Swa giomormod giohiSo mxnde 

an iefter eallum, unbli^Se hwe{arf) 

ds^es ond nihtes, oiS fist deaJSes wylm 
as7ohran Xt heortan. Hordwynne fond 

eald uhtsccaSa opene standan, 

1147'' MS. msoQO ; Z. -■ ptr». orig. mostun (or -on) ; Cia. .- ' all very ehicuri.' 

— Iijob MS.fyrcjai Ke. ii fin. Til. tyri.— 1151" MS. fani ; K,. ii p3ra. 

— Kt. a,3Eiid.\Bi]; Hidi.{^iob<L\. — iis^ MS. iaa-Kon; Sit. 
Zi.4og, Holi.icvfi; fr . , J EGPA. ti igj xcgi -, Bu. ro2 gawiefoii sdedreamas. 
MS. iream 1,7- i:tam:: (iriimrer) ; Hcli., Sid., Cia. {U) nah. Fo/. iffo^nah. — 
aiSJ*M5. Z,fe:r: : : j Cf.lfeormic!. — 1154'' *:e.(in duRfu^}. — MS. troci 
&.iac5c. — 1155'' (wTi. /r. joo, EdJ. {li)T)s«id guide: X«J''i/S (liTr)itedeolde. 
(Cp. Ga. J/JJ.) — 1156b (Ki.,) Gr.', a el. feomiend , Kt. ii, a <•!. feomiend.- 
MS9'> Sitv. R. 3S3, Jr., Ho/i., SchB., Scd. Iren|n)a. Sk 673" firr.—zibi^ 
Tit., Su. Zi.iix,4Edd. D\i. — ii6(f> MS. Z.f^ ■J.l.Sor6). — l.^f•^>> MS. 
Kt. bweop, MS.Tii:. hwa..) ji h-Hca w. anetiir in*j Gr. Spr. (i.v.lniapaii). 
Slit, wEop i Cn-.', J £iU. hwearf. 


se -JSe byrnende btorgas sece^S, 

nacod nl^draca, nihtes fleogc^ 

fyre befangen ; hyne foldbucnd 
ii75(swrae ondrEE)da($) . He gesecean scealt 

(ho)r(d on) hriisan, )>Kr he h£%en gold 

waraS wintrum frod ; ne byiS him wihte '5y sel. 
Swa sc ■SeodsceaSa (>reo hund wintra 

heold on hrusan hordxrna sum 
iiSoeacencrxftig, o^ ^Saet hyne an abealch 

mon on mode; mandryhtne baer 

feted wiege, frioftowSre bsed 

hlaford sTnnc. Da wxs hord risod} 

onboren beaga herd, bene gctlSad 
■xi; feasceaftum men ; frea sceawode 

fira fyrngewcorc forman sVSe. — 

pa sc wyrm onwoc, wroht waes geniwad ; 

stone 15a aetter stane, stearcheon onfand 

feondes fotlast j he to for? gestop 
si^odyrnan craefte dracan heafde neah. 

Swa mxg unfXge eaSe gedigan 

wean ond wrScsiS se Se Waldendes 

hyldo gehealde|> ! Hordweard sohte 

geome asfter grundc, wolde guman findan 
>i9;)>one )k him on sweofotc sire geteode; 

hat ond hreohmod hlXw oft ymbehwearf 

ealne utanweard ; ne S£r £nig mon 

»t7j»Fo/.iffo*Z.{ivriBeondm1da{S). — ii76»Gr.«(lia)r(h on); Z. fhoVM 
on).— ii79*j(£S.hni>aini T^^. bciisan. — i3So>> Crv. ir. joo, Tfci., M 4/. ibtallu 
— iiSjf' Bu. Zi. 212 beirh (>), Htlt. Zt. 120, Sid. hl£w (>r hord). — iig^' 
Bu. Z,. 212 dH (?), Cf. tiii S72 lum (?) {fir hord). — iigsb A»t. 33, Htli., 
Sch»., SiJ. at. — iigb^ Fti. jSi* hliewa : Ke., 4 EdJ. hlzn ; Gru., a al. hllhr 
t^. — SiFB. R. 258, Hull., Siia. jmb-. Sa T.C. jij. — 1197' MS. cJne otm- 
wordne ; Sim. R. 306, Hull, cal fiUnward ; Sitv. A. M. \g5 '.S (t), ffrMlv 
i*f ijl-r d. at. GiHtv d. KSnigi Knui {BerliH Din. 1001) p. 61, &**. dine 
Otmardruj Tr. taiac uanvati ; ScJ.ealntuan. — izgy*- MS.ntiCr.'iulmh 
Cr.i (/), jUnt. 34, Hill., ScU., da. nzi; Sid. ne [wort!]. 


on ])Siy wcstenne, — hwaeSre wtges gefeh, 

bea(du)[we] weorces ; hwllum on beorh xthwearf, 
ajoosincfaet sohtc ; he )>3et sona onfaiid, 

iSset hfefde gumena sum goldes gefandod, 

heahgestreona. Hordweard onbad 

earfoSlIce, oS ^xt Sfen cwom ; 

wxs ISa gebolgen beorges hyrdc, 
it305Wolde te laSa lige forgyldan 

drincfa^t d^re. pi wxs dseg sceacen 

wyrme on willan { no on wealle ls[njg 5//.^ ' 

bldan wolde, ac mid bsle for, 

fjre gcfysed. Wecs se fruma cgcslic 
*]ioleodum on lande, swi hyt lungre weariS 

on hyra sincgifan sarc geendod. 
XXXIII Da sc g£st ongan gledum spiwan, 

beorht hofu bxrnan, — bryncleoma stod 

eldum on andan ; no ^Sr §ht cwiccs 
ajisIaiS lyftfloga l£fan wolde. 

Wks pxs wyrmes wig wide ges^ne, 

ncarofages nlS nean ond feoVran, 

hu se gu{Sscea{Sa Geata leode 

hatode ond hjinde ; herd eft gescSat, 
sjiodryhtsele dyrnne £r dseges hwile. 

Hasfde !andwara lige befangen, 

hs\e ond bronde ; beorges getriiwode, 

wiges ond wealles ; him sco wen geleab. 
pa wses Blowulfe broga gecy^ed 
sja; snude to soSe, ^xt his sylfes hJm, 

1198 Rit. Zi. 408 mmnm lacuna afar wEstenne, Sid. afur weltmne {lupplia 
»rihtge^e)<iiii/fl/Krgcfch; tCotppil Z/dFi. xxiii Jll ■remlJarHei>ullli}6*'-gi''. 
— MS-hiWe; Tr., Schii., HiU., Cia. wigcs. \Cf.Bu.103, i.Sr.i32.] — iigg' 
Ki. bei(du). j JECPk. via 257 f; 3 Edd. btifduXwel ; Hch. ^V- «' .««- 
Ai.bei((lo)w™'ce«[gtorn]. — 1305' JM5.feb«ai flu. 2.. aiZK laS». — 1507!' 
MS. Izgi 300 lengi jiant.34 beng. — iSis"* Fol. iSi^ Wolde jIB. — 
a]li'> Sm 660^ fen. — 13*5'' l^- ^^ > t"^- "'- 30i Yata. 


bolda selest brynewylmum mcalt, 

gifstol Geata. pxt Sam godan vtxs 

hreow on hreiSre, hygesorga mSst ; 

wende sc wisa, pxt he Wealdende 
ijjoofer ealde riht ecean Dryhtne 

bitre gebulge ; breost innan weoll 

]?eostniin gel^oncuni, swa him ge)iywe ne vfxs. 

Hxfde iTgdraca leoda fa^sten, 

ealond titan, eorSwfard Sone 
i]35glcdijin forgrunden ; him Sa:s guSkyning, 

Wedera fiioden wnece leornode. 

Heht him ))a gewyrccan wigcndra hleo 

calllrenne, eorla dryhten, 

wigbord wrStlic; wisse he gearwe, 
334o{raet him hohwudu he(lpan) ne meahte, 

lind wi^5 llge. Sceoide /.^nrfaga 

a:)ieling £rgod ende gebidan, 

worulde lifes, ond se wyrm somod, 

Jieah ^e hordwelan heolde lange. 
a3450rerhogode Sa hringa fengel, 

)>iEt he Jione wTdflogan weorode gesohte, 

sidan herge ; no he him ^a sxcce ondred, 

ne him pxs wyrmes wig for wiht dyde, 

eafoS ond ellen, for^on he £r fela 
ijsonearo ne^ende nl^a gcdigde, 

hildehlemma, syBSan he Hro^gares, 

sigoreadig secg, sele fSlsode, 

ond xt guSe forgrap Grendeles mSgum 

1334'' Sw«r ^g,. Did. mrtlpard (>). — Gt.', Cm., Sed. «onne. — 1338' Bu. 
Tld. s6 Qllircnne [jcyldl ; Hull. Lit. bl. ixi 61 & Z,. iso Itenn* [KyldJ (Ho/l.' : 
1337b wigeni hlto [tcyld]) ;«■«*' up/ eillirm net (' proiectioo ■). — i339>' fo/, 
,S2'' wine. — 1340b TM. hc(lpan).— 1341b MS. pcnd ; Ctu. tr. 301 (f), Ki. ii 
1x0-. — 1347b JUS. bl ]^ (i.i. him {dm); Ki. ii bim pi. 



ISSan cynnes. 

No J>set l£scst wfes 
a]jshondgem6t[a], )>£r mon Hygelac slob, 

sySSan Geata cyning guSe riesum, 

freawine folca Freslondum on, 

HreSles eafora hiorodryncum sweait, 

bille gebeaten. ponan Biowulf com 
s]6osylfes crxfte, sundnytte dreah ; 

hxfde him on earme (ana) ^Icig 

hildegeatwa, )>i he to holme (st)ag, 

Nealies Hetware hremge |>orf(t)on 

fe^ewigcs, I'e him foran ongeai) 
ijtsltnde bxron ; lyt eft becwom 

fram pirn hildfrecan hames niosan ! 

Oferswam ^ sioJe^a bigong sunu Ecg^owes, 

earm anhaga eft to leodum; 

])Sr him Hygd gebead herd ond rice, 
»]7obcagas ond bregostol ; beirne ne truwpde, 

Jjjet he wis zlfyicum ejielstolas 

healdan ciiSe, ■Sa wks Hygelac dead. 

No S^ XT feasceafte findan meahton 

set Sam seSelinge Snige Singa, 
s]75))iet he Heardrede hlaford wzre, 

o5Se Jjone cynedom cTosan wolde j 

hwEcSrc he h'me on folcc freondlarum heold, 

£stum mid are, aS Sxt he yldra wearS, 

Weder-Geatum weold. 

Hyne wrxcma»:gas 
ijgoofer sS sohtan, suna Ohteres i 

1JS4''- Br. ISI {f), Tr., /fsft.'cynnc — 1355' JKS. v*fl gemot j Xe.-gem5t(»]. 
— ijeib Ful. iSz" Z. ...iM-i Gr.i (ioa). — J361I' Ki. (!t)ig. — 336)^ ATI. 
t«rf(l)on.— 1367' T»«. liol-ead (./r^i bigong); Beat, 100 Btolhba-Na } GrS liaeSi 
(— J«»). — 137o''S«0(Sllli Torr. — J377. MS. hi; T*(. hlM. 


hasfdon hy forheatden helm Scylfitiga, 

yone selestan sScyninga 

^ra 1Se in SwTorlce sine brytnade, 

^Zrne Jieoden. Him ^xt to mearce wearS ; 
138; he ])£r [f]or feorme feorhwundc hleat, 

sweordes swengum, sunu Hygdaccs; 

ond him eft gewit OngenWoes beam 

hames niosan, sy^^an Heardred lag, 

let -SSone bregostol Biowulf healdan, 
i39oGeatum wealdan; ^xt wxs god cyning. 
xxxiiii Se Sacs leodhryres Jean gcmundc 

uferan dogrum, Eadgilse wearS 

fSasceafcum freond ; folce gescepte 

ofer s£ side sunu Ohteres, 
*]9£wiguin ond wSpnum; he gcwnec sylSiSan 

cealdum cearsltium, cyning ealdre bineat. 
Swa he niSa gehwane genesen hsefdc, 

sllSra geslyhta, sunu Ecg^iowes, 

ellenweorca, oS %one anne dxg, 
S4oo)'e he wis Jiam wyrme gewegan sccolde. 

Gewit )>i twelfa sum tome gebolgen 

dryhten Geata dracan sccawian; 

hxfde )>a gefrunen, hwanan s!o fiehS Iras, 

bcaloniS biorna ; him to bearme cwom 
«4^; maS)>umf£et m£re )>urh ^xs meldan hond. 

Se waes on iSam Sreate ))reotteoSa secg, 

se Sks orl^es or onstealde, 

hxft hygegiomor, sceolde hean iSonon 

1383- MS-V** i KT^.^e. — I384«F,^. iSjOJWodenvffl. — l.Ss'AfS.ot- 
iconnei Gr. on leonnei lUl. tit, 4 Edd.{i\<it feorme. — ii,%7*' Sim. R. 266, 
flb/(. OngmiSroe.. Cf. T.C.li7,^—i39*^ SiiriJrr Z/dA. xUHjOS /., ScH. 
iSaSe. BuliH'ESl.xxxix431. — 1396> yjanr. J5 cealde canTSu ; Tr. Ewoloi 
txueiiuD. — i^\* MS. . i£ . — na^ Fil. 183" cvamAB. 


wong wlsian. He ofer willan giong 
141010 ^aes %e he coiiSsele anne wisse, 

blSw under hrusan holmwylme neh, 

^^gewinne; se vises innan full 

wrStta ond wira. Weard unhtore, 

gearo gu^freca goldmaSmas heold 
H'Seald under eoHSan } nxs ^xt fSc ceap 

to gegangenne gumena £niguin, 

Gesaet ^ on nxsse mfiheard cyning; 

^enden hslo abead hcorSgcneatum, 

goldwine Geata. Him wses geomor sefa, 
a4iowiefre ond wslfus, wyrd ungcmete neah, 

se %oae gomelan gretan sceolde, 

secean sawle hord, sundur gedKlan 

lif wi^ lice; no )ion lange waes 

feorh aejielinges fl£sce bewunden. 
1415 Biowulf ma]?elade, beam Ecg^eowes : 

' Fela ic on gio,'^oi5c giiSrSsa gena», 

orleghv'Ua ; ic (>aet eall gemon. 

Ic waes syfanwintrc, yi mec sinca baldor, 

freawine folca xt minum fxder genam ; 
Hjoheold mec ond hxfde Hrefiel cyning, 

geaf me sine ond symbet, sibbe gemunde ; 

nses ic him to life lai$ra owihte 

beorn in burgum ]7onne his bearna hwylc, 

Herebeald ond Hjc^cyn o^Be Hygelac min. 
MisWaes ]>am yldcstan ungedefe 

m^es dxdum morl^orbed stred, 

i4ii«Gr., iml.tiB. Sa iS8j».~ni'i^ Gra., SeJ. (F) (wnne. — &.' leng 
«(?) i vfaiH. SS lange.— 1418* Fo/. 184' ic— 1430b //o//.' (cf. Zi. Iio), Sad. 
geaf me- H. c. ; Hb/i,*,' HrSSel cyning g=af. Sii T. C. 5 17.— 2431I' Siev. R. 
3S6(f),Htlt.,^u, ri-.Smhi. S«r.C.S2i). — i4Jsi'3iS.ungedefclket 
Sim. R. i34> ^- Jt*. ji'j n. 8 ungedefe. 



■ sy^^an hyne HseBcyn of hprnbogan, 

his freawine flane gesweitcte, 

miste mcrcelses ond his mxg ofscet, 
i44obrd1Sor o^erne blodigan gare. 

pxt wxs feohleas gefeoht, fyrenum gesyngad, 

hreSre hygeuieSe ; sceolde hwseJSre swa Jieah 

E^Seling unwrecen caldres linnan. 
Swa biiS gcomorlTc gomelum ceorle 
*445 to gebldanne, )>£t his byre ride 

giong on galgan ; )>onne he gyd wrece, 

sarigne sang, {tonne his sunu hanga$ 

hrefne to hroiSre, ond he him help^ ne maeg 

eald ond infrod ^enige gefremman. 
»4;oSymble biS gemyndgad morna gehwylce 

eaforan ellorsi^S; oiSres ne gymeiS 

to gebldanne burgum Jn innan 

yrfeweardas, }wnne se an hafa$ 

Jnirh deaSes nyd dsda gefondad. 
a+ssGesyhS sorhcearig on his suna bure 

winselc westne, windgc reste 

rite berofene, — ridcnd swefaiS, 

hieleS in hoSman ; nis ]>xt hcarpan sweg, 

gomen in geardum, swylce ISxr iu wieron. 
XXXV 1460 GewIteS fjonne on sealman, sorhleoS gxIelS 

an aeftcr anum; \>uhie him call to rCm, 

wongas ond wicstede. 

Swa Wedra helm 

»43g» Bu. 103, Tr. f«owine.~1441« Ki. HrfSel ; Ci-.l, Tr., Ha/t., StJ. 
HrESle. — TV., Sciantri Beiir.xxxjS? (,'), Htli. -ni«So, — 1446^ Gr., Htli., Std. 
wrectS. — 1448'' MS. hdpan 1 Kc. hilpe, cf. Sin. ZfdPk. jcii jj?. — 145 1 • Fol. 
184" eifbran AB. — 1454 Gm-. I^"!- ("'" 2Jz) f "'•> ^^ "Y^ {." f^"- f- '76, 
Bu. Zs. US! nIS) dcaiSa gefondad. — 1457» MS. t<Me; Tii.tote {'rMe'>i 
&■.", Rii. L. reocej B„. Zi. a/j r(e)ote ('rest') ; Hold, rou ('jo7')i ««/(,',* 
rtte {(trig. taU). — i4S7t> Cr.i (^),', Rk, i. iwdirfS, 


seftcr HerebeaMe heortati sorge 

weallinde wxgi wihte ne meahtc 
146s on ^Im feorhbonan f^gh^c gebetan ; 

no if St he fNine heaSorinc hatian ne meahte 

laSum dzdum, Jieah him leof ne wxs. 

He Sa mid )r£re sorhge, ]>e him to sar belamp, 

gumdream ofgeaf, Godes leoht gcceas ; 
S47aeaferum liefde, swa deS eadig mon, 

lond ond leodbyrig, \i& he of life gcwat. 
p3 wzs synn ond sacu Sweona ond G£ata 

ofer wiA wieter wroht gemSne, 

hcreni^ hearda, syS^an HretSel swcalt, 
•4750%^e him OngenlSeowes caferan w£ran 

frome fyrdhwate, freodc ne woldon 

ofer heafo healdan, ac ymb Hreosnabeoili 

eatolne inwiiscear oft gefremcdon. 

pset mSgwine mine gewrsecan, 
i^Sof^h'Se ond fyrene, swa hyt gefriege waes, 

beah ^ o^er his ealdrc gebohte, 

hcardan ceape ; HseScynne wearS, 

Geata dryhtne guJS onssege. 

pa ic on morgne gefr^gn m^ d&me 
34J5bille8 ecgum on bonan stielan, 

]>Sr Ongen)>eow Eofores nlosaiS ; 

gii^helm toglad, gomela Scylfing 

hreas [hildejblac ; bond gemunde 

f^h^o genoge, fcorhsweng ne ofteah. 

i^iV" JUS. lid i Ri£. £., Gr.', £., Htii.',\ ScJ. iw3 ; Hill.* po ; infpti hj 
ScH. Cf. Lang. \ 20.1 ; nu 11 ??w— 1+71' Fil- iSs' ww AB— 1473* MS. 
Hiefiii bcmh; i*l ta Bu. 11. — 1478'' MS. ge gdVemedon j Tii. drofi fira ge. 
— 14*1 Gr.' f. «. o. |hil]/h. •- g. i He.', SiiH., ScJ. y. «. o. hit/c.g.; IMJ.', 
Hull., Cha. p ■5.8. hk/e.g. — 24861' Gr-, ital- nioradc. Sii JoajS. — 1488-01-., a 
a!. [hioro-]blic i Ba. Tid. IQ7 [hra-lbllt ; H-!i.^i^l.txi366,4EJd.{biiiie-\bSii 
(ntfcitfliufl). — 14*9'' Hidl.{cf. Z1.131) -tviengt.Cp. ijio". 

ngo Ic him ])a magmas, I'e he me sealde, 

geald aet gu^c, swa me gife^ wxs, 

leohtan sweordc j be roe lond forgeaf, 

eard eSelwyn. Nks him Snig )>earf, 

^seX he to GinSum olSSe to Gar-Denum 
i49SoS'Se in Swiorlcc secean )>urfc 

wyrsan wigfrecan, wcorSe gecypanj 

symle ic him on feSan beforan woldc, 

ana on orde, ond swa to aldrc sceall 

sxcce fremman, )>cnden Jiis sweord jwla^ 
(5ao)>xt mec Sr ond si5 oft gelSste, 

syS^an ic for duge^um Daeghrefne weariS 

to handbonan, Hugacempan; — 

nallcs he ?a frsetwe Frescyning[c] , 

breostweoi^unge bringan moste, 
3505ac in camp; gecrong cumbles byrde, 

se])eltng on elne ; ne waes ecg bona^ 

ac him hildegrap heoitan wylmas, 

banhus gcbrxc. Nu sceall billes ecg, 

bond ond heard sweord ymb hord w^n.' 
1510 Beowulf maSelode, beotwordum sprsec 

nichstan siSe : * Ic gcneSdc fela 

gu^a on geogoSe ; g^t ic wylle, 

frod folces weard fxh^e secan, 

mSti^u fremman, gif mec se oianscea'Sa 
asijof eorSsele fit gesece?.' 

Gegrette %a gumena gehwylcne, 

hwate helmberend hindeman sI'Se, 

3493' Sin. ix 14T -wynnf. Sci Lang. 5 30.i. — 149;'' Bn. Zi. 2i6yoittc. 
Su 1028^. — M.56* Fol. iSs'' wyraan ji. — 2500'' Gr., Scia., Sid. : peritd afnr 
gelaate. — 1503'' 3JS. lynirg ) On, (r. JO< -cyning[e]. — 2505* JWS. cnnpan ; Kc, 
Tio., 4 EJd. amft (compe). — i;o9' Ajwyaji Btiir. xxxiti 105 /-, Holt., Sed. 
heiribwmrd. Si. ^1^7". (Cp. 25jS».) ~ 15 1 +« MS. in«r«u (i.e. qaeieuiii, w C*ii.)( 
Ki. II mzrSo, Bu. 104, J EJd. DUEtSu. Cp. aofo", 3341^. 


Ew£se gesrSas : ^ Nolde ic sweord beran^ 

wSpen to wyrme, gif ic wiste hu 
ijiowi^ Sam aglScean elles meahte 

gylpc wi^rTpan, swa ic gio wiS Grendle dyde; 

ac ic SSr hcaBuf^res hates wene, 

[oJreSes ond ottres ; forSon ic me on hafu 

bord ond byrnan. NeJle ic beorges weard 
»Si5oferfl^n fotes trem, ac unc [furSur] sceal 

weoriSan jct wealle, swa unc wyrd geteoS, 

Metod manna gehwxs. Ic eom on mode from, 

pxt ic wis ]>one guSflogan gylp oferstCte. 

Gcblde ge on bcorge byrnum wercdc, 
*Slosecgas on scahvum, hwxSer sel m:ege 

xftcr wxIrSse wunde gedygan 

unccr twega. Nis J'aet eower slS, 

ne gemet mannes, nefn(e) min anes, 

Mt he wi5 ilglZcean cofoBo diele, 
»S3seoi*lscype efne. Ic mid cine sceall 

gold gegangan, o^Se giiS nimeS, 

feorhbealu frecnc frean eowerne ! * 
Aras Sa bi ronde rof oretta, 

heard under helme, hiorosercean bxr 
iS4ounder stanclcofu, strengo getruwode 

anes mannes ; nc biS swylc eai^s siS ! 

Geseah 'Sa be wealle se Se worna fela 

gumcystum god gu5a gedTgde, 

hildehlemma, ]ionne hnitan feSan, 

3519'' Fal. r86i^ glf j1B. — i$io' MS. Sunj Siev. ix 141, Htb. 'Gn. — 
ijai" Schritr jtngl. xHl 345 gijje (/or gylpe). — 1513* MS. reSeiT hattra ; 
Cm. tr. 304, Kt. ii itoai Gr. [oIre«e». Stt 2557, z?'5, 2830- — i^^l" 
MS. oftr fleonj Bu. 104, Barnn-iv 232, Sii. fleo(hi)n (flAn); Tr. fotllton, 
flWi.' bxfxan.— 2^1^ Sih«birt I.8.I.46., flflrno™. 2j2, rr.[fSh-5o]; flu. 104, 
5(*«. (fiwhtt] 1 ^"l'- c" '«I |furi5or], Cha. [fiiriSur]. — is»S" ^rei ' 


^54; sto[nJdan stanbc^n, stream ut Jionan 

brecan of beorge ; wass JiSre burnan wxlm 

hea-gofyrum hat; nc meahte horde neah 

unbyrnende aenige hwTic 

dcop gedygan for dracan lege. 
iS5oLet -Sa of breostum, ■Sa he gebolgen wies, 

Weder-Geata leod word ut faran, 

stearcheort styrmde; stefn in becom 

healSotorht hlynnan under harne stan. 

Hete W3es onhrered, hordweard oncniow 
ijssmannes reorde; na;s BSr mara fyrst 

freode to friclan. From grest cwom 

oru^ aglZcean ut of stane, 

hat hildeswat ; hrusc dynede. 

Biorn under beorge bordrand onswif 
1560 wis Sam gryregicste, Geata dryhten; 

Sa WEES hringbogan heorte get^sed 

sascce to seceanne. Sweord St gebrSd 

god guScyning, gomele lafe, 

ecgum anglaw; SghwjcSrum wses 
1565 bealohycgendra broga fram oSrum. 

StiSmod gcstod wiS steapne rood 

winia bealdor, Sa se wyrm gebeah 

snude tosomne ; he on searwum bad. 

Gewat Sa byrnende gebogen scriSan, 
»j;oto gescipe scyndan. Scyld wel gebearg 

1J45'JMS. stodani Tio. itoIn]din. — 1545-0™, ir.joj,G™. dEor('»nFnn]'), 
Sb. TiJ. 297, SiJ. dew (flrfj.). — ISS9' SiJ. (if. MLR. v iSS) bora (ttmma sfitr 
iyntie, lemicslon d/zfrbeorgi). — i$6i* Sarr. ESt. xsviii 409 /, hriogbonn (ij. 
BliiiBuIf). — isbi' Slrv. k.3'2, Htli., St^.,{t)a.n. Sa T.C.%12.— 
1564" MS. nn/glaw (laitr iraad afier 1), B gleap ; Tlu, unsleaw ; Bu. 104, 4 
EdJ. ans\iv. — is^S*' Fol. 187' brop. ^,fl. — 1567* Gru. tr. 305, &«., Tr. 
wigtna. Sci r^jS". — 1;70» TIib. goccipt; E. gacepe; Hi."-' godfe (' bnd- 
long,' \b plaid in ajtfo*) j Holi. ffaak,Scd. gCKifc ('precipitMion,' ui B.-T.i 


Rfe ond lice Ixssan hwile 

tnSrum [leodne, {>onne his myne sohtc; 

iSSr he J>y fyrste forman dogore 

wealdan moste, swa him wyrd ne gescraf 
2S75hre{S aet hilde. Hond tip abrSd 

Geata dryhten, gryrefahne sloh 

incge-Jafe, \>xt sio ecg gewac 

brun on bane, bat unswiSor, 

J)onne his 2iodcyning ]>earfe haefdc 
■SSobysigum gcbsded. pa w<es bcorges weard 

a:f[er hea^uswenge on hreoum mode, 

wearp wa;Ifyre ; wide sprungon 

hildeleoman. Hre^sigora ne gcalp 

goldwine Geata; guSbill geswac 
1585 nacod ^et niSe, swa hyt no sceolde, 

iren ^ergod. — Ne v/xs ^aet e5e si5, 

yxt se m£ra maga EcgSeowes 

grundwong Jjone ofgyfan wolde; 

sceoldc [ofer] willan wic eardian 
ajpoelles hwcrgen, swa sccal Sghwylc mon 

al£tan ISndagas. 

Nass Ba long to ^on, 

]>xt l^a aglscean h^ eft gemetcon. 

Hyrte hync hordweard, hreiSer ieSme weoll, 

nTwan stcfne; nearo i5rowodc 
«59si^re befongen se Se Er folce weold. 

Nealles him on heape handgesieallan, 

xSelinga beam ymbe gestodon 

1573'' 5« /707*. — 1S77* Ki.iiGlmi.s.v. /<I/Icge-i Tho., E., SiJ. Incees, 
Gru. (?) logwLm, Hill.' Ingwines (cf. Griini. 757) i Tr. laigre ; Tr. Bribl. xxie 
42 life-. \Cf. Hill. Bail. xiU 7S/.: ynincea er K-Stlincga.) — 1589" Gr.' [wyraiei]; 
j^BU.js[viynma]iRii. Zj. ^jo, < £irf. [ofet]. — i59o'> Fsl. 187^ KtiX AB.-~ 
a596l> MS. heand j Ki. bud-. 


hildecystum, . ac hy on holt bugon, 

ealdre bui^anj_A Hiora in anum weoll 
•fioosefa wi% sot^um; sibb' <efrc ne mxg 

wiht onwendan )>ain {Se wel |>ence{S. 
XXXVI Wiglaf wEcs hatcn, WeoxstSnes sunu, 

leoflic lindwJga, leod Scyllinga, 

mSg /Elfheres ; geseah his mondryhten 
i6o5under heregriman hat ])rowian. 

Gemunde ^a ^a are, J>e he him Sr forgeaf, 

wicstcde welignc WjBgmundinga, 

folcrihta gehwyJc, swi his feeder ahte-, 

ne mihte Sa forhabban, bond rond gefeng, 
tStogcolwe linde, gomel swyrd geteah ; 

)f!Bt wfes mid eldum Eanmundcs laf, 

suna Ohtere[s] ; )>am xt saecce wear%, 

wnccca(n) wineleasum Weohstan bana 

meces ecgum, ond his magum xtbxr 
aBisbrunfagne helm, hringde byrnan, 

caldsweord etonisc; pxt him Oncia forgeaf, 

his gxdelinges gu^gewSdu, 

fyrdscaro ffislic, — no ymbe Ba fShSe spriec, 

]>eah ^ he his bro^or bcarn abredwade. 
aSaoHe [SI] fraetwe geheold fela missera, 

bill ond byrnan, oS Baet his byre mihte 

eorlscipe efnan swa his Srficder ; 

geaf him Sa mid Gcatum gCSgewXda, 

jSghwxs unrlm, }« he of ealdre gewat 
■eijfrod on forSweg. — p% wxs forma slS 

geongan cempan, yxt he guSc rSs 

i6ii» Fil. iSS" luna AB. — MS. ohtera ; Gfa. it. 30S &iMTt[»] (TU. OtMrd). 
— i6i^*£. Sc. vicca{a). — iSi J*- MS. wtoYiiUaia i Gra. ir. 306 W&hitiD. — 
»6i5» Tr. bMufigne. — tSi^^Rii.,Heli.\ijnan hiingdc. J« T.C.%17. — 
a6i«" Sa rj^S"- — 16*0' C™-> E.,Sii%t. ix t4i, Hfli- [p]. — afisj" E-St. 


mid his freodryhtne fremman sceolde. 

Ne gemealt him se modsefa, ne his m3g» Uf 

gewac xt wige j pat se wyrm onfand, 
iSjosyi^San hie togxdre gegan haefdon. 
Wiglaf maSelode, wordrihta fela 

sxgde gesTSum — him wxs sefa geomor — : 

( Ic Sxt m£l geman, pxr we medu jregun, 

}>anne we geheton ussum hliforde 
1635 in biorsele, ^ us JSas bSagas gcaf, 

)>xt we him ^ guSgcdfwa gyldan woldon, 

gif him {>yslicu {>earf gelumpe, 

helmas ond heard sweord. 6e he usic on herge geceas 

to Syssum siSfate sylfes willum, 
i64oonmunde usic mSrSa, ond me pis magmas geaf, 

J»e he usic garwigend godc tealdc, 

hwate hclmbcrcnd, — peah ^e hlaford us 

)t1s ellenweorc ana aSohte 

to gefremmanne, folces hyrde, 
*G45 forSam he manna mxst m£rSa gefremede, 

d£da doIlTcra. Nu is st dxg cumen, 

jtxt ure mandryhten ma^enes behofaS, 

godra guSrinca ; wutun gongan to, 

helpan hildfniman, jTenden hyt s^, 
ifi5ogledegesa grim ! God wat on mec, 

pxt me is micle leofre, pxt minnc iTchaman 

mid mlnne goldgyfan gled fxSmi;. 

Ne JiynceS me gerysne, pxt we rondas beren 

tSi.S'' MS, m&gena ; £^f. maget, — i6i9l< MS. ]h; Tin. |izt. — ifiit' 
Ft/. 188^ mid V*. — 1636- MS. gerawi; He.', Siiv. R. 173/., Hall., Schi., 
Slil.-satva. SeiGhii.i F. C. Szj. — 1638' Ha/r. heardlwmrd. Sa 2500'. — 
t6^l> Bu. 40 oaimH^lthSl. — l(Hll> 306 an {fir ii); E.Sc, The., 
Bu. Zi. 216 met ; Aani. 36 fir {!). — 2649i> Ke. ii, Bu. joj hit [hicl ; Ki. if. • 
n... 5tt/. hSt (j%rhyt);Gr.hit( = 'hBit'); Gr.Spr.[r)b\tM!(_fi-«K*biano).'- 
— tGjo* Sitv. R. 463, Hail. -cgB. Sa 2780^. Sa T. C. { j. • 


eft to eardc, nemne we Sror maegen 
iGssfaoc gefyllan, feorh ealgian 

Wcdra 'Seodnes. Ic wit gcare, 

[>aet tiSron ealdgewyrht, J>art he ana scyle 

Geata duguSe gnorn jrowian, 

gesigan let sjccce ; urum sceal sweord ond helm, 
i66obyrne ond b^aduscrud bam gemEnc' 

Wod pi Jjurh Jjone waelrec, wigheafolan baer 

frean on fultum, fea worda cwxS : 

'Leofa Blowulf, Ixst call tela, 

swa ^Su on geoguSfeore geara gecwiede, 
i6«;{i£t ISu ne al^te be % lifigendum 

dom gedreosan ; scealt nu dXdum rof, 

seSeling anhydig, ealle m^^ene 

feorh ealgian -, ic ^ full^stu.' 

^fter ^am wordum wyrm yrrc cwom, 
i67oatol inwitg^st oiSre siBe 

fyrwylmum jah fionda nios(i)an, 

la^ra manna. LigySum forborn 

bord wis rond[e], byrne ne meahte 

geongum garwigan geoce gefremman, 
s675ac se maga geonga under his mieges scyld 

elne geeode, |ia his agen w(xs) 

gledum forgrunden. pi gen guScynlng 

ni(£riSa) gemunde, - mxgenstrengo sloh 

bildcbille, pxt hyt on heafolan stod 

165s'' Ft!. IdT' feorh ^B. — 1659'' JMS. uri: anJ 1S(=ieex)alm tti /int, 

Tcf. It «-Kial- ■atki iai tin inuriid in iht margin ; The, Cr.t one (fir iinim), Gr.> 

one nE, St^. (c/'. MLR. i rfS) hfitu. — i66o« MS. tT'du k™I; E.Sc, Tit., 

4 Edi. beadutcrd (rj. JEGFk.tiii 2SS).~ An,!. 36,ii<-ll.'^xai {ftr byn»).— 

\Bu. Ttd. sSf. m Z.. 216 f., RU. Zi. 4Jif Griinh. Bdir. xxai83.\ — i'>f,-;^ Ftrt. 

SSa(}). — ibii>-MS.Bn<4mm,^mmam-,Kc.,HiJi.,Sil^.iiotui.,Cr.''iaaian. 

^ S" T. C. { ij. — 1673- '"■S- "ond ; Ki. ron(l[eI Uf. Martin ESr. xx losy — nijif' 

._. : Grutr. jo6»(m). — I678-Crujr. 306 m{lil«»). — 167I'' «K. *'- J< a., fldif. 

[''tlamwuiiifuriSUi.Bulcf.ijs/., ISlOf- 


i68onT])e getiyded; N^ling forbierst, 
geswac 3et sxcce sweord Biowulfes 
gomol ond grKgmiel. Him Jiset gifeJle ne wks, 
yxt him Irenna ccgc mihton 
helpan xt hilde ; wass slo hond to strong, 

aessse -Sc meca gehwane mine gefriege 

swenge ofersohtc, Jionne he to siecce hxi 
w£pcn wund[r]um heard ; nxs him wihte ^e sel. 

JJa waes JjeodsceaSa )iriddan si^Se, 
frecnc fjrdraca fxhSa gemyndig, 

le^oriesde on ^one rofan, *J>a him rum ageald, 
hat ond hea^ogrim, heals eaJne ymbefeng 
biteran banum ; he geblodegod weariS 
sawuldrlore, swat yBum weoll. 

XXXVII Da ic Kt fiearfe [gefraegn] Jreodcyninges 

i695andlongne eorl ellen c^San, 

crasft ond cenSu, swa him gecynde wes. 
Ne hedde he pxs heafolan, ac sio hand gebarn 
modiges mannes, ]rSr he his mxges healp, 
J>a5t he f>one nl^gast nio-Sor hwene sloh, 

i7oosecg on searwum, Jijet ^xt sweord gedeaf 
fah ond feted, pxt iSaet fyr ongon 
sweSrian sy??an. pa gen sylf cyning 
geweold his gewitte, w«ell-seaxe gebrSd 
biter ond bcaduscearp, pst he on byrnan waegj 

i7osforwrat Wedra helm wyrm on middan. 

i6il' Fel. igy» fomaX AB.^idii^^ ccniidtrtii parinlhilical by Scha. (rf.Sa. 
130), H'li-. rtfl- — 1685" Thi., a al, sio. Sii IJ44. — 1686" Bu. 105, Hull. 
tNme. — J6S7' MS. wunda {cf. 1460"/) ; Til. vnmi[t]>im. — l6<)tb Tit., Tr., 
Hlll.ym'a-. Su T.C. | /J. — 1694' K(. [gdM^l. — iesS" MS. micgenes ; Kl. 
mSgn. 5e(2^70*.— 1699» Kt., Tit., Rit. Zs. 407 Pa (ftr p-ti). — 1700^ Siii-. 
ix 141 {cf. £.). ff°''- '■'""'' «»'■ — ^701" G'"-, Sii^. ix 14', Sid. pa ««. Sit 
MP». Hi 463/.— i70i*> E. Se., Hill., Sid. -vsa. Sa 1833 f. ; 1343 /. — 1705^ 
Fal. iSo" belia AB. ', 


Feond gefyldan — ferh ellen wrzc— , 
ond hi hyne {^ b^en abroten hxfdon, 
Stbsc^elingas ; swylc sceolde secg wesan, 
Jj^n set ISearfe ] pxt -Sam J>eodnc wics 

i7i<>siSas[t] sigehwlLi sylfes dsdum, 
worlde geweorces. 

6a sTo wund ongoti, 
ye him se eorSdraca £r geworhte, 
swelan ond swellan ; he J^Ect sona onfand, 
)>3et him on breostum bcaloni^(e) weoll 

i7isattor on innan. Bi se jeJSeling giong, 
]>xt he hi wealle wTshycgende 
gesset on sesse; seah on enta geweorc, 
hu 9a stinbogan stapulum fsste 
ece eorBreced innan healde. 

tjse Hyne [>a mid handa heorodreorigne, 
]>eoden mSrne )>egn ungcmete till, 
winedryhten hig wxtcrc gelafede 
hilde scdne ond his hel(ni) onspeon, 

Biowulf majielode — he ofcr bcnne sprxc, 

»7iswundc wxlbleate; wissc he gcarwe, 
]>Et hS di^hwHa gedrogen hxfde, 
corSan wynn(e) ; ^ wxs call sceacen 
dogorgerimcs, dcaS ungcmete ncah — : 
* Nu ic suna minum syllan wolde 

»706' B. Sc, Tit., Sin. it 141/., Std. gefyWe. — 1706'' JC<. t 
(X 702 nine (^lUen), Aaai. 37 aior. — tjio^ MS. tiKiMtlec hwi]c{ Kt.Ma 
ngehwll J Gru. ir, 307 tfjiot ; Gr. tftust dgehwlli {ep. 2427) ; Gru., Bu. Zt. 317 
■a&U rigehwOe ; Tr., 4 Edd. £Saa AgckM. (^.Lang.\io.6.—il\^lUS.A 
bX, B ni«li Schibtrt L 8.1.35, Siev. R. 260, 4 Edd. -plSe. — i7i9» Ho/i. 
iciit{-iKat).~-ni^E.Si., Rii. Z1.411, Hill, heoldon. — 1711'' Z..- •Hch 
im urlifang/eaievtliit rf ti.], lii mtamng sfvikkh I do itu iitnu.' Tit iimi 
l &B ahtvi t^ n •/■untiht I739», and abtvi Ihi u o/up jSgJ*. — 1715'' MS. A 
: iSlo, 5 heb ( £. St. {afar Grimm) helm.— 1715" Or. Spr. i 138 {?), ScHmtn 
'•}75, (Cp. Ckr.fji.) — »7»7» Tki., Crajr. 307 wjoa^t). 


»73«6H8gew5da, ]>Sr me gife^Se swS 

Xnig yrfeweard xftci wurde 

lice gelcnge. Ic %as leode heold 

fiftig wintra ; nxs se folccyning, 

ymbesitcendra Xnig ^ara, 
1731)^ mec guUwinum gretan dorste, 

egesan licim. Ic on earde bad 

mXigesceafta, heold min tela, 

ne sohte searonlSas, ne me swor fela 

aSa on unriht. Ic Secs ealles mseg 
iT4ofeorhbennutn seoc gefean habban; 

forSam me witan ne Searf Waldend fira 

moriSorbealo maga, ]?onne min s«cace3 

llf of lice. Nil ISii lungre geong 

hord sceawian under harne stan, 
*74sWTglaf leofa, nil se wyrm ligeS, 

swefeS sarc wund, since bereafod. 

Bio nu on ofoste, pxt ic £rwelan, 

goldsht ongite, gcaro sceawige 

swcgle searogimmas, \iiet ic ^f seft mxge 
»7S0ECftcr mi^Sumwclan min al£tan 

iTf ond leodscipe, |>one ic longe heold.' 
XXXVIII Da ic sniide gefr%gn sunu Wihstincs 

after wordcwydum wundum dryhtne 

hyran heaSosiocum, hringnet beran, 
*75jhrogdnc beadusercean under beorges hrof. 

Gescah HI sigehreSig, [ja he bi sesse geong, 

magojKgn modig malSiSumsigla fealo, 

»7ji« Fel. iSo^veard ^fl. — 1734' Tic, Tr., Hall. ymb-. Sef T-C^tJ. 
— 1743" f^'- g»ngi r*'-. fi'''- eong- &i!£ang,»5/a.5. — 174*'* E., Aait. 41 
gorwe. — »749« nc ogel ifor TOegli), Rii. L. ij), Hdt, liglu, RU. Z.. 4"/' 
Dgk ()« irST, MPh. Hi ajo). — 1755'' iMS. urderj Tkk. under. — 17S7» Fe/. 
100<^ modii. — 1757^ Kt., a al. fcU ; Rie. L., a eh, Sid. fcola. Su Lang. \ 13.3 n. 


gold glitinian gninde getenge, 

wundur on wealle, ond jraes wyrmes denn^ 
376oeaIdes uhtflogan, orcas stoiidan, 

fyrnmanna fatu, feormcndleasc, 

hyrstum behrorene; ]»ar waes helm monig 

eald ond omig, earmbeaga fela 

searwum ges£led. — Sine eaSe maeg, 
»76;gold on grund(e) gumcynnes gehwone 

oferhigian, hyde se 8e wyllc ! — 

Swylce he siomian geseah _ segn eallgyldcn 

heah ofer horde, hondwundra miest, 

gelocen leolSocrasftum ; of ^am leoniiz stod, 
t77oJ>set he Jionc grundwong ongitan meahte, 

wTxte giondwlitan. Naes iSfCS wyrmes ^xr 

onsyn aenig, ac hyne ccg fornam. 

Da ic on hISwe gefrasgn hord reafian, 

eald enta geweorc anne mannan, 
1775 him on bearm hWon bunan ond discas 

sylfesdomej segn eac genom, 

beacna beorhtost. Bill 5r gescod 

— ecg was iren — ealdblafordes 

]ram ^ara maSma mundbora waes 
lygolonge hwlle, ligegcsan Wjeg 

hatne for horde, hioroweallende 

middelnihtum, oS pxt he morflre swcalt. 

Ar w^s on ofosce, eftsiSes geom, 

1759* Tr., Htli., SiJ. geonil (/or ond). — 1760* E., MS. U, jiant. 37(f), 
Boll, (todan. — 176s* Gru. ir. 307 gnind(e)..— 1766' Kin. ix 101 -hfiipaii, 
Sika. -hidgian ; C™. (f ), 5<./." [rf. MLR.s 188) -hlwian ; Sid.^ ofer hige hon. — 
2769'' AfS. leoni»n; Ki. lioraa. — 2771 'MS. wnccei Tkt. write. — '77 S' JMS- 
b.\aio^^,,aa!.,Std.MiimiHetd.,3Edd.hhion. — 'lT!^bKe.,elaI., 
\cf. Brill MLR. i.*B4/.] iwgeacat ('brass-shod'); Su.rid. 300 {(/. Gt„.niiu)i< 
geacod. {Cp. isSr", iCis", llc.)—l^^&^ kit. Zi. 4,3, ami. j7, Sed. -h.'3ionto 
((.I. (*« Jr^m).— 17gi3bJ«2(SjD'".— I78l''fj/. igobisS. 


frstwum gefyrSred ; hyne fyrwet brsc, 
a7BshwKSer collenferiS cwicne gemette 

in ^am wongstede Wedra peoden 

ellensiocne, \)xt he hine xr forlet. 

He $a mid fiain maSmum mSrne J^ioden, 

ijryhten sinne driorigne fand 
i79oealdres xt ende ; he hine efi ongon 

wxteres weorpan, oS Jiaet wordes ord 

breosthord [lurhbnec. 

[Biorncyning spnc] 

gomel on gioASe — gold sceawode — : 

* Ic iSara fraetwa Frean ealles ISanc, 
1795 Wuldurcyninge wordum secge, 

ecum Dryhtne, J>e ic her on stane, 

^xs ^e ic moste minum leodum 

jcr swyltdsge swylc gestr^nan. 

Nu ic on mal^ma hord mine bebohte 
tSoohdde feorhlcgc, fremmaS gena 

leoda ^earfe ; ne mxg ic her leng wesan. 

HataS hea^omSre hlxw gewyrcean 

beorhtne asfter bEle set brimes nosan ; 

se seel to gemyndum minum leodum 
1805 heah hlifian on Hronesnxsse, 

J>aet hit saJiSend sySiSan hatan 

Blowulfes biorh, 5a Se brentingas 

ofcr floda genipu feorran drifaS,' 

i7gS»£.(t/S.5c.)-fia*«iie.— i79i»A:e./i(?), E.St., Tie., Bu. Zs. ziS (f) 
metati RU.Z1.412, Tr. vialttt iweorfen. Sii Clcss. : viierpan. [ffa/i. m«j 
179o''[on]bine(?).] — 179i'*G''"«-- 30S,ita/., SiJ. [B&rwalf mipdoic] ; Sci9. 
(cf. ESi. xxtix no) [fi K beom gesprac] ; tfo/i., Cia. (BTowuIf >eordode]. — 
»795« MS. giogo^e ; Kc. ii gctSo (,'), Grimm (ntw en jSndr. 66), E. St. pohSe. 
— 1799>' MS. minne ; E.Sc. mine. — igoc* Til-, Bu. g6, mM Edd. gS na. 
— 1803' Sin. R. 306, Hull.',' beorht, — t8o4' Siiv. U., Holi.\' het (/"■ «)■ 
— igo8'f././pi"flodiifl. 

Dydc him of healsc hring gyldenne 
iSmJjIoden ]»risthydig, j^gne gesealde, 

geongum garwigan, goldfahne helm, 

beah ond byrnan, hct hyne briican well — : 

' pu eart endclaf usses cynnes, 

Wi^mundingai ealle wyrd forsuieop 
1815 mine magas to mctodsceafte, 

eorlas on elne ; ic him xfter sceal.' 

pxt wxs yzm gomelan girig£Ste word 

breostgehygdum, £r he b£l cure,>. 

hate heaSowylmas ; him of hrxSre gewU 
iSiosawol secean so^facstra dom. 
[xxxviiii] ©a WKS gegongen gum<7« unfrodum 

earfo^lice, ]>Et he on coriSan gcscah 

)>one leofcstan lifes xt cnde 

bleatc gcbXran. Bona swylce Ixg, 
iSisegeslic eoHSdraca ealdre bereafbd, 

bealwe gebZEdcd. Beahhordum leng 

wyrm wohbogen wealdan nc mostc, 

ac him Irenna ecga fornamon, 

hearde hea?oscearde homera life, 
iSjojraet se widlloga wundum stille 

hreas on hrusan bordxrne neah. 

Nalles Eeftcr lyfte laccnde hwearf 

middelnihtum, maSmShta wlonc 

ansyn fwdc, ac he eorSan gefeoll 
iSjsfor iSa^s hildfruman hondgeweorce. 

Huru paet on lande lyt manna %ah 

iSl^ojUS.tfeof; Ki.%Hcf.GrimmD.M.3j6)-twiop.— liigbHiS.hwieliat 
Ki., f al. hteSic i Cr. S^r. hnrfire, — i8ii- Ne cmiQ Kumtir in MS., ba Bt 
{capiu! D) tigiKi nrui Imi. — ilii^ MS. gumu ; Hi.' gunun. — j8ig'Gr.i(f), 
Rir. Zi. 4'2, tl "I- bine- Stc Lang.^zs.j. — jStq* Tin., 11 al., Si/uiniri Batr. 
XXX 37S, Hair, -tcmpc. Bia cf. SclM. xxxix iio. — iSjt* Fti. ipi» Kltcr. 


mxgenagendra mine gefrSge, 

I'cah '$e he dxda gehwxs dyrstig w£re, 

|>Et he wi^S attorsceaSan oreiSc gerfEsde, 
iE4ooS^e hringsele hondum styrede, 

gif he waeccende weard onfunde 

buon on beorge. Biowulfe wcarS 

dryhtmlSma dsl dea-5c forgolden j 

hsefde aghw^Sw ende gefered 
it45l£nan lifes. 

Nxs ISa lang to Son, 

yxt a. hiidlatan holt ofgefan, 

tydre treowlogan tyne aetsomne, 

{Si ne dorston £r dareSum lacan 

on byra mandryhtnes miclan J;earfe ; 
iSsoac hp scamiende scyldas b£ran, 

guSgcwSdu )>£r se gomela Ixg; 

wlitan on Wilaf. • He gewergad sEt, 

feSecempa frean eaxlum neah, 

wehte hync waetre ; him wiht nc speoa/. 
»8ssNe meahtc he on eorSan, ISeah he u5e wel, 

on 6am frumgare feorh gehealdan, 

ne ^S*s Wcaldendes wiht oncirran ; 

wolde dom Godes d£dum r£dan 

gumena gchwylcum, swa he nu gen deS. 
1860 Pa wxs xt 'Sam geongan grim andswaru 

eSbegete Jiam 'Se Sr his eine forleas. 

Wiglaf ma'Selode, Weohstanes sunu, 

sec[g] sarigferS — seah on unleofc — : 

1844- MS. aghwiiSre j Ke. it eghwE«er ; cf. Xie. Zi. 41a. — a8si» Ke., 
Sin. R. 272, Hoh., Sed. wlran. — 1854.1' MS. speop ; T«. speow. — 1857' 
JEGPhMii 238vtat\itnAa{}). — li^^*^ Tko., Hali.,ScH.'m\ita (Jar wilt).— 
iSjB'Fu/.iQzagDdcs^f. — 18;8'> flu. 10(5 du^arzdan. — iibo<^ MS. itongi; 
Barnimvi 36, Hall., Scit. geongin. [geongum doahlfally di/endld ^ LidMakeid 
ZfdA._ai333,3S3.\—ii('Vl^'«^\ rAl.«c[gJ. 


' pact, la, mfeg sccgan se ?ie wylc sSS specan, 
it6;pxt se mondryhten, se eow €a mal^mas geaf, 

eoredgeatwe, |>e ge t>ser on standalS, — 

))onne he on calubence oft gesealde 

healsittendum helm ond byrnan, 

Jieoden his ]>egnum, swyJce he )>rySlicost 
i87oower fcor o555e neah tindan meahte — , 

JjKt he genunga gu$gew£du 

wraSe forwurpe, Sa hyne wig beget. . 

Nealles folccyning fyrdgesteallum 

gylpan ]iorfte ; hwjclSre him God u&, 
ig7SSLgora Waldend, ^xt he hyne sylfne gewncc 

ana mid ecge, ]>a him wzs elnes )?earf. 

Ic him llfwra^e lytic meahte 

xtgifan a;t guSe, ond ongan swa )>eah 

ofer min gemet mKges helpan i 
igsosymle was f»y sxmra, Jfonne ic sweorde drep 

ferhSgenHSlan, fpr unswiBor 

weoll of gewitte, ^ergendra to lyt 

]?rong ymbe jieoden, ]>a hyne sio (>rag becwom, 

A'u sccal sincjjego ond swyrdgifu, 
iS85eall eSciwyn eowrum cynne, 

lufen alicgean ; londrihtes mot 

jiSre msegburge monna ieghwylc 

idel hweorfan, sySSan ^elingas 

feorran gefricgean fleam eowernc, 
aigodomleasan d^d. Dea^ bi^ sella 

eoria gehwylcum )> edwitlif ! ' 

1867'' Tr. eow (Jbr oft). — 1869b MS. JayJ-i TU., £dd. [txc. Am., Cka:^ 
^fj"^-.— %%■!%•■ Perk. gi&n. — i8goi>5iru. 11742, ffo/i. twneaurf tggi« -genTSta. 

— aSKii' MS. fymn (u altered from a) tWtf-oi ; Tho.tjtim iwHSot) RIi. L. {cf. 
Zi. 41 j), 4 Eid. fyr uiHwI^dir. — i%%i> MS. Airgerdn { GruM. 309 wetgeodn. 

— Ii[83i> Fol. iQih pra|.rfB. — i88+» MS. bu, b G™., da. (iielamattry, cf. 
H^l. nM); Kt., Edd. NC — 1886' Grimm R. A. 731, K:, Tr. Icofeo ('«««• 
nance ')j Tho. Icofuiiif Std. n&ti Iungfe(?J. 


XL Heht Si pxt heaSoweorc to hagan blodan 

up ofer ecgclif, )>Xr )>set eorlweorod 

morgenlongne dxg modgiomor sset, 
SS9S bordhicbbende, bega on wenum, 

endcddgores ond eftcjmes 

leofes monnes. L^t sw^odc 

niwra spella se Se nxs gerid, 

ac he soSIIce sxgde ofer callc : 
■900' Nu is wilgeofa Wedra leoda, 

dryhtcn GeaU deaSbcdde fest, 

wunaS waelrestc wyrmes dsdum ; 

him on cfn ligcS ealdorgewinna 

Sfxbennum seoc ; sweorde ne meahte 
1905011 Sam aglScean £nige )>inga 

wunde gewyrccan. Wiglaf siteS 

ofer Biowulfe, byre Wihstanes, 

eorl ofer oSrum unlifigendum, 

healdeS higemSiSum heafodwearde 
syioleofes ond laSes. 

Nu ys leodum wen 

orlegbwTic, sySSan undcrfnej 

FroDCum ond Fr^sum fyll cyninges 

wide wcoriSeS. Wa^ sio wroht scepen 

heard wiS Hugas, sySSan Higelac cwom 
39i5faran flotherge on Fresna land, 

^2r hyne Hetware hilde genSgdon, 

eine geeodon mid ofermsegene, 

iB93>A:i. Vi, 4 EdJ. eg-. — iqo4« JUS.tlti; Ki.n, elal.mi^; Hi>li.,Std. 
•ex-, Sn Laig- J r. — i^oj* MS. hige hikISujii} Gr., tta/.. Seta.; dp, of hj- 
gonSS ' reverence • I'J (Sid.: 'meaau.e of abilLiy'li Kt., « a/. -mESum (Rfe, 
Zj.41j.-rf?. o/-niES(!, «■(., B».lo6, Ho!t.:df.of-mm»);Sitv.ixi4i-<t<^K 
{tuicf.Sirtf. xxiri 4'S>). Sa Lang. \Q.3. — ^l)aq'> Fol. igj' heafod AB. — 
J9iib JUS. under ; &-. undet[ne|. — x9i6i> MS. ge hiwgdon; &.'{f), Bu. T.J. 
64, Holt,, Sid., Cka. gdiKgdon. Set T.C.\ 28. 


fxt sc byrnwiga bugan sceolde, 

feoll on feSan j nalles frastwe geat 
i9ioea]dor dugoSe. Us waes a sySSan 

Merewloingas milts ungyfeSe. — 

Ne ic tc SweoJSeode sibbe ofiUfc treowe 

wihte ne wene, ac wxs wide cG'S, 

Jiiette OngenSio ealdre besnyi5ede 
^»5HiScen Hfe|,ling wi^ H^f^i/ucfu, 

pa for oiynedlan ^rest ges5hton 

GMta leode GM-Scilfi^aS. ^ 

Sona him se frod^ fsedeV Otitheres, 

cald ond egesfuU ondslyht age^f, 
igjoabreot brimwlsafi, b^d ahr^de, 

gomela iomeowlan golde berofene, 

Onelan modor ond Ohtheres ; 

ond iSa foJgode feorh genial an, 

oS ^xt hi oSeodon earfoSlicc 
t9]5in Hrefnesholt hiafordleasc. 

Besxt %a sinherge sweorda life 

wundum wei^ ; wean oft gehet 

carmre teohhe ondlonge niht, 

cwaeS, he on mergenne meces ecgum 
i94ogetan wolde, sum[e] on galgtreowu[m] 

|fiiglum] to gamene. FrofM eft gclamp 

sarigmodum somod Jerdiege, 

1911' MS. mere wioinguj Crujr. JOQ, Kc. Mennridnp ; Tka^ Cr. Men 

wioinga; Bu. Tid. 300, 4 Edi. Merfwioingai. — isii** iMitk Biitr. xi 4TS a« 
gyrac(?) (mm louia). — i9ii«M5.te[ Tia., man EJd. tb. Sit Ijmg. { l8.(, 
~- 39191' MS. bond ; Gr.l (f), Rii. Zi. 4'4, Hell., SciH., C*fl. CMid-. Se ifffi*. 
Set IJ4/*— 1950" ATt., Gr,, 5*rf. ibreat. S« twif. J /(i,J, — 1930'' MJ. btyi* 
heotde; Gr., StAil., C-ia. htyd ahmrde ('liberated') [?] j Bi. 107 {f), Htll.' hrji 
ihteiide, cf. ESi. zlii 320 (Gen. 2DJ2, zoSs) ; La-tg. f '3.3 i Holt.',' (cf. Zi. lai), 
SiJ.brf'iilairif {'nmovcd'y—i^it' tCi.iigome\t;Gr.> (r), LieAlmie/ii Z/JJ. 
™* JJO gomdan j Sarnuw 40 gomel or gomclan. — 1937b Ftl. ioj» wean AB. 
— 1940'-4" rA.-,5<i.g[rieun. — MS.sumongalgtreo-ui W.. luin[el «J 
rfuglunj]; JCe. -Iieowuim]. CJ.Sirv.ix I43i Bu.TiJ.6o, Bu. 107, 37»- 


sySSan hie Hygelaces horn ond b^man, 

gealdor ongeaton, JtS se goda com 
3945leoda dugotSe on last faran. . 
XL! Wks sio swatswalSu Sw[e]ona ond Geata, 

wxItSs weora wide gcsytic, 

hii Sa folc mid him fShSc towehton. 

Gewat him Sa se goda mid his gxdelingum, 
i^jofrdd felageonior fasten secean, 

eorl Ongcnpio ufor oncirde ; 

hxfde Higelaces hildc gefru^ien, 

wlonccs wigcraeft; wi^reS nc truwQdc, 

]>xt he ssmannum onsacan mihte, 
i95;heaSoITSendum hord forstandan, 

beam ond brydc ; beah eft |>onan 

eald under coriSwcall. pa w*cs Sht bodcn 

Sweona leodum, segn Higdacc[s] 

freo-gowong |»one forif ofereodon, 
t^fiosy^San HreSlingas to hagan Jirungon. 

pjer wearS OngenJKow ecgum sweordii, 

hlondenfexa on bid wreccn, 

fset se ^leodcyning kalian sceolde 

Eafores anne dom. Hyne yrringa 
1965 Wulf Wonreding wSpne gerZhte, 

yxx him for swenge swat ^drum sprong 

fodS under fexe. Nxs he forht swa $ch, 

gomela Scilling, ac forgeald hraSe 

wyrsan wrixle waelhlem )>one, 
i97osy^15an Seodcyning jjyder oncirde. 

