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lontron: C, J. CLAY AND SONS, 


Ave Mabia Lanr. 



letpjij; F. A. BBOCKHAU8. 









[All rightt rturvtd.] 

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A lengthy apology for preparing an English edition 
of the "Beowulf" is perhaps hardly necessary. The earlier 
English editions are long since out of print, and the poem 
has therefore been almost unobtainable, except in the 
German editions of Heyne and Holder 1 . Excellent as 
these may be in several ways, they are ill adapted for the 
average English student, besides having one or more very 
marked defects. Holders foot-notes are as unreliable as 
his text is reliable. Heyne 's glossary, like that of most 
German editions, stands self-condemned, in that he fre- 
quently forgets the absurd, artificial order of letters on 
which it is based. Furthermore, his glossary amounts to 
a translation ; and this of itself tends to rob the work of 
much of its educative value for the serious student. 

It has been felt therefore that an English edition was 
needed — for after all the "Beowulf" is essentially an 
English poem — which should give the readings of the MS. 
in foot-notes wherever they were departed from in the 

1 There is a translation of Heyne's edition by two American pro- 
fessors ; bat the; b-ave taken the trouble to render their text perfectly 
worthless by appropriating all Heyne's emendations and omitting his 
notes which give the readings of the MS. 


text, should provide an alphabetical glossary, and should 
furnish a due amount of help in difficult passages and no 
more. This need I have attempted to supply. I have of 
course made abundant use of the labours of my prede- 
cessors. The debt of an editor of "Beowulf" to the 
glossaries of Grein and Heyne is necessarily great. At 
the same time nothing has been accepted on mere au- 
thority. A glance at the glossary will suffice to show that 
it is no translation from the German. Of the test, in 
the same way, every line, every stop, almost every word, 
has been carefully considered. The genealogical tables 
and the index of proper names give, in a concise form, in- ' 
formation that in many cases has hitherto had to be 
sought from various sources 1 . 

Tha Manuscript. The excellent edition, with autotypes 
and transliteration of every folio of the MS., prepared for 
the Early English Text Society by Prof. Zupitza, is almost 
of equal authority with the ms. itself, and is therefore quite 
invaluable to the editor, the autotypes being above criti- 
cism. Upon these the present work is based. The trans- 
literation of a few lines here will serve to show some of 
the more marked characteristics of the unique extant ms. 
(Cott. Vitellius A. xv. in the British Museum), and to 
make apparent how far and in what particulars, besides 
those indicated in the foot-notes, the edited text differs 
from the MS. : — 

1 For details connected with the literary history of the poem, the 
student is referred to Tea Brink's Early English Literature (Bell) ; 
Morley's English Writer*, Vol. i. {Cassell) ; Brooke's Early English Lite- 
rature, Vol. i. (Macmillan) ; and Ten Brink's monograph in Quellen and 
Forschungen, Lin. Complete bibliographies are given in Wiiloker'B 
Grundriss (1885), and Garactt's Translation of BeomUf (1893). 


489' duguSe J>e J> a dea<5 fomam *site mi to 

490 symle "] on seel meoto *sige hreS secgu 

491 swa bin eefa hwette. *bawaas geat 

492 mascgum geador ajtsom ne *on beor 

493 sele bene gerymed *bser swift" ferh)>e 

494 sittan eodon *J>ryBum dealle begn 

495 nytte be beold *sebe on handa ba?r 

496 hroden ealo wsege *seencte scir wered 

497 scop hwilum sang *hador on heorote 

498 bier wses hffiletta dream MuguC on lytel 
dona "| wedera. 

946 947 *bearn gebyrdo nu ic beowulf bee *secg betsta 

948 me for sunu wylle *freogan on ferhbe heald 

949 forS tela. *niwe sibbe nebiS be tenigre gad 
950 951 *worolde wilna J»e icge weald htebbe *ful 

952 oft ic for ltes san lean teoh hode *hord 

953 weorbunge hnahran rince *saemran set 

954 saecce bu be self hafast. *dte dum gefremed 
955 956 "P bin lyfaS *awa to aldre alwal da bee *gode 

957 for gylde swa he nu gyt dyde. * beowulf 

958 mabelode beam ec beo wes *we "f ellen weorc 

959 estum miclum *feohtan fremedon frecne 

960 961 ge neS don. *eafoS uncubes ube ic swibor *jf 

962 Bu hine selme geseon moste *feond on 

963 fnetewum fyl werigne. *ic bira hrsedlice 

964 heardan clam mil *on wael bedde wri]>an 

965 bohte *jJ he for hand gripe minum scolde 

Here I have followed Zupitza in the division of the words, 
but a mere glance at the autotypes suffices to show the 

1 Tho asterisks mark the beginnings of the verse- linea, the numbers 
of which ore given in the margin. 

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truth of what he himself says : " It is often very difficult, 
if not impossible, to decide whether the scribe intended 
one or more wordB." 

Several things are obvious from a perusal of the above 

(1) That the lines of the MS. do not correspond with 
the verse-lines of the poem. 

(2) That the punctuation of the Ms. is meagre and 

(3) That proper names are not written with capital 
letters. On the other hand, the first word after a full-stop 
is not infrequently written with a capital. 

(4) That vowel-length is not marked as a rule. 

(5) That one word is sometimes written as two or 
even three words, and that two words are sometimes 
written as one word. 

(6) That hyphens are unknown to the scribes, 

(7) It would seem that the scribes were mere copyists, 
not writing from memory nor from dictation, and that 
sometimes at least they did not understand what they 
were copying. 

It is impossible to illustrate, by the quotation of 
passages like the above, the divergences of the MS. in the 
method of writing and spelling the same word. One or 
two illustrations must suffice. The word ond, "and," is 
written in full only three times, in 11. 600, 1148, 2040. 
Elsewhere it is represented by the symbol "]. The word 
ondlong occurs in the form '"^langne" (ace. m.) in 1. 2115, 
" andlongne " (ace. m.) in 1. 2695, " ondlonge " (ace. /.) in 
1. 2938. The word mon-cynn occurs as "mancynne" (dat.) 
in 1. 110, "moncynnes" {gen.) in 1. 196, "mon cynnes" 
(gen.) in 1. 1955. These are only a few examples of the 
inconsistencies with which the Ms. teems. 

), g ,:,« ^GoogIe 

Marks of length. The following vowels are the only 
ones marked long in the MS. : — 

Ot, S3; in, 100; wit, 123; w6p, 128; wat, 210; bit, 211 ; bad, 264 
Ml, 300; bid, 301; fa, 336; hfa, 357; hit, gin, 366; An, 449; sA, 507 
gfa, 637; *&, 564, 579; m&t, 603; gad, 660; nit, 681; a&, 690; bit 
742; fltod, 759; Abeag, 775; bin, 780; wic, 821; b&, 895; hat, 897 
sfa, 975 ; fan, 1038 ; ban, don, 1116 ; bl&d, 1121 ; ste, 1149 ; win, 1162 
mdd, 1167; fa, 1168; broc, 1177; 6r. 1187; nU, 1201; a*, 1228 ; win, 
1233; wat, 1274; wic, 1275; bid, 1297; bir, 1307; bid, 1313; rftn, 
1326; wit, 1331; fir, 1388; iris, 1390; g£, 1394; him, 1407; 
1445; d6m, 1491, 1528; brfln, 1546; god, 1562; fir, 1587; sfe, : 
bid, 1720; e&, 1850; lie, wit, 1863; god, 1870; bA, 1882; rid, : 
sctr, 1896; sib, 1896, 1924; ecin, 1965; fua, 1966; hwil, 2002 
2080; rof, 2084; don, 2090; o6m, 2103; He, 2109; dom,2147; HroSgfa, 
2155; Btfll, 2196; in, 2210 (see note); fair, 2230 (see note); bid, 2256 
in, 2280 ; wAc, 2287 ; bid, 3302 ; for, 2308 ; god, 2342 ; wld, 2346 ; dOm, 
2376; sir, 2468; mia, 2514; hirae rtin, 2563 ; awit,2568; awif, 2559; 
bid, 2568; wan, 2577; Bwftc, 2584; god, 2586; wfc,2607; WiglM, 
gir, 2641; fine, 2655; dom, 3666; »tdd, 2679; awio, 2681; fj-r, 
2701; wis, 2716; bid, 2736; 11), 2743, 2751; a tod, 2769; dim, 2820, 
3858; rid, 2398; com, 2944, 2992; id, 3010; Me, 3036; rot, 3063 
Wiglif, 3076; bid, 3116; fun, 8119; hrof, 3123; id, 3138; veo, 3144 
ban-nils, 3147. 

Hyphens. It will hare been seen that the Ms. gives no 
help in one of the most difficult problems that beset the 
editor of O. E. poems, the question of the use of hyphens. 
Grein and Sweet discard them altogether. I cannot but 
question whether this is not to shirk one's duty. At least 
it is a method that I have not been able at present to 
bring myself to adopt, tempting as it is. The difficulty of 
course is as to " where to draw the line " — where to use a 
hyphen or to write as one word, where to use a hyphen or 
write as two words. The former is the chief difficulty, 
and here as elsewhere I have endeavoured to find the path 
"of least resistance." Prepositional prefixes in my text 
are not marked off by a hyphen from the following word; 


on the other hand, adverbial prefixes, such as up in 
up-lang, ut in ut-weard, are bo marked off. This then is 
where I have, not without misgivings, " drawn the line." 
Where the two parts of a compound seem to preserve their 
full notional force I have used a hyphen ; where the force 
of one part seems to be quite subordinate to that of the 
other, I have written them as one word. It is the familiar 
distinction of compounds and derivatives over again, but 
at a stage of the language when some compounds were in 
course of becoming derivatives. Doubtless there are mis- 
takes and inconsistencies. I need hardly say I shall be 
glad to have them pointed out. 

Punctuation. The punctuation of "Beowulf" has 
hitherto been largely traditional, as it were, and largely 
German, and German punctuation of course differs in 
some respects from English. Some editors have shown 
daring originality in the substitution of colons for the 
semi-colons, and marks of exclamation for the full-stops, of 
previous editors. Periods have usually been held too 
sacred to question. I may say at once, that although I 
have been extremely conservative in my handling of the 
text, I have felt and have shown scant courtesy for much 
of the traditional punctuation. Let me state here the 
principles, right or wrong, upon which I have acted. 
First, I have made the punctuation as simple as possible. 
I have therefore done away with the somewhat fine distinc- 
tion between the colon and the semicolon, and have restrict- 
ed the use of the former to marking the opening of an oratio 
recta, and to a very few similar loci, such as 11. 801, 1392, 
1476. In the same way, I have, wherever possible, done 
away with parentheses, and with our modern meretricious 
marks of exclamation. If the reader's sense or emotions 


do not tell him where he ought to feel exclamatory, he 
must suffer the consequences. Secondly, I have attempted 
to make the punctuation logical, especially by the use of 
pairs of commas wherever the sequence of a sentence is 
interrupted by parallelisms. This may he made clearer 
by a reference to 11. 1235-7, 1283-4, 3051-2. But, on the 
other hand, I have as far as possible avoided breaking up 
the metrical unit of the half line with a comma. 

Foot-notes. The chief peculiarity of the foot-notes is 
that, unlike Wulcker"s {to which I am greatly indebted), 
they are not intended to be read by the next "Beowulf" 
editor only. Therefore they are not lumbered with a mass 
of antiquated and impossible emendations, which no one 
but a "painful and studious" literary chiffonnier would 
think of collecting and perpetuating. Their main inten- 
tion has been already referred to — to call attention to 
every departure in the text from the readings of the ms. 
If they have any influence towards making readers intole- 
rant of the shameless, silent alterations of Ms. readings 
which disfigure some 0. E. texts — alterations such as have 
been banished from the best editions of the Latin and 
Greek classics — great- indeed will be my reward. 

A word or two of explanation must be added. "A" and 
" B " refer to the transcripts or copies of the poem, which 
the Danish scholar Thorkelin made (one himself, the other 
by a scribe ignorant of O. E.) in 1786, and which are of 
great value for parts now defective. " Grein 1 " is Grein's 
Bibliothek der A. S. Poesie; "Grein 2" is his separate 
edition of Beowulf. " Grein- Wulcker " and " Wulcker " 
refer to the latter's new edition of the Bibliothek, which 
very rarely departs from Grein's own readings. " Heyne 5 " 
and "Heyne and Socin" refer to the 5th edition of Heyne's 

), g ,:,« ^GoogIe 

Beowulf. " Zupitza " is the E. E. T. S. edition already 
mentioned. A, B, Wiilcker, and Zupitza, do not mark 
vowel-length. The names of the proposers of the chief 
emendations adopted in the text are given for credit's 
sake. Rejected emendations are quoted but sparsely ; 
only when they are backed by considerable authority, or 
when I was in doubt as to the true reading. Points of 
grammar are discussed in the notes only in so far as they 
affect the question of readings. I have indulged but 
sparingly in the luxury of personal emendations, because 
they are obviously the greatest disqualification for dis- 
charging duly the functions of an editor. 

Glossary. The plan on which the glossary is arranged 
must be tested by experience. Some decisions which had 
to be taken when I began to work on it may prove to have 
been mistaken ; certainly I am not concerned to defend 
them here. I have endeavoured to furnish the requisite 
amount of help and no more. Every passage that struck 
me as really difficult I have translated under what ap- 
peared to me to be the crucial word, but I wish it to be 
distinctly understood that my renderings are meant to be 
suggestive and not authoritative. 

Acknowledgments. It can but be a pleasure for me to 
make this public acknowledgment of the ready, willing, 
and efficient help which I have received, and without 
which the date of publication would have been seriously 
delayed. Mr C. Sapsworth, M.A., gave me his notes on 
the grammar of the poem, which have been of use in 
several ways. The labour of collating every line of the 
autotypes of the MS. with the texts of all the principal 
editions was done almost entirely by my wife, Mr D. John- 
son, B.A., and other friends ; and in the preparation of 


the glossary I have had the invaluable cooperation of my 
friends, Mr H. C. Notcutt, B.A., and Mr D. Johnson. I 
can only say that their help is as warmly appreciated as it 
was cordially given. One debt demands separate mention. 
The Rev. Prof. Skeat, Litt. D., has kindly spared time, 
from very great pressure of other work, to read the proof- 
sheets, and has made many valuable suggestions which are 
embodied in the book with no other acknowledgment 
than this. I should ask him to allow me to dedicate this 
edition to him, as a small token of my gratitude, were I 
not of opinion that I should thereby be conferring far 
' greater honour on my book than any that such a dedica- 
tion could bring to his name. 

I have but to add that I alone am responsible for the 
work as it stands ; that I shall be grateful for criticisms 
and suggestions, especially from teachers and students; 
and that Mr William Morris has taken the text of this 
edition as the basis of his modern metrical rendering of 
the lay. 




Hrotbgab, king of the Danes, with whose ancestry the poem 
opens, in the pride of his success in war builds a great hall, Heorot, 
for feasting and the giving of treasure (II. 1 — 80). But a monster 
named Grendel, enraged by the daily sounds of revelry, attacks the 
hall, makes a meal of fifteen thanes, and carries off fifteen more, 
returning with similar intent the next night. Thus Heorot is de- 
serted, and remains so for twelve years {11. 66—193). Then Beowulf, 
a mighty warrior of the Geats famous for the strength of his grip, 
hearing of Grendel's ravages crosses the sea with fourteen comrades, 
keeps watch in Heorot, and, after seeing one of his men killed and 
eaten, grapples with the monster and pulls off his whole arm. 
Grendel escapes to his haunts, and dies (11. 194—852). The follow- 
ing night, when the Danes are again in possession of the hall and 
Beowulf is lodged elsewhere, Grendel's mother breaks in, and re- 
venges the death of her son by slaying AeBchere, a noble Dane 
(11. 853—1309). Beowulf undertakes the pursuit and revenge; he 
tracks the she-monster to her lair in the bottom of a mere, and slays 
her there. Seeing Grendel's corpse, he severs the head from the 
body, and bears it back with him in triumph to Hrotbgar's court 
(1L 1310—1798). 

Loaded with rich gifts, the hero returns to his own land, and 
recites his adventures to Hygelac, bis uncle, the king of the Geats 
(11. 1799— 2199). On the death of the latter, Beowulf refuses the 
throne for himself, and acts as guardian and adviser to the young 
king Heardred, who is, however, slain in battle. 

Then Beowulf becomes king of the Geats, whom he rules wisely 
for fifty years, until a dragon begins to lay waste the land (1L 2200 — 



2400). The old hero's spirit is undaunted as ever, but deserted by 
all his chosen warriors save one, although he succeeds in quelling 
the fiery "drake", he himself meets with his death in the terrible 
encounter (1L 2401—2820). With the burning of his body the poem 
ends (IL 2821—3182). 

Of the several episodes, the chief are the swimming-match with 
Breca (11. 506 fff), Sigemund and the dragon (IL 874 II), and the 
Finn-episode (II. 1068 ffi). 

For the connexion between "The Fight at Finnsburg" (Appendix) 
and the Finn-episode in "Beowulf" see Finn in the index of Persons 
and Places. 



L. 27, far "frean" read "Frean." 

L. 69, for " feower" read " (Sower." 

L. 68, for "Seilfinges" rtad •• Scilfingae " ; and in the note on 1. 

69, for "MS. 'healSo acilnngas'" read "See note on 1. 2458." 
L. 112, for "oroneaa" read "oroneaB." 
L. 366, for "wrlilan" read "wrixlan." 
L. 434, for "recceB" rtad "recces." 
L. 486, for "blioV read "blTSe." 
L. 454, for " Hrtedlan " read " Hit J"lan " ; and in place of the note 

In 1. 4E4 read "MS. 'hrredlan'; of. L 1486." 
L. 484, for "morgen tid" read " morgen-trd." 
L. 601, for "aW" read " bT6." 
LI. 636, 769, for "begen" read "begen." 
L. 674, for "-geStwe" read "-geafcwe." 
L. 706, for "meted " read "Metod." 
L. 769, for "np-lang" read "flp-Ung." 
To the note on 1. 762 add "Cf. 1. 797." 
L. 902, for "elien;" read "ellen,". 
L. 1292, for "flfate" read "ofate." 
LL 1382, 1430, 2096, for "onweg" read "on weg." 
L. 1479, for " fortS-gewitenum " read "fori? gewitenum.' 
L. 1617, for "Ettren" read "tBttren." 
L. 2066, for ".waelmnm" read " -wSlmum." 
h. 2135, for "welmea" read "wBlmee." 
L. 2439, for "mercelsea" read " mercelaes." 
LI. 2639, 2755, for "-aeroean" read "-Bercean." 
L. 2546, for "wtelm" read "wffilm." 
L. 2598, for "bugon" read "bugon,". 
L. 2713, for "awelan" read "awelan." 

Bote on 1. 2964, for " and note " read " (note), and of. eafor, 2152." 
L. 3119, for "-gSarwum" read "-gearwnm." 
P. 136, add inverted commas at end of note on 1. 3165. 



Hwaet ! we Gar-Dena in gear-dagum Fof. 129\ 
heod-cyninga J>rym gefruncra, 
hu 5a £e)>elingas ellen fremedon. 
Oft Scyld Scefing scea^ena breatum, 
5 monegum mteg^ura meodo-setla ofteah. 
Egeode eorl, aytSSan merest wearS 
fea-sceaft funden; he bass frofre gebad, 
weox under wolcuum, weor S-myndum )>ah, 
o5 )>set him sBghwylc J>ara ymb-afttendra 

10 ofer hron-rade hymn scolde, 

gomban gyldan; bset wses god cyning. 
Biem eafera wses aeffcer cenned 
geong in geardum, hone God sende 
folce to frofre ; fyren-gearfci ongeat, 

15 fset hie Sr dragon aldor-[le]ase 

Letters supplied in the text, but found neither in the M3. nor in 
Thorkelin's transcripts, are printed within square brackets. All other 
deviations from the MS. are indicated in the text by the use of italics, 
and the reading of the MS. is given in a footnote. 

IS. MS. ' -p,' as usual. Znpitza says : " -p generally means b#<, but 
some times, it would seem, )>a. " If t>« be adopted, it must refer to fyren- 
Scarfe. In latter half of same line the MS. is defective. 

W. B. 1 


lange hwile. Him pass Lif-frea, 

wuldres Wealdend, worold-areforgeaf; 

Bfiowulf wses breme (blted wide sprang), 

Scyldes eafera Scede-landum in. 
20 Swa sceal [geong g]uma gode gewyrcean, 

fromum feoh-giftum on fseder *[wi]ne, Fot. 129 b . 

]>mt hine on vide eft gewunigen 

wil-gesipas, ponne wig cume, 

leode gelfesten; lof-dredum aceal 
25 in miegpa gehwiere man gepeon. 
iHira Sa Seyld gewat to gescsep-hwile 
Jf^la-IjroJ feran on frean wsere; 

hi hyne |>a ietbseron to brinies faroSe, 

swiSse geslpas, swa h6 selfa bied, 
30 penden wordum wSold wine Scyldinga, 

ltiof land-fruma lange ante. 

fier set ^£5e)stod hringed-stefna 

isig ond ut-fus, sepelinges far; 

aledon pa leofne peoden, 
35 beaga bryttan on bearm seipes, 

interne be mseste. pier wees madma fela, 

of feor-wegum fjaitwa- geligdefl V '.■>'. 

Ne hyrde ic cjjnlicor^ ceoT^egyrwan! ' 

hilde-wiepnum ond heaSo-wiedum, 
40 billum ond byrnum ; him on bearme lseg 

18, 19. In Heyne and Socin's edition, these lines stand : 
Beowulf wa)B breme, bllii wide sprang 
Scyldes ea£era[n] Soede-landtun in. 

20. MS. defective. Grain's reading adopted in text. 

21. MS. defective at corner. Zupitza transliterates " . . rme," follow- 
ing Conybeare and Kemble, but aaya: " What in the facsimile looks like 
part of a letter before ne (sic) is owing to a small hole in the MS." 
Thorpe suggested bearme = "ta bis father's bosom." 


madma msenigo, |>a him mid scoldon 
on nodes ieht feor gewitan. 
Nalses hi hine liessan 
f"eod-gestreonum, bon[ne] \& dydoi 

45 be hine set frum-sceafte forS onsendon 

fenne ofer y5e umbor-we*sende. Pol. l 

pa./jjyT'hie him asetton segen g[yl]denne 
heanofer he&fod, lston holm Wan, 
^p J> geafon on gar-secg; him wses gfiomor sefa, 

50 murnende mod. Men ne cunnon ,. 
secgan to BOiSe, sele-riedende, ■* 
heeleS under heofenum, hwa )«em hlieste onfe 

Da, waes on burgum Beowulf Scyldinga, 

leof leod-cyning, longe brage 
55 folcum gefraig e- (feeder ellor hwearf,' 

aldor of earde), ob bjet him eft onwoc 

heah Healfdene ; heold benden lifde, 

gamol ond guB-reouw, glsede Scyldingas. 

Diem feower beam forS gerim ed 
60 in worold wdcun, weoroda riEswa 

Heorogar, ond Hr65gar ond Halga til; 

liyrde ic, (wet Elan cwen [Ongenbeowes wa3s] 

47. MS. defective at corner. 

51. MS. 'sele rssdenne.' The emendation is Kemble's, following 
1. 1346. 

62. MS. 'hyrde ic P elan cwen,' without 007 lacuna. Grnndtvig 
suggested that elan ia the last two syllables of Orulan, Onela being the 
son of Ongenf>eow, and that the name of the princess is lost. The 
emendation in the text is Ettmfiller's. 



HeaSo-Scilfinges heals-gebedda. 
JJa wtes HroSgare here-sped gyfen, 
65 wiges geggganyad, Jaet him his wine-magas 
georae hyrdon, oEHS ]»set aeo geogofi geweox, 
. ;i. ' magoSEffit- micel. Him on mod beam, 
J>aet heal-reced hatan wolde, 
*medo-£ern micel men gewyrcean, Fol. 180". 

70 J>on[n]e yldo beam iefre gefrunon, 
ond bier on innan eall gecUelan 
geongum ond ealdum, swylc him God sealde, 
buton ffXi'sPArf ond feorum gume na. 
Da ic wide gefraegn weorc gebannan 
75 manigre miEgbe geond ]>isne middan-geard, 
folc-stede rreetwan. Him !on fyrste gelomp 
i,!.-'* iedre mid_yjdum, fset hit wears eal gearo, 

heal-aerna nifgst; fec$ p him Heort naman, 1" 
k,: 'afi pe his wordes geweald wide hsefde. ' 
80 H6 beot ne aleh. beagas dSlde, 
sine set symle. Sole hlifade 
] heah ond horn-geap ; -heaSo-sylraa bad 
',' I laSan 4tgea. Ne wses hit lenge ba, gen,"!* 1 •'. -Ac 
\ \net se ecg-hetc abum-awerian 
85fEefter wjel-ni5e waecnan scolde. 

68. MS. ' heaSo scilfingas.' For the form gebtdda applied to & 
woman Heyne oompareH fortgtnga, applied to Judith's female attendant, 
"Judith" 127. See Sievers' O. E. Grammar, § 278, Note. 

68. Kemble ' J>a>t [he] heal-reced.' 

84. MS. 'secghete'; Grein 'ecg-hete.' Cf. 1. 1738, and Seafarer 70. 

M3. 'abimi Bwerian': nj™m = son-in-law, and Bugge suggested that 
aSum-sicerian is a compound belonging to the Same class as the tuhter- 
gefaderan of 1. 1164, and meaning 'son-in-law and father-in-law.' This 
makes excellent Eense of an otherwise difficult passage, the reference 
being to Ingeld, who married Hrothgar's daughter Freawaru (1. 3022), 
and to the events referred to in 11. 2030 — 69. 



Da se ellen^ga^st earfoSlice 
frage gejwiode, se be in bystrum ■bad,' 1 '*'"- 
}>83t he dogora gehwam dream gehyrde 
'•o-i hludne in healle; bter wsea hearpan swSg, 
90 te wutol sang scopes. Ssegde s§ be cube 
■|frumsceafb fira feorran reccan,-fr~ 
*cwaj8 beet ee jElmihtiga eortSan worh[te], Fol. 1S2». 
wlite-beorhtne wang, ewa, waster bebugeS; 
gesette sige-hrepig sunnan ond mflnan 
95 leoman to leohte land-buendum, 

ond gefeetwade foldan sceatas ' '' " { ' ' 
J 4e'omuni ond leafum ; lif eac gesceop 
jcynna gehwylcum, biira Se cwice hwyriab. ^ i • ' 
Swa, 85 driht-guman dreamura lifdon 
100 eadigllce, o5 5aet an ongan 

fyrene fre[m]man, feond on helle; 
W33S se grimma 'jjasst Orendel haten, 
/r*^, miere mearc-stapa, se ]»e moras heold, 
' ifen ond fasten; fifel-cynnes teni 
105\ won-gieli w er weardode hwile, 

sibSan him Scyppend forscrifen htefde. 
In Caines cynne bone cwealm gewrsec 
ece Drihten, bses be he Abel- slog. 

86. Rieger ' ellor-gSet, ' adopted by Earle; cf. 11. 807, 1617, *c 

92. MS. defective at comer. 

101. MS. defective at edge. Earle adapts Bugge's emendation of 
healle for helle, because it is "so simple, and gives so much relief"! 
On the other hand, in 1. 142 he adopts Ettmiiller's hel-tegntt for heal- 
ftgnei. Both changes are needless. 

105. Almost all editions adopt the usual form won-nalig. 

106—8. Sievere: forserifen hasHe 

in Caines cynne (|>on[n]e cwealm gewrwo 
ece Drihten), 



Ne gefeah h5 Jifere ftehSe, ac h§ hine feor forwrsec, 

110 Metod for \>y mane , man-cymie fram. 
Danon tiiTty^ra g^ ealle onwocon, 
eotenas ond ylfe ond orcneas,r.> 
swylce gi'gantas, f»a wis Gode wunnon FoLlW*. 
lange Jrage ; he him ffses lean forgeald. 


115 Gewat 5a nSosian, syf>5an niht becora, 
hean huses, hu hit Hring-Dene 
iaefter beor-f»ege gebun hsefdon. 
Fand fa Ster inne se^elinga gedriht 
swefan Eefter aymble ; sorge ne cuSon, 
120 wonsceaft wera. Wiht unhjelo, 

grim ond griedig, gearo aona wass, 
i-reoc ond rS^e, ond on raeste genam 
(ritig )»egna ; {>anon eft gewat 
,i | -hutSe hremig to ham faran, ~r, 

125 mid .)>sere wsel-fylle wica neosan. 
fia wses o n uhtan mid fer-dsege 
Grendlea guS-orseft gumum undyme ; 
)>a wses sefter (wiste wop up ahafen, 
micel morgen-sweg. Maire |>eoden, 
130 sealing (ier-go'd) unbllSe sa9t, 

Ij'olode SryS-swyS, f>egu-sorge dreah, 
sySj>an hie J>£es laSan last sceawedon, 
. weTggn , gastes ; wses foet gewin to Strang, 
laS ond longsum. Nass hit lengra *fyrst, Fol. 183". 
>■ [,- -.- 

120. Sievers ' wera[a].' 

), oi :, E ed by Google 



135 ac ymb ane niht eft gefremede/^. 
mortS-beala mare ond n5 mearn fore ' 
flehSe ond fyrene; wses to feat on Jiam. 
pa wffiS SaB-fynde, J>e him ellea hwrer ' 
gjfiiiilljmr rseate [aohte], 

140 1 bed tefter burum, fia him gphfia/'prtH wees, 
Wesregd soSlice, gwe otolan tacn e 
neal-Segnes hete ; Kfiold hyne syS|>an 
fyr ond factor, se ]wem ffeonde t etwand .6'"/ 
Swa risode ond wis rihte wan 

146 ana wis eallum, oS )>Eet Idel stod 
husa selest. Wses seo hwil micel ; 
twelf wintra tld torn ge]>olode 
wine Seyldingra, weatta gehwelcne, 
■»- sldra sorga; forSam [syOban] wear® 

150 ylda bearnum undyrne cuS, 

gyddum geomore, f>£ette Grendel wan »" 
hwile wi5 HrfiJ'gar, hete-nitSas w»g, 
fyrene ond fiehSe fela miasera, 
..vs ^singale aaece; sibbe ne wolde 

155 wis manna hwone msegenes Deniga 
)feorh-bealo feorran, feo J>ingian, 
ne hjer ntenig witena wenao Jrorfte 
■-- beorhtre bote to banaw folmum>--^ 

189. Grain '[sBhte]'; Wiilcker '[rjmde].' No gap in MS. 
146—7. Sievers : hues seleat (was seo hwil mioel) 

twelf wintra tld : 
147. MS. '•hi-.' 

146. MS. 'soyldenda'; Thorpe ' Soyldiaga.' 
149. Kemble'a emendation, required for the alliteration ; n 


•[Atol] feglseca ehtende wasa, FoL 1 

160 deorc deab-scuaj dugujie ond geogoJ»e, 
-=|-8eomade ond syrede, sm-nihte heold 
mistigc moras; men tie cunnon, 
hwyder hel-runan J jwyrfbum scriba5„«£-u-* ' 
Swa fela fyreua feond man-cynuea, 
165 atol aa-geirgea, oft gefremede, 

theardra hynSa; Heorot eardode, 
sinc-fage sel sweartum nihtum ; 
no h5 bone gif-stol grStan moste, 
JinabSum for Metode, ne his myne wisse. 
170 Jtet vrtes wraec micel wine Scyldinga, 
modes breoSa, Monig oft gesset 
- «ricei to rune, rSd eahtedon, 
hwcet, swWferhSum selest wiere 
wi5 fsef-gryrum to gefremmanne. 
l75KHwilum hie geh€ton aat faer^-trafiim 
Jwig-weorbunga, wordum biedon, 
Jreet him gast-bona geoce gefremede 
wiH beod-breaum. Swylc waes bSaw hyra, 
hiebenra hyht : helle gemundon 
180 in mod-sefan, Metod hie ne cu)>on, 

dseda Demend, ne wiaton hie Drihten God, 
*ne hie hum heofena Helm herian ue ciibon, i 
wuldres Waldend. Wa bi8 baem Se sceal ] 
burh sHSne nI8 sawle bescufan 


MS. defective at cornet. Thorpe '[Atol]'; I 


a period. 


-9. Heyne punctuates : 

Bweartnm uihtum 

(no he J>ono gif-stdl gretan moste, 

mabtSnm for metode, ne hia myne wiai 


MS. 'hisrg'i Grnndtvig 'heerg-.' 


185 in fyres fsejjm, frofre ne wenan, 
>=-wihte gewendan ; wel biS )>Eem )>e mot 
nafter deaS-daege Drihten secean, 
ond to Faeder fie]>mum freoSo wilnian. 


Swa Sa. mJel-ceare maga Healfdenes 
190 snrgsts-sg&a^. ne mihte snotor haeleS 

wean onwendan; wtes ]«et gewin to awyS, 

la.J> ond longsum, |>e on i% leode becom, 
.~— .nvd-wraoii nih- orim. niht-bealwa m;f>st. 

Jtet Irani ham gefrsegn Higelaces ^ego, 
195 god mid Geatum, Grendles dieda; 

se w£es mon-cynnes maegenes atrengeat 

on J>iem dtege Jiyeses lifes, 

ae)>ele ond Sacen^ H6t him yS-lidan 

godne gegyrwan ; cwaeB, hS gu5-cyning 
200 ofer awan-rade aScean wolde, 

nuerne ]>eoden, ]>a, him woes manna )>ear£ 

Cone sitS-ibet him snotere ceorlas 

lyt-hwon l flgon, *J>5ah he him leof wjgre ; Fol. 184*. 

hwejjan hige-[r]5me, hSl eceawedon. 
205 Hsefde se gdda Geata leoda 

cempan gecorone, faira J>e he" cgnoste 

findan mihte ; fiftena sum 

aund-wudu aohte ; secg wiaade, 

lagu-eneftig mon, l and-gemy rcu. 

204. MS. defective. Zupitza says: "ro/ne— only the lower part 
of the first letter left, which may have been r, l>, /, e, or to." 



210 Fyrat fort! gewat; flota wsea on ySum, 

bat under beorge. Beornas gearwe 

onjjem stigon; streamaa wundon 

sund-wiS sande; secgaa bieron 

on bearm nacan beorhte frastwe, 
215 guS-searo geatolic; guman ut acufon, 

weras on wil-sIS, wudu bundenne. 

Gewat ]>a ofer wseg-holm winde gefyaed 

8ota fajai^eals fugle gelicoat, 

oS )>set ymb an-tid 6}>rea dogorea 
220 wunden-stefna ^ewaden htefde, 

Jfet 5a liSende land gesawon, 

brim-clifu bllcan, beorgas stfiape, 

side sie-iiasaaaa ; )»a wses aund lidun 

.egjetes set ende. panon up hraCe 
225JWedera lgode on wang atigon, 
/sie-wudu aieldan'; ayrcan hryaedon, 

guS-gewiedo; Gode J>ancedon, 

J»aes )>e him yfc-lade eaCe wurdon. 
*pa of wealle geseah weard Scildinga, Pol. 1S5*. 
230 se )>e holm-cHfu healdan acolde, 

beran ofer bolcan beorhte randas, 

fyrd-aearu fuslicu; hj ne fyrwyt hrae a- 

mod-gehygdum, hwjet J>a men wjeron. 

Gewat him ]>a to waroBe wicge ridan 

218. Almost all editors read Jamig-htaU, but the MS. form must 
be of significance for the pronunciation. 

319. MS. 'an tid.' Grain's Glossary gives: "an-tid/. hora primal" 
Cosijn contends for an-tid = and- tid or ond-tid, 'corresponding time, 
the same time,' so that the phrase would mean 'about the same hour 
of the second day.' So Heyne and Sooin. Earle thinks "we ought 
to look rather at the phrase than at the words" (!), and objects to the 
hyphen. But without it we should expect 'ymb ane tid.' 


245 Jm 

235|]>egn HroBgares, )»ryminum cwehte \ 

/ maegen-wudu imindum, me]>el-wordum frasgn;^ 
" Hwset syndon g& searo-hEebbendra 
byrnum -werede^ be bus brontne ceol 
ofer lagu-striete ISdaa cwSmon, 
240 hider ofer holmas [hringed-stefhan] ? 
Ic wses ende-saeta , Eeg-wearde h eold, 
]>b on land Dena laBra nienig 
raid scip-herge sceSban ne meahte. 
No her cuSlicor eumaa ongunnon 
245 Jind-hsebbende ; ne ge" leames-word 
jfguS-fremmendra gearwe ne wisson, 
J maga geraSdu. Ntefre ic maran geseah 
eorla ofer eorban, Sonne is eower sum, 
secg on searwum ; nis bset seld-guma 
2501w£epnum geweorBad, naefne him his wlite leoge, 
^/ Senile an-ayn. Nu ic eower sceal 

frum-cyn witan, ser ge" fyr *heonan, Fol. 135 b . 

tleas[e] sceaweras, on land Dena 
furbur feran. Nu g§ feor-buend, 
255 mere-liSende, min[n]e gehyratS 
j^-an-fealdne geboht; ofost is sSlest 

to gecySanne, hwanan Sowre cyme syndon." 

240—1. Ma. 'bider ofer holmaa le w«b' &c., without gap. Thorkelin 
and Wiilcker read Ic for fe, but Znpitza says: "le no doubt, not Ic." 
Various suggestions have been made for the missing half-line. That 
in the text is \V flicker's. Heyne adopts Ettmiiller's 'helm as bieron,' 
hut this is hardly felicitous after holmat. Bngge's emendation is in- 

bider ofer holmas? [Hwlle io on weal]le 
wees ende-slta. 

260. MS. 'ntefre'; Kemble 'naefne.' 
363. MS. 'leas'; Ettmiiller 'lease.' 
266. MS. 'mine'; Kemble 'minne.' 



Him se yldesta ondswarode, 

werodes wisa, word-hord onleac : 
260 "We synt gum-cynnes Geata leode 

ond Higelacea heorB-genSataB. 

Wses min feeder folcum gecyj^ed, 

£e|>ele jjrd-feaaaa Ecgfeow haten ; 

gebad wintra worn, ier hS on weg hwurfe 
265 gamol of geardum ; hine gearwe. gejnaii 

witena wel-hwylc wide geond eor)>an. 

We ]jurh holdne hige hlaford )>Inne, 

sunu Healfdenes, secean cwomon, 
,_ leod-gebyrgean ; wes )ni us 1a.i*»na. god. 
270 HabbaS we td )>%m mieran micel $8xeuAer\ 

Deniga frean ; ne sceal J^er dyrne sum 

wesan, J>ses ic wene. pa wast gif hit is, 

Iswa we sdj>llce *secgan hyrdon, Fol. 136*. 

J»iet mid Scyldingum scaa&ona ic nat hwylc, 
deogol died-hata, deorcum nihtum 
eaweS jmrh egsan uncuBne nlB, 
hynSu ond hra-fyl. Ic jtes HroBgar mseg 
jmrh rumne sefan raid gelieran, 
hu he frod ond god feond oferswyBeb, 
) gyf him ed-wendan aifre scolde 
bealuwa bwigu, bot eft curaan, 
ond fa cear-wylmas eolran wur5a)> ; 
oS5e a. syJfiSan earfoS-)>rage, 

271. Zupitea says: "now only tcea left." Only Thorkelin'a Bret 
transcript tuts set ofton it. 

275. Grein's Glossary gives : "died-hata m. der durck Thaten hant 
oder verfalgtt oder dSd-hMa facimyra ipondtna vel moliaut" Earls 
adopts the latter reading, and translates 'author of deeds.' 

)#,«* by Google 



i|]>rea-nyd bolaS, )>enden bjer wunaS 

285 on heah-stede hiisa selest.'" 

Weard mafcelode, Ster on wicge saet, 
ombebt unforht : " .zEghwseJues Beeal 
scearp scyld-wiga gescad witan, 
worda ond worca, *Se pe wel benceS. 

290 Ic feet gehyr g, bset bia is hold weorod^r^' 
frSan Scyldinga. Gewita|? forts beran 
wiepen ond gewtedu, ic Sow wiaige; 
swylce ic magu-begnas mine hate 
wis feonda gehwone flotan eowerne, 

295 nlw-tyrwydne nacan on sande, 
arum healdan, oj» bset eft byreS 
ofer lagu-strea*inas leofne mannan Fol. 

wudu w unden -hala to Weder-mearce. 
God-fremmendra swylcum gifebe bio, 

300 (bast ))one Mlde-iies oal gedigeS." 
___lGewiton him ha. foran; flota stille bad, 
aeomode on sale sid-fse|>med scip, 
on ancre fajst. Eofor-lic s 

299. Grundtvig'a needleaa emendation gfift-fremmendra is followed 
by aome editors and by Earle. 

301—3. Heyne pats "flota tent" in a parenthesis, with a semi- 
colon at the close. 

302. MS. 'sole.' For the emendation of. 11. 226, 1906, and 1917, 
and mod. " riding on a hawser. " The MS. reading ia not impossible. It 
is from iol, mod. Kent, sole, a mnddy pool. 

303— 5. These lines have given rise to much discussion and many 
suggestions. Bngge takes eofar as the subject of keold, ferh- (for feorh-) 
itearde, "life-guard," aa the object, and Uc-tcionon, "of handsome form," 
as the dat. sing, of an adj . referring to Beowulf. 

803. Grain's Glossary gives icumoa as a second form of ecinon, pret. 
pi. of tclnan, "shine," but adds: "wenn letzteres nicht sn einem rednpl. 
Verbnm *conon icSon gehort." This supposition is quite needless ; in 




ofer hleor-ber[g]an, gehroden golde, 
305 fan ond fyr-heard; jferfj. 1 wearde heold. 

GHtymod grummoD, guman onetton, 

sigon astsomne, oJ> bset hy [s]sel timbred, 

geatolic ond gold-iah, ongyton mihtoii; 

J>aet wees fore-mserost fold-buendum 
310 receda under roderum, on ySna se rica bad ; 

lixte se leoma ofer landa fela. 
( Him J?a hilde-deor [h]of modigra 

torht getiehte, )«et hie him to mihton 

gegnum gangan ; guS-beorna sum 
315 wieg gewende, word aefter cwsetS: 

" Mjgl is m6 tfi feran ; Fseder al-walda 

mid ar-stafum eowic gehealde 

siSa gesunde ! Ic to sse wille 

wi8 *wra5 werod wearde healdan." Pol. 137*. 

> Strset wtes stan-fah, stig wisode 
gumum setgaedere. GuS-byrne scan 
heard hond-locen, hring-Iren (seir 
song in searwum, j>a hie t5 sele furBum. 
in hyra gryre-geatwum gangan cwomon. 

L S170 we find a pret. pi. riodan =ridon, "rode," of the same ablaut- 
class, showing the same effect of u- umlaut, Sieve™ § 376. 

304. MS. 'hleorberan'; Grein ' hleor-beran, ' dat. sg., visor! ; Gering 
'hleor-ber[g]an,' ace. pi., cheek-guard*. 

306. Kemble 'gOB-modfe]. 

307. MS. 'mltimbred'; Grein 's»l timbred.' 
312. MS. 'of,' in spite of the alliteration. 



325 Setton sje-me}>e side scyldas, 

rondas regn-bearde, wis Jwes recedes weal, 
bugon \a. to bence ; byrnan hringdon, 
guB-searo gumena ; garas>todon, 
sfg-manna searo, saraod artgsedere, 

330 asac-holt ufan graig ; wa?s se/lren>frea£) 
wjepnum gewurbad. pa Bier wlonc hseleB 
^_j>ret-mecgas after afyelwm frsegn : 
"Hwanon ferigeaB ge ffette scyldas, 
griege syrcan ond grim-helmas, 

335 here-sceafta heap ? Ic eom HroSgares 

ar ond ombiht. Ne seah ic el-Jieodige ** 
bus manige men mddiglicran. 
Wen ic baet ge for wlenco, nalles for wrsec-siBum 
ac for hige-*brymmum, HroBgar sohton." Fol. 137*. 

340 Him ]>a ellen-r6f andswarode, 

wlanc Wedera leod word asfter spnec, 
heard under helme : " We synt Higelaces 
beod-geneatas ; Beowulf is mm nama. 
Willu ic asecgan sunu Uealfdenes, 

345 mi!erum ]>6odne, min ierende, 

aldre )>inum, gif he us geunnan wile, 
J>art wg hine swa godne gretan moton." 
Wulfgar mabelode flraet wses Wendla leod, 
wais his iQfld-seia manegum gecyBed, 

350 wig ond wis-dom): "Ic ba^s wine Deniga, 
frean Scildinga, frinan wille, 

332. MS. ' htelefcum ' — evidently a soribal blunder doe to the haleS 
of the previous line. Grein 'a?l>elum'; of. 1. 392, and for the sense 11. 
261—2. For Bret- see Sievers g 43, N. 4. 

338. Heyne reads Wen' for Went. Cf. 1L 443 and 626. 

344. The editors from Kemble downwards have adopted the more 
usnal form of the dat., tuna ; but see Sievers % 270. 



beaga bryttan, swa )>u fbena eart, 
bSoden mrerne, ymb )>Inne sIB, 
oiid )>e ]>a ondsware iedre gecyBan, 

355 Be me se goda agifan benceB." 

Hwearf bfi hrsedlice, bier HroBgar atet 
eald ond unbar mid his eorla gedriht ; 
gode ellen-rof, bret he for eaxlum gestdd 
Deniga frean ; cube he duguBe beaw. 

360 Wulfgar maSelode *to his wine-drihtne : Foi. l 
"Her syndon geferede, feorraiT cumene 
ofer geofenes begang, Geata leode; 
bone yldestan $ret-mecgas 
Beowulf nemnaB. Hy benan synt, 

365 bset hie, )>§oden mln, wiB be mo ton 

wordum wrixlan ; no Bu him wgajenfii g°tiP" h 
Binra gegn-cwida, glaedman HroBgar., 
Hy on wipr- gptAwiim wyrBe binceaB 
eorla gesehtlan : hum se aldor deah, l 

370 se biBm heaBo-rincum hider wisade."! 

HroBgar mabelode, helm Scyldinga: 
" Ic hine cuBe cniht-wesende ; 
wa3B his eald fseder Ecgbeo haten, 

367. Thorkelin (B) and Rieger ' gliednian ' ; Grein and Wiilcker 
'ghedman.' Kemble Bad Thorpe took uladman to be the oblique case 
of a noon gladma, ' gladness. ' Bugge supports the reading of the MS., 
and practically decides the sense in which it is to be taken, by quoting 
the gloss "Hilarii gltsdman" (Somner p. 74, ool. 2, 1. 21). 

373. MS. ' ealdfsder.' This compound meaning 'grandfather, an- 
cestor,' occurs in the forms taldfader, taldefadtr; but its use here is 



Stem to ham forgeaf Hrehel Geata 

375 angan dohtor; is his eafora nu 

heard her cumen, sohte holdne wine. 

Bonne sssgdon )?aet sie-li)»ende, 

J>a Be gif-sceatS ^ Geata fyredon 

byder tS hance, ]>set hS )rit*tiges Fol. I38 h . 

380 manna maggen-crseft on his mund-gripe 
hea|Jo-rof htebbe. Hine balig God 
for ar-stafum ue onsende, 
tO West-Denum, Jwea ic wen hsebbe, 
wiK Grendles gryre; ic hjem godan aceal 

385 for his raod-prsecfe madmaa beodap. 
Beo 5u on of'este, hat in gan 
seon sibbe-gedriht samod Eetgsedere ; 
gesaga him Sac wordum, j>oet hie sint wil-cuman 
Deniga lgodum." [pa. wis duru healle 

390 Wulfgar eode,] word inne abead; 
"Sow het secgan sige-drihten min, 
aldor East-Dena, ]wet he eower aejielu can, 

a strain to the meaning of the passage, and we may safely assume that 
the scribe has ran two words into one, as in numerous other instances. 
Kaldfxder makes excellent sense. 

375. MS. 'eaforan'; Kemble 'eafora.' 

378. Thorpe 'Geatttm,' adopted by Bugge and Earle. The change 
is not absolutely necessary, because the genitive can have the same 
meaning, "for the Gents." 

379. MS. ' -iii tigee.' 

386. Heyne reads 'hat [hig] in gan' for metrical reasons (but see 
"Beitrige" i. 268), and takes tibbe-gedrihx (i.e. the Danes) as the object 
of ieon. But Hbbe-gedriht certainly refers to Beowulf's company, as in 
1. 729, and is the aocus.-subject of in gan aeon. The whole phrase may 
be rendered "bid the band of warrior-kinsmen go into the presence." 
Cf. 11. 396, 347, S6S. 

889—90. No gap in MS., though the lack of alliteration seems con- 
clusive as to a defect in the text. The emendation is Grein's. 

W. B. 2 



ond ge" him syndon ofer sie-wylmas, 
heard-hicgende, hider wil-cuman, 

395 Nu ge moton gangan in eowrum guS-geatawum, 
under here-griman, HroBgar geseon ; 
ItetaS hilde-bord her onbldan, 
wudu, wiel-eceaftas, worda gebingea." 
Aras }>a Be rica, ymb hine rinc manig, 

400 brySlic begna heap; sume bSr bidon, 

heaSo-reaf heoldon, swa him se "hearda bebead. Pol. 
Soy^edoD , .-etsomne, ba. seeg wisode, ®"* 

under Heorotes hrof; [hyge-rof Bode,] 
heard under helme, beet he on heoSe gestod. 

405 Beowulf maSelode (on him byrne scan, 
searo-net seowed smiles or-bancum): 
" Wses bu, HroKgar, hal 1 Ie eom Higelaces 
mffig ond mago-Segn; haebbe ic mierSa fela 
ongunnen on geogobe. Me weartS Grendles bing 

410 on minre ebel-tyrT 1 undyrne cutJ; 

secgaS sae-lI5end, (wet bea sele gtande, 
reced eeleata, rinca gehwylcum 
idel ond unnyt, siSSan ffifen-leoht 
under heofenea hador bebolen weorbeii. 

415 pa me bset gelserdon leode mine, 

395. Ettmfiller • gfltS-getiwom ' j cf. II. 2636, 368. Bee also Sic vers 
g 43, N. 4, and g 260, N. 

403. No S"P <n HS. ; Grain's emendation adopted. 

404. Thorpe 'heo[r}Se.' 

407. Editors substitute W.S. wet for North, wat. 

411. UB'Hu.' 

414, Heyne and Socio 'hafor.' The length of the a is uncertain. 
Hador would mean ' brightness, serenity.' Groin's Glossary has : "hea'Eor, 
heador, hador (odtr «, ea?) n. rcceptaculum ; dat. hafaS mec on headre-., 
m. 66V' 



pa, selestan, snotere eeorlas, 

Jjeoden HroBgar, pset ic be sohte, 

forpan hie maegenes crseft min[n]e cujion; 

selfe ofersawon, 5a ic of searw_unr> cw6m, 
420 fah from feondum, pSr ic fife geband, 

ySde eotena cyn, ond on ySum sl6g 

niceras nihtes, nearo-bcarfe dreah, 

wnec *Wedera niB (wean ahsodon), Pol. I39 b . 

forgrand gramum ; ond nu wiB Grendel sceal, 
425 wis bam agliecan, ana gehegan 

-8ing- wiB-)>yT&e. Ic pe nu Bit, 

brego Beorht-Dena, biddan wille, 

eodor Scyldinga, aure bene_, 

baet 8u me ne forwyme, wigendra hleo, 
430 freo-wine folca, nu ic Jraa feorran c5m, 

]«et ic m8te ana [ond] minra eorla gediyht, 

Jies hearda heap, Heorot fielsian. 

Hsebbe ic Sac geahsod, bast se jeglseca 

for his worr-hydum wsepna ne re"cceB; 
435Aic bat bonne forhicge, swa m§ Higelac sle, 
'mln mon-drihten, mfides bliSe, 

pset ic sweord bere obSe sidne scyld, 

geolo-rand to gube; ac ic mid grape sceal 

fon wiS feonde, ond ymb feorh sKan. 
440 laS wiC labiim ; B«r gelyfan sceal 

Dryhtnes dome sS be hine dea& nimeS. 

Wen ic |>ast he wille, gif he wealdan m6t, 

in piem gu5-sele Geatena leode 

418. Grein 'mta[n}e'; of. 1. 255. 

431 — 2. MS. ' ana minra eorla gedryht 7 lies' Ac. Grein transposed 
the 7 (ond) from before t>et to before minra. 
443. MS. ' geotena.' 


1 ^Google 


etan unforhte, swa hS *oft dyde Pol. no*. 

445 msegen HreS-manna. Na jrii minne bearft 
hafalan hydan, ac he mfi habban wile 
d[rJeore fahne, gif mec deaB nimeB ; 
byreS blodig wtel, byrgean ]»enceB, 
ete5 an-genga unmurnUce, 

450 mearcaB mor-hopu ; n5 Su ymb mines ne bearft 
lices feorme leng aorgian. 
Onsend Higelace, gif mec hild nime, 
beadu-scruda betst, jjset mine breost wereB, 
hrsegla selest; bset is Hrcedlan l&f, 

455 Welandea geweorc. GeEB a wyrd swa hio seel." 


HroBgar majjelode, helm Scyldinga: 

"F[or w]ere-fyhtum Jm, wine min BSowulf, 

ond for ar-stafum usic sohtest. 

Gesl5h bin feeder fiehBe mieste, 
460 wear)> he Heabolafe to hand-bonan 

mid Wilfingum ; 5a hine Wedera. cyn 

for here-brogan habban ne mihte. 

pauon h6 gesohte SuB-Dena folc 

ofer y5a gewealc, Ar-'Scyldinga ; PoL 140", 

465 8a ic furbum weold folce Deniga, 

ond on geogoSe heold gimme-rice 

454. Ettmiiller 'HrtClan,' gen. of HreSIa=Hre-Sel, Beownlfs ma- 
ternal grandfather ; adopted by Heyne and Earle. 

457. MS. 'fere fybtum.' The reading in the text was suggested fay 
Grand trig. 

461. MS. 'gara'; Grundtvig 'Wedera.' See 11. 225,423, Ac. 

466. M8. 'deninga.' See 11. 165, 271, Ao. 


hord-burh hseleba. Da waes Heregar dead, 

min yldra miCg unlifigende, 

beam Healfdenee; se wks betera Bonne ic. 
470 SflJBan ba fsehBe feo hingode ; 

sende ic Wylfingum ofer wreteres hrycg 

ealde madmas; he me a]*as swor. 

Sorh is me to secganne on sefan minum 

gumena iiengum, hwiet me Grendel hafaB 
475 hynSo on Heorote mid his hete-)»ancum, 

figr-niSa gefremed ; is min flet-werod, 

wig-heap, gewanod; hie wyrd forsweop 

on Grendles gryre. God eabe ma?g 

bone dol-sceaSan dieda getwsefan. 
480 Ful oft gebeotedon beore druncne 

ofer ealo-wigge Oret-meegaa, 

baet hie in bfior-sele bidan woldon 

Grendles gube mid gryrum ecga. 

Donne waes bgos medo-heal on morgen tid, 
485 driht-sele dreor-fah, bonne daeg lixte, 

eal *benc-))elu blode bestymed, Pol. Hi*. 

heall heoru-dreore ; ahte ic boldra by Ijes, 

deorre duguBe, ' be ba deaB fornam. 

Site nu td symle ond onssel meoto, 
490 sige-hreB secgum, swa bin aefa hwette." 

pa wses Geat-miecgum geador setsomne 

on beor-sele bene gerymed ; 

479. MS. 'aCaSan,' the e in a different hand. 

189—90. MS. 'onstelmeotosigehreSeeogfi.' This patsage has given 
rise to much discussion; the conjectures are too numerous to ba given 
here. Meoto is the chief difficulty. I have followed Heyne in adopting 
Mnllenhoff's interpretation, taking nwoto=meotu (with u-umlaut produced 
by inflectional u; 3 i overs § 106. A)-metu, pi. of met, 'thought'; of. me titin, 
'meditate upon,' PaaJm 118. 174. 

)#,«* by Google 

fwer swIB-ferh^e sifctan eodon, 
(TytSum dealle. Jtegn nytte behgold, 
> s6 ]>e on hands, baer hroden ealo-wtege, 
scencte acir wered. Scop hwilum sang 

hador on Heorotc ; Jiair wses hseleBa dream, 
duguS unlytel Dena ond Wedera. 


DWferB ma)»elode, Ecglafea beam, J 

500 J>e set fotum sset frean Scyldinga, I 

onband beadu-rune (wjes him Beowulfes siB, | 

modges mere-taran, micel aef-jninca j 

for)>on J>e h6 ne u^e, Jiaat ienig oSer man ' 

fefre *mtertSa ]>on ma middan-geardes Fol. 141*. , 

505 gebedde under heofenum )>onne he aylfa): „-'" i 

" Eart pH ae Beowulf, aS ]>e wits Brecan wunne, 

on sidne ree ymb sund flite, 

Sjer git for wlence wada cunnedon, 

ond for dol-gilpe on dSop waster ' 

510 aldrum neJ»don ? Ne inc senig mon, > 

ne leof tie laS, holSa " mihte i 

sorh-fuilne sI5, b a git on sund reon ; j 

]»Eer git eagor-stream earmum ..)iehto2} 

mieton mere-stneta, mundum brugdon , 
515 glidon ofer gar-secg; geofon y]>um wSol, 

wintrys wylm. Git on wseterea seht 

499. MS. 'HTOferS.' I 

515—16. Grain- Wttloker : i 

weol wintrys wylm.' 
Other editions needlessly change wylm to icylme or icylnmm. 


seofon niht awuncon; he be set suntlc oferflat, 
haefde mare msegen. pa, hine on morgen-tid 
on Heabo-Rfetnas holm up setbser; 

520 Sonon h6 gesohte awsesrwr-eoelp 
leof his leodum loud Brondinga, 
freoSo-burh fegere, )»8er he folc ahte, 
burh ond btiagas. *Beot eal wi5 J>e Fol. 142". 

aunu Beanstanes aotfe gelteste. 

525 Donne wgne ic to J* wyrean ge)>ingea, 
fieah bu heaSo-riesa gehwfgr dohte, 
grimre guSe, gif bu Grendlea dearat 
niht-loagne ijyrej^ nfian bidan." 
Beowulf mabelode, beam Ecgbeowea : 

530 "Hwset! bu worn fela, wine min UnfexS, 
beore druncen ymb Brecan spriece, 
sasgdeat from his sIBe. SoJ5 ic talig e, 
bait ic mere-atrengo maran ahte, 
earfebo on yjium, Sonne Sinig Ober man. 

535 Wit (wet gecwtedon cniht-weaende 
ond gebeotedon (wseron begen ba git 
on geogoti-feore), bast wit on gar-aecg tit 
aldrum nSSdon ; ond beet geaerodon swa. 
Haefdon ewurd nacod, ba wit on eund reon, 

540 heard on hands. ; wit unc wiB hron-nxas 
werian bohton. No he wiht fram m5 
flsd-ybum feor flSotan meahte, 

519. MS. 'heat'orreraen.' 

620. MS. 'SWffiane .St.' The O.E. name of this runic character wan 
£5cl; hence the character is used here and in 1. 913 (or the word SStl. 

580. MB. 'him ferS.' The initial is always A in the MS., although 
the word always alliterates with vowels. 

534. There is this to be said for the emendation tafebo, " strength," 
that it is a closer parallel to tnere-itrengo than the reading of the MS. 



hra|ior on holme ; no ic fram him woldc. 

©a wit Eet*somne on ate wigron Fol. 142», 

545 flf nihta fyrst, op )wet unc flod todraf, 

wado weallende; wedera cealdost, 

nipende niht ond norpan wind, 

heaSo-grim ondhwearf; bx^> wseron y]». 

Wses mere-fixa mod QnhfSced ; 
550 Jraer mS wis laSum llc-Byree min, 

heard hond-locen, helpe gefremede; 

beado-hrtegl broden on breostum lag, 

golde gegyrwed. Me to grunde teah 

iah feond-scaSa, feste hsefde 
555 grim on grape ; hwspj»re me gyfejje wears, 

]raet ic agliecan orde geriehte, 

hilde-bille; heabo-rits fornam 

mihtig mere-deor J>urh mine hand. 


Swa mec geldme _ 
560 breatedoo bearle. Ic him feenode 

deoran sweorde, swa hit ge_def»''w£es ; 

nsea hie Stere fylle gefean haefdon, 

niaii-iordSdkn, b;«t hie me begon, 

aymbel ymb-steton saj-grunde neah ; 
565 ac on mergenne mecum "wunde Fol. 143". 

be yS-lafe uppe laegon, 

548. MS. 'Tkwearf'; cf. '7iwarode,' 1. 258. Grein takes hteearf to 
be an adj., which he glosses 'versatilis, valubilis,' and compares Ieel. 



sweo[r]dum aawefede, baet sySban na 
yrab brontne ford brim-llBende 
jade ne letton. Leoht eastan com, 
70 beorht beacen Godes; brirau swabredon, 

I beet ic SEe-nsessas gesgon mihte, 
windige weallas. Wyrd oft neretS 
unEegne eorl, bonne his ellen deah. 
J Hwrebere nag gesrelde, bset ic mid sweorde ofsloh 
(575 niceras nigene. No ic on niht gefoegn 
mder heofonea bjmalf heardrah feohtan, 

on eg-streamum earmran mannon ; 
wcebere ic fara feng feore gedigde, 
sibes werig. ©a. mec sie obbaer, 
580 flod Gefter faroSe, on Fiona land, 

wadu weallendu. No ic wiht tram be 1 
swylcra searo-ni&a secgan hyrde, 
billa brdgan ; Breca niefre git 
aet hea5o-lace, ne gehwseber incer, 
585 Bwa, deorllce died gefremede 

fagum sweordum (n6 ic bass [fela] gylpe), 
beah Sii binum br65rum to banan wurde, 
heafod-rniegum ; bass bu in *helle scealt Fol. 143". 
werhfto dreogan. b&ah bin wit duge, 
590 Secge ic b€ to sOtSe, aunu Ecglafes, 

[wet njefre Gre[n]del swa, fela gryra gefremede, 

567. MS., defective at corner, has only sm? and part of o. Thorkelin 
A (first transcript) 'sweodum.' 

678. MS. 'hwat>ere.' 

581. MS. -wudu.' Seel. 546. 

566. The emendation is Grain's; Kluge suggested '[geflites].' Heyne, 
followed by Harrison and Sharp, assumes the loss of two half lines after 
gioeordum, with the unpleasant consequence (hat the numbers of his lines 
ace one too many throughout the rest of the poem. 

591. MS. 'pre del.' 

)#,«* by Google 


atol mglseca, ealdre Jjinura, 

hynSo on Heorote, gif bin hige wtere, 

sefa ewa searo-grim, swa )m self talast ; 

595 ac he hafaS onfunden, bset he |>a fsehSe ne )>ea 
atole ecg-bnece, eower ISode 
swiBe e nai titan , Sige-Scyldinga ; 
nymeB nyd-bade, nSJnegum araS 
leode Deniga, ac he [on] luat wigeS, 

600 awgfeB ond sende b, seece ne weneb 
t5 Gar-Demim. Ac ic him Geata eceal 
jeafotf ond ellen ungeara nil 
g-iibe gebeodan. Gfeb eft 86 ]>e mot 
td medo modig, aibban morgen-leoht 

605 ofer ylda bearn fibres dogores, 
sunne swegl-wered, suban scineB." 
pa wses on salum ainces biytta, 
gamol-feax ond guC-rdf; gSoce gelyfde 
•brego Beorht-Dena; gehyrde on B§ow«He FoLlM*. 

610 folces hyrde faest-rEedne gebfiht. 

Bier wsea haeleba hleahtor, hlyn swynsode, 
word weeron wynsume, Eode WealhbSow forB, 
cwen HroBgares, eynna gemyndig, 
grfitte gold-hroden guman on healle; 

599. Kemble's emendation; of. 1. 618. 

600. Thorpe 'Hjeece,' followed by most editors. Secce is a dialectal 
form ; see Sievers § 151. 

601. Thorpe and Hejne suppress ic. Thorpe makes Geata {weak 
form) the subject, tufa's ond ellen the object, and is followed bj Earle. 
Heyne takes eafu'S ond ellen Geata as subject, ptSe as object. He adds ; 
"ic Qiata, 'ioh der Geaten' oder 'ich outer den GEaten,' ist bedenklioh." 
Sorely this is what Coleridge calls the "wilful ingenuity of blundering." 
What is to prevent ic being taken as the subject, and eafcflS ond ellen 
Giata as the object 1 



615 ond J>a frSolIc wif ful geeealde 

ierest East-Dena Sbel-wearde, 

bsed nine bli8ne set Jwere beor-bege, 

leodum leofne ; he on lust ge]>eah 

symbel ond sele-ful, sige-rof kyning. 
620 Ymb-eode ba ides Helminga 

dugube ODd geogobe drel feghwylcne, 

gincjato aealde, o|> Jjset siel iilamp, 

bset bio BSowulfe, beag-hroden cwSn, 

mode gebungen, medo-ful ietbier; 
625 grette Geata l8od, Gode )>ancode 

wis-fast wordum, bses Be hire se willa gelamp, 

)jaet heo on tenigne eorl gelyfde 

fyrena frofre. He baet ful gebeah, . 

wsel-r6ow wiga, 'set Wealhbeon, Pol. 144". 

630 ond ba gyddode gube gefysed ; 

Beowulf mabelode, bearn Ecgbeowes ; 

"Ic baet hogode, ba ic on holm gestah, 

sa>bat gesEet mid minra secga gedriht, 

pset ic aming a gowra leoda 
635 willan geworhte, ob8e on wael crunge 

feond-grapum feet. Ic gefremman sceal 

eorlic ellen, obBe ende-dseg 

on ]>isse meodu-healle minne gebidan." 

Dam wife ba word wel licodoD, 
640 gilp-cwide Geates ; eode gold-hroden 

freolicu folc-cwgn to hire frean sittan. 

pa waes eft swa rer inne on healle 

bryB-word aprecen, 5eod on aielum, 

sige-folca aweg, ob bset semninga 
645 aunu Healfdenes secean wolde 

Eefen-rasate ; wiste bsem ahlsican 



to Jfiem bean-eel e hilde gefringed. 

sifiSan hie sunnan leoht geseon [ne] meahton, 

o)rtSe nipende niht ofer ealle, 
650 Bfiadi uhelma gescearJu scrWan cworaan, 

wan under wolcnum. Werod eall aras ; 

grStte ba guma 5)>erne, 

HreSgar Beowulf, end him hsl ab§ad, 

win- semes *geweald, end )>set word acwaso": Fol. 
655 "Nsefre io ffinegum men fer alyfde, li6 "' 

sif^Jan io hood ond rond hebbaii mihte, 

Sryh-sern Dena buton ]>e nu 5a. 

Hafa nu ond geheald husa selest, 

gemyne mjerbo, meegen-ellen cyS, 
660 waca wis wrabum. Ne biS he wilna gad , 

gif bii bset ellen-weorc aldre gedigest." 

©a him HrCbgar gewat mid his hseleba gedryht, 
eodur Scyldinga, ut of healle; 
wolde wig-fruma Wealhbeo secan, 
665 cwen to gebeddan. Haefde kyoing[a] wuldor 
Grendle to-geanes, swa guman gefrungon, 

648. Thorpe's simple emendation, '[ne],' is now generally adopted. 
Bugge proposed, in addition, to regard ot>Se (1. 649) as equivalent to ond, 
as in 1. 2475, and the suggestion is adopted by Heyne. E&rle defends the 
usual meaning or : " There is something of alternative between twilight 
and the dead of night." 

652. Grein-Wiileker complete the first half line by ' [glasdmOd],' 
Heyne by '[giddum].' 

665. MS. 'kyning,' at end of line; there is room for an a, bat no 
trace of one. 



isele-weard aseted ; sundor-nytte behgold I 
ymb aldor Dena, eoton-weard abead. r 
Hutu Geata leod georne truwode 
. . mcdgan msegnes, Metodes hyldo. 
©a. he" him of dyde Iseru-byrnan, 
helm of hafelan, aealde his hy rated sweord, 
.irena cyst, ombiht-begne, 
|ond gehealdan h«t hilde-geatwe, 
675 Gespreec [>a se geda gylp-worda sum, 

Beowulf *Gfiata, ser he on bed stige: Fol. 146". 
"N<5 ic mg an here-wffamu a hnagran talige 
gu]>-geweorca }>onne Grendel hine ; 

)forban ic hine sweorde swebban nelle, 
aldre beneotan, beah ic eal meege. 
Nat he bara goda, bast he me ongean slea, 
rand geheawe, beah 5e he rof 3ie 
nib-geweorca ; ac wit on niht sculon 
sgcge ofersitta n, gif he gesecean dear 

685 wig ofer wSpen, ond sif>5an witig God 
on swa hwsebere hond, halig Dryhten, 
mSrtSo dSme, swa him gemet bince." 
Hylde hine b& heabo-deor, hleor-bolster onfSng 
eorles andwlitan, ond hine ymb monig 

690 snelllc sfe-rinc sele-reste gebeah. 

Njenig heora bohte, Jtaet he banon scolde 

eft eard-lufan iefre gesecean, 

folc ob5e freo-burh, bier he afeded wses : 

66S. Thorpe 'eoton (ace.) weard [nam.) abead'; Heyne 'eoton (dot.) 
weard (ace.) abead.' The difficult; of the uninflected aeons, eoton-weard 
BeeuiB less than those presented by these readings. 

677. Thorpe ' WMtmum,' Grein '■ 


bc hie hsefdon gefrunen, )>iet hie ter tfl fela midg 
695 ID j>i*:m win-sele wael-deaC fornam, 

JDenigea lgode. Ac him Dryhten forgeaf 
wig-speda gewiofu, *Wedera leddum M. 1W. 
frofor ond fultum, Jraet hie feond heora 
Burh anes craft ealle ofereCmon, 
700 selfes mihtum ; edtS is gecy]»ed, 
(iset mihtig God manna cynues 
weold wTde-ferho\ Com on wanre niht 
scriSan sceadu-genga. Sceotend swiefon, 
)>a ]>cet horn-reced healdan scoldon, 
705 ealle biitou anum. pset w«s yldum ctift 
Ijiset hie tie moste, )>a metod nolde, I 

[se syn-sca|>a under sceadu bregdan ; ' 

ac he wseccende wra)>um on andan 
bad bolgen-m8d beadwa gejringes. 


710 ©a cSm of more under mist-hleojmm 
Grendel gongan, Godes yrre bser; 

mynte Be man-scaSa manna cynues 
sumne bfayrwan in sele )>;i,m hean. 
t Wod under wolcnum, to )«eB ]>e he win-reced, 
7151 gold-sele gumena, gearwost wisse, 

fsettum fahne ; ne wses J>set forma si5, 
- Jraet h§ HrOpgares ham gesohte. 
Niefre h£ on aldor-dagum Sr *ne siJjSan Fol. 146". 
heardran hsele, heal-Cegnas fand. 



720 Com )>a to recede rinc sifiian 

drSanium b_edaslfidi__ duru sona onarn, 

fyr-bendum fsest, syJiBan he hire folmum [hr]an; 

onbrakl )>a bealo-hydig, 8a [he" ge]bolgen wses, 

recedes muban. Ra^e sefter pon 
725 on fagne flOr feond treddode, 

Sode yrre-med; him of eagum atod 

ligge gelicost leoht unfaeger. 

Geseah he in recede rinca manige, 

swefan sibbe-gedriht samod Eetgsedere, 
730 mago-rinca heap. pa his mod ahlog; 

mynte fset he" gedielde, air ton daeg cwflme, 

atol agliSca, anra gehwylces 

Illf wi5 lice, y& him alumpen waes 
wist-fylle wen. Ne waes past wyrd J>ii gen, 
735 )>set he ma moste manna cynnes 

Bicgean ofer J>a niht. pry5-8wy5 beheold 

Imseg Hige laces, hu se man-scaSa 
under fter-gripum gefaran wolde. 
Ne Jwet se aglseca yldan ^ohte, 
740 ac hS ge*feng hraSe forman slSe FoL 131*. 

slEependne rinc, slat unwearnum, 
bat ban-locan, blod €drum dranc, 
ayn-aniRHnm Bypath \ SOIia hffifde 
unlyfigendes eal gefeormod, 

722. MS. defective at edge. Zupitza's tran el iteration of the facsimile 
of the MS. has '[gehr]an.' There is room for two letters before Aran, 
but there is no evidence for gt-. On the contrary, whilst ftrinan usually 
governs the dat., gehrlnan more commonly takes the aoous. (pace Grein). 

723. MS. faded at edge. Kemble, Grein-Wulcker, and Heyne '[he] 
abolgen.' Zupitza says: "Now bolgen is still distinct, and before it I 
think I see traces of two letters of which the first seems to have been g ; 
but what preceded this is entirely faded." 



745 fSt ond folma. ForS near setstdp, 

nam jjii mid handa hige-|iihtigne 

rinc on rasste ; riehte ongean 

feond mid folme ; he onfeng hra)>e 

inwit-fraucum ond wi5 earm geaset. 
750 Sona ]>iet onfunde fyrena hyrde, 

bset he ne mStte middan-geardes, 

eorjiau sceatta, on el ran men 

round-gripe maran ; he on mode wears 

forht, on ferhSe ; po by rer fram m eahte. 
755 Hyge wses him hin-rti a, wolde on heolater neon, 

afican deofla gedrajg; ne wses his drohtoS bier, 

swylce he on ealder-dagum ser gemgtte. 

Gemunde ]>a se goda mieg Higelaces 

tefen-sprfece, njgjggg astod 
760 ond him fseste wisfgng ; fingras burston ; 

eoten vises ut-weard : • eorl furfur stop. 

Mynte se miera, *hvmt he" meahte swa, PoL 131". 

wldre gewindan ond on weg banon 

flgon on fen-hopu ; wiste his flngra geweald 
765 on grames grapum. paet (he) wses geocor sIS, 

}>aet ee hearm-scaba to Heorute ateah. 

Dryht-sele dynede ; Denum eallum wearti, 

ceaster-buendum, cenra gehwylcum, 
I eorlum ealu-scerwen. Yrre wieron begen 
770 tSpe ren-weardas. Reced hlynsode ; 

762. Many editors normalise to ' scSata.' See Sievers § 230. 

762. MS. defective at corner. EttmfUler, Wiilcker, Heyne 'tier.' 
Zupitza's transliteration 'hwa»r,' as if there were no doubt as to the 
leading, bat bis foot-note rune : " Rioter (hv> with another ink, and crossed 
out in pencil) B, . . . atr A ; now only the lower part of r left." 

765. MS. '>iet he was.' Groin suggested the accepted emendation — 


y& waes wnndor micel, ]>ast ee win-sele 

wiBhssfde heab-o deonim, past he on hriisan ne feol, 

fieger fold- bold ; ac he f>ses feste wies 

irman oud utan Iren-bendum 
775 searo-J)oncum besmibod. pier fram sylle Ibeag 

modu-benc monig, mine gefnege, 

golde geregoad, J>ier pa, graman wunnon; 

pass ne wendon ier witan Scyldinga, 

pip.t hit a mid gemete manna JSnig, 
780 6etlic ond ban-fag . tobrecan meahte, 

listurn tolucan, nympe liges fa;pm 

swulge on 3wa)»ule, Sweg *up astag Pol. 1*7*. 

injw£_geneahhe ; NorB-Denum stcd 

Jatelic egesa, aura gehwylcurn, 
785 para he of weaile wop gehyrdon, 

gryre-lSoS galan godes ondaacan, 

aige-lSaane aang, sar jganigaap 

bel| e hffifto n. Heold hine fieste, 

se ]>e manna wres maegene strangest 
790 on paim ctaege pysses llfes. 


Nolde eorla hleo ienige pmga 

pone ogflaJimauaail cwicne forlsetan, 

ne his lif-dagas leoda iBnigum 

780. MS. 'hetlic'; Grondtvig 'betlic.' Cf. 1. 1925. 

788. Zupitza and others 'helle-biefton,' but nothing is gained by 
making them a compound. For -on of the weak declension, -oh is not 

Almost all editors insert ' W before ' taste-' 

W. B. 3 



j pytte a tea lde. pier genehoat brcegd 

795 leori Beowulfea ealde lafe, 

Pwolde frfia-drihtnes feorh ealgian, 
Jmierea bgodnee, Bier hie meahton awa. 
Hie )>aet ne wiaton, J>a hie gewin drugon, 
heard- hicgende hilde-mecgas, 

800 ond on healfa qgejig flii& heawati J>6hton, 
sawle aecan : Jwne ayn-acaBan 
jenig ofer eor)jan irenna cyst, 
guB-billa nan, gr€taA nolde ; 
ac h§ sige-wffipnum *forsworen hsefde, FoL 147*. 

805 ecga gehwylcre. Scolde hia aldor-ge dal 
| on Bsem da^ge byaaes Ufea 
earmlic wurSan, ond se ellor-gaat 
Ion feonda geweald feor ai&ian. 
|©a bret onfnnde, s§ be fela i^op 

810lzn3d«i niyr5«. manna cynne 

Ifyrene gefremede, h6 fag wiB God, 
btet him ae llc-homa lffistan nolde, 
ac hine se modega maeg Hygelacea 
haefde be honda; wses gehwseber 65rum 

815 lifigende laB. lic-sar gebad 

atol iSglSiQa ; him on eaxle wearS 
ly^d^Uj) sweotol ; seonowe onsprungon, 
burs ton ban loean. Beowulfe wearS 
\guB-hreB gyfebe; acolde Grendel Jjonan 

820 feorh-seoc fleon under fen-hleoBu, 

911. Kemble first inserted ' w»s' after ■ he.' Heyne has: ' (he »« 
fag wrS god),' which appears to me a distinct enfeeblement of the MS. 
leading. Fay comes at the beginning of a line in the MS., and Heyne 
Kays it oannot be settled whether or not aai stood before it. This is 
very misleading. " There was no room for mw before fag" (Zupitia), 
as a glance at the facsimile suffices to show. 


sScean wyn-leas wic ; wiste J>S georno r, 
Jwet his aldrea webs ende gegongen, 
dogera dseg-iim. Denum eallum wearB 
lefter J>am waal-reese willa gelumpen. 

825 Hsefde ]»a gefielsod, sg ]>e ser feorran com, 
snotor ond swyS-ferhS sele HroBgarea, 
genered wis *nitSe ; niht-weorce gefeh, Fed. 
ellen-mierbum. Hsefde East-Denum 
Geat-mecga leod gilp gelassted, 

830Jswylce oncyjrtie ealle ( rfgjjgB B) 
jinwid-sorge, Jie hie ier dragon 
loud for }>rea-nydum ]>olian acoldon, 
'torn unlytel. ^J^Bt wses tacen sweotol, 
syJ>San JSfloje-sieor) hond alegde, 

835 earm ond eaxle (]>jer wses eal geador 
Grendles grape) under g§apne hr[<5f]. 


©a wses on morgen, mine gefriege, 
ymh )?a gif-healle guS-rinc monig ; 
fSrdon folc-togan feorran ond riean 

840 geond wid-wegas wundor sceawian, 
la)«8 lastaa. NO his lif-gedal 
sarllc Juihie secga tenegum, 
|>ara J>e tlr-leasea trode sceawode, 
rra he werig-mdd on weg )>anon, 

845 nI5a ofercumen on nicera mere, 

f»ge ond geflymed, feorh-lastas bser. 

MS. defective at edge. Cf. 1. 926. 



Bier wsee on Mode brim weallende, 

atol ySa geewing eal gemenged 

haton heolfre, *heoro-dreore, weol ; FoL 1*B*. 

850 deaS-fsege deog, siSS'an dreama leas 

in fen-freoSo feorh alegde, 

hffijjene sawle ; J>eer him hel onfeng. 

panou eft gewiton eald-gealSas, 

swylce geong manig of gomen-waJ>e, 
855 fram mere mddge mearuni ridan, 

beornaa on blancum. Bier wses Bebwulfea 

mierSo mlened; monig oft gecwaeS, 

hsette suS ne norB be stem tweonum 

ofer eormen-grund ifyei ntenig 
860 under swegles begong sSlra niere 

rond-hiebbendra, rices wyrtSra. 

Ne hie hum wine-drihten wiht ne logon, 

glsedne HrotSgar, ae J»aet wtes g6d cyning. 

Hwllum heajw-rofe hleapan leton, 
865 on geflit faran, fealwe mearas, 

Bjer him fold-wegas ftegere ]>uhton, 

cystura cu8e. Hwilum cyninges ]>egn, 

guma gilp-hlaeden, gidda gemyiidig, 

ae Be eal-fela eald-gesegena 
870 worn gemunde, word 6)jer fand 

sotSe gobunden. Secg eft ongan 

sIC Beowulfes snyttrum "styrian, Pol. 149". 

ond on aped wrecan apel gerade, 

wordum wrixlan ; wel-hwylc gecwseB, 

849. MS. 'hut on heolfre,' and bo Wiileker. Orein *h5tan' = Mton 
in the text. The reading in the teit is much easier than that of the- 
MS., and 1. 1423 turns the probability in its favour. 

670 — 1. Rieger and Bngge put 'word...gebanden' in a parenthesis. 



875 J»set he tram Sigemunde[s] secgan hyrde 
ellen-diedum, uncubes fela, 
WaslsiDges gewin, wide siSas, 
blira be gumena beam gearwe ne wiston, 
ftehSe ond fyrena, buton Fitela mid hine, 

880 bonne he swulces hwiet secgan wolde 
earn his nefan, swa hie a wieron 
set nI3a gehwam nyd-gesteallan ; 
haafiion eal-fela eotena cynnes 
sweordum gesteged. Sigemunde gesprong 

885 seller deaU-dfege ddm unlytel, 

sybSan wiges heard wyrm acwealde, 
hordes hyrde ; he under harne stan, 
sebelinges beam, ana gengffde 
frecne dtede ; ne wees him Fitela mid ; 

890 hwaebre him gesielde, Csst baet swurd burhwod 
wraetllcne wyrm, bset hit on wealle setstod, 
dryhtlic iren ; draca morfSre awealt. 
Hcefde aglieca erne gegongen, 
bset he" beah-hordes brucan moste 

895 Belfes dome; *s£e-bat gehleod, Foi. H9». 

bser on bearm scipea beorhte Ertetwa 
Wtelses eafera; wyrm hat gemealt. 
^ S6 wses wreccena wide niferost 
ofer wer-beode, wlgendra hleo, 

900 ellen-diedum ; he bses ser onSah. 

875. MS. ' Sigemanda.' Grcin'a emendation * Sigemnndee ' is good 
in itself, and ia the more probable in that the next word begins with i. 
880. Heyne normalises to ' swyloes.' 

896. Man; editors normalise to ' gehlsd.' Sievera § 392, X. 3. 

897. Earle adopts Bcherer'a emendation 'bst[e] t ' with heat. 

900. Gosijn's emendation ' aron 5ah,' with honours throve, is adopted 
by Heyne and by Earle. For aron = drum of. mypon 1. 1151, and hiaf- 


SiBHan Heremodes hild aweSrode, 
eafoV ond ellen ; he mid eotenum wearB 
on feonda geweald forS forlacen, 
snude forsended. Hine uorh-wylmas 

905 lemede to lange ; he his leodum wearC, 
eallum tepelingam, to aldor-ceare. 
Swylce oft bemearn im-ran mtelum 
8Wi5-ferhJ>e3 sis snotor ceorl monig, 
b§ be him bealwa to bote gelyfde, 

910 Jraet bast Seodnes beam gebeon scolde, 
faeder sefelum onion, folc gehealdan, 
hord ond hleo-burh, hseleba rice, 
fiKel Scyldinga. Hs bigr eallum wearB, 
mseg Higelaces manna cynne, 

915 freondum gefegra; hine fyren onwOd, 
Hwilum flitende fealwe striete 
mearum nueton. Da waee morgen-Ieoht 
scofen ond acynded. *Eode scealc monig Fol. 160*. 
swIS-hicgende to sele bam hean 

920 aearo-wundor seon; swylce self cyning 
of bryd-bure, beah-horda weard, 
tryddode tir-faest getrume micle, 
cystum gecybed, ond his cwen mid him 
medo-stig gemset mtegba hose. 

don L 1242, and for the phrase cf. ureorS-wyndum. )>ak 1. 8. Nevertheless 
I cannot bring myself to abandon the clear reading of the MS., which 
makes at least as good sense as many another passage. 

902. MS. 'earfoS,' retained by Wulcker; cf. L 534. On the other 
hand, see 11. 602, 2349. 906. MS. ' a?NlUngnm. ' 

911. There appears to be no sufficient reason for making a com- 
pound, fa'deT-afyelum, here, as the editors do. Cf. 11. 21, 1479. 

916. Some editors mark the close of this episode by a space between 
this line and the next. There is nothing more than a dot in the MS., 
not a fresh line, nor even a capital to hwilum. 

)#,«* by Google 

925 Hr&Bgar ma]?elode; he to bealle geong, 
stod on stapole, geseah steapne hrof 
golde iahne ond Grendles hond : 
"Disse ansyne Al-wealdan fane 
lungre gelimpe. Fela ic Ia)>es gebad, 

930 giynna set Qrendle; a mteg God wyrcan 
wunder tefter wundre, wuldres Hyrde. 
©set wses unggara, ptet ic senigra mS 
weana ne wende to wldan feore 
bote gebldan, ]n>nne blode fah, 

935 husa sgleBt heoro-dreorig stod; 
wea wid-scofen witena gehwylcne, 
Sara Jje ne wendon, )>Eet hie wide-ferhB 
leoda land-geweorc lapum beweredon 
•acuccum ond scinnum. Nu scealc hafaS PoL lBO*. 

940 purh Drihtnes miht died gefremede, 
6e we ealle Sr ne meahton 
smyttrum besyrwan. Hwset ! \wA secgan maeg 
efne awa hwyle meegps., swa Sone magan cende 
sefter gum-cynnum, gyf heo gyt lyfaB, 

945 past hyTe eald Metod este ware 
bearn-gebyrdo. Nu ic, Beowulf, )>ec, 
secg betata, me for sunu wylle 
frtiogan on ferhpe ; heald forS tela 
niwe sibbe. Ne bis pe [njajnigro gad 

950 worolde wilna, pe ic geweald hsebbe. 
Ful oft ic for lsessan lean teohhode, 

945. Heyne ' eald-metod.' 
949. MS. ' teuigie.' 



hord-weor)mnge, hnahran rince, 
fiiemran let asecce. . pu J>5 self hafast 
diedum gefremed, Jraet )>in [domj lyfatS 

955 awa to aldre. Al-walda bee 

gode forgylde, sw» he nu gyt dyde!" 
Beowulf mabelode, beam Ec[g]beowes : 
" We )»8Bt ellen-weorc estum miclum, 
feohtan fremedon, frecne geneSdon 

960 eafoB uncubes ; ube ic swibor, 

beet Su hiue selfne geseon moste, 

feond on fhetewum fyl-wfirigne. 

Ic trine hnedlice *heardan clammum Pol. 151*. 

on wssl-bedde wriban bohte, 

965 bset ha for wiwnd-gripe milium scolde 
licgean lif-bysig, butan his lie swice; 
ic hiue ne mihte, ba Metod nolde, 
gauges getwiemao ; no ic him bses georne astfealh, 
feorh-geniSlan ; wses to fore-mihtig 

970 feond on febe. Hwaebere he his folme forlst 
to llf-wrabe last weardian, 
eanu ond eaxle ; no bier ainige swa beah 
fe'a-Bceaft guma rrofre gebohte ; 
no by leng leofaS laS-getSona 

975 synnum geswenced ; ac hyne sar hafaS 
t in njd-gripe nearwe befongen, 

balwon bendumj Ster abidan sceal 
maga mane fab miclan domes, 

954. Kemble'i emendation. No gap in MS. 
903. MS. 'aim.' 

96S. MB. 'hand gripe.' Xemble'a emendation is required for the 
sake of the alliteration. 

97S. MS. 'mid gripe'; Thorpe 'nTS-gripe'; Bugge 'nyd-gripe.' 



hu him ecu* Metod scrifan wille." 
) ±)a wiea swigra secg sunn Ec[g]lafes 

on gylp-spnece guB-geweorca, 

sibSan abelingas eorles crsefte 

ofer heaane hrdf hand sceawedon, 

("Sondes fingras, foran ieghwylc ; 
i Wffia steda nregla gehwylc style gellcoat, 

ha'benes hand-aporu, *bilde-rinces Fol. lBl". 

egl unheoru ; ieghwylc gecwseo", 

bset him heardra nan hiinan wolde 

iren ier-god, biBt Sffis ahliecan 
> hlddge beadu-folme onberan wolde. 


©a wses haten hrebe Heort innan-weard 
folmum geffcetwod ; feta biera was 
wera ond wifa, be baet win-reced, 
gest-sele, gyredon. Gold-fag scinon 
995 web after wagum, wundor-siona fela 

uecga gehwylcum, bara be on swylc ataraC. 
Waes bset beorhte bold tobrocen swISe, 
eal inne-weard Iren-bendum faest, 

984— S. Suggestions too nnmerons to mention Lave been mode for 
the emendation of these lines. Hejne adopts a, fresh one with each new 
edition. Sievers considers the second half of I. 984 metrically deficient. 
and proposes: 

feondM finfjras: foran ieghwylo vies 
atlSra megla style gelloost. 
986. MS. 'bilde hilde rinoes,' the first Hide being the last word on 
the page, tbe second the first word overleaf. In anoh cases italics in 
the text seem needless. For hand-tporu see Sievers g 979. 



heorras tohlidcne ; brof ana genres 
1000 ealles ansund, pa se aglSca 

fyren-diedum fag on fleam gewand, 

aldres orwena. No J>set ytie byB 

to befleonne, frerame se be wille ; 

ac gesacan sceal sawl-berendra, 
1005 nyde genydde, nibSa bearaa, 

grund-buendra, gearwe stOwe, 

bier hie lic-homa leger-bedde fiest 

swefeji jefter symle. pit wshs siel ond mail, 

bast to bealle 'gang Healfdenes sunu ; Pol. 153*. 
1010 wolde self cyning symbel bicgan. 

Ne gefrsegen ic ba mieg^e maran weorode 

ymb hyra sino-gyfan afil gebteran. 

Bugon ba to bence blsed-agende, 

fylle gefiegon ; fegere gebiegon 
1015 medo-ful manig magas bara, 

1000. MS. 'I*.' 

1002 — 6. These lines, aa given in Holder's edition, show the principal 
emendations tbat have been suggested: 

No (■*( jSe byS 
to befleonne (fnmme se N willel), 
ac geaSean sceal sawl-berendra [gehwa], 
nyde genydeif nij^a bearna. 
1013. Thorbelin A 'bleed agande,' B 'bhed agande.' The MB. now 
haa only blad left, and de on the next line. 

1014 — 5. Bugge proposed to put these two lines in parentheses, be- 
cause of "the difficulty of finding an antecedent for Hra." Heyne (5th 
edition) and Earle adept the suggestion. This can only be on the 
principle — of two difficulties choose the greater. What a master of 
the parenthesis- atyle the "scop" must have been, to keep his hearers 
waiting for the subject of bugon, past two other finite verbs with a diffe- 
rent subject, until four lines lower down! And what is to hinder the 
antecedent of barn being implied in btad-dgewde, in speaking of a court 


swHS-hicgende, on Bele jiaui hean, 
HroSgar ond Hrobulf. Heorot inuan waes 
freondum afylled ; nalles taeen-atafas 
peod-Scyldingas benden fremedon. 

1020 Forgeaf j>a Ei'owulfe beam Healfdenes 
segen gyldenne sigores to leane, 
hroden hilte-cumbor, helm ond byrnan ; 
micro maSbum-sweord manige gesawon 
beforan beorn bcran. Beowulf gebah 

1025 nil on flette. No he J>iere feoh-gyfte 
for scotenum scamigan Corfte; 
ne gefraegn ic freondlicor feower madmas 
golde gegyrede gum-manna fela 
in ealo-bence 68 rum gesellan. 

1030 Tmb bses helmes hrof heafod-beorge 
wirum bewunden wala utan heold, 
bast him fela *Iafe frecne ne meahton Pol. lfia*. 

•here everyone was donbtless related to everyone alee, as in a Scotch 

1030. MS. 'brand.' 

1026. MS. 'scotenum'; Grein 2 ■ sooterum ' -, W flicker ' aceotendum,' 
for -which of. 11. 703, 1151. Heyne quotes oxenum, m/enum, as eiamplea 
of similar weak dat. pis. 

1030 — 1. The MS. has 'heafod beorge wirum be wunden walan utan 
beold.' Ettmiiller 'wala,' adopted by Grein. If we leave the MS. read- 
ing unaltered, there is a choice of difficulties. Either we must take walan 
as subject and htafod-beorge as object, with a striking violation of gram- 
matical concord in the verb heold; or we must (with Eeyne and Sooin) 
take heafod-beorge as a weak fem. nonn in the nom. and vraltm as object, 
with considerable loss to the sense. The nom. pi. icOr-beorge ("Ruin" 
5) also tells against the latter view, which has no support from analogy. 

1082. Thorkelin 'laf' (now gone in the MS.). On account of this 
reading, Bugge ("Beitrige" xii. 92) supports Thorpe's emendation 
meahte, confirming it by the form tear-heard in the next line, and by a 
reference to Sievera: "der erste halbvers ist naoh den untersnchnngen 

), oi :, E ed by Google 

sciir-heard sce|>5aii, f>onne scyld-freca 
ongean gramum gangan scolde. 

1035 Heht Sa, eorla hleo eahta uiear&s 
fieted-hleore on flet teon, 
in under eoderas; bara anum stod 
sadol searwum fah, since gewur)>ad ; 
)«et weeB hilde-aetl heah-cyninges, 

1040 Sonne sweorda gelac sunu Healfdenes 
efnan wolde ; nfiifre on ore lteg 
wid-cubea wig, Sonne walu feollon. 
Ond 8a Beowulfe bega gehwae)>res 
eodor Ingwina onweald geteah, 

1045 wicga ond wiepna; net hints wel bruean. 
Swa, manlice mcere beoden, 
hord-weard haelejia, heajjo-raSsas geald 
meanim ond madmum, swa hy tiiefre man lyhS, 
se be secgaii wile soS setter rihte. 


1050 Da, gyt igghwylcum eorla drihten, 

bara be mid Beowulfe brim-lade teah, 
on btere medu-bence mabSum geaealde, 
yr*fe-lafe ; ond bone ienne heht PoL 153*. 

golde forgyldan, bone Se Grendel a?r 

1055 mane acwealde, swa he" hyra ma wolde, 

Sievers' ("Beitrage" x. 456) metriaoh unriohtig." It is a curious com- 
mentary OQ this last reason, that Sisveru himself quotes the line, with 
the form lafe, among the examples of his type A {"Beit." x. 273). 
1061. MS. 'leads.' 



nefhe him witig God wyrd forstSde, 
on el Sees mannes mod. Me tod eallum weold 
guinoria cynnes, swa he" nu git d53 ; 
forhan bis andgit seghwcer seleet, 

1060 ferhSes fore-|>auc. Fela sceal gebldan 
leofes ond lakes, ae )>e longe her 
on Byesum win-dagum worolde bruceS. 
jTjer wa38 sang ond swgg samod astgsBdere 
fore Healfdenes hilde-wlsan, 

1065 gomen-wudu greeted, gid oft wrecen, 
Sonne heal-gamen Hr5)>gares ecop 
after medo-bence mifaian scolde: 
" Finnes eaferum, tSa hie se fier begeat, 
hseleC Healf-Dena, Hnief Scyldinga, 

1070 in Fres-wsele feallan scolde. 

Ne huru Hildeburb herian )?orfte 
Eotena treowe; unsynnum weartS 

1068—9. There are one or two difficulties here. (1) Heyne, followed 
by Earle, makes the episode begin with 1. 1069. I agree with Wulcker 
and Bugge in regarding 1. 1068 as the commencement, partly because this 
helps to get rid of the difficult; of (2) the government of eaferum. Kemble 
'[be] Finnes eaferum'; Heyne and Socin 'Finnes eaferum [tram].' I 
follow Grein in regarding eaferum as an instr. pi., with reference to feallan 
scolde. (8) Bugge ("Beitrage" zii. 29) has shown that the emendation 
Healfdenet for Healf-Dena is misleading, the latter being a tribal name, 
nuchas we find in II. 1,113,388,392. (a) Ioannot follow Bugge, when he 
goes on to explain hale% as ace. pi,, anticipated by Aie in the previous line. 
This is to force hie from its natural and obvious meaning, as referring to 
eaferum. He quotes as a parallel the hit of 1. 1705; but the cases are 
not analogous, in that hit cannot possibly refer to anything gone before. 
I therefore take fueltfS, with Heyne and Earle, as aom. sing., Hnaf 
Scyldinga being a parallel expression to haMti Healf-Dena. 

1070. MS. 'inures wele': "r altered from some other letter, after it 
a letter erased, then ei on an erasure: that /res is all that the scribe 
intended to write, is shown by a line connecting r and t." — Zupitza. 



beloren leofiim set Jiara Jwid-plegan, 
bearnum ond broSrum ; hie on gebyrd hruron 

1075 gare *wunde ; jrart wsbb geomuru ides. Fol. i58 b . 
Nalles holinga Hoces dohtor 
meotod-sceaft bemearn, ay)>6an morgen coin, 
Sa heo under swegle geseon meabte 
morbor-bealo maga, Jwir hfi[o] ser mieste heold 

1080 worolde wynne. Wig ealle fornam 

Finnes begnas, iiemne feaum anum, 
)wet he ne mehte on )>sem meSel-stede 
wig Hengeste wiht gefeohtan, 
ne )«i wea-lafe wige forjmngan 

1085 Jieodnes Begne ; ac hig him ge]>ingo budon, 
)>aet hie him oiSer flet eal gerymdon, 
healle ond heah-setl, J>fet hie healfre geweald 
wis Eotena beam agan moaton, 
ond set feoh-gyftum Folcwaldan sunu 

1090 dogra gehwylce Dene weorbode, 
Hengeates heap hringum wenede, 
eme awa awiBe ainc-geatreonum 
faittan goldes, swa he Fresena cyn 
on beor-aele byldan wolde. 

1095 £>a hie getruwedon on twa healfa 
fseste frioffu-waere; Fin Hengeate 
elne unnitme a3um "benomde, Fol. 154*. 

Jiast he }>a wea-lafe weotena dome 
arum heolde, ]raet 5ier tenig mon 

1100 wordum ne worcum wtere ne briece, 
ne J>urh inwit-aearo sefre gemienden, 
Seah hie hira beag-gyfan banan folgedon 


fieod en -lease, J>a him swa gehearfod wsas. 
Gyf bonne Frysna hwylc frecnu-n sprtece 

1105 Bees morbor-hetes myndgiend waire, 
bonne hit sweordes ecg sytSSan acolde. 
AS vnes getefned, ond icge gold 
ahsefen of horde. Here-Scylditiga 
betet beado-rinca wsea on baU gearu; 

1110 aet bairn ade waea eb-gesyne 

awat-fah ayrce, swyn eal-gylden, 
eofer iron-heard, sealing manig 
wundum awyrded ; sume on wsele crungon. 
Het oa Hildeburh aet Hntefes ade 

1115 hire aelfre sunu sweoloSe befestan, 
ban-fatu bEeman ond on bail don; 
earme on eaxle ides gnornode, 
geomrode giddum. Gu5-rinc aatah. 
Wand *t6 wolcnum wsel-fyra mast, FoL 

1120 hlynode for hlawe; hafelan multon, 

ben-geato buraton; Sonne blod Eetspranc 
laB-bite lines. Lig ealle forswealg, 
gsesta glfroat, bara Be beer gu5 fornam 
bega folces; wass him bleed scacen. 

1125 Gewiton him Sa wigeod wica neosian 
freondum befeallen, Frysland geseon, 
1104. Znpitza'a transliteration 'freonen gpneoe'; Wlllcker 'frec- 

1118. OnmdtTig 'gOS-rie' (bat he read -rim for rine in the MS.). 
Skeat supports this reading by 1. 3141, and Elau 795: "reo istlgan," 
and compares giiS-rlc with the compound wxl-ffr in the neit line. 


hamas ond hea-burh. Hengest 8a gyt 
wael-fagne winter wunode mid Finn 
el[ne] un/litme; eard gemunde, 

1130 ]>eah )>e h6 [ne] meahte on mere drifan 
hringed-stefnan ; holm storme wfiol, 
won wis winde ; winter ybe beleac 
Is-gebinde, op Baet o]>er com 
gear in geardas, swa nu gyt d&S, 

1135 y& 5e syngales sele bewitiaS, 

wuldor-torhtau weder. Da wses winter scacen, 

feger foldan bearm; fund ode wrecca, 

gist of geardum ; he to gym-wnece 

swISor *bohte, )>onne to ste-lade, Fol. 155*. 

1140 gif h§ torn-gem6t Jmrhteon mihte, 
baet he Gotena beam inne gemunde. 
Swa h8 ne forwyrnde worold-r^denne, 
bonne him Hunlanog hilde-leoman, 
billa selest, on bearm dyde ; 

1128 — 9. MS. 'mid finnel nnhlitme'; Heyne 'mid Finne [eallee] 
nnhlitme ' ; Rieger suggested the emendation in the text from 1. 1097, and 
has been followed by Grein and Wfllcker. 

1130. Grundtvig's emendation ; Grein read ne in place of he. Cf. 1. 

1142 — i. In this difficult passage I have preserved the MS. reading. 
In 1. 1148, it has 'bun lafing,' which Znpitza transliterates 'hun-lafing.' 
We constantly find proper names divided into two parts in the MS. , e.g. 
'hrcS gar,' 1. 889; 'hun lafing,' therefore, may stand equally well for 
Ifunlafing or for Hun Lafing. There is much in this whole episode which 
is still obscure and uncertain, and until more light is thrown upon it, I 
adhere to the MS. and to Grein's explanation of the text. While accept- 
ing generally Holler's reconstruction of the Finn saga (for which see his 
"Das altenglische Volksepos"), I cannot adopt his emendation teerod- 
rSdaau, which is accepted by Bugge (who, however, assigns to it a 
signification different from Moller's], Heyne and Bocin, and Earle. For 
one thing, the form worod is unknown to O.E. poetry. With regard to this 



1145 jjies wseron mid Eotenum ecge cufte. 
Swylce ferhS-frecan Fin eft begeat 
aweord-bealo slioen set his selfes ham, 
sijri5an grimne gripe GuSlaf ond Oslaf 
sefter sffi-siSe sorge miendon, 

1150 setwiton weana dasl; ne meahte wtefre mod 
forhabban in hrehre. Da wsea heal hroden 
feonda fSoruni, awilce Fin sUegen, 
cyning on corjTe, ond seo cw€n numen. 
SoSotend Scyldinga to acypon feredon 

1155 eai in-geateald eorti-cyninges, 

swylce hie set Finnes ham Gndan meahton 

sigla, searo-gimma. Hie on sae-lade 

drihtlice wif to Denum feredon, 

lieddon *tfl leodum." LeoS webs asungen, Fol. 155". 

1160 gleo-manries gyd. Gamen eft astah, 
beorhtode benc-swgg; byrelas sealdon 
win of wunder-fatum. pa cwom Wealhbe'o forS 
gan under gyldnum beage, Jreer fa godan twegen 
saeton suhter-gefsederan ; )>a gyt waes hiera sib 

1165 ieghwylc 6Srum trywe. Swylce J>Sr Pnferjj py\e 

particular emendation and to the whole of Bugge's ingenious argumenta- 
tion {for which gee "Beit-rage" sii. 32 — 97)— wherein he surmises that 
Hun is identical with the Him of "Widsith" 33, and that Lujlng is the 
name of a sword which Hun laid upon Hengest's breast when the latter, 
the better to compass his revenge, "did not refuse to declare himself 
Finn's liegeman" {an interpretation which involves a material depar- 
ture bom Mdller's reconstruction of the saga) — my opinion of all this is 
simply "not proven." And if not proven, it is much more complicated 
than Grain's explanation, and not a whit more consistent, as I think, 
with the accepted reconstructions of the whole saga. 

1151. Brjgge 'roden' ( = reddened). 

1165. MS. 'hun ferj>.' 

W. B. 4 

), oi :, E ed by Google 

set fotum aset frean Scyldinga ; gehwylc hiora his 

ferhj>e trfiowde, 
|7set he hasfde mod micel, heah be he his magum 

ar-fffist set ecga gelacum. Spwec Ba ides Scyldinga: 
" Onfoh pissum fulle, freo-drihten mln, 

1170 sinces brytta; ]ju on ssfilum wes, 

gold-wine gumena, ond t6 Geatum spree 
mildum wordum, ewa sceal man don. 
Beo wit! Geataa glffid, geofena gemyndig; 
nSan ond feorran Jm nu [freoSo] hafaat. 

1175 Me man seegde, ]>set *]>u 85 for sunu wolde FoL 166». 
here-ri[n]c habban. Heorot is geGelsod, 
beah-sele beorbta; bruc )>enden )>u mete 
manigra m&tla, ond junum magum lief 
folc ond rice, bonne Bu fortt acyle 

1180 metod-sceaft seon. Ic minne can 

glsedne Hr6)wlf, J>set he ]«i geogoSe wile 
arum bealdan, gyf Jnl air bonne he, 
wine Scildinga, worold oflietest ; 
wene ic, )>set h6 mid gOde gyldan wille 

1185 uncran eaferan, gif h€ ]>sst eal gem on, 

hwast wit to willan ond to worS-myndum 
umbor-wesendum air arua gefremedon." 
Hwearf (jb. bi bence, J>ter hyre byre wieron, 
HreSric ond HroSmund, ond haeleba beam, 

1190 giogoS setgsedere; bjgr se goda sset, 

BSowulf Geata, be btBm gebrOSrum twaem. 
1171. MS. 'sprfee.' 
1174. Ho gap in MS. Ettmiiller ' [friSu],' which I have spelt M in 

1. 188. 

1176. M8. 'heretic' 

1178. MS. defective at edge ; AB ' medo.' 



Him wses ful boren, ond freond-la)>u 
wordum bewsegned, ond wunden gold 
estum geeawed, earm-[h]reade twa, 

1195 hnegl ond brin*gas, heals-beaga rarest, Pol. Ifi6 b . 
bih-a )>e ic on foldan gefhegen hffibbe. 
Njenigne ic under swegle selran hyrde 
hord-madmum hseleba, sybCan Hania ajtw&g 
t5 Jwsre byrhtan byrig Brosinga mene, 

1200 sigle ond sine-fast, eearo-nlSas flgah 
Eormenrices, geceas eene ried. ^ 
pone hring htefde Higelac Geata, 
nefa Swertinges, nyhstan siCe, 
siffban hS under segne sine ealgode, 

1205 wssl-reaf werede; hyne wyrd fornam, 

1194. MB. 'earm reade'; Grein •earm-[h]iriide.' 

1199. MS. 'here'; Ettmiiller 'J>5re.' 

1200. MS. ■ fe&lh ' ; Leo, Grqndtvig, Coaijn, Bugge 'fleah.' Bngge's 
argument is conclusive ("Beitrage" xii. 69 B.). Fiolaa never governs an 
accQB., asjJeora does. "Fleah is confirmed by the fact, that according to 
the aaga llama in reality 'fled from tbe enmity of Eormenric 1 ." [Earle's 
note on I. 1201 is somewhat misleading;. He says that Btigge "finds that 
Hama entered religious life, and that this is the proper sense of geceaa 
lent rad." Bugge's own words are: "Ich verstehe geceas ecne rad so: 
'er wnrde ein frommer maim, so dass er, als er atari), zur seligkeit ein- 
gieng'." The cloister, to which Hama retired after he had fled from 
Eormenric, Bngge thinks is referred to in iters byrhtan byrig (1. 1199), 
for the Thidrekesaga says that Hama brought much gold and silver to 
the cloister. See "Beitrage" *"■ 70, 71.] 

1205. Wnlcker 'Wyrd,' with a capital, here and in 1. 477, but nowhere 
else, not even in 2811 (cf. with 477). Heyne uses a capital initial in 11. 
156, 477, 2420, 2526, 2574, 2611, but not in this line. Neither of these 
editors ever uses a capital for the names of the Christian Deity. A fair 
record of inconsistencies. 

4— 2 



sybBan he" for wlenco wSan ahsode, 
/ tShSe to Frysum. H5 )>a fhetwe waeg, 

^ eorclan-stanas, ofer yTSa fill, 

t rice )>eoden; hfi under rande gecranc 

r 1210 Qehwearf )>a in Francna fefm feorh cyningee, 
"" brSost-gewiiedu ond se beah somod; 

t wyrsan wlg-frecan wsel reafedon 

I letter guS-sceare ; Geata leode 

hrea-wlc heoldon. Heal Bwege onfSng. 
~ 1215 WealhBeo mahelode, heo fore )>g;m werede sprscc : 

"Bruc hisses beages, Beowulf leofa, 

hyse, mid hsele, * ond pisses hi-aegles neot, Fol. 157*. 

beo[d]-gestreona, ond gebeoh tela; 

cen bee mid cneffce, ond hyssum cnyhtum wes 
1220 lara liSe ; ic )>§ press lean geman. 

Hafast J»u gefBred, J>set 56 feor ond neah 

ealne wlde-ferhb weras ehtigaS, 

efne swa aide swa sse bebugeC 

windge [e]ard-weallaa. Wes, benden J»u lifige, 
1225 sealing eadig ; ic J>e an tela 

sinc-gestreona. Bfio )>u suna minum 

diedum gedefe, dream fiealdende. 

Her is teghwylc eorl 6brum getrywe, 

modes milde, man-drihttie bol[d] ; 
1230 J>egnas syndon gebwiere, beod eal gearo. 

1212. MS. 'reafeden.' 

1218. MS. 'Jieo ge streona.' 

1224. MS. 'wind geard weallas'; Ettmiillar ' windige weallas,' cf. 1. 
572. The emendation in the text is Kemble's. 

1226. Wfiloker pats a comma after aMing, making it a vocative. It 
seems to me that such breaks in the half-line are to be avoided wherever 
possible. Cf. II. 130, 2188, 2342. 

1229. MS. 'hoi.' 


Druncne dryht-guman, d6S swa, ic bidde." 
Eode )>a to setle. pfer waes syinbla cyst, 
druncon win weras; wyrd ne cu]k>o, , 
geo-sceaft gritnme, swa bit agaugen wearU 

1235 eorla manegum. SybBan Sifen cw8m, 

ond him Hr6j>gar gewat to hofe sinum, 
rice to raeste, reced weardode 
unrim eorla, swa hie oft ier dydon. 
Benc-belii beredon ; hit geond-brieded wearK 

1240 beddum ond bolstnim. Beor-scealca sum 

fus ond fsege flet-neste ge*b€ag. Foi. l 

Setton him t& heafdon hilde-randas, 
bord-wudu beorhtan ; bier on bence wass 
ofer febelinge yb-geseDe 

1245 heabo-stSapa helm, hringed byrne, 
]>reG-wudu brymlic. Wses beaw hyra, 
bast hie oft wieron an wig gearwe 
ge aet ham ge on herge, ge gehwaeber para 
efne swylce maela, awylce hira man-dryhtne 

1250 pearf gesaelde; wses seo beod tilu. 


Sigon pa to sliepe. Sum sare aogeald 
iefen -raeste,. swa him ful oft gelamp, 
sipSan gold-sele Qrendel warode, 

1234. MS. 'grimne 1 ; Ettmiiller 'gritnme.' 

1247. MS. 'anwig gearwe'; Ettmiiller (adopted by Grein) 'Snwlg- 
gearwe,' ready for tingle combat, 

12S3. Znpitza: "vaTOde MS. M wellwAB; the parchment under tea 
is rather thin, and besides there is a blot on the two letters." Hence the 
word has several times been misread farodt. 



unriht sefnde, ob Jraet ende becwora, 
1255 swylt iefter synnum. pset gesyne wearb, 

wld-cub werum, Jiaette wrecend |>a gyt 

lifde aefter lajmm, lange [rage 

sefter guB-ceare ; Grendles mSdor, 

idea, aglsec-wlf, yrmbe gemunde, 
1260 se J>e wseter-egesan wuniao scolde, 

cealde etre&mas, sibSan Cain wearB 

to ecg-banan angan breber, 

federen-majge ; he ba fag gewat, 

morbre gemearcod, *man-dreara fleon, FoL 168*. 
1265 westen warode. panon woe fela 

geo-sceaft-gasta ; webs ("vera Grendel sum, 

heoro-wearh hetelic, se iBt Heorote fand 

waeccendne wer wiges bidan. 

pier him aglieca artgrffipe wearB ; 
1270 hwasbre he gemunde msegenes strenge, 

gim-foste gife, Se him God sealde, 

ond him to Anwaldan are gelyfde, 

frOfre ond fultum ; By hS bone feond ofercwom, 

gehniegde helle gast. pa. he" hean gewat, 
1275 dreame bedieled, deab-wic seon, 

mau-cyiincs feond. Ond his modor ba gyt 

gifre ond galg-mdd gegan wolde 

sorh-fulne sIS, sunn deati wrecan ; 

com f>a to Heorote, Brer Hring-Dene 
1280 geond ]>set sseld awjgfun. pa Bier sona wearS 

ed-hwyrft eorlum, sibBan inne fealh 

1271. Thorpe, Greirt, Sweet 'gin'teete.' For the change of n 
before labials, of. Mim-bed, L 3034, and see Sievei'8, § 137, N. 
1278. MS. 'sunn J>eod.' Ettmoller's emendation. 



Grendles modor. Wtes se gryre liessa 

ef'ne swa micle, swa bis meegpa, crseft, 

wig-gryre wifes, be wrepned-men, 
1285 ('onne heoru bunden, hamere gefmren, 

sweord swate fah swin ofer helme, 

ecgum *dyhtig andweard sciretf. Pol. 158". 

Da wees on healle heard-ecg togen 

sweord ofer setlum, aid-rand manig 
1290 hafen handa feat ; helm ne gemunde, 

byrnan side, f>a hine se broga angeat. 

Heo was on ofste, wolde fit Jianon 

feore beorgan, (?a heo onfunden wies; 

hra&e h$o a^elinga anne hasfde 
1295 fseste befangen; J>a heo to fenne gang. 

Se webs Hro)>gare haeleha leofost 

on gesiSes had be stem tweonum, 

rice rand-wiga, bone Se heo on rseste abreat, 

blfed-fsestne beorn. Nses Beowulf Bier, 
1300 ac wses fiber in jer geteohhod 

fefter mab&im-gife miBrum Gfiate. 

Hream wearC in Heorote ; heo under heolfre genam 

cfij»e folme; cearu waes geniwod, 

geworden in wicun. Ne wses bast gewrixle til, . 
1305 bset hie on ba healfa bicgan scoldon 

frSonda fgorum. pk webs frod cyning, 

hax hilde-rine, on hr€on *mode, Vol. 159*. 

sySban hs aldor-begn unlyfigendne, 

bone deorestan doadne wisse. 
1310 Hrabe wses to bure Beowulf fetod, 

sigor-eadig secg; samod Sir-daege 

1201. Heync, Sweet, and others emend 't>e hine,' whom — at onoe 
ingenious, logical, pedantic, and unnecessary. 



eode eorla sum, etyele cempa 

self mid geeiBum, hjSr se snotera bad, 

hwEeJte him AJ-walda sefre wille 

1315 after wga-spelle wyrpe gefremman. 
Gang Ba after flore fyrd-wyrtSe man 
mid his hand-scole (heal-wudu dynede), 
|»et he )*>ne wisan wordum iiaigdo 
frean Ingwina, fnegn gif him wiere 

1320 after neod-laBu niht getfese. 


HroSgar maj>elode, helm Scyldinga : 
" Ne rrin J»u after salum ; sorb, is genlwod 
Denigea leodum. Dead is Jischere, 
Trmenlafes yldra brobor, 

1325 min run-wita ond mln rSd-bora, 
eaxl-gestealla, Sonne w§ od orlege 
hafelan weredon, bonne hniton feban, 
eoferas cnysedan. *Swy[lc] scolde eorl Pol. WW. 

[sealing] ar-gfid, swylc Machere wees. 

1330 Wears him on Heorote to hand-banan 
wal-gast wSfre ; ic ne wat hwader 

1314. MS. 'alf walila.' Cf. 11. 316, 955. 

1817. MS. 'hand Male.' Cf. 1. 1963. There seems absolutely do 
authority or support for the form, which is retained by most editors. 

1816. AB 'hnegde'; now df gone. The h is prosthetic. "Wordum 
□fegan (ntjg&n) " occnrs Elene 267, 659, Exodus 23, etc.' 

1820. Sweet 'neod-lftSe'; but see Seven | 268, N. 2. 

1826. MS. defective at comer; AB 'swy scolde.' 

1329. No gap in MS. 

1331. MS. ' hwtthar.' Toiler gives three instances of huader= kinder. 



atol ajse wlanc eft-siSas teah, 

fylle gefriegnod. Heo ]>& faihSe wnec, 

t>e Jrii gystran niht Grendel cwealdest 

1335 Jmrh hiCstne had heardum clammum, 
for^aa he to lange leode mine 
w anode ond wyrde. He set wige gecrang 
ealdres scyldig, ond nu &per cwom 
mihtig man-scaSa, wolde hyre mieg wrecan, 

1340 ge feor hafaS ftehSe gestaeled, 

Jtea J*e J'hicean mseg ]>egne monegum, 
se J»e setter sinc-gyfan on eefan greote)?, 
hre^er-bealo hearde ; nu seo hand ligeB, 
se ]>e eow wel-hwylcra wilna dohte. 

1345 Ic f>aet lond-buend, leode mine, 
sele-rfedende, secgan hyrde, 
J>aet hie gesawon swylce twegen 
micle mearc-stapan moras healdan, 
ellor-giestas ; 6sera 6Ser was, 

1350' )>ses )>e hie gewislTcost gewitan meahton, 
idese onlicnes; oSer earm-sceapen 
on weres wfestmura wrsec-lastas *tned, Pol. 160*. 
nsefne he" wses mara J>onne senig man ofier, 
)wne on gear-dagum Grendel nemdon 

1355 fold-buende; n5 hie feder cunnon, 
hwje|>er him senig wses set acenned 
dyrnra gasta. Hie dygel lond 
warigeatS, wulf-hlcojm, windige nfessas, 
frecne fen-gelad, Bier fyrgen-stream 

1360 under ntessa genipu nij>er gewiteB, 

1844. Sweet 'i*Q>e'; but cf. a. 1887, 2685. 

1861. MB. 'oulio nsi'; Znpitza 'onlic-DOB'; Sweet 'onlia, wtes.' 
1964. MB. defective it edge; AB 'nemdod'; Znpitza ' nemdofn].' 

), oi :, E ed by Google 


Add under foldan. Nis Jwet feor heonon 
nill-gemearces, beet se mere standeO, 
ofer J»em hongiaB hfimga bearwas, 
wudu wyrtum faest, wsater oferhelmaC, 

1365 JJiSr mseg nihta gehwaim nHS-wnndor seon, 
fyr on flode. No Jreea frod leoiiiS 
gumena bearna, J?8et bx>ne grund wite. 
Dean )?e hit-S-atapa hundum geswenced, 
heorot hornum trum, holt wudu sece, 

1370 feorran geflymed, jar he" feorh seleS, 
aldor on ofre, a?r he in vyille 
hafelan [hydan], Nis htet heoru stow ; 
J>onon yS-geblond up astigeS 
won t5 wolcnum, J?onne wind styreb 

1375 laS gewidru, oB Bset lyft drysmaj', 
roderas reotaB. N6 is se rted gelang 
eft aet *(>§ anum. Eard git ne const, Pol. i60 b . 
frecne atowe, Baer bu findan miht 
feia-sinnigne secg ; sec gif J>u dyrre. 

1380 Ic ]>e" ba fsehBe fSo leanige, 

eald-gestreonum, swa. io eer dyde, 
wundnwm golde, gyf bu onweg cymest." 

1362. MS. 'etanttebV 

1S63. MS. 'hrinde.' The emendation is based on the discovery by 
Dr MorriB of the phrase hrimige bearmai in the Blickling Homilies (see 
the Preface vi, to). 

1373. No gap in MS. Thorpe's emendation. 
1383. MS. 'wun' at end of line, 'dini' or 'dmi' on next line, 
"certainly not dum"; A 'dmi'; B 'dini'i Zupitza 'dini. 1 



Beowulf ma)>elode, beam EcgJ*eowes : 

"Ne sorga, snotor guma; selre bi5 seghwiem, 

1385 bset he his frgond wrece, bonoe he fela murne. 
Ure ieghwylc aceal ende gebidan 
worolde lifes; wyrce s6 pe mote 
domes ser deabe ; Jreet bi5 driht-guman 
unlifgendum tetftei selest. 

1390 Aris, rices weard; uton hra]?e feran, 
Grendles magan gang scSawigan. 
Ie hit J>6 gehate : n6 he on helm losab, 
ne on foldan ftebm, ne on fyrgen-holt, 
ne on gyfenea grand, ga bier he wille. 

1395 Dys dogor bu gebyld hafa 

weana gehwylces, swa ic bg weiie to" 
Ahleop 3a ae gomela, Gode bancode, 
mihtigan Drihtne, ba?s se man ge*spnec. Pol. 161*. 
pa wies HroSgare hors gebseted, 

1400 wicg wunden-feax ; wisa fengel 
geatolic gen[g]de; gum-feba stop 
lind-hsebbendra. Lastas wajron 
aifter wald-swabum wide gesyne, 
gang ofer grundas; gegnum for 

1405 ofer myrcan miir, mago-begna bser 

1390. Sweet 'ra>e,' for the sake of the alliteration; but see Sievers 
§ 217, N. 1. 

1395. Heyne "By» dogor,' accna. of duration ; but the form Uyi lacks 
authority, and see Sievere % 289, and "Beit rage" I. 312. 

1401. MS. 'gende.' 

1404. Heyne adopts the emendation of Sievers, who considers the 
line metrically deficient : ' [t>air boo] gegnum for. ' 


(rone selestan sawol-leasne, 

J>ara pe mid HroUgare ham eahtode. 

OferSode J>a sejrelinga beam 

steap stan-hli5o, stlge nearwe, 
1410 enge an-paSas, uncuS gelad, 

neowle nsessas, nicor-husa fela; 

he feara sum beforan gengde 

wisra morma wong sceawian, 

op |wet hS Seringa fyrgen-bSamas 
1415 ofer harne etan hleonian funde, 

wyn-leasne wudu ; waster under stdd 

dreorig ond gedrgfed. Denum eallum wses, 

winum Scyldinga, weorce on mode 

to ge)>olianne, Segne monegum, 
1420 oncyfl eorla gehwjem, syUJwin ^Escheres 

on J>ftm holm-clife hafelan mgtton. 

Flod blode weol (folc to seegon), 

*hatan heolfre. Horn stundum song Fol. 161*. 

fusllc f[yrd>l6o5. F6p& eal gesaet; 
1425 gesawon 8a setter wsetere wyrm-cynnes fela, 

sellice sse-dracan, sund cunnian, 

awylce on nses-hleoBum nicras licgean, 

Ba on undern-ma?l oft bewitigaB 

sorh-fulne sI5 on segl-rade, 
1430 wyrmas ond wil-deor; hie onweg hruron 

bitere ond gebolgne, bearhtm ongSaton, 

guff-horn galan. Sumne Geata leod 

of flan-bogan feores getweefde, 

yB-gewinnes, past him on aldre stod 
1435 here-stnel hearda; h5 on holme wees 

U24. MS. defective at edge; B ■(...'; Zupitza 'f[yrd]-,' adopting 
the emendation of Bonterwek (1659). 



sundes }>e sienra, 55 hyne swylt foraam. 

Hnejje wearS on yBum mid eofer-spreotum 

heoro-hflcyhtum hearde genearwod, 

niSa genieged ond on nses togen, 
1440 wundorlic wjeg-bora; weras sceawedon 

gryrelicne gist. Gyrede hine Beowulf 

eorl-gewiedum, nalles for ealdre mearn ; 

scolde here-byme hondum gebroden, 

aid ond searo-fah, sund cunnian, 
1445 seo Be ban-cofan beorgan cuj^e, 

]>aet him hilde-grap hrejre ne mihte, 

eorres inwit-feng aldre gesce)>San ; 

ac se hwita helm *hafelan werede, FoL 162*. 

se be mere-gruudas mengan scolde, 
1450 secan sund-gebland since geweorCad, 

befongen frSa-wrasnum, awa hine fyrn-dagum 

worhte wjepna stniB, wundrum t&ode, 

besette swin-llcum, J>a;t hine sySban no 

brond ne beado-mecas bitan ne meahton. 
1455 Nses bast Jronne mietost meegeu-fultuma, 

Jwet him on Bearfe lab. Byle HroSgares; 

webs J>sem hteft-mece Hrunting riama; 

bset waes an foran eald-gestreona ; 

ecg waes iren, ater-tanum fah, 
1460 ahyrded hea)»o-swate ; niefre hit set hilde ne awac 

manna fengum, fjara be hit mid mundum bewand, 

se Be gryre-sitSas gegan dorste, 

folc-stede fare ; oaa f>set forma sis, 

1439. Sweet 'gefhjnieged. 1 But see 1. 2806, where Toller (after 
Qrein) wrongly gives the MS. reading as gehnagdan. 

1469. Heyne and Sooin adopt Cosijn'a emendation, ater-tlamm, 
"with poison drops," which is supported by Sievera. 



hast hit ellen-weorc sefnan scolde. 
1465 Hunt ne gemunde mago Ecglafes 

eafohes crseftig, J>set he ser geaprtec 

wine druncen, ha h§ bses wsepneB onlah 

selran Bweord-frecan ; selfa ne dorste 

under ySa gewin aldre genSban, 
1470 driht-scype dreogan; Jwr he dome forleas, 

ellen-'mserSum. Ne wses )>Eem 6Srum swa, Pol. 162". 

sy5)>an hS nine to gu8e gegyred hsefde. 


Beowulf mabelode, beam EcgJ>6owes: 

"Gepenc ml, se mtera maga Healfdenes, 
1475 snottra fengel, nu ic eom siSea fus, 

gold-wine gumena, hwtet wit gfio BpriBCon: 

gif ic set bearfe plnre scolde 

aldre linnan, J«et Su me" a wrere 

foriS-gewitenum on fseder atiele. 
1480 Wes \>u mund-bora milium mago-begnum, 

hond-gesellum, gif mec hild nime; 

swylce pu Sa madmaa, pe pu mS sealdeat, 

HrSBgar leofa, Higelace onsend. 

Maeg bonne on paim golde ongitan Geata dryhten, 
1485 geseon aunu Hre^les, bonne he on beet sine staraB, 

pset ie gum-cystum godne funde 

beaga bryttan, breac bonne moste. 

1471. AB 'maardara'; Thorpe 'meerSnm'; Znpitza 'mttrBum': "urn 
at the end of the word is still distinct, and before urn I think 1 see a 
considerable part of rS." 

1480. Heyne divides thia line wrongly, after mini™. 
.. I486. MH- 'hrffldles.' 


Ond fii Pnfert liet ealde lafe, 
wrsetlic wieg-sweord, wld-cutSne man 
1490 heard-eeg habban ; ic me mid Hrvmtinge 

dom gewyrce, *o|)5e mec dSaS nimeB." F0LI68*. 
^Efter biem wordum Weder-G6ata leod 
efete mid elne, nalas ondaware 
bidau wolde; brim-wylm onfeng 
1495 hilde-rince. Da wees hwll d^eges, 

ser ha )>one grund-wong ongytan mehte. 
S5na |»aet onftmde, 86 Se flcda begong 
heoro-gifre beheold hund misseraw 
grim ond griedig, beet bier gumena sum 
1500 ael-wihta eard ufan cunnode. 

Grap ba, togfianea, gutt-rinc gefeng 
atolan clommum; no by rer in gescod 
halan lice; bring utan ymbbearb, 
beet heo J>one fyrd-hom Surhfin ne mihte, 
1505 locene leoSo-syrcan, laban fingrum. 

Baer J»a seo brim-wyl[f], ]>a heo to botme com, 
hringa ]>engel to hofe sinum, 
Bwa hS ne mihte no (he ]>Sak mfidig wses) 
wiepna gewealdan ; ac hine wundra baes fela 
1510 swe[n]cte on sunde, efe-deor monig 
hilde tuxum here-Byrcan bnec, 
ehton aglsecan. Da. se eorl ongeat, 
1488. M3. 'IranferoV 
1606. MS. 'brimwyl.' 

1608. MS. 't>em'; Grundtvig (adopted by Heyne) ' >a?n ' ; 0-rein 
'Hah.' Grein'a emendation makes admirable sense. I would retain the 
US. reading in preference to )>ai, which Heyne supports by parallel 
passages. It is undeniable that bai is common enough with the meaning 
"so" (aee 1. 1609); bat what can be feebler than to be told, halfway 
through the poem, that Beowulf is brave enough to wield his weapons? 
1610. MS. 'iwecte.' 

)#,«* 1* Google 


bset he [in] nitJ-sele nat-hwylcum wees, 
J»air him nienig wteter wihte ne scebede, 

1515 ne him for hrof-sele hrinan ne mehte 

fier-gripe nodes ; *fyr-l6oht geseah, Fol. 183". 

blaene leoman beorhte soman. 
Ongeat ba se goda grand- wyrgenne, 
mere-wif mihtig; msegen-ries forgeaf 

1520 hilde-bille, hond swenge ne ofteah, 
baet hire on bafelan hring-mjel agol 
grigdig gu8-lSoB. ©a se gist onfand, 
)>a3t se beado-leonia bitan nolde, 
aldre scebBan, ac sSo ecg geswac 

1525 SSodne set bearfe; Bolode ;er fela 
hond-gemota, helm oft gescaer, 
fjeges fyrd-hrsegl; 8a wtes forma sIS 
deoram mfidme, baet his dom alseg. 
Eft was an-ried, nalas elnes 1st, 

1530 mserSa gemyndig, majg Hy[ge]laces. 

Wearp 8a wunden-msel wnettum gebunden 
yrre oretta, bset hit on eorSan beg, 
stiB ond atyl-ecg; strenge getrfiwode, 
mund-gripe mssgenes. Swa. sceal man don, 

1535 bonne hg set gutJe gegan benceB 

longsumne lof, na ymb his Uf cearaS. 
Gefelig ba be eaxle (nalas for fiShOe meani) 

1513. Thorpe '[in].' Grain {followed by Heyne} 'niS-sele,' aula in 
profitndi» ; Bweet 'niS-sele,' hottile halt. The line is of the same type as 
482, and a long syllable is required for the scansion (see "Beitrage"!. 297). 

1520. MS. 'hord ewenge'; Sweet 'ewenge bond,' without explanation. 

1530. MS. 'hylaoen.' 1S31. MS. 'wundel maL' 

1537. Sweet adopts Bieger'a emendation ' feaie,' apparently for the 
sake of the alliteration— a wanton change, for gefeng alliterate* normally 



Gu5-Geata leod Grendles modor, 

brsegd- ]>a beadwe heard, )>a he gebolgen wses, 

1540 feorh-genislan, f>:et heo on net gebeah. 
Hgo him eft hraSe hand-lean forgeald 
grim*man grapum, ond him tOgeanea feng; F °'- 
oferwearp Jjg werig-m6d wigena strengest, 
fgbe-cempa, (rot he on fylle wearB, 

1545 Ofsast Jja bone sele-gyst, ond hyre aea# getSah 
brad, brun-ecg, wolde hire beam wrecan, 
angan eaferan. Him on eaxle lasg 
breost-net broden ; ))3Bt gebearh feore, 
wi5 ord ond wifJ ecge ingang foratod. 

1550 Htefde 5a forsittod aunti Ecg)>eowes 
under gynne grund, Geata cempa, 
nemne him beaBo-byrne helpe gefremede, 
here-net hearde, ond halig God 
geweold wlg-sigor, witig Drihten, 

1555 rodera Ratdend hit on ryht geaced 
ySelice;' sylvan he eft astod. 

1541. Heyne and Sweet (who however glosses hand-Han alone) adopt 
Rieger's emendation end-lean, alliterating with eft. So, in 1. 2094, Hey ne 
reads ond-Uan for liond-lean, "mit Riicksioht auf die Allitteration." On 
the other hand, it is unfortunate that the alliteration is not decisive in the 
case of either line. Moreover, the phrase and-lean fergietdan, "to repay 
reward," is distinctly over-redundant, containing as it does the re- notion 
in both and- and far-, as well as in the word lean itself (here, also, in eft 
in the first half-line). Cf. 11. 114, 1584. Thus no case is made out for 
setting aside the clear readings of the MS. 

1545. MS. 'seaie'; Ettmiiller (followed by Sweet) 'seai.' Geteon 
always takes an accus. ; cf. 1. 2610 and brad, brun-ecg, 1646. 

1546. Heyne 'brad [ond] brun-ecg,' on metrical and syntactical 

1555. WUloker has a colon after geteid and no stop after fSelice. 




Geseah Ea on searwum aige-eadig bil, 
eald aweord eotenisc, ecgum l>yhtig, 
wigena weorS-mynd ; )>set [wses] wtepna cyst, 

1560 buton hit wsea mare Sonne Snig mon oSer 
to beadu-lace setberan iueahte, 
god ond geatoiic, glganta geweorc. 
He gefeng )>a fetel-hilt, freca Scyldinga 
hreoh ond heoro-grim hring-raiel gebrsegd, 

1565 aldres orwena yrringa *sloh, Fol. iw h . 

)>set hire wis halse heard grapode, 
biin-hringas bra-c ; bil eal Surhwod 
faegne fltesc-homan ; heo on rlet gecrong. 
Sweord wses awatig; secg weorce gefeh. 

1570 Lixte se leoma, leoht inne stod, 
erne awa of hefene hadre selneS 
rodores candei. He after recede wlat, 
hwearf J'a be wealle ; wiepen hafenade 
heard be hiltum Higelacea Begn 

1575 yrre ond an-rted. Nas aeo ecg fracod 
hilde-rince, ac he hra))e wolde 
Grendle forgyldan guK-rffiaa fela, 
Sara be he geworbte to West-Denum 
of tor micle Sonne on senna sis, 

1580 bonne he HroBgarea heorS-geneatas 
sloh on aweofote, sliepende freet 
folces Denigea fyf-tyne men, 
ond <5Ser swylc (it offerede, 
laSlicu lac. He him bses lean forgeald, 

1559. Kemble's emendation. 



1585 repe cempa, to (fees ]>e he on rceste geseah 
guK-werigne Grendel licgan, 
aldor-leasne, awa him ser gescdd 
hild set Heorote. Hra wide sprang, 
sy)rt!an he" sefter deafie drepe JrOwade, 
1590 heoro-sweng heardne ; ond hine \>k heafde becearf. 
Sona J'aet gesawon snottre *ceorlas, Pol. 166*. 

]>a Be mid HroCgare on holm wliton, 
]wet wses ytS-geblond eal gemenged, 
brim blode tab. Blonden-feaxe 
1595 gomele ymb godne on geador apriecon, 
pset hig baes aeSelinges eft ne wendon, 
bset he sige-breCig secean come 
miwrnc bgoden, ba Ssss monige gewearo", 
biet hine seo brim-wylf abroten hsefde. 
1600 ©a com non daeges ; nses ofgeafon 

hwate Scyldingas ; gewat him ham bonon 
gold-wine gumena. Gistas siitim 
modes seoce, ond on mere staredon ; 
wiston ond ne wendon, bast hie heora wine-drihten 
1605 aelthe gesawon. Da Jȣet aweord ongan 
sailer heabo-awate hilde-gicelum, 
wig-bil wanian; bset waea wundra sum, 
bast hit eal gemealt ise gelicost, 
1599. MS. 'abreoten.' 
1602. MS. 'necan.' 

1601. Kemble ' wiscton ' j Sweet ' wyscton ' ; Coaijn (followed by 
Heyne and Sooin) ' wiston ' = wiscton, vithed. This last hypothesis lacks 
authority. Probably it is merely a oase of the blending of two construc- 
tions ; vtitlon, "knew," would require ne geidwon; ne wendon, "did not 
expect," requires gttdwon only; the latter construction prevails. It is 
possible, however, that ne has dropped out after the -ne of eelfne ; in that 
case the meaning would be : " they knew, and did not merely expect, that 
they should not see their lord himself again." 



Sonne forstes bend Faeder onlteteS, 

1610 onwindefi wtel-rapas, se geweald hafaB 
aSla ond msela; past is soG Me tod. 
Ne nom hS in hiem wicum, Weder-Geata leod, 
maSin-ishta ma, Jieh he bier monige geseah, 
buton 1'one hafelan ond J>a hilt somod, 

1615 since fage; sweord S5r gemealt, 

forbarn broden miel ; waes jraet blod *to ]wes ^* L 

settren ellor-giest, se J>ier inne swealt. 
Sona waes on sunde, sS \e «r set ssecce gebad 
wlg-hiyre wraflra, wteter up burhdeaf; 

1620 wieron yS-gebland eal gefielsod, 
eacne eardas, )>a se ellor-gast 
oflet lif-dagas ond f>an ltenan gesceaft. 
C5m )>a t6 lande lid-manna helm 
swIB-mod swymman, sa5-lace gefeah, 

1625 maegen-byrbenne bara be he him mid hsefde. 
Eodon him }>a tOgeanes, Gode bancodon, 
BryUlic begna heap, beodnes gefegon, 
bses be hi hyne gesundne gesSon mOston. 

1610. Sweet adopts Ramble's emendation, icag-rapat. Heyne has 
wnl-Tupai, and in his glossary: "of. wall, wel, wyll, Quelle, Flat; — leax 
steal on vale mid seeote Bcrf&rn, Gnnm. Cott. 89." Sweet gives tie same 
passage, in hia " A.8. Header " ixviii. 39, marked male, and there is no 
doubt he ia right (more's the pity he departs from the MS. reading here). 
Heyne identifies teal with veil, "a well" (more common aa a weak noun). 
It xh clear that ha has confounded two words. In the Wright- Wiilcker 
Gtouaries we find: "Font, well, 178. 8; Gvrgti, wesl, 178. 13." The 
vowel of the latter word is long, as ahown by the common Lancashire 
wail, noted by Somner in 1659, and still in use; so also in all the cognate 
languages, e.g. in modem Plattdentsch Weel, and Heyne himself, in, the 
glossary to hia Kleiners and. Denkmaler (1867) has: "unal (A.3. wtel, 
gvrga), Abgrund." 


Da wees of )?Eem hroran helm ond bynie 
1630 luogre alysed. Lagu driisade, 

wseter under wolcnum, wtel-drSore fag. 
Ferdon fort! )>onon fefe-Iastum 
ferhjjum fegne, fold-weg malton, 
cu)>e Btriete, cyning-balde men; 

1635 from )>£em holm-clife hafelan bieron 
earfoBlice heora teghw«J>rum 
fela-modigra ; feower scoldon 
on J>*m wsel-Btenge weorcum geferian 
to )wem gold-sele Grendles heafod, 

1640 op Bset *semninga t6 sele comon Fe 

frome, fyrd-hwate, fSower-tyne 
Geata gongan ; gum-dryhten mid, 
modig on gemonge, meodo-wongas treed. 
©a cCm in gan ealdor Segna, 

1645 died-cene mon dome gewurj>ad, 
hsele hilde-deor, HroSgar gretan. 
pa wees be feaxe on flet boren 
Grendles heafod, Jwr guman druncon, 
egeslic for eorlum ond J>iere idese mid ; 

1650 wlite-seon wnetllc werae onsawon. 


Beowulf majjelode, beam Ecg]reowe8 : 
"Hwaet! wg ))e Jras sie-lac, sunu Healfdenes 
leod Scyldinga, lustura brOhton 
tires to tacne, |>e J>u her to locast. 
1655 Ic J>set unsofte ealdre gedigde, 

wigge under wietere weorc genfijjde 
earfoSlice; :etrihte wses 



guS getwaafed, nymBe mec God scylde. 
Ne meahte ic set hilde mid Hruntinge 

1660 wiht gewyrcan, h^h J»ast wfiepen duge; 
ac me geuBe ylda Waldend, 
jxet ic on wage geseah wlitig *hangian Fol. I66". 
eald aweord eacen (oftost wisode 
winigea leasum), («et ic By wsepne gebried, 

1665 Orkloh 5a set bjT:rc asecce, )>a me siel ageald, 
huaes hyrdas. pa J>aet hilde-bil 
forbarn, brogden mail, Bwa J>set blod gesprang, 
hatost heaho-swata. Ic )>a3t hilt ffanan 
fSondum retferede, fyren-dieda wrajc, 

1670 deaB-cwealm Denigea, swa hit gedefe wasa. 

Ic hit )»e bonne gehate, bait ]>u on Heorote most 
Borh-leaa swefan mid Hlnra secga gedryht, 
ond foegria gehwylc Jiiora lgoda, 
dugiiBe ond iogobe; bast bu him ondriedan ne bearft, 

1675 J>6oden Scyldinga, on J>a healfe 

aldor-bealu eorlum, swa bu Sir dydest." 
Da wsea gylden hilt gamelum rince, 
hfirum hild-fruman, on hand gyfen, 
enta jer-geweorc ; hit on aiht gehwearf, 

1680 aefter deo0a hiyre, Denigea frean, 

wundor-smiha geweorc ; ond pa. ]iaa worold ofgeaf 
grom-heort guma, Godea ondsaca, 
morBres scyldig, ond his mddor Sac, 
on geweald gehwearf worold-cyninga 

1685 Biem aeleatan be *ssem tweonum, FoL 167*. 

1681. HiiUenhofl and Bugge reject ond an superfluous. It is certainly 
very unusual at the beginning of a sentence which it only a parallel ex- 
pansion Of what precedes. 



Sara be on Sceden-igge sceattas dtelde. 
HrCBgar maSelode, hylt scgawode, 
ealde lafe, on SiSm wses or writen 
fyrn-gewinnes, sySJian flod of'sloh, 
1690 gifen geotende, giganta cyn; 

frgcne gefSrdon ; bast wass fremde beod 
ecean Dryhtne; him Jraea ende-lean 
burh wseteres wylm Waldend sealde. 
Swa wass on 5£m scennum aciran goldes 
1695 Jrnrh run-stafas rihte gemearcod, 

geseted ond gesied, hwam ]wet sweord geworht, 
irena cyst, jSreat wcere, 

wreoben-hilt ond wyrm-fab. Da ae wisa sprsec 
suno Healfdenes ; awlgedon ealle: 
1700 " ftet, la ! mseg aecgan, ae J>e aoB ond riht 
fremeB on folce, feor eal gemon, 
eald SBel-weard, )>set Ces eorl wiere 
geboren betera. Bljgd ia ariered 
geond wld-wegas, wine min Beowulf, 
1705 Bin ofer J>eoda gehwylce. Eal )>u hit gebyldum 

maegen mid modes anyttrum. Ic J>6 sceal mine 

freoBe, awa wit furBum spnecon ; Bu scealt t5 

frofre weor)»an 
eal lang-twidig leodum blnum, 
•hseleSum to helpe. Ne wearB Heremod swa ^' b 

1666. MS. ' BoedeniRgB,' in one word. 

1703. Bngge suggests •i>ct-t «e eorl nSre.' 

1707. Wiilcker and Heyne ' freode, ' taking that to be the reading of 
the MS. Zupitza : " I think the MS. has frec&e, not freode; although the 
left half of the cross stroke in $ has entirely faded, yet the place whore it 
was is discernible, and the right half of it is left." 



1710 eafomm Ecgwelan, Ar-Scyldingum ; 

ne gewfiox he him to willan, ac t6 wael-fealle 
ond to deaS-cwalum Deniga leodum ; 
breat bolgen-mod bfiod-geneatas, 
eaxl-ges teal Ian, o)> ]ia?t he ana hwearf, 

1715 maire JfSoden, mon-dr6amum from. 

fieah |»e hine mihtig God msegenes wynnum, 
eafejmm, stepte ofer ealle men, 
fortS gefremede, hwse)»ere him on ferhj>e greow 
breost-hord blod-reow ; nallas beagas geaf 

1720 Denum asfter dome; dream-leaa gebad, 
J^set he )>ses gewinnes weorc browade, 
leod-bealo longsum. Du J>e Iter be (wn, 
gum-cyate ongit; ic )>is gid be £5 
awrsec wintrum frod. Wundor is to aecganne, 

1725 hu mihtig God manna cynne 

]>urh sidne sefan snyttru bryttaS, 
eard ond eorl-scipe ; he ah ealra geweald. 
Hwllum he on lufan laHeS hworian 
mounes mod-gebonc mieran cynnes, 

1730 seleB him on eble eorban wynne, 
to healdanne hleo-burh wera, 
•gedeShimswagewealdene worolde dielas, Fol. 168*. 
side rice, beet he his selfa ne mseg 
his unsnyttrum ende gebencean. 

1735 WunaiS he on wiste; no hine wiht dweieS 
adl ne yldo, ne him inwit-sorh 
on sefa[n] sweorceS, ne gesacu dhwier, 

1734. With admirable and shameless audacity Heyne and Wiilcker 
foist in for at the beginning of thia line without a word of comment. Cf. 

1737. MS. defective at edge ; Zupitza ' sefa[n].' 


ecg-hete, eowe5, ac him eal worold 
wendeB on willan. He )«et wyrse ne con, 


1740 oB Jicet him on innan ofer-hygda diel 

weaxeS ond wridaS, bonne se weard swefeS, 
aawele hyrde; biB se slaip to fsest, 
bisgum gebunden, bona swISe neah, 
s€ pe of flan-bogan fyrenum scSoteS. 

1745 ponne bi5 on hre]>re under helm drepen 
biteran streele ; him bebeorgan ne con 
worn wundor-bebodum wergan gastes; 
)>ince$ him to lytel, J>Eet he lange heold; 
gytsaS grom-hydig, nallas on gylp seleS 

1750 fiette beagas, ond he )>a forS-gesceaft 

forgyteo" ond forgymeo - , ]«E9 J>e him aer God sealde, 
wuldres *Waldend, weorC-mynda dsel. Pol. 168". 
Hit on ende-stsef eft gelimpeS, 
l?set se llc-homa liene gedreoseS, 

Grein 'ne gesaca [adversary) QhwSr ecg-hete SoweiS (ihowe).' On the 
whole I prefer to abide by the MS. reading, although examples are wanting 
of cowan used intransitively, aa its compound oiSeowan frequently is. 

1739. The MS. has a stop after con, the usual space with the number 
XXV, and then a large capital 0. But it seems impossible to begin a 
freah sentence with ffS inet "until," aa Earle does. Grein makes the 
break in the middle of 1. 1739, Heyne after 1. 1714. 

1747. Heyne. 'worn'; cf. 11. 1758 and 8073. Bat worn (Sievew § 295, 
N. 1) acans better and makes better sense. Bebeorgan takes ace. rei in 
1758 ; but that passage alone is insufficient to settle ita usual construction, 
and no other instance of ita occurrence is known. 

1748. Zupitza: "(o imperfectly erased between fceand lange." It is 
inserted in the text of all the editions. 

1750. MS. 'f»dde.' 



1755 fiege gefealleB; fehB ober to, 

8§ be unmurallce madman dieleb, 

eorles ter-gestreon, egesan ne gymeB. 

Bebeorh be Bone bealo-niS, Beowulf leofa, 

secg betsta, ond be b»t s§lre gecSos, 
1760 See riedas; oferhyda ne gym, 

majre cempa. Nu is bines masgnes bli«d 

ane hwUe; eft sona biB, 

baet bee adl oBBe ecg eafobes getwiefeB, 

oBSe fyres feng, oBBe flodes wylm, 
1765 oBBe gripe meces, oBBe gares fliht, 

oSSe atol yldo; oSfte eagena bearhtm 

forsiteB ond foraworceB; Bemninga biB, 

bset Bee, dryht-guma, deaS oferswyBeS. 

Swa ic Hring-Dena hund missera 
1770 weold under wolcnum, ond hig wigge beleac 

manigum m;T'g)>a geond J>ysne middan-geard 

aesciini ond ecgum, bset ic me Snigne 
under swegles begong gesacan ne tealde. 

Hwast ! me baea on eble edwenden cwom, 
1775 gyrn seffcer gomene, seobSan Grendel wearS, 

eald gewinna, ingenga min; 

*ic J>£ere socne singalea w:eg Fol. 169*. 

mod-ceare micle. paes sig Metode banc, 

ecean Dryhtne, bees Be ic on aldre gebad, 
1780 bast ic on )>one hafelan heoro-dreorigne 

ofer eald gewin eagum starige. 
1757. Orein 'egesan' (oaner). 
1774. MB. 'edwendaa.' Cf. U. 280, 2168. 

1776. Host editors 'eald-gowinna.' I have avoided such compounds, 
except where clearly indicated by the absence of inflection in the adj. 
Cf. II. 373, 916, 1781 (where no editor makes a compound of eald gevdn), 
with 863, 1381, 2778. 



Ga nu to aetle, symbel-wyrme dreoh, 

wigge weorjwid; unc aceal worn fela 

mabroa gemrenra, si))8aa morgen bits." 
1785 Geat wtes glted-mod, g^ong s6na to, 

setles ngosan, swa se enottra heht. 

pa wses eft swa ser elleu-rofum 

flet-sittendum ftegere gereorded 

nlowan stefne. Niht-helin geswearc 
1790 deorc ofer dryht-gumura. DuguK eal aras; 

wolde blonden-feax beddes neosan, 

gamela Scylding. Geat uugemetea wel, 

rofne rand-wigan, restan lyste ; 

Bona him sele-J>egn aitSes wfirgura, 
1795 feorran-cundum, forS wlsade, 

s6 for andrysDum ealle beweotede 

begnes bearfe, swylce )>y dogore 

hea)>o-liuende habban scoldon. 

Reste hine J?a rum-heort ; reced hlluade 
1800 geap ond gold-fan; gsest inne swsef, 

oj? Jjaet hrefn blaca heofones wynne 

bllB-heort bodode ; *8a com beorht scacan Pol. 169". 

[sunne ofer grundas]. Seaman onetton, 

1783. Wulcker ' wlg-geweorHd ' ; Heyne (following Cosijn, who com- 
plies "Elene" 150) ' wigge -[f?e]weoi> ad,' I have followed (he MS., for 
which of. " Eleue " 1196. 
1793. Ma. twig/metes. 
1796. MS. 'beweotene.' 

1799. Hevne'hllrade'; other editors 'hllfode.' Sieve™ j 194. 
1808, No gup in MS. Wiiloker has : 

Si com beorht [loom*] 
scacan [ofer scadn]. 
Heyne : $£ (WSm beorht [sonne] 

scacan [ofer grundas]. 
There to (he same objection to both these emendations, that they sup- 


wseron febelingaa eft to leodum 

o farenne; wolde feor Jjanon 

collen-ferhB ceoles nSosan. 

]>H se hearda Hrunting berao 
Ecglafes, heht his sweord niman, 

iren ; saegde him jjies Irenes banc, 

he bone gu5-wine godae tealde, 
■fei'tigne; nales wordum log 

ecge. pset wses modig secg. 
»a siB-frome, searwum gearwe, 
d wieron, eode weorfl Denum 
ig to yppan, J>ler se 6)>er wsee, 
hilde-door HroSgar grStte. 


ilf mabelode, beam Ecgbeowes : 
wg sie-lISend secgan wyllaft" 
a-cumene, feet w§ fundiab 
ic secan ; wteron her tela 
i bewenede ; )»u us wel dohtest. 

ie instead of one. To avoid this, I have interchanged twine 
ileyne's reading; of the consequent separation of adj. and 

frequent examples in the poem (cf. 1. 265). 

' farene ne.' [In reality, far is now gone ; bot there is no 
horkelin'a transcript, what the MS. reading was. In all 
>rder to avoid needless detail, I give the indubitable reading 
sit-an t MS.] 

'leanes'; Miillenhoflt 'lanes.' It is possible that the passage 
ferth gave bis sword to Beowulf. Grein takes this view, 
inu (1808) as nom. ; and so apparently do Heyne and Socin 
□SB iutiu as aeons.)). But tt hearda applies to Beowulf 
an to Unferth; of. 11. 101, 1963. 




Gif ic bonne on eorjjan owihte mreg 
)»Inre mod-lufan maran tilian, 
gumena dryhten, Bonne ic gyt dyde, 

1825 guS-geweorca ic beo gearo sona. 

Gif ic })£et ge'fricge ofer floda begang, Pol. 170". 
kset )>ec ymb-sittend egesan ]>ywa5, 
swa, J>ec hetende hwllum dydon, 
ic 5e )>usenda )>egna bringe, 

1830 hasle^a to helpe. Ic on Higelace wat, 
Geata dryhten, ]>eah Se he geong sy, 
folces hyrde, J'set hg mec fremman wile 
wordum ond weorcum, J>tet ic b§ wel herige, 
ond J>§ to geoce gar-holt bere, 

1835 infegenea fultum, ]>jer 5e bi5 marina J>earf. 
Gif him )>onne Hre)>ric to hofum Geata 
gejnnget^, )*odnes beam, hS mseg )»ier fela 
freonda flndau; feor-cy]?Se b6o5 
selran gesohte, J>Eem J>e him aelfa dSari." 

1840 HroSgar ma)>elode him on ondsware: 
"]J€ )>a word-cwydas wittig Drihten 
on sefan sende; ne hyrde ic snotorlicor 
on swa geongum feore guman )>ingian ; 
)>u eart mtegenes Strang ond on mode frod, 

1845 wis word-cwida. Wen ic talige, 

gif J»set gegangeo", J>ret Se gar nymeB, 
hild heoru-grimme, Hre)»les eaferan, 
adl o)>3e iren ealdor Binne, 
folces hyrde, ond )»u ]>in feorh hafaat, 

1833. US. ' weordnia vworcum,' probably a, Blip of the scribe. 

1836. MS. ■brebrino." Cf. 1. 1189. 

1837. US. 'gebinged.' 
1841. US. 'wigtig.' 

), oi :, E ed by Google 


1850 ]wet )>$ *S*-Geatas sSlran n&bben Foi. 170". 

to geceoBenne cyning ienigne, 

hord-weard hseleba, gyf b u healdan wylt 

maga rice. Me bin mdd-sefa 

licaB leng swa wel, leofa Beowulf. 
1855 Hafaat J>u gefered, J>Eet )»am folcum sceal, 

Geata ISodum ond Gar-Denum, 

sib gemiene, ond sacu restan, 

inwit-nibas, )>e hie £er drugon ; 

wesan, }>enden ic wealde widan rices, 
1860 magmas gemiSne ; manig ojjerne 

godum gegrettan ofer ganotes beeB ; 

sceall hring-naca ofer h6a]>u briugan 

lac ond luf-tacen. Ic J>a leode wat 

ge wis feond ge wi8 freond fceste geworhte, 
1865 ieghwses untfele ealde wisan." 

£)a git him eorla hleo inne gesealde, 

mago Healfdenes, magmas twelfe, 

1864. Bugge and Heyne 6 : 'leng swi sel ' (th* longer the better) — a 
tempting emendation. But if one finds gross anomalies in aooidenoe in 
the "Beowulf," why should one look for a flawless syntax? 

1867. MS. 'ge msmim.' 

1862. Kluge 'heafu'; cf. 1. 2477. Sievers supports this emendation 
on metrical grounds ("Beit." x. 246). A certain amount of deference is 
to be paid to metrical conclusions, but they should hardly suffice of them- 
selves to set aside an otherwise unexceptionable MS. reading. But Sievers 
alio calls ketifru "unveratandlich" ("Beit." x. 235). None the less the 
evidence of its existence and meaning is not contemptible. The compound 
h!a$o-li$end occurs in 11. 1798 and 2956 (in the latter case parallel to «a- 
mannum), and in "Andreas" 426; hea'So-iigd in "Riddles" 73. 16. Sievers 
makes the first syllable short in "Beowulf" 1798 and 2966 ("Beit." x. 800) ; 
if this means that he regards heaVu, "wat," as the first part of these com- 
pounds, his supposition goes far towards making the four above-cited 
passages "nnverstandlieh." 