1946'' MS. swDna; W. SwpjMM. — 1948'' Tr. f. gewotbton. — 1953'' Sa 
66o» *'diT. — 19;7b-58l>//«/l. oht. — J,™. « 143 Btcc (/irKgn)— JC*., Bb. 
TU 61, Bu. loX, Holi- HigcliMW.— a. He/I, H,l:, Child MLN. xxi ioof-«iu- 
ale a, in text, olhcr EdJ. ajltr Hig«liM(!). — 19 !9b MS. ford j Tkk. forf. — igSl* 
JWlS. iweordu i AT*, (weordi. — 196+' fo/. /e4« anne. 



Ne meahte se snella sunu WonrSdes 

ealdum ceorle andslyht ^ofan, 

ac he him on heafde helm aEr gesccr, 

J)3et he blode fah bugan sceoldc, 
I97S feoll on foldan ; nas he fSge )>i git, 

"^ he hyne gewyrpte, peah -Se him wund hrine. 

Let sc hearda Higelaces )>egii 

brad[n]c mecc, )>a his bro^or li^, 

ealdsweord eotonisc emiscnc helm 
*9to brecan ofer bordweal ; Sa gebeah cyning, 

folces hyrde, wxs in feorh dropeti. 

Da w£ron monige, )re his m^g wriSon, 

ricone arXrdon, ^ii him gerymed wearS, 

pxt hie wselstowe wealdan mdstotl. 
1985 penden reafode rinc oSerne, 

heard swyrd hiked, ond his he|m somod ; 

hares hyrste Higellce bxr. 

He S(am) fraetwum feng ond him TEcgre gehet 
1990 leana (mid) leodum, ond gelSstf swa; 

geald JwHC guiSrJBs Geata diyhten, 

HreiSles eatbra, )»a he to ham becom, 

lofore ond Wulfe mid oferma^mum, 

sealdc hiora gebwaHSrum hund ]>usenda 
i99{landes ond locenra beaga, — ne Sorfte him ^ lean 
mon on middangearde, sy1SSa[n] hie Si mXrSa gesl^on | 

igjih 5«i(i?o». — 1977* 143, Hal:, Sid. Lft [Hi]. — i97g» MS. 
haie; Tie. l)[id[n]t. — 1979»5h Jjjfi". — 19!^ Set 2509". — 1989" Gm. 
tr. 310 «(im). — 1990» MS. loum . . . ; K(. (™) j Gr. {hU)( C™., 4 Edd. (mid) 
{Bb. ioS.- cp. 3613, 26ii)i He.* (ioTt), H>ld.\ Wy., Tr. (foc). — Fol. 104* 
koJij. — 1990'' MS. getoO) Ke. gelSste. — IJSS'^fi* flacid in famaitm if 
Bu. 108. — 1996*' Gru. tr. 310 iyfi%^n). 



and a lofore forgeaf angan dohtor, 

himweorSunge, hyldo to wedde. 

pset ys sio fxh^o ond sc feondscipe, 
joooWselniS wera, ^xs 'Se ic [wen] hafo, 

ye us seceaiS to Swcona leoda, 

sy^S'San hie gefricgeaS frian Qserne 

ealdorleasne, ^ne iSe £r geheold 

wi^ hettendum hord ond nee, 
joojjefter haeleSa hiyre, hwate SS-GiaUa, 

folcred fremedc, oB'Sc furSur gen 

eorlscipe efnde, — NS Is ofost betost, 

yxt we Jjeodcyning Jilr sceawian, 

ond |>one gcbringan, )?e us bcagas geaf, 
joioon adfaere. Ne seel anes hwiet 

meltan mid [>am modigan, ac )>£r is maSma hord, 

gold unnme grimme gecea(po)d, 

ond nu set sISestan sylfes feore 

beagas (geboh)te ; pi sceaJI brand fretan, 
joijSlcd jjcccean, — nalles eorl wegan 

maS^uin to gemyndum, ne mccgS SC^ne 

habban on healse hringwcortSungc, 

ac sceal geomomnod, golde bereafod 

oft nalles Sne elland trcdan, 
30Mnu sc hcrewisa hleahtor al^de, 

gamen ond glcodream. ForSon sceall gar wesan 

monig moigenccald mundum bewunden, 

hxfcn on handa, nalles hearpan sweg 

wigend wecccan, ac sc wonna hrefn 

]ooo>> Jtri. (w&i]. — 3001 >• JTf., (( 0/. Kode. — 1005 E. iutinSa. — MS. Kild> 
mptf ySCPi. Hii 230 SS-Gia.xui «'■' Scilfingu ; uB.Holi., Sid. (marling 
lii lime a/rir 3001). — 3007'' MS. me i Ki.Na. — 30iil>K'<.g««t(po)d. — Joi4» 
GniJr.jtl (bcbob)te, Crii. (g(:boh)ce. — y>i%* Htll. Bail, x 273, Jr. ^cgoo. 
Su JEGFi. ti ie6.— Jois'' Fni. iffj' oillei. 


3oi5fus ofer f^egum fcla reordian, 

earne secgan, hu him xt £tc speow, 

]>enden he wiS wulf[c] wal reafode." 
SwI se secg hwata secggcnde wxs 

laSra spella ; he ne leag fela 
jo3owyrda ne worda. Wcorod call aras; 

eodon unblTSe under Earnanses, 

wotlenteare wundur sceawian. 

Fundon %a on sande sawulleasnc 

hlimbed healdan {>onc ]>e him hringas geaf 
J03; £rran tnslum ; ]>a wass endedxg 

godum gegongen, Jiaet se gutScyning, 

Wedra ]Koden wundordealSe swealt. 

^r hi {i£r gesegan syllTcran wihi, 

wyrm on wonge wiVernehtes ]>£r 
]04olaStie licgean ; wa;s se legdraca 

grimllc gry(refah) gledum beswSled ; 

se wxs fifliges totgemearces 

lang on iegere; lyftwynne heold 

nihtes hwilum, nylSer eft gewat 
3045dennes nTosian ; wks %a deaSe fxst, 

hxfde eor%scrafa cnde genytiod. 

Him big stodan bunan ond orcas, 

discas lagon ond dyre swyrd, 

omigc {jurhetonc, swa hie wiB eorSan fxSm 
305oJ>usend wintra ^Xt cardodon ; 

{fonne wfes ]>aet yrfe eacencr:cfiig, 

J017* MS. wulf i Cru. ir. 311, tt at., Sipv. R. 280 wulf[i]. Sa atf;j«- — 3i>»g* 
Gr.Spr.jGr.*, Z. tecghwita. Sa Lang. §ij.j.— 30J5' MS. Z. : KITDD tp. u 
e/lirtd /rem 1 iy iraiuri ; MS. SeJ. & Cia. .■ zrran 111. a partiallj oiUuraud. — 
30jg' r*o. «,&■!.. Be ( = iac) t/"--*-)! Bii. Zi. no drofs^i Sm.ix 143, 
Hell., Sid. -^ia^. [Cf.Bu.jr^fl-^'<i-30.] — z<f'MS. ikfietivi (iitd ^ 
/aa li-, ,ff^l) i afar giy tkeri -wm p.ri. r«mfir fh,, Untri {Cia.) ; W*, pyjt } 
Hi.* giyregali ifn. Tid. 62, Sid., C*a. pynrfah. — 3041" Fol. 103* glfdfi- — 
3045" H^l., Scki.iaatta. Sa T. Cis—io^f^ Sciiintri Btiir.ixx37ronKi>). 


iumonna gold galdre bewunden, 

))xt Him hringsele hrinan ne moste 

gumena £nig, nefne God sylfa, 
jo558igi>ra So^cyning sealde J^am Se he woldc 

— he is manna gehyld — hord openiaM, 

efne swi hwylcum manna, swa him gemet Suhte, 
XLii pa wxs gesync, ^xt se sitS ne tSah 

^m %e unrihte inne gehydde 
jotowrie/e under wealle. Weard xr ofsloh 

feara sumne; pa sio fiehS geweariS 

gewrecen wraSIIce. Wundur hwar ponae 

eorl ellenrof ende gefere 

iTfgesceafta, jmnne leng ne mxg 
joSjinon mid his (ma)gum meduseld buan., 

Swa waes Biowulfe, |)a he biorges weard 

sohte searonitSas ; seolfa ne cuSe, 

purh hwa:t his worulde gedal weorSan sceolde, 

Swa hit oS domes dxg diope benemdon 
joyopeodnas ni£re, {la S-et ]>Si dydon, 

J»a;t se sccg ware synnum sciMig, 

hergum geheaSerod, hellbendum fxst, 

wommum gewitnad, se Sone wong strude. 

Nfes he goldhwaete gearwor hsfdc 
307S^eiides est iEr gesceawod. 

W^laf maSelode, Wlhstanes sunu : 

' Ofi sceall eorl monig anes willan 

wrac adreogi7n, swa us gcworden is. 

3056* &ii.(f), flu. loogehyht. — flu. lOO, Morgan Biiir. xxxui ttO,Hi)lt., 
Scm. hileiSi (/«■ minnijj Holt. noU, Si:d. gehyW manna. Cf. T. C. ^ 18. 
I&.i (/),<[ josfhasminnag. {parallii -w. hord); Hsh. Zi. 122.]— lO^i)*- Ba. 
log, H^lt. gehJ^SJe {rif. (a ihe lAiif). — -^oBtf MS. v/ixct; Tie. wrStt.-- 
3065* JCt. (majgum. — 3066I' Fel. JeO" Jia. — 3Q69I' Holt. Zi. t2l{T), StJ. 
JJore. — 3073'' A(S. stndff j Grii. Ir. jii ttraie, — 3074* Lawrence L 4.61 a. 
S62 [rif. alu IS Hsh.*] nxfne fir Via, and comma after jtrude. — S/«i. »» 143 
goldhvraMe|.| i Ht.' -hwitti Holt. Zt. 122, Scii. -Ehle j Holl.^ nail (f), Std. 
•Aaowe. — i<3ji' MS.vmK a dreogcSj Ki. wraca ditogan; Gr, wiBC idrtogaa. 


Ne tneahton we gelSran leofne Jieoden, 
3ogorices hyrde rSd lenignc, 

}>fet he ne grette goldweard Jwne, 

lete hyne licgean, ]>ar he longe wses, 

wicum wunian o9 woruldende, 

faeoldon heahgesceap. Hord ys gesceawod, 
3ol5grimme gegongen; vrxs )>a» gtfeSe to swrS, 

J>e Sone [mannan] Jjyder ontyhte. 

Ic waes pier inne ond past call geondseh, 

recedes geatwa, pa me gerymcd wxs, 

nealles swzslice siS alyfed 
jogoinn under eorSweall. Ic on ofoste gefeng 

micle Diid mundum maegenbyriSenne 

hordgestreona, hider ut setbaer 

cynjnge minum. Cwico wxs pa gena, 

wis ond gewittig ; worn eall gesprsec 
3°9SgomoI on gchSo, ond eowic gretan het, 

bccd pxt ge geworhton sefter wines d^i^uin 

in bslstedc beorh pone hean, 

micelne ond mSme, swa he manna was 

w^end weor^SfuUost wide geond eor^an, 
3iMpenden he burhwelan briican moste. 

Uton nu efstan olSre [sl^], 

scon ond seccan searo[gimma] gepraec, 

wundur under wcalle ; ic eow wisige, 

pKt ge genoge neon Sceawia'S 
jiosbeagas ond brad gold. Sie slo bSr gearo, 

I0S4* MS. beaUon ) Ki. heatdin, Bu. Zi. 211 hcaldon (— nn) ; &.>, SilOt. 

btOIdan (r fl., peritd after -cnde) ; ffy., Cka, heold on (' he held (00) to ha 
high ate'). — 3084'' Gru., Sarr. ESi. xxviii 4'0 geceapod. — 3og6» Gr^.tr. 
311 Ipeodenli Cr\ 4 Eid. |(*odcyningJ.— 30911' f,;. ,{^* m.— joge" 5b. 
TiJ.300, Sim.ix 144, Htli. wine dSidum. — 3101'' Gtk. it. 311 [rfiSe], — jioi'' 
Bu. 100 (cf. Sin. R. 260), 4 EdJ. I-gimma]. — 3104' Siev. ix 144, Hdi. pier (Jtr 
y») {aad J ids'" in partniieiii). 


Sdre gescfned, ]K)nnc we fit cymen, 

ond fonne geferian frean userne, 

leofne mannan ]>£r he longe sceal 

on ISxs Waldendes wKre gejtolian.' 
31 lo Het ^Sa gebeodan byre Wlhstanes, 

hfele hildedior haslet monegum, 

boldagendra, )jxt hie bslwudu 

feorran feredon, folcagende, 

godum togenes : ' Nu sceal gled fretan 
jii5(weaxan wonna leg)- wigena strengel, 

Jionc ISe oft gebad Isernscure, 

Jranne strZla storm strengum gebzded 

scoc ofer scildweall, sceft nytte heold, 

fiejfergeanvuin fus flane fulleode.' 
)iio Hum se snotra sunu Wlhstanes 

acigde of gortSre cyniges )>egnas 

syfone (to)somnc, ]'a selestan, 

code eahta sum under inwithrof 

hilderinc[a] ; sum on handa b^r 
]it5 Zledleoman, se ^ on orde geong. 

N^es ^ on hlytme, hwa ^xt hord stnide, 

sy^San onvearde Snigne dXl 

secgas gesegon on sete wunian, 

ISne licgan ; \ft Xnig mearn, 
]i3o)><ct hi ofostlic(e) fit geferedon 

d^rc maSmas ; dracan ec scufun, 

wyrm ofer weallclif, leton weg niman, 

flod fzSmian fra^wa hyrde. 

ill f Tr.wtu»n. — iii^ MS.(ititt;T»t.{K]ici, Kt., E<U.MStt~.—iiii* 

Ft/./oSacynign; Ti*., iiMi«£rfrf.c)rni[n]g«.— 3111* Ki.,BJd.{^)tomaeiG-.', 
E., »>., C*?. (m)»onine. — Ji»4» AfS. line, E. Sc, Siev. ix 144, R. 314,4 
Edi. -rinclil] {cp. 1411 /■)■ F-nctum. in tixt igrui w. Sitv. , urliir Edd., Aant. 
41, 3*»r< yXGPi. xvai aij/-! 31*4' -""= •"" (^-S'- -''"" ntn)— 
" 3ijo» £. Sc. ofbetBcte). 


pS w!cs urunden gold on wSn hladen* 
lilS-^liwxs unrim, ie|;eliii^ boren, 

har hildc[rincj to Hronesna;sBe. 
xuri Him Sa gegiredan Geata leode 

ad on eoHSan unwaclicne, 

helni[um] behongen, hildebordum, 
3i4obeorhtuni byrnum, swa he benawxs; 

alegdon 5a tomiddes m£rne {teoden 

h:elc5 hiofendc, hlaford ieofne. 

Ongunnon )>a on bcorge bielfyra m£st 

w^end weccan ; wud(u)rec asiah 
3i4sswe«rt ofer swioSoIe, swogende le^ 

wopebewunden — windblond gela^ — , 

oS \>xt he %a banhus gebrocen haefde 

hat on hrdSre. Higum unroie 

modceare mSndon, mondryhtnes cw(e)alini 
5i5oswylce giomorgyd (s)T(! g(e6)meowle 

(seftcr Biowulfe bjundenheorde 

(song) sorgcearig, sSde geneahhe, 

pxt hio hyre (h«arnida)gas hearde (ondre)de, 

walfylla worn, (wlgen)des cgesan, 
3i5shj'[n]1So (ond) h(x{tny)i. Heofon rece $we(a)1g. 

■it^t' JUS.yi m., Ke., ESt., Std., On. fi i Ke. ii, Edd. pSi ^ Tr. poa. 

— 3135'' MS. Bepelinge; Ki. ipding (geboren) j Bu. no ipelingc ; Barnmie Q 
[ond k] sc.) Tr. [ond] z. — jijS* MS. ilaat itiivan laUtand to and pniiblj 
irataritf o<u Icttir i 3i2hiie\Aiot]i E.Sc. hiliie[rinc]. — 3139' M5. helm; 
Gr. helm[um].— Tr., Holl.^, Sed. behengon. — 3 1 44'' Ke. wiul(u).. — 314s* MS. 
imc^ole; Tie. SwIo-«ale (' Swedish |Hoe '); Bout. 82 ff., Gr.iwiD^ej Tr. awiolofie. 

— 3i45'*MS.leti r*<..KE- — 3i46''Gr"™i»i-2<*Jwindblond[neIgelaeg; cf. 
yEGPi.Til06. Bu la jtaM. 41 f., Inning L7.2S.75- [t^. «-. 110.1 — 3149'' 
Kf. cw(e)«hn. — 3150* ffy., Cha. giSmoi gyd, — 3150'' Fo/. /(**. ' jilwml 
all ihal h li^bli in ith pi^i JTiiiined up in a lale hand' Z.; 'yeroii... miser- 
rime lactrali iwrl ' E. Sc.— MS. Z. (<)« (i pcrh. trig, a, trnxuu^y fralunid Kf) 
g(eo)meowle (in. La. aDBt lerintH eva- O) ; geo jfru ctnjuiurid hj ESc. — 
3i;i>-;;< Buggi'i rimreiioii {Bu. no f.) hai btiti adopitd in liindiiian, cf. 
ii^JajHtdnmminl. [Earlier cmjecWe, ij E. Se.,Cr.\', Bu. Z$. 223/., E.]~ 
3 < ; I • Si>. Btowulfe. — 3 151b Gr.'firu anjiclircd (b)anieB- {i.i. bundinheorte). 

— 3151'' MS. ueiSc. — 3154" MS. woon. — 3154'' Zapina on m day ' Iktugii 
(J,e)-u.a,ahl.t,rei,d{y,)\i,.uia.- — -iiss-^ MS. hf6o.-iiSi^ E. Sc.%w^{;,)li. 


Geworhton Ba Wcdra leode 

hl(jEw) on [hJIiSe, sc w<es heah ond brad, 

(w£)glTSenduni wide g(e)syne, 

ond betimbredon on t^n dagum 
jiSobeadurdfes been, bronda lafe 

wealle beworhton, swa hyt weoriSlicost 

foresnotre men lindan mihton. 

Hi on beorg dydon beg ond siglu, 

call swyJce hyrsta, swylce on horde Set 
3165 nHShedige men genumen hsefdon; 

forleton eorla gestreon eori^an healdan, 

gold on greotc, |>ar hit nu gen lifa^S 

eldum swa unnyt, swa hi(t Sro)r v/xs. 

pa ymbe hl£w riodan hildedeore, 
ji7oae)}elinga beam, ealra twelf;, 

woldon (care) cwifian, [ond] kyning miEnan, 

wordgyd wrecan, ond ymb w(er) sprecan ; 

eahtodan eorlsctpe ond his ellenweorc 

dugu%um demdon, — swa hit gede(fe) biS, 
ji7Sj>Kt mon his winedryhten wordum hcrgc, 

ferhSum freoge, Jjonne he foriS scile 

of Ifchaman (laded) weoriSan. 

Swa begnornodon Geata ieode 

hlafordes (hry)re, heoHSgeneatas ; 

Still. [h)U«er» nosu.]. Cf. T. C.§ /?.— 315*' «"<■ (w£)g-. — JlsSb Til., c, al. 
to lync i MS. KdlUng L ,.4 gSsyne, Z. g(e)ByiK, He.', EdJ. ge^<^. — 3 163'' Tko. 
beagjasl, Tr., Hoh. bie\»i\. ^. MPi. m ajo.— 3i6Sb STf. hi{t 5to)r. — 3170" 
AfS.a,c^;E.Sc.f»tlSt. — -ii7i''MS.Z.::::;Gr.,$f:{cp.frBfd.oy, 
SiJ. hie. — 3171'' Sie-v. R.23!, HM.', Tr., H<,lf. [and]. -- 3171.'' Gr. *(«).— 
317+^' JCe. Eede(fe). — 3177* MS. Z. hcbaimn, iui ' litn can Ic liiiU Jaiiii riot 
]3C hUia J of iciii'wingiialy 11 ihi Im hand' Z. — 3177I' MS.Z, : ! : ; j Kt., 
Sckli. liinei Bu. Tid. 65 ]^vib ; Kl«. (in Hild.'), Sed. lyiedj T'.(,T), Jaciilatn 
D. lyi. Gibraucid. Praps: for tic. (Kiel Din. igoS) p. S7, Hi/i., Cia. laded (ef. 
IXueurHofSmd 2i,tic.). Sa A>^l.xzxv463-—i^l^ Tii., (hiy)re. 


jilocwiedon ^t he wSre wynildcyning[a] 
manna mildust ond mon($w)£rust, 
leodum lUSosi ond lofgcornost. 

]igi}>>3£S. wTniUc]riung; Ki., StAuUrt L 8.1.3s, Sim. R. 333, lltlt.,Siia^ 
SiJ. -^iiin([a]. — 3181'' Gk Jr. jia •(S<r)«ntt. 

Digiiizcdt* Google 


1-188. Introductor?. (See AigumcDt, Intr. » IF.) 

1-53. Fonndlag of the glorious Dxniah dTiuiBty. Being consid* 
cred a sort of prelude, this canto (' fit ') iTUa left outside the Eeries of num- 
bered sections. Bradley (L +.11) thought this opening section had 
originally belonged to a different poem, viz. one concerning Beowulf, 
Scyld's son. According to Boer (no If.], it nai at the outset the 
opening of the dragon lay (Intc. cvi). But see Intr. cii. 

1-3. Hwset, see Gloss. — wE , . . geffQnon. The oniyinatance in 
Beirwulf of 'uii — the more inclusive, emphatic plural — in the list of 
the^f/rajn- formulas (Intr. Ixviii). Cp. the opening of Exodus, Juli- 
ana, Andriaii Nihtlungtntitd, Annolied (early MHG.). — in glftr- 
dagum is to be understood with reference to pryni see note on 575. 

4-53. The Story of Scyld. 'Scyld,' thepoetteils us, 'arrived asa 
little boy, alone and destitute, on the shores of the Danes ; he became 
their Icing, a great and glorious chief, beloved by his loyal people; he 
conquered many tribes beyond the seaj he was blessed with a son) and 
when at the fated hour he had passed away, he was sent out into the 
tea with alt the pomp of military splendor,' Thus his illustrious career 
fittingly foreshadows the greatness of his royal line. 

Scyld ' is well known in Scandinavian tradition as Skjoldr, the epony- 
mous ancestor of the Skjpldungar.' Especially, the account of Saxo, 
mho pays high tribute to his warlike and royal qualities, resembles the 
Bro'ivul/ vcisioa so closely as to suggest the use of th\! same kind of 
original Danish source. (See quotations innotei on 4f., 6^, iifF., igf., 
10 fT.) But nowhere outside of Bn'wul/' do we find Scyld's stnmgc 
jurival and hii wonderful passing narrated. 

Mystery surrounds him, signalizing a being of supematurai, divine 
origin. He is sent by unlcnovrn powers on his high mission, and when 
his life work is done, he withdraws to the itcange world whence he 
had come.' Whether he is conceived of as arriving in royal splendor 

1 On Scyld and Scbr, tec Ke. ii, pp. ill ff. ; Leo L 4.. 14. 1 9 ff. \ Mull. L 4.15.1, 
L 4.19.6-ia; Kahler ZfJFi. '» 305-14! Mo. 40-45} Bini 147 ff.j Siev. L 
4.33; Olcik i 113 ff., U 150 (f.; Chadwick Or. 174 If. ; Neckel,. GRM.ii ^{., 
£78 f.; Chi-Wid. 117 ff., ioi;L4.8a-gia(aFec Sqermind Bidrkman); also 
G. Schiitle, OUiagB sm Godljed : Indr4ig til elmik kildtfonimngi music mcd 
iierligi kablik pifeHc-iioptiagn (Kjebenhavn, 1907), pp. 137-39- 

< See Par.SS4,5,6;g.i,3,J[6. Yet in noUtythe cilUcnce af Scyld wai prob- 
■blj inferred from the name Siyldiagm (' tUeli men,' lee Olrik i 174 i., Chidmcic 
Or. 184). For Scyld(wi) etc. in Ap. genealogia, see Par. § i. 

• Like Arthur iTennysm, Tii Ctming 1/ Arthur 410, Tht Pam^g „f Ankar 
445), ' lioni the greil deep te the great deep he (Bet.' The umiluicy of the Scyld 



or — making allowance for Ute nide range of litotes {MFb. iii 149) — 
merely as a helplesi foundling,' remaini somerrhat doubtful (11. 43 if.). 
But nc feel that our poet') heon goes out in sympathy for the poor, 
lonely boy (fiatciaft 7, . . . anni ofir yet umberiutseitdi 46). 

ScyM'a famoui sea-burial — one of the gems of the poem — it not 
to be interpreted, honevci, merely as a symbolical act, but reflect* the 
actual practice of a previous age. Based on the belief that the toul 
after death had to take a long journey {fi'tr 41; cp. 808) to the realm 
of spirits, the custom of sea-burial arose among various peoples living 
near the sea or great lakes ' and nas prevalent (according to Sljema) in 
Scandinavia From the end of the fourth to the middle of the sixth 
century a.d. Sometimes the dead were burned on ship-board.' This 
custom was subsequently replaced by the ship-burial on land, both 
with and nithout the burning of the body, as shown unmistakably by 
the numerous finds of boat-graves belonging to the period beginning 
about 600 A. D.,* until finally, through a still further, development of the 
spiritual element, the outlines of corpse-ships were merely suggested 
by stones suitably piled about the graves.^ 

A counterpart of the story of Scyld's wonderful arrival appears in 
the chronicles of Ethclwerd and William of Malmcsbury, but is 
told of Sceaf, the father of Scyld and progenitor of the West Saxon 
kgend to the femoiu (origin illy, perfaipg, Necberlindiifa) Rory of the ' nTanknigbt' 
wufint recognized by J. Grimm (L 3.17, D. M. 306 (370}, iji loS (1391)). Cf.O. 
Rink, Dir Myiim ion Jtr Giiun Ja Hildm (1909), pp. 55 ff. 

' On the motive of eipmure, which occun in various formi and ii e^Kcially fre- 
<|ueDI in Iriih legend, KC Eirle-Plummer, T-ws if iki Saxen Cironiclau 103-105 ; 
Schofield, PM. MLAis. iviii 41 n.; DeuOchbdn, SiaJiit vir S^tngiakickti 
EitglanJi (1906), pp. 68-75; '^'° Grimm R.A. 701 (punbhment by expotan at 
in the Koij of Dridi, Kc note on pifH, II. 1931-61). 

> Thui, unong the Cela of Ireland indBtitaunind the nativa of Nottb and Sooth 
America. Hence its appearance in literature t Artburdeparringfbr Avalonj the Ln^ 
of Shalotr (in B modem venion in Tennyson's poem. Part It) ; 'The CDipae-friighted 
Barque' (P. Kennedy, Ligindary Fiahni <if tki Iriih Ctlii (1S91), pp. S94~6i 
SinOftli'lditappeirance in a boic in Fri iawpa SmfjilU (Elder Edda) ; lAuigfellow's 
Hiira/alia, tail cuito. ^Sucb 1 depirtuce in the family cimae wu rep«ted from Alaaka 
in 1909.1 

> Illuitrariona in litenture : Bildr {GylfapxKhg [Prose Edda), ch. 48) ; King 
Haki {r^glhg«^i, ch. 13 (»7), •« P«- §6), Signed Ring («e Par. § 8.7). 

'< GravefinibinOIand, Sblne, Vendel(UppIandj, etc.^ also the Eimoui Gok- 
nad and Tune (Norway) boaU. Literary panUels ate found, e.g., in Allamil 97 and 
in various lagM. {Ftotho'i law, Saio r 156.) 

> See eipeciatly Boehmer L 9.46.558 ff. Thii Rage tindi its analogue in the con- 
ceptlon of a tupematural boat appearing in poetry and legend (cp, the Flying Dutch- 
man, aba Knfjfdi). — On ihip-buriatt in general, see baidei : Grimm O. M. 691 fF. 
(SjoiF.); iu 248 (i;49ff.); Wcinht>ld L 9.31.479 ff.j Monteliui, S. IMuUer, 
^ii/nj du Cbaniu L 9.35. ch. T9i Gummete G. O. 311-8; H. Schum, Ur- 
g€Khicliitdcr Kuhur, pp. 197 f, S74ff; »■ Schetelig, 5*i/i.fl.™/. (S»ga-Book 
rfthe Viking Club, Vol. iv. Part ii, pp. 316-63); SchnepperL 9.47.17. — On other 
modes of burial, see oocc so BfowulTa Funeral ObKquies, IL }l37ff. 

D, ..■■.V^.OQi^lC 


kings. (Par. J 1.3 & 4.) Notable variations in the later one of these 
tno verEions arc the mention of Schleswig in the old Anglian homeland 
of the English as Sceaf s royal town, and the explanation of his name 
from the sheaf of grain lying at his head, irhich has taken the place of 
the weapons in Ethelwerd'i tal«. How to account for the attributing 
of the motive on the one hand 10 Scyld and-on the other to Sceaf (iriio 
has no place in authentic Norse tradition '), is an interesting problem. It 
has been argued that Scyld Sceting of the Bfvwulfmeaia OTigimlly Scyld 
icifing, 'Scyld child of the sheaf (?) or 'Scyld with the sheaf,' but by 
folk etymolc^ was understood in die sense of ' Scyld son of Sceaf,' and 
that in course of time the story was transferred from Scyld to his puta- 
tive fethet Sceaf. Taking, however, the patronymic designation as the 
(naturally) originai one, we might think that Sceaf, who can hardly be 
separated from Sciafa, the legendary ruler of the Langobaids,' owes 
his introduction into the Danish pedigree in the Btoiuulfia the Angle 
Saxon predilection for extensive geneaiogiiing. (Olrik.) According to 
(Kemble and) MiillenhofT, Sceaf was in ancient tradition a God-sent 
mythical being to whom Northern German tribes atlribuied the intro- 
duction of agriculture and kingly rule. That the sheaf as a religious 
symbol among the heathen English was, indeed, an original element of 
the conceptions underlying the foundling ancestor story, and that t, 
sheaf (and a shield) played a part in some ritual pracrice, has been sug- 
gested by Chadwick, — an idea elaborated and studied from a broad 
comparative point of view by Olrik (ii 150 if.). ^ (Cf. Intr. xxv.) So 
far as the Beoiiiulf is concerned, the linking of Sceaf {Scyld, Beon) 
with the undoubtedly Danish (ancestor) Scyld may be regarded aa a 
characteristic instance of the blending of English and Scandinavian 
tradition (cf. Cha. Wid. no). [Bjorkman (L 4. gia) is convinced that 
Sceaf, Scyld, Beow were originally divine beings uftruitRilness known 
to the (continental) Anglo- Sa^tons, and that the ancestor story was 
shifted by the poet from Sceaf to Scyld, whom he spontaneously iden- 
tified with the eponymousancestor of the Skjgldungar. The poet's in- 
consistency in retaining the epithet Sceting for the founder of the race 
is thus naturally explained. Bjorkman compares Beow lo Byggvir mett- 
tioned in Lokaienna (Elder Edda). — On corn-spirits, see also Mogk, 
R.-L. iii 9,-1.] 

That Scyld as the progenitor of the Danish Scyldingat had stepped 
into the place formerly occupied by lug, the ancestor of the Ingivine 
(cp. Runic Point 67 ff. ; Intr. xxxvii), is an ingenious and pleasing hy- 
pothesis (Oirik, Chadwick). 

4f. scea)feiia >rEatum . . . . roeodosetla oftfiah. Saxo's report 
(i 1 1) of Scioldus : ■ cum Scato Allemannle satrapa dimicavit, 

' Sievers, Biilr. ivi J61-63, 

* IFiJi. 31 1 Setofa [ui^i] ItngiiarJum. For the cooiitence of the itrong 
•nd wok foiinl cf. Nrlgil, Hradlj; Btirw, B4ii{tu), Bimva. 

* A note on 1 cerliun modern analogue, by H. M. Belden, MLN. uiui 315. 


inierfectoque eo omncm AUemaDnorum gcntem .... tiibutaiia pen- 
lione pcrdomuit' sounds like an echo of the lame poetic tndition. — 
jK meodaittla oficab, i.e. ■subjugateil.' (Cf. Intr. Ixiv.) Exactly the 
■ame metrical variety of type E occurs in 14'', ij*. miadeiittis hardly 
to be identified with midustld 306; j 'mead(hall)-»eats' (cp. mtdostig 
914), by synecdoche, ^ 'ball.' 

6». egBode eorl[as]. The emendation /or/«J, strongly advocated by 
Sievers, haa been adopted as, after all, a desirable improvement. The 
metrical form of egiedt larl, though larc, need not be rejected (T.C. 
{ ii), but stylistically, the sing. »r/nould be suspiciously harsh. It 
is true that the sing, in a collective sense is well substantiated (see note 
on 794f.), but this use of tori (in the ace. sing.) as variation of the 
preceding collective noun plurals (prealum, migpum) would not be 
satis&clory. A sliU less acceptable type of variation would result from 
the interpretation of eerl as nom. sing., 'the hero terrified [them] ' 
(von Grienberger, Beitr. xxxvi g+f.j B.-T. Suppl., b.v. igeiian), the 
ponderous (plural) object requiring a variauon in preference to the 

6>>. aySSa.a Srest ; lereil (somewhat redundantly) accentuates the 
meaning of the conjunction jyjff.iii (cp. MnE. 'when . . . first'). 
No doubt Scyld was believed to have distinguished himself in his early 
youth. Cp. Saxo i 1 1 ; ' while but fifteen years of age he was of un- 
usual bodily size, and displayed mortal strength in its perfection j 

the ripeness of Skiold's spirit outstripped the fulness of his strength, 
and he fought battles at which one of his tender years could scarcely 
look on.' (Elton's transl.) [Only one night old, Vali avenged the 
slaying of Baldr, see (Elder Edda :) Fqtiupa 23, Baldrs Draumar 11.] 

7^. J(es, 'for that" (see Gloss. ; si), refers to 6*^7", i.e. his desti- 
tute condition. Similarly the OMG. Ludixiigiliid (3 tF.) says of King 
Louis 1 kind uuarlb btr fatcrlis; this uuartb imo tir buoxyfholoda inan 
Irubtin, magacxogo uitarlb btr iiB ;/gab tr imn dugidi, etc. (Cp. 
Jud. iS7f.,H^l. 1565 f.) 

8. wBox, perhaps 'prospered,' practically synonymous with M* (si> 
that no comma is needed before ivrorsinyadum, cp. 131 and note on 
16 f.). under wolcnnm, see Intr. Ixvii ; Gloss. : under, ivsUen. 

9a. oS ii stressed in this line, though it is doubtful whether It was felt 
to alliterate (Sier. R. iBi, A.M. J iK); 30119', '74°'. 1934*, further 
1039", 31+7" (clearly type A^); but more frequently it remains un- 
stressed, as in 56I', 66i>, 100'^, 145'', 396'', etc. In similar manner par- 
ticles and formulas like Pd, pxr, pa gen, pa gyt, pman, bimilam, 
bjrdt (if), gtfr-egil, ctvaS show variable accentuation. 

io. ofer bronrade. ofir with ace, see Lang. 5 15.5. bronrdd, a 
typical kenning, see Intr. Ixiv. Whales were well known to the Anglo- 
Saxons, see R. Jordan, Dit at. Saagetitmamtn (Aug. F. xii, 1903), 
pp. lojf., iiij Tupper's Riddles, p. 169. 

II. gomban gyldao. See quotation from Saxo in the note on 4 f. 


— ^ttt mes gM cTnin^ I The oniiision of the muk of exclamation 
would be tantamount to the luppression of a significant stylistic featurcj 
to leave it out in k MnE. translation is a different matter. 

13 B. Scyld baa a son, Beoirulf, who gives promise of a continua- 
tion of dynastic splendor. So the Danes need not fear 3. recurrence ol 
the terrible ' lordless ' time they had experienced before Scyld came, 
i.e.,aAer the filll of Hcremod (sec note on 901-915). [Also Saxo't 
Scioldus had a son, named ' Gram, whose wondrous parts savored so 
strongly of his lather's virtues, that he was deemed to tread in their 
very footstep' (i 11). However, this parallelism may be purely ac- 
cideniaL ] 

13. aener is not exactly ' afiertrards,' but denotes rather 'coming 
after him,' as in 1731. 

14. The sulject of ongeat is ' God.' 

15. f (=/»<) seems to have been introduced for j>* or M by the lato 
scribe. On pal standing for the relat. pron. with a sing. masc. or fem. 
or a plui. antecedent, see Kock L £. 13.1.30 f.; on a few cases of > 
used for /w, see Zupitra'snolej also 1. 3134 (?}■ Cf. J. M. Hart, M£JV. 
i, col. 175—7 { Napier, PbiUL Sac. Traniaet., 1907-10, p. i S8 (pused as 
contraction for ^ j F. Wende, Ober die nachgtsttUun Prdpeiitimen >M 
4g^. (Maestra lix, 1915), p. 37 (interchange of pi andp*/). See also 
€^^{»pee = ip/vt) and note on 1141. [Cha. would retain ;wl (conj.) 
andtakeiiaajrji'wi/f asthcobjectofi/rHj'df, *alongtimeof sorrow' (?); 
Kock' 100 takes drugvw intransitively, *they lived without a lord.'J 

t<i. him, probably dat. p]ur., though it might conceivably refer to 
Scyld's SOD in particular. — f«a, see 7. Earle : "in coosideiation 

18 1 OnBiovroIf (I}theDane,seeIntr.xxiiifr.,eapec.xxvf. That 
this form of the name is an error for Biatu, is likely enough. —The 
emendation blid •wide sprang / Seytdet rafera [0] Scedelandum in, sup- 
ported by Siev. (ix 135) in view of the apparently iniitaleS passage. 
Fat. Ap. 6 ff., is unnecessary and even uns^, since tpringan should be 
followed hj gemd or aftr with ace, not by in with da(. {ESt. xxxix 
41S). — iSi>. blSd iride sprang. Type D4. — According to Saxo 
(i ii), 'the days of Gram's youth were enriched with surpassing gifts 
of mind and body, and he raised them to the crest of renown ('ad 
summum glorie cumulum perduxit'). Posterity did such homage to 
his gteainesa that in the most ancient poems of the Danes royal dignity 
is imj^ed in his very name.' (ON. gramr * chief.') 

30 K Sw9, ' in such a way [as he (Beowulf or, more likely, Scyld) 
did].' The missing reference to Scyld' a liberality Is virtually implied 
in die previous statements concerning him. For how could the king 
have been so successful in war, had he not been conspicuous for gener- 
osity, v^ich guned for him the loyalty of his followers > These two 
ideas were inseparably connected in the minds of the ancient Teutons. 
Saxo says in his praise of Scioldus' liberality (i 12): ■ Proceres nan 

D, ..■■.v^.oo^ic 


solum domeiticiB (cp. onfftder {bea)rnu, ii, tnJEGn. vi 190) »ti- 
pcndiis colcbat, sed eciam ipotiis ex hoste qucMtis, affirmare aoltlui, 
pecunkm ad milites, gloriam adducem rcdundare debere.' Cp.HrH/i- 

laga 4j.jtF., 45.18 fF. (Par. § 5), 6i. + ff. - (Hrolfr Kraki) j Bai^ 
H.E. iii, c. 14. (Oswini). — gewyrcean (perfective), ' bring about.' 

34. lEode gelSsteo. The abject, i.e. probably bint (see 1500), is 
understood, cf. Lang. § 25.4. (In Andr. 411 f.. Maid. 11 f. the dat. 
is used W\ib gtli^tait.) — sceal, 'will,' ' is sure to ' (in 10: •should,'* 
'ought to '). 

29-3];. Scyld's men prepare the funeral of their beloved king, as he 
bade them while he still 'wielded his words.' (Cf. Siev. ^txa 30I, 
Kock^ loi. See II. iSoi £, 3140.) L. 31, lEof landfruniA Unge 
ahte, added paratactically, conveys the very appropriate idea ! ' hit had 
been a long reign.' (Cp. Hetgai^. Hund. i 10; for the paiatactic 
clause, cp. OE. Cbron. A.D. 871 ; Ond prj oftr Eaitnm gefer Alperld 
eytiing, and hi riciodi fif giar.'^ The implied object of ahti (it need 
not be expressed, see laoK'') is hi, cp. 531, 1732, 911, 1751 ; falte- 
gend(i). Practically the same interpretation would result from conttn- 
ing 31* as a varia.tiaii of 30'' {as to the brief clause lange ahtt, cp. 
1913''). [It would not seem impossible to regard 31 as parallel to 30, 
i.e. dependent on fimdin ; in that case the somewhat peculiar laKgt 
might be compared to ofl, 2867.] Cf MPb. iii 4+6. 

33. iaig, not 'shining like ice' (Kemble, Heync i-Schiicking), but 
•covered with ice' (see Bu. Tid. 69 f.; Siev. Beitr. xxvu 57a, xxxvi 
411 if. ( Intr. Ixi). Readings like itig (see Varr.) provide very accept- 
able sense, but involve the introduction of otherwise unrecorded words. 
OtfQs, ' ready (i.e. eager) to set out ' (personification), cp. the use of 
fiindian 1 1 37. 

36 f. miEme be mxate etc. Scyld's body was placed amidshipa 
with his back against the mast. The remains of the Vendcl ship-grave* 
indicate a similar position for the dead. (Stjer. 117 f.) Also swords, 
corslets, splendid shield bosses, and other costly objects, including 
glass beakers of foreign origin, have been found in these graves. (Stjer. 
118 if.) — -of feorwegum occupying a medial position between two 
terms of variation (midma, frietwa) belongs with both. Similar dri 
KMnv iunciion at the beginning of the line: 754, 935, 3067 (probably 
iSi, 1109); at the beginning of the second half-line 1 131 (8). 

40. him, ref to Scyld. 

44, fou 'than ' (sometimes 'then') iscomparativelyrare. It is best 
known from Bede's Death Sang 1 : iban. Cf. Tr. Kjm. 86 f , & Angl. 
xxxvii 363 f.; Deutschbein, Btilr. xxvi 171; Angt. xxvii »48i O. 
Johnscn, ib. xxxix 103 f. 

47. aegen g(yl)denne (cp. loai, 3767 ; Antlq. { !). Anemblem 
of royalty ; cp. Baeda, H.E. ii, c. 16. The banner was flying on a 
long pole (see toiz), which was fastened to the mast (Stjer. 130). On 
the meaning oi gytdtn, see Gloss. ; eal{f)gyidtii. 

NOTES 117 

48. ittith h apparently left uninfected, perhaps on account of its 
semi-adverbial function. Or is there a shifting from the masc. to the 
neut, gender (see Gloss. : w^)? Cp. 1767 f. Foe the absence of in- 
flexional endinga of adjectives and participles quaiitying a preceding 
noun (or pronoun), see +6'', 372'', 1116*, 1704'; H. Bauch, Die 
KuHgrutna in dir agi. Paeiit, Kiel Diss., 191a, paisim; Kock 
L5.44.4.i9f. (numerous examples from OE. poetry); cf. also Lang. 
S 25.6. — leton holm berao. The object bine a understood (so in 
4.9*). — Sec 3131''; Ihm tvig nitnait. 

49 f. The predicate it i w»s Keflmor .... mnrneude. Cf. Lang. 
5 "5-4. 

53-SS- The Duiiah line of kingi. The building of Heorot. 

53- BEownlf Scyldiaga, See, e.g., 1069, £76, iSio, iSoj. Grimm, 
Diutschi Grammaiik iv 303 fF. (361). 

55 f. folcum gefrVgv, 'famous among peoples.' The same use of 
the dative shet foriminui, 309. — fjeder ellor hweaif (type D4). 
Note the periphrasis for 'dying' (Intr. Ixv). The pret Awvar/" carries 
plupeif. sense, aldor of CArde ; afeardt is variation of tHor. The in- 
sertion of a comma {atdor, of tarit) has not been deemed advisable in 
cases of this kind ; cp., e.g., 36*: mirm bt ihjuU, 140*, 113', 265*, 
+ao*, etc. 

57. Healfdene. On the Danish genealogy, see tntr. xxx fF. 

58. glaeife seems to be ace. plur. {Angl. xxix 379) ; it is usually ex- 
plained as adr, (cp. i r 7 3). 

59. fDiSgerfroed. A variant of a conventional phrase, geteUd 
rimeis), see Grein Spr. : rtm. 

62 f. hyrde ic practically serves as poetic formula of transition, cf, 

Intr. Ixviii, MPh. iii z+3 f . j see II. 1163, 117a The name of the 

daughter (which need not alliterate with the names of her brothers and 
&ther, cp. Freawaru) apparently began nith a vowel. Cf. Intr. xxxiii f. ; 
MPh. iii 447. — A supposed erasure under beasa which was taken as 
evidence of scribal confusion after the word cwen, and which gave rise 
to the unforturule conjecture hjrdi ir tmi Elan r-wln Hrieuifes luies 
(see I> 5.41 f.), has now been definitely pronounced non-existent 
in the MS. (Chambers). A Germanic name for a woman. Elan, would, 
indeed, be more than doubtfiil. — On the gen. sbg. in -as, see Lang. 

64. Heorogar's reign, being irrelevant, is not mentioned here. See 
465 ff., iis8 IF.i Intr. xxxi, Iviii. 

6ISb.67>. magodriht micel represents the variation, as tt were, of 
the preceding clause {MPb. iii 147). — Cf. Par. % 10 ■ Tacitus" Gir- 

6ff>, beam, see Gloss. : bt-imau. 

tig f. It has been largely assumed that the positive micel is used here 
for the comparative (01 that the comparative idea is left unexpressed), 
cf. Gr. Spr. I pannt, it; Bu. Zs. 193 ; Aant. 1; Koeppel, ESl. xxx 

D, ..■■.v^.oo^ic 


J76 f-i Horn, Arcb. cxiv j6i f., Angl. xxui 130 f. But Bright (L j. 
ji.a) has thrown strong doubts on the idiomatic status of that con- 
struction by showing that, apart from Epiuala AUxandri {Angl. iv 
154) 4.05 f., the examples available for support {Par. Pi. 117.8 f., 
etc.) are due to imitation of the original (i.e., the Latin form of a 
Hebraism of the ii/(aa^<«r). His emendation removes the syntactical 
difficulty. However, the possibility lemains that after I.69 a line coU' 
tainjng a compai. has dropped out (so Holt.'''). [It nouM be 
tempting to supply a line containing a guperl., 'the most magnificent 
hall {itU),' and thus to account for ficnt ; but in that case l>Sra pe 
would probably have been used.] — yldo bearn. See Gloss.: Irearu. 
The ending -e (cf. Lang. { iS.jj { 14, p. xciii) possibly suggesti 
association, by folk etymology, with _)'Wo 'age' j see Angf, louiv 467 f, 
{ytJa beam also £1:. iS, Gen. [B\ 464.) 

73. baton folcicare ond feorum funeiiA. See Antiq. g i; Intr. 

74. DC ic wide gtitKga ... As to the position of wide, see note 
on 575. 

76a. frKtwas, unlets it be considered 10 depend directly on ge- 
frtgn, is to be connected with luiorc gebantmH, which was probably 
felt to be of the same import as balait. 

■Jt^■J^K Him on fynte gelomp/adre mid ytdum. The work 
was done quickly {Sdri), coasidering the magnitude -of the tin- 
dertaking i an Jyrite 'in due time" (cf. B.-T. Suppi. : Jirjt ; Dot to 
be rendered, with Schti. Bd. x6 tf., by * speedily '). The rapid con- 
struction of the hall seems to be one of the folk-tale elements of the 
story, cf. Panzer i57n. i. — jnii^j'/Jum, a formula-like expletive, tee 
IntF. Ixvii. 

78. The hall is supposed to have been named Heor(o)t Irom homi 
(antlers) fastened to the gables, although the appellation bBm<m ' gable * 
(btm-giaf 81, 'Teetd 704, bomai, Finnsb. 4, bam-iicl, -leic in other 
poems) seems to be derived merely from ■ horn-shaped projections on the 
gable-ends' (B.-T., cf. Miller, Angl. xii 396 f.). But the name may 
have been primarily symbolical, the hart signifying royalty (A. Bugge, 
ZfdPb. xli J7S n.). On the Danish royal hall, see Intr. woivii. 

79. sE ^ tall wordei geweald wide luefde. The relative clause 
(■he who ...'), containing the subject of the sentence, follows the 
predicate. So in 90, i}8, 143, 809, 815, 1497, 161S, etc. 

83-85. Allusion 10 the destruction of the hail by fire in the counc of 
the Heafio-Bard conflict. Seelntr. xxxiv f., xxxvii, Iviii. (Theallusion 
of 83'^85''cannot be separated from that of 8i''-83',) — gi. bad. Sim- 
ilar light peraonifi cations: i88z, 397) %xo, £88, ]] {utfii), 1464 
(in contrast with the more vigorous instance: i 511 f.), etc. — S3, m 
was hit lenge ^i gCn admits of being explained as a variety of a for- 
muU (see IJ4, 719, 1591, 1845), 'it was by no means (cp. 734) 
longer' (i.e. long, cf. Lang. { ij.x) i see MPb. iii i4jf. (The ana- 

NOTES 129 

logical ItMgti Chr. 1684, GuSl. 109, JiU. 3751 ibo Varr.i 341]^.) 
But ai the reference 11 not to something to happen unraediatcly (u in 
the other oues) , lenge is with a little more pfobability taken as an adj- 
(cp. frf«»f< ajji), recorded in one other place, Gnem. Ex. lai, ■be- 
longing to,' hence pcrhapi 'at band'} 'the time was not jet (cp. aoSi) 
come.' (Rie. Zi. jSi.) 

84. a^niniweoraii, MS. apumtweritm. A copulative (or 'dvanda') 
compound, iilte ittbttrgefitdtran (see Gloas.), gisunfader [Htl.), junu- 
fatanatgt [Hildibr.), fint recognized by Buggc (Tid. 45 f.). Though 
the existence of a form fuierHg)a showing a suHual eitendon like that 
Mcn in lubiriga, luhlirga a witliin the bounds of possibility (so Bugge, 
L<,), It appeals more likely that a scribe blundered, having in mind 
ap and ruierian. For the dat. plur. in -an, see Lang. J iS.i. 

85. after waln!5e. See 1065. 

81^114. Tbe Introdactloa of Grendel. The thought of this pas- 
sage, though proceeding by a circuitoui route, is not obscure. An evil 
spirit is angered by the rejoicing in Heorol (gfi-go*). One of the 
tongs recited in the hall is mentioned (9ol>— 98). AAer looking back 
for a moment the poet returns to the demon, Grendel, who is now 
sp<d:en of as dwelling in the moors (iooi>-i04*]. This leads the au- 
thor to relate how Grendel came to live there, vix. by being descended 
Irom Cain, whom God had exiled for the murder of Abel (io4>>~ii4). 
(Whereupon Grendel' s first attack on Heorot is narrated.) 

86. se cllengSat (or, quite possibly, eltargin, see Gloss.)) the 
name is stated in 103. Cf. Intr. Ixvi. — Kock* 101 would connect 
tarfasRet (ace. ung. fem.) with PrSgt, S7 (cp. aSj f.). See Gloca. : 
PrSg; cp. 1301 f. 

88 ff. Grendel, in accordance with the nature of such demons (Pan- 
■cr i64i Grimm D. M. 380(459]), is angered bythe noisy merriment in 
thehall. ThismotiveisgivenapeculiaiChristiantum. (j4hj'/. xxxv 157.) 

90-98. The Sons of Creation bears no special resemblance to 
CedmoD's famous Hymn, but follows pretty closely upon the lines sug- 
gested by the biblical account. Cp. g^f. and Gen. t i6f., 97*^98 
and Gen. i ai, 44, %6, 18. For some slight sunilarities 10 Ex. 14 (T., 
see MLfi. xxxiii 111. The theme is often touched upon in Ags. 
poetry. See Angl. xxxv 1 1 3 ff. [Also Vergil has a court minstrel recite 
the creation of the world, vfn. i 741 ff.] — The rare note of joy in the 
beauty of nature contrasts impressively with the melancholy inspired by 
the dreary, somber abode of Grendel. (God's bright sum 570, cp. 
606, 1571?., i8oifr., 1965, Z071.) 

90*. awutol ssng scopei. Type Di. 90f>. Sicgde, used absolutely 
like lang 496, rebtf aio6. Cf. MFb. iii 145. 

93. swi WBter bebOgeS, lit. <as (far as) the water surrounds (it)'; 
cp. laajf,, ^»^r. ijjf, etc.; also fiwTO. 1608. (£St. xxxix 429.) 

94. sigtbrtflg. See 1875, 3055) Angl. wotv 115, 110 f. [Cp. Ex. 
*7.1 — 94' ■ Type Dx, see T.C. } *4- 



95. lEoman, in apporition to tmnum tnJ mbiam, recalls Gen. i i< 1 
•duo luminaria'; til Uohte landbflcndnm. Gen. i 17: <ut lucefent 
Cuper lenajn.' 

97t>. lif Esc gescefip. Type Ei. — 98. CpUM BChwjIcnin >Sra 
8e cwice hwyria.^. Cp. Gen. i »i : * creavitquc . . . omnein animain 
Tivcntem itque motabilem,' i 16, it. 

99. drCamom lifdon. Cp. 2144, WiJt. 11, Cbr. 631, etc. 

loot*. oSSxt in ongan ... So 11 lo''; cp. 11 So^, zj^g**. an, 'one,' 
'a certain,' ii used to introduce a peixon, object, or situation even if 
mentioned before (thus, also in xiSo, 1410) j it looks as if the poet, 
alter a digression, were starting afresh. A really demonstrative func- 
tion of an in these cases cannot be admitted. [Discussions by He.- 
Schu. (Gloia.), Scherer L J.5.471J Lichlenheld, ZfdA. xvi jSiff.; 
Heinzel, Anx..fdA. it 311; Biaune, Btitr.xi 518 IF., lii 393 ff., xdii 
586 f. i Bugge, (fr. aii 371 ; Luick, Angl. xxix 33;) ff., 517 f-i Grienb., 
Btitr. xxxvi 79 f,, Siev., ib. 400.] 

lOI. fEond on helle. See Gloss. : an. 

103 f. Gieoders dnclling in tbe fen-districts reflects popular belief, 
cp. Gnetn. Ciilt.^i.i.:i}yriictalenftnnege^unian,/anainitanlandt. 
There existed also, in popular imagination, a connection betneen hell 
and motasses. See Bugge L 4.S4, p. Ixxiv; Angl. xxxvi iS5Ci U. 
84s If., iJS7ff. 

106 ff. Grendel'a descent from Cain. The conception of the de- 
■eent of monsters (evil spirits) and giants from Cain (cp. also 1161 f!.), 
and of the destruction of the giants by the deluge (so also 16SS ff.) i* 
based ultimately on the biblical narrative, a causal relation being estab- 
lished between Gen, iv, vi 1, 4 (gigantet) and v'l 5-7, vii. The direct 
source has not been discovered in thif case, though Hebrew tradition 
(like that contained in the apocalyptic Boak of Emch) and Christian in- 
lerpretation of Scripture have been adduced. See Emetson L 4. 14.9. 
865 E, 878 ff.; Angl. XXXV 159 ff. i also notes on 1555 f., i6SSff. On 
Grendel, see Inir. 1, 

106-8- ai)i5an him Scyppend forscrifen hsfde/in Ciines cynne. 
This looks sttongly theological. Originally, of course, it was Cain who 
was proscribed and exiled, but, being one of Cain's offspring, Grendel 
is included in the condemnation. Note the close correspondence of 
i04ff. and 1160 ff. — 108. ^kb yt faE Abel alfig is explanatory (or 
variation) .of jioHf fiufd/n,- cp. 17941)*., 16x7 f. Cain's fratricide is 
mentioned again in iiSi ff. (cp. 1741 f., 5S7 f., i i(!7f.). [Cf. Siev. ix 
i36f.; Bu. So; MW. iii 155, 448. Nearly all edd. begin a fresh sen- 
tence with lOT*.] 

loy*. ne gefeahhE . . ., 'he [Cain] hadno joy . . .' (cp. 817,1559, 
also ii77)( 109^. hi, i-e. God. 

Ill f. Thegeneraltennnntfdraiisspeciliedby thefollowingnouns. 

ii4>>, liE him 5a» ICaa fo^eald. Allusion to the deluge. See 
itiS9 ff. 

D, . ■■.V^.OO^IC 

NOTES iji 

II5-I88. Grendel'a reign of terror. 

115. oEoiian. The 'visit' implies ' search ' (cp, 118: Fa»d) i thit 
accountB for tii. 

120, Wiht nnhXlo (type Di), 'creature of evil' (Angl.xxxv t$i), 
has been taken by several scholars as 'anything of evil' and made the 
closcof the preceding clause (asecond variation). However, izi* would 
be unusually heavy as the opening of a sentence. 

I3it>. gearo sSna wtes. Type D4. 

I3Z f. on TBSte g;enani/)>rltig )>egna. On (see Gloss. ; Lang, g ij. 5) 
may be tianslated by ■ from,' but the underlying syntactical conception 
is not that of motion, on rastt belonging in fact with the object of the 
verb (cp. 7+7, 1298, ijox); sec note on 575. — Of the disposal of the 
thirty men we »re told in 15S0 fF. 

las'", ^uion eft gewat. Probably type Ei. 

126. Ds . . . . , laS 1)3 .... A characteristic case of panUaxii 
(cf. Intr. Lnriii). For a genuine correlative use of ' demoiutrative ' and 
' relative ' particles, sec Gloss. : penne, iitia, ir, also t>&, )iir. 

13S. ]»& w«es Kfter wiste wOp fip ahafen; i.e., there iras weep- 
ing where there was formerly feasting. Cp. ioo7f., i774f., 10781?., 
iigf.— iiS^ TypeD*. 

131. ^eg^DBorge belongs both with ^olode and drtah. 

133. wergan gSstes. Sievcrs, guided by linguistic and metrical 
considerations, strongly contended for 'wergan, gen. sing, of ivirig 
•weaiy,' then 'wretched,' 'evil' (see IF. xxvi 115—55). ^" '' seemi 
oimatuiaJ to separate ivergan in this well-known combination from 
•tvtarg (see Gloss. : bcarijnutarb, iverbto), (a)'wtrgan, (a)iuyrgan, 
' (ac)curse ' (« a-wjirg(t)da gasi, etc.). Thus, an adj. 'wer{s)g (from 
*viBrgi), or (better) ivergi (from *iuargja) has been postulated (Hart, 
MLN.xxaiioS.i Tiautmann, £ob«, B. miii 15s f.) in substantial 
agreement with the older explanation (Ke., Tho., Gr. Spr., ct al.: 
ivtrig). The line o! division between the two sets is often difficult to 

I34l>, Nes hit lengra fyrst. Formula of tr 

135 f. We are told here that Grendel made an attack on two succes- 
uve nights (as the troll does on two successive Yule-eves, before the 
final defeat, in the Grtlliuaga [Intr. xiv] and the Hrilfiiaga [Par. 
J 9], cp. analogous folk-tales, Panier 96 If., i6£). But in fact, he 
wrought destruction 'much oftenci' (1579), sec 147 fF., 473 If., 
646 ff. — On mare 136, 'additional,' see MPb, !ii 450. 

137. WKB tS fsest on \im. An allusion to the fetters of sin. See 
S009J El. 908; nn firinam fttstne ; etc, ; Angl. jotxv i J5 f. 

140. seller is to be construed with \ilbU\ 139. 

141. gesxgd, i.e. made known (by deeds), manifested; cp. cj^an, 

143. The compound healSegn is coined for the occaiion, like Tt** 
VMord 770, cv3ealmcuma 791, munbana 1079, etc. 



145. Tdel, i.e. at night. Sec 411 ff. 

147, twelf wintn tid. Other coaventionat uiw of tjrpical lipirai 
JO years, II. 1498, 1769, izog^ JOO, 1. 117!; lOOO, 1. 3050; — 
J days, 1. s+s, Finntb. 41; 7, I. 517; — JJ coniradet, 1. 107; I3, IL 
5401, 3170; if(7), 1. 3iiif. } /ooo wamon, I. 1819; /J+ /J Tictims, 
). isEif.j sCren^ot' JO men, 1. }79, cp. ij6i; — T2 gifts, 1. ilti?; 
11. io»7, lojs [4~\-S)i — ^iTOO hides of laDd(f), I. 1195; 100,000 
{scealtai): 1. 1994 (n.). 7V/«u>ns: Heorogar, Hr^Sgar, Halgaj Here- 
beald, Hi-Scyn, Hygelac. (Cf. Miillenhoff L 9.14. 1.115^ trilogy 
of names in genealogies.) T'lim sons: HrcBric, HtolSanind; Ohthete, 
Onelaj Eanmund, Kadgils; Wulf, Eofor. The uie of ^ in I. 410 
seems rathcT accidcntali possibly also that itf p in I. 575 (but see Miil- 
lenhoff', ep. cit., 641 f.^. 