1867. MS. '.in-'. 



hSt [h]ine mid biem lacum leode swSae 
seeean on gesyntum, snude eft cuman. 

1870 GecyBte ba cyning sebelum god, 
heoden Scyldmga, Begn betatan, 
ond be healse genam ; hruron him tearas 
blond on- feaxum. Him w£es bfiga wen, 
ealdum, in-*frodum, Obres swISor, Fol. 171*. 

1875 jffiet h[i]e seoBtfan gesgon moston, 

modige on ineble. Wses him se man to bon leof, 
bet he bone breost-wylm forberan ne mehte, 
ac him on hrebre hyge-bendum faest 
setter deorum men dyrne langaB 

1880 beam wis blode. Him Beowulf banan, 
gu5-rinc gold-wlanc, grses-moldan treed 
since hremig; ste-genga bad 
age[n]d-fr6an, se be on ancre rad. 
pa, wass on gange gifu Hr65gares 

1885 oft gesehted. past waes an cyning 

SghwseB orleahtre, ob bset hine yldo benam 
masgenes wynnum, se be oft manegum acod. 

1868. MS. 'inne.' 

1876. MS. 'he.' 

1879—80. MS. 'beorn'; Grein 'beam.' Heyne takes dyrne langaS 
beorn to mean "the hero secretly longeth" {be makes beorn num., whereas 
long tan is an impers. verb and takes an accus. of (be person). Thorpe 
and Grain render : " a secret longing burnt." Neither rendering is free 
from objection. Beorn is an unexampled form of the pret. of bevrnan 
(Sievers § S86, N. 2). But on the other band, I oart find no example 
of dyrne used an an adv. ; fait agrees with langaS much better than with 
beorn, even if the latter could be nom. ; the rare occurrence of a pres. 
tense amid a succession of preterites : these con aide rations seem decisive 
against Heyne's interpretation. 

1688. MS. 'agedfrean.' 

1885. A colon is usually placed after geahtcd, and Earle remarks that 



Cwom f>a to flode fela modigra 
hteg-stealdra ; hring-net bieron, 

1890 locene leoBo-ayrcan. Land-weard onfand 
eft-sIS eorla, swa hS sir dyde ; 
DO hu mid hearme of hliBes nosau 
•gses[tas] grStte, ac him togeanes rad, Pol. 171*. 
cwa*S jtsBt wilcuman Wedera Igodum 

1895 seaman scir-hame to scipe foron. 
pa wses od sande sie-geap naca 
hladen here-wiedum, hringed-stefna 
mearum ond maSmum,; miest hllfade 
ofer HroSgarea hord-gestreonum. 

1900 He })fem bat-wearde bunden golde 
awurd gesealde, hart he sySJian wa?s 
on meodu-bence ina)>me )>y weorjra, 
yrfe-lafe. Gewat him on nacan 
drefati d§op waeter, Den a land ofgeaf. 

what follows is "the gist of their talk as the; went." I take it to be a 
reflection of the scrip. How could the Geats say : "until old age deprived 
him, Ac"? 

1888 — 9. Wulcker and Heyne *fela-mfldigra/hfl;g-stealdra [heap]'; cf. 
I. 1637. 

1893. MS. defective at corner. A 'gas' (followed by a blank space) ; 
Grandtvig 'gtBs[tas].' 

1896. MS. defective at edge. A 'scawau' (soHeyne); B •seaman' (so 
Zupitza and Wuloker). The first syllable ica- is still perfectly distinct ; 
bat the second syllable is missing at the beginning of the nest line. The 
word icawa is not found elsewhere ; ecaHn occurs with the same meaning 
as here in 1. 1803. 

1902. MS. 'mabma ty weortre,' which Thorpe emended. 

1903. Grein '[y-5-]nacan,' for the alliteration. Siavers is contented 
to let on alliterate. 


1905 pa wees be maeste mere-hnegla sum, 
aegl sale faest; sund-wudu Jmnede; 
no peer weg-flotan wind ofer yBum 
siBes getwiefde ; sai-genga for, 
fleat famig-heals forB ofer yBe, 

1910 bunden-atefha ofer brim-streamas, 

JiaJt hie Geata clifu ongitan meahton, 

cube nsessas; ceo! up gejrang 

lyft-geswenced, on lande stod. 

Hrajie wsss sat * holme hyS-weard geara, Pol. 172*. 

1915 se J>e jer lange tid leofra manna 
fus ast farofie feor wlatode; 
sielde to sande sid-fsepme scip 
oncer-bendum feest, by ISs hym fpet Brym 
wudu wynsuman forwrecan meahte. 

1920 Het pa. up beran aej>elinga gestreon, 

fraatwe ond Set-gold ; na?s him feor )>anon 
to gesficanne sinces bryttan, 
Higelae HreJ>ling, }«er set ham wunaS 
aelfa mid gesiSum sai-wealle nSah. 

1925 Bold wses betllc, brego rof cyning, 
hSa healle, Hygd swIBe geong, 
wis, wel bungen, beah Be wintra lyt 
under burh-locan gebiden haebbe 
Hterejjes dohtor; nses hio hnah awa J>6ah, 

1930 ne to gneaB gifa Geata leodum, 
ma)>m-gestreona. Mod DrySo wseg, 

1914. MS. • gears.' 
1918. MS. 'onoear bendum.' 

1923. Wulcker ' wimado. ' Sie vera regards this and the next line as 
emtio recta. But of. the present tenses in 11. 1314, 1928. 
1926. Qrundtvig 'brego-rBf ' (so Heyiie), 
W. B. 6 

)#,«* by Google 


fremu ibices cwen, firen ondrysne; 

uienig Jwet dorste deor geneban 

swlesra gesitfa, aeme sin frea, 
1935 past hire an deeges eagum starede; 

ac him wtel-bende *weotode tealde Fol. 172 b . 

hand-gewrij»ene ; hra^e eeoj>Ban woes 

refter mund-gripe mece ge^inged, 

)>ffit hit sceaden-mtBl Bcyran moste, 
1940 cwealm-bealu cyBan. Ne bits awylc ewenllc Jjfiaw 

idese to efaamie, }>eah Be hio ajnlicu sy, 

J»sette freoBti-webbe ieores onsaece 

aefter lige-tome Ifiome mannan. 

Hutu ]jffit onhohsnodfe] Hemminges m«g. 
1945 Ealo-drincende 68er sSdan, 

past hio leod-bealewa lies gefremede, 

inwit-niSa, syBBan Eereat wearB 

gyfen gold-hroden geongum cempan, 

eeSelum dlore, syBBan hio Offan flet 
1950 ofer fealone flod be fieder lare 

1933. Snohier ' firen-ondrynne.' We have elision of final e before a 
vowel in 11. 3S8 and 442. Bat perhaps the true explanation of the forms 
frofor in I. 698 andjirm here will be found in Sieve™ § 961, N. 

1934. Heyne ' ain-frea. ' Znpitza tranalitera tea ' sinfrea ■ — presumably 
a misprint for 'ain-frea'; of. tin-nihte, 1. 161, etc. There is a distinct 
space between the» and /in the US. 

1935. Znpitza 'an-daagea,' apparently supporting Leo's an-dmgei, 
"the whole day." Snohier 'andeges' = andlgei, "eye to eye." 

1939. A most difficult line. Bugge 'seeaden m31' (so Snchier and 
Znpitza). Snchier tranalates ("Beit." iv. 500 ft.): "damit die Klinge 
oflenbaren mSchte, ee sei entsehieden " > Bngge : " naohdem die Sache 
entaohieden war," both making sciaden qualify Ait. Biavera ("Beit." 
x. 313) supports the reading in the text. Heyne 'soeaSen-miel sovran,' 
hostile taord decide. The second hand in the US. begins with moste. 

1942. Bieger 'onsSee' (so Snchier). 

1944. US. 'on hohsnod hem ninges.' Bob "Beitrage" i, 501. 


siBe gesOhte; Caer hio syBBan well 
in gum-stole, g5de miere, 
llf-gesceafta lifigende brgac, 
hiold heah-lufan wiB hrelejta brego, 

1955 ealles mon-cynnes, mine gefrtege, 
\ow& sfilestan bl siem tweonum, 
eormen-cynnes. ForBam Offa *wses, 
georam ond guBum gar-cene man, 
wide geweorBod; wisddme heold 

1960 Siiel sinne, ponon Eotncer woe 

hasleSiim to helpe, Hem[m]inges mteg, 
nefa Qarmundes, niSa cneftig. 


Qewat him 0a se hearda mid his hond-scole 
sylf Eefter sande Bte-wong tredan, 

1965 wide waroBas; woruld-candel scan, 
sigel stiSan fun; hi sHS drugon, 
elne gefiodon, to SasB J»e eorla hleo, 
bonan Ongen^eoes burgum in innan, 
geongne guB-cyning godne gefrunon 

1970 hringas dfelan, HigeSace wsss 
stB Beowulf'es snude gecyBed, 
)>Eet 55Jr on worBig wigendra hleo, 
lind-gestealla, lifigende cwom, 
heaSo-laces hal to hofe gongan. 

1975 HraBe w^s gerymed, swa se rica bebead, 
feBe-gestum net innan-weard. 
Gesset J>a wis Byline, se Ba seecce genres, 
1SS6. MS. 'Jmm.' 

1960. MS. 'geomor'; Baohlechner 'ECmaw'; Orein 'Eomor.' 



mffig wis mtege, *syWan man-dryhten Pol. in 1 '. 
Yarh hleoSor-cwyde holdne gegrette 

1980 meaglum wordum. Meodu-scencum hwearf 
geond pist heal-reeed HaareBes dohtor, 
lufode 8a leode, lBS-waege bser 
hse£um td handa, Higelac origan 
unite geseldan in sele ]im hean 

1985 faegre fricgcean, hyne fyrwet bnec, 
hwylce Sse-Geata siBas wieron: 
"Hu lomp eow on lade, lSofa Blowulf, 
]ra, 5u fieringa feorr gehogodest 
saecce sgcean ofer sealt wseter, 

1990 hilde to Hiorote ? Ac Bu HroBgare 
wid-cutfne wean wihte gebSttest, 
mierum tfeodne ? Ic Uses mod-ceare 
sorh-wylmum seaS, sitfe ne truwode 
leofes mannes. Ic 5e lange bsed, 

1995 J>set 56 J>one wael-gaest wihte ne grStte, 
lete SuB-Dene sylfe geweorSan 
guBe wi8 GrendeL Gode ic J>anc secge, 
bses 8e ic B6 gesundne geseon moste." 
Blowulf maSelode, bearn EcgSioes : 

2000*"Paet is undyrne, dryhtea Higelac, Fol. 17*'. 

1981. MS. •tat** raced.' Zupitza: "side added over the line in the 
same hand I think, bat with another ink." Ramble : 'heal-reced.' 

1983. MS. 'hrenS.' Zupitza: "between a and n a letter (I think S) 
erased." Grain 'halnm.* Bugge defends 'Hajnum' (so Heyoeaad Suein), 
which he regards as a contracted form meaning "dwellers on the heath" 
(of Jutland). But the fact that he identifies the "Guatas" with the Jutes 
inevitably discounts his opinion. 

1985. Wftlcker *(hyne fyrwet brae)'; but a 233, 2784, show that 
these words have an interrogative force, and are therefore a true parallel 
to what precedes. 

1991. MS. 'wrS'; Thorpe 'wld-.' 



[msere] gemSting, monegum fira,' 
hwylc [orleg-]hwil uncer Grendles 
wearS on Bam wange, bier he worna fela 
Sige-Scyldingum sorge gefremede, 

2005 yrmtSe td aldre; ic Sset eall gewrjec, 
awa [nc'J gylpau bearf Grendeles maga 
[fgnig] ofer eor&an uht-hlem bone, 
se be lengest leofaS laBan cynnes 
f[enne] bifongen. Ic Ker furSum cwom 

2010 to Sam hring-sele HrofJgar gretan; 
Bona me se nuera mago Healfdenea, 
syBfian he mod-sefan minne cufie, 
wis his sylfes minu setl gettehte. 
Weorod wses on Wynne; ne seah ic wldan feorh 

2015 under heofones hwealf heal-sittendra 

medu-dream maran. Hwllum masru cw5n, 
friSu-sibb folca, net eall geond-hwearf, 
btedde byre geonge; oft hio beah-wri5an 
secge *[sealde], ser hio t5 setle gfiong. FoL 174", 

2020 Hwllum for [djugutfe dohtor HroBgarea 
eorlum on ende ealu-wjege beer, 
[>a ic Freaware flet-sitfcende 

2001. US. defective at comer, and in 1. 2002. Grein '[mare].' 
2003. Thorpe '[orleg-].' 

2006. MS. defective at edge, and in 11. 2007, 2009. Qrein 'begylpan 
[ne].' In favour of this reading, A has 'swabe,' B 'anal,' and I eon And 

in the MB. 

2007. KamUe '[ienig].' 

2009. A 'fie' and a blank; B 'tar..'; Eemble 'fier-bifongen ' (so 
Wflloker); Grandtvig 'fenne bifongen' (bo Heyne). 

2019. MS. defective at corner. MS. ' hie.' 

2020. MS. defective at edge, and in 11. 2023, 2024, 2026. 


nemnan hyrde, b&r bio [mejgled sine 

hseleBum sealde. Sio gehaten .[wsesj, 
2025 geong, gold-hroden, gladum suna Frodan ; 
[h]afa£ Jraes geworden wine Scyldinga, 
rices hyrde, ond )»aet reed talaS, 
|>Eet he mid By wife WBel-ftehSa diiil, 
ssecca, geaette. Oft, [no] seldan, hwter 
2030 sefter leod-hryre lytle hwile 

bon-gar bugeB, beah eeo bryd duge. 
Maeg (^ee bonne ofbyncan SSoden HeaSobeardna 
ond begna gehwam bjjra leoda, 
bonne he mid fsemnan on flett g£eS, 
2035 dryhti-bearii Dena duguSa biwenede; 
2023. Grain's emendation. 

2029. Heyne's emendation ; of. 1. 3019, and Ps. lxxiv. 4. Oft ends a 
Una in the MS,, which is defective at the beginning of the next line, the 
s of tel&tm being gone. " I do not think there was before teldan room 
enough for no." — Zupitza. Rolling and Wiiloker think there was. 

2032. Kemblo '$Sodne.' In hie favour, ofbyncan always takes a dat. 
pen., and *&eocUn is not a defensible dat. form ; against, Heoden is the 
clear reading of the MS., and he would be a bold man who should oorrect 
all its grammatical anomalies. 

2035. This is the MS. reading of this difficult line. Groin emended 
bi werede, "among the company," making drykt-bearn explanatory of he 
in the previous line. But it is natural to take hit, as Heyne does, to refer 
to the fteoden of 1. 2032. He retains the MS. reading and renders: "[while] 
a noble scion of the Danes attended upon the knights." It is mnoh 
more satisfactory to assume the omission of the conjunction ?<?,t at the 
beginning of 1. 2036, correlative .with bat in 2032, to take duguXa as 
Dom. to biwenede, and to regard this as one of the frequent instances in 
O.E. poetry of a plural subject with a singular verb in a subordinate 
clause. Cf. 11. 2164, 1051, 2130, 2251, &c. The gain to the sense is 
immense: "It displeased the prince of the Heathobards, [that] his 
doughty warriors should attend on a noble scion of the Danes." For the 
omission of bat ef. 1. 601, and see the note on 1. 2200, a parallel passage ; 
the explanation there suggested applies with equal force here, where 
bonne (2032) is correlative with bonne (2034). 

)#,«* by Google 


on him gladiaS gomelra Iafe 

heard ond hring-niasl, HeaBobear[d]na gestreon, 

benden hie 5am wtepnum wealdan mdston, 


oS Bret hie forlieddan to Sam lmd-plegan 

2040 swiese gesiBas ond hyra sylfra feorh. 

poime cwiB ret bfiore, se Be beah *gesyh8, FoL 175". 
eald sesc-wiga, s£ Se eall gem[an], 
gar-cwealm gumena (him biS grim seta), 
onginneB gSomor-mod geong[um] cempan 

2045 )mrh hreth-a gehygd higes cunnian, 

wjg-bealu weccean, ond j»aet word acwyS : 
'Meaht 5u, min wine, mece gecnawan, 
)>one ym feder to gefeohte bser 
under here-giiman hindeman siiSe, 

2050 dyre iren, hair hyne Bene slogon, 

wgoldon Wiel-st5we, sySSan WiBergyld tag, 
ffifter hseleha hryre, hwate Scyldungas ? 
Nu her |>ara banena byre nat-hwylceB 
fnetwum hrSmig on flet gieB, 

2055 morBres gylpep], ond bone matyum byreS, 
bone J>e 8u mid rihte nedan sceoldest.' 
ManaS swa ond myndgaB mfela gehwylce 

2037. M8. ,'heaSa beama.'^ 

8039. The MS. hnn a large capital O at the beginning of this line, 
such ae one Ends elsewhere only at the beginning of a new fit. (Cf. 
1. 1740.) Bnt the number iiii u wanting, and the next break is at 
1. 3144, where the number ia mi. Wnloker makes the 39th fit begin with 
1. 3014, and the 30th with 1. 2067. Heyne makes one break instead of 
two, and that after 1. 8031. 

3043. MS. defective at corner and edge, here and in 11. 2044, 3066. 

3051. MS. 'wrSer gjld.' Heyne S '(sytNSan wHSer-gyld hag),' whtn 
vengeance failed. But of. WidnX 134. 

)#,«* by Google 

sarum wordurn, 06 Vast seel cymeB, 

Jwst se fieirman |>egn fore fseder dsedum 

2060 seffcer billes bite blod-fag swefeS, 
ealdres scyldig; him Be oSer )>oiian 
losaS *[li]figendu, con him land geare. Fol. I75 b . 
ponne blo5 brocene on ba healfe 
aS-sweord eorla, [syS]&an Ingelde 

2065 -weallaS wasl-nlBas, ond him wlf-lufan 
aefter cear-wselmum colran weorSaS. 
Py ic Hea5obear[d]na hyldo ne telge, 
dryfit-sibbe dsel, Denum unfiecne, 
frSond-scipe fsestne. Ic sceal forS sprecan 

2070 gen ymbe Grendel, ]>Eet Su geare cunne, 
sinces brytta, to hwan sySSan wearS 
hond-nes hseleBa. SySSan heofoaea gim 
glad ofer grundas, gasst yrre cwom, 
eatol sefen-grom, user neosan, 

2075 Cier we gesunde assl weardodon. 
pier wses Hondscio hild onsaige, 
feorh-bealu fiegum ; he fyrmest lasg, 
gyrded cempa; him Grendel weartS, 
mierum magu-begne, to muS-bonan, 

2080 leofes mannes lie eall forswealg. 

2062. MB. defective at comer and edge here and in two following lines? 
A 'agendo'; Thorkelin 'wlgende* (so most editors); Heyne 'lingende' 
(so Zapitza). 

2063. AB 'oroeene' (B with a atop before it); Kemble '[a]brooone' 
(so Zapitza); other editors as text. 

2064. Zapitza ' a*S-Bweort>.' Hie foot-note nun: " There is a stroke 
through d in tweord, bnt without the usual bead, nor is it quite distinct." 

2067. MS. 'heatJobeama/ 

3076. MS. 'hilde.' In support of Sieger's emendation ef. 1. 2483. 

2079. MS. 'mHjrumagiifi.e. magnm)Jwgiie.' But see 11. 293, 408, etc. 
The mistake is due to "repetition." In 1. 138 we have the opposite error 
of " anticipation." 

)#,«* 1* Google 

No 8y jer ut Ba gen Idel-hende 
bona blodig-toS, bealewa gemyndig, 
of 5am gold-sele gongan wolde ; 
ac be meegnes rof mln costode, 

2085*grapode gearo-folm. Glof hangode Foi. 176-. 

aid ond sylhc, searo-bendum feat; 
sio wass orSoncum eall gegyrwed 
dCofles crasftum ond dracan felhim. 
lie mec Jiier on innan unsynnigne, 

2090 dior died-fruma, gedon wolde 

manigra sumne ; hyt ne mihte swa, 

8y5San ic on yrre upp-riht astod. 

To lang ys to reccenne, hu i[c B]am leod-sceaBan 

yfla gehwylces hond-lean forgeald; 

2095 j»er ic, )>eoden mln, }>lne leode 

weoroode weorcum. He onweg losade, 
lytle hwlle lif-wynna br[6a]c; 
hwaa)»re him aio switSre swaSe weardade 
hand on Hiorte, ond he hean ffonan, 

2100 modes geomor, mere-grund gefeoll. 
Me" ]>one wsel-ries wine Scildunga 
fiettan golde fela lganode, 
manegum matimum, sySflan mergen com, 
ond we to aymble geseten h&fdon. 

2105 pier webs gidd ond gleo. Gome'la Scilding, Fol, 
fela fricgende, feorran rehte ; i? 6 "- 

hwilum hilde-deor hearpan wynne, 
gomen-wudu grette, hwilum gyd awitec 
aoS ond earlic; hw-Uum syllic spell 

2085. MS. 'geareo.' 

2093. US. defective at edge here and in line 2097. A 'hniedam.' 

3106. MS. ' gomel.' 

), oi :, E ed by Google 


2110 rehte aefter rihte rum-heort cyning; 
' i'llum eft ongan eldo gebunden, 
mel gfi5-wiga gioguSe cwiHan 
Ide-atrengo; hretSer inne wfioll, 
nne he wintrum frod worn gemunde. 
va we jjjer inne ondlangne daeg 
ode naman, 08 8fet niht becwom 
er to yldum. JJa wses eft hraSe 
:aro gyrn-wrjece Qrendeles modor, 
(ode sorb-full; sunu dea5 fornam, 
ig-hete Wedra. Wif unhyre 
Te beam gewrEec, beorn acwealde 
lenlice; ]>cer wses jEschere, 
5dan fym-witan, feorh ufi-genge. 
otSer hy hine ne raoston, sySSan mergen cwom, 
iaS-werigne Denia leode, 
onde forbaernan, ne on biCl hladan 
jfne mannan; *hio bast lie Eetbser FoL 177*. 
Dlldes fseS[mum un]der firgen-stream. 
et wtes HroSgare hreowa tornost, 
,ra he leod-fruman laBge begeate. 
L se Keoden mec Bine life 
salsode hreoh-mod, baet ic on holma getting 
■rl-scipe efnde, ealdre geneSde, 
serBo fremede; hS me mSde gehgt. 

8a Baes wselmes, }e is wide cu8, 
imne, gryrellcne grund-hyrde fond. 

MS. 'hflT (=hsal). 

Orein'B emendation. Zupitzd 'ffeSranga [uu]der,' and in a 

"f&dr with unga written over the dots with another ink 

othing preserved bat f&$ and part of a letter which may have 
, or n; the word has been torn asunder." 


pier unc hwile waes hand-gemjene ; 
holm heolfre weoll, ond ic heatde becearf 
in Cam [grund-]BeIe Qrendeles modor 
2140 eacnum ecgura; unsofte Jwnan 

feorh oBferede; nses ic fiege Jw, gyt; 
ac m6 eorla hleo eft gesealde 
maBma menigeo, maga Healfdenes. 


Swa se Beod-kyning j^eawum lyfde; 
2145 nealles ic Sam leanum forloren hjefde, 

maegnes mSde, ac he me *[maBma]s geaf, Fol. 

sunu Healfdenes, on [mln]ne sylfee dom, ■ W^"- 

Sa ic B6, beorn-cyning, bringan wylle, 

estum gey wan. Gen is eall set Be 
2150 lissa gelong; ic lyt hafo 

heafod-maga nefne, Hygelac, Bee." 

Htit 5a in heran eafor, heafod-segn, 

heaSo-steapne helm, hare byrnan, 

guB-sweord geatolic, gyd sefter wrcec: 
2155 " Me Bis hilde-sceorp HroSgar sealde, 

snobra fengel ; same worde het, 

fuet ic his serest Be £st geseegde ; 

cwaeB )>set hyt hsefde Hiorogar cyning, 

leod Scyldunga, Iange hwile; 

8137. Wiiloker and Heyne ' hand gemaine, ' but of. Ger. handgemein. 

2139. No gap in MS. Gnradtvig's emendation. 

3146. MB. defective at corner here and in next line. 

2147. Gnmdtvig '[ain]ne.' 

3152. Zupitzs and most editors 'eufor-healod-segn.' But, as Com- 
pounds of three worde are as rare in O.E. poetry as oompounda of two 
words are common, it seems better to make two parallels. 

2157. This line has constantly been mangled (see Heyne or Wiiloker] 
through misreading the 'eat' of the MS. aa tft, Cf. 1. 2166. 

)#,«* by Google 

2160 no By air suna sinuni syllan wolde, 

hwatum Heorowearde, )>eah he him hold wiere, 

brfiost-gewffidu. Briic ealles well." 

Hyrde ic, |>aefc ]»m frsetwum feower mearaa 

lungre gelice last weardode, 
2165 ffippel-fealuwe ; he him est geteah 

meara ond maSma. Swa Bceal *mseg don, Fol. 178*. 

neallea inwit-net oSrum bregdon, 

dymum ersefte dea5 r€n[ian] 

hond-geeteallan. Hygelace waa 
2170 nitta heardum nefa swyBe hold, 

ond gehwasSer Wrum hrtyra gemyndig. 

Hyrde ic, ]mt he Bone heals- beah Hygde gesealde, 

wroetlicne wundur-maCBum, 5one )>e him Wcalh- 
5eo geaf, 

8eod[nes] dohtor, ptio wicg soraod 
2175 swancor ond sadol- beorht ; hyre syBSan wass, 

after beah-Bege, br[e]ost geweorBod. 

Swa bealdode beam EcgSeowes, 

guma guSum cuC, gddum dsedum, 

dreah after dome, nealles druncne slog 
2180 heortS-geneatas ; nres him hrSoh sefa, 

ac hS man-cynnes mieste enef'te 

gin-featau gife, ]>e him God sealde, 

hSold hilde-deor. Hean wass lange, 

swa hyne Geata beam gudne ne tealdon, 
2185 ne hyne on medo-bence micles wyrllne 

*drihten wereda gedon wolde ; FoL 178". 

swyKe [wSn]don, Jraet he sleac waere, 

seSeling unfrom. Edwenden cwom 

3168. HS. defective at edge here and in 1. 2174. 

2187. MS. defective at edge. Grein'B emendation; Bee "Crist" 309. 

)#,«* by Google 


tlr-eadigum menn torna gehwylces. 
2190 Het 3a eorla hleo in gefetian, 

heaSo Tof cyning, HreSlea Iafe 

golde gegyrede ; nses mid Geatum 6a 

aine-niaSbum seira on sweordes had; 

beet he on Biowulfes bearm alegde, 
2196 ond him geaealde seofan busendo, 

bold ond brego-stoL Him wtes bam samod 

on Sam leod-scipe lond gecynde, 

eard, e5el-riht, OSrum swRSor 

Bide rice, j>am 5ier selra wees. 
2200 Eft bset geiode ufaran dogrum 

hilde-hlsemmum, sy55an Hygelac lieg, 

ond Hear[dr]ede hilde-meceas 

under bord-hreooan to bonan wurdon, 

Ga hyne gesohtan on sige-bSode 
2205 hearde hilde-frecan, HeaSo-Scilfingas, 

nlSa geniegdan nefan Hererices — 

syfJtJan * Beowulfe brade rice Pol- 179*. 

3202. MS. 'hearede.' Bat see 1. 2876. 

2206. All editors put a fall stop at the close of this line, leaving the 
sense of " >£Dt geiode eta." very lame or very obscure. I take the con- 
struction of the passage to be as follows; bat (1. 2200), as in many other 
passages in the poem (cf. 11. 1646, 1591), has a forward reference like mod. 
"this," and is anticipatory of a substantive clause, which usually begins 
with a oorrelative fyzt; this substantive elapse is contained in 11. 
2207—4 (first half), but the conjunction is omitted here, as in 1. 2035, 
perhaps because aySSan (2207) is correlative with tyUSan (2201). 

8207. The folia that begins here (179*) with the word "beowulfe" 
takes rank with the last folio of all (198 b ) as the moat defective and illegible 
portions of the MS. Znpitza says : "All that is distinct in the facsimile 
in fol. 179 has been freshened up by a later hand in the MS." Sometimes 
the later hand has altered the original reading, and not. for the better ; 
e.g. in 1. 2209, vtintra has been changed to tointru. Znpitza transliterates 
the readings of the later hand. 



on hand gehwearf. He geheold tela 
fiftig wintra (waes 5a frod cyning, 

2210 eald ej>el-weard), oS Stet an ongan 
deorcum nihtum draca rios[i]an, 
se 5e on hea[um] hlsewe hord beweotode, 
stan-beorh BtSapne; stig under lceg 
eldum uncuS. pair on innan giong 

2215 niSa nat-hwylc ::::::: gefeng 
hasSnum horde hond ::::::,:: 

2210. Later hand ' On.' Cf. 1. 100. 

2211. AB 'ricBati,' DOW gone. 

2212. MS. very indistinct ; nothing in AB between lieu and hord. 
Zupitza ' hea[So]-h]aiwe,' and in a foot-note: "what is left of the two 
letters after hea justifies as in reading them So." As I oan assign no 
satisfactory meaning to heaVo-hEewe, I have emended as in the text. 
Grain suggested 'hoare hfflSe' (so Heyne). 

2213. Later hand ' steams.' 

2215 — 2231. Here I have closely followed Znpitza's transliteration, 
except in one particular. Hnch is very doubtful — readings, punctuation, 
division into lines. Zupitza gives only the lines of the MS., without 
division into verse lines, except that be marks with an asterisk and 
numbera every fifth line of the poem. In illegible passages he employe 
"as many colons as letters seem to have been lost." I differ from Zapitza, 
as well as from Qrein and Heyne, in the division and numbering of 
these lines, and with good reason. Between fak ne and )>eofet the; make 
two lines and a half, 221T (2)— 2319; I make it one line and a half, as in 
the text. Znpitza's arrangement of these two and a half lines {using 
exactly the number of letter spaces he gives in his transliteration) would 
be this: 

2217 ne he bast sySSan 

2818 : : : : : b[eah] «[e he] 

2219 slSpende be syre : : : ; de 
Compare this with the text and it will be seen that the material, which 
comfortably fills a line and a half, is hopelessly inadequate for two and a 
half. On the other hand, in 11. 2229 and 2230 they make the first teeaptn 
conclude the first half of 2229 and the second ictapen come in the first 
half of 2230. But, besides the improbability of the same word being re- 


: : : : : since fah ne he Jwet syHSan : : : : : 
b[eah] 3[e he] sliepende be eyre : : : : de 
heofes crtefte ]?a?t sie Siod : : : : : 
2220 : : : : folc beoma ]?iet he gebolge[n] webs. 

peated in two following lines, Zupitza puts fort; dotB between eceapen and 
sci'apen, and this ia certainly below rather than above the number of 
missing letters, for the first eeeapen cornea at the beginning (all bat a 
apace for four letters) of the last line of fol. 179* in the MS., and the second 
sceapen closes the first line of fol. 179 b (of. 11. 2296—7, where sore and 
titan- stand in exactly the same relative positions in two following folios). 
Henoe the arrangement of 11. 2328 — 30 in the text, which makes my line- 
numbers again correspond with those of Grein. In this rearrangement I 
have been anticipated by Bugge (see below), although I arrived at the 
same conclusion quite independently. 

Innumerable emendations of this passage have been suggested (see 
Wulcker), of which I give only a very few. I have punctuated only where 
the connected sense is tolerably certain. 

2217. Zupitza: "fah originally fac, but h written over c." Heyne 5 
'faone'; Wuloker 'fahne.' 

2318. Zupitza: "The traces left between > and slapende I think 
justify us in reading beah S<? he." The letters within square brackets 
here and in 11. 2225, 2227, 2228, 2230, he omits, however, in his trans- 
titeration, although suggesting them in foot-notes. 

"lyrt — I do not sea any trace of the first letter having ever been/." — Z. 

2219. Zupitza puts nine colons between "Siod and fole, but it is im- 
possible to say how they are to be divided between this and the next line. 

2220. «« in bolgtn faded. "— Z. 

Grain's reconstruction of 11. 2211 ft. is as follows : 
psar on innan giong 
221S niSa nat-hwylo, se neodu gefeng 

haiSnum horde: hond-bollan hwylone 
since fahne he >sr sytfSan genam 
readan goldes, J>fet hereafod wearS 
sliepende be fyre sincca hyrde 
(2220) J>eofes orarfte : >at siSSan heodeu onfand, 
2220 beahi-leas folc-biom, >sst he gebolgen wies. 
This may be compared with the text. In some respects it is preferable to 
Bngge's more recent reconstruction, which I append : 



Nealles mid gewealdum wyrm-horda crceft 
[sohte], sylfes willum, s5 Be him sare gesceod ; 
ac for Jrea-nedlan b[5ow] nat-hwylces 
haeleBa bearna hete-swengeae fleah, 
2225 [semes] bearfa, ond Bier inne f'eal/i, 
secg syn-bysig. Sona #etid[d]e, 
J»ret : : : : : 5am gyst[e gryre-]brCga stod ; 

par on innan glong 
3315 nrSBa nit-hwylo, neode to gefSng 
hfflSnum horde ; hand stgenam 
nele-fcl since fan; ne he >ttt eyiSCan figeaf, 
l*ah lie he al»pende beayrede hyrde 
t>5ofea onafte: >sat se 'Bloden onfand, 
3330 bj-folo bcorna, jist he gebolgen wses. 
2231. " weoldum the later hand instead of wealdvm, the a being still 
reoognisable. Nothing after borda [i.e. between it and craft]." — Zapitza. 
2322. Grein's emendation. No gap in MS. 

333S. Zapitza ' l>[egn],' and in si foot-note: " the traces of three letters 
between i> and nut justify as in reading egn (J>ejn £.)." So Grein. On 
the other hand, Thorpe, who made a careful collation of the US. in 1830, 
three years before Kemhle's first edition, leaves a blank. A3 )>egn seems 
from the whole context to be an impossible name for the " fea-soeaftum 
men " (1. 3286), I read beow with Wnloker and Heyne 6. 

2224. Later hand 'fleoh.' 

2225. " To judge from what is left, the second word of this line was 

AH 'weall.' "Now only aeal left, but ic stands on an original /, 
which is still reoognisable ; and what seemed to be another J in Thorkelin's 
time may have been the remnant of an original k." — Z. 

2226. OTein'rWaa] Bona in )>& tide.' Thorpe'inwlatode' (soHevne5). 
Znpitza "ntaatidt, no donbt, the second hand." What did the second 
hand mean 7 My own oonjeotore is given in the text. 

3337. " The indistinct letter after gyst seema to have been e. The 
traoea of the third word allow us to read gryre, " — Z. 



hwseSre [earm-]sceapen 

* Pol. 179". 

2230 .... sceapen [ba byne] se fier begeat 

sinc-fot [geaeah]. pier wees awylcra fela 
in oam eorB-[hu]se ser-gestreona, 
swa hy on gear-dagum gumena nat-hwylc, 
eormen-lafe eebelan cynnes, 

2235 )janc-hycgende bjer gehydde, 

deore maSmas. Ealle hie deatf fornam 
ierran m;«lum, ond se an 3a gen 
leoda dugufie, se Bier lengest hwearf, 
wearS wine-geomor, wende baas yldan, 

2240 )>Eet he lytel fsec long-gestreona 
briican moste. Beorh eall gearo 
wunode on wonge wseter-yfium neah, 
niwe be nsesse, nearo-cneftum feat; 
Jwer on innan baer eorl-gestrSona 

2245 hringa hyrde hard-fyrdne dsel, 

2228. "Aacotding to the traoea left, tfas first word [i.e. in the MS. 
line] may have bean earm."— Z. 

2230. "Jwfciiw before *eF"— Z. 

Wiilcker 'fSs.' Znpitza; "fat freshened op, but » seems to stand on 
an original r. " 

2281. After the first line of the new folio, the illegibility is confined 
to the edges of the next three lines. Heyne's emendation. Wnloier 
' stir ' or ' seah,' thinking there is not room for yeieak. I think there is. 
Znpitza haa six dota. 

2237. " Si the later hand, but i seems to stand on an original e."— Z. 

2239. B 'weard' (bo Wiilcker and Eeyne); Znpitza 'wearS' (almost 
the only instance in which be transliterates the reading of the first band). 
"The last letter of the first word was originally "5, although the later 
hand baa not freshened np the stroke through the d."—'A. 

"rihde the later hand, but icende the first." — Z. Wiilcker 'wisote.' 

2241. "innoa the later hand, but o stands on an original a."— Z. 

2245. Znpitza' hard-wyrSne,' and in a foot-note: "it (or/?] and the 
W.B. 7 

)#,«* by Google 

ftettan goldes, fta worda cwteB : > 

"Heald )w uii, hruse, nu h&sleB ne mostan, 

eorla Shte. Hweet ! hyt ier on BS 

gode begeaton; guB-deaS foraam, 

2250 feorh-bealo frecnc, tyro gehwylcne, 
ICoda minra, bara Be J>is [lif] ofgeaf; 
gesawon sele-drSam. *Nahhwasweord wege, FoL 
oBBe fe[o]r[mie] fisted wiege, ie **- 

drync-fot deore; dug[uS] ellor sc6c. 

2255 Sceal se hearda helm [hyr]sted golde 
fffitum befeallen; feormend swefaB, 
)»a Be beado-griman bywan sceoldon ; 
ge swyloe seo here-pad, slo set hilde gebad 
oi'er borda gebnec bite irena, 

2260 brosoaB setter beorne ; ne mfeg byrnan bring 
setter wig-fruman wide furan 
haeleBum be healfe. / Nra hearpan wyn, 

stroke through d in ujrr-Biie not freshened up." Though adopting its 

reading, I am suspicions of the later hand. The form hard occurs 

nowhere else in "Beowulf." 

2246. "fee later hand, but originally /ea."— Z. 

2347. "tniestan later hand, but I think I nee an original o under the 

ne; a also seems to stand on another vowel (u or of)." — Z. 

2250. "rtorh beetle later hand, but the first r stands on an original 
/, and a on an original o."—Z. 

MS. 'fyrena.' 

2251. "$ana later hand, no doubt; nor do I see any sign of the third 
letter having originally been r."— Z. 

2252. Znpitza 'sele-dream : : ' 

2253. MS. defective at corner and edge here and in 1L 2254, 2255, and 
2368. Grain's emendation, supported by Zupitza, who says that the re- 
maining traces of the word in the MS. make /ett^e impossible. Cf. 1.2256. 

2254. MS. 'aeoo.' 

2256. MS. 'feormynd.' CI. 1. 2761. 

2262. MS. 'nes' (bo Heyne). Cf. 11. 1923, 24B6, where I have kept 
the MS. reading. But here the change of tense Is too harsh. 



gomen gleo-beames, ne god hafoc 

geond sasl swingeS, ne se ewifta mearh 
2265 burh-stede beatefi. Eealo-cwealm hafaB 

fela feorh-cynna forB onsended." 

Swa giomor-mod giohBo miende 

an ififter eallum, unbliCe hwe[op] 

dsegea ond nihtea, oB Sast deaBes wylm 
2270 hran set heortan. Hord-wynne fond 

eald iiht-sceaSa opene standan, 

se Se bymende biorgas seceS, 

nacod niB-draca, nihtes fleogeB 

fyre befangen; hyne fold-buend 
2275*[swi8e ondne]dafK]. H§ geaecean sceall Pol. 180 b . 

[ho]r[d on] hrusan, J>ser hg hseBen gold 

waraB wintrum fr&d; ne byS him wihte By Bel. 

Swa se BSod-sceaBa Jreo hund wintra 

heold on hrusan hord-terna Bum 
2280 eacen-craeftig, oB Vast hyne an abealA 

mon on mode; man-dryhtne bser 

fteted wiege, frioBo-wiere bsed 

hlaford ainne. ©a. wees hord rasod, 

onboren beaga hord; bene getiBad 
2285 fea-8ceaftum men. Frea sceawode 

fira fyrn-geweorc forman sIBe. 

2266. A B 'feorS'; Zupitza 'forS.' He says: "There is a dot under 
t, which ia besides very indistinct ." Underdotting ia equivalent to erasure. 
Heyna ooneiderB 1. 808 eoncluaive in favour of his reading ' feorr.' 

2275—6. MS. defective and illegible at (op and comer. Znpitza's 

2279. MS. 'hraaam.' 

2280. MS. 'abealeh.' 

2284. Bugge suggests 'beaga AM' on the ground that the repetition 
of hord is a mistake of the scribe. 



pa se wyrm onwoc, wroht wses geniwad; 
stone 8a after stane, stearc-heort onfand 
fSondes fot-last; he to forS gestop 

2290 dyrnan craafte dracan h&afde neah. 
Swa mseg unfaege eafie gedlgan 
wean ond wraec-slo*, se Be Waldendea 
byldo gehealdeb. Hord-weard Bohte 
georne setter grunde, wolde guman findan, 

2295 poua )>e him on sweofote sare geteode; 

hat ond hrSoh-mod *hUeur oft ymbehwearf Fol. 
ealne utan-weardne ; ne Bier iSnig mon 1S1 *' 

on biem westenne. HwaeBre hilde gefeh, 
bea[duJ-weorces> hwilum on beorh aathwearf, 

2300 sine-fast sohte ; he Jiset sona onfand, 

Sset hsefde gumena sum goldes gefandod, 
heah-gestreona. Hord-weard onbad 
earfoBlice, oB Baet aefen cwom; 
wses Sa gebolgen beorges hyrde, 

2305 wolde se 15,5a lige forgyldan 

drinc-fast dyre. pa. wks dseg sceacen 
wyrme on willan; no on wealle leng 
bidan wolde, ac mid biiele for, 
fyre gefysed. Webs se fruma egeslic 

2310 leodum on lande, swa hyt lungre wearti 
on hyra sinc-gifan sare geendod. 

2296. Ma 'hLewii'; Grundtvig 'hlSw nfi' (go Wiilcker and Heyne). 

2298. B'J>are'; A a blank; Grain 'hsSe,' for the alliteration; "now 
nothing bat the lower part of the perpendicular stroke of > left" fZ.). 
Heyne '[wibb] on Here westenne.' Grain inserts wiet after ne in the 
previous line. 

2299. MS. defective at edge. 

2306. MS. 'tela 'SV; Bugge 'Be ltfSa.' 

2307. MS. 'lffig'; Thorpe 'leng.' 



Da. se gsest ongan glSdum splwan, 
beorht hofu bsernan ; bryne-leoma stod 
eldum on andan ; no t5jer aht cwices 

2315 laS lyfl-floga lasfan *wolde. Pol. 18P. 

Waes bass wyrmes wig wide gesyne, 
nearo-fagcs niff nean ond feorran, 
hu se giiS-BceaSa Geata leode 
hatode ond hynde. Hord eft gesceat, 

2320 dryht-sele dyrnne, iSr dasges hwile ; 
ha?fde land -warn Hge befangen, 
biele ond bronde ; ' beorgea getruwode/ 
wlgea ond wealles ; him seo wen geleah. . 
pa W358 Biowulfe broga gecyBed 

2325 snude to soSe, fset his sylfea ham, 
bolda selest, bryne-wylmum mealt, 
gif-stol Geata. past Sam gddan wsea 
hreow on hreSre, hyge-sorga masst ; 
wfinde se wisa, J>ast he Wealdende 

2330 ofer ealde riht, ecean Dryhtne, 
bitre gebulge ; breost innan weoll 
beostrum gejwncum, swa him gejjywe ne wass. 
Hsefde llg-draca leoda fsesten, 
Sa-lond utan, eorS-weard 5one, 

2335 glSdum forgrunden; him Bses guB-kyning, 
Wedera ]>ioden, wraace leomode. 
Heht him J>a gewyrcean wigendra hleo 
eall-irenne, eorla dryhten, 

wig-bord wrsetlic ; *wisse h6 gearwe, Pol 182*. 
2325. MB. 'him' (bo Wfiloker); Conybeaie 'ham.' 

), oi :, E ed by Google 


2340 b»t him holt-wudu he[lpan] ne meahte, 
lind wis lige. Sceolde JSn-daga 
sealing ier-g5d ende gebldan, 
worulde lifes, ond se wyrm somod, 
}>eah Be hord-welan heolde lange. 

2345 Oferhogode 3a hringa fengel, 

]wet h5 bone wid-flogan weorode gesdhte, 
sldan herge; no he him y& ssecce ondrSd, 
ne him bes wyrmes wig for wiht dyde, 
eafoB ond ellen, forSon hg air fela, 

2350 nearo neSende, niSa gedlgde, 

hilde-hlemma, syESan hS HrOSgares, 
sigor-eadig secg, sele fielsode, 
ond set gutSe forgrap Grendeles miegum 
laSan cynnea No (wet Iffisest webs 

2355 hond-gemot, bjer mon Hygelac sloh, 
eyBBan Geata cyning guSe riesum, 
frea-wine folca Fres-londum on, 
HrSSles eafora, hioro-dryncum swealt 
bille gebgaten ; bonan Biowulf com 

2360 eylfes cnefte, sund-nytte dreah; 

hsefde him on earme *[ana] brittig Fol. 182". 

hilde-geatwa, J>a he to holme [st]ag. 
Neallea Hetware hremge |»orf[t]on 
3340. US. defective at corner. 
2841. MS. '>end'; Eemble 'lien.' Of. 1. 2691. 
2347. MS. 'H'(=>am). Wiilcker retains the MS. reading and defends 

it in a note, which one can only suppose to be a misprint: "Da on mit 

dat. ebenso vie mit accua. verbunden wird." Siecc is fern. (Sievers 

| 258. 1). 

2966. Znpitza 'gu^e-Hesom.' Not one of the sixty odd compounds 

of ITU'S is formed in this way. 

2861. MS. defective at corner, here and in two following lines. 

Zapitza '...six.' Chain's emendation. 



fSJe-wtges, be him foran ongean 

2365 linde Iweron ; lyt eft becwom 

fram bam hild -frecan hamen triosan. 
Oferswam 8a sioleBa bigong aunu EcgSSowee, 
earm an-haga, eft to lSodum, 
beer him Hygd gebSad hord ond rice, 

2370 bgagas ond brego-stol ; beame ne truwode, 
biet hS wi8 sel-iylcum fibel-Btolas 
healdan cuSe, 5a wsea Hygelac dead. 
No By ier fea-eceafte findan meahton 
Eet Bam seBelinge ajnige Singa, 

2375 bjet he Heardrede hlaibrd wiere, 
oBBe bone cynedom closan wolde; 
hwfeSre he hine on foloe freond-larum heold, 
estum mid are, oO tSaet hS yldra wearB, 
Weder-GBatum weold. Hyne wrseo-msecgas 

2380 ofer sse sohtan, suna Ohteres; 

haefdon hy forhealden helm Scylfinga, 

bone eelest&n BB-cyninga, 

bara Be in Swlo-rice sine brytnade, 

maerae "beoden. Him bast to mearce wearB; Fo 

2385 h6 bier orfeorme feorh-wunde bleat ia 

Hweordea swengum, suqu Hygelaces. 
Ond him eft gewat Ongenffioea beam 
homes nlosan, syRSan Heardred Iseg, 
let Soiio brego-stol Blowulf healdan, 

2390 GSatum wealdan; bwt wsee god cyning. 

3377. MS. 'hi' ( = him); Thorpe 'bine.' 

2863. MS. "5e fie,' the first at the end of ft line, the second at the ) 
ginning ol the next. 

3S86. Greiu 'on feorme'; MOllei 'lor feorme* (eo Hejne S). 



Ss foes le.od-hryres lean gemunde 

uferan dogrum: Eadgilae wearS 

fea-sceaftum frSoud, folce gestepte 

ofer sje aide aunu Ohteree, 
2395 wigum ond wSpnum; he" sySSan 

cealdum ceav-siBum, eyning ealdre bineat. 

Swa he nlfoi gehwane genesen hcefde, 

slitSra gealyhta, sunu Ecgfliowes, 

ellen-weorca, 08 Bone anne dseg, 
2400 he he wiB bam wyrme gewegan sceolde. 

Gewat \& twelfa sum, tome gebolgen, 

dryhteo Geata dracan sceawian; 

hfefde ba, gefrimen, hwanan sio fiShB arils, 

bealo-niS bionia ; him to bearme *cwfim Fed. 188". 
2405 matyum-fet maere )rarh foes meldau hond. 

Se wa?8 on Sam fireate breotteoba secg, 

sS Sees orleges 5r onstealde ; 

hseft hyge-giomor sceolde hean Sonon 

wong wiBian. HS ofer willan giong, 
2410 to Bees Be hfi eorB-sele anne wiase, 

hlzew under hrusan holm-wylme n6h, 

yB-gewinne, ee wses innan full 

wnetta ond wira. Weard unMore, 

2393. Hejne 'fwond, foloe geetepte,' with a different interpretation of 
the whole passage : turnt (2894) com., cyning (2396} = Eadgils. With the 
MS. reading, retained in the text, sunu is accua., and eyning = Qne\a. 
By supporting the exited Eadgils against Onela, Beownlf obtains his 
revenge on the Swedes. See Bngge, "Beit." xii. 11 ff., and Eadgils in 
Index of Persona and Places. 

3401. MB. '.xii.' 



gearo gufi-freca, gold-maSmas heold, 

2415 eald under eor8an; tiers )net ySe ceap 
to gegangeniie gumena ienigum. 
Gesajt 6a on nseese nTS-heard cyning, 
Jwnden hfglo abead rieorS -gen Saturn, 
gold-wine Geata. Him wses geomor sera, 

2420 wiefre ond wael-fus, wyrd ungemete nSab, 
se Sone gomelan gretan sceolde, 
s&cean sawle hord, sundur gedielan 
lif wis lice ; n5 ]ron lange waas 
feorh £e)>eKnges niesce bewunden. 

2425 Biowulf ma)>elade, beam EcgBeowes: 
"Fela ic on giogofie guS-riesa genseB, 
orleg-hwila; ic Jrset eall gemon. 
*Ic wses syfan-wintre, ba mec sinca baldor, Fed, 
frea-wine folca, set minum fieder genam ; 1M "- 

2430 heold mec ond hsefde HreBel cyning, 

geaf me sine ond symbel, sibbe gemunde; 
ngia ic him to life latSra owihte 
beorn in burgum Jwnne hia bearna hwyle, 
Herebeald ond HseBcyn, o!5T!e Hygelac nun. 

2435 Wses bam yldestan ungedefelice 
mleges dfedum morjwr-bed stred, 
syBfian hyne HieBcyn of horn-bogan, 
his frea-wine, flane geswencte, 
miate mercelses ond his mieg ofscet, 

2440 broSor dSerae, blodigan gare. 

pset wtes feoh-leas gefeoht, fyrenum gesyngad, 
hreSre hyge-meSe; sceolde hwaeSre swa )>§ah 
seSeling unwreeen ealdres linnan. 

2421. Wiiloker ' seo.' Wyrd is fern, elsewhere in the poem; bat of. 



Swa bi6 geomorlic gomelum ceorle 

2445 to gebidanne, bait his byre ride 

giong on galgan; bonne he gyd wrece, 
aarigne sang, bonne his sunn hangaS 
hrefne to hroSre, ond he him helpan ne maag, 
eald ond in-frod, ienige gefremman. 

2450 Symble biB gemyndgad morna gehwylce 

*eaforan ellor-BiB ; oGres ne gymeS Fol. IM". 

to gebidanne burgum in innan 
yrfe-weardas, }>onne Be an hafatJ 
)>urh deaSes nyd daeda gefondad. 

2465 GesyhS sorh-cearig on hie suna bure 
win-aele westne, wind-gereste, 
rSote berofene; ridend swefaS, 
bffileS in hoSman; nis J«er hearpan swGg, 
gomen in geardum, swylce User lu wieron. 

2460 GewiteK bonne on sealman, sorh-lSoB gseleS 
an iefter annm; buhte him eall to rum, 
wongas ond wlc-stede. Swa Wedra helm 
setter Herebealde heortan Borge 
weallinde waeg; wihte ne meahte 

2465 on Cam feorh-bonan fSeghBe gebetan; 

no By ici' he )>one heaSorinc hatian ne meahte 
laSum dtedum, ]>eah him leof ne waes. 
He 5a mid J>a5re sorhge, \>e him sio aar belamp, 
gum-dream ofgeaf, Godes lSoht geceaa; 

3148. Kemble ' helpe.' There is do other oertain instanoe of the weak 
Form than this. Possibly the scribe was thttkmg of the infinitive. 

2463. For gen. sing, in -o» sec Sievers g 237, N. 1. Of. 11. 63, 2921. 


2470 eafemm liefde, swa deB eadig mon, 

lond ood l6od-byrig, J>a hS of life gewat. 
pa "wees Bynn ond sacu SwSona ond Geata, 
ofer [w]id waiter wroht gemiSne, 
bere-niB hearda, syBCan HrfiBel swealt; 

2475 oSBe him OngenBgowea eaferan wSiran 
frome, fyrd-hwate, freode ne woldon 
ofer heafo healdan, ac ymb Hreosnabeorh 
eatolne inwit-scear oft gefremedon. 
paet mseg-wine mine gewriecan, 

2480 ftehBe ond fyrene, swa hyt gefrtege wtes, 
}>eah Be 68er hia ealdre gebohte, 
heardan cGape ; HteBcynne wearB, 
Geata dryhtne, gut! onaaige. 
pa ic on morgne gefnegn mjgg oBerne 

2485 billee ecgum on bonan stselan, 
J>ser Ongen)>eow EoforeB nlosaS; 
guB-hclm toglad, gomela Scylfing 
hrSas [heoro-]blac ; bond gemunde 
faihBo genoge, feorh-sweng ne ofteah. 

2490 Ic him )>k maSmas, \>c he me sealde, 
geald set gu.Bc, swa me gifeBe wies, 
lSohtan sweorde ; he me lond forgeaf, 
eard, eBel-wyn. Ntes him iSnig )>earf, 
]raet he to GifSum, oBCe to Gar-Denum, 

2495 oBBe in Swio-rice, secean Jrarfe 

•wyrsan wig-frecan, weorSe gecypan; Pol 
symle ic him on feo'an beforan wolde, 

3478. MB. defeotive at oomer. 

2478. MB. 'ge gefremedon.' Cf. U. 986 (see note), 2363. 

2486. Grein •nioaade'; but d. II. 1928, 1928, eta. 

2488. No gap ut HS. Grein'i emendation. 



ana on orde, ond swii to aldre aceall 
sseece freinman, benden bis sweord J>ola5, 

2500 ]>set mec ser ond aiB oft gelieste, 

syBBan ic for dugeSum Dieghrefne weartS 
to hand-bonan, Hugs cempan. 
Nallea h§ Ba frsetwe Fr6s-cyning[e], 
brSost-weortSunge, bringan moate, 

2505 ac in campe gecrong cumbles hyrde, 
reeling on elne; ne wses ecg bona, 
ac him hilde-grap heortan wylmas, 
ban-hus gebnec. Nu aceall billes ecg, 
hond ond beard sweord, ymb hord wigan." 

2510 Beowulf maBelode, bfiot-wordum spraec, 
niehstan sitfe; "Ic gen6Sde fela 
guBa on geogoSe ; gyt ic wylle, 
frod folecs weard, ffehSe secan, 
mierSum fremman, gif mec se man-sceaBa 

2515 of eorB-sele ut ges€ce5." 

Gegrette 8a gumena gehwylcne, 
hwate belm-berend, hindeman siBe, 
swiese gesiSas : " Nolde ic sweord beran, 
waipen to wyrme, *gif ic wiste hu FoL 186". 

2520 wis 8am aglaicean ellea meahte 

gylpe wiBgrlpan, swa ic gio wi5 Grendle dyde ; 
ac ic Sjgr heaBu-fyres hates wene, 
[o]reSes ond attres; forSon ic me on hafu 

2503. MS. ' freaeymng.' 

2505. MS. 'cempan.' 

2514. Kemble 'marSo,' supported by Bugge on the analogy of 11. 2134, 
2645. But the argument from analog}' may be pushed too far, and it is 
even possible that fremman is intrana., as in 1. 1003. 

3528. MS. *re$es yhattres'; Heyne 'r&Ses and-hattres,' fierce heat 
coming agaimt one. Grain's emendation in text. Cf. 1. 2557. 


bord ond byrnan. Nelle ic beorgea weard 
2525 oferfleon fotes trem, 

ac uno sceal weortSan set wealle, swa, unc wyrd 

Metod manna gehwses. Ic eom on mode from, 

J>set ic wi3 f»one guB-flogan gylp ofersitte. 

Gebide ge on beorge byrnuin werede, 
2530 secgas on searwum, hwajSer sel mrege 

lefter wasl-riBse wunde gedygan 

uncer twega. Nis ('set Sower sIS, 

ne gemet manuee nefh[e] mln anea, 

pwt he wis aglajcean eofoSo diele,j 
2535 eorl-acype efne. Ic mid elne sceall 

gold gegangan, oSSe gu5 nimeS, 

feorh-bealu frecne, frean eowerne." 

Aras Sa bi ronde rof oretta, 

heard under helme, hioro-aercean bser 
2540 under atan-cleofu, atrengo getruwode 

anea mannes; ne bis swyle earges sSS. 

Geaeah 8a he wealle, *sS 5e worna fela, Fol. 186". 

gum-cystum god, guSa gedigde, 

hilde-blemma, J>onne hnitan feBan, 
2545 sto[n]dan stan-bogan, stream ut bonan 

brecan of beorge ; waes J>sere burnan waelm 

he&So-fyrum hat; ne meahte horde neah 

unbymende ienige hwlle 

deop gedygan for dracan lege. 

262S. This line is metrically deficient. Ettmiiller '[feond] oferfleon' 
(bo Groin), but this still leaves the second half-line defective. Heyne 
considers that the second half-line is wanting, and supplies fiond tinhgre. 

8588. MS. defective at edge. 

3534. MB. 'wat.' 

3545. MS. -stodan.' 



2550 LSt 8a of breoatum, Ka he gebolgen wses, 

Weder-Geata leod ■word u.t faran, 

stearc-heort atyrmde; etefn in becom 

heaBo-torht hlynnan under harne stan ; 

hete wses onhrered, hord-weard oncnlow 
2555 mannes reorde; nas Bssr mara fyrat 

frSode t6 friclan. From Merest cwOm 

orutt aglfficean ut of stane, 

hat hilde-swat; hruse dynede. 

Biorn under beorge bord-rand onswaf 
2560 wiB Sam gryre-gieste, Geata dryhten; 

8a wms hring-bogan heorte gefyaed 

Kecce to aficeanne, Sweord ser gebriEd 

god guB-cyning, gomele lafe, 

ecgum unalaw; teghwasVrum wees 
2565 bealo-hycgendra *br5ga fram oSrum. PoL 187". 

StiC-mod gestod wis steapne rond 

winia bealdor, 5a ae wyrm gebeah 

amide toaomoe ; he on searwura bad. 

Gewat Ba bymende gebogen scriSan, 
2570 tfi geacipe scyndan. Scyld wel gebearg 

life ond lice liessan hwlle 

inierum beodne, bonne his myne aChte, 

Bier hS by fyrate forraan dogore 

wealdan mdate, swa him wyrd- ne geacraf 
2575 hrSS set hilde. Hond up abned 

2664. MB. 'un/glaw.' "A letter erased between I and a in glavr: 
that it was e is not quite certain." — Z. As there ia oil the appearance of 
an uncompleted alteration, I have adopted Bagge's emendation. 

2570. MS. 'gfloipe.' Heyne adopts MullenhofFs emendation, 'ecrrSan 
to,/geseife scyndan,' thooing hinutlf, advancing, which the latter'baseB 
on a gloss, "per piaeoepe, ntfSewcife p], marg. niftericeotende " (Hanpt 



Geata dryhten, gryre-fahne sloh 

incge lafe, ]>iet sio ecg gewac 

br'iin on bane, bat unswISor, 

ponne hia ESiod-cyning hearfe hiefde, 
2580 bysigum gebfeded. pa waes beorges weard 

after heaffu-swenge on hreoum mode, 

wearp wel-fyre ; wide sprungon 

hilde-lSoman. HrSff-sigora ne gealp 

gold-wine Geata; guff-hill geswac 
2585 nacod eet nBte, awa hyt no sceolde, 

iren ier-god. Ne wees paet Sffe siff, 

pset ae miera maga Ecgffeowes 

grund-wong pone ofgyfan wolde ; 

sceolde [ofer] wiUan wlc eardian 
2590 elles hwergen, swa "sceal ieghwylc mon Fol. 187", 

alietan lten-dagas. Nrea ffa long tC Bon, 

past ffa aglsecean hy eft gemStton. 

Hyrte hyne hord-weard, hreffer iSme weoll, 

niwan atefne ; nearo Srowode 
2595 fyre befongen, se 5e Eer folce wSold. 

Nealles him on hSape hand-gesteallan, 

leSelinga beam, ymbe geatodon 

hilde-cystum, ac hy on holt bugon 

ealdre burgan. Hiora in anum weoll 
2600 seta wiff sorgum; aibb tefre ne mseg 

wiht onwendan, pam 3e wel penceff. 

2677. US. 'inegelafe.' Thorpe 'Inoges'; cf. "Ing," King of the 
East-Danes {Rune-poem 67), and "Ing-wine" in this poem. 

2586. No gap in MS. Bieger 'ofer wilUn' (cf. L 2409); Qiein 
'wjrmea wilkn' (of. 1. 3077). 

2596. MB. 'heand.' 


Wiglaf waea haten, Weoxatanea sunu, 
leoflic lind-wiga, leod Scylfinga, 
mieg iElfheres; geseah his mon-dryhten 

2605 under here-grlman hat jrowiao ; 

gemunde 5a Sa are, be he him ier forgeaf, 
wic-stede weligne Wfegorandinga, 
folc-rihta gehwylc, swa his feeder ahte ; 
ne mihte 5a forhabban, hond roud gefeng, 

2610 geolwe Unde, gomel swyrd geteah. 
pset was mid eldum Eanmundes laf, 
*suna Ohtere[s], Jiam £et ssecce wearS, Fol. 188*. 
wnecca[n] wine-leasum, Weohstara baiia 
meces ecgum, oud his magum astbaer 

2615 brun-fagne helm, hringde byrnan, 

eald sweord etoiiisc, past him Onela forgeaf, 
his gffidelinges gu8-gew£du, 
fyrd-searo fuslic; no ymbe Sa flehSe sprsec, 
bCah 5e he his broSor beam abredwade. 

2620 He fhetwe geheold fela missera, 

bill ond byrnan, 08 Bast his byre mihte 
eorl-scipe efhan swa his ser-fieder; 
geaf him 8a mid Ggatum gdB-gewseda 
jeghwass unrim, pa he of ealdre gewat 

2625 fr5d on fortS-weg. pa w»s forma sI5 
geongan cempan, V;et h£ guSe riies 
mid his fr6o-dryhtne fremman sceolde ; 
ne gemealt him se mdd-sefa, ne his images laf 

2612. MS. 'ohtare.' 

3613. MS. defective at oomor. 

MS. ' weohntiiDes. ' 

2628. MS. 'mfflgenen'; Ettmiillra 'mages.' 



gewac iet wige; ]xet se wyrm onfand, 

2630 BySBan hie togredre gegan htefdon. 
Wlglaf maSclode word-rihta fela, 
ssegde gesIOum (him wses sefa geomor) : 
" Ic Ctet *mfel gemau, beer we medu ]>egun, FoL 
frame wS genet on ussum hlaforde 188 *- 

2635 in bior-sele, Se us Cas beagas geaf, 

frjit we him 8a guB-getawa gyldan woldon, 

gif him f»yslicu bearf gelumpe, 

helmas ond heard sweord. De he usic on herge 

to IJyssum siB-fate syifes willum, 

2640 onmunde usic miSrBa, ond me )>as matSmas geaf, 
pe he usic gar-wigend gode tealde, 
hwate helm-berend, Jjeah 5e hlaford us 
]>is elleu-weorc ana a&ohte 
to geiremmanne, folces hyrde, 

2645 forSain he manna mast mierSa gefremede, 
dieda dolllcra. Nu is se dajg cumeu, 
frst ure man-dryhten msegenes bohdfaC 
godra guS-rinca; wutun gongan to, 
helpan hild-fruman, benden hyt ay, 

2650 gled-egesa grim. God wat on mec, 

b<-et me is micle leo&e, bsefc minne lic-haman 

mid minne gold-gyfan gled fteSmie. 

Ne bynceB me gerysne, btet we rondas beren 

2620. MS. 'I*'; Thorpe *J>»t." 

3646. MS. 'foroa'; Zupitza ' forBan.' Bo alio L 27«. 

2662. MB. and Znpitza 'fsSmie.'; hence Wiilcker 'fieSmia' (cf. 
I. 2126, and Sievern 3 361). In "reced" (1. 1981) Znpitza in not sure that 
the mark under the e is not a mere flourish. It is naed to convert t 
into is in "be.1" (I. 2126), bnt it also occurs under the ts of "siecce" 
(1. 1989). 

W. B. 8 

)#,«* by Google 


eft to earde, nemne w6 ieror maegen 
2655 fane gefyllan, *feorh ealgian Fol. 197". 

Wedra Bfiodnes. Ic wat geare, 

bset nairon eald gewyrht, ]»aet he" ana scyle 

Geata duguffe gnorn J>r5wian, 

gesigan let ssecce ; urum sceal swcord ond helm, 
2660 byrne ond byrdu-Bcrud, bam gemtene." 

Wod J«i )mrh bone wael-rec, wig-heafolan basr 

frean on fultum, tea worda cwaeS: 

"Leofa Biowulf, best eall tela, 

swa Su on geogu5-feore gears gecwEede, 
2665 psit Su ne altete be 5e lingendum 

<lom gedreosan; ecealt nu diSdum rof, 

eeBeling an-hydig, ealle maegene 

feorh ealgian ; ic Be" ful-lfeatu." 

^fter Sam wordum wyrm yrre cwom, 
2670 atol inwit-gsest, Cffre sloe 

fyr-wylmum fah fionda nios[i]an, 

laSra manna. Lig-yBum forborn 

bord wis rond ; byrne ne meahte 

geongum gar-wigan g€oce gefremman; 
2675 ac se maga geonga under his mSges scyld 

2655. The numbers of the folios are given as they stand in the US. 
Fol. 131 follows fol. 146. '- The old number of this leaf is 197 ; bnt now 
it stands between 188 and 189, and the old number has been changed 
to 189 in pencil."— Z. 

• sceal- 'B 
2659. MS. ' urii :'; Zupitza 'arum sceal,' and in afoot-note: 

"sceal within dots and with a S before it added in the left margin, whereas 
a $ oyer a colon with a comma, under it marks the place in the line where 
it is to be inserted." From a misunderstanding of this device have arisen 
the frequent misreadings of this line. 

2671. MS. defective at edge, here and in 11. 2676, 2678. 



elne geeode, J»a his agen wfses] 
gledum forgrunden. J)a gen gu5-cyning 
mfaertia] gemunde, maegen-strengo sloh 
hilde-bille, Jwet hyt on heafolan stod 

2680 nlj»e genyded; Nsegling forbaerst, 
geswac aet scecce sweord Biowulfes, 
*gomol ond grJeg-mtel. Him Just gifefie ne waes, Fot. 
bast him Irenna ecge mihton 197b - 

helpan set hilde ; wses sio bond to strong, 

2685 se 5e meca gehwane, mine gefnege, 

swenge ofereohte, Jionne he" to saecce baer 
wiepen wund[r]um heard ; uses him wihte Be sel. 
pa wses ]>eod-9cea8a )>riddan sIBe, 
frScne fyr-draca, fiehSa gemyndig, 

2690 raisde on Sone rofan, )»a him rum ageald, 
hat ond hea&o-grim, heals ealne ymbeteng 
biteran banum; he geblodegod wearti 
sawul-drlore ; swat y5um weoll. 


©a ic aet bearfe [gefraegn] J>eod-cyninges 
2695 andlongne eorl ellen cJOan, 

creeft ond cenBu, swa him gecynde wses; 

ne hedde he )>aes heafolan (ac sio hand gebarn 

modiges marines, y&r he his miSges healp), 

2678. KemMe's emendation. 

2887. MS. 'wnndu'; Wiilcker 'wundum.' Thorpe 'wondram' — a 
convincing emendation! of. wundrum wrtttUce "Phoenix" 63, toumfrum 
heah "Wanderer" 98. 

2694. No gap in MB. Kemble's emendation. See 11. 2*84, 2752, ete. 

2698. MS. >ms3genee' (so Wuleker); cf. 1. 2638 and foot-note. See 
also 1. 2879. 



Jrast he f>one niS-gsest nioBor hwene sloh, 

2700 secg on searwum, |«et Bast sweord gedeaf 
rah ond feted, J>set Sset fyr ongon 
sweSrian ayBBan. pa gen sylf cyning 
geweold his gewitte, wsell-seaxe gebrald 
biter ond beadu-scearp, ]«Bt he on byrnan wfeg; 

2705 forwrat Wedra *helm wyrm on middan. Pol. 1S9». 
Feond gefyldan, ferh ellen wrsec, 
ond hi hyne Jjfi. begen abroten hsefdon, 
sib-teBdingas ; swylc sceolde secg wesan, 
J>egn set Bearfe. Jtet 8am f>6odne wsea 

2710 siSasft] sige-hwile sylfes dasdum, 

worlde geweorces. Da sio wund ongon, 
|>e him se eorS-draca ier geworhte, 
ywelan ond swellan; he ]nBt aona onfand, 
|>set him on breostum bealo-niS weoll, 

2715 attor on innan. Da ee seBeling giong, 
Jwet hfi bl wealle wia-hycgende 
gesset on sense, aeah on enta geweorc, 
hu 5a Btan-bogan stapulum fasste 
ece eorti-reced innan bealde. 

2720 Hyne p& mid handa heoro-dreorigne, 
j?eoden mferne, )>egn ungemete till, 
wine-dryhten his, wsetere gelafede 
hilde-asedne, ond his hel[m] onapeon. 
Biowulf ma]>elode: hg ofer benne spraec, 

2725 wunde waal-bleate ; wisse he" gearwe, 

2710. Grondtvig'H emendation. Komble ' srScs aige-hwll ' ; Grein 
'slSast sige-hwlla.' 

2719. Heyne 'heoldon.' For the tense of. 11. 1928, 1928, 2486; and 
for the sing, verb with pi. subject in a subordinate clause ef. 1. 2164, and 
eee the note on 1. 2035. 

2723. MS, defective at edge, here and in 1. 2727. 



]>set he dasg-hwila gedrogen hasfde 
eorSan wynn[e]; Sa. wsea eall sceaceo 
dogor-gerimes, deaS iragemete nSah : 
" Nu ic Buna milium syllan wolde 

2730 gufi-gewtedu, («er me gifeSe swa 

ienig yrfe-*weard sefter wurde Pol. ■ 

lice gelenge. Ic Sas leode heold 
fiftig wintra; nses se folc-cyning 
ymbe-rittendra senig Kara, 

2735 J»e mec guS-winum gretan derate, 
egesan S6on. Ic on earde bad 
mtel-gesceafta, heold min tela, 
ne sohte searo-niSas, ne me swor fela 
aSa on unriht. Ic Bass ealles mseg 

2740 feorh-bennum aeoc gefean habban; 

fortSam me wit an ne Searf Waldend fira 
morCor-bealo maga, Jronne min sceaceS 
lif of lice. Nu Su lungre geong 
hord sceawian under hame stan, 

2745 Wiglaf lSofa, nu se wyrm ligeiS, 
swefeC sare wund, since bereafod. 
Bio nu on ofoste, jwt ic ier-welan, 
gold-ivht ongite, gearo aceawige 
swegle searo-ginunas, J>set ic By sgfb msege 

2750 sefter miUHSum-welan min Sltetan 

lif ond leod-scipe, Jwne ic longe heold." 


Da ic snude gefrasgn sunu Wihetanes 
jefter word-cwydum wundum dryhtne 
hyran heaBo-SIocum, hring-net beran, 



2755 brogdne beadu-sercean, under beorgee hrof. 
Geeeah Ba sige-hreSig, |>a he bl eesse geong, 
i-J>egn "mddig maWum-sigla fealo, Fol. 190*. 
glitinian grunde getenge, 
lur on wealle, ond bres wynnes denn, 
s iiht-tiogan; orcas stondan, 
manna fatu, feorra end lease, 
um behrorene. JJier wtee helm monig 
ond Omig, earm-beaga fela 
ram gesteled. Sine 6a8e maeg, 
on grund[e], gum-cynnes gehwone 
Igiaii, hyde se Be wylle. 
ce he siomian geseah segn eall-gylden 
ofer horde, hond-wundra msest, 
en leoSo-crseftum ; of Sam leoma stGd, 
he Jione grund-wong ongitan meahte, 
e giondwlitan. Naes toes wyrmes )>Jer 
o Jenig, ac hyne ecg fornam. 
c on hliewe gefrajgn hord reafian, 
enta geweorc, anne mannan, 
on bearm hladon bunan ond discas 
9 dome; segn eac genom, 
aa beorhtost. Bill air gescod 

>Bt editors normalise to 'fela' or 'fcola.' Bat see Sievore 


I. defective st edge. 

ein '[hoed] oferbigian' (aurpaaa). No gap in MS. 

i. 'leoman.' 

i. 'wrieoe,' here sad in 1. 8060. Thorpe 'wrote' in both 

3. 'hlodon.' For infin. in -on of. 11. 308, etc., and see 

i. 'arge sood.' Kemble 'ar-gesood,' brau-ihod, theathed in 


(ecg wies iren) eald-hlafordee 

ham Sara maSma mund-bora ras 
2780 loage hwile, llg-egeeau v/w.g 

b&tne for horde, hioro-weallende 

middel-nihtum, *o5 Jwet hS morGre swealt. Foi. 

Ar waes on ofoste, eft-aiSes georn, 190 *' 

fraetwum gefyrffred; hyne fyrwet braec, 
2785 hwa&er collen-ferB cwicne geniette 

in 5am wong-Btede Wedra beoden, 

ellen-aiocne, bier he hine eer forlet. 

He 5a mid ham maSmum mserne bioden, 

dryhten slnne, drlorigne fond 
2790 ealdres tet ende; he hine eft ongon 

wseteres weorpan, 08 bset wordes ord 

breost-hord burhbnec. [Beowulf maSelode,] 

gome) on gioACe gold sceawode : 

"Ic Sara fnetwa Frean ealles Banc, 
2795 Wuldur-cyninge, wordum secge, 

ecum Dryhtne, be ic her on starie, 

baro 5e ic moste mlnum leodum 
brain. This has the support of Thorpe and Grein, but lacks analogy; 
for the reading in the text of. 1. 1S87, and 11. 1615, 2562, and 2973. 

2773. Bieger 'eald-hlaforde ' ( = the dragon), supported by Ende. 
The US. reading, ' eald-hlRfordes, ' is understood by Bugge and Heyne of 
Beowulf, by MUUenhoff and Wuloker of the former possessor of the hoard. 
The reading of the latter ia : 

"segn eac genom, 
beaona beorhtoat, bill tergeseod 
(eog wits iron) ealdhlafordes, 
hun etc." 
That 11. 2780—82 refer to the dragon, and are inconsistent with what 
we are told of the former owner, will be seen by a comparison with 
11. 2281—70. 

3792. No gap in MS. 

279S. MB. 'giogo«e'; Thorpe 'gioh«e: 

i ^Google 


ier swylt-dsege awylc gestrynan. 

Nu ic od maSma hord mine bebohtc 
2800 frode feorh-lege, fremmaS gena 

leoda ]>earfe ; ne mseg ic her leng wesan. 

HiltaC heaSo-mitire hlit:w gewyrcean 

beorhtne seller bS>le tct brimes oosan ; 

8c seel to gemyndum minum leodum 
2805 heab hllfian on Hrones nesse, 

]>aet hit sie-lISend sySSan hatan 

Blowulfes biorh, 5a He brentingaa 

ofer *floda genipu feorTan driiao - ." FoL 191". 

Dyde him of healse hring gylderine 
2810 bloden brist-hydig; begne gesealde, 

geongum gar-wigan, gold-fanae helm, 

b§ah ond byrnan, net hyne brucan well. 

" pu eart ende-Iaf usses cynnes, 

Wlegmundinga ; ealle wyrd forawjeop 
2815 mine magas to metod-aceafte, 

eorlas on elne ; ic him ajfter sceaL" 

pffit wins Jiam gomelan gingasste word 

brgost-gehygdum, Sr bS bfel cure, 

hate heaSo-wylmas ; him of hreSre gewat 
2820 sawol sScean soB-featra dom. 

2799. MB. 'minne.' 

2800. Thorpe'genu'; bo Grein and Heyne. Why? 

2811. MS. 'for/speof.' Kerable 'forsweof (to Grein and Heyne). 
But when the MS. reading is certainly wrong, it is surely better, by a 
change of two letters, to obtain the pret. of a verb already used in thin 
poem (I. 477), and found in the past part, in " Genesis" 391, than, by a 
change of one letter only, to set up a verb, of whose existence there is no 
other evidence. 

2816. MS. 'hwa&re.' Kemble's emendation. 

2620. No number in the MS. after this line, but there is a space, and 
1. 2821 begins with a large capital. 


Da webs gegongen guman unfrodum 
earfoSlice, bat hS on eorSan gesea-h 
Jrone leofestan lifes set ende 
bleats gebseran. Bona awylce lasg, 

2825 egesllo eorB-draca ealdre bereafod, 
bealwe gebsaded. Beah-hordum leng 
wyrm woh-bogen wealdan ne moate, 
ac hide Trerisia ecga foroamon, 
hearde, heaSo-scearde homera lafe, 

2830 Jraet se wid-floga wundum atille 
hreas on hrusan hord-ferne neah; 
nalles *aefter lyfte lacende hwearf Pol. 191*. 

middel-nihtum, maSni-fehta wlonc 
ansyn ywde, ac he eorfan gefeoll 

2835 for Saes hild-fruman hond-geweorce. 
Hutu biet on lande lyt manna 5ah 
msegen-agendra, mine gefreege, 
beah 5e he dieda gehwass dyrstig waere, 
bset he wi8 attor-sceaSan oretSe geriesde, 

2840 oBBe hring-sele hondum styrede, 
gif he waeccende weard onfunde 
buon on beorge. Biowulfe weariS 
dryht-maSma dtel d€a5e forgolden; 
haefde seghwaefer ende gefered 

3831. US. 'gnmfi unfrodu,' doubtless another inntance of "anticipa- 
tion"; in 1, 158 the MS. has 'band folmfl.' 

2828. MS. 'him'; so Heyne and Wiilcker. In all other instances 
forniman governs the acous. 

2844. MS. 'aghwwSre'; Kemble ' oghwieSer.' Grein '5ghw»$re 
{aee. pi.) ende (nom.).' But cf. 1. 3063; besides, aghwaSer is found no- 
where else in the pi. 



2845 Ist'iian lifes. Naes 8a lang to Son, 

ymt 83, hild-latan bolt ofgefan, 

tydre treow-logan tyne setsomne, 

fia ne dorston ier darefium lacan 

on hyra man-dryhtnes miclan bearfe ; 
2850 ac hy scamiende scyldas biSran, 

guS-gewigdu, J»6r se gomela Ueg; 

wlitan on Wi[g]laf, He gewergad sset, 

fe8e-cempa, frean eaxlum neah, 

wehte hyne waetre ; him wiht ne speow. 
2855 Ne meahte he on eortSan, Seah hfi uSe wel, 

on Sara frura-gare feorh gehealdan, 

ne Baes Wealdendes [willan] wiht oncirran, 

Wolde ddm *Godes cUedum riedan Fol. 192». 

gumena gehwylcum, swa hS nu gen deS. 
2860 JS, wees set Sara geongum grim ondswaru 

68-begete, bam Se ser his elne forlgas. 

Wlglaf maSelode, Weohstanes sunn, 

sec[g] sarig-fertS seah on unleofe : 

" pset la ! majg secgan, se Se wyle soff speean, 
i mon-dryhten, sS Sow 8a maSmas geaf, 
)>e ge bjer on standaB, 

bonne he on ealu-bence oft gesealde 

heal-sittendum helm ond byraan, 

bgoden his begnum, awylce hS Jnyt^licost 
2870 6w§r feor oSSe neah ftndan meahte, 

3852. MB. 'wilat' 

2854. HS. 'speop.' 

2657. Thorpe reads' willan' for 'wiht' (so Wuloker). Heyne's emenda- 
tion in text. It ia easier to believe that the scribe omitted a word, than 
that he wrote wiht for willan. , ■ 

2868. MS. 'see.' 

2869. MS. 'HydlicoBt.' 

)#,«* by Google 

)>£et h6 germnga gfiS-gewjedu 

wra5e forwurpe, Sa hyne wig beget. 

Nealles folc-cyning fyrd-gesteallum 

gylpan korfte; hwieCre him God uBe, 
2875 sigora Waldend, J>set he hyne sylfiie gewraec 

ana mid ecge, |>a him vises elnes }>earf. 

Ic him lli'-wrafie lytle meahte 

EBtgifan set gutSe, ond origan swa ]>eah 

ofer min gemet tnieges helpan. 
2880 Symle was ]>y ssTmra, bonne ic aweorde drep 

ferhB-geniBlan ; fyr unswISor 

weoll of gewitte. Wergendra to lyt 

Jnong ymbe beoden, fa. hyne sio *]>rag poL 
becwom. wa» 

Nil sceal sinc-bego ond swyrd-gifu, 
2885 eall 68el-wyn, eowrum cynne, 

lufen alicgean ; lond-rihtes mot 

bjgre mteg-burge monna ieghwylc 

idel hweorfan, syBSan reSelingas 

feorran gefricgean fleam eowerne, 
2890 dom-lSasan died. DeaB bis sella 

eorla gehwylcum bonne edwit-lif." 


Heht Sa bast heaSo-weorc to hagan biodan 

2881. MS. 'fjrtin ("u altered from a") ewiSor.' Grain 'fyr i 
swifcor.' This makes Beowulf, instead of the dragon, the subject of u 
(2880), and spoils the passage. For "nnBWTSor," cf. I. 2578. 

2884. MS. 'hn.' 

)#,«* by Google 


up ofer Sgf-clif, ]wer Jwet eorl-weorod 
morgen-longne desg iiiod-glomor ssefc, 

2895 bord-hsebbende, bega on wenum, 
ende-dogores ond eft-cymes 
leofes monnes. Lyt swigode 
nlwra spella, ae 5c naas gerad, 
tic be sdSlicc seegde ofer ealle: 

2900 " Nu is wil-geofa Wedra l€oda, 
dryhten Geata, deaS-bedde faeat, 
wunaS wsel-reste wyrmes dsdum. 
Him on efa ligeB ealdor-gewinna 
siex-bennum seoc; sweorde ne meahte 

2905 on Sam agleecean ajnige )>inga 
wunde gewyrcean. Wiglaf sites 
ofer Biowulfe, byre Wihstanes, 
eorl ofer oJSrura unlifigendum, 
healdeS hige-maJSum *heafod-wearde P 

2910 leofes ond laSes. Nu ys leodum vr&n 
orleg-hwile, sy&San underfne] 
FroDCum ond Frysam fyll cytiinges 
wide weorBeS. Wtes slo wr&ht scepen 
heard wis Hugas, syKBan Higelac cwdm 

2915 faran flot-herge on Fresna land, 

)«gr hyne Hetware hilde gehntegdon, 
elne geeodon, mid ofer-maegene, 
|>Eet Be byrn-wiga bugan sceolde, 
feoll on feSan; nalles fraetwe geaf 

2920 ealdor dugoSe. Us wass a syBBan 

2693. H8. 'ecg clif ' ; Kemble 'eg.clif, ' Cf. 1. S77. Eeg ia oi 
of weapons in O. E. 

2909. Sievers 'nige-inSSe'; cf. 1. 3443. 

2911. MS. 'under.' Grein's emendation. Cf. L 137. 


Merewioingas milts ungyfeSe. 

Ne ic to Sweo-5eode sibbe oSBe treowe 

wihte ne wene ; ac wses wide cuS, 

]»sette OngenSIo ealdre besnySede 
2925 HiSBcen Hrefling wio" Hrefna-wudu, 

)>a for onmedlan Surest gesohton 

Geata lSode GuC-Scilfingas. 

Sdna him 8e froda feeder Ohtheres, 

eald ond eges-full, ondslyht ageaf, 
2930 abreot brim-wiaan, bryd aheorde, 

gomela io-meowlan golde berofene, 

Onelan modor ond Ohtheres, 

ond 5a folgode feorh-genMSlan, 

oB Bjet hi oSeodon earfoSlice 
2935 in Hrefhes holt hlaford-lease. 

Besset 5a sin-herge sweorda late 

wundum werge ; *wean oft gehet Foi. uw. 

earmre teohhe ondlonge niht; 

cwseS, h8 on mergenne nieces ecgum 
2940 getan wolde, sum[e] on galg-trSowu[m] 

[fuglum] to gamene. Frofor eft gelamp 

sarig-mddum somod ser-dasge, 

syBCan hie Hygelaces horn ond byman 

2921. Wiitoker 'Meremoinga.' See note on 1. 2463, 

2933. MS. 'to.' 

2929. MS. ' hond alyht,' here and in 1. 2972. The change in the text 
is neoessary, unless one admits that h can alliterate with vowels. Such 
oases as this and that of the name "Unferth," always JImiferS in the 
MB. but alliterating with vowels, tempt strongly to the abandonment of 
the rale. Cf. 1. 1541 (and note), and see Sievers g 217, K. 1. 

3930. MS. and Zupitaa 'brydn heorde.' 

3910 — 1. MS. 'anm on galg treowa to gamene.' Thorpe 'some' and 
'fuglum,' comparing Judith 297: "fngltun to frafre." 

), oi :, E ed by Google 

gealdor ongeaton, Ipa. se goda com 
2945 leoda dugoffe on last faran. 

sio swat-swaSu Sw[e]ona ond Geata, 
rigs weora, wide geayne, 
a folc mid him nehSe towehton. 
it him 6a se goda mid his gaedelingam, 

fela-geomor, fsesten secean, 
Ongen]»Io ufor oncirde; 
e Higelaces hilde gefrunen, 
ces wlg-crseft; wiBres ne truwode, 
he sce-mannum onsacan mihte, 
D-liSendum, hord forstandau, 
i ond bryde; beah eft bonan 

under eorU-weall. pa. waes teht boden 

ma Uodum, segn Higelace[s] ; 

o-wong bone fon^ ofereodon, 

in HreSliogas to hagan brungon. 

wearB OngenBIow ecgum uweorda, 

len-fexa, on bid wrecen, 

se beod-cyning Safian sceolde 

J. 'sworn.' 

sin and Heyne retain the MS. reading; the latter explains: 
Fluoht entrissene Banner der Sohweden kam in Hygelaoa 
I it ifl a far cry from giving chase to the capture of the 
n mention the violent zeugma in boden, Bngge supports 
mdation, adopted in the text: "Das erhobene banner ist das 

•!. 'fold.' Heyne thinks freo'Sa-wong may be a proper name. 
Jiat case, be followed by Son*? 
i. 'sweordu.' 



Eafores *anne dom. Hyne yrringa Fol. 194» 

2965 Wulf Wonreding wiepne geriehte, 

bset him for swenge swat iedrum sprang 

for5 under fexa Nses he forht swa. Seh, 

gomela Scilfing, ac forgeald hraBe 

wyrsan wrixle wasl-hlein Jrane, 
2970 syBBan Beod-cyning J>yder oncirde. 

Ne meahte se siiella smm Wonredes 

ealdum ceorle ondslyht giofaii, 

ac he him on heafde helm ier gescer, 

bset he blode fah bugan sceolde, 
2975 feoll on foldan ; naes he fiege )>a git, 

ac h§ hyne gewyrpte, beah Be him wund hrine. 

Let se hearda Higelaces begn 

brad[n]e mece, |>a his brOfior lseg, 

eald sweord eotonisc, entiscne helm 
2980 brecan ofer bord-weal ; 5a. gebeah cyning, 

folces hyrde, wses in feorh dropen. 

©a wSron monige, ]»e his meg wriBon, 

ricone arierdon, Ba him gerymed wearS, 

bait hie wsel-stowe wealdan mdston, 
298-5 benden reafbde rinc oBeme, 

nam on OngenBIo iren-byrnan, 

heard swyrd hilted ond his helm somod; 

hares hyrste Higelace beer. 

He S[am] fraetwiim feng, ond him fegre gehet 
2990 leana [for] *leodum, ond gelaiste swa, ; POL 194*. 

2961. Heyne ' Eofores. ' But see 1. 3757 and note. 

2972. See note on 1. 2929. 

.2678. MS. 'brade.' 

2869. MS. defective at corner, here and in the next line. 

2990. A word is miaaing in the MS. in the first half of this line. 



geald (rone guS-ries Geata dryhten, 
HreSlea eafora, ]>a he to ham becom, 
Iofore ond Wulfe mid ofer-maSmum, 
sealde hiora gehweeSrum hund busenda 
2995 landes ond locenra beaga ; ne Borfte him 5a lean 
mon on middan-gearde, sySSa[n] hie Sa. mserSa 

ond Si. Iofore forgeaf angan dohbor, 

ham-weorSunge, hyldo to wedde. 

pset ye sio fiehSo ond se f§ond-scipe, 
3000 weel-niS wera, Bass Se ic [wen] hafo, 

J?e us seceaS to Sweona leoda, 

syBSan hie gefricgeaS frean userne 

ealdor-leasne, bone Be Sir geheold 

wis hettendum hord ond rice 
3005 setter haeleSa hryre, hwate Scil/ingas, 

folc-rfid fremede, oBBe furSur gen 

B has two dots, Zupitssa three. Kemble 'on.' For for leadum cf. 
"Daniel" 730: "he for leodum lygeword gecwseS." 

MS. 'gelssta.' 

2996. MS. ' nyS-iSa..' 

3000. Ho gap ill MS. Kemble's emendation. Ct 1. 383. 

3001. Heyne 'leode.' For the .pi. Uoda see Wulfstan (ed. Napier) 
106. 23, and Pi. 71. 10. 

3005. MS. ' Scildingaa.* Miillenhoff considered this line a careless 
repetition of 1. 2052. It is the easiest nay oat of the difficulty. Thorpe 
* Scyldingas,' and ia a foot-note: "Hence it would appear that Beowulf, 
in consequence of the fall of Hiothgar's race, was called to rule also over 
the Danes (Scyldings)." The punctuation ia the text allows Scyljcagat to 
be taken in apposition with hie in 1. 3002, which is intolerably forced, or 
parallel with hard ond rice in 1. 3004. I favour the latter interpretation, 
if the line ia to be kept, and can only suppose that the term "SoyMngas" 
could be applied equally, on the ground of common ancestry, to both 
Swedes and Oeats. See 1. 2603, where Wiglaf is called "leod Sojlflnga." 



eorl-scipe efnde. Nu is ofoat betosb, 
yset we" Jjfiod-cyning J^er sceawian, 
ond {tone gebringan, pe us beagas geaf, 

3010 on ad-fsere. Ne seel anes hwjet 

meltan mid J>ara mddigan, ac pier is maSma bord, 

gold unrime, grimme gecea[po]d, 

ond nu aet sitfestan sylfes feore 

beagas [gebohjte; )»a sceall brond fretan, 

3015 ailed ]>eccean, 'nalles eorl wegan F6L 196*. 

matSSum to gemyndum, ne m£eg8 scyne 
babban on bealse hring-weortSunge, 
ac sceal geomor-mod, golde bereafod, 
oft, nallea Sine, el-land tredan, 

3020 nu se here-wisa bleabtor alegde, 

gamen ond gleo-drearn. ForSon sceall gar weaan, 
monig morgen-ceald, mundum bewunden, 
hsefen on handa, nalles bearpan sweg 
wigend weccean, ac se wonna hrefn 

3025 fua ofer fsegum fela reordian, 

earne secgan hu him set fete epeow, 
J>enden hs wis wulf wsel reafode." 
Swa se secg bwata sec^rende waas- 
liiBra spella; he ne leag fela 

3030 wyrda ne worda. Weorod eall araa; 
eodon unbliSe under Earna uses, 
wollen-teare, wundur eceawian. 
Fundon 5a on sande aawul-lSasne 
hlim-bed healdan, pone J>e him hringas geaf 
300T. MS. 'meia.' KemWe's emendation. Me is is a possible reading. 
3012. US. defective at comer, here and in 1. 3014. 
3028. Orein and Zupitza ' Beog-hwata. ' 

MS. 'geeggende,' probably due to "repetition." BatseeSievers§210,N.l. 
3034. Grein (after Grimm) 'hlin-bed.' See note on 1. 1271. 



3035 terrtm mailum ; J>a webs ende-daeg 

godimi gegongen, bast Be gu5-cyning, 

Wedra bgoden, wundor-deafje swealt. 

Mr hi y&r gesegan syllicran wiht, 

wyrm on wonge wifjer-rsehtes bair 
3040 laSne licgean ; wte9 se leg-draca, 

grimlic gryr[e], 'glfidum beswjeled. Pol. 196*. 

Se wtea fiftiges fot-gemearces 

lang on legere ; lyft-wynne heold 

nihtes hwilum, nySer eft gewat 
3045 dennes niosian; waes 3a, deaSe fiest, 

hsefde eorS-scrafa ende genyttod. 

Him big stodan bunan ond orcas, 

discas lagon ond dyre swyrd, 

dmige, burh-etone, ewa hie wis eorrjan fetim 
3050 busend wintra bigr eardodon; 

bonne waea J»set yrfe eacen-crseftig, 

m-moima gold, galdre bewunden, 

bset oam hring-sele brinan ne mSste 

gumena ienig, nefhe God sylfa, 
3055 sigora So5-cyning, sealde bam Se hs wolde 

(h6 is manna gehyld) hord openian, 

erne swa, hwylcum manna, swa him gemet 
3035. MS. 'semin' ("« altered from a by erasure."— Z.) Sievers 
g 304, N. 2. 

3041. HS. defective at comer. Heyne 'gryre-grefrt' (of. 1. 2560), 
baaed on Kb'lbing's statement that there U room for from four to six 
letters on the missing corner. This seems more than doubtful. B 'gry...'; 
Znpitza 'gryrfe]' simply. It would appear from the facsimile that the 
corner of the folio was defective from the very first and that certainly not 
more than one letter is missing. This is confirmed by the fact, that if 
the corner had been perfect there had been ample space for two or three 
letters after la$ne at the end of the bottom line but one. 



pa wies gesyne, beet se sIB ne Bah 

bam Be unrihte inne gehydde 
3060 wrsefe under wealle. Weard jer ofsloh 

feara sumne; pa, sio isehS geweartf 

gewrecen wraBlice. Wundur hwar bonne 

eorl ellen-rof endo geiere 

llf-gesceafba, Jjonne leng ne m&g 
3065 moQ mid his [majgiim medu-seld buan. 

Swa v/ses Biowulfe, *ba he biorges weard Pol. 198*, 

Bohte, searo-nlBas ; seolfa ne cuBe, 

burn hwset his worulde gedal weorBan sceolde. 

Swa hit oS domes dasg dlope benemdon 
3070 beodnas miere, J>a Smt bair dydon, 

b&t se secg wtere synnum scildig, 

hergum geheaBerod, hell-bendum faest, 

wommum gewitnad, sg Bone wong strwde. 

Nses he gold-hwsei; gearwor haefde 
3075 Agendes fist ier gescfiawod. 

Wiglaf maSelode, Wihstanes sunu: 

" Oft sceall eorl monig anes willan 

wraec adreogan, swa, us geworden is. 

Ne meahton we gelairan leorhe beoden, 
3080 riceB hyrde, raid fenigne, 

ba^t he ne grfitte gold-weard bone, 

8060. MS. 'wnece'; Thorpe 'wrsste.' Of. L 2771. 

3065. MS. defective at corner. 

Wuloker has a question-mark after buon. 

3073. MS. 'frtrade.' Cf. 1. 3126. 

3071. MS. 'gold-hwtete.' Thorpe audWnloker 'gold-hwnte': Groin 
(after Bagge) 'N»s ("not") he gold-hwaate (agreeing with wf) gearwor etc.' 
Sievers 'gold-hwEetes' (agreeing with agenda). 

3078. MS. 'a drageS.' 


), oi :, E ed ^ Google 


lete hyne licgean, bjgr h§ longe woes, 

wicum wunian off woruld-ende ; 

heold on heah gesceap. Hord ys gesceawod, 

3085 grimme gegoogeii ; waes fat gifeSe to swiff, 
]>e ffone [beod-cyning] hyder ontyhte, 
Ic wase \>ibt inne ond )>£et eall geondseh, 
recedes geatwa, )>a mS gerymed waea 
nealles swieslice, sIC alyfed 

3090 inn under eorS-weall. Ic on ofoste gefSng 
micle mid mundum nwegen-byrSenne 
hord-gestreona, hider *ut Betbser Pol. 196". 

cyninge minum ; cwico waas J»a gena, 
wis ond gewittig. Worn eall geeprac 

3095 gomol on gehffo, ond eowic gretan het, 

bred (>set ge geworhton aefter wines dtedum 
in bsel-stede beorh poae hSan, 
micelne ond mime, swa he manna wass 
wlgend weorS-iulloat wide geond eorSan, 

3100 )>enden he burh-welan brucan moate. 
Uton nu efetan oS5re [siSe] 
seon ond aecean searo-geJwaBC, 
wundur under wealle; ic eow wisige, 

3084. MS. 'heoldon,' or not impossibly 'heold on.' Heyne 'Hiloldon 
heah gesceap, ' mr erhieltm tin Khweret Schickial. Wuloker 'wornld- 
ende, / healdan heah -gesceap.' These appear to me equally unsatisfactory, 
and I have therefore suggested an emendation, which, if it lacks analogy, 
yet seems to give the sense required: "We could not dissuade him; he 
held (on) to his high fate, or he held on {adv.) his high fate." Grein and 
Toller give several instances of the intrans. nse of healdan, and of on nsed 
adverbially. See also Matzner's 0. E. Diet. , p. 405, col. 1 ; among other 
passages there quoted is : " hald hardiliche o f tu hauee bigonnen," St. 
Kath. 676. 

8066. No gap in MS. Grein's emendation. Gmndtvig ' Jxloden.' 

3101. No gap in MS. 



neon sceawiaS 

3105 beagas ond brad gold. Sie ^o bier gearo 
tedre geaefned, bonne we ut cymen, 
ond )>onne geferian frean userne, 
leofhe mannan, pier he longe sceal 
on 5a5s Waldendes wSre gebolian." 

3110 Het Ba gebeodan byre Wihstanes, 
hsele hilde-dlor, hfeleSa monegum, 
bold-agendra, ]>a3t hie biel-wudu 
feorran feredon, folc-agende, 
godum togenes: "Nil sceal gled fretan 

3115 (weaxan wonna leg) wigena strengel, 
b-one Be oft gebad Isern-scure, 
bonne stnela storm 
scoc ofer scild-weall, 
fec^er-gSarwum fus 

3120 Hutu se snotra 

aclgde of corBre 
syfone [setjsomne, 
eode eahta sum 
hilde-rinc sum 
3125 ailed-! Soman, si 
Naes Sa on hlytrr 
sySBan orwearde 

strengum gebaeded 
sceft nytte heold, 
flane full-eode." 
sunu Wihstanea 
*cyni[n]ges pegnaa Vo 

]>a selestan, 
under inwit-hrof; 
on handa bser 
■ oe on orde geong, 
e, hwa ]«et hord atrude, 

Snigne diel 
on sele ■* 

8104. Heyne 'neon.' See Sieveru § 160. 3. 

8119. MS. 'fssder gearwil.' Earn 

3121. This folio, the last, is terribly mutilated with tears and holes. 

MS. 'eyniges.' 

8123. Zupitza '[to]-somme,' and in a foot-note: "now to eutirely 
gone." That "now" is misleading, tor apparently it was just as entirely 
gone in Thorkelin'B time. In the absence of evidence in its favour, I read 
ateomne with Orein; cf. 1. 2817. 



Uene began; lyt ienig meani, 
3130 Jjffit hi ofostlic[e] ut geferedon 
dyre maSmas. Dracan 6c scufun, 
wyrm ofer weall-clif, leton weg niman, 
flod fseSiman, fnetwa hyrde. 
pier webs wunden gold on wSn hladen, 
3135 ajghwaes unrim; ffibulingr boren, 
bar hilde[-rinc], to Hrones naesse. 


Him 8a gegiredan Ogata leode 

ad on eorSan unwaclicne, 

helm[um] behongen, hilde-bordum, 
3140 beorhtum byrnum, swa he bena wass ; 

alegdon 5a tOmiddea mserne beoden 

haeleS hiofende, hlaford leofne. 

Ongunnon J>a on beorge biel-fyra miest 

wigend weccan; wud[u]-rec astah 
3145 sweart ofer swioBole, swogende leg 

wOpe bewunden (wind-blond gelseg), 

MS. defective at edge. 
MS. 'f.' Thorpe ' pier.* 
MS. ' Bs>elinge.' 

MS. 'hilde to.' "I am Enable to decide whether there is an 
of one letter after hilde or an original blank." — Z. Thorpe's 

MS. • helm.' Grain's emendation. 

Hole in MS. 

MS. 'awieCole.' A difficult word. Toller gives two or three 
instances of stoics, twice {?), "scent, smell." Skeat suggests "smelling 
iir-wood," from O.E. Sol(l), Icel. Jwiir, "a thole, a peg," originally "fir- 
tree." Groin connects with roaftul (1. 782). See glossary. 
MS. 'let'; Thorpe 'leg.' 



08 ]>aet he 5a ban-hus gebrocen haafde, 

hat on hreSre. Higum unrote 

ra6d-ceare msendon mon-dryhtnes cw[e]alm; 
3150 swylce giomor gyd *[sio g6o-]m5owle FoL lOS*. 

[b]unden heorde 

. . . Borg-cearig stelSe geneahhe, 

]raet hio hyre ::::::: gaa hearde : : : : : de 

wsel-fylla wonn : : : : des egesan 
3155 hySo : h : : : : : d. Heofon rece swe[a]lg. 

3149. MS. torn at foot. 

3160. "Almost all that is legible in this page freshened up in a late 
hand."— Z. 

3160 — 6. I have treated these six mutilated lines in the same way as 
11. 2214 — 20, that is to say, the text is an accurate reproduation of 
Zupitza's transliteration ol the M3. The only changes are the division 
into verse-lines, and the addition of length-marks, etc.; the letters in 
square brackets also are added from Zupitza's foot-notes. For the moat 
part it is needless to give the foot-notes themselves. The division into 
lines is not absolutely certain, bat again I agree with Bugge, and again 
I arrived at the same conclusion as he quite independently — that this 
passage contains six verse-lines and not seven, as in Heyne, WtUoker, etc. 
For example, Heyne makes two half-lines between egaan and heofon, 
where, according to Zupitza, there is room in the MS. for only twelve 
letters. Similarly, WiUcker makes a whole line between uorm and hi/So. 
Since the rearrangement and renumbering in the text are confirmed by 
the alliteration and by Bngge's restoration below, they may be considered 
proven. This makes the total number of lines in the poem one less — 
3182 (Wiilcker 3163, Heyne 3184). 

With respect to 'geo-meowle' Zupitza says: "This reading is confirmed 
by the word written over meovsU, which is neither con nor on, but, without 
any doubt, (the Latin) anus," 

8163. " The first two letters after hearde look like an or an, the letter 
before de may have been e, as the stroke that generally connects e with a 
following letter is preserved. " — Z. 

3166. Bugge's reconstruction of this passage (see " Beit." x, 110 — 11) 
is, apart from the last half-line, hardly to be improved upon t 
8160 swylce glomor-gyd . sio geo-meowle 


Geworhton 6a Wedra lfiode 

hlpew] on [h]li5e, se wses heah ond brad, 

[wffi]g-liHendum wide g[e]syne, 

ond betirabredou on tyn dagiim 
3160 beadu-rofea been; bronda late 

wealle beworhton, awa hyt weorftlicost 

fore-snotre men nndan mihton. 

Hi on beorg dydon beg ond aiglu, 

eall awylce hyrsta, awylce od horde air 
3165 nio*-hedige men genumen hsefdon; 

forleton eorla gestreon eoroan healdan, 

gold on greote, bier hit nu gen lifaES 

eldum awa unnyt, awa hi[t a?ro]r wses, 

pa ymbe hlaiw riodan bilde-deore 
3170 a^belinga beam ealra twelfa, 

woldon [ceare] cwitSan, kyning mienan, 

word-gyd wrecan, ond ymb w[er] sprecan; 

after Beowulfe bunden-heorde 
long aorg-cearig, sSde geneahhe, 
(•sat hlo hyre hearm-dagae hearde ondrede, 
WKil-fylla worn, wlgendea egeaan, 
hynSo ond hieft-nyd, heof on rice wealg. 
He adds : "For the whole passage cf. II. 3016—20. Beowulf s aged widow 
{gio-tfOov>le) was perhaps Eygd ; cf. 11. 2368 B. 

8157. Znpitza, 'hi: : on liSe,' and in a foot-note: "I am unable to 
maie oat hlaw after leode: the two last letters seem tome to be rather eo." 
See 1. 3169. Thorpe ' hliSe.' 

3168. The remainder of this page is frequently illegible or defective, 
both at the edges and elsewhere. 

3160. Heyne: " be laje — eo MS. nach Znpitza." This is an error; 
Znpitza has no be. 

8166. Znpitza 'hi ; : : : r.' Eemble's emendation. 
8171. Znpitza ' : : : :*; Grain 'ceare.' Possibly the missing word if 
aSpe, aa in "Gen." 996. 

S172. Znpitza 'w::'; Grein 'wer.' 



eahtodan eorl-seipe, ond his ellen-weorc 

dugnSum demdon, swa. hit ge-ds[fe] his, 
3175 )>aet mon his wine-dryhten wordum herge, 

ferhSum freoge, jjonne he fort! scile 

of lic-haman [ljene] weorffan. 

Swa hegnornctdon GSata lSode 

hlafordes [hry]re, heortf-genSatas ; 
3180 cwiedon bast he wiere wyruld-cyning, 

manna mildust ond mon-[5w]iieruat, 

Igodum USost, ond lof-georaost. 

8171. Hole in MS. 

3177. Zupitza: "lachaman MS., but there can be little doubt tliat 
lae instead of lie ie owing only to the late hand." 
Zupitza ': : : :'; Kemljle 'lifno.' 
8179. Znpitza ' : : : re ' ; Thorpe ' hryre.' 
3181. MS. torn at foot. 

For a list of (he words and syllables , the vowels of which are marked 
long in the MS., see the Preface. 



(See "Beowulf" 11. 1068 ff.) 

* • [hoiJnaB bymaS nSfre?" 
heafto-geong oyning: 

"Ne iSis ue dagaS eastan, ne her draca ne neogetf, 

ne her Siesc heuHe nomas ne byrua'5, 
5 ac fCr fort> ben's, fugelas ninga'S, 

gjlleS grteg-hanJa, guS-wudu hlynnetf, 

scyld scefte oncwyS. Nil ncyuofi K'« mona 

waSol under wolcnum ; nil arisaS wea-dtida, 

tSe Hiatie foloes alS fremman willaS. 
10 Ae onwacnigeaS ml, wigend mine, 

habbaS eowre linda, hicgeaS an ellen, 

winnafi OH orde, weea'5 on raSde." 

pa arils msnig gold-hladen Segn, gyrde hine his swurde ; 

)>a to dnra eodon drihtlice cempan, 
15 SigeferB and Eaha, hjra sword getugon, 

and »t o>ruin durum Ordla! ond Gifclaf 

and Hengest sylf ; hwearf him on laste. 

pa gyt Garulf Gutters styrode, 

* "Frapnenti poetici singulars folium, in oodioe MS. homiliarum 
Semi'Saionicamm qui extat in Bibliotheea Lambethana." Hickea i. 
192. The MS. is now lost. Hickes's readings are denoted by H., bat 
(hey are given only when they have been considerably altered in the text. 

1 landa ' H, 
' windaS ' H. 



Jjffit hie swa freollc feorh forman sl>e 
20 t<l *56re healle darom hyrata nc bStan, 

nu byt nl|>a beard anyman woldo ; 

aa he frsjgn ofer eal andearninga, 

deor-mod hasteS, hwi, ISa duru huolde. 

" SigeferJ* is min nima (eweS he), ic eom Secgena leod, 
26 wreooea wide cuff. Fela io weana gebad, 

heardra hilda ; Se is gyt her witod, 

awsrtier Bu sylf to me seoean wylla." 

pa wbb on wealle wtel-slihta gehlyn, 

noeoldo cellod bord eenum on handa, 
80 biui-ielm beratan. Bnruh-tfelu dynede, 

o-S [>ct] at Sasre giiSe GSralf gecrang, 

ealra irest eorS-buendra, 

Gu$l&faa sunn, ymbe hyne godra fela. 

Ewarf [fjlaora hrlw hnefen, wandrode 
8S Hweart and sealo-brun; Bwurd-leoma §Wd 

Bwylea eal .Finnii-buruh fyrenu were. 

Ne gefrogn io n»&e wart>lloor art were hilde 

aixtig sige-beorna sel gebHran, 

no nSfre swanas awetne medo sel forgyldan, 
40 Sonne Hncefe goldan his hsjg-Btealdas. 

Hig fuhton tit dagaa, ewa hyra nan ne tool 

diiht-gaafSa, ac hig 8a dura hooldon. 

pa gewat him wund hssle'S on wag gangan, 

aside Net his byrne abrooen wnire, 
45 here-aoeorp onhror, and eae w»s his helm Syrl. 

Da hine Bona fragn foloea hyrde, 

hu '5ft wlgend hjra wunda genHaon, 

o'SSe hwffiber SSra hyaaa * * • 

2E. 'wreoten'H. 'fnla'H. 'wauna'] 

26. 'heordra'H. 

26. ■ healle 'H. 

29. ' aoeolde Celses bnrS gennmott haw 

34. ' UwearHscra hrar ' Ii. 

89. ' ne nefre swa noc hwitne medo ' H. 

46. ' bare sceorpom htor ' H. 



BoH or ScSaf 

Beowulf (not the hero) 
Heorogar Hr5Sgar='Wealh>eQW Halga Ongen|>eow(?)=El&n (f) 

| HroSalff?) 

HrelJrte Hriifimund Ingeld = Freawaru 



EogKow=a daughter EereWld H&Scyn ?=Hygelao=Hygd 
Beowulf Eofor-n daughter Heardrtd 


Ongen|>eow=Elan (?) 

Oneln Ohthere 

Eamuund Eadgils 

), oi :, E ed by Google 


Abel, slain by Cain, 108. 

SUhan. WigUf is called " kinsman of ^Ufbere," 3604. 

Aachen, Hrothgar's dearest counsellor and comrade in arms, slain and 

earned off by Grendel's dam in revenge for bet son, 1394— 1340, 

Ar-Bcyldingas, 464, Honour-Scyldings, a name of the Danes; see Scyl- 

BSanstan, Breea's father, 524. 

Beorht-Dene, 427, 609, Bright-Danes ; see Dene. 

Beowulf the Dane (not the hero of the poem), 18, S3, an ancestor of the 
Danish king Hrothgiir. 

Beowulf the Geat {the second scribe, who begins In the US. in 1. 1939, 
favours the spelling Biowulf, 1987, 1999, etc; gen. Biowulfes, 2194, 
2681, 2807 ; dat. Blowulfe, 2324, 2842, 2907, 3066), the hero of the 
poem, first mentioned in 1. 194, ae " Hygelao's thane," first named in 
1. 343. He is the son of Ecgthoow ; Mb mother's name is not given, 
but she was the daughter of Hrethel, king of the Geats, and therefore 
Bister of Hygelao. The whole poem is a record of Beowulf's life, 
exploits, death, and burial ; but a few facts deserve special mention. 
After his seventh year he was brought up at the court of Ms grand- 
father, Hrethel, with bis uncles, Herebeald, Hiethcvn, and Hygelao 
(242H — 34) . In his youth, he was for a long time despised as slothful 
and unwarlike (2183—9), but when be grew up bis band had the 
strength of thirty other men's (379). It is therefore as a "hand- 
slayer" (2502) that be attains his cbiefest fame (2684 ff.). He 
accompanied Hygelao in hia fatal expedition against the Hetware, 
and saved his own life, after the fall of the Geat king, by swimming 
home across the sea (23591.)- He refused the throne, offered nun 



by Hygelae's widow (2369 ff.); acted as guardian and protector to 
Hygelao'a eon Heardred (2377), and on the death of the latter 
became king of the Oeata, whom be ruled for fifty years (2209). 

Beowulf is a hero worthy of onr only great English epic, a warrior 
" aana peur et sans reprocbe." Hie lore of fighting, his eagerness for 
praise (8182), his touch of braggadocio, were far from being faults 
in the eyes of the " scop, " and he hae some of the qualities of true 
greatness s in the closing words of the poem he is called the mildest, 
gentlest, and kindest of men. 

The Beowulf who took part in Hygelac'e historical expedition 
against the Hetware is probably historical too ; but the Beowulf, of 
the four great exploits of the poem, the swimming match with 
Breca, and the contests with Qrendel, with his dam, and with 
the dragon, has probably stepped into the place of the mythical 
Beowa of the Old English royal genealogies. 

Broca, son of Beanstan (524), and a chief of the Brandings (522). 
Beowulf s swimming-match with Breca is the subject of Unferth's 
taunt (II. 506 St.). 

Brondlngas, 521, see Breca. 

BrOainga mene (Icel. Brisings men), the famous Brising necklace or 
collar. " This necklace is the Briainga-men— the coetly necklace of 
Freyja, which she won from the dwarfs and which was stolen from 
her by Loki, as is told in the Edda." — Kemble. 

The circlet given to Beownlf after the slaughter of Qrendel can 
only be compared to the Brokings' (or Brisings') necklace which 
Hama carried off when he fied from Eormenrio (11. 1195 ff.). See 
Bugge in "Beitrage " sii. 

Cain is the ancestor of Grendel (111, 1265). 

Dtflgrtcern (dot. 2501), a brave warrior of the Hugs, seems to have killed 
Hygelao in the battle (of. II. 1307—11 with 2503—4). Beowulf was 
his " hand-slayer " (2502). 

Dene {gen. Dena 242, Deniga 271, Denia 2125), the Danee, the subjects of 
Hrothgar. They dwell in the Scede-lands (19), in Bcedeu-ig (1666), 
"between the seas" (1685). They are called by varions other names 
in the poem: Beorht-Dene, Gar-Dene, Hring-Dene, in supposed 
allusion to their warlike character; East-Dene, NorS-Dene, SilS- 
Dene, West-Dene, in supposed allusion to their wide distribution ; 
Soyldingas, etc., Ingwine, and HrKSmen, all of which see. 

Eadglls, younger son of Ohthere. 

What is told of the brothers Eadgils and Eanmund in the poem, 
as in the case of the other allusions and episodes, most have been 



originally intended for hearers who were supposed to know all about 
them. Foi us, the order and nature of the events referred to are 
nometimea by no means clear, especially when we can get little help 
from external sources. In this particular instance, however, it is not 
difficult to read between the lines, and put together a complete story, 
and we have the Scandinavian accounts to belp as. 

Eanmnnd and Eodgils are banished from Sweden for rebellion 
(2379 ff.)> and take refuge at the court of the Geat king, Heordred. 
The fact of their finding an asylum with his hereditary foes {see 
Ougentheow) seems to have so enraged the Swedish king OneU, 
their uncle, that he invades Geatland (2202 ff.) and succeeds in 
slaying Heardred (2384 ff.), but allows Beowulf to succeed to the 
Geat throne unmolested (2369—90). Heardred is the second Geat 
king (see Husthcyn) who had fallen by the hands of the Swedes, and 
Beowulf at a later time (2392) balances the feud by supporting 
Eodgils in his subsequent invasion of Sweden, in which the latter 
slew the king, his uncle Onela (2391 ff.). This version of the story 
is confirmed by reference to the Norse accounts, in which Afiils 
(= Eadgils) slays Ali (- OneU) on the ice of Lake Wener (see 1. 2396). 

Heyne (followed unfortunately by Brooke) seems to pervert and 
distort this simple story almost beyond belief. He says (the square, 
brackets are mine) : ' The relations of Ohthere'B sons to Hygelae's 
son appear according to the text to be as follows. Ohthere'B sons, 
Eanmund and Eodgils, have revolted against their father (2381) [why 
their father rather than Onela?], in consequence of which they have 
to quit Sweden (2379) and come to Heardred (2380). One of them 
kills the latter under mysterious circumstances (2385) [2385 does not 
say so] ; it must have been Eanmund, whom Weohstan slays on the 
spot therefor, of, 2612. Eodgils escapes to his home (2887, for 
"OngenHoes beam" here meant his grandson Eadgils, for "beam" 
can be used in the sense of descendant, of. Daniel 73: "Israiila 
beam") [special pleadingl "Israels beam" — the children of Israel. 
What possible inference oan there be from this to the meaning 
"grandson"? And why go to Daniel, in preference to referring 
to the seven instances of this use of " beam " in his own glossary 
to Beowulf 2 How much better to take "beam" to mean son, as 
in every other oase of its singular use in the poem I], where in the 
meantime his father Ohthere seems to have died [1]. After Beowulf 
has become king of the Geats (2389), his thoughts turn to taking his 
revenge on Eadgils (2391); he becomes his enemy [the MS. has 
"fxeond " II]. Eodgils invades the land of the Geats (2393— 4 ; read 



"gestepte" from "gesleppan," and not "gestepte" front "gestSpan"), 
hnt is killed by Beowulf (2396) [then "Beowulf" is the subject of 
" wearB " (2392), " sunu Ohteres " (2394) is the subject of " geatepte," 
and "he" (2395) again refers to Beowulf 1 And Eadgils has mean- 
time become king of Sweden (2396)].' See also Eanmund. 

I have treated this question thus fully in the hope of ending a mis- 
interpretation, which has obtained some vogue. 

Barer {gen. 2964). See Eofor. 

Eanmund, 2611, elder son of Ohthere; see Eadjjlls. He is slain by 
Weohstan (2612 ft.), who strips him of the armour given him by bis 
uncle Onela (2616). Weohstan " spake not about the feud, although 
he had slain his (Onela'a) brother's son (2618—9)." These words 
accord much better with the supposition that Weohstan had slain a 
"friendless exile" (2613) in a private quarrel, of which be was half 
ashamed, than that he had avenged Heardred's death upon his 

Earna-naw, 3061, Eaglea-ness, near the scene of Beowulfs fight with the 

East-Dene, 392, 616, East-Danes ; see Dene, 

Kcgl&f, 499, father of Unferth. 

EcgMow (EcgWo, 373; gen. Eogtfoes, 1999) father of Beowulf the 
Gent; married the only daughter of Hrethel, king of the Oeats 
and father of Hygelao (373—5). Having slain Heatholaf, the 
Wylnng, Eogtheow seeks protection at the court of Hrothgar in 
the early days of his kingship ; Hrothgar accepts his fealty, and 
settles the feud by a money-payment (459 ft.). 

Ecgwola, 1710: "the descendants of Eogwela, the Honour- Soyldings," 
i.e. the Danes. Grein takes him to be the founder of the older 
dynasty of Danish kings, which ended in Heremod. 

Elan, 62 (see note), daughter of Healfdene, sister of Hrothgar, and wife 
of Ongentheow (?), king of the Swedes. 

Eofor {dat. Iofore, 2998, 2997), a Geat warrior, son of Wonred, brother 
of Wnlf, and son-in-law of Hygelao. He comes to the aid of his 
brother Wnlf in his single combat with Ongentheow, and slays the 
latter, thus avenging the death of Hathoyn. Hygelao liberally 
rewards both the brothers, and gives his only daughter to Eofor 
(2484 ff., 2961 ff.). 

Bomar, 1960, son of Offa and Thrytho (q. v.). 

Eormenrlc, 1201, king of the Ostrogoths ; see BrOsmga mene, 

Eotenas, 1072, 1088, 1141, 1145, the people of Finn, king of Friesland. 

Finn (Fin 1096, 1146, 1152 ; gen. Finnes 1068 etc.), king of Friesland 



(1136), son of Folcwalda (1089); his queen is Hildeburh. The some- 
whatobsoure Finn episode in "Beowulf" (11. 1068 — 1159) is evidently 
part of a Finn sags., of which only the merest fragment, called the 
Fight at Finnsburg (see Appendix), is extant. Various attempts 
have been made to reconstruct the saga from these materials, the 
chief point wherein they differ being as to the relative places of the 
"Fight" and the Finn episode in the restored connected story. 
Bugge, in accordance with his interpretation of 11. 1142—4 (see note), 
follows Orein in arguing that the night attack described in the 
"Fight" took place when Hnwf was. killed, before the events de- 
scribed in the "Beowulf " episode, i.e. before 1. 1068. Mailer, on 
the other hand, contends that the proper place of the " Fight " is 
between lines 1144 and 1146. His outline of the story is briefly as 
follows : 

Finn, king of the Frisians, had carried off Hildeburh, daughter 
of Hoo (1076), probably with her consent. Her father Hoc seems to 
have pursued the fugitives, and to have been slain in the fight which 
ensued on his overtaking them. After the lapse of some twenty years 
Hoe's sons, Unset and Hengest, were old enough to undertake the 
duty of avenging their father's death. They make an inroad into 
Finn's country and a battle takes place in which many warriors, 
among them Hnasf and a son of Finn (1074, 1079, 1115), are killed. 
Peace is therefore solemnly concluded, and the slain warriors are 
burnt (1068—1134). 

As the year is too far advanced for Hengest to return home (11. 
1130 ft.), he and those of his men who survive remain for the winter 
in the Frisian country with Finn. But Hengest's thoughts dwell 
constantly on the death of his brother Hnarf, and he would gladly 
welcome any excuse to break the peace which bad been sworn by 
both parties. His ill concealed desire for revenge is noticed by the 
Frisians, who anticipate it by themselves taking the initiative and 
attacking Hengest and his men whilst they are sleeping in the hall. 
This is the night attack described in the "Fight." It would seem 
that after a brave and desperate resistance Hengest himself falls 
in this fight at the hands of Hnnlafing (1143), but two of his 
retainers, Outhlaf and Oslaf, succeed in cutting their way through 
their enemies and in escaping to their own land. They return 
with fresh troops, attack and slay Finn, and carry his queen Hilde- 
burh off with them (1126— 1169). 
Fu rn as, 580, the Finns. The sea washed Beowulf up on their land, 
Finland, at the end of hia swimming-match with Breoa- 
W. B. 10 



FlttU, 879, 889 (led, Sinfiotli), boh of Sigemtuid by Ma sister Signy, 
and therefore also bis nephew (881). See Btgsmund. 

FolcwaMa, 1069, the father of Finn. 

Fruunn, 1210, see Froncan. 

Frftawaril {ace. Freaware 2022), daughter of Hrothgar and Wealhtheow, 
and wife of Ingeld. See Infold. 

Fresan, 1093, 2915, see Frysan. 

Fres-cymlng, 2603, (he king of the West Frisians ; see Fryean (2). 

Fres-lond (pi.), 2357, the land of the West Frisians. See Fiftan (2). 

Prfli-wad, 1070, the North Frisian field or place of battle, where Hnsef 
fell. See Finn. 

FrMa, 2025, father of Ingeld (q. v.). 

Froncan (gen. Franona 1210), the Franks. Hygelac was defeated and 
stain, in his historical invasion of the Netherlands, by a combined 
arm; of Frisians, Franks, and Hugs (1202 ff ., 2912 if.). 

Fryaan (gen. Freaena 109S, Frysna 1104, Fresno 2915), the Frisians. 
There are (1) the North Frisians, the people of Finn (q. v.; 1088 ft.) ; 
(2) the West Frisians, who combined with the Franks and Hags 
against Hygelao (1202 ft., 2912 ff.). The land of the former is called 
"Frys-Und " in 1. 1126, that of the latter " Fres-lond " (pi.) in 1. 2357. 

Frys-Und, 1126, the land of the North Frisians. See Fryaan (1). 

Oar-Dene, 1, 1856, Spear-Danes ; see Dana. 

Oarmnnd, 1962. Eomser is said to be the "grandson of Osxmnnd," who 
was therefore the father of Offa (q. v.). He is the Warmnnd of the 
genealogies of the Chronicle, in which Offa and Eomier also appear ; 
see Parker MS. 626 and 755 A.D. 

Ge*t, 640, 1301, 1785, 1792, the Gest (i.e. Beowulf). 

Geat* (weak form or gen. pi.?), 374, 1191, 1202, etc. 

GftftUa (0. None Oantar, Steed. Gfltar ; gen. Geatena 413), the Qeats, the 
people to whom the hero Beowulf belonged. They lived in Sooth 
Sweden, between the Danes on the south and the Swedes on the 
north. They are also called GuS-Gtistaa, HrSSlingas, SS-Geatas, 
Weder-Geatas, and Wederas. Bugge identifies them with the Jates. 
aeat-mscgM (dat. Qeat-mKagam 491, gen. Oeat-meega 829), Geat men, 
referring to the fourteen Goats (207) who accompanied Beowulf to 

Qlfoas, the Oifths, (supposed to be) the Gepidae ; see 1. 2494. 

Orendel {gen. Grendles 195, 2002, etc., Grendeles 2006, 2118, 2139, 2353 ; 

dat. Grandle 666, 3521, etc.), the famous monster, slain by Beowulf. 

See Argument. He is of the kindred of Cain (1265 ff.). His father 

is unknown (1355). 



ib mOdor (Grendeles modor 2118, 2139), Qrendel's mother or dam, 
the slaying of whom ia Beowulf's second great exploit. See Argu- 
ment. She is sometimes spoken of as a male, sometimes as a 
female; at 11. 1260, 1379,1892, 131(4, 1497, 2136 with 1292 ff., 1339, 
1504 ff . , 1641 ft. 

Ofltt-OSatSJ, 1588, War-Gpats; see OWU 

QIVBlaf, 1148, a Danish warrior under linatf and Hengest. See Finn. 

atrtt-Sdlnngas, 2927, War-Boylfings ; Bee Scylflngas. 

Han-eS, 1929, 1981, the father of Hygd, Hygelao's wife. 

HaTBcyn (HStfoen 2926, dm. H£«cynne 2482), second son of Hrethel, 
king of the Qeats. He acci den tally kills his elder brother Herebeald 
with a bow and arrow during his father's lifetime (2436 ff.) ; succeeds 
to the throne at hie father's death (2483), but falls in battle at 
Ravenawood at the hand of the Swedish king Ongentheow (2923 ff.). 

Haifa, 61, "the good "(til), younger brother of Hrothgar. He is thought 
to be the father of Hrothulf (1017, etc.), because he is identified with 
the historical Helgi, the father of Boll Kraki ( = Hrothulf). 

Kama, 1198 ; see Broslnga mene. 

Healfdene, 67, king of the Danes, son of Beowulf the Scylding, and father 
of Hrothgar, " the son of Healfdene " (189, etc). 

HealT-Denc, Half-Danes, the tribe to which Hnsf belongs ; see 1. 1069. 

Heardrtd, son of Bygelae and Hygd. While still under age (2870) he 
succeeds his father as king of the Oeats, bo that Beowulf for a time 
acts as his counsellor and protector (2877). He is slain by Onela 
(2200 ff., 2386 ff.). 

HeaSo-Beardan [gen. Heafto-Beardna 2032 etc.), Heathobards, Lombards, 
the tribe to which Ingeld (q. v.) belongs. 

HeaWolfiJ, 460, a warrior of the Wylflngs, slain by Eogtheow, the father 
of Beowulf. 

HeattoRSimas, 519, Heathoremes, the people on whose shores Breca is 
cast after his swimming -match with Beowulf. 

HeaHo-Sdlnngas [gen. tg. Hea«o-8eilnngas 63), 2205, Battle- Soylfinga ; 
see Scylflngas, 

Helmingu, 620, Helmings. Hrotbgar's queen, Wealhtheow, is "a 
woman of the Helmings." 

Hemming, 1944, 1961. " Kinsman of Hemming" describes both Offa 
(q. v.) and his son Eomter. 

Hengest, 1083, 1091, took command of the Danes after Hnatf s fall. See 

Heorogar (Heregar 467, Hiorogir 2168), 61, eldest son of Healfdene, and 
elder brother of Hrothgar (468). He did not leave his armour to his 


)#,«* * Google 


son ; tat Hrothgar gives it to Beowulf, and Beowulf gives it to 
Hygelao (2155 ff.). 

Heorot (Heort 78, dat. Heorute 766, Hiorte 2099), the hall Heorot or 
Hart, which Hrothgar built (67 ff.)- It was deserted for twelve 
years because of Grendel's ravages (115 ft.). Beowulf e encounter 
with the monster takes place in the hall, on the roof of which his 
arm is afterwards exhibited as a trophy (710 ff.). 

Heoroweard, 2161, son of Heorogar (q. v.). 

Herebeald, 2434, 2463, eldest sou of the Geat king Hretbel. accidentally 
hilled with an arrow by his brother Htethevn (2435 ff.). 

HerwnSd, 901, 1709, a Danish king (see Bcgwela), is twice introduced 
as a kind of stock example of a bad and cruel king. In the end he 
is betrayed into the hands of his foes (903). 

Hererlc, 2206. Heardred is called " Hererioes nefs." Possibly he was 
the brother of Hygd. 

Here-Scyidlngas, 1108, the Army-Scyldings ; see Scyldlngas. 

Hetware, 2363, 2916, the Hattuarii, the tribe against whom Hygelac made 
the raid in which he met his death. 

liildeburh. 1071, 1114, daughter of Hoc (1076), and wife of Finn. See 

Hnarf, 1069, 1114, fell in the fight with Finn on the "Fres-wml" (1070). 
See Finn. 

Hoc, father of Hildeburh (1076); see Finn. 

Honflsclo, 2076, the one of Beowulf g fourteen comrades, in his expedi- 
tion to the Danish kingdom, that Grendel devoured before attacking 
Beowulf (740 ff., 2076 ff.). 

HrefiM-wndu, 2925, Bavenswood, where Ongentheow slew HEsthoyn. 
Also called 

Bremen-holt, 293S. See above. 

Hreosna-beorli, 2477, the scene of Onela and Ohthere's marauding in- 
vasions of Geatland after the death of Hrethel. 

Hrtfel (gen. weak form Hrevjlan 454, gen. HreSles 1485), king of the 
Geats; he was son of Swerting (1203), father of Hygelac, and 
grandfather of Beowulf (S73 ft.), to whom he left his coat of mail 
(454). He died of grief at the loss of his eldest son Herebeald 
(2435 ff.), who was accidentally shot by his own brother Hwthcyn. 

HreBllng-, son of Hrethel; applied in 1. 1923 to Hygelac, and in 1. 2925 
to Heethoyn. 

HrtftUngu, 2960, the people of Hrethel, the Geats. Bee Geatas. 

HrSo-men, 445, "triumph-men," a name of the Danes ; see Dene. 

HreSrlc, 1189, 1836, elder son of Hrothgar. 



Hrtug-Dene, 116, 1279, Ring-Danes; see Dene. 

HroneB-n»a, 2805, 3186, "Whale's Ness." Beowulf, in his dying speech, 
names this pls.ce as Che site of the barrow which is to hold his 
ashes and perpetuate his name. 

HrflUgar, king of the Danes, second son of Healfdene. For his family 
see the genealogical tables on p. 140. He is one of the chief persons 
in the poem, the builder of the hall Heorot which Orendel ravages ; 
thus he prepares the way for the coming of the hero. See Argument. 

HroBmnnd, 1189, younger son of Hrothgar. 

BrOSnlf, 1017, 1181, probably the son of Hrothgar's younger brother 
Halga (q. v.) . He lived at the Danish court. Wealhtheow expresses 
the hope that he will be good to their children in return for their 
kindness to him, if he survives Hrothgar (1180 ft.). It would seem 
that this hope was not destined to be fulfilled (1164—5). 

HntnUng, 1457, 1490, 1659, 1807, the sword of Unferth (q. v.), which he 
lends to Beowulf for his fight with Orendel's mother. 

Hflgas, 2502, 2914, the Hogs; see Froncan. 

Hflnlaflng, 1148, the son of Hunlaf; the warrior of Finn who slew 
Hengest. See Finn, and the note on 11. 1142 — i. 

Hygd, 1926, 2172, 2369, daughter of H»re« (1929), wife of Hygelac (q. v.), 
and mother of Heardred. See 1926 ff., and Hygelac. 

Hygelac [u/uaUy spelt Higelsc, 435, etc. ; Hygelac 3151, etc. ; gen. Hyge- 
lacea 1530, 2386, 2943, Higelaces 194, etc.; dat. Hygelace 2169, Hige- 
ISce 452, etc.), the reigning king of the Geats during the greater part 
of the action of the poem ; see Argument. He is the third son of 
Hrethel, and uncle to Beowulf; see genealogical tableH. 

When his brother Hsthcyn was defeated and slain by Ongentheow 
at Ravenewood (2921), Hygelac came quickly in pursuit (2948) and 
put Ongentheow to flight (2949); but though, as the leader of the 
attack, he is called "Ongentheow's banesman" (1968), the actual 
slayer was Eofor (q. v.), whom Hygelac rewards with the hand of 
his only daughter (2977 ff.). At the later time of Beowulf's return 
from his expedition against Orendel, Hygelac, who is still young 
(1631), is married to Hygd, who is herself "very young" and has 
not long been queen (1926 — 8); she would seem then to have been 
his second wife. 

Hygelac came by his death in his historical invasion of the 
Netherlands, which is four times referred to in the poem (1202 ff ., 
2354 ff., 2501 &., 2914 ff.), and occurred between 512 and 520 a.d. 

Ingeia, 2064, son of Froda (2025), and prince of the Heathobards. 
Beowulf tells Hygelac that Hrothgar's daughter Freawaru is promised 



in marriage to Ingeld, and that the Danish king hopes thereby to 
terminate the feud between the two peoples (3034 S.). Beowulf goes 
on to foretell that these hopes will prove vain (3067—9). That this 
was actually tbe ease we learn from WidsiS 46 — 19 : 
"HroBwull and HroSgar heoldon lengegt 
sibbe ft! 1 90 nine auhtorfredran, 
si'SSan by forwrtecon Wloinga oynn 
and Ingeldes ord forbigdan, 
forheowan ait Heorote Hoaftobeardna |>Tyni." 

Groin's BibliothtJt, I. 352. 

Ingrwlne, 1044, 1319, "friends of lag," Ingajvones, a name of tbe Danes. 
Bee Dene. Of lug we read in the Rune-poem, 67—8 (ed. Waloker) : 
" (Ing) wiis lerest mid Eaatdenara 
geeewen seegun." 
He has been identified with Soeaf and Frea. 

Iofbr, 2993, 3997, «•* Bofor. 

Merewlolng {gen. Merewloingas 2931), the Merwing or Merovingian kins 
of tbe Franks. 

Smiling, 3630, the name of the Bword Beowulf need in his encounter 
with the dragon. 

Nortf-Dene, 783, North-Danes; see Dene. 

OOk, 1949, 195V, king of tbe Angles ('< 0£fa wfsold Ongle," Wtds'ti 36) ; son 
of Qarmund, husband of Thrytho (q. v.), and father of Eomter. 

Onthare [gen. Ohteres 3380, 3394, 2612, Ohtheres 2928 etc.), son of the 
Swedish king Ongantheow, and father of Eanmund and Eadgila. 

Onela, 2616, 3933, brother of Ohthere, and king of Sweden at the time 
of the rebellion of Eanmund and EadgUs. He invades the land of 
the Oeats, slays Heardred (2387), and then retreats before Beowulf. 
At a later time Beowulf avenges his late king by supporting Eadgils 
in an invasion of Sweden, in which Onela is slain (2391 S.). See 

OngenXow (nont. Ongenteow 2486, OngenHo 3924, 2961, Ongen)>Iow 
2961; gen. Ongen)>eoweB 3475, Ongenteoea 1968, OngenHoes 3387; 
dat. Ongenhto 3986), king of the Swedes, and father of Onela and 
Ohthere. The early strife between the Swedes and Oeats, which 
centres round his name, is told in IL 2472 ft., and more fully in 11. 
2910 — B8. In retaliation for the marauding invasions of Onela and 
Ohthere (2476), Hssthcyn invades Sweden, and takes Ongentheow's 
queen, Elan (? 62), prisoner. Ongentheow then invades the land of 
her captor, whom he slays, and rescues his wife; but in his hour 



of triumph he is attacked in his turn by Hygelao near Ravenawood, 
and fulls by the hand of Eofor (q. v.). 
dflUr, 1148, associated frith GuSlaf (q. v.) in avenging Hnajfss death. 

See Finn. 
SS-OAatsa, 1S60, 1966, Sea-Geate ; see Oeatu. 

ScwU-land (pi.), 19. = ScedenIg- (q. v.). 

Booden-Ig- (dat. Soeden-igge 1686; 0. Norte Skaney), Boandia, the most 
southern portion of the Scandinavian peninsula, belonging to the 
Danes ; here uaed as a name (or the whole Danish kingdom. 

Seeling', 4, eon of Beef or Sceaf, i.e. Sryld (q. v.). 

Boyld, 4, 19, 26, son of Sceaf, and the mythical founder of the Boylding 
dynasty. Bee 11. 1—62. 

Bcyldlng (Scilding 2105), 1792, the Scylding, i.e. Hrothgar. 

Scyldinga* (SovldungHs 2052; gen. Soildunga 2101, Soyldunga 21S9, 
Scyldinga. 30, eta.), 58, etc., the Scyldinga, deaoendants of Boyld 
(q. v.), the name of the reigning Danish dynasty, commonly extended 
to include the Danish people. They are also called ir-Seyldingas, 
Hece-Seyldingas, Sige-Scyldingas, and peod-Scyldingas (q. v.). See 

Bcylflng- {Scilfing 2968), 2487, the Bcylfing, i.e. Ongentheow. 

Bcylflngas, 2881, the Soylfinga, the name of the reigning Swedish dynasty, 
extended to the Swedish people in the same way as " Scyldinga" to 
the Danes. They are also called Gufi-Scylnngas, HeaSo-Scylfingas 
(q. v.). 

If the MS. reading of 1. 2603 is correct, Beownlfs kinsman Wiglaf 
belongs to the family of the Soylfings us well as to that of the 
Watgmondings (2814). In that case the relations may be those 
suggested in the following table : 

Ecg|>eow Weohstan 

Beowulf Wiglaf 

875, 884, son of Weels, and father and unale of Fitela. In 
onr poem Sigemund slays the dragon ; in the famous later versions 
of the Vdlsunga Saga and the Nibelungenlied, it is Sigemund'a son, 
Sigurd or Siegfried, who does the deed. See 11. 874—900, and the 
V'dUimga Saga. 

-Bcyldlngas, 597, 2004, Victory- Bey ldings, a name of the Danes; 
see Bcyldlngaa. 



suit-Done, 463, 1906, Sonth-Danea ; Bee Dans. 

Bweon, 2472, 2946, 2968, 3001, the Swedes, called also " Sweo->eod," and 

their comvtry " Swlo-rlce." Thej are ruled by the Seylfing dynasty. 

Their home was in Sweden, north of the Geats, 
BwSo-kod, 2922, = Swfion (q. v.). 

SwertlnK, 1203. Hygelao is called " grandson (nefa) of Swerting." 
Bwlo-rtce, 2383, 2496, tbi land of the Swedes, modern Svea Bike. See 

peod-Bcyldlngas, 1019, People-Soyldings, a name of the Danes; see 

prylto, 1931, wife of the Angle king Offa, and mother of Eomer, is 
introduced in contrast to Hygd, in much the same way as Heremod 
is a foil to Beowulf. She is at first the type of a cruel, unwomanly 
queen. Bnt by her marriage with Offa (who seems to be her second 
husband) she is subdued and changed, until her fame even adds 
glory to his. See U. 1981—62. 

DnforlS, 499, 580, 1165, 1488 (his name is always " Hunfsrti " in the 
MS., bnt alliterates with Towels), son of Ecglaf, and spokesman 
(1166, 1456} of Hrothgar, at whose feet he site (600, 1166). He is 
of a jealous disposition (503 — 5), and is twice spoken of as the 
murderer of hie own brothers (687, 1167). For hie "flyting" with 
Beowulf see 11 506—606. He afterwards lends his sword Ernnting 
for BeowulFs encounter with Qrendel'e mother (1455), but it fails the 
hero at need (1522, 1659). Beowulf returns it to its owner (1807). 

wBgmundlngas, 2607, 2814, Wiegmnndings, the family to which both 
Beowulf and Wiglaf belong. See Bcylflnsaa. 

WMla, 897, father of Sigemund. 

Walking, 877, son of Wale, i.e. Sigemund. 

WeaUt>eow, 612 (Wealht-eo, 664, 1162, 1215; dat. Wealht-eon 629), of the 
family of the Helminga (620), Hrothgar's queen, and the mother of 
his children. Mention is made of her queenly hospitality to Beowulf 
(612, 1188, 1215). 

Weder&s {gen. Wedera 225 etc.; but the second scribe nses the contracted 
gen. Wedra everywhere but in L 2336; see a 2120, 2462 etc.), 
= Weder-Geatas, a name of the Geats. See Matai. 

Weder-Geaus, 1492, 1612, 2379, 2551 ; see Wedaras. 

Wsder-mearc, 298, Wedermark, apparently a name for the land of the 
Wedera or Weder-Oeats, i.e. the Cleats. 

WBlsnd, 455 (the " Volund " of the Edda), the famous smith of Germanic 
legend, the maker of Beowulf a coat of mail. (See the Franks' casket 
in the British Museum, and cf. Wayland Smith's forge in Berkshire.) 



Wendlas, 348, possibly the Vandals; Wnlfgar (q. v.) is a '-chief of the 

Weolistln, 2613 (gen. Weohstfines 2862, Wenistines 2603, Wihstanes 
27 52 etc.), father of Wiglaf, and slayer of Eanmund (q. v.). 

West-Dene, 383, 1578, West-Danes ; see Dane. 

Wlglal, son of Weohstan. He is a kinsman of Beowulf (2813), a 
Waigmunding (2814), and a "chief of the Soylfings" (2608). He 
was chosen with ten others (2401, 2847) to accompany Beowulf on 
his expedition against the dragon (2638 ft.), and he alone justified 
the choice. Taking shelter under Beownlfs shield (2675), he showed 
the utmost valour, and was the first to wound the dragon in a vulner- 
able part (2694 ff.). To him alone Beowulf made his dying speech, 
and gave his dying bequests (2809 ff.). He upbraids the coward 
thanes and deprives them of their land-right (2886), and gives fitting 
orders for the burial of the hero, as he himself had directed (2802, 
3094 ad fin.). 

WlSergyld, 2051, the name of a Heathobard warrior. 

WoniM, 2971, father of Wolf and Eofor (q. v.). 

Wonreding, 2966, son of Wonred, i.e. Wulf (q. v.). 

Wolf, 2965, 2998, son of Wonred and brother of Eofor (q. v.). In the 
battle between the forces of Hygelao and Ongentheow, Wolf attacks 
the latter and is disabled by him, but his brother Eofor comes to 
his aid and slays Ongentheow single-handed (2964 ff.). 

Vulfg&r, 348, 360, 390, a chief of the Wendlas (348); an official of 
Hrothgar's court, who is the first to greet the Oeats (3S1 ff.), and 
introduces them to Hrothgar. 

Wylnngas (dat. Wilfingum 461, Wylnngum 471), the Wylfings. 
Heatholai, who was slain by Eegtheow, father of Beowulf, was a 
warrior of this tribe. 

Yrmenttf, 1324, younger brother of JSschere, whom Orendel's mother 
carried off. 



Past participles compounded with ge- are usually glossed under the 
simple verb (Sievers g 366), but there are some marked exceptions ; e.g. 
gtgongen is the pp. of gongan in 822, 3036, bat of gegongan in 893, 3085. 

E comes between ad and af. 

It and y are treated as identical, and come after t. 

Numerous cross references are given, especially for unusual forms, 
but not as a rule for mere neiional forms which a knowledge of grammar 
should suffice to trace, such as parts of verbs. 

All words are glossed under forma which actually ooonr in the poem, 
not under normalised forms. When divergent forma of the same word 
occur and cross references are not given, 

10 (both initial and final) should be sought under m, 

y I. 

a (before nasals) „ o. 

Dative and Instrumental are not distinguished, except when they 
have different forms, as in the singular of adjectives and of some 

Small capitals are ueed for modern renderings which are directly 
or almost directly descended from the Old English words. 

The following abbreviations alone require explanation : 

st. strong pi. plural 

w, weak sub], subjunctive 

m. masculine part, participle 

I. feminine pp. past participle 

sent, neuter eon], conjunction 

n. noun esp. especially 

t. Terb oW. oblique 

sg. singular 



All compound verbs m 

I, adv., aye, ever, always, 455, etc. 

ao, conj., but, 710, 773, etc. 

ac, adv. interr. , = LaL nomio, used 

W marfc a gueriion, 1990. 
U, «t. in., funeral pile, pyre, 1110, 

M-fiwn, it. /., [pyTe-FAning] way 
to the funeral pile, 3010. 

fidl, st. /., illness, siekneBB, disease, 

_ 1736, etc. 

Mire, ft. /., stream, canal, vein; 
dot. pi. .swat tadrum a prong, 
"blood sprang in streams, 2966; 
bl6d eArum drum:, "drank blood 
in streams," 742. 

tsdre, adv., quickly, 354. 

reran, at. m., even, evening, 1235. 

5f en groin, adj., [EVEN-angry] 
fierce in tbe evening, night- 
enemy, 2074. 

tefan-lBoht, it. neat., even-light, 


niton-neat, it.f., even-be 

gjiBn-sprssc, *(. /., eve 

speech ia the evening, 

• lata. 

•aire, adv., f.ykb, always, 70, etc. 

after, prep., after, 85, 119, 931, 
1320, 2816, etc.; after, for, con- 
cerning, 332, 1342, 1879, 2461; 
along, among, 140, 944, 995, 
2832 (through), etc.; in accord- 
ance with, according to, 1049, 
1720, 2179, 2753, etc.; on ac- 
count of, in consequence of, 
1606, 1943. Special postages: 
after beorne, "after (the death 

it be sought under their simple verba. 

of) the hero, warrior," 2260-1; 
asfter maSSum-welan, " after ob- 
3. taining wealth of treasure," 

2760; after faroSe, "with the 
d tide," 580. 

after, adv., after, afterwards, 12, 
1389, 315 (back), etc 

saf-kunea, in. m., mortification, 
Vexation, annoyance, 502. 

asg-hwa, »g-hw»t, pron.., each, 
every one, every man, etc., 1384, 
2624; gen. Sguwffis, "of each 
kind," 3135. 

teg-hwiBB, gen. neat, used ad- 
verbially, in every respect, alto- 

_ getber, 1865, 1886. 

sag-hwBsr, adv. everywBEBE, 1059. 

SK-amsSer, pron., eitheb, each 
(urn*, of two), 2564, 2844. Special 
passages: feghwarores sceal scearp 
scyldwiga gescad witan, worda 
ond worca, "a sharp shield- 
warrior must know the difference 
between worda and works," 287 ; 
ear (o Slice heora sghwsa'Srum, 
"with difficulty for each one of 

_them," 1636. 


(1) pron., each, everyone, 1165, 
etc.; with gen. 1050, etc.; 

_{2J_ad/., each. every, 621. 

isglajca, see flglajca. 

(eg-weard. >t. /., sea-wiBD, watch 
by the sea-coast, 241. 

Sht, st. /., owning, possession, 
power, 42, 516. 

teht, «(./., pursuit, chase, 3957. 

-anted, see eantlan. 

Sled, ,t. m„ fire, 3016. 


., fire- gleam, 
alien folk, 


Nled-Uoma, a. 
torch, 3125. 

■1-fylce, it. net 
foreign nation, 2371. 

Ml-mihtlg, adj. ( = ea.l-mihtig), al- 
mishit ; weak se J5Imihtiga, 92. 

•al-wLbt, tt.f. , [alien -wioht] strange 
monster, 1600. 

nne, adv., osee, once only, 3019. 

5nlg, adj.-pron. , any, anyone, 471, 
503, etc; nont. n»a ae folc-cyn- 
iofi ymbs-iii tt-endra senig Sara be, 
" among neighbouring folk-kings 
there_waa not one that," 2734. 

_ For eenige Hnga lit Hng. 

Sn-llc, adj., [one-like] unique, 

_ peerless, 251, 1941. 

ssppel-feaJn, adj., apple -fallow, 
apple or reddish yellow, 2165. 

«r, odi'., ebe, erst, before, formerly, 
15, 042, 718, 2595, etc.; earlier, 
2600; first, 303& Special pom- 
agti .- no by tar, " none the 
sooner," 754, etc.; Ear he feorh 
sele*...far he, "he will sooner 
give up life than he," 1370. 

faror, compar., before, former- 
ly, first, 809, 2654. 
EBraat, tuperl., [E 
2157, ate 

■r, prep., with dat., 
1388, etc. 

5r, conj., ebe, before: u*u. with 
mils'. 252, etc.; with iridic. 2019. 
Correl. with at adv. {q. v.), 1371. 
rar foil, conj., ere, 732. 

Ear-dag, *(- >>'■, [ebe-jmy] morning 
twilight, day-break, 126, etc. 

SrendB, it._neat, errand, 270, etc. 

Esr-ffBder, *(. in., [ebe-B*theb] 

father, 2622. 

or-geitrion, «t. ntut., [ERE-trea- 
Eure] ancient treasure, former 

_gain, 1757, 2232. 

nr-gvwa«ic, it. neat., [ere-woeh] 
ancient work, 1679. 

Br-gM, adj., [ebe-oood] good be- 
fore others, very good, 130, 989, 

;i] first, 6, 

■bis, it. ntut., house, 2225. 

■am, compar. adj. (formed from 
adv._eii), earlier, former: dat. 
pi. aarran mtelum, "in former 

_ times," 907, 2237, 3035. 

5r-w»la, it. m., [ere-weal] ancient 

_ wealth, 2747. 

M, it. neat., carrion, carcase, 
corpse; dat. atol test wlanc, 
" the dire carrion-proud creature 
(Grendel's mother exulting over 
JEsehere'a corpse)," 1332. 

sale, si. m., [abh] spear, 1773. 

awo-bolt, it. neut., [ash- wood] 
spear, 330. 

nac-wlga, v>. m., [abh- warrior] 
spear- warrior, 2042. 

ait, prep, with dat., at, in, of time 
andplace, 32,45,81,1089,1110, 
1337, 2270, 3013, 3026, etc.; 
from, 629, 2860, etc. Special 
postage ; nu is se rasd gelaug eft 
set be an um, "now is the rede 
again along of thee alone," 1377. 

eat, it. m., EAring, meal, 3026. 

art-gwdere, adv., together, 321, 
etc. ; after stuood, 387, etc.; 
garaa stodon samod Eatgtedere, 
"the spears stood all together," 



, oROring 



; grips with, 


art-rlUta, < 

tdv., almost, 1657. 



, together, 


I, eta. 

(Bttren, adj., poisonous, 1617. 

sebelo, adj., noble, 198, 263, etc. 

wealing, it. m., athi::.ino, noble, 
prince, 3, 33, 118, 888, 1225, 
1294, 1804, 2888, etc. 

»>elu, »(. ntut. (always pi. in " Beo- 
wulf"), noble descent, lineage, 
332, etc ; dat. pi. fowler ffibelum, 
" hie father's preeminence," 911 ; 
ssbelum god, diore, "good, dear, 
by virtue of lineage," 1870, 1949. 

Win, it. in., breath, 2593. 

lean, it.-ic. v., prei. ah, pret. ahte : 
own, possess, have, 1088, 1727, 
etc.; abtolutely 31. Neg. form 
nah = ne + ah, 2252. 


agon, adj. (pp. of agan), owm, 

Igend, it. m., OwNcr, God, 8075. 

agond-frea, is. m., owning lord, 
owner, 1363. 

aglSoa, SgHwa, u>. m., monster, 
m on ater- fighter, wamor, oham. 
pion, 159, 739, etc.; ace. tg. 
agltscan, 566; gen, dat. agliecan, 
1512 (or noni. pi.?), 425; aglie- 
oean, 2557, 2520, etc.; ahlieoan, 
989, 646; nom. pi. agla>oean, 
2592. r;»*(i of Orendel, 433, 
1269, etc.; of the dragon, 2535, 
eto. ; of a tta-monster, 556; o/ 
Sigemund, 893; o/ JSfoicuI/, 1512 

(or sea-monsters?) ; of Btotmdf 
and the dragon, 2592. 
Igl5c-wli, it. neuf., monster-wiPE, 

Grendles modor, ides, agliee-wTf, 

in, ahta. see agan. 
Uulan, id. v., endure, suffer, 123, 

ge -ahslan, u>. v., learn by ill- 

ing, learn, hear; pp. geahsod, 433. 
tut ( = »-wiht, g. v.}, tt. neut., 

aoqht; with gen. aht cwioes, 

"aught living," 2314. 
aider, see Mldor. 
Al-walda, Al-wealrta, to. m., the 

Au.-wiELi>er, God, 928, 955, 

al-walda, w. adj., tr.i.-wntLning, 

all-ruling, 316. 
an, 1225, pret. tg. lit of unnan, 

q. v. 

In, num. (adj. and pron.), ace. tg. 
m. anne and Esnne: 
(1) ohb, an, 4, 100, 135,428, 699, 
2280, 3077, etc; with the def. 
art. 1053, 2237 ; emphatic, lomt- 
1885, 2410, 2774. Special pati- 
agei: on tonne sIK, " onoe," 1679 ; 
gen. pi. Snra gehwyloea, gehwyl- 
enm, " of, to, each one," 732, 784 ; 
(k Lat. alter) an after anum, 
"the one for the other," 2461. 

iRY. 157 

(2) only, alOHB (more usual with 
the weak form ina, o. v.), 46, 
1377, 2964 (sole); gen. anee 
hwtet, "a part only," 3010. 

ana, id. adj., only, aloNB, 145, 1081, 
2361, 2657. 

anoor, at. m., anchor, 303, 1888. 

anila, id. m. 

(1) indignation, defiance; dat. 
«ri>um on andan, "in indigna- 
tion against the wroth foe," 708. 

(2) mischief, horror, 2314. 
and-git, at. neut., understanding, 

intelligence, 1059. 

and-long, see ond-long. 

and-rytno, at .f., etiquette , courtesy , 
attention due, 1796. 

and-weard, adj. : ace. neut. sweord 
swate fan awin ofer helme.. .and- 
weard soireS, "the blood-stained 
sword cuts the boar standing on 
the opposed (foe's) helmet," 1287. 

and-wllta, to. m., " 

an-feald, adj., onefold, plain, 256. 

Saga, to. adj.. only, sole, 375, 1262, 
1547, 2997. 

an-geng(e}a, td. m., [oNE-goer] one 
who goes alone (of Grendel), 165, 

inhaga, id. m., a solitary, 2368. 

in by dig, adj., one -minded, re- 
solute, 2667. 

an-pnS, at. m., [one-path] lone- 
some path, or single track, 1410. 

an-rSd, adj., [cne-bede] resolute, 
1529, 1575. 

an-aund, adj., sound, 1000. 

an-iyn, see onsyn. 

an-Hd, at. /., 219 (see note). 