151 ff, {isette Greaael wsn etc. The profusion of parallel expres' 
sions is apt to suggest an actual paraphrase of ■ plaints ' concerning the 
distress of the Danes (which certainly became widely known, 1991)- 

154 ff. fcorhbeaio feorran is best laken ax variation of the term 
■ibbe (Bu. 81, MPh. iii 138). By construing Ji'ii; as dat.(instr.) and 
removing the comma after Dtniga the meaning would be slightly modi- 
fied; cf. Siev. xxix 316 f. — 157 f. at J>Kr nSnig witeiu etc. An 
indirect form of statement expressing the same idea as the preceding 
phrase, . . . f%a ^ingian. From the legal point of view Grendel, being 
guilty of murder, was under obligation to compotind for it by payment; 
KC Antiq. \ j: Feud; Intr. Ixiii n. 3. 

159. Bhtende wad. The periphrastic form (so 301!: letggniU 
•wxi, iioj: myndgietid nurrt'^ in this instance seems to dgnify colt- 
tinuation. Cf. C, Pesscls, Thi Prumt and Pail Ftripkraiiie Tmstt 
in Agi., Johns Hopkins Diss. (1S96), pp. 49 f., 81 f. [possibility of 
Lat. influence i]; Sweet, Nfot Eaglhb GrammaruW 1103 If.) Curme, 
hibl.MLAji. xiviii 181. — It is of interest to note that the devil ma 
often ^-epresented as ' persecuting ' men, cf. A^gl. mv 457 f. 

160. deorc dEaJiacna — used as epithet of Satan in Cbr. (i) 157 
(MS.! dnr dttdscua; see Cook's note) — is geneially understood as 
• deadly sprite.' But it was perhaps meant prindpaliy as a symbol <£ 
'darkness,' cf. Angl. xxxv 155. 

t6i. seomade {and i-Ttdi), perhaps 'lay In wait' (and ambushed), 
or 'lingered' (and ■ . . ), i.e. kept on ambushing, tyrtuan calls to 
tnind Lat. 'insidiari,' wliich is frequently applied to the devil; Angl. 
Dxv .57 f. 

163. hwyder helrOnan (type Ci) hwyrftam scrl^S. In this con- 
text hllrunan implies 'such demons.' The nom. ung. of this form has 
been posited as £e/rB>i«, which isrecordedin Glosses (denoting 'witch,' 
'sorceress '), cp. (Lat.) Go. ^(funtnuc (emend.), >> ■ magae mulieres,' 
Jordanes, c. 14; OHG, btUir&na ' necromancia." Cf. Grimm D.M. 
ioi5(iii5);Bu.Zs. i94f.i Kauftmann, &i(r. xviii 1 561 Fdrster, jfrfi. 
cviii 13 f. The use of this noun denoting primarily female evil beingt 


NOTES 133 

IS pualleted by Go.,»nhulS^ serving as translation of SairiJHor, cf. Grimm 
D.M. 817(990). — Awjr/iwn merelyimplifies jrrip«9, 'go' (moving). 

164 f. feJa .... oft. A similar reduncknt cambination is that of 
mcn'tg and eft, 4 f., 171, 857^ 907 f, 

168 f. ii9 hfi "poOK gifitol etc. A ude remark of similar import 
to 711: Gadti yrre hiir. * He wai not allowed to approach the 
throne (of God, cp. Chr. 571), the sacred one (lit.: the precious 
thing), [appearing] in the presence of the Lord, nor did he (God) 
lake thought of him' (cf. y(ii^/. X3ixvis4). The curse resting on Gren- 
del is complete, luitan is (o be understood inthevrcll-established sense 
of 'be conscious of,' 'feel,' 'show'j cp. Wand. 17: [miii] mine 
•wisit. SeeJEGn. viiil54f. — It is obvious that these two lines could 
have been easily interpolated; sec Intr. cxvi. — The difficulties experi- 
enced in the interpretation of this passage arise chiefly from (i) the am- 
biguity of gifiloi, Tvhich could denote either God's or HroSgar's 
throne, (a) the possibility of rendering gritan either by ' approach ' or 
•attack," (j) the uncertainty as to the real force of myni. (The pos- 
tibilily of identifying hi nith the king is too remote to be seriously 
considered.) In case gifiiil is understood as Hro^gar's throne, the 
lines might be thought to mean that Grendcl nas not allowed, because 
he was ■ prevented by the Lord, * to approach the royal throne; i.e., 
though making his home in the hall at night, he was unlike a dutiful 
Rtuner, who receives gifts from his lord. See espec. Kock 115 f. 8c 
L f. (^mapeam tef. to the precious gifts dispensed by the 
king! myne 'gratitude.') [Cf. also Holtzm. 4S9 f.} Aant. 55 Pogat- 
tcher, Btitr. xix 544 f.{ Tr.' i]5, Bonn.B. xvii 160 f.; Siev. xxix 
319; Emerson L 4.149.863, 370; Tinker, MLN. xxiii 139; Hart, 
MLN. xxvii 19K.] 

lyit). Monig oft geuet. Type £1. 

175-88. Hirilum hie gebitoa et lufci^rafnm etc. A passage 
remarkable both for the reference to the heathen practice of the Danes 
and the author's pointed Christian comment. Since HroSgar is through- 
out depicted as a good Christian, the Danes' supplication to a heathen 
deity (termed gSslbona, 'devil,' cf. Aagl. xjtxv 137) might conceiv- 
ably indicate that in time of distress theyretumed to their former ways 
— as was done repeatedly in England, ice Baeda, H.E. iii, c.\a; iv, 
c. a7, cp. il, c. 15, (Routh L 4,138.54 n-i .rf»^/. xxxv i_34f., xxxvi 
1S4.) But it is at least equally possible that the author, having in mind 
the conditions existing among the Danes of the sixth century (on the 
pagan sanctuary at HleilSr, see Intr. x»nii), at this point, failed to live 
up to his own modernized representation of them. Besides, he seems 
to have been influenced by reminiscences of the idol worship of the 
Babylonians described in Dattitl, see Intr. cxiii f. — ^On sacrifices 
offered for reUef from affliction, see P. Grdr.'' iii 389. The killing of 
oxen by the Anglo-Saxons ' in sactificio dacmonum ' is mentioned m 
Baeda's H.E. t, c. )o. 



178. Swylc WBfl ^Caw hjra. A conventional phraie of expluiation, 
cp. m6i GrmaSpt.! pimii; Sicvert (//f/ionti), L 7.34,44.6. 

i8ob,8i>>. H«tod hre ne cD^oa etc A limilar inverted arrangement 
of nordi in tvro lucceuive ckusei (chiasmui) occurs in ]oii>_a, S17''— 
l8>, iieol>~6i>, 161511-16% a6!g>>-Si, 1047 f. 

l83t>. Wa biS ^Km Se bccaI. Type E. So ig6t>. 

184-86. ^nrh sllSne nlS, hardly 'through fierce hostility'; rather 
•in dire distressful wise" (CI. Hall), set Arci. cxv 178. — slwlebe- 
■cOfAii (cp. Lat. <tnideTe')/iti^reste^m; cf. Angl. xxxv 165 f. — 
Both nihte g^ewendAa and frefre depend on wEnan ^MPb. iii z^S t 

189-498. Beownlfa voyage. Hia reception in Denmark. (A 
translation of 11. 189-157 by Longfellon may be found in his Pettt 
and Pottry ef Europe [and among hia fWrnj].) 

i89f. Si mElceare ... sEaS; similarly iggaf. The unique phrase, 
lit. 'he caused the caie to well up,' i.e. *he ivaa agitated by cares,' 
thons an in dividual iied application of the iavorite metaphor of the 
•urginga of care (Arch, cxxvi 351, MLN. xxxiv 131 f.). In its accea- 
tuation of personal action it may be compared to saiuU bescufan etc, 
.84 f. 

I94f. ]>at .... Grendlea diEdai see Inti. bm. — fram hSm 
gefrKgn, practically 'heard at home' (cp. 410), see Lang. { 15.5; 
Sievera, Beitr. xi 361 f., xii iBSff. The addition of the phrase /rfl« 
bSm bespeaks the shifting of the scene from Denmark to Geatland. — 
Hiseifices )>egn. His name is not mentioned before 1. 343. 

197, on >Sm dsege ^uesUfee. See Gloss.: iZ^f, si (note)) AngL 
XXXV 461- 

zoo. swanrBd. Cp. broitrad 10, gaaotts b*B 1861. According to 
the Encyclopedia Briiannica ", itxvi 179 f., the (mute or tame) swan 
(cygnuG olor) " is known to breed as a wild bird not £iither from the 
British shores than the extreme south of Sweden." The whooper, 
whistling or wild swan (cygnus musicus) <■ was doubtless always a win- 
ter-visitant to Britain it is a native of Iceland, eastern Lap- 
land, and northern Russia, whence it wanden southward in autumn." 
— Seethe Bth Riddle. 

303 L Done alSfzt him anotere ceorlaB/l^hwSa lagoa. See 

415 If.; Antiq. { i. 

304. hal scCawedon. cp. Tacitus, Germania, c. x: 'auapicia. . . 
observant' (Par. | 10). See Grimm D. M. 944?. (iiiStf.), 77 ff. 
(94lf.), iii 314 ff. (i639ff.); Miillenholf L9.i4.i.ii3lf.; Gummere 
G. O. 467; Liebermann L That the omens which are 
watched by the men are bvotable is understood. Cf. ESt. xliv i»j. 
[Tr.' 117, & Ed.i Sieir. xxix 311; Sed., MLR. v 186, & Ed.] 

305 f. GEata lEoda belongs with cempan. The peculiar encloung 
rfthesuperl. in the relat clause is found in OE. (see 1869 f., jiSi f.) 
at well as in ON. and Lat.; cf. Wagner L 6.18.98. 

NOTES 13s 

aoSff. There is no reason for usuming an unskilfijl blending of 
two versions, or suspecting any other kind of disorder (ten Brink 31} 
Tr.' ij7f)i anndwudu sOhte mtans 'went to the ship' (not 'on 
board'}; the laEucrKftiff mon, i.e. Beomilf, who like Sigfrit, Nihtl. 
367, is an experienced seaman, 'led the way to the shore." The char- 
acteristic paratactic expreuion FTTit forS gewit would be, in modem 
usage, 'in course of time'; flota wes on J'Sum states the 'result 
of an action' (Intr. Iviii, Uvii)) i.e., the ship, which had been ashore, 
was now launched (cf. Falk L 9.48.18; Clcasby-Vigfiisson, Ictl.-Eng. 
Diet,! btunar). An interesting parallel to this scene: Odyiiey iv 778 If. 

316. wudn bundenue. (Gummere: " the well-braced crafi.") Cp. 
[i\itt timbr4d 307, (nsjgleil Jtnc 1013; 1764, 406 (and note on 45 5), 
3»x, sS'f, '548. »7S5i '679. *7'7. Z774 i "tgledcmear. Brim. 535 
perhaps bHadtnilefita (see Gloss.), — epithets exhibiting the ancient 
pride in skill of workmanship. 

317. winde gviysed. It is important to observe that a sailboat is 
Med; see igosf. (one sail). Cf Antiq. { ii; Schnepper L 9.47. 
*$ff.; FaikL 9.4S.5S. Its size may be judged from iSgeff. 

318. flota ftmibeala fngle gellcost. The top part of the prow of 
■mailer vessels in ancient Scandinavian times frequently had the shape 
of a goose's neck. See Falk, p. 38; Gloss.: luundtH-batt, -ilefna^ 

319. ymb Sntid, 'after the lapse of a normal space of time ' ; fifrea 
d^pres, 'onlhefoUowingday.' Cf.Siev, xxix 316 f. Gloss. :«B/irf, It 
■eems possible, however, to construe 0jir»i/Dj0»/ as depending on dnlid ; 
the voyage takes one day and a reasonable space of time (as much as is 
to be expected) of another day. (Leonard, L 3.44, returning to Grein's 
■uggestion 'dKtid in hora prima,' translates "after the risen sun Of the 
next day"; cf. s^S f-l Whether the distance from BeowulTs home 
tothe coast near Hlei'Sr (see Intr. xuvii, xlviii) could really have been 
covered in so short a time, is to be doubted. (In the brief account of 
the return voyage, 1903 E, no mention is made of the passing of a 
day.) The measuring of distance by the days required for the voyage 
(ON. dtgr, i.e. 11 hours) was customary among the Scandinavians 
(see Falk, p. 17; Ohthere's voyage in j^lfred's Orasiui [ed. Sweet] 
17.9!?. and pauim). — The different days are clearly-marked off in 
the first main parti jrd day, I. 837; 4ih day, I. 1311 {non 1600); 
jth day, I. 1801; (arrival on the 6th day? 1. 191 2, liget lusan Jui 

223b'2^*. )ii wtes annd liden./eoletes Kt eode. One of the fre- 
quent summing-up remarks, Intr. liii. eoletea, possibly representing 
an otherwise unrecorded OE. word, is still imexplaincd. We expect the 
gen. sing, ofa noun meaning 'voyage,' 'sea,' or (perhaps) 'land.' 
Several conjectures are mentioned under Varr. But the list of possible 
guesses is not yet exhausted. Holthausen's taltdis, i.e. ia-ladts, fits the 
MHUext well enough, but the form is questionable {lad is fern., see 


tiSi gel3d it iteM.,Ket^tt>). [Cf. also Bu. Tid. 46£( Brenner, £Sr. 
iVij9i Tr,' ti9( Sed., MLR. v »*6.1 

239. ireaxd Scilding^A. A man of importance (see 193). It b 
not unlikely that the office of coast-guard waa established in early time* 
in the Scandinavian countries as vrell as in Britain. 

230. scolde. See Gloss. : sculan. 

'35' Itrminuin. The plur. of abstract nouns is often used Tritb 
sing, meaning, in many instances semi-ad verbially. So, e.g., arum, 
duguBum, itium, fyrtaum, gi)>yldum, liilum, lustum, uartvum, orpan- 
tum, ivearcum, •wuitdrum; bh ixlttta, to gtmynditm; (gp. 1) efirbygda, 
niSa, See I^ng. \ 15.1. 

337 ff. HwKt syndon fC etc. On the typical motive of such 
< question and answer,' see Ehrismann, Beiir. xxxii 175 f. i Intr. Ivii. 
(Odyiiiy iii 71 ff., IV a6j IF., Iltad vi 113 fF.) — For the meaniDgof 
htVitt, see Gloss. 

343. aceS^n. See Gloss, j Epinal Glosi. 736: tuInng-tetaBa, 

344-47. ^^ I^'r caSIIcor caman onsnnnon . . . Cp. Htl. 558 f. 1 

mio hir ir sutika kumana ni luurSun/tri Jhn eSrun tbiodun Analter- 

natirc interpretation takes cuman as a noun and assigns to engiiman the 
(recorded) meaning of 'behave,' 'act'; 'visitors never behaved less as 
atrangets.' (Bu. Tid. 190; .ifn^/. xiviii439; cf. B.-T. Suppl. : aagi'it.) 
Howcvci, the chief emphasis seems to he placed on their entering the 
country without permission. (Cp. fjliungataga, ch. 16 ; Hretfiiaga 
36.13 ff.) — X46. Probably gearwe is an error (or gears (predicative 
adj.) J 'you were not sure that permission would be readily granted.' — 
347. mag;tt gemCdn. (Cp. maga rice 1853.) mSgai refers to those in 
authority at the court, see Antiq. S 1 1 it could even be understood as a 
specific allusion to HroSgar and Hro'Bulf (Intr. xxii). 

249, nis ^Kt seldguma. Bugge's explanation (Tid. 290 f.) of 
ttldguma aa ' hall-man,' ' retainer ' (cp. ON. biishart) is the most con- 
vincing one; 'that is not a [mere] retainer [but a chief himself].' Two 
of the other meanings attributed to it, via. 'stay-at-home' f Grein), 
'a man who possesses only a small homestead' (Heyne*, etal., similarly 
Forster [£fifr/, xiii 16S n. 1], who thought of equating it with cMJetla 
'cottager'), are rendered improbable by the feet that OE. letd {jxld) 
denotes a (royal) ball, palace. Bright's emendation ii pxt [or: i>at 
ii (?)] seldguma (cp. seldati, 'seldom,' see Varr.), ' that is a tare, or 
superior, man', makes admirable sense, but the formation proposed ii 
open to doubt, since the other leld- compounds cited in support («W- 
ciH, -lient, -cymr, -b'wannt'j are of a ditferent order, shoning a more 
or less adverbial function of the first element. 

353 f. Sr, 'rather than,' see Gloss. Only in case they should at- 
tempt to proceed without an explanation are they liable to b« taken for 
spies. leastcCawerks, type Di, 

356 f. ofoat is aeleat etc. Cp. 3007 f., £x. 193 f. {MLN. xxiiu 11 j.) 

D, ..■■.v^.oo^ic 

NOTES 137 

959. wordhefd onUkc; ao Vidt. i, AnJr. 316, fioi, Mtl. St. fi.i. 
Cp. IL 489, 501, [*79i f.) i jlni^r. 470 1 'uMrdlt<an entfiamn, £71 ( 
711/. j^ ifiralotam OMJfint ; Wand. 13 .patbiiiiiftret^anfittUbindt. 

260. i^nincTnnM, piobtbly ^n. of ipccilicBtkm, • ai to nee ' ; cp. 

363. 365 t, Wttm mlu fieder etc. Similarly Hadubrand says of hu 
&ther : f^i/ -wax W [allim, Holt. J f^MHfM munnuDi, Hildtbr. %%. 

373a. ^geilcwEne, 'ulthink' (cp. colloq. 'Igueu'). See 383, 
3000. — 373l>-73. gif, ' if (in ca*e) ' it i» , . . A peculiarly guarded, 
polite [Cmark. 

374b. bcmSou ic nit bwylc. Type Ai. See 1133b. 

378^ Ourh) rOmne Befiui, Uke (i-urb) lUnt itfan 1716', <wii- 

sSof. Though tdiutndam (MS.) might ponibly be cotuidered a 
verb (tdivtndndt ~ 'rediens' occun Rigiui Piaiur 77. J9), it is tu 
more likely that the noun edwendcn mu intended, «ee 1774, atSS 
(predic. cwdm). The genitive phiaK beoluwa biaign belcuigs both 
vrith ediutHdm and bOt (aee ^a^, 933 (-). 

383>. oSSe {• elie ') I bt^Sui. Type Ci. 

384. Note the alliteration of yxr. 

386. Sxr ('where') on wicge s«t. Cp. Maid, li : pxr bi »n ifrt 
stad; El. 70, Htl. 71 6. {Par. Loit vi 671, viii 41, etc.) See 356, pir 
'to mhere . . .,' etc. 

387^)9. £ghw»^M iceAl etc. The purport of this general re- 
mark applied to the particular situation is 1 'It wai my duty to scni- 
tiniie your words and your conduct. ' . aE ^ wEl ^nceS, ' nho bat », 
clear mind' ; cp. lAoi; (jidn) ee luel Pmtte, 'who 11 right-minded.' 
Schiicking (following a luggcition of Kiaucl'i) and Holthausen place 
these linea in parenthesis, making the speech begin at 190. Hoirever, 
although the insertion of some descriptive and explanatory matter be- 
tween the announcement and the beginning of a speech is quite cus- 
tomary (Intr. Ivi), the intercalated statement never take* the form of 
an abstract maxim, but relates directly to the person or event in ques- 
tion. On the other hand, a maxim is placed at the begiiming of a 
speech, 3077 f. 

397. lEofae mannui; 390 f. gfidfremraeadra awylcnm gife^ 
biS etc. Probably the whole band is referred to ('to whomsoever of 
the "brave ones it will be gnnted '), the sing, of the noun and pro- 
noun being used in a collective sense. (Cf. Rie. Zi. 385 ; MPh. iii i;o.) 
The Aii. article : Jioit {bildersi'j perhaps signifies ' such (a battle). ' 
It is not to be denied that Beowulf alone may have been meant (jioyl- 

30a L On the anchor, see Falk, L 9.4S.13 ; Vogel, R.-L. \ 105-7. 
See note on 1918. 

303b-6a. A much discussed passage, see Van. Several facts are con- 
udered welt established ; viz., that -beran is a blunder for (blSor-)ber- 

D, ..■■.v^.oo^ic 


gan (which, honevcr, should not be refeired to a weak fern. bUor- 
A^r^f), that ferh should not be equated with ^rari ('pig'), and that 
grummon is in need of emendation. The reading adopted in the 
text involves a change from the plur. Eoforlic Bcionon to the sing. 
hEold, men (collect.), which, although somewhat hatsh, is not with< 
out parallel. (MPb. iii ijo, 451.) [Holihausenunderstands the whole 
passage with reference to Beowulf alone, whose helmet is adorned nitb 
several boar-figures (L 1453)^ h\it ftrhiuiardi besld/gupmid gmn- 
mon (Holt.) — i.e. 'Beowulf protected his men" — would be an un- 
duly otiose remark in this place.] — On helmets, see Antiq. | 8} 
Figure i showing helmets surmounted by a boarj Par. f 5, ch. 41 
[HiUisvin). One auch helmet has been found in England, viz. at Benty 
Grange, Derbyshire. Ai the boa/ was sacred to (ON.) Freyr (OE^ 
Frea, cf. Intl. xjdv, xxxvii), this decoration of helmets no doubt had 
originally > religious significance. Cf. Grimm D.M. I76lf. (iT^ff.)! 
Gummere G. O. 433 f. ; Par. \ 10, c. xlv. 

308. goldtih. The lavish use of gold, even on the roof of the hill 
(see 917, Jiij cp. 777, 994), recalls analogous folk-tales, see Pan- 
zer 96 C, 157. Scandinavian imagination delighted in such pictures 
(e.g., fqlaipa jj, 645 Grimmimal i, u, ijj Prose Edda, Gylfa- 
ginning 1). The immense gold hoards of Germanic chie6 of the mi- 
g^tation period (see note on Eormenric, ii97fr.), the precious onu- 
ments found in the Scandinavian countries, and the splendor of Anglo' 
Saj£on court life indicate the historical background of this poetic iancy. 
Cf Monteliusi64if.; Chadwick Or. 185 ff. ; A.-Z.. iiiti4lf. S«e Gloss, t 
geld, and cpds. (Silver is never mentioned in Btifwulf.) 

313. him t8, i.e. to hofe, cp. 1974. 

314. gSSbeoniA sum. This use of sum (so ijii) may be com- 
pared to that of an, 100. 

320. StrStwaa stinflh. So ^nJr. iai6 1 strSte sISBjagt. The 
street nag "paved in the Roman fashion" (Gummere G.O. 98). Or 
was it, by poetic extravagance, thought to be paved vrith stones of vari- 
ous colon? 

332£ bringlren sclr/song. Sec 1511 f., Fiimih. 6i. 

335, sSmeJ>e. Similarly tipft miirig 579, 17941 liStiiirig, Hit. 
66a, 670, 67S, 698, iijSg Kudrua 1348; Nibtl. 6S1. (Cf. Jrch. 
cxxvi 45.) 

338. gSraa atBdon; i.e., the spears were placed (stacked together). 
Cf. Intr. Ixvii & n. z. 

330. (sescholt) ufan grtEg;, lit. 'grey (looked at from) above*) 
ref. to the iron point, Cf. Lang. J is-5- 

331. wlonc hseleS, named Wulf^, 34E. 

333 ff- 1'he normal equipment of warriors ; cf. Antiq. ! %. 

348. Wendla lEod. See Gloss. 1 ^tnJlaj; Intr. xxi, xliv, xlviiL 
Two possible reasons for a foreigner's staying at Hr&Sgar's court are 
suggested by II. 461 fF., 2493 IF. 


349 f- l^c general term mSdaefa, < mind,' ' character,' is followed 
hj the more ipecific, explanatory words ivig and 'ojisdom. 

350. )>Mi is preliminaiy to the exegetieal phrase j«A pinut iJs, 

356. HTrear{)>SfarMdIIce>KrHrfil^ara«t Similarly ■ 161, etc., 
see GI0M. I pxr, Cp. NiM. ■]48i li Uttn barte baldi dS der kumU 

357. ftnhar. MS. un bar. an- has sometimei been looked upon as 
a. variant of on-, or an intensive prefix (Heyne, Bu. Tid. 71, joj, 
Bu. Zs. 197, Aant. 18; B.-T.g Angl. xziz ]£■), but the eridence is, 
indeed, insufficient. 

36[ ff. By no means a verbatim report of the speech. The Nunc b 
true of the report, 3 9 1 tT. Cf. Intr. Ixvi. 

377. Donne, 'further,' 'moreover'} sagdon JiMt aRlI^ende, see 
411, Hildtbr. 4a. 

378. G8&t&, objective gen. i 'gifts for the Geati' (MPb. 111453). 
See I S60 ff. 

383. WeBt-Dennm, umply 'Danes.' See 39a, 46], 7S3; Intr. 
Ixxn. I. 

386 f, hat in giiQ/sEon sibbegedriht aamod KtgKdere- r/AA/- 
gtdriht probably refers to Beowulf and his men, as in 719} the object 
of iian is understood, viz. «u, see 396. {MFb. iii 153.) In case the 
company of Danes were meant by libbegedribt, the object of bat vtoiild 
have to be supplied: 'command them to go in.' 

390. inne, i.e., being, still mside the hall. 

397 f. The weapons are to remain outside. So tfibfl. 1583, ifigjf. 

398, wudu wteiaceaftaB. An interesting type of asyndetic para- 
taxis. So ligla itarogintma ii;7, luindgeard tutallai 1114, idtt 
Sglicwif l%i9, eafor biqfedjtgn 2151, tard isilribi xigg, tard estl- 
•uytt 2493. (Siev. ix 137J MPh. iii 150.) Similar collocations of ad- 
jectives, e.g., taldum in/rodum 1874, frami fyrdbtuatt 1641, 147£( 
probably uadyrne cSb 150, 41 o [Angl. xxviii 44a). 

404. beoSc (MS.) ('interior' }) is to all appearances spurkiua ; the 
form bit-betma which has been quoted trom Sal. 700 is extremely 

407. Waea . . . hBlI A common Germanic form of salutation. So 
Andr. 9i4i OE. Coif., Mat. 3S.9, Lake i. aS (cp. Par. Leit v 385 
fT.), La)amon's Bml 14309 i Lauerd king, tii^t Airii. Cf. Grimm, 
Dculiebt Grammalik iv 356 (198 f. )j Stroebe, Beitr. xxxvii 190, 197 
On iu*j (■ lu/j), see Lang. \ 7. i. 

4a8t>-9>. habbe ic mSrSa fel«/<»>ffiuineD on geogo^e. This 
proud self-introduction is in line with the best epic usage i Mntid i 
nt(.; Odyiir) i% igf-i Finmb. 15. 

409>>. Grendlca )4ag, 'the affair of Grendel,' with the subaudi- 
tion of 'case,' 'dispute' (see 415 f.). 

413'. (stuide . . . . ) Idel ond uimjt. So Gtn. 106 {aid • • • ) 

L, Goodie 



idtl and uimyl. A familiar phme of somewhat diiJKtic (and religiout) 
flavor, occurring both io pioae and poetry. (Also Ormuium, Dedlc, 
+1.) Cf-Angi iuun'468. 

4i3i>*i4. siSCan SfcalEobt/tmder taeofeoet haSor (MS. bador) 
beholen weor^eS. The plain meaning is: 'aAer the sun duapptui 
from the liniiaiaent ' ; beejitnet baser (misspelling d for s occurs also in 
1S37, 1E69, 3.959, jiig), aperiphrasit like smitglti begong, beofiaiit 
bviealf, fsldan fte^ (see Gloss.). (Generally in OE. poetry the set- 
ting sun or stars are said to pass under the earth or the sea.) The read- 
ing of bader at bidor ('brightneu,' »o Ke., The, ct al.) is not en- 
tirely impossible, though bador is nonhere else fbund as a noun. — 
Other poetical eirpteisions fbr the coming of night, G49 ff. , 1 7 8 9 f. 

430-24. It it not clear nhetlier theie feats ireie peifoimcd in the 
coutse of a single adventure or on several occaiions. In the latter case, 
the slaying of the oiceraa could refer to the Breca episode, 549 ff. (cp. 
567 ff. (14x8 f.) with 413*). By the term tiictrai (cp. iSdra^an 1416, 
•ayrmai aitd tvildiar 1430, •ivuadra . . fila 1509; 1510, 558, 549) 
Tveie understood strange >ea-beasts of some kind} the definite senie of 
'iralnis,' ' hippopoiamus * (Rie. Zi. 388 f., Bu.Zi. 197) need not be 
looked fbr in the Btaivulf. The fight against giants, five of whom 
were bound, seems reminiscent of folk-iatcs. Did Beowulf bring those 
five with him as prisoners? (Cf. Panzer 44 If., j8 ff.) — 43]. The 
subject of Ohsodon is nieerai. 

425 f. geh8gan/Sing, 'hold a meeting,' 'settle the dispute,' 
■fight the case out.' A legal term applied to battle. See Antiq. | 6. 

426i>. ic ye na 6a. Type Cr. See 6s7^ (B. 539, 661). mS ta bt- 
came ME. naulbe. 

427 f. (Ic ]>e . . . ) biddaji wille . . . Sure bEne. £m 11 here 
'favor' tathec than 'petition,' cp, MnE. iw». The same exprctdon 
occun Sigarpartv. en skamma S41 bipja tnunk pik btiiar tiiatar, 

430b. ntl ic ^us feorran cSm; cp. 815^, 361, 1819a. An appeal to 
Hro^gar's sense of faimeii. Very similar sentiments 1 OE. Stdt 60. 5 ff. 
(i, c. is), MflW. S5 ff- 

432. I%laittn. The notion of the ' cleaniing ' of infested places was 
in accord with popular tradition (see Intr. xvi: Greltiiiega, ch. 671 
Kcr L; Panzer 100 f,, a66). It also admitted of a 
Christian interpretation {Fat. Ap. 66, El. 67S} cf. Angl. xzxri 191 n. i). 

433a. HKbbe ic8«C seUiaod. Type A3. 

434. wKpntt He recceS, 'does not care to use weapons.' 

435 ff. Beowulf wishes to meet Grendelon equal terms (soSygff.)) 
thai the monster cannot be wounded by ordinary weapons, he does not 
yet know (791 ff.). No doubt, the ntoiy called for a wrestling contest, 
which is alsoBfowulTs favoriiemethod of fighting (asofiff., xsiSff.} 
Intr. K.X U n. i), — though he sometimes does use weapons (note 
i6E4ff.). The introduction of the motive of Beowulf s chivalry, or 
self-confidence, makes a modem impression. [Vet there is no need 

NOTES i+i 

to operate with different structural tzyen in this connectioii, u Boer 

435'>-6. swS mS HigelBc Sle . . . A fbrm of asscvciation ; ■ as [I 
wish that] H. majr be ... ' (ori 'so may H, be , . . "). In tKe 
same measure as Beowulf will acquit himself heroically, Higelac will 
feel kindly disposed towards him. Cp. ^Ifric's Gn. 41. ij: ntiS 
ic age Pharaonti btldt. 

440>. laS wiS \Vfnm, ■ Grammatical rime' within the half-line j so 
931', 1978', i4.6i'. 

444t>. BwS hi oft dyde. Some cdd. have omitted the comma after 
djde, construing dyd* as 'verbiim vicarium' with the object magen 
(cp. 1 81 3; Grcin Spr. : don, ^y, but 444l> has all the appearance of a 
complete fonnula, ice iijS'*, i]Si)<, i676», iig\\ The iiteralncss 
of the statement must not be pressed any mote thii in 1S91'*. 

445". The reading sii*y«i /^rMmanm has been set aside flutrirauni. 
(T.C. S zS n. I.) Cf. Schroder, ZfdA. xliii366; Krackow L7. 19.44, 
Arch, cxi 171 f. 

445 ff. VS. y^ minne ^rft/bafalan h^dan etc. Thx genetal 
sense c^ this passage is clear : there will be no need of funeral rites 
(cp. iii4.tF.). bafalan bydan refers either to interment (cp. Ifaad. 
g] f.) or to the custom of covering the head of the dead with a cloth 
(Koniath, Arch, xcix 4171 diigl. imvi 174. n, i). [Heyne thought 
of a guard of honor (see He.-Schii.), Simrock L 3.31.199, SchQcking 
L 4. 116. 1. 5, of a 'lichwake.'] — 450*. meucaJS, probably ' marks 
with blood,' 'stains.' [Bu. Tid. 70: 'marks with riis footprints,' 
• traverse*' i Gr. ^r. : 'inhabits' (?).] — 4so'^5i. ntt SQ ymb minea 
He ^arft/ licet Kormeleag sorgtan. The rendering 'sustenance of 
my body' ii trivial and hardly appropriate in vien of Beowulf's very 
brief visitj farm is more liliely 'talung care of,' 'disposal,' being 
another allusion to the limeraL jm . . . . Ung < no longer,' i.e. < not a 
moment,* 'not at all' (Aant. 9). 

4S2«. Onaend HigelXce. Type Ci. Cp, 46o», 
4S5- Weiandea geireorc If a weapon or armor in Old Germanic 
litetature was attributed to Weland, this wis conclusive proof of its 
superior workmanship and venerable associations.' The figure of this 
wondrous smith — the Germanic Vulcanua (Hephaistos) — symbol' 
iiing at first the marvels of metal working as they impressed the people 
of the stone age, was made the subject of a heroic legend, which spread 
from North Germany to Scandinavia and England. Evidence that 
the striking story of Weland' i captivity and revenge told in the Eddie 
V^tundar&iipa (in a later, expanded, and somewhat diluted form, in 

' Such rderencf* accnr in the OE. ffaldirc, BtiMat (prose and vase), in 
Middle Engliih, Old French, and Ladn terD (Bins i86lf.]. — The adminuioD 
for the works of (unnimed) smiths (cp. LongfeUaw's Bvai^tliia, ri7f.) crops 
our in pana^ lika Bt^tir. 406, 1451 f.| i6Sr. On glgMnttt gtv/gtrc 1561 and 
nmilar eipresiioiu, kc note in ^n;/. ixxv 160 f. 

D, ..■■.V^.OO^IC 


Hilt fiidriltiiaga, chs. 57-79) was known to the Anglo-SaitoM, » ftr- 
nished by the allusions in the first two ■ stanzas of Dear and the carving 
on the front of the Pianks Casket (dating from the beginning of the 
nghth century).' The tradition of Weland nas continued until mod' 
em times in connection with the motive of the 'silent trade.' It be- 
came attached to a cromlech in the White HorEC valley in Berkshire 
called * Way land Smith's Cave,' or ' Forge' ^ and nas used also, in a 
rather peculiar way, by Walter Scott in his Kirtiliuorth (chs. 9tF.).^ 

457. For [g]ewy[r]htuin is parallel to far dritafum (Jir denoting 
cause, not purposejj 'because of deeds done' (ref. to the good serv- 
ices rendered to Beowulf's lather, 463 If.) —and 'the resultant obli- 
gations you are under.' Accordiogly, tbe meaning of 457 f. is: 
' from a sense of duty and kindness you have come to us.' [yEGPb. 
vi 191 f.) [Cf also Siev. ix ijS, :ixzvi 401 f.; Bu. Syf.; Aanl. 9f.; 
Tr.i ijif )Holt. Zs. 114; MPi. iii4sif.; Grienb.,£«(r.ravigof.( 
Boer 44 n-i 

459. GealSh ^in feeder ffehSe mJEate. gesUan is understood in the 
perfective (resnlcative) sense 1 'thy father brought about byAght the 
greatest feud' (or, 'of feuds,' imcefahee perhaps stands iorftbea, 
cp. Cbr. 617, Beoiu. 78, 19J, 1119, zjaSl, etc.). See Miillenhoff, 
Anx.fdA. uii79( MLN. xvi 15, MP*, iii 161. The feud was probabljr 
considered memorable on account of the persons or circumstances con- 
nected v>ith ji. — The chief alternative renderings advocated are : 
•fought the greatest light' (see Kock i»6f.), and 'fought out tbc 
greatest feud ' (see Lon 64; Chambers). The former, while not entirely 
impossible (cp. 10S3), ignores the customary perfective function of 
geilean. The latter is unconvincing, since the slaying of Heajiolif by- 
no means tinlsbes the feud. Moreover, HrotSgar Is not interested pri- 
marily in relating a great exploit of EcgKow's, but means to emphasize 
the friendly relations existing between the Danes and Geats, his main 
point being the subsequent settlement of that feud {pa [demonstr.] 
, fshsi 470). 

461 f for herebrS^n, ' on account of [anticipated] war-terror." 
[Angl. xxviii 440.) Ecgl>eow was compelled to leave the country after 
the manslaughter. Interesting parallels: Odysiiy-sv 171 If.; Grrttisiaga, 
chs. 16, X4, 17; VqlsuHgaiaga, ch. i (Sigi kills a man — ok mit boHn 
nil eigi biirna ■vera mt^i fcpr linamy, .SMberht's Latut 23 (gif boMa 
ef landt gciviup . . .)- 

■ Orthr«? SMTuppn, MFA. it (1911), 165-67. 

' Ste Napitr, Furm-vi,!! Mhcillanj (1901), pp. 361 ff. 

' Formerly ' Wayland-Scoitb ' = OE. fftlandti miSSi (in 2 chaiter of 955 


' On Wcbnd ice especially: Grimm D. M. ]ll IT. (]76lf.), Tiliceek L 4. 
ii6.i(F.; P. Miata,, Dh If ulanJmgi !'• dir Liaraiur (Miinch. Beitr. c. mm. 
u. engl. Phil, iit), 1901 i M. FonCei, " Slummer Handel itud Wieludnge," 
^rcA. 011(1907), JO3-8. 


NOTES 143 

403. ^AQon. Evidentlj EcgKow had retunied home from the land 
of the WjIfiBgai. 

466. giane, Ms. gimm*. The icribaJ blunder 1b not unnatural in the 
case of the rare, poetical adj. gitt{'i); cf MPh. ii 141. 

472. hE mE S^ss swOr. Ec^on promised Hro^gar (who assumed 
■ responsibility for his good behavior) that he mould keep the peace. 
Uaths of reconciliation between two warring parties are menliontid 
1095 ff. — Or did be vow allegiance to the Danish king' 

478. God Ea^e mteg; ... A conventioosl combination^ Angl. ixxv 
1.9 f 

480 f. Ful aft gebEotedon (type Ci] bEore druncne ... A kind 
of gtlpewidt (Intr. Ivii); cp. ti^iS.; Iliad ix Sjff. — Ditferent 
beverages are spoken of quite indiscriminately, talmvigt 48 1, biorielt 
4.82, midobtal 4S4, lotrtd 49$, ixHb 1161, etc. Cf. Gummeie G.O. 
71 ff. 

4S7 f. H (2 dEftS foniEm, < tince death had taken those away. ' Cp. 
i4j5f.iX<y. io.iif. 

489f. onsSl meoto./sigebreS Stccnm. See Vair. The apparent 
metrical objection to an impcr. tniii, which prompted the reading on 
.jst(upi), has been shown by Bright to be largely imaginary, the occur- 
rence of imperatives under the first metrical stress of the second half-line 
being not infrequent. For such imperatives taking precedence, in allit- 
eration, of a following noun, see Finnib. ("■), ii\ Gen. 1511'', [Andr. 
91+*), Gr.-*"!;. ii aig.jBt'j similarly, Jf'flW. i ii'', Gtn. i^iS'°, Andr. 
nil'' (cf. Siev. A. M. \\ 14.3, 17). On the other hand, no really 
appropriate function of m sil can be presented. Bright's rendering, 
■* do thou, victory-famous one, disclose to these men what thou hast in 
mind" (emend, miita, found in no other place, but cp. efermitta), 
makes very satisfactory sense { for the figurative meaning of eusalan, 
tee anlucan 159, vnbindan 501 ; for the use of the dative, cp. Andr. 
171 f., Ii5f. In 6ict, the king's exhortation, 'enjoy yourself and speak 
your mind freely,' leaves nothing to be desired. But the assumption of 
an adj. ligebres (a 'possessive compound,' so He.'"', Tr.' 154 & ed.) 
it open to doubt. May not the noun /ij-fir^S refer to the hero's glorious 
deeds which he is ex|>ected to relate f Dietrich and Grein Spr, took 
auete for a fern, noun, 'meditation,' 'thoughts ' (cp. Go. mitin, wk. 
v. 1), Grein>, Bu. Tid. 191, Tr. ' 154, for the plur. of a neut. noun 
met (cp. gemtl), 'measure,' 'etiquette' (Bu. : 'courtly words," cf. 
He."^ [Leo]). That annnrecorded noun is hidden in the MS. reading 
. is by no means improbable. [Moore, JEGH. xviii 106 (like Komei, 
Est. it 151, and Kock' 105) : "think of good fortune {on til mmtii), 
victory-renown to men."] 

494 ff. Cupbearers are mentioned again, 1 1 6 1 . Cf. Budde L 9. a i . 

497. bSdor; i.e., 'with a clear voice'; Lang. {15.1. Cp. Widt, 
10 J : sciran rttrdt. 


499-Mi. The UnferS Intermezzo: Acconnt of BCoirairs 
Bwimming adventnre witb Breui. Entertusment la tbe hoJI, 

Beowulf, taunted bjr UnfcrJS with having been beaten in a iwimmin^ 
match vrith Breca,' sets him right by telling the true story of the In- 
cident ; whereupon he makes a spirited attack upon his critic's char- 
acter and record, winding up with a confident prediction of his own 
success against Grendel. 

Unfer^ represents the iwimming tour as a contest (5Qfif., 517). 
Beowulf, on the other hand, explains that the adventure was entered 
upon solely to fullill a boastful pledge (iiot, 536) without any idea of 
rivalry (543), although he does consider himself superior to any con- 
testant whatever. In fact, he makes much more of his struggles with 
the sca-monsteti. 

This swimming exploit, which has frequently been assumed to rett 
on a mythological basis,' looks rather like an exaggerated account of 
one of those sporting feats common among the sea-loving Northern 
people (and which naturally often took the form of contests),' In par- 
ticular, a somewhat similar tale of a swimming match in the Egili Saga 
vi Aimundar (of the 14th century) has been cited,^ but the parallelism 
noted is far from exact. That Brcca was known to Agi. heroic legend,* 
is proved by the allusion in Widi. i^: Breoca [^'uvs/iT) BnMdinguni, But 
nothing points to an old tradition in which the Breca incident was con- 
neaed with the person of Beowulf. It should be added that the stoty of 
the swimming could not well have formed the subject of a separate lay. 

The narrative of this youthful trial of strength, inspiring, as it does, 
confidence in Biowulf's ability to cope with the fearful monster, is 
eminently appropriate at this point. It may also be abundantly illus- 
trated by analo^es from folk-tales.^ 

The distance covered by the two endurance swimmers is very con- 
siderable. The Finna land 5S0 (land of the Finns or rather Lapp*) 
where Beowulf comes ashore is usually identified with Finmariai in the 
north of Norway. By the land of the Hiapo-Rimai ' ;i9 is probably 

' On ih* Breca episode, kc especiilly Bu. 31-55; Cta. WH. riof j Law- 
rence L 4.91; Bjorknuui, Bitil. ui 170 ff. 

' Thui, to Mul1enhalF(i f.) Breca meant the itormy tea, to Moller (11), the 
gulf itreani, to Laiitner (L 4.47.165), the sun; Samiin (St. 6; f.) conudered 
the (tory a specialiied form of a Baldr myth j Niedner (1'4 53) recogoiied in Bco- 
wulf-Breca Che Dioacurian twini. 

» SeeWeinboH L 9.31.311 f.; Panier 170 f.j cf. MiillenhoffL 9.i4.i.334f. 
— BeoHTulT hiniHtr on a liter occuion iwimi from Friealind to hii own home ID 
•outhem Sweden, with thirty armon on hit arm (1359 ffl). 

* Bugge, U. 

' Perhapi in connection with the Ka ; aee also Glonary of Proper Name*. 

' See Panier 171. That the name of Brica, Blansitt'i ton, is derived from a 
*SlSnirHa (cf. Slihhauir, etc.) of lome luch folk-lala, i> a rather f^-fbtched hy 
poihceig of Panier' s. 

' Utapa- ttna ai epithcton ornani, cp. HiaSa-BiardaK, HtaSt-StilfiK^ai). 

meant the region of the modem Rnmtrila (to the north of ChriBtlanu), 
called in ON. i Raumariki, and cited u a tribal name Raumaricii by 
Jocdanes, c. 3. In prehistoric times it may very well have included a 
■trip of leaihore.' However, we are by no means compelled to believe 
that the poet had very clcai nottotu of the geography of the scene. 

Unfeiif, a most interestiog persotiage of our poem, has been de- 
dared > an impersoo scion of the type of ' the wicked counselor ' — like 
Bikki, e.g., at Jormunrek's court — , well known In Germanic legend, 
although there ii no clear indication (see 1 164 IF.) that he is fomenting 
dbsensions within the Scylding dynasty. The name UufrrS, i.e., more 
properly, l/«/riff, 'mar-peace,' ^ it should be noted, appears to have been 
coined on English soil, such descriptive abstract appellationi pointing to 
West Germanic rather than Scandinavian origin.* On the other hand, it 
has been suggested ^ that his peculiar position would seem to reflect con- 
ditions at the Irish courts where the fiti (mcmbert of the learned poets' 
guild) enjoyed a remarkable influence and surprising freedom rf speech.^ 

What the title ^yle applied to I/lifer's (1165, I4;£) meant, cannot 
be determined with certainty. The t^U (ON. p»lr) ^ has been variously 

' The enonnoui djitiiiice sepuaHng the liDding places of BEownlf and Bieca 
would be Icsseoed if we assume elthn chat chc ■ land of the Eloiu ' b the datiict of 
Fa-iiJa {Fimvidf in Smiland, Sweden (•« Schiick L 4.74. Lag), or that tho 
tmn HeapfRimai itka to RemiJelim (OK. RmmuUIr) on the west coast of 
NoTwaj (Boer L 4.58.46) cT. Ectmuller's ed. of fTiJaS [1839], p. »). The 
mentioo of the prniiably ficcitiom Brandinget ;il doe* not add to oui knowledge. 
UnfcHtunaCely we do not even know from what place the swimmei) suted. On 
the Finns, ice also R. Much, R.-L. a 51 ff. 

* Ohikii5S'. 

» Hardly U«ftr{k)e, ' nonKne.' (For the interchange of -ferS and -friS tee 
Biilb. { 571.) — The eiroaeoul MS. spelling HaxftrS wai apparently suggcaled by 
the iftn- compounda, e.g. HtnUf (see 1143); Han/irp, OE. Cirm, a.d. 744 
(MS. E ! Uffirt), AJ.. 7S4. MS. B : Hi«firp. 

* C^. L'hiMk (W7d!i. 114)} tfiimrU (£«w. 1971) i O/lJir; JTldM ; OHO. 

' By Dcuachbeb, GRM. i 114. It ia itrongly oppoud by OIkd, MPi. a 
410 ff. 

* In his behavior to BCoHniir, UnferS ihowi a noteworthy slmikrin to Drancea, 
^niid li 336 tF.; alio Biowulfi reply may be compared Co chat of Tumui, it. 
xi 376 ff. (Earle tlfi ; Arch, criri 340 f.). ACtendan has alio been called to the 
(decidedly leai civDiad) word-combat between Gulmundr and Snfjgdi in the Eddie 
hjt of Hilp Hun Jingitani iljff., H i» ff- (Bugge L 4.84.163). — Thetaunciag 
and Dying of strangers at entertainmenta ia not unknown in ON. agai) lee, e.g., 
Giintilmigiuiga,ch. ^,cf. HtSl/siaga, cb.i^. (AUo Oi^i»y viii 15S ff.) But Un- 
feriTi durapecttut treatment of BJowulf contrasts stiangely with ttK dignified 
courteiy idgning at HrSSgu's court. 

' Sec the diicuuioni of Mullenhoff, Dnncit jSliinumihmdt t it<)!f., Fr. 
Kauflnunn in PkUcIiigiu-lu StuMini Fcsi^ebi fir E. Sieoin, pp. 159 ff,, Koegd 
in P. Grdr? ii*, p. 33} Mogk, ih., p. 575; Heuslet, R.-L. 1 443 f,j Larson 
L9. 19.110 f. (convetuent mmmary); B. C. Williami, GHtmie Fiaiy ia -lii^Jo- 
Abhh, pp. 7s ff. — As a pn^er name, fylr occun IfiJi. 14. 

D, . ■■.V^.OO^IC 


deicKbed ai a sage, orator, poet of note, hJnoriologer, major domns, 
or the king's right-hantl man. The OE. noun occurs scveial times ai 
the rendering of < orator,' besides the compound pelcraft^ 'rethorica ' 
(seeB.-T.); hence the meanings of 'orator,' 'spokesman,' ' ofEciaJ 
entertainer' suggest themselves as applicable to the situation in the 
Btamutf. Aa to the pulr, the characteristics of his office seem to have 
been " age, nisdom, extended knowledge, and a seat of honor " (Lar- 
son). Also UnferK has a seat of distinction: let fltuirt iot Jrian Scyld- 
inga (500, 1 166) — like the jfij/ of The Fattj vf Men, 80 ff." And by 
his reference to die Breca incident he showi that he ia the be« informed 
man at the court. 

He is depicted by our poet as a sharp-witted (589) court official of 
undoubted influence and a reputation for vaJoc ( 1 1 fi 6 f. ), which he ii 
jealously (joi tf.) anxious to guard. He has laid himielfopen to the 
terrible charge of fratricide (587 If., iilSyf.), which, strange to say, 
does not seem to have imperiled his prominent position at the court,* 
although he is certain — so the Christian author informs us through the 
mouthof Beowulf (588 f.) — to receive his punishment in hell (cf. J»gt, 
mv 13J, 165). 

In noteworthy contrast with the origiruU conception of his character 
as expressed by his name, UnferiS evinces a apirit of generosity, courtesy, 
and sportsmanlike fairness toward Beowulf when the latter has demon- 
ttnted his superiority (1455 If., 1807 If.), — afcature obviousiy added 
by the poet himself. 

The speeches of UnferB {506-51S) and Beowulf (530-fiofi), if 
rather ornate considering the occasion, show the style of the poem at 
its best. The admirable use of variation, the abundance of sea terms 
(508 &.), the strong description of the scene (54.J ft'., cp. IFanJ. loi S.) 
chiming in with the hardy spirit of the Northern heroes ate conspicuous 
features of this famous passage, 

5ai*. onband beaduiHae, 'unbound a battle-rune,' i.e. 'disctosed 
a hidden quarrel' (see note on iardlufan 692), 'began a bellicose 
^jeech.' It is probable that only the vaguest suggestion of ancient 
heathen belief (Miillenholf in R. v. Liliencron & K. MiillenholT, Ziir 
Kuntnleb¥i [1851], p. 4.4} was lingering in bcaduTin. Cp. £/. 18: 
•witlriiat m maS, io;8: bygeriint nt mat. The use cS anbindan is il- 
lustrated by Beavi. 159, 4S9. 

501b. BCowulfes al5. aig should be understood in a lather general 
sense, 'undertaking'; cp. GrivdUs ping 4.09. (Duomrj/ of Soul 10, 
Ex. MS. : laivle ilB, Verc. MS. 1 la^wli ping. ) 

■ W. H. Stevenson in hii edllion of Aiier'i Ufs ./ Khg Alfred (Onflird, 
1904), p- 165 coaaecFi the office of Unfeiif with that of 1 pttlitequui^ ptJiucniy 

■nt official ..." fi. C. WiUUmi (/.r.) tDmpsrc* UnfefS to the liter court fooli. 

* Tlut Unfer^ remilnsl unmiJated to ipite of the murder, beciute then on 

be no 'teud' witbia one and the laine family (cp. 1441 ff.), <■ scirec^ belMvabk. 

NOTES 147 

502. Mf^unca, which hu been found in one other puuge orilj, viz. 
Zji. Scint. 176. II, need not be changed to ffyanca (Tr.» 155) or 
considered a wealiened variant of it (Blitb. \ 40S, cf. B.<T. & SuppL). 
Iti^enuineneai is vouched for by the well-known verb offyncait. 

503. for^on ^e he ne Q^e, ^aet dSuig 5Ser luiii, Typei A3 ; 

xB-LxXXl-XandBi : xXX-^|x-^. 

504. miodaiigeAcdes. Adveibial gen. of place (in quasi-negative 
clause). So7sif. 

506. SE BEowulf, It ^ . . . , 'that Beowulf who ... * (Cf. Arch. 
ciivi48 n.3.) 

525, wyrsan ire^iDgeai. Partitive gen. after a compar. (as in 
147 f.), unless lujrtan be considered a rare, analogical by-form of the 
gen. piur. (Siev. § 304n. i). So Gr.-fFU. i iSi-7 '• ""yrian gewyrbta. 

536. The gen. heaSorSsa is construed with debit (cp. 1 344) rather 
than with gtbvjir. 

543t. nS ic frftin him wolde. Type Ci. 

545. ftf nihta fyrtt. See 317 : siefon mil. They kept on swim- 
ming for two days afler thnr separation. That Beowulf meant to cor- 
rect UnferiS's stalement is not very likely. It is true, from a literal 
interpretation of the following passage one might conclude that Beo- 
wulf landed on the sixlh day; but it is more reasonable to believe 
that the poet omitted further details of the time element (which 
he neglected altogether in the account of BeowulTs return voyage, 


548. ondhwearf^ The usual form of this (unitressed) verbal prefix 
is ca; see Gloss. : an-, and-. 

553 f. MS tS gjnnde tEab/HUi ftondscaSa. This incident fore- 
■hadows the hero's experience in his second great adventure, 1501 IF., 

557 f. hea^orHi foraam/mihtiE: meredEor ^urh mine bond. 
Back of this remarkably impersonal manner of viewing the action Jie« 
the idea of fate. Cf. Intr. iliai & n. a. 

561. dtoran Bweorde, 'with my good sword.' See 1518, 1050. 
(Lemon's Brut 28051: mid diortmine i-weorede.) 

565. mScum. 567. sweo[r]dum. A 'generic pluial,' used for the 
logicallv correct sing., perhaps even hardened into a kind of epic for- 
mula, cp. e.g. 583, 1140, 14.BS, 3147; Aadr. 511. See Aant. 11 j 
note on ]074». [Cf. also Heiniel, /Jni.fdA. xiaof. j ten Brink 37n.i 
MdUer, ESI. xiii 171, 178: old instrum. tbrm.] 

569 ff. Both the approach of morning and ihe subsiding of the storm 
enable Beowulf to see the shore. Another description of the coming of 
tnoming, igotff. (917^). 

57zf. W7TdoftnereS/unfiEgneeorl,)ioimehisellendeah, Fate 
does not render manly courage unnecessary. A proverbial saying. 
('Fortune favors the brave.') Frequently God is substituted for fete: 
669 f., ios6f., i27off., iSiiS.,Andr. 459f. Cf. Grimm D.M.ius 

D, ..■■.V^.OQi^lC 


(ia8if.)j Gummere G.O. 1365.; Cook, MLN. viii 59 (clatsica} 
•nd ME. paiallels); Arch, cm 179. 

575 f. Ms ic on nJbt geirRgn etc. Prepontional phrasca or adverbs 
of time and place modijying the object of the verb ge/rignan or the in- 
finitive phiase dependent on it, aie placed befaie gefrignaH; so 74, 1414, 
a694, 37;!, 1771- (Cf. Sievers, Biilr. xii 191.) See also 1 197 (hyran). 
The case la modiiied and complicated by the addition of the element 

58it>-83>. Nfi . . wiht . . . swylcra seaxonlSa . . . , bills brflgan. 
Terms of variation expressed by dliFerent grammatical forms j see 
ao2gf., io67ff. {MPh. Jii ajK.) 

597, Sige-Scytdinga. A mechanical use of ii]^- ai a general com- 
mendatory word (Intr. ktv n. i ) without regard to the specific situation. 
There is no irony intended here. 

599. ac be lust wigeSi/swefeS ond sende^. lait ivigtB, 'feeii 
joy,' 'enjoys himself' (or, according to Moore, JEGPh. xviii loS, 
'•has his own way"), placed paiatacCically by the side of the two fol- 
lowing verbs, itndaa may perhaps be credited with the sense of 'send 
to death,' ^^k f or undan ^a^ furs tmitndati 1266 (see Schu. xxxix 
tO]f.)i cp. Lat. ■ mittere Oreo, umbcis,' etc. (e.g. jEnriJ ix 785, 
, xi Si). Yet the meaning of 'feasting' formerly (orig. by Leo in 
Heyne') attributed to it — -on the basis of the noun jami ' dish of food,' 
'repast' ('that which is sent to the table*) — , though generally given 
up at present, may be right after all. 

fioab. (GBf eft) si fe mat. A mere formulaj so i387'> (ep. 1177'', 
148711) ; Hildtbr. 6a; Rieger, Germ, ix 310; Sievers's note on Hit- 
114. — <io3'>, rather type D4 or Ei. 

605. O^res dSgpres; adv. gen., 'on the next day.' 

606. sll)iBn sciiie3; i.e., in full daylight. Is this meant at a literal 
reference to 917 ff., looSff,? 

IS12 ff. Appearance of noble ladies at the banquet; see ii6iff., 
1980 If., 1010 tf. Cf Budde L 9.11.39 If.; Tuppcr's RiddUs.f. «ig. 
A parallel to Wealh|>eow's part in this passage; Gnom. Ex. S5-93. 

617, bzd hine bllSne. Omission of iiieian, see Gloss, i mm. 

tatsK YmbEode^a. Type Bi. 

622. aincfato aealde ; i.e., she passed the cups. On Ags. cups, see 
"Tappet' sRiddlei, p. 10+. No drinking homsare mentioned in Br»au«(/; 

tia? f. yxt hfio on Snigne eorl geiyfde/fyrena frOfre; i.e., she 
counted on t\elp from a hero. An instance of a peculiar mode of view- 
ing direction (Lang, i »S-S)- Qui'* parallel to this use of im with ace 
i«/0! 909, 1171 f. 

638. He^zt fulge^ahelc. Evidently a dchnile drinking ceremony. 
Cp. the salutation, 617, 615- See loi^f. 

635. on wgel crnnge. Note the use of o» withacc. (qi. 771, 1540, 
1568, etc.). On the other hand, tiij: sume m -WirU rrungm. 

644. O^ jTEBt senuiingft; so 164a. It if the adverb were 

NOTES 149 

added merelr to accentuate the meaning of the conjunction. Thui 
alto Bfi p^firinga, 1414. 

646?. The emendation adopted by all ceccnt cdd. : siSSan ble 
snnnAn Ifioht geston [nf] meahton has a false ring; one nould ex- 
pect, at least, something like leng gtsien m miahton. (Cf. also Schu- 
chaidl L 6. 14.x. 15.) LI. 648 ff. plainly mean: 'from the time that 
they could see the light of the sun, until (of Se) night came ' ; exactly 
as Brun. 1 3 ff. ^lipt'an . . . ee . . .). Thus, the meaning (of ep Se, or 
epae) 'until' (so some earlier edd., like Grein, Arnold, cf. Heyne''^) 
need not be given up for Bugge's vpee= 'and' (i.e., a variant of the 
regular 'or,' see Bu. Tid. 57, cf. E. tr,). Nor do we need to assume 
a lacuna (Grein, cf. Gru.). In other words, the king knew that fight 
had been in Grendel's mind all day long; Grendel had been ivaiting 
from morning till night to renew his attacks in the hall, just as the 
dragon. — bordiutard onbad f earfoalict, as eiet ifen cuiim ijoif. — . 
Close parallels to the use of Id {juem hiabittt) are found in 1990, 1x07. 
Whether we consider dblican as ' dat. used as instr.' (Sedgelield), as 
'dat. of penonai agency ' (Green L : "a fight was contem- 
plated by the monster"), or a variety of the dat. of interest (cp. Lat. 
* mihi consilium captum est,' see also Hcusler, Aititl, EUiatiitarbucb 
S 383), is immaterial to the general interpretation of the context. [Cf, 
also Bu. 89; ten Brink 51; Tr.' 160.] 

655. Xne^m men, 'any man,' i.e. excepting, of course, H16V- 
gar's own men. (Cf. Jellinek & Kraus, ZfdA. nav 171.) 

660 f. It may jar on our feelings that HroiSgar should offer a mate- 
rial reward to the high-minded hero, but he did just what was expected 
of.him. Cp. 3S4f., i]8off., 1134, also i484tf. 

464. That Wealht«o» left the hall, the poet has omitted to men- 
tion. Cf Intr. Iviii. 

666. awa guman gefrungoa- A species of the gefr^gn- formula. 

667 f. Change of subject; Beowulf (seleweard) is the subject ot 
btbiald and ahead. 

670. mMgan probably qualities m^f^f/; i.e., attrib. adj. 

671. D9 he him of dyde. Type Ca. 

673*. Irena cyst, irma (so 1697', 1159^) stands for older !r«nM<i 
(so 8oi«', 1683*, iSig"). Cf. Lang. % 19.5. Even if the « was really 
meant to be single, this would not necessarily involve a gross violation 
ofmeter. (T.C. %x,.) 