Inunga, adv., ONoe for all, 634. 

An-walda, to. m., [ on -wi elder] 
God, 1272. 

ar, it. to., messenger, 336, 2788. 

ir, at./., honour, kindness, benefit, 
favour, gr 1 " 8 . 3378 . 2606 ' 1272 : 
gen. pi. araa, 1187; dat. pi. 
arum healdan, "bold in (with) 
honour," 296, 1099, 1182. 

■r-fiaft, adj., [honour-risT] up- 
right, dutiful, 1168. 


Irian, 10. v., with dot., spare, 693. 

bsstan, v. v., bridle, bit; pp. 

-arn, see -toman. 

gebaited, 1399. 

ar-stssf, it. m., favonr, merej, land 

bat!, it. neat., bath, 1861. 

help, 317, 382, 456. 

balder, see beaidor. 

atello, adj., dreadful, horrible, 

bain, adj., halkM; dot, pi., bal- 

dire, 78*. 

won, 977. 

Iter -tan, (1. in., poiion-twig, 1459. 

Ml, it. neat., bonk, 3692 (of the 

atol, eatol, adj., dire, terrible, 

dragon's teeth). 

fearful, horrible, 169, etc; dot. 

pi. atolau, 1603. 

bin-cora, W. m., [itONE-covE] body, 

attor, it. neat., poison, venom, 


ban-fat, it. neut., [bone-tit] body; 

attor-eccaoa, w. m., [poison- 

ace. pi. ban-fatu, 1116. 

ecATBer] poison on a foe, 2839. 

bin-fig, adj., BONB-dight, adorned 

«,*(. m.,ovrH, 472, etc 

with bones or antlers, 780. 

aB-aweord, it. n,, OATH-swEAsing, 

ban-bring, *(, m., bone-bdiq, ver- 

oath, 2064. 

tebra, 1567. 

atftun-iwerlan, w>. m. pi, father- 

bin -lifts, at. neut., bone -bouse, 

in-law and aon-in-law; dot. 

body, 3508, 3147. 

a«um-swerian, 8*. 

awa, adv., aye, ever j in Swa to 

flesh, 818. 

aid™, " for ever and ever," 966. 

barman, it. v. 

hard, oppress, nrge, incite^ en- 
conrage, 2018; pp. gebieded, 
2680, 2826; etrengnm gebasded, 
"sent by the strings," 3117. 
bB, st. neut., fire, homing, 3S08, 
2322; the fire of the funeral 
pile, funeral pile, pyre, 1019, 

bEl-fyr, «t. neut., fibe of the 

funeral pile, 3143. 
bSl-stede. tt. m., pyre-STEAn, place 

of the funeral pile, 8097. 
bSl-wndu, if. m., pyre- wood, wood 

for the faneral pile, 3112. 
b5r. »(./., bieb, 3106. 

ge-bSran, w. v., hub oneself, 
behave, fare, 2824; with too 
comparative!, ne gefrogen ie t>a 
niggle maran weorode...sel ge- 
bteran, "J heard not that that 
people in greater numbers ever 
bore themselves better," 1013. 
ban-nan, to. v., tram., burn, 3313. 

ga- bannan, it. v., order; inf. 
H& io wide gefrsegn weoro geban- 
nan manigre malgbe, "then I 
learnt that orders for the work 
were given widely to many a 
tribe," 74. 
bat, st. m., boat, 211, etc 
bat-weard, tt. m., [boat-wabd] cap- 
tain, 1900. 
be, M, prep., with dat., by in iU 
various meaning!, originally and 
utu. looal, more rarely instrn- 
mental (nearer in meaning to 
Oer. bet than Eng. by) : BEside, 
near, by, 86, 814, 1191, 1537, 
1723, 1872, 1905, 1950, 2219, 
2243,2538, 2717,3766; by, along 

■"■ ',157B;by 

, .ffjon"), 
n connexion with, 1723. Follow- 
hira big, 3047. 

sharp weapon by the hilt," 1674; 
be fie lifigendum, "during thy 
life," 3666; w*ee se gryre lasasa 
efne swa miole, swa bitS mssg^a 
craft. wiepned-men, "the 
terror was less even by bo much, 


nidi) a i 

comparison "" 

womeu'a power is [accounted 

leas] by a man," 1264. 
bo (bl) sawn tweonum=be- 

tweonum l»m, "between the 

seas," 808, 1297. 1686, 1956. 
Maces, it. neut., beacon, sign, 

monument, 570; nam. boon, 3160. 
Wacslan, *o. v., [eechon] indicate; 

pp. gebeaonod, 140. 
baado, beadn, IE. /-, battle, war, 

709; yen. beadwe, 1539. 
beado-grlma, w- m., battle-mask, 

helmet, 2257. 
beado-hriegl, it. neut., [battle-Kin,] 

war-dress, coat of mail, 552. 
beado-Uama, id. m., [battle-ray] 

sword, 1528. 
beado-mece, it. m., battle-sword, 

beado rlnc, it. m., [battle-]warrior, 

Deadu-folm, H. /., battle-hand, 990. 
beads-lie, it. neut., battle-play, 

battle, war, 1561. 
baads-rW, adj., battle-strong, 

mighty in war, 3160. 
beadu-rtUl, [battle-BUNE] quarrel, 

beads -seearp, adj., battle-sBABF, 

beadn-SCTSd, it. neut., [battle- 

bhrood] coat of mail, 453. 
beads sflrce, w. /., battle-sABa, ooat 

of mail; ace. tg. beads- aeroean, 

2755. [Sievers § 159. 1.] 
beadu-weorc, it. neut., battle-woBX, 

battle, 2299. 
Mag, bean, ring, circlet, (armlet, 

necklace, eta.) ; often = money, 

treasure; 1211, BO, 523, etc.; 

ace. pL beg, 3163. 


ABY. 159 

beah-Vegu. at. /., ring -receiving, 
2176 (referring to Hygd's receiv- 
ing From Beowulf the wonderful 
necklace which Wealhtheow gave 

Mah-wrrBa, u>. m., ring-wreath, 
circlet, 2018. 

bealdl&n, w. v., bear oneself BOLDly, 

baaldor, baldor, it. m., prince, lord, 
2426, 2567. 

bealo, bealu, it. neut., bili, evil, 
ruin, 2826 ; gen. pi. bealwa, 909, 
bealuwa, 281, bealewa, 2062. 

bealo cwealm, it. m., BALxfol or 
violent death, 2265. 

bealo -byegeiiite, adj. (prei. part.), 
[bale -thinking] intending evil, 

bealo-hydlg, adj., [bile -minded] 
intending evil, 723. 

bealo- slB, it. m., [BALE-envy, -hate, 
-misohief] baleful envy, malici- 
ous hatred, 1758, 2404; poison, 
venom, 2714. 

bearhtm, $t. m. 

(1) brightness, 1766. 

(2) sound, 1431. 

bearm, it. m., [baem] lap, bosom, 
35, 1137, 2404 (possession). 

beam, >t, neut., bairn, child, eon, 
150, 469, 3170, etc.; pi. ylda 
bearn, 605, gsmena beam, 878, 
niSSa beam(a), 1005, "the 
children of men." 

beara-gebyrdo, st. /,, BURN-Biath, 
child-bearing; gen. 946. 

beam, it. m., grove, wood, 1363. 

btatan, it. v., beat, smite, paw, 
2265 ; pp. gebeaten, 2359. 

bees, see beMen. 

bed(d), it. neut., bed, 140, 1240, 

be-fortn, adv., bbfobs; of place, 
1412. of time, 2497. 

be-foran, prep., with ace., befobe, 

b*K, seeb*a#. 

Mgen, m., b*, /. and neut., num. 
and adj.-pron., both, 636, 1305, 
3196, eta.; gen. bugs foloes, "of 


the folk of both [peoples]," 1124; 
bega wen, " expectation of both 
things" ( Beowulf n return home 
and re visiting the Donee; see 11. 
38— 8), 1878. 

nig, be -guff, it. m., extent, 
ssnse, compass, oirouit, 362, 
}, etc.; ace. bigong, 2367. 

in, it. v., swell with anger, 
;er oneself; pp. gebolgen 
iwollen," 2101, "swollen with 
;er, enraged," 723, 1539, 
30; pi. gebolgne, 1431. 
L-belgan, it. v., anger; pret. 

je-oelgsji, if. t>., with dot., 
^er; pret. tubj. gebulge, 2331. 
It. /., [nana] boon, request, 

, w. m., suppliant, 352, 364; 
n. swa hi bena wasa, "as he 
1 begged," 3140. 
■I. /., bunch, 327, etc. 
■JPfff, at. m., BENCH-sound, 
iae from the benches, 1161. 
M. >t- nfttl., [hence- thill] 
ich-board, benoh, 486, 1239. 
, tt.m.f., band, bond, 977, 1609. 
feat, it. neut., wonnd-OATB, 
•ning of a wound, 1121. 
,*(./., wound, 2724. 
in. bio dan, it. v. 

offer, give, 385, 1085, 2957. 
l-Modail, et. V., announce, 
); offer, 668. Special pat- 
itt : pret. him heal ahead, 
ade him hail, wished him 
tlth," 653; halo ahead, "bade 
ewell," 2118. 

H-Modan, *(. v., bid, oom- 
iid, order, 401, 1975. 
re bOodan, it. v. 

bid, command ; inf. het )>a 
leodan byre Wihstanefl...hie- 
a monegum, "then the eon 
Weohstan ordered that com- 
,nd should be given to many 
■oes," 3110. 

proclaim, offer, give, 603, 

beod-geneat, it. m., bo&rd-oonv 
rade, table-companion, 343, 
17 13. 

Hon, irrtg. v., be, aiu. with afitt. 
hum, 183, eta. ; be, happen, 1762, 
etc.; pres. ig. 3rd biS, 186, etc., 
byS, 1002, 2277 ; pi. beoS, 1838, 
bioS, 2063; imperat. tg. beo, 386, 

etc., bto, 2747. 
Mar, it. neut., beer, beer-drinking, 

480, 2041, etc. 
beorgan, it. v., with dat., defend, 

protect, save, 1445, etc. ; pret. 

pi. burgan, 2599. 

be-beorgaii, it. v., with reft. 

dat. and ace. or dat. rei, defend, 

protect (oneself) against, 1746 

(see note on 1747), 1758. 
Ce-beorffin, it. v., with dat., 

protect, save; pret. gebearg, 

2570, gebearh, 1548. 
ymh ueorgaji, at. v., [about- 

protect] surround and protect, 

beorh, blorh, bear;, it. m„ hill, 

mountain, mount, babrow, grave- 

monnd, 211, 2241, 2524, 2529, 

beorht.aii;., hbihht, light, shining, 

splendid, 158, 231, etc.; weak 

firm, beorhte, 997, byrhtan, 

1199, etc. 

beorlitost, super I., bHiohtest, 

beorhte, adv., BBioHTly, 1517. 
beorhtlan, tc. v., intrani.,BBieHiEN, 

sound clearly, 1161. 
beorn, Dlorn, it. to., hero, warrior, 

1024, 2404, 2559, eta. 
beornan, /t. v., intrant., rdhn, 2280 

(see note) ; prei. part, byrnende, 

for-beornaa, it. v., intrant., 

pret. forbam, forborn : bush up, 

1616, 2672, etc. 
ge-beoraan, it. v., intrant., 

bobh, be bnmt, 2897. 
beorn- cynlng, »'■ m., hero -kin a, 

warrior-king, 2148. 
Mor-scealc, it.m., BEEB-geneec&AL, 

steward, 1240. 


Mor-sele, Mor-aale, it. m., beer- 

hftll, 482, 2635, eta. 
t»8oT-KBH, «'■ /-, [beeb- tailing] 

beer-drinking, 117, 617. 
Mot, st. neut., boast, promise, 80, 

beotlan, k.v. 

go-beotian, u>. v., boast, make 

a boastful promise, 480, 536. 
bSot-ward, at. neut., [boast-woBD] 

boastful word, 2510. 

(1) bear, carry, wear, 48, 437, 
2055, 2281, etc; prei. ig. 3rd, 
byreS, 296, etc.; basron, 
213, etc., bteran, 2850. 

(2) bbab, give birth to; pp. gebo- 
ren, bobn, 1703. 

fot-beran. at. v., beab to, carry 
to, bear, 28, 519, ete. 

for-borun, «1. v., pobbeab, re- 
strain, 1877. 

on-beran, at. v., beak oft, 
carry away, 2284 ; take off, 990. 

o>-beran, d. v., re«h to, bear, 


he, clear, 1239. 

berstan, *t. v., intram., bubbt, 
760 (crack), 818, 1121. 

for-berstan, gt. v., intrant., 
burst, break in pieces, snap, 

betas, w. v. 

ge-Mtan, to. v., amend, make 
good, requite, 1991, 2465; pp. 
pi. gebBtte, 830. 

betera, adj. eompar. (qf god), betteb, 
469, 1703. 

batost, betot, superL, best, 
463, 3007, eto. ; weak forms 
betsta, 947, bets tan, 1871. 

bttllc, adj., excellent, splendid, 
780, 1925. 

M, sue bu. 

bi-, see be-. 

bicgan, seebycgan. 

bM, *t. n*ut., Bining, tarrying, da- 
isy, 2963. 

bldan, it. v., with gen. or abto- 
hitely, bide, abide, remain, await, 
wait for, 87, 400, 709, etc. 

W. B. 

a-DlOan, it.v., with gen., abide, 
await, 977. 

ge-bldan, it. v. 
(1J iwk. with ace. or governed 
clatae, side, abide, endure, ex- 
perience, 264, 929, 1618, 1720, 
2445, etc ; pp. gebiden, 1928 ; tm- 
perat. absolutely, gebide ge, 2529. 
(2) with gen.-, wait for; dat. inf. 
ot)res...K> gebldanne...yrfe wear- 
das, "to wait for another heir," 


on-bldan, it. v., with gen.. 
aBiDB, await; inf. lstalS hilde- 
bord her onbidan...worda ge^in- 
ges, "let your battle-boards here 
abide the issne of words," 397. 

or-bldan, st. v., bbidb, wait, 
tany, 2302. 

blddan, at. v., [bid] ask, beg, pray, 
29, 176, 1994, eto. ; pret. ig. b»d 
hine blirjne, "begged him to be 
blithe," 617; with ace. peri, and 
gen. rei, ic be...biddan wille... 
anre bene, "I will aak rf thee 
one boon," 427. 

big, see bi. 

bil(l), at. neut., bill, sword, 40, 
1667, 2777, etc. 

talndan, at. v., bind: pp. bnnden, 
218, 1235 (see U. 1531, 1900), 
1900; gebunden, 871, 1531, 1743, 
gsblndan, at. v., bind, 420. 
on-btndan, at. «., unbind ; pret. 
tg. onband beadu-rflne, "open- 
ed a quarrel." 501. 

bugu, blalgu, see byslgu. 

bltan, it. v., bite, cut, 742, 1454, 

bite, at. m„ bub, 2060, 2259. 

biter, adj., betteb, cutting, sharp, 
furious, 1431, 1746, 2704; dat. 
pi. biteran, 2692. 

Intra, adv., BiTTEsly, 23S1. 

bile, adj., bleak, bright, brilliant, 

Msec, adj., buck, 1801. 

blMd, at. m., breath, life, pros- 
perity, renown, 1124, 18, 1703, 



162 BEOW 

blSd- agenda, adj. (prei. part.), 
abuadance-owsing, prosperous, 

Uwd-fMt, adj., prosperous, re- 
nowned, 1299. 

blanca, w. m., a white hone, 856. 

bllate, adv., miserably, pitifully, 

bllcan, it. v., shine, gleam, 223. 

blltte, adj., bluer, joyous, 617; 
gracious, with gen., 436. 


joyful, 1802. 
MM, at. nod., blood, 742, etc. 
felMeglan, w. v., make bloody ; 

pp. geblodegod, 2692. 
biad-fag, adj. , BLOOD-stained, 2060. 
bUdlg, adj., bloody, 2440, etc. 
MMlg-WHI, adj., bloody -TOOTEed, 

WM-rtow,od/., BLooD-flerce, blood- 
thirsty, 1719. 
bio nden-feax, adj . , [b l en i>ed - ha Lred] 

gray-haired, 1594, 1791, 1873; 

weak blonden-feia, 2962. 
bodlan, u. v., [book] announce, 

bolca, v. m., gangway, 231. 
bold, si. neut., building, 997, 1925, 

bold age nd, it. m. (pra. part.), 

house-owner, 3112. 
bolgen-mod, adj., [bulged- mood] 

angry in mind, enraged, 709, etc. 
bolster, s(. m., holster, 1240. 
bona, bana, id. m,, bask, baues- 

man, slayer, 15S, 1968, 2506, 

bon-gar, it. m., BANB-Hpear, deadly 

spear, 2031. 
bord, st. neut., [boabd] shield, 2524, 

bord-hrSoBa, to. m., [BOARD-oover] 

shield, 2203. 
bord-rand, it. m., [BOAlu>-]ehield, 

bord-wndn, it m., [board -wood J 
shield; 1243. 

Wt, tt. /., boot, remedy, help, com- 
pensation, 158, 909, etc. 

botm, it. m., BOTTOM, 1506. 

brad, adj., broad, wide, ample, 

2207, 2978, 3105, etc. 
brSdan, ic. v., bboadeh. 

gooud-bTBdan. v>. v., over- 
spread, 1239. 
brflfitan, it. v. 

H-br&atan, it. v., break up, 
kill, 2930. 


ik, 1100, 1511 (in- 

"curiosity tormented him (as 
to)," 232, 1985, 2784. 
(2) intrant., break, 2546. 

ge-brenan, at. v. , break, crush, 
shatter, 2508. 

U-braoan, it. v., break to 
pieces, knack about, 780, 997. 

►urh-breiaui, et. v., bhf.ak 
thbocoh, 2792. 
breoK it. f. , BBEAiing, grief, 171. 
-breilwian, id. v. 

i-biadwlan, to. v., overthrow, 
slay, 2619. 
bregdan, it. o., with ace. or dat. 
(1) brandish, cast, whirl, drag, 
draw, 707, 794, 1540 (throw); prtt. 
pi. muniium brugdon, "brandish- 
ed your hands," 514 ; pp. broden, 
brogden mill, "drawn (or decor- 
ated?) sword," 1616, 1667. 
12) braid, weave; inf. bregdon, 
2167; pp. broden, 552, 1548; 
ace. ig. /. brogdne, 2755. 

H-ltregdiin, >t. v., draw, lift; 
pret. ig. abrted, 2675. 

ge -bregdan, it. v., with ate. or 
dat. _ 

(1) draw; pret. gebr&gd, gebraid, 
1664, 1664, 2562, 2703. 

(2) braid, weave; pp. gebr5den, 

on-brogdan, it. v., burst open ; 
pret. tg. on braid, 723. 
brego, st. m., prince, lord, king, 


437, etc.; m>m. brego rof cyning, 
"the prince [was] a brave king." 
brego -stol, it. m., [prince- stool] 
throne, dominion, 219G, 2370, 


brSost-gehygd, at. neut., dmcast- 
thought, thought of Hie heart, 

3818. _ 
orS n ft -gewiedu,, [breast- 

wkei>s] coat of mail, 1211, etc. 
brtoat-hord, it. neut., [bbeast- 

goakd] breast's treasure, mind, 

thought, 1719, 2792. 
nrto«-aet, it. neut., bbbast-net, 

ooat of chain-mail, 1518. 
brSost-weortSung, it. /., breast- 
adornment, 3504 (see 11. 1202 ff.). 
brfloBt-wylm, it. m., [breast -wKi.r.- 

ing] heaving of the breast, grief, 

brflotan, at. v., break, kill, 1713. 
1-orflotan, it. v., break op, de- 
stroy, kill, 1298, 1599, 2707. 
brim, at. neut., [kkim] surge, billow, 

sea, mere, ocean, 28, 570, 847, 

1594, 2803. 
brinl-cllf, It neut., [hrtm-clut] 

sea-cliff, 333. 
brlm-lU, it./., ocean-way, 1061. 
brim-HBena, tt. m. (pret. par'' 

aea-farer, 568. 
brim-stream, it. in., sea-BiBE 

torlm-wlm, id. m., [sea-wisi] i 

leader, sea-king, 3930. 
nrim-wylf, it. /., she mere-wc 

1506, 1599. 
mim-wylm, it. m., mere-WELiing, 

snrge, 1494. 
bringan, at. n., brino, 1829, etc. 
ge-bringaji, it . «., bring; sub). 

pre*, pi. gebringan, 3009. 
brfldeu, see brsgdan. 
brags,, w. m., terror, 1291, etc.; 

gen. ig. 583. 
broad, it. to., bbxhtj, burning, fire, 

sword, 1454, 2126, 3323, 3014, 

bront, adj., high, 338, deep, 568. 
trroanlan, id. v., crumble, perish, 

brOVor, it. m., bboteeb, 1334, etc.; 

gen. uroSor, 2619. 
brncan, it. v., with gen., bbook, 

use, enjoy, 1062, 1178, 1953; 

without exprened object, 1045, 

1487, etc, 
brtn, adj., brows, 3573. 
brOn-ecg, adj., BROws-EEaed, 1546. 
brtn-rag, adj., brown- coloured, of 

brown hue, 2615. 
bryd, it./., raids, wife, 3031; ace. 

ig. bryd, 2930, brjde, 2956. 
bryd-bflr, i 

l, 921. 

bryne-leoma, w. m., BBRNing-ray 

(the dragon's vomit of fire), 2313. 
bryne-wylm, it. m., [Brmtfing-WELL- 

ing] surge of fire, 2336. 
brytnlan, ic. v., distribute; jiret. 

*g. brytnade, 2383. 
brytta, id. m., distributer, giver, 

35, 607, etc. 
bryttlan, u-. v., distribute, bestow, 


(1) intrant., dwells inf. bflon, 

(2) tra.iu., dwell in, inhabit, 
occupy, 3065; pp. gebun, 117. 

Una, it. v., bow, bend, stoop, 
327, (lie at rest) 2598, 2918, 2031, 
etc; pret. ig. beah, 3956; pp. 
gebogen, 3569. 

i-hflgau, st. v., [row awoy] give 
way, start, 775. 

be-bflgan, it. v., [bow about] 
encompass, 93, 1223. 

ga-bflgail, it. v., pret. gebeag, 

(1) tntram., bow, bend, fall, 1540, 
2567, 2980. 

(2) tram.. Bow to; pret. tg. sele- 
reste gebSah, "lay down on 
his bed in the hall," 690; io 

bundan-baorde, adj., with hair 




botod op, 3151 (see note 

bound prow, ship, 1910. 
bflne, v. /., tup, drinking-vessel, 

2775, 8047. 
bOr, it. neat., sokes, room, 140, 

burg, biirh, at. /., buboh, fortified 

place, castle, palace, city, 53, 

523, 1968, 2433; dot. byrig, 1199 

(see note on 1300). 
bulb-loo*, v - m . , bukoB-LOCK, castlo- 

look, barrier of a castle or city, 

burh-stede, it. m., hubuii-htead, 

courtyard, 2265. 
bnrn-wola, w. m., [buboh -wral] 

wealth of a castle or city, 3100. 
buna, to. /., bush, stream, 2546. 
bttton, prep., icithdat., bct, except, 

73, 657, 705. 
btlton, bfltan, coiy. 

(1) with tubj., unless, 966. 

(2) -with indie., withoui, but that, 
except, 1560; in elliptical ten- 
tenea, 879, 1614. 

byegan, Megan, w. v., but, 1306. 

be-bycgjui, ». o., sell, 2799. 

ge-byegan, u>. v., Btrc, obtain, 

973; pret. his ealdre gebobte, 

"paid for [it] with his life," 

2481; pp. pi. 3014. 

byIil»n,u>.?'.,emiioiJiEN, entourage, 

tayma, »./., trumpet; gen. 2943. 

byrdu-BCrfld, it. neat., shield -cover- 
ing, shield, 2660. 

byre, tt. m., son, boy, youth, 1188, 
2018, 2053, etc. 

byrale, at. in., chp-BEABor, 1161. 

byrht, see boorht. 

byrig, see bulg. 

byrnan, seoMorn&n. 

byrne, w. /., bybmt, coat of mail, 

405, etc. 
bym-wlga, it. m., bybk I- warrior, 

mailed warrior, 2918. 
byMgtt, >(. /., [Business] trouble, 

affliction; iiom. besigu, 281; 

pi. bisgnm, 1743, bysigum, 2 
bylj, see boon. 
bywan, w. v., prepare, adorn, 2 

camp, it. m., battle, 2505. 

can, seeonnnn. 

caudal, it./., candle, 1672 (of the 

owld, adj., cou>, 1261, etc. 

coaldost, mperl., coldest, 546. 

cSap, it. m., [chap] bargain, pur- 
chase, 2415, 2482. 

cSaplan, a. v., [cheafeh, chop) 
purchase; pp. geoeapod, 3012. 

cearian, w. v., oabb, take care, 

ceax-aflf, >t. m., [c abb -journey] 
journey fraught with care, ex- 
pedition that brings sorrow, 2396 
(see EadgllK in "Persons and 
Places "). 

cearu, tt. /., cask, sorrow, 1303, 

oaar-wylm, -wSra, it. m., [care- 
wiLLing] surge of care, wave of 
sorrow, extreme grief, 2821, 2066. 
[Sievers % 159, 2.] 

coaster- bflsud, it.m., castle -dweller, 
denizen of a city, 768. 

cempa, v,. m., champion, fighter, 
1312, etc.; da t. 2044. 

cene, adj., keen, bold, brave, 768. 
cSnost, superl., eeenkmt, bold- 
est, 206. 

(1) beget, bear, bring forth, 12, 

(2) deolare ; imperat. tg. reft, oen 
bee, 1219. 

ftcennan, id. v., beget, bear, 

Otol, It. 111., KEEL 

pert, and dat. 

, eto. 


2972, etc. 

cSosan, closau, ft. v., choose, ac- 
cept, 2376, 2818; pp. pl.-geao- 
rone, 206. 

ge cSomin, st. v., choosb, 1201 
(see note on 1200), 1758, 2469, 
etc.; dat. inf. geouoaenne, 1851. 

dgftn, io. v. 

l-clgan, H-. v., i 

CUT, It. neut., dim, 1911. 
clomm, clamm, at. ro., olasp, grip, 
963, 1335, 1502. 

ge-cnawan, it. v., know, recog- 
nise, 2047. 

on-ciifiwan, it. v., snow, recog- 
nise, 2554. 
taunt, et. m., [kntoht] boy, 1219. 
cnlllt-wesenda, adj. (prei. part.), 

being a boy or youth, 372, 535. 
cnyasan, a, v., crash, clash; pret. 

pi. onysedan, 1328. 
col, adj., COOL. 

ofllra, comjicir., coolhr, 282, 
collen-forhB, -tat, adj., [swollen- 
minded] of proud spirit, high- 
minded, bold-minded, 1806, 2785. 

norSer, it. neat., troop, guard, 
crowd, 1153, 3121. 

coetlan, id. v., with gen., try, prove, 

craft, ft. m., might, strength; 
skill, cbaft ; 699, 982, 2168, 2221 
(mass), etc. ; dat . pi. deoflea crssf- 
tum, "with devil's devices,*' 2088. 

crwftlg, adj., [crafts] strong, 
powerful, 1466, 1962. 

crtngan, it. v., chinoe, fall, 635, 

ge-orlngaa, it. v., comas, fall ; 
pret. tg. gecrong, 1566, 2505, ge- 
crang, 1337, georano, 1209. 

iARY. 165 

cnma, u>. m. , cover, 1806. 

cnman, it. v., pret. c(w)6m: come, 
23, 376, 430, 569, 731, 1382, 
2058, etc, ; sabj. pret. pt. cvmen, 
3106; pre(.p(.owomoii,239,etc., 
owotnan, 650; pp. pi. ctunene, 
361. Often with foil inf. (which 
is sometimes beat translated by 

a pres. part.), 268, 710, etc. 
be.cuman, it. v., pret. bee (w) om : 

(It coke, 115, 192, 2992, eta. 

(2) with. ace. peri., befall, 2383. 
ofer-cuman, overcome; pret. 

>g. oferowom, 1273; pret. pi. 

ofaroomon, 699 ; pp. 845. 
cumbol, ft. m,, standard, banner, 

cunnan, ei.-io. v., pres. ig. lit, 3rd, 

(1 ) with ace. or clause, know, be 
acquainted with, 359, 372, 392, 
418, 1180, 1377, 1739, etc.; with 
ace. and clause, 1355. 

(2) with inf., know how to, be 
able to, 50, 90, 182, 1746, etc. 

cunnlan, w. v., with ace. or gen., 

try, make trial of, explore, 508, 

1426, 1444, 1500, 2045. 
eH, adj. (pp. of Ottnnan), known, 

well known, famous, 150, 867, 

1912, etc. 
cut! Hue, adv., openly. 

cuB-Ucor, compar., more open. 

ly, 244. 
cwealm, si. M- [QUELiing] mnrder, 

death, 107, 3149. 
cwealmbealu, a(. ?(eu(.,death-BALE, 

deadly evil, 1940. 


r, 792. 

cweccan, i 

., [quake] brandish, 

owen, «(./., QUEEH, < 
cWfln-Bc, adj., 

cwellan, it. v., gay, speak, 2041 ; 

pret. cwteS, "quoth," 315, etc. 
a-cwettan, it. v., say, speak; 



pre*. tg. IowjtJ, 2046; pret. tg. 

dad-frama, v>. m., [died- chief] doer 

MwsS, "QUOTH," 654. 

of deeds, 2090. 

gD-cweoan, at. v., say, apeak. 

dSd-hata, if. M„ [deed-hatw) one 
who shows his hatred in deeds. 

585, 2664; pret. tg. gecw»«, 

"quoth," 857, eto. 


cwic, owloo, adj., quick, living, 

das. it. t»., day, 197, 485, 8159, 

alive, 98, 2314, 3093, etc. 


cwtVan, it. v., -with ace., lament, 

(UBftes, gen. of d»g used ad- 

mount, 2113, 3171. 

verbially, by day, 1935, 3369. 

-uwyn", see -cwe9an- 

dag-awn, it. /., day-while, day ; 

cyine, at. m., coiring; pi. 357. 

ace. pi. he dag-hwila gedrogen 

cymen, see enmui. 

htefde eorSan wynne, "he had 

cym-llee, adv. 

spent bis days of earth's joy," 

cym-lleor, eompar., in more 


comely fashion, more fitly, 38. 

dag-rim, it. neut., [dat-bime] num- 

oyn(n), »t. neut., sis, race, 98, 107, 

ber of days ; noiR- dCgera dsg- 

421, etc. 

rlm, "the number of his days," 

ovne-dOm, at. m., UHgDOif, 3376. 


cynlng, kynlng, tt. m., kino, 11, 

dal, it. m., leal, part, portion. 

619, 3171, etc. 

share, 621, 1740, 2848, etc. 

cynlng -bald, adj., [kino-bold] roy- 

dalan, v>. v., deal, divide, distri- 

ally bold, 1634. 

bute, share, 80, 2534, etc. 

cynn, si. neat., only in pL (of 

be-dtalan, w. v., with dat. ret. 

adj. oyn(n), "aim, suitable"), 

deprive, bereave, 721, 1275. 

customs, courtesies, etiquette, 

ee-dalan, to. v., deal out, 71 ; 


divide, part, 731, 2422. 

efpaa, if. v., sell. 

daroB, il. m., dabt, javelin, 2848. 

ge-cypan, w. v., buy, purchase, 

ilead, adj., dead, 467, etc. 

hire, 2496. 

dSagan, *f . v., dye; pret. deaB-fage 

cyuan, w. i>. 

deog, "the doomed one dyed [the 

ge-cyiwan, if. c, ins, 1870. 

mere]," 850. 

cyst, tt. /., [choosing] choice, 

dean, see dugran. 

choicenees, choice quality, ex- 

dealt, adj., proud, 494. 

cellence, pick, 673, 802, 867, 923, 

dear, dearst, see durran. 

cySau, «'. v., make known, show, 
659, eta.; pp. gecySed, "made 
known, famed," 262, 700, 1971, 

dad, at. /., deed, act, 181, etc; 
ace. dad, 585, etc., dade, 889; 
yen. pi. hafa'5...dmda gefondad, 
"has eiperienced deeds (of viol- 
ence*)," 2*54. 

dad-oene, adj., [deed-ejlbn] bold 
in act, 1646. 

daao".cwalu, tt. /., [DEATH-queLting] 
violent death, murder, 1712. 

desB-cwealm, at. m., [ death- fuel- 
ling ] violent death, slaughter, 

dtaft-dag, at. m., death-day, 187, 

j.,[drath-fet] doomed 

to death, 650. 
deaS-scna, w. m., »EATB-ahadow, 

deadly sprite, 160. 
rteaB-wflrlK, adj., death-weaby, 

dead, 2125. 


dSaS-wlO, tt. ntut., [death-wice] 

dwelling of death, 1375. 
daman, u>. v., deem; adjudge, 687; 

appraise, 3171. 
demand, at. m., judge, 181. 
denn, tt. neul., den, 2759, 8046. 
dSofol, si. m.. devil, 756, etc. 
dfiogul, Bee d?goL 
deop, *(. neut., deep, 2649. 
deop, adj., deep, 509, 1904. 
door, dlor, adj., bold, brave, dire, 

1983, 2090. 
daoro, adj., dabs, 160, 276, eta. 
dSore, ueeilfro. 
deor-Uo, adj., bold, 585. 

ds«, e 


dlopo, ode, dekpIv, 3069. 

dlora, see flyre. 

disc, it. nt., dish, 277S, 3018. 

dogor, it. n*ut., day,319, 2200,2578, 
etc. ; <ia(. »p. dogore, 1797, dogor, 
1396 (see note); gen. pi. dogora, 
88, dogera, 823, dSgra, 1090. 

ddgor-gerlni, si. neut., number of 
days, 2728. 

dohtor, it. /., daughter, 875, etc. 

dol-gUp, tt. m., [itoi.tish yelp] 
foolish boast, 609. 

dnl-llc, adj., rash, desperate, au- 
dacious, 3646. 

dol-sceaSa, te. m., noj.tieh scATEer, 
foolish or rash foe, 479. 

dOm, it. m., DOOM, judgment, 141, 
1096, etc. ; free-will, choice, 696, 
2117, etc. ; glory, 865, 2606, eto. 
Special pottage i : setter dome, 
"according to custom, or merit," 
1720; dreah after dome, "lived, 
employed himself, according to 
right, or honour," 2179. 

dSm-ltal, adj., [glory-LESS] inglo- 
rious, 2690. 

Ma,irrtg. v., do, make, take, esteem, 
put, lay, 444, 1116, 1628, etc.; 
pro. tg. defi, 1066 ; pret. tg. dyde, 
etc, 14, 1676, 2809, etc. Special 

Ciages : him Hunlafing hilde- 
nan...onbearmdyde, "the eon 
of Hnnlaf thrust the sword into 
his [Hengeat's] breast, " 1114 (see 

note); ne him bass wyrmes wig 
for wiht dyde, eafoS ond ellen, 
"he esteemed the worm's war. 
fare as naught, its strength and 
courage," 2348. 

gB-don, it. v., no, make, put, 
esteem, 2090, 2186; prei. tg. 
gedeS, 1733. 
iterate, pret. of damn. 

(1) dhakk; dragon, 893, 3088; 

(2) the drake or dragon, the slay- 
ing of which forms Beowulf s 
third great exploit, 2311, etc. 

.drSdan, tt. v, 

on-drmdan, tt. v., dbead, 1674, 
2275; prei. ondrSd, 3817. 

drtah, see dreogan. 

dream, at. m., [i>heam] joy, mirth, 
88, 99, etc 

dream-leas, adj., jobless, 1720. 

drtfan, it. v., trouble, stir, 1901; 
pp. gedrefed, 1117. 

driogan, tt. v., [dbee] do, go 
through, experience, endure, 
suffer, enjoy, 589, 1470, 2179 
flee dom), etc.; imperat. tg. 
dreoh, 1762 ; pret. tg. dreah, 131 ; 
prei. pi. dragon, 798, 1966; pp. 
gedrogen, "spent," 2726. Spe- 
cial pottage: nund-nytte dreah, 
' ' (did swimming-office, i.e.) 
swam," 2360. 
Idreogan, it, v., endure, 3076. 

drSor, at. m., blood, 147. 

drtor-lan, adj., blood-stained, 485. 

drBorlg, drtorlg:, adj., [dbeabt] 
bloody, 1417, 2789. 

drBosan, tt. v. 

Ee-dreMan, tt. v., fall, sink, 
fail, decline, 1754, 2666. 

drspan, at. v., strike, hit; pret. tg. 
drep, 3880; pp. drepen, 1715, 
dropen, 2961. 

drape, tt. v., stroke, blow, 1689. 

drtfan, at. v., DitivE, 1180, 3808. 
to-drttan, it. v., dbivb asunder, 

drtht-, see drynt- . 

drthten, see dryliten. 

dxlnoan, ft, o. drink, 743, 1333, 


168 BEOV 

1945, etc. ; pp. druncen, " drunk, 

having drank (not necettarily 

intoxicated)," 531, etc.; pi. 

drnncne, 480, etc. 
drinc -fist, see dryuc-fait. 
drohtoB, it. to., wav of life, calling, 

drop*n, aee drepaji. 
flj-ftgian, ir. v., became turbid*, sub- 

side?, 1630. 
dryht-bearn, H. neuc, [noble bubs] 

noble youth, noble scion; ace. 

dryhtniL, drill ten, it. m. 

(1) lord, chieftain, 1484, 1050, 
etc.; dot. dryhtne, 2482, etc., 
dryhten (?), 1831. 

(2) Lord (of the Deity), 108, etc. 
dryht-ffuma, driht- gains., w. m., 

[clansman] warrior, noble war- 
rior, noble man, 99, 1790, etc. 

dryht-llc drlM-Uc, adj., lordly, 
coortly, royal, noble, excellent, 
892; weak neut. drihtlioe wif, 

dryht-msVBum, if. m., lordly trea- 
sure, splendid treasure, 2843. 

[dryht-,] driit-Bcype, at. m., [war- 
rior-sHip] heroic doed, 1470. 

dryht-selB. drlht-sels, tt.m., lordly 
hall, warrior-hall, 485, etc. 

dryht- ribb, ft. /., troop-peace, 
peace between bands of warriors, 

dryno-fM, drlncftet, at. n., [drink- 
vat] drinking-veHBel, 2254, 2306. 

dryamlan, w. v., darken, grow 
dark, 1375. 

dOfflJl. St. V., DIVE. 

K*-dflfMi, st. v., dive into, 
sink into; pret. tg. gedeaf, 2700. 

^nrh-dtUan, if. v., divb 
through, swim through; pret. 

tg. burhdeaf, 1619. 
dngan, at.-w. v., pret. tg. indie. 
deah, 369, eto.; pre*, tg. tubj. 
doge, 569, etc. ; pret. tg. dohte, 
1344, 1821, etc.: be nouairty, 
avail, 369, 573, etc., with gen. 
526; treat (with dat.), 1821 ; rely, 

BOuontr, doughty warriors, noble 
warriors, 498, 2020, etc.; often 
coupled with geogoS, " the youth- 
ful", 160, etc.; nam. pi. dugurSa, 
2035; dat. pi. for dugeSum, "in 
virtue of doughtiness, by dint of 
doughty deeds,"2501; duguSom, 
"doughtily, or to the doughty," 

'damn, tt.-w. c, dare; pret. tg. 
dear, dearst, 684, 527 ; pret. tubj. 
dyrre, 1379; pret. tg. dorste, 
1462, 2848, etc. 

dura, it.f., noon, 888, 721. 

dwellan, u>. v., mislead, deceive, 
hinder; pres. tg. dweleS, 1735. 

dyde. dydon, see don. 

dygan, w. v. 

ge-dyg&u, ge-dlgari, to. v., 
survive, escape, endure, 800, 
578, 661, eto. 

dygel, dSogol, adj., secret, hidden, 
275, 1357. 

dybtlK, adj., doughty, 1287. 

dynnan, w. v., Dm, resound; pret. 
tg. dynede, 767, etc. 

dyre, dflore, adj., dbab in both 

tentct, costly and beloved, 560, 

1528, 1879, etc.; nam. dlore, 

1949; gen. eg.f. deorre, 488. 

dBorsat, laperl, dkabeht, 1309. 

dyms, adj., secret, hidden, 271, 
1879, etc. 

dyrre, see dnrr&n. 

dyratlg, adj., daring, bold; with 
gen. 2838. 

Sac, adv., beb, also, 97, etc.; once 
eo, B131. 

Bacen, adj. (pp. of "eacan), [BKEd] 
great, extensive, mighty, power- 
ful, 198, 1621, 1663, 2140. 

Bacen- craftlg, adj., enormously 
strong, immense, 2280, 3051. 

iftdig , adj., rich, prosperous, 1225, 

Badlg-Ilco, adv., happily, 100. 

eafor, see eofoi. 


eafora, eafora, m. to., child, sou, 
13, 375, etc.; ji(. descendants, 
successors, 1710: dat. pi. eafe- 
ran, 1186. 

oafoB, it. neut., strength, might, 
902, etc.; ace. pi. eofofio, 2631; 

dot. pi. eafeSrun, 1717. Special 

pattage: ic bin) Geata ncoal 
eafoS ond>e gebeodan, 


the strength and courage of the 
Geats," 602 (see note). 

•age, w. neut., bye, 726, etc. 

Sajor- stream, it. to., water- btbeim, 

eaht*, num., most, 1035; yen. 
eshta Bum, "one of eight, with 
seven others," 3123. 

eahtian, id. v., consider, deliberate 
about, esteem, watch over, rule; 
/ires. pi. ehtigaft, 1222; pret. la. 
eahtode, 1407 ; pret. pi. eahtedon, 
172, eahtodan, 3173 ; pp. ge»h- 
ted, 1886. 

eal(l), adj., all, 111, 623, 662, 706, 
914, 2739; num. «. /. eal, 1738; 
neut. pi. eal, 486; uninjlected, 
2042, 3164. In tome itutanees it 
u impossible to say certainly 
whether the word is an adj. or an 
adv.: 77, 1230, 1567, 1620, 2241. 
SubitaTUively, ig. and pi. : 146, 
649, 2162, 2794, 1727 (all things), 
2461 (everything) ; gen. pi. ealra, 
"in all," 3170; with gen. 744, 
835, 1057, 1122, 2149, 2727. 

eal, adv., all, 1708, 680 [see 

Mllei, adv. {gen. o/eall), all, 
altogether, 1000, 1129. 

ealil, adj., old, 72, 367, 1776, etc.; 
ace. pi. neat, ealde, 2330. Special 
patiaget: eald Metod, "our God 
of old, "945; gold-msrSmaa heold 
eald under eorfian, " the old 
[dragon] held gold-treasures 
under the earth," 2416. 

yldra, campar., zldeh, older, 
468, etc 

1 comrade, 
, old trea- 


eald-gasegen, at. /., 
tradition, 869. 

•ald-gaaA, it. m., oj 

eald-seatreon, at. neu 
sure, 1381, etc. 

ealdhlftlord, it. m., ol 
wulf), 2778. 

•aider, aldor, at. m,, Older- in 
alderman] chief, lord, prince, 
sovereign, 66, 346, 369, 1644, 
1848, 2920, etc. 

aldor-lSaa, adj., princeLass, 
without a chief, 15. 

aldoi'-Vegn. it. -m., [prince- 
thank] chief thane, 1308. 

ealdor, aldor, it. neut., life, 1371, 
1442, etc.; vitals, 1434. Special 
phrattt; to aldre, "for life, for 
ever, always," 2005, 2498; awa 
tO aldre, "for ever and ever," 956. 
aldOT-baaiu,sf.R<ut., life-BALE, 
death, 1676. 

aldor-cearu, tt. /., life-CAM, 

aldor-dBg, ealder-daJK. at. m., 
life-DAY, day of life, 718, 757. . 

alflor gedfll, at. neat., life-part- 
ing, death, 805. 

ealdor -go wlnna, 10. m., [life-wra- 
Ner] life-adversary, 2903. 

ealdor-leM, aldor-lBaa, adj., life- 
lbsb, 1687, 3003. 

eal-fela, adj., [all- many] very 
many, loitA gen., 883; ace. eal- 
fela. ..worn, "a very great num- 
ber," 869. 

ealgian, to. v., defend, protect, 796, 
1204, etc. 

MU, see eal. 

eal(l)-gylden, adj., all-oolden, 
1111, 2767. 

eall-Irenne, adj., all-ibon, 2338. 

ealo-benc, ealubenc, tt. /., ale- 
bench, 1029, 2867. 

aalo-drlucend, at. m. (pres. part.), 
ALF-imrNnev, 1945. 

Ba-lond, at. neut., water-LAND; ace. 
ea-lond utan, "the sea-board," 


ealo-wage, eam-wBge, »(. neat., 

ALE-atoup, ale-can, tankard of 

ale, 481, 496, 2021. 
ealu-ioerwen, it. /., alb- dearth, 

terror as of a dearth of ale, 

great terror, 769. 
Sam, it.m., ["bub" Spenser] uncle, 

mother's brother, 881. 
ttard, $t. in., country, estate, home, 

abode, dwelling, 56. 104, 1621 

(expanses), 1727, 2198, 2493, 

2786, etc 

(1) intraiu., dwell, reet, 8060. 

(2) (rana., inhabit, 166; inf. wia . 
eardian, " take up his abode," 

aard-lnfn, id. /., home-LOTE, dear 
home?, 692. [Sieve™ % 279, N. 

eard-weall, it. m., land-WAU., 1334. 

earfofi. If. neut., hardship, hard 
battling, endurance ; ace. pi. 
earfeSo, S34. 

earfott-iice, adv., hardly, with 
difficulty, 86, etc.; with trouble, 
sorrow fully, 2833. 

eartoB^rag, »'• /■■ tune of stress, 
time of tribulation, 283. 

earg, adj., cowardly; gen. abto- 
lately, earges arS, "coward's 
way," 2541. 

•arm, it. m., arm, 513, etc. 

earm, adj., wretched, 2868, 2998; 
weak fem. earme, 1117. 

earmra, compar. , more wretch- 
ed, 577. 

oarm-Mag, it. m., ABM-ring, arm- 
let, 276S. 

earra nrflad, it. /., Ann-ornament, 

earm-Uc, adj., wretched, miserable, 

earm-tceapen, adj. [pp.), wretched- 

shapen, miscreated, miserable, 

1361, 2228. 
earn, it. m„ eagle, 3026. 
Bart, abt, 362, 506, 2nd io. pret, 

indie, a/weean (q. v.). 
Eaatan, adv., from the east, 569. 


SaBe, ytle, adj., easy, pleasant, 228, 

1002, etc.; once Me, 2586. 
eaSe, adv., easily, 478, etc. 
Satffynde, adj., easy to raw, 188. 
eawan, see ywan. 
sail, it. /., [able] shoulder, 836, 

eail-gestealla, u>. m., shoulder - 

comrade, bosom friend, 1326, 

Bo, see Sac. 

toe, adj., eternal, 108, etc. 
»cg, it. /., book (of a weapon), 

sword, 1106, 3506, etc. 
acg-bana, w. m., [edoe-banb] slayer 

with a weapon, sword-slayer, 1262 . 
ecg-hete, it. in., edqr-hate, sword- 
hate, hatred leading to war, 84, 

ecg-kram, it.f., BDOE-oni 

onset, armed attack, 51 
ad-hwyrft, »(. m., return, ■ 

Sdre, see 5d», it. f. 
ed-wenden, it. /., return, change, 

1774, 2188. 
edwlt-llf, >C. tmuC., life of reproach, 

life of infamy, 2891. 

on afn, with dat., evhn with, 
beside, 2903. 

efnan, sefnan, a. v., achieve, per- 
form, accomplish, do, make, 1041, 
1354, etc.; pp. geafned, 8106; 
58 wash gesfned, "the oath was 
sworn," 1107- 

ga-triban, to. v., perform, etc., 

■me, adv., even, 943, etc. 

•Man, w. v., hasten, 1493, etc. 
['•Beitrage," X, 606.] 

aft, adv., AFTer, afterwards, again, 
back, 56, 135, 123, 396, etc. 

eft-oyme, et. m., back-coiririg, re- 

ett-sTB, st. m., back -journey, return, 

1333, etc. 
Sg-clif, it. neut., sea-curr, 2893. 
egeaa, si. m., fear, terror, 784, etc.; 

egea-fnli, adj., terrible, 2929. 


eges-Hc, adj., terrible, 1649, etc. 
egl, adj., [iii,=a Hpike or awn o: 
barley] claw, 987. 

Bg-itrEam, it. m., water- stream, 
ocean current, 577. 

Urtan, to. v., with gen., pursue, 
159, 1512. 

ehtlg&o", see e&htlaji, 

•Ida, see ylde. 

eldo, see yldo. 

el-Und, it. neut., alien land, strange 
land, 3019. 

ellan, >t. m. neut., strength, courage, 
bravery, 573, 393, 2706, etc.; 
dal. eg. elne, nmtetimei belt 
rendered by an adv., "courage- 
ously," 2676 ; sometimei with 
etrictly adverbial force, "quickly," 
1967, "absolutely," 1097, "al- 
together," 1129. 

ellen-dsd, it. /., [ strength -n en d] 
deed of strength or oourage, 876, 

eUan-gaast, it. m., [strength- onosr] 
powerful sprite, 86. 

ellen-llce, adv., mightily, courage- 

ellan -martin, it. /., [might-great- 
ness] fame for strength or cour- 
age, feat of strength, 824, 1471. 

ellen-rof, adj., courage- strong, 
famed for strength or courage, 
340, 1787, etc. 

ellen-sloc, adj., [strength -sice) 
strengthens, 2787. 

eUen-weorc, ■(. neut., strength - 
wobk, deed of might or courage, 
661, etc. 

ellss, adv., else, otherwise, 138, 

oiler, adv., ELsewhittiEB, 56, etc. 

•llor-gftat, oiler -g:5st, si. m., [else- 
whither-oHOST] sprite living else- 
where, alien sprite, 807, 1349, 
1617. 1621. 

ellar-artl, st.m., journey elsewhither, 
death, 2461. 


le), another, 

. of alien nation, 
foreign, 336. 
ande, it. m„ end, 822, 1734, etc. ; 
ace. liaifde eorfi-scrafa ende ge- 
nyttod, "had had the last of bis 
earth -caves," 3046; dot. eorlum 
on ende, "to the sails at the 
end (of the high table?, i.e. the 
noblest)," 2021. 

death, 637, eta. 

ende-degor, it. n. 

of death, 2896. 
endo-laf, it. /., [e 

, KND-day, day 
■»-LEAviiig] last 

final_reward, 1692. 

guard, 241. 
ande-ittaf, it. m., [end-staff] end ; 
ace. on ende-stief, "towards, in, 
the end," 1753. 


geendod, 2311 
•age, adj., narrow, 1410. 
out, si, to., giant, 1679, eta. 
entUc, adj., gigantic, 2979. 
Bode, Bodon, see g&n. 

(1) fence, barrier; ace. pi. under 

eoderas, "under the barriers, 

into the house," 1037, 

(3) protector, lord, prince, 428, 

eta.; nam. eodur, 663. 
eofer, eofor, it. m., boar, flgnre of a 

boar upon a helmet, 1112, 1328; 

ace. eafor, 2152. 
oofer-iprBot, it. m., boar-spear, 

Mfor-llo, it. neut., boar-Lisraess, 

figure of a boar upon a helmet ; 

pi. 303. 
aofoV, see eafott. 
•Diet, st. m. or neut., sea (7); gen. 

ha was sund lideneoletes sit ende, 

"then was the sound traversed 

at the far side of the sea," 224. 


eorclan-stln, it.m., precious stonb, 

Bored geatwe, it. f. pi, troop- 
trappings, military equipments, 


treasure, 2244. 

•ori-gewwle, it. ncut., [rabl-webds] 
armour, 1442. 

sorllc ( = eorl-lIc), adj., eabl-likb, 
noble, 637. 

eorl-scipe, at. m., eaulship, cou- 
rage, heroic deeds, 1T2T, 2133, 

•orl-wworod, it. mat., [BAB^-host] 
warrior-band, 2893. 

•onnen-eynn, it. neat., [eitend- 

eonnen -grand, it. aeut., [enormous 
r. round] the whole broad earth, 

•ormen-Uf, it. ntut., [er 
LBATing] immense legacy, 2234. 

•orre, see yrre. 

eorS-eynlUsT, a. m., eart 
earthly king, 1155. 

eorfi-Orana, a. at., earth 
earth-dragon, 2712, etc. 

eorlte, w. /., earth, world, 9' 

aorV-afta, . 

neat., EARTH -H 

Mrt-recsfl, it. neut. 

earth-hali, 2719. 
HorB-scriof, it. neut., eabth 

gen. pi, eorS-sorafa, 3046. 
eorS sale, it. m.,, 2410, 

soiV-weall, at. 

2957, etc. 

•orB-weard, it. m„ BABTH-poases- 

sion, land-property, locality. 

a giant, 1558, 2979; ace. etoniso, 
eoten-weoxd, if. /., [eqten-wabd] 
ward or watch against a monster; 
ace. eoten-weard ahead, "offered 
watch against Grendel, " 668 (see 

Sow, peri, proa., ace. aad dot. pi. 
(o/W). too, 391, 2866, etc. 

Soma, Bee ywan. 

§owar, pen. proa., gen. pi. (of Mi) , 
of iou,248, etc. 

Sower, pin». adj., TOUB, 257, etc. 

Sowlc, pen. pron., ace. pi. (o/)>u), 
you, 317, 3095. 

est, it./., favour, grace, 958, 2165, 
etc. i ace. btet ic his Srest i5e est 
gestegde, "that I should first give 
thee his kindly greeting," 2157; 
dat. pi. esttun, with adverbial 
force, "graciously, gladly, 
kindly," 1194, 2149, 2378. 

lata, adj., gracious; with gen. hyre 
...este wssre bearn-gebyrdo, "was 
gracious to her in her child- 
bearing," 945. 

•tan, it. v., bat, 444, 449. 

pp. pi. t>urhetone,3049. 
etonlio, see Mtenlio. 

So", begets, adj., [easy-BEQOTten] 

easily got, 2861. 
We, see tatte. 

Wei, si. m. , native land, fatherland. 

land, estate, 520, 1730, etc. 
Wel-rlht, it. neat., land-Biaai, 

Wel-iWSl, it. m., [fatherland- stool] 

native seat; pi. country, 2371. 
fSal-tnrf, it.f., native turf, native 

soil; dat. eSel-tyrf, 410. 
Wel-weard, it. m., fatheriand- 

vrAiinen, guardian of his country, 

616, 1702, 2210. 
Wel-wyn, it. /., land-joy, home 

joy, 2885; ace. eSel-wyo, 2493. 
aV-ge««na, yH-geaSna, adj., [easy-] 

manifest, easily visible (not seen, 

pp.), 1110, 1244. 



Hcen-sttsf, it. m., treachery, 1018. 

Dm, *t. mrui., period of time, 2240. 

fader, it. m., fatkeh, SG, 316 (of 
God), etc.; gen. fieder, 911. 

fjaderen-mae, »(. m., father's 
kinsman, kinsman on the father's 
Bide, 1263. 

fSga, adj. FBI, doomed, 846, etc. 

fjegen, adj., fain, glad, 1633. 

ftegar, adj., fair, beautiful, 522, eta. 

ftegere, fstgn, adv., fatrIj, be- 
comingly, oourteonsly, 1014, 
1768, etc. 

-fSJgon, see -fBon. 

fShB, fShBo, sr. /., feud, hostility, 
2403, 2999 ; ace. fShSe, 1S3, etc, 
fiighSe, 2465, f«hSo, 2489. 

, cleanse, 432, etc.; 

-. /., bride, lady, 2034, 

far, it. neat., craft, vessel, 33. 
fSr, it, m., i'eab, sadden danger, 

1068, 2230. 
fier -gripe, »(. m., feak-okip, sudden 

grip, 738, etc. 
fSr-gTyre, it. m., [feab -terror] 

sudden terror, terror of sodden 
I danger, 174. 

fMringa, adv., suddenly, 1414, etc. 
iSr-nlB, ft. m., [fkah -malice] snd- 
) den mischief, sudden horror, 476. 
fast, adj., fast, 308, 1742, etc.; 

often with dat. 1290, 1878, etc 
fteatan, w. v., fasten. 

be-testan, w. v., commit to, 

faste, adv., fast, 554, etc. 

bailor, compar., FaSTBB, 143. 
fasten, it. neat., FAsmess, strong. 

hold^ 101, etc. 
faet-rad, adj., [fibt-bbdb] tirm- 

purposed, steadfast, 610. 
net, st. m., tat, vessel, flagon, 3761. 
fit, it. nf.ut., plating, gold-plate, 

716, 2256. 
fated, fStt, adj. (pp.), plated, gold- 
plated, 333, etc. 
fated- MSor. adj., with bridle 

covered with plates of gold, 1036. 

IAEY. 173 

fat-gold, at. neut., plated gold, 1921. 

fatt, see fated. 

fceflm, it. m., [fathom] embrace, 
bosom, lap, 185, 168, 1393, etc.; 
power, 1210. 

rnVmlan, ifl. v., embrace, 2662, etc. 

fig, Oh, adj., stained, coloured, 
variegated, bright, shining, 305, 
1615, 1631, 2217, 2701, 420 
(blood-stained), 1038 (bedecked), 
2671 (dashing), etc. ; ace. tg. m. 
fagne, fahne, 725, 446, etc. 

fall , fig, adj. : 

(1) hostile, 554 ; nam. he fig wis J=tf 
God, "he a foe to God," 811. " 
Substantively, foe; ace. tg. in. 
fane, 2655; gen. pi. fara, 578, 

(2) guilty, outlawed, 978, 1001, 

f&ml(g)-haala, adj., foamy- necked, 
218, 1909. 

fandlan, see f oudlan. 

fane, see rah, fig. 

-fangen, see -fOn. 

fftra, lee fall, fag. 

faran, tl. v., fare, go, 124, 1404, 

1895, etc.; dat. in/, farenne, 180.5. 

ge-laran, it. v., fake, 738. 

faroB, if. m., tide, stream, flood, 
28, etc 

fBa, pi. adj., few; ace. (with gen.) 
tea words, 9346, 2662; gen. te- 
am, 1412,3061 ; dot. feaum, 1081. 

■fean, see -non. 

fealli, see fEolun. 

feallan, it. v., fall, 1070, etc 
pret. tg. feol(l), 772, 2919, etc 

be - feallan ; pp. befeallen, "de- 
prived, bereft," 1126, 22G6. 

« " 

„ 1755. 

fealu, adj., fallow, yellow, dun; 
ace. Iff. m- fealone, 1950; /. 
fealwe, 916; aee. pi. fealwe, 865. 

ffla-soeaft, adj., wretched, desti- 
tute, 7, etc. 


174 BEOV 

fMX, ft. neui., hair, hair of the 

head, 1647; dat. few, 2967. 
fMan, w. v., febii. 

alodan, u>. v., bring up, 693. 
-Agon, see -non. 
-fen, see -lion. 
fSnV, see An. 
Al, it. /., file ; gen. pi. tela lafe, 

"leavings of files, i.e. swords," 

foil, at. nettt., indecl., much, many, 

586, 2106. 

Uiu. with gen. ig. or pi. 164, 809, 

876, 929, 992, 1080, 1888; fealo, 

2767; «« alio worn. 

Until at an adj. qualifying worn 

(q. V.), I 

I, etc. 

fela, adv., much, greatly, 1885, 

2102, 3025, 3029, 094 («< mice]). 
fela-gftomor, adj.. very sad, 2950. 
ftU-nrOr, adj., very vigorous, 27. 
fela-mOdlg, adj., [very nootti] very 

brave, 1637. 
fela-synnlg, adj.. very sinful, 1379. 
fall, it. ntut., pill, skin, 2088. 
ftn(n), it. nan., ran, moor, 104, 

2009, eta. 
fen-freoSo, u.f., FEN-refuge, 851. 
1 one, U. »»., olatch, grasp, 578, 1764. 
fflng, see tin.. 

fengel, ■(. m., prince, 1100, etc. 
(•n-gel&d, it. neat., rEH-path, 1359. 
fen-hllB, it. ncut., FEN-slope; pi. 

fen-hleoSu, 820. 
fan-hop, St. ntut., rKN -retreat, 

"sloping hollow with a fenny 

bottom" (Skeat), 764. 
fa oh, it. ntut., rmt, property, 

money; dat. tg., feo, 156, etc. 
feoh-gtn, -gytt, it. /., fee-oift, 

gift of money, valuable gift, 21, 

1025, etc. 
feoh-Icas, adj., fee-less, not to be 

atoned for with money, 2441. 
feohtan, it 

i, it. i 

o, to./., fight, 576, 959. 
fSolan, it. v., penetrate; pret. tg. 
fealh, 1281, 2225. 

at-feolan, it. v., cleave, stick; 
pret. tetfealh, 968. 

D-grip, foe's 


ge-f*on, it. v., rejoice; pret. 

tg. gefeah, 109, etc., gefeh, 827, 

etc.; prtt. pi. gefSgon, 1014, 

gelegon, 1627. 
ISond, it. m., ifiBNB, foe, 101, 164, 

feond-grfp, tt. /., f 

grasp, 636. 
IBond acaSa, w. m., \ 

dire foe, 554. 
fSond-aclpa, it. m., 

mity, 2999. 
faor, adj., rin, 1361, 1921. 
feor, adv., fab, afar, 42, 542, 808, 

1221, etc.; once feorr, 1988; of 

time, "far back," 1701. 
fyr, faor, eompar., farther, 143, 

252, 1340. 
feor-bdenfl, it. m. {pret. part.}, fab 

dweller, dweller afar; pi. 254. 
feor-cJS3, it. /., VUt country; pi. 

fec-rcyCSe, 1838. 
feorn, it. m. iwut., life, 73, 439, 

1152 (bodies), 1210, 2040, etc.; 

gen. feareB,1433,etc.; dat. feore, 

1843, etc. ; dat. pi feorum, 78, 

eta. Special pattaget : ace. fern 

S-ee wrecan), 2706; wa»s in feorh 
ropen, "was mortally wounded," 
2981; widan feorh, "ever," 2014; 
dat. to vrfdan feore, "ever," 933. 
feorh'bealn, -bealo, it. neat., 
lifc-BALE, deadly evil, 156, 2077, 

feorh-benn, st.f., life- wound, deadly 
wound, 2740. 

feorh-bona. ur. M,, [life-BANE] mur- 
derer. 2466. 

feorh-cynn, it. ntut., life-Kin, gene- 
ration or race of men, 2266. 

1 eorh-ffenrtSla, id. m. , life-foe, deadly 
foe, 969, etc. 

feorh-l&it, it. til, life-step, 846. 

leorh-lSBu, tt. /., idling down of 
life; ace. nii ic on mite hord 
mine bebohte frode feorh-lege, 
"now that in exchange for the 
hoard of treasures I have sold 
the laying down of my old life," 


feorh-igoo, adj., lift-sicK, mortally 

wounded, 820. 
fMrh-Bweng, (I. m., [life-blow] 

deadly blow, 2489. 
feorh-wund, it. /., life- wound, 

deadly wound, 2386. 
leorm, at. /., food, sustenance, 451. 
feonnend, at. m. (pre*, part. ), 

polisher; pi. 2256. 
feonnend-leaa, adj., polisher- less, 

wanting the fnrbiaher, 2761. 
feonnlan, ic. v. 

(1) polish; iitbj.prci. 225S. 

(2) eat, devour; pp. gefeormod, 

feorr, see faor. 
feorran, adv., from aria, 

(1) oftpace, 361, etc. 

(2) of timt, 91, 2106 (of old 
times)., come from qfak, 

feor-wajr, at. m., fab wat, distant 

land, 37. 
Bower, num., four, 59, 1637, etc. 
IBower-tyne, num., fourteen, 1641. 
nran, to. v., fare, go, 27, 839, etc.; 

tubj. prtt. pi., feran, 264. 

(1) trans., go to, reach, gain, 
bring about, 1221, 1866, 2644, 

(2) intra nit., fare, behave; pret. 
pi., frecne geferdon, "they be- 
haved daringly," 1691. 

fern, 2706, see feorh. 

ferh, it. m., [fabbow] boar, figure 

of a boar ou a helmet, 306. 
rerhS, it. in., heart, mind, etc., 754, 

1166, 3176, etc. 
ferhU-trac, adj., bold-minded, 1146. 
ferhfi-EsnlVla, it. m., life- foe, deadly 

foe, 2881. 
feilan, m. v., [ferrv] bear, carry, 

bring ; pret. pi. ferigeaS, 333 ; 

pret. pi. feredon, 1154, etc, fy- 

redon, 378 ; pp. pi. geferede, 361. 
Btrfarlan, w. v., bear off, 1669. 
ge-ferlan, to. v., bear, bring, 

1638, etc; lit, ge- 

ferian, "let us bear," 3107. 

of-ftrlan, to. v., bear off, 1583. 
oKfortan, w. v., bear away, 
save, 2141. 
fetal-nut, >t. netti., belted hilt, 


fetian, to. p., fetch; py. fetod, 1810. 

ge-fttlsin, to. o,, fetch, bring, 


fBSa, to. in., troop on foot, troop of 

warriors, troop, 1327, 1424, 2644, 

fBBe, it. neitt., movement, pace, 

liSe-campa, to. m., foot -champion, 

foot-warrior, 1544, etc. 
BBa-gait, tt. m., foot-ouEST, 197B. 
ffiVe-ULtt, at. m., [movement- track] 

foot-track, 1632. 
foSer-gearwa, it. f. pi., feather- 

QEAB, 3119. 

ISSe-wIg, if. m,, foot-war, battle on 
foot, 2364. 

546; inflected, fife. 


nfel-oynn, » 

TttOt, num., fifty; oi adj. 2209; 
with gen. 2733; inflected gen. eg. 
flftiges, 3042. 

India, it. v., find, 7. 207, etc, ; 
obtain, prevail, 2373: inf. gwa 
hyt weorSUcost fore-snotre men 
findan mihton, "as very wise 
men could most worthily devise 
it," 3162. 

on Annan, at. v., find out, per- 
ceive, observe, discover, 750, 1298, 
1890, etc. 

finger, it. m., finorr, 760, etc. 

flraa, it., men, 91, etc.; gen. 
pi, fyra, 2250. ["Beitrage" X. 

firen, fyren, et. /., crime, violence, 
187, 915, etc.; ace. fyrene, 153, 
2480, etc, firen, 1932. 
dot. pi. fyrenam, "by crimes, 


criminally, maliiiiounlv," 1714, 

tyxtm-itta, it. /., Dtima-Dini, 

deed of violence, 1001, 1669. 
fyren-tJeari, ft. /., [crime- need] 

dire distress, 11. 
Organ-, gee fyrgen-. 
flttM, if, titut,, flebh, 3424. 
flawc-boma, w. m-> tlksh- covering, 

body, 11568. 
flln, ft. Td., arrow, barb, 2138, 


fleam, ■(. m., flight, 1001, etc. 

nsogau, it. v., fly, 2373. 

flton, ft. v., Flee, 766, etc.; prtt. 

eg., with ace., Utah, 1200 (see 

note), 2226. 
lie-OBon, <t. v., with ace, ruts, 

escape from ; dot. inf. no (fet 

yiSe by'5 to beflSonne, " that (fate 

or death) will not be easy to 

escape from," 1003. 
ofer-MBon, «t. «. , flee from ; inf. 

nelle ic beorges weard oferfleon 

rotes trem, "I will not flee from 

the barrow's warden a foot's 

space," 2525. 
flSotan, ft. v., float, swim, 542, etc 
flat, ft. neut., floor, floor of a hall, 

hall, 1025, 1086, 1610, etc. 
flat-met, tt. /., floor-BisT, bed in a 

hall, 1241. 
flat-amend, ft. m. {prtt. part.), 

floor-sitter, hall-sitter, 1786, 2022. 
flot-Worod, it. neut., [floor-host] 

hall-troop, 476. 

fliht, ft. tn.1 I'LIGHT, 1765. 

flltan, ft. v., lie. flite] contend, 
strive, 916; pret. ig. 2nd, 507. 

ofer-fUtaui, ft. 

ic. m., [FLOArer] bark, ship, 

ft, in., [float- army] fleet, 

flyman, id. v., pat to flight; pp. 

geflymed, 846, etc. 

-toil, see -IBil, 

Tola, it. ntut., FOLK, nation, people, 
warriors, army, 14, 55, 262, 
1865, 239S, etc. The plural it 
tometimei vied with the lame 
meaning a* the lingular, 1422, 
etc. ; of, lead, leode. 

folc-agend, ft. m. {prei, part.), 
[folk -owner] folk-leader, 3113. 

folC-CWBn, ft./., FOLK-QUEEN, 614, 

folo cynlng, ft. m., folk-kino, 2738, 

folc-rtd, ft. m., fole-hede; ace. 

folc-itd fremede, "did what was 

for the public good," 3006. 
lolcrtht, ft. neut., fole- eight, 

public right, 2608. 
fOlc-icaru, ft./, folk-bhabb, public 

property f, 78. 
folc-tted*, tt. m., folk-steak, 76 

(Heorot) ; ace. folc-stede fara, 

'■the field of battle," 1463. 
role-toga, id. Tii., FOLK-leader, 839. 
fold-bold, tt. neut, earth-building, 

hall on the earth, 773. 
fold-Mend, ft. m. [pre: part.), 

earth-dweller, 309; pi. fold- 

buend, 2274, fold buende, 1355. 
folde, a. /., earth, groond, world, 

96, 1196, 2975. 
fold -wog-, ft. m., earth-WAi, 666, 


1102, 2933. 

folm, ft. /. , hand, 158, eta. 

fan, ft. v., seize, take, receive, 
grapple, clutch, 438; pre*. 3rd, 
fehiS OSer to, " another suc- 
ceeds," 1755; pret. feng, 1542, 
with dot. 2989. 

be-fBn. bl-fOn, ft. v., seize, 
seize on, embrace, encircle-, en- 
compass ; pp. befongen, 977, 
1451, 2274, etc., bifongeu, 2009, 
befangen, 1296, etc. 

ge-ffln. it. v., with aec., seize ; 
pret. geRng, 740, 1563, 2215, 

., urn, with da!.. 

), etc. 

onflra, tt. 


perat. ig. onfSh, 1169; pret. on- 
feng, 52, 1214, etc.; be onfercg 
hraSo inwit-|>ancum and mS 
earmgesttt, "he(Grendel)quiok- 
1; seized [Beowulf] with hostile 
intent and sat on, fixed, came 
down on, his arm" (or, as Grein, 
"Beowulf quickly received the 
malignant monster, and sup- 
ported himself on hiu arm"), 746. 
Furh-fOn, tt. v., with ace., 
[seize Tuiiouun] penetrate, 1604. 
wiB-fOn, st. v., wit A dat., 
grapple with; pre (. wHS-feog, 760. 
ymbe-fon, ft. v., with ace, 
[seize about] encircle, enclose; 
pret. ymbefeng, 2691. 

fondlan, landlan, if. v., vrith gen., 
search out, prove, experience ; 
pp. gefandod, 23(11, gefondad, 

for, prep. 

(1) with dat., before, 858, 1026, 
1120, 2020, 1649, 2990; before 
or because of, 169, 2781 ; for, 
out of, from, through, because 
of, on account of, about, 110, 
838-9, 385, 508, 832, 961, 965, 
1443, 1515, 2501 [in virtue of), 
2649, 2926, 2960, etc.; for (pur- 
pose), 382, 458. 

(2) with ace., fob, instead of, as, 
947, 1176, 2348. 

foran, adv., beroac, to the fore, 
forwards, 984, 1458. Special 
paiiage: be him foran ongean 
linde bSron, "who bare their 
linden -shields forwards against 
him," 2364. 

ford, it. m.. roan, 668. 

fore, prep., with dot., berorti, 1215; 
for, through, because of, 136, 
2059; of, about, 1064. 

fbre-nuBTO, adj., [roBB-greatJ. 

fore-mssiuitt, taperl., most 
famous of all, 309. 

rore-mlhtbr, adj., [rona-masn] 

UKY. 177 

fore-hue, at. m., FOBEthooght, 

fOrht, adj.. fearful, afraid, 754, 

forma, adj. mperl. (of fore), first, 

716, etc. 

(Orat, It. TO., FHOBT. 1609. 

fort, adv., fobth, forward(s), away, 

on, 46, 210, 745, 1718, 1795, 

2289 {tee to, adv.), 3176, etc; 

of time, henceforth, from DOW, 

for-Bam, far-Han, for-Bon, adv., 

for that, therefore, 418, 1967, 

964S. 2741, 3021, eta. 
for-pou fb, conj., because, 508. 
(OTB-Kescsaft, tt. /., [FOBTH-crea- 

tiort] future world or dentiny, 

for-kon, see far-Sam. 
forB-weg, *t. m., fobth-way, way 

forth, 2625. 
tot, it. ra., foot, 500, 7405, etc. 
fljt-gemearc, it. neut., foot-maek. 

foot-length, foot; gen. iff. flf- 

a fot- 


1 3042. 

fat-last, si m„ FOOT-track, 2289. 

fracod, adj., worthless, 157G. 

-fr»gen, see -frlgnan, 

fregn. see frignan. 

tnetwa, frsrtwe, «(. /. pi, [fbet-] 
adornments, jewels, fretted ar- 
mour, 3, 37, 896, 1208, 2163, 
etc.; dot. frtetwnm, 2064, etc., 
fnetowtun, 962. 

frartw(l)an, u-. v., [fret] adorn, 76; 
pp. gefraatwod, 992. 

ge-frsrtw(i|au, it. v., adorn; 
pret, ig. gefrietwade, 96. 

trim, see from. 

frfia, w. to., lord, 271, etc.; of the 
Deity, the Lord, 27, 2794. 

frea-lrlhten,if.m., lord and master, 

freawlne, tt.m., lord-friend, friend- 
ly ruler, 2367, etc.; ace. 2438. 

fraa-wrtm, st. /., lordly chain, 
noble chain, 1451. 

freca, w. m., wolf, bold man, war- 
rior, 1568. 



fr*cne, adj., [Sc. nun] daring, 
audacious, 889, 1104, 2689; 
dangerous, dread, fearful, 1359, 
1378, 2350, 26S7. 

frtcns, adv., daringly, fiercely, 969, 
1032, 1691. 

fremofl, adj., foreign, 1691. 

&nu, adj., forward, strenuous, 

fremmaji, v>. v., nuiu, do, per. 
form, accomplish, bring about, 
try, S, 101, 1008, 2814 (see note), 
etc.; further, support, 1832; 
pret. fremede, 8006, etc.; pp. ge- 
fremed, 961, eta., ace, f. gefre- 
mede, 640. 

ge-fremman, v>. v., tbame, do, 
work, etc, 174, 636, 1315, 2449, 
etc. ; pret. bine mihtig God...forS 
gefremede, "him mighty God ad- 
vanced," 1718. 

freo-burh, tt. /., nm bdboh, free 
city, noble city, 698. 

freed, it. /., friendship, 2476, 2566. 

trio -diyli ten, it. m., noble lord, 
1169, 2627. 

frfog-an, w. v., love, 948, 3176. 

freo-llc, adj., [free -like] noble, 
615; fern. freolicu, 641. 

friond, st. m., fbiend, 916, etc. 

frBond-ltr, if. /., fbiend-lobb, 
friendly counsel, 2377. 

freond-la>u, it. /., tbuhbIj in- 

frSoiLd-Hco, adv. 

freonOUoor, compar., iu a more 
, in friendlier wise. 

fxSond-iclpe, it. 


free-wine, it. m„ noble friend, 430. 
freofco, it. /., protection, peace; 

ace. freoSo, 188, 1174; freoSe, 

"compact," 1707. 
rrooBoburn, it. /., protecting 

BuiiBii, peaceful city, city of re- 
fuge, 522. 
freoflo-wong, it. in., peace-plain, 

field of peace, 2959. 
freoSu-webbe, w.f., peace -we Aver, 


friotto-wwr, frioVu-war, it.f., 

peace-compact, treat; of peace. 

friSu-albb, ■(. /., peace-kin., 
peace -nringer, 2017. 

fratan, it. v., [fust] devour, con- 
sume, 1581, etc. 

Megoan, io. v., ask; inf. friogoean, 
1985; pre*, port, fricgende, 2106. 
ge-frlcgean, if. v., learn, 2889, 
etc.; prei. iti&j. gefriege, 1826. 

frlclan, tc. v., seek for, 2556. 

frlgnan, frlnan, it. v., aak, in- 
quire, 351; imperat. ig. frin, 
1322 ; pret, ig. frssgn, 286, etc. 

E-o-frignan, it. v., learn, hear 
of; pret, ig., gefriegn, 194, etc., 
gefrsgen, 1011; pret. pL gefru- 
non, 2, etc., gefrnngon, 666; pp. 
gefrilnen, 694, etc., gefnegen, 
1196. Often followed by ace. 
and inf. 74, 1969, etc. 

Moan, see frlgnan. 

ff \titti-, frloVu-, frloV, see freoffo-. 

frM, adj., old, wise, 1306, 279, etc. 

frfffor, it. /., solace, comfort, 14, 
etc; ace. frofre, 7, etc., frofor, 

from, adj., forward, keen, bold, 
1641. etc.; rich, 21. 

from, tram, prep,, with dat,, moM, 
away from, 420, 541, 1635, 2565, 
etc.; of, concerning, 532, 581, etc. 
Following its cme, 110, etc 

from, tram, adv., away, forth, 754, 

fruma, w, m., beginning, 2309. 

frnm-cyn, it. neut., [first kin] lin- 
eage, origin, 252. 

frum-gar, it. m., [first-spear, cf. 
Lai. primipilus] chieftain, 2856. 

Enun-ioeaft, st. /., first creation, 
beginning, 45, etc. 

fngol, ((. m., fowl, bird, 218, etc 
ful, adv., full, very, 480, etc. 
fnl(l), it. neut., nop, beaker, 615, 

etc.; ace. yBa ful, "the waves' 

cup, i-e. the sea," 1208. 
full, adj., run, 2413. 


., help, aid, 6' 

fyrgeu-strtam, firgen- stream, s 

rondlan, u>. v., hasten, intend, 
strive to go, 1187, 1619. 

furBum, adv., first, 328, etc.; at 
first, formerly, 1707. 

fortur, adv., further, 354, eto. 

ma, adj., ready, eager, longing, 
1241, 1475, etc.; hastening, in- 
clined, 1966 ; nam. leofra manna 
fuH, "longing for the dear men," 

ffis-Uo, adj., ready, prepared, 1424, 
etc; neul. pi. MslioQ, 282. 

tyt-ifae, see flf-tine. 

fyll. it. m., fill, 1544, 2913. 

fyUan, u>. v. 


fyllan, to. v. 

ge-fyllan, w. v., fell, 3665; 
pret, pi. gefyldan, 3706. 

lyllo. it. /., hu, 562, 1838, eto. 

fyi-Wflrlg, adj., fill-weary, weary 
to the point of falling, 963. 

fyr, see feor, ads. 

fjr, st. neat., mtrt, 185, eto. 

ffras, seeflraa. 

fyr-bend, it. m. /., ftbb-bahd, 722. 

ryrd-gBstoalla, it', m., army-com- 
rade, 2873. 

tyid-hom, it. m., army-coat, coat 
of mail, 1504. 

ftTrt-liTBgl, it nevt., [army- bail] 
armour, 1527. 

tyri-bwrnt, adj., [army-active] war- 
like, brave; pi. fyrd-hwate, 1641, 

fyrrt 16ot), it. netrt., army-lay, war- 
song, 1424. 

Jyx-draoa, vi. m., fibk-libakk, fire- 
dragon, 2689. 

lyrd-iearu, st. neut., [army] ar- 
mour, 2616; pi. 232. 

fyrd-wyrtle, adj., [army-woBTHy] 
war- worthy, distinguished in war, 

fyren, see flies. 

lyrgan-Mam, it. m., [mountain- 
buam] mountain-tree, 1414. 

fyrgen-holt, at. m., mountain- holt, 

ttr- heard, adj., fihe-hard, flre- 

hardened, 306. 
fyrlan, aeeforian. 
lyr-lfloht, it. neut., fuucuobt, 1616. 
fyrmaat, adv. rupcri. (of fore), fobb- 

moot, first, 2077. 
fyrn-dagas, st. m. pi., former eats, 

days of old, 1451. 
(yra-goweorc, >t. neat., former 

wore, ancient work, 3286. 
ryrn-gewtnn, it. neut., former strife, 

ancient strife, 1669. 

of old, 2761. 

IJrn-wlta, ic. m., former counsellor, 

old counsellor, 2123. 
fyrat, st. in., time, space of time, 

76, 645, etc. 
fyrflrsji, ic. v., fdbthbr; pp. fnet- 

wum gefyrored, "(urthered by, 

fraught with, jewels," 2764. 
tji-wtt, -wyt, it. neut., curiosity, 

333, eto. 
fjr-wylm, <t. m., nas-wBLLing, 

surge of fire, 3671. 
Qiao, w. p., make read;, prepare; 

pp. gefysed, 680, eto. ; winds 

gefjsed, "impelled by the wind," 

217. From fas. 

gad, it. neat., lack, 660, eto. 
gwdellng', it. m., relative, comrade, 

2617, 2949. 
gtaat, see gist. 
gfiat, see gtat, 
g5S, see gin. 
galan, it. v., sing, sound, 766, 1482 ; 

pre*, eg., gseleS, 2460. 

a-galan, it. v., sing, ring; pret. 

agol, 1521. 
galdor, see gaaldor. 
galea, to. ib., hallows, 2446. 
galgMnBd, adj., [aad-Hoon] sad in 

mind, gloomy, 1277. 



gamen, Bee gomen. 

fimol, ecegamol. 

gin, irreg. v., oo, 396, etc.; pret. 
indie, 3rd, gteS, 455; pret. tubj. 
ga, 1394 ; pret. eode, 358, 493, 
etc. ; imperat. gtt, 1782 ; pp. 
sytNSan hie togiedre gegan h»f- 
don, "after the; had closed in 
strife," 2630. (See also gongan. ) 
full-gan, st. v., withdat., follow 
and aid; pret. soeft...rlBne full- 
eode, " the shaft followed and 
aided the barb," 3119. 

ge-sran, «t. v., pret. geeode, 
getode (2200): 
(11 oo (intraiu.), 1967, 2676. 

(2) oo [trans.), make, venture, 
1277, 1462. 

(3) gain (by going), obtain, 1536 ; 
with dependent clause, 2917. 

(4) happen, 2200. 

ofer-gttn, it. v., with ace, so 

oveb, 1408, 2909. 
oV-gtn. tt. v., oo (to), 2934. 
ymb-g&n, st, v., with ace, oo 

about, go around, 620. 
gwigaii, see gongan. 
ganot, st. m., oannkt, diver, 1861. 
gir, si. m., spear, javelin, 326, etc. 
gar-cflne, adj., spear -keen, spear- 
bold, 1966. 
g&r-cwealm, st. m., [spear-quelling] 

death b; the spear, 2043. 
gar-holt, it. neut. , spear- holt, spear- 

shaft, spear, 1834. 
glr-MOg, it. it., [spear-mai 

Heptane] ocean, 49, etc. 
gar-wiga, to. m., spear- ws 

2674, etc. 
gtr-wlgand, st. m. [pret. part.), 

spear- warrior, 2641. 
gait, at, nt., ghost, sprite, devil, 

133, 1747, etc.; gen. pi. gaeta, 

1367, gnsta, 1123. 
gast-bona, w. nt., [o host -bane] 

soul-slayer, the devil, 177. 
ge, ctmj., and, 1248, 1340; with 

swyloe, 2258 ; eorrel. ge . . . ge, 

"both.. .and," 1248, 1864. 
gS, pert. prtm. {pi. of Hi), v», yon, 

237, etc. 

geador, adv., toaiTHXB, 835; with 

geald, seegyldaa. 
gealdor, st. neat. : 

(1) sound, blast, 2943. 

(2) incantation; dat.galdre, 8052. 
gealp, see gllpan. 

giap, adj., spacious, extensive, 

roomy, 836, 1600. 
gear, (1. neut., teas, 1134. 

gSara, gen. pi. (in adverbial 

sense), of yore, formerly, 2664. 
gsard, st. m., yabd ; always pi. in 

" Beowulf," courts, dwelling- 
place, 13, 266, 1134, etc. 
gtar-dagu, st. m. pi, tobe-dats, 

days of yore', 1, 1354. 
geare, see gearwe. 
gearo, gearu, adj., tare, ready, 

prepared, 77, 1109, 1914, etc.; 

with gen. 1826 ; ace. eg. f. gearwe, 

1006 ; pi. gearwe, 210, etc. 
gearo, adv., well, 2748. 
gearo -folm, adj., ready-handed, 

gearwe, geare, well, 266, 2666, etc.; 

lettftne, "not at all," 246. 
gear wor, compar. , more readily, 

goarwost, super!., best, 715. 
-goat, see -gitan. 
geato-llc, adj.. stately, splendid, 

215, 1401, etc 
geatwa, tt./. pi, garniture, 8066. 
ge-bedae, w.f., am-fellow, 666. 
ge-brac, it. neat., [bebai] crash, 

ge-brflBor, ge-brOVrn, tt. hi. pi., 

BHOTHEBB, 1191. 

ge-byrd, st. neut., fate, 1074. 

ge-cynde, adj., [kind] natural, he- 
reditary, 2197, 2696. 

ge-dal, it. neut., severance, parting, 

ge-dSIe, adj., meet, fitting, 661, etc.; 
friendly, 1227. 

go-drag, it. neat., [bray = squirrel's 
neat?] band, tumult, 756. 


ge-drykt. ga-drliit, it. neat., band, 
troop, 118, 431, etc 

ge-ftsgra, eompar. adj., more ras?, 
more dear; nam., he. ..wears... 
freondum geftegra; nine fyren 
onwOd, "he (Beowulf) became 
more dear to hie friends ; him 
(Heremod) crime assailed," 915. 

-gBfan, see -gifiin. 

ge-fSa, w. in., joy, 562, etc. 

ge-ftoht, it. unit, fiost, 2048, etc. 

ge-fllt, it. neat., "railing," contest, 
match, 865. 

Ke-irsge, adj. , renowned, notorious, 

go-frage, at. iieut., hearsay; dat. 
(iwtr.) ig. mine gefra»ge, "as I 
have heard or learned," 776, etc. 
[Cf . " mien eacientre, " Chamon 
de Roland.] 

gegn-cwlde, it. m., reply, S67. 

gegnnm, adv., forwards, straight, 
direct, 314, 1404. 

gehUo, see gloliBo. 

ge-hwa, proru, with gen., each, each 
one; ace. gehwone, gehwane, 
294, 2397, etc. ; dat. m. gehwam, 
gehwSrn, 88, 1420, etc; dat. f. 
gehwmre, 26. Mate, form with 
dependent gen. of fem. or neut. 
n. 800, 1866, 2838, 2766. 

ga-liwSr, adv., everywHBRl, 626. 

ga-hwaiVer, pron., eiTHER, 584, etc.; 
num. ncut. an wig gearwe ge rat 
ham ge on herge, ge gehwnt-er 
t>ara efne swylee miela, "ready 
for war both at home and in the 
field, and either (i.e. both) of them 
even at such times," 1248. 

ge-hwyle, ge - hwelc, adj. -prim,, 
with gen. pi., each, 98, 148, 732, 
805, 1090, 1706, etc. 

B-e-hygd, it. neut., thought, 2045. 

ge-hyld, <t. neut., protection, 3066. 

ge-Iao, it. neut., play, 1040, etc. 

go-lao, It. neat., [lode] path, 1410. 

ga-lang, aee ga-loiig. 

ge-lengB, adj., belonging to, 2732. 

ge-lle, adj., lire, 2164. 

ge-llcoat, eaperl., likest, moat 
like, 213, 1606, ete. 


ge-lflme, adv., frequently, 559. 

ge-long, ge-lang, adj. ; gelong (ge- 
lang) rat )£, " aiiOK» of, dependent 
onjhee," 1876, 2160. 

ge-masne, adj., common, in com- 
mon, 1784, etc. 

ge-mSde, st. neat., consent, 247. 

ge-met, "(. neut., measure, power, 
ability, 779, etc. 

Ee-met, adj., meet, 687, etc. 

ge-motlng, it./., mektino, 2001. 

ge-mong, it. m., troop, 1643. 

ge-mynd, it. /., reNmner, memo- 
rial, 2804, etc. 

ge-myndlg, adj., mindFuI, 613, etc. 

gfln, adv., aoiTN, yet, still, 734, 
2070, 3006, etc.; often with bit. 
nil, 83, 2869, ete. 

Bflna, adv., still, 2800, etc. 

ga-tteanlta, adv., enough, 763; fre- 
quently, 8152. 

genehost, auperl., very often. 
Special paisage : genehost br&gd 
eorl Bfmwulfea ealde iafe, " many 
an earl of Beowulf s drew his old 
aword," 794. 

go-nip, it. neut., mist, 1860, etc. 

ge-nSg, adj., enough, 2489, etc. 

gSnnnga, adv., wholly, utterly, 

g*>, glo, In, adv., formerly, 1476, 
2459, 2521. 

gRoc, it. /., help, 177, etc. 

geocor, adj., due, sad, 766. 

geofon, glfen, gyfan, «t. neut., 
ocean, 362, 1394, 1690, etc. 

geofu, see glfu. 

geogoS, glogoV, «t. /., youth, time 
of youth, 160, 2426, etc.; gen. 
iogoSe, 1674. 

geogoV-feorb, it. neat., vouTH-life, 
days of youth, 537, etc. 

gMlo, adj., yellow, 2610. 

geolo-ranil, It. m., yellow buckler, 
yellow shield, 438. 

gBo-meowle, u>. /., former virgin, 
bride, spouse, 3150 ; aee. io-meow- 
lan, 2931. 

gSomor, glomor, adj., sad, 49, 
3150, etc. ; /. geomura, 1075. 

geomore, adv., sadly, 161. 


182 beov 

gSomorllc, adj., [sad-uu] aad, 

jfJomor-mM, glamor-mM, adj.. 
[sad-MOOD] sad -minded, sorrow- 
ful, 2044, 2267, etc. 

g-Somrian, u>. r., lament, 1118. 

gftomurn, see gSomor. 

geond, prep., with ace., [tosd] 
throughout, 75, eta. 

geo»g, glow, adj., young, 13, 2446, 
etc.; dot. iff., geongum, 3044, 

last ; weak, 2817. 
goong, 2743, see gongan. 
geong, see gongan. 
georn, aaj\, lEuuring, eager, 2783. 
georae. adv., eagerly, gladly, 66, 

etc. ; veil, 968. 

georaor, cirmpar., more surely, 

(eo-iceatt, »t. /., [former shaping] 

fate, 1234. 
gtaaceaft-gist, it. m., [former- 

shaping -qhost] demon sent by 

fate, 1366. 
gcotan, it. v., pour, rush, 1690. 
ge-rad, noj., skilful, 673. 
ge-rttn-Uce. adv., soomIly. 

ge-rOmllcor, compor. , more 

roomily, more at Urge, 1S9. 
ge-rysne, adj., befitting, 3653. 
gs-saca, to. Til., adversary, 1773. 
ge-sacu, it. /., strife, 1737. 
ge-sc&d, it. neat, difference, 268. 
geac»p-lnrtl, it. /., [HHAfed whilk] 

fated hour, 26. 
IMOMfl, it.f., [shaping] existence, 



ge-scipo, i 

. neut., shape, 

tut., fate, 2570. 
m., hall-fellow, com- 
" rode, 1984. 

ge-altf, at. m., comrade, 29, etc. 
ge-slybt, it. neut., slaying, enoonn- 

ter, 2398. 
ge-atrfon, tt- neut., possession, 

treasure, 1920, 3166, etc 
gert sale, it. m., onEST-hall, 994. 
go-Bond, adj., sound, safe and 

Bound, 1626, etc ; with gen. ni*a 

gesunde, "safe and sound on 

your journeys," 318. 
go swing, it. neut., swino, eddy, 

ge-ayiM, adj., evident, visible, 1255, 

ge-iynto, it./., aouHDness, health, 

-gat, see -gltan. 

ge-tase, adj., quiet, pleasant, 1320. 
gStiin, m. v., slay, destroy; inf. 

ewa>3, he on mergenne nieces eo- 

gum getan wolde, name on galg- 


with the t 

lows-trees for a sport for birds 
2940. .["Beitrage"i. 813.] 

go-tenga, adj., touching, lying on, 

ge-trum, tt. neitt., troop, 922. 

ge-trjwe, adj., TRUE, faithful, 1228. 

ga-Mng, it. neut. : 

(1) terms, pi. 1085. 

(2) issue, 398, 709; gen. pi. ge- 
Hngea, "fates," 526. 

ga-bSht, it. m., tuoiioht, resolu- 
tion, 256, 610. 

ge-bone, tt. m., thought, 2332. 

gearing, ft. neut., eddy, whirlpool, 

ge-bwawa, adj. gentle, 1230. 

ga-byU, at,/., patience, 1895, etc. 

ge-hywe, odj., [THBwy] wonted, 
customary, 2332. 

ge-wawia, it. neut., [weeds] armour, 

ga-wealc, it. neut., [walk] rolling, 

»n, adj. (pp.), subject, 

ge-weorc, it. n«M., wobk, 465, etc. 
ge wider, it. n«ut., weathsb, storm, 
tempest; pi. 1875. 


ge-win(n|,«t. n*ut., strife, straggle, 

133, eto. 
ge-winna, w. m., atriver, foe, 1776. 
ge- wiofu, see ge-wef. 
gewls-JJce, adv. 

gewis-llcost, mptrl., most oer- 

tairjly, 1350. 
ge-wltt, it. neuf., wrtfe), senses, 

2703; head, 3682. 
Ke-wittig, adj., [yrr. 

ge-wrlxle, at. neut., exchange, 1804. 
ge-wyTnt, it. neut., desert, merit; 

pi. 26S7. 
gld(d), gTKd}, it. tuut., glee, lay, 

dirge, 151, 868, 1065, 8160, 

gtf. gyt «<»»•, O, 442, 944, eto.; if 

= whether, 272, etc. 
Kiftui. giofan, it. v., pret. geaf, 

geafon, pp. gyfen : arvE, 49, 64, 

1719, eto. 
t-flfan, it. v., hive back, 355, 


Mt-gttui, at. v., give (to), ren- 
der, 2876. 

lor-gUhn, it. v., arvE, 17, etc. 
of-glfan, of-gyfan, if. v., aivn 

up, leave, 1600, 2251, 2586, etc.; 

pret. pi. ofgefan, 2346. 
glfen, see goofon. 
gifsBe, gyfeBe, adj., given, granted, 

299, 555, etc. 
gifefle, neat, vied at a noun, 

thing granted, fate, 3085. 
gff-naail, it./., Gist-niLi, 886. 
glfre, adj., greedy, 1277. 

glfrott, super'., greediest, 1123. 
glT-sceatt, it. m. , uirt-tribute, trea- 

anre, valuable gift, 376. 
glf-MOl, it. m., onrt-arooL, throne, 

168, eto. 
giro, it. /., urrt, 1173, 1271, eto.; 

gen. pi. gifa, 1930, geofetia, 1173 ; geofnm, 1958. 
glgant, it. m., giant, 113, eto. 

["Beitrage"*. 601.] 
gllP, Eylp, '(. "•., [YELP] boaat, 

829, 1749, eto. 
gilpan, gylpan, it. v., [yelp] boaat, 
E86, 2006, 2588, eto, 

3ARY. 183 

gllp-owile, it. m., [yelp- speech] 
boasting speech, 640. 

gilp- hlwden, adj. (pp.), [izlf-udeb] 
vaunt-laden, 868. 

BTlp-iprSo, »(. /., [yelp- 
SPEBCH] boasting speech, 981. 

gylp-word, it. nnil., [telp- 
wobd] boastful -word, 675. 

gim. st. »!., gem, 2072. 

gim ftest, see gin -fsest. 

ginuns-rlce, adj., gem-Rica, rich in 
jewels, 466. 

gin- fleet, gim -fleet, adj., [wide- 
past] ample and lasting, 1271 
(see note), 2162. 

glng»nt, see geong. 

■glnnan, if. o, 

on-glnnan, it. v., beam, under- 
take, attempt, 244, 409, 2678, 
etc; pret. ig. ongan, 100, etc.; 
ongon, 2790. 

glo, see g8o. 

glofiui. Bee glftm. 

glogoV, see geogott. 

giohBo, it. /., sorrow, care; dat. 
giohCo, 2267, giohSe, 2793, 
gehSo, 3095. 

Sist, gyst, gnat, it. m., oukst, 

stranger, 102, 1138, 2228, eto. 
git, peri. pron. (dual of >&}, ye tw o, 

608, etc 
Kit. gyt, adv., tet, still, hitherto, 

536, 944, 956, eto. 
-gltan, it. v., pret. -geat, -geaton. 
an-gltan, see on-gltan. 
be-gitan, it. v., obi, get at, 
seize, befall, 1068, 2249, etc.-, 
pret. ig. beget, 2872; pret. tubj. 
(og. for pi.) begeate, 2130. Spe- 
cial pottage: ferhS-freoan Fin 
eft begeat aweord-bealo alrSen, 
"dire sword-bale afterwards be- 
fell the bold-minded Finn, " 1146. 
fer-gytan, it. v., foeoet, 1761. 
on-gltan, on-gytan, it. v. 

(1) obi hold of, seise; pret. so. 
angeat, 1291. 

(2) get hold of with the mind, 


perceive, 14, 1431, 1728, 2748, 


glad-man, adj., benignant, court- 
eous, 367 (aee note). 

glstd-mOd, adj., OLID of mood, 1T8S. 

glM, at. /., gleiie, Biiiber, tire, 
2312, etc. 

ir of fire, 2660. 
gUo, st. neat., QLBE, 2105. 
glfto-Mam, st. m., [oi^b-beih] 

harp, 226S. 
glSo-dream, st. m., [aLBE-DBiAn = 

joj] mirth, 8021. 

strel, 1160. 

glldan, at. v., glidb, 515, etc 

toglldan, st. v., [oude asun- 
der] fall to pieces, 2487. 

giltinian, w. v., omter, glisten, 
gleam, 2758. 

glflf, ((./., GLOVE, 2085. 

gnfiaX, adj., niggardly, 1930. 

gnoro, it. m., sorrow, 2656. 

gnornian, v>. v., mourn, 1117. 

be-gnornian, to. v., with ace, 
bemoan, 3178. 

Ood, it. hi. , CJod, 13, etc. 

gOd, adj., noon, 11, etc.; p(. gode, 
"good men," 2249. With gin., 
wes M »* larena g6d, "be thou 
good to 08 in guidance," 269. 

god, it. neut., soon, goodness, good 
thing, good gift, 20, 1952, etc.; 
dat. pi. manig oherne godam ge- 
grSttan, "many a one [shall] 
greet another with good things," 

gM-freminend, tt. m. (pre*, part.), 
[oooD-FBAMing] framer of good, 
one who acts well or bravely, 

gold, it. neut., gold, 304, etc 

gold-ant, it. /., treasure in gold. 

gold-UK, Oh, adj., aoLDen-hned, 
adorned with gold, gold-bro- 
caded, 994, 1800, 2811. 

gold-gyfa, w. m., i 

gold hroden, adj. (pp.), OOLD- 
adorned, 614, etc. 

gOld-hW»t, adj., [ooLD-aotive] 
greed; for gold, 8074 (nee note). 

gold- milium, it. m., ooLD- treasure, 

gOld-Mle, ft. m., ooLD-hall, 715, 

gold-weard, it. m., [ooli>-wahl>] 
guardian of gold, 3081. 

gold-wine, it. m., sold- friend, 
prince, 1171, etc. 

gold-wlane, ad)., aou>- proud, 1881. 

gombe, mi. /., tribute, 11. 

gomen, gamen, it. neut., oamk, 
mirth, joy, 1160, 2459, etc. 

gomeu-wfcB, it. /., [o*UE-path] 
joyous journey, 854. 

gomen-wudu, tt. m., [oame-wooe] 
harp, 1065, etc. 

gomol, gomel, gamol, adj., old, 
gray, aged, ancient, 58, 2112, 
3095, etc.; weak gomela, gamela, 
1792, 2105, etc.; gomelra 
life, "the heirlooms of their 
late [fathers]," 2036. 

gunol-feax, iidj., gray-haired, 

gongan, gangan, st. »., [auto] go, 
814, 1974, etc; ivyptrat. geong, 
2748; jirtt, geong, 925, etc., 
giong, 2214, etc; gang, 1009, 
etc; gengde, 1401, 1412; pp. 
gegongen, 622, 8036; inf. gan- 
gan cwomon, "came going, 
marching," 824; so 711, 1642, 
1974. (See also gam.) 

i-gangan, at. v., go forth, be- 
fall, 1236. 
ge-gangan, ge-gongan, i(. v.i 

(1) gain (by going), obtain, 2586; 
pp. gegongen, 3085, mith depend- 
ent clauit, 893; dat. inf. gegan- 
nenne, 2416. 

(2) come to pass, happen, 1846; 
pp. gegongen, 2821. 

gradlg, adj., ohbbdy, 121, etc 
grSg, adj., obay, 330, etc 
grag-mal, adj., marked, etched, 
or coloured with okay, 2682. 



g r — mold*, w. /., muss-earth 

graus-plain, 1861. 
gram, adj., angry, fierce, 424, 765. 

gr&P, St. /., grasp, claw, 498 

1566, 3085. 
grtot, »t. m., out, earth, 3167. 

greOtan, it. «., [Se. obkbt] weep, 

grttan, u<. v., prit. grette: greet: 

(1) salnte, 347, etc 

(2) approach, geek out, attack, 
touch, 168, 803, 1995, 2736, 
3081, etc. 

g* grttan, w. v., obeet, 1980, 

etc.; inf. gegrettan, 1861. 
grlm(m), adj., grim, 121, etc; dut. 

pZ. grimmau, 1542. 
grim- holm, «(. m., vieored HEidiet, 

grim-llc, adj., 8him[-lihe], 3041. 
gxlmmui, it. v., snort, rage, hurry; 

pret. j]i. grommon, 306. 
grlmme, adv., grimIv, terribly, 

3012, etc. 

[ground -dweller] inhabitant of 

earth, 1006. 
grund-hyrde, it. m., [c.rochd-berd] 

guardian of the bottom (of the 

mere), 2136. 
grund-sele, st. m., OBOttND-hall, 
gripe, grasp, hall or cave at the bottom (of the 

grind to pieces, ruin, destroy; 

with dat., 424; with ace. 2335, 

grlpan, st. p., ghife, grasp, seize, 

(or-grlOTJi, <<• r., with dat., 

aarrU] to death, 2853. 
wlS-frlpM, it. v., iirapn at, 

oppose; in/.wio"Bamagheoean... 

gylpe wiogripan, "maintain my 

boast against the monster (lit. 

with boast oppose)," 2521. 
gripe, st. m., ob», 1143, etc. 
grom-heort, adj., fierce -HEABTed, 

hostile-hearted, 1682- 
grom-hJiUg, adj., angry-minded, 

hostile-minded, 1749. 
grSwan, *t. v., orow; pre!, ig. 

greow, 1718. 
grand, st. m., obocnd, earth, bot- 
tom, 1367, 1404, etc. 
grusd-trflend, tt. m. {prtt. part.), 


grund-wong, it. m., qroosii -plain, 

plain, floor (of a cave), bottom 

(of a mere), 1496, 2588, 2771. 
grund-wyrgen, tt./., [oBOOND-she- 

wolf] she-wolf at the bottom (of 

a mere), 1518. 
gryn, it. neut., snare ( = O.B. grin), 

or sorrow ( = O.B. gyrn,q.v.),930. 
gryre, it. m., terror, terrible deed, 

384, 591, 3041, etc 
gryre -broga, id. m., OBisly terror, 

horror, 2227. 
gryre -Oh, adj., [GRisly- stained] 

horribly bright, 2576. 
gryre-gSatwa,, »t /. pi., OBisly 

trappings, warlike trappings, 324. 
gxyre-gleit, it. m., oaisly quest, 

terrible stranger, 2560. 
gryre-leotS, it. ntvt., oaisly lay, 

terrible song, 786. 
gryre-Uc, adj.. grisly, terrible, 

1441, etc 
gTyre-altS. tt. m., OBisly jonmey, 

terrible expedition, 1462. 
gnma., id. m., man, 73, 652, 2821, 



gum-cyst, tt. /., manly virtue, 1723, 

etc.; dat. pi. gnm-cystum gOdne, 

"munificent," 1486. 
gum -dream, tt. m., joy of men, 2469. 
gum-dryhten, it. m., lord of men, 

gum-fella, vi, m., troop of warriors 

on foot, 1401. 
gum-minn, it. in., (man-] man, 

gnm-stol, it. m., [okooh- stool] 

throne, 1952. 
gflV, st. f., war, battle, 483, etc; 

dat., 603, etc 


gOX-craft, it. m., war-cnirr, war- 

might, 137. 
gMS-cyning, -kynlng, it. m., war- 

iino, 199, 1969, etc. 
gfltf-dSaB, it. in., war-DRATH, death 

in battle, 3349. 
gUBfloga, u>. m., war-njer, 2528. 
gnB-freca, w. m., war-wolf, 3414. 
guB-iremmend, at. n>. (pre*, port.), 

war-FBiHer, warrior, 346. 
BflB-geatwa, .getlwa, <(./. pi., war. 

raiment, war- gear, war-eqnip- 

ments ; ate. guH-getiwa, 3686 ; 

daf.guo"-geatawuni,395. [Sievers 

gfltt-gawwda, tt. neut., war-wBBDg, 

armour, 3633, etc. ; nam. pi. 

guS-gewfedu, -gewSdo, 327, 2730, 

tOB-horn, it. neut., war- horn, 

gflB-hreB, it, f., war-tame, 819. 

gllB JryiiUijf , see jraU-cynlnjr. 

gflfi-lioB, >t. neut., war-la;, battle- 
song, 1523. 

guS-mM, adj., [war-Moon] of war- 
like mind; pi. gfMS-mod, 306. 

gfltf-nea, tt. to., [war-RACK] attack 
in war, storm of battle, 1577, 

gOfl-raojulw, adj., war-fierce, 58. 
gufl-rlnc, ft, m., warrior, 838, etc. 
gnB-rOl, adj., war-tamed, 608. 
gtrS-acear, if. to., [war-sHABB] 
slaughter in battle, 1218. 


gnB-Bwecrd, it. neut., war-swoon, 

guflwirig, adj., war-wziBY, dead, 

IllB-wiga, tc. m., warrior, 3111. 

gtlB-wlne, it. m., [war-friend] 
sword, 1810, 2735. 

«yd(<l), see gld(d). 

gyddian, u. v., recite, chant, 630. 

gyf, seegtf. 

gyfan, seeglBui. 

gytau, n., see geofon. 

gyfeu.jtji., see gUftn. 

gyteSe, see giiaBe. 

gyldan, it. v., pret. geald: held, 
pay, repay, 11, 1194, 3636, eto. 

a-gyldan, it. v., offer (oneself, 
itself); pret. |>& me sal ageald, 
"when the opportunity offered 
itself to me," 1666 ; to 3690. 

an-gyldin, tt. v., pay for, 

for-gyldan, tt. v., repay, re- 
quite, atone for, 114, 956, 1064. 

gyldan, adj., golden, 47, eto. 

gylp, see gllp. 

gylpan, see gUpan. 

gyman, a. v., with gen., heed, 
care, incline to, 1757, 1760, 

for-gyman, w. v., with ace, 
neglect, despise, 1751. 

gyn(nl, adj., wide, spacious; ace. 
to. ig. gynne, 1561. 

gyrdan, w. v., onm, 3078. 

gyrode, etc., see gyrwan. 

gyra, tt. neut., sorrow, 1776. 

gyrn-wracu, it. /., revenge for 
harm, 1138, 3118. 

gyrwan, ». v., pret. gyrede, pp. 
gegyr(w)ed : oiai, prepare, equip, 
adorn, 994, 1472, 3087, etc; pp. 
pi. gegyrede, 1038, etc. 

ge-gyrwan, is. v., qeab, pro- 
pare, 38, 199; pret. pi. ge- 
giredan, 3137. 

gyat, see gist. 

gyrtra, adj., testeh, 1334. 

gyt, see git. 

gytslan, to. c, be greedy, covet, 


hataban, w. v., pret. biafde: hits, 
383, 658, etc. ; often at auxiliary, 
106, etc. Pret. let, hafu, 2523, 
halo, 2150, 3000 ; 2nd, hafast, 
953, etc. ; 3rd, hafaS, 474, etc. 
Negative form of »u6f. pr«. pi. 
nabben, 1850. 

for-habban, ic. v., keep bach, re- 
tain, refrain, 2609; inf. nemeahte 
wSfre mod forhabban in brek>re, 
i.e. he teat dying, 1151. 

wlB-habljan, to. v., wiTHBtand, 
resist, 772. 

had, it. m., [-hood] condition, 
quality, manner, wise, 1297, 

1335, etc. 

bailor, it. m., retreat?, 414 (gee 


baflor, adj. , clear -voiced, sonorous, 

More, adv., clearly, brightly, 1671. 

bsef, it. neat., sea, mere; pi. heafo, 

bafts, see hebban. 

harft, it. m., captive, 2408. 

hefta, a. m., captive ; ace. htefton, 

haift-mflce, it. m., [haft- sword] 
hilted sword, 1157- 

baf-ituld, it. m., bachelor, liege- 
man, young warrior, 1889. 

am, it./.; 

(1) HjsAith, good lack, 653, 1217. 

(2) omen, 204. 

luule, it. m., man, hero, warrior, 

1646, etc.; aw. pi. 719. 
hmleV, it. m., man, hero, warrior, 

52, etc. 
h»lo, tt./., HEALth, hail, farewell, 

nfflrg-triBf, it. neat., idol -tent, 

heathen fane, 175. 
bait, adj., violent, 1385. 
"~" ,179, 862, 

hsoflen, it. t . 
nSS itapa, w. ; 

stag, 1868. 
hafa, imperat. ig. of Jiabnan. 

., HFA'i'H-HTKPper, 

hafsla, hafala, heafola, w. m., 

bead, 446, 672, 2679, etc. 
hafen, Bee bebnan. 
bafenian, w. v., heave, uplift; pret. 

bafenade, 1574. 
Halo, hafu, see babban. 
hafoo, it. m., hawk, 2268. 
baga, w. m., [haw] hedge, enclosure, 

entrenchment, 2892, 2960. 
hal, adj., whole, hai.k, safe and 

sound, 300, etc. Special pottages : 

Wes...h5l, "hail, "407; icith gen. 

hea'So-laces hal, " safe and sound 

from the atrife," 1974. 
hallg, adj. hot.t, 881, etc. 
nals, see beala. 
ham, it. m., home, 717, 2835, ete.; 

locative, to hum, "at home," 


hand, see bona. 
hanglan, see honglan. 

Mr, adj., hoah, hoary, gray, 887, 
etc ; gen. harea hyrste, " the old 
man's (Ongentheow's) harness," 

bard-, aee heard-, 

hit, adj., hot, 2781, etc.; dot. tg. 
hston, 849 ; mom. wyrm hat ge- 
mealt, "the dragon melted in its 
heat," 897. 

hatoat, laperl., hottest, 1668. 

hit, it. neat., heat, 2605. 

liatan, it. v. : 

(1) order, command, bid, 293, 
386, eto.; pret. $g. heht, 1085, 
etc., net, 198, eto. ; pp. fia was 
hat en hre|>e lleort innan-weard 
folmnm gefrartwod, "then it was 
commanded that the inside of 
Heorot should quickly be adorned 
by hands," 991. 

(2) name, call, 102, etc.; tubj. hatan, 2807. 

ga-natan, tt. v.,umi. with aee., 
promise, vow, 1392, 2024, etc.; 
with gen. 2989; pret. gehet, 175, 
2937, etc. 


hatlan, w. v., with ace., hate, 
pursue with hatred, 2319, 3166 ; 
prei. part, swa t-ec heteude 
hwTlum dydoa, " as they, hating 
thee, whilom did," 1638. 

hS, tato, hit, peri, prim., he, she, 
», 7, 1315, 3167, 3877, 1875, etc. 
Leu usual forme are ; f. hlo, 
2019, eta.^ neat, hyt, 2248, etc.; 
ace. m. hyne, 38, etc.; (i-al. f. 
hjre, 3175, etc. ; p!. hi, 28, 3163, 
eto.,hig, 1086, etc., hy, 307, etc.; 
qen. pi. Mora, 2599, eta., hyrs, 
3040; hym, 1918. Uied 
reJUxively, 36, 301, 2918, 2949, 
2976, etc Alliterating, he, 505. 
Poneuive dot. 40, etc. 

heu, see bAah. 

hea-burn, it. /., hiqh bttroh, city, 

heafo, see barf. 

heated, it. neat., head, 48, etc.; 
dot. pi. heafdon, 1242. 

hSalod baorg, it. /., HRAD-protec- 
tion ; ace. ig. 1030 (tee wala). 

heafod-m5i;, it. m.. HEAD-kinsman, 
near relative, 588; heafod- 
mSga, 2151. 

hSafOd'Hgn, it. neat., nEAn-sign, 
2152 (see note). 

htafod-weard, it. /., head-wabd, 
guard over the head, 2909. 

heafola, see trafala. 

beaH, adj., hiqh, 57, e 

position, huah ofer horde, ' 
above the hoard," 2768. 
hean-cyning, it, m., mat 

sure, splendid treasure, 2302. 
hean-Iufn, W. /., H[QH LOVE, 1954. 

neab-Mle, ft. m., hiqh hall, 647. 

hlall-ietl, it. neat., Hiarr settle, 

high seat, throne, 1087. 
nian-itede, at. m., man stead, 

high place, 286. 
heal(l), it. /., hall, 89, etc.; pi. 

healle, 1926. 

laal-au-n, i(. ntut., ruLL-honae, 

laaldan, it. v., with ace., pret. 
heold. 2183, etc., hiold, 1964: 
hold, keep, guard, protect, have, 
possess, inhabit, 103, 380, 296, 
788, 948, 1079, 1337, 1705, 2377 
(support), 2389, 2430, 2909, 3043, 
3166, etc.; rule, 57, 1852; tub), 
tg-forpk 2719(holdnp). Special 
patiagei: 1031 (leewala); Grata 
leode hreo-wie heoldon, "the 
corpses of the Geate covered the 
field," 1214; 3084 (see note); 
sceft nvtte heold, "the shaft did 
ita daty," 3118. 

be-healdan, it. v., with ace., 
hold, guard, 1498. Special pat- 
»agei: (snndor-)nytte beheold, 
1 < minded, attended to, the {special) 
service," 494, 667; )>ry8-BwyS 
beheold roasg Higelices, "Hy- 
gelac's kinsman beheld great 
distress," or " great distress pos- 
sessed Hygelac's kineman (as 
to)," 736. 

fOr-haaldan, it. v., with ace., 
rebel against, 2381. 

ge-haaldan, it. v., with ace, 
hold, have, keep, guard, rule, 
317, 658, 911, 2293, 2856, 3003, 
etc.; pre(. he geheold tela, "he 
ruled [it] well," 2208. 

healf, it. /., halt,- aide, 800, etc. 

beal-eaman. it. neat., hall-oame, 
hall-mirth, 1056. 

leail, seehaaL 

beal-reced, it. neat., ruix-house, 
palace, 68, 1981. 

heals, it. m., neck, 1872, etc. ; dat. 
eg. halse, 1566. 

heals-beag, -Wan, at. m. , neck-ring, 
oarcanet, 1195, 2172. 

heals-gebedda, to. m. /., beloved 
BSD-fellow, wife, 63. 

healsian, u>. v., entreat, 2132. 

hoal-slttend, at. m. (prea. part.), 
HALL-siTTcr, 3015, etc. 

heal.^egu, it. n>., hall-thane, 142, 


', 1317. 


Man, adj., abject, ignominious, 
despised, 1274, 2183, etc 

Man, hfianne, Bee Man. 

Map, it. m., heap, band, company, 
336, 400, etc. 

heard, adj., bash, hardy, strong, 
brave, cruel, severe, 166, 323, 
342, 432, 540, 1574, 1307, eta.; 
dat. pi. heardan, 963; gen. pi. 
"of the brave," 988. With gen. 
" brave in," 886, 1539, etc. Special 
pamage -' Net hire wiK halee heard 
grapode, " so that the bard [sword] 
griped at her neck," 1566. 
heardra, compar., habder, 576, 

heard- hlcgonde, adj. (pre*, part.), 

Sard -thinking] brave-minded, 
Id of purpose, 894, etc. 
hearm, at. m., hiss, insult, 1893. 

„ [n 


heatto-Bceard, adj., battle-notched, 

battle-gashed, 3829. 
hsaffo-ifioc, adj., battle-BicE, wound- 
ed in battle, 2754. 
hsaBo-stSap, adj., [battle -steep] 

towering or bright in battle, 1246, 

heaVo-aw&t, st. m., battle -bweai, 

blood ebed in battle, 1460, etc. 
hcaWo-torht, adj., battle -bright, 

clear in battle, 2653. 
haatto-wSd, it. /., [battle- weeds] 

battle-drees, armour, 39. 
hsatJo-weoro, it. neut., battle-wosK, 

haaKo- wylm, it.m., [battle-wiujng] 

flame-surge, Barging of fire, 82, 

Mafia, ir. /., sea, ocean, 1862. 
htaSo-Ulfend, st. m. [pre*. 

part.), ocean-farer.sea-farer, 1798, 

hoatSurwejur. if. m., [battle-swing] 

battle-stroke, 2581. 

harmful foe, ', 

haarpa, w. /., habp, 89, etc. 

heaSerlan, v>. v., restrain, confine; 
pp. hergum geheafterod, "con- 
fined in idol-fanes (-groves), i.e. 
accursed," 3072. 

Matte-, see heatfu-. 

heaSo-byrne, v>. /., battle- liyrny, 
coat of mail, 1653. 

heaUo-dSor, adj., battle-brave, bold 

heaBo-iJr, neaBn-rJr. st. neut., 

battle-FiBE, 2622, 2647. 
heaflo-grlm, adj., battle-onm, 548. 
lieftBo-lac, tt. neut., battle-play, 584, 

h*a.Bo-mSro, adj., battle-great, fam- 
ous in war, 2802. 

heaUo-rsBB, at. m., [battle -esc; e] rtiak 
of battle, 526, etc. 

heatto-reaf, st. neut., battle-dress, 
armour, 401. 

hBatJo-rinc, it. m., warrior, 370, 

hBaBo-rOf, adj., battle- strong, war- 
renowned, 381, 864. 

E«-Mawan, i 

r, cleave, 

; v., pp. 1 
heave, raise, lift, 656, 1290, 8023. 
ft-hebhan, at. v., upheave, up- 
lift, 128, etc. 
Mdan, is. v., with gen., hsbd; pret. 
ne hedde he bag heafolan, "he " 
heeded not the head (of the 
dragon)," 2697. 

ge-hSdan, w. v., with gen,, ob- 
tain, 506. 
hefen, see heofon. 

Ke-heEan, ». v., decide, 435. 
MM, see hitan. 

hel(l), tt. /., hell, 101, 852, eto. 

behelan, it. v., hide; pp. be- 
holen, 414. 
hell-band, ■(. m.f., hell-bonk, 3073. 
halm, at, m., [helm]: 

(1) helmet, 672, etc. 

(2) covert, protection, 1392. 

(3) protector, king, 371, eta.; 
God, 183. 


2517, eta. 

ilmlau, ic. v., with ace., 
OYEBhang, overshadow, 1364. 

help, st.f., help, 661, etc, 

holpan, it. v., self, 8940, eta. 

helpe, w. /., hup, 2448 (me note). 

bel-rflna, io. m., sorcerer, 163. 

heofon, t(. m., hkaven, 62, eta. : 
dot. hefene, 1571. 

heolfor, st. runt., gore, 849, eta. 

healster, st. ntut., darknesn, 756. 

heonan, heonon, adv., benob, 363. 

beora, gen. pi. of he (q.v.). 

in?, to. v., re&cae? 

luorde, see bunden-beorde. 
beore, adj., canny, pleasant, 1372. 
heoro, neorn, if. tn., sword, 1286. 

&MTO-UUC, adj., [sWOrd-BLEAK] 

sword- pale, 2488. 
lieoro-dxSor, neoru-drtor, st. m., 

sword-blood, 487, 849. 
heoro-dreorig, adj., [ sword- iibiisy] 

sword-gory, 986, eto. 
beoro-glire, adj. , [sword-greedy] 

fieroelj greedy, 1498. 
heoro -grim, beam-grim, adj., 

[sword-ORiM] fiercely grim, 1664, 

heorc-bOoybt, adj., [aword-EOOZed] 

aavagely barbed, 1438. 
heoro-iwens;, at. tn., [aword-swing] 

sword- stroke, 1690. 
heorot, st. m., hart, 1369. 
Jieoro-wearh, st. tn., [sword-wolf] 

fierce wolf, 1267. 
hloro-orync, st. m., sword- 

DRINK, 23S8. 

Woro-Eflrco, to. /., [aword-BABK] 
shirt of mail; ace. hioro-seroeari, 

2539. [Sievers 9 169. 1.] 
hloro wcttUande, adj. (pre), 

■part.), [sword-] fiercely WELiing; 

ace. ig. m. -weallende, 2781. 
beorr, it. m., hinge, 999. 
heorte, to./, heart, 2270, etc. 


beorn, see heoro. 
haort-genSat, it. 

rsde, 261, eto. 
heofl, ft. /., dais, 404. 
hare, st. m., army; dat. ig. herse, 

2347, 2638; on herge, " 

field," 1348. 
hare-broga, vs. tn., army-terror, 

fear of war, 462. 
here-byrne, vs. /., army-BTBNT, 

coat of mail, 1448. 

vieored hairnet, S96, eto. 

here-iiet, it. newt., army-ro 
of ring-mail, 1663. 

here-nrB. ij. tn., army-hate, hosti- 
lity, 2474. 

hare-pad, st. /., army-coat, ooat of 
mail, 2268. 

here-rlnc, if. tn., army-man, war- 
rior, 1176. 

here-soeaft, st. in., [army-sHArr] 
spsar, 336. 

btra-apM, st. f. , [army-ar- eed] sue- 

tn., army-arrow, 

r, 64. 

hera-strasl, it. 

war-arrow, 1436. 
Itora-nyrca, 10. /., army-UBE, shirt 

of mail, 1611. 
hera-wwd, it. /., [army-waaiis] 

armour, 1897. 
bera-wiasma, u>. m., army-might, 

prowess in war; dat. pi. here- 

wtlamnn, 677. 
bere-wlsa, vs. nt., [army- wise] 

army-leader, 3020. 
bars;, ft. in., idol-grove, idol-fane, 

3072 (»ee hea'Serian). 

berian, a. v., vsith. ace., praise, 

honour, 182, etc.; pref. lubj. 

herige, herge, 1838, 317G. 
bate, ft. m., hate, 142, eto. 
bete-lla, adj., fall of hatred, hats- 

ful, 1267. 
hete-nlB, tt. tn., BAiB-enmity, bitter 

enmity, 162. 
hete-sweng, ft. m., hate-How; pL 

hete-awengeaa, 2224. 


iMte-Hne, it. m., hath- thought, 

malice, 475. 
hattend, it. m, {pre*, part, of 

hatian), hatot, toe, 3004. 
U,pl. /he(q.v.). 
-hlciran, see -nycgan. 
elder, adv., hithsb, 340, etc of he. (q. ».). 
Mice, neehyfre. 
-nlgian, to. v. 

uftr-lilglan, ic, v., befool?, 

make over-arrogant?; fn/ 1 . sine 

iiaSc iniBg. . .guui-cyrmes gehwone 

oferhigian, 2766. 
hild, it./., battle, war, 462, eta.; 

prowess in battle, 29G2. 
Hilda- blld), (I. neut,, bat tie- bill, 

sword, 557, etc. 
hllda-hord, a t. neut., [battle-BOABD] 

shield, 397, eto. 

Mlda-cyst, >t. /., [battle-virtue] 
bravery in battle, 2598. 

MLde-dSor, -dlor, adj., battle-brave, 
bold in battle, 312, 834, 3111, eto. 

Wide frecu, Hld-freca, u\ m. , battle- 
wolf, 2205, 2366. 

hilde-geatwe, it. /. pt., battle- 
trappings, equipments for war, 
armour, 674, 2362. 

lUlde-gicel, It. m., battle- ion- le ; 
dot. pi. 8a }iKit sweord ongan 
rafter heaJ>o-s wate hilde-gioelum. . . 
wauiac, "then the sword began 
to dwindle in icicles of steel in 
consequence of the blood (of 
Grendel)," 1606. 

hilda-srftp, it. /., battle-grasp, war- 
clutch, 1446, eto. 

battle-crash, oraah of battle, 2201,' 
2351, 2644. 
nUde-Ieoma, is. m., battle-ray: 
(1) battle-flame (of the dragon), 

hilde-mecg, it. m., battle-man, 

ABT. 191 

hlldu-rand, it. m„ battle- shield, 

hllde-rinc, it. m., battle-man, war- 
rior, 986, eto. 

hUde-nad, adj., battle-sated, 272B. 

hllde-sceorp, it. neut., battle-dress, 
armour, 3166. 

hildii-setl, [battle -settle] battle- 
seat, saddle, 1039. 

hllde-strengo, it. /,, battle- 

BTSENOth, 2113. 

nllde-swat, if. m., [battle- sweat] 

war-breath (of the dragon), 2558. 

Hilda-tux, it. m., battle-iusK, 1511. 

hUde-wSpen, it. m., battle -weapon, 

hild'e-wlsa, u>. n., [battle-wiss] 

battle-leader (Hnnf), 1064. 
MM-freea, see hlMe-treca. 

hUd-frnm*,, it. m., battle- chief, 


m., [battle-nATE] lag- 

hllt, it. m. neut., hilt, sword-hilt, 

1574, eto. ; pi. (of a single 

weapon; cf. "Julius Caesar" 

v. 8. 43) 1574, 1614. 
hllte -oumtMr, ct. neut., [HtLT-ban- 

ner] staff-banner, 1022. 
hllted, adj.. bolted, 2987. 
hlndoma, tuperl. adj., BtMDMOSt, 

last, 2049, etc. 
hln-fus, adj., [ henoe-ready] eager 

to be gone, 755. 
hlo = heo, fern, of be (q. v.). 
hloran, id. v., lament; pret. part. 


Mora, gen. pi. of he (q. v.). 

nloro-, see nsoro-. 

tiladflji, it. i'., lade, load, lay, 1897, 
2126, eto.; inf. bladon, 2775. 

ge-hlaoan. it. v., lack, load; 
pret. gehlSod, 895. 

blMtt, it. neut., [last] load, freight, 

nl5w, hlaw, it. m., [now, in place- 
names] mound, burial-mound, 
cavern, 1120, 2411, 3167, etc. 

hlitord, tt. m., load, 267, eto. 

Waford-leaa, adj., lokd-less, 2936. 



hia w , iee hl5w. 

hot. it. neut., court, dwelling, lodge. 

hleahtor, it. m., hij-hhibb, 611, 

residence, manor, mansion, 312, 

1286, 2313, etc. 

hleapan, at. v., leap, gallop, 664. 

ft-hUftpan, ' *t. v., leap op, 

be-hofUa, io. v., with gen.. 


[behovb] need, 2647. 

hlio, tt. »>., [lei] refuge, protec- 

hogode, eee byagan. 

tion, protector (used of a chieftain 

-b.6hsnian, to- v. 

orbing), 429, 791, etc. 

on-nonsnian, a. v., check, 1944. 

hlSo-bnrh, tt. f., protecting bcroh 

hold, adj., friendly, gracious, 290, 

or city, 912, etc. 

376, etc.; faithful, loyal, 290, 

■hlBOil, see -hladiui. 

1229, etc. 

blMnlan, w. v., lean, dope, 1415. 

hflnnga, adv., without reason, 1076. 

nleor-berge, te.f., oheek-gnard, 304. 

holm, st. m., ocean, sea, mere, 48, 

nuor-bolrter, it. m., [cheek-] 

BOLaras, 688. 

nolm-clif, it. neut., sea-ouFF, 230, 

hUotan, tt. v., with ace, get by 


lot, 2385. 

holm-wylm, at. m., [sea-wsuing] 

hlloVor-cwyds, tt. m., [ sound - 

sea-BUrge, 2411. 

speecb] courtly speech, ceremo- 

holt, it. neat., holt, wood, 2598, 

nious speech, 1979. 


hlldan, it. v. 

holt-wudn, at. m., holt-wood ; 

to-hUdan, st. v., spring apart; 

wood, forest, 1369; wood (mate- 

■pp. pi. tohlidene, 999. 

rial), 2340. 

1, tt. 1 

aloud ; pret. ig. ahlog, 730. 
hllflan, ic. v., tower, 2306; pret. 

hlifade, 81, etc., hlluade, 1799. 

["BeitrSge" i. 502.] 
hllm bed, ft. neut., leaning bed, 

(last) resting-place, 3034 (sea 

lLUtJ. it! neut., cliff, slope, 1892, 

hlod, adj., loud, 89. 
hlyu, it. m., din, noise, 611. 
My n nan, hlyntan, w. v., resound, 

roar, crackle, 2553 ; pret . hlynode, 

hlynrtan, w. v., resound, 770. 
hlytm, at. m., lot, 3126. 
hnssgan, ie. v. 

ge hnagau, v>. v., with ace., 

fell, vanquish, 1274, 2916. 
tiTiati, adj., mean, base, illiberal, 

nnagra, hnUua, eompar. , lower , 

inferior, 677, 962. 
hnltan, it. »., encounter, clash, 

1327 ; prtt. pi. hnitan, 2644. 

1285; gen. pi. homers Ufa, 
"leavings of hammers, i.e. 
■words," 2829. 

t] hand to hand; nam. 
neut. pair unc hwQe was hand- 
gemsine, "there we two engaged 
a while hand to hand," 2137. 
[Off. hand-gemein.] 

nsnd-gewrvBen, adj. {pp.), 
HAND-wnuTHed, hand-twisted; 
pi. 1937. 

nand-apom, tt. /., hahd-bfcb, 
daw, 986. 
hond-gemOt, at. n«ut., hasd-mbet- 
ing, hand to hand fight, 1526, 


iiond-frssteaHa, hand-gestealla, u> 

m., hani>- comrade, 2169, 2596. 
hond-seweoro, si. neut., hand 

requital , hand -reward , 1541 , 2094. 
hond-locen, adj. (pp. ), BAxn-Locxed, 

822, 561. 
hond-risa, it. m., [hasp-race] hand 

to hand fight, 3072. 

bond-soora , hand-soolu , it./. , [ bakd - 
s h o al j hand-troop, followers, 1317 


), etc. 


hord-Durh, it. /., 
wealth; city, 467. 

hord-geitrton, si, ntut.. 
treasure, 1899, eto. 

hord-madni ( = -mil{um), 

HOARE-treasate, hoard-jewel ; dat. 
pi. nSnigne ie under awegle 
selran hyrde nord-madmum hrn- 
lej>a, "I heard of none better 
under the sky among the hoard- 
jewels of heroes," 1198. 

nord-weard, it. m,, [hoabd-wahd] 
guardian of a hoard ■ 
1047 (of the king), 2298 (of the 
dragon), etc. 

hord-wela, w. m., hoai 
wealth of treasure, 2344. 

hOrd-weorBnnK, *'■ /-, [hoakd- 
honouring] honouring by gifts, 
valuable reward, 952. 

hord-wynn, it. /., noABU-joy, joy- 
giving hoard, 2270. 

horn, ft, m., horn, 1969, eto. 

hom-boga, w. m.. horn-bow, 2487. 

horn-geap, adj., with wide inter- 
vals between (the horns on) the 
gables, 82. 

horn-raoed, at. neut., [HOBN-honsa, 
i.e.] a house with horns on the 

W. B. 

gables, or a house with gables, 

hors, st. neut., house, 1399. 

hos, si./., bevy, 924. ' 

boSina, w. m., grave, 2456. 

bra, it. neut., eorpse, 1586. 

hradllce, adv., hastily, quickly, 
366, eto. 

Jirsagl, it. neat., [rail] drees, arm- 
our, 1195, etc. 

hra-fyl, it. m., fall of corpses, 
slaughter, havoc, 277. 

hraBe, hrwBe, adv., [" baths"] 
quickly, hastily, 224, 740, 1487, 
etc; hreSe, 991; raiSe, 724. 

hrattor, compar., [bathm] more 
quickly, 543. 

bream, it. m., noise, clamour, 1802. 

hrea-wlc, st. neut., [corpse -wick] 
abode of corpses, 1214 (see heal- 

brain, it. m., haven, 1801, eto. 
hrtmlg\ adj., exultant, 124, eto.; 

pi. hrernge, 2863. 
hrflon, adj., rough, fieroe, cruel, 

sad, 1664, 2180; dat. ig.m.hruon, 

1307, breoum, 2581; pi. hreo, 

hxeoh-mOd, adj., of fierce hood, 

of sad mood, 2132, 2296. 
hrSosati, it. v., fall, 1071, 1430, etc. 
be-hreoaan, it. v., deprive; pp. 

pi. behrorene, 2762. 
hrtoBan, i(. v., cover, clothe, adorn; 

pp. broden, gebroden, 804, 495, 

hrSow, it. /., distress, grief, 2129, 

on -hrsran, w. v., rouse, arouse, 

stir up, 549, 2554. See hror. 
hreU, ii. m. neut., glory, renown; 

ace. 2575. 
bretta, see hraSe. 
bretSer, it. m., breast, heart, 1446, 

1746, 2118, 3442, eto. 
hrefler-bealo, it. neut., heart- bale; 

nam. busts >e trfnoean nusg i-egne 


tory, S"- 

., triumphant T 

hrtmlg, adj., rimy, oovered with 
hoar-frost; pi. hrfmge, 1S63 (see 

hrfnan, it. v., urn. w. dot., touoh, 

la? hold of, 988, 2270, etc.; raoj. 

prtt. iff. >eahSehim wand hriiie, 

"though the wound touched him 

close," 2976. 
hrlng, it. tb., btng, ring-mail, 1202, 

1603, etc.; nam. Lyman hring, 

"Ting-mail of the bjrny, ringed 

byrny," 2260. 
hrlngan, w. v., who, rattle, 327. 
hring-boga, a. m., [bino-dow] one 

that beads himralf in the shape 

of a ring (the dragon), 2561. 
hringed, adj. (pp.), hinqed, 1215; 

inflected 2U15. 
cringe d-rtefna, w. m., Braa-BTBH- 

med ship (with rings on its 

prow), 32, 240, etc. 
bring -Iran, at. ncut., bihq-iboh ; 

nun. hring. iren scir song in 

searwum, "the bright iron rings 

rung in the armour," 822. 
hring-mSl, at, neut., Bmo-eword, 

1621, ISM. 
hrlng -m»l, adj., BiNO-adorned, 

hring-naca, v.: m., [Bras-bark] ship 

with a ringed prow, 1862. 
lulng-nrt, it. ntut., [riso-net] shirt 

of mail made of rings, 1689, etc. 
hring -sels, at. m., BiNO-haU, 3010, 

3053, etc. 
hrlng-weortiung, it./., bin o adorn- 

ment, 3017. 
hroden, aee hrSoflan. 
hrof, at. m., boot, 926, B8S, etc. 
hrflf-sels, it. m., noored hall, 1515. 
hron-Ox, tt. m., whale-FisH, whale, 


brflttor, it. m., benefit, kindness, 

comfort, joy, 2171, 2448. 
hruM, to./., earth, 2247, eta. 
hrycg, it. m., BinaE, back, 471. 

. fall, destruction. 

horn, adv., indeed, especially, at 
least, 182, 369, 862 (however), 
etc.; now, 3120. 

hfli, it. ntut., boobs, 116, etc. 

hflt>, it./., booty, plunder, 124. 

hwa, m. andf., hwsrt, neut., interr. 
and indef. pron., who, what, any 
(one), somewhat, 52, 3136, etc. 
IFith gen. hwiet...byn , oo, "what 
humiliation," 474; swulces hwast, 
"somewhat of such (matter)," 
880 : anas hwart, " somewhat only, 
a part only," 3010. Spedatpa*- 
iage»: nnh hws sweord wepe, 
"I have no one who may wear 
sword," 2252; dat. hwam, "for 
whom," 1696; inatr. to hwan 
syBfian wearti hond-rais lueleSa, 
"to what issue the hand-fight of 
heroes afterwards came," 2071. 

hwwder, see hwyder. 

hw»»r, adv., where, any where, 
2029. Special pauagee: wundur 
hwar bonne, "it is a wonder 
(mystery) anywhere when," 3062 ; 
with sws fallowing, "whereso- 
ever," 763 (see note, and of. 797) ; 

Ollua hwlr, "BLBEWHEBB," 136. 

hwtrt, adj., active, keen, bold; 
vfeui hwata, 302H; dat. hwattmi, 
2161; -pi. hwette, 1601, etc 

hwsat, pron., see hwft. 

bwart, interj., what J, lol, 1, 560, 

hwarBer, adj .-pron. , whether, which 
of two; tiom, gebide ge...hwteSer 
sel insane... uncer tnega, "await 
ye whether of us twain may the 
better," 2580; ace. f. on raa 
hwnoere hond...swa him gemet 
Hnce," "on whichsoever hand it 
may seem to him meet," 6S6. 

hw»Ker. hwafSre, conj., whbthbb, 
1314, 1356, etc. 


hw*rtl(e)re, adv., however, vet, 665, 
578, etc.; anyway, however that 
may be, 674; with swa Hah, 

hwan, see hwS.. 

hwanan, hwanon, adv., whencb, 
267, 833, etc. 

liwir, see liwair. 

hwata, liwate, hwatum, aee hwart, 

hwealf , H. /., vault, 676, eta. 

hwSne, adv., a little, a trifle, 2699. 

bweoifim, st. v., turn, wander, die, 

264, 1980, 28S2 (whirl), 3888 

(roam), etc.; in/, hworfan, 1726. 

rethweorlan, it. v., return, 

verse, 3017. 

ond-hweorfan, it. v., torn 
against ; pret. noriSan wind., .ond- 
hwearf, "a wind from the north 
turned against [us]," 648. 

ymhe-hweorfan, it. v., with 
ace., turn about, go round, 3296, 

bwergen, adv., in elks hwergen, 
" Elsewhere," 2690. 

hwettan, 10. v., whet, urge, en- 
courage, 304, 490. From hwast. 

bwD, at. /., while, space of time, 
146, 1496, etc. ; dot. pi. wed ad- 
verbiaUu, hwilum, "at whiles, 
sometimes, whilom," 176, 864, 
867, eto.; "at one time,. .at an- 
other," 2107-8-9-11. 

nwlt, adj., white, flashing, 1446. 

hwflpan, it. v., cry out, mourn; 
pret. hweop, 2268. 

hwyder, h warier, adv., wnrraKE, 

163, 1331. 
hwyle, adj.-prtm.,wnicn, what, any, 

274 (tee witan), 1966, 3003; with 

gen. 1104, 2433. 
awl bwyle swA, see iwk. 
fcwyrfan, it. v., move, 98. 
bwrrft, it. m., going, torn; dot. pi. 

"in their goings, or to and fro," 


ART. 195 

hycgan, te.u., Blink, resolve (upon) ; 
pret. hogode, 632. 

for-hlcgan, w. v., roago, reject, 
despise, 435. 
ge-hycgan, w.v., think, 1988. 
Ofar-hyogan, u. p., scorn, 

hyga, hlge, M. m„ mind, heart, 

soul, 267, 755, S148, etc. 

blge-mSV, »t. /., mind-honour, 
heart-reverence, 2909. 

hlga-mlSe, adj., wearying the 
soul or mind, 2442. 

hige->lhtig, adj., great-hearted, 

Mge-frrymm, it. m., [mind- 
strength] magnanimity, 339. 

byge-bend, it.m.f., mind-BONn; dat. 
pi., hyge-bendum test ... dyrne 
langa'S, "a secret longing fast 
in the bonds of his mind," 1678. 

byKo-glomor, adj., sad at heart, 

hyge-rOf, hlg*-rflf, adj., strong of 
mind or heart, valiant, 204, 403. 

hyge-sorg, «. /,, soaaow of mind 
or heart, 2828. 

bybt, at. m., hope, 179. 

hyldan, w. v., ubel over, incline 
(oneself), lie down ; pret. 686. 

hyldo, et. /., favour, friendliness, 
670, 3293, etc.; ace. hyldo ne 
telge...Denum unfacne, "I rec- 
kon not their faithfulness for the 
Danes sincere, "31)67. Cf. hold. 

bym, of he (q. v.). 

h^nan, v. v., humiliate, harm, 
2319. From hean. 

byne, ace. tg. m. of he (q. v.). 

liJnUo, hfnVu, it. /., humiliation, 
166, 277, 475, 59S. 

tayrt,, gen. pi. of he (q. v.). 

Hymn, w. v., heak, learn, 88, 62, 
37S, 1197, eto. ; with dat. pert., 
obey, 10, etc. 

ge-hjran, u. v., EBiB, learn, 
255, 290, 786, etc, 



196 BEOTi 

hyrdan, tc. v. 

1-hyrdan, a. v., harden, 1460. 

hyrde, tt. m., [heed] keeper, guard- 
ian, eta., 610, 2505, etc; nom. 

wnldren Hyrde, "the King of 
glory," 931. 
byre, gen. and dat. ig, f. of he 

<q. v.). 

hynrt, ft./., harness, accoutrement, 

adornment, 2986, 3164. 
hyrstan, ic. v., adorn; pp. "dight, 

jewelled." 672, 2256. 
hyrtan, v>. v., hbaeten, embolden ; 

with refl. prim., 3593. 
ATM, It. m., youth, 1217. 
hyt, »(./.?, heat, 2643. 
hyt, nsut. of he {q. v.). 
hj«, ft. /., HITKB, haven, S3. 

hyBo, see note on 1. 8155. 

hjU-Weaid, ft. »!., [HTTHB-WiRD] 

gnard of the haven, 1915. 


le, p«f. prim., I, 347, eto.; ace. 
mac, urn; pen. nilii ; dat. mi; 
dual nem. wit; ace. utioit, uno; 

gen. i 

; dat. i 

dat. us, uram. 
lege, adj., golden?, costly?, man- 

eivef, 1107. 
Mel, adj., [idle] deprived; num. 

lond-rihtefl...;del, "deprived of 

land-right," 2B8S. 
Mel-nende, adj., njLE-HiNoed, 

empty-handed, 3081. 
"i, it./., woman, lady, 620, 1359, 


a, ft. v. 

tM'tonum, st. v., bun, occur; 
prlt. hint on mod beam, "it oc- 
curred to him," 67. 

oiL-ieman, ft. v., spring open; 
prtt. onarn, 721. 
in, prep., in, with dot. (of rest) and 
ace. {of motion) : 
(1) with dot., in, on, 13, 25, 87, 
89, 324, 44S, 1039, 1952, 3505, 
2699, 2635, 2786, 8097, etc.; 
after ite one, 19; o/tims, 1. 

(3) with ace., into, 60, IBS, 1310, 

in, adv., in, 886, 1037, 1644, etc. ; 
ones inn, 3090. 

In, it. neut., inn, dwelling, 1300. 

Inc. pert. prim. (dat. ditalofpti), to 
yon two, 510. 

Inner, pen. pron. {gen. dual of t>u). 
of yon two, 584. 

Inaga, adj., weighty?, 3577 (see- 

ln-fi-Od, adj., very old, 1874, 2449. 

in gang, st. nt., entrance, 1549. 

ln-genga, ». m., in -goer, invader, 

in gesteald, it. m., house-property, 

Inn, see In, adv. 

Innan, adv., within, inside, 774, eto. 
In innan, within; with pre- 
ceding dat. 1968, 2453. 

on Innan, within, 2715; with 
preceding dat. 1740. 

Mar on Innan, therein, there- 
withal, in there, 71, 2089, eto. 

lnnan-wMTd, adj., ihwaiud, inside, 
interior, 991, 1976. 

tune, ado., reside, within, 390, 642, 
1866, etc.; therein, 1141. 

lnwld-soxg, see Inwlt-sorli. 
Inwlt-feng, tt. m., hostile grasp, 

lnwlt-g*Mt, it. m., hostile e 

foe, 2670. 
Inwit-hrtsf, ft. m., hostile 

inwlt-net, ft. neut., hostile 

conning snare, 2167- 
lnwit-nlB, tt. neut., hostile hate, 

malicious enmity, 1858, 1947. 
lnwlt-soear, ft. in., hostile attack, 

inroad, 2478. 
lnwlt-aearo, 't(. neut., hostile con- 
ning, 1101. 
inwlt-sorh, lnwld-aois, it.f. [hostile 

bobbow] sorrow caused by a foe, 

831, 1786. 


Inwit-Banc, at. m., hostile or mali- 
cious thought, 719 {iet onion). 

-lode, see -gan. 

logoff, see geogoB. 

lo-meOwle, see KBo-mJowla. 

Iron, it. neat., ntos, sword, 892, 
etc. ; gen. pi., Irena, Irenna, 673, 

l»r*n, w. v., teach, 1722. 

Re-horan, ip. ti., teach, persuade, 
give (advice), 378, 415, etc, 
la*, compor. adv., less, 1946, 487 
W las, cor;;., lest, 1918. 
l5ua, compar. adj'., lebb, leaser, 
fewer, 1282, 2571; dat^pl. lawaan, 
43. Abiohdely, for lsssau, "for 
leasV' 951. 

wptrL adj., least, 

Iron-byrne, w. /., ibon-birxy, ooat 


of iron mail, 2986. 

iSetan, k. v.: 

Iren -heard, adj., iboh-habd, 1113. 

11) teithdat.,TM!T, holdout, 812. 

Iren-kf*-t, at. m., iBON-band, troop 

(2) with ace, do, perform, 3663. 

of armed men, 330. 

fuI-lsBBtan, ip. v., with dat., 

Is, It. neat., ice, 1608. 

help ; prei. eg. lit fal-heata. 

IsM-ii-oyrne, if. /.. B7BHT of iron, 


coat of iron mail, 671. 

IMrn-scflr, at. /., iron -shower, 

(1) with ace. or dot., nerve, 24, 



Is-geblnd, it. newt., iCE-bond, 1133. 

(3) urn*, with ace., do, perform, 

fulfil, etc., 1706, 2990, etc 

IslK, adj., ict, 33. 

In, see goo. 

KO-laested, pp. of lnBtan or 
gehestan, "performed," 829. 

olden times, 3052. 

lfflt, adj., [ute] Blow; with gen. 



lartan, at. v., lit, allow, 48, etc. 

l-lntan, at. v., let, 2665; let 

iynlng, 630, 3171, 665, see cyniog. 

go, leave, 2591, etc. 

for-lSUn, it. v., lbt, 970, etc,; 


let go, 792; leave (behind), 2787. 

of-lStan, at. v., leave, 1183, 

la, interj., no, 1700, etc. 

lac, it. neat., gift, offering, booty, 

prey, 43, 1584, eta. 
l&can, tt. v., play, fight, fly, 3683, 

1M, tt.f., [look] way, faring, jour- 
ney, 569, 1987. 

laxlan, to. v., lead, 389, etc.; pp. 
geheded, 37. 

for-lSdan, IP. it., IP. ace., mia 
lead; pre*, pi., lorheddan, 3039. 

lSAm, w. v., leave, 1178, 2815, 

on-lnUn, tt. v., loosen, 1609. 
laf, at. /., LBAving, heirloom, be- 
quest (often a sword), 454, 795, 
1032, 3086, 2839, 2936, 3160, 

ge-laflan, w. v., refresh, 3723, 

lagu, at. m. , lake, 1630. 

lagu-crwftlg, adj., [aea-CBAm] skil- 
ful aa a sailor, 209. 

laKo-itrBt, tt.f., [bob-sibbet] way 
over the sea, 239. 

ing days, 2341, etc. 
lams, adj., fleeting, transitory, 
8177, etc. 


198 BEOW 

langaV, it./., Lonoing, 1879- 

langa, seeionge. 

Ur, it. /., lobf, instruction, guid- 
ance, 1950; gen. pi. lira, 1320, 
larena, 269. 

lilt, il. m., track, trace, 183, eta. 
an Ult, wit ft preceding dot., 
in the tracks of, behind, 3945. 

1*8, adj., [LOTH] LOATHly, LOATH- 

some, LoiTHed, hateful, hated, 

hostile, 184, 511, 2816, 3467, 

eta.; litfan, 1505. 

Often used absolutely, foe, loathed 

foe, 550, 841, 1061; gen. pi. 

342; weak, «e laSa, 2S05; 1SS 

wiS la>nm, "foe with foe," 440; 

letter latum, "after the loathed 

foe," 1257; neat, fela ic leVSes 

gebad, "much hostility or evil I 

endured," 929. 
littm, eompar., more LOATHly, 

more hateful, 24S3. 
lilt-bite, it. m., foe-Brra, wound, 

UV-grtiona, w. m., evil-doer, 

monster, 559, 974. 
laB-Uc, adj., loathly, 1584. 
leaf, It. neut., leat, 97. 
leamea-word, it. neut., lbivb-wokd, 

permission, pass- word?, 245. 
-l*ah, see -Uogan. 
ltan, it. neut., reward, 114, 951, 

1031, 3145, etc. 
18«i, it. v., w. ace., blame; pre*. 

ig. 3rd lyhtf, 1048 ; pret. log, 303, 


ba-lian, it. v., with ace. rei 

and dat. pen., dissuade from, 

prohibit, 511. 
leanlan, w. v., with ace. rei and 

dat. pen., pay for, repay, reward 

for, 1380, 2103. 
1, adj., [lbbb]: 
l) with gen., ' 
t, 850, 1664. 

(3) false, 253. 
leegan. w. t 

lay i 

16#;, see Hi;. 

lager, it. neut., [laih] lying, 3043, 


>ee Uogan. 

a, w. v., lamb, trouble ; pret. 

with pi. num., lemede, 906. 

. adj., long, 83. 
it, see longe. 
l, Bee long. 

it. i«., prince, chief, 341, etc. 
it. /., people, nation, 596, 
etc.; pi. leoda, 3001. See 

Mod-baalo, st. neut., [nation-BALE] 

national evil, 1722; gen. pi. 

-bealewa, 1946. 
ISod-burg, it. /., [nation -burgh] 

chief city; -byrig, 2471. 
IBod-cynlng, it. m., nation-KTNO, 

king of a people, 54, 
leode, (1. m. pi., people, 24, 362, 

etc. See leod, it. f. 
leod-Cruma, w. m„ nation-chief. 

prince of a people, 2130. 
Hod-gebyrgea, w. m., protector of 

a people, 369. 
ltod-bryre, it. m., fall of a prinoe 

or people, 2030, 2391. 
leod-aoeafla, in. m„ scATaer of a 

people, national foe,, 3093. 
Uod-adpe, it. m., [people- ship] 

nation, 2197, 2751. 
ltof, adj., lief, dear, 31, etc. 
leofafl, see llbban. 
16oMIc, adj., dear, beloved, pre- 
cious, 2603, 1809. 
leogan, it. v., lie, belie, 350, 3039. 
1-lSogan, it. v., with aee. rei, 

beui, falsify; pret. Ueh, 80. 
ge-lSogan, it. v., with dat. 

peri., deceive; pret. geleah, 3323. 
ISoht, s(. neut., light, brilliance, 

569, 737, etc. 
ISoht, adj., moht, bright, flashing, 

ISoma, w. m., gleam, ray, 811, 1570, 

lion, »t. v., lend; pret. lah, 1456. 
ott-lion, at. v., with gen. rei 

and dat. pen., lend ; pret. ordih, 

leomlan, w. v., leabn, devise, 3336. 


130MI1, (I. V., LOSS. 

MHMI, it. v., deprive; pp. 

beloren, 1073. 
tor-ltoHUt, it. v., with dat., 

lobe, 1470, etc. 
IMS, it. «™t., lay, 1159. 
leoSo -craft, at. m., [limb-CBirr] 

hsnd-craft; dat. pi. segn...gelo- 

con lecSo-crteftum, "a banner 

woven by skill o( hand," 3769. 
leoSo-iyrce, limb-sux, shirt of 

mail, 1505, eta. 
lettan, w. v., with ace. pert, and 

gen. rei, let, hinder, 569. 
libban, to. v.. pret. ig. lifatS, lyfaS, 

leofaU; ivbj. lifige; pret. lifde, 

lyfde; pro. part. liflgende: uvs, 

57, eto. 
lie, «t. «., [lych] body, corpse, 967. 
llcg(a)an, it. v., lie, lie down, lie 

low, lie dead, 10, 1348, 2051, 

2368, eto.; fail, 1041. 

a-Ucg(e)an, it. v., fail, cease, 

1638, 3886. 
ge-licE(e)an, at. v., be still, be 

lulled, 3146. 
llc-boma, Uc-nama, w. m., [lyoh- 

oovering] body, 812, 1007, eto. 
lldan, it. v., with dat., [ijxi] please, 

639, eto. 
llc-alr, it. neat., body-BOBB, wound 

in the body, 815. 
llc-syrce, id. /., body-aux, shirt of 

lid-maun, it. m., sea- man, seafarer, 

llf, it. neat., life, 97, eto. 
lift*, etc., seeUbbaii. 
HMjysijr, adj., [life-bust] 

throes of death, 966. 
W-dagaa, it. m. pi., lltk-da- 

Ug, leg, it. 


Lira-lord, Lord of 
eat., LiFs-parting, 

Uf-frta, i 

life, 16. 
Uf-icedal, «(. neut., 

death, 811. 
lif-fwoaao, it. /., [: 

destiny, 1958, eto. 
llf-wmtta, it. /., litf.- protection, 

971, 2877. 
llf-wynn, it. /., Lire-joy, 2097. 


, name, 88, 3549, 
etc.; out. iigge, 737. 
Utr-dnoa, lag-draca, ». m., flame- 
lb.isk, naming dragon, 333S, 
Ug-egesa, io. tn., flame-terror, 3780. 
Hge-tom, at. in,, [tring-anger] pre- 
tended insult, 1943. 
Iigge, seellg. 

Ug-?1!, it./., flame-wave, 2672. 
11m, at. neut., limb, branch; dat. 

pi. leomum, 97. 
lilnpan, at. v., happen, befall ; 
pret. lomp, 1987. 

1-limpan, it. p., befall, ooeur, 
633, 733. 
be-llmpan, it. v., befall, 2468. 
ge-llmpan, it. v., befall, hap- 
pen, 76, 638 (be fulfilled), 939 
(be given), etc. 

ga-lmnpen, pp. of limpan or 
gelimpan, "fulfilled"," 834. 
lind, it. /., uHnen, shield (made of 

linden), 3341, etc. 
Und-gastealla, ic. m., shield-com- 
rade, comrade in arms, 1973. 

>t. m. {pres. part.), 
ing] shield- wa ' 

Hunan, at. v., aith gen. or d 
cease, depart, be deprived, 1478, 

lias, it./., favour, 2150. 

list, it./., cunning; dot. pi. adver- 
bially. 781. 

HtSan, it. o., go; pp. liden, "tra- 
versed," 383 {tee eolet). 

UBe, adj., gentle, mild, 1330. 

intost, tuperl., gentlest, mild- 
est, S183. 

CRend, at. m. (prci. part.), [going] 
sailor, 221. 