67s ff. Beowulf is made to utter his 'boast," gylpworda lum, in 
defetence to general epic practice. (Intr. Mi.) The occasion is singu- 
lai enough, but the circumstances of the fight allowed no chance for 
tMatory immediately before the action. — How are the beds procured P 
Sm 1139 f. 

681. aSt he ^Ini gSda. Semi-partitive gen. in connection with the 



negation. Th« folloning p^- clause explains gSda. Cp. JSiSne, Hata. 
1190.31: luet file HI CU51 sira goiJa, f^rt ii ev^Mien put be GoJ 
•wart; also MaU. lyef. (MPb. iii 455.) 

691. NSnig: heora ))&hCe, fxt he ftiaim scolde. Typei A3, Ci. 

692. eardlufu, 'dear home'; see isel-, hard-, ljfi-'uyn{n), tun- 
Uregisa, mid gryruM ccga ^i^. 'Concretion ' of meaning. (Aant. ij; 
MPb. iii 163 f.) 

694)1, The co-ordination of hie and (ttt) fela seems quite permis' 
lible, at least if me may trust the analogy oifia (lut) and sumt (bit 
lume, etc., cf. MLN. xvii 19). 

697. wIgspEda sewiofu. As the context shows, the conception 
of the 'weaving' of destiny (by the Parcae, Noms, Valkyrias, cf. 
Grimm D.M. 343 tf. (^uT-). W. Grimm L 4.67'.+is, Kemble 
L 9.1. i 401, Mogk, P. Gri^r.' iii 171) has become a mere figure 
of speech. See Rim. Form 70 ; mi pui tuyrd gnosf, GuBl. 1J15 : ivefim 
•wyrdslafum. [Njalssaga, ch. 157.191 poem on 'the woof of war.'] 

G98>. frSfor ond luliam, ace. sing.; iijj ifrdfrt and fallum. Oc- 
casionally, in later texts, Jrofir is treated as a maic. (also neut. f) ; 
cf. Sievetg, Bfilr, i 493. Has, in this case, a. spelling^o/r {^frifr^, 
see 668) been erroneously changed \a frhfor? 

698'>-99. fEond is ace. sing, (not plur.), ealle, nom. plot, (not 
ace. plur.). See 939 ff., 70;; -^n?/. xnv 470. 

7oot>-2>. 'It is well known that God has alwayi (In every instance 
up to this time) ruled over the race of men.' Cp. i66]f. 

703. Hon is it possible for the Geats to tail asleep in this situation P 
Obviously, their failing enhances the achievement of Beowulf. Or doet 
this feature reflect ancient tales in which preliminary unsuccessful at- 
tempts to cope with the intruder are incident to the defenders' failure 
to keep awake P Cf. Panzer 96 f., 99,267. 

707. under sceadu hreg;daii; under 'down to,' or 'to the inude 
of,' see Gloss. The 'shades' might well be of classical origin icp., e.g., 
Mneid li S31, xii 9511 ' vitaque cum gemitu fugit indignata sub um- 
bras." Cf. A/fA. iii 157; ^ri-A.'cnvi 349. Hel. 1 11 ^ ff. i giivit im ibr 
mentiaSD . . . undar fimdalu; Par. tail vi 141 f . : 'arid wbelm'd 
Thy legions under darkness.' 

710 ff. The presentation of the Grendel tight, the first climax of the 
poem, shows the author's chaiacteristic manner. ,(Cf. Intr. Iii, lix.) 
Partly excellent, vigorous narrative — yet the story is very much inter- 
rupted by interspersed general reflections on the situation and by remarks 
on the persons' thoughts and emotions, which greatly lengthen it and 
detract fiom its efTectiveneas. The corresponding combat of Grettir 
(Intr. xivf ) is a good deal shorter, and also more direct and realistic. 

710. Bfi c6m. After a digression, the poet returns to the subject, 
see Cam ^o^■, likewise dm pS 710 is an entirely natural expression. 
No appeal (0 a patchwork theory is necessary to explain this repetition. 
Some enthusiasts have found the threefold bell-like a 


Grendel'g approach a highly dramuic device. (Cf. also Intr. lix & 

719. heardran hXle, healSegnas fand. hslt, hildi, haltidpti, 
and ^e like are metrically, at any tate, safer than btU (T.C. S 17). 
Holthauaen's former interpretation {Angl. iriv %6^'\ of beardran biU 
(from bTcl 'omen') as 'in a worse plight' (or with A. J. Daniels's 
modilication [ KasuiyHax zu den Prtdigttn H'tiffitaru, Leiden Diss. , 
1904, p, ifia]'. 'tot een rarapiaiiger omen,' i.e. in efFeCT, 'with a 
more disastrous result ') was a happy suggestion — cp. ME. expressions 
like ta it/rvper belt, lilt itlrrbayte, ivitb it a bail (see, e.g., Matznct, 
AE. Spracbprebtn, Wbcb. ii jgia), ON. ilia tiilli — , but this use of the 
dat. appears rather doiibtftil. The same is true of Sedgefield' s rendering 
'with sterner gteeting' (from bslo). Wc may venture to take btard- 
ran bilt as ace. sing., ' worse luck' — -cp. the meaning of btardiJlp, 
btardiHig — , beardran referring at the same time to the second ob- 
ject, beatsegnai. That seemingly incongruous objects may be gov- 
cmed by one and the same verb, is seen from 653 f. 

731. drCamum bedSled. A permanent characteristic (epitheton 
perpetuum) of Grendel, like ivBniSli 105, fiaiciaft 973, tanaictafem 
13 ji, synaam gti'wmcid 975. 

733. onbrZd ^a ; i.e., tiicn he swung the door wide open; not a 
mere repetition of Duru anam, 711. 

734b. Ra^e setter Jron. Type D4. As to the accent on the pre- 
position, cf. Rie. V, 31 f, also 61. 

735. ngne (flSr), perhaps 'fair-paved' (Gummere^; see 320. 

736. Sicgeon ofcT \S. aiht. ^ifSBwyiS behEold. Types A i 

73619.38. Why does Beowulf in tbe meantime remain lying on his 
bedf Presumably this is a feature of the original story (see Intr. xv, 
ivii; Grettiisaga, chs. Gj, 35) retained by the poet, though he had 
added the incident of a previous attack on one of the comrades (named 
Hondiciib, 2076). — under (^rgripum) denotes attending circum- 
stances ('with') rather than time ('during,' Aant. 14); "set to work 
with his sudden snatchings " (01. Hall). Cp. the use of mid, 1468, and 
OE. Cbron. a.d. 1132 (MS. E): be fiordi mid suUMm. 

744 f. eal . . . f%t ood folmn, 'all, (eveii)feetand hands,' or 'feet, 
hands, andaJi' (Aant. 14). 

748 f. feond, i.e. Grendel; hE onfing . . . inwitjiancum, 'he 
(Beowulf) received him (pron. object understood, cf. X.ang. % 15.4) 
with hostile intent." [Cf. also Schii. xxm 105.] — wiS earm ges«t 
(ingressive function), 'sat up supporting himself on his arm.' Thus 
Sat. 431 : &rSt fa anra gelriuytc and •win tarm gesat, J blianadt luis 
henda. (Cf. Arcb. dx 311, MPb. iii 263.) Note the progress in 759: 
Uplang aitad. 

756. sEc&n dEofla gedrxg. This cannot be literally true, as Gren- 
del is supposed to live alone with his mother. 

D, ..■■.V^.OQi^lC 


7S8. Geraoflde yn te EBdft, mRg Higellcei. The exceptional al- 
Ikenuion (see V»rr., T.C. £ 16) seems permiuible, especially in view 
of the ijmlactical pauie uiumcd here (comma after jp^). The usual 
type of alliteration in such lines may be seen in 1474, 1971, «977. 

760. (fingras) bnrston; ■broke' (cracked, snapped), as in iur- 
lUn banlocan S18, when a more serious stage of the fight has been 
reached; not (as was suggested by Tinker, MLN. xxiii 34a) *bled' 
(cp. I 111), though this hardly audientic result was brought about by 
gripping, Nibel. 61%. 

764 f. wiste hia fingrs geweald/on grunes grlpoin, 'he real- 
ised etc' Cp. >3i; ON. -vita (e.g., VqlanJarJr-v. 14.}). 

766. ^Bt ae be«rmscs.ta to Heornte UEah. Kodciiofiff.aiguei 
for the relative character of this clause, >(f (instead of twu) being 
justified by p^ 765; s}s atien, 'take a journey.' Cp. 1455 f> This 
is indeed more satisfactory than to take ^iW ai conjuncL and affoi a* 
intrans. verb (as suggested MPb. iii 455). 

769. ealnacerwea. -icmaen, related to 'icmuaji ' gtant, ' ' allot * 
(btitefwan ~ 'deprive'). 'Dispensing of ale,' or, in a pregnant tense, 
of ■ bitter or &teful drink ' might have come to be used as a figurative 
expression tor 'distress' (Bu, Tid.; Btibl. zdi jjit.). The 
interpretation 'taking away of ale,' 'terror' (at the lost of ale) 
(Meyne*) hat found much &vor (see SchQcking"), though the fonn 
-tcirtjutn (instead of 'bcscsrvjen) does not support it. (Spaeth Lj. 41. 4 
describes the term as " reminiscent of the wild oversetting of tankards 
and spilling of ale when the hall was suddenly attacked.") Of course, 
the origiiud form as well ss meaning may have been obscured. [Cf. 
Coujn, Btitr. iri 195 Krapp's note on Andr. 1316) Grienb., Beitr. 
zxivi 84f.; Siev., ib. 410; Sedgelield's note.] 

770 ff. The havoc made of the building and the fiimiture is natu- 
rally emphasized in encounters of this sort; cp. 997 if .; Grelliiiaga, cia. 
'J> IS (Intr. XV, zvii); Bjariarimur iv 11. 

777, golde geregtuid. Does this implygold-etnbroideredcovcrsoa 
the benches? (Falk, R.-L. i 166.) 

779. The neuter hit seems to refer to the hall in a general way, 
without grammatical regard to the gender of any of the uouds that 
might have been used; see 770-73. 

781 f. n7m>e llges fae^m/swulge. See Sx f. 

783a. nlwe geneahhe. See Gloss. ; nittv is naturally taken as adj. 
[Kock L 5.44.4.S: ni<uv, gmeabbe, "(the din arose) in manner 
strange and strong."] 

785. )>ir« )>e of weftlle wSp geh^rdon. As ^'wea/Zr, in all prob- 
ability, denotes the standpoint of the subject of gelyrdon (Sieveis, 
Btitr, xii 19X; see I. 319), the meaning appears to be that the Danes 
heard the wiuling from ^e wall(s) of their sleeping apartments. (We 
might translate: 'through the walls.') Sievert supposed that they had 
fled in terror to the shore, but this *n)uld seem a little far-fetcbed. 

NOTES 153 

[Tinker (MLH. xxiJi 340), who connects efiaealU with the object, is 
enabled to render: ■' mho heard the howling in the house (Heorot)."^ 

786 ff. gryrelEoS |;ftlui Codes nadiftcsji etc. Ciiea of pain and 
lamentation denoted by the use of gaian and simitar terms: 1460 {*); 
Andr. 11S7, I34», Gasi. 587, etc, Cf, Siev. A.M. | 5,3, BtitT. xxix 
314?. (Numerous examples are found in Chaucer.) — Theinfin. phissei 
are variations of the preceding noun {nuof). Cp. 211 f., 1431 f., 1516 f.j 
718 f., 175^ ff. {MPh. iii 137 f.) — Inacc.withinfin. constructions after 
gtl^ran, gefrignan we note the tendency to give the ace. of the oi/rrf 
the first place; so also 1017 IF., zoiif., 1773^ (but see 1484^, 
i694f.}; so after balan, 6S f. [according to the MS. reading] (but 
•ee zSoi)j aSter farlitan, 316^. 

793 f. nE his llfdag&a leodtt Snignm/iiTtte tealde. Litotes, t£. 
Intr. Ixvi. bis refers, of course, to Grendel. 

794*^5- I'Sr genelioat brngd/eorl Bsowalfet ealde lSf« ; vir- 
tually, • many a man brandished his sword.' The sing, of concrete 
nouns u often used in a collective sense ; thus in connection with "lanig, 
eft, gauiasl, jl'gesine, 794IT., 106;, iiioff., 1143^, ixSSff., 
soiS f. ; also without any such auxiliary word suggesting the collective 
function, igefT., 49X (?), 1067, iiS4ff. Cf. Kock aig, Siev. xax 
569 ff., MW. iii i4() f 

800. on healfn gehwone hCawan, lit. 'strike on (towards) all 

804. ac hi ajgewSEpnum foraworen hsefde. Grendel bad laid a 
spell on swords. Cp. Saxo vii 119, where a certain Haquinus is called 
•hebetandi carmlnibus ferri peritus'j Sal. iiSi ff. (Cf. Falk L 9.44. ' 
44.) See note on 1 513. 

810. mSdea accordance with Holthausen's explanation of 
mjra{a) as ■trouble,' 'affliction' (cp. OHG. merriJa), is stylistically 
preferable to mSda myr{h)S«, 'joy of heart,' whether n)>r(£]<( be taken 
as dat. or a« gen. (parallel with^^mir; CI. Hall, Lawrence, MLN. ixv 
jj6 : "had accomplished much of the joy of his heart"). Cp. madti 
h-KBa i7i( i64ff., 474ff., 591 ff, "03 ff. 

811. hi I^ wi3 God. See 154 ff.j Intr. Ixiii n.3) Angl. xxxvi 
lyS f. For the omission of 'wns, see 1035, 1559 (f), 1261, 1197, 
cp. 936; Glossary, 

8i4<>-i5>. wses gehwa^r SSrum/lifigeude ISS, 'each one was 
hateful to the other while living.' A pointed phrase (involving litotes) 
of an almost classic rings ^- Arch, cxuvi 357 & n. 1. See 2564^, 

Bi6f. wearS . , sweotol, 'became visible.' 

833. I'ttt wxa ticen sweotol, 'that was clearly proved.' {MPb. 
iii 4s6i Angl. xxv ago.) 

836. nnder gSapne hr(af). The victor places Grendel's right 
(109S) arm above the door outside the hall (on some projection per- 
hap«) as high as he can reach. See 9i6f.> 98a ff. 


837-934. Rejoicing of the retainers. Stories of Slfentimd uid 

839 ff. This excursion to Grenders mirt has been declared an un- 
TCairanted duplication of tlie trip preceding Beowulf's second adventure, 

1 399 If. i sec Panzer 176 ff. It might as well be called a legitimate ex- 
pansion of the story, folctc^^n a high-sounding term like stUrSdende 
51, 13+6, 

850-52. dEor is pluperf. ; ai5Saa, adv. — Grendel's abode is vaguely 
identified with hell, cp. 756 i he is even said to pass into the power of 
devils, un fionda gfwiald go8 (in contrast with an Freaa luiert, 17). 
No conscious personilication is contained in the expression ^r him he) 
onfeng. Cf. Aagl. xxxv 167 f. 

862 f. NE hie ham winedrihten etc. Note the delicacy of feel- 
ing and the author's unshakable respect for kingship. 

867li-gi5. Summary of song! recited (while the thanes ride slowly), 
the subjects being BSownlf, Sigemund, HeremSd. Starting with a 
lay of praise concerning Beonuirs exploit, which has just been extolled 
by the warriors in informal, yet highly eloquent language (gj6-6i), 
the court poet, well versed in ancient heroic lore, proceeds to recite the 
adventures of Sigemund, thus raising Beowulf, as it were, to the lank 
of pre-eminent Germanic heroes. From indirect discourse the account 
passes almost imperceptibly to direct statement, and when the Here- 
mod theme is taken up, we feel like questioning whether HroS^r'i 

thane has not been altogether forgotten by the Ags. poet We have 

here a valuable testimony both of the improvisation of lays in connec- 
tion with great, stirring events and of the circulation of famous short 
epic poems comparable in scale to Tbt Fight at Finniturg. 

870 ff. Nearly all edd. place a period after gtbundtn, taking S7o'>- 
71' as the close of the sentence, '* framed a new story, foimded upon 
&ct" (CI. Hall). But it is much to be doubted whether iiiord would 
have been used to convey such a meaning. [Fat. Ap. 1 1 ic tymt lang 
itSgtemor faitd.) The parenthetical clause, according to the punctua- 
tion inirodueed by Rieger (Rie. L., see Zs. 390) and approved by 
Bugge (Bu. Za. ao}), ' one word found another rightly bound,' con- 
tains an apt description of the alliterative vcite form. (See also Earle'i 
note.) The eft of 871 ('in his turn") goes with ivjUum 867, and 
both correspond with bwilHm 864 (cp. ai07ff.j{ lecg takes up the 
subject of the sentence, cyningti peg«. (Cf. MPb. iii 456.) — The type 
of the combination ^werd optr (similarly 651, 348+, 190S, 3985) is a 
substitute for the repetition of the noun ('grammatical rime'), see note 
on 440". (Kluge, Biilr. ix 417.) Cp. Guam. CoU. ^i: fyrd viit ^frdt^ 

871b. secg eft ongan. Type Ei. 

874. wordom wrizlan, here (unlike iu use in i66)>i'vary words' 
(cp. Photn^ iiT, Rid. 9.1 f.) in the customary nunncr of Germanic 

D, ..■■.v^.oo^ic 


875-900. Sl^mnnd.' The cunory, epitomizing report embodies 

two sepante stories, going back, pcrimps, to two originally separate 
lays, vii. i) Sigemund's luldi liaai of fierce fighting, especially tho«e 
undertaken in company with Fitela, 1) his dragon light. 

i) The vague ahstract of the former receives fiiil light from the 
Fqliungaiaga, chs. 3-8.' Sigmundr, we are told, is ihe eldest son of 
King Volsungr, a descendani of Otinn. His twin sister Signf is married 
against her will to Siggeirr, king of Gautland. While on a visit at Sig- 
gdr's court, V^isungr and his nien are treacherously slain (cp. the 
p'inusburg Irgend); his sons are taken prisoners and meet death one 
after another except Sigmundr, who escapes into the forest. Sigmundr 
and Signy brood revenge. Seeing that her sons by Siggeirr are lack- 
ing in vator and that only a true V^lsung son will be able to help 
in the work of revenge, Signy, impelled by a desperate resolve, dis- 


herself as a witch and visits her brother in the forest, and when 

1, she gives birth to a son, who is named Sii^Qgtli. Tea 
years old, the boy at his mother's bidding joins Sigmundr (who doe* 
not know until the final catastrophe that Sinjjotli is his son) and 
is trained by liim in deeds of strength end hardship. ' In summer 
they fare far through the woods and kill men to gain booty' (ch. 8); 
living for a time as werewolves 'they performed many famous deeds 
in the realm of King Siggeirr.' (Cp. Btotu. 883 f., fitti md 
fyr€na 879 ^Htlgakv. Mund. i 4.5 ; jir/inJeriBBi (?)].) Finally Sig- 
mundr and S!nfJ9tli accomplish the revenge by setting tire to Siggeir's 

How far the version known to the author of Beoviulf agreed with 
this part of the fqljuiigaiaga, it is impossible to determine. The fact 
that Fitela is referred to as Sigemund's ne/a only (S81), might perhaps 
be held to betoken Sigemund's own Ignorance of their true relation, or 
it may be attributed to the Christian author' s desire to suppress that 
morally revolting motive. But we do not know, indeed, whether the 
Anglo-Saxons of that time were at all acquainted with a story answer- 
ing lo the Sigmundr-SignJ motive. The form Fiiela differs from the 
cst^lished Norse compound name Sinjjftli (whose bearer figures In the 
Eddat anA in Eirittmai^) and from the High Gernan Sinlarfi%s,ile 
(merely recorded, by the side of Fexmilo, Fir.r,Uo, as a man's name). 
Also the designation of Sigemund's father as tV^ii (897; Sigemund = 

' References: L 4.107-1151 bcrides ; W. Grimm L *.67.'i7f.i Jiriciek L4. 
67. n. iS if., 89 ff.; Koegel L 4.8. i« 171 ff., lb 198 ff.; Bini 150 ff.j Sy. 
mom L 4. 29 { IT, Chidwick Or. t48 f. 

' For a modem version in poetical form, tee WilUim Morrii't Thi Sitry af 
Sigurd lii roliung and tit F^l «f ihi NiHuigi, the first p»rt of Booki, Cf. 
H. Barteb, IFimam Marrii, Tkt Sitrj of Sigurd tki rtliungaci SluiitSUr Ja$ 
firJuilim, d„ Epu <» dot ^iillin. Miinster (Dn.), 1906. 

' Sigmundr and Sinfj^tli are bidden hj OtTinn to viElcome King Eiriki on enter- 
ing ValhBll (VJhalh). (Oy. Put. Bur. \h 10. 1] i 161.) 



Willing S77) difTen from his Norse ntune V^tungr, which Utter is 
ptesuma.bly the result of confusion, the patTon^rmic form being taken 
for a proper name. It is poEsible, though, that Wall itself (used in 
Witliei eafira S97 = IV^liing) is a (secondary) • back formation ' in- 
fened from Willing (Sievers, Zum ags. Vocaliimus [ijoo], p, iij 
Boer L 4. 1 13.9^), — It should be mentioned that a perplexing OE. 
poem in the Exeter MS., the so-called First Riddle, has been inter- 
preted by Schofield as a lyric, ' SignJ's Lament,' referring to the Sig- 
mund-Signy-Fitela incident, but the evidence is by no means conclu' 

a) Sigemund's dragon fight is peculiar to the Beiyuiulf. It naturally 
suggests the lar-famed dragon light of his still greater ion, (ON.) 
SigurBr, (MHG.) Sigfrit, which kindled the imagination of the Scan- 
dinavians ■ and was not forgotten by the Germans,^ and which in fact 
— especially as part of the great Nibelungen cycle — has been cele- 
brated in m'odem Germanic epic, drama, and music. As Sigemund is 
called •uireccena ividt miraitjofer nuirpindi 898, SigurBr, in the seer's 
words, is to be ' the greatest man under the sun, and the highest-bom 
of all kings' {Gripisfa i)\ and the slaying of the dragon brings no 
little renown to Sigemund {fflf diasditgt ddm ttnlytil 885) just as to 
his illustrious son (' this great deed will be remembered as long as the 
world stands,' Ffliungajaga, ch. 19). But there are differences be- 
tween the two stories, quite apart from the greater fulness of detail 
found in [he narrative of Sigurli'a exploit. The manner of the fight it- 
self is not the same, Sigemund's deed appearing the more genuinely 
heroic one. Noteworthy incidents of the Bemuslf version are the dis- 
solving of the dragon in its own heat (897) and the carrying away 
of the hoard in a boat (895).* For points of contact with BeowulTs 
and Frolho's dragon fights, see Intr. xxiif. 

It is widely held that the dragon fight belongs properly to Sigfnt and 
not to Sigemund, his father j ^ yet there is no positive evidence to prove 
that the Ags. poet was in error when he attributed that exploit to the 
latter. SigurSr-Sigfrit ttay, in tact, have been unknown to him. It is, oil 
the whole, probable that in his allusions to Sigemund as well as to Here- 

' An Mccllent hinorical ilcetch of icholarly opinion on this poem ii found in 
Wjiiit'i edition of the Old Exglisi RidMci {»<i)ia-Lettta &tna, 1911), pp. «- 

* Witnm the EdJei, Vt/iuagau^a, and notable repcesentationt in Korthera 
■It, leiOlrik L9.j8.IIir. 

' Niitl. 101, S41 (cp. 88 ff.), Sijfridilud, d. fiidrehiaga. 

' In Guprunariv. a 16 Sigmundiu lepmenled M ■ miritimc king. 

' Thui, according to Goebel, "there mom little doulit thit Siegfricd'i bmov» 
deed was transferred lo Sigmund when through the latter the legend began to con- 
nect Siegfried mth the cboKn clan of the Volningt and their ipecial protector, 
OVmn." {yEGPi. xvii if.) Eicepting tfait variatian in ropect to the nine, die 
Bcowulfian account hai been thought to contain the olden form of the legend of 
SegMed. (Cr. Goebel, /.f.) 



NOTES 157- 

mod he fblloired good old Danish trudition,' and that at that time no 
connection had yet been established between the Sigemund (Walaing) 
legends and those of Sigfrit and uf the Burgundians. Grundtvig's in- 
genious attempt to read SigfriS into the £ra<wu^ episode (Gru., pp. 
ests on violent emendation and interpretation; and the more 
n of [Soderberg and] Wadstein {Tbt Clermoni Runic Cai- 
)o) that the figures and runic inscription on the right side of 
the Franks Casket tel'er to scenes from the.SJgurBr saga has not been 
substantiated, see Napier, Fumi'vall Miscellany (1901), pp. 37iff.i 
Schfick, Studitr i narditk titteratur- ecb rtligionshistoria, i (1904), 
pp. i76f.' Th: antiquity of the heroic lore embedded in Bfi»Ti'«//"need 
not be insisted upon anen. 

878. ^ara)>e enmenabeamgearwe newistoti. Thoughmriuw- 
tati adniits of being construed with the genitive (see 681), it is probable 
that its is due mainly to the partitive idea suggested by ua- 
cut'eifela, S76. The para Ire combination regularly agrees with the 
syntactical requirements of the governing clause, cf. Delbriictl. 6. ij, 

879. Fitela is merely the follower of Sigemund. So the Norse 
Sinijl^tli appears In the role of a subordinate, not an independent saga 
figure (Bugge L 4.84. zoo). 

8fto. )>oane hE swulces bwat secgan wolde. The reference is to 
deeds done by Sigemund before Fitela joined him. For Jivuket, see 
Lang. § S n. 1. 

SSS- Kfter diaSdase dOm nnl7t«l. 'Renown at^er death' nas 
the ideaJ hero's chief aim in life. See ijg/ff.j Intr. x\'ix, Ixiii; Aagl. 
axxvi ryj. 

887. hordea hyrde. The hoard motive appears here properly con- 
nected with the dragon fight. In the Sibclvngmlied the winning of the 
hoard is separated from Sigfrit's slaying of the dragon. 

888. iaa. genSSde. . . A single-handed light is, of course, especially 
glorious. Cp. 4JI, 1541, i34Sff- (Beowulf); Saxo ii 99 (Frotho: 
'solitariuj,' see Par. § 7); Nibel. 89 (Sigfrit : -aleine an alle helfe'); 
Nennius, Hiitoria Brilonum % ;6 (Arthur: 'ipse solus'); Plutarch, 
Tbeteus §19 (jiijjfvit ^viinAxov SdjeiFra). 

890-92. According lo Norse legend, Sigmundr — an '<5i5inn hero,' 

Piriefi of a Minl-hlsioHcjl tiaimt, kc Chadwick Or. 148 f. The tradition 
ily b«n htld to be of Franklsh protcnience, thguEh fluEre 
n East Gothic 


f Biiipindian (Wddng) exiles that fctl- 
in Moifblk. Boer {Z/JA. ilrii 130 n.), like Cbadwkk, believs in ScantUnn' 

* Certain interclting motitts hive been fdnud out u being common to the 
' Beowulf' and the > Nibelungen ' narrative, see note on 3051 If. For nnne ftrtl- 
lela between the ■ Finoriiiug' and the ' NlbduDgcD ' tMrft tee Incrod. to TU 

Figii tt FinniHrg. 


like Henn6ffr — receired a wondraus twcwd from the gnat god. Sec 
Hjndl, I (Par. g 4), Ffliungajoga, du 3 (a detailed account of S^ 
mund'i obtaining the swocd}. — The diagon ii, as it were, nailed on 
the walL — Note the end rime of %go>': t^iK 

895. selfes dfime; i.e., inch ueaiurei — and at many — ai be de- 
lired. Cp. tj7sf-i ii47-- — KshleOd. The ipelling £o foi (i.e. a\ 
after /u ocouionallr net nith {-Angl. axv 171 j 5. ZfdPb.iv iij). 
Wai it caused in thii case, by aiudogy with (Mercian) bUadant (Or 
wat the icribe thinldng t^getiaU f) 

696^. bxr on beum acipu. Type D. Sec Dent^zhbein L 

897. WTrmhU ('being hot/ i.e. 'by iu own hen') E«>ne^t. 
(Cp. ]04of j 1605 IF., i666tF.; IntT. xiiif.) This motive — cp. &r- 
fridilitd 10, 147 — has been cnlaiged upon (and modified) in ^ 
accounts of the dragon fight of Siguri&'-Sig&it. C£ 1. Folak, Umttr- 
lucbungeu iibtr dU Sigfi-idsagn (Berlin Dixi., 1910), pp. 47f. — Note 
the 'ui-allitcialioD in three succeiuve lines. (Intr. bui d. 3.) 

901-915. This digrcnion on HeremOd ■ ii to be interpreted io coo- 
junction with a limilar one (occorriDg in Hro%ar'> famoin harangue 
afier tbc second combat), 1709—1711.* The main point of the ttny re- 
fened to in ibeie two alluuvc pauages b that Heremod was a Rrong, 
valiant hero, pre-eminent among hit fcllowi, giving promise vS a bril- 
liant career, tnit subsequent!}' proved a bad ruler, cruel and stingy, and 
having become a burden to his people, ended miserably. A minor iea- 
turc, which in the Btovjtilf itself remains obscure, is connected with 
certain events preceding his accesuon (907-13). 

M allenboff looked upon Heremod as a mere allegorical peraonifica- 
tion setting ftHth the dangers of heri-mid, i.e. ' warlike diipowtion.'l 
But later ittidies have shown him to be a definite figure in Danish 
historical-l^endary tradition.* Thus Saio teUs of Olo 1^0 was a won- 
deifiilly strong and gifted youth, but later showed himself a cruel and 
unrighteous king, so that twelve gcncials ('duces'), moved by the dis- 
tress of their country, plotted ag^st his life and induced Starcatherui 
to kill the king while alone at the fa«th (viii i&s). This Olo ss well aa 
the figure of Olavus, on whom the three goddesses of &te bestowed 

' Chief refrrmcBs: MBII. %t)t.; Bn. 37-45j Siewti !■ 4-33. Fortberi toi 
Brink L 4.7. J36, Ko^d L4.S.167 f., Bim 16S, Ssimin, .Af/. m 39S-7, 
OttoL 7. 17.30 f,, Cbsdwick Or. 149 f. Fur s Em of nriiee Ku£>, we joKph, 
^rfPi. iiH3S6{L5.«). 

* An indirect lefcRnce to the chancta- of Heremfid ha bees detected in die 
praise of Beowalf, 1177-83. 

' Simikrty ten Brink. 

' A ilight nmilirity is liKind in the cat of the Dinkh kiof Harald HiUets% 
who beame ' ob seaeclmi tevaicitemqiw dribna . . oniunu ' ind derknl man* 
ht an boDorablc dead) (Suo rii 155). A VotDian puallel ii the cidcI tynnl 
Meienciut, who «u dnven out of the land by the ' fan cHra,' ^m, in 
411 1. 

NOTES 159 

■beauty and fkv«r in the ejt* aC men,' •the virtue of geneiotitjr,' but 
alio 'the vice of ni^ardlmcas ' (Suio vi 181), is identical with the 
Danish king Ali inn fnikni,' who after a long, vigotouareignira! killed 
by Slarka45r [Tnglingataga, ch. 15 (1.9)} Skjqldungataga, cb. i)). Id 
vien of the fact, hotrever, that according to the NimagiilipaUr (cir. 
tjoo A.D.) and the Egili Saga ak Atmuadar (14th century) it is King 
Armo'Sr that wai slain by Siarka'Sr while bathing, there i: good reason 
to believe (whh Bugge) that the name Hetemod applied to this nga 
figure in BtovnUf goes back to true old Danish legend, the namca 
Heremod (ON. HcnnolSr) and Arm6fir (Af-?) being insignificant varia' 

Another version of the story (tTansferred to Lotherus) , which ia apt 
to throw light on the hidden meaning of 11. 907-1 }, occurs in Saxo 
i II. (A brief mention in the AnnaUi Rjfttiei, Pat. i».5.) Of the 
two sons of Dan — the &buloui eponymous ancestor of the Danish 
kings — 'Humblus' was elected king at his father's death; but 

Satcr onj by the nudice of ensuing &te .... he was taken by Lo- 
enis in war, and bought hia life by yielding up his crown But 

Lotherus played the king ai insupportably as he had played the soldier, 
inauguratmg hii reign stiaightway with arrogance and crime) for he 
counted it uprightness to strip all the most eminent of Dfe or goods, 
and to clear hii country of it* loyal citizens, thinking all his equals in 
birth his rivals for the crown. He was soon chastised for his wicked- 
ness) for he met his end in an iniurrection of hi* country; which bad 
once bestowed on him his kingdom, and now bereft him of his life* 
Putting together the veiled aliuuon of the hut clause (• which had raiee 
bestowed on him his kingdom ') and Beeiu. 907 ff., Sievera concluded 
that Lothenis gained the throne through theiuppoit of an active minor- 
ity c^ the people which had been from the beginning in favor of tut 
•uccesaion and regretted (iefTdM milum 907) the turn Danish afiatra 
had taken under the rule of his [weaker] brother. 

A fiunt and confused echo of this narrative has been discovered by 
Sanazin {^igt. xii J9ifr.) in the Scimdia iUustrata of the Swedish 
chronicler Johannes Messeniua (beginning of the 1 7th century). * Lo- 
therus igiturDanorum rea' — we are informed — 'ope luorum propter 

nimiam dcstitutus tymnnidcm, lupeiatusque in Jutiam proiugit ' 

He returns from this exile, slays the rival king Baldcrus^ and lempo- 
tarily regains possession of his kingdom, but loses his life in a war of 
revenge instigated by Othinus. 

That the Ag>. poet recognized Heremod as a Danish king, is seen 
from ilnl Styldinga 91] and Ar-Scjldingum 1710 (Seylditigat baag 
used in the wider sense of 'Danes,' without regard to the Scyld dynasty). 

> Cp. Hik£. 14 (Par. $4). ' TraulaDon by Sltoa. 

* The bet that in Gyl^inning (Proe Edda), cb. 48, Hemw'Br — the umt 
' djSnn hero ' of Hyndlnljie — apfcu* ai (tijSn't ion and) BaMr's 
al pnctf of the tdentit]' cf LoChei and Heremid. 


Moreover, both in Ags. and Norse genealogiet (Par. fS i.i &i, 5, !.i, 
cp. 1.4), Heremod figures as the jkther, i.e. predecessor of Scjld(wa) 
(Skjijidx), just as Saxo (i 1 1) represents Scioldus as Lothenis' son and 
follower oti the Danish throne. More precisely, he belonged to an earlier 
line of kings, < and it tvas after his fall that the Danes endured distress — 
atdorleaie 15, until the God-sent Scyld inaugurated a new dynasty. 

The coupling of Heremod and Sigemund as heroes of greatest n- 
nown springs from a Scandinavian tradition (which may have arisen even 
before Heremod tvas given a place among the Danish kings). This is 
proved by HyndlttljiS 2 {Par. J 4) and, indirectly, by a comparison of 
Hakanartnal, 1. 38 > with Eiriitmal, 1. 16^ (Chadvfick, 7ht Cult of 
0/A<«(i899), p. sij. 

In contrast nith the Sigemund episode, which is Introduced as a pure 
heroic tale, our author has infiised into the Heremod story a strong 
spirit of Christian moraliiation (cf. Angt. xxkv 475, 479 f.), adding 
besides a touch of sentimental softness (so+f, 907, 909), In both of 
the pass^es Heremod is made to serve as a foil to the exemplaiy 

89S'. Se WfBS wreccena. Type Cx, see ESt. xjotix 417; or, «c- 

cordilig to Holthausen (who reads li/rtccgTia), A3 . 

901. siSSan HeremSdes hild sweSrode. For the punctuation, see 

MPb, iii 457, Sigemund's glory survived that of Heremod (who in 
HynJluljas is mentioned before SIgmund). It was unrivaled after 
Heremod's decline, — sijiesrode refers either to his advancing years or 
(probably) to his lamentable death. (Cp. Grtlliiiaga, oh. 58: < Gret- 
tir was the strongest man ever knovm in the land, since Ormr StorolEt- 
son and Jjorilfr Skolmsson left off their trials of strength.' Similarly 
two heroes, Offa and Alewih, are set against one another in Wids. 
35 tf., see the quotation in note on 1931-61.) 

A gratuitous transposition of U. 901-915 (861, 901-915, 8£i— 
900, 916 ff.) was proposed by Joseph (L j.ii). (Cf. ten Brink 60.) 

902l^4>. He mid Eotenum wearS etc Heremod, Jbrced to flee 
the country (cp. 1714), sought refuge in the land of the Eatan ('Jutes,' 
see the quotation from Messenius, p. 159), the enemies of the Danes 
(cf, Introd. 10 Tbi Figbt at Fitinsburg), exactly as the Tebettious Swed- 
ish princes EJinmund and E^dgils were sheltered by the hereditary foei 
of their country, the Geats (Intr. xl). There he was slain (as Eanmtmd 
was in Geatland). His death was brought about by treachery (^forla- 
cen 903), but the circumstances are unknown. (Bugge, who reads 
mid lotenum, points to the murder of Ali (Olo, ArmoSr) by StarkaSr, 
who was sometimes regarded as a jqtunn.) — on f&onda gewcAld 

' Was Ecgieeh (l7to) supposed to be the founder of thia line? Samiin {Angl. 
lii J96) conjectured Heremod to be the leader of the HenJi who were etpeOed by 
the Dina. Moller (tooff.) thought him idenciul with Finn. Koi^l and Bio* 

• See Cerf. Fw. Bar. i 164. ' See above, p. i SS, n. j. 

.... foraended poi^bly means: 'be nae tent to heli,' cp. SoS( 

904>^5>. Hlne MrhwylmaB/lemede ta la.agt. HeremSd mas un- 
happy during the greater part of his life (ie tange)\ lirst because ex- 
cluded from the throne and exiled, later because hated by his own peo- 
ple and put to death. The singular of the verb may be explitined 
syntactical ly, lorhvjylmai being felt lo be equid to lerk. Cf. Lang. 
n^S-t'i '9-li 3^^ Dietrich, ZfiiA. x jjif., xi 444^. Only sporadi- 
cally do ne find the ending -en of the pret. ind. plur. of wk. verbs 
weakened to -f ,■ cf. £. M. Brown, 7/n Lang, of tbi Ruilyu/, Glejs to 
Matthew, ii (1S91), \-i,%; O. Eger, Dialtkt. in den FJtximui/trbdll- 
nitsen dtr agt. Bedauberittxung (Leipzig Diss., 1910}) S 13. 

908. si3, either 'lot,' 'fate' or ';oumey,' lefTring to . Heremod' » 
going into exile when his brother (Humblus in Saxo) was elected 

909. s8 ^e him bealwa tS bote geiyfde. Connect to with him. 
Similarly 1271. Cp. 617 f. (fioS). 

9iof. ^Kt )>xt SEodnes beam get'Con scolde etc. In accordance 
with the rule: 'no article before qualifying nounal genitive and noun,' 
Bamouw (p. i») would strike out the second p^l, which may very 
well be a late scribe's addition (cf. Schiicking L5.4S.1). ^lA siodnes 
btam (cp. SSS) was perhaps felt to be a compound, see lojgi and 
Van. (Of course, Heremod is meant, not his son.) — With gtliion 
Koldr cp. gepiob tela ixiK. — f^derKjieiu, 'ancestral (nobility, or) 
tank.' Cp. Ex. jjS f. : Jrumbearnes ribt , . . ead and aSth. 

913-15. H8, i.e. Beowulfi 915 hine, i.e. Heremod. — e»lluni . . . 
muma cjnne (1057 f.: lallum . . . gumma cynnts) recalls the at ir- 
mindeot ai Hildebr. 1 3 (see Braune, Beiir. xxi 1 S. ; French toul It 
in0iid> 'everybody '). — frCondum gefKgra. Beowulf was universally 
lilud (cp. the ON. adj. vittsMl). gt/tgra a best explained as the 
compar. of *gtfitg (cp. OHG. gifagfa) 'content,' MHG. gfvag* 
'satisfied,' 'acceptable*; so Grein', Corrigendum- Siev., ZfdPh. 
^^ 3 j^< ^"S^- xxviii 440 f.), — though it would not be impossible to 
derive a compar. gtf^pa from *g'fage (see ge/ien), 'causing joy" 
(Bu. 41), or 'cheerful,' 'genial' (B.-T. Suppl,), 'gracious' (cp. 
meanings of gl<rd). — .hine fyren onwBd. Sin entered Heremod's 
heart {Angl. xxxv ixS). 

9171 9a WKi morgenlEoht/scofen and acjnded ; i.e., morning 
wore on (see 837). A similar use of icHfan is found Gen. 136: Mt- 
Md after sciaf/ icirum iciman . . . xfen iriit. {ESt. xlii 326.) 

933. getnime mide. 924. maegfia hfise. King and queen ap- 
pear with a train of attendants. A common epic trait. Cf. Cook, 
JEGPh. V .5Sj Arcb. cxxvl 45. 

925-990, Speech-making by HrSSgSr and BEowulf. 

936, stSd on stapole. The interpretation, < stood by the (central) 
pillar' (Heyne", see L9.4.1.4S), has been largely discarded, since 


HtolSgir IB lupiKiKd to itind outiide tbe hall, and fuch * UM of m would 
be, at leait, out of the ordinary, ilapsl more likely denotes "the 
Hq}! leading up to the hall, or the landing at the top of the flight" 
(Milter, Angl. lii 31)! f.} or, pouibly, "an erection in the open air, 
standing in the area in front of the hall ' ' (Earle, Hand-Botk la Lamii- 
Cbarilri [18SS], p. 467, sec alio his note on Bimu. 916; Midden- 
dorff, AE. Flumaaunburh [1901], pp. ixif.). Cf. tiED. : itafU, ib.i 
[Child MLN. yiii »Szf., referring to Weinhold (19.31.139)1 <pil- 
6r,' i.e. "the largest of the double row of pillars (in the ScandinaTiaB 
halt) which came out above the house") fzf. Falk, X.-£.i]Sa.] 

93a f, mE goes with wEnde. 

936. wEa K^dacofen. A predicate iu«j may be supplied from tbe 
preceding /Jn/. Sec 1343, 1035, andnote on Rii. (We might say that 
pitt iiMj is to be understood.) Foi the general thought of the passage^ 
Cp. i7of- 

943 ff. The praise of the hero's mother is posubly a biblical re- 
miniscence (Luke xi 17, etc.), cf. Aug], xxviii 441 f., axxv 46S) sec 
alio Intr. xvi n?. — 943. Sone magKH, 'such a son') cp. 1758. — 
944. Kfter ifamcjronum serves the tame purpose as midyldum, 77, 

946ff. ND ic, Beowulf, )>ec etc. Seeii75f., 1479. The relation' 
■hip entered into by HroSgar and Biowulf docs not signify adoption 
in the strict legal sense, but implies fatherly friendship and devoted 
helpfnlness respectively, BUggesting at any rate the bonds of loyal rc- 
tainership (see Antiq. Ji). Cf. Chadwick H. A. 374; v. Amin 
1.9,10.1 SAo. [SchererL j.5.4Soff.; Miiller L9.1S.19f.) Rietichel. 
R.-L. i jSf.] 

958. We. Beowulf generously includes hit men. See 431, 1G5S, 

963. (feond) on frKtewnm, <in hit trappings,' or 'in full gear') 
a rather forced expreision as applied to a fighter who uses onlj bis own 
phyueal equipment. Cf. Aant. 17, [Tr.' 176.] 

964. on wttlbedde wrt^an. An alluiion to the fetlen <£ death, 
q>. 3045, 1901, 1007, (A>^1. scxv ^6$.) Beowulf did not intend to 
catch Grendel alive. 

983. oferhEanne hrBf hand scEawedon. They looked over the 
hig^ roof, i.e. they 'looked up to' or 'in the direction of the Uj^ 
roof, and beheld the hand.' (MP£. !ii 156.) 

984b-87s^ The treatment of this passage baa not yet reached the 
ftage of finality. Even the commonly accepted form of 984S fonui 
Kghw^lc wass (advocated by Sievers, ix 138, R. 131, in place of /sfwa 
igb-arflc [with luiri added to the following 1.^ at printed by Gt^ 
Heyne, et al.), has been assailed on syntactical grounds by Rica 
(L 6.ii.i.37Sf.), who suggests, as alternatives, 'Wxt /oran 'i^vijU 
or foran ivj SghwyU, The retention of the MS. reading iltda m^la 
gtbnuylc 985', 'each of the pUces of tbe nallt' (Schiicking, Cham- 
bers), carries no conviction. On the other hand, gtbvyU may very 

NOTES 163 

«eIlbeathoufhtlcwKpetitionlikeifti£/r of jS6. Regsnllngluuidaponi 
9(6, it *eem( that tptra, ekewhete » wk. mauc., hu pasied over into 
the fern, dan (cf. Sier. [ 178 n. 1). The form egl of the MS. has been 
tsken by nuwy tcholan (e.g., Kemble, Grein, Heyne, Sedgefield, 
Chamber*) u a noun, 'ipike,' < talon' (Kemble: 'moleitia'}, but the 
oiUy lubstantiated meanings of egt, tgU (the latter being the onial 
Form) are 'awn' {'ail'), 'beard of barley' (B.-T. Suppl.), 'mote' 
(Lair 6.41 f.). Aj toiyyx, seeT.C. j»5. [Cf. also Aant. 1 7 i Tr. > 
176-t j Jrcb.cxir 179.] 

9S8. him refers to Grendci. heardrm ; the adj. (gen, plur.) nwd 
absolutely, cf. Lang. {15.1. 

989i>. ^t, conjunction, '(in inch ■ way) that.' 

991-1x50. Roy^ entertainment in Heorot. 

991 f. Bl wsB hiten . . Heort . . . gefrvtwod. The inf. latioM 
ii to be understood in cormectitm with gffrirtvMd, cf. Aant. 18. The 
conctruction of the panive of hitan with ■ passive inf. looki like a 
Lattniim, ice Arcb. cxxvi ^55. [Chambers places a comma after Arv/v. 
He is fbliowed by J. F. Royster, who cites the sentence as an example 
of 'mixed conttruction,' — the idea of the < oideting* or 'causing' 
giving way to that of the 'completion' of action, see JEGPh. xvii 
89 n. 18.] — 991". fela )«ra wks. Type D4. 

994 f. The hanging of the walls with tapestries 11 in conformity 
with Scand. and Ags. (also German) cusrom. See Monteliui tjo ) 
Kalund and GuJfmundrwn, P. Grdr.* iji 4]!, 4771 Guliriruirii/. 
ii t5{ Topper's RiddUi, p. 194; Hel. 4544^1 Miiller L 9.1S.65. A 
dose parallel to that particular instance is found Ajttid\ 637 IF. (Areb. 

990>>. )i|ra )>e on awylc ataraS. See i485>>, 279^") )654''. 

looab-ja. NS>«tySebjS/tObea^nne. The import of the vigne 
p^ it &lly cleared up by the context: it is impossible to escape death 
(&te). A proverbial saying well known in ON. literature ; e.g., Saxo 
viii 295 : 'iarit arduum obstare.' Cp. Iliad vi 4SS 1 fiotpa/Cafrird^fu 
wtfWfUivr ff^MHi IrlpAc. {Arcb. cxv r79 n.) 

1003b. fremme ■« )>e wllle, 'do (or, try) it who will.* (Imperfec- 
tire function of ^/Mman.) A kind of formula | see a766i>, 1394^; 

tO04-ti. The parallel genitivM ■Swlberendra, ni^ bearna, gerund- 
bBendn depend on gearwe stSwe (cp. Hit. 445 }) g nfde gen^dde 
...stSive' the place fbrced(upon him) by necessity' (cp. Cfr. [i] 68 f.). 
Hogtbwfkta 3glnu^U need be inserted, since a pronominal subject is 
imiljr supplied from the preceding lines (cp. T190 f.). Cf. Bu. ]6S f. { 
MPb. iui4r, 457i Angl. xxsv ^66. [Rie. Zs. jgi; Tr.' 179} Sed., 
note.] — The MS. reaAing geiaean makes bad meter and worse sense. 
Brett's rendering (MLR. xiv 7]: "gain in spite of his striving" is a 
desperate guetst cf. also B.-T. 

1008. Bwefef nfter ajrmie ; i.e., sleeps after the feast of life. Sec 



jiS, II9J Earle's note; Cook, MLN. u xj/f. (classical andnuxlcm 
parallels). — The dal. oi lymbt! and the adv. sym{lf^le have soinetimea 
been confused. 

loii f. Ne gefrfEjren ic ^3 mSg^e mSran weorode . . . silgebs- 
ran. A combination of two types, viz. ») nt hyrdt ic c^ntlicer etui gtgjr- 
luan 38 (1027, 1197, 1841); b) aa ic yiide gtfragn ijitorc gebannan 

74 (14S4, 1694, 17511 »77j)- Accordingly, pa is adverb. — itl gt- 
biran; i.e., they beWed properly, as the occasion lequired, cp, Fimiib. 
38. The reference here is to the etiquette (cp. fsgire 1014) or to the 
splendid appearance of the retainers on the festive occasion (cp. Nibel. 
S93 1 siuie wol man da gebarte). 

1018 f. nalies ^censtafas/pEod-Scyl dingus Jienden fremedon. 
Unquestionably an allusion to HroSulTs treachery in later times. Intr. 

1022. biltcumbor. As hilt is normally a at. neut. (occasionaUy, in 
the later language, a st. masc. or wk. fern.), a compound biltecumbar 
cannot well be admitted. (Siev. mvi 410.) The banner seems to have 
been fastened to a stalF with a sort of handle at its lower end. (Cp. the 
designation birftmict, 1457.) That the veiy common bildt- should 
have been misspelt bilu-, it is difficult to believe. 

1023 f. manige gesSwon practically serves the same purpose as a 
gifritgn- formula of transition [MFb. 111 244), enlivening the plain 
enumeration and signalliing the value of the fourth present. This con- 
sideration precludes the punctuation mark (colon, semicolon, comma) 
placed after iiucord by several edd. (thus Holthausen, Schiicking, 
Sedgefield). Cf. Aant. tS. 

I024l>-25». Beowulf g;e>ah/ful on fiette. Beowulf emptiesthecup 
and expresses his thanks, no doubt in obedience to well-regulated 
courtly custom. See 61S. 

I025>>-26. See 104B, I90if,2995f. Afolia scalenum, tYtoag'hwA 
impossible in the later language (Siev. § 177 n. 1), would be objection- 
able on metricai grounds. Besides, no instance of icota seems to be re- 
corded, {^ticota, Wr.-Wu., Agi. mOE.Vncab.i 15. i, 107.7.) 

102S. gummanna tela. Litotes ; cf. MPh. iii 148. 

1031. The exact nature of a wala, which seems to be an ornamental 
as well as usefiil part of the helmet, is not known. Stjema (if.) 
guessed that "there was an inner head-covering of cloth, leather or the 
like . , . and that this was fastened to an outer convex plate" {•wala). 
Cf. Rie. Zs. 391-41 Bu. 369; Falk L 9.44.158. 

1032. fSIa laf, ' that which is left after the files have done their 
work.' A notable kenning for ' sword,' see Gloss. ! laf. A form fil 
(by the side o{ Jeol, fil) may well have existed (Bolb. 5 199; see 
Lang. {10.7). But it is equally possible that an earlier MS. had 
Jiaia {=fida), vrhich by a thoughtless scribu was taken for feola 
' much ' and normalized Vtfela. This might also account for the plur. 
m*abun. — With 1031 If. cp. 1453 i. 


NOTES i6s 

- 1036, on flet twlJ. The horses are led directly bto the hall. A 
custom frequently mentioned in ballads and lomancesj sec Gummere 
G.O. loj, Earlc's note. 

1045. hit bine itEI brucAn. A formula; see 1116, 2162, 2811. 

Cf. Meyer L 7.11.389. 

1053 ff' HroSgar, who feels responsible for the safety of his guests, 
compounds for the loss of a man by the payment of luergild. 

1056-62, God and mOd, io56f. constitute the dual subject; see 
note on 572 f. The apparent subordination of fete to God (Intr. xlix) 
does not justify us in recognizing in this passage the influence of Boe- 
^us' Consolalion of phUosophy (as Earle does, see his notej H. F. 
Slewan, Boetbius, an Eiiay [1891], pp. ifiiff.). Nor do we need to 
follow the earlier dissecting critics who condemned this passage as an 
interpolation. It is merely one of those interspersed reflectioas in 
which the author of the poem delighted. It enjoins rational trust in the 
governance of the Almighty and readiness to accept whatever may be 
in store for lis, belt good or evil. (Cf Angl. xxxv 118.) With 
1060—62 cp. Gnom. Coll. 1 1 f . 1 gomol [tis] motersil, j fymgiarum frid, 
li pf ir feala gtbldtS. [The adversative meaning 'yet' proposed, 
though "very tentatively," for Forjtaa 1059 (M. Daunt, MLR. xiii 
47S} does not improve the context.] 

1064. fore Healfdenes hildewisan, 'in the presence of Healf- 
dene's battle-leader,' i.e. of Hrotlgar. We may assume that the title 
appert^ning to Hro'Sgar during his fether's reign is here retained, in 
violation of chronology. Forthe use of fore, see 1215, lipids. 55, 104, 
Cf. /iHgl. xxviii 4+9 n. 3. [Cf. Aant. 18 ("louter onzin''); ten Brink 
6gj Tr.' 183: bildt^isan = -ivtsuin, dat. plur.] 

1069-I159. The Finn Episode. See Introduction to The Fight 
St Finnaburgand Finnsburg Bibliograph; (LF.). 

1066-70. Scholars are not at all agreed on the punctuation and 
construction of these lines. A detailed survey of the various modes of 
interpretation has been offered by Green (LF. 4.17). See also Varr. 

According to the punctuation here adopted the lines armouncing the 

recital of the Finn story, |be] Finnes eaferum, 85 hie se 

fiEr begeat, indicate, by a characteristic anticipation, the final triumph 
of the Danes over their enemies, see ii4.6f.: Siuylct . . . Finn eft 
begtat / sivtordbiato, i]5i tf. The clause 6d hie se f^r hegeat 1068'* 
certainly looks like the termination of a sentence, cp. iigi'', ■2.%^^^, 
igSj*, iijofi. — 'healgamen io66, 'enteruinment,' hence 'entertain- 
ing tale'j with Sonne 1066 cp. 880. gid oft wreeen io5 5i>, 'many 
a song was recited ■ (cf. Siev. xxix 571; nole on 794I1-5); whereupon 
a definite speeinien of the scop's repertory Is exhibited in summary and 
paraphrase. It may seem that the author passes very abruptly to the 
new theme, leaving unexpressed the thought: 'and thus he sang.' 
However, this difficulty vanbhes, if the phrase of io(>i*> is understood 
in a more geneial sense: 'there was plenty of entertainment by tne 



iDiniticI* (otSgiJ h interpreted u ^ut or ■£(* of ■ Uj), The In- 
Mrtion of fo in 106S1 [he] Finnet eafimm, '(bout Finn's men' or 
■ about Finn tnd bis men ' (cp. Hrislingas i960, rafirum EegvitUM 
1710; Sat. 6] (?); Auit. t6) ii on the whole more natunl than the 
change to lafiran (a second object of minan^, though the latter would 
be quite possible s^liiticallj' {Aagl. xxviii 443). 

The reading of Schucking (nxxtx 106, ed.), Hollhtusen', who 
make the Episode (direct quotation) be^n at 1071, and who — virtu- 
al!}' letuming to the practice of the earliest edd. — place a comma aAer 
btgiat, thus contidering 1069-70 the continuation of the subordinate 
dauie introduced by eS 1068, and taking txlte aa nom. ung., U in- 
compatible with the bets of the ttoty, since it is the Danes, not the 
Frisians, who are overtaken bj the sudden attack (fir) which Icult to 
HmEft death. 

Dispensing with an emendation in 106S, Ettmflller, Grein, and 
others mark the beginning of the Episode at Finius tafirum. More- 
over, Grein, Bugge (19)1 Green construe b^s as ace plur. (parallel 
with bWj, thus atriving at the rendering: 'By Finn's men — when Mi- 
set befell them, the heroes of the Half-Danes — Hnaef was feted to fidi.' 
See Green, /.f., also 1. 6. 8. Si cf. Kock' log. This must be admitted to 
be a highly satisfectoiy interpretation, provided it can be justified on 
syntactical and stylistic grounds. However, it ia still a question whether 
fiallan could be construed with a dative of personal agency, especially 
as this intrani. verb ia elsewhere used absolutely (or with an expression 
denoting instrumentality in a more indirect may, see aS]4f., cp. 1901, 
Maid. 71}. Besides, the opening of the sentence by such heavy, com- 
plex phraseology (1068-69*) '^ decidedly harsh, and the use of the 
■o-called proleptic pronoun hie (cf. MPh. iii 1 ; 5 j Intr. Ini) in this 
context is felt to be unnatural. It may be that absolute certainty ii not 
within reach. 

1071 f. Ne hQrn Hildebarh etc. Ijtotes. io7i>i Type Bi, 

I074>. beamnm oad brOSmm. Generic plural i 'son and brother '( 
■ee 565. MoUer (59) thought the combination an archuc idiom de- 
rived &om the (elliptic) 'dvandva dual* (cf. note on ioo»)) but ue 
OsthofT, /;*. n 304 f- 

I074>>, hie on gebyrd hmroiL Cp. 1570. A variant, but hardly 
convincing rendering of #» g*liyrd is <in succesuon,' 'one after an- 
other' (Aant. ig; cf. B.-T. Suppl.). 

1077. sj^San morgen cCm. This may or may not mean the (trst 
morning after the night attack} see Fintub. 41. 

loSz-Ss*. The purport of these lines as commonly undentood is: 
'he could be succeMful neither in the offensive nor in the defensive.' 
8;efeohtui does not mean here (as might be expected): *obtun by 
fighting') wig serves as 'cognate accus.' (Cf. Lorz 50) JBGFb. xiv 
548.) As to for^riagftn, the meaning < rescue ' generally aSHgned to 

NOTES 167 

it i> (jnettionable — it would indeed lit aepra^an — ) tlie only proM 
iutance of the v<rb, Btn, R. (ed. Schrder, in Gr.-WQ., Biil. d. ags. 
Freta iii) ii5.7 (cp. Ormtdam 6169), would &vot the lenie 'thnin 
Mide,* 'cruih.' CMlettm Brown {MLN. zzxiv iSi If.) luggests the 
dumge of Cegne to eigma; thus the object of ftrPringan ( ■ crush ' ) 
would be 'the remnant of die thanet of the prince,' ivialUfi reierring 
in 1QS4 u well SI in 109S to the Danish party. — (Mtt. Bl. i.iit lu 
mtaiu pJi lio •wiatSf tJJlgt forstandan f Gatan mid giiSt. . . .) — The 
Mresalaidbylhepoeton the weakening- of the FiiBJanfbrcea (cp. loSof.) 
■tteiti hii deiire to exalt the valor and succett of the Danet. (Cf. Law- 
, lence, PuU. MUti. »xi 403.) [Moore, JEGPi. iviii 2o8f., like 
Brown, uodtTttandM firprimgan as 'put down,' but takes prndnti Begmt 
u variation of Hmgeitt and connden 1084 Mmi-parentlieticaL] 

io8si>. hig, i.e. the Friiiani) k> hie, iol6'. 

io87t>-88. hie, i.e. the Danes. It ii reasonable to believe that the 
Danes and Frisians are to be entertained in one and the same hall, a 
different one from that wrecked by the Eghtj hence /«/ 10S6 does not 
imply the exclusion of the Frisians. (Cp. F^tiangaiaga, ch. 1 1 1 tldfti 
Uf^ ientuigar tina bill.) , 

ID97. nnflitme is unexplained. It may be connected with fita» 
'contend,' cp. unbtfihtn < uncontested ' i *lnt itnfiitmti 'with undis- 
puted aeal.' It has been held that the instr. tint has the force of an in- 
tensive adverb, 'much,' 'very;' {and that anfliimtii an adv. form), 
which is but adding another guess. Kock' 109 proposes ilni, unflilnti 
"strongly and indisputably." No light is obtained from the equally 
obscure ufubA/Mf 1119. [Grienb. 748 would ttanslate 'firmly' or 'iii> 
violably,' deriving «irj(((M* from ji/oMn 'float.'] 

1098. weotena dSme. A noteworthy allusion to the authority of the 
lung's advisory council. Cp. Jul. 9S1 afir toiltna dim. King Alfred 
undertook the codification of the kwi 'mid mlnra imttna gittable^ 
JElfr. Laaai, Introd. 49.9. Cf. F. Purlitz, Kmig u. Wittnagtmat bti 
Jtn Angthacbitn, Leipzig Diss., ii<)%\ F. Liebermann, tht Natimal 
dutmbly in tbt Angh-Soxm Period, Halle a.S., 191 ]- 

I099t>. J.»t, * upon condition that' {Angl. xzviii 444.) 

IIOI f. nfi . , . Ctre gemCnden etc., ' nor . . . ever mention [the 
&ct] although they followed . . .' . — banan. Whether Finn himself 
slew Hr^sf we do not knowj see note on 1968. — Making peace with 
the slayers of one's lord was entirely contrary to the Germanic code 
of honor. Cp. OE. Cbroa. a.d. 755 (> Cynewulf and Cyneheard')i 
Ond P3 ciiidm bit )>at bim liinig mig liofra nire pmiit biera 
ilS/erd, end hit nijrt bit banan fttgiau notdon. 

1104a. ^nne, adversative, 'on the other hand.* {Angl. nviii 444.) 

Iio6b remains problematical, see Varr. The reading sESan {JEGPb. 
viii 1155, cf. I'ng. { 14, p. xci, n. 4) would mean ' declare the truth,' 
'settk'i cp. tejrait i$jg; Antiq. Jfi. Kock' 109 atgues for the ex- 
iatence (^ a wk. verb i^esan (tel. to liosan), ' atone,' ■ dear.' 

D, ..■■.v^.oo^ic 


1107-8', Ad (MS. as) WKS ceefned, ond lege gold/ShKfcD of 
horde. Why is gold ietched from thf hoard ? PTeaumably the refer- 
ence is to precioui objects to be placed on the funeral pile — cp. iii i f., 

3ij8fF., perhaps 3ij4f.) ji6i C i 36fF.i Par. S?! Saxo viii 164 — , 
which points to ad as the proper reading ; see also iiioi jEI pirn Sde. 
(If da were meanl, we should e^ea the plural, cp. 1097.) [Lawrence, 
Publ, MLAss. XXX 406 suggests that Finn intended to leward his war- 
riors with presents of gold. . — The payment of luirgitd seems out of 
the question.] — icge is entirely obscurej see Varr., B.-T. One of 
many possibilities is to explain it as a corruption of the adj. ^ct found 
once in the runic inscription of the Isle of Wight sword, which perhaps 
means 'one's own' (Hempl, Pu*/. MLAsi. xviii 95 if.); ice geU 
'; JEGPb.w"- --' 

iiopB. betst beftdorinca, i.e. Hnaef. — 1109b. wKioabSlscftm, 
■ was ready to be placed on the fiinetal pile.' 

tll6. bSnfatabarnui.ondoiibSldoii. Thesame hysteron pro- 
teron in lufi. Evidently the purpose, or the result, of the action wai 
uppermost in the author's mind. 

Itt7b.i8. Idea gaoniode,/g:eBiiirode g^iddutn. The song of la- 
ment by Hildebuth is in keeping with primitive custom. See 3150 If., 
i446f Cf. Gummerc L ^.izi.i.m; Schucking L 4.116.1. 7?. 
(The reading gSshring or the interpretation of -n'nr as -bring (soHolt- 
hausen ; cp. aispranc 1121), 'loud lamentation,' would add the wail- 
ing of a chorus as a kind of refrain; cp. Uiad xxiv 719 if. ) GflSrioc 
tatSb; i.e., the warrior was placed on the funeral pile. Cf, Bu. Tid. 
50 f, j Satrazin, BeitT, xi 530. [Grimm L 9. 1.262: ' the warrior' s spirit 
rose into the air.'] 

II30. hlynode for hlSwe. Does bla'w denote the place where the 
mound is to be built, or an old mound which ii to be used again f See 
ai4rff., iSoiff., 3156 ff. 

II3I {. bengeato buraton, Sonne blod setipranc./iaSbite llces. 
This seems to be an accurate description of what might easily happen 
during the initial stage of the heating of the bodies by the funeral fire} 
cf. JEGPh. »iv 5+9- laSbiu is parallel with bengeato. 

1135 ff. The Frisian warriors — presumably men who had been sum- 
moned by Finn in preparation for his encounter with the Danes — re- 
turn to their homes in the country (biabarh is a high-sounding epic 
term that should not be pressed), whilst Hengest stays with Finn in Finntt 
burh {where the latter is afterwards slain ; al hit itlfes ham 1147). 
There is no basis fur the inference tliat ft'njKj barh (see Finmb. 36) lies 
outside of Friesland proper.— frjj/anii . . ., bamai end beabarb a one 
of the favorite paratactic constructions (Lawrence, Publ. MLAii. xxx 
401 n. 17}. 

II3S, walf^gne winter. The unique epithet of winter has been 
surmised to mean ■ slaughter-stained ' or ■ deadly hostile,' ■ forbidding,' 
or (reading lualfsgiti) 'hostile to moving wateis ' (cp. 1610, iijif,). 

D, ..■■.V^.OO^IC 

NOTES ' 169 

Could tuilfSg tntaa 'marked by troubled (orig. 'battling') vaten* 
(see II ji''— ji') i tioie jiQrJib tuinltr, ' stormy winter' (M. Forster, 
St. EPh. I 1 73V Quite possibly ■walfag is nothing but a baclc-fbrnia- 
tion from loaifihs. 

II29>. [ea]l unhlttme. The puzzling unblitmt may be an adverb 
related to blytm 'lot' (3116) ■ 'very unhappily' (?). B.-T., Grienb. 
749: unhljtm 'ill-sharing,' ' misfortune' ; B.-T.: 'and his lot iras not 
a happy one.' 

I is^b-jo. card g:emulide,/)>Eab \t he meahte etc. ; i. e. , he thought 
longingly of his home, if . . . [speculating nhethei . . ., wishing for 
a chance to sail]. See the parallel lines, ii]S'>-4o. Cf. Beihl. xxii 
J7jf. Of course, a somewhat smoother text could be obtained by the 
insertion of nt before mcabtt. 

1134-36". Bw9 no gyt dSB. A trivial statement of a matter-of- 
course fact (cp. 1058). dee refers to g)>er gear, i.e. spring j lotder, 
with its preceding relative clause (1135), is amplifying variation of the 
implied subject ai dis. The bright spring 'weathers' always observe 
JholdtoJ the proper time j cp. i6iof. [Boer, ZfdA. xlvii 138, Schdck- 
ing xxxix loS understand 1134^ with reference to 1 129 if. : 'as those 
people do (or, as is the case with those) who watch for the coming of 
spring.' Similarly Thorpe, Grein, Arnold, Sedgefield.] 

1137 ff. fuudode, 'he was anxious to go.' [I^nrence, I.e. 411 n. 11 
"he hastened."] Whether Hengest actually sailed is not clear. If he 
did, it was primarily for the sake of fiirthering his plans for revenge. 

II41. )>«t he Eotena be«m inne geinuiide. The adv. inm, 'in- 
wde,' 'within' (cp. hriaer inne iveoll 1113), in combination with 
gimunJt signifies 'in the bottom of his heart 'j gimvnan, by concre- 
tion, means 'show one's remembrance by deeds.' Kock L 6.13. 1.J5 
would connect inne with fiat (= pt), ' in which.' 

1142-44. A passage that has received most divergent comments. 
him .... on bexrm dyde, which has been sometimes rendered by 
' plunged into his bosom ' (killing him) (so Kemble, EttmQUer, Grein, 
cf. Heinzel, An^.fdA. x 33,7), very likely means ' placed on his lap,' i.e., 
gave to him as a present; cp. 1194, 1404; also Gnnm. Cott. 25: fwlord 
steal m biarrne. — The reading Hun (nom.) Lsfing (ace, name of 
sword) is less acceptable than HOnlSfing, meaning 'son o( Hunld/,' i.e. 
quite possibly, nephew of Gustaf a-nA OilSf, see Introd. to Tbt Fight at 
Finasburg. — The conjectuial 'worodradenni (an unknown word; ac- 
cording to Bugge's interpretation! ' he did not refuse retain ership,' i.e. 
he agreed to become Finn's liegeman [by accepting from Hun, one of 
Finn's followers, the sword Lafing] ) has been very generally rejected. 
iroroldrSdeii has been variously explained as law, way, rule, or cus- 
tom, of the world, implying such diverse ideas as 'death,' 'fate,' 're- 
venge,' ' duty,' ■ sanctity of oath.' (E.g., Huchon: "aussi lui ne rc- 
cuU~t-i! pas devant la destinee"; CI. Hall; "he did not run counter 
to the way of the world," i.e. *he fell into temptation'; Ayresi "he 


did not thus prove Ncreant to hit duty*'} Schucklngi « without 
running counter lo the Uvr of the vrofld," i.e. ■ without violating hi* 
oaths.') More to the point Kcmi the miBe ■ condition,' ' ttipulition,' 
the ralher redundant luerold- rcfcning vsguclj to lomething mhich it 
in accordance with the ordinary course of life (cp., e.g., •woruldmSgai, 
Gfit, XI 7E). Ai to fomjman, it isregularly used with the dat. of the 
person (expressed or, 3s in this ca^e, implied) and the gen. of the thing 
asked for or insisted upon [or a Pitl- clause] . Accordingly the follow- 
ing rendering is considered plausiblei ' Under these circumstances (or, 
in this frame of mind) he did not refuse [him, i.e. Hunlifing] the 
condition, when Hunlaling placed the battle-flame (or : Battle-Flame), 
the best of swords, on his Up.' In olhcr words, Hengest is presented 
with a iamous sword (which has wrought havoc in the fight against the 
Frisians, 1145) with the stipulation £ne now supply by conjeclurei] 
that the vengeance he is brooding over is to be carried into execution, 
Hengest accepts and keeps his word. (Cf JEGPh. liv 547.) [Cf. Rie. 
Zs. j9fi ff. ; Heiniel, AnK.fdA. x 116 f ; Bu. 31 ff. j Aant. 30 f j Shipley 
L; Tr. F. isf., Bonn. B. ivii laaj Boer, IfdA. ilvii 139} 
Schil. Sa. II; R. Huchon, Rfvui girtnamqut iii 6a6 n.; Imelmann, 
D. Lil.K. XXX 997; CI. Hall, MLN. xxv iijf.j Lawrence, Publ. 
il/LA/. xiQt4i7ff.] 

1 146 f. Sw^tce ferhSfrecu F jn eft bageat/iweordbulo ■bScn. 
S'wylce, " likewise, ' ' seems to be used with reference to the former de- 
structive work of Hunlafing's gift (according to Bugge, with reference 
to the slaying of Hn«f) i eft, ' in his turn. ' 

1 14S S. ai^San grimne gripe etc. We may imagine that an attack 
on the Frisians was being planned by Hengest. But the fight broke out 
prematurely when Gu'Slaf and Oslif, loung their temper (iiS°''-St")i 
upbraided the Frisians for the treacherous onset (griniiu 'grifl 1148* 
i.e. the Fiimsburg Fight) and their resukont humiliation. (Cf. Bu. j6.) 
Both sargt and grimntgript are the objects dmindatt, 

1159-1350. Further eiitertaininetit,WeHlh>eow taking a lead- 
ing part. 

I163. win. On the culture of the vine by the Anglo-Saxons, see 
Hoops, Waldhaumt und Kutturpflanxtn im gtrman. Aiurtum (igoj)* 
p. 6iOi Plummer's note on Baeda, H. E. i, c i. 

1163 S. The (list set of hypcimetrical lines; cf. Inlr. Ixxi. 

1164 f. }>S g7t waa hiera aib eetgadere etc. Hint at Hrdlfuirs 
disloyalty. See loiEf , iiKolf., iziSlf. 

1165C It is very doubtfiil whether Unfer^s presence is mentioned 
here because he was regarded as Wealht^ow's antagonist who incited 
HroiSulf to treachery (Olrik i 15 tf., cf. Scherer L 5.5.481). Per- 
haps the poet merely wished to complete the picture of the scene in 
the haU. 

1167 f. >Bah )« he hia magiun aSre/Stl«it etc. litotesi tee 
Siji. [Cf. also Lawrence, MLN. locv 157.] 

D, ..■■.v^.oo^ic 

NOTES 171 

1171. apmc. Cf. L«ig. It-i. 

1174. hEui ond feomui >a A& li*fMt. •Youhkve them (i.e. gifts) 
now from neMuid fai' (cp. ilfijf.) ii not a very ntii&ctory venion. 
probably it leatt one line haa dropped out either before or after 1174. 
Cf . Varr. 

1175. UE m«n segde. The remark tnsy (eem tnrpriung, liiice 
the queen did not need to be told about the 'adoption' of Beowulf 
{946fr..), having been pretent at the king's speech. But it is entirely 
natural to suppose that ihc author, perhaps a little thoughtlessly, em- 
ployed a TBjicty of the gifr^gH- formula, thereby securing a alight 
itylistic advantage. {MPb, iii 144.) 

Ii77f. brflc . . . miiilgra mCdo, 'make useof many refnudt,* i.e. 
•dispense many gift*.' Cp. midgtbe, Hel. (MS. M) laoo. 

1193 S, wundcn (old (distinguished from brad gold 3105, fSud 
gfiU,fSlgpld) probably refers to eu'm[h]r<»de twX, the teim hnnpu 
1 1 951 being another variation of it. (Cf. MPb. iii 141 f.) The hr^l 
it called brioitgeiiiSdu, lait. The great collar, btiMM*gti toMmt, 
is called bring, 1101, biag, iiii. 

1197-1301. The allusion to HSm* and Eormenric, ibou^ vcty 
much discuned, is only imperfectly understood.' 

Ennanaiic, the great and pomeifiil king of the Eatt Goths, who, on 
the disastrous intMd of the Huns, died by his own hands (cir. ];5 
A.'D,), became in heroic poetry the type of a ferocious covetous, and 
treachcrout tyrant. (Thus D*tri% : grim^Hmg, la : luflftntie gtjMt, 
Widi. 9 1 •wrSlitt luirhgaM.) He causes the frir Swanhild to be trod- 
den to death by hones and his son (cp. Iftdi, 124 : Freot«ric ?) to be 
banged at the inatigation of his evil counselor, (ON.) Bikki {Widj. 
115 : Becca); he ilayt his nephews, the (Ger.) Harlunge {ITidt. itai 
Herelingai)} and — in the singularly unhistorical faihion of the later 
tradition — wan upon and oppressca Theodoric, king of the East 
Goths, the celebrated Dietrich von Bern of German legend. Great is 
the fame of his immense treasure (see, e.g., Saxo viii 178), which in a 
MHG. epic> is stated to include the Harlungs' gold. 

Hama (MHG. Heime), usually met with in the company of Widia 
(ni Wudga, MHG. Witege), plays a somewhat dubious part in the 
MHG. epia of the Theodoric cycle as a follower now of Theodoric 
(Dietrich) and then again of the lattcr's enemy Ermanaric (Ermenrich). 
Whether hii character was originally conceived as that of a traitor or 
father that of an exile, adventurer, and outlaw,^ is a mooted question. 

A more or less complete knowledge of these legends among the 

* So 14.116-191 beudea, MWaihaS, ZfdA. 1 
(9 ff. ) Cbi. WM. i5ff'.,48ff.iM(^, R.-L. i in 

* DktHiii Fl<uii (dr. ijoe a.d.), 1. 7857. 
' ^Ji. tig I virttctan pir viialiLni viiaidnan rt/Ji .... fTaJga ntJ Httu. 

SeeCha. Wid. Jiff. Boer (L 4. 119.195 f.) ninnind thai Hinu joined Theo- 
doric iahiseiik. 


Anglo-Saxon! is to be infemd from ailusions : 
(ZJMriiff., Ifids.jff., It, 8gfF., iiifF.).' 

As to ihc nonderfully piccious BrQsing^ft meiie,> wc should nat- 
ur^ly believe it to be the same as ihe ON. Briiinga mm, which ligutM 
as the necklace of Freyja in the Elder Edda (^rymst^ipa) and cIk- 
wbcre. Reading between the lines of the Beiywulf passage, we judge 
that Hama had robbed Eormenric of the famous collar. As Etmenrich 
haii come into possession of the Harlungs' gold (see above), it has been 
concluded that the Briiinga matt originally belonged to the Harlung 
brothers, whom (late) tradition localiied in Breisach on the Rhine 
('casteltumvocabuloBrisahc,' 'notfarfrom Freiburg). (In othermords, 
the Harlungs, OE; Hirilingas — Br'isingai.) Upon this unsafe basis 
M U Hen hoff reared an elaborate structure of a primitive sun myth about 
Frija's necklace and the heavenly twins (Harlungs), which, bowever, 
compels admiration rather than acceptance.* 

The nearest parallel to the f^ou'H//' allusion has been found in the 
pidrekstaga,^ which relates that Heimir was forced to flee from the 
enmity of Erminrikr (ch. iSg), and that later he entered a monastery, 
bringing with him his armor and weapons as well as ten pounds in 
gold, silver, and costly things {ch. 419). The latter feature looks like 
a further step in the Christ ianization of the legend which is seen in it* 
initial stage in Beo^wulf, 1. 1 20 1 . Probably the expression g«cEaB Bene 
rZd implies that Hama became a good Christian and that he died as 
such.6 The ' bright city ' to which he carried the treasure (= the mon- 
astery of the fiUrehlega), is possibly hinted at in IVidi., 1. 119 {see 
above),' but the details of the original story are lost beyond rilcovery. 

12O0". Neither 'jewel' nor 'ornamental casket' seems ttf be the 
proper rendering of sincfaet. It is more likely to signify ' precious 
setting,' cp. Phaen. joj; ligU and sincfat (sing, understood in a collec- 
tive sense), ■ precious gems in fine settings.' { 194.) [Of, 
also Schu. Bd. 83.] 

I200b-i>. searoniSas fleah/EormenrlceB, In H'tldthr. 18 we are 
told (in accordance with earlier tradition) that Hiltibrant (with Diet- 
rich) — fldh . . Otaehres uid, 'fled from the enmity of Odoacer." 

' IsEalhhiM, ITiJi. 5, 97 = SwanhUd (Sunilda) ( (Cf.Chj.Wid. nff.).— 
A re&renu to Hima (Widia, Hi^ulf, etc.) dating fVom the M£. period was 
brought to light by Imelmann, D, Lii.x, txt 999, cf. Intr. mi* n. 4. — S« iko 
E. SchrMer, ZfJA. ili 14-31. 

' For an archetilogicil itlustntlon, Ice Figure ; includsl in this edition. 

' See the quotation from £Uciar£ Cinnicnn unitiinali (eir. iioo a.d.), 
Grimm L 4.67.42, Pan ler L4.117.g6. 

' ZfdA. Ill II 7 IT. — Bugge (71 f.) linda a reminilcence of Hlma in the god 
Htimdallr, who recovers the BrUipga men. 

' Compilfd from Low German Burcet in Norwiy about 1150 a.d. (Ed. by 
H. Beitcliai, KabenSavn, 190;-! i.) 

« Bu. 70 i Angl. iixv 456. 

' Cf. Cba. Wid. II}. AccDtiling to Boer (/.(. 196) it ii ■• Veniu (' Bern'}. 

NOTES 173 

That Is to tay, Odouer'i placeas the adversary of TheoiloricwaEafter- 

nards taken by Ermanaric. 

I303-I4>. The tint of (he allusions to Hygelic's fate&l expedition. 
See Intr. xxxixf., liv. 

I203. pone hring haefde Hig;elBc etc. The apparent discrepancy 
between this statement and a later passage, ii7itF., where Beonulf 
presents to Hygd the necklace bestowed upon him by Wealh>e<iw, may 
be explained in two nays. Either Hygd gave the necklace to her hus- 
band before he set out on his raid, or the poet entirely forgot his earlier 
account (1101 C), when he came to tell of the presentation to Hygd 
(1 1 71 ff.). The second aJlernatwe is the more probable one, especially 
& we suppose that at an eariier stage of his work the author had not yet 
thought at all of queen Hygd j cf. Intr. cviii f. {JEGPb.ii 194.) 

I3i3l>-I4". GSata lEode/hrEkwIc hEoldon. Their bodies covered 
the battlefield. C^.yud. la: kiion siuaist rtstaa, Ex. ^<)oi.: luirig- 
aid tagimjsn diaSsttdt; also biimbcd htaldan, Biotv. 3034. {JExlid 
K 741! 'eidem mox arva tenebis.') 

I2l4l>. Cosijn's brilliant emendation beatsbigt (n -biagt) Bnfing (or 
Sedgefield's tentatively mentioned improvement, btali /ilge enflng) is 
not needed. Why not assume that BwEg lignites the applautc that 
accompanies the bestovrai of the wonderful gifts I 

13191^20 and tzat^zy. The queen, anticipating trouble after 
Hro'Kgar's death, entreats Beowulf to act as protector of her sons, espe- 
ciaUy of HreMc, the elder one and heir presumptive. Cf. Intr. xxui. 

ia2ob. g^eman, 'I mill remember.' 

I333II. efne swS aide. Type A3 ; sec 114.9*, ttSj*- 

l32E|b-36*. In the light of the preceding imper. clause, the general 
sense of Ic )>e an teU/sincgestrEonft seems to be : 'Ishall rejoice 
in your prosperity.' (Gummere ; "I pray for thee rich possessions.") 
Others have interprcled the clause as an allusion 10 the gifts just be- 
stowed on Beowulf or to future rewards (cp. iiio). 

I23i>, drnncne is used attributively. 

I23il>. d6 (MS, lei's) Bwaicbiddel As WealhMow's speech is ad- 
dressed entirely to Beowulf, the imper. sing, was no doubt intended. 
(The scribal blunder is very natural indeed.) The queen's abrupt re- 
turn to her &vorite topic need not cause any surprise. It should be 
noted that her final exhortation is clothed in a formuhi ; see Cm. 
aais'' : do piuS ic pi bidde.', ih. %zt3\ ^4*5" i f''- '399*- 

133S. unrlm eorlft; i.e., Danes. The Geat guests are assigned other 
<]uarters, see ijoof. 

1240. BBorscealca anm. 'Many a one of the beer-drinkers.' See 
Gloss. 1 sum. It Js true, only one man is actually killed, but the fate 
was, as it were, hanging over them alt ; cp. 1135 : eoria maittgum; 
713. (Cf. MPh. iii 4S7.) The meaning 'a certain one' could be vin- 
dicated only if ^iij ondfige be declared the ' psychological predicate,' 
which is rather unlikely. 

D, ..■■.v^.oo^ic 

1 741 BEOWULF 

I248t>. (gt St Itim ge on herge,) gi gebwm'per ^in, 'Kod cadi 
of them,' i.e. 'in either caK." The third ft ('and that') ia no more 
objectionable than the thiid ni in Imtitulu tf Palitj J 91 ni irt bam Ml 
tn liBi ni on Hiigre ili^t.- {JEGPh. vi 194 f-) See also Btevi. 584. 

1351-1320. Attkck by Grendel'i mother. 

1357. lange {rage- An ciiaggeiatioii which is not bome out by the 

1260. se ^, instead of iH ft, applied to Grendel's mother just ai 
in I497> or be, instead of bin, in 1391, <394- (^' ^l*o 13441 '^'7i 
1411, 2685. ) That it was the author, not a scribe, who at timet )o«t 
light of her sen, is to be infeired from the equally inaccurate appella- 
tion iinnigni lecg 1379 (mibiig mdnicaSa 1339, gryriRcne gmndb^tU 
1136). We are reminded of Par- Loiti 413 f.: 'For ipirita when they 
please Can either sex assume, or both. ' (On the uie of bilrint, lec note 
on 163. Cp. the Go. tisnsl., Ma$, 9.33 : uidribaai •warp uabulpi.) 
Certainly, we cannot regard such masc. deugnations as evidence of an 
earlier renion in which the hero killed Grendel himself in the cave, or 
of an old variant of the contest with Grendel which was lubscqueutly 
worked into a story of the encounter with the mother. [Cf. Sclmeider 
L 4. 135; ten Brink 92 ff., 110 } Boer 66 ff.) Bcrendsc^ L 4.141.1. 


I30lb-76a. Recapitulation { see Intr. cix. On the descent t^ the 
Grendel race from Cain, see note on 106 tF. 

I3&Z fi*. The inserted remark that Grendel's mother is lest danger- 
ous than Grendel in as much as she it a woman, seems at variance with 
the facts, for the second fight is far more difficult for Beowulf tlan the 
first, although he is well armed. It is evidently to be explained as an 
endeavor to discredit the un-biblical notion of a woman's superiority. 

13S7. ondweoxd goes with J-wii. 

1290 f. helm ne gemunde etc. An indefinite sulq'ect, ' any 00^* 
'the one in question' is understood. Cf. Lang. Sij.4. 

1395, A gtaluitoiis transposition of lines involving the transference 
of II. 1404-7 so as to follow iz95>> p3 hie tafemu [tji\, and the elim- 
ination of the supposedly interpolated 11. 1196-9S wat proposed by 
Joseph, ZfdPb. xxu 393 tf. 

i303t>-3>. under heolire , . . folme, < the hand covered with blood ' 
{btodgt biadufolmt ggo). Cf. note on laaf, 

I303'>-4>. The addition of g;eTrordei] emphasiiet the fitct that a 
change has taken place (ccATn wses geniwod). 

i304>>-6*. frEonda feorum refers primarily to Grendel and Mse- 
here ; the two parties involved (cp. on bfl healfa) are the Grendel 
race and the Danes with their guests. 

i3o6H>> 1'^ ^" ■ ■ cyning ... on hrEon mSdeyiyS^an etc 
On the stylistic features of this passage, see Intr. Ivii!, lix n. 4. Cp. 
OS. Gen. S4 f. i Ibes wart Adumai iugi . . . . tm ler^n, ibua ti 
tuiiia U lunu dSeaa. 

NOTES 175 

1313. As to (eorU) inoi, lee 314. 

1314. wille. For the change of tenae, see Lang. Sa5.6. 
1321-1398. ConTersfttion between HrSSgfir and Beowul£ 
1333''- DEftd is £acliere. Type Dx, ice T.C. S 10. (Cp. Matd. 

69.) Child, MLN. xxi 199 sug^«sted the possibifaty of an original 
Stand, half-line: daupr is Aikarl/]. (?) A notable stylistic parallel is 
HiUebr, 44»i tot ill Hillibrail. 

1331. ic ne wSt hwecder (•Ho/ Sit lulanc eftiisai tiab). It might 
be urged, in defense of a literal inieipreiation, that Hroi^gar, as a matter 
of fact, did not icnow the abode of Grendel'a mother quite accurately. 
But it IE more important to observe thai the phrase is suggestive 1^ fbr- 
mula-like expressions and (hat, in addition, a gener^ itatement of this 
kind is not altogether uusuited, since the allusion is to the 'uncanny' 
dwelling-place of (he mysterious eltargiitat ; cp. i6if. {MPh. iii 
146.) [Mdller 136, ten Briuk 96, Hcinsel, Anv..fdA. xv 173, 1901 
h^aptr 'which one of the two' \ on the other liand, see, e.g., Bu. 
93, AanL ai ! 'whither, '] 

1336 f. for^kn he tS huge etc. A lecapitulation and an explana- 
tion which sounds almost apologetic. 

I340~43'' feof, i.e. (going) fiir (in accomplishing her purpose). 
The phrase He h5e etKlAn (cp. Gen.xi^i f.), in all probahility, denotes 
' avenge hostility,' ' retaliate ' (in the prosecutbn of a feud), cf. Kock 
129 ff. There appears to be no warrant for the meaning ' institute,' 
■cany on' attributed to sfslaii (thus, e.g., Aant. 13). hrcjicrbealo 
hearde could be regarded as ace, parallel viiihfitee, but this would 
result inaratherunnatural breaJcing up of the context (1340-44). Also 
the construction oigreotip with brtpirbtah hearde as object would be 
awkward and questionable. We may venture to take the combination 
as a loosely connected, semi-exclamatory noun phrase, cp. 936, 1035. 
— 134a. ifter sine gy fan. .^schere, who occupied an exalted posi- 
tion, receives a title fit for a king. 

1344. (sia band) afi }ie Eow wclh-wjlcfa wilaa dohte, <whichwai 
good (liberal) to you as regards all good things.' li pe, instead of ih 
pi, could be justified on the ground that the author was thinking of the 
man rather than of his hand ; cp. 16S5. (See also 1160, 18S7, 1411.) 

1351''. OSer earmaceapen. Type C2 : xx-i-]->:. 

*355'^57"' "8 *"« f«der cuanon, ' they have no knowledge of a 
father.' The meaning of hivK^er blmKnigwzsKracenned/djnira 
gasta is brought out in Earle's rendering, •' whether they [i.e., the two 
demons] had any in pedigree before them of mysterious goblins" ; with 
■rr, 'previously ' (prior to them), cp. nfiir 11, 173 1. It is of interest 
to note that the Danes know less than the poet (see io6ff., 1261 if.). 

1357 ff. Description of Greudel's abode. Read in (he light of 
the corresponding version of the Griuiiiaga (Intr. xv, cf. xiv n. i), 
the outUnes of the scenery are well understood — a pool surrounded by 
diifs and overhung with trees, a watei&U descending into it, and a Luge 


cave under the &11. The pool is situated in a dreary fen-district, mdrat, 
fin ond fiesUn (103 f. , etc.) — a ftature not tmpiobably introduced in 
England. (See also note on 103 f. It has been suggested by Lawrence 
[see infra\ 119 f. that the localization in the desolate moots was added 
in connection with Grendel's descent from the exiled tribe of Cain ; 
cp. 1165.) That Grendel lives in the sea, or in a pool connected with 
the sea, at in an " almost land-locked arm of the lea " (CI. Hall, p. j ; 
cf. Saxrazin, ESt. xlii yf., who recognized this vciy feature in the Ros- 
kilde bay), cannot be conceded. It certainly seems that the nUras and 
similar creatures (1415^, tiicerbuia fila 1411) have been brought in 
chiefly for epic elaboration without regard for absolute consistency. (See 
also note on i4iSf.) — It should be added that manifestly conceptions 
of the Chrietian hell have entered into the picture as drawn by the poet. 
The moors and wa^tesj niisti and darkness, the cliffs, the bottoinless deep 
(cp. I ]6Gf. ], the loathsome lArfrmas (1430) can all be traced in early 
, accounts of hell, including Ags. religious literatuR. (See also notes on 
1365^, 3jo— 5z.) Especially close is the relation between this Beo- 
wulflan scenery and that described in the last portion of the I7tb 
Blickling Homily which is based on a yiiie Pauli. Cp. SUM. Hvm. 109. 
19 ff. : Sanitut Paulni tiitj gtiiendt on norsatpuiiardiu pimi middam- 
giard, pirr talU luattro nistr grwitas, and bi pier geitab tfer a^m 
ivictere sumiit bamt itdn ; and iinrrsn nerS vfeim stanc aiuixmi stiiiSt 
hrimigi beavwai, and Sir •wiran l^ilro gliipu, and undtr ^im itani 
ivas nieera eardting and luearga, . ... on B3m iigean brarv/um 
.... It is hardly going too hi to attribute the remarkable agree- 
ment to the use of the same or a very similar source. (See Lawrence, 
PabL MLAii. xxvii xog-45 ; Sanazin, ESI. xlii 4 S. j Jngl. xxxvi 
185-87 ; Schu. Bd. 60 If. j Earle's note [parallels] ; Brooke L; 
[cave under the sea] ; Cook L 5.19.3.) [A fine picture of the natei£all 
* Godafoss,' in the Skjalfandafljot river, Iceland, which has been tradi- 
tionally associated with Grettir's exploit, Grtitiiiaga, ch. 66, may be 
found in P. Herrmann's translation of the Greltiitaga (Thule, No. j, 
Jena, 1913), opposite p. 174.] 

1359-tii. 6Sr fyrgeastrEaim/iiiideriicisa genipn ni^er ifcwIteS,/ 
Sod under foldau. Lawrence, I.e. iia, thinks that j^r;^fifjA-fim sig- 
nifies a waterfall, and that n*uagenipu may be "the fine spray thrown 
out by the fall in its descent, and blown about over the windy nessc^" 
But nirssa gcnipH might as well denote the clitTs with the overhanging 
trees darkening the water, and fildan, which u naturally to be regarded 
as parallel with it, might also refer to the rocky ground, or clil&. See 
Gloss.: under, 12. (Cf. Lawrence 313.) 

1363. hrinde (bearwas). The epithet is eminently niitable lym- 
bolically ; Cf. brimige btarviai, BlkU. Htm.%og.^i, m aim Ugian 
btafivum, ib. 35. (See Intr. Ixi.) It is not to be inferred that Beowulf 
found the trees covered with hoar-fi^jst. He would not have sailed for 
Denmark in winter (see iijoff.). 

NOTES 177 

i365-«>. pKi nu^ nihta gehwXm nlSwmulor ataa,/tfr on 
flSde. Although the mysterious Gre may be nothing but the will-o' -the- 
nisp, it is worth Doling that '■ the burning lake ot river ... is one of the 
commonest features of all. Oriental as well as Christian, accounts of 
hell " (E. Becker, Tbt Mtdie'val Viiimi af Hcavtn ami HiU [Johns 
Hoptins Diss., 1S99], p. 37) t <S. Angt. xtxv'i 1S6. — The sut^ect 
(indef. pronoun iHan)'a left unexpreued, just at 'he' in ijti?^ Cf. 
Lang, i 1S-+- 

t366>>. NO >K> frsd leofaS (^t . . . wlte). A formuta. 

Cp. WmitTi of Crialian (Gr.-Wu. iii 1J4) 76 f., £1. 4i9f., Cbr. (i) 
iigfT., Rid. i.if, Andr. 544?., H«/. 414.5 C, etc. 

1368 ff. OeAh ^e hSSatapa hundum gcawenced etc. The ele- 
gant period might put us in mind of Vergil. Cf. Areb. ratxvi 34>£i 
also Tupper's Riddtet, p. 336 (on stag hunting among the Anglo' 

1392 ff. nS he on helm losa^ etc. Biblical and Vcrgilian paraJleli 
have been pointed out, vii. Pi. Ixvii aj (fiS.iz), cxuxviii (139) 7ff., 
Amm itif.;£ruid xii SS^ff., x 675 IF. (Earle'i and Holthauieu'* 
notes i Arch, cxxvi 144 f.) Cp. Otfrid i 5. 5 iff. — The figure of poJjr- 
tyndeton suggests Latin influence ; cf. Areb. cxxvi 35S. 

1399-1491. Preparations for the second combat, 1492-1590. 
The fight with Grendel's mother. 1591-1650. Triumphal return 
to H CO rot. 

I404t>. [awl] gegnnm {Br. The subject has to be supplied indi- 
rectly from Liilat 1401, gang 1404* (nouns used vrith leferencc to 
Grendel's mother). 

1408. K^lioga bearn is probably to betaken ai plur., as in 3170. 
See Lang. \ a;. 6. (1411 hi, i.e. Hro^gar.) 

1410. enge flnpaSas, uncflS gelfid. Exactly the same line occun 
Ex. 58. See Schu. Bd. 38 IF.; MLN. xxxiii 119. 

1418. winum Scyldinga. •wint, a frequent term for < lord,' is ap- 
plied to retainen here and in 1567. Similarly in MHG., goU'wini is 
sometimes used of vassals, and in O. French the retainer is oflen called 
the amis of hia lord. Cf. JEGPh. vi 1 95 j Stowell, Publ. MLAu. xxviii 
39a IF. ; Kock> I II f. (Sec aiso Saxo ii 59, Par. $7.) 

I43Z>>. folc to oKgon. Type Di. See 1650* i cp. ifiS4''i 1796''- 

I423f. Horn stundum song/fQsIIc (Earle: 'spirited') f(7rd)lEoS, 
Apparently a signal for the company to gather or to stop. 

1428 f. SI OD nndemmSEl oft bewitigaS . . . ; i.e., vrater-mon- 
Kert 'such as' (of the tame kind as those which) .... These mcrat 
do not ply in the tea {leglrad). Cf Lawrence, Publ. MLAii. xxvii 119; 
Schu. Bd. 66. 

1446 f. him . . hre^re .... aldre fcsceJiSaii, < injure .... his 
breast, hii life' ; cp. 1570 If.; Lang, S15.4. 

1453. besette awlallcutn. This helmet dilFeti from the ordinary 
< boar helmets ' in that several boar-figuies (or figures of helmeted 


wirriora ?) are mgisved on the lower put of the helmet proper. See 
Keller 87; Stjer. lof.j Figure j inserted in this edition. 

1454*. brond nf beadomEcas. Practically a tautological combina- 

>45S- Nks ^Bt fanat mKtoat . . . Transition by meam of nega- 
tion, see e.g., 1)54. pennef 'funher.' 

i459t>-&o>, Stertlnum (Ih. tier a perhaps used figuratively with 
regard to the acid employed in the process of {false) damascening. 
Another possibility is that the serpentine otnamenution (cp. •wynufib 
I 69S, also tvigJiiieBrd 14S9) was supposed to have a miraculous poi- 
Euning effect (Stjema), the figures of serpents suggesting theii well- 
known attribute (cp. allorsctaaa 1E39, also ijij). It is leu likely that 
the edge wa* really meanr to be poisoned. Several ON. passages have been 
dted as parallels j thus Brot af Sigurpariv. lo (interpreted in different 
ways), Helgakv. Hjqrv. 9, Helgalm. HunJ. i g. Cf. Bu. Tid. 65 f. ; 
Gricnb. 754) Gering's note; Stjer. aoff.; Ebert, R.-L. i^i6■, Falk 
L 9.44.3 f. (Cook's note on CJr. 768.) — fihyrded bea^BwBte. 
The sword was believed to be hardened by the blood of battle ; cp. 
Njalrraga, ch. 130. 1 3 ; scSrbeard, Beo'w. 1 033 (?)• Or is the refer- 
ence to some kind of a fluid employed for the hardening (cf. Scheinert 
[Sievers], Btilr. xxi 37!)? In that case, i46o> could be regarded as, 
practically, a variation of 1459^. [Swords hardened by poison {eitr): 
HJd/mar'j Dfotb Song 1 [^Eddica Minora, p. ji)i fqlsungaiaga, ch. 
!■! m.| 

1461. mid mnndnm. Presumably genetic plural. However, it hai 
been observed that in the ON. sagas frequently both hands were used, 
either simultaneously or alternately, in handling the sword. (Falk 
L 9.44. 44 f.) 

1474. se mKra. The def. article retained in the vocative) similarly 
Cbr. 44t, £1. 511, Road 7S, 95, Gusl. 1049, Gnt.(£) 578; cp. Van.i 
947. '759- 

1476. hwKt wit geS sprXcon, Cp. 1 707 ) note on 946 ff. 

14S4 ff. Maeg ^noe on fSm golde oagitim etc. An interesting 
parallel : Hiidibr. 46 f. 

1488. ealde life. BeowulPs own swurd (cp. loij ?). 

1495. hwil dKgea, ■ a good part of the day,' not ■the space of a 
day' (see iGoo). A long time is required for the same purpose b 
various corresponding folk-tales, see I^nzer 1 1 9. 

I50li. ^3 hCo t6 botme c&m. Grendel's dam, aroused by a ttran- 
ger's appearance in the water, goes to the bottom of the lake (to which 
Beowulf had plunged, like Grettir, ■■in order to avoid the whirlpool and 
thus get up underneath the waterfall," Lawrence, I.e. 337) and iliagt 
him to her cave. 

1508. awi he DC mibte nB — hi >Cm mSdig; wtea. Metrkally, 
mi might be included nther in the first or in the second half-line. But 
the sense precludes any of the conjectural readings propoicd (aec Van.) 

NOTES 179 

in connection with mSJig 'courteous.' Adhering to the MS. uid 
assigning to aidig the meaning of 'angry,' wc may translate 'be vim 
angry at them," i.e., at his enemies, Pirn referring both to the she- 
dcmoQ and, by anticipation, to the ivundra fila. The poet had in 
mind the tno causes which prevented Beowulf fiom using his arnii 
and wielding his weapons. pTecisely this meaning and construction are 
tecorded of Go. mldags; OS. mSdag, Hit. 1578) for simiUr meanings, 
see B.-T.i midig, ii/j medgian, Ex. 459; mad, Beinii. 5491 ON. 

1511. bnc is used im perfect! vely, 'was in the act of breaking," 
'tried to pierce.' Cp, 1854. 

1513. IglSCAii is more plausibly to be construed as nom. plur. 
than as gen. sing.j see ;s6. The object (btJ) is to be mentally sup- 

1516. fyrltoht KCBCRh. The light in the <hall' (which enables 
BEowulf to see his adversary, 1 5 1 8) is met with in analogous folk-talet 
and in the GreUiiiaga (see Panzer 1S6, Intr. xv), likewise in hell (see 
Sat. ii8f.). Cp. Bto^. 1767s. 

151S. Beginning of the real combat. There arc three distinct phase* 
of it i the second begins at 1519, the third at 1557- 

1519 f. niKgenrSs forgeaf/hildebille, ' he gave a mighty impetus 
to his baltle-Eword." 

1533. >Kt ae beadolComa bltan nolde. The she-demon could not 
be wounded by any weapon (cp. 804) except her own (1J57 ff.). Sec 
Gcring's note (ON. parallels). Panzer 155. 

1541, HCo htm eft hraSe etc. We must supply the cnimecting 
link, viz., she got up. Only the result of the action is stated. (Intr. 

1544. fl]iec<iiipa necessarily refen to Beowulf, not to the ogres* 
(cp. 1853). The exceptional intransitive fiinction d( afir^ivearpaa need 
not be called in question. (Cf. SchU. xxxix 98 ; Brett, MLR. xiv 7.) 

1545- hye aeai (MS. teaxe) getBah/brad [ond] brOnecg. The 
lack of concord resulting from the retention of Jtaxe would not be a 
lerious ofTentc, see 2703 f.; note on 4.8. But gileon, unlike gtbregdan, 
cannot take the dat. (instt.) case. The scribal error was perliaps caused 
by the preceding hyrt. 

1550 f. H«fde SaforsISod . . , under gynne grund. gynnt grand , 
like eormtngrund 859, 'earth' j i.e. : 'he would have died.' 

1555 f. rodera Rsdend hit on ryht geacEd/ySellce, ay)>Saii be 
«(t astod. For a defense of the punctuation used, see Aant. ij } 
ESt. xxxix 411. Several edd. (Grein, Heyne, Wiilker, Schucking, 
cf. Schii. Sa. 1 19) have placed a semicolon or comma after gtlcid, 
itakiagySclict lypSan hi eft ailad one independent clause ; EttmiilJei' 
(E. Sc.), Sifvers (ix r4o), et al., while punctuating aAti Jatlict, like- 
wise consider lypsan an adverb, 'afterwards.' This is unsatisfactory 
because God'* help consisu in nothing else than showing Beowulf the 


marvelous smord (sec iGGilF.), after he had got on his feet again. 
(The latter tact, though very important, is slated in a subordinate 
clause, see Intr, Iviii, noieon 1541. Cp. also 1091.) Sedgefi eld begins 
a new sentence with Sypean (conjunct.), which is stylistically objection- 
able. As lo yselici, it goes naturally with the preceding line, see note 
oti 478. — ll is of interest to note that in our poem it is God who directs 
the hero to the victorious sword, whereas in numerous Folk-tale versions 
thisrBlefalls to the persons (generally women) found in the lower region 
where the fight lakes place, cf. Panzer 154, 288. Moreover, in con- 
formity with the pedigree imposed upon the Grendel race, the good 
sword of tradition is converted iato a giganta grwearc 1561, cp. 1558, 
1679, which would seem to go back ultimately to Gen. iv 2z; cf. 
Emerson, Publ. MLAsi. xiii gisf., 919; Angl. nxxv iGoT 

1557. Geseab SS on seanrnm sigeEadig bil. Several translations 
of OJi learvjum seem possible; vji. 'among [other] arms' (see 1613), 
'in battle" ('during the fight'), '[he] in his armor ' (cp. 1568), or 
(construing the prepositional phrase with ij?) 'fully equipped," 'ready' 
(cp. Juilic, gealoRc). Probability is divided between the first and the last 

1570. LIxte se leom%; i.e., the light mentioned in 1516. With 
•uilai 1571 cp. Oageal 1518. 

1579. onSnneaiS, 'onthatoneoccasion' (iiiff.). — 1583. SSer 
svrylc, 'another such [number].' Qt offerede, viz., in his pouch, 
1085 if. 

1584. forgeald, pluperf. — 1585. t6 Saea fe, see Gloss. : to. The 
interpretation which would make to Sitj pe (' until ") continue the nar- 
tative from i;73, after an excessively long parenthesis (Sedgefield, sim- 
ilarly Chambers), is not very tempting. 

l588t>-90. On the beheading of Grendel, see Intr. itviii; Panier iSS f. 
To an unprejudiced reader it may seem natural enough that the head 
of Grendel, the chief of the enemies, is cut off and carried home in tri- 
umph. But, as an additional reason, the desire of preventing the ghost 
from haunting Hcorot has been cited (see Gering's note). 1 590''. ond 
. , fa, 'and thus (so)' ; cp. 1707. 

1591 ff. Blackburn proposed an unconvincing conjecture to the effect 
that, owing to the misplacing of a MS. leaf, the story has become con- 
fused, and that originally 11. 1591^1605 followed after 1. itiii. See 
Ls.52, 53. 

i596f. hig )>ies zSelinges eft ne wSiidan,/fcet h8 . . sEcean 
c6rae . . . So-called proleptic use of a noun, which is preliminary to a 
clause of an exegetical character; cf. MPi. iii 154. efl is accounted for 
by the verbal idea vaguely suggested by the phrase of 1596; it partakes 
of the proleptic function. 

1604. wiston ond ne wCndon; cp. Par. Lost ix 411; 'he wish"d, 
but not wiih hope." The formula-tike character of the combination is 
to be gathered from the occurrence of luyicaa and avlaal', Gtisl. 47, 


NOTES i8i 

luUnede and •oShtdi, far. Pi. 14-19, and similar phnueii cf. MPb, 
iii 458, Arch, cxivi 356. 111111011 ia apparentlya rare form (or spelling) 
iotti/iutan; cf. Cosijn viii 571 { Pogatschcr, ESt. xxvii ziS; Siev. J 405 
n. 8i Bulb. \ SOT, Schlemiich, St.EPb. xnxiv 51 (8c K. Sisam, Arcb. 
cxxxi ]o; S.j; also Biaunc, jibd. Crammatik J 146 n. j. 

ltio5 ff. The singular incident of the sword dissolving in the hot blood 
recalls the melting of the dragon, S(|7, cp. 3040 f. ; see note on 897,. 
Inlr. Kxii f While the sword was wasting away, pieces of the blade 
were hanging down like icicles. 

l6t2ff. The rich treasures found in the cave belong, of course, to 
the folk-tale motives ; see Panzer 1 74, Inlr. nvi. (That Beonulf took 
UnfetJTs sword back with him, we Icam from 1807IF.) 

I6i6f. waeB>2t blOd tfi )>xb hSt./zttren ellorgSat, Probably 
^ttrrti ittorgSit ii paialld with blid (logical adjunct and headword 
forming the terms of variation), though atlrtn could be (and usually is) 
construed us predicative adj., parallel with bat (cp. 49 f., 1109 f ). Cf. 
MPb. iii 139. The reference is to Grendel, just as In 1614 Grendel's 
head is meant. 

1624 [. The emendation sSlSca (see r65i, 3091 f.) would enable 
us to connect ^9ra ]>e directly with that gen. plur. But para (;ifra) 
may be a late by-form of pi'-i, cf. Lang. J i%\ Bu. 95. 

1649. ^Kre idese, dat. sing., i.e. Wealh>eow; not gen. sing, re- 
ferring to (the head of) Grendel's mother, as sometimes explained 
(thus by Boer [66], who bianded the passage as an interpolation). As 
to mid, q>., e.g., 1641, 913. 

1651-1784. Speech-makine by Beowulfand HrSSgar. 

1656. The meaning 'achieve' has been postulated for genE^an in 
this passage (Loiz 60), but this is not ncccssaty, cp. X3J0. (See also 

IliM. hUsH hjrdaa. If the plur. here and in 1619: ivigtiyre 
inrasra (i 669 1 fiondum) is objected to as not entirely consistent with 
the &CCS, it could be vindicated as 'generic plural,' see 1074, 565. It 
has been sometimes regarded as evidence of an earlier, dilTerent version 
of the stocyi cf. Intr. xviii. 

1674-7&. him is explained by eorlnm, cf. Intr. bcvi. ftn ^S bealf« ; 
tiansl. : 'from that side,' cf. Lang. S 15. j. 

i08i>>. ond )>9 (cp. 1707, 1590) ^9s worold ofgeaf (ptupcif.). 
On the possible excision of i6Si'>-S4*, see Intr. ex. 

168K-98, On the wonderful sword, see note on 1555 f.( on Gren- 
del's pedigree, see note on io6fr. There are a number of doubt- 
ful points relating Co the curious sword-hilt, i 6SS f. on SSEm wzs fir 
ivritcn/fyrngewinnes. This signifies either a graphic illustration 
(which seemi, on the whole, probable) or a runic inscriptions both 
kinds are found together on the famous Franks Casket. As regards 
BT . . fymgtvuinnti, the allusion may very well be to the ungodly acts 
of the giant! which preceded the deluge (cp. njf.), though it would 

D, ..■■.v^.oo^ic 


not be impouible to interpret it with reference to Cain's fhitricide, the 
veritable prima eatisa. Cf. AKgl. xxxvztii f.) Chambers's note. — 1691. 
frCcae gefErdon. Admitting the perfective function of gefiran, we 
^outd translate 'they luffered terribly" (cf. MPh. iii i6i)j othemise, 
•they behaved daringly" would be a possible variant rendering. — 
i696f. hwam ^t Bweord geworbt . . . Srest w«re. Evidently 
the name of the (first) owner (the one who ordered the sword to be 
made) was written out in runic charucters — a practice confirmed 1^ 
ancient Scand. and Ags. runic inscriptions, cf. Noreen, Altnard. Gram- 
masik i. Appendix, pauim; Earle, Agi. Littraiari, pp. 48 ff. j Earle, 
The Atfrtd Jtnuel (1901) (legend; Aelfrid mec biht gcwyrcany That 
the name of the maker of the sword was meant, is less likely, ft is 
true that eiamplei of such inscriptions are to be readily found (cf. 
Noreen, /.f.), but the construction of h-wam as dat. of agency, 'by 
whom" (cf Green L 6.S.5.99), would be questionable. 

1700-84. The much discussed hatangue of Hro'BgaT, which shows 
the moralizing, didactic turn of the poem at its very height, falls into 
four well-marked divisions, vii. a. 1700-9'j b. i709'*-i+* (the sec- 
ond Heremod digression, see 901-15); c. i7i4'>-68 (the 'sermon' 
proper) •, d. 1769-84. It is conspicuous for the blending of heroic and 
theological motives. There can be no doubt that this address of the 
lung's forms an organic clement in the siructuial plan of the epic, cor- 
responding in its function to HrolSgar's speech after the first comlat to- 
gether with the first Heremod episode ; cf Inir, Iii, Moreover, it is 
entirely in harmony with the high moral tone, the serious outlook, and 
spiritual refinement of the poem. Of course, its excessive length and 
Strang homiletic flavor have laid the third division, and even other parts, 
open to the charge of having been interpolated by a man versed and 
interested in theology (MilllenhotTs Interpolator B), and it is, indeed, 
possible that the ■ sermon ' represents a later addition to the text. In 
that case, the insertion would have necessitated also some changes 
in the following (and perhaps, the preceding) division. See especially 
Miitlenhotr I ]o f ; Earle, pp. Ixxxviii, i66f.j Angl. xxxv 474^., 
xxxvi 183 f.) Intr. cxivff. 

1705 f. Eal , , hit is explained by miegea mid mfides snTttram, 
i.e. > strength and wisdom." Cp. 2461 f., 1S7 ff., 104} If. As regards 
the meaning of ge)>Tldnm, cp. Cr^. 79f.i Otfrid, Ad Ladt^wieum 
■4 1 tbax dull er at mit tbina. 

I707'>-9*. Da sccftlt to frSfre weor^aa etc. seems reminiscent 
of the Bible, see Luke ii jx, 34. Cf. Brandl looi } Angl. xxxt 


i709b-io. Ne wearS Heremed sw9 (namely, ta/rBfr*, la htlpi)j 
e«fornm Ecgwelttn. The Danes are ruimcd Ecgwela's (descendants, 
i.e.) men, just as the Frisians are Finn's men {eafirum 1068). For the 
extension df meanii\g, cp. the use of patronymics like ScjUingas, Siyl- 
faigai, Hrislingas. Nothing is gained by the emendation lafora (which 

NOTES 183 

has been &vored by aeveral scholara). The itrange name of Ecgwek 
Mcurs nowhere else. (Cf. Notes, p. 160, n. '■) . 

I7i4f. Sua hwearf etc. refers to Hccemod's exile and in particu- 
lar to his deithi see note on 901-4'. 

17*0. {biagai gtaf . .\ Eefter dOme, lit, 'in pursuit of glory,' 'in 
order to obtain. glory.' (Cp., e.g., KuHU Poem if.) Similarly, drlab 
t^rr dome 1179. Sec JHock in ^HtHtrlUlegnade Eiaiat Tegnir, 1918, 
pp. joof I Kock' iij. 

1721 f. (iet hs >Ms gfcwIimeB wearc ^wade./lEodbealo long- 
■um. He suffered everlasting punishment in hell. (Bu. jg ; Aagl. xxxv 
167.) Cp. C/». (B) a9sf- The veiled fbnn of expression is character- 

1734 ff. The author of the ' termon ' has made use of current theo- 
logical motives, such as God's dJspenung of various gifts, the sins of 
pride and avarice, the shafts of the devil. Set Angi, laxv iiSff., 475 ff. 
for detailed comments and parallcla. On the interesting relation rf this 
bomiletic passage to certain parts of Daniel and Cbriit, see Intr. cxiii IT. 

1725-37. The meaning is : ' To some men God deals out wisdom, to 
others wealth and rank." On e»lra,8eel.ang. iis-9' (Earle, "beholds 
the disposition of aU things." It is not very likely that talra refers to 
manna cyimt.) 

173S. on luffto . . hwor&a, 'wander (i.e., live, cp. iSEg) in de- 
light.' The striking concretion of meaning attributed to lu/u does not 
appear inadmissible, cf. ££(. xxnx 464, xli 1 la. For the scansion, see 
T.C. S5"7, »7. 

1730! ts healduine beloi^ both with wTiine (cp. 1079 f.) and 

1733 f. hs his selfK ne mseg; .... ende ge>enceaii, 'he himself 
cannot imagine that the end of it (i.e., of his kingdom, or hii happy 
atate in general) will come.' See Arci. cxv iSaf.; Angl. ^axy 469. 

1737 f, nB g-eaacu , ./ecghete eoweS ; virtually 'nor does enmity 
bring about war"; cp. S4f, 

1740, On the canto division, see Intr. ciii. 

i74ib-43*. >onne se weard swefeS,/a&wele hyrde. By the keeper 
of the soul either man's 'conscience' or (more likely) 'intellect,' 'rea- 
son ■ is meant. Cf. Intr. cxv ; Angl. xxxv i ? 1 f. 

I742i>. biS se sISp ts fKSt is treated by Sedgefield and Chambers 
as a parenthetic clause, which, in this context, does not seem qnite 
aatis&ctory stylistically j ^rAKn^wi >7+3' can apply to the sleep as well 
as to the sleeper. 

I743ff. bona; we gastbma, 177, The devil's mysterious biddings 
(unister suggestions, wBm wundorbedodum 1747) are equated with 
his sharp arrows, 17461 rf- '*'■'■*■ "iii j68f 

1756". unmumllct, and undyrni iooo» ate the only sure instances 
of unstressed prefix un- in Bte^ulf. {ungjfieg agii is, at least, 


1757. egeian ne g^ineS amplifies the idea of (MniimA». Cf. Aant. 
i6; Aagl. xxTJii 455. — Kock' 144: " does not keep anxiously {egtsaiif 
dat. -inair.) [the hoard]." 

^759^- y^^ silre (feceo3,/Ece rXdas. See Angl, xxxv 457 f. 
(Luke x 41, etc.) ) cp. Met. iioi f. : feng im ivUbera thing, f langia- 
Kteroa rad; Cbr. 757, — (oferhydft) ne gym, <shiai." (Litotea.) 

1763 ff. The enumeration of the dift'erent kinds of death (Me 
1846 fT.) recalls classic and ecclesiastic literature, cf. Arcb. cxxvi 359 
(though some similar Germanic legal formulas might be quoted, see 
Grimm R.A. 40 ff.). The poljayndetic series suggests the rhetoric of 
a preacher (such as Wulfatin). The effect is heightened bjr the repeti- 
tion of the prefix,_/orj('(fa and firPajBTCeS 1767 (m fargyttS end forgymtS 
1751), cp. 903 f.j Dan. 341, 352, El. loS, Cbr. 270, Andr. 614, 
IJ64, Gf". (S)45=- 

1769. Swi introduces an individual exempliiication of the preced- 
ing general observation ; cp. 306S, Wand. 19. 

1770-72. Although vrigge could be regarded as parallel with 1771', 
it is a little more natural to take it in an instrumental sense, 'by waf ' 
(and, by readiness for war). But the chief emphasis is laid on the peace- 
ful character of HroiSgir's long reign, jusl aa in the case of Beowulf, 
i73itF.) cp. also Otfrid i i.75ff. The remarkable parallel, A. J4.] 
{Bttudict. Office, ctc.)i {ml . - .) fjigt btiic lur&Sum feoadum, Gr:- 
Wii. iii 331, =' conclude adversus eos qui persequuntur me,' mi 
first noticed by Heyne. Cf. ESt. xxxix 464 j Angl, xxxv 469 { Kock> 

1785-1887. The parting. 

1797. )7 dfigore is meant in a generic sense, <in those days,' q>. 
197, 790. 

1801. The raven in the peculiar r6le as herald of the morning recalli 
the proper name D^gbrejv, ajoi. Cp. Htlgalev. Hund. ii 41 (OHn's 
. hanks rejoicing at the coming of morning). Earle thinks the black- 
cock may have been meant (see his note). 

t8oa>>-3". See Varr. ofer sceadwa is offered a* a sUght imptove- 
ment on Sieven'a irfler sctadtut; cp. Pbom. logf.t lunnt bdiast/efir 
iceadu iclneO. 

1S05 f. wolde fcor ^aaon . . . cEolei nBosan; i.e., he wanted to 
go to the ship ' for a voyage 6r away ' (Earle). 

1807-12. Heht >9 ae hearda Hnmtiog beran etc. 'Then the 
brave son of Ecglaf had Hrunting brought (cp. ioa3f^, bade [him] 
take his sword, the precious weapon j he |l.e., Beowulf] thanked him 
for that gift (see Gloss. : liaa), said he considered the war-friend [cp. 
bitdefrifir, Wald. ii 11] good, etc' It should be noted that the sub- 
ject of cuias lEio must be the same as that of i^gdi (S09 (cf. Intr. 
Ivi), and that the abrupt change of subject (from UnferS to Beowulf) 
in 1809 is not unparalleled (cf. Intr. Ixviii). The fact that Hrunting 
had been restored to Unfer^ has been passed over ai irrelevant | but the 

NOTES 1 8s 

ptegentatton of a parting gift (cp. 1 866 tT.) to the hero is appropriately 
dwelt upon with Bome emphaaia. (MPb. iii 460 f.) [For other views, 
gee VaiT-i Schrdet, Angt. xiii 337ff.i Jellinek & Kiaua, ZfJA. xxxv 
179 tr. ; Sedgefield'i and ChambcTG's notes.] 

1S25. Several edd. omit the comma after gOSgeweorca and con- 
strue the gen. with gearo. But ic bEo gearo sSna gi»es the impression 
of a complete clause. guSgctvisrca seems to have instrumenCai force 
like Ri^iT 345, 1439, iioti. Cf. Aant. jS; note on io34f. 

l83ot>-3iii. Ic on HigelSce wat,/Giata dryhteu. The lack of 
concord can be remedied by reading either Higelae (cp. 1650'') or 
drjblBi, see Varr. But such a congruence is not absolutely necessary 
in the case of an apposition (Lang. \i^.6; MPb. iii 259). Cf. also note 
on 48j Hel. 49 f., etc. Metrically, Higelae would be somewhat more 
regular, hut 1830^ is supported by 501''. 

1831''. ^Eah Sc ht geong s^. The author is inconsistent in repre- 
senting Hygelac here as still young (cp. 1969), whereas several years 
before he had given his daughter in marriage lo Eofor. (See Intr. 
xxxviii f.) — That a young person is not ordinarily credited with wis- 
dom, is seen ftom i9X7f-, i84ifi ifsnd. 64f. 

1833. wordum ond weorcum, largely a formula, see Gloss. : -word; 
Sievers'* Htliaxd, p. 466. ^»t ic pE wSI herjge ; the verb birigan 
' praise' assumes the sense 'show one's esteem by deeds,' cp. •wmrsian 
2096. {Hel. Si: •wariihtunlofGoda, i j : diaridon uian Drotliit, etc.) 
[Cf, also Aant, 17; MPb. iii 161 ; Chambers.] 

1B36 1 at him >onne Hre)iric ts hofum GEatft/ge)>IiigeS, ■ , . . 
determines [to go] to . . .' Exact parallels of this function of (red.) 
gePingan occur Bi Domei D. 5, Sat. 598 {cf. Aant. iB). For the 
omission of the verb of motion, see Gloss. : •willan, iculan ; jElfric's 
Saints ixvi 113 i pider bi ganynt befdt; also Lajamon's Brut 181091 
pA pu IS Rome pobiiii ; etc. The meaning ' (arrange to) take service' 
has been conjectured for gipingait (Get. ' sich verdingen,' cf. Hcyne- 
Schiicking, Lorz 68), but this ia not well attested. 