Itfi- w5ge. *'■ neut. , stoap of drink 
(ale or cider?), 1983. 

loosn, eeelfloan. 

looun, to. v., look, 1654. 

lof, it. tn., praise, 1536. 



u>, deed 

lof-dSd, ft. /., praise-i 

worthy of praise, 34. 

lof-geora, adj. , TBABNing for praise. 

Jof -georno si , tuperl. , most eager 

for praise, 3182, 
10(, see Man. 
lomp, see limpan. 

3197, eto. 

land-firum*, it, n 
ruler of aland, 31. 

. land, 331, 
., LAND^ihief, 

LAND-MAHiin, boundaries, 209. 

Und-geweorc, it. neut. , u 
worn, stronghold, 988. 

land-warn, st. /., LiND-people: 
pi. land-wara, "people of the 

wakd] guardian of a country, 

loud -traeud, land-bnand, it. m. 

(pro. part.], LAND-dweller, 95, 

lond-iint, (t. neut., 

right of a citizen or 



long, lug, adj., long 

16, 2098, 

3043, etc. 

lengn, compar. 



long*, Hangs, adv., loh 

a, SI, 1061, 

lang, compar., u 

Naer, 451, 

974, etc. 

lengest, mperl. , LO 

tout, 3008, 

m] i 

i of 1< 

long ago, 

long-ium, adj., [lono-sohe] lasting 
long, 134, eto. 

loaian, w. v., escape, 1892, etc. 

lttoan, st. v., lock, interlock, weave; 
pp. locen, gelocen, "iiocsed, of 
interlocked rings," 1606, 1890, 

onleac, 359. 
to-mean, ft. v., destroy, 781. 

lufen. st. f„ hope, 2886. 
luflan, iv. v., love, 1983. 
luf-tloen, it. neut., lovr-tokkn, 

lufu, w. /., love, 1738. 
lnngre , adv. : 

fl) quickly, hastily, 939, 1630. etc. 

(3) quite, 3164. 
lust, it, m. , [lust] pleasure, joy; ace. 

on lust, dat. pi. luetum, "with 

joy, with pleasure," 618, 1663. 

a-lfan, w. d., entrust, permit, 

ga-tyfan, w.D„ buLiuvE m, trust 
for, rely on; with dat. per: 909; 
with dat. rei, 440; with ace. rei, 
608 ; Net heo on atnigne eorl 
gelyfde fyrena frofre (aw.), 
"that she believed in any earl 
for comfort from crime," 627; 
him to Anwaldan are (ace.) 
gelyfde, " believed in favour from 
the Almighty for himself," 1273. 

lyfitV, lyfde, see ttbban. 

lyft, at. m. f. neut., [lot] air, 1875, 

lyrt-floga, ip. m., [nirr-njer] Bier 

in the air, 2315. 
lTft-gwnrenoad, adj. (pp.), wind- 
urged, driven by the wind, 1913. 
lytt-wynn, tt. /., [Lm-joy] joy in 

the air, 3043. 

a-lfian, w. v., loose, loosen, 

lyrtan, w. v., impcrt., with ace, 

pen., list; pret. 1798. 
ljt, neut. adj. or n., itidecl., few, 

3865; with gen. 1937, 2150, 

2882, 3832 (dot.). 
lyt, adv., Lmle, 3897, 3129. 
lptel, adj., little, 1748,3097, etc.; 

ace. f. lytla hwUe, "hot a little 

while," 2030. 
lyt-hwOn, adv., Lrnle, 204. 


na»g. it. m., kinsman, blood-rela- 
tive, 408, etc. ; pl, mafias, etc., 
1016, etc.; mfigum, 1178, 

mngen, 2654, Bee magsji. 

ausgen-igends, <u$. (yrst. pari.), 
[mra-owning] mighty, 9837. 

m«gren- , byTUen, «(./., hain-bu """ 
great burden, 1625, etc. 

mighty strength, 380. 
nuageiL elleu, it. neut,, 
strength, great courage, 651 

mighty onslaught, 1519. 



BTKBKoth; dat. 2678. 
nuegen-wuau, it, 

wood] spear, 23ti. 
msjgS, it./., xaid, woman, a*», eie. 
msag-wins, (f. m. , kinsman-friend ; 

pl. 2479. 
mil, iLMtt, [uiL]: 

(1) tune, occasion, 316, eta. 

(3) h word, 1616, 1667. 
mSl-oeam, it.f., time-CABE, 189. 
mB-gMoaaii, •(./., [time-shaping] 

appointed time, 2737. 
mania, v>. v., [mtias]: 

(1) iritfc ace., declare, proclaim, 
857, 1067. 

(2) ( 

a. v., violate, 1101. 

_ mSrtwt, tuperl., greatest, 698. 
marffo, marflu, it. /., greatness, 

glory, fame, 504, 659, 678, etc.; 

greatness, great deed, deed of 

glory, exploit, 408, 2131, 2645; 

dat, pl. adverbially gloriously, 

mast, it. m., mart, 36, etc. 

mSte, adj., small. 

matost, tuperl., smallest, 1455. 

magi, a. m., son, man, 943, 978, 
1474, etc. 

•magan, tt.-u>. v., hay, can, be 
able; prei. ig. lit and 3rd mieg, 
277, eta., 2nd meaht, 2047; pre*. 
mbj. ig. majge, 2530, etc., pl. 
mffigen, 2654; pret- meahte, 542, 
646, etc., mihte, 190, 308, etc., 
mehte, 1082, etc. With gin 
omitted, 754. Special postage : 
iit meahte, " it was not possible, 
no one could," 2547. 

mage, n>. /., kinswoman, 1391. 

mago.jf, m., kinsman, son, 1465, etc. 

mago-drlht, it. /., kindied-troop, 
band of warriors, 67. 

mago-rlne, it. m., kinsman 

man(n), see mon(nj. 

mln, st. neut., [moan] wickedness, 

crime, 110, 1055, etc. 
mln-fordSdla, it. m., wicked ' 

stroyer, 663. an, w. v., exhort, 2057. 
manlg, see monlg. 
man-lice, arfp.,inaMASLi way, 1046. 
mln-so(e)aBa. id, in., wicked soa- 

THer, deadly foe, 712, 2514, ate, 
mix*, compar. adj. (of micel), 

greater, mightier, 247, 518, 753, 

etc.; neat., with gen., mare, 

HOBE, 136. 

mast, tuperl., [most] greatest, 
78, 2181, etc ; neut., with gen., 
2645, etc 

»., harangue, dis- 


ta-aht, it. /., owning of tren- 
ire, valuable possession, 1G1S, 

;, 1931. 
mfto(n)nm, if. m., thing of value, 

treasure, jewel, 169, 1538, etc.; 
pi. mnftmas, midmis, etc., 80, 
385, 1048, 1784, 1867, 3788, etc. 

mlWnm-fJM, it. neut., treasnre- 
vat, costly vessel, 2406. 

lnUBSum-gifu, it. /., tree sure -atrt, 

m&OTnm-sigle, it. neat., treasure- 
jewel, contly sun- shaped orna- 
ment, 2767. 

mAVBum-swaord, it. neut., treaanre. 
swobs, sword inlaid with jewels, 

, w. m., [trearore- 
hiul] wealth of treasure, 2760. 

mi, pert. pron. (oee. and dat. o/ic), 
«b. to me, 446, 472, 641, etc; 
dat. for myself, 2738. 

msagol, adj., forceful, earnest, 
solemn, 1980. 

meahte, rasahton, Bee magan. 

m*tru, etc, see inearh. 

mean, at. /., march, limit; dat. 
blm >at t5 mearoe wearS, "that 
was his [life's] limit," 2384. 

meardan, ». v., mask, stain, en- 
grave, 460; pp. gemearcod, 1204, 

mearc atapa, w. m., UABCH-siapper, 
march-stalker, 103, 1B48. 

roearh, it. at., [babe] hone; pi. 

i, peri. pron. (ace. of ic), hi, 

it. m., sword, 1938, etc. 

M, if. /., meed, reward, 1178, etc. 

medo, niedn, it. m., mkad, 2633 

dat. 604. 
medo-arn, it. neat., MEii>-hall, 69 

banc it. /., 
1067, 1902, et 

, 776, 

medo-heal, maodn-heall, it. /., 

MBAD-HAIJ,, 484, 638. 

medo-itlg, it. /., MBAD-path, path 

to the mead-ball, 924. 
madn-drtam, jt. m., mud- joy, 2016. 
madn-aald, tt. neut., sumi-hall, 

plaio, plain or field where the 
mead-hall stood, 1648. 

meodn-soenc, it. m., nun- 
draught, 1980. 


i7i., informer, finder, 

., intrant., melt, 1120, 

ge-meltan, it. v., melt, 897, 
2628, etc 
mane, it. to., collar, necklace, 1199. 

(1) HiNale; pp. gemanged, 846, 

(2) mingle with, visit, 1449. 
menlgeo, rasmlgo, at. /., many, 

multitude, 41, 2143. 
meodo-. meodu-, see under mtdo. 
meoto, see nut. 
meotod-, see metod-. 
mireela, at. m., mark, aim, 2439. 

[Sievers g 169. 1.J 
mers, at. m., mebe, sea, 1130, etc. 
meredflor, it. neut., hebe-dkeb, 

sea-monster, 558. 

farer, 602. 

fish, 549. ' 
mere-grand, it. m., [mbbi-obouhd] 

bottom of a mere or sea, 1449, 

mere-nrwgl, it. neut., [mbbe-bah,] 

sea-garment, sail, 1906. 
mere -llttend, it. m. (prea. pari.), 
* sea-farer, sailor, 


■- /, [«" 


sTRENuth] strength in swim- 
ming, 538. 

mere-wlf, el. neat., [hebe-wite] 
mer(e)-woman, 1519. 

mergen, see morgan- 

met, it. neat., thought; pi. meoto, 

9 (86 

l, it. t 


TiflMin, ic. v., MEET, find, 761, etc. 

BO-mOtan, w. v., meet, find, 

757, etc.; prtt. pi. h* (ate.) go- 

Metod, it, 

, Creator, God, 110, 

metod-sceaft, meotod-Keaft, it./., 
appointed doom, eternity, 1077, 
2815, 1180 {Creator's glory?). 

meSel, it. neut., council, 1876. 

DMtfal-Btade, It. m., meeting- place, 

meSel-word, it. neut. , council- woro, 
formal word, 236. 

mlcel, adj., mickle, great, 129, etc. ; 
gen. miclea wyi-Sne, "worthy of 
mueh," 2185. 

mielH, gen. uted adverbially; 
to fela mioles, "far too much," 

mlole, inttr. vied adverbially, 
by much, much, 1579, 2651; w 
swa miola, " hy ao muoh," 1283. 
mid, prep., with dat. and ace. : 

(1) with dat., with, BMiD, among, 
77, 195, 274, 902, 1217, 1318, 
1868, 2308, eta.; following its 
cote, 41, 886,1625; of time, 126; 
with, by means of, through, 317, 
438, 175, 574, 779, 1184, 1892, 
2028, 2468, eto. Specialpaitagei: 
mid rihte, "by right," 2056; 
mid gewealdum, "of hie own 
accord," 2221 ; mid him, " among 
themselves," 2948. 

(2) with act., with, ohii>, among, 
357, 879, 1128, 2652, etc. 

mid, adv., with them, withal, there- 
with, 1642, 1649. 
mlddan-Keard, it.m., [Mmnle.TUui] 

world, earth, 75, etc.; gen. "in 

the world," 504, eto. 
mldde, u>. /., Minnie, 2705. 
mlddel-niht,it./., htd-hiqht, 2782, 

t, it. /., ) 

(, 700, e 

mihtig-, adj., mishit, 558, eto. 
mllde, adj., mild, kind, 1172, etc. 
mlldntt, tuperl., mildest, kind- 
est, 3181. 
mH-gemearc, it. neat., mile-mask, 

measure by miles; gen. nis Het 

feor heonon mll-geinearoes, " that 

is not many miles away," 1362. 
milt*, it. /., KiLnnees, kindness, 

mln, pert. pron. [gen. tg. of ic), of 

me, 2588, etc. 
mln, pan. adj. faen. >g. of io), 

htne, my, 255, eto. 
mluan, w. v., w. gen., miss, 2439. 
missflre, at. neut., half-year, 153. 
mUt-hUB, it. neat., uuT-slope, 

misty hill-side; dat. pi. mist- 

hleol>nm, 710. 
uihstlg, adj., misty, 162. 
mOd, s(. neut.: 

(11 mood, mind, etc., 50, eto. 

(2) courage, 105, etc.; moody 

pride, fierceness, 1931. 
mOd-oeam, it. /., mood-caee, sor- 
row of mind or heart, 1992, 

mSdega, mSdgan, etc., see mSdlg. 
mfldgehygd, it. nevt., mind- 

t bought, 233. 
mod-g-ettonc, it. neut. , mind-thought, 

mfld-glomor, adj., sad in mind or 

heart, 2894. 
mOdiK, adj., weak mod(i)ga, mo- 

dega ; gen. m. mM(i)ges ; pi. 

m5d(i)ge: moody, brave, proud, 

312, 502, 670, 1508, 1888, etc. 
mOdlg lie, adj., [moody-like]. 

rartdlg-llera, eompar., braver, 

prouder, 337. 
mOd-lu/u, ic./,, [mood-love] heart's 

love, 1823. 
mSdor, it./., mother, 1258, eto. 



raoriSor, it. 

at. /., [HOOD-]diiring, 

no; dot. ig. men(n) ; pi. men: 

kan, 36, 1943, etc. ; weal; occ. tg. 

mannon, 677. 
nun, nun, indtf. proa., one, (hey, 

people, 1172, 2355, eta. 
mOtu., u. m., moon, 94. 
mon-cynn. man-uynn, st. neut., 

MAHEiNd, 110, 164, 196, 1956, 

mon -dream, man-drSaiu, it. tn., 

[m»k-dre*k] human joy, 1261, 

mon-dryhten, -drlhten, man dryh- 

ten, -drltrten, at. m., [MAN-]lord, 

eto., 436, 1229, 1978. 2865, etc. 
monig (raoneg-), manlR (maneg-), 

adj., kant, 5, 75, etc. ; nom. mo. 

nig oft gessst rloe to rune, "man; 

& might; one oft sat in council," 

171. Often absolutely, 867, eto.; 

and with dependent gen. pi. 728, 

mon-frwire. adj., [M*N-]gentle, kind 
to men, 3181. 

mBr, at. m., uoor, 108, etc. 

morgan, mergen, it. m. , dat. morgne, 
mergenne : horn, morning, mor- 
row, 665, 837, 2*81, etc. ; gen. pi. 

moraa, 2450. 

morgan -ceald, adj., woBiring-coui, 

morgen-lgoht, it. neat., MOBsing- 

lmht, 604, etc. 
morgen-long, adj., HOBNing-LONO, 

morgan ■ a wag , * ! , m. , [ morn - e wough ] 

mom inn- clamour, 129. 
morgan tld, at. /., MOBWing-Tn>B, 

484, etc. 
mflr-liup, it. neut., moob- haunt, 

"eloping hollow on a mooraide" 

(Skeat), 460. 

morUor-hete, i 

HATK, 1106. 

"motan, tt.-v. v., may, be to, muss, 
186, 2836, etc ; prtt. moste, 168, 
2574, etc.; pret. pU raostan, 

munan, it. -v. v. 

ge-muuan, at.-io. t>., have in 
Mrad, remember; pre), gemon, 
geman, 265, 1185, eto.; pret. ge- 
munde, 179, 1141, eto. 

on-munan, tt.-v. i\, reMmd; 
pret. onmunde uric mearSa, "re- 
minded us of glory, urged us on 
to great deeds," 2640. 

mund, it. /., hand, 236, etc. 

mnnd-bara, w. m., [hand-BBiner] 
protector, 1480, etc. 

mund-grlpe, tt, m., hand-oiup, 380, 

muBa, to. in., 
muS-bona, v> 

who slays by biting, 2079. 
myndjrlait, w. v., call to »bb; 

(1) with gen., remember, 1106. 
(2] remind, 2057. 

ge-myndglon, w. v., bring to 
MIND, remember; pp. gemynd- 
gad, 2460. 
myne, at. m. : 
<l) wish, hope, 2572. 

(2) love; ace. ne his myne wisse, 
"nor did he know his love," 

mynl&n. w. v. 

mindful of, 659. 
myntan, u: v., be winded, intend, 
718, 731, 762. 


myrce, adj., murky, 1405. 
myrtj, it. /., hihth; ilaf. modes 
myriSe, de gaieU de camr, 810. 


ni, nci/. a(!i'. , never, not at all, not, 

445, 567, etc. 
naca, w. m., balk, craft, 214, 295, 

1896 ; dat. 1903. 
nacod, adj., naked, 689, etc. 
mebbon, 1850, = ne hiebben, see 

nssfne, see iiefhe. 
n»fre, adv., nevbr, 217, etc. 
nEsan, w. v., greet, accost, 1318. 
ge-nwgan, to. v., assail ; jji-o(. 

pi. geniigdan, 2206 ; pp. gennged, 

lusgl, st. in., nail, 985. 
nagllan, w. v., sail; pp. naegled, 

"nailed, riveted, studded," 2028. 
nSnlg ( = ne tenig), adj.-pnm., not 

ant, none, no, 859, etc.; with 

h, nea. odu., I 

it, not at all, 562, 
a, headland, 1439, 

nms-bliU, it. neat., NBas-alope, head- 
land -elope ; dat. pi. nsos-hleo'Sum, 

nUk,=ne ah, aee Sgan. 

1513; with 2215, 2063,eto. 

ne, nej. particle, Not, 38, 1884, etc. ; 

doubled,, 162, 245-6, 

etc.;, 2124;, 

utT. 205 

1508. Special pottage: 1604 
(aee note). O/ten /oumi in com- 
petition with verbi, e.g. nah, 
nebben, nips, nolde, nit, etc., 
for which tee agan, babban, we- 
ean, willan, witan; in compoiititm 
■with a, Snig, etc., it forme the 
wordi na, nlBnig, etc, [q. v, ). 
Correlated with ne or another 
negative, not... nor, neither. ..nor, 
etc., 511, 1082-4, eta.;, 1100-1;, 168-9, 
575-7, etc;,ne, 
1392-4, 1735-7; nSfre, 583 
-4, 718;, 3015-6. 
Correlated with a doubled ne- 
gative: ne ne...nSuig, 154-7; 

ne, 858-60. 

nSah, adj., nigh, near, 1743, 2726; 
with dat. neh, 2411. 

uleblt, njhst, tuperl., [nkxt] 
last, 1203, 2511. 

naah, adv., niqh, near, 1221, 2870; 
with dat. 564, 1924, 2242. 
naar, compar., NEABer, 745. 

nsallw, etc. ( = ne ealles), adv., not 
at all, by no means, 2145, etc. ; 
nallea, 338, etc.; Dallas, 1719, 
etc; nalea, 1811; nalaa, 1493, 
etc.; uulais, 43. 

nSan, nSon, adv., from nioh, from 
near, near, 528 (at close quarters), 
889, 3104, etc. 

nearo, st. neut., [narrows] atraita, 
distress, 2350, etc. 

nearo, adj., narrow, 1409. 

nearo- craft, at. m., [narrow -craft] 
inaccessibility, 2243. 

nearo-nui, et. m., [narrow-fob] foe 
causing distress; gen. nearo- 
faftes, 2317. 

nsaro->earf, at. /., [NABBOW-need] 
dire distress, 422. 

nearwe, adv., narrowIv, 976. 

□earwian, w. v., [narrow] straiten, 
press; pp. genearwod, 1438. 

nafa, to. m., nephew, 881, etc.; 
grandson, 1203, 1962. 


(2) In elliptical, leniences. Kith 
'IKtui-prepuiitioml force, Unless, 
save, 1984, 2151, 2633. 

1097, 3069. 
noma.*, prep., with da:., except, 

namita, can]., see nefne. 
nSod-ldSu (= nied-laSn), tL /., 

pressing (invitation) summons ; 

dot, rafter neod-laSu, "after the 

pressing summon! (Beowulf bad 

received)," 1830. 
nBon, see n£an. 
neoe(i)an, nios(i)an, id. v., with 

gea., visit, revisit, attack, 115, 

125, 2388, 2671, etc.; pret. 3rd 

mora'S, 2186. 
nSotan, »t. v., use, enjoy, 1217. 
bH-n8otan, bi-nSotan, it. v., 

with aec. peri, and dot, rei, de- 

, steep; pi. neowle, 

(1) inlram. survive, escape, 999. 

(2) trail*, survive, escape (from), 
1977, eta.; pp. genesen, 2397. 

(1) with ace., dare, encounter, 

(2) with dot., risk, 510, 538. 
ge-neflan, v>, v.: 

(1) with ace. hazard, dare, ven- 
ture on, brave, 888, 959, 1656, 
1933, 2511. 

(2) with dot. risk, 1469. 

nlcor, at. m., dicker (aea-monster), 

422, etc. 
nlcor-hus, it. neut., sicker-house, 

cavern of a sea-monster, 1411. 
nlenat, see nSah, adj. 
ingen, num., nine ; inflected, 575. 

niht, ft, /., hioht, 115, 1384, ate.; 

gen. (m.) nibtes, 3044. 

nihtes. gen. (m.) wed adverb- 
ially, of a NIQBT, by night. 422, 

2269, etc 
Bint-Main, it. neut., night-bale, 

evil at night, 198. 
nlht -halm, * t . m. , nioht-h k l« , night, 

nlht- long, adj.. niqht-lono, 538. 
nlht-wooro, >t. neut., nwht-wobk, 

nlraan, it. v., take, seize ; pre*. 3rd, 

nimeS, nymeS, 441, 598, etc.; 

pret. eg,, nam, nora. 746, 1612, 

etc.; pret. pi. naman, 2216; pp. 

(ge)numen, 1153, 3165. 
be, tt. v., deprive; pret. 

benam, 188b. 
for -nl man, «l. c, oarrj off ; 

pret. foraam, -namon, 488, 2828, 


gs-nlman, n. v., take, seize, 

take away, clasp; pret. genam, 

genom, 1872, 2776, eta. 
nlod, «./., pleasure, delight, 2116. 
nIoa(l)an, see nBosjijan. 
nlotfor, see nlHar. 

ve, preserve, 572 ; nlpai 

., darken, 547, 649. 

BIB, et. m., envy, spite, malice, bate, 
violence, war, contest, conflict, 
struggle, 184, 827,882, 2817,2850, 
2397, 2680, etc.; affliction, 423. 
Gen. pi. uted inttrumentally, in 
fight, in war, by force, 845, 1489, 
1962, 2170,2206. 

nlfiaa, see nltffias. 

nlS-draca, v. m., [envy-uaiKE] 
malicious dragon, 2273. 

nl>«r, nytJer, nlottor, adv., [neihkk] 
down, downwards, 1360, 2699, 

nHJ-gJBSt, it. in., [envy-ouKSTj mali- 
cious guest, 2699. 

nlB-geweorc, «t neut., [envy-wonx] 
wort of enmity, deed of violence, 


nlB-heard, adj., war-mno, hardy 

in war, 2417. 
nA-aMlg, adj., war-minded, 3165. 
nIB-sele, it. m., hostile hall, 1613. 
nitfoai, nlSaa, it. m. pL, men, 1005, 

uTwe, adj., HBw, 783 (startling), 
919, etc.; dat. weak nlwan, nlo- 
wan, Sterne, "anew," 1789, 2594. 

nlwlan, to. v., reNEw; pp. genlwod, 
geniwad, 1303, 2287, eto. 

nl w-tyrwed, adj. (pp.), hi w-tabbbd, 

nOn, .t. /., 

[hook] ninth 


3 j>.m., 1600. 

norB, adv., hobth, 858. 

iiorKan, adv. 

, from the norti 

i, 647. 

none, »./., [nose] naze, cape 

, 1892, 


nOttar (=ne 

a hwaritor), adv 


nil, in Jr., hoi 

f, 251, etc. 

nO, conj., H 

dw, new that. 

that, 430, 

etc.; corretaiD 

c with 

nu, adv., 2743-5. 
nj fl, at. /., hesd, oompnlsion, 1005, 

2454 (pangs), 
njdan, w. v., force, compel ; pp. 

genyded,2680i iTylected.genydde, 

1005 (»« gesacan). 
nja-bld, *(./., [NEBD-pledge] forced 

pledge, foroed toll, 598. 
njd-g*nealla,ic.m., seed -comrade, 

comrade in or at need, 

., [kbed-geif] dire etc 

nSd- gripe, « 

grip, 976. 
nja-wracu, it. /., [nebd-whace] 

dire ruin, 193. 
njhat, see nBaJi, ai!j- 
nyman, see nlman. 
nymffe, coiy., unleaa, 781, etc, 
nyt, «4j\, useful, of use, 794. 
aytt, it. /., doty, office, service, 

494, 31 16. 

nyttlan, w. v., with gen. 

ge-nyttUn, w. v., with ace, 
use, enjoy; pp. genyttod, 3040. 
nyBer, see nlUer. 

ft.nait., dread wohdbb. 

of, prep., with dat., from, 37, 56, 
229, 710, 1108, 1138, 1571, 
1892, 2088, 2743, 2789, etc ; of 
(after fit), 863,2567; out of, 419; 
off, 672. Special pottage: Sa 
he him of dyde, " then he doFFed," 

afar, prep., oveb, with ace. (of 
motion, etc.) and dat. (of rest) : 

(1) with ace, over, 10, 46, 200, 
217, 231, 239, 240, 311, 649, 859, 
9S4, 1705, 1717, 2259, 2980, etc.; 
against, 2830,2409,2589; of,2724; 
above, beyond, 2879; without, 685; 
of time., after, 736, 1781. Special 
pauaget: ofer eorfian, "on 
earth," 248, etc.; ofer wer-Hode, 

"throughout the nations of 
men," 899; ofer ealle, "ao that 
all could hear," 2899. 

(2) with dat., over, 481, 1244, 
1907, 2907, 2908, eto. 

Ofer, at. n., bank, shore, 1371. 
ofer-hygd, -li?d, si. /. neat., oon- 
tempt, pride, 1740, 1760. 

superior foroe, 2917. 
Ofar-mMum, it. m., [ovaR-treasure] 

very rich treasure, 2998, 
ofoit, it. /., haste, 256, 3007; dat. 

ofoste, ofeste, ofste, 386, 1292, 

2747, etc. ["BeitrSge" x. 505.] 
ofoit-lloe, adv., hastily, 8130. 
Oft, adv., oft, often, 4, 2029, 3019, 

oftor, Compar., 
oftiost, euperL, o 
6-bwarr, fl-wer, adi 

1737, 2870. 
ombaht, omblht, «t, m., servant, 

officer, marshal, 287, 336. 
omblht- pegn, it. m., attendant- 

THiHB, 673. 

Omig, adj., rusty, 2763, etc 


on, an (677, 1217, 1985), prep., on; 
with dat. and ace., unt. dat. of 
rett and ace. of motion, but in- 
itancet of the ace. are common, 
at will be seen, in which there it 
no laggeition, or the merest tug- 
gettion, of motion ; 

(1) with dat., of place and time, 
on, in, 10, 53, 76, 409, 607, 609, 
677, 702, 782, 847, 891, 926, 1041, 
1292, 1852, 1544, 1581, 1618 (a- 
gwimming), 1648, 1663, 1830 
(with respect to), 1884, 2197, 
2248, 2276, 2311 (upon), 2705, 
3157, etc.; after it, eme, 1985, 
2357,2866; in, among, 1557; at, 
126, 303, 575, 683, 3148; by, 

(2) with aee., onto, into, 36, 67, 
etc; on, in, 507, 516, 627, 635, 
708, 996, 1095, 1109, 1297, 1456, 
1675, 2132, 2193, 2690, 2650 
(with regard to; of. 11. 1830-1), 
etc.; of time, 484, 887, 1428, 
etc.; to, 1728, 2662, 1739 (ac- 
cording to); towards, 21. 
Special pottage, : 878 {tee sped), 
1579 {tee an), 1753 {tee ends- 
atari), 2799 (km feorh-legu), 2908 
{see efn), 2962 {tee wrecan); on 
gebyrd, "by fate," 1074; an wig 
gearwe, "ready for war," 1247; 
on ryht, "rightly," 1555; on 
nnriht, "falsely," 2739; on grip, 
"for a boast, oat of bravado," 
1749; on mlnne sylfes dam, "at 
my own disposal, ahoioe," 2147; 
W ic her on starie, "on which 
I am here gazing," 2796. 

on, adv., on, 3084 (see note). 

onoer-bend, at. m. /., anchob-band, 
anchor -chain, 1918. 

on-cMt(Bl, it. f., distress, suffering, 
830, 1420. 

end, eon}., and, 39, 600, etc. 

ond-long, and-losc, adj., liveLONo, 
2116, 2938; ace. m. Sa 
lra>gn...andlongne eorl alien cv- 
San, "then I learnt that the earl 

displayed unceasing courage," 

on-dryana, adj., terrible, 1932. 

ond-saca, to. m., adversary, 786, etc. 

ond-alylit, at. m., back-stroke, re- 
turn blow, 2S29, 2972. 

ond-iwarn, it. /., anbweb, 354, 
1493, 1840, 2860. 

flnettaji, to, v., hasten; pret. pi. 
306, 1803. ["Beitrage" i. 487.) 

ongSan, prep., aith dot., AOAINSt, 
towards, at, 1084; after itt cote, 
681, 2864 {tee foran); without 
object, 747 (or adv. = forwards). 

onllo-nas, si./., likeness, 1361. 

on-mMla, to. m., arrogance, 2926. 

on-sngT), adj., impending, fatal, 
2483; nam. pair was Hondscio 
liild onssge, "there was battle 
impending over Hondscio," 2076. 

on-sjn, an-sjn, tt. /., sight, ap- 
pearance, form, 251, 928, 2772, 

on-weald, it. m., [wiKi.iiing] con- 
trol, possessioQ, 1043. 

Open, adj., opkn, 2271. 

openUn, w. v., open, 3056. 

flr, st. nctit., beginning, origin, van, 
1041, 1688, 2407. 

ore, at. m., flagon, 2760, etc. 

orcuS, tt. m., sea-monster, 112. 

OTd, »t. neut., point, front, Tan, 
556, 2498, 2791. 

ord-froma, u. m., chief, prince, 

oret-mecg, tt. m., warrior, 382, 481, 
etc. [Sievers § 43, N. 4.] 

Cretta, id. m., warrior, 1582, etc. 

oreW-, see oruB. 

Or-feonne, oil) ..without f ood,famiBh - 
ing, destitute, 2385. 

or-leahtra, adj., blameless, 1886. 

or-leg, ni. neut., battle, war, 1328, 

orleg-hwll, st. /., battle- while, 
time of battle or war, 2002, etc. 

orpouc, or-htnc, if. m., [original 
thought] skill, 406; dat. pi. ad- 
verbially, skilfully, 2087. 

oruB, it. neut., breath, 2567; gen. 
oreSes, 2523; dat. oreSe, 2839. 


ox-wearde, adj., wutnless, un- 
guarded, 8127. 

OJMrtna, adjj. (vent form), with 
gen. , [wnmnle*s] hopeless, despair- 
ing. 1002, eto. 

ott, prep., w. ace., until, 3399, eta. 
on Wet. conj-, till, until, 9, eto. ; 
once. otSfi lust, 66. 

AVer, num. adj.-pron., othkb, (the) 
one, (the) other, the second, 
another, 219 (see note), 603, 869, 
1133, 1300, 15S3 ((« Hwylo), 
1765, 9117, 3461, 2481, 2670, 
2983, etc.; carrel. bBcr...o$er, 
"one...theother,"1849-51. Neat, 
pi. SSer, 870. Special pottage: 
ealo-drinoende oner smdan, " the 
ale-drinkers told another tale," 

ooU, eee off. 

oBBe, con;.: 

(1) or, 283, 649 (we note), eto. 

(2) and, 2475. 
flwer, see abwmr. 

0-wlht, pron., *uoht; dat. a whit, 

_189, 1237, etc. 
rtim, u. m., leader, 60. 
rand, seenmd. 
risiait, w. v., find, explore; pp. 

raaod, 2283. 
raffe, see biaSe. 
rtaflan, u. v., BMiTi, rob, plunder; 

pret. reafode, reafedon, 1212, 

2986, etc. 
be-rSaflan, ic. v., bkukavb; pp., 

with dot., bereft, 2746, eto. 
rtc, «t. m., bekh, smoke, 8155. 
rtoan, id. v., Kith gen., bice, care; 

pret. 3rd, recoct), 434. 
reccan, u>. v., relate, tell, 91; dat. 

in/, receenne, 2098; pret. rehte, 

2106, 2110. 
noed, at. ncut., house, building, 

hall, 412, etc. 
regm-heard, adj., [mighty-HAUD] 

wondrous hard, 326. 
regnian, rflnlan, v>. v., prepare, 

adorn, 2168; pp. geregnad, 777. 
rfln-waard ( =regn-), it. m., might; 

WABoen, might; guard, 770. 
r6oc, fierce, 122. 

jpret. geriahte, 656, 2 
nad, »t. m., [bjlde] advice, i 
help, benefit, gain, 172 
1376, 2027. 

counsellor, 1836. 
Radend, tt. m. {pret. 
(God), 1666. 

i, Ruler 

_exalt, extol, 1703, 2983. 

_Blaught,''2356,V"" ' 

prive; pp., ace. tg. /., bsrotene, 
2467, 2931. 

reord, tt./., speech, 3556. 
roordlan, to. v., speak, croak, 3036. 
gB-reordlan, it. v., prepare a 

feast ; pp. gareorded, 1788. 
rtot, ft. m.T/.T, revel, 3457. 
raotan, at. v., weep, 1376. 
restan, a. v., best, cease, 1799, 

1857, eto. 
rSVo, adj., fierce, furious, 122, eto. 
rice, it. ncut., realm, 861, etc 
Mm, adj., BiOB, powerful, might;, 

172, 810, 399, eto. 
ricone, adv., quickly, 2983. 
rloHan, rfxian, ». t>., reign, rale, 

domineer, raid, 144, 3311. 
rtdan, tt. v., kiqh, 234, 1883, etc.; riodan, 3169. 

ge-rtdan, it. v., with ace., Brum 


rldsnd, it. m. (prei. part.), aroer; 

for them so that they were 

pt ridend, 24S7. 

masters of the Geld," 2983; so 

riht, it. runt., bight, 141, 1700, 


etc.; ace. on lilit. "rightly," 

ge-rfman, id. v., make roomj-, 

16S5; dot. after rihte, "in ac- 

prepare, 1066. 

cordance with right," 1049, etc. ; 

ace. pi. ealde riht, "the old 


laws, the ten commandments," 


■lean. it. v., strive, 439. 

rihte, adv., biohtI;, 1696. 

gfl-aaoan, »f. v., gain bv strife ; 
inf. ac gesaoan Bceal...nyde 

rim an, id. v., [■ana] oonnt, num- 

ber; pp. gerimed, 69. 

genydde iiit'Sa bearna...gearwe 

rinc, it. m., man, wight, warrior, 

stowe, "but he shall gain by 

399, 730, 741, eto. 

strife the inevitable prepared 

riodan, nee rldan. 

place of the children of men," 

rlaan, it. v. 


a-rIXar.,*f.i:., abibe,399, 2403, 

on-iacan, it. v. : 

rortor, it. m., sky, heaven, 310, 
1376, 1566, 1672. 

rtf, adj., strong, brave, renowned, 
1793, 1925, 2588, 2690; with 
gen. 682, 2084. 

rand, rand, it. m., shield, 231, 666, 
2673, etc. 

rand-wlga, to. m., shield- 
warrior, 1298, eto. 

nmd-tusbbend, it. m. [prtt. part.), 
[abield-HAving] shield-warrior, 


l, 612, < 


rflm, it. m., boom, space, 2890. 

rflm, adj., Hooiiy, spacious, ample, 
great, 278, 2461. 

rtm-heort, adj. , [boom -HBinr] great- 
hearted, bountiful, 1799, 2110. 

rfln, it. /., bunb, council, 172. 

letter, 1696. 
rdn-wlta, id. m., [rune-] wise man, 

councillor, 1326. 
rynt, see riht. 
ryman, w. v. i 

(1) make BOOMy, -prepare; pp. 
gerytoed, 492, 1976. 

(2) make boom, dear a way; 

S. 5a him gerymed weariS, \m\ 
; wasl-stowe wealdan moston, 
"when the way was made clear 

(1) tcith ace. peri, and gen. i 

attempt a person's life : pret. 

tubj. >atto feorea 

a peace-weaver should assail the 
life of a dear man," 1942. 

(2) with ace. rei and dat. pen., 
refuse, dispute, 2954. 

aacn, ft. /., strife, 1867, 2472; ace. 

esjee, 154. 
■adol, at. m., saddle*. 1038. 
tadol-beerbt, adj., biddije-bbiqhi, 

with a bright or splendid saddle 

(of. 1. 1088), 2175. 
us, tt. m. /,, sea, 679, 607, 2894, 

etc.; dat. pi. stem, 868, etc. 
i»-bftt, it. m., rea-boat, 633, 896. 
HHC, it. /., strife, fight, contest, 

968, 1977, 2029, etc.; gen. ig. 

secee, 600. Of. sacn. 

jnonster, 1510. 

MS-draca, is. to., sea-drake, aea- 
_dragon, 1426. 

uagan, w. v., cause to sink, lay 
_low; pp. gesmged, 884. 
us-KBap, adj., su-wide, spacious, 

us-ganga, to. m., BEA-goer, ship, 
1882, 1908. 


an -grand, tt. m., bea-qbotjnd, 

bottom of the sea, 
bjbI, at. meitf., hall, 307, etc.; ace. 

eel, 167. 

(1) time, season, occasion, oppor- 
tunity, 622, 1008, eta.; ate. ig. 

E rie, use. 

(2) happiness, joyance, bliss, 643, 
_eto. ; am pi. salnm, 607. 

ssa-lAc, it. neut., gBA-booty, 1624; Bli-lac,''sea-spoils,"1652. 

BM-l&d, st./., BBA-path, sea-voyage, 
1139, 1157- 

snlan, w. v., bind, tie, secure, 226, 
1917; pp. gesajled, "bound, 
twisted, interwoven, " 2764. 

on-aadan, to. v., unbind; tm- 
perat. eg. onssel meoto, "unbind 
thy thoughts," 489. 

anion, w. v., happen. 

go-sSlan, w. v., often impers., 
befall, chance, happen, 890, 
1260; pret. ig. me gesBlde fret, 
"it chanced that," or "I suc- 
ceeded in," S74. 

mid, it. neat., hall, 1280. 

BB-llSend, it. m. {pret. part.), sea- 
tarer; nam. pi. SE0-li5end, 411, 
eta. ; ue-IISende, 377. 

aSMSe (?), 3152, see note on 3166. 


an-meSa, adj., SBA-weary, 325. 
•sunra, com/par. adj. (without pot.), 

_worse, weaker, 953, 2880. 
ea-njaM, •(. m., bba-jtess, head- 

_land, 223, 571. 

aSnra, compar., slower, 1436. 
eSiinc, it. m., bea- warrior, 690. 
aa-sIS, tt. m., BBA-jouruey, 1149. 
•B-weall, *t. m., sea-wall, 1924. 

a»-wong, tt. m., BEA-plain, shore, 

BM-WUdn, tt. 771., SEA-WOOD, ship, 


sSlum, see bsL 

samod, see somod. 

Band, tt. neat., sand, 213, etc. 

sang, it. in., 80NO, 90, eta. 

air, it./, neut., bobe, pain, wound, 
787 , 975 ; nam. slo sar, 2468 ; ace. 
sire, "harm," 2296. 

air, adj., bobe, 2068. 

sSxe, adv., bobeIj, 1251, 2222, 
2311, 2746. 

Bftrig, adj., bobby, sad, 2447- 

sRrlg-rerS, adj., [soBHY.heart] sore 
at heart, 2863. 

BBrlg-m6d, adj., [sorry-mood] in 
mournful mood, 2942. 

sir-lie, adj., [bohe-liee] painful, 
Bad, 842, 2109. 

siwlDorend, >t. m. (pres. part.), 
[sovL-BBAsing] being endowed 
with a soul, 1004. 

alwol, st. /., soul, 2820, etc ; ace. 
gen. sawle, 184, 2422, etc. ; gen. 
sawele, 1742. 

Bawol-iaaa, nawul-lBaa, soulless, 
lifeless, 1406, 3033. 

sawul-drlor, it. neut., [souL-gore] 
heart's blood, life's blood, 2698. 

Bcacan, tt. v., pret. tg. sceacelS, 
2742, pp. soaoen, soeaoen, 1124, 
2306, etc.: bhaeb, go, depart, 
hasten, 1136, 2254, eta. Special 
passages: inf. Si com beorht 
scacan sunne ofer grundas, "then 
the bright sun came hastening 
o'er the plains," 1802; pret. 
strata storm Btrengum gebieded 
bcoc ofer scild-weall, "the storm 
of arrows, sent by the strings, 
flew over the shield-wall," 3118. 

Bc&dan, st. v. 

ge-scadan, tt. v., decide; pret. 
gesoed, 1556. 

Bcadu-hfllm, tt. 77i., [bhadow-helm] 
shadow- oovering, cover of night; 
gen. pi. scada.heuna geseeapn, 
" shapes of the shadows," 650. 

scam1(g)an, to. v., be asHAUBd, 
1026, 2850. 


)#,«* * Google 

212 beow 

under soeadn bregdan, "out 

under the shades, i.e. kill," 707. 
■oSadan-mSl, adj., curiously inlaid 

(sword) ; abioluteiy , 1939. 
soeadu-fc-ertga, u. m., BHsnow-goer, 

prowler by night, 703. 

■oeata,, sca>a, w. m., ecATHer, foe, 
warrior: nam-, pi. MaHn, 1303, 
1895; gen. pi. soeabena, 4, Boea- 
'5ona, 374. 

MMXu, a(. V., Wtffc dfl{., SCATHE, 

injure; pret. so5d, 1887. 

ge-scaaflan, »t. t'„ aiih dat., 
BCiTHB, 1602, 1687. Speciul pat- 
taget: pret. tg. se" *e him sire 
geBoeod, "who injured himself 
sorely," 2223; bill air gesood... 
Bald -hlafo riles )>am Sara ui&Sma 

mund-bora w»s locge bwile, 
" the old lord's (Beowulf's) sword 
had erewhile injured him that 
had been the protector of those 
treasures a long while," 2777. 

aoBawero, tt. m., explorer, spy, 

■cBawl(E)aa, u>, v., icjth.acc.,[sHEw] 
eepy, see, view, observe, 840, 643, 
1391, etc.; pret. pi. tub}, sceawian, 
3008; pret. pi. aoeawedon, 132, 
etc. ; pp. gesceawod, 3075, 8084. 

-KM, see -ocildaiL. 

seen, st. m., shir, 3118. 

tool, see aculaa. 

•cancan, a. v., setbk, pour out; 
pret. tg. soenote, 196. 

soenne, 10. /., sword-guard, 1694. 

-scSod, see -sceaSan. 

■ceolde, see ■onlan. 

-acSop, see -anyppan. 

■ceotan, it. v., shoot, 1744. 

ge-sceotan, st. v., with ace., 
shoot or dart into, hurry to ; 
pret. tg. bord eft geaceat, 2319. 
of-scSotan, tt. »., with aec., 

i, bill; pret. tg. ofscet. 

van, it. v., sbbab, out, 1287. 

Ko-soeran, it. v., sbbib, oat in 
two, 1526; pret. tg. gesoer, 2973. 

■osfflan, w. v., utu. icith dat., 
scathe, injure, 1514, 1524, etc.; 

abioluteiy, 243. 

ge-seoSSan, w. v., with dot., 
scathe, injure, 1447. 
•did-, see seyld-. 

actinia, is. tn., devil, 989. 

sdonon, see sclnan. 

•dp, it. neut., sHir, 302, etc ; dat. 

pi. flojpon, 1164. 
■dp-hero, tt. m.. Ban-army, naval 

force ; dat. soip-hcrge, 243. 
sdr, adj., shsbh, bright, 332, 496, 

979 ; weak gen. 1694. 
adr-nam, adj., bright -coated, with 

shining mail, 1895. 
MM, nee soeaSan. 
aoolde, eta., see aculan. 
scop, tt. vi., [ahaper] maker, bard, 

j dat. 

pi. aootenum, 1026 (see note), 
■erlfiui, tt. v., [bhetyh] prescribe, 
pass sentence, 979. 

forsnrlfan, $t. v., with dat. 
pert., proBoribe, 106. 

gfl-«crlfau, it. v., prescribe: 

assign to him triumph in battle," 

». nt., demon; dat. pi. 
im ond scinnum, "from 
demons and devils," 939. 


flcfl&u, it. v., with ace., shove, 
launch, 215,918; pret. pi. sonfnn, 

be-BcOfan, et. v., with ace, 
shove, cast, 184. 

wld-Bottfan, sf.i'., [wide-shove] 
scatter; pp. wea wid-BCofen 
witena gehwylcne, "woe [had] 
scattered each councillor," 936. 

■colon, st.-w. v., pre*, sg. lit, 3rd 
Meal, 20, etc., seel, 455, etc., 
eoeall, 2498, etc. ; pre*, ewbj. 
style, 2657, scilo, 8176; prei. 
BColde, 280, etc., soeolde, 2586, 
etc.; 2nd sg. aceoldest, 2056; pi. 
scoldon, 41, eta., seeoldon, 2257: 
shall, be to, must, have to, be 
obliged, ought, 24, etc., pret. 
siioclb, was to, etc., 230, 1067, 
1260, etc.; sometime* expressing 
mere futurity, 384, etc. With 
/oil. inf. omitted: une sceal worn 
fela mitma gemanra [wesan], 
1783 ; arum saeal sweord ond 
helm.. .bam gemauie, "to ua both 
shall one sword and helmet 
[be] in common," 2659 ; aoeal ee 
hearda helm... f Stum befeallen, 
2255 ; bonne Sil forS noyle [gon- 
gaa], 1179; to, 2816. Special 
pottage; he gesaoean aoeall hord 
on hnman, "it is hid to seek the 
hoard in the earth," 2275. 

senr-heard, adj., [bhoweh-hard] 
hardened by being plunged into 
cold water, 1033. Of. "the ice- 
brook's temper," Othello,?. 2. 253. 

Bcyld, it. m., bbibld, 325, etc 

Bdld-waall. st. m., aatBLD- 
wall, wall of shields, 3118. 

■cyldaa, io. v., shield : pret. nynrSe 
mee God Bcylde, "unlesa God 
had shielded me," 1658. 

acyld-freoa, vs. m., bhtrij> -warrior, 

Bcylillgr, adj., guilty; with dot., 
synnnm scildig, 8071; with gen. 
1683; ealdres aeyldig, "having 
forfeited his life," 1338, 2061. 

ecyld-wlga, w. m., bhield -warrior, 

IBY. 213 

acyle, see Ionian. 

acyndan, u>. v., hasten, 2570, 918. 

■C*n«, adj., BHBEN, beauteous, 

Boyp, aee Bdp. 

aoyppan, st. v. , shape, create, make, 
78; pp. aoeapen, 2230; wees sio 
wroht scepen heard wiS Hugas, 
"the strife was made hard against 
the Hugs," 2913. 

ge-Bcyppan, it. v., shape, 
create, 97. 

Scyppend, $t. m. {pret. part.}, 
Shajet, Creator, 106. 

Bcjran, id. v., (make sheer] bring 
to light, 1939. 

■a, m., «*o, tic, /., bast, neut., de- 
mon, adj., the, that: m. se, 506, 
2237, 2999; /. sSo, 1343; sio, 
2684,2999,3150; neut. beet, 681 j 
initr. neut. by, 1664, 2028; gen. 
pi. pSra, 681, bslra, 992. Fol- 
lowing its noun: ace. m. |>one, 
2007, 2588, 2952, 2969, 3061; 
gen. pi. Vara, 2734. Alliterating: 
dat. m. biem, 197, 790, 806; ace. 
f. eg. t>a, 786, 1675; iwlr. neut. 
by, 1797; gen. pi. bftxa, 2033. 
Correl. with se used as a relative 
pron.: se...a§, 2865, 3071-8; seo 
...Bio, 2258. See alio t*. 

at, m., aeo, sio, /., part, neut., pron. 
I. Demon, pron., that, that 
one, he, etc.: nt. se, 469, 2406, 
2604; /. Bio, 2024, 2087; neut. 
best, 716, 734, 765, 1002 [set be- 
fleon); aee. m. pone, 8009; gen. 
m. and neut. btea, 1774; io 'Sens 
eallea mteg. . .gefean habban, "1 
can have joy of alljhat," 2739; 
dat. m. and neut. Inera, 12, bSm, 
187; ace. pi. ps, 3014; gen. pi, 
bare, 1015 (see note). Immedi- 
ately followed by the rel. par- 
tUle be (q. v.): nom. se pe, 90, 
441, 1497, 2222, 2292, 2864 ; ace. 
pone be, 2295, 3008, 8034, 8116; 
dat. bam be, 2601, 2861, 8055; 
pen. pi. bara pe, 98, 878, 1196, 
1461, 1678, 1625 ("of those 
things which"). With be omit- 


ted: }>ain = bam be, 3109, 3779. 
Corel, with se userf as a ret. 
jwwi.: se...Be, 2406-7. 
Pur ticular mages : 

(1) yen. neat. ba», of that, of 
this, thereof, for that, for this, 
therefor, 7, 16, 114, 350, 588, 
1145, 1693, 1778, 3033, 2339, 
3335; therefore, 900, 1993. Cor- 
Ttl. with |>Bt, ctmj., 3026-8, etc. 
See also bSM, adv. 

(2) irutr. neut. bp. K, therefore, 
1273,2067. CorreI.iMt«be,e<mj. 
(q. v.), 487, 1436, 2638. Often 
with comparatives, THE : 831,974, 
1902, 3277, 2687, 2749, 2880; no 
by »r, "none the sooner," 764, 

(3) itutr. neut. hoc; bon ma, 
"(the) more," 504; after ton, 
*' after that," 724; sr ton, "ere," 
731; be ton, "by that," 1722; 
tS bon, Nat, "until," 2591, 2845. 

'i alto u: 


II. Rel. pron., that, who, 
which, what; m. so, 143, 370, 
1610, 2407,2865, etc; le/orseo, 
2421 (se; abo be); neut. i>tet = 
"what," 15, 1466, 1748; m. 
ate. bone, 1354, 2048, 2751; /. 
ace. H, 2022; gen. neut. Oode 
banoode...biBB sc man gesprno, 
" thanked God for what the man 
spake," 1898; hea ioweae, "ac- 
cording to what I expect, as I 
ween," 272; to, 383; dat. ting. 
m. and neut. Hem, 310, 874, 1363, 
1688; Win, 2612; pi. H, 704, 
etc. Bee also Has, adv. 
Hbs be, see under baa, 

seftlda, etc., see Milan. 

sealma, u>. m., sleeping-place, 
conch, chamber, 2460. 

dealt, adj., silt, l'JH9. 

searo, »(. neut., armour, 329, 419 
(battle), etc.; dat. pi. adver- 
bially, aearwum, " cunningly, 
onriouBly," 1038, 2764. 

■aaro-band, tt.m.f., canning baud, 

tistioally coloured, variegated, 
waro-geknec, at. neut., heap of 
treasured of canning work, 3102. 
waro-gimm, it. m., canning gem, 
jewel of artistic workmanship, 
1157, 2749. 
learo-grim, adj., [canning-OHlir] 
cunningly fierce, or fieroe in 
battle, 594. 

]bend, it. m. {pre: part.), 
r-HATing] armour-bearer. 
r, 287. 

»t. neut., [canning- or 

armour-Hir] coat of mail, 406. 

awjo-nlC, tt. m., armour-strife, 

hostility, 582, 3067; ontuung- 

hatred, wile, plot, 1300, 2738. 

aearo-bonc, it. m,, canning thought, 

searo-wandor, it. neut., [onnning- 

wondes] rare wonder, 920. 
HIT, it. neut., hip-sword, dagger, 

aeoan, sScoan, w. v., 664, 187; dat. 
inf. to seoeanne, 2562 ; prei. pi. 
(fut.) seoealS, 8001; pret. pi. 
sohton, 389, sohtan, 2880: szk 
in its various meanings; visit, go 
e after; 756, 1879, 2788, 
friendly visit). 
, 3001 (of a 1 
attack); bonne his myne sohte, 
"than his wish (hope) bouoht," 
2275. Special passages: sawle 
seoan, "kill," 801; so, neoean 
sawle hord, 2422. 

g9-**c(s)an, us. v., 684, etc; 
dat. inf. to gessoanne, 1922; 
pret. pi. gesShton, 2926, gesoh- 
tan, 2204 : sees in its various 
meanings at above, 692, 1639, 
etc; often of hostile attack, 2515, 

ofsr-s8c(e)an, w. v., ovxntax, 
teat too severely; pret. ig. so He 
mean, geh wane. . .swenge ofersohte , 
" which with its swing overtaxed 
every swoid," 3686. 

, cunningly or ar- seog, it. i 

, etc., 308, 318, 


249, 402, 960, 2863, eto.; of 
GrendeVs mother, 1379. 

jock, st./., avoid, 684. 

Megan, to. v., 273, 590, 532, 1809, 
etc; Ait. inf. ts aecganne, 473, 
1724 ; prtl. pi. BBgdon, 377, ato. , 
Biedan, 1945; pp. gesmgd, gesajd, 
141, 1696; bat, speak. Imperf. 
with partitive gen. bwb ue aecg 
hwata secgende was liSra spella. 

Bale-rest, et. f. , liall-BEsi, bed ii 

hall, 690. 
aeleat, eta., gee under gOlru. 


., hall-T 

, BAT OD(, lie- 

v., bat, 2157; 

dare, 344. 


imperat. sg. ges&ga, iitsw. 
Beta, us. m., mind, soul, heart, 49, 

278, 473, etc. 
•Bft, compar. adv. (of eofte), sorrer, 

more easily, 2749. 
-segan, see -sSon. 
flegen, aae aagn. 
Beg-1, it. neut., HAH,, 1906. 

Hgl-rU, it. /., BAIL-B0AD, BOB, 1429. 

Mgn, at. m. neut., sion, banner, 
1204; ace. segn, 2767, 2776, 
aegen, 47, 1021; nom. sg. H wsa 
aaht boden Bweona leodum, segn 
Higel&cea, "then was pursuit 
offered to the Swedes' people, 

sol, compar. adv. (no positive , of. 
eSlra), better, 1012, 2687, eto. 

■OldU, adit., SELDOM, 2029. 

Bold-gnma, to. m., hall-man; num. 

19. ins pmt aeld-guma, "that is 

no mere retainer," 249. 
solo, it. m., hall, 81, 713, eto.', of 

the dragon'* cave, 3136. 
tile, eeeiSL 
sale-dream, st. m., [hall-CBEAM] 

hall-joy (in heavent), 2252. 
sele-ful, it. neut., hall-beaker, hall- 

eup, 619. 
sele-gyit, »t. m., hall-ooMT, 1545. 
B6le-r»dend, if. m. (prti. part.), 

[hall-ooansellor] hall-raler, 61, 


berlain, 1794. 

sale-weard, it. m., [hall- ward] 
guardian of a hall, 667. 

■elf, reflex, adj.; num. sg. self, 594, 
920, etc., eylf, 1964; weak selfa, 
29, 1924, eta., seolfa, 3067, aylfa, 
8054, etc.; ace. $g. m. Belfoe, 
2875, etc, sylfne, 1977; gen. sg. 
m. aelfea, 700, etc., sylfes, 3013, 
etc.; /. selfre, 1115; nom. pi. 
selfe, 419, aylfe, 1996-, gen. pi. 
aylfra, 2040; self, etc. Often 
absolutely 2222, 419, etc.; on 
tninne aylfea dom, 2147. Some- 
time) agreeing with the nom, in- 
stead of with the oblique case 
next to which it standi: J»u J»§ 
(dat.) self, 953; balm t>e him 
selfa deah, 1889. 

sella, see sBlra. 

Milan, ayllan, 10. v., [sell] give, 
give up, 2160, 1370, 1482, eto. 

ge-aelUn, w. v., [bull] give, 
1039, 1053, eto. 

sel-lio, syl-llc ( = seld-lio), adj., 
rare, Btrange, 2066, 2109, 1426. 

■yl-llan, compar., atrangsr, 

tilra, compar. adj. (no positive), 
batter, 860, 1384, 1468, eto.; 
nom. M,*. Bella, 2890. Absolutely 
|wt aelre, 1759. 

aflleat, superl., best, 146, 256, 
eto. Weak form reoed selesta, 
412 ; and often after the def. art. 
ae, 1406, eto. 

leraniuga, adv., forthwith, straight- 
way, auddenly, 644, 1640, 1767. 

undan, iv. v„ sknd, 13, 471, 

for-aendan, 10. v., bind away, 

on-iendan, w. v., send away, 
send off, 862, 452, 1483; with 
totS, 45, 2266. 

■endan, 10. 0., feast, 600. 

sSo, see ae, b8. 


216 BEOl 

•Coo, adj., WUSK, "sick unto death," 

1603, 3710, 3904. 
■wrfon, uvbh, 517; ace. aeofan, 

3195; inJUeted syfone, 8122. 
MoUh, sea Mir. 

(1) rest, ride, lie, stand, 803, 

(2) enfetter, fetter; prtt. tg. 100- 
mide, 161. 

•ton, it. v., ex*, look, 867, 836, 
etc.; inf. )«rmsfig...Beon, "there 
it is possible to eee, there may 
one see," 1865; prtt. pi. stegott, 

re-MO&, »f. v., see, 229, 1485, 
etc.; pre*. «3. 8rd gesyhlS, 2455, 
etc; gesfiwon, 221, etc., 
geeegon, 3128, gesegan, 3088; 
tubj. prtt. pi. gesawon, 1605. 

goond-Moa, it. v., in through- 
oat, see over; prtt. tg. ' ' 

ofer-aSon, it. v., 
vey, look on, 419. 

on -aeon, it. v., 
at, 1650. 

seonu, It./., BTHBW; 

owe, 817. 
bmVw, it. v., with aee., 

brood over; prtt. tg. i 

mod-oeare... seats, 190, 1993. 

aSowian, to. v., bkw, link; j>p. sho- 
wed (of a byrny), 406. 

seas, »t. m., seat, 2717, 2756. 

aStan, see alttan. 

MtJ, it. neut.. kettle, seat, 1282, 
1289, etc. 

sottan, vs. v., bet, set down, 325, 
1342; pp. geseted, 1696. 

1-Mttan, u. v., hit, set up, 
47 ; pp. rated, 667. 

about, 1463. 

ge-settan, vs. v.: 

(1) set, 94. 

(2) set at rest, 2029. 

sib(b), it. /., peace, relation, kin- 
ship, friendship, 949, 1164, 1657, 
etc; uninjUcttd ace. Bibb, 2600; 

dot. sibbe ne wolds wiS manna 
bwone, "would not out of com 
passion to any man," 164. 

alb-H6ellng, if. m., kindred-iTH»- 
libo, 2708. 

•lbne-gwlrlht, si. wal., kindred- 
band, band of kindred- warriors, 
887 (see note), 729. 

■Id, adj., wide, broad, large, ample, 
great, 149, 1291, 1726, etc.; 
vseakform* 1733, 2199, 2347. 

•Ide, ode., widely, 1226. 

■M-tWffme, adj., [wide-FATHoired] 
broad-bosomed, 1917. 

■U-naVnwd, adj. [pp.), [wide- 
fithomed] broad- bosomed, 802. 

ald-rand, it. m., broad shield, 1289. 

Hexbeiin, tt /., hipknife- wound, 
2904. From seax. 

■Igan, it. v., sink, march down, 
1251, 307. 

Ee-dgaa, it. v., sink, fall, 

adge-driliten, tt. m., victory lord, 
victorious lord, 391. 

ilfft IXUg, adj., victory-happy, 
rioh in victories, victorious, 1567. 

aigs-folo, it. neut., vietory-ioLa, 
viotoriotu people, 644. 

■Jge-hrMf, it. m. newt., victory- 
fame, presage of victory, con- 
fidence or exultation in victory, 

■ICe-hlMt;, adj., victory -exultant, 
exulting in victory, 94, 1597, 

■Igs-bwll, >t./.,victory-WHiLB; gen. 
ig. J>E6t >am bSodne woas sfSast 
sige-hwile, "that was for the king 
the last hour of victory," 2710. 

algal, at. m. neat., sun, 1966. 

■Ige-UM, adj., victory- less, of de- 
feat, 787. 

Slge-rflf, adj., victory -fumed, vic- 
torious, 619. 

■lge-Wod, it. /., victory-nation, 
victorious people, 2204. 

atffa-wapan, •*■ '«"'■■ victory - 
weapon, 804. 


■igle, tt. neat., Buu-shaped orna- 
ment, jewel, brilliant, necklace, 
1200, 1157; siglu, 3163. 

■Igor, tt. ntut., victory, 1021, 2876, 

■lgor-gaaig, adj., victory-blessed, 
rich in victories, victorious, 1311, 

■la, poi>. adj., his, 1507, 1960, Me.; 
her, 1931. 

■lire, it. neirf., treasure, jewelry, 
gold, silver, prize, 81, etc. 

sine-ant, it. ntut., treasure -vat, 
costly vessel, casket, 1200, etc.; 
ate. pi. aino-fato, 622. 

■lao-flg, adj., treasure- variegated, 
bedecked with treasure; icirai 
e-fage, 167. 

re, 1092, 

sJnc-gifa,, sinc-gyft, v>. m., trea- 
sura-oiver, 1012, 1342, 2311. 

atoc-maflSum, st.m., treasure -jewel 
(sword), 2193. 

slao-Jego, it. /., treasure- taking, 
receiving of treasure, 2884. 

■la-gal, adj., continuous, 154. 

■la-gala, adv., continually, 190. 

■la-gales, syn-galai, adv., continu- 
ally, always, 1136, 1777. 

■lagan, it. v., pret. song, sang: 
siKQ, sound, 496, 1423; pret. ig. 
hring-Iren scir song in searwnm, 
" the bright iron rings jiugled in 
the mail," 32S. 


sin-here, it. m„ [continuous army] 
army drawn out, very strong, 
immense; dat. sin-herge, 2996. 

aia-nllit, it./..- act. or oat. ig. sin- 
nihte, "night after night," 161. 

slo, see m, at, 

■iololl, st. m.f, still water?; gen. 
pi. oferswam ^fi aioleSa bigong 
■nan Eogteowes, "then E.'r son 
r the expanse of still 

ilttan, »t. «. ; pret. pi. n»ton, 1164, 
setan, 1602; pp. gesetan, 2104: 
bit, 469, 641, 2906, eta.; in/. 
eodon sittan, "went and sat," 

for-tlHan, «t. v., fail; prei. ig, 
3rd, eagena bearhtm forsiteS ond 
forsworceiS, "eyes' brightness will 
fail and grow dim," 1767, 

gs-slttan, it. v.: 

(1) inirans. BIT, sit together, 171, 
749, 1977, etc 

(2) trans, sit down in, 633. 
ofer-Wttatt, it. v., lciift ace, 

abstain horn, refrain torn, 684, 

of-srttan, st. u., mitk ate., bit 
upon, 1546. 

on sittan, tt. v., with ace, 
dread, 697. 

ymb-alttan, at. v., -with ace., 
bix about, sit round, 664. 

(1) way, journey, expedition, 

undertaking, adventure, 3068, 
765, 532, 2682, S18, 872 (ex- 
ploit), 908 (way of life), 1971 
(return), 2541 (way), 3586 

course), 3089 (passage), etc. 

2) time, repetition, 716, 1579, 
2049, etc. 
■US, eompar. adv. (pot. stS) ; mt 
ond bTS, "earlier and later," 

except the adv.), latest, 

iCTtft gen. """" ' ' ' 

BfSestan, ' 

sffi-ftet, it. m., expedition, 303; 

dat. slS-fate, 2639. 
sUS-from, adj., [journey-forward] 

ready for a journey, 1813. 
■Alan, to. v., journey, 720, 808, 


for-sTBlan, ic. v., [journey 

amiss] perish, 1650. 
■IWtaii, lyWtaa, seoBBan, adv., 

[srrHBNce] oiNOe, after, after- 


Binoe," 718. Correl. 
with RySSan, eonj., 2201-7. 

siCTan, 1788011, seoffiaa, eonj., 
[BiTHBHoe] BiNce, after, when, 106, 
US, 113, 850, 1148, 1204, 1689, 
1775, etc. With pret.=pluperf. 
1978,eto. With pret. and pluperf. 
BySSan meigen com, ond wc to 
eymble geseted hmfdon, 2103-1. 

•lSp, it. 771., bleep, 1251, 1712. 

•lnpsji, si. v., bleep; pret. part., 
ace. tg. m. slSpendne, 711, an- 
inflected, 2218; ace. pi. 1581. 

RlMW, adj., SLACK, 2187. 

■lean, tt. v.. pret. tg. sloh, slog. 1 
I. intrant, strike, 681, 1565, 


(1) strike, '2699. 

(2) bui, 108, 1152, 2050, etc. 
ge-slSan, St. v., with ace: 

(1) fight oat. 169. 

(2) gain bj fighting ; pret. pi. hie 
oa mSroa geslogon, "they gain- 
ed glory by fighting," 2996. 

of-BlSan. it. v., iut, 571, 1665, 

alttan, it. c, slit, tear to pieces, 

■line, adj., savage, hurtful, danger- 
ous, 181, 2398. 

sUSan, adj., dire, deadly, 1117. 

■mill, it. M., suiru, 106; nam. 
wmpna smiiS, "weapon-smith," 

smlttlan, v>, v. 

be-imlVian, 10. v., make firm 

by smith's work, 775. 
snail, adj., brisk, prompt, keen, 

bold ; -weak nam. *g. to. anella, 

snel-llc, adj., brisk, prompt, keen, 

bold, 690. 
snotor, snottor, adj. , wise, prndent, 

190, etc ; pi. aiioteru, 202, snot- 

tre, 1591 ; weak nam. tg. m. snot- 

tra, 1311, eta., snotra, 2156, etc.; 

abtolaUly, 1786, etc. 

anutor-Uoor, compar., more 
wisely, more prudently, 1812. 
anode, ode, quickly, 901, eto. 
snyrlan, 10. v., hasten, 402. 
snyttrn, ft. /., wisdom, prudence, 
1726, 912, 1706. 

■nyttram, dot. pi. used ad- 
verbially, wisely, 872. 

be-inyVUn, id. v., deprii 

BSone, "from that persecution," 
lomod, samod, adv., together, 1211, 
2196, etc; with wtgasders, 387, 

wmod, samod, prep., with dat.; 
somod (samod) Sr-dajge, " at 
dawn," 1311, 2942. 

jona., adv., SOON, 121, etc. 

■orn, tt.f., sobeow, 173, 119, etc.; 

obi. tg. Borge, 119, 2004, etc; 

dat. sorhge, 2468. 
BOrh-ooajlg 1 , aorg-cearig, adj., [sob- 

aow-ciHEful] sorrowful, heart- 
broken, 2155, 3152. 
Mrn-fnl(l), adj., bobbowul, 512, 

1278, 1129, 2119. 
■arh-leas, adj., bobbowlebb, free 

from Borrow, 1672. 
sorh-16oW, st. neat., BOftBOw-lay, 

lamentation, 2160. 
sorli-wylm, sf.Tii., [soaBow-wrajJng] 

surge of sorrow or care, 901, 

soft", tt. neat., BOOTS, truth, 532, 

etc; dot. to soSe, "for sooth," 

61, eto. 
boU, adj., [sooth] true, 1611, 2109. 
SoS-cynlng, tt. m., [Sooth -kino] 

God, 3065. 
sOBe, adv., [sooTHly] truly, 524. 

BoS-laWt, adj., SOOTHPABT, just, 


boB-IIco, adv., IsooTKLtJ truly, 141, 


flpM, st. f., speed, success; ace. on 
aped, "with good speed, success- 
fully," 673. 

spelH], *'• «*«(., bpell, story, tale, 
tidings, 2109, 2898, etc. ; ace. 
pi. spel gerade, "skilful tales," 

iplwan, it. v., spew; inf. gledum 
spiwan, "to vomit forth gleeds," 

sponnan, et. v. 

on-Bponnan, at. v., unspan, 
loosen ; pret. hie helm onapeon, 

■pOwan, it. v., impera., with dat. 
pert., speed, succeed; prct. ig. 
him wiht ne speow, "he had no 
success," 2854; hfi him fct Bate 
speow, "how he aped at the eat- 
ing," 8026. 

■pniC, It./., SPEECH, 1101. 

sprecan, specan, et. v., speak, say, 
631, 643, 1171, 1476, etc.; with 
foil, clause, gomele ymb godne 
on geador spraoon, J-ast hig, "old 
men spake together about the 
hero, [saying] that they," 159a. 
go sprecan, >t. v., speak, 675, 
1393, etc. 

aprlngan, it. v., pret. sprang, sprang: 
sprinq, 18 (spread), 1688 (gape), 
2582 (shoot), 2966 (sport). 

at-spring&n, it. v., spuing- 

forth; fret- ig. ntsprano, 1121. 

ge-springan, et. v., prtt. gc- 

sprong, geaprang: spring- forth, 

arise, 884, 1667. 

on-springsji, »(. v., bpbihg a- 
part, 817. 

•tail, it. m., place, stead, 1479. 
[Bievers g 202, N. 2.] 

wry on; pp. ge- 
I, rock, 887, 2288, 

Stan-fan, adj., [ stone -variegated] 

paved or inlaid with stones of 

various colours, 320. 
stftn-MlB, it neut., BTONB-slope, 

rocky slope ; ace. pi. stsm-hii'So, 

stapnl, at. m.. [staple]: 

(1) column; dat. pi. o*a atan- 
bogan stapulum feaste, "the 

Btone-axohes firm on columns," 

(2) threshold?, staple?; dat. ig. 
HroSgar . . .stod on stapole, geseah 
steapne hrof golde fahne ond 
Grendles Loud, 926. [Heyne 
translates: "stand an der hols- 
emen Mittelsaule Heorots." Bat 
on itapole will not bear this 
meaning, which further implies 
that Orendel's hand was up 
among the rafters, whereas there 
can be no doubt that it was set 
up as a trophy outside the halt. 
Bee 1. 983; of. the itoepot houses 
at the Cape; and see Earle's 
note, "Deeds of Beowulf," p. 

itarian, id. v., pre), ig. lit starige, 
starie, 3rd stara'5, prtt. starede, 
staredon: stake, gaze, 996, 2796, 
etc. Special paiiagc : )>tet hire 
an dteges eagum starede, "that 
he should stare on her by day 
with his eyes," 1935. 

■Map, adj., stj 

ataarc-heort, adj.. [stark-hkaht] 
stout-hearted, 2288, 2652. 

atede, it. m., btead, place; gen. pi. 
was Steda, niegla gehwylc style 
gellcost, "each of the places of 
the nails was most like to steel," 

stefn. it. m., stem (of a ship), 


■tarn, <t. m., time, repetition; dot. 

ig. nhnn (nlowan) atefne, "a- 

new," 1789, 2594. 
atafn, it. /., voice, 2652. 
•MUaii, te. v. 

on-stellan, ic. v., institute, let 

on foot, 2407. 
stepan, tc. v., emit, 1717. 

ga-stftpan, jo. «., eialt, sup- 

port;_pret. ig. folce gestepte... 

nana Ohteres, "he supported the 

eon of Ohthere with an army," 

pret. forS near wtatop, 745. 

ge-stcppan, it. v., bt»; pret. 
-pluperf. gestop, 4289. 

•Ok. «*■/-, P&th, 320, 2218; ace. 
pi. stlge, 1409. 

Mean, »t. v., [an] go, ascend, 
descend, 313, 23G, eta.; pret. H 
he ts holme »tig, " when be went 
down to the sea (to swim),'' 

p., ascend, arise, 

tag, 732, istah, 
gOS-rino astah, 

1878; pret. 
1160, 3144 
K* atlfptn, if. v., [stt] go ; 

pret. liniooTiholmgeatfth, "when 
I went onto the sea (into the 
ship)," 682. 

atLUe, adj., still, 801, 2880. 

sttncan, it. v., [stink] sniff, snuff ; 

pret. Btono, 2288. 

atnt, adj., stiff, stout, 1S38. 

stlS-mM, adj., [stifl-NOOD] stout- 
hearted, 2666. 

2760, 411, 726 (comej, 788 (arise)', 
2227, 10S7 (lie), etc.; pret. pi. 
stodon, 328, stodan, 8047. Special 
pastagei : llzte se leoma., leoht 
mne atod,"the beam shone forth, 
light filled the place," 1570; stod 
eldum on andan, "came forth 
for a mischief to men, " 2313. 

v., bt Aim, stand 
59, 1666, 2092. 

V., with STAND, 

1649 ; inf. heaSo-USendum hord 
foretandan, "defend his board 
against the ooean-tarers," 2966 ; 


weird from them," 

', march ; pret. storm, 

3696, etc. 
stflp, see iteppan. 

m., stohm, 1131, 3117. 
/., place, 1006, 1373, 

atrial, >t. m. /., arrow, shaft, 1746, 

strSt, it./., stbbbt, road, 330, 916, 

Strang-, see strong, 
stream, it. m., bibiim, flood, 213, 

aLregdaiL, v. v., strew; pp. atred, 

■trans, "- "'■< "tbthb, 3117. 
•trengwl, it. m., htboho ehief, 


_ o, $t. /., sinEsath ; ace. dot. 
strenge, 1270, 1533, dot. strengo, 

strong, Strang, adj., strong, 163, 
8684; witk gen. nuagenes Strang, 
" strong in might," 1844. 

strangest, tuperl., arnoNGBBT, 
1543 ; with gen. or dat. n 
mscgeue, strengest, 196, 789. 

steudan, st, v., spoil, plunder; rulg. 
pret. strode, 3073, 3126. 

strynan, w. v. 

gestrynan, ic. v., obtain, ac- 
quire, 2798. 

stund, at. /., time, hour; dat. pi. 
adverbially, nt\md\im," from time 
to time," 1423. 

style, >t. ncuC., ctbbl; dat. 986. 

stpl-ecg, adj., srEBL-iDaed, 1533. 

stfrnajv, m, v. 

be-styman, a. v., bestkam, 
wet, 486. 


i. pi., uncle 
and nephew, 116*. 

■Km, adj., son, one, a certain, 
2156, 8124. Although sum al- 
viayi hat the infi/ctiimi of an 
adj. (eeo 1. 1432), it U more often 
uied m&if antit)«%, or a* an inde/. 
prim., 125 1^ 14S2, 400, eta. ; neut. 
dh EoeaJ her dyine sum westU). 
"there shall be naught secret," 
271. Often with partitive gen. 
675, 713, 1499, eta.; tip. with 
gen. of nameralt and adjt. of 
quantity: fiftena sum, "one of 
fifteen, i.e. with fourteen others," 
207 ; io 3123, 1412, 2091 ; sunne 
feara, "one of a few, i.e. some 
few," 8061. In a few catet sum 
appeari to have a certain demon, 
force, 248, 314, 1812, 2279. 

■and, it. m., swimming, 507, 517, 
I486, 1618; sound, channel, sea, 
218, 1510, ate. 

■nnd-gabUnd, it. neut., [soond- 
blbhd] welter of the sea, tumult 
of the waves, 1450. 

timd-nytt. ft. /., [swimming-oae] ; 
ace. aiind-njlte dreah, "swam 
through the sea," 2360. 

■andor-nytt, it. /., speoial service, 

sundae, adv., sunder, 2422. 

enndwudu, it. nt., [eonsD-wooD] 
ship, 208. 1906. 

aunne, w.f., sun, 94, etc. 

■nun, it. m., son, 266, eta. ; dot. anna, 
1226, etc., sunn, 841. 

■QV, adv., south, southwards, 858. 

sutSan, adv., from the south, 606, 


I. adv. of manner and degree, 
so, thus, 347, 1142, 1843, 8069, 
eta. Special pottage : leng swa 
wel, "the longer the better, " 

II. conjunctive adv., an in its 
varioni meanings, 29, 490, 881, 


BOSS, 1667 (when), 2184 (since), 
etc. ; in elliptical, 2622 ; 
eft swa nr, 642; correl. with 
swa I. , 594, 1092-3, ate. Special 
pottage: bwS me Higelao tie... 
modes bllSe, "as may H. be 
graoionB to me, on coodition 
that H. be graoioos to me," 436. 
IIL = rel. prim.; wlite-beorhtne 
wang, awa water bebageS, "the 
beauteous- bright plain, which 

IV. conj., so that, 1508, 2006. 

swa Man, swi tfb, however, 
972, 2967, etc. j redundant after 
hwB'Sre, 2442. 

swl hwwBere sw&, which- 
soever, 686-7. 

nrt hwylo...swa, with gen., 
; 943, 8057. 

_ . *>. v., scorch, 3041. 