1838L feorcy)<Se bEoS/iElran gesShte fXm . . .^ ' tar countries 
when visited' — i.e. 'the visit offer countries is good (cf Lang. 5'5'') 
for him , . .' The participial construction accords with Latin syntax 
(Arch, cxxvi 355)1 yet it makes an idiomatic impression. < 

i84ot>. bim on andsware is, metrically, out of the ordinary (cf 
Rie.V, jij Mo. I4ii Holt. Zs. 125), but may be a permissible in- 
stance of Di with the stress on bim (as in m\ cp. 345'', etc.). 

1844-45'. Beowulf ia declared perfect in thought, words, and ac- 
tion j see Angl. xxxv 457. (Cp. iTosfO 

1850. ^xt yt SS-GEatas sElran nebbea . . . Several edd. (thus 
Schiicking, Sedgefield, Chambers) write pi; but the construction of (he 
dat. (inatr.) with a compar. (' better than you ') is found nowhere else 
in Beo-wulf. The corresponding passage, SsSff. supports p*J pe; cp. 
1846. (Arch, cxxvi 356 n.i.) 



1853 L gjt fa healdfto wjlt/maga rice. Appvently a Uw at 
Beowuirs future refusal to accept the throne, 1373 IF. 

iSS4>. Ilca9 leag swfi wel. Unless ivil is a mere icribal blunder 
for lil, the positive may be due to a contamination of tivo constructions, 
vii. licaa iiiil, and lieaS leng jiiia lil [bti] ; cp, 1413. See B.-T, 1 

1859. wesan; i86i.Keg:r«ttan; sell. j«fl/ (iSjs)- 

1862. Theriskj', if tempting jnterptetaiion of teuM, or iJa^x (from 
blab) as 'sea' (aJso in btapelieendi, see Gloss,) has been generally 
abandoned in favor of the emendation heafn, which is sustained by the 
occurrence af efer biafo in 1477. Sarraiin's tendering ai aftr beafiit bjr 
' after the war ' (San. St, 17) is by no means impossible, though other- 
wise beafiu 'war' is known only as the first clement of compounds. 
(Cp. the very rare use of the nouo betru by the wde of numerous com- 

1866. inne, 'within'; cp. 390, 1037, 1151, 1190. Beowulf was 
still inside the hall. 

1873. Him bEga wEn etc. See ifio^f., 1895 f. 

1875. ^aet h[i]e ■eoSSa(ii) [aS]. The addition of the negation im- 
proves the sense. Moreover, to judge from the defective state of the 
MS, , a few letters are probably lost at the end of the line (the first line 
ofthepage). (Chambers.) Hence, the differentiation of parentbesic and 
bracket may be illusory in this case. 

1884 f. ;^S WKS on gange g:ifu HrCSgares etc. Cp. gfixf. 

l887<>. (yldo . . .) aE \t. Remembering the use of the masc. desig- 
nations of Grendel's mother (see note on 1160), we need not be lul^ 
priied to find the hostile powers of old age and (ate (1411) treated in 
a similar way. [That si pt should refer to UroSgar is a rery precarious 

i8S8-i93i>. BEownlfs return. 

iSgib. swfl bE Sr djde. See note on 444''. 

iS94f. cwsS Jiset wilcunuu) Wedera Uodnm etc.; i.e., 'your 
people will give you a hearty welcome.' (Cp. ijisf., iS68f.) 

1900. Me ; i.e., Beowulf, who has not been mentioned after 1. iSIa 
(iggj); see I. 1910. — lithe bitweard the tame as the ilao^wtfn^ 
1890? . 

1918. oncerbeudnm is illustrated by a quotation from JE]SttA'% 
Selilaquies (ed. Hargrove) ti.^ff.t tcipti anctritrtng byO iptn^ am 
gtrihie J'ram para tcypi to pant aitcri . . ., le anctr byS gtfaitiud an Sir* 
eergan. jxab ptet icyf si ult on sirt li an pSm ySum, hyt ifn gttund 
[aad'l untailtgn glf-if sirtng apolaa, forSam bji bye it Saer tndtfmit 
on pirt torean and le dser on Sam icypi. Cp. also W/iaU i%W, (m- 

1926a. hA healle. Theunique plur. of £/a/ is certainly strange, and 
an emendation like biab htalrccid (Holthauien', cf. Zs. riS) or Hiah 
'btalstU may well rcpreient tbe original reading. If igst* b« R»ind- 



ered parallel to 1915^ (rattier than to 1915*), Kock's conjecture biak 
en bealU ofTers an acceptable improvement. (Cp., e.g., the sequence 
of half-line units, Pboeit. 9-io>.) 

J937f. )iEBh Se wlntrk lyt/nnder burhlocAn febiden hcbbe. 
< In spite of her youth,' Hygd lihoirs the virtues of a discreet tvoman 
and a giacioui, open-handed queen, differing therein from )>ry^ in 
her early, pre-marital stage, undtr hurblecatt, ' vfithin the caitle (or 

I93i>>-i963. Digjesaion on }ir78 Mid Ofia.' 

There remain some obscure points in the curaory allusion to JwyB,' 
but in all probability thii remarkable woman is meant to represent a 
haughty, violent maiden, who cruelly has any man put to death thai is 
bold enough just to loot at her fair (Sn/iVa 1941) face, but who, after 
being wedded to the right husband, becomes an admirable, womanly 
wife (and kind, generous [^1951] queen), — in short, exemplifying the 
'Taming of the Shrew' motive. This specific interpretation — which 
would put the unapproachable, fierce maiden in a line with Saxo'l 
Hermuthruda (iv 101 f.,^ 103) and Alvilda (vii iiS (F.), .g^ubildof the 
Nibelungtnliid, queen Olof of the Hrilfuaga (ch. 6) — derives strong- 
support from 11. igii-iS, 1954- What part the father played in the 
■toiy, and under what circumstances the daughter left her home, we are 
lef^ to guess i see notes on 1934, 1950. 
dCf.iOIFa, who while Mill young (1948), married the noble (1949), atrong- 
•Rinded maiden, isentolled (1955 E] as the most excellent hcro,^ lamed 
fat his valor, wisdom, and liberality. He is the sod of Gaimund and 
the father of Eomier (Eomer), and corresponds to the legendary, prc- 
histoiic Angle king Offa (I) of the Mercian genealc^ies (see Par. J z).^ 
Being removed twelve generations from the historiral ORa,!!, the old 
Angle Offa may be assigned to the latter half of the fourth century. Hit 
great exploit is the single combat by the river Elder which is alluded to 
in 11. jsfT. oi mdus: 

' Reference!: L 4.98-106 (eapec. Suchier, Goufh, Rickert){ alio: Grdn 
L 4.69.278 If.; Mtill. 71 ff., 131 f. I ten Brink 115 £,111 f., 119?.; Chidmck 
Or.cb. 6; Cha. Wid. 8+ ff. , loiff.j Heiuler, K.-L. iii ]6t f.; KierL 4,78.65 ff. 

* Thii nominitiTe fbnn ii not Tecarded ; h hai CTcn been doubted chit hei name 
B mendoned at all. See note on 1931 f. and Virr. She it onenubl]' introduced as 
a fin] to the discreet, decoroui, and genenms i^ucen Kyfd. 

' ■ Sciebatnunqueeininan modopwUcicBCelibem, Kdeciiminiolenciiatroceii], 
pTopno* Kinpet eioam procoa, amatoribui auk uldmum imjaiH lupplicium, adeo 

* Smibr, though more moderatE, ia the piaiK of Onda, 1381 ff. 

> The varialion Ginnund : WScmund ii matched by limllar ciiea in Scand. tra- 
dMca, see lotr. inii n.4. Suruin (£&. ilii 17, Kid. 70) chinki the dr- fbnn 
doe CD Celtic influence. The KHnewhac luipicimu Ange1t>Caw ia not mwCioned in 
BmBulf. (See, however, Intr. ilii n.4.) Sua (Book it) has the leciei Vi|leni« 
— Wennuodiu — Uflo. Qi.SlriaRimica{?a. l».^) otiAnH^u Ryinm(Vtt. 

D, ..■■.V^.OQi^lC 


Offa weoM Ongle, Alenlh Denum, 

se wses |Sni manna modgast ealra j 

no hwastre he ofer Offaa eorlscype fremede, 

ac OtFa gcslog Merest monna 

cnihtwesende cynertca miest ; 

ngrig efencald hini eorlacipc mSnin ' 

on orelte, ane sweorde > 

mtrce gemSrdc wiiS Mylgingum' 

bi Fifeldorej^ heoldon furS sitJian 

Engle ond Swxfe, Ewa hit OITa geslog. 
The details of this Aghl, by which he saved the kingdom, and t1 e 
dramatic scene leading up lo it, in particular the sudden awakening 
from his long continued dumbness and torpor,! are set forth in one of 
the most charming stories of SaKo Grammaticus (iv io6, 113-17) and 
in Sven Aageson'a Chronicle (Par. { 8.3). A brief reference is found 
also in the Aitnalts Rycniti (Par. { 3-5). 

Stories of Offa as well as of his queen were incorii orated in the Vital 
Duoram Offarum, a Latin work written about the year i xoo by a monk 
of St. Albans.^ Here Ofia I miraculously gains the power of speech 
and defeats the Mercian nobles who had rebelled against his old father 
Warmundus. The story related of his wife, however, is the popular 
legend of the iimocently sutFering, patient heroine, who [flees from an 
unnatural father,] marries a foreign prince, is banished with her child 
(or children), but in the end happily rejoins her husband.7 In the Life 
of Olfa II, i.e. the great historical Mercian king (who reigned from 
757 to 79^), the prince is similarly cured of his dumbness and, after 
defeating the rebel Beomred, is elected king. But the account given of 
the wife of this Offa strangely recalls the (jtyB legend of BeoiMulf, at 
the following outline will shovr. 

A beautiful but wicked maiden of noble descent, a relative of 

■ Perhaps /rMcJf or (Holt, :) f'i'ig Jl Co be undentood. 

' In Sho'i Ycraon Offa'j paternal iword ia named Scrip. 

' The Myrgingai seem to be regarded ai a branch of Che &a£ft (I.e. North 

* The ri"" Kder, which for lome distance fiirau the boundaiy betweeD 
Schlawig and Holsrnn. 

' This widely known motiie of the hero's ilugglih, unpromiiing youth (cf. 
Grimm D.M. jii (jgS)) ii applied to Beowulf: 1183 ff. Tlie parallel of the eatly 
Irish hero Labhraidh Mien was mentioned by Gerould (L 4, 102). 

' A complete edition by Wall, London, 1640. Some eitracu may be found in 
Gough (L 4. 101) >nd Finter (L 4.34,). On pictorial repraenBtions, lee note on 

' I.e., the loiealled ' Constance l^nd," which a repreKnted by a numbs 0/ 
medieval venions (in several languages) and which 11 hal known n gludenli of 
Enellth literature from Chaucefs Tali of ihe Ma,- tf Lavit. Ponibly, the OE, 
poem, Tki Bamihid Wifi'i Lmunl, belongl in ttus group, Me eapec. Rickert, 
MPk. a 36jff.; Uwience, MFk. v 387 ff. 

NOTES 189 

Charlemagne, is on account of some disgraceful crime condemned to 
exposure on the sea in a small boat without rudder and sail. She drifts 
to the shore of Britain. Led before King Otfa, she giwes her name as 
Drida and chaises her singular banishment to the intrigues of certain 
men of ignoble blood whose otTers of marriage she had proudly re- 
jected. Offa, deceived by the girl's beauty, marries her. From that 
time she is called Quendrida,' 'id est regina Drida.' Now she shoms 
herself a haughty, avaricious, scheming woman, who plots against the 
king, his councilors, and his kingdom, and treacherously causes the 
death of.£«elberht,kingof£astAnglia, a suitor of Otfa's third daughter. 
A few years later she meets a violent death. 

In spite of their obvious differences, this narrative and the Betnuulf 
version of {iryS evidently go back to the same source. The shifting of 
the story from the legendary Offa 1 to the historical Otfa 11 and the 
ttansformation it has undergone are perhaps in part due to the (purely) 
legendary stories of the cruelty of queen Cyneh^S, wife of Offa II.' 
Why a legend of the Constance type should have been attached to the 
Angle Offa, remains a matter of speculation. There are some slight 
parallelisms between it and the Drida account, but it is difficult to be- 
lieve, as some scholars do, in their ultimate identity. 

There can be no doubt that the stories both of Offa and of ]^i^S arose 
in the ancient continental home of the Angles. The Offa tradition lived 
on for centuries among the Danes, and it appears in literary, national- 
ized form (Wermundus figuring as king of Denmark) in the pages of 
Saxo and Sven Aageson. On the other hand, the Angles migrating to 
Britain carried the legends of Offa and his queen with them and in 
course of time localized them in their new home. Offa I became in the 
Vita king of the West Angles (Mercians), the founder of the city of 
Warwick, and considerable conhision between the two Offas set in, 
leading to further variations. 

That the tales of Offa's prowess have a historical basis, is quite be- 
lievable and antecedently probable. The |jry^ legend has frequently 
been assigned a mythological origin. Her name and character have 
called to mind the Valkyiia type,^ and she has been compared directly 
to the Scandinavian Brynhiidr, the person of her father being considered 
to be no other than OSinn. Also a Norse myth of fjorr and }>ru1!r — 
a variation of a primitive Indo-European ■ day and n^ht ' myth — has 
been put into requisition (L4. 106), But little light on the fieoiuMZ/'ver- 
lioo is gained from such hypotheses. 

Various scholars have been looking for specific reasons to accbunt 
for the insertion of this episode in the Beotuulf narrative. Allusions to 

' OE. cw'en firyS. 

' And, indirKtly, to (he odiDus reputation of the wicked Eadburg, the (iaughlei 
of Offii and CyneprfS (Rkkirt, MPi. ii 343 ff)- 

' [>rutv (i.e. ' Mrength ') ■> menciDoeil by the dde of Hildr (i.e. ' battle ') u 
oneofthe Valfcrrialin Grimniimal, 36. SeeiirimmD.M. }49ff. (431 ff) 


Cynt^rrylS, wife of Ofia II, or to queen Ost>rj?S (ob, 657)' have been 
detected in it and charged to the account of an interpolator.* The 
passage has been imagined to be a soit of allegory revealing a high 
moial and educational puq>ose in ita praise of Olfa (^Ofia II), iu 
rebuke to {iryS (^ CynetiyS), its (hidden) admonition to Eomei 
(=prince EcgfefS).^ Bui the only conclusion to be drawn &om it with 
reasonable certainly seems to be that the poet was interested in the old 
Anglian traditions — the only legends in Ecotvulf that are concerned 
with persons belonging to English (i.e., pre-English) stock. That these 
enjoyed an especial popularity in the Mercian district, is confirmed by 
the testimony of the proper names.* The author's strong disapproval 
of JJrylTs behavior (1940 IF.) is quite iu keeping with his moralizing, 
didactic propensities shown in various other passages.^ 

1931 f. Mfid })rfSc [ne] trxg etc. The senous difficulties c£ 
meaning and form (nom. ^ao [MS.] instead of ^r^s, cf. Hut, MLN. 
zviii ii7f.; but also Aiigt. xxviii 451} are removed by Schiicking't 
emendation. (See Vair.) The iibnipt transition to fi^ resembles the 
sudden appearance of Heremod 901, who, like her, serves as a (partial) . 

1934. sw3ara geaiSa, i.e. the retainei^ at the court. — sinfreii. 
ritherthe 'father ' or 'husband.' In the latter case, itefite linfrea meant 
■except as husband.' All the unsuccessful suitors were to be executed. 

1935. >3:t hire an dieges Eagum starede. The construction may 
be explained from a blending of the absolute (adv.) use of on, as in 
lutrai on laiuon 1650, and the dat. of interest, as in iim asiUm legem 
. . biab oferbeafod 47 f. ; cp. 15961: him . . . ymhegtitodon. For some 
parallel instances, sec Arch, cxxlii 417 n. The postpositive bh takes the 
strong stress as in 1513, cp. 671. — d^gti 'by day,' i.e. ' openly.' 

1936. . . . him . . . weotode tealde, 'considered . . . (appointed, 
or) in store for him.' A stereotyped expression. See Jut. 357; ic pjet 
ituinjc md laitod tealdi, 6S5f.; Hel. iS79f.; Wulfst. 147.26, 141.16. 

1938. xfler mundgripe, 'after being seized (arrested).' 

1944. Hemminges mXg^ Offa; in 1961 =£omer. Was Hem- 
ming a brother of Garmund ? Or Gatmund's (or Olfa's) father-in-law ? 
(Cp. msbadis mig, Watd. a 8.) The name occurs in Ags., ON., 
and OHO. See Suchier, Beitr. iv 511 f ; Sievers, ih. x 501 f } Bins 
171; Bjorkman I. 4.31. 4.1671 There is a village named Hemming- 
etedt in the southwestern part of Schleswig. 

1945. ealodrincende oSer sSdan. This remark, an individualized 
variation of the gefr^gn- formula, used as a phrase of tranution, sup- 
plies a connecting link between the lirsl part of the story and its con- 
tinuation : 'beer-drinking men related further.' [MPb. iiix44, Angl. 

' tcD Brink 119 <f. 

' L, T963 would indeed form a fiultlefii condnuatiou of 19x4* 

' Earle, pp. lulivfT. * Knz 169 ff. 

' Cp., e.g., the chancEoiitk inscuice of L t7ix. 

NOTES 191 

xxviii +49.) [It has often been considered to p<Mnt to anatkcr, different 
venion of the prylS story, by which interpretation the preceding account 
(1931-43) was supposed lo furnish an especially close parallel to the 
taJe of Drida.] 

1946. ISs, (by litotei :) 'nothing.' 

1948. Eeongum cempan. Offa's youth at the time of his heroic 
exploit is made much of in the Widsis allusion. According to later 
traditions, curiously both Scandinavian (Sven Aageson, Annates Rym- 
lei) and English ones (fi/a Offae I), he had reached hia thirtieth year 
b«fore he revealed his valor. However, one of a set of drawings made 
at St. Albans (in one of the MSS. of the yiiae) represents him as a 
youth, see R. W. Chambers, Six tbirittnth ctntury dra-uiingi illuilral- 
ing tht ilary of Offa and of Thryth (Drida), London [privately printed], 

1950. ofer fealone fl&d. The epithet feaiu applied to the sea —as 
is often done (somewhat conventionally) in OE. poetry — denotes 
"perhaps yellowish green, a common color in the English and Irish 
Channels" (Mead, Publ. MLAii.xiv igg). — be fader Ure. The pre- 
cise meaning of this allusion is lost. Did the father send Jryt! away, 
because her excessive violence and cruelly rendered her continued stay 
at his court impossible? [An unconvincing suggestion: Stefanovi£ 

1953. llf{;esceafta lifigende brEac. Similarly, •wiiroldi brSceB 
1062 ; 1097. As to the tautological combbation, cp., e.g., cwict tif- 
don, Andr. 119, OS. Got. 83. 

i960. The reading proposed by Rickert (MPb. ii 54 (T.): [^«»f] 
iSel j'tmie, penon geornor luSf, and interpreted as an allusion to OHa't 
lingular 'awakening,' is very interesting, but clearly impossible. 

1963-3151. Beowulf's arrival and narrative. 

1967'>-7o". to 69es Se etc., 'to the place where, as they had heard, 
the king. . . . distributed rings.' The familiar gtfrugn- formula 
(1969 ! gefrunon) is of course, strictly speaking, out of place here. 
bona-n Ongen^Goes 1968 is not meant in its literal sense, since Hygc 
lac had performed the deed only by proxy, see Intr. xxxix ; Par. { lo: 
Tacitus, Germ. c. xiv. The terni is su^estive of the ON. surnames 
Huttdingtbani, Fafniibani (cp. Iiungi bani, Hilgakv. Hund. in). 

1970 ff. A much abridged form ofthe ceremonies described in J3 1 ff, 

I978f. mandrjhten is probably ace. (not nom.) sing. It is BCD' 
wuif's part to greet the king in a solemn address, see 407 tf. 

1981. By the hook under the e in reced the scribe seems to have 
indicated the open character of the e {f=*) ( thus in 2126 h;l^bil, 
%6i'i f'/imii^f^Smiit. In sitice 1989 the same sign was added by mis- 
take. (Cf. Intr. xciii.) [Did the scribe of the first part use f in i jggb f 
See Vacr.] 

1983. It has been suggested that the form ha(Jl)num (see Varr.) 
pertains to the tribal name HaSnm (ON. Hti(S)iiir), which occun 


WUi. 8i. But nhy a term denoting the inhabitants of Hedemarken in 
Norway (according to Bugge, also the dneller^ on the Jutish * heath ') 
■hould have been introduced heie, has not been cxpliuned utis&ctolily. 
Cf. Bu. gff-i Chambers'! note. 

1994 ff. It has not been mentioned before that Hygelic tried to dU- 
(uade Beomulf from his undertaking (see on the other hand, aoifT., 
415?.). The same motive, equally unftiunded, appears in the last part, 
3079lf. — Several so-called discrepancies between BeovrulPs own con- 
densed version, 1000 IF., and the original account of his adventures in 
Denmark are easily detected. Some insignificant variations occur in 
aoii-13, 1147''. A shifting of emphasis (and omisiion of detail) i* 
observed in iijSf. Added details, some of which seem to have been 
purposely reserved for this occasion, are found in zoioff.-(appearance 
of Freawaru and everything told in connection therewith), 4076 (name 
Hondscioh), 1085 ff. (Grendel's pouch), 3107 ff., 11 3 if., 1157 IF. 

1996 f. lete SoS-Dene sylfe geweorSan/gflSe wiS Grendel may 
be translated: 'that you should let the Danes themBelvei settle the war 
with Grendel.' (Cp. 4x4 IT.) For the interesting construction see 
Glois. I geiveersar:, luie. [Cf. Aant. 30 [ Bu. 97.] 

2003. uncer Crendles, 'of ua'two, [meand] Grendel,' Aninstance 
of the archaic 'elliptic dual' construction. Cf. Sievers, Seilr. ix 171} 
Jngl. xxvii 401. (Also Edgerton, ZfvglSfr. iliii iioff., iliv isff.} 
Neckel, GRM. i 393.} 

Z004 f. sorge is gen. sing, (or plur.?), yrmSe probably ace. sing. 
Cp, 1018 f., 3067 ff. 

Z018. bXdde (from bidan ' compel ') byre geonge would be rather 
forced, whether we explain it as ' she urged the young men [to drink] ' 
or 'she kept the young men (servers [f]) going' (CL Hall). The 
emendation bselde is elucidated by 1094. 

3031. The most plausible meaning ascribed to on ende is ' consecu- 
tively,' 'continuously,' 'from end to end' (lit. 1 [from beginning] to 
end), i,e. 'to all In succession' (B.-T. Suppl.: mJi, u p d). The 
rendering ' at the end of the ball (or tables) ' is of doubtful propriety. 

2033 f. (n^)gled sine, presumably ' studded vessel ' (CI. Halt) ) 
tee 495, 1253 f., 1281, and note on ii6. sine . , aeaide, a variant 
expression for lincfalo jraldt, 611. 

2D24>>-69>. The HeaSo-Bard Episode. See Intr. xxxJvlF. 

The following isasummary of Sano's narrative (vi iSi ff.).' Frotho, 
who succeeded to the Danish throne when he was in his twelfth year, 
overcame and subjugated the Saxon kings Swerting and Hanef. H« 
proved an excellent kitig, strong in war, generous, virtuous, and mindful 
of honor. Meanwhile Swerting, anxious to free his land from the ruleof 
the Danes, treacherously resolved to put Frotho to death, but the latter 
forestalled atid slew him, though slain by him simultaneously. Frotho 
was succeeded by his son Ingellus, whose soul was perverted from 
' litenl quotatiaiu are froiti Ellon'l rendering. 


honor. He forsook the examples of his forefalhen, and utterly en~ 
thralled himself to the lures of winion profligacy. He manied the 
daughter of Swerting given him by her brothers, who desired to insure 
themselves against vengeance on the part of the Danish king. When 
Startuitlierus, the old-time guardian of Ftotho's son, heard that Ingellus 
was perversely minded, and instead of punishing his fiither's murderers, 
bestowed upon them kindness and friendship, he was veied with sting- 
ing wrath ■ at so dreadful a crime. He returned from his wanderings in 
foreign lands, where he had been fighting, and, clad in mean garments, 
betook himself to the royal hall and awaited the king. In the evening, 
Ingellus took his meal with the sons of Swerting, and enjoyed a mag- 
.nificent feast. The tables had been loaded with" the profiisest dishes. 
The stem guest, soon recognized by the king, violently spumed the 
queen's efforts to please him, and when he saw chat the siayers of Froths 
were in high favor with the king, he could not forbear from attacking In- 
gellus' character, but poured out the whole bitterness of his reproaches 
on his head, and thereupon added the following song i > Thou, Ingellus, 
buried in sin, why dost thou tarry in the task of avenging thy lather f 
Wilt thou think tranquilly of the slaughter of thy righteous sire ? — 
Why dost thou, sluggard, think only of feasting I Is the avenging oi 
thy slaughtered &ther a little thing to thee P — I have come from Swe- 
den, travehng over wide lands, thinking that I should be rewarded, if 
only I had the joy to find the son of my beloved Frotho. — But I 
sought a brave man, and I have come to a glutton, a king who is the 
slave of his belly and of vice. — Wherefore, when the honors of kings 
sue sung, tuid poets relate the victories of captains, I hide my face for 
shame in my mantle, sick at heart, — I would crave no greater blessing, 
if I might see those guilty of thy murder, O Frotho, duly punished 
for such a crime." Now he prevailed so well by this reproach [clothed 
by Saxo in seventy Latin stanzas] that Ingellus, roused by the earnest 
admonition of his guardian, leapt up, drevr his sword, and forthwith 
(lew the sons of Swerting, 

Compared with the Beoviiilf, Saxo's version marks an advance in 
dramatic power in that the climax is brought about by a single act 
(not by enhonations administered on many occasions, mSta gibiayki 
1057), and that Ingellus himself executes the vengeance, whereas in 
the English poem the slaying of one of the queen's attendants by an 
unnamed warrior ushers in the catastrophe.' 

3029-31. Oft aeldan hwar/zfter lEodhtTre lytic hwHe/bongSr 
bDgeS, >eah sEobtyd duge. The general sense of these lines — which 
do not stand in need of alteration — is: 'As a rule, the murderous 
spear will rest oiJyfbr a short time under such circumstances." iildan, 
' in rare mstances,' expresses in a modified form the same idea as ^tli 
Invflei cf. Est. xliv 115 f. Kock's able interpretation (Angl. xxvii 
aSid p-iiKmupgaar f ep. But", lo+j"". 



S3] If.) : • As a rule, it seldom happens that [itldan bviirr, cp. ivmr. 
dur hrioar go6i) the apear rests when some time has elapsed . . .' does 
not take into consideration the natural meaning of 0(/« Inoile (cp. 1097, 
1140), seo bryd, the bride (in question), cp. 943, 175S, Hil. jioj no 
dirtct reference to Freawaru. 

2032 f. Ax of^jmcan is regularly construed with the dative, the re- 
tention of atudeti appears, after all, quite hazardous, although the join- 
ing of different cases (siaden, gebiuartt) in itself would not count as an 
obstacle {MPb. iii 159). [It has been suggested that Bioden may stand 
for Sisdtt{t) with final t elided, cf. Rie.Zs. 404; note on 698*.] 

2034 f. )>oime he mid fttmnaa on flett gieS, — /drjhtbeani Dena 
ilii{u9ai biwenede. "tlie pronoun bi might refer to drybthearu Data, ■ 
cp. 205s '■I ^*'^ 1059: fimnan pegn, i.e. a young Dane who has ac- 
companied the princess to her new home. (Cf MPh. iii 155.) Kluge's 
interpretation of dryhlbearti as dryblbiom ' bridesman ' (cp. drybl-eal- 
dcrman, -gitma = *paranymphus ') is not called for, since there is no 
allusion to the wedding feast here. daguSa bixuencde could be considered 
s parenthetic clause with the substantive verb omitted (see Sii). Of 
course, the change to bl lutrtdi (without parenthesis) would render the 
construction smoother. 

But there arc other interpretational possibilities. Explaining £« >034 
with reference to Ingeld, we may regard drybibtam (plur.) Dma du- 
guSa biivenede as a loosely joined elliptic clause (cp. 936, 1343) indi- 
cating the cause of the king's displeasure: ' the noble sons of the Dane* 
[ate] splendidly entertained ' — provided dugusa can be taken in an in- 
ttrumcnta] sense (cp. niSa 845, 1439, iio6] or is emended to dugusum 
(cp. 3174) j in this case bim 1036 would be dat, plur. This interpreta- 
tion appears on the whole the most satisfactory one Further renderings 

are 1 ' [while] a uoble scion of the Danes attended upon the knights* 
(Hiyne, Schucking), ' [that] his high lords should entertain a noble 
scion of the Danes' (Wyatt, CI. Hall) [both presupposing an inexpli- 
cable change of tense]; '[with the lady,] the noble child of the Danes 
(drybtbearn in apposition with ySmnaJi), attended by her band" (reading 

duguBt) (Sedgefield) [with doubtful syntax] C£ also Rie. Zs. 404 f) 

Bu. 98; Green L 

3036*. on him gladiaS. Type A3 ; cp. 631'. As to the accent on 
the preposition, cf. Rie. V. 31 f See note on 714*. 

2041. beah. There is no doubt that the mice (1047) is meant. It 
would not seem impossible to credit beah, 'ring,' then 'ornament,' 
'precious thing' (beagai 'things of value,' 80, 513, 1S35) with the 
same development of sense as is seen in the term mSepua, ' treasure,* 
' anything predoui,' which is applied to a sword {see ijiS, lojs). 
But it is certainly simpler to interpret ^fa^ as 'hilt-ring,' see Stjer. 15, 
Glosi. : /elllbilt, btndan. 

3D44 f. g;eoiig(um) cempan . . . higei cnnnian, ' test (tempt) the 
mind of a young vrarrior,' cf. Lang. S*S'4' '^'" rather redundant 


NOTES igj 

pKrh hriBra gibygd (cf. Aigl' xxxv 470) appears to emphasize the in- 
tensity of the Bearching. Gummere; "testB the temper and tries the 
soul." In Saxo's account it is Ingeld himself that is addressed. 

ao5it>. sjSSjui Wi9erg7ld lieg; cp. ■i^ol\ asSgb^ a97Si>. We 
may imagine that the battle turned after IViStrgyU, a great leader, was 
slain. (It has been conjectured that he was the lather of the young 
warrior, 1044, see G. W. Mead, MLN. xxxii 43 5 f.) The same name, 
though apparently not applied to a Bard warrior, occurs ^tds. 134. 
A common noun ivistrgyld (' reijuital ') is nowhere found. 

2053. ^arcL baaena byre nathwy Ices. Anewgenerationbasgrown 

2036. fone pe. The accus., in place of the more regular dat. 
(instr.) (with ridan), is the result of attraction to potie maSpum 1055. 
Cp., «.g., ai9S, jooj. 

ao6i. se 66er, the slayer, is no doubt identical with the geong 

2D63f. "'poaat btoS (Bb)rocene on bS healfe/iSaweord eorla. 
This implies that, by way of retaliation, a Dane kills a Hea'So-Batd. 

Then Ingeld is stirred up. 

207a>, hoadras hxleSa, Note the decidedly conventiooal use of 
this gen. plur., cp. iio«, 1198', (ano*), Finnib. 37'', 

2076«. JjBrwM Hond«qi& (older ♦-^«Ojfe, cf Lang. J 17.3 n.). 
Type Ci, ep. (e.g.) 64", 2194*, 1107', »jx4».. 207611. hild onsSg^, 
TypeDi. Cp. 1483'': (•aiiars) guB miigt, 'assailed' (him); see Gloss. 

2085. Gl9f, ■ glove,' app^ar^ here in the unique sense of * bag. * For 
the use of gloves in Ags. times, see Stroebe L j. 45. 1.15; Tupper's 
Riddlei, p. 96. 

309ll>. hjt ne mitte swi. TV ■"€"- •wisan is understood (see 
Gloss. : wit), not geddn of 1090, as is proved by the formula-like char- 
acter of the expressionj cp. Andr. 139J, Gutl. 54E, Rid. 30.6, etc. 
(Cf. Sievers, jlHgl. niii a.) 

2105 ff. The gyd . . . sSS ond aSrUc zioSf. recited by HroVgar 
denotes, most likely, an elegy (see 1247 ff. ajid note). What relation 
there is between (his gyd, the jytlic if ell, and the haip playing, we are 
unable to determine. The practice of the art of minstrelsy by nobles 
and Icings in the heroic age is confirmed by Scandinavian {also Middle 
High German,) and, indeed, Homeric parallels; a celebrated historic 
example is that of Gelimer, the last king of the Vandals (Procopius, 
Hisloriui Vandal /far). Cf. Kohler, Germ, iv jjfF.; ChadwickH.A. 
83 ff., an; Heusler, R.-L. i 455. — stuff. The lament over the 
passing of youth and the misery of old age (cp. iE86f., 1766 f.) is 
thoroughly Germanic. Thiis, e.g., Sajto viii zfig ff.. Hel. 150 If,, 
G«i.(S)484f. Cf. Gummere G.O. 305 f. (Botalso ^aW^viii soSf., 

2131 f. I^a ae Seodea mec ISint llfe/heaUode, 'then the king im- 
plored me by thy life.' (Cp. 43Sf.) A &ee use of the instrxim., cp. 


the prepositional -phi«se, Jul. 446: ic pee bSlnge purh pat I^bitan 
miabt, Blicil. Horn. 189. jtF., etc. (There may have been some con- 
fusion betneen hahian and bealsian.) See Kress, Utber den Gtbraucb 
dei Initrumeatatii tn der agi. Peesie, Marburg Diss. (1864), p. 34, n.j 
Bu. 369 f.) Delbrilck, Syntrilitmui (1907), pp. 43, 41. 

3137. yST unc hwile WKS hand geiii3iie. "There to us for a 
while was the blending of hands" (W. Morrb), or . . . "battle joined" 
(Sedgefield). Cp. 1473; IVuIfil. i6i.Ti.i pal tvipengcivrixl lueorSe 
gemame pigane and prate. The Ger. bandgemein (jiuerden') fimushes a 
semasiological, though not a syntactical parallel. 

2138, holm heolfrewEoU, ondic hCafde becearf. . . Ahysteron 
proteron. Regarding the decapitation of Grendel's mother, see 1566 If. 
and note on 1994 ff. 

2147. on (m!ii)ae sylfes dSm. This is, to say the least, an cxag' 
geration. The poet was yielding to the formula habit; see, e.g., S9J, 
1776; Maid. 38 f. : jyilait sSsmannum ea byra sylfra dem/feob. 

2152-2199. Beowulf And Hy{;elic. 

2l52l>, eafor heafodseg^. The reading eafar biafoditgn (asyndetic 
parataxis, see note on 398) is preferable to eafarbiafodsegn, which would 
be a vety exceptional double compound (cf. Rie. Zs. 405V The words 
undoubtedly denote a banner, the first of the four gifts which are 
enumerated here in the same order as iu loio S. The boar banner (a 
banner with a boar-figure on it) may be compared to the Scand. laven 
banners (see OE. Cbrsri. a.d. 878 (B, C, D, E): ae giiefana . . . pe bu 
Hrajii belon i cf. Hattung I. j. 50.450). Was it called a 'head sign' 
because it was borne aloft in front of the king ! (See Baeda, H.E. ii, 
c. i6j Bemu. njf., El. 76 [?].! Or does the compound mean 'great 
baimer" ? Or, perhaps, an emblem (boar) such fs was attached to the 
helmet which covered the head > (Cf. Siev, luutvi 417 1.) 

2157. fxt ichisserest 3e est gesegde. 'That I should first de- 
clare to thee his goodwill ' (Schroer, Angl. xiii 341 f , Sedgefield, CI. 
Hall) would be an altogether supererogatory declaration. Considering 
the regular way of introducing indirect discourse (see Intr. Ivi), it 
appears that ai 57 must contain a general statement of similar import 
to that of the following lines introduced by civaS. The noun est may 
be 'bequest,' 'bequeathing' (cp. jyllaa 1160, almost = unnan), and 
bii . . . est may express ' its transniisMon,' i.e. its history (in which 
case the use of the adverb ireit suggests that of after in la, «7ji), 
cf. MPb. iii 164, 461 f. Or est may be interpreted as 'gracious gift," 
— " that I should describe to thee his gracious gift " (B.-T. Suppl.). 
The separation of his from est might possibly be cited in favor of the 
former explanation (see 1579). — When Gretiir's mother presented him 
with a sword, she said: 'This sword was owned by Jflkull, my father's 
father, and the earlier Vatnsdai men, in whose hands it vras blessed with 
victory. I give it to youj use it well.' [Gretlissaga, ch. t7.) 

2164 f. lungre gellce has been doubtfully expbined both aa ' equally 

D, ..■■.v^.oo^ic 



■wift' and 'perfectly alike' Kock> 117 ingeniously suggested the 
reading lungrt, gellct, * swift and all alike.' This explanation nat 
c»lled in question {MLN. •caiv 1 33) on the ground thu the tno co- 
ordinate members of such asyndetic phiases (nouns or adjectives, see 
note on 393) are commonly synonymous or, at any rate, of di>tinct!y 
nmilar scope, and one of theni h normally a regular compound. How- 
erer, tu regards the latter objection. Professor Kock (in a private cora- 
mtmication) points out that similar combinations are, in fact, not lack- 
ing, e.g. btald, gtbliltod, Gr.-Wu. ii 140. la, firbu, afirde, Andr. 
1340; and, as to the disparity of meaning betneen the two adjectives, 
an exception to the rule may be admitted in view of the fairly analogous 
cases of the type tsig md utfih 33, cf. Augl, xiin 381. It should be 
mentioDed that an adj. lungor does not seem to be recorded in OE., 
except in the compound ciailungir ~ ■ contentiosus,* Rtde af Cbrode- 
gang 19.1a, but tttngar, 'quick,' or 'strong' occurs in the Heliaad; 
also OUG. langar, 'quick,' 'strenuous.' (Cf. Kock L5. 44.4.43 f.j 
Cook's note on Cbr. 167.)- — Only in this passage does ISst (s'lvaai) 
iRreiirditui cany the meaning of • follow,' see Gr. Spr. i tveardian- 
On the form intardndt^ see I.ang. \\ 19. 3, 15.6. — leppelfealuwe ; cf. 
Liining L 7. 18. «o8 f. In older German, apfttgrau is a favorite epithet 
of horses. 

3l68*. dymum cnefte may belong as welt with thefolloningat with 
the preceding member of the clause. tondgtMalian is clearly variation 
of derum, i.e. migt. 

2172a. H^rde ic ystt bl Sone healsbEab. See S163 and note on 
6a f. For the scansion of 2173a, wifftlicne wundqrmlSiSnm, see 
Intr. laxi & n. i, T.C. { 19. — How many of the presents did Beo- 
-wulf keep for himself? 

2179 S. See note on Heremod, p. i$S. 

3183 S. HSan wes lange etc. The introduction of the common- 
place stoiy of the sluggish youth is not very convincing (cp. 40S f.V 
See Intr. xiv n. 1, jureii n. 4; note on 1931-61 (Offa). 

3185 f. nE hyne on medohence micles wyrSne/drihten Wedera 
gedOa wolde. tvyrae, ' having a right to,' assumes, especially in legal 
language, the pregnant sense of* possessed of,' see B.-T., p. 1100, viii ; 
Liebennann L ii i, Gloss, : ivitrSt; MLN. xviii 246 ; hence 
uiiclei luyrSni gidon, 'put in possession of much,' i.e. 'bestow large 
gifts (on him).' That turreda of the MS. is a corruption of WtJtra, 
seems all the more natural, as ivtnToda Dtyhten is invariably applied to 
the 'Lord of Hosts' (Rankin, JEGPb. viil 405). 

2195. Koftin Jiasendo, puiend is sometimes used < of value with- 
out expressing the unit' (B.-T.). In this case, as also^ e.g., repeat- 
edly in Btde, the bid ('&milia') is evidently understood (see LeoL4. 
34.101 n. Ii Ettmiiller, Transl.; Kluge ix 191 f.j Plummer's Saxon 
CbroHicUt ii, p. 33; Aiigl, xxvii4ii f), so that the size of the land given 
to Beowulf would equal that of North Merciaj cp. OE.Btde 140.31 

D, ..■■.v^.oo^ic 


SerSMercum, p3ra Imdei ii itafsn pusenJo (k iit, c 34 : • 6 
VII milium'). Seenoteon i994f. 

2198 f. 53mm, i.e. Hygelac; fim m pSm It (so »779)t sElrk, 
'higher In rank.' Cp. 86a f. 

The narrative of the Second Put is much broken up by digressions. 

The main story is contained in II. 1300-31", 117B— 13+5», 1397—1+14; 
15 10-19 io> i iao7i>-5o, (3058-68,) 3076-3181; the previous history 
of the dragon hoard, in II. ii^i""-??, 3051 (or 49'>)-S7, 3069-75! 
episodes of Geatish history, in II. aj54i>(49'')-96, 1415-1509, (1611— 
15s) i9io'>-30O7«. 

3200-2333. The robbing of the hoard and the rav^es of the 

2302 ff. On the historical allusions, see Intr. xl, U. Z37S fT. 

2207. sySSSan is used, in a may, correlatively with ijllSim siot. 

2209. WKS SS fr9d cyniug, 'the king was then old.' 

22i3t>. atlg under iKg. Type D4. (See 1416''.) 

2315 ff. The supplied readings are of course conjectuial, but there 
are sufficient grounds for believing that they fiiirly represent the con- 
text, (forf ne)h gefe(al)g/h»8num horde, ' he made his way forwards 
near to the heathen hoard '; cp. 74.5, 1189 f. To judge from the ^- 
Bunilc, the MS. reading ^e/ipji^ [30 Holthausen, Schiicking, Chambers) 
it by no means certain. — ' 1117. ni hE ^xt sySSan (bemfiS), ■ nor 
did he [the dragon] afterwards conceal it,' i.e. he showed it very plainly. 
For the use of P{iab) 1x18, see iroi. 

2333. sB 5e him s9re gesceOd. AisirefeTstolhedragon. Cp. 1195. 

2223. ^(Eow). A slave, a fligitive from justice, stole a costly ves- 
sel from the dragon's hoard, and upon presenting it to his master — 
one of Beowuirs men — obtained his pardon, iiSi If. The vessel was 
then sent to Beowulf himself (i+o+f.). In the meantime the dragon 
had commenced liis reign of terror. [According toILawrence, L 4.61a. 
551, "A warrior \^l>egii] (not a slave), having committed a grievous 
crime, was forced to flee the court of which he vras a member, in order 
to escape the vengeance of the man whom he had injured, or his kins- 
men. He therefore plundered the dragon's hoardj so that he might get 
objects of value by means of which to compose the feud. The rings 
were apparently used as atonement for the crime, while the cup was 
given to the ruler [probably Beowulf] who arranged the settlement." 
But why should that person be called a 'captive,' as Lawrence trans- 
lates hirft 3408 ? {See Gloss.; may he have been a war prisoner ?)] 

2338-31'. A hypothetical restoration of the missing words might be 
attempted as follows. 

hwxSre (eann)Eceapen (atolan wyrme 
wriecnion setwand — him wkb wroht) sceapen — 
(fiis on ftSe, fa hyne) se &r begeat. 
Sincfxt (fitde). 

D, ..■■.v^.oo^ic 

NOTES 199 

With azagh cp. 3187, 191 j } with iijo" cp. 970. As to firdt, see 
i^S-.feerrtui; also hafdc, 01 funde (proposed by Chambers) would be 
acceptable. — For 32*7 the reading ptet (bmjroin) Sam sy't{e grye)- 
brega itid would seem natural (so, except for the omission of bim, 
Grein'}. Cp, 1564 f., 7S3f. } as to the meaning of gysl, see gtyrtgUil 

2231 ff. Supplemented by the account of an earlier stage (3049 ff., 
3069 ff,), the history of the hoard ^ briefly this. Long, long ago 
(3050*) tl"* hoard had been placed in the earth by illustrious chieflaiiis 
(3070). A curse had been laid on it. After a time, it was discovered 
and seized by certain warriors (iz4gf.), who made good use of it. 
The last survivor of this race returned the treasures to the earth, plac- 
ing them in a barrow or cate. There. the dragon found them and kept 
watch over them for three hundred years (1178), until the theft of a 
cup uoused his anger and brought on the tragic fight, in which both 
Beowulf and the dragon lost their lives. The hoard was finally buried 
in the ground with the ashes of the heto. 

It will be observed that the somewhat complicated history of the 
hoard previous to its seizure by the dragon shows a rather modem 
motivation. A more primitive conception would have taken a treasure- 
guarding dragon as an ultimate &ct. [Gnom. Celt. 16: draca sctat on 
blX'wl,/frod, fr^ttuum ivIaiK.) Regarding the story of the last sur- 
vivor, it has been suggested that, according to the original notion, the 
man provided in the cave a burial place for himself as well as his 
treasures, and was then transformed into a dragon (cp. the story of 
Faihir)i see Ettmiiller Transl. 177; Simrock L 3. 11. 101; Bu. 370; 
Bugge & Olrik L +.51; also J. Grimm, KUinire Schrifttn iv 184, — 
The cave of the dragon represents one of those ancient, imposing stone 
graves covered with a mound which by later generations were regarded 
as mia getviorc 1717 (cp. Saxo, Prefacio, p. 8 i also the mod. Dan. 
Jalti-ilut, 'giants' chamber'j Grimm D.M. 441 f. tS34f.])i and 
which are found in the Scandinavian countries as well as in England. 
(S. Miilteri 55 ff., 77ff.,95, iiif.j Wright L9. 3.71 ff.; cf. Schuch- 
hardt, R.-L, iii 106 tT.) See Figure 4 inserted in this edition. 

The inconsistencies discovered by Stjema in regard to the place 
where the hoard was deposited, the nature of the objecls composing it, 
and the depositors (Stjer. 37 ff., 131^ ff-) cannot be admitted to exisL 
[For a study of the whole subject, see also Lawrence L 4.61a.] 

2339t>-4i>. wCnde ^aes ylcaii,/>3et he lytel faec longgestreona/ 
brQcan mOste; 'he expected the same [iate as had befallen all his rel- 
atives], viz. that he would be permitted to enjoy the ancient treasures 
only a short time.' 

Z34it>. eallgea,ro. 2243*. nlwe. The burial place was specially 
prepared, not used before — in a viay, a distinction; cf. S, MUller i 411. 

2247-66. This characteristic. Impressive elegy (see Intr. livf. , note 
(m 2105 IF.) may be compared with the recital M the bereaved father's 

sonom, 3444 <r, which is also virtually a aampk of elegiac verse bat 
nearer its prototype, viz. the lament for the dead or iiinetal dii^ (see 
iii7f., 3151 «"., 3i7iff.). Cf. L4.i»6 (Schucking, Sieper). 

32Sa. secga seledrEam. The emendation is supported by Andr. 
i6s5f. {Rid. 64.1). The series stcga — segau — sigon — gisdiuim 
shons the conjecturBl line of scribal alteration. {ESl. zxxii 465.) 
Kscic' iiS pleads for the retention of ^oaicon; "who had seen (the 
last of]," cp. =716 f. (W. Morris : " The hall-joy had they seen.") 

3253«. o8aefe(o)r(niie). Tj^e Ci. 

azSS-S^'- Sceal se heu-da'belm etc. The inf. 'wetan is under- 
stood. See 3011. 

2258-tio. %l swylce sEo berepSd etc. Note the vocalic end rime, 
enjambement of alliteration, and the use of the same alliteration in 

2259. ofer borda gebrsec, 'over the crashing shields' ;Gec agSo. 

2261. Xfter (\^gfruman}, lit. 'behind,' 'folloning,' hence 'along 
with' {JEGPb. vi 197). 

3262, Naes (adv.) bearpan wjn. The verb 'is' is understood, — 
•there is not . . . ' See 1107; note on 811. 

2263 f. nC gCd bafoc/seond skI swingeS. It has been established 
that falcons were tamed in Sweden as early as the seventh century, prob- 
ably for the chase (Sljei. 36). In England tmlned hamks (or falcons) 
seem to have been unknown before the second third of the eighth cen- 
tury, see Cook, Tbt Datt oftht Rulhtuell aad BfuimitU Cr»j»(igia), 
pp. 175 ff. Cf. also Tapper's Kiddlei, p. i lo; Roeder, R.-L. ii 7 f, 

2271, opene. According 10 Lawrence, L4.61a.s77, "the stooei 
closing the entrance to this ancient tomb had felien, giving access to 
the interior." 

3278^ }>tEo bund wintra etc. Cp. i497f. 

23S3 f. DS W9E9 hord rfisod./onborea bCaga herd. Merely k- 

3384. ftra fyrngeweorc; i.e., theJattJ tvige izSz, drincfat dyn 

3287. wrSht was genlwad. Probably not 'strife was renewed,' 
but (lit.) 'strife arose which previously did not ckist.' (See, however, 
also note on iiiSfT.) 

3388, stone 39 tefter stSne. See Gloss. : siincan. The verb form 
has been thought by various scholars to belong XaniBcan 'emit a smell' 
(MnE. stink) and has been credited with the unusual sense of ' sniffed,' 
'followed the scent.' In case this interpretation is approved, (MHG.) 
Ortnit j 7 1 als dts 'wuTmii houbel •vtrnam dti raatiiies sma{ might be 
cited as a partial parallel. 

2292 f. a6 5e (' he whom ') Wa.Idendes/h7ldD gehealdeji. Cp. 
571 f. See Kock' iigf., Intr. xEs. 

3295. ^aa* ])e him on sweoCote sSre getSode. tan is adverb, 
not object of the verb, the feni, gender of the noun Jilr being more 

NOTES aoi 

than doubtful, gellon, 'decree,' 'allot,' U used absolutely, perbaps: 
'dell with.' (Cp. ma.) 

3297. biSiu is normally masc. (one instance of the neut. 1 Sievers, 
Biitr. ix 137) and appears as such in all the passages of oui poem where 
the ^nder can be seen (1803, aSo4, 1157, 1412.O- Hence ealiie 
should not be changed to lal. The metrical difficulty of the MS. read' 
ing is removed by tbe emendation Qtanweard (nom. sing., lef. to the 

3298. wiges gefeb, that is to say, by anticipation. 

2315. lyftflog^a. On the flying dragon, see note on Fhtnsb. 3; Augl. 

2324-3537. Preparation for the dragon fight. 

3334 ff. Was Beowulf not at home i Did the author desire to have 
the tidings announced through a messenger .' (Cf. Intr. juri, cviii.) 

3329-31. Beowulf did not yet knon the real cause of the dragon's 
ravages, sec 2403 ff. The phrase ofer ealde riht, 'contrary to old 
Ian ' (cp. Ags, Laws, Hlo6h. & Eadr. 11: an raid ribfj, is here given 
a Christian interpretation. 

3334. Ealond. Cf. Intr. xxii, nlviii n. 4. Neither Saxo's island 
(Sievers) nor the islands of Zealand (Boer) or Oland (Stjer. 91 f ), but 
'land bordering on water' (Bu. Tid. 68, Bu. 5). An apparently 
analogous use oi igland, ialojid : Andr. 15, Phoin. 9, 187, Sal. i wa« 
pointed out by Ktipp, MPA. ii+ojf. (See also NED. : jj/,i»i^.) Also 
itiiula is found in medieval Latin in this wider sense (cf Bettr. xtxv 
S+i). [Aant. 34.] 

2338. The masc. form ealllrenne shows that the author had in 
mind the noun siyld; but he changed to the neut. bard in the ne« line. 
{£Sl. xxxix 465-) 

2353'>-S4'. Grendelesm3Egura, i.e. Ihe'Grendelfamily,' meaning, 
of course, Grendel and his mother. (Cp. Finnti eaferum io6g.) USait 
Cjrnnes 'of (or ; ' belonging to') a hateful race' j cp. 1719. 

3354''. Na Jilt iJEseat WKS . . . j cp. 1455. There follows here 
tbe second of the allusions to Hygclac's last adventure, see Intr. xxxix f. 

3358. hiorodryncutn swealt, 'died by sword-drinks,' i.e. by the 
«word drinking his blood. Cf. KJOger, Beitr. ix 574; Rickert, MPh. a 
66 IT.; Arch, cxxvi 349 & n, 1. The nearest sema^oiogical parallel of 
tbe unique compound \s gryrum erga 483. 

3361 f. hxfde him on canne (Sua) frltig/hildcgeatwa . . . Here 
Beowulf is seen to combine his proficiency in swimming with bis thirty- 
men's strength. The extraordinary skill of ancient German tribes in 
swimming (crossing, e.g., the rivers Rhine and Danube in full armor) 
is testified to by Roman hbtoriana; cf. Mullenhoff L 9.14. 1.3 34 fj 
Bjamason, R.-L. Ui 150. 

3367". Unless we assume this to be an isolated hypermetrical half- 
lino (cf.Jntr. Ixxi & n. i), the second part of aioleSa cannot be con- 
nected with_y» (Gr.i 'seals' waves," see Varr.). Dietrich's explanation 

D, ..■■.v^.oo^ic 


of the noun {ZfdA. xi 416) on the basis ai tol 'mud,' 'wet sand' has 
been rightly abandoned, especially as the testimony of Che form sole, 
BtO'W. 301 (MS.) cannot be accepted. Bugge (Zs. 114) suggested con- 
nection with the stem found in Go. anasilan ' become tjuiet (silent),' 
Swed. dial, sil 'quiet water.' If this etymology is correct, the specilic 
basic meaning must have been greatly widened. 

3379-96. On these Swedish wars, see Incr. xl, xliv. 

3385-SG*. feorbwunde lilea.t,/sweordes sweng^m. This is 
Kock's punctuation, L The verb bliBtan lakea the gen,, 
ace, or instr, (so Chr. 783). — orfiormi (MS.), which Brett tries to 
vindicate {MLR. xiv i: ' without support ' [.']), is precluded by con- 
siderations of meter and sense. _ 

2393 f, Eadgilse w»rS . . . frEond; i.e., he supported Eadgils. 
Cp. the pregnant meaning of /lyfan 1981, ialian 1466, etc. 

2395 f. bE refers to Eadgils. [|lt has been suggested, at a remote 
possibility, that Onela (All) was Itilled by Beowulf himself, who would 
thus be assigned the rdle of Starka^r {Yngtingamga, cb. zj (i9)> s^c 
noteonHeremod, p. 1 59) ; cf. Beiden; Mt5/. xxvlii iS3> Intr, idiiin. 4.] 
hE gewrzc . . /cetUdum ccArsiSum, <he avenged [it, viz. the previ- 
ous hostile acts] by means of expeditions fraught with haim and dis- 
tress' (cp. isrifuUnr Jis 511, 1278, 1419). As the battle between Altils 
and Ali was fought on the ice of Lake Vanei (Pai. {5, ch. 55; $ 6, 
ch. 19), Bugge (i 3) thought of taking ttatdiim in its literal sense of 
physical cold. 

3418. hslo fibSad carries no reference to good luck needed on this 
particular occasion (as in 653), but means, quite in general, 'saluted.' 

34i9>>-33*. The expression of gloomy forebodings might recall Mark 
xiv33f (Mat. xivi 37f.). (wyrd , . . ) sS. '« ""te on 18B7 (also 
1344). — sEcean sSwle hord 1412 comes to the same as idtult lican 

3433b, dS ^alange presents, perhaps, a contamination of ni pen 
Itng (ihe normal compar. in connection with pon) and xo . . . lange. 

3435-3537. BEowulf speaks. 

3438 ff, Ic wses syfanwintre etc. On the custom (practised with 
especial frequency in Scandinavia) of placing children in the homes of 
o^ers for their education, see F. Roeder, Ubfr dit Enithung der 
•vomebmrn agt. yugtnd in frimdtn Hduierrt, 1 9 1 o j cf. L. M, Larton, 
yEGPb. xi 141-43. The training of youths was supposed to begin at 
the age of seven ; cf. Grimm R, A. 41 1. In the case of Bede ne have 
his ovm testimony : mid pj ic luai stofaniuinlTc, pa luiri ic mid giment 
Mtnra maga itald la fidaitni end le ttrennt pain arwyrpan abbud* 
Baudicti and Ceolfirpt after pon, OE. Bfde ^io.z^^- (=v , c. 14). 

2433 ff. naes ic him , , . ISSra etc. Litotes, — The poet does not 
■late directly thai Beowulf was brought up together with his uncles, 
but such is the natural interpretation. It involves chronological iucon- 
uttency, see tnlr. ixxviii, xtv. 

D, ..■■.v^.oo^ic 

NOTES 203 

' 3435 ff. On the slaying of Herebeald by HxScyn, see Intr. xli f. 

Accidental homicide vida punishable. Yet HrSCel cannot fulfill the duty 
of avenging his son, because he must not liit hb band againit his own 
kin. The king's morbid surrender lo his grief is significant. 

2436. (wacs . . . ) inor)i9rbed atred; cf. T.C. |j i, 6. The phiase 
lecalls the Lat. 'lectum sternete,' cf. Artb. cxxvi 353. The corre- 
sponding {bildbtdd) styrid, Andr. 1091 is no doubt an error for j/rl(()rf 
(Cosijn, Bfilr. xxi 15). 

2438. frEawine is not entirely inappropriate, since Herebeald is the 
elder brother and heir presumptive. 

3444. Sw3 biS geOmorllc g;omelnm ceorle. S'wd introduces an 
example or illustiation (see note on 1769J, in this instance the imagi- 
nary case of an old man sorrowing for his son who has been hanged 
(144^61*). It has been suggested (Holchausen, Btibl. iv 35} Geiing, 
note) that the author was thinking of the story of J^rmunrekr and his 
son Randver (f^iuagaiage, ch. +oj Cp. SaJio viii »3oJ. In both cases 
the misery of childlessness Is emphasized (see 24.51 If.). But there is 
nothing in the Beowulhan allusion to indicate that the fikther himself 
caused the son to be hanged. 

3446. Jionne hE gyd wrece could be regarded as the continuation 
of (^') bii byre ride, which would account for the subjunctive (cf. Bu. 
Tid. 56). But lureceS may well bt the correct reading. 

3448. helpc. Thescribe whoptnnedM/saexpectedtheinfin.of the 
verb before m m-rg. The noun is, demanded by itiigi 1449^. A wk. 
fern, belpt is unknown in OE. poetry. [Kock iiig MPb. iii 463.] 

2454' (ha&iS) dada gefondad, ' (has) experienced [evil] deeds ' ; 
cf. Arcb. cxv 181. 

2455-59- GesyhS sorhcearig on his suna bDre/wInsele wistne 
etc. A literal interpretation would be beset with difficulties. How could 
the deserted wine-hall be considered part of the son's burt Why should 
a number of dead warriors be referred to i (If ridend i+S?'' be taken 
as 'the one hanging on the gallovis,' fuiefaa has to be changed to 
pwefis, Angl. xxviii 446.) The explanation is that the old man falls 
into a reverie, seeing with his mind's eye the scene of desolation, or, 
in other words, ihe poet passes from the actual, specific situation (0 a 
typical motive of elegiac poetryj cf. Schiicking, ESl. xxxix 10. 14561'- 
j7«. windge reate/rfite b«ro(ene, ' the wind-swept resting place de- 
prived of joy.' The hall was also used for sleeping, as the happenings 
in Hcorot show. We are reminded of Wand. 76: ivinde bi^waunt 
•weallai ilondapy 36; burgtvara briablma liait ... A fern, •uiind- 
gtrtit{Xh\a, e.g., Schiicking, Sedgefield, Chambers) is exceedingly prob- 
lematical. — (Longfellow was deeply impressed by this passage, as is 
shown by his alluding to it in Hyperion, Book ii, ch. 10.) 

2460. GewiteS ^onne on sealman. The old man goes to his own 
chamber. sorhlEoS gzleS. We cannot be quite sure that this is not 
merely a high-flown expression implying 'lamentation'; cf. note on 



786fF. — 3461. Jifihte. The pret. ia fully justified. Afut a mirvej ai 
the grounds and buildings the lonely father has retired. 

2468. mid ySBie sorhge, • with that sorrow In his heart. ' 

3469 ff. See Intr. cxiii & n. i (parallel paasagea in Gtn.). 

2472-89. On this first series of Swedish wars, see Intr. xxxix. 

2475. him, dat. plur. ('elhic dative'). 

34S1. )>eah 8e eSer/his ealdre gebohte. This is, syntactically, the 
natural division of ihe line. Scansion: A3 (see, e.g., 941S 2587*1 
1977"). Ai (cf. T.C. S ij). The object {bit) need not be expressed, 
cp. 139s''- oser, viz. one of the two mSg-wine 1479 (Hcficyn and 

2484 f. p3 ic . . . gefrEegn mXg SSenie ... on bonxn stKlao, 
'then, as I have heard, one kinsman QHygelac] avenged the other 
fHatScyn] on the slayer (Ongenl'eow] '; cf. Aant. 13 ; Kock ijif. 
Hygeliic did not perform the act personally, cf. note on 196S. A de- 
tailed narrative of ihese encounters is given in 1914 ff., 1961 ff. 