■was, adj., dear, own dear, 29, 

520, eta. 
•wmbIIm, adv., gently, 3089. 
swancor, adj., [swui] slender, 

■wan-rid, it. /., swan-road, sea, 

Bwapan, it. v. 

for -swapan, it. v. , sweep away, 

awoep off, 477, 2814. 

ond-swarlan, and-swartan, w. 

v., anbwkk, 258, 840. 
■wit, it. m., [swBir] blood, 1286, 

swat-mn, adj., [swa at -stained] 

blood-stained, 11 11. 
swatlB, adj., [sweaty] bloody, 1569. 
Bwat-swaBn, it. /., [swiAi-traok] 

blood-traok, 2946. 
swaCrian, w. v., subside; pret. pi. 

awaliredon, 570. 
nrarJn, [swath] it. f., track, 2098 ; 

ace. him slo swltfre swalSe weard- 

ade hand, " his right hand showed 

where he had been," 2098. 
swaUul, it. nt. neut.l, smoke, 782. 
sweart, adj., bwabt, black, dark, 

167, 3145. 


ft-swebban, uj. v., put to Bleep, 

appease, kill; pret. part. pl.Save- 

Me, 667. 
awefiui, M. p., sleep, sleep the sleep 

of death, 119, 1006, etc.; prtt. 

pi. Bwaifon, 703, swEefun, 1380. 
-swofede, see -swehbaii. 

swattrd-flmoa, w. m., a word -wolf, 
sword -warrior, 1466. 
iwyrd-glTn, tt. /., bwobu-oiv- 

low, 3438. 

ge-swencefl, pp. (of i 
or geewencan), made to toil, 
harassed, harried, pressed, 976, 
sweiyr, tt. m., swing, stroke, 1620, 

sweofot, i!. m., sleep, 1581, 329S. 
uweolotS, tt. m., Same, 1115. 
-aweop, see -nrtpaa. 
ItMHU, >t. v., grow dark, 1787. 
fOT-iwfeJorcan, tt. v., grow 

dim, 1767. 
ge-sweorcan. It. v., lour, 1789. 
nreord, swurd, Bwyrd, it, neat., 

hwokd, 437, 639, 3610, etc.; pL 

eweord, 3636, swyrd, 3048. 
sweord -bealo, it. neut. , swobd-balb, 

death by the sword, 1147. 

t. nt„ sound, ooise, 89, 644, 
it. neut., sky, 860, 1078, 

awalan, it. v., [bwkae] bam, 3718. 
twslgan, tt. u., swallow ; pret., 

with dot., Bwealh, 743, swealg, 

S15S; prtt. tub}., abtotutely, 

swnlge, 783. 
(ur-swelgan, at. p., swallow up, 

1123, 3080. 
Bwallan, tt. v., swsix, 3718. 
■weltan, if. v., die, 1617, etc.; with 

cognate dat. morSre, .de**e, 893, 


966, 1460.' 

1534, etc. 


fail, disappear, escape, 

., swing np, 

raft, M264 

SWitt, adj., swift; 
■wig*, adj., silent. 

swlgia, compar., sileuter, 

■wlglan, w. v., be silent; pret. tg. 

swlgode, 2897, pi, —■■■■■■■■ 

awiloa, aee swylce. 
swlmman, swymman, tt. t>. 

w. v., molest, oppress, 

., strike, bring 

of a boar on a helmet, lance 

helmet, 1111, 1386. 
■wlnean, tt. v., swine, toil, 617. 
swlngan, tt. v., swraa, 3364. 
swln-llo, tt. neut., swiNB-shape, 

image of a boar, 1468. 
swioBoI, it. m. Tir.ul.l, smoky glow, 

or the clear vapour just above 

the flame (V), 3145 (see note). 
SWTfi, sw?B, adj., strong, severe; 

nam. BwyiS, 191. 

swlBra, compar., stronger ; 

nam. fem. slo swiSre band, "the 

right hand," 3098. 
swlSan, s(. and w. v. 

ofer-swyBan, sf. andw. v., oyf.K- 

po wer, overeonie, 379, 1768. 
■WIS*, swjfle, adv., strongly, great- 
ly, very, 597, 1936, 3170, 3187, etc. 


fwTBor, compar., more greatly, 
more, more especially, rather, 
960, 1139, 1874, 2198. 

I WTC- forhB , swftt-f MhB, adj. , strong- 
souleti, stout-hearted, 173, 493, 
826, 908. 

swfflhlcgonrto, adj. ipres. part.), 
[strong- thin king J bold -minded, 
stout-hearted, 919, 1016. 

swlB-mM, adj., [strong- mood] stout- 
hearted, 1624. 

nrOffan, it. «., sound; pre: part. 


swyle, adj.-pron., scon, auoh as, as. 

L (=L. talis) such; 
(11 adj. 582, 1347, etc. 
(2) proa. 299 (with gen.), 996; 
gen. swuloea, 880 {see. hws) ; ace. 
6Ser Bwjlo iit offerede, "carried 
out and off another suoh [batch]," 

II. (=L. qualis] Bach as, 1166 
(with gen.), 1797, 2S69; ace. eaU 
gecUBlan...swylo him God Beside, 
"deal out all that God gave him," 

III. (— -L. talis... qualia) Bwylo 
...Bwyk, "auoh...M," 1249 (with 
gen.), 1328-9, S164. 


I. adv., as well as, likewise, 
113, 293, 2258, etc.; once uwilce, 

II. conjunctive adv., as, 757. 
swylt, el. m., death, 1356, 1436. 
Bwylt-d»K. -it. m., death-Dii, 2798. 

sylone, see seofon. 

-flyhfl, see -B6on. 

aylf(a), see sell. 

sju, et.f., bill, base, floor, 775. 

syllan, see Bellan. 

syllle, see selUc. 

lymbel, it. vent,, (east, banquet, 

664, 2431, etc. ; dot. symble, 119, 

2104, symle, 81, etc. 
symbel-wynn, it. /., feast-joy, joy 

in feasting, 1782. 
sym(b)lB, adv., always, 2450, 2497, 

symle, n., see symbol. 
syn byalg, adj., [bik-bosy] guilt- 
haunted, troubled by guilt, 2226. 
sya-doln, it.nait., ceaseless wonnd, 

incurable wound, 817. 
Ryndon, see wesan. 
■yiuralM, see tOngales. 
Bynglan, ib. v., SIS ; pp. gesyngnct, 

synn, it. /., Sin, crime, injury, 

hatred, struggle, 975, 1255, 2472, 

syn-scaBa, id. m., ceaseless scii'Her, 

perpetual foe, 707, 801. 
syn-nusd, it. /., [ceaseless bit] huge 

bit, 74B. 

sakk, shirt of mail. 

■wyn, see awln. 

swynsian, w. v., resound, 611. 

«wyrd, seeswoord. 
tiryS, see swflt. 
-■wyVan, see -swlBaii. 
swTfle, see iwIBe. 

syfan-wlntre, adj., bkvbn wnrr 
old, 2428. 

bo-syrwan, is. p., ensnare, 713; 
mtrive, 942. 
lyWan, a. e., avenge, 1106. 


te, assign, 313, 3018. 

tallan, w. v., tell, 532, 594 ; count, 
reckon, G77, 2027; pre*, ig. lit 
win io talige, "I reckon it a 
thing to be expected," 1845. 

tlar, it. m., tub, 1872. 


tela, adv., wall, 948, eta. 

794, 2181; pree. tg. let telge, 
3067. Special pottage: ac him 
wral-bende weotode tealde, "bat 
[if he did] he might reokon 
death-hands prepared lor him- 
self," 1980. 

tMh, (1. /., band, troop; dat. tg. 
teobhe, 2988. 

taohhlan, if. v., assign, 951; pp. 
geteohhod, 1300. 

■ - ■ i, draw, 1086, 653, 

veiled the ocean-way," 1061; to 
eft-srSa* teah, 1832. 

1-teon, it. v., [too] take; prtt. 
tg. beat was geooor slS, b»t (/or 
N) Be hearm-BoaJ>a to Heorute 
ateah, 768. 

gB-teon, et. i'., too, draw, 1646, 
2610; deliver, 1044. Special 
pottages : imperat. tg. no Bfl him 
weame geteoh -Slurs gegn-owida, 
" do not thon give them a refusal 
of thy replies," 366; pret. tg. 
hi: him ust geteah meara ond 
mitfma, "he honoured him with 
the horses and treasures, " 3165. 

of-tAon, si. v., too on or away, 
withhold; witfc gen. rei and dat. 
pert., 5; with dat. rei, 1520; 
with ace. rei, 2489. 

►nrh-toon, it. v., [too thbouob] 
bring about, 1140. . 
Hon, w. v., with ace., make, adorn, 

5roiide, 1452; prtt. pi. tSodan, 
ge-tton, w. v., do, 2296 ; appoint, 
tld, it./., mm (i.e. time), time, 147, 

ge-tldan, w. v., berujE, 2226. 
tU(l), adj., good, 61, 1260, 2721, 

with gen., [till] gain, 
., timbbb, build, 807. 

. 0., [BBTTHMtB] 

build; pret. pi., botiinbradon, 

Mr, it. m., glory, 1654. 
ttr-tadlf, adj., [glory- blessed] 

glorious, happy in fame, 2189. 
ttr-fSMt, adj., [glory-iABT] glorious, 

Hr-lSai, adj., gloryLase; gen. tg. 

absolutely, 843. 
"""" t., vith gen., 

" ~ne gctfSad, 

tS, prep., with dat., TO, at, for, 28, 
1578, 1983, etc: for, as, etp. in 
predicative date., 14, 61, 96, 460, 
910, 2998, etc. : for (with perianal 
object), 526; at, 374, 2B92; at 
(time), 36; in, 188, 647 (at); on, 
1138-9; by, 641; from, 1372, 
2922; with, 601, 1207 (from). 
Special usage I : 

(1) for, in adverbial phrases of 
time: tS aldre, 95S, 2005, 3498; 
to life, 2432; to widan feore, 

(2) to, with gerunds, 1003, eta. ; 
rarely with inft., 316, 2556. 

(3) Following if* case : him to, 
"to it," 318; 1896 («e« wenan); 
)>e bu her to locast, "on which 
thon lookest here," 1664; be os 
seceaS to Sweona leoda, "for 
whioh the peoples of the Swedes 
will oome against us," 3001. 

tO hwan, see liwi, hwnt. 

tS b»s, adv., so, 1616. 

tO Ha* K conjunctive phrase, 
to (the point) where, thither 
whence, 714, 2410, 1967; to the 
point (degree), that, 1585. 

to ken, adv., to that'degree, so, 

tfl km, >art, until, 2591, 2845; 

( 1) =preporition wi theut expreeetd 
object (cf. the particles of separable 
verbs inGeman) : therein, to him, 
to it, 1785, 2648, 1755; on, 1422. 


(2) too, before adjs. and advt., 
133, 137, 191, etO. Special 
pontages: to fela micles, "far 
too much," 694; he to forS go- 
atop, "he had stepped too far 
forth," 2289, 

US-R»dre, adv., together, 2630. 

togoanes, M-genes, prep., vrith 
dat., following its cu»e, Towards, 
aouNSt, 666, 1542 (at), 1626 (to 
meet). Special passage ; godum 
togsnas, "to where the good man 
lay dead," 3114. 

tt-geanes, adv.: grip ]>a togeanes, 
"then she clutched at [him]," 

tO-mlddeB, adv., in the midst, 

torht, adj.. bright, clear, 313. 

torn, >t. neat., anger, rage, 2401; 
insult, dintreeo, 147, 833, 2189. 

tornoat, super;., bitterest, 

torn-gemot, st. neut., [wrath-meet- 
ing] angry meeting, encounter, 

tO-aomna, adv., together, 2566. 

tradan, it. v., with ace., tbkid, 
1964, 1352, etc. 

treddlan, tryddlan, vj. v, intrant., 
toe ad, go, 725, 922. 

trem, st. neut. : ace. eg. adverbially, 
fotes trem, "a foot's breadth or 
space," 2525. 

trBow, it. /., moth, TButh, good 
faith, 1072, 2922. 

trtowan, w. v., with dat., tbow, 
trusit: pret. «g. gehwylo Mora 
his lerk^e treowde, "each of 
them trusted Unferth's heart," 

treow-loga, in. wt.,TRoth-Liar, troth- 
breaker, 2847. 

trod, it./., track, 848. 
tram, adj., strong, 1369. 
trflwian, w. v., with gen. or dat., 

trow, trust, believe, 669, 1998, 


ABT. 225 

with gen., 2322, 2540; with dat., 


(2) with ace, confine; pret. pi. 

getruwedon, 1095. 
tryadl&u, see tredOlan. 
trfwa, adj., tbob, 1165. 
twa, see twflgan. 

ge-twiefau, w. v., usu. with 
ace. pen. arid gen. rei, divide, 
sever, separate, restrain, 479, 
etc.; pp. getwaefed, "ended," 

twBgen, m., twt,/. amlneul., num., 
nunt, TWO, 1163, 1095, eto.; 
gen. twega, 2532; dat. twtem, 

twall, num., twelvb; gen., twelfo, 

tweonnm, dat. pi. of distrib. nu- 
meral: be (bl) Biem tweonam, 
"by the twin seas, i.e. berwBBN 
the seas," 858, 1297, 1685, 1956. 

tydre, adj., nnwarlike, 2847. 

on-tyhtan. w. v., entice, 3086. 
tjn, ten, 3159; inflected tyne, 

I. adv., then, 3, 331, 461, 465, 
536, 657, etc 

II. ret. adv. or conj., with indie., 
when, as, since, seeing, 201, 402, 
539, 632, 706, 1103, 1291, 1598, 
1818, etc.; carrel, with t>a above, 
723, 2756, etc. 

W, adj.-pron., see so, si. 
Ufa, THEM , see H, •>. 

I. adv., THEEB, 82, 831, 493, 

etc. ; unemp hatie (like mod. there 
with imptn. verbt) 271, 440, eto. 
For Iter on innan, 71, 2089, etc., 


226 beow 

n. rtl. adv., where, 286, 430, 
1007, 1079, 1394, etc. ; (to) where, 
856, 1313, etc.; if, 2730,1835 (?). 
With sua following: &er...swi, 
"wheresoever," 797; "if bo be 

k£ra, k»re, see m, at. 

bes, adj.-pron., see Be, s!. 

bas, adv.; 

(1) therefore, 900, 1992; see •*. 

(2) bo, 778, 968, 1367. 
Nk conj. : 

(1) as. 1311, 1350, 3000. 

(2) becauae, 108, 228, 638, 1638, 
1751, 1998, 2797; eorrel with 
preceding bees, 1779. 

t6 Mm ka, see to. 

Mat, aaj.-pron., iee m, bb. 

km, conj., that, so that, 63, 1367, 
1664, eto. ; until, 84, 1818 (?), 
1911, 1939(f); in that, 3036; 
often correl. with the demon, neul. 
pron. bat or ba» (see ae), 778-9, 
1691-8, 1698-9, etc. ; repeated 

tot ba, eoaj., that, 1846. 

hartte (= bet ji), con}., that, 151, 

baflan, us. c, jeffft occ, consent to, 

submit to, 2968. 
-bah, see -Megan. 

(1) with gen. ret, tbihes, 928, 
1997, ete. 

(2) content?, favour ? ; dot. tg. J>a 
Se gif-Bceattas Qeata ryredon 
pyder to banoe, 379. 

kanc-hycgende, a#. (pro. part.}, 
[thought-thinking], thoughtful, 

bandsji, w. o., thank, 626, 1397; 

pre*, pi., bancodon, 1936, ban- 

oedon, 227. 
►anon, see konan. 
kbk, soe se, si. 
bas, see bat. 
H, rri. particle, indecl., who, that, 

which, ete. 

(1) Alone, 193, 500, etc.; 

865, 3183; dal. ty. 3400, 3001; 
nam. pi. 45, ete.; ace. pi. 2490, 
2796;a«n.pi. 950; begebwr 
on standaS, "in which ye stand 
there," 2866; to 1654. Special 
patiagei : hco ba fShSe wnec, 
>e J>u gyatran niht Grendel 
owealdest, "she avenged the 
fend, in which thon killedst 
Grendel yesternight," 1334; mid 
Here sorhge, be him slo ear 
belamp, " with the sorrow, where- 
with that blow befell (afflicted) 
him," 2468. 

(2) Immediately preceded by re- 
dundant se, seo, best, etc.; si be, 
103, 1360, 1342, 1449, 1462 
(antec. amgum) ; se be for Heo 
pe, 1344, 1887, 2686; seo bo, 
1445; Sone be, 1064, 1298, 2066, 
2178; pi. ba he, 1593. Correla- 
tivet: be, 506 (followed 
by verb in 2nd pers.) ; sSo hand be, 1343-4; sfo hond...sS 
be, 2684-6; beat ys slo tnbXo 
ond se us seceaiS 
to Sweona leoda, "that is the 
feud and the enmity for which 
the peoples of the Swedes will 
come against us," 2999-8001. 
N.B. After pint be the verb it 
often in the tg.: 843, 996, 1061, 
1461, 3130, 2361, 2388. 
(8) Followed by redundant hS ; 
ace. tg. m. be bine deaS nimeS, 
"whom death will take," 441. 

Nob be, see bas, adv. 

Hot be, see bart, conj. 

bBan be, see Wan. 

fortton be, see forbam. 

t« kM ba, see W. 
kg, pers. pron. (ace. and dat. of ba), 
thbb, to thee, etc., 417, 523, 525, 
eto. With a comparative, than 
thou, 1860. 
kB, demon, pron., see si. 

) that, so that, 243 (tpouiblg 


dat. of the rel. particle t>e, "be- 
cause of which," antecedent »g- 

-reah, aee Hcgsji. 

Hah, conj., twu. uritA suftj., rarely 

vtith indie.; though, although, 

203, 2855, 2467, etc.; once J>eh, 

1613 j |>eali io aa! meege, "al- 
though I may," 680. 
►Call K conj., '«"• witA iu4j., 

thoooh, although, 1167, 1716, 

2481, 2838, etc. 
Hah. adv., though, yet, however, 

swa Matt, Bee bw1. 
Hart, tt. /., need, 201, 1477, 1797, 

etc.; aec. fremraaS gBna leoda 

>earfe, "fulfil still the people's 

Deed," 2801. 
Haif, v., see Hrfan. 
Harfa, w. m., n. or adj.: eernes 

ttarfft, "shelterless," 2226. 
(p;-)>earnan, is. v., necessitate, 

render necessary ; pp. ge^earfod, 

pearls, adv., severely, hard, 560. 
^aw, if. m., [ihew] custom, 176, 

etc.; dot. pC "in good onstoras," 

tee, pert. prim, (archaic ace. of ]>fi), 

thee, 947, eta. 
tocoton, w. v., [thatch] cover, 

enfold, 3015; met, pi. Hhton, 

Hgs, it. m., thane, 194, 400, 1230, 

etc.; used of Beownlf, 194, eta., 

Hengest, 1086, Wiglaf, 2721, 


w for oi 


i, 131. 

HfcTon, Hgnn. see Megan. 
Mb, see Xah. 
Hhton, seeHoaaan. 
Hnc(e|an, w. v., think, intend: 
luu. let t Ji fallowing inf., 355, 448 

(fut.|, 739, etc.; wii/i dependent 
clause, 691; oo*c7u(elu, 289, 2601 
{«* onwenden). 

»-Hnc(e)an, id. p., think out, 
intend, 2643. 

g«-Hnc{e)an, to. e., with ace., 


thihx, think of, 1474 ; inf. his 

...ende ge>>enoean, "think of the 

end thereof," 1734. 
Hnden, adv., yet a while, 1019. 
Hndes, conj., with indie, or tubj. 

while, whilst, 30, 1224, 2985, etc 
teagel, et. m., prince, king, 1507. 
JArdan (= l>egnian), w. v., with dat. 

serve, 560. 
Hod, >t. /., people, nation, 643 

1705, etc. 
Hod-cyntng. -kynlng;, Hod-oynlng, 

people', 2, 2144 (Hrothgar), 2579 
(Beownlf), 2963 (Ongentheow), 

Hoden, Modes, it. m., prince, king, 
34, 797, 2336, 2666, etc.; dat. 
Nodne, 346, etc., Hoden, 
pi. Hodnas, 3070. 

Hoden-leas, adj., prince- lebb, with- 
out one's chief, 1103. 

Woil geatreon, et. neut., nati 
treasure, national possession, 

Hod-kynlng, see Hod-cyulng. 

Hod-tceatla, w. m., nation-scATi 
national foe, 2278, 2688. 

Hod-Ma, it- /., national misery, 

Hot, at. m., thief, 2219. 

Hon, tt. v., thrive, sneoeed, 8 
pret. ig. huru J>«t...iyt manna 
)>jih, "this indeed has prospered 
with few men," 2836. 

ge-Hon, it. v., thrive, 25, 910; 
imperat. so., 1218. 

OB-Hon, it. v., thrive; met. 
ig. he Jjfes ear on^ah, "he there 
fore throve erewhile," 900. 

Hon (=)>ywan), a. v., oppress, 

Hostre, adj., dark, 2832. 

How, et. m., slave, 2223. 

Ha, Hoa, H>, demon, adj., tbih, 
411, 484, etc.; iiut. nevt. bye, 
1395; ace. eg. in., Kane, 75, 
(■yens, 1771 j gen. eg. m. and 
neat. >iases, 1216, J>ys*ea, 790, 
806; dat. tg. neat. Hsstim, 1169, 



Jiynsiim, 203'J ; dat. pi. tysBmn, 
1062, 1219. 

Hcg(e)an, »t. v., with aee., .seize, 
take, partake of, eat, 736, 1010; 
pret. pi. iridic. tegun, 2638, n%. 
tegon, 663. 

ge-Hcgan. at. v., with aee., 
lake, receive, 1014; prtt. tg. ge- 
Hsah, 616, 628; ge)>ah, 1024. 

Hn, yoM. adj., thine, thy, 267, 
2131, etc. 

Nnc(e)an, see toucan. 

Hug, It. neat.,THiNO, matter, affair, 
409, 426; jen. pi. ienige tinga, 
"by any means, in any way, on 
any condition, at all, " 791, 2374, 

tlngan, w. v., determine, appoint, 
1938; pp. wiste to Hem ahlatcan 
...hilde gc tinged, "knew that 
battle was in store for the 
monster," 647. 

ge-Hngan, ic. v., toithreft. dot., 
take service; pres. pt him bonne 
Hretric to hofum Grata getingeK, 
" it then Hrethric enters into 
service at the Geats' court," 


(1) address, speak, 1813. 

(2} compound, settle, allay, 156, 


Hi, demon, adj., see hsi. 

H», demon, prim, neat., this, 290. 

Hdlan, io. v., [thole] endure: 

(1) t 

i, etc 

(2) iniram. 2499. 
ga-Kduui, w. t>. t [thole]: 

(1) tram., endure, 87, 147 ; dat. 
inf. to getolianne, 1419. 

(2) intrant., wait patiently, 3109. 
H>n, prim., see si, 

tfl ton, adv., to that degree, 
so, 1876. 
Ul Hm, Net, until, 2591, 2845; 

H>n, adv., then, 2423. 
tonan, H*non, Huian, tauon, adv., 
TBENce, 819, 520, 1205, 1292, 

etc. ; tometimtt of pergonal origin, 
1960, etc 

►one, see se, ne. 

tonne, adv., then, 377, etc.; re- 
peated, 1104-6. See tonne, conj. 

tonno, eonj.; 

(1) when, while, with indie, and 
tttbj., 28, 678, etc ; in elliptical, breec tonne moste, "en- 
joyed [him or them] while I 
might,"1487. Carrel, with tonne, 
adv.: 484-6, 2032-4; sw5 biS 
geomorlfe... tonne he gyd wrece 
...tonne his sunn hangat>, "so 
will it be sad, [that] lie should 
then utter a dirge, when his Bon 
is hanging," 2446-7. 

(2) THAM,ojft*r compart. : 44, 248, 
etc With compar. omitted; medo- 
sjrn micel... tonne yldo beam 
Sire gefrunon, "a great mead- 
hall, [greater] than the children 
of the age ever heard of," 70. 

tonon, seekman. 

torfte, nee turfan. 

tr*g, it. /., time; ace. tg. of dura- 
tion of time, 54, 87, 114; nam. 
tg. H hyne sio trig beijwom, 
" when the time (of battle) came 
upon him," 2883, 

►rta-nSdla, w. m., [thboe -com pul- 
sion] the compulsion of oppres- 
sion or misery ; dat. tg. for brea- 
nedlan," compelled by oppression 
or misery," 2223. 

Htta-nja, tt. /., [thboe-need] dire 
need, oppression, misery, 284; 
dat. pi. be hie. ..for H&a-nydum 
tolian scoldon, "which they 
through dire compulsion had to 
endure," 832. 

treat, *t. m., troop, band, 4, 2406. 

trflatlan, ic. v., THBB&Ten, press; 
pret. pi. mec.treatedon bsarle, 
"pressed me hard," 560. 

trec-wudu, st. m., [onset- wood] 
spear, 1246. 

H*>, trio, num. neut. (of trie), 
thrkf, 2278, 2174. 

treotteota, ord. num., THiBTEEnth, 


►ridda, ord. num., thihd, 3638. 
Vriugan, it. v., intrant., tiironq, 

2960) prat, eg. Jrong, 2883. 

for-Vring-an, st. v., match, pro- 
tect, 1084. 
ge-fcdiiKan, if. v., tbbonq, 

bo and, 1912. 
Mo, see >r8o. 

ytitig, ►rlttlg, st. neat., aith gen., 

thirty, 123, 2361; gen. eg. 379. 
prong, see frringan. 
frOwlan, a. v., suffer, 2605, etc.; 

pret. eg. I>r5wode, 2594, )>rowade, 

1589, 1721. 
hyra(m), sl.m., might, force, 1918; 

glory, 2; dot. pi. adverbially, 

>rymmum, "powerfully," 235. 
Kym lie, adj., mighty, glorious, 

Wi «t. /., strength; dat. pi. 

inySaia deiUle, "proud in their 

strength," 494. 
frryS-arrn, it. neut., mighty house, 

noble hall, 657. 
►ryU-lIc, adj., excellent, picked, 

400, 1627. 

Hytt-Uaoit, euperl, most excel- 
lent; ace. pi. 2869. 
KP*-«wyB, tt. neut. », great distress, 

pain, anxiety, 131, 736. 
>ryV-word, et. neut., choice or 

mighty wokd, excellent talk, 643. 
>0, peri, pron., thou, 352, etc.; 

ace. »g. )>ec, >e (q. v.). 
frungon, g-e>ungen, adj. (pp.), 

[thriven] mature, distinguished, 

excellent, 624, 1927. Cf. Hon. 
►uuian, to. v., TH under, rattle, 

groan, hum; pret. Jmcede, 1906. 
ge-Ytam, pp. (isolated; Sievers 

| 385, N. 1), forged, 1285. 
frurfan, st.-w. v., need: prei. Harf, 

)>earft, 445, 595, eto. ; eubj. )>urfe, 

2495;pr«t. t>orfte, 157, etc; pret. 

pi. hremge porfton, "needed [to 

be] exultant," 2363. 
Vurn, prep., with ace., ihkoi-ob, 

local, carnal, and inetrumental, 

2661, 267, 276, 278, 558, eta. 
pus, adv.. thus, 238, 337, 430. 

►Qsond, et. neut., thousand, 3050; 
pi. tjusenda, 1829, Without fol- 
lowing noun of meaeure : gen. pi. 
bund >iisenda landes ond locenra 
beaga, 2994. Even without a 
dependent yen.: ace. pi. ond him 
gesealde seofan tnsendo, 2196. 

W, see as, as. 

>? In, COnj., r.Eat, 191S. 

>7der, adv., thitheh, 379, 2970, 

►yntig-, adj., doughty, strong, 1558. 

►yle, it. m., spokesman, 1165, 1456. 

Vyncan, Wncean, le. v., iciiA da!. 
pern., seem, 1341,368, 687, etc.; 
lometiiaee impere., 2553. 

of+ynoan, hj. ■>., displease, 

►yrs, it. m., giant, 426. 

Wb, see>e*. 

frys-Uc, a^j., [tbusijhe] such; nom. 
« ./.,fcyslicu, 2637. 

>ynu, fcyaaea, fryanun, see pes. 

VJstru, <(./., darkness, 87. 

>ywan, w. v., oppress; pree. pi. 
egesan pywafi, "oppreaa with 
dread," 1827. From How. 


ufan, adv., from above, above, 

1500, 33a 
ufsra, compar. adj., later; 

uferan, 2392, nfaran, 2200. 
ufor, compar. adv., higher, up- 
wards, on to higher ground, 2951. 
flute, »./., dawn, twilight, 126. 
flnt -floga, m. m., twilight-Fi.ier, 

flht-hlem, st. m., twilight- uproar, 

din or crash in the twilight, 2007. 
dnt-jceaSa, u>. m., twilight -soilHer, 

twilight-foe, 2271. 
umbor-weaende, adj. (pree. part.), 

being a child, 46, 1187. 
nn-blltte, adj., unblithb, joyless, 

130, 2268, 3031. 
tuj -byrnende, adj. (pree. part.), un- 

Bousing, without being burnt; 

modi. ig. absolutely 2548. 
use, pert. pron. (dot. and ace.' dual 


of io), to us two, us two, 640, 

645, 3137, eta. 
oncer, pert, prim. (gin. dual of io), 

nf us two, 2532; coupled teith the 

gen. of a proper name, unoor 

Grendles, "oi Grendel and me," 

■near, pots, aitj. (Bee above), our 

(dual); uncran, 1185. 
un-cOtf, adj., uncouth, unknown, 

evil, 1410, 3214, 276; gen. eg. 

absolutely, 960 (Orendel), 876 

(what is unknown), 
under, prep., under: 

(1) with dat. (of rest), 1163, 1204, 
1309, etc.; during, with, 738. 

(2) with ace. (of motion, ex- 
pressed or implied), 403, 887, 
1551, etc. To denote extent: 
under swegles begong, "under 
the sky's expanse," 860," 1773; 
under heofonen liwealf , 2015. 

under, adv., uhseb, beneath, 2213. 
undern-miH, tt. neut., [undbrn- 

me*j.] morning-time, 1428. 
nn-dyme, nn-deme, adj., CNseoret, 

manifest, 127, 2000, 2911. 
un-dyrne, adv., uMseoretly, openly, 

150, 410. 
un-ficne, adj., tJNguileful, sincere, 

un-fssge, adj., [usiky] nndoomed, 

not fated to die, 673, 2291. 
unfteger, adj., cmtiB, not beauti- 
ful, 727. 
un-flltme,a(ic,incontestably, 1097; 

without strife, 1129. 
un-forht, adj., [uNafraid] foarlese, 

ns-Iorhte, adv., fearlessly, 444 
un-firod., adj., not old, young, 2821. 
nn-from, adj., inert, not bold, uh- 

warbie, 2188. 

nu-gSara, adv., not of tore: 

(1) but now, 932. 

(2) erelong, 602. 
uii-gTjdflfeiioe, a*'., improperly, 

unnaturally, 2435. 

un-gemete, adv., [unmeetIj] im- 
measurably, 2420, 2721, 2728. 

un-gemetes, adv. (gen. of adj. un- 

gemet, chmbet), immeasurably, 

nn-gyfeSe, adj., not granted, 2921. 

un -hallo, if. /. , [usiiEiLth] destruc- 
tion ; gen. eg. wiht unhslo, "the 
wight of destruction," 120. 

nn-nlr, adj., (un- intensive) very 
hoab, very gray, 357. 

■nn-heore, un-hlore, nn-nyre, adj., 
CNoanny, monstrous, 2120, 2413; 
nam. eg. f. nnheoru, 987. 

un-leof, adj., [omlief] not dear, 
unloved; ace. pi. abiolutely 

un-llnirenae, un-lyngends, adj. 

Set. part.), nNUving, lifeless, 
id, 468, 744, 1306; dat. tg. m. 
>«et MS driht-guman unlifgendum 
after seleet, "that will be beat 
for the noble warrior after death," 
un-lytel, adj., [unlittlb] no little, 

nn-mumllco, adv., uNsomuifulLY, 
with sorrow, 449, 1756. 

unnan, tl.-w. v., grant, will, wish, 
own, 506, 2874; pres. tg. lit, an, 
1225; tub}, pret. 1st, u]>e ic 
awitor, )>a3t Su bin e selfne geseon 
moste," I would rather that thou 
mightst have seen himself," 960; 
3rd, teah he utie wel, "how much 
soever he wished," 2855. 

g». unnan, it.-w. v., grant, 346, 

nn-njt, adj., useless, 413, 8168. 

un-rlht, it. neut., unbioht, wrong, 
1254, 2739. 

un-rlhte, adv., uNttiaHily, wrongly, 

un-rlm, tt. neut., [unbikb] oonnt- 
less number, 1238, 2624, 3135. 

unrlme, adj., [uNRiMEd] countless, 

un-rot, adj., [tmglad] sad, 3148. 

nn-aUw, adj., [chblow] not slow; 
nam. tg. eegum nnslaw, "not 
slow of edge," 2564 (see note). 

un-snyttro, it. /., i-k wisdom; dat. 
pi. bis unsnyttrum, "'~ — 
wisdom," 1734. 


un-sOfte, adv. , [uNsorrly] with 

difficulty, 1666, 2140. 
un-swlffe, adv. 

un-swlVor, cnmpar., less 
strongly, 2578, 2881. 
nn-Bjnnlg, adj., OHsmning, guilt- 
less, 2089. 
nsynnum, adv. (tint. pi. of * 

flfl-genge, adj., escaping; nom. ig. 
wipb jEschere...feorh Ufi-genge, 
ready to depart from 
1 2123. 

Bjnn), "srNlesely," 1072. 

wfc, adv. (Orein), woe ; w» biS Ham 

nn-tSle, «d/., blameless, 1865. 

...welM$p»m...,183, 186. 

tui-tjder, tt. m., evil progeny; 

*waoan, af. v., wabe, arise, spring, 

num. pf. untydras, 111. 

come, be born, 1266, 1960; pret. 

un-w&cllc. adj. , [ckweaelike] firm, 

pi. wocun, 60. 

atrong, 3138. 

•on-wacan, awake, 2287; be 

tUi-weamnm, adv., unawares, 741. 

born, arise, spring, 56, 111. 

wadan, 10. v., watch ; imperat. tg. 

unavenged, 2443. 

waoa, 660; met. part., nom. $g, 
m. wswoeude, 708, ace. tg. m. 

ftp, adv., up, 128, 224, 782. 

Op-lang, adj., [uPliONo] upright, 

uppe, adv., up, S66. 

wmocendne, 1268, wooeeode, 

vadan, it. v., wade, go; pret. eg. 

npp-rttt, adj., upbioht, 2092. 

wSd, 714, 3661; pp. gewaden, 

tin, pars. pron. (pni. pi. 0/ io), of 


tire, poit. adj. (aee above), oua, 

Oram, peri. pron. {anom, form of 

the dot. pi. of io, wed here for 

on-wadan, «. v., assail; pret. 
ig. Miie fjren ouwod, "him 

(Heremod) orime assailed." 
►urli-wadan, it. v., wade 

nne), to os, 2669. 


Ha, peri. pron. {dat. pi. of ic), to 
us, 346, 382, eto. ; for an, 2642. 

wado, etc., aee wad. 

wwonan, id. v., intrant., waken, 

flier, peri. pron. ( =flre, gen. pi. of 

arise, 65. 

ic) ; user neoean, "to visit na," 

mad, it. n., Hood, sea, wave; mm. 

pi. wado, 546; wadn, 581; gen. 

flaw, poii. aiij. (see above), our; 

pi. wada, 508. 

aee. »g. m. uaeme, 3002; gen. ig. 

wgtre, adj., wAvaaing, about to 

neul. ubbbb, 2813; dat. tg. m. 

die, expiring, 1150, 2420; wan- 

uasum, 2684. 

dering, 1331. 

Halo, pen. pron. {ace. pi of io), ca, 

wSg-bora, w. m., wave-BEABer, 

468, 2638, eto. 

wavy- traverser, wave-tosser (of 

hum, auum, see flier, poi*. adj. 

a sea-monster), 1440. 

tit, adv., out, 216, eto. 

waig-o, it. neut., stonp, flagon, 

titan, adv. , from withour, without, 

tankard, 2253, 2282. 

774, etc. 

wag-Holm, it. m., the billowy sea, 

fltan-weard, adj., ootwabd, the out- 


aide of, 2297. 

wag-lSfend, it. m. (pre*, part.), 

flt-fns, adj., ouTward bound, ready 

wave-farer, seafarer, 8168. 

to start, 33. 

be-wngnan, ic. v., offer, 1193. 

Bt-weard, adj., [ootwabd] outward 
bound, moving outwards, 761. 

wag-iweord, it. neut., wave-swoan, 

sword with a wavy pattern, 1489. 


wal, jit. neat., slaughter, the slain, 
corpse, 446, etc. ; nom. pi. wain, 

WKl-twdd, Jit. neut., slaughter- 

wad -bend, if. m. /., alanghter-BOND, 

death-aun., 1986. 
wad-bleat, adj., [slaughter-pitiful] ; 

ace. f. wundo wal-bleate, "his 

deathly pitiful wound," 3725. 
mal-dSaS, el. m., slaughter- death, 

death by violence, 695. 
wad-ftrSor, it. neut., slaughter- gore, 

wnl-fSLB, >t. /., slaughter-rauD, 

deadly feud, 2038. 
Tnel-flg, adj., slaughter- stained, 

wasl-reall, -fyll, ft. m., slaughter- 

TtT.i., violent death, 3154; rfat. 

eg. gewSox he. wssl-fealle... 

Deciga leodum, "he sent many 

of the Danes to a violent death," 

vwl-fOa, adj., ready for, expecting, 

{a violent) death, 2420. 
vsal-fyll, see vnai-feali. 
wnl-Qrllo, slaughter-rtLL, fill of 

slaughter, 125. 
vfBl-rTr, n. neat., slaughter-irci, 

death- bringing fire, 2682; corpse- 

fire, pyre. 1119. 
WMl-gmt, ft. in., slaughter- on est, 

murderous stranger, 1331, 1996. 
waal-Mem, it. jr., slaughter-crash, 

terrible blow, 2969. 
WMU-seaz, at. neut., slaughter - 

knife, deadly short-aword ; dat. 

ig. (with uninflected adjs.) w»ll- 

seaie gebned biter ond beadu- 

aoearp, "drew bis seen and 

battle-sharp short- sword, " 2703, 
wBm, see wylm. 
wari-nlft, it. m., slaughter-hate, 

slaughter- strife, deadly enmity, 

86, 2065, 3000. 
wad-rise, at. m., [slaughter -hack] 

deadly strife, mortal combat, 

2947, 624, 2631. 
wB-rtp, it. m.. [whirlpool- nop e] 

icicle, 1610 (see note). 

wwlrSaf, st. neut., slaughter-spoil, 

battle-booty, plunder, 1206, 
wal-rto, it. m., slaughter- bb«k, 

deadly exhalation, 2661. 
wwlreow, adj., slaughter- fierce, 

fierce in strife, 629. 
ws&l-reat, •(. /., [slaughter- best] 

bed of (violent) death, 2902. 
Wtai-aceaft, it. m„ slaughter shut, 

deadly spear, 898. 
w»fl.-iteng, ft. m., slaughter-pole, 

spear, 1638. 
wafl-tWw, it. /., slaughter-place, 

battle-field, 2051, 2984. 
warn, it. m., waim, wagon; ace. *g. 

wSpen, at. neut., weapon, 1660, 

1467, 1664, etc. ; ace. pi. watpen, 

w»pned-mon(n), it. m., weafoned 

man, man, 1284. 
wSr, >t. /., compact, treaty, 1100; 

keeping, protection, 27, 3109. 

["Beitrage" i. ML] 
wSran, etc., see waaan. 
waNDm, it. m., growth, form ; dot. 

man's form," 1352. 

wnter, it. neut., watbb, the sea, 
93, etc. ; dat. waitere, 1425, 1656, 
2722, wiBtre. 2864; instrumental 
gen. be bine eft ongon weteres 
weorpan, "he began again to 
sprinkle him with water," 2791. 

waster-egesa, w. ni., watbu- terror, 
the terrible mere, 1620. 

wseter-fB, it./., WATaa-wave, 2242. 

wag, st. m., wall, 1662, 995. 

wala, w. m., wale, "wreath" (ill 
heraldry), a protecting rim or 
roll on the outside of the helmet 
(Skeat) ; nam, ig. ymb )>raa helmes 
hrof heafod-beorge wirum bewun- 
den wala utan heold, "round the 
helmet's crown the 'wreath,' 
wound about with wires, gave 
protection for the bead from the 
outside," 1031, 

Waldend, see Wesldend. 


wald -swaBu, tl. /., [wt 


fores t-track, forest-path; 
wald-swa'5airi, 1403. 

wan, v., sea wlnnan, 
van, adj., see won. 
wang, aee wong. 
wanlan, w. v. -. 




(2) trata., diminish, curtail, de- 
crease, 1337; pp. gewanod, 477. 

wanigean, u>. v., bewail, lament; 
inf. gehyrdon gryre-leorJ galan 
Oodes ondsacan, sige-leasne 
sang, ear wanigean belle hief ton, 
"heard God's adversary singing 
bis tenor-lay, hie victory-lens 
song, hell's captive bewailing his 
sore," 787. 

warlan, v. v., gnard, inhabit, 1253, 
1266, 3277 (guards) ; prtt. pi. 
warigeat), 1368. 

waroB, «t. m., [wabth] shore, 834, 

wit, etc., wot, see wltan. 

wB, pen. pron. (pi. of io), we, 1, 

260, ( 

, 191, weana, 

wm1(1), si. m., gen. wealles, dat. 
wealle, ace. weal, 326: wai,l in 
ill varum* meanings; rampart, 
burgh-wall, 786, etc ; wall of a 
building, 326, 1573 ; natural wall 
of rook, sometimes the side of a 
barrow or den, 2307, 2769, 3060, 
etc. ; wall of cliff, 229, etc 

wSa-Wf, st.f, [woe -LEiving] wretch- 
ed remnant (of either army after 
the battle in whioh Hntef (ell), 
1084, 1098. 

wealdan, it. v., wth dat., gen., or 
absolutely, wield, rale, role over. 
govern, possess, control; prevail; 
442,1869, 702, 2061, eto. Special 
passage*: t-euden wordum weald 
wine Hoyldinga, "while the friend 
of the Scyldmgs still had power 
of speech," or "ruled with his 
word," 80; SSr he )>f fyrste... 

time was to prevail," 2574; wasl- 
Btdwe wealdan, "to be masters 
of the field," 2984. 

ge-wealdan, st. v., with gen., 
dat., or ace, wield, control, 
possess, bring about, 1609, 1654, 
Waaldend, WaldraA, it. to. {pre: 
part.), the WiiLuer, God, 1693, 
eto.; often with dependent gen., 
17, eto.; gen. Wealdendes, 2857, 
Waldendea, 2292, 3109; dat. 
Wealdende, 2329. 

waallan, st. «., well, boil, be agi- 
tated, literally and figuratively ; 
prtt. weoll, 2138, 2113, etc ; weol, 
518, eto.; prtt. part, weallende, 
847, weallinde, 2464 ; nam. pi. 
neat, weallende, 546, weallendu, 
581. Special passages: Ingelde 
weallafi wiel-nrSas, "in Ingeld's 
breast deadly hatred wells up," 
2065; hreSer sums weoll, "his 
breast swelled with breath, "2593. 

weall- Oil , st. neut., ' 

wear A, st. m., [ward] warden, 
warder, guardian, owner, 229, 
1741, 2524, eto. 

weard, St. /., wuu>, watch, 306, 

weardian, ic. v., wabd, guard, in- 
d«eU,106,1237,2075. Especially 
in the phrase last or swaffie 
weardian: inf. he his folme f or- 
l§t...last weardian, "be left his 
hand behind to mark his track," 
971; so pret. weardade, 2098; 
pret. sg. far pi. in subordinate 
clause, btet |>am fraitwum foower 
mearas...Ust weardode, "that 
four horses followed thearmonr," 

weara, «./., refusal, 366. 

wea-spell, st. neut., woe. er ell, 
tidings of woe, 1315. 

weaxan, st. v., wax, grow, 3115, 
1741, 8. 

Eo-weaian, st. v., wax, grow, 
become, 66, 1711. 


234 beot 

web, il. neut., na, tapestrv ; non- 
pi. 995. 

woec(olan, if. v., wake, rouse, stir 
up, 2046, 8034; pret. wehte, 
3854. Special pottage: biel-fyra 
mi5flt...weccan, "to kindle the 
greatest of funeral piles, " 8144. 

tO-WMcan, w. v., wake up, stir 
up ; pret. pi. td-wehton, 2948. 

wedu, it. neut., pledge, 3998. 

weder, at. neut., weatheb, 646; 
nam. pi. weder, 1196. 

wag-, it. m., way; only in on weg, 
"away," 264, 1883, etc. 

weg, si. m., wave, 3132. Cf. w5g-. 

wegan, it. v., bear, wear, wage, 
8016, 2252, 3464, etc. Special 
■pottage : mod Dry 5o wng, ... 
flren ondrysne, " Thrytho bore 
moodiness or fierceness, [com- 
mitted] terrible crime," 1931. 

art-wegan, at. v., bear away, 
cany off, 1198. 

ge-wegan, it. v., engage, fight, 

way-flota, ». m., wave-PLOAier, 
ship, 1907. 

wel(l), adv., well, rightly, much, 
186, 289, 1792, 2570, 2865 ; vtual 
form wel, bat well, 2162, 2812. 

wel-hwyle, indef. adj. and pron. 
L Pron.; 
(1) icieft gen. wel-hwylo witena, 
"well nigh every councillor," 

clause , or abtntutely: WBBH, ex- 
pect, hope, 157, 1184, etc.; pret. 
tg. Ill wen, 338, 442. Special 

Stages: (•tea io wine, "as I 
>e," 272; swx io be wene to, 
"us I expect from thee," 1896; 
with iu/. ic Snigra m§ weana ne 
wende. . .botegeUdan, •' I expeeted 
not to abide the remedy of any 
of my woes," 933 ; icitk gen. and 
clause, big Jiffis eB'Selioges eft ne 
wendon, )>a)t he.. .come, "tbey 
expected not the atheling again, 
that he would come," 1596. 
wendan, ip. v., intrant., wind, turn, 

•d-wendan, w. v., intrant., turn 
back, desist, oeaae, 280. 

(2) neui. abtolutely, everything, ne 

II. Adj. almost every, 1341. 

wellg, adj., v/EALthy, rich, 2607. 

wen, si. /,, wEENing, expectation, 
hope, 734, 383, etc Special 
passages : wen ic talige, " I 
reckon it a thing to be eipected," 
1845 ; dat. pi. bega on wenum, 
eude-dogores trad eft-cymes leofes 
monnee, " in expectation of both, 
the day of death and the return 
of the dear man " (i.e. expecting 
one or the other), 2895. 

wflnan, w. v., with gen., infin-. 

aside, set aside, avert, 191. 
Special pottage: sibb aifre ne 
mssg wiht onwendan, t>am 'Se 
wel t-euoeK, "naught oan ew 
set aside kinship, to a right- 
minded man," 2601. 

wenlan, a. v., honour, 1091. 

be-wenian, bi-wenlan, to. v., 
entertain, attend on ; pret. tubj. 
tg, for pi., dryht-beani Dena du- 
guSa biwenede, 2036 (see note); 
pp. pi. bewenede, 1801. 

weore, at. neut., woek, deed, trouble, 
74, 1656, etc. ; gen. pi. worda 
ond worca, 289; dot. pi. wordum 
ne worcnm, 1100. Special pot- 
tage*: he Nea gewinnea weore 
>rowade, "he Buffered trouble 
for that strife," 1721; dat. pi. 
adverbially, weorcum, " with 
difficulty/' 1688. 

weoroe, adj., grievous, painful, 

(l)'wttA ace'.'rei, throw, 1631. 

(2) ttith ace. pert, and gen. ret, 
sprinkle, 3791. 

(3) with dat., spew, cast forth, 


for-woorpim, si. v., throw 

away; pret. labj. forwurpe, 2872. 
oter-weorpan, st. v., stumble, 

weorK, it. neuC, wohth, price, pay, 

weort, adj., wortht, honoured, 

dear ; nam. tg. m. weorB Denum 

8>J>eling, "the atheling dear to 

the Danes," 1814. 
weor>ra, compar., worthier, 

weortSan, »(. v ., become, be, befall, 

happen, oome, 2626, 414, 3731, 

etc.; inf. wurSan, 807; pret. pi. 

wurSai , 282 ; pret. tg. he 0D 

fylle weariS, "he fell,'' 1544; pp. 

geworden, "happened, arisen," 
1804, 3078. Often with predi- 
cative dat. governed by to, and 
dot. pen..- Sfi scealt to frafre 
weor5an...leodum hinum, hale- 
Sum to helpe, "thou shalt be 
for a comfort to thy people, a help 
to the heroes," 1707; so also 
460, 587, eta. 
ge-wearttan. Hit.: 

(1) intrant., become, be, happen, 

(2) trans., agree about, settle; 
inf. tat rjfi...lete SuS-Dene aylfe 
geweorSan giTKe wis Qrendel, 
" that thou wouldst let the South 
Danes themselves settle their war 
with Qrendel," 1996. 

(3) impert., with gen., and follow- 
ing clause in apposition, appear, 
seem, seem good; pret. ba tStes 
monige gewearB, httt, "then it 
appeared to many that," 1596 ; 
pp. hafatt J>bjb geworden wine 
Bcyldinga...)>»t, "this had seem- 
ed good to the friend of the 
Seyldings, that," 2026. 

weorB -full, adj. 

weort- fulloit, taperl., [wobth- 

7TOLE8T], """" 

wnrSad, 331, 1038,1645; weorSad,. 

weort-Uce, adv. 

weorS-Ucoat, taperl., most 
WOBTHlly, 3161. 

weortmynfl, »(. /., woiship, hon- 
our, glory, 8, 65, 1659, etc.; 
dat. pi. to worC-myndnm, "for 
honour, for honour's sake," 

2. 128), honour, adorn, 2096, 1090, 
etc.; pp. geweor&od, 3176; ge- 
weorCad, 260, 1460, 1969; ge- 

, w. c, prepare, etc. : pp. waslbende weotode, "death- 
bands prepared, appointed, de- 
stined," 1936. 

be-weoUan, be-witlan, to. v., 
observe, etc. : pret. pi. J>& fie 
syngales sele bewitiaS, " those 
[weathers, days] which continu- 
ally observe the season," 1135; 
bewitigaS sorhfulne %tS, " make a 
journey fall of woe," 1426 ; pret. 
tg. ealle beweotede >egnes )>earfe, 
"attended to all the thane's 
needs," 1796; hord beweotode, 
"watched over a hoard," 2212. 

war, tt. m., man, 105, 1S62, 216, 
1256, etc.; gen. pi. wen, 120, 
etc. ; weora, 2947. 

wered, st. neat., beer, mead, 496. 

werede, etc., see werod. 

wore-fylite, to, /., defensive fight, 
tight in defence, 457. 

werg*. (weak form of werig), adj., 
enrsed ; gen. tg. wergan gastes, 
133 (Qrendel), 1747 (the devil). 

wBrge, etc., see wtali. 

werKend, it. m. (pret. part, of 
werian), defender, 2882. 

wfirgian, if. v., wiabi; pp. gewer- 
gad, 2863. 

werhBo, tt. /., curse, damnation; 
ace. tg. werhfio, 569. 

werian, w. v., guard, defend, pro- 
tect, 453, 1327, etc. ; reflex., 541 ; 
pp. turn, pi 238, 2529. 

Tw-werlan, to. v. , defend ; pret. 
tubj. beweredon, 988. 

■wtrig.adj., with gen. or dat,, wese*, 
579; dat. tg. wergum, 1794; ace. or pi. werge, 2937. 


werijr-m6d, adj., weary of mood, 

844, 1548. 
wsrod, weorod, si. neut., troop, 

band, 661, 316, 290, etc.; dat. 

werede, 1215; weorode, 1011, 

2346; yen. pi. weroda, 2186; 

weoroda, 60. 
wsr-Wod, X. /., [man- nation] 
people j ace. pi. ofer wer-)>eode, 

weaan, irreg. v., be, 272, etc. ; prei. 
sg. 3rd is, 266, 1761, etc.; ys, 
2910, 2999, S084 ; pres. pi. aiat, 
388; synt, 260, 342, 364; syn- 
don, 237, 257, etc.; pret. subj. 
tg. Ble, 435, etc.; By, 1831, etc.; 
Big, 1778, etc.; pret. pi. wSron, 
233, etc.; wteran, 3475 ; imperat. 
sg. wee, 269, etc., waas, 407. 
Negative forms. ■ pre*. >g. 3rd 
nis, 249, etc.; pret. eg. lit and 
3rd men, 2141, 134, etc.; pret. 
pi. nsaron, 2657; pret. subj. sg. 
unia, 860, etc. 
Special passages : 

(1) Omission of infin. 617, 1857, 
2363, 2497, 2659; also 992, 

(2) Forming, with a pret. part., 
an imperf. tense : secgende waaa, 
■•was saying," 3028. 

weato, adj., waste; ace. tg. m. 

westne, 2456. 
wflsten, »(. neut., waste, 1266; dot, 

westenne, 2298. 
wlc, (t. neut., [wick] dwelling, 821, 

etc.; often in pi., 126, etc.; dat. 

pi wlcun, 1304. 

en, give way, 2577, 2629. ' 

wlcy, at. neut., horse, steed, 1400, 
286, etc., pi. wicg, 2174. 

wTc-Btade, st. m., [wicb -stead] dwel- 
ling-place, 2462, 2607. 

wld, odj-, wide, extended, long, 
of tpace and time, 935, 877, 1869, 
2014, eta. 

wid-cQB, adj., [wide-oodth] widely 
known, 1256, etc.; gen. abso- 

lutely, wld-cutSes li 

Wide adv., wn>Bly, 18, 2135, 2913, 
3099, etc; qualifying a superla- 
tive, wide mmrost, "the greatest 
far and wide, greatest of all," 

wldre, compar.i widre gewin- 
dan, "to flee away more widely, 
escape further," 763. 

wlde-farhS, it. m., [wioB-life] ever, 
only used at aee. of time, 702, 
937; ealne wide- feints, "for all 
time to come," 1222. 

wld-floga, it. hi., wms-FLier (the 
dragon), 2830, 2346. 

wldre, Bee wide. 

wld-scofen, see under scflfati. 

wld-weg;, it. m., wide-way, high- 
way; ace. pi. geond wld-wegaa, 
"along the riign, ways," 840, "far 
and wide," 1704. 

wIT, at. neut., wife, woman, 2130, 
1284, 2028, 993, etc. 

wlf-lufa, w. /., wife-love, lore for 
one's wife, 2065. 

(1) war,' battle, 23, 66, 1084, etc.; 
dat. wigge, 1666, 1770, 1783. 

(2) war-prowess, valour, might, 
360, 1042, 2323, etc 

wig*, lo. m., warrior, 629, 1648, 

2396. ["Beitrage"z. 511.] 
wlgan, if. v., war, fight, 2509, 

evils of war, 2046. 
wlg-bil, it. neut., war-BiLL, wi 

sword, 1607. 
wig-bord, st. neut., [war- board] wi 

shield, 2339. 
wig-craft, st. m., war-cEAFr, wi 

might, 2953. 
wlgr-crnftlg, adj., war-CBAT: 

mighty in battle, 1811. 
wlgend, st. m. {pret. part.), warrir 

3099, 1125, 429, etc. 
wlj-freca, a. m., war-wolf, warrior, 

1212, 2496. 
wig fruma, w. m., war-chief, 664, 



et. /. pi., war-equip- 

merits, 361 

1. See gM-geatwa. 

wig-gryre, at. m., war-terror, 1284. 


id. m., [war-head] war- 

helmet, 2661. 

wig heap, s 

t. m., war -heap, baud 

of warrior 

a, 477. 

m., war-HATE, 2120. 


<t. m., [war-falling] 


onset, 1619. 

wlg-nigor, if 

. m., war-victory, 1S54. 

wig-aped, it. 


wllum, irrtg. v., will: pre». sg, 
1st wille, 318, 344, etc. ; wylle, 
947, etc.; 2nd wylt, 1862; 3rd 
wile, 346 ; wyle, 2864 ; wille, 442, 
1371, etc.; wylle, 2766; pi. wyl- 
laS, 1818. Negative forms: nelle 
= ne + wille, 679, 2624; nolde= 
ae + wolde, 706, 791, 2616, etc. 
With omission of inf. no" ic tram 
him wolde, 543. 

wllnlan, w. v., desire, 188. 

wil-BlB, tt. m., [wiLL-journey] will- 

wlg-weorWung, it.f., idol-woaship, 
nacrifiee,176. ["Beitrage"x.511.] 
Wiht, n. : 

I. si. /.. wioht, being, crea- 
ture, 120, 3038. 

II. it. f. neat., whit, auaHT, 
2601 (lee onwendan), 1660; ace. 
for wiht, "for aught," 2348; 
tcith gen., 581. 

III. Adverbial use, atTOHT, at 
all ; almost always negative (with 
ne), naught, noi at all, no whit. 

(1) Ace, with ne or no: 862, 
1083, 2BS4, 2867, 641; no hine 
wiht dweleS adl ne yliio, "sick- 
mad or age misleads him not a 
whit," 1736. 

(2) Dat.; with ne, 186, 1514, 
etc.; affirmatively, 1991. 

wil-cuma, w. m., [will-comst] wel- 
come guest, 388, 394, 1894. 

wil-deor ( = wild dear), >t. neut., 
[wild deeb] wild beast, 1430. 

wile, seewlllan. 

wil-geofa, w. m., wiLL-urver, joy- 
giver, 2900. 

wU-geilB, st. t»., [wiLL-companion] 
willing or loved companion, 23. 

wills,, if. m., will, wish, desire, 
desirable thing; joy, pleasure; 
sake: 626, 1711, etc.; dot. sg. to 
willan, "out of good will," 186; 
tines willan, "for the sake of 
one," 3077; gen. pi. wilna, 660, 
960, 1844; willum, "ac- 
cording to our wishes, " 1821; so 
rtylfes willam, 2222, 2639. 


y, 21fi. 

, 1162, 1 


wind, st. m,, wind, 217, etc. 
win-as)g, st. m., strife-DAY, day or 

strife, 1062. 
windan, st. v., intrant, and tram., 

wren, rise, twist, 1119, 1193, etc.; 

pret. pi. streamas wundon sund 

wiS sande, "the currents rolled 

the a 

" 212; 

■pp. dat. sg. wundnum golde, 
" with twisted gold," 1382. 

tot-Windaii, at. v., with dat. 
pers., wind away, escape, 143. 

be-windan, if. v., wind about, 
brandish, enclose, grasp, mingle, 
1461, 1031, etc.; pp. galdre be. 
wundan, "wound about with in- 
cantation, encompassed with a 
spell," 3052. 

go- wlndan, it. v., intrant., 
wind, turn, nee away, 763, 1001. 


Wind -blond, it. neut., [wind -blend] 

tumult of winds, 3146. 
wlnd-gerest, »t. /., [wind-bbbt] 

resting-place of winds, 2466. 
wlnalg, adj., windy; pi. windiga, 

572, 1358; windge, 1224. 
Wine, it. m., friend, esp. friend and 

lord, friendly ruler, 80, 170, 457; 

ace. pi. wine, 21 ; gen. pi. wini- 

gea, 1664; winia, 2567. 
wlne-dryhten, wlne-drlhten, st.m., 

friend-lord, friend and lord,. 

friendly ruler, 360, 862, 2722. 


wlna-Uaa, adj., friendless, 2613. 

trint-mms, it. >»., friend-kinsman, 
relative and friend, loyal subjeot ; 
pi. wine-m&gas, 66. 

wlnla, wirdgea, see wine. 

wlnnaa,, st. v., [win] strive, fight, 
113, 606; pret. tg. 3rd wan, 144, 
161, won, 1132. 

win-raced, it. neat., wiNE-house, 
wine-ball, 714, 993. 

wra-sele, tt. m., wont-hall, 696, 771. 

winter, it. m„ wthtbb, year, 1128, 
1724, 2209, etc.; gen. tg. wintrya, 

wlr, >t. tn., wibe, wire-work, fila- 
gree, 1031, 2418. 

wis, adj., wise, 1645, 3094, 1413, 
etc. Weak form* : tuna. m. 
1400, 1696, 2329; ace. tg. 1 

wlaa, v. m,, wise one, guide, 259. 

wla-dBm, tt. Til. , wisdom, SCO, 1959. 

wlM) ic. /., wise, fashion; instru- 
mental ace. (Grein), ealde wlsan, 
"in the old fashion, " 1865. 

wli-fWat, adj., [wise-hit] 

wiss-thinking, 2716. 

wldan, w. v., with ace. rei, dot. 
pert., or abtoUittly, [make wthe] 
point out, show; direct, guide, 
lead; 2409, etc.; pro. tg. lit 
wlaige, 392, etc.; wleode, 
402, etc.; wlsade, 208, etc. 

wlsae, see witan. 

wltt, tt.f. (./romwesan): 

(1) weal, 1735. 

(2) meal; dat. tg. arfter wiste, 
"after Grendel's meal of thirty 

Ihiraea " 1 9.ft. 

wit, peri, proa, (dual of io), we 

two, 535, etc. 
wit*, ic. m., wise man, councillor, 

pi. the witah, 778; gen. pi 
witena, 157, etc., weotena, 1098. 
Wltan, tt.-te. v., [wit] know, 1863, 
764, 2519, etc.; pre*, tg. lit and 
Srdwat, 1331, etc.; negative nat, 
681, etc.; 2nd wast, 272; prat. 
tg. 1st and 3rd wiste, 646, etc.; 
wisse, 169, etc.;, wiston, 
181, etc.; wisson, 246. Special 
pottages I to ■Sees fie he eorS-sele 
anne wisse, "to where he knew 
an earth-ball to be, knew of an 
earth-hall," 2410; so, 715; pree. 
tg. 1st, io on Higelaoe wat...het 
he, "I know concerning Hygelao, 
that he," 1830; negative scea- 
Sona io nit hwilo, "I know not 
which of seathera, some foe," 
874 ! 3rd, God wat on meo (aec.), 
Ipmt me is micle leofre, 2660. 

ge-witan, tt.-w. v., know, 1360. 
wltan, st. v., with ace. rei and dat. 
pen., [witb] reproach, blame, 

art-wttan, tt. v., with ace. rei, 
twit, blame, charge; pret. pi. 
istwiton weana dtel, "charged 
[him] with his share of their 
woes," 1150. 

ge-wltan, it. v., depart, go, 42, 
123, 2471, etc,; often with reflex. 
dat. 26, 662, 1125, etc.; often 
followed by inf. {in many cases 
bctt rendered by a pret. port.) 
291, 863, 284, 2387, etc. Special 
postages: fyrst fortS gewat, "time 

went on," 210; pp., dat. tg. m., 
bat ■Su me a wore forS gewite- 
num on feeder stale, "that thon 
wonldst aye be to me when dead 
in a father's plane," 1479. 

oD-wltan, it. v., with ace. rei 
and dat. pert., reproach; 
■Sortie him 'Kfi lean oSwItan mon 
on middan-gearde, "no man on 
earth needed to reproach him, 
with those rewards," 2996. 

-wlUau, see -weotlan. 

wltig-, adj., witty, wise (applied to 
the Deity), 685, etc.; wittig, 1841. 
["Beitrage"i. 611.] 


o., punish, torment; 
nam gewitnad, "tor- 
mented with plagues," 3073. 

wiK, prep, with dat. and ace., with 
(with ate. 1088, 3027, with dat. 
2600), a rare meaning except with 
wards denoting strife, such a* 
winnan, 152; usual meaning 
against, 141, 326, 1549, 3538, 
etc.; sometimes, towards {ace.) 
155, 1864; by {ace.), 2013, 2566; 
tram {dat.), 827, 2423. With ace. 
and dht. in the tame sentence: 
"with," 424-6 (see gehegan); 
gestet H wit! s_ylfne...niEBg rnS 
majge, "he sat then by [the king] 
himself, kinsman with kinsman," 
1977-8. Special passages: wMS 
duiu healle, "to the door of the 
hall," 3S9; wit" earm gesso t (see 
gesittan), 749; forborn bord wiS 
rand, "the shield was burnt tip 
to the rim," 2673; wvS Hrefna- 
wudu, "bv (over against) Bavena- 
wood," 2925. 

wlVar-nshtai, adv., opposite, 3039. 

wlVra, st. neat., resistance, 2953. 

viand, see wlono. 

wMttan, w. v., look, 1916. 

wlsnco, st.f.. pride, bravado, daring ; 
dot. wleneo, 838, 1206, wlenoe, 

wlttan, it. v., gaze, look, 1672, 
1592; wlitan, 2852. 

Itlond- wlitan, st. v., look 
through, view thoroughly, 2771. 

Wilts, st. m., countenance, 250. 

wilts -beor lit, adj., of bright aspect, 
beauteous -bright, 93. 

wllte-s*on, st. f. neut.1, right, 1650. 

wlittg, adj.. beauteous, 1662. 

wlonc, wlano, adj., proud, 331, 
341, 2833, 2S53; with dot. awe 
wlano, "carrion-proud," 1832. 

wOh, adj., crooked, wrong; dot. pi. 
him bebsorgan ne oon worn won- 
dor-bebodum wergan gistes, "he 
knows Dot how to protect him- 
self against the crooked wondrous 
commands of the cursed spirit," 
1747 (see note). 

wBh-bogwn, adj. (pp.), urooked- 

Howed, coiled, 2B27. 
woloen, st. neitt., welkin, cloud; 

dat. pi. wolcnum, 8, 1119, etc. 
wolds, pret. of willan. 
wollente&re, adj., with waging 

teabs, 3032. 
wOm, see von. 

womm, it. m., spot, plague, 3073. 
won, v., see wltuuui. 
won, wan, adj., wan, dark, 1374, 

702; nam. pi. neut., wan, 651; 

weak form wonna, 3024, 3115. 
woug:, wang-, if. m,, plain, meadow, 

93, 2242, etc. 
wong-iteds, st. m., [plain-sTEu>J 

champaign spot, 2786. 
wm-hyd, st. /., [wan, i.e. nn-, 

thought] carelessness, rashness, 

wonn (7), 3154, see note on 1. 3155. 
won-SBll(e), adj., unhappy, 105. 
won-sceaft, st. /., [WAN-shaping] 

misery, 120. 
wBp, it. tn., wBBPing, 128, 785, 


ward, st. neut., word, 79, etc; act. 
pL word oSer fond, 070. The 
dat. pi. is common with verbs of 
saying: 176, 388, 1193, 2795, 

word-cwido, -cwydo, it. m„ wobd- 
saying, speech, 1841, 1045, 275S. 

word-gyd, st. neut., word -lay, dirge, 

word-herd, it. neut., word-hoabd, 

word-rlht, it. neut., [wobd-biohi] 
right or befitting word, 2631. 

worhte , see wyrcan. 

worn, it. neut., multitude, number, 
264; ate. tg. >onue hs wintrnm 
frod worn gemunde, "when he, 
old in years, remembered the 
number [of them]," 2114. Quali- 
fied by fela or eall : nam. ig. 
worn fela, "a great number," 
1783; ace. eg. bfl worn fela... 
ymb Brecan spriece, "thou hast 
said a great deal about Breoa," 



530; eal-fela oald-g 
"a very great number of old 
(sagas," 870; wont eall gesprae 
gomol, "the aged one spake 
very many things," 3094. Simi- 
larly in gen. pi. governed by fela : 
with gen. >g. woma fela...aorge, 
"very much sorrow," 3003; with 
gen. pi. wornafela..,gu1Sa, "very 
many wars," 2542. 

worold, tt. /., world, 1183, 1661, 
1062, etc. ; gat. tg. worulde, 2313, 
worlde, 2711; his worulde gedal, 
"his severance from the world," 

worold-ar, at. /., woBLD-honour, 17. 

worold- crnliig, wyruld-cynlng, it. 
m., woKT.n-mna, mighty king, 
1684, 3180. 

worold -ric'den, «(./., the way of the 
world; ace. ap.jtwa he ne for- 
wyrnde worold- radenne, "so he 
escaped not the lot of mortals, 
is- death" (7), 1142 (see note). 

woiVlgv >t. m., street, court, pre- 
cincts, palace, 1972. 

wortE-mynd, see weorfl-mynd. 

woruld- caudal, si./., would -can dle , 
the sun, 1966. 

woruld-ende, et. m. , world-end, the 
end of the world, 3083. 

wracu, et. /., revenge; ace. eg. 
wnece, 2336. 

WTSK, tt. neut., w 

exile, 170, 3078. . 

wrac-iast, at. nt., exile-track, path 

of eiilee, 1352. 
wrmc-nuscK, at. in., banished man, 

exile, 2379. 
wmc-alS, at. m., wRACK-jonmev, 

exile, 2292; dat. pi. nalles for 

wnec-sTSom so for hige-tiyni- 

banishment but out of magna- 
nimity," 338. 
wrtet, St./., ornament, jewel; ace. 
pi. wrate, 2771, 3060; gen. pi. 
wratta, 2413; dat. pi. wrtettum, 

wiKt-Uc, adj., ornamental, adorn- 
ed, ornate, curiously wrought, 
splendid, wondrous, 891, 1489, 

wrtU, adj., wbotb, hostile; abto- 
lutely, foe, 319, 660, etc. 

wratJe, adv., amiss, 2872. 

wrtU-llce, adv., wrothly, wrath- 
folly, 3062. 

drive, drive out, utter, avenge, 
1278, 423, etc; often wreoan gid, 
apel, eta., "utter, rehearse, & 
lay, legend, or tale," 873, 1065, 
etc. Special pattaget ; mbj. pret. 
t>onne he gyd wreoe, " [that] then 
he should utter a dirge," 2446; 
pre!, tg. ferh ellen wneo, 
"strength drove out life," 2706; 
pp. wearS.. .on bid wrecen, "was 
driven to bay," 2962. 

a-WTecan, at. v., tell; with ace. 
gid, 1724, 2108. 

for-wrecan, at. v., with ace, 
drive away, banish, 1919, 109. 

ge-wrecau, at. v., uru. with 
ace, wbkak, avenge^ 107, 3062, 
etc.; pret. ft, gewnaoan, 2479; 
with rqfiex. ace. 2875 ; absolutely, 
he gewneo syS'San, " he took ven- 
geance afterwards," 2395. 

wrecca, w. m., wretch, exile, wan- 
derer, adventurer, 1137, 898; 
dat. wneccan, 2613. 

wrecend, st.m. ( pre*, part. ) , WREAKer, 
avenger, 1256. 

wreoSen-Mlt. adj., with WBEATned 
or twisted hilt, 1698. 

wrldlan, w. v., grow, 1711. ["Bei- 
trage"x. 611.] 

wittan, tt. v., write, engrave, 1688. 
for-wrltan, at. v., ant asunder, 

wrlKan, at. v., with ace, [writhe] 
bind, 964; bind up, 29S2. 

WTlxL, tt. nsut., exchange, 2969. 

wrixlan, 10. v., with dat. wordum, 
"exchange, interohange, words," 
366, 874. 


wudu, a. m., wood : 

il) a wood, 1361, 1116. 
3)aspear; ace. pi. wudu, 898. 
3) a ship, 1919; nam. ig. wudu 

wnnden-hals, "the ship with 

twisted or omved prow," 298; 

ace. »g. wudu bundenne, "the 

bound wood, i.e. the wooden 

ship," 216. 
wndu-rtc,st.m.,wooD-BBBK, smoke, 

wuldor, it. nmt., glory; nam. tg. 

kyninga wnldor (Hrothgar), 665; 

gen. eg. wuldres, 17, eto. 
wuldor-torht, adj., glory - bright ; 

pi. 1136. 
Wnldnrcyning;, it. m., Glory.Kmo, 

the King of glory, 3795. 
wolf, (1. m., wolf, 3027. 
wulf-hllB, at. antt., wou-Blope; ate. 

pi. wnlf-bkoSn, 1S58. 
wnnd, it. /., wound, 3711, etc.; 

ace. tg. wunde, 2735, eto. 
wnnd, adj., wouNned, 56S, eto. 
wnnden-feax, adj., with wound, 
■ i.e. twisted, hair, 1400. 
wundennalB, adj., [wound -neck] 

with twisted or curved prow, 

wnnden-mSl, it. neut., [wound - 

sword] sword with winding, curv- 
ing, ornaments, 1531. 
wuiiden-stofna, w. m., [wontni. 

stem] ship with twisted or curved 

stem, 220. 

wnndor-slon, it. /., wondbk- night, 

wondrous sight, 995. 
wundor-amln\ t\ 

wondrous vessel; dat. pi. 1163. 

wundor, it. neat., wokhbk, 771, etc. 
monster, 1509: nom. ace. wnn 
dor, 8062, 8032, eto.; ace. wtU) 
dec, 931 ; dat. wnndre, 931 ; gen 
pi. wundra, 1607; dat. pi. ad- 
verbially, wundrurn, "wondroUS- 
(ly)," 1452,2687. 

wundor- bebod, it. neut. 
command, wondrous ■ 


wondrous death, 3087. 

wnndor-llc, adj., [wondeblike] 
wondrous, 1440. 

W. B. 

jewel, wondrous jewel, 2173. 
wnnlan, a. v., [wok] : 

(1) intra™, dwell, remain, 284, 
1128; with dat. wtoum wunian, 

(2) trans, indwell, inhabit, 1260, 

B o-wuluan, w. t>., with ace., 

dwell with, remain with; niibj. gewnnigen, 22. 
-wurBad, see weor&an. 
wurftan, see weoribw. 
wutun, nton, = let us, with foil. 

inf., 2618, 1390, 3101. 
wyle, wyllaB, wylle, wylt, see 

wylm, wsHm, it. m. , wELung, surge, 

flood, 516, 2546, eto. [Sir - 

8 159, 2.] 
wyn-ieaa, adj., jojwsb, 821, 1416. 
wynn, it. /., joy, 1080, eto. ; gen. 

tg. wynne, 2727. 
wyn-snm, adj., winsome, joyous, 

1919 ; neut. pi. wynsume, 612. 
wyrotA w. v., wobk; pret. worhte, 

waouoor : 

(1) withacc. work, make, 930, 92, 
1452 ; pret. part. pi. {as ai\j.) feste 
geworhte, "steadfast," 1864. 

(2) with gen. achieve; tubj.mtt 
wyroe se )>e mote domes, " acnievf 
glory he who may," 1387. 

be-wyrcan, w. v., surround 

g-e-wyrc(e}an, w. v., wobk, 20, 
69, 1660, etc: 

(1) intrans. act, 20. 

(2) tram, work, make, accom- 
plish, achieve, 635, 1660, 1491 
tttbj. pret. pL geworhton, 3096. 

wyrd, »(. /., wbibd, fate, probably 
pertonified in tome passage! (see 
note on 1206), 455, 477, 1056, 



242 beot 

1 wynian. id. v., destroy, HIS. 
wyrm, si. m., work, dragon, 386, 

1430, etc. 
wyrm-cynn, at. ncut., womi-aiH, 

serpent kind, 1425. 
■wyrm-Hh, mtj., woim-adorned, 

snake-adorned, 1698. 
wynn-nora, it. »™t., woEK-noiRD, 

dragon's hoard, 2221. 

wynian, to. v. {from v 

for-wyman, w. v 

cape, 429, 1142. 
wyrpan, v>. t>. (/rom weorpan), 

ge- wyrpan, te. u., recover, raise 

(oneself); icitA rejJ. <«e. 2976. 
wyrpa, it. m., change, 131ft. 
wyita, m(j. compar. (o/yfel), woase, 

1212, etc.; pen. pi. wyrean, 526 ; 

neui.ace.ia.a6>oIutel?/ T hetwyrBe, 

wyrt, it./., [wort] root, 1864. 
wyrtte, iiitj., wohthj, 368, 2185. 

wyittat, compar., worthier, 861. 
wyruld-, see woroid-. 

ylflan, id. v., delay, pat off, tarry; 
in/. 739; wendefcaisyldan,J>fflt..., 
"hoped for this reason to delay 
(tarry?), that...," 2289. 

ylle, aide, it. m. pi., men, 77, 160, 
etc.; du(. eldum, 2214, 2611, 3168. 

yldesta, seeaald. 

yldo, it. /., [bld] age, old age, the 
age, 1736, eta.; gen. yldo beam, 
"the children of the age," 70; 
dat. ylde, 22, eldo, 2111. 

yldra, seeaald. 

ylf, «./., blt, 112. 

ymn, ymbe, prep., with ace., about, 
around, concerning, local, tem- 
poral, denoting object, etc., 399, 
566, 838, 2883, 219, 303, 507, 
2070, etc. ; following it, cote, 689 ; 
ymb ane niht, "after one night," 

ymbe, adv., a boat, around, 2597. 
ymoe-Bittend, ymb-slttend, it. in. 

(pre*, part.), [about -sirring] 

neighbour; nam. pi. ymbe-sit- 

Cen'd, 1327; gen. pi. ymb-eit- 

tendra, 9. 
yppe, jo. /., high seat, throne, dais, 

1815. From up. 
yrfe, it. neat., heritage, 3051. 
jzft-Uf, it./., heirloom, 1053, 1903. 
yrffl-veard, tt. m., heir, 2731; gen. 

ip- yrfe-weardas, 246S (see note). 
yrnrBo, if. /., misery; ace. yrnrSe, 

1259, 2005. From earm. 
yrre, it. ncut,, anger, 711, 2092. 
yrre, sorre, adj., angry, 769, 1532, 

etc.; gen. tg. tutd nibttantively, 

eorres, "of the angry one," 1447. 
yrre- mod, adj., angry in mood, 

angry-minded, 726. 
yrringa, adv., angrily, 1565, 2964. 

ye', it. /., wave, 548, 848, 1437, 
2693, etc.; act. tg. or pi. yfte, 
46, 1132, 1909. 

JSan, w. v., destroy, 421. 

?«•, 1002, 2415, see Salle. . 

StJe-llce, adv., easily, 1556. 

JB-geolond, -geblanfl, 
BLENDing of waves, st 
1593 1 pi. 1620. 

Jfi-gesSne, see SB-gesfne. 

•tJ-gewinn, it. neut., wave-strife, 
1484, 2412. 

jfl-iaa, it. /., [wave-tons] wave- 
path, way over the sea ; pi. 228. 

$ fl-laf , it. /. , [wave-LEiving] what is 
left or thrown np by the waves, 
the foreshore, 566. 

JB-lida, ip. m., wave-sailer, ship, 

Jwan, Sawan, Sowan, w. v. I 

(1) tram, show; pree. tg. e&Wetf, 
276; pret. ywde, 2834. 

(2) intrant, appear; pret. tg. 
eoweS, 1736. Cf. eage. 

ge-pwan, ge-Bawaii, to. v., 
present, proffer, 2149; pp. ge- 
eawed, 1194. 

!, 1373,