2490, him must refer to Hygelac. There is an abrupt change of 

2494, The GilSas (Lai. ' Gepidae '), a tribe closely related to (he 
Goths, left their seats near the mouth of the Vistula as early as the 
third century and settled in the district north of the iowu Danube. 
Their kingdom was destroyed by the Lombards in the latter half of the 
sixth century. According to this passage, tradition still associated them 
nith their old home. 

3497 f. sjmie ic him on fESan befbran wolde,/anft OH orde. The 
true heroic note. Cp., e.g., Iliad vi 4.44 f ; Hildtbr, 17 {ber ivas tt 
faUbei atmie . . .); Ifald. i i B ff. 

2501 IT. Another allusion to Hygelac's Prankish expedition. Dteg' 
hrefo, very likely the slayer of Hygelac, vras killed by Beowulf, who 
took from him his swaxA {Nrglitg i.6io). (Cf. Rie.Zs. 414; Arcb. cx» 
iSi.) It ia decidedly interesting to note that Dighrefii is a Franklsh, 
non-Aga. name; cf Schroder, Anx.fdA. xii 181, & Dit deulieben Per- 
lonennamtn {Feilredi, Gottingen, 1 907), p. 9. — It is not quite certain 
that for dugeSum means ' in the presence of the hosts ' j duguB may 
have been used in the abstract sense (cf. Gloss.). 

3505. in campe (MS. rffn/nn). As f^m/a has nowhere the function 
of a collective noun (cf. Gioaa.: on), and in (on) is never found in the 
sense of ' among ' with a plural denoting ' men,' cimpan a unaccept- 
able both as dat. sing, and dat. plur. Cf. Slev. xioivi 409 f. The scribe 
evidently had in mind cempan of 1501. 

2514. Though ffi^Suffi 'gloriously' is not an impossible reading 
(see Chambers), the emendation mKrSu is antecedently probable; see 
IIJ4, 1645, Seaf. 84, Rid. 73.11. Cf. Bu. losf. 

2530 f. If gjlpe is interpreted as ' proudly,' ■ gloriously ' (cp. 1 749, 
868; according to Chambers: 'in such a manner as to fulfill mj 
boast'), no change of the MS. reading is needed. 


NOTES 105 

3525. (Nelle ic beofges weard} oferileon fBtes trem, ac nnc 
[farSnrJ sceal . . . The critics' ircatmeni of this line hai been casen- 
tially influenced by the parallel passage. Maid. 1471 (^c/ ic btenen 
nelii) filon fiUi trym, ac •willt furser gdn. For the scansion of 1515*, 
see T.C. j a*- 

2538-271 1. The dragon Sght. On the Aght and on the dragon, 
see lotr. xxitF., xxv, li; Par. % 7 : Saxo 11 %% f. There are thtee dii- 
tinct phases of this combat (just as of the fight with Grendel'i mother) j 
the second begins at 1591^ {or, a long digression intervening, at 1669), 
the third at i,6SS. Cf. Angt. xxxvi 193 n.j. 

3538. Acas 5fi hi ronde. The analogy of expremioni like undtr 
bilmt (see Gloss, : tindtr) lends some support to the view (hat bi mndt 
means 'with the shield (by his side).' Vet the prepositioDal phrase 
may be directly conneaed with the verb (cp. 749), 'leaning on the 

2547. ae meahte ; either ' he ' or ■ any one ' [man) is understood 
as the subject. See Lang. \ 15.4. 

2556^. From arest cwfim. Type D4. 

3558l>. hrOse dynede. In the ff/jsifiuafu, ch. 1 8, at the approach 
of the dragon, iiarp snja mikiit landskjaifii, tva at qlljartt ikalf 1 
najtd ; cp. Lied •vtim Hunun Stffrid iij Besei of Hamtoun (ed. Kol- 
bing, £. E.T.S.) 2737 f. ; Gottfried von Stnissburg's Triitan 9051 If. 
(Also Htl. 5801: tbia irBaiiiiBida[= Mat. xxviii a]. Cf. Cook'snotes 
on Cbriit Si6, SSi.) 

2564. ecgum unglaw (MS.). In view of the doubtful status of the 
intensive prefix un- (see note on ^57), an- has been substituted for it; 
ftoglaw 'very sharp" is certainly more satisfactory than B.-T.'a ub- 
gliaiu 'dull.' The physical sense of 'sharp,' though nowhere else 
recorded, may not unreasonably be attributed to gliaiv, of which ^/aic 
is a variant form, see I-ang. g 15 n. QCf. also Or. Spr.{ /fngl. xxix 380, 
Est. xxxix 466.] 

2566. gEstSd wis BtEapne rond. Cp. 749. (Jfaitbariui 529 : 
' [((uantus] in clipeum surgat.') 

3573-75- Ssr he )>y fjrate forman dagore/wealdan mBate,awK 
blm wyrd ne gescr3E/hcE3 «t hilde. We may translate 'there he 
had to spend his time (Chambers), (on the first day, i.e.:) for the first 
time in his life, in such a way that fate did not assign to him glory in 
battle ' ; or ' — taking tuialdan in an absolute sense — ' there and then 
(cp. pa fir 231, iiSo), for the first time, he had to manage (get 
along) without victory ' (so substantially MullenhofF xiv 133, Heyne). 
[MPt. iii 464: interpretation based on the usual meaning oi met, 

2577. incge-lafe (perhaps a compound), inegt is as obscure as icgt 
1107, with which (as well as with hig 33) it has been conjeduially 
connected. [Note also Ex. 190: ing* men, 444: incaSioJe.'\ Ingei, or 
iMgttiinei (see Proper Names, Intr. XKXvii, and note on Scyld, p. 133), 



is a desperate nmeiy for a desperate case. i(a)enaii, iman, or loieii 
(cp. i663>, 1140", 1104*1 [MS.]) could also be proposed. Quite pos- 
sibly the scribe did not understand the word. 

3579. his . . . )*arfc liiefde, ' had need of it.' 

2586-88. It is possible that grundwong refers to the dtagon's cave 
(see 1770) or the ground in front of it (cf. Bu.Tid. 198). But it 
seems on the whole more natural that it should denote the same as 
eermtngrund, ginnt grand, i.e., earth in general (as eipiained b]r .earlier 
scholars), or that the phrase 'give up that region," in this context, im- 
plies 'leaving the earth' (Aant. 36). These lines and the folloniog 
ones express nearly the same idea, the former negatively, the latter 
po^tively. Considering further the contiasi between tveZ^^ ijSS and 
tcenlde [ofif^ luiUan X5S9, we may venture (o translate literally: 'that 
was not a pleasant (willing) journey {or, course of action) [i.e.] that 
the illustrious son of EcgS^w was willing to leave the earth.' {ESt. 
xxxil +66, MLN. xxiv 9+f.) 

2595. s« 6e ar foice wSold, " he who used to rule a nation " (CI. 
Hall). Cp. Mntidi\ ss+ff. [Bu.Zs. ai6i Aant. 36.] 

2596 ff. The disloyalty of the ten cowardly followers of Beowulf, 
who flee for their lives, is not unlike the defection of the disciples tS 
Christ, see Markniv 50, Mat. xxvi 56. (Also the injunction to the com- 
panions, 3529 may recall Mark xiv 34, Mat. xxvi j8.) Likewise, Wig- 
laT s heroic assistance Is matched by the ifun^a of Peter (Mat. xxvi 51, 
John xviii 10) so nobly glorified in the Hiliand (4867 ft'.). 

25991". Hiora in annin. See note on loo**. 

2600 £. sibb' £fre ne mzg/wiht onwendan. As the intians. use 
of ontvtndan (i.e. ' change' ) is not authenticated, sibb is now commonly 
taken as ace, and luihl as nom. Still, the possibility of construing sibb 
as the subject of the clause is to be conceded j ■ kinship can never change 
anything,' i.e. ■ will always prevent a change (of heart).' For^SmCe 
wSl )>ence3, see note on 187 IF. 

2602 B. On Wiglaf and WeohstSn, see Intr. xtiv, xxiij on the 
form of introducing Wiglaf, ib. civ n. i. _ 

2614. his mjg^um ; bis probably refers to Eanmund ; the generic 
term mdgurn, by implication, refers to Onela. 

adit, ealdaweord etonisc. This looks like a harking back to the 
mysterious swoid in the Grendel cave (see note on 1 5 5 5 f. ) ; cf. Angl. 
XXXV 161 n. 1. So 1979. 

2618 f. nS ymbe S3 KhSe spra:c,/]ieah Se h8 (I.e. WEohstan] 
his brSSor bearn abredwade. his refers to Onela, the subject ofsfriK. 
" Onela's passive attitude was due to the fact that his nephew was a law- 
less exile, and so no longer entitled to protection from his kin." (See- 
bohm L 9.17.66 f.) Herein is seen a breaking away from the primitive 
tiibai custom, cf. Chadwick H.A. J47 f. 

2623. gOSgewSd« quite possibly stands for the ace. pi. -^rwidu 
(Lang. iiB.i). Cp. 3i34f. (also 1018 f, io67f.). 


36a8. mSgea. A general term, instead of 'father.* 

2633 ff. Od this noble ' comitatus ' speech (and certain close paral- 
lels), see Intr. Ivii, lxiii{ Par. $ 7: Saxo ii s^ff., S9: Hrilfitaga, chs. 

2638. De he flsic on herge gecias, 'on this account he chose us 
(from) among the host.' This function of on is parallel to that found 
in combmation with nimaa, see Gloss.: m; cp. Vita Guibtaci 1.7: 
bim pa One gicias on pXre mSdtna beapt. Di is used correlatively with 
pi 1641; see Gloss. 1 ti, pe. 

2ti40i. onmunde Qsic mSrSa. enmunan (with ot without the adj. 
•wyrpt) in all other places means; ' consider worthy of.' Why not here? 
There is no basis for the meaning ' remind ' rery generally ascribed to 

a(i^o\ mE implies 'to me as well as to the rest of us.' 

3649>), I>endeD hjt s$. SeeVarr. That Ay/ should be the 'proleptic* 
pronoun is not likely (though perhaps not impossible). The assumpticn 
of a noun hit(f) 'heat' — first definitely proposed by Grein — has 
been lately approved by modem scholars. 

2651. leofre. Sec Lang. \ 15.1. 

3657. J>aet naron ealdgewyrht, 'he has never deserved it' pal is 
probably pronoun. 

2658. duguSe, paitit. gen. with bi Suit, 2657. 

2659 C Qmm . , . , bSin, instead of unc bam or *urebdm (cp. 15 ;z, 
596), is due to attraction. Eiomples of similar genit. combinations arc 
cited by Cosijn (viii 573) and Chambers ; cf. P. Grdr.' i 775. The gen- 
eral sense is of course : 'I will join you in the fight.' Gummere's ren- 
dering " My sword and helmet . . . for us both shall serve " Is perhaps 
a little too precise, by rne and beaduscrUd ate synonymout, see 1454' 
(zji.f., 3.6J). 

2663 S. There is a singular lack of propriety in making young 
WIglaf administer &therly advice to Beowulf. It is the author that 

2683 ff. A sword in Beowulf's hands was liable to break on account 
of his excessive strength. A typical feature frequently met with in old 
Gcmianic literature. (E.g., Saxo iv 115 (Offa); Volsungasaga, chs. 
JS, 3S0 Cf. JlfW. iJi464f.jal8oPanier js, 4if.,"sif., iSin. As 
to BeowulPs use of swords, see 435 If., 679ff., etc. [MuU. xiv 2x9; 
Jellinck & Kraus, ZfdA. xxxv z£g f ] 

2696'). swi him gecyndc was. A conventional idea. Cp. Brun. 
7 f. : i-ivd bim gixpeli lOits /fram cneomdgtim ; (OHG.) Ludiuigiliid 
J 1 1 Ibax uuai ime geiuimi. 

3697 ff. The statement is not quite clear logically. It involves the 
anticipation of the result of the action: sio hand gebam 1697'', and a 
loose use of )>Et a 69 9* (see Gloss.). The meaning is this: 'he did not 
care for (i.e. aim al) the head [of the dragon], but his hand was burned 
in striking themongteralitUe lower down, etc.* Dtagons are vulnerable 


in (heii lower parta; sec especially Par. $7: Saxo ii 3Sf. (Frotho't 
dragon fight). Cf. Bu. 105. [Aant, 371 < he did not care for his (own) 
head, i.e. life.'] 

2705. The context leaves it somewhat undecided whether BEowulf 
or Wiglaf is the real victor in the combat with the dragon. But the 
poet manages to let Beowulf have the honor of the final blow. Cp. 
1S3S, 1876. 

2706. ferhellen wraec, 'strengthdroveout life.' Cp. Gen. 1385^: 
^saitirScenarleatraftorhJaffiMtchoman. [Heyne looker* at the sub- 

2711-2820. BEownlfa death. 

2717-19. aeah on enta geweorc,/hfl Sa stSnbogan Btapnlnm 
fieste/Ece eorSreced innKQ henlde. One of the difficulties supposed 
to be in this passage (see Varr.) is removed by constniing gtrartctd 
(not itanbogan) as subject, and statibogan as object (so Kemble, Ar- 
nold, Earlc, CI. Hall, Chambers, cf. Scdgefield). The stone chamber 
is indeed contained in the ever enduring (or, primeval) earth-house. 
The change from the preterite to the present is not unprecedented 
(Lang. J aj.ti), and the opt. is naturally accounted for by the idea of 
examining implied by Itab en (cp. neoiian . . . . £u 1 1 ; f, ). tldnbogan 
seems to refer to a primitive form of vaulting such as is met with in 
Englishand Irish stone graves (S. Mulleri9j). (B.-T.: 'natuial stone 
arches,' Schii. Bd. 77 ff. : 'rock-curvatures,' i.e. 'cave.') There is 
certainly no need to take stanbogan or itaputai as architectural terms 
pointing to the specific Roman art of vault-building (so Stjcr. 37 S.). 
stapulas may very vrell denote the upright stones. [Schu. Bd. 78 IF. re- 
gards stinbagan and eorBrecid as parallel forms (nom.), supplies the 
object [it], viz. the enta getueerc, by which he understands the dragon 
hoard; stab tit, 'looked in the direction of (f)] 

3723. hilde stedoe (commonly treated as a compound) is paralleled 
by Bran, ^o■. (iverig,) ivigget lad. Rid. 6.3i beadotveerea i,rd. 

27347. OnBeowulf "sfarewellspeeches, seeAt^/. xxjtvi 19J. (Arch. 
cxxvi 145.) On certain points of resemblance (due to imitation in some 
form) found in the story of Biynhild's death in Sigtirparkv. en liamnui, 
tee Bugge, Beitr. xxii 119. 

2724. he ofer benne sprxc. Theoriginal, localscnseofo/^r.- 'over 
the wound' easily passes into the modal one: 'wounded as he was'; 
cf. Aant. 37( Jrcb. civ 187 fF. (A partial parallel; Jul. C^jar ui i. 
259.) [Not: 'in spite of,' or 'concerning other things than ' (so Corson, 
MLN. iii 97).] 

2730 f. (Sr mi gifeSe sw9/Snig yrfeweard Kfter wnrde. A 
blending of two constructions, viz. a) pir me itvS gifeae (neuter) 
•umrde and b) pSr ml jrfevieard gifeSt (fffen) iimrdi. (Cp. Gen. 

2738 f. nE mE (ethic dative) SwCr felK/iSa on nartht. A conipic- 
notis example of litotes. 

3748- S^^rO) meant to be adv. in the text (see 3074, cf. Aant. 41). 
An original gearvit (ice Varr.) could have been taken cilhei as apni. 
or as adv. 

2764^66. An apparently uncalled-for ethical reflection on the per- 
nicioua inftumce of gold. The cuiae resting on the gold (1051 fF., 
J069 ff.), and the warning against the sin of avarice (1748 ff.) repre- 
sent the same general idea. (Cf. Arch, cxjcvi 341 f.) The unique ofef 
b^ian has been hypolheticajly connected with hycgam (E. Sc, Rie. L., 
Heyne, Kern L 5.9), (9fer)bjgd (Kluge), «ai (Bu. Tid. 59 f.; ESt. 
xnix 466), and hiiu, see Varr. But the bed hit was made by Ettmul- 
ler (Uxicoa Aagtoiaxonlcum [1851], p. 464; so Gr. Spr., Holt.), who 
listed it ai a compound of (bigjan, i.e.) blgian ('strive,' 'hie"). The 
meaning of this efirbigian is presumably ' overtake ' (corresponding ex- 
actly to overbyt of Northern dialects, see Dial. D.), ' get the better of," 
•overpower ■" (Ettra.i 'superare'). 

3769 fE, of Sam lEoma stSd etc. We are reminded of the light in 
the Grendel cave, i5i6f., isyotF. 

3773 1 Da ic 00 hlSwe gefraegn hord reafian./eald ent& geweorc 
Xane mOiiinan. Following after a passage of description and reflection, 
■ new and important event is Introduced by means of the gefr*gn- 
fbrmula (cp. 1694, 2751). The feet that the 'man' is well known is 
ignored. See noteon 100'' («»). By esin^eauMrc either the hoard itself 
or the stone chamber is meant (cp. laixf.), 

3778'. ecg iKTss iren. "The formula doubtless had come down 
from days when, as Tacitus says, metals were rare among the Germans 
and iron had to be imported." Gummere. (See 1459.) — Note the 
exceptional parenthetic clause in the first half-line j cf. Intr. Ixvi, cvii. 

3784. frsetwum gefjrSred ; i.e.. on account of the precious spoils 
he is anxious to return to Beowulf. 

3788. mid JiSm mSSmnm; i.e., ■ with tlie treasures in his hands.' 

2791. wateres weorpan. A rare, but not unparalleled instance of 
an instrum. genitive, see note on 1815. Cf. Bu. Zs. 218; Aant. 38. 

2792t>. (Biorncyning aprsec] is to be regarded as slightly better than 
Schiicking's ^pa si biorti gtspriec\ gtifrtcan is regularly used with an 
object in Bimuulf. imaSelodt never occurs in the second half-line.) 
Cp. also 3094''-;*. . — 3793a. Some ineffectual speculations concerning 
a possible basis for the MS. reading giogoee are put forward by Brett, 
MLR. xiv if. 

3802 ff. The erection of funeral mounds on elevated places near the 
tea is well attested for Old Norte and Ags. times. An almost literal 
parallel of this passage occurs Odyiiey xjav toif.; cp. xi75lf.; Iliad 
•m%iS.i£neidv\i%*S. Cf. Gummere G.O. jiof.; Wright L 9.3. 
469; Montelius 85. 

2806. hit is used loosely without regard to the gender of btJPW. 
See 779. 

3831-3030^ The apread of the ud tidings. 


3836. HQra >st on tuide l^t muma SBh. We have the choice 
between (i) taking ^t u dat. with impers. aion, 'that has prospered 
with few men ' (the accus. would be exceedingly queationabie) and 
(i) construing J]rt aathe aubject, assigning to the verb the sense of 'at- 
tain,' 'achieve' (cf. MPb.m ^6^). In the latter case, it is ttue, jrM'M 
would be expected. 

3854. wchte, with 'durative' function, peihapsi 'tried to rouse 
(him)'i cp. ijii. 

3857, Sees Wealdendes wiht, 'anything of the Ruler,' i.e. any- 
thing ordained hj God. (Generalized, semi-adjectival function of 
Wtaldcnd.) Cp. Hel. iQ^tifiirutarmattlniiinieiivibt. 

3S58 C wolde dam Codes dsdum rXdan/gumeiu fehwylcum ' 
. . . Cp. io57f. dsdam carries instrum. sense. 

2860. grim Kudswarn, Of course, not ■answer' in the strictly 
literal sense. 

2869 f. swjlce hS ^rySlicost/Swer feor o6Se aEah findan 
meahte. pryeticost is left uninflected ; it may be said to agree, theoreti' 
cally, with an indefinite object 'it.' Only partial parallels are ji6i f , 
Jk/. S7I fF. The change vi d to S appears imperative ; prydiice found 
in Byrhtfet^'s Encbiridian, Angl. viii 10a. 14 is doubtful as to form 
and meaning. 

388oE. symie W3cs >7 sSmra, ^lue ic sweorde drep/ferhS- 
geniSlao. ijmU (' ever,' 'regularly') goes naturally with ptnnr. At 
the same time, the use of t^ simra suggests a variant construction, viz. 
lymlt tuiei ly timra, py ic I'wiior drip . . . , cp. Gin. I 315 f.. Oral. 
ig.igf. Did Wiglaf really mean to imply that he dealt the dragoit 
several blows i (Cf. Schii. Sa. %^ n,} [Cosijn, Aant. 38 placed iggo* 
in parenthesis with Beowulf as subject.] 

3884^. On the announcement of puiushment (o the faithless retain- 
eis, see Antiq. { 6; Par. \ 10: Tacitus, Germ., cc. 6, 14 ; cf. Grimm 
R. A. 4ofF., 731 ff.; ICemble's note; Liebermann L, 507. 
Scherer L 5.5.490 saw in 2890 f. a hint to the cowards to end their 
own lives. 

3S88. Idel hweor&tn. It is doubtful whether the idea of ' going,' 
'wandering' was still present in the phrase. Cp. MnE. ge tuithoat, 
Ger. 'vcrluitig gehta. Aha BUM. Horn. 97.141 /urt W/f/o/<>*j eaUu 
Jdit b^iarfoH; Jul. 381. 

2899. (sKgde) ofer Mile, Eailei "in the hearing of all." See 
Gloss. : o/er; /■(Wj*. 11. 

2910. leofes ond laSes, i.e. Beowulf and the dragon. 

2911 S. Prediction of an outbreak of hostilities upon the death of 
the mighty Icing} cp. 1474; ^Ifric, Salnti xxvi iif. 1 Ctadmialla 
ilib and a ictarat t&cade pi Nersbymbran Itodi xfier hetra hlSfirdei 
fylli. The same prediction is made at Roland's death, Cbanien dt 
Raland a9ii ff. 

2913 ff. Last alluuon to the Prankish war. 

NOTES 214, 

3930. dugoCe, dat. sing. 

2932-98. The (Am) Swedish war; battle Kt RftTenswood ; cp. 
a+7i-g9. Intr. xxxix, xliif.j Pat. 5 6: Ynglingataga, ch. 17. The 
only detailed account of 3. real battle in Biotuelf. 

An interesting parallel of 'the fight between Oi^ent>eow and the two 
brothen occurs in Saxo' s account (iv 1 1 1 f. ) ■ of the slaying of Athis- 
lus by the two Danish brothers Keio and Wigo. (Weyhe, ESl. xMtix 
%iS.) But apart from the detailed fighting scene, noiimilaritiea of iiU' 
portancc (such as would indicate a genetic relation) can be recognized. 
Quite possibly this Athialus is, in &ct, not a Swede, but the same as 
the Myiging Eadgils who is mentioned in Widiis (see Cha. Wid. 
91-9+, cf. Sarr. Kad. 56). —The &11 of Agnerus^ in a duel with 
Biarco (Saxo ii 56), which Bugge (17 tT.) adduced as an anal<^uc, is 
lathet &r removed from theplot and setting of the fi^oti^i/^scene. — On 
8ome traces of the influence of Gtn. i^tio-ziSj, see ESl. xlii 319 f- 

2926 f. The fact that the hostilities had been previoudy ttaned by 
the Swedes (see 147; IF.) is disr^arded in this place. 

2928. him, probably dat. sing, (i.e., HsVcen). 

2940 f. Probably the text has su^ered the loss of at teatt one line. 
Attempts at reconstruction by Bugge (107, 57a), Hoithausen (note). 
— Indulging in a raere conjecture, we might mention the possibility 
that the original reading was 1 iumon (dat. plor.) galgtrhtuu/gifan to 
gamtne (cp. Gen. 2069 f., Maid. ^6'),giec ift gttanp, and that a scribe 
disturbed the alhteration by substituting /rv/ir toi gtoc. 

2943>>-44a, horn ond byman,/geAldor. Sec 94^-95*. 

2950. frSd felBg;«Smor. Cp. Gm. im; giimorfrbd. 

3951. ufor is either 'farther away' (Kock ijS) or 'on to higher 
giround' (cf. ESl. xlii 329 £). 

2956, betirn ond btfde (ace. plut.). OngeQl>£ow vr«s afiaid that 
women and children would be carried olT. Cp. Gtit. 1969 IF., 2009 IF., 
3089 IF., etc {Est. xlii jsg). 

3957«. corSwealL On eanh-walis used as fortifications, see S. Mut- 
lerii 115 ff, 

2957l>-59, Taking Sht (= eht, Lang. 1 9. 3) as an analt^cal forma- 
tion in place of the normal oht, and construing segn as the subject of 
olerEodon, we obtain very satisfactory sense by the slight alteration 
Higel3ce[s]. For other interpretations, see Varr.j also Schi&er, Angl. 
xiii i46fF,( Aant. 385 Schiickbg's and SedgelieWs notes; Green 
1.6. 8.5. 101, & L 5.55 (: '■ then was (the) treasure ofTered (yidded) by 
the folk of the Swedes, their banner to H,"), 

3960. to hagan seems to refer to the eorsitieall at the edge of the 
protected area {frtegcuiong'^. [Cosijn, Aant. 39 equated baga with 
•tiii\g\baga. Maid, toa, 'phalanx.'] 

> Cr. il» jtnnalti Rtenui, Pat. J8.5. 

* In the brief allusun of the HrilfiMia, ch. ]]: Jigtar, Varr.i jSi^ar, 


3963 £ Skfian iceolde/Eafores Snae dSm, 'he had to submit to 
Eofot's decision alone,' i.e., he was completely at the mercy ofEofor. 

2973. hi, i.e. Ongent«on; him, Le. Wulf. 

2977-80. Let se he«rdB HigelSces ftgo [i.e. Eofor] . . mCce .... 
helm/breCAn ofer bordweal. Cp. 23;gf.; Kudruti 14451 Dtr KSd- 
riaen •vritdtl under Mnu ubtr rantferTtichte Ludnvigat mil tlUni- 
baflfr bant. 

2983. his taXSt = his braBor 2978. 

2985. fine {i.e. Eofor) it the subject, 

3994-95B. sealde hiora gehwKSrum himd ^Qseadd/londes ond 
locenra btAga. See note on 1195. In this instance the unit of value 
represented by the land and rings together is prcEumably the iceal{l). 
Cf. Rie. Zs. 415; Stevenson's ed. of Asser's Life 0/ King Alfred (^1^04), 
p. 154, n. 6. (Of a valuable ring (i^^g^ given him by Eormanric, tlie 
Gothic Icing, WIdsIS say s : m pOm tiex bund •wm imSui goldes j gtscyred 
Htatta icillivgrime, Wids. 9 1 f. , see Chambers' s notes. ) 

3995b. ae Sorfte him Sa lEan oSwItaii, bia, dat. sing. (Hygelac). 
Cp. 1048, i«B4f. 

2996. hie Sa mSrSs g^eslSgou, probably < they peiformed thoie 
glorious deeds.' (CI. Hall: ■■theyhad earned thehonoursbylighung.") 

3005. after haleSa hryre, hwa.te Scildingas. See Varr. The line 
ai it stands in the MS. has the air of an intruder. MuUeTihoff (liv 2)9) 
denounced it as a thoughtless repetition of io;i. It has been defended 
at a stray allusion to an ancient story of the Danish king Beowulf^ the 
hero of a dragon fight (cf. Intt. xxii), or to a possible tradition asngn- 
ing to Beowulf the overlordship over the Danes after the fall of Hrolt- 
gir's race (Thorpe's note; cf. Sarrazin, ESt. xsiii 145; Chambers, 
with reference to Saxoiii 75^ Brett, MLR. xiv i f ). But these supposi- 
tions are &t fiom being substantiated. Besides, an unprejudiced reader 
would expect b'waie Scildittgai to be merely a variation of herd tad rice. 
Again, the emendation Sciifingm offers no appreciable improvement in 
tense, unless, by a violent ttanapoation, we Insert the line between 3001 
and ]ooi. (A reference to a temporary authority possibly exetcised over 
the Swedes, as a result of the alliance with Eadgils, would be strange.) 
In the text the knot has been cut by introducing the alteration SS-Geatat. 
Cf. yEGPb. viii sjg. [If still another conjecture may be cfeted, a read- 
ing : btiiaU (adv. ) Seildingajfiilcred fremrdt could be conwdercd to 
contain a passing hint at the Grendel exploit. Similarly, Moore (JEGPb. 
' xviii 3ia) suggests Mi'atc[j] Stildingat, Le. Hroi!igar's.] 

3010. anes hweet. See Gloss. : ibr. 

3014. yi sceail brond fretan. In reality the treasures are bmicd in 
the mound (316} If.). At least, we cannot be quite sure that the arm* 
with wliich the pyre is hung (3139 f.) have also been taken from tbe 
dragon's hoard. There is no necessity to assume (with Stjemagchs. G, S) 
an imperfect combination of duplicate lays describing difletcnt modct at 
fiueral rites. Even granting that the poet was guiltj of a slight inac- 

NOTES 113 

curacy, the main idea he misbed to convey at th!) point Kemi ta have 
been that the dearly bought treuuiea are to be sacrificed with the dead 
hero. See note on 3i37ff. 

30i8f. ac aceal geSmormSd solde berEafod . . . elland tredtm, 
Cp. Iliad xxiv 730 tF. (lamentation of Andromache); Gin. 1969 fT. : 
sctaldt farbt mimig/bldckllor idit bifimdi gan/iin frrmdei ftcSm. — oft 
luUles Sue. %o Ei. ixfa, Cbr. (iii) ji^i^\ib. ii-jo : mangtnaltsfia 
(see Cook'B note on Greek parallels)) cp. Jul. 156. 

3033. (e:Sr} margeacBBld. Battle begiiu in the morning. Cf. ££1. 
xUi3 3S. 

3034-27. Of the numerous occasions on nhich the animals of prey 
are introduced (in Gai., Ex., Bran., Maid., EL, Jud., Finnih.), this 
is the only one nhere raven and eagle hold a conversation. The bold 
and brilliant picture reminds us not only of 'The Tma Corbies' 
(' The Three Ravens '), but of ON, literature (e.g. Brat afSigur)>arlr^. 
I], Htlgakv. HttHd. i 5a); cf Sarrazin, ESt. xxii! 355; MLN. xvi iS. 

3038 £. secg^ende w«s/la3ra spells. The gen. seems to have 
been caused by the semi-substantival function of the participle ; cf. 
Shipley L 6.8. 4.65 f. 

ioso*. wyrda ni worda. A variation of a formula (jworda mJ 
•wtorca, etc.). 

3030b.3i3£. Prelitninariea of the closing' scene. 

3034. hllmbed healdan. See 1901 f. ; note on 964. 

3038. Mi hi }iSr gesEpui. The transmitted text should not be 
tampered with (see Varr.), Even before they came upon Beowulf, the 
wairion noticed from a distance the enormously long dragon. 

3046. bsefde eorSscrafa ende eenyttod ; ■' he had made his last 
lue of earth(!j) caverns'" (Earlel. 

3049 f. awa hie wis eorSan tseSm/^send wintra ^Sr eardodon. 
This doe* not necessarily mean that the treasures had remained all that 
time in the same burial cave, hut rather that ihey had lain 'a thousand 
yean' in the bosom of the caith — unless tve assume fbrgetfulncss on 
the part of the author. See note on iijiff. 

3051 ff. The curse laid on the gold is first mentioned in a substan- 
' tially heathen fiishion, though with a saving clause of Christian lenor 
(joj4*'-57), and, later, is clothed in a Christian formula (3071-73). 
(Note the term b^Btn gold 1176, cp. 2216.) Cf. -^ngt- xxxv 269, 
xxxvi 171. — The curse resting on the Niblung gold in ON. and MHG. 
literary tradition is a well-known parallel of the general motive. That 
the circumstantial hietory of the Niblung hoard could be traced in Bib- 
•uiul/wu an erroneous view of Heiniel's [Anz.fdA. xv 169 {.). 

3051. )>Dllne, 'further,' 'moreover.' Eaceucrseftig is probably to 
be construed predicatively (parallel viixh galdre be'iuunden), 'of great 
power,' i.e. powerfully protected. [According to Bugge (374), ponnt 
denotes the time when the treasures were placed in the ground ; Aant. 
40 1 ' ante tot annos.'] 


3055 f. The inf. openlftQ aAer sealde (Aant. 40) seems to be in 
part due to the preceding fiam st bl imldt. (Cp, 1 7 3 g f. ) 

3D5S-62>. A recapitulating remark on the end of Beowulf and of 
the dragon. The motaliciiig B.uthor denies the dragon the right to the 
guarding of the hoard i unrihte, io;9. Weard Kr ofslOh/fSara 
sumnc, i.e., the dragon had slain Beowulf j fiara sumnt, ■ one and 
. few others" (cp, 1411), by bold litotes, means 'one' only (Aant. 40). 
(That the dragon was tupposed to have killed others on previous occa- 
sions, is veiy unlikely.) Revenge nas inflicted on him by Beowulf (and 
Wiglaf). [DiiTerent interpretations; Bu. 109, 375; Heinzel, Anz.fdA. 
XV 169 f., see note on 3051 IF.] 

30621^65. Wundurbwar etc, 'it is a mystery where (on what 
occiision)a man meets death.' Cf. Siev. ix 143; Aant. 40 j Kock 133, 
See Gnem. Ex. 19 f. 1 Meotud ana ivStj/hwar it cwealm cyrni}/ ; Gr.- 
^u. 11176. 59 tf.: taicue bis pi psmii,/ti btuan iii jiiB Dribttn gedin 
•wUUtllii'nnt pa Ittgc ni most lifts brucan; 

3066-67*. 5irSi72S Blowulfe. See note on 1769. biorgesweard 
and searonlSas are two parallel objects of sOhte. 

3067^-68. He did not know the ultimate cause of his death (purb 
fawst . . .), i.e., he was ignorant of the ancient spell. — It might be 
questioned why the cune which was visited on Beowulf and the dragon, 
did not alfect those who had seized the hoard in former times, 3148 f. 
(Or did it manifest itself in the extinction of that race ?) Perhaps the 
poet failed to take this motive into account until he came to relate the 
IwTo's death. 

3069". Swa is to be connected with Pxt 3071. [Holthausen con- 
strues Siva as correlative with iivd 3066, placing ■^oSj^-SS in paren- 

3072. hergum and hellbendum are used synonymously. As heathen 
deities were made into dcviis (gSslbima 177), their places of worship were 
identified with hell, Cp. bxrglrafum 175 witli belltrafam, Andr. 1691. 
[Brett, MLR. xiv s f. ■ gehe*5erod = ' fenced out from ..." (?)] 

3074-75. Ntes hi goldhwaite ge^rwor hsefde/ai^ndes Est Kr 
gesciawod. Tlus passage remains, in Bute's words, a 'locus dei- 
petatus.' Cosijn's rendering 'hy no means had Beowulf with gold- 
greedy eyes before [his death] surveyed the owner's [i.e. the dragon's) 
inheritance more accurately' (Aant. 41) makes at least passable sense. 
(Cp. 1748.) Does ihe compar. geariuor stand for the positive? — Or 
is the meaning this Chat 'he had not seen the treasure before more com- 
pletely than now [at his death],' implying that he had never seen it in 
its entirety i In its genetal intent the statement is evidently a declara- 
tion of Beowulf s virtual innocence. — Decidedly tempting is the emen- 
dation golJibie. The interpretation of dgcnd as a term for God seem* 
without foundation. [Cf further: Bu. Tid. 6if ; Mull. xivi4ii Rie. 
Zs. 4.i6i Siev. ix 14.3; ten Brink 14;; Bu. 373f.i Schu. Xxxix iii{ 
Schueking's and Chambers's notes j Brett, MLR. xiv 6; Moore, JEGFb. 
D, ..■■.V^.OQi^lC 



xviiiiij IF.) Kock* 113: ^tdlnja,eUft(na*g»ldbvMu, * readineM about 
gold,' 'libenlity.' lAwrenceL 4.613.5611 "miles* {n^fne) he, rich io 
gold iffddbvuiel), bad veiy xeaJouily given heed in the paat to the grace 
of the Lotd."] 

3079 ff. Nc meahton wi gelsran etc. See 1994 IF. 

3094. Wfs and gewittig, 'sound in mind and coniciout'; cp. 
«703. Though no exact patatlel of thie use aS ivii has been adduced, 
this tianilation is more appropriate than 'the wise and prudent one' 
(Scbeineit, jSi n.) i cf. Angl. xxix jSi. (Hel. i%%i.: babda 
tm eft 14 iprdka giiualdj/gituitleai mdi •uniun.) 

3104- iatt gt . . . . acEawiaS, < so that (=• • and then ') you will 
■ee.' Contrast vfith 1747 f. 

3108 £ ftSr he longe sceal/on Sks Waldendes ware ge)>olia]i. 
Ttua expression would be eminently fitting in connection nith (he 
Qiristian mode of iateiment. Cf. Angl. xxrv 163. 

3113. bClwudu. See Par. { 10: Tacitus, Germ., c. 27. 

31 14. g&dnm ti^oM, i.e., to the place where the good one lay 
(and, for bis lervice). 

3115". (weaxaa wonna leg;). To get rid of the troublesome pa- 
tenthesis, critics (Grein Spr., Cosijn viii 574) Hollhauien, Anb. cxxi 
«9]f.) hne conjectured the existence of a vab^tueaxeti 'consume,' on 
the basisofthe(somewluit inconclusive) glow 'UJ«;^wn» « 'edax,' WV.- 
STi. i 10*. 13, the Go. vetbs •wixen, fra-wisan, etc. (The identifica- 
tion of the verb with •wmcan 'wash,' 'bathe,' 'envelop' suggested 
by Eaile and SedgelieLd is certainly far-fetched.) Hov 
ight expi 

nary variation of 31 14^ were intended, we might expect either an adj. 
and noun (e.g. lumna Sled), or a noun and verb (e.g. •w^lffr pirtan, 
cp. 3014!., jijaf.). Perlups the co-ordinate clause may be consid- 
ered functionally equivalent to a subordinated, appoiitional phiaie, i.e. 
•laeaxttid* itg. (Note OE. Btdt 11S.4: p^ ' ■ end put leg iviise 
«wcnr pmd miclade. ) 

3i2i£. S^de of corSre cyniges Jiegnaa/syfone (ta))o(nne. If 
the idea of motion is cotuidered negligible in this context, (^l)jaiiini may 
be admitted (cp. 2847). 

3136. N«s Sa on blytme, • it was not decided by lot,' i.e., they 
were all very eager. Cf. ESI. uiii 431. 

31*7. orwearde, asn., refers to bffrd; SjM^iWi/*/ is co-ordinate with 
the undeiatood object bit, see note on Sg^P. The construction could 
easily be limplilied by emending to ertveardiie, and lamu 3119. (Cf. 
also note oa 48, and 134.1.) 

3137-3182. Beowulf's funeral obsequies.' 

* On the fiinenl pncticB, •« Kemble'a note on tfae htt line of Biim.j Ett- 
nulkr Tnul. ;i if. ; Grimm L 9.1 ( Wright L 9.3. chi. 11 & 15 f Weinhold 
L9.]i.474ff. 19 ^ Gummera G. O. ch. ti ; MoDCcliui, 
faami 5. Miiller, ^auiii lul I ch, loj Stjer, du, S & 8; Schiickiog L4.116.tS 
Jldm 1. 4.41.0. 148 if. 


We know from Tachos that the Germaiu of hia time burned thdr 
dead. (SeeG^M., c. 37, Par, | 10, and MiillenholTs commentary, I. j. 

In the Scandinavian countries ' the custom of burning ^ns common 
from the latter half of the bronze age, and though it was temporarily 
intemipted, more or less, by a period of Inhumation, it was tor cen- 
turies previous to the Viking era the tecogniied practice in roost dis- 
tricts. Splendid examples of this method of disposing of the departed 
ones — being the more poedcal and intrinsically spiritual one — are 
found in the ON. literature, such as the burning of Brynhtldr and 
Sigurtr {Sigurparkv, tn ikamma 64 JF.) and that of Uaiald Hildetan 
(Saxo viii 364, Par. § 7)^ see also note on Scyld (p. ixi). 

The heathen Anglo-Saxons practised both cremation and interment, 
the latter rnodc apparently prevailing in the southern districts (Chad- 
wick Or. 7j fT.), but after their conversion to Christianity* cremation 
was of course entirely given up. Yet in their great epos of post-heathen 
times we find the heathen and heroic practice described In all its im- 
pressive splendor.' 

The obsequies of Beowulf remind us in several respects of the fa- 
mous funeral ceremonies of the classical epics {Iliad xxiii 13S fF.,. xxir 
785 ff.; tW)'//*)' xxiv4jfr.;^n«i/ vi i76fF.,xi 59 ff.). More interesting 
itill, certain important features are paralleled by the fiineral of Attila 
(Jordanea, c. +9, Par. § la), which was carried out after the Gothic 
fashion — the main points of difference being that Attila's body is 
not burned but buried, and that the mourrung horsemen's songs of 
praise do not accompany the final ceremony but represent an initial, 
separate act of the fiineral rites. 

It is the peculiarity of the £/vut«//' account that two disrinct and, as 
it were, parallel funeral ceremonies are related in detail, the burning 
and the consigning of the ashes to the monumental motmd, and that 
the greater emphasis is placed on the closing stage, which is made the 
occasion of rehearsing solemn and inspiring songs sounding an almost 
Christian note. (Only the former ceremony takes place m the case 
of the less pompous obsequies of Hna^f and the other &llen warriors 
of the Finn tale, iioSff.) 

According to Stjema (ch. !) the royal barrow at Gamla Upsala, 
called Odinshog, which was constructed about 500 a.d., is an exact 
counterpart of Beowulf's mound. 

315a ff. On the song of lament, see note on iii7f. That it should 

■ Sr (he canvenisnc lummaiiung alalenieaa in Cbuiwick, Tkt dill ef Olih 
{i»99), pp.40, 59, 64. 

' Among the cantinentil Suoni the Cfaarch labored to IsppRM the ' faearhcn' 
titeu bte u the end of (he Sth century. (Grimm L9.i.i;9.) 

' On some rtOed lUuiioni to the Chriitian burial (445 f., 1004 ff., 3107 ffi), 
•ee Aagl. mv 163, 465 f., oxvi 174. — The toy uieiaat form of burial in 
Rone grava ii luggeited I7 tbe bairow or mound of the dragon, cf. note 00 laji S. 

D, ..■■.V^.OO^IC 

NOTES 217 

be uttered bj a noman is what we expect, see alto 3016 fF. If that 
aged woman nas really thought of as Beowulf's widow (see, e.g., Bu. 
1 1 1; cp. 11. 1369 If. >), she was intioduced, awkwardly enough, merely 
in the interest of a conventional motive. 

3l67f, Cp. Grittiiiaga,.c^. 18.16; ■ alt treasure wMch is hidden in 
the earth or buried in a howe is in a wrong place.' 

3173-76". The lines setting forth the praise of Biowulf by his futh- 
ful thanes sound like an echo of divine service, and closely resemble 
Cen. iff., ijfF.jcf. ESt. xlii J17, Angl. xxxv ii6f. See 'The Order 
of the Holy Communion ' in the Book of Common Prayer (■ It is very 
meet, right, and our bounden duty, etc.'). 

3lSof. W7ruldc7ntng[a]/m«nn« mildust, mamia, which seems 
to strengthen the superl. idea ('the mildest of all'), is fundamentally 
an ampiifying (pariit.) element. Cp. (OHG.) JVissBbritnntr Gthel 7 f. : 
almablice Coty/maBtto milujlo, Bttnu. 309S f., 1645, also 155, 1 108 f., 
ii5of., 2887, etc. mannir mj/i^iij( occurs also Ex-. 550. At to •uyruld- 
t}tiing[a], cp. i6g4t. 

3182. lotgeoniost. The reference is either to deeds of valor (cp. 
ij!7ff., OS. Bidt ^i.^i If gyipgcamesia [fjFBiaj-]™ 'gloriae cupidis- 
umus' i, c. }4) or to the king's liberality toward his men (see 1719^, 
cp. lafgttm, Ben. R. (ed. Schcoer) S4.9, js-S = 'prodigus,' also lof' 
didum, Btoiu. 14). 

Digiiizcdt* Google 

Digiiizcdt* Google 



I. The Film Legend i 

I. 7he Slory 

Bt a cfflnparison of the Finn Episode' of Beoarul} and the Fragment of 
The Fight at finnihirg the perpleiing obscurities of both may be cleared 
up, at least to a considerable extent. 

Of the two fights alluded to in the Episode (5. 1069 f.; 1151 f.) it is 
clearly the former which the fragmentary poem describes, so that the 
evenis of the Episode must be considered to follow those of the Fragment.' 
A brief outline of the story is subjoined. 

(The antecedents of the conflict are lost to us. But evidently Hilde- 
burh is in some way connected with the hostility between her brother and 
her husband. Maybe, there existed an old feud between the two tribes, 
snd the Danish princess had been given in marriage to the Frisian chief in 
the hope of securing permanent peace, but with the same grievous result 
asin thecaseof Freawaru (see B^on'. Intr.-ixxivf.). Or the ill feeling may 
have dated from the wedding feast (as in the VijUungaiaga, ch. 3). It is 
possible also — though far from probable ^ that Ffildeburh had been ab- 
ducted like Hildr, H^gni'a daughter, in Snorri's Edda (Skdldji., ch. 47) 
and Hilde, Hagene's daughter (and, under dilFerent circumstances, Kii- 
driin) in the MHG. epic oi Kvdrun. At any rate, at least fifteen or 
twenty yean must have elapsed after the marriage, since Hildeburh's son 
falls in the batde (B. 11. 1074, 1115).] 

(The Fragment;) A band of sixty Danes under their chief Hnset find 
themselves attacked before daybreak in the hall of the Frisian king Finn, 
whom they have come to visit. {That the assault was premeditated by 

1 See otiecUllr GreJD LF. 4.3.1, Moller LP. 4.7, Bagge LF. 4.;. 3, Tiaut- 
ininn LF. 4.17, Sou LF. 4.1 S, Bcandl LF. 4.13, Uwnnce LF. 4.16; aln> Finn 
Bibliography, peuim. 

* Moller (who has been followed by >ome othera) tried to prove that the Frag- 
ment it concerned with sdll another battle, one, that ii, in which Hengnt fell and 
which — if related in the StMoa/f Episode ~ would have found its place between 
II. 1 145 and 1146. That the kiaptgiang cyning of the Fragment, 1. 1 i> Hengest, 
b il» the view of Brandl (cf. Clarke L 4.76.130), who auumes, howerer, chat 
ificT Hncf' I fall Hengest, bii auccetsor, continued the light until the treaty wai ar- 
ranged. (Gmndivig in hi) edidoo inietted the Fragment between U. ito6 and 1107 
<rf the Bieteulf.) 



Finn b possibly to be inferred from the opening lines of the Fragment and 
from S. 1115 ff., see Notes, p. i68.'| Five days they fight without Io«! 
against the Frisians, but (here the Episode sets in:) at the end Hnsel and 
many of his men as well as of the Frisians are counted among the dead. In 
this state of exhaustion Finn concludes a treaty with Hengest, who hit 
assumed command over the Danes. The tailed warriors of both tribes are 
burned together amid appropriate ceremonies. Hengest with his men 
stays in Friesland during the winter. But deep in his heart burns the 
thought of revenge. The day of reckoning comes when the Danes GiiKlaf 
and Oaiaf returning from a visit to their native land ' bring with them a 
fresh company of fighters and, unable to keep any longer the silence im- 
posed upon them by the terms of the treaty, openly rebuke their old foes. 
Finn is set upon (S. 1068) and slain, and Hildeburh together with the 
royal treasure of the Frisians carried home to the land of the Danes. [The 
part played by Hengest in the last act of the tragedy is rather obscure, 
see Notes, pp. 169 f.] 

S, Ttt Conlaiding Parties 

On one side we find the 'Half Danes ' {B. 1069), or 'Danes' (1090, 
1158), also loosely caWeA Scyldingas (1069, 1 108, 1154),' with their king 
Hnsef, Hoe's eon,* and his chief thane Hengest. Other Danish warriors 
mentioned byname are GuiSlaf {1148, F. 16), Oslaf (t 148; in the Frag- 
ment, 1. i6:0rdlaf), SigeferiS of the tribe o£ the SKgan (F. 15, 14), Eaha 
{F. 15), and (probably) Hiinlafing (B. 1143). Their enemies are the 
Frisians (1093, 1104) or Sotan, ' Jutes ' (1072, 1088, 1141, 114s) under 
King Finn, Folcwalda's son, among whose retainers two only receive 
individual mention, namely Garu If, son of Gut51af (F. 18, 31, 33), and 
GiiScre (f. 18). Between the two parties stands Hildeburh, the wife of 
Finn (B. 1153) and — as we gather from 1. 1074 (and 1114, 1117I — sis- 
ter of Hnif. 

The scene is in Friesland, at the residence of Finn. 

It thus appears that the war is waged between a minor branch of the 
great Danish nation, the one which is referred to in ffidiis by the term 
Hocingas,' and which seems to have been associated with the tribe of the 
Secgan,' and the Frisians, i.e., according to the current view, the 'East' 
Frisians between the Zuider Zee and the river Ems (and on the neighbor- 
ing islands). The interchangeable use of the names 'Frisians' and 'Jutes' 

1 For inewtuggetdon irgarding the occuioo for this fight, see Chamben't fiu- 
wiif, p. 168. 

' This ig infetred from the eiprosion aftir iXMs (B. 1 149), which covld, 
howerer, refer to the original joumey of the Dines to Frieiland (cf. Ayres, 
LF. 4.18.193). 

> Cp. the iniccuraa DK of 5f)>AA'n|''» in the Herem6il epttodes (B. 913, 1710), 
•EC Notes, pp. 159 f' 

* Cp, JS. 1076 (1074, Iti4, 1117). 

> fFiJi. 19: Hia/[ivca/J\ Hdci-gum. 

■ Or Sfcgm i fr«li. 3 1 : SS/ert [walJ] Sycgiim, cp. Finiai. 04. 


shorn that the Jutet, that U th« West Gennanic tribe which settled in 
Kent and adjacent paru(Baeda, H.E.i,c. tj),werecoiiceived of ai quite 
dosety related to the Friiians.* 

The name of the Danish warrior Eaha (by emendation: EavTa *) hai 
been connected with the 'Ingvaeonic' Avbnes (Tacitus, Cfrm., c. 40; 
sec Par. { 10). 

However, neither 'Frisians' nor 'Danes' are mentioned in the Frag- 
ment. It has even been argued that the Danish oationality of Hnxf and 
Hengest is a Beowulfian innovation,' and that the enemies of the Frisians 
(in history and legend) were really the Ckaiui, their eastern neighbor!, 
or some other Ingvaeonic people. But the names Gu)>liif, Ordlaf (Hiii]- 
lafing) make us think of Danish tradition.' 

The point of view is distinctly — almost patriotically — Danish. The 
valor and loyalty of finsef s retainers (in the Fragment), flildeburh's sor- 
row and Hengest's longing for vengeance (in the Episode) are uppermost 
in the minds of the poets. It is not without significance, perhaps, that all 
the direct speech (in the Fragment] has been assigned to the Danes, 
whereas the utterances of the Frisians are reported as indirect discourse 
only. On the other hand, no concealment is made of the fact that the 
'Jutes' have shown bad faith (£. 1071 f.J. The final attack on Finn and 
hit men, culminating in the complete victory of the Danes, is regarded as 
the main point of the story in Bioatulf (see Notes, p. 165). Finn himself, 
the husband of Hildeburh, plays such an insignificant part * that the 
term 'Finn legend' is virtually a misnomer, though 'The Fight at Finna- 

1 This seciiu to be due to the fact that the Juta, for Bine lime previous to Cbdr 
in^tian to Britiun, hud lired in the vicioity ofche Fraians. Cf. Hoo|«, Ifaldiihimt 
and KidlurpjIanaeK im grrm. yflarlam, p. 585 ; Jonbn, firhandimigtii ibr ^, 
FiruHimJaitg {rgoj) £uiulur Pliiloltgin uxd SikdmatiBtr, 190!, pp. i3!-4a. 
See iIb Sieti, f.Grdr* i itsS, p 514; ^enkel, Attgl. im 419. The Juca 
' ire oiled b; Baeda {H.E.\,c. iSilT.c. 14.(16)): /wi, /uw — in cenun nth 
centwy Lidn_teitt; *£iiri(, 'EutiiBHii — ; in OE. I Angl. Bm, Im {luan), 
LWS. r«, rim. (Bjorkmui L4. 74.15 Cha. Wid. 137?.} cf. Intt. ilvi.) W 
the forms used in Bittculf, the gco, pi. Eouna is entirely regular; the dat. pi. 
Etltniim pnitcid of gaOim) 114; (alio 901) is to be explained by the inalogicil in- 
floencc of the gen. ending (cf. Siev. { 177 n. l), unlen it is due menly to Kiibal 
confiision with the noun uttnai. That really in all the inuancei the iimai ' giinti,' 
bence < enemiei ' (!) were meant (Rieger Zi. igS ff.), cannot be admitted. [Vaii- 
oui interpretitioni 0/ ' EoUtiei ' are enumerated hy Moller, pp. 96 ff ] — A sate 
of friction between the 'Jutei' and the Dana it poinbly hinted at in the fittt 
Heiaii3d_epiiode, L 90a, lee Nota, p. 160. 

• An Eawi figures in the Meteian genealogy, see Par. 1 1, 
' See below, p. 113 Ic n. 4. 

' In Anjgrim Joneson's Sij^ldung^as^af ch. 4, the brochen Gunnlcifiia, Odd- 
lafiB, Hunleiriu appear in the Danish loyal Une. (Par. \ 3.6.) It a true, Gutilaf 
ii the name of a Frinan wirrioT alio {F. 3^). 

• Juit like Siggdrt, the huiband of Signy {Filaingautga), and EBel, Che husband 
of Kriemhilt (Nitelu«gi«!itd), in somewhal limilai siniatiom. — It deserrca to ba 
noted that Hildeburh herself seems to direct the fimetal ritaa (£. 1114^.). 


^. Poisibli Parotitis ind Genesis aflbe- Legend 
The popularity of the legend is attested not only by the preservation 
of two (id a measure) parallel versions, but also by the mention of cenain 
of it! names in WidsiS (27: Finn Folcwalding {taiold\ Fresna cynne, 29; 
Hmtf Hocingum, 31; Safrr^ Sycgum) ' and by the allusion to Hn^ef, 
Hoe's son, which is impHed in the use of the names Huochingus [father] 
and Nebi (Hnabi) [son] occurring in the Aiemannic ducal line of the 
eighth century.* The memory of the Frisian iting Finn crops up in a 
genealogy of Nennius' Historia Britonum where Finn the son of Folcwald 
has been introduced in place of Finn the son of God(w)ulf as known from 
WS, and Northumbr. (also ON.) genealogies (cf. Par. SS i, 3, 5, 8.1). 

But no clear traces of any version of the story itself besides the Anglo- 
Saion specimens have been recovered. The noteworthy points of agree- 
ment between the 'Fight at Finnsburg' and the second part of the 
NibilungetdUd — as regards the general situation, the relation between 
the principal persons, the night watch of the two warriors,' the mighty 
hall fight * — are no proof that the Finnsburg Fight is an old variant of 
a continuation of the Sigfrit legend ' as it was before it became connected 
with the legend of the Burgundlans (Boer, LF. 4.18). Nor can the analo- 
gies of the great battle in which Hrolfr Kraki fell(//ro//j/(i£fl,chs. 31-34; 
Saio ii s8 fl.),' viz. the Danish nationality of the party suffering 
the treacherous attack, the family connection between the two kings 
(brothera-in-law), the attack at night, the rousing of the sleepers, their 
glorious defense (although outside the hall), the stirring words of eihorta- 
tion with an appeal to gratitude and loyalty, be construed as evidence 
of a genetic relation. It is more reasonable to hold that chance similarity 
in the basic elements of the material (reflecting, in the last analysis, - 
1 Of doubtful value is rhe alLuiioa to Hun (cf. B. 1 143), 1. 33 : HBk Htemit- 

> Thegul's Ufc efLeuii lit Pioui, § 1: • GodetnduB dux genuit Huadilagum, 
Huochingui genuit Nehi, Nebi genuit Immam, Itnma vero genuit Hilrigardam, 
beatinimam re^nara.' (MiillenhofF, Zfd^. li 181, lii ig;.) On the teitimony 
rcUtine to ibe oamci GQplif, Oidlaf, Hilnlaiing, see above, p. zai, n. 4. That 
the 'Finn Itgend ' remained popular in Eswi, HampUiiic, and adjoining dbtrico, 
may be inferred from the frequent use encountered there of proper nuncs pertaining 
to it (Km 179 If.)' Fo' 't" ^<"'- al'uam Co Hunlaf, (ce Intt. luiv □. 4. 

» HigMi(e) and Volker, Niiil. i756fF. This night watch, however, k not 
followed immediately by ihe battle. 

• Eitendlng over two dap, Nihil. iSSSfF. Also the specific motive of' the sis- 
ter'i son' (lee note on F. l3 ff.) deserve! mention. 

t UhlaiHl(Gem. li 357 )f.) a'gueil for the idendly of SigeferS (f. 1;, 14) and 
the celebrated Sigfrit (ON. SigurSr) . — An ancient connection between the elemaiu 
of the Finn (Hildebuth) and the Hilde-Kudriin legend wu claimed by Mone 
L 4.13.134^; M6Uer70ff.;Much, .^cJ. cviii 4069.; cf. MiiUenboff 106 £ 

• Cf. Bugge 14. 



actual conditione o( life) naturally reiulted in a parallelism of expoaition 

and treatment. 

It is commonly supposed that the Finn tale ori^ated among the 
Ingvaeonic (North Sea) peoples and was carried from Friesland both to 
Upper Germany (as far as the Lake of Constance ') and to the new home 
of the Ai^Io-Saxons. If so, the surprisingly thorough Danification of the 
story in England must have occasioned alterations of considerable 

That there was a historical foundation for this recital of warlike en~ 
counters among Germanic coast tribes, we may readily beiieve.' But no 
definite event is known to us that could have served as the immediate 
model. Taking the Beowulfian version at its full value, an actual parallel 
of a war between Danes (Geats) and Frisian* (and Franks) is supplied 
by the eipedition of Chochilaleus (Hygelac), see Intr. rail f ., ilviii. The 
identification of Hengest with his better known namesake, who together 
with his brother Horsa led the Jutes to Britain, has been repeatedly pro- 
posed; * but we should certainly expect a Jutish Hengest to have sided 
with the Frisians of our Finn tale.' 

Mythological interpretations ' may be safely disregarded. 

^. Germanic Cbaracler 

None of the Anglo-Saxon poems equals the 'Finn tale' in its thorough 
Germanic and heroic character. The motives and situations are genu- 
inely typical, — mutual loyalty of lord and retaiaer; bloody feud between 
relatives by marriage; tragic'toaflict of duties (the sacred duty of revenge 
and the obligation of sworn pledges); the rejoicing in the tumult and pag- 
eantry of battle with its birds of prey hovering over the scene, its speeches 
of exhortation and challenge, the desperate, stubborn defense of the hall 
(mtil the bitter end, the hardihood of eager jnsuths unwilling to listen to 
the entreaties of solicitous elders; the burning of the dead amidst lamenta- 
tions and funeral songs; the faint echoes of merriment and feasting in the 
hall of the generous chief; and wiihal a deep uniiertone of general sadness 
bom of the conviction that joy is bound to turn into sorrow (S. 1078 fl.). 

By virtue of its heroic spirit of unwavering valor and its central motive 
of loyalty the lace historical poem of MoWon alone can be said to approach 

^ Cf. the Aleininnic gennlogy, above, p. 221, n. x. 

* " During the Middle Ago, up to the end of the eleventh centuiy, the Dane* 
were the worn enimia of the Friiiina." Siebs, P.GrJr.* if 514. 

* Thus, in recent timet, by Chadwicb Or. 51; cf. Chtke L 4.76.18; ff., 
Meyer LF. 4.15, Kier L 4-78. IS ff. 

* Ii it pcoible that the Agi. vervon embodies two distinct itnta of earlif legend 
reflecting different phages of the history of the Jutes ? The settlement of theojbe 
in JuCtind might hive tended to link tbrm to [he Dana (hence Hengest') position) ; 
on the other hand, the lojoum of the Jutes in proiimlty to the Friiiani was apt to 
inggest an especially close [ebtkm between these two tribes (hence Eetati = Frysait). 

* Grimm D.M. iSi (119) ; Kemble ii, pp. xlviif.; Mollec 7off.j ten Brink, 
P.GrJr.' ii* S35i Much, Jrt*. cTrii4o6ff. 


the Finn poemi, and a worthy companion in prose, albeit plain in ttruc- 
ture and uncouth in expression, ie eaiily recognized in the story of Cyne- 
wulf and Cynebeard a« told in the OE. Chronicle (a.d, 755). 

- n. Relation between tiie two An^o-Sazon VersionB 
It ii possible that the poem of which the fragmentary Fisht at Fimu- 
hirg remains, a>vcred as much narrative ground aa the Episode and num- 
bered say about three hundred lines. In what particular form the tale 
was known to the author of Bcotouij, cannot be determined. But, at all 
events, we And no discTepancies in subject-matter between the two 
venions.' At the same time there is no doubt that the author of the 
Episode has considerably remodeled his in»terial. The Fragment chows 
the manner of an independent poem, being in fact, apart from the OHG. 
Hildtbrandslied, the only specimen in West Germanic literature of the 
short heroic epic lay,' The Episode has been adjusted to its subordinate 
position in the Btoaulf epot. It presents in part brief, allusive sum nuriet, 
passing over the matter of fighting, both at the beginning and at the 
end, in the moat cursory fashion. It has discarded direct diacourse. It 
all but limits its range of actors to the two outstanding figure! of Hilde- 
burh and Hengcst.' But it depicts with evident sympathy their state 
of mind, brings out the tragic element of the situation, intersperses gen- 
eral reflections, and finds room for picturesque description. In a word, the 
direct, energetic, dramatic manner (such as we find In the Fragment) has 
yielded to a somewhat^more abstract, sentimental, and 'literary' treat- 
ment of the story.' 

Entirely in the manner of the £^ocm// is the litotes in 11. 1071 f., 1076!., 
and so are summarizing, retrospective, or semi-explanatory clauses like 
sume on amU crungon 1113, ifccs kira blad scacen 1124, nt meaku mijte 
mod/Jorhahban in krepre 1150, Put teai geomitru idts 1075 (cp. 814 f,, 
2564 f., 19S1, 1717, I!, iSii, 1250, 137a; Angl. xxviii +44 f., Intr. Iiif.). 
On the literary formula gasta gifrosl 1 123, see Intr. civ n. j; on the fig- 
urative use of ifoldan) Warm, see Arch, cixvi 353. 

Remarkable nonce words of the Episode — some of them still obscure 
— are: unfiitmi 1097, unhixtmi 1119, icgt 1107, btngtat llll,laStiu 1121, 
uialjdg iij8, iomgemdt 1140, aoroldr^din 1142, ferhsfrec 1146, imeord- 
bealo rt47, ingisieald ti^;, uniynnum 107J; see also 1106 and note. The 
relatively numerous words recorded in the Fragment only are listed in 

' The mriadon of name), OrJiSf (cp. Amgrim JoniHn'i OJdiiifi.i) : Oiltf k 
negligible. Cf. Sigi/i'-a (F. ij, 24): Si/ira (tfid^ 31, w« Molkr 86 f.) j 
Hircgir: HnragSr, cf. Intr. luii n. 4. — Sec abo note on B. 1077: yPtam 
mergta am. 

1 A poem, chat ii, which wu not meant to be mil but to be redtad. 

> Mfll 

Jer rect 

oned with 

two basic 

liyi, a ' Hildcbgrh 

■ anda'Hengnt" lay- 



: by of the 



poem of which theFng- 




* W{ 



; the Episxie u .he 




In nearly .U editions 

it a printed within quMatiiHi mukt. 


the Glossary of Finnihurg. An inteitsting lexical ngreement between the 
two veraiooa 11 seen in the uae of lorlcyning 1 155, lorSbUnd, F. Jl ; kiUU- 
Icoma 1143 (cp, as8], 1523), itvuriliotna, F. JS- 

in. Tlie light tt Slnnsbnre 

Tlie Fight at Finnsburg, although a fragment, is in a way the most 
perfect of the three Old English battle poems. Less poUshed and rhetor- 
ical than the BatUi of Brunanhurk, at the same time truer to the old 
form of verse and ttyle than the Battle of MaUon, it showa complete har- 
many between subject-matter and form. 

It is emphatically a poem of action and moves on directly and swiftly, 
the cotisecutive stages being commonly marked by the simple connective 
ffj. Only once does it pause for an exclamation voicing the scop's jubilant 
aAniration of the heroes (37 ff.)- Nearly one half of the fragment consists 
of speech, by which the action is carried on in a wonderfully vivid fashion. 
The apparent repetition of the question ' in the answer (l, 4) and the 
{originally) unasaigned speech (14 ff., see note) recall the well-known 
ballad practice. Quite characteristic are the asyndetic, parallel half-lines 
(S, 6, II, iz) following upon each other like short, sharp battle shouts, 
and the rhetorical repetition and parallelism (37^40) eloquently symboliz- 
ing deep emotion. The poet is not sparbg in the use of expressive epi- 
thets, kennings, and other compounds, nor does he neglect the essential 
device of variation. Indeed, the general impression is not that of crude 

The comparative frequency of end-stopped verses is largely accounted 
for by the use of direct discourse and by the number of distinct divisions 
of the narrative introduced by So). Several groups of 4 lines could be 
easily arranged as stanzasr 14-17, i8-ii, 14-27, 37-40; similarly 3-!ine 
stanzas could be made out: lo-iz, 43-4;, 46-48.' 

Of the rhythmical types the jerky C and the rousing B varieties hold 
prominent places. We may note especially the striking recurrence of B 
or C in seven consecutive o-lines [16-21), and in six Mines: 40-45. Use 
of the same type in both half-lines is found siiliraesr 4, 11, 30, 37,40, 43. 
A rather heavy thesis marks the opening of C in S"" and 37" (cp. Broa, 
loaT*, 38'), and an isolated hypermetrical type is introduced on a highly 
appropriate occasion: 39". (Perhaps also 13' must be admitted to be 
hypermetrical.) Irregularities of alliteration! ai', 46' (see T.C. i 18)', 
28'', 41" (T.C. ! 27), 39' (cf. Siev. AM. S 93) could be set right by trans- 
position or other alterations (see Varr,), but are perhaps naturally ex- 
plained by the less literary character of this poem which presupposes a 
far less strictly regulated oral practice. (For the alliteration of I. 11, see 
note on Beoa/. 489 f.) 

The language of the text, which unfortunately is transmitted in very 

I The opening wordi have been taken by some icholan u tlie daw of i ques- 
6aB. Cf. Hut L 4.11;. 198 n. 4, jo, 144. 

* Moller'i violenl rcconKtucdon la found in hia Aliingl. Vtliaipa$ ii, pp. vil-ix. 


b«d condition, ahows varions late forms, such as Finnsivruk 36 (for 
Finnes-, cf. Weyhe, Britr. m 86 n. i; quite eiceptional), hlyntifi 6 (tor 
Uynes, cf. Siev. } 410 n. 3), nwrnig 13 (cf. Lang. 5 7 n. i), tctfi 7 (Lang. 
§ 8.4], teyiuti 7 (Lang. J 3.1), aba non-WS, fanna: ncc^ 24 (Lang. £ 8.1, 
Siev. S39"Q. 'o). "wsg « (^"S- S 7'0,/«'fl ' eS. 33. "'/w 39 (Kent.,' 
cf. Siev. S i;ij but 37: ruifrt), hiordra 36 (So. Northumbr., cf. Bulb, 
i 144.), kwearflicra 34 (perh. la-io. No. Norlhumbr., d. Bulb. £ 140), 
jiDorj IS (Lang. \ 8.6; 13: stimri), (The analogical ifani 43, instead of 
dvra, is in a line with similar forms in Btotirulf, 344, 1178; cf. Lang. 
£ 18.1.) But definite localization and dating (both of the Lambeth MS. 
and of its prototype) are impossible.* General considerations favor, of 
coune, an early date for the ori^nal lay, as early at least as that of 

Some half-lines of a conventional character are common to Biomtil} mi 
Finmincrg: F. 19^- B. 740^, 2286*', F. 38"*- B. 1012", F. 46*- S. 6io», 
1832', 2981'. liie more striking agreement in the sentences, F. 37 f. and 
B. 101 1 f, (cf. 1027 ff., 38), ia also likely to rest on the common basis of a 
BtcicotyTied cipresaion. Identity or similarity of phrases is further noted 
inf. 9^- A I832^/■. is^-fl. 2610^, f, I7*-J. 2945'', /■.2i'-S. 2170*, 
F. 12'- B. 1899^, F. 24»- S. 343^ F. 24''- B. 348^ F. 25"- B. 2I3S^ 
a92J^ F. i-f^B. 200^ 64s^ F. 3j'*-5. 399^, F. 3S''-S. ijisK 
F,-i7^^B. 29+7', jooo*. 

The recurrence of F. 11 — in slightly different form — In Ex, 218; 
kabhan hiora klencan, hycgan on lUen (used in a somewhat similar context) 
need not be constnied as direct imitation one way or the other. (Cp. 
Maid. 4, ii3.) 

' fala occuis 16 dmn in the late MS. A of the ^5 Ceiptli, cf. G. TriUncb, 
Die Lauitikri dir ipaPuiciiiacis. E-vangilim (Bonn, 1505), p. i;. 

> ten Brink (L4.7.549f.) sdvanced the theory that tlie poem was popular 
among the East Saions and was wrinen down in Eraei in the latter half of tbc loth 
centuiy. Cf. also Bini i8j.. — Instnictive lyntacdcal feaCura are lacking. The 
repeated use of the proDoun ' tbii ' (and of the adietfa ■ here ') is fully watniitcd by 
the ocouion. (See abo jlrcA. ay iSi.) Some iiutancei of Che pcnonil (and poa- 
KHJve) pronouni an pooiUy due to the Kribe(s) (13, a?. 4») i *J™ i" "S'' " 
metricaltj necenuy. — The metrical laiity and the occurrence of indirect diKoune 
da not afford aufRcient eridence of a late date. Not can the uac of mils 39 be con- 
sidered decisive in this connection, since it la merely a guest tlul its meamog has 
been influenced by OH. twiim (cf. Mackie LF. 1. ta.267). 

Digiiizcdt* Google 


L Hannscript 

The me. being lost, the teit has to be based on George Hictes'a tran- 
ecriplion in his Linguarum Fell. Siplentrionalium Theiaitrus etc. (L i.i). 
Vol. i, pp. 191 f. (Oiford, 1705.) It is preceded by the notice: 'Eodem 
metro conditum forte reperi fragment! poetici eineulare folium' [a codice 
MS. homilianim Semi-Saionicarum qui eitat in Bibliothcca Lambethana. 
Fragmentum autem subsequitur.' Cf. H. Wanley'e Calalogui (L l.j), 

Ep. 166-69: Catalogus Cod. MSS. Anglo-SaiooLcdnim BibliothecK 
ambethaos. {P. j6g; 'Fragmentum Poeticum prceiium quoddam 
descriljens in oppido rinoisburgh nuncupato innituro, quod eihibuit 
D. HickesiuB, Gramm. Anglo-Sax. p. 192.') 

IL Editions 

1. Edition* are included In all the complete editions of Broa^f except 
those of Thorkelin, Arnold, and Holder. (In Grundtvjg's edition (1S61) 
the text ia inserted after 1. 1106 of the Beotaulf.) 

2. J. J. Conybeare in (i) The British Sttliografhef iv, a6i g. (Lon- 
don, 1814), and in his fl) Illustrations of Anglo-Saxon Poetry (L i.33), 
pp. 175-79. 1816, [Meant as a republication of Hickes's teit.] • 

3. N. F. S. Gnindtvig, Bjoteulfs Draft (L 3.17), pp. il-ilv. 1810, 

4. L. F. Klipstcin, jfnalecta Jnglo-Saxonica (L 1.23) ii, 426 f. 1849. 

5. L. Ettraiiller, Engla ami Siaxna Scapaj and Boctras (L a. 20), pp. 
130 f. i8so. 

6. M. Rieger, Alt- uitd angelsacluiiehei Lejebuck (L 2.11), pp. 61-3. 

7. R, P. Wiilcker, Kleiiure anidsichsischt Dithtvngin, pp. 6f. Halle, 
J879. [Unimproved teit.] 

8. H. MoUer, Das alttnglische Folksepos (L a. 19), Pan H, pp. vii-ni. 
1883. [In 14 four-liae BtaDKas.l 

9. F, Kluge, Angelsacksischei Lesebuch, id ed., pp. 127 f. Halle, 1902. 
to; M. Trautmann, in Finn vnd Hildebrand (Bonn. B. vii). Bonn, 

1903. R.:G. Binz (LF. 4.12). Practically identical with this Kit [slight 
differences in 11. ic^, 27* (18*), 48 (50)] is theoneiuTrautmann'a Bioavl} 

II. Bruce Dickins, Runic and Heroic Poems of the Old Teutonic Peo- 
ples, pp. 64-61). Cambridge, iglj. [Contains also an introduction, notes, 
and a prose translation, besides editions of WcUdere, Dear, Hildebrand.] 

II. W. S. Mackie, "The Fight at Finneburg." JEGPk. ivi (1917), 
250-73, [With textual and introductory notes.) 

1 This Bibliography will be refetjcd to u ' LF.' (See Tsble of Abbreyiadom, 

> Ponblr 1 KparaCE leaf baund up vrith the MS, and iccidentally Int nhen the 
MS. ins rebagnd. Cf. Thonui Whgbt, Biograpiia Briianifita Utcraria (1841), 
Vol i, p. 6, n. 



m. Translations 
/. English 

I. Translations are included in Thorpe's and Dickins's editions (opposite 
the text) and in the trRDslations of Biov/vlf by Lumsden [incomplete], 
Garnett, Oark HatI (L 3.5, the 2d ed. containing a verse and a prose tran«- 
Ution), Child (pp. 89 fi), Huyshe, Gummere. 

Z. J. J. Conybeare (LF, 2.2.1 & 2) Irimed paraphrase); D. H. Haigh 
(L4.27), pp. 32. f. [prose]; H. Morley {1,4.2), i 349 (. [prose translation of 
the Fragment and the Episode]; S. A.Brooke (L 4.6.1), pp. 64 1., (L 4.6.2), 

f>P- S' '■ [four-accent measures; incomplete]; K. M, Warren (L 3.42.1) 
prose, incomplete]; W. M. Diioo {Btotti. Bibliogr., p. ciziviu, n.), pp. 
84 f., 33 1 {. [verse and prose]. 

//. GtrTtutn 

1. In the translations of Beoaivlf by Ettmuller (pp. 36-8), Simrock (pp. 
S8-6o), Hoffmann (pp. 44-6)i Vogt (pp. 97-9) [after Mailer's text], 
Geriog (pp. 98 f.), and in Trautmann's editions ot the teit (LF. 3.10). 

2. L. Uhland. Gtrm. ii (1857), 354 f. (L 4.26). [Prose.) 

IF. Duuh 

In Simons's translation of Beouiulf (L 3.31). 
r. Latin 

In Coaybeare's edition (LF. 3.2.1 & 2). 
fl. French 

In Pierquin's edition (L 2.17, 3.34). 
FII. Italian 

In Grion'a transUtioa of Biowulf (L 3.36), pp. lo; L 

IV. Studies Exegetlul uid Ciitkal 

(Discussions of the Finn Episode also are included.) 

1. (0 R. walker's Grundriu (L 4.4), 188;. [Contains a useful siim- 
mary of critical opinion prior to 1885.] — (2) Nellie SUyton Aumer, An 
Analysis of ikt Interprmationj of the Finnsburg Documents. (Univ. of Iowa 
MonographsiHuroanisticStudies.Vol.i, No. 6.) 1917. jSpp. [Historical 
survey and bibliography .5 

2. K. MuUenhofT. (i) Norddbingische Sivdien i (Kiel, 1B44), 156 ff, 
(L 4.19) [on pcreoni and tribes in the Finn legend]; (1) ZfdA. li (1859), 
281-82; (3) 1*. lii (1S60), 285-87 (L 4.25) Itraces of the legend in Gm^ 
manic proper names]; (4) Beimilf (1889), pp. 97 f., 105-7 (L 4.19). 

3. C. V/. M. Grein, (i) Ebcrts lahTbuch etc. iv (1862), 260-fi (L 4.69) 
interpretation of the story]; (2) Grrm. i (1865), 422 [textual criticismj. 

' ^. A. Hollanann.&Tm. viii (1863), 492-94 (L 5.4). [Teitud interpre- 

j. S. Bugge, (l) Tidskrifi for Pkilologi itc. viii {1869), J04 f. (L s.6.1) 



[tettual; ta) ZfdPh. iv (1873), ao^ (L 5.6.3); {3) Beitr. xii 
(18S7), 20-37 (L- 5.6.3) [admirable interpretation of the Story naA teitual 
notes on the Fragment and the Episode]. 


7. H. Moller, Das idunglistht Folisepai (1883) Part I, pp. 46-100; 
151-56- (L4.1J4.) [The Finn legend and iu ba«ii; composition and io- 
terpreUtion of the tciU.| R.: R. Heinzel, Ata.fdA. i (1884), 125-^0. 

8. H. Schilling, jMiAT. i_(i886), Sg-gt. 116 f.; ii (1887), 146-50. [Sup- 
ports in general Mollcr'a view of the context and oppose) that of Bu| 

9. G. Sarrazin, Beoandf'Slvdicn {1888), pp. 174-76. {L 4 
' I 00 the Btyle.[ 

M. H. Jcllinck, Beitr. iv (1891), 41S-31. [Interpreution of the 

[olihauien, (i) Beitr. i 

S4S-S0- [The legend of Finn- interpretation of the story.) 

13. R. Koegel, Gesckichie der dealschin Litteraivr, i* (1S94), pp. 163- 
67. 0-4.8.) 

14. G.Bini,B«ir.ii(i895), 179-86. (L4.31.1.) [Testimony of proper 

15. R. Much (in a review o£ Panzer's Hilde-Gudrun), Arch. cv'iu(igoi), 
406 ft. [On connection between the Finn and the KudrUn legend.] 

16. Th. Siebs in Paul's Grundriss, \f. 1st ed., pp. 494 f. (1893); id ed., 
pp. 513 f. (1902). [On the legend in general and the tribal names.J 

17. M. Trautmann, (l) fijin und HUdebrand (1^), pp. l-6i (LF. 
a. 10), cf. (1) Bonn. B. tvii (1905), laa. [Interpretation and textual criti- 
dsm; a serviceable survey of the Fragment and the Episode.] 

18. R. C. Boer, "Finnsage und Nibelungensage," ZfdA. ilvii (19O3), 
las-60. [The Finn legend, teitual criticism of the Episode and the 

19. L. L. Schucking, Gnindiuge drr SaiavrtnUpfvng etc. (1904), pp. 
148 f. (L6,is.) 

ao. Fr. Klaeber (i) Angl. xxviii (1905), 447, 456; (2) Arch, cxv (1905), 
181 f. (cf. L 5.3S.4); <3) ESt. xiiii {1908), 307 f. (4) "Observations on die 
Finn Episode. '*_ JEGPk. xiv (1915), 544-49. 

. G. L. Smggett, "Notes on the Finnsburg Fragment." MLN. xi 

., _, "„, . . ,j 

Trautmann's ed.), ZfdPk. mvii (1905). 

(1905). I69-7I. [Unconvincing. 
'^ ^- '■ a review of- 


a3. A. Brandl, Angelsachsiscke Literalur, igo8 (see L 4.11), pp. 983- 
86. [Imoortant.] 

14. (r) R. Imelmann, £>,£it.t.JOLx{i909), 997-1000 (L a. 7.j). [Notes 
on the Episode.] (a) J. R. C.Hall, J1/£JV. xiv (1910), IiJ f. (1.5.50.) 

as- W. Meyer, Betlrdge zvr Gesckichie der Eroherung Engtands dv-rch 
dit Ajigelsachsen. Halle Diss., 191a. [Identifies Hengest with the histori- 
cal leader of the Jutea.] 

36, W. W. Lawrence, " Beowulf and the Tragedy of Fionsburg." 
PkW. MLAis. ni (1915), 371^431. [Illuminating interpretation.] 


27. Ale»anderGreen,"TheOpeningof the Episode of Finn in B^ra^/." 
Publ. MLAss. mi {1916), 7S9-^- 

z8. Harry Morgan Ayres, "The Tragedy of Hcngest id Seoamlf." 
JEGPh. xv\ (1917)1 182-95. Ilnteresting analysis.] 

29. Carlelon Brawn, "S/ootJ/ 1080-1106." ilf/,JV. zxiiv (1919), iSl- 
83. [11. 1084 f.] 

JO. See also Beomdf Bibliography IV, passim; thus, Mone L 4.2J. 
134-36; Uhland L 4,2£.]5i ff.; Haigh L 4.27. ch. 3; Dederich L 4.70. 
215-15; Morley L 4.2. ch. 7; Brooke L; Ker L 4,120.1.94-7; 
Heualer L 4. 124.1. 10 f.; also Kohler L 9.5.155-57. 

3 1. Further comments are found in various cditioni and tranBlations of 
Beowvlj (and Finnsburgi, especially those of Grundtvig (transl., pp. 
mii-ilv; ed., pp. 1-iii, ij8 f.), Kcmble (ii, pp. ilvii-ilii), Ettmuller 

Srans!., pp. 35-9), Simrock (pp^ 187-00), Arnold (pp. 204-7), Wyatt, 
olthauaen, Heyne-ScMcking, Clark Hall, Child, Vogt, Gering, Gum- 
mere, Chambers, Dickies. 

Digiiizcdt* Google 


'(hor)nas byrnaS nSfre.' 

Hl€o)»ro(le 'Sa ' hea^ogeong cyniog : 
( Ne iSis nc daga^ eastdii, ne her draca ne fleoge^, 
nS her {Sissc hcallc hornas ne byrnalS; 
sac her for^ beralS, fugelas singa'S, 
gylleS grSghama, guiSwudu hlynneiS, 
scyld scefte oncwylS. Nu sc^neS ]jes mona 
waSol under wolcnutn; nu arlsaS wSadsda, 
1SS Sisne folces nI8 fremman willaS. 
loAc onwacnigcaS nu, wigend mine, 
habbaiS Sowre h'nda, hiirgea]> on ellen, 
jjindaS on orde, wesa^ onmode ! ' 

Da aras mxnig goldhladen ^gn, gyrde bine his 
swurde ; 

NoTi — DrV*(i.i=LF.i.ii j Miu«< = LF. l.l»i Tr.mLF. l.lo. Sm »I»o 
Tabic of Abbreviatiaiu, pp. dl if. 

1 Rie.L. {f), Gr. Girm. x 4", 4 Edi. (horjnu; Gr. I.e. hscru htfen it 
(bcorhtre), Bii. Tji. J04 (beorhtor). — l* TV. Hn^|u(/er n£fre, (difn « j<£in- 
m«g ./ 1, tu Hkki,-L ttxi) Wtotirodci HoA. Bi bHoVrode (a«n ia<uai.—i>, ami Edd. h(a)jogeong; Ki. heorogmng; Didani hearogeong (= heoni-)j 
Tr. healHigeom.— J" Grujr. eastan. — s" {t), Hell. for(>fir««i, 
E.Sc. ijtibttiiS%Gr.\ Scha. fSr ( = f»r) /ar her. Bifiri i*- Rii.L. iiistrU [fyti- 
tam rincai./l^nd ofer {o\im\, Gr.' I&DThgcnntbn/tyrdKini flulicu], Ba. 2j 
(fyrdaeini iincii,/fl9crc Alnboganl, JtM. ZfiA. xltiii o [fyidiearu rincUj/nallei 
Mr on flThte]. — fi" Klu. LF. a.g {f), Hfll. Uynfffl. — 5. n* Brink LF. 
4.13.343 [Mml «=■ — Boir Z/dA. xMi 143 f- 1''™' (» G'"- P- IjS) "d g"" 
wille. — ii'Gr.i (T), Ht., Tr., Sed. IwhUS. —Gr. {tf. E£c.), He, Sed.haMt; 
By. Tid. 303, Scii. lindi; Bu. 23 (t), Tr., Hell., Oa. hlencui { ««. ZfJA. 
xlviii 10 lanibi (<^. Meld. 20), — ti** hkgea|>. — 12*, U al., 
Sed. innixS Ifsrmtrlj luppeud to be Hickii'i riading); a DicHni teit liinti liai 
lit firm 0/ iX. imiiul Uittr ™, ««« fir „ (,« ts'h "•- ('/■ «■"-■). 
Sci». winna-5. — Ii", ir al., Sed. oa mMe, — ly madt inte 3 kalf- 
li«, by Rie.L., Gr.t; Tr.:B. i. [of reiM rondwfgend] m./g-IS-i *./(.: B. i. [0/ 
note lamhcon) m./g. [gDmJSegn. — Tii. goMhrodcn. 


%a to dura codoti drihtlicc ccmpan, 
■ jSigefcr^ and Eaha, hyra sword getugon, 

and xt opTum durum Ordlaf and Gulflafi 

and Hengest sylf, hwcarf him on laste. 

©a gyt Ganilf[e] GuSere styrde, 

^xt he swa freolic feorh forman siJjc 
loto -SSre healle durum hyrsta ne b£r/, 

nu hyt nijia heard inyman woldej 

ac he frxgn ofcr eal undeaminga, 

deormod hEleJ>, hwa ■6a duru heolde. 

*SigcferJj is min nama (ewe)) he), jc com Secgena leod, 
S5wrec<:ctf wide cuS ; fsU ic w&ina gebad, 

heordra hilda ; ^c is g^t h£r witod, 

swx))er ^u sylf to me seccan wyllc.' 
Da wxs on healle wxlslihta gehlyn, 

sceolde cclW bort/ tenum on handa, 
jobanhelm berstan, buruhSelu dynede,^ 

o^ xt 6arc giiSe Garulf gecrang 

ealra Krest eor^buendra, 

Gu'SIafes sunu, ymbe hyne godra fela, 

hwearflJcra hrSEw. Hrjcfen wandrodc 
35sweart and sealobrun. Swurdleoma stod, 

swylce eal Finnsburuh fjTenu wSre. 

I5» MS. 86 (cf. Mill. ZfdA. xi 281, B-. 15), Tr., Boll. &wj. £«(«« aip. 

ftra Eaha ty ref. a Echha, Likir Him, eie. {cf. R. Milltr, tflur JU Namn da 

L.r., Pal««ra B,f.^). — iP Tr., Ofl. Girulf[e|. — igb £.&. {?), Tr., 

Holr.,Cia.u^Iie. — l^•Cr.,Sci».b[^t.—^a<^K^.,Hs!t.,Std., CU. bCK. 

— ti» Tr., Ho/(. eil[le]. — IS" C™.ir. «re«cn, Tit. wrecca, Cr.' wceccca. 
{H'Kk€i'iWHUunallyrudai\mt.ten.) — i^*" tf. D. Cmyiten (L 1.13) w6uM. 

— i6^ Ki., iM Edd. tK3iia.—iS',iHairEdd.viraiU. — i^ (^.icElod; 
Rit.L.,Tr.,&M.,aa.ctUoi;yillirui Biilr. xv 431 cSid {'aniti'U Hull. Zi. 
1x3 ceorl««) Heir.* cOtne. — Ki. boni. — igl" Gr, rfnum. — je^ Bn. 26 birheltn 
(' boai-helmH •). — 3J« Mi. QVSvikt, Tr. GMhim. — 34', Gr.*, Sed., 
MvilJchmsirfllcrahtCw; Bt.a-jf., SckH., Cta. Hwarf (■ mornlmboui,' withacc.) 
flacra brSw (34'' Bn. hnfen fram aSrum); Jclli^k I.e. Hwearf (' crowd ') lafl™ 
ht«>s ; Tr. Hrbwbtacra hxcirf [and -^^ nundiode); Halt. Hwcarf blacn hiig*. 

— 36* Tr. ruin[c]> buruh, DklaM Fum^ejiburub. 


Ne gefrjcgn ic nafre wurJf]icor xt wera hilde 

sixtig sigebcorna scl gebSran, 

ne nefre swanaj hwiine medo sel forgyldan, 
4o&nne Hnsfe guldan his hsegslealdas. 

Hig fuhton fit" dagas, swa hyra nan ne feol, 

drihcgeslSa, ac hig ^ duru heoldon. 

Da gewai him wund hxleS on wxg gangan, 

sSde jiaet his byrne 3brocen w£rc, 
45 heresceorp uwhror, and eac wses his helm ^yr[e]l. 

Ha hine sona frxgn folces hyrde, 

hii Sa wigend hyra wunda genxson, 

oSSe hwxj^er SSra hyssa 


Scyld sceftc oncwyS. 

. nasbyrnaS. [geong cyning. Nu scyneS J>cs mona. 

Nsefre hleo|irode i$a hearo WaSol under wolcnum, 

Ne iSis ne dagaS Eastun. Nu arisaS wea-dxda. 

Ne herdraca nc fleogeS. Be Sis ne folces niB. 

Ne her Sisse heaite hornas Fremman willaS. 

ne byrna?. (lo)Ac on wacnigcaS nu. 

(s)Ac her forjiberaS, Wigend mine, 

Fugelas singaS. HabbatS eowre landa. 

GyllcS grxghama. Hie gea)> on elten. 

Gu5 wudu hlynneS. pindaS on orde. 

3H'' Ki. gtbaran. — 59" Gr. iw2nu; drtpfxJ iy Tr. — , men Edd. iwetns 
(far hwfine, pariljman cama). — Gru. tjlfres hwiine mSde. — \i^ Htli. vni ne 
fiol hira nJn (miiri causa). Bifere ii lacuna aiuimed and mining mardi mp^Hid by 
Rit.L., Gr.'. Mi., Tr. — ^ii'Kf. ,£.&., !>., Cia. (f) dun- — 45' rA^.,&*u., 
C*a. hertKIOrp unhror; Tr.h.ibtortn; Ki., HiJi., S.d. heractorpgm hror. — ^jh 
Tr., Hull., Sid. l^r[tjl. {Or pyr|e]l, ef. T.C. ij-)— 46* H-"i. D» frjtgn June 
•3" (-'«"■""")■ 



Wesa^ on mode. 

Da aras msenig goldhladen 


Gyrde hinc his swurde. 

Da to dura eodon. 

Drihtlice cempan, 
(is)Sigefer5 and Eaha. 

Hyra sword getugon. 

And Et ofjrum durum. 

Ordlaf and Gu|.laf. 

And Hengest sylf. 

Hwearf him on laste. 

Da gyt Garulf. 

Gu-Sere sty rode. 

Dfet he swa freolic feorh. 

For-man sipe. 
(lo)To ^XTc healle durum. 

Hyrsta ne bseran. 

Nu hyt nij^a heard. 

Any man wolde. 

Ac he fraegn ofer eal. 


Deormod ha^lej). 

Hwa «a duru heolde. 

Sigeferp is min Nama cweji 

Ic eom secgena leod. 
(i;)Prccten wide en's. 

Fasla ic weuna gebad. 

Heordra hilda. 

De is gyt herwitod. 

Swa^Jjei: Su sylf to me. 

Secean wyile. 

Da waes on healle. 

W«l-slihta gehlyn. 

Sceolde Celses boriS. 

Genumon handa. 
(]o)BanheIm herstan, 

BuruhSelu dyncde. 

OlS fet ISaerc guSe. 

Garulf gee rang. 

Ealra xrest. 


Gu^Slafes sunu. 

Ymbe hyne godra fiela. 

Hwearflacra hrier. 

Hrsfen wandrode. 
(3!)Sweart and sealo bnin. 

Swurd-lcoma stod. 

Swylce cal Finnsburuh. 

Fyrenu waere. 

Ne gefraegn ic. 

Nffifre wurplicor. 

JEt wera hilde. 

Six tig sigebeorna. 

Sel gebaerann, 

Ne nefre swa noc hwitne 

Sel forgyldan. 
(40) Donne hnxfe guldan. 

His hs^stealdas. 

Hig fuhcon fif dagas. 

Swa hyra nan ne feol. 





Ac hig ?a dum heoldon. And eac waes his helm €yrl. 

f)a gewat him wund hxleS. Da hine sona frtegn. 

On waeg gangan. Folces hyrde. 

Ssde f his byrne. Hu 5a wigend hyra. 

Abrocen wicre. Wunda gena^on. 

(4S) Here sceorpum hror. 055e hw^Jjer ^lera hyssa. 

D,g,i zed b, Google 


i>i3. SomI umovncM die apprMdi of enemies and arouses his 

We may picture to ourselvei tbegituation aa foUowi. Oiieof tbcDanei, 
who are distruitful of the Friaiaoa, hag been watching outside and reports 
to the king a suspicious gleam of light Hn^f replies; 'Tlese are sigiu of 
DOthing else but armed men mxrching against us.' Then, by bold antici- 
pation, the realities of battle are sketched by the speaker. It i» natural 
to suppose that Hengcst is the watcher addressed by the king. 

I. nftfre at the end of the speech (so fint placed by Thorpe) is a little 
strange; possibly the teit is corrupt. 

a. On the scansion of HieojTOde ISl i-, see T.C. fi II. — hesfogeong. 
Evidently Hnsef was thought to be much younger than bis sister. — 
ffna:f hJielvode, keal>(ipong cynmg (cf. VarT.) would be a tempting 
reading of tbil line. 

3- Sis oe dagaS, 'this is not the dawn.' — nfi hfir draca ne fliogeC; 
i.e., a fire-spitting dragon. See Broin. 231Z, 2521, 2582; 0£. Citron, a.d. 
793 (D, E, F); Lied eoBi Hiirnen Siyf rid 1%: Dit Burg die ward crlmchiet, 
Als oh sit wet ituprant (as a result of the flying of a dragon). 

5 1. fcn^ beraS of the MS. can be Justified on the assumption that the 
war equipments specified afterwards are the object of btria (see, e.g., 
Btow. 291, Ex. 219. Maid. 12) which the poet had in mind but did not 
take the time to express. [A frankly intrans. use oijorii btran, 'press for- 
ward • (Schilling, ML JV. i 1 16 f., Dickins) can hardly be recognized. The 
supposedly parallel cases of hitan ul. El. 45, Attdr. 1211 were misunder- 
ttood by Gr. Spr. Cf. also Angl. xivil 407 f.] — The fugeks seem to be 
the birds of prey (see 34), who gather in eipectation of slaughter, as in 
Gen. 1983 ff., Ex. 162 ff.. El. 27 ff., ]ud. io6 if. For other interpretations 
proposed such as 'arrows,' 'morning birds,' see Bu. Tid. 304 f., Bu. 22 f., 
Moller 47; Angl. iiviii 447; Boer, ZfdA. ilvii 140 ff.; Riegcr, 2jdA. 
xlviii 9. — ET*£*""""i 'the grey-coaled one,' i.e. either 'wolf — the 
familiar animal of prey, beside raven and eagle, in the regular epic trio, 
cp., e.g., Brun. 64 — or 'coat of mail' (cp. Aow. 334). gyllatt fiu both 
meanings {Rid. 25.3; Andr. 127). 

7-9. Now the moon lights up the scene: the tragic fate is inevitable, 
nfi iifeaC wfiadAda. Thus Hildebrand eictaims; taelaga nii . . . teetaurt 
ikihit, Hildehr. 49. ("et (mOna) is thoroughly idiomatic, cp. Rid. 58.1: 
Seoi lyfl, Gtn. 811: tteos btorhle inntie, etc. (Arch, civ 182). — Under 
wokntun; the moon is passing 'under,' i.e., 'behind' the clouds, though 
not really hidden by them. A stereotyped expression is here put to a 
fine, picturesque use. 



9. tSsne folCM nltS fremnuuii 'carry out this mmitj' of tbe people.' ^ 

II. For the (caaaion, see note on Bean. 489 f. 

13. Types Aj and Ci. 

13-37. The waniaiB on botb aides make leady for tiie fight 

13. gcddhladen may be meant with reference to helmets, sworda, 
corslets, or (Bu. 24:} bracelets such as HrolTs warriors are to use b the 
last fight for their king: 'load your arms with gold; let your right handa 
receive the bracelets, that they may swing their blows more heavily ' (Saio 
ii 64, Par. j 7). [Cf. Olrik-Hoilander, Tht Hiroic Leffiidi 0} Dinmark 
(1919), pp- izi fj Note Ruin 33 ff.: beorn monig/ gUedvwd and gold- 
beorkt tdgkyTJlum scan. 

it. cet Ofiutn durum, scil, 'stood' or 'drew their swords.' The plural 
durum has singular meaning; cp. 10. 

17. and Bengest B^. Hengest now tabes his place inside the hall with 
the others. (The use of lylf Is no indication that he is the king.) 

tSff. Dfigp marks the progress of the narrative (which now introduces 
another fighter): 'further,' 'then.' |0r does (yt denote 'as yet' in con- 
junction with (and partly anticipating) the negative meaning of the sen- 
tence (styrdt, ne)}] The Frisian GiiKere tries to restrain the impetuous 
youth, Garult — perhaps his nephew, cp. Nibel. 2208 ff., Waltharius 
846 ff. — from risking his life 'at the first onset ' (19*, cp. Beow. 740; or: 
'in bis first battle'?); butGaruIf, heedless of danger, rushes to one of the 
doors, encounters the veteran Sigerferjj, and meets a hero's death. TTiere 
is nothingstartlingabout the factthatCarult's father has the same name, 
GuSlaf (33), as one of the Danish warriors. (In Maldon occur two penous 
named God ric, 187:321, and two named Wulfmxr, 113: 155.) Certainly 
we need not assume that father and son are fighting on opposite sides. 
See ESl. mil 308. 

30. As tohyrsta (parallclwith/<rorA)beran, see Beam. 3f)t, Mid note on 
F. s f. {Angl. iiviii 4s6.) 

31. ni)n heard, scil. Sigefer)>. 

33. he, scil. Garulf. — ofer eal. The neuter eal fin contrast with eidU, 
Beow. 2899, cp. Gtn. 2462, Dan. 517, Sat. 616, etc. [sec Arch, civ 291}) 
includes both the fighters and the scene (and tumult) of fighting. Cp. 
Maid, is^: of et tall dypode ; a\to MMrk., Saint! \y z^, niii 803. 

34. Cwe)> hi is a parenthetic addition (which during the merely oral 
existence of such lays was dispensed with). It is to be disregarded metri- 
cally. Cf. Rie. V. 58 n.; Heualer, TfdA. ilvi 24S ff. 

37. sinej>er, 'which one of two things,' i.e. victory or death. Cp. 
HUdibr. 60 ff. 

38-40. Tbe battle rajes. 

38. on (bealle), 'in (the hall)' (cp. 30''), or 'at,' 'around' (cp. Btoa. 
2529, 926[f]). — teeaiU would be metrically more regular. 

39. No explanation or really satisfactory emendation of celss has been 
found. The conjecture criW rests on AfflW. i83:«WtJ4ofi/, but the mean- 
ing of this nonce word is unknown. (Rieger LF. 2.6: 'concave,' 'curved'; 

D, ..■■.v^.oo^ic 


Eluge LF. 1.9: from Lai. ntoiu; TrautmaDn LF. 2.10.46: cylloj,' covered 
with leather'; Grein Spr.: cilod 'keel-shaped,' 'oval'; B.-T, Suppl.: ceUd 
'having a boss or beak.') See also Varr. 

34. faweorflic (cf. above, p. 2z6), perhaps - 'ag{le,"active,' or 'obedi- 
ent,' 'trusty'; cp. Cifis of Mm 68: Prgn gehtneor}; Go. gakteairbi 'pliant, 
obedient.' {According toMackic, 'mortal,' 'dead,' on the basis oihwerfiic 
'fleeting,' Boelh. 15.10 (B). — Cp. ON. herfr 'shifting'; OE. Lind. Gotp.: 
iuwr/Jifi" vidssim.) — hlftw, 'body,' not necessarily 'corpse'; cp. 
Andr. 10] I : dr Pan krd cningt (though also tcalupoUon, Beoa. 1041). — 
Numerous corrections of this passage have been proposed, see Varr. [Abo 
Htcearfadt (or Hieearf(l)laJe) trrn (- ram, cf, Siev. j Ij8. I ) would make 
iense.] — Hivfenwaudrode. Cp. Maid. 106: kremmas wundon. 

36. Bwylce eol Finiubunih f^renu wAre. (Cp. i ff.) See the parallel*: 
Ubland, Girm. ii 356, Liining L 7.2S.73 !., 31; also Iliad ii 455 ff. 

37 t. On the double comparative (used similarly io the corresponding 
passage, Bcoa. ion f.), see MPk. iii 2;a. 

3gf. See ^^oic. 2633 ff. and note. Foradefenseof the 'white mead'aee 
Mackie (ref. to an iBth cent, quotation in the NED.). 

41 ff. Tlie Frimans, weakened and unable to make headway, [seem on 
fhepoint of preparing for anew more. . . .]. — As to fif dagas, see Beow. 
545 and note on 147. 

43 S. It appears probable that the wounded man who 'goes away' is a 
Frisian, and folces liyrde, Finn. See Rleger, ZfdA. itviii iz; for argu- 
ments to the contrary, see Bugge i8, Trautmaan 61, Boer, ZfdA. llvii 
147. We may imagine a disabled Frifiian leaving the front of the battle 
line and being questioned by his chief as to how the [Danish?] warriors 
were bearing (or could bear) their wounds. 

4S". Type E. As to the shifting of the stress to the second syllable of 
unhrOr, cp. Broui. 1756,2000. — kirejceorpum hror (see Hickea'steit) could 
refer only to the tcund kaUs himself, 43. 

48. Bugge (2S), taking hW9e)ier as 'whether,* would supply [hiU 
itetSrodt], If hauler is - 'which one,' the missing words might be 
[hildi gedigde]; the names of the two )^ung fighters were then contained 
in the following line. 

The rest is silence. But the outcome is revealed in the Btoumlf Episode. 

It has been surmised by Ricger {I.e.) that Finn, anxious to break down 
the resistance of the besieged at last, orders the hall to be set on fire (as 
is done, Fqlsungasaga, ch. 8 and Nihil. 2048 ff.), whereupon the Danct, 
forced into the open, have to meet the Frisians on equal ground. 

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L Anglo-Sazon Genealosies ' 
1 1-. Wbst Saxoh Gesealogt. 

i I.I. HuAnglo-SanmChnniide (ed. B. Thorpe, i86t; i izfiff.). a.d. 
855. (MS. B, cp. A, C, D.) 

AMwulf gefor , . . , Se A^lwulf waw Ecgbrihting. Ecgbriht 

. . . Ingild (14 more namce). Brand — Bildag — Woden — 

FreaUt — Finn — God(w)ulf— Gtata (A, D: Geat, C: Geatt) — 
Tastwa — Be*w ' — Scyldwa (A: Sceldwea, Cr Scealdwa) — Hereuod 

— Itermon — HalSra — Hwala — Bedwig • Sceatino, id est filiu* Noe, 

ae wKS geborea on )>xre earce Noe*. Lamecb. Matucalem Seth. 

Adam primus homo et pater noster, id est Chriatus. 

I i.a. Asseiiiu, De Rebus Gestis £lfre<li (a.d. 89}) (ed. W. H. Ste- 
venson, Oxford, 1Q04). Cap. t. 

Genealogia: Alfred rei, filius ^thelwulfi regis . . EcgberhtJ In- 

pld Brond — Beldeag — Uuoden — Frithowald — Frealat — 

Frithuwulf — Finn — Godwulf — Geata, quern Getam iamdudum pa- 
gani pro deovenerabantur — Tsetuui — Bkauu — ScHLnwEA^HEKEUOl> 

— Itermod — Hathra — Huala — Beduuig — Seth * — Noe — Lameeh 

— Mathusalem — Enoch— Malaleel—Cainan—Enos — Seth — Adam. 
§ 1.3. Fa.Ui Btlielwerdl (ob. cir. 1000 a.d.) Qmaiconim libri qnatnor 

(ed. H. Petric, J. Sharpe, T. D. Hardy; Monumtnia Historica SnUtrtnua, 
Vol. i, 1848)- Lib. iii, cap. ii! (p. 511). 

Athulfrez . . "ilius Ecgbyrhti regis . . . Ingild Brond — Balder 

— Uuothen — Frithouuald — Frealaf — Frithouulf — Fin — Goduulfe 

— Geat — Tetuua — Beo — ScYLD — ScEf. Ipse Scef cum uno dro- 
mone advcctu« est in insula oceani quE dicitur Scant,' armis circundatua, 
eritque valde recens puer, et ab incolis illiua terrx ignotus; attamen ab 
CIS auscipitur, et ut familiarem diligenti animo cum cuatodienict, et post 
in regem eligunt; de cuius prosapia ordincm tiahit Athulf rei. 

> On the aumanut Ags. gcnealagia, kg GHmin D.M. iii 377-401 (1709- 
36}; Kemble ii, pp. t tf., & L4.43J Earlc-Plummcr, Ttutif til Sum CArgn- 
(c/« ii (1899), 1-6 (harnionind genealagicil Crcs) ; Haack L 4.30. 13 ft.; 
Chadwick Or. 169 ff. On ON. gtnalogin, lec QirpEU Pxlickm Bi^ridt (L lo.l) 
iiSllff.icp.Par.5i 5,8.1- 

) Important nimct hive been marked bf the use of cipitils or itilicB. 

» According to E. Bjorknun, ESt. Iii 1 70, Biibt. im 13-5, xhc dai icribol 
envr for > (in a form bawd on a latiniied *Btineiiti\ . MS. D hai Bumii. 

t Stennaon't note; 'legendam tamen Sctef.' 

* Sec Intr. lUTU; GltMBiy of Proper Namo! Suitn-tg. 

D, .11, Google 


(English translation in J. A. Giles's Six Old English ChronicUi [Boha'i 
Antiquarian Library].) 

! 1.4. WiUelmi Muhnwibiriniaia Hmachi (ob. a.d. 1143) De Gestia 
Regum Angjonuu liln qninqne (ed. W. Stubba, London, 1887). Lib. ii, 
5 I -6. 

Etbelwulfusfuit filiusEgbirhd . . . Ingild[iu} Brondiut — B«l- 

degius — Wodeniua — Fridewaldus — FreUfius — Finnu* — Godulfiu — 
Getius - — Tetius — BEDWitra — Sceldiub — Sceat. late, ut fenint, in 
quaodam ioluliiin Germanic Scandzam, de qua Jordanes, hiitoriographui 
Gothonim loquitur, appulaui navi line remige, pucrulus, poaito ad caput 
frumenti manipulo, dormicaa, ideoque Sceaf nuncupatua, ab hominibua 
regionis illiua pro miraculo ciccptua, et aedulo nulritua; adulta state 
regnavit in oppido quod tunc Sianeie, nunc vero Haithebi appellatur. 
Eat autem regio ilia Anglia Feltts dicta, unde Angli vcnerunt in Britaa- 
niam, inter Saiooes et Gothos cona tJtuta. Sceaf fuit filius Hebeiiodu 

% 1. Mercian Genealogt. 

He An^o-Saxon Omnide (ed. B. Thorpe, i 86). a.d. 755 (MSS. A. 

Offa feng to rice ond heold uxix. wintra; ond his sucu Ecgfei^ 

heoldxli. daga ond c. daga. Se Offa wxa tTincgfcrliing, l7iQcgfer|> Eanwul- 
fing. Eanwulf — Olmod — Eawa — Pybba ■ — Creoda — Cynewald — 
Cnebba — Icel — Eoitss. ' — Angel^w — Offa — Wxrmijkd — 
Wihtl«g Woden ing. 

See ib., A.D. 6l6 (MSS. B, C)^and Sweet, The Oldest Enilisk TexU, 
p. 170. 

% 3. Kentish Genealoct. 

Nennii HistOlia Britonum (redaction dated cir. 800 a.d.) (ed. J. Ste- 
venson, London, 1838), { Ji. 

Interea venerunt trea ciulic a Germania eipukx in eiilio, in quibu* 
erant Hors et Hengist, qui et ipai fratres erant, filii Guictgila, filii Guitta, 
filii Guectha, filii Vuoden, filii Frealaf, filii Fredulf, filii Finn, filii Folc- 
WALI>,' filii Geta, qui fuit, at aiunt, filiua Dd. 

n. ScandiiuiTiiin Documents 
(S«Lio..,a, 1,4,8.) 
j 4. Elder Edda. 
H]nidlulj6)» (cir. close of the 10th century).* 
i. hex. us pray the Father of the Hosts to be gracioua to ua, for be 

" Sweet, O.E.T. 170. 9J: Earner. 
■ a ThiH abo in Henry of HuntingiloB'a Hiiuria ^ngfaram (cir. iljj a.d.), 
Ub. u,{ I, when the name iicamipted, however, lo Flacwald. 

> The trauladoD in cfae Csrfui Pstntum Birtaii ii uaed. 


grants and gives gold to hia servaaUj he gave Heiui6Sr a helmet and 
mail-coat, and Siguundr a sword. 

9. For they have laid awagerofWelsh-ore(i.e., gold), Ohtere|OTTAK»] 
the young and Ongentieow [Angantyr], I am bound to help the Eonner, 
that the young prince may have hia father's heritage after hia kinsmen, 

II. Now do thou tell over the men of old and aay furth In order the race» 
of men. Who of the Shielding! [SKjgLDUHGA]? Who of the Shelfings 
[SKiLFiNGAlf whoof the Etheiings? who of the Wollings IYlfihga]? who 
of the Free-Bora? who of the Gentle-Born are the most chosen of Itindred 
of all upon earth? 

14. Onela IAli] was of old the mightiest of men, and Halfdanr in 
formerdaya thehigheatof theShieldinga. Famous are the wars which that 
kingwaged, his deeds have gone forth to the skirts of heaven. 15. He[Ha)f- 
danr] strengthened himself in marriage with [the daughter of] EvutiNO 
the highest of men, who slew Sigtryggr with the cold blade; he wedded 
Almweig the highest of ladies; they bred up and bad eighteen sons. 

,5S- Pbose Edda.* 

PrdoguB, S3. 

Vingelwrr, hana sonr Vingener, hane aonr Moda, hans sonr 

Magi, hans sonr Seskef *• — BeSvig — Athra — Itrmann — HereuoS 
— Skjaldun, er vcr kijllum Skj^ld — Biaf, er ver ktjllum Bja'r — Jat — 
GuSolfr — Finn — Friallaf, er ver kijllura FriSleit — Voden, fiann krf- 
lum v6r ^in. 

SkAldGkapaimll. Ch. 40. Skj9Ldii het sonr OSins, er SkJQldungar 
eni fra komnir; hann hafSi atsetu ' ok reS ' Igndum, ^ir sem nu er kgUuS 
Danmqrk, en |ia var kallat Gotland.' Skjgldr atti t'ann eon, er FriSleifr 
het, er Icndum t6tS eptir hann; sonr FriSleifs het Froi5i [' FriB-Fr6i5i'J. 
[There follows the story of FroSi's mill (of happiness, peace, and gold), 
and the GroHiupngr, i.e. Mill Song,'] — Ch. 41. Konungr einn 1 Danmork 
er ncfndr Hbolfr Kraki; hann var agastastr' fomkonunga fyrst af 

mild! ok frceknleik ' ok litillseti ' Konungr reS fyrir Ups'^Ium, 

er ASiLS het. Hann atti* Yrsu, moSur Hrolfs kraka, Hana hafSi oaitl* 
viS Jiaan konung, er reffl fyrir Noregi, er Ali het. Iteir stefnSu orroatu '" 
milli Bin a hi vatg )>eEs, er Fani heitr. [King AlSils had asked Hrolfr 
for assistance; the latter, being engaged in another war, sent him hie twelve 
champions, amongwhora were B^Svar-bjarki, Hjalti hugpru55i, Vpttr, 
Veseti.] I ]/ein orrostu fell Ali konungr ok mikiU hluti " Ii3s '• hana. 
pa tok ASils konungr af honumdauJSum hjalminn " HUdisviH, ok heat" 

• Flnnur J6n«™-. edition (.900) i. u«d. 

•• I.e., OE. « Scl{a]f. See Par, § 8.1. 

1 'rearJencE.' •' ruled' (OE, riJ). < Rather Jfidind, i.e.'Jutland.' * Grot- 
laif<gr »; 'Let ui grind onl Yna'i child (Rolf Knki] shall avenge Halfdw'l 
death on Fro-Si. He [Rolf] shall bt called her son and her brother.' ~ ' ' mcut re- 

" 'fight.' "'portion.' " ' (of hia) followmg. ' " ' the hehnet.' "'horse.' 


hans Hrafn . . . {llere follows the story of Rolf's famous expedition to 


Ch. ss. pemiT [era heatar] talSir i Kalfstisu: 

Vestcinn (reiSS] Vali, Sjfrn reis Blakki, 

en Vivill Stufl, en Biarr Kerti, 

Meintijofr Moi, Atli Glaumi, 

en Morgino Vakri, en ASils SIffngvi, 

Ali Hrafni, Hcjgni Hglkvi, 

et til iss riSu,* en Haraldr FQlkvi, 

en annarr auatr Guanan Gota, 

und ASiLSi en Grana SigurCr. 
grar hvaHaSI, 
geiri unda£r. 

{ 6. Yhguhcasaca.i 

Ch. j.Skjold, the son of (5sinn, wedded licr[Gefionj,BndtheydweIt 
at /TtiSra. ~ Ch. 23 (J7). {Tlu Jia-bjirial of King Haki.) Now Ki.^ 
Haki had gotten such sore hurts, that he saw that the days of his life 
woald not be long; so he let take a swift ship that he had, and iade it with 
dead men and weapons, and let bring it out to sea, and ship the rudder, 
and hoiit up the sail, and then let lay fire in tarwood, and make a bale 
aboard. The wind blew oiFshore, and Haki was come nigh to death, or was 
verily dead, when he was laid on the bale, and the ship went blazing out 
into the main eea; and of great fame was that deed for long and long after. 
— Ch, 17(31)- (TluFaUofKin,i6ttarTVfndilkrdka.) [diTARR (the son 
of Egill), king of Sweden, in retaliation for a Danish invasion made in 
the preceding year (because Ottarr refused to pay the scat promised by 
Egill), went with his warships to the land of the Danes, while their king 
FroSi was warring in the East-Countries, and he harried there, and found 
sought to withstand him.] Now he heard that men were gathered thick 
in Selund [i.e., Ztaland\, and he turned west through Eyre-Sound, and 
then sailed south to Jutland, and laye his keels for LimbGrth, and harriea 
about FendU, and burns there, and lays the land waste far and wide 
whereso became. Vatt [Vgltr] and Fmlivere FroBi's earls [jarlar] whom 
he had set to the warding of the land whites he was away thence; so when 
these eatls beard that the Swede king was harrying in Denmark, they 
gathered force, and leapt a-shipboard, and sailed south to Limbfirth, and 
came all unawares upon King Ottarr, and fell to fighting; but the Swedes 
met them well, and folk fell on either side; but as the folk of the Danes fell, 
came more in their stead from the country-sides around, and all ships 
withal were laid to that were at hand. So such end the battle had, that 
there fell King Ottarr, and the more part of liis host. The Danes took his 
dead body and brought it a-Iand, and laid it on a certain mound, and 
there let wild thingt and common fowl tear the carrion. Withal they made 
a crow of tree and sent it to Sweden, with this word to the Swedes, that 
> ■ (Ode to tbe ice. ' < The [ruisladoa in Tit Si^a Litrary a used. 


that King Ottarr of theirs was worth but just so 
wards men called him Ottarr Vendil-crow i6ua 

Into the ems* nip I hear these works 

Fell the great OtUrr, Of Vatt aad Fasti 

The doughty oi deed, Were set in tale 

Before the Dane's weapons: By Swedish folk: 

The glede of war That FroiSi's island's 

With bloody foot Earls between them ^ 

Al Vendil spurned Had slain the famous 

The one from afat. Fight-upholder. 

— Ch. 29 (33). King Helgi, the son of Halfdan, ruled in HltisTa in 
those days, and he came to Sweden with to great a host that King ASils 

saw nought for it but to flee away King Helgi fell in 

battle whenas Rolf Kraki was eight winters old, who was straightway king at Hleifira, ,King AtJiis had mighty strife with a king 
called Ali ' the Uplander [jiU inn upplenzki] from out of Norway. King 
ASls and King Ali had a battle on the ice of the ftntr Lttie, and All fell 
there, but ASils gained the day. Concerning this battle is much told in 
the Story of the Skjgldungs [i Skj^ldunga ig^], and also how Rolf Kraki 
came to Upsala to ASils; and that was when Rolf Kraki sowed gold on the 

{ 7. Saxoms Gkauhatici Gesta DANORim.' 

11, pp.38 I.: Dragon Figk of Ftotho {I),faiheT of Haldanus. A man of 
the country met him [Frotho] and roused his hopes [of obtaining 
inoneyl by the following strain:* 'Not far off is an island rising in deli- 
cate slopes, hiding treasure in its hills and 'ware of its rich booty. Here a 
noble pile is kept by the occupant of the mount, who is a snake wreathed 
in coils, doubled in many a fold, and with a tail drawn out in winding 
whorls, shaking his manifold spirals and shedding venom. If thou wouldst 
conquer him, thou must use thy shield and stretch thereon bulls' hides, 
and cover thy body with the skins of kine, nor let thy limbs lie bare to 
the sharp poison; his slaver burns up what it bespatters. Though the 
three-forked tongue flicker and leap out of the gaping mouth, and with 
awful yawn menace ghastly wounds, remember to keep the dauntless 
temper of thy mind; nor let the point of the jagged tooth trouble thee, 
nor the starkness of the beast, nor the venom spat from the swift throat. 
Though the force of his scales spurn thy spears, yet know there Is a place 
under his lowest belly whither thou mayst plunge the blade; aim at this 
with thy sword, and thou shalt pn>be the snake ti. his centre. Thence go 

' In the TngHigaral (protably compoKd cir. 900 a.o.). 

' Hence Atiila wu calkd Jla d5lgt (the foe of Ali), T^gUngatal 16. 

■ Holder's edition and Elton's Englbh translgtion ate used. — Additional a.- 
ttact) may be found in the Nota, pp. 113 ff., 158 f., liji., 19s f., cf. sii. 

* In IJtin heiimcCen, 



fearless up to the hill, drive the mattock,' dig and ransack the boles; soon 
fiQ thy pouch with treasure, and bring back to the shore thy craft laden.' 

Frotho believed, and crossed alone to the island, loth to attack the 
beast with any stronger escort than that wherewith it was the custom for 
champions to attack. When it had drunk water and was repairing to its 
cave, it3 rough and sharp hide spurned the blow of Frotho's steel. Also 
the darts that he flung against it rebounded idly, foiling the effort of the 
thrower. But when the hard back yielded not a whit, he noted the belly 
heedfully, and its softness gave entrance to the steel. The beast tried to 
retaliate by biting, but only struck the sharp point of its mouth upon the 
ihield. Then it shot out its flickering tongue again and again, and gasped 
■way life and venom together.' 

The money which the king found made him rich. 

II, p. SI. Cuius [sell. HaujaniI ex eo maxime fortuna ammirabili* 
fuit, quod, licet omnia teniporum momenta ad eiercenda atrocjtatis 
oflicia contulisset, senectule vitam, non ferro Anient. Huius filii Roe et 

Helgo fuere. A Roe Roskildia condita memoratur Hie brevi 

■ngustCKjue corpore fuit. Helgonem habitus procerior cepit. Qui diviso 
cum fratre regno, maris possessionem sortitus, regem Sclavie Scalcum 
maritimis copiis lacessitum oppressit 

II, pp. 51 f. His Alius HoTHBRODUS succedit, qui . . . post immensam 

populorumcladem AtislumetH^thenim&lios procreavit Daniam 

petit, eiusque regem Roe trlbus preliis provocatum occidit. His cognitia 
Helgo filium ROLVONEU Lttkrica atce coaclusit, heredis saluti consul- 
turus . . . Deinde presides ab Hothbrodo immissos, ut eitemo patriam 
dominlo liberaret, missis per oppida satellitibus, cede subegit. Ipsum 
quoque Hothbrodum cum omnibus copiis navali pugna delevit; nee solum 
fratria, sed eciam patrie iniuriam plenis ulcionis armis pensavit. Quo 
evenit, ut, cui nuper oh Hundingi cedem agnomen inccsserat, nunc 
HoTHBRODl St rages cognomen turn inferret. 

II, p. S3. Huic filius RoLvo succedit, vir corporis animique dotibus 
venustus, qui stature magnitudincm pari virtutis habitu commendaret. 

II, p. s^- [BiARco, one of Rolvo's champions, has protected (H)iAtTo - 
against the insults of the wedding guests who were throwing bones at the 
latter, and has slain Agnerua the bridegroom.] Talibus operum meritis 
eiultanti novam de se silvestris fera victoriam prebuit. Ursum quippe 
eiimie magnitudinis obvium sibi inter dumeta factum iaculo confecii, 
comitemque suum laltonem, quo viribus maior evaderet, applicato ore 
egestum belue cruorem haurire iussit. Creditum namque erat, hoc po- 
cionis genere corporei roboris incrementa prcstari. 

II, pp. 59 ff. [When Hiarthwarus (who has been appointed governor 
of Sweden) makes his treacherous, fatal attaclc on Rolvo at Lethra, 
HiALTO arouses his comrade Biarco to light for their king: (p. 67) 'Hanc 
maxime eihortacionum seriem idcirco metrica racbne compegerim, quod 

' A EimUir, condCTiKj vnsion is the account of Fridlevui' dragon fighc, vi, pp. 
180 f. 



earundem sentenciarum intetlectus Danici cuiusdam canniois (i.e., the 
Bjatkamif) compendio digestus » compluribus antiquitatis peritis memo- 
riter usurpacur.' Some select passages:) P. 59. Ocius evigilet, quisquis 

ce regis amicum/Aut merilie probal, aut sola pietate falelui 

Dulce est no« domino percepta repende re dona, / Accepts re euses, fameque 

impcndere fe